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Bennett Wood Oreen 


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Index Bapplonent to the Nofcee and QosriM, with No. 283, Jolj 19, 1884. 


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"Wbm found, make • not* ot"— Caitaih C 

January — June, 1884. 




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CONTENTS.— N« 210. 

27 0TE8 :^8ir Franeli Buntaftm tnd a proposed Academy of 
litenftan, l^The Orkneys, S^Cnrlosittes of Sapentltlon 
in JUij, 4-Gexsaaia— Oeeam=Omkam~Post Office Perse- 
▼ewwe^PazlUmeat in Guildhall, 6 — Hatton-Cranswick 

- Flont— Cnzloas Blunder, 7. 

K^'CTEBIES :— Quaint Phrases of John Maiston, 7— Best Man— 
King James's '*Book of Sports "—Shrine of St. John of 
Waging— Burled Cities— Royal Cosmographers— " Blsoms 
Iii]ie''-^ba8-«ax'd— Matthews Family, 8— Bear-skin Jobber 
— '*Doirn In the month "—General Grosvenor: General. 
WoUto-aito of Tomb Wanted -Earliest Glasgow Directory 
— ^MSS. of Dr. Andrew Brown ^Pemberton's Parlonr — 
«• Beminiaoences of Half a Gentitry"— Biidgham FamUy, 
—Air Henry Hayes— Castle Foggies— Archbishop's Barge— 
** Itineraxy " of lUdiard of areneester— Halsaker, Boynacle, 
and Satriston— " ViU dl OUriero Gromvelle" — ''Day's 
Jonmey of the Snn "—Prisoner of Gison— Charles Bannister 
— AnthocB Wanted, 10. 
AEPLIBS:— Wooden Tombs and Effigies, 11— Former Royal 
Inhabitant at Eastwell, 12— Mould of the Head— Dales on 
Fonts, 13-Setting the Thames on Fire-The Word G&- 
**HuDdi«d of Lannditch"— Romano-British Liturgy, 14— 
Goodwin Sands— "God be with ns''=the DeTil-lfowler 
Family— Spread — Harris of Boreatton. 16— Reynolds -Sir 
John Odingiella Leeke— Bed Castle -Glastonbury Thorn - 
Fifth Centenary of Wycliffe, 16— A FeUowship-Warine 
Woee— Napoleonic Prophecy— Christmas Eve Observance— 
OuoUne, Oounteas of Dunraven —Lady BeUenden, 17— Aaron 
Bur: Tnmerelli— Cardinal Pole— University Cap— Daniel 
Baoe— Awne: Own : One— Continuation of the " Sentimental 
Journey,* 18— Authors Wanted, 19. 
NOTES ON BOOKS:— Tner's ** London Cries " — Palmer's 
*' Narrative of Events connected with the Publication of 
TracU for the Tunes' —Gerald Massey's "Natural Genesis." 
Notkes to Correspondents, Ac 

In the meagre notice of Sir Francis B^m- 
ham given in Hose's Biographical Dictionary 
it is stated that he and his father-in-law 
-Sampson Lennard were, about 1620, nominated 
members of a proposed academy of literaturei to 
be called the Academy Royal, and to be attached 
to the Order of the Garter. Of the scheme 
of this academy something more than Rose 
tells as may be learnt from two yolames among 
the Harleian MSS. (6103 and 6143), where its 
otiginal projectors explain their intentions at 
length, bat its history has neyer been written and 
18 TMy obscare. The object was to establish a 
brotherhood ander royal faroar to foster learning 
and to direct the laboars of all " writers in 
humanitie.'' Between 1617 and 1620 the project 
obtained mach inflaential support, and Backing- 
ham and the king freely assented to it. In 1622 
James I. bade Prince Charles take the necessary 
steps for patting it in practice (CaL State Papers, 
Jane 25, 1622), but James died before anything 
was done, and Charles I. was solicited in vain by 
Kdmnnd B(dton — who had taken an active part in 
anaaging the preliminary details, and has been 
orcdlted with the aathorahip of the Harleian MSS. 

on the subject— to proceed in the matter soon 
after his accession {Cal. State Papers, Dea 30, 1625). 
Nothing further is heard of. the scheme. Mr. 
Thompson Cooper has given a brief accoant of it 
in his notice of Edmund Bolton in his little Bio- 
graphical Dictionary, and some reference to it is 
made in the first volume of the ArduBologia 
(p. xv), but I have been unable to meet with any 
list of the members who were to form the pro- 
posed academy. I imagine from Rose's accoant 
that such must exist, and I shall be grateful if 
any readers of '' N. & Q." can help me to find it 

Assuming the trustworthiness of Rose's state- 
ments, I cannot comprehend the claims of Sir 
Francis Bamham to admission to a literary 
academy. According to Rose, he was the author of 
an unprinted history of his family, of which I have 
been unable to find other mention. A letter from 
him to Mr. Griffith, the Lord Privy Seal's secre- 
tary (July 3, 1613), in Lansdowne MS. 255, No. 155, 
and some account of his connexion with Bonghton 
Monchelsea (Monchensey), co. Kent, in Harleian 
MS. 6019, represent all that I have been able to 
learn of him from the MSS. of the British Museum, 
and no printed catalogue of MSS. at the Bodleian 
or in the Cambridge University Library refers to 
him. I have noted, as Rose, with his customary 
perfunctoriness, has failed to do, several facts of 
interest concerning his family, but of his personal 
history or literary fame I have ascertained little. 
I should be grateful fcr further information. 

Sir Francis was the eldest son of Martin Bam- 
ham, of London and HoUingboume, co. Kent, 
by his second wife, Judith, daughter of Sir Martin 
Calthorpe, Knight, of London, and grandson of 
Francis Barnham, merchant, who was elected 
Alderman of Farringdon Without on December 14, 
1568, and Sheriff of Lond6n in 1570. Martin 
Birnham was Sheriff of London in 1598, was 
knighted on July 23, 1603 (Nichols's Progresses of 
James L, i, 214), and dying on December 12, 
1610, at the age of sixty-three, was buried in St. 
Clement's, Eastcheap (Stow's London, ed. Strype, 
bk. ii. p. 183). Of the three younger brothers of 
Martin Barnham, Benedict (the most important 
member of the family) was educated at St. Albania 
Hall, Oxford(Wood'8^n%uiiiM,ed. Gutch,p.659), 
was a liveryman of the Drapers' Company, became 
Alderman of Bread Street Ward on October 14, 
1591, and served the office of sheriff in the same 
year. He joined the Society of Antiquaries, 
originally formed by Archbishop Parker in 1572, 
of which Aubrey, Camden, and Spelman, among a 
number of smaller antiquaries, were conspicuous 
memberc, the dissolution of which about 1612 
had originally suggested the formation of a literary 
academy (Archceologia, i xx). Benedict died on 
April 3, 1598, at the age of thirty-nine, and as 
elaborate monument was erected above his grave 
in St. Clement's, Eastdieap (Stow, ut supra). 

Digitized by 


NOTES AND QUERIES. (at* s. ix. jah. 5, '84. 

Wood tells us that he left 2007. to St. Alban's 
Hal), Oxford, to rebuild ''its front next the 
street," and that ''as a testimony of the bene- 
faction " his arms were engraved over the gateway 
and on the plate belonging to the " hoase/' He 
married Alice, the daughter of Humphrey Smith, 
Queen Elizabeth's silkman, stated to bie of an 
ancient Leicestershire family. By her he had four 
daughters, of whom Elizabeth, the eldest, married 
Mervin, Lord Audley and Earl of Castlehaven, of 
infamous memory, and Alice, the second dancrhter, 
became in 1606 the wife of Sir Francis Bicon 
(Spedding's Life, iii. 290). Sir Francis Bamham 
was thus related by marriage to one of the two 
most eminent men of the age. 

Of Sir Francis's early career I know nothing. 
He was knighted on July 23, 1603, at Whitehall, 
on James L's accession, at the same time as his 
father (Nichols, ut supra). He inherited in 1613, 
from Belknap Rudston, the brother of his father's 
first wife, the estate of Houghton Monchelsea with 
which genealogists identify him. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sampson Lennard, of 
Chevening, co. Kent, who was an antiquary of 
some eminence in his day. In 1624 he was one 
of the commissioners empowered to enforce 
martial law against disorderly soldiery at Dover 
(Rymer's Fmdera, xvii. 647). Sir Francis was appa- 
rently long-lived. He represented Maidstone in the 
Long Parliament, was an intimat<e friend of Sir 
Roger Twysden, who describes him as ''a right 
honest gentleman," mildly supported the Parlia- 
mentarians during the war, and urged the release of 
his eldest son, ItU>berf, imprisoned by the Kentish 
committee in 1649 (Archaologia Cantiana,\\, 181, 
195; iv. 185). He was the father of fifteen chil- 
dren, of whom a younger son, William, was Mayor 
of Norwich in 1652. His eldest son, Robert, who 
seems to have been a Royalist, and probably took 
part in the Kentish rising of 1648, received a 
baronetcy from Charles IF. on August 14. 1663, 
resided at Boughton, and died in 1685. He was 
succeeded in the title by a grandson, with whose 
death, in 1728, the baronetcy became extinct. 

My authorities for the statements not otherwise 
supported are Hasted's Kentj the Bememhrancia 
<ff London, and Burke'd Extinct Baroiittage, Of 
the dates of Sir Francis's birth and death, or of any 
clue to his history between 1624 and 1642, 1 am 
wholly Ignorant. S. L. Lee. 

Much attention has been given of late, by holi- 
day travellers and others, to the Orkneys, and 
deservedly so; for few places offer a greater variety 
of objects to attract and interest. Their position, 
dotted around the northern extremity of our 
island, is extremely picturesque. During the 
summer months their bright green shores, watered 

by the genial flow of the Gulf Stream, present, on 
a near approach, an agreeable contrast with the 
deep blue of the surrounding sea. Their irregolAc 
outlines of shore and of fell are also strildns 
and in some cases fantastic. Precinitous heacU 
lands, with summits looking out like sentinels 
through mist and cloud, over the broad expanse of 
the Atlantic, and with bases which receive the full 
swing of the billows that roll and break against 
them, fpresent a bare, rugged, and defiant ap- 
pearance; while grassy slopes that rise from the 
water^s edge around many of the inland bays 
— in many cases so surrounded by land as to 
resemble lakes — seem quite pastoral Lovers 
of the picturesque may find much of the attrac- 
tion of southern lake scenery, combined with 
the sterner beauties of the ocean. Some of ths 
smaller islands, or holms as they are called, 
have low indented shore lines, on the bright 
sand of which the waves lap and curl ; while 
often on some inland part of their surface they 
seem gathered up into heaps, resembling in 
their contorted forms so many marine monsters 
crouching in the water, or making ready for 
a spring. The entire absence of trees enables 
one at a glance to seize on these natural in- 
equalities of outline. Many of the islands have 
received names of animals, from some fancied 
resemblance of this sort. There is at least 
one horse, the Horse of Gopinshay. Several 
small islands are called calves; there is a Hen 
and Chickens ; and one rock bears the common- 
place name of the Barrel of Butter. 

The Norsemen, who gave names to most of 
the islands, were close observers of nature, and 
quick to seize any peculiar characteristic of 
men or things. Any oddity of personal appear- 
ance never failed to give rise to a nickname ; 
which, however, conveyed no opprobrium^ 
but was applied to the most illustrious among 
them. From the want of family names, the use of 
such sobriquets as Fair Haired, Blue Tooth, Bare 
Legs, and countless others to be found in the 
sagas, seems to have been the only means that 
remained to identify one another with precision. 
This faculty of observation was developed in the 
poetry of their scalds. Through a sort of rude 
rhetoric, devoid of imagination, things are therein 
called by names coined from some other attribute 
than that indicated by the ordinary name. A 
spade is no longer called a spade, but it may ba 
an earth-opener. Had the Norsemen then been 
a little more imaginative— in which case no doubt 
they would not have come up to our modem idea of 
them, nor played the important part that has been 
assigned them in the world's history — or been 

Eossessed of a little more knowledge of natural 
istory we should have had less homely and 
more appropriate names to enumerate. One or 
two of the islands are flat— one, Sanday or the 

Digitized by 




Sandy Ue, is nniformly so. It coDsists of a 
micleiiB of sand lumkay saiioanded by nanow 
oaUying xidgea, and looks like a large octopas 
floating OB the surface of the water, with its 
aims distended, waiting for its prey. When 
the north wind howls around the storm-swept 
ifllaadsy the prey, unfortunately, does not fail to 
tame. Once eau^ht between these low spurs 
of land, that remain unperoeived until too near 
to be avoided, a ship seldom escapes. These 
aio nature^ sterner aspects, as seen during the 
winter mcmths. Duriug the months of June, July, 
and August the scene is different. The loug 
nocthem twilight prevails from the end of May 
tOl the beginning of August. The sun then just 
dips below the horizon, as if his settbg was a mere 
mm; the daylight remains uninterrupted. This 
la the proper season to visit the islands. The charm 
oi theee long evemugs must be seen and felt 
to be appreciated. 

Some persuasion is necessary to induce 
nativea <n a southern country to visit the 
north. There has existed, since the time of 
Hebrew prophets and the earliest historians and 
poets, something like a prejudice against the north. 
it has been re^rded as the land of darkness and 
desolation, while the south' has been described as 
the region of luxuriant vegetation and of romance. 
The son has always attracted the wonder and the 
aspisations of our race, who have followed its 
eoorae in th«r migrations from east to west ; and 
to its landed home both the Grecian sage and the 
nntntored savage have looked, in the hope of there 
enjoying another state of existence. An old 
eommentator on Horace places the Fortunate 
Isles beyond the Orkneys. He was no doubt 
badly informed as to the position of the latter. It 
eould only be owing to their supposedly western 
porition tiiat they could be imagined to be near 
the &bled Islands of the Blest. 

The Orkneys are frequently mentioned by 
elasHJcwl authors in connexion with Thnle and 
the ends of the earth. Pomponius Mela states 
tbem to be thirty in number ; Solinus, a later 
writer, gives the number as three, which is sup- 
posed to be an error for thirty-three. This latter 
miter sa^s, in describing the islands, **Thule 
laiga et (Utissima et ferax pomarum est.'' Thule 
Ia laige, and very rich and fertile in fruits. A 
Unndenng copyist, paying no attention to the 
nsual contracted form of writing the gen. pi. by 
« stroke across the letter preceding the termina- 
lioD, copied the text, '^ Thule larga et ditissima 
6t ferax pomona est" A succeeding copyist wrote 
pomcna with a capital letter, and thereby gave a 
name to the principal island in the Orkney group, 
which has been received by geographerF, but has 
never been accepted by the inhabitants, who call 
it the Mainland. By the saga writers it is called 
Meginland, or Hrossey, i, e., Uie Horse Island. 

The name Oroades, from which has been derived 
Orkney, was, no doubt, given to the islands by the 
Romans, from their proximity to Gape Oroas, 
Dunnet Head. That the name was not of native 
origin, any more than that of Pomona, is attested 
by a document drawn up by Thomas, Bishop of 
Orkney, with the aid of hia clergy, in the year 
1446, wherein it is stated that on the arrival of 
the Northmen, a.d. 872, the land was not called 
*' Orchadie," but the land of Pets — the northern 
manner of writing Picts— in proof of which is 
adduced the name of Petland Firth, the strait that 
separates the islands from Scotland. This name 
is still generally pronounced in Orkney PeUand, 
and not Pentland, Firth. Saxo, the historian, 
terms the islands Petia. The document referred 
to goes on to state that, on the invasion of the 
Northmen, the islands were occupied by two 
peoples', called Peti, or Plots, and PapsB. These 
latter have been proved to be Irish monks, 
who appear to have obtained a footing on the 
islands at a very early period. They had also 
preceded the Northmen in Iceland. Ari, the his- 
torian of Iceland, states that before the arrival of 
the Northmen there were men settied there called 
Papa, and that they were Christian and holy men 
who had come from the west ; for there were found 
after them Irish books and other articles, from 
which it was easily understood that they were 
Westmen. They were found settied in West 
Papey and in Papyli. It may be seen from the 
Irish books, adds Ari, that at this time there was 
much intercourse between the countries. Any 
reader who may wish to pursue this matter further 
will find it treated in the work of the Irish monk, 
Dicuil, De Mensura Orhis Terrarum, of which there 
is a good recent edition (Berlin, O. PArthey, 1870). 

The early residence of these monks in Orkney 
is indicated by many names of islands and places 
yet remaining. We find Papa Stronsay, Papsi 
Westray, Papdale, Papley— tbe latter often a 
family name — Egilsey, i. e., the Cfaarch - isle ; 
Enhallow, i. e., Egin - Helga ; the Holy Isle, 
Daminsey, i. e., bt. Adamnan's Isle. There 
are also remains of chapels dedicated to St. 
Golumba, St. Ninian, St. Bridget, and St. Tred- 
well. The town of Kiikwall— Kirkuivag, i.e., the 
Bay of the Kirk — took its name from a church 
that has now disappeared. The Northmen are 
said to have destroyed, on their arrival, all the pre- 
vious inhabitants of the islands ; hence the know- 
ledge of the Christian religion thus early introduced 
was obliterated by the pagan superdtitions of tbo 

Numerous prehistoric monuments are to be 
found on the islands, the most strlkiog of which 
are the Stones of Steonis, a circle of monoliths 
only second in importance to that of Stonehengf. 
Their erection dates from a remote antiquity, 
many centuries before the arrival of the Northmen. 

uigiiizea oy 'v_jv>'v^ 



[6"» 8. IX. Jah. 5, '€4. 

There are also very nnmeroas remainB of bnildings 
termed Peights (Picts) Hoases. Tlus name has 
been given too mdiBcriminately to baildings of 
yarions sorts, intended eyidently for defence, for 
aepulture, and for the performance of saperstitiouB 
rites. The fact of certain of them haying snb- 
tezraneoas chambers devoid of air and lights and 
of BQch dimensions as not to allow a person 
within them to stand npright, has probably given 
rise to the notion that the Peight was a dwarf. 
The two words in Orkney have become synony- 
mons, and seem to be stUl farther confused with 
the names of the dvergs and trolls of northern super- 
stition. These latter were the Titans of the Norse 
mythology. It is an old saying in Orkney that the 
oathednd of St. Magnn9, at Kirkwall, was "a' 
biggit in a night by the Peights." 

{To le coniinutd.) 

{Cotitin^Mdfrom 6«» S. viii. 442.) 

With regard to the association of St. Paul in 
all traditions of this episode, it might suffice to 
observe that in the early traditions concerning 
St. Peter's pontificate in Home the ''twin 

rtlea" are never separated, and a painter of 
thirteenth century would never think, pro- 
bably, of introducing one without the other. That 
St Paul, already confined in the neighbouring 
Tullian dungeon, united his prayers with those of 
St. Peter is,nowever, according to P. Franco, men- 
tioned by several early writers.'^ Another item 
of the tradition was that in St. Peter's prayer for 
the discomfiture of the impostor was a distinct 
petition that he might not be killed on 
the spot, but survive long enough to repent 
of his errors.^ Instead of thus employing the 
respite obtained for him, he made another 
attempt at showing his power of fiying, from a 
villa called Brunda at L'Ariccia, whither his dis- 
dples carried him to cure him of his wounds. 
Again he fell ; and, not yet convicted of his follies, 
he ordered that he should be buried alive, pro- 
mising that he would in that case rise again whole 
the third day— an order executed^^ by his dis- 
ciples Marcellus and Apuleius.<^ His miserable 

• He quotci to thii effect Sulpic. Sev., Stor. Sac, ii. 
28; StCirill Geros., CatecA, tI 16; St. Mafs. Torin., 
Omel, Izxii. ; and inott dietinctly of all St. Isid. Ispal., 
in his Chron., **Adjuraiite eos [damoTieB] Petro, per 
Deum, Paulo yero oranto [Simon] dimisBus crcpuit." 
Similar tertimony may be found in Cuccagni, Vita di S. 
Pietro, iii. cap. iz. 

^ £eeid. Genu,, ii.2; Cotiit Apost, ?i.9 (inP. Franco's 
note 150) 

• £ceid, Oetut.j l.e.; Amob., Contra t Oent, ii. 12; 
Lucidi, M€m, Stor. delV Aric, ii. i. 817 (note 161). 

• AmobiuF, quoted by Moroni, Ixyi. 160, who also 
refers to Golt, Dimrtation on tU Flight and Fall of 

fate does not appear, however, to have put an end 
to his sect, which lingered on, perhaps as late 
as the tenth century.* Of his writings some frag- 
ments are preserved in Grabe, Spicilegivm SS^ 
Patrum,^ and they are frequently cited in the 

The demonographers of the sixteenth to the 
eighteenth century continually allude to the flight 
across the Forum as effected by the aid of demons ;^ 
and, only to cite one, Menghi, cap. xiv. lib. iL, 
treats it as such an accept^ hct that he brings 
it forward among his proofs that demons do actual^ 
and bodily transport persons through the air at the 
bidding of magicians.^^ 

Strega and lamia^ the two most common 
appellations for a witch, have both remained in 
use, the one in the mouth of the people, and the 
other in the writings of the learned in such matters, 
almost unaltered from old Boman times. Strega is 
the sirixj the screech-owl, of which it was fabled 
on the authority of Ovid and Pliny that it sucked 
the blood of young children, or strangled them in 
the cradle ; and the word has remained in Italian 
only in this figurative sense, for a screech-owl is 
now civetla.^ 

Simon Magus, and De Simonit Volaiu, kCj Naples,. 

* Moses Barcephas, quoted by Moroni, Ixri. 160. That 
he had a c^reat following at one time is found in Orig., 
Coniro Celto; Justin Martyr; St. Clement, &c. (P. 

* His chief work seems to have been the Book of ike 
CotUradiclioJis or Oreat Negation, awd^aaiq fitycO^tt 
(Moroni and P. Franco). Of his doctrines and followers 
speaks St. Irenseus, Contr. Hceres., i 23 (P. Franco, 
note 98). 

s So had the painters of the preceding centoriet. 
Among the obscure early paintings in the collections at 
the Vatican, Siena, Turin, and other places, the subject 
may be seen thus treated^^uaint demons carrying the 
mapician through the air. I have a copy of one ascribed 
to Giotto in the prirate collection of a friend, which I 
should be happy to show any one interested in the subject. 

" I have thought it admissible to treat the sabject 
thus at length not only on account of its intrinsic rela- 
tion to my subject, but also because I hare so often 
found that the two altarpieces in St. Peter's represent- 
ing the subject, as well as the stone whereon St. Peter is 
said to hare knelt that day, preserred in Sta. Francesco 
Romana in the Foro Romano, excite the curiosity of 
visitors to Rome to make acquaintance with the legend, 
which I think has not before been provided completely 
and handily in English. 

' In the list of Italian words derived from Latin ap> 
pended to Dr. Andrews's English rendering of Freund*8 
Lexicon, striteia is noted as derived from itrix. I c$n 
find no meaning to tlriseia, however, in any Italian dic- 
tionary to which I have had access, connecting it with 
a screech-owl; ttriscia means ''a strip" of anything, 
and sometimes in poetry a serpent, oince writing the 
above I have met in the Compendio deW Arte Essorcieta 
a misderivation of the word lamia, which coincides 
with this fortuitously in a very odd way. In lib. iv. p. 236, 
Girolomo Menghi, the author, derives lamia from 
laniare, ** to destroy,*' " to rend in strips," as denotinic 
"one so cruel as to tear in strips her own children** 

uigiiizea oy 


•»ai ,ja5.5,'8i.i notes and QUERIES. 

Oanoeniiiig the word lamiOy which lemaioB un- 
altered from the use of both Greeks and LstinB, 
^nurtuotti has oolleeted some curioos particulafs. 
Among these he qaotes from Diodoros Siciilas 
(lib. XX.) 

*' that Lftmia was a beautiful queen of a coantrj of 
Afirica, who, having lost all her own children, decreed 
that the children of other women should be destroyed as 
soon aa bom ; that her berearement had driren her to 
find solace in wine-drinking; and that when the affairs 
of the kingdom went to the bad through her neglect, she 
said it was not her fault, for she had no eyes to see how 
thing! went on ; but the fact was^ she kept her eyes all 
the time in her pocket." 

He giyes another yersion of the story from Aristo- 
|Aanc8 the grammarian, makiuj; her the danghter 
of Belus and Lybia. Jupiter fell in love with her 
and earned her to Lybia in Italy, and Jano, in 
jesdonsTy had all her children destroyed as soon as 
bom. JUmia then, in desperation, wandered oyer 
the earth, sbying the children of other women.' 
JoBO fortiier depriyed her of the power of sleeping, 
and Jnptter, in compassion for her weariness, gaye 
her the Cscalty of remoying her eyes and replacing 
them at j^easore ; he aUo endowed her with the 
power of assaming whateyer form she pleased. 
Dori, commenting on the story, obsoryes that 
nnxBeB in Greece at his day quieted children by 
thzeatemng to call Lamia to them. Tartarotti 
iociher qaotes from Pausanias that her father was 
not Belos, bat Neptune, and that of her union 
with Japiter was bom the first Sibyl, though how 
this daughter escaped Juno's persecution is not 
stated. Among the later Greeks, he says, the same 
superstition is current under the name of Gello, 
addacing some curious instances too long to quote; 
bat he does not giye the deriyatiou of the new 

Among the Hebrews Tartarotti finds ''in the 
B8l>bi &n Sira"^ a counterpart legend, in which 
Adam takes the place of Jupiter. Lilith|. as the 
lamia is here <»Ued, was the first wife of Adam 
before the formation of Eye. As they could neyer 
liye together in peace she decided to abandoh him, 
and, pronouncing the sacred name of Jehoyah, 
flodddoly disappeared. Adam, yexed at finding 

(tanto 'cnuUle ehe ttraceia o lania gli proprii figlt^. 
Eyen he, howexer, does not connect it in any way witli 
the synonym slregOf which he derives exclusively from 
the niffht-bird tirix. His derivation, though un- 
donbteSy erroneous, is not exclusively his, as Gian- 
franeeico Pico de la Mirandola had mentioned it long 
before his time among derivations that had been ad- 
vanced (" Libro della Strega, ovvero delle Illusioni del 
Demonio, del Sig. Giovan Francesco Pico de la Mirandola. 

In Yenetia nella contrada di Sta. Maria Formosa 

al segno de la Speranza, 1556." Gianfrancesco was 
nephew of Giovanni Pico, surnamed la feniee del 8uo 
Hcolo, and died 1494). 

^ Jntt as we find one doing under the character of an 
wrdiiUta in the story called " La Sposa del Mercante di 
Cammgna," and others in my Folklvr of Rome, 

^ /.tf,in the Talmud. 

himself left alone, laid his complaint before the 
Lord. The Lord had compassion on him, and 
sent three angels, Sanoi, Sausanoi, and Samman- 
galaph, to seek for LiUth. These, after a long 
search, discoyered her by the banks of the Bed 
Sea. The three angels required that she should 
instantly retam to her husband, threatening that if 
she would not they would drown her in the depths 
of the sea, or eke put to death a hundred of her 
children, that is evil demons, for all the children 
of Lilith were demons. LiUth refused absolutely 
to return to Adam, and chose the latter of the 
two penalties of her disobedience, for she assured 
the angels she had been made fur nothing else 
but to infest nurseries and destroy neir-bom 
children ; she made the promise, howeyer, that 
whensoeyer she met with Sanoi, Sansanoi, and 
Sammangalaph, she would spare the children of 
that house.^ In consequence of this tradition, 
Hebrew fathers were wont to make a circle round 
the door of the room in which their children were 
bom, and write in it' the names of Sanoi, San- 
sanoi, and Sammangalaph. 

In the Bible the word lilHh only occurs at 
Isaiah zxxiy. 14, and the Vulgate renders it by 
lamia. The mediseyal rabbi David Kimchi 
explains it to be an animal crying by night or a 
bird flying by night Baxtorf renders ib *' Sirix, 
ayis nocturna querula et horrenda,'* and the Eng- 
lish Bible has '* screech-owl," with the marginal 
reading of " night monster." 

Tartarotti has collected the testimony of Plautus, 
Strabo, Horace, and other writers of antiquity to 
the fact that the thirst of the sirix for children's 
blood was a tradition current in Rome in their 
time, and it is doubtless owing to a popular belief, 
recorded by Serenus Samonious (cap. 69), ascribing 
to garlic the property of acting as a counter charm 
to the fascination of the striXf that its use has 
become painfally prevalent among the lower 
orders (quoted also by Cantii, Storia Universalef 
ed. Turin, 1845, yol. xv. p. 451, note 3). 

If itrixy siriga, and lamia were the bugbears of 
naughty children of the Augustan age, Tartarotti 
brings also the eyidence of Ausonius and Festus 
that they had not lost their hold on popular 
credulity under the later empire. So fdir from 
this, the transition of personality from a burd to an 
old woman would appear to bays been completed 
in the interval ; though Propertius is, perhaps, 
one of the first to make allusion to the idea. He 
goes on to quote a statute of Charlemagne, lament- 
ing the yices and follies which had been handed 
on to his age from these pagan practices, and re- 
gistering sentence of death against those who, 

* I find Del R'o {DUquUUionum. .Magicarum Lihri 
Sex, quibut cofUineiur Accurata Curiosamm Arlium el 
Vanarum SupentilionutH Con/ulalio, Lugluni, 1602), 
lib. ii. p. i. q ii., gives a similar versiuu of this legend. 

Digitized by 




[6th S. IX Jaw. 6/84. 

believiDg in magio arte, ate hnman flesh or gave 
it to be eaten by others. 

He farther traces the handing down of these 
Boperstitions to the Middle Ages, and shows how 
the belief in one maleyolent destroyer of children 
expanded till it fabled of whole crowds of witches 
pervading every country, no longer confining their 
depredations to cradles,™ bat working evil to the 
whole human race; flying by night through the 
air,° astride of all manner of beasts, on distaffs and 
flaming brooms (also, according to Gianfrancesoo 
Pico, on a stick called a gramita, commonly Bwnup 
for hanging out flax and hemp), for midnight con- 
gresses always attended by banquets and dancing, 
and accompanied by all kinds of depravity, the origin 
of which he endeavours to trace to the diversions 
attendant on many pagan mysteries. Diana is con- 
tinually spoken of by name as the presiding genius 
of these weird festivals, and her mysteries were 
celebrated with dancing. Callimachus, in a hymn 
to her, says Jupiter gave sixty dancers, daughters 
of Ocean, to attend her, and the Italian word caro- 
lare,^ to dance in a circle, the witches' dance, may 
come f^om the dance invented in her honour by 
Castor and Pollux at Gaiya. That this was a cir- 
cular dance Tartarotti decides on the strength of a 
passage from the Ackilleis of Statins in the first 
century of our era, and in the Deipnosophisioe of 
Athenseus a century later. 

Selden (De Diis Syris), too, establishes the 
identity of Lilith and Diana. 

The use of the word volatica as applied to a 
witch, first established by Festus in the fourth 
century, constitutes another link in the chain of 
traditionary ideas on this subject. 

R. H. BasK. 
(jTo he continued.) 

Geesuma.— Prof. James B. Thorold Rogers's 
History of Agriculture and Prices in England 
is a work so valuable to all those who are in- 
terested in the history of English rural life, that it 
becomes a duty to make it as correct as possible. 
I think there is an error — a misprint only, it may 
well be— in vol. iL p. 609. We there read : "1276. 
Stillington, Gersinna^ pro terra John Utting,6«." Is 
not this gersuma^ which Spelman defines " sump- 
tos, prsemium " 1 The word occurs in Domesday, 
and is explained by Kelham in bis Domesday 
Book Illustrated as *' reward, riches, treasure, or 

"> Del Rio (lib. iii. p. i. q. ii.) qaotea briefly from 
Pedro Chieza {Descript. Indice, p. ii. c. 196) that in 
" Panamft PeruTia) " were many witches who auclced the 
blood of infants, but he does not say whether the idea 
was found there or introduced by Iiis own countrymen. 

^ See a tradition of one in the story in Folk-lore of 
Eonu called *' La Principessa coUa Testa di Capra." Also 
note 7 to *' Pietro Bailliardo/' in the same work. 

^ It is curious to remark that the singing which ac- 
companied dancing in a circle has giTen us carol, just 
as hallare, ordinary dancing, has given us lallad. 

money paid beforehand ; sometimes fine or in* 
come." Mr. Macray, in his Notes from (he Afuni- 
ments of St, Mary Magdalen College, Oxford, 
p. 139, gives instances of this word in the forma 
gersona and gersua. Mr. Seebohm, in his English 
Village Community, p. 56, quoting the chart alary 
of Worcester as to the customs of the villains of 
Newenham, says that they had to pay gtrsuma for 
their daughters. In later times the word became 
gressom. In this form it lingers in our speech to 
the present hour. The Westmorland Chzette^ 
July 9, 1881, is quoted in " N. & Q ,» 6»»> S. iv. 
251, as advertising an estate at Mallerstang sub- 
ject to the payment of gressam. One of the 
customs of the manor of Skipton was that the 
tenant paid every tenth year a year's rent by way 
of gressome (Dawson's History of Skipton, p. SSjt 
Pilkington, Bishop of Durham, in his ^'Ezposiv 
tion upon Nehemiah" {Worh, Parker Society 
edit., p. 462), in dwelling on the evil deeds of the 
landlords of his day, speaks of them as raising 
their rents ''and taking unreasonable fines and 
greesans,*' Edward Peacock. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

Occam = Oakum. — As an illustration of the old 
spelling of oakum, it may not be amiss to cite the 
following passage from *'John Eldred's Narra- 
tive" (Hakluyt's Voyages, ii. 1599), Arber, Eng- 
lish Garner, iii. 164 : " These ships are usually 
from forty to sixty tons, having their planks sown 
together with cord made of the bark of date trees, 
and instead of occam, they use the shiverings of 
the bark of the said trees ; and of the same also 
they make their tackling." Of this word Profi. 
Skeat, in his Diet,, says : '^ Spelt ockam in Skinner^ 
ed. 1671," but gives no earlier example. 

F. C. BiRKBBCK Terry. 


Post Office Perseverance. — As much fault 
is occasionally found with our Post Office authori- 
ses, it is only fair to make a note of the fact that 
a book catalogue from the South of France reached 
its consignee in spite of the following extraordinary 
address : " Monsieur [name], 12, Bue Yillorium 
Stind, Angleterre." J. W. 

Parliament in Guildhall.— Could not our 
friends of the Corporation put up a tablet to com- 
memorate the Parliament of 1326, referred to by 
Prof. Thorold Rogers (6*»» S. viii. 405) ? Thero^ 
is this incitement that their predecessors did not 
neglect the opportunity of having words in the 
oath for the franchises of the city, '^ Et les fran- 
chises de la cite de Loundres maintendrez." In- 
deed, in these days, when traditions are not known 
as they were half a century ago, and when there is 
such a large floating population, a few memorials 
of the historical events that have taken place in 
that building would greatly raise the interest of 

Digitized by 




the spectator. There was a time whea hooks on 
the history of London were to he foand in the 
hoose of every citizen, hat now no one knows any- 
thing of Uiis treasary of great events. 

Htde Glares. 

HuTTON Orakswick Font, Yorkshire.— The 
following ought, I think, to he gibheted in 
*'N. & Q." One might fairly have hoped that 
such wanton vandalum and desecration were 
things of the past. I qaote from Kelly's Post 
Office Directory (1879) for Yorkshire East Biding, 
pfeiO, under '* Hatton cum Cranswickj^as follows: 

" The maniTe embattled tower ^of the church], con- 
taming three bella, ii the only onginal part remaining ; 
the rest of tbe building was restored in 1875-76 b^ the 

principal landowners and parishioners The quaintly 

carred old font, rappoeed to be of Saxon origin, is now 
an the garden of the vicarage adjoining, having been 
replaced by a handsome new one/' &c. 

Can this really be true ? If so, what next ? 

T. M. Fallow. 
Chapel Allerton, Leeda 

A Curious Blunder. — In Hazlitt's English 
Frawi-bs and Proverbial Phrases^ first edit., 1869, 
at p. 395, occurs the proverb, ''There's a hill 
again a stack all Craven through. Equivalent 
to Every bean hath its black (Higson's MSS. 
Ool., 172)." The proverb is given identically 
in the second edition, 1882. If any one has 
noticed this prorerb, he must have been puzzled 
to know what connexion there could be between a 
hUl and a stack, 1 have known the proverb as a 
Yorkshire one all my life, bub for ''stack " read slack 
»a hollow or depression. Carr's Craven Dialect 
gives, " Ollas a hill anenst a slack," and quotes 
passages in illustration of the use of slack. 

F. C. Birkbeck Terry. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

Quaint Phrases employed by John Marston. 
— Pith ofparkets. — What is the meaning of this 
phrase, which occurs in Marston's Fatms, II. i. 
iWorksy HAlliwell's edition, vol. ii. p. 31, 1. 3)? 
It is mentioned among a number of aphrodisiac 
articles of food. Mr. Halliwell has a note on 
trrinaoes^ a word with which every reader of the 
Elizaoethan drama must be acquainted ; but not 
one word about this phrase. I cannot find in any 
Df the glossaries, or among my notes, any such 
word as parkei, hut it is probably a contracted 
form of parrcieet Is the pith, or marrow, of 
panakeets or parkets mentioned in any other pas- 
sage as a provocative ? Cotgrave, under '^ Perro- 
•qoet/ gives the following ex^anation, ^' A Parrat ; 

also, the herbe Aloe, or Sea-aigreen ; also, a black* 
backt, yellow'belliea, and green-find sea-fish, pro- 
portioned somewhat like the river Pearch"; but 
he does not mention that it was considered to 
possess any aphrodisiac qualities. The whole pas- 
sage runs thus : " The onely ingrosser of eringoes, 
prepared cantharides, cuUesses made of dissolved 
pearle and brus'd amber, the pith of parkets, and 
canded lamstones are his perpetual! meats.'' 

Bowie the wheele-harroio at Rotterdam, same 
act, and scene (vol. ii. p. 39, 1. 25). — 

ere those small carts — half cart, half wheel- 
barrow — drawn by dogs, and pushed from behind 
by boys or men, which one sees in Belgium, Hol- 
land, and other countries, common in the Low 
Countries in Marston's days ? I have not come 
across this expression, which would appear to be 
proverbial, in any other old play. 

To wear the yellow,— This phrase appears to 
have another meaning besides that of being jealous. 
In Act lY. scene i. of the same play (vol iu p. 65, 
1. 21), it seems to indicate that yellow was a dis- 
tinctive colour of court uniform. In Look about 
You, sc xxviii. (Dodsle^'s Old English Plays, 
Hazlitt's edition, yoI. viL p. 475), occurs the 
following passage : — 
" Ha, iirrah ; you 'II be master, you 'II wear the yellow^ 

You '11 be an over-ieerl marry, shall ye ! " 

where, certainly, it does not mean to be jealous, 
but evidently refers to the colour worn bypeople 
in authority. Ben Jonson, in The Silent Woman 
(Gifford's edition, vol. iil p. 368), mentions yellow 
doublets as the dress of fashionable people. We 
know that in China yellow is the colour worn 
only by mandarins of high rank. There may be 
some connexion between this phrase and the 
yellow stockings of Malvolio. 

FumaXho, — In the same play, Act lY. sc. i. 
(vol. ii. p. 66, L 9), occurs this passage, " Or a 
Spaniard after he has eaten a fumathoJ* 1 
cannot find any word in any Spanish dictionary 
at all like this. There is an Italian word fumati, 
signifying "any kind of smoked fish," given in 

Flaggon bracelets, — In the same play, IV. 3 
(p. 67), '^ Alas ! I was a simple country ladie, 
wore gold buttons, trunck sleeves, and flaggon 
bracelets,*' What does this mean? I find the 
same expression in Brome's City Wit, Act. Y. 
{Works, Pearson's edit., vol i, p. 370) : " Tryman. 
Why dost heare modestly mumping Mother-in- 
Law, with thy French-hood, gold-chain, and 
flaggon-bracehts, advance thy Snout." 

Nocturnal play, — In the Induction to What You 
Will (vol. L p. 222) I find :— 

Atti, What 's tbe plaies name 1 
Phy, What you will. 

Dor, Is't commedy, tragedy, pastorall, morall, noe* 
iurtial, or historie ? 

What is a nocturnal pUiy 

Digitized by 





Lapy-hearcL — In the same play, III, i. (vol. i. 
p. 265), occurs lapy-heard:^ 

Fra. What I know a number, 

By the sole warrant of a lapy heard, 
A raine beate plume, and a good chop-filling oth, &c. 

What does lapy-heard mean ? 

Ta6«'-/ac'(t— In the same play, 11. L (p, 240) : — 

" For a Btiffe-joynted. 
Tattr'd, nasty, taher-fac'd^PuhJ* &c. 

Does this epithet occur elsewhere 7 Later on in 
the same play (p. 272) we have the line, 

" His face looks like the head of a taber," 
which sufficiently explains the meaning; of the 
word. F. A. Marshall. 

Best Maw.— What is the exact meaning of this 
phrase as applied to the groomsman who attends 
the bridegroom at a wedding ? I cannot find it in 
any dictionary. Is it a corruption of some com- 
pound word, or does it mean simply best friend f 
F. A. Marshall. 

Ktno James's "Book op Sports."— On May 2, 
1643, the cross in Oheapside was demolished ; on 
May 10, eight days after, King James's Boohe of 
Spartes vpon the Lord's Day was burnt by the 
hangman in the place where the cross stood, and 
at the Exchange. Is it possible a copy of this book 
may be in existence ; and where could one see it ? 

Ruby d'Or. 

Shrine op St. John of Wappinq.— Can any 
of your readers refer me to some authentic account 
of this shrine, which is said to have stood on the 
site of the old parish church, demolished in 1760 ? 
Sailors disembarking at the famous old stairs 
immediately opposite are supposed to have been 
in the habit of frequenting this shrine. Is there 
any, and how much, truth in this ? The patron 
saint of the parish is St. John the Evangelist. 

Arthur R. Carter, M.A., 
Rector of Wapping. 

"Buried Cities." — Most persons are acquainted 
with the game so called. A little skill is exercised 
to conceal the name of some town in a few lines of 
verse or prose. Is not fat King Henry, the 
devourer of churches and monasteries, buried 
in the following nursery jingle, which I remember 
to have heard more than fifty years ago ?— 
" Eight, nine, ten, 
A bigbellied hen. 
He ate the church, he ate ike steeple. 
He aie the priest, and all the people." 
Surely no he was ever hen, except Henry VIII. 
The satire seems to glance at his mating so many 
women and killing them. If the composer in- 
tended to foster a contempt for his character and 
proceedings, and to teach it early in the nursery, it 
13 possible the lines are traceable nearer to Henry's 
era. Can any one add to, or throw light upon 
them ? W. B. 

Rotal Cosmographers or Geographers. — 
Where may a list of these individuals be found, 
and what were their duties 1 I have lately met 
with the names of three : John Ogilby, 1600-76, 
author of the road maps, 1675 ; Emanuel Bowen, 
who issued a set of county maps,^ling himself 
thereon " geographer to his Majesty,*' Qeorge 11. ; 
and Thomas Jefferys, geographer to George IIL in 
1772. J. E. Bailet. 


"BisoMS Inne." — In the year 1627 certain 
burgesses of Walsall journeyed to London to 
obtain a royal charter c6nfirming the rights and 
privileges of the people of their town. In a state- 
ment of the expenses of their journey they say 
they " gave the chamblyns, ostlers, and mayds at 
Bisoms Inne iv«. vii({.'' Is anything known of 
the whereabouts of this '^ inne " ? 

W. C. OwBW. 


Shag-ear'd.— In all editions since Steeven?, 
Collier's and the Cambridge excepted, this, 
in Macbe^, IV. ii. 82, has been spelled 
shag-hair' d^ although it is shagge-ear^d in F. 1, 
F. 2 and Quarto 1673, shag-ear'd F. 3, and shag- 
eard F. 4. Can any one give an instance — a 
provincialism or from books — of the word ? The 
question is asked the rather that I have a belief, 
almost amounting to a conviction, that in my 
youth I heard it, and that more than once. 
Rightly or wrongly, also, I seem to myself to have 
understood it as ears^ it may be large and coarse, 
but that also stood out abnormally from the 
head. Of course the uses I speak of may possibly 
have been taken from this very Macbeth passage ; 
but it appears to me that the phrase is expressive, 
and that when Dyce remarks " that King Midas 

is the only human being on record to whom 

the epithet could be applied," he is guilty of an 
unjustifiable assertion and exaggeration. Be it 
noted also that he in saying this admits the use of 
the word, and assigns it a meaning similar to that 
I had in my youth put upon it. All those, more- 
over, who so glibly tell us that hair was frequently 
spelled hear or heare, seem to have forgotten that 
in this passage we have ear'd. Be it that shag- 
haired is more expressive and was more common, 
that is not the question. The first question to be 
answered is. Did or does the shag-ear'd of the first 
five copies exist ? Br. Nicholson. 

Matthews Family op Gloucestershire. — 
The Matthews family has been the subject 
of considerable discussion in these columns. 
Does any one know anything of a family 
of the name of Matthews, living at Tewkes- 
bury, CO. Gloucester? Edward Matthews, of 
the Lodge, Tewkesbury, died in 1612, leaving a 
son James, who is supposed to have emigrated to 

uigmzea oy VjlOOSt l\^ 




New Eogland as early as 1634, and to have died 
at Yarmoath in N. E. in 1686, leaving issue. The 
Yarmoath family spelt the name indifferently 
iftLitthews, Mathews, and Mathew. Edward 
liiatthews's will is seeded with the following arms : 
Sa., a lion rampant ar.; crest, an eagle displayed 
per fesse, sa^ and ar. These arms, if properly 
borne by the Tewkesbury family, would seem to 
point to a connexion with the Qiamorganshire 
family of Mathew, of which branches were 
scattered at this time or later through Hereford, 
Warwickshire, and all that part of England. Can 
any one throw any light on the origin and fate of 
the Matthews family of Tewkesbury ? M. 

Bear-seik Jobber. — " Buying and selling be- 
tween the Deyil and us is, I must confess, an odd 
«tock jobbing ; and indeed the Deyil may be said 
to sell the hesit skin, whatever he buys.'' This 
passage^ from Defoe's History of the Dtvily is to 
me very enigmatical— as is also the earlier one in 
the same volume, ''Every dissembler, every false 
friend, every secret cheat, every bear-akin jobber, 
has a cloven foot." What ib the origin of the 
bear-skin allusion ? James Hooper. 

7, Str«atham Place, S.W. 

"Down in the mouth." — This phrase is used 
by Bishop Hall. He says : " The Koman orator 
was doum in the mouth; finding himself thus 
cheated by the money-changer: but, for aught I 
see, had his amends in his hands" (Cases of 
ConseUnce^ decade i. case 6). I shall be glad to 
know of any earlier instances of what is now 
regarded as a slang expression for being discon- 
flokte. F. 0. BiRKBECK Terrt. 

General Grosvenor : General Wolfe.— At 
Eaton, near Chester, the seat of the Duke of West- 
minster, there is an exceedingly fine portrait by 
Hoppner of General, afterwards Field Marshal, 
Grosvenor. He is represented amid the surround- 
ings of a battle-field, wearing crossbelts and carry- 
ing a musket, and I wish to ask, Was it usual for 
a general officer to carry that weapon ? 

There is at Eaton another picture which gives 
some countenance to this idea. West's *' Death of 
Oeneral Wolfe," where the dying hero is lying 
across the centre of the painting, the doctors 
stanching a wound in his breast, while below him 
Jie a musket and belt, with the initials of Wolfe 
on the lock. Wolfe died young, and General 
Grosvenor looks young in the picture, which may, 
perhaps, account for the matter. General Gros- 
venor was bom in 1764, a few years after the 
death of Wolfe. G. D. T. 

HaddenfieJd. - 

Site op Tomb Wanted. — The following ap- 
peared in an article in the Daily News a hw weeks 
ago. Who is "the gifted and brilliant English- 

man" referred to, and where is the churchyard 
which is described ? After much research I have 
failed to identify either : — 

''We have in mind at present a melancholy, pic* 
tareique, quaint old churchyard. It stands by the Tery 
brink of a river. As one leans over the low wall on the 
river-side, be sees the little waves ripple up almost within 
touch of him. The old tombstones tell of forgotten 
generations. On the doors of the church itself are 
posted notices of gifts to be given away in connexion 
with some eccentric old foundation or endowment such 
as it would have gladdened the heart of Nathaniel Haw< 
thome to study. For mere picturesqueneas that church- 
yard on the water's edge seems to us far beyond the 
burial ground at Scutari, which every English traveller 
feels bound to visit. Within that church Tie buried the 
remains of one of the most brilliant and gifted English- 
men who ever distracted or saved a state. The place is 
lonelV) unknown. Now and then some painter with a 
pecaliarly inquiring genius for the picturesque comes to 
make sketches, or some eccentric literary man goes there 
to study the spot and steep himself in its associations. 
But to the general public of the great citv, whose spires 
and towers and domes and columns and shipping you 
may see from the river-side of that graveyard, toe place 
is absolutely unknown. We do not intend to disclose 
the name of the place ; nay, we shall not even give the 
name of the city within whose sight it rests on the 
ri7er*i edge unknown." 

F. J. Grat. 

Louth, Lincolnshire. 

Earliest Glasgow Directory : Glasgow and 
Dunbartonshire Histories.— Can any of your 
readers kindly tell me what is the date of the 
earliest Glasgow directory, and where it may be 
seen ; also the names of the best histories of 
Glasgow and its neighbourhood, and also of the 
county of Dunbartonshire ? G. F. N. 

The MSS. op the Rev. Andrew Brown, 
DD., RELATING TO NovA SooTiA. — Has this col- 
lection ever been published ; and, if so, by whom 
edited ? These MSS. are in the British Museum, 
Series Add. 19069-76, comprising 8 vols., 1710- 
1794. P. Bernard BENoiT. 

Kensington, W. 

Pemberton's Parlour. — Can any of your 
readers tell me why the embrasure in Chester 
Walls IB called Pemberton's Parlour ? 

E. H. P. 

" Reminiscences of Half a Century."— Who 
was the author of this work ? It was published 
by Hatchard in 1838, and on the title-page it is 
said to be "by an Accurate Observer.'* The 
author gives in it some very interesting sketches of 
society, literary, sporting, and aristocratic, both at 
home and abroad. E. Walford, M.A. 

Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

Bridgham Family.— In the GenUeman^s Maga- 
zine, vol. Iviii. p. 81, is the following: "At St. 
Giles's Church, 1788, Sir John Hatton, of Long 
Station, co. Cambridge, Baronet, to Miss Bridgham, 
daughter of Mr. Bridgham, an American refugee. 

uigiiizea oy 





They came from Boulogne together for that pur- 
pose. The lady is about Reyenteen years of age.'' 

Also, vol. Ix. p. 83: ** Bridghara, E<q., formerly 

of Boston, late of Prince of Wales American 

Hegiment, to Miss Nichols, only daughter of 

Nichols, Esq., of Devonshire, Oct. 9, 1789." I 
am extremely anxious to affix, through the de- 
scendants of these Bridghams, some links in the 
still earlier branches of the family, which was here 
at an early date in 1644. H. P. Poor. 

Boston, if asa. 

Sir H£Vrt Hates. — Mrs. Farrer, in her 
lieeollections of Seventy Yearty p. 107, mentions 
" Sir Henry Brown Hayes, who ran off with a 
Miss Penrose, of Cork, about 1811." This is an 
error ; it was Miss Pike, not Miss Penrose. The 
young heiress was of an amatory disposition. After 
a flirtation with Mr. Cleburne, of the Bank, a con- 
nexion of her father's, she excited the attention of 
such a host of fortune-hunters, that, to save further 
(rouble. Sir Henry ran off with her. He was tried 
before Justice Day at Cork Assizes in 1801. Per- 
haps some correspondent will favour me with a 
copy of the ballad of which, I think, the first 
stanza was, — 

" Sir Henry kiased, Sir Henry kissed, 

Sir Henry kissed the Quaker ; 

And .what if be did, you ugly thing ? 

I 'm sure he did not ate her." 


" Castlk Foqgies/' — " My company is now 
forming into an invalid company. Tell your grand- 
mother we will be like the castU foggies " (extract 
from a letter in my possession, written by an 
r fficer from Harwich to his son at Edinburgh, 
April 5, 1821). Of. "N. & Q.," \^ S. viil 3 54, where 
there are some interesting remarks on this term 
for the Edinburgh veterans by J. L. I wish to 
know the etymology oi foggy used in this sense. 

A. L. Mayhew. 

Archbishop's Barge. — Where can I see a pic- 
f ure of the archbishop's barge, which was formerly 
moored at Lambeth Stairs ? Sensx. 

"Itinerary " of Richard of Cirencester,— I 
see it stated that the Itinerary of Richard of Ciren- 
cester has been proved to be a forgery. I shall be 
obliged by being referred to the evidence. 

R. W. C. 

Halsaker, Boynacle, and Satriston.— Can 
any one tell me whether the above names, 
which occur in the parish registers of St. Mary's 
Church, Dover, in the seventeenth century, are of 
Dutch or foreign origin ? Constance Russell. 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

^ " Vita di Gltviero Cromvet^le."— I have just 
picked up an Italian life of Cromwell, entitled 
BUtoria e Memorie recondite sopra alia Vita di 
Oliviero CromveUe^ scritto da Gregorio Letti, 

Amsterdamo, 169 2. The work is in two volumes 
or parts. I shall be glad to know if this life 
is better known by scholars in England than it is 
by me, and what is its historical value. 

G. L. Fenton. 
San Remo. 

" A Day's Journey of the Sun." — I met last 
year in a collection of British poetry with verses 
headed something as above. Not finding the 
book again, nor being helped by any friend to 
the work or the author of the verses, I beg the 
assistance of your readers* 

Wyatt Papworth. 

33, Bloomsbury Street, W.O. 

The Prisoner of Gisors.— Who was hel 
This query has appeared twice in "N. & Q." 
(3«i S. i. 329 ; 4* S. iv. 614). I think no answer 
has been given. I contribute the little informa- 
tion I possess in the hope of obtaining more. I 
have an engraving with this title from a picture 
by Wehnert, published by the Art Union in 1848. 
In the left-hand bottom corner it has the following 
explanatory note : " Every one at Gisors has heard 
of the unknown criminal, whom state reasons, now 
forgotten, immured alive in that tomb, which is 
still called the Prisoner's Tower, where he has 
perpetuated his memory in bas-reliefs, executed, it 
is said, with a nail on that part of the wall where 
the solitary sunbeam which entered his cell en- 
abled him to see his work " (Nodier, Noiifnandie^ 
ii. 141). The prisoner is seen at work on a repre- 
sentation of the Crucifixion. Above it he has 
shaped the words, " Mater Dei, miserere mei 
Pontani." T. G. 

Charles Bannister. — According to report, 
Charles Bannister, the father of Jack Bannister, 
was born in Gloucestershire in 1738. I shall be 
much obliged for precise information, if such is 
obtainable. Urban. 

Authors op Quotations Wanted. — 
" Ecce Britannorum mos est laudabilis iste, 
Ut bibat arbitrio pocala quisque suo." 

R. O. Davis. 
'* First you must creep along, then np and go ; 
The proudest old Pope was a Cardinal low. 
First be a courtier, and next be a king ; 
The more the hoop's bent, so much higher the 
spring." Chas. A. Ptitb. 

** Dreams are the interlude which fancy makes ; 
When monarch Reason sleeps, this mimic wakes» 
Compounds a medley of disjointed things, 
A court of cobblers, or a mob of kings." 
I believe they are Dryden's ; but where % C. M. I. 

« The naked Briton here hath paused to gaie 
Ere bells were chimed 
Or the thronged hamlet lit its social fires." 
It is, I think, by a Cornish anthor— at least, so I was 
informed when at Penxance recently. 

Bnwn. Bbookhav* 

Digitized by 




(1«* S. yii. 528, 607 ; yiii. 19, 179, 255, 454, 604 : 
«- 17, 62, 111, 457 ; 6"» S. yii. 377, 417, 451 ; 
▼ill. 97, 337, 357, 398.) 

There are four wooden effigies in the parish 
church of Clifbon Reynes, in Backs. I do not 
know whether they have heen folly described, but, 
as I saw them and took notes of them this sammer 
(1883), it may be convenient to state their present 
condition ; and I here transcribe my brief notes 
almost literally, retaining a (?) as to doubtful 
points, for the figures are much worn, though they 
are in fair preservation. The four figures consist 
of two pairs, each pair a knight and his dame. 
All of them are recumbent ; they are of small size, 
not much more than five feet long. 

First pair, somewhat the earlier and ruder. 
—No. 1, Plain round helm (no vizor) and circlet ; 
chain mail (?) on the arms ; breastplate over sur- 
coat ; chain mail on the legs, which are crossed ; 
feet on a (hound ?) couchant ; head on a diagonal 
cushion ; right arm drawing sword. No. 2 (separate 
from No. 1, but adjoining it). Lady in hood and 
wimple and long narrow gown ; hands held up in 
prayer, head on diagonal cushion, feet on hound 

Second pair.— No. 3, Plain round helm, no 
vizor or circlet ; surcoat of threefold thickness, the 
lower edge of the inmost fold plaited, and that of 
the outermost fold embattled ; chain mail (?) on 
!u ^^ *°^ ^^ ' ^^^^ crossed ; blank shield on 
the left arm ; right arm drawing sword, but the 
«word is gone; feet on a (hound?) couchant; 
head on a square cushion; whole figure much 
wormed. No. 4 (separate from No. 3, but adjoin- 
ttg It), Lady in hood and wimple, &c., as No. 2 ; 
head on diagonal cushion. 

Nos. 1 and 2 lie side by side, only a foot or so 
above the floor level, under a plain arched recess 
m the north wall of the north (which is the only) 
side of the chancel. Nos. 3 and 4 lie side by side 
under one of the south arches of the same aisle, 
wn a loflty base of stone, decorated on three 
«de« with quatrefoils and coats of arms. There are 
five of theee shields, each diflFerent, of course, from 

show, or seem to show, that in earlier as in later 
centuries a man was represented on his tomb in 
armour which he can seldom have worn in his life- 
time, and with his legs crossed, though he probably 
never took the cross ; for it would appear that the 
two wooden knights (and, indeed, the alabaster 
one also) were members of an undistinguished 
family named Keynes, who came from Statheme^ 
in Leicestershire, and acquired by marriage the 
principal manor — there were two manors — at 
Clifton, in the latter part of the thirteenth century. 
They held it in tho male line till 1556. Joan 
Borard, who brought this manor into the family, 
was a descendant of William de Borard, who in 
William I.'s time held the manor under Robert 
de Todeni, and whose descendant, Simon de Borard» 
acquired it in capiU from Henry 111. after it had 
been forfeited by William de Albini in the reign 
of John. 

This quiet rural parish of Clifton Eeynes has at 
least three points of contact with the old-fashioned 
glories of England. First^ if, or part of it, belonged, 
as I have said, to the distinguished house of De 
Todeni and De Albini. Secondly, the eminent 
Serjeant Maynard bought the manor and estate in 
1672, and was lord of it till his death. Thirdly, 
Cowper's friend and would-be sweetheart, Lady 
Austen, lived there, while Cowper lived just across 
the river at OJney. 

I am indebted for some of the foregoiog facts, 
especially for those concerning the families of 
Borard and Eeynes, to a little monograph on 
Clifton Eeynes, which was written in 182 L by the 
Eev. Ed. Cooke, Eector of Haversham, Bucks. 
Mr. Cooke gives no account of the figures which I 
have numbered 1 and 2. Figure 3, he says, re- 
presents Ealph de Eeynes, who died ^* before the 
year 1310.'' If so, figure 4 is presumably one of 
Ealph's two wives, who were, according to Mr. 
Cooke, Amabel, daughter of Sir Henrv Green, of 
Boughton, Northants, by Catharine, daughter of 
Sir Johnde Drayton ; and Amabel, daughter of Sir 
Eichard Chamberlain, of Petso. The two alabaster 
figures are, says Mr. Cooke, those of John Eeynes, 
who died in 1428, and of his first wife, Catherine 

The MS. of Mr. Cooke's monograph was handed 
by him to his friend the Eev. William Talbot, 

the others, and most of them showing the alliances Eector of Clifton Eeynes, with a written request 

«f one family. I regret that I had not time to take 
««wn the blazons. Under the other and eastern- 
ittMt of the two south arches is a third tomb, 
"a!' ^^ ^*®'» whereon lie the figures, in 
tlabaster, of a knight of the same family and his 
«Mne. It may be added that each of the four 
wooden figures is, so far as I could judge, of oak, 
wd IS hoUow underneath, and portable, insomuch 
«»t a strong man might readily shoulder it and 
<arry it off. 

To me the chief interest about them is that they 

that it might go down to future rectors " with the 
registers of the parish." Mr. Talbot, who died ia 
1832, had the MS. bound, and it has been duly 
passed on to his successors. The present rector 
has wisely had it printed (as a pamphlet of twenty- 
three pages), and is, I believe, prepared" to send a 
copy to any one who will furnish one shilling or up« 
wards towards the works of repair which have just 
been done — honestly and of necessity, so far as an 
outsider may presume to judge — at the parish 
church. A^ J. M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(CttS.IX. JAV.5,'d4. 

I do not know whebher Mr. Markham has 
indaded in his liat the three elm fisurea in the 
Oglander Ghapel, Brading Chnroh, Isle of Wi^ht, 
of members of that family. If not, the following 
description may be of service to those interested 
in the subject The most ancient of the three 
represents a life-size male figure, in complete plate 
armour (fifteenth century), reclinmg on its side, 
with the face turned to the rights the head leaning 
on the hand. The second is a small figure, almost 
a counterpart of the first, about, I should say, 
twenty-four indies long. The third is a life-size 
figure, in half armour, recumbent, temp, James I. 
or Elizabeth, wearing a ruff, the head bare, and the 
hands raised in the attitude of prayer. They all 
surmount altar tombs, and the two larger have 
their feet to the east end of the chapel The 
emaller was placed, I think, when I saw it, north 
and south, under the east window. The chapel, 
together with the church, had lately been restored, 
but not spoilt, and the figures had been repainted 
in accordance with the remains of the old colours 
found on them (after remoying whitewash and 
other abominatioDB),by the order of Lady Oglander. 
I regret I did not take a note of the inscriptions. 

E. T. Evans. 

6Z, Fellows Road, South Hampstead. 

A Former Royal Inhabitant at Eastwell 
(6"» S. viii. 103, 192, 251).— Since my previous 
notes on this subject I have had an obliging com- 
munication from the Rev. Gorges E. Qwynne, the 
present rector of Eastwell, and I think it will be 
interesting to many readers to know from so 
authentic a source that the exact wording and 
spelling (hitherto variously quoted) of the entry 
under discussion are, *' Aiio domini : 1550 
Eychard Plantagenet was buryed the xzij's daye 
of Desembor, Anno di supra,'' and that the 
register containing it, dating from 1538 (but he 
believes copied about sixty years later*), is still 
extant and in good condition. With regard to 
the ** banker's tick " against this and other names 
in the register, which Mr. P. Parsons (Mr. 
Owynne's predecessor) and Bum (History of 
Parish Reg., 1829, p. 115) suppose to denote 
noble birtb, I think Mr. Gwynne's suggestion will 
be allowed to be much more probable, viz. that 
it was simply put there by some one of the Finch 
family to mark off entries interesting to himself 

* He eays the ink is so faded that he cannot make 
sore if the day is xxil or xxix. He further tells us that 
this register is interesting for containing the Solemn 
League and Coyenant, the Protestation, the Vow and 
tJoyenaiit, 1642-3, with the original signatures of the 
parishioners ; also a list of the rectors, beginning, oddly 
-enough, at the year 1560. It has further the entry of 
Sir Thos. Moyle's burial, Oct- 2, 1660. In 1804 this 
register was produced at the bar of the House of Lords 
on occasion of the claim of Lord Fitzgerald and Sir H. 
Hunlock to the barony of Boss. 

which he had copied out If Mr. Tew is still to 
the fore, who wrote to "N. & Q.," 4«» S. vL 567, 
dating from Patchin|;, Arundel, he would aid thiB 
investigation by stating what sort of book is TAa 
FortfoliOf which is his authority for the statement 
that an autobiography exists. I cannot find it in 
the only book with that title in the Brit Mus. 

Mr. Walford, Tales of our Great Families^ 
first series, vol. i. p. 172, in a story entitled '' The 
Wooing of Sir Heneage Finch," says the said story 
is taken from one of the old MSS. preserved 
among the archives of the Surrenden Derings, a 
Sir Ed. Bering having been a suitor for the hand 
of the same lady as Sir Heneage Finch. If the 
Derings have such a great collection of MSS., per- 
haps the autobiography may still be discovered 
among them. Finally Mr. Gwynne informs as 
that besides the register entry there are two other 
local traditions of Rd. Plantagenet at EastwelL 

1. There is a tomb of Bettenden marble, 
under a sepulchral arch on the north side 
of the chancel, where, according to popular 
belief, his remains were laid. This is, perhaps^ 
of too early a date to justify the tradition.''^ Mr. 
Gwynne says that Canon Scott Robertson, the 
well-known secretary of the Kent Arcboeologieal 
Society, objects to its being considered his (aa 
Hasted did consider it) because among the brasses 
of which it has been stripped appear to have been 
four small scrolls, probably bearing the prayer 
'* Jesu, mercy ; Lsdy, help," which would not have 
been used in Ed. YI.'s reign. (Some antiquarian 
contributors will perhaps tell us whether such 
scrolls had so utterly fallen into disuse by 1550 
that this should be final) Canon Robertson seems 
also inclined to object to the register entry because 
he says there was no such name as Plantagenet 
in the sixteenth century. Bat surely the register 
is sufficient to prove that there was this one 
instance of it. 

2. There are at Eastwell an ancient cottage 
(inhabited by the estate carpenter) and a disused 
well, both of which still retain the name of Planta- 

I cannot pass over a very ingenious piece of 
criticism sent me by Mr. D. J. Stewart, who 
remarks that the first printed edition of 
Horace with date was in 1474. and asks whether 
there was time for the book to become wM 
known in England. This, I feel bound to 
allow, there hardly was as, according to The 
Paraikl, Richard parted with his *^ Latin school- 
master of Lutterworth" only ten years later. At 
the same time it seems to me not improbable that 
just because the book was rare this master, whose 
" taste for classic writers " is specially mentioned. 

* There is, however, a large altar tomb to Sir Thomas 
Moyie on the south side of the chancel, which maj have 
been so placed to correspond with one erected by hlai to 
Rd. Plantagenet ^<^ j 


uigiiizea oy ' 




shoald have chosen it as a paiting gift to one who 
might have come to be acknowledged as the king's 
son, nor that Bichard should have prized it» both 
for its rarity and for the giver's sake, to the end of 
his days. H. H. Busk. 

Mould, or Mold, of the Hjead (6<^ S. viii. 
309). — ^This does not mean a*" suture of the skull." 
In the Cambridge Eng,-Lat and Lat-Eng. Dic- 
tionary (1698), the phrase is translated by " forma 
capitis^ cavitas sincipitis, bregma." This explana- 
tion is adopted by Littleton and others, but Coles 
has bregma only. This is the Or. fSpe-ma, which 
means the upper part of the head. Bailey (foL, 
ed. 1724) has "ifould, mold^ a form in which 
anything is cost ; also, the hollowness in tbe upper 
part of the head." It is evident, therefore, that the 
word mould, as applied to the head, bore three 
several meanings, probably at successive times. 
These were (1) the general form of the head ; (2) 
its upper part, from the forehead to the apex ; and 
<3) aa there is often a hollow near the highest 
point, this hollow part. It is derived from the 
Ft, mouh, which has, however, only the ordinary 
meaning of " form " or " matrix." The Cambridge 
dictionary referred to is interesting as having been 
formed, among other sources, from '* a large manu- 
script, in three volumes, of Mr. John Milton." 
This was the poet Milton. J. D. 

BelBtze Sqaare. 

In the old London Bills of Mortality the term 
^'headmooldshof long stood as the vernacular 
for a form of hydrocephalus, or water on the brain. 
If we read this as a sprained or stretched condition 
of the mould of the head, we may, I think, be 
justified in suggesting that the mould was the 
anUrior fontanel, as that projects greatly in many 
hydrocephalic heads. '^Horseshoe head" was, 
perhaps, the vernacular for cases in which the 
posterior fontanel, which is somewhat of that form, 
was remarkably prominent. For mould or mold 
I would read moU (fnoles) of the head. 

In the London Bill of Mortality for 1784, 
printed at the end of vol. liv. of the Gentleman's 
Magazine f fifteen deaths are attributed to " Head- 
ffionldshot, Horshoehead, and Water in the Head." 
Possibly this may give Dr. Nicholsok a clue. 

Walter HAiNEa 

There is some doubt about the exact meaning 
of thia term. Torriano, in his Vocdbolario 
lialiano ed Inglese^ 1688, has, "^The m^uld of 
th4 head, cervice." Phillips, in The New World of 

TFords, ed. 1720, gives, ''Mould the Dent in 

the upper Part of the Head." The Olossographia 

Anglicana Nova, 1707, has, "Mould the 

fioUownesB in the upper part of the Head." 


Dates on Fonts (6^ S. viiL 188, 432). —The 
font here, at Chapel Allerton, bears an inscribed 
date, and is of somewhat curious design. The 
original base has disappeared, but the shaft and 
bowl remain ; the whole is very rudely carved in 
stone ; so much so that inexperienced critics have 
at times supposed that the shaft is a piece of 
Saxon work, appropriated in later times to its 
present use ; this, however, is not the case. The 
Dowl of the font is octagonal externally, and is 
sloped out angularly from the shaft. In the com- 
partment now facing the east is a rude repre- 
sentation of three rose branches with three roses, 
the two side branches slanting in either direction 
from that in the centre. In the compartment to 
the north of this there is a rudely carved fleur de 
lys, and in that to the south a thistle. The other 
five compartments are filled with nondescript 
designs of no significance. Bound the upper por- 
tion of the outside of the bowl is a flat rim, about 
two inches in depth, and along this, beginning on 
the side now facing the south, is very rudely carved 
in raised letters (some of the h'd being sideways 
for want of room), the followinff inscription: 


BAPTi I 8ME • Ep a I ESiAKS | 4 . 6 * 1G37. The font 
has been frequently moved, and the church rebuilt 
twice since 1637. T. M. Fallow. 

Chapel Allerton, Leeds. 

The lead lining of the font of Walsall parish 
church bears the following, in raised letters, &c. : — 


R.B 1712, 
and opposite to this the letters n s. Between the 
lines are placed, opposite each other, a large boss 
and a cherub's head. The font itself is an ancient, 
and a very fine one. It stands on a gothic pedestal, 
octagonal, like the font. On each panel is a small 
pedestal, evidently intended to hold a figure. The 
upper part exhibits on each face an angel bearing a 
shield charged with the arms of a noble family, 
each being different. W. C. Owen. 

Your correspondent gives an inscription on a 
font at Eeysoe, Bedfordshire, without explanation, 
perhaps because it may be deemed too easy. At 
first it seemed puzzling, but with a little pains I 
arrived at it. It reads thus : *' + Cestui qui par 
d'ici passerai, pour Leal Newarel prie, que Dieu de 
sa grace vrai merci lui fasse. Amen." Probably 
Le5 Newarel was the donor of the font. 

J. Carrick Moore. 

The font at St. Sennen (The Land's End) Church, 
Cornwall, bears a mutilated inscription, at the 
base or footpace, which I had no time to transcribe 
on the occasion of my visit. It records, however, 
the dedication of the church on the anniversary of 
the decollation of St. John the Baptist (Aug. 29), 
1444 (Murray). T. M. N. Owen, M.A. 



[e* a IX. JiK. 5, '8i. 

I hope that Mr. Holqate's inqaiiy on the 
subject will bring forward more information than 
we are at present able to find in any book, and 
that it will come from all parts of the country. I 
have myself, in the very many churches that I have 
been into, only found one instance of a date on a 
font, and that was at Hascomb, in Surrey, where 
there is the name of a former rector (which I have 
not got down), and the date 1693 caryed on one 
side. It is a solid square font, and is, I should 
think, considerably older than this date, which 
may possibly have been put on after a restoration 
and the incoming of a new rector. S. T. ^ 


Setting the Thames on Fire (6*** S. Tiii. 
446, 476).— We have now got a little further in 
this question. It appears that this fable (as I sus- 
pect it will turn out to be) can be traced back as 
fat as March 25, 1865, when it was first started by 
a correspondent sfgning himself P. in '^ N. & Q.,'' 
2^ S. Yii. 239. Observe that P. puts forward his 
solution quite as a mere guess, saying that *^ the 
long misuse of the word ttmse... may posnbly have 
tended to the substitution of sound for sense.*' Mr. 
Hazlitt merely copies what is there said. The 
statement made is that "an active fellow, who 
worked hard, not unfreqxitnUy [the italics are mine] 
set the rim of the temse on fire by force of friction 
against the rim of the flour-barrel." Mr. Hazlitt 
improves this into the '^ iron rim of the temse," it 
being, of course, quite easy to set iron "on fire." 
Now I think we have a right to expect some sort 
of proof of the statement. If "an active fellow*' 
could do this once he can do it now. Well, I 
should like to see him do it. Who can quote the 
phrase from a book older than 1865? See P. 
Plovman, c. 7, 337. Walter W. Skbat. 

I have seen it stated during this discussion and 
elsewhere that a Urm in North and West Lanca- 
shire means a grain riddle ; but this is not exact. 
A Urns proper is a sieve with deep sides, very like 
a peck measure, is ten or twelve inches in diameter, 
and has a bottom of woven horsehair. It is used 
for taking small particles of butter out of the 
butter-milk just after churning ; one person holds 
the tems over a vessel and another pours in the 
buttermilk, the hair- work passing the milk and 
twitching the particles of butter. This would not 
cause a fire, neither is a grain-riddle firing by 
ordinary hand usage more probable. When 
worked at the quickest one man riddles while 
another fills, and the riddle is emptied several 
times in a minute. The grain also is cold in its 
normal state, and there is no chance of it or the 
riddles getting heated by friction. To a practical 
man a riddle firing would sound most absurd. If 
you say to a Lancashire labourer, "Tha'll ne'er 
set th' tems a fire," a hundred to one he would 
understand the river Thames. But if you substi- 

tute Ribble for Thames, as I have heard scores of 
times used in everyday life, the dullest clodhopper 
in the county would want no interpreter, as you 
would soon discover by his features or words, if 
not by both. Edward Kirk. 

Seedley, Manchester. 

In borrowing from us the French have sub- 
stituted " Seine " for Thames. 

B. S. Charnock. 

The Word " GI " (6* S. viii. 426, 477).— Mr. 
Taylor's statement that the suffix -gay is the 
same as the German gau, and his identification of 
gau with Eemble's explanation of ^d, cannot be 
admitted without proof. They are against all 
phonetic laws. The £. day is A.-S. dxzg^ so that 
gay would be g(Bg ; or else, since £. hay (in names) 
is A.-S. hege, gay would be gege. How E. ay= 
A.-S. A, is a mystery. Again, the G. att = A.-S. 
ia, as in G. &attm=A.-S. blam. Anything can be 
said if phonetic laws are not to count. 

Walter W. Skeat. 


"Hundred op Launditch" (6*S. viii. 368). — 
In The Genealogist, for 1880, vol. iv. p. 29i, will 
be found a review of part iii. of the late Mr. 
Oarthew's Hundred of Launditch and Deanery of 
Bntley, which is stated to be published at Norwich 
by MUler & Leavins. Part iii. was dated 1879. 


A Bomano-British Liturgy (6"> S. viii. 341). 
— If your correspondent H. 0. U. had seen the 
original MS. or the account of it in The Liturgy 
and Ritual of the Celtic Church, Ozford, 1881, 
he would not have entertained those views of 
its nationality and date which he has based on 
some extracts from it in the Academy of Nov. 20» 
1879. It is a genuine Irish MS. in orthography, 
execution, and ornamentation. Many of the 
rubrics are in the Irish language. There are two 
handwritings in it, one of which is of the ninth 
century, and the other of the eleventh century at 
the earliest. The intermixture of the Boman 
canon with passages belonging to a totally different 
genus of liturgy points to a transition period in 
the history of the services of the Irish Church. It 
is certainly strange that an Irish scribe should 
have transcribed horn a Boman model passages 
which must have been perfectly meaningless to an 
inhabitant of Ireland; but our wonder, is lessened 
by the fact that the petition ^'pro imperio 
Bomano " in the Boman Missal only ceased to be 
used by authority in 1861. Learned conjectures 
as to whether St. Palladius or St. Patrick, &c., 
brought the missal into Ireland therefore vanish 
into air. With regard to the title *' Stowe Missal," 
it has at least the merit of pointing to an episode 
in the later wanderings of the MS. Lord Ajsh* 
bumham at the time of its publication pressed me 

uigmzea oy '^..jvv^v^ 






to christen it the " Ashhurnham Missal." It was 
difficult to refase the request of its nohle owoer, 
who had placed the MS. so liberally at my disposal, 
and to whom I was indebted for so much courtesy 
and hospitality. Bat I was fortified by a letter 
firom Dr. Beeyes, Dean of Armagh, objecting to 
that, or, indeed, to any other chanjs^e of nomencla- 
tnie. F. £. Warrbn. 

It seems a natural inference from this interesting 
document that- the language of South Britain dur- 
ing the Roman period was Irish ; an inference 
oonfiiming the deductions of those who have 
adopted a similar conclusion from the examination 
of place-names, and yarious manners, customs, and 
words Burviying from that period. No doubt 
many who, for yarious reasons, were refugees from 
Bngjond, would find an asylum in Ireland, and 
some would resent the submission to Boman rule 
and influence of those who remained, and there- 
fore called them ipecJded ^mongrelf and stigma- 
tized their speech as stammering, a defect which 
may be attributed to the changes induced by the 
lapse of time and intercourse with Bomans and 
otners of foreign speech. Through such immigra- 
tion it is not unlikely Christianity was introduced 
into Ireland, whence it may haye been reyiyified 
YtYkCTL dormant in England. Jobsfh Boult. 


Goodwin Sands and (?) Steeplb (6**» S. yiii. 
430). — ^The editor of Burt's Letters has substituted 
" Salisbury *' for " Tenterdcn." This is the original 
passage: — 

" Well then (quoth Maister Moore) how say yon in 
this matter ? What think ye to be the cause of these 
ahelTes and flats that stoppe up Sandwich haYon ? For- 
sooth Sir (quoth he) I am an old man, I tbinke that 
Tenterton steeple is the cause of Goodwin sands. For 
I son an old man, Sir (quoth he) and I may remember 
the building of Tenterton steeple, and I may remember 
when there was no steeple at all there. And before that 
Tenterton steeple was in building, there was no manner 
of speaking of any flats or sands that stopped the haven, 
•nd therefore I think that Tenterton steeple is the cause 
of the destroying and decay of Sandwich haTen. And 
even so to my purpose is preaching of gods word y* cause 
of rebellion, as Tenterton steeple was cause that Sand- 
wich haven is decayed."— Sermon preached at West- 
minster before King Edward VL, 1550; Latimer's 
FmUful Sermont, 4to. 1578 or 1596, pp. 106, 107. 

John E. T. Lovedat. 

See Latimer's Sermons, foL 109, ed. 1575. The 
IKissage ^ referred to is quoted by Southey in his 
Colloquies, notes, p. 323 (London, John Murray, 
1829X from Sir Thomas More's Dyalogue, fol. 145, 
ed. 1530. J. B. 

The editor of Burt's Ltttirs must haye written 
&om a dim recollection, and so blundered "Ten- 
terden ^ into " Salisbary.'' The passage in Latimer 
oeoors in his last sermon preached before Edw. YL 
In the edition of the Sermons edited for the Parker 

Society, Cambridge, 1844, the reference is p. 251. 
The story is deriyed from Sir Thomas More. See. 
the note by the editor on that page. 

J. Inqlb Dredgb. 

'' Salisbury " is obyiously an error. The refer- 
ence to Latimer is the Last Sermon Preciched^ 
before King Edward VL; see also Sir Thomaa 
More's Dyalogue, iy. 145. 

Edward H. Marshall, M.A. 

Library, Glaremont, Hastings. 

"God be with tts!'*=thb Devil (B*** S. 
yiil 385). — I think I haye seyeral times 
met analogous instances of the involution of 
phraseology inquired for, rendering the sense 
by the contrary expression. At the present 
moment I only recall three. 1. In the passage in 
Job where his wife says to him, " Curse God and 
die ^ the Douai version has the rendering *' Bless 
God and die.'' S. From the constant use of the- 
oath " Sacr^ nom de Dieu ! " one may sometimes 
hear Frenchmen of the lower orders adopt it as an 
actualappHBllation for the thingswom at. I remember 
once hearing this carried still further in the days 
of diligences over Mont Cenis. Complaining of 
the lean appearance of the horses provided at ono 
of the posts, the driver, in the midst of a yoUey of 
other invectives, said, "II parait que vous no 
donnez que de la mousse k ces satanis noms de 
Dieu I" 3. In the ordinary law report (not in 
the column of facetiae) of an Irish newspaper I 
once saw a portion of a woman's evidence giyen 
thus: "There was no o(^er frZes^ed tinner present 
but myself and the great Qod.** R. H. Busk. 

The FowLBR Family (6*^ S. yiii. 427, 469).— In 
the Norman People "Fowler" is deriyed as follows: 
" Ralnerus Auceps, or Fowler, of Normandy, 1198 
(M.R.S.). Gamel Auceps paid a fine in York, 
1158 (Rot. Pip.). Stephen and Thomas Aucuparius. 
of England, c. 1272. Also Juliana, Adam, Walter 
Fouldre (R. H.)." Fludyer, Fullagar, Foulger, 
and Fulger, the autbor of the aboye book considers, 
to have been corruptions of De Fougeres, or 
Fulgiers, in Bretagne. The barons of Fulgiers had 
many branches in England, which he enumerates. 


Spread: Norfolk Pronunciation (B'** S. viii. 
346). — The invariable pronunciation of spread 
among the working classes in the country is spreed^ 
wheneyer used : thus, " Let me spreed your butter." 

Wm. Vincent. 

Harris [op Borbatton] (6"» S. viii. 408).— In. 
Burke's Qen. Armory (1878) your querist would 
have found mention of this baronetcy, created in 
1622 in the person of Sir Thomas Harris, of 
Boreatton, co. Salop, Master in Chancery, extinct 
in 1686: The arms are civen as, "Or, three 
hedjehogs az."; crest, "A hedgehog or." Harris, 
of Lakeview, Blackrock, co. Cork, as confirmed to 

uigiiizea oy x^jvv^v-/ 




[6»i» a IX. Jak. 5, '84. 

William Prittie Harris, of the family of Harris of 
Assolat, CO Cork, is the only Irish coat resembllDg 
BoreattoD. Nomad. 

Reynolds (6^ S. vii. 328; viii. 36).— The 
arms of Chief Baron Reynolds were Az., a chevron 
ermine between three cross-crosslets fitchy arp;., 
a crescent for difference ; crest, a dore (or eagle 
close) arg., ducally gorged, and line reflexed over 
the back or. I shall be glad to give Mr. Cobbold 
further information of the judge's family, or the 
correspondent who inquired a few weeks ago con- 
cerning the chief baron's great-grandfather, Sir 
James Reynolds of Oastle Camps. 


Sir John Odikgsblls Lseeb, Bart. (6^ S. 
viii. 448). — While endeavouring to follow up some 
phantom knights, in the account of another family, 
I found it expedient to trace the generations of 
Leeke, of Newark-upon-Trent. A baronetcy, con- 
ferred on Francis Leeke of that place, Dec 15, 
1663, became extinct, by the death of his only 
son Francis, a.d. 1682. In May of that year 
Clifton Leeke, of Newark, proved the will of his 
nephew, the said second baronet ; his own will, 
dated March 13, 1682/3, being proved May 4 
following. In the last-named will mention is made 
of John, son of John Leeke, of Epperstone ; and 
Thoroton's Notts (p. 294) shows tjhat his name in 
full was John Odingsells Leeke. He was a lawyer, 
and some of his documents in the British Museum 
are indexed as being those of Sir John Odingsells 
Leeke ; but the last of the series, dated May 13, 
1730, is endorsed " Mr. Leeke's opinion of Copy- 
hold.'' All which tends to show that his son, or 
grandson, "dubbed'' him baronet after his de- 
cease. If descendants exist your correspondent at 
Norwich would appear favourably situated for 
acquiring a knowledge of them; but it gives me 
pleasure to offer the foregoing information. 

J. S. 

The name of this baronet does not appear in the 
English, Scotch, or Irish lists of baronets in the 
Boyal Kalmdars of 1815 or 1816 ; nor (as it 
appears from the London Qazette) was any such 
baronetcy created in those years. It is also worthy 
of notice that neither the Annual Register nor the 
QtntUmatiLS Magazine, in their respective notices 
of Sir John's death, give him the appellation of 
baronet. G. F. R. B. 

Red Castle {&^ S. viiL 428). — Surely the 
place of which your querist is in search is the 
•* Rouge Chastiel," or " Castle of Radeclif," of the 
Audleys of Helegh and Red Castle, and in that 
case it is in Shropshire, not in Wales. Some account 
of this Red Castle will be found in Mr. Eyton's 
Shropshire^ vol. ix. p. 344, «.«. " Weston," where it 
may be seen how it came to the Audleys from 
Matilda Extranea, and how Henry de Audley 

had letters patent II Hen. III. to build the said 
castle, or rather, as Mr. Eyton notes, the word 
used being firmare^ more probably simply to- 
increase the strength of a pre-existent " Castram. 
de Radeclit" It became one of the designations 
of the Audleys, and the manor is stiU called 
Weston-under-Red Castle. Nomad. 

This is Castell Coch, Powys Castle, near Welsh- 
pool. T. W. Webb. 
Hardwick Vicarage, Hay. 

Red Castle, in Wales, is Fowls Castle, Mont- 
gomeryshire, the principal seat of the Earl of 
Powis. It is about a mile distant from the town ' 
of Welshpool. W. W. 

The Glastonbtjby Thorn (6*** S. vi. 613 ;. 
vii. 217, 258). — Several trees which are descended 
by cuttings from the Holy Thorn still exist in and 
about Qlastonbury. One of them, of somewhat 
scanty and straggling growth, occupies the site of 
the original tliorn, on the summit of Weary-all 
HUl. Another, a much finer tree, compact and 
healthy, stands on private premises, near the en- 
trance of a house that faces the abbot's kitchen.. 
These descendants of the Glastonbury thorn inherit 
the famous peculiarity of that tree. C. W. S. 

The Fifth Cbntenart of the Death of 
Wtclipfe (6*^ S. viii 492).— At this reference 
you did me the honour of inserting a note of mine 
about the completion at the end of this year of 
five hundred years, or exactly half a millennium^ 
since the death of Wycliffe, the *' morning star of 
the English Reformation." It is remarkable that, 
as in the case of Luther, the precise date of his 
birth is somewhat uncertain, although it was pro- 
bably 1324. But this note is concerned with the 
question of the exact date of the final seizure with 
paralysis, of which he died on the last day of the 
year 1384. It is commonly stated to have been 
Innocents' Day, t. e, December 28, three days 
before his death. But we are told by his bio- 
grapher, the Rev. John Lewis (formerly Vicar of 
Minster, Thanet), that the Teignmoulh ChronicU 
and Walsingham say that it took place the day after, 
f. e., Dec. 2^, which was that of the feast of Abp. 
Becket ; and he quotes one of Wycliffe's adver- 
saries as saying that ^' on the day of St Thomaa 
the Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, viz. 
Dec. 29, the day after H. Innocents, John Widif,. 
the organ of the Devil, the enemy of the Church, 
the confusion of the common people, the idol of 
heretics, the looking-glass of hypocrites, the en- 
courager of schism, the sower of hatred, and the 
maker of lies, when he designed, as it is reputed, 
to belch out accusations and blasphemies against 
St. Thomas in the sermon he had prepar^ for 
that day, was suddenly struck by the judgment of 
Qod/* &c. Apparently, therefore, the day of the 
seizure most remain uncertain, and may have beex^ 

uigmzea oy x.jvv^v^ 





Bee 28 or S9; that of hb death is by all stated 
to have been Dec 31. W. T. Lynn. 


A Fellowship (fi^ S. viii. 613).— The diffi- 
cult j of this phrase is not in the fellowship^ bat in 
the a. Here a is not the indefinite article, but 
the M.K prep, a, short for ar^ which is the more 
correct form of on^ and signifies (as often in Middle 
English) in. It occurs in a-fooi, oriUep, and the 
like. Hence a fellowship means "in fellowship/' 
«.«., Jn good fellowship, in the name of good 
fellowship, and is a mere phrase, like the phrase 
**I pray thee,** which occurs for it in our 
Autl^rized Version. It occurs again in the 
phrases **a Qod's name'' often in Shakespeare, 
and in *' a this fashion" (Hamlet, Y. i. 218). 

Walter W. Skeat. 


Waeinb WofiB (e*^ S. viii. 516).— TTom is ooxe, 
cr soft mud, particularly used of the mud of a 
harbour, as in 21^ TaU ofBeryn, L 1742. Warine 
I guess to be Warren, near Pembroke, a place 
situated above Milford Haven ; and I guess 
Warine wose to mean Milford Haven, which is 
certainly " an opyn havyn that well men knowe." 
I cannot find any place called Warren except this 
one, which is given in the Clergy List, 

Walter W. Skbat. 


Napoleonic Prophkct (6"» S. vii. 404; viii. 
51, 112, 296, 316, 337).— I have met with yet 
another Napoleonic anagram, making the word 

" Napoleon imperator Gallorum^ 
Joachim rex rTeapolitanuSj 
Hieronimus rex Westpbalise, 
Joseph rez HiBpaiia», 
Lndoyicus rex HolIandisB." 

B. H. BasK. 

OnRiSTV AS Eve Obsbrvaiicb (6^^ S. viii. 516). 

— ^Thc lines quoted by Lbctor eyidently refer to 

the time when the festival of the Nativity was 

celebrated by three masses, the first commencing 

at midnight, the second at daybreak, and the third 

at the third hour, or 9 A.if. It has always been 

the custom of the Church to celebrate the mass at 

the commencement of the day, between daybreak 

and 9 a.m. TThe only exceptions to this rule are 

1) the midnight mass on Christmas Day; (2) in 

ues of necessity, as, a, where a person is sick or 

boat to die, and there is no consecrated Host avail- 

Ue ; b, where a bishop is travelling he may not 

tpert without having heard mass ; c, by dispen- 

tioD. The use in the Romish Church of three 

asBes on Christmas Day is very ancient. Theles- 

^mvm, who was Pope a.d. 127, decreed that three 

UKea ihonld be sung in Festo Nativitatis, to 

vote that the birth of Christ brought salvation 

the fathers of three periods, viz., the fathers 

before, under, and after the law. Down to 154£^ 
it was usual to have three masses on Christmas 
Day in this country. In the Prayer- Book issued 
that year only two were appointed, and in 1652 
only one mass is ordered. For the doctrinal 
significance of the three masses I refer Lector 
to Durandus, Eationale Dieinorum Officiorum, 
ed. 1486, lib. vi. fol. cli, and Burchard's Ordo 
Misses, ed. 1512, foL ii. F. A. B. 

Christmas Eve is the only night when mass is^ 
sung. Mass is always said before 12 noon, except 
on Maundy Thursday, when it may be said as late 
as 3 P.M., and Christmas Eve, The practice of 
evening communions is an innovation within liying 
memory, and is against all precedent. To receive 
fasting is the rule of the Catholic Church, still ob- 
served by many old-fashioned people in varioaa 
parts of England, and is again reviving. 

£. Lbaton Blbnkinsopp. 

The lines are a simple description of midnight 
mass, which is usually celebrated in Catholic 
countries at midnight between Christmas Eve and 
Christmas Day. E. Walford, M.A. 

Hyde Park MansionB, N.W. 

Caroline, Countbss op Ditnravbn (6'^ S. 
viii. 517). — Her great-grandfather married Jane, 
daughter and heiress of John Wyndham, great- 
grandson of Humphry Wyndham, but she is de- 
scended from his second wife, Anne Edwin. 
Sir John Wyndham=yJoan Portman. 

George, 8eventh=pPrance8 Davy 
eon. (1 Florence). 

Humphry, fourth=; 
son. I 

Francic=7=Sarah Dayrell. 

lIumpbry=y=Joan Carnc. 


John=f=Jane SlroJe. 


2. Anne Bdwin=pThomft8=l. Jane Wyndbara, d. s.p. 
Charles (took name of Edwin)yEleanor Raoke. 

r ' 

Carolme, Countess of Bunraven. 

Th6ma8=pAnna Maria Charlotte Asbby. 

H. S. W. 

Lady Bbllbndbk (6*^ S. viii. 309).— It wag no 
" Pretender," but " his most sacred Majesty King 
Charles II.,'' who once sat in the state chair in the 
Tower of Tillietudlem (see Old Mortality , passim). 
Sir Walter knew so many old ladies who held 
sentiments similar to those of Lady Bellenden^ 
that perhaps no single one of them was in his mind 
more than the rest. J» T. F. 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Darham. 

Digitized by 





4. ^ 

Allow me to correct an error in Mr. Whist's 
communication concerning Lady Bellenden. Minna 
and Brcnda were not the daughters, but the nieces, 
of Mr. Morritt of Rokeby, Sir W. Scott's friend. 
They were the daughters of his brother, brought 
up by him. E. C. 

Aaron Burr : Turnerklli (6*"* S. viii. 496). 
— P. Tumerelli, not Turnevelli, exhibited a bust 
of Col. Burr at the Eoyal Academy in 1809, 
No. 788. Peter Tumerelli was born in 1774 at Bel- 

fast. He was brought up as a priest, but preferred 
art. He came to London at the age of eighteen, 
and was a pupil of M. Chenu, and a student of 
the Boyal Academy. He was appointed sculptor 
to the Queen, and died March 20, 1839. 

ALaERNON Graves. 

Cardinal Polk (6"» S. viii. 429).— To show 
the relationship between John de la Pole and 
Cardinal Pole allow me to append the foUowing 
genealogy :— 

£lizabeth=T=John de U Pole, Earl 
of Suffolk. 


Edward IV. 

Georse, Duke of=plBabel NeTille, dau. of the 


Dei iieyiiie. oau. oi 
Earl of Warwick. 

John, E&rl of Lincoln, 
killed at Stoke. 

Edmund, Earl of Suffolk, 
beheaded 1513. 

Richard, killed at 
Pavia, 1525. 

Margaret, Goonte8i=T=Sir Rioharcl 
of Salisbury. I Pole. 

Henry, Lord Montague, 
beheaded 1589. 


Geoffrey. Arthur. 



The De la Poles came from Hull, and Sir Bichard 
Pole's father was a Welshman. The first Earl of 
Suffolk was Chancellor of Bichard II. 

R J. W. 

Cardinal Beginald Pole was the fourth son of 
Sir Bichard Pole, K.G., and Margaret, only 
daughter of George, Duke of Clarence. By her 
second marriage she became Countess of Salisbury. 
Sir Bichard Pole was son of Sir Greffery Pole^ 
descended from an ancient stock of that surname 
in Wales. In 21 Henry VIII. the cardinal's eldest 
brother was summoned to Parliament as Lord 
Montague. B. S. Davis. 

Buckland, Faringdon. 

The University or "Trencher" Cap (6** S. 
viiL 469). — Planch^, in his Oyclopadia of Coshime, 
does not give the date at which this was regularly 
adopted, but temp. Henry VIIL all professional 
persons seem to have used flat caps, and caps of 
particular forms seem to have become peculiar only 
to such persons from the commencement of the 
seventeenth century. Durfey, in his JBall<id on 
Caps, which has for its burden, — 
" Any cap, whatever it be, 
Is still the sign of some degree," 
calls the '' cap divine " (the square cap now used 
by the university) " Square ; like the scholars and 
their books.'' Strix. 

Daniel Bace (6* S. viii. 446).— The inscrip- 
tion at the bottom of the picture, which hangs in 
the lobby of the Bank parlour, will answer Mr. 
Strother's query: — 

<tl)aniel Race, Chief Cashier of the Bank of England, 
in the 76th year of hii age and 55 of his service. This 
portrait was here placed March, 1773, by order of the 
Governor and Directors, in testimony of his singular 
> excellence of mind and manners, eminent abilities, 
fidelity, and attention, uniformly exerted for the in- 
terests of the Bank and the Public" 

Daniel Bace was Chief Cashier of the Bank of 
England from 1739 to 1775 ; Charles Jewson then 
held the office for two years, and was succeeded by 
the well-known Abraham Newland ; Henry Hare 
succeeded the la^tter in 1807 ; Bippon, Matthew 
Marshall, William Miller, and (George Forbes 
intervening between Hare and our present cashier, 
Frank May, appointed in 1873. 

The picture, painted by Thos. Hiokey, 1773, is 
a very good one, and so is that of Abraham New- 
land, and if Mr. Strothbb desires to see them, 
he can ask at the door of the parlour, and one of 
the servants will show them. 


AwNE : Own: One (6"» S. viii. 247, 457).— I 

have examined a copy of the book of Common 

Prayer, printed by Bichard Jugge and JohnCawood, 

with the date 1560, and find it is '* one oblation." 

OcTAViUB Morgan. 

It may perhaps interest your correspondent 
F. A. B. to know that in Edward VI. Prayer 
Book of 1549 the term ** one oblation " is given. 

C. L. Prince. 

Continuation of the ''Sentimental Jour- 
ney" (6*^ S. viii. 428, 475), not by Eugenius, but 
by Mr. Shandy, who, in his preface* to the sequel 
describes himself as " a base- bom son of Yorick, 
who has attempted to trace the path his sire had 
marked out, and to speak of incidents that would, 
in all probability, have happened in his way, had 
he lived to have trod the ground himself." Mj 
copy of the sequel, edition 1793, fcap. 8vo., and 
2 vols, bound m one, was printed for T. Baker, 
Southampton, and S. Crowder, Paternoster Bow,. 
London. The sequel abounds in " mots k double 
entente," and there, I doubt, all likeness ends be- 
tween son and sire. Is it known who the former 
was? Frbdk. Bule, 

uigiiizea oy x_j Vv^v^/pt lv^ 





Authors op Quotations Wanted (6* S. vi. 
430; Tii. 119).— 

« Omne nram carom, vilescit quotidianam." 
I InTe lately met with what u apparently the original 
ioiirce of this line, for which inquiry was made «.«. : — 
"Bamm ease oportet, quod din canim ▼elis." 
Publiua Syrof, SmUeniia, L 235, p. 22, 
Anclam., 1838. 

£p. Marshall. 


London. Cries: with Six Ckarming Children. The Text 

by Andrew W. Tuer. (Field & Tuer.) 
Ik the shape of an illustrated gift-book Mr. Tuer has 
fliippUed a Tolume equally interesting to the bibliographer 
and the antiquary. To tlie latter his London Cries 
appeals, on the strength -of preserring some of the 
quaintest features of London life in Tudor and Stuart 
timee as well as in modem days. The former cannot fail 
to prize a volume reproducing with absolute fidelity 
illostrations which fetch long prices in the sale- 
rooms. Few books of the season are handsomer or more 
attractire than this, the designs being in their way un- 
surpassable and the letterpress sparkling and Tivacious. 
For his illustrations Mr. Tuer has laid under contribu- 
tion Rowlandson, seyeral of whose charateristic Sketches 
of ike Lover Orders, 1820, are copied in facsimile, in- 
cluding the colour. A series of Catnach cuts are taken 
from the wooden blocks of the famous Catnach press. 
Three or four designs are from George Crulkshank, and 
ethers are taken from children's books now of excessive 
rarity. *' Six Charming Children," which are given as 
full-page illustrations, and are printed both in red and 
brown, were first published in 1819, a copy of the early 
edition being now worth ten to twelve guineas in the 
auction rooms. Of the authorship of the designs nothing 
is known. They are in the style of Gypriani. With the 
marked conviction that purchasers will tear out the 
illustrations for the purpose of putting them in scrap- 
books, Mr. Tuer employs one side only of the page. 
Those capable of thus treating the volume must be 
angularly deficient in reverence and in taste for archaeo- 
logy. The letterpress has very distinct value, and 
should in itself secure the popularity of the volume. 
As Mr. Tuer says, most of the cries have entirely disap- 
peared. £rer7 variety of goods seems to have been at one 
time sold in the streets. More of these cries and noises 
than is generally supposed still exist. Through our 
quiet streets the vendor of crockery still vranders, knock- 
ing two basins together, for the joint purpose of showing 
the soundness of his wares and making a noise compared 
with which the bell of the muffin-man seems almost 
fflusieal. " Buy a clothes prop ! " is shouted out daily, 
with a strange mapping accentuation of the word 
"prop." The musical crv "'Young lambs to selll" 
is still to be heard in the London streets, and in 
one or two districts some announcements concerning 
*' baked taturs" are equally melodious and incompre- 
hennble. As Mr. Tuer states, some of the cries are 
intended to be unintelligible. Apart from such cries as 
*<Milk bo!" and "Old clothes!" which have been ab- 
breviated into wholly meaningless ejaculations, some cries 
are made to sound like something different and comical. 
^ HoUoway cheese cakes," a cry now disused, was thus pro- 
nounced, *' All my teeth ache." To the lover of the past 
Hr. Tuer*s book may be confidently recommended. It is 
a deligfaifiil gift-book, and, especially in the shape of 
tbe large-paper edition, a most desirable possession. 

A Narrative of Events connected with the Publicalion of 
(he Tracts for the Times, With an Introductinn nnd 
Supplement extending to the Present Time. By Wil- 
liam Palmer. (Rivington & Co.) 
Mb. Palu SB is well known as a writer on theologicHl 
controversy. Long before "N. Sc Q." came into exist- 
ence, long before most of its writers and readers were 
bom. Mr. Palmer was at work studying the early litur- 
gies. In those days few people knew anything about the 
service-books of the early and middle ages. 3Iany not 
ill-edocated people in those days thought that nearly 
everything in the Prayer- Book of the Church of Eofcland 
was written for the first time in the sixteenth century. 
Mr. Palmer^B Origines Liturgical was one of those books 
which satisfied an undeniable want. It does not detract 
from its merits to say that more recent writers, whose 
antiquarian and historical knowledge has been wider, 
have produced works which have in a great measure 
displaced the Oi'igines as a book of reference. Of Mr. 
Palmer's other contributions to literature we can ^ay 
little. He has always proved himself a sturdy and wt* It 
eauipped controversialist in favour of the old HirU 
Church opinions of Andrewep, Laud, and Cousin. Uis 
present book, though in name a history, is, in fact, a 
defence of his own views. Apart from all theological 
bias it will be found well worth reading. Whatever 
position we may take up, we mu<)t all of us feel that the 
Oxford movement, like the rise of Methodism under the 
teaching of the Wesleys, is an historical fact of which, if 
we would understand the growth of English thought, 
we cannot afford to be ignorant. We have read many 
books treating on the beginnings and development of 
what, in the slang of forty years ago, was called Trini- 
tarianism. We cannot call to mind one that gives a 
clearer account of what happened. In his judgments 
of motives we think Mr. Palmer often onesided, but we 
are sure ho always tells us the truth just as it appeared 
to him. A gentleman who holds that the repeal of the 
Test and Corporution Acts, the Roman Catholic Eman- 
cipation Bill, and the admission of Nonconformists to 
Oxford and Cambridge, were political mistakes, dnngerous 
to the cause of religion, cannot, it will be conceded, be 
expected to write without party bias. 

The Natural Genesis, By Gerald Masscy. 2 vols. 

(Williams & Norgate.) 
" The Natural Gbbesis" is the second half of A Booh 
of the Beginnings. The two together complete Mr. 
Massey's contribution to the study of evolution, of which 
the author is a staunch champion. The chief contention 
of the book is that Africa, not Asia, is the cradle of the 
human race ; that all myths, types, and religion may be 
traced to an African origin, and explained with Egvpt 
as an interpreter. Throughout the whole work the author 
displays extraordinary labour and learning of a very 
varied character. Every age and country contributes to 
illustrate or support Mr. Slassey's theories. But it is 
impossible to oflfer an estimate of the value of such a 
book, which is the result of aboriginal research, and 
which deals with primeval matter. The subject is so 
special, the treatment so peculiar, the mass of facts sa 
portentous, that few persons in England are as yet com- 
petent to appreciate at their real merits the many in- 
genious theories and suggestions which are scattered 
over these pages. At the same time, while it is some- 
times difficult to follow the author's drift, there is always 
much to instruct and interest the reader. Unenlightened 
persons will be none the less amused if here and there 
the illustrations seem rather omnivorously than critically 
collected, the comparisons made on the Macedon-ami- 
Monmouth principle, the facts treated in Procrustean 
fashion. It may be as well to mention that Mr. Massey 

Digitized by 




[6* 8. IX. Jah. 5/84. 

18 led by bis studies to regard Ghristiamty as a trans- 
formation from astronomical mythology. 

Thb Corporation of Birmingham is doing good work 
in publishing a catalogue of the Referenoe I)epartment 
of its Free Libraries. In the first part, which deals 
with the letter A, are about ten thousand volumes. 
TJnder the head America appear 1,570 volumes, 
and under Australia and Australasia 434 volumes. 
Arts and AVtists claim among them no less than 2|187 
volumes; Archssology, 291; Architecture, 593; As- 
tronomy, 195. The completed catalogue will be a very 
useful work. The entire series of catalofi^ues published 
in connexion with these libraries constitutes an im- 
portant contribution to bibliography. 

The Rev. Dr. Jessopp's "Daily Life in a Medissval 
Monastery," in the Nineteenth Century, is likely to in- 
terest our readers. The Contemporaty has an essay by 
the Bishop of Ripon, entitled *' Thoughts about Appa- 
ritions." " The Literature of Introsoection " is the sub- 
ject of an essay in MacmUlan, Mr. Andrew Lang 
appears among this month's contributors to Merry 

^otirrtf to CarretfpoiiHenU. 

We muit call tpecial attention to the following noUciS: 
Or all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 
Ws cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

Aktont ("Serbonian Bog").— *'Serbonis was a lake 
200 furlongs in length and 1,000 in compass, between 
the ancient mountain Casius and Damiata, a city of 
Egypt, on one of the more eastern mouths of the Nile. 
It was surrounded on all sides by hills of loose sand. 
which, carried into the water by high winds, so thickened 
the lake, as not to be distinguish'd from part of the con- 
tinent, where[by] whole armies have been swallowed. 
Aead Herodotus, 1. iii., and Luc, Pkar,, viii. 539, &c. 
' Perfida qua tellus Gasiis ezcurrit arenis 
£t vada testantnr junctas iEgyptia syrtes.^ " 
Hume, quoted in Newton's Milton, vol. i. pp. 135-6, 
•ed. 1790. Information supplied in our columns is g^ra- 

R. Edgkoumbb ("Toby Fillpot ").— The question as 
to Toby Fillpot, or Phillpot, and his connexion with 
Derby and Mortlake pottery, was threshed out in 
^' N. & Q.," 5«» S. xii. 523 ; 4tb g. i. 160, 253, 425^ 494, 615 ; 
ii. 23, 90. At the last reference but one an important 
answer is elicited from our valued contributor Mr. 
Chappell. The only allusion to Toby Fillpot as yet 
found is ill the famous Toby-jug song, commencing, — 
** Dear Tom, this brown jug, that now foams with mild ale 
(In which I will drink to sweet Nan of the vale), 
Was once Toby Fillpot, a thirsty old soul, 
As e'er drank a bottle or fathom'd a bowl," &c. 
The last line is,— 

"And with part of fat Toby he form*d this brown jug.*' 
J. Nicholson ("The OriginaX'*).^K copy of the 
Original, of which Mr. Thoms speaks, lent by the kind- 
ness of Mr. A. W. Dubourg, whose uncle was associated 
with Mr. Thoms in the task of editine, is before us. 
It is a quarto publication, the full title of which is, 
"The I Original I a Weekly Miscellany | of | Humour. 
Literature, and tne Fine Artf. | ' Of many colored wood 
and shifting hues.' — Shelley. | ' To cheer, to pierce, to 
please, or to i^paL' — Byron. | London | Published for 
the Proprietors, by G. Clowie, 312, Strand; and sold by 
all Booksellers. 1 1832." A comic picture appears on 

the title-page. Several correspondents have conTounded 
the book with The Original of Walker. We are com- 
missioned to show it to Mb. Nicholsok if he will tell as 
how to send it. 

Mrs. R. H. Bitk (" Dalnacardoch ").— It is simply, 
as described in Macgregor's Pocket Gazetteer of Scotland 
(Edinburgh, W. P. Nimmo, I860), *'n well-1(nown stage 
inn in Perthshire, on the great Highland road to Inver- 
ness, ^3 miles from Edinbuigh, 70 from Inverness, and 11 
from Blair-Athole." We cannot trace any place of tho 
character attributed by you to the subject of your inquiry 
under the same name. There are, of course, seats in the 
neighbourhood, but not of that name. The village itself 
is not even mentioned in Lewis's Topographical JHc^ 
tionary of Scotland, 

Mrs. Pollard.— Phelps's History of Somertetshire can 
be seen at almost any of the established libraries, such as 
the London Librarv, &c. The original scheme embraced 
four volumes, of which two only were published. 

R. R., Stoke C' Book-plate ").— The use of a book-plate 
with crest and motto renders the employer liable to the 
charge for armorial bearings. 

