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iMetrium of ittter.-Communiwtioit 


When found, make a note pf.'* — Captain Cuttlk. 

Januaky — June, 1855. 


1855. . 




** IVlten fonndf make a note ef." — Captain Cuttle. 

Vol. XI. — No. 271.] Satubdat, Januaky 6. 1855. 

C Price Fourpence. 

I Stomped Edition, £tf. 


OnrZlerenthYoIiime - * - i 
Korss ! — 

Unpublished Letten of John Locke, by 

John Bruce - - - - l 

Thomns Ooffe the Dramatist, by Bolton 

Comey ----- 3 
Antiquity of Swimminsr-belta - - 4 

An early Society of Anuquariea - 5 

ForiANA : -.The Rev. Alexander Pope, 
CaithncM — James Moore Smyth — Sa- 
tirical Print of Pope - - - 6 
libraries in Constantinople : the Lost 
TVorks of the Ancients - - - 7 

TOZ.K Lorb:-. Death-bed Sunerstition 
_** As hir as a parson's bam ' —Charm 
for a Wart — Rhymes on Winter Tem- 
mst— A mufDed Peal on Innocents* 


School and Collece Fees in Scotland 
Ei«hty Years since, by K. Camithers 8 

Minor Notxs : — A Russian and an 
Englinh Refriment — Epitaph on Ri- 
chard AdUm — Earthenware Vessels 
found at St. Mary's Colle^ciate Church, 
Yousrhal, Ireland— Schedone and Fous- 
■in- A Family of Six Children at a 
Birth — China, Conquest of - - 8 

■Qdxries : — 

Addison's Letters, by Henry O. Bohn - 9 

Jennens or Jennings of Acton Place - 10 

** Ultimo," " Instant," and " Proximo " 10 

IfilP'^H QcTHaiPi : — Caucitia nf Yurt — 
'*T/CEn (\t> Bffluf " — Cummin — The 
lEpl^copal Wig ^ KEnjr John't Charltr 
jrmmfecl to YDin^hol — I^ MiiEnt> 
^TTnisei i>f Modiett^ " ^St*, SiAdCTt -^ 
ftllMnf!# of HecruitlTtir SfrBftaati -^ 
JSkilfnl Seir^iiji Corderoy ^ A Notjj 
■Ihr iJiii^hiis ^ Anec4]:nt<& or CitTinJnir — 
Cffmfftly nt the C*>ronfttirin of Edw. VT. 
_ Work ttn the Re^liEy of tlsc DtvH ^ 
Dtttth (if Bir Thoinu PrendiTirMi — 
Tnie CratB, RcHc nf, in the Tower— 
Frujisic Add from Blood - Thirteen - II 

Minor Qdbrtrs with Answrrs : — 
Hangman's Wages— Ancient Carving 

— Jubilee of 1809 - Coat Armour - 13 

JUruKs : — 

:eTs exeented in North America - 13 
igcTity ----- 14 

PHOTOORAPHie CoRRBfpoivoRNcs :— Bro- 
mo- iodide of Silver — ** La Lumi&> e " 
and Photography in England — Pho- 
tography and Law — Exhibition of the 
Photographic Society - - - 15 

Hrplibs to Miwor QvsRisf : — ** After 
me the deluge "—Remedy for Jaundice 

— Age of Oaks— White Slavery — 
♦•Talented"- **He that fights and 
runs away," &c— Hengrave Church 
—Parish Registers, ftc - - - 16 


Notes on Books^e. - - - 19 
Books and Odd YolnmM Wanted. 
Motion to Correspondents. 


ng Books, oonsiating chiefly of History, 
Antiquities, Topography, Ancient Poetry, and 
Heraldry, selected from the Stock of 


•»« Forwarded per Post on receipt of Two 

Fac-similes of Four extremely curions 
and highly interesting Rare Newspapers, pub- 
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and OLIVER CROMW^ELL. Price M. each, 
or the Four sent by Poet on receipt of Twen^- 
eight Stamps. 

(Comer of Ely Place), LONDON. 


^*'*^^l9iH?2%M?J?^™*?^™*^^* i \j CIENT BRITISH CHURCH, previous 
offer to the Thunderer. | to the Arrival of St. Augustine, a.d. »6. 

Second Edition. FoetSvo. Price 5s. cloth. 

** A work of great utility to general readers" 
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** The author has collected with much in« 
dustry and care all the information wliich caa 
throw light on his subject."- Omtirdian. 

*• Not unworthy the attention ot our clerical 
friends.** —Noiiu and Querie$, U. 453. 

against St. Ann's Church, may be seen a great 
Variety of Glass Manufacturer, finished with 
the same Care that lias distinguished it during 
the last Forty Years. 

You XI — No. 271. 

Vendre, le Manuscrit de 


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ihttm. It !■ not avflit ft ap]eMdi4l OirlstQiJis 
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tlont [vliilinii to Jome ot the dneil spiclinf as 
ut Chritftlm |eFnpl<^. 3 1 entitled tobe^ouho^ 
FHCti^HK'. Mph PeUt U ftlreadY well kmjwn 
for hli RrchlLt?ctTiriLl worjcib which ore Justly 
he]l in hijrh tftlm*tbi> i Jjut If wc r«t:ollei:t 
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GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 

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^, GUAGB : an Exposition of *' Tooke's 
Diversions of Purley." By CHARLES 
RICHARDSOV, LL. D., Author of a New 
Dictionary of the English Language. 

** What an epoch in many a student's intel- 
lectual life has been his first acquaintance 
with the * Diversions of Purley.* "—Trench on 
the Study of Words. 

*' The judicioT's endeavour of a veteran phi- 
lologist to extend the philosophical study of 
language by p-pulansing Borne Tooke's 
* Diversions of Purlf y,* Dr. Richardson lias 
done good service to the study of language in 
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book b much more than an abridgment." — 

GEOBGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 

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Second Edition, with large m<ip, price Of., 
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ItE'^TllKt of l>poTtD, F.RG^. {hf l^Oflun. 
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vtsTB o*' tJic Port Vt'int. DTitrleti j " of the 
" River DHmry from Ihfri^lceaii to t>tt! Bjuinisli 
Fr.HillL'rt'^ nitd of ttte " Ijeolojcf riif the Bed 

lUK] Diiukj of thf O'-'Ufo ; 

river, :•!.' . r ^ ■ i I. . '. I :'i- 

fllfoora [fJr'jjecElijr 

JOHN WEALE, SO. High Holbom. 


[No- 271. 

designs in 'mentioning this, save tbat if you find 
it an error it may be corrected in the next edition. 
I shall be obliged to you for the like favour, if 
you please to give yourselfe the trouble to read 
my book, w*^^ was seen by no man but myself till 
it past y^ press, y'fore I cannot think it without 
oversights. I am, 

Sir, yo"^ m"' hu. serv*, 

Jno. Caet. 
To John Locke, Esq. 

This letter, and the accompanying book, did 
not reach Locke until the 11th of the following 
April. How the delay arose does not appear. 
Locke immediately replied as follows : 

Gates, 12 Apr., '96. 
Worthy S', 

Y' obleigeing letter of Jan. 11, with the most ac- 
ceptable present of y' booke w*^** accompanied it, 
came not to my hands till late last night. The lin- 
gering of it soe long by the way has upon many ac- 
counts been a misfortune to me. It has deprived me 
of the pleasure and instructions I might have had 
from the perusall of y' Essay. It has made me loose 
the oportunity of correcting a great fault, w*^** having 
passed the presse in the first edition of my answer 
to Mr. Lowndes, I wish y*" timely and very kinde 
admonition had come early enough to have made 
me set right in the second. But most of all I am 
troubid, that it has soe long delayd my thanks to 
one, who by his undeserved civility has soe just a 
right to them. And I might reasonably appre- 
hend what thoughts of me soe long a silence might 
raise in y", did I not perswade myself that the 
good opinion y" are pleased to expresse of me in 
y' letter, would not let y" impute my silence to 
the worst of causes, ill breeding and ingratitude, 
till y" were satisfied that the slowness of my ac- 
knowledgm* was owing to noe thing but pure 
neglect in me. This stop soe unluckily put to the 
beginning of my acquaintance with y" I hope y" 
will perniitt me to repaire by my faster growth in 
it. Thinke not this a eomplem* in returne to y' 
civility, w*^** lias made the overture. This request 
has more weighty motives than what I have re- 
ceived from y", though I acknowledge y"^ book and 
y' letter have very much obleiged me. A worthpr 
rational man and a disinteressed lover of his 
country is soe valuable a thing, y* I thinke I may 
be allowed to be very ambitious of such acquaint- 
ance wherever I can meet with it. Give me leave 
ihen, now y* y" have opened the way to it, to own 
an impatience to be admitted into the freedom of 
familiarity and communication. For though I 
have not yet the happynesse to know y"^ face, yet 
I am not wholy a stranger to y' character. 

I shall say nothing now of y"^ booke : the few 
hours I have had it, have permitted me barely to 
cast my eye in hast on the three or fower first 
pages. I shall imploy the first leisure I have to 

read it over with attention, and to shew that I 
think my self already past the terms of complem' 
with y" I shall very frankly doe what in the close 
of y' letter y" desire of me ; and whereof y" have 
set me so friendly an example in the error y** have 
shew*^ me in mine. 

I am, worthy S% 
Y' most humble and most 
obleiged servant, 

John Locke. 
Rec"» Aprill 15t»»\,o^ 
Answ. y« 17'»»J ^^' 

Carjr answered this letter on the 17th April, 
immediately after its receipt. A copy of his 
answer is preserved in the MS. whence the other 
letters are derived : — Additional MS. Brit. Mus. 
5,540. In the course of Gary's reply, he remarked, 
" The freedome I took in laying before you the 
Printer's Errors in yo"^ answer to Mr. Lowndes you 
are pleased to excuse, and to take it with the same 
candor I intended it." On the 2nd May Locke 
returned the following excellent reply : 

Gates, 2 May, '96. 
Worthy SS 

I have read over your Essay of Trade y" did me 
the favour to send me, and have found the satis- 
faction I expected. It answers the character I 
had of y", and is the best discourse I ever read on 
that subject, not only for the clearnesse of all 
that y" deliver and the undoubted evidence of 
most of it, but for a reason that weighs with me 
more than both these, and that is, that sincere 
aime at the publick good and that disinteressed 
reasoning that appears to me in all y"^ proposals ; 
a thing that I have not been able to finde in those 
authors on the same argument w*=** I have looked 
into. This makes me dare to owne to y" that 
there are some few things in it wherein my opinion 
differs from y", but yet I like not y"^ booke one jot 
the worse, since I can promise myselfe from a man 
of y"^ ingenuity, and one who covers not by-interest 
of his owne under the pretence of serving the 
publick, that when I have the oportunity to 
debate them with y", either I shall be brought to 
righter thoughts by y' stronger reason, or else 
that y" will not reject anything I shall offer be- 
cause y" have been of an other minde. In all 
debates with any one, all that I desire is, that 
between us the truth may be found, but whether 
I brought it thither, or carry it away, instead of an 
error that tooke its place before, I am little con- 
cerned ; only in the latter case I am sure I am the 
greater gainer. 

One thing I have to complain of y' booke, but 
it is the complaint of a greedy man, and that is, 
that it is too little ; but a second edition will give 
y" an oportunity to enlarge it, and I hope you will 
doe soe. He y^ could say soe much can say a 
great deale more if he will, and y" doe as good as 

Jan. 6. 1855-] 



confesse it in several parts of y' Essay. Y" cannot 
employ y^ thoughts on a more necessary or usefull 
subject. The country gent., who is most con- 
cerned in a right ordering of trade, both in duty 
and interest, is of all others the most remote froiil 
anjr true notions of it, or sense of his stake in it 
*Ti8 high time somebody should awaken and in- 
forme him^ that he may, in his place, looke a 
little after it. I know noebody so able to doe it 
as y". I see noe party or interest y" contend for 
but that of truth and y*" country. Such a man 
carrys authority and evidence in what he says, 
and those that will not take the pains to under- 
stand him thoroughly, cannot refuse to believe 
him, and therefor I hope the same reasons that 
first set y" on worke will have force to make y" 
goe on. 

Y" make apologies in y"^" of the 17 Apr. for the 
freedom y" tooke in shewing me a mistake in my 
booke, and take it as a kinde of obligation that I 
excuse it. But I tell y" I doe not excuse it: 
that were to suppose that it needed an excuse. 
Now, I assure y", I thanke y" for it, and whether 
it were mine or the printer*s slip, I take it for a 
great marke of y' good will and friendship to me, 
y* y" advised me of it, and I have given order to 
have it mended. Will y" give me leave with the 
same candor to offer two places to y" to be alterd 
in the next edition of y' booke ; the one is in the 
last page of y' dedication to the king, where I 
thinke it is more for the advantage of y*" argument 
that y" should say all his dominions rather than 
Judsea. For he and his father David had extended 
their conquests as far as the Great River, t. e, Eu- 
phrates, and the Scripture tells us that Solomon 
built Tadmor, w^*^ was a great town in a pleasant 
and fruitful! plain a great way in Arabia deserta. 
The other I guesse is a slip of the printer, and is 
of noe consequence to y"" argum*, and that is Inter 
Hades, p. 56., w'** I conceive should rather be In 
Hades or Hadou, w^^ signifies the state of the dead, 
and possibly y^ will think may be as well expressed 
by amongst me shades, or some such other English 
words. I take this liberty only to shew y" that I 
in earnest covet a familiar acquaintance with y^, 
and am, without a complem^ 


Your most humble servant, 

John Locks. 
Rec^May 5«»1.^^ 
Answ. y« 9«» J ^^• 

For Mr. John Gary, Merchant, in Bristol. 

Gary replied 'with a promise to call on Locke 
the first time he came to London ; but the acquaint- 
ance made no progress. Other letters of Gary's 
may be seen in Mr. Rix's excellent volume of the 
Diary of Edmund Bohun. Locke's last letter 
speaks for itself. The kindness, conscientiousness, 
and precision, which were such marked charac- 

teristics of our eminent philosopher, are here 
written distinctly ; nor is there wanting that tinge 
of formality which was equally conspicuous in the 
man himself. John Bruce. 


« Ceat la bibltographie qui fournit a Vhistovre UttSrctire 
Us iUmens les plus positifs, et qui pevt lui donner une exacti- 
tude r/gfOMreusc."— JPierre-Claude-Fran9ois Daunod, 1831. 

"No one can travel far in the walks of English 
history without discovering some new facts, or 
rectifications of current statements ; some par- 
ticulars which, if rejected as discoveries by the 
Bruces, the Golliers, the Dyces, the Singers, would 
certainly be hailed as such by those who are ac- 
customed to confide in the ordinary sources of 
information on the respective subjects. 

As an exemplification of this remark I shall 
give the result of an inquiry into the dramatic 
history of Thomas Goffe, M. A., student of Christ- 
church, Oxford; afterwards B.D. and rector of 
East Clandon, Surrey. Of the various reports of 
his proceedings, I shall transcribe and comment 
on two, of the earliest and two of the latest : 

" Thomas Goff, the author of the Courageous Turk, 
SelimuSf Orestes, tragedies ; TAc careless sheapherdess, 
a tragi-comedy ; and Cupid's whirligig, a comedy." — 
Edward Philips, 1676. 

** Thomas Goflf. — He writ several pieces on several sub- 
jects, amongst which are reckoned five plays, viz. The 
careless shepherdess, 1656, 4°. — Tlie courageous Turk, 
1666, 8». — Orcrfcs, 1656, 8°.— The raging Turk, 1656, So. 
Selimus, 1688, 4<»."— Gerard Lanobaine, 1691. 

" Thomas Goff. — He wrote several tragedies ; but these 
do no honour to his memory, being full of the most ridi- 
culous bombast ; and one comedy, which is not without 
merit."— William Gifford, 1813. 

"Thomas Gouffe.— He wrote five tragedies, but none 
of them printed in his life-time. In the latter part of his 
life he wrote some comedies, published in the year in 
which he died.**— Owen Manning and William Bray, 

Thomas Goffe wrote three tragedies while a 
student of Ghrist- church. We may consider 
them as his college exercises, and they were not 
published in his life-time. The raging Tvrhe was 
dedicated to sir Richard Tichboume by Richard 
Meighen, one of the proprietors of the second 
folio Shakspere, in 1631 ; The covragiovs Tvrhe 
was dedicated to sir Walter Tichboume by the 
same person in 1632 ; and The tragedy of Orestes 
was published by Mr. Meighen, without any de- 
dication, in 1633. This was the utmost extent of 
his dramatic writings. 

Philips was an ingenious critic, but a yery care- 
less bibliographer. If he had examined ITie 
raging Tvrhe ne could have had no doubt as to 
its authorship. If he had examined the Selimus 
of 1594, he could not have ascribed it to Goffe, 
who did not leave Westminster-school till 1609. 


[No. 271. 

K he bad examined Cvpids whirligig as printed 
in 1607, 1611, or 1616^ he must have observed 
that it was addressed to maister Robert Hayman 
hy E. SJ If he had examined The careless shep- 
herdes he must have seen that it was written for 
the theatre in Salisbury-court : now that theatre, 
as my friend Mr. Peter Cunningham has proved 
by documentary evidence, was not even built in the 
life-time of Goffe I 

Langbaine deserves about the same character 
as Philips. Of the five plays which he ascribes to 
Gofie, two are mis-ascribed, and he cites no one 
of the authoritative editions. Gifford condemns 
our author for making a raging Turk speak in 
character, and praises him for what he never 
wrote. I spare Manning and Bray, as dramatic 
history was rather out of their line. 

