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lODK ltI\(>ER>; ; 






jKetfCum of lnter«CommunC(atCon 



" When fonnd, make a note of." — Captain Cuttlb. 


July — December 1869. 





4<'' 3. IV. JcLT 3, '69.] 



CONTENTS.— No 79. 

NOTES : — Carnao : a Xew Key to be Tried to a very Rusty 
Old Lock. 1 — Pieces from Manuscripts, No. V., 6 — The 
'* Tauroholium " and " Kriobolium," 76.— Important Bibli- 
cal Discovery. Ic. 7 — Victor Hugo on Ei'glisii Proper 
Names— Halter-D.-vil Chapel, Derbyshire — Ascension- 
day (^^ustora ill Florence— Heyre— Ring of Twelve Bells 
at* York — lyck.v's "History of Morals": Addison — 
Mason and (..'ampbell. 8. 

QUERIKS :— Bally - Sir John Beaumont — Camel— Bishop 
Hob^^rt Ferrar — Island of Fonseca — Ghost Stories — 
Early Graves at Barnet-by-Ic-Wold —Journals of the late 
Mr. Hunter — I'arodies — The Playfair Family - Peter 
Pombas - Quotations wanted — Rusby or Rushby — A 
Severe Couplet: Nova Scotia Baronets — Simpson — 
Samu'l Sp«'»'d, Author of "Prison-Pietie"- The Sudereys 

— " Vicar of Bray," 10. 

QuEBn?s WITH Answers: — The I^adies of Llangollen — 
"Castas in the Air" — German Names of Days of the 
Week — Copyright — Dcnys Godefroi, 12. 

REPLIES:- William Combe, Author of "The Tours of 
J)r. Syntax," 14 -The Works of William Combe, 15 — 
Anns of the Pala»ologi. Emperors of Constantinople. 16 — 
Mithraism. lb.- The Death-wound of Charles XII., 17 

— Geneah^es of the Mordaunt Family. 18 — The Sher- 
bournc Mi!i.^al — Waller's Ring— Mvsticism— Primitive 
Font — DA Hon M88. — William Vaughan — Venison 
Boiled — The Stuarts and Freemasonry — Proverb — Li^t 
of Sheriff-* — Derby Day — Local Sayings: Huntingdon- 
shire-Modern Gipsies — Kentish Woros- Sir Thomas 
Gardiner — Sir Orlando Gee — Plessis — Subsidence — 
Passage in Galatians — Medal, &c., 19. 

Notes on Books, kc. 


For many years I have taken great interest in 
the curious and elaborate etforta that have been 
made to explain the origin of megalithic struc- 
tures, especially of the two great puzzles, Stone- 
henge in Wiltshire, and Camac on the coast of 
Britanny. Having, after much difficulty, found 
.some rest in the opinions of others about Stone- 
lienge, but none whatever about Carnac, I now 
venture to offer one (not new as to the former, 
but quite new as to the latter), which aims at 
making the one throw light upon the other by 
suggepting a similarity of character and purpose. 

The case of these two riddles appears to me to 
be the very familiar one of the man who, having 
lost a key, goes all over his house, upstairs and 
down, and after ransacking every drawer, cupboard, 
and closet, likely and unlikely, from garret to 
cellar, at length returns to find that it had been 
all the time under some papers upon his study 
table. In other words, I am inclined to believe 
that the explanation of both these mysterious 
structures lies, and has been all the while lyine, 
at home : that, being found on Old British ground, 
they are (what they most naturally would be) 
Old British — that they are not sepulchres, but 
tepulchral monuments set up in memory of great 

tragic events in Old British history, and that, con- 
sequently, they are not of that extremely remote 
j;re-historical period to which many antiquaries 
have been and still are fond of attributing them. 
Surely it is in history^ especially that of our own 
country, that one would most reasonably expect 
to find the true solution. But instead of looking 
there for soraethirg simple, and being content 
with that J it has been the rage to " pooh pooh " 
our old annals, and invent things, people, notions, 
and schemes, for not one of which is there the 
slightest foundation, except in the fertile brain of 
the inventor. I prefer history with all its possible 
errors or colouring. 

1. Stonehenge. — The account of this structure, 
as given by Geoffrey of Monmouth, is as follows : 
In the time of Vortigern, king of Britain, Hen- 
gist the Saxon landed with a large army. Vorti- 
gern and the nobility resolved to fight and drive 
them from their coasts. Hengist, after consider- 
ing several stratagems, judged it most feasible to 
impose upon the nation by making a show of 
peace. He sent ambassadors with certain apolo- 
gies and terms, desiring Vortigern to appoint a 
time and place for their meeting in order to 
adjust matters. Vortigern was much pleased, and 
named the first of May, and the place the monas- 
tery of Ambrosbury, now Amesbury. This being 
agreed to, Hengist desired his followers to arm 
themselves with daggers, and at the conference, 
upon a signal given, the Saxons assassinated the 
British nobilky. Their bodies were interred with 
Christian burial at or near Amesburjr. Some years 
afterwards (about a.d. 470) Aurelius Ambrosius 
arriving from Armorica, or Continental Britain, 
and being anointed king, destroyed both Vorti- 
gern and Hengist, and restored all things, espe- 
cially ecclesiastical affairs, to their ancient state. 
In the course of his progress to various important 
places, he visited Ambrosbury, where the consuls 
and princes were buried. 

" The sight of the place where the dead lay made the 
king, who was of a compassionate temper, shed tears, and 
at last enter npon thoughts what kind of monument 
to erect upon it. For he thought something ought to be 
done to perpetuate the memory of that piece of ground 
which was honoured with the bodies of so many noble 
patriots that died for their country." 

The chronicler then proceeds to describe the 
construction of Stonehenge as that monument. It 
is no doubt true enough that, in order to please 
the taste of the age in which he wrote, he em- 
bellishes his narrative with much that is ridi- 
culous. But there may be truth at the bottom 
for all that. Mr. C. H. Pearson (Early and 
Middle Ages of England, p. 446) observes, in 
speaking of this afiair : — 

•* That whatever tricks Geoffrey may have played with 
his detaiU, it is monstrous to suppose that he invented 
the great facts of history." 


[4«»»S.1V. July8, *69. 

Leland also, after some remarks to the same 
effect; pronounces all other theories that he had 
seen about Stonehenge to be ^'somnia et nugad 
canorse," and accepts the historical origin and 
date as given by Geolfrey. (2>c Script. Britan. 
i. 47.) So also does Thos. Warton {Hid. of Enrj. 
Poetry y i. xviii. and 56) j and some of our living 
antiquaries are of the same opinion. 

Whereabouts exactly the bodies had been buried 
does not seem to be of much importance. The 
whole district was a " Campo Santo," as the nu- 
merous barrows there testify ; and some years ago, 
in forming a road, fifty skeletons, lying side by 
side, were found not far from the site of the 
monastery itself. It is enough that in the centre 
of a crowd of burials a conspicuous spot was 

Nor is it necessary to settle the much-disputed 
point, whether Stonehenge was made at two 
periods or all at once. Some of the stones may 
or may not have been there for some sacred 
purpose before. If they were, then by the addi- 
tion of others the group was enlarged. All that 
is asked is that Stonehenge, as we see it, may be 
considered to be, what the chronicler says it was, 
a monument of the massacre. 

2. Camac. — In dealing with this I have no 
known henchman or armour-bearer to reckon 
upon, the explanation now to be proposed being 
(so far at least as I am aware) entirely new. 

I have never visited Camac, but it is well 
known that it lies upon the very edge of the wild 
and stormy coast of Britanny, almost at the farthest 
point of the western peninsula of France. The 
country thereabout is bleak and desolate, strewed 
with thousands of blocks of granite of various 
sizes (as on Dartmoor, the west coast of Ireland, 
and other places). All over that part of Britanny 
are cromlechs, dolmens, menhirs, and other me- 
galiths innumerable. Of the scattered blocks lying 
about Camac a vast number have been at some 
period dragged from their natural sockets on the 
surface of the ground (many of them requiring 
only to be moved a very short distance, some per- 
haps scarcely moved at all), and (whether partially 
chiselled or not I cannot say) have been simply 
set up on end in a sort of order. This order 
was somewhat irregular, but in the main group 
eleven lines or rows, extending inland (with 
large interruptions) about eight miles. What the 
total number of stones so placed on end may 
originally have been, it is now impossible to say. 
Some who have carefully examined the place 
guessed it to have been 10,000 or 12,000: so 
many have been broken up that it can only be a 
matter of conjecture. But as to the number of 
rows or imperfectly parallel lines in which they 
stood and still stand, all publications hitherto 
have concurred in reporting it to be eleven. 
The whole presented the appearance of an army 

on the march, or of some large host in procession. 
The only tradition on the spot is said to be that 
the stones were " once alive. 

To suppose that each of these stones marks an 
interment is preposterous; for, besides that the 
ground is granite rock, not the most convenient 
for grave-digging, where were the deceased to 
come from? It is one of the most desolate of 
districts, " the very last (says Mons. de Cainbry) 
to remind one of civilisation and an enlightened 
people." There are many chambered tumuli near 
and about the stones, as there are barrows around 
Stonehenge. Those, of course, were burial-places, 
but the stones themselves can only be monu- 

As to its origin and purpose, nothing whatso- 
ever being known, it has presented the finest field 
for imagination, and imagination certainly has not 
been idle. Lying, as it doe?, at so remote a dis- 
tance, on the very border of the Atlantic, its very 
existence was for a long time scarcely noticed. 
The French writers, finding no mention of it 
either in Roman or other authors, after making 
the best guesses they could, without satisfying 
either themselves or any body else, seem to have 
abandoned it in despair. 

One French author, Mons. de Cambry, being 
struck with the peculiar number of eleven, tooK 
refuge in an ^astronomical explanation, and pro- 
nounced it to be a representation of the zodiac ; 
upon which opinion another writer of that country, 
the Chevalier de Fr^minville, makes the following 
remarks in his Antiquit4s de la Brdagne^ p. 50. 
After reviewing and dismissing with something 
like scorn, as wholly untenable, oeveral previous 
opinions as to its being of Egyptian, Phcsnician, 
or other foreign origin, he says : — 

"Another author also, the late Mons. deCambrv% published 
a work upon the monuments of Karnac. lie docs not, it is 
true, think proper to attribute them to any foreign 
people : he allows them to bo Celtic ; but ho wants . to 
make out of them a celestial scheme^ an astronomical 
monument. ' It is,' says he, ' a zodiac' He pretends that 
each of the lines of stones represents a sign. But there 
is one circumstance which would have embarrassed every 
body else, viz. that there are ttcelve signs in the zodiac, 
whereas there are only eleven lines of stones at Karnac. 
But Mons. de Cambry cuts the knot of this difficulty in a 
moment, by pretending, on what authority 1 know not, 
that the ancient Gauls reckoned only eleven signs in the 
zodiac." {Translated from the French.) 

I leave Mons. de Cambry and his zodiac in the 
hands of his " compatriote," merely saying with 
another French author, Mons. J^han, that '* 1 have 
not much faith in these almanacs of huge stones, 
so prodigiously costly, and so very inconvenient to 
carry about." In saying this I do not deny that 
in tne construction of our ancient stone circles 
there may have been some reference to astrono- 
mical principles, as for instance, at Stonehenge, to 
the rising and setting of the sun at the solstices ; 

4«k S. IV. Jolt 8, '69.] 


but the solar-system theory has been 'pressed 
rather too far. 

In England, of course, attempts to solve the 
riddle of Carnac have not been lacking. One, 
which has attracted much attention and sup- 
port, is, that it was a temple in the form of a 
serpent— a kind of building which (so the pro- 
pounders of this doctrine told us) ^' the serpent- 
worshippers, or * Ophites,' used to construct, and 
to which they gave the name of a ' Dracontium.* " 
A great deal of ingenuity and learning has been 
brought to bear upon this theory. I myself, 
** faute de mieux/' used rather to accjuiesce in it, 
depending wholly and entirely, as I did^ upon the 
deUberate statements of its champions that such 
structures were madey and that '^ ihe ancients 
gave to them the name of Dracontiimi." Having 
never met, in the course of my own limited classicfd 
reading, with any thing or name of the kind, and 
beginmngto wonder where any notice of it was to 
be found, I consulted one of the first Greek 
scholars of our day. He shook his head, and 
added that a Greek word with that meaning was 
to him unknown. I ransacked lexicon after 
lexicon, but no ''serpent-temple caUed by the 
ancients a Dracontium" was to be found. On 
further investigation it came to light that the 
word '* Dracontium " was actually coined by an 
ingenious, but rather extravagant, antiquary. Dr. 
Stukeley, as a name very suitable and convenient 
for a thing, which thing was also a creation of his 
own brain. Upon making this discovery I took 
leave of the Opnites. 

That the stones of Carnac could ever have been 
intended for '^ a temple " of any kind, or even for 
an approach to a temple, seems very improbable. 
There are, it is true, in Egypt, long avenues of 
obelisks, or sphioxes, but they lead to something — 
to the temple itself, a structure of great size. 
But there is nothing of that kind at Carnac re- 
quiring even a single avenue, much less so many 
running parallel. Here and there, at the termi- 
nation or a group, there is a semicircular arrange- 
ment of stones, and elsewhere the lines may have 
led to circles now destroyed. But that such cir- 
cular or semicircular arrangements were intended 
for "temples," one can scarcely believe. And 
how, one may also ask, could a plantation, or 
several plantations, of stones (for that is what 
it really is), extending for miles over a rough, 
rock-strewed, barren country, be possibly avail- 
able for a '' procession ** or any other action what- 
soever connected with occasional religious rites ? 
In the history of Britanny there is nothing known 
either of Ophites, or Egyptians, or Phoenicians, or 
anj other foreigners who ever set foot upon the 
soil, BtiU less occupied it with such permanent 
interest, as proprietors, as to command the oppor- 
tunity of constructing so laborious and costly a 
work. But, leaving everybody to adopt which of 

these fancies they please, none of them helps us 
one bit to solve the mystic number of eleven rows 
of stones. 

The most judicious French writers upon this 
subject that I have had the opportunity of consult- 
ing, without pretending to say who the people 
were that did construct Carnac, nevertheless 
express a very strong opinion as to who did not. 
Thejr protest against any far-fetched outlandish 
origm. They ignore Ophites, Zodiacites, Egyp- 
tians, Phoenicians, and all the rest Who the 
great man may have been that issued the man- 
date "Fiat Carnac!" or who the foreman that 
received it, stared and shook in his shoes, they 
do not know — the record is either lost or con- 
cealed. But as to the character of the work, 
they argue in the safest and simplest way : — 

" If single megaliths were (as the greater part un- 
doubtedly were) set up for sepulchral or monumental 
purposes, then of the same character also will be an 
aggregation of megaliths : the event represent^ by the 
aggregate stones being proportionally more memorable 
than that perpetuated by a few or a single one." 

This is sensible and cautious language. So far 
as they can, on a safe principle, the French au- 
thors go and no farther. They are stopped by 
the want of more information, by the apparent 
silence of the history of their country. That it 
was made by the people of that country and no 
other, is their conviction ; but neither French nor 
English, nor any other author (so far as I know), 
has ever been able to fix upon any particular 
historical event as likely to be commemorated by 
the stones of Carnac. 

At this point I ask permission to ofier an opinion. 

The very striking peculiarity of the number, 
eleven, had always riveted my attention; and 
with the sound French conclusion (just mentioned) 
to rest upon, I kept a look out for the help of 
history. In turning over accidentally some years 
ago the pages of our old acquaintance, Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, I met with a passage which presented 
all at once so many curious proprieties — as to 
period, place (the very coast of britanny), people, 
event (a great national disaster), and last, but 
most remarkable of all (prominently introduced), 
the myterious number eleven — that I verily 
thought, here is the key to Carnac ! 

The event referred to is found not only in 
British, but in other authors. Premising that 
slight discrepancies are met with in details — as 
for instance, that "Maximus'' in one is called 
"Maximianus" in another, and so forth — still, 
putting the general statement together, it is, upon 
the whole, tnis : — 

Gratian, joint Emperor of the West, began to 
reign A.i). 375. He made Magnus Maximus (or 
Maximianus), a Spaniard by birth, his governor 
of Insular Britain. Whilst M. Maximus was en- 
gaged in reducing Picts and Scots, and otherwise 


t4tt» S. IV. July 3, '69. 

enlarging the bounds of Insular Britain, Gratian 
gave great offence to bis army and its officers, and 
especially to M. Maximus, by the promotion of 
strangers in his service, and by adopting Theo- 
dosius the Younger as his colleague in the Roman 
empire. M. Maximus, considering himself to be 
well worthy of that honour, determined to obtain 
the purple. In a.d. 381 he revolted, declared 
war against Gratian, collected the whole of his 
forces, drained Insular Britain of its troops, in- 
yaded Gaul, and defeated Gratian. Maximus was 
accompanied by Conan Meriadoc, Prince of South 
Wales. Instead of sending his army back to 
Insular Britain, he resolved to establish them as 
a colony on the western peninsula, between the 
Seine and the Loire, then called Armorica, now 
Britanny. In the year (according to Usher) 
A.D. 383, he settled there 30,000 soldiers and 
100,000 emigrants from Insular Britain; and made 
the Welsh prince, Conan Meriad«ic, King of Ar- 
morica, giving to it the name of Britannia Parva, 
or Little Britain. 

Wishing to avoid all mixture with the Gauls, 
he sent over to Island Britain for wives for his 
soldiers and emigrants, commissioning Dionoth, 
Prince of Cornwall, to collect and send out a 
colony of women. The Prince of Cornwall had a 
daughter, Ursula, on whom Conan Meriadoc had 
previously fixed his affections. To accompany her 
as the future Queen of New Britain, Dionoth con- 
trived to collect (the peculiar number is stated 
in the chronicle) eleven thousand women of a 
higher class, and a much larger number of in- 
ferior varieties — many willing, many unwilling to 
go. But, under such patronage as the Princess 
Ursula for their future queen, they went. As 
they were steering towards the coast of Britanny 
(one of the wildest in the world), contrary winds 
rose and dispersed the whole fleet. The greater 
part of the ships foundered ; but the women that 
escaped death in the sea fell into the hands of 
barbarians and infidels, and of Graiian's soldiers, 
who were on a marauding expedition along the 
coast. The British ladies, as well as the humbler 
women, were cruelly abused or made slaves of, 
but the greater part (so says the history) were 

Well, now just let us weigh this ancient state- 
ment quietly, and judge of its probability (as a 
whole) by a fair test, our own knowledge of what 
is actually going on in Island Britain at this very 
day. What is the number of emigrants leaving 
the Thames, the Mersey, &c., every week ? On 
one sinp-le day last week, eight hundred people 
left the Thames alone, and during that same week 
seven thousand from Liverpool. How many dur- 
ing the same few days sailed from the Clyde, or 
from Cork harbour, &c., I know not. But be the 
number what it may, there was no English prin- 
cess, there were no patronesses of minor rank to 

lead and encourage them. All went away upon 
their own humble resources, with only humble 
friends around them, to seek new homes — on the 
other side of the world. 

But put a different case. Suppose some large 
province at the command of the Queen of Eng- 
land, within a few hours' voyage, and colonists 
called for; Her Majesty sending out one of her 
own daughters, engaged to be married, to preside 
over the new colony as its queen ; and every 
pressing invitation urged upon the aristocracy and 
gentry to send out young scions of their houses, 
to take with them all the followers and retainers 
they could muster. Would not the Thames be 
filled (as in the older case, the chronicle says it 
was) with ship-loads of unappropriated fair ones, 
ready enough to transfer themselves under such 
high auspices? I think it would; and am en- 
couraged so to think by no less an authority than 
The Tifiies newspaper, which only a few days ago, 
speaking of the roving nature of every class of 
our people, assured us that — 

" There is not a fire-side in England, Ireland, or Scot- 
land, but one at least out of the half-dozen would rather 
be nnj'where else than there — at San Francisco, the North 
Pole, Timbuctoo, or the Sandwich Islands! .... There 
is not a household that does not yield at least one willing 
recruit to any mode of escape from the Englishman's 
fire- side ! " 

So that, in the historical statement of a large 
female colony to ancient Britanny (with homes 
and busbands, military and civil, all awaiting 
them), there is nothing improbable. On the con- 
trary, it seems undeniable that, if Armorica was 
colonised (as it certainly was) by thousands of 
men, thousands of women must have followed. 

Suppose further: If any fearful catastrophe 
were to befal my modern emigration, and the 
young queen, with hundreds or thousands of her 
friends and followers, to be shipwrecked, or to 
meet with such cruel usage or fate as awaited 
the Cornish princess Ursula and hers, surely it 
would be regarded as a national disaster — not 
unlikely to be marked by monuments and grave- 
stones, perhaps by some work of large and costly 
kind, according to the taste and scale of our times. 
The taste and fashion in old British times (espe- 
cially in cases of a public character) was to erect 
huge but simple blocks of stone, of which we 
have hundreds of examples still existing along 
the western side of England and Wales. And I 
am not sure whether these gigantic native masses 
are not (as monumental stones) much more im- 
pressive than the broken columns, weeping wil- 
lows, tea-urns, and fat cherubim of Kensal Green 
— yea, even than many of the costly barbarisms to 
be met with now and then in our cathedrals. 

Upon reading this event in the old British his- 
tory, and happening at the moment to recollect- 
first, the situation of Carnac upon the very seiw 

4* 8. IV. July 8, '69.] 


coast (ro stormy and dangerous) of Armorica, and 
next the peculiar number of eleven rows of monu- 
mental stones — it struck me that, the whole num- 
ber of stones having been estimated by unpre- 
judiced travellers to have been probably ten or 
twelve thousand, the original arrangement may 
have been (or, if never quite completed, may have 
been designed to be) one thousand in each row — 
making in all eleven thousand. The whole might 
thus be intended (according to the character and 
religious feeling of the people and the times) to 
be a great national memorial of the tragic end of 
the eleven thousand British ladies. 

So close to the sea (as I have since been in- 
formed) do the stones oegin, that at St. Pierre, 
near Erdeven, some of them have been actually 
washed away. It is therefore out of the very waves 
themselves, so to speak, that the monument com- 
mences to run inland. Without wrshing to mag- 
nify any circumstance unduly, one may ask, could 
any arrangement more happily represent monu- 
mentally the fate of a host of unfortunate adven- 
turers who had arrived by sea, were attempting 
to land, and perished in the attempt P 

As to the probability of the rows having been 
intended to contain one thousand stones each, it is 
only fair to add, that since this notion occurred to 
me, I have been told by a friend (a well-known 
English archaeologist, who has been on the spot 
for a considerable time, and from whose pen I hope 
the public will ere long receive what would cer- 
tainly be the moat accurate and minute account ever 
given of this wonderful district), that the Caraac 
stones (speaking generally) occur in several systems 
or groups, separated by a wide distance one from 
another; that in one system there are now only two 
rows, in another eight, in a third eleven, and in a 
fourth there appear to have been twelve. Owing to 
some irregularity, it is not easy to pronounce with 
certainty. But by far the most perfect are those 
near Le Menec, m eleven rows, and it is these 
which have always attracted most attention. It 
is impossible to say what may or may not have 
been ; so that (taking the thing altogether), in the 
variety of number of rows as at present existing 
I do not see anything fatal to the idea that the 
stones at Camac, ns a whole, may have been 
erected (upon some strange plan now inexplicable 
to us) as an enduring memorial of the luckless 
Princess Ursula and her followers of every degree. 

In order that I may not be misrepresented, or 
charged with bringing forward the fable of " Ur- 
«ula and the Eleven thousand Martyrs," let it be 
carefully distinguished that I allude to the his- 
Urical account of the colony stated to have gone 
to Britanny in Gaul in a.d. 383 or thereabouts, 
and not to the fable in the Golden Legend. That 
iSable was not in existence until nearly nine hun- 
dred years afterwards, yiz. a.d. 1260, when it was 
manufactured by an archbishop of Genoa (Jacobus 

de Voragine). In its details the Golden Legend 
story is quite different from the ancient historical 
account above given. Yet it is evidently based 
upon the old history, because the scene in the 
Golden Legend story lies also in Britanny; and- 
among the dramatis persona are a King of Eng- 
land ; his son, the lover of Ursula ; and " Maxi- 
mian," a " felon prince of the Roman chivalry," — 
and there is also a passage over the sea. The rest 
of the story is quite different ; but the names and 
characters are clearly borrowed from the old his- 
tory, and are worked up into a sort of religious 
novel. I apply Camac, not to the Ursula and eleven 
thousand martyrs of the Golden Legend of a.d. 
1260, but to the British ladies of the original 
colony in a.d. 383. 

What then is the result to which this explana- 
tion of Stonehenge and Carnac brings us P It is, 
that two of the most celebrated and perplexing 
of the greatest known megalithic structures may 
be accounted for, not by fanciful theories, nor by 
attributing them to foreigners in some remote and 
nebulous period (for all of which there is not an 
iota of historical proof), but by what may be 
called a native interpretation. It presents both 
as erected by British hands, both on British 
ground, in the same period of British customs and 
ideas (Carnac being the older by about one hun- 
dred years) ; both (not cemeteries, but) sepulchral 
memorials, and that of great national disasters; 
and last, but not least of all, both those disasters 
actually described and patriotically lamented in 
the wntten record of ancient British history. 

These, then, are my reasons for believing that 
the key to Stonehenge, and more particularly 
Carnac — so long mislaid or overlooked — has 
been all the while lying at home ! Not, indeed, 
precisely where (as to Carnac) the tradition of 
Breton sailors and peasants still tells you that it 
is to be found, " in the Tower of London," but 
simply hidden under the events of British history. 
To sum up my opinion in a few words, it is: 
That Carnac (the older of the two) is a national 
memorial of the tragic fate of tho first Insular 
British colony to Continental Britain in a.d. 383; 
and that Stonehenge, as we see it, is also a national 
memorial of another tragedy — the treacherous 
massacre of the native British princes and eccle- 
siastics upon the Saxon invasion of Insular Britain 
about A.D. 470. 

This idea (I offer it as nothing more) as to 
Carnac occurred to me several yeare ago. Partly 
from a wish to reconsider it carefully,' more per- 
haps from a disinclination to incur some endless 
controversy, I have never produced it. But now, 
having during this interval met with nothing to 
warn me that it is wholly extravagant and un- 
tenable, I start it as a fresh fox for archajological 
and antiquarian sportsmen to run after. I do not 
pledge myself to fight a toute outrance in defence 


[4«» S. IV. JoLY 3, '6^. 

of what is, after all, merely offered as a possible 
explanation of a very obscure but interesting 
puzzle, that has hitherto mocked and defied us 
all. That would be turning into a punishment 
what commenced as a pleasure: for as' Francis 
Bacon (Lord Verulam) says in one of his letters 
(No. XXX.) : — 

" If I bind myself to an argument, it loadeth my mind ; 
but if I rid myself of present thoughts, it is a recreation." 

J. E. Jackson, 
Hon. Canon of Bristol. 
Leigh Delamere Rectory, Chippenham, June 8. 

[1. 33, bk.) 


What would she more ? A Lover's Complaiht. 

MS. Addit, 18,752, leafZ^ and 33 back. 

Off bewty yet she passith att, 

Wtlic^ hath myn hert, and euer shatt, 

to Ij'ue or dy/ what so beffall : 

what wold she more ? what wold she more ? 

She is so fyxyd yn my hart, 

that ffor her sake I byde gret smart, 

yet cannot I my luue departe : 

what wold she more ? what wold she more ? 

long haue I ly vyd yn gret dystresse ; 
longe haue I sought to haue redresse ; 
longe hath she byn/ myne owne Mastresse : 
what wold she more/ what wold she more ? 

Myne owne Mastres yet shali she be 
as'longe as lyff remavnyth yn me ; 
I trust wons'she wjii haue petye : 
I aske no more, I aske no more. 

Ofte tymys to here I haue expreste, 
I haue told her that I loue here beste, 
yn hope that I myght be redreste : 
what can I do more ? what can I do more ? 

She sayth to me ye nor naye ; 
but of her poure I know she maye ; 
yess^, ray pore hart, then she may saye : 
what wold youe more ? what wold youe more ? 

Yf that she ware yn sucti case as I, 

that for my .«ake yn payn? dvd ly, 

I wold trere helpe, or el?* I wold dy : 

what wold she more ? what wold she more ? 

Seyng that my trew hart and mynd 
is towarde/ here so trew and kynde. 
Some loue yn her yf I mvght ffynde, 
I aske no more, I aske no more. 


MS. Addit. 18,752, &a/163 hack. 


DOTH Request her frynd to contyne[w] in his 


Dysdayne me not wythout desert, 
ne payne me not so so<len1y ; 
Syth well- ye know that yn my hart 
I mene no thyng but faj'thfully, 
refuse me not I 

Refuse me not wythout cauoe why, 
nor thynke me not to be vnkyndc ; 
my hart is yours vnt>ii I dy, 
and that yn shurt space ye shatt yt fynd ; 

Mistrust me not ! 

Mystrust me not, thogh some there be 
that fayne wold spot my stedffastnes ; 
belyue Ihem not ! syth wett yc so 
the proffe ys not as thev expressp, 

forsake me not ! 

fforsake me not tyU- 1 desarvc, 
nor hate me not tyii I offende ! 
dystro}' me not tytt that I swarve I 
Syth ye weii" wote/ what I Intend, 

Dysdayne me not ! 

Dysdayne me not, that am your owne ! 
Refuse me not, that am so trewe ! 
Mystrust me not tytt al be knowene ! 
fforsake me not now ffor no new ! 

thus leue me not ! 

F. J. F. 

• This heading: is at the end of the Ballad, in the MS., 
and in a different hand. 


Amongst your numerous readers there are many 
remarkable for their profound classical knowledge. 
I desire to attract the attention of such scholars 
in particular to the following passages in Dol- 
linger*s J/eidenthum and Judenthum^ of which I 
venture to make a translation, as I believe the 
work has not appeared in English : — 

•' More grave still (than that described by Juvenal, vi. 
511-521) in the service of the Idaean mother of the gods 
(Cybele) was the combined rite of the Taurobolium and 
Knobolium, on6 of the most solemn and, as it was sup- 
posed, most effective religious ceremonies belonging to the 
latter period of heathenism. 

*' The old habitual Greek and Roman rites of purifica- 
tion and lustrations were no longer deemed to be suffi- 
cient, even where they continued to be diligently prac- 
tised. It was still the custom to purify houses, temples^ 
estates (landguter), and whole towns bv carrvini; water 
about, and sprinkling them with it. (^fertulf. De Bapt, 
c 5.) There were 1^ or carried about livins: animals, 
oxen, sheep, cats, and dogs; persons and things were 
sprinkled with the blood of victims. Use, too, was made 
of the anhes of the victim, and the purgamenta^ the mate- 
rials that had served for purification, were then— the 
person holding his head on one side — cast into- the water, 
or out upon a cross-road. Ovid, as a looker on, describes 
the trades-folk at Rome as having themselves and their 
wares sprinkled with water drawn from the well of 
Mercury at the Capmaean gate, as an expiation for their 
lies, trickeria*, and false oaths. (Ovid, Fast. v. 673-690.) 

*' That a person could be purified from crime, even from 
that of murder, by a complete bathing or washing of the 
body was alike the idea and the practice in former times^ 
and will be found mentioned both by Ovid and Tertul- 
lian. Thus says the poet : — 

" O ! vain-minded fools ! who, by a water-bath, from 
The unholy offence, fancy you can find an escape." 

Ovid, Fast. ii. 45. 

" Still the notion prevailed that blood (the depositary 
of vital power, especially when it streamed still warm 
and living at the instant the animal, consecrated to the 
divinitr, was slaughtered) was, beyond all others, the 
most effective means of expiation and purification ; and 
that he who was all over steeped in this blood, and com- 
pletely bedewed and covered with it, must thereby be 
purified from all guilt and stain, and for many years, 
from that time forth, sanctified ! And from this idea 
arose the Taurobolia and Kriobolia. 


4«' 8. IV. juw 8. m] NOTES AXD QUEKIES. 

^ A spacious trcuch (grobe) was formed, and then the feeling as to the necessity for a sacrament, in the 
covered over with planks {bokUn)^ having holes pierced potency of which one could place confidence, as the Chris- 
through them. Upon this place was slaughtered the tians confided in baptism and communion, may have 
victim — an ox or ram — so that the blood, trickling down co*operated in the multiplication of such a sacrifice.*' 

through the holes in the planks, should fall as a shower m. ^assacrfts hpre nuotpd arp takpn from thft 

of rain upon the person who was placed beneath in the . t^f P^^f^n^s Here quotea are taKen irom tne 

trench, and who received it all over his bodr, taking eighth book, paragraphs 97, US, 99, pp. 620-628. 

especial care that his ears, cheeks, lips, ey&«,'nose, and I have looked in vain to other works for informa- 

tonguc were bedewed with it. (PrudenuPerw^epA. x. 101, tion concerning the Taurobolia. I can find not 

sqq.; Firm. Mat. I)e Err, protrel c. 27.) Dripping the slightest reference to them in Macrobias, 

witli Wood he then stepped out of the trench, and showed q y ° RKodiginus, Alexander ab Alexandre 

himself to the multitude, who (as being thus one fully ^^' o xv»4.wv*i^»ii^o, -«.ica»ii«^* m r^. .. ' 

purified and consecrated) saluted and cast themselves -trotter, Keunett, Adams, nor binith s UicUonary 

down before him. As to the clothes which«had absorbed of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Beyond what 

the blood, they were used by him until they were com- is stated by Dollinger, I have been able to dia- 

pletely worn out. (See the verses of Salmasius, edited by cover nothing by my own research but a single 

IZn^t wrtiVCl^'o/-'.''. t;?u Jbo! P'^*?^ » '^^ I^^f" ofA,Uo.i.u. mUogahalus:- 

lium was thereby made pure and accepUble to the gods " Matns etiam deum sacra accepit, et tauroboliatus 

for twenty years from that time. At the end of that est ut typum eriperet et alia sacra qua penitus habentur 

period he could again have himself purified by another condita. ' 

blood- shower. There was a certain Sextilius iEdesius Salmasius, in his note upon this passage of 

who declared that by the use of the Tauroboliam as weU Spartian's or ^lius Lampridius's biography of 

(^p Van''Dal'e n%2? ) ^^'^ '^^"^'^^^ ^^' ^^^ «'«™»'y- ifeliogabalus, gives a more minute account than 

"*Not only iJiight there be a Taurobolium for one's own Dollinger of the process, for he says :— 

sake and special purification, but likewise for the weal *' Taurobolinus etiam dicebatar, qui taurobolium acci- 

of others, and particularly for the emperor and imperial piebat et consecrandus erat : in scrobem profundam terra 

family ; and frequently these took place in accirdance egcsta ad hoc ipnum factam demittebatur : deinde scrobs 

with the express command of the mother of the gods ilia, plancis vel tabuiis, quae multis locis erant foraminatse, 

herself, as notified through her friends (' Ex vaticinatione cnnsternebatur : super quern pontilem stratum multis per- 

Puronii Juliani Archigalli,' as it is so said, for instance, tusum locis^ taurus mactabatur auratis cornibus, ut san- 

in an inscription found near the Rhone. — C^lonia, Hist, guis per foramina in scrobem deflueret, quern capite, 

Litt. de Lyon, p. 206: *Ex imperio Matris D. De&m'). naribus, oculis, auribus, et toto deuique corpore excipie- 

Whole cities or provinces had a Taurobolium executed bat sacerdos in ea caverna defossus, et tauri sanguine se 

for the welfare of the emperors, and on such occasions abluebat ; qnem sacri morem luculentis versibus de^cribit 

it was generally women that were consecrated with the Prudeutius in Romano : — 

shower of blood. With such solemnity was the proceed- « Hunc, inquinatum talibus contagiis, 

ing conducted, that at one of them, for instance, there Xabo recentis sordidum piaculi, 

were present the priests of Valence, Orange, and Viviers Omnes salutant, atque adorant eminus.' " 

(Colonia, 1. c. p. 223); and further, at such a sacrifice, ▼ au ^ .»^*^ «^r^«««««, ;« «»a/i» 4^ 4\^o. ;» 

which the town of Lyons had perform«l on the Vaticai;, 1° J^^ same note reference is made to the in. 

hill at Rome, for the prosperity of the Emperor Antoni- scnption of the person who boasted of his eternal 

nus, the man iEmilius Carpus, who had been the recipient regeneration" in consequence of his Taurobolic 

of the blood-expiation on the occasion, brought whh him purification, " TauROBOLIOQTJE IN STERNUM RE- 

back to Lyons the frontal bone with the gilt horns of the jj^Tps." An inscription, notifying the consecration 

""^'-JP^fi 7 '^^'^ \*'^'"?3;""^ ""l^i^^'^r". rT"""'^- of the cilded homs of the bill sacrificed, is also 

** The first example of the Taurobolium that has been as wi «•"« b"v*^L* uv/i*^o v «« *« , 

yet discovered is to be found, in the year 133, in an in- b^iven by Salmasius, viz. bEVERUS . lULlI : F.L. 

scription (Mommsen, Inscript, R. Neap, n. 2602) : for VIRES . TAURI . QUO . PROPR . PER . TAUROPOL . 

the act was held to be so important and effective that, pub . FAC . PECERAT . CONSECRAVIT." 

even where it merely concerned a private individual, its j ^\^\^ ^q ^^q^^ where further information is to 

remembrance was perpetuated in a monument. Mean- ^ ^ ^ concerning the Taurobolium and Krio- 

while 11 IS to be observed that the sacrifice of 133 does |Jo^"""^ v^uuuciMiug ^ , , , rk Tvn:« a 

not refer, like all the rest, to the Phrygian mother of the holium beyond that afforded by Dr. Dollinger and 

gods, but to the Carthaginian Caelesti-i, who has been the notes of Salmasius and Gruter in tne edition 

declared to be identical with Cybele. The common of the Scriptores Hist, August, vol. i. pp. 465, 406. 

opinion, that the Taurobolic blood-expiation had taken (Levden 1661.) Wm. B. Mao Cabe. 

its rise as an imiution of Christian baptism, is certainly pj-J^^.^ g^^ Sauveur, Dinan, France. 

erroneous; first, because the right occurs onginall}" at a 

time when the heathens did not think of imitating a 

ChrisUan institution, at a time when those who spoke IMPORTANT BIBLICAL DISCOVERY. 

the sentiments of heathens — Plutarch, Plinv, Dion, 

Aristides, Pausanias-either knew nothing at ill of the ^salm 8 /-newly translated. 

Christians, or who, regarding them with silent contempt, Jehovah loveth the gates of Zion ; 

did not deem them to be worthy of any notice. Secondly, Its foundations are on the hoh; hills. 

it is to be remembered that the heathens had, for a long Jehovah loveth the gates of Zion 

time, a substitute for Christian baptism, namely, their More than all the dwellings of Jacob. 

own washings and bathings. It may, however, well be Glorious things are spoken of thee, 

that in the fourth century, when the Taurobolia were O thou city of God for ever. 

Terv numerous, and the foremost ministers of the state Yea, of Zion it is said, 

and priests sabmitted themselves to this disgusting rite, The Lord Jesus as man shall be bom near her. 


[l-^S. IV. JfLv8,'C9. 

And thfl Supreme himself ih.ll aUhlisfa 

In tl.e 

,f ibe nBI: 



all be bon 



Ktrj'pt an( 





All my tboughtB are on Tbee. ' 

I suppose thnt this 87th psolm, which has heen I 
grenllj obscured by mistraDslntionB and traiiBpO' 
(itioDs, is a grand ifrophecT of the birth of the 
Ifesaiah, Jesus Chnst, near Jerusalem, and His 
registrntton when brought into the temple thereof I 
as an infaDt. The most earnest hope or expecla- 
tdrm of Isr.iel was the birth of the Messiah ns the ' 
glory of their race. Now this Messiah was to be 
ue Saviour of Israel, and the Saviour, in Hebrew, 
ia called Joshua or Jesus. But the uiost specific ' 
same the Jews employed to designate Him was i 
^'Iihii. In this compound word the A standafor 
Adontu, the Lord, and Ishu for Jesut the Saviour. 
All this is proved in Schindler's Hebrew die- | 
tionary. Read A-Iihu-aith rather than aish u i 
aish. Tha common rendering' ihii and that man 
was horn in her, or near her, is evidently wrong, 
as deficient in sense, and requiring a verb in tlie 
plural. The prophecy seems to allude not merely 
to the eonvertion of the JewR, but likewise of the 
surrounding nations that are mentioued. That 
prophecy was fulfilled, fur all of them were mainly 
Chriatinnised during the first six centuries. Tbis 
psalm isevideotlv connected with the 19th chapter 
of Isaiah, from toe 20th to the last verse. In tliis 
it is said concerning Egypt and tlie other nations, 
God shall send them a Savtow, a great one, a 
Deliverer. Did space permit, manj other argu- 
ments might be bronght forward to show that 
this wonderful psalm contuns the most distinct 
propbeoj concerning Jesus, by his very name in 
all the Old Testament, declaring that he sball be 
bom near Zion, and so He was, in the neighbour- 
ing village of Bethlehem. 

The passage is thus rendered in a new metrical 
version of the Psalms, published at Hull, 1836, a 
■work abounding in the nighest poutry ; — 
"God ehall exslt thy be«cl, 

And — brighleirt ctown th«t doth thy brow adorn, 
or tbee it .lull be said. 

There was the Holy On« of Israel bom." 
The most remarkable confirmation of my state- 
ment is the fiict tliat I possess the picture of a 
medal of Christ, supposed by Dr. Walsh and other 
antiquaries to have been made soon alter His cru- 
cifixioo, which exhibits His profile with this very 
title — A-J*hu, On the back we have these words : 
" Messiah Melak — ba be— salem u auth Adam 
oahut Cbai''— Messiah the King— be came in 

r:e, and being made the example of mankind 
lives." Sea Dr. Walsh's Emai/ on Ancient 
Coim, MedaU, and Gem*, 1830. 

FRANcia Babhah. 

Victor Hnoo on EtreLiaa Proper Names, — 
" It was nemiitled to Homer lo nod, and M. Victor 
Hugo must tie allowed bis nap. The Rrvat novelist is not 
riuite BO happy or soocessriil upon the English ground he 
boa newiv broken in VHommt qui Rit as be might be. 
The fulloViiig iiitic gem ia from the third volame : — 

" Sonthwark then l^lfiGG] was pronounced Smvlrie ; at 
the present day il b pronounced Sownvoro, or very neorly 
so. In fact an exixUcnt way of prononncing English 
names is not lo pronounce thecn at si!. Tims, for Sonth- 
ampton ssy Sl^tn. At the same period Chatham waa 

The above extract from the Pall Mall GaxeU» 
of April 5 ought surely to be preserved in the 
columns of " N. k Q." W. T. M. 

HALTEB-DETit Chapel, Dbruvshibb,- In an 
outlying hamiet of the parish of Mugginton ther© 
is a quasi -Palladi an cnapel, about fifteen feet 
square, which is commonly known by the abova 
sobriquet. The story is that one Francis Brown, 
who had a bad reputation both for drunkenness 
and for feeding his horses at the expense of 
his neighbours, went forth one night to bring 
home a truant steed, and, in spite of drink and 
darkness, found tbe animal without dlSlcuity. On 
reaching home and bringing out a lantern, he 
discovered that the baiter was round tbe neck of 
a horned beast, which consuence suggested must 
he the Devil himself! He repented of his evil 
deeds, and, by way ofatonement, attached a chapel 
to his own little farm, which was situated on a 
stretch of land taken into Mugginton from the ad- 
joining parish of Hulland. The grotesque attempt 
at cloasical architecture which the little chapel 
presents contrasts strangely enough with tbe farm- 
buildings to which it is attBchcd. I am tolcl 
that it baa never been consecrated or licensed, 
but a curate ofhciates in it once a month, and re- 
ceives the rental of some seventeen acres of land, 
which forms the endowment. On a tablet in the 
pediment of the chapel are the lines — 

" Francis Brown in his old age 
BuUl him hare this hemiiUgo" ; 
and the register of Mugginton parish contains the 
following entry : — 

"1731, June 11. Francis Bronn of Unlland Watd. 
Buried. Iniakea Founder of Chappel in j* Intakes Hnll* 
Ward lo be annened lo Mugginton fur over after death 
of his wiiiow, his daughter Si her husband EdwJ Allen." 

Mugginton church has several points of interest, 
and 1 sbould be glad to have an account of the 
, Kuiveton brasses and the numerous coata of arms 
I upon the altar-tomb, which the whitewash has 
I nearly obliterated. The open seats of rough oak 
were made and presented to the church, as appears 
by an inscription, in the year 1(!00 ; — 

(:tTt shilling* 


4«kS.IV. July3,'69.] 



AscKXsiox-DAY CusTOM IN Florektce. — This 
has been already alluded to in " N. & Q.," but I 
cannot find the reference.* As a corroboration 
(though no explanation of the usage) the follow- 
ing extract from the French newspaper of Florence, 
VltaUe, is worthy of preservation. Cannot some 
correspondent of " N. & Q." explain the origin ? 
There must be some old church legend that 
affords the key. I may observe that the custom 
18 purely local and confined to Florence : — 

"The popular /ete of the Cascines was very animated. 
The people dined on the grass under the lar^etrees. The 
diUdren provided themsdves with 'sinking ciickets,' 
■ecording to custom. The peasants had brought in some 
thousands of these little black insects, condemned to die 
in their wicker prisons after having more or less chanted 
their melancholy cri-cri. For a sou, or even less, a 
^^lon and its small cage could be bought. This usage 
18 enrioas, and we have not met with it elsewhere. 
Althoug:h the cricket is a favourite in all the countries of 
the temperate zone, its sale on Ascension Day much sur- 
prises foreigners. However, the taste for possessing 
animals purely for amusement is inveterate in man, and 
the fact is curious to notice, that the children of poor 
people who cannot procure or feed a doer, or even a bird, 
content themselves with the purchase of a cicala." 

James Henry Dixon. 

Hjbtre. — The Howard Household Books, circa 
1482, published by the Roxburghe Club, contain 
an entry (p. 292) of 2$. Gd. paid *< for v yerdes of 
heyre for the baihowse at Stoke for the kelle." 
To' this it^m the learned editor, Mr. J. P. Collier, 
mdds the following note : — 

•"For the kelle' is probably for the kiln, but it is not 
tasy to determine what was meant by * v yerdes of heyre ' 
ioft the bakehouse." 

It is clear that the entry relates to five yards of 
hair-cloth to be used in the malting-kiln, just as 
we now use the same material in the oast house 
for hop-drying. It will be observed that the 
building wherein the " heyre " was to bo employed 
was the " bakhowse." That such a building was 
used for malt-making is proved by a passage in 
the will of Baldwin Coksedge of Felsham, who, 
in 1467, gave an easement in his " bakhows in 
lawful! tyme for bruynge, for bakyng, and for 
dreiynge of malte." An inventory of the goods 
of Dame Agnes Ilungerford in 1523 tells us that 
in her brewerv were two **heyrys for the kylue." 
In 1539 the "Priory of Kepton had in its ^Mcyll 
bouse" ono " heyr upon the kyll." In 1557 a 
Yorkshire gentleman possessed in his *' kelne 
howse " some *' old kelne hayres." I might easily 
increase the examples, but more are unnecessary. 

Edwabd J. Wood. 

Ring of Twelve Bells at York. — Accord- 
ing to my promise I now annex the legends on the 
twelve old bells at York, which were melted 
down to a peal of ten, 1765. They were destroyed 

[* See «N. & Q." ^"^ S. xL 438, 601 ; xii. 492.] 

by fire. May 20, 1840, not in 1829 as I stated 
before, p. 357 of the last volume. 


1. Deo et Regi sacrum 24 

2. Jubilate Domino. 1681 26| 

3. ExultateDeo. 1681 28j 

4. Gloria in Excelsis Deo. 1681 . . .30 

5. Sum rosa pulsata mundo Maria vocata . . 36 

6. I will sound and resound to thv people, Lord, 

with my sweet voice to call them to thy 
word. 1599 39 

7. Beatus est populus qui agnoscunt clangorem. 

1657 42i 

8. Te Deum laudamus. Johannes Lake, resid'as, 

RobertusHitch, decanus ; Robertus Boresby, 
precentor ; Christopherus Stone, canccUa- 
rius. 1671 47 

9. Petrus psallo Petrus spe 

Tibi dum re.sonat chorus iste .... 62^ 

10. I sweetly tolling men do call. 

To taste* on food that feeds the soul. 1627 . 59 

11. Funera deploro, populura voco, festa decoro. 

Thoma Dickinson, milite, majoris civis 
£l)oraci vice 2 sumptus procurante . 62J 

12. Exultemus Domino. 1627. Phineas Hodson, 

cancellarius ; Wickham, Archi'nus Ebor. . 69^ 

Clyst St. George. 

H. T. Ellacombe, M.A. 

Lecky's " History of Morals " : Addison. — 
In vol. ii. p. 176, Mr. Leeky says : — 

"Arrian, the friend of Epictetus, in his book upon 
coursing, anticipated the beautiful picture which Addison 
has drawn of the huntsman refusing to sacrifice the life of 
the captured hare which had given him so much pleasare 
in its flight." 

And in a note he adds — 

" See the curious chapter in his K uj^irvf TtxtJs 16, and 
compare it with No. 116 in the Spectator." 

On referring to Kurd's Addison, I find that No. 
116 of the Spectator was not written by Addison. 
This may appear trivial, as of course we know 
what the author means. In a work, however, the 
conclusions of which are dependent on the autho- 
rities quoted, a mistake being detected in that to 
which reference can be easily made might lead to 
the supposition that there are others of far more 
importance, if any one had the time or the means 
of comparing the citations with the originals. 


Mason and Campbell. — The following verbal 
coincidence in these two poets is remarkable : — 

" . . . she bowed to taste the wave." 
(Mason, epitaph quoted iu "N. & Q." 4»h S. iii. 547.) 

" The Queen of Beauty bowed to taste the wave," 
(Cam[)bell, translation of chorus iu Eur. Afedea^ 836.) 

W. B. C. 



[4«» S. IV. July 8, W. 

^ Ballt. — What may be the origin of this word, 
which forms part of the name of so many thousand 
Irish towns and villages ? Is it Celtic or a modi- 
fication of the Danish word bolig^ a dwelling ? 
The Banes may have introduced a new style of 
building into the island ; and if so, the Danish 
name would naturally be adopted, just as the 
Saxons in England adopted the Roman name of 
ceder, and the Poles the Latin word dom (a 
house), the art of constructing which they had 
learned from the Roman colonists on the Danube^ 
having previously lived in tents. Can Irish arch- 
CBologists give any proof that the word Balli/ was 
used in Ireland pnor to the Danish invasion of 
the country P OuTis. 

Risely, Beds. 

Snt John Beaumont. — Can any fellow book- 
lover favour me with the use, for a day or two, 
of Mr. Collier's reprint of the Metamorphom of 
Tobacco P It forms one of his red series. 

(Rev.) a. B. Grosabi. 

St. George's, Blackbam, Lancashire. 

Cahel. — By whom was the camel first called 
*' the ship of the desert " ? G. W. Tomlinson. 

Bishop Robert Ferrar. — I have noticed one 
or two inquiries respecting Bishop Ferrar in your 
publication, and should be glad to receive replies 
to the following Queries, as I am preparing for 
the press a biograpny of this martyr : — 

1. The authority for his having been chaplain 
to Archbishop Cranmer. 

2. The name of the lady whom he married. 

3. The age at which his son Samuel died.* 

J. C. 11. , a Lineal Descendant. 

Island of Fonseca. — I shall be glad to know 
if any of your readers can tell me which of the 
West India Islands was first named Fonseca by 
the Spaniards, or whether the island so called has 
disappeared P The name is found in many old 
maps, somewhere about the present position of 
Barbadoes ; but the histories of this island do not 
state that it was ever called after the Bishop of 

I see by the published Calendar of Colonial 
State Papers that some information may be de- 
rived from them, and I hope some one will refer ; 
to the original documents. I extract the follow- j 
ing from the Calendar : — j 

"Nov. 26, 1G32. Kesolutions for raising money to carry j 
out Captain Hilton's design for discovery of the Island of 

" Mar. 4. 1633. The Master's instructions for Fonseca 
drawn up, letters to be written to Captain Hilton, con- 

[* Some biographical particulars of Bishop Ferrar are 
^ven in the Gent/einan'n Magazine^ Ixi. (ii.)» 603 ; and 
in the numbers for March and April, 1848, pp. 246, 360. 
Consult also Cooper*8 Athena Cantab, i. 125.— £d.] 

taining directions in case discovery is not made of that 
Island, or that it be found unfit for habitation." 

" Mar. 26, 1633. After debate, the intended voyage to 
Fonseca is respited." 

Thos. D. Hill. 

GnosT Stories. — I am anxious to obtain some 
really well authenticated narratives of apparitions 
or other " supernatural " manifestations, not for 
the gratification of a mere idle curiosity, but with 
the design of investigating, if possible, the real 
nature of these interesting and mysterious phe- 
nomena. Out of the many stories about ghosts 
which one meets with, few are supported by 
reliable authority, and still fewer are attested by 
the evidence of persons now living. I have no 
doubt that many readers of ** N. & Q." are 
acquainted with stories of this kind, and I shall 
feel deeply obliged to any one who communicates 
with me (in confidence) upon the subject. I may 
add that one case of actual personal obsers'ation is 
here worth dozens of hearsays. B. W. 

Union Society, Oxford. 

Early Gkwes at Barnet-bt-le-Wold. — Id 
opening the ground for intermeuta in the church- 
yard of Barnet-by-le-Wold, Lincolnshire, in places 
where the surface shows no signs of previous 
occupation, ancient graves or rather vaults are 
frequently found made with small blocks of chalk,, 
the material of the soil. The blocks have evi- 
dently been roughly shaped, but not cut with any 
tool, and are fitted together so tis to leave a cavity 
for the corpse. This cavity exactly resembles 
that of an ancient stone coftin, widening from the 
feet to the shoulders, contracting at the neck, 
leaving a slightly oval hollow for the head. These 
graves are closely covered with slab- like blocks 
of chalk : on opening them, no trace of metal or 
wood is found, only a perfect skeleton and a slight 
appearance of brownish dust on the chalk slabs at 
the bottom. These graves lie east and west I 
wish to know whether this mode of interment 
occurs in other places, and at what period it 
prevailed. B. S» 

Journals of the late Mr. Hunter. — The 
absence of any memoir of the late Joseph Hunter 
in the new edition of Hallamshirey by the Rev. 
Dr. Gatty, has produced both sui-priso and regret, 
however it mav be accounted for. It is gratify- 
ing to know that, on the hasty conversion into 
money of everything accumulated by the taste 
and industry of Mr. Hunter — the sources at once 
of his pecuniary and his literary competence — so 
many of his manuscripts found their way into the 
British Museum. Among these, according to a 
biographical notice iu The Inquirer^ and now be- 
fore me, is *' a long series of volumes, comprising* 
his correspondence and biographical collections, 
and which would afford valuable materials to 
the writer of his life." I am told, however, that 



tbU collection does Dot include a personal diary, 

kept for msDj jeftrs by the learned and e 
able historian, and for which eighty guineas was 
offered at the sale above nliuded to by some per- 
son from Shellield. I wouid ask whether this 
Btatemeot is correct? And if so, who ia at pre- 
sent the owDer of the interesting document in 
question? J. H. 

Parodies. — As I want, for an Eaaay on Parody, 
to know exactly which are the ballads really pa- 
rodied in Bon Oaultier's Book of Ballads, I should 
feel extremely obliged to you if you wonld kindly 
inform me who are the authora of the ballads in 
that case, in the new edition of the book, 186B. 

3a. HoirUy Place, M>>da HiU. 

Tn£ Playfa.111 Familt. — I am most deidmua 
of tracing the pedigree of this somewhat ancient 
Scottish house. So far aa I can discover, a 
Dumbei of families of the name have been set- 
tled in the parish of Beudochy, Perthshire, for 
more than two centuries. Several members of 
the house have become disUnguished for their 
literary and scientific attaiomenta, and I am not 
aware that any of the name occupy an inferior 
social position. CnAitLEa Rooeks, LL.D. 

Snowdoun Villa, Lewisbani, S.E. 

Pbiek PoauAS. — Was Peter Pomhas, a Dutch 
painter (bom at Gouda 1510 or tbereabouc, and 
who died at Bruges 1663), ever in England? 
And if ao, at what lime, and what style of pic- 
turen did he paint — portraitn or landscapes? Is 
he mentioned in Womum's Life of Holban ? I 

TnoMAS E, WisMiNOTOK, | 

QuOTATtOHS WANTED. — Who waa it that said 
of Youn<;'s Night TltouyhU, that they had been 
" slowly condensed from the charcoal of ancestral I 
sermons"? W. N. Williams, j 

Chelsea. I 

In Oldniixon's British Empire in America, pub- 
lished in 1708 (i. 42-3), llie following paragraph 
will be found ; — ' 

Tfatr Troables of Ihe Dimenlers continuing at home, 
Sir Maltbew Brnitoa. Sir William CouBUble, Sir Arthur 
Baslfrij!, John Hampden, Esq , Oliver Cromwell, l-sq., . 
?iaiDe> too well known in the IKitoriei of Kngland, and I 
eevei«l other Gentlemen, were preparing to remove to I 
New En|;biid ; at wLich both the Church and Slate were ! 
"leBOthof April[in marKin*1637'| 



Importing bis Majesty's Sn^ect 

lout ■ Lioenee iVom bis Majesty's Commisviimers ; 

" "mncil, That the UrdTrea- 


surer of England should take speedy and elTcetual 
Conrse to stay eiKht sliip^ in the Hiver of Thamea, bound 
for Hew England, and Commanded that all the Tassen- 
gen and Provinons should be landed. All Unconform- 
able Ministers were also to be slopp'd ; which proceeding, 
lays a Doctor of onr Church, incrtatid the Munn'.ri and 
CbaqAnirii of lie People tlmi reitmia'd, and rmt'd llu 

Criel of a dtmble FerKCvtioit ; to be cei'd at honu and 
•ml isffn-'d to irrt Peace or a Refuge abroad." • 

I I wish (o learn the name of the author of the 
' quotation in italics, and also from what book the 
quotation b taken ? John Wabd Dban. 

Boston, United States. 

RUHBT OK HtJSHnr. — Where can I find a pedi- 
gree of this family, believed to be of Yorkshire 
or Lincolnshire f Berry and Robsou give the 
arms as Argent a saltier eugr, sa. between four 
roses gu. and seeded or. W. II. Cottkll. 

Briiton. S.W. 

A Sbverb Couplet: Nova Scotia Babonets, 
Sir Bernard Burke, in the " Introductory Essay 
on the Position of the British Gentry" (p. vii.) — 
see his Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of 
I the Landed Gentry, London, 18G8 — Buys : — 
I " The feelin^a occasioned among the older Scottish 

" Your serVart, Sir James, your servant, Sir John, 
Noble knights every one : 
Thanks to our sovereigns, James and Charles, 

Is the name of the author of this couplet 
known, and who were the knights referred to? 
Geoboe Morris, 


SlMPHON.— In Add. MS. 5820, f. 13, British 
Museum, are depositions against Jolin Simpson, 
Vicar of Mount Bures, Essex, who is stated in 
the pedigree of the family, recorded in Dugdale's 
Visitation of Yorkshire, 1065, to have died un- 
married; but that be left two nephews, William 
Simpson of ShefSeld, and Lancelot Simpson of 
Stoke Neyland, in Suffolk. It would be a great 
Tavour if any readers of "N. & Q." could eive me 
any information about the Sloke Neyland branch. 
There was a family named Simpson of Bures 
St. Mary (Harl. MS. 1543, fol. 104 b) ; and in 
Morant's time a family named Simpson, who bore 
the same arms as belonged to John Simpson, 
Vicar of Mount Bures, owned estates at Lamarsh, 
the adjoining parish to Bures St. Mary. Can any 
))ersou acquainted with Essex and Suffolk pedi- 
grees inform mo if the Simpsons, or Simsons, 
iif Mount Bures, Bures St. Mary, and Lamarsh, 
were one and the same family? 

R. D. DAWSotf-DuFFiELD, LL.D. 

SephtoD Rectory. Liverpool. 

Samuel Spekd, .\iiTnoR of " Prison - Pi etib" 
(1677). — In Iiis epistle dedicatory to Gilbert, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, this fine old singer of 
the scliool of Herbert and Washhoume and Har- 
vey tells us that his "deceased grandfather" waa 
" Mr. John Speed, the English Chronologer and 

[ • 'i'he qnesttonsbTe sUtement of Cromwell's intended 
liight to America has been already noticed in "K. t Q." 
a"-" S. ii. 152 i S'-S. Ed.] 



[*ttS.IV. Jolt8.*«9. 

Iftliorious Oenealognr." Cnn any one help me to 
something nbotit Samuel Speed from this note P 
I am anxious tn find out how it cnme that hs woa 
" Friaoner in Ludgnte, London," and otherwiM 
to know Bomethiiig about Lim. 

A. B. Gkosaet. 

Thk StOBEBTS, — Profeasor Miinch, in Ilia 
" libellus SymbolfB nd IliaUirinin Aatiq. Ni>r- 
vegisB," read at the Solemnia AcadeoiicB, June 18, 
1B50, laug-hB at English writers for calling the 
Sfihop of Man the Bishop of Sudor and Man, as 
the Suderejs no longer belong Ui the see of Man. 
The Hiebudffi islands, he snya, wore in the middle 
wes called " Sodorenaea," from a corruption of the 
Norwegiaa designation SuHrei/iar, from SiiSr, 
south. What are the names of these islaods ? 
Dr. Oliver, in his Mmivmpiita tie Insula Mannix 

S. 177, note), sajs tha^ included Arran, Bute, 
umbrte, lonn, and Mann ; but in a Vatican list 
cited hj Miiai:b I have seen, if I mistake not, 
Mann and Hii only mentioned. Can any learned 
corrBspondent furnish a complete liat of th^mP 
A. E. L. 
"Thb Vjoar of Beat."— Has any one noticed 
a song culled "The Tumcnat," published in an 
old edition of The Tforki of Samuel Bulla? Tho 
«ir given is, " Loudon is a line town." I have 
little doubt that the well-linowD song of " The 
Vicar of Bray " was not the first song-satire oq 
the changeful parsoo. 1 extract a verse or two of 
"The Turncoat": — 

" 1 loved no king since forty-one, 
When prelacy went down (lira) i 
A oloak and bnnil I then put on, 
And piDDChed against tliD crown (sin). 

Thai caniB to admiration, 

And pnva (br any kin^t (o gain 

The people's admirstiDB. 

" Wlien Charled rptnmod nnto our land, 
Th« English Charcb supporter, 

And so became a courtier. 
" The king's re)i{(ion I professeil. 

And fuund there wa>no liarm in't ; 
1 coued and flallered like the rest, 


[• Mr Chappall bug not referred to thii ballad in his 
PynOir Sliaio of the OLIen Timt, either in hie notice of 
the" Vicar of Brav" or hii Mill more ample »nd interest- 
ing notice of the luue of "I*ndon ii a line tonn." A 
■Imilar ballad, entitled "ATunicont of the 'iime.s"id 
primed in Wilfclni's t^Uieal Ballad., ed. 18S0, i. IK7.— 

The L.vDiEs of Llaksollkn. — Will any of 
the readers of " N. & y." Imiilly inform me whero 
is to be found the bestaccount of these eccentricaP 
Recently I bought in Cardiff a photngram of 
them in their walking costume, and another of 
them in their library. I shall be greatly obliged 
to any one who will tel! me where I can find the 

['■The Ladies of tlie Vaie," as they are familiarly 
styled, were Lady Eleanor Butler and Miss Sarah Pon- 
aonby. Thoformerwns the yoiingeBC daughter of Waller 
Butler, E«]., by Eleanor, eldest duughtcr of Ificbolas 
Morria, of the Court, co. Dublin. Her only brother 
John claimed and obtained his ancestral earldom of 
Ormonde In 1791. The blhei of ber companion vas 
Chnoibre Bnibazon Ponsonby, Esq., by his second wife, 
LouiHO, dau);hter of John Lyons, of Mount, co. of West- 
meuth, Esq. By her rDiullr connection Mi<ia Pousonby 
waaa cuuiin of the Earl of Bessbi^rnugb. 

The history of theso two remarkable ladiea la fnll of 
incident, and ha? been frequently told. By a singular 
coincidence, they were both bom in Dublin, according to 
some accounts, oil the Mme day in the eame year ; and 
they both lost their parents at the same lime ; so that 
these orphans aetmed intended by tho hand of PruvidmcB 
for mutual iympalhy. They were brought up tiigether, 
and as they grew in years, talked over the similarity of 
their fatea, and easily persuaded themaeivea they wcra 
designed by Heaven to posa Ibrongh life together. They 
spent much of their time at the caalle of Kilkenny, tbe 
Beat of the Ormonde family, where they were obwrved to 
shun the society of othera, and olnaya to seek retirement 

One n 

hey V 

were at length discovered in disgnisB on board 
chanfa vessel, abont to sail fmm the harbour of Wi 
ford. They were brought back, for a time eepari 
and every means taken to wean them from the mu 
attachment for each other. In the year 1778, they n^ 
port, embarked i 


mded n 


Here they aetlled down, and began 
those improvements on tho bleak and bare rocks which 
now adorn the lovely Vale of Llangollen. 

Hie fomc of these elegant but eccentric young ladie* 
becoming known in literary circle", their society was 
sought by many foreigners of rank. Among othen per- 
mitted to visit them was Madame do Genii;, who baa 
done them but justice iu her Smatairt dt Felicir. She 
was at Uury-Sl.-Edmuuds, necompanied by Mademoiselle 
d'Url^ans, where she met Lord Castlercagh ; and baviog 
observed that she would travel very far to vidt two per- 
sons united by the bonds of sincere (Hendship, "Then," 
aaid his lordship, " visit Llangollen, and you will see s 
perfect moilel of friendship," She went, and, with her 
young pmtrget, was kindly received. They were visited 
in 1796 by Misa Anno Seward, who has paid them « 

4* S. IV. July 3, '69.] 



beautiful poetic tribute, <* Llangollen Yak," of which the 
following arc the concluding lines :— 

** Through Eleanora and her Zara*s mind 

Early though genius, taste, and fkncy flowed. 
Though all the graceful arts their powers combined, 
And her last polish brilliant life bestowed ; 
The lavish promises in life's soft mom. 
Pride, pomp, and love, their friends the sweet enthu- 
siasts scorn.'' 

It was about the year 1826 that Lady Eleanor's health 
began to decline, and her sight, which was never strong, 
bad totally failed. It was now that her attached partner 
exerted her enei^ies in all the offices of love and duty 
for her blind companion, over whom she tenderly watched 
like an angel of mercy. It was not long afterwards that 
** Zara's luok serene " was called to part for ever in this 
world with ** gay £leanora*s smile'*; for the latter was 
taken away on June 2, 1829 ; and it was not till Decem- 
ber 8, 1831, that her accomplished and desolate friend was 
called to rejoin her in another and better state. In a 
triangular pyramid in the churchyard of Plassnewydd, 
with three tablets, are inscribed the names of Lady 
Eleanor Butler, Miss Sarah Ponsonby, and their faithful 
friend and servant Mary Carryl. 

As wc have stated, the personal history ot these ladies 
has been frequently written. Miss Anna Seward's ac- 
count is reprinted in Burke's Patrician, ed. 1848, v. 485. 
Consult also the British Bfagazine of 1830, p. 8, edited 
by S. C. Hall ; the GeiUUnuxtCs Magazine for August, 
1829, p. 175, and March, 1832, p. 274. Views of Plas- 
newydd Cottage, Llangollen, have been frequently pub- 
lished ; and there is also a portrait of '* The Ladies of 
Llangollen," painted by Lady Leighton and lithographed 
by Lane.] 

^' Castles in the Air." — Who first used this 
phrase, and where P I find Burton has it in his 
Anatomy of Melancholy y ed. 1624, p. 81 : — " How 
many chimaeras, antics, golden opinions, and cas- 
tles in the air do they build unto themselves." 
But he may be quoting it, as he quotes '^ golden 
opinions" from Shakespeare. Burton also uses 
the expression in his poetical Abstract of Melan- 
choly : — 

. " When I build castles in the air, 
Void of sorrow, void of fear." 

James J. Lamb. 
Underwood Cottage, Paisley. 

[In the last edition (1868) of Bartlett's Familiar Quo- 
tatioMf Appendix, p. G03, we find references to the use of 
this phrase by the following writers : Stirling, SunnetSj S. 
€ ; Burton (as quoted by our correspondent) ; Sidney, 
Defence of Poetry ; Sir Thomas Browne, Letter to a 
Friend; Giles Fletcher, Chrisfs History^ part ii. ; besides 
others to Swift, Broome, Fielding, Cibber, Churchill, 
Shenstone, and Lloyd.] 

German Names of Days op the Week. — 
When were the names of the days of the week 
adopted by the German races first used? Were 

they copied or imitated from the names in use 
with the Latin races? Monday = Xun(^'; Tues- 
day, or Tuesc's day = Mardi; Woden's day = Jfcr- 
credi (Woden is the Mercury of the Germans in 
most of his attributes) ; Thor's day= Jeudi; Friga's 
dtky =^ Tendredi (Venus* day); Saturday = ^Scrm- 
medi. This parallelism is suggestive. 

Henry H. Howorth. 

[This'interesting subject is treated very fully by Grimm 
in bis Deutsche Mytholoffie (ed. 1844), s. ill. where he tells 
us that, from the first to the sixth or eighth centuries, 
the names in the Latin Calendar were uninterruptedly 
used by the learned, and so intermingled with those 
peculiar to people of the races of Gaul and Germany — a 
fact which, in his opinion, throws some light upon the 
extraordinary manner in which the heathen names of 
the days were impressed upon one half of Europe.] 

Copyright. — What was the law of copyright 
during 1835-43 ? My impression is that the copy- 
right of a book then endured for twenty-eight 
years, or during the life of the author if he out- 
lived that term. If I am correct in this, would 
the conveyance of the copyright of certain tales 
to a periodical render those tales the absolute 
property of the publisher even beyond the twenty- 
eight years — the author being alive — to the effect 
that the said publisher could then sell or assign 
the copyright to others without consent of the 
author? or would the copyright revert to the 
author at the end of twenty-eight years ? 

When did the existing law extending copyright 
to forty-two years come into force ? L. B. 

Junior Carlton Club. 

[In 183o the Act of 54 Geo. III. c. 156, was in force, 
which gave to authors twenty-eight years* copyright in 
their works, and for the remainder of their lives. By 
the 5 (fe 6 Vict. c. 45, passed in 1842, the copyright was 
for the natural life of the author, and for seven years 
after his death; but if such seven years expired before 
the end of forty-two years from the first publication, the 
copyright was in that case to endure for such period of 
forty- two years. 

The question as to the right of copyright in the tales 
referred to by our corre-pondent is a question of law, on 
which we should not think of giving an opinion, even if 
we had before us the agreement entered into between 
author and publisher upon the subject, upon the stipula- 
tions contained in which of course the whole question 

Denys Godefroi . — Can any of your readers 
tell me whether any members of the lamily of the 
great Protestant jurist Denys Godofroi (born 1549, 
died at Strasburg 1022) emigrated to England, 
and whether any of their descendants settled in 
Suffolk or Essex ? Zetetb. 

[Our correspondent will find in " The Catalogue of the 
Names of the Artizans, Strangers, Denizens, and Engliah 
born of the Wallon Congregation of Canterbuiy," printed 



[4«> S. IV. July 3, »6». 

by Mr. Darrant Cooper in his List of Foreign Protestants 
and Aliens resident in England 1618-1688, from Returns 
in the State Paper Office (Camden Society, 1862), p. 7, 
the name of** Franfois Godefroy " in the division headed 
** Strangers." As we find no mention of him in Mr. Smiles' 
interesting volame. The Huguenots; their Settlements, 
ChurcheSy and Industries in England and Ireland, we pre- 
sume Mr. Smiles failed in tracing any existing members 
of the family.] 



(4*'» S. iii. 645, 569, 589.) 

Without attempting to enter on the question of 
how far the view taken by Mr. John Camden 
Hotten of the life and character of William 
Combe can be stretigthened at every point by 
*'the logic of facts" — a matter which may be 
more suitably dealt with, if be considers it worth 
while, by Mr. Hotten in person — allow me to in- 
dicate certain features in the articles of your 
correspondent W. P. which give to a looker-on 
like myself, interested in the subject but having 
nothing at stake in the controversy, the impres- 
sion tliat, whether or not Mr. Hotten can prove a 
case in favour of Combe, W. P. has not proved 
his case against Mr. Hotten. Those who pull 
down a theory on the plea that the evidence 
brought for it is insufficient, should be especially 
careful that the evidence they bring against it is 
incontrovertible. A series of conjectural objec- 
tions might be raised against almost every memoir 
that has been written; and when rumours, the 
authority for all of which is substantially equal, 
contradict each other, there is little gained to 
accuracy by their mere substitution. W. P. un- 
doubtedly shows that the date at which a Mr. 
Combe died while canvassing Bristol is incor- 
rectly given by Mr. Hotten ; but it surfely does 
not follow that William Combe was not the son 
of a Bristol merchant of similar name — since, on 
W. P.*s own showing, they were so numerous — 
or even of that very Bristol merchant, though 
the date assigned for his death is inaccurate. The 
expression attributed to Alderman Alexander — 
he "ought to have been" William Combe's 
father — does not seem a very probable one, if 
Combo were really his illegitimate son. And as 
W. P. requires such great exactitude from others, 
with regard to names, dates, and authorities, it is 
not hypercritical to ask on what ground he makes 
the assertion that Combe himself avowed the 
real nature of his connection with the alderman 
" to his later friends." 

The letter to Rousseau does not seem very im- 
portant testimony. If Combe had quarrelled with 
and isolated himself from his relations (to adopt 

W. P.'s hypothetical style — (conjecture can be 
fairly met by conjecture, taking care to premise 
that we do not put forth our speculations as mat- 
ters of fact), he would have been very likely to 
say, in the high-flown and sentimental fashion 
then in vogue, **I have neither fortune nor 
friends; I have neither father nor mother, nor 
brother nor sister." He does not say he has never 
knovm such relations, or possessed such advan- 
tages — a much more melancholy, as well as more 
exact statement, if W. P.*s theory is correct. 

I may observe en passant that, in whatever 
reprobation one may hold Jsan-Jacques as a man, 
it shows bad taste to characterise a writer of such 
acknowledged eminence as Rousseau by the term 
" Combe's fellow-scoundrel." 

The Letters to MaHanne appear to be wrapped 
in a haze of conjecture on both sides. Anony- 
mous MS. annotations are not of much value as 
evidence, unless there is something like certainty 
as to their actual though unavowcd authorship. 
W. P.'s inference clearly is, that these severe 
marginal notes are by Mr. Ackermann ; yet, in 
the latter's preface to the Letters to Amelia^ ho 
throws a doubt on the authenticity of the Letters 
to Marianne — a pretence which he could scarcely 
have made had he been so intimately acquainted 
with every detail of their composition as the an- 
notator professes to be. 

It is somewhat disingenuous to say, after ad- 
mitting the sincerity of Combe*s repentance, that 
he — 

*' woald not have been now branded as an habitual 
breaker of the Commandments if Mr. Hotten had not 
adopted the extraordinary course of saying that his hero 
* had no vivious tastes ' prefatory to the stories about 
his gaming, his thieving, his intriguing, his marrying 
discreditablv for the sake of money, and his libelling the 
friends of his earlier davs." 

Any one reading this passage in W. P.'s article, 
and unacquainted with Mr. Hotten's memoir, 
would infer that he (Mr. Hotten J endorsed the 
scandals ; whereas he only mentions them to say 
that, in his opinion, the worst charges against 
Combe were exaggerated or unfounded gossip, in- 
consistent with the known facts of his life. 

Prima facie it seems tolerably clear that the 
man of whom Horace Smith was not ashamed 
to say that he visited him at his ^^ suburban re- 
treat " in the Lambeth Road, " and never left 
without admiring his various acquirements and 
the philosophical equanimity with which he en- 
dured his reverses," could scarcely have been the 
unmitigated " scoundrel " W. P. describes. 

Finally, it is to be supposed that Dr. Doran took 

some pains to ascertam Combe's real character 

and career before discussing them; and he says 

{Last Journals of Horace Walpole, ii. 185 :) — 

" William Combe, after a creditable career at Eton 
and Oxford, burst on the world as a wonderfully well- 
dressed LeaUf and was received with iclat for the sake of 

4«» a. IV. JtXT 8, '69.] 



his -wealth, talents, grace, and personal beanty. He was 
popularly called 'Count Combe,' till his extravagance 
had dissipated a noble fortune ; and then, addressing him- 
self to literature, the Count was forgotten in the author. 
In the Gentleman's Magcuine for May, 1852, there is a 
list of his works, originally furnished by his own hand. 
Not one was published witlb his name, and they amount 
in number to sixty eight. Among them are Dr, Syntax 
and Lord/jytteUmCa Letters— for Combe was the author 
of many other people's works. Combe was a * teetotaller ' 
in the days when drunkenness was in fashion, and was re- 
markable for disinterestedness and industry. He was the 
friend of Hannah More, whom he loyed to make weep by 
improvised romances, in which he could * pile the agony ' 
with wonderful effect.' He worked on steadily till he bad 
passed his eightieth year, and uftimately died in Lambeth 
Road (which I am afraid was within the * Rales') in 1823. 
At no period of his life did he merit such strong censure 
as Walpolc has flung at him ; but Walpole, however 
fond of satire, hated satirists, particularly when they 
were fearless and outspoken like Combe. Religbos faith 
and hope enabled William Combe to triumph over the 
sufferings of hb latter years. His second wife, the sister 
of the gentle and gifted Mrs. Cosway, survived him." 


25, Norfolk Street, Strand, W.C. 

In page viiL of its prefatory advertisement, s 
list of some of Combe's works also includes Alt 
the Talents : and the last half of No. 10 of those 
Letters, here copied literally , is — 

" I cannot express how much I am obliged by your 
allowing me to make you the depositary of some of my 
rubbish : but be that as it may, you may be assured that 
I have a value fur it, or I should not present it to your 


(4«'' S. iii. 406, 466.) 

A reply as to the authorship of the Life of 

Napoleon ia here copied from the Hepository of 

Arts published by Ackermann, 1816, Ist S. xiii. 

197-8, in perhaps the words of Combe himself: — 

** You might as well compare the pot-boiling composi- 
tion of The History of Buonaparte^ in verse^ compiled for 
the renowned Thomas Tegg, and obtruded upon the world 
as the production of Dr. S'^'ntax, with the real and le- 
gitimate history of that humourist. Ton might as well 
compare the wretched prints with which the aforesaid 

Enblication is meant to be adorned, with the highly 
umourous and spirited embellishments which accompany 
the narrative of the Rev. Doctor's Tour in Search of the 
Picturesque^ designed b^' the inimitable Rowlandson. — 
No, Lucmda, I will never build my reputation on that of 
another man, nor take a leaf from his laurel crown to 
adorn my own temples.*' 

The authorship of another publication is denied 
by Mr. Combe (or by Mr. Ackermann on his be- 
half), in the BeposUory, 1819, 2nd S. vii. 247, 
namely, the "projected literary fraud called Br, 
Syntax in London,*' 

All the Talents, a Satirical Poem, by Polypus, 

8vo, 1807. — The literary intelligence in Acker- 

manu's Repository of Arts, ^-c. 1809, Ist S. i. 315, 

embraces the following passage : — 

" The author of All the Talents, and The Otmct, has 
announced a poem entitled The Statesman, which will 
contain biographical sketches of Mr. Pitt, Mr. Fox, 
Lord Nelson, &c." 

The title-page of a work published 1823 is — 

" Letters to Marianne, by William Combe, Esq., Author 
ciThe Tour of Dr. Syntax in Search of the Picturesque — 
The Diaboliad— History of the Thames— All the Taltnts— 
The Devil upon Two Sticks in London, &c. &c. &c." i 

This is dated February 26, 1807; and there is 
a note t to the word " rubbish," that says, '* t Cer- 
tain MS. of the author ; among which was, * All 
the Talents.' '' But on a copy of that book for- 
merly in the possession of the Ackermann family 
has been marked on the title-page at the wordb^ 
" All the Talents," — * this was not tvritten by Mr, C. 
huthy a Mr, Serres ; and on page viii. at the same 
words — wrong! and at the note on the word 
" rubbish " — not tvritten by Mr, Combe : the copy 
so marked is now before the writer of this memo- 
randum, who considers that these corrections may 
be taken to be quite as conclusive as could pos- 
sibly be any statement made upon the authority 
of W. Combe, that he was not the writer of AU 
the TaletUs. 

But '' N. & Q.'' 1" S. xl 386, and 2°'» S. ii. 36, 
310, states that — " All the Talents was written by 
Eaton Stannard Barrett, Esq." ; it is so placed 
in Watt's Bib, Brit, and other works. It went 
through nineteen editions in the year of its pub- 
lication, 1807, and appears to have been the first 
work by that gentleman. In 1816 was published 
" The Talents Bun Mad: or, Eighteen Hundred 
and Sixteen, A Satirical Poem, in Three Dia- 
logues, with Notes. By the Author of All the 
Talents, 8vo. Colbum." This work would pro- 
bably be his last one, if by Barrett A copy of 
it is not in the British Museum Library. The 
Gentleman s Magazine for that year (i. 446) says it 
is " By the well-known author of All the Talents," 
It is curious that there should 7wio be much diffi- 
culty in placing the correct name on the title- 
page of this latter work, which has also been 
attributed to James Sayers, the caricaturist, author 
of Blfjah's Mantle. He is referred to in " N. & Q." 
2°'» S. X. 274, 293. W. P. 

All the Talents. — I think it probable that this ia 
by W. Combe, but I should have to read it through 
carefully before giving a more decided opinion^ 
and see how it is spoken of in the journals of the 
time. I was misled, as was also the indefati- 
gable author of the Bibliotheca Britannicaj by the 
Biographical Dictionary of 1816, which was pub- 
lished during the lives of both Barrett and Combe, 
and which I have generally found to be correct in 
these matters. Excellent as this work is, it is no 
more to be relied on for exactness than is Watt» 
For example, works which were published anony- 
mously are given under their presumed author'* 



L4«» S. IV. July 3, '69. 

name simply ; on the other hand, works which 
have appeared with their author's name are said 
to he anonymous. 

While on this suhject, I may say that I believe 

The Rising Sun by Cervantes Ho^g, &c. 

{Handbook of Fictitious NameSj p. 69) is by T. P. 
Lathy. R. T. 


(4"» S; ii. 525, 618 j iii. 44, 111, 245.) 

There is no honour or utility in attempting to 
defend a position which has been shown to be 
untenable, so I have to withdraw my suggestion as 
to the origin of the B charge, and to thank Prince 
Hhodocanaeis and M. Bobel de Hauterive for 
pointing out the mistake. I certainly did not 
understand that the foot-note to the roll of arms 
was of so old a date, or, indeed, part of the original 
document at all ; and I concluded, perhaps too 
hastily, that it was '^ compiled from the usual 
dubious sources." The term addossez misled me, 
the more readily as I had never seen any draw- 
ing in which the Bs were so placed with their 
semicircles turned towards the edges of the 
shield, as M. Borel de Hauterive suggests, 
^'pour affecterune certaine ^l^gance.'* 

With regard to the reply of M. Borel de Hau- 
TEBIYE, I may say that though I suspect he has a 
little misunderstood what I meant to say, yet, as I 
have frankly given up the point in dispute, it is of 
no use to waste time and occupy space in discuss- 
ing it further. But I may be permitted to make 
one or two remarks in connection with his reply. 
First, I am sufficiently well acquainted with the 
use of the ciphers to which he alludes — many are 
described and figured in Menestrier's work Le 
Veritable Art du Blason^ Paris, 1673 ; and one or 
two others occur in Vredii SigUla Comitum Fiau- 
druiB, Bruges, 1640. With regard to one of the ex- 
amples he adduces — that of the Fert device of the 
DuKes of Savov, which still appears in the collar 
of the Order of the Annunciation — Guichenon in 
his Histoire G&nSalogique de la Maison Royale de 
Savoye^ proves from the coins of Louis de Savoy 
(d. 1301), and of Thomas de Savoy (1233), and of 
Peter de Savoy (which last person lived for some 
time in England in the reign of Henry III., and 
founded the Savoy palace in the Strand), that 
the motto ** Fert " in Gothic characters as a single 
word was in use long before the siege of Khodes 
in 1310. It is of course possible that the meaning 
"Fortitude ejus Rhodum tenuit'* was afterwards 
attached to the old device. (See also the Hidoire 
de Savoye, par le P. Monod.) The matter had full 
discussion in "N. & Q." (S''* S. ix., x., and xi.), 
and without desiring to reopen it, I may refer 
M. BoREL DE Hauterive to those volumes. 

With regard to the heraldic term adoss^s, the 

general use of which I am supposed to misunder- 
stand, I may say that my notion of it is simply 
that, like the English term addorsvd, it is used 
to express the relative situation of charges (not 
merely of animals) which are placed dos d dos, I 
do not know why M. Borel de Hauterive should 
conceive that 1 thought ilnecessanly to imply that 
these charges should touch, or, as he &ays, ^'se 
tiennent par le dos comme les fr^resSiamois parle 
flanc." Their contact or non-contact would de- 
pend entirely on the space at the disposal of the 
artist. For instance, 1 have just taken down the 
first French heraldic book which came to my 
hand— it is Menestrier's ikf^^^od^ du Blasoti, Lyon- 
1718 — I have turned up the* word addossSy and 
there I find that both the lions addossez of the Des- 
cordes, and the deua: bars addossez of the De Blam- 
moret, actually "se tiennent par le dos"; the 
only necessity for their so doing being the limited 
space at the disposal of the engraver. Similarly 
under affronte, the deiw Icvretes affroniee$ of the De 
Jonac, and the deux dragons- monstrcwv affrontez 
of Aucesune — Caderousse (wonderful to relate), 
" se touchent par le front " for the same reason. 
There was, therefore, no very great ignorance dis- 
played when I imagined that the Bs adossSs might 
possibly be similarly placed. 

JoHx Woodward. 

The Parsonage, Montrose, N.B. 


(3'*» S. ix. 202 ; 4»»' S. iii. 541.) 

The mysteries of Mithra are mentioned by the 
early fathers. Eusebius informs us that they 
were collected together and arranged in ad- 
mirable order by Pallas, ** is qui coUecta in unum 
Mithrae mysteria optime concinnavit." (Euseb. 
Prapar, Evang. lib. iv. cap. xvi.) St. Justin, in 
the second century, says that the exponents of the 
Mithraic mysteries imitated what is found in the 
prophets Daniel and Isaias, concerning the stone 
cut without hands out of a great mountain, and 
the passage of Isaias, which* St. Justin quotes 
from ch. xxxiii. 13-19, where the prophet says: 
** He shall dwell on high, the fortitications of 
rocks shall be his highness : bread is given to 
him, his waters are sure." (Verse 16.) Of this 
he declares that the votaries of Mithra had tried 
to imitate all the prophet's words in their myste- 
ries; and that the Eucharist which Christ in- 
stituted is foretold in this passage of Isaias. (S. 
.Tustinus, Dial, cum Tryphone, § Ixxii.) Farther 
on in the same Dialogue, St. Justin refers to what 
he had before said ; and declares that Isaias had 
foreshadowed the cave of Bethlehem, and that 
those who presided over the mysteries of Mithra 
were impelled by the devil, on account of these 
words of the prophet, to say that their followers 

^'i-S IV. Joi.y3,C9] 



were initiated by Mithra in the place which by 
them is called a cave. 

• • • 

ifol iufitrrofniffa ri)v 8i vpoiypw^a kirh rov 
'Hcrcuou vfpiKnTTiiv, cliriiji/ 5ti robs \6yovs imlvou^ rh 
tiiSpa fiwrrhpia irapa9ti6vTas iv rStr^ irriKuKovyifvtp irap* 
aurois (nni\a((p /xuuoBou ut* avraVf ^h rod ^ia06\ou 
iviprrffiiivai ciVciv. Ibid, § Ixxviii. 

Tertullian speaks of the Mithraic mysteries in 
imitation of Christian Baptism, the Eucharist, and 
the signing of the forehead, as invidious attempts 
of the devil to pervert the truth: — 

*• A quo intellcctus interpretctur corum quae ad hasreses 
fociant ? A diabulu scilicGt, cuju3 sunt partes interver- 
tendi veritatem, qui ipsas quoque res sacramcntorum 
divinorum, idolorum mysteriis oemulatur. Tingit et ipse 

Saoedam, utique credentes et fideles sues : cxpositionem 
elictorum de lavacro repromittit ; et si adhuc memini, 
Mithra signat illic in frontibus militcs suos : cclebrat et 
panis oblationeni, et imaginem rcsurrectionis inducit, et 
«ab gladio redimit coronam." (Tertul. De Prescript. 
Htareticorum, § xl.) 

He has another allusion to Mithraic mysteries : 

"Nam et sacris quibusdam per lavacruni initiantur, 
Isidisalicujus, aut Mithraj." (^De Bapt. § v.) 

Also, in Tertullian's eloquent conclusion of his 
treatise De Corona, he contrasts the devil's imi- 
tation, in the mysteries of Mithra, with the 
glorious crown of a Christian martyr : — 

** Erubescite, commili tones ejus, jam non ab ipso judi- 
candi, sed ab aliquo Mithraj milite : qui cum initiatur in 
spelaeo, in castris vere tenebrarum, coronam interposito 
gladio sibi oblatam, quasi mimum martyrii, dehinccapiti 
8U0 occommodaiam, nionetur obvia manu a capite pellerc, 
ct in humerum, si forte, transferre, dicens, Mithran esse 
coronam suam : atque exinde nunquam coronatur, idque 
in sigiium babet ad probationcm sui, sicubi tentatus 
facrit de cacramento : statimquc creditur Mithne miles, 
si dejecerit coronam, si earn in Deo suo esse dixerit. Ag- 
noscamas iugenia diaboli, idcirco quaedam dc divinis af- 
fectantis, ut nos de suorum fide confundat et judicet." 
(JDe Corona, in fine.) 

Origen, who flourished in the early part of the 
third century, in his celebrated work against 
Celsus, reproaches him with having referred to 
the Persian and Mithraic mysteries, in empty 
parade of his learning. But Origen asks why he 
should adduce and expound these, rather than 
others ; seeing that the Greeks did not appear to 
value the mysteries of Mithra more than those of 
Eleusina, or Hecate. But if he would explain 
the mysteries of the Barbarians, why did he not 
prefer those of the Egyptians, or the Cappadocians 
or Thracians, or even those of the Romans ? He 
concludes by assuring Celsus, and the readers of 
his book, that neither did our prophets, nor the 
Apostles of Jesus, nor thq Son of God himself, 
borrow aught from the Persians or Cabiii. 

*'Ijt« 36 KcA(ros Koi oi ivTvyx'^vovn^ avruv t^ 0ifi\i(i>y 
iri ov^afiou mou yvqalojy Kal Qficav iriKKmvfxivoiv ypa<p6ov 
hrra ft prim eu ovpavoL otrr' hnh Utpaciv ^ Ka0€(p<ov 
Xttfi6irr€s i\ii£v ol irpotfy^rcu Xfyovai riya, ou8* oi rov 

'IttctoD &ir6<rTo\oi, ovU* avrhs 6 vtbs rod Ocou. (Origenes 
Contra Celsumy lib. vi.) 

In the treatise De Errore profanarum reUgionum 
of Maternus (Julius Firmicus), who lived in the 
early part of the fourth century, and was a con- 
vert from Paganism, the mysteries of Mithra are 
spoken of in the fifth chapter^ where Maternus 
also attributes them to the devil as their author. 

F. C. H. 

(4**' S. iii. 478.) 

The question raised by your accomplished cor- 
respondent Mr. Kikpt is one of such mterest that 
I venture to ask you to insert the following long 
quotation, which, I think, gives all the information 
that can be hoped for on this curious subject: — 

"A controversy has long prevailed among the Swedes 
as to the mode in which their illustrious monarch Charles 
XII. came by his death. He was killed, the reader will 
remember, at the siege of Frederickshall in Norway, in 
1718. The question that has been raised is, was he fairly 
killed at the hands of the enemy, or did he die by treachery 
on his own side ? 

"About a year ago the Swedish government became 
anxious to have this question set at rest by a careful 
examination of the deceased monarch. Accordingly, on 
the 26th of the Aufi^ust of last year, in the presence of the 
reigning king Charles XV., of the great officers of stata, 
and of a few of the leading physicians and surgeons of 
Stockholm, the royal sarcophagus and coffin were opened, 
and the state of the head, which was the seat of the fktal 
injury, was carefully examined. The result of the exami- 
nation, and of a very long discussion which took place 
on the reading of the report of the examination to the 
Swedish Sbciety of Physidans, appeared in their joamal 
Hygeia in March last ;'and an abridgment of the acooant 
given in that journal, from the pen of Dr. VV. D. Moore 
of Dublin, was published in the Medical Times and (7a- 
zette of the 11th ultimo. 

" From this we learn that an examination of the corpse 
was made in the year 1746, and that the official account 
of this examination is still extant. It was made, however, 
so imperfectly as to throw no light at all on the matter 
at issue. 

" When the coffin was reopened last year, the |^eneral 
appearances of the corpse quite corresponded with the 
description of those who saw it in 1746. A white linen 
cushion, filled with spices, lay over, and another under the 
head — a handkerchief, however, being in contact with the 
face. Long white bags, filled in the same way, lay along 
the sides and arms. The handsi, slightly drawn towards 
each other, were covered with white kid gloves. The 
shirt was of coarse Silesian linen ; the shroud of brown 
holland. In the shroud, on the left side near the feet, was 
a little blue silk embroidered bag, tied up with blue silk, 
and containing a small portion of one of the metatarsal 
bones of the foot, which there seems little doubt was a 
piece removed from the king's left foot in 1709, after the 
wound he received at the disastrous battle of Pultowa, in 
which he and his forces were so completely beaten by 
Peter the Great. 

" In place of a cap, the head of the royal corpse was 
encircled with a withered wreath of laurel ! The top of 
the head was bald, but the back and sides were covered 
with thin light-brown hair interspersed with grey, and 


[4" S. IV. JuLr 8, •69. 

•bout an Inch and a balf long. Tbe fsce was of conm 
ihroDkea, but still sbowed the nqaitine form of the nose. 
The npperlip wu somewhat retracted, the eveliil! sllghtlj 
open, the skin parchment-like tind of a grejiih yellow, or 
in placea greyish brown. The expression worn by the !e»- 

beod was distisui'ed by a depression, found anetnarda to 
correspond with a ftaclure of that part of the bane of tliB 
sknil. On each temple was a black velrct patch, adher- 
ing by means of something spread on tbe wrong side of 

through which the fatal miuile had passeil. 'i'hat in tbe 
left temple was tbe larger of the two; so also the opening 

or eye-aockeC 

bones around 

if frac 

having been completely carried away, 
tbe opening were much commiDUted, aim iuk: 
tare extended from them both on tbe forehead 
tho base of tbe skull, while the base of the shuJl ilseir 
corresponding with the caritiea of the nose and top of tbi 
UiroQt, was broken into many fragments. IJesides tbi 
rags and spices used in tbe process of embalming, loos( 
portions of bone, and also the dried waxy remains of t1i( 
once regal and active brain, were discot-ered within tlu 
cranium, but no trace of shot or other missile was funnd. 
Oq carefully noticing tbe extent and character of tbt 
iiyuriu to tbe bones, tbe direction of their broken margini 
and Boforth, tbe e:<nminers were of opinion that the nii» 
die, wbicli wai ecideiitiy from some hind of gun, hac 
passed through the king^s bead from left to right; and 
although nothing could be decided with regard to iht 
exact nature of the missile, it was probably a musket oi 
a grape shot — less probably, though still possible, a case 
' " ' .-..-. inigahjii jandit musthan 

(pent beforf 

lines 10 tne e>iuU, whs probably irom a point 
in the spot op which the king stood Che moment 
— although the appearance on which this con- 
asion was founded might have been occasioned by the 
ing inclined at the moment : that the 
wuuuu III iiBL nave been instant! j' fatal i and, loatly, that 
there is no evideoce that his mjyesty was struck by more 
.1 |g missile. 


"In t 

nsued, si 

e differe 

missile had 

entered at ; but all agreed that Charles Xll. did not fall 
by the band of one of his own followers. The Swedish 
name is thus completely freed from the slur which had 
been co.'it upon it by the suspicion that Ibis illustrious 
' id owed liis death ' ' ' 

"We r 

' add ll 

b the report of tlie i 

publi^ed in tbe Hj/geia, is illustrated by fli 
plates, showing — 1. I'be royal corpse in the coffin, with 
the wreath of faded laurel around the head ; 2 and 3. 
Right and left views of the head, showing the botes in the 
integument ; 4 and 5. Two views of tbe sknll on which 

the injuries to the king's head have been imitated." 

The above accotiatis transcribed from an excel- 
lent periodical now unhappilj deceased, T/ie 
RegiiUr of Factt and OcciirreHcci Relating to Lite- 
rature, the Scimces, and the Arts, September 18U0, 
p, 35. WiLUAM E. A. Asos, F.RS.L. 

Joynson Street, Slrangewaya. 

(4'* S. iii. 541.) 
DoesMs-SmRLET mean thB.tbo is in possession 
of the orii^Dol notes and sketches from ivbich the 
genealogies are printed? Oa the fly-leaf of tbe 
printed copy of Lord Spencer's at Aluiorpe is the 
following MS. entry ; — 

" In 2nd. Tome of the Oxford Catalogue of MSS" 
p. 196, amongst those of H. E. of Pelreboro* MSS" Folio 
IJ333, No. 8. A large MSS. being a manscript of the 
Deetb relating to P. AIno. Vere, Mordnunt and others, 
being tbe first draught of a moat fair printed book of the 
family of the R' Hon''!' the E. nf Peterborough, which 
his Lordship cau^d to be collected and printed with the 
Pedigrees, Heales, Arms, and other embellishments ap- 
pertainiog to that Ancient Noblefamily, in copper Plates, 
whpteof Ilis LordsP caused only about Twentt to be 
printed for tbe use of Ilis Lordship and His Noble EeU- 

It is written in a verj large hand, of which Dibdin 
Bays, " Not unlike that of the late Georj^e Mason," 
atid " in all probability that very MS. or ' first 
draught ' is at this moment in his loi'dship's col' 
lection," referring to a folio MS. upon vellum, 
confined almost exclusively to the emblazoning' of 
arms, with brief genealogical and heraldic de- 
scriptions. Tlie title ia as follows :— 
" Tbe Genealocv- of tbe Noble Ilovses of 

ATno or de Alneto 


Le Strange of Ampton 

Latimer of Uvntish 

Verc of Dravlon 


firone of Drayton 

Vere of Adington 

Fitelewis nf Weslhorndon 

Howard of Effingham 

Ivslified by Pvbliqi-e Records, Antient Charters, Histo- 
ries, & other Autbentick Proofes." 

In this MS. the title mentions " Le Strange of 
Ampton," which is not in the printed work. At 
tlie top of tbe title is the foUowisg memoion- 

" This Book was given by V Right Hon*i" tho Lady 
I EliJabelh Germain to Anna l«aria Povntr. Wife to T» 

Bight Hon'" Stephen Povnti Esq & banghter to the 
I Hon>>'> Hrigadier Lewis Mordaunt third Brother to y* 
i late Earl of Peterborowe, & by Her to her Dear Brother 

Charles Mordaunt. Esq 
I "May 20'" 1742." 

And Iljbdin further says :— 

"On the death of General Osbert Monlannt, son of 

Charles Mordaunt, to whom this MS. was left by Mrs. 

Poyntz— the former, bv will, left bis books, among other 

things, to William Stephen Poyntz. with a proviso that 
' Lord Spencer might select, fhim among them, such aa he 
' WIS in want of. His Lordship Belected Oiii Boot ; and 
I a few other printed ones, of no great value. Sir. PoynU 

4«8.IT. Jolt a. '69.] 



n posKffiion 
Ur. Whl 

■ffiion of ■ copv. for which he g&vt GO 
'e bookseller, liut tha 

^ i» iiiaoh mnre magnificonlly bound thiiii 

the present; it beini; in old ' < < i- 

with rich i,-!!! " " 

Dowager Mart 

iisioa ar tl 

ing." [Now in the posseisji 

John Tatlob. 


Thb Sherbocrjtb UisaAL (4'" S. iii. 482.)— 
The Sberbnurno Misaol is ia the p03^9sioa of the 
Duka of Northumberlaad nt Alnwick Castle. 

J. E. M. 

tbroiisli the centra of a ii)ill--Rtone, and ntised it , 
BOme teet from the ground. It now ramsina aus- | 
pended in mid air, forming a natural umbrellft, of I 
which the filbsrt-tcee stem represents the slick. i 

" A eonfiict of this savage nature, which liappened in 
one of the Diilte of (Jonlon'g forest", wag fatal la both of 
the eombatanta. Tivo large harts, after a furious and 
deadly thruEt, had entanel«l Ihcir boms so firmly toge- 
ther Uiat [hey were inexlricable,and the victor Tcmamcd 
witli the vanquished. In this position they were dia- 

he waa yet atrusglin^ to release himself from bis dead 
anta^Dist. The bnrni remain at Gordon Castle, still 
locked tniiether as they were found." — Scrape's Arl of i 
Dar Slaiiing, I 

J. WlLKISa, B.C.L. '. 
MrSTicisa (4"" S. iii. 506.) — Among modem 
transcend en tnl mystics (ind professors of the alism I 
erf F^neloQ, Poiret, Law, and others, muat be i 
mentioned the aarne of the late James Pierrepont ' 
Greaves, born in 1777. I have before me a me- 
moir of this eitraordinary man, by A. F. Barham, | 
8vo, pp. 23, without dat« or place of publication, i 
The <ri4ciple speaks of bis master as "the most 
wonderful man he ever met with," and adds : — | 

*^ 1 have alwavs regarded Greaves as essentially a 
uperior man to Coleridge. I conceive his spiritual ex- 
perience auTi altainincnts were much hinher. He far 
more earnesil; and consistently supported the doctrines 
of the Traniuenilenlatists and Myxttcs, because in him 
were realiawl the truths they ass!:rted. He perpetually 
imisted on the iiis|ilra1ion of God aa the soiii's true 
light, and held rea-ion as a thin^ altoseiher subordinate. 
Greaves con-tantly preferred spirituality to ralionalisin, 
intuiliim to li'aming, and faith to knowledge : and looked 
upon all hi'^txrict and e^tabli^ed ccrcuionials n mere 

Kinboli of m.'taphynical laws, and onlv valuable aa thcv 
thfully represented them.'' (P. 8.) ' 
Some of the myatic prolusions of this author 
iiRve been published in 2 vols. 8ro, I think by 
Chapman. On attempting to read them some years 
ftgo, 1 fuiind their contents beyond mycomprehen- 
•ioD, and I have not retained the exact title or 
date in mv memory. William Bates. 


Peikitivb Font (4"' S. iii. 109, 340, 542.)— I 
wn sorry that I cannot at present answer the 

whole of Espboarb's questions. In preparing mj 
answer to Dr. Robert Chatutiers's paper on the 
Dtinino rock-basin, I carefully consulted, in the 
library of the British Museum, the best authori- 
ties on the history of British Druidism ; but in- 
advertently destroying my notes, after my paper 
was written, I cannot now refer to the various 
sources whence my information was derived. I 
consulted, with especial care, three well-known 
works — Dr. John Smith's Gaelic AntiqitUie*, Hnd- 
dleston's edition of Toland't Druidi, and Borlase's 
AntiqHitie$ t^ComwaU. To the last work I was 
mainly indebted. With reference to bis second 
series of questions, I would refer Espbdabb to 
Bnrlase'e work, pp. 233-43, and to Dr. Smith's 
volume, pp. 31-3. Perhaps I have exprewed 
myself somewhat vnguardedly in Aasertins that 
B'clteut, or May-day, was the chief period of 
Druidic lustration, since the important festival 
of Hallow-eve was likewise attended with the 
rites of purifying. On May-day the I>ruids hailed 
the return of the sun to his summer strength ; on 
Elallow-eve they consecrated artifidal fire for tha 

That wells on the mar^ns of lakes and rivers 
were cnnsecratsd by the ancient Britons, and mote 
especially the early inhabitants of Scotland, is 
abundantly certain ; but that they did so in me- 
morial of the Deluge, is simply a conjecture, 
' Thitt both the Britons and Scots designated places 
at the outlets of lakes Bela or Balloch, is proved 
I from the fact that such localities bear these ap- 
I pellations. I should like much to see in yonr 
' columns Espedabe's own yiewa on this curions 
subject. Had my leisure been greater, I would 
I have written more fully. 

Saowdoun Villa, Lewisham, S.E. 

D'ALTOir MSS. (4"' S. iii. 577.)— The whole of 
the MSS. belonging to the late Mr. John D' Alton 
are in the possessian of his son, who bears the 
same Christian name, and is in practice as a soli- 
citor in Dublin. The government consented to 
purchase the MSS. after Mr. D'Alton's death, and 
Sir J. Bernard Burke and others were appointed 
to estimftta their value on behalf of the crown. The 
sum estimated was considerable, but it was not 
accepted by Mr. D'Alton's heirs. 

Chablbs Bosbbs, LL.D. 

Snowdoun Villa, Lewisham. 

In reply to Liok. F., I beg to state that manv 
volumes of these MSS. were dispersed through 
the medium of purchasers, before the death of 
the late John D'AIton, Esq.: for instance, I be- 
came the purchaser of the Limerick MSS. and of 
the Tipperary MSS. The Earl of Kildare bought 
the Eildare MSS. I believe that Mr. D'Alton's 
son (who is a well-known solicitor, Stephen's 
Green, Dublin) possesses several volumes of hia 


[*'»S.IV. Jti.r3,'«». 

f&ther'B USS. — at least he told me so abnut tno 
jrears ago. Maheice Lsnih&h, M.B.I.A. 

William Vacohan (4'" S. iii. 570.) — Mr. 
QkoSaet'3 "tabular statement" is not very clear j 
the laat foui' persons named are successive geoB' 
rations of the same familj[, hut it does not appear 
how they are connected with the firet two. It is 
notorious thiit Sir Henry Ilaltbrd's father, ])r. 
Vaughan, was the son of an auctioneer of humble 
origin. lOatf. Mag. May 1844, p. 534.) 


Venison Boilbd (4"- S. iii. 406.) — Your cor- 
nespondent J. P, F. aaks if " such an act of bar- 
bnriBm" aa a hoi'ed hnunch of venison was " ever 
committed in the present day." I can assure him 
that such an instance is oa record. Not very 

many years sioce, the Earl of , according to his 

annual custom, sent a haunch of Tenisoa to the 
major of . (I here suppress the namts, but en- 
close them for the Editors satisfaction.) It had 
been usual for the mayor to invite the corporation 
and his friends to dine upon my lord's venison ; 

but Mr. neglected to do so, and kept the 

haunch for his own private eating. A few days 
after, he mentioned the circumstance to a gentle- 
man, sAjing that ha did not think the venison 
«quid to mutton. " How did you cook it ? '* asltod 
the other. " Oh, the usual way," replied Mr. 
Mayor ( " we boiled it and had caper-sauce with 

The SroABTa akd Fbbbmasonry (4"' S. iii. 
532.)— The fact mentioned hy Mb. Sleioh is not 
gBnerally known to Freemasons. Is it known 
whether the Stuart family were connected iu anv 
way with the French Ordre-du-Temple, which 
haa authentic records sioce Philip of Orleans held 
a tfeneral assembly in 1705 P The charterof trans- 
missiou anathematises the Stuart, or "Scotch 
Templars, with their brethren of St. John of Jeru- 
salem." Prince Charles was elected grandmaster 
of the Scotch order of the Temple at Holyrood 
in 1745; Eari Man held that dignity in 1 715. 
Jamas III. granted a charter for the Rosy Cross 
from Arras in 1721 to London brethren ; but the 
branch of St. John and the Temple connected 
with Freemasonry claim prior to 1*186. 

John Yahker, Jun. 

13. Chorltoii Bond, Manehester. 

Proverb (4'" S. iii. 629.)— The proverb men- 
tioned by Mr. C. W. Babklei takes tbe form 
near York of— 

" Asprettdas a dog witb too taiti" 
I do not think that either form is very commonly 
lued in' "Westmorland, Supplementing the Editor's 
reply to Ma. Babklbt on a point of genealogy 
in " Answers to Correspondents," (p. 4i)0), I maj 
mention that I have a considerable number of 

extracts from parish registers and other aoorees, 
extending Burke's pedigree, to copies of which 
I Mr, Bareley la heartily welcome if he will oblige 
' with his address. Jorh Yabebr, Juif. 

48, Cborlton Koad, Manchester. 

Lrai OF Sheripfs (4"' S. iii. 382.)— There ara 
lists of the sherifTa of the different counties, up to 
I his time, in Fuller's Worthies of England. I sup- 
pose, for the continuslion of the lists to the pre- 
sent time, reference must be made to the county 
histories. I have a tract, I believe privately 
printed, entitled — 

" Rfmarka on tbe present System of tbe 4 ppaiiitment 
, of High Sheriffs, with a Lbt for the Cuuoties of Hiint- 
I ingdoQ sod Camliridge. Bv Jiinies Duberlr, Esq. 
I London, 18S7." 

j From this brochure I learn that, as in the case 
I of Huntingdon and Cnmbridge, two counties have 
sometimes only one sheriff between them. 

E. H. A. 
i Dbrut DAT (4»' S. iii. 503.)— There is a rule 
I of the Jockey Club, that " there shall always be 
; an interval of one month between thi^ 2000 guineas 
I stakes and the Derby." The 2000 guineas are 
run in the first spring meeting, which takes place 
I one fortnight after the Craven meeting; wbidi 
latter is the opening of the racins season at New- 
I market, and the date of which is settled by the 
I Jockev Club. It usuallj-, but not alwava. takes 
place on EMster Monday. TheTuesdnj's Hiddles- 
I worth was established because the late Lord 
I Exeter conscientiously objected to travel to a rac»T 
meeting on Easter Sunday, so as to be in time to 
see the Monday's Riddlesworth run for. The 
I Duke oE York was not so scrupulous; but by way 
of " hedging," ho used to rend the lessons and 
naalins for the day es he posted along the road, in 
hopes that bis piety would bring him luck for the 

The authorities controlling Epsom races (and 
not Lord DerbyJ established a riice to bo run, in 

■ 1779, by flllica.' It was called after " The Oaks," 
I Lord Derby's seat at Baostead. It was won by 

Lord Derby's fillv, Bridget ; whereupon another 
I race for colU and fillies, to be run in 1780, waa 

established and called " The Derby." 
I " The Oaks " originally bulon;jod to General 

■ Burgoyne, well known at Saratoga. He was a 
natural son of Lord Bingley, and rsn away with a 

I Lady Stanley. He fell into difficulties, and his 
father-in-law bought the vill.i to keep it in the 
familv. Upon the marriage of Lady Betty Hamil- 
ton {daughter of the beautiful Eliitabeth Gun- 
ning) with Lord Derby's son, General Burgoyne 
wrote " The Maid of the Oaks," to bo produced at 
the fete given in consequence of the marriage. 


LocAi Satinqs : HinrriNaDaHeiiiBE (4'" S. iii. 
435.)— I have frequently heard in Benfrewshin 

4«» S. IV. JUI.T 3, '69.] 



the first of the three sayings given by Mr. Sweet- 

n^G. The third I have heard as follows : — 

" Yin's nane, 
Twa'n some. 

Three's a pickle (small quantity), 
Four's a pun (pound), 
Five's di'Uf^'' (dainty), 
Six is plent}', 
Seven's a horse's bite." 

The children repeat this rhyme when plucking 
the leaves of the common sorrel, which, when 
they have collected the number mentioned in the 
last line, they put in their mouths and eat with 
great relish. D. Macph^vil. 

27, Castle Street, Paisley. 

Modern Gipsies (4'' S. iii. 405, 557.) — The 
following paragraph from the Binninyham Daily 
Post of June 7, 1869, is perhaps worth permanent 
record in ** N. & Q.," either as a record of facts or 
as an opportunity for corrections, if any errors of 
description have occurred. Este. 


"A company of gripsies, very different in their appear- 
ance and manners from those generally met with in the 
Midland Counties, are at present encamped in the neip:h- 
boarfaood of Kidderminster, where they are regarded with 
some cnriositv by the townspeoi)le. They are a colony of 
the Epping !t'orest gipsies, and comprise seven families, 
numbering about fifty individuals, children included. 
Each family has a van and tent to itself, but the former is 
only used as a living-place when the tribe are migrating 
from one locality to another. The tents are tolerably 
roomy affairs, the framework being constructed with long 
sappfe sticks, which are bowed towards each other, and 
covered with a warm flannelly material. Visitors are 
freely allowed to enter these nomad dwellings, and can 
judge for themselves of the kind of habitat they have. 
The interiors are warm and snug, and more than this, 
there is an air of comfort ahout them which house- 
dwellers would scarcely believe could be had under gipsy 
conditions of life. Chairs and tables are not a pre- 
requisite here as in ordinary dwellings, but the gipsies 
appear to be abundantly supplied with such fabrics and 
appointments as give a'somewhat Eastern air to their 
habitations. They are well dressed, not uncommunica- 
tive, and very easy and self-possessed in their manners. 
It appears that the men belonging to the different fami- 
lies in the camp rely for a livelihood on horse-dealing, 
and the other sex are, no doubt, able to do a little busi- 
ness by reading a horoscope or revealing a destiny. They 
nse the Romany tschih or language among themselves, 
but do not seem to attach any importance to their chil- 
dren learning it, except so far as they may do so by hap- 
hazard. Some of the words they use are very similar to 
words for the same things used by East Indians — so said 
one of the party, to whom our correspondent spoke ; 
and there have been some statements of the same kind 
published in the Transactions of one of the learned socie- 
ties. Since the arrived of the party at KidderminvSter, a 
little babe has been born in one of the booths, the mid- 
wife's offices being performed by a woman belonging to 
Elidderminster. It was suggested a doctor should be 
sent for, but the repl^' was that a gipsy w^oman would 
fooner die than have one to attend her. 

" On Saturday evening the gipsies held a gala in their 
camp. A circle was fenced off with iron nurdles for 
dancing, and a band had been engaged. The gipsy 

women and children turned out in fSte costume, and 
dancing was kept up at intervals during the evening. 
There was a fair number of visitors present, and the 
gala is to be repeated," 

Kentish Words (4**» S. iii. 56.) — Deck for 
"ditch." In West Flanders a ditch is also called 
dikj and pronounced very near the same as in 
Kent {die, A.S. ; dig^ Irish) ; but in East Flanders 
this word spells dyk (read *^ dike " ), and is used, 
not for ditch, but for the raised banK at the side of 
rivers and canals {moles, Lat ). The French digue 
has only that last signiBcation. There reigns a 
similar apparent confusion of meanings in the 
word icall {wal, Fl.), it beu^ in the one province 
applied to the earthen woras thrown up for the 
defence of fortified places, and in the other to the 
large ditch which has been delved to supply the 
same said earth. So that the proverb, van den 
tval m d^n dyk valien (to fall from the mound into 
the ditch), is well understood at Ostend, but un- 
intelligible to a burgher of Ghent. 

J. Van de Velde. 

Sir Thomas Gardiner (4»»' S. iii. 531, 500.)— 
Sir Thomas was a younger son of Rev. Michael 
Gardiner, rector of Greenford Magna, Middlesex ; 
and the arms on his father's monument in the 
chancel of Greenford church are — "Quarterly, 
1 and 4 per pale, or and gu., a fess between 
three does all counterchanged ** ; 2 and 3, " Az, 
two bars arg. in chief, a talbot of the second " 
(Gardiner) ; impaling, " Or a chev. engrailed 
barry of six arg. and az. between three cranes 
proper " (Brown). See Lysons* Environs, ii. 440. 


The Editor Misc. Genealogica will, I hope, 
excuse me if I give some of the dates ho has 
quoted a little more precisely. Sir Thomas's 
knighthood is assigned to November 25, 1641, not 
1640, inWalkley^s Cat. cf Knights of Charles I. 
p. 142. He was sworn Kecorder of London on 
January 25, 1635-6, not 1635 — a slight, but far from 
unimportant addition. To the other dates con- 
cerning Gardiner may be added the resolution for 
his impeachment by the House of Commons, 
which was come to on March 22, 1641-2. (Ver- 
ney's Kotes of the Long Pari,) In the year 1643 
he was appointed Solicitor-General. In the State 
Papers of Car. I. in the Public Record Office, 
there is (among others) a letter of Gardiner's, 
dated April 22, 1637 (vol. cccliv. No. 61), which 
is sealed with a seal bearing barry of five, argent 
and or, in chief two pheons, in b;ise one. These 
arms, it will be observed, are very different from 
those stated in Berry's Encyclop. Herald, to have 
been borne by Sir Thomas. A. L. 

Sir Orlando Gee (4*'* S. iii. 337.) — I enclose 
a copy of inscription on the monument of Sir 
Orlando Gee in Isleworth church, Middlesex. 
He died in 1705. The monument has his arms 



[4a S. IV. Jolt 3. '69. 

quartered with those of Chiicott, from which 
family he took his second wife, hating niBiried 
the daughter of Kohert Chiicott of that parisli, 
Esq. I nm deBiroua of trscing the pedigree of 
thifl Robert Chiicott up to the Itohert Chiicott, 
uliai ConijT), who lived at Tiverton in 1011, and 
founded some charities there. 

They are the same family, as is proved by the 
identity of the amis which are riven in the 
Heralds' Visitation for Middleaex is 1663, and 
For Sotueratit in 1623, and also tn the Ilarleian 
M8. If any of your readers can assist me I shall 
be Tery much obliged : — 

Tu Cha M^morv of 

S' OBt^iflb Gbr. ^siqiit, 

Son of M' John Gee, Vicar of Dunfford in Devonahire. 

The trnely noble Algernon, Earle oF Norlhiiinberland, 

Employed him for laaor yean in y° Management 

or tiin weitjhtvest Aflajres, 

And for liij fidelity E<]aatl to the Greatness of his Tnialis 

After the Restoration in 

■G (Commended hi 

>e Office 

RefCister of the Court of Admiralty, 

Which he Enjoyed five and forty Years. 

He Conlinoed serviceable in no leas trusts lo his Patrons 

The Right Uonorshle Jocelinc, Earle of Northumberland, 

And to lib dauffhter y' most noble Elizabeth, 

of liaaeic, K", 
Afterwards to Ann y' liauffhter of Robert Chilcot 

oftbis Pariah, Esq'. 

His frequent Charytes during the whole course of 

His lifb 

Prevented him not from beqaeatliing considerable Sunis 

To Charitable Uses. At bis Death 

he litiBwiaB Gave five hundred pounds 

towards the rebuilding this Church. 

Borne iSI9 ) , . „„ 

Dyed 1705 J. ^B'^*'^' 

J. G. Chilcoti. 

PiEsais (4"' S. iii. 606.)— Sir Walter Scott, in 

the second chapter of Qitentin Duiirjard and with 

reference to the forest with which the royal castlo 

of Plesaia-lea -Tours was surrounded, says :^ 

'■These woodlands comprised a noble chase, or royal 
park, fenced by an enclosure, termed in the Latin of the 
middle ages pfeiilium. which gives the name of Plesais lo 
so many villages in France." 

He thus considers plexilium or pletaii as equiva- 
lent to cha«e or park, hut I doubt whether the 
notion of deer was originally associated either 
with/jarfc or plexilium. Does not the compound 
parc-au.T-cerf», bv which the famous or infamous 
retreat of Louis "XV. waa designated, imply that 
Apark could esist without deer? and is not the 
notion of net-icurk or fence conveyed in the low 
Latin phxitinm from tifttin plexuef Certainly the 
Greek ffwoi, from which, whether correctly or 
incorrectly, our word park is commonly derived, 
rigniSed first a fence, and then also the piace 
endosed, but without any notion of deer : bo, the 
same notion is excluded from park in our phrase 

I park of artiUery. I should like to know the exact 
; meaning of the Saxon parruc, from which our 
modern word is derived. W. B. C. 

SoH3iDE.\CE (4"' S. iii. 589.)— Sot having by 
me the last three writers referred to (after Fac- 
clotftti) by Lord Ltttleton, I must content my- 
self with dealing with the pajsngo from Lucretius, 
which, as far as it touches the question, runs as 
foUows ; — 

"... etmultK per mare pessum 
Subsedere ania parilcr cum civibua urbea." 
In which I am willing to grant Uiat eubiedere 
does bear the aensc " of descent with motion." 
But I am far from being prepared to admit that 
it has anything to do with euisideo. On the con- 
trary, I believe it to be the third plural of the 
perfect of lubiido, which Lord Ltttelion needa 
not to be informed makes both gubtidi and sab- 
eedi. How far the opinion of Facciolati has sup- 
port from the other authors I cnnnot say, hut I 
am sure that from the ii'rf among them — the only 
one, I should presume, possessing much weight- 
he has none that can be relied on as authoritative 
or unexceptionable. From f^deo and its compounds 
the notion of reit seems, to my mind, inseparable. 

1 so far agree with Mr. Bealb, that in the 
pronunciation of English, usage is to be followed ; 
but when in derivatives a question is raised as to 
the quantity of a syllable, it can be settled only by 
a reference to its primitive. Many lawyers pro- 
nounce iimrital as if the penultimate were short, 
but it is, all one for this, as long as nay lawyer's 
arm, if not, peradventure, of liis head. 

Edhttbd Tew, M.A. 

Patching Rector}'. 

Mb. Tew is clearly right in deriving this word 
from lubgido, to the rejection of aibiideo, but 
nevertheless I think it sho.uld be pronounced 
Kiibsidcitce ; custom, " quern penes arbitrium," &c. 
seems to me decidedly in favour of this pronun- 
ciation, so also is the genius of our language, the 
tendency of which is to throw the accent on the 
an tepen ultima, whatever may he the length (in 
Latin) of the penultimate syllable ; witness such 
words as c6afidenoe, diffidence, 6rator, and a host 
of others. W. B.C. 

PissAOB IN GAUTiiNS (4'" S. iii. 55), 658.) 
Lord Ltttelton foi'gets that quotations in the 
New Testament seldom adhere to the tpsieeima 
verba ; and that in this instance a slight transpo- 
sition of the words will make the end of a good 
iambic line. Maynot the original have been 


Medal (4"" S. iii. 528.)— The first of the two 

medals described by L N, 0. may be one of the 

medals oiven by George IH. to tne chiefs of the 

North American Indiana, or the heads of the 

4«k S. IV. July 3, '69.] 



tribes in Africa, who had rendered some service to 
British subjects, or whom it was desirable to 
attach to the interest of this country. 