0. Ellis (** Green-Room Twelfth Cake").— What is 
known as the Baddeley Cake is still svmbolically eaten 
in Drury Lane green-room on Twelfth Night Under 
the present management a handsome supper to a large 
number of guests has sometimes been substituted for 
Baddeley's modest bequest. 

S. MoRK RiOHiRDS ("Pouring oil on troubled 
waters").— See 6»»» S. iii. 69, 252, 298; iv.l74; vi. 97, 
377. The second of these references gives the amplest 
information. As a question to which there is no decisive 
answer it is contimuJIy presenting itself. 

X. X. O* Cockshut *').— Corrcfbpondents seeking further 
information on this subject are referred to 2"** S. vL 345, 
400, 423, 612 j vii. 347, 405, 463, 484 ; xi. 16. 

Scottish ("Charles I. and Ghost of Strafford").— 
The authority for the legend is to be found in Coritani 
Lachrymantes, quoted in Rastali or Dickenson's History 
ofSouthwelL See O*"* S. vi. 111. 

Ikquirbr No. 41 (" Eternal fitness of things ").— AH 
that is known concerning this is that it is employed by 
Square, the philosopher, in Fielding's Tom Jones, See 
6** S. viii. 79. 

8. C— il Mad World, My Masters, is the title of a 
comedy by Trhomas] Mfiddleton], acted by the children 
of Paul's, 4to. 1608,1640. 

R. I. ("Curious Epitaph ").— This has appeared in 
our columns. See 6"* S. viii. 454. 

E. R. Vyvtan ("Popular Superstitions ").— Will 
appear. (" Cinderella's Slipper ").— The subject has been 
fufiy discussed in " N. & (J." See 6t»» S. xi. 188, 485, &c. 

C. W. Strettok.— The MS. on the Manx language 
shall appear next week. 

C. M. I. ("He left us, &c.").— Much obliged, but the 
reference to these lines has been given, &^ 8. viii. 339. 

Errata.— In "Powis Horses," 6«h 8. viii. 514, for 
"peroptiona" read peroptima; for "Beiesmo** read 
Belesme; and for " caraverat " read airaverat, 


Editorial (Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of < Notes and Queries'"— Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "—at the Offioe, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.O. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to retvm eem- 
munioations which, for any reason, we do Boi print ; and 
to thU rule we can make no ezoeption« 

uigiiizea oy 


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Digitized by 






L0yD02r, SATUBDAr, JANUAnrUt 1394. 

CONTENTS.— N* 211. 

9f0raa :-^OaatU»Atim of SapmttUon in lUlj, 21-Kapol6on 
Bofimpaite, 22— GhaTCb Bestoratlon In Flf(«enth C<;ntary, 
2S— CSkristmM In Monmoatbahlra— "Doable ponief," 24— 
CiuloBS laaerlptfoO'Letler of Borni— Goai^t on Belli— 
Banmkable EpiUph— BopntedOsnteDarUiu, 25— Cnnedd* : 
OrdOfTlcei — 8ir Walter UAony — TennyionUoa — SingoUr 
SopwBtttloB— ahetUnd Folk-lore— Cniioos l^iUph— Cen- 
non Street^ 2flL 

<^iJERrES :-^Gbnrehwaidene' Aeoonnto — Forfanhire— Athkej 
.WUIIem Llojd, Blsliop of St. Aaaph— Barre and Kendale. 
ETIy^beth — Pope's Fan, 27— Peaeant and Peasantiy— Story 
Wanted— Qnotattons In Qreen'i **H!itor7"— Horn— Secret 
Sxletj Badge— Salkbuon—Cralne and Gamble Families- 
Ifatks on SuTer Coin— Sovroe of Couplet Wanted— James 
BraUm— De Hneh, 2d— Lords Danganmore— Thomas With- 
ington- Haswell— Percj— Paid BepreeeotatiTes— Coming of 
Arthnr— C. Tenner— J. or T. Loder— Corlons Medal— Hodg- 
son's ** Theory of FeroMctiTe" — Neweastle Directory — 
Yove-sdt-Statoe of Boman Soldier-Dr. Goy Oarleton— 
Peter Kenwood, 29— Authors Wanted, 80. 

esPULBS:- Vegetarianism, 80— "Notee on Phrase and In- 
fleetlon,'' 82 — Anor of Humboldt — Parallel Passages- 
" Bngroesedin the pnbUe," 83— Manx Language— By-and-by 
— Portrait of a Lady, 84— Dandy— 'O^i^ia y^c> S5~^«- 
snMrs of Plchon— Xcclesiastical Ballads— Ooose House— 
Docbto Christian Names, 88— Official Seals of American 
Bishops- London Cnsioms Bill of Entry— Agnew. McLe- 
TDth, &a—While=Until— Gospel for Christmas Day as a 
Ouna^ 87— Number of Ancestors— Dr. Thomas Grey— Cross 
on Loaves- Begisten of Webh Churches— List of Eogllsh 
Loealittes- Berlin Heraldic EzhibUlon — Moxley-Pigeon 
Pair— Ckoss Passant — Hurly-burly, 88— Cue by Touch — 
Xbomas Bambiidge— Authors Wanted, 39. 

3?0TES ON BOOKS:— Ferguson's "Surnames as a Science** 
— Ebcworth's "The Bosbughe Ballads"— Burke's *'Peer- 
age "— ** ahakipeariana." 


(^Continued from p. 6.) 
The identification of pagan dWinities with 
loanifeetationB of the spirit of eyil is the common 
theme of all writers on demonology. Pompooaccio 
.points ont that part of the functions of the witches' 
Sabbat consisted in dancing round a goat, a 
Temniat of the worship of Pan, and that it is in 
memoiy of this that the wearing and setting up in 
-the hoQse of a horn as a counter charm is com- 
mon in Italy. Sniptcius Seyerus, biographer of St. 
Martin of Tours, famous for destroying the pagan 
'temples in his diocese, which he still found 
^nonred in the fourth century, says that the deril 
appeared to him under the character of Jupiter, 
Mmenra, Venus, and Mercury ; cited in Gianfran- 
oesoo Pico's Libra della Strega, p. 57, with the 
ohyioiu gloss that the object of the first apparition 
was to tempt him to ambition, of the second to 
recall him to the pursuit of arms, in which he had 
gained renown in his younger days, and so on. 

8t Gaudentins, Bishop of Brescia {Serm. 13), 
and Si. Maximns, Bishop of Turin (apud Murck- 
(orium Amedoty t. It. p. 99), in the fifth century, 
reprored the landowners of their time that they 
siiiEHed their poor dependents to go on ignorantly 
\ woohipptng idoli. St. Benedict found a temple to 
; .ApoDo still frequented on Monte Oassino (St. Greg. 

Magn., Dia2., lib. il cap. yiii.). Azzo, Bishop of 
Veroelli, in the tenth century, lamented (Muratori 
quoted by Moroni, Otsio)utrto(ii ErudivioiuStorico^ 
ecdesicutieo, IxxL 63) that eyen down to his day 
the pest of p»gan superstition lasted, fostered by 
magicians, aruspices, augurs, and sorcerers. 

It would seem that the dancing propensities of 
the daughter of Herodias, and her eyil renown 
as the betrayer of the Baptist, caused her to be 
reckoned another leader of the witches' congress. 
Assigning her the name of Herodias (for that of 
Salome does not appear in the Bible), Eatero, Bp. 
of Verona in the tenth century, deprecated *' the 
honour paid as to a queen, or rather as to a 
goddess, to Herodias, the murderess of St John 
Baptist, by certain little old women and still more 
to be blamed men {muUum vituperahUioreg viri)J* 
By a decree of the proyincial Council of Treyes, in 
1310, the superstitious regard paid her was con- 
demned, together with that to Diana ; as also by 
another decree of Cardinal lyo, Bp. of Chartres in 
the ileyenth century, and by one of Angino, Bp. of 
Conserano (ie., St. Lizier, dept AriSre). Not 
only are the honours paid to Diana and Herodias 
mentioned as demoniacal illusions, but those 
also offered to a certain Benzoria, and this still 
more at length in the writings of William of Paris. 
In many parts of Europe it would seem that meat 
and drink were left spread out by the peasants in 
the belief that they would serye for these nocturnal 
assemblies, and that such ministrations would bring 
abundance to the purye^or, whence arose the 
conception of another president of the feast under 
the name of Abundantia. This superstition is 
mentioned by Xenophon as practised among the 
Persians, and by St. Jerome as in existence among 
the Ej^ptians. Lorenzo Anania, who wrote X& 
Natura DcRmonum, in the sixteenth century, men- 
tions (lib. ill cap. xy.) that at his natiye place of 
Tayerna, in the kingdom of Naples, *' there was a 
superstitious custom among the girls (femella^), as 
an augury that they may become mothers of happy 
fAmilies, to prepare sacrificial feasts (dapihxia) for 
the fairies (fatis\ so," he says, *' they call these 
spirits " (I introduce this custom as another instance 
of the identity, in the popular mind of Italy, be- 
tween the nature of fairies and witches). At other 
times it was the deyil himself who, under yarioua 
names and descriptions, was the presiding genius of 
the feasts. In Italy he seems to haye been usually 
called Martinetto or Martinello, and ib described by 
witches, who deposed to haying seen him, some- 
times as haying the handv, feet, and horns of a 
goaf, sometimes going on two feet, sometimes 
on four, sometimes riding on horseback, yefe 
haying the tail of a qerpent.* The witch inter- 
rogated by Gianfrancesco Pico gaye her demoa 

* Tartarotti, CongrenOy Ac, lib. il. cap. x. §iv. AliA 
Dei Bio, lib. ii. Q. xri. p. 81, ool. 1 C. 

Digitized by 




[«* 8. IX. Ji¥. 12, *QU 

lover the name of LadoTico, and described him 
as wearing the human form in every respect, bat 
in having feet like a goose, which turned in- 
wards. The "judge" is made in the accompanying 
fancy dialogue to interrupt the interrogatory with 
the observation that such had been the description 
of the devil given in all the oases that had been 
brought before him (p. 29). Then follow six pages 
<by number, but in reality twelve, for only the 
leaves, not the pagep, are numbered) of reasons 
suggested for this peculiarity. 

If Tartarotti has been diligent in collecting the 
traditions that lingered from pagan times among 
the vulgar in Italy, he has also, though with some- 
what less voluminous result, brought together some 
of the opinions on the subject that have been re- 
corded by the educated among his countrymen at 
different dates, and has compared them with those of 
other lands. It is impossible not to obserfe in the 
oarlier canons and ecclesiastical writings concern- 
ing witchcraft that it is treated as a mere error of 
the unlearned, and not as an actuality and a 
orime, as it became after the Renaissance. 
In a decree of Pope St. Damasus at the Council 
of Rome, mentioned in Rinaldi's Annals, anno 
382, No. 20, those who pretend to exer- 
cise diabolic arts are threatened with excom- 
munication, but no temporal penalty. Ago- 
bardus, Bishop of Lyons (bom circa 780), who 
has also left a treatise against duelling, wrote a 
book De Chandine et Tonitru, in which iJiere is a 
great deal about demonology conceived quite in 
this spirit He gives an account of a "Special class 
of alleged magicians popularly called ^'tempsst- 
makers," who were in league with the inhabitants 
of a certain mysterious country called Magonia, 
or Magician's Land ; and says it was thought that 
the grain which the " tempest- makers" destroyed 
passed into the hands of the men of Magonia. He 
mentions an occasion on which he came across three 
unlucky strangers whom the people had caught in his 
own neighbourhood and accuseid of having dropped 
•down from this Magonia ; but, so far from contri- 
4)nting to their punishment, he delivered them out of 
the hands of the people, who wanted to stone, them. 
He adds this remark : — *' With so great fatuity 
-(itultitia) is this wretched world oppressed, that 
now absurd things obtain credence of Christians 
which the very pagans, ignorant of the Creator of 
■«l], could not have been got to believe." Reginone, 
about a century later, also wrote a great deal about 
witches, and just in the same style. He does not 
«peak of their being carried through the air, but 
says that certain miserable women, believing them- 
4elve8 to be carried through the air on the backs of 
Animals, serve Diana with pagan rites. He goes 
on to deplore that an innumerable multitude, de- 
ceived by this false opinion, believe it to be true, 
and so believing it are led astray from the right 
faith, and turned back into pagan errors. He calls 

upon the clergy to expose these follies, and to 
show that any one who believes that any creature 
can be turned or changed into any other form or 
similitude by any power but the Creator, by whom 
all things were made, procul dvhio if^iddU aL^ 
Burkhard, Bishop of Worms, a century later on 
(Decret,, lib. i., cap. *' De Arte Magica '') directs his 
advice similarly against the folly of supposing there 
are enchanters who, by invoking the devu, osa 
raise tempests or alter the minds of men, cause to 
love or hate, ride through the air upon beasts by 
night, &c. And John of Salisbury writes of those 
who mUerrime tt mey^dacissime believe sach 
thbgs. He does not treat the assumed powers 
of witches, &a, as crimes, but as unrealities 
and false follies — vctnitates et imanias falsoB are 
his words — and desires that no one should 
listen " to those falsehoods." William of Paris 
(De Universo, ii. 2, cap. xxiL), combating the above-' 
named superstition of the '' Abundantia," says 
that those who aver they have seen such vietoals 
disposed of by spirits must be under a delnsioD, 
for " it is manifest that substantia spiritwilu 
cannot make use of corporeal meat and drink.'* 
He farther distinctly ascribes the seeing of soA, 
apparitions to a bodily infirmity produced by 
melancholy. R. H. Busk. 

{To he continued.) 


It has been frequently asserted, and as often 
denied, that no sooner was Prince Louis Napoleon 
Bonaparte elected President of the French Be- 
public than he aspired to Imperial power. It 
seems to be evident from the following corre- 
spondence, which has been placed in my hands 
for publication, that the Prince had in view the 
possible attainment of the Imperial dignity so 
early as the spring of 1849. 

In "N. & Q.," 3'* S. i. 213, 334, proofs wiU be 
found of Mr. Forbes Campbell's intimacy with 
Prince Louis Bonaparte when an exile in England. 
The Autographic Mirror, Feb. 17, 1866, con- 
tained a facsimile of a letter from the Prince to 
Mr. Forbes Campbell, which had appeared in 
"N. & Q.," March 13, 1862. 

A Son Altesse Imp6ria1e'le Prince Napoleon Louis 
Bonaparte, Palais de TElyste. 

Pans, ce 12 Avril, 1849. 

Monseigneur,— Pen de joors apres yotre miraculeiue 
d61i7rance, j*ai eu Thonneur de vous offrir les premiers 
volumes de mon Edition Anglaise de la grande histoiie 
de Monsieur Thiers, ouvrage immortel comme le H6ro 
dont il a peint les gigantesques travaux. 

La ProTidence a voulu que ce sott au Chef Ela de la 
Nation que je fasse hommage du volume qui vient de 

^ De EccUsiatiicit Disciplf'nU et Religiene Chris* 
tiaruL, lib. ii. cap. ccclziv., by Beginone, Abbot of Pram, 
in Hungary, in the tenth century. 

Digitized by 


eikS.IX.jM 12/84.] 



Me aera-t-il permis, MoDseigneur, d'6inettre le tobq 
gn'en offr»at di Votre Altesse Imp^riale la fin de Tou- 
Tnge, il me ioit donn6 de toos salaer par un titre plus 

Je luts, Moneeignear, aTOC le plus profond respect^ 
de Yotre Altesae Imp^riale 

le tout (16tou^ Berritenr 
(Sign^e) P. FoaBES Campbbll. 


To His Imperial Highness, Prince Napoleon Lotus 
Bonaparte, Palace of the Elys^e, Paris. 

Paris, April 12, 1849. 

Honseignear, — A few days after your miraculous 
escape [from Uaml I had the honour to present to you 
the first ffiTs] Tolumes of my English yersion of M. 
Thiers's ilUtiiy of the Coniulaie ajid the Empire, a 
work worthy of the hero whose prodigious achieyements 
it records. 

By the will of Proyidence it U to the Elected Head of 
the French Nation that I now offer an early copy of 
the yolume wLicb has just appeared. 

May I yenture, Monseigneur, to express the hope that 
when presenting to your Imperial Highness the sequel 
of the work, it may be granted mc tu salute you with 
a more aogust title ? 

I am, with the profoundest respect, Monseigneur, 
Tour Imperial Highness's most deyoted SerFant, 

(Signed) D. Forbes Campbell. 

Frdndenee de la B6publique, Cabinet No. 1163. 

Paris, le 14 Ayril, 1849. 

Monnenr,— Le Pr68ident de la R^publique accepie 
Totre dernier yolume Anglais de VUUtoire au Consulai 
ii de rSmpire ayeo les memos sentiments qu'il s'est plu 
a yoos temoigner autrefois, quand, dans son ezil, yous 
Ini ayez offert les premiers. 

Les faits m^morables racont^s dans cet ouyrage 
toochenfc particulierement le neyeu de Napoleon, et le 
£gne inteiprete de son auteur c^l6bre en a, & ses yeuz, 
aecm Vinteret, en faisant payer par votre langue, un 
BOtiyean tribut II la grandeur et & la gloire de la France. 

II me charge. Monsieur, de yous renouyeler Pezpres- 
fion de toos ses remerciements. 

Agr^z, Monsieur, I'assurance de ma consideration 
diatinguee. Le Chef du Cabinet 

(Sign^e) MocQUARD. 
A Honsieur Campbell, 38, Rue Laffitte, Paris. 

Presidency of the Bepnblic, Cabinet No. 1163. 

Paris, April 14, 1849. 
Sir« — The President of the Republic accepts the last 
volume [eighth] of your English translation of The His- 
tory of ike Consulate and the Empire with the same feel- 
ings as he was pleased to ezpress towards you when in his 
days of exile you presented to him the first [fiye] yolomes. 
The memorable deeds recorded in that work have 
a deep interest for the nephew of Napoleon, and the 
wvrthy coadjutor of the illustrious historian has, in the 
Frseident's opinion, increased that interest by paying in 
the English language a fresh tribute to the greatness 
aad glory of Prance. 
He directs me again to offer you his best thanks. 
Aoeept, Sir, the assurance of my high consideration. 
(Signed) Mocq0ard, Chef du Cabinet. 
To Monsieur Campbell, 3d, Rue Laffitte, Paris. 

C. H. E. Garmichael. 
K«w TJniyerBity Club, S.W. 

I send you a copy of one of the charters at 
RoDgham Hall, which will interest soine of your 
readers ; first, because instances of a seller of pro- 
perty giving a tithe of the proceeds of t4ie sale to 
the restoration of a church are rare, to any the 
least ; and, secondly, because it is not very often 
that we meet with any mention of churchwardens 
at this date as officials whose functions were recog- 
nized in a manner so marked as in this charter. 
A third reason exists for drawing the attention 
of the curious to this charter. The present 
church of Houorham, a mere fragment of what 
stood there in Roger North's days, is a structure 
of the early part of the fifteenth century. I 
believe it to have been begun, at any rate, by John 
Yelverton, Recorder of Norwich, who died in 
1409; and it is not improbable that the work, or 
some of the work, was still going on at the 
time this charter was executed, and likely to go 
on for some time, and that Mr. Furbichour was 
quite safe in expecting that when his own nine 
marks should have been paid the churchwardens 
would readily find a use for the tenth in the way 
of tmmd'xtion, 

" Sciant prcsentes & futuri quod ego Galfridus Fur- 
bichour de Grymaton dodi concessi & hac presenti carta 
mea indentata confirraayi Andree Neve de Roughavh 
heredibus& assignatia suis unum messuagium edificatum 
iacens in yill i de R m^Iiam predicta inter messuagium 
lioherli Couper ex parte orientnli & n^giam yiam ez 
parte occidentnii & capud australe abuttat super regiam 
viam & capud aquilonaro abuttat super terram quondam 
JoUannis R*ed quod quidem messuagium nuper habui ex 
dono k feoffamento liogeri Meudham. Habendum & 
tenendum predictum messuagium cum omnibus perti- 
nenciis suis prout iacet bIto sit plus si to minus predicto 
Andree Neve heredibus & aesignatis suis de capitalibua 
dominis feodi illius per servicia inde debita k de iure 
consueta in perpetuum sub condicione que sequitur 
videlicet quod predictus Andreas Neve solrct vel solvi 
faciet apud Rougbam predicto Oalfrido Furbichour yel 
eiu9 certo atturnato nonem marcas sterlingorum et 
unam marcam Ifgalis monele emendacioni eccltsie Sancte 
Marie de Itougham ptedicta in quinque annis prozimia 
sequentibus post datum presentis videlicet in quolibefe 
festo Pentecostes duas marcas sterlingorum quousque 
predicta summa decem marcarum ])leiiarie fucrit solutum 
et in ultimo dfc quiiiio anno predictus Galjridus Fur*- 
bicfiour yult & concedit perpre«entes quod predictus 
Andreas Neve solvat yel sulvi fuciat predictam unam 
marcam custodibiu eataUoi'um teeUs'e parochialis de 
Rougham qui pro tunc tempore fuerint. Et si predictus 
Andreas if eve deficiat in parte vel in toto ad aliquem 
terminum prelimitatum de solucionibus predictis, quod 
tunc bene liceat predicto Oalfrido Furbichour heredibus 
& assignatis suis in predictum messuagium cum omnibus 
portinenoiis supradictis reintrare et illud retinere^ in 
perpetuum sine uUo impedimento predict! Andree, ista 
carta indentata &c seaina inde liberata ullo modo non 
obstantibus. Et ego predictus Galfridus Furbichour 
k, heredes mei predictum messuagium cum omnibus 
pertinenciis suis prefato Andree Neve heredibus k assign 
natis suis contra omnes gentes Warrantizabimus & 
defendemus in* perpetuum. In cuius rel testimoniumi 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6i» b. ix. j*k. 12. '64. 

preset) tibus cartie indentaiiii alternatim sigilla roBtra 
appoBuimns. Hiia [tcstibus] Willielmo Fyncham, liobeiio 
Covp€i\ Rogei-o Meadham^ Adam ^nc] Pallyng, Juhanne 
Gravo [?] & aliis. Data apud Rougbam Bupradicta die 
Lune' prozima post festum Ascencionis Domini. Anno 
Tfgni Begis Henrioi quint! fost conque^tum septinio 
[iMay 29, 1419]."-i?o«^Aa« Ckariert, No. 537. 

Augustus Jessopp, 

Christmas in Monmouthshire. — It may in- 
terest some of the readers of "N. & Q." to 
know that in Monmonthshire a rude play, Bub- 
Btantially the same as that performed by the 
Sussex "tipteerers" (see Q^ S. viii. 483) is 
still acted by parties of mummers at Christ- 
mas, and the custom has been duly observed 
this season. In the Monmouthshire play a little 
mere prominence is given to the combats, and a 
" Bold Sailor " is introduced as well as a " Valiant 
Soldier"; but the greater part of the dialogue is 
identical, and here, as in Sussex, '* King" George 
takes the place of the saint. In Monmouthshire 
small bands of carol-singers go round from house 
to house, not only on Christmas Eve and Christmas 
Day, but also on New Year's Day and on Old 
Christmas Day, the last named being still observed 
as a holiday on at least one farm in this neigh- 
bourhood. The favourite carol is known as 
The Holly and the Ivy, and appears to be local. 
It should be noted that carol-singing is here con- 
fined exclusively to men and boys, women never 
taking part in it. On New Year's Day the village 
children carry about a kind of wooden tree, on 
the branches of which are oranges and apples, 
usually gilded, and stuck all over with small sprigs 
of yew. This custom is now, however, only occa- 
sionally observed, probably because it has been 
found that as many pence may be gained, at far 
less trouble, by carol-singing. 

A. E. Lawson Lowf, F.S.A. 
Shirenewton Hall, near Chepstow, Men. 

"Double PONiKs."— I have written this in the 
English fashion, but it is really a French expres- 
sion. Some years ago I heard a French lady of 
my acquaintance call a pair of cobs des dovhles 
poTKys, and then I learned for the first time that 
in French douhU poniy (the French prefer the 
form poneyf which is also Eometimes found in 
English) was equivalent to our coh, DoubUpcney 
is not to be found in Littr^, though he gives double 
hidet* and explains it {s.v. "Double"), "Bidet 

* Bidet means a tmall horse, rather bigger than a 
yony, say a nag or ^lloway. BoubU hidet is also given 
by Littr6 under this word, and his explanation varies a 
little from that given above. It is, " Bidet plus grand 
et plus renforc^ que les bidets ordinaires "; and I much 
prefer it to the otner, for it shows us that the increase 
is not only in height, but also in strength and substance 
(renforee implies both, for Littr6 defines etofe renfarcee, 
•• Etoffe pins forte et plus ^paisee que d'ordi'naire ")i »nd 

de plus haute taille que les bidets ordinairei*.'' 
But double pomy is to be found in Gaec,t wba 
translates it cob, I write this note not only be- 
cause I think few Englishmen know how to render 
cob in French, but dso because this use of the 
word doxible seems to me strange and somewhat 
ludicrous. Double is, indeed, sometimes used 
in English as an augmentative, both physically (as 
in double stout;^) and morally, as frequently iit 
Shakespeare, e.g., "A thrice double ass was I'^ 
(TVwp., V. i.), "Cloten, thou double villain" 
(Cymb.y TV. ii.); but in the first of these cases 
(the only one applicable here) it implies an 
increase in strength, and not in height, as it 
does in our case, though from note * it is evident 
that an increase in bulk and strength is included^ 
and is probably the more prominent, in spite of 
Littr^'s definition i,v. " Double." To us a doubU 
poney, if it conveyed any idea at all, would pro- 
bably convey that of a misshapen animal, after 
the manner of the Siamese and Pygopagi§ twins 
or the Two-headed Nightingale. However, the 
French are welcome to their expression, round- 
about as it may appear to us, and although it can- 
scarcely fail to make an Englishman laugh. IJpoa | 
the same principle, a triple poney would be a London ! 
dray-horse ; but these are scarcely t^ be found in 
France, though one does see very thick-set horses 
there of smaller stature. A double &oy, too, would 
mean a cobby man. In one respect, indeed, the 
Fr.ench have the advantage of us in their use of our 
word pony. They also write it ponet (they pronounce 
poney very much in the same way), and this lend- 
ing itself to the formation of a feminine, they use 
ponelie and double ponette (see Gasc), whilst we 
are obliged to say female or mare pony and oob- 
mare. F. Chance. 

Sydenham Hill. 

we thus eee how the double added to pone^ turns it into 
a cob, which is more conspicuous for substance and con- 
sequent strength than for any great increase in height. 
This is well shown by tbe fact that hidtt renforee b 
also vi8ed==double hidetf and yet, strictly speaking, con- 
tains no idea of any increase in height. 

f Oasc's Diet., though, small (2 voIb. 8ro.), is by far 
the best Fr.-Eng. and £ng.-Fr. dictionaiy I know, 
particularly the £ng.-Fr. part 

i Shakespeare has double beer (2 Henry VI., II. iii.), 
T?hilet in Littr6 I find double biere, encre double. The 
French use it also morally, as double pendard, double 
irailre. We SRy also treble stout, and in Shakespeare it 
10 also found used morally, as treble jars {Tamifig of 
Shrew, III. i.) and treble guilt (2 //«n»-y 7 K., IV. iv.); 
whilst in French we find triple coquin, triple gueux. 
Duplex and triplex seem also to have been similarly 
used in Latin. Triple in English, however, seems to be 
used only in its literal sense ; and this is natural, for it 
is, of course, a more modem form than treble, which is 
found also in old French. 

§ Twins (females) recently exhibited at the Egyptian 
Hall, whose bodies are joined together at the lower end 
of the back, and then merge into one, though they have 
four legs. ^<^ T 


uigmzea oy ' 




Gcnuous Ikscbiftion.— A carioas epitaph hai 
iwea noticed in « K & Q.» (6»* S. viiL 4M). I 
cauuot recollect haviz^g seea the following inscrip- 
tioDy which forms a puzzle of the same sort, in 
"N. & Q." I cut it from a newspaper forty or so 
jean ago : — 

"Captain Bart» grandson of the renowned Jean Bart, 
daring hia stay at Malta, where he had put in from a 
i in the Mediterranean, met with a Gtrmelite who 

had been into Perria as a miasionary. This man told 
him that he bad availed hinuelf of an opportunity which 
aSered, to gratify his curioaitj, by Tisiting the ruins of 
tte ancient Peraepolia Chancs difcorered to him a 
marble on which were inscribed some Arabic characters. 
As he was acquainted with the language, he translated 
tham into Latm. The following was the translation :— 

dicas scis dicit 


potes facit 

scit audit ezpedit 
potest facit credit 

credaB andis credit audit credit 


^"*^- f»pe ^'^^^M 
cumquo *^ non. ' 

expendas babes expendit babet petit habet 
jodices Tides jndicat ridet judicat est 

quod- nam 
cumque qui 

Ed. Mahshalu 

Ak U21FOBLISHKD Lkttsr bt Burns thb Poet. 
—It may be worth while for " N. & Q." to save 
in its columns the following piece of somewhat 
chazacteristic letter-writing by Robert Burns, which 
does not seem to haye appeared before in his bio- 
graphies or anywhere else. That it came from his 
Bdinburgh period, when he was in his twenty- 
^bth year, is indicated by internal evidence, as 
well as by the address to " the Hon. Henry Erskine, 
Doan of Faculty, Edinburgh." In the prose of Bums 
there is a hoUowness of rhetorical humility that has 
BO place in his poems, which are finished, as Lord 
IjyUon well said, with the precision of Greek art. 
There are, at any rate, few references of the un- 
oomfortabie kind of which this letter has one 
typical example in its '' sincerest gratitude for the 
notice with which you have been pleas'd to honour 
the Bustle Bard.'' The ftimous Scottish poet 
missed sound manhood by protesting too much 
as to its value in verse, and by prostrating him- 
self before his practical inferiors in education 
imder the consciously assumed guise of rus- 
ticity. His character Lb of such psychological in- 
terest that it would have drawn great attention 
had he not written a line, and these few sentences 
show him with considerable clearness on his less 
attractive side : — 

TvTO o'clock , 

Sir,— I showed the enclosed political ballad to my 
Lord Olencaim, to have his opinion whether I should 
pnblish it ; as I snspect my political tenets, such as they 
ire, may be rather heretical in the opinion of some of 
my best Friends. I have a few first principles in Reli- 
gion and Politics which. I believe, I would not easily 
part with ; but for all the etiquette of, by whom, in 
what manner^ Ac, I .would not have a dissocial word 

about it with any of Ood's creatures ; particularly, an 
honoured Patron, or a reepected Friend. His Lordship 
seems to think the piece may appear in print, but desired 
me to send you a copy for your sufifrage. I am, with tho 
sincerest gratitude for the notice with which you have 
been pleas'd to honour the Bustic Bard, Sir, your most 
devoted humble Servant, BoBsaT Buavs. 

The letter has just appeared in an Ulster news- 
paper, and there is reason to believe that it was 
contributed by nn accomplished Ayrshire admirer 
of the poet. The sender declares that it is un- 
familiar to him, and probably all students of 
poetry will agree that this was its first public 
appearance. T. S. 

Couplet. ON Bells.— In my young days I spent 
a good deal of time at the house of an uncle re- 
siding at Glioton, near Peterborough. The church 
in this place had a peal of very sweet-toned bells, 
while the churches in the neighbouring villages 
were noted for just tbe opposite. This sec a wag 
to perpetrating tbe following couplet, which is 
worthy of a place among the curious things of 
English literature :— 

" Helpstone cracked pippins and Northborough cracked 
Glinton fine organs and Penkirk tin pans." 

Helpstone is the village in which dwelt your un- 
fortunate rural poet John Glare, and in North- 
borough resided one of the daughters of Oliver 
Cromwell. She died there, and was buried in or 
under the church with the '^ cracked pans.'' 

Joseph Holdich. 
Morristown, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

A Remarkable Epitaph.— In my youth I went 
to boarding-school at Whittlesey. Our school pre- 
mises were separated from Bt, Mary's churchyard 
by only a brick wall. I used to wander in this 
yard to read the inscriptions on the gravestones. 
While I was there a young man was buried, on 
whose gravestone was inscribed the following, 
which I have never seen in print. I think it 
worth preservation :— 

*' Beneath this stone William Brigga Boyce lies. 

He cares not now who laughs or cries. 

He laughed when sober, and when mellow 

Was a harum-ccarum hurmlcss fellow. 

He gave to none designed ofienc*. 

So ' Honi Boit qui mal y pense.' " 

Joseph Holdich. 
Morristowni New Jersey, 17.8.1. 

Reputed Centenarians.— -I find the follow- 
ing in a note on p. 347 of Warner's Tour ihrough 
Cornwall in the Aviumn of 180S, published in 
the following year : — 

"Carew, who lived in Queen Elizabeth's time, ob- 
serves, touching the temperature of Cornwall, 'The 
a3rre thereof is clean8e«1, as withbellowes, by the billows, 
and flowing and ebbin<;; of the sea, and therethrough be- 
commeth pure and subtle ; and by consequence health* 
full. So as the inhabit mts do seldom take a ruthful 
and reaving experience of those Ifjf^fnes which^infectl^^^* 



[6«h g. IX. Jak. 12/84. 

di'seaees use to carry with them/ p. 5; and aj^ain, p. 61, 
he remarks that * eighty and ninety years of age was 
ordinary in every place/ and among other instances oT 
longevity names one Polzew, who died a little while 
before he was writing aged one hundred and thirty. 
Borlase also observes that * Mr. Scawen, a gentleman of 
no less veracity, in his MS. tells us that in the year 1676 
died a woman in the parish of Gwythien (tbe narrowest 
and, therefore, as to the air to be reckoned among tbe 
saltest parts of this county) one hundred and sixty four 
years old, of good memory, and healthful at that age ; 
and at the Lizherd, where (exposed as this promontory 
is to more sea on the east, west, and south than any part 
of Britain) the air must be as salt as anywhere, there are 
three late instances of people living to a great age ; the 
first is Mr. Oole,late minister of Lindawidnec (in which 
parish the Lizherd is), who by the parish register a.d. 
1683, appears to have been above one hundred and twenty 
years old when he died. Michael George, late sexton of 
the same parish, buried the 20th of March, ibid., was 
more than a hundred years old ; and being at the Liz- 
herd with the Bev. and worthy Dr. Lyttleton, dean of 
Exeter, in the year 1752, we went to see a venerable old 
man called Collins ; he was then one hundred and five 
years old, of a florid countenance, stood near his door 
leaning on his staff, talked sensibly, was weary of life, he 
said, and advised us never to wish for old age. He died 
in the year 1754." 


Gqnbdda: Ordovices. — Many deeds are 
ascribed to Gunedda in early British history, and 
the name is supposed to be personal. It may be so, 
bat it has all the appearance of being an interest- 
ing relic of tbe title comeSf as dux Saxonici 
liitoris, of the Roman occupation, which was first 
expanded into comtista, and then settled down into 
Cunedda, Ordovices haye recently been explained 
to mean " the hammerers," from the Celtic ord, a 
hammer, it being supposed by archaeologists that 
the stone hammer continued to be in use as a 
"weapon of war down to historical times. This is 
clearly wrong, as the word ord is borrowed from 
Latin rostrum, which includes among its meanings 
that of hammer, or something like it, it being a 
rule with Celtic words borrowed from Latin words 
beginning with r either to omit it or to lead up 
to it with a prefix. J. Parry. 


Sir Walter Manmt. — I have long entertained 
a conviction that the accepted spelling of this 
good knight's name was erroneous, and that in- 
stead of Manny it ought to be Manny. Having 
just found confirmation of my view in the mention 
of " Margareta Maresshall, domina de Maweny" 
allow me to submit the point to the readers of 
"N. & Q." It occurs on the Close Roll for 
60 Edw. III., part 2. Hermektrudb. 

Tenntsoniana. — Collectors of Tennyson iana 
may note that at the services at Emerson's funeral 
(April 30, 1882), Dr. Furness " recited Tennyson's 
DeserUd Hovm^ and repeated from Longfellow 
words read at that poet's own funeral a few weeks 
ago. Appropriate quotations from Scripture fol- 

lowed" (Alex. Ireland's R. W. Emerson, 1882, 
p. 42). According to the newspapers, the Poet 
Laureate, at the C/openhagen gathering of kingsr 
and queens, read to his royal audience Tkt Orand^ 
mother. . William George Black. 


Singular Soperstition. — The following ap- 
peared in the Birmingham Daily Post of Novem- 
ber 26, and should, I think, be recorded in the 
columns of "N. &Q.":— 

*' At the Brierley Hill Police Court yesterday— before 
Mr. Firrastone and Mr. Freer— Jane Wootton, a brick- 
maker, was charged with an assnolt upon Ann Lowe. 
The complainant said she was passing along the road when 
the defendant came up, and, without a word, pinched 
ber oars and scratched her face with a needle. When 
aslced for an explanation defendant said, ' You have be- 
witched me, and now the spell will leave me.* Yester- 
day she repeated the same words in courtj and said a 
woman had told ber that if she drew the ' witch's blood ' 
the spell would go. (Laughter.) The bench remarked 
on the folly of the defendant and the trivial nature of 
the assault, and dismissed the case." 

W. A. C. 


Shetland Folk-lore.— Speaking to a very 
old lady, a^red ninety-three, about eating larks, 
she said^ " No one in Shetland would eat a lark ; 
there are three black spots on its tongue, and foe 
every lark you eat you get three curses." 

L C. G. 

Curious Epitaph in Ltdd Churchyard^ 
Kent. — The following epitaph, which I copied 
from a tombstone in the graveyard attached to 
the fine old church at Lydd, Kent, in August last, 
is, I think, both historically and from its quaint- 
ness, well worthy to occupy a space in " N. & Q.** 
The stone is inscribed to the memory of Lieut. 
Thos. Edgar, R.N., who died 1801, aged fifty-six 
years. He was present at Admiral Hawke's 
glorious engagement with the French, and sailed 
round the world with Capt. Cook, and was with 
him when that great circumnavigator was mur- 
dered by the natives of Owyhee : — 

*' Tom Edgar at last has saiVd out of this World, 
His shroud is put on, and his top-sails are furl'd, 
He lies snug in death's boat without any concern^ 
And is moor'd for a full due ahead and astern. 
O'er the Compass of Life he has merrily run, 
His Voyage is Completed, his reckoning is done.'^ 
W, A. Wblls. 

Cannon Street, City. — Readers of " N. & Q.**^ 
may be glad to note the fact that the present fine 
wide thoroughfare of Cannon Street, leading from 
St. Paul's in the direction of the Tower of London, 
was nearly two centuries in execution. Pepya^ 
writes in his Diary, under date May 5, 1667,. 
" Sir John Robinson tells me he hath now got a 
street ordered to be continued, forty feet broad, 
from Paul's through Cannon Street to the Tower,, 
which will be very fine." E. Walford, M.A, 

uigiiizea oy x.jv>^v^ 





W« miMt request oorreipondenU desiring information 
on funilj maiton of only prirate interest, to affix their 
Dames and addresses to their qaeries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to thiBm direet 

Churchwardens' Accounts. — I have been 
fayoared by the Vicar of Cheswardine, near Market 
DraytoDy with a sight of a yerv good book of church- 
wazdena* accounts of that parish, ranging from 1554 
to 1628. At the beginning is an inventory of the 
yestments (including " one whyt for good friday "), 
booksy candlesticks, &a, belonging to the church. 

1 shall be glad of explanations of the following 
entrieB : — 

1551. (Paid) for a corft noia, iU. vjd, 

for the fechynge of the said corft nola, zziij(f. 
1555. (Beceired) for owre ladys nue yeres gyft, ij«. ii)j<^. 

(year after year). 
1562. (Paid) to a peyntour for peynetyng the rode soler, 
forlyme, ij(2. 

for polyng downe of the rode loft, iijf. 
for lubstans to the Com'eneon, xijd. 
1597. (Pidd^ for Sabskaance at Easter, ys. 
1570. (Paid) to tomas browne for ceruynge the parryse 
withe the coappe, ii\jd. 

Did they first paint and then destroy the rood-loft ? 
Does substance mean the bread and wine ? Was 
Thomas Browne employed to administer the cup 
at the Holy Communion; and if so, is it likely that 
lie was a layman 7 J. T. F. 

fFintertoQ, Brigg. 

Forfarshire.— Some few years ago Mr. An- 
drew Jeryise was collecting information for, I 
beliere, a more extended county history of Angus 
(or Forfarshire) than his work called Memoriah of 
Angus and Meams, and published in 1861. The 
work must haye been in a forward state, at least 
in parts, as he sent me a " pull ^ of the psffticulars 
-of a certain parish and estate belonging to the 
iiead of my family, and receiyed from me a con- 
densed pedigree or '^ tree," which he acknowledged, 
and said would be added to those of other families 
in an appendix which he designed for the work. 

2 am informed that Mr. Jervise, who was tben 
resident at Brechin, has deceased ; and perhaps 
some reader of "N. & Q." could state whether 
the projected work is in the hands of any one else 
for completion ; or in whose possession the mate- 
rial collected by Mr. Jeryise now is. W. 0. J. 

AsHKBT. — What is the deriyation of tbe word 
ley as applied to the pericarp of the ash and some 
«ther trees, called by botanists the samara ? The 
Bneydopadic Dictiofiary says, " their length and 
lateral compression create the resemblance to keys,'' 
thns saggesting that tbe shape is the origin of the 
same. I must confess I canuot see much resem- 
blance to a key in the samara of the ash- tree; and 
I would ask whether it la not more likely that the 

word (wbiofa, so far as my personal experience 
goes, is nearly obsolete) is deriyed from the purpose 
than the shape of this seed-coyering. Eyen, how- 
eyer, if this be admitted, some doubt remains. 
Our word key comes from the A.-S. cceg, connected 
with oas^^ti»to lock or shut fast, the instrument 
being apparently regarded rather as a means of 
enclosing or locking than of opening or unlocking, 
as the word generally signifies in a metaphorical 
sense now. On the other hand, the wora 4^uay, 
which originally meant enclosure, and is a Celtic 
word connected with the Wekh ea«, was in Middle 
English spelt key. This may be the source of the 
word usea in speaking of the samara of a tree, and 
in any case I would submit that ash-key means 
that which encloses the seeds of an ash. Whether 
it is Teutonic or Celtic I desire information. 

W. T. Ltkn. 

William Llotd, Bishop of St. Asaph. — 
According to Chalmers, this prelate was born in 
1627, was entered at Oriel College, Oxon, in 1638, 
when he was eleyen years of age, obtained a 
scholarship at Jesus College the following year 
(tweWe years of age), proceeded B. A, and left the 
uniyersity in 1642 (fifteen years of age), returned 
in 1646, when he commenced M.A., and was 
chosen fellow of his college, being then nineteen 
years of age. Are these dates correct ; and if so, 
is not this a yery unusual and remarkable case of 
going through tbe college course and taking the 
yarious degrees at such an early age f The bio- 
graphical account goes on to state that Lloyd was 
ordained deacon in 1649, that he was presented to 
the rectory of Brad field in 1654 (but soon after- 
wards resigned it), and that he was ordained priest 
in 1656. Could he accept and hold a liying while 
yet only in deacon's orders ? 

J. H. CooEE, F.S.A. 


Barrb and Ebndalb, Elizabeth. — This 
lady was widow of Edward de Eendale, and under 
age May 22, 1376 {Rot, Glaus., 50 Edw. III., 
pt. L). Thomas Barre, Knt., had lately receiyed 
royal licence to marry the said Elizabeth, and had 
married her accordingly, Feb. 1, 1381 (16., 4 
Bic. II.). Of what family was this Elizabeth, and 
why was it necessary that when she attained her 
majority she should release to Alice Ferrers her 
right in the manor of Hitchin, co. Herts, on 
account of a debt of 200{. owed to Alice by Sir 
William Croyser ? What was her connexion with 
these persons ? HBRiiBNTRUDB. 

Pope's Fan. — Can any reader of "N. & Q." 
tell me what has became of the fan which Pope 
painted himself for Miss Martha Blount? It 
afterwards came into the hands of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds and was stolen from his study. Has it 

Digitized by 




«yer been beard of since ? At a time wben tbere 
bas been brougbt togetber at the Grosvenor 
Oallery so many of the fi^eat master's works, it 
cannot be inopportune to ask this question con- 
cerning this interesting relic. G. F. B. B. 

Peasant and Pbasantrt. — Can any reader 
of " N. & Q." say at what time these words came 
into oar language, what was the extension of their 
tipplication, and whether those to whom the terms 
applied used these words to describe themselves 
and their class, just as a man would describe him- 
self now as a " labourer " or a " labouring man " ? 

J. 0. 

Story Wanted.— Can any of your readers tell 
me where I can obtain a short story of Lover's, 
Jimmy Hoy's Voyage to America f I believe it 
was not published in bis Worksy as it was found 
amongst his papers after his death. J. L. H. 

Quotations in Green's " Short History op 
THE English People." — 

" * In crery hoase,' says a Mirewd English observer of 
Ihe time, ' strangers who arrived in the inorntn}; were 
•entertained till eventide with (he talk of maidens and 
the music of the harp.' "—P. 155. 

"'Children in school/ says a writer of the earlier 
reign, 'apainst the usage and manner of all other nations, 
be compelled for to leave their own lanffiiaf^e and for to 
■construe their lessons in French.' "—P. 212. 

Who are the authors referred to ? Ivon. 

Horn. — Can any of your readers kindly explain 
the meaninj; of this syllable in such place-names 
413 Oulhorn, Dreghorn, Distinkhorn, Ein(;horn, &c.? 

W. M. C. 

Secret Society Badge. — I have a small 
copper or bronze pendant, shaped like an Orsini 
bomb impaled on a dagger, which I believe to be 
the badge of some secret society. Can any reader 
of "N. & Q." help me to identify it? I obtained 
it from a ship captain some twenty years ago, who 
could give me no information about it, except that 
he found it in some continental port, but where 
he could not remember. J. M. Campbell. 

KelvingroTO Museum, Glasgow. 

Mr. Salkinson.— Can you give me any infor- 
mation regarding Mr. Salkinson, a gentleman who 
is mentioned in the Athenceum., Nov. 16, 1878, 
as translator into Hebrew of Othello^ Romeo and 
Juliet, and Paradise Lost? Is the translator a 
native of England ? K. Inqlis. 

Craine and Cambib Families.— Where can 
I find a pedigree or account of these Tipperary 
families ? Alice, daughter of Henry Craine, 
married Solomon Cambie, a mnjor in Cromwell's 
army. Catharine, widow of Sir Wymond Cary, 
of Snettisham, co. Norfolk, about 1613-14, married 
Henry, son of Robert Craine, of Chilton, co, Suffolk. 
Sir Robert Craine is mentioned in a list of 

members of the House of Commons that advanced, 
horses and money for the defence of Parliament^ 
June, 1642. Henry Craine emigrated from Eng^ 
land in Cromwell's time, settled at Dorchester 
Massachusetts, and became an ancestor on tb» 
maternal side of John Quincy Adams (see Savage, 
OeneaL Diet.). How are these Craines connected, 
and where can I find a detailed account of the 
family 1 Viator, 

Marks on Silver Coin. — To what do the 
letters refer that are sometimes found punched on 
the neck of the sovereign's head on current English 
silver coin ? I have taken fifteen coins so marked 
within ten years, and subjoin a list of them :— 
Shilling Geo. III. 1817 T.T. 

Half-a*crown ., „ IM.P. 

>i »» II J-P' 

If M tt J-1. 

„ „ 1818 J. P. 

3819 J.Y. 
1820 J.P. 
Crown Geo. IV. 1821 M.B. 

Half-a-crown „ ,. M.B. 

•* Lion " shilling Wra. IV. 1826 M.B. 
Half-a-crown „ 1834 M.B. 

Shilling Victoria 1838 M.B. 

Siipence „ 1839 M.B. 

Half-a-crown ,, 1844 M.B. 

„ „ 1845 M.B. 

It will be observed that the same letters were 
always used since the accession of Geo. IV. In 
size they are the same as the capitals to addresses 
at end of queries in '* N. & Q." They were not 
stamped at the time of coining, as the letters are 
sunk, not raised, and have been done with a punch. 
Neither have they been done^for mischief, as their 
sequence will testify. I have Spanish dollars 
(prize money), which passed current in England, 
stamped in a similar manner with the bead of the 
English sovereign. Murano. 

Source of Couplet Wanted. — Over the 
mantel-piece of a manor house in Kent is the 
following couplet, newly carved or painted, I foi^fe 
which : — 

''Welcome by day, welcome by night, 
The smile of a friend is a ray of light.** 

Whence come these lines ; are they ancient ; and 
who is their author ? E. Walford, M.A. 

Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

James Bruton.— Can any reader of " N. & Q.* 
help me to see a portrait of " Jimmy " Bruton, a 
South London humourist and oomic poet ? A short 
account of his life and perfonnances would be 
gratefully received. Colon. 

De Hugh. — I have a beautiful and minutely 
finished landscape in oils. I believe it to be 
Italian. It belonged to my grandfather, bat how 
much longer it may have been in the famOy I 
cannot say. On a large piece of detached rock in 
the forground is the name De Each. Oan any ot 

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yonr readers give me any infonnation about him ? 
I bare searched Walpole, Bey an, and other autho- 
titles^ but without Buccees. E. E. 

Lords Davganmore.— Can any of your readers 
inform me what was the family name of the Lords 
Danganmore, the la.*3t of whom, I believe, fought 
against £tng William at the battle of the Boyne, 
and subsequently forfeited his title and estates ? 

W. A. L. 

Thomas Withinqton.— Oau any reader inform 
me when Thomas Withington was Lord Mayor of 
London ? I have a silver medal bearing his name 
engraved under the City arms/ with the royal 
arms on the reverse. Is this practice still con- 
tinued] T. W. G. 

HA8WEi.L.--Capt. Robert Haswell, R.N., son 
of William Haswell, Esq., of London, married 
Mary Cordis, Oct. 17, 1797, at Reading, Middlesex 
Oonntr, Massachusetts. I am desirous of obtain- 
ing particulars of his life, services, and death. 
Any information will greatly oblige. 

Edward Walter West. 

Xew York. 

Perct.— Is there any portrait in existence of 
Alan Percy, who was appointed Master of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, on March 20, 1515-16 1 He 
was the son of one of the Earls of Northum- 
berland. T. B. 


Paid Refresemtatiyes.— I shall be clad if 
you or any of your correspondents can tell me : 
(1) The earliest instance on record of representa- 
tives in deliberative assemblies being paid ; (2) 
the countries in which at present such payments 
are being made ; (3) the amount paid per head, 
and the number receiving payment. 


Coming op Arthur. — Can any one throw light 
on the antecedents of the family which now fur- 
nishes a leader to a nation mainly of British origin, 
President Arthur, U.S.A.] W. M. C. 

C. Tanner, Animal Painter.— Can any of 
your readers give me any information respecting 
the above artist, and whether his paintings are 
valuable? Date about 1832. A. H, W. 

J. OR T. Loder, Bath, Animal Painter. — 
Any information about the above will be accept- 
able. Date about 1831. A. H. W. 

A Curious Medal.— A gentleman from Chard 
showed me the other day a curious medal, which 
baa been in his family for the best part of a cen- 
tury. It is of silver, very light in weight, oval, 
about an inch in length. One side represents a 
>ady with a small crown or coronet ; she is rather 
^kdUiie; round her head is the legend, "Quae 


sim post terga videbis." On the reverse is a 
skeleton, leaning on a table and contemplating 
an hour-glass. Over the head of the skeleton is 
another legend, " Sic nunc, pulcherrima quondam." 
In the corner under the table are the words, " Cum 
privil. Csea.," and, apparently, the initials " 0. ^I." 
Can any of your readers explain it 7 

E. Walford, M.A. 
2, Hyde Park MansionB, I7.W. 

"The Theory op Perspective,'* bt Jambs 
Hodgson, F.R.S. — Can you give me the date of 
the earliest edition of The Theory of Ftrspective^ 
by James Hodgson, F.B.S.? I have a copy withr 
out date, but the illustrations of which are of the 
time of Charles II. 

Arthur B. Carter^ M.A. 

Nbwcastlb-on-Ttnb Directory. — Is there 
any directory of Newcastle-upon-Tyne of the latter 
end of the last century to the middle of the pre- 
sent ] I am searching for particulars of addresses 
of persons living in the town at that time, but do 
not find the information I want in any local his- 
tory. Is there a good second-hand bookseller 
living in Newcastle at the present time 1 I can 
get no particulars of auy from booksellers in 
London. Strix. 


" 'Your mother has been a widow a long while, per- 
haps/ said Deronda. * Aj, ay, it *b a good manj yortzeil 
since I had to manage for her and myself,' said Cohen, 
quickly. 'I went early to it. It's that makes you a 
sLarp knife.' *'-- Daniel Deronda, bk. iv. ch. xxxiv. 

What is this word ? It seems to have a queer 
spelling, partly English partly German. Does 
it stand for German Jahrzeit f 1 wonder if the 
form is intended to represent the pronunciation of 
the German word by a Jew. A. L. Mayhew. 

Statue op Roman Soldier. — I saw the other 
day at the museum at York a stone figure of a Roman 
soldier dug up in or near the city. They call it a 
statue of Mars. It strikes me as being a good speci- 
men of the Roman soldier, very broad shouldered, 
but of low stature — just the kind of man to have 
rushed upon the Teuton es and Cimbri. In the 
left hand is a shield, and by the side hangs a 
sword, eagle- headed ; I saw several of the same 
pattern the other day, called Roman swords, 
at Warwick Castle. I never saw any statue like 
this in Italy. Is anything known about it ? 

Geo. S. Stone. 

Dr. Got Carleton. — Dr. Carleton was rescued 
from the Lollards' Prison at Lambeth by his wife. 
Where shall I find the best account of this incident 1 
Is there a portrait of the Doctor to be seen ? 

J. F. B. 

Peter Kenwood, op Topsham. — ^He resided in 
Boston, U.S. A.,a short timeabout the year 1740, and 

uigiiizea oy 




[6>ii & IX. Jav. 1^*84 

theo retarned to Topsham, where he was living in 
1761. Can any one give particulars respecting 
liim ? J. P. Baxtbb. 

Portland, Me., U.S.A. 

Authors of Books Wanted. — 

Iter ad Astra ; or, the Portraiture of a Sufferinff Chris- 
tian : with an Introduction of Man^s Creation. London, 
printed for John Sftlusburj, ni the Atlas in Cornhil, 
near the Royal Exchange, 1685. 12ino. Dedication to 
Algernon, Earl of Essex, signed J. P. ** B Museo meo 
Londini. die Maie 25, 1685." 

The Kalish Revolution ; containing Observations on 
Han and Manners. By Durus, King of Enlikang ; who 
was born in the Reign of the Emperor Augustus, 
travelled over most of the Globe, and still exists. Edin- 
burgh, Bell and Creech, 1789. Sro. pp. 448. 



(C* S. viii. 498.) 

Your correspondent Mr. Huohrs asks in par- 
ticular after Shelley's writings on vegetarianism, 
nnd in general after the bibliography of that sub- 
ject. Shelley wns an enthusiastic believer of the 
vegetarian gospel, and has expressed his faith 
in one of the tinest pasi>ages of Queen Mah^ which 
appeared in 1813. A lengthy note to that poem 
was reproduced as a pamphlet, with the title of a 
Yindieaiion of Natural Diet, and was published 
in the same year. This is now excessively rare, 
but it is included in the edition of Shelley's Workn 
by Mr. H. Buxton Forman. The proof-sheets of 
ti cheap edition of the Vindication are now lying 
before me, and will shortly be published by the 
Vegetarian Society at the instance of Mr. H. S. 
fiah, of Eton, who has written an introduction. 

The wider question remains as to the biblio- 
graphy of vegetarianism. This topic has not 
escaped attention. There is a list in Robert 
Springer's Wegweiser in der Vegetarianischen 
Literatur (zweite vermehrte Auflige, Nordhausen, 
Huschke, 1880), of which the first edition appeared 
in 1878. Still more important is Mr. Howard 
Williamb's Ethics of Did, which offers a catena 
of authorities against flesh-eating. Mr. Williams 
gives critical and biogmphical sketches of Hesiod, 
Pythagoras, Plato, Ovid, Seneca, Plutarch, Ter- 
tuUian, Clement of Alexandria, Porphyry, Ohry- 
flostom, Cornaro, Thomas More, Montaigne, Gas- 
sendi, Riy, Evelyn, Mandeville, Gay, Gheyne, 
Pope, Thomson, Hartley, Chesterfield, Voltaire, 
Haller, Cocchi, Rousseau, Linn^, Bufifon, Hawkes- 
worth, Paley, St. Pierre, Oswald, Hnfeland, 
Ritsoo, Nicholson, Ahernethy, Lambe, Newton, 
Gle'izes, Shelley, Phillips, Michelet, Cowherd, 
Metcalfe, Graham, Lamar tine, Struve, Daumer, 
Schopenhauer, the Golden Verses, the Buddhist 
Canon, Musoniu", Lessio, Cowley, Tryoo, Hecquet, 

Jenyns, Pressavin, Schiller, Bentham, Sinclair, 
and Byron. 

Similar in form is Springer's EnkarpOf CuUur'- 
geschichle der Menschheit im Lichte der PtftiM- 
gordisehen Lehre (Hannover, Seefeld, 1884). In 
this the relation of the Pythagorean diet to the 
older Egyption learning, to Brahminism and 
Buddhism, as well as to the philosophers and 
writers of the classical ages, is d iscussed. The fathers 
of the church and the members of the monastic orders 
are lUso brought into view. In addition to several 
noticed by Williams, there are in Springer^s book 
chapters devoted to the composer Wagner and to 
Baltzer. The last named has been a voluminous 
advocate of food reform, and a score of books and 
tracts in German own him as author. Amongst 
these may be named one on vegetarianism in the 
Bible, and biographical and crittcdl sketches of 
Porphyry, Pythagoras, Musonius, and Empedocles. 
Baltzer has also edited since 1867 the Vereinshlait 
of the Deutschen Vereins fiir naturgemasse Lebens* 
weise. There are other vegetarian periodicals 
published in Germany. Gustav Schlickheysen's 
Obit und Brod has been translated and published 
in New York by Dr. Holbrook. Springer's list 
includes modern books in German, French, Italian, 
Russian, Swedish, Spanish, Hungarian, and Eng- 
lish. Probably the last-named will have the most 
interest for your correspondent. The books written 
by English and American vegetarians are numerons. 
Dr. W. A. Alcott is the author of several. Sylves- 
ter Graham's Science of Human Life has recently 
been issned in a cheap and condensed form, as 
also John Smith's Fruits and Farinaaa. Various 
papers by Prof. Francis William Newman have 
been collected in the past year under the title 
of Essays on Diet Dr. T. L. Nichols has written, 
inter alia, How to Live on Sixpence a Day, and 
Dr. Anna Kingsford has converted the thesis D$ 
V Alimentation Vigitale chez I Homme (Paris^ 
1880), by which she gained her doctor's diploma 
at the University of Paris, into a compact treatise 
on The Perfect Way in Diet. There are several 
varieties of cookery-books, one by Mrs. Brother- 
ton, one by Miss Tarrant, one by Miss Baker, &c 
Of periodicals there are two, the Food Reform 
Magazine, a quarterly recently started, and the 
monthly Dietetic Reformer, which, with some 
variation of title, has been advocating vege- 
tarianism for the last thirty years. It is the orgaa 
of the Vegetarian Society, which has its head- 
quarters at 75, Prince's Street, Manchester. It 
would be a long task to chronicle the minor litera- 
ture of vegetarianism ; but I shall be happy to send 
some explanatory papers to any who choose to ask 
for them. William E. A. Axon. 

Fern Bank, Higher Broughton, Manchester. 

As Mr. HdOHKS asks for the bibliography of 
vegetarianism, I will begin, without any order, 
by naming books and book-titles, such as Joha 

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^Smith's Fruits and Fcarinacea ilu Proper Diet of 
Man, 1845. This is a clever book, naming many 
writen on the subject and their works. Smith has 
-also written a good book on VegtiabU Cookery, 1866. 
If ibis subject be pursued Uv, it will be well to 
procure Yilmorin-Andrieux et Cie.'s Description da 
I*lanUt Potagerea. In Mr. Beach's American Prac- 
-tice Concknsed (New York, 1857) there is, at p. 11, a 
good ritunU of facts as to the difference between 
anioui and vegetable diet In Sir John Sinclair's 
iJode of Health there is much in favour of a vegetable 
^ietb Lankester, in his Popular Lectures on Food, 
^says very little to the purpose, but still the chapter 
commencing at p. 119 can be consulted. Prof. 
Johnston's Chemistry of Common Life, 2 vols., 
1855, does not contain much on the subject, but 
admits that vegetable diet is in every part of the 
^orid the chief staff of life. Sylvester Graham's 
fSctencs of Human Life, 1854, is one of the best 
Tepertories of all that needs to be known on the sub- 
ject. He is strenuously in favour of vegetarian 
diet. Shelley thought that all vice might be ex- 
pelled from the world if men would only eschew 
'flesh ; but I am unable to point to the passage. 

James Bontius, physician to the Dutch settle- 
ment at Batavia, wrote a treatise, De Conservanda 
VcUetudine ac Dieta, 1645, in which he advocates 
•n vegetarian diet, chiefly, however, in view of a 
cesidence in the East. A. Cocchi, an eminent 
physician of Florence, wrote a work which in 
1745 was translated into English as The Pytha- 
gorean Diet; or, Vegetables only conducive to 
Preservation of Health and the Care of Diseases. 
John Frank Newton wrote a Return to Nature ; 
-or, a Defence of the Vegetable Regimen, 1811. 

This is all I can refer to just now. Putting 
prejudice aside, two things are certain. Men can 
live in full strength upon a vegetable diet, never 
touching flesh. They will be less feverish, have 
iess disease, and will when afflicted recover quicker 
than those whose staple food is flesh. Bat once you 
iiave accustomed the system to flesh there will be 
■craving for flesh, and relapses recurring at intervals, 
which it is best to indulge. Secondly, you could 
feed four times the population if all were vege- 
tarians. C. A. Ward. 
HaversCock Hill. 

Shelley's advocacy of vegetarianism is contained 
in his Qaetn Mab, viiL, near the end, and the note 
•on the lines, — 

•* No longer now 
He days the lamb that looks ki'm in the face/' 
pp. 161-182, ed. Clark, 1821, is the last note in the 
"volume. Shelley seems to have been influenced and 
ied to adopt this system by " Mr. Newton's Re- 
turn to Nature ; or, Defence of Vegetable Regimen, 
Oadell, 1811.'' (In the edition of Queen Mab by 
J. Brookes, 1829, at p. 198, this author's name is 
printed erroneously Newland.) Shelley refers 
-also to Dr. Lamb's Reports on Cancer, and con- 

cludes his note with a quotation, in Greek and 
English, from Plutarch's treatise on Animal Food, 
A further notice of Shelley's views on this subject 
will be found in Hogg's Life of Shelley, vol. ii, 
pp. 418-432. W. K Buckley, 

Mr. Hughes can And Shelley's essay on vege- 
tarianism in any edition of the poetical works 
which gives tKe notes to Queen Mab, or in almost 
any one of the numerous separate editions of that 
poem. The essay or note illustrates a passage on the 
same subject in the text of the poem, and was 
elaborated into a separate pamphlet, with addi* 
tions, and was published the same year as that in 
which the poem was privately printed (1813). I 
believe the treatise was reprinted as an appendix 
to an American medical work (Dr. Tur-nbulPa 
Manual on Health) in 1835, and in 1880 I re- 
printed it in its integrity in my edition of Shelley's 
Prose Works, vol. ii. H. Buxton Forman. 

46, Marlboroagh Hill, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

Shelley's contribution to the literature of vege- 
tarianism originally appeared as a note to Queen 
Mab, and was afterwards (in the same year, 1813) 
issued as a pamphlet, A Vindication of Natural 
Diet. I think it may be found in any edition of 
Shelley's prose works. Some time since I bought 
a lot of old pamphlets, and amongst them were 
some sheets of the library edition of Shelley's 
works, the Vindication of Natural Diet being 
complete. It has been passed from hand to hand, 
and bears marks of U9.ige; bat if Mr. Hughes has 
any difficalty in procuring a copy, I shall be happy 
to lend him mine if he will send me his address. 

68, LamVs Conduit Street, W.C. 

In Shelley's Queen Mab are the following 
lines: — 

" No longer now 
He flays the lamb that looks him in the face. 
And horribly devours his mangled flesh, 
>Vhich» still aren^ing nature's broken law. 
Kindled all putrid humours in his frame. 
All evil pHSsiona and all Tain belief. 
Hatred, despair, and loathing in his mind. 
The gerra9 of miierj, death, disease, and crime. 
No longer now the winged inhabitants 
That in the vrottda their sweet lives sing away. 
Flee from the form of man," See. 

Potiical Worhs, edited by Mrs. Shelley, 
Mozon, 1810, p. 17. 

And in the notes on this poem Shelley refers 
at great length to this passage, and cites several 
authors, conspicuously Nevr ton's Return to Nature; 
or, Defence of Vegetcile Regimen, Oadell, 1811, ia 
support of his own declaration that the depra- 
vity of the physical and moral nature of maa 
originated in his unnatural habits of life. 

Jahbs Hibbbrt. 

I have no doubt that if Mr. Hughes applied to 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. {«* sax. jam. 12/84. 

the editor of Tht DUteiic Reformer, 20, Paternoster 
Bow, he could be sapplied with a list of such 
bookB as he asks for. The passage on vege- 
tarianism in Shelley's JVorki is to be fonnd in 
-Queen Mob, nearly at the end of canto viiL, and 
^begins : — 

"No longer now 
He alays the Iamb that looks him in the face, 
And horribly devoara his mangled flesh, 
Whicfa, still avenging nature's broken law, 
Kindled all putrid humours in bis frame." 

1 have an edition of Queen Mab, published by 
Frederick Campe & Co., of Niirnberg and New 
York (n.d.), which contains Shelley's original notes, 
among which is a very long one on the above 
passage, in which the renunciation of animal food 
is very strongly insisted on. This note is reprinted 
by Mr. Porman in his edition of Shelley's Works, 
4 vols. (Reeves & Turner) ; but should this not 
be accessible to Mr. Hughes, I shall be happy to 
lend him my copy of Campe's edition. 

Wm. H. Pkkt. 

There is a treatise of Porphyry, De Abelinentia 
ab Esn Animalium, and there are two of 
Plutarch, De Esu Carnxum. See also Plato, De 
Legibus, 1. vi. p. 626, Lugd., 1590 ; Hierocles, In 
Aurea Pythagoreorum Carm,, p. 303, Lon., 1673; 
■Lilitts Gyraldus, De InUrpretatione Symb., " Ab 
Animalibus Abstinendum," ibid, ad calc, pp. 160- 
163. £d. Marshall. 

Shelley's views upon the subject of vegetarian- 
ism may be seen in an interesting and scholarly 
book, recently published, by Mr. Howard Wil- 
liams, B.A., The Ethics of Diet Copies may be 
obtained, and catalogues of vegetarian literature, 
from Mr. R. Bailey Walker, 66, Peter Street, 
Manchester. At this address is also published 
The Dietetic Reformer, the monthly organ of the 
A^'egetarian Society. 

Edward H. Marshall, M.A. 

The tract by Shelley which Mr. Hctohss wants 
is called ''A \ Vindication \ of \ Natural Diet, \ 

London, | 1813." It is exceedingly scarce; Mr. 

Buxton Forman says that he only knows of two 
copies. There is one in the British Museum. 
The tract is formed by his expanding some of the 
notes to Queen Mab. Shelley was a zealous 
vegetarian, and his works are full of references to 
the subject. Walter B. Slatkr. 

249, Camden Boad, N. 

" Notes on Phrase and Inflection " (6* 
«. vii. 501 ; viii. 101, 129, 232, 497).— We ought 
to be much obliged to Sir J. A. Picton for pro- 
testing against the worthless rubbish which is 
being printed in Oood Words upon this subject, 
end which seems to prove that any one who is 
utterly ignorant of the facta of the formation of 

the English language has a much better chance of 
being listened to than those who have studied the 
subject. I have not been able to find, during; 
twenty years' search, that there is any other cu&- 
ject in which ignorance is commonly regarded as 
a primary qualification for being chosen to write 
" popular " articles on it. At the same time I am 
rather sorry to see that Sir J. A. Picton's com- 
munication contains several inaccuracies ; in many- 
cases he has not followed that historical method 
which he justly advocates. The formation of 
weak verbs has been, in all details, correctly ex- 
plained in the introduction to Morris's Specimens 
of Early English, pt. i. p. Ixi, which the student 
should consult. It will thus appear that the 
original suffix in the verb send was -de, not -ed. 
This gave eend-de, written eoide, once a common 
form. This became sente, as being more easy to 
pronounce rapidly, and finally sent Sende is the 
only form which is found in Anglo-Saxon, and the 
word sended never existed, except (perhaps) by mis- 
use. The suffix 'de was short for ded (dyde)^ as has 
been rightly said. Another inaccuracy is the fancy 
that the fiuffix -te is High German. It has, la 
English, nothing to do with High German, but de- 
pends upon phonetic laws. The suffix -de becomes 
•te after voiceless consonants, such as p, t, k (^, gh). 
Hence the M.E. slep-te, met-te, brough-te, mod. £. 
slept, met, brought (never slepd, mtd, broughd). 
Some verbs inserted a connecting vowel ; hence 
lov-e-de, hat-e-de, whence lov-ed, hat-ed. It is 
quite a mistake to suppose that Landor originated 
such a form as slip-t. As a fact, it is correct, 
and occurs, spelt slip-te (dissyllabic)^ in Gower's 
Confessio Amantis, ed. Pauli, vol. iu p. 72, where 
it rhymes with skipte. No one who thinks that 
the putting of t for ed is " of late years a fashion 
in certain quarters " can have examined a certain 
book known as the first folio of Shakespeare. I 
open Booth's reprint at random, and my eye lights 
on p. 91, col. 2, of part ii., and I at once find 
chancH for chanced; there are several thousand 
such examples in that work. It is, in fact, a great 
misfortune that such pure and correct formations 
as skipt and slipt have been absurdly spelt dipped 
and slipped, whilst no one writes slepped. Such 
is the muddle-headedness of modern English 
spelling, which seems to be almost worshipped for 
its inconsistencies. Walter W. Skbat. 


Sir J. A. Picton maintains (6"» S. viii. 101, 232) 
that in such German phrases as** sichznm Gelachter 
machen," "zu Schaden kommen," '* zu Tode ai^ern/' 
" zu Werke gehen," the zu does double duty, and 
belongs at least as much to the infinitive as it does 
to the substantive; whilst Mr. C. A. Fedbrbr (&^ 
S. viii. 129) maintains, in opposition to him, that in 
these cases the %u belongs to the substantive only, 
" and has nothing whatever to do with the infini- 
tive.** Bat every Ciernuui scholar most nnheaitat- 

Digitized by 






iDgljside with Mr. Fbdkilkr. The ordinary German 
infinitiTe induda the Eog. to, and Sir J. A. 
Pictom's mistake seems to have arisen from his 
being nnaware of this fact. Thus drgem alone 
means " to make angry, to provoke, to vex/' and 
«o " za Tode argern ** means *' to vex to death," 
the su belonging to Tode_ only, and not to drgem. 
That this is so is indisputably shown by such a 
sentence as '*£r that sein Moglicfastes, ihn zu 
Tode za aigem " (He did his utmost to vex him 
to death), where the infinitive requires a zu, and 
the su belonging to the iofiaitive has to be put in 
between the subst. Tode and the infinitive. 

F. Chance. 
Sydenham Hill. 

I should like to know what authority Sir J. A. 
PiCTON has for stating that " at a comparatively 
«ar]y period this preterite [A.-S. eode] was dropped, 
>and in its place went, the present tense of the 
secondary verb wendan, from windan, to wind, was 
•adopted," &c. I have always understood that 
went = wended was a past indefinite form, and I 
believe I have the corroborative evidence of Prof. 
•Skeat and Dr. B. Morris. 


Singular Error of Humboldt conckrnino 
A SUPPOSED New Star in the Fourth Cen- 
tury (6* S. viii. 404).— Since I wrote the note 
you have kindly inserted at this reference, I have 
noticed that the mistake in question was made 
before Humboldt by Cassini, so that it was pro- 
bably taken from him, although Cuspinianus is 
the aathority given by both authors. Cassini's 
work, £Uments d^Astronomie, was published in 
1740. In it, at p. 59, occurs this passage : — 

" Une troisieme [t.«., new star] aue Cuspinianuf, an 
rapport de Licetus (p. 259), decouvrit Van S89 vers TAigle, 
•et qai cena de paroitre, apr^s avoir 6te vue auHl bril- 
lante que Venus, dans Tespace de trois semaines." 

I cannot find the passage of Cuspinianus in any 
«xtant work of his ; and it would seem that it was 
also inaccessible to Cassini, as he refers to Licetus, 
whose book, De NovU Astrii et Cometis, was pub- 
lished at Venice in 1623. The passage (in p. 259) 
relating to this subject is, — 

" Caspinianns aatem paullo po?t niminim anno a 
nativitate Domini tercentesimo octoagesimo nono, ut 
retolit etiam Tycho, stellam quamdam a Septemtrione 
•circa OalUciniam scribit aseendiMe, et instnr Lueiferi 

2^1endai>^se, atque intra spatium trium hebdomadanim 

This description of a "star" quoted by Licetus 
from Cuspinianus, agrees with that given by Mar- 
cellinas in his Chranicon ; and (as I have already 
pointed out) refers, in all probability, to the afrrrjp 
^apaSo^os Kol arjOr)^ of Philostorgius, which was 
nndonbtedly, in reality, a comet, as is evident 
from its motion amongst the stars. 

W. T. Ltnn. 

Parallel Passaqes (6'^ S. vii. 325; viii. 61). 
— ^My knowledge of Lockhart's paper on Greek 
tragedy, in which was the passage resembling, and 
perhaps suggestive of, Tennyson's line in Lockdey 
Hall^ was derived from an article in Blackwood*$ 
Magazine for July, 1882, on '' The Lights of 
Maga, ii.,'' i.e. J. G. Lockhart. Giving the writer 
credit for accuracy in his quotations, 1 copied his 
extracts verbatim from p. 120 of the abovo number. 
C. M. I., however, h:is proved that the author of 
"The Lights of Maga " was not so careful as your 
present correspondent, who was misled by placing 
too implicit confiJence in the authority before him, 
whose words, nioreover, he had no means at hand 
of verifying. Noji cuivis homini confingit to have 
a complete set of Blackwood on his own shelves. 

W. E. Buckley, 

"Engrossed in tub public" (6*** S. viii. 495, 
523). — This expression will find its explanation in 
the circumstances of the trade with Africa at the 
time when the adventures of Robinson Crusoe 
were supposed to have taken place — say about the 
middle of the seventeenth century. 

The quotation is not given quite correctly. 
Crusoe had been describing to his friends in Brazil 
the advantages of the trade with the Coast of 
Guinea; how easy it was to purchase there for 
trifles not only gold dust, elephants* teeth, &c., bub 
negroes for the service of the Brazils in great 
numbers. This trade, however, would have to ba 
carried on furtively, since '^at that time, so far as 
it was; it had been carried on by the asdentos^ or 
permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and 
e^igrosied in the public itock ; so that few negroes 
were brought, and those excessive dear." In other 
words, the trade was a close monopoly, carried on 
by a joint-stock company. 

In 1662 Charles If. granted a charter to a body 
of merchants under the title of " The Company of 
Royal Adventurers of England to Africa," granting 
them the exclusive right to the trade in negroes. 
This company having become much involved, and 
unable to proceed, resigned their charter in favour 
of another company, called " The Royal African 
Asiento Company," which in 1689 entered into a 
contract to supply the Spanish West Indies with 
slaves. The previous charter was abrogated in 
1689, by sections 1 and 2 of the Bill of Rights, but 
the company continued for some time masters of 
the situation, and it was not until the early yeara 
of the eighteenth century that private enterprise in 
the slave trade became successful. The term 
"engrossed in the public stock'' thus becomes 
quite intelligible. J. A. PiCTOK. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

Although I cannot exnlain these words, quoted 
by ZuRT (our old friend was Xury), I may offer 
the following readings. In Elliot Stock's facsimile 
reprint of the first edition of Bobineon Cruioe^ 

Digitized by 




[6th a IX. Jam. 12, '84. 

1719 (1883), the words are " engrossed in the pub- 
Uck "; in' Major's edition, 1831, '^ engrossed in 
the pablic stock'*; in a French translation by 
Petrus Borel, Paris^ 1836, " qai en avaient le 
nonopole public "; in a German version, by Prof. 
Carl Gourtin, Stuttgart, 1836, "er ein Monopol 

Perhaps Defoe wrote *' engrossed /rom the pub- 
lick." Such a phrase sounds harsh and strange; 
l)ut if the kings of Spain and Portugal engrossed 
the trade in negroes, and kept it from the public, 
they might be said to engross it from the public. 
I offer this merely as a suggestion. J. Dizon. 

Thr Manx Lanouaqe (6"» S. vi. 208,435; yii. 
316, 395).— When A Manxican stated that a 
woman who died about ton years ago at the Tillage 
of Eirk Andreas was the last person who could not 
speak English, he should have added, in the 
-northern part of the island. Thus limited, his 
assertion might haye been correct. As it stands it 
is not BO. I have recently made inquiries as to 
the accuracy of the statements contained in my 
former note on this subject, and, through the kind- 
ness of a gentleman who resides permanently in 
the Isle of Man, I am able not only to confirm, 
but to add to them. I haye ascertained that the 
woman Kagan (or Eeggen, as I now haye the 
name) is still liFing, and that both she and her 
liifsband are quite unable to speak or understand 
English. The old man is eighty years of age ; his 
wife, seyenty-eight. It is also stated, on trustworthy 
authority, that in Nonague, four miles from Port 
Erin, is a man named Kurly, who cannot speak 
English; but my information in this case is not 

From the foregoing it will be seen that, with 
regard to language, the inhabitants of the southern 
^rt of the island are more primitiye than those 
of the northern districts. This state of things, 
howeyer, is just the reyerse of what we were asked 
to belieye. The country around Jurby is not un- 
known to me, and I was well aware that in that 
neighbourhood Manx was still spoken. But for 
strangers the district has few attractions save 
Runic stones, and monuments of this class may be 
found in other and more accessible parts of the 
island. 0. W. S. 

Bt-and-bt (6M» S. yiii. 469, 627).— The state- 
ment that by was repeated in order to signify " as 
near as.possible " has no true foundation. Examples 
show that it means rather '' in due order." Such 
'Phrases are best understood by consulting the right 
books, yiz., Matzner's and Stratmann's old Eng- 
lish dictionaries. Matzner is quite clear about it. 
He says that bi and hi sometimes indicates "in 
order, with reference to space." He cites, **Two 
yonge knightes, ligging hy and by,** i. «., side by 
side (Chaucer, C. T.. 1013) ; "He slouh twenti, 
Ther hedes quyto and dene he laid tham bi and 

bi " (JRo&. of BnififM, tr. of Langtofb, ed« Heame, 
p. 267); " His doughtor had a b^ al by hir-selye. 
Right in the same chambre by and by** (Ohanoer, 
0. T., 4140). Here it means in a parallel direc- 
tion ; not as near as possible. Further, says 
Matzner, it is used with reference to the succes- 
sion of separate circumstances ; hence, in due order, 
successiyely, gradually, separately, singly. ''These 
were his woi^es by and by " {Bom, of the Ro9e, 

4581); "Whan William had token homage of 

barons bi and bi" {Rob. of Brunne, as aboye, 

p. 73); "This is the genelogie Of kynges bi 

and bi" {id. p. Ill); "By and 6y, si[n]giUatim " 
{Prompt, Parv.). To these examples may be 
added those already cited. In later times the 

ghrase came to mean "in course of time," and 
ence either (1) immediately, as in the AY. of 
the Bible, or (2) after a while, as usual at present. 
On this later use see Wright's Bible Wordbook^ 
new edition. We thus see that the earliest autho- 
rity for the phrase is Robert of Brunne, who is one 
of the most important authors in the whole of 
English literature, seeing that Mr. Oliphant has 
shown that it is his form of English rather than 
Chaucer's which is actually the literary language. 
It seems a pity, under the circumstences, that he 
should be " a source unknown " to any one ; but 
Hearne's edition is out of print and scarce, and we 
still wait for a new one. Waltbb W. Skbat. 

Portrait of a Lady (6*'> S. yiii. 517).— There 
can be little doubt as to who the lady was, yiz., 
Margaret, daughter of Francis Russell, second 
Earl of Bedford (he died 1585), and wife of 
George Clifford, third Earl of Cumberland. The 
ktter died in 1605, aged forty-seyen, 8.p.m,y but 
left an only daughter, Ann Clifford, married first 
to Richard Sackyille, Earl of Dorset, secondly to 
Philip, Earl of Pembroke. She only had issue by 
her first husband. It appears that Margaret's 
&ther obtained the wardship of George Clifford, 
third Earl of Cumberland in 13 Elizabeth (see letter 
written by him on the subject dated from Russell 
Place, January 3, 1570), and that thus early, 
when his daughter, according to the date on the 
picture, could only haye been ten years of age, 
there had been "communication betweene my 
Lord of Cumberland and me, for the marriage of 
his Sonne to one of my daughters." This marriage, 
though consummated, unfortunately did not turn 
out completely happy, and the earl and his 
consort were separated during the latter years of 
the earl's life. D. G. C. E. 

The arms are those of Clifford impaling Russell, 
and these, together with the coronet and the date, 
readily identify the portrait as that of Margaret, 
Countess of Cumberland. She was wife of Geoige 
Clifford, third Earl of Cumberland, and third 
daughter of Francis Russell, second Earl of Bed- 
ford. Her only suryiying daughter Anne is well 

Digitized by 





known; tihe was married first to Richard Sack- 
Tiile, second Earl of Dorset, and secoDdly to 
Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and Mont- 
gomery, Lord Chamberlain of the Household. 

A. E. Lawson Lowe, F.S.A. 
Sbtrenewton Hall, near ChepBtowe, Men. 

The lady represented in the picture described 
by BoiLSAU must be the Lady Margaret Eussell, 
wife of George Clifford, third Earl of Cumberland. 
She was bora on the 6th or 7th of July, 1560, and 
was married at St. Mary Overie's Church in 1577. 
She was the mother of the famous *' Anne Dorset, 
Pembroke and Montgomery," who thus wrote of her 
mother : — 

" This Margaret Rassell, Countess of Cumberland, was 
endowed with many perfections of mind and body. She 
was natarally of a high spirit, thouKh she tempered it 
wcU with grace, having a yery well-fayoured face, with 
sweet and quick grey eyes, and of a comely personage.'* 

This is the portrait of Lady Margaret, third 
daughter of Francis, second Earl of ^dford, who 
married in 1577 George Clifford, third Earl of 
Cumberland, H. S. W. 

Dandy (6* S. viii. 616). — Dandiprat was an 
old name of derision applied to a dwarf. Minsheu, 
1617, gives it, "a dwarf, ex. Belg. danten, i. inep- 
tire, et prcele, i. sermo, nugse, fabulsd''; after 
which be gives a second use of the word as applied 
to money: ^^Dandiprat or dodlcin, so called because 
it is as little among other money as a dandiprat 
or dwarfe among other men." (See "Dodkin" 
and "Dwarf.") The modern word dandy had 
probably no connexion with dandiprat^ and 
originated in slang. According to Grose (Classical 
I>ictionary, 1788) a very favourite slang expres- 
sion about 1760 was, ^'That's the barber,'' mean- 
ing that is the right thing. When the " barber" 
became vulgar a new slang word was employed, 
and the saying became '^ That 's the dandy," which 
in turn was superseded by other terms, such na 
"That's the ticket" and "That's your sort." 
The use of dandy as equivalent to " all right " is 
hardly yet extinct, for I not long since heard a 
carpenter whose saw did not cut, wanting, as he 
expressed it, "to be eharps'd," and who took up 
another in better condition, say, " Ah ! that *s the 

The introduction of the modern slang word 
dandy as applied, half in admiration and half in 
derision, to a fop dates from 1816. John Bee 
{Slang Dictionary^ 1823) says that Lord Peter- 
sham was the founder of the sect, and gives the 
peculiarities as " French gait, lispings, wrinkled 
foreheads, killing king's English, wearing immense 
plaited pantaloons, coat cut away, small waistcoat, 
ciavat and chitterlings immense, hat small, hair 
frizzled and protruding." There is a good picture 
of the " Fashionable Fop " in the Bvsy Body for 

March, 1816, but the word dandy is not used^ 
Pierce Egan, in his edition of Grose, 1823, says 
the dandy in 1820 was a fashionable nondescript — 
men who wore stays to give them a fine shape, 
and were more than ridiculous in their apparel :^ 

'* Now a Dandy *b a thing, describe him vrho can ? 
that is very much made in the sliape of a man ; 
bat if but for once could the fashion prevail 
He 'd be more like an Ape if he had but a tail." 

The dandy of 1816-24 was, in fact, the old 
macaroni depicted in the London Magazine for 
April, 1772. The dandy of 1816 led to several 
other applications of the word, such as dandizette 
and dandy-horse, or velocipede. Of this latter Bee 
says (1823) : " Hundreds of such might be seen in a 
day; the rage ceased in about three years, and the 
word is becoming obsolete." The word dandy has 
certainly not become obsolete, but after 1825 its 
meaning gradually changed ; it ceased to mean a 
man ridiculous and contemptible by his effeminate 
eccentricities, and came to be applied to those 
who were trim, neat, and careful in dressing 
according to the fashion of the day. 

Edward Sollt. 

Surely dandy must be the French dandtn, as 
"un grand dandin"; to which noun is also the 
verb dandiner, explained thus in Fleming and 
Tibbins's Grand Dietionnaire: "Balancer son corp# 
nonchalaniment, soit expr^3, scit faute de conte- 
nance"; this affected nonchalance is quite the 
dandy affectation.. Of course the English mean- 
ing given is ** a noddy, a ninny "; but " il marche 
en se dandinant" is not to walk like a ninny, but 
to walk with the affected airs of a m»n about 
town, a buck, a dandy, in short. 

E. CoBHAM Brewer. 

Is not the obvious derivation from dandiner, 
to walk in the mincing manner of the traditional 
dandy 1 Brachet and Egger put down dandiner 
among words of ^* origine inconnue," adding that 
it has been personified in the character of Georges 
Dandin. R. H. Buss. 

In Shropshire bantam fowls are invariably called 
dandies. Boilbau. 

"Ofifia yrjs (6^ S- viii. 208, 456).— So far as my 
limited knowledge of Greek litemture extends, I 
venture to assert that this expression is not applied 
to Athens. Athens and Sparta were regarded as 
" the eyes of Greece," and it is to this that Milton 
probably alludes in Paradise Regained, iv. 240. In 
Aristotle's Rhetoric (iii. 10) we have the remark- 
able expression, koI Ac^riVnsircoi AaiccSataonwv 
ovK cav irepuSeiv ttJv 'EAAaoa kr€p6<f>daXpov 
yevofjLevrjVf in reference to Leptines dissuading the 
ISpartans from razing Athens to the ground, as 
was proposed at the close of the Peloponnesian 
war : " They were not to put out one of the eyes 
of Greece." But I am unable to adduce any 

uigmzea oy ^.jv^v^ 




(6tfc 8. IX. Jak. 12, '84. 

passage from a Greek author in which either 
Athens or Sparta is called an "eye of 
Greece/' I note that in the Eutnenidts of 
-^schylus (949, 950, Lin wood) 6/JLfia yap voLO^'i 
X^ovo9 Bt^ctt/Sos does not mean Athens, but '* the 
flower of the whole land (or city) of Theseus," 
meaning, of course, the pick of the people there. 

0. M. I. 
Athenscum Club. 

I am grateful to the gentlemen who have come 
to my assistance. Their kindness is by no means 
lessened by the fact that another correspondent of 
*'N. &Q." sent me the same information privately. 
When I sent my query I was of opinion that Mr. 
Swinburne's line — 

" Then the whole world's eye was Athens " — 
had its prototype in uEschylus. Now I have the 
best possible authority for knowing that line is an 
expansion of Milton, P. jR., iv. 240, anent which 
the best comment is Masson's note in loe, Mr. 
£. Mabsh all's letter is valuable as particularizing 
this vague reference found therein : " This image, 
Danster goes on to say, is mentioned in Aristotle's 

Perhaps those who have so kindly taken up 
this question may be able to answer another. 
Klisson says : " Newton notes, * Demosthenes 
calls Athens somewhere the eye of Greece, 
o<^^aX/xo9 *EXXa6o9, bub I cannot at present 

recollect the place.' Dunster adds, 'I cannot 

discover the passage referred to by Bp. Newton.' " 

68, Lamb*s Conduit Street. 

The Memoirs of Thomas Pichon (6'** S. viii. 
468;.— The volume by Thomas Pichon, entitled 
LtUrts it Mimoires pour servir a VHxstoire 
Naturelle, CiviUy it Politique dn Cap -Breton 
jusqu'in 1758, was printed in 1760 in London, 
though with the rubric of La Haye. The volume 
does not, however, contain the *' mdmoires " pro- 
mised by the title, but only the letters. These 
"mimoires" have never been printed. Shortly 
before the publication of the volume, being dis- 
gusted with the management of French colonial 
affuirs, Pichon came to London, and passed the 
remainder of his life there or in Jersey under the 
name of Tyrrel. He formed a valuable library 
(though certainly not 30,000 volumes, as stated by 
M. Ravaiason in his Rapports eur Us Bibliotheqites 
de I' Quest), which, on his death in 1781, he be- 
queathed to his native town of Yire; and though 
his collections were much pillaged during the 
Kevolution, many of his books having been de- 
stroyed and others appropriated by the library of 
Caen, between two and three thousand of them 
are still to be found in the public library of 
Vire. His manuscripts and papers were included 
in the bequest of his library, and ought still to be 
found there. The excellent manuscript catalogue 

of the library at Vire is prefaced by a long bio- 
graphy of Pichon. Thirty years ago I made 
several extracts from it, which I famished to Mr» 
Edwards for his Memoirs of JMrarieB (voL iL 
p. 335). It is not impossible that this life may 
contain some reference to the promised memoirs. 
The life of Pichon in the Biograpkie QiniraU^ 
from which B. T. quotes, although it cites as it» 
authority Seguin, Essai sur VEistoire de Vire^ iSy 
like most of the less important lives in the book, 
simply an abridgment of the article on the same 
person in the Biographie Universelle, which is the 
best printed account of Pichon, though much less 
full than the manuscript memoir before referred to. 
BiCH. 0. Christie. 
YirglDia Water. 

Ecclesiastical Ballads (6^ S. viii. 429, 542)^ 
— ^Let me inform E. A B. that the couplet he 
gives is not quite correct. The collection he 
inquires for is " Songs and Ballads for the People, 
By the Bev. Jobn M. Neale, B. A, of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. Published by James Burns, 17^ 
Portman Street, 1814." The first in the collection 
is called 

" The Church of England. 
" The good old Church of England ! 

With Her Priests through all the land^ 
And Her twenty thousand Churches, 

How nobly does She stand ! 
Dissentera are like muabrooms 

That flourish but a dav ; 
Twelve hundred years, through smiles and tears 
She hath lasted on alway." 

There are four verses in this ballad. The collec- 
tion contains sixteen songs and ballads. I cannot,, 
for the moment, place my hands on the other quo- 
tation E. A. B. gives in reference to meeting houses. 
There is no prose article in this particular tract. 

Wm. Vincent. 
Belle Vue Rise, Norwich. 

GoosB House (6** S. viii. 448). —Under thi» 
expression Wright's ProvindaX Dictionary has : — 

'"A place of temporory confinement for petty 
offenders, appended generally to a country house of 
correction, or Beisions house, for security until they can 
be carried before a magistrate. Of small dimensions 
generally : whence probably the name, which I rather 
think is confined to East Anglia.'— Moor's Suffolk MS** 

Double Christian Names (6"* S. vil 119, 
172 ; viiu 153, 273, 371).— In Muratori's Annali 
d'ltalia, vol. ix. p. 314 (Lucca, 1763), is th» 
following: " II piccolo duca di Savoia Carlo Gio- 
vanni Amadeo in quest' anno (1496) manco di 
vita." The Eistoire de la Maison RoyaU de 
France, par le P. Anselme (Paris, 1726), makes 
Urraque, natural daughter of Alphonso I. of Por- 
tugal (b. 1110, d. 1185), marry Pierre Alfonso de- 
Yiegas (vol.i. p. 575). In Venezia^ one of the series 
"Le Cento citt& d'ltalia,'' published at Milan, 

uigiiizea oy x._jv>^v^ 


«i*S.IX Jah.12,'84.] 



1879, " per cnra del Prof. Q. de Nino," Pietro 
Centranigo Barbolano is giYen as Doge of Venice 
1026-1032 ; bat I find him elsewhere (Bisioire 
de Venitey par £. Sergent) mentioned as Pietro 
Gentianigo, and the first indispatably doublj- 
vamed doge is Marc Antonio Trevisan, 1553-54. 
To descend to less illustrious individuals, on p. 52 
of The Hiitorie of Guieciardin, containing the 
Watres of ItcUie and other Partee reduced into 
Englieky by Greffray Fenton, imprinted at London, 
1599, John Jacques Trinulce is described as " a 
captain valiaunt and particular in the profession 
of hononr " in 1495. Jean Gtlles du Buat, Seigneur 
de la Blandini^re, was the son of Jean du Buat 
and Jeanne de Charnactf, who were married " par 
contrat da 8 Ao^t, 1442 " {Nobilaire de Normandie, 
Tol. i. part ii. p. 44). Jean Francois de la Mirandole 
was the father of the great Jean Pic de la Miran- 
dole, who was born in 1463. Boss O'Gonnbll. 

Ths Official Seals of American Bishofs 
(6** S. vii. 484, 502).— There is an error which 
asks for correction in these lists. Among the 
dioceses having no seals I included '* Western 
New York," and among those having seals I placed 
^' Baffdlo." Bufifiilo is the chief city of the diocese 
of " Western New York," but does not give the 
name to the diocese, and there is, therefore, no 
see of "Buffalo.'' "Western New York" was, 
liowerer, as I regret to find, correctly classed; for 
the seal described, though designed for that diocese, 
has never yet been actually cut or ased as such. 

H. W. 
New UniTepsity Club. 

London Customs Bill op Entry (6'** S. viii. 
447). — A list of goods imported and exported at 
London, or, as it is termed, the " London Customs 
Bill of Entry/' can be found in the old issues of 
the Beading Mirciiry, A facsimile of the first 
issue of this paper, dated July 8, 1723, is now 
being issued as a supplement to the present Read- 
ing Mercury; the original is to be found in the 
Boidleian Library, Oxford. Jno. H. Bullock. 

lis. Abbey Street, S.G. 

AoNEvr, McLbroth, &c. (6** S. viii. 449).— For 
promotions, or certainly implied promotions,! would 
suggest referring to the old Army Lists (failing 
any original MS. source). Many of these are pre- 
served in the British Museum. I may also remark 
that names such as McLeroth are very uncertain 
as to initial letter, the above being varied to 
McCleroth, Mcllroth, McUwraith, McClewraith, 
&C. M. G. 

Rose Villa, Bumham, Bucks. 

While=Until : Mova (6«» S. iv. 489 ; vi. 
56, 177, 319 ; vii. fi8. 616 ; viii. 91, 278, 354, 
41 IX — A Cheshire lady some years ago told me 
that she once, accompanied by a female relation, 
entered an auction room in Chester during the 

progress of a sale, and that upon catching sight of 
the auctioneer she moved to him, illustrating her 
statement by suiting the action to the word as she 
spoke to me, and showing me how she bovoed to 
him. The auctioneer, misinterpreting the lady's- 
action, accepted the move as a bid, and knocked 
down the lot he was then offering to her. 

W. H. Husk. 

A year ago, when I came first into Lincolnshire,. 
I was at once struck by this use of while ; and I 
may say that in this neighbourhood it appears to 
be the almost invariable custom to use the word in 
this sense. I once beard our old clerk reverse the 
order, and say '* until my son was alive," but that 
is the only occasion. Is it not, however, probable 
that the local phraseoloj^y is much the same on 
both sides of the Humber ? I was much amused 
the other day to come across the same use of whiU 
in Macbeth, III. i. 43:— 

" To make society 
The sweeter welcome, we will keap ourself 
Till supper time alone : tehiU then, Ood be with you ! " 

Your correspondent would scarcely conclude fron^ 
this passage that Macbeth and Shakspere were- 
Yorkshiremen ! I have also heard move used here 
for bow or take the hat off, but am told that it i» 
an expression confined to no special county in 
England. C. Moor, 


The Gospel for CaRiSTMA.8 Day as a Ciiarjt 
(6*** S. viii. 490). — I cannot see the connexion be- 
tween the quotation from Jacobus Sprenger and 
the passage in Hamlet. The heading, moreover, 
to W. C. B.'s note does not appear in any way 
applicable to its contents. In the lines addressed 
by Marcellus to Hamlet, Shakespear alludes, of 
course, to the monkish tradition tha^, on the night 
before Christmas Day the great festival is an- 
nounced by the crowing of " the bird of dawning.'* 
It was commonly believed, too, in Elizabethan 
times that the cattle knelt down at midnight on 
Christmas Eve. Both of these events may occa- 
sionally have happened at that season, from 
entirely natural causes. I have often at night 
seen the cattle browsing on their knees, and it is 
certainly not uncommon to hear chanticleer shout- 
ing during the hours of darkness. A classical 
example will readily occur to all. It was at night 
that the cock crowed when Peter denied our 
Saviour. And I cannot refrain from mentioning 
the characteristic trait of human nature that in all 
the four Gospels the story of Peter's disloyalty is 
told with graphic details, while events of greater 
importance, such as the Last Supper, are overlooked 
by one or more of the Evangelists. 

In a delightful book of travels which appeared 
two or three years ago allusion was made to a 
curious wave of unrest which, a few hours 
before dawn, seems to pass over all animal life« 


NOTES AND QUERIES. r^s-ix JA».i2/gt 

I asked a question on the subject in Folk lore 
Eecord for 1880, but my inquiry elicited no 
information. Two or three hours before sun- 
rise, sometimes even at midnight, the animal 
world is aroused by some common instinct, which 
naturalists have hitherto failed to explain. The 
small birds on the trees begin to sing, the sheep 
(;raze, the cattle, raiding themselves on their hind 
legs, browse in a kneeling posture, and the cocks 
crow lustily. In a few minutes it ceases, and all 
is again at rest. Perhaps some of your contri- 
butors can throw some light on thi? curious natural 
phenomenon, which doubtless gave rise to the 
legend alluded to by Shakespear in the lines 
quoted by W. 0. B. F. G. 

The Ndmbsr of Ancestors (6*** S. viii. 65, 
115, 237). — Allow me to correct three slight errors 
in my note on this subject. I find that the Queen's 
l^reat- granddaughter is railed Feodore and not 
Victoria ; the Grand Duke of Hesse is descended 
four times from the House of Bavaria ; and Albert 
of Batavia (p. 23S) ehould be of Bjivaria. Since I 
pnnned my first note I have examined the seize 
quartiers of eighty living members of royal and 
princely families ; not on<) is descended from six- 
teen, frtmilies. Ttie Archduke Leopold Ferdinand 
is descended from only three familiep, ten times 
from that of Bourbon ; his father, the ex-Grand 
D jke of Tuscany, from four ; the Emperor of 
Br«z^, Henri de Bourbon, son of the Duke of 
Parma, and the Due d'Orl^ans, from five families 
each ; the Archduke Leopold Salvator from four 
families. If K'ng Alfonso's pedigree were above 
suspicion, he would descend from only three 
fdmiiiep, ihree-fouiths of his presumed ancestors 
being Bourbons. In every instance the descent is 
of five generations. Edmund M. Boyle. 

Dii. Thomas Grey (6*»» S. viii. 449). —There is 
a further error which K. L. M. has omitted to 
notice. Gray died on July 30, 1771, about an 
hour before midnight, but Dodsley's AnnucU 
Bejiiter gives the date as being July 31. 

G. F. R. B. 

Cross on Loavks (6'*» S. vii. 427; viii. 75, 
391, 602, 528).— I have frequently heard Kent 
and Sussex cottagers say, when they ** set the 
sponge," '* You must make a cross over it, or the 
dough will never rise." R. H. BasE. 

Registers of Wei^h CHURcnES (6^** S. viii. 
469). — With regard to the latter part of this query, 
the Welsh and Saxons' laws are compared in the 
Rev. W. Barnes's J^Tofw on A^ieient Britain and 
ike Britons, published in 1858 by J. Russell Smith, 
Soho Square. B. F. Scarlett. 

List op English Localities (6'*» S. viii. 223, 
379, 456).— St. Swithin will find the passage 
sought (**Exonia eodem farre reficit homines et 

jumenta '') by referring to the English translation^ 
of Richard of Devizes in Bohn's Ckronicles of the- 
CrusaderSf p. 50, sect. 81, edit. 1865. 

Fred. 0. Frost. 

Berlin Heraldic Exhibition (6* S, vii. 229; 
516). — In the Bibliographer for October, 1882, 
W. M. M. will find a note on the above ezhibl-^ 
tion, which will doubtless be of interest. 


Moxley (6'*» S. viii. 469).— Among other nurse- 
names and nicknames of Margaret we have Mogg. 
and Moggie, hence Mozon (Mogg's son) and the^ 
local surname Moxley. R. S. Oharnock. 

Can W. give any old form of this name ? It? 
does not occur in Ey ton's Staffordshire Domesday. 
Kemble*s Index, vol. vi. contains Moxesdun. This 
points to a personal name, Mox. A.-S. meox means 
dung, from which comes provincial English mixeny 
Germ. mist. F. W. Weaver. 

Pigeon Pair (6"» S. viii. 385).— I have often 
heard this expression used in Hampshire of two 
children, a boy and girl, not twins, who have no 
brother or sister. T. W. 

Bopley, Hants. 

I remember well when a boy that if on cracking 
a nut we found two kernels inside instead of one- 
(which not unfrequently happened), we called tho 
nut a pigeon nut, and the kernels a pigeon pair. 
Robert M. Thurgood. 

Cross Passant (6* S. vii. 227).— W. M. AL's 
query as to the meaning of ** cross passant," as 
applied 6^^* S. vi. 82, has remained unanswered 
nine months. I had hoped Mr. Everard Green 
would have explained, as he used the term. I had 
thought a cross passant was said of a cross with 
floriated ends placed obliquely on the shield as 
carried in walking in procession ; and that when 
it was so placed, and had rectangular ends, it 
represented the cross carried by our Lord, and was 
called a cross versie ; but in all the instances of 
the arms of Clement XIIL I have seen the cross 
has rectangular ends, and is placed perpendicularly; 
so I also should be glad to know in what sense he 
called this a " cross passant." . R. H. Buss. 

Hurly-burly (6**» S. viii. 420. 505).— Hera 
are two more instances of the early use of the 
word: — 

" And in this search made for him, the hurlnf-lurly 
was such that a citizen of the tovrne of Douer waa 
alaine."— G'ra/to?!, 1669, vol. i. p. 181. 

** The troth of this hurly burlye grewe hereof, as it was 
after well knowen."— (?ro/io», 1669, vol. ii. p. 1318. 

As Grafton copied much from Hall, and Holinshed 
copied from both Grafton and Hall, it is not un* 
likely that the word may be found both in Hall 
and Holinshed. I have not time to spare to look 

uigmzea oy 'v_jv>'v^ 


JiH. 12 '{4.] 




at present. That -ever the word shoiilJ he con- 
sidered rare '* caps me a good uu" as the " rascall 
people " say in these parts. B. £• 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

Cure by Touch (6* S. vii. 448 ; riii. 113, 292\ 
— I am informed of another trait of M. Henrici, 
the gentleman mentioned at the last reference as 
•claiming to be *' de la famille des guerissenrs/* as 
he expresses it. Though a professed disciple of 
*^ free thought," he is proad to claim descent from 
the family of St. Boch, the patron of the plague- 
-stricken, as well as from that of St. Louis, and one 
•of bis relations is possessed of a staff believed to 
hb the traditional one used by the saint when he 
went on his missions of healing the sick, and with 
which mediaeval art always depicts him. 

R. H. BoBK. 

TnoifAS Bambridgb (6** S. viiL 187, 316. 375). 
—With reference to the latter part of G. F. R. B.'s 
query, Mr. John Nicholls, F.S.A., in his explana- 
tions of the subjects of Hogarth's works, states: — 

" This very fine picture, Hogarth himself tells as, was 
-Minted in 1729 fur Sir Archibald Grant, of Monymuskf 
Bart., at that time Knight of the Sbire for Aberdeen, 
and one of the Committee represented in the painting." 

The engraving of this picture which I possess is 
•* by T. Cook from an original picture by W. 
Hogarth in the possession of Mr. Ray.'' * 

C. A. Ptnb. 
Hampsiead, N.W. 

Authors of Quotatioms Wanted (6** S. ix. 

'* reams are bat interludes which fancy makes/' &e. 
Dryden*B Tales from Chaucer, - The Cock and the Fox; 
•or, the Tale of the Nun's Priest," 1. S26. C A. PrvK. 


Skmamu at a Science, By Robert Fergnson, M.P. 

(Rootledge k. Bona) 
Whot one thinks of the large literature devoted 
-on the Continent, and especially in Qermany, to per- 
sonal and surnames, one issurpriied that the subject has 
excited so little interest on this side of the Channel. Mr. 
Lower's and Mr. Bardeley's works are the only recent 
English publications dealing with the matter, and, 
valuable as they are in many respects, they lack that 
-thoroughness and scientific method which distinguish 
the researches in nomenclature of oar German neighbours. 
Mr. Ferguson hfis availed himself of many continental 
authorities, and has also gone for information upon Anglo- 
Saxon names to the n>unts furnished by our early 
charters. For these reasons his work is a great advance 
upon those of bis predecessors. Yet it is too much to 
claim for his researches the character of a science. 
Apart from the question whether the word rcience is 
applicable to name-investigations in any other sense 
than that in which it is given to philology generally, wo 
fear bis method is far from sanctioning the ambition dis- 
played in his title. His inductions are far too narrow 
to bear the issues he would force from them. A 
scientific study of the personal nomenclature of any 

Aryan people would involve researches rorerin*; (he 
whole field of Aryan philology. Jf Mr. Fergnson hsd 
been ac<^uainted with the works of Fick, Heintz?, and 
other recent German writers upon his subject, he would 
have been put in pn8%8«ion of principles which wnuld 
have enabled him to avoid Fenoim errors. The fanlt of 
his book is that hnbit of gueuing which the Fcientifio 
man abhors. Finding in 'a recf>nt Kngliih directory 
names that resemble forms that he encounters in 
Kemble's Codex Diplomatieus, or in the Liher Vita of 
Durham, or even in the wide-covering Altdeut$chn 
Namenbvch of Forstemann, he a«sumes. without sufil- 
eient evidence, their identity. He mny be right in 
many cases, but the numbsr of instances in which he is 
wrong will discredit much of what he advances. Take, 
for example, such names as Kennaway, Allowny. Gallo- 
way, and other similar forms. These he would identify 
with such ancient names as Kenewi, A1ei«ih, Geilwih, 
ignoring the fact that these appellations find a ready 
explanation in the correspondin« nnmes «f places (tn 
Scotland^. This ign^oring of place-names as the probable 
explanation of many of our fanitl ar snmame<t is the 
vice of the book, ^n examination of SlRterV Dirtetory 
of Scotland would have convinced Mr. Fergu'on that 
such names as Alderdice, Dyce, Fulltlove, Hannah, 
Kinnaird, are not to be triced to the out-nf.fhe-wny 
forms he adduces, but to localities in North Britain, 
in the neighbourhood of which the families bearing 
these names are still to he found. Perhaps, too, he 
would not have s»id what he does about the termination 
•ttaff in some English surnames if he had thouj^ht of 
the localities similarly denominated, and evidently the 
source of some, if not of all of them, e.ff.^ Bickerstaffe, 
Wagntaffe, be. The same may be said of his Baldridge 
and Hardacre, and other componndR containing -ridge or 
•acrs. This very numerous class has too many repre- 
sentatives in local nomenclature to wsrrant the far- 
fetched origins put forward by Mr. Ferguson. This 
tendency to ignore the easy explanation of surnames 
offered by the names of localities often leads Mr. Fer- 
guson to somewhat startling concluMon«. From such 
names as Godsoe and Vergoose he would imply the 
existence of a High German element among the in- 
vaders of England. Godsoe seems to us to be a local 
name (Gods-hoe), akin to the forms Godsbe and Gods- 
croft, and the name Vergoose is most probably Cornish, 
and of the same kind as Engoose, Mellangoose, Tre« 
goose, Pencoose, Wildicoose, &c., all to be found in 
Cornwall, in the first instance as names of places, and 
afterwards frequently as those of families. The termi< 
nation -goose is the Cornish form of the Welsh cofd=s^ 
wood, and cognate with English heath. If Mr. Fer- 
guson, in another edition of his book, would give 
full credit to the place-name element, and at the 
same time furnish from trustworthy sources intermediate 
links between the early forms he brings forward and 
those which he attempts to explain, his work would 
be most valuable. A a it in, we fear that its merits will be 
overshadowed by its defecfa. Perhaps these defects are 
the necessary attendants of such a pioneer movement as 
Mr. Ferguson has inaugurated in this country. At any 
rate, they will meet with no harsh criticism from any 
one who knows the nature of the labours undertaken by 
Mr. Ferguson and the great difliculties by which they 
are beset. 