I do not mean to insinuate that all the corrective 
facts now produced are discoveries. Langbaine 
asserted that Goffe was not the author of Cvpids 
whirligigs and Mr. Isaac Reed proved that he 
could not be the author of Sdimus ; but all the 
authorities whom I have consulted ascribe to him 
The careless shepherdes — and all of them betray 
a deficiency of bibliographic research. 

I have now justified the epigraph prefixed to 
this note, which cannot be too often repeated. It 
was written by its estimable author after a literary 
career of more than half a century. 

The discovery of errors suggests the queryv 
How did they arise? And an attempt to solve 
such a query is far from useless curiosity. It 
leads us to consider the nature of evidence ; it 
helps to sharpen the detective faculty ; and to pre- 
serve those who write from the censures of future 

How then did the errors arise in this particular 
ix^tance ? Here are my huroUe conjectures. 

Philips omits The rasiiig Tvrhe. Xow, as that 
tragedy ia ascribed to Gone in the dramatic cata^ 
logue9 which were printed in 1661, 1671, and 1675, 
it may either have been omitted through oversight, 
or because it was assumed to be the same piece as 
The eovragiovs Tvrke. 

He may have ascribed. Selimua to Goflfe either 
OBi the authcHity of the aforesaid catalogues, or' of 
the edition of 1698, in which the piece is said to 
be loritten hy T. O. It is, however, the edition of 
15^ with a &lsified title ! 

He may have asoribed The oardess shepherdes 
to Gofi^ thou^not published till five-and-twenty 
years after his death, either on the authority of 
the albresaid catalogues^ or beaause it is said to be 
written hy T. G.Mr, of arts. 

He may hfcwre ascribed Cmndar whirligig to 
Qaffk because k follows, in the aforesaid cata*- 
logues. The- carileM shepherdes; and he may have 
settB only the editbn of 1630^ in which the dedi^ 
cation hj £. S. is omitted. 
After so many conjectures, I must return to 

facts. Langbaine says Groffe " was buried at his 
own parish-KHinrch at Clandon, the 27th of July, 
1627." This is an error. By the kind permission 
of the rev. Edward John Ward, M. A., the rector, 
I copied, some time since, the subjoined entry 
from the original register : 

« 1629 July 270 Sfepultus Thomas Goflfe SS Theolog. 
Baccalaareus et Eccliesise hujus Paroch Bector."' 

Bolton Gobsbt. 


Those who hold that, literally, ** there is nothing 
new under the sun," will see more than a fanciful 
parallel between a well-known passage in the 
Odyssey, and the following incident ia the late 
wreck of the mail steamer " Forerunner." Cap- 
tain Kennedy^ one of the passengers in that ship, 
thus modestly related to the Court of Inquiry an 
heroic act of his own, which is well worthy of 
record : 

*< Remembering that there was a sick gentleman, a 
merchant captain, Mr. Gregory, who was below, I went 
to inform him of oar danger. This gentleman had pre- 
viously informed me that if any accident ever occurred 
he would certainly be drowned, as he could not swim. I 
remembered this at the moment, and as 1 had a swimming- 
belt ia my cabin, I immediately rushed down to my cabin 
for the purpose of getting it. I gave it to Mr. Gregory. 
I inflated it for him, and put it round him, for he did not 
understand how to use it. I then left Mr. Gregory to 
shift for himself," &c. — The Times, Nov. 21, 1854. 

In the fifth book of the Odyssey we read the 
beautifiit passage, which forms the subjject of one 
of Flaxman's graceftil iflHistrations,. of the sea- 
nymph- Leucothoe bringmg to Ulysses, tempest- 
tost upon his raft, a magic zone, wiiich, bound 
around hiis breast, enables hinr to swim to land. 
I will not trouble unlearned readers with the 
Greek ;; Cowper's translatfoft is, — 

<* Take this : thra. labband' bind beneath thy braast^ 
Celestial texture: thencefisEth every feas of death disr 
miss/' &c. 

The Greek word is Kfyfi^efu/ov, variously rendered 
in English zone, girdle, ribband, cincture. 

Without going so far as to believe that all new 
arts and inventions are but lost ones revived, I 
think it not improbable that the swimming-belt, 
inflated with air, may have been known in ante- 
Homeric times, and the tradition of it thus pre- 
served'. F. 

J AS. 6. 1855.] 



It is nofir perhaps, generalij known that a So- 
-cietj of Antiquaries existed in the seventeenth 

The following minute ©f its first " chapter," at 
"which its rules and bye-law* were instituted, will 
not, I hope, be uuaeceptable to yonv readers. It 
is, throughout, in the handwriting of Sir £dward 
I>ering, except the signatures, which are auto- 
graph. There are verbal corrections in it, made 
evidently on the suggestion of the moment, and 
Sir Edward's signatare is t^ first appended. 
The style and language are deeidcfdiy his ; and 
I think we may, with a fair presumption of truth, 
assign to him the honour of originating this So- 
ciety. That it enjoyed but a brief existence is 
easily accounted for by the parliamentary trou- 
bles which arose almost within two years of its 
birth, and in which more than one of its members 
bore part. 

The conventional marks' b^ which the MSS.,^ 
&C. of the members were to^ be distinguished, is a 
fact of no small importance to collectors in this 
day. I have frequently met with one or other of 
these marks on MSS., and, till the discovery of 
this document, have always been at a loss to ac- 
count for them. I hope, therefore, by the publi- 
cation of this interesting minute in ^^ N. & Q.," to 
furnish collectors with a satisfactory means of 
identifying many of their MSS. L. B. L. 


Att a chapter held y» first of May, A* I>* 
1638, by the [Schollers] StudentSs of Anti- 
quity whose names are underwrrtten, itt was 
agreed, and concluded upon, to hold, keepe, 
and with best credite to preserve these articles 
following, viz. : 

1° rmprirais. That every one do helpe and fur- 
ther each others studyes and endeavours, by im- 
parting and communicating (as time and other 
circumstances may permitt) all such bookes, 
notes, deedes, rolles, &c. as he hath, for y* expe- 
dititig whereof, and that each may knowe what to 
borowe of other, for his best use and behoole, itt 
is first concluded and promised, eache to send 
oUiier a ^^fect inventory and catalogue of aU sock 
notes^ bookest coUeetions, &c. as tfi^y now have. 

2^ Item. That no p$oa of this society do shewe 
OF otherwise make knowen thisv or anj y^ like 
future agpreement, nor call in,: nor promise to^ call 
in any other person to tlws society, w*hout a par- 
tienlar consent first had of all this present society. 

[** l?his it WDvid appear foUciwedv although, perhaps^ 
not ia conseqaence of the fmlore of Boltoars scheme for 
'*an Academ Royai;" of which scheme^ Mi^ Hunter has- 
given so iBteresting an accoont.. (See Archacilogku, 
voLxxxii. ppi 1835-149.)— Ed; ••N. * Q."] 

3° Item. That every one do severally gather all 
observable collections which he can, concerning 
y* foundations of any religious houses or castle, 
or publicke worke, and all memorable notes for 
historical! illustration of this kingdome: or y® 
geneologicall honour of any family therein, espe- 
cially concerning y* countyes of Kent, Hunting- 
don, Northampton, and Warwick; and y* same 
to communicate unto such of this society who is 
most interessed therein. 

4f* Item. That every one doe carefully and 
faythfully observe and recorde all persons which 
haue beene drgnifyed with y* title of knighthood, 
with a breife of y* time, place, county, &c. ; y* 
same to be disposed into such methode as att y* 
next consultation shall be agreed upon. 

5** Item. That every one do endeavour to bor- 
rowe of other strangers, with whom he hath interest^ 
all such bookes, notes, rolles, deedes, &c. as he 
can obteyne, as well for any of his parteners as 
for himself. 

6* Item. Whereas, rtt is entended, with care,, 
cost, and industry, to pfect up certeine select,, 
choise, and compleate treatises of armory and 
antiquityes, wliich cannot well be done without 
some preceding, rough, unpolished, and fowle 
originarl coppyes : Itt is now agreed, coTicluded, 
and mutually promised, that y* s* principal! bookes 
so compleated, shall not, upon forfeite of credite, 
be lent out from among, this society to any other 
person whatsoever. 

7** Item. That y* afores* roughe coppyes be not 
imparted to any stranger, without y* gnll consent 
of this society. 

8° Item. That care be providently had, not to 
lend; much lesse to parte with, any other peece, 
treatise, booke, roll, deed, &c. unto any stranger ; 
but to such psons, from whom some reaaonable 
exchange probably be had or borrowed. 

9° Item. That euery of the rest do send unto 
S' Christopher Hatton, a pfect [notej transcript 
of all such heires femall of note as he can find— 
with y* probates of euery of them — to be method- 
ized by him. 

10" Item. For y» better expediting of theses 
studyes, by dividing y* greate burden whicfa 
through such infinite variety of particulars wouEcf 
arise, to the discouragement and oppressing of 
any one man*s industry, itt is donciujded and 
agreed to part and divide these labours as fol* 
loweth, viz. That %^ Christopher Hatt<»i siiall 
take care to eolleet and register all old rolks' of 
armea, and old parchment bo<^ea of arines, being; 
of equall valew, antiquity, and forme with j* 

11° Item. For y« same reasons, that S"" Thomas 
Shirley shall collect together and enter (att large 
or in hTQ\f% according to such coppyes as can be 
had), air patentee and coppyes of new grantes or 
oonfirmacons of armes or creaBtes* 



[No. 271. 

12° Item. For y* same reasons, that S*^ Edward 
Dering do gather and compose a full compleate 
booke of armes by way of ordinary. 

13° Item. For y* same reasons, that M' Dugdall 
do collect and coppy all armoriall seales with a 
breuiate of y' deedes, and y® true dimensions of 
y* seales. 

14° Item. For y* same reasons, that S*^ Edward 
Dering do sometime this somr beginne a new 
system or body of armory, with such brevity, 
pspicuity, and proper examples, as may best be 
chosen ; to which purpose y" other associates haue 
promised to send unto him such helpe, by way of 
originalls or coppyes of all extraordinary formes 
of sheildes, charges, supporters, augmentations, 
diminutions, differences, &c. as they can furnish 
forth; the same to be reveiwed att y' next 

15° Item. For y* same reasons, that S"^ Thomas 
Shirley do gather y° names and armes of all (or 
as many as can be had) mayors, sheriffes,* and 
aldermen of London and Yorke, and of all other 
cittyes and townes throughout all ages. 

16° Item. For y" same reasons, that S' 'Chris- 
topher Hatton do collect together all y° names and 
armes of knightes, to which purpose, all y* rest of 
y* society are to send unto him such supply as 
they haue, except itt be for y^ knightes of King 
James and King Charles, which are by ^* paynes 
of Mr. Anthony Dering allreadjr putt into good 
order, for which S' Edward Dering undertaketh. 

17° Item. Whereas many usefml and pleasur- 
able notes are passed and comunicated betweene 
y* fores** [schoUers] students of antiquity. Now 
to y* intent that continuall recourse may euer (as 
occasion shall arise) be had to y° study, bookes, and 
collections of him that shall so send or impart y" 
same, for y^ iustifying of any transcript so received, 
and for y' more quicke finoing and reveiwe of y* 
same. Itt is further concluded and agreed, that 
every one shall forthwith fayrely marke every 
severall booke, roll, treatise, deede, &c., in his 
library: First, with one gnll note or marke of 
appropriation, whereby att first veiwe to know y' 
owner thereof: and then with such other addi- 
tionall miarke as shall be thought fitt, that is to 

S' Edward Dering to marke all such as belong 
unto him in this forme [on a shield, a saltire]. 
S' Christopher Hatton [a garb]. S' Thomas 
Shurley [on a shield paly, a canton ermine]. And 
li' Dugdall thus [a cross moline]. And for petty 
small marks, these, in order as above, X — H — 
S— D. 

18° Item. (When any pson receiueth any tran- 
script or note from another of this society, which 
he is to keepe as his owne, and thereof to make 
me, he shall imedlatelv marke y^* same note, and 
all future transcripts thereof, with y* cheife cha- < 

racter or marke of y* sender as aboue, — and y" 
sender of euery note shall take care that all notes 
by him sent, shall be written (as neare as may be) 
in y* same paper for size of bignesse as he shall 
first use, whether y" note sent do fill y* whole 
sheete, or but a line therein. 

19° Item. Least that too much care of sending 
one to another may begett some mistake in lend- 
ing one thing twice, itt is resolved and agreed that 
he who sendeth or lendeth any booke, note, or 
roll, &c., to any other of this society, shall att y° 
sending or returne of the same, marke the same 
with y*' principall character or marke of the person 
to whom he shall so lend itt, — and, if itt be 
coppyed out of any of his bookes, then to sett a 
little marke of y* same forme in y* margent of y* 
8** booke. 

20° Lastly. To preuent y* hazard of loosing 
time, by y* trouble of seuerall mens taking 
coppyes of one and y° same thing : itt is concluded 
and agreed that whosoeuer peruse any booke, 
treatise, or deed, &c., and do transcribe y* same, 
he shall, att y** very last line, if itt be booke or 
treatise, &c. — or on y* dorse or y* labell, if itt be 
a deede, sett one of these two markes D or d^ — 
that is to say, if y* copper be taken verbatim, then 
y* capitall letter D, but if breviated, then d, 

Edwabd Dbbing, Chbistopher Hatton^ 
Thomas Shirley, Wm. Dugdale. 


Sir Edward Dering was the first baronet of his house ; 
his mark, the saltire, was his coat armour, or rather the 
coat of Morini adopted by him. 

Sir Christopher Hatton was probably the first Lord 
Hatton, so created 1643, and great-great-grandson of 
John Hatton, brother of the Lord Keeper, temp. Eliz. 
The garb, his mark, was from his coat of arms. 

Sir Thomas Shirley. His mark is the coat of Shirley 
Paley, a canton ermine. 

Dugdale, ike Dugdale, his mark was from his coat of 
arms, a cross moline. 


The Rev. Alexander Pope^ Caithness, — In the 
Life of Pope I have mentioned a namesake and 
acquaintance of the poet who was minister of the 
parish of Reay, in Caithness. A snuff-box is in 
existence which Pope is said to have presented to* 
hb clerical friend in the north. It is a handsome 
gilt box with an allegorical scene in relief on the 
Hd. This interesting relic is believed to have been 
sent to the Rev. A. Pope by the poet, accom- 
panied bv a note, in which he claimed a distant 
relationship to the minister. The box is in the 
possession of the grandson (by the mother*s side) 
of the Rev. W. Pope, namely, James Campbell, 
Esq., Assistant Commissary-General, Edinburgh. 
The poet*s autograph has been lost (to Mr. Camp* 
belles great regret), but an elder brother of this 

Jan. 6. 1855.] 


gentleman distinctly recollected to have often seen 
And read it during his grandfather's life. May 
not the family of the poet have been originally 
from the north of Scotland, where a number of 
Popes, clergymen, resided in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries ? The grandfather of Pope 
is said to have been a clergyman in Hampshire, 
but no trace of him can be found in the registers 
of incumbents. The above particulars I owe to 
the courtesy of my friend, Mr. Robert Chambers, 
and trust the subject will be taken up by some of 
the able correspondents of " N. & Q.," who enjoy 
iacilities for prosecuting literary and antiquarian 
researches. B. Cassuthbss. 


James Moore Smyth, — To the Query of S. J. M. 
in Vol. X., p. 459. of "N. & Q.," it maybe an- 
swered that the fact of James Moore Smyth, the 
object of Pope's hatred and satire, being the son of 
Arthur Moore, M.P., the distinguished Commis- 
sioner for Trades and Plantations, &c., seems esta- 
blished by the OentlemavLS Magazine^ and by Man- 
ning and Bray's History of Surrey, The former 
announces his death (October 18, 1734) as " son 
of the late Arthur Moore, of Fetcham, Esq.," &c. 
The local history describes the estate of Fetcham 
as having been purchased by Arthur Moore, Esq. ; 
and an account is given of Arthur Moore and 
hb family, including his third son James, who, 
according to the GeTiilemarCs Magazine^ took the 
name of Smyth " to enjoy an estate left him by 
Mr. Smyth of Gloucester Street." N. B. 

Satirical Print of Pope (Vol. x., p. 458.).— 
Obiffin will find all he inquires after in A Pop 
upon Pope ; or more readily perhaps by turning 
to Carruthers' Life of Pope, p. 200. S. P. P. 