These medals, which are of silver, are of three 
sizes, the largest being three inches in diameter ; 
the second, two inches and four- tenths ; the third, 
one inch and a ^f, 10, 16, 12 of Mionnet's scale. 

Would it not be a great boon to collectors, and 
those interested in the subject, if the British 
Museum would print a catalogue of these medals 
and coins ? The sale of it would soon more than 
repay the cost. Belfast. 

Gainsborough's "Blue Boy " (4**' S. iii. 676.) 
I cannot add much to the history of this picture, 
but there is not a shadow of doubt as to the 
authenticity and genuineness of the " Blue Boy ^' 
in the possession of the Marquis of Westminster. 
The first Earl Grosvenor, who is stated by Ful- 
cher to have purchased the picture from Hoppner, 
died in 1802, so that if the author of The Life of 
Gcmuborough be correct, it must have been in the 
possession of the Grosvenor family nearly seventy 
years, and twelve or fifteen years before the 
"Blue Boy" exhibited at the conversazione of 
the Institution of Civil Engineers came into the 
hands of Mr. Hall. The Grosvenor picture was 
one of twelve paintings by Gainsborough ex- 
hibited at the British Institution in 1815; and 
more recently, at the Art Treasures Exhibition in 
Manchester, it formed one of the leading attrac- 
tions, hanging near the lovely portrait of Mrs. 
Graham, also by Gainsborough, Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds's " Contemplative Youth," and other worts 
of the highest quality. With these surroundings, 
it maintained its ground thoroughly, and at- 
tracted general admiration by its beautiful and 
harmonious colouring, its brilliant execution, and 
its perfect state of preservation. 

As to Hoppner not being likely to possess such 
a picture, I see nothing to prevent it. He was 
a fashionable and well-employed portrait-painter, 
and artists at all times have been noted for col- 
lecting pictures and works of art ; and at the date 
of its purchase modern pictures fetched a very 
different price in the marliet to that which they 
obtain at the present time. G. D. Tomlikson. 

Kki^t Folk-Lore (4'** S. iii. 479.) — A similar 
strange and superstitious custom as that mentioned 
by Mr. Dunkix, of the herdsman going to each of 
the kine and sheep at Dartford Priory farm, and 
whispering to them that their old master was 
dead, I find mention made of in that wild and 
omnifarious romance by Karl Gutzkow (b. 1811), 
Der Zauberer von Horn (the Sorcerer of Rome), 
which custom the author ascribes to a certain part 
of dear old Westphalia. The heroine Lucinde, 
who by-the-way outdoes all the unwomanly hero- 
ines of the Feydeau — Sand — Braddon — Ouida — 
Cometh-up'OS-a-Flotver school, visits the village 

school, being herself the daughter of a village 
dominee, and finds the household of the school- 
master better regulated than that of her own 
father : — 

"Amongst the garden utensils she also foand a Bienen- 
helm (a wire mask to protect the face and head in general 
from the sting of the bees when cutting honey), which 
latter a servant-man out of the village was just borrow- 
ing of the schoolmaster, in order to announce to the bees 
the death of his just deceased master. A strange custom, 
here at home, to cause the death of the master of the house 
to be announced b}*^ the servant-man to the bees, going 
amongst the bee-hives with these words—' The mistress 
sends her best compliments and the master has died.' '* — 
( Vide antCf ed. 1863 (Leipzig, Brockhaus), vol. i. pp. 

* Hermann Kindt. 


Smiting the Thighs (4*»» S. ii. 288, 261.) — 
The quotations from the Iliad in the earlier of 
these paragraphs, and perhaps the observation of 
common life, show, I think, that this was onbr a 
boisterous and somewhat vulgar habit of ]!d!ars 
and his worthies, under excitement, and whether 
threatening, rejoicing, or crying ; and that it was 
emphasis, and not religion. But I remember to 
have observed some years ago, as rather singular, 
that expressions of this kind, although, as your 
correspondent has shown, common enough in the 
later books of the Iliad, are nowhere to be met 
with in the earlier ones, showing thus a change of 
phrase and manners. I say this in my own wrong, 
for I firmly hold the unity both of the poem and 
the author, and will never be persuaded to the 
contrary. Richard Hill Sandys. 

89, Chancery Lane. 


Chronica Magistri Roperi de Hovedene. Edited by Wil- 
liam Stubbs, M.A., JRegius Professor of Modern History' 
in the University of Oxford, Ac. Vol. II, 

Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden Monachi Cestrensia; to- 
gether with the Translations of John Trevisa and of an 
unknown Writer of the Fifteenth Century. Edited by 
Churchill Babington, B.D., F.L.S., Ac. Vol. II. 

Annales Monastici. Vol. IV. Annates Monaaterii de 
Oseneia (A.D. 1016-1347) ; Chronicon vulgo dictum 
Chronicon Thomas Wykes (a.d. 1066-1289); Annales 
Prioratus de Wigomia (a.d. 1-1377). Edited by Henry 
Richards Luard, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, 
Registrar of University of Cambridge, Ac. 

Annales Monastici, Vol, V. Index and Glossary. Edited 
by Edward Richard Luard, M.A. 

We have to call the attention of our readers, neces- 
sarily very briefly, to four new volumes of the Chronicles 
and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the 
Middle Ages, now publishing under the direction o? the 
Master of the Rolls. 

The second volume of Iloveden contains that por- 
tion of the compilation of Roger of Hoveden which 
corresponds with the *<Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi/' 


[la 3. IV. Joi,Y 3, '69. 

inder the name oT Benedict of Ped 
lie deaih ar Henry. It is utiafaclo 
-am the editor's Intro^liictioD, that i 

L in the Preface to the preceding 

In the second volume of Mr. Dabington'9 valuable 
edition of Ralph IllgiJen, with its two curious Early 
English Tranolalions, wbich are especially interestiiifr as 
monuDicnls of our language, the editor has lieil the nd- 
vaniat'e of ciillatint; two MSS. of Trcviaa'a translation 
which were not presiously known — one in the Cotlonian, 
and one in the Harleian Collection, in the British 

The Uat two volumes arc the fourth and fifth relumes 
of Ibe series of Monastic Chronicles, entrusted to the 
Tery competent editorship of Mr. Luard. 

The fourth volume contains the Annala of Osencv, a 
mooBSterv fcmndcd on the island of that name at Uxiord 
for Augustinian canons, by Robert D'Ovly in 1129, now 
printed for tlie (iiat time from the single MH. con- 
taining them which is in (be Cottonian Collection. The 
chronicle attributed, and probably rightly, to IliomBS 
Wykes, and which Mr. Luard shows to be closely con- 
nected with the Annals of Oseney, is printed from another 
Cottonian MS. The third chronicle is in like manner 
taken from the single existing MS. in the Cottonian 
Librarr. " The Annals of the Priory of Worcester" (for 
so it is'enlitled) are now for the first time printed in full 

gntries written later, which bring them down to 1377. 
It will be seen by this what * valuable addition this 
volume forms to the scries to which it belongs. The 
fifth volume contains an elaborate Index to the contents 
of the various chronicles included in the four preceding 
Tolomea; and, with the Glossary, gives completeness to a 
work which d»es great credit 10 (he learning and paius- 
taking of Its editor. 
7B« Oxford Rtform^t-JiAn O^tt, Eratmai, ondThomai i 

JUon; btittg a H'atnn/ of their Fellvw- It^ork. By 

Frederic Seebohm. Second eifilion, revwd nnd t«- 

iarged. (Longman.) 

Somewhere about two years ^nce we called attention | 

The Rkv. Jahes Hrhthornb Todd. D.D.— Another 
iccompllshed scholar and a good man has been called to 
lis rest. The Rev. Dr. Todd, Senior Felhiw of Trinity 

of this VI 

nuch beloved nnri respected in Dublin, fays The Timet— 
t might have added on both sides the Channel— where, as 
t Ituly adds, his loss in literary and clerical circles will 
le deeply felt. 

sting be 

^tiai ta ^onti^axiatnti- 

it out as one well deserving (he a 

who see in the Ifefonnation in England, i 

advancement of true religion, hot also one o 

of that first edition, Mr. W. Aldis Wright made the 
remarkable discoi-ery respecting the marriage of Sir 
nomas More's parents, and the birth of Sir Thomas 
More, which be communicated (o "N. & (J." in Uciober 
1868 {4'" 8. ii. 865), and Mr. Lupton discovered in the 
librar}- of St. Paul's School the interesting MSS. of Colet 
ODthe " Hierarchies of Dionysius" recently published l>v 
him with a translation (Bell ij: Daldy}, which have sup- 
plied a missing; link in thechainofColet's mental history, 
■Dd (brown much fHsh light upon his connection with 
the Keo-Plalonisis of Florence, and (he position occupied 
by him a( (>:iford before the arrival of Erasmus. VVith 
the zeal of a real searcher afler the whole truth, on 
finding these new and important materials for n more 
accurate book, Mr. Seebohm withdrew as far ss possible 
his fir^t edition, end has issued a fresh one, in whicli the 
results of these discoveries are properly interwoven. A 
Catalogue oflhe eariy editions of Erasmas in the editor's 
odleclinn, is another valuable feature In this enlarged 
and Improved edition of Tht Oxford Btformtri. 

id CUnSlru ammi (hi CIsni lu tht Kurtlltn 

m Sfmg* In ISattaVicLanaaaytJnim an origimit 

EHIUT<:il.-;^tli S. 111. |i. Ii. Un Ufiwn liMti»n,/i>r " RcKIl " 

••• Cmmfiir Undlnrthe VolumnsT "N.« O." mir t« hsdoTIlK 
PnliLiihti. uiilnrmlt BookHllen mill Ncnrnen, 

"NOTKS ANO QrRniBS"t9pil1llllhedjll 

rij tHDRXI ill 1U.4fJ.. Iihkti mw be pakd I 
■Hs UIhe Slrmnd FoM OfliK, In tkrnur dT IV 

tf be pftbd bj Pom Onhv Ol 

A^ S. IV. July 10, '69.] 




CONTENTS.— No 80. 

NOTES: — Eoasons of Irish Peers for Rejecting the " Bill 
tot the better Security of his Blajesty's Person and Govern- 
ment." 1697, 25 — The Anglo-Norman Words in Layamon's 
•• Brut.- 26- Nursery Jingles, 27 — Eobert Blair, Author 
of "The Grave " and Thomas Campbell and Nonris of 
Bemerton, 28— Distance at which Bells may bo heard — 
Bteam-6hips predicted — Cockney Rhyme: Sir Walter 
Soott — Temple — Lord Byron at Banff — Cigars — Mar- 
guerite of Austria, 29. 

QUERIES : — Bells and Spears — Camden's Ancestry — 
George Engleheart — The Baronetcy of Home of Reiiton 

— Irish Paoipblet (date circa 1703) — Jasmin, the Barber 
Poet — Did Edmund Kean ever ascend Mont Blanc? — 
Kidnapping — Lawrence — Thiery Langendyck — Lusher 

— Napoleon I. and his Second Marriage — Nunnerie — 
William Bawaon of Bradford — Sanderson's Lincolnshire 
Collections — Family of Sir Walter Scott — A Slift of 
Beef, SO. 

Qmtnts WITH A v«wbb8 : — City of London Swordbcarers 

— Easter Day, 1867 — Nicholas de Lyra, 33. 

REPLIES :— Caxton's First Edition of the "Game and 
Playe of the Chesse." 84— Penmen, 85— Snuff. 36 — 
Weather Prognostications. 37 — William Bewick. 38 — 
Newark Forage. lb, — The Kiss of Peace, 39 — Isaac 
Dorislaus, 40 — Journals of the late Mr. Hunter — Another 
" BlnelBoy " by Gainsborough — Model Bells and Bell-ring- 
ing — Isabel Scrope — Popular Names of Plants : Waltoirs 
•Lilies" —Burying on the South Side of Churches — 
Grinling Gibbons — Rushlights — Epigram by Dr. Haw- 
trey — De Audley — To my Nose — Medallic Queries — La 
Saiette — Austria : Prussia — Omitted References — 
Tooi^ Pretender, Ac., 41. 

Notes on Books. Ac. 




[Although Lord Macaulay (^Hist. of England^ toI. iv. 
p. 305, ed. 1866), speaking of 1697, says—" the proceed- 
ings of the local Legislature which sate at Dublin had 
been in no i'eq>ect more important or more interesting 
than the proceedings of the Assembly of Barbadoes " — a 
somewhat remarkable event had taken place in the Irish 
Legislature. On Nov. 27, 1697, on a motion that the 
BiU for the better Security of His Majesty's Person and 
Government shall pass into a law, it was resolved in the 
negative ; and leave was given to the Lords, who dis- 
sented from snch vote, to enter a protest. Such protest 
is dnly recorded in the Journals of the House of Lords 
(Dublin), vol. L p. 665 ; but the following interesting 
document in connection with this vote, for which we are 
indebted to the kindness of Lord Gort, has, we believe, 
never before been printed.] 


Some of the following "Reasons" (which I 

found among some family papers of the same 

date) axe sufficiently curious, I think, to merit a 

comer in " N. & Q.'' Gort. 

Reasons whv some of the Lords could not assent to the 
pasring a Bill, Intitnled, An Act for the better Security 
of his Matyes Boyall Person and Government. 

That m BiU with so excellent a Title and which had 
pis^d the Honae cf Comons npon a division of 92 against 

68 should miscarry in the House of Lords may give occa- 
sion of reflection upon the persons who dissented from it, 
and render them lyable to be misrepresented. 

It is therefore thought necessary to offer a short state 
of the matter, and some of the Reasons why severall of 
the Lords could not agree to every clause in the said Bill. 

The Bill which went hence into England and had its 
rise from the House of Comons obliged all persons in any 
Office or Iraployment, or who receiv'd any Fee Salarv Ac 
from the King or who should be Members of either I^ouse 
of Farliam* to take the Oaths, and subscribe the dedara- 
tion & association under the penaltys mentioned in an 
English Act with the same Title. But it came back with 
a Clause incertcd, giveing a Discretionary Power to the 
Justices of the Peace in each County at their Quarter 
Sessions to Sumon all persons whatsoever before them 
without any distinction of Age, Sex or Condition, and 
without expressing what should be termed a Legall 
Sumons and to Administer to them the Oaths of Fidelity 
and abj uration of all Forreign Jurisdiction, and of the Popes 
spiritual authority, And enacting that whoever should 
neglect to appear when Lawfully Sumond or refuse the 
Oaths when tendred should be forthwith convict and 
incurr all the Penaltys and Forfeitures of a Premunire 
mentiond in the 16 of Kichard the Second. 

To this Clause severall of the Lords could not give their 
Assent — 

1** — Because they thought the Imposition of such Oaths 
upon all persons indifferently unju»t, as being Expresslv 
contrary to the Ninth of the Limerick Articles, by which 
it is declared that they who submitted to His Mftties 
Govemm* should take the Oath of Fidelity mentiond 
in the Second Article and no other, for the confirmation 
of which An Act of Parliam* has been passed this very 
Session in Ireland, And the same was likewise confirmed 
by an Act of Pariiament made in England in the Third 
Year of ELing William & Queen Mary, Intituled An Act 
for the Abrogateing the Oath of Supremacy in Ireland 
and appointing other Oaths, of which Act the foremen- 
tiond Clause Thad it passed) would for so much have 
proved a repeale. 

2*7 — The Lords could not agree to the forementiond 
Clause, because to put a force upon pure conscience and 
impose a Law to punish a bare Opinion or an Act of the 
understanding without anv Overt act, and even to extort 
that thought under the heavy penalty of a premunire 
was looked upon as a most grievous and unreasonable se- 
verity, & such as could not be parrelled (n'c) or warranted 
by any precedent either in England or Ireland. Most of the 
Learned Judges being asked their Opinion upon this 
Occasion, declared That persons under premunire accord- 
ing to the Statute of the 16* of Richard the 2<» mentiond 
in the Clause did not only forfeit their Lands Tenements 
Goods & Chattels &c, but were likewise put out of the 
Kings protection, and thereby exposed as the Kings 
Enemyes to all manner of Outrages such as wounding & 
maiming and some of the Judges affirmed that whosoever 
should kill such a i>erson was not ameasnable for it to the 
Law, the Clause in the SUtute of the b^ of Eliz* w««» 
mitigates the Severity of the Antient Laws of premunire 
in England, not being of force here. 

3<^'7 — It was conceiv*d That this Clause was so farr 
from serving the Ends of the BiU w«^ were for the pre- 
servation of the Kings person and Govemm* that it 
tended rather to ov^throw 'em, because the penalty 
threatened was so great tiiat there was reason to beleive 
the generality of the Papists to avoid it would have taken 
both Oaths, and haveing got over them would not have 
stuck at the declaration nor Association and so have been 
qualified for all Employments, and have sat in both 
Houses of Parliament. But in case they should not have 
taken these Oaths the penalty was so severe that twould 



[4«» S. IV. JiJLT 10, '69. 

liave provoked and exasperated them to the highest de- 
gree and rendred them wholly desperate and much more 
Knemys to the King and Government than ever before. 

4**>*J — ^Twas apprehended That had this Clause passed 
these Inconveniencys would have foUow*d 

1. That 3 Fourths of the People of Ireland being 
Papists the Protestant Landlords and Creditors by 
the Papists Forfeiting Lands, Goods and Chatties 
would have been in danger of loosing their Rents and 
Debts, there being no provision or saveing in the 
Bill for them. 

2. It would have discourag'd Trade and Industry 
and lessened the Kings Revenue 

1. Because it would have rendred all Papists in 
Generall Slothfull and Careless since they might 
Fear that the increasing their Wealth would like- 
wise increase their danger. 

2. Because no Protestant could with Safety have 
any comerce or dealing with them which 3'et 
(considering the greatness of their Number and 
the smallness of the Protestants) seems unavoid- 

3. Because it would have been a great Discour- 
agem* to Strangers to Trade with us by the mani- 
fest hazard they would have run of loosing what 
Effects they should at any time have in Papists 
hands here, nor could any Popish Merch* with 
security come into this Kingdom upon the Account 
of Trade, because upon any difference in bargain- 
ing or otherwise he might be lyable to have the 
Oaths tendred him, and upon refuseall incurr the 
penaltys of the Act, there being no provision or 
exemption for any such in the BilL 

3. It would very much have lessend the value of 
Lands, because no person could w*N>ut extream 
hazard have Set anv part of his Estate to Papists, 
and the number of ^Protestants being so inconsider- 
able, in many places Protestant Tenants could not 
be had, and where they could. Landlords must have 
been forced to have sett their Lands to them at their 
own rates, or else their Estates must have lain upon 
their hands. 

4. It would have increased the number of Torves 
and Rapparys and rendred not onely Travailing 
dan^rous, but even Inhabiting the Country unsafe. 

6*"J— -Lastly the Lords thought it their duty to dissent 
from this Clause that they might thereby prevent the 
miserys and avert the Punishments which by Gods just 
Judgment might be fcard would fall upon them or their 
posterity for the unreasonable Severity and injustice 
of it. 

It cannot be justly suspected that any of the Lords who 
dissented from this Clause should ever be thought friends 
to the Papists Interest for they have this very Session 
agreed to some of the Strictest Laws that ever were made 
against them, such as the Act, for banishing Regulars, 
Disarming and dismounting Papists, For preventing 
forreign Education, For hindring the reversal of Out- 
lawrys & Attainders, Against their Intermarrying with 
Protestants &c And they have already Associate and 
now moved for the signing the same Association in a 
fall house of Lords here vr*^ is Enacted in England. 

There was another Clause in the same Bill relating 

to Quakers to which severall of the Lords could not give 

their Assent, for the following reasons : — 

lit — Because there was just ground to fear that the 

Regulars who are now to be banished would with other 

Papists turn Quakers, and thereby Shelter themselves 

firom the Execution of the Laws made against them, and 

by that means have Armes put into their hands. 

2^17— Because they seem so farr from deserving favour 

and exemption, that they are notoriously known to be 
Jacobites, to have assisted the late King James with 
mony & men, to have been Magistrates under him, and 
to have been his Intelligencers dureing the late Rebellion 
in this Kingdom. : 

3<ii7 — Since the only reason given in favour of the 
Quakers was That they were a Tradeing People, It is 
humbly conceivd that the Kingdom would loose much 
more by extream Severity against the Papists, than gain 
by encouragement of them in relation to Trade. 

4*i>^ — It was thought that this Clause would Effectually 
have propogated Blasphemy, and Enthusiasm by the in- 
couragem* it would have given to all uneasy Papists & 
others to turn Quakers. 

It is hoped that laying aside a Bill with so good a 
Title will not now be 'thought a crime since some years 
agoe a Bill with the very same Title was rejected in the 
House of Cotuons of England for Clauses that were not 


Reasons of the Lords who could not 

Assent to a Bill, Intituled An Act for 

the better Security of his Mat*«* 

Royall j^son and Goverm* 




It is generally asserted in books relating to the 
formation of our English tongue that Lay anion's 
Brut, written probably about 1205, a poem of 
about 30,000 lines, contains fewer than fifty words 
derived from the Norman-Frencb language. This 
assertion is almost always based on tne authority 
of Sir F. Madden, and on tbe same authorfty it is 
added that the later text, of about 1240 or 1250, 
contains seventy such words, of which thirty are 
common to it and the earlier text. So that, as Sir 
F. Madden sums up the result, only ninety words 
of French origin are to be found in the course of 
56,800 lines of English verse, even as late as the 
middle oi the thirteenth century. Having lately 
carefully gone through Sir F. Madden's valuable 
GlossaiT, with a view of testing the above asser- 
tion, I have been surprised to find how much this 
estimate understates the fact. It appears to me 
quite clear that nearly as many more must be 
added to his list. I will set them down, and 
hope that any correspondent who holds a different 
opmion will obligingly take such exception as he 
may think fit in order that the truth may be 
elicited. The words not cited by Sir F. Madden 
are printed in italics : — 

In the first text, achaped, ascaped, admirail, 
armtte, appostolie, arc?ien, astronomie, avaUeny 
balles, barun, biclttsen botmiCf bolle, ibroide, bruntef 
humey iburned, bunnen, cacchenj canele, cantel- 
cope, cartCf cathel (chattels), cheisil cludina (or 
cuiress), dusden (closed), comp (=camp), cop, co- 
riun (musical pipe), crune, cnineden, cros, crucchcj 
cuj)]^, dotie, dubbm, due, dtuxe-perSf eastresse, 
falsie, fium, ginne, halkf hardiliche, hiue (hue 
and cry), hose, hune (topmast ?), ieled (anointed), 


4* & IV. JiXT lu, ty, J 

jayj±s:jiD xx^^.^^ w.w.^^«^..^i 

htirte, ire, kablen, lac, /(itTM^?, latimer, legiuny licoriz, 
Uim^ lo/(\nff)f machunes, mahuny male, mantel, 
mmiiry mermmnen, messagere, mile, montaine, 
mwutre, munt, must, nap (=hanapy a cap), nonne, 
oUfanteSj pal, paradis, peytitce (=of Poitou), pHe- 
grim, poaere, pore, porz (ports), posteSj procea- 
aiun, puinde, puUe, quecchen (=quas8er, casser ?), 
riche,ridke8 {=nche3ae),8almes, saUeriun, sccBminge, 
scare, «eani, scomeSf sceremigge (scrimmage), »cole, 
scnrmen, senaht, sealied, senaturs, seirU, servise, 
tervingey sire, sot, sumtmde, talie(P), temple, timpe, 
ioppe, twnbelf tonne, tur, tume, vlette (flat, floor^, 
toarde, weorre (war), werre (to war, ravage), 
widewe, win, wintunneny ymages : in all about one 
hundred and twenty. 

In the later text we find the additional 
^ords — abbey, anued, aspide (espied), atyr, canoun, 
changede, chapel, chevetaine, chowles (jowls), 
doke, conseil, centre (country), cope, en, delaie, dos- 
9eperes, eyr, failede, fol, fohe, gile, gisarme, grace, 
grand, guyse, harsun (ar9un), heremite, honure, 
noetage, manere, mar6rc-«<owe,nonnerie,no<e,paide, 
pais, paiai, pare, passi, pen£ales, partes, prisune, 
roOede, route, sarvi, scapie, seine (ensign), moi 
(follow), sojri, idored, tavel, tresur, truage, tumbe, 
wrimU, usi, waiteth : in all fifty-six, making in 
both texts about one hundred and seventy-six. 

I am aware, of course, that some of the above 
are miestionable, and might after a very strict 
trial De banished ; but, on the other hand, such 
words as engles, amptdle, henchej beor (a man), 
eandel, caddfclerc, exle, harpe, helm, healm, kalen- 
dar, lot, &c., iniffht be fought for (at least some of 
tiiem), and possibly gained for the Komance side. 
As a general rule words immediately admitted 
into A.-S. from Latin underwent no, or a very 
alight, vowel change. The Latin termination was 
docked, and the word then treated as English. 
Hence we may conclude that candel, castel, ancor 
or oncer, &c., were directly derived from the 
Latin, but that canoun, legittn, machunes, honur, 
Slc, had received a certain Norman modification. 

On the whole, then, we may, I believe, add 
about eighty word3 to the ninety assigned by Sir 
F. Madden to the Komance element in Layamon, 
and if we comprehended proper names which re- 
ceived their special form tnrough their derivation 
from Norman-French orig^als, we might add 
connderably to the number. 

Before concluding these remarks I wish to point 
out a decided error (as it appears to me) in one 
of Sir F. Madden's explanations. The word ma- 
iAunes or machuns, occurring in ii. 223, 224, he 
translates machines. Not remembering any in- 
fltanoe in which the French termination -ine be- 
came "Une in English, I was led to look rather 
more closely into ihe text. In reference to an 
assault commanded by Yortigem, it is said that 
his men began to dig a dyke, to blow their horns, 
juid then (according to the translation) to ^' hew 

the machines " (*' machines hewed "). Further 
on we are told — 

*^ Of imxchunes {machunt, later text) ther wes wander : 
at and twenti badred," 

which is translated '^ of machines there was 
plenbr — five-and-twenty hundred ! " For machines 
we should, however, read masons, i^eaning gene- 
rally "sappers and miners." The old French 
word is magon or maqun, which was easily Nor- 
manised into machon or machun, in the same way 
asfaceon became /acAon=Eng. fashion. The first 
passage means, then, that the masons cut away 
at the ground to make the dyke. The second 
needs no further explanation. J. Payne. 

Kildare Gardens. 


As the wide net of " N. & Q." has meshes small 
enouffh to hold nursery rhymes, perhaps they 
may hold the still smaller fry of nursery jingles. 
Something like seventy-five years ago I was 
danced on my nurse's knee, in a Scotch Lowland 
county, to the following verbal accompaniment : — 

** This is the way the ladj rides, 
Jamping sma', jumping sma*.'* 

So far the dancing was done softly, to imitate 
the riding of the gentle lady. Then came a dance 
of much brisker movement, with the words : — 

*< This is the way the gentleman rides, 
Trot awa', trot awa'." 

This was followed by a dance, fast and furious, 
accompanied by these words : — 

** This is the way the cadger rides, 
Creels and a*, creels and a*." 

Another nursery jingle, of the same date and 
locality, involves a narrative and catastrophe, 
f^ven with a brevity and abruptness of a highly 
lyrical character, and also served as an accom- 
paniment to my dance on my nurse's knee. The 
facts which the north-country Pindar means to 
convey by his lyric seem to be as follows: — 
A lady (in the lyric called " The Carltne ") ap- 
pears to have been in too delicate a state to put 
up with the food of the country (presumaoly 
oaten cakes or barley bannocks). The gentleman 
(in the lyric called " The Carl "), with true cour- 
tesy, mounts his horse to fetch from the neigh- 
bouring town (Aberdeen) something more suitable 
to the delicate state of the lady's appetite. It is 
when the gentleman returns, and finds that 
he is too late, that the true lyrical climax is 
reached in the manner in which he gives expres- 
sion to his emotions. The lyric runs thus : — 

" Ride awa* to Aberdeen, 
To buy white [». e, wheaten] bread : 
Bat ere the Carle came again, 
The Carline was dead. 


[4ft S. IV. July 10, '69. 

So he up with his club, 
And gave her on the lug, 
And crie^— * Fie, rise Carline, 
And eat your white bread.* ** 

Your classical readers will remember that, 
when the Greek fleet was windbound at Aulis, 
and Chalcas was at last forced to declare the only 
remedy — sealing the fate of Iphigenia — the poet 
says tne prophet spoke a word, such a word that 
" the two sons of Atreus dashed their sceptres on 
tlie ground." 

Am I wrong or fanciful in seeing an analogy 
between the manner of expression of the emotions 
of the Atreidse and of the Carle ? J. H. C. 


Every one knows how chagrined the poet of the 

'' Pleasures of Hope " was on discovering that his 

striking simile in the couplet — 

*' What though my wingM hours of bliss have been 
Like angel visits, few and fear between,*^ 

had been anticipated by his fellow-countryman in 

bis well-known poem of " The Grave," in one of 

its hits that won t willingly be let die : — 

** Alas ! too well he sped ! the good he scom'd 
Stalked off reluctant, like an Ol-used ghost. 
Not to return ; or if it did, its visits, 
lAke those qfangeis, short and far between,** 

It must be conceded, I think, that the earlier 

"short" is much preferable to the somewhat 

tautological ''few," of the later poet. But has it 

been pointed out anywhere that John Norris of 

Bemerton — ^well-nigh a quarter of a century before 

Blair was bom — ^has ^ven the felicitous simile 

with even nicer felicity P It occurs in bis pathetic 

little " Parting," as follows : — 

''How fading are the joyes we dote upon, 
Like apparitions seen and gone : 
But those which soonest take their flight, 
Are the most exquisite and strong. 
Like anaels* visits, short and bright ; 
Mortality^ too weak to bear them long." 

The idea, like another to be noticed^ immedi- 
ately, seems to have been a favourite one ; for it is 
thus repeated in his ''Lines to the Memory of 
my dear Neece, M. C." : — 

" No wonder such a noble mind 
Her way again to Heaven so soon could find. 
Anaeh, as Uis but seldom they appear. 

So neither do they make long stay, 

They do but visit, and away, 
^Tispainfor them t* endure our too gross sphere. 

We coiud not hope for a reprieve, 
She must dye soon, that made such haste to live.** 

I have a dim remembrance of having seen the 
former noted ; but Mr. Farrar, in his preface to a 
beautiful edition of « The Grave '' (1868, 4to), is 
silent about both \ and as he specially singles out 

Blair's line as '* exqidsite," and in context as 
supremely original, must have been imaware of 
Norris, though referring to Campbell. 

That Norris was the source whence Blair 
fetched the simile there can be no doubt. As I 
would now proceed to show, he has taken other 
of the memorabilia of " The Grave " from the 
same volume of Miscellanies, Few who have 
studied the poem forget the wistful inquiry of 
these Shakesperean lines : — 

" TeU us, ye dead ! will none of you, in pity 
To those you left behind, disclose the secret ? 
Oh ! that some courteous ghost would blab it out ! 
What *tis you are, and we must shortly be." 

Norris has, over and over, the same passionate 
yearning and interrogation, while " ghost " is a 
very frequent word with him ; e,g, in his " Medi- 
tation " you have this : — 

" Some courteous ghost, tell this great secrecy, 
JVhat *tis you are, and we must be. 
You warn us of approaching Death, and why 
May we not know from you what 'tis to dye ? 
But 3'ou, having shot the gulph, delight to see 
Succ^eeding souls plunge in with like uncertainty.'' 

Here thinking and wording precede Blair. 

Again: — 

" Act like a pious courteous ghost. 
And to mankind retrieve what's lost.'* 

Then there are the remarkable, the very re- 
markable poems entitled "The Impatient and 
" Superstition," — than which there are few finer 
things in their immense longing and sorrow and. 
baffled speculation and appeal. But this is not 
all. Here is another firm-lined and often-quoted 
passage in " The Grave " : — 

** Sure ! 'tis a serious thing to die ! My soul, 
What a strange moment must it be, when near 
Thy journey's end, thou hast the gulf in view ! 
That awful gulf no mortal e'er repassed. 
To tell what s doing on the other side ! 
Nature runs back, and shudders at the sight ! " 

Grander, because deeper and simpler, is Norris, 
twice-over, in "The Prospect " and in the already 
cited " Meditation " : — 

" What a slranae moment will that be, 
Mv soul, how fhll of curiosity, 
\^hen wing'd, and ready for thy eternal flight 
On th' utmost edges of thv tattering clay, 

Hovering and wishing longer stay 
Thou shalt advance, ana have Eternity in sight ! 
When just about to try that unknown Sea, 

What a strange moment will that be ! " 

Now from the " Meditation," which with " The 

Impatient " I wish I could find space for in full : 

" When Life's close ^not b}' writ from Destiny 
Disease shall cut or Age nnty; 
When after some delays, some dying strife, 
lite soul stands shivering on the ridge of life : 
With what a dreadful curiosihr 
Does she launch out into the ^ea of vast Eternity.' 

So, too, in his " Wish " :— 

** Death, that amazfaig curiosity." 




There are a number of lesser traces of Blair*8 
reading of Norris; but these may suffice. My copy 
of the Miscellanies is of the ^^ fifth editiooi carefully 
reTisedy corrected, and improved by the authors.'* 
The date is 1710, but that " to the Reader " is 
<* June 1st, 1G78." " The Grave " was first pub- 
lished in 1743, I think. I would add that pro- 
bably Campbell drew his simile of the *^ angel- 
risits " from Norris rather than Blair, seeing that 
the openiuff of the '* Pleasures of Hope " is only 
an ecno of Norris in his " Infidel." Here are 
both. First Campbell : — 

" Why to yon mountain turns the musing eye, 
Whose sunbright summit mingles with the sky ? 
^Vhy do those cliffs of shadowy tint appear 
More sweet than all the landscape smiling near ? 
'TYs distance lends enchantnieHt to the r.'eir, 
And robes the mountain in its azure hue." 

Now Norris : — 

" Thou mystery of fallacies ! 
Distance presents the object fair^ 

With .charming features and a graceful air, 
^ntwhen we come to seize th' inviting prey, 
Like a shy ghost, it vanishes away.*' 

Without indulging in charges of plagiarism, 
where the appropriations may have been " tricks" 
cozening the orain that the treasure was its own, 
not memory's, I feel sure that to all interested in 
our national poetry these details will be accept- 
able. It is a curious study to follow back the 
*' ^smiliar words '' that are on all our lips. Much 
more frequently than is supposed, the consum- 
mate ultimate form has been the outcome of a 
long process and of many workers. 

A. B. Grosabt. 

16, St. Alban's Place, Blackburn, Lancashire. 


The story of the sentry at Windsor Castle hearing 
St Paul s clock strike receives illustration from 
the fact recorded by Francis, who says that he 
often heard the bell of the New Tower at Sara- 
ffoeea, at a distance of twelve miles, striking the 
nour when he was at De la Muela. A mile is 
defined as containing a thousand paces, each, he 
aays, of five feet, and a foot equals fifteen fingers 
in length. 

Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, B.D,, F.S.A. 

Stbax-ships predicted. — Lord Stanhope, in 

1794, writing to Mr. Wilberforce, says : — 

•*I know, and in a few weeks shall prove, that ships 
of any size, and for certain reasons the larger the better, 
may he navigated in anv narrow or other sea without sails 
(thongh occasionally with), hut so as to go without wind, 
and even directly against both wind and waves *^ — Corresp, 
o/ W, Wilberforce, i. 191. 

Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, B.D., F.S.A. 

Cockney Rhyme: Sir Walter Scott. — No 
oae had a greater hatred of what are known as 
^oocknej rhymes" than had Sir Walter Soott 

He is generally believed to be answerable for 

some of the severe and ill-natured criticisms that 

were made on the early productions of Hunt, 

Keats, Webb, and other writers of the ^^cockne^^ 

school " ; and yet we find in Rokehy (canto t. 

stanza 9) one of the cockniest of cockney rhymes-^ 

" Friar Middleton and blithe Sir Balpb, 
That were a jest to make us langh." 

The proper name '' Kalph '' is pronounced three 
different ways. In the South of England the 
pronunciation is as it is spelt. In Yoncshire we 
pronounce the name as ii it were written Raiff 
and in the North we say Itarf^ Now it is evi* 
dent that Scott (a Northerner) adopted the last- 
named pronunciation, and also that ne must have 
pronounced '' laugh " as it is given by the lowett 
and most vulgar cockney's lwrf\ The true pro- 
nunciation is laf, and the word finds a j^roper 
rhyme in daff or in Quaff, as we find it in the 
modem song '' The Monks of Old " and in th^ 
old ^^ Craven Churn Supper Song*' (Ancient PoemSf 
8^c, of the Peasanin/y p. 163). To rhyme Maker 
with Thalia f tLS Keats does, and Apollo with hollow, 
as Hunt does, and mdow with consider, as a popu- 
lar song- writer once did, is bad enough ; but really 
these cockney rhymes are not worse than what 
Scott has perpetrated in the passage quoted from 
Rokehy, Stephen Jackson. 

Temple. — The Swiss Protestants never call 
their places of worship churches. They are always 
called '^ temples." The Catholics say that such 
a name is paganish, but the response (dways given 
is that the '^ church " is the congregation, and not 
the building where they assemble. S, 

Lord Byrox at Banff. — Having observed in 
a late number of " N. k Q." a paragraph relating 
to the early life of Lord Byron, I hope a smafi 
note also relating to his juvenile years will not be 
out of place. There is at present standing in the 
south end of Low Street, the principal street 
of this town, a house of fair average size, which 
is about to be demolished for the piirpose of 
having its site occupied by a new court house just 
about to be erected. In this building, the appear- 
ance of which indicates a respectable age. Lord 
Byron once resided for the space of a year, besides 
having, during numerous fiying visits to Banff, 
taken up his abode there. The house belonged to 
a female relation of Mrs. Byron's, I think her 
grandmother; at all events it was occupied by an 
old dame who was known as " The Lady o' Gicht." 
Moore, in his admirable life of the great poet, 
mentions Banff as one of the places visited by 
him in his boyhood, and there are those yet alive 
in the town who remember having heard their 
relations talk of having seen him. During his 
residence with the old lady before mentioned, he 
did not make himself particularly agreeable to the 
inhabitants, but was, on the other nand, remaik- 



[4*S.IY. Jdly10,'6B. 

ftbly oboozinm to them from a propenntj he boA 
of playing off tricks at their expense, 4c., one of 
hia frolics being that of robbing an old pe«r-tree 
which still ettrnda ia the garden of the old maoBe ; 
so that, an he was styled by the worthy hurghera 
"thatlittledeevilGeordie Byron" made very few 
faToiuites od the ahoies of the Uorar Firth. 

J. P. M. 


CiOAM. — The following eitmcta will afford 
an approiimation to the data at which cigitr- 
smolnng was introduced iato England, which 
seems to he at present a matter of uncertainty ; — 

"In 1787, whilst at Horn pMend, the BBrbauWa received 
a young SpMniard, and hebetd a wonder, becoine in oor 

time only wondeifull; too cominan ' He is quite a 

man of one or tno and twenty, and rathet look* lite a 
Dutchmen than a Spaniard. Did you ever see Mguars — 
tobacco leaf rolled np of Ihe length of one's finger — which 
they light and smoke nithont a pipe P ' " — Howitl's 
Ifo'rihtm HtiphU o/Londim, p. 173. 

" Two-and- twenty rean have this day (December 36, 
1822,) expired since the deceisa of my much-honoured 
father. The henevolent features of Ihe old man were 
■lightly obscured by the incense of a cigiirre, the last 
Tcmoant of a cock-pit education." — Bv CommisslDncr 
Locker in the Ffain£n^j(A nun. 

It is evident, then, that cigar-smoking was 
almost unknown in England at the outbreak of 
the first French Revolution. 


MifiOTTERiTE OP Attstria, daughter of Maii- 

of Savoy, governed the Netherlands. 

HFBiiKKTRCDH once made ioi^iiiry about por- 
traits of this princess. Your fair correspondent 
ia probablv acquainted with one engraved by 
Aubert aft^r L. I.. (Lucas de I,«yde?). There is 
also a full-leugth portrajtof her (the head in pro- 
file) with crown on head by C. Vischer. Under- 
neath is written in English — 

" From Danghler to an Arohdnke I became 

An Emperor's Daughter to King Lewis' aonne. 
I Hrst was promlwd with pampe and fame, 
But my place in his bed another wnn," Ac, 

In the fine church of Bron en Bresse, among 
other tombs of Dukes of Savoy, is hers. She is re- 
presented twiceinarecliningposture: first.inrich 
coatume, and beneath in the simplest garb with 
dishevelled hair and naked feet The legend 
above ia " Fortvoe, infortvne, fortvne," It has 
been engraved by Thumeyssen. P. A. L. 


BeLi.s AKD SPKABS.^Will some reader kindly 
inform me (direct to save time, and through the 
pages of " N. & Q." for the information of others) 
on what authority Lingard made the following 
UMTtion in his narrative of the expedition to 

" When the army moved IVom York, the selection of 

the commanders, the number of the legions and au^iiUary 
cohorts, and the long trains of carriages laden witb pro- 
visions or implements of war, proclaimed the determma- 

the rebellious tribes in the north. The Brtt«ns were'but 
ill provided against so formidable an invasion. Th^ 

posftBSBed no of-— ''- — = " — ■ — — — " " 

Their weapons 
>om the wnist 
lae extremity of which was suspended a 

Rectory, Clyst St. George. 

Camdek's AycESTKY. — T do not know if the 
following communication will be thought worthy 
of a place in " N. & _Q.," but if ao, I shall be glad 
Of it, for it so entirely disagrees with Burie's 
Landed Gentn/ veraion of the Strickland familv, 
that I should like to know which is correct. It 
was given ma by a lady whose graudm other waa a 
Camden, descended from the same family as the 
great historian himaelf, hut who wrote it I am not 
able to any. It is believed to be authentic by the 
family : — 

" Throngh bis mother Agnes Strickland, the daughter 
of ' Sir Tbomas Strickland of Sizergh, and of Edith 
Xerille ofTbonitOD Briggs,' Sir Henrj- Curwen was the 
cousin or Queen Catharine Parr, the la«t wife of Uenrf 
VIII., Queen Mary's ' of Scotts ' aunt bj- marriage. By 
the same maternal descent, Sir Henrr conldclaim aSnitv 
in blood to Harv herself and to Queen Ellzabetb. R^ph 
Neville. Karl of Westmorland, the grandfather (? father) 
of Cecily Duchess of York, having been their common 
ancestor : a family connection which, though unnoticed 
by anv of the historians who record ftlary's brief sojourn 
at Wo'rkington Hall, waa not likely lo have been so by 
her host, who recognised in bis illnstrious guest and 
kinswoman, in the fifth degree of cousinship, the heiresa 
presumptive of the realm; and, in spite of her present 
reverse of fortune, anticipated tlieprobabilih-of herwear- 
ing the threefold garland of the Britannic Empire. 

" It is worthy of notice, that Camden, Ihe great topo- 
graphical historian of Britain, and the amhor of the 
A mvili of Queen Elizabdh, was the nephew of Sir Hwry 

Queen Marr was his nnde's guest at Workington Hall, it 
is therefore possible that he enjnved the opportunity not 
only of he.iTing her teU her own story, but stso of obUlo- 
ing its verification from the lips of the noble Scotch exiles 
who had for«ikeii all la follow her fallen fortunes in a 
land of strangers. Of all contemporary historians, Camden 
boars the moat important testimony in MBri''s favour iu 

says, with Cecil's secret correi<pondence before him, ha 
possessed the kej- to many a political mystery which few 
beside could fathom. Bamet hasendcavoarcd to impugn 
bis veracity by pretending that he wrote thus of Mary in 
Older to flatter her son James L; but Camden was the 
moat truthful and ^ngle-minded historian ofhis age — the 
only one who grounded his statements on documentary 

" His illualrions contemporary Spenser, who, as private 

4*8.1V. Jin.TlO,'69.] 


period, wu a compelcnt witniu, pluses Hie fullowirt' 
W«II-d»emd culogiam on him : — 
"'Camden, ihe nuuriw of aniiciuil)', 

A>d lanllioni luUii eavh wieoeediug age, 

TosM theli^lil uf ample vtrltj-. 

Camdea. ihnu'h time all muviiinents obncnrc, 

Yei lb)- Br>'«t fabuur* over tihall sniJare.' " 

DnDLEY Cabt Elwbb. 

Sootb Bentcil, Di^'noi. 

Geohoc Essleheabi, miniature-painfor, pnic- 
tJMd in thu liist quiuter of the List ceatury 
with greflt repuU', and was mmiature-pitinter to 
George 111. Ilia portraits were mavked by great 
poiver and fine colour, and liu malo porlraits 
especially were full of clinracter. He ia ge- 
□erally wd to linvo died at the end of ibe 
century, but I believe was living in 1812. It 
would be of much inlccaat if aay reader of 
*' N. & Q." could gire more full ioforoialioii of so 
^ood an artiat ; or of the members of his family, 
who were also artista. B, H, 


The BiRoifF.icv of Houb of Resios.— Sir 
JiAut Home of Iteutun was created a baronet in 
160B. 'ITiere were four barouHla in 8u««BMon, 
but the title ia now durmaiil, not eilinct. Who 
is the representative of the boujd ? 

CuABLEa BooEna, LL.D. 
Snowdtmn Villa, Lewuham. S.E. 

Ikish PiKPHLKT (DATE CIBCi 1703). — Mr. 
Lucellee, in his Liier Mwi. Pfib. Ililiemite (pt. v. 
p. 257), Bfter stating that Thomas Kin^ M.A., 
WM inaloUiid in the prebend of Swords, Ftb. 10, 
1703, adds the following : — 

" It appearr', from a paofhlet of thii timt., that ho irn* 
the Air:hbiahDp's (uf Duliiin) nephew, u wo8 likewL* 
hii Biiccewor (Robert DongalC}." 

I ihould be glad of auy information respecting' 
the pamphlet here alluded to, its name, subject, 
&c. The llev. Thomas King was the eisih son 
of Junea King, Esq., of Cormrd and Holn, Fer- 
m.-U)agb. Thero is an account, in The Stale of (Ac 
PrBttttanU of Ireland^ ^c, of hie imprisonment in 
Newgate in 1680 for refusing, "rm unfit for a 
Chiutian, much more for a clergyman," to drink 
caofusioD and damnntion to the Prince of Orange. 
C. S. K. 

^ St. Peter* Square, Hmnmemmilb. 

Juvix, TTIE Dabbrr Pobt. — Has any por- 
tnit been published of M. Jasmin, the popular 
barber poet of Gnscony, who died in 1804 f 

W. E. A. A. 

Did EnuuKD Keait eveq ascend Mont 
Blikc ? — Now that Edmund Kean'a claim to an 
Eton education U effectually disposed of, it may 
not be idle to asli if he ever ascended MootUlimc 
Mr. Hawkins aays he did so about 1818. The 
caUbnted ueeat of M. ^aua.'ture was in 1787, and 
tlut of Anldjo ID 18S7— (I quote both dotes fvom 

memory) — and if Kean preceded Auldjo by so 
many years, surely it must have excited notice at 
the dine. I'ossibly, in moments of e.tcitement, 
be biMUted of a feat he never aecompliahed, aa he 
was known to have asserted that he was present at 
the battle of Waterloo. U. O. N. 

Wenminater Club, 

In Hawkins's Xi/po/'jFrfniHjirfXe'jnfii, 57) we are 
informed that in 1817. while on his Continental 
trip, Kean ascended Mont Blanc, and much en- 
joyed the view from its summit. As in those 
days, and indeed previous to 1830, ascentB of 
Moat Blanc were few and far between, perhaps 
some of your readerd way be able to iuform me 
whether any details of this interestiug ascent 
exist at Chamounix or elsewhere. The sculing of 
the mountain by Dr. Hamil in 1820 and by 
Auldjo in 18^G are duly recorded, and it would 
be A iliousand pltiea if that of Edmund Eenn in 
1817 should be forgotten; certainly the most in- 
teresting since that of Saussure. How the little 
mnu must have electrified his guides ! J. A. II, 


KlDKArPINu. — Some curious cases of child- 
stealing have been reported in the uewspapen 
recently, and I venture to moke the following 
inquiry respectiog an instance of this description 
of crime. In the monthly news department of 
an early number of Bladaooo^g Mayadnc is re- 
ported the trial, at Edinburgh, of a woman for 
child -stealing. The circumhtancea were curious. 
The jiimtul bad lost her employment at a colliery 
south of Ekiinburgh, and stated that ehe had been 
informed that she might get work in Clackman- 
nanshire, and would bo more likely to be em- 
ploved at the coal-pitd there if she took a child 
witlk her. Ou her way thither she picked up aa 
I infant at, I think, Ciiineiy Bank — a hamlet on 
the immediate north-wust of the Scottish capital. 
She was found working at a colliery in the county 
tiamed, and the stolen child in her poiseasion; 
and being brought back to Edinburgh, was thero 
tried, convicted, and sentenced to death. 

Can Mb. G. Vebis Ibvi.vo, or any of your 
northern cortespondouts, inform me whether this 
eentence was carried out ? Thu datu would be 
about 1818 or 1810. Bedingtoh. 

Lawbesce. — Among the records of several 
Lawrences, whoM property was sequestered for 
adhesion to the Ko^al interests, there is among 
the Royal Commission Papers the following : — 

1/39/613, John Lavrence of Llanvrechfa. eoin Moa- 
inouth, 1C49. EilwanlLawranoeof BaBchurcb.corii Salop, 
roinisUr, 1G51. 

a'47,'BUD. UUea Lawrence of Bengiforili, Worcester, 
Gent., eonneeled wltli Gilo !,•, of Yanwortli, and wilt at 
Ana L. alluded to. 

Can any one of yout readers give me a clue to 
their descent and progenitors ? It. G. L. 



[4*h S. IV. July 10, '69. 

Thtert Lawgendyck, — This painter, according 
to Stanley's Bryan, executed some fine designs of 
combats and battle scenes, which are said to have 
been engraved. I should feel obliged if any of 
your readers who are acquainted with the works 
of this artist would inform me whether there 
are any examples in this country, and whether 
they are accessible. 

I should also bo glad to know whether the his- 
torical episode of Prince Rupert and Prince 
Maurice leaving Dover in 164o has ever been 
made the subject of a picture, and whether it has 
been engraved. Sandalixtic. 


Ltjsher.— In the Heralds' Visitations for Surrey 
there occurs a family named Lusher ; the same name 
is also met with in Suffolk and Norfolk. Are the 
two families connected ? What is the etymologv 
of the name P I can find no place from which it 
could be derived; and it can hardly be the name 
of a business. Zetexes. 

Napoleon I. and his Second Mabbiaoe. — On 
the occasion of Napoleon's marriage to Marie 
Louise a great balLwas given to their majesties 
by the Austrian ambassador. A fire broke out in 
the ball-room during the festivities, and several 
were killed^ the hostess herself (Princess Schwart- 
zenbuig) among the number. Paris was next day 
pretty equally divided between three parties : 
those who regarded the disaster as a simple acci- 
dent; those who saw in it a timely intimation 
from Heaven that the old rule still held good 
about those ** whom God hath joined " ; and 
those who believed it to be the work of political 
conspirators. The first theory^ of course^ in the 
absence of evidence, must be assumed to be the 
correct one; the second enjoys the comfortable 
privilege of being equally impervious to disproof 
either with evidence or witnout it, and either 
alone or in company with one or both of its com- 
petitors ; the last seems to me to have the solitary 
out valuable advantage of pnnid facie moh&hUity, 

My query is, Was there any investigation into 
the circumstances of the occurrence, or any arrest 
made ; and, in a word, is the event to be included 
in the long list of attempts on the great emperor's 
life? I am doubtful as to what signincanoe 
ought to be attached to the fact that the occur- 
rence caused much discussion and excitement in 
France, and very little of either in England. 

XV. C. L. 

NuNNBRiB.— There is a farm-house of this 
name on the banks of the Daer, in the parish of 
Crawford, Lanarkshire. In regard to it Mr. Cosmo 
Innes remarks, in the Origine^ Parochiales, i. 166 — 

** There is a place on the east bank of the Daer, oppo- 
site to the monks' lands of the Smethwod, which is 
called Nunnery, but of the origin of that name nothing it 

My own subsequent researches have proved 
equally unsuccessful. 

My attention was forcibly recalled to this fact 
by a passage I stumbled upon the other day in 
tne account of the parish of Hamilton in the New 
Statistical Account of Scotland — ** within half a 
mile of each other we have Quhiteca^np, Castle^ 
hiU, and Covent-bum, although no traces of a 
camp or castle or cotivent are now to be found, nor 
is any tradition of them preserved." 

Our current records contain no notice of a 
monastic establishment on either site. 

Can any reader explain how these places came 
to receive ecclesiastical names when no religious 
foundation appears ever to have existed at eitner P 

George Verb Irving. 

William Rawson op Bradford. — In Burke'a 
History of the Commoners, 1836 (ii. 47), it is stated • 
that William Rawson of Bradford, whose will 
bears date March 18, 1549, had five sons; and 
that the first of these married, '^ as is stated in 
the Visitation of Yorkshire, 1666, Agnes, daughter 
and heiress of William Gascoyne, Esq." The 
Heralds' Visitation meant must be that taken by 
Dugdale in 1665 and 1666, which was published 
by the Surtees Society in 1860. In this work the 
pedigree of Rawson of Shipley occurs at p. 258 ; 
but there " William Rawson of Shipley, in Com. 
Ebor." appears with the sign of marriage after his 
name, but neither the Christian nor surname 'of 
his wife is given. I am anxious to know who 
this person did marry, when he died, and whether 
there is any proof that Agnes Rawson, widow^ 
who was living at Sherbum in that county in or 
about 1603-1605, was his widow. 

Edward Peacooe. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

Sanderson's Lincolnshire Collections. — In 

the third part of Catahgi Librorum Manuscript 

torum Anglia et HibemicBj Oxoniae, 1697 (pp. 

389, 390), is a list of MSS. belonging to Peter le 

Neve. Among these was — 

*' A large folio MS. written by Sir WilUam Hayward^ 
Knt. . . . being mostly a copy or extracts out of Bishop 
Sanderson's collections relating to the county of Lin- 
coln . . . ." 

I am very anxious to know where this book is 
at the present time. Edward Peacock. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

Family of Sir Walter Scott. — There is an 
admirablv prepared genealogical chart of the 
family of the great Scottish reformer, John Knox^ 
published by Menzies of Edinburgh. '^ The An- 
cestors, Descendants, and Collateral Relatives of 
Robert Bums,'' have been most carefully en- 
teretl in an elaborate ^nealogical chart, prepared 
by Mr. Robert Duthie of Stonehaven, and ap- 
pended to Mr. James Ballantine's Chronicle of tne 
Hundredth Birthday of the Scottish Bard (A. 




FuUartoD & Co., 1659). Could anj readers 
of " N. & Q," aupply particuldrs to aid in pie- 
poting a genealogical cliart of the aiiceatora 
and coUnteral relatLnDs of Sir Walter Scott .° 
Tlia oaljr tiring' deacendant of the author of 
Waveriei/ ia his great-^auddaughter, Mitrf-MonicB 
tlope Scott. Charlbs Booebs, LL.D. 

SoDwdona Villa, Lewisliam, S.E. 
A Slift of Beep. — In the recent election peti- 
tion inquiry at Norwich on May 20, Sir E. 
Lacon's coo"!! teatified to having cooked "ft sitloiu 
of beef, loaat ribs of beef, and a boiled slift of 
beef" ; and a butcher at Orntesby stated that he 
bad supplied the airlola "and a elift of beef." 
This is probably a local term, but I wish to know 
nliat port is " the slift." Ccthjjeet Bede. 

vSunictf totti] 'SinHcatti. 
Crrr op Lokdos SwoHDHEAftiiiw. — I have 
oeTer been able to lind in print or MS. any list of 
the Swordbearers to the Lord Mayor of London. 
The notes subjoined are offered as a contribution 
towuds forming such a list, in the hope that youv 
correspondents may complete the series: — 
3570, D«. a. " Mr. Eobt. Smart, Sworfbcnrer of London," 

wu buiieJ nt St. Giles', CripDleeate.--i'iir. Hcgiitrr. 
1663-8, March a. Mr. MetUwoltl [llecCiiu Wm. Mctb- 

wdd, Es|., o( Unla Hoas^ Kensingtoa ] , some time 

Swotdbeurcr, iliea.—Siny til's Ofiiiimrj. 
IMS, D«!. 10. Sir. Wm. GonlliDrp, onw Swordbearer lo 

the Lord Msyor, died ia Moorfielita Idrm. 

16S9, Oct. 20. Wm. Miui, Esq., was admitted Sworl- 

bearer, and cootinaed in office until bia death in I70.'>. 
1706, April 30. U'm. Man, Es-u Sirordbeuri^r, died.— 

Shu. /lunrofion in GidldkaU Chapitl. 
I7il,Kov. II. Mr.Collier,theCity Swordbearer, died.— 

BuL tUgiittr. 
1731, Nor. 26. Mr. Barton, the Common Hunt, waa ad- 

■nittad Swordbcsrer to the Lord Mayor.— Idtia. 
17S6, Dec 21. John Barton, Ein., Swordbcurer, died.— 

1726-6, Jan. 1, Isaac Mnn, Esq., was admitted Sword- 
bearer. — Idan. 
t7!>. May 9. IsnacMaa, Esq., Swordbcarer, died.— -/ifan. 
1727, May 13. Tlios. Carbouall, Jiin., Esq., was admitted 

Sword bearer.- Idem. 
1818, Ang. 25. lu Broad Street, nged eeventy, VVni. Cot- 

lerell, Esq., Swordbearer (o the City of London, lie 

held the o&ee upwards of forty years, and gave 70D0(, 

for it. By Lis death it reverts to theUDrparatltm,irbD, 

it is said, intend bealovring it gratuitauslv in future. 

The profiu are upwards of lOtiOrper aa.— ilinl.'i Mag. 


[John Peverick was appointed tu the office of Swoidbearer 
by the Conrt of Aldermen July <!, Ii26. Tho house 
over the gate of Guihlhall given him for ids reaidencr, 
Feb. 20, 1427. 

ZUchara Power elected lo the office May 18, 1442, and 
■worn to faithfully execute the same Jul; 28 fallowing. 
The hoiue otct the Inner gate of the Gnildhall given 

John Wcltusborue admitted to the office June 7, 1464. 
He waa succeeded by John Morley, Sept. 20, 1465; 
upon whose resignation John Melford was elected, 
Sept. 17, UG7. 

Valentine Mason elected Swordbenier, /oro Pyuchlfeck 
deceased, Nov. 7, 1503. 

Kicbard Berwyk sworn faithfully lo perform hhi office 
May 27, 1622. On account of bis great age and in- 
\ granted lo bin), by the Mayor 
bis bonnet on bis head. Oct. 9. 

Walter Smith a<lmitted to tlie office, loco Beiwyk, at th* 
prayer of Sir Thomas More, May 10, 1528. 

James Arnold admitted January 7, 1538. 

Robert Smsrte sworn to faitbrully execnts the oSca 
before the Court of Aldermen, Febroary 12, 1G88 ; and 
on the 91h July, they gave him the Ankers House, by 
the church of AUhallows-in-the-Wall, lo reside in. 

"1370, Jan. 9, This day Nicholas Willys, AVater-baily 
of this Cytie, dyd fully surrender into the hands of 
the Court of Aldermen the reveriion of the aSce of 
Swordberer, which was granted lo him by this Court 
to enjoye the same uext after the death of Bobert 
Suurto, then Swordbcarer." 

Matthew Stardyvant admitted and sworn, Jan. 9, 1570 ; 
and on the lOlh of September, 15S3, they gave tdm 
fourpence a-day for life. Upon his decease 

Rowland Smart was eloclcd July 8, 1591. 

Waller Leigh eleetod, taco Smart, May 4, 1610. Ho was 
Bucceedeil by 

Humphrey Leigli, June 7, IQOl. He held the offioe oT 
Serjeant-at-Arms to hb Majesty Charles L, and great 
complaint was made because he did the duties by da- 
puty (Mr. WiUiara Methall), who.* nos succeeded by 
(William HaU), Feb. 26, IG32. 

Walter Fnst elected May 16, 1643, in the room of Hnm- 
phrey Lee, Ifeijeaat-at-Mace to tho King, who was 
discharged for not attending personally to bis olBos, 
The dwelling-house aver Atdgate to live in. 

William Gunthorpe admitted to the ulGce, hat Frost, 
January 20, 1645; sad permission was given him (o 
reaidB over the Aldgate, providing be hung out a lant- 
home and candle-light every dirk evening during 
the lime he resided there- A present of 200/. was 
given him for his services a few yflarj subsequently. 
Robert Russell admitted to the office Oct, 6, 1G57. 
John Tophom sworn January 19, 1657-3. 
Wiiliani Mann admitted, /oca Topbam, Oct. 20, 166S ; 
and on the 6 lb July. 1G60, he was suspended by the 
Court of Aldermen from his offii-o for marrying the 
daughter of Sir William Peakc, alderman, witboot bis 
consent The tears of the daughter seemed, bowoi'STi 
to have the effect of cooling the anger of that citiien; 
for, by the 2Ulh July, he was restored agam to offlse 
on the intcrcesaion of Sir W, I'eake. 

Wui. Cotlerell, Esq., Swordbearer, who pnrcboied the 
office of Heron Powney for 10,300(., presented a peti- 
tion to the Common Cuuneil on the 20th October, 1802, 
upon the proposed dimbintion of his fees. Thiaira* 
referred to a Committee to consider the same, wiio 


[** a IV. Jolt 10, '69, 

reported ttut tbn ofGccr was cii(iUe<l to compenMtion 
for the lou bo lind lualaineil. 
At a meeting of IIib Common Coundl, Sept, 2*. ISIB, 
the Lord Mayor ruporled a vflqaocv In [lie ofliee of 
Svordbearsr liy the decease of Wlltiam Cottcrtll : 
reaolved that a Coniinitteo be appointed to consider 
the datiea of the dIHcb and the emalumeuta { made 
Iheir report Jan. ^S, ]8I9; Tecomniendcd lh« the 
office ahoold in folarc not be hy piirchoie. but by elec- 

Thomas Smilh, fumierly Caiihier to the Chamber of Lon- 
don, Bieetod by the Common Council June 11. 1819. 
He retired from the office upon a penidou granted to 
bim Dec. 6, 1832. 
Chnrlea William Hick;, of Gl, Chmpide, formorlr mem- 
ber of the Common Council for the Ward of Cord- 
wainer elected to the office of Swordbearer Dec 30, 
1882. lie died at Brixtou, aged niuety-fuur, ^'ov- '20, 
Heni7 Witlinm Scir«l), the preient officer, elected May 3, 

The Swordhcnror is elected by the Common Council. He 
is admitted and sworn before the Court of Aldermen. 
The offlcGT is not now njipointcd h^ purchiue. It in 
Midwithin the last twentj- years, when tlioofflM miaht 
be alienated by the hohler, 8,000/. or lO.OUOf. baa 
been offered for it.— Report froa tht CommiaionurM 
on JUunicipal OorpoTaUonn, Laadon end SoailiMta-t, 
pp. 67,118.) 

The ancient duties ofthb officer, who a not only nn 
attendant on Die Lord Mayor alimad bk bearer ol the 
tirord, but within doors gorerus the officers in tlie 
family of the Mayor (over whom he bath a great com- 
mand and authority to order and impriain tlicm for mia- 
behavionror neglect of daty), and arranges mattera for 
the Btate and honour of the Laid Mni'or and of tbeCily. 
Oar readers are Indi^bted for these interesting par- 
ticulars of the Swordbearcra t" the active rcKarchca of 
Mr. W. n. Overall, F.S.A., (he Curator of the Guildhall 
Library; a library which we hope will iti time take 
iuch rank among the local repositories of learning in 
Europe 09 becomes the Library uf the City ufLondun.] 

feelings consequent on the said editorial nola ii 
the ls£t number f " Easter Day in 1307 fell on 
April 18." How ia it, tbdt however carefully I 
tty the recipe in the Prajer-boolf, it persiata in 
falling on Marcli 28 P There is no apparent limit- 
ation of time in the calrulalion of the Golden 
Number, while we do find something about "the 
neitceiittiry, tbdt i>, from the year 1800 to 1800," 
concerning the Sunday Letter. Tlte klter, Lelta' 
Calendar tella me, was C ; wid lUo Golden Num- 
ber, According to my small powers of arithmetic, 
should hfiro been nineteen. Wbat was " the 
present time" in the Prayer-book htbleeP and how 

am I to discover the principle underlying tha 
depths of the backward ealculutione ? I laboured 
under the pleasing delu3ii')n that 1 had discoyerBiJ 
it, but tbe editorial note has apparently shown it 
to be the " baseless fabric of a viaion." Pleiue 
teli me how to calculate Easter (without any 
algebra) before "the present time" ! 

{We might have qnoted nljo as our authority for 
Kaalcr Da) in 1367 fatting on the 18th April, that most 
useful hook bv llr. Ilond. the l/aidi/ Baal, aflhila and 
Tabtf far viifyiag Data «f IIMoriad Eoend, ic ; 
where wo learn from Ilia clinpter— " Easter Day, with 
Tables for flading the Dale for both Style*, Old and New " 
(pp.SGitnf.)— that C, being the Sonday Letter for H67r 
and nineteen the Golden Numbtr, Easter Day feli on (he 
18th April.] DS Ltb.*. — Biographical dictionaries 
generally begin their laconic tketoh of this cele- 
brity witb — " So called from tho place of hia birth, 
Lyre, in Normnndy." Is there, or waa there, 
such a place iu Normaailyf Geohob Piqot. 

fLyre, whence tlio Frani^iscan ommentotor darived 
his surname. Is n small <anrn in tlie diuccsa uf Kt-ieux, 
in Xonnandy — the siippoaed plac; of his birth in the 
Ihlrleenth century.] 

(4" S, iii. 502.) 

I fear that no good reason can ho found for 
attributing Caxt9n's first edition of the Chen* 
Book to the year 1474. The date appears oa a 
part of, and at the end of tbe text, and pltdnly 
refers to the Iranslntioa fmm French into liln^sh, 
and not to the printing. *Besides which, if I am 
not niislaken, the commencement of the year in 
the Low Coutitrios was nt that time reckoned 
from Easter-day, which in 1474 fell upon April 
10, so that we uiust take Unrch 31, 1475, as the 
true date of the translation. The work was cer- 
tainly not printed in Ivugland, and was executed 
niostprohaoly in the workshop of Col.ird Mansion, 
over tliQ porch of the church (if ^.Bonatusat Uniges. 
Now we know that Cnxton was at work in 1477, 
just outside Westiiiin.'liT Abbey, and probably 
settled there in 1476. From tbehednta we cannot 
be far wrong in afagninjr tliu Rrst edition of the 
Chen Book to the end of 147^ or the bcnuning of 

The work itself, eapecially when the first two 
leaves containing tbe dedicBtiou are not wanlbg, 
is as interesting as it is rare ; and the only reasons 
I can imagine why bibliophUes and even (he trade 
have always treated it as comparatively of little 

'» 8. IV. jDLt 10, 'eg,] 


Tftlue ia the miMiiaiiitj of bnth date and racp. 
nnd the absence of those curious woodcuts tchicli 
give such an old-world charm to the second edi- 
tion. It is a fact worth noting that no book of 
Caxtoa's has duriii? the pitat century undergoui; 


Here ia a. specimen of veTsification wherein 
pion, aa D'Israeli rcruarkB, was flattered tl 

64/. fSi j 1810, White Knights, 421. ; 1820, Inglis. 
3U lOi. ; 1837, Sir II. Mamwaring, a perfect antl 
splendid copj in the original binding, 101/. ; in 
1866, Lord Audley, 60/. lOa. Mr. Quaritch's, prici- 
400/. for a copy more imperfect than that of Lord 
Audley, ia magnificent, nnd as the greater the cost 
the more care, presumably, will be bestowed oa 
its preservation. I liope it may find a purchaser. 
I am sure Mr, Piqqoi, Jim., will excuse mc 
drawing hie attention to tlie fact, that in my Life, 
&c., which ho does me the honour of quoting, I 
have described ten copies (vol. ii. p. 2o6), Uiat 
now on sale making eleven. In the same volume 
be will find (p. 31) that the Proposilio Jukanmn 
RtiaeU has f . . - - . 

liis writing would impart 
wretched compositions : — 

" No sweeter forca the orator bestows, 
When from hia lipatbe graceful period flows. 
Than worda receive wben by tby matchleas art. 
Charming the ej-e, Ihey alide into the beart; 
Wben double strength'at tracts both ear sod sight. 
And anj Imn proct phasing ahm you writt." 
Xot BO complimentary is Maasey in hia notice 
of another author's production, entitled Art'i 
Master-Piece, or the Pen' " " " 

mer. Of this he says, " 
' deserves that pompous title." 

1 worth a gape ao large produce ? 

fl G/oi'i/, by James Sea- 


,'lling I 

sidered " unique. 

9 lost its title to being C' 



(i'-'- S. iii. 458, 503.) 
W, P. will find much interesting informntion 
respecting early penmen and their works, in- 
cluding most of the authors whose names ho 
mentions, in it work hy W. JIassey, published ia 
1703, entitled The Ont/in and Progtyss of LeUers, 
the second part of which, comprising 175 pages, 
consists of 

"A oompendloua Account of the most celtbratiHl Eng. 
lish Penmen, with the Titica and Cbnr.ictera of tlic Itoak^ 
titej have published bolh from the Hulling and Letter 
Pi«M, — a new Species of Biography never altempled be- 
fore in Englbh." 

There is a somewhat extended notice of Mas- 
sey's work in D'Israeli's Curioiiiies of Litei-atiirc, 
under the heading " The History of Writing- 
Masters," chiefly criliciainj.' the pretensions of the 
craft to be considered artists, and their extra- 
ordinary flattery, jealousy, nnd rivalry of one 

"Never," «aj-a D'lataeli, " has Ihera betii * race of 
prafeasors in anv art, who liavc exceeded in solemnity 
and pretensions' Ibe pruutitioiicri in this sinple me- 
cbanical craft. Artists in vene and colonrJ, poets and 
peintOB, have not raised iofrierprelensionj to tlie adiiii- 
ratian of mankind. W'riting-maaiera, or culIiKraplictJ, 
have had their engraved 'elligies,' with a Fan-.c in 
flourishes, a pen in one hand, and a trumpet in the 

John Seddon, according to Massey, appears to 
have exceeded all Enpilish penmen in fruitfu)ne8» 
of fancy and surprising invention in the orna- 
mental parts of his writing. His Penman's Para~ 
dise was published in 1005, and " like a delightful 
flowry garden ho designed it." Here is his epi- 
taph by a brother of the quill : — 

** I*rincea by birth, and politic^ bear away. 

But here lies one of more command than they ; 

For they by eteadj councils rule a land. 

But this l»'he, coulil men, birds, Ixasts commatKl, 

Ev'n by the gentle motion ofbishand. 

Then penmen weep, your mighty loss deplore, 

Since the great Seddon can command no more." 

Of a more practical character was Charles Snell, 
who utterly rejected ornamental penmanship : — 

"How justly bold in SncU'B improving bond. 
The pen at once joins freedom with command I 
With (oftfiess strune. with ornament" not v»in. 

Not BwelI'd, 
And artful n 

not full, complete in every part, 
loat when not affecting art'' 

8 ins. 

[ their i 

written! They have 

■The nimbly turning of their ailver qnill ' 
to th« beastiTul in art and the snblime in invention ; nor 
ii this wonderful, since they discover the art of writing, 
lika the Invention of language, in a divine original ; and 

Among other celebrated worthies "who have 
made a shining figure in the commonweal of 
English calligraphy" was George Shelley, who in 
17(re published Iiia I^aiural Writing, which he- 
dedicated to the Oovemor and the Directora of 
the Bank of EoglanJ; wherein he tells them 
'' that the greatest mnsteis of his profeasion had 
iillowed it to be the best piece of penmanship yet 
]iubliahed." T!iis wits too much for Snell ftnd 
iithera, who indulged in satirical comments upon 
Shelley, finding great fault with " pencilled knots 
iind spngged letters," as not to be admitted aa 
liny part of useful penmanship. These reflections 
Treated ill-blood, and even open difference amongst 
pffveral of the superiov artista in writing of those 
times. Other cooteations followed about SSon- 
tlard Rttles which Snell published, pretending 
to have demonstrated Uiem, aa BucUd wot^, «a 
guides in writing. 



L4»»»S.iy. JuLYlO,'69. 

** Thia anarrel about standard rules/* says Massej, " ran 
80 hieh Detween them, that they could scarce forbear 
scurruous language therein, and a treatment of each other 
unbecoming gentlemen. Both sides in this dispute had 
their abettors ; and to say which had the most truth and 
reason, non nostrum est tantas componere iites; perhaps 
both parties might be too fond of their own schemes. 
They should have left their schemes to people to choose 
which they liked best. Who now-a-da3's take those 
standard niles, either one or the other, for their guide in 
writing ? " 

I shall be glad to lend Massey's curious work 
to W. P., should he not meet with it in the libra- 
ries. George Withers. 

91, Falkner Street, Liverpool. 


(4«> S. iii. 597.) 

The phrase, " to take in snuff " = " to take in 
dudgeon,'* is of common occurrence in the seven- 
teenth century and earlier, Shakespeare quibbles 
on the word, mostly in allusion to the snuff of a 
candle, which is a favourite simile of his. Thus 
in Midsummer Nighfs Iheam, v. 1 : — 

•* Theseus The man should be put into the lan- 
tern .... 

** Demetrius. lie dares not come there for the candle : 
for you see it is already in snuff." 

Again, in Loves Labour'' s Lostj v. 2 — 

" Rosaline. We need more light to find your meaning 

**Katherine. You'll mar the light, by taking it in 


Agam, in AU's Well that Ends Well, i. 2— 

"....* Let me not live,' quoth he, 
< After my flame lacks oil, to be the snuff 
Of younger spirits.' " 

In this last passage the allusion seems partially 
to the malodour of the dying wick. 

In the next quotation at all events the quibble 
is directly with the nose (Henri/ IV. Part I, i. 3) — 

<* And 'twixt his finger and his thumb he held 
A pouncet-box, which ever and anon 
He gave his nose, and took't away again ; 
Who, therewith angrj', when it next came there, 
Took it in snuff." 

In the notes to this passage (Variorum Shalce- 

ftpeare) a quotation is given from The Fleire, a 

comedy by E. Sharpham, 1610 — 

" Nay, be not angry ; I do not toucli thy nose, to the 
end it should take anj- thing in snuff." 

In The City Niyht-Cap, 1624 (Dodsley's Old 

PlaySj xi. 319), we have an enlargement of the 

phrase — 

** Cloicn. Now to our mask's name : but first be it 
When 1 name a city, I only mean Verona. 
These two lines are extempore, I protest Sir ; I brought 
them in, because here are some of other cities in the room 
that might snuff pepper else " ; 

and in a note, quoted from Tarlton's Newea ofd of 

Purgatory, " tooke straight pepper in the nose " « 
" took sudden offence." 

In Decker's Satiro-Mastix, 1602 (Hawkins's 
English Drama, iii. 110), one might almost claim 
a reference to the snuff of tobacco; but the passage 
is somewhat obscure ; — 

" Asinius Demetrius Fannius, will you take a 

whiff this morning ? I have tickling gear now ; here*8 
that will play with your nose, and a pipe of my own 
scouring too.' 

" Demetrius. Ay, and a hogshead too of your own ; but 
that will never be scour'd clean, I fear. 

" Jsinius. 1 burn'd my pipe yesternight, and 'twas 
never us'd since: if you will, 'tis at your service, gallants, 
and tobacco too ; 'tis right pudding, I can tell you : a 
lady or two took a pipe f\i\l or two at my hands, and 
praised it for the heavens : — Shall I fill, Fannius ? 

" Demetrius. I thank you, good Asinius, for your love, 
I seldom take that physick ; 'tis enongh 
Having so much fool, to take him in snuff." 

Whatever was the date of thp introduction of 
tobacco-snuff, it seems clear that medicated snuffs 
were used at an early period (see Charles Knight 
on the Henry IV. passage). Doubtless the nose- 
powder took its name from the act of snuffing up 
by which it is inhaled. And it seems almost as 
certain that "snufF" = ** dudgeon " (e. g. *' in 
snuffs and packings of the dukes," King Lear, iii. 
1), comes from the sniffing, the expansion of the 
nostrils, which is a sign of sudden passion. 

The connection which seemingly exists between 
the snuffing of a candle and the blowing of the 
nose is more puzzling. In Promptorium ParvU' 
lorum we have — 

** Snytyn' a nese or a candyl. Emungo, mungo. 

" Snytyngey of a nose or candyl. Munctura^ Cath. 

" SnytungCf of a candel (snytele, s.sny tinge instrument, 
K. P.) Munctorium, emunctorium. Cath. 

" Snuffe of a candel, s. Muco.** 

Can the connection arise from the like action 
of finger with thumb in both cases, before snuffers 
and pocket-handkerchiefs were invented ? 

But not only in Teutonic languages do we find 
this connection. The Latin emtmgo has the double 
meaning, and so the French moucher, &c. 

Another slang phrase, " up to snuff,'* is curiously 
suggestive of Horace's "homo emvmctix) naris, 
and of the uses of 7iasiis and nastttus. (Apropos, 
quoth Holofemes, in Lovers Lahour^s Lost, ''.... 
and wh^ indeed, Naso ; but for smelling out the 
odoriferous flowers of the fancy, the jerks of in- 
vention?") Has "snuff" in this case anything 
to do with the A.-S. snytro, moier, and Mceso- 
Gothic snulro '* ? John Addis, ^I.A. 

This saying is common enough, but has no con- 
nection with " powdered tobacco." Taken as 
= "to turn up the nose," it is of very ancient 
date, and is thus, as to its meanings, glossed by 
Quintilian (lib. ii. cap. 3), '^ Naiibus quidem do- 

4*kS.IV. JULT10,'6J).] 



Tiaus, contemptus, fastldiuni significarl solef 
£Teii in Theocritus it occurs, Idt/l, i. 18 — 

Km ol aci dpififia xoA& norl {tivl Kd^tirai, 

In Persius {SeU, i. 118) we find — 

•* Callidas excosso popuium suspendere naso." 

In Horace {Sat, i. vi. 5) — 

** Ut plerique solent, naso suspeaills aduuco 

In Martial {Fp, lib. xiii. 2)— 

*'Xasatii3 sis usque licfet, sis denique uasus." 

In our version of the Prophet Mnlacbi we have 
(chap. i. 13) — 

''Ye have s^d also, Behold what a weariness is it! 
And ye have snuffed at it, saith the Lord of Uosts." 

The act of drawing up the nostrils in sniffing 
or snuffing^ as expressive of disgust, contempt, 
acorn, or ridicule, naturally produces wrinkles on 
the nose ; and this, no doubt, from being so com- 
mon a way of exhibiting these feelings, first sug- 
gested the idea and gained for it such acceptance, 
that even by Plautus it is spoken of as ** vetus- 
tum adagium." Ldmund Tew, M.A. 

(4«» S. iii. 580.) 

In a recent number of " N. k Q." I find the 
following : — " Last January was unusually warm, 
when an old villager said, * Ah I a warm Jaimary, 
a cold May.' This was verified. Is it a common 
aaying? " 

In answer to Upthorpe, I am in position to 
say that this axiom is not a *' common saying," or 
weather proverb that I have yet met with, al- 
though for many yeai-s eagerly investigating this 
branch of folk-lore, and generally finding it more 
or leas based on facts established by science. 

From the investigation of meteorological regis- 
ters, there appears to be no connection whatever 
between the weather of January and May. In 
general the first fortnight of May, like the first 
fortnight of November, is characterised by the 
prevalence of polar or cold winds, respecting the 
cause of which it would be out of place here to 
enlarge; but, aa a record of fact, I state what 
follows. Luke Howard, the father of British 
meteorology, gives the mean temperature of 
January as about 3634°, and that of May of 65-40°. 
More modem meteorologists difl*er slightly in the 
estimate, but this happens to be beside the ques- 
tion, namely, the opposition between the tem- 
perature of January and that of May, In his 
Oimaie of London — a treasury of meteorological 
knowledge — Luke Howard states that in a period 
of ten years January was warmest in 1 812. Now, 
according to his Meteorological Tables, the May 
following this January was warm or genial, al- 
iboDgh zainy, the mean temperature being slightly 

above the average (55*46°). The January of 
1814, on the contrary, was the coldest of a period 
of ten years, and the temperature of the following 
May was also coldest, being 51*39°. ConsequenHy^ 
this weather proverb is not supported by facts, 
and cannot, I think, be admitted among the 
many venerable axioms handed down to us from 
the times of Aratus, and long before him, per- 
haps more useful than all our scientific know- 
ledge, in the prognostication of seasons and daily 
weather. For, indeed, it is pitiful that, after the 
lapse of so many thousand years, astronomers and 
meteorologists are still unable, with all their pro- 
digious knowledge of cosmical cause and effect, to 
predict the weather, not only from season to 
season, but even from day to day. 

The temperature of last May was more remark- 
able for its frequent alternations than its low de- 
gree— the plus and minus of average following 
each other throughout the month, thus giving the 
impression of absolute coldness above the average, 
greater than turns out to have been the fact. 
There were eleven days of temperature above the 
average, and twenty days below the average ; but 
as a general result, the mean temperature of the 
month was only 2*5° below the average. There 
was also the invariable refrigeration universally 
remarked in May about the 13th of the month, in 
accordance with a popular weather proverb. 
Among these popular aaages consecrating certain 
dates of the year to particular weather, there are 
the Saints de Glace ('• icy saints ") : — 

*' Saint Mamert, Saint Pancrace 
Et Saint Servais — 
Sans froid ces saints de glace 
Xe vont jamais." 

Such is the agricultural proverb which an- 
nounces for the 11th, 12th, and 13th of May — 
the anniversaries of these saints — a notable refri- 
geration in the mean temperature at that period. 
This has been confirmed by modem meteorolo- 
gical researches, in connection with astronomical 
causes. Professor Erm an, of Berlin, writing to 
the celebrated French astronomer Arago, in 1840, 
gave the following opinion ; — 

" The two swarms or currents of planetary bodies 
(meteors, shooting stars, &c. ), which the earth meets on 
the ecliptic, respectively about the 10th of August and 
about the 13th of November, annually interpose them- 
selves between her and the sun, — the first during the days 
comprised between the 5th and the 11th of February, the 
second from the 10th to the 13th of May. Each of these 
conjunctions causes annually, at these periods, a very 
notable extinction of the calorific rays of the sun, and 
thereby lowers the temperature at all the points of the 
earth*s surface." 

Finally, I may observe that a cold and windy 
May has always been considered a good prospect 
for the harvest, according to the proverb : — 

" A cold May and windy 
Makes a full bam and findy." 



[4tfc S. IV. July 10, '69. 

There are, indeed, very few of these weather 
adages which do not turn out to be sufficiently 
correct for general guidance, or are not supported 
by strict meteorological science. A. S. 


(4»»' S. iii. 463, 565.) 

I am preparing some short biographical notes 
and facts relating to this clever draughtsman and 
amiable gentleman, which I intend to forward to 
J%e Register and Magazine of Biography for pos- 
sible use. The " Memoir of William Bewick ** 
in the Gentleman's Magazine (ant^^ 665) is un- 
known to me. S. H., who was kind enough to 
take an interest in my note (vide 463), is quite 
right in remembering that The Athenceum^ in 
announcing the death of Mr. Bewick, has misstated 
that he was the son of Thomas Bewick, the cele- 
brated wood-engraver. The announcement, how- 
ever, is interesting enough to find a permanent 
place in " N. & Q." It runs as follows: — 

"The obituary of this week announces the death, on 
the 8th iust., of William Bewick, sou of the famous 
draughtsman and engraver on wood, a pupil of Haydon, 
whom many students remember as wearing a large* mass 
of ringlets, and being of singularly handsome appearance 
in his way. He Avas the model for the head of Lazarus, 
ia the picture by his master Ilaydon, who frequentl}' 
mentioned him in his Diary, vol. ii. p. 34. He frequentl}- 
made his appearance at the British Institution when the 
cartoons were there. See Diary , vol. iii. pp. 151-152. Mr. 
Bewick was seventy years at the time of his dvath." — 
(Vide The Athenceum, June 23, 1866 ; p. 840.) 

My stray notes will chiefly have to do with 
Mr. Bewick's relations to Goethe and Sir Walter 
Scott. In calling him here a clever draughtsman, 
I have not forgotten that William Bewick was a 
painter of rare talent and perfect handling of his 
art. A private communication, for which I feel 
greatly indebted, says that he rose so rapidly in 
his profession that Sir Thomas Lawrence, at that 
time president of the Royal Academy, selected 
him, in 1826, for the purpose of sending him to 
Rome, to copy the frescoes of the Prophets and 
Sibyls in the Sixtine Chapel. These works of 
Michael Angelo are, as wul be remembered, of 
colossal size, and are especially remarkable for the 
accuracy of their anatomical details. It was there- 
fore necessary for their copyist to be a man of the 
highest skill. They were all to be copied upon 
paper, and then transferred to canvas. Speaking 
then of Mr. Bewick as a draughtsman, I have just 
been thinking of the most exquisite portraits he 
drew, in chalk or pencil, of most of his great or 
celebrated contemporaries with whom he came in 
conUkct in England and in Italy, and also of the 
glorious cartoons he drew, when quite a young 
man, from the Elgin marbles, and which attracted 
the notice of Haydon and Sir Benjamin West. 

His portraits comprise some of the most interest- 
ing physiognomies of our time— Sir Walter Scott, 
Haydon, '' Reine Hortense," Ugo Foscolo, Louis 
Napoleon (as a young man at Rome\ Lady 
Morgan, Hazlitt, &c., &c. They would, like the 
collection of portraits of the renowned German 
painter Carl Vogel von Vo^elstein (born 1788, 
died 1867\ scarcely find their equal if both were 
multipliea by the burin, if we except the collec- 
tion of the Florentine Gallery and A. Van Dyck's 
"Icones virorum doctorum, pictorum," &c. I 
borrow this remark from Dr. Nagler's excellent 
Monogrammisten (vol. ii. 1860, p. 293, art 764), 
with regard to Vogel von Vogelstein*s collection 
of the portraits of artists drawn from life by Vogel 
himself, or by several of his most celebrated con- 
temporary confrh-es of the brush and pencil. 

Hermank ILindt. 


(4»»» S. iii. 575.) 

There are several important errors in the note by 
by Dr. Rogers on this dormant peerage. The ori- 
ginal patent to General Leslie (dated, by the way, 
on August 31, 1661, not 1660,) was limited to lieirs 
male of the patentee's body. And the alleged re- 
grant, or novo damtiSf whereby, as the Doctor says, 
**the title became inheritable by heirs male or 
female," was, according to Mr. Riddell {Peerage 
Law, p. 779) — 

" apparently a fabrication, and found to be untenable, 
labouring under remarkable flaws and objections ; among 
others, its date on a Sunday," Sec. 

While, so far from the House of Lords finding 
this same novo damus " a perfectly valid instru- 
ment," as alleged by the Doctor, the Lords' journals 
of date June 0, 1793, will be found to bear, that 
the claim under it of John (not William) Leslie, 
or Anstruther, to sit and vote as Baron Newark 
was rejected! A claim by an heir female had 
previously been objected to in 1771. It would 
thus appear that Dr. Rogers has been supplied 
with erroneous information on this dignity, pos- 
sibly from some family quarter. 

A Nemesis seems to attend these fictitious 
regrants of peerages to heirs general, so con- 
venient a basis for concocting claims by heirs 
female. In the well-known Stirling case the 
claimant, a Mr. Humphreys, produced a regrant 
by Charles L, dated Dec. 7, 1639, extending the 
succession to the honours, &c., to heirs female. 
Unluckily, however, the framer of the document 
had inserted as a witness the well-known John 
Spottiswoode, Archbishop of St. Andrew's, who 
had died shortly before its date. This fatal blunder 
was discovered by Mr. Riddell when engaged in 
the case for the crown. No one should profess to 
write on Scottish peerages without^ at least^ con- 

4* S. IV. July 10, '69.] 



snltiDg the works of this eminent lawyer, which j Dr. Milner thinks {ArcIuBohgiay xx. 534) that 
Dr. Kogers does not seem to have done. If i when the sexes began to be mixed together in the 
he had looked into such undoubted authorities : low mass, about the twelfth centur}', the embrace 
(which are easily accessible), he would Lave been was discontinued. The " osculatorium '* is men- 

spared putting forward futile claims to this peer- 
age on behalf of the representatives of the Eev. 

tioned in the Confititution of Walter de Gray, 
Archbishop ol" York, a.d. 1250; and in those of 

.Tobn Chalmers of Kilconquhar, or the ancient | John de Peccham, Archbishop of Canterbury, c, 

and highly respectable family of Graham of Bal- 
gowan. The latter, now styled " of Ktdgorton," 
are possibly not aware of the honours in store for 
them. Anglo-Scotus. 

Anstruther, whom in the following account I 
ahall designate as No. 1, was in India in the latter 
part of the last century, in the army either of the 
King or the East India Company, and, as I heard 
many years afterwards, had a claim for the above 
peerage. Be that as it may, his brother. Colonel 
Robert Anstruther, who entered the 3rd Foot 
Goardsin 1785, was an aide-de-camp of George III. 
from January 1, 1806, aud died in 1808. The 
King is said to have regarded him as one of the 
Newark family. 

1280. The Synod of Exeter (1287) ordered that 
each parish church should have the *' asser ad 
pacem" (Wilkins's Condi, ii. 139). 

Mr. Albert Way mentions a very ancient ex- 
ample in the Louvre. It is a tablet of lapis 
lazuli, formerly part of the treasures of the 
royal abbey of St. Denis, and is of Greek work- 
manship, representing the Saviour on one side, 
with that of the B. V. M. on the other, wrought 
in gold inlaid in the stone (Archaol. Journal, ii. 
147). Dr. Rock has an enamelled morse (c. 1800), 
which had been converted into a pax by fixing a 
handle to it. In the chapel of Richard II. was a 
" porte-pax tout d'or '* set with diamonds, pearls, 
and sapphires (weight, two pounds four ounces). 
Archbishop Chichele gave to All Souls*, Oxford, 
c. 14G0, paxes made of glass, Mr. Way has a 
wooden one of the latter part of the fifteenth 

No. I hnd a son, whom I shall only desi^'nato 
as No. 2, TL L. A., as I do not wish to take it 

upon me to identify him excepting for the sake of century. One of silver parcel-gilt may be seen 
his descendants. lie married twice : bv his lirst | at New College, Oxford. It is of the period of 
wife he had a son, and, through the intl-i-est of a i Henry VI., and was gijen by the founder, 
well-known statesman (many years dead) with 
whom he was on terms of intimacy, this son was 
placed in a public ofhce, which he hnd to resign 
on account of ill- health. 

No. 2 married again : had sons whom he sur- 
vived, and several daughters who have left 
descendants. He was too poor to prosecute his 
claim, but the eldest son of his eldest daughter is 
the representative of this brr.nch of the Anstruther 
family. L. 

(4»'' S. iii. 506.) 

In the early ages of the Church Christians fol- 
lowed literally the injunction of St. Paul, and 
greeted "one another with an holy kiss." Ter- 
tollian, Origenes, and Athenagoras (c. 1G6) men- 
tion it; and Dr. Milner cites the Apostolicrfl 
Constitutions to show the manner in which the 
ceremony was performed : — 

** Let the Bishop salute the Churcli and say, * The 
peace of Gwl be witli you all * ; and let the pcople'answer, 
•And with Thy spirit.' Then let tlie Deacon say to all, 
' Salate one another with z holy kiss ' : and let the clerfry 
kiss the Bishop, and the layiuen the laymen, and the 
women the women." 

This fraternal embrace was probably discon- 
tinued about the twelfth century, and the paa; 
6o0Calatorium, porte-paix, or pax-brede) intro- 
dnoed, though some would place its introduction 
«• early as the ordinance of Pope Leo II. c, 670. 

Chaucer, in his " Persones Tale," tells of a 
proud person who " awaiteth to go above him 
m the way, or kisse the Pax, or ben incensed, or 
gon to offring before his nei<:hbour, & swiche 
semblable thinges." The use of the pax was pre- 
scribed by the royal commissioners of Edward VI. 
The Injunctions published at Doncaster, a.d. 1548, 
ordain that — 

" The Clarke shall bring down the Paxe, and standing 
without tl»e church-door, shall say loudlv to the people 
these words — *This is a token of joyful peace which i8 
betwixt God and men's conscience ; Christ alone is the 
l>cacc- maker, which straitly commands peace between 
brother and brother. And so long as ye use these cere- 
monies, so lon^ shall ye use these signitications.' " 

John Pigoot, Jim., F.S.A. 

Ultlng, Maldon. 

The earliest record of the use of the pax in this 
country that I remember to have seen is con- 
tained in the statute of Walter Gray, Archbishop 
of York (1216-12oo), entitled Ue Ornamentts 
Ecclesicp., wherein it is ordered that the inhabi- 
tants of each parish should provide, among other 
things needful for divine worship, an '* osculato- 
rium." A similar statute was promulgated by 
Kobert Wiuchelsey, Archbishop of Canterbury 
(1293-1313), in which this object is mentioned 
under the name of ^'osculare.'* (See Cotton MS. 
D iii. 191.) Though Archbishop Gray's ordei 
may well be the first document in which its use 
was enjoined by authority, it is probable that the 



[Ittg.iv, Jolt 10, '69. 

pax had suparaeded the primitive form of the kiss „'^ 

of peace for many rears. | 

The pax was forbiddea at the Reformation. It i 
waa not retained, as far ns I am bwbtb, by the 
English Catholics 1 probably, becausa on account i 
of the persecution under which they suffered, it 
^ras necessary to dispense with ail the accessories 
of ritual which nere not of absolute necessity. 
Edward Pbacock. 

The primiUTe mode of giving the kiss of peace 
waa observed as late as the thirteenth century, as it 
ia mentioned by Durandus (lib. iv. cnp, 63), It was 
continued indeed by the Dominicans down to the 
aixteenth century, as also in some cbuTches of 
the Roman use ; but it appears from the synod of 
Exeter in 1287, that the instrument called the 
jHU' had been in use before that time. The use 
of this is still observed in low masses said in pre- 
sence of a bishop, as prescribed by the Cisreiito- 
niaU EpiKOporum : — 

is planis, qux coram Episcopo dicnnti 

" Isaac Doiislaua was a friend of Sir Henry Mildmav, 
and the first Lord Brooke. Through the iatlueacB of tha 
latter be was appoToted to read a hbtorical lecture in 
Cambridge! but wa» soon silenced on acconat of hU 

beri lolet instmnientuin pacis." 

pus OBCl 

The ii 

euch'asjja.r, ower adpacem, tabula pacii, tmirmor, 
iapupacii, and otculatorium. Oneof theseinstrU' 
ments in my possession, an old English one of 
brass, has the crucifixion with the B. Virgin and 
St, John in bold relief, and on a plate behind are 
engraved the instrumenta of our Saviour's passion, 
above which is the firmament with sun, moon, 
and stars. This venerable old pax was kissed by 
the late Cardinal Wiseman at a moss said before 
him on a particular occasion. F. C. H. 

Mr. Bedo will find some information on the 
subject of his inquiry in an interesting ardcle by 
Mr. Albert Way. " On the Ancient Oruamenta, 
Vestments, and Appliances of Sacred Use," pub- 
lished in t)vei ArchesologicalJaumal{\%i5,\i.. 144.) 
Although Mr. Way does not show the precise 
date when the use of the instrument calted the 
pax, " tabula pftcis," " osculatorium," or " porte- 
paix " was suDsUtuted for the more primitive 
method of giving tlie holy salute. 



iDciples. UiB great know- 
QminBtiOTI to the office ot 
For the ume reason h« 
jne of the Judfrea of tha 
tiimself eapeciallv hnteM 
listing to prepare the charge of 
CbarTea I, In the beginning; of 
, 1C49, he sailed for HotUnd as Envov from the Eog- 
Parliamont to the Hague ; ha had only spent a vei7 

ledge of Civil Law causi 
Judge Advocate of the . 
was shortly iflemards 
Court of Admiralty. Hi 
to the Royalists by ass' 
High Treaaoi - • ■ ■ 

tba Witte Znaar 
the passage, aud 

a 12th. < 



ise, bit 

taking hii supper at 

'— —IB five or six 

the lights in 

(4'» 8. iu. 287, 491, 685,) 

^_.._ . ven other guests, was sitting. Two 

of the conspirators immediately made a murderous attack 
on a Dutch gentleman named Griip van ValkenBlayn, 
supposing bim to be the English Envoy. Finding out 
their mistake, however, they set upon DotlsUus, and 
slew him with many wounds, exclaiming as they did tha 
deed, ' Thus dies one of the King's Judges.' The leader 
--■ Mb mnir wa.i HoL Walter Whilfotd, son of 

a Scotland. He 
' (Wood) 
lent gave 

their falthfkil servant a magaificent funeral in Westmin- 
ster Abbey, June 14, 1649; but after the Restoration, 
those iu power disturbed the body. His dust now rests 
with that of Admiral Blake, and others such as he, in 
B pit in St. Margaret's churchyard." — John Lodeit 
Gollpried's Kroiyci, iv. 454 ) Van der Ao, Siagraphiidi 
Woordaiboti, in voc p. 21. 

Your correspondent quotes some unnamed au- 
thor, whose evidence he rightly suspects, to the 
effect that Uorislaus left the service of the ICinjf 
for that of the Parliament. Mr. Wilkins, in liis 
Political Ballads, asserts this more strongly. Ac- 
cording to him, Dorislaus " became Judge Advo- 
cate in the King's army, but deserted Charles, and 
assisted in drawing up the charges against him" 
(i. 90). Tiiis is altogether a mistake, founded on 
a passage in Wood's Athencs Oxoniennes, which 
these writers have misunderstood. Wood was an 
out-and-out partisan of the Royal party. Had 
there been any slain of desertion on Dorislana'a 
character, he would not have failed to inform us. 
What he does say, bears quite another com- 


4*8. IV. JcL,YlO,'69.] 



tins army against the King under Robert Earl of Essex, 
ifterwafdii under Sir Thos. Fairfax, and, at length, one 
of the Judges of the Court of Admiralty, and assistant in 
drawing up and managing the charge against K. C. 1." — 
Sub rrxr. " L'Isle, John." 

There was clearly nothing of desertion in this, 
AVoody living near the time and having the 
chronology of the period clearly in his mind, knew 
very well.' In the expedition against Scotland, 
Isaac Borislaus was Judge Advocate.* This 
war— the bishops* war, men nicknamed it — was 
very unpopular with the Protestant party in 
England. The gentry of all classes — Churchmen, 
Puritans, and Papists — gave unhesitating support 
to the King ; though the soldiers on several occa- 
flions showed their sympathy with I'rotcstantism, 
ind their hatred of what they considered papis- 
tical imiovations, in a very rough manner.t 

Some of the leading Puritan gentry of England 
were in arms for the King in this expedition : 
nrobably through the iniluence of these the 
teamed Dutchman got his appointment. When 
the campaign was over, the forces were disbanded. 
Two years afterwards, t. e, 1(542, the war between 
Charles and the English Parliament began. Two 
new armies were raised; one by the King, the 
other by the Parliament. This latter force natu- 
nlW absorbed such Puritan elements as had been 
held in suspension in the disbanded army. The 
£arl of Essex was its commander, and Dorislaus 
filled the post of Advocate. There is not the 
slightest groundwork for a charge of desertion in 
ihia. The Earl of Northumberland, Lord Fairfax, 
and many other of the noblest and best of 
puritan England, served the King in the helium 

The Thurloe Papers, in the Bodleian Library, 
contain some letters from a person named Isaac 
Dorislaus, written after the death of the Envoy. 
He was probably a son, or nephew, of the mur- 
dered man. That he had a son is certain ; for on 
May 14, 1640, the House of Commons resolved to 
setUe two hundred pounds per annum upon him 
for Ufe.} 

Edwabd Peacock. 

Bottesford Manor, firigg. 


10.)— Your correspondent J. H. (from Sheffield P) 
says tliat my omission of any memoir of the 
anthor of the History of Hailamskire from the 
npubhcation of the work which I have recently 

* That is. Wood aaprs he was, and there can be no 
rauonablc objectioa raised against his tetimonv. I may 
renuuk, however, that I have not teen any n^her notice 
of Dorislaus having held this anpointmenl Jta •'o^nxr 
Mtinst Scotland, i cannot flna anvthSno ^^ 
BnJiworth, thongh St veiy weU mi^ M 

f YkaT's Jektma Jinkf 90. 

X CbM. Jourmtt, ft SO0. 

edited "has produced both surprise and regret, 
however it may be accounted for.^' This is news to 
me ; for, except by one friend who assisted me in 
I the work, such an addition to HaUainshire was 
j never suggested to me, and no one has complained 
' to me that the volume was imperfect witnout a 
life of its author. I myself thought of append- 
: ing a short memoir, but I could not find suMcient 
i materials. There is a brief one written, I believe, 
; by a relative, but it contains simply what would 
j interest private friends. I asked a near relation 
, of Mr. Uunter to supply me with some biogra- 
phical account of his uncle, but I never received 
I it, and have no doubt that the incidents of the 
venerable student's life were found too few and 
simple to gain public interest. Some private 
letters, vmtten in Mr. Hunter's early married 
life, were sent to me for perusal, and I liked 
them ', but his reputation as a scholar and topogra- 
pher would not have been enhanced by tneir 
publication, replete as they were with intelligence 
and good feelmg. My own impression is, that 
any memoir of Mr. Hunter would have to depend 
upon purely domestic affairs for its principal 
attraction, nis life having been spent, so far as I 
know, at Sheffield, Bath, and London in a uni- 
form pursuit of that special knowledge for which 
he justly earned the highest reputation. The 
domestic life of any one is, in mj opinion, sacred f 
and so I consider that I have shown no disrespect 
to the memory of our local historian in not at- 
tempting to botanise on his grave. 

Alfbed Gatty, D.D, 

Another " Blue Boy " by Gainsbobouoh 
(4»»» S. iii. 576 ; iv. 2.3.)—With i-efeience to the 
communication relative to the " Blue Boy " by 
Gainsborough, I beg to say I possess a '* Blue 
Boy " by him also. It is a picture of my father- 
in-law, painted probably about 1770, when he 
was a boy of seven or eight or thereabouts. He 
is represented in a surtout, long waistcoat, and 
breeches, all blue, with collar, lace frill and ruffies, 
and white silk stockings, shoes, and buckles ; the 
scene being a garden witn distant landscape. The 
** Blue Boy" is represented plucking a flower with 
his right hand, and holding one in his left, several 
lyings gathered, in his hat on the ground beside 
him. The picture, which has no name or date 
upon it, is about 4 ft. 3 in. by 3 ft. 4 in. Though 
in a room with portraits by Lely, Eaebum, and 
others, it is the most striking, as well as the most 
generally admired. I regret I cannot give any 
information about the picture of the " Blue Boy, 
Master Buttall, about which your correspondent 
writes. W. RiDDELL Carre. 

Cavers Carre. 

I .8 AND Bell-bingino (4'*» S. iii. 

^ acquunted with the late Mr. 

vo before me his report about the 



[4*»» S. IV. Jolt 10, •69. 

model ring of eight bells at Mr. Jackson's in Shoe 
Lane, then for sale at 30/. The weight of the 
tenor was G7 lbs., the diameter being 14 inches; 
the size of the treble was 7^ inches. The peal 
boards which were with tliem must have been 
records of peals rung with tower bells, which 
these little ones never could have been, neither 
would it be possible to handle them with the ropes 
like full-sized bells. Changes with small bells 
must be produced with hand-bells. The peal- 
book of the College Youths would probably liave 
a record of the performance, fl. T. Ellacombe, 
Cljst St. George. 

It may, I think, safely bo said that tlio .'mall 
bells mentioned by the late Mr. IC. J. O^born 
^ were never placed in any church tower. Certain 
it is that they could not possibly have been rimg 
in the usual manner by any change ringers. 
They are not even alluded to in the peal- book 
of the College Youths. Tno3iAS Walesby. 

Golden Square. 

Isabel Scrope (4»«» S. iii. 104, 184, 599.)— 
My best thanks are due to S. S. for setting this 
question at rest, though it shatters into fragments 
my little Strabolgi-Percy hypothesis. But I can- 
not agree with him that the discussion of Isabel's 
relationship to Henry IV. involves "an immense 
deal of unnecessary trouble/* or that "she is 
doubtlessly so styled as the widow of an English 
nobleman of high rank." This method of address 
certainly exists now, but it did not then. It is 
said to have taken its rise from the fact of the 
blood relationship of Henry to so many noble 
families, that " the king's cousin " became almost 
svnonymous with a title. It still appears to me 
that the distinct pointing out of the king — not 
"consanguinea Domini Regis" merely, but " Regis 
Ilenrici Quarti" in particular, as if to indicate 
that her relationship was to this king only — im- 
plies a connection by blood. Who were the wife 
and mother of Sir Maurice Russell ? 

One of my questions concerning Isabel Scrope 
atill remains unanswered. If she died in 1437, 
why did her crown pension cease seventeen years 
before her death ? It evidently was not on ac- 
count of a subsequent marriage, if her last matri- 
monial alliance took place in 14C6. 


Hermentrtjde questions ray doubting that the 
Earl of Wiltshire was a son of a Scroope of Up- 
salL My authority for the doubt is tne recent 
assertion before the House of Lords by Mr. 
Simon Scroope, of Danby, to obtain the earldom 
of Wiltshire, where he claims as a descendant 
from the Scroopes of Bolton; and if Hermen- 
trtjde will turn to Sir B. Burke's (1866) edition 
of the Dormant Peerages^ she will find Ulster en- 
dorses this statement of Mr. Scroope, although in 

Sir Bernard's previous edition he makes this same 
Earl of Wilts descended from the Lords Scroopes 
of Cpsall, I am anxious for purely local history 
reasons to obtain a good lineage of these Scroopes 
of Upsall. 

Sir Bernard Burke makes Harriet only child of 
C. B. Massingberd, and widow of C. G. Munday, 
heir-general to the title of Scroope of Upsalli 
through the heiresses of Dobson, Tancred, Army- 
tage, and Danby. The newspapers of last month 
informed us that Mr. Simon Scroope had cleariy 
proved his descent from the Scroopes of Bolton. 
If the Earl of Wiltshire is of the Upsall branch, 
it is clear Mr. Simon Scroope has no claim to 
that earldom, as he claims through the senior 
branch of Bolton. Eboracux. 

If Hermentbude consults Nicolas's ^nopsis 
of (he Enylish Peerage^ she will find that William 
lo Scrope, Earl of Wiltshire, was a brother of 
Stephen, second Baron Scrope of Masham and 
Up;>al, and consequently son of Henry le Scrope, 
first Baron of Masham and Upsal, who was first 
cousin to Richard, first Baron Scrope of Bolton. 

D. C. K 

PoruLAR Names op Plants: Walton's "Li- 
lies " (4'h s, iii^ i>42, ;341, 414, 409 512.)— I fear 
I do not quite understand Mr. 1)ixon*s note. 
Having studied British plants for several years, I 
may perhaps be permitted to say that I am 
scarcely likely to '* fall into errors " as to their 
habitixts, " which a reference to any botanical work 
will enable [me] to avoid." Neither did I say 
that Da vers mentioned '* lilies *' ; but Walton does 
so, and Mr. Dixon^s note has suggested to me the 
idea that he may have referred to NarcissuB 
pseudo'fiarcissui under that name. This plant 
grows in meadows, and in many counties is called 
" Lent lily," although not a member of the 
LUiacecp. 1 am not aware that I have, tested 
Davors* (not Davor's) " purple narcissus " by the 
lily ; but as there is no plant answering to such a 
description, we must look for one as near it as 
possible. My private impression is that Davors, 
with very many of the older writers, employed 
such names as suited the purpose without troubling 
about the habitats of the plants connected with 
them, or even the plants themselves. This hypo- 
thesis would account for red hyacinths, purple 
narcissus, azure culverkeys, and lilies being placed 
in meadows. 

Bluebell and Harebell, — The name bluebell is 
common to Agraphis ntttans (Hyacinthus nonscrip^ 
tus) and Campanula rotundifolia, and appears to 
be locally, as well as generally, applied to both 
plants. It is a comjmratively modem name, 
neither Gerarde nor Parkinson giving it Hare- 
bell is more usually applied to C rottmdifoKa, 
and in some modern works is spelt Aairbell, in 
re ference to its slender hair-like stalk ; but this 

4* 8. IV. July 10, '69.] 



» BMorelj a recent notion, and tbrows no light on 
the origin of the name, which is not known. 
fliiUipe, in his Flora JUstoricay calls Agraphis 
—ftfwt harebell ''from its being so frequently found 
in thoee thickets most frequented by hares!" Dr. 
Prior says that in Scotland the name is assigned to 
this plant. In Lancashire, about Wigan, the Agra- 
fikU 18 called ^ ring o' bells.'' This name has an 
interesting origin. Those familiar with mediaeval 
nicturee vA illuminations will have noticed David 
mqnenily represented with a number of bells 
hun^ one above another beside him, which he is 
striking with a hammer. This was called a svm- 
phooiay or rin^ of bells, and it is easy to see how 
uke the droopmg spike of the wild hyacinth is to 
a number of oells so disposed. 

Long Pwrples of Shakespeare. — This plant was 
certainly Orchis masctda, to which '^ liberal shep- 
herds " still " ^ve a grosser name." 

James Britten. 

Pigh Wycombe. 


(4'* S. iii. 449.) — In Mr. Dunkin's interest- 
ing article on Cornish crosses there is an extract 
from Erredge's Hifstonj of Brighthehnstoney which 
rives a reason for the custom of burying by pre- 
lerence on the south side of churches. The reason 
assigned may be the real one, but another plausi- 
ble one may be suggested. In very early times 
all burial-grounds were held sacred, and when 
one race was destroyed or expelled the conquering 
tribe continued burying their dead on the same 
spoL My late lamented friend, Troyon, the Swiss 
archaeologist, discovered and thoroughly explored 
a burial-ground where the remains of three dis- 
tinct races were found superposed. As worship- 
pers of the sun, the early races naturally buried 
their dead in places fully exposed to the rays of 
the beneficent luminary — a fact so familiar to the 
arelueologistd of Germany and Switzerland, that 
thej never look for a Celtic burial-ground or even 
a solitary tumulus on the northern slope of a hill. 
This Celtic custom may have been handed down 
to ns through twenty centuries, as has that of 
lighting bonfires on the hill tops on the Eve of 
St Jolm. That distinguished archaeologist Dr. F. 
Keller of Zurich supposes that a strange pagan 
funeral rite was practised in England down to the 
time of Queen Elizabeth. In aamlet the priest 
refuses a Christian burial to Ophelia as a suicide, 
and declares that — 

**SkardMj flints, and pehbles should be thrown upon her.** 

These shards (or fragments of broken pottery) are 
almost invariably found in Celtic barrows through 
all northern and central Europe. Oims. 


GBnruHe Gibbons (4'** S. iii. 77.) — There is 
nodcmbt that many additions may be made to 
Mb. Fteeoi's list of the works of this artist^ even 

assuming it to refer only to those still existing. I 
am at present out of the reach of books ; but I 
can ada to the list the carvings in the saloon at 
Petworth, the bronze statue of James II. at 
Whitehall, and the bronze statue of Charles II. 
at Chelsea Hospital. Some of the fine works at 
Chatsworth, always ascribed to Gibbons, can also^ 
I think upon sufiicient authority, be given to 
Watson (whom Mr. Piggot mentions), who waa 
little more than a mechanic in the neighbour- 
hood. S. R. 
Thursley, Godalming. 

At the hall of the Skinners' Company, Dowgate 
Hill, is a room panelled in cedar ana richly carved, 
attributed to this great artist; and at the church of 
St. Bartholomew, Royal Exchange (pulled down 
for City improvements) was a carved oak pulpit and 
a reading-desk, supposed to have been his work. 
These were afterwards set up in a temporary church 
in Gray's Inn Road, and at the sale of the fittings 
thereof in June 1804, were bought by a reverend 
gentleman on behalf of the London Diocesan Fund, 
and most probably have been set up permanently 
in some other cnurch, from whence I trust that 
they may never be removed again. E. B. 

A description of the chimney-piece, carved in 
wood by Grinling Gibbons, which adorns the 
Bristol City Library, will be found at p. 17 of The 
Bridal City Library j its Founders and nenefactorfi. 
By Charles Tovey. Bristol, 1853. An engraving 
of this fine work forms the title-page of the book. 

W. E. A. A. 

I do not find in Mr. Pigoot's list Studley Royal, 
in Yorkshire, the seat of the Earl de Grey, where 
there is a room of Gibbons' carving, as well as other 
pieces of his work about the house. HvAoVo/iOf. 

Rushlights (4*'» S. iii. 652.) — In your number 
for June 12 there is a paragraph relative to rush- 
lights or rush-sticks. I can corroborate the remarks 
relative to the rushes being prepared by drawing 
them, after being peeled, through melted fat ; but 
I can also add, from my own observation, that 
they are not yet obsolete, but are still used in cot- 
tages and small farmhouses in the southern parts 
of Surrey, and, no doubt, also in the neighbouring 
counties. The iron holder is somewhat like a pair 
of ladies' curling-tongs, with a lump of lead on 
one of the handle-ends, as a weight to press the 
blades together when the rush is fixed between 
them. I have seen several sorts, in one of which 
this holder is fixed to a long stick and stand, and 
is placed, when lighted, by the cottager*s side a» 
he studies his country paper in the evening in the 
chimney-comer of his latchen or keeping-room. 
In others, it is fixed to rudely turned beechwood 
candlesticks, and used upon the supper-table. 
When burning down close to the holaer, the ex- 
pression used for lengthening the rush is '' mend- 
mg the candle/' and I was told by a fanner that 



[4'h S. IV. JULT 10, •8t. 

he considered one of the peculiar advantages of 
the rush-stick to be, that on poing to bed jrou 
could put the rush at a certain length, get into 
bed by its light, and then leave it to go out 
of itself. It is used roost during the summer 
months, when the cottager's bedtime and the last 
rays of evening light more nearly coincide, and 
the time is very short for which artificial light is 
required. B. R. W. 

Epigram by Dr. Hawtret (4"» S. iii. 499.) — 
In reply to Mr. Thiriold, I beg to inform him 
that tne epigram he prints appeared originally in 
The Guardian of Nov. 13, 1861, in the following 
form : — 

** Caniuariensis, 

Privatam monitus relinqae chartam, 
Meamqae, improbe, pone concionem. 
Qua scripsi, mea sunt. 
TVameiuM. TuAX requiris ? 

Frnstrii glorier hoc Episcopatu 
TuAM si nequco mcam vocare."* 

W. T. T. D. 

Db Audlby (4''» S. iii. 690.) — I am not at all 
surprised at W. H. C.*s perplexities, for modern 
writers are sadly at fault concerning Sir James 
Audley, and accuse poor Froissart of their own 
blunders. He knew perfectly well who Sir James 
was, and be it noticea that he does not say that 
James Lord Audley died in 1369, but Lord James 
Audley — a decidedly different name. The follow- 
ing will help W. H. C. 

James Lord Audley of Heleigh (No. 1), bom 
1316, fought at Poitiers; died at Heleigh, April 1, 
1386 ; buried in Hulton Abbey. Married 

I. Joan, eldest daughter of Roger Earl of 
March ; probably married after 1323, died before 

II. Isabel, daughter and coheir of William Mai- 
bank ; married before April 23, 1363 ; died before 

Issue — I. (By Joan). 1. Nicholas Lord Aud- 
ley, died s, p, 1391, before November 4. Married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Lord Beaumont and 
Alice Countess of Buchan ; married before April, 
1342 ; she died October 27, 1400. 2. Joan, mar- 
ried Sir John Touchet (from whom the present 
family). 3. Margaret, married Sir Roger Hil- 
lary; died 8,p, 1411. 4. Roger, living November 
17, 1336. 

II. (By Isabel), o. Roland, died s, p, 6. 
James, died 1369 at Fontenay le Comte ; sene- 
schal of Gascony. 7. Thomas, died s. p. 1409 ; 

married Elizabeth , who died 1400-1402. 8. 

Margaret, married Fulk third Lord Fitzwarine. 

James Lord Audley (No. 1) — not Sir James his 
flon — had a brother l?eter, who died at Beaufort 
Castle in or about 1369. Froissart distinctly calls 
him the brother of that James Audley who fought 

* For another reading see 7'Ae Guardian of Juno 9, 

[♦ For ai 
1869.— Ed.] 


at Poitiers ; here again the blunder is not Ioob^ bat 
that of his commentators. 

But now I must confess my own perplezitTy 
arising out of W. H. C.*s Sir James Audley No.S, 
whom he describes as the second son of Hnffh 
Audley, Earl of Gloucester. Did not Hugh cue 
without male issue, and was not his daughter 
Margaret Lady Stafford, his sole heir ? I Snow 
however, nothing to prevent a Sir James Aadlv)r 
from being the brother of Hugh Earl of Gloa» 
cester, and second son of Hugh iirst Lord Au^ey 
of his branch. 

I am much obliged to Mr. Elwss for hisinfsN 
mation concerning Eleanor Lady Audley. I had 
already come to the conclusion that she was Ed- 
mund's daughter from further notices furnished to 
me in private correspondence. I presume that her 
husbaud was that James Touchet, Lord Audlerr, 
who was the eldest son of Joan Audley (see aboye}, 
and was a minor on his father's death in 1409. 


To MY NosB (4«» S. i. 463 ; ii. 91, 119.')'— 
Among the poems mentioned on this subject, the 
following has apparently escaped notice. It «>> 

feared in the Irish Penny Journal of Nov. 28, 1840L 
do not know the author, but, nevertheless, I 
think his production is worthy of a comer in 
''N. andQ." Lioic F. 

"sonnet about a nose. 

" 'Tis very odd that poets should suppose 
There is no poetry about a nose, 
When plain as is' the nose upon your face, 
A noseless face would lack poetic grace. 
Noses have sympathy : a lover knows 
NovHes are always touched when lips are kissing : 
And who would care to kiss where nose was miasixig? 
Why, what would be the fragrance of a rose. 
And where would be our mortal means of telling 
Whether a vile or wholesome odour flows 
Around us, if wo owned no sense of smelling ? 
I know a nose, a nose no other knows, 
'Xeath starry eyes, o*er ruby lips it gn)ws ; 
Beauty is in its form and music in its blows." 

Medallic Queries {V^ S. iii. 311.) — 1. Al- 
though 1 cannot give P. G. II. S. the information 
asked for, he may possess — and if so, would veiy 
much oblige by describing — a medal ''to ooiii'" 
memorate the peaceful hero's (Gen. Oglethorpe) 
benevolence and patriotism," for which a pnn 
was offered for the best design 178}. (Vide ilfo- 
moirs of Gen, Jas, Oglethorpe, by Robt. Wright; 
18G7.) * 

'* A medal was subsequently cast, and after a fern 
specimens were struck off, the die was destroyed." — C«i- 
tienian*8 Magazine, 1785. 

2. Any of your correspondents who would be 
obliging enough to give some information regard- 
ing the medal I proceed to describe would confer 
a favour upon me. Is it a Masonic meded ? — 

Obv. : " CAROLVS . 8ACKVILLE . MA6ISTER . F , 1 , " 

Ilis bust. ** L. KAT TKR . F . 1733." or 1. 

IV, July 10, '69.] 



Rev. : '*AB . ORioiNB." Nude figure of Secrecy ; 
Ub left arm resting upon a pedestal, holding a 
eomucopia in the hand. At his feet the emblems 
of Masonry. I. N. O. I 

f Li. Salbtte (4*" S. iii. 598.) — Besides the ; 
*^fwna^l mentioned at the above reference, C. G. | 
will do well to read The Holy Mountain of La \ 
SaleUe^ by the Right Eey. Bishop Ullathome. \ 
London : Kichardson & Son, 1854. Also an ela- 
borate work, which preceded it : — 

** A Pflgriouige to La Salette ; or, a Critical Examin- 
ation of lOl the Facta connected with the alleged Appari- 
tioo of the Bleaeed Yirgin,** &c, by J. Spencer Northcote, 
ILA. London : Bams & Lambert, 1852. 

F. C. H. 

ArsiBiiL : Pbxjssia (4"" S. iii. 284.)— I fear that 
IB important correction of one word in the above 
lote, aent to '^ N. & Q.'' not long after the inser- 
tion of the note, has miscarried or been mislaid. 
I have not a copy of the later communication, but 
wlial followa la substantially the same. Very 
ifaardy after I had written the note, I had reason 
to nspect that Rupert^ Elector Palatine^ was a 
denenoant of the Swiss count. I was subse- 
quently enabled to terify the descent. The under- 
vritten pedigree was furnished by Quatuordecim 
Tabmke OenealogictBy Tubingse, mdclxxxy. : — 

Rodolph of Habsburg. 
Matilda » Louis, El. PaL 

Bodolph, £L Pal. « Matilda, da. Adolph Louis, Emperor. 

of Nassau. 


Ado)pii« EL Pal. Rodolph IL, Rupert, El. Pal., founder 
I £1. Pal. of Heidelberg. 

Rupert II., £1. Pal., » Beatrice, da. Peter, K. of Arragon 

MC. node Rupert, 

and Sicily.* 


Rupert III., £1 Pal. 1398, Emperor 1400-1410. 

I onghty therefore, to have said : " the empire 
of Germany .... was held by descendants of a 
rimple Swiss, Count Rodolph of Habsburg, with 
bat two exceptions." Charles Thibiold. 


Omitted Rbfbrences (4*»» S. iii. 593.)— While 
I ^oite agree with Mb. Fitzhopkins in the pro- 
pnety of always giving references to authonties 
and soofces of information, I may mention that, 
some twenty yean ago, I had pointed out a tomb 
in the cemetery of Montmartre, which runs on all 
fomB with the obituary notice in the Berkshire 
CkrmUoU. It was that of a Parisian tradesman 

* Others say daughter of Stephen, Count Palatine and 

who was killed during the three days of July, or 
in one of the dmeutes in the earlier part of the 
reign of Louis Philippe. The inscription con- 
cludes with this announcement : — 

" This tomb was executed bv his bereaved [or discon- 
solate] widow [^veuve desoUe]^ who still carries on his busi- 
ness at No. — Rue St. Martin." 

Geobge Vebe Irving. 

YoTJKG Pbetesdeb (4**» S. iii. 532.) — ^I have 
a beautiful miniature in a ring, engraved and in- 
laid with enamel, of the Young Pretender (in the 
finest possible state of preservation), handed down 
in m^ grandmother's familv (the JDealtrys) from 
the time he lived. It is a charming little portrait. 

d. O. J. 