The JRozhurghe Ballads, illustratifig the Latt Years of 

the Stuarts, Edited, with special Introduction and 

Notes, by J. Woodfall Ebsworth, M.A., F.S.A. 

Part XIII. (Ballad Society.) 

With the thirteenth number of the Roxlur(:he Ballads 

Mr. Ebsworth commences the fifth volume of (his rapidly 

uigiiizea oy 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [6.»aix.jAii.i2.M. 

progresBing series. With it also terminhtes the second 
group of ballads on the struggle for suocession between 
the Buke of Monmouth and the Duke of York. The 
period coTered in the present number extends from the 
meeting of the Oxfonl Parliament, in the Maroh of 
1680/1, to the week preceding the discovery of the Rye 
House Plot, in June. 1688. The most interesting por- 
tion consists of the ballads on the marriage of Tom 
Tfaynne, and on his murder, at the instigation of Count 
•Koniji:8mark, by Capt. Vratk, Lieut. Stern, and the Pole 
fiorolski, who were banged in Pall Mall, close to the 
flcene of the murder. Bitter lampoons are directed 
against the Duchess of Portsmouth anl other royal 
faTOurites. Through this not too satisfactory epoch in 
our annals Mr. Ebs worth progresses, suppljrinK. in the 
shape of preliminary information and iliustrative com- 
ment, a complete history of tlie country from a strongly 
anti-Monmouth point of view. Few of those who look 
at these quick-succeeding Tolumes can rightly estimate 
the amount of patient labour and active research in- 
Tolred in making the requisite references. Few, more- 
oyer, calculate how cltrar a light is cast upon English 
history by these fragmentary illustrations. No student 
-of history should fail to subscribe to the Ballad Society. 

A Genealogical and Heraldic Dicti<mary of th^ Peerage 
and Baronetage. Together with Memoirs of the Privy 
Councillors and Knights. By Sir Bernard Burke, 
C.B., LL.D., Ulster King at Arms. Forty -sixth 
Edition. (Harrison.) 
^8o full an account of the forty-fifth edition of this im- 
portant historical and genealogical work appeared in 
*' N. & Q.," we are spared the necessity of dealing at 
any length with the present edition. During many con- 
secntive years Burke's Peerage and Baronetage stood, as 
regards fulness and accuracy of information, witliout a 
rival. Strenuous efforts have been made of late to 
undermine its ascendency, but it remains the most 
trusted and the moft TK>pu1ar dictionary of the titled 
•classes in the United Kingdom. In the fulness of the 
genealogical information supplied a chief claim to con- 
sideration is furnished. The procedure of peers, baronets, 
and knights among themselves, military, naval, diplo- 
matic rank and precedence are supplied, and all orders 
and decorations, down to the latest, the Royal Red Cross, 
are given. In the list of those to whom Sir Bernard 
Burke acknowledges his indebtdness for maintaining 
his work at its present standard of efficiency appears 
the name of a constant and valued correspondent of 
"N. k Or," Mr. C. H. £. Oarmichael. 

■Shahetpeariana, VoL I. No. 1. (New York, Leonard 

Scott Publishing Co.; London, Triibner Sc Co.) 
Our enterprising kin beyond sea are, rightly enough, no 
doubt, of opinion that the early devotion of " N. & Q.'* 
to Qhakspeare studies helped greatly to lay the founda- 
tion of its prosperity. That devotion, which is still 
manifest in us by the well-known names of the contri- 
butors to the ever-fresh subject of *' Shakspeariana " 
recurring from time to time in our pages, has passed 
across the Atlantic. It comes back to us in the hand- 
some shape of the new magazine, which we hail as a 
glad omen of increased and increasing appreciation of 
Sbakspeare among the cultured classes of our Trans- 
atlantic kinsfolk. Prose and poetry, things grave and 
gay, even strange and unwonted forms of orthography — 
we should say orthografv^-combine to form the new 
memorial to the Bard of Avon raised in the " Empire 
City " of the United States. We offer our best wishes to 
our new cousin, and hope to have frequent intereoune 
with him on the many topics of interest inaeparablj con- 
nected with the name of Shakspeare. 

Thb well-known Italian publishers Bocea Brothers, of 
Turin, Florence, and Rome, announce for commence- 
ment with the new Tear a quarterly reriew of Italian 
history, under the title of Rivitta Storiea ItaXiani, The 
review, besides dealing critically with Italian history in 
all its phases, for which, we may add, the materials have 
for years past been accumulating throui^h the various 
Commissioni di Storta Patria, &c., will also notice booka 
on Italian subjects published beyond the Alps, and give 
a bibliography of works and of articles dealing with the 
history of Italy. This is a tempting bill of fare for 
lovers of historical studies, and we hope it will be suc- 
cessfully carried out 

Apropos to the current exhibition in the Qrosvenor 
Oallery, Messrs. Reminztan & Co. will immediately pub- 
lish a second and revised eJition of Mr. F. Q. Stephens's 
anecdotic and critical essay on Bnglitk Chddren a» 
Painted hg Sir Joshua Reynold*, which has long been 
out of print. This volume will range with the annotated 
Catalogue of the Grosvenor Exhibition, and comprise a 
copious list of pictures of children as engrayed after 

Thi Aniiqunrian Magazine for January contains^ 
inter alia, articles on the recent discovery of a yiking'a 
tomb at Taplow and on " Garlands for Christmas." 

Mr. Elliot Stock annonnces an edition of Gray's 
S^Sff with illustrations taken principally from the 
scenery round Stoke Pogis and with facsimiles of the 
author's early M:). copies of the poem. 

fiotUti to CorrfKjpontffiiW. 
We miu# call special eUtentum to the foUovring noUe^T 
Oh all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith.* 
Wb cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

R. B. ( " Republican Calendar ") . — A reference to the 
Handy Book of Rule* and Tablet for Verifyin7 Dates of 
the late Mr. John James Bond will be found 6t>> S. yiii. 

J. Manthbl {** All rights reserved ").— Tlie words in 

Suestion, whether used in Great Britairf or the United 
tates, appear to be mere surplusage, and neither confer 
nor declare any righta All that you have to see to is 
that what you propose doing is fairly done. Ce., in 
moderation. We shall probably have an article on the 
whole subject shortly, in connexion with recent dis- 
cussions to which it has given rise, 

R. H. Bf7SK.— The MS. to which you bid us refer was 
forwarded with the proof which was lost in transmission. 

Harold Malbt (" A Mausoleum turned into a Powder 
Magasine ").— The date is obviously to be read back- 
wards, when it is seen to be 1703. 

C. A. Ward ("Quotation Wanted ")•— See C* 8. Tiit. 

W. G. B. P. ("Hull Portfolio ").-Received too lata 
for this week. 

Errata.~P. 8, col. 1, 1. 18 from bottom, for " poma- 
rum " read pomorum, P. 19, col. 2, 1. 23, for " Cousiii '* 
read Cosin, 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to ** Tlia 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'"— Advertisements and 
Business Letters to *' The Publisher "—at the Oflles^ 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state thai we decline to retam oon* 
munioations which, for any reason, we do not prUsi ; aad 
to this rule w« can make no ezeeptioB. 

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WEEKLY 60SSIF on Literature, Science, the Une Arts, Music, and 



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Now ready, demy 8to. oloth. gilt top, IBt. 



Ppeoimens of th« Various Metbodi,iomeluColoan. By JAJCB;* 8Ui: " " ~ *" 

O^Ade Chart tiet."fto. 

Ppeoimens of th« Various Methods, some iu Colours. By JAM Hi 8u IK LEY UODSUN. F.R.S. L.. Author of " A Hi>tory of the frinilnK 


By RICHARD TANGYB. V ith lllostrations by E. 0. Mountfort. Demy 8to. oloth, es. 

A VOYAGE ROUND GREAT BRITAIN. With short Views of Aberdeen, 

Balmoral. Leitb, Edinburgh, Kfnoardine, Siirlioff, ft. Val6ry-en-Caaz, Fteamp. Uarre. and Paris. By Captain THOMAS UAR^ 
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ON the STAGE. Studies of Theatrical History and the Actor's Art. By 

the late DUTTON COOK, Author of ** A Book of the Play," &e. S volt, oxown 8to. oloth. tie. 

" In these dainty little TolnmM, under the able superlntendenoe nf Mr. Hueffier, mn loal authorities of note d«sorib« the Itres a&d erltioiao 
the maeterplecfs of the *Oreat Musiolans,*ooDveving just suoh information as is most required, and thereby satisfying a deairo whioh has 
lately been making itself more aud more felt."— rimes. 



Small post 8T0. e^oth extra, priot St. eaoh. 

• Fnm As TIMES NoHm (/ As fitrisf . 

** Of the many series or eoUeotions of primers and manuals whereby the aequisition of knowledge is now made m> easy, that of whieli Qie 
first fonr parts are now before us bids Hur to proTS the most generally attraetive.... For the taste for mutto is eyer spreading more widely 
among us, and wlih it a wish for the knowledge whfeh eloTaies its enjoyment from a merely sensuous into an intelleotual pleasure. We oan 
reoommsnd them all heartily. We look forward with no slight intarest to the publioation of the other Talumes of this series of smalt but 
talnable books." 

The NEW VOLUMES now ready are .— 
MENDELSSOHN. By W. S. Rookstro, Aatbor I- MOZART. By Dr. F. Gbhrino. 

d'eiiu^JoV'' ""^ ^^^'^'^ "^ ^"^"^ *' **"*" '"' *'^°' **"• I HANDEL. By Mrs. Jullin Marshall. 

The Volumes recenUy puUished are : — 

WAGNER. By the Editor. Second Edition, with 
Additional Matter, bringing the History down io end of issi. 

** The first work in the list, that upon Wagner, written by Mr. F. 
Hnefler. is ftUl of interest, and, we may add, of instruotien, for there 
are still a great many lorers of musie who do not reilly o jmprehend 
the aims of Wagner."— JSra. 

WEBER. By Sir Julius Benedict. 

** Will probably go down to posterity as a standard work within the 
range to whioh It is oonfined. Sir Jolini has n<«leoted nothing of 
importance in WeberV Iife.'*-Jf«sie3l noMS. 

SCHUBERT. By H. F. Frost. 

"•Schubert.' from the pen of Mr. H. F. Frost, oomes to us as the 
workofacarefhland appreciatlTo student of the ill-fated oomposer, 
the key-note of whose life he rightly tonohes when he says, ' The 
nighty power of ceniu*, defiant of oiroamitance and surrouaalng. was 
surely never better illuetrated than in the master whose place and 
mission in the world are to form the sabjeot of thl« Tolnme.'^ 

MmMw Muneal Rwrd. 

ROSSlNr, and the Modem Italian School By H. 

" Mr. Sutherland Edwards has written a rerr lively and InterettlBS 
aoeount of RoeetoL Mr. Bdwards*e book is full of instiruetion. and to 
skllfteUy spriekled with anecdotes."— SatKrday Review. 

PURCELL. By W. H. Cumminos. 

** Mr. Cummings's music U condition peculiarly qualified him fhr the 
performanoe of tbis ttsk. whioh must have inyolved a Tast arnonat oi 
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CONTENTS— N« 212. 
K0TE8:— The Oonmer'i Boll in theBodleUn, 41~Soin«net 
PlMe-NMBOs, iS^AjMniymona Books^SIr J. MandeTiUe— 
TiiBKin in » Ilbciiy, 46~GhrirtmM Mammsn—'* Historical 
Memorials of Wastmlntter Ablwf "~" Dnwiog th« nail »» 
A New •* Venenble,*' ie— New Year's Eve Polk-lore, 47. 

<2€rESI]E3:— Caieliffeonnont-flahing— "In medio spatto," 
Ac.— To Uah— Degradation of DnuikenneBS, 47— Dreu of 
Joekay-Sir Robert Sibbald-Oithomsdic-" Dick Kitoat "— 
Eleeampaae— Aeega Book of the FridanB^Bowllng— Hao- 
tessle Family, 48— Hoppner'e "Sophia Western"— Chetwynd 
^WilMmns mine Sfenr— Burning Old Shoes- Coleridge at 
Clevedon ^84. Jnllan's Pater Noeter — Hoods — Luther 
Pamilj, 49 » Jeremy Taylor's "Holy Living"— Anthois 
Wanted, M. 

fiVPLnS:*Pembeirton*s Perlonr— Bisom's Inn, 50 -Scottish 
HeglmentS'ImiffOpriatlons— "(Mivlero Oromvelle'— Mar^ 
ston's Qoalnt PhraMS, 61 -Bell Inseripiions— Followers of 
*«N. & Q.''-4inotation8 in Green's " History "—Univsrstty 
Gap— dkmpeTs *' Qneen Mab "—Aurora BoreaUs. 62— Bear- 
akin Jobbsr-Wheales Sanies, 63-WUliamlte Wars-Aldine 
Anchor— Fielding's ** Tom Jones "— Qreen Aprons— Printed 
ParishBegisters-" Virtue its own reward," 64— L'Inflaenx& 
-Fox FtynUy— BIpalUe — Ginchrlm-Blshops' Bible. 65- 
Bnried Honse-Lather Medal-Halfpenny of 1663-Baso, 56 
— Ashkey— Lord Bacon— Newcastle Directory— Royal Cosmo- 
graphers— Delaroche's "Cromwell"— New Works suggested 
byAutboTS- "Hystexies of the Court "-Sir J. Odingiells 
Lsehe, Bark, 67— Yore-seit —Tennis— Cariou« Medal— Dr. 
Gay Gsrleton— Henry Mortlock— Barclay's ** Apology," 63- 
Aothon Wanted, 69. 

370TES ON BOOKS:— Twiss's "JHenrld de Bracion de 
Legibns," fte. 

J7otIees to Oorreepondents, &c. 


The Bodleian Libraiy poflsesses a portion of the 
^coToneT's roll for Oxford, containing nine inqaeate 
•held between Dee. 19, 1300, and Jane 15, 1302. 
It appean that ifaia roll is the third part of the 
^M>mplete record, all of which is still in existence, 
bnt, Bttaogely enough, one of the two remaining 
portions is said to be in the archives of Bridg- 
water, the other in the Record Office. The coroner 
is John de Oseneye, and the entries are oon- 

The roll reveals that the following was the 
{process by which these inquests were held. If 
anjr one discovers a person dead in the district, 
it is his or her duty to raise a hae ijevar^ 
•&ii(enum). If the person ^ies in his home or 
lodgings after an accident or woand, information 
is nven to the coroner at once, and the inquest ia 
heQ on the same day. 

The jury is always composed of twenty-foar 
{i«rsoD8, six from foor parishes or hamlets, the first 
six being taken firom the parish or hamlet in which 
the body was disoovered or tl^e mortal accident 
happened. The inqaest is held by the coroner, 
and the joxy dedare the facts on oath. If the 
body has been foand, two pledges or sureties are 
^ven on behalf of the person who raises the hue. 

If the person dies some time after the acddent or 
outrage, no such pledges are exacted. Thejuijr 
farther states, if it knows, who the criminal is^ 
or, in case of an accident, declares that no one ia 
blamable^ If the wrongdoer escapes, the jury 
declares the fact, and assesses the chattels of the 
culprit, if he has an^. When an interval has 
occurred between injary and death the jury 
farther makes oath that the deceased has daly 
received the rites of the Church. The following 
are the inquests : — 

1. Dec. 19, John de Rypnn is found dead in 
the parish of St. Michael in the North, about 
carfew time. The hue is raised by Thomas 
Yvo. The inquest is held next day. He had 
a wound on the head four fingers long and two 
broad, and the skull was exposed. The jurors 
are taken from the parishes of St Michael North, 
All Saints, St. Mildred, and St. Martin. The jury 
find on oath that on the aforesaid day, being Sanday, 
at carfew time, words occurred between John of 
Ripon and one Richard of Maltby, that Richard 
struck John on the head with a staff, and that he 
forthwith died. Two sureties are offered for Tvo. 
Richard Maltby at once -fled, and could not be 
arrested. He has no goods. 

2. Dec. 22, Henry of Buckingham, clerk, 
died in the parish of St. Mary the Virgin. The 
inquest was held by John de Oaney on the same 
day. The head had a mortal wound inflicted by 
a " pollhatchet^^ reaching to the skull, four fingers 
long, and another by a knife^ one finger long and 
two deep, between the nose and le^ eye. The 
jury is from the parishes of St. Mary the Virgin, 
S^. Peter in the East, All Saints, and St. Edward. 
The verdict on oath is that on December 12 tiie 
deceased was attacked on a journey to Oxford by 
unknown thieves, was wounded, and died on the 
day aforesaid. He had all the rites of the ChurdL 

3. Jan. 5, 1301, Robert de Honniton, derk, died 
in the parish of St. Michael at the North Gate, and 
was viewed the same day by the coroner, John de 
Osney. He had no wound, bat his whole body, 
especially on the right side, was blackened and 
swollen. The jary is from the parishes of St. 
Michael in the North, St. MUdred, St. Martin, 
and All Saints. The jurors on oath say that on 
December 31, at the hour of vespers, the said 
Robert de Honniton went up the bell-tower of the 
church of St. Michael, to assist in ringing the 
bells, and unfortanately fell from the tower 
through a hole to the ground, and on his right 
side, so that aU his bones were fractured. Bat he 
lingered on to January 5. He had aU the rites 
of the Church. The jarors say that no one is to 
blame for his death. 

4. June 25, Simon the ffevre, of Wolvercot, and 
Alan, son of William le Strunge, of the same, were 
found dead in a certain close whidi is called 
Wyorof c> in the suburb of Oxford. Alioe de 

Digitized by 



NOTES AND QUERIES. i«»s.ix.ji5.i9.'M. 

Coventry, of Wolvercot,. first found them and 
raised the hue. They were viewed the same day 
by John de Osney, coroner. Simon had a wound 
on the upper part of his head, seven fingers long, 
and reaching to the skull. Alan had a wound six 
.fingers long, also reaching to the skull. The jury 
is from t£e vill of Wolvercot, the hamlet of 
Binsey, the hamlet of Walton, and the parish of 
St. Giles. The jury on oath say that on the day 
before, viz., Sunday, the said Simon and Alan 
were at Oxford, and at twilight left Oxford to go 
to Wolvercot, and when they came to Wycroft, 
certain unknown thieves killed and wounded 
the said Simon and Alan. But they make oath 
that they can name none of the said thieves, nor 
say where they went after the act The sureties 
of the woman who found the bodies are two 
persons of WbWercot 

5. Dec. 7, Hugh Eussell, clerk, of Wales, died 
in hfs lodgings in the parish of St. Peter in the 
East, and was viewed the same day by John Osney, 
the coroner. He bad a wound on the left side of 
his belly, two fingers long and one broad. The 
jury ia from the parishes of St. Peter in the East, 
St. Michael in the South, St. Aldate, and St. 
Mary the Virgin. The jury say on oath that on 
the Monday before (December 4) a quarrel arose 
between the said Sir Hugh and Master Elias, of 
Mongomery, and that the said Master EUas drew 
his knife and wounded the said Hugh in the belly, 
80 that he died on the Thursday following. He 
had all the rites of the Church. And immediately 
after the deed the said Master Elias fied. The 
goods and chattels pertaining to him are worth 
nine shQlings. The two bailifid of the vill of 
Oxford will answer for them. 

6. Dec. 7 (same day), John de Newsham, clerk 
and schoolmaster, was found dead on the bank of 
the Oherwell, near Petti pent. Isabella his wife 
found him dead and raised the hue. He was 
viewed the same day by John of Osney. He had 
no wound nor any visible injury. The jury is 
from the parishes of St. Peter in the East, St. 
John, St. Mary the Virgin, and All Saints. The 
jury declare on oath that the said John de 
Newsham went after dinner to find rods to whip 
the boys whom he taught, and that he climbed a 
willow to cut twigs near the mill pool, which is 
called Temple Hall, and by accident fell into the 
water. The jury on oath say that no one is to 
blame for his death. Sureties are taken for the 
woman who found the body. 

7. Dec. 9, John de Hampstead, in the county of 
KorthamptoD, clerk, was found dead in a garden 
in Oat Street. William le Schoveler first found 
him dead and raised the hue. He was viewed the 
same day by John de Osney, coroner. He had a 
mortal wound on the breast to the heart, made by 
a knife, of two fingers broad. The jury is of the 
parishes of St. Mary the Virgin, St. Mildred, All 

Sainti, and St. John. The jurors declare on oath 
that the said John about curfew time the day be- 
fore left his chamber where he lived, at the north 
side of the great schook, ad fackridam tiHnam^ 
and heard abusive language between Thomas of 
Homcastle and Nichous de la March, detla, 
who live in a chamber at the south side of the said 
schools, and the same John saw the said Nicholas 
de la March draw his knife to slay the said 
Thomas of Homcastle, and ran between them to 

Prevent Ae said Nicholas from killing the said 
homas; and the said Nicholas with the said knife 
struck the said John to the heart, so he straight- 
way died. And the said Nioholis fied, and could 
not be attached because the deed happened at 
night and no hue was raised. Sureties taken for 
the man who found the body. 

8. Aug. 13, 1302, John, son of John Godfrey, of 
Binsey, was found dead on the bank of the Thames, 
near the Wyke. William of Warwick raised the 
hue.* The same day he was viewed by John de 
Osney, coroner. He had no wound or any visible 
injury. The jury is from the hamlet of Binsey, 
the parishes of St. Thomas the Martyr, St. Giles, 
and St Michael in the North. The jury declare 
on oath that on the Saturday before (Aug. 12) the 
said John, son of John Godfrey, was reaping in 
his field at Botley with other reapers all day till 
sunset, and from the heat of the weather he had 
drunk so much that he was drunk, and wished to 
cross the Thames in a boat to his home where he 
dwelt at the Wyke, and as he got into his boat he 
suddenly by accident fell into the water and was 
drowned ; and they say on oath that no one is to 
blame for his death. Two sureties from the man 
who found the body. And the said boat is valued 
at twelvepence, for it is very rotten ; for which 
price the tithing man of Binsey and his whole 
tithing will answer. 

9. June 15, John Oagodeby is found dead in a 
certain lane in the parish of St. Edward. Osbeit 
of Wycomb found him dead and raised the hue. 
The same day he was viewed by John of Osney. 
He had three mortal wounds on the left part of 
his head, each to the skull. The jury is taken 
from the parishes of St. Edward, St. Mary the 
Virgin, St. Aldate, and St Martin. The jurors 
declare on oath that the day before Thomas de 
Weldon, derk, and John the Northerner, his 
servant, and Nichohui de Vylers, of Ireland, clerk, 
met the said John de Osgodeby in the said parish 
of St Edward, and there attacked him with swords 
and slew him, and immediately all fled. No goods 
could be found of the said Thomas, and John the 
Northerner had no goods. There was found of 
goods and chattels of Nicholas de Vylers to the 
value of IZ$, lOd, in clothing and books. For 
these the then bailifis will answer. Two sureties 
from the finder of the corpse. 

Three of the ten deaths are deelsied to be aed^ 

Digitized by 


kfl. IX, Jaw. 19, '84.] 



deately tbree ue the deeds of lobbeiBy four are the 
lenltB of academical qoarrelB. In one case the 
wounded man sornved his iojories ten dajs, in 
another ux. 

Three of the Oxford parishes named have dis- 
appeand. Of these the charch of St Mildred is 
faiown to haye stood on or near the lane between 
Exeter and lincob. That of St. Michael in the 
Sooth was absorbed into the sonth-west angle of 
tiie Rteat qnadrangle of Christ Charch at the date 
of Wolsey's fbnndation. St Edward's was on the 
south side of Bine Boar Lane, for its site ia now 
also included in Christ Charch (PeahaU). 

Poor of the existing Oxford parishes of ancient 
origin are not named— St Ebbe, St. Peter in the 
Bailj, St Mary Magdalen, and HolywelL It Lb 
probable that two of these at least were not 
parishes at this early date, and perhaps none of 
thenL The manor of Walton lay beyond the 
north hundred of Oxford, and about this time was 
the property of the abbess of Godstow, though 
Morton College daimed some rights over it 

At this period there was omy one college in 
Oxford, that which Merton had founded about 
thirty years before, for Balliol and Uniyersity 
Colleges were not settled, their revenues being as 
jet a few scanty pensions, but without any real 
incorporation. There were probably many such 
imperfect foundations which haye been lost 
Jakes E. Thorold Bogbrs. 




{Continued from 6*^ S. viii. 462.) 

The names in parentheses are the old forms of 
the names of the parishes, taken from Eyton's 
Domesdai^ Studies and from Collinson's Somerset 

AuthorUies quoted, — ^Taylor's Words and Places, 
T. Edmunds's Names of Places, E. Bosworth's 
Attglo-Saxim Diet, B. Skeat's Etym. Diet,, S. 
Lbt of A.-S. root-words in vol. iii. of Eemble's 
Codex Dip, JEvi Saxoniei, and also the list of 
place-names in yoL ti., E. 

Kailsea. — A.-S. ncsgel, a nail or pin. Also the 
name Nigel. Nail8ea= Nigel's water, E., p. 255. 
K. gires Nteglesbume (Hants), Neglescumb 
(SomcTB.), Neglesledh (Glos.). 

Nempnett— K, p. 266: "Nemp, Nym, a 
personal name, see Shakspere's K, Henry IV,; 
probably a contraction of Nehemiab. Ex., Nymen- 
hut or Nemp-nett (Som.), Nym's hut ; Nymsfield 
(Olos.); Nymton and Nymet (Deyon)." In con- 
firmation of this I may mention that I haye heard 
Kim used as a short name for Nehemiab since I 
bare been here. 

1. Nether Stowey (Estalweia, Estaweia, Stawe); 
1 Oyer Stowey.— JTetAer (=lower) is a compara- 
tiTe, see 8. Our word stow, to pack away, comes 

from A-S. st6w, a place, root sta, to stand, S., 
root No. 418 in list of Aryan roots. Cf. Morwen- 
stow (Cornwall). 

Nettlecombe (Netelcomba). — ^A-S. neiele, neile 
(a diminntiye form, B,), a nettle. E., p. 256, 
suggests snidan, to cut, and says Nettlecombe 
the separated land in the dingle. Cf. Nettlestead 
(Kent aod Saffolk), Nettlebed (Oxon), Nettleden 
(Bucks), Nettleham (Line), Nettleton (Line, and 

Newton St Loe (Newetona). — For the family 
of St. Loe see CoUiDson's Somerset, iii. 342 and 
other references in Marshall's Geriealogisfs Guide, 

1. Norton St Philip (Nortuna) ; 2. Norton 
Malreward ; 3. Norton-sub-Hamdon ; 4. Norton 

3. Northtown under Hamdon HilL 

4. For the family of Fitzwarren see Collinson's 
Somerset, iii. 271, and other references in Mar- 
shall's Genealogist's Guide, 

1. North Newton (Newentone) ; 2. Northoyer. 
E., p. 260, says over is from ofre, margin or edge. 
As a suffix it^a hill site, as Condoyer (Salop) ; as 
a prefix it = higher of two places, as Over Stowey 
and Nether Stowey (Soms.;. See E., iii. xxxiy. 
Bosworth has ofer, a margin, brink, bank, shore. 
Oyer, A-S. ofer, Gr. virep, Lat super, closely 
allied to up, S. 

Njnebead (Nichehede ; Nigon hldon, E., 897). 
— This = the parish containing nine hides. Cf. 
Fiyebead (Soms,). 

Nunney (Nonin, Noian). — Assuming that niiti 
is the root of this name, we get a confirmation of 
this in the form Nonin, remembering that the 
Domesday names are A.-S. forms written by 
Norman scribes. O.F. nonne= nun, see S. 

Nanne : '' A nunne was a person adyanced in 
years, but aminicm appears to haye been younger ** 
(B.). For an account of Nunney Castle see Murray^ 
p. 371. 

Oake (Acha).— AS. dc, M.E. ooh or oke, S. 
Sometimes ock in place-names. 

Oare (Ar, Are).— T., p. 331 : ''Or, A-S. ora, 
the shore of a riyer or sea, e,g,, Bognor, Cumnor, 
Oare near Hastings. Windsor, anciently Windle- 
sora, the winding shore." See E., iii. zxxy. 

Odcombei (Odecoma).'~Probably from the name 
of the owner. Odder (D.)» otter: a Mercian 
noble, Oddo, is commemorated in Worcestershire 
tradition. Cf. Oadby (Leic), Odiham (Hants), 
E., p. 258. 

1. Orchardleigh (Hordcerleia) with Lullington ; 
2. Orchard Portman. — "The name Orchard only 
occurs in Wilts, Somerset, and Dorset," E., p. 259. 

1. LuUington : see Kemble's Saxons in Eng- 
land, I 469. Among ''The Marks'' he finds the 
LuUingas in Lullingfield (Salop), Lullin^tane 
rEent), Lullingstone (Eent), Lullington (i>erb.» 
Somers., Sussex). , ^ „. 

2. For the Portman family a^ CoUmson's 

uigiiizea oy ' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [(^ s. ix jait. 19, si. 

Somersetf i. 62 ; iii. 274, 283 ; and other refer- 
ences in Marshall. 

Othcry (included in Bowi, Domesday). — ^This 
name=Otho's water or stream, E., p. 260. Gf. 
Otham (Kent), Otholege, now Otiey (York?, and 

1. Otterford ; 2. Otterhampton (Otremetone) — 
A.-S. oter, an otter. K., toI. yi., has Otershaghe, 
Ottershaw (Surrey), Oteresbdm (Berks), Otereshol 

Paulton.— Thi8=St. Paul's town, E., p. 263. 
There were Paltons of Somerset, see Vititation of 
Somerset (Sir T. Phillipps), 124. 

Pawlet (Paulet, Payalet).— N.F. from the name 
of the lord, E., p. 263. For the Paulet family see 
references in Marshall 

Peasedown. — ^From St. Peg«s d. a.d. 714, to 
whom Peakirk (Northants) is still dedicated. Cf. 
Peasemarsh (Suss.), Pegsworth (Leic), E., p. 263. 

1. Pendomer (Penna); 2. Pennard, E. (Pennar- 
ministre ; Penuard, K.) ; 3. Penselwood (Penna). 

1. Possibly from Penda, king of Mercia. K., 
vol. yi., has Pendan s^c, 262; Pendan cumb, 1244; 
Penderes clif, 1266; Pendre, 1143. 

2. and 3. The first syllable is Celtic pen, 
a headland or hill. A.-S. sdl=good, excellent. 
Selwood Forest may mean excellent forest or holy 
forest, from a deriyed word sdligf holy. Bosworth 
makes Silohester=Selchester=good city. 

1. Perrott, N. (Peredt); 2. Petherton, N. (Nort 
Pedret); 3. Petherton, S. (Sut Peretona).— All on 
the riyer Parret. "Jx6 is a purely Saxon name^ 
which seems to haye supplanted the British name, 

if such there eyer were Other small riyers, 

such as the Parret, haye in like manner had their 
British names obliterated by the Saxons and 
Angles" (E., p. 16). In the A.-S, Chronicle it 
would seem that the Parret, which is allied 
Pedride, Pederede, Pedrede, takes its name from 
Pederida, king of the West Saxons. Parret, if 
Oeltio, would probably be from Irish and obs. 
Gael, breath, pure, clear, from which comes the 
Bratha, in the Lake district. (See Ferguson's 
Bivcr Names, p. 164); but this is not Ferguson's 
own deriyation. He connects Parret with Gr. 
iriQ) and A.-S. pidele, a thin stream, Piddle being 
the name of seyeral small streams. . Cf. Puddle- 
hinton and Puddletrenthide Dorset): see E., 
p. 265. 

1. Pill(Pille); 2. Pilton (Piltona; Pulttin, K., 
vol vi.); 3. Pylle (Pilla).— Pool, pill ; Wehh pwl, 
an inlet or pool, e.9. Pill in Somerset, Poole in 
Dorset, Bradpole, Pwlheli, Liyerpool, T., p. 331. 
The place is called Pull in Somerset dialect. 

1. Pitcombe (Pidecome) ; 2. Pitminster (Pin- 
peministra ; Pipmynster, K.) ; 3. Pitney (Pete- 

1- From A.-S. pyt, Lat pnteus : see K, iiL 
XXXV. Pitcombe=the deep valley. 

2. The oldest form, Pipmynster, would seem to 

point to a personal name Plppa. There was a 
saint of that name who was Bishop of Lichfield r 
see E., p. 266. Pipeminstre is giyen by Collinson 
as the Domesday form. 

3. This may mean St. Peter's Island. Fitter is 
the local pronunciation of Peter. 

1. Porlock (Portloc); 2. Portbury (Porberia); 
3. Portishead (Portesheye).— These three places 
are close to the sea, but Eemble (iii. xxxy) giyes 
port, a port or town; this accounts for such inland 
names as Langport, &c. 

1. This name=the enclosed or landlocked port, 
E., p. 267. Port, a bank, a lauding place, a 
fortress, Joyce, ii. p. 230. 

Poyntington (Ponditona). — Puntingas, Point- 
ington, Somerset, Eemble's 8.E., i. 471. 

Priddy.— " Pridd, British, earth. Ex. Ty-pridd, 
earth house," E., p. 268. 

Priston (Priactone).— Thia=priest's town, E., 
p. 268. 

Publow.— ^B/cBW, a hill (low). I shall be glad 
to receiye suggestions for the first syllable. 

Puckington. — Pucingas, Puckington, Somerset, 
Eemble's 8.E., i. 471. Prom Pucca, the lord's 
name, E., p. 268. 

Puddimore Milton (Middeltbna). — I suspect 
Puddimore is a family name, though it is not con- 
tained in Marshall's Guide, Pudda, a man's name, 
may be at the root of this name, E., p. 268. Cf. 
Pnttanheath, now Putney. 

Puriton (Peritona). — For the family of Pury see 
Harl. Soc, y. 189. (1) Perhaps from burh, a 
fortified place, which occurs only in four instances 
(Ex-Hartpury, Glouc), E., p. 269, or (2) pyrie 
or pirige, a pear tree : see Bosworth. 

Puxton (Pixton, Potesdone). — Pucca, the lord's 
name, E., p. 268. Cf. Puckington (aboye). 

F. W. Weaver. 

Milton Yicarage, Erercreech, Bath. 
{To he coniiniud,) 

Huntspil (&^ S. yiiu 403). — Does not pUl mean 
a landing-place, just as hard does on the coast of 
Hampshire ? Cf. Pile, near the mouth of the Bristol 
Ayon. Indeed, the word is still in use in Somer- 
setshire in such phrases as " landing on the piUJ' 
I do not think it has anything to do with pool, but 
more probably with pile. It is not an unlikely 
way of making a rude pier to driye piles into the 
soft mud of the shore and so make a hard footing. 

Kewsioke, Keynsham (6»*» S. yiii. 403).— Both 
these places are probably named from the same 
person, for whose history see Jones's Bncknoch' 
shirs and Southey's introduction to his ballad The 
Well of 8L Keyns, She is said to haye been the 
daughter of the Welsh prince Brychan, from whom 
Brecon deriyes its name, and to haye founded a 
nunnery at Keynsham, of which she became abbess. 
There is a parish in Herefordshire, on the actual 
border of Breoonshire, called Cusod. This place was 
formerly known as Eynshope, ana the name is so 

uigitizea oy %_j\^v^ 





tpelt ID tiie InquinHo Nanarumj where it is men- 
tjODM^ together with the seighboariDg pariBhes of 
CUSotd and Whitney, as being in the Marches of 
Wales. I doubt whether Eew, near London, has 
anything to do with her. 

LiUon (6*^ S. yiii. 404) » a bnrial-groand. So in 
the phrue Church KUon. Probably the first syl- 
lable is the same as that of Xte^field, Xtdi^gate. 
Church litton occurs in the- register of this parish, 
imp. Edw. VI. T. W. 

Sopley, Hants. 

Anontmous BooKa— It is worth while for 
"K. & Q." to record the anthorship of anonymons 
books whidi have escaped the vigilance of the late 
editors of the very y<daable Dictionary of the 
Afunynunu at\d Fseudonymoui Literature of Great 
Britain^ and of the watchfulness of the present 
editor, who himself is, so far, anonymons. If an 
appendix is given with the forthcoming yolame of 
that work the following title should be included : 

''A OonciM Vindication of the Condact of the Fito 
Suipended Members of the Cooneil of the Roval Aca- 
demy. ByAnthority. [Qaotation.] London, printed for 
John Stockdale, 1804." 8to. pp. 46. 
In his recent Life of Lord Lyndkuret^ Sir Theodore 
Martin states, on the authority of William Jerdan, 
that this pamphlet was written by John Singleton 
Copley, afterwards Lord Lyndhurst, whose father, 
it will be remembered, was one of the five sus- 
pended members. Mr. Jerdan thought his copy 
of this tract was probably unique, but there is 
another in the Miinchester Free Library. 

While I am writing, may I ask if any reader 
can give the author's name of the following tract? 

<' Marks and Be>MftrkB for the Catalogue of the 
Exhibition of the Rojal Academy, xdooolyi. By A. E. 
Comitis prodncti comes. London, W. J. Qolboum, 1856." 
8to. pp. 32. 

There was a second edition with alterations. It is 
in rerse — a sort of parody of Longfellow's Hiaioaiha. 
A copy before me has the author's initials, B. J. L., 
written on the title. Ohas. W. Sutton. 

121, Chorlton Boad, Manchester. 

Sib Jobv Mandbyills.— A writer in the 
Satwrdcm lUview (Nov. 10, 1883), noticing Miss 
Emma Phipson's book, entitled The AnimaUlore 
of Shakiepeare'i Time (Eegan Paul & Co.), ob- 
serres : — 

*« While we are citing Manderille, we thmk Mias Phip- 
son might well baTe giTen ns more of him, for the book 
WM certainly the source of a great many passages and 
aOasioDs in Tsrions Engliih works down to Shakespeare's 
time and later. And when Miss Phipaon does quote it, 
■he seems to have no doabt that it was written in Eng- 
liih by a real Sir John Mande'Hlle ; whereas not only 
tks En^ieh is known not to be original, and the greater 
put oftbe trayels the book purports to recoont appear 
hf intenial CTidenoe to be fictitious, but the whole of it 
k a compilation from earlier works, and there is a great 
vant of reason to belicTe that there was soch a person 
m 8ir John MandeTille at all.*' 

I hare not seen GoL Yule's article on the subject 
in the Encyelopasdia Britannica, to which sllu- 
sion is made, but I haye in the Abbey Church of 
St. Albans seen what purports to be the grave of 
the famous trayeller; it is situated in the nave ; and 
from a shield or escutcheon fastened to a pillar 
hard by, I learned that it was placed there in 
memory of Sir John Mandeyille, who was bom at 
St. Albans, and buried there in 1372, haying 
commenced his peregrinations in 1322, and con- 
tinued them through the greater part of the world 
during thirty-four years. The inscription oyer his 
place of sepulture (diyested of the original spelling 
in the black letter), so far as the height at which 
it is placed and the confused manner in which it 
is written enabled me to decipher it, is as follows : 

" Lo in this tomb of travellers do ly, 
One rich in nothing but in memory. 
His name was Sir John MandeTille, content, 
Haying seen much mirth, with small confinement ; 
Towards which he trayelled CTor since his birth. 
And at last pawned his body to the earth, 
Which by a statute must in mortgage be 
Till a Redeemer come to set it free." 

Caroline A* Whits. 
Preston on the Wild Moors, Salop. 

P.S. — ^It is now some years since, acting on 
your excellent motto, I made a note of this matter. 
The church has since suffered restoration, 

rSee !•* S. y. 289 ; 2^ S. iii. 185 ; iy. 434 ; 8^ 8. iz. 88, 
128, 204 ; x. 46, 77, 98, 463 ; xii. 888 ; 6th s. y. 186. ] 

FiTMOUS IN A LiBRART. — ^A singular instance 
of the hayoc among books which may be made 
by the growth of fungus was brought to my notice 
recently. An outer pipe becoming choked, the 
water it should haye conyeyed ran down the wall 
outside. The leakage was not discoyered till the 
woodwork and shutters of an adjacent window 
began to crack and start, being forced out by the 
growth of an enormous fungus between them and 
the walL When the presses and books near the 
wall were examined, the former were found to be 
strained and loosened, the latter coyered with a 
coating of brownish fungus, three to four inches 
thick, which fastened them to other books so 
attacked and to the shelyes of the book-cases. On 
trying to open the books, most of the leayes were 
found so firmly glued together by a white, silky, 
sporadic formation, in shape somewhat like sea- 
weed, that attempts to separate the leayes without 
tearing them were futile. Hundreds of pairs of 
leayes, in books two or three feet from the wall, 
were thus penetrated ; and, thin as was the coating 
of fungus, it almost obscured the letterpress and. 
of course, mined the plates. The most effectual 
way to repair the damage appeared to be to 
thoroughly clean the fungus from the exterior and 
expose the books to a gentle heat till the damp 
was expelled. Though the books could then be 
opened and read, many were irremediably injured. 

uigiiizea oy 





The rapidity of growth of this fungius was re- 
markable. For the sake of experiment in corpore 
vUif a book, after being treated as above, was 
replaced. In three days the exterior had acqaired 
a coat of fungas about an inch thick, the book was 
fixed on the shelf, and the leaves refused to be 
parted asunder. 

Moral — See that water-pipes near a library are 
not choked. H. DsxiBVInone. 


Christmas Mummers.— As this subject has 
been revived in your Christmas number, perhaps 
I may be permitted to record in your pages a 
curious incident that may suggest a much earlier 
origin of the custom than the mystery plays to 
which it is usually attributed. 

Nearly forty years ago I witnessed a performance 
of the Earn Leda, the oldest mystery play in 
existence, by the men of my own regiment (one of 
the old Bengal Native Infantry), of which a very 
large proportion were Hindus of high caste. 
Among the numerous characters represented, such 
asBama, Seeta, Hunooman, and the army of D^os, 
Surs and Asurs who accompany or are opposed to 
them, I observed one figure incongruously dressed 
in the full uniform of a medical officer of the 
Indian Army (borrowed from the regimental sur- 
geon for the occasion), and I remarked to the 
finbedar, who was explaining the play to me, on 
the absurdity of introducing such a costume, and 
added, " You must have borrowed that character 
from us. We have similar plays in Ensland at 
Christmas-time, and in one our great hero St. 
George is slain, and the doctor comes in and puts 
a bottle to his lips, just as this one is doing, and 

' Here, take this essence of elecampane, 
Rise up, St. George, and figbt again.' '* 

The Subedar admitted the incongruity of the cos- 
tume, which he explained by the fact that there 
was no such profession as the medical one among 
the HindQs ; but he assured me they would never 
for a moment admit such an interpolation as I 
suspected them of, and that the character was 
strictly in accordance with the text of the play, 
and that the essence administered was the Amrita^ 
the essence of immortality. And as I still appeared 
to doubt him, he sent for the Havildar (sergeant) 
Major^ who was a Brahmin of the highest caste in 
the regiment^ who produced the text, a manuscript 
book, and quoted a passage, which I have forgotten, 
but which distinctly satisfied me of the correctness 
of his assertion. Perhaps some of your readers 
have copies or translations of the Ramayana, and 
can quote it. At any rate, the use of the Amrita 
was rerygood proof of its originality. I should 
like to know if elecampane has an Indian origin. 
Whether or no. as Boodha has been converted 
into a respectable Boman Catholic saint, I see no 

reason why, by a converse process, we may not 
assign to the maligned St. Ceorge an Indian 
nationality, and at least relieve him of his odious 
connexion with " ration beef." John Baillie. 

''HisTORiGAt Memorials of Westminster 
Abbey." — The late Dean Stanley's work is of ex- 
ceeding beauty; besides which it has become a 
standard book of reference for all who are in- 
terested in the Abbey. An error occurs in what 
I believe to be the last edition (fifth, 1882), which 
it will be of service to point out, that it may be 
rectified in future issues. 

Bobert Devereux, Earl of Essex, the Parlia- 
mentarian general, was buried in Westminster 
Abbey October 19, 1646 (Chester's WtstminBUr 
Abbey Beg,, p. 141). The sermon. Dean Stanley 
tells us, was preached by Dr. Vines, who compared 
the dead soldier to Abner, and said that over his 
grave should be " such a squadron monument aa 
will have no brother in England till the time do- 
come (and I wish it may be long first) that the 
renouned and most excellent champion that now 
governs the sword of England shall lay his bones^ 
by him." The dean adds that ''This wish thus 
early expressed for Cromwell was, as we have seen, 
realized " (p. 206). A mistake is made here ; the 
champion who " now governs the sword of Eng- 
land " can mean no other than the Commander-in- 
chief of the Forces of the Parliament. This post 
was filled by Sir Thomas Fairfax (the third Lord) 
from February 4, 1646, until June 25, 1660, when 
he resigned his commission^ and was succeeded on 
the same day by Oliver Cromwell. See Clements 
B. Markham, Life of ihs Great Lord Fairfax^ 
pp. 190, 361. Edward Peacock. 

Bottesford Manor^ Brigg, 

" Drawing the nail." — This is a curious Che- 
shire metaphorical expression, which is occasionally 
heard, and which signifies the breaking of a vow. 
It originates in an equally curious custom, not, 
perhaps,.very common, out practised now and then 
in the neighbourhood of Mobberley and Wilmslow. 
Two or more men would bind themselves by a 
vow— say, not to drink beer. They would set off 
together to a wood at some considerable distance, 
and drive a nail into a tree, swearing at the same 
time that they would drink no beer while that nail 
remained in that tree. If they got tired of absti- 
nence they would meet together and set off '* to 
draw the nail,*' literally pulling it out from the- 
tree ; after which they could resume their cus- 
mary drinking habits without doing violence to 
their conscientious feelings. 

Bobert Hollakd. 
Frodsham, Cheshire. 

A HEW *' Venerable."— In a notice of the 
Chngregatumal Year Booh given in the Daily 
News of January 3 is the rather astonishing state* 

uigmzea oy ^.jv^v^ 


►aix.jii.w.'M.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


meskt that '' among the names of deoeased ministers 
is that of the Yen. Bobert Mofiat, D.D." The 
gnmd old missionaiy was indeed renerable, bat 
others beside the Archdeacon of Tannton may 
object to the Daily Nwot raising a Dissenter, how- 
-ever distingaished, to ecdesiastical dignity. The 
dirinity student who stated that the Venerable 
fiede wa% on aoooont of his age, known as Adam 
Bede may have joined the profession of joamaUsm 
and been pat apon the staff in Fleet Street 

J. K. 
Leigb^ laaesshire. 

Nsw Tkak's Evjb Folk-lorb. — The mention 
-of melted tin, 6^ S. yilL 181, reminds me of a 
German governess I had, who ased to do the same 
thing with melted wax. Bat in the patterns it 
formed she used to see the incidents of a fature 
career portrayed — ^knights and castles, mountainoas 
coantnes to be travelled through ; for boys she 
coold see battles, &c This reculs another mode 
of divination she had, which was to look very hard 
in broad sonHght at the inscription on a tombstone, 
and oat of the dazr.ling letters which appear on 
shotting the eyes to constrnct aagaries, which 
appeared to be a sort of revelation, bat were, of 
eourse, helped oat by the fancy. She was a thick 
volame of folk-lore; bat anfortanately my parents 
did not allow me to take advantage of it. 

E. H. Busk. 

We nuisi request eoneipondenta desiring Information 
en ftmily matters of only private intereet, to affix their 
UBMe and addreaees to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addresMd to them direot^ 

OuTCLiFTB OK Trout-fishiko. — An octavo 
book of S12 pages has been recently pablished 
by Sampson Low & Co., London, 1883, entitled 
** The Ari of Trout-fuhing in Bagid StreatM. 
Comprising a complete System of fishing North 
Devon Streams, and their like. With detaOed 
Instractions, &c By H. 0. Catcliffe, F.R.C.S.'' 
Li a preface, withoat date, to this volame, tiie 
author states that he has been indaced to pablish 
it for reasons which he gives, and he adda^ *'I 
commenced this work many years ago, and ased to 
write a few sheets at a time," whOst prosecating 
atodks in London. Afterwards he went to India, 
hot found no time there to complete the work, 
whidi he has now determined to oner to his friends. 
He proceeds to p&y a tribute of respect to the 
memory of the late Dr, Thome, of South Molton, 
and to recommend the services as guide of a man, 
now, he thinks, a letter-carrier residing at High 
Bmy. The book is evidently the work of a prac- 
tical fisherman, and is written with remarkable 
aaraestness and desire to impart information. 
Bat the eoxioos thing is, that a 12mo. book of 

206 pages, bearing an almost identical title, by 
an author of the same name, but without the 
F.R.C.S., was published at South Molton by W. 
Tacker in 1863. This book has become scarce 
(see Westwood and Satchell's B%blioiheeaP%8eatori<»f 
D. 72, and an article headed ^' An Angler and his 
Books" in the PaU Mail GaaetU for July 31 last). 
If the author of 1883 be the same as the writer of 
1863, how is it that no notice of the prior pub- 
lication occurs in the preface of 1883 f and are 
the references to Dr. Thome and to the fisher- 
man's guide to be referred to the earlier date or 
to the kter ? J. B. D. 


TUR." — I find this quotation used by Popham 
(Lord Chief Justice of England) in sentencing Sir 
Walter Baleigh to death. Thus : <' It is best for 
man not to seek to climb too high, lest he fiiU ; 
nor yet to creep too low, lest he be trodden on. 
It was the Posie of the wisest and greatest coun* 
seller of our time in Engknd, * In medio,' " &o. 
Who was this counsellor; and is the phrase in- 
tended " In medio tutissimus ibis"? 

Popham farther says, " Let not any devil per- 
suade you to think there is no Eternity in Heaven; 
for if you think thus you shall find Eternity in 
Hell-Fire." I am unaware that Canon Famr has 
observed this in Eternal Hope, J. C. 

[" In medio tutisamos ibis " if aaeigned to Grid in 
Bohn's Dictionary of LaJLin QuioUjaiom,'\ 

To Use.— In A Ballad Book ; or, Popular and 
Bomantic Ballads and Songs Current in Annan- 
dale and other Parte of ScoUandy collected bj 
Charles Kirknatrick Sharpe, 1824, this verb is 
used in the following stanza : — 

" I 'U gar our gudeman trow 
That I 'U tak the glengore, 
If he winna fee to me 
Three valete or four, 
To beir mv tail up frae the dirt 

And uth me throw the toun,— 
Stand about, ye fisher jads, 
And gie my goun room." 

The Vain Gudewi/e, st. liL p. 20, 
reprint, 1883. 

Utk is here used in the sense of usher. Can any 
other instance of this usage be given ? 

F. C. BiRKBiCK Tbrrt. 

Dbgradation of Drunkenness. — A few 
Sundays ago, being in the neighbourhood, I 
attended the parish church of Eindford, in Sussex, 
a short distance from Billingshurst Walking 
through the village I saw a tablet of stone let 
into the outer side of the wall of the vicarage 
gurden, containing the following inscription, in- 
tended to be read and considered by passers-by : — 
" Begradaiion of Dntnkennest* 

** There is no Sin which doth more deface Gods Image 
than Dronkenness. Its disguiseth a person and doth 
even unman hinu Dnmkenness makes him have the 

Digitized by 




Throat of a ftth, the bolly of a ivine, and the head of an 
Ml. Ditmk'enneM if the shame of nature, the ezthn- 
guisher of reason, the shipwreck of chastity, and the 
murderer of conscience. Dnrnkenness if hoiifal to the 
Bodj. The cup kills more than the cannon. It eansef 
deafness, catarrhs, apoplexies. It fills the eyes with 
fire, the legs with water, and turns the body into a hoB- 

To the aboye lines is no signature, and all I ooald 
ascertain about the matter was that the stone on 
which they appear was placed where it now is by 
the late rector of the parish. From the quaintness 
and general character of the lines, I am led to 
snppose that they are a qaotation from some 
writer of the last centary. Will you kindly allow 
me to ask yon, or the readers of *^ N. & Q.J' if 
the authorship can be traced ? J. W. 0. 

T^E Dress of a Jockbt.— When did jockeys 
begin to wear top-boots? In the pictures of 
Eclipse^ about 1770, his iockey wears low shoes, 
like those now called Oxonians. In 1792 the 
Sporting Magazine was commenced, and all its 
engraYings represent jockeys as booted and spurred. 
This question was asked by a friend, of whom I 
have long lost sight, Mr. John Wilkins, nearly 
twenty years ago, in Once a Wetk; but, as it 
elicited no reply, I venture to repeat it in 
*' N. & Q,'' E. Walpord, M. a. 

Hyde Park Mansions. N.W. 

Sir Robert Sibbald.— Are the exact date of 
the death and the place of the burial of this 
eminent naturalist and antiquary known 1 Alli- 
bone, in his Dictionary, says ** about 1712," and 
in giving a list of his writings omits his History 
cf Orkney and Zetland, published in 1711. Unless 
my memory is at fault, there is a memoir of him, 
with a portrait, prefixed to one of the volumes of 
the Naturalistic Library , edited by Sir William 
Jardine. His epitaph is, I think, also appended. 


Newboume Kectory, Woodbridge. 

Orthopedic. — Oan any of your numerous 
readers tell me the correct spelling of this word ? 
Sages appear to diflTer thereon — orthopedic, ortko- 
pcedicy and arthopadie having each had its advo- 
cates at a recent discussion. As I suggested at 
the time, the correct spelling depends on its 
derivation, and I put the following queries : (I) Is 
the word derived from opOos ttous or opOos 
watScvJiv? (2) Or is the word a hybrid— half 
Latin and half Greek— op^os pes ? The genuine 
etymology of this word would greatly oblige. 

Edward JR. Vyvtan. 

''Dick Eitcat."— In the various notices that 
have come under my observation relative to the 
recent death of Richard Doyle, the artist, I have 
not seen any mention of his ever having adopted 
the pseudonym of ^ Dick Eitcaf This name is 
SiTon as that of the artist of the first five etchings 

of Maxwell's Fortanes of Hector O^HaUoraii, paV 
lished by Bentley in 1842. I think that the story 
first appeared in the pages of BewUey's MitcdUmiy, 
I have the volume, " new edition," published by 
T. Tegg, 1846, illustrated ''with twenty-eeven 
illustrations by J. Leech.'' From these must ba 
dedacted the five by '*Dick Eitcat," in which 
" Dicky " Doyle's etching-needle is unmistakable. 
Did R. Doyle ever sign any other drawings with 
this pseudonym ? Outhbert Beds. 

Elecampane, an old English Sweetmeat. — 
I shall be obliged if any reader of *' N. & Q.** 
can throw light upon this word, ite origin and 
meaning. When I was a small boy, nearly fifty 
years ago, the term eUcampane had in Dorsetshire 
a sort of generic signification, and included all 
sorts of loUypops ; but it had further a specific 
application to certain sticks of tofiy, which (as we 
children were told) were the spurious and very 
imperfect imitation of some comfit or candied 
preserve of a by-gone time, whose delights only 
lingered in tradition, and the making of which 
was a lost art. EUcampane is the English name 
of Inula heUniumf one of the Compositse, a rare 
Brituh plant, something like a small sunflower. 
Was the sweetmeat me^e from this, as the still 
common angelica is made from the stems of 
Angelica arc^an^eZica, another uncommon member 
of our flora ? Perhaps some housewife of a distant 
generation may have left a record and a receipt 
which will explain a word that has now passed 
beyond knowledge. I have recently seen an 
advertisement of "elecampane, the favourite old 
English sweetmeat," put forward by a manufac- 
turer of confectionery. I have seen and tasted 
this. Though the name has survived, it is clear 
that the delicacy has not. 

S. James A. Saltse. 

BadDgfieM, Basingstoke. 

The Aseoa Book of the Frisians. — Has this 
vernacular version of the early laws of the Frisians 
been published in England with a translation ; and 
can any one say whether any English scholar has 
compared it with the Anglo-Saxon laws published 
by Thorpe, and with what result 1 

Edwin Slofer. 


BowLiNO.^I should be glad if some of your 
readers could tell me where I can get infomut- 
tion respecting this game. Strutt and the encj-> 
dopeedim I have seen are very meagre. 

G. H. T. 

Mackenzie Familt.— While the query (6* S* 
viil 469) is before your readers, may I add the 
following : Whom did Oapt the Hon. Roderick 
Mackenzie marry t He was the father of Kenneth^ 
the last heir nude of Cromartie, and is said ta 
have been twice married. Again, Can any of yooK 

uigiiizea oy 





leaden obtain aeoees to the entail made by Lord 
Maoleod in 1786 ? It is recorded in the Eiegister 
of Entails on Jane 27, and in the books of the 
Gooit of Session on Jaly 21, 1786. There is an 
apparent inaocoiacy in W. Fraser's great book, 
where he gires an abstract of this enttuL It is 
quite possible that the text of the deed may con- 
tain the desired information. The fall text would, 
I am sore, be worthy of a place in your pages, as 
a specimen of sach precautionary measures carried 
to their fall limit. A. T. M. 

HoPFinER'a PiGTURS OF "Sophia Western.'' — 
<}an any of your readers giye me any information 
concerning a picture of " Sophia Western," painted 
by "J. Hopner'*? I have a beautiful mezzotint 
engraring of it by " J. R. Smith, Mezzotinto En- 
graver to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales." In whose 
possession is this picture ? F. R 

Chktwthd.— Can any contributor to " N. & Q." 
afford the following information ? Who was the 
grand&ther of a Miss Ohetwynd, the daughter of 
the Hon. — Chetwynd who, about the year 1770 
or 1775, eloped with Humphrey Thomas^ and was 
disinherited; likewise, what was her Christian 
name? Thornborouqh. 

WiLLCLicus FiLius Stur.— According to the 
Domesday Survey of Hampshire, twenty-two 
manors in the Isle of Wight, besides other lands 
in that county, were held by the abore as tenant 
in chief. Mudie's Hampthire, vol iil p. 144 : 
** The Norman barons or nobles, to whom lands 
had been granted by the Conqueror — chiefly those 
which had belonged to Saxons, and probably 
Saxons who had sided with Harold — were three : 
William Fitz-Stur, who had twenty-two manors, 
William Fitz-Azor, who had twenty-four, and 
Crozaline Fitz-Azor, who had twenty-five manors." 
The name Stur also occurs in Domesday as hold- 
ing laud in Lincolnshire before or in the time of 
Edward the Confessor. Can any one give in- 
formation about the above or his descendants ; 
also whether the surname is Norman or Anglo- 
Saxon? In Harl. MS. 6126, Brit. Mus., In- 
quisitiones post mortem in Com. Devon, anno 
28Hennr III., is the name <'le Stur," '<de Hone- 
ton" as holding land in chief. The Heralds' Fm- 
taUon of Devon in 1620 gives five descents of the 
hmiy of Sture, or Steer, of Huish. Can any one 
fill up the two gaps, of about two hundred years 
each, between the times of the three statements, 
and so complete their possible connexion 7 

W. a H. S. 

C3, Jesos Iisne, Oambridge. 

BuRviNO Old Shoes.— A woman residing at 
Hamble, Hants, who was lately taken ill very 
suddenly, said to a person who called to inquire 
«ftcr her, ^Ah! I be ill all oyer; and no wonder; it 

as good as serves me right, for I burnt a pair of 
old shoes yesterday." Is this a general super- 
stition f I never met with it before. 

W. D. Parish. 


any reader supply details respecting the above? 
When did he go, and how long did he reside there ? 
Are there any references in his published works 
or letters bearing on the matter ? W. M. 

The Pater Noster of St. Juuak. — In Th€ 
Decamerorif Boccaccio makes Philostratus say, *' It 
happens to those who have not said the Pater 
Noster of St. Julian, that they often get a bad 
night's rest, though they lie on a good bed." 
Where is the Pater Noster of St Julian to be 
found ? Again, the monks of Sta. Maria Novella 
are represented as presenting one who gave con- 
siderable idms to the brethren, with " the song of 

St Alexis and the hymn of the Lady Matilda^ 

and more such sort of ware." Where are this song 
and this hymn to be found ? Magicus. 

Hoods. — Is it correct to hold that the only 
hoods lawful in the Church of England (in Eng- 
land) are those of the Universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge, and such as are worn under a faculty 
from the Archbishop of Canterbury ? My reasons 
for this theory are : (1) The canons of 1604 recog* 
nize only the universities of the realm. The 
Scotch and Irish universities, as founded before 
either Scotland or Ireland became part of the 
realm («.«., before 1707 and 1800, respectively), 
are manifestly excluded. (2) The language of 
the canons is hardly prospective. Therefore, 
London, Durham, Lampeter, &c., are excluded* 
(3) Those out of the realm (e,g,, Melboumei 
Calcutta, &C.} are, of course, excluded. 

B. J. K 

The Luther Fahilt. — In 1748, according to 
Burke's History of the Landed Gentry, in the 
pedigree of "Fane of Wormsley," Henry Fane, 
Esq., is recorded to have married as his third wife 
Charlotte, daughter and coheir of Richard Luther, of 
Myles's {sic\ in Essex, and to have had by her a son 
and heir John Fane, Esq., of Wormsley, Oxfordshire. 
Myles's or Myless, the old residence of the Luther 
family, situated in the parish of Kelvedon Hatch, 
near Chipping Ongar, in Essex, was taken down 
circa 1843. It was not far from the banks of the 
little sedgy river Boding, which used to abound 
with pike and perch, and flows onward past Stan- 
ford Bivers, the home of the Taylors, and Nave- 
tock, the sepulchre of the Waldegraves, whose 
old hall was pulled down in 1811. « It is a dull 
place," wrote Horace Walpole when on a visit to 
Navestock in 1769, "though it does not want 
prospect backwards. The garden is small, con- 
sisting of two French aJUee of old limes, that are 

uigiiizea oy 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [6ifc8.ix.jA».i9,'8i. 

•comfortable, two groyes that are not so, and a 
igreen canaL" In the chancel of the little church 
lit Eelyedon Hatch may yet be seen memoriaU of 
the family of Lather. Is anything known of their 
origin, or whether they were in any way descended 
from or connected with the great German reformer ; 
and is this name found in England at the present 
time? JoHir Pickfobd, M.A. 

Newboume Beckoiy, Woodbridge. 

JersutTatlor's "Holt Living andDtiho." 
—A friend of mine possesses an edition of this 
work published by James Duncan, Paternoster 
Bow, in 1837. In this book there are, where the 
text admits, foot-notes in Italian, to which notice 
is called by an asterisk or obelisk, such as " Layora, 
come se tu ayessi a com par ogni bora : Adora, 
come se tu ayessi a morir allora "; " Chi diquina 
ed altroben non f& Sparaqua il pan, ed al Inferno 
ya"; and others equally fitting to the subjects 
treated of in the body of the work. The Italian 
is old and difficult in some respects, as "bora," 
** Sparaqua," &c. Is this edition of Taylor 
known ? The owner has asked many persons, 
both in Italy and in England, at various times, 
but has never been able to ascertain if the com- 
ments contained in the notes are original or 
whether they may not be a translation from some 
Book of Hours. Neither Catholic nor Protestant 
was able to throw any light on them. 

Emilt Barclay. 

Wickham Market. 

Authors of Booeb Wantbd. — 

The Song of Songt. Translated into Engliih Verse, 
ivith an Introduction from St. Athananus, &c. Pub- 
lished by BiTingtons, London, Oxford, and Cambridge, 
1864. At end of the book is a translation of the Latin 
hymn (from Darnel's Theiaurtu) De Nomine Jettt, Eng- 
lished bj J. y. B. Inqlis. 


(6» S. ix. 9.) 

The same question was asked some six years since 
in the ''Cheshire Sheaf," an antiquarian column 
which appears fortnightly, under yery able editor- 
ship, in the Chuier uourantf and from the replies 
(o that question I extract the following informa- 

John Pemberton was a ropemaker, a member of 
an old Chester family; and about the year 1700 
he established a rope-walk within the walls of the 
city, between King Street and the Water Tower. 
It IS said to haye ^n his custom to sit under this 
old alooye, watching his men and boys at work in 
the rope-walk below. Hence arose its name of 
Pemberton's Parlour. This same John Pemberton 
was Mayor of Chester in 1730, and a tablet bear- 
ing his name appears on the Water Tower, on the 

side which faces the adjoining public grounds* 
Pemberton's Parlour was not originally a semi- 
circular alcoye, as it is at the present day, but 
formed part of a tower, formerly called Gtoblin's 
or Dill's Tower. It became yery ruinous, and half 
of it was taken down, the remaining half being 
arched oyer and benched round with stone (see 
Hemingway's Chester, yol. i. p. 356). The pUce 
is further interesting on account of a story told 
about Mrs. Jordan, the actress, who took shelter 
in it from a shower of rain whilst she was '* starring 
it " in Chester in 1789. Whilst in the parlour she 
met Mr. Colin Bobinson, a well-known Chester 
Methodist, with whom she held a rather remark- 
able colloquy. The anecdote is too long to tran- 
scribe for the pages of <' N. & Q.," but it will be 
found in Boaden's Life of Mrs. Jordan, thongh 
I am unable to giye the exact reference. 

Robert Hollakd» 
Frodaham, Cheshire. 

I take the following extracts on one of the 
notable features of our ancient city from the pages 
of the local " Notes and Queries," the '' Cheshire 

'* John Pemberton, ropemaker, a member of an old 
Chester family, about the year 1700, eetablisfaed a rope- 
walk within the walls, between King Street and the 
Water Tower. It is laid to haye been his costom to sit 
under this old alcoye, watefahig his men and boys at 
work in the pretty groTe below. Hence arose its name 
of Pemberton^s Parlour." 

''John Pemberton, ropemaker, was Mayor of Chester 
in 1780 : and a tablet bearing bis name will be found 
attached to the Water Tower, as viewed from the Public 
Grounds a4Joining." 

It was once called the "€k>blin Tower"; but what 
weird story is connected with it I have been un- 
able to ascertain. It is presumed that originally 
it was an octagonal tower with a passa^ tbrongh 
in the walls horn east to west. The inscription 
and coats of arms had been for a long time in a 
Yery crumbling condition, but a few years ago 
the local authorities renewed the whole face of it, 
inscription and alL T. Carn Hughes. 


It appears from the manuscript notes, which 
were written about the year 1706, and aio 
quoted by Mr. Hemingway in his History of (he 
City of Chester (1831), that this was not the 
original name. The extract was as follows : — 

^ A small tower, formerly OobUn's or Dill's, since Pern- 
berton's Parlour, which, bdng ruinous, was of late half 
of it taken down ; the other half, being a 8emi-circle» 
still remains, and arohed oyer and benched round with 
stone, makes a Tery pleasant station.**— Vol. L p. 854. 
These improyements were made in 1701, and the 
name of Pemberton's Parlour was, therefore, pro- 
bably giyen to it after that date. Q. F. £. B. 

Bisoic's Inn (e^ S. ix. 8).— It is moi^ thnm 
probable that the Burgesses of WahMOI in 1627 

Digitized by 





lodged at the well-known tarern in SL Lawrence 

I lAne, Gheapside, the name of which has rarioasly 

been given as Bloesom'sy Bosom's, and Besom's. 

The origin of the name \b still yery doobtfal, some 

folding that it was derived from the first owner or 

Irast, otheis that it originated in the sisn, the 

gridiron sonoonded with flowers, the emblem of 

SL Lawrence the Martyr. The inn was well known 

«B one of the best in the City in 15S2, when twenty 

I bedi and accommodation for sixty horses was pro- 

f Tided there for some of the emperor's suite. In 

1616 Ben Jonson mentioned it in his Masque of 

ChrisbMij thna: — 

** But now comes in Tom of Boeomes Inne, 

and lie preienteth Mis-rale. 

Which yoQ may know, by the very shew. 

Albeit yon never aske it : 
I For there you may see, what his Bnsignes bee, 

' The Rope, the Cheese, and the Basket." 

It is clear that this refers to the story of Tom, the 
slovenly host, who always went *' with his nose in 
his bosom,'' as told by Thomas Deloney in The 
Bittory of Thomae of Beading, printed before 
1600 (see Ballantyne's reprint and Thoms's Early 
Proee Ramancee, vol. L, 1828). The inn, which 
was on the west side of St Lawrence Lane, with 
A back entrance from the Honey Market, was, of 
eonrse, bnmt in the fire of 1666. In reference to 
the derivation of the name, it has been pointed out 
hy Canon Jackson (6^ S. xi. 377) that John 
Bosam, a mercer, died before 1447, and that there 
was another laiy^e messnage known as Boaammes 
Ynn, in the neighboaring parish of St. Clement 
Danes in 1442. Stow considered "Blossom's 
Inn " the real name. Edward Sollt. 

This is most probablv Bosom's Inn, vide Dr. 
Brewer's Phrate and Fable, which says, *' Bosom's 
Inn, a pablic-house sign in St. Lawrence's Lane, 
London ; a cormption of ' Blossom's Inn,' as it is 
now called, in allusion to the hawthorn blossoms 
sorEQandiog the effigy of St Lawrence on the 
sign." John B. Wodhahs. 

Scottish Regiments (6^ S. viiL 496).— About 
five years ago a book was published giving the 
histoiy of fldl the Scottish regiments, and with 
-coloured plates of the different tartans, but I do 
not recollect the name of the author ; the book 
WIS in S Tols. imp. 8vo., so far as I recollect. 


I advise Mr. Hamilton to consult CoL Stewart's 
SkeUkee of ihs Character, Manners, dtc, of ihe 
HighlandtTB, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1822, now a 
searoe book, bat to be found in the Advocates' 
lAbrary. The reply to his question is too long 
fat the pages of "N. & Q." But thirty-three 
waliona of Begulars and fifty of Militia and 
FcDdbles were raised (principally in the Highlands) 
i> Sootiaad during the i)eriod between 1745 and 
18H Novr not one regiment of true Highlanders 

could be put together out of the whole HigbUnd 
brigade. Consult also Brown's History of ike 
Highlands CMd Highland Clans, 4 vols.,£dinbutgh. 
1861. R. P. H. 

Impropriations (6^ S. viii. 495).— In answer 
to your correspondent J. P. H., I think I am right 
in saying that there were few impropriations in 
the sixteenth century; for the consent of pope, 
bishop, and king was necessary before the monks 
could appropriate great tithes, a,nd the monks were 
not very popular for more than a generation before 
the dusolution. Kor has there, I believe, been an 
impropriation in England since the Reformation, 
till the Oxford Commissioners secularized a part of 
the tithes of Purleigb, in Essex, in aid of an en- 
dowment for the (possible) lay provost of Oriel 
College some four years ago. I am not aware that 
there is any fuller account of the impropriation of 
tithes in the fifteenth century and its abuse than 
is contained in my Loci e Libro Veritatum, i. e , 
extracts from Gascoigne's manuscript dictionary, 
1403-1458, published by the University in 1881. 
Jambs E. Thorold Rogers. 


" Vita di Oliviero Cromvellb " (6^ S. ix. 10). 
— Qregorio Leti, of Milan, 1630-1701, was a very 
voluminous writer, it may almost be said manu- 
facturer, of history, for he was chiefly remarkable 
for two things, his inaccuracy and his love of the 
marvellous. When the Dauphiness asked him 
whether all that he had written in his Life of 
Sixlus V, was true, he replied that a well imagined 
story is better than the bare truth in an ugly 
dress. The History of Cromwell, which was pub- 
lished in 1692, was translated into French in 
1694, and again reprinted with corrections at 
Amsterdam in 1703. L. du Fresnoy, Methode 
pour Studier VHistoire, iv. 306, says of it that it 
"^ is better than the life of Cromwell by Raguenet.** 
As a work it is of little or no authoritv, but it is 
bought and valued on account of the illustrations; 
the portraits are curious, and the plates of medaU 
of some value. Noble, in his Memoirs of Crom* 
well, 1787, 1. 298, speaks of Leti's book as "a 
romance with some few facts interspersed through- 
out." Oarlyle, in Oliver CromiodVs Letters^ 1845, 
L 19, does not even mention Leti; he evidently in- 
cluded him in the general term of those who had 
buried Cromwell in "foul Lethean quagmires of 
foreign stupidities." Edward Solly. 

Qctaint Phrases emplotbd bt BiARSTON 
(6"» S. ix. 7). — ^umatAo.— Mr. F. A, Mar- 
shall should look in his Spanish dictionary 
under H, / having been used anciently where 
h now is. Thus in Don Quixote we find 
always fasta for A(Mto= until. I have not 
Marston's play by me, and cannot, therefore, say 
whether the following interpretation would suit 

uigmzea oy 



NOTES AND QUERIES. («*s.ttJiH.i»/M. 

the passage. Humazo (pronoimoed wnalhOf bat 
^aicl&ntlyfumatho) means a thick smoke, bat dar- 
humazo means to smoke oat, and, figaratiyely, to 
iget rid of, or eject, an nnwelcome occapant of any 
place. So then " to eat afumatho " (a phrase like 
the Eastern one " to eat dirt '') means to have been 
the snbject of some suoh hamiliating ejection. 
Hbnrt H. Gibbs. 
6t. Danstan's^ Regent's Park. 

Fumat^o.— Tregellas (Toumt'^ Gutde to Corn- 
%oallf p. 36, note) says that the pressed pilchards, 
which are sent chiefly to the towns along the 
Mediterranean shores, are called fumadoes (ioccJly 
^* fair maids"). G. F. B. 

Bailey's Dictionary has : — " Fumadoes, Fuma- 
thoes : our pilchards, garbaged, salted, and dried 
in the smoak. Ital. and Span." 

Edward H. Marshall, M.A. 

Blaok-Lbttbr Ikscriptiohs on Bells (6^ 
a viii. 494).— With regard to the nse of black- 
letter, or Gothic smalls, on English church bells, 
I incline to think the peri^ mentioned by 
J. C. L. S. to be correct ; but ancient bells being 
seldom dated, it is more difficult to determine the 
time of its introduction upon them than upon 
^ated tombs and monumental brasses. The dated 
bells at Claugbton, Lancashire (a.d. 1296) ; Gold 
Ashby, Northants (a.d. 1317); South Somercotea, 
Xiincolnshire (a.d. 1423) ; and at Somerby, in the 
same county (a.d. 1431), all bear inscriptions in 
Gothic capitals. There is a bell hanging in the 
clock house at St. Albans (about which 1 shall 
haye something to say in my Church Bells of 
Herti, now in progress) which may help to eluci- 
date this question. The tower was buUt some 
time between the years 1402 and 1427. In it 
hangs a bell, inscribed in Gothic smalls^ with 
initials in Gothic capitals, <'Missi De Celis 
Habbo Nomen Gabrielis.'' Presuming this to 
be the original bell— and the presumption is a fair 
'one, supported by many surroundings— we have 
here the use of black-letter in the first quarter of the 
^fteenth century, the date mentioned by J. 0. L. S. 

„ , . , , Thomas North. 


Followers of"Notb8ahd Queries'* (6«» S. 
viii. 514).— Every week (with one or two excep- 
tions) since Dec. 20^ 1879, a column (more or less) 
of the Nottingham Daily Guardian has been 
deyoted to the publication of "Local Notes and 
Queries." I shaU be glad to learn what papers (if 
any) have continuously deyoted space for so long 
a period and for such a purpose. I may add that 
I hare conducted this feature in the Nottingham 
paper alluded to during the whole of the period I 
have mentioned. "Local Notes and Queries" 
were published in the same paper daring 1874. I 
suggested its introduction to my friend, Mr. Ck>r- 

neUoB Brown, who was on the literary staff of the 
paper, and he oonducted it, and made selections^ 
wuch he published towards the close of that yeas 
under the title of Notei about NotU, and I issued 
a similar selection from my "Local Notes and 
Queries," under the title of Old Nottinghanuhir$, 
and am now preparing a second series. A paper 
on the subject of " LSosI Notes and Queries " ^nll, 
I understand, shortly appear in one of the anti- 
quarian periodicals. J. Pottbr Bbiscob. 
Nottingham Literary Clab. 


thb English People" (6^ S. iz. 28). — The 
author alluded to in the second quotation is John 
de Trevisa^ Vicar of Berkley, Gloucestershire, a.d. 
1385. It occars in his translation of Higden's 
Polyeronicon. It is to be found in a longer 
quotation in Specimens of English Prose Writers^ 
by George Burnet (an old work), and also in 
Studies o/ English Prose, by Joseph Payne, pub- 
lished by Virtue. CaARLOTTE G. Boobe. 
St. Sayioor'f, Southwark. 

The University or "Trencher" Cap (6»* 
S. yiii. 469; ix. 18). — At Cambridge the trencher 
cap was not introduced until the end of the eigh- 
teenth century. Under the year 1769 Cooper, in 
his Annals of Cambridge, has the following note: 

(< The undergraduates had hitherto worn roand eapi 
or bonnets of black cloth lined with black silk or canvas, 
with a brim of black yeWet for the peniioDers and of 
pnmalla or Bilk for the lizars. They, however, in June 
this Tear, {petitioned the Duke of Grafton, the Chancellor 
of the UnlTersity, to obtain the consent of the ^yem- 
ment to their adoptins square caps, statin/? that they 
wished to attend his grace's approaching installation in a 
dress more decent and becoming, and that the heads of 
houses were not averse to the change." 

This the chancellor did, and the square cap was 
substituted for the round. Charles L. Bell. 

Caupe's Edition op *' Quebn Mab" (6** S. ix. 
32). — Will Mr. Pbet oblige me b^ stating whether 
his copy of this book is on a bluish-tintod paper, 
whether the edges are* trimmed or rough, and 
whether he has any means, exterior to the book, 
of judging about what year the publication took 
place ? My copy looks as if it had really been 
printed in Germany, perhaps about 1840, or even 
earlier ; but imprints on Queen Mah piracies are 
not always to be trusted. 


46, Marlborough Hill, St John's Wood. 

The Aurora Borealis (6^^ S. tIL 125, 415 ; 
Tiu. 133, 357).— Under the word "Nor«rlj<5s," ia 
Cleasby and Vigfusson's Icelandio-English Diet, 
will be found the following account of the aarora 
boreaUs: — 

'* An ancient description of the northern lights is giyeii 
In the Skt, [Konungs Stugg-tja^, ch. six. (by aJNor- 
wegian writer). From the words^ e'Sa >at er Grsenlen- 

uigiiizea oy VJlOOV IC 




ifinnr kalla norSrIjds,' Sis, 7it it ftppean the loeUndio 
•etUen of Chreenland were the fini who gtTe a name to 
thii phenomenon." 

In hiB aooount of Siberia and the ^'Tey Sea'' 
Pennant giyes the following particahin about the 

^'One fpecies regularly appears between the north- 
■eaat and east like a luminous rainbow, irith numben of 
colamni of light radiating from it : beneath the arch ia 
a darkneu, through which the etan appear with some 
brillianoy. This species is thoaght by tiie natiyes to be 
« forerunner of storms. There is another kind, which 
begins with certain insulated rays from the north, and 
others from the nortii east. They augment little by 
litile,till they fill the whole sky, and form a splendour of 
•colours rich as gold, rubies^ and emeralds : but the atten- 
dant phoenomena strike the beholders with horror, for 
they crackle, sparkle, hiss, make a whistling sound, and 
a noise eyen equal to artificial fire-works The inha- 
bitants say on this occasion it is a troop of men furiously 
mad which are passing by."— Pennant 8 Arctic Zoology, 
cecond edit, Introduc, p. clxziii. 

In the Shetlands the same author informs us that 
when the nxstic sages see the aurora they " become 
prophetic, and terrify the gazing spectators with 
ihe dread of war, pestilence, and famine" 
(p. xxxTii). 

"In the days of superstition/' writes Henderson, 
** these celestial wonders were yiewed as portending cer- 
tain destruction to nations and armies, and filled the 
minds eyen of the more enlightened with terror and dis- 
may. At the present day, the Icelander is entirely free 
from such silly^ apprehensions." — Iceland; or, the 
Journal of a Residtnet i% that Itland during the Yeart 
1814 and 1815, by Ebenexer Henderson, rol. I p. 858. 

The following quotations are from a book called 
The Aretie World, its Plants^ AnimdUf and 
I^atural Phmomena, Lond., Nelson & Son, 1876: 

" The arc yaries in eleyation, but is seldom more than 
ninety miles aboye the terrestrial surface. Its diameter, 
howeyer, must be enormous, for it has been known to 
«ztend southward to Italy, and has been simultaneously 
yisible in Sardinia, Connecticut, and at I7ew Orleans. 
—P. 30. 

" The anrora exercises a remarkable influence on the 
majgnetlc needle, eyen in places where the display is not 
yisible. Its yibrations seem to be slower or autcker ac- 
-cording as the auroral light is quiescent or in motion, 
and the yariations of the compass during the day show 
that the aurora is not peculiar to night. It has been 
ascertiUned by careful obseryations that the disturbances 
of the magnetic needle and the auroral displays were 
•imultaneous at Toronto, in Canada, on thirteen days 
<»at of twenty-four, the remaining days haying been 
clouded; and contemporaneous obseryations show that 
in these thirteen days there were also magnetic disturb- 
ances at Prague and Tasmania ; so that the occurrence 
of auroral phenomena at Toronto en these occasions may 
be yiewed as a local manifestation connected with mag- 
netic effects, which, whateyer may haye been their 
origin, probably preyailed on the tame day over the whole 
^ac€ of tkegMe:'—Fp. 80 and 31. 

An interesting account of the aurora will be 
found at the end of the first yolume of New Lands 
^nfhin the Arctic CfircU, by Julius Payer. 

Hbllibb Qossbliv. 

Bbkeeware, Ware, Herts. 

Bbar-bkin Jobber (6«* S. ix, 9).— Theie is an 
old story or fable of a hunter who sold the skin of 
a wild beast beforo he had it. I forget what beast 
it was, but it was a precious one, and ma^ haTtt 
been a bear. The quotation from Defoe is com* 
pletely eiplained by this : the deyil, whateyer he 
buys, the man's soul or otherwise, promises in ex- 
change something that he may not have to giy^ 
and that certainly the seller of his soul, &c., nerer 
gets. It is true that the story ends that the hunter 
was killed by the hunted animal. But Defoe, it 
'Will be observed, only alludes to that first part of 
the tale which suits his purpose ; and he was, I 
think, justified in this by precedent, the more so 
that the sequel was only introduced into the human 
tale to point the same moral that the purchaser got 
nothing for his money. Ba. Nicholson. 

This seems to be a form of speech taken from 
the proverb, *'SeU not the bear's skin before yon 
have caught him" (Ray, p. 77, ed. 1768, HazUtt^s 
ed., 330). HazUtt refers to The New Help to Die- 
coursSf p. 134, 1721, a book of which there were 
earlier editions, the earliest in Bohn's Lowndes 
being 1684, and thus likely to have been known 
to Defoe. Henderson, in his Latin Proverbs and 
QuotatiothSj gives it as an equivalent to the Latin 
" Ante victoriam ne canas triumphum " (p. 23). 

W. E. Bdcklet. 

The following is from Bailey's Dictionary ;— 
" To tell the Btai't tkin before he is caught, Ital. 
Vender la mile del Orto inanzi che tia presi. H. O. 
Die Baren-havJl verkaufeti ehe der Bcergefttochen. The 
Lat. say, AnU lentem atiges oUam, We say likewise : 
To reckon the chickens before they are halcht. The Fr. 
say, Vendre le peau de I'Ourt avant qu'il toit prit ; or 
Conter tans V Hdte {To reckon without the host). Thesa 
proverbs are all designed to expose the folly of building 
upon, or bragtfing of, uncertain^ things to come, than 
which nothing is more deceiyiug." 

£dward II. Marshall, M.A. 
Every one has heard the stockjobbers' slang 
about bulls and bears, bulling the market and 
bearing it. Dr. Warton says the latter terms 
came from the proverb of " Selling the skin before 
you have caught the bear." Without endorsing 
this explanation of the Stock Exchange argot, pro- 
bably the proverb to which Dr. Warton alludes 
will explain the query of Mr. James Hoopsr. 


Whealb or Wheal =Sakies (!•' S. vi. 67ft; 
viL 96 ; viiL 208, 302 ; 6^ S. viii. 470).— Dr. 
Chance writes (6»^ S. viii. 470), " So soon as I 
discovered that toheale (for so it is written in the 
early editions of the A.V.) had had this mean- 
ing in the days of Shakespere," &o.; but he 
does not say which editions. What will he say 
when I inform him that I have just referred 
to my copy of the first edition of the A.V,, 1611, 
and I find neither wheal nor wheals, but wAey f 
Now, whey gives a good sense, " understandable of 

uigiiizea oy x.jv>^v^^ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [««fcaix.jA».i9,'8i. 

the people." Whey is the poor watery stuff which 
Temains when the richer portion of the milk is 
tamed to cards, whether for cheese or any other 
•purpose. In formhouses the whey is giren to pigs. 

BoitOD, Lincohuhire. 


XAKD, &c. (6«» S. Tiii. 8, 375, 390, 603).— At aU 
eyents in the case of the publication described 
by Mr. Ardill at p. 390, the diligent student 
•of Bohn's Lowndes wiU not be disappointed in the 
object of his search, for if Mr. Wallis will 
look nnder "John Shirley" he will find The 

True Impartial History of ^ Ware of the King- 
dom of IrelandfLon±, 1692. fr C, TXT 

H. S. W. 

Aldine Akchor (6*"* S. viii 426).— On what 
authority is it stated that the Aldine anchor was 
first used for the Dante of 1502 ? Lot 7032, Sun- 
derland sale, Juvenalis et Pereiuty second edit., 
of the same date as first edit, was sold to Mr. 
-Qaaritch for 92. It had the anchor. I haye a 
-copy of the same work, same date, "Mense 
Augusto, MDL," without the anchor. 

John E. T. Lovadat. 

Fielding's "Tom Jones" (6*"» S, yiii. 288, 
314). — The authority for the statement contained 
in my first note on this subject is an editorial 
paragraph in the Aihenceum for July 26, 1851, 
No. 1239, p. 806, and I presume that the informa- 
lion regarding the price which Fielding receiyed 
for Tom Jonee was based upon the assignment 
itself, which the writer of the paragraph had 
>eyidently seen. Mr. Sketchley, the Keeper of the 
Dyce and Forster Collection at South Kensington, 
to whose courtesy I am indebted for a copy of the 
Joeeph Andrews assignment, informs me that the 
assignment of Tom Jones was purchased by Mr. 
Forster at the sale of the late George Daniel, of 
Oanonbury, for the sum of nine guineas. Mr. 
Daniel probably bought it at JoUey's sale. A 
reference to Mr. Daniel's catalogue might possibly 
show whether he also became the possessor of the 
-other assignment, and might afford a clue to its 
present whereabouts. 

While on this subject, may I be permitted to 
correct an error in Lowndes with regard to Miss 
Sarah Fielding's highly moral and instructiye work, 
the Livee of Cleopatra and Oetaviaf It is de- 
scribed as m 12mo., and the date is left blank. 
The book is really a quarto, and it was printed in 
1757 ''for the Author, and sold by Andrew Millar, 
in the Strand ; R. and J. Dodsley, in Pall Mall ; 
and J. Leake, at Bath.'' There is a long list of 
subscribers^ at the beginning, in which, amidst a 
cloud of aristocratic and fashionable acquaintances 
of the authoress, we discern the familiar names of 
^'D. Garrick, Esq.; Mr. Hogarth; Lord Lyttle- 
>ton,'' and last, not leasts that of the stanch old 

friend of the Fieldings, *' Saonders Welch, Esq.; 
who liberally put himself down for ten copies. 

One of MisB Sarah's admirers, '' Oflarty, 

Esq.," has a name which is curiously suggestiye 
of the Bath fortone-hunter of those days. 

W. F. PaiDBAUX. 

GRKBaf Aprons (6«» S. viiL 348, 478).— It . 
would seem that formerly green was not regarded 
as a fashionable colour. Massinger, in The City 
Madam, IV. iy., has :— 

**Enter Lady Frugal, Anne and Mary, in coarse 
hahxls, vMeping, 
MUliteenU What witch has transform'd you 1 
Stargau, Is this the glorious shape your cheating 
Promised you should appear in 1 

Milliteent, My young ladies 

In bufin gowns and green aprons I Tear them off." 

In the balkd of Lady Isabel, occur the lines : — 
*' It may be yery well seen, Isabel, 
It may be very well seen, 
He bays to you the damask gowns^ 
To me the dowie green,^ * 

Then there is the saying, '* Chreen, forsaken clean.'' 


Printed Parish Bbgistbrs (6^ S. yiil. 249, 
395, 604).— To the list sent before I can add the 
following, all published by Mitchell & Hughes : 
BegisUrs of Stock, Essex, edited by the Bey. £. P. 
Gibson, M.A.; The Registers of St. Columh, Major^ 
Cornwall^ edited by Arthur J. Jewers, F.S.A.; 
The Begitters of Leigh, Lancashire, yoL i., from 
1558 to 1625 ; The Registers of Calwrley Parish 
Church, Yorkshire, yoL il, 1650 to 1680 ; The 
Parish Registers of Madron, Cornwall, 1577 to 
1700, first book. B. F. Scarlett. 

" Virtue is its own reward " (6**» S. yiil 427). 
— Silius Italicus (a.d. 25-101) says, '^ Ipsaquidem 
yirtus sibimet pulcherrima merces" (Puniea^ 
lib. xiiL L 663), which idea appears in Plato's 
Republic: — 

<^ Guilt ever carries his own soouxge along ; 
Virtue, her owU reward." 
Henry More, in Cupid^s Conflict, makes use of the 
phrase, "Virtue is to herself the best reward,** 
and in Walton's Angler, pt L ch. L, we find, 
" Virtue a reward to itself." The precise wording, 
"Virtue is its own reward," occurs in Priors 
Imitation of Horace, bk. iiL ode iL, in Home's 
Douglas, III. L, and in Gray's Epistle to Methuen. 
Dryden, in his Tyrannic Love, III. L, expresses it, 
" Virtue is her own reward." A. R. Fret. 

Astor Library, N.T. 

Since I sent my query to " N. & Q." I have 
met with the following passage in Sir Thomas 
Browne's Religio Medici: ^^Ipsa sui pretium 
virtus sibi, that yertue is her owne reward, is bat 
a cold principle, and not able to maintaine our 

uigiiizea oy 


k&IXJAS. I9,'84] 



Tftriable reBoIutioos in a constant and letled way 
of goodnesse" (Reprint of firat edition, 1642, 
n. 109}l The above Latin words are obyloosly the 
beginxung of a hexameter line. 


This proTerb will be found in Prior's Imitation 
of HoraUy bk. iii. ode ii.; Gray's ^j^utZe to 
Jfe^AiMA ; Home's IhuglcLs, IXL i.; and Dryden's 
Tyrannic Love, ILL i. 

Eyerard Homb Colbman. 

L'Imflubhza (6"» S. TiiL 407, 478).— Might I 
add to Ladt Bussell's quotation, that in the 
bibliography following Dr. Jas. Copland's article 
on this disease in his Diet, of Practical Medicine, 
are giyen : — 

W. Falconer, Account of the Inflaenza at Bath. Bath, 
1781; in Mem. of the Med. Soc. of London, vol. iii., 

W. Watson, Remarks on the Inflaenza of London in 
1762 (m Pha, Trans.). 

W. Heberden, On the Influenza in 1767 (and in Med. 
Trans., toI. I). 

My not haying been able to get a sight of these 
has been the cause of my delay in replying. 

Br. Nicholson. 

Toe Bey. Huhfhret Fox of Tewebsburt (6^ 
S. yi. 382).— In my account of the Fox family, I 
omitted to introduce a fact which I noted from Sir 
Heniy Yelyerton's pre&ce (p. Ixvii) to Bp. Mor- 
ton's EpiKopaey of the Church of England, 8ya, 
1670, where, in reference to the silencing of Mr. 
Jc^ Bod, and his refusal to preach when so de- 
prired, it is said : — 

''When Mr. Fox, I think I mistake not his name, a 
minister In Tenkesbary, he [Dod] was pressed to it by 
that anrament. that he was a mimster not of man, but of 
JeSQi Christ, ne replied, 'tis true he was a minister of 
JesDS Christ, but by man, and not from Christ, as the 
apostles only were : and therefore if by the laws of 
BUin he was prohibited preaching, he ought Ho obey; 
and never did preach till Mr. Knigntlv, his natron, pro- 
cured him a licence from Archbishop Abbot. 

J. E. Bailet. 

BiPAiLLS (e^ S. yiii. 428).— The earliest autho- 
rity which appears to be cited by Littr^ for the 
use of this word is a seyenteenth-century writer, 
Msltre Adam Billant, a pensioner of Cardinal 
Bichelieu. The real sense of the term is luxury, 
or luxurious liying, and it is quite unnecessary to 
import the sense giyen by Mr. Edqcuubb. As a 
matter of fact, the pkce of retirement of the ex- 
tnti-pope and ex-duke was not an Augustinian 
BMnastery, but a militaiy-religious congregation of 
hii own foundation, somewhat after the fashion 
^ the Templars and Hospitallers, which did not 
irofess to follow an ascetic rule. No eyidence of 
tt^tng more thui this has oyer, to my know* 
Wage, teen bronght against Bipaille, for the re- 
petition of yagne aspersions is not eyidence. 

Ae title chosen oy the founder was " Decanus 

militum in solitudinssBipalise in humilitatis spirita« 
Deo famulantium." 

Canon Bobertson, in his History of the Chrietian- 
Church (London, 1875), yiil 82-3, speaks of the 
Bipaille fraternity as a '' brotherhood of aged 
knights," founded by Amadous YIII., and, in. 
alludiog to the rumoured luxuriousness of the 
society, obseryes that the charges " appear to be 
exaggerations, unsupported by contemporanr 
authority, and swollen by hatred of him [Felix Y.J, 
as an anti-pope before they were eagerly turned to- 
account by sceptical writers." A citation is giyen 
by Canon Bobertson from Monstrelet, " the most 
respectable authority " for the idea of the luxurious- 
ness of Bipaille, but who, as he remarks, carries it 
only a yery little way, " £t se faisoient, lui et sea 
gens, seryir au lieu de ractnes et d'eau fontaine du 
meilleur yin et des meilleures yiandes qu'on pou- 
yoit rencontrer." JSneas Sylyius, on the other 
hand, speaks highly of Amadous, alike as prince 
and as hermit. For the later accretions Voltaire 
may be consulted. C. H. E. Carmichael. 

New Uniyersity Club, S.W. 

CiNCHRiM (6^ S. yiii. 408).— It seems that in 
Milan there is preseryed a yery old manuscript^ 
mostly in Irish or Gaelic. In it there is a prayer 
with reference to the Song of Moses (Exodus xy.). 
after the clan Israel, or the children of Israel, had 
walked oyer the bottom of the Bed Sea. The 
prayer begins thus, " Domine qui dnchrim fugi- 
entes tueris." It is asked, What is the meaning 
of dnchrim ? Perhaps dn is the Gaelic dniieadh 
(c hard ; dfi silent), a clan, a tribe, a race. Is 
d^rim the Gaelic crom, to bend, to cause to bend 
(suppose to oppress). If this idea is correct, cin- 
dirim ouj^bt to haye been written as two words. 
The Israelites were fleeing from a nation of oppres- 
sors. Cinneadh is akin to the Greek genos, the 
Latin gens and the English X;tn. Perhaps the writer,^ 
from absence of mind, wrote two words in Gaelic 
instead of in Latin. The word referring to the 
fugitives is in the plural ; of course it refers to 
the Hebrews, not as a nation, but as the tribes or 
as individuals. As cin (pronounced kin) is in the 
singular it cannot apply to the Hebrews ; if it 
refers to people at all it probably refers to the 
Egyptian nation. I do not pretend to have untied 
this Gaelic knot (if it is Gaelic). I timidly offer 
this guess for the consideration of the reader. 

Thomas Stratton, M.D. 
Devonport, Devon. 

Bishops* Bible (6«» S. yiil 449).— My folio. 
Bishops' Bible, 1572, has: *<29. The righteous 
shall be pounished : as for the seede of the yn« 
godly, it shall be rooted x>ut.'' In the Great 
Bible, May, 1541 (which is the only edition of it 
I possess), verse 28 is thus given : " For the lorde 
loueth the thynge that is lyghte, be forsaketh not 
his that be godly, but they are preserued for euer>. 

uigmzea oy 




[6«««S. IX. Jah. 19/84. 

more tf«r [the mrighteoas ahalbe panysshed :] as 
for the seed of the yngodly, it ahalbe rooted out." 
The words in brackets are printed in a smaller type, 
and have the mark signifying they do not belong 
to the text, but are a gloss. In the Bishops' Ver- 
sion this Terse has been wrongly divided into two, 
and the gloss has been incorporated with the text, 
thas making the psalm consist of forty-one verses, 
instead of forty. What stands in the Bishops' 
Version for verse 30 is really verse 31, and so on 
to the end. R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

I have a black-letter Prayer Book in qnarto, 
without title and date. In the ** Psalmes of Daaid, 
of that Translation, which is commonly vsed in the 
Ghurch,'' the misprint occurs, as mentioned bv Mr. 
DoRE ; the reading of Psalm xxxvii. 29 being, 
** The righteous shall be punished : as for the seed 
of the vngodly, it shall be rooted out.'' The 
Prayer Book in question dates probably from about 
1615, the prayer for the sovereign in the Litany 
mentioning King Jame?, " Queen Anne, Prince 
Charles Fredericke the Prince Elector Palatine, 
and the Lady Elizabeth, his wife." A version of the 
17ew Testament of an earlier date than that of King 
James is bound up with the Prayer Book. It is 
printed in Roman, has no title nor date, each page 
Doing surrounded by notes in a small italic type, 
which notes partake of the character of a com- 
mentary. E. Mbnken. 

AIr. Dore must have given a wrong reference, 
I suppose. Psalm xxxvii. 29, in the Bishops' 
Bible, 1568, runs, '' The righteous shall inherite 
the land and dwell therein for euer." And there 
is no material difference in any edition that I have 
consulted. Hknrt H. Gibbs. 

A Buried House (6"» S. viii. 386, 477).— 1 
think the account given to John Wesley is very 
likely to be correct, for a few years ago I was told 
that some men digging gravel had discovered a 
Roman cemetery about a couple of miles from 
Pocklington. I went to see it, and myself got 
morsels of bone from the gravel banks. I said if 
there was a cemetery, an abode of the dead, there, 
there must have been a town somewhere near, 
where they abode when alive ; but I could get no 
distinct information on that point. 

J. R. Haig. 


A Martin Luther Medal (6^^ S. viii. 447). 
-—A similar question to that of R. A. U. has ap- 
peared in the Oracle, No. 240, p. 769, to which 
the following is the reply : — 

'* Before the olose of the seventeenth centuy upwards 
of 200 medals or other memoriala, in gold^ silver, and 
hronxe, had been struck in commemoration of Luther 
and his work. A detailed description of them will be 
found in a work by Herr Jnncker. Most of them refer 

to particular events in his life and history. Several 
commemorate his birth and early years. Foot of them 
celebrate the journey to Worms and his appearance 
before the Diet. Some were desinied and ordered by the^ 
Elector Frederic, and on these the le^nds and mottoes 
are of special interest. One in particular— the one t» 
which you refer—has ' Verbum Del Manet in Sternum/ 
a motto afterwards retained as a banner-word by the 
princes of the Beformed Countries. The initials 
' V.D.M.I.JB.' were everywhere used, even on the liveries 
of their servants and retainers. Another medal had 
'Crux Christi Nostra Salus/ shortened into 'C.C.N.S/ 
It would be tedious to enumerate all the designs, but 
they convey, on the whole, a fine view of the popular 
appreciation of the work of the Reformation. 

'' In 1617, when the first Centenary Celebration was 
held, the old mottoes were revived and new ones added, 
such as this : * As Moses led Israel out of Egyptian 
slavery thus has Martin Luther led us out of the darkness 
of Papery. In the vear of Jubilee 1617.' 

'' There are medals also which commemorate the good 
Elector Frederic and other friendly princes ; also to 
Lather joined with Molancthon and other leaders of the 
Beformed cause. Several celebrate the affectionate wlf» 
of Luther^ Catherine von Bora." 

Gelbr kt Audax. 

Halfpemnt of 1668 (6"» S. viii. 368, 455). 
— In reply to Mr. Jambs, the coin is more pro- 
perly a token of the minor currency of the seven- 
teenth century, and is thus described by Boyne in 
his standard work on tokens, 8vo. 1858 : ** Obv. 


WBSTEOATB 1668=i.R.w. conjoined." It is not a 
very scarce token, and now worth to a collector 
about two shillings. Mr. John E. Hodgkin, of 
Richmond, Surrey, is a well-known collector of 
Kentbh tokens, and might purchase it. 

Dunstanbeorh, Church Hill, Guildford. 

Baso (6* S. viii. 515)l — Baso or hcuu is duly 
given in Bos worth's A, -8, Dictumary as meaning 
purple, crimson, scarlet, &c. The quotation for 
harapapig proves the point which I have already 
given in my Etymological Dictionary, that the- 
same word is preserved in our mod. E. 6are. The 
original sense was merely " shining" or " bright,'* 
from the root bha, to shine, whence Skt. hhas, ta 
shine, Lithuanian basas, bo$tu, bare-footed. It 
seems to have been applied to an unclothed part 
of the body, and thence to have meant flesh- 
coloured, pink, red, and the like. Grimm mixed 
up this word with the €k)thic ban, a berry, which 
is from a different root, viz., that which appears in 
Skt. bhiu, to eat ; 80 that berry means '* edible."^ 
I mention this because Bosworth actually gives 
baso, a berry, there being no authority for any 
such word, except a guess of Grimm's, which must 
be wrong. The A.-S. for berry is berii or (eri^e. 
I know of DO greater nuisance to the student of 
English than the fact that our A.-S. dictionaries 
abound with invented forms, some of them quite 
unauthorized, which have been quoted by our 
etymologists over and over again, especially those^ 

uigiiizea oy x^jvv^v-/ 


9* a IX. Jis. 19, '81.1 



wbich are falsest and most impossible. And I 
know of nothing more disgraceful than the atter 
lack of knowledge as to A.-S. accentuation. I see 
» new edition of Stormonth's Dictionary is appear- 
ing; the publishers seem to be entirely unaware 
that Stormonth had no knowledge of A.-S. at all, 
and used to get rid of the difficulty of accentuation 
by calm] J ignoring the accents altogether. Such 
are our ** anthoritiea ** on English. 

Waltkr W. Skkat. 

AsHKET (6*** S. ix. 27).~The next time Mr. 
Ltkn opens his teapot, if he will look at the 
inside of its lid he will probably see that the knob 
is fastened on by a round nut with handles to turn 
it by ; and if he will inquire of the teapot's maker, 
he will probably hear that this nut is called a key. 
This is the key which an ashkey resembles. The 
resemblance may not be OTerwhelming, but it is 
stronger by a good deal than between an ashkey 
and a lock key. C. F. S. Warren, M.A. 

Treneglos, Kenwyn, Tniio. 

Lord Bacon (6** S. viiL 617).— That Francis 
Bacon was never entitled to be styled "Lord 
Bacon" is as certain as the fact that for more than 
two centuries he has generally been so designated. 
That it was an error so to call him was well in- 
sisted on by M. de R^musat when he pointed out 
the case of Lord Chatham, and said people never 
speak of Lord Pitt, yet that would be just as cor- 
rect as saying " Lord Bacon " (2»>* S. vii. 103). 
It must be, however, remembered that practically 
all Bacon's honours were won before he became 
Baron Yerulam or Viscount St. Albans, and that 
the sentence which deprived him of the Great Seal 
and rendered him incapable of holding any office 
or entering the House of Peers left him the barren 
titles without any of the privileges of the peerage. 
He was Francis Bacon, the ex-Lord Chancellor, 
and a nominal viscount without the honour. 
*' Lord Bacon " is, in fact, a kind of courtesy title. 
It was natural to call him by the name which he 
had made great, and to style him ''Lord '^ as an ex- 
Chancellor, rather than to speak of him hf the 
titles which he had disgraced, and which were, to 
ihe ludgment of most men, set aside. So Wilson, 
Bashworth, and others called him Lord Chancellor 
Bacon, which was subsequently shortened into 
Lord Bacon (see 4«» S. vi. 177). 

Edward Sollt. 

The proper method of writing Bacon's title was 
^isonssed at great length in " N. & Q.," 4«» S. vl 

W. C. B. 

Niwcastle-upon-Ttnb Dirbctort (6** S. ix. 
tt).-~The directories for this city are dated 1778^ 
^87, 1795, 1801, 1824, 1838, 1847, &c 

Wv. Ltali. 

There were directories of the period mentioned, 
"^ ta^ of the earlier numbers are now not to 

be had— later volumes crop up now and again. 1 
have supplied further information privately to> 
your correspondent. Mr. Bobert Robinson (estab* 
lished 1840), Messrs. Mawson, Swan & Morgan, 
and Mr. W. B. Bond are second-hand booksellers 
here. J. Manuel. 


RotalCosmoorafhers or Geographers (6^^ S. 
ix. 8).— I imagine that the duty of the Eoyal 
Cosmographer or Geographer was simply to sell 
maps to the king when required so to do. In the 
RoyaJ Kalendar for 1771 Mr. Jeffery's name 
figures between that of the harpsichord maker and 
the linendraper. If Mr. Bailbt wishes to carry 
his search any further he will find the old volumes 
of the Royal KaUndar very useful for his pur- 
pose. G. F. R. B. 

Delarochb's "Cromwell" (6"» S. viii. 369, 398)» 
— The original picture of Cromwell looking at the 
coffin of Charles I, by Delaroche, is at the Academy 
of Arts at St. Petersburg. The one at'Nismes is 
perhaps a replica. E. Primrose. 


New Works suggested by Authors (6** S. 
viii. 326).— Mr. Sala, in the IlhiatraUd Londmi 
Neu>8 for Dec. 22, says ;— 

« The mention of Donna Lacrezia suggests to me the 
title of a book which, nrritfcen with true knowledge and 
calm impartiality, would be ai intensely interesting as it 
would be edifying. Scholars in search of a subject, 
what do you say to an essay on ' The Extent to which 
las l)een Falsified by Poets and Painters T' 

Geo. L. AFPERsoii. 

Hiitory has I 


The late E. H. Palmer's Desert of the Exodus : 
" This book is now, I believe, out of print. It is very 
much to be wished that a new and cheaper edition might 
be issued."— Zri/c and Achfevements of Edward Henry 
Palmer,hj Walter Besant, M.A., London, 1883 (close of 

J. Manuel. 


" Mysteries of the Court of London " (6'^ 
S. viii. 428).— I remember reading this book when 
a young fellow, and can only imagine one reason 
for its suppression, viz., its immoral tendency. A 
few historical events were inserted in the work> 
but it was undoubtedly nothing but a romance. 
Scenes were described, and long conversations 
given, in which only two persons were concerned, 
and neither person was likely to have recounted 
them to Mr. Qeo. Reynolds or any one ehse, and 
certainly not wi^ such complete detail. 

. H. A, St. J. M. 

Sir John Odinosells Leekb, Bart. (6«» S. 
viii 448; ix. 16).— The baronetcy attributed to the 
John Odingsells Leeke buried at St. Stephen Sj, 
Norwich, is probably that conferred on Sir Fiancia 

uigmzea oy x.jv>^v^ 




[Q^ S. IX. Jav. 19, '84. 

Leeke, of Sutton Scarsdale, co. Derby, May 22, 
9 James I., which expired in the direct line 
with Nicholas, fourth Earl of Scarsdale, who died 
in 1736. The connexion is shown in an elaborate 
article on " SUces of Derbyshire and Nottingham- 
shire/' in the Herald and Genealogist for January, 
1873 (vol. vii. pp. 481-502), though the pedigree 
therein given at p. 495 seems to imply that it was 
Francis, first Lord Deincourt and Earl of Scars- 
dale, and not his father, who was the first baronet. 
There seems, however, no doubt that Sir Francis 
Leeke, who died in 1628-9, was the gentleman 
who was sixth in order of seniority among the first 
batch of baronets created by King James in 1611. 
If so, a John Odingsells Leeke who was living at 
the time of the last Earl of Scarsdale's death in 
1736 would seem to have become at that time 
heir male to the first baronet. There was a second 
baronetcy conferred on a younger branch of this 
family (Leeke of the Chauntry, Newark) Dec. 15, 
1663, but this became extinct in 1682. 

J. H. Clark, M.A. 
West Bereham, Norfolk. 

VoRB-ZEiT (6'*» S. ix. 29).— This word is, indeed, 
Jahr-zeit. It is used in the special meaning of 
*' anniversary of a death." The mispronunciation 
is not due to the cause your correspondent sug- 
gests. Many Jews, not knowing the real origin of 
the word, treat it as Hebrew, and pronounce it as 
such. It is often written in Hebrew letters with- 
out vowels, and hence the pronunciation depends 
upon the taste of the speaker. German Jews 
never make the mistake. I. Abrahams. 