In the midst of the din of war, and the horrors 
that are its inevitable attendants, it can scarcely 
be demanded that much, if any, attention can be 
given to the exploration of antiquities, or to the 
research after lost manuscripts — the boast and 
glory of ancient letters. Stdl, even when sur- 
rounded by circumstances so unfavourable, enthu- 
fiiastic scholars and antiquaries have been found, 
in camps and battle-fields, profiting by the events 
which led them into foreign countries, and seeking 
to enrich their native land and the world at large 
with spoils dearer than all the material conquests 
of the victor. Would not, therefore, the present 
campa^ in the Crimea, and the friendly relations 
subsisting between England and Turkey, seem to 
present Sie long-desir^ opportunity for English- 

men to obtain access to places that have long been 
shut up from them, and that are likely to contain 
manuscripts and other spoils inherited by the con- 
querors of the Byzantine empire ? The present 
Sultan of Turkey is not a man likely to refuse a 
request of this nature addressed to him on the part 
of the British government. A firman might be 
issued to all pachas and governors of cities and 
provinces requiring them to grant every facility 
to properly authorised individuals of the British 
nation for exploring and examining all old build- 
ings and institutions likely to afford scope for re- 
search and discovery. In this way, the evils of 
war may be made eventually productive of good 
to mankind, by the bringing to light again of some 
of the long lost treasures of Greece or Rome ; or, 
more precious still, of some works of Christian 
antiquity. The present Prime Minister, Lord 
Aberdeen, early distinguished himself as an en- 
lightened cultivator of the fine arts, and more 
particularly of Grecian art. His countenance 
would no doubt be given to measures calculated 
to save from destruction before it is too late any 
remains of antiquity in the classic lands of the 
East. AN*nQUABT. 


Death-bed Superstition, — Whilst residing at 
the village of Charlcombe, near Bath, in the year 
1852, a village well known to the ecclesiologists 
for its diminutive church, said to be the smallest 
in England, a curious circumstance came to my 
knowledge. The parish clerk made application to 
the clergyman for the loan of the paten belonging 
to the church. Being asked for what purpose, he 
said he wanted it to put salt on, and to place it on 
the breast of a dying person to make him *' die 

Is not this a trace of some old use of *' blessed 
salt " in the mediaeval Church ? W. N. T. 

Cains College, Cambridge. 

"il* big as a parsorCs barn*^ is a Dorsetshire 
measure of magnitude, which happily begins to 
savour of antiquity, and ought, I think, to be re- 
corded. C. W. B. 

Charm for a Wart, — Some fifty years ago, a 
near relation of mine, then a little girl, was much 
troubled with warts, of which she had thirty-two 
on one hand, and two on the other. Accidentally 
hearing one day from a visitor, of an acquaintance 
who had been cured by cutting a nick or notch in 
an elder stick for each wart, touching the wart 
with the notch, and burying the stick without 
telling any one of it, she tried the plan, and 
utterly forgot the circumstance till some weeks 
after, when an intimate friend of the family asked 
her how tiie warts were going on. On looking at 


NOTES Aki) <4(ji!ilti3fi«. 


her hand the thirty-two were gone, but the other 
two, which had not been charmed, were still there. 
She subsequently tried to get rid of these two in 
the same manner ; but the charm would seem to 
have been broken bj her telling of it, and they 
remained where they were. 

As this circumstance happened in the family of 
a highly respectable London tradesman, at his 
country-house in one of the neighbouring villages, 
it seems to indicate that fifty years ago charms 
were in use in a class of society in which we should 
not now expect to find them. 

The Devonshire charm for a wart is to steal a 
piece of meat from a butcher's shop, rub it over 
the wart in secret, and throw it over a wall over 
your left shoulder. N. J. A. 

Rhymes on Winter Tempest. — 

1. " Winter's thunder, 

Poor man's death, rich man's hunger." 

2. « Winter's thunder. 

Summer's wonder." 
What others exist ? R. C. Wakde. 

A muffled Peal on Innocents* Day. — On Inno- 
cents^ "jDay, hearing the bells of Maisemore 
Church, in this neighbourhood, ringing a muffled 
peal, I inquired the reason, and was told by a 

Earishioner that they always ring a muffled peal 
ere on Innocents* Day. Is this peculiar to 
Maisemore ? C. Y. €. 



Sir James Mackintosh, in his autobiographical 
sketch published by his son, has affectionately re- 
corded his early education at Fortrose, where a 
popular academy then flourished. The following 
copy of one of his school-bills, which lately fell 
into my hands, is curious : 

** Capt, Angus Mackintosh^ of the 71s<, for his nej^iew, 
James Mackintoshy Dr, 

£ s, d, 
1775, July 16. To school fees from this to 

July 15, 1777, at 6s. per qr. - - 2 

1:776-7. To cock's fight dues for 2 years, 2s. 6rf. 

each - - -'- -060 

To cash for a Mair's Introduction, 2s. Od ; 

Caesar's Com., U.Qd. - - -036. 

To jditto for 3 months' fees at the dancing 

school, minuet, country-dances, and horn-: 

pipe,&c. - - - - -0 18 

To ^tto for praetisings at ditto - - 9 6 

To ditto at a public [ball] for himself and 

partner - - - - -020 

To ditto at going to Connage and Inverness 

[to visit his relations] for 2 years - - 4 j 

July 15. For answering the school fees, and I 

Other accidental demands, 4br the y>ear «om- 

menoing of this date - - -10 0; 

£6 2 O"! 

It is impossible to forbear a smile at the 
ciation of the cock-fights and minuets with tihe 
future amiable and somewhat ponderous philo- 
sopher! The scholar*s board with a decent 
householder in Fortrose at this time was twelve 
pounds per annmn. Here is one of the receipts : 

♦* Fortrose, 80th May, 1780. 
** Reed, of Ba. rBailie] John M«Intosh, on account of 
board wages for Ja. M<:Iitto8h, son to Capt. John Ma<ik- 
intosh, of the 73rd regiment, from Nov. 16th, 1779, io 
May 15th, 1780, day and date as above, the sum of 6^ 
St. Pr. Alex.]Man." 

In the autumn of 1780 James Mackintosh left 
the academy at Fortrose, and proceeded to Aber- 
deen College, the sum of twenty shillings being 
paid for his proportion of the chaise hire from 
Inyerness to Aberdeen. At college his expenses 
were, of course, greatly increased, and some of his 
relatives hinted at " prodigality," a charge whidi 
he strenuously denied. The following affords 
some data for forming a conclusion on this point : 

** Note cf Expenses laid out on Jamie Mackintosh, from 
2(Hh May, 1780. 

£ s. d. 
Cash at different times from that date to 

6th July, 1781 - - - - 84 8 *• 

Cash from 3l8t October, 1781, to 16th April, 

1782 29 14 

Cash from 10th June, 1782, to June, 1783 - 87 1 Q 
Cash for clothes and other advances, frt)m 

15th September, 1780, to July, 1782 - 26 

Cash for clothes and other advances for James 

from July, 1782, to October, 1788 - - 27 10 

£154 8 0" 
Many of the students at Aberdeen College lived, 
and many still live, at less cost; but James 
Mackintosh was of the higher class of the youth 
attending the university. He was the son of an 
officer in the army, the heir to a small Highland 
estate (then valued at about 160^. per annum, and 
which he afterwards sold), and he was of social 
tastes and habits, as well as a great reader and 
collector. His future career is well known, — a 
career honourable alike to his great talents, his 
genuine benevolence, and simple diojnity of cha- 
racter. R. Cabbuthers. 

A Russian and cm English Regiment, — The 
courage of an English army is the sum total of 
the courage which the individual soldiers bring 
with them to it, rather than of that w'hich they 
derive from it. When I was at Naples, a Russian 
and an English regiment were drawn up together 
in the same square: — ""See," said a Neapolitan 
to me, who had mistaken me for one of his coun- 
trymen, ** there is but one face in that whole 
regiment ; while in tJuit (pointing to the EngHsh), 
every soldier has a face of his own." 


Jan. 6. 1855.] 



Epitaph on Richard Adlam, — In the romantic 
villaj^e church of Kings Tei«:nton, Devon, there is 
a tomb to the memory of Kichard Adlam, whose 
.epitaph, besides being a singular specimen of the 
style of the period, is so remarkable for the coinci- 
dence of the first line with Dr. Young's celebrated 
apostrophe to Death (Night Third) — 

** Insatiate archer ! conld not one suffice? **— 
iliat we might almost think he must have seen and 
had it in his mind when be wrote it. It is as fol- 
lows : 

** Richardus Adlam hujas ecclesise Yicarias, obH Feb. 10, 
1670, Apostrophe ad Mortem : 

^ DanrCd tyrant! can't i)ro&Rer blood -suffice ? 
Must priests that offer be the sacrifice ? 
>6o tell the genii that in Hades lye, 
Thy triumphs o-er this Bocrod CaJbamry, 
Till some just Nemesie avenge our <}au8e 
And force this kUl-priett to r&vere good laws I ** 


Earthenware Vessels fowad at St Mary*s Col' 
legiate Chureh, Youghal, Ireland. — In the pro- 
gress of the restoration of the choir of this church 
tkuring the autumn of this year, 1854, vases aimilar 
to those found at Fountains Abbey (VoL x., 
p. 386.)) and at St. Peter's Mancroft, Norwich 
(Vol. X., p. 434.), were discovered. Thejr are ten 
in number, laid on their sides, the orifices not 
reaching to the surface of -the walls in whidi they 
are iml^ded, but communicating -with the out- 
side through circular perforations in a piece of 
limestone laid up to each. Five of these vases 
are in the north wall, and five directly opposite in 
the south, high up above the arches of the windows 
contiguous to the nave. They are all of brown 
earthenware, glazed within, but differ in shapes 
and dimensions. Some have narrow mouths, 
whence they gradually expand to the base. Some 
swell out, like RomsammphoriB, and like them are 
symmetrically tapered to the bottom. Some have 
wide months, narrow necks, and broad bases to 
stand on. Measurements of the largest four were 
as follows respectively, viz. 15^ inches X llj; 
15 X 11 ; 11 X 7 ; 9J X 9J. May they not have 
been intended for acoustic purposes, according to 
Priestley's experiments ? Samuel Hatmah, Clk. 

South Abbey, Toughal. 

Schedone and Poussin. — Great praise has been 
bestowed on Poussin for the pathetic episode in- 
troduced into one of his pastoral paintings; in 
which, amid the fleeting pleasures of the shep- 
lierd's life, a stone, the memorial of some de- 
parted shepherd, is seen bearing the well-known 
inscription, ^ £t effo in Arcadi& fui." It is ques- 
tionable whetlier Poussin did not borrow thb 
idea. In tibe Sciarra P&laoe at Rome, there is ft 
inctiire of Bdbedone* in which ehopherde are in- 

troduced contemplating a skull. On a stone 
below appear the words " Et in Arcadid ego." I 
apprehend that Schedone'fi painting was produced 
the first, and that the pathetic and justly admired 
idea was originally his. Poussin, during his long 
residence at Rome, would be familiar with Sche- 
done's painting. W. Ewavt. 

A Family of Six Children at a Birth, — The 
Dayton Gazette, published in Ohio, states on the 
authority of " a lady of character, who saw and 
counted the children, and had the mother's word 
that they were all hers at a single birth," that a 
German woman lately passed through Dayton 
with six children born at a birth. The woman 
was on her way to see her husband, who was siek 
at another place where he was at work. The 
children were carried in a basket, and were all of 
a size except the youngest, which was smaller 
l^an the others. 

It is said that Ambrose Par6, the French phy- 
sician, gives an account of a similar family. 



China, Conquest of, — In the year 1758, Lord 
Olive, then Governor-General of India, pr(^>08ed 
to conquer Ohina, if parliament would supply htm 
with a force of fifteen thousand men. I have no 
doubt so great a man knew well that he was able, 
humanly speaking, to accomplish what he pro- 
posed; and if his proposal had been accepted, 
what a mass of misery might have been prevented, 
by Ohina and India being united under one great 
Ohristian government ! The fanatical spirit of the 
present reb^ against the Imperial government 
would now be turned, with fatal effect, against any 
foreign interference of a hostile nature ; and 
nothing now remains for England, in her inter- 
course with China, but the most cautious, pacifiic, 
and prudent policy. A. 



I am engaged in an edition of Addison's Woris, 
which I at first intended should be a mere reprint 
of Bishop Kurd's, and form four volumes of my 
British Classics; but I have found occasion to 
alter my plan. Some autograph-collecting friends 
having placed at my disposal several unpublished 
letters of Addison, and called my attention to the 
exbtence of many others in both private and pub- 
lie collections, I commenced a diligent, and 1 am 
happy to say successful search. I have, in conse* 
quence, discovered more than fiftv letters, quite 
unknown to the literary world ; all of which, to- 
gether with a coflMiderable number which hav)B 



[No. 271. 

ap^ared in various printed collections, will come 
in a fifth volume of mj edition. 

My object in addressing you is, to query 
whether any of your readers can and will help to 
increase my store, either by sale, loan, or tran- 
script, or b;^ promotive indications ? To such, a 
debt of gratitude will be due from the public, and 

Henbt G. Bohn. 


In the Gent. Mag. for July, 1798, will be found 
-an account of a very remarkable man, Wm. Jen- 
^ nens or Jennings of Acton Place, in the county of 
Suffolk, and of Grosvenor Square, London, who 
died on the 19th of June preceding, at the a^e of 
ninety-seven. He is there stated to have been 
the richest subject of the crown, and having died 
intestate and without issue, that his almost in- 
calculable wealth would merge into three indi- 
viduals previously possessing immense fortunes. 
An opinion afterwards very generally prevailed 
that his heirs could not be traced, and that the 
crown had interfered to protect the property for 
t whomsoever should establish the claim ; and it is 
believed that litigation took place on the subject 
even to a comparatively recent period. It was 
Tumoured that a claimant had taken possession 
of Acton Place, and the notice of it in Shoberl's 
Beauties of England and Wales, published in 1813, 
vol. xiv., tit. Suffolk, would seem to sustain that 
statement : 

" On his decease the fine tapestry was torn from the 
" walls, and sold with the furniture and other movables. 
This noble mansion having since that time been inhabited 
only by an old man and woman, now presents a deplorable 
spectacle of dilapidation, and the approach cannot be 
traced but by the colour and height of the grass which 
has grown over the gravel. The interior still exhibits 
some vestiges of its rormer splendour. The garden has 
fared even worse than the building, for it has been 
ploughed up, and has been now cultivated as a field." — 
P. 159. 

Some mystery unquestionably hangs over this 
singular individual, and the vast property which 
he lefb behind him undisposed of, and which it is 
believed has never yet been the subject of final 
adjudication or distribution. In *' N. & Q.," Vol. 
iv., p. 424., date Nov. 29, 1851, an inquiry appears, 
whether the late Mr. Jenings of Acton Hall, 
Suffolk, was descended from a Yorkshire branch 
of the family, and where information as to pedigree 
could be obtained. In two subsequent volumes, 
namely. Vol. vi., under October, 1852, and Vol. vii. 
for 1853, Queries also occur respecting the Jen- 
nings family; but I have not been able to trace any 
very accurate details respectbg the rich Mr. Je- 

As the subject is to some extent one of historical 
interest, perhaps some of your numerous corre- 

spondents maj be able to afford some information 
as to his pedigree and connexions, and also ns to 
the disposition of his money and estates, in whom 
they vested, and whether any portion yet remains 
for dbtribution. W. B. 

[ It appears that William Jennens was a descendant of 
the fanufy of Jennens of Gopsal Hall, co. Leicester, whose 
pedigree, and some account of the family, is given in 
Ni c hols's Leicestershire, vol. iv. p. 859. In Acton Church, 
Suffolk, is a monument with the following inscription : 
"To the memorv of Robert Jennens of Acton Place, in 
ihQ county of Suflfolk, Esq., fourth son of Humphrey 
Jennens, of Warwickshire, Esq., who died the 25th of 
February, 1725-6, in the fifty-fourth vear of his age, 
leaving one only son, William Jennens, by Anne his wife, 
only daughter and heir of Carew Guidott, of Hampshire, 
Esq. He purchased the estate, and began the house. 
This monument was erected by his wife, who also built 
this chapel. She died the 24th of December, 1761, 
aged eighty-five, and is deposited in. the family vault^ 
uiicCer the chancel adjoining to this chapel, with the re- 
nun ns of her said husband. The above-named William 
Jt linens died the 19th of June, 1798, in the ninety-eighth 
ymr of his age : is buried in the same vault with his 
father and mother, and his memory thus perpetuated by 
hh particular direction." From a statement in tfce Gent, 
Jfiig. for March, 1803, p. 287., it appears that a consider- 
tibh part of the personal property of Mary, dowager Vis- 
countess Andover, came to her as one of the heirs-at-law 
of William Jennens, whose death is noticed in the same 
work, vol. Ixviii. pp. 627. 755. See also the Gent. Mag. 
for July 1852, p. 85., and August 1852, p. 114., for an 
account of a falsely rumoured settlement of this long 
litigated case. The noble structure of Acton Hall, con- 
t aiding fifty-four apartments, was demolished in 1825 by 
order of Earl Howe, heir-at-law of the late parsimonious 
proprietor: see the advertisements for its sale in the 
Ipswich JourtuU, March 5, 1825, and April 30, 1825.] 

"ultimo," "instant," and "proximo." 