PoBTBAiT BY De Wilbb (4*" S. iii. 458, 638, 
G08.)— By the courtesy of Mr. G. J. De Wilde, to 
whom I forwarded a photograph of this picture, I 
am now enabled to inform F. C. H. that the por^^ 
trait is that of Miss Louisa Dubuisson, as Mr. De 
Wilde inferred it was from my description. 

Chables WrLns. 

Fltnteb-mousb (4*** S. iii. 576.)— FZwMfer is 
one of the names given in Belffium to the butter- 
fly. There is also a fish called vlinder (Lat. bien-- 
7Wt8)f probably from its movements resembling 
the flight of a bird : — 

*' Les blennes vivent sur le rivase et parmi les rochers^ 
oh ellcs sautillent et voltigent meme a la mani^re des 
poissons volants," etc. — Drapiez, Diet, des Sciencea Na- 

The Germans have /Under, Jlinter, which is a 
name g^ven by game-Keepers to the rags they 
hang out to mghten the game with, such ra^a 
being continually beaten or flapped by the wind. 
The common bat is called in Flanders vleur-muisy 
vloor-muisy vleer-muis (Pomey's Diet.), and vleder^ 
muis or vledder-muis — which are all, but for the 
difference in spelling, like brother and sister 
with^flitter-mouse." Whence I conclude "flinter*' 
and '* flitter " to be mere synonyms. 

J. Van de Vpildb. 

Skt-labk (4**> S. iii. 428.) — The quoted lines, 
descriptive of the song of the sky-lark, are to be 
fo^^ld in the poem of Du Bartas upon the creation 
of the world, book v. lines 560, &c. They have 
been thus translated by Sylvester : — 

•< The pretty lark, climbing the welkin cleer, 
Chaunts with a cheer, Heer peer I neer my deer. 
Then stooping thence (seeming her fall to rew). 
Adieu (she saith), adieu, deer deer, adieu I ' " 

An earlier French author^ Jacques Pelletier, as 
quoted in Les Bigarrures du Seigneur des Accords, 
1596 (p. 160), describes the lark's song thus : — 

" Elle, guind^e d*un z^phire. 
Sublime en Tair vire et revire, 
£t J dedique un joly cry. 
Qui rit, guerit, et tire lire, 

Des esprita mienz que je n*escry.^ 



[4«^8.IV. JoLTlOjIBt, 


Fuller, in his WoHhies, 1663 (fol. 114), saya of 

the Bedfordshire lark : — 

** A harmless bird when living, and wholesome when 
dead, then filling the stomack with meat as formerly the 
ear with musick. If men would imitate the early rising 
of this bird, it would conduce much to their healthful- 



Neether oe Nither (4*^ S. iii. 444, 517, 663.) 
I agree with T. R. in this matter, and think 
that the majority of *^ good readers and careful 
speakers" say ither ana nither. My impression 
is, that the pronunciation was always variable till 
the study of the German language became popu- 
lar on the Queen*s marriage, and the consequent 
introduction of the German element about the 
court I fancied 1 then noticed, and have noticed 
continuously since, neether giving way, and nither 
coming into greater use. 1 need not remind your 
leaders that in German the pronunciation goes 
with the latter vowel, ei being sounded as the 
long t, and ie as ee» W. T. M. 

What do you think of the following settlement 
of this qtuestio vexata ? Some years ago, a couple 
of weavers were carousing in a tavern in a small 
village in Yorkshire, yclept Skelmanthorpe. Both 
had a tolerably high idea of their literary attain- 
ments, and this very question cropping up, fierce 
was the dispute. Neither woula yield his pet 
pronunciation, and it was resolved to refer the 
matter to the ancient village pedagogue — " one of 
the olden time." 

Being nearly midnight, they had to rouse the 
Dominie from his sweet first slumber, who, in 
no pleasant humour, threw open his casement and 
demanded their business. The weightv query 
propoimded, he testily responded: "donfound 
you for a couple of fools, oather will do ! " 

I need hardly add, " oather " is Yorkshire for 

" Which you pleajse, my little Dears." 

Wooden CniiiCE (4"' S. iii. 597.) — Wooden 

chalices are very rare, that material having been 

repeatedly forbidden by authority. S. Boniface 

says : *' Once golden priests used wooden chalices ; 

BOW, on the contrary, wooden priests use golden 

chalices," and they were probably used in verv 

poor churches till the ninth century. The council 

of Rheims in 883 forbade wood, and so did Pope 

Leo in 847, and the council of Cealcythe m 

786. By reason of the poverty of the church, 

Alfnc's canons in 957 allowed wood ; but Edgar's, 

a few years after, 960, allowed only molten 

metal. (Wilkins, i. 227.) The Saxon laws of the 

Northumbrian priests imposed a fine upon those 

who should hallow housel in a wooden chalice. 

According to Becon, Zephyrinus XVI. bishop of 

Home (197-217), ordered chalices and patens to 

be of glass ; before that period, he states they 

had been of wood. In a will, dated 837, memtioii 
is made of a chalice of cocoa-nut, mounted in gold 
and silver. Mr. Walcott says, there is a Jaco- 
bean chalice of wood at Goodrich Court. Is 
your correspondent sure that his specimen was 
mtended for sacramental use at all ? What woxds 
and emblems are upon it? Is ''the Ludc of 
Edenhall" a chalice? The tradition is, that in 
ancient times the butler went to the well to draw 
water, and surprised the furies dancing there. 
He seized this glass, which was at the edge of tbo 
well, and as the elves left they cried — 

" If this glass do break or fall. 
Farewell the luck of Edenhall.** 

It is of thin glass, and is enclosed in a leathern 
case with the letters I. H. S. at the bottom. It is 
still preserved at Edenhall, the seat of the ancient 
family of Musgrave, near Penrith, Cumberland. 
There is a good engraving of it in The Book of 
Daysy ii. 522. John Piooot, Jun., F.SA. 

Wooden chalices were forbidden by the Synod 
of Winchester, c xvi., a.d. 1071. Archbishop 
^Ifric prohibited this material (Thorpe, psffe 
461) ; to the same purpose were his Canons, c. xxn. 
A.D. 957 ; and Lyndwood distinctly says, ". Caliz 
debet esse con de ligno propter porositatem " (lib. L, 
tit. i. p. 9 a). In early times, from sheer poyerty, 
wooden chalices were in use (Walafrid StntbO| 
De Reh. JSccl. c. xxiv. J. Rodolph of Tongres says 
that St. Boniface being askea whether it was 
lawful to use wooden vessels, replied, "Of old 
golden priests used wooden chalices, now priests 
of wood use golden chalices " (De Canon Ohs. J^rop, 
xxiiij. Pope Zephyrinus prohibited their use, so 
did Pope Leo in 847, and the councils of Tribur 
(897), Rheims (883), and Cealcythe (785). 

Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, B.D., F.S.A. 

SwELTERER {4^ S. iii. 597.)— Br. Hyde Clarke's 
Dictionary of the English Langvuige contains as 
follows, marked as of Saxon origin : — " Swelter, it. 
sweltering ; Swelt v. bum or suffer with heat, mn 
with sweat, overpower with heat." G, 


Biblical Heraldry (4"» S. iii. 613.) — ^Theie 
is an account of the Judenstadt on the margin 
of the Moldau, in Bohemia, probably the oldest 
Hebrew settlement in Europe, in a little work, 
Eight Weeks in Germany by a Pedestrian (Frank- 
fort : C. Jugel, 1843). Of the old cemetery the 
author says : — 

*' It is a hundred years since the last Jew was interred 
in this cemetery. Graves trodden partially down, pointed 
gravestones that are sloping and falling in every dine- 
tion, monumental slabs of rough sandstone so covered 
with Hebrew characters deeply cut in. There are, too^ 
devices engraved on the stones which mark the condition 
of those who now sleep beneath, such as— The lion of 
Judah, the upraised hands of the house of Aaron, and the 
Nazarite*s bunch of grapes." 

Albert Buttxrt. 

«»S.1T. JuLTiOj-es.] 



Thi WoaD " FMh " : " Cheitalebb Absiobk " 
36.) — - In the posaoge referred to this 
Uidicatea b joint, or ratlier joinmg of a particultir 
form. There are variooB varieties of it, more or 
leaa complicated, but the distinguishing feature is 
that the ends to he joined are made in an oblique < 
■hape ao oa to orerfap each other. The term hole 
Wppears to show that after the joint was formed 
its parts were united hy the blowpipe or soQio 
other appliance of the goldsmith's art. ChaioB ' 
formed in thia manner are evidentlj superior to ; 
ihoee composed of short piecea of gold wire, the 
terminal discs of which are brought into juxta- j 
poMtion; hence the goldsmith's praise of those he 
bad in stock, Okoeob Vbbb Irvino, | 

FRBniABONBr (4*^ S. ill. 504, C03.)— I have 
• later edition of the book mentiooed hj J. B. C., ' 
Ub, Wn-LiAM Baies, and Ma. Stephen Jack- 
aoM. Its title-page runs thus: — 

•> A Kitiul and Illnatrations of Freemasonry, and tbe 
Orange and Odd Fellows' Societies ; arcompanied by 


s, Bud a Key 


, liQB and Mui 
lUin Morgan, irbo diralged tbe ridiculous 
tuagcs of tbe FreeniBsons. Abridged fror 
Aatbore. By a Traveller in tlie United Slates. Eightb 
Tboownd. Pablisbed and sold by S. Thome, Shetbear, 
D«*on. Sold in London by Partridge and Oakey, 
M, Paternoster Row, 18S1." 

On the back of thia title is an imprint, " 9. 
Thonie, printer. Shebbear, Devon." Instead of 
its being chiefly based upon David Bernard's 
LigUa on Matonry, aa conjectured b; Mb. Maf- 
BICK LnrXBAN, the book has been compiled from 
Atsit Allyn's Eiludl of FreemoMmry, which came 
out in America during the anti-maaonic period 
there in 1828-30. This book of Allyn's was, in 
its turn, a reprint from the Anii-Maaonic Revieic, 
edited by Dana H. Ward, in 1823-30, and in 
vhicb are the declarations and disclosures of many 
men who told all they knew, and notably amongst 
them was the present Mr. Secretary Seward. 

I am enabled to say the book printed hy Thome 
is a reprint, from comparing it with Allyn's book, 
and am etiR further home out in thia matter by 
finding in Thome's book, now before me, the copy 
of a "Masonic diploma" of a Knight Templar 
in favaor ot tbe '' Illuatrioui Sir Knight Avery 

"niia ediBon of Thome contains a "Publishers 
Preface to the People'a Edition.— Sixth to Tenth 
Thoiuond," and gives Daniel O'Connell'a letters, 
stating hu reasona for withdrawing from Free- 
roaaoniT. It also quotes adverae opiniona to the 
order from Eev. G. C. Finney, Rev. W. Patton, 
DJJ., and Mim Martineau, with " Opinions of the 
Press " in favour of Thome's first edition, from 
Tie Mtthoditt New Connexion Magasme, and the 
Chridian Advocate. In favour of the second edi- 
tioB, &om I7u Umvei'te, Chriitian Reeord, Chrit- 

tian Examiner, CArittian VTitnett, &c., showing 
that Messrs. Partridge and Oakej's being chosen 
publishers in London was in order to forward the 
circulation of the book tfmong a certain class of 
sectarians, and give it a religious tone. 

Every now and then a prospectus of the work 
falls into my hands, as secretary of cert<dc Masonic 
lodges, intended to entrsp unwaiy brethren to 
hecoma purchasers, by which, if they were fooliah 
enough to huy, they would gain no asablance and 
waste their money. 

t MiTTOEW COOKB, XXS", P.M., P.2. &c. 

BoRiAL or GiPsiEa (4'" S. iii". 405, &c.)— Some 
years since I was called upon to attend profes- 
sionally an aged gipsy woman lying in a tent in 
the parish of Long Stowe, co. Eunta. Shewaa 
suffering from dropsy occasioned by exposure to 
cold. Everything that was required waa pro- 
vided for her by those about her^ven port wine 
and beef-tea. She died and waa buried in the 
churchyard of Stowe— the vicar, with whom I 
had to-day some conversation on the subject, 
having been assured that she had been baptised. 
T. P. Fbenie,M.R.C,P.L. 

Kimbolton, June 26, 1869. 

Mtbo's "Paeish Pbtest"; the Woed "Vbb" 
(4** S. iii. 433, fi 16. J— Probably the old French 
phrase quoted by J. Van de Vkldk is sufficient 
to determine the meaning of the word to bo what 
the editor of the book explained it to be — swallow. 
But there is a phrase constantly heard in South 
Devon which may serve to illuatrate the paasage, 
"To make uae of" is there said for " to eat.'' 
Thus one will aay, " I have made uae of nothing 
aince eight o'clock," meaning, I have eaten nothing. 



OuK End li 


Here the thought ia clothed in language almost 
identicil with ttuit of Longfellow in " A Psalm of 
Life." T. McQkath. 

Tht Dtrntidau of EnU. Wilk Traailatiim, Noia, and 
Appat^x, oy the Rev. I^mbert Blackwell Larking, 
MX, 1«w Vicar of Byarah, Kent. (Toovey.) 
W)iea we Borrowfnllj announced the deatb or Mr. 
Larking ("N, & Q." V*' 8. ii. J68) we expressed our 
■niiety tbat tbi« work, which he had left far advanced 
in tbe press, should be completed and published as a 
Qttiag memorial of the antiquarian scbolarxhip and in- 
dustry of its admiiabls author. Tbe work is now bdbw 


[4* S, IV. Jblt 10, "es. 

ae. It i3 a magnlflcent folio printed in llie most annip- 
tDOos nianuer. An excellent introdnctorj nolioe, partly 
Uogrsphical of Mr. Larking, and partly explanatory of 
the condition la vrhicli the -vork vaa left by him, intro- 
duces the render to the teault of bi» linal Ubonrs. Tlien 
followfl the KenlDomesdayintwenty-eigtit plates of jnoal 
eomplele facsimile by Mr. Jietherollff, a Latin extension 
of the text bv Mr. Larking (pp. 56) ; a coneonUnce, which 
iaof CDur»! a complete verbal index (pp. 3:!); a tranala- 
tion into EnRliah (pp. 5i) ; notes Ulustrativa of the text 

Sip.41)l apiicndiiofmore general notes (pp. 36); slpliabe- 
caltablesof manors, andnamesorpUcea, '' 

and in Hasted (PP' 19)- "Though it must ever wanC^" 
to borrow the worfa of the able writer 1^ whose care it 
baa been finally sent forth, " ila anlhor'e last touchca and 
reviMon, and not only Mr. Larkinc's friends but all who 
are interested in the antiquities of Kent muat lament the 
loss of Ilia malnred lesearchea, it ia confidently antici- 
pnted that this Dometday of Kent will remain a laaling 
monument of the care and ability of its lamented nnthar, 
■ud be deemed not unworthy of the fasour of those who 
have encouraRed and aided ita publication." We may 

a Basted which h 

•malioH, STanagemtnl, 

edb; J.PejtoD. Itmo. \\ 

SUXlat ta CorrttpatiSmti 

Fni Teicit Libraria: thar I 

Hitlnn/ in Brilam, Franc. 

togtthtr leith brief Nolica o, , 

rapecliBt Placti of Depoiil of their lurviving Collection.. 

By Edward Edwards. (TrUbner & Co.) 

This is an important contribution to the history of 
MCent legislation in this country for the eetablisbment of 
lV«e Town Libraries — of the steps In the same direetioa 
which have been taken in America, in the Canadian Pro- 
vinces, and on the Continent — of the results of these and 
earlier endearoura to promote the institution of libraries 
of this character— and of the present condition of a large 
number of these establishmenla both at home and abroad. 
To all who are interested either In the formation or 
management of Free Libraries, Mr. Edwards's volume 
will he found peculiarly useful ; embodyinp as it does 
the various experiences of many who have laboured in 
the same good cause, under most varving conditions. 
But to many of our readers the seconit portion of Mr. 
EdwardsV hook will prove perhaps of greater interest. 
It contains his brief hut useful notices of Book-collec- 
tors, and records as far as possible the present place of 
deposit of (heir Libraries. The list commences with 
Archbishop Abbot, whose books and MSS., having been 
bequeathed lo his saccessors in the see of Canlerhnrv, 
ore now preserved at Lambeth ; and it contains nearly 
eleven hundred names, eonclnding with that of Ulrich 
Zwingli, whose books are now to be seen in the Library 
of the Cantonal Schools at Zurich. The value of sitch a 
record lo literary inquirers can scarcely be overrated. 

». ., idilnaftniiUuPiiliUilmiliiFlucUDfDii 

rciTly IxoiBJ li III. W- wUck nu be nld br Fmi Onoe ' 
nTiiCtt ■! Hianiwd Fori OBccln Amur of WlLLIlllQ.SIir 




nrliefl DriaUd bwpk of Enfflufi litwit cpn pagr rsyie'rtly mtdt fat 


192, Fleet Street (Comer of Chancery Lane). 


Id by JukbU IhTouilhout 

LoDdoD-nude, of hiirh-diii Mctut onlr. flttcd mnd Buldud In a 
Ii9-Lneh.«l.-J. B. BKOWN k M..W, Cunini blnili ud Itt. Vmtt 

4* S. IV. Jolt 17, '69.] 




CONTENTS.— No 81. 

NOTES : — The Fairfax Family, 49 ~ Hearse, 51 - Inter- 
▼iew of Napoleon with Wieland, 1808, lb. — The Oak and 
the Ash — Jean Cavallier — Douglas Jerrold and Byron — 
Ernest- Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg —The 
"Klopjes" in Holland- The Rinder-Pest, or Cattle 
Plague — The Baronetcy of Thornton, 53. 

QUERIES: — Bedlam Beinrars and Rosemary — Bumble- 
bee — The Burial of the Kings of Prance before the great 
Revolution of 1789 — Euiogium on Chatham — Civil War 

— The Court in 1784— Dissenting Bells — Cartularies, &c. 
of PeverHham Abbey and Davington Priory — Heraldic — 

Hooeychild — Janet Little — To Lie under a Mistake 

—Maxim attributed to Rochefoucauld— Medallic— Milton 
— Payno— Saxon Cuticle on a Church-door — Velocipedes 

— •• When ray Eyestriugs break in Death," 55. 

QlTSRiss WITH Akswbbb : — Whittington's Shield of Arma 
and Stone — ** Hauled over the Coals ^' — Brinkley — Com- 
mon Hunt — Sir James Tyrrel — Judges at St. Paul's, 57. 

KEPLIES : — Stonehenge and Camac. 58 — Our End linked 
to our Beginning. 60 — More Family, 61 — Antiquities of 
Lemninster : the Ducking Stool, lb. — Cunningham, 62 — 
OanrlDics by Grinling Gibbons— Hard Words in Chaucer : 
•* Sawoeflem "— Heraldic — Champernon — Medal — Copy- 
ri^t — Genealogical Queries — D'Alton MSS. — Gig- 
maoitiv- May Day Carol — Popular Names of Plants — 
Jaaw Windows — The Horse's Head in Acoustics — Bally 

— ^e Stuarts and Freemasonry, Q^. 

Nbles on Books, &c. 



The newspapers have recently recorded the 
death of Lord Fairfax in America, who was 
lineally descended from Henry Fairfax, D.D., 
rector of Bolton Percy, in the county of York, in 
the reign of Charles I. Feeling sure that some 
particulars concerning a family, two members of 
which, father and eon, played so conspicuous a 
part in English history during the Great Civil 
War, and also its connection with the parish of 
Bolton Percy, will prove generally interesting, I 
have consequently forwarded them for insertion 
in vour periodical. 

&)lton Percy is an extensive parish in the 
Ainsty of York, possessing a fine Perpendicular 
church, built about 1412, and here the Fairfax 
family possessed considerable estates. A slab at 
the entrance of the chancel, removed from within 
the altar-rails, commemorates Henry Fairfax, 
D.D., and Mary his wife, and below the inscrip- 
tion are the arms — Fairfax impaling Cholmley. 
At the south-west angle of the chancel is a large 
monument affixed to the wall, to the memory of 
Ferdinando Lord Fairfax, Baron of Cameron, 
who commanded the centre on the side of the 
Parliament at the battle ofMarston Moor in 1644, 
whilst bravely fighting in the ranks of the Cava- 
liers was John Bolben, afterwards Archbii^op of 
York, The epitaph on it speaks of him as "dextra 
gladium, sinistra stateram tenens," and " literarum 

?atronu8, humanitatis repumicator.'' He died in 
647, aged sixty-four, and was interred in Bolton 
Percy church. There is the following record of 
his burial in the register : — 

" A. D. 1647. 

** Fferdinando Lord Ffairfax, Baron of Cameron, dyed 
att Denton March y* 13, brought to the Parish Church of 
Bolton Pcie and there baried in [illegible] Queire, 
within the said Church : the xvth day of y* same month 

The register-book from which the above extract 

is made is a thick quarto volume bound in vellum, 

and has on the first page the follovnng inscription: 

''The Register Booke of Bolton Pearsie, begininge 

Sept 6, 1671.'* It is complete up to 1696, and I 

have made from it a few more extracts relative to 

the Fairfax family and others, adding here and 

there an explanatory remark. At tne end is 

written, on the inside of the cover, *' Non est mor- 

tale quod opto,'' and '' Thomas Newsam, Curate 

of Bolton, 1684." 

♦*A. D. 1649. 

" M" Mary Kfairfax, wife of Henry Ffairfax of Bolton 
CiSr, died the 24**^ day of December, and was buried j* 

"A. D. 1654. 

" MaiT, y« daughter of Henry Ffairfax v» younger, of 
Bolto, Esq., was baiyed y* same fifteenth aaj of May.*' 

** The dead bom son of Hdnrv Ffidrfax y^ younger of 
Bolto Pcy. Esq. was bom and buryed y eighteenw day 
of November." 

«* A. D. 1657. 

" George Villiers, Duke of Buckingha, and Maiy y« 
daughter of Thomas Lord Fairfax, Baron of Cameron of 
Nun-ApletO yt^^in. this parish of BoltO Percy, were ma- 
ryed the fifteenth day of September, An« Dm. 1657. 

** M' Willia Coyne, v» faithfull Minister or Curate of 
this place, dyed at York y* 28 day and was buried here 
ye four & twentieth day of May 1657." 

The Duke of Buckingham mentioned above was 
the celebrated favourite of Charles 11., who mar- 
ried the only survivor of the two daughters of the 
great General Thomas Lord Fairfax, and died in 
1687 at Kirkby Moorside, according to Pope, " In 
the worst inn*s worst room.'* He left no issue. 

" No wit to flatter, left of all his store ; 
No fool to laugh at, which he valued more ; 
There, victor of his health, of fortune, friends. 
And fame, this lord of useless thousands ends." 

The Duchess died in 1704, in her sixty-eighth 



«*Willift Fforster of Bamborough Castle, Esq., and 
Dorothey, the daughter of S' Willia Selby, late of Twisle 
(I. c. Twizell) in Northumberland, Kt. were maryed y« 
nine and twentieth day of March An<> Dm 1660. Witness 
H. Ffairfax, Rect." 


" M"" Henry Fairfax, Minister, dyed at Oglethorp, and 
was Buried in Bolton Church the 8»»» day of Apprill. [ In 
a different hand] — N.B. He had been l^ector of Bolton." 

Oglethorp is a hamlet in the parish of Bramham, 
in the county of York. The Hon. and Rev* 



[itfc S. IV. July 17, 'Ca. 

Hennr Fairfax, D.D., was the son of Thomas the 
first Lord Fairfax, and hrother of Ferdinando Lord 
Fairfax, and was one of the few men of family 
and rank who at that time took orders. He 
was a man of mark in those times, had been a 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ; a Canon 
of York, and is mentioned by the samtly Geoiye 
Herbert. A nephew of his, another Henry Fair- 
fax, D.D., was a Fellow of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, and took a leading part in opposition to 
James H.'s tyrannical attempt to thrust a pre- 
sident on the society. He was appointed Dean 
of Norwich, and was buried in that cathedral in 
1702, where his epitaph speaks of him : " Ilium 
nee minsB Regis dimoverunt, nee illecebrse ; frangi 
non potuit, flecti noluit.'* Henry, the son of the 
elder Henry Fairfax, D.D., succeeded to the title 
on the death of Thomas Lord Fairfax in 1671, and 
from him the present lord is directly descended. 

" Elizabeth, the Daughter of M^ William Ffairfax of 
Steton, Esquire, was baptized in Steton Chappell Ffeb- 
ruary y» 21»» day." 

Steeton is a township in the parish of Bolton 
Percy, and the ancient home of a branch of the 
Fairfax family. It is now the property of Thomas 
Fairfax, Esq., of Newton Kyme. Part of the old 
hall is occupied as a farmhouse, and there is an 
interesting cnapel, now desecrated, attached to it, 
where the swallow now '^ hath made his pendent 
bed and procreant cradle." The dimensions are 
about thirty feet by fifteen, and a Perpendicular 
window at the east end has once been very beauti- 
ful, and also the doorway. It was once used as a 
place of worship, and baptisms also were solem- 
nised within its walls. 


"Thomas, the sonne of Tobias Wickham, Parson of 
this Parish, was borne the 7<*» day of July 1670, and 
being weake, was baptized the same evening at y* par- 
sonage house. Frances, the daughter of M*" \y^ Topbam 
of Steeton, was baptized in Steeton Chappell July 16»'».*' 


«* Anthonina, the Daughter of M' Tobias Wickham, 
Docktor (mc) and Parson of this Parish, was Borne June 
y« first, and Baptized June y« seaventh." 

*< William, the eonn of Nathaniell Bladen, Esquier, 
was Bom at Steton the 27* of Ffebruary, and was Bap- 
tised in Steton Chappie the 2°* day of March." 

** Elizabeth Wickham, five years and two months old, 
the Daughter of D' Wickham, Parson of this Parish, dyed 
Novemb*" v* 30*, and was buiyed December y« 2* 1612. 
[In the chancel. Mem. this in a different hand, and 
evidently much later.] 


"Mary, y« daughter of D*" Wickham, Parson of this 
Parish, was Baptized at York y« 18 day of May." 

'* Frances, daughter of Madam Susannah Fairfax of 
Steeton, Buried August 10*." 


It is strange that no record of the paternity of 
these two is given, nor of their age. One cannot 
help noting also the very short space which inter- 
vened between the death and burial of several 
people in these entries. 

Thomas Lord Fairfax, the great Parliamentary 
general who commanded the right wing at Mar- 
ston Moor in 1644, and in chief at Naseby the 
following year, is buried at Bilborough, a quiet 
village church about three miles distant from 
Bolton Percy. It is situated a little distance from 
the Great North Koad between Tadcaster and 
York, and very line views of the surrounding 
country and of the lofty central tower of York 
Minster are obtained. The church is a small 
unpretending structure, consisting of nave, chancel^ 
and south aisle, at the end of which is a little 
chapel, in which he and his lady lie buried under 
a large altar-tomb, on the sides of which are 
several coats of arms and military trophies, and 
on a large black marble slab covering it is the 
following epitaph : — 

" Here lye the Bodyes of the Right Honble. Thomas 
Lord Fairfax ot Denton, Baron of Cameron, who dyed 
November y xii. 1671, in the 60th yeare of his age. 
And of Anne his wife,*daughter and coheire of Horatio 
Lord Vere, Baron of Tilbury. They had issue Mary, 
Duchess of Buckingham, and Elizabeth. * The memory 
of the just is blessed.' " 

*' Anne, y* daughter of Madam [Susannah Fairfax of 
Steeton, Buried April 21»«." 

AbovC; incised on the slab, are the arms of 
Fail fax impaling De Vere, of which noble house 
she was a scion, and which gave, in unbroken suc- 
cession, twenty Earls of Oxford from the days of 
Stephen to those of Anne. The twentieth and 
last earl, Aubrey de Vere, commanded the Bluea 
at the battle of the Boyne on the side of King 
William III. Sir Horatio Vere, her father, was 
nephew of John De Vere, the sixteenth earl, and 
served with the greatest distinction in the Low 
Countries. All will recollect Lady Fairfax's answer 
when her husband's name was called at the trial 
of King Charles I., *' He has too much wit to be 
here." Let it be noted, too, that literary and anti- 
quarian pursuits were not beneath the notice of 
the great general. He was the owner of the 
Dodsworth MSS. which he presented to the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford ; and he it was who 
saved the Bodleian from pillage when that fair 
and loyal city surrendered to the Parliament. So 
all honour be given by Oxonians to the memory 
of Thomas Lord Fairfax. 

Denton, mentioned in the epitaph, was an estate 
belonging to the family near Otley, the birthplace 
both of Ferdinando and Thomas Lords Fairfax, 
and also of Edward Fairfax, who won to himself 
a literary name as the translator of Tasso, and 
died in 1632. 

On the death, in 1671, of the celebrated Lord 
Fairfax, the hero of Naseby fight, he was suc- 
ceeded by his cousin Henry, son of the rector of 


4«» S. IV. July 17, *S9.^ 



Bolton Percy, as fourth lord. His son Thomas, 
the fifth lord, married Katherine, daughter of 
Lord Colepeper ; and his son Thomas, the sixth 
lord, succeeded, in right of his mother, to the 
immense estates in America, and went to reside 
upon them, and died there in 1782, at the age of 
ninety-one. They are situated hetween the Po- 
tomac and Kapaoannoc in Virginia, and said to 
be more than a million of acres in extent, and up 
to this day have continued in the possession of 
the family. The father of General Washington 
filled the office of agent to the Lord Fairfax of 
that time, and was married in the church there, 
the fittings of which had heen hrought from Eng- 
land. The fertility and heauty of the country are 
said to be most wonderful, equal to the Iloratian 
description : — 

**Germinat et nanquam fallentis terraes olivae ; 
Suamqae puUa ficas omat arborem ; 
Mella cava manant ex ilice : montibus altis 
Leris crepante lympha desilit pede." 

Hor. Epod. xvi. 

John Pickford, M.A. 
Bolton Percy, near Tadcaster. 


In The Gttardian for June 23, 1869, the ques- 
tion of the etymology of hearse is started, with the 
observation that ''a correspondent suggests that 
it may come from the obsolete old English herrienj 
to praise — still extant, possibly, in the word rc- 
hearse — and is ultimately to be traced to the Ger- 
man Atfrr, or one of its many derivatives — perhaps 
heraagen, to praise or celebrate." Surely this is 
worth making a note of, as showing what non- 
sense can be said and will continue to be said as 
long as the principle prevails that in English 
etymology guesswork is to be accepted in place 
of research! 

In the first place, where, except in Spenser 
and Drayton, is herrien spelt with a double r? 
Secondly, to rehearse has nothing to do with the 
A.-S. herian or O. Eng. herye. Thirdly, hearse has 
nothing to do with heriatiy nor has herr anything 
to do with hersagen, nor does hersagen mean to 
muse! The derivation of hearse is given in 
Wedgwood quite correctly. It is from the 0. Fr. 
herche, Ger. harhe^ a rake ; cf. Suio-Goth. harf, 
Lat. irpixy the fundamental idea being that of 
acratching or scraping the ground ; cf. Lat. arare^ 
O. Eng. ear, to plough. Tne English word from 
the same root is a harrow. How the French tri- 
angular herche or harrow was likened to the trian- 
gmiar frame for holding candles at funerals, how 
die name was again transferred to funeral obsequies 
in general, to a cenotaph, and finally to the funeral 
oaniage itself, is all in Wedgwood. To rehearse 
ismerely the 0. Fr. rehercer, to harrow all over again. 
Afyfl^topnue^ isconnected with A.-S. here, praise^ 

Ger. ehre, honour, and Suio-Goth. esra, honour, 
which see in Ihre. Hersagen, instead of being 
one of the derivatives of lierr, a lord, is a deriva- 
tive of the adverb her, hither ; but this is a trifle 
to the correspondent of The Guardian, The dis- 
cussion of this etymology could be exemplified at 
great length and in an interesting manner ; but I 
only wish to draw attention here to the ease with 
which the most ignorant assertions obtain cur- 
rency, if the subject be etymology. On every 
other subject, as botany, history, geology, men 
are expected to have some slight acjquamtance 
with standiurd publications: why is it that, on 
etymology, any rubbish passes muster? I may, 
before concluding, draw attention to another 
meaning of herse not above noticed. It is em- 
ployed by Spenser to signify the pyramidal trophy 
upon which the various parts of a knight's armour 
were piled up and displayed ; whence to unherse 
armour is to take it down from its place. The 
past participle unherst occurs in F, Q, v. 3. 37, 
and is not noticed by Nares. And it may further 
be noted that the connection of hearse with re- 
hearse was probably suggested by an absui*dity of 
Spenser's (K Q. iii. 2. 48), where he actually 
writes ?ierse instead of hersaU^ for the sake of a 
rime, having further settled it with himself that 
hersaU may be used for rehearsal ! Be it remem- 
bered that Spenser's etymology is often quite as 
wrong as his false old Eoglish. 

Walteb W. Skeat. 
1, Cintra Terrace, Cambridge. 



In a former contribution to « N. & Q." (4'" S. 
ii. 504), I have spoken of an interesting interview 
between Napoleon and the amiable Grand Duke 
George of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and I fancy that 
another interview with the Emperor, being of a 
more peacable character, will be found acceptable. 
It is related by an eye-witness ; and reminds one, 
to a certain extent, of that which Napoleon had 
with Goethe, and which we all know from Mr. 
Lewes's excellent Life of Goethe, At the time 
when the interview I am alluding to, between 
Napoleon and Wieland (bom 1733, died 1813), 
tooK place, the fame of tho latter as an author 
was equal to that of Goethe himself; although at 
the present time Wieland*s writings, with the 
exception of his unequalled Oberon (published in 
1780), which will keep his name alive for cen- 
turies to come — his works, I say, form but the 
reading of the curious or of literary students. 
The spontaneous charm has passed away. 

Napoleon came to Weimar in October, 1808. 
This visit was, to a certain degree, a compliment 
he paid to the Duchess Luise of Saxe-Weimar, 
who had won his admiration by her noble bearing 



[4»h S. IV. July 17, '69. 

and by the common sense which she hod shown 
during Napoleon's former visit to Weimar (180G), 
at a time when her husband, the excellent Karl 
August, was on the point of losing everything, 
having joined the Prussian army. Things had 
now been settled. Part of a heavy contribution 
(2,200,000 francs) had been paid. Napoleon, 
Alexander of Russia, and a host of kings, princes, 
and generals, had come to Erfurt, and from thence 
to Weimar. On October 6, 1808, a splendid hunt 
had been arranged in the Ettersberg forest ; after 
which, a gala-dinner took place. In the evening 
Napoleon^s French troup acted Voltaire's Mori de 
CSsar, with Talma as Brutus, before a parterre of 
kings. It was a grand performance. When C^sar 
exclaimed (last scene of Act I.) — 

" Je led aurais panis, si je les pouvais craindre ; 
Ne me conseillez point de me faire hair. 
Je sais combattre, vaincre, et ne sais point panir. 
AUons ; et n'^outant ni soup<;ons ni vengeance, 
Sur Tunivers soumis r^gnons sans violence," — 

it was "as if an electrical spark were running 
through the whole audience.'* The theatre over, 
a ball was given to the emperors. Alexander 
charmed every one he came near to. Napoleon 
even made an effort, to say something agreeable 
to the ladies he passed by ; reminding one of that 
levSe at Saint Cloud, of which Vamhagen speaks 
in his " Reminiscences " {Denkwiirdigkeiten), and 
where the Emperor constantly repeated to all 
the ladies : " II fait chaud, madame ! " One 
lady here at Weimar made an exception — it 
was Frau von der Recke, celebrated in literary 
circles. When the Emperor heard that she came 
from Erfurt, he replied courteously — "I should 
not have thou^l^t that there were such beautiful 
women at Erfurt; but were you bom there?" 
"No, siie, I was born at Stettin." "You are, 
therefore, a Prussian ? " " Yes, sire, from my 
heart and soul!" "Well," the Emperor replied, 
bowing courteously, "we must attach ourselves 
closely to out patrie,^^ 

I have extracted these particulars from an in- 
teresting valuable little volume by the noble- 
minded Kanzler Friedrich von Miiller (bom 1779, 
died 1849), the life-long friend of Goethe and of 
the Duke (afterwards Grand Duke) Karl August 
of Saxe- Weimar. A noble-minded man himself, 
the future Chancellor Von Miiller was the friend 
of the best and the worthiest of Germany during 
the first half of our century. Quite a young man, 
he had begun his diplomatic career by coming in 
close contact with Napoleon, having several diplo- 
matic interviews witn the Emperor at Berlin, 
Paris, and elsewhere; and it seemed that the 
open character of the young man made an agree- 
able impression upon the then almighty ruler. 
He frequently conversed with Von Miiller, and 
thus it happened that the latter was present when, 
the evening of that ball, the Emperor freely con- 

versed with Wieland. I shall now merely trans- 
late what I find noted down in the volume alluded 
to : " Reminiscences of the Times of War, 1806- 
1813" (JErt?merwigeti au^ den Kriegsseiten von 
180G-1813, von Friedrich von Miiller, Brunswic, 
1851, pp. 310). The author writes : — 

** After having conversed some time with Goethe, the 
Emperor came suddenly up to me and asked : * But where 
is Wieland ? Why has he not been presented to me ? ' 
I replied that his age [Wieland was then in his seventy- 
sixth year] was keepint^ him back from balls, but that J 
would cause him to appear directly. The Duke imme- 
diately sent a carriage to fetch him. Wieland was much 
surprised, but after no long delay 1 could present him to 
Napoleon. The latter was just standing at one of the 
columns that form the passage to the open adjoining 
rooms. I kept somewhat in the background, but in such 
a manner that I could hear the whole conversation word 
for word. After some friendly preliminary words, th« 
Emperor asked him which of his works he considered the 
most important. * Sire/ replied the venerable old man, 
' I do not attach a great value to any of them. I have 
written what I have felt within my heart.' * But which,* 
the Emperor continued, * is that of your works which you 
have brought forth [cree] with the greatest predilection ? * 
Whereupon Wieland named Agathon and Oberon. 

" Now the Emperor passed over to subjects relating to 
the history of the world, and put the same question 
which he had asked of Johannes MUlIer [the historian] 
two years previously, after the battle of Jena : Which 
time [era, epoch] Wieland considered the happiest for 
the human race? Johannes Mttller had declared the 
reign of the Antonines ; but Wieland answered : * That is 
difficult to decide. The Greeks often enjoyed happy 
times, if we but consider culture and personal freedom. 
Rome had, beside many bad emperors, also several ex- 
cellent ones who deserve to be called genii of the human 
race. Other nations and states, too, are able to be proud 
of wise and mild rulers ; but as a whole, historir seems to 
move in a large circle. The good and the bad, virtue 
and vice change constantly ; and it is the problem of philo- 
soph}' to find out everywhere what is good, and to make 
us bear what is bad by the exaltation of what is good.* 
'True,' the Emperor said; * but it is not right to paint 
everything in black, as Tacitus has done. He is a clever 
painter, certainly, a bold and seducing colourist, but be 
was only trj'ing to produce effect. History does not 
want any illusions ; she has to clear up and to teach us, 
not merely to produce or sketch impressive pictures. 
Tacitus has not developed sufficiently the causes and the 
inward motives of the events. He has not deeply enough 
explored the mystery of the actions and sentiments, as 
well as their reciprocally interlinking each other, in 
order to establish a just and unimpaired judgment for 
future generations. Such a judgment must take men 
and people only just as they could be in the midst of 
their time and of the circumstances that influenced their 
actions. We must be able to see clearly how every 
action was developing itself under the given circum- 
stances that influenced it. The Roman emperors were 
by far not so bad as Tacitus has drawn them. In this 
respect I prefer Montesquieu by far. He is juster and 
keeps closer to truth.' 

** Hereupon the Emperor passed over to the Christian 
religion and its history, especially to the reasons of its 
spreading itself so quickly. 

*' * I find herein,* he said, * a wonderful reaction of the 
Greek spirit against the Roman. Greece, conquered by 
physical strength, reconquers its spiritual power by ac- 
cepting and nursing that beneficial seed which across the 

4«* S. IV. Ji-LT 17, '69.] 



water the kind providence of God %ad sown for the 
hmnan race. Apropos/ — here he approached Wieland 
cloe'f'lv, and put his hand up to his mouth, that nobody 
but Wieland and myself couhl hear it— 'Apropos, it is yet a 
{^eat question whether or not Jesus Christ has ever lived.' 

** Wieland, who until then had only listened atten- 
tively, replied quickl}', and with lively emotion : * I know 
well, sire, that there were some foolish persons who 
doubted of it ; but it seems to me just as foolish to doubt 
that Julias Caesar has been living, and that Your Majesty 
still lives.* 

** Upon this the Emperor patted Wieland on the 
shoulder and said : * True, true.' He then conti;iued : 

** * The philosophers plap^ue themselves to build up 
systems ; but they are vainly looking for a better one than 
Ohristianity, by which man becomes reconciled to him- 
self, and by which public order and jjeneral welfare are 
equally guaranteed as is the happiness and the hope of 
single individuals ! ' 

•* Napoleon seemed to be much inclined to continue 
this harangue, but Wieland showed evident signs of being 
tired 1^ standing so long, whereupon the Emperor gave 
him most graciously leave to withdraw. W^hether or not 
the Emperor was in full earnest with regard to this re- 
markable question, or whether he wished to tr}^ Wieland, 
whom be bad often heard styled the German' Voltaire^ I 
most leave undecided, but the latter seemed to me the 
more probable. Evidently, however, as I then remarked, 
Wieland's answer struck and pleased him much." (Vide 
ant^, ErinnerungeTij pp. 249-253.) 

" The same evening, the Emperor once more conversed 
with Goethe, showing a deep interest in the culture of 
tragical art ; and a few days after he had another inter- 
view with Goethe, as well as with Wieland. It was 
during his luncheon. The Emperor treated both with 
exquisite attention and distinction, the conversation 
behig about their families and life." (Vide antfe, Erin- 
nerun^en, pp. 253, 259.) 

It is a pity that Chancellor Yon Miiller does 
not say whether or not Napoleon seemed to be 
fond of hearing himself speak, although he was 
full of attention and interest opposite the two 
great authors when tltei/ were speaking, more so 
perhaps than with anybody else in Germany. 
Talleyrand, who always kept up his friendly re- 
lations with the Chancellor, asked the latter to 
write down a kind of mfmoire relating to the 
conversations between the Emperor and Goethe 
and Wieland, which however Herr von Miiller 
declined. (Vide ante, Enmicrungeti^ p. 253.) Per- 
lucps Talleyrand did such a thing upon the insti- 
gation <rf his then master. There seems to be no 
doubt that Napoleon knew how to converse when 
he came in contact with clever people, even if 
they did not always subscribe to his opmion. Even 
such personages as the Emperor Alexander he 
could captivate, although the latter once said to 
th^Duke of Oldenburg, "C'est un torrent qu'il 
faat laisser passer ! '' 

Possibly I may venture to give some more au- 
thenticated ** interviews" with the Emperor in 
the pages of '' N. & Q.," as, for instance, those 
between him and the fore-named Duchess Luise 
of Saxe- Weimar, the Queen of Prussia, Saint 
Aignan the ambassador, Chancellor Von Miiller, 
and others. Hebmann Ejndt. 

The Oak and the Ash. — The oak was out 
this year so long before the ash that the fine dry 
summer indicated thereby seems late in coming. 
Nevertheless, that it will keep the old proverb, 
"Better late than never,*' seems probable from 
the following statistics, which may be considered 
worthy to be transposed from the Herefoid Tima 
to"N. &Q."; — 

*' In the years 1816, 1817, 1821, 1823, 1828, 1829, 1830, 
1838, 1845, 1850, and 1859, the ash was in full foliage more 
than a month hefore the oak, and cold and unproductive 
seasons succeeded. In 1831, 1839, 1853, and 1860, both these 
species of vegetatfon began their race about the same 
period, and the summers which followed were neither 
one wav nor the other. Whereas in 1818, 1819, 1820, 
1822, 1^24, 1825, 182G, 1827, 1834, 1835,1836,1837,1842, 
184G, 1854, and 1868 the oak displayed its umbras^ous 
foliage weeks before its companion of the for^t, and 
these years were particularly distinguished for tine, dry, 
and warm weather, and subsequently by the most abun- 
dant harvests recorded in the annals of our country." 

J. Forth Humby. 

Jean Cavalliee. — Here is a letter of Chamil- 

larfs when Secretary of War, relative to the 

celebrated Camisard Chief, which I think may 

interest your numerous readers :— 

" Je vols par vostre lettre du 14 du mob passe que 
Caualier est a la haye, qu'il se donne tons les monuemens 
possibles pour se mettre en estat d'excitcr de nouueaux 
troubles dans les seven nes. Yous rendriez vn grand sernice 
au Roy si vous pourriez engager quelqu*officier sous 
pr^tcxte d'agir de concert auec fuy h le liurer k quelque 
party que Ton enuerroit sur la u-onti^re de france ; il 
faudroit pour cela estre auert^ bien sceurement de tous 
les jours de sa marche, et des lieux par oil il passeroit. S'il 
s'embarque il n*est pas possible d'exccuter ce projet pen- 
dant sa route, mais on pourroit, lorsqu'il sera d^termind de 
rentrer dans le Royaume, luy dresser quelque embuscade 
qui r^ussira seurcment. Si vous trouuez quelqu'vn. 
d'assez bonne foy pour a'attacher k luy qui ne I'aban- 
donne pas jusqu*k ce qu'il Tait remis h quelqu'officier des 
troupes de Sa Maj<« que Ton feroit trouuer 2i jour nomme 
dand le lieu quMl iudiqueroit, vous poun-ez tenter toutes 
sortes de voyes, et si vous vous donnez bien du mouue- 
ment sur cctte affaire, en cas qu*elle reussisse, le Roy 
fera donner deux mil pistoles k celuy qui aura livr^ 

" Chamillart." 

P. A. L. 

Douglas Jereold and Byron. — It is some- 
where recorded, as a saying of Douglas Jerrold*s, 
that a wife at forty should, like a bank-note, be 
exchangable for two of twenty. The idea must 
certainly have been taken from Byron : — 

" Wedded she was some years, and to a man 
Of fifty, and such husbands are in plenty ; 
And yet, I think, instead of such a one 
'Twere better to have two of five-and-twenty.** 

Don Juanf Ixii. 


Ernest-Augustus, Duke of Brunswick- 
LuNEBURG (first Elector of Hanover, father of 
George I.) — On a very large silver medal this 



[4«» S. IV. July 17, '69. 

prince is represented in Koman armour, but with 
the more modern skullcap, beard, and scarf. Un- 
derneath is written on a scroll : *' Augustus . d . g . 
DUX . BB . ET . LUNB." Two Standing female 
figiires^the one persooifving Justice, with sword 
and scales; the other Peace, with the palm- 
branch — hold two crowns over his head, the ducal 
and a laurel one. Above is the inscription : 
"faustum iustiti^ et pacis consortum." On 
the reverse, fourteen scutcheons of the family in 
a circle entwined; at the top, the year " 1666." 
In the centre a crowned helmet, with above it a 
crowned pillar surmounted by feathers with a 
star; ana two peculiar horns, between which 
gallops the Guelphic horse. Round it is written : 
**ALLES MIT bedacht" (in fact the duke, on the 
obverse, has a very knowing sidelook) ; but what 
I cannot make out, and should like to have inform- 
4ition about, is the further inscription : *' ^tat . 
LXXXvniD . NAT . XAPRiL."* What does this date 
•correspond to ? 

I possess another large medal of Fridericus 
Ulricus, father of Ernest- Augustus (1614), in 
-armour, on horseback, with a large flowing scarf 
and staff of command. In the profile of the head 
you can already discern a striking likeness with 
the coins of George III. (1787), and which still 
obtains in the family at the present day. 

^ P. A. L. 

The " Klopjks " in Holland. — The facts stated 
in the following extract appear so curious, and 
are so little known in England, that they may 
perhaps be deemed worthy of publication in 

** The Roman Catholic churches (if such a name may 
be given to them) that were built in Holland in the 17th 
century, exhibited in a very palpable manner the dangers 
to which Roman Catholics were exposed in performing 
their worship. The place universallj* selected was a 
house situated in the most solitary part of a town. The 
interior was literally pierced with a guard of galleries, 
like an ant*s nest, and every cornice, even the smallest, 
was made use of as a place tor the auditors. These gal • 
leries ran up for four, five, and even six stories, whilst 
transversal openings in all directions were made to enable 
the faithful to see what passed at the altar. There were 
in the outer walls secret spy-holes (des judos caches') 
looking out upon all the streets by which the oflScers of 
the law might approach. It is desirable that such curi- 
ous edifices should be preser\'ed — and of such houses a 
certain number still remain in Amsterdam, Utrecht, and 
Haarlem — as they, at the same time, demonstrate the 
fidelity of the persecuted church in Holland, as well as 
the much-boasted- of * toleration ' of its adversaries. Very 
frequently these houses were apparently a portion of some 
adjoining tavern. Thus, there are to be found in Am- 
sterdam the churches of *the Pigeon,' of * Moses and 
Aaron,' of * the Green Tree,' and * the Parrot* 

" When it was requisite for the Roman Catholics to 
meet together, or when some danger was apprehended, 

[• Is it not an error of the engraver for " ^etat . 
Lxxxviii . D . NAT. X . APRIL," showing it was struck on 
his eighty-etghth birthday, April 10 ?— Ed. "X. &. Q." J 

use was made of * the Klopjes,* or * Knocking Sisters,* to 
apprise or to warn them. \Vith such as these it was not 
possible to have the rules of a religious community, or 
the wearing an unusual costume. These 'sisters re- 
mained in the homes of their families, and from thence 
visited villages, attended the sick, taught the catechism, 
distributed alms, and very often made more couverts 
than the priests themselves. They were the constant 
objects of attack in furious placards from the government, 
which had forbidden, under the severest penalties, more 
than two of them being together at the same time, or to 
have the power of making a will, or to inherit any fixed 

** At Utrecht * the Klopjes ' were to be found near the 
church of St. Gertrude, in an isolated part of the city, 
and not far from the road leading from Amsterdam to 
Gorcum. Whoever has assisted at the offices of thia 
church cannot but have been surprised in seeing the 
numerous passages and gates affording the means of egress 
and escape in case of any danger. 

'* 1 have been assured that the last of * the Klopjes ' died 
at Utrecht in 1853, The name doubtless is derived fh>m 
the Dutch word Klopjen^ to knock, and this had refer- 
ence to the mode by which they gave warning of some 
imminent peril. Each sister had the special charge of 
some particular article used in divine worship, sudi as 
the chalice, corporal, patena, burettes ; and when magis- 
trates unexpectedly presenteid themselves in a church all 
such articles disappeared with incredible rapidity, and 
nought then was discoverable but bare walls and empty 

This extract is taken from an article published 
in Le Correspondant (Nouv. S^r.), xv. 36-38, and 
entitled ** Jans^nisme en IloUande." 

W. B. Mac Oabb. 

Place St,-Sauveur, Dinan, France. 

The Rinder-Pest, or Cattle Plague. — The 
following sentence has just caught my eye in 
looking over the Westminster Magazine for 1773, 
and I transcribe it for the benefit of those whom 
it may concern : — 

" Monday^ Dec. 7. — A letter from Mecklenburgh says, 
that a remedy has been discovered there for the distem- 
per incident to the horned cattle. It is no more than 
feeding the diseased beasts with crab -apples ; the same 
fruit, put into the water given the cattle to drink, has 
been found to prevent the distgmper." 

William Bates. 

The BARONETcr or Thornton. — Andrew 
Strachan of Thornton, a favourite of Charles I., 
was created a baronet of Nova Scotia by that 
sovereign on the 28th May, 1625, with succession 
to male heirs in general. On the death of the only 
son of this baronet without issue, the title was 
assumed by his kinsman, the Rev. James Strachan, 
parish minister of Keith. This reverend gentle- 
man possessed gi*eater business qualifications than 
are usual with persons of his order; he was 
consequently appointed a county magistrate of 
Morayshire, and agent or factor to the Duke of 
Gordon. Hence the rhyme celebrating his plu- 
ralities : — 

*' The belted knight o' Thornton 
And factor to his Grace ; 
And Maister James Strachan, 
Justice o' the Peace." 

4*8.17, JwLr 17, '69.] 



The onlj boh of thia reverend baronet became 
u Jeenit priest. On his death the bamnelcj de- 
Tolved OD the next heir male, a post-captAin in 
die navy. This gentleman was succeedea bj his 
nephew, Sir Richard John Strachan, sixth baronet 
of Thomton, who died on Feb. 3, 1828. Since 
Ida death the baronetcy has been dormant Se- 
Teisl mambera of the btrachen family are settled 
in Abeideenahire j others reside in London. 

Bedlah Beooabs and Rosemary. — laKinfi 
Ltar, Act n. Sc. 3, Edgar describes these be^ars 
•i Btickiog in their arms (with other things) 

— Was the use of this compound, 
1 to the very vulgar or to children 
and their Dursee, ever general in England ; and 
if so, whenwBS it superseded by the present tennF 
Weoater gives Forby as his authority for the 
word. What is the date of this writer, and where 
in his works is the word to be found P * The only 
inatance I know of the occurrence of the word 
bitmble (let no one maliciously quote Charles 
Dickena aguuat me) ia in that line of Chaucer's — 

"And Bi th« bilore Lumbleth in tbe mire" ; 
and yet the Greek $aft$at which was applied to 
the sound made by bees, and of which the root 
homb is 8<ud to be formed by onomatopceia to 
represent any buzang or booming sound, would 
■eem tole^timate bumble, to the excliuiou of the 
supposed intruder humble used in the same eeose. 
For, although it may be urged that this latter 
ezpreasea the humming sound of beea (whence the 
Germao hummel), yet the insertion of the b (I am 
gniltleas of intending a pun) requires explanation; 
■nd it would look as if the genuine word hum 
hsd been engrafted on the final syllable of bumble, 
of which bomb was the root. 1 find that Walker, 
in hit edition of Johnson, after directing that 
A»<inifc(hmnilis) be pronounced without aspiration, 
absurdly pronounces in the same way the same 
combinalJon of letters in humble-bee, as if this 
also had the same root, and were not derived, 
whether by false analogy or no, from hum. 

W. B. C. 
The Bi;rial of the Kufos of Fbahce before 
THE SREAT Revolctios OF 1789.— In France on 
the eve of the great Revolution flVance, IloUand, 
and the Netherlands. By Admiral Sir George 
Collier. Edited by bia Grand- daughter, Mrs. 

[■ Tkt rocabuiarj/ of Fail Anglta, by Rotert Forby, 
iii3vaI>.lSmo, appeared in ihejeaiB 1830, 1858.] 

Charles Tennant London, 1866, p. 20^ the fol- 
lowing custom is narrated : — 

"We contianed our joumej tbroagh Luxanlhe and 
£conen to St. Dennia, the barial-plaee of the klngi of 
France and Ibe rojal fainil}-. It wh in 1T7S wlun I 
wag there, »Bd Louis SIV. was then nohnriBdjit being 
I the custom not to inter one king till hii gnccenor dies. 
' The reason of this I never could laam." 

Perhaps some contributor may throw aome li^t 
upon this very strange practice, and what was th« 
reason of it G. Mokbis. 


EiTLOGiDM OH Chathak.— Was Grattan the 
author of the eulogium upon the firat Earl of 
Chatham, commeudng " The secreta^ stood alone. 
Original and imaccommodating, the ^tnres of his 
character possessed all the nardihood of anti- 
quity " P If 80, where ia it to be found in any 
collection of bis speeches P Bab-Poiki. 


Civil Wak. — Who was the editor or compiler 
of the following P — 

" A Deecription of the . . . Siegss end Battlss in tlie 
Nortb or JCnglacd .... during tbe Civil War in 1642-S, 
&C. . • . Memoire of GeneTBl Fairfax, and James Earl 
of Derby : to which is added the Lite of Oliver Crom- 
welt : likewise an impartial History of the KebeUions In 
.... 1716 sad I74fi. Bolton : piinl^ by G. Drake. 
1786." 8vo. pp.476. 

The copy before me contains, at p. 203, "An 
Exact Representation of the Execution of James 
Earl of Derby, at Bolton, 1651."— "G.Taylor del. 
Bolton " ; and at p. 211, a portrait of " O. Crom- 
well"— "G.Taylor del, G. Barlow sculp. London." 
The pages from 87 to 108 are occumed by "A 
Genuine Account of the Taking of Braaford, copied 
r _ — — 'icript written by Joseph Lister, who 

thereof. A comparison with 
pp. 7-27 of Mr. Thomas Wright's Aulobiogr<q>hu 
of Joieph Litter, of Bradford (Load. 18421 will 
show that the former account ia much altered 
irom the original. W. C. B, 

The Coubt ih 1784.— In what works am I 
likely to find the largest collection of Court 
gossip and scandal for thia yeaiP I am anxioua 
to find a notice of a marriage which took place in 
London at this date. F. M. S. 

DiBBEHTiifa Bells. — In an account of the open- 
ing of the magnificent new Unitarian church at 
Todmorden, Lancashire, on April 14, 1869, the 
papers say — "A beautiful peal of eight bells rang 
out a jubilant welcome, and flags were hung out 
from the belfry windows." Is this the first 
instance of dissenting bells P I think not, for I 
believe that in the West of Englanda bell is oftan 
an adjunct to Methodist and other chapels. And 
I hare heard that "peals" of bells are attached 
to several of the recently constructed Roman Ca- 
tholic lurches. S. 



Cartolabibs, btc. op pArEiwHAst Abbei 
AMD DAVHfOTON PEroBT. — In the Caliectanee 
Topoip-^hica ef Omeabffica, vol. i. p. 203, is thf' 
followmg foot-note: — 

■ " Weaver cites a earlulaiy of Feveriilinm in the Cotton 
Libruy. It is noc (bere at premnt. It ia BBid thai 
Jsmea, the librarian lo Sir Rgberl Cotton, took the liberty 
of lending Sir Uoberfa MSS. U) iphomsoevcr he pleaeed, 
Thlaiaactue to the 1o!h of those nbich are not in Smith's 
Catato^e, but it appears that some nere not restored 
wliich were lent afterwnrdi by Sir T. Cotton, as may be 
proved by his book ofloans in" the British Museom." 

00 p. 200 it is queried that tlie cartulary of 
Daviiigiion iB in tbe poaaeaaion of Sir John I'llmer ; 
the owner of the priory therefore wrote to the 
present baronet, Sir Edmund Filmer, who iu 
nnaver (Feb. 3, ISOl) a«ya, "I cannot find nny 
book Buswering your description." 

1 shall be f^lad to hear if the whereAbouts of 
these cnrtulftiies is known, and at the same time 
I should be obliged to anyone who can refer mo 
to unpublished MSS. containing- information re- 
lating to these religious houses. Late in the last 
century there were remaining three old buildings 
within the precincts ofFsverBham Abbey, and the 
refectory orDaTington Friory. I am anxious to 
see engravings or drawings of tbem. Can your 
readers refer me to any work containing what I 
SM in search of? I have consulted in vain local 
and county histories — Buck, Grose, and Pennant. 

GGob<3e Bedo. 
C, Pnlross Road, Brixton, 

Hbsaldic. — Will any of the readers of 
"N. & Q." inform me whose arms are these — 
Oulea three women's busts (faces), 2 and 1 or P 
H. Q. L. 

HOKBYCEILD. — There is a very andent manor- 
house called the Manor of Honeychild, nsar to St. 
Mary's in the neighbourhood of New Romney, 
occupied by William Dering Walker, Esq., J.P. 
for the coun^ of Kent. The manor belongs to 
Sir Edward Cholmelev Dering, Bart., of Surrenden 
Dering, near AshforG, and M Grosvenor Place, 
Hyde Park Comer. Can vou throw any light 
on the date or meaning of the word Honeychild? 
SomeUraes old copper coins have been found in 
the fields adjacent. I have written to Mr. W. D. I 
Walker for one, and will forward it to \our office ; 
it may aid antique inquiry. Thomas jBcsbtjby. 

jAlfRT Little. — Who was " .lanet Little, the 
Scotch milkmaid," whose poetical works were 
published at Ayr in 1792 ? Was she a genuine 
milkmaid or railkwoman, like Ann Yearsley of 
Bristol, whose poems appeared about the same 
date under the auspices of Hannah More P 

A. J. M. 

To Lie undee a Mistake— Who was the 

originator of this not veiy brilliant joke P It haa 
been perpetrated, and perhaps independently, by 

two very brilliant writers, Byron and Be Quincey ; 
did it originate with the former ? Here are the 

Led by lome tottnoiity of mind 

Xot to believe my verse and their own eyi 
' "^ — """It they the moral cannot find. 

If htm, 


Should captaini 

Tbey also lie u 

(Byron, Don Juan, cuiiui i. m. ivo.) 
"Yon are tempted, after \Tatking round aline (of Mil- 
ton's) threescore times, to exclaim at last-' Well, if the 
Fiend himself should rise up before me at this very 
moment, in this very study of mine, and sav that no 
screw was loose in that line, then would 1 reply i Sir, with 

due submission, you are .' 'What! suppose the 

Fiend suddenly to demand in thunder, ■ What am I ? ' 
' Horribly wrong,' yon wish excee<linRlj' to say; bat, re- 
colleeCing that some people are choleric in aigumeat, yon 
conline yourself to the polite answer — ' That, with duer- 

1 word t 

n, yoi 

ipon in talking 
' under a sli^cht. 
' Milton veriai , 

^end, and you hasten to add— 
vtry alight mistake.'"— On Quinciy ; 
Southey and Landor.") 

Maxiu ATTRimilSD TO RoCEBFOtrCAnlB. — 
"We should live with our friends as if tbey 
would one day become our enemies." Is this 
maxim in Rochefoucauld P It occurs in Sophocles, 
Atat MmTTiyo^ipei, 604: — 

TiwaSfl' Irrovpyir iipt\tui Sov\iiao)iai, 
i,, alir oi ,utK>i«^. 

Maokemiib K C, Walooti, B.D^ F.S.A, 
Mbballic. — I have a silver medal, rather less 
than Ilorin size, of which the following is a de- 
scription. Can any of yout readers tell me who 
is the person intended to be commemorated by it, 
and the signification of the design on the re- 
Ob. : A female head in profile, letter N under- 
neath, " ANNA . MARIA . CnmSI . DEEPHIJTA." 
_ Rev. : " * ivx * VNA * tbibvs *," and within a 
circle a star of five points, surrounded by rays, 
which strike down upon a group of buildings sur- 
mounted by n dome. In a row, on the ground- 
three crowns of different patterns ; in the exerjrue 
1000. W. H. P. 


MiLTOS. — Is there any authentic portrwt of 
Milton when blind? I believe I have one by 
Cooper. J. C. J.' 

Patne. — Wanted, particulars respecting Payne, 
called the father of English water-colour paining. 
I have two of his sketches. F. S. A. 

Saxon Cuticle on a Chubch-dooe. — I Have 
been asked to identify the place where the follow- 
ing discover}- was made not many years agn. 

4««' S. IV. Jolt 17, '69.] 



Upon the church-door in a certain East Anglian 
parish a shred of leather had long hung, which, 
upon investigation, microscopical and archaeolo- 
fficaly was declared to he the dried skin of some 
Saxon villein (!) who had been nailed by the ear. 
When, where, and how this peculiar discovery 
was made I have yet to learn. C. J. R. 

Velocipedes. — Where and when were these 
machines first used or spoken of ? In a letter of 
Bettina von Amim (** the child"; vide passitn, 
Mr. Lewes's Life of Goethe *) to her brother Cle- 
mens Brentano, I find the following remark : — 

"This match is a work of Grandmama [Sophie von 
Laroche, a celebrated German novelist of the last cen- 
tury, the friend of Wieland]. A short time ago the 
lady in question met at her house this Herr von Drais, 
just as he was trying in front of it a draisine [Bettina 
Menu to coin the word here sur-le-champit a kind of seat 
•with wheels, which Herr von.Drais moves along with his 
hands and feet." ( Vide Clemens Brentano's Fruhlings- 
kranz aus Jugendbriefen ihm geflochten, 2 vojs. 1844. 
Vol. L p. 107.) 

Unfortunately, these letters are not dated 
(months or days excepted), dates of years being 
A weakness of Bettina'sj but from other evi- 
dences, it is to be conjectured that the letter al- 
luded to was written in 1802 or 1803. 

Hermann Kindt. 

" When my Etestbings break in Death." — 
This line occurs in Toplady*s beautiful hymn, 
*' Bock of A^es." What is the exact force or 
meaning of tne expression ? and where did he 
get the phrase? Was it a common one in his 
dav ? Now we never would use it. Z. 

Whittxitg ton's Shield op Arms and Stone. 
Can any of your readers tell me what has become 
of the stone bearing the arms of Whittington, 
formerly in one of the walls of Christ's Hospital ? 
It was in the possession of the late Mr. JS. B. 
Price, F.S.A., and was sold ^vith the rest of his 
mtiquities in 1852. T. F. Falkner. 

[At the dispersion of the antiquities of the late Edward 

Bedford Price, F.S.A., at Puttick's on April 7, 1853, this 

medlfsral City relic passed into the collection of Mr. W, 

H. Ibbett, a dealer in articles of t'lWw, now of Jewin Street, 

Aldersgate Street, who parted with it to some unknown 

• u 

We must pause awhile to consider this strange 
flgare, who fills a larger space in the literaiy history of 
the nin^eenth century than any. other German woman. 
Every one knows * the'child* Bettina Brentano— daughter 
of the Maximiliane Brentano [nee Laroche], with whom 
Goethe flirted at Frankfurt in the Werther days— wife of 
Achlm von Amim, the worshipper of Goethe and Beetho- 
ren— for some time the privileged favourite of the King 
of Pnaasia— and writer of that %vild, but by no means 
vtracioas book, Ooethe'» Correspondence with a ChUdJ* 
(Vide Life of Goethe, I ed. 1855 ; vol. ii. pp. 360—371.) 

customer about three years ago. It certainly ought to 
have been deposited in the library and museum of the 
City of London. The western walk of the cloisters of the 
monastery of Grey Friars in Newgate Street was under 
the Great Hall, pulled down in 1827, as was Whittington's 
library at the same time. The shield of Whittugton, 
within a quatrefoil, was inserted in various parts of the 
building. An etching of the stone from the library of 
Grey Friars, a.d. 1421, is printed in the Chronicle of the 
Grey Friars, edited for the Camden Society by Mr. John 
Gough Nichols in 1862. 

Whilst en this celebrated memorial we mav as well 
record in our pages the inscription on the restored stone, 
the fifth we believe (see " N. & Q. ' 1»« S. ix. 501 ; x. 234), 
recently erected at the foot of Uighgate Hill, so lovingly 
has the memory of Whittington been cherished, where, as 
some fondly imagine, the runaway apprentice sat listening 
to the Bow bells of Cheap. The present stone has been 
replaced by Mr. Richard Perkins, proprietor of the Whit- 
tington-stone Tavern, at the expense of 40/. — a noble 
act, for which our worthy host merits the gratitude of all 
our local antiquaries. It has been re-faced, and enclosed in 
an oval plinth carrying an iron railing supporting a very 
handsome lamp. The inscription is as follows : — 

** May, 1869. 
Whittington Stone. 


Richard Whittington, 

Thrice Lord Mayor 

of London. 

1397 Richard Ilnd. 

1406 Henry IVth. 

1420 Henry Vth. 

Sheriff in 1393. 

This stone was restored. 

The railing fixed and lamp erected 

At the sole expense of 

R, Perkins— 1869. 

W. Mills, Fecit." 
At each end of the stone are the letters ** S. M. 1. 1821," 
the date of the third stone erected by the parochial au- 
thorities of St. Mary's, Islington, in that year. In 
Hewitt's Northern Heights of London is an excellent en- 
graving of the Whittington Stone and the Lazar House, 
from an old print by Chatelaine, now in the possession of 
J. E. Gardner, Esq. ] 

" Hauled over the Coals." — Speaking of a 
man having been reprimanded, it is often said 
that " be has been hauled over the coals.'* In 
Fuller's History of the Holy JFarre, 1G39, book v. 
chap. ii. these words occur : — 

" If they should say the Templars were burned wrong- 
fully, they may be fetched over the coals themseives for 
charging his Holinesse so deeply.'* 

Is this any clue to the expression ? 

J. XI. J. 

[This adage has been already noticed in "X. & Q." 
1*^ S. viii. 280, 524. Jamieson, in his Scottisfi Dictionary^ 


[I-^S-IV. JuLrl7,'69. 

' Bat til 
Brought m 


coale fu' fiBt 

Forbea*A Dominie DtjK$'d, p. 35- 
"Thi»phT«e uadoabtedlj- refen, either to the absurd 
appeal to the JBdRinBOt of God, in timea of popeiy, by 
canMDgonoaeiuMdof aeriiaeto pargB himself by walk- 
ing throogh bumiag plonghsharea ; or to the «till moie 
ancientenstODi.appBTeDtly of Druidicilorigui, of makiag 
men or cattle pasi through Baal'i fire."] 

BanJKLBT.^Who and what were the parents 
of Dr. John Brinkleyj Bishop of Cloyne ? Did 
Dot bia mother survive her first huaband imd 
marrj agaio ? If so, to whom ? W. U. B. 

[The first husband of Bishop Brinkley's mother was 
John Brinkley, a journeymnn carpenter of Woodbridge 
in Suflblk. It appears, howersr, that the Bishop was a 
natural son by an offieer quartered at that place. (Addit. 
MS. 19,120, p. 238, Brit. Mnaeam.) His mother waa 
arterwarda married to a Mr. Bonlter, and >he died at 
WUby in Suflblk on March 24, 1829, aged uinely-two. 
On a tomb at Woodbridge is [he following notiee of 
another member of the Brinkley family ; — 

" Elizabeth the wife of Thomas Biinkley died 24 Feb. 
lT3D,(ged 30. 

" The dauie that takes her rest within this tomb, 
Had Bachel'9 face, and Leah's IVuitful womb ; 
Abigail'a wiadom, Lydia's faithful heart, 
Martha's just care, and Mary's belter part.''] 


can kindly supply tht 
Common Hunt, to whom, with othera, Sir John 
Oresham left "a fine Hack gown " for hiafunerai. 
It appears that Sir John, who had tilled the ofBce 
of Lord Mayor, died in 1556. Th. Sa. 

[Thomaa Abbot held the office of Common Hunt at 
this time, having succeeded Burton. Abbot was suc- 
ceeded by Thomaa UoderhiU, citizen and goldsmith. ] 

Sir James Ttrbbl. — I shall be glad to be in- 
formed where I can find the best account of Sir 
James Tyirel, who wns implicated in the murder 
of the princes in the Tower. Sir James was exe- 
cuted, I tbiolc, in the year 150G. Any particulars 
relating to his immediate descendants would also 
be of interest, and might throw some light on the 
building (perhaps in the year 165(f^ of tbe beau- 
tiful " chapelle expiatoire " at Gipping in Suffolk. 
I am already acquainted with Hollings worth's 
Hittory of StoTcmarket, and with tbe Darr and 
Jermyn MSS. W. tl. S. 

[Sir James Tvrrel of Uipping, oo. Suffolk, knighted 
July 6, 1483, was beheaded on Tower Hill, ila; 6, 1502, 
together with his brother. Sir Thomas Tyrrel. Tbcr* is 
an excellent pedigree of Ihia family in Berr3''s Ooimtj/ 
Gemcalogia, Eita, p. 67, Ac Consult also Davy's Suf- 
folk Pedigrees, Addit. MS. 19,152, p. 245, kc; Burke's 

I Extinct Barotutage, edition 1844, p. B36; and Fnllac'i 
Wortiia, ed. 1S4D, 1. 32B.] 

JcDOES AT St. Paul's. — Can any of youi 
readers oblige me with the date and the occasion 
on which the judges annually attend divine ser- 
vice at St. Paul's Cathedral? I believe it is in 
the early part of the year, perhapa at Eaater or 
WhitHuntide, but should like to be- fumishBd 
with exact references. C. W. S. 

[Formerly the jndgea atteuded divine service at St. 
Paul's on the first Sunday in each of the four terms ; bnt 
of late years only on Ihe first Sunday in Easter and 
•Trinity terms in the months of April and May. For the 
programme of the ceremonial of procession, see The Cert- 
numlali to be niterred hi/ the Lord Mayor, Aldtmex, 
Sheriff,, and OgUeri of the City nf London, p. 100, 8to, 
1851), Privately printed for the Corporation.) 


(i- s. iv. 1.) 

I Your correspondent Oakon Jacksok, in his in- 
tense zeal to discover " a key to fit a very rusty old 
lock," has unconsciously invaded the sanctum and 
I appropriated the property of another. At the dose 
'. of the last century, the theory be has hit upon 
respecting the origin of Stonehenge was pro- 
pounded by Henry Wansey, the Wiltshire clotlier 
and antiquary ; who, supposing the monument to 
be unique, concluded that it was erected in order 
to perpetuate tbe treachery of Hengist, a.d. 460. 
But similar structures are scattered all over the 
world — in the northern and couthem parts of 
Europe; in Central Arabia; in Palestine and 
Syria; in Persia; in the northern, soutbera, and 
western provinces of Hindustan ; in Northern 
Africa; in North and South America; inOceanica; 
in South Australia; and probably in many other 
places, but which do not recur to my mind at this 
moment. The prevailing — and, as I believe, tbe 
correct — view respecting them is. that they were 
all connected with Sabean worship : in a word, 
they are temphs nf the Sun. In 1858 Dr. Thur- 
nam may be said to have placed the fact of Stone- 
henge having been designed for such a purpose 
beyond all reasonable debate. 

" He had walehed the rising of the sun from ' the aiUi- 

over Ihe lop of the isolated stone, which is 10 II. high, 
and about 2O0 It. distant from the entrance to the temple, 
apparently intended to direct the observation, at the 
summer solstice, to the point of the rising sun.'' 

Emerson, the distinguished American essayist, 
had previously made a similar observation, and 
has recorded it, I think, in his English Trait*. 

If Stonehen(fe, then, was a temple devoted to 
solar worship, its antiquity extends farther back 

4«>» S. IV. July 17, *6».] 



than the Saxon, the Koman, and even the Druid- 
ical era. The fact of so many tumuli surrounding 
it afforda no clue whatever to the date of its erec- 
tion. Within its area human remains have been 
sought for in vain — a circumstance that militates 
strongly ac^nst the sepulchral theory of Wansey. 
Long alter such temples vfeTH ahandoned by 
their worshippers, or the latter had been swept 
from the face of the earth, the sacredness of a 
sanctuary attached to each ; and the heathen de- 
votee, whether a follower of the Baalim or not, 
was actuated by a superstition akin to that of the 
Christian in mediaeval times, and believed that his 
gods would accord him a more ready acceptance 
in Elysium if his body was deposited in imme- 
diate proximity to a spot which had been specially 
dedicated to religious uses. Abstractedly, he per- 
ceived Uttle difference between one class of Mauz- 
ximand another : in his facile j udgment, each and 
all were protectors of erratic mortality. 

A stronger reason than the above can be ad- 
duced against the revived theory of Wansey. The 
country, and more especially the southern and 
western parts of it, was in much too troubled a 
state at the period in question to admit of such 
an undertaking as the megalithic structure of 
Stonehenge. The granite of which the inner 
circle of stones (originally thirty in number, and 
weighing several hundred tons) is composed must 
have been brought a distance of a hundred miles 
at the least^ — most probably from the high-lands 
of Dartmoor. That district, at all events, is the 
nearest source of the primary rock. How such an 
astonishing feat as this could have been performed 
at such a time, is a question for the learned and 
ingenious Canon, and those who are disposed to 
accept his view, to determine. In this endeavour, 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, I fear, will not avail them ; 
for when that apt disciple of Merlin wrote, in the 
troablous days of king Stephen, the antiquity of 
the monument was already involved in a haze of ^ 
iable. His lucubrations will bear no better inter- 
pretation. The simple fact of the Saxons dis- 
tinguishing the structure by no better appellation 
than "the hanging-stones" justifies the presump- 
tion that, at the period of their advent in tne 
oonntry, all knowledge of its origin and inten- 
tion had passed away. It is a noteworthy fact 
also, that the Saxon Chronicle is utterly silent on 
the subject of its buildinsr. On the contrary, the 
historical Triads of the Welsh represent that the 
raising of " Maen Ketti " was one of the three 
great labours undertaken by the primitive in- 
habitants of the island — our much-abused Keltic 

Twenty years ago the late Dr. .John Williams, 
the learned Archdeacon of Cardigan, was con- 
flidered a Cyclops indeed for contending that He- 
eatsBus, the Milesian, who flourished in the sixth 
century B.C., had aptly described the old monu- 

ment on Salisbury Plain, and the religious ser- 
vices performed there in honour of Apollo. What, 
it was asked, could pinked and painted savages, 
inhabitants of this western Sandwich Isle, know 
about a Grecian or any other classical divinity ? 
The detection of a very little woad sufficed to 
quench the poor Doctor's hyperborean proclivities. 
The ratio jtistifica was demolished by the ratia 
suasoria. At the dawn of history and civilisation, 
Grecian wariiors might bedaub their persons with 
pigments, mineral and vegetable, and Roman 
imperators follow the example : a little pink 
and vermilion detracted not at all from the per- 
sonal charms or the exclusive pretensions of na- 
tions located in the east and south of Europe ; but 
a little purple that was in vogue amongst the 
people in the west at the same period was de- 
cidedly a sign of vulgarity and barbarism ! Truth, 
remarks Tacitus, is confirmed by inspection and 
delay. Prof. Nillson, the Danish antiquary, has- 
adopted, wittingly or unwittingly matters little, the 
main conclusion of Williams. He assigns 500 B.o. 
as the most probable date of the Stonehenge 
erection j and this quadrature of the old Salisbury 
circle is very generally recognised by savans at 
home, as well as abroad. The Professor further 
supposes that some designs (similar to the figurea 
that embellish the sepulchral grottos of i^ew 
Grange and Dowth in Ireland) were originally 
carved upon the surface of the stones, but they 
have been destroyed by the action of the at- 
mosphere. How he pretends to reconcile this last- 
mentioned supposition with the division of the 
unchronicled past into Stone, Bronze, and Iron 
epochs, is more than I know. Manifestly such 
carvings (not to mention the tenons and mor- 
tices) could never have been executed by any 
other than iron tools ; and this little circumstance 
alone is sufficient to explode the popular but 
empirical notion that originated with nis countnr- 
men, touching the order or development of tne 
primitive manual arts — in our quarter of Europe. 
With regard to the origin and purpose of Car- 
nac, on the coast of Britanny, I have little to add 
beyond the fact that similar paralellitha (but 
upon a very inferior scale) are to be seen on the 
heights of Dartmoor, and in such situations as to 
lead to any other supposition than that which 
connects them with sepulchres. They also abound 
in every other country, in the East as well as the 
West, that is distinguished for its so-called 
" Druidical '* remains. From their proximity to 
the old British ciarms, where the charioteer ac- 
quired that dexterity in the manajrement of his 
team which so much astonished Caesar and his 
legions, I feel half inclined to the opinion that 
they were designed for cognate sports; that 
they were not improbably goals to which pe- 
destrians in a race returned, or from whence 
they started. But be this as it may, it is diffi- 



[4»^»S.IV. JuLYl7,'6d. 

cult indeed to conceive that the straggling stones 
of Carnac — extending originally far beyond a 
mile — were intended to perpetuate the alleged 
miserable end of the fair princess Ursula and her 
10,999 maiden attendants, as suggested by Canon 
Ja-CKSON.* Had the terrible catastrophe, which 
he has depicted in appropriate language, hap- 
pened at all, or on the coasts of Britanny, in 
that case there would have been no Fluellin, a 
few centuries later, to compare the rivers of 
Macedon and Monmouth ; the pedigrees of Welsh- 
men (to whose nation it is my happiness to belong), 
would have been more effectually cut off than by 
the waters of the Deluge ; in fine, the race of 
the Cymry would have been as completely ex- 
tinguished as the dodo in the eastern, or the moa 
in the southern hemisphere. 

Let those who are not as yet disinclined to 
adopt the old wives* fable of fet. Ursula and her 
yirgins, noble and plebeian, compare the Antiqui- 
totes of Usher, and the Britannia of Camden, with 
the Compendium of Johannes Trithemius; whence 
they will learn that this goodly company of vir- 
gins had children; all of whom — mothers and 
progeny indiscriminately— were martyred in two 
places at once, five hundred miles apart, and by 
various hordes of barbarians which never met, or 
possibly could have confronted each other! In 
the estimation of some folks, these may be but 
** slight discrepancies ; " they are not so in mine. 

w. w. w. 


(4*'» S. iii. 526.) 

Shakespeare has this thought ; it occurs in the 
following passages : — 

•* This day I breathed first : time is come round, 
And where I did begin, there shall I end; 
My life is run his compass." 

Julius CasaVf Act V, Sc. 3. 
" We are such stuff 
As dreams are made of, and our little lifc 
Is rounded with a sleep." 

Tempestt Act IV. Sc. 1 . 

Was he indebted to Spenser for the idea? It is 

• I have a strong notion, that if the long avenues of 
Carnac were scrutinised a little more narrowly by the 
archffiologist — more especially the several breaks or open- 
ings in them — the monument will be found to have been, 
when in its pristine state, not very disf^imilar to that 
which, happily, ha . been better preserved on the northern 
shores of Africa, at Bou-Merzoug, in the province of Con- 
stantinc ; and which is partially described and illustrated 
in the third volume of the JRecueil Soc, Archeol. dv la 
Const, pp. 214, (tc, 18G3. I have appended this note 
with the hope that it may fall under the eye of some in- 
tending visitor to Britanny this season ; and who will be 
at the pains to inform me, through the medium of 
" N. & Q.,'* whether this conjecture of mine is well 
founded or not. A third and more perfect specimen, 
apparently belonging to the same class of monuments, 
exists in the Dckhan of India. 

found in The Fairy Queen, book 3, canto 6, where 

the poet describes the garden of Adonis. 

*' The first seminary 
Of all things that are borne to live and dve." 

Stanza 30. 
" And doable gates it had which opened wide. 
By which both in and out men moten pass; 
Th* one faire and fresh, the other old and dride. 

Stanza 31. 
" Old Genius the Porter of them was." 


" Such as him list, such as etemall fate 
Ordained hath, he clothes with sinfuU mire. 
And sendeth forth to live in mortall state ; 
Till they agavn return back by the hinder gate." 

Stanza 32. 

** After that they asraine retoumed beene. 
They in that gardin planted bee agayne, 
And grow afresh, as they had never seeue 
Fleshly corruption, nor mortall payne ; 
Some thousand 3'eares so doen they there remayne. 
And then of him are clad with other hew. 
And sent into the chaungefnll world agayne, 
Till thether they retourne, where first they grew : 

So like a wheele around they rounefrom old to new." 

Stanza 33. 

King Lear contains a passage somewhat similar 

to this : — 

** The wheel is come full circle ; I am here." 

Act V. Sc. 3. 

But the allusion here, as also that in Twelfth Night, 

Act V. Sc. 1. *' Thus the whirligig of time brings 

in his revenges " — seems to be to " the giddy round 

of Fortune's wheel '* mentioned in Lucrcce. 

We also find the idea in Measure for Measure, 

Act III. Sc. 1 : — 

" Merely, thou art death's fool ; 
For him thou labour'st by thy flight to shun 
And yet runn^st toward him still" 

And in Julius Ceesar, Act V. Sc. 5 — 

"Night hangs upon mine eyes; my bones would rest 
That have but laboured to attain this hour." 

' Again it may be traced in MachetKs address to 
sleep — 

"The death of each day's life." 

And in the soliloquy of Henry the Fifth on the 
night before the battle, in which each day's life is 
described as an unceasing round of toil toward 
sleep, "death's second self" — awheel within a 
wheel, revolving ever. 

Beaumont and Fletcher have it in The Knight 

of Malta, Act III. Sc. 5 — 

" Nor do I fear to tread this dark black mansion, 
The image of my grave ; each foot we move 
Goes to it still, each hour we leave behind 
Knolls sadly toward it.^^ 

Longfellow, in A Psalm of Life, has a line, the 

echo of this — 

" Art is long, and Time is fleeting. 

And our hearts, though stout and brave. 
Still, like muffled drums, are beating 
Funeral marches to the grare.** 

T. McGrath. 

4* 8. IV. July 17. 



In that grand desciiptioQ of the short and uD' 
certun Datura of human life, given us in tbe'Cflh 
chapter of the "Book of Wisdom," occura (verae 
13) the following passage, forminf^, as I think, an 
exact parallel to those noted bj Dr. Bamage : — , 
oUrajt icol fifuTt 7<iTiefW<t ifiXitwotini — translated 
in our version, "Eren so we, in like manner, as 
soon as we were bom, began to dravr to our end; " . 
and rendered b; Junius " Ita etiam noa nati defe- | 
cimos," Under some of the Romnn emperors— 
aone more so than those mentioned — the saying of 
St. Paul waa applicable to almost every man of I 
mark, "We are al way delivered to death." The ' 
reader of Suetonius has ample proof of this. And I 
when he finds him saying of Nero, " Lihertos 
divitea et senes, olim adoptionia, mox dominationis ! 
son fautores atque rectores, veneno, partim cibis, > 
partim potion ib us indito, intercepit," he will 
&ly conclude what must have been t' 
of the tenure of human life. 

Edmttnd Tew, M.A. 

Patdung Rectory. 

Thii idea is also to be found in Quevedo ; — 
" Es. DiKB. la vida an dolor, en que !-e einpi«za el de la 
lla A 1> par 

W. R, Drehnah. 


(4** S. ii. 3ti5, 422, 440; iii. 206.) 
Haviner examined the monument in old Chelsea 
chnnh, lam in a position to assert, very confi- 
dently, that the coat ijuortered hy the Chancellor 
ia not derived from his mother. Four coata are 
emblazoned on the tomb : — 1. Arg. a chevron 
engrailed between three moorciwks; crest, aMoor's 
head affronlSe, sable. This is canting heraldry 
indeed. We find the word Mm-e punned on in 
two forms. 2. Arg. on a chevron between three 
nniiMms' heads, sa. as many bezants. This coat 
is qnartered with No. 1 ; I do not think it to have 
heia derived from an heiress, hut I consider it 
uaed BB a second coat for the More family. Some- 
thing TCtv similar is allotted to More in Burke's 
Armwy, back of 4 S, 1st col., viz. " Arg. a 

Who then waa the Chancellor's mother ? I 
think we must accept the assertion of Cresncre 
More, that she was a lady named " Ilandcomhe of 
Holiewell, in the countie of Bedford." {Life, &c., 
p. iv.) The extracts quoted by Mb. Aldis Wright 
record the marriage of John More, Gent., to a 
lady named Graunger in 1474, and the birth of a 
female child named Joan in 1475; of aaon Thomas 
inl47&; Agatha, 1479; John, 1480; Edivard, 
1481, and Elizabeth in 1482. I wieh to draw 
attention to the interval of three years that occurs 
between the births of Joan and Thomas; here was 
time for the judge, if indeed it he him, to have 
buried his wife n^ir Graunger, and to have married 
agidn. Speaking on phvHiological grounds, I do 
not think it liKely that tne female wno paused for 
three years between 1476-8 would have been equal 
to the rapid births that follow in 1479, 1480, 
1481, 1482, even at the cost of her life. It appears 
to me certain that Cresacro More, the biographer, 
could not have been mistaken in the correct name 
of his ancestor, the Chancellor's mother ; we must 
therefore credit the judge with four wives, viz. 
Graunger, Handcomhe, Bowes n4e Barton, and 
Clarke n#e More — the last of a totally different 
family, with different armorial bearings. It is to 
he noted that Cresacre More, at p. 4, first edition, 
calls Sir Thomas "a knight's eldest sonne"; and 
though " sole heyre to a Judge," he doea not call 
him the ont;/ son, but be mentions no brother's 
names. A. Hall. 

21, Bmngwick Terrace, Brixton Hill. 

cberron between three unicorns' heads, 
chief as many hurts " : a hurt in heraldry, like the 
beznnt, is a roundle, but they are of different 
ticctares. The same is quoted in Berry's ^icy. 
Herald, vol. ii., back of 4 I, 2. The difl'erences 
are manifestly such as constantly ai'iso in famiiioa, 
and are uBiially held to prove consanguinity, there- 
fore 1 give the disputed coat to More. 3. A fease 
between three cotta at full speed, cable ; arms of 
Colt, the Cbancellor'a first wife. 4. Rrminois, a 
fesse gulea. It necessarily follows that this was 
the coat of his second wife, formerly Mrs, Mid' 
dletoQ, vbose maiden name is not preserved. 



(4"' S. iii. 526.) 

The former Vicar of Leominster, in his interest- 
ing work {The Town and Borough of Leominster, 
with ISmtratiottf of iit Ancient and Modem Hiatorij, 
by the Rev. G. F. Townsend), gives an engraving 
and description of the ducking-stool there. He 
gives extrocts from the ancient docunienta of the 
borough, in which it is called the cucking-stoole, 
tumbrell, or gum stole : — 

" 1 5C3. It" p'Mnt q"i Inliabitan. hnj. Burgi non fees- 
runt le Cookvng-Blole per diem ei» p'fismn — in mlaer" 

'■i6<i4. It™ n-effvn.l a pavncof xx- loste hy thcCham- 
berlaines for tbat thev did nott make a Cokyngstole by 
thednv to t*em pffised ; and it is ordered tlint the said 
Chamberlena do make a CokyngBlolc by Mjdflomer next 
under tlio nnvne of xi". 

" 1638. 11" thev present Francis Shoter, Gent., Lite 
Bayliff, and the Chsmherlevnes of this lloroui;h to have 
incurred the pavne of xlib.'fornot repavrin^ end amend- 
in;; the Cace iiouse, the tumbrel or euukin^-stoole ; and 
it is ordered that IheaomeberepayreJ before the feast day 
of S. MicbaRli the Archangeli r.ow next oimmlng upon 

" IfiaO. U™ they present the Baylifit and Conalabiea of 
this Uoroiigii for not having a 'Gom^tole for scolding 



[4«» S, IV. July 17, *69. 

women, that they may be puniahed according to the 
statute in that case made & pvlded ; and it is ordered that 
they p'vide a Gumstoole before the xx}^ of June next 
upon the paine of £5." 

Mr. Townsend says, while the foregoing pre- 
sentation of the twelve men would infer there 
was no cucking-stool during this period, yet the 
accounts contain at this very time frequent charges 
incurred for its repair. 

Until recently the Leominster stool was pre- 
served in the church, and was last used in 1809 
to duck a woman named Jane Corran^ but often 
called Jenny Pipes. 

The first mention we have of the cucking-stool 
is in the Domesday Book as being then employed 
in the city of Chester. It is called there cathedra 
stercoris, A chair of this kind was probably in 
use long before the ducking-stool. Mr. Llewel- 
lynn Jewitt, F.S.A., thinks there were three dis- 
tinct varieties of punishment : — 

" In the Caching Stool the culprit was placed before 
her own door, or on some other public place, for a certain 
time, and subjected to the jeers of the passers by and of 
the viciously inclined. On the tumbrell she or he was 
drawn round the town, seated on the chair, and this was 
sometimes so constructed as to be used fur ducking as 
well ; but the Ducking Stools par excellence, was the one 
fixed or moveable, but made specially for the purposes 
of immersion." 

According to the Scottish "Burrow Lawes,'* as 

declared in the Regiam Majestatemy an ale-wife, 

" Gif she makes evill ail, contrair to the use and con- 
suetude of the burgh, and is convict thereof, shee sail pay 
ane unlaw of aucht shillinges, or sail suffer the justice of 
the burgh, that is, shee shall be put upon the cock-stule." 

Another punishment for scolds appears to have 
been that of carrying the mortar. Boys, in his 
History of Sandwich, says that in 1037 a woman 
for speaking abusively of the mayoress was con- 
demned to carry the wooden mortar ** throughout 
the town, hanging on the handle of an old broom 
upon her shoulder, one going before her tinkling 
a small bell." It is engraved in one of Boys's 
plates. On the cross rib of the cucking-stool at 
Sandwich is the following inscription : — 

** e^f mcmfirnj jjc tangc ii iBavit ax briSt, 
^11 i?c taiigc 0ftc Uoctt) hxtttst itnrciSte." 
For further particulars see a capital paper on 
"Ducking-stools" by Mr. Jewitt in The Reliquary j 
i. 14o ; Brand's Pop. Antiquities ; Mr. Way's notes 
to Promptorium Parvulorum^ and Wright's Arches- 
oloyical Alburn^ p. 40. 

In the latter paper will be found an account of 
the punishment inflicted on the sterner sex for 
like offences, viz., "riding the stang." A staff 
was held on the shoulders of two men, and on 
this the offending man was placed and held on by 
supporters on either side, and so taken to a pond 
and there ducked. 

Mr. Halliwell, in his Archaic Words, says that 
this custom has been discontinued in the North, 

and now a boy mounts a pole or ladder, singine 
some doggrel verses stating that as So-and-so haa 
been beating his wife — 

" If ever he does the like again. 
As we suppose he will, 
We*ll mount him on a nanny goat, ■ 
And ride him down to hell.** 

John Piggot, Jun., F.S.A. 

Is it ducTiing-siooX or cuc/ct/i^-stool, in which 
the " refractory ladies " of good old England were 
" soused " ?• I have in my commonplace-book the 
following entry :- 

*' Scolding women are to be set in a trvhuchet^ oom 
monly called a Cucking-stool, probably from the French 
Coquine, and the German Stult ^sic), the Queen's Chair, 
placed over some deep Water, into which they are let 
down, and plunged under Water thrice to cool their Choler 
and Heat." (Vide Magna BritannMR Notitiai The Pre- 
lent State of Great Britain, London, 1737, p. 195.) 

The " deep Water" and the plunging ** thrice," 
and Mr. Noake's " soused " state of the " refrac- 
tory ladies," rather incline one to think it to be 
ducking-BiooX. There is still the Plattdeutsch 
onnerdiikertif i. e. to duck under, which word pro- 
bably has the same signification. Tumbrel, of 
which Mr. Noaee makes mention as another 
name for ducking-stool (vide aivtk, 526), was, if I 
remember right, a sort of rolling cart used as a 
punishment, out different ivom the stool in ques- 

To balance the '^ blame and shame " attached 
to scolding women with " Choler and Heat," and 
in order to see how their " better halves " fared, I 
shall give another extract from the same Notitia :-^ 

" DrunhardSy vagabonds^ prophane Swearers, loose, idkf 
disorderly Persons, Night' walkers, and the like, are 
punished by setting their Legs in the stocks for certain 
hours, and by certain pecuniary Mulcts. The Execution, 
of those wholesome Laws against Prophaneness and /m- 
morality, Itas been promoted with great zeal, and no le$» 
Discretion, by the Societies for the Reformation of Matt" 
nersr (Vide antfe, Notitia, p. 194.) 

These " Societies for Reformation of Manners " 
are spoken of at length on pp. 106-197.t 

Hermann Kindt. 



(4'*^ S. iii. 335, 394, 513, Ga5.) 

Mr. Irving (p. 606) seems to have assumed 
that we had adopted an opinion upon the etymo- 
logy of this name, but in this is mistaken ; inas- 
much as we only stated several views which had 

[• This popular instrument of punishment was for- 
merly designated the cooking or cncking-stuole. Vide the 
quotations from Randolph's Muse's Looking- Glasse, 1643, 
and Homer a la Mode, 1665, quoted in Xares*s Glossary, 
ed. 1859.— Ed.] 

[t See also *'N. & a" 4«»' S. iii. 313.] 

4«» S. IV. July 17, »69.] 



come under observation in the course of reading^ 
and left it for some one much more capable to 
judge than we are — such as Mr. Irving— which 
view, if any of them, was the correct one. 

We must remark that Mr. Irving's principle, 
of two distinct languages not being combinea in 
one namCf is one that has been little attended to, 
as numerous examples of pleonasm adducible, and 
at any one's command, will attest. Proceeding on 
thia principle, however, ham being admittedly 
Saxon, he searches for the root of Cuning in a Saxon 
dictionary; and finds Cyne, an adjective, it would 
appear, signifying regal or royal. Accordingly, he 
concludes that Cyne and ham are the two and 
only roots of Cuningham. But permit us to say 
in regard t<f this view, that he omits all reference 
to the middle syllable ingj which Kemble and 
Taylor (great authorities) look upon as always 
agmficant when appearing compounded with any 
name. Therefore, may we not conjecture that 
Qpne-inff'hamy signifying the ** Abode of the royal 
race" will be a more complete enumeration of the 
coDStitaents of this word ? 

Although aware of the " Carta Regis de fcedere" 
of King John Baliol (assented to expressly at 
Dunfermline by a few of the prelates, earls, 
baions, &c), to which Mr. Irving refers, we 
did not consider it as elucidating the point under 
consideration in any material degree. There, the 
orthography of the name is j ust as it is now — 
Omungham; and although we had considered it 
an established fact, as we actually do, that this 
territory never properly belonged to the crown, 
since at least the time of David I., except when 
forfeitures intervened, that would not, in our view, 
have excluded the interpretation given by Mr. 
Ikvino, or even affected it to any appreciable 
extent. Cuningham (or whatever the original 
form) was applied to this district certainly very 
early in the twelfth century, if not long be- 
fore ; and ' if we may suppose that Cuning refers 
to a king, or a kingly race^ that race, whoever 
they were, must have had a residence in the 
district long, probably centuries, prior to the time 
of David I., who, it is understood, gifted this 
wide tract early in the twelfth century to Hugh 
de Moreville — a Norman by descent, but who 
came into Scotland immediately from Burgh-upon- 
tlie-Sands in Cumberland. May we not, then, 
assume that the king originating this name was one 
of the old British kinglets of Strathclyde, a petty 
kingdom, maintaining some kind of doubtful ex- 
istence till near the end of the tenth century? 
How Cuningham was held before being given to 
De Moreville it will be difficult to determine ; but 
an interesting query is : Did the latter great baron, 
on receiving the grant, dispossess the whole or most 
pifft of the old resident proprietary and settle 
1 followers of his own r Kobertson savs this 
not done regarding the adjoining great barony 

of Renfrew, conferred on Walter Fitz Alan, the 
High Stewart,* but his authority for this view 
it would have been desirable to have had stated. 
{Early Kings, ii. 499.) The same author remarks 
that Cuningham was possessed by the Angles in 
the time of the Venerable Bede, t. e, the eighth 
century, although afterwards forced to recede in 
order to make way for a revulsion of the Celtic 
race (ii. 498, note). 

Mr. Irving says that Lanark and Mauldslie 
were crown property before BalioPs time, and 
therefore that the carta de fcmdere assented to in 
Feb. 1295-6 is, in its terms, mendacious. It is hard 
to presume this, however, considering that so many 
are found approving of the treaty, who personally 
must have known whether the assertion referred to 
was true or false. Accordingly, we think that a 
different reading from that of Mr. Irving ought 
to be given to the expression *' ad coronam reg^am 
non spectantibusy^ if toat is at all possible. So, we 
think, on a consideration of the terms, that it may 
have been meant to prevent the application of 
non spectantihus, &c. to the Scottish possessions 
which are specially named by using fjrior to these, 
'^Nec non " (as also), which immediately follows the 
enumeration of the four possessions of John Baliol 
in France. This word usually begins new sen- 
tences 'y and the words eidem affidehk (sic), at the 
verv end of the sentence, is to be understood as in- 
troduced also before nee non. But the reader, to 
understand this matter aright, behoves to refer 
to a copy of the treaty contained in Thomson's 
Scots Acts (voL i. 96*) ; and he requires to be 
warned that this copy cannot be the most authentic, 
having been made up from two different sources, 
neither of which was complete, as explained in 
the Tabula («&iJ. p. 12.) 

Although not of the highest authority, Ander- 
son's Scottish Nation (vol. i. 742) may be referred 
to as containing more than one view of the ety- 
mology of Cuningham ; and that which the author 
himself adopts is, "Konigluxm (Teutonic), signi- 
fying regium domicilium, the king's house or habi- 
tation." Vide also Hamilton's History of the Shires 
of Lanark and Henfretc, Maitland Club, p. 21, n. 


Carvings by Grinlino Gibbons (4'** S. iii. 
573, 006.) — In addition to the carvings mentioned, 
I remember seeing some fine specimens of such 
work in the old library of Queen's College, Ox- 
ford, which were pointed out to me as bv Grinling 
Gibbons. J. Macray. 

Horn Lacy, near Hereford, one of the most 
stately of English mansions, contains some fine 
wood-carving by G. Gibbons. I was not aware 
that, in my own neighbourhood, Witley Court 

Sossessed any work of that artist ; but, from the 
ate and style of some of the rooms, it is very 
possible. T. E. Winnington. 



[^'i" 3. IV. July i; 

The finest epccimeiis of tbis great wond-cjicver'a 
work are to lie eeen in the old st,ite diiitug'-rooin 
in thia cusile. They represent all kiuda of game 
and flah, with garlands, &c. Otiier fine spetimens 
of garlands of fruits and floweiii occur in the 
Royal library, and in the Queen's nudienoc and 
presence chanihem. rvhicb are now included iu 
the suite of state upartuients. 

WiDdaor. W. B. -WooDWAim. 

The church at Riwley, Bucks, contHiua an alt:ir 
and pulpit enriched with canfings froJii the chisel 
of Gibbons. The ci;iling of tJie laiije drawipg- 
room at Lee Place (en ancient seat of the Lees of 
Bitchley) near Chitrlhuiy, Oxon, was designed by 
the flame master hand. The houEe has been 
p'eatiy modumised, but the ceiling still remains 
in good preservation. It is, I am informed, an 
elaborate specimen of omameutal plaster-work, 
comprising flowers and foliage in great profunion 
on n flesh-tinted ground. {Marruy'a Handbook 
for Berkt, Bucks, and 0.roii, pp. 76, 228.) The 
Bialder of Nov. 29, 18i)2, has a short notice of the 
ICirtlington Park carvings, and a paper on "Gib- 
bons and ilia Works" appeared in the same peri- 
odical under date of Aug. 31, 1807. InconnecUon 
with the ceiling at Lee Place, I would vetiture to 
inquire whether Qibbons did not oceasionally 
model in plaster; if so, doubtless Mr. Pioqott 
and other coiTespon dents of " N. & Q." can fur- 
nish me with instances of similar works not 
merely dewgned, but actually eiecutod bv Gib- 
bons. L. X. 
There is a flue tarving' by this distJnguiahcd 
artist over the chimiieypiece iu the saloon, and in 
all the rooms on the gvound-tloor at Holme Lacy, 
Herefordshire. See Rev. F. 0. Morris's Cotoitry 
Seats of Great Britain and Irelatid. 

W. It. TAm 

4. Grove Place, Denmark IliU. 

Haru Words in Chaccer: " Sawcbflem " 
(4* S. iii. 517.) — Morris, iu bis Glossary, gives 

:,i6. pimple, scab. 

Tyrwhitt has a note upon tho word, which 

Soves that Mwcrfiem was a special kind of uialadv- 
e quotes from an old Frencli pbyae-book, and 
from the Thomaiid NoiaUo Thingi: — 

"Oigncment magislrel par Kiti«)leme et pur cliescone 
face U lietpeil with this medicine rollowinf;." 

In his GIoBsarv, however, he pres a quotation 
from " MS, Bodl. 2403," which seems to settle 
the etymology of the word — 

" L'n({u«ntuni cootra laltum jtrgma, Mnbicm, &0. See 
Galen in Uippoc. de Aliment, t'omnunf. ill p, 277: — 
6 aJx^ . . . "t'lrtTU iirb ^KFjiiam oKiuipei Hot tSj 
{iu4qi X''^')'- And agiin, i &A^i ...vwb tou f AtVfia- 

tiee also HalUweU under " Sauseflemed." 

In John RuBsell's Boke of Kurture, 1. 77tt 
{Maimen and Meals tii Oldm Time), we have '■ a 
feiCT'8c/4e eountennnce " given as the sign of the 
phlegmatic temperament,* and a note refers us 
to Promptorium Parvuloriim, whvre wo find ^fieio 
md^eme =flegma. (In s<)mc MSS. of Ciinucer 
we get sawccflrwm and saaajtcwtne.) 

The four humours of the blood, and the four 
consei^uent temperaments are constantly referred to 
in various ways by oarly writers — by Chaucer as 
much as by auy. In the Ayenbtle of lincfft, 
p. 157, we 'are told how the IXwil tempts mcD 
through the four complex iotia — "Jiane jfeHmofite 
mid glotonye and be sleaujie." . 

As to impnstbuuies, kc. aritung from disorders 
of the four humours, I And an apposi^te fragment 
iu the Bdraipectivc Beuicw (Now Series, ii. p. 411, 
August, 18o4) : — 

" It is towit ntta bcgj-nnyg that all empostimea witli- 
ontfurth Chat be baven and swollen eythir thei ben litill 
or KTBlt If thci ba grett thei ben sprurRen of iiij bDinctB 
svnnynge. Wherfor einpoJtame otf blade and yer off «ai- 
fiendred i« callyd fflegmon i empntvaie ^inmgen off 
fewme is callyd baaa, that ia to any ian-, empostnmei of 
rede col-rgh u called heraipula. Knipostume s|)ningea 
off mofuucofi ia called sclyros," Sir. 

I Uiaok COLIK Clocteb for his illustration from 
the Knight of La Toiir-Landrij. Surely /afce ia 
a misprint for sake. Probably also imptfrilAt 
should be impeditlie. {Impctritlie, a word much 
used in the book, means " to obtain-by entreaty.") 
John Addis, Mj^. 

Heraldic (4"" S. iii. 431.)— To the replies 
already given (p. 539) let me add from Feme's 
Blazon of Gcntiie, that by the courtesy of heraldry 
the son of a gentlewoman of coat-aruioiir (though 
her husband was not an aimiger) may for his 
lifetime bear lier coat, with the addition of a 
cinque-foil for dift'erence. Feme stylos this ft 
" lased coat," and saya that it should be borne in 
a lozenge. He thinks that the mother must be 
an heiress fur her son to avail himself of the pri- 
vilege; and that it is limited to the first genera- 
don, not descending to her grandchildren. But I 
presume that in practice children would consider 

1. 781). RubmII lias been e"iug the carte of " a E 
nere of Fische" {how suggealive of whitebait and tha 
Trafalgar or Ship) ; there are four courses, and each 
courue enda -nith "a scincly soteUe." Now these subtle- 
ties ropresert in 

lifo (each ajje beiu); also tj-pilied by that one of the four 
humours which is supposed to prcilominile nt that af^e.) 
Thus the third course conclndes with a figure whidi 
represents trath aatamn and a man of the third or pbleg- 

"These iiij. soteltces dcvlBed in lowee," 
meanrini->, poiating to the double HigiiiHcatiou irf each 
aobllety ? 

4^ S. IV. July 17, '69.] 



themselves entitled to bear their father's arms. 
(See Feme's Glorie ofGenerositie, pp. Qoy G6.) 


Champerxon (4**^ S. iii. 595.) — In Mr. John 
Tuckett's Devonshire PedigreeSj published from 
the Harleian MSS. and other authorities in the 
British Museum, there is at p. 129 a pedigree of 
the Champemowne family. It begins with Henry 
Champemowne of Clist, temp, Henry II. It is 
carried through seventeen generations, and ter- 
minates with the Heralda' Visitation of 1620. In 
the fifth generation, tcnip, Edw. II., the family is 
described as of Modbury, and at the fourteenth 
{drca Eliz.) it divided into another branch de- 
signated as of Darlington. As Dr. Dawson-Duf- 
TJXLD asks for information relative to individuals 
liying in 1686, I fear this pedigree will not be of 
service to him, and I regret that I am not in 
poeaeaaiQn of the more recent links of the chain. 
The arms are — Gules, a saltier vairtS between 
twelve billets or, a crescent for diiference. Crest: 
A swan sittiDg proper, holding in the bill a horse- 
ahoe or, P. Hutchinson. 

Mbdal (4»»» S. iii. G09.)— The medal described 
by Mb. Lenihan commemorates the landing of 
Prince Charles in Scotland in 1745. The figure 
oo the reverse represents Scotia welcoming his 
arrival. I cannot say when executed. 

Could Mr. Lenihan or any of your correspond- 
GBts inform me for what event a medal of exactly 
similar design and type, except the legends, was 
struck? viz. — 

Obv. : "rbbeat . magnus . ille . genius . 
BBTTAyNLE." Bust of Prince Charles. 






draped female figure, wand in right hand, the 
left resting upon a shield ; ships approaching land 
in the background, "l^tamini . cives.sept. 
rxTTT . MBCCLii." in the exergue. Belfast. 

CoPTBiGHT (4^** S. iv. 13.)— Copyright during 
1835-42 was regulated, as correctly stated, by the 
Act 54 Geo. III. c. 156, a.d. 1814, which ex- 
tended aU copyright to twenty-eight years cer- 
tain, and to term of author's life, if surviving. 
By the Act 5 & 6 Vict. c. 45, a.d. 1842, copvright 
was extended to forty-two years, or author s life, 
and seven years beyond. By this Act the copy- 
right of books printed prior to 1842 may be ex- 
tended, as above, provided the author or his 
family retain the copyright ; but, if the copyright 
has l)een parted with, it may still be extended by 
mutual agreement between the parties, and regis- 
tration accordingly. This clause was specially 
inserted to carry a benefit in Scott's works to his 
family. A. 11. 

GEirEALoeiCAL Queries (4**» S. iii. 104.)— It 
is stated in the pedigree of the Tylliols given in 
^Qoolson & Bum's History of Cumherland and 

Westmorlandf vol. ii. p. 458, that Anthony Lacy 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Tyfliol. 

W. J. 

D' Alton MSS. (^V'' ?. iii. 577.)— In reply to 
an inquiry in "N. & Q." as to the present de- 
pository of these MSS., I beg to state that the 
valuable collections on Irish history and gene- 
alogy amassed with such care, trouble, and ex- 
pense by my late father, are in my possession; 
and that, being unable, from the pressure of pro- 
fessional business, to follow up his pursuits, I 
should only be too happy to negcciate for the 
purchase of them by some public institution, 
where they would at all times be accessible to 
those following similar studies, and where the 
vast materials accumulated by my late father for 
half a century for the illustration of every locality 
and family in Ireland could be made available for 
the interests and tastes of thepublic. 

William D' Alton. 

11, Stephen*s Green, Dublin. 

Gigmanitt (4^*» S. iii. 436, 494.V--A year or 
two ago, at a trial in London, a dennition of re- 
spectability was given, which in these ralway 
days may fairly supersede the ** ^g respectability" 
above referred to. A witness being asked, " What 
do you mean by a respectable man ? " replied, 
" Why, a man who has a Crystal Palace season- 
ticket." Wtlme. 

May Day Carol (4'«> S. iii. 400.)— The follow- 
ing version of the carol quoted by Dr. Rimbattlt 
is sung by the " May children " in this and the 
neighbourmg parishes of Oxon and Bucks : — 

*'A branch of May I bring to you. 

Before your door it stands, 
It is but a sprout, but 'tis well spread about 

By the work of a mighty band. 
Arise, arise, pretty maidens all, 

And take your garland in. 
Or else next morning when you rise 

You'll say I've brought j'ou none. 

" Arise, arise, pretty maidens all. 

And call on God for grace, 
Repent, repent your former sins 

While 3*ou have time and space. 
A man's but a man, his life but a span. 

He flourishes like a flower ; 
lie's here to-day and gone to-morrow. 

Cut dowin all in one hour. 

" And when death strikes, it strikes so sharp, 

It strikes us to the ground ; 
There's not a surgeon in all the land 

Can cure the deadly wound. 
So now I've sung my little Ma}' song. 

No longer can I stay ; 
God bless you all, both great and small, 

And bring you a mcrrj' month of Mav." 

F. D. H. 

BnckncU Manor, Bicester. 

Popular Names of Plants (4*'» S. iii. 408, 513, 
565.) — I am a native of Buckinghamshire, and 
beg to inform Mr. James Britten that I have 



[4*»» S. IV. July 17, '69. 

always heard the fritillary called the "snake's- 
head lily " both in that county and Oxfordshire. 
It is also given as the popular name by Sowerby. 
I think hare-bell and blue-bell are applied m 
various parts of the United Kinp^dom indiscri- 
minately to the wild hyacinth and the campanula. 
Sowerby calls the former hare-bell and the latter 
hair-bell. I myself never heard the campanula 
called " blue-bell " until I joined a Scotch regi- 
ment. There is no doubt about its being " The 
blue-bell of Scotland." I have always heard the 
name ** dog- wood " applied to the Comm san- 
gumea, F. D. H. 

The Hyacinthus tion-scnpttts is commonly called 
hare-bell, and is noticed by Shakspere as ** the 
ftzured harebell," like the veins of fair Fidele, de- 
scribed in Cymheline (Act IV. Sc 2) in connection 
with pale primrose and eglantine. Gerarde calls it 
" blue hare-bell " or *• English jacinth." 

Browne in his Pastorals j book ii. song 3, says — 

" The hare-bell for her staiDless azured hue 
Ciaims to be worn of none but those who are true.** 

The hair-bell is the Campanula rotundifolia 
already properly noticed (see Hooker's British 
Flora), I snould like to know on what authority 
the Arum maculatum is shown to be the " dead 
men's fingers " and " long purples " of Shakspere 
named in Hamlet. In a little book I wrote on 
the Flowers of Shakspere five years since and 
advertised in "N. & Q.," I took some pains to 
show what these flowers were. 

I cannot understand what flower is meant by 
"purple narcissus, like the morning rays," unless 
it be the Anemone puhatilla (pasque flower), or 
Anemone nemorosa (wind flower), but these cannot 
properly be called narcissus. 

Sidney Beislt. 


Jesse Windows (4**» S. iii. 427.) — The cele- 
brated Jesse window in Dorchester abbey church, 
Oxfordshire, is on the north side of the chancel. 
It diflers, I believe, from all other Jesse windows 
in having the personages of the sacred genealogy 
not only represented in the painted glass but 
sculptured on the mullions. F. D. H. 

The Horse's Head in Acoustics (4*'» S. iii. 
500.) — This was no joke, as your correspondent 
Shem seems to surmise. When an old " meeting- 
house" in Bristo Street here was" taken down, I 
think about 1805, to make room for the church 
now occupied by Dr. Peddie's congregation, the 
old sounding-board above the pulpit was found 
filled with horses' heads — I should say five or six 
at least. I was a mere child at the time, and for 
long after the heads presented themselves to my 
dreams. The matter had lone passed from my 
memory, till now vividly recalled by the recent 
articles in your columns. H. T. 


Bally (4*»» S. iv. 10.)— With reference to the 
query by OuTis, I am inclined to think that the 
derivation of the word bally from the Keltic is, 
besides being more simple, more in accordance 
with probability than its derivation from the 
Danisn. I am not at present able to ascertain the 
exact Irish word for a " town " or " village," butf 
as the dialects of the great Keltic language used ■ 
by the Scottish and Irish Gael so closely re- 
semble each other that they may be called twin 
twigs of the same (Erse) branch, it seems very 
likely indeed that bally is the same word as the 
Gaelic bailcj which signifies a village or town. In 
the names of Irish places, Bally is generally used 
as a prefix. I believe baile is always so used in 
the Gaelic: thus baile-puirtf a sea-port town; 
baite-margaidhf a market town; Tain is called 
Baik'Dhuthatch (town of St. Duthac). Further, 
the other principal prefixes and affixes in names 
of Irish places are all Keltic; as ath, a ford; 
drum (Gael, druini)^ a ridge ; kil (Gael. cUX), a 
church or burial-ground; dun, a hill fort; iinm$ 
or ennis, an island, and others ; and it seems ; 
hardly likely that the particle baUy, which is as | 
common as any of these, should have an exeep- ■ 
tlonal derivation. A. M. S. 

The Stuarts and Feeemasonrt (4'*» S. iv. 
20.) — Mr, Yarker must take what I have to , 
impart on this subject for what it is worth, as I ' 
have not the honour of being a Freemason, and ' 
can only <'tell the tale as told to me." The 
original warrant of the Derbyshire lodge of Ma- 
sons was given by the Young Pretender at Derby , 
in 1745; but at the union in 1813 it was ex- | 
changed for an English warrant. Before 1818 • 
there was what was called Ancient and Modem 
Masonry, each order having a Grand Master, &c. 
After many attempts, a lodge of Reconciliation 
was held in London in 1813, of which my in- 
formant, Mr. Mill ward of Longnor, was a member; 
and new warrants were issued to both. In Scot- 
land the Masons still hold what was called An- 
cient Masonry, and the Pretender was, as I have 
always understood, G. M. of Masons some time 
before his invasion of England. I have been in- 
formed that in this part of the kingdom nearly all 
the lodges were ancient, and held either from 
York or Scotland ; and that there are still lodges 
in the northern counties which hold from Scot- 
land. As Masons of all lodges rank according to 
the number of their lodge, the oldest taking pre- 
cedence, they were exceedingly tenacious of their 
numbers ; so one ancient and one modem lodge 
was taken alternately. Several lodges, which 
held by immemorial custom, refused to have any 
number assigned to them, and are on the register 
as No. 0. John Slbioh. 

Thornbridge, Bakewell. 

4«kS.IV. July 17, '69.] 




The Annual JtegUter. A Review nf Public Events at 
Home and Abroad for the Year 1868. (Rivington.) 

Now that the Gentleman's Magazine has changed its 
diaracter and assumed that of a popular Magazine rather 
than that of a yearly chronicle, the Annual Register 
leinaiiM the only abiding record of our national progress 
and the great events of each year. We are glad to report 
of the New Series that it abounds with the peculiar in- 
fefmation for which it will prove in future the chief 
avtbority ; that Ma views of the State of Public Affairs 
at Home are clear and impartial; its illustrations of 
FoRJuni History, and its Retrospect of Literature, Art, 
nd Science fall and satisfactory'; while its Chronicle, 
Obituary, &€., appear to be carefully and accurately 

The Foitr Bookt of Horaces Odes. Translated into Eng- 
litk Verm by Edward Yardley. (Longmans.) 

If r. Taidley's translation of Horace has the important 
merit of tlegance. His language is generally well chosen, 
and free firom those affectations of idioms which fre- 
quently disfigure attempts at conciseness and neatness of 
expreMMm. He has chosen a task within his powers, 
and the remit must accordingly be pronounced a success. 
We mMT perhaps select the odes beginning " Ccelo to- 
BMDUm*' and ** Hie et nefasto/' as among the best speci- 
mens of hia stvle ; and in the translation of " L^'dia, die, 
per omnes," tEe structural effect of the original is well 
pi e Ki 'r c d in an appropriate and skilfully-handled metre. 

William Jerdan. — We copy from The Times qf 
Tiwsday last, the following notice of the early friend 
onder whose editorship, now nearly half a century since, 
ear first eflfbrts in literature were made. Our readers 
viU recognise in the place of his death, why, when writing 
hi theae columns, William Jerdan signed himself 
'^BvaHXT Heath " : — 

••Forty years ago there were few names better known 
ia London'societv and in the world of letters than that 
of William Jerdan. Sur^'iving almost all his literary 
eootemporaries, he died on the 11th inst., at Bushey- 
beath, hi his 88th year. A native of Kelso, and educated 
at Edinburgh for the Scottish law, he came to Londpn to 
jmh hia way in literature. Of his varied fortunes in this 
piecarioas profession he has given a faithful record in his 
AMbiogrtqtky, published about fifteen years ago. His 
todal spirit, ready wit, and abundant anecdote, made 
mm a wdcome guest in other than mere literary' circles. 
WHh mort of the notable personages of the last fifty 
jean be bad personal acquaintance, and with some of the 
flMB of bisbcat mark in literature and politics he was on 
tenns ef mtimacy. An interesting volume of personal 
leooUeelioos^ entiUed Men 1 have Known, appeared two 
years ago, inscribed to the then Chief Baron (Sir Frede- 
rick) PoOodc, also a Borderer, with whom Mr. Jerdan 
sjnoe borhood had maintained an unbroken friendship. 
It was Mr. Jerdan who, in the lobby of the old House of 
Commons, seised Bellingham, the assassin of Mr. Per- 
eeraL At that time one of the reporters for the Press,* his 
co n nection with periodical literature continued for half a 
eentmy. In recent numbers of Fraser*s Magazine are 
eontribntions from his pen ; and the last two parts of the 
C * a f JfMi a 'a Magazine contain an article on the celebrated 
Becf^Stcak dob, which no other living man could have 
written finom personal knowledge. For several years 
neently h» has contributed to toe Leisure Hour a series 
if nniniseences of distinguished men, illustrated by 
(bandcriatic letters. Of the Royal Literar}' Fund in its 

early days he was a zealous advocate, and by his in- 
fluence greatly aided its prosperity'. His kindly help was 
always afforded to young aspirants in literature and art, 
and his memory will be cherished by many whom he 
helped to rise to positions of honour and independence. 
Late in life he received a pension of 100/. a year for bis 
long services to literature. 

The late Mr. J. H. Burn*8 Collection will be sold by 
Auction by Messrs. Puttick &, Simpson, of Leicester 
Square, commencing next Monday, and extending over 
fourteen days. On Monday the ' Collection of China, 
chiefly collected in elucidation of makers' marks, will be 
suld ; on Tuesday the Cabinet of Coins, Miniatures, &c \ 
on Wednesday the Collection of Books, which is stated to 
embrace upwards of 20,000 volumes ; this will be fol- 
lowed by the Engravings and Autographs. Those who 
knew the large amount and varied character of the in- 
formation possessed by the late Mr. Bum, and not in- 
frequently evinced in* his contributions to Notes ani> 
Queries, will not be surprised at the extent or variety 
of his several collections now about to be dispersed. 



Particularg of Price, fte., of the following Bookt, to be wnt direct ta 
the Rentleinen by whoA they arc required, whow nunea and addresaes 
are Kiven for that purpose: — 


Wanted by John Maclean^ Esq.^ Fallingswick Lodge, Hammemnith, W. 

Watson's History of Halifax. 

Sydsky Smith's Works. Vol. IV. 

Kkioht'h Livks of Colkt axd Erarmcs. Large paper. 

DuoDALK'8 Warwickshire, by Thoniaa. i Vols. 

Brydgks'm Index to Pkdigrkkh. 

Wanted by Mr. Thomas Beet, Bookieller, 15, Conduit Street, 

Bond Street. W. 

fiatitt^ ta €Qvxtipaixtsmti. 

U5IVERRAL Art Catalogue. Tt tritl be uen/rcm an adveniatment 
in our front page, that the Lords €^the Committee <^f Council for Educa' 
tion have determined (many readers will, we doubt not, think they have 
very wisely determined) that the publication of this Catalooue shotdd 
be so accelerated that the whole may be completed by the atd of March 
next. For this purpose the number nf pages to be inserted in this 
journal (weekly) has been increased from fuvr to ttcehe ; while oceo' 
sional Supplements will be issued from time to time by the Department 
t}f Science and Art. All Addition* and CoiTeetionn should be addressed 
to the Editor, South Kensington Museum, London, W. 