Trnnis (6**» S. iii. 495 ; iv. 90, 214 ; v. 56, 73 ; 
vi. 373, 410, 430, 470, 519, 543 ; vii. 15, 73, 134, 
172, 214; viii. 118, 175, 455, 502).— Mb. 0. W. 
Tancock objects to my saying that I had "ex- 
posed the fallacy '' that in old English the accent 
was always on the second syllable of tennis, I 
am sorry if I offended him by saying this, but I 
did not mean to do so ; I was not thinking of him 
when I wrote. That it was a fallacy, I thought I 
had shown by quoting a fifteenth century ballad, 
in which the word occurs twice with the accent on 
the first syllable, and never on, the second. Mr. 
Tancock, relying on spelling, says *'it is not a 
fifteenth century ballad in its present spelling, and 
therefore its heavy ending (tenisse) and single n" 
go to prove his case, and not mine. But I rely on 
the rhythm, not on the spelling, which, as he 
9ays, may be corrupt ; and I submit that the 
rhythm proves my case, not that of Mr. Tan- 
cock. it seems to me that spelling is all very 
well to prove accent, where no other proof can 
be had ; but when rhythm can be adduced as 
evidence of accent it is better. And I venture to 
say that my two examples, from the balbd of The 
Turke and Goioin, are at least twice as good as 
the one line, a very rough one, from Gower, which 

has been quoted. Moreover, Mr. Tancock, thougb 
he gives several examples of various spelling, omits- 
one which I quoted from Lydgate, viz., tynes^ 
which does not help him. He kindly says that i 
mbs the point of his argument ; its force, perhaps. 
But these asperities do not help discussion, and I 
fear that the readers of '' N. & Q." must be already 
tired of this arid controversy. 

Julian Marshall. 

A Curious Mkdal (6"» S. ix. 29).— It is difficult 
to identify the medal described by Mr. Walford- 
as regards the lady represented, but the artist's 
initiabi are most probably those of Christian 
Maler, of Nuremberg, 1604-1652. His father 
was Valentine Maler, a distinguished goldsmith, 
sculptor, and painter, of the same town, who in 
the latter half of the sixteenth century executed 
many admirable portrait - medals of his fellow 
citizens, and who enjoyed the '' imperial privilege " 
which seems to have descended to his son. The 
oval shape of the medal helps to indicate its date, 
and also the somewhat extravagant allusion to 
death, much in vogue at this period on personal 
ornaments, particularly on memento mori finger- 
rings. A similar reverse may be seen on a medal 
of George Frederick, Marquis of Baden (1573- 
1638), viz., a large skull between cross-bones, with 
the legend, "Pulvis et umbra sumus." " Hodie 
mihi eras tibi'' is another cognate inscription. 
The medal was probably executed in memory of 
one who died young, or whose character attracted 
special public admiration. T. W. Greene. 


Dr. Gur Carleton (6* S. ix. 29).— Two ac- 
counts of this incident, one by Bp. Kennet, the 
other by Mr. Macro, are given in Wood's Ath, 
Oxon.j by Bliss, iv. 868. Observe the learned 
editor's note at the foot of. the same column. 

J. Ingle Drbdoe. 

Henrt Mortlock the Publisher (6^ S. viii. 
468).— Henry Mortlock, son of Bichard Mortlock, 
of Stanton, Derbyshire, gentleman, was Master of 
the Stationers' Company in 1696-7. The parish 
register of Stanton, by Dale, records his baptism 
on June 30, 1633. It seems probable that he was 
left an orphan when scarcely five years old. 

W. T. 0. 

Barclay's "Apoloot'' in Spanish (6*^ S. 
viiL 347, 416).— The sixth edition of Barclay's 
Apology of 1736 states that it was translated into 
High Dutch, Low Dutch, French, and Spanish. 
The Spanish propagandism of the Quakers is little 
known. This Apology was published by T. Sowle 
Railton and Luke Hinde, at the Bible in G^rge 
Yard, Lombard Street, and they appear to have 
been Quakers. At the end are several pa|;e8 
of Quaker books published by them, which 
appear to have been still in demand, some at high 

uigiiizea oy 



IX. Jul. 19, '84.] 



fjricei. There are only two poems and very little 
QBefnl knowledge. One book by F. Bockett, The 
Diumal Speculum, refers to short descriptions of 
the English counties. There is The Voyage of 
KfxQurine Evan» and Sarah Cheevers to Malta, 
4Dd of George Bobinson to Jerusalem ; also God^e 
Protecting Prondena : the Deliverance of Bobert 
Barrow, Sc, from the Inhumane CanihaU of 
Florida, This is possibly a desideratum for our 
American collectors. New England Judged also 
belongs to the Americans. There are few books 
sgainst the Church except for tithes, but the 
Apists were the great objects of attack. 

Htdb Clarke. 

According to Smith's Catal of Friend^ Books, 
1867» Tol. i. p. 25, Antonio de Alvarado of Seyille 
is spoken of in 1709 as '* lately convinced/' and 
was agreed with, by the Friends in England, to 
translate Barclay, of which translation one thou- 
sand copies were to be printed. For a further 
account of "this Friend" and his translation a 
lefeienoe is given to The Friend, vol. iii. p. 110. 
The work itself is properly entered by Mr. Smith 
at p. 183. W. C. B. 

Authors of Quotations Wanted (6** S. viii. 

' Houses, charcbes mixed together," lee 
Firom A Dteeripiion of London^ written more than 
fifty years aso. 1 will famish Mr. Bussell Sturois 
with a copy if he shonld reqpire it 


"Choosing rather to record," &c. 
" They were pedants who could speak. 
Grander sonla have passed unheard : 
Such as found all language weak ; 

Choosing rather to record 
Secrets before Heaven : nor break 
Faith with angels by a word." 
''A Soul's Loss/* xzTiii., Clytemnettra and Other Poems, 
by Owen MercdUh, London, 1855. T. W. C. 

Stnnei ds Braeion de Lemhtu et Connutudintbui A nglice. 
bibri Quinque in Yanos Traetatus Bistincti. Edited 
by Sir Travers Twiss, Q.C., B.C.L., for the Master of 
theRoUs. VoLVI. (Longmans & Co.) 
film Tbavbbs Twiss has completed in this volume his 
^tion and trmoslation of Bracton's famous treatise on 
the laws and customs of England, of which the first 
Tolvme appeared in 1878. It must be no small compen- 
sation to the editor for his protracted labours to know 
that his name will in future generations be honourably 
MMciated with one of the classics of early English 
iarispmdence. We are, in fact, mainly indebted to 
Us researches for our present knowledge of Bracton's 
JB^ and career. It is scanty and imperfect enough ; 
«it when Lord Campbell wrote his Ltvet of ihe Chirf 
Jvtiea ofgngland be deplored the fact that literally 
sothiBg was known about Eracton personally^ notwith- 

legal antiquaries, and Bracton's treatise is no exception 
to the rule. But a thorough knowledge of its contents 
is absolutely indispensable to students of constitutional 
history, who wish to understand the foundations on 
which the common law in England has been built up. 
Bracton wrote at a period when the strictness of the 
feudal system was being gradually relaxed by the intro- 
duction of those equiuble defences which were allowed 
by the procedure of the civil law. This volume contains 
two classes of defences which could be pleaded in answer 
to a Writ of Right {de recto). The fint was for the 
defendant to shift the burden of proof to the person 
from whom he acquired the property in dispute by 
calling on him to warrant the title. The other class of 
defence was to plead that the plaintiff was in some way 
disqualified from maintaining his claim; such as, for 
example, by bastar'ty, in being bom before the marriage 
of his parents. By the canon law children were legi- 
timated by the subsequent marriage of their parents; 
and, if we may believe Bishop Orofteste^-this was formerly 
the law in England, as it is still in Scotland. But in the 
reign of Henry II., Richard de Luci, the Chief Justice, 
decided that children so born were illegitimate; and 
when the bishops Appealed to the barons to alter the 
law of the King's Court of Justice, and to mske it con- 
form with the law of the Church, they received the 
famous answer. *' Nolumos leges Anglise mutare." It 
was a curious element in this legitimation that when the 
parents were married the children stood during the 
ceremony under their mother's mantle. This was the 
univereal practice north of the Alps, and such children 
were called in Germany "mantle children." The intro- 
duction to this volume is, as usual, more readable than 
the text, from the variety of curious learning displayed 
by the editor. For example, — few readers will know the 
origin of the legal phrase, " tenant by curtesy." It is the 
English rendering of " tenens per curialitatem.*' Tba 
husband of an heiress was not accepted as a member of 
the curia of the lord of the fee as his wife's representative 
until issue was born of the marriege, when he became 
tenant for life of his wife's estate. It is a minor blemish 
that the editor persists in refusing to recognize the fact 
that vicecomet is the Latin for sherifi", not for viscount, 
although to address precepts to issue execution to the 
Viscounts of E^sex and Hertfordshire is absurd on the 
face of it. Hertford, by the way, is misprinted 
" Hereford " at p. 271. These smaller matters are not 
mentioned in any spirit of caTiiling, but rather to 
prore that the book has received the careful coniidera- 
tion which it deserves. 

Thb North Riding Record Society stnrts its series of 
publications with a first instalment of Quarter Sessions 
ReeordSf temp. Jac. I., under the able editorship of 
Rev. J. C. Atkinson, who, as might be expected, con- 
tributes not a few valuable notes on points of philological 
interest. The Christian names and surnames both afibrd 
ample matter for discussion, and traces of various in- 
fluences may be argued as shadowed forth thereby. 
Taking into consideration the unquestionably Scottish 
origin of the Maxwells, Threaplands, and others who 
appear in the Records, we are of opinion that the Chris- 
tian name Oawin, occurring, indeed, at p. 90, in con- 
nexion with the almost certainly Scottish surname of 
Spence (merely a Tariant of Spans), is not really " Gawd- 
win," whatever that mny be or mean, but, as Mr. Atkin- 
son suggests, the " Gawain " of classic fame in Scottish 
literature. We must await the index and preface pro- 
mised in part ii. before we can pive an adequate account 
of the many valuable features which should attract the 
genealogist, the philologist, and the student of history 

■Mfiag bb fame and merits as a writer. Law books generally, to the work of the North Riding Record 
tti proverbblly dreary reading to svery one except | Society. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Two parte of Mr. Walter Hamilton*! collection of 
Parodia have appeared. These deal wholly with the 
Poet Laureate, of whom some ipirited travestiei, with, 
of coarse, others of less merit, are furnished. We fail to 
see, however, the best parody of a portion of the In 
Memoriam that ever appeared, the adTertisemeot of 
H}zokerit. This we recall in Putich. So far as our 
memory can be trusted, it commenced thua : — 
** Wild rumours through the lur did flit, 
Wild rumours shaped to mystic hints. 
When bright through breadth of public prints 
Flamed that great word Ozokerit. 
And much the peoples marvelled when 
That mystic thing should come to view ; 
And what is it and whereunto ? 
Rung frequent in the mouths of men." 
Mr. Hamilton will do well to include this in the next 
^section of hia work. 

That amusing compilation DorCl, in its unabridged 
form, has been issued by Messrs. Field Sc Tuer in a 
^sixpenny edition. 

TJhdsr the title the Uttll Quarterlif and Bast Riding 
Portfolio will be published this month a new magazine, 
edited by Mr. W. G. B. Page, of Hull, which will deal with 
-subjects of a general literary character; also of the 
antiquities, archaeology, bibliography, memoirs of local 
wortnies, folk-lore, meteorolorar, natural history, &c., of 
^ull, the East Biding, and of North Lincolndiire. It 
will be crown quarto in size, printed on toned paper, and 
contain forty-eight pages of letterpress and illustrations. 
The contents of the first number are : *' The Hull 
^Corporation Plate " by Dr. Eelburne King, illustrated ; 
«The Folic -lore of Holdemess, some Scraps of," by 
Rev. W. H. Jones; "The Meteorology of Hull," by 
William Lawton ; " The Influence of the Northmen on 
OUT I^guage," by John Nicholson; "The Johnson 
MS. Correspondence," &c. 

To the list of periodicals which furnish a column of 
local notes and queries must be added the Banbury 
'Ouardian. The first instalment of this will appear on 
the 3l8t inst. 

WiTHiK the last five years various old documents and 
manuEcripts have been discovered in Egypt, and frag- 
ments of them have found their way to Berlin, Paris, 
Vienna, &c. Among them are portions of a parchment 
code of the fourth or fifth century, comprising the 
ReBponsi of Papinianus, the most renowned of the 
-classical Boman lawyers, with notes of his disciples 
Ulpianus and PauUus. The fragments at Berlin have 
been edited by Eriiger; those at Paris by Daresk. It is 
•quite within the range of probability that similar docu- 
ments have been purchased as curiosities by tourists in 
Egypt. Should this be so, the possessors of such are 
invited, in the interest of scholarship, to communicate 
their addresses to Messrs. Triibner & Co., Ludgate UilU 

W« miut call tpeeial atteiUionto (h$ following fioCicti; 

On all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

Wb cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

W. Beckbtt (" Loss or Gain of Time in Cireumna- 
Tigating the Globe ").— This will depend entirely on 
whether the ship sails in an easterly or westerly direc- 
tion. If she sails easterly, that is, in the direction of 
the earth's rotation, she will have made half a revolu- 
tion round the earth on her own account, to be added to 

the number of days she is making the Yoyage. And as 
Sydney time is reckoned nearly twelve hours ahead of 
Iiondon time (e.g., it is noon on January I at Sydney at 
the actual time that it is nudnight on December 31 at 
London) it will seem to be a day later when the ship 
reaches London than the count of days on board would 
make it. But if the ship sails westerly, or in the reverse 
direction to the earth's rotation, the ship's motion will 
just make up for the difference of reckoning of time at 
the two places, and the date will seem to be the same by 
the count kept on board and as found at London. Two 
ships starting together in reyerse directions and arriying 
anywhere tether will, of course, find their separate 
reckonings of date differ by one day. 

HiRBiRT Nash ("Lecky*s Hutorg of £uropeati 
MoraU ").— The quotation you supply merely turns into 
prose the portion of the AdonaU of Shelley commencing 
with stansa xlii. :— 

"He is made one with Nature : there is heard 
His yoice in all her music, from the moan 
Of thunder to the song of night's sweet bird : 
He is a presence to be felt and known 
In darkness and in light, from herb and stone. 
Spreading itself where'er that Power may move 
which has withdrawn his being to its own : 
Which wields the world with never wearied loye, 
Sustidns it from beneath, and kindles it above." 

Shelley, WorUt lii. 25, ed. H. B. Forman. 
Belshazzab ("ChAteau Tquem '').— Ch&teau Tquem 
is an estate, with a handsome ch&teau, in the district of 
Sautemes, Canton de Langon, Department of the Qironde. 
It belongs to the heirs of the Marquis Bertrand de Lur- 
Saluces, or did a few years ago. It produces annually 
one hundred to one hundred and thirty tonneaux of a 
wine held in highest estimation by connoisseurs. 

LiEnT.-GoL. Fbroussor ("Yankee Ensign ").— We are 
authorized by Admiral Sir G. Broke Middleton, Bart., 
to state that the flag taken with the Chesapeake bv his 
father. Sir Philip B. V. Broke, " was given by the gallant 
middy of the Shannon to his kind friend and patron the 
second Eiarl Grey, and was therefore never in bis (Sir 
G. Broke Middleton's) possession.^' 

W. B. (<< Emblematic Design and Designer ").— This 
is BetsEch's well-known engraving of "The Cbesa 
Players." See " N. & Q.," 6th s. yii. 506 ; viii. 40. 

W. M. C. (I* London "J .—In hoiiW% Huiory of London, 
the second edition of which has just appeared, you will 
find information of the kind you seek. 

T. C. H. ("Royal Horse Guards Blue").— The story 
told you is a mere variation of a joke formerly applied 
to the officers of the 10th Begiment. 

W.— 0/(i Lincolnshire is published at the Old Lincoln- 
shire Press at Stamford, and by Beeyes of London. 

W. D. Parish.— Your note upon Fox's Booh ofJUartgrt 
is not oyerlooked or dismissed. It will appear in dua 

J. Cakh Hcohbs, B.A. (" Old Curiosity Shop").— Tb« 
idea that the house in Portsmouth Street is the Old 
Curiosity Shop of Dickens finds no serious acceptance. 

W. H. D. HBRysT is anxious to know if there is in 
England any tunnel longer than the Box Tunne), at 
Dunnon HilL 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of < Notes and Queries'"— Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher"— at the Oflioe, 20^ 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to retam coa- 
monioatlens which, for any reason, we do not priat ; «ad 
to tUi nde ire can mate n« esoeptioB. 

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Digitized by VjOOQIC 





CONTENTS. — N« 213. 
VOTES :—ABdr«v Manrell uid Valentiiie Oreatraki, 61— 
Ibe OrkneTi. 63— Autograph Letter of De Foe— St. Amand 
and De Alblni, 65— John Howe- Goodman— Popolar Saper- 
•tlttoBB - Pish Sanoe— Fint Introdaction of OhrUtmai Ckrds, 
68— New Wofds— Bemody in Teething, 67. 

<QU£KIE4:— "PyrmaUon and Qalatea "—Title "Master of 

r 67 -Princess Charlotte — Books Wanted— Serpents' 

Food— '*Vioar of Wakefield "—Medal of ▲.D. 1680— "Let 
sleeping dogs lie"— Large Ears and Bloqnence—'* Bound- 
beads before Pontefract," 68-Jackson of Winslade -Title 
of Plaj Wanted — Simon Forman — Colnmn at Rabley— 
"Tales of an Indian Camp"— Turtle— Capps-*' Robinson 
Orasoe ''—Author of Song Wanted— Swearing at Highgate — 
Lord George Benttnck — Resentment — Ca^ Family, 09- 
T'ngH.h Hunting Custom— Cipher— Authors Wanted, 70. 

ESPLIS9:— Daseethe Painter, 70 -Nathan the Composer, 71 
— Polampore, 72— Goodwin Sands- Bear-sklu Jobber -Glas- 
gow Biroetoiy-Beahniper— " Red Cross Knight"— *' Hey. 
my kitten "—Admiral Kenbow— Ladykeys, 73— Phis— Ber. 
J. £. Salkfnson — Hemlgranica- Missing Braises— Site of 
Tomb Wanted, 74 — Aldine Anchor— " Solitary monk," Ac 
—Stammel — Wooden Effigies -T. Lupton, 75— Fly- leaf— 
WUllam Bosooe-Wilhmont- Papa and Mamma— John 
Delafona — ''Prevention batter than cure." 76— Fud^e: 
Utrem— Fielding B **Tom Jones"— Fox s "Book of Mar- 
tyrs, " 77-Slr Walter Manny— Authors Wanted, 78. 

NOTES ON BOOKS:— North's "Church BelU of Bedford- 
shire" — Thomson's MachiavelU's "Discourses on Livy" 
— "Concordance to Various Readings in Greek Testament " 
^Wright's " Bible Word-Book." 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


I have recently been reading a remarkable set 
of pamphlets, lent me by my good neighbour 
Samuel Gratrix, Esq., of West Point, connected 
with Yalentine Greatraks, who wrought marvellous 
cores of diseases and distempers by stroking. The 
most important tract is entitled : — 

A Brief Acconnt of Mr. Valentine Qreatrak^s, and 
diTen of the Strange Cares By him lately Performed. 
Written by himself in a Letter Addressed to the Honour- 
able Robert Boyle, Esq. Whereunto are annexed the 
Testimonials of Several Eminent and Worthy Persons of 
the chief Matters of Fact therein Related. London, 
Printed for /. SOtrkey, at the Mitre in Fleet-street, be- 
iween the Middle Temple-OaU and Temple-Bar, 1666. 
— 4tQ. Portrait by Faithome. Pp. 96. 

This cMue from the pen of Greatraks himself, 
who was an upright and a sober gentleman of in- 
dependent means, belon^^ng to Affane, co. Water- 
fora, deeoended from a family settled at Great 
Bakes^ near Matlock ; and it was in reply to an 
attack upon his character by David Lloyd, a writer 
of memoirs more remarkable for their number 
than aeoaracy. Greatraks's apology is a dignified 
eomposition, written without heat, and bearing an 
■ir of trathfulness. He was bom at Affane in 
16i8. On the breaking out of the Irish rebellion 
to Stock GUbrieli in Devonshire, to be 


educated ; he afterwards fought in the Irish warn 
with the view of recovering the family estate ; and 
he finally resettled in Ireland, becoming Justioe 
of the Peace and Clerk for co. Cork. He died 
about 1682. 

About the year 1662 he had, as he says, <'an 
impulse or a* strange persuasion in my own mind 
(of which I am not able to give any rational 
account to another), which did very frequently 
suggest to me that there was bestowed on me 
the gift of curing the Kiag's-Evil." 

He was successful in testing this strange gift, 
and the fame of his cares spread abroad. He was 
afterwards " impelled '' to cure other diseases ; 
and many persons resorted to his house. The 
knowledge of his surprising powers travelled into 
England, and afflicted persons of all conditions of 
life crossed the sea to be " stroked.'' In January, 
1666, by the persuasion of the Earl of Orrery, 
Robert Boyle's brother, Greatraks left Affane to 
visit Lady Conway in Warwick^^hire, who suffered 
from an incurable headache. Landing at Mine- 
head, the stroker was recognized, and on his way 
towards Hagley he was resorted to by crowds of- 
afflicted persons. His stroking of Lsidy Conway 
was ineffectual. When prepariog to return home, 
he was invited to Worcester, where great crowds 
of persons were relieved. The charges for enter- 
taining Mr. Greatraks at this city were printed in 
'' N. & Q ," 3'^ S. V. 439. The king next sent for 
him, but, according to a letter, was far from enter- 
taining a good opinion of his person or cures. In 
a letter dated May 3, 1666, Greatraks says : — 

" The King^s Doctors this day (for the confirmation of 
their Miyesty's belief) sent three out of the hospital to 
me, who came on cratches, and blessed be God, they all 
went home well, to the admiration of all people, as well 
as the doctors." — Rawdon Papers, p. 211. 

It is said that the Court, though not fully persuaded 
of his miraculous power, did not forbid him to 
make himself known. Greatraks hereupon took 
lodgings in Lincoln's Inn Fields, where more 
remarkable scenes were enacted. Many of the 
cures are vouched for by physicians, divines, and 
other witnesses of position. Pp. 48-96 of the 
Account are taken up by their testimonials as to 
the efficacy of the stroker's powers ; and among 
the attestors are Dr. John Wilkins, Dr. H. More, 
Robert Boyle, Dr. B. Whichcott, Sir J. Godolphin, 
Dr. George Bust, Dr. R. Cudwortb, the Rev. Simon 
Patrick, and others. 

Amongst the cases is the following (pp. 83-4):— 
"I Anthony NiekoUon of Camhridge, Book-iellcr, 
have been affected sore with pains ull over my body, for 
three and twenty years last past, have lia«l advice and 
best directions of all the Doctors there, have been at the 
Bath in SofMrsetthire, and been at above one hundred 
pound expense to procure ease, or a Cure of these pains; 
and have found all the means I could be advised or 
directed to, ineffectual for either, till by the advice of 
Dr. Benjamin Whicheot and Dean Rujt, I applied my 
self to Mr. Qrwirak*M for help upon Saturday waa 

Digitized by 




[6A a IX. JAir. 2^ '84. 

■evenight, being tbe htter end of Marchf who then 
etroked me ; upon which I was very much worse, and 
enforced to keep my bed for 6 or 6 days : bat then being 
stroked twice since, by the blessing of God upon Mr. 
Orairak's endeayoar^ 1 am perfectly eas'd of al pains, 
and very healthy and strong, insomuch as I intend (God 
willing) to return home towards Cambrxdgt to-morrow 
morning, though I was so weak as I was necessitated to 
be brought up in mens arms, on Saturday last about 11 
of the dock, to Mr. Orealrah'i, Attested by me this 

tenth day of April, 1666. I had also an hard swelling 
in my left Arm. whereby I was disabled from using * 
which being taken out by the said Mr. OrecUrak'i, I 

perfectly freed of all paiu, and the use thereof wholly 
restored. Arthokt Nioholsox. 

In the presence of Andr. Marvdl, 

Ja. FaireclougK 
Tko. Pooley. 
W. Popple," 

There are good reasons for belieYing that the first 
witness to this statement is the famoas politician 
who represented Hall in Parliament. His interest 
in the case is perhaps due to his connexion with 
tbe university, and the elder Maryeli belonged 
to Cambridgeshire. The date takes us to the 
Marvell correspondence, where we find two letters 
very near to this date. The first was written on 
Dec. 9, 1665, when Marvell was attending the Par- 
liament at Oxford, which met there on account of 
tbe Plague in London ; and the second was written 
Oct. 23, 1666, when, just after the C(reat Fire, it 
met at Westminster. In these letters, which are 
purely devoted to parliamentary business, Mar- 
▼elFs lodgings are not mentioned. The signature 
to Nichouion's statement was Marvell's usual way 
of writing it, and is so found in the fine series of 
'^ Parliamentary and Familiar Letters." But the 
presence of '* W. Popple" as a co- witness adds 
confirmation to Marvell*s identity. The Popple 
fanuly of Charterhouse, near Hull, was connected 
with the MarveUs, and the name often occurs in 
the correspondence. Capt. Thompson explains 
the relationship, viz., that Marvell's sister Cathe- 
line married Edmund Popple (vol. i. pp. iv, xxxi), 
though elsewhere he says that Marvell' had only 
one sister, Ann, who married Mr. James Blaydes 
(ill. 489-90). Dr. Grosart says that the sister 
who married Edmund Popple was Mary, and that 
the marriage took place in 1636 (vol. i. p. xxxlii ; 
and cf., for other references to the family, p. xlv, 
and vol. iL p. xli). William Popple was the son 
of this Edmund, and was educated under 
Marvell's direction (Thompson, vol. i. p. xxxviii). 
He was subsequently a merchant in Bordeaux, 
and was the possessor of a MS. volume of bis 
uncle's poems. Thompson quotes a letter to 
Popple without date (vol. i. p. xxxi), and also a 
letter to his "cousin" Ramsden, dated March 21, 
1670 (p. 408), which is ascribed by Dr. Orosart 
to William Popple (ii. 313). There is another 
letter dated June 10, 1678 (Thompson, iil 479). 

Tbe Alured family was connected with Andrew 

Marvell, for the elder Marvell married for hii 
second wife one of this family. Cf. Grosart, vol L 
p. xlv; Forster^s Vitit. Yoi'hahiref p. 144. 

There is a second case of stroking in Greatraks's 
tract, p. 85, dated April 10, 1666, also attested by 
Marvell, Popple, Alured, and others. 

Among the persons whom Greatraks failed to 
cure were Flamsteed the astronomer and Sir John 
Denham; the rough stroking in the latter case waa 
said to have made its subject stark mad. Great- 
raks's hand is said to have been large, heavy, and 
soft, and an aroma as of sweet flowers came from 
it. He is not named in Pepys's Diary, nor in 
Evelyn's; but a letter from Evelyn in Thoresby'a 
Corretpondtnce (i. 383), referring to him, says that 
he seemed to have a remarkable countenance, 
which denoted something extraordinary. 

Mr. Gratrix's volume of tracts contains a MS. 
narrative of some cures done in Ireland in 1680, 
and as this document has never been printed it 
may be worth preserving in your pages: — 

" Being in Ireland with my Sister Ogbom November 
25th, 1680: I went to sed M' Oratricks stroke (as 
People called it). My Brother Osborn was acquainted 
with him; my Niece and Nephew Osborn were with me. 
He was then at Dablin and lodged at the House of one 
Mrs. Denison that we knew. The door was so crowded, 
we could hardly git in, an^l the Rabble were angry that 
we did, saying the Gentelfolks might gitt care for their 
money, therefore they should rait her lett in the Poor. 
We were had to his Rome, whare not mtny at a time 
were lett in. When he had done with those in the rome 
he turned to me, and asked if I had any Seruice to com- 
mand him. I said No ; 'twas only carionsitty brought 
me, which I hoped he would not be angry with. He 
said not in the lest ; and would be speaking to us somo- 
timei to loak on what he thought remarkable. CertiUnly 
there must be in him something exterordenery, for there 
was none that he stroked for pains, but said the^ were 
cured. He says, and they confermed it, that pain flis 
before his hand and allways went out at their fingers or 
Toes. Many that bad the head-ake he rnbed his hand 
on, and asked whare is it now. They would answer^ 
either neck, breast, or sholder. They unlaced and un* 
tied their Petticoats, and he followed it on their bare 
Bodys till 'twas gon. One, when all the Pain was got 
into her great toe, he bed me feel how cold it was and 
see how it trembled ; and then after 2 or 3 little strokes 
she said 'twas gon. 

" There ware many children that had the Bicketi he 
stroked naked all ouer that had been there before, and 
their Frinds said were much better. 

" There was a great many for the E^el that said tbey 
had received much benifet. Sores that were broke he 
spit in. and rub'd with his finsers (and so he did to sore 
eyes) those swillings he said that must break, his hand 
would ripen ; if not disspirse it. 

" A great many sores he lanced, and one that bad an 
Vlcer in her side. 

"2 or 8 that had the Gout, and one that had , 

he would do nothing to, and told a blind man, Were the 
twelve Apostles there, thay could not make him see ; he 
had no eyes ; and nothing could help him but a new crea- 

<* I admired the People as much as him, for they 
bore all he did with great patience and never gain- 

Digitized by 





myed him in any thing. To conclude, 'tiras the Odest 
light that ener I see, or bellene euer shall see. 

" He is a Oentieman of 8f>xne a /lOOO a year, and LiTee 
in the Ooonty of Cork, whare his Keibours com about 
him for cure; but when Buttness calls bim to Dublin, 
he has do quiet. Nothing bat the thought of doing good 
eould make him indure what he dos, for he gits no- 
thing by it but trouble. 'Tis not to keep up any Sict or 
Pkrtty, or any by end that one can imagine. He is a 
Church of England Man, but no Bigot, but seems to 
Tallu any Man for being good, what euer Church he 
is of. 

" The next day he com to see my Brother Oibom and 
asked for his Lady ; so he was brought in to us Women. 
He is proper large man, uery Plesant in Gonuersation. 
and LoTes to talks of the great cures he lias done ; and 
lays there is no Surgion in the Nation has don the tliinj^s 
that he has, yet neuer read a word of that Practtis in 
his life. He told us of one that com to him swelled up, 
like a tun, in a Dropeie, and prayed bim to do something 
for him, being giueu ouer by the Doctors (he knew the 
Man), and told him Thou art a worthless Fellow and I 
can neuer try an experiment on a better; if you will 
▼enter I will make Jnsisions in your Leggs and try to 
draw the water that way. He was willing, and cured. 

" We were acquanted with my Lady Glanaly, who had 
often ifitts of the Head-nke. He cured her of one ; but 
^e had the good lock to haue it go out at her fingera. 

" Sir John Topham had a great sore at hia breast that 
was broke and, tbo he had no faith in Mr. Oratricks, 
was willing to see him. There was one hard lump so 
sore that he could indure nothing to tutch it, and prayed 
him to beware of that Place. O, sais he, you need not 
fear ; my hand hurts no body ; which he found so true 
that insted of hurt it began to soften and run, which 
was to great a surprise (as he told a frind) that [be] 
coold not tell what to think of Him.'* 

This MS. is endorsed in a modern hand : " A 
liogQlar acconnt of the above mesmerist (g^ven by 
one Osbonu Qy., D. of Leeds family ? Yes." 

J. E. Bailet. 

filretford, Manchester. * 


{ConiiiMud from p, 4.) 

Sir Walter Soott, in one of his notes to Tht 
FiraU^ relates the following :— 

"About twenty years ago a missionary clergyman had 
taken the resolution of traversing these wild islands, 
where he supposed there might be a lack of religious 
instruction which he believed himself capable of supply- 
ing. After heinfl' some days at sea in an open boat, lie 
arrived at North Ronaldshay, where his appearance 
excited great speculation. He was a very little man, 
dark complexioned, and from the fatigue he had sus- 
tained ill removing from one island to another he ap- 
peared before them ill-dressed and unsbaved ; so that 
the inhabitants set him down as one of the ancient Picts, 
or, as they call them, with the usual strong guttural, 
Pcghts. How they might have received the poor preacher 

in this character was at least dubious An engineer of 

the Scottish Lighthouse Survey, who happened to be 
on the island, and whose skill and knowledge were in the 
highest repute, was appealed to, and good-bumouredly 
went to decide the matter, but hearing that the poor 
■dffionary was fast asleep, he declined to disturb him : 

ri which the islanders, who had assembled round 
door, produced a paur of very little uncouth- 
looking bocts, wUh prodigiously thick soles, and appealed 

to him whether such articles could belong to any one but 
a Peight. The engineer, finding the prejudices of the 
nati?es so strong, was induced to enter the sleeping 
apartment of the traveller, and was surprised to recog- 
niz:i in the supposed Peight a previous Edinburgh ac- 
quaintance, and he was able, of course, to refute all 
suspicions of Peightism." 

The dyergs, or dwarfs, were described ss having 
short legs and long arms, which, when standing 
erect, touched the groand. The trolls (in Orkney 
pronounced irowi) were spoken of as haying the 
head of a man and the feet of a beast, and it was 
thought that they could assume the form of beaets. 
The word iriil or traull signified originally a giant 
or an tote, but the word came to be generally ap- 
plied to all eyil demons. Any peculiar formation 
of rock was considered to be the work of the trolls. 
Rastic Buperstitlon in the North relates much of 
the trolls being changed into recks and stones. 
These imaginary beings are also described 
with the distinction of sex. lo the island of 
Yaagae, in the Faroes, is a perpendicular rock in 
the form of an obelisk, called the Troll's Wife's 
Finger. The Scalds term the rocks the temples 
and the abodes of the dwarfs. The immortal 
Puck is numbered by them among the black elyes 
or dwarfs. The Orkneys had sea-trows and hill- 
trows. All natural phenomena were regarded as 
the work of these supernatural agents, to whom 
worship was offered. A remarkable monument of 
this worship still* remains on the hills of Hoy, the 
most mountainous of the islands. It is known as 
the Dwarfie Stone, and consists of a large detached 
block of sandstone, seyen feet in height, twenty- 
two feet long, and seventeen feet broad. The 
upper end has been hollowed out by the hands of 
devotees into a sort of apartment, containing 
two beds of stone, with a passage between them. 
The upper, or longer bed, is 5 ft. 8 in. long by 
2 ft. broad, and intended for the dwarf. The 
lower couch is shorter, and rounded off, instead of 
being squared, at the corners ; it is intended for 
the dwarfs wife. There is an entrance of about 
three feet and a half square, and a stone lies before 
it, calculated to fit the opening. Not satisfied 
with having provided such a solid habitation for 
the genius loci and his helpmate, the islanders 
were still in the habit, at no very distont period, 
of carrying propitiatory gifts to this fetich. 

Wild stories of the doings of the giants or denii- 
gods used to be currently related by old people in 
the islands. On the ridge of hills which surround 
the beautiful bay of Kirkwall there is on the nortk 
an indented niche which breaks abruptly the line 
of the horizon. Like all such appearances, in any 
way out of the ordinary, it required to have its 
legend, which is this. A giant, while taking a 
quiet survey of the islands, had placed his foot on 
this spot, and left its imprint ; while, at the same 
time, one of the small neighbouring holms had 
rolled off his cubby into the sea. It would seem 

uigiiizea oy ^.^jVv'v^ 




[6»^ 8. IX, Jak. 26, '84. 

that his mightiness was considered to hare been a 
little giddy. The cabby is a straw basket, carried on 
the backhand fastened by a strap(Nor8e/e<tZ/) across 
the chest. The principal mode of communication 
between the islands being by sea, the inhabitants 
were long deprived of anything worthy of the name 
of roads ; hence there were no carts nor waggons, 
and all objects requiring to be carried by land 
were put into such straw baskets and borne by 
men or beasts. Cubbies are still much used in Shet- 
land, although now less frequently seen in Orkney. 

The following is another local legend, but of 
a larger import. The numerous sea currents 
that run in opposite directions among the is- 
lands have long rendered navigation dangerous. 
This is nowhere so remarkable as in the Pent- 
land Firth, where, at certain states of the tide, 
there is formed a dangerous whirlpool, equally 
dreaded with the ancient Scylla and Charybdis. It 
was known as the Swelchie, or the Wells of Stroma, 
and was supposed to draw to destruction all the 
ships that came near. The origin of the whirlpool 
is Uius accounted for in an old poem, included in 
the Bdda: — Frodi the king had a quern — a hand- 
mill, still in use in the islands — which was called 
Orotti, and ground whatever he wished, gold and 
other beautiful thing«. The handmaidens who 
ground with it were Fenja and Minja. The sea- 
king Mysing took Orotti and caused white salt to 
be ground into his ships until they sank in the 
Pentland Firt,h. There has ever since been a 
swirl when the sea falls through the eye of Grotti 
{the quern). When the sea roars the quern grinds; 
and, besides, this is how the sea became salt. 
This is not unpoetical. The legend has, no doubt, 
had something to do with the name of John o' Groat, 
given to the opposite headland. Small shells 
found in the neighbourhood and other parts of the 
islands are called '*groatie buckies." 

All sorts of superstitions customs and beliefs 
continued to be long prevalent in Orkney. In 
Barry's history of the islands there are several 
authenticated cases of the burning of witches. 
People were considered to be possessed by demons, 
locally termed ^' trow sitten," as in Worcestershire 
the peasants were called ''puke laden." This 
latter word is also found in Hartshome's Shrop- 
ihire Glossary. The Orkney word irotoey means 
sickly, so as to indicate that the belief must have 
been very general. People under the influence of 
evil spirits were also said to be '* pousted," which 
word may be a corruption of puhattig, puck- 
trodden. A form of water-charm seems to have 
been much practised. A person thought to be 
spell-bound was termed " foispoken.'* John Ben, 
a Scotch ecclesiastic, who visited the islands in 
1629, has left some Latin notes, to be found 
in Barry's appendix, which are not without 
interest He refers to the use of the old Norse in 
the islandi, and states that the natives saluted 

each other by saying " Qoand da boundae,'' when 
in the Scotch vernacular one would have said^ 
" Qood day, guidman." The old Norse continued 
to be spoken in the remoter districts of the 
islands until the latter end of the last century. 
Many words are still in current use, such as the 
pronouns ihu and thu, and hid for it. Ben has 
occasion to mention the prevalence of superstitions 
practices. He relates of Deemess, or the Ness of 
Deers, that this parish was formerly woody, and 
possessed many wild animals. Many parts of the 
islands bear evidence of this, as large trunks of 
trees and antlers of deer are frequently found 
imbedded in the soil. There are no trees upon 
the islands now, nor will they grow there. '' In 
the south part of the parish of Deerness,'' says 
Ben, '' there is a natural, rook in the sea, where 
men climb up with great difficulty on their hands 
and knees to the top, where is a small shrine, 
called the Bairns of Burgh." This latter name is 
in the vernacular. He goes on to say :— • 

'* All classes of the people assemble here in very large 
numbers, and ascend prayinK bare-f(H>ted to the shrine, 
where only one person at a time is able to pass. Here is 
a pure, glittering spring of water, which is Tery wonder- 
ful. Then the men, on bended knees, and with joined 
bands, distrusting the existence of Ood, pray to the 
Bairns of Burgh with many incantations, tnrow stones 
and water behind their backs, and walk step by step 
twice or three times around the shrine. Having finished 
tbeir prayers, they return home, asserting that they 
have performed their vows." 

This rock is about a hundred feet in height, and- 
covered with grass on the top. Low, a later writer 
than Ben, says that in his time ^'old age scrambled 
its way through a road in many pUces not six 
inches broad, where certain death attended a slip.'' 
It appears from Barry, who wrote about the 
beginning of this century, that this practice had 
then been recently discontinued. 

The rites here described are evidently similar to 
those known in the North as the Midsummarsblot^ 
or Midsummer sacrifice, an assemblage for universal 
sacrifice and festivity on the completion of the 
year. The sons of Bur are the trinity of the 
Northern mythology — Odin and his brothers Yeli 
and Te. Their work in the creation of the world 
is thus narrated in the Voluspa : — 

"In the beginning of ages, when Ymer [t.e., the 
primeval ocean or chaos] established himself, there were 
neither strand, nor sea, nor cooling waves, nought bat a 

Skwning gulf, of verdure destitute. Then the sons of 
ur erected the firmament and formed the central 
enclosure ; the sun shone from the south on the rocks of 
the habitation, and the earth bloomed with tufted 

The division of day and night is next explained, 
and the creation of the first human pair, followed 
by the creation of the dwarfs, whose names are 
enumerated, each of them being expressive of some 
active power of nature. 
At these ceremonies large fires were kindled 

uigmzea oy x^jvJOV Iv^ 




in high plaoeSy people washed themselyes in 
the open air, and drank out of the sacred 
foontains. Such practices, of the remotest anti- 
quity, were performed daring the kst centnry in 
Sweden and Norway, as well as in many parts 
of Great Britain. The Bomish Church sanctioned 
the fires, under the name of St. John's fires. In 
Dye^B British Popular Customs or Brand's Popu- 
lar Antiquities will he found descriptions of such 
ceremonies, performed on Midsummer Eve in a 
great number of places throughout the kingdom. 
Dyer quotes from the Hibernian Magazine of 
Ju^, 181:7, an account of a ceremony precisely 
ainukr to that related by Ben, as having been 
performed at Stoole^near Downpatrick. The pre- 
ralence of such wild and indecorous festivals gave 
rise to the expression *' Midsummer madness" 
{Twiflh Night, III. iv. 61)^ and lends appropriate- 
ness to the title of Midsummer Nighfs Dream 
employed by Shakespeare to indicate the incon- 
gmoua character of his play. 


{To he coTiiinued.) 

Autograph Lbttrr of Danirl db Fob. — I 
am the fortunate possessor of an original letter of 
Daniel de Foe. The subject is of great interest, 
and would be of greater if I could discover to 
whom it was addressed. Besides this appeal for 
help I should like to add another query. How 
does it happen that letters of De Foe are of such 
great rarity ? I was told unblushingly not long 
ago that all his correspondence was destroyed by 
ihe Fire of London in 1666; but as the author of 
Bohinson Crusoe was only born in 1663, the asser- 
tion rather startled me. Another informant has 
made the public hangman responsible for a similar 
destruction; but the only dealing that I can trace 
between the author and that functionary is the 
burning of the Shortest Way with Dissenters in 
1703; so that answer will not fit. I subjoin a copy 
of the letter : — 

"Mt Loan, — I have bad the hononrof yo' L*^^ Letter 
of y*12o altim*' so lonj; that indeed I blush to Date my 
annrer y* 26* May. I ooold indeed make some excuses, 
bat I choose to own it a Fault, because I will not 
lesKn the Tallue of yo' h*^^ remission. 

" yo' l^vp does me too much bono' in aoknowleging 
good wishes instead of Services, and bestowing on a Late 
and UnsQccerafulI proposall of mine, the weight due to 
a reall and eflfectuall Piece of Service ; th» generous 
Prmeiple of yo'^ L'pp* however Lays an obligac'on on me, 
to wateh for any opportunity that may offer, of Layeing 
reall obligae^ons on a hand so bountifull in accepting. 
And yo' L^ may be assnr'd I shall Lose no occasion. 

" The Person w<b whom I endeavoured to Plant yo' 
intteet has been strangely taken up since I had that 
occasion (vis.) First in suiFering the operac*on of the 
Saigeons to heal the wound of the assassme and since in 
soeumnlateing Honours from Padiamt Queen and People. 
*'0n Thursday evening her Msj"* created him Earl 
Mortimer Earle of Oxroid and Lord Harley of Wigmore 
«Bd we expect thai to-morrow in. Council he will have 

the white staff given him by the Queen herself and be 
Declared L^ High Treasurer. 

" I writ this yesterday and this Day May 29 he is 
made L** High Treasurer of Britain and Carryed the 
white stnff before the queen this morning to y« Ghappell. 

** yo' L^'PP will easily believ the hurry there too great 
to make any Moc*ons at this time. But you may assure 
yo'self (my Lord) nothing shall be wanting to represent 
either yo'self or y' affaires to y' L^''^' greatest advantage, 
and I hint by the way that no man is Fitter to move in 
such a case than the Duke of Newcastle whom yo' L'^ 
menc'on**. When ever y' L^f^ resolres to attempt y* thing 
I shall be glad to have notice that I may take a proper 
season to menc'on it to advantage. 
•' I am, 

" May it Please yo' L-'pp, 
"yo' L''^'* most Humble ac obedient servant, 

" Newington, May 29, 1711. Dk Fob.'* 

The " assassine '' refers, of course, to Guiscard. 
Fbbd. W. Jot, M.A., F.S.A. 
Cathedral Library, Ely. 

St. Amand and De Albiki, not St. Armand 
AND Stuart D'Aubiont. — Under the heading of 
** A Quaint Bequest" (6*^ S. viii. 425) there is an 
exceedingly erroneous reference, in an extract from 
Carlisle, to two Anglo-Norman baronial houses, 
which might lead the unwary into a sad genealo- 
gical maze if not corrected at an early date. It is 
certain that the true name of " James St. Armand, 
Esq./' must have been St. Amand, not St. Armand, 
if he was a descendant in the male line of the 
'* ancestor" attributed to* him; and it is equally 
certain that his reputed ancestress was not a 
Stuart of Aubigny, temp. Hen. III. (of England, 
luhaud.), a line not then in existence, but a De 
Albini, of the house of De Albini Brito. If Mr. 
F. S. Humph RET refers to Banks's Baronia 
Anglica Concentraia, i. 400, s,v. "St. Amand/* 
28 Edw. I., and to Burke's Dormant and Extinct 
Peerages, 1883, s.v. "St. Amand, Barons St. 
Amand,'' he will see that Ralph de St. Amand, 
temp. Hen. III., married Asceline, daughter and co- 
heir of Robert, son of Robert de Albini, of Caynhoe, 
Bedfordshire. Banks calls Asceline sister and 
coheir of Robert de Albini; but the point is not 
material for the correction of the error into which 
the passage cited by Mr. Humph ret might lead 
readers of "N. & Q." not students of the mediaeval 
baronage of England and Scotland. 

The house of St. Amand is distinguished, per- 
haps unique, among Anglo - Norman baronial 
houses of its day, in that it was at one time repre- 
sented by a Professor of the Canon Law, " Magister 
Johannes de Sco. Amando," summoned to Parlia- 
ment after the death, s. p., of his brother Almario, 
circa 3 Edw. II., by a fresh writ, 6-19 Edw. II. 
It seems odd that any descendant of so illustrious 
a house should have wilfully obscured the fact by 
adopting the unhistoric and inaccurate form of 
St. Armand instead of the historic and accurate 
form of St. Amand. C. H. E. Oarmichael. 

New TJniveriity Club, 8.W. 

Digitized by 





JoHW Hows. — In the lAft of John Hotoe, by 
Henry Rogers (870. 1836), the following paragraph 
and note will be found on p. 116 (and of. ed. 1863, 
pp. 87-88):— 

** He [Howe] appears to have preached once before 
Parliament, though on what occaBiou is not certainly 
known. The sermon, ns is shown by an advertisement 
of 1659, was entitled Man't Duty in. Magnifying OocTs 
Work. I presume ifc was publisoed on occaeion of one 
or other of those brilliant succeises which attended the 
arms of England on the Continent during the latter 
period of the protectorate. In these advertisements he 
ii described as ' Preacher at Westminster.* " 

In the note Mr. Rogers adds: — 

'* This was the earliest of Howe^s productions, and as 
such, if for no other reason, would have been an object 
of curious interest. One would have liiced, moreover, to 
see how such a man as Howe acquitted himself on such 
an occasion. For this sermon, however, I have searched 
in vain. I have met with no traces of it in any public 
or private collections to which I have been able to obtain 
access. Amongst other places, I have searched the 
British Museum and Dr. Williams's library (where, if 
anywhere, it might be expected to be found), as also 
the catalogues of tlie Bodleian, Sion College, and Lam- 
beth libraries. Whether it was advertised, but never 
published; or, if published at all, issued to such a limited 
extent that not a single copy has survived the wastes of 
accident and time, I cannot pretend to decide." 

Having been a diligent collector of Parliamentary 
fast and thanksgiving sermons (1640-1660) for 
more than forty years, I have long been satisfied 
that no such sermon by Howe exists. The way in 
which the mistake has originated is now, to my 
mind, quite clear. On Oct. 8, 1656, John Rowe 
preached before the Parliament from Job xxxvi. 
24, 25. The occasion was a thanksgiving for the 
victory obtained against the Spanish West India 
fleet. The sermon was printed the same year 
with the title Man*8 Duty in Magnifying God's 
Work. John Rowe was "Preacher nt West- 
minster ** Abbey. No doubt the correct explana- 
tion is that in the " advertisement " there was a 
simple misprint of John Howe for John Rowe. 
J. Ingle Dbedoe. 

Goodman. — On turning over the pages of the 
Bible Word-Booh, second edit. 1884, by W. Aldis 
Wright, I was surprised to find that the account 
of the word given in the previous edition remains 
unmodified. Goodman^ meaning " the master of 
the house," is still said to be "probably a corrup- 
tion of the A.-S. gummann or guma, a man.'' Mr. 
Smythe Palmer, on the ground of this supposed 
connexion with gummann, places this honest, 
straightforward old English word goodman in his 
Folk Etymology; or. Dictionary of Words Per- 
verted in Form by False Derivation. Of course, 
as in many other cases, the obvious derivation is the 
true one, and the connexion with A.-S. gummann 
(which form occurs only in one passage in Beowulf) 
is an instance of perverted ingenuity. See Skeat's 
£iym, DicLf $, v., and especiiuly the passages cited 

by Mr. Wright. I ask admission for this note, aff 
I would fain prevent this learned etymology from 
obtaining such sway in the educational world as 
the nnhappy Whiteun^Pfingsten guess, which 
seems likely to reign for many more years, if one 
may judge from what is set down in some of the 
latest Prayer-Book commentaries. See, for example^ 
Teacher*8 Prayer-Book^ by Bishop Barry. 

A. L. Mathbw. 
18, Bradmore Road, Oxford. 

Popular Supbrstitions. — Some time ago, 
whilst staying in some apartments in London, I 
placed for a moment on the table my boots, which 
the servant had just brought up. She immediately 
rushed at them, and said, ''Ob, sir, we shall have 
ill luck in the house." Never having heard of 
this superstition before, I inquired her birthplace, 
when she said she was a native of the metropolis. 
I should like to know if this is a common belief. 
Edward R. Vtvtan. 

Fisn Sauce. — The following pasquinade, at 
tlie expense of the unhappy monarch wliom 
Sheridan nicknamed Louis Des Huitres, may 
amuse some of the readers of " N. & Q.'': " Le roi 
fatigu4 d'Eperlans, fatigu6 des Merlans, prit des 
Soles pour r^tablir la monarchic des Truites." The 
correct reading, thus : '' Le roi fatigu^ des pain 
lents, fatigu^ des m aires lents, prit DessoUe''^ pour 
r^tablir la monarchic di^truite." 

Richard Edocuubb. 

33, Tedworth Square, S.W. 

The First Introduction of Christmas 
Cards. — The following remarks, taken from the 
Publishers' Circular (p. 1432, Dec. 31, 1883), 
seem well deserving of insertion in the pages of 
" N. & Q.'^ (see 6'»» S. v. 10, 155, 376);— 

" Several years ago, in the Christmas number of the 
Puhlifhert* Circular, we described the original Christmas 
card, designed by Mr. J. C. Horsley, R.A., at the sug- 
geation of Sir Henry Cole, and no contradiction was 
then offered to our theory that this must have been the 
real and original card. On Thursday, however, Mr. 
John Leighton, writing under his nam de pfume, ** Lulce 
Limner," comes forward to contest the claim of priority 
of design, and says : ' Occasional cards of a purely private 
character have been done years ago. but the Christmas 
card pure and simple is the growth of our town and our 
time. It began in the year 1862, the first attempts 
being the siae of the ordinary eentleman's address card, 
on which were simply put " A Merry Christmas " and " A. 
Happy New Year , after that there came to be added 
robins and holly branches, embossed figures and land- 
scapes. Having made the original designs for these, 
1 have the originals before me now ; they were produced 
by Goodall & Son. Seeing a growine want, and the 
great sale obtained abroad by the smaU religious prints 
or images, this house produced (1868) a " Little Red 
Riding Hood," a ** Hermit and hisCell/^and many other 
subjects in which snow and the robin played a part.' 
We fail to see how a card issued in 1862 can posubly 

* One of his generals. 

uigmzea oy VJjOOV Iv^ 

c*aix.JAK.26,'84] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ante-date the production of 1846, a copy of which ia in 
oar poBseasion ; and although there is no copyright in an 
ilea, the title to the honour of origioating the pretty 
trifle now flo familiar to us seems to rest with Sir Henry 

Apropos of the above passage, the folio wiog 
quotation may be added ; it is taken from a leader 
in the Daily Nem, Dec. 25, 1883 :-> 

" The Christmas card, which fills countless Termilion 
posts and quaint old country boxes, in shops with the 
indescribable scent of grocery, was, oddly enough, sug- 
gested by old Continental customs. Forty or fifty years 
Mgo it was the practice in Qermany to send gilt and 
illuminated cards to relatires on their ^amerutag, or 
name-day, as the Germans call it, the fite, in short, of 
the patron saint, not the birthday of the recipient. 
This sending of cards was a convenient custom to inter- 
weaTO among others, many of which it appears likely to 


The following appeared in the Times of the 
2nd ioat. : — 

"Sir,— The writer of the article on Christmas cards in 
the Times of December 25 is quite right in his assertion. 
The first Christmas card ever published was issued by 
me in the usual way in the year 1846 at the office of 
" Felix Summerly's Home Treasury," at 12, Old Bond 
Street. Mr. Henry Cole (afterwards Sir Henry) origi- 
nated the idea. The drawing was made by J. C. Horsley, 
B.A. ; it was printed in lithography by Mr. Jobbins, of 
Warwick Court, Holbom, and coloured by hand. Many 
copies were sold, but possibly not more than 1,000. It 
was of the usual size of a lady's card. Those my friend 
Luke Limner speaks of were not brought out, as he says, 
4ill many years after. " Joseph Cundall, 

"Surbiton HUl, Dec. 27." 

E. Lbaton Bleneinsopp. 

New Words. — ^It may be worth noting, as an 
iUastration of the rate at which new words are 
being introduced into English, that in the last 
number of the AtkmcRum for 1883 (that for De- 
cember 29) there are more than twenty words 
which do not appear in the most recently com- 
pleted large dictionary— Annandale's edition of 
Ogiivie's Imperial, The folio i^ing are the words, 
with their references :—acrobatical, a., p. 866, 
ool. 2; amphiodont, a., p. 870, col 3; arabic, a. 
(chem.), arabinose, s., arabinosic, a,, p. 871, col. 1; 
chlorophyllan, <., p. 871, col 1; Communard, »., 
p. 864, col. 1; dextrorotatory, a,, p. 871,. ool. 1; 
dynamitard, s., p. 876, col 1; lyseginous, a., p. 
870, col. 2; medially, adv., p. 870, col. 2; meris- 
tem, s., mesodont, a., metabolism, s., prsebronchial, 
o., priodont, a., pseudepiploon, s., schizogenons, a., 
telodont, a. (all from p. 870, col. 3); intimogeni- 
tare, s., p. 865, col. 3; unfailingly, adv,, p. 852, 
col. 3; universalization, «., p. 852, col. 2; untiring, 
tt, p. 840, col. 2. 

Annandale's Ogilvie contains, according to the 
pnblisbera, 130,000 words, being 12,000 more than 
any dictionary previously published ; the Eney- 
^opadie is estimated to include, when completed, 
150,000 ; while I should think it probable that Dr. 

Murray's Ntw English Dictionary, of which the 
first part (A — Ant) is announced to appear at the 
end of this month, will contain at least 200,000 
entries. J. Band all. 

A Rehbdt in Teething.— a Surrey woman 
recently told me that though she had brought up 
eleven children she never had any trouble with 
them when they were teething, for upon the first 
symptom of fretfulness which could be traced to 
teethins she went off, the first thing in the morn- 
ing, and borrowed a donkey and set the child upon 
the cross on the animars back with his face towards 
the tail, and then led the donkey a short distance 
while she said the Lord's Prayer ; then, taking the 
child off, she kissed him and said " God bless him,'' 
after which she assured me not a moment's incon- 
venience from teething had been endured by any 
one of her eleven children. W. D. Parish. 



We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct 

" Pygmalion and GALATEA."--When was the 
name of Galatea first introduced into the fable of 
the Cyprian sculptor and the animated statue) 
In Ovid there is no mention of the lady's name, 
yet there would seem to be some classical 
authority. French dictionaries of mythology 
almost all assert that the sculptor gave to his work 
the name of Galatea ; one says, ** of Euburnea or 
Galatea" ("Euburn^e ou Galath^e"). In Bous- 
seau's Pygmalion, Schie Lyrique, produced at the 
Theatre Fran^ais in 1775, the sculptor constantly 
addresses the object of his passion as " divine 
Galath^e"; and a correspondent of the Daily 
News says that she is called Galatea in Spanish 
and Italian versions of the same story. Mr. Gil- 
bert's my thological comedy Pygmalion and Galatea 
is a still later example. M. T. 

The Title "Master of .^— ." — To whom 
can this term be correctly applied 1 I have always 
understood it to be a courtesy title given to the 
eldest sons of certain Scottish peers. « Thus, Master 
of Beay, Master of Ruthven, Master of Saltoun, 
Master of Sinclair, &c., are applied respectively to 
the eldest sons of Lords Beay, Buthven, Saltoun, 
and Sinclair, &c. Seton, in Ths Law and Practice 
of Heraldry in Scotland, p. 458, says it is "applied 
to the heir apparent in the lower orders of the 
Scottish peerage.'' Sir George Mackenzie, quoted 
by Seton, says, "the eldest sons of barons are 
designated master, as the Master of Boss," &c. 
Becently tbe coming of age of the son of Chisholm 
of Chisholm (commonly called the Chisholm) was 
celebrated in the North, and the event was 

uigiiized by 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [60i8.ix.jah. 26, '84. 

chronicled in the newspapers and at dinners as 
the coming of age of " The Master of Ghisholm/' 
Surely there can be no authority for such an 
assumption by the son of a commoner. Perhaps 
some one better versed in heraldry than I am will 
tell the readers of " N. & Q." what is the recog- 
nized law on the subject. John Mackat. 

Princess Chaelotte. — There exists a set of 
twelve miniatures of the Princess Charlotte of 
Wales, which were painted from the life in the 
course of the years 1799 to 1817. They are by 
Charlotte Jones, *^ preceptress in miniature paint- 
ing, and miniature painter to the Princess Char- 
lotte/' an artist who ranked high in her own line 
at the end of the last century and beginning of 
the present. There are miniature portraits by 
her of the Prince Regent, Princess Amelia, Lady 
Caroline Lamb, and others. The miniatures in 
question were bequeathed by Miss Jones to a rela- 
tive, whose descendants now possess them. The 
portraits, with one exception (the first, which is a 
copy of a pencil sketch by Cosway, and is dated 
1796), are original, and from the life. They were 
painted in the years 1799, 1801, 1807, 1808, 1810, 
1812, 1813, 1814, 1815, and 1816, when the 
princess was aged respectively 3, 5, 11, 12, 14, 16, 
17, 18, 19, and 20 years. The series terminates 
with "a commemorative portrait" of beautiful 
design. Of the miniature of 1807 there is a replica 
At Windsor Castle, signed by Charlotte Jones. It 
is intended to publish reproductions of the minia- 
tures, coloured by hand, the exact size of the 
originals, some of which are three-quarter lengths, 
and to add explanatory letterpress. In arranging 
the explanatory text the writer's object is to 
cluster round each illustration the events of the 
moment. For this purpose original and unpub- 
lished matter is greatly desired. The many accounts 
of the Princess Charlotte, and even the "Brief 
Memoir," by Lady Rose Weigall, published in 
1874, may still, perhaps, have left, unknown to 
the public, letters and papers in private hands 
which would be of great value in giving fresh- 
ness and interest to the contemplated memoir. 
Communications relating to such will be gratefuUy 
received by Mrs, Herbert Jones, Sculthorpe, 
Fakenham, Norfolk ; or by Mr. Quaritch, who 
will publish the projected work. J. 

Books Wanted.— Baxter's InvUihU World, 

also The Phantom World, by the Rev. 

Christmas. Are these works out of print, or where 
can I procure copies ? Ruby d'Or. 

Serpents' Food.— Watts, in his lines to the 
Rev. Mr. John Howe, writes thus: — 
'* Thus like the ass of BavajEO kind, 
We anuflF the breezes of the win J, 
Or steal the serpent's food." 

This is supposed to be Pindaric. I sometimes see 
supreme beauty in Pindar, but English Pindarics 
are to me incomprehensible, and almost as hateful 
as allegories. I should like to see the wild ass 
stealing serpent's food interpreted, as I never hope 
to catch the creature itself in the felonious act. 

C. A. Ward. 
Haverstock Hill. 

" The Vicar op Wakefield."— I have before me 
an early edition of 2%6 Vicar of WakeJUld,p\xh\\Bhed 
by John Fleming, 8, Vicar Street, near Thomas 
Street, Dublin, no author's name or date, 18mo., of 
144 pages, in the style of an " Irish Burton " or 
chap-book. It has some peculiarities. It is in one 
volume, considerably differing from the authentic 
text; the poem of *' Edwin and Angelina " does not 
appear, and the book seems older than 1766, 
when the first edition was published at Salisbury. 
Is it possible that Goldsmith could have written 
a briefer form of his renowned classic before leav- 
ing Ireland, and afterwards extended it and im- 
proved it to the form in which the MS. was sold 
to Newbery by Dr. Samuel Johnson (for G^old- 
smith) for 602.? Can any of your correspondents 
kindly furnish the date when ^' John Fleming'' was 
in business at the above address, and so assist me 
in forming a conclusion on this interesting ideal 

Edwin Pearson. 

Medal of a.d. 1589.— Can any reader identify 
a " copper " medal, described as follows 1 viz. : — 

" Rather ihin, about as large as a penny ; on one side 
a figure (female ?) seated on a throne, reading a book. 
Round the edge is ' Tandem bona causa triumphat,' and 
the date 1589. On the other side is a tree and a bird 
just settling on the top. The motto is * Non viribus at 
causa potiori.' There are two words at the foot of the 
tree, but I cannot decipher them; one I think ends u& 

What is the inscription in the exergue ? 

R. M. M., Jun. 

" Let sleeping dogs lie." — What is the 
Qreek saying equivalent to the above 1 It contains 
some name as of a river nymph. 

Ben Rhtdding. 

Large Ears a Sign of Eloquence. — Can 
any reader of " N. & Q." supply me with informa- 
tion on this point ? The idea is mentioned in Tom 
Moore's Diary, where Moore relates that Kirk, the 
sculptor, told him '* he had thought the ears in the 
busts of Demosthenes out of nature, till he saw 
the ears of Burton (an eminent Irish barrister)." 
Burton was afterwards a Justice of the Irish 
King's Bench, and one of my collateral ancestors. 
Edward H. Marshall, M.A. 


" The Roundheads before Pontefract."— In 
TaiU Edinburgh Magazine for 1850 and 1851 
there was a series of three articles^ signed A., under 

uigmzea oy x.-jvv^v^ 


6»8.H.jAn.26,'84.i NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the above heading. The articles incorporated some 
letters and portions of letters' written from various 
persona in tne besieging army, generally to Adam 
Baynes, afterwards the Commonwealth M.P. for 
Leeds. Is it known in whose possession the 
originals are of those letters ? B. H. H. 


Jacesok of Winsladb, CO. Devon. — Where 
can I find a pedigree of, or any particulars relating 
to, the above £amUy ? F. W. D. 

TiTLB OF Plat Wanted. — Some kind of per- 
formance — a play, or something like it — was to be 
seen at Sadler's Wells about 1796-7, founded on 
the story of a girl at a village inn who was 
treacherously married by a man whose wife was 
alive. Can any one give me any information as 
to the nature of this performance, or explain in 
what way the maid herself was made a public 
spectacle at the theatre ? " Mary, the Maid of the 
Inn" is a likely title, or ''The Maid of Butter- 
mere" — ^an expression Wordsworth uses in The 
Frelude, bk. vii. T. Ashji. 

SncoN FoRXAN. — I should like some account 
of this astrologer. I believe some remarkable 
circumstances attended his death, the hour of 
which he himself foretold. Senex« 

Column at Rablet. — At Rabley, near to 
South Mims and to Bidge, on the borders of 
Middlesex and Hertfordshire, stands a column, 
about which an erroneous tradition appears to have 
sprung up, to the effect that it marks the death- 
place of the great Earl of Warwick after the battle 
of Bamet. I have been informed that it was 
erected probably earl^ in this century by Mr. 
Dudding, a former resident at Rabley. Can any 
one assign the motive with which Mr. Dudding 
orected it ? I have not succeeded in finding any 
mention of the column in print. J. P. H. 

'* Tales of an Indian Camp.*'— Who was the 
anthor or compiler of the above work, which was 
published in 3 vols. 8ro. by Colbum & Bentley in 
the year 1829 ? F. W. D. 

TuBTLB. — I should be glad to know if any of 
the readers of '* N. & Q." can inform me when 
turtle was first introduced into England as an 
article of food, whence it was brought, and when 
instructions for dressing it were first given in 
cookery-books ; also, what is the name and date 
of the earliest book which contidns such instruc- 
tions. It might be of interest if some person, 
who has a collection of old English cookeryrbooks, 
would give a list of the earliest, with their dates. 
The Form of Cury is well known, but others are 
not so. AtUiquitaUs Culinaria gives much 
inloroiatioD, but later books prior to the present 
cntaiy are not so well known. O. M. 

Capps. — In thtf records of the North Allerton 
Quarter Sessions, Yorks, a.d. 1606, John Warde, 
of Bransdale, was brought up for having uttered 
false and scandalous words, viz, "That Peter 

Wood greased S capps." To greate, to bribe, 

is plain enough, but can any of your numerous 
readers help me to know the meaning of capps f 


"Robinson Crusoe." — I have a coipjot Bohinson 
Oru80$f printed at Paris in 1783, which contains, 
at the eve of his adventures, " Robinson's Crusoe's 
Vision of the Angelic World," comprising "1. 
Solitude ; 2. Honesty ; 3. Afflictions ; 4. Immo- 
rality of Conversation, &c. ; 5. The Present State 
of Religion ; 6. The Voice of Providence." I 
have never met with the ^' Vision" in any Eng- 
lish edition. Has any reader of '' N. & Q." ? 

Wm. Freelove. 

Author of Song Wanted.— Can you inform 
me who was the author of a song beginning :— 

'* Says Plato, Why should man be vain. 
Since bounteous Heavea hath made him great " ] 
Also, who was the composer of the musical 
setting? H. W. M. 

Swearing on the Horns at HiaHOATE.— 
Can any reader of " N. & Q." help me to refer to 
any pictorial representations of that ceremony ? 


Lord George Bentinck.— Mr. Jennings, in 
his most interesting book entitled Rambles among 
the HiUs, whilst speaking of Lord George's death 
in Welbeck Park, says (p. 144) :— 

" I have never seen the fact referred to, but a fact it 
is, that the belief was general in Mansfield and Notting- 
ham that Lord Geor^ce Bentinck was one of the victims 
of Palmer, the Rugeley poisoner." 
Can any of yoQr readers tell me if there is the 
slightest foundation for this belief, other than the 
fact, to which Mr. Jennings refers, that Lord 
George was in the habit of making bets with 
Palmer? G. F. R. B. 

Rbsbntment.— In a curious inscription copied 
from a tablet in the church of Lilleshiul, Salop, the 
word reswtmeiU is used in a sense perfectly justi- 
fied by etymology, but the reverse of present usage. 
I do not know whether Archbishop Trench has 
noticed this word as one of those which has de- 
teriorated in sense. 2Vafuori&ed= imitated, in the 
same inscription, is also rare, while imitaUe is now 
only found in its opposite. I should be glad to be 
furnished with other instances of nseniment used 
in its original meaning of mere recognition. 

G. L. Fenton. 


Cart Family.— Is anything known of the 
ancestry of Nicholas Cary, Esq., who, according to 
Magna Britannia Aniiqua it Nova, voL i. 

uigiiizea oy VjOOv IV^ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. i6u.aix.jAN.26,'84. 

London, 1738, was patron of hd living in Dorset- 
shire? Here is the entry (p. 694): "Hundred, 
Cern Upper Sherburn ; deanery, Whitchurch ; 
patron, .Nich. Gary, Esq." I shall also be 
obliged for information as to which historians are 
correct, those who assert that the Careys derive 
their cognomen from Castle Karrey, in Somerset, 
or those who, like Burke, say that their herctau 
was Devon. T. W. 0. 

English Hunting Custom. — In the Ouardianf 
No. 61, for May 21, 1713, which advocates the 
kind treatment of animals, mention is made, 
among the barbarous customs existing in England, 
of the one specified in the following extract : — 

" I must animadvert upon a certain custom, yet in use 
with us, and barbarous enough to be derived from the 
Goths, or even the Scythians; I mean that sayage 
compliment our huntsmen pass upon ladies of quality, 
-^vho are present at the death of a stag, when they put 
the knife in their hands to cut the throat of a helpless, 
trembling, and weeping creature : — 

'Questuque cruentus 
Atque imploranti similis.' 

' That lies beneath the knife, 
Looks up, and from her butcher begs her life.' 
jEn., vii. 601-2." 

When was this custom introduced, and how long 
did it prevail ? Is there any notice of the practice 
in literature ? Ed. Marshall. 

Translation of Cipher Wanted. — Can 
any of your readers oblige me by giving me the 
solution of the following cipher, which has greatly 
puzzled me ?— " Ri ovaser iar tup oc nox ne rueb." 

Authors of Quotations Wanted.— 
** He thought with a smile upon Eof^land the while 
And the trick that her statesmen have taught her, 
Of saving herself from the storm above 
By putting her head under water." 


(6*>» S. viii. 517.) 
Nathaniel Dance, the portrait painter, was the 
third son of George Dance, the architect of the 
Mansion House, and was a pupil of Hayman. He 
married Harriet, daughter of Sir Cecil Bisshopp, 
Bart., and widow of Thomas Dummer, of Cranbury, 
Hants, and of William Cbamberlaine. Having 
acquired a large estate, he took the name of Hol- 
land under royal sign manna), and was created a 
baronet in 1800. He died in 1811 without issue, 
and the title became extinct. He exhibited as a 
professional artist as Nathaniel Dance, and after 
his marriage as an amateur under the name of 
Nathaniel Holland. His portrait of Garrick as 
Kichard III. was esteemed one of his best works. 
Portraits of George III. and of the Duke of Cum- 

berland are in the royal collections, and those of 
several of the bishops are at Lambeth Palace. 
There is a good portrait by him of Daniel Wray afc 
the Charter House, an engraving of which is in 
Nichol's Literary lllustrationij vol. i. 1817; that 
of Archbishop Cornwallis, three-quarters, sitting, 
was engraved by Fisher. There are some interest- 
ing notes about him in the Somerset House Gazette^ 
1824, ii. 68, 121, and 185. He was M.P. for 
East Grinstead from 1790 to 1802, and again from 
1807 till his death in 1811; see also an obituary 
notice in the Europtan Magazine, vol. Ix. p. 318. 
George Dance, R.A., a younger brother of 
Nathaniel, was Professor of Architecture to the 
Royal Academy, and died in 1824. He published 
a collection of portraits of eminent characters, 
temp. Geo. III. Edward Sollt. 

There were five artists of the name of Dance. 
Nathaniel painted Archbishop Cornwallis, and the 
picture was engraved by Fisher. No portrait of 
Cornwallis was ever exhibited unless anonymously. 
N. Dance exhibited "a bishop'' in 1769; this 
might be the archbishop when Bishop of Lichfield. 
There is a good account of N. Dance in Redgrave, 
p. 110. Algkrnon Graybs. 

George Dance was originally an architect, and 
the pupil of his father, George Dance, sen., the 
Architect to the City of London, but gave up this 
profession to become an artist, and studied some 
time in Italy. He was one of the original founders 
of the Royal Academy, together with his brother, 
Nathaniel Dance, also an artist, who became 
afterwards Sir Nathaniel Dance- Holland, Bart. 
George Dance executed many portraits of his friends 
and original members of the Royal Academy in 
chalk; they are now in the library there, and in 
1808-14 seventy-two of these were published. I 
have never seen a list of all his wo^s, and believe 
there is not one in print He was born in 1740 
and died in 1825. Strix. 

Nathaniel Dance was the third son of George 
Dance, the Surveyor and Architect to the City of 
London, and best known as the architect of the 
Mansion House. Nathaniel was born in 1734. 
After studying art under Frank Hayman, the 
genre-historical painter, he travelled for some 
eight or nine years in Italy. In 1761 he was a 
member of the Incorporated Society of Artists. 
At this period he seems to have chiefly painted 
historical pictures. On his return to London he 
commenced portrait painting. In 1768 he became 
one of the original members of the Royal Academy. 
His celebrated picture of Garrick as Richard III., 
well known through Dixon's engraving, was ex- 
hibited there in 17/1. At the age of fifty-six 
he married Mrs. Dummer, a widow lady with a 
fortune of 15,0002. a year, and took the name of 
Holland. He represented East Grinstead in the 
House of Commons for many yeara^ and in 1800 

uigiiizea oy 





was made « baronet. He died at Garnborough 
Hoase, near Winchester, on Oct. 15, 1811. Bee 
Eneydopcedia Briiannica, English EneyclopcRdia, 
and EedgraTe^a Dictumary of Artuis. 

G. F. B. B. 

Katbaniel Dance, RA., the portrait and subject 

Siioter (b. 1734, d. 1811), was third son of George 
ance, the Architect to the Gity of London, who 
bailt the charcbes of St. Botolph, Aldgate, and 
St. Leonard, Shored itch, and elder brother of 
ireorge Dance, also Architect to the Gity of London, 
who, dying in 1825, the last snrviTor of the founda- 
tion members of the Eoyal Academy, was buried 
in St. PauVa Gathedrah In 1690 our artist, on his 
marriage— as her third husband — with a wealthy 
widow, Mrs. Harriet Dummer, daughter of Sir 
Gecil Bisshopp, assumed the additional surname 
of Holland, and resigned his academical distinc- 
tions, and on Nov. 27, 1800, after having been 
many years M.P. for East Grinstead, he was made 
a baronet. Separate notices of the three Dances, 
with an estimate and some enumeration of 
Nathaniel's works, will be found in Redgrave's 
DicUoJtary of British Artists, H. W. 

Hew Univenity Clab. 

He was the son of George Dance, and brother 
to G. Dance, B.A, born in 1734; he studied for 
some time under Frank Hayman, afterwards he 
spent eight or nine years in Italy. In 1761 he 
was a member of the Incorporated Society of 
Artists, and in 1763 exhibited there his ''Dido and 
^oeas." On his return to England he took up 
portrait painting. In 1768 he was a foundation 
member of the Academy. In 1790 he resigned 
bis academic distinction on his marriage with 
Mrs. Dummer, a widow lady, taking the name of 
Holland. He represented the borough of East 
<jrrin8tettd for many years, and was created a 
baronet in 1800. He died suddenly, at Garnborough 
Hoase, near Winchester, on Oct. 15, 1811. He 
amassed above 200,0002. G. S. Bowler. 

Nathaniel Dance who, on his marriage with a 
widow and a fortune of 15,0002. a year, took the 
additional name of Holland, was born 1734, created 
a baronet 1800, and died 1811. See Bedgrave's 
Diclionary of Artists. 

Edward H. Marshall, M.A. 


Nathan the Goufoser {6^^ S. viii. 494) was 
bom at Canterbury in 1792, and named Isaac by his 
pareDtSy who intended him for the Hebrew priest- 
hood, and sent him to Cambridge to be educated 
by the Hebrew professor ; but his evident passion 
for maaic caused them to alter their plans, and 
be was articled to Domenico Gorri, a celebrated 
masician of the day. He composed several 
•oceeMfal songs, which brought him under 
tba notice of Lord Byron, to whom he was 

introduced by the Hoi. Douglas Kinnaird. 
Nathan's acquaintance w'th the poet resulted 
in the joint productioL of the HebreiD 
Melodies, He was a sweet jinger, bub his voice 
was not strong enough for Gavent Garden, where 
he failed. He wrote An Essay on the History and 
Theoi-y of Music, and was much esteemed as a 
teacher. He emigrated to New South Wales, 
where he was accidentally killed by a tram-car in 
Sydney, Jan. 15, 1864. 

William H. Gummings. 

This gentleman wa^ a well-known musical com- 
poser and historian residing in London. He com- 
posed the music for, and subsequently became, by 
purchase, possessor of the copyright of the Hehrsw 
Melodies of Lord Byron, and is several times 
alluded to, or quoted from, in the notes to 
Murray's editions of the Poems, He published an 
interesting volume, not readily attainable now, en- 
titled :— 

" FugitiTO Pieces and Reminiscences of Lord Byron 
containing an entire New Edition of The Hebrew Melor 
dies, with the Addition of Several ne^er before published; 
the whole Illastrated with Critical, Historical, Theatrical* 
Political, and Theological Remarks, Notes, Anecdotes, 
Interesting Conversations and Observations made by that 
illustrious Poet; together with his Lordship's Auto* 
graph ; also some Original Poetry, Letters and Recol- 
lections of Lady Caroline Lamb." Loudon, 1S29, 8vo, 
pp. 196. 

From the autograph letters reproduced in fac- 
simile in this volume, it would appear that Nathan 
was on the most intimate terms of familiarity with 
the noble poet. In one of them " my dear Nathan " 
is invited to dine with his lordship at the Albany at 
seven, with the intimation that " no refusal " will 
be taken ; and in another, dated January, 1815, 
permission is aj'ked for Murray to include the 
Melodies in a "complete edition" of the writer*s 
*' poetical effusions." Byron adds, " I certainly wish 
to oblige the gentleman; but you know, Nathan^ 
it is against all good fashion to give and take back. 
I cannot grant what is not at my disposal." From 
this it would appear that Byron gave the copyright 
to .the musician ; but against this is the distinct 
assertion of the latter, in a letter to Braham, in- 
viting him to join in the republication of the 
Me2odt<j, that 'he had puicliased the copyright 

from S 's assignees." 

Looking at these proofs of the intimacy which 
at one time must have existed between Byron and 
Nathan, it^ seems odd that no reference to the 
latter is to be found in the Index to Moore's edi> 
tion of the Poems, or in that to the Life and 
Letters. Possibly some rupture had taken place. 
Anyway, Moore was wont to carp at " the manner 
in which some of the melodies had been set to 
music "; extorting, on one occasion, the exclama- 
tion from the poet, " Sunburn Nathan ! Why do 
you always twit me with his Ebrew nasalities?* 
On another occasion (Feb. 22, 1815), writing ta 

uigiiizea oy x.-jvj'v^ 



NOTES AND QUERIES. C«* a ix. jam. 26, w. 

oore, who says in a oote that " he had taken the 
»erty of laughing a little " at the musio, Byron 
fSf ^* Curse the Melodies and the Tribes to bioot ! 
aham is to assist— or hath assisted — bat will do 

more good than a second physician. I merely 
terfered to oblige a whim of Einnaird's, and all 
lave got by it was a ' speech/ and a receipt for 
)wed oysters." Somewhat at yariance this with 
e statement put into the mouth of Byron when 
me one in his presence insisted upon the neces- 
y of bringing out the Melodies in a luxurious 
^le : '^ Nathan, do not suffer that capricious fool 

lead you into more expense than is absolutely 
cessary; bring out the work to your own taste : 
have no ambition to gratify, beyond that of 
oving useful to you " (p. 94). 
Mr. Nathan states that on the first publication 
the Hebrew Melodies he was visited at his re- 
lence in Poland Street by Sir Walter Scott. 
I sang," says he, 

leveral of the melodies to him, — he repeated his Tisifc, 
d requested I would allow him to introduce his lady 
d his daughter : they came together, when I had the 
Basure of singing to them ' Jephthah's Daughter/ and 
e or two more of the most favorite airs ; they entered 
to the spirit of the music with all the true taste and 
sling so peculiar to the Scotch.*' 

" Mr. Scott," he adds, 

igain called upom me to take leave before his visit to 
;otland ; we entered into conversation respecting the 
blimity and beauty of Lord Byron's poetry, and he 
oke of his lordship witli admiration, exclaiming, ' He 
a man of wonderful genius— he is a great man.' " — 


Nathan was also author of an important work* 
n Essay on the History and Theory of Musicj 
id on the Qualities, Capabilities, and Manage- 
mt of the Human Voice, Lond., royal 4to., 1823, 
ice 21 William Bates, B.A. 

PoLAMPORB (6* S. viii. 387).— Palamnore* are 
sntioned by Beckford in his History of ike Caliph 

" He fancied, however, that he perceived, amongst the 
ambles and briars, some gigantick flowers ; but was 
istaken : for, these were only the dangling palampores 
d variegated tatters, of his gay retinue/'— P. 89, ed. 

> this passage the following note is added on 
269 :~ 

"These elegant productions, which abound in all 
rts of the East, were of very remote antiquity. Not 
ly are vivSovaQ tvavdtiQfinelj flowered linens, noticed 
Strabo ; but Herodotus relates that the nations of 
lucasus adorned their garments with figures of various 
eature8,by means of the san of certain vegetables: 
aich when macerated and diluted wit|> water com- 
iinicate colours that cannot be washed out, and are no 
M permanent than the texture itself. Strabo, 1. xv. 
709 [chap. i. § 54]; Herodot, L i. p. 96 [chap. 203j: 
le Arabian Tales repeatedly describe these fine linexi 
India, painted in the most lively colours, and repre- 
nting beasts, trees, flowers. kc—AraHan NighU, 
I. IV. p. 217, &c.*' "* ' 

Is the name derived from Palhanpoor, a city in 
the Gaicowar's territory, 24* 12' N., 72' 19' W.? 


Read palampore, which Littr^ renders ** Ch&le 
k flenrs que portent, en Orient, les personnes d'an 
rang ^lev^.^' The word is found in one of E. Sue's 
works: "Ses larges ^paules prenaient de la noblesse 
sous le palampore oriental" Balfour {Cye. of India) 
gives " Palampore or palang posh, Mind, a bed 
cover." The Sanskrit termination suggests a geo- 
graphical origin of the word. P^lampur is the 
appellation of a town in Edogra district, Punjab ; 
and P^lanpur, of a native state and of its chief 
town in the province of Guzerat, Bombay. 

B. S. Gharnogk. 

A palampore is an Indian covering for a couch 
or bed. Examples are exhibited in the Indian 
Section of the South Kensington Museum. They 
are frequently of the highest character of Indian 
design in ornamentation and colour, and no doubt 
the testator, in bequeathing the " polampore lying 
in the chest of drawers," intended that the legatee 
should receive a yaluable Indian frabric which had 
been highly prized and carefully preserved. 

George Wallis, F.S.A. 

South Kensington Museum. 

Polampore, or paiumpore; Ijim not certain which 
is the correct way of spelling this word. I have 
always heard it pronounced as I have spelt it. A 
paiumpore is an Indian bed-quilt, about the size of 
an ordinary counterpane, and made of cotton. It 
is ornamented with birds of paradise^ peacocks, 
snakes, monkeys, and pagodas, worked in oeautiful 
colours. Mine has in the centre a peacock, life- 
size, in brilliant plumage. It forms a very showy 
and handsome covering for a bed. I have no doubt 
it was this that the legatee received under the 
will in 1805. It would be likely to be kept in a 
chest of drawers. At that date palumpores were 
probably rare in England. 

Caprera House, Auckland Boad, Southsea. 

Palempour is a flowered stuff; it sometimes 
also means an embroidered shawl or robe worn as 
a sign of rank. The name is probably from the 
town- of Palam-piir, in the north of Guzerat. 
*' Since the joining of the two companies we have 
had the finest bettelees, palempores, bafts, and 
jamwars come over that ever were seen'' (T. 
Brown, Works, i. 213). " Scraps of costly Indian 
chintzes and paUmpours " (Mrs. Gaskell, Syhia*t 
Lovers, chap. xii.). T. Lewis 0. Dayies. 

Pear Tree Vicarage, Southampton. 

In reply to J. E. J., the j>a^impore mentioned woa 
probably Apalinpore, or Indian cotton bed-quilt or 
hanging. These coverings were made of soft Indian 
cotton, and had upon them a printed design, usually 
in deep red and purple, of a rude allegorical cha- 
racter. The subject was often a large tree with out- 

uigmzea oy 





spreading branches and frait, sometimes with a 
serpent coiled aroand its trunk, and occasionally 
with figares below. The design and colouring is of 
a pleasing character, and in the time of the Honour- 
able East India Company palinporet were much 
used and sought after as quilts. They are now of 
considerable rarity, and are eagerly desired by 
connoisseurs for hangings. The writer has one in 
his possession that has been in his family for 
seyeral generations. He will be glad of any in- 
formation as to the origin or meaning of the name. 
Qeorqb G. WiLLTAa^sosr. 

For polampore read pcUamporif as I have always 
heard it called. It is a quilt stuffed with (say) cotton 
wool, and stitched through from one side to the other 
in different patterns, like the present eider down 
quilts. The one I have I believe came from China, 
and was brought by my uncle nearly fifty years 
since. W. G. P. 

Goodwin Sands and Tbnterden Stkbple {6^*^ 
S. viiL 430 ; ix. 15). — Having got this story right 
at last and attributed to the right author, perhaps, 
eome of the readers of *' N. & Q." would like to 
see Tyndale's very sensible reply to it : — 

" Tyndall remarks on this :— ' Neither though twise ij. 
Cracea make not iiij. wilda Qees, woulde I therefore 
that he shoalde beleue that twiae two made not foure. 
Ifeither entend I to proue ynto you that Paules steple is 
the cause why Temmes is broke in about Eritb, or yt 
Teinterden steple is the caase of the decay of Sandwich 
hauen as M. More iesteth. Neaerthelesse, this I woulde 
were penwaded Tnto you (as it is true) that the building 
of the and such like, thorow v* false fajth that we haue 
in them, is the decay of all the hanens in England. & 
of al the cities, townes, hye wayes, and shortly of the 
whole common wealth, For since these false monsters 
crope Tp into our consciences, and robbed ts of the 
knowledge of our sauiour Christ, makyin^ vs beleue in 
such popeholy workes, and to thinks that there was 
none other way vnto heauen, we haue not ceaseed to 
build the abbeyes, cloysters, eoledges, Chauntries, and 
^thedrall churches with hye staples, strinlng and enuy- 
ing one an other, who shoalde do most. And as for the 
deedes that pertayne vnto our neighbours, and vnto the 
common wealth, we haue not regarded at all, as thynges 
whieh seemed no holy workes, or such as God woulde 
not once loolco vppon. - And therfora we left them 
tnsene to, vntill they were past remedy, or past our 
power to remedy the, in as much as our slowbellies with 
their false blessingos had iugled away from vs, that 
wherwith they might haue bene hoi pen in due season. 
8o that y< silly poore man though he had haply no wis- 
d^me to expresfe hys mynde, or yt he durst not, or y* M. 
More fasbloueth his tale as he doth other mens to iest 
oat the truth, eawe that neither Qoodwinsandes nor any 
other cause alleaffed was the decay of Sandwich hauen, 
so much as that the people had no Inst to mainteyne the 
^oauDon wealth, for blynde deuotion which they haue 
to popeholy workes.*'— Tfbrii of Tyndall, Frith and 
Bana, 1573, p. 279. 

R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

Bear-skin Jobber (6«» S. ir. 9, 53).— There was, 
'*o doabt^ some familiar proverb to the same effect, 

and certainly about the lion, see Shakespeare's 
Henry F., IV. iii.:— 
« The man that once did sell the Iion*s skin 
While the beast lived, was killed with hunting him.** 


Earliest Glasgow Directort : Glajbgow 


History of Dumhartonshiret published a few years 
ago by W. & A. K. Johnston, Edinburgh and 
London — Irving, author — will likely meet the 
object your correspondent has in view. W. G. 

Bealrapbr (6^^ S. viii. 268, 414, 525).— I thank 
A. J. M. and Mr. Birkbeck Tbrrt rery much 
for their suggestions as to Bealraper»Belper, co. 
Derby. Can they, or others of your readers, tell 
me if they have ever come across the name of Sir 
Thomas Tempest, Knt., as related to Belper, or 
Derbyshire at all, between 1460 and 1507 ? A 
manor called Barrowparr belonged to Sir Thomas 
Tempest, of Bracewell, co. York, Ent., who, having 
no issue, entailed it upon his brother John, who 
died s.p, Nov. 16, 1565. Can any one tell me 
where this manor of Barrowparr was situated ? I 
fancy in Yorkshire or Lincolnshire. 

A. Tempest. 

AuTHonsnip of "The Red Cross Knight" 
(6«» S. viii. 497).— The ballad of The Bed Crow 
Knight, from which Dr. Callcott culled the lines 
for his glee, was printed in Thomas Evans's Old 
Ballads, Historical and Narrative, with some of 
later Date, and will be found in " a new edition ** 
of that work by the compiler's son, R. H. Evans, 
London, 1810, toI. iv. p. 148, where it is said to 
be '* First printed in this collection.'' No allusion^ 
however, is made to the name of the author. 

W. H. Husk. 

"Hbt, mt Kitten" (6"» S. viii. 408).— This 
song is printed in Allan Ramsay's Tea-Taile Mis^ 
cellany, 1724. There are five rerses. If it is 
wanted, I possess a copy. Jane Baron. 

Admiral Benbow (6** S. viiL 496).— Mr. A. B. 
Dalsell will find a pedigree of the family of 
Admiral Benbow in Oiren and Blakeway's His- 
tory of Shrewsbury, vol. ii. p. 394. B. R. 

Ladtkets (e*** S. iii. 429).— Mr. Merton 
White informs us at this reference that a gardener 
at some place which he does not mention ("home'* 
is rather indefinite) told him that cowslips in that 
neighbourhood were always called ladykeys; and 
he asks for the origin of this name. I think a 
clue may be found. May I remind him that the 
German word for the cowslip is Schliiiselshlume, or 
keyflower. If it is really thought to have a re- 
semblance to any sort of key, the beauty and 
elegance of the flower would soon suggest th^ 
addition of lady. W. T. Ltnn. 


Digitized by 



NOTES AND QUERIES. i6*8.ttjAH.26,'84. 

Phiz {6^^ S. viii. 368, 394). —There are places 
in France (deps. Eare and Orne) named Uablo- 
yille; and Habilot and Habillon are found as 
French surnames. Hablot, Habilot, and Habillon, 
are probably double diminutives, formed from Hab, 
•a nickname of Herbert. R. S. Guarnoce. 

Rev. J, E. Salkinson (6"* S. ix. 28).— Mr. 
Ingus will probably be glad to have the following 
further information from the Athenaum (June 16, 
1883, p. 766):— 

"Hebrew literature has saBtamed an irreparable loss 
in the death of Rev. J. E. Salkinson, who died at Vienna 
on Tuesday, June 5th. Mr. Salkinson was certainly the 
finest writer of Hebrew in his day, and his translations 
of Shakspeare and Milton read like originals. He had 
been engaged for twenty years on a Hebrew version of 
the New Testament. This work he finished, and he 
lived to see the first few sheets printed off. This trans- 
lation is being produced at the expense of the Trinita- 
rian Bible Society. His versions of Shakspeare created 
some misgivings in the minds of the committee of the 
missionary society with which he was connected, and he 
was in consequence subjected to a good deal of annoy- 
ance in the later years of his life. The following are 
liis principal translations : the Epistle to the Romans, 
Th€ Philoiophy of the Plan of Salvation, Paradise Loitf 
Othello, Borneo and Juliet, Byron's IJelrew Melodiet, 
Tiedke's Urania, and the New Testament." 

J. Randall. 

Hemigranica (6**» S. viii. 517). — The reading of 
the inscription should probably be hbuicraivika, 
from the Greek rifiiKpaviKos, and the ring seems 
to be a talisman against the disease known as the 
vffjLLKpavLKov iTaOoSf mentioned by Galsn and other 
ancient writers on medicine^ and sometimes called 
'^fjLiKpavia or rj/xCKpaipa, The introduction of 
the wand with the serpent twined round it, which 
is the common emblem of ^sculapius, leads to the 
above interpretation. Representations of this may 
be seen in Oorlai Daciylio(heca, i. 60; ii. 133, 
679, and in Maffei's Gemme Aniiche, Roma, 1707, 
4to. vol. ii. plates 54, 55, to which the editor 
appends a learned exposition. The disease seems 
to have been some sort of headache: 9ra^o9 
oSvvripov ylyv€Tai, Kara rifiifrv ficpos njs 
K€<l>akrjSi o Kakovartv rifiiKpaviKov {Att, vL 49). 


This word is obviously Greek, not Romany. I 
-should guess that the ring was used as a charm 
against megrim, just as a cramp-ring was used 
against cramp. The etymology of megrim, as 

5;iven by me, shows that the usual Low Latin 
orm of it was kemigranea, from Lat. hemi- 
cranium, which is from Greek rip.iKpdviov, 
applied to a pain affecting one side of the head 
only. We have given up megrim, and substituted 
neuralgia, which is also Greek, not Romany. 

Walter W. Skeat. 
Emierania, very commonly written emigrania, 
though of course meaning properly pain on one 
'«ide of the head, is a common Italian yersion of 

headache, and so migraine in French (megrim in 
English has acquired a different meaning). Was 
not the ring, with this inscription and the i^scu- 
lapian rod and serpent, intended to be worn as a 
charm against headache ? R. H. Busk. 

Perhaps the word is hemicranica, the adjective 
of hemicrania, the Latin for a one-sided headache, 
and the ring may have been a charm acrainst the 
ailment. The staff and serpent of jE^culapius 
make this probable. Jaydbb. 

Doubtless a charm ring against the migraine. 
The ^sculapian wand and serpent make this 
almost certain. J. Eliot Hodgkik. 

Missing Brasses (6* S. viii. 386, 476).— Mr. 
Peacock will 6nd that Luton is far from standing 
alone in its bad notoriety for its mode of dealing 
with its monumental brasses. The brasses with 
which the pavement of Great Yarmouth Ohurch 
was plentifully decked were, by order of the Cor- 
poration, torn from their sockets in 1551, and sent 
to London, there to be cast into weights for the use 
of the town. The same sapient and economical 
body also ordered that the stones themselves should 
be torn up and shipped to Newcastle, there to be 
fashioned into millstones. 

Edmund Venables. 

Site of Tomb Wanted (6^ S. ix. 9).— The 
description quoted from the Daily Newe (to which 
the date ought to have been appended) is in many 
points applicable to Battersea, and probably the 
allusion to " one of the most gifted Englishmen 
who ever distracted or saved a state " is to the 
celebrated statesman Henry St. John, Viscount 
Bolingbroke, who was born in that parish in 1672, 
and buried in the parish church in 1751. In all 
probability the Falcon Inn at Battersea, concern- 
ing which so much interesting information recently 
appeared in " N. & Q.," 6»»» S. viii. 421, 453, 
derived its name and sign from the crest of the St. 
John family, which owned the manors of Batter- 
sea and Wandsworth. The crest is given in Burke's 
Peerage and Baronetage, s.v, "Bolingbroke,'' as 
*'A mount vert, therefrom a falcon rising or, 
ducally gorged gules." John Pickpoed, M.A. 

Newboume Rectory, Woodbridge. 

It may be that the old churchyard referred to 
by the writer in the Daily News is that belong- 
log to the old church at Battersea, where lie the 
remains of Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke. 
I remember, some twenty years ago, making 
a pilgrimage there with a great admirer of that 
erratic statesman. I believe there are two beaa- 
tiful busts in the church, by Boubilliac, of Boling- 
broke and his wife. I may be wrong in my con- 
jecture as to the identity of the churchyard, hut 
if Mr. F. J. Grat or any of your readers be in- 
duced to pay old Battersea Oharch a viut they 

uigmzea oy '^..jvv^v^ 





will be well rewarded for their trouble. I may 
add that the house where Bolingbroke lived, and 
the reiy room in which he died, were then to be 
seen, apparently Tery little altered from the time 
when he occnpied them. F. A. Marshall. 

AUowiog for no considerable excess of local and 
pictoresqae colouring, it seems probable that 
Battersea Chorch, where Bolingbroke lies buried, 
will prove to be the place referred to in Mr. F. J. 
GftAT's inquiry. F. G. S. 

Aldwk Anchor (6^ S. viii. 426; ix. 54).— I, too, 
have a copy of the Aldine JuvencUis Persius in the 
original vellum binding, with the date " Venetiis 
in sedibus AldL Mense Augusto, m.di." It cer- 
tainly has no anchor. Is any bibliomaniac in- 
clined to give me 9/. for it ; or are such tempting 
offers only made to the people who do not want to 
sell? AuGUSTDS Jessopp. 


WORLD" (6"» S. viii. 465).— Robert Montgomery's 
metaphors and similes seem to have been odd 
enough. I myself heard him, towards the close of 
his career, speak in a sermon of the angels as 
"craping about on their errands of mercy and 
lore" But the line quoted above is a good one, 
and is just. Athanasius was not a particularly 
" solitary * person, yet " Athanasius contra mun- 
dum " is a true saying. Luther, rightly or wrongly, 
thought the matter out for himself, and did so, in 
part at least, whilst he was a monk. And until 
he had got it thought out to his mind, he must 
have been *' solitary" enough in all conscience. 
As to his shaking the world, that can hardly be 
doubted. There is in the Roman Catholic College 
at Ushaw a very curious presentation of Luther, 
contnved by the late Mr. Waterton, of Walton. 
It forms part of the wonderful natural history j 
collection given by him to the college, and is one 
of the most singular examples of his peculiar 
powers in taxidermy. A. J. M. 

Stavubl (6*** S. viii. 465).— With regard to 
this word the Draipvri Dictionary has the follow- 
ing remarks: — 

"Siammel (Old French, eiiamel), a kind of fine 
vonted (H&lliwell). A kind of woollen cloth, perhaps 
s cormption of itamin (Todd). The word is sometimes 
OKd SI an adjective, invariably for a kind of red, and is 
wliaredVy some to be quite distinct from the stuff so 
called. But as ttammel appears to have been also of a 
»iad of red colour, it is quite likely that the adjective 
SKW oat of the noun, and that stammel colour was the 
^fent common to stammel at all times. Stammel is 
wgedatllf. 8(2. the yard in Lord William Howard's 
^wimAoU Books, * A red stammel petticoat and a broad 
■oav liat' are said to form part of the dress of a 
••jntry haymaker in DeUny's PUasant History of 

Swaal other quotations of the use of the word 
*g p ven. It 18 worth noticing that Palsgrave 
tfvtt the word in hia L'EclairciuenurU de la 

Langue i^ratipaue, 1530 :— "£fto»ieW, fyne wor-. 
stede ; estcmine, s^J* F. 0. Birkbbck Terrt. 

Wooden Effioies (6*»» S. vii. 377, 417, 451; viii. 
97, 118, 337, 357, 398; ix. 11).— The effigies of Sir 
Walter Treylle and his wife (1290-1316) in Wood- 
ford Church, Northamptonshire, are of wood. At 
Chew Magna, Somerset, removed from the now 
destroyed church of Norton Hauteville, is a large 
sideway recumbent effigy in oak, falsely ascribed 
to Sir John Hauteville, c. 1269. The former of 
these relics is well engraved in Mr. Hartshome's 
Recumbent Effigies of Nor thamptonahire; the latter 
appears in Mr. Paul's Incised and Sepukhral Slabs 
of Norlh-West Somersetshire. F. G. S. 

T. LtTPTON (6'>» S. viiL 496). — Thomas Goff 
Lupton was the son of a working goldsmith in 
Cierkenwell, and was bom in 1791. He became 
the pupil of G. Clint in- 1805, and on the comple- 
tion of his articles he was able to establish himself 
in his profession. He produced some good plates 
after Sir T. Lawrence and the most esteemed por- 
trait painters of his day. In 1822 he received the 
gold Isis medal of the Society of Arts for his 
application of soft steel to the proces^s of mezzotint 
engraving. He was successful in establishing the 
use of steel, and worked both in that metal and 
copper. Among his more notable works are the 

* Infant Samuel,' after Sir J. Reynolds; *Bel- 
shazzar*s Feast,' after J. Martin; with many fine 
plates after Turner, R.A.; * Newcastle-on-Tyne,' 

* Wark worth Castle,' and * Dartmouth ' for the 
Rivers of England. He re-engraved a selection, 
of fifteen plates for the Liber Studiorum, 1858. 
He died May 18, 1873. G. S. Bowler. 

T. Lupton was one of our most talented en- 
gravers, and excelled in mezzotint. He engraved 
some of the very best of the plates of Turner's Liber 
Studiorum. He died only a few years ago. The 
prints in the possession of A. E. R. appear to be- 
long to '' The Beauties of Claude. Portrait and- 
24 plates of his choicest Landscapes." I have 
them on India paper. Complete, the proofs sell 
for about 21. (the vol.); odd plates about one 
shilling each. I have also nearly all the Liber 
Studiorum ; and A. £. R. may be interested to 
know that some of Lupton's plates after Turner 
cost me more pounds than his plates after Claude 
cost pence. R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

Thomas Goff Lupton, engraver of many of 
Turner's paintings, was born in Cierkenwell 1791^ 
and died 1873. Giles Firman Phillips, landscape 
painter, was born 1780, and died 1867. He painted 
almost exclusively river scenes, in water colours.. 
See Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists. 

Edward H. MarshalIi, ^1A« 

Thomas Goff Lupton was bom in 1791. He was- 
a pupil of G. Clint* In 1822 he received the Isia. 

uigmzea oy ^v^i v^v^'^ IV^ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. i6i^s.ix.jak. 26/84. 

medal of the Society of Arts for bis application of 
Boft steel to the process of mezzotint engraving. 
He engraved chiefly after Tamer and Lawrence. 
G. Phillips was a second-rate engraver of the same 
period ; he engraved after Lawrence. 

Algkrkon Graves. 

Mr. Clifford Lupton, of No. 3, Newman's Court, 
Cornhill. watchmaker, is a son of this engraver, 
and would doubtless furnish any information that 
may be required as to his father, who engraved 
about six of the plates in Turner's Lihtr Studiorum. 

W. J. 

Fly-leaf (6** S. viii. 616).— The blank pages 
of A book are so called for the same reason that 
we talk of the wings of a building. They wing 
the book equally on each side, and cover the sides, 
especially in paper-covered books, as wings cover 
the sides of a bird. For the same reason the piece 
of cloth that covers the buttons of a coat is called 
^fy f* ^^ covers and hides as a wing covers a bird 
when shut, and.i» the^y of a theatre covers the 
corners of the stage or the edges of the scene-cloths. 
Covering, hiding, flanking, as a wing does, is the 
idea always connected with the word fly thus em- 
ployed. C. A. Ward. 

Haveritock Hill. 

Surely /y- lea/ is a mere translation of the French 
/tuilU-volanie, a loose leaf (of a book). 

E. CoBHAM Brewer. 

William Koscob (6**» S. viii. 495).— The most 
recent life of William Roscoe is that written by 
the late Dr. T. S. Traill; it was published in Liver- 
pool in 1853. I have not a copy of the book at 
Land, and cannot say from memory if it throws 
uny light on the genealogy of the family. 


There is a short memoir of William Roscoe in 
The Scrap- Book of Literacy VaridieSy a sort of 
rival to the MirroVy published in 1825 by Edward 
Lacey, St. Paul's Churchyard, 

E. Walford, M.A. 

2, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

WiLLiMONT (6"» S. viii. 430). — This name, 
found written Willament, Willement, Villement, 
is another form of the Gotho-Teu tonic names 
Wilmond, Wilimunt, Willimunt. According to 
Wachter, vu2 in composition ia^weii and laut; 
and one of the meanings of mtind, munt, is " vir, 
homo." The name might therefore translate " vir 
prieclarus." Under "Viel" Wachter gives the 
names Filimerus, Filiberthiis, Wilibaldns, and 
Wiligisus. See also Wachter and Meidinger 
{Vorgl Eiym. WbrUrhuch) udder " Mund, Munt." 
B. S. Charnock. 

In support of the theory that Willimont is 
identical with Villement, I beg to offer the follow- 
ing evidence. At Deal, in Kent, there is the name 

of Drincqbier, but it is commonly, if not exclu- 
sively, pronounced Drinko'beer. At Gravesend 
there were two '* flymen " named respectively 
Nettleingham and Fothergill. The first named 
was known as Nettle and the other as Fordigal. 
I discovered qjiite accidentally what the names 
really were. There is the name Prtdeokis also, 
which surely can be nothing but a Cornish attempt 
to Anglicize Prideaux. Murano. 

Papa and Mamma (6*^ S. viii. 128, 172, 370, 
455). — The interchange of papa and mamma \% 
well known among ethnologists and philologists, 
and many examples are to be found. In Georgian 
we have mama, father ; deda, mother. 

Htdb Clarke. 

I am not surprised to hear that marma and 
harha are in use among the Australians, and — I 
ask for information — is it not a fact that pa and 
ma> descend to us from the earliest Aryan foots, 
as dad and daddy unquestionably do from the 
Aryan root taiy surviving among the Italians as 
tata f Are not papa and mamma the natural 
speech of infancy, and, as such, preserved sacred 
by all classes alike on the Continent ? and does 
not the affectation lie in discarding them for th& 
Saxon father and mother, merely as we discard 
crinolines and chignons, the moment they are 
adopted by the small tradespeople ? Moreover, is 
it so absolutely necessary that we of England, who 
are so emphatically " heirs of all the ages " philo- 
logically, should be rigidly restricted to Saxon 
forms of expression ? £. A. M. Lewis. 

John Delafons (6*** S. vii. 329).— By the kind- 
ness of the Rev. Harcourt Delafons, Rector of 
Tiffield, Northants, I am enabled to state that the 
John Delafons inquired for was his grandfather, 
who died in 1806. He wrote a Treaiiee on Naval 
Courts Martial, in which he styled himself, ''John 
Delafons, one of the Senior Pursers in His Ma- 
jesty's Navy, and Judge Advocate on these Trials," 
a copy of which work is in the possession of his 
grandson. W. E. Bucklbt. 

"Prevention is better than curb" (6* S. 
viii. 517). — The nearest proverb which I can refer 
to is " Satius est initiis mederi, quam fini " (Erasm.,. 
Adag,). There are other proverbs in which the 
sentiment appears, as there are also lines in Ovid 
{De B€m, Am,^ i. 91-2) and Perslus (iii. 63-4): — 

" Principiis obsta : sero medicina paratur 
Qaum mala per longaa convfilaere moras," 

in the former ; and in the latter, — 

" Helleborum fnistra, cum jam cutis segra tamebit, 
Poscentes videas : Tenienti oocurrite morb^." 
For a proverb there is "Prcevertit ancoras jactum- 
Deus'' (Erasm., Adag.). Ed. Marshall. 

In Henderson's Latin Proverbs and Quotations, 
London, 1869, p. 220, under <* Melicr est jostitia 

uigmzea oy '^..jvv^v^ 





Tere preyeniens quam severe paniens, Justice 
is exercised in the proper prevention rather than 
10 the severe pnnishment of crime/' is quoted 
** Prevention is better than cnre." The compiler 
gives no reference, but the mention of justitia 
leads to the inference that the saying; is taken 
from some legal work. Sallust supplies an equiva- 
lent from military life where he says, in com- 
mendation of Metellns, " Ita prohibendo a delictis 
magis, quam vindicando, ezercitum brevi con- 
firmavit " (BeU. Jugurth., 49). The English proverb 
has a medical flavour, and may be illustrated by a 
saying of Demades recorded by Antonius Melissa, 
'* Demades majorem gratiam medicis deberi ^xit, 
qui morbum ingruentem arcerent, quam qui jam 
prsesentem expellerent. Magis quippe optandum 
est omnino non pati quam a passionibus liberari"; 
and by the verses of Ovid, Remed. Amoris, 91 :— 
" Principiis obsta : sero mediclna paratur 
Com mala per longas convalueFe moras/' 

The same truth may be implied in the line of 
Aosonias : — 

*• Est mediclna triplex ; servare, cavere. mederi." 

Idyll, xi. 69. 
Which is interpreted in the Delphin edition, 
'* conserrare valetudinem ; prospicere morbis im- 
pendentibus ; curare prsBsentes." 


Is not this equivalent to the precept given by 
PersioF, *' Yenienti occorrite morbo " (Sat, iii. 64) ] 

H. 0. L. 
I am not sure that there is any equivalent, but 
Ovid's "Principiis obsta " goesj^art of the way ; or, 
again^from Ovid, " Ultima primis cedunt.'* " Omne 
malum nascens facile opprimitur ; inveteratum fit 
pleramque robnstius " (Cicero, Philip,, v. 1 1). This 
irom Shakspere has the same idea : — 

" Wise men ne'er wail their present woes. 
But presently prevent the ways to wail." 

Jiieh. II., III. ii. 
Suppose we suggest one, "In salutem consulere 
medendi prsestat facnltatem." C. A. Ward. 
Haverstock Hill. 

Mil WoDHAifs asks for the Latin equivalent 
of "Prevention is better than cure." May not 
this proverb be said to be a free translation of 
*' Si noles sanas cnrres hydropicus " ? E. S. B. 

*' SaUos est initiis mederi, quam fini.'' "Yenienti 
occarite morbo " (Persips, Sat iiL 287). 

H. a w. 

The nearest equivalent in Latin to this saying is 
** Satioa est morbum prsevenire quam mederi." 

William Platt. 
Cf. Ovid, Bern, Am., 91, " Principiis obsta." 
P. J. F. Gantillon. 