I should be glad to receive a critical notice of 
tha common phrases vltimo, instant, &nd proximo. 
From what source have these terms flowed into 
our language, and why is it that they refer to 
months only and not to days? The received 
meaning seems to be as follows. If I, writing on 
t!ie 20th of November, speak of the 10th ultimo, 
it means decimo die, ultimo mense, or the 10th of 
October. If I speak of the 10th instant, it means 
decimo die, instanti mense, or the 10th of Novem- 
ber. If of the 10th proximo, it means by a similar 
construction the lOtn December. Now as I can- 
not find in books of reference, such as dictionaries, 
any explanation except that subjoined of these 
phrases, it is very easy to fall into error concern- 
ing them, especially as Dr. Johnson, our great 
aiithority in questions of philolo^, attributes in 
his dictionary a substantive meaning to the word 
instant, used in this sense, which he says is used 
^* in low and commercial language for a day of the 
present or current month." This definition seems 
to be incorrect and imperfect when we analyse the 

Jan. 6. 1855.] 



plurase, because I have shown that *' instant** hath 
tat adfeeiive signification referring to the month 
itself, and not to the day. I am not ashamed to 
confess that until very lately I attributed a wrong 
meaning to these three words, conceiving that 
each and all of them applied to the day itself 
whose date stands prefixed, in which case the 
10th uUimo would mean the 10th of November, 
and the 10th instant would mean the 10th of De- 
cember — decimo die instantly or the tenth day next 
at hand. It appears, however, that this con- 
jstruction is undoubtedly erroneous, and upon 
consideration it is evident that where days are 
numbered, they are numbered solely with refer- 
ence to the months in which they occur. Still, in 
the use of common terms the mind is seldom ap- 
plied critically to the consideration of their mean- 
ing, and therefore it might be desirable that all 
these words, although two of them be not actually 
JQnglish, should find a place in our English dic- 
tionaries and books of reference, since perhaps not 
one person out of a hundred may take the trouble 
to infofm himself of the accurate meaning of 
words which he* b in the daily habit of writing. 


Mixior €L\xttiei. 

Canons of York, — There is, in Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes, an account of Mason the poet in a note 
in the second vol. p. 241., which ends thus : 

** The appointment of the four canon residentiaries of 
York cathedral is in the gift of the dean, who is obliged, 
by statate, to give the vacant canonry to the first man he 
sees, after the vacancy, capable of taking it Mr. Mark- 
ham was his first sight on the death of Mr. Mason.'' 

I should be glad to know if this statement is 
correct ; and if so, what is the date of the statute 
which thus compels the dean so to dispose of the 
canonry ? C. db D. 

" L'CEil de Bceu/y — Are the French memoirs 
published under this title an authentic work? 
What is known of the author or authors ? 



Cummin. — In The whole Art and Trade of 
Husbandries translated from the German by Bar- 
naby Grooge, is this sentence, when spefJ^ing of 
the above herb : 

** It is sowed best (as they thinke) with corses and exe- 
crations, that it may prosper the better." 

Is there any old superstition respecting this herb ? 
Some seed was found a few years since, I think, 
in the coffin of William D* Albini, or in that of his 
wife, at Wymondham in Norfolk. Was it often 
placed in coffins ? Why ? The seed thus found 
germinated, I believe ; but Bamaby Googe does 
not mention it among those which " are the older 

the better.** Has cummin seed ever been found 
in an Egyptian tomb P F. C. B. 


The Episcopal Wig — Life of Bishop Porteus. 
— In the Life of Bishop Porteus, by a Lay Mem- 
ber of Merton College, Oxford (London, 8vo., 
1810), is the following passage (p. 90.) : 

** It is a short time since all Oxford was thrown into a 
ferment by the refusal of their newly appointed bishop. 
Dr. Randolph, to abandon a comfortable head of hair for 
an episcopal wig.'* 

Dr. Randolph was appointed Bishop of Oxford, 
1799, translated to Bangor, 1806, and to London, 
1809. I believe he ultimately conformed to the 
established usage as regards the episcopal wig. 
Who was the fi^t modern bishop who abandoned 
the wig ? I should also be glad to know the name 
of the lay member of Merton College who wrote 
the above-mentioned Life of Bishop Porteus f 



King JohrCs Charter granted to Youghal, — The 
Report of the Commissioners on the Municipal 
Corporations o^ Ireland, 1835, alludes to a charter 
of incorporation granted to the above town by 
King John, a copy of which, the commissioners 

Sroceed to say, is believed to be in the British 
luseum. Will any contributor to "JST. & Q.** 
kindly set the question at rest by informing me 
whether such a document is in the Museum or 
not ? Samuel Hatman, Clk. 

South Abbey, Youghal. 

Le Maine* s " Praises of Modesty.'' —Where can 
I find (in some accessible work) a copy of the 
P^re Le Moine's poem, entitled Praises ofModesty^ 
from the seventh book of his Moral Portraits f 
Pascal alludes to it in his eleventh Provincial 
Letter. Perhaps some correspondent would kindly 
supply me with a copy of the verses, if there are 
not many of them. A. Challsteth. 

Sea Spiders. — I should be much obliged if any 
of your correspondents conversant with Natural 
History would inform me whether the insects 
popularly called " Sea Spiders " are commonly met 
with in the waters of this country. They belong, 
I believe, in scientific phrase, to the family of the 
Pycnogonida. A friend of mine, who resides 
in Scotland, found them adhering to the small 
shells and sea-weeds on his yacht mooring-barrel^ 
in fifteen fathoms of sea-water. P. S. 

Ribands of Recruiting Sergeants.' — Why are 
they worn ? Russell Golb. 

SkUM Sergeant Corderotf. — Can Mb. Foss or 
any of your legal antiquarian correspondents in- 
form me who this gentleman was, mentioned in 
the note at the foot of p. 133. of Athena Oxo' 



[No. 27L 

menses^ yoI. i., by Bliss, 1848 (edit. Eecles. Hist. 
Society) ? Was he a member of Sergeant's Inn, 
Chancery Lane? and if so, are the arms of the 
sergeant emblazoned anywhere there ? and what 
were they ? Any information respecting him or 
his family will be acceptable. SaossoLDS. 

A Note for Junius. — 

** Before I went to bed read some of Francis' Indian 
Minutes ; quite able enough to back him as the author of 
Junius,** — Moore's Diary, vol. iii. p. 188. 

Query, Have any of the inquirers after the author 
consulted these Miautes? J. M. 

Wobum Abbey. 

Anecdote tf Canning. — During the time when 
the Kight Hon. George Canning was in the ad- 
ministration, and on the breaking up of a meeting 
of the council, he the Right Hon. George Canning, 
I think it was, who undertook to teH any of those 
present that he would ?uess their thoughts in less 
than twenty-one questions. One of the party 
iihought of the uMtm of offioe. 

The first question was : Was it celestial cur ter- 
i«BtirialP Ans. Terrestrial 

Second, Was it animal or ve^table? Ans. 
Vegetable, &c. &c. 

i liave read l^e above in some work, and do not 
know where I can prociKre a copy. I thought you 
would be enabled to let me know what work it 
"was in, and where I might obtain a topj. £. P. S. 

Comedy at the Coronation qf Edward VI. — In 
the Rev. Joseph Mendham*s Memoirs of the 
Council of Tretft («vo., London, 1834), be quotes, 
from a MS. collection in his possession, an extract 
from a letter, dated March 8, 1547, addressed to 
Monsignore Verallo by Cardinal Famese, in which 
it is stated that, at the coronation of Edward YI., 
|>lays were performed in dishonour and vitupera- 
tion of the Pope and the cardinals. The passage 
is as follows (p. 113. note). The cardinal is 
king delle cose d^IngMterra, and proceeds 

** E qnanto alia dispositione di quelle anime perdute, 
iditomar all' union' della Chiesa, et ubedienza della Sede 
Apostolica, fin qui non si comprende cosa buona, ma si 
▼fide tutto V opposite per cdcune eommedie, che sono state 
recitate nella coronatione del nuovo Tirannetto, in disonor 
<e Tituperio del Papa, e delli Cardinali." 

Is this statement of Cardinal Famese's a his- 
torical fact f if so, what are the plays referred to ? 

J. M. B. 

Work on ^ Becdity of the Devil — In the 
Hamburgieche Zeitschrift^ Aug. 1778, a work by 
Professor Link, of Giessen, Uber die Besessener^ 
is reviewed ; and called " one of the many works 
about which the public is so curious as to the 
l^onal reality of the Devil.'* Another is men- 
tioned under the title, Man muss auch den Teufel 

nicht zu triel auf burden. The controversy is treatod 
as one of great interest, and Dr. Johan Semler is 
frequently referred to. Can any of your readers 
give me the title of Semler's book, or any othei% 
on the <!ontroversy carried on in Germany at iliat 
time ? N. £. B. 

Death of Sir Thomas Prenderga&t. —The fol- 
lowing extract is from an obituary notice whkik 
appears in The Hhtstraied Loudon ifews of SfttuT' 
day, Dec. 23, 1854: 

** Few of the Anglo-Norman families in Ireland lurre 
hdd a more honourable and enduring position than that 
of Prendenrast, seated for centuries at Newcastle, in the 
county of lipperarv. One of the deaoendants (Sir Thos. 
Prendergast, JBart) was an eminent soldier of the reign 
of Queen Anne, and a participator in the victories of 
Marlborough. The mysterious warning that foretold his 
death, forms a most ourions and well«aathenticated aneo- 
dote in family lomaace.*' 

I have no doubt that mainr of your readers can 
testier to the annoyance of a reference to •* the 
well-known anecdote** which one does twt know, 
and as I happen to stand in that predicament in 
the present case, I shall be thankful to anybody 
who will give me the particulars of the ^* well- 
authenticated anecdote'" here referred to. 

G. Taylor. 


True CrosSj Relic of in (he Tower, — ^From certain 
original letters in liie possession of a relative of 
mine, I am led to believe that, as late as the reigns 
of James L and Oharles L, there was preserved in 
the Tow^ of London, among the crown jewels, « 
relic, supposed to be a portion of the true Cross. 
Can any of your correspondents enlighten no 
upon this subject, and give any information as to 
the previous history c? thb relic, and what be- 
came of it P J. A. D. 

Pntssic Acid from Blood. — In Niebuhr's Zec- 
tures on Ancient History^ translated by Dr. Sohmitz 
(3 vols. 8vo., London, 1852), the following pas- 
sage occurs with reference to the story current 
in antiquity, that Themistocles poisoned himself 
with bull's blood (see Grote's Hist, of Greece^ 
vol. V. p. 386.) : 

** It is generally acknowledged that the statement of 
his having killed himself by drinking ox-blood is a mere 
fiction; for no quadruped has poisonous blood. There 
are, however, several cases in which men are said by the 
ancients to have killed themselves with the blood of 
oxen. We know indeed that this is impossible ; but the 
prussic acid of modem times was at first (about ninety or 
one hundred years ago) prepared from blood ; and is it 
not possible that the ancients (of whose chemical know- 
ledge we form much too low an estimate) knew how to 
prepare it, though perhaps in an impure and imperfect 
state, and thus extracted the deadliest of all poisons from 
blood? Saeh an explanatien seems to me by no means 
foirced; and how «bould such a tradition have become 
established in Greece, liad thers not been an occasion ifer 

Jan. 6. 1855.] 



■ it? If snch a preparation had no specific name, it might 
* Tery well be called ox-blood; and the story may have 

■ been understood at Athens in the same manner in which 
^ it has been understood down to our days ; namely, that 
, Themistocles killed himself with actual ox-blood." — Vol. i 
^ p. 361. 

With respect to this conjecture, perhaps some of 
your correspondeats will be able to state whether 
t prussic acid was known to chemifits ninety or one 
I hundred years ago ; and whether it has ever been 
extracted from blood ? Moreover, does any other 
J example occur in antiquity (as stated by Niebuhr) 
[ <of a supposed suicide by drinking buiTs blood ? L. 

Thirteen. — Fosbrooke, m the second volume of 
hb Antifittiiiesy'p. 797^ under the head of ** Popular 
Superstitions," states, that ^ thirteen in company 
was considered an unlucky number by the ancient 
IBomans.** What classical authority has he for 
this statement? G. M. 

Edeiilhall, Penrith. 

McmgnuaCv Wages. — I haive often heard this 
term applied to the sum of thirteen pence half- 
^nny. What is the reason of its being so called ? 

In the London Review^ Ko. 1. (April, I8SS) 
p. 39^ hanging is spoken of as a ^cheaper punish- 
xment than traaspeartation ; ^^ for the fee of -the 
^execittioiieE,** Bays the reviewer, **' with Tope in- 
leluded, seldom exceeds thirteen shillings aird six- 
pence.** Is this correct ? Is it possible that a 
onan could be induced to play the part of Jack 
(Ketch for so trifling mtm as 13& %d, P 

H. MABa!iir. 


[I)r. -Samuel Pegge addressed a paper to the Society of 
Antiquaries on the vulgar notion, though it does not 
appear to be a vulgar error, that thirteen-pence halfpenny 
was the fee of the executioner at Tyburn, and hence it is 
called Jtangman's wages. The Doctor sa^'s, " As to the fee 
itself — thirteen-pence halfpenny — it appears to be of 
Scottish extraction. The Scottish mark (merk), not ideal 
or nominal money like our mark, was a silver coin, in 
value thirteen-pence halfpenny and two plachs, or two- 
thirds of a penny. This Scottish mark was, upon the 
union of the two crowns in the person of James I., made 
eorrent in England at the value of thirteen-pence half- 
penny (without Tegarding the fraction), by proclamation, 
in the first year of that lung ; where it is said, that * the 
coin of silver called the mark piece, shall be from hence- 
forth current within the said kingdom of England, at the 
value of thirteen-pence habipenny.* This, probably, was 
a revolution in the current money in favour of the hang- 
jnan, whose fee before was perhaps no more than a shil- 
ling. There is, however^ very good reason to conclude, 
from the singularity of the sum, that the odious title of 
hanaman*8 wages became at this time, or soon after, appli- 
cable to the sum of thirteen-pence halfpenny. Though it 
was contingent, yet it was then very considerable pay ; 
' when one 6hiUi^g ^r day was a standing annual stipend 
to many ree9>octable4)fficers of various km^." Dr. J^egge^s 
article will be found in his CuriaKa JSRsceBaneaf which 

has been copied into Hone's Table Booky vol. ii. p. 696. 
Consult also the Gent. Mag. for Feb. 1821, p. 104. ; and 
Br. Grey's note in HudibraSf part in. canto ii. line 761.] 

Ancient Carving. — Some eight years since a 
gentleman residing in Ipswich purchased, at a 
carpenter*s shop in Hairkstead, Suflfoik, the remains 
of a carved oak mantlepiece, consisting of two 
semicircular pilasters, four grotesque supporters, 
and two similar coats of arms. Crest, the head 
and neck of a pard, on an esquire*s helmet, shield, 
and chevron between three pellets. The colours 
are wanting. The outer pair of grotesques bear 
the initials I. G., and the date 1638. Can any 
one lead to the discovery of the family to whom 
this work of art belonged ? J. D. G. 

fThe arms -of Golding of Postlingford, and of Fornham, 
bom in co. Sufiblk, are — Gules, a chevron or between 
three bezadts. Richard Turner, of Great Thurlow, mar- 
ried Susan, daughter of John Golding of Postlingford, 
circa 1600—1612.] 

Jubilee of 1809 Was there any detafled bo- 

count published of the celebration of the Jubilee 
of Xxeorffe ILL, wiiioh took place in 1809 ? 


[Excepting Dr. Joseph Kemp's pamphlet, entitled The 
Patriotic Entertainment, called the Jutnlee^ London, 1809, 
we know of no other detailed account than what will be 
found in the newspapers and periodicals of the time : see 
especially Ackermann's Repository.l 

Coat Armour. — To what names do the follow- 
ing bearings belong ? Purpure (?), a chevron be- 
tween three rabbits sejant argent. Argent, ^a 
fess between three falcons rising sable. Quar- 
terly, or and gvdes, four lions passant guardant, 
counterchanged. Patoncb. 

[The last coat is probably that of North Wales, the 
colours being quarterly gules and or, the lions counter- 
changed. (Archeeohgia, xxix. 407.) We cannot trace 
the oth^s.] 


(Vol. ix., pp. 305. 603.) 

« In 1657 an order was passed * that if any one brought 
a Quaker, ranter, or other notorious heretic within the 
jurisdiction of Plymouth colony, and should be ordered 
by the magistrate to return him whence he came, they 
should obey, or pay a fine of twenty shillings for every 
week that such obnoxious person should remain in the 
colony after such warning. 

«< In despite of the twenty-shiUing law, Quakers did 
come within their precincts, and proclaim their hated 
tenets. This gave occasion to a severer law, to the effect 
that whoever should harbour or entertain any Quaker in 
the colony would subject himself to a penalty of five 
pounds for every offence, or a public whipping. 

^ In Ootober, 1657, Humphrey Norton was examioad 
hy .the court, who fiokund Mm guilty of divers errors, and 
banished him firom the colony. He returned, however, In 



[No. 271. 

company with another Quaker of similar spirit. They 
were arrested and imprisoned. A prominent feature in 
the conduct of the Quakers, which greatly exasperated 
the court, was, their contempt of the legal authorities. 
They gave their tonfinies great licence, and seemed to 
have imagined that they were honouring God by their 
insolent defiance of the civil tribunals. Thus, at their 
•examination, Norton said to the governor a number of 
times, * Thou liest, Thomas ; thou art a malicious man.' To 
provoke greater severity, he said to the governor, * Thy 
<cIamorous tongue I regard no more than the dust under 
my feet, and thou art like a scoldine woman, and thou 
pratest and deridest me.' As they pr(^essed to be'English 
subjects, the court ordered them to take the oath of fide- 
lity to their country. On their refusing, declaring they 
would take no kind of oath, they were sentenced to be 
whipped. After the sentence was executed, and whilst 
they were smarting under the stripes they had received, 
the marshal ordered them to pay a fee for the whipping I 
Thatcher says, in our times we luiould think public whip- 
ping to be a sufficient punishment, without obliging the 
culprit to pay the whipper's fee. The Quakers not assent- 
ing to pay the required amount, were imprisoned until 
the marshal was satisfied. 