The Index to our last Volume will be published trtVA " N. & Q." on 
Saturday, the ilth instant. 

A. M. 8. Received. 

We are compelled to postpone until next week several Notei on Booki. 

J. M. (Oxford.) Prose by a Poet, S volt. 12rao, 1SS4, if by Jame* 
Montgomery t\f Sheffield. 

Errata 4th 8. ir. p. 26, ool. ii. line S flrom bottom, dele " bounie " % 

line7,aner"ibumcd" intcrt "(clad in a brunie or cuiran)" ; lines, 
dele ** dudina (or cuiran ) " ; p. S7, col. i. line 4, far ** au> " read " cup " r 

630, col. i. line 13 from bottom, fur ** Bron en Breiae read " Brou en 

A Reading Cane for holding the weekly number* of ** N. ft O." is now 
ready, and nuiy be had of all Booknellen and Newsmen, pnce 1«. 6^.r 
or, free by post, direct flrom the Publisher, for Is. M. 

" Notes and Queries" is registered for transmission abroad. 

This day is published, price lis. 



Embracing a Narrative of Events from the Death of James V. in IMS; 
until the Close of the Conference at Westminster in 1U9. 

By JOHN HOSACK, Barrister-at-Law. 

This work contains the '*Book of Articles" produced against Qneen 
Mary at Westminster in 1A69, together with various other Original Docu- 

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD a SONS, Edinburgh and London. 



[4'»' S. IV. July 17, »6D. 





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•»* At Home fh>m 10 till 5. 

4* S. IV. JuLT 24, *69.] 




CONTENTS.— No 82, 

^CyrER •• — MS. Notes in Printed Books : Sir William Jones 
and Nathaniel Dras^ey Halhed, M.P.,69 — Scottish Lesser 
Barons (otberwute Lairds) : Services Exacted, 70 — The 
Albert Tower: Ramsei', Isle of Man, 71 — Lancashire 
Song : " The Country Gaby," 72 — Oxenstierna : Mrs. 
Aphra Briin — An Americanism — *' Macbeth '* — Parallel 
Pasafces — London Aldermnn — Blichael Uewetson — Na- 
tional DebU of Europe — Siguiflcation of the Word " Pu- 
pOIiu/' 73. 
QUERIKii : — Airnes de Castro — Cake — A Cambridge Tig 

— Fraser of N»^8S — The High and Low German Lan- 
imaices — Holboin Portrait — Misquotation — Parody on 
G<Jdsmilh — Pope's Verseji to Mrs. Pi^ott — Population 
of Loud'in, temp, Henry IL — Provincialisms : Mowth : 
Tore — The Pythagorean Letter — Sun-dials — Uff kin — 
William of Orange — Wiltshire Moonrakers, 74. 

QtmuxB WITH AirswBRS: — Shakers — Ben Jonson and 
Sir B. Rudyerd — Tuch or Touch — Philip and Maiy — 
The Lady Mayoress of York always a Lady — Sir Godfrey 
Knello', 76. 

4BPL1KS: — Carnac, 77 —English Versions of Gk)ethe*s 
" Faust." Part L, 79 — Ghost Stories, 80 — Gainsborough's 
"Blue Roy," /5. — .Metrical Prediction, 81 — More Family 

— Bdmuod Kean — Bells for Dissentii^ Churches — Bells 
mod Spous — Sir Richard Holford — Entrance- Registry : 
Trinity Gollcgo. Dublin— Plesais — Antigallican Society 

— Shen'iEi — Kniveton Church — William Vaughan — 
Kklnapping — Elizibeth and Isabel — Passage in Galatians 

— Saint Saphorin- Steam-ships predicted — Portrait of 
Prince CharieM Edward — Griddle — Grantham Custom — 
Mcyre — " The Oakn " — Wordsworth's " Lucy "—William 
Combe — Culver- keys, &C., 82. 

Notes on Books, &c. 





I iave a book which belonged to Sir William 
Jones. Its title-page wittily represents Sir Wil- 
liam's opinion of it as a work of legal authority. 
In the subjoined copy of its title-page the words 
in italics are in the great orientalist's hand- 
writing: — 

" Wdliam Jones, Middle Temple, 6 il/ay, 1781. 


Ijillihullero : or an 

Introdnction to the Law Helative to Trials at Nisi Prias. 

The mott useful of all bad books, and the worst of all 

useful books. 

The third Edition. 

Corrected. As ingorrect as ever. 

Bv Francis HuUer, Esq. 

0*f the Middle Temple." 

THe book is full of marginal notes, in Sir Wil- 
liam Jones's hand, which have been ruthlessly 
cut down by the binder, but of which sufficient 
remains to enable a lawyer to form some idea of 
tlie annotator's professional acumen. Bound into 
the book, evidently where they were left by the 
writer, are two interesting papers. One is the 
commencement of the dral't of an opinion, begin- 
ning: — 

" Though R. N. has been many years in possession, yet 
be does not swear that he ever hais been, or ever expects 
to be disturbed by any claimant whatever,*' &c &c 

The other is a fragment (the conclusion) of a 
very curious paper on the ancient Hindu law of 
inheritance. It ia written in a beautifully clear 
hand, evidently for press. The MS. nearly covers 
two sides of a large foolscap leaf. 

I have a still more interesting marginally anno- 
tated volume, which I met with in Cedcutta ten 
years ago. It is the — 

** True and Faithful relation of what passed for many- 
veers between Dr. John Dee (a Mathematician of great 
Fame in Q. Eliz. and King James their Beignes) and 
some Spirits." 

It is, unfortunately, imperfect ; but the greater 
part, which remains, is full of most el^ratc)' 
marginal notes, references, and explanations in a 
clear modem handwriting. To several of the 
longer notes dates are appended, from which it 
appears that the greater part of this singularly 
copious annotation was made between March 25. 
and May 27, 1809. The annotator was evidently 
a scholar, a linguist, and, what is more extraordi- 
nary, an unqualified believer in, and admirer of. 
the revelations of Dee and Kelley. A few extracts 
may sufficiently illustrate the character of these 
notes. Against the editor's remark, in the pre- 
face, that, by the nature of the book, '* it might 
be deemed and termed a work of Darknesde,^^ we, 
have the note (rather frayed at the edge), '^ Non 
Mons • • c'est un drame c^les ^ • • une ouvre' 
des plus lumineus * tr^ sublim * et tr^ instruct 

After the assertion that Br. Dee considered 
himself a zealous worshipper of Qod, and a very 
free and sincere Christian, we have the remark^ 
" Ajb he assuredly was." Opposite the words — 

" His " [Dee's] « only Tbut great and dreadful) error 
being that he itiistookValse lying Spirits for Angels of 
Light, the Divel of Hell (as we commonly term him) 
for the Grod of Heaven,** — we have the note : ** No each 

Against the statement that Dr. Dee saw nothing' 

but by Eelley's eyes, and heard nothing but with 

his ears, it is noted : — 

** Yes, he twice heard, but only trifling circumstances. 
But he SAW the miracles — his books that he himself had 
burnt, restored to him whole ! The compact which £.K." 
[Kelley] " had torn in two, made whole : the stone '* 
[afterwards possessed by Horace Walpole] " taken away 
by an invisible band in his presence, &c. E. K. constantly 
expressed a dislike to his office." 

When the editor again speaks with some dis- 
paragement of these revelations, it is noted: — 
" Moi?t sublime and recondite truths, such as the 
editor was too prejudiced to judge or understand.*' 

At page 12, against the sentence — " GalVah. 
maid . . . my name is Galudh, in your language 
I am called Pinis," it is noted : — 

" And so now, at the end, as it were, of time, wq have 
a New Science, called Galvanism, which operates as a 
fire infinitely more subtile and penetrating than all heat 
that has yet been discovered.** 



[4* S. IV. July 24, '69w 

And so, in page 18, this Galvah makes par- 
ticular idlusion to and description of this soul or 
fire measured equally into everything, &c. &c. 
So in page 19, E. K. said *' Galtah her head is 
80 on BRIGHT FIRE that it cannot be looked upon, 
&c" At page 60, as a note to the words : — 

"Three years are yet to come, even in this moneth 
(that beginneth the fourth year) shall the Son of perdi- 
tion be known to the whole world. Suddenly creeping 
ont of his hole like an Adder, leading out her young ones 
after her to devour the dust of the earth,"— we have 

** By this passage is probably meant — that at some 
ftitnre undefined period there shall be a trienninm, or space 
of three years or thirty years for the fulfilment of this 
most tremendous prophecy, and now shortly to come to 
pass (April 1809)." 

There is something '' very like a whale ** at 

page 103. As a note to the words — 

*' And suddenly the Firmament and the Waters were 
joyned together; and the WhalecAMS, like unto a legion 
of stormes," Ac — it is observed : — 

** Typical of this, perhaps, a large Whale was stranded 
at Gravesend, and Drought up to London, the latter end 
of March, 1809." 

I shall only give one more of these notes at 

present : — 

** The 50 daughters of Danaus are the 50 Constella- 
tions who constantly draw light from the Sun, as foun- 
tain of light, which they again perpetually pour out into 
the world, or universe, as the tub, and vet it is never 
filled, t. e. has no more light than at first." 

I had often wondered what learned man, at the 
commencement of this century, could have ex- 
pended so much labour and credulity upon such 
a book as this. Turning the volume over, page 
by page, the other day, I found the solution of 
this mrsterv in a quarter sheet of paper nearly 
coverea with notes, and bearing the following 
communication : — 

" D' Sir, 

'*Let me most particularly request you will come to 
the Bank To-morrow, at one o'clock precisely, to meet 
M' Wilkins and several other Gentlemen in the case 
Hastings o. F. Stuart, as no time is to be lost. 

" Yours sincerely, 
" G. Templer. 
Tall Mall, 
Wednesday, March 1, 1809. 

« N. B. Halhed, Esqre." 

The notes on this letter are dated March 20, 
1809. It is clear that this enthusiastic annotator 
and cordial believer in Dee*s and Kelley's revela- 
tions was the celebrated Nathaniel Brassey Halhed^ 
M.P.^ the friend of Warren Hastings. It is a 
very singular and, I believe, now for the first time 
discovered fact in the psychological history of this 
amiable and learned, but infinitelv imaginative 
and credulous man, that having, m 1795, pub- 
lished his Testimony of the Authenticity of the 
Prophecies of Richard Brothers, and of his Mission 
to recaU the Jews-AiiR bump of wonder should, 
fourteen years later, have retained sufficient acti- 

vity to lead him to become an enthusiastic dis- 
ciple of Dee and Eelley. 

There is a good deal of information regarding 
Halhed in an article entitled " Warren Hasting 
in Slippers," published about ten years ago m 
the Calcutta Remew, I should be glad to know 
(as I have not, at present, access to a library of 
reference) whether there, or in any of the memoiis 
of Hastings, the case of F. Stuart is gone into. 



It is curious to observe what, even during the 
seventeenth century, were some of the services 
stipulated to be performed at the hands of their 
tenants and dependants, and what also were the 
privileges they were presumed to confer. 

In a tack right applicable generally to the 
estate, dated in Nov. 1631, we mid a laud in the 
south-west comer of Renfrewshire stipulating 
with his tenants for their leading coals to serve 
his house, and also for 

*' Leiding and earning to ye said R. M. of C. hfUf 
herring, and salt, yearlie to liis lartdre [larder ?1, and 
wyn, in hoggheids and barrills, to his wyn selleris." 

It was provided, however, that the tenants and 
their servants should have their meat and drink 
when performing such services. It was another 
stipulation, that the tenants should 

" Rvd with the said R. M. to Barialls, or onie uther his 
lawfuU occasionnes in onie — within twall mylis of yair 
awn honss, ilk ane for yair awn parteis ; pro vy ding always 
that he charg them not in quartering, the tym.'* 

The tenants also obliged themselves to him^ 
^' Ilk ane of them for yair own partis, by time 
[turn ? j to send ane horss and man ilk Sabbath day 
to came ane gentlewoman to the kirk " ; and that 
when '' the said K. M. or hiei forsaidis were 
dwelling in ye place of C* 

Were sucn services as these, we would respect* 
fully inquire, at this period commonly stipulated 
for by tne lairds P and are there any other in- 
stances of similar exactions on record P Besides^ 
was it usual for the lairds in attending burials to 
appear accompanied by their tenants on horse- 
back P The provision for having the ladies trans- 
ported to the kirk on horseback is evidence of how 
little wheeled carriages were in use at this time, 
and how bad the roads must have been, not 
allowing such a use. 

Thirty years later ^on December 23, 1661), by 
another tack granted oy a successor of this lairo^ 
we find him letting lands, said to extend to a 
twa shilling land or thereby, with houses &c., 
for the space of nineteen years, to a blacksmith of 
the name of Andrew Smith, and providing that 
he — 

4a8.1V. JdliM,'69.] 




k thst he aall work to 
said R. M. Bail employ 

(^ in fbr bin own piopei 
theaUJDe weght ofinaJe viurii. 
He was nlso to shoe the laird's "twa heat horas" 
for 16a. Scota vearlie, and any bje (uxtra. P) horaa 
tlkAt it might ueppen the laird tu have for 
Scots. And the laird, on his part (For the rent 
and Bervicea apeciSed in the tack) granted to hia 
tenant and hia auccessora 

"The benefbit and priFlledge ol the marriage, and 
SrydtBiwilhin theSbmerk land of G. (belonging of cour«e 
to him) during ths space nf this present Tack tn be 
Ac^'t Ulkety. (the name; uf the mailing let) foresaid." 

Now the laird had, or must have presumed he 
hti, thia privilege of " marriage and orydells," in 
hie gift in transferrmL' it to hia tenant. But a 
qneiT lu^eatod ia — what waa the nature of this 
piiTUege, and what its money value F or was 
than an]' fee or due exigible either in money or 
in IdndF Another ia— Could the laird by thelaw, 
^agtom, or fashion of iho lime tie or rivet the 
Baplul band himself P Could he, if ao, do this 
bj* deputy; and if by a deputv, did the latter 
behore to be a blacliamith? Wco has not heard 
of the Gretna-Oreen functionary ? It may be 
proper to atate that the laird's tenant, beaidea 
«xen:iBing the calling of a hlacksmith, kept a 
"public, or alehouse ; and hia was probably the 
OUT one permitted within the twenty-Sye merk 
land mentioned. Some of the contributors to 
"N. & Q-," )e|i^l and consuetudinary antiquaries, 
as we fondlv hope, will consider these queriea 
«afficieutly mtereating to amuse a vacant hour, 
and will afford answers ; and they might consider 
almg with these, where the laird's "marts" or 
his beif" could be killed or found; and of what 
bulk it might be, occasioning him to provide for 
ita transportation to his place of C. by means 
<^ hia Tarious tenants. It is proper to state 
that this laird was a strict Preabyterisn Cove- 
nanter; and for the part which he took in public 
■iEura at the Pentland Rising, as it is called, in 
lfJ68, fire years later than the date of this tack, 
waa attainted, and hia life and landa forfeited. 
Hia life, however, he aaved by Hight to the Con- 
tinent, where he died in exile a few years after- 
<nudB, and before the Revolution came round, 


From the spot which Prince Albert gwned may 
be Been the outlines of the Cumberland hills, kc., 
I weather being favourable ; and to commemorate 
' the royal visit, there was erected on that very 
spot a memorial which received the title of " The 
Albert Tower." 

Not long after the towpr wns built, I and some 
friends— one of whom was ooe of the (printedj 
committee appointed to conduct the proceedian 
in connection with Her Most Gracious Majesty*! 
presence — ascended to the top of the tower, not a 
very lofty one, from the inside ; and, the weather 
being fine, a very pleasant view was obtained of 
what is favourably visible. 

I happened also to get into companr with the 
Manxman who accompanied Hia Royal Highnesa ' 
in hia undertflliing. He told me that it was at a 
time of the morning when people were not gene- 
rally astir; that he was, and some one ukinff 
him the way to the top of the hill, he undertook 
to show him. But he soon found that the gen- 
tleman ueadad no conductor; for, being once in 
the track, he proved the more agile climber : that 
the Prince had almost accomplished hia object 
before the authoritiea of Ramsey were aware of 
His lioyal Highness being oahore ; and that thwl 
subsequent proceedings had, in consequence, to ba 
very eipeditioualy performed. 

I found Mr. " Manninagh '' very wvil, commu- 
nicative, and obliging; and he told me that it 
was some time before he began to discover that 
it was Prince Albert; and he further assured m«, 
that His " Ardys Raeoil " was " a free and very 
pleasant gentleman." 

Since writing the foregoing, I have found B 
lithograph, which I was not able to find in raj 
first search, called "View ot the Albert Tower, 
Bamsev, Isle of Man"; about the margin of 
which I find pencilled the following particulars, 
which, if not already there, may not be inap- 
propriately transferred to the pages of " N. & Q," 
lor future reference ; — 


" The er 

li Birrule granite 

<n the ei 


About twenty-two years ago (I write from 
memory) our present Qu 

and the late P 
n Ramsey Bay, on their return 

Consort anchored i 
from Scotland. 

Her Majesty did not land on the island; but 
early in the morning His Royal Highness was | 
aahore, and punning hie course to the summit of I 
aa aminenca orerlo^ing the bay, which is con- 
adend a reiy flue one. \ 

_ ._ . is a block of limestone, wiih the : 

carved ia relief, and the fDllowiog inacriplioa neatly 

execaled in the old Anglo-Saxon character : — 


Erected on the npot 
Where H. R. H. Prince Albert 

Stood to view 
Ramsey and its Neigbbourhood, 
Durinc Ibc viiit of 
Her Moat (iradous Majealy 
Quern VictokU 
To Rimaey Bay, 
The xxth September, MtiCCCXi.vii.' 
" The inscription wai executed by Mr. Clegg of Ram- 
fey ; and the design of the tower waa furaisbed by G. W. 
Buck, Esq., of Hanchester. 



[4*k S. IV. July 24, »69, 

** Opened 24th Jnly, 1849. Weather exceedingly un- 

" Order of Procession, 


Sanday and other Scholars. 


Juvenile Rechabites. 


Adult Rechabites. 


Members of the Amicable Society. 

The Philanthropic Society. 

The Lezayre Society. " 

Odd Fellows. 


Gentlemen of the Town and Neighbourhood. 

The Committee, 
Ck>nsisting of the following gentlemen — 
Rev. W. Kermode, 

F. B. Clucas, Esq. 
Wm. Clucas, Esq. 

G. W. Buck, Esq. 
Honourable Deemster Drinkwater. 

F. Tellet, Esq. 
W. Callister, Esq. 
J. Mawby, Esq. 
" See Mona's Herald, July 25th, 1849." 

- I cannot now say whether I copied all these 
particulars from the said Mafia's Jletald, or whe- 
ther some of them are the result of my own per- 
sonal observations. J. Beale. 
.1 Spittle-gate, Grantham. 


Perhaps the following Lancashire song may 
interest some of your readers. Not long ago I 
heard it sung, or recited, by a Lancashire man. 
For the benefit of those not well up in this dia- 
lect, I may observe that "gaby" is pronounced 
as if written " gaw-bee *' : — 


" Bein* tired of whoam and feeding th' flock, 
And gettin' up at six o'clock, 
Dress'd all day in an owd smock frock, 
Like a simple country gaby, 

" I said I'll vast soon change my way, 
I'll dress mj'self up smart and ga}-. 
And 1*11 go to Manchester to-day. 
If I'm but a country gaby. 

[^Spokeji] " It wur very near time for me to be off: 
times wur got bad, mother wur grown owd, feyther wur 
grown deod, th' lads wur grown idle, and th' lasses wur 
either wed or else wanted to be : so I thought it's time 
for me to look after mysel' ; and one day I packed up 
my clothes, bid goodbve to th' lads, and shak'd hands wi' 
th' parish pump, and off I started. But I didn't get 
away so easy ; for there wur a lass called Sally Straw- 
berry, hoo followed me o'er aboon two fields, cawing me 
for ow th' cruel hearted as ever wur bom, hoo cried till 
hoo shed as mony tears as would o' made a canal, and 
fetched up as many sighs as would o' blown a boat o'er 
th' top on't. Then hoo went wi' me a bit on th' way, 
jon' I went wi' her back again ; and hoo went wi' me, 
and I went wi' her, till we didn't know which way we 

were goin*. At last I wur forced to run for it, and I left 
hur — 

" All sobbing, sighing, crj'in;; away : 
I never shaU forget the day, 
There surely wur the devil to pay. 

When I went like a country gaby. 

" When I geet to the town, it wur market-day ; 
Thinks I, now a measter may faw' in my way ; 
And if he does I'll have summut to say. 
Although but a country gaby. 

" I axed o' mony wi' a vary good face. 
If they'd find a lad wi' a vary good place ; 
I said I wur o' a vary good face, 

And a vary fine country gaby. 

ISpoken'l " Ot last I yeard ot there wur a gentleman 
ot th outside o* th' toun ot wonted a nice young mon ; 1 
just suit him. So I went an' fun out th' pleace, un' 
knocked at th' door ; and there coom out a varv nice sort 
o' a felly; he'd a waistcoat on made out o' buttercups 
un' daisies ; he'd a coat tum'd up wi' turkey rhubarb, 
and a pair o' whiskers like two blacking-brushes. * Well, 
young mon,' he said, * what do you want?' *Well,' I 
said, * I want a good place, thank you.' * Why,' he aidd, 

* what can you do ? ' I said, • Nearly anything.' * Can 
you wait at table ? ' * Oh, aye.' I said, * I can wait till 
vou're done, I'm not in a hurr}% not I indeed.* * Well, 
but what can you do for a nobleman ? ' * Oh, I'm a 
reet un for those noblemen ; I can feed a pig, waah a 
gig, and comb a wig, milk a cow, tend to th' sow, and 
follow th' plough, reap and mow, blow a horn, thrash 
your corn, set a snare to catch a hare, watch your grounds* 
and follow the hounds, drain th' bogs, and fatten th' hogs, 

Foison rats and physic cats, take a part at filling a cart, 
con donee and whistle, and can sing a bit — .' * Oh,'' 
said he, * that will do.* — 

" So I hired myself without more ado. 
And bid goodbye to the harrow and plough ; 
An' I think I was not much of a foo'. 
If I wur but a country gaby. 

" So the}' altered me from a country clown 
To as smart a lad as you'd see in th' town ; 
Mi logusl how I knock'd up and down. 
Although but a country gaby. 

" I could manage ought in th' working line. 
But they made rare fun o' some words o' mine ; 
For I could not mon' that talking fine, 
I wur such a country gaby. 

ISpoken'] " I wur never up to that talking fine. I'd 
never bin used to it. But there wur a young woman 
there, they caw'd Dolly the Dairy -maid, un' when I did 
owt rung,*hoo used to tell me how to do it reet, un' mony 
a time hoo did it for me : so th' servants begun a* sayin' 
we should make a pratty couple, an' I thought so mysel'. 
So one day I said to hur : * It's a very hard sort o* life, 
is this livin' sarvice ;' and hoo said, * It's most terrible.' 
I said, * I should like to leave it' ; un' hoo said, * So sh'd 
I.' ' Well,' I said, * how would ta like to live in a little 
place o' thy own ? ' Un hoo said hoo should like it vary 
well, if hoo'd — like— or— . I said, * If thee'd anybody to 
live with thee.' Un' hoo said, * Just so.' * Well,' I said, 

* did'st ever see onybody as thee would like ? ' un' hoo 
said hoo'd seen a young mon ith' garden sometimes ot 
hoo didn't know lOce— but— . * Why thee sees me ith* 
gardyn every day, what does thee think of me ? ' Hoo 
said, * Ger off wi* vou, you're alus a takin that way if 
one speaks.' But 1 seed how it wur; hoo couldn't for 
shame to say * Yes,' un' hoo couldn't oford to say * No.' 

4*8. IV. July 24, '69.] 



** I took her then, and gave her a buss, 
And I morried her straight without more fuss ; 
And plenty o' folks ha* done much worse, 
Although but a country gaby." 

James Nicholson. 

OxENSTLERWA : Mrs. Aphra Behn. — One would 
haidly expect to find an authoress of the lively 
diaracter of " Bonny Madam Behn " plagiarising 
from such a source as the letters of the grave 
chancellor of Gustavus Adolphus, hut the follow- 
ing coincidence can be hardly accidental : — 

*• Nescis, mi fili, quantilla prudentia homines reguntur." 

OxenstierwCs Letters to his Son, 1648. 

** Yet if thou didst but know how little wit governs 
tbti mighty universe." — Mrs. A. Behn'a Comedy of the 
Sommd IlmdSf or Good Old Cause, Act I. Sc. 2, about 



Ak AifSBiCANiSM. — The expression, " to have 
a good time," meaning " to enjoy one's self," has 
lieen considered an Americanism, although per- 
haps unjustly. The French have a similar phrase. 
The following is the concluding line of each stanza 
of " Le Bon Temps," by Martial d'Auvergne, who 
lived in the fifteenth century : (see La Lyre 
fran^aue, London, 1807) — 

" H^las! le bon temps que j'avais ! " 
The Hebrews had an expression somewhat an- 
alogous — 

"And in every province, and in every cit}", whitherso- 
ever the king*s commandment and his decree came, the 
Jews had joy and gladness, a feast and a good day,** — 
Esther viii. 17. 



** Macbeth. "^There was printed at Edinburgh 

by William Cheyne, 1753, 8vo— 

** The Uisitorical Tragedy of Macbeth (written origin- 
ally by Shakespeare). Newly adapted to tho Stage. VVith 
alfeentions as performed at the Theatre in Edinburgh." 

Then follows on the title-page : — 

"N.B, Whoever shall presume to print or publish this 
Plaj, shall be prosecuted to the extent of the law, and no 
copies are authentick but such as are signed by Edward 

According to the Bioffraphia Dramatical this 
strange adaptation to suit the taste of the Edin- 
burgh audience was manufactured by J. Lee, 
OTeaumed to be the manager of the theatre there. 
But this assertion is not supported by the note on 
the title, which would vest the right of property 
in *' Edward Salmon,'^ of whom I have found no 

Lee was the father of the authoress of the once 
popular Ccmterbury Tales^ and of Sophia Lee, 

r* F«fe**N.&Q."3'''»S.x.505. Salmon was prompter. 

whose romance called The RecesSy founded on the 
existence of certain imaginary children of Maiy 
Queen of Scots, was held in great estimation ban 
a century ago. J. M. 

Parallel Passages. — 

" Nous ne jonissons jamais ; nous esp^rons toujours." — 
MassiUon, Sermon pour le Jour de Saint Benoit, 

** Hope springs eternal in the human breast : 
Man never is, but always to be, blest," — Pope, 



London Aldermen. — The following verses 
appeared in January 1823, in the Nexo Monthly 
Magazine^ at that time edited by the poet Camp- 
bell. Are any of these aldermen now living ? * 


*' Is that dace or perch ? 
Said Alderman Birch. 
I take it for herring. 
Said Alderman Perring. 
This jack's very good, 
Said Alderman Wood. 
But its bones might a man slay^ 
Said Alderman Ansley. 
1*11 butter what I get, 

Said Alderman Heygate. . ! 

Give me some stewed carp. 
Said Alderman Thorp. 
The roe*s dry as pith. 
Said Aldermen Smith. 
Don*t cut so far down. 
Said Alderman Brown. 
But nearer the fin. 
Said Alderman Glynn. 
IVe finished i* faith, man. 
Said Alderman Waithman. 
And I too, i' fatkfns, 
Said Alderman Atkins. 
They've crimped this cod droUy, 
Said Alderman Schcfley. 
'Tis bruised at the ridges, 
Said Alderman Brydges. 
Was it caught in a tlrag ? Nay, 
Said Alderman Magnay. 
*Twas brought by two men, 
Said Alderman Ven- 
ables. Yes, in a box, 
Said Alderman Cox. 
Thev care not how/wr tis. 
Said Alderman Curtis. 
From air kept and from sun. 
Said Alderman Thompson. 
Packed neatly in straw, 
Said Alderman Shaw. 
In ice got from Gunter, 
Said Alderman Hunter. 
This ketchup is sour. 
Said Alderman Flower. 
Then steep it in claret. 
Said Alderman Garret." 


[* All these prime actors in the Court of Aldermen 
have been removed by death. Alderman Magnay was 
the last to lay down his civic gown. — Ed.] 



[4«k S. IV. July 24, X9. 

Michael Hewetson. — In Noble's Continuation 

of Chrangei'y i. 118, occurs the notice of a portrait 

of a clergyman of this name : ^' 4to mez. E. Lut- 

trel p., J. Smith f. 1600, in his clerical habit, 

scarf; very scarce and fine.'* 

" It is singalar," says Noble, " that so fine a mezzotinto 
should be so little known, and that the person it repre- 
sents is still less so." 

Probably this Michael Hewetson was that friend 
iVQd adviser of Bishop Wilson, of whom some ac- 
count will be found in Keble's life of that saintly 
jprelate. He was Archdeacon of Armagh, and I 
think Luttrel was an Irishman. £. H. A. 

National Debts op Europe. — The following 
cutting from the Daily News of the 2nd of July, 
is well worth registering in " N. & Q." for the 
benefit of those readers who take an interest in 
financial matters. Ebwabd C. Dayies. 

Cavendish Club. 

'*In a paper on War Taxation, recently read before 
ihe National Reform Union at Manchester, Mr. William 
43tokes presented the following table ; — 

1. Ducal Hesse . 

2. Sweden. . 

3. Norwav 

4. Chili, §. America 

5. Prussia (1866) 

6. Turkey . . 

7. Oldenburg 

8. Electoral Hesse 

9. Brazil 

10. Hanover . 

11. Russia 

12. Wttrtemburg 
18. Saxony 

14. Belgium . 

15. Brunswick 

16. Bavaria . 

17. Baden 

18. Austria 

19. Denmark . 

20. lUJy 

21. Portugal , 

22. Spain 

23. Greece 

24. France 

25. Hamburg . 

26. Holland . 

27. Gieat Britain 
The debt of the United 

the rate of 18/. 18<. 9c/. per 

Signification op the Word " Pupillxjs." — I 
enclose a cutting from the CambHdge Chronicle of 
June 26th. Which is right, the framer of the 
Grace or the M.A. ? P. J. F. Gantillon. 

'* latin graces. 

« Sir,— In the paragraph from the Pall Mall Gazette, 
qnoted in your number for June 12th, a portion of the 
Grace of the Senate respecting the admission of non-col- 
legiate students is given, the clause running *quanam 
eommodissime ratione provideatur recipiendis in acade- 
miam puptUisj &c. 

''Now, Sir, when I was at school in Cambridge, < con- 
snle Planco,' I used to be told that pupiUus meant an 



£228,916 . 


4,114,880 . 


1,854,157 . 

. 1 1 10 

2,933,405 . 

. 1 15 

42,123,064 . 

. 1 15 8 

69,142,270 . 

. 1 19 1 

621,585 . 


1,845,892 . 


80,762,289 . 


6,423,955 . 


274,544.770 . 

. 3 14 1 

7,033,911 . 

. 3 19 6 

9,912,049 . 

. 4 4 10 

25,070,021 . 


1,707,707 . 

. 5 16 5 

29,669,267 . 


9,256,728 . 


268,965,064 . 


14,862,465 . 

. 8 18 9 

211,503,298 . 


42,930,472 . 

. 9 17 4 

163,927,471 . 

. 10 4 6 

14,000,000 . 

. 12 15 3 

566,680,057 . 

. 14 18 9 

4,222,897 . 

. 16 16 5 

81,790,799 . 

. 21 17 10 

797,031,650 . 

. 26 10 

Stotes is 579,880,391/., or at 


orphan^ ward, or minor, and was never used as we use the 
word student or pupil. I well recollect ' catching it ' for 
rendering * custode ' * tutor ' in Horace, A, P, 161, and, if 
I nm not mistaken, was then told the meaning of pupUhu, 
to which I have alreadv alluded. Forcellini's Lexicon, to 
which I have just referred, bears me out. He does not, 
however, give a passage which bears exactly on the ques- 
tion. Horace, Epist. i. 1, 21 : * Ut piger annus PupUKs 
quos dura premit custodia matrum.' in case there should 
be a reaction in favour of Latin Graces, I shall be hi^py, 
for the sake of accurate scholarship, 19 revise the phrase- 

" I am, Sir, yours sincerelv. 

Agnes de Castbo. — I observe amongst Heame*8 

books, as appears by the catalogue of his libraiTi 

given in the appendix to the jReliqtUce (2nd edit 

iii. 297)— 

"Two New Novels — 1. The Art of Making Love. 
2. The Fatal Beautv of Agnes de Castro. London, 
1688. 8vo." 

Who wrote the last, and is any copy of it known 
to be extant P E. H. A, 

Cake. — What is the origin of the word cake as 
applied to an unwise person ? T. P. F. 

A Cambridge Tia. — There was in use at Cam- 
bridge, about the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, a three-handled silver cup containing 
about a quart. The handles were equidistant 
from one another, and the cup was called a " tig." 
Can any of your readers say why it was so called, 
and is there such a cup in existence at Cambridge 
now ? Wtlmb, 

Fbaseb of Ness. — I shall be greatly obliged to 
any one who will give me any information (either 
in the pages of *' N. & Q." or by letter. addressed 
care of the publisher) respecting Simon Eraser of 
Ness Castle, whose only daughter and heiress, 
Marjory, married Alexander, mteenthLordSalton. 
I am particularly desirous to discover some ac- 
count of his descent. F. M. S. 

The High and Low German liANGXTAGSS. — 
Where can I meet with the best accounts of the 
peculiar idiosyncracies of the High German lan- 
guage, those that distinguish it from the Piatt 
Deutsch of Hanover, &c. Henry H. Howobth. 

Holbein Portrait. — In a country-house in 
Dorset there is a picture with Holbein s name on 
the panel, and undoubtedly an original work of 
that great painter; its size is nine by eleven 
inches. It is the full-face portrait of an elderly 
man with a long visage, large grey eyes, and thin 
light beard ; he is dressed in a red robe, and wears 
a ruff and a black cap. In the angle above his left 
shoulder is a coat of arms, not very distinctly 
painted ; but, as well as I can make out the charges 
on the shield, they are as follow, viz : — 

i-^S-IT. Jdi.t24.'69.] 



"Qy. 1 and 4, gn. a ch«TTDn engTailed between three I 
ieopaTds' faon ! nd 1 {mar be rosea), or ; 1 and 3, arg. i 
Mo bus between thne balls (7), 2 and l,u." 

There is leason to suppose, from circumstances 
coimected with the family historj of the geotlC' , 
mftn to whom this picture belongs, that it may be 
a portrait of Cardinal Wolsey. It has been, in- , 
deed, genetallf considered to be so ; but from 
uotieM that have appeared in these pages (4"' S. 
iil 689, Ac.) there would seem to be conaderable ■ 
room for doubt on thia point. If not a portrait of , 
Ibe cardinal, it ia that of some other emment per- 
nuf^ of the period in which he lived, and the 
beraldic atcbieTement may afford a clue to his iden- 
d£cation. Any suggestion towards this discovery 
would be thankfully ackuonledged. W. W. 8. 

MisacoTAiTOH. — " In the sweat of thy face 
•halt thoo eat bread," Gen. iii. 19, I am now in 
my ^shty-second year, and have only once heaid 
the uioTe sentence correctly quoted either from 

eat bread." Scripture langua^ is most expres- 
flTe — "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat 
bread." A little labour may cause the sweat of 
the brow, but it requires more labour to produce 
the nreat of the face. How does the mistahe 
uiae? I have Bibles from the earliest date: 
three copies of the " Breeches Bible," commencing 
with Miles Corerdale in 1636, and a number of 
more modem dates : all ate alike as it regards 
that MuteDce. I have often named the error to 
diTines and others, but they were incredulous, 
and w«re obliged to refer to the Bible to see if I 
waa correct. OBaEBviTOB. 


Pakodt or Goldsmith. — What was the sixth 
line of the following parody upon Goldsmith's 
■tsnuB on woman in the Vkar of Wakefieldf — 
Stamiu <m Man. £y Dr. Silrtrimilh. 
" ff hen fonlish man consenla lo marry, 
And finil), too Ute, bis wife a. shrew, 
When she brr point in all must carrj-, 
Tia hard lo say whafs best to do. 
" InJiopes tbe breedies to recover, 


IS free B< 


1 only method . 



Pope's Verses to Mrs. Pisott. — Ijpscomb 
ia his Hitlory of Buck) (i. 411) says that on a 
nuall pane of gUss in one of the windows of an 
apartment at the S E. angle of Doddershall House, 
Bucks, was a complimentary copy of verses written 
with a diamond by Pope, and with his signature 
HiDeied, addressed to viscountess Say and Sele, 
then Mrs. Pigott, when he was a visitor at Dod- 
iershall. Have these been preserved P The 
T)KonntWBS her third husband, and was the son of 

Richard Flennes, rootot of Foicote, by Penelope, 
daughter of George Chamberlaine, Esq,, of Ward- 
ington, Oxon. He succeeded to the title iu 1743, 
and died 1781 at Doddershall, the title becoming 
eilinct, the barony having been in 1781, before 
his death, adjudged to belong to tbe family of 
Twisleton, descended from James Hennes, second 
Viscount Say and Sele. The viscountess is be- 
lieved to have died aged one hundred, but this was 
never ascertained. When more than ninety she 
danced with elegance end grace. She once ob- 
served, "that she bad chosen her first husband for 
love, her second for riches, and the third for 
honours] and that she had now some thoughts 
of beginning again in the same order." (GenL't 
JVfa^. lii. 764.) She was succeeded in the pos- 
session of Doddershall by William Pigott, Esq., 
of Colton, Staffordshire. 

John Pigsot, Juh., F.S.A. 

PoptiLATiON OP LoNDOH, temp. Hehey II. 

Is the population of London known as it existed 
in the leign of Henry U, : I do not mean accu- 
rately, as we can now supply the information, but 
with any probability P Fitzatephen gives to it 
and its suburbs " thirteen greater conventical 
churches, beside 126 lesser pariah-churches, 139 
in all." This would seem to miply a conuderable ' 
population. J. A. O. 


Provincialisms : Mowth : Turk. — The word 
mowlh occurs as a synonym for mowing in an ad- 
vertisement in Jackion'i Oxford Journal of June 
12. It is there stated that "theright of two men's 
mointh yearly" over a certain meadow is attached 
to the property announced for sale ; but on my 

Suestiooing a labourer in an adjoining parish I 
ound that he had never heaia ^e expression 
made use of. Perhaps some local " George 
Robins" has engrafted th^ word into tbe lan- 

Trtre is commonly used in North Oxfordshire 
to denote the narrow alley or passage between two 
rows of houses, which is so frequently met with 
in the villages round Banbury, What is the 
etymology of the word ? L, X, 

Thb Pythaoobeak Lextbk. — It was a curious 
notion of Pythagoras that bj the letter Y were 
i symbolised me two paths of virtue and vice : the 
former by the thin, the latter by the thick stroke. 
To this notion PersiuB evidently alludes in the 
following lines : — 

" Et tibl, qoie Samioa didnxit liter* ramos, 
Surgentem dextro moaitravjt limita callam." 

Sat. iii. 56, 57. 

To which may be added, as quoted from Mar- 
tial in the Delphin Notes, which I cannot how- 
ever find in the Epigrams — 

' Liters PTthagone, diicrimiDe sects blcoroi, 
Hnmaiue vita apeciem proferrs videtnr." 



[^S.IV. Jm.TM.'B 

In these alluuoDS it is impi)!uib1e not to mark a 
Tery atrikinar Tesemblance to the figure employnd 
by our Lord in Matthew vii. 13, 14. And accord- 
ing to his usual custom of seizing upon anything 
pecnlinr in the habits, opinions, or traditions of 
his hearers, so that, by accommodating hia lan- 

r'fi to them, he might the bstter engogH and 
their attention, it has struck me that he 
might, in this inatwice, not have addressed them 
without reference to some such uoUon then pre- 
valent among the Jews. 

That certain of the Pythsgorean doctrines were 
known to and accepted by many of that nation, is 
H fact quite beyond dispute. The Pharisees, ac- 
cording to Josephua, believed in a kind of met- 
empsychosis (see Ant. iviii. I, Jt; BeU. ii. 8, 14), 
which may also be inferred from the question 
proposed in John is. 2 relative to the man who was 
bom blind. Will any correspondent of" N.& Q." 
interested in biblicaJ studies obligingly give mc 
bis opinion of the view I have taken, or point out 
instances of a similar kind ? 

Bduund Tew, M.A. 

Patching Reclmj-. 

Sci»-DIALS. — Very many interesting and curious 
books have been puolishedon bells, and" N.&Q." 
informs us from time to time of others being pre- 
pared ; but I am not aware of any book or even 
tractate in any language devoted to sun-dials. I ' 
shall bo glad to be informed of such if I am mis- I 
taken. Having for a number of years been ac- 
customed to acton Captain Cuttle's advice, I find 
my note-book pretty well filled with striking and 
memorable inscriptions from sun-dials that have 
come under my own notice, and I think of dedi- 
cating a small illuBtrated volume to them. Ac- 
cordingly, I shall feel grateful if correspondents 
erf " N. & Q." favour me with any noticeable 
legends or deugna known to tbera. Of course 
literal accuracy is absolutely indispensable, as 
well OS authentic information on the locaie, date, 
&C. of the respectivb dials. A. B. Ukosari. | 

St George's, Blackburn, Lancashire. 

Upfkin. — Most people know what muffins and , 
crumpets are, but in East Kent the former (or 
something very like them) aie known as uffTuna. i 
I am ignorant of the etymology of the word. 

Qeorqg Bedo. 

6. Polross Road, Brixton. i 

Wn-LIAM OF Oranoe. — Mr. Motley, in his ! 
Site of the Diitrh Republic, speaks of its founder ' 
as " William the Kinth of Omnge." Other autho- ] 
rities speak of him as "William the Firit of ' 
Orange." IIow is this to be accountod for ? i 

J.W. T. 

■Wiltshire Moosraebbs. — What ia the real 
origin of the term " moonraker," aa applied to ' 
■VratshiramenP P. 1 

fiuccinf inilli and&itcd. 
Shaeebs. — When in America Inst April, I 
paid these interesting people a visit at their set- 
tlement near Albany (N. York), but was unable 
to find any history or printed account of their 
origin or rclij^Aus tenets published in America. 


by whom is it written and publishedr A. B. 
of Shakers was fonnaed in Americn by one 

' close of tlip last centur)- with ten of her disciple!. Mors 
intcreetint; thaa Clie pccalisrity of their wonhip is the 
mode of life of these people. The taai and the womeo, 
thoRgh they danoe together on Sundays, live in aeparatu 
caminuiiitie.^ hound to celibacy; und they are stated to 
1>B the only class who ia Aaicrica have saccoi'ded In 
maiDlaiiiiog the comniunity principle through a long 
aeries of years. Their time is devoted to work. Tliay 
' are thrifty farniers, their barns full, and tlieir bauds hard 
with honest labour. They supply ■ the world of man- 
kind,' OS tbeir phrase is, with exceUcDt hutt«r, fat turkeys, 
nnd tiue cattle. They have a good repute for honesty, 
but they arc careful to hare their full amount of money 
for money's worth. lu the season the women mako 
knick-knacks aud ornaments for Indici visiting tha 
country, and take pleasure in amusing the young city 
people who go to see tbem. Like their mectiue-houBes, 
their dweliinga are plain, but neat, and kept witb soni- 
pulous cleanlineM. Their horses and csttlc are in ex- 
cellent condilioo. and their Qelds are Indus triouily tilled. 
They live very plainly, dress in antique Puritan costamet 
and are useful in their way. The history of this aiognlar 
community m&y be learnt from the following works ;— 

1. -Vn Account of the People called Shakers; to which 
is amied a ilistun- of their Rise and Progress to tiie 
present Day. Troy, 1812, I2ino. 

1. Altetumof Departed Spirits into the Bodies of the 
Shakers. Ily an Assoi'iate of the said Society (i. e. L. G. 
Thoraai?) I'hiladdpliia, 1843,l2mo. 

3. Proceedings eoncoming Shakers. 2 vols. New 
York, imc, linio. 

4. Report nf the I:xsmination nf the Shakers of Can- 
terbury ond ICnfield before the New Hampshire Legisla- 
ture at (he November Session, 1848. Concord, N. H. 
184D, 8vo. 

5. Testimony of Christ's Second Appearing Eiemidi- 
iieil. History of the Progressive IVork of God: Anli- 
cbriafs Kingdnni; or. Churches Contrasted with the 
Church of Christ's First and Second Appearing. Bs" 
David Barrow, J. Mcucham, B. 8. Youngs, and C. Green. 
Publiehed by the United Society called Shakers. Fourth 
Kilition. Albany, U. S. 1856, Svo. 

«. A Summary View of the Millennial Church, or 
United Society of Delievcrs calleil Shakers, compri^ 
their Rise and Progress. Albany, U.S. 8vo. 

Consult also SlaMiien'i Hiitorgof CtriaiioH Churcket 
and Steli, ii. 820, I85G ; and " X. li Q." i" S. Ml. SOS, 
625 i Si" S. V. 424.] 

4* S. IV, July 24, '69.] 



Ben JoifsOK' attd Sir B. Rudterd. — I have 

found, bound up in a folio copy of Ben Jonson'a 

works, twelye verses in MS. with this heading — 

^' Written by Ben: Johnson und' S' Ben: Rudyard's 

Picture." The lines begin — 

** Coo'd wee (as here his Figure) see his Mind, 
Words wQu'd be Speechless, where a Soul wee find 
So high." &c. 

Beneath them is written — "Coppy'd fro M' 
Benjohnsons own hand.'* I wish to ascertain 
whether these lines are authentic or not. They 
are not printed in the folio of 1692 or the 8vo of 

The handwriting is in the style of the end of 
the seventeenth or beginning of the eighteenth 
century. Tbere are some Latin iambics signed 
*' B, J." amonp: the commendatory verses at the 
end of Thos. Famaby's edition of Seneca's tra- 
gedies (8vo, London, 1013). Are these Ben 
Jonson's ? W. J. 


[The twt^re verses, so highly flattering to the quali- 
ties of Sir Benjamin Rudycrd, have been attributed by 
aome to Sir Henry Wotton; others consider they are 
from ^e pen of John Owen, the celebrated epigrammatist. 
(Manning's Memoir* of Sir B. Rudyerd^ ed. 1841, 
p. 2d4.) The Latin iambics at the end of Famaby's 
editi<m of Seneca's Tragedies appear to be from the pen 
of Ben Jonson.] 

TucH OR Touch. — On a mural monument in 

my church, dated 1645, there is an inscription in 

▼eise, beginning thus : — 

" Marble, nor Tuch, nor Alabaster can 
Bcveal the worth of the long-buried man," d:c. 

What is the meaning of the word " Tuch " ? 

t. w. r. 

£Tbe "word Tuch is probably only the stonecutter*s 

blander for Touch, which Johnson, in his Dictionary 

(Todd's edition), s, v„ thus describes ; — " A common kind 

of black, marble, frequently made use of in ornaments, 

was formerly called touch. From its solidity and firm- 

neaa it was also used as a test of gold ; and from this 

use of it the name itself was taken. It seems to be the 

same with that anciently called basalt. Rev. Mr. \Yhal- 

leT*s note on the following passage in Ben Jonson's 

Fbrett, ii.: — * Show of touch or marble.' So Fuller, 

ff'ori^ks (Yorkshire) : — * Vulgar eyes confound black 

marble polished to the height, with touchy goat (Jet), and 

ebon v.'" 

Kichardson, in his Dictionary^ furnishes a very parallel 
quotation from Holinshed, Description of England^ b. iii. 
c. 9 : — ** If neither alabaster nor marble dooth suffice, we 
have the touchtUme called in Latine Lydius lapis, shining 
« giasjje, either to match in sockets with our pillars of 
alabaster or otherwise."] 

Philip and Mary. — In Hume's Ilistoi'y of 

EmgUmd it is stated that Philip and Mary ^^ were 

* married at Westminster.'' Alt other authorities 

that I have seen make Winchester Cathedral the 
scene of their marriage. Was Hume mistaken^ or 
is the word " Westminster " a misprint origi- 
nally, or onlv in the edition 1 have (ed. Jones, 
1826, p. 422) P J. W. T. 

[Philip and Mary were married in Winchester Gather 
dral on July 25, 1554, the festival of St. James, the 
patron saint of Spain. A raised causeway, covered with 
red serge, leading to two thrones in the choir, had been 
prepared for the marriage procession. Queen Mary 
walked on foot from the episcopal palace. She met her 
bridegroom in the choir, and they took their seats in the 
chairs of state, an altar being erected between them. 
The chair on which Queen Mary sat is stUl, we believe, 
shown at Winchester Cathedral.] 

The Lady Mayoress of York always a- 
Lady. — Is there any historical explanation of 
this privilege enjoyed hy the lady of the Lord 
Mayor of York? Perhaps it may have abeadj. 
been asked and replied to in ^'N. & Q.'\ If so, 
I beg to apologise to the learned and courteous. 
Editor for putting the query, J. A. G. 


[An article on thi^ supposed ancient right possessed, 
by the wives of the York Mayors appeared in our 2°^ S. 
viii. 39G. The writer there quoted the following rhyme 
as his authority for the custom : — 

" The Mayor is a Lord for a year and a day, 
But his wife is a Lady for ever and aye." 
According, however, to Sampson's Yorkist Handbook,ihe 
custom originated in the humour or courtesy of the 
citizens, and is now no longer in use even in the ciric 

Sir Godfrey Kkellbr. — Under a portrait of 
Kneller, engraved hy Jos. Baker, is the following 
inscription: — "Sir Godfrey Kneller, Kn* and 
Bart." Was he ever a Baronet ? P. A. L. 

[Sir Godfrey Kneller was knighted by King Wil- 
liam III. on March 3, 1691-2; George 1. made him 
a baronet on May 24, 1715. The Emperor Leopold made 
him a knight of the Roman Empire.] 

(4'»» S. iv. 1, 58.) 

I have read with great interest the note of 
your correspondent, the Rev. J. E. Jackson, sug- 
gesting a solution of the Camac " Celtic Monu- 
ment " mystery, which has heen so long a puzzle 
to antiquaries. These thousands of hlocks of 
stones Mr. Jackson believes were erected as 
memorials of the massacre of St. Ursula and ^^ the 
eleven thousand virgins." Mr. Jackson gives 
manv reasons in support of his suggestion, and I 
am happy to aid him with others. I had, lon^ 
previous to the publication of his paper, pointed 
to the fact that "St. Juwit [misprintea Jurat], 



[4«i S. IV. July 84, '«•. 

priest and martyr, in whose honour the Dinan 
commune [St. Juvat] is designated, was the spiri- 
tual director of St. Ursula " (see " N. & Q." 3'«> S. 
iv. 274). 

The following extract from Dom Lobineau, Lea 
Vies des Saints de Bretagne,y. 10 (Rennes, 1726), 
shows the interest felt in Britanny with respect 
to the martyrdom of St. Ursula and her com- 
panions : — 

** La fete de Sainte Ursule et des onze mille vierges est 
marquee h. trois lemons, dans la plfipart des anciens calen- 
driers de Bretagne au 21 d*octobre. LV^lise de Yannes, 
dans son propre imprim^ en 1660, fait office semi-double, 
le 2 de May de Sainte Avie, ou Avoi, Vierge et Martyre, 
ou autrement dite Sainte Av^e, dont une ^gliae du dio- 
c^ porte le nom ; et Ton croit que cette Sainte a it^ 
Tone des compagnes de Sainte Ursule. 

" Dans la paroisse de St. Juvat, aupr^ de Dinan, an 
dioc^ de St.-Mido, se fait, le 21 octobre, la fgte de 
Saint Juvat, sous le rite Martyr non Pontife, et 
Ton renvo'ie la fete de Sainte Ursule au premier jour 
suivant qui se trouve libre. On n*y a de ce Saint ni 
lemons, ni oraisons propres; ce qui fait voir que Ton 
ignore les particularitez de sa vie et du tems auquel il a 
vecu. LVglise qui porte son nom est ancienne, et dans 
les actes de Tan llb2, elle est appell^ Ecclesia Semcti 
Juvati, On assure, mais ce n'est qu'une tradition popu- 
laire, qu'il ^toit Pretre, et qu'il souffrit le martyre avec 
Sainte Ursule, dont on veut qu'il ait 4t4 directeur." 

Of St. Juvat it is said, in a modem hagio- 
graphy, published by authority : — 

** Les nns pensent que n^ dans la Grande-Breta^inie il y 
fiit^ev^ au Sacerdoce, devint directeur de Sainte Ursule, 
partit avec elle, vers 883, pour TAm^rique et fut mar- 
tyrise avec les vierges que Croan-Meriades appellait h 
dlionorables alliances. 

** Les autres le confondent avec Saint JuduaL*' — Le 
Garady, Vies des Bienheureux et des Setints de Bretagne, 
p. 312. (St. Brieuc, 1839.) 

Albert le Grand, in his Life of St. Ursula (§ 5) 
mentions the names of some of her female com- 

Snions, viz. the SS. Sentie, Gr^goire, Pinoze, 
ardie, Saule, Britule, Satumie, Rabagie, Pal- 
ladie, Clemen ce, and Grata ; to which have been 
added, by M. Miorce de Kemadet, the following : — 

" Anastasie, Antonine, Aur^ie, Avoye, Brigide, Gala- 
mande, Candide, G^ile, Christancie, Christine, Claire, 
G^omale, Colombine, Cordure, Cundjfonde, Cunfere, Eu- 
genie, Fleurine, Flore, Florine, Gerdnie, Hel^ne, Uonor^e, 
Jeanne, Julienne, Langnide, Mactande, Nathalie, Odille, 
Orsmarie, Pan^t'rMe, Praxeide, Sapience, Seconde, S^mi- 
baire, Sigillende, Sponse, Th^oroate, diverscs Ursules, 
Yal^re, Walpuge, et Wibaude. Les compagnons des 

saintes ^taient SS. Aouilin, Cl^mat, Cyriaque, lEthfere, 
Foilan, Juvat, Kilien, Linold, Pontale, Quiron, Simplice 
et Valfere."— Le Grand, Les Vies des Stxints de la Bretagne- 
Armorique, avec notes etc. par Miorce de Kerdanet, revues 
par Graveran, p. 637, n. 2. (Brest, 1837.) 

From the earliest times there are in Britanny 
traces of a great devotion to St Ursula ; and the 
proofs of it are to be found in the numerous 
Ursuline communities spread over all parts of the 
province. Of the celebrated saint and Duchess 
of Britanny, St. Frances of Amboise, it is said 

that, such was her devotion to St Ursula and her 

holy companions, that she — 

** en leur honneur, donnoit, toutes les semaines, k disner 
k onze Vierges : elle fonda une Messe Hebdomadale en 
leur honneur, aux Chartreux de Nantes, et se faiaoit 
peindre pr^nt^e par Sainte Ursule, comme il se voit an 
couvercle du Tableau du grand Autel du Convent de FF. 
PP, de Nantes et ^s vitraux de la Chappelle de N. 
Dame de Nazareth, au Monastere de Sco^tz, pr^ ladite 
Yille: aussi fut-elle visits et console d'elles, en son 
dernier temps comme nous avons dit en sa vie."— Le- 
Grand, pp. 681, 638, 639. 

Religious communities in honour of the virtues 
and accomplishments of St. Ursula, intended to^ 
promote learning and piety amongst women of all 
classes in society, commenced their labours in the 
earlv years of the fourteenth century, and were 
finally recognised as a cloistered order by meana 
of St. Angela de Foligny and St Charles Bor- 
romeo. When the first edition of Le Grand was* 
published, a.b. 1644, there were Ursuline con- 
vents in Rennes, Nantes, Vannes, Kempercorentin, 
Saint Paul de Leon, Lann-Treguer, Saint Brieuc, 
Saint-Malo, Dinan, Ploermel, and Pontivy. Whea 
the last edition of Le Grand appeared, in 1837| 
there were new Ursuline convents to be seen in 
Ancenis, Auray, Chateaubriand, Foug^res, Gn^* 
rande, Guingamp, Hennebont, Lamballe, Lando^ 
reau, Lannion, Le Fauet, Lesneveu, Malestrmt, 
Morlaix, Muzillac, Pont- Croix, Quimperl^, Redan^ 
and Rochefort. 

I have quoted from La Grande the names of 
some of the companions of St. Ursula ; but such 
are not the only names that have been preserved^ 
Li a book published in Paris in the year 1666, 
and entitled " Sainte Ursuie, triomphante des cceurs^ 
de Venfer, de VempirSe^ et patrone du cdlkhre Col^ 
l^ge de Sorhonne, par le R. P6re Damas de 3. 
Lovys,'* there is a catalogue of eighteen pages, and 
each pa^e containing thirty-eight lines, giving 
alphabeticallv the names of the several martyrSi 
and where their relics are deposited. Amongst 
these is to be remarked St. Avoye, to whom espe- 
cial devotion is paid in Nantes in the parish of 
Plumelec, in the bishopric of Vannes, and from 
whom the ducal viUe of Auray has been named : — 

** On pourroit dire que cette Ville a emprunt€ son nom 
de Sainte Avoye, qui se nommoit de son premier nom de 
Sainte Avoye, qui se nommoit de son premier nom» 
Aurde."— Damas de S. Lovys, liv. iii. c. xxvi. p. 848. 

Of other Ursuline saints and martyrs whose 
relics are to be seen at Ploermel, at Nazareth- 
les- Vannes, Aurav, and Rennes, he specifies (pp. 
446, 448, 453, 457, 459, 472.) the SS. Alexander, 
Anastasia, Carisma, Cunera, Euphrasia, and Odila; 
and what he says of the Ursulines of France 
generally, may be affirmed in particular of the 
same religious communities in all parts of Brit- 
tany, viz. : — 

" 11 n'pr a presque aucune Maison de Religienses Ursa- 
lines qui n'ayent qnelques Reliques de la Compagnie de 
lenrs Saintes Patrones."— Damaa de S. Lovys, p. S4. * 

4* 8. IV. Jolt 24, '69.] 



The belief cherished here for centuries is that 

St. Ursula, a British princess, distinguished for 

her profound learning (La Grande, § i. p. 633), 

"was coming with her companions to spfead over 

Armorica the conjoined blessings of civilisation 

and Christianity ; that in making this effort they 

were massacred by the pagan inhabitants of the 

coasts on which they were shipwrecked ; and, as 

it is said in an ancient martyrology : — 

^ Tunc nnmerosa simul Rheni per littora fulgent 
Christo Viigineis erecta tropsoa maniplis ; 
Agrippinse urbi, quarum furor impius, olim, 
Miliia mactavit ductricibus inclyta Sanctis/* 

If we are to credit a modem writer, a portion 
at least of the followers and companions of St. 
Ursula were slaughtered, not only on the banks 
of the Rhine, but also on the banks of the river 
Ranoe, ilowing through Dinan; and hence the 
parish of Juvat, named in honour of the spiritual 
airector of St. Ursula : — 

** CiHDard de Puilorson assure que les onzc mille vierges 

ATidait eo leur s^jour h Tile du Pilier, dans la Loire 

Inicrieare. D^autres aateurs pensent qn'elles furent im- 

mMm k Tembouchure de la Ranee {Rinetum). Quant 

k aaiot Jnvat, sa position prbs de la fiancee de Cooan 

expljqae parfaitement le eboix qu*on fit de lui pour 

patron de la paroisse qui nous occupe." — Benjamin Jol- 

Hrct, Lea C6tes du Nord, ii. 170, Guingamp, 1855. 

These notes are put together as confirmatory 
in a slight degree of the suggestion of your cor- 
respondent They serve to show that the sad 
fate of St. Ursula and her companions excited 
strong feelings of commiseration amongst the in- 
habitants of Brittany ; that some of those com- 
panions were associated with the saints and 
martyrs of their own country, and hence the proba- 
bility of their erecting a memorial of a calamity 
alike afflicting to them as Bretons and as Chris- 
tians; aiid that Camac should become an ever- 
endoring memento of those who united the white 
Ifly of virginal purity with the red rose of 
martyrdom : — 

•* Turba pudoris integri 
Cum liliis ferens rosas." 

The Rbv. J. E. Jackson is entitled to the 
credit of having made not merely a clever sug- 
gestion, but an actual discovery; and further 
research will, I expect, supply additional proofs 
of its substantiality. Wm. B. Mac Cabe. 

Place St-Sauveur, Diuan, France. 



(4«»» S. iii. 452, 540.) 

I return my thanks for several courteous replies 
to the above query (antb^ 640). From Guernsey I 
have received the following obliging communi- 
cation: — 

" Among the translators of the first part of Goethe's 
' Met not John Hills be forgotten. Of all the English- 

men I have ever known, John Hills was the best German 
scholar, and had the most delicate perception of the bean- 
ties of German poetry. His translation was published in 
1840, by Whittaker and Co., London, and Asher, Berlin. 
His great aim was to preserve in his translation the 
rhythmic character of the original. At the time when his 
translation appeared, this idea had in it much of novelty y 
it has since become more common. John Hills was "an 
English barrister. He died many years ago."' 

A German gentleman drew my attention to the 
following versions : — 

** Faust : Translated from the German of Goethe. By 
Beresford." GOttingen, 1862. 

" Goethe's Faust : Part I. with an Analytical Transla- 
tion and Etymological and Grammatical Notes. By L. £. 
Peithmann. [Probably of German origin.] 2nd ed. rev. 
and improved." London and Leipzig, 1856. 

These two are mentioned in Engelmann's excel- 
lent Bihliothek der neueren Sprachen, Leipzig. 
1868. IL Suppl. Heft, p. 76. 

As far as scenes from Faust are concerned, Mr» 
G. H. Lewes, in his excellent Life of Goethe (Ist ed. 
1855 ; 2nd ed. 1864 ; there are two reprints alone- 
in Germany (copvright) hy Brockhaus of Leipzig, 
and hy a Frankfort (?) puhlisher ; the excellent 
German translation of the Lifcj by Dr. Frese — who 
is also the clever translator of Mr. Dixon's Spiri- 
tual Wives, under the title of Seelenhrdule^ i.e. 
brides of the soul — has become a ^' standard/') has 
translated several; also in his comparison of 
Goethe's Faud with Marlowe's drama, published, 
if I remember right, in the Foreign JReviem, 
Shelley's Scenes from the Faust of Goethe, 1824, 
and Lord Francis Leyeson Gower's version of 
the drama, 1823 and 1825, are interesting as 
having been published during Goethe's life* 
time (d. 1832). Lord Gower's translation waa 
taken notice of in the Blatter fiir Uterarische Tin- 
terhaUung, .July 1827. Of Byron's Manfred, as 
compared with his own Faust, Goethe has tfiken 
notice in Kunst und Alterthum, Part II. : — 

** Byron's tragedy Manfred was to me a wonderful 
phenomenon, and one that closely touched me. This- 
singularly intellectual poet {dieser teltsame geUtreiche 
Dichter) has taken my Fauttua to himself, and extracted 
from it the strongest nourishment for his hypochondriac 
humour. He has made use of the impelling principles in 
his own way, for his own purposes, so that no one remains 
the same, and it is particularlv on this account that I 
cannot enough admire his genius. The whole is in this 
way so completely formed anew, that it would be an inte- 
resting task for the critic to point out, not only the alter- 
ations he has made, but their degree of resemblance with, 
or dissimilarity to, the original : in the course of which 
I cannot deny, that the gloomy heat {diistre Gluth) of an 
unbounded and exuberant despair becomes at last oppres- 
sive to us." 

The whole translation of Goethe's critique i& 
given in Murray's editions of Lord Byron's works, 
collected and arranged with notes, — for instance^ 
that of 1866, in one volume, pp. 191, 192. 

The acknowledgments of such geniuses as Shelley 
and Byron, as well as the translation by Lord 
Gower of his masterpiece^ must have been the 



[4* S. IV. July 24, 'W. 

more fl.tttering to the " Old Jupiter," as the Ger- 
mans were rather slow in their approbation. Even 
at Berlin, tho " metropolis of intelligence," as the 
self-p )8sej>sed Berliners are fond of calling their 
residemie, and as late as 1816, Goethe's Faud 
was scarcely known, even among highlj educated 
people. (Vide Goethe-Zelter Correspondence^ 1833, 
vol. ii. p. 264.) How flattering, then, to think 
that as etirlv iis 1818, as wo have seen from Lock- 
hart's Life' of Scott (vide "N. & Q." 4«»» S. iii. 
452), men like Sir Walter, John Wilson, Cole- 
ridge, and Jjockhart knew, valued, and commen- 
tated upon Goethe's drama ! Hermann Kindt. 



(4'»» S. iv. 10.) 

It is well observed by B. W. that, out of the 
many ghost-stories one meets with, few are sup- 
ported by credible authority, and still fewer 
attested by the evidence of persons now living. 
The Christmas number of Once a Week for 1866 
contained a long and carefully worked-out story 
of this kind, the scene of which was laid in Lin- 
colnshire at C — Hall. A note, however, by the 
writer appears at the foot of the page in the fol- 
lowing words : — 

" The following story is perfectly true ; and the facts, 
as simply related, happened not many years ago at the 
residence of one of the oldest Koman Catholic families in 

But for this serious and startling affirmation, I 
should have left the story to amuse the readers of 
the periodical with other Christmas tales. But it 
80 happens that 1 am in a position to contradict 
the assertion in toto. The story is a very free 
amplification of one which has been for years in 
circulation ; but it is here related very differently 
from the usual narrative ] and numerous persons 
and adjuncts are introduced by Mrs. Pulleyne, 
whose name is signed to the story, which do not 
belong to the tale when properly told ; and make 
me wonder how that lady could declare her story 
to be true, and that the facts which she relates 
really happened. The lady who has a principal 
part in the story is still living, and her account of 
what did occur is now lying before me in her own 
handwriting. But it happens that I myself per- 
form the most important achievement in the ghost 
story ; and, therefore, am competent to say how 
much trutli belongs to it. What did occur, in- 
stejid of happening " not many years ago," dates 
back more than half a century. But a fine story 
has been fabricated, as usual, out of very slender 
materials ; and Mrs. PuUeyne's tale is told very 
differently indeed from the usual account, about 
which I have received many inquiries from dis- 
tant countries, and many from our own islands. I 
should probably have noticed this story long ago. 

but I never saw it till now, haying just received 
it from a friend who is familiar with the storv as 
always related. F, C. S. 

(4»'» S. iii. o7C J iv. 23, 41.) 

It not trespassing too much upon your space, 
allow me to ask Mr. Tommnson for reliable 
proof that "there is not a shadow of a doubt as 
to the authenticity and genuineness of the ' Blue 
Boy ' in the possession of the Marquis of West- 
minster," as he so confidently asserts (p. 23), 
as it is by no means so clear as he thinks. Ful- 
cher's Life of Gainsborough was compiled under 
all the difficulties of obtaining reliable details 
some sixty-eight years after the death of the 
great painter, and consequently liable to error. 
Both the father, who collected the materials for 
the painter's Life, and the son, who edited Uie 
work, have paid the last debt of nature ; so thgt 
from this source no information is obtainable. In 
Edwards's Anecdotes of Painters, published in 
1808, occur these words : " It [the * Blue Boy'] is 
now in possession of Mr. Hoppner." Now this 
extract is almost word for word the same as ia 
used in Fulcher's history of the " Blue Boy." In 
the absence of correct information of the history 
of the " Blue Bov," this passage appears to hav^ 
been used to make up the version of the history 
pf the Westminster **Blue Boy," and that Ful- 
cher published it as he found it. 

Now, if ^Ir. Hoppner possessed the originftl 
"Blue Boy" at that period, and not a good rival' 
picture, as he was an able imitator of Oaind- 
borough's style, it is clear that it could not have 
been in the possession of a nobleman who died 
in 1802. 

With reference to the original sketch, said by 
Fulcher to have been in possession of Charles 
Ford, Esq., of Bath, this gentleman, in reply to a 
recent inquiry, writes : — 

" The unfinished picture by Gainsborough was a study 
of a Blue-coat schoolboy, which Mr. Fulcher saw, and 
was much pleased with 'it ; and which, I expect, led to 
the mistake." 

The statement in Fulcher's history, that the 
picture was bought by the first Earl Grosvenor 
from Mr. Hoppner, has not only the above diffi- 
culty about dates to reconcile, but the alleged 
fact to disprove that the Westminster "Blue 
Boy '* was bought from a Wardour Street picture- 
dealer, and not from Mr. Hoppner or Mr. Kobsou 
(the eminent landscape-painter), who is also said 
to have had a " Blue Boy " in his possession at 
one period of his prosperous career, whilst Hopp- 
ner was often m " straitened circumstances," 
talented and well employed as he was. 

Now, curiously, it so happened that the sketch 
of the Westminster "Blue Boy," and the full- 

4»8.IV. JifLT24,*690 



length riyal picture, were both exhibited at the 
Conversazione of the Institution of Ci\'il Engi- 
neers in 1867; when it became obvious that they 
were not mere duplicates of each other, differing 
only in me, and* that the full-length portrait 
showed a much more natural life-like appearance 
than the sketch. On this occasion, after examin- 
ing the fhU-length picture, it is understood that 
Lcid R GrosTenor (the exhibitor of the sketch) 
admitted that the Westminster " Blue Boy " was 
hougbt from a dealer, and not from an artist. 

It is therefore quite clear that Fulcher's, or 
tie Westminster version of the "Blue Boy's" 
historvy is not a correct one; and that if Mr. 
ToMUxaoN, or any of your readers, can trace the 
picture from the studio of Gainsborough to its 
present possessor, it is most desirable. 

In 1816, 1834, 1862, and subsequently at Man- 
chester, if not also at Leeds, the Westminster 
"Kns Boy'' has been publicly exhibited, and 
maintained a high reputation as a work of art ; 
but It is admitted, by those who have seen both 
pictores, that the rival '^ Blue Boy " would have 
done so to at least an equal, if not a greater ex- 
tent; therefore, on this point, the Westminster 
picture possesses no superiority. J. S. 

The "Blue Boy'' in the possession of Mk. 
RnuKEix Carre is evidently quite a different 
pktuie to either the Westminster or the less 

The latter is 5 ft. 10 in. in height, and 4 ft. in 
width. The portrait is that of a good-looking 
TOBth standing with cap in hand in front of a 
darkly-painted landscape, through the foliage of 
which tne light is shown at intervals in Gains- 
boroagh*s best manner. The attitude is excellent, 
and the face so life-like that it appears as if 
tamed on the spectator to listen to something 
addressed to the boy, and lie was thinking what 
to say in reply. 

With the exception of the flesh tints of the 
£Keand hands the whole of the Vandyke costume 
is painted in different shades of blue colour, but 
so mellowed that even the torn sleeves of the 
coat, the folds or "wrinkles" of the breeches and 
stockings, and the peculiar "hatching" of the 
toes, are all well brought out in light and shade. 
In contrast with the dark foliage of the landscape, 
the blue dress thus skilfully manipulated pro- 
duces, as Dr. Waagen says, a harmonious and 
pleading ffiect; and, as Ilazlitt says, "there is a 
spirited plow of youth about the face, and the 
attitude is striking and elegant. The drapery of 
blue satin is admirably painted." J.'S. 


(S'^ S. viii. 320.) 

In your number for October 21, 18G5, is given 
a very imperfect copy of an old prophecy which 
is written on the fly-leaves of llarl. MS. 1717. 
Thinking a more perfect version may be accept- 
able to your readei-s, I forward you one. The 
italic letters are expansions of contracted words 
in the MS. After this follows the prescription 
given by your correspondent Hermentritde, and 
then a Latin propliecy. J. Rawson Lumrt. 


(Harleian MS. 1717, foL 249. b.) 

Quen |>e kokke in \}e noilhc by^g?* his u est 

And bask/« bis bryddts & bowuis thayiTi to flyc 

Then fortune his frend wille hur 3ati* vpo kest 

And let ryght haf his fre entre 

Then Jhj mone shall^ ryse in \>e north west 

In a clowde as blac as |>e bille of a crowe 

Then owre lyonc shalle be noyset J>e boldist «t best 

\>at euer was in bretane syn Arthur* dayis 

Then a dredfulle dragone shallc dresse ovvt of his denne 

For to helpe |>e lyonc vriih allc his myght 

A bulle & a bastarde spert« shalle spende 

A bydynge with |>e bore to do rethirc for |>e ryght 

AnEguUe & an Antilope fulle boldly shallc bydo 

A bridelle hors «fe a here wit/i brunw fulle bryght 

At sondy forth e for sothe opon ^c south e side 

A prowde pr^*nce in |>at preyse fulle lordly shalle lyjt 

*Then \>e dredfulle day of de*styny shallf dryf to J>o nyght 

And make mony wyf*<fe maydene in nioinynge be broght 

For thay shalle mete in \,e mornynge ynth mony fulle 

Bvtwj'x setonc <t ]>e sey sorow shalle be wroght 
Vfith "bolde burays in bushment J>at batellc shalle mete 
\>e pruddest prince in idle jxit prese with bale it has 

Shalle gare wyfes & maydynnis \Hit in bowre dwelle 
Be cast in grete care & in mournyngc be broght 
Then J?e Fox & ^e iilmart in hande shallc be tane 
And layd fulle low to owre lyone \)er tille abydc 
Bothe )>e pycart & he pye shalle be seruet of |>o same 
And alle ^e fox frendt* shalle falle of thay re pride 
Then troy vntrew shallc trembuUe onne j^at day 
For ferde of \>at dede monne qucn/ic bay here hymme 

Alle \>e townw of kent shalle caste hymme e key 
j>e bushemcnt of Brykkeley hillis away shalle l^ay breke 
#Then owre saxona shalle chose thaymc a lord 
|>e quyche shalle haldc alle o l>er parties vndere 
And lie l>at is dede shalle ryse & make home acorde 
And J>at wille be sene & fulle grcte wondyre 
That mone f>at is dede & bvriet in syght 
Shalle rj'se agayiie & lyfe in lond 
In comforhynge (sic) of bat monne & l>e knyght 
\mt fortune has chosen to hire husbond 
Quennc alle vermyns «£; wedis away is wasted 
And cucry sede in his sesone i«« sette bi his kynde 
Thcnwe trewlhe shalle r\'se & falslied sluille be chasted 
benne Ihesue owre gentille lustise alle wrongw iville 

Then grase & godnes challe dwelle vs amonge 
In euery place plenty by londc & by sey 
The spowshode of Crist Vi*t)i locand songc 
Shalle kepte in his kynde thurghe helpe of be trinite 
Then e soune d- be mowne shalle shyno fulle bryght 

Fol. 260, col. i. 



[4*k S. IV. July 24, ' 

\>at monj longe day fnlle derke has bene 

And kepe his coura by kynde boathe day & nygbt 

With myrthes mow ^enw. any monn« can meyne 

Then owre lyone & owre lyonese shalle reyne i» peyse 

Thus Brydlynton« & body & banastre bokt« tdlts 

The triere of wysdame with owte any levse 

Merlyne & mony mow \>at with mervelle melHs 

*The quelle shalle tume with hymme falle rygbt 

|>at fortune has chosen tille hire fere 

In Babylone shalle be seiie a syght 

bat in surry shalle brynge mony monne to here 

jVitene day lorney by3onde lehrusalem 

The holy crosse wonene challe be 

The same lorde shalle gete |>e beeme 

\>at at sondyforthe wan )>e gree 

Fortone has graunte hymme ]>q victory 

Alle ]fe quile ]>at he his armis may here 

^er is nouthere tresone ne fals trechery 

Ne curst destyny shalle hymme neuer dere 

Byfore ]>e kynde of Age opoh hym draw 

As enery manne is wormts fee 

Then he shalle ende in cristts lawe 

And in lesephathe buryet shalle be. 

[The following lines are written in another hand. The 
mark # seems to refer to the # above ; perhaps these lines 
were meant to be inserted there.] 

A lepard engenderet of natyf kynd 
#In >e sterre of bethelem schalle r}'se 
In be sothe 

"pe Melle & be Meyremaydyn 
Meywyt In mynde 
Cryxt |>at is owre creature has 
Cnrset thayme witA mowthe. 

More Family (4'*» S. iv. 61.)— I confess myself 
unable to appreciate the physiological reasons 

g'ven by Mr. A. Hall for oelieving that Agnes 
raunger, the wife of John More, was not the 
mother of all the six children whose births are 
recorded in the volume in Trinity College library. 
There is no break whatever in the entnes^ except 
between the last two, and this is due to the fact 
of a portion of the page having been occupied by 
a merchant's mark placed between the letters 
" R." and "G." There is no indication of a second 
marriage, and the form of the entries naturally 
leads to the belief that the children were bom of 
the parents whose marriage is recorded in the 
same pages. 

The heraldic question is in reality of very little 
importance. It is by no means certain that the 
arms quartered with those of More on the tomb 
at Chelsea are those of Sir Thomas More's mother. 
Mr. J. G. Nichols (Gent's Mag. 1833, part ii. 
484) says *' this coat is that of I^ey," but I cannot 
find it. 

Thomas Graunger was sheriff of London and 
Middlesex in 1503. He may have been the father 
or brother of Agnes Graunger, who was married 
in 1474. Are his arms known ? 

William Aldis Wright. 
Trin. Coll. Cambridge. 

• Col. 2. 

Edmund Eean (4^'* S. iii. 416.) — I have searched 
Dr. Goodall's admission lists for 1803-6. Neither 
the name of Kean or Carey appears in them 
during that period ; but the age oi sixteen would 
then have been no disqualification. The late Dr. 
Hawtrey was the first headmaster who limited the 
age for the admission of oppidans. 'The late 
well-known Mr. Higgins was nearer sixteen than 
fifteen when he entered ; and in the year of bis 
admission, 1825, Dr. Eeate admitted in October 
a boy who was sixteen in the previous April. 


Bells for Dissenting Churches (4*** S. iv. 
56.) — The subjoined note of mine is taken from 
The Builder. Perhaps it mav be accepted as a 
reply to TOur correspondent S. ' 

In a n)rmer communication I endeavoured to 
show that churches of every denomination had a 
full right to use bells. At the same time it was 
intimated that those bells might be made use of 
in such a manner as to create a nuisance. 

Now, it is known that many Roman Catholic 
churches in England have each one or more 
tower bells, while some of them possess a peal 
of five, six, or eight. 

The following statement may, however, bd 
news to most persons. Since the commimicatioii 
referred to appeared, Messrs. Mears and Stain- 
bank have informed me that they have cast 
bells for three Dissenting places of worship, 
namely : — 

Trinity (Independent) Chapel, Poplar :— a bell weigh- 
ing 10^ cwt., A.D. 1842. 

Independent Chapel, Hatherlow, Cheshire: — a beU 
weighing 7 J cwt., a.d. 1853. 

Unitarian Church, Todmorden, Lancashire : — a peal of 
eight bells in the key of F, the weight of the tenor being 
14 cwt., A.D. 1868. 

I may add that this last is a new stone Gk)tliic 
structure, at the west end of which is a tower 
surmounted by an octagonal spire, standing oat 
conspicuously on the hill side. The cost of the 
builaing was about 12,000/., the whole of which, 
it is said, has been paid by Messrs. Fielden, 
Brothers, who have also defrayed the expenses of 
the bells and other furniture. 

Thomas Walesbt. 

Golden Square. 

Bells and Spears (4»»» S. iv. 30.)— The follow- 
ing is, I believe, the passage to which Lingard 
refers. It is found in Dion Cassius, or rather the 
epitome by Xiphilinus (book Lxxvi. chap, xii., ed. 
Tauchn.) : — 

T^ 8^ 5ir\a a^oiv, acnrU, ical Z6pv 0paxhf urjXoy 
XaAKoDy /ir' Axpov rod aripaKos ^xov^ Sxrre atuifityop 
KrvTrsof vphs KaTdir\7}^iv rtav ivavrioiv, 

" Their arms were a shield and a short spear, haying 

a brass knob (ju^Xoi/) at the extremity, so that being 
shaken it might make a sonnd to frighten their op- 

4^aiT. Jdi,t21,'69.] 


Linfrard translates it by " bell," but I imagine 
fi^Asc lo be n knob in the form nf an tipple. Jle- 
Todian (in. c. 47) gires the saine ftriiis to the 
Caledonian El, but omits the knob. ^VIlere cnuld 
these wild barefooted (i>'inriJI(Tui)HielandinE!n liod 
metal for ibeae knoba P 

CEiTTFimD Tait Ramaoe. 

ling-ard gives hia authorities, p. 34, aa fol- 
iowa : — " Dio apud Xiphil. in Severo, p. 340 ; 
Herod, iii. 48-49." Georue Beds. 

6, PulTDsa Ro»d, Brislon. 

Sir Richard Houord (4"" S. iii. 241.) — 
There waa a Richard Holford, fieciiod aon of John 
HoUbrd of DaTenham, Cheshire. Tlie father, John 
Holfotd, was born in 1599. This would agree 
with the data of the son's birth U633). Vide 
Omerod'a Cheshire, ?ol. iii. p. 1-27. Wilxb. 

Ejitbaecb-Reqistrt : TitiNiTr Colle8E,D0b- 
US (4" 8. ii. 510.)— Since i sent you my query 
oa this subject, I have met with the following 
aMWer ID t£e late Dr. Todd's Catalogue of Gradu- 
ate a the University of Dublin, 1691-1868, Intro- 
daction, page v. notc:-^ 

" A carious euatom eiiala, designed lo mark tho rela- 
tiv8 merit of the sluiienta who are admilleJ on the aime 
daj. Tbe beat answerer Is said to be odmiLled nt noon ; 
tlie MPond beit, one minato afler noon i the third, two 
binntas, and » on. This cu-itom lias been noticed (Notei 
and Qusria), 4"> S. iL No. 49, p. 511), and aeemi to hikve 
paxxlcd the querist." 

The volume from which I have quoted is cal- 
culated to Mb most useful, and is very creditable 
to Dr. Todd (whose reoent death we deplore) and 
the UniverBitj of Dublin. Ajihra. 

Pu»sis (4"" S. iii. .WO.) — I am inclined to 
kdmit, from the remarks made by your corre- 
apondent on my query regarding the word pleme, 
that the original mcaninj; of park is quite inde- 
pendent of deer, though m thia part of England 
tt ia associated with paat or present herds. 

A well-known enclosure. The Pftrka at Oxford, 
derives its name from the trenches and parks of 
arffllery erected during the wege of the city. It 
now bean the resemblonCB of a suburban park : 
but I remember when comtields occupied the 
space so well laid out ia pasture and ornamental 
trees. Thob. E. Wjsnikqioh. 

AimsALLicAB SociBTr (4'" S. iii. 482.)— I am 
macfa obliged for the information respecting the 
Antigallicaa Society, but my inquirv relative to 
tte arms and badge has not yet received a reply. 
I have a plate of oriental porcelain ; in the centre 
of which is a circular sbidd, surrounded with 
scroll-work of scarlet and gold, mixed with small 
flowers. On the shield is a figure of St. George, 
■nouDted on a white horse; lying on the ground, 
under the boiw, is a small shield, having what 
i^teara tt> be intended for three fleurs-de-lis. [ 

Above, as a crest, is a flgure of Britannia seated, 
with a rantto on a acroH — " St. George and Old 
England." Beneath this shield ore two honda 

of the Antigallican Society. Is it so? I have 
seen many similar plates, so there must have been 
a service. Octavidb Mosoan, 

ID, Cbu-teB Street, St. James's. 

Sheripm (4'f' S. iii. 382.)— Blake way 'a Sherifft 
of S/iropihire, a work now of considerable value, 

S'tcs a detailed account of all the families who 
ive served that office. Mr. Darenport, of Oxford, 
has recently printed a list of Oxfordshire aherifis, 
with historic notes. 

Berkshire and Oxon, Derby and Notts, like 
Huntingdon and Cambridgeshire, have been for- 
merly served by one sheriff. 

Thomas E. Wihkinotoii. 

Mr. J. M. Davenport, the registrar of tbe diocese 

of Oxford, has published an interesting volume 

on the Lordi-Lteiitenanti and High Sheriffs of 

Oifordiihire,from 1080 to 1868. J. ALiCRAT. 

KNrvBToK Church (4"' S. 17. 8.)— There is a 
drawing of Kniveton church, Derbyshire, in the 
Plain Anaslaiie volume for 1863, with a short 
acEount of the place. 

Thomas E. WnrmsoToK. 

William Vauohan (4"^ S. iii. 5"fl; iv. 20.)— 
It is stated in Townsend's History of Leominster 
(p. 250) that the Rev, Henry Vaughan, vicar of 
that pariah from 1724 to 1702, was an ancestor of 
Sir Henry Halford. C. J. R. 

KiDSAPPiSB (4"' S. iv. 31.)— In the latest edi- 
tion (1844) of Baron Hume's VotnmentarieB on the 
Law of Scotland respecting Crimes, vol. i. p. 86, 
there IB the following note I 
by your correspondent ; — 

" Janet Donglas had sontenco of death for the like 
offence fEbild-BteHliug] on S September, 1817. The libel 
was laid for theft, more particaUrly that speties of theft 
called man-stealiag. She had stolen a ehiid of three 
veata old at Edinburgh on the 12tb of May, and was 
taken witb it !□ her custody on the lllh of May at Hal- 
beiitb colliery in Fire. Shu had not in nny respect mis- 
naed the child, and she received a pardon (17 November), 
which cammuted her sentence to transportation for life." 

Baron Hume cites various preceding cases where 
sentence of death had followed for the same crime, 
and be appears obviously to hold that such is yet 
the law of Scotland, though it would probably 
not now be rigidly enforced. 

"Ac Perth on 20 September, 1826, Lord Gillies pamed 
sentenco of traiuportition forronrteenyesra on ElUabeCh 
or Betty Hill forBtBaling a child of a year old or thereby. 
But sba had pleadeil guilty, and the prosecator had 
restricted Che paina of Ian," 



e referred to 


[4* S. IV. Jdi 

Elizabeth and Isapel (4'" 8. iti. CIC) — I 
copied from the mai^nificent mauaoleum in the 
Boral Chapel of the Cathedral of Granada the 
following iDscripticn cxactlj as it is: — 

"Mshometiee, .Seclc, Prostrnlores et Hcretice, Pctvi- 
cicit, Extinclurcs FernandiH Ani|;nnum llelisabetlia 
Caalelle, Vir et Uxor Unanimes Catholici AppelUti 
Marmoreo Clauduiitur Hoc Tumiilo." 

The Latin diphthong U represented by an e 
and comma at its end. JoHH Duxn Gaudner. 

19, Park Street, Park Lane. 

Passage in Galahabs (4'^ S. iv. 22.) — With ! 
respect to what Tewabs saya, I beg to obsorre 
that I by no moans forgot, as he assumes, the ' 
notorious fact that in the New Testament end in ; 
other wiitei'S quotations are not always quite 
exact: but it is immaterial in this case. The | 
suggested line is worse than the former one, | 
having two faults instead of one. The o eannot 
be short before tbej"; and the line violates the i 
prapriety of the caeura, though it may not be 
■gainst the bare literal rule, and need not be ex- I 
plained to those acquainted with the tragedians. 

It ia true that in dome few cases the caiura \ 
does not appear at all, but probably oh!t with a ! 

would assume such an omission. Howurer, the 
other objection alone is quite enough. 


The alteration proposed by ^Ir. Tewars is , 
fdngnlarly unfortunate ; for not only will the words 
M arranged by him not make the end of a good 
iambic, but as forming anif part of a tragic eenn- . 
nas they are altogether inadmissible. Aa consti- 
tuting the end of a line, they offer a spondee in 
tbe fourth foot; while to their forming nny part 
of an iambic trimeter, the concurrence of two 
qiondees is fatal. W. B. C 

Saist Sapoorin (4'" S. iii. 618.) — I have no 
doubt that this apocryphal Sunt Saphorin or 
Zephjrin is the " Syrophorianus" of 13. A. Fe- 
derer. lie wn.i detected by Dr. Oliver in the 
vicarage of " ist. Veryan," in the hundred of 
Powder, in Cornwall ; and the church bell is de- 
sciihed, in a survey of the Denn and Chapter of 
Exeter (to whom the vicarage is appropriated), as 
the Campanula Sancti Syiuphoriani. The manor 
in connection with this church was known in the 
twelfth century, and still is called in deeds, by tbe 
name of Elerky. The worthy doctor appears to have 
bad no success with the then vicar in extracting 
local information from him. Generally speaking, 
his laudable attempts to obtain such mformation 
&0IU the several parochial incumbents of the two 
Damnonian counties were kindly and courteously 
seconded bj' tliein. 

The notice of this pariah ia among the printed 
slips which my friend obligingly supplied to roe 
until his researches were closed by tbe hand of 

I bad a hope, at one time, that the work of the 
doctor would hnvebeenrecotttinued and completed 
by my friend Lieut.-Col. Harding, of LpcotL 
!&irnslAple. The materials were in on advuucea 
state, and the volumes of the " Ecclesiastical Xa- 
tiquities " might then have been republished by 
an editor whose capacity for correcting the presa 
might well have been ^ater than that of the 
doctor himself, who put his trust in compositors. 

While I am on the subject of Dr. Oliver's great 
work on the Exetfr Monasticon, let me print for 
the first time an elegant eulogy which a common 
friend of his, and of my own, put into his hands 
shortly before bis decease. The lines accompanied 
a pamphlet of my dear friend, on a projected re- 
form of King's College, long since efiected; — 
" Accipe, olivifenc mullum dilect« Mlnerrir, 
Cui(|ue ctiam meritam tiomen Olirn dedit, 
Accipe, colleRil tlb) gii«m Rej;^!'" alumnus 

Non f^itidlto tnittit amnre librum : 
Qunt Sophiic proavi poraere ingentia templs 

PerleRe, lot Sophise nos rcparats damns : 
Sit proavos laudare tuum; p resell da no sint 
Secula prffilcrilis dcteriora, meura." 


SiEAM-SniPS rREDicTED (4" S. iv. 38.) — If 
Ms. Walcott thinks it worth while to refer to 
Lord StanhoiM'a Life of Fitt, Tol. iL p. 397, li« 
will find that in 1704 and 1705 steam-ships were 
not only predicted, but, with the concurrence of 
tbe Board of Admiralty, experimentally cod- 


PoRTKAiT OF Pkiscb Chables Edwakd (4** 
S. iii. 633.) — The way in which I became pos- 
sessed of the miniature mentioned by Mr. Sleios 
was (traditionally) as follows: — 

It was given by the Young Pretender to hii 
intimate friend and staunch supporter, William 
Marquis of Tullibardine, who died in the Tower 
in 1747. From Lord TuUihaidine it passed to 
his brother. Lord John Slurrav, of Banner CcoBS, 
near Sheffield, who died May 96, 1787. Lord 
John Murmy was succeeded by his only child, flie 
wife of Lieut -General William Murray, ofBanner 
Cross, who died Aug. 2ft, 1818. General Murray^ 
only sister and heiress, Mrs. Bagshawe, of Fwd 
Hail and Banner Cross, who died Not. 5, 1844, 
was my grandmother. Tho picture came to Ban- 
ner Cross in the time of Loid John Murray, and 
there it remained until I brought it into Derby- 
shire a few years a^o- There is no evidence that 
it accompanied either Prmcc Charles or Lord 
Tullihardine to Derby; and Mb. Sleirh will 
therefore pardon me if I venture to doubt whether 
it can be regarded as a I'elic of that expedition. 
I Certainly it was not left in this county in 1746, 
i and to the Bagshawes, who were all firm friends 
I of the Protestant.BUCcession, it would have been 
I no welcome gift; in fact, my ancestor Vmiiam 

4"» S. IV. Ji'LY 24, 'G9.] 



Bagshawe, the then owner of this place, a de- 
puty-lieutenant for Derbyshire, had taken an 
active part on behalf of the king ; and as soon as 
he heard of the near approach of the rebels, buried 
his plate and papers, ordered his horses to be kept 
saddled and bridled night and day, and made 
every preparation for a hasty flight. 

W. II. G. Baqshawe. 
Ford Hall, Chapel-ea-le-Frith. 

Gridble (4'*» S. iii. 505.) — Mr. Harrison has 
&llen into a mistake not uncommon amongst your 
eorrespondents, that of supposing a word or prac- 
tice to be peculiar to the district of country in 
'which only they have heard or seen it, which is 
of much more general prevalence. The griddle, 
often but corruptly pronounced girdlcy is well 
known over all Scotland, being of daily use in 
every houae where either oat-cakes, or "souple 
acones the wale oTood," form part of the diet. 
It is a louiid flat plate of malleable iron, placed 
Cfver the fire, and upon which scones or oat-cakes 
are fiied, and the effecting of which without being 
orer or under done is a great nicety. 

The making of griddles, so as to stand well the 
fire, was one of the mysteries of olden times : 
there being a particular corporation, " The Grid- 
dlemakers of Culross" — an ancient and now de- 
cayed royal Scots burgh — who by this craft had 
their wealth. There was some superstition under 
the influence of which ladies anxious to have ofi*- 
spring went to Culross ** to sleep upon a griddle.'* 
1 remember to have seen these lines in a book 
called, I think, " The Scotch Iludibras " : — 

•* Samuel was sent to France, 
To leam to sing and dance, 

And play upon the fiddle. 
Now he's a man of great esteem, 
His mother got him in a dream 

At Calross on a griddle." 

Can any of your correspondents give an account 
of this superstition ? 11. T. 


GiiKTHAK Custom (4'*' S. iii. 653.) — Since 
tlie publication of my query, I have been informed 
by tn " old inhabitant " that in the year 1824 a 
gendeman named Rogers, the son of the mayor 
far that year, was christened " Edward Mon- 
tague," taking the names of his sponsors, Sir 
EdwBfd Cust and Sir Montague Cholmeley, who 
then represented this borough in Parliament. I 
believe that a similar case occurred more re- 
cently, showing the continuance of the custom, if 
not its origin. Chr. Cooke. 

Hetrb (4*** S. iv. 9.) — In discussing the mean- 
ing of the '* V yerdes of heyre for the bakhowse 
at Stoke for the kelle," Mr. Edward J. Wood 
throws light upon a sentence in one of the ac- 
coont books of my parish which had puzzled me 
•idlj. In the twenty-fourth volume of the Journal 

of the British Arc1\(Bological Association, I printed 
a paper '* On the Parish of St. Peter Cheap, in 
the City of London, from 1392 to 1G33," pp. 248- 
268. At p. 263 will be found a series of extracts 
relating to the observances of Palm Sunday, 
amongst which are the following : — 

** 1519. It* for hyering of the herea for the p'fetys uppon 
pal me son day e, xij*i. 

1521. It'm for the hyer of ye heyr for the profytts, xij<*. 

1522. It'm for hj-re of heyrs for ye profytts uppon 

palme Sondaye, xij*. 
1534. It'm p'd for the setting up of the stages for the 
prophetla on Pollme Sonday ande for nayllys, 

I confess that I felt some difficulty about the 
'* here?," " heyr," and " heyrs," hired for. the 
prophets ; and I ventured to guess that this word, 
thus variously spelt, might probably mean haity 
and might refer to the hiring of some wigs or 
other costume for the prophets. I was encouraged 
in this view by observing, in Brand's Popular 
Antiquities, the following entry from the church- 
wardens' accounts for the parish of St Maiy-at- 
Hill, in the City of London : — 

" 1531. Paid for the hire of the raymcnt for the Prophets, 

Mr. Edward J. Wood's note makes it, I thinlf, 
highly probable that the raiment hired for the 
prophets consisted of some garments of hair cloth. 
One can readily imagine that in the pageant of 
the day some lay-figure, or even a living person 
hired for the occasion, may have been clothed 
with such a garment to represent St. John Bap- 
tist, with his " raiment of camel's hair " ; or pos- 
sibly to personify Elijah the Tishbite, or some 
other prophet with his "rough garment," as the 
English text has it in Zechariah xiii. 6, the mar- 
gin giving '* a garment of hair." 

W. Sparrow Simpson. 

"The Oaks" (4''» S. iv. 20.)— Knowing that 
the desire of '* N. & Q." is to be in all things cor- 
rect, I venture to correct Mr. Wilkins' state- 
ment that " The Oaks " is at Banstead. It is in 
the small adjacent parish of Woodmansterne, which 
seldom gets the credit of including it in its bounds. 
I have seen in the papers lately, " The Oaks, Ep- 
som," "The Oaks, (Jarshalton," and now Mb. 
Wilkins assigns it to Banstead. 

C. E. Gordon Crawford. 

Woodmansterne Rectory. 

Wordsworth's " Lucy " (4**' S. iii. 680.)— This 
clever parody was written by Hartley Coleridge, 
whose character the great poet prophetically 
divined when he was but six years old : — 

** O blessed vision ! happy child ! 
Thou art so exquisitely wild, 
I think of thee vrith many fears 
For what may be thy lot in future years.** 

I have heard Hartley Coleridge himself recite it, 


[4* 8. IV. Jolt HW. 

and hftTB an impresaion that G. E. doea not quote 
it with perfact accuracT. Maerochbir. 

■William Combu (4* S. iv. U.l— I think with 
&[r. Matek that Combe could hskrdly have been 

Suite a scoundrel. Crabb Robinson deaiMibea 
im (i. 292-4) as the person who at The Timet 
office, when Walter was absent — '' decided in tiie 
dernier ressort." He came from the King's Bench 
to Printing-house Square on a day rule, and 
refused to allow WalMr to paj his debts, because 
bo considered the claim against him inequitable. 
Had be been quite such a villain as some writers 

Cblter-kets (4'" S. iii. 480, 563.)— A writer 
in the Journal of HoHimiUare (No. 432, p. 23,) 
objects that the oxiip or cowslip could not have 
been the ctUv^-keys, because the latter is called 
" azure " in the following quotation : — 
'■ Among the dai«iu and tbo tjoUU blue, 
Bed hyacinth »nd yellow daffodil, 
Purple narclBBua, like the morning rayi. 
Pale gandeT-gciBS and azure culrer-keyes." 

John Davart, 

The following b from Halliwell, Archaic Did,. 
(i. 286): — 

" Ctdver-lui/a. The bnuchea of pods vhich contain tbe 
aeeds of the ash ; alia explained the columbine." 

Culver = ci<;/>e, A,-S. for eolamba, "a dove," 
The flower called columbine (Aquilegia vu^arts), 
which has blue petals, is thus described : — 

" The ft\-eipumd petals with incurved heads hare 
been compared to five doves — the lepala representing the 
winga, and to IbU tbe English name colamblat rerers." 

The word k^t may refer to the calcarale pro- 
cesses called tpurs, for Mr. Halliwell says tbe 
principal claw in a hawk's foot is called a key: 
thus, culmr-key means iioM-»pur— j ust as the De/- 
phinitim, which belongs to the same order, is 
called larkspur. A. Hall. 

BnioBwick Terrace, Brixton Hill, S. 

City o? Londoit Swobdbbarbk (4'" S. iv. 33.) 
It is staled in " N. & Q." that Humphrey Leigh 
was succeeded in the above office By William 
Hall on Feb. 26, 1632. In the second codicil to 
the will of Sir Martin Lumley, "Citizen and 
Alderman of London," and at one time Lord 
Mayor, dated June 30, 1834, a leraoy oE twenty 
nobles is bequeathed to "Mr. HaU, the Sword- 
bearer." Sir Martin Lumley wa? conaeoted with 
a family of Hall by the marriage of his only 
daughter Sarah with John Hall, a French mer- 
chant,dtizen and draper of London. This John was 
probably a nephew of one William Hal! described 
in the will of his brother Daniel Hall, 1623, as 
" minister"; and Daniel had a son named Wil- 
liam, who died young. The name wafl, there- 
fore, evidently in the hmily. Though neither of 

these Williams was evidently swordbearer, it 
might well have been one of the same family. I 
am very desirous of identifying the ewordbeuer 
with it, and therefore trouble you with this soma- 
wbat irrelevant not«, which is perhaps more fairly 
to be taken as a query. 

GboRSB W. iSiBSBilX. 

Weacombe, Bicknoller, Taualon. 

MlSAPPRBHENBIOSS (d"" S. ill. 522, 610.)— 
Allow me to poiut out another seeming minp- 
prehension on the part of Sir Walter Scott TlM 
passage will be found in tbe octaro edition of hit 
Life hy Lockhart, pp. 500 : — 

*" Sir Waller observed that it eeemed to ba a pieee of 
Protestantism to drop tbe saintly Cities of the CathidM 
Church: they call St. Patricks, Patricks! and St. Ste- 
phen's Green has t>eeD Oranfrised into StephcDS. He 
said von might trace the Pnritana In tbe plain Poi4n 
(for St. Panl s) c^ the Old English comedians." 

In a most interesting article, however, bj Al- 
lingham, which appeared in Frtuer't Magatme tot 
June, 1869 (p. 788), quite a different view of the 
omisuon of the prefli of the saint's name is taken 
by the writer; — 

" In Ireland it was not, and is not, cnslomary to BM 
the title of Saint. With a simple reverence the p«»l* - 
called the holy men and women among (hem ningly 07 
their names, often alTecIionatelv prefixing ' mo,' ^^ or 
'do,' thy. Patrick's Day. Stephen's Green. Sta. (Kerin'k 
Port), are still the usual names. 

" In early times tba Iriib did not call their childno a 
saint's name without tb? preSx Gilla, a servant— as Ofl- 
patrick, Gilbride, Gilhoaly," &e. 

In Dublin, at least, the Roman Catholics ■■ 
often name their places of worship without U 
with the saint's prefii— as Michael and John's; 
but more frequently by the name of the atoMt 
they are situated in — as Francis Street, WeBt- 
land Row, Townsend Street, MarlborouKh Street 
chapels, &c. So that the omission of the saints' 
ptetix can hardly be esteemed, as Sir Waltai 
Scott considered, a relic of Puritanism. 


Mahodbritb of Attstbia (4'" S. iv. 30^)— For 

another portrut of this princess see (Xd LotwbM, 

p. 204 of Mr. Scharf s paper on " Royal I^ctUN 

Galleries," B. B. Woodwabh. 

Impobtasi Biblical Discovery (4" S. iv. 7.) 
Mr. Barhav, in his version of tbe 87th psalm, 
has forgotten that Hebrew is a language subject, 
like other languages, to fixed laws, and that ■ 
Hebrew sentence is not a mere accumulation of 
letters with which any conjuring tricks may be 
played. He could not otherwise have proposed, 
with apparent seriousness, an emendation so egre- 
giously absurd. He baa taken the initial letter of 
one word and an abbreviated form of another, and 
made the two into a compound which has_ no 
existence in Hebrew, but which he asserts, with- 
out giving any authority, ia the most apedflc 

4* 8. IV. Juti 24, '69.] 



name the Jews employed to deagnate the Messiah. 
** In tids compound word the A stands for Adonai, 
Ae Lord^ and hku for Jesus the Saviour, All this 
is proved in Schindler^s Hebrew dictionary." 
Win Mb. Babham give the reference to Schind- 
ler ? I have known the hook a long time, and 
shall he much astonished to find any such state- 
ment there. On the other hand, I will refer him 
to Buxtoif' 8 Lexicon Talmudicum, col. 991, for 
infonDttion on the subject. The medal to which 
Mb. Baxoam appeals for confirmation of his 
view is clearly a modem fabrication of the six- 
teenth century, and the Hebrew inscription is 
ffodi as no one who knew the language would 
hare written. 

I wish to protest strongly against such emen- 
datJopff aa calculated to bring discredit upon 
Hebrew criticism. No one would have ventured 
to propoae a conjecture of the kind in Latin or 
Greek. William Alms Wright. 

Trin. GoQ. Cambridge. 

Felix Aottbia (4"* S. iii. 284.) — The ingeni- 

ooB and highly-gifted Mr. Charles Thiriold 

(to whom all readers of vour excellent periodical 

ana much indebted for his remarks on Austria, 

and most of all, perhaps, for his note some years 

ago on the Anglo-Saxon termination -ster) would 

he pleased, I doubt not, to know that the wording, 

if not quite the thought, of the epigram of which 

he has only given the first line, is borrowed from 

Ovid*a Henides. I give the epigram in full : — 

* B^la gfmit alii, ta, felix Austria, nube ; 
Ham qm Mara aliis dat tibi r^^a Venus." 

The pasMges in the Heroides are — 


'BeOagerant alii ; Protesilans amet " (xiii. 84), 

" Apita magis Yeueri qaam sunt tua corpora Marti ; 
Bella gerant fortes, tu, Pari, semper ama." 

(xvii. 263, 254.) 

Erato Hills. 
Trin. Coll. Cambridge. 

« A SUPT OP Bekf " (4'»» S. iv. 33.)-In Halli- 
well'a Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words j 
the first meaning of slift is '^ the fieshy part of 
the leg of beef ; part of the round '' ; and it is 
said to he used in the Eastern Counties. It is 
prohahly identical with the bed, which in the 
same counties is used for ''a fieshy piece of beef 
cut from the upper part of the leg and bottom of 
the beUy.'' 

Looking at the etymology of the word I cannot 
doubt that it is connected with the old English 
JifCj L q. sleeve, from a fancied resemblance be- 
tween the fleshy upper part of the leg with the 
ileere, fuller as it is at the upper end. 

James Daviss. 

Hoor Coart, Kington, Herefordshire. 

If Mb. Cvthbbrt Bede receives no more deci- 
«Te reply to his^query on the above subject, he 

may perhaps be pleased to know that I have often 
heard a female relative of mine (a native of Nor- 
folk, and long resident at Ormesby,) speak of the 
"sliff marrow-bone," which would lead me to 
suppose that the '^ slift of beef is the ordinary 
" round of beef." M. D. 

Cockney Eht3ie (4**' S. iv. 29.) — Mr. Jackson 
is certainly mistaken as to Ralph and laugh being 
"the cockniest of cockney rhymes." Of Ralpk^ 
he says, ^' in the South of England the pronun- 
ciation is as it is spelt," — not a very clear defini- 
tion. But in fact the name is commonly sounded 
in London and the south of England like Rafe, 
rhyming to safe. This, Mr. Jackson says, is the 
wav they pronounce in Yorkshire. Here, again, 
I think he is mistaken. A few years ago I was 
talking at Whitby with an ola gentleman, a 
thorough-bred Yorkshireman, who had kept his 
Yorkshire tongue through long years of residence- 
in London, and I spoke of a relative of mine he 
had known there, and whom I called, after the 
London fashion, Rafe, At first my old friend did 
not recognise the name, but then exclaimed,'' -^ye, 
aye, %ce called him Ralfy He pronounced the a 
as in SaUy, and sounded the /. 

Mr. Jackson says that Scott " must have pro- 
nounced laugh as it is given by the lowest and 
most vulgar cockney's larf I see no must in the 
case. If he did not call Ralph Rarf why should 
he have called laugh larff Two modes of calling- 
the name occur in Hudihras\ one with just the 
sound Scott gives it : — 

"A squire he bad whose name was Ralph, 
Who in th' adventure went his half; 
And when we can with metre safe. 
We'll call him so ; if not, plain Raph." 

Butler was no cockney, that bite twire of Mb^ 
Jackson. J, Dixon. 

Mr. Jackson jumps to a conclusion from rather 
arbitrary premises. He says Scott {Rokehy) adopts- 
the pronunciation Rarf (Ralph), and hence Uie 
cockneyism Uufy for laugh, which ends the couplet. 
Mr. Jackson tells us that ^'the proper name 
Ralph is pronounced three different ways. In 
the South of England the pronunciation is as it is 
spelt. In Yorkshire we pronounce the name as if 
it were written Raif and in the North we say 
Rarf^^ I do not know what part of the North 
is referred to, but in the South, East, and West 
of Scotland I have heard it sometimes pronounced 
Raify but generally Raff, I had a schoolfellow 
named Ralph who always got Raff, The silent 
/ before a consonant is not uncommon, as stalky 
walk, talk. Some other proof must be produced^ 
ere Scott can be justly charged witn writing 
cockney rhymes. R. 

PoUokshields, Glasgow. 

Jasmin^ the Barber Poet (4**» S. iv. 31.) — 
Some years ago appeared in the French periodical. 


[4«'S. IV. Jui.r24,'69. 

L'AHisU, & lithoBTftph by Q. Frey after Seb. 
Goniu, with two lines in fnoaimile of the poet's 
handwriliDg aud ugaature ; — 

" I'cy bbto rire qnand liiioy. 
t'ey bisU plourft quaad plmirabi ! 

P. A. L. 

If jour correspondent will favour me with hta 
address, I shall have great pleasure in lending him 
a copy of Las PapUlotoi, containing the portrait of 
the author. The publishers nre Messrs. I^rmin 
Didot & Co., Paris. G. A. SCHKUMPF. 


Mary Qi 



'tiei n/Eemts from Ike Death «f Jama V. m 
iotii iht Dcetli i/fthtSegatt Sturrrn/ in 1570. B^ 
Jolin Ilosack, Barrister-st-Lnw. (Blacknood.) 
This volume commends itself to all who take an in- 
tereat in tlie veK«d and punful hittoiy of Klary Queen of 
Scots, on aeconnt of two important but hitherto un- 
publiaheil documentB which it is the editor's good fortune 
to brii)g under the notice of historical students. Ttiue 
are, first, the Articles preferred against her at the Con 
ftrence at Westminater in 1668, which having been pre 
served among the interesting collection of contcmporarv- 
papers iinown as the Honetoun Manuscripts, are now 
tempomrilv deposited with the Lord Clerli Rcgi ter 
and seconi^lf, the Journals of the Proceedings at H eit 
minster on (be day upon which the silver casket con 
taininu the alleged letters of Queen Mary to Bothwell 
1T19 protluced. Mr. Uoeack, who is a zealous advocate 
of the unhappy Queen, uses these and other documents 
with great ingenuity in her vindication, but, to our 
minds, with very indifferent success : and the perusal of 
his book has served bj convince us of the strong- common 
sense uf Sir tVolter tKott, who, in answer lo the inqnirv 
of a literary friend as to what he thought of the case of 
Mary, replied, "if it had not been for her marnage to 
Bothwell, 1 could have made ■ good case for her Mr 
Hoaack may console himself, if neeil he, for his failure 
by the conviction that Scott could have done no better 
for Ills illustrious and most unhappy client. 
Sni of fyortiia galhend from the Old HUloria, and 

RoiD uirittea aneie. Bg the ^tithar of '• The Ucir of 

Kcdclyft'e." (MacmiUan.) 

A great change has come over the world since — 
" The worlhi^ nine that were of might, 
By travailc won immortal praise." 
And (he thirteen worthies, Joshua, David, Hector, Arist- 
ide!>, Xehemiali, Xenoplion. Epaminondas, Alexander, 
Marcus Curios Dentatua. Cleomenes, Scipio Africanus, 
Judaa Maccabeus, and Julius Cmsar, whom the authoress 
of Tin Htir if Redclgfft has selected as types uf excel- 
lence, exhibit characteristics more in accordance with our 
present ooticus of worth and goodness than tbojie which 

Euvailed when Holufemes presented the nine Worthies 
fore the Princess of France. The authoress has, by 
this little book, conferred another favour on ber many 
readers and admirers. 

Books Received: — 
Tie FM-Speech of CMnUrlaad and lomt DUtricIt adja- 
ctal ; bc'ing thart Sloria and Bii/mei in Ihe Dialecli of 
the IVest Border Cmntie: Bg Alexander Craig Gib- 
son, F.S.A. (Russell Smith.) 

A little volume of tales and poems written for the most 
part, as the author insists, in "pure Cambrian," and as 
interesting to the philologist for the language, as to the 
ordinary reader for its subject matter. 
The Boobuiorm: on lUaitrated Uterary and BHHngra- 
phinal Reciew. f tbruari, lo June, l»iJ3. 
We have to call the attention of our bibliographical 
readers to fire more numbers of this thdr special journal, 
in which curious literary inforniattou and admirable fae- 
similes of old woodcut?, Ac, contend for the masleij-. 

AaiiWTiiL Linr.ARV ; Society of Asthjuaribs. — 
The valuable tJoltection of Books bequeathed by the late 
Mr. Ashpitel to the Societv of which he was for so many 
years a distinguished t'ellow, has been removed ts 
someract House, and forms an important addition to tha 
excellent library of tlie Society. Cnder Mr. AehjuterB 
bequest, the Society receive* upwards of (wo thoosand 
volumes, the greater portion being more or less con- 
nected with some branch uf archsological study: the 
remainder being atrikiiigly illustrative of the'varied 
reading of the accomplislied scholar, ^hoeo memory will 
' '--- ' in the Society by Tub AsHrrrBL 

flatitat t0 Goirri^aiitieiiU. 

■'HOTBBUD (lDMn3"Ur(iUtettd(Ur 

4*fcS.IV. JULY31/69.] 




CONTENTS.— No 83. 

KOTES : — Thomas Rowlandson. Artist, 89 — Youart : 
Toofchoort, 91 — Jo. Davors: Izaak Walton, 76. — Identity 
of Indian and European Games, 93 — Pieces from Manu- 
scripts, No. VI., 94 — Shakspeare. *' Measure for M easure '* : 
the •* Frenzie Angelo " — Closing of the Thames Tunnel — 
Anecdote of Winnington — Jews iu Jerusalem -- Chris- 
tianity. 9«. 

QU6RIKS: — Air Cushions — Cansick — Crowned Heads 
marrying Sisters — Differences in Arms — Explanations 
wanted — Bishop G^este, or Gheast — Kunig Tyrol von 

. Scbotten und Fridebrant sin Sun — Miltoirs "Paradise 
liost." I'd. folio, 1688 — North, Bridge, and Flegg Families 
— The Earliest Specimen of Paper — Old Map of Ireland 
— Paraphrase from Horace — Sir Phillip le Vache — Stone 
PUlar Crosses, 95. 

QvniBS WITH Answebs : — Passage in Fitzstephen : " The 
dtizeo's Pocket Chronicle " — The Puritan's Cat — The 
Bights of Public Libraries — Herrings, 97. 

SSPLIES: — C&rnac: a New Key to be Tried to a very 
Bnatj Lock. 98 — Penmen, 100 — The Sudcreys, 101 — 
Bason Cuticle on a Church Door. Jb. — Who were the 
Combatants at the Battle of the North Inch of Perth iu 
ISMf 102 - Epigram by Dr. Hawtrey — Cartularies, Ac, 
of Paifflnbam Abbey and Davington Priory— More Family 

— Newark Peerage — flalhed's MS. Notes on Dr. Dee — 
Ooiitted References — Skimmerton, or Skimmington — 
Kapoleon I. and his Second Marriage — Plurality of Altars 

— Mm Robinson: "Perdita" — The Court in 1784 — 
The Oak and the Ash — Grinling Gibbons — " When my 
Byestnngs break in Death " — Sir William Wallace's 
Statue— Bumble-bee. Ac., 104. 

Notea on Books. Ac 


Thomas Rowlandson, though born July 1756, in 
the Old Jewry, is said to have studied drawing: in 
Paris. Those who know the accuracy with which 
French students, about the time of the accession 
of Louis XVI., were taught to express the human 
figure, can scarcely suppose that Rowlandson could 
have really had more education in drawing than 
his compeers Grose, Bunbury, and Gillray. It is, 
however, still more extraordinary that he is also 
described as having been both before and subse- 
quently a student of the Royal Academy of Arts in 
LondoD. Perhaps the clever, but cynic, Gillray 
ctred as much for Rowlandson as for anybody in 
ti»e world besides his landlady and publisher, Mrs. 
Humphreys, of St James's Street, and her servant. 
Far many years, if Gillray was spending his even- 
ing at the Bell, the Coal-hole, or the Coach-and- 
Horaes, Rowlandson, knowing where to find him, 
would sometimes meet him ; and after a chat 
upoD the ebb or flow of employment, and a laugh 
at the world in general, they would enter into 
the common talk of the room that served these 
worthies as a club, smoke their cigars, drink their 
punch,* and shake hands at the door before de- 

* ** Cigars and punch," teste VV. H. Pyne; else I Bhould 
have written ** pipes and grog," though both expected 
nioe from their employers, as was the etiquetie of that 

parting to their domiciles. Rowlandson lived in 
apartments in the Adelphi, where he died, after 
a severe illness of two years, April 22, 1827, aged 
seventy, as stated in the memoir given in the 
Gentleman^ 8 Magazine for June, p. 564. 

If at any time collectors should be surprised at 
finding that five or six of his productions are 
almost exactly similar in outline^ and scarcely 
diflferent in colour, they may rest assured that all 
are by him, and were considered by him to be 
equally originals. The process of production was 
simple. Rowlandson would call m the Strand| 
ask for paper, vermilion, a brush, water, a saucer, 
and a reed; then, making of the reed such a pen 
as he liked, he drew the outline of a subject 
(generally taking care to reverse the arms of his 
figures), and hand the paper to Mr. Ackermann 
to be treated aa if it were a copper-plate. This 
was taken to the press, where some well-damped 
paper was laid upon the sketch, and the two 
were subjected to a pressure that turned them 
out as a right and left outline. The operation 
would be performed with other pieces of damp 
paper in succession, until the original would not 
part with vermilion enough to indicate an out- 
line ; then that original became useless, and Row- 
landson proceeded to reline the replicas, and to 
tint them according to the fancy of the moment. 

Such works as these, or as the figures which 
Rowlandson added to Pugin^s drawings for the 
Microcosm of London, and other similar pub- 
lications, were merely "pot-boilers" — a term well 
understood in 1 805 — and were not the usual re- 
sults of his abilities. His grotesquesj for they can 
hardly be termed caricatures, were rather of the 
same class as the three Tours of Dr, Syntax, 
78 pi. ; History and Adventures of Johnny New^ 
come, 14 pi. ; English Dance of Death, 74 pi. ; 
Naples and the Campagna Felice^ 17 pi. ; Dance of 
Ufe, 26 pi.; Vicar of Wakefield, 24 pi.; Send- 
mental Travels in the South of France, 18 pL; 
History and Life of Johnny Quce Genus, 24 pL ; 
Tom Raw the Griffin, 24 pi. ; and the Illustra- 
tions of the Miseries of Human Life, 50 pi., with 
the 67 subjects worked into The Humourist, 1831, 
by W. H. Harrison. But far more serious were 
The Loyal 1 olunteers of Londofi, published about 
1795, in 87 pi., and the design for the transpa- 
rency which was exhibited on Nov. 5 and 6, 1813, 
at 101, Strand, and which is now perhaps only to 
be found, with a political squib in rhyme, in the 
Repository of Arts, 1814, 1st ser. xi. 53. 

The Catalogue of the library in the British 
Museum gives to Rowlandson the illustrations in, 
the following other works : C. Anstey, TJie Com- 
forts of Bath ; twenty caricatures in illustration 
of Boswell's Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, 
1786, fol.; ^. B\x\X%T, Hudibras, 1810; G. Gam- 
bado (pseud.). An Academy for grown Horsemen, 
1809 ; Goldsmith, Vicar of Wakefield, 1823 ; Mun- 



[4«»S.1V. Jult81,'69. 

chKOsen^ 6 Surprising Advefitiires, 1809; T. Smol- 
lett, Adventures of Peregrine Pickle, 1805; L. 
Sterne, SentiinentalJoumcy, 2 pi., 1809; Charac- 
teristic Sketches of the Lower Orders, 54 pi., 1820. 
To these the Catalogue of the King's Library 
adds under his name, besides the Loyal Volunteers, 
An Excursion to Brighthelmstone made in 1789, 
foL, 1790; and Hungarian and Highland Broad 
Sword, foL, 1799. 

Nearly everything that Rowlandson produced 
after 1800? was submitted to Mr. Ackermann. 
When the two perceived that the consumption 
was becoming restricted, the latter suggested that 
unless such works were available to him for some 
publication, they were not likely to realise prices 
that would satisfy the artist. Thereon the former 
invented and submitted the greater portion of the 
subjects in the first Tour of Dr. Syntax, and it 
was agreed that the success of them, with the 
co-operation of Mr. Combe, should be tried. 
Having settled the idea in this manner, Mr. 
Ackermann went with it to Mr. Combe in the 
King's Bench Prison, and made with him the 
necessary arrangements (naturally guarded, as 
being made with almost a stranger), under which 
one of the most popular works of the day was 
concocted. Combe (noticed in '' X. & Q. " 4»'» S. 
iii. 545, 509) himself furnished nearly the same 
account in the preface to the first fourj where 
he says : — 

" I undertook to give metrical illustrations of the 
prints with which Mr. Ackermann decorated the Poetical 
Magazine. . . . The designs to which this volume is 
greatly indebted, I was informed would follow in a 
series, and it was proposed to me to shape out a story 
from them. An etchmg or a drawing was accordingly 
sent to me everj' month, and I composed a certain pro- 
portion of pages in verse, in which of course the subject 
of the design was included. . . . When the first print was 
sent to me, I did not know what would be the subject of 
the second ; and in this manner, in a great measure, the 
artist continued designing, and I continued writing every 
month for two years .... the artist and the writer 
having no personal communication with, or knowledge 
of each other .... though on a first view of some of the 
prints, it may appear as if the clerical character was 
treated with levity, I am confident in announcing a very 
opposite impression from a perusal of the work." 

In the second Tottr nearly the same view is 
stated — 

•* A work of suggestions, from the plates, by Mr. Row- 
landson, though not with such entire reserve as the 

This second part contains the lines (on p. 115 
of Mr. Hotten's edition) — 

" What hangs on lines from tree to tree. 
They are my works, which I display 
In the full air of open day." 

They refer to a fact in the practice of a well- 
known water-colour painter, Green of Ambleside ; 
and he is, I believe, the only person introduced into 
the three Tours ; unless, in the thirty or, forty lines 

which follow them, there was meant to be also an 
allusion to Rowlandson's own habit, already men- 
tioned, of multiplication ; and unless Miss PaUet 
was a piece of flattery to Harriet Gouldsmith. It 
would scarcely have been worth while to insist 
upon this absence of personality in the Tours if 
my attention had not been drawn to a passage in 
Daly's Revue G^nSrale for 1841, ii. 361, where his 
correspondent J. M., recounting the events of a 
visit to Stratford-upon-Avon, says : — 

" Sur votre chemin vers I'cglise n'oubliez pas d'entrer 
chez un libraire qui vous fera voir, entre autrcs deasins 
fort curieux, une esquisse de ce qu'on appelle le pupitre 
de Sbakspere : cette esquisse est dc la main du reverend 
Nixon, le prototype du docteur Syntax." 

My friends having very well known Mr. Row- 
landson, Mr. Combe, and Mr. Ackermann, with- 
out ever hearing any allusion to a prototype of 

Syntax, it seemed to me that the Rev. 