Ftooe: Utrkm (6»>» S. viii. 226, 395, 623).— 
T. W, ia right ;, I have to apologize for r passing 

into % and v into k. I hope that they will be con* 
sidered err<Ua, '* quae lector benevolus facile cor- 
rigat." I shall myself adopt that plan with my 
weekly paper, in which I read this morning con- 
cerning my old master, Dr. Arnold, that " at the 
parting supper to the sixth form boys of his own 
house, he had made that night the last entry in 
his dairy" Ed. Marshall. 

Fielding's "Tom Jonks " (6*^ S. viii. 288, 314;. 
iz. 64).— Col. Pbidbaux's critical method appears 
to be exceptional. He first puts a wholly superfluous 
construction on my words, and then proceeds to 
correct it by a statement based upon an editorial 
paragraph in a weekly paper, which paragraph he^ 
presumes to be authentic. This may be so ; bub 
better security is generally required in matters 
literary ; and until the original assignment of Tom 
Jones turns up, I can see no reason for preferring 
OoL. Prideaux's "matter of fact" to Horace 
Wal pole's oontemporary account, as given in my 

Col. Prideauz*s note has, however, enabled 
me to make what— in a small way — is a dis- 
covery. Looking again at the assignment of 
Joitph Andrewi in its case at South Kensington^ 

1 found that one of the witnesses was " William 
Young." There can, I think, be little doubt that 
this was Fielding's friend. Thus we have " Parson 
Abraham Adams'* acting as a witness to the 
assignment o( Joseph Andrews, 

I am able to add o^ few minute particulars ta 
the account of Cleopatra and Oeiavia, a work which, 
albeit "moral and instructive," is certainly a 
testimony to the loDg-suffering character of the 
eighteenth-century reader. It was issued in May, 
1767, its price being 10s. bound, 6s, sewed. 
Another munificent purchaser of ten copies was 
the author's relative, *' Edward Wortley Mountague, 
Esq.'' Among doctors is Dr. Brewster, who at- 
tended the philosopher Square {Tom JoneSf 
bk. xviii., ch. iv.). In her "Introduction," Miss 
Fielding speaks of the "rural Innocence of a 
Joseph Andrews, or the inimitable Virtues of Sir 
Charles Grandison." After this, it is, perhap5>, 
not surprising to find in the "List of Subscribers," 
"Mr. Richardson, 4 Books; Mrs. Richardson, 

2 Books ; a Gentleman through the Hands of Mr. 
R., 10 Books.'* Austin Dobson. 

First Edition of Fox's " Book of Martyrs ** 
(6** S. viii. 246). — I have a very interesting copy 
of this rare book ; it is imperfect, of course, but 
the title-page and several of the deficient leaves 
are made up in neat manuscript, and signed by 
the same hand, "Tho. Baker, Coll. Jo. Socius 
ejectuB." It contains also a copy of the whole of 
the quaint epitaph on John Daye. If any of your 
readers can verify the signature of Thomas Baker 
from documents at Cambridge, or elsewhere, I 
shall be much obliged, and will send a tracing 

uigmzea oy x.jv>^v^ 




[5w 8. IX. Jak. 20, '81. 

tit the signature in my book to any one who may 
be kind enoaiEh to write to me for it. 

W. D. Parish. 
Selmeston, near Polegate. 

Sm Walter Mannt (6*»» S. ix. 26).— Hrr- 
mkktrude's theory as to the proper mode of spell- 
ing this knight's name seems to be confirmed by 
the fallowing extracts from Salmon's History 
of Emx, pp. 247-8. Speaking of the manor of 
Rumford, Salmon says : — 

"S'r Walter de Manny. Kni^lit. died 46 Ed. III., and 
held tlic Manor of Rumford in rii;ht of the inheritance 
of Margaret, bis wif^, Daugliter and one of the heirs of 
ThoiiiRfl. late Karl of Norfulk, and Mhrehall of £ngUnd, 
of the King in Cupite." 

He adds further on : — 

"The manor of Rumford seem^ after this time {i.e, 
S Hen. VI.) to hare changed its name to that of Maw- 
neys, or Mancles, taken from Sir Walter Manny's hnying 
possessed it; and the reason may have been, that another 
manor or two are found after this, which" teem to have 
been triken out of Rumford. So the generAl name might 
be dropf, and so much of Rumford Mnnor aa continued 
in the Heirs qf Manny he called by his name by way of 
distinction from tUe others.'' 

To this I may add that the farmhouse, still partly 
tsurrounded by a moat, which occupies the site of 
the old manor house, is, together with the farm, 
called " Mawneys " to this day. 

Thomas Bird. 


AuxnoRS OF Books Wanted (6**> S. viii. 469). — 
Afiscellaneous Pofms.— In reply to the query of Mr. 
Dykfs Campbell, I have to say thnt my copy of the 
AtiiCfllaneout Poemi (Bombay, 1829), as de-crihed by 
him. I have always looked upon as a work of Sir John 
Malcolm, at one time the governor of that presidency. 
The inFcription upon Mr. Campbell's copy, "To La<fy 
Malcolm from her aflectionate brolhtr, the author," is 
somewhat puzzling:, but, m thd other hand, the prin- 
cipal poem in the book, bearing the title of " Persia," 
was published in 1814, and, although anonymons, is 
aMigned to Sir John in tlie Dictionary of Living Aulhor 9. 
To this Bombay edition are added poems, prologues, and 
epilogues dated from 1816, which were not, of course, in 
thut of 1814. The latter I have not seen to compare. 

J. O. 

Authors of Quotations Wanted (6'*» S. viii. 

In the late J. B. Buckstone's burlesque BiHy Taylor^ 
produced at the Adelphi Theatre about 1880, a song 
occurs, of which the following is the first Terse :~ 
** On such an occasion as this, 

All time and nonsense scorning, 
Nothing shall come amiss, 

And we won't go home till morning. 
Why should we break up 

Our snug and pleasant party? 
Time vas made for tlates. 

But never for us so hearty. 
Here we '11 stay. 

Singing, dancinflr. frolicking, 
'Taint the time of day 
To be melancholic in." W H Hess. 



The Church Belli of Bedfordshire : (heir Founders, i»- 

scriptions, Traditions, and Ptculiar Uses, By Thomai 

North, P.8.A. (Stock.) 
Thr earlier antiquaries knew little and cared less about 
church bells. But few of those stately folio county 
histories which are the ornament of a great library in a 
country house mention them at all, and when they do 
their inscriptions are rarely given. We believe, indeed, 
that our grandfathers did not know that, a^ a rule, bells 
have legends on them. A learned archdeacon, who 
wrote an important topographicnl work, presented a new 
peal of bells to his church. When the old ones were 
taken down he observed reading on them, but, as he »aid, 
the letters were so badly formed, that he permitted them 
to be broken up, without beinj: at the trouble <»f looking 
out for an expert to tell him their meaning. Could he have 
had Mr. North by his side wo believe thit some valuable 
information would have been preserved which has now 
utterly perished. Mr. North is not the only person who 
ha9 of late years devoted himself to this line of study. 
We may say, without flattery, however, that no one has- 
worked harder or done more to make an interesting 
though obscure subject popular. His Church Belts of 
Bc'ifordshire is a thorough piece of work. We have 
chapters on bell-foundfrs and the peculiar uses of 
Bi-dfordshire bells. Of course all the inscriptions ar& 
given at length ; those in Latin with translations. Most 
of them are so simple as to present no difficulty what- 
ever ; but now and then in Bedfordshire, as elsewhere,, 
a legend is coire npon of which it is very difficult to 
make sense. Bedford possesses in the tower of the 
church of St. Peter a curious bell, inscribed '' God save 
the King, 1650." The letters and figures are, as is not 
uncommon in bell inscriptions, much misplaced. Mr. 
North says that it has been suggested that the Royalist 
founder placed the letters and figures in disorder so that 
the inscription might not be read, as the Common* 
wealth was then rulfhg, and there was no king recofi;- 
nized in England. We think this most unlikely. We 
have not the smallest doubt but that it is somewhat 
older than he supposes, and that James I. or Charles I. 
was reigning when it was cast. H is he never heard of 
a bell in the north of England which is dated in clear 

Arabic numerals 1001, and yet bears the most distinct 
traces of having been cast in the seventeenth century ? 

Discourses on the First Dicade of Titus Livius, By 
Niccol6 Machiavolli. Translated from the Italian by 
Ninian Hill Thomson. (Kegan Paul k Co.^ 
Mr. Thomsun is well known bsh student of >lachiave11i. 
This is not the first work of the great Florentine citizen 
and secretary that he has done into our tongue. To 
attempt to review Machiavelli's Discourses in any 
space that we have at our disposal would be an 
absurditv. We are bound to say, after a careful reading 
of Mr. Thomson's book, that he has performed his part 
exceedingly welh The English is strong and racy, witk 
just a slight flavour of the seventeenth century about it. 
A translation of Machiavelli has long been WHiited. Any- 
thing that directs attention to that great thinker must 
be of service. The present race of Ertglishroen, like 
theh* forefathers, for the most part labour under the^ 
impression that this great politician (we use the word 
in Its true sense) was a mere teacher of falseness — one 
who had no regard for pereonul honour in himself or 
others. How very erroneous this is any one who will take 
the trouble to read these Discourses will soon disooTer. 
He bad not the same ethical standpoint as we have. Why 
be bad not will be easily understood by those who knoir 

uigmzea oy 'vj v^v^pc i\^ 


'aiX.jA».26. •84.] 



'whftt the Italian Benaisaance did for evil and for good. 
"Hit aeTerest critics mnst admit that to his strong mind 
we are indebted for the stimulus which impelled some of 
the wisest and best men of succeeding tk%e» to turn their 
minds from barren speculations to thinking on those 
subjects which bear directly on the welfare of the 
hnman race. It is curious to find a man like Machia- 
-velli, who was so yerj much in adrance of his age in 
xnanj things, affirming as a matter of common obserra- 
tion, " That no grave calamity has erer 1>efallen any 
city or country which has not been foretold by Tision, by 
augury, by portent, or by some other HeaTen-sent sign." 
-Our own theologians of his own Keneration and of much 
later times would have said this; but we should not 
have looked for such simplicity in a man who had 
gathered up so much of the wisdom of ancient and 
modem Italy. 

A Cofweordance of Variout Rmdingt oceurHng in the 
Oredt Tettantent, <u adopted by Oriahach, Lwchmann, 
TisckeHdorfj Trtgellet, Alford, Wordnoorth, Wettcott 
and Huriy and ** The Revisers*' Compared with the 
Text of Stephens, 1550, and the Authorized Version of 
1611. (Bagster k Sons.) 
BoxK of the objections which hare been raised against 
the text adopted by the Revisers are owing to the cir- 
<:um8tanoe that the objectors have not sufficiently 
taken into account that it is not new, but the com- 
pletion of a text which has been in process of formation 
for a long series of years. The present Concordance 
will put the student in possession of the facfcs of the case, 
and will enable him, without the necessity of further 
Teseaieb, to ascertain the acceptance which any parti- 
cular reading has received from successive editors. He 
will learn from it how often the Bevisers have been 
anticipated in the choice of a reading which they have 
made. We gladly welcome a work so carefully prepared 
as the present seems to us to be, which has for its object 
to show the manner in which the variations of the text 
have been treated. It is no new opinion that many 
passages in the Authorized Version cannot be retained in 
iheir present form,.while some must entirely disappear, 
but that at the same time the fundamental doctrines of 
Ohrisiianity are not affected by the change. 

The BihU Word-Bool : a Glossary of Archaic Words 
and Phrases in the Authorized Version of the Bible 
and the Book of Common Prayer, By William Aldis 
Wrighty M.A., LL.D. Second Edition. (Macmillan & 
Dusiya the eighteen years in which The Bible Word- 
Book baa been before the public ample tribute has been 
paid to its merits. As regards the vexed question of 
derivations, some slight antagonism has had to be faced. 
A work of this class, indeed, which shall meet all re- 
•quirements and conform to all tastes is not to be hoped. 
To the value of the scheme and to that of the general 
execution scholars have long borne testimony. When 
now a second edition is called for Mr. Aldis Wright has 
seen little to change. The alterations consist principally 
of additions to the words and to the illustrations. Of so 
nmcih service have been Mr. Wright's labours as secretary 
to the company appointed for the roTision of the Autho- 
rized Vernon of the Old and New Testament in drawing 
clofe attention to every sentence, the hope that is ex- 
PT ts es J that nothing of im^rtance has escaped notice 
Mconee reasonable. The intention expressed by the 
aathor in the preface to the first edition, to extend the 
nlaa of the work to other versions of the Bible, and thus to 
loirm a oompleto dictionary of the archaisms which they 
CMitain, remains, and it is to be feared will remain, unful- 
^ * As it stands, however, in its present largely 
' shape, The Bible WordBoiA is an alMm- 

portant contribution to the history of our language, and 
a book which every student will be glad to have ut his 

The Bncydopa^tc DicHonaryf of which the fir^t pari 
is now isiued oy Messrs. Cassell, is a work of great 
labour and importance. With a dictionary supplying a 
full account of the origin, meaning, and pronunciatioti 
of all words in the English language, and such words in 
the Scotoh as are still employed, it is sought to incor- 
porate, in the case of important words, such fulness of 
information as shall give the whole the character of an 
encyclopedia. Quotations from writers of all claeres, 
from Piers Plowman, Chaucer, Lydgate, and still earlier 
authorities, to Darwin are supplied, and well-executed 
engravings illustrate admirnhly the tex^. A dictionary 
likely to be more generally serviceable does not at present 
appeal to the public. 

A VALUABLE esssy on "Biographical Dictionaries" 
which appears in the Quarterly Review is attributed by 
the Athenceum to our valued contributor Mr. Richard 
Copley Christie. In fulness of information, in interestt 
and in general scholartship, it is well worthy of the author 
of The Life of Btienne Dolet. What is sa'.d about the 
fortunes of the Biographie Univerielle is singularly 
curious and interesting, and the whole article is no less 
readable than important. The scheme of Mr. Leslie 
Stephen is dealt with. Mr. Christie had, however, seen 
only the list of A^s, and had not before him the much 
more ample list since issued under the letter B. 

In the Edinburgh the ORsay of most general interest is 
that on the •* Literary Life of Anthony Trollope." A 
pessimistic view of modern novel-writing is ttken, the 
conviction cf the writer being that the art and practice 
of novel- writing, now at a low ebb, must logically tend 
to grow worse. 

A BIXPBNHT edition of Macaulay*8 Lays of Ancient 
Rome, issued by Messrs. Longmans & Co., is a model of 
cheapness. The execution of the illustrations is admirable. 

The first number has appeared of the A ndov^ Review^ 

Published in Boston, U.S.A., by Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
'he aim is theological and ethical. 

Mr. Sawter's interesting legend of the DeviVs Dyke 
(near Brighton), contributed to Friend*s Brighton AU 
manack and Clerical Directory, iB reprinted in a separate 

Sir J. A. Pictox has reprintod in pamphlet form A 
Pilgrimage to Olney and Weston Underuwod, a valuable 
paper read before the Manchester Literary Club, and 
published in the Manchester Quarterly, 

We hear with great pleasure that our valued contri- 
butor Mr. Furnivall has been recommended by Mr. 
Gladstone for a pension of 160/. a year. It is thirty-one 
years since Mr. Furnivall became honorary secretary of 
the Philological Society, twenty years since he founded 
the £arly English Text Society, and sixteen years since 
he established the Chaucer Society. What are the obli- 
gations to him of the Shakspeare and Browning Societies 
u well known. To few living men are lovers of old 
literature under deeper obligation. This act of the 
Prime Minister cannot be otherwise than welcome in 
literary circles. 

Mb. Elliot Stock announces a Tolume of Greek Folk* 
Songs, translated by Miss Lucy M. J. Garnett, and with 
an introduction by Mr. J. S. Stuart- Glen nie. The ex- 
amples include patriotic, love, wedding, pastoral, humor- 
ous, and ghost-lore songs. The introduct ion will relato 
to the geographical features, history, and present con- 
dition of the people. 

Digitized by 




[6th S. IX. Jan. 26, "84. 

The February number of the Antiquarian Magazine 
'and Bibliographer will contain, inter alia, an article on 
the old custom of " Shooting for the Silver Arrow " at 
Barrow, and a paper on Valentine's Day. 

fiotiuit to Carrftf|iontifnM. 

We mutt call special attention to the following noticei: 
On all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

ms a guarantee of good faith. 
VfE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

X. Y. Z. ("Epigram"). — The epigram on two con- 
tractors appeared in the Oentleman*t Magazine for 
August, 1781 signed "T. W," initials which h»Te been 
taken to stand for Thomas* Warton. It was written on 
the Atkinsons, one of whom, Christopher, was fined 
2,000^. and condemned to stand in the pillory near the 
Com Exchange, which he did Nov. 25, 1785. More thin 
^ne version is current. The favourite is— 

** To cheat the public two contractors come, 
One deuls in corn, the other deals in rum ; 
Tlie greater rogue 'tis hard to ascertain, 
The rogue in spirit or the rogue in grain." 
See Dodd's Bpigrammatitts, p. 337, edit. 1870, and 
"N.&Q.,"4th8.i. 570. 

W. H. D. Hervet ("Longest Tunnel in England") — 
Our correspondent L. L. K. writes to the efft^ct that, 
according to Our Iron Roads, by F. S. Williams, the Box 
Tunnel, which is 3,'ZOO yards in length, must yield to the 
tunnel on the London and North - Western Railway 
through the range of hills bearing the name of Stand 
Edge. The lengtli of this, which is between Marsdon, 
in Yorkshire, and Dingle, in Lancashire, is 5 435 ynr Js. 

J. 8. (" Peter Jackson," &c.).-— Your communication 
18 in the printer's hands. The pressure of fre^h matter at 
a rate far in excess of our space renders delay in some 
cases imperative. 

A. B. 0. (' John Foster," &c.).— If space will admit, 
shall appear next week. 

Armagh (*' Come in if you are fat ").^This qiiestion 
has been asked, 5^^ S. xi. 187, and elicited nothing more 
than a quotation from Julius Ccesar as to Osesar's dis- 
like of thin men. 

Llewelyn ("Addresses and Dates of Letters ").— No 
rule of the kind exists, it is customary to put the date 
at the head of a letter written in the first person, and at 
the foot of one written in the third. 

H. ScHEERBN ("Grangerism").— The term "Gran- 
gerism" is surely applied to the mutilation of books, in 
consequence of the mania that prevailed in the early 
portion of the century for illustrating, with portraits 
torn from other books. Granger's Biographical History 
-of Bngland, 


'' The shadow, cloaked from head to foot, 
That keeps the keys of all the creeds " 

Tennyson, In Memoriam, xxili. 

Erratum.— P. 55, col. 2, 1. 1, for " eolitudinss " read 


Editorial Communications should be addraesed to << The 
Editor of < Notes and Queries'"— Advertisements and 
Business Letters to '<The Publisher"— «t the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we declina to return com- 
munications which, fix any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exoeption. 



From L«tten and Fapenio 

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EGYPT AFTER the WAR. By Vilhees 

8TCABT. of Dromana. M. P.. Author of ' Nile Gle&niDa.' With 
Oolouxwi lUaitratioDS and Woodeata. Royal Sva Sit. 64. 


Abbotsford. D.O.L. Q.O. With Seleotions from hit CktrreipoDd- 
enoe. By ROBERT ORNSBY, M.A.. IftotKmot in (he Oathelio 
UuiTenity of Ireland ; late Fellow of Trinity Ck>Ue2e, Oxford. 
S Tola. 8ro. Us. 

TROJA: Results of tlie Latest Researches 

and DieooTeriea on the Site of Homer's Troy, and in the Herolo 
Tumuli and other tiltee made in 1841. By HBNR7 ROHLIS- 
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By F. L. JAMES. F.R.U.S. With Map?, 4) IlluatraUons. and 
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on (L) New Greek Text: (II.) New Boglish Yerftion ; (III.) Wett- 
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aa Illustrated Dictionary of all the Fluite uaed, and Direetiooa 
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Medium Svo. lis. 


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YoL I. From the EarUest Times to the Age of Phddias. Iln 
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•• The volume which Mr. Pyer lim produced is one in whioh 
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together. . . .Written by a scholar, it admirably and thoroughly 
fulfils all that it professes to do.... As a book of reference it 
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<* Mr. Dyer has enriched his collection with numerous quota- 
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bfonehstts. usually prevatUng at this BeMon,mjf he arresiea as soon 
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Digitized by 


NOTES AND QUERIES. i«* a. ix. jah. m. -m. 

*A work ofimmenu utility; lUh an Encyclopcedia and a Dictionary,^ — Timbs. 

It is with very great satisfaction tbat Messrs. GAS3ELL & COMPANY are at length able to annoance 
' that their arrangements for the complete prodaction of the important literary undertaking mentioned below 
are BO far advanced that they are in a position to commence the issne 



-An entirely New and Ezhaustive Work of Reference to all the Words in the English 
Language, ^ith a Full Account of their Origin, History, Meaning, Pronunciation, and 


Amongst the distinctive features of Thb £k07CLOP£DI0 Diotiomabt are : — 

1. Its thorough encyclopsedic character, the Encyclopssdic Dictionary being not only a comprehensive 
dictionary^ but also a complete encyclopcedia to all branches of knowledge. 

2. Its coniprehensiveness and its wideness of range, not only modern words, whether of an ordinary or of 
a technical and scientific nature, finding a place in the work, but also all obsolete words and phrases to be met 
with in the works of EDglish writers from the thirteenth century to the present day. 

3. The history of each word and the historical and logical development of its various meanings and uses 
are traced out, showing to the reader by illustrative quotations the history and development of each word — 
such a system being for the firat time fully carried out in the present work. 

4. The richness and completeness of the illustrative quotations, the yalae of which is materially increased 
by the fulness and exactness of the references. 

5. The treatment of the etymological portion of the work in accordance with the results of the latest 
Tesearches in Comparative Philology; and the grouping of the various spellings of each word under the 
principal form. 

6. The exactness and deamese of the pronunciations, the system adopted being simple, and at the same 
time of such a nature as to show clearly and readily the minutest difierences in the phonetic values of the 

7. The large increase in the number of words registered, which is shown by the following estimate of the 
'number of words appearing in well-known Dictionaries :^ 

Johnson's Dictionary, Todd's Edition . . . ■• - ' «• •• 58,000 

„ „ Latham's Edition •• . ,. .. A3,000 

Webster's Dictionary (American), Early Edition .. .. ' .. 70,000 

Worcester's Dictionary (American) and Supplement, recently published .. «. 116,000 

Webster's „ „ ,, f» w •• •• 118,000 

The Imperial Dictionary, New Edition .. .. .. .. 130,000 

The EnoyolopeBdio Dictionary -^^ *■• ^ 150,000 

8. The numerous Pictorial Illustrations, although eminently artistio in charaoter, are in no sense mere 
^embellishments, but in evexy case help to elucidate the text. 

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* When found, make a note of." — Captain Cuttle. 

No. 214. 

Saturday, February 2, 1884. 



Now ready, Part I., A— ANT (pp. xvi, 352), price 128. 6d. 






PreBident of the Philological Society; 

The object of the NEW ENGLISH DICTtONARY Is to pre- 
Kot, M concbely as possible, the history of every word, and of 
aU the differant uses of every word, in the written language, 
not omitting those whioh are now obsolete. In order to ensure 
eomplete accuracy and thoroughness it has been Judged desir- 
mble, instead of adopting the traditional and often erroneous 
inslences contained in existing dictionaries, to make an entirely 
Iresih selection of representative extracts from the original worlcs 
tfaemMlTes. To gather together this fresh and trustworthy 
material — in other words, to lay a secure and adequate founda- 
iion for the fabric of Engll«h lexicography— has been the task 
of five-and-twenty years, and of more than 1,300 readers, 
vorJcIug under the superintendence of the London Philological 
Society. Orer 5,0i)0 of the chief English writers of all ages. 
•nd at least foor times as many separate works, have been laid 
under contribution ; and some idea of the bulk of the material 
which the Bditor has drawn upon may be formed from the fact 
that more than 3,000,000 distinct quotations, each complete in 
Itself, have been placed at liis disposal, of which about a third 

fn will be finally included in the Dictionary. Every passage 
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CONTENTS. — N» 214. 
SfOTES :— ByroDlAiiA, 8t— Wm. Hnntinsdon, 82 — WMp: 
WeApon, 8S— Sciipture Names— Bibllognphy of Utopias— 
Caxioui Ciutom, 84— Anodyno Necklace; Sunarara— Artl- 
chokee—" Remarkable Faneral in Wales/' 85— Plea for 
Book-bof tog — Bibliography of Epitaphs — Undertakers* 
Heraldry -New Year's Day Costom— New Words, 86. 

<iUEBIS3:— Huntingdon CasUe» 86— "Cbilde Rowland," Jkc. 
— SaekTiUe Street— Baker Family— " Paradisl in Sole"— 
Blackness — Shakspearian Query— Samlan Ware— DcTices 
Wanted — Watklnson of Yorkshire, 87-Moli6re-Balke: 
Oonde-Begiomontanos— Campbells in Ireland— Old Eme- 
nld Bing— Lady F.— L. £. L.— Boman Legion— Portraits at 
Baton Hall— John Forster. 88— Bpaom Prose— "II ne faut 
pas pailsr de eorde," Ac.— Date of Bp. Barlow's Consecration 
—John Waller— Books relating to Suffolk -Henry Robinson 
— " Ployden 8 face "—Anne Bannerman— CoL Rample, 89— 
Hilitaij Flags- Morris Dancers — Sacred Operas — Hair- 
powder. 90. 

filEPUSS :— Nonsuch Palace, 90— "Notes on Phrase and 
Inflection," 92— Quaint Phrases of Marston. 93— Unpub- 
Usbed Letter of Boms-W, Y, P, 94— Silent = Dark-Miles 
Corbet, 95- Durham— Bayley Family— *' John Inglesant." 
96 -Orthopntiic — Glastonbury Thorn, 97 — Ballet — First 
Numberea Houses— Parnell Pedigree— Horn— Percy— Right 
to Quarter Royal Arms— Last Doge of Yenlce, 9i— Skellnm, 

2rOTE3 OIX B00K9:— Foley's '* Records of the Society of 
Jesus'*— BuUen's Paltock's "Peter Wilkins "—Austin Dob- 
son's Goldsmith's *' Vicar of Wakefield"— " Rambles by the 

37otiees to Correspondents, &c. 

I hare recently discoyered amongst my father's 
{Mpen some memoranda of Lord Byron's conyersa- 
tioDB with him in Cephalonia. There is only one 
-date giyen ; bat as the notes are written on three 
separate pieces of paper, I haye eyery reason to 
roppose they were jotted down on different occa- 
sions. It will be remembered that Byron arriyed 
at Ai]gostoli on Aug. 3, 1823, according to Tre- 
Uwny, and he remained in the island till the end 
of that year. The first refers to Moore's resolu- 
tion to tone down his Angels before publication. 
'The circumstance is alluded to in a letter to Moore, 
"So. 511, dated April 2, 1823, at Genoa :~ 

*'1823« Oct. 10. To-day I rode and dined with Lord 
Byron. Speaking of Moore, ho said he had receired a 
letter from liim, when about to publish his Anaeli, tell- 
ing him that he intended to castrate them ; that he found 
the style would not do — it was too warm — too much of 
the Houri—the world was not yet ri|>e for such luscious 
fruit. XiOrd B. added, ' I told him hs was wrong, that 
he woald get no credit by it, but, on the contrary, do 
what he would with them, he would not please : that 
notUated Angels could only mako Mahometans at best, 
and nerer CiiriBtiaas bo that it was better to leave them 
Angeli as they were.' " 

The Angels were '' mutilated," notwithstanding, 
in the first edition, and more in the second. 
Byron's opinion of Hazlitt is giyen in the 

journal kept at Rayenna under date Jan. 28, 
1821. Regarding Leigh Hunt, see letter to Moore, 
June 1, 1818 :— 

<* Speaking of Hazlitt, Lord B. expressed himself in 
the most bitter terms — he would not allow that he could 
writo good English. He also said of Leigh Hunt, thtt 
he WAS a poor helpltrss creature, but^that tha brother 
WAS really a clerer fellow." 

Various letters to Murray contain allusionf to 
the criticisms which the first two or three cantos 
of Don Juan had eyoked. In one dated OiL 12, 
1820, he speaks of women disliking Dd Grammont's 
memoirs, because they " strip off the tinsel of 
sentiment": — 

" Tlie same day L** B. told me he meant to write 100 
Cantos of Don Juan at least, now that he had been 
attacked— that he had not yet really b3gun the work — 
that the 16 cantos already written wer«3 only a kind of 
introduction. He was quite astonished to hear people 
talk in the manner they did about the book— he thought 
he was writing a most moral book— that women did not 
like it he was not surprised : he knew they could not 
bear it because it took off the veil: it showed that all 
their d— d sentiment was only an excuse to corer pas- 
sions of a grosser nature; that all platonism only 
tended to that. They hated the book because it showed 
and exposed their hypocrisy." 

Tlie " conyersations on religion with Lord 
Byron and others " were mostly held at my father's 
house, General (then Col.) 0. J. Napier being 
present at some of the meetings. See Kennedy's 
book : — 

" Today, on visiting Lord B., the first thing he B\id 
to me was, ' Well, 1 haya had another visit from Dr. 
Kennedy, and 1 am going to give in ; I believe 1 shall be 
converted. The fact is, Kennedy has h>id a great deal 
of trouble with us all, and it would be a pity were he to 
lose his time; and besides, he says we are all to be 
Christians one d-ty or other— it is just as well to begin 
now.' Then, clasping his hands and looking upwards, 
he exclaimed, ' Oh, 1 shall begin the 17th Canto of Djn 
Juan a changed man.' *' 

Beppo was written in October, 1817. In a 
letter to Murray, dated the 23rd of that months 
it is mentioned as fioiBhed, while in one dated 
the 12th, nothing is said of it : — 

** Speaking of BeppOf he told me he had written it in 
two days. He dined at a house in Venice, where the 
host recounted the story as having happened in a palazzo 
near by. He went on, * The story was told with a good 
deal of wuvetc, tLXid it pleased me; that night I went 
home to my house on the Brenta, and on the third morn- 
ing after, I presented Beppo to Hobhouse, who was witk 
me, to read.' Lord B. seemed greatly pleased while 
telling this/' 

** One day he said to me, ' 1 began to keep a journal 
when I first came here ; but I have left it off— I found £ 
could not help abunng the Greeks in it, so 1 thought it 
as well to give it up. Oamba, 1 believe, keeps one.' 
(Oamba afterwards told me he had kept one from the 
day they had left Italy.)" 

To these notes may be added the following ex* 
tracts from a letter written to my father by Mr. 
Charles Hancock, dated Argostoli, June 1, 1824. 
The paragraph relating to Scott's noyels is inter* 

uigiiizea oy 




[(^8. 1X.Feb.2,'8«» 

eating (compare letter to Murray, March 1, 1820), 
and the writer's graphic description of the poet's 
departure for Missolonghi is worthy of preserva- 
tion. Brano*8 behavioar a day or two afterwards, 
as described in the letter to Mr. Hancock from 
Missolonghi, Jan. 13, 1824, mast have somewhat 
changed Byron's opinion of him: — 

" At the peiiod of bis stay here we were receiving ac- 
counts by the public prints of the war in Spain, and 
some of our sealous advocates for the cause of liberty 
were just then making ratlier a sorry figure. His lord- 
ship repeatedly asked me, I know not why, if I were a 
radical] to which I replied that I did not profess poli- 
tical opinions of so decided a cast. He then said that 
he was not one, and that some had brought themselves 
into disrepute of late, alluding apparently to the most 
conspicuous of the volunteers in the Spanish cause. On 
one of these occasions, when he put the same question 
to me, I named two relatives of mine who had exhibited 
enough of radicali<mi to visit Mr. Leigh Hunt when he 
was in Coldbath Fields Prison : upon which Lord B. 
said, * When he was in prison— wA^n is he ever out V 

" He was very fond of Scott's novels^you will have 
observed they were always Ecattered about his rooms at 
Metaxata. The day before he left the island I hap- 
pened to receive a copy of Quentin Durvard, which I 
put into hid hands, knowing that he had not seen it and 
that he wished to obtain the perusal of it. He imme- 
diately shut himself in his room, and in his eagerness to 
indulge in it, refused to dine with the officers of the 
8^i> Regt at their mess, or even to join us at table, but 
merely came out once or twice to sav how much he was 
entertained, returning to his chamber with a plate of 
figs in his band. He was exceedingly delighted with 
Quentin Durteard-rBaid it was excellent, especially the 
first volume and part of the second, but that it fell off 
towards the concluaion, like all the more recent of these 
novels : it might be, he added, owing to the extreme 
rapidity with which they were written— admirably con- 
ceived and as well executed at the outset, but hastily 
finished off. 

" I will close these remarks with the mention of the 
period when we took our final leave of him. It was on 
the 29ih December last, that, after a slight repast, you 
and I accompanied him in a boat, gay and animated at 
finding himself embarked once more on the element he 
loved ; and we put him on board the little vessel that 
conveyed him to Zante and Missolonghi. He mentioned 
the poetic feeling with which the sea always inspired 
him, rallied you on your grave and thoughtful looks, me 
4>n my bad steering ; quizzed Dr. Bruno, but added, in 
English (which the doctor did not understand), ' He is 
the most sincere Italian I ever met with ':— and lauj^hed 
at Fletcher, who was getting well ducked by the epray 
that broke over the bows of the boat. The vessel was 
lying sheltered from the wind in the little creek that is 
surmounted by the Convent of San Costantino, but it 
was not till she had stood out and caught the breeze 
that we parted from him, to see him no more." 

My father having expressed a wish to see 
Moore's handwriting, Lord Byron gave him a 
letter, of which the following is a copy. It mast 
have been one of the last, if not the very last, 
which Byron received from Moore, and was pro^ 
bably the one acknowledged in the letter he wrote 
two days before his departure from Cephalonia, 
Dec. 27, 1823. The allusion to the AngeU is 
interesting in connexion with the first memorandum 

above given. Perhaps some one can say what work 
Moore refers to as his '* last catchpenny ": — 

Mt dbar Btrof, -Why don't you answer my letter? 
It was written just before the publication of my last 
catch-penny, and gave you various particulars thereof, 
such as its being dedicated to you, the Longmans* alarm 
at- its contents, Denman's opinion, &o., &c. Nothwith- 
standing all which, nothing could have gone off more 
quietly and tamely, and ] rather think my friends ia 
the Row (like Lydia Languish, when she thought "she 
was coming to the prettiest distress imaginable ") were 
rather diaappointed at the small quantum of sensation 
we made. The fact is, tl40 Public expected personality, 
as usual, and were disappointed not to find it, and though 
I touched five hundred pounds as my share of the first 
edition, the thing is " gone dead " already, lilce Risk's do^, 
that snapped at the halfpenny and died of it. This 
cursed Public tires of us all, good and bad, and I rather 
think (if I can find out some other more gentlemanly 
trade) I shall cut the connexion entirely. How yow, 
who are not obliged^ can go on writing for it, has long, 
you know, been my astonishment To be sure, you have 
all Europe (and America too) at your back, which is a 
consolation we poor insular wits (whose fame, like Bur- 
gundy, suffers in crossing the Ocean) have not to support 
us in our reverses. If England doean't read us, who the 
devil will 1 I have not yet seen your new Cantos, bat 
Christian seems to have shone out most prosperously, 
and the truth is that yours are the only "few fine 
flashes " of the " departing day '' of Poe^y on which the 
Public can now be induced to fix their gaze. 'M.j AngeU 
I consider as a failure— I mean in the impression it 
made— for I agree with a " select few " that I never 
wrote anything better. Indeed, I found out from Lady 
Davy the other day that it was the first thing that ever 
gave Ward (now Lord Dudley) any feeling of. respect for 
my powers of writing. 

I am just setting out on a five weeks* tour to Ireland, 
to see fur the f^rst time "my own romantic*' Likes of 
Killarney. The Lansdownes. Cunliffe^, and others are to 
be there at the same time. If I but hear that a letter 
has arrived from you, while I am away, I will write to 
you from the very scene of enchantment itself a whole 
account of what I feel and think of it— but if I find that 
you still "keep never-minding me," why I must only wait 
till I am again remembered, and in the meantime assure 
you of the never ceasing cordiality with which I am. 
My dear Byron, 

Faithfully yours, 

Thomas Moorb. 
Sloperton Cottage, Devizes, July 17*, 1823. 

To Lord Byron, Genoa. 

H. Skey Muir. 

Fort Pitt, Chatham. 


It is characteristic of Maoaulay that he ahoald 
thoughtlessly have called Hantingdon, as he has 
done in his essay on Lord Olive, *^ a knave and an 
impoetor.*' I am, however, surprised that Southey 
should have fallen into the same error, writing in 
the Qiiarterly Review, and in hia notes to The 
Borough, where he charges Huntingdon with 
'^ knavery and fanaticism.'' Such vague, un- 
founded charges are not unfrequently brought 
against persons making a name in the religions 

Digitized by 


9*8.IX. FfB.2,'84>] 



Hantuij^don was the most promment figure 
of hia class in the first years of the present cen- 
tury. He came out of Kenf, the illegitimate son 
of a farmer in the Weald ; in early life he seems 
to have suffered eooie hardship?, haying been 
Ijcooght up as a peasant. Affier a course of 
preaching n the country, he arrired in London 
mboat the year 1788, and had a large chapel built 
lor him in Gray*B Inn Lane, which he called Pro- 
^enoe Chapel. Daring hU residence in London 
he wrote most of his works, which, it may sur- 
prise some readers to learn, amounted, when 
collected to the end of the year 1806, to twenty 
Tolnmer, Sro. There is a long list of them in the 
excellent article on Huotiagdon in the supple- 
mental biographical volume of the English Oydo- 
podia. To this list m:iy be added two names 
which do not appear there, viz., Ths Coal- 
Tuav€r*$ Comment on Zion's Traveller ^ 1809, and 
The Eternal SUting of the Sun in hsr Me- 
ridian, &a, a sermon, 1807. It is eyident, from 
the titles of his sermons and treatises, that 
Huntingdon was a man of a lively imagination ; 
his works, moreover, are of a practical cast, and 
convey a powerful and animated illustration of the 
value and ibflnence of the Christian faith when 
employed as a support under the struggles and 
adversities of life. He was, however, a rigid 
Galvinist, and intended his consolations to be 
applied to a few. 

What gave rise to his being spDken of with 
10 stem condemnation was this : first, that 
he was followed by uneducated and half- 
educated persons, to whom he spoke much and 
often on the topic of a particular Providence 
•zereised over the elect, as he understood 
that term ; and, secondly, that, being of low 
origin, he rose in the world, and, having 
married a rich widow, attained to a position 
of competence and comfort, and to the en- 
joyment in his own person of those " perishable 
▼aoities" the possession of which he may have 
lather freely decried. There is nothing in all 
this to induce us to rank him as less sincere 
and well meaning than ordinary teachers of his 
class. He drew largely on ''the B^ink of 
Faith." His chapel was burned down in 1810 ; 
ud, as his wife and daughter stood weeping over 
the scene, Huntingdon rebuked them : '^ Why do 
you weep? Is God Almighty bankrupt?" 
Incidents such as these offered a temptation 
to Macaulay to use inconsiderate language. It 
nay be observed, however, that he was not in- 
duced to retire from his ministry in his last and 
prosperous days, but continued to preach to the 
end of his life ; in fact) he died in harness. There 
ii a notice in a contemporary manuscript, to be 
foond at the British Museum, of the snuff-box 
which he used at his last service, shortly before 
his death. This fetched a high price at the 

sale of his effects. " I offered six pounds," says 
the writer, *' for the snuff-box whioh I saw in his 
band on Sunday, June 6. I believe it was bought 
by Mr. Butler, surgeon, of Woolwich." 

In concluding this notice the titles of a few of 
his works may be added, premising that he was at 
one time in his life a coalheaver:— 

The Bank of Charity at Providence Chapel. 

Forty Stripes Save None for Satan; or, the Do?il 
Beaten withKods. 

Corresponilence between Noctua Aurita of the Desert 
and Philomela of the King's Dale. By William Hanting- 
don. S.S., Minister of the Gospel at Providence Chapelj 
London ; soUl at Jireh Chapel, fjewes. 

The Coalbeaver's Scraps : a Present to his Venerable 
and Revered Brother Jenkins. 

Huntingdon may perhaps be read to most advan- 
tage in his Contemplations on the God of Isi-ael, 
Svo. London, 1802, a work in which his peculiar 
views are less strongly apparent. That he exercised 
a considerable influence in his day, beyond the 
circle of his immediate hearers, is evident from the 
number of editions through which many of his 
works passed, and also from the fact (if fact it be) 
that his works have beon translated into Dutch. 

He preached at one time in Margaret Street 
Chapel, afterwards converted to the use of the 
Church of England, and associated with the early 
Tractarians, now represented by All Saints' Church, 
Margaret Street. He also preached occasionally 
at I^wes, in Sussex, where his " revered brother 
Jenkins " was minister. At Lewes he was buried, 
his body having been carried from Tunbridge 
Wells, where he died in the year 1813, to Jireh 
Chapel, at Ciiffe, near Lewes. If any one should 
be enterprising enough to make his way t3 the 
lower end of the town and to discover Jireh 
Chapel, he would, in search of Huntingdon's 
grave, have to penetrate to the graveyard at the 
back, where he would find a%uge, long coped 
tomb, the sloping roof of which is partitioned out 
into small spaces, one of which is appropriated to 
W. H., S.S. There is a portrait of Huntingdon 
in the National Portrait Gallery, where are also 
two autograph letters of his, from which it appears 
that correct spelling was not one of his attainments. 

S. Arnott. 

Ounnersbury, Tiirnham Green, W. 

Wasp : Weapon. — Prof. Skeat, in his great 
work, says that wasp, pro v. Eog. tmps (corre- 
sponding to Lith. toapsa and an Aryan loap-sa), 
probably denotes '* the stinger," and not, as Fick 
absurdly suggests, "the weaver." He therefore 
postulates for it a root lixip, to sting. The word 
weapon (A.-S. wdpen, Goth, wtpna^ plu.) he oon« 
nects with Sansk. vapy to sow or procreate, whence 
A.-S. wdpen, the male differentia, virilia, wecp- 
man, a progenitor or begetter; and he regards the 
weapon as so named from the warrior or grown 
man who wielded it. This does not seem very 

uigiiizea oy 




[6ih S. IX. Feb. 2, '84 

probable. I would oifer the followiDg suggestion 
to Prof. Skeat as one which, I think, throws light 
on both these words, while bringing them into 
radical connexion. The original meaning of the 
Sanskrit vap in the Yedic hymns, as pois^ed out 
by Prof. Goldstucker, is "to throw" (PWJolog. 
Soc Trans,, 1867, p. 89). From this would flow 
the other meanings, (1) to strike, (2) to emit, cast 
forth, BOW, procreate. Thus wasp (wap-aa) would 
be that which " strikes " or wounds with its sting, 
And weapon either that which is thrown (like Lat. 
jaculum, from mcio) or that which strikes, an 
instrument of offence. The use of the latter word 
as "virilia" would then be only secondary and 
figuratiTe (cf. Lat. telum). We may compare, 

gerhaps, prov. Eng. wap, to strike, and wappen — 
hakspere's " wappen*d widow." 

A. Smtthb Palmer. 

Scripture Names. — The Nottingham Guardian 
of No7. 20, 1883, published the following item in 
its obituary:— "On the 17th inst., at Old Radford, 
Mary, wife of Actcyner Doubleday, ajged eighty- 
one years." When in Nottingham twenty years 
ago I heard that the origin of Actcyner Double- 
day's name was as follows : — His father had named 
four sons Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, and 
being called upon to name a fifth he was loth to 
abandon his proclivity for New Testament nomen- 
clature, and coined the cognomen '* Actcyner"; 
And, further, a sixth son was yclept " Bomanser." 

J. F. O. 

TfitB BiBLiOGRAPHT OP Utopias. — From time 
to time there have been many references in 
'* N. & Q.*' to this subject, the last being, I believe, 
6'*» S. viii. 13. Two recent works in this branch 
of literature are The Diotas; or, A Look Far 
Ahcady by Ismar Thiusen (New York, G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons, 1883), said to be an account of life in 
New York in the ninety-sixth century, thus cer- 
tainly justifying its second title ; and Politics and 
Lift in Mars : a Story of a Neighbouring Flanet 
(Sampson Low & Co., 1883), dealing in an ad- 
vanced way with self-government for Ireland, 
women's rights, co-operation, the nationalization 
of the land, the dissolubility of marriage, and other 

The Last Voyage of Lemuel Oullivir, the 
Christmas number of the World, perhaps scarcely 
comes within the category of books on Utopia, 
being a somewhat satirical sketch of the manners 
and people of the present day, and not of an ideal 
state of affairs. 

There has just been published at Paris La 
Guare de 1884, ses ConsSquenees, el VEurope en 
1900. This pamphlet, which I have not seen, may 
be more connected with the literature of the Battle 
of Doi'kingf referred to by Mr. Mad an 6'*> S. iv. 
£41, than with that of Utopia. J. Bandall. 

A Curious Custom and a Curious Word. — 
At a recent public dinner in the Scottish border 
county of Selkirk, Dr. Gloag, the learned minister 
of the parish of Galashiels, had occasion to reply 
to the toast of the clergy, and in a very interesting 
speech, enumerating the changes which had taken 
place in the Presbyterian body during a lifelong 
connexion with it, alluded to a very peculiar 

On the fast day the minister of the parish wenb 
over the heads of all the sermons preached during^ 
the previous year. This awful ordeal, happily now 
extinct, was termed perhquing. Have any of 
your readers come across the word ; and if so, 
where ? The doctor suggests that it may be de- 
rived from the French parler, but upon examina- 
tion there seems to be as much to unsettle thiS' 
etymon as there is to establish it. 

Our words parliamenty parley, parole, seenr to 
have been too easily handed .over to the French 
verb. Littr^ suggests that the derivation of parhr 
is from the Low Latin parabolare by elision, bat 
Wedgwood, with considerable plausibility, refers 
our parliament and its congeners to the Welsh, 
pointing .out the fact that Shakspeare makes Sir 
Hugh Evans use prihhles and prabbles in the sense 
of idle chatter, and that the insertion of a vowel 
between the mute and the liquid would give the 
Welsh parablj speech. Dr. Mackay traces the 
same class of words to the original Gaelic root 
beurla, the English language. The word perle^ 
quing is not to be found in Jamieson (last ed.),. 
although no doubt it is one of those old Scotch 
words of French origin which are plentiful in his- 
delightful volumes. Neither does it occur in Hal- 
liwelPs collection of Archaic and Provincial Wordt^ 

i ninth ed.), nor, indeed, in any dictionary to which 
have access. 

I fancy the word may be tracked through an^ 
old Scotch term to its true French origin, and 
finally to one of two French phrases. The word 
to which I allude is variously spelt by early Scotch 
writers pefq;iUT, per queer, perquire, perquair^ 
meaning, accurately, by heart, verbatim. Barbour 
uses pirquer and Lyndsay perqueir in this sense* 
Melville, in his diary {Life of Melville, i. 429>, 
writes the word plainly par ceur ; " I had mickle 
of him [Virgil] par ceur,*' he says. This would 
seem to settle the origin of the term. Ellis also 
derives it from par coeur, and if we introduce the> 
article, and say par le cteur, we have almost pro- 
nounced Dr. Gloag's word. 

But those who have written the word parquire 
or parquair, of which there are many examples, 
suggest another derivation, viz., perquair, by the 
book. Pinkerton insists on this etymon, and 
quotes Lyndsay in support of it. Qiiair is un- 
doubtedly " book." The memorable use of it in 
the King's Quair of James L may be held to settle 
that point. Baillie also uses perquire in the same- 

Digitized by 


JJeb. 2, •<!4.] 



In old French the word, as used by Caxton, 
is written qiiaytr, cahier, a copy-book^ being only 
the modern modification of it. 

F(rlfq;ningf howeyer, is more likely to hare 
come from jpar coeur than par quair, and for 
this reason amongst others, that at the time 
to which Dr. Gloag refers the peculiar usage, 
to hare " perlequed " par quair (from the book) 
would have been looked upon as an unheard-of 
abomination in the Presbyterian Church. Even 
now, although " perlequing" may be safely classed 
among the bygone terrors which always seem to 
liaTe anointed with gloom above his fellows the 
ime-blue Presbyterian, the reproach conveyed, in 
■ome parts of Scotland, in the dreaded epithet 
''paper minister" (one who reads his sermon) is 
rtiU alive and well. J. B. S. 

Anodtkk Nsqklacb : Suss ar ara — Mr. Austin 
Dobson's edition of Goldsmith's charming tale has 
been described in a recent number of theSaiurday 
JBeview (Jan. 12, p. 60) as ** an ideal edition," and 
the editor is commended for bis *' accurate habit 
of research." Curiously enough, however, on two 

Kints which the reviewer selects for comment 
th he and Mr. Dobson seem to be altogether 

The first is the exclamation of George Prim- 
Toae's cousin : " May I die by an anodyne neek- 
laeey bat I had rather be an under-tumkey in 
Kewgate [than an usher at a boarding-school]" 
(chap. XX. p. 43, WorJuj Globe ed.). l^itor and 
reviewer agree in thinking that the allusion is to 
some quack charm for teething infants, though it 
ia hard to see how this is applicable. "An 
anodyne necklace " is evidently that which, 
according to Wilyam BuUeio, 'Might fellows 

merrily will call neckweede, or Sir Tristram's 

Knot, or St. Andrew's Lace "—in plain English, a 
hempen halter, which cures all pains. As the 
Water Poet explains the virtue of hemp: — 

''Some call it neck-weed, for it hath a tricke 
To cur§ the nedte that *8 troubled with the eriek." 

The phrase, therefore, is a cant one for " may I be 

The second point which puzzled both editor 
and reviewer is the word tussarara, when Mrs. 
Symonds says of Olivia, "Gentle or simple, out 
•he shall pack with a nwarara*' (chap. xxi. 

L51, Globe ed.). They think it may mean *' a 
rd blow " ! It is rather a " summary process," 
and the word a popular perversion of the Low Latin 
€eriufrari, as the name of a writ» which comes out 
more plainly in the forms iiserari and titerary 
used by Smollett, and iUserara used by Sterne 
(tee Davies, SuppUmentary Eng. Glouaryy t,v. 
•* Siserara "). Compare priminaryt a popular 
vnd for a trouble or scrape, from prcemuntre, 
A. SifTTHE Palmer. 
GheliBsford Boad, Woodford. 

Artichokes. — Perhaps the following scraps 
from Oldys's Life of Dr. Moffel, 12mo., Lona., 
1746, may be thought worth a nook in " N. & Q.": 

** Another early Partioalar be takes notice of, in the 
Compais of bis own Time, is that, where he tells ui ha 
remember'd when Artichokes were such Dainties in 
England, as to have been lold for a Crown a piece ; and 
yet we find they did grow here, some Years before ha 
was born ; tho* it appears thaf they were then so scarce^ 
a« to be accounted a Present fit for a King ; and somtf ox 
the Nobility and Gentry who raiaed them in their Gar- 
dens^ did send them as Presents to King Benry YIII. 
There seems to have been settled Rewards appointed 
for the Servants who brought those, and some other 
Garden-Products to the Court; particularly, in a very 
curious and authentic Manuscript wo have had the 
Opportunity of inspecting, containmg the Disbursements 
of that King*8 pri?y Purse, for above three Years, sign'd 
at the End of every Month by his own Hand, one Article 
is this—* Anno2Sr Rsgis, March 19th, Paid to a Servant 
of Master Treasurer's, in Reward for bringing ilrcAceoiUf 
to the King's Grace, to Vorb-Place, 3b. 4d.' They are 
otherwise written in this Book, Artichokks.* The speak- 
ing whereof remembers us of having also seen an old 
Painting, sometime in the Possession of Heneags late 
Earl of Winchetsea, and lilcely to appear in Print from 
'Hv.VcrtMf representing that King's Bister, Mary Queen 
Dowager of France, with her Husband Charles Brandon, 
Duke of Suffolk ; and in her Hand, an Artichoki, with a 
Caduceus stuck in it ; how fully aooounted for, we know 
not, by those who conceive, there is in it, rather an em« 
blematical, than historical Signification." 

J. 0. H.P. 

"Rbmarkabl« Funeral in Wales."— The 
following paragraph appeared under the above 
heading in the second sheet (p. 9) of the Shrews^ 
bury Chronicle for Dec. 14, 1883 :— 

"The village of Glyndyfrdwy. half way between 
Llangollen and Corwen, was on Wednesday week the 
scene of a most remarkable funeral, which excited a 
great amount of interest and curiosity. The occasion 
was the burial of Mr. Edward Lloyd, of the Sun Inn. 
who died the previous Sunday at the advanced age of 
eighty-three. Deceased had always been regarded as 
a man of very eccentric tastes and habits, having devoted 
most of his lifetime in attempting to accomplish impos- 
sibilities in the construction of mechanical appliances, 
most of which turned out to be mere fruitless and 
abortive schemes. Years ago the invention of perpetual 
motion remained among his unaccomplished achieve- 
ments in mechanism. His eccentricity was carried to 
such sn extreme that long ago he had given strict in- 
junctions as to the arrangements to be observed at his 
funeral, which, strange to say, were observed to the 
letter by his relations. A strong stone cofiin, the pieces 
of which were properly riveted and bolted together, 
had been prepared years ago for the occasion, its proper 

• " This AccomptBook of K. Henry YIII. from the 17th 
of November in the 20th Year, to the 21st of December, 
the 28d of his Reign, tho'a little imperfect at the Begin- 
ning and End, contains 298 Pages in large Folio, andhss 
many observable Particulars in it. In the Year 1634 it 
fell by chance into the Hands of Sir Orlando Bridgman, 
afterwards Lord Keeper of the Great Seal ; who probably 
bound it in that fine, gilded, blue Turky-leather Cover 
it wears. In his Family it continued, till it was lately 
sold, among the Books, Curiosities, &c. of the late Mrs. 

Digitized by 




[6tt 8. IX. Feb. 2, '81. 

dimenBions having been seyeral times tested by deceased 
lying in it. This was placed in a grave in the parish 
cburcbyard, difpensing with the ordinary coffin. The 
body, tightly bandaged in calico, ^vas, mummy-like, 
placed on a board, being fastened thereto by means of a 
piece of black cloth securely nailed all round. Another 
piece of black cloth extended loosely over the shoulders 
and the head, an aperture being left for the face. A 
white collar and black tif completed the apparel. In 
this^state, and covered by a pall, it was conveyed to the 
churchyard and deposited in the stone coffin prepared 
for its reception, after which a large, thick flagstone was 
placed over it and the earth filled in. The utmost decorum 
was observed in the conduct of all the funeriil arran(ze- 
ments, the vicar of the parish and two Dissenting minis- 
ters taking part in the service." 

C. J. D. 
Qu6en*8 College, Oxford. 

A Plea for Book-buying. — The folIowiDg is 
by the celebrated author Marc Monnier, and I 
trust will succeed in finding a place in " N. & Q.," 
thereby catching the eye of many bibliophiles, to 
whom, I think, it will give much amusement : — 
"JA Libraire aux Chalandi, 
•* Pour faire un livre, ami lecteur, 
II faut un auteur ; & Tanteur, 
S'il veut dtner k la fourchette, 
11 faut un libraire-dditeur ; 
A rsditenr, fut-il Hachette, 
II faut avant tout I'acheteur : 
Achete done, lecteur, achate ! 
Comme Tauteur sans I'^diteur, 
Comme le livre sans Tauteur, 
Ainsi le lecteur sans le livre 
N'eziste pas. — Si tu veux vivre, 
Achete et paie, ami lecteur ! " 

Ch. Tr. 

BiBLioQRAPHT OF EpiTAPHS.— In the recently 
published Tolume Curioiw Epitaphs, by William 
Andrews, F.R.H.S. (Hamilton, Adams & Co.), 
sixteen pages are devoted to a list of the various 
publications that deal with the bibliocraphy of 
the subject. It must have cost Mr. Andrews and 
his coadjutor Mr. W. G. B. Page, of the Hull Sub- 
scription Library, considerable pains to compile 
such a list, which, although possibly incomplete, 
is, I believe, the first that has ever been attempted, 
and is, therefore^ worthy of a note for reference. 
The little volume, despite its grave subject, is in 
itself most entertaining and amusing. 


Undertakers' Heraldry of the Nineteenth 
Century. — Amateurs of heraldry will find great 
interest in the position of a hatchment erected 
not one hundred miles from Queen Street, May- 
fair. The widow's half is placed in chief, and a 
red lion is to be seen kicking his heels in the air, 
while the deceased husband's coat is lying on its 
Bide. M. E. B. 

New Year's Day Custom. —The Berlin 
correspondent of the Standard reports that 

during the dinner of the Imperial family the de- 
scendants of the first workers in the salt mines 
of Halle, Saxony, a family named Halloren, ex- 
ercised the privilege which they have claimed for 
centuries of offering to the members of the reign- 
ing family the new year's congratulations, together 
with presents, of which salt and eggs are the chief 
features. These Halloren are renowned for their 
gigantic stature and their great strength. They 
continue to cling religiously to the customs of 
their ancestors, and their dress is that of two cen- 
turies ago ? On subsequent days they will wait 
upon the other members of the Imperial family. 
Everard Home Coleman. 
71, Brecknock Road.- 

New Words (ante, p. 67).— The last word 
ought not to have appeared in my list. UnHringf 
a., is in Annandale ; I am sorry that I overlooked 
it. J. Randall. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
oo family matters of only private interest, to aflSx their 
names and addreBses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct 

Huntingdon Castle.— Can any contributor to 
** N. & Q." give me information concerning the 
old castle of Huntingdon, long the home of the 
descendants of Siward ? It was a Saxon strong- 
hold, built by Edward the Elder, and held during 
the reign of Edward the Confessor by Siward, the 
Anglo-Danish Earl of Northnmbria, who led 

** The moving wood to Dunsinane." 
Every reader of Shakespeare will remember the 
father's question, " Has he his hurts be- 
fore?" when he is told that his son has fallen 
in the strife with Macbeth. His other son, 
Waltheof, was a child when his father died, and 
still a boy when the Conqueror first shook his 
lance on English' soil. He was left by Morcar and 
Edwin as a hostage in the Normans' hands, but 
escaped to join the men of Northumbria in their 
struggle for England's liberty. Inheriting the lofty 
stature and bodily prowess of his father, he won all 
hearts. ** Who is this that fights like Odin 1 " asked 
bis Danish kinsmen, who crossed the northern seas 
to lend their aid. When William saw him keep- 
ing the gates of York single handed against his 
advancing host, slaying Norman after Norman 
with his battle-axe, he strove to win him with 
bribes and promises, giving him back his father's 
earldoms as a feudal fief, together with the hand of 
his niece Judith. 

The few years of Waltheofs married life were 
passed in the old keep of Huntingdon Castle, 
where wife and neighbour compassed his destruc- 
tion. He was one among the guests at the fatal 
marriage feast at Colchester, and his unguarded 

uigiiizea oy 





words oTer the wine-cnp were reported by his 
treaeheroas wife. The yonng and gallant 
life was ended by the axe of the exe- 
cntioner. Waltheof's infant heiress became 
a ward of the crown, and was giTen in mar> 
riage to Simon St. Liz, or Lis, a crooked- 
backed soldier in the Conqueror's train. After 
his death she married the prince of Scotland. The 
name of Simon St. Liz occurs among the signa- 
tures to Stephen's charter of liberties. This is 
most probably her son by her first marriage, who 
espoused the cause of Stephen whilst the Scottish 
king held to Matilda. Henry IL dismantled the 
castle of Huntingdon as a nest of rebellion in the 
beginningof his reign, when Waltheofs eldest grand- 
son was undoubtedly outlawed. The earldomof Hun- 
tingdon was claimed by Waltheof's Scottish descend- 
ants, and the old castle was enlarged by Darid le 
Soot. In this younger St. Li2 we recognize the 
outlawed Earl of Huntingdon, to whom tradition 
points as the father of Bobin Hood, who was born, 
as one of the oldest ballads assures us : — 
*' In the good green wood, 
Among the lily flower." 

Is not this a play upon the name St. Liz = lily, 
as obyious to the Englishmen of the fourteenth 
century as the Jacobite ballads, " Over the water to 
Charlie," &c, were to the men of the eighteenth ? 
I have already traced the relationship of Robert 
Fitz- Walter to the St. Liz of Huntingdon in my 
essay on " The Moldekin of the Fourteenth Cen> 
tury,** which appeared in the Antiquary, May, 
1882, and shall gladly receive any information, 
local, incidental, or traditionary, which can throw 
light upon the fortunes of this heroic race. 

E. Strkdder, 
The Grove, Royston. 

*'Chiij>k Rowland to thb dark tower 
CAME." — ^This striking passage in King Lear, 
in. iy.; occurs, irrelevantly to the play generally, 
in a speech of Edgar. It has thoroughly the ballad 
ting about it, but I believe has never yet beenj^raced 
to its source. Ritson suggests that the line is 
*' part of a translation of some Spanish, or perhaps 
French, ballad." If so— and I certainly think that 
Ritson points to the true quarter to which we should 
look — tne ballad, whether Spanish or French, should 
lielong to the Roland epic. Is there any among 
the Shakespearians of " N. & Q." who can suggest 
the possible original ? The line was quoted with 
much effect in a sermon by Canon Farrar on the 
Bobject of temperance, preached, if I remember 
nghtly, in Westminster Abbey. 

C. H. E. CARlflCHABL. 
Sojal Sooiety of Literature. 

Sackvillk STRBET.—Sackville Street had the 
TC][Kitacion of being the longest street in London 
without a crossing or break in the pavement. 
Whether it still deserves this reputation I know 

not; but it has a peculiarity, and perhaps some of 
the readers of "N, & Q." can give the reason* 
There is not a single lamp- post in it. All the gas- 
lamps are project^ by iron rods from the walla of . 
the houses, as the old oil lamps were a century 
ago. To what cause is this peculiarity attri- 
butable? O. F. Blanoford. 

Baker Family. — Can any of your readers in- 
form me of the antecedents of Richard Baker, the 
purchaser of Orsett Hall, Essex 7 also of Thomas 
Baker, of Muscovy Court, Tower Hill, who died 
in 1793, aged fifty-nine? also of Philip Baker, 
Rector of Michelmarsh, Hants, who died in 1796 ? 
also the descendants of William Baker, sometime 
one of the coroners for Worcestershire, who resided 
at Fakenham in 1683 ? also of John Baker, who 
removed from Canterbury and resided at Bewdley 
in 16837 also of Charles Baker, of the loner Temple, 
who lived in 1683 {vicU Visitation of Worcester 
for 1683) 7 They bore for their arms, A greyhound 
courant between two bars sable, and crest, a cocka- 
trice double wattled gules. Any information re- 
specting the above family will be acceptable. 

C. E. Baker. 

Hay Yilla, Humberstone, Leicester. 

" Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris " is 
the title of a noted folio on gardening, published 
by John Parkinson, apothecary, of London, 1629. 
Will some learned scholar favour me with a trans- 
lation of the title, and oblige many besides 7 

H. T. Ellacombb. 

Blackness. — Is there any record of this old 
fortress on the Firth of Forth having borne aa 
earlier name ; and if so, what was it 7 

w. M. a 

Shakespearian Quert.— Is not the word lend, 
in the Lover's Complaint (1. 26), a mistake for 
Und? C. J. 

Samian Ware.— Will any of your readers tell 
me the best work on Samian ware 7 W. O. P. 

Devices Wanted.— Upon an old leaden spout 
on a building which was formerly the Post Office 
and afterwards the Excise Office, Hull, there are 
two stamps or derices, which, alternating, run from 
the top to the bottom of the building. They are 
in raised relief. One design is a knight's helnaet 
in profile, having as its crest a five- point rose with 
two leayes ; the other is an eagle displayed. Both 
the devices are shown upon ornamental shield-like 
tablets. Can any one tell me what is the actual 
or probable meaning of the stamps 7 The build- 
ing dates from the reign of Henry YIIL, and is 
the traditional residence of the Suffragan Bishops 
of Hull. T. T. W. 

Watkinson of Yorkshire.— Dr. Henry Wat- 
kinson, Chitncellor of York 1664, had three sons^ 

Digitized by 





Harry, Edmond, and William. I shall be glad of 
any information respecting Harry and Edmond, to 
\?hom they were married, &c., and to know if any 
memorial tablets exist in churches in Leeds or the 
neighbourhood. The family is mentioned in Whit- 
aker'g Higtory of Leeds. E. J. Roberts. 

20, Fleet Street, E.C. 

MoLi^RB. — *'Moli&re reading his Comedies to 
his Housekeeper, from the Original Picture by 
Mr. T. P. Hall," is the subscription on a woodcut 
before me, extracted from some illustrated period- 
ical. In whose possession is the *' original picture 
by Mr. T.P.Hall"? H. S. A. 

To Balkb : TO Condb. — Having to look at the 
statutes passed in 1604, 1 found in cap. xxiiL these 
words: — 

" Divers persons with [={n or within] the said Coan- 
ties [SomoFBet, BeYon, and Cornwall] called Balcora, 
Huors, Condors, Directors or Quidors at the fishing 

time bare used to watch and attend upon the high 

Hilles and grounds for the diflcovery when the 

said UerrlngSi Pilchards, and other Seane fish come to- 
wards or neere the Sea Coasts there. " 

We also haye that they shall go into such lands as 


'' fit, convenient, and necessary to watch and balke in 

and there to watch for the sayd Fish and to BjJke, 

Hue, Conde, Direct and Quide the Fishermen which 
shatl be upon the sayd Sea and Sea Coasts." 
And we have besides "Balking, Huing," &c. I 
would, therefore, ask for the exact senses of to halke 
and to conde. 

Indulging in conjecture, "to conde "may be a 
variant of to eon, to know, or as in the nautical 

Ehrase " to conn or citnn the ship "=to direct the 
elmsman (or make him to know), and its position 
in our texts goes to confirm this. Similarly, " to 
balke," occurring as it does before "Hue," and 
judging so far as one can from the West Biding 
phrase (Halliwell-Phillipps's Archaic Dictionary), 
"To be thrown ourt balk » to have one's banns pub- 
lished," might be a variant of to bawl or shout. 
But I wish to learn more accurately from their 
etymology, or from their other uses, provincial or 
otherwise, what their true meanings are. 

Br. Nicholson. 


Where shall I find the prediction ? All his works, 
as enumerated in the English Cydopadia, appear 
to be either mathematical, chronological, or astro- 
nomical. 0. A Ward. 
Haverstock Hill. 

Campbells in Ireland.— Can any reader of 
"N. & Q." supply information regarding this 
surname in the west of Ireland ? I have an in- 
distinct recollection of hearing that there was a 
branch of this ftimily settled there two or three 
centuries ago, and that their descendants are still 
found in the west and south of Ireland. If so, 

what arms do they possess, and are they descended 
from Argyll or Breadalbane ) J. M. C. 

Old EtfSRALD Ring. — ^In the jewellery exhi- 
bition at ^South Kensington among the rings were 
two relics of the Stuarts, one having a portrait of 
the old Pretender and the other a good-sized 
emerald engraved with a portrait of King 
James II., highly polished. They have since 
parted company, and I should very much like to 
know what has become of the latter, which be- 
longed to the Oardinal of York. 

Ring CoLLEcroir. 

Lady F. — Anna Cooke, daughter of Sir 
Anthony Cooke, and afterwards wife of Sir 
Nicholas Bacon and mother of Lord Bacon, speaks 
in 1550 of her own mother as Lady F. What 
does F. stand for ? V.HLLLC.LV. 

"L. E. L."— In the Literary SkOck-Book (Lon- 
don, 1825, printed for Wm. Crawford), at p. 232, 
are two short pieces of poetry signed " L. E. L.'' 
They are called, respectively, " All over the World 
with thee, my Love," and ** What was Oar Part- 
ing ? " They seem to have been sent to the editor 
by a correspondent, " S. S. W."; and to the former 
pcem is appended a foot-note, to the effect that the 
lines have already appeared in the Literary Gazitte. 
Are these two of the early efforts of the unhappy 
Letitia E. Landon, whose melancholy death by 
poison at Cape Coast Castle, soon after her mar- 
riage to Mr. Maclean, caused much grief and 
many suspicions of unfair play in October, 1838 ; 
and are they republished in her collective works 7 
E. Walford, M.A 

2, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

RovAN Legion. — Can you or any of your 
readers kindly inform me if there is a work 
published wherein I can find a description of the 
routine or every-day life of a Roman legion — % 
description of its interior economy, duties in camp^ 
exercises, &c.? Is thpre any brochure, or even 
novel, illustrating this published ? 

Malibs Jaubs. 

Portraits at Eaton Hall. — Perhaps G. D. T. 
will be good enough to tell me, as he seems to 
have a knowledge of the portraits at Eaton HaU, 
if there is a picture there of Lidy Grosvenor, the 
mother of the first Earl Grosvenor. Lad. 

John Forster. — What family did the man 
spring from of whom the following entry is re- 
gistered in Trinity College ?— 

"John Forster, Pens^ entered Trinity College on 
26 February, 1724, son of James Forster, gentleman. 
Bom at Enniskillen, Educated in Dublin by Mr. Grafc- 
tan, Tutor Mr. Bodgers, Junior Fellow 1734, Senior 
Fellow 1748, Rector of Tollyichmish, co. Donegal, 17<K)» 
Rector of Drumragh and Killyhagh 1757, Died 1788* 
will proTed 13 October, 1788. In said will he leaves to 
a Mrs. BoUlDgbrook, of Dublin, 1,000/.; to Henry Qrattaiiy 

Digitized by 





of Silrer Place, eo. Meath, 2,000/.; to Richard Cooper, of 
Bathescar, 1,000/.; to a Miss Ester Wade, of Glonabury, 
1,0002.; to Sir John Parnell, of Ratbhague, in Qaeen*g 
CO.. Bart, 1,000/.; to >¥i11iam Hamilton, Fellow of College, 
1,000{.; to Mrs. Townley Hall, co. Louth, widow, all his 
plate, furniture, and moTables ; a great number of 
smaller bequests to rarious persons." 

He appoints Sir John Parnell his residaary legatee, 
and Jasper Debraisey and Jackson Qolding his 
executors. A. B. 0. 

Epsom Prose.— -What is the meaning of this 
phrase 1 I find it in Dryden's MacFUcknoe : — 
'* But let no alien Sedlej interpose 
To lard with wit thy hungry Epsom prose." 

E. Walford, M.A. 
Hyde Park Mansioni, N.W. 

'^ II ke faut pas farlkr db cordb, dans la 
MAisoN d'un pendu.** — Can any of your readers 
suggest the equivalent in English to this French 
proverbial saying ? JF. 0. 

Datk of Bishop Barlow's Oonsecratiox. — 
-Canon Yenables, in the article " Episcopacy " in the 
Encyc, Brit., ninth edition, says that Bishop 
Barlovy of Chichester, who presided at the con- 
secration of Archbishop Parker, was consecrated 
by Archbishop Cranmer on June 11, 1636. What 
is his authority for giving this as the exact date 1 

Hubert Bower. 


John Waller.— To what family did John 
Waller belong, who entered Trinity as a pen- 
sioner, June 25, 1759, Junior Fellow 1768, Senior 
Fellow, 1786, Rector of Baymochey 1791 ? Said 
John Waller's wife was accidentally murdered by 
-armed ruffians, who attacked the rectory when in 
pursuit of Dr. Hamilton of Fannet, whom they 
murdered March 2, 1797. A. B. C. 

Books and MSS. relating to Suffolk.— 
William Stephenson Fitch, of Ipswich, possessed 
in 1843 a large collection of manuscripts and books 
relating to Suffolk county families. This collection 
was sold in 1855 and 1859 by public auction ; 
part was bought by Boone, who sold it to the 
British Museum in 1860. Can any of your readers 
inform me who purchased the remainder, and 
whether access can be had to it ? 

H. DB B. Hovell. 

Henrt Robinson.— To what family did Henry 
iSobinson belong, who sold a property called Ros- 
^cnlbin, in co. Fermanagh, on October 21, 1731 ? 

A. B. 0. 

" Plotdbn's face."— What is the meaning of 
this expression, which occurs in the following 
passage f — " Soft skins save us ! there was a stub- 
bearded John, a stile with a ployden*s /ace, saluted 
me last day, and stroke his bristles through my 
lippes" (Marston's IMUch Courtezan, Halliweirs 

edit., IIL i. 144). The only instanca I can find 
of the word ploy den is in Halli well's Dietionarf^ 
of Archaic and Provincial Words, under the word 
'* Plowden,*' in the following extract from Fletoher's 
poems : — 

*' There Ptoyden in his laced ruff starch'd on edg 
Peeps like an adder through a quickset hedg. 
Ana brings his stale demur to stop the oouree 
Of her proceedinics with her yoak of horse ; 
Then fals to handling of the case, and so 
Shows her the posture of her overthrow." 

Plowden was an eminent lawyer in Queen Mary's 
time. His name is handed down to us in the pro- 
verb, **'The case is altered,' quoth Plowden." I 
cannot see how ^*Ployden" for Plowden would make 
any sense in this passage. I thought at one time 
that it might have been a misprint for hoyden, 
which, as is well known, was applied to men as 
well as women ; but, again. What does «(t/e mean ? 
The only meaning of the word which would make 
any sense is the last of four different meanings of 
the word given by Halliwell, viz., " The upright 
post in a wainscot to which the panels are fixed." 
F. A. ^Iarshall. 

Miss Anne Bannerman.— This accomplished 
poetical writer, who no doubt was a native of 
Scotland, though she is not mentioned by 
Anderson and Irving in their works oa Scottish 
biography, published at Edinburgh in 1800 a 
small volume of Poems, which was followed in 
1802 by Talee of Superstition and Chivalry, In 
December, 1803, she lost her mother, and about 
the same time her only brother died in Jamaica. 
She was thus left without relative^i, and almost in 
a state of destitution. Dr. Robert Anderson, 
writing to Bishop Percy on Sept. 15, 1804, says :— 

" I have sometimes thought that a small portion of 
the public bounty might be very properly bestowed on 
this elegantly accomplished woman. I mentioned her 
case to Prof. Richardson, the confidential friend and 
adviser of the Duke of Montrose, a Cabinet minister, 
who readily undertook to co-operate in any application 
that might be made to Government. The duke is now 
at Buchanan House, and other channels are open ; but 
no step has yet been taken in the business. Perhaps, 
an edition of her Poenis by subscription might be brought 
forward at this time with success." 
The latter suggestion was acted upon, and about 
250 subscribers of a guinea were obtained for the 
new edition of the Poems, including the Tales of 
Superstition and Chivalry, which was published at 
Edinburgh in 1807, 4to., with a dedication to Lady 
Charlotte Rawdon. Shortly afterwards Miss Ban- 
nerman went to Exeter as governess to Lady 
Frances Beresford's daughter. Perhaps, some of 
your correspondents may be able to supply par- 
ticulars respecting Miss Bannerman's subsequent 
hbtory. Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. 

Ool. Ramplb, 1647.— "There is mention in 
Rushworth of one Lieut.-Col. Rample being con- 
demned to be shot to death for killing a man at 

uigmzea oy x.jvv^v^ 




[6tii S. IX. Feb. 2, '84. 

fais qaartera at Mr. Saville's hoase in Mexborongb. 
This was in 1647 " (Hnnter'a Deanery ofDoncatter^ 
art. " MexboTongh ")• Can any of your readers give 
tbo fall entry in Rashwortb ? Can they inform 
me (1) wbo this Rample was, and what regiment 
he commanded ; (2) Is there any indication of a 
military occapation of the district at this time ; or 
{as is more probable) was Rample in occupation of 
the hall (or rather the rectory) in consequence of 
the determined '* malignancy " of Mr. Savillei who 
was one of the body-guard of Charles I.? 

W. Stkks, M.R.O.S. 
Mexborough, near Botherham, Yorks. 

Military Flags.— Will any correspondent in- 
form me of a work on military flags (European) of 
the sixteenth and serenteenth centuries ? 

G. 0. H. 

Morris Dangers. — Will any Cambridge corre- 
spondent kindly give, through "N. & Q.," par- 
ticulars of morris dancing as observed on Plough 
Monday ? I wish to compare the present obser- 
vance with that of 1850. Flo. Rivers. 

Sacred Operas.— Your old correspondent R 
Inolis, in a query (6**» S. viiL 494) mentions two 
*' sacred operas," Either and Samuel, as having 
been produced in America within the last few 
years. Will some of your Transatlantic corre- 
spondents kindly inform me how these *^ operas '* 
were performed, %.e., upon the stage with scenery, 
dresses, and personation, as in ordinary operas, or 
by the concert-room orchestra in the manner in 
which oratorios, or sacred dramas, are usually 
given in England 1 W. H. Husk. 

Hair-powder. — When did hair-powder come 
into general use in France ; and by whom was the 
fashion set? The Regent Orleans died in 1723, 
and all his portraits represent him in a full-bottom 
periwig. Yet Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, 
writing in 1718, speaks of ladies 'Moaded with 
powder.*' Louis XY., as a boy, is represented in 
powder. The fashion could not have been set by 
him, for at the time of the Regent's death he was 
no older than thirteen, and at the date mentioned 
by Lady Mary was only eight years of age. 

Lewis Winofikld. 



(6*»> S. viii. 448.) 

This once celebrated edifice was situated near 
Epsom, in Surrey ; and, if sparsely noticed by the 
voyagers of the period, possibly came seldom under 
their observation on account of its distance from 
the metropolis. Still, I think that it had a fair 
share of notice. Paul Hentzner, who is said to 

have visited London in 1598, was impressed by 
its magnificence. The following is his description : 

'^N'otusueh, a Eoyal Retreat, in a Place formerly 
called Coddingion, a very healthfal Situation, chonn 
by King Henry VIII. for his Pleatare and Retirement, 
and built by him with an Excess of Mavniflcence and 
Elegance, even to Ostentation ; one would imagine every 
thing that Architecture can perform to hare bean em*- 
ployed in this one Work ; there are ererywhere so many 
Statues that seom to breathe, so many Miracles of coq- 
Biimmate Art, so many Casts that rival even the Per* 
fection of Roman Antiquity, that it may well claim and 
justify its Name of Nonuueh, being without an equal ; 
or, as the Poet sung : — 

' Thitf yfhicli, no EquaX hat in Art or Fame, 
Britons deservedly do Nonesuch name.'' 

"The Palace itself is so encompassed with Parks full 
of Deer, delicious Gardens, Groyes ornamented with 
trellis Work, Cabinets of Verdure, and Walks so em- 
browned with Trees, that it seems to be a Place pitched 
upon by Pleasure herself, to dwell in alonn; with Health, 

'*In the Pleasure and Artificial Gardens are many 
Columns and Pyramids of Marble, two Fountains that 
Epout Water one round the other like a Pyramid, upon 
which are perched small Birds that stream Water out 
of their Bills : In the Grove of Diana is a very agree- 
able Fountain, with Ac'oson turned into a Staff, as he 
was sprinkled by the Goddess and her Nymphs, with 

'* There is besides another Pyramid of Marble full of 
concealed Pipes, which spirt upon all who come within 
their Beaob.'^ 

In 1615, the celebrated Grotius was dispatched 
to this country for the purpose of smoothing over 
certain difficulties which had arisen from out 
claim to exclude the Dutch from the whale 
fisheries of Greenland. He commemorated his 
visit by four epigrams, *' In Proctoria qusedam 
Regia Angliae." viz.: (I) "Nonswich "; (2) *• Hamp- 
tincovit"; (3) "Windsoor"; (4) "Richemont;" 
It is, however, with the first of these alone that 
I am now concerned : — 

** Nonswich, 
Luslranti silvas, et devia tesqua Jacobo 
Non Suithi presses casta Diana favo : 
Sanguinis huroani manus hoc tarn parca meretur 
Armatam in solas quam juvat esse feras." 

Hueonis Grotii Poemata Colleeta, &e.y 
Lugd. Bat., 1617, 8fo. p. 870. 

Another traveller, of two centuries and a half 
ago, voyaging in France, draws a curious com- 
parison between Fontaine bleau and Nonsuch and 
Hampton Court in England : — 

" Quia vero arcet regice lustrandte sunt, plicait hoe 
judicium et discrimen inter Anglicanas et Gallicanas 
propnnere. Gallicis arcibus Anglicas, si interiorem 
faciem spectas, nullo modo comparandse sunt. Nam 
etsi NoKCiUTZ in Anglia, imo et quss primaria est Hamp- 
TONCOVAT, exterius singularcra majestatem prse se ferat, 
et gentis magnificum luxum praeclare arguat; etiamai 
etiam pulcherrim& serie interius ordinata omnia : tamen. 
si aulasa ostro decora (qu& in parte G&llia nihil plane aa 
Angliam) etauro et gemmid distincta tollas, reperies intas 
et post vela sumptuosissima ejuscemodi cameras, intra 
quns ciTem primarias dignationis hospitio nolis accipere : 
plerumqne ligna ibi non satis polita, tela^ araneamm^ 
muroB non satis integros, et quod in nostr&patri4 ai^* 

Digitized by 





mentum est negligentis patriB-familiafl, nihil post vela 
«iiii et firmi. At in Oallift orones porticus et cameras 
(eerte in arcibuB primariss sestimationis) sine adroini- 
calis et involucris qaemlibet Begem et Principem bos- 
pitio excipere non erubescant. Quanquam majestatia 
qnodam intuitu et tacitd Teneratioue Henricus lY. in 
illisqiue ipse fieri fecit, majorum raonxm industriam 
et magnificentiam raperaverit." — Abrahami Qolnitzii 
Ulymt Belgico-Galliau, kc., Lugd. Bat, 1631, 12mo. 
p. 162. 

Another traveller desoribeB ^' Ritschmontes/' 
'^ Hamptonoourt," and " Vindesoras/' bat failed, 
somehow, to gain acoess to Nonsuch, which he 
yet commemoiates as the loyeliest of all : " NoU" 
^chitz, omniam arcium regiamm amaBaissimam 
mihi non aditum ; qaam yiridaria oontigna nimio- 
pere commandant" (lodooi Sinoeri, Itinerarium 
GalluB, &C., GenevsB, 1627, Sro, p. 310). 

Camden's Britannia w, of course, in most public 
UbKAries ; but still, to hcMantes in $icco who are 
hejond reach of one, a mere reference would be 
tantalizing. The following is the description of 
Nonsuch from Bishop Gibson's edition : — 

"More inward (than Bichmond), at about four miles 
distance from the Thames, None-sueb, a retiring-seat of 
our Kings eclipsed all the neiKhbonring buildings. 
It was erected by that magnificent prince. King 
Henry VIII., in a yery wholsome air (being called, be- 
fore, Cuddington) ; and was designed by him for a place 
of pleasure and diTersion. It was so magnificent, and 
withal so beautiful, as to arriye at the highest pitch of 
Mtentation ; and one would think that the whole art of 
architecture had been crowded into this single work. 
So many images to the life were upon all sides of it, so 
many wonders of workmanship, as might eyen yie with 
the remains of Boman antiquity; so that it might justly 
lay chum to the name, and was yerj able to support it ; 
Nonesuch being in liatin Nulla ejusmodi, or, as Leland 
expresses it in yerse, 

Hane, quia non haheani iimiUnit laudare Britanni 

Setpt soieni, NuUiqw parent, eognomine dieunt. 
Beyond the rest the English this extol. 
And None-such do by eminency call. 

The house was surrounded with parks full of deer, 
delicate orchards and gardens, groyes adorned with 
arbours, little garden-bsds. and walks shaded with trees; 
so that pleasure and health might seem to have made 
choice of the place, wherein to lire together. But 
-Queen Mary exchanged it with Henry Fitz-Alan, earl of 
Arundel, for other lands; and he. after he had enlarged 
it with a well- furnished library and some new works, 
left it, at bis death, to the baron Lumley, a person 
whose whole course bf life was truly answerable to his 
l^gh character. (But now there is nothing left of this 
noble and carious structure, scarce one stone remaining 
upon another ; which hayoc is owing to the late cItII 
war8.)''^^ri^i»nuz, ed. 1772, folio, London, yol. i. p. 

The date of ihe first edition of Qjimden's great 
work was 1586. Paul Hentzner is said to haye 
^visited EngUnd in 1598, but his Itinerary— at 
^esst, that part of it which relates to England— 
from which extracts had been already published 
by Dr. Birch, was first printed by Horace Wal- 
pole in 1757. It was subsequently reprinted in 
Dodsley'a Fugitive FiecM of Various Subjects by 

Several Authors (London, 1765, 2 vols. 8yo.). I 
dare say I put a yery jejune question when I ask 
how the sioffular coincidence of expression be- 
tween the English antiquary and the German 
trayeller is accounted for. I haye not access to 
the first edition of Camden (1586), so do not know 
the precise wording of the original description ; 
but in Bishop Gibson's earlier one of 1696, which 
is before me, I find the passage which I haye tran- 
scribed almost yerbatim. How does it stand in 
the first edition of the Britannia f Is the Itine^ 
rarium Hentzneri an authentic production 7 Did 
Hentzner copy from Camden, or Bishop Gibson 
from Hentzner ? Is it likely that this latter was 
the case when, &% Horace Walpole Wdls us, there 
were but four or fiye copies of the a£3. tour in 
England ? Where are these now ? 

Besides the palace of this appellation, there was 
the famous Nonsuch House, the most remarkable 
of the structures which stood upon old London 
Bridge. It is supposed to haye been of the Eliza- 
bethan age, and to haye been placed on its site at 
the latter part of the sixteenth century. It was 
brought from Holland — was constructed entirely 
of wood — and was united by wooden pegs, not a 
single nail being used in the entire structure. See 
Thompson's Ckronicles of London Bridge, p. 344 ; 
and Brayley's Londiniana, yoL ii. p. 262. 

William Bates, B.A. 


*^ This palace has been much celebrated both by 
English and foreign writers," says Lysons, in Th$ 
Environs of London, 1792, yol. i. p. 151. He quotes 
Camden, who quotes Leland : — 
"Hanc qaia non habeht [«tc] eimilem laadare Britanni 
Sffipe 8oIent, nuUique parem eognoniine dicant." 
" Unriyalled in design the Britons tell 
The wondroufl praises of this nonpareil." 

Or, as translated in Horace Walpole's yerjton of 

Hentzner* s Travels:-^ 

"This, which no equal has in art or fame, 
Briton's deservedly do Nonesach name." 

He refers to Sydney, State Papers^ ii. 118; tj 
Sebastian Braun*s work, entitled Givitates Orbis 
Terrarum, which has an en graying by Hoefnagle 
with this inscription, ''Pdlatium Regium in 
Anglise Regno appellatum Nonciutz ; Hoc est 
Nusquam Simile"; and under it *'Effigiayit 
Georgius Hoefnaglius, anno 1582*'; to Cough's 
Topography, it 275 ; to Strype*s Annals of the 
Reformation, i. 194 ; to the Burleigh Papers, ii. 
795 ; and to Lodge's Shrewsbury Papers, ii. and 
iii. Lysons's own account extends from p. 151 to 
158. W. E. BacKLET. 

Need Mr. Walpolb^s attention be drawn to 
Camden's description ? 

"Built with so much splendour and elegance that It 
stands a monument of Art, and you would think the whol* 
scienoe of Architecture exhausted on thU building. 

uigmzea oy 'v^v^v^'ilv^ 




And to John Erelyn's remarks ? — 

" I supped in Nonesaoh House and took an exac^ 

iriew of the piaster statues and bass-relieroa inserted 
betwixt the timbers and puncheons of the outside walls 
of the Court, which mast needs hare been the work of 
some celebrated Italian. I much admired how they had 
lasted so well and entire since the time of Henry YlII., 
exposed as they are to the Air." 

Or to what Pepys says of Nonsaoh ? — 

*' Walked up and down the house and park; and a 
fine place it hath hitherto been« and a fine prospect 
about the house. A great walk of an elme and a Wid- 
nutt set one after another in order. And all the house 
on the outside filled with figures of stories, and good 
painting of Rubens' or Holben's doing. And one great 
thing is, that most of the house is covered, I mean the 
post, and qu^ters in the Walls, coTered with lead, and 

Hemrt G. Hofa. 
Freegrove Boad, N. 

See the references to contemporary allasions to 
the palace in Thome's Environs of London, ii. 
446-a G. F. R. B. 

"Notes on Phrase and Inflection ** (6"* S. vli. 
.fiOl; viii. 101, 129, 232, 497; ix. 32).— I am glad 
that my notices on this subject have called forth 
replies from adepts in philological science. Dis- 
cussion conducted in a proper spirit can only tend 
to elicit truth. 

I confess to a little surprise on reading the 
remarks of Prof. Skbat. He has been my 
" guide, philosopher, and friend " in my humble 
liuguistic researches, and I have always looked 
upon him as filling a very advanced position as a 
leader on the subject he so well understands. He 
says my communication on the formation of the 
.preterites of verbs contains several inaocnraoiee— 
that I have not followed that historical method 
which I justly advocate, &c. I mast be under a 
strange hallucination, for I thought I was strictly 
following out the injunctions of my guide in carry- 
lug the inquiry as far back as history and analogy 
wUl enable us to do. It is said that some people 
are, or have been, " Hibemiois Hiberniores," and I 
think I can show that on the present occasion I 
am more Skeatish than Prof. Skeat himself. 

" Indignor, quandoquo bonus dormitat Homems," 
is applicable now as in the days of Horace. 
He says, *' The formation of weak verbs has been, 
in all details, correctly explained in the introduc- 
tion to Morris's Specimens of Early English," 
With deference, this is precisely what Mr. Morris 
does not do. He gives the forms in Anglo-Saxon, 
but offers not the slightest explanation or clue 
to their origin or development. But further, *'It 
will thus appear that the original suffix in the 
verb send was -de, not -ed." This became sends, 
and finally, for euphony's sake, sent A few lines 
lower down we read, " The suffix -de was short for 
•ded (dyde), as has been rightly said." This 

was precisely my contention. If de was a con* 
traction of £sd, ded most have preceded it How, 
then, can it be maintained that de was the original 
inflection ? 

The object of my communication was to show 
that the inflections of all the weak verbs in the 
Teutonic languages sprang from one origin, and 
were in their inception identical, the changes 
having been corruptions, principally for the sake of 
euphony. Language has not been a manufacture, 
but a growth, and by carefully reading " between 
the lines " we may watch that growth in its suc- 
cessive stages. 

The verbs in all Teutonic, probably in all Aryan, 
dialects have had three modes of forming their 
preterites. Probably the oldest was by reduplica- 
tion, now nearly obsolete. The next was by vowel 
change, limited to the primary verbs, principally 
intransitive. I endeavoured to show in my last 
communication the process by which the preterites 
were formed in the weak verbs by the absorption 
of an auxiliary, ded or dad in the Low Ger. = ^ in 
the High Ger., being respectively the preterites of 
the strong verbs don and tuon. We see the process 
of formation in the Gothic language very clearly, 
e.g., where the intransitive verb sinthan, to go, 
out of its strong preterite sand forms a secondary 
verb, sandjan, to send, the preterite of which is 
sandidad, softened into sandidc^. In Anglo-Saxon 
the shortening process proceeded further, convert- 
ing it into sends, subsequently corrupted into senL 

After telling us that the suffix de in sends is 
short for ded, the professor proceeds, '^ The word 
sended never existed"! Let us see what other 
adepts in linguistic science aver. Gabelenz (Orarn^ 
der Gothischen Sprache, p. 96), says ** Das Priiteri- 
tum ist durch Zusammensetzung des Wortstamms 
mit dem Piateritum des starken Yerbum didan, 
dad, dedun, entstanden. Nur im Ind. Sing, weloher 
eigentlich -dad, -dastf -dad, lautan sollte, ist der 
Endconsonant weggefallen." Bopp {Comparative 
Gram,, Eng. edit, iL 843), on the formation of 
tenses, says, referring to certain forms in Sanskrit : 

" Hereby tlie way is in a manner prepared for tho 
Qerman idioms, which without exception paraphrase 
their preterite by an auxiliary verb signifying ' to do.* 
I hare asserted thiSi as regards the Gothic, ia my syston | 

of conjugation (pp. 151, &c.), where I hare shown 

an auxiliary verb m the plurals of the past tense and in 
the singular of the subjunctive. Since then Qrimm, 
with whom I fully coincide, has extended the existence 
of the auxiliary verb also to the singular as soii-da, and 
therefore to the other dialects ; tor if in tokida the 
verb < to do * is eontaiaed, it is 8elf-e?ident that it exists 
also in oar suchte," 

So far Bopp and Grimm. Farther reference may 
be foond in Grimm's DsiUsehs Gram. (i. 839), 
where he shows that the d in Gothic and A.-3. 
derived from don is equivalent to the High Ger. t, 
derived from iuon {tkun). If, therefore, High 
Ger. lieb-te was originally, as maintained, lieb-tet. 

uigiiizea oy x-JVv'vy 


6* 8. IX. Feb. 2, '84.) 



^Mt is self-eyidenf that lov^de was originally 
hw-dedj and tends, imd-ded. 

Prof. Skbat has always impressed on his dis- 
iiiples the necessity of carrying etymological in- 
•qairies as far back as written langoage wm enable 
08 to do, and beyond that to rely upon comparison 
and analog, but he now seems to hesitate in a 
manner which remmds one of Fear in Oollins's ode : 
"Who back recoird, he knew not why, 
E*en at the sound himself had Biade." 

Bat the professor proceeds : ^' Another inaconracy 
is the fancy that the suffix -U is High German. It 
has, in English, nothing to do with High German," 
^c. I nerer asserted that it had. My objection 
to dipt, and slipt, and shipt is that they break 
down the distinction between the two great 
families of the Teutonic race, and introduce con- 
fodon and disorder into what was plain and 
simple. If I write skipped and Prof. Skbat writes 
Mkipt we both pronounce the word alike, but I have 
the adrantage of preserving the normal rule and 
the parity of our Saxon speech. It would seem 
that Mr. Morris's introduction to his Specimens is 
to be the end of all controversy. I demur to this, 
as I do to another assertion, tioat when a word is 
found in " a certain book known as the first folio 
of Shakespeare^' inquiry must go no further. I 
have no quarrel with any mode of spelling so that 
itiM generally nnderstood and adopted, but to call 
slipt and Mpt " pure and correct formations " is 
more than my *' muddle-headedness " can stomach. 
Bb. Cha9cb refers to my remarks on the Ger- 
man preposition zu before the infinitive. No doubt 
«li he says is true, but it is not relevant. A 
former coirespondent asserted that in German no 
word was ever allowed to intrude between the 
fnvposition and the infinitive. I merely gave a few 
phrases to show that this is not always the case. 

Mr. Tbrrt asks for my authority in asserting 
that at a comparatively early period the A.-S. 
•eodM, the irregular preterite of gan, was dropped and 
uvHt put in its place. If he will turn to passages 
in the Goepels where the word went is found, and 
^mpare them with the A.-S. version, he will see 
the transition, e.^., Mark ii. 12: ''The ic secge 
Alls, nim thin bed, and gd to thinum huse. And 
he sona aras, and beforan heom eallam, eodeJ' 
By the time of Wicllffe Ude had disappeared 
and went had taken its place. The passage in 
Wicliffe's version stands thus : " And anone he 
1008 np^ and the bed token up he wente bifore alle 
men.'' ^ I do not understand what is meant by 
^oent being a past indefinite form. It is the present 
tense <rf wendlim, applied as an irregular preterite 
<tgdn in place of another irrregular preterite, eode, 
which had become obsolete. J. A. Picton. 
Bandyknowe, Wavertree. 

Qdaiht Phrases employed by J. Marston (6* 
«. ix. 7, 61).-.l. Pith of parkeU,^Parrot, parrot, 

&c, are the abbreviated forms of parraJeeet^ and no 
one has as yet found such a variant as parket for it 
or for any other animal. Hence I fancy that we 
have here a misprint, one which had occurred in 
the previous edition of the Fawne, in the same 
year, ^' through the author's absence," and which, 
by an oversight, had been retained. The true 
reading, I think, was the *^pith [marrow] of porkers 
or porkets.^ Either of these words runs well with 
'^ lamstones," and the marrow, especially thb 
marrow of the backbone— in other words, the spinal 
cord of such animals— would be held a likely re- 
medy in those days, on the doctrine of sympathies. 

2. BowU the wheele-barrow at Rotterdam. — The 
explanation suggested seems plausible, if not satis- 
factory, but, more especially from the use of the 
definite article, I cannot but have a fancy th%t 
the treadmill may have been meant. 

3. To wear the yellow. — The explanation would, 
I think, have been better had it been worded 
*' because yellow was then the fashionable colour at 
court," for we have no proof that there was any 
" distinctive colour of court uniform,*' much less 
that it was yellow. At least I have met with or 
read of no such proof ; and had there been a yellow 
court uniform I fancy that the allusions to it 
would have been sufficiently numerous. More 
especially, too, in that case Shakespeare would 
never have made Olivia so detest " yellow stock- 
ings," nor made Malvolio put them on. Probably 
at the production of Twelfth Night yellow was 
out of fashion. 

4. Fumxitho. — Kersey and Cocker essentially 
follow Ooles, 1677, who gives, "FumadoeSf -thoes, 
Sp., our Pilchards garbaged, salted, smoakt, and 
preat,*' where the word "our" shows, I think, that 
the fumatho was a foreign importation. Ash, who 
would seem not to have copied from these, says, 
"Famado (from famus), a fish dried in the 

5. Flaggon bracelets. — Not having met the 
phrase elsewhere, the conjectftre may bo allowed 
that they were bracelets that had the upper sur- 
face bulging from the under, and rounded, flagon 
fashion, making them look like '^jewels" of great 
weight and value. 

6. Nocturnal may, I think, be explained by the 
following, from St. Augustine, Sermo di Temp, 
Barbar,, c. 4: " An non sacrificavit, qui imagines 
idolorum per noctem ludentes, quod Noctarnum 
vocant, libentissime spectavit ? " Du Gauge, who 
gives this quotation, would explain the word as 
"Magica Gentilium illusio, quss nocte fiebat." 
And in the absence of any mention even of it, so far 
as I am aware, in Adams's, Lempriere's, or Smith's 
dictionaries, I take it that Marston used it to 
express something more farcical than '' oommedy.'' 
I have not met with any other example of the word 
in Elizabethan English. 

7. Lapy-beard. — Possibly formed from ^the 

uigiiizea oy x^jvJOV IV^ 



[C«»8.IX. Feb.2,'8U 

Northern lape. Halliwell-PhillippB gives the verb 
as ^' to go sloyenly or antidiljr, to walk about in 
the mad/' in the E.D.S. Glossaries for Manley, 
&c., and Holderness it is similarly given '*to 
besmear, &c./' and in Miss Jackson's Skropshire 
WordrBooh we find '' Lapesing^ dabbling, as in 
water or slop." In the same page of Marston we 
^nd '* Lappis up naught but filth and excrements " 
where the same word is used in this same sense. 

8. Taber-fac^d, — I can understand this in p. 272 
to mean a face round, smooth, and hairless, like 
the surface of a taber; but this use of it in p. 240 
as an epithet for Lampatho does not seem to 
agree with the other descriptive epithets so plenti- 
fully applied, but rather with Shakespeare's 
"cittern-head." Br. Nicholson. 

P.S.— Since writing the above I have found, as 
regards 1, in R. Lovell's Nat Hist., 1661, under 
"''Boar," ''The genitalis help against the impo- 
tency of Venus,** and under " Sow," " The same 
[the milke] mixed with honey causeth coiture in 
men and conception in women," and, thoroughly 
supporting my suggestion, '* The marroio applied 
helpeth bleare eyes, and causeth venery." As an 
example of the use of the doctrine of antipathies I 
quote from the same, pp. 118-9, " [the lard] With 
the ashes of womens haires it cureth St. Anthonie 
Ills fire [erysipelas]." They seem to have been 
used because St. Anthony was celebrated for his 
avoidance of women. 

An Unpublishbd Letter of Burns the Poet 
(fi*** S. ix. 25).— So far from this being an unpub- 
lished letter of Burns, and appearing now for the 
first time in an Ulster paper, the letter is familiar 
to all Barns readers. So far back as 1846 it was 
printed in the Ayr Observer, and was incladed in 
the 1861 edition of The Life and Works of Burns, 
hj Bobert Chambers. Since then I cannot tell how 
often it has been printed in the poet's correspond- 
ence, down to the latest and moat exhaustive of 
all the numerous editions of Bums, the six- volume 
Library Edition of William Paterson, Edinburgh, 
1877-9. The political ballad referred to in the 
letter is the song beginning, " When Guildford 
good our Pilot stood," was on the American War 
of Independence, written in February, 1787, and 
incorporated in the edition then passing through 
the press, which the poet superintended during 
his residence in Edinburgh in the spring of that 
year. The only notice the ballad elicited was from 
the Bev. Hugh Blair, D.D., who remarked that 
'Hhe ploughman bard's politics smell of the 
smithy." J. G. 


The letter which your correspondent has sent to 
you as an unpublished one by Burns has been going 
''the round of the papers" of late, and though it 
is of considerable interest it is very far from cor- 
rect to describe it as " unpublished." On the con- 

trary, it is a *' very much published " letter, as a ' 
certain distinguished writer might have said. I 
have met with it three times during the last fort- 
night. It appears this letter was printed in 
Chambers's edition of Burns (vol. ii. p. 61); also 
in the Ayr Observer in 1846. In the large six- 
volume edition of Burns's fForXv, published in Edin- 
burgh by Mr. Scott Douglas some three years ago, 
this letter is given (vol. v. p. 194). Lastly, in the 
memoir of the Hon. Henry Erskine, reviewed ia 
your columns shortly after its appearance in 1882, 
this letter, and another from Burns to the Dean 
of Faculty, are printed ; so that this is not asolitaiy 
communication from the poet to that gentleman, as 
one writer afiirms of It, Now it seems to me that 
the conductor of no paper such as " N. & Q." can be 
expected to test or *^ verify " In every instance of 
this kind. Time would not admit of It. But oar 
painstaking Editor may well expect of his contri- 
butors that they take some little care to ascertain 
that their facts are in order ere they communicate 
them. Some time ago, for example, a letter was 
sent in by a popular writer, and printed in 
'' N. & Q." as hitherto unpublished, which a refer- 
ence to such a well-known book as the Lives of ihs 
CftUncellors would have shown at once to be 
erroneously described. A. F. 

[The foregoing letter expressea so fally the feelin(j;8 of 
the EJitor upon the subject that he would gladly give it 
prominence. In the cAse of communications such as 
the so-called unpublished letter of Bums it is all bat 
impossible for editorial supervision to exercise an ade- 
quate check.] 

W, V, F (Q^ S. vill. 522).— In discussing the 
possible Interchange of the letters w, v, and f^ 
Prof. Skisat "protests" against "the current 
vague notions that any consonant can be 'cor- 
rupted ' Into any other." I am almost disposed to 
'* protest" against ''corrupted" as, at least, too 
hard a word for any Interchange of either of these 
three "consonants." On the contrary, I believe 
that these three letters have many powers or effects 
that are common to ail three, and still more that 
are common to either two of them. It is, indeed, 
notorious that both /and v, and v and id, are re- 
spectively constantly interchanged in the mouths 
of many thousands of us. 

I venture upon Ihia question because, having 
been formerly challenged upon it, I had already 
looked into it. I had once quoted " Heneverdon," 
mentioned by Westcote as a former name of what 
Is now " Hemerdon," a hamlet of Plympton, Devon, 
as being a transplanted example of the -wardines 
of the Wye and Severn district of Wlccla. In 
company with other local evideoces, I had held 
it as showing a Mercian or Anglian colony in that 
part of West Wales, outflanking the West Saxon 
advance upon the Damnonian Britons. This was 
demurred from by another of this iitrlct school of 
phllologers, who does not believe our language has & 

Digitized by 


CAS. IX. Fn. 2, '84.] 



will of its owDybot holds that EDglishmen have been 
toogae-tied for a thonsand yean by an artificial, tx 
foiifado code of 'Maws/' bat who, in spite of this 
superstition, has himself contributed to historical 
topography some most valuable results of his own 
ingenuity. He objected that " Heneverdon " could 
not be a -loardine, because in ^ Domesday single 
V between vowels normally represents not \d but/ 
(pronounced v)." I replied at once by an example 
which showed not only the change of the two con- 
sonants to which he objected, but also all three of 
those now objected to by Prof. Skeat. The 
same name appears in a charter of Bp. Leofric 
[Cod. Dip, 940) as ''Doflisc"; in Domesday as 
••Dovles"; in Exon-Domeaday, "douelis** (be- 
tween vowels); and in late British Gazetteers, &&, 
as "Dawlish.'' I believe also I have since realized 
''Hemerdon'' and "Heneverdon" in Domesday 
as " Chemeworde,'' and in Exon-Domesday as 
** Chemeauorda^" Domesday forms common to the 
Mercian or Wiccian -wardines, and to the various 
dusters or showers of 'Worthys, argued to have 
been Anglian colonies of Mercian conquests in 
the Saxon kingdoms. 

I do not, of course, doubt that the progress or 
changes of our language have had causes, which are 
more or less so intimately related to each other as 
to have tempted the word " laws " to them ; but I 
bold that these artificial codifications have not yet 
comprehended anything like all of them ; so that 
rach codes are better for what they affirm than 
what they are too often assumed to deny. 

Thomas Kerslakb. 

Silent = Dark (ei^ S. viii. 387). — I re- 
commend to Mr. Palmer's attention on the 
subject of contrary meanings, the labours of the 
eminent scholar Dr. Abel of Berlin, and particularly 
tlie last, Qegeniinn^ published by Triibner, 1883. 
This contains a long list of Semitic words. I cannot 
myself give any examples of silent ^daikj although 
I recognize it. These phenomena have been deoJt 
with by me in PrshisUnic and Protohistorie Com- 
parative FhHologyy where the first table of equi- 
Talents was given. They result from the funda- 
mental laws of speech language, connected with 
its origin in gesture or sign language. The special 
cases of Qegeneinn have been copiously examined 
by Dr. Abel for several families of language, but 
more particularly for the Egyptian and Coptic 
biDgnages, on which he has written in German 
and Engh'sh. As a simple feature of the Semitic 
langaages the occurrence has long been observed by 
the Arab and Oriental grammarians. Of late the 
ducussion has extended to a wider philological 

Htdb Clarke. 

Miles Corbet (6«» S. viiL 108, 163).— The 
Gbrbets were an old family in Shropshire, where 
their descendants are still large landed proprietors, 

seated at Sundane Castle and other places. Early 
in the sixteenth century a branch settled at 
Sprowston, in Norfolk. They bore arms Or, a 
raven proper ; and for a crest a squirrel sejant, 
cracking a nnt proper, with the motto, "Deus 
pascit corvos." 

Miles Corbet was the second son of Sir Thomas 
Corbet, of Sprowston. He studied the law, and 
was called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn. His abili- 
ties early brought him into notice. In the year 
1625^ upon Mr. Gwynn's resigning the recorder- 
ship of Yarmouth in his favour, the Corporation 
unanimously elected him to that ofiice^ upon 
condition that he became "a resident" within 
six months; and, in fact, he then did so reside in 
that town, his house being in the Market Place ; 
it is now known as the " Weavers* Arms "; and he 
was presented with his freedom without fine. 
Shortly after his election he was returned to 
Parliament, where he became a determined oppo- 
nent of the Court, and took an active part in 
Parliamentary matters. In 1642, he was chair- 
man of a committee which exercised the power of 
arrest by the sergeant-at-arms ; and in the list of 
members who "advanced horse, money, and plate 
for the defence of Parliament," there is the entry, 
'' Mr. Corbet will bring in fiftv pounds.'* In 1644, 
he was made Clerk of the Court of Wards. In 
1648 he was appointed one of the two Registrars 
of Chancery (which alone was worth 700^ a year) 
in the room of Col. Long, one of the suspected 
members. In 1643 the Corporation presented Mr. 
Recorder with a gratuity of 261, He was chair- 
man of the Committee of Parliament for Scandalous 
Ministers, in which capacity it is said that when 
the Rev. T. Reeve, Rector of Aldborough and 
Coleby, who had been ejected for dissuading his 
parishioners from rebellion, was brought before 
him, Corbet told him he was " an old malignant, 
and he would see him hanged for it "; he was, 
however, only confined as a prisoner at the gate- 
house for three years. He had the principal 
management of the obnoxious office of sequestra- 
tions, the duties of which rendered him so un- 
popular that in 1652 he gladly went to Ireland, 
as one of the commissioners for managing the affairs 
of that country. He held the post last named 
until suspended under an accusation of malversa- 
tion, from which, however, he was ably defended 
by Ludlow, who averred in Parliament that 
Corbet had ** manifested such integrity " that "he 
impaired his own estate for the public service, 
whilst he was the greatest husband of the Common- 
wealth's treasure." He afterwards accepted the 
post of Chief Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland, 
and resigned the recordership of Yarmouth. At 
the Restoration he fled to the Continent, and 
settled at Hannau, on the Lower Rhine, with Okey 
and Barkstead companions in exile. Bei ng induced 
to visit Delft, they were seized by Sir George 

uigiiizea oy 




[6» S. IX. Feb. 2, *H. 