In 1658, the court framed a bill with this explanatory 
preamble : Whereas sundry Quakers and others wander up 
and down in this jurisdiction, and follow no lawful calling 
to earn their own bread, and also use all endeavours to 
subvert civil state, and pull down all churches and ordi- 
nances of God, to thrust us out of the ways of God, not- 
withstanding all former laws provided for the contrary ; it 
is decreed, that a house of correction be built, in which 
all such individuals, with all idle persons, or rebellious 
children, or servants that are stubborn and will not work, 
should be obliged to earn their living by labour, imder the 
direction of an overseer. 

** On the 11th of May, 1659, six persons, among whom 
were Lawrence Southwicke and wife, were sentenced to 
depart out of the jurisdiction of the colony by the 8th of 
June, on pain of death. We have no evidence, however, 
that this extreme penalty was inflicted upon any Quaker 
in the Plymouth colony. For what was done in the 
Massachusetts settlement at Boston they are not respon- 
sible. The tragedies which were enacted there during 
this period will be described in another volume on the 
history of that colony." — Banvard's Plymouth and the 
Filgrinu, Boston, 1851. 

History proves that tbe leading men of Massa- 
chusetts, in law and divinity, nrmly believed in 
witchcraft, and without any qualms of conscience 
readily condemned those unfortunate beings who 
were accused of it to suffer death. " Witchcraft," 
shouted Cotton Mather from the pulpit, " is the 
most nefandous high treason ;** and fourteen per- 
sons, men and women included, are too certainly 
known to have perished. But how did this per- 
secution result ? It was not long after tnese 
executions had terminated, that we find the 
** General Court of the Province asking pardon 
of Gk»d for all the errors of his servants and people 
in the late tragedy.*' Judge Sewall, who presioed 
at the trials, rose in bis pew at church, ** and im- 
plored the prayers of the people that tbe errors be 
bad committed might not be visited by tbe judg- 
ments of an avenging God on bis country, bis 
family, or himself.** And now, in a MS. diary of 
ibis departed judge, may be read, on tbe margin 

against tbe description of these trials,^ in bis own 
handwriting, these words of Latin interjection 
and sorrow : " Voe ! voe ! voe I Woe I woe ! woe !'* 



(Vol.x., pp.489, 490.) 

In this one column we have, from tbree sources, 
collected by tbree different correspondents, evi- 
dence of which neither tbree nor tbree hundred 
such statements can prove to tbe satisfaction of 
those incredulous matter-of-fact people, who will 
be satisfied with nothing short of baptismal re- 

gisters, and which they call legal proof. In tbe 
ope therefore of saving time and your space, 
allow me to remind your correspondents, that 
more than half a century since, as known to every 
bookseller, and testified by every book-stall in tbe 
kingdom, there was published, by an ingenious 
gentleman of tbe name of Easton, a substantial 
octavo volume of tbree hundred pages, containing 
" the name, age, place of residence, and year of 
tbe decease of 1712 nersons who attained a cen* 
tury or upwards.** Surely here is proof as good 
as any that can be found in " the waste leaf of an 
old n^agazine** (ante, p. 499.) ; proofs which, "name 
and place of residence'* being given, your sceptics 
are bound personally to inquire into before they 
presume to bint a doubt. Mr. Easton, as be him- 
self tells us, was over-scrupulous; and yet it 
appears from bis preface (p. xvi.), that more than 
one-sixth of tbe 1712 were between 110 and 120 
when they died ; and tbree were between 170 and 
185 ! Mj*. Easton refused admittance to every 
account of tbe authenticity of which he bad tbe 
smallest doubt. And therefore, though tbe fact 
was vouched for by " two respectable^ authors,** 
and confirmed by a third, who was " historiogra- 
pher royal,** be did not include in bis list one 
man who died at tbe age of "370 years;** but 
recorded tbe fact in bis preface, that "the reader 
might form bis own opinion respecting it.** 

L. G. Y. 

" N. & Q.** sometimes take an interest in cases 
relating to longevity. I may mention an instance 
attended by more than one remarkable circum- 
stance. Near Springburn, about tbree miles dis* 
tant from Glasgow, on tbe old north road leading 
to Stirling, are to be found residing in a bumble 
cottage, a venerable Scotch couple, viz. Geor^ 
Robertson, ninety-two years of age, and bis wife 
eighty-seven, who have been sixty-seven years 
married. They have outlived all their children ; 
with only, so far as they are aware, some remote 
descendants abroad. Tbe old man has become of 
late considerably paralytic, but retains tbe powers 

Jan. 6. 1855.] 



of his memory and judgment better than could 
have been expected. His partner in life is yet 
healthy and active for her years. 

A better example of a shrewd intelligent couple 
could not easily be seen ; who, while they were 
able to follow their ordinary occupation, were in- 
dependent and hard-working. It would trespass 
too much on space to give any history of " Old 
George,** as he is familiarly called. In the prime 
of life he was many years engaged as a man-of- 
war's man ; served with Sir Sidney Smith at St. 
Jean d*Acre, where he was wounded in the arm ; 
and was concerned in most of the exploits of 
Kelson, and at the battle of the Nile. Afterwards 
he voluntarily left the service; and for having 
done thb, he says he was not entitled to any pen- 
sion or other government assistance. 

The thatched cottage in which he resides is also 
a relic of by-gone times, it having been a way- 
side hostelrie m 1745, kept by Janet Stobo ; at 
which Prince Charles halted and refreshed, on his 
march with the rebel troops from Glasgow to 
Stirling on the morning of Jan. 3, 1746. In the 
tout ensemble of this scene, truth appeals more 
powerfully than any kind of fiction. You enter 
the cottage, and see the aged couple by the fire- 
side reading the Bible and instructive books, their 
almost constant employment; and hoping, with 
Christian resignation, that their *' time will not be 
long now.** With all the vivacity of a young hero, 
his dim eyes glistening full of tears, George will 
describe to the young listeners around, Nelson and 
the fleet, and fight his battles over again. He has 
alwavs been a little thin man, endowed with a 
highly nervous active temperament. 

If there was any fund m London applicable to 
such cases, a verv small allowance would be ex- 
tremely benefici|a in smoothing the few remain- 
ing days of this interesting couple, and would be 
judiciously bestowed. G. N. 


Sromo-iodide of Silver, — I see by a letter published in 
'<K. & Q.** of last week, that Mb.Kbade states that a 
real bromo-iodide of silver is formed by the solution of 
bromide of silver in iodide of potassium, and that he finds 
fiuilt with a fonner letter of Mb. Lbachman*s on this 
subject. Now there may be, as I allow, a difference in 
the molecular arrangement of iodide of silver deposited on 
the paper, and thus a more perfect impression produced 
of greens, or even j^ellows ; but that there exists even the 
least trace of bromide of silver in the deposit, I entirely 
deny. To prove this let me only ask that Mb. Reads 
will do me the favour of trying the following experiments. 
Take three grains of nitrate of silver, and three grains of 
iodide of potassium; dissolve separately; then «^d them 
together, and wash the precipitate thus produced with 
diitilled water; drain as dry as possible, and add half an 
oance of liquid ammonia fort ; let them digest together 
fax several noius^ shaking occasionally, and filter Uie so- 

lution repeatedly till quite clear ; next repeat the same 
experiment with only the substitution of bromide of po- 
tassium for the iodide above mentioned ; place the two 
solutions apart in separate test tubes. Next take the so- 
lution as recommended by Dr. Diamond and Mr. Rbade, 
and adding water to precipitate the so-called bromo- 
iodide of silver, collect the precipitate on a filter ; wash it 
well, and digest it with ammonia as before ; filter the 
liquid, and place it in another test tube. Now to each of 
these add an excess of dilute nitric acid ; the result will 
be that the first will become only in the smallest possible 
de^ee opalescent, if at all so. The second will become 
quite white with the precipitate produced, while the 
third will show exactly the same comportment as the 
first. This establishes that we have a method of detecting 
bromine and iodine separately ; and also that in the case 
of Mr. Reade's bromo-iodide of silver, it comports itself 
with ammonia as iodide of silver does. But, he will say, 
does that prove that this is not bromo-iodide of silver? 
Yes, it does, by the following experiment : first, mix in 
solution three grains of iodide of potassium, and two of 
bromide of potassium ; add nitrate of silver in slight ex- 
cess, and then well wash the precipitate in a dark room ; 
digest this, as before, in ammonia, and on the addition of 
an acid the same result is obtained as in the case of pure 
bromide of silver, that is to say, complete milkiness of the 
liquid. The reason for using the above proportions is, 
that this is the proportion, or nearly so, in which iodine 
and bromine combine separately ; and so we may expect, 
from similar examples occurring in chemistry, that this 
is their proper proportion of combination with bases ; but 
should this not satisfy Mr. Reade, let him add the least 
possible amount, instead of the above-named quantity of 
bromide, and he will always find that it at once produces 
extra milkiness in direct proportion to the quantity of 
bromide added, when compared with the almost complete 
transparence of the solution produced by what he chooses 
to call bromo-iodide of silver. Now I am far from saying 
that there does not exist such a compound as bromo- 
iodide of silver, but only that this is not the way to 
make it ; nor would I for the world detract from the value 
of Dr. Diamond's discovery, by which these troublesome 
green tints may be impressed ; all I say is, that this is 
not the way to get bromo-iodide of silver, as all the 
bromine remains in solution. But now for the method to 
get the substance required. The only means I know of 
is a modification of a process which appeared some time 
since in " N. & Q." Take fifty grains of iodide of potas- 
sium, and fifty grains of nitrate of silver ; mix in separate 
portions of distilled water; pour them together, and col* 
feet and well wash the precipitate. Next take fifteen 
grains of bromide of potassium, and fifteen grains of nitrate 
of silver, and treat them in a similar manner. Mix the 
two precipitates thus produced in a measure glass, and 
fill the latter to mark six ounces with distilled water. Now 
add very carefiUly, in very minute portions at a time, and 
in fine powder, some cyanide of potassium, till the liquid 
onfy iust clears up, and then filter it. The best cyanide 
for the purpose is that purified by crystallisation from 
alcohol, as the ordinary cyanide contains much free alkali» 
and acts injuriously on the paper ; it will, however, do in 
default of better. The paper is to be laid as usual on this 
liquid, and when it has thoroughly imbibed, to be taken 
off; when nearly dried, throw it into a bath of a quart of 
distilled water, to which has been added one or two 
ounces of glacial acetic acid. By this means the cyanide 
is decomposed, and the iodide and bromide of silver pre- 
cipitated together. I prefer not using more bromide than 
above indicated, as it makes the colour of the negative 
rather too red when finished ; but it may be increased at 
the pleasure of the operator, or the whole quantity of the 




iodide and bromide of silver may be increased, if a thicker 
costing of these sabstances be required. The paper, after 
being trashed in several waters, may be dried and used as 
the ordinary iodized paper. After a certain time the 
acetfo add will require to be renewed. If the operator 
pref^ using, the ordinary pyroligneous acid, as a cheaper 
reagent, he can do so, only employing double the quantity. 
This paper, I And, iis rather in|uriously aflfected by ex- 
IXBure to light before sensitising, and should be kept in a 
dark portfblio ; but if only exposed for a very abort time^ 
and not to very bright light, appears to spontaneously 
recover i!ts former condition. F. Maxwell Lyte. 

Ad^elibS) Haates Fyc^n^esy. Dec 15, 1854. 

** La Lwniere " and Photography in Un^fand^—Qwc able 
French cotemporary La LvuiksLE, of Um 23rd ultimo, 
contains two artialea which show that the entente eordkde 
between the French and English photographers is com- 
plete.^ The first is a critical notice of some copies- of Db. 
Diamond's Portraite vfthelkaane,^ in which full justice is 
done to our excellent corvespondani's abilities as a photo* 
^rapher, and to the value to the medical world of this 
ingenious application of his art. The second has reference 
to the subscriptions to support M. Larochc in his law- 
suit with Mr. Talbot, and to the testimonial to Dr. Bla.- 
VLOWO'j and after complimenting English photographers 
for the maimer in which they have come forward on both 
these grounds, and in the latter case how they appreciate 
the services of one ^ who seeks not his owu benefit, but 
the progress of his art," the writer expresses his hopes 
to see the day when similar services will be every whero 
recognised in a similar manner. 

Photography and Law, — The litigation in the photo- 
graphic world has not been put a stop to by the recent 
verdict in the case of Ta&ot v. Laroche, It is under- 
stood that the plaintiff means to move for a new trial, 
and that on the 9th he will make his application to the 
Privy Council for a renewal of his patent ; and to which 
application no opposition has, we hear, been entered On 
the other hand, a meeting has been held, ** of those who 
are interested in the art,*^ to adopt measures for the pur- 
pose of supporting the verdict. 

JTxAtSittbji of the Photographic £Coctety. — This exhi- 
bition, which is to take plaee early in the present month, 
win, we believe, show the vast progress- made by the art 
daring the past year. 

Ifany complaints have reached us of the shortness of 
the notice given by the committee, and La- Lmmiere of 
Saturday last gives expression to the. same* feeling on 
behalf of fbreigu exhibitors. Wby should this be ? 

« Aften me the delvge ** (ToL ilL, pp. 299. 3S7.; 
y^k V.V p. 6tL>9i> — Milton sai^rs^ HksA Tiberinff waa« 
ontt- who used the ia^HnooB proverb ailiided' to by 

** They practise that when they ML^ ihey may &U iiLa^ 
goienU ruin ;. just as omd Tibesins would wisb: 

* * When I die^ let the earth beroffedinflaBBes.' *** 
Xemton cfCAtarch Qovemmmtr bookL ch, v. p. 3%. 

Macxsirbk] Wimson,. l^LA*. 
F.Sl — A correspoadieBt asks, what i8*t£eori^ 

coln*s Ian? I believe several trades adopt the 
same name for the journeymien*s merry-making. 

Remedy for Jatmdice (Vol. x., p. 321.) ; Venom 
of Toads (Vol. vi., p. 517.). —The remedy for 
jaundice, recorded by C. W. B., is not peculiar to 
Dorsetshire, The learned Fred. Hoffmann (of 
Halle) made a note of it in 1675, in his Ckms 
PharmacetUica Schrdderianoy p. 705. : 

** PsDicuLus. Contrk icterum devorantur k rusticis 
no ix, et in atrophia h nonnaUis probantur.** 

The same vohime supplies anr older Tersion of 
the story in Thomas Lnpton^s A ThouMcnd Notable 
Things (1630), whick was noted by Mr. Peacongs 
in Vol. vi., p. 517. ; and replies to ^e Query whick 
the story suggeitedy **-Has the toad an antipathj 
to rue?'* 

•* Salvia . . . Tnmsplantatur Martfo, cum nOd rnter- 
tnixtOy qua serpente$ et bufones aehim vicimam arceantur" 

Thus far Hoffman quotes from Jo. Schroeder ; he 
then adds : 

** Salvia virtutes ad permultos affectus corporis humam 
commendari infrii videbimus v nihilominus tamen et iUa 
suas habet qualitates noxias et virulenta censetur esse ea, 
qu» foliorum pinnas quasi carbunculatas habet, et penitus 
retorrida est, emaciata et sicca, ad cujus radices ut pluri- 
mum buftnes et alia virosa insecta nidulaatur; PartBim^ 
de Venenis, cap. 24, refert, se k fide digno aocapisse, duos 
mercatores, non longe ab urbe ToIosan& illotis salvia foliis 
in vinum conjectis lllicb atc^ue illud bibissent, neci iuisse 
datos ; sub cujus radicibus ingens bufonum acervns sta- 
bulari deinde repertus est, ^uos spurcitie suft salviam 
spupeasse. Medicus istius led conftrmavit." — P. 538. 

The works of Par»us (Ambrose Par^) were, I 
believe, first published in 1561. Tbetaub. 

Hartford, Conn. 

A^e of €^k8 (Vof. X., p. 146.). — I find tikv 
following in the Lowchn Chronicle^ Jan. 24, 175*: 

** We hear from Durham that last week Thomas Tay^ 
lor, Esq., of Cornsaw Raw, in the parish of Lcnchestei; 
had a considerable fall of trees, amongst which was one 
oak of extraordinary size ; the length of the trunk from 
the root to the branches 46 yards 18 inches, the circum- 
ference 7 yard» 1& inchest the extrome distanea of the 
branches as it lay aJong the ground measured across the 
trunkO^yards. Itt is valued at dO& Near the root was 
found, in a smaU' inm b«x, m gtmat of that extensiva 
tnanor to ^er Ihniily flmn King John, supposed tO' baT* 
been buried thera^ abona the time of tba uKvasioa bgr 
PiMdd, King of Scota^ hi the year V^7» 

]^EK6ernoqt»r Sow. 

WnUe Slaoenf (Vol. r.,. p. 306.).— llie kw» «f 
PennsylYania,. and of several other of the United. 
Stotes^fermeily Mithoviaed the tale o^ tike serace» 
of inwheent dobton^ smd o£ fisoeiga laimigiraiiitt^ 
for s Ucnii of time, to par their pasER^v-nioaeT' 
and" other debta, fiL some Statesj laws of t&ir kniA ^ 
continued in fbsce untiT ft. vary recent perio<L . 
Pmsom ute thau' walUk theBiaebfW ^ wutm^,^ fbir 

■ Jaw. 6. 1855.] 



the payment of pafisage-monej, were called ^ Re- 
demptioners." gtee the Quarterly Reviewy, y^L x. 
p» 50K (note), and pp. 519-20.; Pickering's Vo- 
cabulary (Boston, 1816), «. v, Redemptioneb. 