Nixon must be a creation of the French tourist^s 
imagination, until it occurred to me that the 
name was one hardly likely to be selected by 
a foreigner for a fictitious personage. If any 
of your readers should happen to know any- 
thing about this " prototype," a communication 
of it would be interesting, because the way in 
which the first Tour was created has always 
been represented, I believe correctly, as merely 
the result of Combe's ingenuity in making a peg 
upon which to hang portions ot* type that should 
seem to have been the origin, rather than the 
product, of Rowlandson's illustrations. . I am im- 
pelled to insist upon this point, because whoever 
wrote the Advertisement prefacing the Letters to 
Marianne, published in 1823 directlv after the 
death of Combe, represented him as guilty of mak- 
ing the following statement, which is irreconcilable 
with the first of the passages herein quoted, ex- 
cept as a specimen of Combe's habitual equivoca- 
tion : — 

** At an interview which a friend of the editor enjoyed 
with Mr. Combe, cif^ht davs previous to his decease, he 
found him with The Diaboliad lyinfj open before him. 
• B.* said he, ' when 1 bojxnn my Doctor St/ntar, I had 
the designs of the artist laid bcforts me ; and the task 
prescribed to me was, to write up to them. Those designs 
might have been applied to a .«^atire upon the national 
clergy ; but if ridicule was the intention, to such a plan 
I resolved not to lend my pen : I respect the clergy; and 
I determinc<l to turn tlio cdj;e of the weapon which I 
thought was levelled against them." 

It seems ludicrous to read in subsequent lines 
an eulogium of the "faithfulness and ingenuity 
with which he executed this resolve," when it is 
remembered that any sensible man would be un- 
likely to issue ** a satire upon the national clergy '* 
simultaneously with his publication of the Rev. 
J. Thomas's Pclifnous Emblems^ and with the 
preparation of the Histories of Westminster Abbey 
and the Universities. The idea of such an im- 
probability as Mr. Ackermann's stupidity in en- 
dangering the success of those undertakings is 

4<kS. IV. July 31/69.] 



absurd, regarding ouly the business portion of his 
character. To snow what manner of man Mr. 
Ackermaon really was, and in some measure there- 
by to obviate the ludicrous tone in which he has 
been mentioned in Mr. Jerdan*s late communi- 
cation to The Leisure Hour, will be the object of 
another contribution to these pages. W. P. 


I do not remember that I have met with this 
word in Mr. Palgrave*s most charming, nay, often 
bewitching Arabia (which, by the way, has ap- 
peared in a German translation with a most 
wretched reproduction of the tine genial portrait 
of the author that graces the two volumes so 
splendidly got up and printed by Messrs. Mac- 
millan), but Mr. Kinglake in his lively, sarcastic, 
but by no means less charming Uothen, speaks 
©fit: — 

** Ton ire going into their countr}' [at Gaza, upon the 
verge of the Desert], have a direct personal interest in 
knowing aometbing aboat *Arab hospitality'; but the 
deace of it is, that the poor fellows with whom 1 have 
happened to pitch my tent were scarcely ever in a condi- 
tion to exercise that magnanimous virtue with much 

edat They were always courteous, however, 

and were never backward in offering me the * youart,' or 
enrds and whey, which is the principal delicacy to be 
found amongst the wandering tribes." — Vide Eothen, 
diap. xvii. ** The Desert " ; Tauchnitz (copyright) ed., 
withoat the author's name. Leipzig, 1846, p.'l82. 

This youartf however, is by no means simply 
** curds and whey " ; it is the " Devonshire cream," 
the ''little porringer" of the Desert. It consists 
of (in Arabia mostly camel's) milk boiled in a 
copper vessel with an admixture of the juice of 
the fig-tree, which causes the milk to coagulate 
(to curdle) after a short time. It is then filled 
into basins and allowed to get cold, when it forms 
a moat refreshing and moreover a most wholesome 
diah. I have tasted it in excellent quality in 
some Turkish and foreign coflec-houses at Man- 
chester. The Turkish restaurateur^ a native of 
Adiianople, who prepared it told me that a small 
quantity of the juice of the fig-tree was mixed 
with a quantity of new milk, and boiled down to 
the consistency of stiff jelly, or "sizy broth," as 
JBoswell^s Great Llama has it. This lirst prepara- 
fioD, which will keep any length of time, is, how- 
ever, not fit for use so far as eating it then and 
there is concerned. It is too bitter, nauseous, and 
even somewhat dangerous; but small quantities 
of it arc mixed again with large quantities of new 
milk, and thus help to prepare the delicious youart. 
The re-ftaurateitr, and some friends from the East, 
pronounced the word somehow like yooghoortj giv- 
mg the gh a most peculiar guttural sound. All were 
unanimous in its praise as wholesome and stomachic, 
being especially too tlie arcanum of persons who 
bare oyer-eaten themselves — a thing that will 


happen more frequently in the West, though, than 
in the East. It is of a slightly acid taste, like 
sour cream, but milder and more delicate yet: 
perhaps like some rich creamy pulp found in 
Indian or South Sea Islands— fruit so vividly de- 
scribed by Dampier. Homer mentions such a 
reparation of milk with the juice of the fig-tree, 
ut I cannot just now '*lay hands" on the very 
place. Will some kind follower of Captain Cuttle 
courteously help me ? Hermann Kindt. 



Might I just point out to Mesbrs. Britten and 
Dixon * that the author of the Secrets of Angling 
was named neither Davor nor Davors, but Dennys, 
as the late Sir Hegtry Ellis tells us in his reprint 
of that very rare volume, so late as 1811, on the 
authority of the following extract from the books 
of the Stationers' Company : — 

•«1612. 23oMartii. 

** Mr. Rog. Jackson entred for his copie nnder th* ands 
of Mr. Madon and Mr. Warden Hooper, a book called the 
Secrets of Angling, teaching the choysest tooles, bates, and 
seasons for the taking of any fish in pond or river, prac- 
tised and opened in three bookes, by John Dennys, Esquire, 

The first edition, then, of this very rare book, 
and which is unique, is dated 1613, and is pre- 
served in the Bodleian Library. Sir John Haw- 
kins, the well-known editor of Izaak Walton's 
Compleat Angler , acknowledges that he never even 
could get a sight of this book. Beloe, speaking 
of the fourth edition of 1662, says: "Perhaps 
there does not exist in the circle of English litera- 
ture a rarer book than this." He seems to have 
entirely ignored the three previous editions; 
though how he could have done so it is impossible 
for me to say, as they all, with the exception of 
the first edition, have these words conspicuously 
printed on their title-pages: "augmented witn 
many approved experiments by W. Lauson." Pick- 
ering, in his Bihliotheca Piscatorial also ignores 
the second and third editions; and Mr. Bohn, in 
his recent reprint of Lowndes' Bibliographer's 
Manualy is guilty of the same shortcoming, with 
much less of excuse, as the real facts bad in his 
time become patent to any diligent inquirer. 

Sir Harris rficolas, in his edition of Walton'a 
Angler y says : — 

** The Secrets of Angling was not written by John 
Davors, but by John Dennys, Esquire, who was lord of 
Oldburv-sur-Monteni, in the countv of Gloucester, be- 
tween 1572 and 1608. He was a younper son of Sir 
Walter Dennys of Packlechurch, in that county, by 
Agnes, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Robert Davers, or 

We have almost certain internal evidence of 

" ■ ■ -^ ■ T ' — - ■ ■ — - ^ 

• « PopuUr Names of Plants," 4»»» S. iiL 341, 612. 



[4"» S. IV. July 31, '69. 

this in the poem itself, one verse running as 

follows : — 

*• And thoa, sweet Boyd, that with thy watry sway 
Dost wash the clifies of Dan^jton and of VVeek, 

And throujjh their rocks, with crooked windin^j way, 
Thy mother Avon ninnest soft to seek ; 

In whose fair stream the speckled trout doth play, 
The roch, the dace, the gudgin, and the bleike ; 

Teach me thy skill with slender line and hook. 

To take each fish of river, pond, or brooke.'* 

Now there is a beautiful rivulet called the 
Boyd, which is formed by four distinct streams 
rising in the parishes of Codrington, Pucklechurch, 
Dyrhara, ana Toghill, in the southern part of the 
county of Gloucester, between Bath and Bristol, 
which join in Wyke or Week Sti*eet in the parish 
of Alston and Wyck, near a bridge of three large 
arches; and thence, by the name of Boyd, de- 
scends to the Avon at Kynsham Bridge, and 
which river passes through the village of Puckle- 
church, and thence flows on to Bitton. At Alston 
and Wyke there are many high cliffs or rocks, 
and in the north aisle of the ancient church of 
Pucklechurch is the burial-place of the family of 

At the back of the title of the Secrets is a 
copy of commendatory verses — " In due praise of 
his praiseworthy skill and worke": these are signed 
"Jo. Danes," and it is evidently from this signa- 
ture that the mistake has arisen. Walton, in the 
first, second, third, and fourth editions of the 
Compleat Angler, attributes several verses of 
Dennys's poem, which ho quotes with variations 
that, I am sorry to have to confess, are by no 
means improvements, to "Jo. Da."; but in the 
fifth edition he gives the full name, " Jo. Davors, 
Esquire." There can be little doubt, as sug- 
gested by Sir Harris Nicolas, that the Jo. Daues, 
the writer of the commendatory verses, was a rela- 
tion of Dennys's, whose mother's name was Davers 
or Danvers, Danes being then the common mode 
of spelling that name. 

Robert Howlett, in the preface to his Angler^s 
Sure Guide, assigns the Secrets to no less a per- 
sonage than Dr. Donne, whom he styles "that 
great practitioner, master, and patron of angling " ; 
and he adds, " indeed his seems to be the best 
foundation of all superstructures of this kind, and 
upon that basis chiefly have I raised mine." And 
I may now say that to no less than to six different 
poets, rejoicing in the name of Davies, has the 
Secrets been at various times ascribed. 

It is from an excellent bibliography of the 
Secrets, published a few years ago in the Fisher- 
man's Magazine by my friend Mr. Westwood, the 
author of the New Bihliotheca Piscatoria, that I 
have culled most of the preceding particulars. 
Mr. Westwood states, in the same paper, that — 

" The dates of the second and third editions are still 
an open question. A copy (supposed to be unique) of 
the second, with the words * Printed at London for Roger 

Jackson' — the rest cut off, is in my possession; and a 
copy of the third (also considered unique) is in the same 
mutilated state, having onlv the words 'Printed at 
London for John Jackson.' 'The binder's knife has, in 
fact, been more than usually sacrilegious in its dealings 
with this work. The date of the second edition is con- 
jectured to be about 1620. It was edited by VV. Lauson, 
and the title-page states that it is * au^ented with many 
approued experiments.' Lauson's additions to the work 
are an address *To the reader,' and some notes and 
receipts. The fourth edition bears date 1652; several 
copies of it are extant. The poem has been reprinted m 
extenaoy from this latter edition, in Sir Kgerton Brydges's 
British Bibliographer J and a hundred copies were struck 
oflT separately in 1811. It was also noticed, with large 
citations, in the same bibliophile's Centura Literaria^ 
in an article which was transported bodily by Daniel 
into the supplement to his Rural Sports in 1813." 

I have the pleasure to state that I, through the 
kindness of that indefatigable bibliographer, Mr. 
John Power, who a few days ago called ray atten- 
tion to it, discovered the date of the third edi- 
tion — hidden away, like a needle in a bottle of 
hay, in the immense collections of Bagford de- 
posited in the British ^luseum. As the entry 
gives the date of 1630, and fully corroborates 
Mr. Westwood that the publisher of the third 
edition was a John Jackson, I need make no 
apology for giving it in full here. 

" The Secrets of Angling, in three books, by J. D^ 
Esquire. Augmented, with many approued Experiments, 
by W. Lauson. In verse. Printed, in 8vo, for John 
Jackson, in the Strand, at the Signc of the Parote. 1630.'* 

Curious to relate, the Secrets of AngUng 'were 

in their own time rendered into prose. The book 

is entitled the — 

" Pleasures of Princes, or Good Men's liecreations : 
Contayiiing a Discourse of the General Art of Fishing 
with the Angle or otherwise, and of all the hidden^ecrct» 
belonging thereto. London, 1614." 

Other editions were published in 1615 and 1635, 
Besides those editions, it was immediately taken 
possession of by Gervase Markham, who incor- 
porated it into his Comitry Contentments, or the 
Husbandman^ s Hecreatimis, and published it in his 
third edition of 1615, and many later ones, as — 

" The whole Art of Angling ; as it was written in a 
small Treatise in Rime, and now, for the better Under- 
standing of the Header, put into Prose, and adorned and 

Mr. Westwood's words, as he is a poet of no 

mean standing himself, deserve to be fully quoted 

on this transversion. He says that — 

" The transmuting process was effected bv no unskilfnl 
hand, and without too much sacriHco of the precious 
metal of the original. Sir Philip Sidney's ordeal has, 
indeed, seldom been undei^^one with so little deteriora- 
tion. The quaint character of the poem has been pre- 
served in the prose version, and the passages added 
(especially the introduction) have a striking merit of 
their own. It is proof of the vitality of Denny's verses, 
that they retain their strength, sweetness, and flavour in 
their more sober form. Those curious in parallels may 
compare * The Qualities of an Angler,' in the third book 

4* 8. IV. Jolt 81, '69.] 



of the poem, with chapter ii. its corresponding passage of 
the Pleasures of Princes.^* 

A strange fatality seems to have fallen on the 
poets quoted by Walton. For a long time the 
name of Dennys was as great a secret as any that 
he sang about. And even in 1820, no less a man 
than Mr. Singer was satisfied that John Chalk- 
hill was *' a fictitious personage, a verbal phantom, 
a shadow of a shade." And the editor of the 
Retrospective Review j adding his infelicitous con- 
clufflons thereto, supposed Chalkhill to be merely 
** a nomme de guerrey like Peter Pindar or Barry 
Cornwall." Though Walton, whose strict rever- 
ence for truth would have scorned a falsehood, 
says, in his introduction to Theabna and Clear- 
oAtw, that — 

** I have this to say of the author, that he was in his 
time a man generallv known and as well beloved: for 
he washamble and obliging in his behaviour; a gentle- 
man* a aeholar, very innocent and prudent; and his 
whote life was useful, quiet, and virtuous.' 


Tbaty I think, is quite enough to demonstrate 
the existence of John Chalkhill ; though there is 
a book extant with his name written in it by the 
hand of the master, and signed with his initials, 
"Iz. Wa."; and elaborate pedigrees and tomb- 
stones testify to the same thing. I do not know 
if any one has observed the commendatory verses 
written by T. Flatman in this book ; they are, in 
my opinion, most interesting, as they describe the 
yenerable Walton (he was then ninety years of 
age) in the happiest manner, and are a most 
etegant compliment paid to his virtues : — 



•* Long had the bright Thealma lain obscure ; 
Her beauteous charms, that might the world allure, 
Lay, like rough diamonds in the mine, unknown, 
Bv all the sons of folly trampled on, 
ifH your kind hand unveiled her lovely face. 
And gave her vigour to exert her rays. 
Hap|r|r old man ! whose worth all mankind knows, 
Sxeept himself; who charitably shows 

The rutdy road to virtues and to praise. 

The road to many long and happ}*^ days, 

Thm aoble art of generous piety, 

Aadhov to compass true felicity ; 

Hence ^ he learn the art of living well. 

Tbe brif^t Thealma was his oracle : 

Inspired by her, he knows no anxious cares 

Tbroa^ near a century of pleasant years; 

Easy he lives, and cheerful shall he die, 

Weil npoken of by late posterity 

As long as Spencer's noble flames shall bum. 

And deep devotions throng about his urn ; 

Aa long as Chalkhill's venerable name 

With humble emulation shall inflame 

Ages to come, and swell the rolls of fame, 

Tour memory shall ever be secure. 

And long beyond our short-lived praise endure ; 

As Phidias in Minerva^s shield did live, 

And shared that immortality he alone could give. 

" Tiio. Flatman." 

I feel constrained here to speak on a cognate 
subject, which more properly belongs to the able 
chronicler of the Compleat Angler. But as that 
gentleman is far from his books, enjoying the 
pleasant country breezes on his annual holiday, 
he has asked me to do so. It is of that confused 
and erroneous mass of words, that Mr. Alexander 
Murray presumes to call the bibliography of the 
Compleat Angler, in his recent reprint of the first 
edition. Mr. Murray has there given us an edi- 
tion of 1664, which is no other than the edition 
of 1661. Though some copies have the date 1664, 
they are of exactly the same impression as those 
of 1661, no other variation being discoverable. 
Then he has given us no less than two editions of 
1676; thereby making seven editions to be pub- 
lished in Walton's lifetime, instead of five, the 
real number. Then comes Moses Browne's first 
edition in 1760, and Sir John Hawkins's in 1760 : 
totally ignoring the two subsequent editions of 
Browne in 1769 and 1772, and the five following 
editions of Hawkins in 1766, 1776, 1784. He died 
in 1789 ; but his son, John Sidney Hawkins, pub- 
lished a fifth edition m 1792, and a sixth in 1797. 
Bagster's first edition was printed in 1808; but 
by that time Hawkins thought that he had a 
vested right in the Compleat Angler, and he wrote 
a silly letter which was published in the Gentle^ 
man's Magazine of January, 1809. But I must 
leave these stupid polemics alone. Bagster's /ac- 
simile edition appeared in 1810, and his second 
so-called edition in 1815 ; Gosden's in 1822 ; and 
Major's first in 1823, and his second in 1824. It 
is useless for me to go farther ; all the editions 
are noticed in the Chronicle of the Compleat Angler , 
and to that book I confidently refer the reader. 
I see the sight of Lowndes' name at the bottom 
of the list, quoted as an authority, and I really 
wonder at Mr. Alexander Murray's assumption. 
Apologising for the length of this paper, I must 
conclude ; only saying, that when Izaak Walton 
is the theme, it is difiicult to stop. 

William Pinkbeton. 


Tip-Cat. — This game is much played by the 
native children in India. It is called **Gulli 
danda." The method of playing is very similar to 
that in vogue in England. A small hole (gurchi) 
is made in the ground. There are two players ; 
the cat is called guilt, and the stick danad. The 
player places the gtdli over the gurchi, strikes it 
with the dandd, so that it files up in the air, and 
then he again strikes it away as far as he can 
before it falls. The opposite player fetches the 
gulli, and attempts to throw it thence into the 
gurchi. If he succeeds, the striker is out ; if he 
fails, one is marked to the game. 




Hop-Scotch. — This ^ame is also much played 
by native children. It is called "EkariaDukana." 
The round piece of tile (khapoUo) is thrown suc- 
cessively into the seven squares and kicked out by 
the player hopping on one leg. In passing the 
fifth and sixth squares, however, the player has to 
Jump straight in and then straight out again 
from the baulk without treading on the intervening 

3uares. The vernacular names are apparently 







W. H. W. 

Benares, June 2, 18G9. 


Here is a curious political carol on some comely 
King Harry (perhaps the fourth of the name), 
his son, a prince who never was cast (perhaps 
Henry v.), a lord chamberlain who was never 
forsworn, and a Lord Fueryn who never did fail. 
In the hope of getting the last and other charac- 
ters identified, I send the carol to "N. & Q.*' 
The MS. is of paper, and is said by the catalogue 
to be of the fifteenth century. At the top of leaf 
74 is writted — " Conditor alme, siderum etema 


Addit. MS. 19,046, leaf 7^. 

ttVt hame sufi wy lekyn \>i% loly gentyl schep* ? 

i Att to houre combely kyng hary Hs cnat ys knyt ; 

^erfore let vs all synge nowel, 

tyll home suit wy lekyn \>i& loly gentyl mast ? 
«1 to my lorde prynce )>at ncuer was caste : 
(terfore let vs afi synge nowel, 

now el. 

Sa. home suit wy lekyn \>h loly gentyl nore f ? 
1 to my lorde cha[m]berlayne bat neu«r was forsore ; 
J>erfore let vs aft synge nowe4i-, 

tyll home suit wy lekyn \ns loly gentyit sayle ? 
«t to my lorde fueryn jwt neuer dyd fayle : 


t Oar. 

her fore let vs att sing noweft. 
Noweit, noweit, nowelt, noweif, 

and cryst saue mery yglon, and spedyt well. — fy* Amen 
quoth lonvs. 

? WylUm. 

Sha^kspeare, '* Measure for Measure ": the 
" Prenzie Angelo." — You are well aware of the 
many conjectural emendations which have been 
proposed on the passage in Measure for Measure 
m which (in the old edition of Shakspeare) occur 
the words " the prenzie Angelo," "j^r^iew guards." 
Near the close of the second scene in the first 
act, the Duke says, *' Lord Angelo is precise " ; 
and probably on that ground it has been proposed 
to substitute precise for the immeaning comoina- 
tion of letters, '* prenzie." We have in English 
the word priniy and in Scotch primsiej both bear- 
ing the same general meaning as precise. It is 
easy to see how readily the latter word might by a 
compositor be transformed into prenzie — to which, 
both in form and in sound, it bears a closer re- 
semblance than any one of the various emenda- 
tions which have been proposed. I do not, how- 
ever, remember to have met with the word in 
any English author, though it is possible it may 
have been formerly used south, as it still com- 
monly enough is north, of the Tweed: for in 
English literature of the olden time many words 
occur which are now considered exclusively 
Scotch. Your varied reading and research may 
enable you to give a positive judgment on the 
subject. J. D. 

Closing of the Thames Tunnel. — The sub- 
joined cutting, from The Times of July 21, 1869, 
may be worth embodying in ** N. & Q." : — 

*' Last night the Thames Tunnel was finally closed as 
a public footway. This undertaking, which at the time 
of its desip;n was considered a masterpiece of science, and 
which formed a communication under the river Thames 
between Rotherhithe and Wapping, was, after nameroas 
difficulties, finally accomplished and opened on March 28, 
1843, having been commenced by Sir I. S. Brunei in 
1824. The total cost of the tunnel was about 600,0001., 
but the East London Railway- Company recently pur- 
chased it for a little over a third of that sum.*' 

A. G. S. 

Anecdote of Winnington. — A Latin letter 
in the library at Stanford led to a curious anec* 
dote of one of my predecessors at this place. Mr. 
Winnington, afterwards a Minister of State^ and 
Paymaster of the Forces under the Pelham ad- 
ministration, while a boy at Westminster, ran 
away from the college school with two of his 

The three engaged themselves as masons* boys 
to some builders at Blenheim, Oxfordshire, then 
in the course of Erection, 1710. One of them was 

• ? fyCnis]. 

4* 8.1V. Jolt 31, '69.] 



discovered by a friend, who accidentally visited 
the works, and thus led to the detection of the 

The Latin letter was written by young Win- 
nington to his father, entreating pardon for his 
folly, and a note appended to it has 'preserved 
the anecdote to the present day. 

Stanford Court, Worcester. 

Jews in Jerusalem. — A writer in the Church 
Times (June 25, 1809) gives some interesting 
particulars respecting the present condition of the 
Jews in Jerusalem. They number about eight 
thousand, and are divided into — 

1. The Sephardini, or Spanish Jews, who are 
said to be descendants of exiles from Spain who 
arrived in the days of Ferdinand and Isabella. 

2. The Askenazim, or Jews of Polish and Ger- 
man origin, subdivided into sects, such as Peru- 
shin or Pharisees, Rhasidini or Pious, who are 
very enthusiastic and fanatical. They are almost 
all settlers from Europe, the old indigenous people 
seeming to have become lost. They live on the 
alma of European societies, who send out funds to 

Some Jews have come from distant parts to die 
in Jerusalem and be buried in the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat, where Jewish tradition says the re- 
forrectiou and judgment will take place. The 
writer says the consequence of this is that the 
Jewish inhabitants of the Holy City are "a de- 
graded set of idle paupers." Sir Moses Montefiore 
was instrumental in building for them schools 
and houses and a mill outside the city near 
Birkel-es- Sultan, or Lower Pool of Sihon, but 
the people are so lazy that this did little good. 
He witnessed the wailing of the Jews at the 
Temple wall : — 

"There is a narrow pas.'age along the west side of the 
Temple area between what are known as Robinson's and 
WiliH>n*8 archei*. The wall rises to a considerable height, 
and the lower part is formed of very large stones, which 
are mipposed to be the remains of the Temple. They are 
nucli rained, and the grass and herbage grow in the 
akattered crevices of the once neatly-joined masonry. In 
thete crevices the Jews place little scrolls of parchment, 
on which aro written prayers to the Meisiah to come and 
deliTCT them. Before this wall I saw gathered a throng 
of Jews; most of them were women, who wore long 
mourning veils of linen over their heads. Some were 
seated on the ground reading passages of Scripture to one 
another from the Lamentations of Jeremiah and peni- 
tential Psalms. Atone end was a party of rabbis rocking 
tbemflelves backwards and forwards in almost frantic 

JonN PiGGOT, F.S.A. 

Christianity ix Canada. — The following bit 
of colonial church history may be interesting to 
some of your readers. I extract it from A IlistO' 
rical and Statistical Report of the Presbyterian 
Church of Canada in comiectiofi taith the Church of 
Scotland, Montreal, 18(57, p. 62. In giving an 

account of St. Gabriel Street Church — the oldest 

Presbyterian church in Canada^ which was founded 

in April, 1792 — it is recorded that previously to 

this, when the congregation was first organised 

under the Rev. John Young, a licentiate of the 

presbytery of Irvine in Scotland — 

" on the 18th September (1791) the Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper was for the first time administered by him, 
in accordance with the usages of the church of Scot- 
land, in the BecoUet Roman Catholic churchy the use of 
which had been kindly allowed the congregation while 
their own church was being built. The Recollet Fathers 
politely refused any pecuniary remuneration from the 
* Society of Presbyterians * as they were then called, bat 
were induced to accept of a present in acknowledgment 
of their good offices, and which consisted of t^o hogs- 
heads of Spanish wine, containing sixty odd gallons 
each, and a box of candles amounting in all to 
14/. 2s. 4c/." 

The MS. history of this church from which the 
above account has been taken closes the history 
of this notable transaction with the quaint re- 
mark, ** they were quite thankful for the same.'' 
It is to be hoped that similar interchange of ameni- 
ties would be expected in the present day should 
similar circumstances arise. P. K N« 

Air Cushions. — Sir Epicure Mammon to Surly, 
in expectation of acquiring the secret of the phi- 
losopher's stone, thus commences a list of antici- 
pated luxuries in which he intends to indulge : — 

*' I will have all my beds bloum up, not stuffed; 
Down is too hard." 

Were inflated beds or cushions then in use, or 
did rare Ben*s imagination trench upon the pro- 
phetic science of the celebrated Marquis of Wor- 
cester ? or had the noble peer ever conversed with 
the great dramatist on his inventions P 

J. A. G. 


Cansick. — Can any readers of " N. & Q." 
favour me with the history of the name of Can- 
sick, and from what country does it come? I 
have received a prospectus of a book to be pub- 
lished, called "The Epitaphs of St. Pancras, in 
Middlesex. Copied from the stones by F. T. 
Cansick." I remember seeing the name of G- 
Cansick mentioned in an account of a meeting 
some months ago for the restoration of Bangor 
Cathedral, reported in the Archceologia Camhrensis, 
also an old parchment certificate admitting a 
Nathan Cansick, of Percy Street, St. Pancras, co. 
Middlesex, as a solicitor in the High Court of 
Chancery, dated Feb. 14, 1801. Is it an English, 
Welsh, or German name ? R. Browij. 


Crowned Heads marrying Sisters. — Can 
any of your readers learned in such matters refer 


[4'^s.iT. JoLiii.'eit 

me to the cases, if an;, of sovereig^is, or diBtiii- 
gnished members of any of the royal families of 
Europe, manying Bisters F C. H. M. 

DiFPERBMCBS nf Akm8. — Can any readers 
skilled ia this difficult branch of heraliy inform 
me what memhera of the Devereui family hor(> 
three martiets in chief iostead of the ordiDar;- 
three tarUauxf The former coat used to be in 
the window of Castle Frorae church, Hereford- 
shire, with an ancient and mutilnted inscriptiori 
below it in which the words " Willi. Deveros '" 
could be traced two hundred years ago. 

C. J. R. 
Exp£iii*TioN8 wuTFED. — Will you Idndlj help 
me to ascertain the exact meaning of the italicised 
words in the following sentences, taken from a 
French MS. of the fourtaenth century? For 
Beveral of them I have searched more toan one 
glossary in Tun ; — 

"Grant of 100 tnarka to DfanandCbipter of Leicester, 
poor mettre si sccomplisaemenL del ovre dd dlte esgliM 
(of 3t. Mnry)." [Oomr*?] 

" Tn sella a la manrre despaigne, de guoy les arunni 
scmt coovertes dargent et t[ent 2 anviiSa et 3 cordes 
dargent." nioir did a Spanish saddle differ rrom an 

" Donez a tq estrange bargeman qni ddub amoiuaimt 
de Lambeth." 

" Deui da/ma de greee aprendre deinz noa ditz parka." 

" PainteiB of the autthetcrt et imagea ot a tomb." 

« Vn de les Antei de la nouvclle aal«." 

" Denx baldekyna acrailz doDtreiDer." [With a pat- 
tern of croaaea ? ] 

"TindeAjmn." ritB°aee? Rhine!] 

"Pour 12 botoni dor . . . pour la pois et le (u* ot te 
faceon. 55t I5«. 7d." 

" PaternosterB da conll ove lea gaudti dor." 

" Denx hanaps dor ove couTerclea oelei et fumhei de 
divanes corones, ^les, et Woni." 

" Yn banap dore ore uKiirt," 

"Ditto ... et en pomel del couvercle vn aigne 
OTO vn teat de dame deini le Rongidire," 

" Vn payr de botellea dargont, et p' partiaa lorrci (also 
apelt ion/2, lurorii, and luxirru) et aoeymelez, gamiaez 
ore tia^ucs de soi blanc et blol." 

"Tn triper dargent, et aorrez, fae al guise dan monstre, 

traga verti et vn eawer dargent et soriez etp' parties 
anaymellez de diverse* babuntic." 

" Vne leiifc dor a M, da diamands, balays, aafirs, eme- 
ronde«, et perles." 

" Vn boloner dor, de 31. en cynk piecca de balaj-s, sap- 

, loffus, CenL xii. Appendix, p. 107 (Baste, 15S7-8), 
; mentions Edmund Qest [afterwards Bishop of 
I Rochester and Salisbury] as having written — 
I (1) "Contra Missam Papisticam, lib. i. ; (2) De 
! Chriati Prtesentia in CcenB, lib. i. ; (3) De LiWo 
Hominis Arbitrio, lib. i," The first of these 
works is evidently Gest's Treatite agamtt the 
Prim/ Mass, published in 1648, and reprinted in 
Dugdale's Life of Cede (Pickering, 1840), pp, 71- 
140, but I cannot discover whether the other two 
] works were ever published, or whether they are 
I now extant anywhere in manuscript. If the 
treatise on Christ's Presence in the Supper is extant 
. it would probably throw considershle light upon 
, Bishop Geete's wall -known letter of December 22, 
I 166G, about the 28th Article. 
' Is the sermon which Bishop Qeste preached 
' before the Queen on Good Friday, 1565, and of 
I which Mr. Froude (viii. 140) givea on account 
j derived from a dispatch of the Spanish ambassa- 
dor De Silva, extant in print or manuscriptf 


j Lincola'a Inn. 

I KiTNio Tyrol von ScHorrEir msn Feidbbsaitt 
I SIS Strw. — Who were these royal personagea, of 
I whom Schiller says, in his TAeiaurus, no menUon 
I is made by Boethiua, Buchanan, or Jonstonf 

J. Macrai. 
Milton's "Paradisb Lost," ed. folio, 1688. 
On looking over my copy of this edirion — the first 
illustrotea one, and with a long list of subscribers 
at the end— I perceive that there is no plate to 
Book VIII. There ia no appearance of this having^ 
been abatracted ; but as there ia a " sculpture " tp 
all the others, I am induced to ask if there should 
be one to this particular book ? Are there anj 
large paper ? William Baiks. 

, »=/ ?word not 
ea. [Among cbi 

very plain] dargent pour le; 

" 7 plates debrusci sans n 
" [Forwhat purpose?] " 

Bishop Gbste, or Gkeabt. — Bishop Bale, in 
his Scriptarum lUustriimi Mnjorii Britannia Cota- 


North, BRiBffE, aks Flegq Familibs. — 
Wanted to ascertain who the first Norths wen 
who settled at Westmeath, Ireland, 1641 ; whether 
they durived from Earl of Guildford's family. 
Also, the ancestry of Mr. Bridge, dissenting mini- 
ster at Norwich, 1634, who is sud to have come 
from Urtuntree or Earls-Coloe, Essex. Also, 
some account of the family of Thomas Flegg, who, 
at the samp period, lived at Scratby, Norfolk, 
Anv particulnrs of the above will very much 
oblige H. A. Bridge, at Mr. Lewis's, bookseller, 
Gower Street, Euston Square, N. 

The Earliest Specimen of Paper. — Tfie 
j earliest specimen of paper existing in Enirland is 

supposed to be an account-book dated 1302, the 
I paper of which was probably manufactuTed at 

Bordeaux. Where is this book P 
I John Piboot, F.S.A. 

I Old Map of Ireland. — I have got possession 
' of a curious old map of Ireland, or rather of a 

4aS.1V. JDLi3l,'69.] 


ficsimile of one, coaceraing wbicli I desire in- 
fonnadon. It is entitled " Ilibernia insula non 
prucul ab Anglift vulgare Hirlandin vocata. 15G7," 
and is mnrked below tbe lower margin, " Litho. 
12, Fludyer St. West'. 1834." The weat is at 
the top of tbe map, aod the nortb on the right 
hand. It ^vea the Dumee of old Irish families, 
but b quite different from the mnp in Mr. Steuart 
Trench's Realities of Irish Life, to which jou have 
referred (" N. & Q." 4"' S. iii. 148, 337), It caUs 
the Atlantic to tbe soutb of Ireland " The Spanish 
Sea," and places Dublin in lat 55° N. and long. 
W K C. M'C. 


pAfiiPHEiSE PEOM IIoB*CE,— Can anr of your 
readers supply the name of the writer of the 
following free paraphioae of — 

Phf llidls Qavin dccoreat parentc;, 
Helium cetle Kfnus. ft Penates 

M<eret iniquos; 
Crcde non illam libi de scelesti 
Plebe dil«clAin ; ni 


r,, potmssc Tia«i 
Horace; Cami, lib. ii. ode iv 


■ veins may bear 

smote tbe king's tevi'leri 

But kills an an» 



R. G. L. 

Sib Philip le ^'ache. — I should be glad to 
hare some particulars of this knight, who in the 
first year of Henry IV. bad a grant from the 
kiiiffof tbe caatle and manor of Kwyoa Harold, 
coHereford. I am aware tliat be married Elea- 
Dor, dauKhter of Sir Lewis de Clifford, and is 
mentioned in his will. Nicolas (Test. Vetiisia, 
17!) gives aa abstract of tbe will of a Sir Philip 
la Vaehe who died in 1407, and bad a wife named 
Efiiabetb. In a note it is suggested tbat be was 
elected a knight of the garter temp. liichard II. 
I bate not Beltz at band for reference. 


Sitmx PniiR Crosses. — Can nny of your 
readers inform me whether any of the stone pillar 
eroaxa erected by tbe old Portuguese navigators 
on the headlands of tbe south-west coast of Africa, 
as at Cape Cross, Pillar Point, Point Padrone, 
Orange Biver mouib, &c., as they crept along tbat 
coast in their progress to t!ie soutb, are yet stand- 
ing? Also one that Bnrtholoinew Diaz is said to 
have erected on the Saint Croix Island in Algoa 
Bay— hence its name ? W. F. 

Passage im Fitzstepheit : "The Citizem's 
PocKBi Chronicle." — This useful work, which 
is a digest of all that is interesting aa regards the 
history and temporal government of the City of 
London (Tait, 63, Fleet Street, 1827), has this 
passage, closing Fitzstephen's recollections of 
London, incorporated in this publication : — 
I " London also, in these latter times, balh braught forth 
; famous anil oiaKoiliceat princes: Maud tbe Empress, 
I King Hichard the 3'^, and ihomas the Arebbiahop, a 
I glftrioua marlvr of Chriat," &c. 

The very palpable anachronism of Hcbard III., 
most likely a compoailor's error, would not have 
been noticed by me ; but as an introduction to a 
later error in Mr, Thoma's edition of Slow at tbe 
same passage of the learned monk, appended to 
I Mr. Tboms's valuable reproduction of Stow's Sar- 
I vey. Here, in the original, which accompanies 
Mr, Thoma's translation, we have " Henricum 
I regem terlium.'' The learned editor can, doubt- 
less, explain sadafactorily wherein this error lies: 
I Rtzstepheo died llfll, in the rei^ of Richard 1., 
! as Mr. Thorns saja, after Stow, in the "Author 
to the Reader," I should have thought the 
great king, to whom Thomas was so obnoxious, 
j Henry II. was meant — but tbat be was, I believe, 
;' bora in Normandy ; and the words of Fitzstspben, 

"has produced," seems to imply, given birth to. 
I J. A. G. 

I Carisbrooke. 

[Thougli tbe editor of Stow has passed over this ap- 
parent discrepancy without any comment, it bas not 
escaped ttae more critical eye of Mr. BIley, who, in bis 
admirable edition of tbe Blummeiita GUdhatla: LotdiM- 
niiif, £160- AUmi, Liber Ciulmaanun, tl Liba- Horn 
(vol i. pi. i. p. 15), bas added to the passsge " Hencicnni 
regem lertium," this note: — "In allusion probably to 
the fact that Prince ITtnT, elde."t son of Henry II., was 
crowned ia his father's lifetime."] 

Teb PcRiTiS's Cat. — Perhaps yoi 
able to Bay whether the following satirical li 
have ever appeared in print, or some of your 
readers may be able to give an amended version. 
They used to be sung to children by an old Scotch 
lady about fifty years ago : — 


And in the houee sti 
<■ Tbe m 

up tbe CI 

That such a deed w. 
Laid down bii book, ii 

And put her in a gi 
" -Tboo althy luTsed creature 

And blond shedder,' cried be, 
' Do VDU think to bring to death and hell 

Mv holy wife and mc t 


[*■» a. IV. JuLT 81, '6B. 

" ' Bat be thou well assured 

That blood for blood shall be. 
For killing of a silly mouBo 
Upon tbe Ssbtnth day.' 
" To the place of execution 

Poor Bawdrons ihe was drawn, 
And hanj^t hie upon ■ tree : 
The minister sang a paatm," 

[Another version of these lines, differing however verj 
slightly from that Riven by our correspondent, will bt 
found at p. 156 of Mr. Maidmenfs recently publishe<l 
Boot "/ Scotlidi Fasquili. Tlie learned editor, in bit' 
iiote^ upon it, refers to another ver:<ion of Ihe ballad in 
Hogg's Jatabitt Relici (i. 37), as well as to the notes to 
be foand on the well-known passage in Barnabee'? 
Journal, in wbicli he describes Ihe Banbury " Puritsnc 

" Hanging of bis cat on Monday, 
For killing of a monse on Sunday."] 

The Rights of Pfblic Libraries. — Wbat is 
the law relating to the claims of certain libraries 
to poBse&a a copy of every book that is published P 
I am at this moment enoiaged in writing a Hia~ 
tory of the Cattiei> of Sere/ordahire and their Lordt 
(a work chiefly, though not excluMvely, of local 
interest), which it ia my intention to publish by 
subscription. Is it necessary, under such civcum- 
stances, that a copy should be sent to the chief 
public libraries, or are works published by sub- 
Bcription exempt from the demand ? 

C. J. RoBissoN, M..A.. 

Norton Canon Vicarage, Hereford. 

[Books published by subscription are not thereby 
exempt from the operation of the Act 5 & C Vicl. cap. 45, | 
which requires the deliiery of five copies of all books to I 
the libraries therein named. Our correspondent will And 
much Information upon this subject in " S. i Q.," 2°s 8. I 
V, 71,237.] 

IIBRRING3.— What is the earliest mention of , 
salted or red hemngs as a common article of food ? 
R. H. 
[Herrings appear to have been salted fhim a very early 
period, especially by tho Flemish flshennen, whose pro- 
duction! were in such favour at Rome and in other 
foreign markets, that the beat herrings were always 
called Flemiih herring^ According to Macpherson's 
Amal, of Chmmera (i. 66S), William Berkelsioon of 
Biervliet, in Flanders, who died in 1.^97, introduced an 
improved method of curing them, which did so much to 
increase their reputation, and to entend the trade in 
them, that Charles V, erected a statue to his memory, 
and, with hi» sister, visited his tomb and offered up 
prayera for his soul: while Mary of Hungary, during 
her visit to the Low Countries, paid a more characteristic 
tribute to his memory, namely, that of eating a salt 
herring on bii tomb.] 



(4" S. iv. X.) 

I am afraid that there are many warda in tbe 

old rusty lock which Canox Jackson's new key 

will not fit. 

I quite agree with him that these megslithic 
structures are not sepulchres ; but I totally demur 
to his subsequent statement that they are "ttpul- 
ckral moaiimeati set up in memory of great tragic 
events in old British history." The great difficulqr 
connected with Stoneheng^ is, that there never 
has been found the smallest trace of an interment 
within tlie circle, although they are numberleaa 
on tbe surrounding down. But we must not 
overlook the fnct that megalithic ciTcles of the 
same character, although of less inipo?ing di- 
mensions, are to be found from the Orkneys to 
the Land's End, and that within most, if not all 
of those which have been examined, evidence of 
its within the circle have been found; 
instances of which I will immediately give, and 
I none of those appear to be connected, as far as we 

know, with any great tragic event, 
I Before, however, going further, I may perhaps 
' state at once the result of my own conclusions as 
I to tbe character of Stonehenee. These are, ds- 
I ddedly, the old one that tbe circles were a temple 
I or religious place of aseernblg ; that it was eon- 
I jidered so sacred that no one was buried within 
I its enclosure, although there are countless gravea 
surrounding it. That in other meg-alithic circles 
I of less importance and sanctity the graves came 
I to be made within the enclosure] an aoel<^^ to 
which may be found in the fact that in the earlier 
' iiges, among- the northern nation,-', the most vene- 
rated prelates of the Christian faith were buried 
lit the door of the church ; and it is only at a 
later date thnt we meet with their tombs witiin 
[he sacred ediBce itself. This is the only mode 
in which lean account for the numerous examples 
I know of where interments have been found in 
lesser and less imposing circles, a few instances 
(if which I should now have gi'^n, but on turning 
lo the volumes of tbe Froceedinys of ihe Sociehf 
if Antiijuarieg of Scotland, in which their investl- 
)^lion IS recorded, I find that tbe account is too 
long to he trenacribed, and must therefore con- 
line myself to referring to tlio pages where aa 
account of them is to be found, viz. vol. iv. 
p. 443, vol. iv. p. 490, and vol. v. p. 1.30 ; but I 
may add that in every case where no previous 
disturbance bad occurred, and oven in some of 
these, distinct trncesof interment were discovered. 
To these Scotch examples I may add that of three 
huge stones still standing on the right side of tbe 
road between the Bentock station of the Cale- 
donian Railway and the town of MoBat, which 

4* 8. IV. July 31, '69.] 



evidently fonned a portion of a circle. At the 

feet of these stones a numher of human hones 

were found in the latter half of last century, and 

an account of the discovery was forwarded to the 

Royal Society of Edinhurgh hjr Mr. Walker, then 

mkiister of the parish. There is a most astounding 

legend attached to these stones hy the people of 

the district, to which I shall hereafter advert in 

treating of the second hranch of the inquiry, viz. : 

What trust can we place on the historical notices 

of these erections hy such chroniclers as Geoffrey 

of Monmouth, who wrote long after the events to 

wliich they refer? 

I quite agree with Caxon Jackson, that, " what- 
ever tricks Geofirey may have played with his 
detaiU, it is monstrous to suppose that he invented 
the ^eat facts of history " ; out this only removes 
the matter a step further hack. The question 
still remains^ how are we to distinguish between 
detaiU and great facta ? Admitting the existence 
of the latter, how can we distinguish them from 
the former? and, what is more important, how 
can we be sure that facts which actually occurred 
are not transferred to a different time and place ? 
I may give two instances of this sort of meta- 
morphosis connected with the South of Scotland : 
Blind Harry, in his Metrical Life of Walhccy 
g^vea a long account of a victory gained at Big- 
gar by the patriot hero over an army commanded 
by Edwardl. in person. Now it is proved hy the 
&sgBshroUs that King Edward could not have 
been in Scotland at the time ; and when we come 
to examine the details of the conflict, we find that 
thej are simply reproductions of the events of the 
hatde at Koslin, and even then it is a mistake 
to suppose that Edward was personally present, 
although he at one time intended to have been so. 
My second instance is more directly connected 
with megalithic monuments, and is this: That 
the country people round Moffat, even at the 
present day, assert that the stones to which I 
nave referred mark the burial-place of three 
English knights who fell in the battle of Annan, 
many long miles away from the place in question. 
I may add, to show on what foundations theories 
are occasionally based, that a local author coolly 
started the idea that the battle in question was 
fought not at Annan, but at Moffat, all the chro- 
nicles of the period, and many of them nearly 
contemporaneous, notwithstanding. 

In conclusion, I may mention a theory I have 
formed as to the nature of the avenues of stones, 
which, however, I state with great diffidence, as 
I have not personally inspected the most important 
examples, and I must admit that it is very con- 
jectural. The idea first struck me when visiting 
the Calvary in the church of St. Paul at Ant- 
werp, to which the worshippers ascend by a series 
of steps, on each of which they say a prayer. 
This at once recalled to my memory the fact that 

at many of the more celebrated places of Irish 
pilgrimage there are what are called stations, and 
even the Mussulmans who visit Mecca pass round 
the Caaba and say prayers at certain pomts, and it 
occurred to my mind that the avenues of stones 
leading to the most venerated sites of British 
pilgrimage have something of the same origin^ 
and that the visitors dropped a bead and said a 
prayer as they passed each successive stone in the 
avenue ; but, as I said before, I admit that thia 
is merely a most vague conjecture. 

George Verb Irving. 

Certainly W. W. W.'s reply to Canon Jack- 
son is full of clever and ingenious arguments 
against the monumeiit theory as to these wonder- 
ful remains; at the same time I cannot think 
that theory entirely upset by them. The imme- 
diate object, however, of the present communica- 
tion is to submit, for the Reverend Canoji's con- 
sideration, whether some light may not be thrown 
on the subject by means of etymology. It is, I 
believe, considered that Breton snd Cymri are 
cognate languages. Now the meaning of the 
Welsh camedd (pronounced carne^A) is cairn, 
tumulus, or tomb. A familiar instance of the use 
of the word in this sense is the name of the 
Carnarvonshire mountain " Camdd Llewellyn,*' 
meaning the tomb of Llewellyn. There can be 
no doubt that '* cairns " or heaps of stones were 
a very primitive style of monument^ commemo- 
rating the deaths of heroes or the event of a great 
battle. Dunmail Raise is an example, the tradi- 
tion being that the immense cairn of stones heaped 
there (on the road between Grasmere and Kes- 
wick) commemorated a bloody battle, in which 
a King Dunmail was slain. Bhes (pronounced 
[' raise '0 is the Welsh for '^ battle." Consider- 
ing these matters, and observing the great simi- 
larity between the words Camac and Carneihy I 
cannot but think that some ground of support is 
afforded to the monumental theory. 

With respect to the astronomical view of the 
case, it must be admitted that a great deal has 
been adduced in its favour. Having lately ex- 
amined the so-called Druidical remains on a hill 
near Keswick, which are well worthy of attention^ 
the principal entrances at each end of the oval 
appeared to me nearly due north and south, and I 
think similar remains show attention to the points 
of the compass. It was related to me by a man 
of science some thirty or forty years ago, that he 
had met with an astronomer who told him that, 
by abstruse calculations backwards, he had ascer- 
tained that, about 2000 years ago, an occultation 
of one of the planets must have taken place at 
such a point in the heavens as would have enabled 
an observer to view it through the celebrated 
cross-stones of Stonehenge : and his theory was 
that those cross stones were purposely so placed 



[4«» S. ly. July 81, '69. 

to fix the point of observation permanently^ so 
that astronomers in after ages might be able to 
compare notes in their observations. The story 
sounds apocryphal, but I can vouch for the emi- 
nence and truthfulness of my informant, and 
should be glad to know if any of your other cor- 
respondents are acquainted with the source of it. 
At all eveuts it appears to me of more weight 
than the strange circumstance brought forward 
by W. W. W., that over one of the stones at 
Stonehenge an observer may see the sun rise ! As 
if there were any stone on the surface of the globe 
over which an observer could not see the sun rise 
if he placed himself on the opposite side ! 

M. H. R. 


(4»»» S. iiL 468.) 

The record given below is submitted as a 
contribution towards a list of penmen and their 
works : — 

Vkldk (Jan Van Dkn), Writing-Master at Harlem : — 
*Spieglicl der Schrijrkonste, &c. Amsterdam, 1605. 

Obi. fol. Title and 49 plates, all engraved. 
Du^'tsche Exemplaren van ablerbande Gheschriften, 
etc. llaerlam, 1620. Fol. 12 pages, all engraved. 
Het derde deel der Duytscher, etc. Harlem , 1620. 

Fol. 12 engraved full length pages. 
Thresor literairecontenant plusieurs diverses escritures, 

etc. 1621. Fol. 12 engraved pages. 
[The last three works engraved by Gerard Gauw.] 
Matbrot (Lucas) :— 
Les oeuvres de. Avignon, 1608. Obi. 4®. Portrait 
•and 49 plates, all engraved. 
CocKRR (Edward), an ofl-quoted authority as to 
figures : great also at writing and engraving. Born 
temp, Ch. I.; died during reign of Ch. 11. The peculi- 
arities of bid " Knots and Flourishes," and some of his 
writing too, evidently derived from Materot : — 
•Introduction to Writing. Obi. 8o. 14 engraved plates 
and 6 pages of instruction, in type. Printed and 
Sold by John Garrett, at his shop next the Stairs of 
the Royal Exchange inOornhil. [^icj. 
Magnum in Parte, or the Pen's Perfection. 26 several 

Copy 3. [ Sic."] 
Multum in Parvo ; or, The Pen's Gallantrj'. Obi. 8o. 
27 engraved plates and 8 printed pages of instruc- 
England's Pen-Man ; or. Cocker's New Copy Book. 
The Pen's Triumph. 1658. 8«. 
*The Pen's Transcendency : or, Fair Writing's Store- 
house. 1660 ? Sm. obi. fol. 

Some of Cocker's '* Copys " arc quaint, thus : — 

"Brainedrowzie qualmes expell, be valiant, play the 
Hee oft-times gaines the Field who bravely thinkes hee 

** I^t tliy inquisitive minde great Excellenc}- fmde, 
To prize it be inclin'd, of whatsoever kinde." 

The three masters —portions of whose " Works'* 
are just set forth — together with some eighty 
others, are referred to in the second part of Mas- 
sey*8 Origin and Progress of Letters (quoted at 

p. 663 of "N. & Q." 4»»» S. in.) Since the publica- 
tion of that book in 1763^ there have been other 
"Penmen," viz. : — 

ToMKiNS (Thomas), \V. M. in Foster Lane, Cheapside:— 

The Beauties of Writing. 1777. Fol. obL 40 plates. 
Engraved by Joseph Ellis and H. Ash by. Sold by 
J. Wallis. Bookseller, Ludgate Street. Kepnbltahed 
(with a few plates substituted, engraved by Wood- 
thorpe, Kirkwood, and RobU Halliwell, dated 1808 
and 1M)9) by T. Varty, 31, Strand. 1844. 
MiLNs (William) : — 

•The Penman's Repository. 1787. Fol. obL 36 plates. 
Engraved by H. Ashby, King Street, Cheapside. 
Published for the Author, Salvadore House Academy, 
Tooting, Surrey. 
Lakgford (Richabd), Master of the Academy, Haydoa 
Square, Minories : — 

A Complete Set of Rules and Examples for Writing, 
<fec. 1787. Obi. 4°. Title and 6 Plates. Engra^-ed 
by Ashby, 

•The Beauties of Penmanship. 1797. Fol. obi. 14 plates. 
Engraved by H. Ashbv. Sold by Messrs. Grosvenor 
and Chater, No. 11, CoVnhill. 
Radcliffk (James), Writing Master and AccouDtant at 

the Free Grammar School, Blackburn, towards the 

close of the 18th century: — 

•The British Youth's Instructor in Penmanship. Fol. 

The New British Penman. 

Beauties of Writing Delineated ; or, Penmanship Ex- 
The celebrated engraver Gkorge Bickham brought oat 

several works previously to, or during the year 1750» 

thus named: — 

Penmanship in its utmost Beauty and Extent. A New 
Copy Book; wherein are Revived and Comprized aU 
the most Useful and Ornamental Pieces pablislied 
by the Best Masters in Europe. To which are ad<|ed 
some Curious Modern Pieces, never before Extant. 
Collected and Engraven by George Bickbam. 

The Pen-Man's Companion, containing Specimens in 
All Hands ; by the most Eminent English Masters^ 
as Ayres, Moor, Snell, Shelley, Snow, Clark, OUyffe, 
Brooks, Nicholas, Chambers, Bland, Webster, 'and 
Others. Engrav'd by George Bickbam. And 

•The Universal Pen-Man, which would seem to have 
been issued in 53 numbers, of four plates each, trom 
1733 to 1741. Several plates are without a name or 
other mark of identification ; but the chief contribu- 
tors are as follows: — Austin, Eman^ 22 plates; 
Bland, John, 7 or 8 do. ; Bickham, John, 4 or 5 do.; 
Brooks, Gabriel, 9 do.; Brooks, Will", Ido. ; Cham- 
bers, Zachy, 1 do. ; Champion, Joseph, 47 do.; Clark, 
Willington, 22 do. ; Daj', John, 1 do. ; Dawson* 
Edw. 3 do. ; Dove, Nathan^ 27 do. ; Gratwick, 
Mo«, 1 do.; Ilolden, John, 1 do.; Jobn'sfon {tnc) 
Geo. 1 do. ; Kippax, Will™, 7 do. ; Leekey, Will™, 
4 do. , Morris, Rich**, 1 do. ; Norman, Peter, 1 do. ; 
Oldfield, J., Ido.; Sportland, John, 1; Treadway, 
JS T., 1 do. ; Vaux, Sami, 5 (Jq. ; Whilton, B. 4 do. 
Printed for and Sold by the Author at his House in 
James Street, Bunhill Fields. 

In an advertisement issued in 1750 reference 
is made to this last work as one that " w^ill not, 
perhaps, be equalled for many ages to come." 

Shelley names John Sinclair, John Smith, T. 
Bastin, Ralph Snow, and Rob* More, as '* emi- 
nent Penmen," " most of 'em having published 
something with good success." 

4t* a IV. July 81, '69.] 



According to Milns, *' Perling" and *^Barbe- 
dor " were " eminent ancient Penmen." 

John Craik of Dumfries, who died within the 
last twenty years, was the most recent of the race 
I have heard of. I was told that the acade- 
micians Thombom and Faed were among his 
« caUants." 

In the foregoing list I have placed an asterisk 
against such of the works as are in my possession. 
I have also a sample of the work of John Seddon, 
issaed from " the three Bibles and Ink Bottles on 
London Bridge " j of George Shelley (*' Hand 
and Pen in Warwick Lane *'), and of Joseph 
Champion ("Golden Buck, Fleet Street.") 

Jan Zle. 

This query has reminded me of a local worthy, 
whose penmanship is celebrated in Hutchins's Mts- 
tory dj Ihrsetf 3rd edit. iii. 652, but whose fame 
has been so evanescent that even his epitaph there 
zeooided seems to have perished, and is stated 
to be no longer found on his tomb. It may be 
well to reproduce some portion of it here, in 

proof of the estimation in which he was held by 

Ais own generation : — 

** Mr. John Willis, Master of Orchard School, who died 
April 23, 1760, in the GS^^ year of his age, of unblemished 
int^ritj, &c. &c., so renowned for his exquisite and 
mpriang command of hand and skill in penmanship, &c. 
tiiat people of all ranks sent to him their sons, not only 
iom London, the principal city, &c. but from Holland, 
Svitzerland, Nevis, Montserrat, Antigua, Barbadoes, 
Ourolina, and other colonies in America. His singular 
tliilides rendered him superior to all praise, and made his 
dsath a public loss. 

•Envy be dumb, great Willis scorns thy spite, 
Thou must allow that he alone could write. 
If 06t distant regions celebrate his fume. 
The world concurs to eternize his name. 
In all things equal to the best of men, 
Bat had himself no equal with the pen.* " 
" Sic transit gloria mundi.*' 

C. W. Bingham. 


(4»»» S. iv. 12.) 

Phileaor Miinch is quite right in laughing at 
the absurd title of the Bishop of Sodor and Man, 
ms it nuis upon all fours with the designation of 
our sovereigns as kings of France, which has long 
been given up. 

The islands in question belonged originally 
to the Norwegian crown, but on the marriage of 
Alexander III. of Scotland with the daughter of 
Magnus IV. of Norway, the latter gave as the 
dower of the bride, " Maniam cum ceteris insulis 
Sodorensibus et omnibus aliis insulis ex parte occi- 
dentali et australi Magni Haffs '* (i. e. of the Great 
Sea), with the exception of Orkney and Shetland, 
which King Magnus . reserved to himself, but 

which afterwards became annexed to the Scot- 
tish crown. (Act. Pari, Scot vol. i. p. 78.) 

The title or "Episcopus Ergadiensis et Sodo- 
riensis" occurs continually in the old Scotch re- 
cords, and exists still in the title of one of our 
present sees, that of Argyle and the Isles. It has 
been recognised indirectly in more than one act of 
parliament passed in the present century for the 
benefit of the " Highlands and Islands ** of Scot- 
land." I may add that the island of Man was 
the only portion of the ancient realm of Scotland 
that was not recovered in the war of independ- 
ence, although this was attempted, if not by the 
Bruce in person, at least by his brother Edward. 
The title of the Bishop of Sodor and Man is 
therefore only a last rebque of the unsuccessful 
attempt of Edward I. and his unfortunate son to 
maintain their claims as alleged Lord Paramounts 
of Scotland. 

To furnish a list of the various isles would 
occupy too much space, for — 

<* < Daughter/ she said, ' these seas behold, 
Round twice a hundred islands rolled. 
From Hirt that hears their northern roar, 
To the green IsJay*s fertile shore." 

ScotVa Lord of the Isles, canto i. st. viii. and note. 

But there is a very full summary of them in the 
fourth canto of the same poem, stanzas vii. to xi. 
inclusive. George Verb Irving. 

(4^ S. iv. 66.) 

There is an old tradition that the skin of a 

sacrilegious Dane was often nailed upon a church 

door, and several well-authenticated examples are 

on record. Mr. Albert Way, in an interesting 

paper in the Arduseohgtcal Journal (v. 186), says 

that : — 

" Having heard that one of the doors of Worcester 
Cathedral had skin upon it, he wrote to Mr. Jabez Allies, 
F.S. A., of that city, and received a portion and a drawing 
of the doors, which had been removed into the crypt. 
Mr. John Quekett, Assistant Conservator of the Museum 
of the Royal College of Surgeons, examined the skiu and 
reported that he was perfectty satisfied that it is human 
skin, * taken from some part of the body of a light-haired 
person where little hair grows. A section of the speci- 
men, when examined with a power of a hundred dia- 
meters, shows readily that it is skin ; and two hairs which 
grow on it I find to be human hairs, and to present the 
characters that hairs of liglit-haired people do. The hairs 
of the human subject differ greatly from those of any 
other mammalian animal, and the examination of a 
hair alone without the skin would have enabled me to 
form a conclusion." 

The date of the north doors at Worcester is 
circ. 1386, temp. Rich. II. j so that it was placed 
there (though the punishment might have been 
inflicted long previously) at a time of compara- 
tive refinement and civilisation. It is stated that 



[4'»» S. IV. Jolt 81, '69. 

at the French Revolution the skins of some of the 
Tictims were tanned and made into boots. 

Amon^ various curiosities which Dr. Prattinton 
of Bowdley bequeathed to the Society of Anti- 
quaries was a piece of skin from these very doors, | 
and he stated that it was supposed to have been 
part of the skin of a man who stole the sanctus i 
Dell from the high altar. It was the description | 
of this relic that induced Mr. Way to make re- i 
searches which were attended with so much sue- ' 

Sir Harry Englefield exhibited before the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries in 1789 a plate of iron from 
the door of Iladstock church, Essex, with a por- 
tion of human skin upon it. In " N. & Q." (1** S. 
i. 186), a correspondent states that he had a piece 
of skin from the door of this church, and this 
notice is all I can find in your volumes on the 
subject. In Excursions through Essex (London, 
1819), it is stated that, "Notwithstanding the 
number of years it [the cuticle] has been there, [it] 
does not appear to oe much decayed, nor has the 
rust of the iron with which it is covered scarcely 
injured it," so that it must have been in good 
preservation at that time. Mr. Way got a frag- 
ment from this door, and Mr. Quekett at once 
pronounced it human skin, *' in all probability 
removed from the back of the Dane, and that Jie 
was a fair-haired person.'* 

Morant mentions a like tradition respecting the 
church of Copford, Essex. Newcourt .says it was 
taken notice of in 1090, when an old man at 
Colchester said : — 

*• That he heard his master saj' that he had read in an 
old history that the church of Copford was robbed by 
the Danes, and their skins nailed to the doors ; upon 
which some gentlemen, being curious, went thither, and 
found a sort of tanned skin, thicker than parchment, 
which is supposed to be human skin, nailed to the door 
of the said church, underneath the said iron-work, some 
of which skin is still to be seen.'* 

None of the skin leraained on the door in 1848, 
but the rector sent Mr. Way a specimen which 
had been preserved, and Mr. Quekett reported in 
the same manner as respecting the previous speci- 
mens, r 

J^epys, in his Diary j April 10, lOGl, says: — 

" To Rochester, and there saw the cathedral 

obFcrving the great doors of the church, as they say, 
covered with the skins of tlje Danes." 

I hope that any of your correspondents hearing 
of such traditions in their neighbourhoods will 
investigate the subject and obtain specimens, if 
possible, for microscopical investigation. 

John Piggot, Jun., F.S.A. 

Ulting, Maldon. 


(4^»» S. iii. 7, 410, &c.) 

I shall be glad to be allowed space for a few 
remarks on Dr. Macpherson's communication on 
p. 410, which I did not see until my last paper 
(p. 508) was in the printer's hands. 

I was under the impression that by making 
known the tradition of my family as to its origin, 
and supporting that tradition by reference to 
genealogy, I should help to dispel sonae tendency 
to increased mystification on the subject in hand 
by putting the clan Shaw out of the Held ; and I 
thought 1 had succeeded in showing that that 
clan did not exist in lo96. But my efforts appear 
to have been in vain, so far as Dr. Macphersok* 
is concerned, and according to that gentlenian 
they have resulted only in creating mystification 
instead of dispelling it.' I venture to hope, how- 
ever, that they have not eo signally failed with 
others who may be following this correspondence. 
Uncertain as tradition and genealogy no doubt 
often are, and low as is apparently Dr. Macphbr- 
son's estimate of them, yet I submit that when 
they throw even a glimmer of light on any obscure 
page of history they are not to be utterly con- 
demned and cast aside as worthless ; at any rate 
there is something in them more tangible than in 
mere speculation. 

With regard to the first of the two points in 
my paper which Dr. Macpherson notices, I 
admit that I ought not, perhaps, to have men- 
tioned the presence of Shaws at Harlaw in 1411 
in the connection in which I did. My design was, 
however, merely to show that the Shawa were 
beginning to acquire some status, and I was care- 
ful to give the historian of Moray as my authorily. 
Still the Doctor's remark on this point seems 
hardly a just one, as the non-existence of the dan 
in 139G does not exclude the possibility that a 
** company " (which might mean so few even as 
half-a-dozen men) of the name lived and fought 
fifteen years after that date, for in 1411 Shaw Mor 
had sons, and probably grown-up grandsons. As 
to the evidence of Wyntoun and of the Moray 
monks (of the value of whoso evidence I ha^e 
spoken on p. 611) for the existence of a clan Sha4B 
1396, 1 cannot admit that Dr. Macpherson has 
shown that Wyntoun meant Sha when he wrote 
Ila, or that he has proved the identity of Ha 
with Sha, although he seems to take it for granted. 
As I do not profess to be a philologist, 1 forbear 
to say anything as to the convertibility of «, A, 
and sh in most languages. Further than that, I 
was totally ignorant of such being the case, and 
I cannot call to mind any example in Scottish 
writing. If Wyntoun redly did cut off the 8 
from Sha for the sake of euphony, it seems to me 
that there is groimd for supposing that his anxiety 

4*8.IV. July 81, '69.] 



to preserre euphony or rhyme would'get the better 
of his exactness in other cases. Leavinj,' out the 
question whether Sha is or is not a harmonious 
sound, I would ask if there is any other ca?e in 
which Wvntoun omits, or may be supposed to 
omit, the initial letter of a proper nameP In 
his first paper Dr. Macpherson thinks it evi- 
dent that Wyntoun meant Ha to be pronounced 
broadly because it is made to rhyme with 
teUy bat if Ha and Sha are identical I judge 
that the Moray monks would have pronounced 
the latter Shi^ as they write Hay. Indeed I 
think this rhyming of Jia with twa is almost a 
proof that the word should have the slender 
sound, as if written Jlai/^ for in the South of 
Scotland the numeral twa is often pronounced and 
even written ttoae, as in the following examples, 
the first of which occurs in a well-known Border 
distich, the second in a song by Allan Ramsay : — 

"Tweed says to Till, What gars ye rin sae still ? 
Till aars to Tweed, Dinna fash your held ; 
For still as I ria, and fast ns ye gatt 
Wbeo ye droon ae man I droon ticae." 

and — 

**Be»«ie Bell and ^lary Gray, 
Ye unco pair oppress us ; 
Oar fancies jee between ye iwcit 
Te are sic bonnie lasses/' 

AIbo, with regard to mistakes in transcription, it 

is quite as likely that Wyntoun's Ha or Hay is a 

mistake for Ka or Kay as that Bowar's Kay is a 

mistake for Hay. Does the Doctor mean that 

the name Shaw was known long before 1396 as 

tke name of a clan? Certainly the name was 

known, but only as belonging to individuals, as I 

before pointed out; and it is allowed that the 

name of the first Mackintosh was Shaw, but it 

was only, as we should say, bis Christian name. 

I have entered into this question thus at length 
because I think it important, and necessary for 
ftToiding complication, that the clan Shaw should 
be jrot out of the way. 

With regard to the second point, I presume 
that Dr. Macphersox, after the word " insignifi- 
cance " in his last paragraph, has inadvertently 
omitted the words " after or in consequence of 
the fight at Perth," as he could scarcely have 
taken my remark to imply that the clan Shaw has 
never dwindled down. 

In conclusion, I can assure Dr. Macpherson, 
so far am I from being tied down by family pre- 
possession, that I should be one of the first to 
thank him for ascribing to my somewhat obscure 
elan the honour of having been a principal at the 
fiunous fight, if the evidence I have already ad- 
duced did not forbid the belief that it could 
poflsibly be entitled to that honour. He says, 
aowever (p. 8), that it could be easily shown that 
tiie clan Shah had a very distinct existence on Spey- 
sde at the period of the engagement, and (p. 411) 

that the name was known (as the name of a clan, 
I presume he means,) on upper Speyside long 
before 1396. Now if he will make good these 
statements by bringing forward conclusive evi- 
dence for the existence of clan Shaw in or prior 
to 1396, I will be content to '' eat my words " 
with a course of humble pie, and I will renounce 
my faith in the traditionary stories which have 
come down to me. 

Alexander Mackintosh Shaw. 

The discussion in your colunms as to the clans 
who fought at the North Inch of Perth before 
King Robert III. is interesting, but I must confess 
the parties ignore too much, as I humbly think, 
what Sir Walter Scott, Mr. Skene, and others 
have said on the subject. 

Sir Walter, in hi^ preface to the Fair Maid of 
Perth, seems inclined to adopt the view taken by 
Mr. Robert Mack ay of Thurso, that the clans 
concerned in the combat were the Camerons and 
the Mackintoshes ; the former being the clan 
Quhele, and the latter the clan Chattan. Sir 
Walter also remarks that " clan Whaill " is men- 
tioned in an Act of Parliament as late as King 
James VI., and adds, " Is it not possible that the 
name mav be, after all, a mere corruption of clan 
Lochiel ?'" 

What I would further or more specifically sug- 
gest is that *• Quhele " and " Wheill " are simply 
two ways or forms of spelling and pronouncing 
the same radical name — a name with which we 
are all familiar in the southern part of the island 
under the form of Wale or Wales. The 
sound of the word Quhele, as pronounced in the 
olden time, and of Wale as now pronounced, is 
identical, except that Quhele was aspirated, while 
Wale is not. It will also be kept in view that 
the people in the south and the people in the 
north, so named, have both had their habitations 
on the western side of the island. And if the Wales 
in the south were composed of diflerent tribes, so 
also were (as Mr. Skene points out) the Quheles 
in the north, although, as a matter of course, on 
a very greatly reduced scale. In all likelihood, 
therefore, Lochiel (while this is the common, the 
correct way of writing the word seems to be 
Locheil) is just a contraction of Loch-Quhele or 
Wheill ; and the clan Quhele or Cameron must, 
on these grounds, be held to have been of Celtic 
race like their brethren the Welsh. 

Who, on the other hand, were the Chattans ? 
As the ch was no doubt pronounced as A:, the 
name of the county of Caithness — or Katanes, as it 
was anciently vTritten — clearly points out how far 
they extended to the north. Heraldry, in its own 
quaint rebus sort of fashion, has handed down to 
us the cat of the arms of the house of Sutherland — 
a memorial of the fact that the same race ruled in 
Sutherland. We also find the Mackintoshes and 



[4«»» S. IV. July 81, '69. 

Macphersons to be tribes belonging to the same 
race, and that they kept up the general name long 
after their other brethren had ceased to do so. 
That those who bore the name of Chattan were 
of Teutonic descent, and had subdued the prior 
inhabitants of the North of Scotland lying round 
the Moray Firth, and extending more or less 
south and westwardly, seems to me to be so clear 
on philological and historical grounds that I do 
not suppose that those truly acquainted with the 
facts will be disposed on due consideration to dis- 
pute it. 

We thus arrive at the conclusion that the com- 
bat on the North Inch of Perth in 1396 was not a 
mere accidental isolated tribal conflict, but that 
it was in reality an incident connected with the 
great contention that went on for so long a period 
throughout our island between the different tribes 
of the Teutonic and Celtic races, and which, as is 
natural to suppose from the state of the High- 
lands at that time, was kept up there long after it 
had ceased elsewhere in Britain. And as it is 
historically known that long before and long after 
the combat at Perth such contention was inces- 
santly kept up between the Teutonic Chattans, or 
Mackintoshes, and the Celtic Quheles, or Came- 
rons, it is submitted that we may on these and on 
all the other facts known in connection with the 
combat safely come to the conclusion that these 
w:ere the clans who were the actors before the King 
of Scotland in the bloody conflict. 

Henry Kilgour. 

Epigram by Dr. Hawtrey (4'^ S. iii. 499 ; 
iv. 44.)— In reply to W. T. T. D. in your number 
of July 10, 18G9, and to Mr. Thiriold, " N. & Q.'* 
of May 29, 1869, I take leave to remark that if 
those gentlemen would take the trouble to con- 
sult the Saturday Revieto of Jan. 6, 1856 (i. 178), 
and Saturday Itemeio of Jan. 19, 1856 (i. 219), 
and also Saturday Revieio of July 4, 1867 (iv. 3), 
they will find the whole history of the gross 

Plagiarism, or rather robbery, committed by Lord 
*lunket, Bishop of Tuam, who published as his 
own a ** Charge " printed and published some 
years before by no less a person than Dr. Sum- 
ner, then Bishop of Chester and afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. 

W. T. T. D. will also find that Dr. Hawtrey's 
epigram did not " appear originally in the Giutr- 
dian of Nov. 19, 1861,'* but in the Saturday Re- 
vieio of Jan. 19, 1856— -t. e. five years before this 
** original appearance " in the Gimrdian. 

I can also state that the concluding line of the 
epigram is not as W. T. T. D. and the Guardian 
give it — 

And as, on the part of the Saturday RevieWy this 
is a case, like the original, of ^^ Meum '* and " Tuum," 
I may add that I am a tolerable authority on this 
subject, because I wrote all the articles on the 
subject in the Saturday Review, and because Dr. 
Hawtrey — through a common friend now dead — 
communicated the epigram to me as soon as it wa8 

• ♦ • 

Cartularies, etc. of Faversham Abbey and 
Davington Priory (4»" S. iv. 56.) — If Mr. 
George Bedo will write to my friend, T. Wille- 
ment, Esq., F.S.A., the present owner and occu- 
pier of Davington Priory, I am sure he will g^t 
every information to be obtained respecting the 
cartularies of Davington Priory, and he will be! 
pleased to hear that much of the old priory still* 
remains, well preserved" and cared for by the 
zealous owner of the property. Mr. Willement 
has not only protected all the ancient work, but 
has at his own cost admirably restored the churcli. 
I have a very good engraving of the priory and 
church published at Mr. Willement's expense. 

Benjamin Ferrey, F.S.A. 

More Family (4'*» S. iv. 82.) — I have just met 
with an additional fact which brings the names of 
More and Graunger (or Granger) into connexion. 
In Stow's Chroniclcy p. 877, ed. 1580, it is said 
that Thomas Granger, who had been elected 
Sheriff of London on November 11, 1503, died on 
the Idth of the same month at the Serjeants' feast 
at Lambeth. '^ This feast," says Stow, " WM 
kept at the charge of tenne learned men, newly 
admitted to be Sergeants to the King's law. 
One of the ten was " lohn Moore." 

William Aldis Wright, 

Trin. Coll. Cambridge. 

Newark Peerage (4*** S. iii. 575 ; iv. 38.) — 
Anglo-Scotus is right, and I feel obliged by lus 
corrections with reference to the Newark peerage. 
I was misled by Sir Robert Douglas, and I ought 
certainly, before presenting my query, to have 
consulted Riddell. Yet my query may lead to 
the discovery of the proper line. 

Anglo- ScoTUS states that Archbishop Jolrn 
Spottiswoode of St. Andrew's died shortly before 
December 7, 1039. Perhaps he did, and the pre- 
cise fact might be ascertained by referring to the 
inscription on his tombstone in Westminster 
Abbey. But Craufurd, in his Officers of State^ 
Edinb. 1726, fol. p. 193, writes thus:— *• He 
(Spottiswoode) surrendered up his soul to God on 
the 27th of December, 1630.'' 

May I respectfully add that the following sen- 
tence in Anglo-Scotus's note is somewhat un- 
called for : — 

but — 

" Tcam si ncquco mcam vocarc," 
•' Tuam ni liceat Meam vocnre.'* 


No one,*' he writes, " should profess to write on Scot- 
tish peerages without, at least, consulting the works of 
this eminent lawyer [Riddell], which Dr. Rogers does 
not Beem to have done.** 

("S-IT. JDt,T31,'69.] 


With bU due deference to Anqlo-Scoios, 
whose notes I slwavB rend with ativrtntnge, 1 
beli(>Te mv acquaintance ivilh Scnttisli family 
history, and worlo published in connection there- 
■with, is far from heing inconsiderable. When I 
nest maJte a blunder, I beg Asolo-Scotcs will 
do me the justice of blaming' my judgment rather 
than of censuring my diligence. 

CniitLES EooERS, LL.D. 

Snowdoun Villa. Lewisliam, S.E. 

Haldkd's MS. Notes oy Dr.. Df.k (4"> S. iv. 
ao.) — Ib*gtoinform Calcutikssis that I have 
been en^raged for some time in prepariDK for the 
pnra "Collectanea Deviana; or, lIluBtrntiona of 
dw WritinfTS of Dr. Dee, and espccialij- of the 
Relation cf his Conference with Spirits," pub- 
lished by Ueric Cnaaubon. The annotations of 
tbe enthnriaft Hnllied irniicative of perfect faith 
)K the Teitiationa of Dee and Ivclly, would con- 
tid«nibly add to the interest of the projected 
publication, and should CALCCTTKNSia himself not 
contenmlate the publication of the annotations 
nfened to, I should feel much indebted for the 
loan of the Tolume, in order that a transcript may 
b« made of the notes, for which most pratpfnl ac- i 
knowledgmenla would be made in tlio work itself. I 
Thomas Joses, B.A ., F.S.A. 

Cbelham'9 Librari-, ManvLicitcr. ' 

Omitted REFEREscJis (4'" S. iv, 45.) — An i 
tpitaph, very wmilar to the Spanish one quoted I 
Inthe Serhghiri^ Chronicle, really txiat-i in Wilt- 
uire, and is lo be found in a printed collection of ' 
Wiltshire epitaphs, as I have learned from one 
who had seen the worlt, thoiip-h I regret to say I I 
««n give no further information of its title or 
date. The epitaph is in these words: — i 

" Bcncnth stone, nrppairil for Zion, 
Is Uid the landlord of Die t.inn ; 

His son keeps on the business still." 

J. C. M. 

SETmiBRTON, OR Skimmin'oton (4"' S. iii. 529, 
fl08.) — In Somersetshire this certainly used to be 
adopted in ridicule of the family in which " the 
grey msre was the hetler horse." In the summer 
of I8S8 I saw a procession of this sort r two men 
were in a cart, one dre3,sod as a woman ; he beat 
and abused tbe other, who replied only by words. 
They were drawn aloD^ by some of the villagers ; 
the rest followed, hooting; and laughing. There 
was a long pause in the proces.^iion opposite tbe 
cottage of the obnoxious couple. At the south 
BDd of the great hall in the beautiful old house of 
Mootacut«, in this county, is a curious representa- 
Hoii of this custom carved in wood, in low rehef. 
The husband there appears drawing liquor from a 
baiTel; the wife, coming in and finding him, raps 
Ida head with a shoe. In another compartment 

is the procession, with a view of the church and 
a bouse. Somersetensis. 

Napoleon I. and his Second Makriaqe (4"'S. 
iv. 'M.) — The Austrian ambassador, at whose 
house the fire broke out during the ball given to 
their imperial majesties and the filite of Parisian 
society in 1810, was Prince Schwarzenberg (not 
burff), who had negociated the marriags of Napo- 
, leon and Maria Louisa; the same field-marshal 
who commanded the Austrian auxiliary troops of 
France during the campaign of 1812, and who 
ultimately, on Austria's defection, became com- 
mander-in-chief of the allied troops against Na- 
Enleon. It was not his wife, but the PrinceBs 
auline Schwarzenberg, who waa killed on this 
lamentable occasion. She had been able to escape, 
but not seeing her daughter by her side, she again 
rushed to the rescue in t!ie midst of the flamea, 
where she perished, whilst her daughter came out 
safe through another issue. Some beautiful veraea 
were written^by Schiller, I think — on this 
mournful event, which was puiely accidental. 
The weather was oppressively hot ; the ball- 
rooms were hung round with light garlands and 
draperies, which, on some windows being opened, 
flew against the lights, when the whole pluca was 
instantaneously in a blaze. Tbe father of Lord 
Taunton saved two ladiea who had swooned. 

P, A. L. 

PLURAtiTr OF Altars ("4"' S. ii. G05.) — Your 
correspondent mentions two altars in the parish 
church of Fromo Selwood, and two in SS. Mary 
and Radigund, Whitwell, Isle of Wight. Ac- 
cording to Dugdale's IVarwickahitv — 
' "Thomas Oken in his will, c. trill, disposed hw body 
to be buried near S. Anne's altar, vttbin the chureb of 
I (Jor Lad J, Warwick." 

According to tbe Handbook of EiiglUh EccUii- 
nhgy (Ecclesiological Society), only three original 
high altars are known to exist; in the church of 
Northampton, Gloucesfer; St. Marv Magdalen, 
Riponj and St. Michael, Dulas, JEJeceford shire ; 
but several chantry altars remain. 

John Piooot, F.S.A. 
Mna. RoBissoN : "Pbrdita" (4'" S. iii. 173, 
;t48.1— I have to thauk Cuthbert Bede for re- 
minding me of the classical composition by Stioeh- 
ling, which does duty for a porti'ait of Mrs. 
Robinson in Huish'a Life of George IV. 

The original " hat " portrait of Perdita by Sir 
J. Reynolds appeara to have been exhibited at 
the British Institution in 1842, but I have as yet 
been unable to meet with any n-ittqaea on the 
picture. It was 8old at Christie's on March 26, 
I860, for 250 guineas to Mr. Ocfavius Coope of 
Brentwood, its present possessor. A repetiUon 
or copy of this portrait was purchased, May 13 of 
the present year, at Robinson's, 21, Old Bond 
Street (as an original), by a Mr. Chambers, whose 



[lU'S.iv. juLTauw, 

addre3.s I have been unable to obtnin. It pre- 
TJously belonfred to Mr. Marlvwell of Queen'a 
Rond, BavHwater. A small copy I possess, when 
or by whom eiecuted I cannot say, makes aq 
extreinelv fascinatiny picture ; in size it ali^fhtly 
eiceoda tlie scarce engraving by iJicltiuson. The 
copy at theGarrick Club can hardly be considered 
a flattering presentment of tha lovely features of 
Flori^el's innamorata. 

As a truthful portrait, however, judging from 
Mrs. Robinson's own description of her persooal 
appearance (Aatobioffraphy, vii. 11, 22), I believe 
tee half-length by Gainsborough, exhibited by Mr. 
Espinasse in the National Portrait Ejthibition of 
last ^ear, stands unsurpassed. This leads rao to 
inquire what has bucome of the fuU-leugth por- 
trait by the same painter which is stateci in 
Publk Characters (iii. 332, 333) for 1800-1 to 
have been at thai time ia the possession of the I 
Prince of Wales. Is it sfill in tba Royal Collec- | 
tion, or has it been cut down to the oval half- 
length above mentioned P L. X. 

The Court in 1784 (4'" S. iv. .55.)— For choice i 
bits of court gossip and onditiia highlire,F.M.S. 
cannot do better than perusu the pages of the 
Tbicn and CouiUnj and Eitiojiean Magazinea for I 
the year in question. L. X. i 

The Oak ksd the Asn (4'" S. iv. 53. ) — The ' 
" statistics " transferred to your columns from the 
Hereford Tintei on the subj ect of seasons as indi- 
cated by the oak and the ash should be taken 
" with all reserve," for the writer states : — 

"In 1831. IB39, 1853, and 18G0, botli these species of 
vegelfldoQ (the oak and the ash) began (heir race about 
the same period, anil [ho sumniers whicli followed were 
neither one way nor the other." 

It must be in the memory of many of your 
readers that the summer of ISOO was one of the 
wettest on record, or, as the writer in the Here- 
ford Times would express it, " very much the 
other way.'' With regard to the previous years 
mentioned I cannot speak from recollection, ex- 
cept that the result of the summer of 1853 (as 
well as that of 1800) was a notoriously deficient 
harvest, and inferentially therefore the summer 
was not of so negative a character as the writer 
States. Charles WniE. 

QEiNLiNe OiDBOHS (4™ S, iii. 606.) — In the 
Strawberry Hill Catalogue drawn up in 1842 
under the direction of George Robins — 
" the Individual [as he calls himself in tlie prefucol who 
has received inslroctions from the Kight Honourable the 
Karl of Waldesrave lo distribute to the world Che un- 
rivalled and wondrous collection ut Strawbeny UiU"— 
I find the following imder twenty-second day's 
aale, lot 84 : — 

'■ The black and gold frame enclo^ng the picture [por- 
traiu of Sir Robert Walpola and Catherine Shorter, 
showing busts ofGeorge I. and II. by Eckardtand Wout- 
too], one of the flneat Bpecimens of carving, u by Gibbons, 

as of the fkmUr, 
^rs, birds, fmlt, 
gned and perfect 

displaying with wonderful effect 
enriched with Cupid figure:* ai 
grapes, and foliage, nioit beautifi 

S. A. 


Alist of the works of Grinlins Qlbbons would be 
iucomplete without induding the carvings atSom- 
erleyton Hall, near Beccles in Suffolk, and thoas 
in tlie dining-room at Houghton House in Not- 
folk. (Waleott'a East Coast of England, pp. 78, 
119.) There are also some carvings by the sams 
artist at Hurst oionceaux Place in Sussex, whiek 
was partly built of materials from the Castle ad- 
joining when it was dismantled in 1777. Wit 
pole, in his Correspondence, speaks of the carvinn 
by Gibbons at Hurstnionceaux Castle, possiblj 
t^e identical ones now at the Place. To theae 
examples may be added some of the wood-carviag 

' Stanstitad House in the same county, o '' 

177, 254. 

E. H. W. ] 

'■ Whkn my Eybstrings break IK Death " 
(4"* S. iv. 5/.) — This line has exercised me Twy 
much. The only place where I can remember to 
have heard it used is the Temple Church, and I 
took tlie liberty to address Archdeacon RobinMO 
on the subject. AmoDg seven collectiooa now 
before me it appears as — 

'■ When my ej'elids close in death," 

" When w 

e eyelids close in death," 

■■ When mine eyes shall dose in death," 
in one version. For rhythm I prefer the second 
of these three snmples, and trust that Dr. Vaughaa 
may be induced to adopt it. 

it appears to me very probable that Toplady 
had the well-known passage, E>;cles. xii. 6, b«fan 

wheel broien at tlii 

A. H. 
Rib William Wallace's Statue (4'" S. iii. 
383.) — Seeing no other answer to thia query, I 
may refer to an article on " Wallace Konk in 
the Aberdeen Mapazine (vol. ii. 1832), a youthful 
production, I b-lieve, of the recently decdawd 
antiquary Dr. Joseph Robertson. The writer 

"There is no tradition, farther than the n amp, that 
records niiv Gonnectiim it ever had vith Wallace, vxcept 
that the figure in the niche i* said to ho an effi^v of Chat 

hero Kven in the days of old Andrew Wjn- 

lonnc it was notorious that more deeds were ascribed to 
Wallace than he ever performed ; and in these days it i* 
certain (hat manv places arc named al^r Wallace with 
which that worthy had no connection. One of the nunt 
striking instances of this is a lovrer at Edinburgh CvA* 

4* S. IV. Jolt 31, '69.] 



caDed * Wallace's Tower,' a name nothing more than a 
cormption of Well-house Tower. It seems very likely 
that the name of Wallace Nook may have had a similar 
origin. The present building is evidently of a much 
later date than his time.'' 

It is mentioned that *' a fine spring of water 
flows just near by it." The writer adds, that the 
bouse was at one time called " Keith's Lodgings " 
(a common way of designating the town residences 
of the old Scottish barons), and that on a stone 
now removed from the building there had been 
seen the letters S. R. K. B., imderstood to mean 
"Sp Robert Keith of Benholm." The " statue " 
is a wretched affair, with a small dog lying at 
the feet, and the left hand holding a tin-plate 
tword, possibly stuck there after it had been re- 
sdlTed tnat the mailed effigy might, could, would, 
or should be that of the Scottish champion. 

N. C. 


Bl7XBLB-BEE (4'** S. iv. 55.) — The word is 
deriyed from the Latin bombiis ; hence the Dutch 
^ommeH, to sound as an empty barrel. Bees are 
sometfioes called bujnbees in Scotland. Cutiibert 
Bmdb, in '-N. & Q." 4*'» S. ii. 261, quotes a 
oonplet from Clarets poem, "Summer Even- 

** From the hedge, in drowsy hum, 
Heedless buzzing beetles bum.'^ 

He savs that in the fens bitterns are often called 
hmnmers. Mr. Dixon says that a bass-viol is 
etUed in the North of England a bum fiddle. 

ITie word bumble-bee is used in Beaumont and 
Fletcher, iv. 72. Peter Parley, in his Hemtnis' 
emees, says : — 

•At first I thought he was mad, but the truth flashed 
npoo me that he had buttoned up a bumble-bee in his 

The Dutch call it a boinmcll-bee, and the word 
hwMe-bee is common in the United States. In 
the Notth a rumbling carriage is sometimes called 
a hummer. John PiaQOX, Jun., F.S.A. 


Juventus Mwndi, The Gods and Men of the Heroic Age, 

Bjf the K'ii^t Honourable William Ewart Gladstone. 


Nothing can show more clearly the enormous fascina- 
tion which the writings of — 

"... that blind bard, who on the Chian strand, 

By tho5e deep sounds possessed with inward light, 

Beheld the Iliad and the Odyssey, 

Bise to the swelling of the voice ful sea,'* 

exerdge over not mere students only, but over men 
in the engrossing field of political strife, than the 
fact that Lord Derby found his relaxation from 
toik in translating Homer, as Mr. Gladstone has 

^ done in studying, analysing, and illustrating the works 

of the great master. In the Jiiven/us ATutu//, which Mr. 

Gladstone tells us is mainly the produce of the two 

recesses of 1867 and 1868, he has endeavoured to embody 

' the greater part of the results at which he arrived in his 

' Studies on Homer and the Homeric Age (1858), but with 

considerable modifications in the Ethnological and My- 

I thological portions of the inqnirj'. The influence of the 

: Phoenicians is more fully examined both in respect to the 

; extent to which it reached in the sphere of the Mytho- 

' logy» and in the formation of the Greek nation. But the 

great distinction between the work before us and its 

predecessor is, that while in the latter the author had to 

draw out of the text of Homer by a minute investigation 

I of particulars the results that it appeared to him to 

justifj^ in the present work he gives a larger space to 

deductions, and a smaller one to minute particulars ; and 

thus seeks to make the book one which should be found 

of practical as.sistance to Homeric study in our schools 

and universities, and even to convej' a partial knowledge 

of the subject to persons who arc not habitual students. 

It is almost superfluous to add that Jutentus Mundi is 

eminently calculated to carry out the great object which 

its accomplished author has in view. 

The English Drama and Stage under the Tudor and Stuart 
Princes^ 1543-1664. Illustrated bt/ a Series of iJocu- 
ments^ Treatises^ and Foems. With a Preface and Index, 
(Roxburghe Library.) 

This new volume of the Roxburghe Library' is more 
particularly interesting to students of the Old English 
Drama, inasmuch as it contains nearly all the documents 
and treatises directly illustrating the early history of 
English Dramatic Poetry and of the Englitih Stage, which 
have not hitherto been made accessible, or of which it 
has been thought expedient to furnish more accurate 
texts than have hitherto been given to the public. These 
consist of thirty-two documents, commencing with so 
much of the Act 34 & 35 Henry VIII. cap. I (1543) as 
relates to the stage, and ending with the tliird and final 
ordinance against theatres issued by the Long Parlia- 
ment in 1G47-8. The treatises beginning with a Sermon 
against Miracle Plays, and ending with Richard Kleck- 
noe's " Discourse on the English Stage" (circa 1660), are 
thirteen in number ; and the volume, which is rendered 
complete b}' notes and an index, is one calculated to 
throw much light upon the subject which it is intended 
to illustrate, and to satisfy the subscribers to the "Rox- 
burghe Libraiy." 

The Register we understand will not be dropped, but 
will be published henceforth by Messrs. Hardwicke of 
Picca<lilly, under the editorship of Mr. VValford, who 
took the greatest interest in that department of the Gen- 
tleman*8 Magazine when he was formerly editor of that 
journal. We need scarcely say that we wish him all 
success in his new venture, for we hold that it would be 
a national loss if a permanent Obituary ceased to appear. 
The Register, however, will, in addition, contain other 
papers of personal anecdote and biographical interest, 
and it will record Births and Marriages, and Changes of 
Name as well as Deaths and Wills. 

Another SnAKEsrEARK AuTOGRArri. — The recent 
\QTy successful meeting of the Archaeoloj;ical Institute at 
Bury St. Edmunds will probably be long remembered as 
the occaj^ion which led to the discovery of a new speci- 
men of Shakespeare's handwriting — a specimen the more 
valuable, if its authenticity be established, from the fact 
that it is not merely an autograph. It is contained in a 
tiny copy of the IVorks of Ooidy printed at Amsterdam 
in 1630, which appears to have been used as an album or 
scrap-book for a former possessor, who has pasted on to 



[**s. IV. juLTai.-eB. 

the fifth oT its small paRBs, which he has cut still amaller, 
n piece of paper, on which aKS'" he has psiled the auto- 
graphs of " Hugh Middelton" and "John Dryden." Far 
the sake of this Jailer signature the brolher of the pre- 
sent owner loucht the litllo look. Turning over the 
leaves, the nimb page is found similarly covered with 
paper pasted over it. It is of much earlier date than 
the otlier interpolation, and on it is written, in what 
seems to be the hand of the poet, " Ihjne leereterie, W. 
ShakBpera.-8tratfordc Mnrche 16." A writer in Tht 
AditaaHBi, one well qualified to give an opinion on the 
subject, thus describes it;— '• It is a delicate, fine hand- 
writing, somewhat finer than any known autograph of 
Shakspeare— aa far aa we can racoUect without any pre- 
sent opportunity of comparison. It has every appearance 
of being the end of a letter, and as such everjlhing about 
it seems In perffect keeping. The paper is undoubtedly 
of the date, and with the writinR has borne careful ex- 

^tircif to CorxtifiaaOBntM- 

jUalmllti^lltr lia^tm ur ■noKwrmn iKdhW tc fanoanlHl. 
H.OIC Wr Jiaiv uliroyi .VHlcriuiatl Ihal Mi-^ruini Tudc 


192, Fleet Street (Comer of Chancery Lane). 


lil'lhV'n'i'l^'"!'.".! '■^.1 ■ 'l ■ V"^J 'wm.'Ttan 

Si)i^^.irL,'r»^'..l'l^i"'Li '"I I.I' '' ^ l.niESD bjr CaXTD^, 

...ii,. Mil, ri-Li..; M..I :... -..iiL^-nlCuriOMWW*! 

''\u'w:7^^'V\t.'.:'!\7-.'- , r.i.,L.iJ.j,i.-„„i, nl»J,iriwpi«.(n 

MB. N. EA.STON is instructed by the Eieratow of 
the REV. J, H. BROUBV, M.A,. dxawd. to BELL BT AUC- 
TION, ml hii Bomb, No. r. Bowl»llty-lu», Hull (wV — •' — ' • 

CiMmii, fottaie A 

pHEAI* BOOK SALK.S,~SoTenil ThoasMi4(_5f 

vri«a- 'the jhOlt ■!• coDwulenHr bruift' "■ ' ' — 

ud nwrkf il In pUlb t^mtt u the lowHt p 

Manufactured and sold only bj 

192, Fleet Street, comer of Chancery LtM. 
iUFAorunED tspienir tn mcci ma unlvcnally exufitaaA wot, 
■ piHr 1/iiith bIibJI in ItiKlf Cdiibliif ± perfectir inuatk lU^B 

.81 PArKH will be fmind lo i*m«« Ihfic fierulrKrilLtJ OOM-' ' '- ^ 
ictQBmHle from (hu be ^LlkDAD ruEi only. nobViiLns irtU tHUI 



ih met- tSicmpol u 


4* 8. IV. AuoosT 7, '690 NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS.— No 84. 

KOTBS: — Badolph Ackermann, of the Strand, Publisher, 
109 — Horace. Carin. i. 28. 122 — Miss Benger : " The Percy 
Anecdotes," 113 — Book Inscription — The Photographer's 
Adage — John Wesl^ — Chaucer's " Schippes Hoppe- 
tterea" — Birds* Eggs unlucky to keep— Sir John Her- 
•ebel at the Cape — Notice of the Discovery of a Cornish 
Mystery Play, 113. 

QUERIES: — Descendants of Lieutenant Wade and Ensign 
Xaylem, 114 — Arval*Bread : Arval-Supper : a Funeral 
Veaat in Yorkshire — Alcuin's Bible — Bibliographical 
Qneries — Bland>dyke, or Blan-dyke. a Term for a Day of 
fiecreation at Stonyhurst College, Lancashire — Chcmi- 
tjroe— Castles in the Air — Ercilla's " Araucana " — Half- 
a-0osen Historical Queries — Hogarth's " Lady's last 
StBke"— Metrical Prophecy— Miss Monk, Wife of Wil- 
Uam D*Oy ley — Arms of Archbishop Parker of Tuam — 
Peli^ Pellioo's " Prancesca da Rimini " — Pillory at East 
Looe, Cornwall — Engraved Portrait — Printing Query — 
QofltatioiiB wanted, &c., 115. 


WITH A VBWSBB : — " L'Empire c'est la Paix " — 
ttaunent — Lunch — The Bev. Dr. Fellowes — Shake- 

SBFLIIS: — Janet Little, 119 — The Stirling Case, /&.— 

BobotBWr. Author of "The Grave," and Norris of 

BmKitOB, 4c., 120 — Velocipedes, 121 — Sir Francis Pem- 

tertoD — Bedlam B^gars and Rosemary— Giles Lawrence 

; —••lb Lie-under a Mistake " — Ky the — Worrall - Bells 

flrlliiBeiitirig Churches- Signification of the Word " Pu- 

Billin • — La Salette — " Fysch-hole " — Plessis : Park — 

Bimiie to Ralph — Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes 

— Ovtolariea, Ac. of Favershain Abbey and Davington 

Frtocy — Bradwardine Family — Kidnapping, &c., 122. 

Votei on Books, kc. 



With some slight corrections, it will be good to 

adopt an account; which appeared in the Didas- 

kalut (Frankfurt am Main), No. 103, April 13, 

1864, of Rudolph Ackermann. He is therein 

cited as having occupied one of the first places 

ammig those who, by far-sighted and active occu- 

wftlony accompanied by philanthropic exertions 

ar tiie benefit of his fellow creatures, had raised 

the character of the natives of Germany to a high 

point of esteem in other countries. Born April 20, 

1764, at Stolberg, in the Saxon Harz, his sym- 

pathica with the misfortunes of others were so 

'vrannly exdted by the misery seen around him in 

the famine of 1772-3, that he frequently in later 

jrears excused the zeal, which he showed on other 

occaaioni^ by pictures of the distress that he 

experienced when he, at the age of eight years, 

was employed for hours daily in distributing food 

and money. In 1775 his father removed to 

Scfaneeberg his business of coach-building and 

haniess-making. There Rudolph received in the 

local school his education till he was fifteen years 

old, and s'^owed a decided predilection for literary 

pursuits ; but as his father's pecuniary position 

did not warrant the choice of that line of life by 

more than one son, Rudolph was obliged to yield 

and to enter the paternal factory. An elder brother, 

Frederick, had set him the example ; and, being a 
good draughtsman, gave up his leisure in order to 
instruct Rudolph in the use of the simplest in- 
struments. The younger one soon busied himself 
in the drawing-office more willingly than in the 
workshops ; but, perhaps unknown to himself, he 
had there made an acquaintance with details 
which subsequently were as highly important to 
him as his subsequent visits to Dresden, the towns 
on the Rhine, and Hueningen near Basle. While 
he resided in Paris he was the friend as well as 
the best pupil of Carrossi, who at that time was 
the most esteemed designer of equipages. Thence 
he proceeded to London, where he was delighted 
to find that carriage-building was one of the most 
active occupations, and that the exercise of his 
talents might be handsomely rewarded. So for 
eight or ten years (till 1796, IHdaskalia) he was 
employed in furnishing the principal coachmakers 
with designs and models for new and improved 
carriages. The models of the state coach built 
at a cost of nearly 7000/. for the lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland in 1790, and that for the lord mayor of 
Dublin in 1791, exhibited his skill and taste. 
Here was a sufficient career for a bachelor; but 
in that period he had married an Englishwoman, 
who is chronicled (in a truly German point of 
view) as having no other dowry than all the 
domestic virtues; and he provided for the sup- 
port of the expected family by establishing at 
96, Strand, a trade in prints, which that family 
might be able to manage if bis death were to 
occur at any early period : this was removed about 
1796 to 101, Strand. Previously, in addition, the 
prudent man had revived a diawing school at 
101, Strand. It was held in a room 65 ft. long, 
30 ft. wide, and 24 ft. high, to which there was 
an entrance by a private door in Fountain Court. 
This room had been erected upon <ipart of the 
court-yard of Beaufort House, probably when 
that mansion was converted into tiie Fountain 
Tavern. The place had been previously occupied 
bv the drawing academy of William Shipley 
(founder of the Society for the Encouragement of 
Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce), brother of 
Jonathan Shipley, bishop of Llandaff and of St. 
Asaph. Among the pupils were W. Pars, who 
diea young at Rome, 0. Smart, and R. Cosway, 
R.A. The last-named artist possessed a pane of 
glass inscribed with the words : — 

" Oh ! through what various scenes of life we jrun : 
Are wicked to be great ; and being great, undone. 

Simon Fraser." 

These were supposed to have been written by 
Lord Lovat, with his diamond ring, when he took 
refreshment at the Tavern on the way fropa. his 
trial in Westminster Hall to the Tower! Tfle tra- 
dition (or the truth) gives a curious impression of 
the manners of the times that allowed such a halt ; 
but, on recollecting the scenes of the processions 



[4»kS.lV. Auou8t7,'W. 

to executions at Tyburn, it seems probable. About 
1763, after Shipley, Henry Pars, brother of the 
artist above named, managed the school, but 
he retired from it oefore his death, which did 
not occur till May 7, 1806, in the seventy-third 
year of his a^e, according to his epitaph in the 
burial-ground of Pentonville Chapel. The room 
was later known as the British Forum while it was 
used by John Thelwall for his elocutionary lec- 
tures. When those exhibitions of political oratory 
were stopped by Government in October 1794, 
the lease was purchased by Mr. Ackermann, and 
the room was again used as a school for drawing. 
A master for figures, another for landscape, and 
a third for architecture, were required by the 
eighty pupils who were resorting to it when 
^&. Ackermann closed it about 1806, and there 
was not perhaps anything of the sort in London 
again, until Henry Sass opened his school at 50, 
Great Russell Street, in 1819. His exertions in 
forming a business as a publisher, printseller, and 
a dealer in fancy articles, such as papers, medal- 
lions (of which he had upwards of 4000 patterns 
in 1810), and materials K)r artists, had been so 
rewarded that his success rendered the conveni- 
ence of this room as a warehouse a more desirable 
object than the profit derived from the school, 
wnich was superseded by a portfolio of examples 
on loan. 

During the period in which the French emi- 
grants were numerous in this country, Mr. Acker- 
mann was one of the first to find a liberal employ- 
ment for them. He had seldom less than fifty 
nobles, priests, and ladies engaged upon screens, 
card-racKs, flower-stands, and other ornamental 
work. This manufacture was so well-established 
in favour that after 1802, when the emigrants 
could return to France, it furnished employment 
for a great number of our compatriots in transfer- 
work and other means of decoration which have 
since reappeared as decalcomanie, diaphanie, poti- 
chomanie, &c. 

At the beginning of the century he was one of 
the first who arrived at a method of waterproofing 
paper, leather, woollen stuffs, and felted fabrics, 
m which he obtained for some time considerable 
traffic that was conducted in his factory at Chel- 
sea. In 1805 the preparation of the car that 
served as a hearse at the funeral of Lord Nelson 
was entrusted to him; this was an opportunity, 
which he did not fail to turn to account, for 
showing his taste. 

For counteraction to Napoleon's endeavours, by 
bridling the newspapers, to keep his subjects in 
ignorance of evente tnat were disadvantageous to 
him, Mr. Ackermann bethought himself of re- 
viving, to the inconvenience of the enemy, the use 
made by the French in 1794-6 of aerostation in 
L'Entreprenant and Le T^l^macjue ; and he con- 
trived a simple mechanism which would every 

minute detach thirty printed placards bom a 
packet of 8000. Three such parcels were attached 
each to a balloon thirty-six inches in diameter, 
made of goldbeater*8-skin, and committed to the 
air in the summer of 1807. The success of the 
machinery was evinced by the return of several 
of the placards to London from various parts of 
the country ; for, as the experiment had been tried 
at Woolwich, in presence of a government com- 
mission, with a southerly wind, the balloons had 
passed over Salisbiuy and Exeter. A change in 
the ministry set aside this scheme of annoyance. 

Before any person, except Mr. Lardner in Pic- 
cadilly, Mr. Winser in Pall Mall, and Mr. Atidos 
in Golden Lane, he adopted the use of gas as A 
means of artificial light to his premises. He 
showed his judgment by selecting Mr. Clegg of 
Manchester for the maker of the necessary app^ 
ratus to be erected at 101, Strand — fat that time 
each consumer had to make the gas for himself) ; 
and his liberal zeal in furnishing Mr. Clegg win 
the means of making experiments in manufactai% 
application, and remedy of failures, cleared Mr. 
C/legg^s path to success with the Westminster 
Gas Company. 

The patent for a movable axle for carriages 
engaged much of his attention during the yean 
1818-20; and in the latter year a picture 1^ 
Nigg, in enamel on china, of the then large aiie 
of fifteen inches by twelve inches, as a present 
from the Archduke John of Austria, testified thsl 

Erince*s estimate of the position which Mr. Ao* 
ermann occupied amongst the promoters of sHy * ^ 
commerce, literature, manufactures, and science. 

The establishment of lithography in England > 
was another example of his patient and persevering 
expenditure of money and time in the introduce 
tion and improvement of a novelty. He was net 
content with translating Alois Senefelder's tieik- 
tise in 1819, but made a journey to the residence 
of that inventor in order to exchange the remits 
of their theory and practice before producing in 
1822 a Complete Course, The business relations 
between leading artists and Mr. Ackermann en- 
abled him to induce them to touch the lith'o- 
graphic ehalk; so in 1817, through Prout and 
others, tbe process became an acceptable, or rather 
a fashionable, mode of multiplying drawings : for 
want of such an advantage, the process, when 
introduced into this country by Mr. Andr^e of 
Offenbach in its original and rude state, had re- 
ceived no improvement; and all its subsequent 
success may oe attributed to Mr. Ackermann'* 
personal emulation of the progress in it made at 

Upon receiving, especially from Count Schon- 
feld, an authentic account of the misery produced 
in Germany, particularly in Saxony, and by the 
affair of Leipzig during the five aays (October 
16-19, 1813) as well as by the course of the war, 

& IT. August 7,'69.] 



be temporarily abandoned the oversight of his 
own miudiiBriouB oocupations in order to exert all 
Ids atrengtii in procuring aid for the sufferers. 
With the help of the Duke of Sussex he got a 
committee together in Westminster and in the 
^ty oC London : the first obtained a parliament- 
arj g^rant of 100,000/., and the second furnished a 
mther laiger sum in private contributions. This 
was the occasion on which the use of Whitehall 
Chapel was granted for a musical performance 
in aid of the subscription. For two years Mr. 
Adcomann undertook the task of correspondence 
with the German committee for distributmg those 
gama, oi examination into the urgency of each 
appeal for help, and of dividing the fund. 

The '* Westminster Association for the further 
Relief of the Sufferers by the War in Germany " 
piopoeed to acknowledge his pains, probity, and 
fraaeiioe by a silver testimonial. This was de- 
cBBed by mm, as was also a vote of thanks to be 
inscribed in gold on parchment. He begged that 
aU thanka might be comprised in a few auto- 
jRi^ lines from the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Tbu, annly, was not the sort of man to propose 
to fain a doubtful profit by ''a satire upon the 
BSdoiial clergy,'' which was the object of the 
fflostrator and of the publisher of the Tours of 
Dr, 8ymiaXy as absurdly attributed in dubious 
tenna to them by the reporter of the observations 
Mid to have been made by W. Combe, and printed 
in the ^ Advertisement '' prefacing his Letters to 

The relief afforded to his distressed subjects 
IS admowledged on the part of the King of 
SazoDj by the presentation of his portrait m a 
wM. box set with diamonds to the Archbishop of 
uanierborj^, as president of the Westminster com- 
mittee ; diamond nogs to Messrs. Howard, Marten, 
and Watson, three of the secretaries to it ; as well 
as an appropriate memorial to those three gentle- 
aien and Mr. Ackermann^ made in the porcelain 
sanofiMstory at Meissen, on behalf of the Dresden 
committee. The gift to Mr. Ackermann was a 
vase twenty-four inches high, allusive to Trajan's 
noririon for children, with a pair of groups — viz. 
Castor and Pollux, Pylades and Orestes ; and in- 
stead of the diamond ring, Mr. Ackermann re- 
orived the Order of Civil Merit. On his visit 
many months afterwards his modesty was evident. 
After an interview with the King of Saxony, who, 
Dressing his hand, declared the popular gratitude, 
Mr. Ackermann on returning to the hotel heard 
of the intention of the municipality of Dresden to 
give him a fete. When the managers arrived to 
offer the invitation, they found that during the 
night he had started for Leipzig. There he could 
lot avoid a public oration ; but at Zurich, Berlin, 
Munich, and Hamburg he begged to be excused 
tbe narade of the receptions that were proposed, 
la 1815 a similar activity was displayed by Mr. 

Ackermann in the collection and distribution of 
300,000 thalers for the relief of the wounded 
Prussian soldiers, and of the orphans and helpless 
parents of the fallen patriots. These philanthropic 
services were acknowledged with a diamond ring 
by the King of Prussia. 

The influx of Spanish exiles after 1815 is 
perhaps almost forgotten in England: in some 
respects it was as heartrending to Mr. Ackermann 
as that from France a quarter of a century previ- 
ously, and he immediately devised a means of 
benefiting permanently several of the most dis- 
tressed amongst them. He not only spent large 
sums in procuring Spanish translations of Eng- 
lish works and original Spanish elementary books, 
and in publishing them, but established branch 
book ana print shops in many of the chief towns 
across the Atlantic. The value of this contribu- 
tion to the advancement of Southern America was 
acknowledged by President Bolivar in a letter 
dated at Bogota, December 15, 1827. About fifty 
volumes and half as many school-books had been 
thus published before 1830. 

Amongst the cases of assistance to individuals 
which did honour to him a few became public. 
The case of Mrs. Bowdich in 1824 was adopted 
by the LUerary Gazette and by him ; and one of 
the journals of that date says : — 

*' Fortunate indeed, then, for an individual to meet with 
such an advocate. We know that the exertions of Mr. 
Ackermann are indefatigable in this particular case." 

The discretion which he exercised in choosing 
his subordinates, and the liberal manner in which 
he repaid their services, enabled him to produce 
several books which deserve the notice of all 
those who know how to appreciate the merit of 
these illustrated works in colour, relatively to 
others of similar pretension, both of that time 
and of the present day. With aquatinters like S. 
Mitan, and the school of hand-colourists which 
Mr. Ackermann educated, the works of artbts 
were copied, and the sketches of amateurs were 
produced, in a manner that derides such distant 
imitations as those in Mr. Hotten's edition of Dr. 
Syntax^ and surpasses even the best chromolitho- 
graphs of the present time, which can compete 
with them on no ground but that of a cheapness 
of production, which, for several reasons, does not 
benefit the purchaser. Amongst such works that 
pass under nis name for want of a known author, 
or that present an author's name on the title-page, 
may be specified under abbreviated titles the fol- 
lowing publications : — 1809-10, Microcosm of 
London, 104 pi. after Pugin and Rowlandson, witn 
text to the first two volumes by W. H. Pyne 
(whence it is sometimes confused vrith Pyne's 
Microcosm) J but to the third volume by W. 
Combe. 1812, Westminster Abbey ^ 84 pi. after 
Pugin, Huett, and Mackenzie, with text by Combe. 
1813, Historical Sketch of Moscow, 12 pi. 1814, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4th s. iv. august 7, •». 

TJniversUy of Oxford^ 84 pi. after Nash, Pyne, 
Pugin, Mackenzie, &c., witn text by Combe ; and 
the supplementary Portraits of the Founders^ 32 
pi. ; and the Costumey 17 pi. after Uwins. 1816, 

University of CamhHdgej 81 pi., with text by 
Combe; and the supplementary Portraits of 
Founders^ 16 pi. ; and the Costume^ 14 pi. 
1816, Colleges of Winchester, Eton, and Westmin- 
ster, with the Charter House, the Free Schools of 
St. Paul, Merchant Taylors\ Harrow and Rughy, 
and the School of Christ's Hospital, 48 pi., with 
text by Combe, except for Winchester, Eton and 
Harrow Ttext by W. H. Pyne. Mr. Hotten's 
memoir of Combe differently excepts Winchester, 
Harrow, and Rugby ; but the statement here 
made had the authority of Mr. Ackermann, who 
was not likely to except Eton if Combe had 
written it.) 1820, Picturesque Tour along the Rhine, 
24 pL, by J. G. von Gerning. 1820, Picturesque 
Illustrations of Buenos Ayres and Monte Video, 24 

51., with text by E. E. Vidal. 1820, Picturesque 
'^ our of the English Lakes, 48 pi. after Fielding 
and Walton. 1821, Picturesque Tour of the Seine, 
24 pi. after Pugin and Gendall. 1824, Picturesque 
Tour of the Ganges and Jwrma, 24 pi., by C. R. 
Forrest. 1826, Scenery, ^c. of India, 24 pi., by 
R. M. Grindlay. 1828, Picturesque Tour of the 
Thames, 24 pi. after Westall and Owen. 

All these were described as elephant 4to except 
Capt. Grindlay's atlas plates. They form a series 
which has not yet been paralleled, and which is 
likely to maintain that reputation. It is not sup- 
posed that these works repaid the risk (in some 
cases the actual cost) of production. His losses 
upon them were partly compensated bjr the ex- 
traordinary success of smaller publications that 
were illustrated in a similar manner. The chief 
of these was the Hepository of Arts, Literature, 
Fashions, Manufactures, 8fc., which before the 
end of its first year (1809) had attained the num- 
ber of 3000 subscribers, and was continued by 
him until the end of 1828, being during the whole 
of that period imder the management of Frederic 
Shoberl as general editor, with the assistance of 
Lewis Engelbach as reviewer of music in criti- 
cisms which may be usefully studied by the most 
successful living contributors to the press. Its 
first series (1809-15) was distinguished by papers 
called Observations on the Fine Arts, from a cor- 
respondent signing " Juninus," whose earliest com- 
munications were scarcely decipherable through 
his wish to be anonymous: tney ceased when 
Mr. Ackermann transmitted in gold his apprecia- 
tion of the papers to the person who, he felt 
assured, had supplied them. That series gave 
Howitt's British Sports, 30 ph 1809-11. The 
third series (1823-28) contained- the History of 
the English Drama by W. C. Stafford of York. 
Other constant contributors were F. Accum till 
his exile about 1820, J. M. Lacey,and W. Carey. 

But the most prolific source of matter was W. 
Combe, who supplied the papers entitled the 
Modem Spectator, 1811-15; the Cogitations of 
Johannes Scriblertts, 1814-16 ; the Female Tatler, 
1816-21; and the Adviser, 1817-22; besidea 
Amelia's Letters, 1809-11, which were republished 
(with his name) as the Letters between Amdia in 
London and her Mother in the Country, 1824. The 
value of the materials in the Repository was shown 
by the success which attended the issue of them 
in separate volumes. It supplied Letters from Italy ^ 
by Lewis Engelbach, 1809-13, reprinted as NiqJei 
and the Campagna Felice, with 17 pi. by Row- 
landson, 1815 ; Select Views of London, 76 pL, 
with text by J. B. Papworth, 1810-15, rep. 1816} 
Designs for Furniture, 76 pi. (the first series), 
1809-15, reprinted as the Upholsterer's and Cabi^ 
netmaker's Repository, 1816 ; Architectural SuUip 
27 pi. by J. B, Papworth, 1816-7, reprinted as 
Rural Residences, 1819; /Sentimental Travels to 
(Tour in the) the South of France, 18 pi. after 
Rowlandson, 1817-20, rep. 1821 ; Picturesque Tout 
from Geneva to Milan by Way of the Simpbmf 
1818-20, 36 pL, with text by F. Shoberl, rep. 1820; 
Pictorial Cards, 1818-9, rep. 1819; Hints on Orna- 
mental Gardening, 34 pi. by J. B. Papworth, retp. 
1823 ; Picturesque Tour from Berne through tM 
Oberland,, 17 pi., 1821-22, rep. 1824 ; Dengna 0f 
Household Furniture and Decoration (the seoona 
series), 1816-22, rep. 1823; Viexos of Cowtr^ 
Seats of the Royal Family, Nobility, and Gentry. 
of England, after W. Westall, T. H. Shephon^ 
and others, but chiefly J. Gendall (now livino; in 
DevonshireJ), and Frederick Wilton Litchneld 
Stockdale (then lately of the H. E. L C. service; 
and author, in 1824, of Excursions through Com- 
wair\, 50 pi., 1823-28, rep. 1828 ; and Designs fot 
Gothic Furniture, 27 pi. after A. Pugin, rep. 1828^ 
To these republications may be added tnose of 
the Female Fashions, chiefly engraved by J. S. 
Agar in the Repository, which, with the BrUul^ 
Fashions for 1803 and 1804, will hereafter be inir 
portant materials for the history of costume. 


{To be continued^ 


I am one who, with some of the ablest of the 
German critics, think I discern the hand of aa 
interpolator in several of the odes of Horace. In 
the appendix to the third edition of my Mythology 
of Greece and Italy I have noticed a great num- 
ber of these apparent interpolations, and given the 
grounds on which they have been suspected by 
myself and others ; and in a preceding volume of 
the present series of *' N. & Q." I have added a 
few more. I have just discovered the following 
one, and with it I expect my dealings with Honoe 
will terminate. 

»s.iT.Anon8T7,'fl9.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 113 


This ode, it will be seen, is a dialogue between 
k shipmaster and tbe departed spirit of the Pytha- | 
gorean philosopher Arohjtas. It is amccbceic, 
and therefore, as we mav see in Theocritus ana 
Virgil, tbe speeches should be of eijual length. But 
it consists of nine four-lined slauzns, and conae- 

Sueatlv there is one too much or one too little. 
think tlie former is the cose ; and, as I believe 
those critics to be right who make tbe speech of 
Archjtaa commence with ''Me ijuoqua," &c. 
(T. 21), I regard the fifth stanza (yv. 17-20) as 
being a gift bt^owed on the poet b; the gene- i 
rodtjr of tbe interpolator— a view in which, as I 

C' aps elsewhere, I may have been preceded by | 
Ikamp, to whose work I have not access. 

As is the case with these interpolatiuns in ' 
geneikl, tbe fifth stanza is quite superfiuous. The 
■Mda had given instances of those who were i 
the nUMt likely to have escaped death, and yet I 
wkohkdnoti and he concludes with the reflec- 
tion that death is inevitable. What, then, was 
the aead of ^oing, as we may sav, over the same ' 
grotmd and in so diffuae a manner Then when 
we look it the verses themselves we may see at 
OBoe that tbey are not II ratia but like those 
of the interpolator in general — who no doubt waa 
a Qrammalii^a — smack of othtr authors. Thus 
the last line evidentiv alludei to the death of 
Dido in the " j^^neiR a poem not written till 
duny years after this ode, and in the strange and 
■Imost ludicrous use of the Terb fi^it, a passage 
of Lucan's Thnrsalia (ii. 75), was evidently in the 
writer's mind. So in another of these interpolated 
ctBitzitB fiii. 16, 29-32) we meet with fallU in a 
Mnae ■which it only lias in Propertins, i. 4, 16, 
whence it has evidently been derived. The first 
Une also waa probably su^frested by a passage in 
die aeventh book of the " .^aeis," of which poem 
we an also reminded in tbe third line. The con- 
Tincins' proof, however, with me is the breach of 
the roles of amteba^ic poetry, a difficulty which I 
Me no way of getliug over. Tnos. Kbibhtlf-t. 

P.S. In what I wrote not very long since in 
"N.ft^"on the subject of the "FonsBandusias," 
I showed that the verb desUittnt proved de- 
ddedly that it could not have heen the fount near 
VeniWL It was then in the same valley in 
which tbe w^a of Horace lay, and through which 
the stream of the Digentia ran. It is my opinion 
that it maj have been the source of this stream, 
and I therefore render rivo " the stream," and see 
a little touch of quiet humour in the poet's thus 
saying that the stream should have been called 
Bandusia. It may bo said, no doubt, that there 
were tvroybn^^ in the valley, and that the stream 
bom the Bandusia ran into the Digentia, but that 
I regard as rather improbable. By the war, is 
the Fonie Sella at tbe present day the head of the 
If itie,I am right; if not, I may be in 

a note on " Gigmamty " (4"' S. iii. 659), I 
d from the John Sail of Jan. 18, 1824, a 
nent the effect of which is to as^mi the 
luthorship of The Perci/ Anecdote) to MissBenger, 
md not to Messrs, Robertson and Byerley (4"" S. 
ii. 605), Can further evidence be adduced to 
connect Misa Benger with the authorship (sole OT 
in part) of that well-known seriesP and, who waa 
this Miss Benger?* I conclude that she is the 
same person who is mentioned in the following 
passage from " My Acquaintance with the late 
Edmund Kean, by T. C. Grattan, Esq.," pub- 
lished in T/>e New Monthly Magaane, Sept. 1833 
(xxiij. 13):- 

"I dined BevcTil times at blohooae. [In LopdoD,ieiT.J 

1 there met, aa asual, extremely good company. But 
Misa Plamtree, Misa Spence, a novelist, Misa Benger, a 
woman of liigher talents, and CDptain Glascock, aatbor 
of Tht Naval Slixtck-book, were the only persona then or 
since connected with literature whom 1 recollect lo have 
teen at these parties. Kean's aaaaciates wore certainly 
not homma de IcUra." 

There were two Misses Plumptre, sisters of the 
Rev. James Plumptre, B.D., Rector of Great 
Gi'anaden, Iluntingdonabire, and daughters of Dr. 
Pluuiptro, President of Queen's, Cambridge ; and 
the list of works published by the two sisters and 
their brother is very lengthy. Miss Spence was 
author of Htlen Sinclair, The Nobility of the Heart, 
and other novels, that obtained a certain amount 
of popularity in the earlv part of the centurfi 
Of Miss Benger I find the following notice, in 
A Biographic^ Dictionary of the Living Author/ of 
Great Britain and Ireland, published by Colbuin, 
1816: — 

"Bkboeh, Miss Elizabetq Ooilvv.— TAj fmnfc 
Ceniarf, a poem (written at the age of thirteen), 4to, 1791. 
The Abalitim of the Slave Trade, a poem (printed with 
Montgomety'i and Gtahame'a piecea on the same subject 
by Bowver), 4to, 1809. The Heart and the Fancy, a 
tale, 2 vols. 12mo, 1813. Klopiloek'i Letleri, from the 
Gennan. forming a seqoel to hia Life, by Misa Smith, 

2 vols, IB13." 

Was ahe one, if not both, of " the Brothers Percy 
of Mont Benger"P or did she assist Messrs, Byerlay 
and Robertson in the compilation of the Anecdotes T 
I may add, that the Catalogue of the London 
Library (3rd edition, p. 679) also ascribes the 
authorship of The Percy Anecdotes to " Thoa. 
I Byerley and J, C, Robertson "—the date of pub- 
I lication being 1820-23, and Misa Benger's name 
' does not appear in that voluminous catalogue. 
From another aonrce I find that MissBenger died 
in 1827, and that ahe was also the authoress of 
I memoirs of Mrs. E. Hamilton, Anna Boleyn, and 
I the Queen of Bohemia. Cttthbibt Beds. 