Downing, and sent to Eof^land, where their 
arriyal is thus noted by Pepys in his Diary : — 

''Mareh 17tb, 1662. Last night the Blaokmoie pink 
brought the three priionen, Burkstead, Okey, and 
Corbet, to the Tower, being taken at Delfe, in Holland ; 
where the captain tells us, the Dutoh were a good while 
before they could be parsuaded to let them go, they 
being taken prboners in their canal. But Sir Oeorge 
Downing would not be answered ; altho' all the world 
takes notice of him for a most ungrateful Tilliane for his 

On April 16, Corbet and his fellow prisoners were 
tried and condemned for high treason ; and the 
sequel is thus told by Pepys : — 

"April 19th, 1662. Before we eat, I went' to Aldgate, 
and at the comer shop (a draper's) I stood and did 
see Barkstead, Okey, and Corbet drawn towards the 
gallows at Tvbume; and there they were hanged and 
quartered: tney all looked very cheerful, and I hear 
^iiey all die defending what they did to the King to be 
just— which is very strange I " 

There is an oil portrait of him in the possession of 
Predk. Palmer, Esq., F.R.C.S., of Yarmonth ; also 
an engraved portrait in an oval on the same plate 
with OoL Okey and Col. Barkstead, which has 
become very scarce. It has been copied by 
Bichardson. There is also another portrait with 
Lis seal and autograph. He appears to have left 
a son, Miles Corbet, who, with his mother, took 
leave of him previously to his execution ; but his 
family became extinct in Norfolk. In a rare 
tract, entitled Penecutio Undeeima, 1648, Corbet 
is accused of having 

"indicted a man for a conjuror, and was urgent upon 
the jury to condemn him upon no proof, but a booke of 
circles found in his study, which Miles said was a booke 
of conmring— had not a learned clergyman told the jury 
that the booke iras an old almanack." 

Hone, in his Year Bookf p. 67, mentions a work, 
entitled '* A Briefe Relation of the Gleaniogs of 
the Idiotisms and Absurdities of Miles Corbet, 
Esq., Counsellor-at-Law, Recorder and Burgess 
of Great Yarmouth. By Anth. Birley. 1646." 
4to. In the Harhian Miscellany, vol. vi. p. 36, 
is the following : " A most learned and eloquent 
speech spoken and delivered in the honourable 
House of Commons at Westminster. By the most 
learned lawyer Miles Corbet, Recorder of Great 
Yarmouth, and Burgess of the same, on the 31st 
day of July, 1647, taken in short-hand by Nestle 
and Tom Dunne, his clerks, and Revised by John 
Taylor." It was published in 1679, and was de- 
signed, in a fictitious speech, to expose the bom- 
bast of the rebellious speakers and the misfortunes 
the nation laboured under in those times. See 
Palmer's YarmotUh (Manship), vol. ii. p. 342, 
et uq. F. D. Palmer. 

Great Tarmonth. 

Durham (6^ S. viii. 468).— Should not we read 
Cambridge instead of Durham in this query? 
Nicholas Saunderson, a native of Tbnrlston, in 
Yorkshire, who was deprived not only of sight 

but of his eye-balls by small-pox when he was » 
year old, became so eminent as a mathematician 
that the University of Cambridge conferred on 
him the degree of M.A. by royal mandate, and he- 
was then chosen Lncasian Professor of Mathema- 
tics in November, 1711, which appointment he- 
held till his death in April, 1739. His life is in« 
most biographical dictionaries. 

W. E. Buckley. 

Nicholas Saunderson, bom not in Durham, but 
at Thurlstone, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 
was blind fsom within a year titer his birth- 
William Emerson, also an eminent mathematician, 
was bom at Hurwortb, in Durham ; but he wa» 
not blind. See Chalmers's Biog. Diet, 

R. R. Dies. 


The Family of Baylby, op Thorvby (6* S. 
viii. 389).— If your correspondent Fr. Baylby does 
not already know Agnew's FrmchProUttant Exiles^ 
he will find a clue at vol. iL p. 307. I believe the 
first refugee lived at Whittiesea, where there was 
a French Protestant Church before 1685 (Agnew,. 
vol. i. p. 10), and I have been told that both at 
Whittiesea and Thoraey there was for a time a 
considerable French colony. The original founder 
of the Whittlesea-Thomey family was,! believe, of 
good French patrician origin, and, as I have nnder^ 
stood, leaving France before the actual revocation' 
of the Edict of Nantes, he managed to come away^ 
with some means, and became a centie round 
which later on many of his friends and co-^ 
religionists collected. He had, as Agnew shows, 
two sons, (1) John, (2) Philip, from the younger* 
of whom Sir Emilius Bayley is descended. The 
registers at Whittiesea and Thorney, which are, I 
understand, well kept, will probably give your 
correspondent most of the iziformation which he 
desires. E. C. B. 

In answer to Fr. Bayley*s qpery with refer- 
ence to the descendants of Sir Emilius Bayley, I 
am one of the grandchildren of the late John 
Bayley, of Thorney, Cambridgeshire, and can, it 
wished, give the names and other narticulars of 
the three generations that have resided at Thomey,. 
many of them buried in Thoraey Abbey. 

C. Girdlestovb. 

2, Halloway PUce, Old London Road, Hastings. 

"John Inglesant" and Little QroDiNa 
Church (6"» S. vii. 341, 387, 457).— I do not 
know why Mr. Ellacombe says (at the latter 
reference) that the late Capt. Hughes, RN., was 
married to 'Uhe last of the Ferrar family." HU 
father, Edw. Hughes, married Rosetta Ferrar, the- 
only child of Capt. Hugh Ferrar and his wife Mary^ 
ni€ Ferrar, he having married a cousin. Mr. and 
Mrs. Hughes (Rosetta Ferrar) had four children^ 
two sons and two daughters, one of the former 

uigmzea oy VjjOOV Iv^ 




heiag the Capt. Hughes of your correspondent. 

One of the danghters married a Cheyne, and by 

him became the mother of the present well-known 

dipt. Cheyne, B.N. 

The Mary Ferrar who married her cousin Capt. 
Hogh Ferrar was bom 1739, her only brother 
(who lived to marry) being John Ferrar, great- 
f^ndsoD to John, and great-grand-nephew to 
Nicholas, of Little Gidding. This John Ferraris 
descendants are the present representatives of the 
funily at Huntingdon, with the same arms (Or, on 
a bend cotised sable three horseshoes of the field) 
and crest. If Mr. Ellacohbb is anxious on the 
subject I shall be happy to give him information. 
• Michael Ferrar. 
Fjnbtid, Ondb. 

Orthopedic (6* S. ix. 48).— In answer to Mr, 
Vtvtan's query, I think I am right in saying 
that the woni orthopcBdie was invented by Andry, 
who formed it from opdoi, straight, and irais, a 
child, in his work entitled VOrHwpidu; ou, VArt 
de prevenir tt de corrigir dans le$ Bnfantt Us 
DifformiiU du Corps U tout par des Moyens h la 
ForUe des Feres et des Mhres et des Fersonnes qui 
ont des EnfanU h Uevir. G. W. Burton. 

Lee Park, Bhuskheath. 

The derivation of this word is from op^os and 
xats. The correct spelling is, therefore, arthopasdic 
C. F. S. Warren, M.A. 

The Glastonbury Thorn (6** S. vi. 613; vii. 
217, 268; ix. 16).— The variety of Cratagns 
oxyaeanika known to cultivators of choice trees 
as pr€eeox of gardens has been very widely distri- 
bnted, and has a£fbrded entertainment to many 
observers. On the damp clay of my own arbore- 
tom at Hermitage, five miles north of London, it 
proved sufficienUy hardy to endure the assaults of a 
few hard winters between the years 1869 and 1878, 
being occasionally caught by frost when richly 
dothed with new leafage of the most tender tone 
of golden green, in the months of December and 
January. During the time of its occupation of 
Hermitage it produced its flowers at the season of 
CbriBtmas once only, and that occurred on old 
Christmas Day in the year 1877. The bloom was 
abundant, and was supported with an ample 
breadth of pale green leafage. An observer of the 
charscters of trees has no difficulty in identifying 
the true Glastonbury thorn by its leaves at any 
•eason. The leaves are of a lighter tone of green 
than those of the common whitethorn ; they are 
^^ much larger, and the stipules have a leaf-like 
ouncter. As a garden or shrubbery tree it is as 
pseful asany thorn, and its babit of growth renders 
It peculiarly interesting. When advantaged by 
wme amount of shelter, it will usually fin the 
oimate of London) produce new leaves in the 
*i of December and flowers in the month of 

February. A severe frost will put a stop to its^ 
precocious movements, and it may not recover its 
looks for a month or more ; but, so far as I have 
observed, the severest frost to which we are liable^ 
will not cause any permanent injury. 

As regards the.origin of this variety, the inquirer 
must give heed to a note in Loudon's Arhontumy 
vol. ii. p. 834:— 

"It is well known that the hawthorn groirt from 
stakes and truncheons ; one of the fineat trees in Scot- 
land, Tix., that at Fountain's Hall, having been originated 

in that manner The miracle of Joseph of Arimatbea* 

ia nothing compared with that of Mr. John Wallis, 

timber surveyor of Chelsea who exhibited to the 

Horticultural and Ltnusmn Societies, in 1834, a branch' 
of hawthorn, which, he said, had hung for several 
years in a hedge among other trees ; and. though without 
any root or eren touching the earth, had produced,- 
every year^ leaves, flowers, and fruit." 

It has been my good fortune to see this tree in 
what I consider a condition not less interesting 
than unique. On the same branches were the 
ripe berries and the dead leaves of the preceding 
year, and the new leaves and new flowers of the 
time. It carried the produce of two seasons, not 
in a few scraps, but in profusion ; the old brown- 
leaves and the new golden green leaves, the scarlet 
berries and the white flowers being mingled 
throughout. This interesting state of things was 
figured in the Gardeners^ Magazine of Dec. 21,. 
1878. Shirley Hibbbrd. 

In the Dorset County Chronicle for Jan. 17, 
1884, there is a long and interesting account of a* 
so-cidled holy thorn at Sutton Poyntz, near Wey- 
mouth, which is said to come into leaf and 
mysteriously blossom exactly at midnight on old 
Christmas Eve. The tree in question is in an- 
orchard belonging to Mr. Joseph Robert Keynes, 
and on Saturday, January 5, at least 250 persons 
repaired to the spot to witness the performance. 
Various lanterns revealed the positive fact that the 
tree, which had been in bud during the day, was 
now breaking into blossom, and, as time passed 
by, little boughs here and there fully blossomed, 
although not exactly at twelve o'clock. The crowd, 
who had paid twopence apiece gate-money, and 
were becoming impatient at being refused a single 
sprig, at last climbed up the fence and tore off' 
small boughs, until the master and his man were 
compelled to use their long sticks. Then a regular 
rush was made by some roughs, and the tree, 
after sad mutilation, was well-nigh destroyed. The 
writer, on paying a second visit at daybreak, found 
the tree still in foliage, but the blossom had en- 
tirely died away. According to Mr. Keynes's in* 
formation, only two persons have had to do with- 
the tree, viz., (1) his wife's grandfather, Nathaniel 
Brett, who planted it about seventy years ago, and 
(2) Stephen Gal pin, the parish clerk. The tree- 
was a cutting which came originally from the holy 
thorn at Glastonbury. Edward Malan. 

Digitized by 




t6'>» S. X. Feb. 2, '84, 

Ballet (6* S. viii. 468).— The following quota- 
tioD for the nse of thia word may probably interest 
your correspondent: — 

" Shee has told all : I shall be BallaUd, 
Sung up and downe by Minstrills 1 Gentlemen, 
Tho' my suceeese fell short of my intent, 
Let it meete faire construction.'* 

T. Heywood, A Challenge far Beavlie, 1616, 
p. 23, vol. v., ed. J. Pearaon, 1874. 

First Nuuberkd Houses in Lokdon (6* S. 
Tlii. 466).— If the houses of New Burlington Street, 
bailt in 1764, were the first to be numbered in 
London, the city of Lincoln anticipated the metro- 
polis by some years in adopting this very useful 
plan. A row of red-brick houses facing the west 
front of Lincoln Cathedral are still known as the 
*' Number Houses," from being the first thus dis- 
tinguished in the city. These houses were erected 
in 1748 by Precentor Trimnell, as part of his 
scheme for the improvement of the minster pre- 
cincts. Edmund Yenables. 

TnK Parnell Pedigree (e*** S. viii. 609). — The 
will of John Parnell, father of 0. S. Parnell, M.P., 
18 not without interest. It runs : ** This is the last 
will of me, John Parnell, of Avondale, Esq. I make 
no provision for my wife, she being amply provided 
for from other sources. I make no provision for 

my daughter who has grievously offended me.** 

After providing for four other daughters, he men- 
tions *' my second son Charles, to whom I leave 
my Avondale estate," other lands in county Wick- 
low, houses in Stephen's Green, Dublin, **and a 
small farm in Eildare." " I leave my eldest son, 
John Parnell, all my property in Colures, co. 
Armagh, with instructions that he should manage 
it himself and make the most of it." After pro- 
viding for his son Henry, he appoints his uncle, 
Sir Ralph Howard, and his dear friend Robt. 
Johnson, of Summer Lodge, Dunblane, N.B., 
joint trustees of his will and guardians of bis 
children, adding, '* I absolutely forbid any inter- 
ference on the part of my wife or any of her rela- 
tives with the management of my children or 
property. I make my son Charles heir-at-law to 
all intents and purposes." It is noteworthy that 
the testator ignored all the second Christian names 
of his sons, probably thinking little of the Tudor 
and Stuart lineage, and that he chose for his 
trustees an Englishman and a Scotchman. The 
will was dated June 30, 1859, and the testator 
died four days later, in the Shelbourne Hotel, in 
Stephen's Green, Dublin. Administration was 
granted to Sir Ralph Howard, of 17, Belgrave 
Square, London, baronet, curator, or guardian of 
the children. The personalty was sworn under 
8,000Z. In spite of the provisions of the will, hb 
widow, Mrs. Parnell, brought up the children. 
W. Maziere Bradt. 

Horn (6«» S. ix. 28).— *'Hyrne {{.),& hyme or 
corner, from horn, comu, a horn-shaped angle.- 
Nos. 1, 308, 408, 461'' (Eemble's Cod. Dip. ilL 
32). ^'Horn, German, a peak, e,g.f Matterhom^ 
Schreckhorn, Wetterhorn " (Taylor's Wordi and 
Places, p. 327). F. W. Weaver. 

Milton Vicarage, Evercreech, Batb. 

According to the Rev. Isaac Taylor's Words ancT 
Places, p. 327, ed. 1875, this word means a peak, 
and he instances Matterhorn, &c. M.AOxon. 

Horn, in imposition of place-names, sometimes 
means " a winding -stream." It may also corrupt 
from A.-S. cgm, im, which Lye renders, " Locus,, 
locus secretior, habitaculum, domus, casa." 

R. S. Charnock. 

Horn in Einghorn meant the king's quay or 
landing, by which route he travelled to the north 
of the Forth, now Kirkcaldy. Dreghorn was also 
a port or landing-place for vessels from all places 
west of Galloway. Now Irvine is the port. 

E. B. 

Percy (6*»» S. ix. 29).— The portrait of Alan 
Percy, dated 1549, representing him with a book in 
one hand and a glove in the other, is in the Guild- 
hall at Norwich. He was a benefactor to that 
city (Cooper's Athence Cantahrigienses, i. 206). 
J. In OLE Dredge. 

In Evans's Catalogve of British Portraits, vol. ii. 
s.a., p. 316, No. 20247, there is this notice : — 

"Percy, Alan, third son of Henry, fourth Earl of 
Northumberland; rector of St. Anne, Aldersgate, and' 
St. Mary-at-hill. London; Warden of Trinity College, 
Arundel ; great benefactor to the City of Norwich ; first 
master of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1516; died 
1560; 4to. 2f. 6d. W. C. Edwards (engraver)." 

The painter of the portrait from which the en- 
graving is taken is not mentioned. 

Ed. Marshall. 

Right to Quarter Rotal Arms (6* S. viii.. 
407, 523).— I cannot find that the Dukes of Marl- 
borough and Leeds have any right to quarter the- 
royal arms, and neither is given in the list of those 
peers entitled to do so in Burke's Peerage for 1884, 
p. cxxiv. From that list is omitted the name of" 
Lord de L'Isle and Dudley, now senior repre- 
sentative of the Manners family. 

Edmund M. Botlk. 

The Last Doge of Venice (6^ S. viii. 407, 525V 
— As Strix can hardly be said to have obtained 
a satisfactory reply to her query, I venture to 
offer the loan of a small sheet of photographs of 
the Doges, from Alvise Mocenigo (1570) to Lodo- 
vico Manin (1797), copied from the pictures in the 
Ducal palace, and bought in Venice years ago. 
It may bring about the identification of the festival- 
giving gentleman, who, however, can hardly have 
been the last doge, as the costumes are described. 

uigiiizea oy 





ta serenteenth century. The pbotographs, though 
fmall, are tolerably clear, and each doge is accom- 
panied by a miniature coat of arms. 

51, Lencuter Gate, W. 

Skblldm (6** S. vii. 413; viii. 357, 376).— The 
folloiriog quotation may prove of iAterest, as the 
word is put into the mouth of a Dutchman:— 

** Vandal. le nl seg you. yader, ie came here to your 
hais, and sprsak tol He doeliterkin. 

" Friaeo. Master Mendall, you are welcome oat of the 
baiket. I smell a rat : it was not for nothing that you 
iof t me. 
" Vandal. tiellumf you run away from me." 

Kngliikmei^ for My Money; or, a Woman will 
Havener Will, 1616 (toI. x. p. 547, Dodsley's 
0. E, Playi, ed. Hazlitt). 



Hecords of th$ English Province of th* Society of Jesus, 
By Heiirj Foley. 8. J. Vol. VI f., Part U. Collec 
tanea completed with Appendicet, Catalogues of 
Assumed aiod of Real Names, Annual Letters, Bio- 
jcnpliies and Miscellanea. (Bums & Oatei*. ) 
With the pnMication of vol. fii. Mr, Foley brings to a 
close his arduous undertaking. When it is told that the 
last Tolumo of his colossal work contains considerably 
over eighteen hundred pa^es. some idea of the ntture of 
a task whicla has been accomplished in ei^ht years of 
indefatigable labour may be furoied. In the annals of 
study no record can be found of labour more scTere, more 
sustained, and, it may be added, more remunerative. A 
mass of inrnrmation carefully guarded, and to many 
students inaccessible, has been brought within reach of 
ibe scholar. To the ecclesiastical historian Mr. Foley's 
work most directly appeals. It is likely to prore in> 
Talnable, howerer, to all concerned in genealogical pur- 
suits and the byways generally of history. Two autho- 
rities, which have come but recently within Mr. Foley's 
reach, haye enabled him to complete the second appen- 
dix to the "Collectanea." First of these is a MS. 
entitled " Catalogus Primorom Patrum et Fratrum 8oc. 
Jes. ex Anglia, collectis ex rariis Libris et Catalogis 
M& in ArchiT. Roni..'v&c. This authentic and valuable 
document contains brief accounts of nearly one hundred 
and twenty Bn^lish members of the Society of Jesus 
from 1556 to 1590, many of them hitherto unknown. 
Among these is found a remarkable person, John 
Ca«tell. bom at Bodmin about 1546. He had been 
M.P. in 1571, was a student in the Middle Temple, an 
excellent Bnglidh poet, and well versed in Greek, Latin, 
and philoeophy. He was a voluntary exile for his 
religion, for which he had likewise suffered torture upon 
the rack and chains. He died in Portugal in 1580, six 
years after entering the Society. 

A second and only less valuable source of information 
eonvsts of a copy of the register of the Eni^lish College 
oC the Society of Jesus, St. Alban's, Valladolid. From 
this are derived the names of many early Eni^liiih Jesuits 
which do not figure in the Enirlish Province catalogues. 

The biographical notices of members of the Eniflisli 
Province are carried down to a very recent period. 
The annual letters, ranging from the year 1601 to 
1615, give a store of information on curious^ details and 

statistics gathered from original M3S. in the archivee 
of the Society of Jesus in Rome, and from facts and data 
communicated by the missionary priests of the Sooietj 
then working in England. These, again, are supple- 
mented to a much more recent date by the annals 
of the English Jesuit colleges in Belgium. St. Omer, 
Liege, and Ghent, and of the Novitiate at Watten, than 
which no information could be more particular, mora 
domestic, or more trustworthy. Such varied subjects 
are treated of as the numbers of the students, their 
scholastic exercises, their recreations and representa- 
tions of religious drama, and the relationships in whioh 
the alumni stood to their masters and prefects. Even 
the daily life of the novices is naturally unfolded in the 
historical notices of Watten. 

One very marked feature of the addenda is a memoir, 
from the pen of Father Stevenson, of William Elphinston, 
a novice of the Society and member of the well-known 
Scotch family, which, besides its own title of nobili^, 
claimed relationship with the Bishop Biphinston still 
held in honour by the University of Aberdeen as the 
founder of King's College. 

Interesting information is given relative to the Vatican 
College of Penitentiaries, consisting in 1670 of one car- 
dinal and eleven priests, appointed to heur confessions 
in the various foreign languuires. It was enlarged, and 
a body of twelve Jesuit fathers, under a rector, was 
assigned by Pius V. to the Vatican Basilica for hearing 
confessions in all the known European languages, with 
some others. 

A unique addition to this volume is the alphabetical 
catalogue of real names anl aliases, never, we believe, 
attempted before. It furnishes the student of that 
period of history a new means of identifying names and 
persons, and of clearins? up many confused points, and is 
given in distinct lists of true and adopted names in con- 
venient juxtaposition, with references to the lives of each 
member. Evidence to rebut the charge that the Society 
has been always anxious to involve its history in mystery 
is thus supplied. 

A chronological catalogue of the Irish Province of the 
Society of Jesus from the earliest tim)s forms a final 
and valuable appendix by itself. Mr. Foley's alpha- 
betical index of seventy p^ges is a model of dry, 
persevering labour. Would that all books of reference 
were equally well provided I 

The Life and Adventures of Peter Wilhins. By Robert 
Paltock, of Clement's Inn. With a Preface by A. H, 
Bullen. 2 vols. (Beeves k Turner.) 
Mr. a. H. Bullkk is one of our youngest editors ; he is 
also one of the besL In addition to the industry and 
accuracy which are indispensable to an editor, he has 
keen poetical appreciation and insight, and a j^atr which 
always leads him right. The works he has given to the 
world are already dear to scholars. To these lie hiis now 
added a reprint of The Adventures of Peter WUiins, 
Without being an absolute rarity, since between the 
appearance of the first edition in 1750 nnd that of a 
mutilated version in 1844 half a doxen different editions 
saw the light, Peter Wilkins is far fr^m common, and 
the appearance of a copy in a catalogue always provokes 
competition. Of the minor works to which the success 
of Jiobinson Crusoe gave rise, Peter WUkins is the best. 
It is a favourite with all readers of taste, and has been, 
as Mr. Bullen states in his short preface, translated into 
French and German. Coleridge speaks of it, according 
to report, as " a work of uncommon be*uty," Charles 
Lamb describes it as among the clasiics of his boyish 
days, and Leigh Himt waxes eloquent in its prai-ie. 
Such evidence in its favour is, of course, accepttble, but 
the book speaki for itself. It is no)V brottght within 

uigmzea oy ■ 




[aih S. IX. Feb. 2, 'M. 

tbe reach of all readers in an edition that is a model 
•of taste and beauty. The book is not a facsimile, for 
paper and type such as are now employed were not com- 
mon in 1750. It reproduces faith fullyj however, the 
title-pages, the tezt« and the quaint and delightful illus- 
trations. What is more to the point, it is unmatilated. 
l¥ith commendable courage, Mr. Bullen declines to cut 
out the marriage scenes between Wilkins and the fair 
Youwarkee. A man who would cut out these would 
excise the ccenes of a like nature from Paradite Lost, 
One is scarcely purer thnn the other. Editor and pub- 
lisher have conferred a boon on letters in reprinting in 
such a form this delightful book, the first volume of 
which is among the most fanciful and attractive in the 

The Vicar of WaiefieUL By Oliver Goldsmith. With 
Preface and Notes by Austin Dobson. (Kegan Paul 
l^svER, surely, was a classic more fitted than the Vicar 
of WakejUld to appear in the " Parchment Series " of 
Messrs. Kegan Paul k Co., and never was an editor more 
in sympathy with his work than Mr. Austin Dobeon. 
A book the hold of which on mankind has not relaxed, 
and will not soon relax, appears now in the most fitting 
ehape it has yet received. Mr. Dobson's preface and 
notes, meanwhile, form a charmingly discursive and read- 
able comment. 

In the Third Series of Ramlles hy the RtbhU (Preston, 
Pobson; London, Simpkin & Marahall) Mr. William 
Dobson tells us of Hoghton Tower and its royal visitor, 
James I. ; of Hothersall and its " boggart "; and of Sam- 
lesbury, where the original site of the church was tradi- 
• tionally altered by " goblin builders," who objected, and 
removed the stones during the night, while the village 
was subsequently famous for witches, who " did take her 
eenses and money " from a girl, temp. Jac. 1. 1 Among 
other points of interest to our readers, we may mention 
that Mr. Dobson gives a good deal of information about 
various branches of the ancient Lancashire family of 
Winckley of Winckley, concerning whom we gave a 
** Notice to Correspondents," 5^^ S. xii. 420. embracing 
details of the family, Ump. Edw. I. to 1664-5. There is 
matter for the botanist and the stadent of folk-lore, as 
well as for the antiquary and genealogist, in Mr. Dob- 
eon's new and pleasant Rambles hy the Ribble, 

The Library Jownal, Vol. VIII., Nos. 9 and 10 (New 
York, F. Leypoldt), contains a full and interesting report 
of the Buffalo Conference of the American Library A»bo- 
elation. It is difficult to select out of so large a mass of 
valuable matter, but we may note that Mr. Gutter presents 
us with a new " Arrangement of the Parts of the United 
States in an Historical andOeographical System of Classi- 
fication." Mr. Cutter's arrangement is a modification 
of that suggested by Mr. Gannett, " Geografer " of the 
United States Census Office, and whereas Mr. Gannett 
divided the United States into three groups by means of 
three perpendicular lines or bands, Mr. Cutter sub- 
divides into six groaps, and assigns numbers and letters 
to the eereral States and Territories and their principal 
towns, the letter being that of their initial. Thus 
Mr. Cutter would represent New York State by No. 67, 
Buffalo by 67 B 8, where 67=State of New York, BMhitial 
letter of Bufi^tlo, 8 a distinguishing mark from other 
towns in the same state having the same initial, such 
as Brooklyn, which appears as 67 B 7. The report on 
"Libraries and Schools,*' by Mr. Samuel S. Green, 
of Worcester, Mass., contains many interesting details 
of the way in which American public libraries aid the 
xause of education. The extracts from diaries kept by 
'apprentices "of the Normal School, who are pupils 

learning to be teachers, are sometimes amudng, from 
the naivete of the entries. We cannot siy th*it we are 
believers in the keeping of diaries, least of all in the 
obligation to keep them. But we like the touch of 
nature in such an entry as the following : — " A flower 
was brought to-day to illustrate the poem the pupils are 
learning, ' Jack in the Pulpit.' All examined it, er said 
they did; the boys were most curious." We need scarcely 
say that the italics are ours. The great question of 
** Fiction in Public Libraries " was again to the fore, as 
was idso the Itill greater question of the "A. L. A. 
Catalog " of the future, which we hope to live to see 
on our table. The decision of the place of meeting for 
1884 seems to hover between Toronto, St. Louis, and 
New Haven, a tolerably wide area for choice, as to which 
we will not infringe upon the privileges of the executive 
committee by any suggestions of our own. 

Wb have received vol. xix. of the SL Bartholomew's 
Hospital Reports, being the volume for the year 1883. 
In addition to several valuable papers and interestin^f 
notes of cases from hospital practice, it contains a short 
memoir of James Shuter, late assistant-surgeon to the 

The new number of the Church Quarterly contains a 
readable and suggesUre essay, by the Rev. A. Smythe 
Palmer, on tbe miracle at Beth-horon, a philological 
argument for a new interpretation of the sun standing 
still, Joshua x. 

" Legends of the STVAOoauE,*' 'm All the Tear Round, 
supplies some curious information of interest to many 
readers of " N. & Q."— " Two Minor Characters : Peter 
and the Apothecary," which appears in the CornhiU 
Magazine, is a striking piece of Shakspearian criticism. 

Mr. R. L. Stevenson contributes to the English 
Illustrated Magazine some whimsical fancies on " Tlie 
Character of Dog*,** which are no less whimsically illus- 
trated by Mr. R. Caldecott. 

The February number of Mr. Walford's Antiouartan 
Magazine contains the first of a series of ** GJeaninge 
from the past History of our Public Schools," entitled 
'* Shooting for the Silver Arrow at Harrow." The next 
will treat of" Eton Montem." 

fioXitti ta CorrrirponttcnU. 

We must call special attention to the following noUcegr 
On all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 
We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

C. H. H. (" Pi incipiis obsta/' &c.).-TThe lines are in 
Grid, De Rem, Am,, I 91-2. See " N. & Q.," anU, p. 76. 

H. ("Church Registers ").— Very many church re- 
gisters have been -published. The whole question has 
been amply discussed. See "N. & Q ," 6^ S., vols, v., vi., 
and viii. 

Bernard Beno$t.— We have a letter for you. Pleaee 
send full address. 

Erratum.— P. 61, col. 2, 1. 24, for "Hagley" read 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to '* TIi» 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries ' "—Advertisemento and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "--at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exoeption. 

uigmzea oy 


^ 3. IX. Feb 2 '84 ] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

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O I. LOW AY'S PILLS.— "Let good diges- 

U^oQ attend on appetite."— Hoi lowayli PiUi are univereally 


aoknovledged to be the safest Bpeedfeat, and beat oorreeUre for In^ 
cigcation ; l08« of appetite, aoidity, flatuicnoy. and naua^ are a few of 
the inoonvenlenoes which are rrmedJcd with ease by theee purl/Tinir 
Pi 111. Thej itrike at tbe root of alt abdominal ailments ; ther ««. 
oit« in the ■tomaeh a proper accretion of gastric jaioe. and ngnUte 
tbe action of the lirer. promoting In that organ a eoptona supply off 
pura wholesome bile, so necessary for dlgCMtlon. These PfUc remove 
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tbey expel imporiticf, gtrengthen tbe irttan, and giT6 moivnlw loa«; 

uigmzea oy '%^jv>'v^ 


9tS.IX.Fm. 9/84] 




CONTENTS.— N» 215. 
NOTES :~8omexset PUwe-Name^^lOl— CoriosltlM of Saper- 
lUtion In Ital7, 103— Letter of Heniy, E&rl of Amodel. 104 
—Error of Date in Howell's " Letters"— Idnei on a 8tatne-< 
Distressed, 106— AUiteraUon in 1687— Second Centenary of 
Liberation of Vienna— " Mains nbi bonmn/' &c.— North- 
amptoDsltue Saying— Biography of Lord Lytton, 106. 

QUSSnSS:— Battle of Sedgemoor— Nostradamus— BeUgions 
Delnsloii— 7. Bnusa— P. or F. Ford— Couqtess Family— 
Kaseoll of Plnmsted— Flemish Brasses— Abraham Smith, 
107— "Boast-beef "—Boyal Surname— Ogier le Danois— 
SUver Medai— Allnsions in Webster — English Exiles in 
HollaDd— Marriage Cnstom— <k>ck Boad— Song Wanted, 106 
—"British Soldier's Graye"— Owen Family— Montenegro— 
"Open Weather*— Bine-devils — Thomas Leyer— Thomas 
Falxf az— BosrUe and Qreenhalgh- Authors Wanted, 100. 

JUIFLIB8:—AldlBe Anchor, 109— Elecampane, 111— Oriental 
Seal— Heraldic, 112— Amlcbalcnm— Have— Heraldic Shield 
— ParaUel Passages, 118— Price of Cranmer's Bibles—" Com- 
parisons are odions"— " Paradlri in Sole "—French Proverb 
—New Words— Tnrtle^ lU— English Hunting Custom— 
Luther FamUr— Coleridge at Clevedon, 116— Bowling- 
Hanging in Cuains— Erratum in Jer. Taylor^-Jer. Taylor's 
"Holy Dying" — Peter Jackson: PhiUp Jackson, 116— 
Sir F. Bomham — Boyal Quarterings — Joly— James and 
Charles Adams— Impropriations— Inscription on Cleopatra's 
Needle— English^ Burial-grounds, 117— Sir Henry Hayes— 

of Bichard of CIrenoester— Marrow— Binding at 
- "'Walter Manny, Ua 

Llttta Gi 

NOTES ON BOOKS:— Oomme's "Gentleman's Magaiine 
Library"- Ashton's "Humour, Wit, and Satire of the 
Seventeenth Century"—" History of the Year." 

NoUoes to CoiTCspondenti, fto. 



{CoiUinuedfrcm p, 44.) 

The names in parentheses are the old forms of 
ihe n&mes of the parishes, taken from Eyton's 
Domesday Studies and from CoUinson's Somenet 

Authorities quoted. — Taylor's Words and Places, 
T. Edmunds's Names of Places, E. Bosworth's 
Anglo-Saxon Did., B. Skeat's Elynu Diet., S. 
List of A.-S. root-words in toI. iiL of Kemble's 
Cm2» Dip, j^lvi Saxonici, and also the list of 
place-names in vol. yi., K. 

Qo&ntoxhead (Cantocheheva ; Cantnctiin, K., 
314). — ^I think the first syllable is Celtic cmn, Ir. 
ceann^ a head, and the meaniog of this having 
been forgotten, the syllable head was added. Cf. 
Wan8be<S[water, Moantbenjerlaw, T., p. 141. 
What is the middle syllable, tue f Either (1) the 
Celtic termination tach (see Joyce, ii. 8), or (2) 
tore (tark)« a wild boar. '^Kantark in Cork is 
written by the Foar Masters Ceann-tuirc, the 
head or hill of the boar" (Joyce, L 479). This is 
probably ihe meaning of Tarkdean (Qlos.). 

Baddington(Badingetnn2i)« — '' BsediDgas : Had- 
dington (Soms.), Beading (Berks), Beading- street 
(Kent)" (Kemble's S. K, L 471). 

Badstock (Estoca).— "The first tillable is pro- 
bably the same as the first syllable in Bo&dingae. 

''A stoke is a place s^ocA;aded, surrounded with 
stocks or piles, like a New Zealand ;)a^"(T., p. 80). 
When we find two contiguous places such as Chaid 
and Chardstock, it is probable that one is a colony 
from the other ; the colony would probably call 
the original settlement the stock. 

Eimpton (Biutona ; Bimtuu, E., 628).—'' Bima 
(m.), No. 550, be wuduriman. The rim, edge or 
end " (E., iii. xxxv). Or if it be from a personal 
Dame, then from Bimmingas ; Bimmington (York) 
(K, 8. B., I 471). 

1. Boad (Boda) ; 2. Bode Huish (Badehewis) ; 
3. Bodden (Beddena).— " i?(^(2, a road; sealtrod, 
No. 663 ; fdga r6d. No. 556. This is for rddfrom 
ridar^ " (E., iii. xxxvi). BAd, (1) a riding, being 
on horseback, &c.; (2) that on which one travels, a 
road, B. 

Bodney Stoke. — For the Bodney family see 
Collinson's Somerset, iii 604; Visitation of 
Somerstt, p. 132. 

1. Bowbarton ; 2. Bowberrow. — From nlA, 
rough, rugged. Bow-byrig, now Bowberrow 
(Som.), the camp on the uncultivated land. Cf. 
Bough-ham (Norf.), E., p. 275. When row occurs 
at the end of a word, it is from rcewe. a row, aa 
hadselree'we, hsegrs^we, &c. (E., iii. xxxv). 

Buishton. — *' JRisc, a rush ; the marshy ground 
where rushes grow. Wenrisc, Nos. 137, 556 "(E., 
iii. xxxv). Also Busce, probably soft, rushy ground 
(xxxvi). Hence the surname Bisk (E.^ p. 276). 
But Bushope (Heref.), formerly Bui8cope=Bna'A 
hill-top {cop) ; see E., p. 276. 

Bunnington (Bunetona). — "Buningas: Bun 
nington (Som.)" (K., 8. E., L 472). "E. rune, 
counsel, the town of counsel "(E., p. 276). 

Saltford (Sanfori). — " A site near the sea or on a 
river where its waters are salt " (E , p. 277). This 
place is on the Avon between Bath and Bristol, 
but not near enough to the sea for the water to be 
salt. If the Domesday form is right, Sandford 
would be the proper explanation. 

1. Sampford Arundel (Sanfort); 2. Sampford 
Brett (Sanforda) ; 3. Sandford Orcas (Sanford). 
— From a sandy soil (E., p. 277). 

1. For the Arundel family see Marshall's Geneor 
logisfs Guide, 

2. For the Brett family see Collinson^ iii. 543. 

3. Orchard only occurs in Wilts^ Som., and 
Dorset (E., p. 259> 

1. Seaborough (Seueberga) ; 2. Seavington St^ 
Michael (Seuenametona) ; 3. Seavington St. Mary 
(Suenehamtun). — Probably from Sebba, the 
owner's name (E., p. 280). Cf. Sevincote (Glos.)) 
Sevington (Eent., " Seafingas : Seavington (Som.) " 
(K, S E., I 472). 

Sel worthy (Seleurda). — From seel, good. SceU 
wong, a fertile field or plain^ B. For worthy (fr. 
weor^ig) see E., p. 131. 

1. Shapwick (Sapseswica) ; 2. Shepton Beau- 
champ (Sceptona) ; 3. Shepton Mallet (Sepetona) jj 

imzea oy x^jk^v^-; 




4. Shepton Montague ; 5. Shipham (Sipebam).— 
The first syllable in all tbese names is kom A.-S. 
scedp, a sbeep. 

2. For Beaucbamp see Marshall's OeMtU. Guide, 

3. Mallet, CoUinson^i. 32, 90; iii. 496. 

4. Montagae or Montacate, Vuitation of 
Somerset, p. 151. 

Skilgate (Schilegate).— This may be from A.-S. 
iefild, a shield ; ex. scpldburh, a shield, fence, or 
coyering ; sePldweall, a wall or defence of shields, 
£. Cf. Skillington, T., p. 98 ; from Scyllingas, 
K, iS. R, i. 473. " The hero Scyld, the godlike 
progenitor of the Scyldingas, the royal race of 
Denmark'' (E., 8, E., i. 413). 

Sock Dennis (Socca, Soche). — 

** Sochorun (Dor.) tnd SocAege, now Buckley (Wore), 
preserye in the root-word the memory of another Old 
EDglieh tej&ure. The toe-men were freemen and tenants, 
but were privileged, t.e. they were exempt from the 
jurisdiction of all courts but that of the district included 
m the loc"— B., p. 127. 

See also T., p. 199. For the Dennys or Denys 
family see Marshall's Oenealogisfs Guide, 

Somerton (Snmmertone). — This has already been 
explained under Midsomer Norton (6*^ B. yiii. 
462). Somerton Early, near Somerton, is bo named 
from the Erlegh family. 

Sparkford (Spercheford).— This is the ''ford of 
tbe sparrow-hawk." Bosworth has ipear-hafoc, 
sper-hafoCf a sparhawk or sparrowhawk. See also 
Bardsley's English Sumanuty p. 493 : — 

" ' Sparrowhawk ' or ' sparke/ as it is now more gener- 
ally spelt. So early as Cnaucer, however, this last was 
written ' spar-hawk/ and that once gained, the further 
contraction in our nomenclature became ineTitable." 

Spaxton (Espachestona). — A.-S. spde, speech : 
speech-town, town where meetings were held, E., 
p. 286. 

1. Stanton Drew (Estantona); 2. Stanton Prior 
(Stantona). — Stone-town, sometimes a boundary 
stone, E., p. 288. 

1. For the Drew family see Marshall's Genealo- 
gists Guide, 

•'Stanton Drew — 'A mile from Pensford, another 
from Cheif '—like Littleton Drew, co. Wilts, deriyed its 
name from the family of Drew, owners of the manor 
temp. Ed. III."— Murray, p. 386. 

2. The Abbot of Bath was the Domesday 
'* tenant in capite.'' 

1. Staple Fitzpain (Staple); 2. Staplegrore. — 
A.-S. stapol, a prop, a stake : the site of a market 
fixed by law, E., p. 288. See also T., pp. 254, 
334. Grdff a grove ; see K., iii. xxvL For Fitz- 
pain see Marshall's Genealogist's Guide. 

Stawley (Staweia, Stawei). — Stow, a form of 
stoke, E., p. 289. Cf. Morwenstow (Cornwall). 
" Stow, a place, cotstow, No. 678 ; hegtiow, No. 
570 "(K., iii. xxxviii). 

1. Stockland Bristol (E8tochelanda)> C. Stock- 
lioch Magdalen; 3. Stocklinch^Octersay ; 4. 
^togumber (Wayerdinestoc); 5, Rok« St. Michael 

(Stoca); 6. Stoke Courcy or Stog;nr86y (Stoche); 
7. Stoke-sub-Hamdon ; 8. Stoke Plro ; 9. Stoke 
St. Gregory. — Stock (from stick), a post, &o., E. 
The sense is a thing stuck or fixed^ S. 

" Stock and ttoke : when a prefix, indicating the chief 
town of a district ; when a suffix, usually pointing out 
a town founded by the person whose name precedes it. 
Ex., Stock-ton, eight places; Orey- stoke (Gumb.), 
Grey's stolce. Where the Saxon town became the seat 
of a Norman lord, his name is usually appended, thus — 
Stoke Say (Salop), Stoke D'Abemon /Surrey), Stoke 
Courcy, now Stogursey (Som.)» &c. Stock occurs as 
a prefix in tirenty-four places ; Stoke as a prefix in 
sixty-five places."— E., p. 289. 

1. "Stockland was surnamed Gaunts alias 
Bristol. It was part of the Piiganel barony: given 
by one of the barons known as Le Gaunt (i.6. of 
Ghent) to endow a hospital in Bristol. At the 
Dissolution the lands were transferred to the cor- 
poration of Bristol, in whom they remained till 
sold under the Municipal Keform Act, drea 1838 " 
(Bp. Hobhouse). 

2. 3. " Elinc, a liok, a rising ground. Junius 
is right in his Etymologicon when he says, 'agger 
limitanens, paroechias etc dlTidens'" (K.,iii.xxxi). 

3. Ottersay = otter island. 

4. Anciently Stoke-Gomer, Murray, p. 405. 

6. Courcy, see Marshall's Genealogisfs Guide, 

7. Stoke under Ham Hill. 

8. " The surname is from the Piro family, Nor> 
mans who came in the train of the Mohuns, and 
held Stoke, inter cUia, of the Honor of Dunster" 
(Bp. Hobhouse). F. W. Weaver. 

Milton Vicarage, Evercreech, Bath. 
{To be cofiiinwd.) 

HuntspU (6*»» S. Tiii. 403 ; ii. 44). — In Glou- 
cestershire names pill signifies "the mouth of 
a brook," as in Cow Pill, Horse Pill, Oldbury PilL 
Cf. Arch(Bologia, vol. xxix. p. 10. 

B. S. Charnock. 

Norimi Malreward (ante, p. 43). — I sbull 
be much obliged if Mr. Weaver will tell 
me whether there is any other explanation of 
the name Norton Malreward than that which 
occurs in the legend of the founding of the city of 
Bath. In it the old swineherd, who had been 
Prince Bladud's master during the time of his 
exile from bis fathez^i (King Lud Hudibras*) court 
on account of leprosy, was so angered at what he 
considered the paltry recompense he received, that, 
like Hiram, King of Tyre, he gave the phice an ill 
name for ever. 

I may also by anticipation ask for informa- 
tion as to the probable reason for the name 
of Kingston being giyen to a small village near 
Ilminster. I know of no tradition connecting it 
with the hallowing or crowning of any king. As 
I am collecting materiab for Legends and Tales of 
Somerset and its People, I shall be much obliged 
for anv assistance. Chablottb G, Booku 

St. MTioor's, Sottthwark. 

uigmzed by VjOOQ IC 

^ a IX. Fib. 9/81] 



{ConHnuedfrom p. 22.) 

Taitetotti sapplies a ([ood story, which farther 
lUostttttM the Tiew preyioxuly expressed. He is 
sadly wanting in order and snaring of dates, and 
this date I eannot exactly sapply, bat the aathority 
is an early eooleeiastioal writer.* A certain old 
wench (vetula) went to her priest and yannted a 
sernoe she had rendered him in the night by 
means of her familiarity with the spirits. " How 
did yon get into my room, seeing the door was 
bekedl' inqoired the priest. ^'Oh, for that 
matter, passing throagh closed doors is one of oar 
easiast feats,** she replied. Without answering 
her mother word, the priest beckoned her within 
the lailf , and, haying dosed the gate, belabonred 
her with the stem of the cracifix, saying the while, 
"Qet thee oat of this, my lady sorceress!" When, 
at kst^ die had to confess she ooald not pass the 
doeed gate,^ he let her oat, saying, ** Ton see now 
how nSjjia are in belieying these foolish dreams." 
He dearly treated it as foolish imposition, not as 
a crime committed* The language of the celebrated 
Benedietine Gratian, in the twelfth century, is 
quite in conformity with that abeady cited. So 
IS that of Astesano d'Asti, Angelo di Ohiyasso, 
8. Antonino^ and Gioyanni Mansionario, a Vero- 
nese writer of the fourteenth century, who quotes 
S. John Ohrys., S. Jerome, S. Ambrose, Pope 
S. Leo, &a, to the same effect. 

To sum up, the mediseyal idea concemiug witch- 
craft would seem to haye been that it was partly a 

and partly a foUy to be deplored and 
reprobated. It was much later that it came to be 
magnified into a crime; and it was under this 
later treatment that it attained its greatest im- 
portaoee. Iliough Holy Writ and the Church, 
writes Pkof. Aberie, under the head of *^ Zauberei," 
hare both fbrbidden the use of magical arts under- 
taken with the yiew of procuring Satanic agency, 
ndther baa eyer pronounced whether such agency 
ezbta. There is nothing in the Biblical account 
of the E^Tptian magicians or of the Witch of 
Endor wmch does more than record the fact that 
sudi agency was belieyed in by certain persons at 
a esctain time ; it in no way endorses the belief. 
And in like manner, though many theologians 
of the period between the fifteenth and eighteenth 
eentoxua diow by their writings that they mani- 
Astly bdieyed that such agency could be induced 
bj ^uman action, the Church has neyer authori- 
latiyely and in plain terms said that it was so. 
The reaaon of this is simply that the question is 
ene of thoee which reyebU^ion passes oyer, as 

* Namely, Vineentiu Belnaceosis (Vincent of Beau- 
JtM), aboat 1220. 

^ A stOff7 of a chancel gate lo high that the woman 
M not attempt to ^t o?er it has rather a northern 

necessary to salyation. On the 
I, the proneness to faith of the period 

not beinj 
other han( , 

detignated medioiyal did certainly manifest' itself 
in the handing on by the people of the traditional 
superstitions of the earlier religions, and in the gene- 
ration of new superstitions, wMch had nearly super- 
seded the others. But they again receiyed a fresh 
and immeasurably increased expansion under the 
new influences of the Benaissance. In an age in 
which the tendency is in the opposite direo- 
tion it seems incomprehensible that such ideas 
should eyer haye entered men's mmds. They did, 
howeyer, obtain and expand to a formidable extent, 
and were so outrageous and degrading in their 
deydopment that it is scarcely astomsmng if the 
most deplorable seyerity was resorted to in coping 
with them, eyen though it subsequently appeared 
that their discredit was better attained when that 
seyerity was relaxed. 

It will not, I think, be found uninteresting to 
briefly note some of the more curious instanoes 
that fall under one or other of three heads. 

1. Of the first, those deriyed from the earlier 
religions, I haye already been led to speak, and 
shaU haye to speak again under the third head. 

2. The second seem to haye arisen for the most 
part out of a too literal and material application ot 
the promises of the Bible. God, it was said, giyes 
good gifts to those who ask Him ; therefore simple 
minds seem to haye thoaght it followed that 
whateyer they asked for they must, of neoessity, 
receiye ; and farther, that such immediate results 
actually did habitually occur. The approbation 
expressed by the inspired writers of those who lead 
a good life was expected to display itself in the 
ready reward of temporal good lack. Many stories 
I collected in Rome itself, such as those under the 
head of " Quando Gesii Cristo giraya la Terra," 
those entitled '* Cento per Uno,'' << II Mercante e il 
Mago," &c., are tiie produce of this spirit. On the 
principle of ^'a bird in hand," the one allusion 
to '^ an hundredfold in this life^ attracted more 
attenticm than whole chapters pointing to the 
maxim that tiie treasure of the Christian is to 
be in heayen. Certain sacraments and ordinances 
are appointed by the Church as means of gracr, 
and ue people argued that if certain great spiritual 
benefiks resulted from their general adoption, more 
particular fayours ought to follow from their more 
minute obseryance, and also from a friyolous and 
undue application of them. These fancies became 
so multipued that one collection, made by Jean 
Baptists Thiers, Doctor of the Sorbonne, in 1703,o 
of those expressly condemned as superstitious, fiUs 
fiye thick and closdy printed yolumes, to whioh I 
refer the reader.*^ 

« ITraiU dti SuperttitioTU qui regardent Us SaeremenSf 
Parte. 1704. . ^ . 

^ Dr Thten; however, is so matter of fact that he is 
personally inclined tp reckon in his category of super- 

f ^ uigiiizea Dy x-j Vv'V-z'i Lv 




I haye mid Bapenrtitions of this daas arose, 
for the most part, from attaohinj; too material an 
interpretation to the promises of Holy Writ ; bat 
there were others, again, which would seem to 
have been nothing bat Uie expansion of an un- 
reasoning devotion — a luxuriant oyergrowth of 
parasitical observances in the soil of undisciplined 
minds, but without any selfish arri^re petuie. Of 
such I will only detain the reader with two in- 
stanoes, an early and a late one, both implying a 
siogolar amount of infatuation. 

(1.) Amid the picturesque acts of symbolism 
by means of which the early Ohurch sought 
to bring home to the minds of the people the 
story of the Redemption, and without wMch the 

stitions the so-CAlled marriage of the Doge of Venice 
with the Adriatic. As the Church has not con- 
demned it, neither does he condemn it; but he is at 
great pains to explain that it is to be regarded only in 
the light of a purely ciTtl ceremony, and that it would 
be better if it were not called a marriage. Some passages 
of his interesting account of the function will not be out 
of place here. It was instituted, he tells us, in memory 
of the nayal victory gained by the Doge Sebastian Ziani 
OTer Otho, son of rrederic BarbaroEsa, and the sove- 
reignty OTer the sea which Alexander III., driven to 
take refuge in Venice, is said to have conferred upon 
him. He quotes Del Rio, DuquitU. Magic., c. ii. q. ri. 
§ 3 ; Sabellius, Dtcad., i. 1. 7; and Villamont, Peregrinat. 
Sacra, c. xxxiv. d. 3. ** The Signoria leaves the palace 
amid a countless throng of Venetians and foreign visitors 
to ascend the Bucentaur, a superb barque, long^er than a 
galley and as high as a vessel, without mast or sail. Tbe 
rowers' seats are below the deck, on which is raised a 
splendid canopy of joiner's work, all gilt inside, &c. The 
Doge has his seat in the centre, with the Nuncio and the 
Ambassador of France on his right and left, with the 
Councillors of the Signoria and other chief authorities all 
in due order. The Bucentaur is resplendent with gilding 
and hung with crimson damask fringed with gold ; the 
great banner of St. Mark and the standard proper to the 
ceremony floating on high, the trumpets and hautboys 
shining on the prow, the mi^esty of the Senate, habited 
in purple, and the great number of other ofScial persons 
and foreigners, render it one of the finest sights that can 
be met anvwhere. The majestic craft, surrounded by 
innumerable galleys, galiots, peots [Dalmatian coasting 
vessels], and gondolas, starts at the signal of the cannon. 
So soon as the Bucentaur reaches the mouth of the sea, 
the musicians sing certain motets. The Patriarch of 
Venice, who follows in a barque of his own, blesses the 
sea; then the Bucentaur presents its poop towards him, 
and the back of the Doge's chair of state is lowered ; 
the master of the ceremonies presents the Doge with 
a plain gold ring, equal in weight to two and a half 
pistoles; this the Doge takes and throws into the sea, 
flinging it over tbe helm, first pronouncing In a loud 
and distinct voice, these words : ' Desponsamus te mare 
nostrum in signum veri, perpetuique dominii.' After thiji, 
a quantity of flowers and twigs of sweet-scented shrubs 
are cast abroad on the sea, by way of crowning the bride. 
The Bucentaur now, still followed bv its cortege, tli reads 
its way throiigh the lagunes to the church of San Nicola 

del Lido The Patriarch here celebrates a high mass 

with great pomp, at the close of wLich the Signoria 
returns to S. Marco amid salutes of musketry and ar- 
tillery from the Castello del Lido, and from all the 
vessels in port." 

masses oould haye formed no oonoeption of it in 
the times when there was no printing, engiaTing, 
or photography to oonyey it after their manner, 
there naturally crept in some which were capable 
of abuse. Thus, when rendering the natiyity and 
infancy of the Sayiour detail by detail, it at one 
time became the custom in certain diooeses to 
represent along with the rest the part assigned by 
tradition to the ass in aiding the flight of the 
Holy FamUy into IJgypt and its return thence. 
The ceremonial in wmch this was embodied at 
Rouen and Beauyais is thus described by Dncange: 

" They chose a beautiful girl and mounted her on an 
ass richly decorated, with a child in her lap, and the 
assembled clergv and people led her with groat pomp 
from the cathedral to the parish church of St Stephen. 
When the assemblage had arrived there, the girl, still 
riding on the ass, was led to the Gospel side of the altar. 
The high mass immediately began ; the introit, * Eyrie 
eleison,' ' Gloria in exceUis,' ' Credo,' &o., all were oon- 
cluded with the modulation JGTtnAaA, to imitate braying. 
In like manner, at the end of the mass, when the priest, 
turning to the people, said, * Ite missa est— <«r AiaAan- 
nabit,' and the people answered Hinhan, hinhang 

V7ith whateyer purity of religious feeling thia 
tableau vivant may haye been originally intro- 
duced, it is not difficult to imagine how greatly 
it might be abused; and Ganoellieri, in his 
elaborate collection of ceremonies connected with 
the obseryanoe of Gluristmas, assures us it did lead 
to superstitions, but was so dear to the people that 
the C/huroh had great difficulty in suppressing it. 

B. H. Busk. 
{To be continued.) 

Letter of Henrt, Earl or Arundel, E.Q.y 


M' Garden These shalbe to requyre you to repare 
unto me unto the court to morow. I send for you 
bycausse I wold that yo, w^h me, shold well make anser 
unto our doyngs. fare ye well. 

Y' lovyng ffrend 


To my lovyng ffrend, M' Thomas Cardon. 
Haste w^ dylygence. 

Endorsements — (1) doubtless in Mr. Garden's 
writing : — 

" My Lord ArundoU's letter ffor my com*ynge to the 
Courte ffor crossyng to SIcottland." 

(2) in another handwriting :~ 

"Kyng Edward and hys Counaeirs Warrantti for 

Even a few lines, like the aboye, entirely in the 
undoubtedly genuine autograph of so eminent a 
personage in the history of the reigns of the 
Tudor soyereigns as the last of the Pits- Alans, 
must be of some interest and importance. The 
letter was formerly in the possession of the 
late John Gough Nichols, F.S.A., but there is no 
mention of it in his biography of the earl (London^ 

uigiiizea oy v_j v>'v>''i l\^ 




1834j 4to,f pp. 34), 80 it may be assumed that it 
came into ma hands sabsequently to 1834. I have 
not yet been able to disooTer whether it has 
hithnrto remained unpublished. A comparison of 
some facsimiles shows that the Fitz-Alan letter, 
HarL MS. 284, 9, is, unlike the aboye, only signed 
by the eaxL Such, too, is the case with Vesp. F. 
ziil 82, which some think was written by his 
gnndfather, Earl Thomas. The signature only is 
fiMsimiled in another example, given in plate 20 
of Nichols's Afdograpkt of Bayal^ NobUf and 
Learned Personages, London, 1829. That was 
taken from Gallg. £. yii. 404, and it agrees with 
the signature of the present letter. 

In conclusion, I may remark that the letter 
now printed shows that the storm which was to 
break oyer the head of Arundel, and to lead to 
his fine and imprisonment at the beginning of 
1550(800 King Edward's Diary, Jao. 1549/50), was 
already lowering in the spring of 1549. It would 
be agreeable to discover, if possible, what was 
Garden's imputed offence in connexion with Soot- 
land. And was Garden a dependent of the great 
earl ? If so, he may have run the risk of such 
imprisonment as befell others in that position on 
Key. 8, 1551, when, as Edward VI. relates in his 
JDiary, '* The erle of Arondell was committed to 
the Tower, with Mr. J. Straodley and S. Albon 
lus men, because Grane did more and more con- 
fess of him.^ Fredk. Hemdriks. 
28, Linden Qardens, W. 

Ah Important Error of Date in the 
"EpiSTOLJE Ho-Eliak^." — Perhaps you will 
think it worth while to preserve in permanent 
form in the pages of ^' N. & Q." the following 
interesting observations, which I have extracted 
from ft long and able review, appearing in the 
WetUm Mail, Nov. 29, of a new work entitled 
Gflamorgaruhire Worthies, just issued from the 
private printing-press of Mr. 0. T. Glark, F.S.A., 
of Dowlftis House. In dealing with the author'b 
life of the Elizabethan admiral Sir Robert Maosel, 
the reviewer says, inter alia : — 

"As ' agent abroad ' for bis new manufactory in Broa<l 
Street, London, he employed James Howell, a son of the 
emte of Llangammarch, in BreconBhire, and the author 
of a truly delightful series of Familiar Letters. Howell, 
in that which Mr. Clark rightly terms his first letter— 
for flnt it is in point of time, though not in point of 
place, at least not in our edition, which is the ninth, of 
the BpUtolte ffo-EliannB—detcnhea at some length ' the 
main of his employment ' under Sir Eobert Mansel on 
the Continent. 

*'At this point we come to an interesting literary 
difficalty — one which, as far as we are aware, has never 
been noticed before, and out of which, it is possible, Mr, 

rather too long to quote, from Howell's letter with refer- 
cnee to his own and Bir Robert's glass^making affairs. 
Now it is quite true that this letter from Howell <To 
Pr, Fr. Mansel, at All Souls, in Oxford/ is dated ' 5 Mar. 

1618; But is thiB not a mistake t Howell left England 
in 1618 ; for on April 1 of that year he may be found 
writing from Amsterdam, where he lavs he had 'newly 
landed/ to *my brother, after Dr. Howell, and now 
Bishop of Bristol.' It is quite clear that the letter to 
Dr. Francis Mansell, quoted by Mr. Clark, was not 
written until after Howell's return from abroad, because 
we find him, in the Tcry first sentence, saying, ' I am 
return'd safe from my foreign Employment, from my 
three years TraTel,' See. Mr. Clark naTing himself told 
us ' Howell was abroad from 1618 to 1621,' it wUl be seen 
that this letter to Dr. Mansel could not haye been 
written ' in the same year ' a« that in which ' his first 
letter, dated Ist March, 1618, Broad Street/ was written, 
explaining his business to his father. As we haye already 
obserred, in the printed collection thii letter to Dr. 
Francis Mansel it dated ' in the same year/ and for that 
matter the same month, and it was, no doubt, Mr. Clark's 
adoption of the printed date which led him to belieye 
and to say that both letters were written in the same 
year. Whether the wrong date was due to a fault of the 
printer or the editor of the collection or to Howell him- 
self, it is impossible to say. As likely as not it was 
HoweU's. for a great many of the letters were written 
up to order to satisfy the necessity the author was under 
for making up a book—a practice since become yery 
common in France, and, we are afraid, in England also. 
It is just the sort of mistake an author would, under such 
circumstances, be likely to commit, and when we con< 
sider, further, that this letter begins a fresh di? ision of 
the* work, with a long ?ista of printer's demands in per< 
spective. a still greater probability attaches to the cor* 
rectness of our surmise. 


Likes ok a Statub.^1 do not know whether 
many readers of " N. & Q." haye lately seen the 
following lines, which are quoted from The New 
Foundling HovpUal for Tvit, 1786, yi. 222, and 
relate to one of the best public statues in London: 
<* On a black marble Statue of a Slave Handing in 
one of the Innt of Court, 
" In- Tain, poor sable son of woe, 
Thou seek'st a teniler ear ; 
In vain thy tears with anguish flow. 

For mercy dwells not hero. 
From cannibals thou fiy'et in vain ; 

Lawyers less quarter gire ; 
The first won't eat you till you 're slain, 
The last will do 't alive." 



—Dr. Edward Young, in the preface to the Seyenth 
Night of his Night Thoughts, uses the word diS' 
tressed in a somewhat peculiar sense, as if it were 
equivalent to the nautical phrase, "Driven by 
stress of weather": "Though the distrust of 
futurity is a strange error ; yet it is an error into 
which bad men may naturally be distressed. For 
it is impossible to bid defiance to final ruin with- 
out some refuge in imagiuation, some presumption 
of escape.'' The senses of the verb given in 
Latham* Johnson, viz., '^E[arass, make miserable, 
crush with calamity/' do not seem quite appli- 
cable to the aboye extract. " Driven by circum- 
stances," as a yessel by the force of winds, or 
" stress of weather/' seems more exactly to hayp 

uigmzea oy x_jk^v^ 




[etb 8. IX. Feb. 9, '84. 

been the meaning in the author's mind. The 
latter phrase is used by Dryden in his'transktion 
of the jEndd, bk. L (toL zIy. p. 245, ed. Soott) : 
^ I know not, if by stren of weather driven, 
Or was their fatal course disposed by heaven ; 
At last they landed." 

W. E. Buckley. 

Alliteration in 1537.— Here is a curious 
specimen from Wilfrid Holme's Fall of BeheUioni 
Big. I iij, back, printed in 1573:— 

''Loe leprous Inrdeins lubrike in loquacities, 
Yah vaporous villeins, with venim vulnerate, 
Proh prating parentecides, plezious to pinnositie^ 
Fie frantike fabulatora, furibnnd and fatuate, 
Oat oblatrant obliot obstacle and obcecate, 
A addict algoes in acerbitie a^clamant, 
Magnall in mischeefe, malicious to mugilate, 
Eepriuing your Roy so renoumed and radiant." 

This is ''old English verse," according to the 
Elizabethan title-page. The book was on 

*' The . xiiij. day of July oomponed and compiled, 
In the . xxix. yeare of tbe raigne of the . viij. Henry 

By y Vilfride Holme vnleamed, simply combined 

In Huntingdon in Yorkshire commorant patrimonial." 
F. J. Fdrnivall, 

Second Centenart of the Liberation of 
Vienna from the Turks. — On occasion of the 
late celebration of this event in Home and 
Austria I received the following curious old para- 
phrase of th« Te Deiim, which it seems that at 
the moment of what was felt to be essentially a 
victory of Christianity it was not thought profane 
to address to the leader of it — John SobieskL lb 
has Litely been found in the Vatican archives :— 

Te Polonum laudamns, te strenuum confitemur. 

Te aeternum bellatorem omnis Ecclesiad veneratur. 

Tibi omnes Christi fideles, tibi Veneti et Italicae po- 
testates ; 

Tibi Pontifez et CsBsar inoessabili voce proclamant; 

Fortis, fortis, fortis Rex Polonies 

Pleni sunt c«li et terra multitudine virtntis iu», 

Te imperii electorum chorus, te bellatorum laudabilis 

Te eodesiastious laudat exercitus, te per Orbem terra- 
rum auxiliatorem Sancta confitetur Ecolesia, 

Patrem immensss fortitudinis. 

Yenerandum verum tuum fiUum. 

Sanctum qaoqae auxiliam tuum. 

Tu Rex glorias Catholicorum. 

Tu CassartB semper auxiliator. 

Tu ad liberandam Viennam non horruisti pericula 

Tu devioto Turcarum aculeo aperuisti portas letttias. 

Tu ad dexteram sedes Cassaris in civitate liberata. 

Judex Tarcarum crederis esse persecuturus. 

Te ergo quassamus vindictam accipe et illos usque in 
finem persequere. 

Sterna fac cum Sanctis quiete numerari. 

Salva populnm oatholicum et maledic gallicas inqoie- 

Et desere eos et opprime illos usque in astemum. 

Per singulos dies benedicimus te. 

Et laa£mus nomen Polonis? in ssBCulum et in BSMolum 

Dignare in tempore isto sine infestatioue Qallinas* et 
Turcaruip nos custodire. 

Miserere nostri, potens Rex, miserere nostri. 

Fiat vindicta nostra super Oallos et Toroas qaem 
admodum speravimus in te. 

In te semper speravimus, non oonfundemur in SBtemum. 

B. H. Busk. 

'^Malus ubi bonuu se sihulat'tunc est 
PB8SIMU8.'' — The sentence " Malus ubi bonum se 
simulat tunc est pessimus : a bad man is worst 
when he pretends to be a saint," occurs among 
Bacon's "Orn amenta Bationaiia; or. Elegant 
Sentences" (The Estays of Lord Baeofif including 
his Moral and Hidorieal Works, "Chandos 
Classics," p. 111). 

The verse is 1. 181 of Publii Syri SenterUia, 
p. 19, Anclam., 1838 :—'' Malus bonum ubi se 
simulat, tunc est pessimus." 

The line has received another notice stilL Yen. 
Bede, in his Proverhiorwn Liber, takes it for one 
of his sentences, as follows : " Mains ubi se simulat 
bonum, ibi est pessimus" (0pp., t. ii. p. 293, 
Basil, 1563). 

The sentiment agrees with St. Augustine's 
''Simulata sequitas non est sequitas sed duplex 
iniquitas" (in Ps. IziiL, 0pp., tom. viiL col. 650fl, 
Basil, 1560). 

Having lately seen an inquiry for the line above, 
but not remembering in what place, I beg to offer 
these references through " N. & Q." 

Ed. Marshall. 

A Northamptonshire Sating. — The follow- 
ing lines have been current in Northamptonshire 
(and perhaps elsewhere) for upwards of a century: 

<' As tall as your knee, tbey are pretty to see ; 
As tall as year head, they wish you were dead." 

It is almost needless to add that the lines refer to 
one's children. E. Walford, M.A. 

2, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

Biography op Lord Lytton. — About six 
weeks or two months ago I was favoured by a 
communication from a gentleman whose letter I 
have unfortunately mislaid, and whose name I 
cannot recall, but who kindly offered to place at 
my disposal certain published references to my 
father, collected by him as materials for a bio- 
graphy of the late Lord Lytton, which he had 
abandoned on hearing that I was myself engaged 
upon the same task. Tbe loss of my correspon- 
dent's letter has deprived me of the means of 
privately communicating my thanks to him for 
his obliging offer, and my desire to hear from him 
again on the subject of it. If, therefore, you will 
be so good as to accord to this expression of my 
wishes a place in your columns, the service will be 
gratefully appreciated. Lttton. 

17» Hill Street, W. 

* Iioius Xiy, was on the side of the Tories* 

6ik a IX. Feb. 9/84.] 



We mutt requeit eorretpondeDit daiiring infonnation 
Ml family maiten of only priTate interett, to affix their 
name! and addrenes to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addrened to them direct 

Battle of Skbobhoor, 1685.— Some curions 
words occar in Boberts's Life of the Duke of Mon-^ 
mouih (1844, toI. iL p. 60), which perhaps Mr. 
Weaver has already explained. I missed his 
earlier notices. The duke marched from Bridge- 
water by the Caaseway, with Chedzoy on his right, 
down Bradney Lane to Pesay Farm, with Bato- 
drippf at the foot of Polden Hill, on his left. The 
rhines on North Moor were crossed by sUanings, 
old Bussez Bhine by Penzoy Poand, being dose 
to Weston-soyland, and Middle^oy being about 
two miles ofEl After the battle twenty-two prisoners 
were at onoe hanged, four of them in gemriMcea, 
i, «. chains, from the branches of a large tree at 
Bassez* The same anther, in his Hietory of Lyme 
Begis (1834, p. 182), says that ^ connected with 
* the Oaildhall is the gaol, which has reoeived the 
singular name of Gockenwhile, a mode of pro- 
nonncing eoekmoUe which has reference to cock- 
crowing and labour," and he then asks if cocken- 
ftkHe ma^r not be a corruption of eoquinaUUf a 
pack of tmsTes. Ifay it ? Edward Malan. 

Nostradamus.— There is an engraved portrait 
of this penon, seated writing at a table, on which 
Is a bottle containing faces of the sun and moon, 
RBBI8 on neck of the bottle. Is any explanation 
of this to be found in any of his or other works on 
the subject 1 Qboroe Ellis. 

8t. JoWt Wood. 

Rklioioits Delusion. — Mr. W. E. H. Lecky, 
in hiB Hutory of European Morals from Auguei\u 
io Charlemagne^ says (translating from the Annales 
Ikminieanorum Colmariensiutn) that 'Mn the 
yesr 1300 a beautiful English girl appeared in 
MUan, who imagined herself to be the Holy 
Qhost, incarnate for the redemption of women, 
and who accordingly was put to death " (vol. ii. 
p. 92). Do any English authorities mention this 
woman; or \b there any means of ascertaining wha 
she was? Edward Peacock. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

F. Bruzza, Epiorafhist. — ^A brief sentence in 
the Afhmmim of January 12 announces the death 
of Father Bmzza, the epigraphist, whose name is 
new to me. I take much interest in inscriptions, 
SBcient and modem, and works relating to them, 
sad should feel greatly obliged by being informed 
who and where Father Bruzza was, and what he 
hss written. John W. Bo 

26, Bedford Place. 

BoNB, F.S.A. 

P. OR P. Ford, Painter.— I have a very good 
water-colour drawing, a view on the coast of 

Brittany, signed P. (or F.) Ford, and dated 1845. 
I shall be obliged for any information about this 
artist, if his works are well known or considered of 
value, &a J. L. McG. 

Countess Family.— I shall be much obliged 
to any of your readers who will, through the 
medium of your paper, give any information as to 
the name and antecedents of a family of Huguenots 
the members of which, escaping from France on the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, were 
forced by a storm upon the coast of Ireland, where 
they landed, taking the name of Countess. One of 
their descendants. Admiral George Countess, died 
about the beginning of this century. His crest was 
a demi-lion starting from a crown, his arms three 
harts' horns. I do not know whether these were 
the original crest and arms of this family, or 
whether they were adopted after the change of 
name. A Ladt. 

Mascoll of Plumsted.— In **A BooheofFuk- 

ing toiih Hooke and Line made by L. M," 

(usually taken to be Leonud Mascall), and printed 
by John Wolfe in 1590, the writer, speaking of 
the carp, says : *' The first bringer of them into 
England (as I have beene credibly enformed) was 
maister Mascoll, of Plumsted, in Sussex, who also 
brought first the planting of the pippin in Eng- 
land.'' Is anything now to be leamedof this Masc(^ 
who, if the above statement be correct, most have 
lived in the middle of the fifteenth century ) 

Tho. Satohsll. 

Downshire HUl, N.W. 

Flemish Sepulc ORAL Brasses.— Some time ago 
I picked up, among some miBcellaneous archseo* 
logical plates exposed for sale, one headed as above, 
and representing a female figure in a costume 
generally similar to those on the Braunche or 
" Peacock " brass at Lynn. This is described as 
being the " Effigy of Margriete, wife of Willem 
Wenemaer. She died September, 1352.'' The 
engraving is by B. B. Utting, and the size of the 
plate octavo. Can any of your readers inform me 
where the brass is from which the above was 
taken, or give me any description of it ? Y. M. 

Abraham Smith, Bbctor of Great Cotes, 
Lincolnshire. — I shall be ereatly obliged to 
any of your readers who will help me to the 
record of the baptism of the above-named clergy- 
man (the probable date is 1579), or for any other 
information as to his birth and parentage. The 
following facts are known concerning him : Gradu- 
ated at St. John's, Cambridge, B.A., 1600 ; M.A., 
1604; appointed Vicar of Winterton, 1604/6; 
Bector of West Halton, 1611/12 ; ejected from 
living on the suit of the Bishop of Norwich, 1614 ; 
appointed Vicar of Burton-on-Stather, 1614; 
Bector of Great Cotes, 1624 ; died 1651/2 ; will 

uigiiizea oy %>jvj'v^'iL\ 



[6*h S. IX. P£B. 0/84. 

proved April 6, 1652. He leaves " my body to 
be buried ia the Cbauncel of Great Ootes wyth 
my wife." Is there any record of a monument or 
inscription extant ? His wife Elizabeth was exe- 
cutrix ; and he bequeaths the '^ Crane House " in 
Grimsby, and a house in Great Grimsby. His 
first wife's name was Elizabeth or Elsibeth. His 
descendants have borne arms, Ar.^ a chevron sa. 
between three roses gules, the same as those of 
William Smyth, a member of the family of Smyth 
of Cuerdley, Lancashire, who was Bishop of Lin- 
coln, and a founder of Brazenose College, obiit 
1613/14. .N^. 0. Smith. 

Braxton Cottage* Freihwater, Isle of Wight. 

" BoAST-BEBF."— In the play-going days of my 
boyhood, the occupants of the one-shilling gallery 
used to show their impatience for the performance 
to begin by shouting to the orchestra, " Music ! 
Nosey ! Boast-beef ! " I lately met with this last 
word in a passage from one of Horace Walpole's 
letters, quoted in Bockstro's Life of Handel^ 1883, 
p. 269. Writing from Arlington Street, Feb. 24, 
1743, Walpole says, "Handel has set up an 
oratorio against the opera, and succeeds. He has 
hired all the goddesses from the farces, and the 
singers of roast-beef from between the acts at 
both theatres.'' What is the meaning of " roast- 
beef " in this passage ? Jatdbe. 

Thb Botal Surnahb.— An editorial note in 
"N. & Q." (2»<i S. xii. 396) says the surname of 
the late Prince Consort was Weltin. Is this still 
considered as correct 1 Is not our present Queen 
the last of the House of Hanover ; and will not her 
successors be the Weltin dynasty, if the analogy of 
the Tudors and Stuarts is followed, of taking the 
family surname 7 Otherwise, I suppose, they must 
be termed the *'Saxe-Coburg-Gotha dynasty." 
Frederick E. Sawter. 


Ogibr lb Pakois.— That Thomas of Erceldoun's 
faity adventures have an intimate connexion with 
those of Ogier le Danois is certain from each of 
them taking his fay to be the Virgin Mary. The 
poem of Lis Visiom d'Oger dans le Royaulme de 
J^aerie would, perhaps, illustrate this connexion, 
and might even show Ogier to have been as good 
a prophet as Thomas. That poem is spoken of by 
Brnnet as being in the National Library at Paris ; 
bat it cannot be found there now, and of several 
copies once known none can now be traced. Should 
any of your readers know of a copy being in Eng- 
land or elsewhere, or be able to describe the con- 
tents of the poem, the information would be useful. 

F. J. Child. 

Cambridge, Massachasetts, U.S.A. 

A Silver Medal. — Can any one give me any 
information about a medal of the following de- 
scription ) On the reverse is the inscription : 

REVOLUTION jaBiLBE, Davies^ round the edge, 
and NOVR. 4th, 1788, in the centre ; on the obverse, 
the head of William III. to right, with the legend 
auLiBLMUs III DRi GRATIA, 1688. The piece is 
rather larger and thinner than a shilling, with an 
ornamental edge, and is made of copper, silver- 
plated. *' Davies " is, I presume, the name of the 
issuer. I should be glad to know what were the 
circumstances of this centenary, and whether it 
was common in the eighteenth century to observe 
centenaries. F. Haverfield. 

Bath College. 

Allusions in Webster's " White Devil." — 
I have been lately renewing acquaintance with 
this excellent dramatist, the greatest of English 
dramatic writers after Shakespeare and Ben 
Jonson. What does he mean exactly by the 
following ? *' When knaves come to preferment 
they rise as gallowses are raised in Uu tiotv Cow^ 
tries, one upon another's shoulders." "I have 
seen a serving man carry glasses in a dpress hat^ 
bandf monstrous steady for fear of breaking." 

J. Maskell. 

English Exiles in Holland.— In what books 
can I find trustworthy accounts of the life of the 
English exiles at the Hague and Utrecht previous 
to the Restoration of 1660 1 L. Ph. 

Marriage Costom at Whitburn. — At a 
marriage which recently took place at Whitburn, 
CO. Durham, the bride and bridegroom as they 
left the church received an ovation. An old 
custom of giving hot-pots was kept up. There 
were half a dozen steaming compounds of brandy, 
ale, sugar, eggs, spices, &c., in the church porcb. 
Of this the bride and bridesmaids partook, and the 
remainder was handed to the congregated ^oup 
of thirsty souls. What is known of the origin of 
this custom ? Everard Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Cock Road or Cockroad Estate, Bitton. — 
Can any one inform me whether the above-named 
estate was owned by a William Murray about 
the year 1780 ? William Murray married a Miss 
Kater, of Bristol. £. C. Murray. 

Beng€0, Hertford. 

Song Wanted. — Can any of your readers 
furnish the words of a song, current about 1830, 
which deserves to be placed on record 7 The title 
may have been " My Home is the World." The 
first words were, " Speed, speed, my fleet vessel," 
and the last two lines were : — 
" Speed, speed, my fleet vessel, the Bails are unfarlei ; 

ask me not whither I My home is the wo^ld." 

The idea is that a traveller comes home, over the 
sea only to find all his friends dead, and to form 
the same resolve as Tennyson's Ulysses, of again 
trying the fortune of ^^a^ wandering^! fe^ There 




maj have been a dozen Btanzas. Several collec- 
tions of ballads and songs have been looked through 
withont Bucoess, and I turn, as does every sensible 
liUerateur, to " N. & Q." Fama. 


"The British Soldier's Grave."— This song 
has been aung by the boys in the parish since last 
Whitsnntide; bat I cannot find one who knows 
the whole of it. Can any of your readers tell me 
its aathor, and where I can find it ? 


Alboiy, Ware. 

OwiK Familt of North Walks.— Will any 
ofyoarmany genealogical readers inform me who 
18 at present the head of the ancient family of 
Owen (North Wales) f So far as I can see, Mr. 
Hagh Darby Owen, of Bettws Hall, co. Mont- 
gomery, is the man, but my knowledge of such 
matters is too slight to approach certainty. 

C. T. Wilson, Lieut.-Col. 

MoKTENKORO. — I shall be much obliged for 
SDy information as to what books, magazines, or 
reviews contain an account of the history and of 
the past and present social and economical con- 
dition of Montenegro. Jacobus. 

" Opmr Wkathbr."— When is it correct to use 
this expression? I thought till recently ' that 
there was no question in the matter ; but having 
then been informed that it only applies to wet 
weather, i.<., when the heavens are open, I feel 
pat open inquiry. J. 0. 

Bl(7k>dktils. — Can any one give me the origin 
of the word bhu-deviU f I have travelled much 
amongst the Buddhists, with whom the devil is 
painted a deep blue. W. E. M. 

TflOMAS Lbvbb.— Can any reader give me any 
ptfticulan of the parentage, date, and place of 
birth (in lAncashire) of Thomas Lever, Master 
of St John's College, Cambridge, appointed 
Haster of Sherbnm Hospital, Durham, in 1662 ? 
Any particalars of him previous to 1650 would 
obnge. I do not require references to Mr. Arber's 
»print. J. P. H. 

Thokab Fairfax.— I have before me a commis- 
>ioD, dated Jane 20, 1686, of an officer in the 
troop of horse commanded by Capt. Thomas 
l^az. Who was this Fairfax? Not the 
^bomas who became sixth Baron Fairfax, settled 
IB Virginia, and died unmarried in 1782, leaving 
the tiUe to be established by the descendants, in 
■JHjther line, of his ancestor Henry Fairfax, of 
Oglethorpe, who died 1665, by which branch, also 
•ttied in Virginia, the barony is held to the 
pnient day. Was he the Thomas Fairfax- 
son of Sir William Fairfax, Knt, of 
ftUdn before Montgomery Castle 1644— 

who died in 1712 as major-general in the army 
and governor of Limerick 1 The date of the com- 
mission is that of Monmouth's rebellion, at which 
time several regiments of horse were raised, and 
several troops added to existing regiments. But 
I have failed to find the name of Thomas Fairfax 
as commanding a troop in either of these ways ; 
yet that he did command a troop seems certain 
from the wording of the commission. 


BosviLE and Grbenhalgh.— Can any of your 
readers kindly tell me where I can find the 
pedigrees of Thomas Bosvile, who married Joan, 
daughter of Lord Fumival (see Qatty's HaHam- 
shire, ed. 1869, p. ^), and the Be v. James Green- 
halgh, Rector of Hooton Roberts, Yorkshire, and 
Plumbtre, Nottinghamshire, who married Margaret^ 
daughter of the Rev. Thomas Bosvile, of Bralth- 
well (see Hunter, South Yorkshire, vol. i. p. 133)? 
I have looked through the pedigrees of the Bosvile 
family in Hunter's South YoMiire, but I have 
not found any connexion. I have also examined 
vol. Ixxxv. of the Chetham Society for the Green- 
halgh family with the same result. 

Thos. Hargrbaybs. 

Authors of Books Wantbd. — 

"Memoirs of an Unfortunate Young Nobleman Re- 
tnrn'd from a Thirteen Years Slavery in America, Where 
he had been sent by the Wicked Contrivances of his 
Cruel Uncle. A Story founded on Truth, and addrets'd 
equally to the Head and Heart. London, Printed for 
J. Freeman in Fleetstreet ; and sold by the Booksellers in 
Town and Country. 1743. Johk B. Wodhams. 


(6** S. viiL 426 ; ix. 54.) 

The Aldine anchor is, perhaps, the most cele- 
brated of all printers' marks. It is singularly 
graceful in design, eminently characteristic of the 
distinguished scholar who first adopted it, and is 
affixed to a series of works whicn contributed 
more than those of any single printer or family of 
printers to the progress of learning and literature 
in Europe. The origin of the mark and the 
earliest book in which it appeared are, therefore, 
matters of considerable interest, and statements 
more or less inaccurate, and showing a very im- 
perfect knowledge either of the books themselves 
or of what has been written on the subject, are 
constantly cropping up in the pages of "N. & Q.** 
and other literary and bibliographical periodicals. 

One of your correspondents announces the dis* 
CO very of an Aldine P^t7of^ra^tM containing the 
anchor, dated 1501, and thus earlier than the little 
Dante of 1502, for which, the writer says, "the 
anchor is usually said to have been first ased."j 
Another writer puts forwar^^a^ c^atexStJ^le 



[6Ji 8. IX. Feb. 9, '84. 

second Jtivena^, with the date of 1501. Now, con- 
Bidering that the Manutii and their impressions 
have been the subjects of at least a dozen works, and 
that one of them — the Annales de VImprimeriedes 
Aide of Renooard — is the acknowledged authority 
on the subject, and the model for all books of the 
kind, it might be expected that before making 
a communication respecting an Aldine edition a 
writer would refer to Benouard, and would also 
look carefully into the book itself to see if there 
were any, and if any, what, indications of the date 
of publication. The PhUostrattu and Juvenal 
are well known, and will be found described in 
Renouard as well as in other bibliographical works. 
To be complete (which it rarely is), the PhiUh 
$iratu9 should have the following contents : A title- 
page containing the large anchor and dolphin and 
the words aldus . ma • Ro., as usually to be found 
in the later folios of the elder Aldus ; 126 pp. 
containing the Greek text of the life of Apollonius 
and the tract of Eusebius against Hierocles, ending 
with '' Yenetiis apud Aldum Mense Martio h.di." 
Then, after a blank folio, comes a long Latin pre- 
face by Aldus addressed to Zenobio Acciolo, dated 
'^ Mense Maio h.diiii."; then, after six more pre- 
liminary folios, the Latin translation of the two 
works, and on the recto of the last folio, '' Yenetiis 
in ^dibus Aldi Mense februario m.d.ii." This is 
followed by one more folio, the recto of which is 
blank, but with the anchor and dolphin on the 
Terso as on the title-page. Now^ at first sight the 
three dates are a little puzzling, but if any one 
will take the trouble to read the first few lines of 
the preface of Aldus, the matter is satisfactorily 
cleared up. He teUs us that when he first under- 
took the impression he believed the work to be 
one of much greater merit than on printing he 
found it to be, and so laid it aside for some time, 
but at length determined to publish it with Zeno- 
bio's translation of the tract of Eusebius and that 
of Rinuccino of the life of Apollonius. The book 
was, in fact, completed and published between 
May, 1504, the date of the preface, and July 17 
of the same year, for on that day Aldus wrote a 
letter to Isabella d'Este, Marchioness of Mantua, 
sending her the volume together with the poems 
of Gregory Nazianzen (the date of which is *' Mense 
Junio If Dim.'') as two books which he had just 
published. This letter was discovered by M. 
Armand Baschet in the archives of Mantua, and 
printed by him in 1867 in his most interesting 
privately printed monograph, Aldo ManuxiOf 
Lettres et Documents, 1495-1515. It is not pro- 
bable that the title-page (on which is the anchor), 
which enumerates the whole of the cpntents, Latin 
as well as Greek, of the volume, was printed until 
after the date of the preface, namely, in 1604— 
certainly not before February, 1503, the date of 
the completion of the printing of the Latiti trans- 
laj^ion of Eusebius. 

As to the second Jv/oentd, with the date 1501, 
the statement at the end that it is printed ''in 
sedibus Aldi ei Andrem Soeeri ^ shows that 1508 
is the earliest date that can be attributed to the 
book, and that the words " Mense August! m-dl** 
are simply copied by mistake from the edition 
printed m that year. 

In the first edition of his AnfiaU$, published in 
1803, Renouard did not express any opinion as to 
the earliest volume in which the anchor appeared, 
but in his second edition (1825) he suggested for 
the first time that the Dante with the date 
August, 1602, was the earliest : *' Cost avec cette 
Edition qu'Alde a commence I'usage de sa marque 
typographique, I'ancre Aldine, qu'u a su rendre si 
cdlebre^ (voL i p. 81). And again, vol. iii. 
p. 97: '' II n'en fit cependant usage (de Pancre) que 
quelques ann^es aprls, en aoflt 1502, sur le Dante 
in-8<',dont»plusieurs exemplaires n'ont point d'ancre, 
ce qui prouve qu'elle a ^t^ ajout^e pendant le 
tirage, et dtablit d'une mani&re positive le temps 
oil elle a 6U employee pour la premiere fois." And 
both these remarks stand without any qualification 
in the third edition, and form the authority on 
which the Dante has been since held to be the 
earliest volume bearing the anchor. But I venture 
to think this is not so, and that there is strong 
probability that the Sedulius of 1502 (forming 
the second volume of the series known as the 
Poet(B ChrUtiani Veteres) is earlier in date than 
the Dante and is the first on which the anchor 
appears. This rare volume contains two dates. 
On the recto of the last folio of hh, just before the 
life of St Martin, is ''Yenetiis apud Aldnm, 
M.D.I. Mense Januario." On the verso of the 
title-page is a short preface of Aldus, dated " Mense 
Junii H.D.ii." Now, having regard to the fact 
that Aldus and his editors invariably dated their 

Erefaces immediately before the appearance of the 
ook, this date is, if not conclusive, yet very strong 
evidence that the Sedulius appeared before the 
Daiite of August, 1502. And Renouard himself 
seems to have really admitted this, for though in 
the two passages above cited he makes no refer- 
ence to the Sedulius, yet when describing that 
volume he says, "Dans le Sedulius, sur le dernier 
feuillet des prdliminaires, on voit Fancre Aldine, 
dant Vemploi commence a ce volume et au Dante d€ 

But the mark in the Sedulius j^resents one 
peculiarity which I have not noticed m any other 
volume. It is not, as erroneously stated by Didot 
in his Aide Majiuce (p. 210), that the anchor is 
larger than that which appears in the Dante, the 
SophocUs, the Statius, and the Herodotus of 1502, 
and in the subsequent small editions given by 
Aldus. An exact measurement shows the form 
and dimensions of the anchor and dolphin of the 
Sedulius to be precisely the same in every respect as 
those of the other volumes engraved by Renouard 

uigiiizea oy '%^jv>'v^ 





and numbered 1 in hb book, so that, except for the 
peculiarity I am aboat to notice, they would seem 
to be struck from the same block. But against 
this ia the fact that in the 8eduliu$ the mark 
is in a border of double lines which cer- 
tainly seems to be part of the same woodcut, 
though it ia possible that the border was added 
afterwards. This border, which is in the two 
copies of SediUifu which I possess, does not re- 
appear in any subsequent volume, though in all 
the Tolumes with the date 1502 which contain the 
anchor (except^ perhaps, the Dante, of which I 
cannot speak, the page in my own copy which 
ahoold contain it being missing) there are dots in 
the position in which the border appears in the 

The large anchor in a border of double lines 
first appears in the FhUosircUus of 1501-1504, 
and in the Lueian of 1503, which certainly pre- 
ceded by some months the Ammoniua Hirmeui 
of the same year, since, though both have the 
date of June, 1503, the preface of the Ammoniua 
is dated Noyember of that year. 

The mark, a dolphin twisted round an anchor, 
18 said to be found on coins of Augustus and 
Domitian. It appears on a denarius of Yes^ 
pasian, a specimen of which, as Erasmus tells 
ns in his Adages (f. 112, edit, of 1508), was sent 
by Bembo when a young man to Aldus. But 
JSraamua does not say — ^as has been repeated by 
many writers, on the authority, it would seem, of 
la. Dolce— that Bembo suggested the mlirk and the 
motto " Festina lente " to Aldus, though the great 
printer certainly contemplated using them some 
years before the mark actually appeared upon a 
printed Tolume. In his preface to Linacre's trans- 
lation of the Sphera of Proclus (printed with 
oilier treatises in 1499^ in the Tolume known 
as the Aiironami Veteres), Aldus writes : '' Sum 
ipse mihi optimus testis, me semper habere 
eomites, ut oportere aiunt, Delphinum et Ancho- 
xmm. Nam et dedimus multa cunctando et damns 
assidne." Erasmus (he, eit) has a long disserta- 
tion on the mark and motto, explaining that both 
haTe the same meaning, the anchor being the 
emblem of the firmness and solidity which slow 
and careful work alone produces, and the dolphin 
of that perpetual and rapid labour which is no less 
necessary for the accomplishment of great under- 
takings. '* Oes deux emblimes," writes M. Didot, 
''expriment ayeo justesse que, pour travailler 
solidement, il faut un labeur sans rel4che accom- 
^gja& d'une lente reflexion'' (Aide Manuce et 
rHeUtniime h Venice, p. 211). 

The mark itself, as it appears in the volumes of 
Aldus, is clearly taken from one of the engravings 
(on the recto of d 7) of the Eypneroiomachia of 
1499, where it is figured as an illustration to the 
following passage : '' Dal altra parte tale elegante 
KoTptura mirai, Uno circulo, Un' ancora sopra 

la stangula dillaquale se revolye uno Delphino. 
Et qaesti optimamenti cusi io interpretai. AEI 
2nEYAE BPAAE02, semper festina tarda." 

In a future paper I propose to make some obser- 
Tations on the chronology of the early Aldine 
editions, and to adduce reasons for thinking that 
Renouard and Didot have fallen into error on the 
subject. B. 0. Ghristib. 

Qlenvood, Virginia Water. 

Elecampane (6** S. ix. 48). — This was the 
root of the Inula helenium preserved and candied, 
and was more an agreeable medicine than a pleasant 
comfit. In old books on pharmacy it is to be met 
with on the same page as angelica and ginger. 
Qoincy (Diepematoryj 1724) says that the root is 
much esteemed in Germany, being " warm, opening, 
and detersive, and prefenr'd to ginger.'' Hill 
(History of Qu Materia Medica, 1751) states that 
'* the Germans have a method of candying elecam- 
pane root like ginger, to which they prefer it, and 
call it German spice." The Lady*$ Companion, 
1753, iL 347, gives instructions how to preserve 
the roots in sugar and then candy them in boiling 
syrup. As a conserve it was by no means nice, 
and as a medicine not of much value; but it had a 
respectable old reputation, and long continued to 
be made and sold, often with no elecampane root 
in its composition. I had some of this description 
given me at Poole about 1836 as a sovereign 
specific for a cold by a good old lady. I think she 
called it elecampane ; certainly there was more 
virtue in the name than in the compound. 

Edwabd Sollt. 

Sutton, Surrey. 

Any of the old herbalists may be consulted r^ 
specting this production. Culpepper, of course, 
supplies us with full directions as to the prepara- 
tion of the sweetmeat. In the Pharmaeographia, 
p. 340, we read: '*It is frequently mentioned in 
the Anglo-Saxon writings on medicine current in 
England prior to the Norman conquest, and was 
generally well known during the Middle Ages. 
Not only was its root much employed as a medi- 
cine, but it was also candied and eaten as a sweet- 
meat." Gerarde tells us (Oer. Emac, p. 794)," The 
roots are to be gathered in the end of September, 
and kept for sundrie vses, but it is especially pre- 
served by those that make Succade [=^suck6t^ vide 
Halliwell; in Northants still called tucker; cf. 
" porket " and " porker "] and such like." 


In the Encyclopedic Dictionary two other forms 
of this word are given, viz., ^' allicampane " and 
" alecampane," and they are stated to be corrupted 
from the Lat. Inula campana, the old name of the 
plant. According to Sir Joseph Hooker, the plant 
" was formerly ciutivated by cottagers as an aro- 
matic and tonic, and the root-stock is still candied." 

uigiiizea oy x.j Vv^v^'i l\^ 



[6* S. IX, Pkb. 9, »84. 

Borande and Cox's Dictionary of Science^ Literature, 
and Art says that " a coarse candy, composed of 
little else than coloured sugar " is sold under this 
name. G. F. E. B. 

Gerarde gives many names for elecampane, and 
describes it as a cure for many diseases, and says 
Inula helenium, its Latin name, comes from 
Helen, mte of Menelaus, whose hands were f^iU 
of it when Paris stole her away into Phrygia. 
Sowerby's English Botany says " It was esteemed 
as a cordial by the monkish herbalists, who cele- 
brated its virtues in the line 

' Enula eampana reddit praecordia sana.' " 
The name elecampane is a corruption of the first 
two of these words. I. 0. G. 

When Don Quixote and the goatherds were 
going to Chrisostome's burial, " at the crossing of 
a path-way they saw six Sheepheards comming 
towards them, apparelled with black skins, and 
crowned with Garlands of Cypress and bitter 
Enula eampana'* (Shel ton's translation, ed. 1675, 
book i. part iL chap. v.). A. J. M. 

"The Germans have a method of candying 
elecampane root like ginger, to wiiich they prefer 
it and call it Grerman spice." The above is a quo- 
tation from HilPs Mat. MecL^ taken by Johnson 
in the edition of his Dictionary of 1765. 


In my younger days in London the sweetmeat 
of this name was a flat candy, something like hard- 
bake, marked into squares, and made either white 
or pink. It was simply sugar with rather a sickly 
tasting condiment, most Ukely from the plant, 
as horehound candy is still sold in poor neighoour- 
hoods. J. C. J. 

The origin and meaning of this word are given in 
Fliickyer and Hanbury's Fharmacographia, Lon- 
don, Macmillan & Co., 1879, Radix enula, 
Eadix heknii = elecampane, a corruption of 
Enula eampana, the latter word referring to the 
growth of the plant in Campania (Italy). Its use 
both as a medicine and a condiment was well 
known in the Middle Ages. Yegetius Renatus, 
about the beginning of the fifth century, calls it 
Inula eampana, and SL Isidore, in the seventh, 
names it Inula, adding, "quam alam rustici 
vocant.*' J. B. 

Inula hdenium; this root contains a white 
starchy powder, named "Inuline," a volatile oil, 
a soft resin, and a bitter extract ; it is used in 
disease of the chest and lungs, and furnishes the 
" Vin d'Auln^e " of the French. This rare and 
handsome British wild flower grows freely (to- 
gether with the angelica) about here. It is 
from the root of the former that the sweetmeat 
was made so much in request in old days. 
It is the stalks of the latter that are preserved. 

Shall be glad to send roots of either in exchange 
for snowdrop bulbs. Brtan Leiohton. 

Loton Park, Shrewsbury. 

Dyer, in his British Popular CtLstoms (referring 
to " N. & Q.," 4»»^ S. V. 595), says this was a liquid 
composed of Spanish juice, sugar, and water {vide 
p. 171). John R. Wodhams. 

Oriental Seal (6*»> S. viit. 480).— This is far 
from a full explanation, and I doubt whether 
it be altogether correct. The date is decidedly 
not 1171, but 1181, which corresponds with a.d. 
1767, 19-20 May. Again, if an Englishman's 
name be intended, it is Pearson or Pierson, and 
not Parson or Parsons. Under the date appears 
" sanat " or year, and beneath is engraved, " Pir i 
pur-nayak." This last word may be the diminutive 
of nay, a small pen or reed, and the whole might 
imply either a professor of calligraphy or a skilled 
musician on the reed. Pir may signify a title of 
honour, as seigneur or senor, &c.; and pur or par i 
nik a proper name, or it may represent a title of 
sanctity of the founder of a sect called Par i nlk. 
I may as well add that on the right and left sides 
of the oval are four points, which may be considered 
as ornamental or the filling up the vacuum. In 
November, on being asked for an explanation of 
the inscription, I refrained from offering these con- 
jectures, and suggested a reference to your Indian 
contributor, Col. W. F. Pride aux, of Calcutta, 
in the hope he might enlighten your readers. 

William Platt. 

Callis Court, St Peter^s, Thanet. 

Heraldic (6"» S. viiu 494). — Probably the 
arms of Dr. Samuel Horsley, successively Bishop 
of St. David's (1788-93), of Rochester (1793-1802), 
and of St. Asaph (1802-6). Mr. Bedford, indeed, 
in his BUxaon of Episcopacy, p. 11, gives for this 
prelate, on the authority of his book-plate, Gu., 
three horses' heads couped arg., bridled sa. 
Mr. Pap worth assigns him, Ga., three horses' 
heads couped ar., bridled or ; but he also gives 
the coat as blazoned by Mr. Wells, with heads 
erased and bridles sa., to the family of Horsley, oo. 
York. Ache. 

Samuel Horsley, Bishop of St. David's 1788 to 
1793, when he was translated to Boohester, of 
which see he was bishop until 1802, when he was 
again translated to St. Asaph, bore Gules, three 
horses' heads couped argent, bridled sable. 

W. 0. Hbanb. 

Ginderford, Glouc. 

I have a seventeenth century roll of arms of 
families belonging to Northumberland, which 
gives three horses' heads erased as the arms of 
Horsley, of Milburne Grange. Also, in a " Cata- 
logue or Collection of the C^ntrye of the Conntye 
of Northumberland," Lansdowne MS., 865, f. 97, 

uigiiizea oy x-JVv'vy 





Horsley, of Feamwoode, " beares gules, three hone 
heads erased argent." A. Strother. 

According to Papnrorth's Ordinary ^ the arms on 
the cup and saucer might be Horsley, co. York. 
Samuel Horsley, Bishop of Rochester, by the same 
authority, had horses' heads conped and bridled or. 

J. W. Olat. 

AuRiCHALCUM (6«> S. Tiii. 329, 415, 504).— 
The words aurichalcum and orichalcum appear to 
have been used indifferently for an alloy, probably 
brass, of which copper was a constituent. The old 
astronomer Hevelius had several of his instruments 
made of this mixed metal ; and at the commence- 
ment of his chapter De SaOante Oriehalcieo, 
he says, '< Hie Sextans totus aeneus est." 


The spellisg in Virg., j3En., xii. 87, and in Hor., 
A, P., 203, is orichalctim. B. S. Charnock. 

Have (6» S. viii. 493).— "I am haying my 
house painted " is not causative. Have, amongst 
its many meanings and shades of meaning, 
signifies to be in a state or condition. So it 
means " I am in a state in which my house is being 
painted." It seems to be causative in this sentence 
■olely because a man's house will seldom undergo 
painting without the master's orders. You might 
say, "He is having his portrait painted at the 
king's command." The king is the cause ; the 
man in only in act of being painted. "I shall 
haife it removed " is causative, and equivalent to 
'* I shall order t^ to be removed." " I am to have 
it painted " is " I am about to get it painted "—to 
BO arrange that it will be painted ; so in some 
sense this is causative. " I stood lost, astonished, 
dumb, dumbfoundered," or what not, is elliptical 
for '* I stood as one that is lost." To $tand in this 
sense, like the Latin stare, signifies a state or con- 
dition of existence : " I was as one that is lost." 
"That could not make him that did the service 
perfect, as jwrtaming to the conscience, which 
itood only m meats and drinks" (Heb. ix. 10). 
Virgil, in describing the eyes of Charon, says, 
** Stant Inmina flammd," and Dante, ^ Con oochi 
di bmgia," which is really " Hisf eyes loere fire or of 
live ami." It is no matter of the causative or non- 
causative. Grammar is nothing here ; it is only a 
question of clear statement that is wanted. 

C. A. Ward. 
Hsvmtock Hill, N.W. 

^Compare St. Luke xiv. 18, 19, €X€ /li irapurq- 
yivov, '^have me excused," which I once heard 
explained as ,not simply '^ cause me to be ex- 
cnsedyl* but ''have me — hold me stUl— as a friend, 
yet being the while excused " from the supper. 

W. 0. B. 

HiBALDic Shiild vbrsus Heraldig Lozbnob 
(6* S. vil 187, 418, 475, 496; viii. 399). -I have 

been hoping for a reply to the interesting query 
by Fusil ; but owing to the little passage of arms 
between him and P. P. there seems a chance of 
the question being shelved. 

Mr. Carmicbakl (6*'* S. viii. 455) makes it 
evident that, however irregular and contrary to 
true heraldry, crests have been granted to or 
assumed by women, and with equal propriety their 
arms may have been emblazoned on the manly 
shield instead of upon the feminine lozenge. But 
can instances be adduced in support of such a 
practice in addition to the case mentioned by 
Fusil ? Again, if we may suppose that such a 
crested and shielded Amazon had obtained the 
right to supporters, and had married a commoner, 
how would her armorial bearings and those of her 
husband have been marshalled f Could Mr. Wood- 
ward, Mr. Caruichabl, or others equally com- 
petent, solve the problems proposed by Fusil ? 


Parallel Passaobs (6** S. viii. 465J.— As I 
am somewhat interested in the exquisite little 
snatch of popular song introduced by Moli^re into 
his Misanthrope, and beginning with '^ Si le roi 
m'avait donn^," I shall be glad to know on 
what authority it is attributed to " a poet of the 
fifteenth century." My researches have not led 
me to that conclusion. ^ The learned editors of 
Moliere's works (v. 555), in Les Grands iicrivains 
de la France, give a risumh of the theories to 
which the famous stanza has given rise. M. J. de 
P^tigny conjectures that it can have been com- 
posed by no other than Antoine de Bourbon, King 
of Navarre and father of Henry lY. The sup- 
porters of this theory, to make things square, 
conclude that " le roi Henri " is not Henri IV., 
but Henri 11. M. Paul de Musset, again, in his 
biography of his brother Alfred, finds in it an 
imitation of a satirical song by Konsard, the only 
part of which that has survived is the refrain, — 
** La bonne aventare au ga6, 
La bonne aventure." 

The stanza in question appears first in the Misan- 
thrope. It has never yet been found in any old 
collection. Nobody supposes that Moli^re wrote 
it ; and if he had, neither he nor Antoine de 
Bourbon nor Konsard belongs to the fifteenth 
century. Indeed, there is internal evidence in 
the song itself to show that that date is not 
correct. There was no King Henry in France in 
the fifteenth century, and the old chansonnier, 
whoever he was, supposing him to have lived at 
the close of that century, must have gone back 
more than four hundred years to find his "roi Henri," 
which he is not Ukely to have done. 


Mr. Edgcuhbb might also have quoted Victor 
Hugo's snatch of song in ^z^^^^'^^gVl! 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t6tk8.ix.FEB.9/84. 

evidently drawn from recollection of two oat of the 
three authors whom he does quote. I give it from 
memory, thus : — 

" Si C^sar xn'aTait donne 

La gloire et la guerre, 

Et quMl me fallut quitter 

L*ainour de ma m^re, 

Je diraifl an grand C68ar 

Reprends ton Eceptre et ton char, 

J'aime mieux ma mdro, Qvl6, 
J'aime mioux ma mere." 

And then the mighty master spoils all hy making 
the singer add, '* Ma m^re— c'est la B^publiquc." 

A. J. M. 

Price of Cranmbr's Bibles (6*^ S. viii. 496). 
— Mr. Dorb says, " Bibles were not at that time 
popular books with churchwardens." If not, why 
not? The eagerness with which the common 
people read the Scriptures is thus alluded to by 
Erasmus in his preface to the Gospel of St. Mark, 

** Yet hane I some good hope of reformacion, because 
I see the bookes of holy scripture, but speciallj of the 
neir testament so take in hande, ana laboured of all men, 
yea euen as muche as of the ignoraunt and vnlettered 
Borte, that many tymes suche as profeese the perfite 
knowledge of Qoddes woide are not able to matche them 
in rsasonyne. And yt there be Tsry many readers of the 
bookes of the newe testament, this one thvng maketh 
me to beleuOy because not with stadyng the prynters 
do yerely publyshe and put forthe so many thousand 
volumes, yet all the bookesellers shoppes that be are not 
hable to sufiBse the gredines of the byers. For now a 
dayes it is well soldo ware whatsoeuer a man attempteth 
ypO the Ghospell."— Preface to Mark, % t. Terso. 

Neither was this eagerness confined to the common 
people. In the preface to St. John, N. Udall 
obsenres : — 

** Neither is it now any strauoge thypg to heare jentle 
weomen in stede of most vain communicacion aboute 
the moone shynyng in the water, to Tse grane and eub- 
stanncial talke in Qreke or Latino with their housebandes 
of godly matiers. It is now no newes in Englande to 
see young damysels in nobles houses & in the Oourtes of 
princes in stede of cardes and other inBtrumStes of idle 
trifleyng to haue cotinually in their handes either 
Psalmes, Omelies, and other deuout meditacions, orels 
Faules epistles, or some boke of holy scripture matiers." 
—Preface to John i. rerso. 

E. B. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

"CoifPARISONS ARE ODIOUS " (6"» S. iv. 327, 
479; viii. 624). — Mr, Birkbkck Tbrrt does 
not seem to be aware that this matter has already 
been before the readers of " N. & Q." I am sorry 
that I cannot give a proper reference as to the 
time of its appearance, but the General Index for 
the last ten years would probably show iL As it 
is, I may as well repeat that this well-worn saying 
occurs in Boiardo's Orlando Innamorato, canto vi. 
stanza iv. 1. 1. The comparative merits of Orlando 
and Binaldo call forth this expression. Mr. 
Gasooigne's mention of it is obviously a quotation, 

not an original remark. The date given by your 
correspondent (1576) is about a century later than 
that of the Orlando Innamorato. M. H. B. 

I distinctly remember noting— but too long ago 
to recall the exact passage — the occurrence of this 
sentiment incidentally, and not necessarily as a 
quotation, in an eshortation to charity in some 
writing of St. Theresa (1515-82). B. H. Busk. 

" Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Tkrrestris " 
(6* S. ix. 87). —The translation of this title is 
evidently Parkinson's Terrestrial Paradise. Para- 
(2t<us=»park, tn=in, sole (ablative of soO»=sun, 
taken by a punster's licence as equivalent to son ; 
consequently Paradisxis in «o2e=rarkinson, Para* 
diet in so2«= Parkinson's. The repetition of Paro- 
diit^ts intensifies the puo. W. B. 

Finchley Road. 

I believe the title '' Paradisi in Sole ''to be a 
witty translation of the author's name, Park-in- 
sun. BOBBRT Hooo. 

Frekch Provrrb (6* S. ix. 89).— The corre- 
sponding English proverb is ''Mention not a 
halter in the house of him that was hanged" 
(Georse Herbert, " Jacula Prudentum ; or, Out- 
landish Proverbs," Works, p. 312, Gassell, s.a.). 
The first edition was in 1640. 

Ed. Marshall. 

According to Littr^ this proverb implies, *'I1 
ne faut point parler en une oompagnie d'une chose 
qui puisse faire k quelqu'un un secret reproche," 
oilling to mind the answer of an individual when 
asked about his grandfather, " He disappeared at 
the time of the Assizes, and we asked no questions." 

William Platt. 

Oallis Court, St. Peter^s, Thanet. 

' Naw Words (6** S. ix. 67, 86).— Mr. Bandall 
says that Annandale's Ogilvie contains 130,000 
words, being 12,000 more than any dictionary 
previously published. This can scarcely be; for 
an^ one who looks in Hyde Clarke's English 
Dxdionaryf which was first published thirty yean 
ago, and to which I was a contributor of new 
words, will see that the number of words in English 
was then above 130,000, being first raised by him 
above 100,000. I have also added many new 
words in my Dictionary of Trade Produce and 
my Dictionary of Useful Animals and their Pro^ 

ducts, P. L. SiMUONDS. 