^Tatentedr (Vol. x., p. 323:.).— Dr. Webster's 
antbontj has not given currency to this new- 
coined adjective, except with careless writers and 
speakers. It is occasionally heard in conversa- 
tion, or met wfth. im a hastiij-written newspaper 
article ; but I am not aware that its use is sanc- 
tioned hy any writer of approved style, English 
or American. Veetaue, 

" He thjJl fights and runs away^ §•€, (Vol. x., 
p. 333.). — The passage of Tertullian, quoted by 
H. P. from Newman's Church of the FaiherSj is to 
be found in the De Fuga in Persecutione^ sec. 10. 
In the copy I use (Gersdorfs ed.) the Greek pro- 
verb is given in a note : 

B. H. C. 

This was already looked upon as an old saying 
in the days of Tertullian, who, in his book De 
Fuga in Persecutione^ writes of it thus : 

** Sed omissis- quidam diviais exhortationibus, ilium 
niagi» GrsBcum versicahim secularis sententiss sibi ad- 
hibent — 

* Qui ftigiiebflt; nirsiis pr»IiaiMtar,'' — 
ut et mrsus ibrsitan fugiat." — Cap. x. 

The "Greek verse" here spoken of by Tertullian 
is deemed by one of his annotators,: BJienan, to 
have been the. following : 

and made either by or for Denwsthenefr as hisi 
best answer for halving left his shield behizwi him, 
and; ran away at the battie of Ch^wonea. 


Newick, Sussex. 

Bengraae Church (Vol. x., p. 406.>.— If svch 
aa act as referred to ever received the royal 
assent,, it would doubtless be feund amongst the 
private acts, in the Parliament Office. G. 

Parish Registers (Vol. x., p. 337.). — Mb. 
Blencowe*s communication nn(fer this title has 
rather astoniiBhed »e, as he appears to have com- 
pletely cofrribanded parisb registers and efaurch<* 
wardens' accounts. One only of his extracts ap- 
pears to* be Ikm a parish register, strictly so 

The extracts at the beglnnihg of hiiB noteappeav 
to be from books belonging to the pariish of 
Braintree, but this fe not distinctly stated. As- 
stiming tftat I am correct in this supposition, mar 
I ask. why chronologicsi oiKlec was not observeJ, 
instead of placiag l&i^ before 23. Hen* TUL,. and 
M74 after both F 

The '* almaavyvets," which he conjectures maj 
mean German mu^ic-books, should no doubt be 
almanryoeiSy a name given to a Kght kind of 
ariBOurj because it was rivetted after the old 
Almayne fashion. (Minshew ; Test, F^t, 622L; 
Sharp's Coventry Mysteries^ 195.; Hollinshed, 
Hist IrBiandy A6. ; Fairfaolt on Costume,) 

The notion thai the parish paid for discharging 
a ^ Popish priest " out of the ecclesiastical court 
in 159^1, nearly thirteea years after the accession 
of Queen Elizabeth, is rather amusing ; but what 
can be said respecting the supposition that ninety^ 
four quarts of wine were consumed in one year 
for the commtmion in a town with a population of 
about 2000? As Mb. Blencowb is evidently 
aware that Whitsun ales, and similar drinkings, 
were customary at the p^iod, is it not hi^ly pro- 
bable that a large portion of this wine was> so 

The extracts from the corporation accounts of 
Saffron Walden do not appear to me very apropos 
of the subject-matter of Mb. B£<encowb's Note. 

Thompson Coofsb. 


Salutation after Sneezing (Vol. x., p. 421.). — 
While proceeding iti a public vehicle from Bo- 
logna to Milan in. the year 1847, I happened to 
sneeze, when a lady who sat near me called aloud 
^^felicita" which attracted the notice of the other 
passengers. Having been aware of the importance 
attached to the omen^ nothing farther occurred 
than the whole passing over among us with a good- 
natured smile. In Scotland some attention is yet 
paid to it. As I have long understood, to sneeze 
once is considered lucky ; twice in succession un- 
lucky. G. K. 

Dictionary of Living Authors (Vol. x.,. p. 45l,y, 
— Catalogue of five hundred cekhrated Authors^ sfc. 
9vt>;, 178^. In the copy now before me is thb 

*' A meagre and incorrect work, which, we mention here 
as chart-raakerr notice shoals to be avoided.'^ — H. Home, 
IiU, to BiBSogregshy, vol. ii. p. 422. 

W. A. 

My apology is due to the readers of " N. & 
Q." if, as appears probable, I have committed an 
error in attributing the compilation of this useful 
work to the late William Upcett. My authority 
for doing so, which might have been given at the 
time to temper the assertion, was, simply, that in 
the fly-leaf of my copy was written by a former 
possessor, "By the late William Upcott," and 
that I had more than once seen the same state- 
ment made in booksellers' catalogues ; for instance, 
in that I believe of Mr. Jo&n Grav Bell. 

The opinion of Mb. Cobnet, that this work is 
the Joint compilation of John. Watkins and Fre- 
deric Shidbeil, haa ev^rj a|»pearance of being tba 



[No. 271. 

more correct; and perhaps that gentleman may 
noWf in accordance with his promise, favour us 
with the " authority '* upon which he expressed it. 

William Bates. 

King James Brass Money (Vol. x., p. 385.). — 
I subjoin a list of the gun-monej coinage, com- 
piled partly from books, but mostly from my own 
and such other collections as I have had access to. 
The authorities are very conflicting, and I should 
be glad of any corrections, if there are any re- 
quired, as I had a design (not entirely laid aside) 
of publishing the complete series of the copper 
coinage of England, with all the varieties, colonial 
tjrpes, &c., including the leaden mixed metal spe- 
cimens, &c., temp, Charles II., James II., and 
William and Mary : 

1689. Sixpence. June, July, August, Sep- 
tember, 7ber, November, December ; none of 

1689. Shilling. June, July, August, Septem- 
ber, October, 8ber, November, 9ber; ditto, with a 
castle under king's head ; December, lOr. 

1689. Hal/crown. July, August; ditto, with 
date under the crown ; September, October, 
8ber, November, December ; none of June. 

1690. Sixpence. January, February, and a 
unique one of May in the Dean of Lismore's col- 

1690. Shilling. January, February, March, 
ditto smaller size ; April, ditto smaller size ; May, 
June, August, September ; none of July or Oc- 
tober known. 

1690. Hal/crown, January, February ; March, 
ditto smaller size ; April, ditto smaller size ; May, 
ditto smaller size ; June, July, August, October ; 
none of September. 

1690. Crown. Only one type. 

E. S. Tatlob. 

Ormesby St Margaret, Norfolk. 

This extraordinary monthly coinage appears to 
be little known in England, though there is a 
tolerable account of it in Simon's Essay on Irish 
Coins, and in Ruding's Annals of the Coinage. 
Simon says, " some of these coins, for every month 
from June, 1689, to April, 1690, inclusive, are in 
the hands of the curious." For the information 
of your correspondent J. R. G., I have in my 
possession King James brass money from January, 
1689, to May, 1690, inclusive ; and if this last of 
this infamous monthly issue would assist or satisfy 
J. R. G., I will inclose it to a friend in Dublin 
for his inspection. F. J. W. 


Of these pieces the British Museum possesses 
i it varieties of the twelve dated May 1690, 
Su of June, one of July, one of August, and 

one of September ; of the six 1690, it possesses 
two of May, and one of June. 

Edwabd Hawkins. 

English Proverhs (Vol. x., p. 389.).— In your 
list of the collections of English proverbs, with 

Earallels from other European languages, you 
ave omitted one which ought not to be passed 
over. The following is the title : National Pro" 
verbs in the principal Lanffuages of Europe, by 
Caroline Ward : London, J. W. Parker, 1842. 



Genoa Register (Vol. x., p. 393.). — Your cor- 
respondent has somewhat misunderstood my 
Query. I wish to know how a Genoa register 
(of 1790) may be procured. D. 

Pulpit Hour-glasses (Vol.ix., p.252.). — The 
earliest reference to the pulpit glass known to me 
occurs in the churchwardens' accounts of St. 
Helen's, Abingdon ; where, under date mdxci, is 
the following : " Fayde for an houre-glasse for the 
pulpitt, 4(2." Ghables Reed. 

Paternoster Row. 

Brasses of Notaries (Vol. x., pp. 165. 474.). — 
I think that Mr. Manning must have been mis- 
taken in supposing the brass of the notary, c. 1475, 
in the church of St. Mary Tower, Ipswich, to have 
been stolen, as it has no appearance of ever having 
been removed from its matrix; it may possibly, 
however, have been for a time concealed under a 
pew, as has been the case with another brass in 
that church, described in Manning's List as " A 
man and his wife," but which should have been 
'* A man and his two wives, c. 1510.** This waa 
discovered in March, 1853, on the removal of the 
pews in the chanceL W. T. T. 


MUton's Widow (Vol. viii., pp. 12. 134., &c.).— 
In Nichols*s Literary Anecdotes, vol. ii. p. 534., 
art. No. 6. on Dr. Zachary Grey, it is stated : 

** He (Dr. Grey) had one brother George, bom in 1610, 
a Chamber-coimsdlor at Newcastle." 

To this is appended a note : 

** I have a number of this gentleman's MS. letters to 
Dr. Grey, &c The following little circumstance, in a 
letter dated July 80, 1731, may be worth preserving : 

" * I had a letter lately from aunt Milton, who is very 
well, and lives at Namptwich. There were three widow 
Miltons there, viz. the poet*s widow, my aunt, and another. 
The poet's widow died last summer.* ^' 

This note may be of use to some of your corre- 
spondents. C. DE D. 

TaUies (Vol. x., p. 485.).— The use of taUies 
in this locality is now, I think, confined to the 
dyers, who regularly fiirnish their small tally of 

Jan. 6. 1855.] 



wood to each customer having articles to be djed ; 
and without the reproduction of which, the goods 
in question are on no account given up. The 
practice exists too, to some extent, among the 
small bakers of Plymouth, more particularly among 
those who have a large dinner-baking trade. This 
system prevails in consequence of the numerous 
frauds practised upon the bakers by parties apply- 
ing for dinners who had never sent them to be 
b^ed, and who thus enjoyed a cheap " tuck-in," 
to the mortification and loss of the rightful owners. 

T. Hughes. 

Tallies are still used by small shopkeepers in 
some of the villages in Warwickshire. They are 
occasionally produced in the small debt courts. D. 


TVie Divining Rod, Table-turnings Sfc. (Vol. x., 
p. 467.)' — As Mb. Bates appears to be unac- 
quainted with the communications of Professor 
Chevreul (author of the remarkable work on the 
harmony of colours, lately translated into English) 
to the Journal des Savants on the "Divining 
Rod " (la Baguette Divinatoire), will you permit 
me to refer him to that journal, in which he will 
find a series of eight articles by Professor Chevreul. 
The concluding communication is in the number 
for July of the present year. John Maceat. 




In the Biographical Catalogue of the principal Italian 
PainterSy with a Table of the Ootemporary Schools of Italy ^ 
designed as a Hand-book to the Picture Gallery , by a Lady, 
edited by R. N. Womim, we are furnished with a short 
but comprehensive sketch of the life and works of each 
artist ; embracing the leading characteristics which dis- 
tinguish them, and an enumeration of their principal 
works. The accompaming Synchronous Table of the 
principal Masters of Oie Italian Schools of Painting from 
the Thirteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries inclusive^ adds 
to the great utility of this unpretending little volume, 
and will make the lover of Art rejoice in the writer's 
hope of proceeding with similar Catalogues of the artists 
of other countries. 

The favour with which the volumes of the late Henry 
Gunning's Reminiscences of the University^ Town, and 
County of Cambridge, were received, not only by Uni- 
versity men, but also by the general public and the 
press, speedilv exhausted' the first edition. A second, 
somewhat enlarged, and yet cheaper edition, has now 
appeared ; and will no doubt soon find its way into the 
hands of all who like to hear an old man gossip of the old 
times in which he lived, and the well-known men with 
whom he associated. 

The interest we take In every endeavour to make more 
popular, and more generally known, the writings of the 
Father of English Poetry, would alone dispose us to speak 
well of Mr. Bell's edition of The Poetical Works of Geoffrey 
Chaucer, of which the First and Second Yolomes are now 

before us. But Mr. Bell, who has adopted as his text the 
Harleian MS. of the Canterbury Tales, from which Mr. 
Wright printed his version, has the merit of illustrating 
his author bv a mass of Notes which will go far to make 
him as popular and well understood as he deserves to be. 
Why, however, does he omit that useful, though sh'ght 
addition — numbering the lines of the poem? 

Whilst on the subject of old poetrv, let us mention that 
we have received from Messrs. WiUiams & Norgate the 
First Part of a collection of the pseudo-Shakspearian 
Dramas, edited bv Dr. Delius, whose familiarity with our 
language and Elizabethan' literature is remarkable — 
especially in one not to the manner bom. His edition of 
Edward the Third, an Historical Play, has but one defect ; 
being intended for readers of English, its Introduction 
should have been in the English language. 

We have before us two or three ^ks of amusement, 
which we must perforce dismiss in a few words. First let 
us mention as of deep interest, and, we may add, of much 
Instruction as a picture of the times, Florine, a Tale of 
the First Crusade, by B. W. MacCabe. As we have no 
doubt every incident it contains, however startling, has 
its counterpart in some cotemporary chronicle, we wish 
the learned and able writer had adaed to the value and 
use of his book by a few references to his authority. — The 
Mouse and her Friends is a fresh contribution to our 
nursery literature from German sources, for which the 
"spelling" public are indebted to an old friend, John 
Edward Taylor. — Mother and Son, the first of a new 
series of Tales for the Young Men and Women of England, 
will make all who read it look out anxiously for the re- 
mainder of the series. 

We have good news for all our firiends who have li- 
braries ; Messrs. Letts, whose calendars and diaries are in 
everybody's hands and everybody's pockets, have pub- 
lished a form of Catalogue of the Library of , which 

must before long be on everybody's library table. It is 
so constructed that one may see at a glance the shelf or 
mark, author, editor or translator, title, edition, vols., size, 
date, place and publisher, cost, remarks ; and what to the 
good-natured is a column of no small moment, wfien and 
to whom lent, 8^c. 

It may be useful to such of our readers as have au- 
thority to consult the Documents in the State Paper 
Office, to be informed that, by a recent regulation, that 
office is now open every day in the week between the 
hours of ten and three o'clock. 

Mr. Lilly announces for early publication, in two vo- 
lumes octavo, The Life of Bishc^ Fisher, by the Rev. J. 
Lewis, author of the Life of Wickliff, with an Appendix 
^Illustrative Documents, and an Introduction by the late 
Mr. Hudson Turner. 



Mfis SraicKULifD*! Lirai or «hb QvsBjvt ow Evoulnd. Vol. IL of 

18 Vol. Edition. 
IrrooLDSBr Lbobnds. Vol. I. First Edition. 
SociBTr or Akts' Joubmax,. No. 39. YoL I., Mid Not. SS. 54. ft 6ft. 

Vol. n. 
Turn ErxBT Mam's MAaAsma for 1770 ftnd 1771. 

•«• Letten, itatinc particulan and lowest prfoe, earriage free, to be 
sent to MbTBbix, PubUsher of *« NOTES AND qUEUIES,** 
186. Fleet Street. 

Fartioulars of Price, fte. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they ue xequired, and whose nuMs and mi," 
dresses are given for that purpose i 

Wbaxa's Qvahtsklt Fapsbs ox AmoKiTBCTUBi. Fart 1. 
Cavu^r's Qothic AacHtTBcTOBB. Fart 3. 

Pvoim's EZAMPX.BS OF GoTBio ABCHiTBCTCBa. Faits 8 ft 4 of Yol. I. 

Wanted by John HM, 9. Idramee-Ponntney Lane. 




WMtad br JE. ni«rtKrn« t. CKrtliiiMui flm»t. 

fc»«'iDu>f. Vol. TV. 