' [• ElizabethOgilvyBengeidiedonJan, 3,1827, Thers 
, is an excdlent n<^ce of bar literary career in tlie Oaidt- 
I maa't Blag, for March, 1B27, p. 2T8.-ED.1 



[4«»» S. IV. August 7, »fi9. 

Book Inscription. — The following lines occur 
in MS. on the first leaf of a volume in the library 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, of which the title 
is Sermones parati de tempore et de Sanctis, It has 
no date or place or printer's name, but was 
printed before 1500 (Hain, Repertorium BibUo- 
ffraphicum^ No. 12404). The writing is quite as 
early as the volume itself: — 

« y« y« art a lett' m& & lyst loke on a boke 
y* y* fyngere be not fowll loke • loke • loke • 
be lyke a clerke I clennes &; cOterfet no coke 
y* slatterd is in sluttjch w^ smother & w^ smoke 
And ywfor wach ^ine hande at eu*y tyme al daye i y« 

Wen J>ay be fowle & make )>& clen wyt y« wat* of y 

Turn fayr yi boke & ren no lefe ne no leyf loke y« croke 
yf y«do bus Jjftmayy* wele bodlych vnbokyle a boke." 

William Aldis Wright. 
Trin. Coll., Cambridge. 

The Photographer's Adage. — 

** When the wind blows from the north, 
Take not the wretched sitter forth ; 
When the wind blows from the east. 
Take twice ten seconds at the least ; 
When the wind blows from the west^ 
In twice ten seconds 'tis impressed ; 
Bnt when the wind blows from the sooth. 
In ten yon have eyes, nose, and mouth.'* 


John Wesley. — I do not know whether the 
accompanying letter has ever been printed. If 
you think it likely to interest your readers, it is 
quite at your service. W. H. Bliss. 

Bodleian Library, Oxford, July 12, 1869. 

BauHinaon Letters^ Vol, xxix.. No. 102, Bodleian Library, 


" C. C. C, Sept' 24, 1744. 

**Toar last requires little more besides the acknow- 
ledging the favour of it. D*^ Richard Pococke you men- 
tion was admitted Clerk of our College on the Z^ of 
febmary, 1721, and took his degrees in Law, as you 
observe. The affair of Wesly I have had but little con- 
cern in, besides the mortification of hearing him preach 
for about an hour or more : For when I sent the Beadle 
for his Notes, which he delivered to me sealed up, he told 
me it was well he went so soon for 'em, for he found him 
preparing to go out of town. I was at Queen's College 
when the notes were brought to me, before 12 o'clodc, 
where I was engaged as one of M*^ MichelVs Trustees for 
his Benefaction there in auditing the year's Account, as 
he by his Will has appointed to t^ on every Bartholomew 
day. Being thus disappointed of summoning M' Weslpr 
before proper persons, I thoiight it adviseable to keep his 
notes in my own Custody till the Vice-Che came home, 
who was expected in a little time : and to whom I de- 
liver'd 'em as I received 'em, only not under seal. I 
suppose it will not be long ere the Vice-Ch' does some- 
thing in that affair, tho' it is now a busy time with him, 
rast at the removal of the office from himself to the 
Sector of Lincoln, where Wesly is still Fellow. I am, 

Sir, your very humble servant, 

Jo. Mather." 

Chaitceb's '' ScHippES HoppESTEBES." — When 
Chaucer wrote his "Schippes Hoppesteres" he 

was translating Boccacdo^s Navi BeUatrici. Is it 
not probable that his copy was mis-written, or by 
him mis-read " baUatrici " ? W. P. P. 

Birds* Egos unlucky to keep. — A native of 
Kent lately gave me a collection of the eggs of 
British wild birds, but with a strict injunction not 
to retain the possession of them, as the keeping of 
them would be very unlucky. Is this supersti- 
tion general ? Edwaed J. Wood. 

Sir John Herschel at the Cape. — I read in 
a late number of The Athenteum that " few echoes 
of what Sir John Herschel did at the Cape have 
reached England.'' I have always understood 
that, during the four years Sir John Herschel 
spent at the Cape of Good Hope (1834-8), he 
examined the whole southern celestial hemi- 
sphere ; and on his return to England, the results 
of this expedition were published in a large quarto 
volume, at the expense of the then Duke of 
Northumberland: for which work the Astrono- 
mical Society voted the author a fitting testi- 
monial. Now, to term this big book " few echoes,*' 
is more depreciatory than the lady's remark thaty 
during Herschel's stay at the Cape, he had com- 
pletely " rummaged the heavens. 

< Fiat Justttia. 

Notice op the Discovert op a Cornish Mts- 
TERT Play. — I make the following extract from 
The AthencBum of July 3, hoping that some par- 
ticulars respecting the title and contents of thiB, 
old Cornish mystery will be thereby elicited : — 

**Mr. Wynne of Peniarth, in cataloguing, with the as- 
sistance of the Rev. Robert Williams, author of A OonoA 
Dictionary^ &c. the collection of Hengwrt and Peniarth 
MSS., has discovered a Cornish ' mystery ' which is be> 
lieved to be unique." Only three of these mysteries weie 
heretofore known ; this is a fourth." 

E. H. W. D. 




Je crois etre agr^able a vos lecteurs, en leur 
faisant part d'un trait d'humanit^ bien naturel 
aux grandes ames, mais encore assez rare de nos 
jours, de la part d'un ai'eul d'un de mes compa- 
triotes, habitant comme moi la ville de Tours. 

Jean-Francois de Martel, actuellement inspec- 
teur des domaines a Tours, serait heureux de 
savoir s'il existe en Angleterre des descendants 
des deux officiers dont il est question dans ce 

Votre estimable feuille, en publiant cette lettre 
dont je n*ai voulu rien changer quant au fond ni 
a la forme, et qui est une pi^ce authentique, fera 
un grand plaisir aux descenaants de Jean-Baptiste- 

4* S. IV. August 7, '69.] 



Ghr^goire Martel le bienfaiteur, et je n'en doute 
pas aux ofiiciers Simon Wade et John Maylem 
qui ont re^u le bienfait. 

Le Conservateur de la Bibliotb^que de 

Toors, ce 22 juillet 1869. 

* To all Land and Sea Officers, Civil and Military, and 
all People of the English Nation, Greeting. 

" It is -with the greatest pleasure and satisfaction we 
mite this memorial, which, from the deep sense we have 
cf the obligations we lay under to Monsieur Martel, 
iodnces us in point of gratitude to pay our sincere acknow- 
ledgements for the many favours received from him and 
fkmily ; the occasion of which, in as few words as possible, 
ve aluU relate : — 

" Doubtlesfl, Gentlemen, you have had intelligence of 
the transactions upon the surrender of Fort William Heni^ 
en JjMkt Huron. VV^e were two of those whose fate it 

to fall into the hands of the savages, contrar}' to the 

of ctpitulation, wherein we were to march off 

nitb aU the honours of war, under an escort of a large 

body of Freodi regulars, to Fort Edward ; but they being 

under no command, we were hurried off by them and 

bfootgiht prifpners to Montreal, and kept by them without 

the city i^on the green for the space of two or three 

daja, Danng which time Monsieur Martel^ with inde- 

A^gable labour, applied himself very closely to procure 

oar redemption, sticking at no pains where he had any 

gfimpse or prospect of procuring our releasement; and 

eren interested himself so far in the affair as often to 

ttdanger himself, with no other view, as we have since 

fcond, than purely to regain us our liberty ; which we 

lad no sooner accomplished, but his lady in a sedan Csic) 

ht condncted ns to his house, where we were in the best 

■tnner clothed and entertained to the extent of every- 

fldng the place could afford, until he procured us a room, 

ad provided for ns in a very decent and genteel manner, 

fftwiag us daily instances of his favours, limited not to us 

«o1t bat extended to all the other officers that were before 

aadf afterwards taken in the same manner as ourselves. 

Hot did his generosity rest until even the meanest soldier 

luid sensibly felt the liberal dealings of his hands. 

•• Frmn all which, with a variety of other instances of 
his kindness we could mention, would earnestly recom- 
■end it to you gentlemen, if it ever should be his or any 
of his family's fate through chance or the fortune of war, 
to be in our condition, you would treat him in such a 
laauMt as might give them occasion to speak in the 
MM language of us as we do with pleasure now of them. 
** We are sure no true Englishman, who by nature are 
bero&c and generous, would misuse a prisoner because he 
was so onlncky as to fall into his hands, and certainly a 
gentleman by nature — a foe to our country — whose gene- 
rosity has laid ns under such infinite obligations to him, 
can never meet with too much civility and respect. 

** Bat not to enlarge, as what we have said is hearty 
and sincere, conclude, 

" Gentlemen, 

" ¥«■ most Obedient 

" Servants, 
" Simon Wade, Lieutenant, 
John Maylem, Ensign. 
" Honsiear Martel, 

Montreal, August 25, 1757. 

** Thomas Shaw, 
Cap*» in the 

New Jersey Regiment." 

Aryal-Breaj) : Aryal-Suppee : a. Fttnsral 
Feast in Yokshiee. — Is there any connection 
between this latter and the Ajrvals, an order of 
fossores which existed at Kome in early times P 
Concerning these latter several facts have come 
out in De Kossi's BuUetini, and any circumstances 
which might connect these latter with the York- 
shire Arval would be very interesting. 

Ale. Prabsoit. 

Alctjin's Bible. — 

" Alcuin wrote out with his own hand a transcript of 
the Bible, which he presented to the Emperor, and which 
was formerly in the possession of M. Passevant, but is 
now preserved in the British Museum." — J. Mozley 
Stark*s CatcUogue^ July, 1869. 

I have been informed that this tradition is 
wholly groundless, and hope that in the pages of 
so widely circulated a periodical as " N. & Q." a 
correct statement may be furnished of the facts 
connected with the celebrated manuscript referred 
to, showing where^ if it really exists, it is now 
deposited; whether in Home^ or in Pans, or 
elsewhere. Biblioxhecar. Chetham. 

BiBLiooRAPHiCAL QUERIES. — 1. There is a 
curious old work in the library of the British 
Museum, describing the proceedings of the Coun- 
cil of Constance, which was printed at Augsburg 
in 1483. It is a small folio, black-letter, and is 
adorned with a great many quaint coloured wood- 
cuts and coats of arms. Is this volume unique ? 
I have never met with it in sale catalogues, and 
do not find it mentioned in Dibdin's Decameron, 

2. How many copies of the latter work were 
printed? Have there ever been any imperfect 
copies, or odd volumes, in the market? 

. F.M. S. 

Bland-dyze, or Blan-dyke, a Term for a 
Day of Kecreatiox at Stonyhurst CoLLEeE, 
Lancashire. — This curious expression I have 
often heard made use of by the students of this 
well-known institution to denote their day of 
recreation, Thursday, once a month. The word 
itself suggests a Flemish or Dutch origin. As 
the present possessors of Stonyhurst arrived in 
this country in 1794 from Liege, Belgium, bein£ 
driven out of their possessions by the French 
Ke volution, could it be possible, Mr. Editor, 
that this term w&s imported also from Flanders? 
Perhaps some of your numerous contributors may 
be able to inform me whether the name of Blana- 
dyke is the Flemish for a day of recreation or not ? 

George Montoomsry. 


Chemitype. — In a review of Professor Ste- 
phens' work on Northern Antiquities, in The 
Atherusum of July 17, the illustrations of the 
book are said to be executed by this process, 
which appears to be unknown, or at least unused, 



[4tt» S. IV. August 7, '69. 

in EDfflancL Where can I find a description of 
it? R M. S. 

Castles in the Aib (4»>» S. iv. 13.)— Why do 
our neighbours, the French, term these unsub- 
stantial creations of the fancy '^ des chateaux en 
Espagne " ? E. V. 

Ebctlla's " ABATTCAisrA." — ^I believe the Arau^ 
cana of ErciUa was translated into English the 
beginning of the last century. I should be glad 
to know Dy whom. Also, the author of a Tour 
m South America about thirty or forty years ago, 
which had fre5[uent reference to the poem of 
ErcUla, which it much illustrated. Is there any 
work in which there is a detailed comparison of 
the three contemporary epics of Tasso, Camoens, 
and Ercilla, — I mean more than may be found in 
such works as Hallam and Ticknor ? W. M. M. 

Halp-a-Dozen Historical Qxteries. — 1. 
What is the present condition of the Abbey of 
Fescamp, Normandy ? 

2. Montfaucon has engraved, in his Monumens 
de la Monarchic fran^iscj the tomb of King 
Philippe of France from St Benoit-sur-Loire, on 
which appear statues of Robert Courthose, Wil- 
liam Rums, &C. (Monumensy i. plate Iv.) Are 
the tomb and statues still in existence ? 

3. What was the worth of a nound Angevin ? 

4. Is there any Hst of the Aobesses of Font6- 
vraud, especially with dates attached ? [I asked 
this once before, some time since, but obtained 
no answer.] 

5. Edwurd I. consented by treaty to deliver to 
Philippe rV. of France the following places in his 

. French dominions : Thalamond, Turon, Punirol, 
Penne, and Montflaukin. (Fosdera, i. ii. 794.) 
What are the modem names ? Were two of them 
identical with iHgnerol and Montfaucon ? 

6. "Henry [if] himself is said at these mo- 
ments [of anger] to have become like a wild 
beast; his eyes, naturally dove-like and quiet, 
seemed to flash lightning ; his hands struck and 
tore at whatever came in their way." I find this 
quoted in a magazine from ''one of the most 
learned and gifted, as well as one of the most 
elegant writers of the present day " — information 
whereby I am informea of nothing. Can any one 
kindly give me a common-sense reference to 
chapter and page, as well as author P 


Hogarth's "Lady's last Stake." — Does any 
engraving exist of Hogarth's picture of "The 
Lady's last Stake " in Lord Charlemont's eaUery, 
of a size suitable for binding with the foSo edi- 
tion of his worirs ? H. H. 


Metrical Prophecy. — Is this prediction, which 
has been going round the newspapers, genuine or 
spurious P — 

" That the Primate is a Scotchman has 

come to be talked and written about, in connection with 
a curious ancient prophe<7. 

" In an epilogue delivered at the Globe Theatre in 
1601, by Richard Bnrbage, there occunred the following 
sentences: — 

* A Scot our King I The limping State 

That day must need a crutch. 
What next ? In time a Scot will prate 
As Primate of our Church. 

' When such shall be, why then youll see, 

That day it will be found. 
The Saxons down through London town 
Shall burrow under ground.* 

Dr. Tait is Archbishop of .Canterbury, and we travel 
about London under ground." 


Miss MoNE, Wipe op William D'Otlet. — Can 
any of your readers favour me with information 
about the family of the Miss Monk who married, 
about the year 1740, William D'Oyley, son of Si» 
John D'Oyley, Bart, of Chidehampton, Oxford- 
shire ? Was she an only child, and what were 
the arms of her family ? J. D. E. 


Arms op Abchbishop Parker op Txtam. — 
What were the family arms of John Parker (scm 
of Rev. John Parker, Prebendary of Maynootli). 
Archbishop of Tuam 1667-78, and of Dublin IB^fB 
till his death, Dec. 28, 1681 P He was buried in 
Christ Church, Dublm. C. S. K. 

Peii. — Is Peli, the Hawaiian goddess, who is 
believed to preside over, dwell in, and issue from 
Kiranea, the largest and most extrr.ordinary vol- 
canic crater on the face of the globe (see the 
Saturday MagoTsine, September 15, 1882), visiting 
the children of men with Ihunder and Ughtningi 
earthquakes, and streams of liquid fire — con- 
sidered to be, both philologically, sacrificially, and 
otherwise, a feminine development of a masculine 
prototype — Baal = Jupiter = Sun f J. Bbalb. 

Pellico's " Francesca da Rimiki." — Has this 
celebrated trac^edy ever been translated into Eng- 
lish ? If so, by whom, when, where was it pab^ 
lished ? L. M.' 

Pillory at East Looe, Cornwall. — ^Murray, 
in his Handbook to Devon and Cornwall, edit 1865, 
p. 263, says that, " near the 'church end ' at East 
Looe there yet remains the pillory, one of the verj/ 
few in England.*' Is this information correct at 
the present time, or has this ancient instrument 
of pimishment been removed ? The pUlory at Looe 
was claimed by Henry de Bodrigan, lord of the 
manor in the reign of Edward I. E. H. W. D. 


Engraved Portrait.— Who is the original of 
a portrait en craved in oval by J. Payne ; in an 
oval border the words *'Patiens qui Prudens," 
surmounted by the date "Anno 1629"? 

William Bates. 

4«» S. IV. AuoDST 7, *69.] 



Pbinting Query. — I remember coming across 
* book, in the library of an eminent printer now 
dead, which puzzled me very much. It was a 
small volume of about sixty pages, very small 
4t0| or square 12mo, printed entirely^ from title- 
page to colophon, in what seemed to me Court 
hand* Has there ever been any book printed in 
this character in England ? I should say that it 
is twenty years since I saw the book, and my 
recollection of it is somewhat hazy. F. M. S. 

Quotations wanted. — 

** Sounds which address the ear are lost, and die 
In one short hoar ; while that which strikes the eye, 
Lives long upon the mind : the faithful sight 
'Graves on the mem'ry with a beam of light." * 

J. Manuel. 

** So when heaven's lamp, that rules the genial day, 
Behind the sable moon pursues his way : 
Aflngjitod mortals, when the eclipse is o'er, 
BeBerehim more illustrious than before." 


Tbktoils in Arms, and Mount for Crest. — 
Jb it aeeoiding to any rule or tradition in heraldry, 
or Ij mere accident; that^ in the three instances 
siren below, trefoils, borne in coat armour, appear 
in connection with a mount or hill in the crest ? — 

Roe of Brundish, Suffolk : Three trefoils and 
ts many quatrefoils; crest, on a mount vert a 
loebnck statant. 

Symonds of Taunton (granted 1587): Three 
trefoils ; cresty on a mount vert an ermine. 

Upliill of London: Four trefoils; crest, on a 
moimt charged with trefoils a bird volant 

KfiDtish Town. W. MOUNTFORD. 

Ulphilas. — I suppose the second syllable in 
TJlphilaa (the author of the Gothic Version) is 
duKt; Imt I wish for some authority for its quan- 
tity, or some analogous word which might suggest 
it The first syllable of the name is evidently 
m^ Wolf, Guelph. B. L. W. 

Yahdela or Wandailes, Meaning of. — In a 
gimt by William de Percy of Dunsley, in sup- 
poet of the Hermitage at Mulgrave, supposed to 
nc¥e been made about 1150, the following passage 
ocean: — 

" Sdlieet, totam terram meam de Midthet, a balco qui 
est intor wandelas demenii mei) et vandelas hominum 

Again, William, son of Line of Levingthorpe, 

granted to the church of St. Peter and St. Hylda 

of Wyteby, and to the monks there — 

^ one rod and a half of land in Wandailes upon the river 
Tayae, on the east side of Midlesburc." — Charlton's 
WTdtbjf, p. 188; Burton, Mon, Ebor., p. 83. 

In this parish we have a series of contiguous 
endoaores, containing together forty or forty-five 
acres, all designated by the common name Wandales ; 

[^ This seems to be a translation from Horace : see 
De Arte Foetied, 180.] 

or, as it is written in the six-inch Ordnance Maps 
(Sheet 30), WmideU; in sheet 42, it is WandhiU: 
and in sheet 8, Wand Hills — which are evidently 
corruptions of the same name. There is also a 
Windel (1541), otherwise written Wjndell or 
Wendell, at Guisborough, and spelt Wmdle, and 
Wind-hills-on- Apian of the Guisborough estete, 
about one hundred years old. This last, I think, 
is probably another corruption of Wandale, Be- 
sides, there are other instances of the same name 
in the district (Cleveland), the exact local posi- 
tion of which I have not yet precisely ascertamed. 
1 am anxious to obtain an explanation of the 
term. I find nothing clearly to the purpose in 
Ducange ; and my own surmise that the Jvandalef 
or Vandddy was an enclosed pasture, but common 
to the dependants of the lordship in which it lay, 
remains quite unsubstantiated by any tangible 
proof, while the halco in the quotation above 
makes against it. 1 should be much obliged if 
any reader of " N. & Q.*' could throw light on 
the subject. J. C. Atkinson. 

Danby in Cleveland. 

Vattghans of Brbdwardinb and Pbdwar- 
DINB, Co. Hereford. — Possibly this may catch 
the eye of some diligent genealogist who has had 
better success than myself in reconciling the dis- 
crepancies and unravelling the intricacies in the 
Vaughan pedigrees. There is certainly great con- 
fusion in all the accoimts which I have been able 
to see, and 1 am almost tempted to believe that 
the great " Sir Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine " 
(the preserver of Henry V.'s life) had no connec- 
tion with that place, and that his family did not 
settle tbere till the end of the sixteenth century. 

C. J. XV. 

"L*Empire c'est la Paix." — What was the 
occasion of the above immortal utterance by Na- 
poleon ? Was it a quotation or original ? It has 
oeen repeated so often that it is pretty sure to 
live ; and one of " N. & Q.'s " most useful services 
to posterity will be its information as to the 
origin of proverbs. R. C. L. 

[This magniloqnent (and original) declaration was 
made at Toulouse, in the autumn of 1852, when its author 
was manipulating the pulse of the public in the vine- 
yards of Southern France preparatorj' to re-establishing 
the imperial regime. At the close of a splendid banquet 
given to him by the Chamber of Commerce in the Bourse 
of the above-mentioned city, and being emboldened by 
the mad enthusiasm of the company present, the Prince- 
President suddenly cast off all reserve, and unequivocally 
announced the impending change. " There is one objec- 
tion," he urged in vindication of his purpose, ** to which 
I must reply. Certain minds seem to entertain a dread of 
war ; certain persons say, the Empire is only war. But 
I say, THB Ehpire is Peace, for France desires it, and 



[J'" S. IV. ADOun 7, "6 

when France a satisfied tha world is tranquil." A tew 
days previonil)-, when presiding at the inanguration of 
an eqnestrian statoe of hia unclr, Napoleon I., he gave 
vent to a similar sentiment to the sj-inpatheti« Lyonnese ; 
bat his language on that occasion was not characterised 
by the Ute arrogance or by the like terseness. Ai the 
two memorahle addresses in qnestion have not UDfre- 
qaently been confounded on this Eide of the Chanael, we 
will append the correspondhig passage in the earlier one. 
"Faithful servanla of the nation!" be esdaimed, "I 
never shaU have but one object, and that ia to rocoDati- 
tute in this great country, convulsed by so many com- 
motions and Utopian achemea, a peace based upon concili- 
ation for men, inflesibilily of principles of authority, love 
fpr the labouring classes, and national dignity."] 

Parliament. — In MHimingbaai's Diary (Cam- 
den Soc. p. 48), " Mr. Carle, my chamber-fellow, 
was (»Iled aloDe by Parliftineat to the bur." What 
is meant by parKamaU in this sentence P 

[The expreasIoD is ased in this place in its aboriginal 
or colLiquial sense, and refers to the particular society of 
which Mr. Carie was a member, and by whom, in due 
course, he was "called" or permitted to practiae as an 
•■ utler.barriater," which was one degree below that of a 
"reader." It was customary at the period in question to 
call four " apprentices of the law " only in every year. 
Hr. Carle's call appears to have been an exception to the 
mle. The term "Parliament" may refer also to the 
immediate interf^nce of the Privy Conncil iu all matters 
pertaining to the establishment and regulation of the 
aevaral Inns of Court. Prior to 1576, when this pre- 
scriptive right was eicercised for the last time, and pre- 
cedent established for the future, an order of Conncil, 
subscribed by the Lord Keeper, Sir Sicholaa Bacon, and 
other lords, and made in the Easier Term of that year, 
directs that ■' none be called to the utter-bar but by the 
ordinary Council of the House (i. r, the Inn) in their 
geoeral ordinary councils in term time ; and also none 
■haO be utter-barristers without haviog performed a 
certain numlier of mootings (t. t. arguing fictitious cases) ; 
also, that none shall be permitted to plead in any of the 
coarts at Westminster, or to sign pleadings, unless he be a 
reader, bencher, or five years* utter-barrister, and con- 
tinning that time in exercises of learning; also, that none 
shall plead before justices of assize unless ailowed by the 
justices of assizer" (See Dngdale's Originei Jvdicialci.) 
Since the Commonweattb, the authority to cali persons 
to the degree of barrister-at-law has been tacitly relin- 
quished to the lienchers of the different societies, and Is 
now considered to be delegated to them from the judges 
of the superior courts.] 


" A lady eminent for tbe elegance of her taste, and of 
whom one of the best judges, the celebrated Miss Edge- 
worth, observed to me. that she spoke the poreit and tbe 
most Idiomatic English she had ever heard, threw out an 
obHrvalion which might be extended to a great deal of 

our present fashionable vocabulary. She la now old 
enough, she said, to have lived to bear the vulgarisms of 
her youth adopted in drawing-room circles. To l»nch, 
now lo familiar from the fairest lips, was in her yonth 
onlv known in tbe servants' halt."— Disraeli's CWiutthVt 
of hittraluTe, tit. "Neology." 

[This word is of doubtful etymology. I.eiicographer», 
following their several fancies, have derived it from lonjtt 
(Span.), a long piece, a. elice ; from fxru, hlunt (Swed.), 
a mass or lump ; from Iomega, fongda (Armor.), to swal- 
low greedily; and from (&P11C (Welsh), a gulp, a swallow. 
Obviously all these terms have sprang from a common 
but nnknown source ; and neither of them, therefore, can 
be said to be absolutely satisfactory : heoce some are of 
opinion that the word is corrupted from the Old Engllali 
nwR-iAuii, the refreshment taken at nmn when laboureit 
desist from work to •*«« the heat ; and the above extract 
ftom the Curhiitiei of Literalun b so far confirmatoiy 
of its vulgar origin. The earliest usage of it, is quoteit 
by Todd, occurs in Thi CauleUa of Iht Mant, l&M; 
" Witness their donble chynnes and fat luncbions of flarii 
on their bodies." A modem wit having observed of thtt 
meal itself, that it is a reflection on breakbstand an 
insult to dinner, it is just possible it may fall again lot* 
desuetude, in polite circles at least, and its mention b* 
once more restricted to the '' servants' hall."] 

The Sev. Dr. Fellowes. — Can you inform me 
whether Bobert Fellowes, LL.D., the author of 
The Seligion of the Univeree, be living or dead, 
and at the sftme time refer me to anypubliBhed 
account of the doctor's life P Pie officiated at 
secretary to Queen Caroline, and a second edition 
of his work appeared in 1836. W. S. C. 

[The Kev. Robert Fellowes died on Feb. G, 1847, In tfei 
seventy-seventh year of his age. He was a native of 
Norfolk, and having been educated at St. Mary's Bal^ 
Onfotd, where he took his M. A. degree in 1801,hew«» 
ordained in 1795. He however ultimately relinqai»h«t 
the doctrines of the Church of England, and adopted 
those contained in The Religim of Iht Unintrt, pnb- 
lisbed in ISSG. He was an intimate friend of Dr. Pan-, 
who introduced him to Queen Caroline, of whose causa b» 
was a most ardent champion. He was also the fliend of' 
Baron Maseres, wbo bequeathed to him a verj- large for- 
tune. He took an active part in the formation of tbe 
London University, and in gratitude, it is said, to Dr. 
Eiliotson. founded two annual gold medals — the Fd- 
lowes'roedals— as prizes for proficiency in clinical ecien«b 
A long list of the various works published by Dr. Pd' 
lowes, who was for six years editor of the Criticai Raiiaif 
will be found in the long obituary of the doctor in Ui» 
Gaaltnum'i Magazine for April 1817, pp. 410-1.] 

4«*S.1V. August 7, '69.] 



Has the simile been explained^ or the allusion to 
the monument identified ? Clarry. 

{^Our correspondent, to whom we owe an apology for 
a lonig accidental delay in inserting this query, will find 
four pages of very elaborate criticisms upon this figure 
by Warburton, Malone, and Boswell, in the Variorum 
ShaAetpeare (1821), xi. 505 et seq.'] 



(4'*' S. iv. 50.) 

A. J. M. will find a short account of Janet 
Little in the Household Joumaly vol. i. (London, 
James Henderson^ 1865). She is there described 
a tall woman^ with dark hair, and somewhat 
masculine features, but with a demeanour 
modest in the extreme. She is also called a pure- 
minded, humble^ and good woman. She was 
bom in Dumfriesshire of poor parents, and re- 
oefyed only a small share of education. In her 
joath she became a servant in the house of Mrs. 
i>milop of Dunlop, the friend of the poet Bums. 
^e was afterwards employed at Loudon Castle, 
finom which place she wrote the following letter 
to Bums, to see whom she had long and earnestly 
deored: — 

" Loudon House, 12tb July, 1789. 
•* Sir, — Though I have not the happiness of being per- 
amally acquainted with 3'-ou, yet, amongst the number of 
who have read and admired your productions, I 
be permitted to trouble you with this. You must 
r, sir, I am somewhat in love with the Muses, though 
I cannot boast of any favours they have deigned to con- 
fa' on me as yet; my situation in life has been very 
miftdi against roe as to'that. I have spent some years in 
and about Ecclefechan (where my parents reside) in the 
station of a servant, and am now come to Loudon House, 
at jNretent possessed by Mrs. Uendrie: she is daughter 
«f Mrs. Dnnlop of Dunlop, whom I understand you are 
particalarly acquainted with. As I had the pleasure 
«f pentsiDg jour poems, I felt a partiality for the author 
'wUdi I should not have experienced had you been in a 
■are dignified station, and wrote a few verses of address 
to JOB, which I did not then think of ever presenting ; 
bnt M fortune seems to have favoured me in this, by 
biinging me into a family by whom you are well known 
and madi esteemed, and where perhaps I may have an 
o^xvtmitT of Bcein? you, I shall, in hopes of your future 
Aicsodshim'take the liberty to transcribe them : — 

[Here followed the verses.] 

** Sir, I hope you will pardon my boldness in this. My 
band trembles while I write to you, conscious of my 
imworthiness of what I would most earnestly solicit': 
viz. your favour and friendship; yet, hopingyou will 
diow yourself possessed of as much generosity and good 
satnre as will prevent your exposing what maj' justly 
be found liable to censure in this measure, I shall take 
tbe liberty to subscribe myself, sir, your most obedient, 
hmnble servant, 

" Janet Little. 

•* P.8. If yon would condescend to honour me with a 
few lines firom your band, I would take it as a par- 

ticular favour ; and direct to me at Loudon House, near 

In writing to Mrs. Dunlop, Bums says with 

reference to the above letter : — 

" I had some time ago an epistle, part poetic and part 
prosaic, from 3'our poetess Miss J. Little—a very ingenious 
but modest composition. I should have written her as 
requested, but for the hurry of this new business. I have 
heard of her and her compositions in this country, and I 
am happy to add, always to the honour of her character. 
The fact is, I know not how to write to her. I should 
set down to a sheet of paper that I knew not how to 

Some time after writing the above epistle, 
Janet called at Ellisland to see Burns. lie was 
not at home ; but while she was waiting, he was 
brought in with a broken arm, having fallen from 
his horse. In some verses, written on the occa- 
sion, she says : — 

" With beating heart I viewed the bard, 
All trembling did him greet. 
With sighs bewailed his fate so hard, 
Whose notes were ever sweet." 

Her Poetical Works, published in 1792, had a 
long list of subscribers. Her poetry is not of a 
very high order. Her book is described as '* re- 
markable, for a milkmaid." Aifter publishing her 
poems, she became the ** excellent wife of a com- 
mon labourer." She died in 1813, and left behind 
her a number of manuscript pieces, which she had. 
written during her married me. 

D. Macfhail. 
27, Castle Street, Paisley. 

A. J. M. asks, " Who 
Scotch milkmaid ? " She 
of the dairy at Loudon 
A. J. M. will find a very 
in The Contemporaries of 
Poets of Ayrshire, with 


was Janet Little, the 
was the superintendent 
Castle, Ayrshire, and 
excellent notice of her 
Bums and more recent 
Selections from their 
James M'Kie. 

(4''» S. iii. 575 ; iv. 38.) 

I have not leisure at present to go into tho 
questions connected with nil the peerages referred 
to, which I the less regret as I am well aware 
that Dr. Rogbes is fully competent to defend 
himself, and shall therefore conhne myself to the 
remarks of Anglo- Scoxus on the Stirling case. 

Ist. Mr. Humphreys never produced a ** regrant 
by Charles I. dated Dec. 7, 1G39." The document 
he actually lodged in process purported to be an 
extract from the said grant. This distinction may 
appear a mere verbal one to a person not con- 
versant with Scotch law, but in point of fact it 
is a most important and essential one. In the 
criminal proceedings connected with the case it 
was prominently Brought forwu:d by the late 



li^ S. IV. August 7, '69. 

Lord Robertson, who was counsel for Mr. Hum- 

** Bnt the paper before us is not a charter, and never 
was stated to be a charter." (Swinton's Report of the 
Trial, Edinburgh 1839, p. 274.) *• Lord Stirling, most 
unwisely in my humble opinion, wished not to produce 
that excerpt as directly giving him any particular richt, 
but to prove by it that a charter in similar terms had 
once existed. And accordingly it is called an ancient 
<md authentic excerpt or cJnidged copy of a charter of the 
crown in favour of William Earl of Stirling.** Qlbid.) 
** But it is not and never was said to be a charter. It is 
only produced as an excerpt of a charter found in Ire- 
land." (P. 275.) "In March, 1838, the Court found 
that it was a precept and not a charter, and that it could 
be received as proof of the tenor of a charter that had been 
lost." (Ibid.) " I would onl}' here observe, that this is 
not a charter, bnt bears to be an abstract or abridged copy 
of a charter. Now, gentlemen, an erroneous but genuine 
copy is a very different thing from a forged principal.* 

2ndly. I should hesitate for many reasons to 
call the fact of Archbishop Spottiswoode's name 
appearing as a witness to a deed which bears 
date eleven days after his death & fatal blunder y as 
it is capable of explanation ; but Anglo-Scotus 
takes no notice of the other and more formidable 
half of the objection that the archbishop is de- 
scribed as cancellarius — an office he had resigned 
months before. 

Lastly, I would ask Anglo-Scotus on what 
authority he asserts that Mr. Riddell was engaged 
for the crown in the Stirling case. I have before 
me as I write the authorised reports of the pro- 
ceedings both in the Court of Session and the 
High Court of Justiciary, and in neither of them 
is his name mentioned. 

It is perfectly true that this is quite consistent 
with his having been privately consulted by the 
law officers of the crown, but it would hardly 
justify the use of the technical term engaged. 1 
may, however, add that I was practising at the 
Scotch bar at the time when the cases occurred ; 
that they formed a frequent topic of discussion in 
the outer house; that Professor Cosmo Innes, 
then senior depute advocate, who went to Paris 
to collect information there, often amused us with 
accounts of his proceedings, but I have no recol- 
lection of Mr. RiddelVs name having been ever 
introduced upon any of these occasions. 

I therefore repeat that it falls upon Anglo - 
ScoTiJs to produce evidence that the blunder to 
which he refers was discovered by Mr. Riddell. 

Geokqe Verb Irvino. 

in Blair's poem, " The Grave," asks if it has been 
pointed out anywhere that John Norris of Bemer- 
ton had given the same simile. To this question 
I am able to return an affirmative answer. I 
have in my possession, in a pamphlet form — 

"The Poetical Works of Robert Blair, containing The 
Grave and a Poem to the Memory of Mr. Law, to which 
are prefixed Remarks on the Life and Works of the 
Author. Glasgow: Printed by and for R. Chapman, 

In the " Remarks on * The Grave,' " to which no 
signature is affixed, the author praises the poem 
for its boldness and originality of thought, and 
the strength of its language and versitication, 
while he censures its unconnected style, charac- 
terising the poem as " rather a series of paintings 
than a regular and connected whole." After ob- 
serving that it had been asserted by some of the 
admirers of " The Grave," that Blair's matter, as 
well as his manner, is quite his own, the autiior 
proceeds to indicate various traces of imitation. 
He points out the source of the idea already 
referred to, quoting the two stanzas of Noma 
given by your correspondent, and also remarks on 
the similarity between the two poets in most of 
the other examples mentioned by Mr. Gbosast. 
Two additional mstances are the following : — 

" Friendship ! mysterious cement of the soul, 
Sweet'ner of life and solder of society." — Blair. 

** Musick, thou generous ferment of the soul, 
Thou universal cement of the whole." — Norris. 


(4*»» S. iv. 28.) 

Your correspondent, Mr. A. B. Grosart, in his 
remarks upon the occurrence of the idea contained 
in CampbelVs line — 

** Like angel visits, few and far between, 


. . . Here, too, the petty tyrant. 

Whose scant domains geographer ne*er noticed.' 

" While you a spot of earth possess with care. 
Below the notice of the geographer." — Norris. 

As the unknown author of these *' Kemarks " 
claims the credit of discovering instances of imi- 
tation in "The Grave" which had hitherto 
escaped notice, and as copies of the little work 
containing them may be scarce, I may be allowed 
space for a few of the most noticeable. To show 
Blair's acquaintance with the classics, the author 
quotes lines from the sixth book of Virgil, which 
have evidently suggested some of the most re- 
markable passages in ** The Grave," and a large 
portion of the poem is asserted to bear a, close 
resemblance to some of the dialogues of Lucian : 

" The line near the beginning — 

" * Who swam to sov'reign rule thro' seas of blood,* 

is from Pope : — 

** * For thee whole nations drown'd with flames and blood. 
And swam to empire thro' the purple flood.* 

" So the appropriate simile : — 

** * Sullen, like lamps in sepulchres, your shine 
Enlightens but yourselves,* 

is borrowed from the same poet : — 

" * Useless, unseen, as lamps in sepulchre.' 

Elegy on an Unforiu$uxte Ladjf 




" It i« likeroe prohable that the rimile — 
" ' By napetceived degreea he wears anay, 
let like the aun Baems la^er at the setting,' 
inMead of beiD? taken from Quartcs, is ftom a passage in 
OM of Pope's letterB to Wyoheriey, where in allusion to 
DiydeD he laya : — ' For his 6re, like that of the sun, 
•tuned cteareit tovards his setting.' The lines in the 
loctora of [be miser — 

" ■ The fool throws up hia interest in hath worlde, 

lis, then dan 

ra undoubtedly imitated from Oldham :— 

That at 

.a the 1 

le rich 01 

in'd himself to make his heir,' 
To a Friend leiaing Ihe (fmvrriiiy. 
Near the end of the poem a simile occars which appears 
to be taken from the ' Immortality of the Soul,' an almost 
aiiiDtelli(!ibte poem, written hy the celebrated Platonisl, 
Btary More of Cambridge; — 

**.... Fools that we are ! 
We wish to he where sweets unwithering bloom i 
But straight our wish revoke, and will not go. 
Bo have 1 seen, upon a summer's ev'n. 
Fast by the rivlet's brink, a youngster play ; 
Hrr wishfully he looks to stem the tide! 
Uui moment resolute, neit nnreaolT'd, 
At laat he dips his foot.' 
■ The passage in More is in the argument to the second 
cmtoof the first book: — 

■" Kow III address me to mv mighty task. 

So mighty task that makes mv heart to shrink ; 
WhUe I compute the labour it will ask, 

And on my own frail weaknesse I gin think. 
Like tender lad that on the river's brink, 
That fain would wash him, while the eveniUR keen 

With sharper air doth make his pores to wink. 

Shakes all his body, nips his naked skin. 

At first makes some delay, but after skippeth in." 

It ma^ Dot be ucimportiuit to add here, that 

tkongh it is stated by our author that the two 

foems mentioned in the title I have quoted, with 

the trantlntion of a Latin ode hj Florence WileoD, 

CDDtBin the liat of Blair's n-orks, such is not the 

ciee. The poet was also the author of several of 

the most beautiful pttraphrasos of Scripture ptis- 

Nges which are authonaed hy the General As- 

lemblj of the Church of Scotland to be sung in 


(4"'a iii. 408; iv. 57.) 

We toy referred to in the lines quoted by 

"Siimelimes, 'tis true, I am a toy. 
Contrived to please some active boy," itc_ 
*U 00 lehcipede, hut simply a stick, siirmoutited 
«J 4 carved resemblance of the head of tlie animal 
"W name appears in the answer to the enigma, 
iiid intended to be bestridden as a roadster by the 
iotBey Juveniles of a century ago. Hone, in his 
TaUe-Book (vol. i. p. 680)," gives, as nn illustta- 
•ioo of the " Old London Cries,"' an engraving of 

an itinerant seller of these " hobby-hones," 
blowing bis tniinpet, and shouting " Troop, every 
one I " to attract his youthful customers. Ha 
cames his goods in a partitioned frame on his 
shoulder, and we perceive that a small flag is at- 
tached to each horse's bead. The crier and hia 
ware have long been wholly extinct ; and Hone, 

Sathedcally lamenting that, in bis degenerate 
ays, they were content to give a lad the first 
stick at hand to thrust between his legs as a 
Bucephalus, — "the shadow of a shade," — sug- 
gested that the manufacture might profitably be 
revived for the benefit of the riuog generation. 
The enigma concludes with the lines : — 

" But thus to boast avails m 

H 0. for 0. I 

For an explanation of this last line we must 
refer to the Jlorris-dances of ancient days, in 
which the "Hobby-horse" was an important per- 
sonage, the line m question forming one of the 
sayings of the mummere who simulated this cha- 
racter; thus we read: — 

John Hunt the 

" Bat looke yon who hers com 
Hobby-horse, wanting but three or a nunarea ; iwera 
time for him to forget timselfe, and sing but 0, notliing 
but O, the Hobbie-boiae is forgotten ; the Maide Har- 
rian followiag him, offbrs to lend him scuen yearea more, 
bat if he would uke vp ten in the hundred, hi 
are able to land them."— O/rf M^ of fftrtfordthin 
Mayd Marian, a«d Ucrtfimi Tow ' "' ■ 
|-o. London, 1609, p. 7. 

Coming down to more modem times, v 
the following definition : — 
" HoBBT-HoBsB. A man's favonrite amusement, or 

8 company 

e find 

a p«r. 

far kind of small Irish horae; and also a wooden oi 
such as is given to children." — Grose's CUa^ixd Die- 
tionary, Sfv. by Pierce Egaa, 8to, 1823. 

The first dgnilication given above was illus- 
trated by a favourite ballad of the day, " Sung 
at the Theatre Royal, Haymarket," and entitled 
" Thady's Description of the Hobbies " : — 
" Myself at the Haymarket play-house one night. 
Was told by a person in diamonds alt bright. 
There was not a man, whether woman or child. 
Who had not bis hobbv, for so it was s^ted. 
And a hobby, dearjoy. 

That is a toy, 
A plaything for oveo' bobblo-de-hoy I " 

Then follows a description of the various hob- 
bies of the day, and the song concludes appro- 
priately with the verse; — 

» The hobby which is of all hobbies the best. 
Is lending ■ hand to as^st the dislrest. 
Oh, when with such hobbies the wretched we cheer, 
St. Patrick will write his best thanks for It here. 

And such bobbies, lit 


^ Oh, may thej- be then oar }-eariy employ ! " 

Acciptid Addniia ; or, Pramittm Pottanna, ^ 
ISmo, I8I8. p. 171. 

A few years later the word acquired a more 
.fpecitic meaning. Myportfolio contdns a curious 


[l"* a. IV. August 7, '69. 

■WM published by Q. HumpliTey, July 10, 1819, 
and IS entitled " Eveir Man on his Perch ; or, 
Guing- to Hobby Fair. Here we have repre- 
sented, on four parfJlel rows, twenty-four riders 
on velocipedes, tho dress of the former indicating 
their professions or trades, and the latter appro- 
priate too, or symbolical of the same, bj some 
peculiarity of construction. Thus the sailor sits 
in a boat ; the fiddler ia astride on a violin ; the 
soldier is mounted oa a cannon ; the tallow- 
chandler bestridesa huge candle; and the apothe- 
ca^ is bifurcated on one of his own labelled 
phials. There is no appearance of crank and 
treadles, and all are making vigorous use of their 
legs on (he ground. Most of the locomotives are 
bicycles ^bicycle, by the way, is the truepronun- 
ciation — and in all the forewheel is made to 
gyrate by a handle, and so direct the course. 
Such instruments were called " Dandy-horses," 
and tbe term is thus explained in the Xencon 
Salatronicamot JonBea (John Badcock), London, 
1823 :— 

" DANni-HOitSE. — Velooipedf, or instrnment for joor- 
neyiog far and fast : liro wbeels, one behind Itie other, 
■upporting a bur of irood : the traveller gets across and 
prapela himself forward by striking his feet against ttie 
grouDd, Hundreds of sach might be seen in a day ; the 
rage ceased in about three years, and llie word is be- 
coming obsolete." — Pago 68. 

Two-wheeled velocipedes were then called, not 
very correctly, "bicipedes"; there was also the 
" tricipede," or three-wheeled vehicle, an adapta- 
tiou 01 which was contrived for traversing eballow 
waters after wild-fowl. This latter was termed 
the "aijuatic tripod," and we are referred for a 
description of its manner of construction to Bad' 
cock's Fhilotophical Secreationi, vol. ii., a work 
with which I am not acquainted. 

I believe that there was a little book, published 
about this period, entitled The Daadia, and de- 
voted to a description of the extinct animal whose 
name it bears. This is said to conttun a coloured 
representation of one of this species, astride on 
one of the fashionable machines. 

Another satirical publication of the Dandiacal 
epcKb is entitied — 

"The Ago of Intellect; oi. Clerical Showfotk, and 
Wonderful Layfolk, ^c Dedicated to tbe Fair Circas- 
sian. By Francis Uoore, Fhysician, &c" Small 8vo. 
London, W. Hone, 1H19. 

Prefixed to this, a coloured frontisiuece, by 
George Cruikshank, exhibits some of the most 
striking signs of the times — a bloated bishop in- 
dueling sight-seers to St. Paul's as a peep-show ; 
a craniologist expatiating on the bumps ; philo- 
flOphers, by aid of a telescope, discovering 6n 
Vria Migor surmounting the arctic pole ; and a 
ateam baUoon surmounting the varied scene. The 
middle is occupied, on the one hand, by a clerical 

showman, in gilded mitre, receiving payment at 
tbe doors of Westminster Abbey ; and on the 
other, by a steep acclivity, up which a dandy, 
painfully struggfing on hia bicycle,, is met by 
another, who, rushing precipitately down the too 
facUia deeceiuus, is m the act of performing a 
summersault over his runaway vehicle. The tbl- 
lowing lines occur in the book itself : — 
" To her tbreadnecdle fortress consigning tbe dome, 
Greater novelties now to explore be our aim ; 
Soch aa patent pedestrian Acceleratora, — 
The fleeting rc2i>ci>»»lu,-'PeramhulBtors,— 


hey'll ba. 

th from Brighton, I'll wager, 
a theme of coaCcntioD ; 

—Page 171 

Highly they honour this age of invei 

The treadles and crank formed a subsequent 
and all-important addition. On a three-wheeled 
vehicle, thus fumiahed, I remember making a 
juvenile essay a quarter of a century ago, when, 
having come to ignomiuious grief, I had to pay 
smarUy, both in purse and person, for my unakiifiil 
temerity : — 

"Xec sic incipics ut scriptor, CyclUia oliml" — Bor. 
— or,^ if the reader would prefer the same kindly 
warning in an English dress, tbe same is at his 
service from an unpublished "Horace in London," 
of which tbe following distich is unfortunately all 
that I have at present achieved ;— 

" Don't start like the writer, if grief you'd escape. 
On Bicycle seeking your journey to shape!" 
I Wanting the mechanical aid these locomotiTes 
I at present possess, they never could become popn- 
I lar, or do other than justify the remark of some 
one — was it not Dr. Johnson? — who, on such an 
' instrument being described to him, remarked that^ 
as it appenred to him, the rider had to keep it in 
motion as well as himself. Wujjau BaiB8. 
I Birmingham. 

Sir FRiifois Pbmbertoit (1'" S. iii. 424.) — 
Tbe source from which I derived the date of 

I this judge's death was Chauncy's Hartfordthire, 
p. 447, d seq., where his epitaph in Highgata 

I chapel, with tbe date, June 10, 1697, is recorded at 
length. 1 delayed answering Tewars's note until 
1 could discover tbe place in Cambridge to which 
the monument in Higbj^ate chapel, when pulled 
down, was removed. I have now done so, ead 
find it is on the wall of Trumpington cburcb, in 
the neighbourhood of which some of the judge's 
family have property. It ia exactly copied in 
Chauncy, and the date is plainly June 10, not 
January. So that either the entry in the register 
of Hi^bgate chapel, or the lapida^of the monu- 
ment, is wrong. £dward Foss. 

Bedlak Beooars ajtd BosBiiARr (4" S. 'vr 
65.) — I do not know that " the Poor Toms " had 


■nj other reaaoa for nsiug rosemary sprigs tbsii 
ttuit thej might pick them up everywhere m 
ennl; m the other refiise — the pina, and skewers, 
and nult— eDumerated by Edgnr. Old plnjs lire 
Btock foU ot rosemMT- It was used in churches, 
in housM, in the Btreeta, in graveyarde. At leaata 
of all kinda — hirths, christenings, marriages, fu- 
nenls, orat pubUc entertunments, the loaemarv 
is aerer absent. They strewed their floors with 
it, they (ramighed their dishes with it, thev carried 
it to their haads, thej stuck it in their hats, they 
■titred their wine with it, they used it in theii 
raokerj, and made it into possets. MedicinBlly it 
was ia great use, and sprigs of it held at the nose 
were thought to prevent infection from the plague. 
A special reason for " Poor Tom's" rosemary might 
be found in the fact that it was thought to be 

K)d for the memory, afld generally for the brain ; 
1 1 think the commonness of it is quite a suf- 
fioent leaaoD. £very dunghill, as well as every 
gnden, would fumbh a supply. 

Jonir Addis, M.A. 

Giles Lawkbkce (4"> S. iv. 31.) — R. G. L. 

COdU obtain information of the family and de- 

'ants of Giles Lawrence of Eengeworth, Wor- 

r, on application by letter to Mrs. Goodall, 

Evesham, Worceslerahire, who is a lineal 

n the said Giles Lawrence. 

Henry Fawcbtt, 
\i. King Street, Covent Garden. 

" To LIB— vxDBR A Mistake " (4"' S, iv. 50.) 
In the bagmentary translation of £1 Magi'co Pro- 
digiom at Colderoii by Shelley, be makes Claria 
My to .VoKon ; — 

" Yva lie— Odder a mistake— 
For this is the most civil sort oC lie 
That con tw given to a man's face." 
What the text ia, I know not. 

W. J. Bebkhaed Suith. 
_ KiTHE (.3^* S. x\. 176, 243, 389.) — An early 
inttaace of the use of this word will be found in 
tha charter granted by William the Conqueror to 
lbs then Bishop of London, respecUng which there 
Hu interesting letter in The Alheiu^uin of J a] j 
n, 1869. Some of your renders may ha able to 
ittlpUB, Hall " as to the exact meaning of this 
utuat and importaat docunieat." J. Manitel. 

WoBEALL (,4'" S. iii. 483, 503.)— Mk. Sotheban 
^ not appear to have understood my query. 
Tb qniirteringa occur in the Harl. MS. 1487, the 
4*ta of which is about 1612. The marriage of 
Gwrge Westby to Mary Worrall in 1703 could 
^ under any_ circumstances, have given to the 
"(ff family a right to quarter the arras of Weatby. 
^he coat or, 3 cinquefoils gules, is, I think, un- 
qiEStJonably that ol KnottetwoHh. 
It mny interest your correspondent to know that 

a Ralph Westby of Ravenfield, Yorkshire, mar- 
ried Anne, second daughter of Hugh Worrall, 
Mayor of Doncaster 1544-1548. H. S. G. 

Bells fob Dibsbhtino CKimcHBS (4"' S, iv. 55.) 
In reply to your correspondent S. allow me to Bay 
that, being in Glasgow last Sunday, July 18, I 
observed that bells were chimed before service at 
Trinity {Congregational) Church, West End (Rev. 
Dr. William Pulsford's). The edifice has been 
erected about five years. It is in the Gothic style 
of architecture, and the bells were rung in a spire 
one hundred and eighty feet high. 

JosiAH Miller. 


(4"' S. iv. 74.)— I have no doubt that M. A. is 
right. In the sense of " student " or " pupil," 
pupiUiu would be a barbansm, and would nevsT 
so be used by any but a mediFcval writer. Aa 
authority for his view, besides Horace, M. A. baa 
Juvenal and Persius, The former says {Sat. x. 
222) :— 

" Qoot Builiu sooios, qnot clrcumscripserit Hirroa 
The latter (SM. ii. 12, 13) :— 

"... pupillnmye otiniim, qnem proKimna liErea 
Impdio, expangam." 

When a good, classical word, alumntu, waa 
ready to hand, why should a barbarism have been 

n Ox- 
ford man, I am bold to say that the Oxford statute 
book contfUDS more canine Latin than any other 
book of its uze in being. Edhitnii Tew, M.A. 

Patctiing Rectory. 

La Salbite (i'" S. iii. 598.)— Youc corre- 
spondent C. G. will find an account of this appa* 
I ntion in the 

"Tiiompho de li Salette, on solution d» objections l» 
piai ep^eoiea contre La Salette, par J. A. Marmoanier. 
Paris, LibrairiB Adrien Le Clero si C'". Imprimeura da 
\, S. P. le Papa el de I'ArcliovSch* de Paris, Rue Caa- 
sette 29, pr*a S' Solpioe. 1S57." 

This book contains the " Discours de la Belle 
Dame dictfi par Fran^oise MSlanie Matbieu {the 
shepherdess) k J. A. Marmonnier, sur le lieu 
meme de I'apparilion en prince de trois prctres, 
de cinque laiques et du petit Pierre Maximin 
Giraud ^the shepherd) le 5 aout 1647." 

Mention is also made of ' two books, " sur 
I'fiv&nement de laSalette,"by"M.Rou8selot,cha-. 
noine et professeur de morale au grand s^minaira 
it Grenoble," who, with M.Qerin,curSdelaCathi- 
drale de Grenoble,'' waa chosen " pour porter 
ensemble tea secrets des beigera de la Sniette aa 
Souverain Pontife Pie IX ii Rome." 

Chaklbs Uaboit. 

"FrsH-HOLB" (4'" 8. iii. 596; iv. 47.)— The 
suggestion that fyth in this expression means a 



11^ S. IV. August 7, '69. 

joint seems to me very plausible. From the Latin 
/igere are formed the O. Fr. Jlche, fixed, firm ; 
jftcher, to attach ; Jichoir, an attachment — all given 
in Roquefort— and the modern English Jtshrjoint. 
In this sense the phrase is in no way connected 
with Jishf but means simply sound in every link, 
joint-hole. Besides which, the y&rh Jicliene, to 
pierce with arrows or transfix, occurs in Mort 
ArthurCj 1. 2098 ; and again in some other 
passage of the same poem, which Halliwell merely 
nints at, and to which Mr. Periy gives no refer- 
ence. See also the word peg-Jiched in HalliwelL 

Waltee W. Skeat. 

Plessis: Park (4*** S. iv. 22.) — There is no 
difficulty about the derivation of the A.-S. panntCj 
better spelt pearroc. The ending -oc is the dimi- 
nutive ending, as in hillock. The root of the 
word is the rare verb parre, to shut in, to 
enclose, which occurs in Havelok the JDane 
1. 2439; which verb, however, is very common in 
the lengthened form sparre or sperrCj to shut, 
fasten ; whence the English spar, a wooden bolt 
or beam. The Italian form for bar is sbarray and 
we easily see the connection between har^ parre^ 
and q)ar. Hence pearroc or park is a small en- 
closure, surrounded by a barricade. The most 
curious point about the word is that it was used 
in Old English as a verb. We find parroky to 
enclose, at least twice in Langland's Piers the 
Plowfnan— once at p. 312 of Wright's edition, and 
again at p. 98 of Wliitaker's edition, in the phrase 
" yparroked in puwes," rightly explained by Dr. 
Whitaker as meaning *' imparked in church-pews." 
This last passage, by the way, is said to oe the 
earliest wherein the mention otpetc^ occurs. 

Walter W. Skeat. 

Rhyme to Ralph (4''* S. iv. 87.) — A good 
rhyme to Ralph will be found in the epitaph 
which Jekyll wrote to oblige a ladv, the wile oi a 
Sir Ralph, upon her monkey named Jem : — 

" Poor little Jem, 
I am sorrv for him ; 
IM rather by half 
It had been Sir Ralph.** 


Royal ANTEDiLTrviAN Order of Buffaloes 
(4*** S. iii. 106, 267.) — I am in a position to speak 
upon the above subject, being a member of the 
original order spoken of by Mr. Jewitt. The 
cutting quoted by Mr. Westbrook alludes to an- 
other branch of the order — the Independent — they 
having seceded from us, through declining to re- 
cognise the Grand Primo Lodge as the executive 
head of the order. This was brought about by 
the majority of votes at the election for Grand 
Primo, about a year back, being against the candi- 
date of a certain clique, and when they found them- 
selves defeated, they declined to recognise the office 

for which they had been striving. With regard 
to the " Mother Lodge of England," this was for 
a long time at Manchester, but for some time past 
the Manchester Buffs have been very supine, not 
taking any interest in the order, and scarcely 
answering any communications when addressed to 
them. A large number of members, deploring 
this unsatisfactory state of things, resolved to 
have their executive in London, and they then 
formed the Grand Primo Lodge under the foster- 
ing wing of which I am glad to say a very large 
proportion of lodges in England are now gathered. 
The Grand Surrey Lodge is, I believe, the head 
quarters of the Independent Order, so is conse- 
quently far from being the Mother Lodge of the 
order. Mr. Jewitt is altogether wrong in hia 
surmise that the order is of the class of " Free- 
and-easy Clubs," for though " Conviviality" is one 
of the mottoes of the society, I am glad to say that 
"Philanthropy" — another motto— takes by far 
the foremost place ; and though in past times it 
was far otherwise, improvement and regeneration 
have kept march with the times, and now if only 
a mite can be given to a necessitous bi*other, he ia 
sure to fare better elsewhere ; and though, as Mb. 
Jewitt says, the rules of the order are amusing, 
he must recollect that even Homer sometimes 
nods, and that, as our motto informs us, " Nemo 
mortalium omnibus horis sapit ; " and where the 
end so desirable — philanthropy — is concerned, 
it does not become us to look too closiely into the 
means by which such result is obtained, where 
not altogether objectionable. Should any reader 
of ** N. & Q." desire further information about 
this society, I shall be only too happy to assist 
him as far as in me lies the power. 

W. E. Harland Oxlbt. 
15, Broadway, Queen Square, Westminster. 

Cartularies, etc. of Faversham Abbey and 
Davington Priory (4**' S. iv. 56, 104.) — I have 
to thank Mr. Benjamin Ferrey, F.S.A. forhis. 
reply, and some of your correspondents who have 
courteously given me information privately on 
the subject of my inquiries. I am well acquamted 
with the remaining portions of the conventual 
buildings and the priory church of Davington. The 
refectory, which stood entire until 1781, was then 
destroyed by an explosion of gunpowder-mills 
situate at that time at the foot of the hill. If a 
drawing is in existence of this refectory I should 
be glad to hear of one. I have several engravings 
of the present rem ains. Mr. Willement has not been 
able to discover the cartulary of the priory, al- 
though Hasted in his History of Kent (fol. ii. 726, 
&c.) quotes one. A MS. was in the Dering 
library at Surrenden some years ago, the contents 
of which were copied "oute of the Leeger of 
Devinton." Mr. Willement, in his History of 
Davington (Pickering, 1862), gives a copy of this 

a IV. August 7/69.] 



MS. which he thinks was not improbable all 
Hasted had seen. 

I am convinced the cartulary of Faversham 
Abbey is in existence. Some of your correspond- 
ents may hear .something of it, in which case I 
should like to hear of it. While I am writing I 
may perhaps state that I am much in want of a 
diawmg ot the west front of the parish churchy 
FaYersham, which was nearly all blown down by 
the explosion mentioned above. I understand 
the western entrance was Norman ; the old nave I 
know was. Some writers have absurdly stated 
this church was used by the inmates of the abbey 
adjoining. George Bedo. 

S, Polroas Boad, Brixton. 

Bradwardine Family (4**» S. iii. 577.) — Was 
" Richard Pons, called Clifford," of any Pons or 
Poyntz family ? Was he not the son of William, 
simamed Ponce or Pontius, Count of Arques, son 
of Kichard II., Duke of Normandy ? 

In the Calendartum Genealogicujriy 1 Edw. I. 
[1272-3], I find (the only Poyntz there) — 

"Dominns Hugo Poynz, filius praedicti Nicholai, est 
Jberefl ejus propinqaior, et aetatis viginti et unius anni et 
ttnto unplios quantum elapsum est a festo beati Bar- 
thokmuei anno supradictc " [l^]. 

Is this the Hugh of whom Mr. Robixson is in 
search ? His father, Nicholas, died in or before 
the above year. Hermentrude. 

KiDXAPPHfG (4.^^ S. iv. 31.)— The following 

lae cited in a foot-note by Mr. Baron Hume, in 

his well-known work on the Cmninal Law of 

SooUtmdy is probably the one alluded to by Bed- 

iverojr in his query on this subject : — 

"Janet Douglas had sentence of death for the like 
otkaaot (child-stealiog) on 8th September, 1817. She had 
•Colen a child of three years old at Edinburgh on the 
12th of May, and -w^as taken with it on the 14th of May 
at Halbeath Collier}^ in Fife. She had not in any respect 
Bisitsed the child, and she received a pardon which com- 
imted her sentence to transportation for life." 

The place where Douglas was apprehended is 
M donbt different from that stated by Bebington, 
Vat Rfe and Clackmannan are conterminous coun- 
ties, and Halbeath Colliery is situated not very 
many miles from the borders of the latter. In addi- 
tion to this case, Mr. Hume cites several others in 
which sentence of death was awarded, but in none 
<rf them (with the apparent exception of one) 
was the " high and ultimate vengeance of the 
W/' as he terms it, carried out. The excepted 
^ was that of Rachel Wright, who was con- 
noted and sentenced to death at Glasgow in 
1809. As Hume makes no mention of a commu- 
^tion, I infer that the poor woman had suffered 
«e extreme penalty for an offence which now-a- 
«*y8 is considered to be amply atoned for by a 
•cntence of from six to nine months' imprisonment. 


Heraldic: Fattntlerot (4*^ S. iv. 56.) — In 
reply to R. G. L., I hep to inform him that the 
coat named in his inquiry is evidently that of 
Fantlerov of Wilts, Cornwall, Dorset, and (as it 
appears by Grant 1633), Fauntleroy of Crundall, 
Hants. E. W. 

" CoNSEiLS DE Prud'hom^ies '' (4**' S. iii. 697.) 
The origin of the " prud'hommes " goes back to 
very early times. The term " prud'homme " 
{homo prudefis) was at one time applied to a judge, 
an expert, or municipal officer. In 1296, m tne 
reign of Philip-le-bel, the council of the city of 
Paris resolved to appoint twenty-four ** prud'- 
hommes " to accompany the mayor and alder- 
men of the city on their visits of inspection to the 
shops of traders. In 1464 the citizens of Lyon 
were authorised to name a " prud'homme " to 
settle the differences between the merchants and 
manufacturers attending the fairs. Subsequently 
at Lyon was established what was termed a " tri- 
bunal commun," the duty of which was to settle in 
a friendly way any disputes between the silk manu- 
facturers and their work-people. Such appears 
to have been the origin of the present " conseils 
de prud'hommes," which now play an important 
part in France in relation to trade matters and to 
masters and men. They act in many cases with a 
quasi judicial authoritj^, and also as arbitrators. 
Their functions are difficult to define, and are not 
easily made intelligible to us foreigners, who are 
unacquainted with the details of legal procedure 
in France. Your correspondent will find very 
complete information as to the constitution and 
functions of these " conseils^' in a little work 
under the title of Code pratique des Pru^hommes, 
par Th. Sarrazin, published in Paris by Cosse, 
Marchal et Cie, 27 Place Dauphin. Price, I think, 
two francs. P. Le Neve Foster. 

A Slift op Beef (4*** S. iv. 33.)— To me as a 
Norfolk man this term is very familiar. The 
joint is that known to Londoners as the "silver 
side of the roimd " ; the marrow-bone goes with 
it. P. Le Neve Foster. 

"Odium Theologicttm " at the Cape : Horsb 

Talk (2°* S. ii. 337.) — I find the following 

answer to a query in an old number of your 

valuable work in the Cape Magazine for July, 

1857, i^which has probably never reached your 

readers : — 

'^I am told that the Dutch boer at the Cape, after 
loading his beast with all sorts of epithets and terms of 
reproach, usually finishes off by calling him an Armi- 
nian ! A curious instance of the extent to which ' odium 
thcologicum ' may be allowed to proceed. — E. H. A." 
(" N. <fe Q." Oct. 25, 2°* S. ii. 337.) 

A correspondent signed Z. asks what can be the 
origin of this precious nonsense? The editor 
proceeds to remark that your correspondent gives 
the worthy boers of the colony credit for more 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4*>» S. IV. August 7, '69. 

knowledge of the religious disputes which raged 
between their forefathers than one io five hundred 
of them will be found to possess — though they 
are Tery good Calvinists, the difference between 
Arminius and Gomar has scarcely come to the 
ears of most of them — and gives the following 
answer to Z.'s query : — 

'^ It is a common practice for boers and waggon- 
drivers in the country districts to shout to tneir 
bullocks vociferously enough, though not gene- 
rally reproachfully. The animals are on such 
occasions always addressed severally by name, 
and Hermann is one of the names commonly in 
use. It is probable that some Englishman, not 
profoundly versed in the onomatologj of the 
Gape, hearing this name of ' Hermann ' applied to 
the oxen, has confounded it with the term * Armi- 
nian ' ; and, in the spirit of a zealous member of 
the.Pickwickian Club, communicated his discovery 
to R H. A., the correspondent of * N. & Q.' " 
{Cape Mag. July 1857, 127.) 

I can strictly endorse the editor's remarks, and 
if E. H. A. has not before received an answer and 
is still alive, this will be a curious case of bread 
turning up on the waters. H. Hall. 


Tailor Stories aitd Jokes (4**» S. ii. 437, 687 ; 
iii. 84, 160.) — The tailor and his trade have fur- 
nished a fertile theme for the wit and satire of 
the German people. He is generally treated with 
the utmost poetic injustice, made to quaff his wine 
,out of a thimble, and makes his exit by being 
thrown out of a window, through a key-hole, 
falling into the dirt^ &c. In the Schneiders MoUen- 
fahrt, however, a tailor, carried off by demons 
to make clothes for them, plays such pranks in 
hell by cutting off their tails, cauterising them 
with his goose, stitching up their nostrils, &c., 
that they are only too glad to get rid of him — 

" Ha, he ! du Schneiderg*sell, 
Pack dich nnr ans der H511 ; 
Wir braachen keine Kleider, 
Es gehe wie es wSll," — 

and ends by informing us — 

" Dram holt der Teufel kein Schneider mchr, 
Es stehl 80 viel er wbll." 
(Let him cabba^ what he will). 

There is an admirable illustration by Richter 
to this VolksUed in the Deutsches JBaUadenbtich, 
Leip. 1862. Even illustrious poets, such as Goethe 
and Chamisso, did not consider it infra dig. to 
write Schneiderlieder ; witness the Schneider- 
achreck of the one and Kleidermachermuth of the 
other, in which latter the tailors, rising in revolt 
and gaining the day, propose three conditions: 
first, to abolish workwomen ; the second, to be 
allowed to smoke in the street ; the third, although 
the most important of all, they cannot make up 
their mind what it is to be. 

C. Herlossohn has also given an amusing Schnei- 

derUedy *'Von den drei Schneidern." Amongst 
the anonymous Volklieder on this subject is the 
well-known one of Neimmal Netmzig neune^ 
which, however, appears founded on one of a 
much earlier date, which is almost untranslat- 

There is also an old German proverb relating 
to tailors, the equivalent to our *'Nine tiulors 
make a man '' — 

" Sechzehn, siebzehn Schneider gehen auf ein Pfand, 
Und wenn sie das nicht wiegen, so sind £ie nicht 

H. H. 


Douglas Jerrold and Byron (4**» S. iv. 63.) 

The idea is much older than Byron, to whom it 

is assigned by your correspondent D. B. It will 

be found in the " Equivocation " by Gay. The 

colloquy is between a bishop and an abbot. The 

bishop advises — 

*' These indiscretions lend a handle 
To lewd lay tongues to gi^e us scandal : 
For your vow's sake, this rule I give t*ye. 
Let all your maids be turned of fifly. 


The priest replied, I have not swerved. 

But your chaste precept well observed ; 

That lass full twenty-five has told, 

I've yet another, who's as old ; 

Into one sum their ages cast, 

So both my maids ha,y^ fifty past.* 


C. B. T. 

OxENSTiERNA: Mrs. Afra Behn (4''» S. i7. 
73.) — In respect to the famous remark as to the 
government of the world, it strikes me that 
Chancellor Oxenstiem is as amenable to tlie 
charge of plagiarism as Mrs. Behn can be. An 
observation to the self-same intent as the passa^ 
beginning " Nescis mi fill " is to be found m] 
Selden, who gives it, not as original, but as a quo- 
tation from a writer of antiquity. Years ago I; 
transcribed the passage from oelden in a common-- 
place book ; but the book is at the bottom of the 
sea, and I cannot charge my memory now to 
repeat the precise words. The deficiency will, I 
have no doubt^ be at once supplied by one of your. 

2. Have we not all along persisted in putting 
a wrong construction on Oxenstiem's words P In 
the first place, /7ni(/e/2^m is neither wit nor wisdonii 
but prudence ; in the next, is not the real meanmg 
of the phrase, not " You know not, my son, witn 
what little wisdom men are governed," but 
'* You little know, my son, how small an amount 
of prudence is required in order to govern men " ? 
The all but universal acceptation of Oxenstiem'a 
apophthegm is that politicians are mainly imbeciles, 
and that the government of the world is, as a rule, 
confided to blockheads. Indeed, I have frequently 
seen the passage given in English as '^ BehoIcL 
my son, with what little wisdom," &c. I contend 
that the chancellor meant to point out that if atatea* 


4* S. IV. AvGVST 7, '69.] 



men would onlj employ a little prudence men 
might be goyemed with ease and success. 

I am sincerely glad that this fragment of 
Oxenstienia should haye cropped up in '* N. & Q./' 
for the misquoted words of the cnancellor, with 
a mistaken sense (to my thinking) attached to 
them, are pexpetually reappearing in leading arti- 
cles in the dBoly and weekly press; and ^'As 
Chancellor Oxenstiem wrote to his son" has 
became as great a nuisance in journalism as '^ It 
was a wit^ remark of La Kochefoucauld/' or 
"QW Cohbett once said of William Pitt." 

G. A. Sala. 

Makob op Kibton ts Ld^dset (4"* S. iii. 678.) 
There certainly are two or three errors on the 
flnrface of Allen's account. '' Hugh Audby " 
should be " Audley " ; '' Elizabeth, widow of the 
Earl of Huntingdon/' should be either ^'Eliza- 
bethy daughter/' or "Julian, widow." 

By far the best authority on the subject will 
be the pod mortem Inquisitions of the grantees. 
These may be found under the following dates : 
Margaret Audley, 1342, 16 Edw. III. (ay. would 
not the manor pass to her daughter Margaret, 
Lady Stafford ?) ; William, Earl of Huntingdon, 
1864, 28 Edw. III.; Julian, his widow, 13G7, 
41-2 Edw. m. ; Elizabeth, his daughter, 1421-2, 
9 Henry V. The " Earl of Chandos " should pro- 
bably lie *' Sir John Chandos," the famous com- 
pmion-in-arms of the prince. His Inquisition, if 
extant, will be dated about 1370, 44 Edw. III. 


Hksalikic (4*** S. iv. 64, &c.)— It is a pity that 

jooroonespondent Shem should misrepresent the 

optnimi of old Feme on the right of a person not 

bom of an armi^erous father to coat armour, by 

only quoting half what he says. After the state- 

Bient quoted by Shem, he goes on to say — 

** by the meere right, and determination of the law, such 
a ttnrles aon can not bcare aiiye coat-armour iu ey ther 
flf the cases aforesaide." 

The observations quoted by Shem merely apply 
to two foregoing headings, viz. " Insolency of the 
feminine sexe,*' and " No controlling of women 
within the order of the lawes." G. W. M. 

Bally (4'*»S. iv. 10, 60.)— Erin, my country, 
when will you be allowed to have had a right to 
antiquities, manners, customs, or language an- 
terior to the arrival of the black flag ? Behold 
Oims endeavouring, in the nineteenth century, to 
persuade us that his countrymen (for he must be 
a Dane) gave the name boliff to nearly every dis- 
trict and townland throughout the island. 

I did not think it was worth wasting paper, 
ink, or time on the subject, and therefore it is 
only for the information of A. M. S. that I men- 
tion O'Reilly's Dictionary, 1817, gives ^^ Baile, a 
town, a village, a home.*' This word is easier 
Anglicised to hallyy and is of a more intelligible 

description, besicles being Celtic, thair a foreign 
word like holig, LiOM. F. 

Cake (4^ S. iv. 74. Wit is inquired by T.P.F. 
what is the origin of tnis name for an unwise per- 
son. In Norfolk a person is called cakey who is 
soft and silly, and not possessed of ordinary good 
sense. Softness being usually associated with a 
cake, its application to a silly person is very 
natural. F. C. H. 

The High and Low Gebmait Lanoita&es 
(4'*' S. iv. 74.) — I recommend Mr. Howobth to 
consult Noeh den's German Grammar. The in- 
troduction gives a clear and very satisfactory 
account of High and Low German, the origin of 
their distinction, the peculiarities of pronuncia- 
tion of each, and the parts of Germany where 
they respectively prevail. The great German 
grammarian Adelung may also be consulted. 

F. C. H. 

« The Scare op Gold and Blue " (4*'» S. iii. 
405.) — This ballad is to be found in The Poetical 
Album and Register of Modem Fugitive Poetry^ 
edited by A. A. Watts, published by Hurst, 
Chance & Co. ; 2nd Series, 1829. It is there 
said to be by H. G. Bell, Esq., and is quoted from 
the Literary Souvenir; no date. M. W, 


Bible Animals ; beit^ a Description of every Living CreO' 
ture mentioned in the Scriptures, from the Ape to the 
Coral. By the Rev. J. G. Wood, M.A., F.L.iS. With 
One Hundred New Designs by W. F. Keyl, J.W. 
Wood, and A. E. Smith, engraved by G. Pearson. 

As Mr. Wood well remarks, " Qwing to the conditions 
of time, language, conntiy, and race, ander whicJi the 
various books of the Holy Scriptures were written, it is 
impossible that they should be rightly understood at the 
present day and in this land without the aid of many 
departments of knowledge." In this handsome volume 
Mr. Wood presses, and very eflfectively, natural histonr 
into the service of the biblical student, confining himself 
for the present, indeed, to only one department of it, 
namely, Zoology. This object lie carries out by taking, 
in its proper succession, every creature whose name is m 
the Scriptures, and supplying so much of its history as 
will enable the reader to understand all the passages in 
which it is mentioned ; and a very cursory examinatioa 
of Mr. Wood's book will show how imperfectly the full 
force of such passages can be gathered without that 
peculiar knowledge which it is Mr. Wood's business to> 
supply. '1 be idea of the book is certainly a very happy 
one ; and, as our readers know, Mr. Wood is not the man* 
to spoil a good idea by want of pains in carrving it oat» 
His Bible Animals, which is beautifully illustrated, is 
therefore well calculated to add to his reputation as one 
of our most popular writers on Natural History, and is 
admirably calculated as a present to an intelligent god- 

NOTES AND QUEKIEa t**s.iv. AoeuwT.'BS. 

SitlcliH of.the Soulli ami Wat; or Tea M/Mlh^ Bai- 
denct in Ihe UnUid Staltt. By ReoT^ Deedea. (Blick- 

A pleasant, cbeecy, f^ottiping Tolame, in which the 
author gives as in a Hmplc unpretending msniiar ao 
account of irhat he saw and did during his ten months 
spcDt in the States. 


Works of Fihe and Industrial Art an 
TiFic IFVENT10X3. — The following important 
ment haajust been isauBd ; — _ 

Her Majesty's Commissione 


X that the first 

national Eiihibitions of selected Work 

duBtrial Art will be opened la London 

of F 

Annual Ii 

South Kensing- 

let Ma? 1871, and be cloKd on 
Saturday the 30th September, 1871. 

The Exhibitions will take place in permanent boild- 
inga, about to be erected, adjoining the arcades of the 
BotxI Hortionltural Garden*. 

The productions of all Nations will be admitted, sub- 
ject to obtaining the certificate of competent judges that 
the; are of sufficient excellence to be worthj of eihibi. 

The objects m the first exhibition wjU consist of the 
following classes, for each of which will be appointed a 
Bcporler and a separate Committee. 

I. FuiK Abtb:— 1. Painting of all kinds, in Oil, Water 
Colouis, Enamel, Forcelain, Ac 2- Sculptore in Marble, 
Wood, Stone, Teira-Cotta, Metal, Ivory, and other Mate- 
rials. 3. Engravings, Litbiwraphy, Piiotography, dtc. 
4. Architectural Designs and Models. 5. Tapestries, Em- 
fcriuderie!!, l.sce, Ac. shown for their Fine Art and not as 
tnannfecturee. 6. DeeigDS fbr all kinds of decorative 
Mannfacturcs. 7. Copies of andent Picturei, Enamels. 
Reproductions in Platter. Electrotypes of fine ancient 
Works of Art, dc 

[[. SciBflTinc iNTKSTtoxa Am Naw Discotbrieb 
of all kinds. 

III. Masufaotores:— H. Pottery of all kinds, in- 
cluding that used in building, viz., Earthenware, Stone- 
ware, Forcelain, Parian, Ac, with Machinery and Pro- 
ceases fbr the preparation of such manufactures, b. Wool 
and Worsted Fabrics, with the Raw Produce and Ma- 
chinery for Manufartores in the same. c. Educational ; 
1. School Buildings, Fittings, Furniture, &c 2. Books, 
Maps, Globes, &c S. Appliances for Physical Training, 
including Toys and Glmes. 4. Specimens and Illustra- 
tions of Modes of teaching Fine Art. Natural History, 
and Physical Science. 

IV. HoRTicnt,TURE: — International Exhibitions of 
new and rare Planta. and of Fruits. Vegetables, Flowers, 
and Plants showing specialities of cultivation, will be 
lidd by the Royal Horticultural Society in conjunction 
with the above Exhibidons. 

It is with much regret thai we record the death of Mr. 
E, J. Wood, whose nome is familiar to the readers of 
"S. A Q.." and communications Irom whom appear in 
our present volume, pp. 9, lU. Mn. Wood, who died on 
Julv 2. was first known as co-editor with the late Mr. 
Pinks of Tht Hatory of CltrkrTurrll. and since then has 
compiled the following works :— Tie CWnoriti" n/ CToc*j 
and irnlditi ! The IKedding Day in all Agtt and Owi 

I found occupation in the arrangement of private librariet 
and other collections, and in the compilation of cata- 
logues for various auctioneers. The DeKiiplivr Calahgta 
I nfihe Btiafog Cabinet of Ttadtn' Taicne, of which two 
editions have been printed at the expense of the Corpora- 
tion of the City of London, was also his work. His 
accumulations were very varied, but comprised tome 
articles of interest and value, as will be seen from the 
followinc quotations from the several sales of his pro- 
pertv. In the Catalogue of his Coins msy be named 
54 i^ew England halfpennies, 1G94, though a poor ei- 
. ample, lOt 5i. (Johnston.) 65. Five American coint, 
I balfpenuies 178S-96, 6i. I2>. 6(£. (Webster.) o6. Eight 
American halfpennies, 1776, &C., 8i (Webster.) la tha 
I Catalogae of ItoDks~553. Wedgwood's Catalogue (^ 
) China,4/. 6s.(Addington.) 643. Pilkinglon's Dictionwty 
I of Fainter^ with additional itlustntions, 121. f B. F. Sta- 
. vens.) i;;i3. A parcel of old newt letters, ISJ: (Akad). 
i 1653. Collections for the History of Drurv Lane ThMtn 
I (formerly Mr. James Winston's), 12/. 6». (Boone.) SSe*. 
! Hr. Bum's Collections for the Uistorv of the SaTirr 
I Precinct, U. I6i. (Fawcett) 2963. Wllk'inson't Loudlna 
lUuttrata, with additional prints. 17/. ISi. (J. RimelL) In 
the Catalogue of China— le. A Iruit dish of Biiitol 
I China, Ac 6/. h%. (Woreham.) 69. A bowl witk 
makers' names "John aud Eliz, Roberta, 1781 " 
(? of Bristol), \hX. 16f. (H. G. Bohn.) 206. FourToBi- 
nay caps and stands, U. 12j. 6d. fLane.) In the Cat^ 
logue of Engravings : — G6. A lot of portraita of oallectK% 
. 12/. lai. (Fawcett.) 133. lUustratioos of soma of tha 
. metropollUn minor theatres, 8/. 10(. (NoKda.) 148. 
: Views of London Exteriors and Public Building*. IBt 
I (Fawcett.) &Ir. Bum's own collections for the Hirtaw 
' of Public Amusement^ in lota 208, 2G2, lOlt. »*. W 
(cbiefiy Hotten, Fawcett, and RimeU.) 253. A lot </ 
Bartolozii tickets, 161. (FawcetL) 290. Fifty-four di*- 
matjc portraits and scene prints, 19J. ISi. (Xosedo.) SOL 
A collection of dramatic portraits, 26t 10». (Harrey.) 
322. Coileclion of portraits of ladies, 131. he. (SlmeU.) 
333. Series of miscellaneous portraits, 401. Stevens. 



I of his . 

he was engaged on another work entitled Early B' 
and DtinAingt of Ale and Beer. 

Thr Bobs Ci'llectios.— The collections of the late 
Mr. J. H.Bum have just been dispersed under the hammer 
of Mesiirs. Futllck & Simpson of Leicester Square. Mr. 
Bum was in former years a bookseller, but recently 


r, BATiTRBAr, Auauar h isss. 

CONTENTS.— N» 85. 

aOTBa: — IUido1phAokermun,of the Strnid, Publliher, 
UB— Bcarborough 9olk-lorB,lSl -The Sftbbatb Epfitle, 
la— PreiBrtn md l^nM^ 74. — IlluminMinK : » Sug- 
^mon — Soottiih Pamilin Eitioct — Proverb; "Etill 
WatarB ran deep " — Tho Deformed Toinifomied — 
Cmioiu Old H«ing — CaabinE Arms — Tbe Heron in 

QITBBIBSi'-Uala — Dead Donkers— Hi^nrth's "lAuith- 
IW AmUonce" — HiltoD'aGnnddnuKhter-Nief orNiea 
-AMttn'» Diioiplii»-Pmverb-WbBn»nd where does 
tha tKhnieal Term " Beuiiiunce " flnt occur 1 - Sonnet : 
«uiled: "Let no MinmiluB lips deapiae thy youth" — 
Lite of Tranalateil WoAa - Verkolje - Who threw tbe 

*i^ bmk la Destb " - FopuUr Names of IManta : 
Btflin Mgle — French HuguoDota at the Cape — Scotllsh 
^Mvterona, ftc — Sun-diula — Popuittioo of Londoa, 
iim- Hanry 11. — Cardinal of York — Heyre — Free 
IMa— Hevae— Uethoil Cmdiclion — A Cunbridse- 
AftBfh— DuokmE-etwlandCueklnai-stool — Bteamahipa 
VedMol — EarUeat Speoimen* of Piper — Hall FauiUles 
—Bella and Gnwa — Biblical Heraldry — Park - Piecea 
ftanll98.ND.VI. — SberbourneHimil— A Cancellaiiaa 



TTie Pottical Magadne, 1800-11, was another 
(brtunAte speculfltion, for it contained the first 
Tow ofI>r. Syittai, rep. 1813. The wcood Tour, 
1830; the third row, 1821; the republicstion of 
tiuim, 1S23, in a smaller form I iha English Dance 
rfDtath, 1815-0; the Dance of Life, 1816-7; the 
SiMort/ and Life of Johnny Qiue Genua, the Little 
FamuOing, 1822 : all, like Dr. Syntax, with text 
by CoiiiI>e to plates by Rowlandaon, had fur cora- 
{uioDa the Military Adoeniurea of Johauy New- 
ofm, with 12 pi. aifter Rowlandson, 1816; and 
the Adifentiires of a Griffin, the History of Tom 
Bam, the East ludian CadH, 1827. 

Sapwately, he published the Poetical Sketches 
0f Scarbormi'jh, 21 pi. after Jamea Oreen of 
LoDdon, with text Higned "J. P." (by J. B. 
P»p«orth'), text signed " W." (by the Bev. 
Francis Wrang-ham), and tent unsignea by Combe, 
1B13: ftlflo, the Iliaory of Madeira, 27 pL, with 
text by Combe, 1821 ; and the Picturesque and 
Dtm^ptive Tour in the MowUaiiu of the High 
Pyrtmes, 24 pi. by J. Hardy, 182.') — works which 
were of the bairb class as the republications from 
tbe ReposUory. 
The followiDg list contains other publications 

* Coacladed from p. 1 12. 

more or less anonymou^ in which he specnlttted; 

thoae marked * hare coloured plates. 

'Trial of Viacount Melville, 1805, 

Smich'a New UnivenaB Penmaa, 40 pi. 

•Upham's Hiatory and Doctrine of Budhiam, *3 pi. 

Characceriatic Portraits of the Various Tribes of Cos- 
sacks, 24 pi., 1820. 

Jelf 'a Kecollections of Italy, IS pL 

Keweaham'a Pictuieaque Viewa pf the Antiqaities of 
Ireland, 104 pL 

Subjects sdacted from the Work* of T. Slothwd, E.A„ 

rt'a Analvtical Eaaaj on the Con- 
u. ^a^nL,x^. 18 pL, translated 1820. 
AntiquidBs of York, 40 pL, w 

61 pi., 1830. 
Lanj and 


by Combe, 

'Eleam's Treatise on Sural Arobitecture of Eagland, 
.J03. ^ 

Views of CottBEes and Farm Houses of England, G2 pL, 
1816, etched by Francis Stevens after Chalon, Cristall, 
DelazDotte, Grainger, Hills, Mann, Norris, Proot, Pyne, 
S. Slcrens, C. Varley, J. Varler, Webatei, and Wilson. 

ClaaMcal Oraamanls, 120 pi., 1817-19. 

* Robertson's Omamental GardeniDg, 24 pi., 1800. 

'Robertson'a HoChonsee and Usefiu Gaidenins, 34 pL, 

SomerriUe's Rural Sports, 16 desigiu by Thunton, 
cut by NesbitC, 1813. 

■Costume of the Netherlands, 30 pi., 1817. 

Designs by the Princen Elizabeth, 6 pi., engrared by 
Thielcke, 1813, with text by Combe ; and another aeries, 
" The Progress of Genius," without text, 1816. 

Albert DUrer's Prayer-Book. 4S pL, 1H17, 

Atkinson's Incidents of Engliah BiaTeiy. 16 pi,, I8IB. 

•Char«:tet8 of Sir Henry Welltaley's Sail, 13 pi., 1828, 

•Woodward's Olio of Good Breeding. 

J. 0. Davie's Letters front Buanoa Ayres and Chili, 

ommon Prayer, 1! 
t by Scott. 1816. 
Cause's Introduction to the Art of Painting in Oil- 

Buchanan's Treatise on Propeinng Teisela by Stflan, 
IT pi., 1816. 

Lockhart's Method of Approximating towards the 
Roots of Cubic Eqaations belonging to the Irredudble 
Case, 1813. 

Narrative of the Battle of Leipsic, &c, 1814. 

Blair's Grave, with designs by Blake, engraved by 
Scbiavonetti, 1818. 

Richter's Daylight, 1817. 

Dr. Si<:kler's Topographical and Panoramic Survey tX 
the Campagns di Roma, 1812. 

Warden's Letters, 1817. 

Shoberl's Historical Account and Biographical Ansc- 


■tee nth Century. 
H. l-avater's Inlr 

n the Catbolic Church of Germany in tbt 

ilrodnction to the Study of the Allfc- 
V of Ihe Human Bodv, 27 pi., translatfd, 1823. 

Voarinn's Healthful Sports for Young Ladles (the oriinn 
of "calisthenics 'I, 11 p!., 1827. 

Accnm's Practical Treatise on Gas Light, 7 pL, 1816. 

Accum'a Culinary Chemistry, 1820. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4«» S. l v. August 14,'69. 

Capt, Balassa*8 Art of Shoeing without the Application 
of Force, 1828. 

Christmas Tales, 1825. 

Geotfry Gambado's Academy for Grown Horsemen, 
1809, with plates by Rowlandson. 

Ghost Stories, G pi., 1823. 

•Asiatic Costumes, 44 pi. 

Krummacher's Moral Fables, 1823. 

Barnes's Young Artist's Companion. 

Parry's Poems. 

Ignatio Nitrez's Account of the United Provinces of Sio 
de la Plata ; translated 1825. 

Astro-Chronometer, 1821. 

•Nash's Illustrations of the Palace at Brighton, 1826. 

With the amusing toys of the Panoraraacopia, Phanta- 
scope. Fables in Action, Endlass Metamorphoses, Change- 
able Ladies, Changeable Gentlemen (both in 1819), York 
and Lancaster, The Sphinx, Sibylline Cards, and Sibyl's 
Leaves, as well as the Geometrical and Architectural 
Recreations, both 1820. 

Special notice should be taken of the forty- 
three volumes of the World in Miniature^ com- 
menced in 1821 by T. Rowlandson, and finished 
by W. H. Pyne, 1820, with 637 plates ; and also 
of the "Annual" class of books illustrated with 
fine engravings. 

The names of some of Mr. Ackermann's artistic 
coadjutors have appeared in the preceding lines : 
many others might be added; and a loDg list 
could be formed by enumerating the literary, 
musical, and scientific men, of more or less emin- 
ence, who enjoyed his intimacy. Several of them 
owed to him a helping hand, either in their first 
efforts or in their declining fortunes. To the end 
of his days he retained a strongly marked German 
pronunciation of the English language, which 
gave additional flavour to the "banters and jests 
uttered in his fine bass voice j but he wrote in 
English with great purity on matters of affection 
and of business long before middle life. Mr. Jor- 
dan, in his commimication to the Leisure Hour of 
February 1, 1869, gives a false impression on this 
and other points. 

The most general and the "genteelest" New 
Year's Gift was, for a long period, the Somer" 
set House Almanack — so called from a print of 
the old palace of our dowager queens, which 
was folded in and sewed as a frontispiece. A 
copy of this almanack, bound in yellow, blue, or 
red morocco, and inserted in a case of the same 
material ornamented with gold; served our great- 
grandmothers as a pocket-book. It was suc- 
ceeded by annual publications which were really 
diaries under a variety of titles, and were orna- 
mented with vignettes designed by Stothard, 
Bumey, Corbould, &c., and with small views of 
mansions from the portfolio of the landscape- 
gardener Repton. In 1822, Mr. Ackermann con- 
ceived the idea of rivalling in England the 
Taschen-huch of Germany, which was the general 
name for a class of volumes annually prepared in 
that country as a diary and collection of tales and 

line engravings. He therefore produced from 
1825 the Forget -me-Not (not as Mr. Jerdan erro- 
neously says, The Keepsake), edited till its deaths 
in 1847, by Frederic Shoberl, in a form which 
at that time was unique in England in regard 
of its typography and pictorial embellishmente. 
The success of this venture excited other pub- 
lishers to produce similar publications: thus 
Mr. Relfe started the Friendship's Offeiing, edited 
at first by T. K. Hervey, but afterwards by 
0. Knight and T. Pringle (1824-44); while 
Messrs. Hurst and Co. commenced the QraceSf 
or Literary Souvenir, edited by A. A. Watts; 
the latter slightly varied from the plan of Mr. 
Ackermann, but the former more nearly re- 
sembled it; the prints, however, of Friendships 
Offering were of a less poetic cast, being views of 
foreign cities and towns, and the literary portion 
was not suited to the sentimental title. In 1825 
Messrs. Westley and Co. commenced the Amulet, or 
Christian and Literary Rememhrancer, edited by 
S. C. Hall, which was announced as being im- 
tended to be more " serious " than its contem- 
poraries ; and, as the Pledge of Friendship, edited 
by T. Hood, Mr. Marshall commenced another 
imitation that took (1829) the title of The Gem, 
Yet, with all this rivalry, fifteen thousand copies 
of tlie Forget-me-Not were sold in 1826. Conse- 
quently in 1827 The Bijou, edited by H. Nicolai^ 
made its appearance, accompanied by Mr. Heath's 
speculation, The Keepsake : both made g^eat pre- 
tensions to superiority over their predecesson; 
but the latter, although some of its engravings 
were unequalled, was considered inferior in its 
literary portion to any of its predecessoA. The 
same year saw the appearance of the Winter's 
Wreath, edited by A. 11. (1828-32), and of Croftoa 
Croker's Christinas Box. For 1829 were pub- 
lished. The Anniversary^ edited by A. Cunninff^ 
ham ; T. Roscoe's Juvenile Keepsake : Mrs. S. 0, 
IlalPs Juvenile Forget-me-Not ; and Mr. Watts's 
Neio Year's Gift : so that the year 1829 possessed 
a choice among nine annuals and four juvenile 
ones, besides one other in French which was pub- 
lished by Mr. Ackermann. This makes only thirteen 
English annuals in that year, whereas Mr. Jerdan 
repeats an assertion that nineteen were then in 
existence; but he may be right in calculating 
that, in 1840, there were only nine, and that in 
1856 the "Annuals" expired. 

The Autobiography and Memoirs of Ferdinand 
Franck, commenced in the Forget-me-Not for 1828^ 
was written by Lewis Engelbach, and published 
in a complete form in 1826. In 1827 Mr. Acker- 
mann returned to No. 96, Strand, which premises 
he had rebuilt from the designs of the eminent 
architect J. B. Papworth, whom he had intro- 
duced to the service of the King of Wurtemburg. 

The friendships made by Mr. Ackermann were 
so firm that they were unaffected by the great die* 

4«k s, IV. August 14, '69.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


solver of amity — rivalship : thus when there was 
occasion to mention him in the periodical called 
the Somerset Jfome Gazette, conducted bv W. II. 
Pyne, whose business transactions \^h him for 
aboat twenty years had died out, the writer (Pyne 
himself) penned the following eulogistic para- 
graphs: — 

"Every season, and each month of every season, for 
many a year, we may almost venture to aver, has intro- 
-dnced some olegant novelty through the channel of 
Ackermann's repository ; an establishment which, propor- 
tioned to its magnitude, and its means, we are of opinion, 
in a statistical estimation, has been productive of as large 
a share of good to the public weal, as any one that could 
be named in the whole British Empire. To the liberal 
^irit of enterprise of the worthy Anglo-Saxon, who 
astablished this repository, we owe a thousand improve- 
jnenta in the minor branches of the Fine Arts. What- 
ever was tasteful, ingeiiious, and new, that could add to 
the polite agremens of life, that could be bent to the pur- 
poses of his general views, by whomsoever projected, had 
-onW to be presented to him, to meet with encouragement 
and patronage. An interesting volume might be com- 
posed of the almost numberless elegant trifles which have 
appeared under his auspices; some to amuse, some to 
instruct, and all tending to some wise, benevolent, or 
asefnl purpose: among others, and of the last import- 
ance to society, we have but to name that of his having 
fiimxshed employment for a multitude of ingenious and 
industrious persons, in the various branches of his great 
undertakings ; a public benefit for which he is entitled to 
the esteem of the British people. For the record of these 
l^ood deeds more in detail, however, we have reserved a 
mace, in our projected treatise on the national advantages 
derived from the general encouragement of the Arts in 
England, in which Mr. Ackermann claims a distinguished 

From early in 1813 (not 1817, as Mr. Jordan 
seemB to intimate), every Wednesday evening in 
March and April was given to a reception, half a 
conversazione and half a family party, in his large 
room^ which then as at other times served as an 
exhibition of English and foreign books, maps, 
prints, woodcuts, lithographs, drawings, paintings, 
and other works of art and ornament, besides the 
leading continental periodicals. There, on those 
evenings, by annual invitation, amateurs, artists, 
and authors were sure to find people whom they 
knew or wanted to know. Many an introduction 
grew to an acquaintance ; and the value of such 
eveziings to foreigners was often gratefully ac- 
knowledged by travellers who, with any distinc- 
tion in art or literature, were welcome without 
o^er introduction. 

His active assiduity and his spirited enterprise 
were suspended by a weakness of sight com- 
mencing from his charitable exertions in 1814, 
which made his repose at Camberwell, and after- 
wards at Ivy Lodge, in the Fulham Road, first a 
matter of prudence, and afterwards of necessity. 
He contracted a second marringe: in the spring 
of 1830 he experienced an attack of paralysis, 
And never recovered sufficiently to exert his in- 
telligence in business. He removed for change of 

air to Finchley, but a second stroke produced a 
gradual decline of strength in the honourable old 
man ; and March 30, 1834, saw an end put to the 
hearty kindness, constant hospitality, and warm 
beneficence, which had still accompanied his un- 
questioned integrity. He was interred on April 9, 
in the family grave in the burial-ground of St. 
Clement Danes. His eldest son, Rudolph, entered 
into a similar business of prints, stationery, and 
artists' materials, in Regent Street, and continued 
there the manufactory of water colours : he died 
in 1868. W. P. 


During a short sojourn at this queen of York- 
shire watering-places, I met with several pieces of 
local folk-lore which appear to me not unworthy 
of preservation in ** iN . & Q." Sailors are well 
known to be somewhat superstitious, to whatever 
port they may belong, and I did not find those at 
Scarborough any exception to the general rule. 

1. An old man, over seventy -three years of 
age, informed me that the Filey fishermen will 
not go to sea on any day when they have either 
seen or met a pig the first thing in the morning. 
I also ascertained that their dame hucksters wul 
close their establishments if any one asks to be 
supplied with eggs for supper. 

5j. There used to be many weather-rhymes 
afloat in the neighbourhood, but my informant 
could only remember the following: — 

" When Oliver Mount puts on its hat, 
Scarboro*, Faliigrave, and Scalby must pay for that." 

Oliver Mount is a fine knoll near the town, from 
the summit of which Oliver Cromwell is errone- 
ously said to have battered the castle. 

3. Sailors will not whistle during a voyage, 
nor will those who steer the pleasure boats allow 
any passengers to do so. One old man said, " We 
only whistle when the wind is asleep, and then 
the breeze comes." 

4. No sailor will set out on a voyage if he finds 
his earthenware basin turned upside down in the 
morning when he is about to have breakfast. 
The boys sometimes turn their basins upside down 
purposely when they wish to have a day's play. 

5. One of the assistants at the bathing-machines 
assured me that most accidents happened on Fri- 
days, especially on Good Fridays. He had never 
worked on Good Friday for many years, nor 
would he ever do so again. He then gave a long 
series of misfortunes, fatal accidents, &c. which 
had happened on Fridays in his own experience. 

6. The evil eye still carries its influence amongst 
the inhabitants of the district. Not long ago one 
woman scratched another, and drew blood in order 
to counteract its bad effects. This assault ended 
in a fine after a hearing before the magistrates. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4* s. iv. august 14, '69. 

7. The late Jane Nicholson was a Scarlwrough periodical entitled Cherem Chemedf and another 

witch of great repute, and was much feacied. If 
any sailor met her in the mominff he would not 
go to sea on that day, hecause she had power over 
the winds and could raise storms. Her evil eye 
never rested on any one who was not thereby 
doomed to bad luck for the rest of the day. Her 
mother was a Southcottian, and believed that she 
was destined to be the mother of some great 
prince; but in this she was much disappointed 
when her offspring was " only a girl." 

8. The fairies still visit the secluded glades of 
East Yorkshire. My informant stated that he 
had often seen the rm^s left on the grass where 
they had been dancing, out he had never seen any 
of the little folks himself. When he was a boy 
he was told of a young man who fell in with a 
group of fairies dancing when he was passing over 
Seal by Wold towards Whitby. They were hold- 
ing their revels in a secluded hollow not far from 
the footpath, and he saw them dancing in a ring 
to the strains of some delightful music. During 
one portion of the dance they all cried out " Whip ! 
whip I " and then cracked their small hunting- 
whips. The looker-on also cried out "Whip! 
whip ! " in amazement. This caused the fairies to 
give up their amusement, and in revenue they 
whipped him along the way for a considerable 
distance towards Whitby. 

9. Some boys and myself bought some varie- 
gated stones of an old woman aged eighty-four. 
She spat upon our money, and wished for good 
sale during the day. T. T. Wilkinson. 


The Jews of this country have long preserved a 
tradition that their famous writer, the renowned 
Aben Ezra, paid a visit to England during the 
dark ages, and published one of his letters here 
during his sojourn. 

The Quarterly Review (vol. xxxv. p. 113), in 
alluding to this fact, makes the following remarks : 

"It may astonish the inquirer into the literary pro- 
ductions of our country to oe informed that one of the 
earliest books written here after the Conquest was by one 
of the most eminent of the rabbis, Aben Ezra, In 1159, 
the sixth year of Henry II., he wrote from London a 
letter on the proper time of keeping the Sabbath, in verse. 
We are afraid that there is not a copy of it in the British 
Museum, and yet it ought to be there as a national curi- 
osity. It would be amusing to speculate on what were 
the opinions of the critical and scientific Jew on the state 
of civilisation and literature which he saw about him." 

The writer of these observations is in error as 
regards the epistle being couched in poetical form : 
it is writtrn in the purest Hebrew prose, and 
throws no light whatever upon the events of the 

1 have just perused two distinct copies of this 
celebrated letter, one contained in an eminent 

m an ordinary prayer-book published at Leghorn. 
The latter possesses a clerical error which vitiates 
the accura|y of the whole production. Instead 
of the words pKH HVp, Land's End (Angleterre), 
the right locale of the letter, it has " the end of 
Arnon " instead. The tract consists of three chap- 
ters, with an introduction, prefaced by a fanciful 
sketch of the Sabbath appealing to the writer to 
defend it against some attacks me at the period. 
The subject is treated in the usual happy vein of 
the illustrious author, but is too abstruse and 
scientific to be acceptable to the general reader. 
Frequent allusion is made to '* this island,'^ and 
incidental mention is recorded of the chief rabbi of 
the time, though not by name. There is nothing 
obscure in the style, which flows on with unifozm 
simplicity ; and the pungency of the rabbi only 
once betrays itself, wnen castigating an opponent 
who has not the patience to study, but requires a 
royal road to the knowledge of astronomy. EQm 
the rabbi pricks with a lively sneer, and asks him 
pertinently whether he expects to gain knowledge 
Dy inspiration, " like imto the ass of Balaam." 

The epistle exhibits an extraordinary intima^ 
with the intricacies of astronomy and Jewish thck- 
ology. It is headed thus : — 

" It came to pass in the year 4919 (i. e. a.d. 1159), at 
midnight, even on the Sabbath, on 14th day of Tebeth 
(January), I, Abraham Aben Ezra, the Spaniard, being 
in one of the cities of the island, known as * the end of 
the earth,' Ac. 

There exists some obscurity ahout an aUusion 
to " this island " being " in the seventh division 
of the divisions of the inhabited land." Can any 
of your learned readers explain what it refers tor 

Mter D. Dayis. 

Leading apes in helL 
(4«» S. ii. 459.) 
There is a letter hereon in the Gent. Mag, 1708, 
i. 114. I may add the following : — 

" Mary We may 

Lead apes in hell for husbands, if you bind us 
To articulate thus with our suitors." 

Massinger's City Madam, Act II. Sc 2. 

Out of God's blessing into the warm Sun, 
(4th S. ii. 459.) 
*' Being come from France to Spaine, make accompt 
for matter of fertility of soyle, that you are come from 
Gods blessing, to the warme Sun." — HowelPs Instructiom 
for ^Forreine TraveU, 1642. (Arber's reprint, 1869, 
p. 37.)* 

** Abbot frustrated the expectations of both parties: 
for when he was got into Gods Blessing and the warm 
Sun, and so near the Court, he grew an absolute Cour- 
tier."— Gregorj-, Father- Greybeard, . . . Reflexions upom 

* Mr. Addis has also sent a reference 
—Ed. " N. <& Q." 

to this passage* 

4»S.IV. Ai,o»nn,'69.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


it nine daies." — Lyly'i 

. . 7%e BthearuU Tian^rot'd. In a Lei 
Edm.. HicktHigia. 16T3. P. 149. 

A copy o/jrOMr <wmU«anct. 
C^"' S. ii. 4G0.) 
" I know whatyou'l say ; that all Ihia 
put OB. is but s meer Co[>v of my Count 
gory, Fallier Grtybaird (u't sup.) p. 2. 

(I- S. iv. 192 ; 

" The greatest wonder li 

Enpiuet (Atbtr's reprinl, 

" Frolh. Would that were Che worst ! 

That were but niue daj-s wonder." 

Massinger's A'nr IFaji Id Pa-/ Old Debli, Act IV. So. 2- 

" A book on any subject by a peasant, or a peer, b no 

longer so mach as n nine-days wonder," — Aacham's 


jVb fore losl. 

(VS. i. 29, 158, 279; ii. 213.) 

*"1 hiTaafrieodshipforyou which I never felt for any 

other master.'—' And I ran axiure tbec, child,' said 1, 

* tbersisnoloTO lost; the very lirst moment thou earnest 

to offer tby service,! was pleased with thy appearance.'" 

aSBbt (Or. Smollett's translation), b. ix. di. 7. 

Com/ptio t^limi pesaima. 

<I«S.v,321; is.l73i 3'JS. xi. 216, 266, 390.) 

" Complia opiimi est peasima." — Howell's iTolructioiu 

(at sup.), p. 12. 


iLtpXISATINO : i StRGESTION. — The grest 
difficulty ^th all modern illuminators ia the 

firinting of tbe text. Though we may succass- 
ullj compete with the monkish illuminatore iD 
the art itself, there is no doubt that we cannot 
appToach them in the beauty imd regularity of 
theii printing or handwriting, hy whichever name 
it may be called. We lack not only the power 
bat the rei^uisite patience and application to 
achieve success in this braocli. To meet the 
difficulty there are many cards printed in various 
kinds of antique type, with vacant apacea left for 
tbe capitals and Dorders, in which the modem 
emulator of the mediieval artists may ezerciae 
hi« skill. liut there are many who, like myself, 
consider it a waste of time and artistic skill to 
apply one's enei^ies to ornament a card or bnlf- 
sheet which may be torn, damaged, or defaced 
tomorrow. But if some enterprising printer would 
print for us in mediieval type some small volumes 
-with blank capitals and borders here and there, 
the ease would he different. They might be re- 
ligious, such as portions of the church service, 
morning or evening prayer, the Litany, &o., or 
abort poems, such as Gray's H!effi/ and fifty othera 
that will occur to any one. I am sure one or 
two small volumes, such as I have indicated, 
would have a large sale amongst the present 
large class of amateur illuminators. They might 
be printed on vellum, or fine drawing-paper, and 
should be issued unbound. F. M. S. 

Scottish Faiiilibs Extinct. — Among those 
Lowland Scottish septs which seem to be extinct, 
or nearly so, are the families of the three elder 
Scottish historians, Forduu, Boyce (or Boece), and 
Wyntoun. I believe there are a few persons liv- 
ing who bear the name of Winton. Of the elder . 
Scottish poets there seem to be no representa- 
tives of ffttrick, Balnaves, Rouae, and Ballenden, 
unless tbe Ballantynes are identical with the IssL 
Tbe names of Bdcanquel, Ged, Panther, Pont, 
Bollock, Scougal, and Wlnram, familiar to the 
readers of Soottiah history, are unrepresented. 


Snowdoon YilU, Lewisham, S.E. 

Photeeb: "Still Waters Buir dbbp." — This, 
which I have always taken to be a pureW Eng- 
lish proverb, is a literal translation from Quintua 
Curtius, De Rebus geetis Akiitndri Magni: — 

"Altissima queqaefluminaminimo mud laboutnr." — 
Ub. viL 10. 

Edxhitd Tew, M.A. 

The Deformed Teanseobked. — The old es- 
tablished periodical called The Edmbwgh Medical 
Jottnud, of this month, narrates a case of amputA- 
tiou performed on a lad of thirteen, where at 

tl27 we are told that his " bsft arm was caught 
tween two pinion- wheels," injured, and sube«- 
quently moat skilfully amputated. We have at 
pages 133, 3, 4, three portraits of the sufferer, in 
all of which^ marvellous to relate, the left arm is 

E resent, and the right arm it is which appears to 
e misMng. 
At first Mght I was inclined to attribute this 
coairetempe, which casta discredit on the whole 
report, to the supposed use of photogmphy. It is 
well known that photographic negatives do pre- 
sent the anomaly of reversing the wtter ; it waa 
so vrith Daguerreotype, and still is so with some 
inferior photographic positives on gla«B ; in which 
case a lady's wedding ring will be found on the 
wrong hand, unless shifted prior to the operation. 
It now appears to me doubtful, from the style 
of woodcut uaed in tbe Uluatrations referred to, if 
the hlame of this great anomaly can really be 
charged on photography. A. H. 

Cdriocs Old Sahss. — An old woman, a na- 
tive of Cumberland, said to mo the other day, in 
reference to a child of aii years old, and whom 
she atyled the most old-fashioned little creature 
ahe ever met with, " I often say to her, ' Tom 
head's too old for this world : I doubt you ran in 
the churchyard many a year before you were 
horn.' " Being much struck with the expression, 
I asked her whether it was her own. She siud, 
" No — she hod heard the old folks say it many a 
time when she was a child." If new to you as it 
' is to me, you may think it worthy a place in 
I " N. & Q.'' 8. L. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4»b s. iv. august u. '69. 

Canting Arms. — In former Nos. of " N. & Q." 
have been several references to " canting " or 
allusive arms. I met with two very good in- 
stances on monuments of the noble families of 
Cisterna and Ferrari in the church of S. Dominic, 
Ancona. Cisterna : a well between two stags 
drinking; in chief three stars. Ferrari: an anvil 
with an arm holding a hammer in act of striking ; 
three stars in chief. The colours were not marked. 

The family of Porcello of Naples bear a tree 
between two hogs rampant and regardant. 

W. M. M. 

The Heron in Kent. — Near Faversham the 
heron is usually called a "kitty- beam," while in 
Thanet it is known as a "heam-shrow," the latter 
word pronounced similar to throxo. If the word 
Jieron was mentioned to the common people, they 
would inquire if herring was meant. 

George Bedo. 

6, Pulross Road, Brixton. 

Coin. — Can any of your correspondents inform 
me if the coin I have in my possession is scarce ? 
Upon the obverse, although naif obliterated, are 
the features of a king with a beard, enclosed in a 
circle ; with the monogram, # s . marcvs . ven », 
and the date » 11 ; on the reverse are the names 
corfv, cefalon, zante, with an asterisk above 
and below. H. W. R. 


Dead Donkeys. — I ask a question in sober 
earnestness which has often been put in joke : 
What really do become of dead donkeys, and how 
is it that so few of us can ever lay our hands upon 
our hearts and declare that we have seen one ? 
Of dead horses we know, and of dead cats and 
dead dogs and dead dickey-birds — that their inter- 
ment is an uncertain one, sometimes under ground, 
sometimes under water, and sometimes down the 
throats of surviving fellow-creatures. But is any 
use made of donkey-iiesh or skin ? " If I had a 
donkey and he wouldn't " — live, what, practically, 
should I do with him, say, if he died in my London 
stable ? I should be in a sad perplexity. R. C. L. 

Hogarth's "LAUGniNG Audience." — Is Ho- 
garth's original painting of the ^' Laughing Audi- 
ence " known to be in existence, and if it is so, 
where is it to be seen ? I can lind nothing said 
as to this in any account of the artist's works 

which have come under my notice. G. 


Milton's Granddaughter. — Did two per- 
formances take place of Comxts and Letlie under 
the management of Garrick — one in 1749, and the 
other in 1750 ? and were the proceeds given to 
Milton's granddaughter ? R. E. L. 

NiEF OR NiES. — John of Gaunt records in his 
Register that "Agnes Snell of Knousthorp, near 
Ledes, nostre nief [or wtcs], is going on pilgrimage 
to Rome." • 

Can this word mean anything but niece f If 
this be its meaning, it would seem as if Agnes 
Snell were an illegitimate daughter of one of the 
Duke's brothers. Is anything moi*e known of 
her ? The date of the entry is Sept. 19, 4 Ric. H. 
[1380]. Hermentrude. 

A Nun's Discipline. — There was sold at 
Messrs. Sotheby's, on July 31, a copy of A Cata" 
logue of the Rarities {ypxoards of 800) to be seen at 
Don Saltero^s Coffee House at Chelsea; and in a 
note specifying some of the rarities, mention ia 
made of " A Nun's Discipline," " A Piece of 
Queen Catherine's Skin," «;c. May I ask what 
is a " Nun's Discipline ? " Is it the rule of the 
order, or what ? A. N. 

Proverb. — I have heard several times used the 
phrase *^ As ignorant as a carp." What is the 
origin of the saying ? C. J. R. 

When and where does the technical Tsrh 
" Renaissance " first occur ? — In Dr. Herman 
Riegel's interesting volume of Eesays on German 
Art {DexUsche Kxmststudien, Hanover, 1868), the 
author says, in one of the best essays the volame 
contains, Die zxceite '* IViedergehurt^^ {renaissance)^ 
t. c. " the second renaissancej^ or, as the art-critic 
in question also calls it, " An art-historical con- 
templation one hundred years after Winckelmann*8 
deatn," dating, directly and indirectly, this " se- 
cond renaissance " from the writings and the in- 
fluence of Winckelmann (born 1717, diM 1768) 
and Lessing (bom 1729, died 1781) : — 

" When we speak of the second renaissance of the fine 
art^, we shall have in the first instance to answer the^ 
question: What is renaissance? The first instance of 
making use of this word seems to be found in Vasariy* 
when he uses the expression with regard to the sculptoie 
of the times of Giotto, * quella prima eth della sua rinasciti' 
[the new Florentine edit., iii. lOJ." — Vide &nthf KuntUtU' 
dien, p. 470, 

Hermann Kindt, 


Sonnet wanted: "Let no gainsaying lips 
DESPISE THY YOUTH." — I remember seeing, a great 
many years ago, a very fine sonnet in an American 
church newspaper, on the consecration of a youth- 
ful bishop. I copied it out at the time, but have 
lost my copy. Could any of your readers help 
me to a recovery of it ? That it is worth recover- 
ing, I think will be evident from the first three 
lines, which have remained on my memory, and 
which run thus : — 

• Bom 151 2, died 1578. His Vite de' piu eccellenti pittori^ 
scultori ed architetti was published at Florence in. 1550, ia 
two quarto volumes, and a second and augmented edition 
in three quarto volumes in 1568, two hundred years be> 
fore Wiuckelmann's death. 

4'» S. IV. AncusT U 



" Lpt no g«in!»ying lips deapiae Ihy youth, 
Like hii, the Grtal Apostle's favourite son, 
Whose Wrly rulo at Ephesus begun." 


I.ISI9 OP Tea.vshted Wobes. — Is there any 
list of Spanish and Portuguese works translated 
into French or Englidh ? W. M. M. 

Vbbkolje. — 'Where can a list of his paintings 
be seen ? It. E. L. 

[Li'ls of Ibe puinlin^s of both John and Kicbolaa 
V'ertolJB are given by Sagler, Kiiixatirr-Lcxican, vol, xi. 
pp. 109-114.] 

Wno THREW THESrooL? — On Sunday, July 
23, 1037, the Serricc-Book was by command of 
Charles I. read in St. Giles's Church, Edinburgh. 
Juat as the dean. Dr. George Ilanna, had opened 
the book there was a general confuaion, groans 
and other interruptions proceeding from all direc- 
tioni>. The right tcverend bishop of the diocese, 
David lindsay, proceeded from his throne to the 
pulpit to attempt the restoration of order. lie 
naa spoken only a fuw words, when a small stool, i 
tucb aa those commonly used by females in 
Scottish places of worship, passed his head ; it 
had been thrown with some violence. The bishop 
and dean withdrew, end the Service-Book was 
dosed for ever in the Scottish church. 

Who threw the stool P Most Scotsmen will 
answer Jenny Geddes. This was an berbwomiui, 
whose name has hitherto been popularly asso- 
ciated with tlie Irnnsnction. But there is another 
claimant ; Mrs. Mtin, the wife of a merchant in 
the citv, alleged thet she dashed the stool at the 
bishop's head, and in consequence her husband 
received, under an altered policy, the appointment 
»rf postmaster for Scotland. Jenny Geddea, on 
the other hand, appears from a contemporary 
journal to have contributed the materials of her 
itdl to assist in a bonfire on April 23, 166!, in 
boDOUT of tho Itestoration. One would suppose 
that an individual who so opposed the roval will 
in 103" would not join in wishing " the auld 
Stuarts back" in IGOI. Yet inconsistency largely 
pertains to poor hiiniun nature. In the opinion of 
those who bate looked into the matter, who 
tbrew the stool ''' BoGEtts, LL.D. 

Snowdonn Villa, Lewinhom, S.E. 

[Jenny (leddcs U itill believeil to have been Che de- 
Bnqnent'; lii-r stool i< eiijiraved in Chambers's Bno* nf 

"- ■■ '"" ' '^le Anliqiiarian Muaenni, Edinburgh. 

of which I picked up on a street book-stall in 
Glasgow a few days ago? Mr. Buckle, in his 
Ltil of Authiore, quotes the second edition as under 
the name of [Macky (J.)], indicating, in terms ot 
his prefatory note, that the book is anonymous, 
and citing Watt's BibUotheca JBrilannica, voL ii. 
p. 631, M., as giving evidence regarding the au- 
thorship. I have not Watt, however, within my 
reach. "Macky" is trited by Burt, Letteri, i. 7, 
edit. 1759; Edin.Iiev. No, 204, p. 488 (Oct. 1864)} 
The Beauties of Upper Stratheam (Crieff, 1860), 
p. 66; Chambers's homeatic Aimale, vol. iii, p. S38, 
433; Jerviae's MenuH-ials of Angta and Meamt, 
p. 218. " Macky " also published A Joam^ 
throagh England, in 1714 (4th edit. 1724.) 
" N. & Q." 3" S. ii. 161. " Mackj " is evidently 
a flctitioua name, T. S. 

Crieff, N.B. 

[This work is attributed V, John Hacky by Gongh in 
his Britiih Topographs, >■ 89- He says: " In 1714 was 
published A Journey through Engiand in Familiar Letttrt 
from a GcHttaitanhert lohit Friend abroad, Sva, reprinted 
twice before 172* and 1732. A second volume was after- 
vards added, reprinted with large additions, 1724 and 
1732. This volniae was occasioned by Hissoa's abaanl 
observations on England, which are exposed In the pre- 
bce. A tbird, containing A Javrmg Ihroai/h Scolbmd, 
on ths same plan, and by the sama author, J. Uicky, 
1723, reprinted 1729. Ireland was promised, bnt not 
executed." These works' are also attributed to John 
Maeky in the Catalogues of the British Museum and the 
Bodleian, as wdl as by Watt and Lowndes. There la 
also another work by the same writer, not so well known, 
entitled A Journey through Vie Atatrian SetherhadM, 
Lond. 1725, 8vo. We Uke the aathor to be that inde- 
fatigable and apparently fearless Scotsman who noa very 

William III., Queen Anne, and George I. For Macky's 
eervioea. Sir Robert Walpole allowed him a pension, upon 
which he managed to live in Holland and the Nether- 
lands. He died at Rotterdam in the year 1726. The 
Mtmoiri ofhii Secret Service; ailh hit Character, ef the 
Court of Great Britain, ^c. published hy his son. Spring 
Macky, Es(|. in 1733, is a most amusing book. These 
cbaraclera have been retouched by Dean SwiU'a marginal 
remarks. Vide "S. & a" 8rd S. ii. 430.] 


eaurrirti toiffj Qn^trii. 

Macet's "JouiUJEY THKoroii ScoTnyn," — 

" Maokv'a Journey Ihrnui/h Scotland. London ; printed 
fnr J. I'einborton, at the Buck and .Sun, and J. Hooke, at 
the Flower-de-Lnc", b-.tb against St. Dunslan'a Church 
in Fleet Street. lT2o." 
Who was the real writer of this book, a copy 

□ of this saying, and 

sense now popularly 


"Treao upon aWokm, 1 
Can any one tell me the orij 
how it came to be used in th 
understood ? 

[nailitl, in hia Eagliih I 
Fhraiei, p. 439, notea this proverb from Heywood, — 

adds to it the following esplonation from Raj :— 

"Habet et musca penem. 'Eriirri nlf fiip/iijpti aiv 
ajpfif x°^4' ' IneaC el formicie et serpbo bilis.' The 
meanest or weakest person is not to be provoked or de- 
spised. Ho creature so small, weak, oT contemptible, bat. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [i^s-iv. Awod«i4,'m. 

if it be injured sad aboeed, will endeavour to revengi; 


We may remark here, that in tlie first edition of Baji 
1670, p. 169, he reads ipltntm not peium. Our corre- 
spondent probably remembers Shaheapeare's use of thi- 
prorerb in tlie Third Fart of Henry F/., Act II. Sc.2:— 

" The unallest worm will turn being trodden on, 
Aod doTtswiH peck in ufegnard of theii roung." 

There is another analogoos Latin saying ; — " Nee at- 
peniandom quamTia exiguum nallom."] 

The Title of Bake. — To whom does the titli^ 
of Dame belong P Is it equivoleiit to Lndj P For 
instance, are the daughters of earls properly en- 
titled DamoP Or 13 it restricted to the wives of 
baronets and knights P In the event of the lattei' 
being described, would the Christian name h(- 
meDtionad after Dame P Anon. 

[The title of Dame is considend to bo that to which 
the wives of baronets and knijrhta are entitled. By the 
letters patent of James I. the wives of baronete have the 
titles of Lady, Madam, or Damt, at their pleasure pre- 
fixed to their names. Dame is not applied Co the daugh- 
ters of earls, who are entitled to that of Lady. The wife 
of a knight or baronet adds her Christian name ; thui- 
the wife of Sir John Smith is Dame Elizabeth Smith.] 

"Thb Manse Gakdeh."— A work on garden- 
ing with this title was published ia Scotland, 
anonjmouslj, about fifty years ago. I believe the 
author was a Dr. Patereon ; bat I should he glad 
to hear something more about him, for, whoever 
he was, he was no ordinary man. The book is a 
delightful one, full of sound philosophy upon a 
great many points besides ganiening. It is as 
readable and interesting in its special subject as 
are Izaak Walton and Gilbert White on theirs. 
F. M. S. 