TuRTLB (6* S. i^F. 69).— Eating turtle in Eng- 
land in 1763 was a sufliciently remarkable thing 
to be noted in the Oentkman*s Magazifie, p. 441 : — 

" Friday, August 31.— A Turtle weighing 360 Ibe. was 
eat at the King's Arms tavern, Pall Mall ; the mouth 
of an oven was taken down to admit the part to be 

It was evidently served up cooked in various ways, 




and probablj^ gave general satisfaction. In the 
same magazine for the following month (p. 489) 
there is another reference to the subject: ~ 

'• Satniday, September 29. — The Turfeler, Capt. 
CnytoD, Iftitely arrived from the island of Ascension, 
has brought in MTeral Turtles of aboye 300 lb. weight, 
which haTe been sold at a very high price. It may be 
noted that what it common in the West Indies is laxury 

There is a curious account of a City turtle feast in 
No. 123 of the World, May 8, 1750, in which it 
is said, " Of all the improyements in the modern 
kitchen, there are none that can bear a comparison 
with the introduction of the Turtle.** Dr. Johnson, 
in his hut folio, of 1773, gives : '< Turtle, used 
among sailors and gluttons for a tortoise." Even 
BO late as 1789 turtle was deemed rather a novelty, 
for in the prologue to The Dramatut^ brought out 
that year, the writer, Bobert Merry, introduced 
turtle as a new fashion: — 

" These modes, howe'er, are alter'd, and of late 

Beef, but not Modesty, is out of date ; 
Por now instead of rich Sir«loins, we see 

Green caliptsh, and yellow calipee." 

Edward Sollt. 

English HuNTiNa Casrou (6** S. ix. 70).— In 
Bobert Browning's Flight of the Duehest occur the 
"Since ancient anthors held this tenet, 

' When horns wind a mort and the deer is at siege, 
Let the dame of the castle prick forth on her jennet, 

And with water to wash the hands of her liege 
In a clean ewer with a fair toweling, 
Let her preside at the disemboweling.' " 

This is not quite so bad as the lady herself giving 
the death wound, but surely barbarous enough. 
John B. T. Lovedat. 

The Luthkr Family (6* S. ix. 49). — In 
Bnrke's Dictionary of the Landed Gentry, 1853, 
voL iii. p. 154, is some aocount of this famUy. He 
says: — 

'*The Lnther family who were kin to the great Re- 
former, settled in England in the reign of Henry YIII.; 
bnmehee of great respectability exist, or did exist, in 
Ssnx and Somersetshire, and from the latter county 
WM derived the Irish branch." 

The Somersetshire family had a grant of arms in 
1614, Argent, two bars sa., in chief three round 
bncUeeaz.; crest, two arms embowed in armour 
ppr., holding in the hands a round buckle. They 
removed to Youghal about 1650. There are two 
Lnther pedigrees in Owen's Visitation of Essex, 
1634, Harl. Boc., (1) of Bichard Luther of Staple- 
ford Tawnev, with three generations in descent ; 
names William, John, Thomas, Bichard, and 
Anthony ; (2) of Bichard Luther, of Mileses, in 
the parish of Eelvedon, with two generations ; 
names Anthony, Thomas, Bichard, and Gilbert. 
The arms the same as those of the Somersetshire 
lAthen. In the first pedigree the name is given 
lAther als Sewett. In Hunter's Mi^tary of Lon- 

ilon^ &c., 1811, ii. 543-548, it is stated that the 
first mention of the family is in a Grown lease, 
dated 1545, of the manor of Albins, to William 
'*Luter''; that John Luther, who lived at Staple- 
ford Tany, died in 1567; and that the brothers 
Bichard and Anthony Luther, who died in 1627, 
then held the manor of Miles. Bichard Luther, 
of Miles, died in 1767. His son John Luther, of 
Miles, was M.P. for Essex 1763-83, and died in 
1786. He was, I believe, the last male represen- 
tative of that branch, and the estates then passed 
to his nephew, Francis Fane, M.P. for Dorchester. 

Edward Sollt. 


ix. 49). — We learn from the biographical supple- 
ment to the Biographia Literaria, 1847, pp. 347- 
354, that on Oct. 4, 1795, Ooleridge married 
Sarah Fricker at St. Mary Bedcliff Church, and 
that they then went to reside at Gevedon. (This 
was six weeks before Southey married Edith 
Fricker.) Leaving his wife at Clevedon, Coleridge 
went on a preaching tour, by Worcester, Birming- 
ham, Derby, Nottingham, Sheffield, Manchester, 
and Liverpool He appears to have started earlv 
in January, 1796, and before the end of the month 
he was recalled from Liverpool to Bristol by his 
wife's illness. She had left Clevedon while her 
husband was on his tour. At Bristol they resided 
with Mrs. Fricker on Bedcliff HilL I conclude, 
then, that their residence at Clevedon could not 
have lasted more than three months. C. M. L 
AthensBum Club. 

S. T. Coleridge was married to Sarah Fricker 
at St. Mary Bedcliff Church, Bristol, Got. 4, 1795, 
and went to reside at Clevedon immediately after, 
but only remained there a few weeks, removing to 
Bedcliff Hill, Bristol, before the close of the jrear. 
One of the most beautiful of his poems, entitled 
Bfflectiom on having left a Place of lUtiremmt, 
is a description of his Clevedon cottage and its 
surroundings. Much information on the subject 
will be found in Beminiscences of S. T. Coleridge 
and R Soufhey, by Joseph Cottle, London, 1847 ; 
also in The Life of 8, T, Coleridge, by James 
Gillman, vol. i. (all published), London, 1838 ; and 
an interesting article in the Art Journal, 1865, by 
Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall, entitled Sanvael Tayler 
Coleridge, which is illustrated with views of his 
cottage at Clevedon, James Gillman's house at 
Highgate, and S. T. Coleridge's chamber therein, 
and the tomb of Coleridge in the old chapel yard 
at Highgate, now enclosed in the crypt under the 
new chapel of Sir Boger Cholmeley's Grammar 
School. George Potter. 

GroTO Road, Holloway, N. 

It was on Oct. 4, 1795, that Samuel Taylor 
Coleridge brought his bride, Sarah Fricker, to 
Myrtle Cottage, at the western extremity of the 
viUage of Clevedon. Here, during hb twentyr 

uigiiizea oy 'v.jv^v^ 




[6tb S. IX. FsB. 9« '84. 

foarth year, morning, noon, and night, with his 
^olian harp in the casement and his wife beside 
him, he sat pondering, reasoning, and enjoying. 
The rose peeped in at the chamber window, 
and he could hear at noon and eye and early 
mom the sea's faint murmur. The next year was 
his annus miraJnlis. The cottage is still standing, 
whitewashed and ugly. The inscription, " Coleridge 
Cottage," is the only thing to arrest the attention. 
Beferences to his life at Clevedon may be found 
in Coleridge's EeflecHans, The Ancient Mariner, 
Biographia Literaria, and Cottiers Early BecoHec- 
tioni. The Watchman was started at Clevedon, 
and Listed for ten weeks. The Myrtle Cottage 
shown at Porlock is far more romantic. If W. M. 
cares to see any of the guide-books to Oleyedon, I 
shall be happy to lend them. 

Edward Malan. 

BowLiNQ (6«> S. ix. 48).— I may refer G. H. T. 
to a somewhat scarce book, The Compleat Gamester, 
which devotes a few pages to bowling, though the 
information given in the edition before me, pub- 
lished by Curll, 1739, is not of much* practical 
value. Perhaps the 1721 edition would be more 
useful. This, however, I have never seen. 

Gborqe Bed WAT. 

York Street, CoTont Garden. 

See, under ** Bowl- Alley," Halli well's Archaic 
Dictionary, where several references will be found. 
John B. Wodhams. 

HANGiNa IN Chains (6^ S. vlii. 182, 353, 394, 
501).— Whatever may be the case as to the earliest 
instance of the hanging in chains being in 1381 
(u.«., p. 501), the exposure of criminals was an 
enactment of the civil law : " Famosos latrones, 
in his locis, ubi grassati sunt, furca figendos placuit ; 
ut et conspectu deterreantur aTii, et solatio sit 
cognatis interemptorum, eodem loco poena reddita, 
in quo latrones homicidia fecessent" (Ft, xlviii., 
xix., xxviii., § 15). The statute 25 Ueorge II. 
0. 37, while it required the body to be given up 
for dissection, left it optional with the judge to 
direct the hanging in chains or no ; so that all the 
more recent examples of the practice which have 
been stated in " N. & Q.'' from time to time since 
that date are so many instances in which the judge 
has exercised his power of exceeding the severity 
of the law. Dissection was abolished, as before in 
use, by the statute of 1 & 2 William lY. 

Ed. Marshall. 

Mr. Blenkinsofp must be in error in saying 
that Winter was hung in chains on Alnwick Moor. 
There is no record of any such thing in any of our 
local histories ; but Hodgson, in his Northiimher- 
land, narrates how William Winter, Jane Clark, 
and Eleanor Clark were executed at the Westgate, 
Newcastle, for the murder of Margaret Crozier, at 

the Baw, in the parish of Elsdon, Northumber- 
land. Winter's body was hung in chains at Sting 
Cross, in sight of Margaret Crozier's house, a dis- 
tance of some twenty miles from Alnwick Moor 
" as the shot flies ''—rather a long shot for Ma. 
B., sen. G. H. Thohpson. 


Is Mr. Blenkinsofp certain that the profane 
act he mentions was so done? I hope he 
may find some error. Let him again strictly 
examine the evidence, for nothing is more common 
than a mistiiJce as to the real author of an action 
done long ago ; and surely nothing less than 
absolute proof should induce one to believe that a 
Christian man oould do such an act. 


Woodleye^ Cove, Famborough. 

Erratuu in Jeremt Taylor's "Li7b of 
Christ " (6"» S. viii. 492).— There is another inter- 
pretation besides that which Mr. Bugklbt men- 
tions in stating that there is a twofold mistake in 
Jeremy Taylor, u,8. It may ^uite as well be 
that Taylor is adding the three thousand in Acts ii. 
41 to the five thousand in Acts iv. 11, which 
makes up the number of eight thousand, and ex- 
plains the '' few days longer." Cornelius a Lapide, 
in loc, observes, ''Di versa prorsus sunt hfisc quin- 
que millia, a tribus millibus prima Petri conoiona 
conversis. Quare iis adjecta efipoerunt ooto millia." 
He takes the same view with Jeremy Taylor. 

Ed. Marshall. 

Your correspondent Mr. Buckley has written 
about an erratum in Jeremy Taylor. If any 
one will take the trouble to refer to Acts of the 
Apostles, iv. 3, 4, he will see that the bishop ii 
right, and that there is no error. 

J. W. Hardican. 

JBRB3I7 Taylor's " Holy Dying" (6"» S. viiL 
492). — There is a still stranger mistake than tiiat 
of the oyster and tortoise in Jeremy Taylor's 
French {Holy Living, ch. i. § i., Eden's edition, 
vol. iii. p. 12). Taylor says that Biantes the 
Lydian *^ filed needles" He took the story from 
the French, where it is said that ^ Biante, roy des 
Lydiens, enfiloit dea grenouilles^' (Caussin, La 
Cour 8ainte, pt. i. 1. i. § 6). Eo. Marshall. 

Peter Jackson : Philip Jackson (6*** S. vii. 
429 ; viii. 67, 98, 292, 433).— Though unable to 
afford " any proof that a Sir Peter Jackson was 
co-existent with Sir Philip," I am in a position to 
point to a probability that Mary, the first wife, 
and Elizabeth, the second wife, of Boger Morris, 
were not sisters, because Sir Philip's daughter 
MarjE is said to have died unmarried, '^ and her 
nieces, the daughters of Boger Morris, lived with 
her in Qeorge Street, Hanover Sc^juaie, until their 
respective marriages." The question, therefore, is. 
Who was Mary, Soger's first wife, if not the 

uigmzea oy %_jv^v^ 





danghter of Sir Peter Jackson! We can haidly 
Hoppose that the Morris family supplied an in- 
correct statement of this matfcer (so lar as Philip's 
daughter Mary is concerned) to the Landed 
Gentry, But the proTalence of the name of Jack- 
son renders it extremely baffling to any genea- 
logical inquirer; and unless the will of Jane, 
Lady Jackson, names her daughter Mary as having 
married £oger Morris, there would seem to be 
some probability of '*Sir Peter" having been as 
much an entity as ''Sir Philip." The widow of 
the last named might fairly describe William 
Donster as her '* brother-in-law," by reason of 
the Holford-Vandeput alliance; and if Mary 
Yandeput married Sir Peter Jackson, then we 
not only have the parentage of the first Mrs. 
Morris, but also that of John Jackson, " merchant 
and oylman," of St. Anne's, Westminster. 

J. S. 

If an obituary notice in the GenUeman^t 
Mtigazine of 1731 can be relied upon, there 
was a knight of the name of Peter, and the 
accaracy of Burke has been rather unfairly 

guestioned. It runs thus, "Aug. 14. The Be- 
et of Sir Peter Jackson, Daughter of Sir Peter 
Yandepat." Surely there could be no confusion 
in 1731 of Peter and Philip. Nevertheless, it is 
a carious fact that at this very time, Aug. 18, 
1731 9 Dame Jane, relict of Sir Philip Jackson, 
was buried at St. Dionis Backchurcb. From the 
Diocesan Begistry at York I have ascertained that 
Peter Jackson, of Whitby, and his wife Susannah, 
whose epitaph in Whitby churchyard was given 
by J. S.y left issue Peter, who lived to an advanced 
age, if he be identical with the Peter Jackson of 
Whitby, administration of whose goods was granted, 
June 20, 1725, to his son William ; and Gkorge, 
who died in 1682, leaving issue John, George, 
Elizabeth, and Jane, then married to Jonathan 
Watson. W. F. Marsh Jackson. 

Sir Francis Burnhau (6'** S. ix. 1).— Sir 
Francis Bumham represented Granpound in the 
Parliaments of 1603 and 1614, and Maidstone in 
the two last Parliaments of James I., and all those 
of Gharles L except the first (1625). He must 
have died about 1646 ; the new writ for Maid- 
stone to fill the vacancy caused by his death was 
issued November 11 in that year. He was alive in 
1644, as his name appears in a list of members of 
the House of Commons bearing that date. 

Alfred B. Bbaveit^ M.A. 


BoTAL QuARTRRiNGS (6** S. viiL 407, 523 ; ix. 
98).— Fortunately Strix only believes that the 
lines given at the second of the above re- 
ferences are those "through which the Duke 
of Leeds and the Duke of Marlborough would 
he entitled to quarter the royal arms," for 

'^Matilda" was sister, not "daughter, of Lord 
PercT, whose maternal grandmother Mary [was] 
daughter of Henry, Earl of Lancaster ''; and even 
had she been, she could not have transmitted the 
right to quarter royal arms, that distinction having 
vested in the descendants of Blanche of Lancaster, 
the first wife of John of Gaunt. As a royal 
descent does not necessarily convey a royal quar- 
tering, the remaining remarks relative to the Duke 
of Marlborough are beside the question. 


Jolt (6*'* S. viii. 495).— Bichard Newoome was 
Bector of Wymmington in 1662, and was suc- 
ceeded, on his resignation in 1698, by his son 
Bichard Newcome, who died Dec. 31, 1732. 

F. A. B. 

Jaubs and Charlis Adahs {6^ S. viii. 515). 
— Some information regarding these brothers will 
be found in Foster's CoUectanea Oenealogiea, pt. ii., 
'' Members of Parliament, England," pp. 14, 15. 


Impropriations (6* S. viiL 495 ; ix. 51^.— A 
Papal bull of impropriation is given in " N. & Q.," 
4^ S. xi. 448. Prof. Boqers mentions the annexa* 
tion of the rectory of Purleigh to the provostship 
of Oriel as a single recent instance. But are not 
the cases in which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
have annexed rectorial estates to sees or cathedrals 
equally so ? In each case there is a severance of 
the tithe from the spiritual interests of the parish 
in which it arises. And this seems to be of the 
essence of impropriations. Ed. Marshall. 

Inscription on Cleopatra's Nkrple (6*^ S. 
viii. 517).— Sir Erasmus Wilson, in his work Our 
Egyptian Obelisk : Cleopatra's NeedlSf published 
in 1877, says : ** The interpretation of the writing 
on the obelisk has as yet been deciphered only on 
its three accessible sides ; but the legend on those 
sides is made known to us through the labours of 
Burton and Ohabas.'' 

EvERARD Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

English Burial- orounds (6**» S. viii. 423).— 
By way of sequel to what is said at the abevc 
reference, perhaps I may be allowed to add the 
following words from the Saturday Beview of 
Dec. 29, 1883 :— 

" The dead are at a great disadTantage as compared 
with the liying. The Hying can stand out for a price, 
the dead must take whateyer is offered ; and one con- 
sequence of this distinction is that in large towns rail- 
way companies show a decided preference for catting 

through grayes We dig up our dead, not that the 

community may be happier, but that the partners in a 
firms of carriers may find their purses heayier when the 
half-yearly balance is distributed. The new railways 
coidd in most cases be made just as easily if the grares 
were ayoided. The whole matter resolyes itself into a 
comparison between the coat of ground covered with 

uigmzea oy %>jk^v^ 





brick and the cost of ground filled with bones. The 
Great Bastem Railway Company has lately been saying 
money in this way in the parish of Bethnal Qreen. A 
new line is being carried across the Peel Qrore burial- 
ground, and deep trenches have to be dug in order to 
' make a bed for the piers which are to support the arches. 
The report of the medical officer says that these trenches 
are cut through a solid mass of coffins." 

There will be many such sequels as this ; bat 
" N. & Q.'' can no more afford space to record 
them all than it can record all the oases of churches 
ruined and monuments destroyed under the plea 
of " restoration.'' We have thrown up our straws, 
others will soon see how the wind is blowing. 

A. J. M. 

Sir Hbnrt Hatbs (6«* S, ix. 10).— Possibly 
the following extract from the MS. ^'Book of 
Pasdons," &c., of Ireland in my possession may 
be of interest. The then Clerk of the Crown 
issued a certificate of the conviction of ^' Sir Henry 
Brown Hayes," found guilty "at Cork, 6"» April, 
1801, for feloniously carrying away Mary Pike 
with Intent to marry her. Ord^ to be hanged. 
Del* 21*" Sept'." This was a preparatory step 
to the commutation of his sentence to trans- 
portation; and I find that another celebrated 
indlridual preceded Sir Henry Hayes immediately 
in this strange catalogue : "Like for James Napper 
Tandy at Lifford 16 Sept', for High Treason: 
ordered to be hanged. Del'* 16'** Sepl'." 

W. Frazbr, F.R.a8.I. 

"Itinerary" op Richard op Cirencester 
(6"» S. ix. 10).— That this work is a forgery has 
often been stated. For instance, Dr. Cunningham 
Bruce, in his recent and most successful lectures 
at Edinburgh, showed, while discussing the con- 
tributions of Stukeley to the history of Boman 
Britain, how the forger had " taken in *' that dis- 
tinguished antiquary, actually introducing facts 
into the Itinerary for which Stukeley's own 
writings were the sole authority. I would refer 
your correspondent to Hill Burton's Higt, of Scot- 
land (vol L pp. 60-61) as the most easily access- 
ible authority. There, in a long and yery amus- 
ing foot-note, the forgery is discussed, and seyeral 
sources of further information indicated. 

Alex. Fergusson, Lieut-Col. 

United Seryice Clab, Edinbargh. 

The forgery that goes under his name is entitled 
De situ BritannicB. That it is a forgery has 
been proved to demonstration by the Be v. John 
E. B. Mayor in his Bicardi de Cirencettria Specu- 
lum HistoriaU (Bolls Series), vol. ii. pp. xvii- 
clxiv. Edward Peacock. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

Marrow (6* S. viii. 368).— I think Mr. 
Mathew's query about the word marrow^ which 
is rendered by Jamieson as " match " or '' equal,'' 
has zemained unanswered. May I, therefore^ 

suggest that the derivation is not Teutonic, bat 
Celtic ? Marr or a-mar means a bond or binding, 
and the French still use amarrer in this sense for 
tying up a boat Marr is also the root of the 
Latin maritus, French man, and is, therefore, 
much akin to marriage. See Ballet, Mimoires twr 
le Langu^ Celtique, "My marrow ** is much as 
though one should politely say '' my better half." 
E. a. M. Lewis. 

Binding by the Nuns op Little Giddistq (6'* 
S. viiu 496). — In the exhibition of ancient and 
modern bookbindings at the Liverpool Art Club, 
in November, 1682, a volume was shown which is 
thus described in the catalogue : ** TentoHoM^ 
(heir Nature, Danger, and Cure, by B. Capel, 
London, 1636, 12mo. Sides and back embroidered 
in silk, in a varied coloured latticed pattern, by 
the Nuns of Little Gidding, bordered in silver 
thread." The book is the property of John New- 
ton, M.B.C.S.Eng., of this city, a well-known 
collector of books, MSS., bindings, and prints. 

E. S. Ni 

Art Club, Lirerpool. 

Sir Walter Maknt (6* S. ix. 26, 78).— It is 
possible that Herhentrijde may be right in her 
suspicion as to the orthography of tne famous 
Edwardian warrior's name, but Sir Nicholas Harris 
Nicolas is against her, and, to all appearance^ Sir 
Walter Manny himself. In Test. Vei,, vol L 
p. 85, the will of Sir Walter is printed, and alike 
in the will itself and in the index to the book. Sir 
Nicholas gives his name as Manney. The will 
is cited in Burke's Dormant and Extinct Peeragee^ 
1883, 8,v,, where the ordinary orthography, Manny, 
is adopted. But for Manny there seems at present 
no real authority, since local pronuncbtion is no 
doubt answerable for the form cited by Mr. Bird. 
If Hermbntrude should be sufficiently interested 
in the question, she might probably satisfy herself 
as to the accuracy of Sir N. H. Nicolas by con- 
sulting the Harleian MS., which he evidently 
followed. As Sir Nicholas corrects Dugdale on 
certain points there would be nothing gained by a 
reference to that source. 

I find, on further investigation, that the oidinaiy 
spelling, Manny, adopted by Sir Bernard Burke is 
borne out by the valuable Calendar of Lambeth 
Wills, by G. W. Marshall, LL.B., printed in the 
Oenealogidy and occurring in at p. 128, where 
the relative entry runs thus : — " Manny, Walter 
de, Et, Charterhouse, London. 1372. 120b. 
Whittleseye." I dare say Sir Walter himself used 
more than one mode of writing his name; but until 
better proof can be given for the form Mauny, the 
ordinary Manny seems to have nearly as much in 
its favour as the Manney of Sir N. H. Nicolas, 
and either of the two latter forms would seem to 
be of more authority than Mauny, Mawney, or 
Mawenny, An additional confirmation of tbp 

uigiiizea oy ^..jvj'v^ 


&» 8. IX. foil. 6. 'M.] NOTES AKD Q UERIES. 


ordinary use seems to be afforded by Bymer's 
Fcedera (Hague ed.X vhere the index gires Sir 
Walter and others of the name ander ** Manny," 
and ander that form only. 

0. H. E. Carmichael. 
New UniTersity Club^ S.W. 


Tke OejUUman*» Magazine Library, Edited by G. 

lAurenee Gomme, r.8.A.— ifatinerf and Customt, 

Ths OenUeman't Magatine ii a huge repertory of infor- 
mation into which antiquaiiei and scholari of all sorts 
are compelled to dig. Except, perhaps, one or two 
French and German collections, no existing work con- 
tains so much to reward the explorer. Exploration Is, 
howerer, necessary, and the seeker after special forms of 
information knows how arduous and toilsome a search 
ii often requisite. The idea of extracting from the yast 
mass of heterogeneous matter, much of it necessarily of 
temporary interest, such portious as are worthy of pre- 
serration in a readily accessible form has already been 
entertained. A Sdution cf Curiout Articles from the 
SenUeman't Magatine, by John Walker, LL.B., Fellow 
of New College, 3 toIs., 1809, subseauently expanded 
into four, ran through three editions in fiye years, and 
retains a certain yalue. The selection now commenced 
is intended to extend to fourteen yolumes, and to extract 
all of yalne that the magazine has said upMon the subjects 
with which the reprint deals. Judging from the 
Tolume now issued, the series is likely to be of highest 
interest Mr. Gomme in, of course, an acknowledged 
authority on foeial customs. His task of selection has 
been earefnily and competently accomplished, and his 
introduction supplies all that is necessary to reading the 
work with profits The diyisionsover which the extracts 
extend consist of "Social Manners and Customs," 
** liocal Customs," and *' Games," the first and most im- 
portant class being subdiyided into (1) "Customs 
connected with a Certain Period," (2) "Miscellaneous 
Coatoms connected with Certain Localities," (8) *' Agri- 
cultural and Land Customs," (4) '* Marriage Customs," 
<5> " Funeral Customs," (6) « Birth Customs," (7) " Pa- 
geants/' (8) <' Feasts," &c. Of these, "London Pageante," 
which occupies fifty pages out of a volume of three 
hundred, is the most important The chief con- 
tributor under this head is John Nichols, the author 
of Tke Progrettee and Processions of Queen EHzahefh, 
one of the most learned editors the GenUeman*s Maga- 
lint has known. ** The Burlesque Festirals of Former 
Ages *' is also a long and importent essay. Under the 
hMd of "Games" much information is supplied with 
regard to " beecben roundels." A few yaluable notes 
a^ an admirably comprehensive index are added. It 
is impossible to go in detail through a work the con- 
tento of which are miscellaneous. There is, however. 
nothing that is superfluous. One or two mistakes need 
reetifieatton in a subsequent edition. Of these the most 
nnportant is the substitution of Lancashire for Lincoln- 
shire in Mr. Oliyer's description of " Village Customs at 

Humour, Wit, and Satire of ike Seventeenth Century, 

Collected and Illustrated by John Aihton. (Chatto k 


VioM the inexhanstible mines of the British Museum 

Xabiaiy Mr. Ashton baa dug ont a lar(^ and most curious 

collection of seventeenth century jests and satires. Some 
of them arOp of course, dull enough now, for there is 
nothing in which one age differs more from another than 
in ite sense of humour. Others are well known to ns in 
other forms, old friends under a different garb from that 
in which we have been accustomed to see them; but 
when all exceptions have been made the collection is 
very amusing, and for thoughtful people is in many 
ways highly instructive. The depreciation of woman 
which was charactesistic of former days comes out 
strongly here. We are thankful that it does, as it fur- 
nishes evidence that cannot be gainsaid that we are on 
the road to better things. It does not amuse now any 
but the lowest of the people to hear one-half the human 
race made the subject of coarse lampoons. Mr. Ashton 
says in his preface that "political satire ought to be a 
work in itself, so that I have but sparingly used it." 
There are, however, a few political songs and jeste that 
we should have been sorry not to have seen. The song 
called "The Brewer" is very interesting. We do not 
think, however, that Mr. Ashton has reprinted the best 
copy extent We have met with it under the title of " The 
Protecting Brewer," with some better readings than 
those he has given. The last verse is importent, as it 
shows what were the anticipations of men as to the title 
that Oliver Cromwell would assume if he changed the 
protectorate into a monarchy : — 

" But here remaines the strangest thing, 
How he about his plots did bring. 
That he should be Emperor above a King." 
There is evidence both in the printed and unprinted 
literature of the time that it was a widespread opinion 
that Oliver was about to proclaim himself emperor. 

Epitaphs, especially humorous ones, are commonly 
very dull affairs indeed. Mr. Ashton has discovered one, 
on a scholar, in WiVt Heereations, which is, when com- 
pared with the general run of such oompositioDS, not 
without merit :— 

"Forbeare, friend, t'undaspe this books, 
Onely in the fore front looke, 
For in it have errours bio. 
Which made th' authour call it in : 
Yet know this 't shall have more worth, 
At the second coming forth." 
It is but fair to mention that the book is emiched l.y 
reproductions of many of the quaint woodcute with 
which the ballad and chap-book literature of the time 
was adorned. We wish Mr. Ashton had given us an 
exhaustive index. Such a thing would entail much 
labour if done well, but it would very materially add to 
the value of the collection. 

The ffitlory of the Tear : a Narrative of the ChiffEvenU 
oflntttistjrow. Oct, 1, 1882, to Sept. SO, 1888. (Cassell 
& Coi) 
Asa rule, compilations of this kind are shunned by the 
general reader as conteinine nothing but a mass of dry 
facte and uninteresting details. Messrs. Cassell, however, 
have done their best to take away the reproach under 
which annual histories have laboured, and have pro- 
duced an exceedingly readable volnme. Domestic 
affairs, foreign politics, the history of the colonies 
and foreign countries, trade and finance, religion 
and morals, science, art, literature, the drama, music, 
sporte and athletics, fashion and dress— all these subjects 
are treated in an interesting, though necessarily conciee, 
manner. In addition to these articles there is a full 
obituary and an appendix giving many useful statistics, 
including liste of the Houses of Lords and Commons. . 
With regard to these liste, we think that if they were 
corrected up to the date of publication, instead of up to 

uigiiizea oy 





Sept. 80, 1888, they would be of more practical utility. 
A lilt of the Cabinet and of the other officers of the 
administration might aleo be added with adTantage. 

The first three numbers haye reached us of the Revue 
JnternalionaU, publuhed in Florence on the 10th and 
26th of each month. It is under the charge of that 
most indefatigable of workers and scholars Count Angelo 
de Qubematis. The object of the editor is to make the 
new publication what its name implies. All idea of 
riralry to the Hevue det Deux Mondw is dtso?med. The 
contributors to the numbers which haye already seen 
the light include M. Jules Claretie, who writes on M. 
Victor Hugo, Herr Earl Blind, Prof. Max MttUer, M. 
BmUe de Layeleye, and other equally well-known writers. 
The commencement is satisfactory in all respects. 

No. 5 of Mr. Phelps's edition of Stormonth's Die- 
Uonary (Blackwood k Sons) brings the work about half 
way through the alphabet Its yalue remains unim- 

To their rapidly increasing " Vellum • Parchment 
Series" Messrs. Field k tTuer haye added a work of 
genuine interest. The Narrative of ike Pilgrimage of Sir 
Richard Torkington to Jenualem. which claims to be 
the oldest diary of English trayel, and is now printed 
for the first time. They haye also added You Shouldn% 
a companion yolume to DonX but more entertaining 
than its predecessor, and Are We to read Backwards t 
ft little treatise on the efiect on the eyes of reading print. 

^oticeif to CorrcKpontcnU. 

We muil call special atUniionto the following nUicet: 

Oh all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

1?B cannot undertake to answer queries priyately. 

Lklasd Noel {** Unto the manner [manor 1] bom"). 
^Jlamlet, I. iy. lo :— 

'* And to the manner bom." 
In the manumission by Henry VIII. of two yilleins the 
following words are used : " We think it pious and meri- 
torious with God to manumit Henry Knight, a taylor, 
and John Herle, a husbandman, our natiues, as being 
bora within the manor of Stoke Clymmyaland" {Barr- 
StaUt 276). On this Rushworth {Skakespiare lUutiraUd 
If Old Authors, 1.47) says "Manor is here [in Shak- 
speare] used, probably, in a double sense, as in Love*s 
LalHtur's Lost, I. i. 208, where it is contrasted with 
manner. It is of little importance whether the word 
be spelt manner or manor, the mention of one would 
suggest the other, which is idem sonans, but different in 
meaning." See American Variorum Shakespeare, ed. 
Fbraess, yol. iii., HamUt, yol. i. p. 79, note. 

De. C. Taxbueiki, Blilan (" Lord of the lion heart/' 
|[c.).— The lines for which you inquire are the opening 
of Smollett's Ode to Independence, which begins thus :— 
*' Tliy spirit, Independence, let me share, 
Lord of the lion heart and eagle eye. 
Thy steps I follow with my bosom bare, 
Nor heed the storm that howls along the sky." 
W<yrks, ed. 1800, yol. iii. p. 497. 

A. 0. H. ("Lady Greensleeyes '*).— The ballad of 
" Lady Greenslceyes'^' appeared m A MandefuU of Plea- 
sant Delites, 1584, and was included by Mr. Chappell in 
his collection of National Bnglish Airs, An interesting 
contribution from Mr. Chappell appean in **N. k Q.," 
itk 8. Yiu, 99, Other conunnniGaaons on the subject 

may be found 6ti> S. ^i. 475, 550 ; rili. 56. Lady Green- 
sleeyes is simply a light o* loye to whom a deserted loyer 

Thoxas Biddlb (" Barber's Pole ").—" The striping 
is in imitation of the ribbon with wnich the arm of a 
person who has had blood let is bound up, to indicate 
that the barber was originally also a sort of surgeon." 
See the Imperial Dictionary. A brass basin, supposed 
to hold the blood, was often hung at the end of the 
pole. Consult Don Quixote. 

E. L. L. ("Joseph Knibb, Clockmaker").— Inquiries 
concerning this man haye thrice been made in '* N. k Q." 
See 6t>> S. I 29 ; yi 29 ; 6th s. y. 829. Answers were sup. 
plied &^ S. L 116 ; ri. 166; 6^ 8. y. 878, 416, 487 ; yi. 72, 
188. All obtainable information seems to haye be«i 
exhausted, and there can be no justification for repeat- 
ing the query. 

Rowland Steoko ('* Music to Beranger ").'^Mutiqui 
des Chansons de Beranger, Airs Notes Anciens et mo* 
demes, Edition reyue par F. B^rat, Qrayures d*apr6s 
Grandyille et Baffel, 8 yola, is published by MM. Gamier 
Freres, and is obtainable of MM. Hacnette k Co., of 
King William Street, price forty -eight francs. 

Parody (** The Half-hundred of Coal ")•— The parody 
in question, which is by the late Jas. Braton, and first 
saw the light in the Siratford-on-Avon Herald, appears 
in Mr. Walter Hamilton's collection of Parodies, part 8 
(Reeyes k Turner). 

K. A. Waed (" Hame came our good man at e'en "J.-^- 
In the notes to Byron, Don Juan, canto i. yerse 181, a 
yerse of this song is quoted, with the reference, *' see 
Johnson's Musical Museum, yol. y. p. 466." The song 
also appeara in more than one compilation. 

Ladt Null (45, Charles Street, Berkeley Square) 
will be obliged by information concerning Sussex iron« 
When was it in use, and to what purposes was it putt 

H. PuGH (" Orthopedic ").— The distinction between 
OS and <e in italic typo is small, but still perceptible. In 
roman type no misUke is possible. 

Ahor. ("Fairest lips that oyer were," &c.).~Fnll in- 
formation concerning the poem to which you refer ia 
supplied 6ih S. riiL 508. 

H. A. W. (" To corpse ").— This is one of many out- 
ternary and coarse ways of menacins the infliction of 
death. It is horribly familiar in London. 

J. E. W. C* The Case is Altered ").-See «'N. & Q./' 
511* s. y. 408; yl. 16 ; x. 276; xi. 139. The subject of 
" BUlycocks " is fully treated 6th 8. u. 224, 855 ; iiU 77; 
iy. 98. 

W. Haines (''Passage in Twelfth ilTi^Ai ").-ShaU 
appear in our next batch of "Shakspeariana." 

FiirAHOs.~The questions you ask are ontside our pro* 

M. N. G. (Poiznoli, Naples).— Letter receiyed. Shall 
be forwarded so soon as we secure the address of our 
correspondent for whom it is intended, 

S. W. ("Nature is made better by no mean," Ico.).^ 

W. P. BAiiDoir ("Palej Family").— Will appear. 


Editorial Communications should be addreaied to ** The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'"— Adyertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "-at the Offiost, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leaye to state that we decline to retom com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no osoeptlon* 

uigiiizea oy x-j 


(j*8.ix.p!ai9,'84i NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Conducted by CHARLES DICKENS. 

The JANXTABT PAET, now nady, contains-' 


A Serial Stoiy by BASIL. Just commenoed. 



Tills interesting Series of Historical, Legendary, and Deacriptiye Papers will be continued so as to 
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Conducted by CHARLES DICKENS. 

1*116 JANTTABY FAUT, now ready, contaioa— 


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CONTENTS.— N« 216. 
NOTES :~H«ioef and Heroines of Fiction, 121~OrkDe7s. 122 
— TJnton Chuitr Payments, 125— Joshua and the Eattle of 
Beth-hotoo, 126— AnthenUdtj of Ossian, 127. 

QTr£BlE8:-Oarisbrooke, 127-Zein-Jean GaUe-Portraii 
of Mardiioness de Coigny^Chaffe Familj— Colonrs for the 
Months— Annlstioe—Shakspeare Qnerj, 128— Fabnloos 
Norman— French Newspapers— Cnstom at Boyal Chapel— 

Capt Kennedy— Abraham Smith— George IIL's Watch— 
"I hope to God"— MoUtee lUnstratioDs-FIeet Prison— 
Heraldic— Archaic Word*— "I>ecameron/' 129— View Treee 

-Dr. Wild-Pitargo, 180. 

SIPLUSt— " Notes on Phrase and Inflectionp" 180— Date of 
Bp. Barlow's Consecration, 181— Anodyne Necklace : Snssa- 
raia— W, V. F, 132— " Oh, bold and true "-JShag-eard- 
"Id on parle Fran^ais "—King James's "Book of Sports," 
183— Epsom Prose— Thames at Oxford— Philamori— Jewish 
Wedding Getemony, 184 — Wedding Cnstom — " In medio 
natiob* &c— 'John Delafons— Dandy, 186— William Lloyd, 
Bishop of St Asaph— Books relating to anfTolk— Portraits 
at Baton- Lady F., 186-Samian Ware— Popnlar Snper- 
Btttions — ** Boasi-beef " — Christmas in Monmouthshire- 

Nathan the Composer— Hair-powder— '* Bonndheads before 
Pontefract " — Plea for Book-buying, 137 — P( 

^y-and-by—Shakspearian Query— FoUo Editions of Chaucer 
—"Eternal fitness of things*' — Kepublican Calendar— 
Cramp Blngs, ISS^Matthews Fan^y— Fyse— "SoUtary 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-fltreatfeiId's "Linoolnihire and the 
Danes"— Gill's "Biver of Golden Sand "-O'Bell's '* John 
BnU and his IsUnd "— Lach-Ssyima's *' Aleriel." 

Notieea to Gonespondents, &c. 


Great excitement was lately caused by the news 
that the old cnriosity shop in Poitsmonth Street^ 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, was to be palled down. It 
has been shown, almost beyond a doubt, that the 
boildbg IB an impostore so far as its literaij pre- 
tensions are concerned. It is nnoertain if Dickens 
erer saw it^ and the honse does not agree par- 
ticularly well with the descriptions given in the 
stoiy. Mention is made of doorsteps, which do 
not exist in the honse in Portsmonth Street, and 
other dissimilarities could be pointed out. But 
to enthusiastic relic worshippers this is of not 
much importance. The place, we read in the PaU 
AfaU GasuiU^ was beset with crowds anxious to get 
a sight of lAttle Nell's dwelling. Photographers 
blm&ed up the street with their apparatus, and 
artists were sketching the quaint old building, with 
its over^hanging rooiand red tiles. Beporters were 
taking notes, and Miss Mary Anderson herself in- 
risted upon drinking a dish of tea in the parlour. In 
a later number of the same journal a correspondent 
wrote that in Fetter Lane there is another curio- 
rity sho^, which was well known to Dickens, and 
has oertuxily equal claims with the house in Ports- 
moQth Street to be considered as ihe Curiosity 
fihopi I hare no intention of examining the 
of these riTal candidates for archseologioal 

fame ; we shall probably hear of others in different 
parts of London. 

The homes and haunts of the heroes and heroines 
of fiction have always possessed a strange foscina- 
tion— greater, indeed, than those of the poets and 
norelists themselves. Few travellers stop any 
time at Marseilles without visiting the Chateau 
d'lf, and gazing with a shudder at the casement 
from which Monto Cristo was thrown into the 
sea. But Dumas's* house at Paris is seldom in* 
quired for. 

At the end of the last century Hampstead was 
the constant resort of pilgrims who came to search 
for <'the Upper Flask,'' where Lovelace took Clarissa 
Harlowe for an airing, accompanied by two of 
Mrs. Sinclair's nymphs, and where the unhappy 
heroine afterwarcb sought refuge from her lover's 
persecutions. Mrs. Barbauld telates a storv of 
a Frenchman who came to England expressly to 
see the Fhtsk Walk, and was much disappointed 
that they could not point out to him the exact 
house where Clarissa lodged with Mrs. Moore. 
Few sight-seers, I suspect, cared to visit the quaint 
old Queen Anne house in the North End Koad, 
Hammersmith, where Bichardson wrote several 
of his novels. The house is still standing, and 
has been recently described in these columns, but 
nothing is left of the summerhouse where Miss 
Mulso and her friends listened (not without blush- 
ing. Dr. Watts wrote) to the story of Clarissa, 
and heard with eager delight how Pamela eluded 
the designs of her wicked master. 

I remember some time ago making an expedi- 
tion to the Castle of Elsinore. It is not by any 
means modem ; but it was built long after the 
time when the supposed prototype of Hamlet was 
prince of Denmark. It was impossible, however, 
to look on the old walls with indifference ; and 
even when the guide pointed out the brook where 
Ophelia was drowned, I could not resist a certain 
clmrm while watching the bubbling streiftm. It 
was, I suppose, the desire to give a local habita- 
tion to my sentiments of admiration for the poet's 

The subject is alluded to in a number of the 
Quarterly Review which appeared many years 
ago. I wish that I could quote the passage, but I 
cannot put my hand upon it. The writer, I 
remember, narrates with a graphic pen the en- 
thusiasm felt by the English army in Spain while 
marching through the district described inCer« 
vantes's famous romance. Notwithstanding the 

burning heat, the length of the march, and the 
hardships endured by the troops, neither officers 
nor men showed any symptoms of fatigue, so great 
was the interest felt by all at the thought that 
they were passing throu^ the scenes of Don 
Quixote's fulventures. By every brook they 
looked for Dorothea sitting on the bank and wash- j 
ing her feet by the stream, an^»leiit^ turn of thi [C 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [^ s. ix. feb. le, '84. 

road they expected to meet the knight of the 
wofol ooantenance followed by the fjEdtuol Sanoho 
PaDEa. The reriewer tells of another oocasion 
when a French army took posBesdon of some city 
in Spain^ and notldng was thought of by the 
troops but discoyering the gaol where Gil Bias 
had been formerly imprisoned by order of the 

It is needless to giye farther instances of the 
interest we feel in those spots which the genius of 
great writers has made classic ground. A few years 
after deaUi^ and these same writers are, with few 
exceptions, forgotten, or, at best, haye become mere 
shadowy forms ; but the creations of their fancy 
liye for eyer, and time only intensifies the reality 
of their existence. To mention only the two names 
to which I haye already referred— Richardson and 
Dickens. The st^ry of their liyes, their familiar 
haunts, and the homes in which they liyed and 
wrote haye now a mere antiquarian importance ; 
but Clarissa Harlowe and Loyelaoe excite almost 
as much interest, among certain classes at least, 
as in the days when Kichardson was besieged 
with letters imploring that Clarissa might be 
sayed and Loyelaoe brought to repent and saye 
his soul. And Little Em'ly and Dayid Copper- 
field are, perhaps, better known to the present 
generation than when^ thirty and odd years ago, 
twenty-fiye thousand copies were sold each month 
of the well-known green coyers of Dickens's moat 
popular noyeL It may seem strange that I should 
mention Clarissa Barlows as a work enjoying 
equal popularity with David Copperfield, But it 
has a public of its own. Unlike Eobinson Crusoe 
and The Pilgrim's Progress, Bichardson's famous 
noyel acquired at once the approyal of the upper 
and middle classes. Its readers are still numerous,*^ 
but of a humbler sort. The work holds its ground 
as a classic ; but its chief circulation is among the 
country people and inhabitants of agricultural 
yillagee. I haye neyer examined the contents of 
a country book-hawker's wallet without finding a 
copy of Pamela or of Clarissa Harlowe, and the 
pedlars haye often assured me that these two 
pooks are still in great demand. 

I shall conclude my note with a quotation from 
a lecture deliyered by the late Prof. W. K. Clif- 
ford. He oonsidered that not only do particular 
places deriye a charm from the works of poets and 
scholars, but that nature itself becomes more 
beautiful in our eyes by ''the thoughts of past 
humanity imbedded in our language": — 

" If a scientific man looked at the stars and considered 
their motions, it seemed to him as if he was in the pre- 
sence of an intelligence, and was talking to somebody ; 
and it was the thought of Plato and of Aristotle and 
of Ptolemy and subeequent astronomers which was 
boond ap with his notion of the heavens, that all these 

great men were actually talking to him whenerer he 
looked at the stars. In the same way the poet, when 
he looks round upon a beautiful scene in nature, feels as 
if he were looking upon the face of a friend. All the 
sensations of beauty that haye been in the minds of 
preyious poets are imbedded in language, in the general 
conceptions by means of which he thinks of this scene, 
and it Is they who are looking out with their dead eyes 
upon the scene which he sees round him^—Seeing and 
Thinking (1880), p. lU. 

F. G. 


* It is needless to mention the edition of Richardson's 
^orkf recently issoed. 

{Concluded from p. 65.) 
Students of Early English literature, or those 
who may wish to trace back to their simplest ele- 
ments the forms of modem speech, will find a large 
field of study in Orkney. Many words of Norse 
origin used by early English authors, and now 
considered obsolete, will there be found in use. 
For example, in the expression formerly employed^ 
^* The sons of Bur," this last word is deriyed from 
an old yerb bua, to prepare, or to inhabit. Eyery 
important dwelling on the islands is termed a &Ct 
(pronounced 5oo), and the occupant used to be 
called bxiandiy or, in a contracted form, hondi, the 
word formerly quoted from Ben, who states that 
at the time of his yisit to Orkney, in 1529, it was 
employed to signify ''guidman." From this word, 
meanmg to prepare, come such Orkney words as 
boon, ready, and booney, outfit. A fishermaa 
speaks of his booney, meaning thereby his tackle 
and all his fishing gear. Some confusion seems to 
haye arisen in the North of England among the 
Norse-speaking population, during the decay of 
the language there, between bua and binda, to bind, 
or, more properly, between their two part, forms, 
bondi or buandi and bundu. This has led to 
seyeral mistaken etymologies in modem EngUsli 
words. The error is first apparent in a writtea 
form in the translation of the French romance of 
Sir Tristram, produced about 1270 in the North of 
England. Bondi is therein found to be replaced 
by *' bondsman '' (swvus). It neyer had any such 
meaning. In some parts of England "bonde- 
man *' is still employed in its original sense. The 
prefix kus, as in *' husbandman " and '* husband," 
although existing in the latter form in Norse, 
seems to be somewhat of a pleonasm. '* Husband" 
has often been stated to be yery expressiye, aa 
signifying the bond that united the household. 
It neyer had any affinity with the yerb " to bind/' 
and meant simply householder. Wickliffe, in his 
translation of the Bible, has it '* hus-bonde." Bua 
has also giyen us " neighbour," Norse nabui. la 
its refiectiye form of buask it has giyen us the 
word " hnskJ* Dr. Vigfusson, in a paper contri- 
buted to the Philological Society's TransacUons 
for the year 1866, has supplied a large list 
of extracts from British aathon^ andent and 
modem, wherein the word is lued. He oonsldeim 

uigiiizea oy x.-j Vv^v^/pt lv^ 

«* S. IX. F»8. 16, '8i] 



that i% most hare been introduoed into SooUand 
bom Orkney or Soaadinavia not later than the 
twelfth oentozy. 

Another word that may be mentioned as capable 
of being eladdated throngh its analogy with words 
in nse in Orkney ie ^'oflfal." In eyery dictionary 
it is stated to mean what falls oS, and to be com- 
posed of off and faU, This seems very simple 
until one reflects that the word does not mean what 
falls off, bat what remains as a residue or refuse 
after all that is worth has been taken off. The 
betitioos meaning has then been giyen^ as is not 
unficeqaently the case in EngUsh dictionaries, to 
suit a supposed etymology. I submit to the 
readers of *<N. & Q.^ that the root of this word is 
vol, i^m vala, to choose, and not faU. The 
Norse eqairalent is or-val, i. e., refuse, literally 
what has been rejected as worthless. The word 
vala had a very extensire use, and enters into the 
formation of many old and new words. In Orkney 
there are two words of similar etymology and 
almost similar meaning — orvxiU and oubwaU, 
The Towel a retains its full sound, as in/aU, and 
has not been softened, as we find it in Chaucer, 
" Wailed wine and meats," or with Bums, '' He 
waUi a portion with judicious care." 

There are some interesting peculiarities in the 
use Oi the yerb taka^ to tsSce. A tak means a 
lease, as of a farm ; it also means a catch, as a 
catch of fish. AfiaJi is a joke at a neighbour's 
expanse, and an ifUdk is a swindle or a swindler. 
These prefixes are separable ; to take off in to cari- 
catare, to take in is to cheat. This might be con- 
tinned at great length, and beyond the limits of 
'* N. & Q." A yaluable list of Orkney and Shet- 

. land words, collected by Mr. Edmonstone, will be 
found in the yolume of the Philological Society's 
Trans€iUion$ for the year 1866. 

It may be interesting to show in a line or two 
how the Norse has suryiyed in its contact with 

-the Anglo-Saxon. As may be naturally supposed, 
two languages so closely allied could not be 
brought into close contact without becoming 
assimilated. In some of the more remote islands 
the original sounds and some of the words are still 
retained. A natiye talks of his hond (hand), 
fingr (finger), or his fit (foot). Some of the old 
words have been retained through a similarity of 
sound with English words. A fisherman will tell 
yon after a gale that the weather is lowsing. He 
does not thereby mean loosening, or that the 
wind ia going to break out again. He means that 
it is mmlerating ; the word he employs is logn, 
calm. He may also pusszle a stranger by speaking 
of A tohUher of wind, Korse hvi^ay a BG[uall. During 
a snowstorm it is said to be mooring ; the word 
is vgcUin^ literally grinding. This fignratiye ex- 
pKoion is often found in the Sagas. The drifting 
snow is oompared to meal falling from the mill 
See an aeooont of King Olaf and his friend the 

scald Sighyatz oyertaken by a snowstorm on the 
DofiraQtffi, Sighvatz Saga. 

The Orkney buandi was a tiller of the soO, bat 
he was also its proprietor. He inherited the pro- 
perty that his ancestors had captured. He was 
not at the same time dependent on any superior, 
as deyised by the feudal system. Each one had a 
yoice in the Thing in all discussions relating to 
common interests and goyernment His custom 
was to till and sow his lands in the spring, to 
embark in Yiking expeditions during the summer, 
and to return home in time to reap his crops in 
the autumn. The winter was passed in festiyi- 

The written history of the islands dates from 
thearriyal of the Nortlimen. Harold the Fair- 
haired haying obtained entire sway oyer the 
kingdom of Norway, the chiefs whom he had sub- 
dued, to show their dissatisfaction, left the conntry 
and settled in Iceland and the Orkneys. From 
the latter they continued to make descents on the 
coasts of Norway, to nreyent which Harold fitted 
out an expedition, and haying oyercome theuL took 
possession of the islands, and appointed his mend 
Bonald, Earl of Moeri, to be tiie goyemor. This 
latter delegated the office to his brother Sigurd^ 
who was shortly afterwards killed in an expedition 
against the mainland of Scotland. His son suc- 
ceeded him, but died a year after his father, when 
the dignity again reyerted to Bonald, who now 
delegated it to his son Hallad, who was found 
unfit for the office, upon which another son be- 
came a candidate to retrieye the family honour, 
which it was thought had been tarnished by the 
misconduct of Hallad. This son was no other 
than Rolf, known as Ganga-Bolf the Walker, who 
subsequently captured Neustria from Charles the 
Simple of France. He being destined to play a 
more conspicuous part in the world's history, the 
Orkney earldom was giyen to his half-brother 
Einar. This line of earls held princely sway oyer 
the islands of Orkney and Shetland and one or 
two of the northern counties of Scotland for 
seyend centuries, and frequently intormarried 
with the royal family of Scotland. The earldom 
was frequently held conjointly by brothers or 
cousins, each bearing rule oyer a part of the 
islands. This joint authority led to numerous 
internal wars. 

Two brothers, Paul and Eriend, ruled thus oyer 
the islands in 1066, when Harold Hardrada, King 
of Norway, haying allied himself with the Saxon 
Earl Tostig, fitted out a large expedition in 
Norway to inyade England and attack King 
Harold. He sailed first to Shetland and then to 
Orkney, where he left his queen and his two 
daughters. Both earls joined the expedition with 
a yery large number of followers. On their defeat 
by Harold at the battle of Stamford Bridge and 
the death of Hardrada^ the Orkney earls, t<^ether 

uigmzea oy '^..jvv^v^ 



NOTES AND QUERIES- ic^ s. ix, pkb. i6, '84. 

with Hardrada's son Olaf, were allowed to leare 
England with all the troops that remained to 
them. They Bailed to the Orkneyv, where Olaf 
remained during the winter, and then returned to 
Norway, where he subsequently became king 
along with his brother Magnus. 

On a somewhat similar occasion in 1263 Hakon 
Hakonson, King of Norway, fitted out a large 
fleet to inyade Scotland. He spent the preyious 
summer in Okney to complete his preparations. 
After hia defeat at the battle of Largs he in 
like manner withdrew to the Orkneys^ where he 
died in the bishop^s palace in EirkwaU, the ruins 
of which still remain in the neighbourhood of St. 
Magnus Cathedral Although Paul and Erland 
had ruled conjointly In harmony their two sons 
were unable to agree. After a prolonged quarrel 
Hakon killed his cousin Magnus in the isumd of 
Egilshey in 1110. The latter was subsequently 
known as St. Magnus. His nephew Eolison, who 
assumed the name of Konald, made a yow to build 
a cathedral in Kirkwall if he succeeded in obtain- 
ing his uncle's property in Orkney. On the ac- 
complishment of his object he laid, in the year 
1136, the foundation-stone of that building, which 
still remains one of the finest structures of northern 

Earl Ronald was one of the most remarkable 
men of his time. Much is related of him in the 
Orkneyinga Saga. He was of middle size, well 
proportioned, and very handsome. He was yenr 
affable and popular, and highly accomplished. 
When quite young he made some verses, of which 
the following is a translation: — 

"At the game-board I am skilful, 

No fewer than nine arts I knew ; 

Runic lore I well remember; 

Books I like; with tools I 'm handy ; 

Expert am 1 on the snow shoes, 

And with the bow, 1 pull an oar well ; 

And besides I am an adept 

At the harp and making verses." 

He has left many specimens of Scaldic verse, and, 
as a further proof of his proficiency in the art, he 
produced conjointly with Hall Ragnason, of North 
Ronaldshay, a rhyming dictionary, which Torfsens 
states to be still extant in the library of Upsala. 

In the autumn of 1152 he left Orkney with fifteen 
ships to visit the Holy Land. The expedition sailed 
first to Scotland and then along the coast of Eng- 
land. Off the mouth of the Wear they had stormy 
weather. Armod, a scald with the expedition, 
sings, ''High were the crested billows as we 
passed the mouth of Hvera ; masts were bending 
where the low land met the waves in low 
sand reaches ; our eyes were blinded with the 
salt spray." Much is related in the Saga of 
their stay in Fiance, where the vision of a fair 
lady called Ermingerd seems to have cleared the 
salt spray out of their eyes. The banqueting and 
gallant speeches of the Norsemen are related in a 

style worthy of Froissart. The choicest epithets 
in their scaldic repertory are lavished on this fair 
object They passed their Tuletide in Spain, 
and, to use their own expression, harried the 
Moorish part of the country without scruple. 
While at anchor here a violent storm overtook 
them. It lasted three days, and the waves were 
so violent that the ships almoet foundered. Then 
the earl sang, " Here I am, storm-tossed but un- 
daunted, while the cables hold and the tackle 
breaks not as the vessel breasts the billows." A 
little later they were running through the Straits 
of Gibraltar before a fair wind, and the earl's 
muse is again heard : '^ By an east wind breathing 
softly as from lips of Yaland (French) lady our 
ships are wafted onwards." When they had pass^ 
into the Mediterranean Sea, Eindridi Ungi, one of 
the leaders of the expedition, separated from the 
earl with six ships and bore up for Marseillea. 
When off the island of Sardinia the earl captured 
a large Saracen ship after a very severe fight At 
Crete they delayed for some time, and at length 
reached Acre, where they landed with much pomp, 
of which Thorbiom Swarti sang, " Oft have I with 
comrades hardy been in battie in the Orkneys, 
when the feeder of the people led his forces to the 
combat Now our trusty earl we follow as we 
march with our bucklers before us gaily to the 
gates of Acre on this joyous Friday mominf." 
This poet's joy was short lived; a disease broke 
out on board the ships and he died with others. 
A brother scald. Odd! Litli, sang of him, " BraTely 
bore the Baron's vessels Thorbiom Swarti, soJd and 
comrade, as he trode the sea-king's highway ; now 
he lies low under earth and stones in that southern 
land of sunshine.'* Earl Bonald and his men left 
Acre and visited all the important places in the 
Holy Land. He and Sigmund Ongnll bathed in 
the Jordan and swam across the river. On their 
return homewards they passed a part of the winter 
at Constantinople, with their countrymen the 
Yerengiar, at the court of Manuel I., successor to 
John Comnenus, who ruled the Byzantine empire 
from 1143 to 1180. They were warmly welcomed 
by the emperor, and received munificent offers from 
him to enroll themselves among his guards. The 
leaders of the expedition left their ships on the 
shores of the Adriatic, and after having visited 
Rome they proceeded home overland to Denmark 
and Norway. 

In the neighbourhood of the Stones of Stennis, 
formerly mentioned, is a tumulus known as 
Maeshow which, on being opened a few years 
ago, was found to contain a subterranean chamber 
with fragmentary runic inscriptions on some of 
the stones. It is therein stated that the Ork-howe 
had been broken open by the '' Jorsala-far^rs," or 
Jerusalem joumeyers. There is little doubt but 
this building is the Orka-haug mentioned in the 
Orkneyinga aaga. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Ok a IX. Fbb. 16, '84.] 



An inddent reUtiiu; to Earl Ronald has 
lately been disooyend in Upsala on two 
fxagmonts of manosoript^ which had been cat 
np for binding porpoies. It not only giyes an 
insight into his affable character, bat also offers 
•a erident pictare of the erery-day life of the 
islanders at that period. The incident is in- 
daded in Uie edition of the Orkneyinga Saga that 
has been translated onder the direction of the 
Master of the Bolls, bat which has not yet been 
pnblished. It is as ifollows :— 

** It happened one day south in Danroesness Bay^ in 
Ebeiland, that a poor old bondi remained long by his 
boat) while all the other boats had rowed out to sea as 
soon as they were ready. There came to the old bondi 
a man with a white cowl, and asked him why he did not 
row out to the fishing as the others. The bondi replied 
that his crew had not yet come. * Bondi/ said the man 
with the cowl, ' wilt thou that I row with thee ? ' * That 
I will,* said the hondij 'bat I mnst have my boat's share, 
for I have many bairns at home, and I strive to provide 
for them as I can.' Then they rowed out towards Dun- 
roisness Head and Hand Holm. The roost, or tidal 
earrent, was very rapid where they were, and the eddv 
strong; they proposed to remain in the eddy and to fish 
ont of the roost. The man with the cowl sat in the bow 
of the boat and andowed fa local term still in ase, mean- 
ing to row with a pair of sculls], while the bondi fished 
and bade him to take care not to be drawn into the 
roost. The cowled man paid no heed to what he was 
lold by the hondi, who, however, had some experience. 
A little later they found themselves in the roost, and 
the hon^ was sore afraid, and said, ' Miserable, unlucky 
man was I this day when I took thee with me to row, 
fqr I most here perish ! ' And he was so alarmed that 
ha cried. And the cowled man said, ' Be quiet, bondi, 
and do not cry, for the hand that let the boat into the 
roost will be able to pull her out of it again.' He then 
rowed ont of the roost, and the bondi was very glad. 
They next rowed to land and drew up the boat, and the 
himdi asked the cowled man to go and divide the fish ; 
bat he bade the former to divide them as he liked, and 
said thnt he would not have more than a third. fXhis 
is still the practice among fishermen, the boat's snare, 
that belongs to the owner of the boat, is equal to a man's 
sihare.] There were many people come to the shore, 
both men and women, and many poor people. The 
cowled man gave all his share of the fish to the poor 
people, and prepared to gp away. He went to climb 
OTer the ' breaks,' or low cliffs, where many women were 
•eated» and in going up, the ground being slippery from 
rain, he sprained his foot and fell off the cliffs. The 
woman who first saw him laughed much, as did all the 
other people. When the cowled man heard it, he said, 
'The girl mocks much at my uncouth dress, and laughs 
more than becomes a maid. Early this morning I went 
to sea ; few would know an earl in a fisher's garb.' He 
then went away, and afterwards it became known that 
the eowled man had been Earl Bonald. The saying, 
'Few would know an earl in a fisher's garb ' became a 
well-known proverb." 

It is tiras seen that the earl oonld both rhyme 
and low. He was killed in Caithness in 1158, 
nboat three years after his return from the Holy 
Land, by a murderer, whom he had banished from 
Oflcney. He was canonized in 1192. 

It is erident firom these and other examples 
that might be giren, that the Orkney biranoh of 

the old Nonnan stock had not deteriorated even 
in comparison with the other branch in Normandy, 
l^e latter, no doubt, occupied a more important 
sphere, and was brought into contact with different 
influences, so that it became changed. In Orkney, 
being confined within a more limited space, as in 
Iceland, it long retained its primitive character. 
All who admire the predominant qualities of the 
race ought to yisit the Orkneys, and see what 
there yet remains of their language and customs, 
their churches and castles. 



The following extracts from the accounts of the 
charity founded by Sir Henry Unton, in 1691, for 
the benefit of the inhabitants of the port of 
Faringdon, Berks, are copied from the original 
ledgers, still preserred in the Unton chest. Only 
such entries of payments hare been omitted as 
were illegible or entirely without interest An 
account of the charity has been given in the Union 
Inventorietf p. Ixvi; the Gentleman's Magazine 
for 1796, p. 1070; and The History of Faringdon^ 
p. 65. 

1596. Nono die Novembris A*no Regni d*ae nVe 
Elizabeth zzxviiiA. It is agreed by consent of all the 
ffefees that those p'sons that shall hereafter be chosen 
after the disease or any of the said ffeffees to survive anye 
of thorn : the last twoo p'sons that shall be chosen shall 
at any occasyon of meetinge or conference to be hadd 
amongst them warne all the rest of the ffeffees to the 
saide meeting or conference. And uppon the chosing of 
any new ffeffees or ffeffee they or hee so chosen shall at 
the same tyme make all the rest of the Company to 
drink uppon their owne charges that are so chosen by 
the rest of the said ffeffees. 

1596. Nono die Novembris A*no Begni Elizabeth 88«». 
Whereas there was gyven to the poore of ffarringdon by 
one James Lord diceased the some of xvi' to continewe 
the use thereof to the poore for ever and delivered into 
the hands of John Handy and Robert Barber whereof 
xiii> by them lent to 8' Henry Unton knight towards the 
purchasing of the fayres and marketts. 

Marche xxv*** 1597. Item R'seved of the iiij tennants 
for one Ladies days Bent due to the Lord of the manor 
in the yeare of our Lord God 1697 V vij'*. 

The only other items for this year are the pay- 
ments of rent to the Lady Dorothy Unton ; of 
interest on " 4(^ to the Poore paide to John 
Handy''; and moneys lent to Bobt. Nightingale. 

1598. Tertio die Julii Anno Begni d'ne n*re Elisa- 
beth 40^i>. It'm Beceived the daye and yere above 
written of Henry Qodfery Bobert Tomas and Bobert 
Nitinggale Tennants of the towne land iiij* x* due to 
bee paide at the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin St. 
Mary before the date hereof and paide to John Harrison 
Constable of the hundred iiij* towards the payment for 
the port for the first payment of the two ffiftenes nnto 
her ma**. 

Paid to Tob^ Collyer for a hole yere for keping the 
Towne armor iiij'. 

It*m it is ordered and agreed uppon at the present 
meeting by consent of all the ffeffees that from hence 

uigiiizea oy VjjOOV Iv^ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8.b8.ix.F8B.i6.-84, 

forth and for and during the whole yeares oontajmed 
and ezpreased within the towne lease that eyry yeare 
and from yeare to yeare there shal be elected and cnoBen 
out of the zv ffeffees v erry yeare to take charge of 
Buch gome or somee of money as shal be received to the 
use and beholf of the Port of Ffarringdon : viz. appoynted 
for this yere John Handy, Robert Barber, James Ffrster, 
£)dward Collyer, Edmond Carter. 

15d2. A note what is promised by the Inhabitants of 
ffarringdon & other persons for the obtaynini; of the old 
charges to be Rendered and the chaynging of the mon- 
days markett to tuesday and also for Two fayr days 
more, one the feast of purificaoon of St. Mary k St Bar- 
tellmew the 12th of September 1592, & towards a markett 

Imprimis the honorable Sir henry Unton knight lord 
of the manner. 

Mr. Lewes the Tioar z*. 

1601. Thezizi^dayeof Aprill. Paide to Toby Collyer 
for keping the Towne Armor out of the saide money 

Paide more to William Steyens for a girdl and hangings 
for a Sword out of the saide money ij» Tiij*. 

Paide to John Gill and William Barbar Tythingmen 
for earring of armor to Wantag out of this money zviij**. 

This said daie and yere within written it is agreed by 
all the ffeffees whoose names are under written that all 
the saide ffeffees by their generall consents doth de?ise 
gmunt and to ferme lett and sett by Parrole to Robt. 
Nitingale Henry Godfery and Edward Worthin Inhabit- 
ants of the Port of ffarringdon All that The Thirtie thre 
Acres and a half of Arrable Lands according and agreable 
to the former graunt before ezpressed yett to ronne and 
nnezpired So that the saide Tennaunts shall not dooe or 
cause to be done any thing contrary to the true intent 
and meanynge thereof. 

1601. The zxi»»« daye of October. There remayned 
uppon the last accoumpt in the hands of William Sterens 
zzxTi" z* whereof paid for Gayle money vi' ffor Soul- 
dyers zi' more for Souldyers iiij' y\^, more for captayne 
Trigh zij*^ there remayneth uppon this accoumpt due 
XX' iiij**. 

Received of henry Godfrey for his halfe yeres zxy* yi*. 
Rec'd Ed. Worthie zziiij' yi\ 
Paide to Toby Collyer for the Towne Armor in full 
sateefaction untill this daye and all other Reckyngd ix*. 
Paid to John Handy for my ladyes rent y* y\j\ 
Paide to James ffoster for the making of Watsons 
coat ztI**. 

Paide to Watson for his yeres wages due at St. Michel! 
last past y'. 

There Remayned in the hand of the foresaid ffeoffes 
the day and yere within written zlyi'. 
D' to Edward Colliar as ffollow« 

for carriage of a letter to mr Hurlyes ij*. 
ffor s. p. y\ 

more for the beadles cote to Svmon Turner yl* ij"*. 
for a keye k boz to david colliare and Wm. 

Stevens z'. 
Paide by me Edward Collier for the hying of a 

statut bnclce v*. 
Paide to Robt Nitingale ii'. 
Paid to Toby Collyer for half a yere for kepinge 
the towne Armor due to him at lady daie ij*. 

1602. The zzy(i> daye of Marche. Paide to John 
Handy for my ladies rent y* vli^. 

Paide to Toby Collyer for the Towne Armor for halfe 
a yere ij*. 

The daie and yere above written there is chosen out of 
the ffeffees to take charge uppon them suohe some or 
somes of moneys as shal be delivered unto their charge 
to the n^e & be holfe of the Port of ffarringdon ylz. 

John Handy James fforster Edward Collyer Robert 
Barbar and John Cowles. And these saide ffyve ffeffees 
BO chosen to be accoumptable thereof at the feast of The 
Anunciation of our blessed lady St. Mary the Yirgyn 
next which said ffeffees have Received into their charge 
the some of zziin*. 

Md. That the daye and yere above written it is agreed 
by the consents of the Inhabitants of the Port That 
the Constable or Constables for the tyme beinge shall at 
the end of his or their yeare yeld a Just and true 
Accoumpt unto all the Inhabitants aforesaide or the 
most part of them for such sume or snmes of moneyes as 
hee or they shall receive for any payments due to her 
Mat' out of the towne stock ir^^ said Acooumpts the sidd 
Constable or Constables shall performe fulfill and keepe 
at or within Tenn dales nezt after his or their discharge 
out of their said offic. 

Paide to watson the zviijti) of June for halfe his yerei 
wages ij' vi*. 

Mor payd to Watson the x^^ of September for his other 
hallfe years wages y vi^. 

Mor spent at the account by the ffefees ij'. 

Mor payd to watson for his wages vj vi^ 

Walter Haines. 

Faringdon, Berks. 

(7*0 he continued,) 

Joshua and the Sun at the Battle of 
Beth-horon. — As this has again become a sabject 
of some discussion, perhaps it may interest your 
readers to remind them that the first person to 
suggest the interpretation of an extraordinary 
refraction causing the sun and moon apparently to 
remain above the horizon longer than usual was 
Spinoza, who, in the second chapter of his TrcLc- 
talus Theologieo-Politictu, says :— 

" An, qusBSO, tenemur credere, quod miles Josoa As- 
tronomiam callebat 1 et (}uod miraculum ei revelari non 
potuit, aut quod luz solis non potuit diutumior solito 
supra horizontem esse, nisi JoBua ejus causam intelli- 
geret? mihi sane utrumque ridiculum videtur; m&lo 
igitur aperte dicere Josuam diutumioris illius lacis 
caupam veram ignoravisse, eumque, omnem(}ue turbam, 
quas aderat simul putavisse solem motu dmrno circa 
terram moveri, et illo die aliquamdiu stetisse, idque 
causam diutumioris illius lucis credidisse, nee ad id 
attendisse, ouod ez nimi& glaoie quss turn temporis in 
regione aens erat (vide Josuss z. 11) refractio solito 
major oriri potuerit, vel aliud quid simile, quod jam non 

It will be noticed that Spinoza, whose object 
was to dispense with the necessity for a miracle, 
here confuses the refraction of the rays of light by 
the atmosphere with their dispersion or scattering, 
and assumes that the appearance was strictly 
similar to such prolongations of daylight as we 
have witnessed in the recent gorgeous sunsets. 
Some late writers (e. gr., the late Rev. T. Milner, in 
his Astronomy ana Scripture) have supposed that 
there really was an abnormal refraction which 
kept the sun (supposed to be near its setting) 
apparently above the horizon for some time longer 
than usual. 

A consideration, however, of the position of tbe 
site of tixe battle and its vicinity shows tbat any 

uigmzea oy %_jk^v^ 


6tt a IX. F«. M, si.-i NOTES AND QUERIES. 


idea of this kind is untenable as well as unnecessary. 
Beth-horon is to the north-west of Gibeon, so that 
ibe son must have been in the south-east, and the 
time of day the early morning* It was the pro- 
longation of darkness, not of daylight, that was 
desired, and this is evident from all the circum- 
stances mentioned in the narrative. The Hebrew 
word translated "Stand thou still," means literally 
'^ Be thou silent," and the object of Joshua's prayer 
was that the sun might not shine out over Gibeon, 
where it was just about to rise, or the moon, where 
it had last been seen nearly setting in the west, 
oyer the yalley of Ajalon, but that the gathering 
tempest might so overcloud the heavens as to 
obscure the landscape and give advantage to the 
attacking force of Israelites. This has been dwelt 
upon by the Be v. A. Sinythe Palmer in the current 
number of the Church Quarterly Review ; but the 
Bey. T Pelham Dale (who had himself written an 
article taking the same yiew in the Christian 
Advocate for 1871) points out in the number of 
the Church Timee for the 8th inst that it seems to 
haye been first noticed by the late Henry F. A. 
Pratt^ M.D., in his Genealogy of Creation^ pub- 
lished in 1861. Dr. Pratt there says (p. 206):— 

"It has been seen that Joahaa's plan was a night 
attack, and that he marched all night to accomplish it ; 
and here is gathered the first clue towards discovering, 
through what was required, what must have actually 

taken place ; for, having marched all night, he would 
neeeenuily not reach Gibeon till daybreak, or so elose 
upon the dawn as to make it only too probable that hie 

plan would fail, through the absence of the darkness 


The words, then, of prayer, afterwards incor- 
porated with many other pieces into the poetical 
book of Jasher, were 

" Let the sun be silent over Gibeon, 
And the moon in the valley of AJalon 1 " 
the word mknt, when applied to the sun, meaning 
*' not to shine." And the end of verse 13 is lite- 
rally rendered by Dr. Pratt, ''The sun re- 
mained in the clouds of the heavens and shone 
not on arising, as (on) an ordinary day." The 
dark tempest was followed, as we all know, by a 
tremendoos hailstorm, which completed the de- 
Btroetion of the rented Amorites. 

W. T. Lthn. 


Thb Attthbhticitt of Ossian.— In the in- 
teresting historical sketch of Kintyre just written 
by the President of the Glasgow Kintyre Club, a 
quotation occurs that is an important contribution 
to the controversy as to whether there were originals 
for Macpherson's famous translation of Osaian's 
poems. It is part of a letter by a Dr. MacKinnon 
vliich appeared in the View of {he Island of 
Arrcm by the Bey. James Headrick, and runs as 
follows : — 

** In the Doke of Argyll's library at Inveraray there 
is a boek el^santly printed in the Gaelic language as 

early as the year 1567 ,* and in the nineteenth page of 
that book, the author, Mr. John Carsuel, superintendent 
of the clergy in Argyllshire, laments, with pious sorrow, 
that the generality of the people under his pastoral care 
were so much occupied in singing and repeating the 
songs of their old bards, particularly those that cele- 
brated the valorous deeds of Fingal and his heroes, that 
they entirely neglected the Scriptures, and everything 
relating to religion." 

Such early and indirect evidence establishes the 
fact that there were quantities of oral traditional 
Celtic poetry from which Macphenon could have 
got the substance of his epics and rhapsodies. It 
is a question for experts like Profs. Bhys and 
MacKinnon whether their English form was in- 
debted to the modem culture of the hiU noire of 
the impulsive and dogmatic Dr. Samuel Johnson. 
To find a book printed in Gaelic at so early a 
period as 1567 is of some general interest, and the 
mquiry might be started whether it still exists in 
the library of Inveraray Castle. T. S. 

We mnst request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to aifix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

Carisbrookb. — Was ever name of place so 
barbarously treated in the course of ages as the 
original name of Carisbrooke ; so knocked about 
by the two genii Phonetic Decay and Folk Ety- 
mology; so transmogrified beyond all possibility of 
Tecognition, if what a distinguished historian says 
be true? Mr. Freeman, in his English Towns^ 
1883, p. 178, says that " the modem name Caris- 
brooke doubtless comes, by dropping the first 
syllable, as in the modern form of Thessalonica, 
from the form Wihtgaresburh.'' This name appears 
in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ad. 630-544, under 
the forms Wihtgaraburh in three MSS., Wiht- 
garasburh in the Laud MS., Wihtgarsesburh, 
Wihtgaresburh. The best form of the name in 
the Chronicle appears to be Wihtgaraburh. What 
is its etymologn^ ? The difficulty is in the middle 
of the word. How is gara to be explained ? Was 
the original form of the name Wihtwaraburh, 
meaning " the fortress of the men of Wight," just as 
Cantwaraburh (Canterbury) means " the fortress of 
the men of Kent " ? But why gara for wara f 1 
would suggest that the change of to too may be an in* 
stance of interpretative corruption. In the popular 
mind the name of the place appears to have oeen 
associated with Wihtgar, the conqueror of Wight, 
according to the CJironicle, a.d. 614, but whom 
Prof. Earle, in his Qhssarial Index, looks upon as 
a rjpias €7r(owfios. The place was supposed to , 
have been founded by Wihtgar, and hence the 
form Wihtgaresburh, " the fortress of Wihtgar," 
and the other forms with s, representing the gen. 
sing. If this be the true biography of Carisbrooke, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6tbaix.FBB.i6/84. 

what an erentfal history the word has had ! Origin- 
ally Wihtwaraburh, '* the fortress of the men of 
Wight/' it became by popular etymology Wiht- 
gareflbnrh, " the fortress of Wihtgar (i. e. the spear 
of Wight) "; then the name was decapitated by a 
generation of articulate speaking men ruthless in 
its laziness ; then the headless Oaresburh became 
Oarisburh ; then the suffix hurh was changed into 
the modem hrook, and the famous historic Caris- 
brooke is the result. Query, How does this bio- 
graphy of the name of Carisbrooke commend itself 
to the Anglo-Saxon philologist ? 

A. L. Mathbw. 
18, Bradmore Bead, Oxford. 

Zeir8.— A query in " N. & Q." for January 12 
relating to a passage in George Eliot's Daniel Dt- 
ronda, in which the strange phrase " Yore-zeit " is 
used, reminded me that I should be glad if any 
contributor to " N. & Q.*' would tell me if he has 
met with another singular word, zHrs, in any deed 
or other MS. of the sixteenth century. The follow- 
ing extract is from ** An Account of the Burgh of 
Aberdeen, p. 52, published in the Miscellany of the 

Spalding Clvb: "Dec. 9th, 1582 dajr of May, 

1582 four scoir and twa Zers, their neames 

efiir following Maid Burgesses, as gentill- 

men— nocht to be occupairis, nor handleris with 
merchandes, gratia consilii." Then follow forty- 
one names of gentlemen of the shire of Aberdeen. 
So many French words had become adopted in 
Scotknd during the reign of the last Stuarts that 
I was led to conclude that the word zers or zeirs 
IB merely a contraction for sieurs or messieurs, 

Wickbam Market. 

Jeaw Galle, Engraver.— What is known of 
this engrayer and his works? His name is not 
mentioned by Strutt of Bryan in their dictionaries, 
nor by Le Blanc. Brulliot, pt. ii.. No. 1472, says: 

" Lei demiires lettres ' J. 0. exc.' d^signent encore 
Jean Galle, qui a pabl!6, avec son nomme on avec ces 
lettres, des eetunpes d'aprds Pierre Breughel le yieux ; 
entr'antres, arec les lettres * J. G. exc.,' deux estampes 
Sntitulies * La Grasse Cuisine ' et < La Maigre Cuisine/ 
pieces en folio en largeur. Nous n'aTons pas trouTd de 
renseignemens aur ce Jean Galle, mais il est presumable 
qu'il 6tait de la famille de Philippe, Comcille et de 
Theodore Galle." 

And in the appendix to the third part, No. 3, he 
giyes another signature, "Jo. Gallceo fe. et ex.," which 
is fonnd on his copy of a wood-engraying by Ghris- 
tophe yan Sichem after a drawing by Henri Golt- 
ztus, r^resentiug Judith gjying to her maid the 
head of Holofemes. BruUiot's conjecture that he 
was a member of the well-known Galle family 
is borne out by the following work : "Speculum 

lUuttriwn Virginum &c., Antyerpioe, Joannes 

GallsBus excudebat," n.d., small 4to., containing, 
beside the engrayed title, fifteen plates of Virgins, 
eleyen after D. Tenier, three after Sebastianus 

Yrancx, and one after J. Galle. Of these, three 
are engrayed by Com. Galle, the remaining tweWe 
haye no name of engrayer ; but all, saye tbe first, 
have "Joan Galle exc, "Joan Galle exc. cum 
Privilegio,** or "J. Galle exc. cum Privilegio.'* 
The series consists of the B.V.M., Saints Agatha, 
Agnes, Apollonia, Barbara, Catharina, Cecilia, 
Christina, Dorothea, Emmerentiana, Juliana, Jus- 
tina, Lucia, Margarita, and Ursula. I haye no 
means of determining whether any others were 
engraved for this Mirror of Illustrious VirginSf 
but shall be glad of further information upon this, 
as well as upon the life of John Galle himself and 
his works. W. E. Bocklbt. 

Portrait op thb MARceioNKSS db Coignt.— 
Where can I find a portrait of the Marchioness de 
Coigny, the favourite of George IV. when Prince 
of Wales, and one of Aim^e de Coigny, Ducbesse 
de Fleury, the friend of Lord Malmesbury ? Both 
lived in England for a long time as imigries, 

Henri van Lau:^. 

172, Lancaster Road, W. 

Chaffe Familt. — I am anxious to know 
from what part of England and in what yeaf 
Matthew Cbaffe and Thomas Cha£fe, who were 
living in 1636 near Boston, U.S. A., went to 
America. The west of England — Devon, Dorset, 
or Somerset — appears to be the likeliest place for 
investigations. Variations in spelling of the name 
are unimportant. I am particularly desirooa of 
obtaining this information. . 

Wm. H. Chaffee* 

P.O. Box 8068, New York City, U.S. A. 

Colours for the Months.— Are any special 
colours connected with the various months, in the 
manner in which precious stones are so associated ? 
If so, is blue, as the colour of the Virgin, associated 
with May as her month? Enquiry. 

Armistice. — I shall be glad of any quotations 
or information which may throw light upon the 
origin of this modern word. Our earliest actual 
quotation dates to 1740, but it appears in 
a dictionary in 1708. When and in what language 
was it first used ? One would expect the answer 
to be " in French,'' but Littrd's first reference dat^ 
only to 1759. The earlier English dictionaries cite 
a Latin armistitium ; does this occur in any 
modem Latin document before 1708? The first 
use of a word so expressly formed must surely 
have been noted. Its model is of Goxine justitium; 
compare also solstitiumf intersiitium. Immediate 
answers had better be sent to me direct. 

J. A. H. Murray. 

Mill Hill, N.W. 

Shakspbark Query. — By which critic was^ 
Bassanio, in the Merchant of Venice, first styled a 
"fortune hunter"? N. N. 

uigmzea oy x.-jvj'v^ 


«.i.8.ix.P£B.i6,'84] NOTES AND QUERIES- 


Fabulous Norman.— Can any of year learned 
readers give me some information aboat a 
*' fabalous Norman,'' who possessed the rare gift 
of inheriting the talents and good qualities of those 
whom he had slain in fight ? What was his name, 
and where is the story told ? P. B. 

^ Frbnch Newspapers Wanted. — Where can 
I look through any French newspapers pablished 
in London during the end of the last and the 
beginning of this century, such as the Journal cU 
V Europe, &c.? The collection in the British 
Museum \b very incomplete. 

Henri van Laun. 
172^ Lancaster Boad, W. 

Custom at a Sotal Chapel. — Can any of 
your readers point me to the origin or to any 
account of the custom, said to once have preyailed, 
of placing on a chair, within the porch of one of 
the royal chapels (on one day of the year), an 
orange, a fork, and a spoon ? Londoniensis. 

Capt. Kennedy. — Can any of your readers 
who are familiar with obituary records of the last 
century indicate a publication in which the death 
of Capt. Kennedy, of the l7th Regiment, who died 
on April 28^ 1762, is recorded ? The papers of 
the regiment state the date, but seem to contain 
no mention of the locality where he died. 

C. M. Kennedy. 

Abraham Smith, of Lindrick or Mollart 
Grange, near Bipon. — Churton, in his lives of 
Smyth and Sutton, says, on Edmondson's au- 
thority, that a branch of the Cuerdley family of 
Smyth settled in Yorkshire. During the seven- 
teenth century there was a family named Smith 
(the spelling was indifferent in those times) near 
Bipon, of whom the following are known. 

1593. Abraham Smith bought half of Burthwayt 
Grange, Netherdale, Yorkshire. 

1594. Abraham Smith transferred the same to 
John Smith. 

1649. Abraham Smith bought Lindrick or 
Mollart Grange, part of the sequestrated estate of 
John Smith, from the Parliamentary Commis- 

There is, or was, "a tablet to Mr. John Smith, 
BectoT of Innbkilling in Ireland,'' placed in Ripon 
Cathedral, date 1652 ; also one to " Mr. John 
Smith, son of Mr. Abraham Smith, of Lindrick ; 
died 1676." Will any one kindly tell me what 
were the arms of this Abraham Smith? Were 
they those of Bishop William Smyth of Lincoln ? 

N. C. Smith. 
Braxton Cottage, Freshwater, lale of Wight. 

Gkorqe III.'s Watch in a Fingbr Rino.—- 
Beqaired, any existing authentic account when 
ike aboye was made for his Majesty, the maker's 
I and address^ and when sold. Supposed to 

have been sold by auction between the years 1818 
and 1823. W. R. M. 

"I HOPE TO God."— How early is this phrase 
in English 1 In 1489 Caxton says, at the end of 
his Fayt of Armes, "I hope to almighti god that • 
it shal be entendyble & vnderstanden to euery 
man.** F. J. Furnivall. 


— I seek information concerning pictures by 
English artists of which the subjects are taken 
from any of Moli^re's plays. I know, of course, the 
five paintings at South Kensington — three by 
Leslie, two by Frith — but wish to be informed of 
others, in either public or priyate galleries. 

Arundel Club. 

Fleet Prison. — I have a large folio register 
of the Fleet during the reigns of James II. and 
William and Mary, giving names of the unfor- 
tunate inmates, and the amounts of their debts, 
&c. Can any one tell me where any other volumes 
are to be found ? J. C. J. 

Heraldic— There is a picture hero which was 
exhibited at South Kensington in 1866 as the 
portrait of Sir Thomas Boleyn, by Holbein, 
No. 101, on which Mr. Planch^ remarked in the 
Builder that it had no claim to be so considered, 
and that it represented some member of the Com- 
pany of Merchant Adventurers, whose arms are 
painted in the comer. There is also a shield, Sa., 
a chevron or between three wolves' heads erased ar., 
on a chief gu. three door staples or, with another 
coat impaled. These seem to be the arms of 
Cooke. Where could I see a list of the Merchant 
Adventurers, so as to identify the person repre- 
sented? S. G. Stofford Sackyillb. 

Drayton House, Tbrapston. 

Archaic Words. — Can any reader give me the 
precise meaning of the following words ? 

ScaueltSf some kind of shovel or digging instru- 

OpopauieiSf a drug. 

FouUoty a drug. 

Oore, " Hasell or gore roddes." 

Olde, oldySf oolde. I have taken this to be weld 
(dyer's weed), but it may possibly be. goldes 
(CJaiendula officinalis), 

Sucktiing, "Behind pillars and arches of 
bridges or such like sxickering places in the most 
quiet water." Tho. Satchell. 

Pownshire Hill, N.W. 

The " Decamerow."— F. Sacchetti, in the pre- 
face to his 300 NoveUe, mentions a translation of 
Boccaccio's Decameron into English. Sacchetti 
lived 1335-1410, and I should like to know 
whether such an early tran^ti§& [5f aoe^{J^4<r 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6th s. ix. pbb. le, 'si. 

vhat was the name of the translator, and any 
other Darticalars regarding it. L. Ricci. 

15, FrithTille Gardens, W. 

Ybw Trbbs called Yikw Trees. — There is 
a farm in Lightcliffe, near Halifax, called Yew 
Trees. I remember seeing a receipt for a quit- 
rent on this farm in the early part of last century 
in which the name was written Yiew Trees. 1 
thought at the time it was an error, but I have 
just noticed in Oliver Hey wood's Diary (pp. 166, 
169 of J. HorsfaU Turner's reprint) view trees twice 
over, A.D. 1679 ; and in his Event Book (p. 213, 
same edition) I find among other trees, ** 4 view 
trees set about my house Sept. 1, 1674.'' Were 
yewi eyer called views f T. 0. 

Dr. Wild. — Who was he? In Heywood's 
Begister I find : "Dr. Robt. Wilde, of Oundley, 
died abtw Aug. 1, [1679J aged 69 **; and again, 
" Dr. Robt. Wild, our famous English poet." 

T. 0. 

PiTABOO. — In the Memoirs of Mrs, PilkingUm, 
rol. iiL p. 107, occur the words, ** I think the philo- 
sopher was in the wrong who wished for windows in 
the human breast," and among other instances of 
hypocrisy mentions " the son who bows his knee 
in filial rererence to his hoary sire, cursing the 
Oout, Pitargo, and the Rheum for ending him no 
sooner." Is " pitargo " a nusnomer of podagra f 

A. S. 


(6* S. Til 501 ; viii. 101, 129, 232,497; 

ix. 32^ 92). 

I must ask for a short space for explanation. I 
see where I have made myself obscure, yiz., by not 
precuBely defining my limits. In saying that the 
form SMded (for sent) nerer existed, I meant tlutt 
it does not occur in any extant written English, 
which is the natural meaning of my words. &fore 
this prehistoric form reached us, it was already 
cut down to sende (short for smd-de). Now com- 
pare this with what Sir J. A. Picton tells us. I 
quote his words : " Send had its original preterite 
tended; but when an attempt was made to reduce 
it to one cfyllable, send^d^ it will be at once seen 
that shit was the ineyitable outcome.''* I will 
now prove formally that this is perfectly well 
known to be incorrect. The attempt to reduce 
the word to one syllable was never made till long 

* This account is the original one ; the account anU, 
p. 92 is different, haring been altered and corrected, 
in conseqaenoe (possibly) of my letter. Moreover, my 
statement that tended never existed is literally troe. 
Sandideda became sandida^ but the next step was to 
send-da, with vowel-cbangei and thence came send^ 
and sende. 

after the Conquest; the written history of the 
word is totally different What really happened 
was that the % of sandida dropped out, thus 
giving sende^ which is the only form in A.-S. 
poetry and is extremely common ; see Grein's 
Worterhuchf ii. 431. In Early English, sende 
sometimes became sente, by a naturd phonetic 
law, as being capable of more rapid utterance; 
after this the e dropped off, and the modem sent 
resulted.*^ This explanation, which is a mere state- 
mept of facts easily verified, is quite different from 
what Sir J. A. Picton at first told us. I may 
add that I am perfectly well acquainted with the 
Gothic forms of the weak verbs, having already 
printed two accounts of them. 

Next take Sir J. A. Pictom's account of loved, 
which is not correct. He tells us : " Loved was 
originally lov-dyd or -ded. It required little effort 
to make the euphonic change to lov-ed." Here are 
three mistakes at once. The original form lav-ded 
is not the right form to take ; the change is not 
" euphonic " when made suddenly, as here directed; 
and the effort to make such a change would have 
been considerable, not 'Mittle." We must start, 
rather, from a form lov-e-ded-e, in four syllables, 
precisely parallel (as an Old English form) to the 
Gothic forms which are referred to. What hap- 
pened was this. First the last de dropped off, the 
reda plication seeming needless.t This gave Zot^e-cb 
(or, in A.-S. spelling, luf-ode). This Smn lov-e-d$ 
lasted down to Chaucer's time. Then the final s 
dropped, and we obtained hv-ed, in two syllables, 
now called Md, in one. 

The fact is that Sir J. A. Picton has fallen 
into the common mistake of supposing that lov-ed 
stands for lov-d-ed, by a dropping out of the former 
d. This error has arisen from not understanding 
the origin of the e, which even Dr. Morris some- 
where calls " a connecting voweL'' It is nothing 
of the kind, but a part of the root. Weak verbs 
end in Gothic in 'j-an and in A.-S. in -i^n or 
'ig-an. Thus the A.-S. for "to hate** was not 
hatan, but kat-ian. It just makes all the differ- 
ence. Hat-an would have made a past tense 
hairdede, turning into hat-de, and then (of coarse) 
into hat-te. This is not a guess, for there is a 
verb Tidtan, and its past tense is hdtte. But 
hat-i-an made its past tense as hat^-dede or (by 
loss of de) hat-i'de, usually written hat-^hds. As 
late as in Chaucer we still have hat-e-de, in three 
syllables. Then the e dropped, giving the modern 
haUedf and there we stop, without bringing in any 
" euphonic " laws at all. I am not aware that this 
has been clearly explained before^ at any rate in 
any English grammar; but any German accns- 

* This is Yery nearly what we are now told, ante, 
p. 92. 

t This is formally proYed bv Gothic, which dropped 
the final syllable hi the singular. Thus " they laj '' i| 
lagidedun, but " I lay " is tiigida, short for lagtdeia, 

uigiiizea oy x._j Vv^vy'i l\^ 


»» a IX. Fib. !«,'«.] 



iomed to raoh matters will at once iee (though he 
probably knows it already, if a student of Old 
English) that the e in haUe-d is a part of the 
formalive gUm of the verb itsdf, and that all that 
is here left of the prehistoric -did is the initial, 
not the final letter. '^ Even sm-di is short for 
Mand'i'd$, ,and even tand-i-de is short for sand- 
i-ded'O, the Gothic for "they sent" is tand-i- 
ded-un, which is lon^r stilL 

As to the formation of snch words as skipt, it 
is clear that Sir J. A. Picroir takes a rery 
different yiew from mine. I ooald explain skipi 
if I had the space, and I could show why 
it is quite ''correct," and that the unphonetic 
Mppea is a modern error. I will add that those 
who know what umlaut means will see that smd-e 
really stands for Mnd-i-da, as above. 

I most add one more remark. Sir J. A. Picton 
objects to calling slipt and tkipt " pare and correct 
formations." But he avoids telling us what name 
he would give to such forms as sapped or hepped, 
or why ikipi should be wrong and sUpt and Jcept 
right. Walter W. Skxat. 

Sib J. A« Picton has misunderstood my query 
{ante, p. 32). I had no desire to ascertain when 
tomt took the place of A.-S. eode, but what autho- 
rity he had for stating that the past indefinite 
tenee went (or the " preterite," if he prefers it) was 
not, as now, a past tense, but the present tense of 
wendan. To tnis question he has simply given his 
ipse diotit, which, without historical evidence, I 
am not inclined to accept. Why should ''the 
present tense of wendan^ have been '^applied as 
an irregular preterite " 1 We might as well assert 
that Mint, from A.-S. sendan, was originaUy the 
present tense of sendan. Perhaps he can enlighten 
me on the subject. F. • Birkbbck Tjerrt. 

My remarks (amU, p. 33) were perfectly relevant. 
If the German sentence which I gave, viz., '* Er 
that aein Moglichstes, ihn zu Todio zu iirgern," is 
correct, and if in it it is the zu immediately pre- 
ceding argem which belongs to that verb--and 
both these points are admittd by Sir J. A. PiCTOir 
when he says of me, " No doubt all he says is 
tme " — then it is evident that the word Tode does 
not come between the preposition belonging to the 
infinitive and the infinitive, and yet Sir J. A. 
Picton maintained, and apparently still maintaias, 
that it does. In ^ zu Tode argem " no doubt Tode 
comes between xu and drgim, but it cannot be 
said to separate the two words in any other than a 
purely physical sense, inasmuch as the zu belongs 
wholly to Tode, and not at all to drgem (in the 
sense, that is, that to, in to vex, belongs to vex), 
** Za Tode argem " is, therefore, totally different 
from '* to elegantly write," and '* to cogently say," 

* Max Miiller ha$ seen this j see his Lectuns, eighth 

the examples with which Sir J. A. Picton com- 
pared it, for in these latter the to belongs wholly 
to the verbs write and say, and not at lul to the 
words immediately following it, ekganily and 

F. Ohamcb. 
lydenham Hill. 

Datb op Bishop Barlow's Consecration (6^ 
S. ix. 89). — Much controversy would have been 
prevented if it could have been shown with cer- 
tainty that Bp. Barlow was consecrated on June 11, 
1536. But it happens that the register at Lam- 
beth has no record of his consecration. And if 
the date and the reasons for the omiBsion are 
sought for, an answer may be found in the follow- 
ing remarks of so learned and accurate a writer as 
the late Arthur W. Haddan, who observes : — 

"Under these circumstances the coDclosion can 
scarcely be avoided, that he TBp. Barlow] was conse- 
crated on June 11. Bat it will be said— if so, why was 
not bis consecration reported? An inspection of Gran- 
mer's Begiiter supplies the answer, — through the care- 
lessness of the Registrar. The omission would be a con- 
clusive objection during Parker's piimacv, when the 
Register was kept with pecnliar care, it is absolutely 
none at all during Granmer*s, when it was kept with 
equal carelessness. '^Bramhall's Worit, vol. ii£. pref. 
sign. bl,A.CJi., 1844. 

Mr. Haddan in the preceding page explains his 
reasons for assigning June 11 as the date, of which 
the following is a summary. 

There was a consecration at Lambeth on June 11, 
1636. Barlow was certainly in the neighbourhood 
at the time, and almost certainly was up to that 
time nnconsecrated. But on June 30 he took his 
place in the House of Lords, as a consecrated 
bishop, next in order to the Bidiops of Exeter and 
Bath and Wells, one of whom was certainly con- 
secrated on June 11, while the other probably 
was ; and ako next before the Bishop of St. Asaph, 
who was consecrated on July 2. Bp. Barlow, 
therefore, takes his places between a bishop, or 
bishops, consecrated on June 11, and another con- 
secrated on July 2. Ed. Marshalu 

There is no doubt that Canon Venables's 
authority for giving this date of June 11, 1636, 
was the exhaustive commentary of the late Rev. 
A. W. Haddan on Archbishop Bramhall's treatise, 
The ConsecrcUion of Froteetant Bishops Vindi- 
cated, in his edition in the Anglo-Gatholic Library 
of the archbishop's works. It is impossible here 
even to sum up the arguments, but they are all 
but demonstrative, if not, indeed, quite so. The 
chief references are voL iii., preface (which is un- 
paged), and pp. 138-143, 227. 

C. F. S. Warrxv, M.A. 

Treneglos, Eenwyn, Truro. 

Mr. Bowsr will find in Hook's Lives of (he 
Archbishops of Canter^ry, voL ix. p. 238, the 
following note : '' Owing to the loss of the registers 

uigiiizea oy ^^jVv^v^ 




> S. IX. PSB. 1^ '81. 

the exact day of Barlow's consecration in not 
known. Prof. Stabbs, whose authority few will 
be found to question, places it on the 11th of June " 
(1536). G. F. R. B. 

Canon Yenables is too well able to defend his 
own statements to need the assistance of extracts 
from books in their support; but the following, from 
Dean Uook*s Life of Archbishop Parktr^ may be 
useful to your readers: — **Owinj^ to the loss of the 
registers, the exact .day of Barlow's consecration 
is not known. Prot Stubbs, whose authority 
few will be found to question, places it on the 
11th of June" {Archlmhops of Canterbury, ix. 
238 n.). Edwakd H. Marshall. 

U Ratings. 

Anodtne Necklace : Sussarara (G^^ S. ix. 
86). — I do not think my notes on these two points 
are so unguarded a9, from the words of my re- 
Tiewer, Mr. Smythe Palmer assumes. In that 
on "anodyne necklace," in default of better in- 
formation, I said what I knew about the well- 
known and much-advertised quack remedy of the 
eighteenth century. Its cant significance escaped 
me because, after much searching and inquiry, I 
was not lucky enough to find anything that in any 
way suggested it As Fate generally arranges 
things, however, a short time after the book came 
out I was informed that it was contained in 
Grose's Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, 
where it lay unrevealed — even to the author of 
Folk Etymology! I therefore at once took steps 
for having the addition made in subsequent issues 
of my volume. 

As regards iwsararoy I waa aware of the cer- 
tiorari definition, but confess I thought it far- 
fetched in this connexion, and accordingly preferred 
that given by Ualiiwell (Dictionary of Archaic and 
Provincial fTordf), who says it is used in the east of 
England for '* a hard blow."* It may be observed, 
too, that Mrs. Symmonds of the ** Harrow," imme- 
diately after using this equivocal expression below 
stairs, threatens above stairs to give poor Olivia 
" a mark thou won't be the better for these three 
months" (ed. 1773). At the same time, as my note 
will show, I rather recorded this meaning than put 
it forward as the only satisfactory one. I may 
add that Halliweirs interpretation has been in 
some degree supported by a letter which reached 
me from an anonymous, but manifestly bond fide, 
correspondent a few days ago. In it the writer 
states that her mother, an octogenarian now living, 
has always used, and still uses, the expression to 
describe *' a long and loud knock at the door." 

Let me assure Mr. Smtthe Palmer, in conclu- 
sion, that I by no means pretend to have produced 
" an ideal edition " of Goldsmith's immortal Vicar, 

* Mb. Svytbe Pauikr should surely haro stated 
that bis authoritj, the excellent Supplementary Glossary, 
gives this (from fialliwell) as \^ first meaaing. 

" II ne faict pas ce tour qui veult ! " But if any 
one should set about it hereafter I trust he may 
find that I have materially lightened his labours. 

Austin Dobson. 

May I oiTer the suggestion that Mr. A. Smythe 
Palmer and Mr. Austin Dobson are both in the 
right in their explanation of the passage, and that 
Goldsmith's allusion, whilst undoubtedly having 
reference to a halter, was only rendered intelligible 
to his readers by the fact that the "anodyne 
necklace" as a quack amulet had lon^; been a 
household word ? It was impossible for Goldsmith 
to use the term without recalling the memory of 
the famous remedy which occupied as prominent a 
position in the advertising columns of the journals 
of the middle of the eighteenth century as Hollo- 
way's pills in the middle of the nineteenth. Its 
inception goes back, at any rate, to some early date 
in the century, for in 1717 we have an octavo of 
seventy pages, professing to be a Philosophical 
Essay upon the Celebrated Anodyne Necklace^ and 
dedicated to Dr. Chamberlen and the Royal 
Society. The tract is not without a certain 
speciousnesfl of reasoning, and the author relies 
upon the dicta of many learned men in favour of 
appensay or appended remedies, to show the possi- 
bility at least of the success of his necklace. There 
is ingenuity in his argument, and few quacks of 
our day so learnedly discourse as he : — 
. Tor since the difficult Culling of Childrens TteOi 

froceeds from the hard and strict Closure of their Oums; 
f you get Them but once separated and opened, the 
Tetlh will of tljemselves Naturally come Forth ; Now 
the Smooth Alca'ioua Atoms of the Necklace by their 
insinuating figure and shape, do so make way for their 
Protrusion by gently softtting and opening the hard 
swelled Oums, that the teeth will of themselves with- 
out any difficulty or pain cut and come out as has been 
sufficiently proved." * 

The necklace was of beads artificially prepared, 
small, like barley-corns, and cost five shillings. 
The principal dep6t was at Garway's (Garraway's), 
at the Royal Exchange Gate, next the CombilL 
I have advertisements of this nostmm under the 
dates 1719, 1728, 1735, 1747. In the seventh 
edition of the Catalogue of the Rarities at Don 
Saltero's Coffee House, No. 402 is " Job's Tears 
they make Anodyne Necklacesses [sic] oV 

J. Eliot Hodokin. 

In my young days I was accustomed to hear 
sussarara applied to a tour deforce on the knocker 
of the street door. " Somebody knock*d at my door 
with a susciraro" occurs in the Life and Advenr 
turee of Signor Rozelli, W. H. 

W, V, F (6^^ S. viii. 522; ix. 94).— I think if Mr* 
K BR SLA KB will kindly refer to my commanication 
again he will see that his own note does not at all 
conflict with anything I say. What I protest 
against is the notion that an initial ScandmayiAii 

uigmzea oy ^^jv.^v^ 


6ka IX. Fib. 16, '81.] 



V caD tarn into initial English /. I say, and 
repeat, that there is no clear example of that 
particular change. I also protest against the 
extremely yague notions which people haye of 
phonetic laws. We are now offered an example 
which jast proyes what I say; the word DawlUh 
is produced to show that the sounds /, v^bXi^w are 
all equiyalent ! Of course Dofiisc is represented by 
Dovlei in Domesday, and Doueles is only a way of 
writing the form DoveUs. This proyes a change 
of /to V. It is also now written Dawlishf but 
this is merely a fantastical Norman way of writing 
Daulisk^ the of haying become ov, and then being 
yocalized into a diphthong. But there is no sound 
of w in Dawlish, and I am speaking of sounds 
rather than of symbols. The symbol w in aw re- 
presents a yowel, and is not a consonant at alL 
Hence this instance is not at all to the point. I 
repeat that we haye no example of/ or v becoming 
tfi. As to Henevirdone, it may easily stand for 
Henewerdone, the change from 10 to t? being ex- 
tremely common. The person who adduced the 
phonetic rule about " v between two yowels re- 
presenting/" entirely misapplied the rule. V be- 
tween two yowels only represents /when the /is 
really in the middle of a syllable. But in Hene- 
verdon the word is a compound, and to all intents 
and purposes the v is initial, and only appears to 
ihe iye to stand between two yowels^ in the same 
sense that the w in pmnyworth stands between 
two Towek. This is quite a different matter from 
each a case as that of the y in even, which normally 
represents the A.-S. / in cefen and cannot normally 
represent an A.-S. w. Of course it is the interest 
of those who prefer guesswork to denounce phonetic 
laws; but those who want the truth will desire 
rather^ as Mr. Ebrslake does, that they should 
be correctly and carefully applied. In calling 
attention to this matter I am working in his cause, 
as I hope he may now see. 

Walter W. Skeat. 

"Oh, bold and trxtb" (3»* 8. ii. 491; iii. 19). 
— ^Afc the banquet to Sir Archibald Alison here, 
the other day. Sheriff Clark concluded an eloquent 
speech with an apt quotation : — 

" Oh, bold and true. 
In bonnet blue. 
That fear or falsehood never knew, 
Whose heart was loyal to his word, 
Whose baod was faithful to his sword. 
Search France the fair and England free, 
Bat bonny Blue-cap still for me.'* 

1 thought I had yery recently come across these 
lines, but I hunted all my ballad-books in yain. 
I then had recourse to my tried friend in need, '* K. 
& Q.y" and in the Index to the Third Series I 
found a reference to Z'^ S. ii. 491, and iii. 19 (at 
the former of which references the words are given). 
Pediape it may not eyen now be too late to 
comet a mistake of your correspondent which cost 

me another hunt. The lines occur not in chap. xy. 
of The Fair Maid of Perth, but in chap, xxxii., 
where Sir Walter speaks of them as *^ in the little 
song of Bold and True, which was long a favourite 
in Scotland." They are not the heeding of the 
chapter, with Sir Walter's favourite little joke of 
" Old Ballad " after them. Can any of your readers 
tell me if there is any such ** little song ** or balLid, 
aod if the lines in the Fair Maid are the whole 
of it ? J. B. Fleming. 


Shag-bar'd (6"> S. ix. 8).— The word ihag in 
South Northamptonshire is used to mean " rough, 
coarse, hairy." A kind of coarse tobacco is called 
thag, and I have fre<|uently heard a Shetland pony 
called ** shag-ear*d, just like a moke [donkey]." 
The word is not given in Baker's Northampton- 
shire Words and Phrases, which I have noticed 
omits several words in use in the south of the 
county. John B. Wodhamb. 


(6*** S. viii. 514). — My experience of this latter 
phrase, and the testimony of Adm. Smyth in his 
Sailors* Word-Book, agree in holding that Web- 
ster's and Mr. L Abrahams'b definition is faulty. 
When a soldier or servant takes " French leave," he, 
for a time at least, absconds. If one jocularly remark 
of something which he is in search of and cannot 
find, " it has taken French leave," he means that 
it has been unduly removed, or possibly purloined. 
When a person is said to take French leave, the 
phrase invariably presupposes that he is a sub- 
ordinate, bound to seek leave from a possibly only 
temporary superior. Whether it be a person or a 
thing, Adm. Smyth's definition applies, ''Being 
absent without permission." Its origin probably 
arose either from the old-fashioned contempt of 
the English, and especially of the English sailor, 
for the Frenchman, who was thus taunted for 
being unexpectedly absent when everything seemed 
to promise an unpacific "meeting," or from the 
escapes of French prisoners of war. 

Br. Nicholson. 

By a remarkable contrast with this quotation, I 
have heard '* Prendre cong^ k la mani^re Anglaise " 
used, both by word of mouth and in late French 
novels, to express the habit of going away from a 
crowded assembly without saying " Good-bye " to 
the hostess. B. H. Busk. 

King James's " Book of Sports" (6** S. ix. 8). 
— The Kings Maiesties Declaration to His Subiects, 
concerning lawfuU Sports to be vsed was first pub- 
lished in 1618, and reissued by Charles I. in 1633. 
In it are set forth what pastimes, "such as dauncing, 
either men or women. Archery for men, leaping, 
vaulting, or any other such harmlesse Recreation," 
were lawful and to be encouraged on the Sabbath; 
and the ministers were in the habit of reading 

uigmzea oy '^..jvv^v^ 




[6tk8. IX.F£B.16/84. 

.from their pulpits the p;amo to be played after 
diyine senrice, and of joining their congregation 
is " such harmlesse Recreation." The Parliament, 
of BtroDg puritanical principles, which overthrew 
Charles L, were opposed to such, as they thought, 
desecration of the Sabbath, and one of the most 
common accusations made against ministers whose 
benefices were sequestrated by that Parliament 
was that they " read the Booke for Sports on the 
Lords day." Consult Ths First Centvry of Scan- 
dalous, Malignant Priests, London, 1643, and 
Centuria Lihrorum Absc<mditorum, London, 1879. 
The Book of Sports ought not to be very scarce; no 
doubt one or more copies of both editions are to 
be found in the library of the British Museum. 


£psoM Pbosb (6^ S. ix. 89).— This phrase, in 
Dryden's Mae FUeknoe, has reference to Shadwell's 
play Epsom Wdls, for which Sir Charles Sedley 
wrote the prologue ; and Dryden insinuates that 
Sedley larded Shadwell's wit. This explanation is 
ffiven in the excellent Qlobe edition of Dryden's 
Poems. Another reference to Epsom WeUs occurs 
at 1. 42 of Mac Flecknos. Jambs Hoofer. 

7, Streatham Place, S.W. 

Mr. ChriBtie's note on this (Globe edition of 
Diyden, p. 149) runs thus : *' Sir Charles Sedley 
had written the prologue for Shadwell's play 
Eptom WeUs, produced in 1672. Dryden here 
insinuates that Sedley helped Shadwell in com- 
position." 0. P. S. Warren, M.A. 

Treneglos, Eenwyn, Truro. 