.gcwue'sWoKSfl. YoJp. I, VI* VH. VUL Unio. LoodiK, 1706. 

r/wc arf Hfft^^in n^ipatbia <*irt " N. Ii O." i» /tn«M# fa f^e 0/ we to 
»iCf rmry mm and' hivrv i^Uiorat^^ a»rf t4«? fwA iw jf rommffuntfuie 

teHtti^ at thK (TtoM qfourJSftt *ear .^ -^ j -„ -«-», 

** It Ifl □biioui thftt t^ uieof ft Dtper lEkfl * NcrrifA Asrti QKtHLtu ' benn 
A dLrvnt pruiifir^ii to the cicUmt of 1(« drciilaLiiin. WT]iit U atim*t 
dohig ia, to readi tine Iai.TnIii>g vhkh Itet aciLtte^ nejt (iaty ttinKukout 
ff?ery part of our trnn conntrj'T hut all ov^ir die tHertiry world, and 
to brtnff it mil to beir apim the ptumiila of thi! culutlar ; tn eoftlt^e, In 
■hortf me!D of liAUrt hU hvkt the world to ^iva a. heUiinjr htia.^ to one 
■inotlier. Trj n certuJti cxtnut wf bjivc aecumMlltsliQiJ tlitp cad. Oar 
Ifcter Numhe?* wmrula n»iunuakAitiaiii< not 00 It fnun njl yarU of die 
metropoJlM, And! (ram Alicoit tvfiry odunty Id GDirlojul^V'ittam^KiuI 
Ifelq^d, but, from utmoit tnry quvtcr nf ttiu globe. THtd Ipoki W«l]- 
B wn^mi »i If wc w«iv io a ^r wmj ton^eoinpHfli our rtMen. Btif itiifeb 
let nqjDauift tu be aoue. W(a bfcfe rereutly been toM of whulc ditu^et* la 

I Ewlmd M li«tihl«d •■ nevw «9 jMnbaufdef ' iro« ^uir Q«mh i * 

I and ifier ul ijit<f«it}ne gtifeBaot} Him l*eh 4l4caHi«i) ftir wKki In oor 

' fiotumai, ma mm luibtraefi i^T ■owe om; wbo cvukl liA¥a aaiwtiwl it im- 

niHiiatel; If he h»d BCtcb it. So IcmK »« tbli U ^ecuftt th« i4vBiibiiff« 

we iipy oonfer titsoti lltcr>itu« »iid )lli.T»ry men ll afecoHttTtlr trnperftet. 

Wedo irhikt we can to makt^ knunrTi nurcxiitc'ii« Uinwgfa the coitomjicy 

^-^-lofaamuiitKiiikiETiL, Kud wt^mLcfuLijr i-dk D owlr dfT the hind wM- 

md bui.'uurn^^^iDUiiLt Ivu derive fiom dw ^dethris «f the pubUa 

g ttut we Wt^ulJ ri'iFKiTifulij' lulicitt t)i« Mftftftocx of our frifiradfl 

AHU.rDit ■oDt.xMrumcnitcnt f4n BAHOHToni, MKtom Ahr* B<gf lo« 
IVuDiii XV. Colon. A«T. About le&Q. 

Wimlvd by iTeu. Z^. Ibc^, libnziui of Trlnl^ OoUt^eilhiblia. 

npou thii pi.rt!i:li)Br iwiut. Uur imrpive ji slded^afltl PUr uicflllvw 
Inureuvd by everji ii3tr(>dtic:tEurh wriirh o»jj tw; irivfui Utowr iufHjr, I'ither 
to H Book tSllib^. tu El liciidiue Library, nr la «itT QthcT channtil of cix- 
calutiua ftinoEtiEf t prrHJtii uf Ineiutry jLTid int^luuieDcs. By *i4{!}i lntro- 
^[VCti out fcbtiifirt nt-lp thcinetlvet m^ well ili ai^f-fir there 1i no li^fiuinr 
thmD]fhout tht klrueiLitn whti b not m^mluniUJy able to throw liieht 
upon tome of tlic mtilllfiyHuba abjcctswhid^ are (Hacmind lo onr pmsei.^* 

QliMainH, uAo o&fcf rpt^refiTiYf History !i FhUntCitihy t€«tiblnE birflZ" 
luii.|)Le, a r^i/i!r™ii to ^ U. t ti,''^ Vol. v., p. iSfi. 

W. X. I*, ff if noi' fi" for^y fomt qf PfTjw ^rian iooj'f/ T 

J. W- A. B. ti^atjind a I'cry ifi^frcji^jna AV^e o?* 

" The ModQit WitcJ- diw iU Qod «Bd blmhM " 
in Vol. tIm p^ M*. JSfe ffbo VoU viU., p, Si2. 

IwDBx TO TdtitriiK THi TiiHTH ii 111 E)W JktfKfiT {{f Ifts f*h»[ja-| oitef isiB 
An iiMd^ df iiJlefli with thE Number q^^olNrtfoy iheWUk. 

Ijtf /cnuni-yi l&St Aq. l(lfl» ttpon cippU{saNE)n ta Mk. Bull, fAc jPufi^LsAiLr, 

.^/eu" amtpletr aeis q/"" Notki AHi> Qcehim," Volfc L to ix.,firicie/oi«r 
,0iMiMaM a»a a half, may iipurbc Aufi!. ^cn^ iheit^ tailsf appiitiatian i» 

"'Notsi Airp Qt?sHixi'\ ur pyMtrAiui o^ noon im Fridajf, to that the 
Oomttrt/ Bof}hi^prg iiidjf mcfitx Copist fin that mgAVM parceti, amd 
dfSivtr tli&n la ihcir iinb^tcr^ifi^M itti the Saturdafi^ 

" NcrrxsAMii Q^JSHtisi 

u ijiro iii»neil in Moilthlr Fftrtl,/or CAfi tSon- 
■ "'" " p . ^ j^_ 

. „„, % ihmhmif^ni pT Aftr«ifii, wlm waa Im 4eitirma of t^atii-mg i/ut 

tfieektv NvimlieM, may ham tfytmphl «m&§ fat^sardtd dmcf frnm lAe 

QfrmKiD '* dwiii^^ ft urnf 4>>piuiu Ifulvx^t <§ f'iMSAft «/iimM|i« ind ftmr~ 
p^*Si /of tiac womyt, lehichmas; be jKiid bit Fott-Oj^e Onii^, dr€l«W i» 
fawuf nf the PubUUne; Ma- Giuxiux &»cu No. LBd. Fleet Stjreet. 

Just puUIdied. 

PHY on GLASS and PAPER, a Manual 

COntainhMT timple directions for the production 
of PORTRAITS and VIET^S by the acency 
of Listht, itdudinsr the COLLODION. AL- 

PAPER Proceuei, by CHARLES A. LOKG. 
Price Is. ; per Post, U. 6d. 

Published by BLAND ft LONG, Opticians, 
Philosophical and Photofrraphical Instru- 
ment Makers, and Operailve Chendsts, 153. 
Fleet Street. London. 


1 - MESSRS. KNIGHT ft SONS respect- 
fully inform Artists, Amateurs, and thePro- 
fessinn, that ttey are the Sole Afcents for 
VOIGHTLANDER ft SON'S Photo?rapliic 
LexMes for Portraits and Views. The different 
siees can be seen at their Establishment, where 
they haye every convenience for testint; their 
powers. The PhotcHErraphic Department of 
their Establishment comprises every useftil 
improvement in this interesting Art. 
GEORGE KNIGHT ft SONS, Foster Lane, 



AND VIEWS obtained with the irreatest 

1 and certainty by using BLAND ft 

XONO'S preparation of Soluble' Cotton t cer- 
tainty and uniformity of action over a length- 
ened period, combined with the most fiiiithftil 
rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a 
most valuable agent in the hands of the pho- 

Albumenized paper, for printing from glass 
or paper negatives, giving a minuteness of de- 
tail unattained by any other method, &«. per 

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality. 

Instruction in the Processes. 

BLAND ft LONG, Opticians and Photogra- 
phical Instrument Makers, and Ot>erative 
• Chemists, 1S3. Fleet Street. London. 

The Pneumatic Plate-holder fbr Collodion 

•*« Catal(^nies sent on application. 

THE SIGHT preserved by the 
Use of SPECTACLES ada|»tcd to suit 
evenr variety of Vision by means of SM££*8 
OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents 
Injury to the Eyes f^om the Selection of Im- 
^ proper Glasses, and is eztensivttly employed bf 

BLAND ft LONG, Opticians, 158. Fleet 
Street, London. 

Now ready, in fancy boards, illustrated, 
price Is. 


Fort 1., tMJTitaliiiiiif *■ MOTHER AJSD SON." 
Fiibiiflhtd JiitiiiD.ry lit. 

"To mjik« buys Iciins to rend. iinJ tlifin to 
piiu<? ni) ^\MHl tfoukt trltliin theli' machAi to 
(^vQ th^tn nil iir^fjelltif, and letive tiothitim In tha 
liKnir;y stitrL^ ti tt «f htii]«»am e mid ixjltuhttuii food, 
wMich^ di:ptMv^ tijioit it, lUey will &it mther than 
stBi vu," — ^Vr If', ScOii, 

ATIONS requisite in the v rious Pro- 
cesses of the Photographic Art, manufactured 
and sold by GEORGE KNIGHT ft SONS, 
who having considerahly reduced the price of 
many of their preparations, will have plea- 
sure in forwarding their new List on appli- 

GEORGE KNIGHT ft SONS, Foster Lane, 



Manufhctory, 24. ft 25. Charlotte Terrace, 
Caledonian Road, Islington. 

OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body 
Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or 
Portraits, may be had of A ROSS, Feather- 
stone Buildings. Holbom 1 the Photographic 
Institution, Bond Street ; and at the Manu- 
factory as above, where eveiy description of 
Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The 
Trade supplied. 

ft CO.'S Iodized Collodion, fbr obUining 
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in fh>m 
three to thirty seconds, according to light. 

Portraits obtained by the above, for delioscy 
of detail, rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, 
SDedmfBs of which may be seen at their Esta- 

Also every description of Apparatus, Che- 
micals, ftc. fto. os^ in this beautiiU Art.— 
Ul. aaAlSl. NewgateStnet. 

Tlisi \FLiit uf notuiilir useful but entertaining 
nsndiitET. aiiAih u youuM (xojdi! will read. It u 
hoimA #L1L im »tin[tlii!d bry this ipfoposed ieriet ; 

iLitd wh]]Li It wMl be borne In nibidl that the 
cbJcf uud ajid aEra l#to ImuiLlcatfl aright «ptrit 
■Lud is.aiMi tuid lectiL'roui t^liBiijCft, Ificldent acid 
evtfi ryitiiiJiif will not be fofigotliin. in order 
thnt ibf HMidtr may bir Ifd KHitlr on mread 
more iLUd TiLUfe, and JmMbs xood yxkudtilei^ 
nttt\ M iM."»'(r«'siLt' fi>r tiling* true and holy, 

i" ■^■- I''"' "ii'ii the Intent of many booka 
now m circulation. 

They «ill be issued in ILLUSTRATED 
form as tne Series of PAROCHIAL TRAC PS. 
Subscribers' Names reeeived by all Book- 

Oxford, and 377. Strand, London. 

Just published, Second Edition. Price Is., by 
P«<st U. id. 


Price Is., by Post Is. M. 

CESS of GUSTAVE LE GRAY (Translated 
from the French). To this has been added a 
New Modiflcaion of the Process, by which the 
Time of Exposure in the Camera is reduced to 
one-fourth, by JAMES HOW, Assistant in 
the Philosophical Eetablidunent of the Pub- 
GEORGE KNIGHT ft RONS, Foster Loxe, 

1 Jak. «. 1855.] 


TREfi ^niJllee«■tl^lt5 ; [»y»1»cf*S(i>, oaTistLpaticwi 
imd 6iiirr}Liiea, ijipKPtery. i]ervciBdii««». bihuiu- 
fieiv ftiii:3 Uy^r comTilnirls, flatutnicjr- diBtm- 
•Ion. ucklli^}", bcaribnni^ iulr»itArjon nf im 
htatt^ istrvriufl jitudachw, rtcfc'ftft**, KOfian lo 
tl>e JitJid mid «-arar puins in olriiLn^t e^'try T-»rt 
of tin: iTNxiy, tic UH>«l'5uri:ii3rH fa€£ai:l'iio. cnroTiiiS 
InflnnnTiNJJcin. ciincKr B.pd uitartckm of iJie 
■tDTnii4:;]iTT^>Q* Kt fKc pii fif the fbirnkcb mid 
bf tu'<Hfn tlie Khc^iidlerK. er;ili»lMi, craptSLiiu of 
Ihe ikiii, tirjiliii unci ii^rhuncIt^AH linriurflJet snd 
poverty (if tiie t}Tof>d, aqr^Ajlo,, t^URh^ mUmuLt 
con*tinit^tiort, rtron-'y. Ttn-iarniiiiai. enut^ 
nauien imd ^iflcnpw riuriiitf privnadiVT fcfier 

eiviieptrt.' fitfi, fpleen^ is'E'ntiriil dubHiEy, Inquie- 
tude, Kleeii-lPfanfM, invitlmilarj' bl'in''i1iKi, i»r- 
mb'v!*, tit^nirjn, dt^Mk? to irK-ii^ty, luifltne^ linr 
frtody T 1 oia of meniory , ii*lu*i'Oria , vi^rtiiCA, hloofl 
totht- braHf.rxhiLXwllirii, me]miichLi1tf,jrHrtua(l- 
leis iV"iir. iii'TFcM'7n»vTt^buli^ilj]>£A« tmiuffb It or 
■elf-tlE'Jtnil.tiljon, and miuiy other v[)>ln|plAlntf> 
Jt Is. niGirenvert the best iaml Tai infioatu (tifl 
BWwIidi ucwrany. lu It Tuever turtii «cld i>ii 
flic w^ilIihi!! iftjimnofiq aar jnteKCTt:! whEii tk 

ri MbermI fI^, bnt Irnpiul* d. hii^nltb.J' itIUIi 
luncli and >i^inD<i?r, and rt'trtDFea 1-het&ci^1ty 
of dJ^e^tlnn^ biuI niTVius aadTnusimlftrCrierjry 
iA the mewl: i^nrrL-'Lited. In -w'htKfliL'Qir (Mill^h, 
metslcfl. frmcll-pciXt aod I'JiiL'ker mr ffFitiCt ^X, 

mt'tvia^ all iuflfl-TFiiTlatMry acd feverish pyini>' 

dADperi of Aimrii UH ImLtitJniia t _ Tlw VEdis 
Chaneptlor Sir WIlHani Pjwe Wcmd irruiitt:d 
Ml JniwriL'tinn cui March Ifl. IWW. tgainat 
AlfrtHl Hmijer Kn.ilL inr JmitallBg *■ Du 

BAHRY. DU BABBT, i CO*, 7f . Heetat 
Etrectt LondonF 

Ctire N'u. 71., ftf dyppep&Ii, JVonii the Pitrht 
BoJ'^. the liOrd Ftu^rt de Dmic*;--"! have 
deriT^efl ftjiisfdertble ^Je^^?flt fnim l>ii B&rry'a 
Bev' kill b. Ajr^hlco, Fond, rnd coaiJder It due 
toynurtelvH And the puhiic to mtluirl^e the 
piiblk'atiD]} of llieM JLLqgi.'* — B/roiMW urn 

Care Jfov TBO : — "Twenty-flvt yewT»' ner- 
TfynmeHr eonitiimiloni itudlireifki'n, nnd d«- 
b^lily. from which f HiiTe suflftT' d jrrcut miser^i'i, 
■nU whi«h no medicine ^nu]rl j^mavc fir n>- 
Ueve, huire hfen eflFcctuglly cun^l by !>« 
Bmry'f Fofld In » Tory iUor^ lime."— W, R, 
BiLPf », Fool Anthony* Tl'rertan^^ 

Cnre Hn, i^^'^i t-'" Fifty years' iiide*c:rihftMe 
urony from dyir>epili^ nerymimieia, aathmii. 
couirti. i^oiiPiipttto* , fliitulenry. viiMmff. i^tclc' 
BeH et the A»(liroiDli!iiRr hjirebesn 
romoved hy Du B*n7*# v^^s^leat tm>d-*'^ 
M4111A JoLLr, WorthiuD lAust arar Dii«, 

JTd. <*ne. " EtcM yeaw" . ... , . 
nevt, dvhi I ity ^- ith erampfl, »piii»mi, ftnd 
tmv^ b^n elTLCtuaily removid by [hL Ban^'t 

heftlth^rcniurinir ftxid. I thill be hiipm' to 
aniwtir anj' inqiilriei,." Rev, Jons V. FiJi- 
TBUL. KlchinE^tou HeLtory, Norfolk. — No. Bi. 

' Twenty yeaj'»' llv^r eompiiiot, with dii- 
order» of tua itoiniu.-h, bcwtbr iJid ucfTU," 
Ajrnitxw Fhaaer, Hadd]iD|4:toll. 

N&, 32H*Wh "ThrM-yeoiri'tTicewlTeiieTTDiJi- 
uevR.wt^h ria3ni tn my necik Bud left arm, n^ntl 
Keinral rteriilityhWhtch renrt-red myUfiiTery 
mf'enihlr^ have he^fi r*dk;iil]y ireronv*(i hy JJu 
Bnrry'a hi^alth^T-ntorin" focHi,"— Ai.i!a*wpjift 
frroAiiT,, Arelidpftcon of Boih^ Skihert i^i. 

ifn, W,ftSU* r#mMiiiBr Se^ctfjL Str^Oape, 
Dw. 16. ifl.y> : '^ OentUmen* Weh»re fotjnd it 
admirably adapted for Infnnti. Our t'lhy h«4 
HfTer L^ncE Inad di-kordered bdwc^n fisuK Uudajs 

In cwntvterfT inftufa]? jwoked ibr «U cTi- 
ltinte». and with ful] liifclfuctFr-n* — Wh-, is., 
Oef.] 21b.. if. M. i £1b., Jli>, i mh.,mi. 1 fupct- 
Tctineri, ilbL. «i. - «lb.. Uh. 3 Sib , fJ»^ E Ittlb., 
3;i*, The iDlb. and liil b . en rri Diie frePt r n poit- 
office order* BmrryH, Ifq Barry. & Co*, 77. 
Kevent SireetK Londoii < Fortniup, llai«TT« ft. 
Cfl t ptirvejor* to Hit MnJEati,^ T*lcC"ilJlly t 
iilfo at dn. Oraeechui^Gb Sir«at e ^1. £<Lrtt^nd s of 
Barclay, ErlW'iJtlH^^ FuttciD, Smifs^ri, Tlnrroey, 
Ncwbtrry, ■ nd mUry be oif<l«rEd thnniiirh att re- 
tpe<£lLiib1c Dookaellen, Grocerit uid ChtinUta, 

FoiLDded A.D. IBtt. 