[The author is the Bev. Sathaniel Paterson, D.D., 
minialei of the parish of Galashiels, Selkirkshire. 
Aimished the account of that parish to the Xrw Statiiiical 
Aeanait of Scotland, vol. iiL] 

Cauteles. — What is the precise meaning of 
cavtda and cautek in the following passage P — 

"The physician, besides his eaattlet of practice, hath 
this general crmtife of art, that he dischargeth the weak 
nesg of hia art apoD supposed impossibililiea; neither can 
his art be condemned when itselfjodgeth."— Lord Bacon's 
ITwjli, edited by Spedding, vol. liL p. ■SUG. 

[Colgrave's explanation of the French word eatddle i?, 
" A wile, cautell, sleight ; a craflie reach or fetch, guile- 
fnll devise or endevor; also crail, subteltie, trumperie, 
deceit, cousenage." Shakespeare uses the word in his 
flam/rt. Act L Sc3: — 

" Perhaps he loves you now ; 
And now no soil, nor caif/ei doth besmirch 
The virtue of his will."] 


(4"'S.iii.532; iv.20.) 

In Masonry there has, since 1813, been a great 
suppression of truth with the object of giving 
foice to a noble hut illoeical theory of univer- 
sality, and I do not doubt the accuracy of Mk. 
Sleigh's information as to the warrant of a 
" Longnor Lodge " having been granted bv Prince 
Charles Edward Stuart. The chief difference 
between the "ancient" and "modem" Ifaaons 
consisted in the recognition by the former of cer- 
tun " high grades," claiming derivation from tbe 
Templars and Itoaiciucians, who thus meeting in 
the Masonic lodges under Stuart patronage, are 
supposed to have modified the simple operative 
ceremonials of the period. James I. (of Eng- 
land) whilst residing at Stirling, patronised a 
lodge there, meeting m the old abbey ; the mem- 
bers of which, it is alleged, attached a Chapter of 
St. John and the Temple immediately on the 
death of David Seton, the last landless Qrand 
Prior. Viscount Dundee was Grand Master, and 
re the Grand Cross of the order when he fall 
Killiecrankie in 1689 (so we are informed Co 
the authority of Dom Calmet). He was suc- 
ceeded by Earl Mar, on whose demission, throngli 
the troubles of 1715, the order fell into abeyance: 
tmtil the Duke of Athol, as Regent, assembled 
ten knights at Ilolyrood House, Sept 1746, and 
admitted Prince Charles Edward, who was at 
I once elected Grand Master. But no alMolute 
proof has been given that to this time the order 
was Masonic, though the Stirling chapter show 
some very old copper-plate engravings, hut state 
that the minutes, prior to 1743, have been lost or 
carried away in 1745. Last century the "andent" 
Masons had a Templar degree of priests, which 
they dated from ](!S(t as the era of its esta- 
blishment, and they alleged that the founders of 
the " modem '" Grand Lodge of 1717, having 
only attained a low grade, were imperfectly iit- 
fonned. However that may be, the modeni 
Grand Master visited Scotland in 1722, when the 
annual General Assembly (if ever held there) must 
iiave fallen into abeyance, and in 17S6 a Grand 
Lodge on the modem system whs established in 
Ediaburah. The Royal Order of Scotland, Hem- 
dom and Rosy Crossed aiming to have been 
ijubstituted by Bruce for the Templar Order — was 
placed under separate government. This order ia 
mpposed to have originated the " high grades" of 
the French rite, which some allege were esta- 
lilished by the Stuarts prior to the assembly of 
the French Ordre-du-Temple in 1705, under Philip 
of Orleans. However that may be, the badge nt 
jewel of the degree of Rose Croix is identical 
with the standard James III. used in 1715 : and 

^ S. IV. August 14, '69.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 137 

Mr. Matthew Cook informs me that he has seen any authentic record of that, or that there is any 

a Rose Croix warrant, granted hy James HI. validity in the claim of the Masonic branch of St 

firom France in 1721, together with letters of John and the Temple prior to 1686. All these 

Charles I. alluding to Freemasonry, in the hands of are matters to be decided by historic evidence. 

Dr. Leeson. Not only does the charter of the French Hyde Clarke. 

non-Masonic Order of the Temple (the si^atures 32, St. George's Square, S.W. 

of the Ihike de Duras in 1681, and of Philip of 

Orleans in 1705, having been pronounced erenmne') 

anathematise tLe "Scotch templars and their TEMPLE OF MINERVA ON THE JAPYGIAN 

brethren of St John of Jerusalem/' but it admits PROMONTORY. 

the alteration of the signs and words, to some (4th g^ j^^ gg 226.) 

" unknown to and out of the reach of the false .. ' * f * 

brethren," which system of signs and words it . ^ ^®^®* *^** ^ should have expressed myself so 

seems scarcely likely the order would have had "^perfectly as to cause your correspondent W. 

until after its connection with Freemasonry: the ^ ."?a^°e that I had access to Chaupy's work. 

historian of the modem Masons asserting, in 1738, ^ ^* ^?^ ^®®° ^o, I can assure him that it would 

that the miUtary fraternities had borrowed many °®^®^ '^^^^ occurred to me to entail on another 

finUmn iisno-AQ frnm iiia mnro «tir>;^«f i«ofl•♦«+i/^« the troublo of procurmff the information which I 

solemn usages from his more ancient institution ^'^^ wouDie ot procurmg 

of the "Clermont Chapter, established a theory, in ^Jhaupy was said to be the first who placed the 

1754, that the Templars were connected with the JSPP^® ^^ Minerva at the Japygian promontory. 

Scotch lodges in 1314. I pledge myself to no The query I put was, "Did Chaupv form his 

particular views in the foregoing, and do not in- oP""on from personal exammation of the promon- 

tend to be led into any discussion of difficult or *P7 ^^ country wound, or was it merely a 

doubtful points. JoHxX Yakkee, Jun. deduction from the descnption of Virgil ? " Ihis 

43, Chorlton Road, Manchester. ^l^e^T ^ Still unanswered, as the mere circum- 

P.S. The ceremonial of the French Masonic ?*^^ ^t ^^^^E?. "?^^, ». ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

rite connects James I. and the Templars with Journey by the A la Appia m no way enables 

Freemasonry ; but the Templar in Britain has °^® *P JI?^^ whether he had reached the extreme 

alwavs included the Order of St. John. The jewel PO"it of the J^ygian peninsula. The Via Appia 

of the French Ordre-du-Temple is a white Mai- ®°^®^ ** Brundisium — 

teee cross, charged with a red cross pat^e ; but " Brundisium longie finis chartaeque viaeque est,"— 

this is possibly not older than the time of Grand where I saw, with much interest, the road along 

Master Palaprat (1804-38). " which Horace must have entered the city; and a 

spring, close to the entrance, which gave water to 

The first question is, whether one of the alleged tne wearied mules in ancient times. When you 

facts is authenticated. At all events, many of the have reached this point, there is still a weary 

alleged cases of the intervention of the Young journey before you (upwards of seventy miles) 

Pretender, in English and Continental Masonic southwards from BruncUsium to the promontory ; 

proceedings, are mythical. No assertion of the and I should feel greatly obliged to your corre- 

tind should be received without the document is spondent if he can inform us whether Chaupy 

produced and the signature authenticated. What says that he made this journey. As Pratim, 

is true is this, that Masonry in France was chiefly whose work is before me, confines himself in a 

propagated in the early part of the last century ffreat measure to a description of the Via Appia, 

by Jacobites ; but the Grand Lodge of England he does not seem to have gone beyond Brundi- 

was promoted by Hanoverians. Now comes sium. At all events, he does not mention the 

the question, what did the Jacobites do ? Did temple. The work of Galatseus, of which your 

they have secret alliances with the opposition correspondent speaks, is also before me, and in 

societies — the Gregorians, &c.? and was the York my former paper I gave an extract from it in 

Grand Lodge movement ultimately supported by reference to the grotto at Castro. The work is 

the Jacobite Masons ? I have called attention to entitled, Antonii de Ferrariis Galatei De Situ 

these broad fjicts, and suggested that the political lapygia Liber, Lycii 1727. It is a work of in- 

leanings of the various personages publicly con- terest, being remarkable for the purity of its Lati- 

nected with Freemasonry between 1730 and 1750, nity, and gives a great deal of curious information 

as Grand Masters, &c., should be examined. on the antiquities of Japygia. It was written in 

With regard to Mr. Yarker*s proposition about 1510 by Antonio de Ferrariis, better known as 

Philip of Orleans holding a general assembly of Galateo, firom his birth-place Galatana, a small 

French Templars in 1705, 1 also doubt there being village of Japygia, at tne request of Spinelli, 


■NOTES AND QUERIES. [i* s. iv. Auodat n, -ea. 

Count of Cariati. It was first published at Baslt- 
in 156S by a fellow couatrymnn of Gftlateo, 
Bonifacio, MarquesB of Uiia, wlio bnil been obliged 
to fly bis country on account of bia heraticB) 
Opinions. So well was it received by the leamed, 
tnat it bag gone throug-b several editions. Mj 
edition was published at Lecce in 17S7 b^ Ber^ 
nardino Tafuro. The only passage in which bo 
refers to the temple is the folloningf, where he. 
appears to copy the statemeat of some previous 
■writer called " Guido" : — 

" Quid de hac urbe Guido acripnt. hsc aunt: Hydmn- 
turn Minervium, in quo templum Miaeivic, ubi Aiichise!. 
pat«r Moea primo omcD vquos pascenteii ittdiam adicc- 
tns prospexit (ut inquil Virgiliue) et idem sptiini mer- 
cimoDiis Hydrontum scilicet, IlydrnDtomiie »a Bmn- 
dusium iatelleiflrit 'Virgilms, nescio." 

Here we find Quido placinf^ the temple at 
Hydmntum, the modem Otranto ; while Gfalateo 
does not venture to give an opinion, and, when 
we turn to his description of the promoatorj, bo 
says merely — 

" Inda lapygium pramontorium In qua tiMnplum est 
diva UsriiE, iacljtum et aatiqui reUgioae ucrutn ac 

That temple of the Madonna di Finibus Temo 
is still there, and in great repute, as I found that 
the peasants regarded mo as a jiilgrint wending 
m^ way thither, and were not in the least sut^ 
pnsed at my appearaoce. 

To save trouble to your correspondent, I give i 

X'n the reference of Romanelli to Chaupy ' 
, rt III. p. 527), though I cannot warrant its . 
correctness. Ceaufubd Taii Rauagk 

increased by the constant use of the hammer and 
anvil. His frequent associations with the soldiers 
who passed through the town inspired bim with a 
desire to join their ranks; and be often told them 
that he should become a Life Guardsman, and 
would then show the French how to handle a 
aword. At tbe expiration of his apprenticeship, 
but in opposition to the wishes of bis parents be 
enlisted into the Guards, being then six feet tout 
inches in height, and he soon oecarae one of tbe 
moat expert and powerful swordsmen in tbe 

Bbaw'a exploits at Waterloo, where he dia- 
played the prowess of a Titan, must be briefly 
noted. In a cavalry fight of the most terrific 
nature, in wbicb the Life Guards and the Oxford 
Blues were enp-aged with tbe French Cuirassiers, 
Shaw dashed in among these steel-plated invin- 
cibles (as Napoleon styled them), dragged them 
from tbeir horses, hurled them to the ground, 
and then pierced them in tbeir vulnerable part 
(the groin) with bis sword. He thus slew witlt 
bis own weapon at least nine or ten. At the doae 
of tbe engagement he ky wounded on the field of 
battle, and being- surrounded by a number of the 
French cavalry, he made a rush to seize their 
standard, and a sword -in-hand encounter took 

J lace, when, after slaying three of the enemy, 
is own sword broke ; and be then took ofl hu 
helmet, and for some time bravely warded off the 
blows of his assailants until be received a tbnut 
under the arm-pit which prostrated him. 

A YoBKseiREiuir. 

(4* S. iii. 405, 461, 518, 557.) 

Some of your correspondents are in error in 
Bupposing that Shaw the Life Guardsman was 
bornof gipsy parents I'and lest this mistake should ; 
obtain confirmation by your endorsing it, I write I 
to stale that he was a native of Easingwold, 
Yorkshire, and was bom in the year 1780 near 
tbe Spring Head in that town. IBs parents were 
poor and honest people, who had long been resi- j 
dentfi, and were highly respected by the towns- 
people and farmers amongst whom they found , 
constant employment. Their son, the Life Guards- 
man, was a strong athletic lad, and the pure 
bracing air of his nntive town, with the invigorat- 
ing water of the Spring Head which gushes from 
the rock near his bumble home, caused him to be 
as robust H9 any mountaineer. Gymnastic exer- 
cises were his favourite amusement, and he out- 
stripped all his playmatea io physical atrengtb 
and energy. 

At tbe age of thirteen be was bound apprentice 
to a blacksmith in his native town, and hia i 
strength of arm and power of limb were greatly | 


(4"" S. iv. 1, 58, 77, i 

One of Tour correspondents, M. H. R., relying 
upon bis knowledge of Welsh, intimates (p. 99) 
that Carnac must be synonymous with Cairn. In 
this he is perfectly correct, aa may be seen by 
the following extract from a modem edition of 

" En effet, Carn sicnifie dnas le vieux langagc breton, 
re, rMher (Gil. 
ir priniitivemeat 

ird, Can ■ ■ ■ ■ 

BS, lieu pitrrrvx, comrae airoit Ja 

a ploB: lea Bretona ne nomment pa8"cntre ei 

Vamac, mais Came et mcme Kerrec, co qui signifie 

titu dt rocheri, eC I'une des plus grandes pierret 

Bii dite Karreguen, ou mcht icparfe," — Og^ Dktimuuirt 
hittonime et geogntjdiigue de la pronnce dc BrelHffnt, 
l^auvelle Mitioo, revuo et augmentde, per MM. Maite> 
fille, Varin, etc.. i. 155 (Renncs, 1843). 

Believing, with a commentator upon Ogfie's 
Ahridi/emetd of the History of Brittaity when re- 
ferring to the ranges of monumental atones at 
Carnac, that " ia religion a pu ecule soulever ces 
masses " ( i. 74), I shall add a few notes to thow 

4* S. IV. August 14, '690 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


already forwarded, and that have no other object 
m view than to show the veneration entertained 
in this province of France for the memory of St. 
Ursula and her companions ; and which notes are, 
therefore, intended to sustain the idea first pro- 
mulgated by Canon Jackson. 

The most modem of Breton hagiographists thus 
alludes to St. Ursula and her fellow martyrs : — 

•• These heroines are certainly not to be regarded as 
foreigners in Brittany. Several of them perished in the 
sea which is alike common to us and the British islands ; 
and there are writers who are of opinion that some of 
them were immolated near to the mouth of the Ranee. In 
the MS. history which Camard de Pinterson has left 
behind him, it is said that the eleven thousand virgins 
bad their abode at Pilier de Noirmoutiers. That island 
which is now separated from the modern one was for- 
merly indnded within the limits of ancient Brittany.** — 
De Garoby, Vies des Bienheureux et des Saints de Bretagn€j 
^ 508 (Salnt-Brienne, 1839). 

The martyrdom of the companions of St. Ursula 
was not confined to the banks of the Rhine. In 
the legend of St. Avoye it is positively stated that 
fihe was tortured to death in the neighbourhood 
of jBoulogne; and it is declared by Artur de Mon- 
tier that it was near to that place the vessel in 
which she was a passenger was wrecked : — 

•* Un Navire de la flotte de Sainte Ursule s'estant 
4tAioa4e vers Bologne, port do France, nostre Sainte 
Avore se retira dans une Forest, proche de la Bourgade 
appell^ Dincmie au pays de Morinois.peuples de Bologne, 
Calais et da Comte de Flandres." — " La Vie de Sainte 
Aroye ou Aur^e, Vierge et Martyre, de la Compagnie de 
Sainte Ursule," §iv., Damase de S. Lovys, Sainte Ursule^ 
Kv. in. ch. xxyi. p. 344 (Paris, 166G). 

Of another of these followers of St. Ursula this 

18 Btated : — 

* St. Enemour, or Eneour, is the patron saint of 

Pknienr. His festival is celebrated there on the first 

Sooday in May and the 2nd of September. He is also 

ti>e primitive patron of Ploneur-Mencz and Ploneur-Trez, 

The devotion to this saint being peculiar to Finisterre, 

tends to the belief that it >vas in that district he ivas 

■Bctified. He was brother to St. Thumelte, one of the ' 

CBBpanioDS of St. Ursula, and martyred in the year 383." 

("UeUit fH;re de Sainte Thumelte, compagnc de Sainte 

rrsnk." — De Garob}', p. 447.) 

It is worthy of notice that, in the last-mentioned 
parish of St. Enamour, t. e. Ploneur-Trez, there is 
a Druidical monument to which a very curious 
l^end is attached, it is — 

*• Le grand dolmen de Kerroc'h, que les habitants 
nomment les Dansenses, paroe que, scion eux, ce sont de 
jennes filles qui furent changtfes en pierre-s pour avoir 
dans^ tandis que le Saiut-Sacrcment passait." — Oj;ee, 
a. 343. 

In describing the parish of Ave, within a league 

of Nantes, it is stated by Og(^e (ii. 705) : — 

** L'Eglise est d^ee h, Sainte Ave, compagne de Sainte 

The name of '^ Av6,'* however, may be a cor- 
TOtion of that of " Avoye," alias " Aurt^e," from 
waidi I have already shown (p. 78) the existing 

town of Auray derives its designation. The legend 
of St. Avoye describes her as niece to St. Ursula, 
and mentions an especial devotion being paid to 
her in Brittany, where her intercession is sought 
for on behalf of weakly children incapable of 
walking, and for inciting to repentance old and 
hardened sinners. (" La Vie de Sainte Avoye," 
§§ V. vi., Damas de S. Lovys, pp. 347, 351, 356.) 

I entertain little doubt that a diligent research 
as to the patron-saints of the various parishes in 
Brittany would add considerably to the number 
of those already cited by me (p. 78) as being 
honoured in this province as the male companions 
(priests or bishops), or as women who were 
worthy members of that great body of martyrs 
designated " the xi thousand virgins.^' 

The number of and the peculiar title assigned 
to these martyrs are, I am well aware, carped at. 
As to the latter objection, it may be remarked 
that none of the legends of St. Ursula — at least, 
none that I know of — describe all the followers 
of St. Ursula as "virgins." On the contrary, we 
are told that amongst those followers were wives 
and widows. The fact I believe is, that numbers 
of these women were going to be, some married, 
and others reunited to the soldiers of which Eng- 
land had been denuded by their being em-olled m 
the legions of Maximus; and when the male 
military population of Britain, to use the words 
of Gildas {Be Excid. Brit, c. xi.), "never again 
returned to their native country." * 

As to the companions of St. Ursula, they are 
thus described by three very ancient authorities : — 

1. "Arriva le Martj-re des Onze Mille Vierges, et de 
quelques autres, tant Evesques que soldats, qui estoient 
dans la mesme Compagnie." 

2. "Mais la Sainte Eglise de Cologne est reconnuS 
pour avoir triomph^ par ce glorieux et Virginal College 
(duquel le nombre est seulement connu de Dieu), car Men 
soit qu'il y eust onze mille Vierges designees, il y eut 
encore dans la mesme Compagnie plusieurs millier* 
d'hommes, de femmes, et d'autres Vierges^ nobles et 

3. " II faut de surplus remarquer que Sainte Ursule fut 
suivie de plusieurs veuves, Vierges, et autres personnes 
de I'un et de I'autre sexe." — Damas de S. Lovys, " Se- 
conde Prelude," pp. 8, 9, 11. 

Thus it will be seen that those who suffered as 
companions of St. Ursula were not all virgins: 
still there is the probability that, amid that mul- 
titude of martyrs, there were "eleven thousand 

In most ancient legends a peculiar importance 
is attached to certain numbers. Montalembert, 
in his Monks of tlie West, remarks, in a passage of 
which I regret to say I forgot to take a note, " how 
much he was surprised to find the same number 
recurring, over and over again, in various Irish 

* "Domum nusquam ultra rediit." See also, Bede, 
Uist. Eccl, lib. I. c. xii. ; and in lib. i., Ve Nat. Rer,, 
" nusquam ultra domum redierat." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4tb s. IV. August 14. '69. 

legends." The Bretons are of the same race as 
the Irish, and an illustration of their veneration 
for particular numbers is to be found, not merely 
in the history of St. Ursula and her " xi thou- 
sand virgins," but also in the " 7777 martyrs " of 
Occismor — a legend of which (with the comments 
upon it) I trust your readers will pardon me for 
presenting them with the following version : — 

"The city of Occismor, situated in the commune of 
Plouneventer, was in the year 409 inhabited by a Roman 
colony so devoted to Christianity that it was everywhere 
called the Holy City^ and its territory the Universe of 

"Its sovereiejn was a princess of the most exalted 
piety, and her name was Teresa. 

" Idolaters came and wished to destroy the peace and 
unity which this holy city had so long enjo^'ed. They 
attacked the Occismi, drove them out of their city, and 
won a ^eat victory over them in that district which is 
now called Saint-Servais. The battle was so disastrous 
that the blood of the Occismi reddened all the waters of 
the Bouillard, and the field in which the battle was fought 
has ever since been called the Land of Suffering, 

"The holy army was not, however, as yet entirely 
destroyed — there were remnants of it left, who retreated 
to the territory of Rivoara, in Bas-Leon ; and there, being 
again defeated, and overwhelmed by a multitude of bar- 
barians, they consummated their with. These martyrs 
repose in the cemetery of Lanrivoard. The loss of the 
Occismi in these two battles amounted to 7777, that is, 
according to the Breton mode of calculation, 7 thousand, 
7 hundred, 7 twenties, and 7, which we would thus set 
down 7847. 

** The Occismi have left after them unequivocal monu- 
ments of their love for religion, in the vast number of 
crosses to be found — even until the year 1789 — upon the soil 
of their ancient country. Tradition tells us that the first 
Bishops of Leon, out of respect for this holy district, had, 
for some time, their abode there." (De Kerdonet) 

'* Beside the common cliurdiyard belonging to the 
parish of Lanrivoar^, there is another into which no one 
18 now permitted to enter, except upon certain festival 
days; and even then no one would be allowed to go there 
but with his head and feet uncovered, because, according 
to tradition, there are there interred 7777 martyrs of the 
Christian rdigion. This cemetery is enclosed with a low 
wall, except on the western side, where there are gross 
arcades, in the midst of which is a porch and a statue of 
the Blessed Virgin. In this enclosure there is a large 
space covered with stones in all sorts of figures, and 
bordered by a species of pavement in black marble. Be- 
neath these slabs repose the 7777 saints. 

" Who, then, were these saints ? They were an entire 
population occupying the land of Rivoara, and who, being 
newly converted to Christianity, were attacked by a 
neighbouring and barbarous population, still continuing 
Pagans, and by them exterminated. (De Fremenville, 
Antiquites de Finistere.) 

** The tradition is, that there was a great battle fought 
at Lanrivoare. There is a churchvard there which is 
called * the Cemetery of the Saint$,^ or * of the Seven 
TTiousand.* (Cambri, Voyage dans le Finistere.) 

" In 1664, Alexander VII. approved of the confrater- 
nity of all the saints at Lanrivoard. 

" An immemorial tradition in this district, and in all the 
ancient bishopric of L^on, leads us to believe that the 
cemetery of Lanrivoar^ contains the relics of several 
martyrs. The Cemetery of Holy Martyrs is endosed 
with a wall ; and no one enters it without first taking off 
his shoes. 1 can certify that pilgrims are to be seen. 

almost every day, coming to visit the cemetery." Glion, 
the priest, oflSciating at Lanrivoar^, June 1889. De 
Garoby, pp. 408, 409, 410.* 

Thousands of crosses were erected in honour of 
the 7777 martyrs of Occismor. The Rev. Canon 
Jackson suggests that thousands of sepulchral 
stones were planted in honour of the "eleven 
thousand " Ursuline martyrs. Both practices are 
in accordance with the religious feelings of the 
Bretons. The fact in the one case is notorious, 
and as to the Canon's suggestion, all prohabilities 
are in its favour, with a single exception, and that 
is, that the parish in which are the stones of 
Camac is not under the patronage of St Ursula, 
but of St. Cornelius, and there is a legend con- 
necting Cornelius with the Camac rocks; but 
that legend is so absurd, that it is thus treated 
with derision by a Roman Catholic priest : — 

*' Les habitans donnent aux blocs de rochers qui le 
composent, le sobriquet de Soldats de Saint ComeHle, 
patron de leur paroisse : metaphore que quelques aateors 
ont prise au s^rieux, pour avoir occasion def aire de Tesprit 
au d^pens de ce bon pen pie." — Manet (pretre), HUUrire 
de la Petite-Bretagne, i. 84 (Saint-Malo, 1834). 

Whatever decision may be arrived at as regards 
the idea first started by Canon Jacksqn, one 
thing is certain, viz. no proposition could possiblj 
be more modestly urged ; and no person, 1 hope, 
can have read his communication to " N. & Q,** 
concerning Camac without entertaining a sinoeze 
res]^ect for the abilities and good feeling manifested 
by its author. Wm. B. Mac Cabb. 

Place St.-Sauveur, Dinan, France. 

I quote the following lines from the article 
on Camac, given on pp. 98, 99 : — 

" Blind Harry, in his Metrical Life of Wallace^ gives ft 
long account of a victory gained at Biggar by the patriot 
hero over an armv commanded by Edward I. in jperaon. 
Now it is proved by the English rolls that Ring Edirard 
could not have been in Scotland at the time ; and when 
we come to examine the details of the conflict, we find 
that they are simply reproductions of the events of tiie 
battle at Koslin, and even then it is a mistake to sap- 
pose that Edward was personally present, although ne 
at one time intended to have been so." 

I have read the life of Wallace with a feeling 
of as much impartiality as may be reasonably ex- 
pected on the part of a Scot ; and, some twelve 
years ago, I examined the field of Biggar for the 
express purpose of finding proofs of the old min- 
streFs narrative. I then made the following 
note: — 

As an instance of unfairness towards Blind 
Harry, I refer to the incredulity with which the 
battle of Biggar is treated, the assigned reason 

being that it is not mentioned by other histoiianSi 


* Some very interesting particulars respecting Ooci»- 
mor, as the site of a Roman station, will be found in 
Emile Souvest^re, Le Finistere en 1836, pp. 26, 27, and 
in Ogee, vol, i. p. 456. 



as if such omission justified it being imputed to 
him that his account is fictitious. 

King Edward may or may not have been pre- 
sent on the ground, but it would be quite con- 
sistent with his conduct in having removed all 
the national annals on which he could lay his 
hands, to destroy any account of his personal dis- 
comfiture. He might have been in the battle, 
and left one of his generals to act the vicarious 
part of the defeated commander. 

Such an occurrence is not without example in 
our times, as I happen to know from a dispatch 
dated more than fifty years ago. 

Blind Harry's account is too circumstantial to 
he a fiction. The places mentioned by him are 
eafflly traced. 

\S allace, leaving his camp at Tinto to recon- 
noitre that of the English, which was between 
Biggar and Corscryne, approached it from the 
village, whence he could see the low groimd 
towards the south-east. He had disguised him- 
self as a cadger (pedlar), as the old minstrel 
humorously describes; and on his hasty return, 
suspicion having arisen among the English, he 
passed the Biggar rivulet at the old foot-bridge 
which bears the name of the ^^ Cadger's brig." 

Wallace kept the high ground towards Birry- 
berry, after the battle, and the English were 
forced to retiite to Culter by Rops-bog and Biggar- 
bog. Scorers. 

Croqttet (4*** S. iii. 551.) — I was surprised to 

read the two communications upon the origin of 

this word from W. de Aula and from Jaydee. 

Croquet is simply the diminutive of crocy a crook, 

and is etymologically identical with crochet, with 

our Enghsh crockett in architecture and crotchety 

and with the Italian crocchictta. It is explained in 

Ducange's Glossaty, vii. 115 (ed. Paris, 1850) : — 

" Cro<jue, CRoguEBois, cROQUEPOis, CROQUET, baton 
tnne d*uii croc ou qui est recourbc. Gl. ckoqum." 

And upon turning to this word, we find — 

** Croqum, a Gall, croc, uncus. Hinc croque et croquet 
appellarunt nostri quicquid unco munitum vel ad formain 
unci recurvum erat." 

The author then quotes from a MS. of date 
1898 — 

" Lequel bergier haussa un Croquet qu'il tenoit en sa 
nuuD, dont il rechassoit ses brebis." 

In short, it is the old French term for bandy- 
stick ; and, as it is not contracted from a word in 
«rf, it ought of course to be written without the 
foolish circumflex over the c of the last syllable. 

R. C. A. Prior. 

Baskerville's Letter to Horace Walpolb 
(4* S. ii. 29(5.)— Whc^n I inquired last Septem- 
ber whence Mr. Nichols derived his copy of this 
letter? whether the original was still m exist- 
ence ? whether it was sold at Strawberry Hill ? 

and who was the present possessor? I did not 

hope that the original letter would be so soon 

discovered, and certainly never dreamed that it 

would fall into my own hands. Fortimately, I 

am able to answer my own query, and to state 

that at the sale of Mr. Dillon's autographs by 

Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, on June 10, 

1869, 1 found — 

"Lot 73. — Baskerville (John), eminent Printer, 
b. 1706, d. 1775. A. L. s. 1 page folio, long and closely 
written letter to Horace Walpole, specimen sheet of his 
type, &c." 

The lot was sold to my good friend Mr. John 
Waller, of Fleet Street, for 6/. 2«. Qd,, and would 
have been knocked down for a much smaller sum, 
but for the fact that a rare little note of Daniel 
Elzevir had been placed in the same lot. 

The letter is in very fine condition, only one 
word having been lost by the careless removal of 
a wafer, and unfortunately this word gives the 
value of the patrimony which Baskerville feared 
he should have to sacrifice to "this business of 
printing." Mr. Nichols has, however, given the 
amoimt, and probably the word was legiole when 
his copy was made. The most interesting fact 
connected with the letter is, that the " specimen" 
sheet of Baskerville's type has been preserved with 
the letter which earned it to Walpole's notice, 
and is a very valuable " specimen " of the Roman 
and Italic type which Baskerville designed and 
used with so much taste and skill. 

Sah. Timhins. 



(4*** S. iv. 57, 106.) — I do not think it is necessary 
to go so far as A. H. does for the meaning of this 
line. There is a common opinion that the muscles 
which raise and lower the eyelids break when 
death takes place — an opinion, I need hardly say, 
not corroborated by anatomical experience. The 
version of the line to which A. H. gives the pre- 
ference, viz., — 

" When mine eydids close in death," 

may be the best from a rhythmical point of view, 
but the simile is weakened by its want of truth, 
as the eyes do not necessarily close with the ap- 
proach of death. This line was discussed in the 
Church Times, I think, about three or four years 
ago. R. B. P. 

It seenw, from some of the oldest copies of 
Toplady's hymn, "Rock of Ages," that the au- 
thor's — 

" When my eyestrings break in death," — 

was the line he penned, rather than the common 
form — 

" When my eyelids close in death," — 

which is now generally adopted: preferable on 
many accounts, and answennff^ to the inspired 
expression — " he feU asleepk" In addition to the 


NOTE S AND QUERIE S. [^t^ S. IV. August 14, '69. 

text referred to by A. H., there is a stanza in Dr, 
Watts's hymn (Book i. 19, v. 6) with which, 
no doubt, Toplady was familiar, and perhaps 
borrowed the idea , painfully poetiC| as it strikes 
every reader : — 

" Then while ye hear my heartstrings break, 
How sweet my minutes roll ; 
A mortal paleness on my cheek, 
And glory in my soul." 

E. W. 

I would venture to suggest that this strange 
phrase, '' eye-strings," of Toplady's, if not a mis- 
print, is a mere author's tncuria for " heart- 
strings." Ileart-stiings is not so uncommon a 
word ; and it occurs in a poem likely enough to 
have been seen by Toplady, viz. in Watts*s 
shambling sapphics on the *' l)ay of Judgment " : 

" Thoughts, like old vultures, prey upon their heart- 
strings," <bc. &c. 


Popular Names of Plants : Batle : Paigle 
(4*»» S. iii. 106, 242, 341, 469.)— If Mr. Britten 
has not seen Jacob's Plants Favershatnierues 
(1777), he will there find much information on 
the names given to wild plants in East Kent. In 
this work I find 7%ywiu« acinos is called wild 
basil (bayle ?) ; while Primula verts inajor is 
named common pagil or cowslip. 

George Bedo. 

6, Pulross Road, Brixton. 

French Huguenots at the Cape (4*** S. iii. 
178.) — I had the pleasure of reading Mr. Hall's 
notice of the French Huguenots at the Cape in a 
late number of *'N. & Q." to some of their 
descendants in this neighbourhood, who appeared 
highly pleased that they should be still remem- 
bered in Europe, and promised to hunt me up, if 
possible, ^ome traditions or memorials of their 
forefathers, the original exiles. 

I send you a table of the names of the principal 
families in South Africa at present who are of 
French descent, but they are now widely scattered 
from Table Mountain to the remote Limpopo, and 
the Drachenberg Mountains, where, amongst the 
Transvaal republicans and colonists of Natal, their 
names may be found, but in many cases the 
original French is quite lost in the Dutch pro- 
nunciation of it. Very many, too, of the families 
who emigrated here have become extinct, and 
some few have returned to France. 

The dark eye and hair, the smaller and more 
active figure and sharply-cut features yet dis- 
tinguish the Cape farmer of French descent from 
his Batavian brother, whose dull grey and rather 
fisliy-looking eye, and tall, corpulent, though 
slow-moving figure cannot be mistaken as of the 
genuine Holland type, although the freq^uent in- 
termarriages of the two races are fast obhterating 
even these distinctions, and the tendency of the 

climate, favoured no doubt by the abundant use 
of animal food, is to increase the human frame 
both in height and weight, while as they advance 
in years the same tendency no doubt indisposes the 
Boers to active exercise, and so shortens hfe. 


Stellenbosch, Cape Colony. 

Table of principal Families of French Descent now found 

in South Africa, 

Alinff. Du Pre. Mechao. 

Aspelin. Du Preez. Meiring. 

Auret. Du Toit, Mostert. 

Basson. Faure. Mouton. 

Berraugi^. Fourie. Naud^. 

Biccard. Gie. Rabie. 

Bisseux. Hugo. Raynier. 

Buissinn^. Joubert. Retief. 

Cauvin. Jourdain. Rocher. 

Cilliers. Le Roux or Roos. Roubaix. 

De Raubaix or Le Soeur. Roussouw. 

Roubaix. Le Grange. Serrurier. 

De Villiers. Maritz. Tredoux. 

Delporte. Malan. Theron. 

Desfontaines. Marais. Yosges. 

Desvoages. Malherbes. Vivier. 

Durant. Marillier. 

Du Plessis. Maynier. 

iVote.— In the Table of Chronological Events to HalTs 
South African Geography^ the number of French exilw 
between 1G8.5 and 1690 is stated to amount to 300. — J. Y. 

Scottish Lessee Barons, etc. (4**» S. iv. 70.) 
The expressions marriage and hrydeUs in the 
tack of 1661, quoted by Espedare, have nothing 
to do with the performance of the marriage cere- 
mony, but relate to a well-known feudal casualty 
belonging to the over-lord, or superior, whi(£ 
he was entitled to claim in the event of any of his 
vassals entering into a matrimonial alliance. The 
whole matter is fully explained by Lord Stair in 
his well-known work, book ii. title iv. § 60 ^ 
atitb. In fact the tack referred to conferred on 
Andrew Smith, the blacksmith, the character of 
the donator mentioned by Lord Stair. As this 
Jltie, to use an English law expression, amounted 
to a year* 8 rent of the feu, unless expressly limited 
by the terms of the original grant, a tack of it 
became a matter of considerable value if the sub- 
vassals happened to be numerous. 

While writing the above, I happened to recol- 
lect a charter of Abbot Henry of Kelso, 1208- 
1218, by which he conferred on Gilemer, son of 
Gilconel, certain lands in the parish of Lesma- 
hago. It contains the following clause : — 

*' Molet autem ad molendinum nostrum ipse et hominoB 
sui ct molendinum faciunt sicnt ceteri homines nostti. 
Habebit auteni merchetas de fliabus hominum suorumj* 
{Liber de Calchon. p. 108.) 

George Vere Irvikg. 

Sun-dials (4*** S. iv. 74.) — In reply to the in- 
quiry of Mr. a. B. Grosart, I beg to inform 
him that at Tredegar Park, the ancient seat of 
the Morgan family, in the county of Monmouth, 
in a room panelled v^ith cedar, one pane of the 

4'»s.iv.AuoLsTU,'69.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

window ia niarlced n-itb the lines and hours for a 
Bun-dial, radiating from an anrcstral projectin^f 
gnomou, and beneath it is the motto burnt in thf 
glass, " Lumen et umbra Dei. lG7-i." 

OcT.vvica MoEQiX. 
PoPiTL.iiios OF London, Ump. IIeney II. {4" 
S. iv, 7-1.)— Lying before me I have some, but 
not all, the uncorrected proof-sheets of the forlh- 
coouDg " Catalogue of leitiles in the South Ken^- 
sington Museum," bj Dr. Rock, wherein I find , 
an answer to the above question in these words 

"Tboogh in 
bead city or tti 

a reiftn of H«nry II. London was 
insdoni, and the chief home of royi 
perhaps be slartted oq hearing 

tr of 40,000,' BSWB learn from I'el 

:. (i-et 

B(()ue centum el 

s Op<n 

eaplul of 

Tunnti ei 

Piletmo—by itself was ridding to its kinif a yearly nr 
TCDtie quite equal in amount to tbe whole income of 
EngliDd's tovereign, as we are lold by Gerald Bstt}', tbe 
leanwd Welsh writer then living : ' Urbs etenim una 
Sidlis, Palerniiea scilicet, plus certi redditus regi Siculo 
singalis annis reddere solct, <[uaai Anglorum regi Dune 
reddit An^ilin tol.i.' (Giraldui Cambrensi% J>i Inililu- 
tiinu Frindjnim, ed. J. S. Stewart, p. 1&8.) This great 
wealth was gaiherrf to Sicily by tier trade in sillten tex- 
tile*." — CatahgiiC rf Tcxiilei, Introduction, p. cxviii., by 
Dr. Rocli. 

Cakbixil op York (i'" S. iii. 212, 366, 418, 
442, 391, 587.) — I i^uite understand and agree 
with Mr. Pbowett in bis appeal to the great 
medieval principle of non- representation, but 
aUow me to question his conclusions. I have 
given some time and pains to the inresligation of 
this subject, and have nnired at the following 
opinion. The question of representation was not 
generally uncertain over Europe, as 1 have seen 
implied- "by more than one writer; but each coun- 
try had it's " custom " in this matter. Kepresen- 
tation was the " custom " of France, Normandy, 
Touraine, Maine, and Anjou ; non-representiition 
was the " custom " of England and Artoia. The 
law of England exdudin;; representatioti, John 
was undoubtedly the true heir to this crown, and 
Arthur ought to have inherited Normandy and 
the smaller fiefs in which representation obtained. 
Edward III., with great inconsistency, attempted ' 
to establish representation in England just before I 
hia death, by persundiog hb nobles to acknow- I 
ledge his grandson Richard as his heir, while he I 
had spent a great part of his life in the attempt 
to establish in France the precisely opposite prin- | 
ciple. It may bo urged that tlio pnnciple was ■ 
tbe same in both cases, because Ednard himself 
represented his mother. I think not. There was 
At this time in France no heir left without admit- 
ting the representative principle to a greater or 
less extent; for the idTea of femali 

nuver occurred to either party. Edward's argu- 
! ment was that the least possible amount of re- 
presentation should be the point selected, and luB 
mother, aa a woman, went for nothing; beside 
which she was still alive, so that there was no 
real representation in the case according to tho 
medieval idea, which held that death dissolved 
the link between the cronrn and the individual 
representative. The entire strngnilo of the Wars 
of the Koses was besei upon this principle, and 
it was only laid at reft by the marriage of Eliza- 
beth of Yorli, the represent live of representation, 
with Henry VII., the wofully inconsistent repre- 
sentative of a representative of non-representation. 
Thecauseswhich led tn the accession oTBicbardll. 
— the first successful attempt to abrogate this 
law — are too voluminous to be discussed here j bitt 
I am entering fully into the question in my forth- 
coming "Lives of the Consorts of English Princes," 
which ia progressing as quickly aa delicate health 
and other engagements will permit of it 

Heykb (4"' S. iv. 0.)— There ought not to be 
the least doubt about this word ; most certunl<r it 
means a hur-clotb. It occurs in Langland'a Piert 
Piomman, text A. v. 48, and in Chaucer's Momamtt 
of the Sose, 1. 438; two quite sufficient authori- 
ties. "Walxek W. Skkat, 

Fbeb Tkade (4'" S. iii. 343.)— I do hope that 
Aristotle's shade has not disturbed Mb, Bucetoit'b 
dreams by night or repose by day, but i!f (or that 
of Eudemus) must have been somewhat restlea^ 
when it found its magnum nomen pressed into 
"free trade," aa far as the passage in De Moribai, 
V. 5, goes. This passage speaks of iKoiirta (b), ana 
iUaiiir>ii(S)|ini>'aAAa7fiaTa; (a) Such as Greek would 
call & JKuiv Tap' jvni-rai, e. g^ as the writer eaja, 
buying, selling, lending, borrowing, &c. ; (fl) where 
the ''doer" is iniy, but the "done-by" ia JKCfv 
[itiiv Tup' Kkditdi), e. g., as the writer also saja, 
thieving, murder, robbery, &c What has this to 
do with "free trade "P 'Anotora oi/iaAAJv/inTu, I 
iidmit, have some coimeelion with /r«ebootiiig. 
I have not yet found an interpretation of aw/i\- 
\iryM". 'Enniirior avyiMioypa clearly js "a dealing, 
bargtuning." ixoiaur o. is a transaction between 
A. and B., but how that is to be expressed in one 
';vord I do not see. To give a familiar illustra- 
tion ; A. sits beside B. in on omnibus. A. finds 
jiimself, after quittingthe omnibus, relieved of hia 
yurse. Here A. and B. have had a oun£AAn>Ma — 
there has been 'aaa 0715— still there has been no 
■' dealing." (A. may say B. has dealt very unfairly 
with him, I grant.) The words iri <| ipjA 'r"' 
■nira\XayiiJLTair Tairar hoieiat refer simply to the 
itoitior awiM-ariiHi. KIr. Bucktom has omitted 
(accidentally of course) ■mirtiy. 

Charles Thibiold. 



[*"' a. IV. Auocn n 

• HBiBSE(4"'S.iT.61.)— Whfltiathemeftningof 
herse in (he following Hues of Browae's Bnltatnia't 
PattoraU (book i. BODg 2) P — 
"WbHt Muse? wbat Powre ? or wbat thrice ucred 
That liaex immiirtslt in ■ ivotUtaiied Verse, 
Can lend me such a sight Ibat I might see 

Some glossator (who is eTidently nothing if not 
classical) has su^eated'Epin) in the mikr^ of m; 

Is it quite clear that the abaurditj is Spenser's 
in F. Q. lii. 2, 48, and not that of his coQimeat«tor 
T. Warton P I Tonture with much diffidence to 
disagree with Mr. Ske&'t ; but herae in that pas- 
Mge seems to me not to be putfor rehearMil at all, 

the reign of Elizabeth. I nerer heard before of a 

ulver tffg, as mentioned bj your correspondeilt. 

John Pioqot, Jdn., F.S.A. 

DircKiNs-sTooi. AND CncKiMQ-sToot (4"' S. iii 
620; iv. 61.)— Surely it ou)fht to be noted that 
these two things are quit« different, as is weU ex- 
plained in Chambers's Book of Uaye, i, 211. Brand 
confounds the two, hut he should have known 
better. The cuiioiia who require the derivation of 
the latter are referred to a verh used in the 
eighth line of Pope's " Imitation of Spenser," to 
which he gave the name of "The Alley." Thi» 
poem Pope wrote in his youth, but did not bum 
m hia maturer age, aa he might Tery well h&TO 


if which Mb. Skbit has written. 
" Heerce " in I¥ompt. Farv., 

Waltee W. Skbax. 

Way, in a 

" It (Ibe Aerria) -was uot, at first, Bidusivalj- a part of 
funeral display, but waa u:^ed in tbe aolema aerriccs of i 
tie boly week ; thna by Ibe statute of the Sj'nod of [ 
Exeter, 1287, every pariah was bound to provide the j 
'hercia ad tencbras.' " | 

I am willing to think that Spenser had not the 
word rehearsal in his thoughla when he wrote 
"holy herse," but put that eipresaion for "the 
holy service." Joan Addis, M.A. 

Rnatington, near LittlebamptoD, Sussex. 

Metrical PRBracrioN (3'' S. viii. 326 ; 4"" S. 
JT. 81.)— I am much obliged to Mr. LvuBr foe 
correcting my mistakes, and those of vour com- 
positor, for I am not responsible for all those he 
bos amended, and in fumess to myself I think 
you will allow me to say bo. Such as are mine I 
thank him for pointing out; hut I heg he will 
understand that I was not guiltv of such blunders 
as "gulo" for " graunte," or "comforting" for 
"coinforhynge." ILermentrttdb. 

A Cambribqbshike Tig (4'" 8. iv. 74.) — The 
Ug, or more correctly tyg, was made in the 
Staffordahiro potteries in large quantities in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Some had 
two handles, and were said to hare been " parting 
cups " ; and those with three or more handles 
"loving cup.1," being so arranged that several peo- 

tcould drink out of them, each using a different 
die, and so bringing their lipa to a different 
part of the rim. This ia the explanation of Mr. 
Jewitt in his Life of Wedgwood, p. 25. He figures 
four examples ; two found in a disused lead mine 
at Great Hucklow, Derby, where they must have 
been for two hundred years ; and two in the Mu- 
aeum of Practical Geology. Miss Meteyard (ii/e 
of Wcdgxeood, i. 75) figures a Staffordshire tyg, 
bearing the date 1012, formed of brown clay, and 
covered with a lead glaze, in the Mayer collection. 
She states they were known in England before 

I am well acquainted with this interesting 
relic ; and the illuatratian of it in Mr. Townseud^ 
Leaminsier (mentioned by your correspondent at 
page 61) is from my pencil. I am able to say, 
that Mb. Noakb was not correctly informed in 
what he wrote at p. 526 of the preceding volume 
of " N. & Q. ; and I know enough of him and hia 
valuable works to feel sure that be will be tlio 
first to rejoice in the real circumstances of the 
case. I am informed, on the best authority, that 
they are as follows : — The restoration of Leo- 
minater church has necessitated the usage of tho 
northern aisle for divine service, and the conse- 
quent removal of the cumbrous ducking-stool, 
which for some yeats had stood there. As the 
southern porUon of the church is now undeigoing 
restoration, it was clear that the ducking-stod 
must be taken somewhere to be out of the way. 
At this juncture the member for the borough 
R. Arkwright, Esq,, of Hampton Court, Here- 
fordshire (who had already shown hia care for 
the antiquities of Leominster by purchasing tbe 
old Town Hall and re-erecting it on the Orange), 
offered to be at the cost of repairing and reno- 
vating the duclting-stool in order that it might bft 
preserved to posterity. It was accordingly re- 
moved to the place where it was aeen by Us. 
NoAKG, and taken to pieces, eo that it might be 
painted and varnished, and its broken iron-work 
rep^red. This is being done at the sole cost of 
Mr. Arkwright. The question now is, where tO 
place the ducking-stool p CuiHBEBT BeDB. 

It maj be interesting to note that at Xiost- 
withiel, m Cornwall, there waa formerly a duckinff- 
atool over a stream known as the Copper Lake, 
near the jresent railway station. E. H. W. D, 

Steamships peedicted (4'" S. iv. 28, 85.)— I 
missed the first of the above noted replies ; but I . 
infer that most students must he familiar with 
Darwin's simple prophecy, promising us not onh' 
steamships, but locomobvea and navigable bat 

4* s. IV. AuGcsT 14, '69.] NOTES AND QUEKIES. 


** Soon shall thine arm, unconqnerM steam, afar 
Drag the slow barge, and drive the rapid car ; 
Or, on wide waving wings extended bear 
The flying chariot through the realms of air." 

I quote from memory. As a contribution to 
the bibliography of improvements in navigation, 
I may mention that m an old number of the 
Montidy Magazine (conducted by Sir Richard 
Phillips) I lately met with a very curious letter 
from Mr. Playfair, the engineer, who states that 
in his youth he was employed as a draughts- 
man in the office of Messrs. Boulton and Watt, and 
that a friend of the first-named gentleman brought 
to him the model of a ship in tin, which was pro- 
pelled rapidly across a large pond by means of a 
revolving screw placed underneath the keel. The 
form of the screw, he said, was similar to that 
naed in raising malt to the granaries at Whit- 
bread's brewhouse. The screw was set in motion 
by clockwork. Mr. Boulton was very much struck 
"With the idea ; but Watt laughed at it, declaring 
it to be a "gimcrack," only fit to send to Japan. 
The dale of this transaction was, I think, 1780 ; 
hnt U I can hunt up the particular volume of the 
Monthly (of which I have sixty- nine) in which 
the letter appeared, I will send it to you. 

G. A. Sala. 

Earliest Specimen of Papeb (4**> S. iv. 96.) 
Matthias Koop, in his historical account of the 
mvention of paper and of the substances used in 
making the same (London, 1801), at p. 167, says : 
" that the art of making it from cotton was only 
imported into Europe in the eleventh century, but 
that it had been known and practised by the 
Chinese, Persians, Tartars, and Arabians for some 
three centuries (or more) earlier " ; and at pp. 176-7 
that ** it came into use in France shortly after its 
inTention, but at what period it was introduced 
into England cannot be ascertained with accu- 
racy. Tiie most ancient MS. which can be pro- 
duoed (qy. where or by whom ?) is of A.D. 1049 " ; 
tnd he adds, ** that the material was gradually 
supplanted by linen in 1342.'* E. B. 


Hall Families (4^" S. iii. 528.)— The Rev. 
John Ilall, appointed vicar of Bromsgrove, Wor- 
cestershire, in 1624, was a son of Richard Hall of 
Worcester, clothier, by Elizabeth, nSe Bonner, his 
^e. Richard Ilall had another son, Thomas, 
hom 1010, incumbent of King's Norton. He died 
iwueless in lOOo. 

The Bishop of Bristol died in 1709-10, set. 
serenty-seven, and was buried at Bromsgrove. 
He gave the rents of his property at Hollow- 
fields, Hanburv', for charitable purposes. The 
^v. John Spilsbury, son of William Spilsbury of 
Bewdley, married the bishop's sister. He was of 
Magdalen College, Oxford ; admitted October 20, 
1646, eet sixteen, and afterwards vicar of Broms- 

grove, but ejected in 1662. His only child, John 
Spilsbury, was the bishop's heir and executor. 

In 1824 the Rev. Thomas Spilsbury, ** grandson 
and heir-at-law of John Spilsbury, nephew and 
executor of Bishop Hall/' was living at Kidder- 

The Halls of Hallow bore, according to Nash^ 
Erm. 3 hounds' heads erased; but the bishop 
bore, Sa. crusuly arg. 3 talbots' heads erased of the 
second, langued gu. 

I find in Berry's Heraldic Dictionary a coat 
attributed to Spilsburie of ''Hustolbury near 
Worcester." viz. " Sa. a fesse gules between 8 
unicorns' neads argent. Crest : a unicorn's head 
gorged with a band and four pearls as apper- 
taining to a baron's coronet. 

"Hustolbury" is, I suppose, HartUhury ; but 
what is Mr. Kerry's authority for the coat so 
quaintly blazoned P H. S. G. 

Bells and Spears (4«» S. iv. 30, 82.)— By bells 
Lingard means hawKs' -bells. I need scarcely 
remind the readers of " N. & Q." that the hawk's- 
bell is a hollow sphere of metal, with a pebble or 
some other rattling object inside. There are two 
holes near each other in the sphere, with a slit 
between them to let out the soimd. On the 
south front of Greenway's Chapel, St. Peter's 
Church, Tiverton, Devon, there are sculptures of 
ships of the time of Elizabeth ; and at the end of 
the pendant of one of them a hawk's-bell is 
fastened to make a jingling as the pendant flut- 
ters. But, to go back to more ancient times, I 
may observe that plate iii. of Sir Samuel Mej- 
ricfi's Costume of tne Original InhahUants of the 
British Islands represents two figures, of which 
one, a Caledonian, holds a spear, attached to which 
is a thong and a hawkVbell. The hawk's-bell is 
of bronze, and as large as an orange. The de- 
scription says : — 

*< At the butt end of it is a round ball of brass filled 
with pieces of metal, to make a noise when engaged with 
cavalry. This ball, in the Highland-Scotch or Irish lan- 
guage, was called * Cnopstara' — i. e. the active ball." 

A note refers to ''Xiphilin ex Dione Nicaao in 
Sever," and another remarks : " The ball seems 
the prototype of the bells for wagffon horses." 
The use of hawks'-bells attached to horses is not 
yet gone out. P. HurcHUffSOir. 

Biblical Heraldry (4'*» S. iii. 654; iv.46.) — ^I 
possess a ^' breeches " Bible, the title-page to each 
testament being covered with woodcuts repre- 
senting the scutcheons of the twelve tribes, also 
the distinguishing badges of Christ's apostles, 
and also the four evangelists. Particulars of these 
latter shall be given if wished for. The wood- 
cuts of the twelve tribes do not quite agree with 
Master Sylvanus Morgan's lines, as Joseph is re- 
presented with a strong ox standing, and Levi 
with an open book on his shield. Tne Bible has 


NOTES AND QUEBIES. [^* s. iv. august u, '69. 

bound with it " Two right profitable and fruit- 
full Concordances, or large and ample Tables 
Alphabetical]," Sec, &c., the preface to which is 
dated 1578 and signed " Robert F. Kerry." The 
plates of the woodcuts are dated respectively 1G08 
and 1610. I should be obliged by being told if I 
possess a valuable book. A. T. F. P. 

In a little English Peerage in my possession 
(the title is gone, but the date of the last creation 
is 1720) at the end is a dissertation on Gentry and 
Bearing of Arms, in which occurs the following 
passage : — 

" Abel, the second son of Adam, bore his father*8 coat 
quartered with that of his mother Eve, she being an 
heiress, viz. Gules and argent; and Joseph's coat was, 
Party per pale, argent and gules." 

I think this little volume is called the British 
Compendium. Upthorpe. 

Park (4»'» S. iv. 83.)— It may be of interest to 

aome of your correspondents to know that park is 

commonly used for a field or close in Cornwall. I 

have collected from tithe apportionments and other 

documents about 1000 Celtic names beginning with 

Park. These are found mostly in the western 

part of the county. In the eastern part, Park is 

more commonly found as a suifix with a common 

English prefix, ordinarily an equivalent to a Celtic 

fiuffix. Thus in the west we have, 1. Park an 

Als ; 2. Park an Bew ; 3. Park Anchy ; 4. Park 

Andrea; 5. Park an Ean; 6. Park an Gear; 7. 

Park an Gelly ; 8. Park an Yet ; 9. Park an 

Pons; 10. Park an Skeber; 11. Park Venton; 

12. Park an Hale ; 13. Park Bannel ; 14. Park 

Behan; 16. Park Bellas; 16. Park Cadjaw; 17. 

Park Colas ; 18. Park Dowrick ; 19. Park Davis ; 

20. Park Drannack ; 21. Park Garrack ; 22. Park 

Guemen ; 23. Park Gum, &c. ; and in the east, 

exactly corresponding with these, 1. Cliff Park ; 

2. Cow Park; 3. House Park; 4. Home Park; 

5. Lamb's Park ; 6. Camp Park ; 7. Grove Park ; 

8. Gate Park ; 9. Bridge Park ; 10. Bam Park ; 

11. Spring Park; 12. Moor Park; 13. Broom 

Park; 14. Behan or Little Park; 16. Pillas or 

Poor Park ; IG. Daisy Park ; 17. Bottom Park ; 

18. Water Park; 19. Sheep Park; 20. Thorn 

Park ; 21. Rock Park ; 22. Alder Park ; 23. White 

Park, &c. In copying the above, I have given 

the spelling as I nnd it, as I always do in the 

{jflossary of Coniish NamcSj now being published. 

J. Bannister. 
S. Day, Cornwall. 

Pieces from MSS. No. VI. (4»'' S. iv. 94.) — 
**Houre combely kyng hary" may have been 
Henry VII. The rich Sir Wm. Stanley of Holt, 
brother of the king's step-father, was lord chamber- 
lain ; but he was beheaded in 1495, when Arthur 
Prince of Wales was only nine years of age ; there 
may, however, have been subsequent lord chamber- 
lains in Henry's reign, though none so prominent. 

The word " fueryn " may be meant for Fitz- 
Warine. John Bourchier, third Lord Fitz-Warine 
and first Earl of Bath, was a very wealthy and 
prominent peer, 1479-1639. A. Hall. 

If this carol be of the fifteenth century, I do 
not see to what king it can refer except Henry IV. 
That he deserved the epithet of *• comely," any 
person who has seen his portrait in Creton's MS. 
will own. It may help Mb. Furnivall at least 
to his "Lord Chamberlain" to have the following 
list of the King's Council from Rot. Pat. 6 H. IV., 
Part 2 :— 

" UArceveque de York ; TEveque de Lincoln, ,Cbaa- 
celier d'Engleterre [Ilenr}' Beaufort] ; le Sire de Roa, 
Tresorier ; le Dean, Gardien du Privd Seal ; le Sire de 
Gray, Chamberlain du Roy, le Sire de VVylughby ; Mods. 
Thomas de Erpyngham, Seneschal del houstell du Roy ; 
I'Abbe de Leycestro, Confessor du Roy ; Mons. Roger 
Leche, Contreroullour al houstell du Roy; Johan de 
Norbury ; and Johan Curson, Conseillers du Roy." 


Sherboukne Missal (4*** S. iii. 482.) — The 
Sherbourne JMissal was bought at the sale of Mi. 
Mills* library by Hugh, second Duke of Northum- 
berland, for 215/., as shown by a priced catalogue. 
It still remains in the library of Alnwick Castle, 
and is probably, quite apart from its great litiu^ 
gical value, the most gorgeous example of English 
mediaeval art which is extant in this country. 


A Cancellarian Quotation (4''» S. iii. 425.) 

"The Duke of Buckingham concluded his speech as 
follows : — * The noble and learned Lord on the woolsack 
(Lord Brougham) and his colleagues think they have 
buried the noble Earl (Grey) in his political 8epulohr& 
and that he will no more disturb them, but they will find 
themselves mistaken. The spirit of the noble Earl will 
burst its cerements, and will haunt them in their festivi- 
ties, and disturb the noble and learned Lord on the wool- 
sack in the midst of his " potations pottle deep." * Lord 
Brougham said, * Stop a minute ! As to the concluding 
observations of the noble Duke, all I shall say is, that I 
do not frequent the same cabaret or alehouse as he does. 
At all events, I do not recollect having met the noble Mar- 
quis (Londonderry) at the noble Diike*s alehouse potatiooB. 
My Lords, 1 have not a slang-dictionary at hand.' Lord 
Brougham remained for some time on his legs as if de- 
sirous of proceeding, but at last resumed his seat, without 
uttering a word. — The Duke of Buckingham : * I m^mt 
the observation merely as a ioke. I was only makiag 
use of the language of Shakspearc in his tragedy of 
HamleV **— Random Recollections of the House of ZjordM. 
Lond. 1836. " Scenes in the House," p. 60-64. ( 

Joseph Rix, M.D. 

St. Neots. 

Milton's " Paradise Lost " (4''» S. iv. 96^— 
My impression of the edition referred to (the 
fourth, 1688) has an illustration to hook viiL 
which, though without the name of painter or 
engraver, is evidently from the same hands as the 
other " sculptures." On the left comer of the 
page is "lih. viii." Charles Wymb. 

4* 8. IV. August 14/69.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Sib Thomas More (4*'» S. iv. 82, 104.)— In the 
second edition of the Life of Sir Thomas More by 
Dominico Regi, Bologna, 1G81, in 12mo (and not 
in the first edition of Milano, 1675), it is stated 
that Sir Thomas More was descended from the 
noble Venetian family of Moro : — 

*' II cbe tanto piii di baona voglia si h eseguito da me, 
quanto che afferraa Personaggio d' eminente grado, e di 
rara eruditione, haver certezza ne* suoi copiosi scritti : che 
Soggetto degno di Casa Moro, gi^ per suoi affiiri da Ve- 
netia solib ^ Londra, e presavi Consorte, ivi propagb la 
sua nobil faniiglia; quindi in Venetia si hk il nostro 
Moro per origine suo Patritio, e Nepote del Duce Christo- 

fcro More e forsi di quk nacque, che nell' Inghil- 

tora non si reputb moUo antica la famiglia Moro." 

Robert S. Turner. 
1, Park Square. 

The fact adduced by Mr. Wm. A. Wright as 
bring^g into further connexion the name of More 
and Qraunger also tends to identify the John More 
-wlio is named in the MS. in the Gale Collection 
as marrying Agnes Graunger in 1474, with John 
More the judge, as he was one of the Serjeants 
called in 1503, and was of Lincoln's Inn. 

Edward Foss. 

Heraldic (4^*" S. iv. 75.) — In reference to the 
inquiry of W. W. S., I think it most probable 
that the arms, Gu. a chevron engrailed oetween 
8 leopards' faces or, are those of Coplestone ; if 
rotes, thej' are the arms of Wadham, allowing 
the variation of the chevron not being engrailed. 
Being 2i. full-faced portrait, it can hardly represent 
Cardinal Wolsey, who is (as I have very recently 
lead) always painted in profile, having lost one 
eye early in lite ; nor are the arms those of the 
Vardinal. The red robe may be an academical 
haUty easily explained bj^ those who are con- 
yeisant with the university habits of doctors in 
the three faculties ; and I can easily suppose that 
a careful examination of the pedigree of Cople- 
stone, an ancient and distinguished family, may 
famish a solution of the question asked, and the 
name of the coat, argent, two bars between three 
bulls (?), which, though I am unable to discover 
it, may be found to be that of some heiress with 
"whom Coplestone intermarried. E. W. 

Proverb (4*^ S. iii. 520.) — This proverb in 
another form was mentioned to me by a Berk- 
fihire farmer. He was speaking to an eccentric 
old man who was mending the road, when the 
old fellow said ; " I no more wants that than a 
^oad wants side pockets.''^ " What do you mean ? " 
was the reply. *^ Why, a toad don't want side 
pockets, do he ? Nor do I want what you says." 


Our End linked to our Beginning (4'** S. 
IV. 60.) — Bunyan, in Pilgrim's Prof/ressj part II., 
pves as a quotation an additional illustration to 
thoee furnished by Mr. M'Grath. I am not 

aware that any commentator on 7%« Pilgrim's 

Progress has furnished the name of " the one who 

saith " pretty much the proverb which has given 

rise to the papers in *' N. & Q." : — 

"Our tears to joy, our fears to faith, 
Are turned as we see ; 

And our beginning (as one saith^ 
Shews what our end will beJ** 

E. w. 

LiTSHEB : Etymology op the Name (4"» S. iv. 
32.) — There can be little doubt that this is one- 
of the many names derived from a former calling 
or occupation, that of an ''usher," "^wwsier," or 
door-keeper. As some proof of this, in page 134 
of the Juiber Custumarum (printed ed.), a person 
is named as " Galfridus Lussher," while on the 
next page he is called "Galfridus Le Ussher," 
" Geoffrey the Usher." Henry Thomas Riley. 

Explanations wanted (4*** S. iv. 96.) — In the- 
Boll of Disbursements, Whitby Abbey, 1394-5, 
as given in Young's History of Whitby^ I find the 
following entry : — 


*' Itm. p. ij panels et i hawse ad cellas nras. iij«. vief.' 

The panels were of wood and used in making 
saddles (cellas), as appears from another series of 
entries in the same roll ; and probably the word 
howse (= housing) explains the word heuses, in- 
quired about by Hermenteude. 

J. C. Atkinson. 

A fabric roll of Rochester Castle is given 
in Archsologia Cantianaj vol. ii., in which the 
word assheler freq^uently occurs. It is intended 
for ashlar, which is a general term for all kinds 
of worked stone. The roll mentioned relates to 
the repairs of Rochester Castle in the time of 
Edward III. George Bedo, 

6, Pulross Koad, Brixton. 

Miss Ray (4»'» S. iii. 489, 514.) — The burial- 
place of this unfortunate woman is distinctly 
stated in the following extract : — 

" On the 14 April (1779) the remains of Miss Ray were 
interred near those of her mother in the parish church oS 
Elstrce in Hertfordshire, in a vault in the chancel which 
had been prepared for their reception. For some years 
she had maintained her parents in this village; her 
father being still living at the period of her death, and 
her mother having died about three years previously." — 
Genrqe Seiwyn and his Contemporaries^ by J. H. Jesse,, 
iv. G4. 

Charles Wylib. 

Sir Philip de la Vache (4''» S. iv. 97.) — 
Some particulars of this knight, who died in 
1407 — of interest to C. J. R. — will be found in 
Lipscomb's History of Bucks, i. 15, &c. 

It is probable that the knight's family was so 
denominated from " The Vache," the original seat 
in the parish of Chalfont St. Giles, where his 
ancestor resided in the time of Edward III. 

H. M. Vane. 

74, Eaton Place, S.W. 

148 NOTES AND QUEEIES. [tO'S.iv.Aoaoetu.'es. 

HsKRiNes (4* S. iy. 98.) — Order to pay for the 
Duke's purvejance of peuon tale d narana, at 
Blakenbj and Yemfcmouth, up to 8W. out of the 
sllowEnce of the Diichesa, whicL. is to be tepaid I 
to her. KotfaewelL Sept 28, anno 6 [1382]. The | 
purveyance ia to be sent to ■•'our own town of , 
Snayth." (Begitler of John of Gaunt, ii. fol. 63.) 

LxQAL Fiction (3'*S. i. 346.) — May I ask 
what authority Me. T. J. Bncsroif has for hia 
statement that " acts done at sea are Tepresented 
aa done an the Royal Exchau^ at London " P 


" Snro Old Robb and busk toe Bkllowb " 
(2^ S. ii. 264.) — In a MS., (emp. Charles II. 
(HarL 6395), mention ia made (No. 179) of " Rose 
the old viole-maker." Feriiapa he waa Izaak's 
miasing hero. CnuL. 

Lawbencb (4"" 9. iv. 31.) — There was a George 
Lawrence in or near LlanTrechva between 1688 
and 1779, who was buried in Llantamam church, 
sod his descendants can be traced. Olwebio. 



Calendar of Slate Papat, Foreign Stria, of the lUign of 

Elkabtth. 1663, praemed in tite Slate Paper Ugiart- 

menl nf fler Migiitg'i P^lic Reaird Ogiee. Edited 

bg Joeepb SMtbhsoq, M.A. (LongmanB.) 

Calendar of Ike Carem Matmeripti 

Calendar of Stale Papen, Sonuitic Seriri, of llit Beign 
of ChaHa I. 1637-8, prMtrrerf m Her Majatif, Public 
Secord Office. Edited by John Brace, Esq., F.S.A. 

The teal aud indDstry of the band of scliolaiB, who 
onder the direction of the Master of the RoUa, are calm- 
daring for the use of fnlare UstorianB. biographere, topo- 
graphers, and literaiy iaqnirers of ell i^lassee, the maau- 
«cript treasures vhich are la hia Lordship's custody is so 

>8 which 
it nnr panting pea toils after . 
re Deeewsrily compelled merely to chronicle the 

Spearance of the soceeMive volumes instead of treating 
Bm to the long and elaborate notices which their im- 
portance would jaaljfy. 

Thus we iind at this minute no less than three Calendan 

The flrst, the new volume of Mr. Stnibenson's Calndar 
of f'orri^ Papert, is chiefly occupied with the eccoont 
of our intereouise with Fraace, where Throckmorton 
was anxioualv walching the progress of BTenta. His 
account of the battlo of Dreni and of his interview with 
the Duke of Guiac, will be read with great interest. The 
Cahadar of Ike Oartw MSS. (from 1589 to 1600) fur- 
niahes striking evidence of the growing proaperity of the 
En);li!di pale under the reign of Elizabeth. While Mr. 
Bruoc'a Calendar nf Dometic Papiri <IC37-8) ftiriy 
launcties ua. as he well observes, into that period of the 
reign of Chorlee I. to whicb may be applied a phrase 
lately grovn into oonunon nn — the begioniug of the 

El Hecko de loa Tradadot del Matrimoiiio pretnuiido per 
ei Primnne de Gallei am la Seretuiilma Infintta ik 
Etpanti Maria, tornado dade na Prinapiot para sidior 
Uenatlracion de la Verdad, y mvttado COH lot Paptle* 
originalet ditde comta, par e/ Maestro F. Francisco de 
Jesus, Predicador del Rey nneatro Seoor. JVomrtwe 
of the Spamth Marriage Treatg. Edited and Iratu- 
bdtd by Samuel Rawsoa Gardiner, (Printed for tlw 
Camdea Society.) 

Some years since, when punnlag those researches to 
which we owe the two books. The Siitorg of Eagtaitd 
from tie Accetiim of Jama /. to the Ditgrace of (Xrf 
J<alice ate. and Pniux Oiarla arid Ike SpaaiA Xar- 
riage, with which Mr. Gardiner lias enriched EatflUt 
historical literiture, he discovered in the Library u Um 
British Museum the MS. from which this hook ia printed. 
Though unable at that time to form any opinion at to 
the accuracy of the facts alleged in 1(, Mr. Gardiner was 
struck with its value as a fuU statement of the Spanllfa 
case against James and his son. Subsequent rtnrs rrlwi 
at Simaacas aad elsewhere having convinced him that 
tbeaartative was not only valuable as an ■ignmant&em 
the side from which ao argument had hitherto reaobed 
ua, but was a thorongbly truatworthy representation of 
the facts as they would naturally appear to a SMUdA 
Catholic, he auggeeted it as a fittmg pubhcation fat the 
Camden Society. The council readily accepted Mr. Gar- 
diner's oSbr to edit aud Craaslate IL This he has dene 
with great care, adding aome few illustrative doci 
in the Appendix; and the volume will be fiinad 
great interest for the light it throws upon 
incident in our history. 



. .. ...X, ic. or the SiUawInc Biuki. Id be mt ilhwlli 

■n bT wham ih»r no tmulwii. whaw inme e and aMniiia 

4* 8. IV. August 21, '69.] NOTES AND QUEBIES. 149 

LONDON, SATURDAT, AUOUBT SI, 1869. TTiigSng y BuDfly 4 M IhMB is S p « i^ behriae 7* walls 

4 y« H an gingS i & y Sats are vwy so vtty plonij tbsj 

CONTENTS^N* 86. wiUmostLMwEater Hangins at rfint patting iip; 

a I find all y* Bards jousd abooght tkis house are frini 

_ Ropes 

Ship, ISS — Old Cleveland Words. IM ~ Smoke, 156 — glad to know if yr Loidship nroves'of this way. I am 

Heniy Onbh Bobinaon — Gold-floding in a Country very Loth toTronUe y Lordship with what I Sopose 

S2™feir*ir^S.^!J°' ?*'??'**?.T^^r°S°!?'*"ii?r? camo*^ ^ BecslU, yet I think £ lay Dnityto SayT* 

Cteiterfield- Caution to Novelists - A Curious Medal, i^^^^,^ hiSnotSj Jastes Done yon^ y i^^t^Lit 

QUBRnWt-Inscriptions at Baalbek--La Bible dans t^^^!^?tJi^jS^U^W^ ^^ 

llnde: ViedeJeiwnsChri8tna"-Byroniana: "Sequel to many youstaft WoilhlSBSthmgs haar be, bat hearis a 

Don Juan "— Candidate Jobs — A Card Query — '^Ohar- ould painted oyle COoth wAh very great hols in it: y« 

qaaBiUa":"GhowderParty'' — Chateau Coulard — Lieut.- maid in y« Honse says it never was yooad in y* Late 

Colonel Oollyer - Ancient Court Bolls — *' De Oomitiis Bishops time, but Cramd into a Littel Oossei ; it is of no 

^k^: La Trappe- Medal with Hiad of Oromwidl- \ ^^^ plain ShdFflS m a Closet by yr Lordshins Bed- 

Kamss and Titles wanted - Political Prisoners in Poland chamber maid of y* Bords, tunber Cut Down hear; I 

— Gunner of Tilbury Fort — Watling Street in Kent— behve a man wold put them np in two Day% thay are 
Genealngiiml Queries — Pamily History, 156. vaiUed at 8/. 10s. OdL— >in Shont it is all of apeeoe, ▼• Best 

QumBSWiTHAvawxaa: — St John's Da^ and St. SwitUn ^ only foniitnre fit for y Lordship is y« Mahogony 

— Faaatidsm and Treason — Bushel— Sir Franoii Bnke Tables & DrayrSt Ic 12 yehr ordenery Chian in y« Best 

— Biding the Stang— Law on Homicide, 150. Paller, but new Inr ye Last Bishop, near was not a pot or 

BBPLIBSs- Stonehenge and Camao, 160 — Bobert Blair, Saroan myKitd^ bat what was as Blade with indde as 

Author of "The Orave^" 164 — Archbishop Mathew— with oat, Eait out with Rust & Canker. I have Sent 

Blandyck-Sir PhiUp le Vache — 'mitrfiire Moonrakers them all to be tind, which will be a great Expence, bat 

AlHea-Bradshaw.theBeglcide-Chmiman's Hymns of ^*^ • iP^TIST^ ^^^^^^^^^T^^*^*^ 

Homer — FHnter-mouse— Penmen^- BibUognnldeal only wish ▼' Locdsbop Goald Seem them when I Bid, 

Queries— Sir William Boger, Knight, Privy Goondlkrto thay are all aixd k Gfoand as weB aa they Can be, bat 

James IIL— Whipping the Cat, 164b tha^ will only be oold Bags : this is atise a Ooont, 

Notes on Books, Ac. which I have bedn very oneasej abooght iHieather I 

-===============================3=============^^ should Let y' Lordship know tiU yoa Cni% hot ftaid I 

4kmi^s> might be Biamd if I did not Pardon me Sir if I haive 

^^^^* Done Bong. y« ChimlyB have not beeia Sweept fur 


BISHOP OF LONDON. vrill bye no mow then is at pieseat needfolL yBaooa 

We are indebted to the kindness of LoBDLTnm- ^ J» »>t Barnt bat Scalded as m Devon & 6»nwd]2 

Ic not Better. I am afraid what I Sent finom Exeter will 

dap close, as 

which arose on the translation of Dr.Bichard mitte^cC S^, to wish V' Lordddp healthlb Sibciibe my 

Oshaldeston^ who had been consecrated Bishop of Self y Most Datifhll iaithfiiU obedint HnmUe Servant, 

Carlisle on Oct. 4, 1747, to the see of Landcm. ^^ J- Tinn«B. 

I>r. Lyttelton, the Dean of Exeter^ being there- jim?m i762 

npon appointed to the see of Carlisle (he was m» Nickonal 4 her neeee CaUdhearto Inaoiar after 

consecrated at WhitehaU on March 21,1762). nata- ^ Lorfship's health, t Invited me to Come to See dum. 

rally called upon his predecessor to pay for the W Mother is alive bat weeci, & has Lost her memory a 

dilapidations at Rose Castle, the ejnscopal resi- goodDeail. 

dence. This did not please Dr. Osbaldeston ; and Pardon my Bad Bitmg, I Cannot get a Pen to Bite. 

tibe controversy on the subject of repairs, sour — - 

claret, and port wine that had to be strained Copy of my Letter toy* Bp of London, 

before it could be used, make up a very pretty „ j^ , ^^ ^•^^ ^^ 12*, 1762. 

quaneL H^r Denton having deUvered the Ke^ of the Cellar 

Honrd Sir, to my Botler on onr Arrival here, contaming the Wine 

I Cannot help troubling y' Lordship, as I think it I bought of yoor Lordship, on comparing them with tiie 

my Dnlty to Let you know how things are hear, & I List yon gave me, a greater quantity appearB to have 

know not how to proseed to get this house in any order been diaiged, & paid for by me, than the Cellar contains, 

for y' Lordships Coming, hear is a great deail wanto to the particulars of which are steted in the enclosed Paper, 

be Done, Severall windows being very Bad, Ready to fiill, and some of the Wines also that I naid for as sonnd & 

Severall Dores not fit to Stand, Espeachily in y« Brew- good, prove as soar as yenuice. M' Denton attended 

house, where y« Dems & Dorc are Just Downe, y« flowrs mpr Butler when he counted the Bottles, dk tasted the 

Extraimly bad, in Same of y* Rums Laige hols & Sunk Liquors, so, if yoor Lordship lias any doubt of the truth 

Just Ready to Brack through. I wold be glad to know of these fiusts, Denton can fcd^ verify them. When I 

if thay are to Continue as thay be till y' Lordship Corns, talked last with your Lordship about the Dilapidations, 

or if thay are to be mended. I have Considred abonght you desired me when I got to Rose to have all Bepara- 

TON fprthe opportunity of publirfungthefoDcmfflg ^'^^^yi^::^^^^ 
amuang specimens of episcopal correspondence weUas y* Sweeteoeats, hot it ni>«S4 b^ ji 
which arose on the translation of Dr. Bichard mitte me. Sir. to wish v' Lordshin hulth & ( 


NOTES AND QUEBIES. [4ti1S.1v. august 21, -69. 

tions made that I found necessary both within & withont 
•doors ; bat knowing my own Ignorance in these matters, 
dk consequentiy fearing that I might injure your Lord- 
ship or my Self had 1 trusted solely to my own Judge- 
ment, in this affair, I therefore ordered Ben. Railton to 
view the Premisses and make an Estimate (Railton being 
as I am told an intelligent honest man, & one whom you 
nsed to employ your Self on many occasions). This 
Estimate had been finished & transmitted to your Lord- 
ship before this time, if the Plummer could haye been 
procured who is to examine the Lead in & u|>on the 
'Castle, but we haye been forced to wait some time for 
him, & probably must do so some days longer. 

I am glad to hear from D' Parker that your Lordship 
has found so much benefit by your Journey to Huttou 
Bushel, & remain, My Lord, 

Your Aff. Brother 
& humble Seryant, 

C. Carlislb. 

I should haye been obliged to your L<i^p to haye told 
me that you would not leaye your Chaplain's old Sur- 
plice in the Chapel here, that a new one might haye been 
proyided ag* my coming. My Chaplain has been forced 
to read Prayers without one eyer since I came, & this in 
the sight of half the County who haye been to yisit me. 

My Lord, 

I am concerned that the wine in the Cellar your 
Lordship purchased shou'd not contain the number of 
bottles sold, and that part of it shou'd be turned sour ; 
as these misfortunes haye happened, I shal be yery ready 
to allow you the money you demand on that account to 
be paid you by Denton ; I desire the bottles and sour 
wine described may be returned to him, and given to 
friends of mine, who, I doubt not, will haye a grateful 
lemembiance of me eyen for yinegar. 

After seriously attending to ^e real Interest of the 
Bishoprick of Carlisle for many years during my Incum- 
bency, for the sake of myself and successors, and disburs- 
ing 1000^ (if I say double that sum, I belieye I do not 
err) for improyements in the house at Rose Castle and 
elsewhere, I did not expect to be called upon, in the rude 
manner I was, for Dilapidations, nor to haye the like de- 
mand renewed by your Lordship's letter of the 12^ instant, 
after I had told yon I should be ready to comply with 
any thing reasonable for that purpose : a generous mind 
that sees and considers the House, offices, and revenues 
of that Bishoprick in it*s present state, and is informed of 
the condition these were in when I entered upon it, I 
think can have no pretence to proceed against me in the 
manner intimated oy you ; By your eyes you see the 
condition of the House, &c., and if your fhend beliind 
the Curtain will not, I appeal to the stones and repairs 
in every office, and to the beams and wainscot in such 
rooms as I beautified, to do me Justice. Look but at the 
gate of your Castle, or out of it, and almost every thing 
you view will in some measure bear testimony to the 
truth of what I assert. 

There was a security given to me for the price of wood 
sold, to be laid out in buildings for improving that part 
of the Demesn called Lingy Park, and contracts made with 
artificers for erecting such buildings. Denton negotiated 
that affair; and when you think proper, I shal with 
pleasure transmit it to nim, that he may receive the 
money and pay the workmen, for I always proposed to 
disburse the sum received, and neither to gain nor lose 
by these bargains. 

I am, my Lord, 

Your Lordship's affectionate 
brother and humble servant, 

Hatton Bushel, Ric. Londok. 

Aug* 18<h, 1762. 

After this long letter I shon*d not have added any 
thin^ further, had not your Postscript called upon me to 
vindicate mvself from the reproach of not leaving the 
Surplices I had at York : in answer to this, I tdl you I 
found none at Rose, nor indeed Books, Cushions, or other 
Furniture proper for the Chapel, which, with part of the 
Communion Plate I left there, was not of less expence to 
me than the sum of 100/., and this I judge the County of 
Cumberland knows, and is visible to that half of it that 
has visited you. 

Copy of my 2<» Letter to jr* Bp of London. 

Rose Castle, Sep*' 6% 1762. 
My Lord, 

I have recieved your Letter & y Money from M' 
Denton on the Cellar Account, to whom my Butler is 
ready to deliver the Ten Bottles of sour wine for a Pre- 
sent to your Cumberland Friends agreable to your Lord- 
ship's express Directions. As I tiute it for granted yoa 
would not compliment your Friends with such Liquor, if 
you credit y account Tgave you of it ; consequently by 
ordering it to be disposed of in this manner, your LordshF 
undoubtedly believes & means to insinuate that I mis- 
represented y* condition of your Claret in order to throw 
it back on your hands, which carries in it so mean a aoft- 

ficion as raises my Contempt more than my Anger. Ab 
bought y« wines'of you at y price set bpr your own Ap- 
F raiser, and that merely for your convenience, (the atoek 
sent from Exeter being much larger than I can use in 
some years) I could not think m3'self under any Obli- 
gation to let your Lordship pocket y* money I luid paid 
you for good wine & which proved stark naught, nomOn 
than for wine reckon'd to me which did not exist. I had 
cause enough to complain of your other wines, y Port 
being so foul that every Bottle must be filtered befbra it 
can be drunk, and this circumstance your own Boiler 
acquainted mine with before we left llondon, wherefim 
your Lordship could hardly be a stranger to it ; but as I 
could make tolerable shift with it, I said nothing in my 
Letter to your Lord^ip about it, tho' 8h<^ have been veiy 
glad to have retum'd that & all y rest of your wines, ibr 
less money than I paid for them. 

Your LordsP is pleased to tell me, " that after attend- 
ing to the real Interest of the Bishoprick of Carlisle for 
many years for y« sake of yourself & successors, & dit- 
bursing 1000/. (and perhaps double that Sum) in Improve- 
ments in y House at Rose Castle & elsewhere, yon did 
not expect to be call*d upon in the rude manner yoa waa. 
for Dilapidations, nor to have the like Demand renew^ 
by my Letter of y* 12*»» inst after having told me yxn 
should be ready to comply with anything reasonable for 
that purpose." 

As this contains a pretty strong Charge of Rudeness 4 
Incivility in me towards your Lordship, in my Applid^ 
tion for Dilapidations, Let us see how justly* it can be 
deduced from y« words of my Letter on which it is prin- 
cipally grounded. The words are these (viz.) " When I 
last talked with your LordshP about y Dilapidations, yoa 
desired me, when I got to Rose, to have all Reparatums 
made that I found necessary both within & without 
doors; but knowing my own Ignorance in these matters, 
& conseauently fearing that I might injure your Lordah' 
or myself had I trusted solely to my own Judgment in 
this Affair, I therefore ordered Ben. Railton to view y 
Premises & make an Estimate (Railton being, aa I am 
told, an intelligent honnest man & one whom yoa 
used to employ yourself on many occasions). Thisllfltt-' 
mate had oeen finished A transmitted to your Lordahr 
before this time if y* Plummer could have been procured* 
who is to survey y Lead in & upon y Ca^e ; but we 
have been forced to wait some time for him, Si probablj 
must do sometime longer.**,* 

4» a IV. Acousr 21,-69.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Now as this is every Word in my Letter that relates 
to J* point in question, your Lordship must have a strange 
Propensity to take offence where none is offer'd, or be 
rexy sharp sighted indeed to point oat a single expres- 
sion that even borders on Rudeness or Ill-breediDg ; But 
'tis y* application itself & not y« mode of making it, w«** 
your Lordship really means by a Rude Attack upon 
yon. That this is not a chimerical but a well grounded 
opinion, I am convinced by 3''our having brought y® like 
charge against my Secretary in London, M' Pearson, of 
having treated you rudely when he deliver'd my message 
to your Lordship concerning y* Dilapidations : for on my 
mentioning it to him in consequence of your Complaint 
to me against him. He solemnly denied y« Charge of In- 
civility or Disrespect towards your Lordship, but affirm *d 
that you express'd great Anger on his barely delivering 
my message, y« purport of which 'tis necessary for me 
here to refresh your memory with. 

After I had paid you 400/. & upwards for y* Stock & 
Fnmitore here at Rose, which, agreeable to y* usual way 
of dealing on these occasions, permit me to say, your 
LordshP ought to have declined taking till y* Dilapida- 
tion Acooont was settled; Mr. Pearson had my orders 
to wait upon you & acquaint your Lordship, that I sh<* 
soon write to Carlisle & commission somebodv there to 
take a view of y« Episcopal House, &c. in order to esti- 
mate y« Dilapidations, but would defer it tUl I knew 
whether or not your Lordship would chuse to appoint 
another on your side to accompany mine in this business. 
Civil as this Proposal was, you rejected it with Disdain, 
& treated it as a high* Affront offer'd to you ; but surely, 
my Lord, it deserv'd a better Reception, tho' you might 
not think fit to comply with it ; especially as my be- 
haviour to your Lordship in this instance was so veiy 
different, in point of Civility, from yours to me not long 
I)cfore on a similar occasion. I mean, when you so 
hastily ordered all your Goods here to be appraised with- 
out vouchsafing to acquaint me with it, and on y* Inven- 
tory being return'd to you prized lower than you ex- 
pected, your Lordship instantly order'd everj' thing to be 
:io]d at a publick survey, ifow unkind & unpolite ttds 
was to your Successor, I leave any candid man to judge ; 
hut tho' I was not insensible to it, yet I readily over- 
look't it as y* effect of Passion & Disappointment, • & 
immediately offer'd, in case your Lordship would coflter- 
mand y* Sale, to be at y* Expence of sending a Man 
from Durham, to meet another of your own appointing to 
make a joint Valuation, & take y® whole as they sh^ 
Appraize it. This reasonable Proposal your Lordship at 
last complied with, but not without some reservations in 
your own Favour. 

The next Charge your Letter contains, is a strong in- 
sinuation of my having made an ungratefull & ungener- 
ous Return to your Lordship by demanding Dilapidation 
Money after yon had attended so many years to y^ real 
Interest of y* Rislioprick of Carlisle for y< sake of yourself 
ir Successors^ 8f disbursing 1000/. (or perhaps 2000/.) i» 
Improvements at Rose §* elsewhere. Now though I am 
as thankfull fur any Improvements your Lordship has 
made as Man can be, <b as ready to make all proper Re- 
turn, yet when y« merit of them is carried to so extrava- 
gant a Height, that I am to be precluded from all De- 
mand of Duapidation Money, unless some little Trifle, in 
consideration of y* great Cf^bligation you are pleased to 
insinuate I owe you on this account, I have a right to 
renaind your Lordship that when y° 250/. you recieved 
from Bp Flemings Executors, & several Hundreds more 
yon raised by y« Fall of Wood on y* Episcopal Lands 
are brought to account, a considerable Defalcation must 
be made from y« Sum total of your Disbursements in 
Improvem^ts : But after all my Lord, supposing you 
bad expended during a long course of years one or two 

Thousand pounds over k above what you recieved, am I 
to pay you so expensive a Complement as to make no 
Demand for Dilapidations, though they amount to two- 
or three Hundred pounds on y* fairest Calculation, be- 
cause you have been a Beneifactor to y* BishoprickV 
Your Lordship I am sure has set me a very different Ex- 
ample (and can I follow a better) in having demanded 
& recieved 260/. from y* Executors of your Predecessor 
for Dilapidations, & yet He was a ^ood Benefactor to this 
See ; and at this hour you are suing Bp Sherlocks Exe- 
cutor (<& very rightly so) for Dilapidations, notwith- 
standing the Bishop expended above 2000/. in Improve- 
ments at Fulham. 

As to y« Improvements your Lordship made in y* 
Revenues of the Bishoprick, you had the fuU benefit of 
them, k several years Enjoyment of your other Improve- 
ments in k about Rose Castle. Had you left any Leases 
open for the benefit of your Successor, that ^ou might 
have availM yourself of before j^our Translation to Lon- 
don, your Lordship might have pleaded an Exemption 
from Dilapidations with somewhat a better grace. That 
generous & good Prelate Bp Thomas of Winchester left 
a Lease worth five or six Hundred pounds for his Suc- 
cessor at Peterborough ; which he might have fill'd up, 
(& yet He paid Dilapidations : the like did M'* Madox to 
y* present Bishop of Worcester, & others that I could 
name, where y* deceas'd Bishops had been great Benefac- 
tors to their respective Sees, but these Instances are 
sufficient to shew bow constant & invariable y« Practice 
is, k consequently how unjustly you reproach me with 
want of Gratitude k Generosity on this occasion. 

The Jealousy & Suspicion you express with regard 
to M<^ Nicholson, of his having priVately encouraged me, 
out of Malice to your Lordship, to bring a Demand upon 
you for Dilapidations, is as ill founded as your Charge of 
Rudeness & Ingratitude ; for I wrote to Denton a month 
before I came to Rose k order'd him to employ Railton 
to survey y* Castle, &c.; and in no one Instance to charge 
a single Article, but where myself or my Executors 
would be liable in case of my Removal or Death, for y*, 
truth of this I Appeal to M' Denton, who has my Letter 
k will transmit it to your Lordship, whenever you 
chuse to call for it. 

What your Lordship means by styling M' Nicholson in 
your Letter my Friend behind y* Curtain^ I don't weU 
understand, his Situation certainly puts him above any 
Dependance on your L<^i>^p, & consequently indifferent 
whether yon are pleased or displeased with giving me his- 
advice on any point I may think fit to consult him upon. 
On y* other hand, surely your Lordship can't suppose, 
that because yon have taken a Pique ag** him, I avoict 
having any open Connection for fear of giving you Of- 
fence, but am secretly directed by him. If this is your 
meaning, I must be* free to tell your Lordship, that I 
disdain such low and mean Conduct, or did my Interest 
ever so much depend upon it, would I adopt your Resent- 
ments or those of any man living. Having indeed dis- 
cover'd in y* course of my Transactions with your Lord- 
ship, y* Jealousy you entertain'd of this Gentleman, & 
being desirous, if possible, of settling all things amicably 
with you, I would not even request him to take a view of 
y* Goods & Furniture here before I agreed with your 
Lordship for them, though He was v« only Person in thi5 
Country I had any reason to confide in, being an entire 
Stranger to every one else ; but what abundant Cause I 
now &id to repent of my Delicacy towards you in this 
instance, is too late for me to point out to your Lordship. 

I am, my Lord, 

Your Obed« Humb. Ser«, 

Cha: Cabusle. 

P.S. What your Lordship is pleos'd to call a Hqtroach 
from me on your taking away y« Surplices, had you con- 

NOTES AND QUBBIE& [<»s.lT.Ara»r«i,m 

■idsr*!! m; wofdi with Cacdoar and Temper, vonld hare 
appur'd at most a mild cooiplainl for rvmoviog tliem 
without BoqniintiDg me with it i aa 1 Datonlly expocled 
■j) find ■ Surplice araang v* rest trf y Chapel Furaitme, 
' — * *- myCiiaplain ha» been 

id ■ Surplice among y» n 

innied lo appear without ooe t 
verjr deooit Si^t in a Bidiop'i 


1 yesteidaj, 


I am vary readir, u 1 have alwaj^ rigniiiad to you, 
to make all t«uao>l>l« acknowleilgiacota far Dilapida- 
tions, if there be any at Rose CaMle. the sum mentioned 
in tba fttimala indoasd in j'oor lait letter, Ibo' aecnungl^ 
dtmaoded, 1 nqipOM^ is not ezpscled to be paid, aa it 
ii«T« will ba by 

Uy Lord, 
Tool most hombU Hrvant, 

lljC. LOHfMlH. 

Sap' «"■ 1762, 

The Table doath and Napkin iaqoirad after aone time 
age, «u by mistdie sent with other Linen hhher. it ia 
now round, and ahal be mtored to y«a in London thia 
winter, wbere all other diipatee may b« amiaably ad- 

Qjpy of my 3^ Letter to y' Br of London. 

H^ley, WorcMt'ddn, 

Oct. 9^, 17t>i. 
My Lord. 

1 hav* your Lettci* of y 26"' nit in which yon tell 
Bu. " that yoD are leady (fl make all reaaonalite ackoaw- 
ledgmenlB for Dilapidations if there ba any at Roaa 
Caitle, bat will never pay the Snm taeulioa'd in y< Esti- 
mate, tbo' seemingly demanded." 

That my aendtng yonr Lordship y mgvml EiSmab 
was DO other than a dvil manner M notifyii^ to ]r«a 
what my Demand for Dlla{ddations amonnts to, ia very 
tcrtain, and as at y aaaiB time 1 inbnn'd your LordihF 

tt y Appraisers had my positlre oiderF 
single Article, but where myself or Execi 
charg'd in case of my Removal or Death, y 
can hardly b * " ■ - ~ 

-a would be 
, . . - r I^nl'' 

hardly snpposc so just & reasonable a Claim ivill be 
waived, because yonr Lordship thinks fit, vrithont voueh- 
Bii£nK to point out any one Article whieh is over rated 
or that ou({ht not to be inserted, paremptoiily to decdare 
that you will not pay y* sum demanded. 

If my Demand is rBOBonattle A jost, yonr I^mlahip 
most be guilty of manifest InJuaticE in refualngtooomply 
with it. If it be not so, ahew me in what partiealar in- 
Htancea, and I am ready to f^ve ap that part of y De- 
mand ; but aa much as I hate Cnntention, and endsavonr 
afreable to y ApoeUcs direction, to live peaceably with 
■U Has, year Lordar is greatly mistaken if yon imagine 
1 wfll tamely nhuit lo snSer a considerable Lost in my 
Dilapfdatians, mpadally after what 1 have altready sas- 
tainad in y pnreliasa of vonr Fomiture, becaase it Is 
jnt Will * Plamnre that 1 shaU do ao. 

My Lard, 

It was my intention, for yonr ease and mine, t«have 
closed any further comspoodence with ron by letter, till 
' ■ *■ ■■ rain ditpate be- 

t mo for 

contain many artides that can e 
oooonnt, and to signtiy that the 

I repent as much as yon can, that you bad any part of 
my Furniture, Jcc, by which I have snthred moofa. 

1 sbal add nothing farther, but refer yon to thia and my 
former letter, to asntrs yon that I shd be ready, wheo 
in London, to ■ccommodale all diff^reoces with yon in a 
friendly manner ; if thia does not satisfy yon, usB yonr 
will and pleasure. 1 aaa, 

My Lord, 

Tour most homble Mrvant, 
Bath, Oof IS* 176!. 

Copy of my fourth Letter la y» B» ot Loudoa. 

Old Burl. Street, Nov 10», 1761. 
My Lord, 

I had yonr Letter of y I3<* alt. some time befbre I 
left Hagley. nhcrein you expieas an IndinatioQ that aS 
natters in dispute between us might sleep till wa met in 
London, & then the* miKht be amieaUj a^jnaled. 

Aa I was ^lually desirous with yonr Laidahm ba poMMI 
gentle rather than riolent meUioiH I avoided tronbUng 
yon with any more Letlen on this diaagreeaUe i^eat, 
nor ah^ do now, could I have metyonr LordahipinTluilt 
Street, wlierB I call'd yealerdty m hopes of seeing ym, 
but as yonr Servant inform'd me that yon reside aUti>* 
gether at Fnlham, 1 moat ao far rfsume y Correapon** 
enoe aa to bc^ to know of your Lordship what method 
you propose taking in order to settle y ditlciencei \n- 
tween us ? The only reasonable on; seems t« be, by r^- 
fening the Dilapidation Estimate to two Friends, one to 
be lumed by yonr Lordship & the other by mo. 

It may be of importance to both of us. bnt will oer- 
tainly be ao to yonr Lordship, that y Dilapidations bO 
settled soon, for ye House suffers bv every Storm (■ 
whole window & much Glass beside being blown ont at 
y Framea before I left Rose), and the Banks of y BlTsr 
(allready iu a minons condition), will redere mncb mot* 
damage by y winter Torrents, & j* Demand on thia 
Article be proportionahly increased. 

Your Irf)rdahip never made any Answer to my PropoakI 
with rward to y Monev lemaining in H' Railton'a & y* 
other Contractors' ban^a for y last Fall of Wood ytm 
made in A about Rose. I ahouid hope tha, aa well aa j* 
Dilapidation Estimate, may come nnder amicable ao»- 
Aideration ; and y* ratber. « I hare, manlAatlj In m^ 
own wrong, permitt«d M' How J: C° to cut & eanr *m^ 
my Timber, in cjinsiderstion of his having paid tobT 
Lordriiip a good Fine where none was ever patiil bWW^ 
w^ he told me himself he wonld not have paM, nnlaai 
Timber had been granted him for building y Hotiae ft>r 
y Forge Hen, Ac. 

As your Lordship apprehends jron are a SntTferer by 
my having purchased yonr Pnmitttre at y appraised 

.o Fnlham or sold at a pnblick 


There is ft uneulKT error in the dktea of On 

ragn of Edward III. in FabyanU (3irotticUt,yAaA 

4«» S. IV. August 21, '69.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The year of our Lord is given wrongly during 
nearly the whole of the reign, and this may eadfy 
misl^9Ld a reader who trusts to this author. I am 
referring to the edition of 1811, wherein the 
reader, by turning to p. 441, will find the entry, 
'^ Anno Domini . . John Pountnay — 
Anno Domini M.cccxxxi; Anno V,'' meaning 
that the Jifth year of Edward's reign began in the 
last-mentioned date — viz. 1331 (Jan. 26.) But on 
the next page we have the following entry : '* Anno 
Domini M.ccc.xxxi — Anno Domini M.cccxxxn; 
Anno Vll,'' which is as much as to say that the 
next jear to the Jifth year was the seventh. 
The sixth year, in fact, is simply lost sight of, and 
the error is continued down to the very end of 
the reign. One consequence is that the years are 
wrongly calculated down to the end of the rekga ; 
another is that Edward's reign is made a year 
longer than it was. He died in the fifty-first year 
of his reign, having reigned fifty years and about 
five months ; but at p. 487 of Fabyan we have 
the entry, ** Anno lii.'' The regnal years and 
mayor's years are difficult to arrange, because they 
be^an at different times. Fabyan begins the 
leign by passing over the mayoralty of Cmckwell, 
and calls Betayne the^r^ mayor; whereas he 
was not elected till October, 1327, when Edward 
had reigned about nine months. This explains 
the expression on p. 439 — "In the ende of y* 
fizste jere of this kyn^e Edwarde, & begynnynffe 
of this mayres yere' ; where "this mayre" is 
ihejirst one, the above-named Betayne. But, if 
he begins to reckon thus, he should have con- 
tinued it. By the same reckoning the fourth 
mayor would be elected in the end of the fourth 
year of the king; yet on p. 441 we read — *'In 
this .iiiL mayres yere, & enae of y* thyrde yere of 
thys kynge, where for thyrde we must certainly 
rwi fourth. In the same way, the battle of CzeaBy 
is smd to have taken place in the twentjf-fir&b year 
of Edward's reign, but it was fought during the 
twentieth (1346). And so on throughout 

By way of further example, let me explain the 
entry on p. 480. We there find " Anno Domini . 
x.ccc.lxviii. John Chychester — Anno Domini. 
K.ooc.lxix . Anno xliiii." This refers, not to the 
44th, but to the 43rd year, from Jan. Id69 to 
Jan. 1370, towards the close of which — ^viz. in 
October 1369, Chichester was elected as mayor. 
Hence the entr)', under this year, of the deatn of 
Queen Philippa (Aug. 15, 1369). It follows that 
Chichester was still mayor in April 1370. as is 
proved also by a notice of him as mayor in that 
very month and year in Riley's Memonals ofLon- 
don, p. 344. Hence follows the complete solution 
of the date of Piers the Plowman. When Luig- 
land mentions 1370 as Chichester's year he la 
right enough. I have said, at p. xxxii. of the pre- 
face to text A of the poem, that "our author 
seems to be a year wrong." But I am glad to 

find that the err<»r lies, not with Langland, but 
with Fabyan ; and the date ef the second veisioa 
of the poem is irrefiragably proved to be later 
than 1870. Other indicatioBS point to the year 
1377 as the date thereof. 

Walibb W. Skeai. 
1, Cintm Temce, Ctmbriclge. 


I make a note of a curious piece ci information 
recently eiven to me by an old man ia my ramUee. 
He asked me if I kn^ how many sorts of guM 
there were ; to which I re^ed in the negatiye. 
Secondly, if I knew how many trades there were $ 
upon which I said, ''Oh! no end of them.^' 
Tnirdly, he asked if I knew how many ropes thera 
were in a ship ; to which my reply was the ooa- 
fident one that there was only one rope in a ship, 
namely, the bucket-rope, all other ropes (as lands- 
men would call them^ having distinct namesi 
such as stays, braces, halyards, &c. In fact, the 
last is the question we have been advised to ask 
itinerant beggars in the garb of sailors, with the 
view of testmg their sincerity. 

My questioner then sud: ''All wrong! there 
are only seven sorts of ^ame^ only seven trades, 
and seven ropes in a ship.'' Thereupon he gaye 
me the following items : — 

The seven sorts of game: 1. Cock Bobin; 2. 
Woodcock; 3. Hare; 4. Partridge; 5. Grouse; 
6. Snipe; 7. Heron. 

It is rather odd to find our old nursery Iris&d 
Cock Robin included, and, indeed, takmg the 
fint place among game ; but it i^ould be xeoaem- 
bersa that Cock Kobin is one of the most pladqr 
and desperate fighters of the volatiles, aiid oiir 
old nursery legend seen» to uphold the fact of hit 
inyueibility in the ordinary way of bird-fighting 
by informing us that he was killed by the sparaiMr 
with a " bow and aixow.'' Another feman: VMif 
be made as to the exclusion of the other speeies 
of birds now classed amon? game ; bat the «be«e 
standard seems to have been established at a 
remote period before foreign importations of game 
birds, their crossings (one result 'being our famons 
game-cock), and the regulations by Acts of Far- 

The seven trades : 1. Sweep ; 2. Whitesnuih ; 
3. Cordwainer; 4 Shoemaker; 5. Mason; 6. 
Cabinetmaker; 7. Wheelwright 

Here we must make a few observations. Oofd- 
wainer is a well-known City term, applied to tlie 
Company of Shoemakers, obvioasly derived from 
the f'rench word of the same significance— ear- 
dtmnier. Secondly, the fourth txade, shoemaker, 
is not a repetitioBf bat means a shoer of horses, 
or what we now call a Uadsmith. Finally, it is 
odd that we should have in the list eabinetmdfer 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [^t^s-iv. august 21, '69. 

instead of carpenter ; although, perhaps, the fact 
points to the remoteness of me standard, since 
the original carpenters could only have heen 
makers of cabins, of which the word cabinet is the 
fVench diminutive; but how the French word 
oorcfonnt^r should be adopted, and neither char- 
pentieTf nor menuisiery nor Sh&nide^ should have 
come into vogue, is somewhat of a puzzle. 

The seven ropes in a ship: 1. Bucket-rope; 
2. Man-rope; 3. Buoy-rope; 4. Foot-rope; 5. 
Swab-rope; 6. Bilge-rope; 7. Head-rope. 

I think it unnecessary to explain the uses of all 
these ropes ; but now that they have been brought 
to my remembrance after manj voyages, in which 
I have rendered myself familiar with all nautical 
knowledge, it has lieen a matter of surprise to me 
that, witn everybody else, I have been content 
with the answer of " only one rope on board ship, 
namely, the bucket-rope/' in testing a sailor.* 

A. S. 


In going over the extracts given by Young in 

his History of Whitby (pp. 920-928) from Com- 

potus and Roll of Disbursements connected with 

the abbey, I find the following entries, all more or 

less interesting, and of several of wliich I shall be 

glad to meet with illustration or explanation : — 

Dej /ranAe vend-apd. Semar, xx». [A fat hog|?] 
Deforheug Qv/orhengj viij*. [?] 
De Northaefare Dcxxviij kelings prec. xxj" ix" vj**. 
t" Large codfish." Hal.] 
De qaibas in horaell, ccxxviii. [?] 
De holfare, vi" vj» xj<*. 
De aliec. vend. iancUierigfaret 7i\vi\}* y\ [?] 

Northsefare I take to be fishing expeditions made 
to the ocean or North Sea. HoJfare is, I believe, 
hem-fare, or the deepHsea fishery, a term still pre- 
served in the name applied to the long line em- 
ployed in the said fishery, which is sounded 
hauver^ and spelt haavre by Young, p. 821. Land' 
herigfare I am unable to explmn. 

De di. quart blandkome vend. (apd. Aton), xiij<i. [Oar 
Cleveland hlencom, or meslin. j 

Itm. p. ij reynys, ij polys^ et i hedstall, xxiij<i. [?] 

Itm. p. setijng uni* eqm et cura alterius, xxij«*. [r fir- 

Itm. celler. panis et servis. i kympe, li* vi<i. 

The word kympe or kymp occurs three or four 
times, and I thmk it is scarcely doubtful that our 
still commonly used word kimHn is a direct deri- 
vative from it. Comp. Sw.-D. kimmaj a tub or 
large wooden vessel with a top, to keep meal, 
butter, &c. in,^im&, the stave of a barrel; iL chimb, 

P. canms et aqwill subulco vi**. [Cleveland can, and 
swillt a shallow, liK)sely made wicker basket.] 
Itm. p. viii. JhkMf x<*. 

• The same informant stated that the word sailor, or 
rather perhaps sailer, was originally applied to the maker 
of sails for windmills. 

Halliwell gives Jlockf a hurdle, as a Devonshire 
word ; and I believe the ^ks of 1394 to be what 
are now called Jleeeiks (ymiten flakes in my Cleve- 
land Glossary) by our Dalesfolk. 

It. p. i. skowp willo plomar, vi*'. [Scoop (of lead); pro- 
nunciation unaltered.] 

It p. i. hamerton ad portand. aquam, vi<^. [?] 
Itm. p. ligaturis obl^r, dni Abbis, iij<^. [?] 
Itm. p. Strom p. le brewhous, iiii<>. 

Halliwell gives " Strom, an instrument to keep the 
malt in the vat,'' on Ray's authority. The moaern 
Cleveland form of the word is, I am told, stum or 
stom, which originates in the customary metathesis 
of r and its vowel, followed by what is almost a 
pronunciational absorption of the consonant, as in. 
dozz or duzz for drose, dozsle for drizsde, &c. 

Itm. p. 1. vase. p. muskilvat 

I suspect (as in several other places) a misread- 
ing, muskilvat for maskilvat. In the Finchala 
Priory Inventory the form is ^naskefat, 

Itm. p. ii. valys dno Abbi, vi^. 
Itm. p. i. holt clath dno Abbi, viii**. 

I am uncertain about palys^ though from ther 
bolt-cloth mentioned immediately below it would 
appear not unreasonable to refer to Halliweir& 
" Paly. A roll of bran such as is given to hounds "f 
"7;a/y of brynne,*' Promp. Parv. 

It. 8'vientib3 portant. kyds ap. Dunel., vi«*. 

It. p. VM kyds de Newham, xx". \_Kid, a small faggot 
of brushwood.] 

It uni homini qui ludebat cum Jak, vi**. [?] 1 

It. i par. beds (pair of beads), xx<*. 

It ad contribution, p. le oys, Ivij* iv*. [ 71 

It paietto aula ad socular. per vices, ij". [?] 

It. paietto Celerarii ad togam, xvj<*. 

P. purgation, uni* yunsy, xij<». [No doubt gon^e, ▲.-$.. 
gong, gatig, & privy,'} 

Itm. p. i. sproyscay (?) dno Abbi, xij**. [?] 

Itm. p. i. horslok ad Wodhous garth, viij^. [?] 

Itm. p. i hand ad fenestr. camere Abbis, j**. [Cleveland^ 
a pair o* hands^Bi hinge, comprising both parts]. 

Itm. p. i bunchis ad lenestr. dormitorii, xx**. f?] 

Itm. lUis qui foderuntyZo^A^^, ad potnm, iij**. [Compare 
Dan. flag-torv, JUxg, flage, flat sods of turf pared from a 
grass-grown surface.] 

It. de j Hoic de Xorthfolk j chald. carbon, iij« iiy**. [^ 
Hoy, the vessel so called.] 

It j suan p. xxiiij dies minanti plauvtr., iiij*. [A twain^ 
a boy or ladL] 

Itm. p. iiij pese de waimtowebs, xx*. [^Wametow, » 

Itm. p. ij dosan warn tow schafts, ij". 

Itm. p. ij doean heltirschafts, xij**. 

The word schaft seems to have gone out of 
use. Heltershank is employed in the same sense 
at no great distance from Cleveland. I must 
observe that heUo^ in Yorkshire is the hempen 
headband used for leading a horse. One made of 
leather is called a collar. The shank or shaft is^ 
the cord or rope attached to the head-stall. 

Itm. p. VII wayntheu'ts, vij* x*. [Comi>are the thovts oC 
a boat.] 

40.S. IV. August 21, '69.] NOTES AND QUEBIES. 


Itm. p. ii dosan plewstraki/ty iiij*. [? the same as/>Zot^A- 
starts. ] 

Itm. p. IX molebrodclowti/8, iij* x<*. [Mouldboard clouts, 
the earlier form, I take it, of the modem iron mould- 
board plate.] 

Expo, c'ca Fehows, [Compare X. fahuuSf a cattlc- 

Itm. p. iiJ bands ad Walkmylne, xx«*. [CI. tcalkmUnm^ 
a falling-mill.] 

J. C. Atkinson. 

Danby in Cleveland. 


Holding in my recollection recent notes here 

upon **SnufF," I was amused to come upon the 

following quotation from Cavendish's '* Life of 

Wolsey" in Retrospective Review, v. 15 : — 

•* And even as my Lord Piercy was commanded to 
avoide her company, so she was discharged of the courte, 
and sent home to her father fur a season ; whereat she 
smoked : for all this while she knew nothing of the king's 
intended purpose." 

I confess at the first moment a ludicrous image 

rose up before me of Mistress Anne Bulleine taking 

to cigarettes as a solace for her broken flirtation. 

Smoke used thus absolutely is of scarce occurrence. 

There is, however, a somewhat similar use of the 

word in Deuteronomy, xxix. 20 — 

*•. . . the nnper of the Lord and his jealousy shall 
■smoke ai^ainst that man." 

If Mistress Anne had been said to futne, like 
Kate the Shrew (" ^ Frets call you these ? ' quoth 
8he : ^ I'll fume with them ' "), or like Eleanor, 
Duchess of Gloucester (" her fume can need no 
spurs," Second PaH of Henry VI., i. 3), the paa- 
.sage would have passed unnoticed ; or if she had 
been said to have had a fit of the vapours^ it would 
have seemed a quite natural proceeding on the 
part of a love-lorn and court- banished damsel. 

Nevertheless, I am by no means sure how far 
smoke in the passage of Cavendish is equivalent 
to fume. Weagwood says: — 

"The ultimate origin (of smoke) is, 1 believe, to be 
found in a representation of the nasal sounds made in 

sniffing an odour or in gasping for breath The 

inarticulate sounds made in muttering, sobbing, sniffling, 

•were imitated in Gr. by the syllable fiv, which must 
^)metimes have been strengthened by a final guttural, 
shown in fivxfi6sf groaning; fivm-iip, the nose or snout; 

^vk6s, snivel, the mucus of the nose ; fi^Krjs, snuff of a 
lamp. The same imitation gives rise to G. muchenf muck' 
seHy Mag. mukkaniy Fin. mukahtaay to make slight inarticu- 
late sounds with the mouth closed; Gael. mucA, mutter, 
hum ; mttgachy snuffling; smuc, a snivel, snore, nasal sound ; 
smucachf snivelling, snuffling, snoring.'* 

AVedgwood goes on to observe the not uncommon 
use of smoke in the sense of to miff out^ to detect, 
^hu3 Parolles in AlTs WeU that Ends Well (iv. 1), 
*' They begin to smoke me." 

lie does not notice the slang schoolboy phrase 
of to smoke= to blush. (Is this phrase peculiar 

to Harrow P) However, under the word " Funk/' 
he gives much that is suggestive upon this point. 

Neither does he notice smoker to beat, to 
thrash. For example, the Bastard says to Austria 
in Kinff John (ii. 1), ^Tll smoke your skin- 

Finally, it seems probable that " to smoke to- 
bacco '' means rather to inhale its odour than to 
have reference to the burning of the herb. In 
old plays, " to take tobacco " and " to drink to- 
bacco " are ascommou forms as '' to smoke tobacco." 
(See notes in Dodsley's Old Plays, iiL 398, v. 6.) 

Turning to "Fume" in Wedgwood, I find a 
Walloon proverb, *'founu sain pip = to smol^ 
without pipe, to be out of temper," which is 
specially pertinent to the vapours of Mistress 

The slan^ phrase, *' Put that in your pipe and 
smoke it," is worth recalling in connection with 
the above notes. 

The Greek tivxhs and iximis in mv quotation from 
Wedgwood bear upon the douole meaning of 
emungo, &c. which I noted at p. 36. 

John Addis^ M.A. 

Rustington, near Littlehampton, Sussex. 

Henry Crabb Robinson. — Having known 
Ilobinson most intimately from about the close of 
the eighteenth century till his death (he resided 
in my father's house, as one of his family, for a 
good many years), I have in mv possession various 
letters ana papers relating to him and his career* 
One of the very earliest is a note from Thomas 
Hardy, who had been tried for high treason in 
1794, which contains a passage referring to a 
speech delivered by Hobinson at what was called 
" The London Forum," in Feb. 1798. The note 
is dated Feb. 14, and what relates to Hobinson is 
as follows : — 

** I bad an accoimt of the debate this evening, which 
was represented to me as verj' interesting ; and a youne 
man of the name of Robinson made such an animated, 
eloquent, and argumentative speech, as was never heard 
before in that room." 

It was in consequence of this speech, and othm 
on similar occasions, that my fatner made Robin- 
son's acquaintance, I was then about nine years 
old; and I well remember that, after attending 
the Forum, Robinson often accompanied my 
father and mother home to supper. 

J. Fatns Collieb. 

Gold-finding in a Cotjntbt Coubt-tabd. — 
A few days ago a little boy in this village was 
playing, as little boys will play, at knocking 
stones one against the other, and thus breaking 
them ; when he was somewhat surprised by sedng 
a glittering substance in the heart of a paving stone 
which he had broken in a court-yaxd. However, 
he paid no attention to this on the first time of 


lilOTES AND QUERIES. C4^s..iy. Auac3T2i,'69. 

finding it ; but on again seeing a bit of the same 
brif^t metal in another piece of quaitz in the 
ytadf he took it to a jeweller's in tne adjoining 
town (Bxaintree)) who pronounced it to be & nug- 
get of remarkably pure gold, and gave him six- 
pence for it. A member of my family, hearing 
of this unusual occurrence, accompanied the young 
gentleman to the jeweller's^ and bought back the 
nugget as a curiosity. Since then, two more par- 
tides of gold h»fe been found ; and it is hardly 
necessanr to add, that my young friend is now 
occupied in diligently breaking up all the paying- 
stones in the court-yard, in the hopes of becoming 
the yeritable treasure-finder of the story. 

The stones have been down too long for it to 
be possible to ascertain whence they came from ; 
but it is clear that, wherever that may be, there 
must also be a considerable abundance of gold. 

Evelyn CABBnraToir. 

Deanery, Bockiog, Essex, Aug. 10, 1869. 

An Ebbob oobbscted.— In the late Mr. Frost's 
very interesting Notices rtiative to the Early JSis^ 
tory , , , . of StiU, may be seen the Compotus 
of John Leversege and John Tutbury, the col- 
lectors of the subsidy for the second year of 
Henry IV. The document is an important mer- 
cantile record, and seems to be very carefully 
printed. There is, however, one error occumng 
many times, which it may be well to point out. 
The word ^'sungmat' " or ^'sungm' " has no exist- 
ence, except as a blunder of the transcriber or 
printer. The true reading is certainly amigma or 
smegma^ L e. soap. Edwabd PEiicocK. 

Db. Johnson and Lobb Chbstkbfielb. — 
Permit me to point out a curious mistake into 
which Miss Martineau has fallen in her Memoir 
of SiEunuel Ro|;ers. In her Biographical Sketches, 
p. 868 (Macmillan, 1869}, she says : •— 

'* He was a youth of fifteen or thereabonts when half 
the town was scandalised at Dr. Johnson's audacity in 
~ ' what he did to Lord Chesterfield; and the other 
delighted at the rebuke.*' 


Now as Kogers was ninety-six years old when 

he died in Dec. 1855, he must have been bom in 

Bee. 1709, that is, four years after the Doctor's 

cetolnrated letter to Loid ChesterfieM, wMch is 

dated Feb. 7, 1755, and its existence was well 

known to the town for thirty-five yeais before it 

appeased in the pages of Boswell in 1791, when 

Kogers was thirty-two years old. ( Vide Cioker's 

Bo9W^, 8th edit p. 86.) Dodsley says : — 

^^Itlxyoa his (Lord Chesterfield's) table, where any 
one might see it. He sent it to me ; said 'This man has 
gnat powers,' pointed oat the severest passages," &c. 



Caution to Novelists.— Mr. Shirley Brookes, 
in hn entertaining oolumn of the lOudrated Lm- 
dom New9, has lately shown that ^<wiiteis<^ fiction 

must have a care as to what names they give to 
their characters.'' I was particularly reminded of 
this remark on coming to a paragraph in a novel 
where the actual name (Packer), the actual oc- 
cupation Qaw-writer), and the actual locality. 
(Cursitor Street) were each and every of them 

1 do not know if the person in question (who 
has written for me many hundreds of folios, and 
has for years been in America^ was ever aware of 
having been so accidentally distinguished by the 
illustrious author of Bleak House ; but if he were, 
sure I am he would be the last to act as the indi- 
vidual did whose name was by chance imported 
by Mr. Brookes into a laughable farce, who there- 
upon wrote to say '^ having heard such was the* 
case, must request, as such, it might be omitted." 

Hasbt SAimASS. 


A CuBiOTTS Medal. — I forward the annexed 
clipping from TJie Times of Monday, August 2,. 
1869, which I think worthy of a chink in 
*' N. & Q." :— 

** A nniqne medal of Charles I. was indnded in the 
sale of the cabinet of coins of the late Mr. Thomas 
Brown, which terminated on Saturday, under the hammer 
of Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson, and Hodge. The fal- 
lowing is an extract from the catalogue : — ** 574. five- 
broad piece, an extraordinary and priceless pattern, by 
Briot, m.fn. rose, carolvs . d.o. mao. bbtt. fban. bt • 
HiBERNiAE . BEX, bare-headed bust of the king to left» 
with long flowing hair, and Vandyke lace coUar ; rev, 
same, m. m^ florent . ooncordia . regka, arms in 
high rdief, on a garnished shield, crowned ; at the aides 
c.R. crowned, edge eng^nuled, highly preienredy and 
unique. This memorable piece poeaesees considerable 
historic interest from the circumstance of its having bean 
given by King Charles I. to Bishop Juxon, most probably 
during the last scene in the eventfm life of the unfoitimate- 
monarcfa, it befaig well known that the fUthAil prelate 
was in attendance on the scaiEold.' It was bcnurht by 
Mr. Webster for 845^." 


LrscRiPTioirs AT Baalbek. — On the roof of the 
long arched hall of the principal entrance to the 
ruins of Baalbek I discoyereo, on July 8, 1869^ 
the following inscription : -<>- 


It is cut out on one of the centre stones of the 
arch, and dose to it is a large figure in reEe£ As- 
the passage is without light from aboye, and as 
the mscription is about sixty feet from the en- 
trance, it can only be observed between the hours 
of 10 and 11 A.K., which may account for yisitocs 
not haying seen it before. 

Some of your readers may also be interested in 
the two following inscriptions; one from the 

«*,-m.] K0T£S ASJ> QUJSBIB8. 


Dated tomb of Nebj Slieet (Pic^liet 3etl>) <nAiiti 

■■d die other from a stone on the son'tb-wei 
end of the Prophet Noah's tomb at Ksrak i 
C(sla>Sjm : — 


Can any informatJoD be obtained from your 
leaden respecliug tbese inscriptioDsF 

Johh Scorr Rattrat. 

Kuak, Gado-Sjris. 

"La Bible daub lInsk: Vie se Jszms 
Chxisiva " (vBX Louis Jacolliot). — I eboald be 
Teij ^bd to near if an; of jcnt coneapcnidenta 
baTe nad ibis work (publiabed this jear at Pane 
bv the Libraiiie InternatJonale, 15, Boulevard 
Hlootaartre}, and if it has been noticed by eny 
oainCBt Indian scholar ? OaPHAL. 

BiBinnAvA : " SBairKt to Dow Jbam."— A 
aeeond edition of " fire cantoe" of Sajutl was 
ioHied (by Paget & Co., 2, Bury Street, St 
jHDes'e), and elBTen more contoa were promised. 
The amthoT eud he aboold "feel bound to rereal 
himealf should the remaining eleven cantos of bia 
poem be called for." No date is given on the 
titie or in the preface, but a date casually intrO' 
dnced in a note Bbows the volume wae printed 
after 1841. The etanias and style are close imi- 
t«ti<ms of the original, and the poet displays fluent 
wai brilliant powers of ibyme. Who waa the 
amthoc f Were any more cantos issued F An 
.^fobgy for Don Jnm (two cantos only) was 
nl^ed by "T. Qreen, 76, Fleet Street, 1634." 
Who was the author? Ebtk. 

Cahioiiate Jobs. — Under the above heading 
aome verees, containing an account of an nndet- 
nadnate'a examination, appeared in either Tke 
Ckir d i n uat or ChritUan Jiemaninmcer between 
184a-1846, or 1861-1853. Can any ofyour readers 
obKge me with a copy of them P Who was the 
■■thorP B. F. W. 3. 