[Many other contributors are thanked for similar in- 

The Thames at Oxford (6«» S. yi. 409; vii. 156, 
460; ix. 41). — From Prof. Roobrs's interesting 
abstract of the Oxford Coroners' Roll I learn that 
in the year 1302 the river at Oxford was called 
Thames : '* Aug. 13. John, son of John Qodfrey, 
of Binsey, was found dead on the bank of the 
Thames, near theWyke." — "Inuent'fuit mortuus in 
rip[ar]ia Tames* iuxta la Wyke." I owe the exact 
words of the record to the kindness of Mr. Macray. 
This is a piece of eridence precisely of that kind 
for which I asked in a former note (reference 
aboTe). It goes some way to justify that " foolishe 
custome>"^ so amusingly censured by Hollinshed, 
whereby in his day "dyuers did ignorauntlye " 
persist in giving to their own river a name which 
they had learnt from their fathers, regardless of 
learned theories about " Thame-Isis." 

C. B. M. 

Philamort (6* S. viii. 496).— The word is of 
pretty frequent occurrence in various shapes, 
sfaowmg that it was used commonly as the name 
of a colour, without mudi recollection of its French 

♦ The passage may be seen, 6«> 8. vil 166, quoted by 


derivation. In Bailey's Dictionary, eleventh edi- 
tion, 1746, is ** FUlemot [fuilU-mort (sic), F., i.e., 
a dead leaf], a colour like that of a faded leaf.'' 
Boyer's French-English Dictionary, 1816, gives 
feuilU »ior^€, Englished hjfolimort.fiUmot; and 
gives in the English- French part /Zemof and j)fci- 
lomot, adj., " dead leaf colour "; " Fine philomot 
riband, de beau ruban feuille-morte." Todd's 
Johnson, 1818, gives philomot (quoting Addison, 
Spectator, No. 265) and fUem/ot (quoting Swift, 
Adviuto Servants), The passage from the jSbee- 
tator is: — " As I was standing in the hinder rart 
of the Box, I took notice of a little Cluster of 
Women sitting together in the prettiest coloured 
Hoods that I ever saw. One of them was Blue, 
another Yellow, and another Philomot; the 
fourth was of a Pink Colour, and the fifth of a 
pale Green." Mr. Morley*s note is, **Fsu%Ue mort 
l$ic), the russet yellow of dead leaves." Webster 
quotes *' Locke/' but gives no passage or reference. 
Thomson's Etymons of English Words, Edinburgfa, 
1826, gives feuilU morte and folio mort^ " Italian, 
folio morto," but no quotation. For a modern 
instance compare "it was one of the shades of 
brown known by the name of feuilU morte, or 
dead-leaf colour" {Mrs, Ovtrtkeway's Bsmm^ 
brances, p. 28). 0. W. Tanoock. 

Jewish Weddiko Cerbmont (6"* S. viii. 
613).— It is here asked why the bride and 
bridegroom stepped seven times over a fish. 
This evidently signiBes devotion to the pria« 
ciples of fertility, which the fish represents 
as " the moving watery one," and most fertile of 
all creatures. It is more likely that the young 
married couple walked round the fish seven times, 
as this circumambulation is true adoration. In 
India a conical and ovate stone, or linga and yoni, 
which has the same signification here as the flsH, 
is often placed in a circle marked out on the floor, 
and the young people walk round this, either after 
encircling the fire (god Agni) with their garments 
tied together as in Mexico, or after exchanging 
them as in Travankore in Southern India. 

J. G. E. FoRLONa. 

11, Douglas Crescent, Edinburgh. 

An explanation of this ceremony is given in the 
Jewish Chronicle of January 4: — 

" The meaning of tlie ceremony is obvioui enough. It 
is simply the symbolical expression of a prayer that the 
coaple just married might be blessed with children. The 
verb used (nn^ ^yr^) in Jacob's well-known prayer—' Let 
them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth ' 
(Qenesis zlvtii. 16)— contains the same root as does the 
noun j-T, a fish. Besides, the fish was always regarded as 
an important necessary of life, and as an emblem of 

The Targum Onkelos on Genesis xlviil 16 gives : 
" As the fish of the sea, may they multiply among 
the sons of men on the earth.^ The Palestine 
Taipim, a little more fully, paraphxasee thoa ; 

uigmzea oy 'vjv^v^ 





''And as the fishes of the sea in moltiplying are 
multiplied in the sea, so may the children of 
Joiepn be moltiplied abundantly in the midst of 
the earth«" Israsl Abrahams, M.A. 

London Instftntion. 

The fish was probably used, as an emblem of 
fecundity. The stepping the mystic nnmber of 
seven times oyer it not improbably involyed a 
pLrticipation in that blessing, at least in Eastern 
belief Bb. Nicholson. 

A fish is the astronomical symbol of Jndsea, the 
''fish land.'' Constance Bussbll. 

A Wedding Custom (6"» S. yiii. 147).— This 
custom I haye since been informed exists in Wor- 
oestexshiie in a different form. There, an elder 
sister has to dance bare-footed or to jump oyer a 
pig trough at the wedding of a younger sister. 



tocANTUR" (6* S. ix. 47).— Bohn's Dictionary of 
Latin Quotationi is wrong in writing " In medio 
tntissimus ibis''; the in should be omitted. 
Phoebus, addressing his son, says : — 

** Altins egnunu eoelefliia tocia cremabis ; 
Inferiiis terras : medio lutitsimus ibis,** 

0?id,i/«<.u. 11. 136-7. 
F. C. BiREBBCK Terry. 

As this saying is attributed by Chief Justice 
Popham to ^ the wisest and greatest counsellor of 
his time," that is of the reign of Elizabeth, there 
can be little doubt but that Sir Nicholas Bacon, 
Lord Chancellor, the father of the more celebrated 
Francis Bacon, is alluded to. His motto was 
"mediocria firma," which he appended to the lines 
oyer the entrance to the hall of his house at Qor- 
hambnry, and which is also engrayed on his por- 
trait in Holland's Heroologia, In both cases it 
consists only of the aboye two words, nor haye I 
been able to find the whole line as quoted by the 
chief justice. The sentiment of the words of the 
chief justice which precede his quotation leads 
a little further back, to Sir Thomas More, to whom 
the following lines are attributed: — 

"Scilicet extremis longd mediocria prsdstant, 
Infima calcantiir, samma repente ruunt," 

which may be paralleled by those of another 
writer, whose name is not giyen: — 

" infima ipretajacent, fortanad obnoxia somnia, 
QiuB medio sita sunt firma manere soleni." 

Sir Thomas More's lines are not in the edition of 
his Epigrammale of 1638, although it contains 
two epigrams, ** De Mediocritate," at pp. 48 and 69. 


It is a misfortune that Bohn only giyes the 
name of an author, without the proper reference, 
m his DieHonary of Qmtatiom but Dr. Bamage 

does, and under the heading ''Gk>lden Mean," 
BeoAtUful T^houghU from Latin Authorg,^, 336, 
is the reference Oyid, MeL ii. 136:-- 
^ AltiuB egressuB ccslestia taofca oremabis ; 
Inferios terras : medio tatissimns ibis.*' 

18, Long Wall, Oxford. 

Lord Chief Justice Popham's allusion is eyi- 
dently to his great contemporary Francis Bacon 
(Lord Yerulam), whose family motto was " Medio- 
cria firma." This is still the motto of the Bacon 
family. , C. H. Hehfhill. 

John Dblafons: "Antidote to French 
Principles" (6'* 8. yii. 329; ix. 76).— I am much 
obliged by Mr. W. E. Buckley's reply relatiye 
to aboye. I had preyiously communicated with 
the Rey. H. Delafons, through the courtesy of the 
Editor of ** N. & Q.," and h^L sent him the yolume 
for inspection, but failed to obtain the information 
Mr. Buckley conyeys. I shall be glad if he can 
further inform me whether the compiler had any 
special facilities from his position for obtaining 
information on the subject, and whether the 
yolume in question has been published, as it bears 
somewhat the marks of haying been prepared for 
that purpose. Edward T. Dunn. 

Lonsdale Road, Barnes. 

Dandy (6* S. viii. 616 ; ix. 35).— Perhaps the 
following examples of the early use of the word 
and explanation of the yalue of the coin may be 
acceptable to readers of " N. & Q.":— 

" At an other season, to a feloe laiyng to bis rebake, 
that he waa ouer deintie of his mouthe and diete, he did 
with this reason giue a stopping oistre. Coldest not thy 
self (quoth he) finde in toy harte, to baie of thesame 
kind of meates or dishes that I doe, if thou mightest 
haue theim for a dandtpratt And when he. that would 
nodes shewe himself to bee a despiser of all delicates, 
bad thereynto aunswered, Tes : Then doe not I, saied 
Aristippus, so eamestlie minde or tender sensualitee, as ' 
thoa doest wuLnce"^Apophthegmet of Bratmut, 1512, 
f. 55, verso. 

" Being in a certain mainour place in the coantree, he 
toko verie euill rest in the nightes, by reason of an oule. 
hreakyng his slepe euerj halfe hower with her oughlyng. 
A laanceknight or asoldioar auenturer beyng well skilled 
in foulyng, tooke the peines to catohe this Oulet, and 
▼pon hope of some verie high reward, brought thesame 
ynto Augustus, who, after gannyng hym toanke, com- 
maunded a thousande * pieces of money to be geuen him 
in reward. The other partie tar (bioause he thought 
the reward ouer small) was not afeard, but had the harte 
to saie ynto the Emperor : Naie, yet had I rather that 
she line still, and with that worde let go the birds 

"* Nummui in the .80. .35. and .88. apophthegmit, 
is taken for peces of golde, & here it is taken for braise 
pens, or els pieces of siluer of the yalu of a dandiprat 
or i. d. ob. a pece or thereabout, so that the thousand 
peces wer moche about the somme of twentie nobles 
sterlynges. The Frenohe enterpreter translateth it fine 
and twentie orounes.*'— i&iciy f. 248. 

The following song well illustrates the meaning 

uigiiizea oy '^..jvv^v^ 




[6tii 8. IX. FXB. 16, *84. 

of the slang term dandy. It is from The Apollo; 
or, Harmonie MisceUanyy mth the MuHc, &c., 
1814, being a Belection from plays, operas, &c. 
Many of the songs are much earlier than the date 
of the bo6k :— 

The Dandy 0. 
Come, all ye soldiers brave who fight for yonr king. 

And loye your country more than gin or brandy O, 
Come listen to my song, and I *11 tell you what 'b the 
And that all the world acknowledge is the dandy 0. 

The dandy is low carriages all trailing in the dirt, 

With ladies in *em sweet as sugar-candy O ; 
My lord he mounts the box, lest my lady should be 
With his coat and twenty capes, for that's the 
dandy 0. 

The fashion is for ladies to wear bonnets with a 
With petticoats as few and thin as can be O, 
With bare shoulders and bare arms, would an ancho- 
rite proToke, * 
Tet men allow this fashion is the dandy O. 

A maiden, tho* not very young, of threescore years and 

With flaxen wig, and legs as thick and bandy 0, 
If she's got but one eye, yet she Ml ogle at the men, 

For marriage to old maids is the dandy 0. 

All ranks haye got a fashion which they call the 
knowing quiz ; 

And eyery little paltry boy that can be O, 
Under every lady's bonnet boldly sticks his ugly phiz, 

For a quizzing glass makes eyery fool the dandy 0. 

Our modem beaus can't look aside without so much 


Their necks are bolster'd out as stiff as can be ; 

And if they move their knowing heads their bodies 

they move too. 

Like a rabbit on the spit, for that 's the dandy 0. 

But now 's the time of war, and fighting is the thing, 

A soldier in a red coat can so grand be I 
For, guardians of true liberty, their country, and 
their king, 
Tlie soldiers and Ihe eailors are the dandy 0. 

E. R. 
Boston, Lincolnshire. 

Chambers's Etymological Dictionary gives as its 
derivation "French, dandin,^ On referring to 
the French dictionary I find Dandin^ ninny ^ also 
the yerb " Dandiner, to twist one's body about, to 
occupy one's self about trifles." 

Charlotte G. Bogkr. 

St. Saviour*8, Southwark. 

One meaning I see has not been noticed, namely, 
the slang for hand, which is given in Baker's 
Northamptonshire Words and Phrases, In addi- 
tion to other meanings already quoted, the Skmg 
Dictionary adds those of boatman (Anglo-Indian) 
and a smsdl glass of whiskey (Irish). 

John R. Wodhams. 

William Lloyd, Bishop of St. Asaph (6** S. 
ix. 27).— According to Anthony h Wood, WUliam 
Lloyd was 

" educated in school learning under his father, and at 
thirteen years of age, understanding Latin, Greek, and 
something of Hebrew, was entered a student in Oriel 
College in Lent term, an. 1639, and in the year follow- 
ing, or thereabouts, became scholar of Jesus College 

In October, 1642, he was admitted Bachelor of Arts, 
which being completed by determination, he left the 
university."— ii^nof Oxoniensts, 1820, iv. 714-6. 
This accoant of his university career, which differs 
from that of Chalmers, can, however, be hardly 
reconciled with the inscription on the bishop's 
monument in FJadbury Church. After giving 
Aug. 18, 1627, as the date of his birth, this goes on 
to say:— 

" Puer admodum ea uberrimss indolis edidit speoimina, 
Ita Grecis, Bomanisque scriptoribus insudavit, Ita 
linguarum Orientalium studio animum adhibuit, Ut sin- 
guUre academiie Oxoniensis omamentum Evaseritiin- 
deeennis,** — Nash's Hiitory of Worcestershire^ i. 449. 

Upon his presentation to the rectory of Bradfield, 
" he was examined by the Tryers of those times, 
and passed with approbation " {Biog, Brit, voL v. 
p. 2986); it would, therefore, seem that there was 
nothing in those days to prevent a deacon from 
holding a living. G. F. R. B. 

There can be no doubt of the correctness of these 
dates, which are given as Mr. CookIs quotes them 
by the Biographia Britannica from Wood. Nor 
was such early graduation very unusual at the 
time, and much later. Bishop Phillpotts waa a 
scholar of Corpus before fourteen, and John Keble 
before fifteen. It was not till the Act of Uni- 
formity of 1662 that a cleric institated to a living 
was compelled to be a priest. 

d F. S. Warren, M.A. 

Treneglos, Kenwyn, Truro. 

Books relating to Suffolk (6** S. ix. 89). 
— Twenty-eight folio volumes of miscellaneous 
papers relating to Suffolk, being a portion of the 
large collection accumulated by the late Mr. Fitch, 
are now in the Ipswich Museum Library. The 
remainder, I understand from the librarian, are at 
the Athenaeum at Bury. The papers are arranged 
under parishes, the compiler naving had a new 
history of the county in contemplation. 

Francis Haslewood. 


Portraits at Eaton (6* S. ix. 88).— There is 
a portrait of Jane, Lady Qrosvenor, at Eaton, half- 
length size, painted by Mason Chamberlin, one of 
the foundation members of the Boyal Academy. 

a, D. T. 


Ladt F., 1550 {6^^ S. ix. 83).— Sir Anthony 
Cooke, of Gidea Hall, Essex, married Anne, 
daughter of Sir William Fitzwilliam, of Milton^ 
Northamptonshire, who was five times chosen by 
Queen Elizabeth Lord Deputy of Ireland, and 
who, deeming it a work of labour worthy of re- 
ward| asked for ** something,'' and waa told tl^ 

uigmzea oy 






the Lord Depntyship was prefennent, not service; 
after which, as Cox tells us, he endeavoured to 
make profit of it, and he succeeded. It is 
prohable that Lady Fitzwilliam was a dame of 
considerable dignity, and that her daughter Anne 
was more apt to call her Lady F. than '' My 
mother.^' Edward Sollt. 

Sir Anthony Cooke married Anne, daughter of 
Sir William Fitzwilliam, of Gains Park, Meydon 
Gemony in Essex. This is stated in George 
Perry's MemoriaU of Old Bomford, 


Samian Ware (6"» S. ix. 87).— See Wright's 
The CtUj ih6 Roman, and the Saxon. 

Frbderick Davis. 

PoFOLAB Superstitions (6*^ S. ix. 66). — I am 
glad to learn that there exists a cockney maid- 
servant who is sufficiently imaginative — sufficiently 
en rapport with the past — to believe that the plac- 
ing of boots on a table is unlucky. The table, on 
this side the Atlantic at least, is not the right place 
for boots, and so the belief has a social merit of its 
own ; and it is a common belief in Shropshire and 
Staffordshire* I have more than once been pre- 
vented, on this very ground, from examining a 
pair of new and untried boots by the respectful 
exhortations of a too observant female. 

Here also are two other items of folk-lore from 
the same counties— both recent, both authentic, 
both derived from native servant-maids. "If you 
find the fire still burning from overnight," said one, 
" when you come in to light it of a morning, you 
know, ma'am, it 's a certain sign as you '11 hear tell 
of a illness that day. I found it alight last Tues- 
day morning, and that was the very day as you 
had the letter about master bein' took ill.'' Again: 
" If you chance to say your words backwards," 
said her fellow, "you'll sure to see a stranger 
afore night. Only yesterday I says, ' I '11 bread the 
toast,' instead o' saying, ' I '11 toast the bread,' what 
I meant to, and it was yesterday afternoon I seed 
Mr. Bobert." I dare say my friend Miss Burne 
has already noted these curious coincidences for 
the benefit of her Shropshire Folk-lore, 

A. J. M. 

Fifteen years ago, while also staying " in some 
apartments in London," I placed my shoes on the 
table, when the girl was shocked, and made a 
remark similar to that recorded by Mr. Ytvtan. 
I had to pacify her. I remember she told me she 
came from West Kent, the Grays or thereabouts. 


This superstition is common in the Midland 
Oonnties, but is applied to new boots only, which 
are said to bring bad luck if placed on a table. 


« Roast-beep" (6"» S. ix. 108).— r^ Roast 
Bitfo/ Old England was one of the most popular 

songs of the eighteenth century ; the words and 
musio were by Richard Leveridge, the celebrated 
singer and composer (bom 1670, died 1758) ; the 
tune is in constant use at the theatres and else- 
where to this day. Henry Fielding's comedy, 
Don Quixote in England, includes two verses of 
the song, the first identical with Leveridge's, the 
second apparently original. W. H. Cumminqs. 

Christmas in Monuouthshirb (6^^ S. ix. 24). 
— Mr. Lawson Lowe says, " The favourite carol 
is known as The HoUy and the Ivy, and appears 
to be local." May I point out that a carol under 
this title is to be found in Chriatmas Carole and 
Ballade, edited with notes by Joshua Sylvester 
(Ohatto & Windus), n.d.? The editor has this 
note : — 

"An old broadflide, printed acentary and a b«If since, 
supplies the following. It does not appear to have been 
included in a collection before. The curious similes 
betwixt the holly and certain erents in the life of Christ 
may yet bo occasionally heard in the discourse of aged 
people. The holly, from time immemorial, has been 
looked upon as a favoured evergreen, typical of the 
mission of Our Saviour." 


Nathak the Composer (6"* S. viiL 494 ; ix. 
71). — I have been much interested in the answers 
concerning Nathan the composer, but would much 
like to karn some further particulars of his per- 
sonal history. Was he married, and to whom; and 
do any descendants exist ? What was his nation- 
ality ; was he a Pole ? Delta. 


Hair-powder (6^ S. ix. 90).— The following 
passage, taken from Fosbroke's Encyclopcedia of 
Antiquities (1825), vol. ii. p. 854, partly answers 
Mr. Winqfield's question:— 

"Mary of Medicis is said to have introduced hair- 
powder ; but the first of the French writers who men- 
tions it is L'Etoile in his Journal under the year 1593. 
He Fays that nuns walked Paris, powdered and curled 
(Bolin, Enc. D'Arnay, p. 122)." 
^ G. F. R. B. 

On referring to Townsend's Manual of Dates 
I find the following: " Hair-powder is said to have 
been introduced by Mary of Medicis." 

Emilt Cole. 


"The Roundheads before Pontefract" 
{Q^ S. ix. 68).— The original correspondence of 
Oapt. Adam Baynes, M.P. for Leeds, Parliamentary 
Commissioner for the Northern Army, &c., was 
presented to the British Museum by the Rev. 
Adam Baynes in 1856. It fills eleven volumes 
(see Additional MSS. 21417-21427). J. J. 0. 

A Plea for Book-butino (6*>» S. ix. 86).— If 
any one wishes to see a justification, at least so far 
as Italy is concerned, of M. Marc Monnier's appeal 

uigiiizea oy 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [6tks.ix,F.B. 10/84. 

to book-bnyersi let him read Ooant de Gaber- 
natis's deBcription of the sad condition of Italian 
booksellen (AthencBum, Deo. 29, 1883, p. 852). 
I commend Le lAbrairt atix C%a2andt to tne 
notice of yonr contributor the editor of the 
OiomaU dUgli ErvdUi e Curiasi, 

J. Bakdall. 

PoLAMPORE (6» S. viii. 387; ix. 72).— What 
W. G. P. describes is in Tarkey called paploma, 
which name is supposed to be of Greek origin (cf. 
polampore), Htdb Glarkb. 

Bt-and-bt (6"» S. viL 486, 618 ; viil 96, 273, 
469, 627; ix. 34). — From Burke's speech in the 
House of Commons, Dec 3, 1787, on ^ the sub- 
sidiary treaty with the Landgrave of Hesse 

** Although the King of Prussia had, professedly, set 
out merely to obtain adequate satisfaction for the injary 
done his sister, his army hy aedderU took Utrecht, 
possessed themselyes of Amsterdam, restored the Stadt- 
liolder and the former goyemment, and all this at a 
stroke, and hy the hy, which put him in mind of a Terse 
in Cowley's sprightly ballad of the Chronicle, which he 
had often read with pleasure : — 

'But when Isabella came, 
Ann'd with a resistless flame, 
And th* artillery of her eye, 
While she proudly march*d about 
Greater conquests to find out, 
She beat out Susan, hy the by: " 

Wm. Frbelove. 
Bury St. Edmunds. 

Shakspearian QiTBRT (6*^ S. ix. 87). — ^A mis- 
apprehension has led G. J. to suggest a change not 
merely unnecessary, but at variance with the gram- 
matical construction. He has taken gaze$ as the 
nominative to Und, whereas it is but its transposed 
objectiye ; the iyes of L 22, or, if one likes, their 
poor haU$ of 1. 24, being the nominative or 
synonyme nominatives to the previous verbs ride, 
vitendf tied, extend^ and the nominative to lend. 
I would invite J. 0.'s attention to the thrice re- 
peated gometimei and to the substitute for a fourth 
repetition in anon, Br. Nicholson. 

First three Folio Editions of Ohaxtcer (6* 
S. viii. 381). — '^Lowndes is in error in statins 
that Eele's edition is the same as Bonham*s (1542) 
with a new title ; they are two totally distinct 
books" (B. Quaritch's Oatahgue, 1880). This 
note helps to confirm Mr. Maskbll's statement 
that the early editions of Chaucer were three, viz., 
Godfrey's 1532, Bonham-Reynes 1542, Bonham- 
Kele-Petit-Toye 1545(1). H. Parr. 

James Street, 8.W. 

^ The eternal fitness of things " (6** S. viii. 
27, 79; ix. 20).— In answers to correspondents at the 
last reference you state that *' all that is known 
concerning this is that it is employed by Square 
in Tcm Janes/* Permit me to add that it was 

a cant phrase among the deistical writers of 
the close of the seventeenth and the beginning of 
the eighteenth centuries. If your correspondent 
can refer to John Leknd's Viiw of DeisHeal 
Writers, he will find much on the subject I have 
parted with the book, and cannot spare time to go 
to the Museum, or would give the exact reference ; 
but think it is in his review of Morgan's Moral 
Philosopher, Samuel Clarke's Being and AUri- 
buUs of Ood also contains the phrase; but this 
work also I have parted with. H« Dalton. 

The Republican Calendar (6^^ S. viiL 286, 
332, 393, 471).— In reply to Col. Phipps, an early 
authority for the names of the Sansculottides may 
be found in the Annuaire du Bipublicainf ou 
Ligende Fhysico-Economique, 8vo. Paris, " L'an IL 
de la B^publiqne Fran^aise:" In the prefatory 
matter is inserted a report by Ph. Fr. Na. Fabre- 
d'Eglantine, in the name of the Committee of 
Public Instruction, which explains the new 
calendar at considerable length, and gives reasons 
for the fanciful names of the months. Every day 
of the year has also its own appropriate designa- 
tion, from the Ist Yend^miaire, Baisin (grape), to 
the 30th Fructidor, Panier (basket). The Sans- 
culottides are as follows:— 

Primedi la fBte da 66nie. 

Paodi „ „ da Travail. 

Tridi „ „ des Actions. 

Qaartidi „ „ des R^ompenses. 

Qaintidl „ „ de FOpinion. 

The intercahiry day (in leap-year) is to be called, 
par excellence, " La Sansculottide." The concord- 
ance in this volume, calculated only for the years 
1793-4, exactly agrees with that given by Col. 
Pnipps. J. Eliot Hodgkin. 


It can scarcely fail to interest those of yoar 
correspondents who took part in the discussion 
on this subject to learn that the Handy Book 
of Buks and Tables for verifying Dates with 
the Christian Era of Mr. John J. Bond, Assistant 
Keeper of the Public Becords, to which frequent 
reference was made, is now accessible. A small 
remainder — less, I understand, than thirty copies — 
obtained from a private source, is in the hands of 
Messrs. Reeves & Turner, of the Strand. 


Cramp Rings (6«> S. viii. 327, 369, 434).— 
Some time since Dr. NicJholson asked for a 
reference to any notice of these. A few days ago 
I came across the following, in Gosson's Schoole of 
Abuse (Arber's reprints), in " To the Gentlewomen 
Citizens of London." p. 58 : '* It is not a softe shooe 
that healeth the Growte ; nor a golden Ring that 
driueth away the Crampe ; nor a crown of rearle 
that cnieth the Meigrim." 


Digitized by 





Matthews Familt of Gloucester (6*^ S. 
ix. 8). — ^Ajs a deeoendant of the James Matthews 
who settled in Yarmouth, Cape Ck>dy some time 
before 1643 (in which year his name appears on a 
town roll), I also should be glad of any infor- 
mation concerning the Matthews family of Tewkes- 
bury^ 00. Gloucester, and especially of any evidence 
tending to show that the James Matthews who 
emigrated to New England was the James 
Matthews who was a son of Edward Matthews, of 
the Lodge, Tewkesbury. My father, Mr. Edward 
Matthews, now of this city, was the first of James 
Matthews's descendants to leave Yarmouth, where 
the family have been for now nearly two centuries 
and a half. So far as I know, the name has always 
been spelt as I have here written it. The immi- 
grant James Matthews was living in 1673; his 
descendant and namesake James Matthews, my 
grandfather, was born in 1778. It is at least a 
coincidence that the names Edward and James, 
borne by the Tewkesbuij family, should survive to 
the present day in the Yarmouth family. 

James Brandbr Matthews. 

New York. 

Ptsb (6«» S. viiL 388).— I regret I cannot afford 
Fleur-de-Lts the information required about this 
word, nor have any of the friends whom I have con- 
Bolted been able to assist me. As a mere sugges- 
tion I may refer to the Persian word pds, guard, 
protect, which in the mouth of a Bombay buggy- 
driver may have acquired a meaning equivalent to 
the French gare it vous, I will keep the matter in 
mind, and make inquiries when next in Bombay. 

W. F. P. 

** Solitary mohk who shook." &c, (6**> S. viii. 
465; lie. 75).— Mr. Ltnn will find that the couplet 
quoted (" Streams meander level with their fount ") 
is not from Robert Montgomery's works, but from 
the Botanic Garden or the Loves of the Plants, by 
Dr. Eramns Darwin. I have not Darwin's works 
at hand, but I am quite certain that the couplet 
belongs to him, although so unscientific and im- 
possible in fsct. EsTE. 


Littcolnskirs arid the Danes, By the Rev. Q. S. Streat- 

feild. (Kegan Paul & Go.) 
This is a very carefully executed book. Hoirever much 
we may differ from many of the conclusions of the 
aotbor, no one who is at the pains of reading his pages 
with attention can doubt that he has worked up to bis 
eonclnsions with due industry. There are few modem 
books bearing on the subject of Scandinavian place- 
namee that he has not consulted. The fault, if fault 
there be, lies in the opposite direction. Mr. Streatfeild 
ooeacionally takes the trouble of directing attention to 
demoaatrably false gnesees of his predecessors, which 
are qnite beneath his notice. The sketch given in the 
early part of the book of the manners and morals of the 
Jf ortb«ni sea-roverf is remarkably good and well timed. 

Although England owes them a debt of gratitude which 
she is not slow to acknowledge, they are generally de- 
scribed, both in history and romance, as something quite 
other than they were. Mr. Streatfeild has, we believe, 
succeeded in furnishing a picture which is as little out of 
drawing as the scanty materials at his command will 
admit of. The greater part of the volume is taken up 
by an analysis of the local names of lancoln^ire which 
indicate the presence of the Danies. The subject of the 
derivation of place-names is so beset with pitfalls that, 
until his conclusions have been tested by time and fresh 
discoveries, it would be rash to estimate the amount of 
his success. We ourselyes believe that where he deriTOS 
the first part of Lincolnshire place-names that end in by 
from the personal names of the first Scandinavian settlers 
he is almost always on sure ground. On the contrary, 
when the name is interpreted so as to convey informa*. 
tion as to the natural features of the country, we believe 
him to be very frequently in error. As an instance of 
what we mean, we will take Brumby, a hamlet in the 
parish of Frodingham.- Some Lincolnshire directory 
seems to have informed the author that Brumby stands 
"upon a bold declivity overlooking the vale of the 
Trent." This little village was certainly in existence in 
the time of the Conqueror, for it occurs in Domesday as 
Brundti, and till recent days it almost always appears in 
records spelt with the letter n. The notion that Brumby' 
stands on the to]^ of a declivity has misled Mr. Streat- 
feild into suggestmg that it may be interpreted as " the 
village of the brow, from hriin or bryn, an eyebrow," 
which, he tells us, is often used to express the brow of 
a hill or the edge of a moor. Now in the township of 
Brumby there is such a brow or declivity as Mr. Streat- 
lield thinks of, but it is nearly a mile away from the 
village, which stands, and always, we may be certain, 
has stood, on a gentle slope dipping in the contrary 
direction. Though this derivation is manifestly wrong, we 
are by no means sure that the true one can be discovered. 
We hold, at least provisionally, that it has derived its 
name from some early settler whose name was Brun. 

Mr. Streatfeild has added a useful glossary of Lin- 
colnshire dialect words that are near akin to Scandi- 
navian forms. We have read it carefully, and find his 
definitions remarkably correct. 

The River of Golden Sand. By the late Capt. William 

QU1,R.£. (Murray.) 
As originally published in 1880, Capt. Q ill's journal of 
his travels m Western China and Thibet occupied two 
biUky volumes. In the present volume these journals have 
been condensed by Mr. E. Colborne Baber, an intimate 
friend of Capt. Gill, whose thorough knowledge of 
Western China has well qualified him for the task. 
The whole work has been edited by Col. Yule, who, in 
addition to the geographical introduction to the journals, 
has written a short but most interesting memoir of 
Capt. Gill. Bom in 1848, William John Gill vras 
educated at Brighton College. In 1864 he obtained his 
commission to the Boyal Engineers. In 1871 a distant 
relative left him a considerable fortune, and he was thus 
enabled to gratify his great desire for travelling and adven- 
ture. In 1873 he joined Colonel Y. Baker in his journey 
of exploration along the northern frontiers of Persia. 
During the expedition he made many accurate surveys, 
which aftervrards proved of much value both from 
a geographical as well as from a i>olitical point of 
view. In 1874 he stood unsuccessfully for Hackney. In 
1876 he undertook the exploration of Western China, 
the account of which forms the subject of this book. 
After a futile attempt to vieit the scenes of the Buiso- 
Turkish War and a long stay at Constantinople in 187^ 
he johied Sir Charles Macgregpr in 1881 ts survey 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t«*8.ix.F«B.i6.'84. 

officer in the expedition againat the Marif. When this 
was OTor he made an attempt to get to Merr, but was 
obliged to give it up for want of time, as an extension 
of leave was refused him. In 1881 he explored Tripoli. 
In 1882 he was sent out to Egypt on special seryice, and 
on August 11th, together with Prof. Palmer and Lieut. 
Charrington, he was cruelly murdered in the Wadi Sadr. 
Such was the career of this resolute and accomplished 
trayeller, whose life was one of unceasing activity, aud 
whose death in the prime of his life was a distinct 
loss to his country. It should be added that the book 
is illustrated with woodcuts from drawings made from 
Gapt. Gill's rough sketcheSi and that an excellent portrait 
of him, etched Dy Mr. Wirgman, forms the frontispiece 
of the Tolome. 

John Bull and his Island, By Max O'Bell. Translated 
from the French under the superTision of the Author. 
(Field k Tuer.) 
Max O'BiLL is quite as amusing in his English dress as 
in his natire war-paint. His book is throughout, like 
most French eriticisms on England and Englieh manners 
and customs, 8erio>comic. Occasionally he hits a real 
blot, and that, we admit frankly, among his own country- 
men as well as among ourselves, so that his desire to be 
impartial is evident. In some of the more serious ques- 
tions which he discusses it would be well for Max OHEtell 
to look a little deeper below the surface before bringing 
out a new edition. He says, for instance, that there is 
no suoh thing among us as the '^Registre de FEtat 
Civil," from which we may conclude that, while in 
England, he did not get married at a re^strar's office, 
and, as he appears to think matrimony quite a light and 
airily easy affair in John Bull's island, we may assume 
that he did not attempt to marry a ward in Chancery 
without the leave of Court He might otherwise have 
come sadly to a different conclusion, and have acknow- 
ledged that, after all, marriage in England might be a 
serious matter. The British and Foreign Bible Society 
ought to be gratified at finding that Max O'Rell, like 
most of his conntrymen at the present day, has Bible 
Society on the brain. They tell us that our Madagascar 
telegrams are sent by agents of this nefariously ubiqui- 
tous society, and poor, innocent Max O'Rell cannot 
come to see John Bull in his island without that per- 
severing Bible Society setting traps to convert him. 
But we apprehend that Max is still unconverted Max. 

AUritl; or, a Voyage to Other Worlds. A Tale. By 

Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma. (Wyman k Sons.) 
This very fantastic tale has oeen written with a fixed 
purpose. That purpose was to encourage the study of 
astronomy amongst the young. The author, as he informs 
US in the preface, sees no reason to suppose that the 
earth is the sole abode of life. His hero, Aleriel by 
name, is an inhabitant of the planet Venus ; and it is his 
travels in the realms of space which are here recorded. 
After visiting the earth, and being present at the siege of 
Paris by the Germans, on his way I ack to Venus he pays 
a visit to the moon. On his arrival at home he takes the 
opportunity of lecturing upon the liabits and customs of 
the inhabitants of the earth, and, being a person of 
superior intelligence, he naturally gives an account of us 
which is not very flattering. After a short interval, 
Aleriel, with two companions, makes an expedition, by 
means of an ether car, to Mars, Deimos, Jupiter, Titan, 
Mimas, and Saturn. Then, after a short visit to the 
earth, they return into space. We are a little doubtful 
whether the young people for whom this book has been 
written will quite appreciate the astronomical facts and 
speculations which are presented to them by Mr. Lach- 
Szyrma enveloped in the thin disffuise of a story. Indeed, 
we are rather inclined to think that they will be ox 

opinion that there is a great deal too much powder and 
too little jam in it 

Miscellanea Oerualogica el Heraldiea: Second Series, 
Vol. I., Nos. 1 and 2. Edited by J. J. Howard, hL.V. 
(Mitchell & Hughes.) 
Thb Miscellanea of our old friend Dr. Jackson Howard 
enters upon a new series with the new year, and opens both 
with considerable spirit. The illustrations are increased 
in number, interest, and quality, those to the February 
part. No. 2 of the new senes, being especially noticeable. 
The Chauncy brasses are veiy quaint where nnmutilated, 
as in the case of John Chauncy of Gedelston and Ann 
Leventhorp his wife, with their six daughters and twelve 
sons, all depicted " precant proper. ** Where they have 
been mutilated, as in the case of a later John Chauncy and 
his wives at Sawbridge worth, we can only hope that a 
possibility of restoration may be afforded by the public 
attention thus called to the loss. The facsimile of the 
grant of a crest to George Evelyn of Ditton, 1572, by 
Cooke, Clarenceux, is both well executed and interesting 
from the associations which surround the name of the 
race rendered iUustrious by the memory of John Evelyn. 

Thb fourth volume of the Antiquarian Magazins and 
Bibliographer (Bogue) contains a Jarge amount of matter 
of interest Apart from the valuame contributions of 
the editor, Mr. Walford, there are an admirable *' Literary 
History of Gray's Elegy," by our well-known contributor 
the Rev. Joseph Mukell; a series of papers by Mr. 
Granville Leveson-Gower on " The Archbishops of Can- 
terbury and their Palaces "; and some singularly edifying 
notes by Mr. W. D. Selby on <' Papists' and Delinquents' 

In the late Mr. Chenery the Times loses a devoted 
servant and Oriental literature an earnest and a dis- 
tinguished cultivator. A Cambridge man by graduation, 
he became an Oxford man by incorporation, on his 
appointment by Samuel Wilberforce, then bishop of the 
diocese, and Lord High Almoner, to the Lord Almoner's 
Professorship of Arabic in the University of Oxford. 
This chair he continued to hold till his succession to 
Mr. Delano as editor of the Times, Notwithstanding 
the heavy work thus devolving upon him, Mr. Chenery 
never lost his hold on Orientarstudies, and the membcn 
of the Leyden Congress of Orientalists, last autumn, saw 
him in their midst. He died, as he had lived, in harness^ 
leaving a void which will not easily be filled. 

fitiXitti to CorreitponHenU. 

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(!*s.ix.fcB.28,'8i] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



00NTBHT8.— N«217. 
170TE8 ;— BIbllocnphy of Chancer, 141— Graoe Darliog, 142— 
TttDBTBon Forg«i7, 148-^Bngllth Wordi, Teatoolo and 
Lttttn' 144— ShakipMra and the Bible, 146— GMdiaal Pole's 
Mother— Pnttliig Beea In Mourning— OoTemmeot Profea- 
akmal Men— Burial without a CofOn- Origin of Black for 
Bvaning Itaen» 14(L 

QUZRIBS :— ITnninal Words— Edict of Nantei— Transmlaaion 
of Conrte^ Titles, 147— Tennis Oonrt— Song br Wilberforee 
^Pettj Frmnoe,Jbc— falconer's Use of "Oblirion"- Bishop 
Parr— Parent of Pleasore Canoes— Inscriptions in Prises— 
Chinese Jnnk. 148-Korwa7— J. Mathers -Mabdl—lictare 
of OoBwaT— Dnke of BacUngham— Arms of Clare College- 
Henldio— *' An t please the pigs"— Gbitt7-faoe, 149— Author 
of Poem Wanted— Aichard le Pavids— Authoxt Wanted, 160. 

BSPLRB:— HemkUo Shield, 160— Bxplanattoni of Long- 
fellow. 161-Tltle of Master, 162-GrBe^ 16&-Medalnf a.d. 
168^— Oolonrs for the Months— Pitargo—Nonsncfa Palace, 
164— Flemish Brasses — Tronsers — Wailne Wose— OfTal— 
'•Boasi-beef," 166— "Kotes on Phrase and Inflection''— 
Cramp Biogs— '* Setting Thames on Are"- Benedict Arnold 
not a Meson— Italian Pharmacy— Q.Q.—I>eTotional Pro- 
cresfnns frrfnn. Swine, and Ventre St. Oris— Songs Wanted 
— Oo^el for Christmas Dajas a Charm, 166— Hnrly Burlj— 
** BoUtary monk," Ac.- University Cap— Snssez Iron— Plea 
for Book-baying— Aldine Anchor, 167— Gersinna or Ger- 
mma— Caidinal Pole— Goodwin Sands— PolaUan LUeratore 
—Paid BepnBcntatlTe»-Minoe-pie Mysteries, 168. 

N0TB8 OK BOOKS:— layer's *' Folklore of Shak8R)eaTe''— 
Snait's '* ADisdpleof Plato "-Walker's "life of Skinner" 
—Browning's " Bow to Use onr Eyes." 

Notloes to Oofxespondents, fta 

(8e« " N. & Q.,** 1- 8. I 80 ; xi. 83 ; 2- 8. i. 867 : rii. 
218 ; S"* 8. 1. 822 ; iil 2 ; Tiii. 682 ; 4»b S. vi. 618 ; &h g. 
ii. 881 ; ui. 7; ti. 630; Til. 184; 6^^ 8. vilL 881; ix. 138). 

In the belief that there is no satisfaotory biblio- 
graphy of Ohancer in ezistenoe, I yenture to con- 
tribute a few notes towards the compilation of one 
which I have made, chiefly for my own instruction, 
in the study of the poet. These notes are neces- 
arily imperfect and tentative— designed to set 
the topic afloat and to secure corrections and 
farther information. I have already attempted 
to describe the three earliest folio editions of 
Ghanoer (*' N. & Q./' 6U> S. yiil 381). These are: 
1. Thynne's, 1532; 2. Bonham and Beynes's, 
1542 ; 3. The booksellers' edition of 1645-50. I 
will now continue the catalogue, confininff myself, 
fov the present, to those editions which profess 
tojiTS the complete works. 

Na 4 is the edition usually attributed to John 
Stow, issued in 1561 : a black-letter folio of 378 
leaves^ differing but little from No. 3 till folio 
340, when ** certain workes of Chaucer not here to 
five printed" are "gathered and added to this books 
hj Jhon Stowe.* These are the ballads on " Gen- 
Ueneae," ^FtoTerbe against Gouitise," "Women 
UnoQnttannt^'' « Women's Doableness," "The 
Onft of Loueis/' ^ Ten Oommandments of Low/* 

"The Nine Ladies Worthie," "Alone Walking," 
"Season of Fererere,'' " Meroifull and Merci- 
able," "Mercuric and Pallas," "Balade Plea- 
sannte," " Mossie Quince," '* Beware DeceitptfuU 
Women," " CompUinte of Pile," " Womens Uhas- 
tite," "The Court of Loue," and Lydgate's 
"Thebes." In this edition also Uie genuine 
Chaucer's "Woordes unto his own Scrivener" 
first appear. Thynne's " Pre&ce " and the V Plow- 
mannes Tale " are repeated as in No. 3. There are 
two examples of this edition in the Briti&h Museum 
Library, each having a different title-page. In 
one (belonginc[ to the King's Library) the title is 
ornamented with a large woodcut of the arms and 
crest of Chaucer, and beneath is the couplet : — 
" Vertne flourisheth in Obanoer still, 
Though death of hym hath had hia will." 

There is a separate title to "The Canterbury 
Tales" and "The Romaunt of the Bose," a wood« 
out showing in quaint fashion the genealogy of the 
houses of York and Lancaster down to the mar- 
riage of Henry YII. There are ornamental initial 
capitals to each poem, and one other illustration, 
a knight in armour before the " Enyghtes Tale." 
The title is above the shield of arms :— 

The Woorkes of Geffrey Chaucer, newlie i>rinted, with 
diuen addiciona wbiche were neuer in printe before : 
with the tieKB and deatruccion of the worthie citee of 
Thebea compiled by Jhon Lydgate, Monk of Berie. As 
in the table more plainly doeth appere. 

The date 1560 is in the shield of arms. Colophon : 
"Imprinted at London by Jhon Eyngston, for 
Jhon Wight, dwellyng in Poules Ohurcdiyarde. 
Anno 1561." 

The second copy of this work, in the (General 
Library, has the same title, and in the colophqn the 
same date as well, and yet appears to be another 
impression. The words of the title are included 
within a square architectural compartment, repre- 
senting at the top the court of a icing, and at the 
bottom two boys with a graft growing out of a tun, 
the mark of the printer Grafton, 1540-53. The 
title of this volume is dated 1561, like the colo- 
phon. In it there are figures to the prologues as 
well as to the " Enightes Tale." In all other re- 
spects it seems the same work. The paper and 
printing are poor in both copies. 
No. 5 is Speght's first folio of 1698 :— 
The workea of onr antient and lemed Engliah poet 
Geffrey Chaucer, newly printed. In this impreaaion 
you ahall find theae additiona : 1. Hia portraiture and 
progenie shewed. 2. Hia life collected. 8. Arguments 
to every booke gathered. 4. Old and obscure worda 
explained. 5. Authora by him cited declared. 6. Diffi- 
cultiea opened. 7. Two books of hia never before 
printed. Londini impenaia Geor. Biahop. Anno 1698. 

This title is included within an elaborate columnar 
and floral border, dated 1574. The columns are 
twisted and wreathed with vine branches ; at the 
bottom the vine issues out of a vase ; at the top 
18 a tablet with a lamb lying on • stool, its legs 

uigiiized by 



NOTES AND QUERIES. i6i«»B.ix.FiB.23/84; 

boand, a knife at iti throat, and on a soroU *' Possi- 
dete animas veBtras.'' The engraTer'a initials are 
N. H. The same compartment appears in a 
Latin Bible by W. Norton, 1593. There is no 
pri Deer's name ; the Tolame was probably printed 
for Bi»hop by Adam Islip. It is dedicated to Sir 
Boherb Cecil, and, after the editor's preface, has a 
commend Htory letter from Francis Beaumont dated 
Jun<*, 1697. There is a portrait of Chaucer sur- 
rounded by shields of arms of his family and pro- 
geny. The Yolume contains 394 leaves, besides 
27 leaves of introductory matter. The portrait is 
''as described by Thos. Occleve, his scholar." 
The *' Life " by Speght, the " Artcuments" of the 
" Prologues," and the " Epistle of William Thynne " 

Precede the table of contents. The ** Plowmans 
'ale ** occupies the same place as in Nos. 3 and 4, 
and, indeed, the work follows Stew's pretty closely, 
but has two additional poems, " Chaucer's Dreame" 
and *'Tbe Floure and the Leafe." The genea- 
logical title-page of No. 4 is twice repeated, and 
at the end there are Lydgate's '' Thebes,'' a cata- 
logue of Lyd Kate's works, a Chancerian vocabulary, 
the names of authors cited by Chaucer, and ten 
pages of annotations and corrections. This edition 
was the cause of Francis Thynne's somewhat 

)ypercritical AnimaduersionSf 1598, for which 
jiee the copy in the Chaucer Society's publica- 

ions, 1875. 
6. Speght's revised edition, folio, 1602 :— 

Tlie Workes of our ancient and lerned poet Geffrey 
Chaucer, newly printed. To that which was done in 
the former iDipresbion this much is now added : 1. In 
the Lite of Giiauoer many things inserted. 2. The 
whole woric by old copies reformed. 8. Sentences and 
proverbes noted. 4. The signification of the old and 
obsiure woids proved; also characters showing from 
what tongue or dialect they be deriued. 5. The Liitine 
and French, not Englinhed by Chaucer, translated, i. 
The treatise called lacke Upland, against Friers, and 
Chaucer's ABO, called Lh priere de nostre Dame, added. 
London, printed by Adam Islip, 1602. 

Oiher examples haye Bishop's name ; the copy 
in the British Masenm Library is imperfect. The 
title is within an elegant circaIa^ headed archi- 
tectural compartment, with hanging grapes and 
figures of Truth and Justice at the sides. This is 
a revision of No. 5. In his ''Address to the 
Header " Speght acknowledges his obligations to 
Francis Thynne, and inserts the latter's lines on 
Chaucer's portrait. The shield of arms, as in 
No. 4, follows the "Life,'' and William Thynne's 
preface comes next. There are 414 leaves. In 
other respects this is simply a reprint of No. 5. 
This is evidently an edition serviceable for the 
study of the poet. " Speght, after all, did praise- 
worthy work ; his textual alterations were few 
and of no great importance ; but he was the first 
to explain Chaucer's language and to supply a 
cloBsaiy " {Edinburgh BevieWf Tol. cxxxii. p. 9). 
This work was reprinted, with a few verbal changesy 

long after Speght's death, viz.. In 1687. The copy 
in the British Maseum Library has a fine title- 
page in the style of the time, without compart- 
ment, and contains 718 pages in all. Theie is no 
printei^s name. 

7. Urry's Chancer, folio, 1721:— 

The Workes of Geoffrey Chaucer compared with the 
former editions and many valuable MS8. Oat of which 
three tales are added which were never before printed. 
By John Uny, Student of Christ Church, Ozun. De< 
ceased : together with a glossary by a student of the 
same CoUedge. To the whole is prefixed the Author*s 
life newly written, and a preface giving an account of 
this edition. London, printed for Bernard Lintot^ be- 
tween the Temple Qatos, mdgoxxi. 

The last of the seven old folio editions.* Uny, 
whose portrait by Pign6 forms the frontispieoe, 
died during its compilation. It seems a praise- 
worthy attempt to preserve all ^e presnmed 
writings of Chaucer, but is of little value. On the 
title-page is a copper- plate engraving of Chanoei^s 
tomb, and on the next page a portrait of the poet 
by G. Vertne. The pilgrims are also figured on 
copper. The "Life of Chaucer" is by Dart, oor- 
rected and enlarged by Dr. W. Thomas ; the pre- 
face contains a brief bibliography. The gloesaiy 
at the end is also by Thomas. Two poems, ** The 
Coke's Tale of Gamelyn'' and ''The Merohant's 
Second Tale ; or, History of Beryu," are inserted 
as genuine ; unwarrantable liberties are taken 
with the text to soften supposed harshness of 
metre, &a; for the rest, the work is chiefly 
founded on Speght's last edition. There is an 
interleaved copy in the British Mnseum Library 
with notes by one of the editors. Most critics 
agree that this is the worst edition of Chaucer 
ever published. 

No further editions of the complete poems of 
Chaucer were published after Urry's till the 
appearance of Bell of Edinburgh's " British Poets ' 
in 1777. But in the int«rval much had been done 
to revise the text of <* The Canterbury Tales." I 
purpose, therefore, in the next paper to catalogue 
the successive separate editiona of these, the 
greatest of Chaucer's works. J. Masksli- 


Cue of the most interesting objects (I dare not 
say the most interesting) in the Lord Mnyor^s Show 
of 1883 was the boat in which Grace Darling and 
her father went out to the wreck of the Forfarahire, 
and rescued the nine survivors, at daybreak on 
Friday, September 7, 1838. This boat is a stoat 
fishing coble, built for half a dozen oars, and it 
looks as strong as ever. It was on view all last 
summer at the Fisheries Exhibition at Soath 
Kensington ; and on November 9 it was carried 
through London streets, high on a wheeled tnick^ 

* I iihall not attempt to number subsequent editioos. 

uigiiizea oy x.jv>^v^ 





drawn by a team of noble cart-bones, and guarded, 
as was rigbt and proper, by British sailors. Where 
is this b<Mtt now ? Is it kept safe and in honour, 
as sQcb a relic should be ? Bat for its history, it 
would long ago haye been sold, among other old 
stores, by the Trinity House ; and perhaps it won 
so sold, and bought by some private owner. One 
would like to know this ; and still more should I 
like to know how much of that heroic story of 
forty-five years ago was in the minds of the lookers- 
on. It is only the simple story of an EoKlish 
peasant girl of three-and-twenty, who had lived 
for twelve years with her parents on the lonely 
Longstone island, and who, after that night of 
tempest, persuaded her father, the lighthouse-man, 
to row out with her, across a mile of stormy sea, to 
the dangerous rock on which, through his telescope, 
a few perishing human beings could be seen. She 
did it ; and she brought every one of them safe 
back with her. That is all ; but it is one of those 
stories that men do not willingly let die. 

She, Grace Horsley Darling, was bom at Bam- 
boroQgh on Nov. 24, 1815, the seventh child of 
William Darling and Thomason Horsley, his wife. 
These details I learn from a poor but genuine little 
anonymous memoir of her, pablished at Berwick- 
upon-Tweed in 1843, just after her death ; which 
little memoir also tells me that during those five 
years of her fame, 1838 to 1843, she steadily 
refused to quit her parents or her island, and went 
on liring there as quietly and simply as before. 
8he was a devout, courageous girl — comely and 
sinoere and silent She bad (says good old William 
Howitt) " the most gentle, quiet, amiable look and 
the sweetest smile that I ever vaw in a person of 
her afcAtion and appearance. You see she is a 
tboroaghly good creature.'' When Lloyd's agent 
— hta name was Sinclair, and he deserves to be 
remembered for her sake — went out to the Long- 
itone, he said to her, '* Well, Grace, we'll surely 
be able to get you a silk gown for this"; and she 
said, ''Do you think so, sir?" with perfect sim- 
plicity. Silk gowns came iu plenty ; silver teapots 
camei, and votes of thanks, and coin to the amount 
of seven hundred pounds, and visitors from afar — 
yea, even from St. Petersburg. But, as my little 
pamphlet truly says, she ''never for a moment 
£n^o( the modest dignity of conduct which beovme 
her sex and station." I^rge sums of money were 
offered to her by Londou managers if she would but 
come and sit in a boat at their theatres, and men far 
above ber sent her proposals of marriage. But she 
was not a '* professional beauty," so she declined 
the stage — she was not a successful murderess, 
therefore she refused to marry in that way. Never- 
theleaa, when consumption attacked her, and she 
wae carried to her native Bamborough to die, I 
perceire among the crowds at her funeral there was 
a eertain '' yonng man from Durham, who is said to 
hare cherished an ardent aQection for the lamented 

deoeaaed.*' Him she might hare wedded had she 

I do not know whether there is any monument 
to her in Bamborough churchyard, nor whether 
St Guthbert's Chapel on Houselands, the largest 
of the Fame Islands, was ever rebuilt (as some had 
proposed) in memory of her. Perhaps a new 
chapel was not wanted, for the old one, built by 
the monks, was destroyed long ago by a Protestant 
monarch whose name we all revere, and since his 
time, says my pamphlet, " there has been no public 
celebration of divine worship upon the island." 

Grace Darling's deed was the aTra^ \ey6fievoVf 
so to speak, of a lofty spirit, that seized eagerly 
and used to the utmost its one chance of heroic 
duty. A deed like hers, so pure and unselfish, 
such a brilliant example of womanly daring, 
ought by this time, we may think, to be known 
all over the world. And I suppose it is still 
known, if not honoured, even in the England of 
1884, and in America. But on our Continent 
few seem to have heard of it. Only the other day 
I was talking of Grace with a German man of 
letters, who said he had written an article about 
her it propoi of the Fisheries Exhibition, and he 
added that he believed she had hardly ever before 
been made known in Germany. When I expressed 
surprise, he asked me whether I had ever heard 
of Jemima Seybus. I never had ; and yet Jemima 
was a brave German lass, who, it seems, rescued 
folk from an inland flood, as Grace rescued folk 
from the sea. All honour, then, to Jemima ! But 
Grace (if one may confess it) is my very earliest 
heroine. Her aunt, Jane Darling, was my grand- 
mother's maid, and we in the nursery used to 
hear of that devoted niece from the lips of " grand- 
mamma's Jane." A. J. M. 


I desire to caution the collectors of "first 
editions" of Tennyson's works against a practice 
which appears to me to be most detrimental to 
the confidence which must in some measure exist 
between book-buyers and the issuers of second- 
hand book catalogues. This warning will be better 
understood if I narrate, as briefly as may be, a 
short experience of my own. 

The first edition of In Memoriam is known to 
be a somewhat scarce book, and upon receiving 
a certain catalogue containing the following 

"879 In Memoriam, Pirst Edition; cloth, un- 

cat, scarce, 1/. I2s. Moxon^ 1850. A copy of the first 
edition realised 62. 6<. at Puttick's, January, 1888," 

I at once sent for the '* lot^" and received it by 
return of post. A very cursory examination 
proved to my somewhat experienced eye that the 
title-page was not genuine, and upon taking the 
matter more closely in hand X found that the 

uigmzea oy 'vjv^v^'iLx 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6tii8.ix.p«B.2s/w. 

▼olnme oontamed the added stanzas (numbered 
Inii. in the sixth and sabseqnent editions), 

" Sorrow, wilt thou live with me/* 
instead of those, nnmbered Iriii. in the first and 
second editions, commencing: — 

" He past, a loal of nobler tone :" 
The condudbg page of letterpress also indicated 
the sixth edition. 

The forged title-page is a clamsy imitation of 
the true one, the imprint being 


Edwakb Moxon & Co., DoYKB Stbsst. 


instead of 


Edward Moxok, Doyxb 8trbst. 

There is no half-title, bat the first end-papers 
appear to hare been taken out and replaced by 
others differing slightly in tint, together with the 
sophisticated title-page. Whilst these were yet 
damp the book has been subjected to strong pres- 
sure, so as to give the inserted leaves the impear- 
ance of having been part of the volume when it 
was originally *' boarded.*' It should be stated that 
whereas the genuine first edition ends upon the 
verso of P, or p. 210, the spurious copy under 
notice ends upon the recto of P 2, or p. 211, and 
that the imprint of Bradbury & Evans on the verso 
of the forged title-leaf is printed from a bolder 
letter (small capitals) than the original. It is 
probable that this experiment may have been 
made upon earlier editions (the second, for in- 
stance) of In Memoriam with greater success ; 
collectors should, therefore, examine their trea- 
sures with care now that the fact of a forgery 
having been in circulation is incontcstably proved. 
I ought to add that I wrote without delay to 
the firm in question, giving them to understand 
that the book was not as represented in their cata- 
logue, and received the following reply : '* The 
book was bought at an auction with other books 
of the same cIms, and we have no reason to doubt 
its^ l^enuineness. Had we not thought it a first 
edition we should not have stated it as such in our 
catalogue. Please return it at once, and we will 
examine the book and Eee if we can detect any- 
thing about it to confirm your suspicions.'' As 
this appeared to cast some doubt upon my judg- 
ment, I took the volume to Mr. Oommin, an in- 
telligent bookseller of this city, who fortunately 
is in possession of a genuine copy of the first 
edition of In Memoriam ; and had my view of the 
case rested hitherto upon mere *' suspicions," 
these were converted into absolute certunty by 
the test of comparison. Upon returning the book, 
a note was sent pointing out the tests which it had 
failed to satisfy; and a candid acknowledgment 
was received from the booksellers in reply, thank- 
ing me for the trouble thus taken, and giving an 

assurance that my letter should be pasted within 
the oover, and the lot withdrawn from sale. '* The 
trade,** as well as amateurs, must boon their guard 
against a fraud which seems to have taken in the 
buyer of the firm with whom this transaction has 
taken phice, and which, if not fully exposed, may 
mislead others in future. Alfrxd Wallts. 
Elm Grove House, Exeter. 

M. Max 0*RelI, in his amusing sketch called 
John Bull it son lie, tells us that the English 
language contains some 43,000 words, of whidi 
29,000 are of Latin origin and 14,000 Teutonic 
I believe the forthcoming New English Dictionary 
of the Philological Society wiU show that our 
language contains at least five times this number 
of words, the first part alone. A— Ant, containing 
6,365 words, including, of course, a large number 
whidi are no longer found in our current spNsech. 
But it is not the sum total of M. O'Bell's addition, 
but the proportion of his division, which prompts 
me to try, by a few particular instances, what the 
proportion is really likely to be between the Latin 
and Teutonic elements. 

I have lately had occasion to compare transla- 
tions of Horace's '^ Integer vitse " {Odes, L 22), and 
the followbg is the proportion used by the several 
authors ; and as translating from the Latin, it may 
be perhaps supposed that they would be inclined 
to use more words derived from that tongue than 
they would use in an original composition. 

I give the total number of words in each writers 
translation of the ode, omitting in the division all | 
proper names and doubtful words. ! 

Worda. orlKin. 

John Asbmore, 1621 IGO ... 15 

Sir T. Hawkins, 1625* ... 147 ... 22 

Barten Holyday, 1652» ... 150 ... 22 

8. W. in Brome, 1671 150 ... 22 

J. Harrington. 1C«4 127 ... 15 

W. Green, 1777 175 ... bl 

P. Wrangham, 1821 149 ... 21 

W. Sewell, 1850 161 ... i.6 

Lord Rayensworth, 1858 ... 138 ... 26 

Sir Theodore Martin. 1861 ... 152 ... 19 

John Conlngton, 1882 ... 136 ... 23 

Another translation in MS. ... 140 ... 12 

So, then, to judge by this example, the words of 

Latin derivation should bo, on the average, about 

14 per cent, instead of 67 per cent. 

It is true that it affords no conclusive proof of 
the incorrectness of the 67 per cent, estitnate, 
because a dictionary containing many scientifio 
and technical words, which are not often fonnd in 
our current or in our literary language, might ahow 
a greater proportion of words that are of Ali^«m/^^ 
origin. We shall see, besides, that our proae 
writers, and especially historians and eaaayiatat 

* Hawkins and Holyd&j's translations are but sUghtlj 
altered one from the other. f^ r\r\r\]r> 

uigiiizea oy VjJvJOvt IV^ 

et^8.ixp«.23, w] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


are mora prone than poets are, parfciculariy lyrical 
poete, to the use of classical words ; and the 
Winnings of their chapters, opening with a certain 
degree of pomp and solemnity, show even a laroer 
namber of sooh words than do the other parts of 
their books. *^ 

If we take examples at random from well-known 
aathors^ we shall find the following results. I will 
begin with two which have been often cited. 


The Lord's Prayer ^Sf' **"?°- 

Shakspere ;— 

Jnlius Cassar, end 150 05 

Heiiryiy..I.i.(Ho8tesi'gfpeech) 150 .'.[ 10 

Much Ado, IL a. (Balth/s song) 77 6 

Tompeit (Ariers soDg). I. ii. ... 57 ;;; 3 

•» f» I- ii. ... 48 ... 5 

w If V. i. ... 44 ... 1 

160 words from the following books :— 


Blblo, A.V.:- 


Genesis, ch. fi []] 

Ben Jooson : Yolpone, 1. i. 

John Plotchep : Loyal Subject, I. i. ','.', 

Chapman : Homer, i 

Flono: Second Frutes, preface ... !!! 
a-"mt, «" another place, p.' 137.!! 5 

Sip ThoflOM Browne : Religio Medici, p. 1 ... 49 
az »!.... »?,., Vulgar Errors, p. 1 ... 45 

f„'iwVS'r''^'^"^.^P-^ 16 

initJer : Hndibras, canto i 17 

Milton : Paradise Lost, p. 1 28 

„ Comus, Songs (Sabrina). 107 words !!.' 14 

flunpel Johnson : Bambler, No. 1 48 

Arddifon: Spectator, No. 1 . J? 

8frift:TaleofaTab,p,l .;; - 10 

Burke, Letter to a Noble LorJ, p. 1 ... '" 83 

De Foe : Robinson Cnuoe, p. 1 " 14 

Gibbon : Decline and Fall, ch. i." !!! !!! ei 

V * *r, ^.-«" . ch. X7. (end) ..! 51 

J{wng : Nigbt Thoughts, Night i. 35 

Bioomfield: Spring, p. 1 gj 

Ite Qaincey : Opium Eater, p. 1 ... .!! '" .«»5 

Wordswopth: Idiot Boy ..! !" g 

r, . .», ^EyeningWalk ... !!! OQ 

Colendge: Christabel g 

Scmthey : Roderick, canto i. ... "82 

Bjron : English Bards '" oo 

Pope : Rape of the Lock ... 39 

Walter Scott : Mannion,introd. ... !!! 10 

-- w . ,, - »• eantoi !! 24 

Tbofnaa Arnold : History of Rome, ch. i. ... 48 

Garlyle: French Reyolution, iii. 1 28 

Macaolay : Hittory of England, i 39 

Tennyson : Maud (" Birds in," &c.) 7 

Mahon : History of Enifland, introd 45 

Gladstone :- Homer, L 836 35 

-^ ^" ^ Church Principles, p. 1 46 

IHekene: The Chimes, p. 1 25 

ThnclreTay : Engllah Humourists, p. I ..! !!! 27 

IVouope: Autobiography, p. 1 23 

So the average of all these is about the same as 
that of the yersions of the ode of Horace given 
**»▼«• Henrt H, Gidbs. 

St. Bnnstan^s, Regent's Park. 

Shakspbarb AiTD THB BifiLK.— A short time 
ago a writer in a leading periodical thoaght well 
once more to point oat that Shakespeare was a 
"remarkable man," and in his use of the Bible 
his ''remarkable conoeption of the import of a 
passage has often enabled him to get at its true 
sense when all the English versions of the Bible 
had positively mistranslated it." And as an 
instance he gives the passage from Biekard IL, 
V. v., about which he says : — 

*' Without being acquainted with the language of the 
Talmud, Shakspeare c^saWy taw that the paisage in 
Matthew xix. 24 was a proverbial saying in which the 
largest animal and the smallest aperture were selected 
to express an impossibility. Hence, with the true genius 
of a great poet, he not only correctly, but most beautU 
fully and poetically, renders it :— 

' It is as hard to come as for a camel 
To thread the postern of a needle's eye.* 

K. Richard II., V. v." 
The writer was mistaken in thinking this a new 
thought It was in print many years before 
Shakespeare was bom, and he may have read it in 
the Paraphrcue of EraitnuB, trandated into Eng- 
lish by Nicholas Udall and others, and published 
in 1648, as Edward VI. ordered this book to be 
placed in all churches, and to "bee read, vsed, 
and studied by euerie curate and prieste to the 
vndoubted edifying as well of theim as of all 
others." The writer alluded to professes to give 
a list of all the English versions of the Scriptures 
up to Shakespeare's time (there have been none 
since his death), but, by a most singular oversight, 
entirely forgets that of Erasmus^ although it was 
considered important enough to be ordered to be 
placed in all churches. The following extracts 
from it will show that the interpretation of the 
"small gate" was no new thing in the days of 
Shakespeare : — 

" And to make the difficultye of the thyng the greater, 
his disciples musyng muche, he eayde more : Tea (quoth 
he) I saye more vnto you : It is more easy for a Camel 
to go through the eye of a nedle, than for a ryche man 
to entre into the kyngdome of heauen. For the gate is 
lowe and strayghte, and it receyueth no Oameles laden 
with burdens of rycbesse. For so he reproued the coue- 
touse ryche man, vnto whome ryches be rather a burden, 
than profyt, whiche they bearo for others, rather than 
for them selfe."— Matt. f. 78. 

So again on the parallel passage in Luke, cap. xviii.: 

"Than Jesus turned to his disciples, and as one 

beeyng in a great meruaill, he saied : How hardly shall 
those whiche are heauie laden with the burden of 
rychesse entre into the kvngdome of God through the 
narrows ^ofe."— Luke, f. 187 verso. 

Even if Shakespeare had not read these passages 
of Erasmus, the idea was common enough. These 
figures of "burdens" and "strait gates" and 
" narrow ways,* and of being " heavily kden " and 
"struggling to enter in," it is needless to say, per- 
vade the New Testament, and Augustine had said: 

"The statement that the serpent gets rid of its oldT^ 
skin by squeeiing itself through a narrow hole, and thiu ^^ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*8.ix,f«.28,'84. 

acquires new ttrangth— how appropriately it fits in with 
the direction to imitate the wifdom of the eerpent, and 
to put off the old man, as the apostle says, that we mav 
pat on the new ; and to fnU it off, too, hy coming through 
a narimt place, according to the saying of our Lord, 
' Enter ye in at the Strait Oate* "—On Christian Doc- 
fri}i«,bk. ii.cap. x?i. 

As I pointed out a few weeks ago, the Shake- 
spearian phrase hurly-burly occurs nearly jfl/7y tiQie« 
in the Paraphrase of ErasmAA^; so it is clearly a 
book for a Shakespearian library. B. B. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

Cardinal Pole's Mother.— A recent corre- 
Bpondent (6* S. ix. 18) says of Margaret, only 
daughter of George, Duke of Olareuce, that " by 
her second marriage she became Countess of 
Salisbury." This seems to be an error. In the 
fifth year of Henry YIII. she petitioned Parliament 
for restoration to rank *' as being only sister to 
Edward, Earl of Warwick and Salisbury, and 
daughter of Isabel, daughter and heir to Richard 
Nevil, Earl of Salisbury, son and heir to Alice, 
daughter and heir to Thomas, Earl of Salisbury/' 
and by the king was admitted in full right to be 
Countess of Salisbury. She long lived at Lord- 
ington House, in my parish, and I should be glad 
of any information as to her remarriage after Sir 
Btchard Pole's death, being under the impression 
that she died his widow. Just before her execu- 
tion she is described as the " Oountesse of Snlis- 
bupy." P. H. Arnold, LL.B. 

Baoton. - 

PtTTTiNa Bees in MotTRNiNa. — This curious 
superstition, which still exists in various parts of 
England, has been taken by our people to other 
parts of the world. This is, of course, only natural; 
but I confess that it was with a strange sense of 
inappropriateness that I found it exist in g: in 
Tasmania. The incident is recorded in the follow- 
ing passage from Mr, B. Tangye's interesting 
Beminiscmcti of Travd in Australia, America^ 
and Egypt The scene was the famous Devirs 
Punch Bowl, a few miles from Lnunceston : — 

'* At the bottom of the little wooded valley we came 
upon Rn old wooden ehanty, where we tried to get a 
glass of milk ; but there was no one at home. Presently 

an old man appeared, driving cows The old man was 

seventy-three yean of age, and lived there alone, ideepinij; 
on a door covered with an opossum ruK. He told us his 
master died there close by the bee-hives a few weeks 
ago. ' 8n,* laid he, ' I put the bees in deep mourning, or 
they would all have left.' " 

I well remember the deep earnestness with which 
he uttered these words, proving the sincerity of 
his belief that he had preserved the bees by 
putting them in mourning for the death of their 
owner. J. A. Lanqford. 

[See 8'« S. v. 393 ; i^ S. xii. 866.] 

Government Professional Men in 1779.— 
Tl^e Cot^rt and Oity Register records the names of 

many professional men : Antiqaarian, Keeper of 
the Medals, Drawings, &&, Bichard Dalton ; 
Librarian, Frederick Barnard, with a clerk and 
porter; Principal Barber, F. Yinoent, 1701.; Master 
of the Bevels, Solomon Dayrolle, lOOZ., with a 
Yeoman ; Historiographer, Bicfiard Stonhewer, 
2001. ; Master of Mechanics, Anthony Shepherd, 
D.D., F.B.S., 100^; Examiner of all Plays, &c, 
John Larpent, jun., Esq., 400^; Deputy, B. Oapell, 
E^q., 2001 ; Poet Laureate, William Whitehead, 
E q., 1002.; Embellisher of Letters to Eastern 
Princes, J. Holland, 60^ ; Master of the Band of 
Music, and full band. Besides the Physicians to 
the King were an Anatomist, John Andrews, Esq.; 
Chemist, John Amyott, Esq., lOOlL; and Oculist, 
Baron de WenzeL The Statuary was Joseph 
Wilton, Esq. The Geographer was Thomas Jef- 
feiys; Hydrographeis, T. Kitchen, senior and 
junior. The Surveyor of the Pictures was G. 
Knapton, Esq., 2O01. ; Principal Portrait Painter, A. 
Bams^, Esq., 2002. ; Painter in Enamels and Minia- 
ture, Jeremiah Meyer, Esq.; Mezzotint Engraver, 
Yalentine Green, F.S.A; Seal Engraver, Thomas 
Major. The Herald Painters were Josiah Samey 
and Bobert Morris. The GomptroUer of the 
Board of Works was Mr. W. Chambers ; the 
Architects, James Adam, Esq., F.B.S., and 
Thomas Sandby, Esq. The Master Carver was 
Samuel Norman. There was a Serjeant Painter to 
the Board. The Secretary for the Latin Language 
for the Secretary of State received 200Z.; the 
Architect to the Ordnance was E. B. Frederick, 
1202.; Bev. Dr. Maskelyne was Astronomical Ob- 
servator at 1002. There was a scientific staff at 
the British Museum. Htdb Clarke. 

Bqrial without a Coffin. — In a very 
ample list of the church goods belonging to the 
parish of Hartshorne, Derbyshire, made in 1612, 
is : *'It. a beere w^** a ocfiio"; and at the end is 
a memorandum, "That Mr. James Boylle, of 
Shorthaselles, gave to the churche a newe beere, 
beinge made att his owne coste and chardges, box, 
woode and workmanshipp, this present year 1626." 
The coffin in the one entry, and the box in the 
other refer, I presume, to the same thing, which 
was used for the conveyance to the grave, upon 
the bier, of the corpse of any person who was to be 
buried without a coffin. Thohas NoRTn. 


Origin of Black for Bvenikq DRRas. — 
" One at least of the changes which the book [Balwar 
Lytton's Pelham] effected in matters of dress has kept 
its ground to this day. Lady Frances Pelham writes m 
a letter to her son : 'Apropoi of the complexion I did 
not like that blue coat yon wore when I last saw you. 
You look best in black, which is a great compliment, 
for people must be very distinguished in appearance to 
do so.* Till then the coats worn for evening dress were 
of different colours, brown, green, or blue, according to 
the fancy of the wearer; and Lord Orford tells me tbat 
the adoption of the now invariable bIao1( dates f^i|i 

uigmzea oy ^.^jVv'v^ 


ta>S.lX. FcB.33,'84.] 



the paUication of Pilham, All the eontemporariei of 
Pelbun would appear to hare been slmultaiieouely 
poenned with the idea that they were entitled to take 
to themielret the great compliment paid by Lady 
Frances to hf r eon."— rA« Lif$ qf Lard LytUm, by his 
eon, ToL iL p. 195; 

J. Maskbll. 

Ifd mael reqaeai oorreepondente deeirinc; information 
QD family mattera of only private interest, to aflSx their 
Demee and addresses to their queries, in order thai the 
aMweia may be addreoed to them direct. 

TJkusual Words and Phrases in 1618. — 
AcHvut.'^lty TU Tkracian Wonder* I. ii. (Web- 
ster's Worki, Hazlitt's edition, vol iv. p. 128}:— 
"And in your pastimes on the holidays 
StriTe to surpass the aelivett of us all." 
Is there any other instance of the use of thissnper- 
ktiye ? I cannot find it in any of the glossaries. 
The accent is worth remarking. 

MuKod. — lo the same play, same act and scene 
(ppi 130-l)y ** Mtucod, come hither." I cannot 
&d this word in any dictionary or glossary. Is 
it a cormption of musk-^od f 

Snidcfaiil. — In the same play, same act and 
scene (p. 134):— 

*' Whereas the tniekfail grows and hyacinth." 
What flower is this meant for; or is it a niiaprint ? 
I ftLDCj it might haye been corrapted from some 
Batch or German word for the snowdrop. I cannot 
find any each word in any Dutch or German dic- 
Homd, — In the same play. III. ii. (162): — 
" Beat np our dmms and drown the homeU* sound." 
Is there any other instance of this use of homtUy 
apptirently for horns f 

iVittery.— In the same play, IV. i. (p. 180):— 

•* This is Bome/aUery; it cannot be." 

I cannot find this word in any dictionary. It is 

evidently formed from the Latin /a/Zo, falUre^ and 

means ^ deceit." Does it occur elsewhere ? 

But what VfiU hold bare buckle and ihong to- 
giiher.^ln The W»»keet gotih to the Wall, lit. i. 
(Webster's Works, Hazlitt's edit, vol. iv. p. 269), 
thifl evidently proverbial expression occurs. Is it 
met with elsewhere? It is apparently another 
form of " to make both ends meet." 

To easke.^In Nares's Glossary (ed. Halliwell 
and Wngfat) this word is explained, "apparently, 
to atrike," and the following; passage from The 
Wt0k€St goeth to the Wall, IV. i., is given:— 
" And this hand^ 
Kow shaking with the palsie, eatks the bever 
Of my proud foe, untiil he did forget 
Ifhat cronnd hee stood upon." 

Webster's >rori^,19ailitt's edit, iv. SH. 

* This play is attributed to Webster, and included in 
hb Works both by Hazlitt and Dyce; but it is very 
donbtfU if he wrote any porthm of it 

Surely the meaning of the word is obvious ; it is 
derived from the Spanish cascar, '' to crack, bursty 
or break into pieces." I cannot find, however, 
any other instance of its occurrence. 

To bag,-^ln the same play, IV. i (p. 274). the 
verb is used in a sense of which I have not found 
any other instance in the writers of that period : — 
" Now for the treasure you do yearly bag 
From both the Indies." 

Schoolboys ordinarily use the verb in the sense 
of " to take." as " Bags I that." 

Four o^dock bell — In the same play, IV. ilL 
(p. 263), " And, honest prentices, if ye please me, 
I'll not ring the four o*doek bell till it be past 
five." What was the four o'clock bell for? It 
could not be the curfew ; was it the vespers bell? 

Oarbold.— In the same play, Y. L (p. 287), 
"Amidst these sweating garbolds." Does this 
form of the word garboU occur elsewhere ? 

Hedge-betrothing, — ^In the same play, same act 
and scene (p. 292): — 

'* Tour hedgsbarothing covenant shall not serve." 
Can any other instance be given of the use of this 
epithet ? It is apparently connected with "hedge* 
priest" F. A. Marshall. 

" Thb Edict of Nante8."— The only book for 
the printing of which Queen Mary gave her rcnral 
licence was, according to John Dun ton, The His-' 
tory of the Edict o/ Nanies in 1693 ; and in his 
Life and Errors, i. 163, he has, with pardonable 
vanity, reproduced the royal authority "to our 
trusty and well-beloved John Dunton, citizen and 
stationer of London." Watt says of this book, 
i. 264, q, " 1694, one vol 4to."; Lowndes has iti 
p. 1647, " 1694, two vols. 4to."; whilst the royal 
authority for printing states that it was to be '* in 
four volumes." Lowndes quotes the sale of the 
Marquess of Townshend's copy in two volumes, 
and my copy corresponds with this description ; 
but it has on the last page " End of vol. ii.," and 
only brings the history down to the year 1642. 
Was this all that was published ? Queen Mary 
died very shortly after the publication of these 
two volumes ; did interest in the historv of the 
Edict and the effects of its revocation die with 
her? Edward Sollt. 

Transmission of Cotjrtest Titles.— Can a 
courtesy title transmit honour; and, if so, how 
much ? On looking up Burke, I see the heir- 
apparent grandsons of peers have^ as a rule, 
taken their deceased fathers' titles. But not 
idways ; for instance, Lord Capell, grandson of the 
Earl of Essex, does not call himself Viscount 
Maiden. Is there any rule, or can Lord Belgrava 
call himself either by the name he bears or by 
that of Earl Grosvenor, whichever he j^eases ? 


Junior Athsnienm Club. ^.^.^.^^^ ^^ GoOgk 




Tknwis-cjottbt, a Part op it called Prance. 
^In Decker's OulVg Horribooh, edited by J. Nott, 
1812, p. 116, there is a note : — 

<<'SweatiDS together in Fratice,^ meaning, in the 
tennis-court : a part of the court, if I miatake not, wai 
formerlv called Prance. I think I hare met with the 
ezpresmon in some of our early writers, though I oannot 
immediately refer to it.*' 

Can any correspondent give me any such refer- 
ences ? I shall be greatly obliged, as I hare not 
myself been so fortanate as to discover them. 

Julian Marshall. 

Bono bt William Wilberforce.— Am I 
correct in supposing that the song entitled Rich 
and Poor or Saint and Sinnm" is by William 
Wilberforce ? The following is the first verse : — 
'* The poor man's sins are glaring, 
In the face of ghostly warDing, 
He is cauicht in the fact 
Of an overt act, 
Buying greens on a Sunday morning.*' 


Pettt France : Crooked UsAas : Pimlico. 
— Oan any of year readers help me to the origin 
of the following names of localities in London ? — 

1. Petty France is the junction of York Street 
and James Street, Buckingham Gate, where the 
St. George's Workhouse us^ to stand. I believe 
this is quite a local name, but of old standing. 

2. Crooked Usage is a narrow lane running 
from Cale Street, Chelsea, to King's Boad« 

3. Pimlico. — Mr. Loftie, in his History of 
London, suggests that the name may have been 
derived from an island in the West Indies, whence 
the timber for building was obtained. Is there 
any authority for this 1 There is an island named 
Pimlico in the West Indian group, a mere dot of 
a thing on the map, near the Bahamas, but I never 
heard of any timber, or anything else, being im- 
ported thence. E. A. D. 

rstow, whose Survey of London first saw the light in 
1598, speaks of Petty France, as do Phillip's Life of 
Milton, 1694, and Thoresby's Diary, 1709. Its name 
was probablybestowed, as was that of Petty France in 
Bishopsgate Ward, in - . . - . 

men settling there.] 

consequence of a colony of French- 

Falconer's Use of the Word " Oblivion." — 
Oan any one account for William Falconer's pre- 
dilection for this word ? He uses it no less than 
a dozen times in his poem of The Shipwreck, For 
instance, in the first canto he speaks of '^ dumb 
oblivion," "oblivion's shade," "dark oblivion," 
"her wing of deepest shade Oblivion drew," "in 
Bweet oblivion," "in oblivion's sleep." In the 
second canto is the following : "perhaps oblivion 
o'er our tragic tale," &c In the third canto the 
Mowing: "in oblivion lost," "oblivion o'er it 
draws a dismal shade," "sunk in oblivion." And, 
again, in the OccoMxonal EUgy, " their harps obli- 
Yion's influence can defy," "from oblivion's veil 

relieve your scene." The word is not a common 
one in poetry ; I should think there must probably, 
therefore, be some reason for its frequent use by 
the author of The Shipwreck 

0. W. Holgatb. 

Bishop Parr.— Can any reader of " N. & Q." 
furnish particulars of the' family or pedigree of 
Richard Parr, Bishop of Sodor and Man, 1635-44 ? 
He seems to have held the rectory of Eccleston, 
Lancashire, along with his bishopric in comment 
dam, Browne Wilhs has the following brief notice 
of him : — 

** Richard Parr, S.T.P., Rector of Eccleston, Lanca- 
shire, consecrated June 10, 1635. He was an excellent 
bishop, rebuilt Ramsey Cliapel, and was eminent for his 
preaching and instructing the natives of his diocese. 
He died 1643 [it should be 1644], and was bnried in the 
Cathedral of 8t German's in the unhappy times of the 

Members of his family were rectors and vicars in 
the diocese of Sodor and Man down to 1730. It 
would be esteemed a favour if further informa- 
tion were kindly supplied. Monbnbis. 

Thb Parent of Pliasure Cavoes.— I should 
feel obliged if any one would favour me with his 
recollection of what used to be a" common object" 
on the. Thames, between Hungerford and London 
Bridge, some forty years ago— I mean old Bobin- 
son Crusoe's canoe. It used to hover about the 
steamers at the piers while its occupant collected 
halfpence, on the plea, set out in a placard, that he 
had saved — lives (the exact number being inserted 
in chalk). This was, I fancy, the parent of the 
present race of pleasure canoes. I was among a 
knot of old watermen the other day, who all re- 
membered it, but gave different accounts; one, who 
seemed the clearest in his recollection, asserted 
that it was eighteen feet long and made of tin. 

John Corttoit. 

The Temple. 

Inscriptions in School Prizes. — When were 
books first given as school prizes with inscriptions 
by the het^ master) I have a copy of AfiUui 
Gellius bearing the following: — 

'^Optimss indolis adolescentem lacobU Steen hocee 
ppapiitp omabam, cum singulari diligenti& euos oom- 
milites exuperftsset et ex quinta cltisse in qnartam 
princepe arrogari meruisset. Ant. iBmilias postridia 
Eidos. Aprileis, H.p.o.xxxy. Traiecti ad R. Semi." 

What place can this be ? Not Utrecht ; the last 
word is certainly not Bhenum. A later owner has 
entered his name, George Lee, Haarlem, January, 
1820. T. G. 

Chinese Junk in the THA2iBS.—0n March 
28, 1848, a Chinese junk, the Ke-ylng, commanded 
bv Capt Kellett and manned by a crew consisting 
of forty Chinese and twenty Eniopeans, arrived 
in the Thames, was afterwards exhibited in the 
East India Docks, London, and was still oo 

6ii>S. IX. Fbb, 23/81] 



exhibition as late as 1851* Descriptions of the 
jank appear in Chamhert^i Edinburgh JiotimaZ, 
July 15, 1848, in the Illuitrated London Nem, 
1848, and in Timba's Year Book of Facts, 1849. 
None of these descriptions gives in detail any 
account of her remarkable voyage : from OantoD, 
ronnd the Gape of Good Hope, to the United 
States, and thence to England. In connexion 
with the foregoing I shoald like information as 

1. Where can be found an accoant of her voyage 
from China to the United States and thence to 
England 1 

2.^ A pamphlet was published and sold on board 
the junk. Can any of your readers give extracts 
from this pamphlet, or name where a copy can be 

3. What became of the junk after she ceased to 
be a curiosity in England f 

To the above I may add the junk was visited 
by the Queen and Prince Albert^ the Duke of 
Wellington, and many other distinguished persons. 

T. Gibbons. 

Norway. — Bacon, in his Etsay <m Propheeiei. 
says that before the year 1588 (the Armada year) 
these lines were in circulation : — 
** There shall be seen upon a day. 
Between the Baugh and the May, 
The black fleet of Norway. 
When that is come and gone, 
England build hoaaes of lime and stone, 
For after wars shall you have none." 

It was said the King of Spain's name was Norway. 
Had Philip II. any such name ? 0. A. Ward. 
Haverstook HUL 

J. Mathbbs. — Who was J. Mathers, the author 
of The History of Mr. John de Castro, Lond. 1815 ? 
Henri yan Laun. 
172, Lancaster Boad, W. 

Thb Mahdl — We are now often told that 
ilie influence of this individual on his fanatical 
followers is owing to their supposing him the re- 
forming prophet who Mohammed predicted should 
one day arise. In the preliminary discourse to 
Sale's translation of the Koran (London, Tegg, 
1844, p. 61) we read of "the coming of the 
Hohdi, or director concerning whom Mohammed 
prophesied." Will any reader of "N. & Q." give 
me reference to this prophecy ? W. M. M. 

PicruBs OF Marshal Oonwat. — In the 
GrosvenoT QtAlery Exhibition of pictures by Sir 
Joshoa Reynolds No. 202 is called '* Marshal Con- 
way tts a Boy," painted 1770. As this gentleman 
bom in 1720 he would be fifty at the date 
I am curious to know what is the 
I designation of this picture, which belongs 
to Ihe Mftrqais of Hertford. 

S. G. Stopford Sacktills. 


— Where did this event really take place, at Salis- 
bury or Shrewsbury; and what evidence is there 
fixing it at either place 1 I have not means of 
access to sets of the Penny or Saturday Magazine^ 
but I believe it is there recorded, with an accom- 
panying engraving, that a headless skeleton was 
found, I think in some inn or public place, in one 
of the above towns ; and the description goes on to 
say that these were Buckingham's bones, and the 
mystery of the place of his execution is cleared up. 
Bat I speak from memory only; it was either in 
one of the above serials, or some other such. At 
Britford, near Salisbury,, is a tomb, said to be his, 
with the arms of Stafford and Rivers. Salisbury 
was a rendezvous for the Western contingent that 
intended to have joined him if he crossed the 
Severn. Did he try to make his way there, and 
so after his betrayal came to be taken on and 
there executed ? B. 

A&us OF Clarb College. — I seek information 
as to the bordure in the arms (De Clare impaling 
Ulster, the whole within a bordure sable, gout^e 
d'or) of Clare College,. Cambridge. The borofure is 
obviously "for diflFerence"; but is there any parti- 
cular reason why it should have taken this form ? 
E. Earlb Dorlibo. 

Heraldic. — To what family do these arms 
belong ? — Azure, a cross (moline or floiy) argent, 
between four scallop shells argent ; crest, a demi- 
lion proper holding a scallop shell. Surbibnbis. 

"An't plbasb the pios." — What is the real 
word corrupted into pigs f Dr. Samuel Legge ex- 
plained it by " An't please the pyo^" understanding 
thereby the hostia deposited in the pyx, and so mak- 
ing it equivalent to Deo voUnte in the minds of tran- 
substantiationalists. A recent writer on folk-lore 
treats the word as an abbreviation of pm«, fairies. 
Which is correct ? G. L. Fbntob. 

San Bemo. 

Chittt-facb.— Can any one supply me with an 
example of the use of chichi-face or chittV'face in 
literature of the sixteenth century ? Uotgrave 
(1611) gives a French com^pound chichc-facs^ which 
he renders ''a chichiface, micher, sneakebill "; 
also, visage de rebec, "a sharp nose, chittiface.'' 
From which it is evident that he treated chichiface 
and chittifaee as the same word, and this would 
properly mean lean face, pinched face (M.£. 
chiche, chinche). So the word is employed' by 
Burton, Anatomy of Mel^ pt. iii. s. 2 : " Every 

lover admires his mistress, though Bhe have a 

lean, thin, chitty face." Yet, on the other hand, 
both Middleton and Massinger apply the term to 
a pace, where the thing intended seems plainly to 
be child-face or girl-face, chitty being referred to 
chit, a child : More DUsenmirSj &a, III. L, '' A 
tender, puling, nice, chitty-faced sqoall it is";^ 

uigmzea oy x^j Vv^v^'i IV^ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [*fcRix.F«.28.'84. 

Virgin Martyr^ IL i, " The peakios;, chittj-faoe 
page.** And bo the word is need occasionftlly down 
to Sir W. Scott, who speaks of Jenny Dennison's 
" good-for-Iittle chit-face." One might hope to 
find an example earlier than the time when it 
came to be spelt chitty and assigned to chit 

0. B. Mount. 
li, Norham Road, Oxford. 

Authors of Pobms Wahtbd. — Can any one 
tell me the author of a poem entitled King 
Arihur^s Sword, published in the New Monthly 
Magazine (1826), vol. xiy. p. 4521 The first verse 
runs: — 

" They ro<le alonj?, they rode away, 
Tramp, tramp, beaide the mero. 
Until they came where dark shades lay 

Upon the waters clear. 
There rose a spectre arm upright 

From out the crystal plain, 
Half in white namite clothed and bright 
As silrery drops of rain." 

I should also be fflad to know who wrote some 
stanzas signed XXX. at p. 469 of the same volume, 
beginning: — 

" In the woods of Arcady, 
Lying on a pleasant green, 
Shadowed by a beeohen tree, 

A shepherd boy was seen 
Piping, while the rirer sweet 
Ran and gurgled at his feet.*' 

M. Haiq. 

Richard lb Davids.— Who was the father of 
the wife of Richard le Davids, Mayor of Car- 
marthen in 1774, and High Sheriff of Carmarthen- 
shire in 1778? C. L. Brandrbth, M.D. 

Authors of Quotations Wanted,— 
Can you favour me with a reference to the story of 
" that traitor of old time, down whose throat the full 
price of treason wns poured, in the guise of molten 
go'd"1 I quote from Mr. Laurence's noyel Anteros, 
P- 122. J. Mawobl. 

"Boast not of day till night hath made it thine, 
Of untried friendship and untested wine." 

GsoRQB Frede&ios Fardoit. 

(6«» S. Til. 187, 418, 476, 496; riii. 399; ix. 113.) 
Fusrr. has invoked the aid of any of the readers of 
" N. & Q." interested in heraldry to help him in 
the solution of the case he puts at the first refer- 
ence given ahove (6*»» S. viL 187). This aid, how- 
ever, no one has made any attempt to supply. I 
must say I join in the discussion with diffidence, 
as I feel that in the complicated and, to me, 
scarcely intelligible case put before your readers 
a solution can only^ be satisfactorily sought at 
the hands of some practical heraldic authority, 

such 88 an officer of the College of Arms, nnleas, 
perhaps, Mr. Woodward, or some other well- 
known heraldic correspondent of '* N. & Q.," csn 
be induced to give us the benefit of a well con- 
sidered opinion. 

In oommon with P. P. I am nnable to under- 
stand how, in the case given by your corre- 
spondent, the heraldic authorities granted the 
right to the husband on his marriage (putting 
aside the question of the lady's supporters for the 
moment) of qyartering his wife's arms, he being 
compelled, under the terms of the entail, to assume 
her name and arms in addition to his own. I my- 
self know of no instance of a quartered coat of 
arms being borne by any one unless derived by 
deicnU, It may be the way in which the heraldic 
authorities in this instance have tried to get over 
the difficulty of showing that the arms of the wife, 
she being an heiress, were to be borne (in accord- 
ance with the terms of the entail) as Hu Atii6aiwfs 
oum^ and not merely borne on his shield in pre- 
tence, as would have been the ordinary case when 
the husband is not put under terms. If this be so, 
it is strange to me. It is true that the terms as 
to bearing the arms as well as the name, in addi- 
tion to his own, may be unusual; and even if the 
aim of the authorities were as I have just sng« 
gested, still it would (to say nothing of the objeo- 
tion shown by Fusil) be defeated beyond that 
immediate generation, as the issue of the marriage 
would in anv event bear their parents' anna 
quartered, and then who would be any the wiser 
as to whether their coat had not been derived by 
descent in the ordinary way 1 

With regard to the question of shield v. lozenge 

Sthe title under which the above subject is intro- 
luced), I will endeavour to see if any rule or 
principle can be applied to the case in point I 
may premise that when Fusil makes the rather 
too general statement that " ladies may not bear 
armorial shields," of course he does not mean to 
refer to married ladies. Boutell, in his HeraJdry, 
Bittorical and Popular, ed. 1864, p. 145, lays 
down the following rules, which again are deduced 
from the works of the older heraldic writers of Uie 
highest authority : — 

** An unmarried lady bears her paternal ooat of arms, 
wheilier single or quartered, upon a losenge, without 
any crest. 

** Tbe arms of a widow are borne upon a loien^ and 
without a creet. 

"A peeress in her own right bears her hereditary 
arms (without helm or crest) upon a loseuge, with her 
coronet and supporters." 

And he gives, in illustration of this last clasSy 
further instances as to how the arms would be 
blazoned if she were to (1) marry b peer, (8) marry 
a commoner, and (3) as widow of a peer many a 
commoner. In aU of these oases her arms 'would 
be borne upon a lozenge, distinct from the shiald 
of her husband, who would; if he were a ooiniiioner« 

uigiiizea oy x_j Vv'vy'i l\^ 


«MiaiZ.Fn. 8, '84.1 



•iUmt impale or charge her arms in pretence on 
his own shield. 

To pat it in other words, the rale may be stated 
to be that lozenges are ased instead of shields by 
(1) anmarried ladies, (2) widows, (3) peeresses in 
their own right, and, possibly, (4) certain other 
ladies when recipients of some honour or dignity 
which they cannot share with their husbands. 
Now, applying the principle underlying these rules 
to the case before me, I should have thought that 
where the husband's arms are blazoned together 
with the wife's (as in the quartered instance given 
by Fusil), then such an achievement should be 
borne npon a shield. Yonr correspondent does 
noi say whether the grant or conOrmation of the 
lady's arms and supporters was depicted on a shield 
or on a lozenge. I should have thought, follow- 
ing ont the above principle, that it would be 
shown on a lozenge. He does say though that in 
the margin of that document are depicted the arms 
of her hnsband quartered with her own upon a 
shield, and rightly here I think, so far as the mere 
qoeetion of shield v, lozenge goes; but whether or 
not it is correct to flank that quartered shield " by 
her hereditary supporters," as is stated to have 
been the case, is another question altogether, and 
leads one off into another digression. 

Sir William Dugdale, in his Antient Utage of 
Amu (Bank's edition, 1812, p. 42), speaking of 
aapporters, says: — 

" They are not assamable, nor can they, according to 
the beraldio law, be alienated or cbangod witboat royal 
Ueenee. Peerenes in their own right have an nndoubfeed 
daim to Bapporters ; bat it seams to be a disputed point 
whether any other woman is entitled to the same 

Sdmondson, in his Complete Body of fferaldry^ 
ed. 1780, p. 193, says:— 

" The king4 of arms in England are not authorized to 
crant sopponers to any person under the degree of a 
Anlubt of tbe Bath nnless tbay receive a rnyal warrant 
diraeicd to them for thit purpose, and yet Lion king of 
arms in Scotland may, by virtue of his office, grant sup- 
porters without such royal warraut, and hath frequently 
put that power in praetice." 

And again, whilst doubting the right of daughters 
of peers, merely as such, to bear their paternal 
supporters, Edmondson admits 
" that in some cases ladies are entitled to them ; thus, 
ladiaa who are peeresses in their own right, either by 
deeoe u t or patent, have a just right to wear supporters. 
And he adds:— 

** It IS tme that widows of peers who have married 
mder their degree frequently bear the arms and sup- 
porters of their first husband and use his dignity, and 
at the same time bear the arms of their second husband, 
hot this is directly contrary to the roles of precedency." 

I am not concerned to pat the test of these antho- 
ntiM to the case before me and try the hidy's 
light to bear snpportersy as that right would appear 
to be admitted by the grant or confirmation above 
OODtumed; bat my Uwt qaotation goes to show 

that a similar proceeding, i, s., using supporters and 
at the same time bearing arms of a husband — ^a 
commoner— was viewed with disfavour by so high 
an authority as Edmondson. 

On a review of the whole of this complicated 
and difficult case I should be inclined to say 
(though £ should be sorry to speak positively when 
differing from presumably high heraldic autho- 
rities, and should be glad, as I said before, of a 
more authoritative opinion than mine) that the 
better way of marshalling the arms in question 
would have been more in the line suggested by 
yonr correspondent, and more after the mauner 
adopted by a Knight of the Bath (see my note 
herein, 6*^ S. vilL 4l2), viz., an arrangement of a 
shield and a lozeuge, side by side ; on the shield, 
to the dexter, the arms of the husband bearing his 
wife's arms in pretence, and ensigned with his 
crest^ motto, &a; on the lozenge, to the sinisteri 
the arms of the wife ensigned with her supporters^ 
the whole achievement forming one heraldic com* 
position. J. S. Udal. 

Inner Temple. 


329). — The first passage as it stands in the poem is: 

" Then it came to pass that a pestilence f«Il on the city. 

Presaged by wondrous signs, and mostly by flocks of 

wild pigeons. 
Darkening the son in their flight, with nought in their 
craws but an acorn." 

Coming disasters are often thought to be preceded 
and preeaged by extraordinary natural phenomena 
(the pages of Livy are replete with such prodigia\ 
a belief of which the poet has availed himself by his 
special mention, among other signs, of vast flights of 
wild pigeons, as either being not previously known 
at all or not in such enormous flocks, near the 
plague-stricken city. This is not a mere flight of 
imagination, but a fact in natural history, if we 
bear in mind that the locality of tbe poem is in 
America, and that the poet is referring to the 
passenger pigeon, which is "a native of North 
America from north to south, and is far-famed for 
its extraordinary numbers. In their native regions 
their numbers seem to be incredibly vast: for miles 
and miles and miles flock follows flock, and that 
so fast as scarcely to be able to be reckoned as 
they pass. Audubon counted one hundred and 
sixty-three flocks in twenty-one minutes " (Morris, 
British Birds, iii. 315). Ue does not particularize 
their food, but in his account of the wood pigeon 
(iii. 296) says, " that it feeds on grain, wheat| 
barley, oats, peas, beans, vetches, and acorns, fta, 
and that these are swallowed whole." We are left, 
then, to imagine that there had been known no 
flights so large, and that there were no oak forests 
near enough to feed so many as were then seen and 
caoght; and that thas the number and the food of 
the feathered yisitants were strange enoogh to be 
looked on as a pzeiageof the impending peitilenoe, 

uigmzea oy '^._jv>'v^ 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [e«ks.ix.P«B.23/w. 

** Coming events cast their shadows before," or are 
thought to do, in divers ways. '* Nunquam urbs 
Roma tremait, ut non futari eventus alicujas id 
pnenunciam esset/' says Plioy, H, N., ii. 86 ; and 
Herodotus had previously interpreted the earth- 
quake at Delos in a like manner: — A^Aos cKivrj^n 
Ko* irptara koI rJoraTa fJtixpi €fJL(v (racrdtlo'a, Kat 
TOVTo yukv Kov repas dvOpwiroio'i rtav fi€kX,6uT(av 
ia-ea-Oai kokQv €<f)rjv€ 6 Bcos (vL 98). It would 
be interesting to learn from some resident whether 
such flights of pigeons are, or were, common in the 
vicinity of Philadelphia. 

2. The second passage should have been quoted 
in full :— 

'* Like the implacahle soul of a chieftain slaughtered in 

This seems to be a reminiscence of Yirgirs de- 
scription of the death of Tumus in the last line of 
the j^neid, 

** Vitaque cum gemita fagife indignata sab umbras," 
with the addition of the feelings attributed by 
Homer to Ajax in the Odyssey (xL 542) : — 
otrj 8* AiavTos 3^ux^ TcXa/xwviaSao 
v6a'<ln,v a<fi€(m]K€if K€xoX.iofi€vri etveKa vticrfs; 
and by Virgil to Dido in jEneid^ vi. 467-73. 

3. " Golden silence of the Greek." Longfellow 
seems to have had in view the various commenda- 
tions of silence to be found in the Greek writers, 
many of which have been collected by Brunck in 
his Poetm Gnomici, Argent, 1784, p. 241, and by 
Grotins, in his StohcnUy Paris, 1626, p. 942 ; or 
he may have been under an impression that the 
saying, ** Speech is silver, but silence is gold," was 
of Greek origin, though a query as to this in Z^ 
S. ii. 462 elicited only an editorial reply that it 
was a Dutch proverb, and no Greek authority for 
it has yet, I believe, been adduced, nor do I think 
that any can be found. 

4. ** A boy's will is the wind's will," t. «., easily 
excited and easily changed. Aristotle, in his 
Bhetoric, bk. iL 14, has a chapter on the character- 
istics of youth in which he says that ot vcot are 
iTTidvfirjTiKol, €VfX€Tdl3o\oi Se: Kai cr^Spa filv 
^triOvfiova-i raxv ^ irdvovTat' 6^€iai yap al 
povki^a^Ls, Kal ov fi€ydkai, 

5. " Spake full well, in language quaint and olden, 

One who dwelleth by the castled Bhine." 

To the query, in 1«' S. iv. 22, anno 1861, as to 
the person here alluded to, no reply has been given, 
nor can I do more than repeat the query in the 
hope that an answer may be forthcoming. 

6. ^' Slaves of nature." The context, 

"And by the brink 
Of seqaeaiered pools in woodland valleys, 
Where the slaves of Ifsture stoop to drink," 

makes it dear that he is referring to animals, and 
embodies in his phrase the words of Sallust at the 
beginning of his BeUtm CatUimrium: ,"Peoora, 
qu88 Natura prona, atque ventri obedientia ftnzit. 

Sed nostra omnis vis in animo et corpore sita est: 
animi imperio, corporis servitio magis utimur. 
Alteram nobis cum dis, alteram cum belluis com- 
mune est." W. E. Bdckliet. 

The TiTLB of Mastbr (6* S. ix. 67).— The 
query propounded by Mr, Mackat brings before 
us again a portion of a query by Ma. J. W. 
Bone, F.S.A. («. t "Heir of," &c., at 6«» B. viii. 
269), which has, I think, not yet received a reply. 
As the particular point common to the two queries 
is one in which I am interested from historical 
associations, and is also one much misunderstood 
in England, I shall be glad to place on record in 
" N. & Q." what I believe to be the true view of 
the subject. 

Magter, in Latin documents magisUrj, is, I hold, 
the proper legal description of the heir apparent, 
and probably also of the heir presumptive, of all 
dignities in the Scottish peerage of and below the 
rank of earL Modern practice is against the ose of 
the title by an heir presumptive, and the right itself 
is perhaps not so clear, but it still remains, as it has 
been from the fifteenth century downwards, the 
right of the heir apparent. In the case of earldoms, 
modern practice has gradually fallen into accordance 
with the English custom of using a second title of 
peerage, of a lesser grade ; but that usage in no 
way derogates from uie fact that the heir apparent 
of a Scottish earldom is the magister or fioaiiaritu 
thereof. Those who have read that most enjoyable 
of family histories, the Liva of ih$ Lttuisays, by 
the late Earl of Crawford and Baloarres, can 
scarcely fail to remember the dramatic interest 
which centres round the story of the life and 
doings of the *' wicked Master of Crawford"; and 
although it is, and for some time past has been, 
the custom to speak of the Master of Crawford as 
Lord Lindsay, he is still as much Master of Craw- 
ford «s the heir apparent of Lord Napier is Master 
of Napier, or of Lord Lovat, Master of Lovat. 

To speak of the heir apparent of a chief of a 
name or a clan, however distinguished, as 3£a$Ur 
of the name or clan of which his father is chief, is, 
so far as I can see, to run contrary to the feusts alike 
of Scottish law and of Scottish history. The im- 
portance anciently attached to the designation of 
MduUr is strongly marked by its being given to the 
highest rank in the ancient peerage of Scotland — 
the dignities of duke and marquis being of com* 
paratively modera introduction— as well as by its 
being given in the most formal manner in the public 
archives of the kingdom. Thus, the heir apparent 
of the first of the Lords Erskine who became heirs 
general of the ancient Earls of Mar is in 1446 
styled ** Magister de Marr" in the Exchequer Rolls 
of Scotland {Rotuli Scaeearii Begum Scotarutn^ 
voL V. p. 236, edited by G. Burnett, Lyon King 
of Arms, Edinburgh, H.M. General Register 
House, 1882), while the cases of the ''wicked" 

uigiiizea oy VjlOOSt l\^ 

<j*aix.F«B.2s,'84.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Mastar of Crawford and of Norman Leslie, Master 
of Botfaes, forfeited for the slaaghter of Cardinal 
Beaton, bring down the practice to the middle of 
the fiixteenth century. 

To restrict the designation of Maskr, as Mr. 
Mackat's language restricts it, to the heirs 
apparent of etiiain Scottish peers is only to con- 
fbse the subject. To speak of that designation, as 
Mb. Boms speaks of it, as a " local title/' is to 
show that the true import and the history of the 
designation are alike generally unknown or un- 
heeded in Bngland. The title may be called 
** local," if by local be understood peculiar to Scot- 
land ; but it follows its bearer, just as much as 
hia father's title does, and the Master of Lovat or 
jf Napier is as much ''Master" in England as 
Lord Lovat or Lord Napier is a peer of Great 
Britain quit peer of Scotland. 

It is generally assumed, and is perhaps probable, 
that the Scottish designation was copied, more or 
leas oloeely, from old French practice, and that it 
bean a certain analogy to the " Monsieur" of the 
n^ral house of France. The fancied analogies 
with 'Byzantine Court practice are, I think, too 
remote to be seriously quoted nowadays in illus- 
tration of a Scottish mediseyal title, which, as John 
Biddell says, was *' upon the whole peculiar to us 
pi. 6. the Scots], but common in some degree to 
France, from whence we deriyed seyeral legal 
terms and usages." More than this very cautiously 
worded statement cannot, I believe, be said in re- 
gard to the allied French origin of the Scottish 
designation of Ma$Ur. I should welcome any light 
which oor friends of the InkrTrUdwire de$ CSer- 
di9unet Curieux could throw upon the subject. 
For I do not see that it has ever been clearly 
ahown that such a practice as to call the heir 
apparent of a French title of peerage Monsieur or 
JuiiUn at any time prevailed. I cannot say that 
I have as yet met with it in my researches into 
French £amily history. 

Some remarkable cases of the use of the title 
of Moiter in Scotland have been recalled to my 
notice since commencing this reply, and I would 
briefly mention them as setting forth, in still clearer 
light than the examples already cited, my thesis 
tmit the designation is in itself a separate title, 
and that it imports the position of heir apparent 
or presumptive. I cite yet again an instance from 
one of oor greatest houses. James Douglas, after- 
wards ninth and last Earl of Douplas, is found 
bearing the title of Master in 1449, in the lifetime 
of his brother, the eighth earl (cf. Burnett's Bot, 
SeacCf voL v. p. Ixxv). The designation is also 
Iband to have been borne by the Kegent Morton, 
■a heir presumptive to that earldom under charter 

of 154a 

Then is. therefore, much more to be said in 
fivoiir of tne use of the designation by heirs pre- 
•Dnpttre than Sir George Mackenzie's language 

would lead us to suppose, and I may admit that 
I commenced the present reply rather under the 
influence of that language. 1 must now say that 
I think Sir Gkorge Mackenzie's words are mislead- 
ing, and even, to a certain extent, inaccurate. For 
whereas he speaks of the use of the title of Master 
by heirs presumptive in terms which would give the 
impression that it was modern, it has here been 
shown to have been the practice of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries, and that not as confined 
to Lords of Parliament of the degree of baron, but 
as belonging equally to earls. Indeed, our earliest 
acquaintance with the title, whether as applied to 
heirs apparent or presumptive, seems to be bound 
up with the history of our greatest earldoms There 
is an instance, that of Forrester, in which the title 
of Master was conveyed separately to the grantee 
by charter, vitdpatris {Act. Pari Scot., x. 166). 

Mr. Seton's language, in his standard work on 
the Law and Practice of Heraldry in Scotland 
(Edinburgh, 1863), p. 459, appears to be somewhat 
more favourable to the restrictive view of the title 
of Master than I suppose the learned author meant 
it to be. If he really intended us to understand 
him as taking such a view, I hope he will set forth 
the grounds for it in that new edition of his book 
which all students of the noble science must long 
have been wearying for. 

John Biddell's knguage does not seem patient 
of any such limitation, and until further authority 
is adduced I shall adhere to the view which I have 
expressed in the present paper, that the title of 
Master is not a courtesy title, but the Scottish 
legal descriptbn, certainly of the heir apparent