A Cabd Qvebt. — Are there any games at 
cards where queens are not osedP I have been 
■bown a beautiful pack of cards, of Spanish de- 
sign, which are said to have belonged to Marie 
Antoinette. There are no queens; and as the 
eaids are numbered in the comer 1, 2, &c., np to 
10, with 11 for the knave and 12 for the king, there 
iTMild nem to liare becoi no queens provided. 

"Chowdbk" Pabtt." — 
ean P The former is said 

Cb^zkav Cavuss. — A ahart lime jince a 
fiiaitd told meihat, when travelling in the South 
of FiKca, he had aeen an old dikteau called 
"ChiteaH Coulard." If any of youi nmnerous 
correspondents can give me any clue to iln wbere- 
abonta, or a description of the cb&teau, and mors 
espedally of the armorial hearings tliereon, I 
■hould feel much obliged. 


LnuT.-CoLoirEL Colltkr. — I should be nmeh 
obl^d for any infonnation about the paiantage, 
marriage, and armorial bearings of DeoL-Cd. 
Collvec, LienL-Qovemor of Jeney, one of whoae 
daughters (Uaiy) maoied the Hon. Lawia Hra- 
daunt, and died 174D; and another daug^iter, ESii- 
abeth, was third wife to the Hon. 0«om Kfot- 
daunt, brother of Lewis. Eaxusa U. Botuu 

Gavendiah Hdom, Bnxtim. 

AxdXNT Cousx Bolls. — I have in my poawa- 
aoD several very early court rolls reUtii^ to the 
mraety of the manor <£ Bitton called OUIatd, 
and rolls relatdng to tbe bondred of Bitbm. Thav 
wwe putehased at Ueasrs. Puttick and Simpson a 
in 1861-2. The ^balnli^ ia, that other ancient 
rolls belonging to Bitton and Hanham were tamed 
out fmnx some lawyer's storC'rocHn, and di^teraed 
at the seme lime. I shall be thankful if any paa- 
seasor of such will do me the favour to commmd- 
eate with me direct, as Iwidito publish tbe whole 
series. H. T. ELLLoeooM. 

Bectmy, GIjM 8t OenKe, Topdum. 

"Dn CoKrms Athkh inimnrK, " — A vfdnme 
bearing the heading " De Comitiis Athenienmam," 
from which the title is absent, has recently come 
midei my notice. The date, 1819, ocrars at the 
end of the preface. I shonld be olad if any cot- 
respondent eonld fnntish me witn the name of 
tbe anthor. Tkkvob Fbbsax. 


Livnrs Eholibh Euobavxbb, — The Editor of 
" N. & Q." will greatly obli{^ me by allowing me 
to make nae irf us widely-«re«latcd joumaTand 
oUiging c w wa p ondenta, for the pnrpoae ot iaqmiv 
ing tor abort hMgn^hiMl notea (Mmplaee dato 
of iMrtit— master wder whom studied— principal 
maaten — and woAs after wliidi waited. Ice Ik.) 
of die Ibllowinff tiring I^lish enRKven:— ■ 
John Fred. BromlOT, F.BaeiHi, Bob.Bdl,TlMBaa 
Oldbam Bariow, Henry Beckwith, Sam. Bellin, 
Sam. H. Baker, G. and J. Comen, J. J. Chant, 
Sam. Carter, W. Chevalier, and H. Comwu. MaHy 
repliea will be thankfully received, as the notea an 
to DBoaed ferawoAaneagravera and tbeirwtaka. 

TT-wmtm r SjWVT, 

Fdszb at a Bakvutt. — EhmdnliA, T&Am of 
Boeheater, appmnted that at eveir faait of SL 
Andnw tha monte of the cathedna AonU pro- 
vide a large qaanti^ of {nridcna it fta fertiraL 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4»9.rv.Acot«T2i,'flP. 

In Flgher'a Butwy of SoeAeiUr u a long liflt of 
the good tbinge ; among them appears the mn^ular 
item of tixtff bundtei of fane. Waa the rurw 
used for cooking purposea P Geoboe Bedo. 

6, PDlrojB Road, BrixUm. 

Kewr — I am unable to find the derivation of 
this word, -which is applied in Norden's map ta 
the horae-ehoe cloister at St Oeor^'a Chapel, 
Windsor. Can anj of your readers give me th* 
information? C. B. T. 

Ladies Travblliso ok Hobseeace. — In Reld- 
ing's Tom Joru* we read of ladiea travelling in 
this manner, and it appears that all the inne 
-where horses were kept for hire weie furnighed 
with side-saddles for tnis pu^se. In this way 
Sophia Western and her raajd travel from her 
father's house in Somersetahire to Evesham, in 
Worcestershire ; accompanied, aa appears to have 
been the custom, by a mounted guide. la there 
any mention of this custom wiywhete elseP I 
have not met with such in any other work that I 
hare read belonging to the eighteenth century. 
Thob. Kbishtlet. 

Wasted r La Teaite. — Some account of " La 
Trappe " and its connection with the Duchesae de 
Montba^on. The precise meaning of the word 
Sacoca, N. K. 

Hedal with Hbad op Chomwell. — Could 
any of your numerous contributors give a clue to 
the period or for what purpose the followinfr badge 
or medal waa struck P It is of silver, oval form, 
one and a half or two inches in diameter. On one 
side a head evidently intended for Oliver Crom- 
well'a, and the reverse a shield of arms sur- 
mounted by a marqueas' coronet — Argent, a bar 
gules, three torteaux in chief. That may not be 
Uie proper blazonir, aa the engraving of the arms 
is much worn, and a guess has paruy to be made 
as to the colours. A. T. H. 

Name aks TiTLEa wanted.--" Raja ofBisna- 
gar, or Naraingua, a.d. 1505" (Osorio's Hiilory 
of the PoHu^ueie, i. 243).— What was the name 
and titles of the R6ja of Bisnacar, or Naraingua, 
who in I60S sent an ombasaador on board the 
ship of Don Francisco de Almeida, Viceroy of 
Goa, when at anchor off Gannanar, proposing a 
marriage between his daughter,* " a virgin of re- 
puted beauty," and John/ the son of Emmanuel, 
the King of Portueal? And what reply waa 
made to the propostu ? 

la he the same as Janamejava, son of P&rilnhita, 
P&ndu-vanai, who was styled Sarpa Satra, or 
enemy of the Sarpaa, or N±gaa, literally aerpents 
or snakes, on account of the barbarous massacre 
at this tribe, made at Harihara, 160 miles south- 

east from Goa, on the occasion of the solar eclipse 
viable at that place on Sunday, April 7, 1521,* 
when a vast number of them were burnt to death 
with cold-blooded cruelty, in fires kindled for the 
purpose P R. R. W. Ellib. 

Sllrcrou, near Exeter. 

Political Pribosbeb ct Polabd. — During any 
of the three Pt^sh revolutione, were any of the 

Elitical prisoners sent to work for life, or for a 
IS period, in the salt-mine of Wielitska F 


GuiraER OF TiiBimY Fobt. — In the parish re- 
gister of Gravesend I find the following entry — 
" 1712. July 14, the vrife of Mr. Daniel Hall, 
Gunner of Tilbury Fort, buried." Daniel Hall 
waa not merelya common gunner in the sense -we 
use the term now, as ia clear from bia being 
entered in the Heralds' Visitation of Herte for 
1669. What was the nature of the office he 
held P Can any cgrreapondent give me a list cf 
the gunners of Tilbury at that time, with an 
account of their duties P G. W. M. 

WATLiifo Street ra Keht.— 1 should like to 
know the reasons for concluding, as moat writers 
do, that the Roman military way from Rochester 
to Canterbury went as the coach road now does 
through the Blean Forest, via Boughton Hill and 
Harbaldown. Of course, I know it is the nearest; 
but Jhave atrong reasons for doubting whether a 
road in the track of the present one existed dur- 
ing the occupation of the country by the Romans. 
I find the Watling Street generally called Roman, 
but some authors call it Saxon. Which is cor- 
rect, what is the origin of the name, and who first 
used itP I have been told that the Archieologia 
contains a few papers on Roman roads and sta- 

tions, but I cannot find what I want; perhM 
some one will kindly refer me to the particoji 
volumes containing information on the above eab- 


* A beiatifnl princen, the tiatcr and not dsoghter of 
t)u R^ of ffimani, according to l^fltaa, Gnuwita 
jAs Parttigatt dsM U Xwvaat Mtmde, L 214. 

ject P I have forgotten the number of yard* in 
a Roman mile, and have nothing at hand wUcIi 
supplies the required information. I looked Rt 
the old Magna Sritamtta, but it does not cODtain 
what I want. There are three scales of ten Aiil« 
called reapectdvely "great," "midle" («"c), and 
"small" What la the meaning of this P 

Gbobob Bedo. 
6, Putn»9 Road. Brixton. 

[Answers to be gent direct to Qaeriab^ whou adtlTMsci 
are mtwcribed.] 

Amei Familt/. — Can any of your readers give 
me a clue to the early history and origin of the 
Ames family P A history of the American branch 
of the family is being compiled by one of the 
name in that country, and be informs me that it 
* "N. 4Q.,"4U'S. L610. 

v»B.iv. Ad<:™t2i,'69.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

is to be published in two years. They trece to 
one who emiptited from Bruton, in Someraptsliire, 
tthout 1636. My own fiimily, na far ae I have 
traced them, were at Shejitoii Slallet, Somerset, 
and were most of them buried at Doulting, There 
were Ames's in Norfollt early in the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Were they of the same family P The name 
18 remarkable for its uniform spelling for the last 
four hundred veara. (Joe theory of its orifrin is a 
derivation from the French name Kcm^n, Can 
tbey have sprung from the Amvas family V 

itEGrSALD .\i(Klil. 

Sew Univoraity Cinl), St. JiimpB'H Street. 

'Fklta.Y HiSTOHT.— Wanted, pedierees of the 
following familicB ; — Yeomans ; Bowcher Eoe of 
Shabden, Devon; Cole of Thetford, Norfolk; 
IWeat; Shove of Oporto ; Ivena of Oporto ; Eger- 
ton J Hore ; Isherwood ; Church of Devon ; Barons 
of Goodman's Fields; Parry, Light, iBoac, Rodman, 
Mid PazoQ. 

Addre«a, II. A. Biubre, Mr. Lewis, Stationer, 
Gower Street, Euston Square, 

tSurrfrtf tnil^ SiiKfnn-d. 

St. JoHs'a Day asd St. Swithin.— Can you 
tell me the proverb relating to the ettect of rain 
on St. John's Day, also the words of any proverb 
Telating to St Switliin? ' S. A. 

[Perhspa the two following, -wliich we tmnacribp from 
RazIiU's Eigliih Froccrbi and Proverbial Phraia, are 
those nhich our corre-iponilcnt is in search of; — 
■- All the tears tlint St, Swithin can erv, 

St Bsrlhol'mew's dusty mantle can drj-."— P. 49, 
" If St. Swithin weep, (hat je»r, the proverb aays. 
The weather will be foul for forty days."— P. 221. 

Tbe Germana have a somewhat similar proverb : 

"Kegnofs an iro.wrer-Franen Tag" (HeimEnjuhung 
3f>ria, July 14). wenii tic liber's Gebirge geht, 90 regnet'e 
oaefa dnander vierzig Tasc." 

Mr, HaKlitl's note on the Istter proverb which wa have 
quoted ftom him shows other instances of the popular 
bdW in lonjT-continned rain about this period; — St. 
Swithin iiecms to have usurped the place of two giants, 
Prownos and Martiuianns, whose day was the 2nd of 
July. The latter day, as early as the Iweldh century, 
CDjojed the wme disaprEeHble notorletv ; — 

" Si pluit !n Fcirto Proeessi et Martiuiari, 
Qusdraginta dies continuare solel." 
The French say the same of (ho davs of St. JItdarJ and 

- S'il pleut le jour Saint-Mi'Jard, 

II pleuvra quarantc jours plus tard." 
■' Quand il pleut ii Saint-Oerraifl, 
II pleut qnarante jours apr^." j 

These latter proverbs have apparently been quoted by 
llr. Hailitt from Pluquel's CoiUet Populaim, etc. ; bnt 

our correspondent will find much additional matter re- 
specting Ihem in Le Ronx de Liner's Livn da Prorerbrl 
/mufoij, ((c. torn. i. p. 78, 80.] 

_ Fanaticism and Tbeaboh. — Among a collec- 
tion of tracts published during the last half of the 
last century, I find one with the following title r — 

"Fanalieism aud Treason ; or, a diepamionalc liistorv 
of Ibo Rise, PmfiTe«s, and Suppreuion nC the Rebellious 
Insurrection* in .June. 1780, bv a Real Friend to Religion 
and lo Britain. London : printed for G. Keurslev, No. 4G, 
Fleet Street, u.ncc.ucix." 

The work is a demy 8vo of ninety-two pafrea. 
On the Inst page there is a postscript containing 
the following announcement : — 

" Should this meet the approbation of the puWic it 
will be followed bv a short aupendix, after tbe trials of 
all tbe rioters, and tlic Dual exlinclion of all the ombeis 
of rebellion." 

The work contains many anecdotes not usually 
found in the histories of that period. I wish to 
ask if the author is knovfn, and if the appendix 
and trial of the rioters ever appeared P T. B. 

[The ■ 

edition of Faaalicism ami Trauaa, with 
ildidons and corrections, was published in 
I7S1. The Appendix contains thirty-two pageaof addi- 
tional matter. The writer says, "It was the iulentlou l<> 
have ^ven a particular account of the trials of all the 
rioters ; but such an account what reader would wish to 
peruse F Tbe writer is glad to escape from a task which 
appears as unnecessary, as it certainly would be unpleu- 
eoiit. .Suffice it that, at the Old Raitey, eighty-flve were 
trieil fur tbe riot's of whom thirty-five were eapIlaUy cou- 
victod; at St, Margaret's Hill twenty-four out of fifty." 

120. The authorship of the work is unknown.] 

BcBHKL. — I have before me in MS. " Memoirs 
of y* Life of Tho. Bushel, Esq." containing abotit 
five pas«a folio. He is said to have " lived in 
James I., Charles I., and Charles IL's time," and 
to have been " a very ingenious and learned man, 
but of no great estate, so that he was in some 
sort of office several years under the famous 
Chancellor Bacon." Who was he, and is there 
any account of him already in print ? 

Chables Jaceson. 

Don caster. 

[Thomas Bushel was bom in WorcMtcrsliire in 15W, 
and educated at italliol Colleee, Oxford. lie was after- 
wards in the service of Lord Chancellor Bacon, on whose 
disgrace he retired into Oxfordshire, In reside on bis 
a strongly attached to the royal cause, and 
ir to eulertoin Charies I. and his queen at 
for his services was made maaUr i>f the 
Wales. In tbia now appointment he esta- 
blished ■ mint, and coined money, which ho sent to his 
sovereign at Oxford. At (he EestoraUon be was per- 
mitted, by Act of Pariiainent, (o work and improve the 
lead mines of Mcndip, in Somersetshire. lie died in 1674, 


K0TB8 AND QDEBIE8. [i« a- iv. Ao.iai !i. m. 

ud wal Hirliiil iB tbt dolitan of WestmiiuCn Abbe7. 
ilepnbUilMd—l. Speeds udSoDeitt the PiewDtrntnt 
of Lhe Kock at Eiuton to the Qomd, ia 1690, Ito. 3. A 
Juat BDd True Eemooetruice of Hit Hqesty'a Mines 
Roykl in Wile^ 1642, 4te. 3. Ad GxtncC d the Lord 
Bicoa's Philoaophicil Thmr; in MInar&l FroMeutioDS. 
1660, 4to. Fide Uanning and Bny'n Surrtf, lU. 6t3, 
■ol p. czlix. i uid Chunben'i Biegn^iltg ef Wortata- 
Mrt, p. ISO.] 

Sib PBAiTcra Drair. — Are any of the iinme- 

diate doscendimta of Sir Fruicia Drake still alive P 

M. A. Piin-i- 

H of Sir Francis 
Diake living. The hmooa admiral died childleu. Hit 
brather. Captain Tlioiiia* Dnk<,af Plymoutb, inherited his 
atales, anil wu aucceeiliid b; hit eideit son. Sir Francis 
Drake "tile yogngei," who was cniated a baronet in 1622. 
Hii last liuul ducoudant was Sir Francis Henry Drake, 
who djian unmarHed InlTM, the baroaetcy expired. In 
18S1 it iras nrired in the perKU of Mr. Thamaa Trayton 
Foliar, Dspheir tu the wconti and Itut Bsroo UeathSeld, 
Droin wbom be Inherited the Devonataire estates of the 
Drake fiunily, and theroupoo auumed the joint iuiue» 
of EUott and Drake.] 

RiDiHi} THS Stabo. — I abonld like full parti- 
cttlara respectiiig the remarkable ceremonT or 
" riding the stsng," also cuatomary in Yorkahire ^ 

hare taken the law too mnch into his own handi- 

and inflicted improper punishment upon his wife. 

M. A. I'aull. 


[Full partlndara of this custom (with an cngravinit^ 
an ginn In Catamban's Soot o/D^t, iL 5ia Consuls 
also Brand'a Ptfulat jMi^mHa, ed. 1849, iL 188 ; au<i 
"N. * Q." *^ S. X. 477. G19j xli. Ul, 483; S-^ S. 
it. 37.] 

Law ov IIovictDE.— Was there not a law bi 
which the homidde should be tied to the deail 
body, and thrown with it into tho soaF Whi.> 
was the originator of such a practice P and wa.-^ 
the punishment erer introduced into England? 

[The subject of the punialuiKnt which the Scnati 
law inflicted upon murderers ia still somewhat obecnrr. 
nia much, howei-er.ia known ihattbeae who committ«'J 
mntder on Ott penoa of a relative within a certain pn 
scribed define of affinity wen still, in the time of Cicer . 
KaUe to the socisit punialmient of being tird mfima tm ^ 
prndHromaimloAtma. This is the best informatkai wo 
can girc our a>rTt>f>ondent. Pnuishment by dju w uifc i: 
has arret bees leeqgniwd by the laws of Ellwand.] 


(4* s. iv. sa) 

Whan I lately pot before tlie aicbieolo^aal 
.rorld, throng tia pages <rf " N. & Q.," the idea 
i#hi<^ had atmcik me about the poamUe origin at 
Oamao, I did bo, not from any awf-aoffidaat con- 
viodon that I bad discovered the Iratb, but nvply 
from a wiah to offer, upon a moat obscure and 
(■erplexing aubject, an opportunity of bring^ 
nut opinions on this ride and on that. A good' 
tempered discusMon (a rare but not impoaaibl^ 
thing,) to be oondnctod by persona who had paid 
nttentjon to such matters, who would first eaie- 
I'tilly read what had been written, uid tfien as 
carefully wugb what they were goin^ to mj 
themselves, would not be amisB, end nowit mi^t. 
3o, in order to give some guarantee fbr good Dft- 
baviour, I added my name and address. 

The first " learned gentleman on the olhor 
aide " who makes his appearance, enters with a 
mask over his face, under the initials of W.W.W. 
(p. 68). This ia bardty according to the rulea of 
a literary tournament. 

Before replying to his remaAi I would juit ny 
jto all who have done me the honour of ra a diim - 
my paper, that I have no doubt it ro*y hawo ap- 
peai«d to offer what at first sight would bs in- 
mediately pronounced, by many, to be a itiaag» 
I and incrediole eiplaoation of the stanee of CwmCL 
I But on secoivl thoughts and a little n " 
may poswbly be recollected that no « _ 
could very well be otherwist^ seeing flwt t3 

one thing yet much more stnnge and ii 

and that is, tbe stonea of Camae thcsnad 
as in the caas of Egypt: who tbatbad Bent BSim 
of such a woi^ would believe that a nun knd 
once emfdoved tbouaai^ of kbourcos fa r My 
yean to mle up a huge solid man o* ^^^^ 
. stones SOOfeet higher Oum St Fknl'a GadMdnl, 
! and covering a apace as large as Unooki'a Imt 
Field*, only for the pmpoae of eoat wiria g hia 
empty cramnia, ribs, S£^ after hia d e a th t Ko- 
body. But go to the Great Pyramid, cieep into 
it, and there is tbe expUnation, believe it oi not. 
I And to, if it did Bot actually exiat, who wonll 
' ever believe that acBie other panon oanaed tm 
! or twelve tbouannd large Uocfa of gramto to be 
set on end for seven or eirtt mUea ov« a wild 
beathF Again, nobodv. Bnt go to CanaD, vi 
(here they are. Erplain it tew jwt wffl, tkn 
explanation must be sbartge. ' * *" 

tfCamacthesnadrea. Jnat 

owes ita or^in to a ^- -. j. 

tbat it repreMiiti soma pnUie tiipc«««Btaf tta 

deepest inttmetatOetiBe. IWpvttnOveTM* 

liti^M^Mttot^t^Uoa. I4a«rtnHt 

«»s.iv.Aooost2i,'69.] NOTES AND QUEBIEa 


that it iB. Bat will any one name a stronger 
motiTey or any solution more obviously likely? 
At all events the idea, being novel, seemed to 
me to deserve a little consideration. It might lead 
to inc^uiry, closer research, and more accurate de- 
scription. Onl^, if we are to wait until some 
explanation is given that shall not sound strange, 
it will be a considerable time before the stones of 
Camac are explained at all. 

Such preliminary ideas as these cannot have 
occurred to W. W. W. ; or perhaps he would 
have been somewhat less in a hurry to demolish 
me, and he would have written witn a little less 
confidence. As he has chosen to tinge his words, 
here and there, with a flavour of irony, he will 
excuse my saying at once, that instead of gene- 
nrasly assisting a difficult inquiry in the spirit in 
whida I courted assistance, he rushes against me 
with an impetuosity which only ends in clogging 
the discussion with inaccuracy and rather crude 
objections. I take his inaccuracy first. It refers 
to Stonehenge and the opinion of the late Mr. 
Henry Wansey of Warminster. 

Now the point is to general readers so utterly 
iasignificant that I am sorry to take up their time 
with it But as W. W. W. does his best to 
damage me by laying great stress upon it, I can- 
not deprive myself of the pleasure of informing 
bim that he is altogether in the wrong. Why he 
flhomld so emphatically exalt Mr. Wansey as a 
great authority upon Stonehenge, is best known 
to himself. Wiltshire archaeologists are not ig- 
norant of who Mr. Wansey was, and of his merits 
as an antiauary. He supplied the late Sir R. C. 
Hoare witn some local mformation about Wsr^ 
minater ; but in Sir K. C. Hoare's full account of 
Stonehenge no opinion of Mr. Wansey's is recog- 
nised* I have had a little trouble in finding it, 
tad having at last done so, am able to inform 
W.W. W. that he actually does not know what 
]Ik» Wansey's opinion was. W. W.W. says it 
was die ^' sepulchral theory '' ; that this vras 
Wtnsey*s " Sanctum," his special private pro- 
{oty, secured to him, I suppose, by patent; that 
Wtnsey ^^ propounded " the theory "that Stone- 
henge was erected a.d. 450, to perpetuate the 
treacherous massacre by Heugist." This he again 
mentions as the "revived theory of Wansey/* 
which, he says, I have appropriated. 

Now supposing that Wansey had held that 
Aeonr, I beg to ask W. W. W., how could it 
possibly be Wansey's '* Sanctum " and special 
property, when both Leland and Thos. Warton, 
whom I named in my paper, had held it long be- 
fcre him ? I will save W. W. W. the trouble of 
tryiog to get out of this difficulty, by presenting 
Hm with a greater, viz., that Wansey never heM 
tiiis sepulchral theory at all ! He held exactly 
^ contrary ; for his words are, ^' It is not pro- 
^ibk that Stonehenge vras erected to perpetuate 

the massacre.*' Wansey's opinion was (as stated 
by himself) that Stonehenge was the oldest mon- 
ument we have, an " Ante-Druidical Astronomical 
Tropical Temple." Ev^ this was no original 
notion of his own ; for a Mr. Warltire, Dr. Smith, 
and others, had said the same thing long before 
him. So that he had no <' Sanctum ** of any kind. 
What he thought about Stonehenge was merely 
what others had put into his head ; and as to the 
" sepulchral theory " which I am paraded (by 
W. W. W.) before the public as having appro- 

Enated from Wansey, it was the very one which 
e denied. My autliority is Mr. Wansey himself. 
See a little pamphlet called Stonehenge, toith Vari" 
OU8 Conjectures (Piper & Co., Paternoster Row, 
1865), under « Wansey 1796,'* p. 63 ; also, Gent. 
Mag. 1824, part u. p. 605. So much for W. W. 
W.'s accuracy. Now for his objections ; and first 
as to what I said about Stonehenge. 

On this he observes : ^ Similar structures ** (♦. «. 
similar to Stonehenge) ''are scattered all over 
the world.'* Now I do not wish to be hyper- 
critical, but this statement is surely a little too 
broad. It might have been safer to say that 
" structures of a similar class, or character,^* are 
not uncommon : otherwise it might be supposed 
that the great wonder of Salisbury Plain is no 
such wonder after alL The similarity which 
W. W. W. speaks of is very slight indeed, but 
the differences are very great In several respects 
Stonehenge is quite unique. 

Of these various circles of detached blocks (the 
greater part of which are insi&rnificant when com- 
pared with Stonehenge) W. W. W. says, " they 
are Temples of the oun." Some of them very 
possibly may have been so; I never said they 
were not: but it is rather remarkable that the 
only stone structures (sa far as I know) in Europe, 
that present ang approach in similariihr to the 
pecukar features of Stonehenge are not Temples of 
the Suny but sqntlchral monuments. 

In Olaus Magnus's History (Basle, 1567, p. 37) 
is a rude woodcut of stones, some of which are set 
up in the trilithon form: and in Eeysler (AMtiq. 
Septentrionales (12mo, Hanover, 1720, p. 7) is an 
e<][ually rude representation of a circle of stones, 
with blocks overlying them. I have also a refer- 
ence to a circle between Magdeburg and Branden- 
burg, said to be something like Stonehenge, as 
deeoibed in ToUius's I^piM^ Minerarusy but I 
have never seen the book. In all these casea 
the several authors describe the monomenta as 
sepidchral memoriais* 

Another of this critic's criticisma. In the little 
I said about Stooehenffe I stated that I had, after 
much difficulty, found some rest m the opudons 
of others, and I named Leland and Thomas War- 
ton. My meaning was that I concurred with 
them, but not akogether. Thej appear to have 
belieyed that Stonehenge was ereeted wholly,. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4«» s. iv. auouw 21, 69. 

And for the first time, in memory of tlie massacre. 
My own idea is that there did exist already on 
the spot certain ancient holy stones, which made 
the place very sacred in the eyes of the people ; 
that that was the very reason why the King 
•selected it, and that having done so he en- 
larged the structure hy the addition of other 
holy stones also of some peculiar celehrity. The 
legendary story says he fetched the fresh ones 
from Ireland. Without insisting upon that (al- 
though it seems to me far from improhable, for 
several reasons too long to enter upon), still, sup- 
posing the additional stones alluded to to have 
oeen those of the smaller circle, certain it is that 
they must have been brought not less than a 
hundred miles. But W, W. W. is ready in a 
moment to annihilate any notion of enlarging the 
structure at the period supposed (a.d. 470) by a 
conclusive argument — viz. Britain, he says, was 
at the time in too disturbed a condition to admit 
of the operation. The inner circle of thirty 
«tones (the original number, I believe, was forty), 
weighing several hundred tons, must have been 
brought a distance of a hundred miles at least ; 
and how could such an " astonishing " feat have 
been performed ? The answer is simple enough. 
The stones he speaks of (judging from the most 
perfect that remain) are, as blocks of stone, abso- 
lutely nothing. There is many an old Wiltshire 
milestone, such as we call '^ long stones/' quite as 
large. The whole thirty (I deal only with W. W. 
W.'s own figures) would not weigh more than 
130 tons — if so much. Now, in order to convey 
thirty (call them) double milestones, for three or 
four days, with a gang of bullocks and drays, 
was it really necessary that all Britain should 
be at profound peace P Messrs. Pickford & Co. 
would smile. Certainly people cannot well be 
doing two things at the same time. If they are 
fighting, they cannot be driving bullocks, and 
vice versa. But when a country is disturbed, it is 
not everybody that is busy murdering everybody 
else. Let me recall to my critic's memory the 
>' troublous days of King Stephen" which he 
happens to name. Never was this country in 
^ater disquietude than at that time, yet (so say 
our histories) never were more castles and monas- 
teries built — castles, more than eleven hundred ; 
and as to monasteries, the preface to Tanner's 
Notitia (edit. 1744, p. viii.) informs us that '< the 
troubles which this kingdom was involved in for 
a great part of this reign could not restrain the 
piety and charity of the people from building 
religious houses ; for, in eignteen years and nine 
months, there were now founded " 131 monas- 
teries ! which, I think, must have required some- 
what more labour than the hauling of 130 tons of 
«tone ! 

But the real truth (entirely overlooked by this 
critic in his haste) is, that at the time when I 

suppose Stonehenge to have been enlarged into a 
memorial, Britain xoas actualfy at peace from one 
end to the other. The days were no longer 
" troublous." Turn to Geoffrey's History (Giles's 
translation, p. 166), and it will be found that the 
fighting was over; and that the king having 
routed all his enemies, went about ordering re- 
storation of churches at York, London, Winches- 
ter, &c., and that, arriving in the course of his 
tour at Ambresbury, he ordered a sepulchral 
memorial to be set up to the nobility who had 
been massacred there a few years before. 

But, no : W. W. W. will not allow me to enlarge 
Stonehenge in a.d. 470 at any price. " The Saxon 
Chronicle " (says he ) '* is utterly silent on the sub- 
ject of the biulding." Well: the Saxon Chronicle 
was not a communicative public informant that 
reported all that was going on. It is sometimes 
mighty brief in its news. The whole events of 
an entire year are now and then compressed into 
a single fine : as, for example, " Anno 644. This 
year Whitgar died — and they buried him." This 
IS the whole record for the year 644, and some- 
times years are given without any record at all. 

I pass over a whole column which appears to 
refer, not to me, but to something that the late 
Archdeacon Williams said or did. 

At last he notices that which was in realitv the 
main point of my paper — Camac. This he fhav- 
ing hitherto said not a word about it) dismiases, 
telling us that '' he has little to add : beyond the 
fact uiat similar paralellitha (but upon a veiT 
inferior scale) are to be seen on the heights of 
Dartmoor." The " similarity " is again very 
slight, but the difference enormous. The only 
suggestion, however, that he can make for the 
origin of the petty roios of stone on Dartmoor 
(which are by no means abundant, for it is oirotn 
that are there more frequently found) is, that 
they may possibly have been put up for the health- 
ful exercise of running races among them ! Does 
he mean to suggest that as the origin of Camac ? 
I cannot for a moment suppose that he does ; biit 
all I have to say is that tins is the solitary ray of 
liffht which his paper throws upon that very daxk 

(jne more of his objections must not pass witli- 
out notice. 

^ Had this terrible catastrophe [tlie shipwreck and fate 
of the emigrant ladies] on the coast of Britanny hap> 
pened, there would have been no Fluellin a few centnries 
later to compare the rivers of Macedon and Monmouth; 
the pedigrees of Welshmen (to whose nation it is my 
happiness to belong) would have been more effectual!}' 
cut off than by the waters of the Deluge. In fine, the 
race of the Cymry would have been as completely extin- 
guished as the Dodo in the Eastern or the Moa in the 
Southern Hemisphere." 

If I could ever for a moment have imagined 
that such fearful results would have ensued upon 
the drowning of poor Princess Ursula and net 

4"«S.1V. Auol-.st2I,'69.] 



companions, far, very far, would it have been 
from me even to have mentioned the subject. 
But allow me (like the running engine-man at 
Swindon Station) just to give with my hammer a 
gentle tap to the 7tietal of this argument; and see 
what sort of ring it returns. 

It amounts to this : that when old Britain 
sent out a colony, consisting of about as many 
men, women, chUdren, and sweethearts, as any of 
our large London parishes (say St. Pancras) now 
contains, the whole of Britain was depopulated, 
not a man or woman left ! Well, as I must give, 
as gravely as I can, an answer to a statement so 
elaborately put forth, it is this. 

It is remarkable that whenever the population 
of Britain in those early days is mentioned in old 
writers, it is always reported as very great. 
Julius Ca?sar described it as " infinita multitudo," 
Diodorus Siculus as " very thickly inhabited, hav- 
ing many kings and princes." Tacitus speaks of 
•' validissimas gentes." Boadicea's %inny alone 
consisted of 120,000. Procopius says, " So great 
is the fecundity of these British islands that every 
year vast numbers migrate with their wives and 
children, and go to the Franks." Valerius Maxi- 
mus's account is *^ ingens multitudo." Other 
Iloman authorities, as well as our old British 
historians, speak of the great temtorial wealth of 
the country in com and cattle, mines, &c. All 
this tells the tale of abundant population. To 
talk of all Britain being depopulated by a colony 
to Armorica is mere extravagance. I therefore 
think that this irhvel had better be withdrawn 
without loss of time from the carriage of W. W. 
W.'s reasoning, or else Fluellin, the Dodo, and 
the Moa, sitting inside in their opposite hemi- 
spheres, will surely come to grief. 

This gentleman finishes his remarks by a sneer 
at my " credulity." Xow this seems to me the 
poorest argument of all. How much or how little 
I may choose to believe, about the legendary his- 
tory of ** SainV^ I'rsula, is nothing to the purpose. 
There are two things connected with it which I 
not onh' believe, but am quite sure of. The first 
is, that hundreds of thousands of other people 
believed it all most thoroughly; and that this, 
like many other legends, gave rise to costly works 
of architecture, to large religious foundations, to 
tine paintings, mosaics, sculpture, and the like. 
A very large part of the noblest works of art of 
every kind that have come down to us owe their 
origin to legends. But if I attribute this and that 
to legends, does that pin me to the belief in the 
legends? I go into Westminster Abbey, and, on 
the tomb of Edward the Confessor, I see a group 
carved in stone. What it represents may perhaps 
be doubtful. I suggest that it very likely repre- 
sents the three ambassadors sent by Edward the 
Confessor to visit the Seven Sleepers, to see whe- 
ther they had turned round, as was reported, from 

the right to the left. Edward the Confessor may 
have believed in the Seven Sleepers; but his 
credulity must not be fastened upon me. Well, 
then, even if I had suggested that to the legen- 
dary story of "Saint" Ursula we may perhaps 
owe the stones of Camac, that would not have in 
any way pledged me to be the champion of the 
maivellous pai't of her history. It is by no means 
unlikely that a legend so notorious, so rich in its 
results all over Europe (and especially in Bri- 
tanny, as Mb. Mac Cabe has been so good as to 
inform us), might of itself have so far worked 
upon popular feeling as to lead to the erection of 
the great monument. But I did not lean upon 
the legend. As clearly as I could express myself, 
I distinctly stated that I attribute the monument 
to the original historical eventj and to the times 
when that event Jutppened, long before the legend 
was heard of. 

And I am simple enough to believe further, 
that legends, though marvellously embellished to 
please the credulity of the world, still may have 
a real origin in history. The historical fact may 
have been perverted or variously reported ; writers 
in different countries may have been anxious, for 
some special purpose, to have claimed their own 
countiT for the scene. I took the historical ac- 
count from an old British author, who placed it 
on the coast of Armorica, and who tells us that 
the facts of his history were taken by him from a 
much older MS. history found in Armorica itself. 
To call upon me at this time of day to reconcile 
all the various claims that have been made in so 
ancient an affair, is, I think, a little too much. 
My idea about Camac may be erroneous, but I 
have had no answer yet to prove it so. As for 
W. W. W.*s answer, I consider it none at all — 
and that is my reply to him. 

I would make just one remark upon Mb. G. V. 
Ibvinq's communication (p. 98). He says that 
he has tried my " key," ana that there are many 
wards which it will not unlock. I receive his 
report with great equanimity ; but for curiosity's 
sake, should like to know which they are ? The 
only one named by him may perhaps be eased by 
a drop of oil. He will not at all allow Stone- 
henge and Camac to be sepulchral monuments in 
memory of great tragic events. His reason (if I 
do not misunderstand him) being, that there are, 
elsewhere, a great number of small stone circles 
which have been used for actual interment or 
other purposes. I do not quite see the force of 
this. Apply the argument to another case: — 
Some hundreds of years hence the tall column in 
Trafalgar S<}uare may have lost its in8ignia,^and 
the antiquaries of those days may be disputing its 
origin. Supposing one of them were to suggest 
that, possibly, it had been a monument to some 
great national hero. If another antiquary were 
to reply: ''There are in Tarioos places, in the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4«» S. IV. August 21, '69. 

•centres of sqnares in country towns; or on tlie 
points of hius in gentlemen's private grounds, 
many small obelisks or pillars which appear to 
have been set up, not for any national purpose, 
but for some private object, onen for mere orna- 
ment : so that the large one in Trafalgar Square 
cannot possibly have been erected to any national 
hero." Would such an answer be conclusive? 
I scarcely think it would. 

As to Stonehenge : When Mb. Irvdtg observes 
that the great difficulty is, that "never the 
smallest trace of interment has been found within 
the circle" — if he means no interment connected 
with the massacre — ^that is not a difficulty in the 
way of anything I have said. It rather confiims 
the view I take of the matter ; which is, that the 
nobles massacred were buried most likely near or 
at Ambresbury monastery, and that, if Stone- 
hen^ circle were dug all over, none of their 
bodies would be found : for I consider that place, 
as we see it, to he & cenotaph, not a cemetery. 

The etymological coinciaence of Camo^ and Csr- 
nethjmeniion^ by another contributor, M. H. K. 
(p. 99), had not escaped me. Several other little 
verbal resemblances, of a like kind, I might per- 
haps have enlisted in my service ; but etymology, 
unless perfectly obvious, is a dangerous staff to 
lean upon. 

J. £. Jackson, Hon. Canon of Bristol. 

Leigh Delamere, ChippeDham. 

In this controversy I have not seen the follow- 
ing work alluded to : — 

** Gtioir Gaur ; the Grand Orrery of the Andent Dmidf, 
commonly called Stone Henge, astronomically explained, 
and mathematically proved to be a Temple erected in the 
earliest Ages, for observing the Motions of the Heavenly- 
Bodies. 4to, Salisbury, 1771.»* 

It will be found in the British Museum. J. K, 

(4*^ S. iv. 28, 120.) 

Mr. W. B. Cook is wrong in attributing to the 
Kev. Robert Blair the authorship of " several of 
the most beautiful paraphrases of Scripture, au- 
thorised by the General Assembly." The tniUi 
is, he did not compose or edit any one of them. 
But I have frequently remarked that when an 
erroneous notion gets abroad, it is almost impos- 
sible to substitute the correct one. A Scotti^ 
Mend informed me the other evening that some 
one, in his presence, lately offered to hazard his 
Mterary reputation on the fact that Bums com- 
posed ^ The Land o' the Leal " I Well, but here 
aie^ my sentiments on the present theme tran- 
scribed from Lyra Brilatmica, b. 665 (London, 
1867):— > r y f 

'* Respecting the aathorship of the Scottish Paraphrases, 
modem hymnists have entered into some unprofitable 

discnssions. In Notes and QuerieSf May 21, 1859, ap- 
peared a list of authors of the Paraphrases comnmnieatod 
by a correspondent, T. G. S., and dated Edinbargfa. In 
this paper, the fourth paraphrase is assigned to Robert 
Blair, author of * The Grave.' The author of other tfane 
paraphrases is denoted by the name * Blair * being placed 
in juxtaposition with their respective numbers in the 
senes. A London hjmnologist, struck with the oflldal 
aspect of the list, and prolwblv unaware of Dr. Hugh 
Blair's connectiGn with the ftoaphraaes, hastened to 
make known the supposed discovery that Robert Blaky 
author of * The Grave,' was also entitled to reputation aa 
a hymn-writer. The information was accepted, and the 
hjrmnist was congratulated, in a memoir of Robert Blair, 
on the importance of his discovery. There was error 
throughout. Robert Blair was mentioned in Notm and 
Qperiea as author of the fourth paraphrase only. The 
other *BUdr * of * the list' was Dr. Hu£^ Blair of EdJBr 
burgh. But error did not stop here. One of the para- 
phrases, the forty-fourth, ascribed to * Blair,' has proved 
to be a cento from the forty-third of Dr. Joseph StemMtfc*8 
* Lord's Supper Hymns,* and from Hymn 614 in thm 
Wesleyan Hymn-Book, one of Charles Wesley's ooam- 
sitions. Theffourth paraphrase, assigned in * the list t* 
Robert Blair, consists of nve verses ; while in the origiQal 
version of * Scriptural Translations,' issued by the Geoflcal 
Assembly in 1745, only three verses are given, and tiioee 
much inferior to the present version, and tottUy «B- 
worthy of the ingenious author of * The Grave.' SMwrt 
Blair died in 1746. We have now before ns a letter fkom 
Robert Blair, Esq., of Avontown, grandson of the aathor 
of * The Grave,' statins' that his ancestor was not known 
to his descendants as naving composed a single hymn I 
With respect to * the list of Paraplurase-writers,' we hftve 
received a communication from T. G. S., who eommaDi- 
cated it to Notes and Queries. He stdtes that his in- 
formation was not derived from original sources, but was 
chiefly drawn from an edition of the Paraphrases pvb- 
lished at Edinburgh in 183G, with notes by Dr. StebbtaK.** 

Dr. Huffh Blair, I may add, was collegiato 
minister of tbe Higb Church of Edinbaxtth* and 
Professor of Rhetoric in the University of Bdin- 
burgh. His ^' Lectur(&s " and '' Sermons ^ are well 
known. He remodelled one of Watts's hymns 
(Book I. No. 125); which appears as the fifty* 
seventh of the Church of Scotland Paraiphrases. Wb 
father was cousin of the author of ^ The Gtrvf^** 

Chables Rogers, LUD. 

Snowdoun Villa, Lewisham, S^, 

Abchbishop Mathew (4*^ S. iii. 264.) — Though 
'' N. & Q.^' has a large circulation at the antipodes 
it takes some time to reply from thence to tlie 
articles contained in its pages, or I should pre- 
viously have pointed out the error of the descent 
g^ven to the Archbishop of York| Toby Mathew 
(one t), in No. 64 of March 20, p. 264 

The strange mistake into which Thoresby was 
led by an old lady, whose memory blondered 
between two prelate^ was notorious at the lime ; 
yet the archbishop's immediate genealogy haa noL 
I believe, been clearly proved, Although in one oi 
the Glamorganshire descents of Matiiew in the 
Bri^h Museum a John, son of James of Boos in 
that county, is named as ''of Bristol," and as 
" married to an Englishwoman." 

«• & IT. ArsusT 21, '69.] 


Joim of Bristol, father of Tobias, who died in 
1661, names in his will his sisteT Elizabeth 
B*own of Ross (qj. Roos) "inWalea"; andflome 
iMMTCh at Boss and at Roos might clear up the ; 
■ptiat, eBpecialiy if accompanied by an examina^ | 
tion of any other and previous Mathew wills at I 

I have been unable to find the descent of the 
Mathew family by Hies Merrick, or by Lewis. 
Swynn, but Sir J. Heard gives those of two dii' 
imel families of the name in Glamarganabire. . 
Cnnot the arms boine by the aKhbishop when 
«i Dmbam or at York be ascertauned ? Ilany of 
hiB letters to Camden are in the Museum, and 
aome may touch on his descent. . I 

Many yeaia ago I sav at the British Museum, 
in a laige and well-written quarto, a long descent I 
«f ICauew of Linton, co. Hereford, from a John i 
MkUww of Radyr, Glamorgan, with the arms 
ed in colours. But whether the Toliune 
y of a Visitation or, as I rather suspect, 
il collection, I am not guie. I think, how- 
evir, that it was one of the Harleion MSB. 

I think that I am right in stating that the 
aiehlnahop lived for many years at Ragland Castle, 
■Hrfnting Kindred with the family ; or, could it 
have been bis son after his " conversion " F Q. 

ffrosaes, viz. le m^oniB Gorone Oooi en le ffirdt d« 
aoar Philippe la Tache ^idran det dits loialz, tt la 


(4"> S. iv. 115.) — This word is not 
me for a holiday, or day of recrea- 
. employed at Stonyhuist College, 
in to an ancient custom of the col- 
at Liege. IJlandyck was the name 
a country house to which they used to go at 
BBiea to spend n day of recreation. Thence it 
became customary to call such a day a Blandyck. 
Wlien the college was transferred to Stonyhuist, 
the old customs of Liege would very naturally be 
kept up. Thus the Ba,me days of recreation were 
oheerved, and have gone efec since by the name 
<dBimdyck. F. C. H. 

Sib Phuip le Vache (4"" S. iv. 97), or more 
correctly De la Vache, married Eliiabeth (not 
Eleanor), daughter of Sir Lewis Clifford. Blanche, 
his daughter and coheir (&om which it is pliun 
that be bad no son, or none who left issue) was 
the first wife of Richard, Lord Grey de Wilton. 
Elizabeth, Lady de la Vache, died about 1413. 
He following notices of Sir Fbilip in the Rolls 
may perhaps interest C. J. R. ; — 

1375. Harria^ of Jobn, kid and heir of John Mow- 
brav of Axibolm, granted to Philip Conrtenay (son of 
Earl of DcYoa) and Philip la Vactae. Westminster, 
Soy. 4. {Bot. Pal., 49 Edw. Ill, p. 2.) He died nn- 

137a Le Roy a tons eU. Porce que le reaerent piete 
en disn William Evesque de Londree, ct nostre cfaer et 
U«l ttma Bichard Conle d'AroDdell ont liaeiez i D0« 
TrMDTCi et Cbambeileliu de noatre Euhequer a noatre 
*iefU ka ioialx qoe enanient: CestoSBavoir, 3 grandea 
corones dor oaeaq; Rubies, Saffin, " ... 

susai en la garde de dit Mons. Philippe. Item, vne 
grande nouche onesqs vne grant cerf blank en my liim 
naufnis dune luhie poiunte, 4^. Oi. Wd. It«m, la palet 
deepaigne tont dor et de perre ouewj3 tea 3 peeei de la 
suite. Item, touts la yesael doi tronei oi U ^ude d( dit 
Mona. Philippe, tooi lea qnenz ioudz eitleiit nadgaire 
baillez aa ditz Eveaque et Conte, > raider en ooele main 
pur greindre aenrtee de paiement de vne same de dn 
mille liures deateriingei par Joluui Philipot, CStein da 
Londm et ccTl«iDi avli ' 

eide et auoncement dune viage el 
destie fait sur la mser. Weatmint 
PaL, I Ric. II., p. 4.) 

1399. Tbe caatodf of Wallingford Oatle, in whidi is 
at preamt the hoi^iciam of Iwbelle Qneen of EncUad, a 
committed to William [Le Scrope] Earl of Wilt^dra, 
BuMy, Knight, Henry Grene, Knight, WiUiam 

Bagot, Knight ; the offices of the castle aie Brantw 
Huirh le Deaoenser aad Philip la Vacbo. Witness im 
Dake of York], at St. Albana, July tOl 

{Re*. PaL, !3 Ric II.) 

1400. PyUp de la Vecbe, Chamberlain of our deaiett 
caaBintbeQueen|;itabeIle,widOTa(RidiardII.]. Wttt- 
minstw, Jul; 13. {Bat. Fat., 1 Hen. IV.jk 8.) 

1414. Eliubetb, wife of Philip de la Vache, Knl^t, 
jam dtfimeia. Mar. 12. {But. Pat^ 1 Hen. V. p. B.) 

Wiltshire MoatmxBSBa (i"" S, ir. 7S^~ 
Mr. John Yonge Alerman, in hie WiltdAv Two, 
puta the following explanation, in the dialect of 
the county, into the mouth of a Wiltahiw 
peasant: — 

" Hple lay as how Ihty gied th' neam o' mooarakers 
to we Wiltahire vauk, bekaae a panel o' slnpid bodies 
one ui^t tried to raks the ahadow o' th' moon ont o' th' 
bruk, and tnk t vor a thin cbeese. But that's Ui' wrong 
ind o' th' Blory. The chapi aa was doio' o' Ihii vai 
Bmn^glen, and they was a viahing up zome kega o' 
spemts, and only pnrtcnded to rake out a cheese. Zo 
the exciseman as axed 'em the qaeatin had big grin at 
'era ; but tliey had a good laugh at he, when 'em got 
whoaine the ^uff." 

1 used to see in Southampton aaate thirty yean 
ago, at the junction of French and Bugle Slieeta, 
where it may still exist, the dgn of a public- 
houae called " Wiltahire Moonracen." It reim- 
sented two men standing by a pond, in which 
speared the reflection of a full moon. A saikr 
was seen in the backgronnd, running towardi 
them ; doubtless a coast-guanl, which wonld be 
in a sea-port town the natnial idea of any officer 
of either the cnstoma or excise. Thia would 
seem to confirm Hr. Aherman's veraion; and I 
have reason to h^eve that formerly a great deal of 
smuggling was carried on between Sonthampbm 
and South Wilts. The other vermon is that 
certain Wiltshire peasants actually raked for the 
reflection of the moon, in the full belief that it 
was a cheese. 

I have lived in Wiltshire man than sixty yeai% 
and have heard both legends given indiscrimmately, 

XOTES AND QUERIES. [v^s.iv.Jlvovwi2i,'m. 

You*Br: YoooHooET (4"" S. ir. 01.)— The | 

SaasBige in Homer to which Mk. Hbhuank Kdisi , 
esires to be directed occura in Iliad, v. 903, 903. | 

'fit S' St' irhs ■jd\aXtviibr imiydiitrot auri7n)(iy, 
'Typiv i6f, fid^.a 3' ^tta rtpurrpiptTOi KVKiarrt. 

EDiimiD Tsw, M.A. 

Patching Kector;', AruDdet. 

This prepuration ia not, na Me. Hermann Kindt 
tbinlrs, the same aa Devonshire clouted or clotted 
cream, for he fau accuratelj described the add 
flavour ot yoffkoort. The repreeentative of clotted 
cream is called kaimac, and ia prepared from the 
milk of the common cow, orbuSalo cow. Yoghoorl 
ia bj some considered to produce fever. It is 
variously applied, for some have a fancy to wash 
their focea with it. • Hcde Clabeb. 

The passage in Homer to which Herb Einot 
refers is Jiiad r. SX)2. On this passo^ Eustathius 
(p. 472, 20) says:— A^vwu. ^imi ri»i, (ol ri 

7aAaKTia9it ttis iruiiqt. C. T. KamASS. 

Ceosino op the Thames Tunnel (4"" 9. iv. 
06.) — la noting this fact it ie well to pomt out an 
inaccuracy in the quotation from The Timet, which 
has already gone the round of the papera, but now 
embalmed in "N. & Q.",will become an historical 
recoid for future reference. Brunel'a initiala were 
not " I. S.," aa given by 75^ Timet, but M. I., his 
Christian names being Uark Isambard. The 
tunnel was commeuced by Mr. (not Sir) M. I. 
Brunei in 1624. He waa knighted in 1841. 

P. Le Nbve Foster. 

The Dodo's PoHTRAna (4'^ S. iii. 240, 301, 
448.) — A correspondent of " N. & tj." inquired 
after potttaita of the dodo. I think that Roland 
Savary often painted this extinct and curious bird 
in his pictures representing the Golden Age, or 
the. Garden of Eden. Unfortunately I can only 
refer your correapcndent to two such portraits. 
The pictures which contain them are numbered 
respectively 710 in the Royal Museum of Berlin 
ana 13:t in the Museum of the Hague. There are 
portraits of the dodo in the British Museum and 
m the Ashmolean, bat by whom painted I know 
not Lately I remarked m the TJtKzzi Gallery at 
Florence a small picture, representiiifr a mandrake, 
by Van Kessel. It is numbered 896, and has 
painted on it the words — " Mnndragora del Na- 
ttrei." Can any of your correspondents explain 
the meaning of the word " Nadrei " to me ? 

H. B. ToMKiss. 

Sew noivenily Club. 

Flint Implements found in South Apbica 
(4* S. ii. 500.)— When /indraw Geddes Bain, the 
well-known Cape geoloaiat, visited this country 
in 1S63-4, he brought with him aeveral specimens 
of celts, arrow-heads, kc, similar to the flint im- 
plements found in the chalk and aimilar forma' 
tions in Europe, which ha had found in cAvema 

on or near the Bushman's River, a few miles east 
of Port Elizabeth ; also in caves in the Kat lUver 
mountains, across which he had been lately con- 
struclinj a road. The stones in question bore 
unquestionable marks of chipping, and varied in 
size from that of a shilling to a crown piece; 
some of them appeared to be formed of a hard 
clay slate, and othera of a porphyritic rock, but 
none of silex or flint proper, aa the chalk formation 
ia not found in South Africa. They were evidenUy 
the handiwork of the wild Bushmen, who still ate 
found living in cavea in the rocky fastnesses in the. 
wild region at the head of the Orange River sources, 
but who were at one time spread cdl over the Cape 
Colony, and with whom the bow and arrow la 
still is uae. Mr, Bun, I believe, presented these 
celts to the Royal Geological So^ety, in whoee 
museum no doubt they sdll are. I believe those 
in the Cape Town museum were also presented to- 
it by Mr. Bain, or by Dr. Atherstone of Graham's 

Town, who has also collected c 

I do not 

think that Mr. Bain attached much importance to 
their antiquity; but atill they are curioua as show- 
ing in our own daya, although on another con- 
tinent, races of men living pretty much in the 
same state as the makers of tlie nint implements 
found in the drift were supposed to do in pre- 
historic timaa. H. Hah.. 


Bradshaw, the Reoicide (4'" 8. ii. 34.) — 
The following eitract from the StafordMre Ad- 
vertiter of July 24, 1860, agrees with my former 
communication : — 

" Grmnwity Kail, aa old fBim-house, waa occupied by 
BradBhavr known as tbe regiuide. he being one of the 

t' idges who votwl for the eseeuliou of Charles the Firgt ; 
e aflerwards came to extreme misery ind want, ami 
nfCcr hi? death hia wife waa supporled by the pariah," 
(!4orth SlaHbrdxhiro Nataialials' Field Club.) 



Chapman's IIiuns of Homer (4"" S. iii. 28.y 

The copy at Wobum Abbey has on one fly-leaf 
" Isaac Reed, 1780. The MS. dedication ia in the 
handwriting of the translator Geo. Chapman."' 
On another fly-leaf— 

"ffor ye many Soblf fnuor^ reoeiu'd of ya righle 


The Lard RuMell : And desironae by 

All best aeniice, to crowne 

his Lo'* far' graces 

W' continewanee ; 

Georse Chapman 

Humblie in.iicTibe9 this crowne of all ye Homnicall 

Graces and Musea to his ImV Uonor j 

wishing Ihe aainc crownde 

aboue Tillr, 

And establishte past Marble." 

The engraved title is " Homer's Odyuet," &C. 

There ia no name of engraver, " Imprinted at 

London by Rich. Field for Nathaniel Butler." 

S. E. Mabtiv. 
Libraiy, Inner Temple. 

4«> S. IV. August 21. '69.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Fliktee-mousb (4**» S, iii. 576.) — Flinter- 
mouse seems to be a corruption of JUttermoiue 
<Ger. liedermaus: probably related to JUittemy 
to flutter, ». e, to fly with agitation of the wings ; 
to the verbs flit, flirt, flear). Writers of the last 
hundred years do not seem to have taken to the 
word flittermouse, howsoever expressive and poeti- 
cal it must be considered. I find it used by Ozell 
in his translation of Rabelais' Gargantua (book ii. 
chap, xxiv.) : — 

** After that he ^eased it with the fat of a hat or flit- 
termoiiae^ to see if it was not written with the sperm of a 
whaJe, which some call ambergris." — Vide Ozeil*s trans- 
lation. London, 1737» ii. 183. 

In a charming article in the Cornhill Magazine, 
July, 1866, most appropriately called " The Poetry 
of Provincialisms," tnere occurs the following 

**The bat claims half a dozen names [in provincial 
£ngli^3* ^^ ^^^ eastern counties, from its flattering, 
wavering flight, it is the flittermouse, the Gennan Fleder- 
moHt, Ben Jonson's — 

* Giddy flittermouse with leathern wings.* 

In the south-west, it is the rere-mouse, which means 
exactly the same : the old English hrere-mus, from 
kreran, to flutter : after whom Titania with her fairies 
hunts — 

* Rere-mice with their leathern wings 
To make my small elves coats.' 

Id Somersetshire it i.s the leather-mouse, and in Devon- 
shire the leather-bird, Ben Jonson's — 

* Bat, and ever a bat, a rere-mouse, 
And bird of twilight.' 

All these names have been given from close observation, 
and rare instinct with the poetry of truth." 

I myself have heard the bat called flear-mouse 
or fleer-mouse in the uttermost north of York- 
shire, in the neighbourhood where the diligent 
EeT. J. Graves (bom 1760, died 1832) wrote his 
Topographical History of Cleveland (published in 
1808). And I must confess that fiitter-mouse, 
rere-mouse, and flear-mouse show a much more 
congenial conception of the people that have first 
used them — much more of tne " instinct with the 
poetry of truth," than the more prosaic expres- 
aons of leather-mouse, leather-bird, and leather- 
ing-bat. ( Vide ant^, 576.) Hermann Kindt. 

• German}*. 

Penmen (4»J» S. iii. 458 ; iv. 100.)— I do not 
find the following in the list contributed by your 
correspondent Jan Zle : — 

" The Merchant's Penman, a Copy-Ilook of the usual 
Hands now in practice by most Book-keepers in Europe. 
By William Banson, folio. Newcastle, 1702." 

A copy of this publication is in possession of 
the Society of Antiquaries of this town. 

J. Manuel. 


Bibliographical Queries (4*** S. iv. 115.) — 
Your correspondent ¥. M. S. inquires about a 
volume in tne British Museum. From his de- 

scription it is evidently the Concilium Buck . . . 
zu Costenczy ^'c, Augspurg, von Anthoni Sorg, 
1483, described by Brunet, art " Concilium 
(5th edit. vol. ii. col. 212.) The Museum copy is 
most assuredly not unique ; for, though rare in fine 
condition, the book is not unfrequently to be met 
with in a more or less battered state. 

MoLiNi AND Green. 
27, King William Street, Strand. 

Sir William Kooer, Knight, Privy Coun- 
cillor TO James III. (4**» S. i. 458.) — I was in 
hopes that some reply would have been made to 
this query, possibly throvnng light on a curious 
incident in Scottish history. From the following 
notices, which I have since collectedi it would 
seem that the elder ^'Imight'' is probably identical 
vnth the " Rogers" hanged at Lauder Bridge. Sir 
J. G. Dalyell (Fragments of Scottish History, 1798, 
p. 66), citing Piidierton, says: "James ILL cul- 
tivated the sciences, and in his reign William 
Rogers, a famous English musician, came to Scot- 
land." Mr. J. Hill Burton (History of Scotland, 
iii. 181) says : " One of his [\James III.] favourites, 
named Rogers, v^as a musician, but whether he 
was some humble performer, or a great composer 
to whom we may attribute the foundation of {he 
national music of Scotland, there are no means of 
determining." And Lindsay of Pitscottie (p. 193) 
says that James's ^'secreit cubiculafis and ser- 
yandis wer all handed [with one exception. Sir 
John Ramsay of Balmain] in the monetli of Au- 
gust 1481 yeires." 

Now, if the originals of the three seals described 
by Mr. H. Laing, or, better still, the deeds to which 
thejr are (or were) attached, are in existence and 
attainable, they might throw some light on the 
matter. The casts of the former seem to have 
been communicated to Mr. Laing by '^ Mr. J. C. 
Roger of Mincing Lane " — a gentleman not un- 
known to the antiquarian world, who, it may 
fairly be presumed, must know something of the 
deeds. Tnese last would possibly settle the fact 
of the knighthood of the father and son, and also 
their relationship. It is curious that the sup- 
porters assigned to the fiather's shield — "two 
lions sejant gardant" — are those of the earldom 
of March, belonging to the king's brother Alex- 
ander, Duke of Albany, who is said to have been 
driven into exile through the machinations of 
Cochrane (the upstart Earl of Mar) and James's 
other favourities. Anglo-Scotus. 

Whipping the Cat (2°'* S. ix. 325.)— It is a 
long time since Uneda asked the meaning of this 
expression, and as I cannot find that an answer 
has been offered, I submit the following: — ^The 
cat is the domestic animal to which, as suggested 
by convenience and custom, all househola mis^ 
chief is attributed, and which therefore, as a scape- 
goat in fact) is made to bear the blame. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4»k a. iv. auguw 21, w. 

In the instance given by Ukeda, the evident 
meaning is that the self-styled patriots of the 
French Revolution were ffiven to throw blame 
on some other than themselves : thus the Conven- 
tion blamed Marat, he Dumouriez, and so on to 
Mirabeau. Each found a cat and whipped it for a 
crime of which himself was accused. 

W. T. M. 

Pillory at East Looe, Coketwall (4** S. 
iv. 116.) — I was at East Looe about six weeks 
ago, and saw the pillory in the same spot which 
it occupied in my boyhoiod. Wh. Pekgelly. 

The Camel : " The Ship of the Desebt '* (4^*^ 
S. iv. 10.) — '' By whom was the camel first called 
'the ship of the desert'?'' would be difficult to 
say; but the phrase Merkub dhur — '^the ship of 
tibie desert^" is used in common parlance by die 
Arabs at this moment. In the same way the 
desert is called Elbahar heila ma — '^ the sea with- 
out water." Manv such poetical phrases are used 
by the Arab dwellers in towns, as well as by their 
lurethren of the desert : as, for instance, it is no 
uncomm(m thing in Cairo to hear the widow 
scream out at the funeral of her husband Ha ya 
gemd elbeit! — ''Oh thou camel of the house," 
meaning, " Oh thou who didst bear the burthen 
of the house." Joseph Bonomi. 

Paraphrase pbom Horace (4^^ S. iv. 45.) — 
The stanza quoted by R. G. L. will be found at 
n. 123 of Horace in London (London, 1813). It 
ibrms part of an imitation of the complete ode. 
This work, which consists of imitations of the 
first two books of the odes of Horace, was written 
by James and Horace Smith, the authors of 
Bejeded Addresses, D. Macphail. 


Scoiltmiy Social and DometHe, Menuniah of Lift and 
Mannart in North Britain, By the Rev. Charles Koprers, 
LL.D., F.SA. Scotland. (Printed for the Grampian 

If we were asked to say what is the object of The 
Grampian Clab, we should be obliged to confess our in- 
ability to do so ; and content ourselves with describing 
it as an assemblage of Scottish gentlemen, to whom the 
reading world is indebted for the publication by Dr. 
Bogers of a pleasant book illustratiye of the popular 
History of Scotland in the so called *' good old times ;" in 
which, under the heads of Social Customs, Drolleries, 
Public Sports, Greneral Folk-lore, Demons and Appari- 
tions, Witchcraft, and Church Discipline, the antiior 
gives us a series of anecdotes strung together in a light 
easy style, which makes the book very suitable reading 
for the present season of relaxation. 

A. Shakespearian Grammar. An attempt to iUustrate 
some of the Differences between Elizabethan and Modem 
English. For the Use of Schools. ByK A. Abbott, 
M.A. (Macmillan.) 

As Mr. Abbott very properiy observes, the readers of 
Shakespeare and Bacon find but little difficulty in under- 

standing the words of those authors, either flrom^Qstariea 
or from consideration of the context ; but the mffisrences 
of idiom, which are more frequent and less obvioes and 
noticeable, they find far more perpleadng. The (4>jflet of 
the present little book, which has obviously been pntiared 
with great care, is to point oat and illustrate these differ- 
ences. It is chiefly intended for the use of schools ; but 
many would-be commentators and emendators of Shake- 
speare would do wisely to make themfldves mastns of 
this little l^iakeflpeazian Gzanmar belbre oomndtting 
their critidsm to the press. 

Historical Reminiscences o/* the City of Jjomdan amd its 
Livery Ooamanies, By Ihomas Anmdall, BJ>.y VjOtS., 
&c (BenUey.) 

The Ticar of Hajrton having enjoyed the opportimity 
of examining, not only the treasures of the Corp<mtio& 
Library ,but the records of several of the City Companies, 
communicated the result of his investigations weeUjr to 
a Yoricshire periodical ; and we presume, the satisfiution 
with whidi they were received by his readers has been 
his inducement to put them forth in their preseni iorm. 
The work has obviously been a labour of love, and its 
author is a warm advocate for preserving the powen and 
privileges of the great corporate bodies of the (Sty of 
London : and the book contains a good deal of pleastnt 
reading upon the Mayors, the Liveries, the Feastiligs^ 
Pageants, Games, and Military Exercises of the Citizens 
of L<mdon. 

DoBSETSHiRE Pkdiorkes. ^> Such of OUT readMft m 
are interested in genealogy may be glad to know that 
Mr. Thomas Parr Henning has pubhished in a separate 
form. No. I. of TTie Dorsetshire Royal Descent, the Vdd 
Pedigree, and the Henning Pedigree, showing the descents 
of several existing noble and county famifies from Sd* 
ward III. 



Particulan and Price, &c. of the fbllowine booki to be lent dinot to 
the gentteroaa by vhmn they are required, wluwe name and addaan axe 
Kiven for that purpote. 

Ed. HusBAsm, Collxctioh aw BsMOssTRA^icra, AoDBasnSi akd 

OaDBSa BBTWXaH Ko» axd Fabi.iam bst. FoUo. 164S. 

I5DBX TO BoLiiS ow FABLiAioarr, by starchy, Priddeo, aad "UvkMlu 


List ov Jukeicbs ow Fbaoe ooimaaao at thb BasituuesBRK. 


List ' ov Owwkmbs OLAiwnm thb Bixty Thousand Pouvni 

JOHir WraBTABUnr. IjOYAL MABTTBOLOer. Sro. 1663. 

David Llotd, Mbmoibbs op thosb Pebsonaobs who ffuvwrnsMO 
won. . . . Aludoxabcb to tbjsib Sotbbribh VBOX UB7 TO yssL 
Fol. 1668. 

Banifo Ryybb, MsBOiTBrDB Rusncirs. ittno. 1647. 

J. M. KBXBije, Saxobb ur Eitoland; « Hiftory of the "B^ffiA 

Commonwealth till the "Sorman Conquest. % Volt. 8vo. 
Lttmixa Reflbxa: Anctore P. Philippo Fidnello, «z Italioo 

reddidit D. Anirottfaias Erath. Fol. Francf. I70I. 


Sortees Society PubUcations, 1.^ &-7, «~I2, 14-.ja, !&•.», U-SS. 
Wanted by Eilward Peacock^ £lf9.,Bottcaford Manor, Bricg% 

^ottcfiT t0 Carrfir]i0tdretittf. 

Univbrsal Catalogub or Abt Books. AU Adiitiom cnhI dor* 
rections should be addrtsaed to the Editor ^ Souih.Ke 
London, }V. 

Irish Riven named in the ** Faerie Qneen/* by Mr. KeigkOe^i M^^^mr- 
dictine Hostels at Oxford, fry ifr. Wa^^rd; Mataeof NioM,aiKf«eMr«< 
other artidee are unavoiaably pottponed untU next week. 

Ebratuv.— 4th S. iv. p. 96, ool. ii. lime 84, ^** Schiller** read 

A Beading Case for holdins the vMkly xmmbera of **£r. ifc Q.** if Bov 
ready, and may be had of aU Bookiellen and Kewnnau price Is. ULt 
or, ftee by poet, direct firom the Pnbliditr, for Li. Sd. 

** NozH AVD QuiBiM*' is xigifterad for tnaanlMioa ilaoak 

4»s.iv;aiglstss,'09.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

LOSDoy, SATUitDAY. AUGvar si 

COJiTEXTS,— X° 87. 

IfOTBB: — IrtaliQivcn named in the ■'P»(,iiBQu& 

— Hm StMue i>r Ninlie. 170 — Benedictine Hostel.' 

tmA, in — D-ittnietloTi of Offlcinl MSa. — Kak 

BuliMi, £diiiburgh — Belatians of Klnga — Emm 

— Goddkin — Old Eninrimta iu LodKing 

■ ■ ur owu Colonies, 172. 

Ui-llMlat, Cbi>v3lkn de la Jarreti; 

— Eliin 

JoMpli or Nauretfa — Cornet Jnyee— Brunetto Laiini — 
Brie Haday, Seventh Lord Iteiy — Court or manor Uouse 
— Hclodicl to Kewmsn'x Ronea — QuotatlDns <vauted-&e- 
femteewrinted — Sir Thomiui Sheffield - Voltnlre'a Medal 
gfOetiarBi Washington-- Horace Walpolc, 173. 

8haw the Life Guardsman — Fain 
Tunu — Goldsmith's " Elegy on Mi 
BEFLIES: - N'evark ind Stirling 
Sann: Jno. Deni 
VwlDU — Eiulansli 


Buehaoan'a lAtin 


er Ballad Sfjaps, Ac ISl. 

" K. & Q." haa tnken, and I think more effec- 
tn«Uy, the place of the old Oentlenum't Magadne 
13 a recaptncle for curious nod often valuikhle 
matter which might olherwiae have been totally 
kiat; for its Indexes will surely be resorted to by 
fiitnie inquirers on such subjects as may possibly 
luTC been treated of in its pajres. I therefore 
condder nothiupr quite lost that 1 put in it. The 
CSM is very different with magazines, &c. ; as in 
them, if a subject of ralue or curiosity does not 
ittract the attention of those interested in it in 
the month of publication, it is probably lost and 
gone foe ever, for who thinks of hunting through 
tiie back volumes of magazines ? 

As an instance : having made inquiries and 
•rrived at some discoveries respecting the life of 
our great poet Sjienser, I put an article on the sub- 
ject bJF>nan-'B.U(t,vnitVt«(Oct.l8S9),chieflvi[iduced 
Dy the hope that it might catch the eye of^Mr. Col- 
lier, who wag than cugng-ed on his edition of Spen- 
ser awork.H ; and,whatw.ii not usiia!,itwiis noticed 
and highly praised in "N. & Q." ^This made 
me rather confident that it would be used by Mr. 
Collier, but he evidently never saw it, and so it 
ia, I may say, dead and gone unless this reference 
should one time or other attract to it the atten- 

tion of some future biographer or editor of the 

Among the vvn hopes nhich I have enter- 
tained at various times, one -was that I might be 
to the Faerie Qtieen what I have been to Paradue 
Loet. Those hopes, however, are gone for ever, 
and all I can do is to place in "N. & Q." for the 
benefit of some future editor a few of the original 
observations which I made on that poem. I will 
begin with the names of the Irish, rivers which 
were present at the wedding of the Thames and 
the Medway in the fourth book, and which per- 
haps I am the only person capable of fully ex- 

The array begins thus : — 

" There came the Liffev rolling down the lea. 
The eaady Slaae, the' stoney Anbiian." 

Here the Liffeyand the Slane or Slaney are well- 
known rivers rising in Wicklow; but what or 
where is the Aubrian P Nobody could tell, not 
even my friend the late Dr. O'Donovan, the Cory- 
phteus of Irish scholars and topographers. Uy 
mind then reverted to my youuifnl days in the 
beginning of this century, and I recollected that 
one day when I was out with the Eildaie hounds 
the fox took to.tlie mountdna ; and on reaching 
the top of tbe first ridge, I saw beneath me » 
vride valley with a river running through the 
middle of it. I kneir it was not the Lif^, and 
the coontTT people told me when I inquired that 
it was called the King's Biver. Now Spensei 
must have seen this river, for, as I have shown, 
it was along thie valley that the Lord-Deputy led 
his troops m 1580 to attack the Irish at Olenda- 
ioch. Its name in Irish — which of course was 
the one be heard — is Awan-ree {Anihaa-righe^, 
and how easily might this have become in hia 
mind Aubrian in the dozen years or so that passed 
before he wrote the fourth book of his poemt 
Dr. O'Donovan sud at once that I was perfectly 
right, no other river could have been the An- 

The Awniduff (it should be Awinduff, or Black- 
water), is the river of that name in Ulster, not 
that in CO. Cork, of which tbe poet makes no 
mention. " The ' Litfar deep,' " wrote Dr. O'Do- 
novan to me, " I take to ba tbe Foyle ; for in 
some old maps of Spenser's time it is called ' the 
Rjver of the liffer/ It is very dtep." I may 
add that its name is evidently " the Swift " (Xu- 
at/uuhar). The poet in his View, ^. says, " An- 

fled Trom Ireland in 1598. As his 
wife's family lived, as I have shown, in or near Kinsalo, 
she and her younger children mo« probably took refhgo 
with Uiemi'nbilG bi» sister, Mrs. Travers, who ap- 
parantlv lived in Cork, may have taken tharge of tha 
elder ones. This will explain why the poet died, u -m 
are told he did, at an inn. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [*•* s. it. auoubt m, w. 

other garrison would I put at Castle liffar (Lif- 
ford) or thereabouts, so as they should have all 
the passi^s upon the river to Lough Foyle/' 

'' Sad Tro WIS " is now called Drowis, and carries 
the waters of Louffh Melvin into Donegal Bay. 
" Strong Alio " and " Mulla mine " are parallel 
streams not far from the poet's residence at Eil- 
colman. The former gives name to the barony of 
Duhallow, and the proper name of the latter is 
Awbeg (Awan-beaffy " Little River ") ; called by 
Spenser Mulla, from muUochy " hill-top/' as it rises 
in one of the Ballvhowra hills, which he styles 
''the Mole." Misled bv Giraldus Cambrensis, 
he makes the Sure, the Nore, and the Barrow all 
rise in the Slewboome Tit should be bloom) moun- 
tains, for it is only the last that does so. 

*' The wide embaved Majrre " is the River Ken- 
mare, which is no nver at all, but a bay or arm of 
. the sea running up to Kenmare in Kerry. Then 
comes the great difficulty — 

*< And baleful Oare, late stained with English blood.'' 

Here myself, Dr. O'Donovan, and the late Ajrch- 
deacon Kowan, who was so well versed in the 
topography of Cork and Kerry, were equally at 
fault. At length, in looking through Smith's 
Kerry, I came upon the followmg passage: '' This 
river (Mang) riseth near Castle island . . ., and 
receives a stream called the Brown Flesk .... 
This latter is considerably augmented by another 
called Oure€tgh" All seemed now plain enough, 
but Dr. Rowan assured me that to his certain 
knowledge there was no such stream; ''but," 
said he, *' may it not be the Brown Flesk itself, 
whose name in Lrish is Ouan-ruadh, * Brown 
River ' ? " This was quite decisive, Ouan-ruadh 
(pr. Otutn-roo) became Oitriy iust as Ouan-heg 
did Aubeg, and Auan-reCj Aubnan. Though our 
poet's lines are always strictly decasyllabic, he 
may have pronounced here Ottrh as it is at the 
csBSura. In " stained with blood," there may be 
an allusion to the name of the river as well ss to 
an eng(^?ement of the English with the followers 
of the Earl of Desmond, whose chief abode was 
in this district 

In the Pastoral jEglogtm upon the Death of Sir 
Philip Sidnei/, printed with Spenser's Astrophel, 
we have — 

'* Hearest thou the Orown? how with hollow sound 
He slides away, and murmuring doth plaine." 

As this poem was probably written in or near 
Dublin, we might look for the Orown (Gold 
Hiverf) to the north of that city, where the 
country houses of the English ofRcials mostly lay. 
I know, however, of no stream there but tfie 
insignificant Tolka, which could hardly have been 
so described. I am therefore inclined to think it 
may be the Dodder on the south side, which after 
heavy rain often becomes a torrent of extreme 
force and magnitude. 

In mj article in Fraser I have Quoted Smith's 
romantic accoimt of the lake atKUcolman and 
Dr. Rowan's description of its present appearance ; 
that it has not altered since the poet's time, as 
Smith asserts, is however evident from the fol* 
lowing lines respecting it in the Epithalamion z — 

** And ye likewise which keep the naAy lake. 
Where none doJUhe$ take, 

Thos. Keiohtlbt. 


Every schoolbov knows the story of the grief- 
stricken Niobe. It is one of the most beautifml 
m^ths of antiquity. The poets feigned, says 
Cicero, that her metamorphosed form was trans- 
ported on the wings of the wind to her native 
land, and deposited upon the rugged heights of 
Sinylus, near to the old city of Alagnesia, m the 
valley of the Hermus, Asia Minor ; and no local 
peasant or casual passenger, in pre-Christian times 
at least, ever cast his eyes in the direction of it 
but with mingled feelings of awe and pity. Ovid, 
in his Metam. vi. 311-12, took up the burden of 
her misery in this wise : — 

** There still she weeps, and whirFd by stormy winds. 
Borne thro' the air, her native coantry finds ; 
There fix'd she ttande upon a bleaky hill, 
There yet her marble cheeks perennial tears distiL** 

And many a long century before the advent of 
the Augustan bard. Homer {II, xxiv. 614-16)^ 
speaking from personal observation no doubt, and 
therefore more correctly, had testified to her pre- 
sence on the mount : — 

" There hifi^h-bome, on Sipylns* shaggy brow. 

She aitSf her own sad monument of woe ; 
The rock for ever lasts, the tears for ever flow." 

The popular belief in this oft-repeated stonr 
of Niobe, or, at all events, in that portion <rf it 
which referred to the disposition of her petrified 
remains, was rudely disturbed by the latest and 
most careful of Greek writers on primeval anti- 
quities. In his well-known Description of Oreece, 
Pausanias, who flourished towards the close of the 
second century of our era, mentions a fresco which 
adorned a cavern at the rear of a theatre in 
Athens, representing the slaughter of Niobe'a 
children by Apollo and Diana; and he imme- 
diately adds : — 

" After I had «een this Niobe, I proceeded to the monn- 
tain Sipylus. Near this place is a rock and a precipice, 
which, to one who stands near it, does not exhibit the 
shape of a woman ; but he who beholds it at a distance 
will think he sees a woman weeping and lamentinir.**— 
Lib. i. cap. 21, § 3. ^ * 

As a matter of course, just as an entire flock 
of sheep pass through a gap that one of their 
number has made, all succeeding writers on the 
subject of Niche's statue followed in the wake of 
the Greek historian, echoing and re-echoing hia 

^ 8. IV. August 28, '69.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


very decided opinion for something like seventeen 
hundred years. Pausanias had clambered up the 
almost perpendicular sides of Sipylus, reaching 
to some six or seven hundred feet, in order to 
satisfy his curiosity. Not discovering the object of 
his search, he clambered down again, and declared 
its existence to be a vulpfar conceit, or, at the best, 
but a mere phantasm. This solitary achievement 
of a sober fditiquary was deemed conclusive on 
the point Why repeat a dangerous experiment ? 
None being bold enough to do it, the self-satisfied 
Greek was left in undisturbed possession of the 
mountain, as well as of the treasure it contained. 

Dr. Leonhard Schmitz, one of the learned con- 
tributors to the Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Geography (s. v. " Sipylus"), writing so late as the 
jear 1857, brings into stronger relief the judg- 
ment of Pausanias, and leaves it to be inferred 
that the words of Horace were really applicable 
to him: — 

. . . . " Populumque falsis 

Dedocet uti 

•* In speaking of Mount Sip^lus (he remarks), we 
Ksannot pass over the story of Isiobe, alluded to by the 
.poets, who is said to have been metamorphosed into stone 
on that mountain in her grief at the loss of her children. 
Pausanias relates that he himself went to Mount Sipylus, 
•and saw the ligure of Niobe formed out of the natural 
rock ; when viewed close he only saw the rock and pre- 
cipices, but nothing resembling a woman, either weeping 
or in any other posture; but standing at a distance you 
fancied you saw a woman in tears and in an attitude of 
grief. This phantom of Niobe, says Chandler (p. 331), 
whose observations have been confirmed by subsequent 
travellers, may be defined as an effect of a certain portion 
of light and shade on a part of Sipylus, perceivable at a 
particular point of view." 

The authority particularly mentioned above is, 
I presume, Dr. Richard Chandler, who published 
his Travels in Asia Minor in 1775, 4to. I have 
referred to that work, containing copious MS. 
aotes by Mr. Revett, who accompanied him, and 
cannot discover any notice in it of Niobe or of 
her statue. The book extends to 283 pages only, 
and chapters xviii. to xxi. inclusive treat of 
Smyrna and its neighbourhood. The doctor de- 
scribes the valley of the Hermus, through which 
he passed, but is silent on the subject of Mount 
Sipylus. I have likewise referred to the third 
edition of his Travels^ published in 1817, and in- 
cluding his peregrinations in Greece, but to no 
better purpose. Nor can I discover in the pages 
of any subsequent writer a confirmation of Qie 
alleged report by the doctor. 

In an educational work such as the Dictionary 
of Greek and lioman Geography, purporting to be 
based on the latest researches of scholars and 
dilettanti, it is somewhat remarkable that the 
magnificent folio on The Ancient Monuments of 
Lydia and Phryyia, by Mr. J. R. Steuart, and 
published fifteen years previously, or in 1842, 

should have been totally disregarded or over- 
looked by the editor and his numerous staff of 
assistants, every one of whom is deservedly famed 
for sound erudition and diligence. A notice, too, 
of Mount Sipylus and the statue that crowns it 
occurs in the Kev. Edmund Chishuirs Travels in 
Turkey (Lond. 1747, foL), which that gentleman 
performed at the close of the seventeenth century. 
True, he has little to say on the subject in ques- 
tion ; but that little, however, is qmte sufficient 
to depreciate the not very probable relation of 
Pausanias. But to revert to Mr. Steuart and his 
labours. He not only describes the mountain and 
its venerable ornament — probably, as he suggests, 
the oldest of its kind in the world — but gives a 
fair delineation of so much of it as has been 
spared by the maw of Time. The figure is seated 
on a throne, and placed in an arched recess ; and 
to this arrangement he attributes its partial pre- 
servation: — ' 

" The style and character of the work [he adds] corre- 
spond with the description given of statues previous to 
the time of Dsedalus; who, from having been the first 
artist who gave a freedom to the limbs, is said to have 
imparted to his statues the power of motion. Although 
the limbs are not disengaged, the figure of Niobe* is de- 
signed in a sufficiently easy and natural attitude: the 
hands appear to have been clasped together upon the 
breast; and the head is slightly inclined on one side, 
with a pensive air, expressive of grief. The whole figure 
bears a strong impress of archaic style ; nevertheless, so 
little now remains of the origmal sculpture, that it re- 
quires to be .studied carefully in order to understand 
exactly the design. The exterior surface, too, is so much 
corroded, that the whole mass exhibits not a single trace 
of the chisel, saving on some remains of the volutes or 
curls of Niobe's hair, which, from their position, have 
been better protected from the weather." 

This circumstantial account, not to mention the 
drawing that accompanies it, leaves no doubt as 
to the existence of the monument, of a veritable 
work of art, and confirms in a singular manner 
the incidental allusion to it in the pages of Homer. 
Nor does Mr. Steuart omit to mention the most 
probable origin of the Niobe legend :— 

*♦ It is very remarkable [he observes] that the winds 
generally rage here with great violence ; which may 
account for the tradition of Niobe having been trans- 
ported hither by their ministrj'. Be this as it may, I 
could not behold without admiration the tears still trick- 
ling down the furrows of her grief- worn cheeks, realising 
what would appear to have been but the fancy of the poet. 

By the proximity of some springs, with 

which this part of the mountain abounds, this singular 
effect is still produced after the lapse of thousands of 



Mr. Steuart has not given the dimensions of 
the statue: these I am particularly desirous of 
knowing, and should feel therefore much obliged 
to any reader of ** N. & Q." who may possess this 
information and will kindly impart it to me. 

w. w. w. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [i*s.iv. AnocarSf 

There were «t Oxford three Benedictine collegeK 
— C.interbury, Durham, and Gloucester — andJohti 
Rous adds London. (Leiiuid, iv. 30, al. 16».) 
"Winehcoinbe Abbey had a-hoatel for its novices 
near the eite of Glouceator Hall, which wftB 
founded for the great Abbey of St. Peter in tb& 
year 1283. {Hist. GlocedA. 92.) Above the small 
poatern arch of the present Worcester College, 
though concealed by trails of ivy, the arms still 
remain which marked the entrance to similar 
hostels belonging to — 

St. Alban'i (Az. a salHre, or), called the Scho- 
lars' House, completed with a chapel and porch 
by Abbot William 11. (Gesta Abbatiim, iii.496) ; 
Bamsey (Or, on a bend az., 3 rams' beads 
couped arg. attired of the first), and 

.... ( — a saltire — with a Greet cross in fesa). 
These are indicated in Loggan's View. 

On the south side of the quadrangle are six 
hoatela^ with the following heraldic distinctionsj 
reckoning from east to west :— 

1. ... a griffin Begreant. 2. Norwich (arg. a 
cross sable). 3, 4. According to Wood's MS. in 
the Ashmolean collection, liamsei/ and Winr.h- 
combe, the name of an abbot of the latter, John 
Cheltenham, who lived in the time of Henry VI. 
having been written in the windows. 5. Enriched 
with panelling; according to the same authority, 
WeitmiHeter. 6. Perahore. 

William Compton was Abbot of Perdwe 1504- 
27 (Dttffd. ii. 411), and on one side of a small 
niche above the doorway is a shield with a mitre 
over it, and decorated with a rebus — W., a comb, 
and ton. Corresponding to this is another shield 
surmounted by a coronet . . . three standing cups 
(P Butler or Argentine). Running westward ia a 
rwsed terrace over a vaulted substructure now 
closed up. 

On the outside of a new wall at the east end of 
the garden is a shield surmounted by a lion's mask I 
... a cross potence . . . with a rose in the first 
quarter {? Carlile). This shield, with another 
described by Wood as " Gutty, a cross humette, 
trunked, with two water-potts in base," was for- 
merly in the littlo quadrangle (southward of the 
g^eent ball), which exhibits a few remains of the 
erpendicular period, nnd waa divided into mo- 
nastic hostels. | 

On the site of the I>rovosfs lodging, Wood 
(Ash. MS. 8491, fo. 260) mentions the hostel of , 
Oloucesfer with its arms, Az. two keys in saltire, ! 
or, and a hostel of jl6ini7tfoji, with these arms — I 
Or, a cross patonce, between 4 martlets, or, "on 
the right hand as we come through the court or ; 
quadrangle." The latter was formed by the hnll 
on the east of the present quadrangle ; the chapel 
on the north, the eastern gable wall of which etill 
exists; and the library on the east side, facing 
the site at present occupied by Beaumont Street. 

Besides the abbeys already mentioned, Olas- 
! tonbury, Tavistock, Burton, Chertsey, Coventry, 
' Evesham, Eynaham, Bury St. Edmund's, Ab- 
botsbury, Mychelney, Malmesbury and Rochester 
are known to have contributed to the maintenance 
of hostels in the University on this site. 

I may add that at Cambridge the Benedictines 
established Slij hostel on the site of Trinity Hall, 
and Monk's hostel for CroyUmd. 

Mackenzie E. C. Walcoti, B.D., F.8.A. 

Dbstructioh of Official MSS. — I have heard 
a rumour to-day that torn of written papers, ei' 
teodingin dates as far back as three hundred years 
ago, have lately been or are still being sold from 
the Dockyard at Deptford to manufacturers, as 
waste paper. Whether in this wholesale and 
necessary displacement of lumber, steps have 
been taken to guard against the inadvertent d&- 
structioa of autographs and documents of historic 
interest and value, I have not beard; and,..lest 
this should not have been the ca-te, it appears to 
me advisable to call attention in your colunUB to 
the report. It is probably exag;gerated, but not 
without foundation, and the point in qnestioD 
deserves inquiring into. JoaK W. Bobb. 

Beoistes of Sasines, EnrmicKOH la the 

Parliamentary paper. No. 20, 1887, p. 27, being 
a list of Record publications, ia this work :^ 

" Abridgment of Register of Sosincs, not {lublisbed for 
aale ; coat of printing, iacla<ling fajtet and binding, 
B,376/„ exclnaive of euma paid by the Treasury (snunnt 
unknown) ; number of copies printed U ot 26, stored in 
tbe General Register IIoQse. £dinbuTgb." 

Relations of Kihos. — 

" A curious announceuicnt appears in a French paper: 
' M. liernadutte, cou«n to the King of Sweden, and qyer 
atSuresne3,present<<biniselfasaiiIa(tependent and Liberal 
candidate in the eighth district. His flrst meeting with 
bis electors will take place at Conilievoie, in the pubUo- 
house of M. Itarbide, who is heir to tbe Itnrbide gonw 
time Emperor ot Mexico.' " 

The above, clipped from the Manchester Couritr, 
May 18, may be worth a comer iu " N. & Q." 

0. w. s. 

EyjTUi. — It is generally admittod that we can- 
not find an equiv^ent, or, at least, that we cannot 
adequately represent this word in our own tongae, 
but I think that if we compare it with annoy and 
annoyance, and refer to the root, mmoycr (Nor- 
man-French), a striking analogy will be seen to 
exist. Nor is this all ; the Norman-French on- 
noyer may very probably have been tbe origin of 
the modem French ennuier. Perhaps some of 
your correspondents will express their opinion on 
the subject H. W. R. 

4» S. IV. August 28, '69.] 



Old CoDfs. — In a MS. jest-book, tenip. 
Charles 11. (Harl. 6395), mention is made of a 
*' dandepratt," which is exphiined to be a very 
small kind of silver coin. I have heard the same 
word used in Yorkshire as meaning a bantam 
fowL It is evidently connected vp-ith the idea of 

The same MS. says (§ 390) : — 

" There ivas a pjood merry fellow and musical, but 
naturally somewhat doubled about the back; and his 
comrades usually called him their Ninepence, and their 
Harper. Because, common!}', the ninepences are a little 
backled to distinguish them in their currency up and 
dowD, lest they pass (some being big, some smallj for a 
fixpence or a shilling." 


Goddam. — A short time ago, " F. S. A." ad- 
dressed the following to the Pali Mall Gazette. 
It should be preserved in your pages as a curious 
instance of a derivation missed : — 

** In an occasional note you latel}' referred to the word 
Goddam as having been used by Joan of Arc to designate 
an Englishman. In a note of the very rare and curious 
work entitled Aventures du Baron FcBnente^ by Agrippa 
d*Aubign^, may be found the following details : — The 
Spaniards of the sixteenth century used to consider cor- 
imlence majestic, and wore false stomachs called Godams; 
nence all stout people were named Gndanis, and the writer 
qiiotes a sermon beginning, * Erat unus grossus Godam 
qui nil curabat nisi de ventre.' 

*• It is singular that, while admitting that the English 
famished this word, the author of the note appears quite 
10 the dark as to its derivation. He inclines to believe 
that it is a corruption of 'good ale,' by imbibing large 
quantities of which the Anglo-Saxon race acquired the 
abdominal prominence which excited the envj' of the 
meagre Spaniards." 

W. T. M. 

Old Engravings in Lodging-houses Abroad 
A^D in ourown Colonies. — If visitors would make 
notes of these, while staying at watering-places, 
&c., many specimens of our own earlier artists, 
engravers, &c., might be recovered, and usefully 
added to the collection recently presented to the 
British Museum. I do not know the value of the 
following, but give the memoranda for what they 
may be worth : — 

1. " Les festcs d'Amour et de Bacchus en rausique, 
representees dans le petit Pave de Versailles. 1G78." 

I^The original of the ballet at the Alhambra Palace, 
Leicester Square, last winter.] 

2. " Henrietta Maria, Magnie Britanniie Regina — 
Jacobus Hamilton Marchio ab Hamilton Sacri Stabuli 
eomes adstat," d'c. " Antonius Vandiick eques pinxit. 
Bonnefoy sculpsit." 

3. " Painted by F. Wheatlcy, R.A." •• Engraved by 
L. Schiavonetti " (a pair) :— 1. " Two Bunches a Peonv, 


Milk below. Maids.' 


Est-il vrai que des membres de la maison de 
Billeheust, sgrs. du Manvyr, d'Argenton, etc., 
^tablie en Normandie, et portaut pour armes 
d'azur a un chevron d'argent, accompagn^ de 8 
roses de meme, aient 6t6 chevaliers de la Jar- 
retidre ? On voudrait avoir des indications pre- 
cises a cet ^gard. Baeon de Chatjlieu. 
A Vire (Calvados). 

A KIND Caution to Rioters in August, 1736. 
The following curious notice occurs in a magazine 
of the time. Have any copies of this *'kind 
caution " been preserved ? It seems to have been 
" affixed up *' at Aldgate, Bishopsgate, and other 
parts of the city, besides being delivered personally 
to the housekeepers of Spitalfields and White- 
chapel : — 

"Monday, August 2, 1736. — The beadles of several 
parishes delivered a paper to most of the housekeepers of 
Spittlefields, Wbitecbapel, and thereabouts, intitled A 
kind Caution to Riotersj containing some clauses of an 
Act of Parliament made in the first year of King George L 
to the following purpose, That if any persons assemble toge- 
ther to demolish or pull down any house or houses, they shall 
be adjudged felons without benefit of clergy, and suffer 
death. And also, that whatever houses are pulled and 
demolished in the manner aforesaid, the damages shall be 
made good by the inhabitants of the hundred where the 
same is committed ; and that it shall be sufficient for the 
recovery of such damage, that the person injured bring 
his action at Westminster against any two or more of 
the inhabitants ; and the same to be levied according to 
a statute made in the 27th year of Queen Elizabeth. Thia 
paper was also affixed iip at Aldgate, Bishopsgate, and 
several other public places in that part of the town.** 

J. M. 

Elizabeth Chaucer. — In the Register of 
John of Gatmt (vol. ii. fol. 46), I find the fol- 
lowing entry : — 

« £51 88. 2d. for the expenses of Elizabeth Chaucy, 
when the said Elizabeth was made a nun in the Abbey of 
Berkyng.*' May 12, 1381. 

There are several entries of payments to Geof- 
frey Chaucer the poet and Philippa his wife, and 
in nearly every instance the name is spelt Chaucy, 
so that this Elizabeth may have been a relative 
of the poet Is he known to have had either a 
sister or a daughter of that name ? If she were 
his daughter, I think she can hardly have been 
more than a child. There must have been some 
intimate connection of blood, affinity, or service, 
to induce the Duke of Lancaster to pay so im- 
mense a sum for the assumption of the veil by 
Elizabeth Chaucy. Hebmentrude. 

Church-building Phrases. — In an old ac- 
count of the re-edification of a church (fifteenth 
century), I find the following items, which I 
should De glad to have explained : — 

"Olde tymber and maris" (the debris of the old 
church). It. for iij cqpeff.^* 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [i^-S-iv. Atroowae/eB. 

AmoDgtha coDtributioDS from various guilds i:^ 
one from the milwardtji. Does the word italiciaeil 
mem mUlere, the local pronunciation of which ia 
" mellards " F 

denced bj the Cornish proverb, "A hot May 
makes a fat church-hay." What means (At 
playa-f Records of the same ehuich mention 
"Jesua cotes," and " Tormeteris cotes," in theii- 
inventories. Has it any reference to the Eastei' 
pageants or religious dramas of the period T 

"Mnkyng of two ungtUr." 

I have not the volume of "N. & Q." at hnnd; 
but a reference to 1" S. vii. 371 migU aluddate. 

"Sold hushi* (P aahes) yn the llcherid." 

"Fornaylfor the huMri and to Hodtl." 


"N, & Q." has been a very aafe "find" on 
many an occasion, and I hope for elucidation of 
these and some other obscure matters which may 
follow. Thokis Q. Couch. 

Okesuak. — In a document of about the year 
1600 I have met with a person described as a 
gresmanp What was he P Corbvb. 

SON. — I should be glad to know the armorials 
upon th^tomb of this military commander. He 
died October 20, 1708, aged ninety years, in Old 
Burlington Street, London. Particulars of his 
descent would also ha acceptable to John Yaiker, 
Jun,, 4S, Chorlton Road, Manchester. 

HouflELLiUQ Towels. — At Wimbome Minster 
ft white cloth is spread on the altar rails while 
the euchnrist is being administered to the com- 
municants. This is the only case where I have 
heard of this old Catholic custom being kept up. 
If there are other places where the practice is 
continued, the pages of "N. & Q." would be a fit 
place to note them. Qeoeoe Bedo. 

6, Pulron Road, Brixton. 

JosBPa ofNazaseth, — While passing through 
Nazareth in November 1802, 1 saw the traditional 
stone table on which Joseph and Jesus are be- 
lieved to have worked. Is there any valid reason 
for the belief that Joseph worked as a stonemason 
and not as a carpenter — the scarcity of wood in 
Palestine then and now causing difficulty with 
respect to the latter occupation ? The query is 
one for biblical and Greek scholars to answer. 
Che. Cookb. 

Cornet Joycb. — Is anything known concern- 
ing the subsequent histoir of Comet Joyce, who 
in 1647 seized King Charles I. at Holmby House, 

in Northamptonshire f * There is a remarkably 
tine portrait of the comet, life-^ze, three-quartet 
length, punted by Walker, in the dining-room at 
Dinton Hall, near Aylesbury, the prepay of the 
Rev. J. J. Qoodall. He is represented wearing a 
cuirass; his left hand holds a pistol, whilst the 
right leans on a steel morion or cap. The hair 
is long and flowing over the breastplate, and the 
countenance, though handsome, shows great re- 
solution. Holmby House was built by Queen 
Elizabeth's favourite chancellor, Sir Christopher 
Katton, but only the gateway now remains, the 
house having long been pulled down. 

Close to Dinton Hall resided the regiddes 
Richard Ingoldsby and Ireton; and John Big^, 
the Binton hermit, supposed by some to have been 
the masked executioner of King Charles I., dwelt 
in a cave just outside the grounds. The cave has 
long ago been filled up and levelled with the 
ground, though its traces are easily defined; and 
amongst the curiosities of Dinton is preserved 
one of the shoes of the hermit, composed of about 
two thousand pieces of leather. There is, I be- 
lieve, a memoir of Bigg in Wilson's WonderfiU 
Charactert. Zoss Pickpokd, M.A. 

Boiton Percy, near Tadcwter. 
With reference to the queation whether Joyco 
was the executioner of Cbarles I,, let me note 
that I was informed some time since by an Iiisli 
gentleman likely to be well informed, that Comet 
Joyce belonged to the Joyces of Galway — an 
old family remarkable for personal strength, and 
that either in Hardiman's History of Galieajf at 
Dutton's .^tmoA would be found a notice of Joyce, 
and of his boast that " he had tried the strength 
of his arm on the neck of Charles V A reference 
to these works having failed to discover the 
passage alluded to, can any reader of " N. & Q." 
.-lay in what book it may be found ? T, 

Bhcnbtto Latini, — Can any of your readen 
inform me where the Letters of Brunetto Latini, 
from which the following purports to be an ex- 
tract, are to be found P — 

" Our Journey from London tn Oxford was with soms 
difficulty and dingtr made in tva dars; Toi the toails 
are bid, and we bad to climb hills of htuardoua ascent 
Jiod nhlch to descend are equally perilous. We piMM 
Ibrough maoy woods considered here aa dsngeroua place*, 
lis they are iofeated with robbers; which, indeed, is the 
taw with moat of the roads in England. This is > dr- 

y the neighbo 


ng the booty 


ngth of Ihei 

nnd with the « „ 

03 our company was numeniua, we had nothing to fear, 
AccoTdioKly we arrived the first night at Shitbnm CatUs. 
in the neighbourhood of Watlington, under tlie cbain of 
liills ovei which we passed at Stokenchurch. 

[* References to works containing notices of Lisa- 
[enant-Colonet Geai%e Jovce will be Tonnd in " N. A Q.' 
1" S. iL268; 2°* 8.iv.'21)0i 3rdS.iU.47B; and li^ 3. 


i* s. rvr. AcGosT 28, '690 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" This castle was built by the Earl of Tanqueville, one 
of the followers of the fortunes of William the Bastard, 
Duke of Normandy, who invaded England, and slew 
King Harold in a battle which decided the fate of the 
kingdom. It is now in the possession of a descendant 
of the said earl. 

^ " As the English barons are frequently embroiled in 
disputes and quarrels with the sovereign, and with each 
other, they take the precaution of building strong castles 
tar their residence, with high towers and deep moats 
surrounding them, and strengthened with draw-bridges, 
posterns, and portcullises. And farther to enable them- 
selves to hold out for a considerable length of time, in 
case they should happen to be besieged, they make a 
provision of victuals, arms, and whatever else is neces- 
sary for the purpose." 

The foregoing is said to be from the Letters of 
Brimetto Latini, of a noble Florentine family. 
He flourished in the thirteenth century, and died 
in 1294. He was the tutor of Dante. 

John M. Davenport. 

Eric Mackay, Seventh Lord Reay. — It is 
stated in Debrett's Peerage that the late Sir W. M. 
Townshend Farquhar was " married to Erica 
Catherine, daughter of the seventh Baron Reay." 
Can you inform me to whom this Lord Reay was 
mamed, and when and what issue, if any, re- 
sulted from such marriage ? It is generally be- 
lieved that he died unmarried at Goldings in 
Hertfordshire, in 1847, when he was succeeded in 
the title by his brother Alexander, father of the 
present or ninth Ijord Reay. John Mackay. 

CoTTBT OR Manor House. — What is the proper 
meaning of the word court as opposed to manor- 
house f In the West of England the manor-house 
is sometimes called the court, some times only the 
house or manor-house. In other parts of England 
the manor-house is generally called the hall. In 
the West of England it is not imcommon to hear 
the farmyard belonging to a liouse spoken of as 
the court ; and the rent-day is called holding the 
court. This latter is possibly a corruption of 
holding the manorial court, which would very 
possibly be held at the same time. From the 
general rule being to call the manor-house house, 
e, g. " Blackncre House," and the exception being 
to call it " Whiteacre Court," I am mclined to 
think that there may be some difference between 
house and court. G. W. M. 

Melodies to Newman's Songs. — Are there 
any melodies composed for those poems of Dr. 
Newman's which, in his recently-published 
volume, are called Songs, as " The Watchman," 
"The Pilgrim Queen," and several others? If 
there are, by whom are they written, and where 
can they be obtained ? F. H. K. 

Quotations wanted. — Whence the following 
Hoes, which occur on a grave (1819) in Bunhill 
fields cemetery : — 

" Friends part, 
*Ti8 the survivor dies." 

" At subito 86 aperire solum, vastosque recessus 
Pandere sub pedibus, nigraque voragine fauces." 

Wm. Pengkllt* 
Reference wanted. — 

" Mr. Digby Wyatt says that * Blanche d'Artois, wife 
of Edmund Earl of Lancaster, who [Blanche] died 1302, 
and whose body was buried at Pans and her heart at 
Nogent I'Arthaud, is commemorated by a diminutive 
effigy now preserved at St. Denis.' " 

Where does Mr. Digbv Wyatt say this ? What 
is his authority for each of the three assertions 
here made, viz., that Blanche's body was buried 
at Paris ; that her heart was interred at Nogent; 
and that an effigy of her is preserved at St. Denis ? 

In what church at Paris was Blanche buried ? 
Is any effigy of her now at St. Denis ? I saw none 
there in 1867, when I made a careful inspection 
of the cathedral and tombs. Hermentrvdb. 

Sir Thomas SiiEFnELD. — ^Mr. Newton, in his 
Travels and Discoveries in the Levant, vol. ii. p. 62, 
says that : — 

^ Scattered about the castle are the arms of its succes- 
sive captains, ranging from 1437 to 1522, when the gar- 
rison surrendered to the Turks. Among these is the 
name of a well-known English knight. Sir Thomas Shef- 
field, with the date 1514." 

This person was, I believe, a member of the 
family of Sheffield of Butterwyk in the Isle of 
Axholme. Can any one point out his place in the 
pedigree ? The head of the family was raised to 
the peerage in the first year of Edward VI. in 
the person of Sir Edmond Sheffield, created 
Baron Sheffield of Butterwyk. Corntjb. 

Voltaire's Mbdal op General Washing- 
ton. — In the Journal and Letters of Samuel Cur^ 
wen, from 1776 to 1783 (Boston, 1864), p. 204, 
this passage occurs : — 

" April 20, 1778. — A medal has latelv been struck at 
Paris by order of Monsieur Voltaire, in honor of General 
Washington. On one side is the bust of the General, with 
this inscription : ' G. Washington, Esq., Commander-in- 
Chief of the Continental- Army in America.' The reverse 
is decorated with the emblems of war and the following : 
* Washington r^unit par un assemblage 
Les talens du guerrier et lesvertus du sage.**' 

Perhaps, Mr. Editor, some of your numerous 
contributors may know whether this medal of 
Washington is now in existence or not. 

John Gordon. 


Horace Walpole. — Where are Walpole's 
manuscript notes on Pennant^s Londwi deposited ? 
I find them quoted in John Miller's Fly-Leaves, 
1854. J, Yeowell. 

68, Thornhill Road, Bamsbury. 


C^ S. IT. A.uoton H, '119. 

"VroLBT, OB THE DAMSBnsE."— Cbq anj of 
jouT coirespondents give aa; inform Btion as to 
the authorBhip of that remarkable novel, Violet, 
or the Oanseuief The Times of Sept. 3, 1S62, 
aaji that it was first published " about a quarter 
of B century back " ; and in the above jear Messrs. 
Boutledfte reprinted it as a shilling tallwa; to- 
liime. I have heard vaeue reports of its having 
baen written by a daugnter of Lord Brougham, 
occasionally with the astounding "tag" of her 
having been about fifteen years of age when she 
wrote it ! This incredibly precocious genius is 
said to have died shortly after the publication of 
her book. There are few modern English novels 
more calculated to excite the interest of the highest 
claas of readers ; and it ia well to mnko this in- 
quiry before the traces of its authorship become 
fainter and fainter. D. G. B. 

[CoaBiderable paioa vera taken M the time of pablica- 
tioa to conceal the name of the aatbor of Fw/((. But 
there ia no grDuiid Tor attributing it to fttiss Brougbam ; 
and aa little for creililing Lord Lylton with the author- 
abip, aa vaa done by a writer ia our 2'"' S. ii. 99.] 

Shaw ihe Lifb Gcariwhajt. — What is be- 
come of Shaw the Life Ouardsman's skull P I 
remember hearing Sir Walter Scott sav that ho 
had a roaring laugh against a distinguiahed phre- 
nologist to whom he showed the skull, ana who 
declared that it was the skull of "acoward." Sir 
Walter mentioned to whom the skull had belonged, 
and was answered, tbat there were other develop- 
menta which he had not at first observed, and 
that these combiued misht represent rourtige. He 
was rewarded by a laugh oa loud as before. 

J. B. 

{The skall of Shan the Life Guardsman is now in the 
Uuseum at Abbotsford. Lockhart's Life of Sir Waller 
ScdA, edit. 1S15, p. 31T. Shan is noticed ia "N.&Q." 
4'<'S. iii.4li2, S58; iv. 138.] 

Fatrpax Pediqkee. — In Wbitaker'a edition of 
Thoresby's Ducatm Leodtnenns, the editor states 
(p. OS) that he has given " an enlarged and cor- 
rected copy " of the Fairfax pedigree under the 
parish of '■ Denton." I cannot find it either in i 
the above-quoted work or in Whitaker's Loidis 
and Etmete. Are the many copies I have exa- 
mined incomplete, or was the pedigree never 
issued P CoHNiTB. 

[The omissiou of the Fairfax pedigree under " Dcntoi 

New-made Gentlewoman," and others of the same 
class P L. X. 

[We learn from Wm. Chappell's valuable work, Pcpt- 
lor ^laic of ihr Olden Tiat (i. 290), which our oorre- 
■pondeat should coaault, that "the tune of ' B<Alnng Joe,' 
or ' Bobbing Joan,' irill be fonad ia every edition of The 
Dancing Matter ! iu Maiici'i Deli^ m At CSlArca, 
1666, 4c"] 

GoLDaiiiTH's " Eleot ok Madame Blaize." — 
Can you give me the little French ballad, from 
which it is said Goldnnith took the idea of thia 
elegy ? W. H. 

[ The " Elegj- on Madame Blaize," and the better part 
of that oa "The Death of a Had Dog," are closely imi- 
tated from a well-known atiing at abaardities eaIled''La 
Chanson du famenx la Galiase," which may be found in 
the Minagiana, iii. 384, edit. 1729, where it makes fifty 
quatrain veraes.] 


(4'" S. iii. 575 ; iv. 38, 104.) 

I can assure Ds. Rosers, whose coutributians 
I always read with interest, that no reflection waa 
intended on his diligence. A friendly warning 
was all that I meant to convev against hia ven- 
turing into the >nare magnum of Scotliah peerage 
questions, which hut ^w, even among truned 
lawyers, thoroughly comprehend. Let him, above 
all, avoid trusting' in these, to the imuipporttd 
authority of Sir Robei-t DoueIbs. 

The precitE datp of Archbishop Spottiawoode's 
death is probablv stated in the report of the 
trial of the soi-disimt Earl of Stirling in 1839, rf 
which two editions were published — onebythelAtfl 
W.B- D. D. Tumbull, Esq., Advocate, the other 1^ 
Professor Swinton. There can be no doubt that 
Mr. Riddcll proved hit assertion that the primkte 
was dead on December 7, 1039 (the day of tha 
pretended regrnnt),by reference to some oiatuary 
record on which reliance could be placed; while 
the person who forged the regrant may hare 
fallen into the unconsciously prepared trap — De- 
cember 27 — as stuted in tCrawfurd'a Officer» of 
n the monument or toia]^ 

State. I have n 

rsight b! 

c cdit< 

It doe 

not apjicnr in nnyeditioa of (he do ctor'j works 

Ballad Tcnes. — Where shall I find the fol- 
lowing: "Digby'a Farewel," "Bobbing Jone," 
" A Shepherd a Daughter once there was," " The 

stated, ns a matter of curiosity merely. As Dr. 
Johnson said, a man is not upon oath in such 
inscriptions, and they are certainly not absolute 
evidence of any contested fact. The last notice I 
have been able to find of Spottiswoode in the 
limited circle of authorities to which I have at 

f resent access, is, tbat he was alive on Aug. 11, 
()39, when he and six other Scottish bishopa 
aigned the "Declinator" of the authori^ of t£e 
" pretended " assembly at Glasgow in the pn- 

4«k S. IV. August 28, '69.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ceding year, by which they had been illegally 
deposed. This much-vilitied churchman was, in 
one respect, far in advance of his Presbyterian 
opponents. The parish church of Dairsie, built 
by him on his estate in Fifeshire, still bears wit- 
ness to his desire to introduce a style of architec- 
ture more befitting the worship of God than the 
hideous structures which, till our day, have su- 
perseded the noble creations of mediaeval archi- 
tects, and fully justified Andrew Fairservice's 
remark^ '' that the dog-kennel at Osbaldiston 
Hall was better than mony a house o' God in 
Scotland." Anglo-Scotus. 

P.S. Mr. Irving, hasting to the fray (p. 119), 
falls into difficulties. My remarks applied to a 
case, which he evidently has overlooKed, raised 
by the Stirling claimant against the King's Ad- 
Tocate and W. C. C. Grahame of Gartmore, to 
prove the tenor of the asserted regrant in 1639, 
decided by the Court of Session on March 2, 
1833 (see Shaw & Dunlop's Reports), while 
Mr. Irving is evidently quoting from ih-Qpseudo- 
earFs trial for forgery in 1839. Even here he is 
quite wrong; for the forged document, though 
lor good and obvious reasons not produced in this 
case hy the claimant, having been previously im- 
pounded by the crown, was produced against 
him, and will be found in Mr. TumbulPs Report, 
pp. 26-30. It is, btrictly speaking, merely the 
warrant for the regrant or novodamus from the 
crown, but the latter is always substantially the 
echo of the former. 

Few persons will agree with Mr. Irving that 
it is a less fatal blunder to make a dead man wit- 
ness a deed, than merely to style him by an office 
he had resigned ; and I, for one, should be glad 
to hear how he would get over the former diffi- 
culty. It would certainly require considerable 
ingenuity ! 

Lastly, if he consults (as he might more fre- 
quently do, thus saving his own limited leisure 
and our space ) lliddell's Peergge and Consistorial 
Laic, 1842 (pp. 293, 343), he will see that gen- 
tleman was " engaged in the case for the crown " 
[in 1833] to use his own words, and also claimed 
the discovery of the blunder regarding the dead 
archbishop's name in the testing clause of the 
fabricated warrant. It is therefore presumed 
that Mr. Irving's doubts will now be set at rest. 
He was not " walking the boards " of the Outer 
House when the Stirling claimant first made his 
d^but in 1832 or shortly before. 


(4^»^ S. iv. 91.) 

It really seems probable that John Dennys is 
feted never to come to his lights, whether it be 
Mend or foe that takes up the pen about him. It 
appears from a pedigree of the Dennys family 

furnished to Mr. Westwood by the Ret. H. N. 
Ellacombe of Bitton (and published by Mb. 
Westwood in "N. & Q." 3'<> S. xii. 456, which 
I most foolishly overlooked), that a John Dennys, 
not a younger son but a grandson of the Sir Walter 
Dennys who married Agnes Davers, was most pro- 
bably the author of the Secrets of Angling. This 
John Dennys married Eleanor Millet, and, dying in 
1609, was "buried at Pucklechurch. This opinion 
is strengthened by R. J. (Roger Jackson), the 
publisher of the poem, who says in the dedica- 
tion that — 

" This poem being sent vnto me to be printed after the 
death of the author, who intended to have done it in his 
fife, but waa preuented by death," &c, &c. 

The Ret. H. T. Ellacombe, who lives on the 
banks of the Boyd, has also favoured me with 
some local intelligence. Toghill is not a parish, but 
merely a hill, upon which one branch of the Den- 
nys had a house. The Boyd does not debouch at 
Keynsham, but at Ferris bridge, three quarters of 
a mile off. It is no longer a pleasing nvulet, but 
a nasty evil-smelling stream, caused by the refuse 
of a paper-mill. William Pinkebton. 


As a descendant of the Dennises of Puckle- 
church may I be allowed to call in question the 
accuracy of Sir Harris Nicolas in the quotation 
made from him P In it he calls a John Dennys 
the author of the Secrets of Angling^ and states 
that he was a younger son of Sii* Walter Dennys, 
of Pucklechurch, by a daughter of Sir Robert 
Danvers, or Davers. The latter part of this 
statement appears to me improbable, having re- 
gard to chronology. A pedigree in my possession 
says that Sir Walter Dennys of Alveston, Siston, 
and Dyrham, which estates respectively came into 
his family through the heiresses of Fitzwarine, 
Corbet, and Ruosel, fought on the Lancastrian 
side, was taken prisoner at Redemore, near Bos- 
worth, and had to pay a great ransom, *' his life 
being saved through his youngest son, John, then 
in the service of Kihg Henrjr VIL" This Sir 
Walter Dennys married four times, but had no 
children by any of his wives, excepting the second 
one, who was Agnes, the daughter and coheiress 
of Sir Robt. Danvers, or Davers, a Justice of the 
Common Pleas, who died 1467. Sir Walter died 
Sept 1, 1505. His third and youngest son, the 
above-mentioned John Dennys, or Dennis, was 
settled in the parish of Pucklechurch, and died, I 
believe, in 1521. The Harleian MS. 1543, f. 75, 
shows that this Jno. Dennis had a great-great- 
grandson, Jno., " sixteen years of age 1623." 
Though I think there is a mistake here, and that 
the boy was ten years younger, the lapse of three 
generations is sumcient to carry back the John 
Dennis, or Dennys, whom Sir Harris Nicolas 
makes to have been the author of the Secrets of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4tb a rr. august w, w. 

Angling^ to the early part of the sixteenth century. 
The last mentioned John Dennis had^ however, a 
grandson, John Dennis, of Pucklechurch, who 
died August 7, 1609. who, I think it is more 
probahle, was the author of the work in question. 
In my pedigree, which is a full one, I find no 
John Davers, or Danvers, related to these Dennises. 
As Agnes Danvers, the great-grandmother of the 
John Dennis whom I take to be the author of the 
Secrets of Angling, had no brothers, I do not 
think that the latter could have been more nearly 
related to John Davers than as a third cousin. 

H. B. ToMiONS. 
New University Club. 


(4»>» S. iii. 192, 298.) 

I beg leave to trouble you with a few addi- 
tional Horatian lines in these Psalms. The late 
Sir William Hamilton, who had, as is well known, 
an extensive knowledge of modem Latinists, at 
one time contemplated a Life and a new edition 
of Buchanan^s Poetical Works, on which he be- 
stowed considerable labour. His copy of Bu- 
chanan is said to be very rich in notes and parallel 
passages from the classics and modem writers. 
Although the work is not completed, it is to be 
hoped that the labours of Sir William in this 
field will not be lost to the world. It has been 
well observed in the Saturday Review of Mav 22, 
1869 (p. 683), that ^' his acquirements as a scholar 
and a man of leaming were unequalled in this 
country in our time." 


Qaod vivo et valeo, tatas et hostium 
A fraude, eximia fulgeo gloria : 
Quod late validis impero gentibus, 
Totum muneris id tui est." — Ps. cxliv. 2. 

*' Totnm muneris hoc tui est. 

Quod monstror digito praetereuntium 
Romanie fidicen Ivne : 
Quod jipiro et placeo, si placeo, tuum est*' 

Carm, iv. 3, 21. 

" Tu me si placido lumine videris 
Cedent tristitiai nubUa." — Ps. xlii. 8. 

" Tu nos si placido lumine videris 
Cedent continuo caetera prospere." 

P$, Ixxx. 3, 7, 19. 

*' Quem tu, Melpomene, semel, 

Nasccntem placido lumine videris, 
Ilium non labor Isthmius 
Clarabit pugilem." — Carm. iv. 3, 1. 

" Si fractus illabatur orbis, 
Incolumis fugiet ruinam." — P$. cxxv. 1. 

•* Si fractus illabi^nr orbis, 
Irapavidum fericnt ruinae." — Carm. iii. 3, 7. 

" Vitae pracsidiura et certa sains meae." 

Pa, xl. 17. 

Vitae O praesidium meae." — P$. xliii. 2. 

** et praesidium et dulce decus meum.*' 

Carm, i. 1, 2. 

« O quis altos 

Nubium in tractns celeri columba^ 
Me levet penna ! " — Pa, Iv. 6. 

** Mnlta Dircaeum levat aura cycnum, 
Teudit, Antoni, quoties in altos 
Nubium tractus." — Carm. iv, 2, 25. 

'* Interque laudes mentibus purls manna 
Ccelo supinas tollite.*' — Pa. cxxxiv. 2. 

** Coelo supinas si tuleris man us.*'— Cbrm. iii. 23, t.. 

For the occurrence of these lines and expres- 
sions, the depth and extent of Buchanan's scholar- 
ship itself may be urged as a sufiicient reason^ 
and every reader of these Psalms will admire the 
skill with which he has, as it were, woven them 
into his own elegant verses. The censorious may 
console themselves with Martial's question — 

" Nostris versibns esse te poctam, 
Fidentine, putas, cupisque credi ? '* — i. xxxiii. 

But the "carrying off" must take place on a 
much larger scale, in order to justify its applica- 
tion in I3uchanan's case. While on this subject 
it may be noted that, curiously enough, the same 
expression which Buchanan uses in two of his 
Psalms has occurred to Mr. Gladstone, and la 
made use of by him in his translation of Top* 
lady's hymn, " Kock of Ages " : — 

<' While I draw this fleeting breath ; 
When my eye-strings break in death." — Toplady^ 

" Dum hos artus Vita regit ; 
Quando nox sepulchro tegit'* 

Mr. Gladstone's Translatinnaf 1868, 
2nd edit p. 199 (Quaritch). 

** Hunc ego, dum vivam, dum spiritus hos reget artna 
Usque colam." — Pa, civ. 33. 

" artus dum regit 

Vitalis aune spiritus." — Pa. xxvii. 4. 

K. Meuxb. 

Willow Bank, Manchester. 



(4*^ S. iv. 9(5.) 

The following remarks may help to elucidate 
some of these words. Others appear for the pre- 
sent inscrutable : — 

Oure. — *' Al accomplissement del owe del dite 
esglise." The modem French osuvre was in the 
fourteenth century uvre, as a Norman woid. It 
admitted of contraction into ure (cf. our Engliak 
manure), and of phonetic interpretation as aure. 
The only other word which could have had the 
same form is hur'e, ure (heure), which was aJso 
occasionally oure, 

Arssons, — This is an admissible plural of ar^(mf 
ar^n, the saddle-bow, from arc, 

JEsmatlles. — Enamels, connected apparently with 
an old Teutonic root, «ma/^an =£nglish smeU, 
or melt. (The difference between a Spanish saddle 
and an English one I cannot explain.) 

4«k S. IV. August 28/69.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Amosuoient — " Un estrange bargeman qui nous 
amasuoient de Lambeth." After a little puzzling 
I perceived that this odd-looking word must have 
been intended for amoimoiet, from amoisner, an 
old form of amesner or amenej-, to bring or con- 
duct — a meaning which just suits the passage. 
After all, the plural is used blunderingly for the 
singular. Perhaps, however, (nc7it may have been 
misread for outy which would be the proper Nor- 
man form. 

Deymes. — This is no doubt the true Norman 
form of dawij from dama, a fallow deer. 

Aysshelers, — This curious word has long been 
the torment of etymologists. In modern English 
we meet with it as ashlar or ashler^ which is ex- 

Slained as, large blocks of stone squared for 
uilding ashlar-worky meaning work faced with 
SQch stones. It has not been observed that ashlar 
is a dialectic form of eshler^ which seems to be 
Anglicised from dcheUe; so that asJUar-work is 
really laddcr-xoork. The propriety of the applica- 
tion will bo obvious at a glance to one who knows 
how this architectural term is applied. The ay 
in the above word represents the initial e. The 
interchange of the Norman forms paisj paySj pees, 
pes, &c. for j;trtce sulHciently illustrates the 

Ileuses. — *' Les houses de la nouvelle sale," 
means, the doors of the new hall. Ileuse is a 
variant of hxics^ htiisj uis, tts (whence the French 
htdssier and our usher) ^ from osti'utn, 

Escroitz. — *' Deux baldekyns escroiiz.''^ I be- 
lieve I must give this word up unless it can be a 
corruption of erroissij broken or cracked, from 
which by a normal interchange of oi and u we get 
our word crush. 

Luk. — ** Pour le pois et le Ink et le faceon." 
Whether the patois word luquer or louquer, to 
look at, still heard in Normandy, was derived 
from England, or the English word from the 
Norman, it would be difficult to decide. It ap- 
pars to me, however, that luk above is really 
intended for look, but I cannot assert it positively. 

Gaudes. — ** Gaudes d'or." This Norman word 
(derived from gaudium) was doubtless the same 
as the English one (jaude (ornament, embellish- 
ment), which occurs in Chaucer and elsewhere. 

Oelez et hachez. — " Deux hanaps dor ove cou- 
vercles oelez et hachez de diverses corones, egles 
et lyons." — The first word appears to be from the 
Norman oel or