T, S. Cockfl. Jim. Eiq. 

O. ir. Drew^ Siq. 
W, Evann. Ew. 
W. Freeman, Eeq. 
F. Fuller, Eiq*- 
Ji H. Gm)db&r%, Elig. 

T. GrlneU, Eici> 

J. HitDt, S^» 

J. A> Lethbridjpe^Kl* 

£» Luemii "Evi, 


J. 9. Whnet Em. 

J. Cuter Wood, E^ 

W^WhatcleyTEflq.. G.C t Ge(R){«BreVtii<il> 

T drtaaelL E«]. 

PAyjifei'an. — WlllitEn Rli^h. Bmb am , M.D. 

fiAiOren.— Mmra. Cocki, Bkldulpht Htid Go.^ 

CbixIniE 'CroM, 

FOtjlCIKft effrrtcd In thly Office do not bo- 
Gomr void through lemjMtBry difficulty in pay- 
iDir a Premium, ils p4Tnilaibii ii jEiveo opon 
application toauspEnd the p>ayTneDtmtiDterPit, 
acQordiiuF to the pundltioii b detilLed In tba Piv- 

F-pfctmenf of Batea nf Frcmliiin far Aafnt^nif 
Iftfti^^ with t SIhnrt in tiiree-fourtba of t)i« 

Ase < «. ^. I Aie M §. d. 

IT * . - 1 U * Kt- - - » 10 B 

n* - -l]««t7- - -fLBfi 

17- - -*«ft|4a- - -8Si 



Nerw n&dy, prlw ICw, Sc?*, S«L-oi]d EdUton, 

irith matertij •driltloniu INmJSTRIAl. IN- 

VFSTMENT Md EWlOTtATiaN: beln^ a 


CTEriES* and on the Oeneral Prluuiplea of 

Land LtveBlment.exempUiled lu the C ate* of 

Fruihold Land hrn^Eiieit. BuLidLnv Cotnp<anie.i, 

lie. ^'Ith a iviutbiimiattcal Ap$rt:iidl;T on Com^ 

pound Intcreit and iHi+i? AHsurance. Hy AB- 

TT1UR BCHAT('I1I.E¥. M. A*, Aetuary to 

the Weftem Lite AHuraUite Society + A. FarliA- 

mnnt Street, t/audun. 


and r)wr\ptlop of 


C AT AIjOGtJE, contain inf Blie, Price, 
anil IVa<;r\ptlOp of up1r«f<|B of IW Ut|cle»^ 
CqQiiatiipi; Of 


Lodiei' FortmiLutfau&, 

DE BP A TCH- Ii( I XriS, WRlTOra-DESKi , 
DHf^amNG-CAtfES, and other tmwUtojr re- 
(]ujai(e«4 Qnttli on appMmtii^n, vt Hmt tree by 
Foil OD rs^ipt of Tvo IStampa. 

MER^BS, AIXEN'B t€\fWi^T^A IJe^Ateh- 
b^i and WritltiiB'duk, thi^r TraiFeULnK'^Htf 
with ihfOtHsnlntf at Lar4f« aa the baff. and the 
new PortinanteaUi oontuinine four eompttrl' 
mtnta, iir« luidoublttdlji' tht b«at iirtti^iiB of the 
kind tvcr tjtfoduned. 

J. W^ & T.. AliLFlN, IB, 4k a, W«at itwnd . 



WATOtI,ai BAuyRrn at the GREAT E^- 
HTBTTION. No. k CJan X„ in Gold and 
Silver {'aafP, in dve t|UBUllefl, and ada|>t?d to 
all ClUnDtt-B, muY now b" bad at the MA^1l- 
FArrimiT.&ft. UHEAFSIDE. superior Gold 
I^ndon*madc Futent I^vtra, 17. I>^ and \l! 
iruin&ita. Dllto, in Silver Cajtin. 1^, A* and i 
iruineAi. FiralTfttc fjl'nt*¥a IjcVeFi^ Jn (^o!d 
Caaea, 13, in, and Btruin«a8. Dllto, in fillver 
CaFCB, !i. tt, (ind b ftulnciii. Stitieilirtr I.ieveT, with 
Cbrtmoifieter BaUnee, Gtiild, 37, £], and Vj 
(riibiear. Btffnietfi FockctChttinomcttir^Gnkl, 
W) L'lklneu \ KllTcr, v> ffuineoa. Eveiy Wntcih 
«k 11 fully e]tttniiried,tini€d,a[id Ita eteribrinojice 
guu^ujiteed. BiirDrniefen,:;^,Af., audit, Ttier- 
mofiielerf from la, each* 

BEKNETT", Wfltch, Clock* ind Initmrnect 
MakvT to the Hoyul Obien-atoTy, the Boajtl of 
(>rdi]ia)ic«,th« Admiralty, aj»d the " 



T3TOORP0 RATED A,D. 1^20. 
HeadOmee, 7. Royal Eycbanfe, ComMU, 


SAMtr£L GBEG'iON. £SQ^ M*:^., Pepntr- 



rfath, Al^x-Ji nder, Eni. 
G. Bsurncn, £e>i^. 
H. Boiiharn Ba^, Eaq* 
Jnmui BLf th. Etij. 
J, W. Btj^rimdaiie, Emj. 
t'huii. Chi.* Ecy, Ewi. 
W , D&liaB. E«f|. 
Br I>ribre<?, Jun., Eauj. 
tLG Gorduf:i,Ej4j. 
Edwin Oowcr, Einji . 
D»Tid C. Gtithiltf T E inj . 

Jf. HanuBf^e, Eiiq. 
Lou39 Hu'h, EsMi. 
William KLbf, E^^, 
Chiirleai Lr«lE,E9a, Ord, Esq. 
Dflvul Powell, Eaq, 
G. Prrjbyo, Eaq. 
V. F. Jiob&rbson, MJP. 
Alex. Trotter. E«d. 
ThoB. Weeding, Eiq. 
L*^. P, WUjonH Eaq. 

AetuKrytPC^^B HABDT, ESQ*, r.B.i- 


Two liemh&fl af the Conrt In fotaUoa* and 


Suptrintfiijdent, PHILIP 3C0QNES, ESQ* 


THIS GORPGBATIOSf bai «nat4d .Ak 
vuraiiii.-ej<i on Livea tar a jfcrtlorfejTerdiup One 
HufviTed and ThirtH Few, haTixiff bned lis 
fljfirt Folic J am tlie 7ih June, 173L 

Twu*tbirdB, or flfi j»n- dpibJ!. of the eoMrt pni- 
Atj, are irivtgit to the Auured, 

Polk'ki may be opened under pftbci' of tiiA 
fbl Lo wiikBT plana, yli 

At a I0W rate of pfimimn, wlthcmt tiaitt^ 
patinn In prottta, or at a E>OTni?what higher rate, 
Qti'^HHnt^ tbe AMured, cJth«:r af t^r tlie flrat ivp 
yeart. t<i an annual abatement of premium fiir 
the rinuiindcr of llfij. csr, nfttr i^ayment of the 
firRt premium la a partici [vatioTj. In thy imguing 
quiniL|iu:nniJLl BonuB. 

Thit abateingot for the year isCiS gji thfl 
Annual PrtmEumHof f ertKnia who havu been 
awun^d under fterie* " \^i " mt^^ yflannr 
longejt is upwardi of ^ pet ctnt. 

Tbelileh Skiameter which thU ancient Oor- 
pmradon hl» ninLutalUed durins Hf:Oir^tf a 
OBHir^ trnti tt J^H^f, securea m the pubfiQ s 
fi]ll and fbJthTul decliuratiun uf proHta. 

Th4 €0 rjwratioB bean tJie wholB EiT«]Tin» 
Dr MANAucM«»i-tt thu« fivLujF to thc Ajumrid, 
In fimiiegqenae of iha protectJon itiTorded by 
iti C^apcm^e Ftmd, Bdvantaftc* e'Ciuiii tu tlioM 
t^tmf aywtem g^'MieIbbI Amirauee. 

FretniumBmay be paM Tenrly* H&If-ytaiEy* 
or Quarterly. 

J if PiA^eiest aiee iHFimd frtt frtmi Stamp Dutj/t 
Or from, chitrge of aciy dt^uriiitiou wbatev^* 
beyond the Freminm. 

Tbe attention of the FubUc it wpeelall/ 
Called to tlie j^i^^tt advoHtapet ofllci^ to Life 
Aafunri by the Le^ldlatu/e In itn recent 
" by wbkh It will be foand that, to 

., »nt, Li/c PniiHikms are jwii *ii&- 

J^ct to Inoomc Tax, 

The Foea of Jit^ieai Ji^rte^ are jjoMfby the 

A Policy may be eSaeted fcir » amall a anm 
afl 90^, and profreMlvely iQCTenaed up to ML) 
without tbe neecoBity of a nii* Policy. 

E^ry fjucititv wit! be glvtn for Iht tnnBrfer 
or excluuiiri! of PoUslei* or any otht<r Euitubla 
aTranscmt^nl w|U bti maJde fur the oouwnl^nce 
of thf Aurtircd. 

Proipectuni* and all ether infoitnation maar 
tie obtiiinfd by either a written or bsnuaam 
appicaticm to the Actuarif, or to theBiii«rin- 
tcndent of the Weat Eud (m.vt. 




[No. 272. 

tioned, and in the following order: first came 
the reigning prince, and after him the marshal, 
chief Hospitaller, draper, treasurer, and lastly the 
Commander of Cyprus. De Villaret was so exact 
in his government at this period, that he not only 
established the respective ranks of his officers, but 
also made known the number of servants and 
attendants whom they should have in their ser- 
vice, and the animals which they were expected or 
compelled to own. If it should be observed that 
in the above list no mention is made of a Turco- 
polier or admiral, the omission is easily explained. 
At the period now referred to, the Hospitallers 
and Templars were guests of the king of Cyprus, 
a monarch so jealous of his sovereignty, that he 
would permit no interference in the government of 
his subjects, or the protection of his island.* Had 
a Turcopolier been named, there would have been 
no duties for him to perform ; and had the admiral 
been mentionerl, he had no fleet to command. 
Hence their omission from the list of officers then 
known in the convent. 

The gifted author of Eothen thus poetically 
notices the place which for fourteen years had 
been the island home of the Knights of St. John 
after their expulsion from the Holy Land : 

" Cyprus is beautiful : from the edge of the rich flowery 
fields on which I trod, to the midway sides of the snowy 
Olympus, the ground could only here and there show an 
abrupt crag, or a high straggling ridge that upshouldered 
itself from out of the wilderness of myrtles and of the 
thousand bright- leaved shrubs that twined their arms 
together in lovesome tangles. The air that came to my 
lips was warm and fragrant as the ambrosial breath of the 
goddess infecting me, — not (of course) with a faith of the 
old religion of the isle, but with a sense and apprehen- 
sion of its mystic power, a power that still was to be 
•beyed — obeyed by mey for why otherwise did I toil on 
with sorry horses to where for Her the hundred altars 
glowed with Arabian incense, and breathed in the fra- 
grance of garlands ever fresh. 

* ubi tempi um illi, centumque Sabseo 

Thure caleut ar», sertisque recentibus halant.* 

Mneid, i. 415." 

In 1307 Fulk De Villaret became Grand Master 
x>n the decease of his brother, and at a time when 
the Knights of St. John, greatly assisted by the 
<jenoese and Sicilians, were engaejed in a desperate 
Btrugorle for the possession of Rhodes. Early in 
the following year this beautiful island was cap- 
tured ; t an important conquest, which not only 

• Captain Graves, of the Royal Navy, to whom as its 
president, and to Mr. Innes, its secretary, the Literary 
and Scientific Institute of this island is so much indebted, 
.not only for its existence, but also for its present flourish- 
ing condition, has a History of Cypnis now quite ready 
for publication. To this work Captain Graves has given 
his continued and constant attention for several years, and 
its appearance may therefore be looked forward to with 
jnuch interest, as a valuable contribution to the literature 
of the day. 

t Historians differ as to the precise period in which 
the capture of Rhodes took place. KnoUes has stated, in 

gave to the Hospitallers an agreeable residence for 
more than two centuries, but also enabled them to 
raise a bulwark against the encroachments of the 
Ottoman emperors, which for this long period, with 
their whole power, they could not overthrow. In 
1328, twenty years after the Order of St. John 
was established at Rhodes, it is clearly shown by 
the records that a Turcopolier existed in the con- 
vent, and that " Giovannide Buibralk '* was the first 
known English knight who held the dignity. From 
this date until 1660, the office was uninterruptedly 
filled by Englishmen ; but for what reason it was 
first granted to one of that language, and ever after 
remained v/ith it, there is nothmg in the manu- 
script reports of the general chapters which have 
been carefully referred to, or published histories, 
that we are aware of, to show. Five hundred years 
ago the Order of St. John was composed of eight 
different nations, as they were termed; and each 
had its own peculiar dignity. Thus, the Grand 
Commander, who by virtue of his office was per- 
petual president of the common treasury, comp- 
troller of the accounts, superintendent of stores, 
governor of the arsenal, and master of the ord- 
nance, was taken from the language of Provence. 
The Grand Marshal, who had the military com- 
mand over all the Order, the Grand Master's 
household only excepted ; and when at sea com- 
manded not only the general of the galleys, but 
the grand admiral himself, came from the language 
of Auvergne. The Grand Hospitaller, who had the 
direction of the hospital, was from the language of 
France. The Admiral, who in the grand marshal's 
absence had the command of the soldiery equally 
with the seamen, and could, claim the right of 
being proposed to the council as general of the 
galleys, whether the Grand Master wished it or 
not, was an Italian. The Draper, or grand con- 
servator, who was charged with everything relative 
to the conservatory, as also to the clothing, and 
purchasing all necessary articles for the troops 
and hospital, came from the language of Arragon. 
The Turcopolier, who commanded the light cavalry, 
as also all the guards who were stationed in the 
fortresses near the harbours, or in the castles 
around the coasts, and gave all passwords and 
countersigns, came from England. Germany fur- 
nished the Grand Bailiff to the Order ; and, lastly, 
Castile a Grand Chancellor, who could not fill the 
office unless he knew how to read and write.* 

Having these several dignities now before us, 
should it be asked why any particular honour had 
been granted to any particular language, it might 
be a question as difficult to answer as that why the 

his Turkish History, p. 163., that it was in 1308 ; while 
Castelli, p. 83., has recorded that the conquest was opt 
actually effected until 1311. 

* Vide Boisgelin's Ancient atid Modem Malta, vol. i. 
pp. 241. 245., from which work the dignities attached to 
each language are taken. 

_ Jan. 13. 1855.] 



Turcopolier had been given to England, which was 
the third in rank in the convent. It is not im- 
probable that, at the foundation of the Order, the 
Grand Master selected those grand crosses to fill 
the different offices according to the ability evinced 
bj them to perform their respective duties, and 
this without the least reference to the country 
from which they came. Among Englishmen at 
the present time, the cavalry is a favourite service ; 
and thus it may have been with their ancestors 
when the taste could be gratified. In this way 
perhaps the reason may be explained why the 
command of the light horse was always conferred 
on knights of the British tonsue. 




The following letter, addressed, by Joanna 
Baillie, "To Mr. CoUett, Master of the Aca- 
demy, Evesham, Worcestershire," may interest 
some of the readers of " N. & Q/* The original 
is in my possession : 

^*Hampstead, June 18th, 1801. 
" Tho' I am not altogether prepared to answer 
the^ questions you have put to me in the letter 
I have had the honour of receiving from you, 
there is something in that letter so very flattering 
to the vanity which authors are not sutifered to be 
without, that it will not permit me to be silent. 
After the lenity and forbearance I have met with 
from the public, I should hold myself bound in 
gratitude, had I no other motive, to continue, in 
the best manner I am able, the plan I have begun 
in ' the Series of Flays.* When I shall have it in 
my power to publish another volume, I am not 
certain, but I hope it will be some time in the 
next spring. It has given me great satisfaction 
to learn that you have received any pleasure in 
reading the first. Without being vain enough to 
suppose that a work, with so many faults on its 
head, has been honoured with your entire appro- 
bation ; to have a voice of such respectable autho- 
rity at aU on my side, is highly gratifying to, 
" Your obliged humble servt. 

Mr. CoUett, to whom this letter was addressed, 
was a schoolmaster at Evesham, and afterwards 
at Worcester. He published a volume of juvenile 
poems, and also some Sacred Dramas, There is 
a short notice of him in Chambers*s BioeraphictU 
lUustratUnu of Worcestershire; but I have not 
the work at faiand to give particulars. He died in 
1817. H.Maetin. 



I have before me a common-place book of the 
reigns of James I. and Charles L, containing the 
gatherings of a most discursive reader. It con- 
sists of scraps of history, songs, bon-mots, 
epigrams, " cabalisticall verses which by trans- 
position of words, letters, and syllables, make ex^ 
cellent sense, otherwise none at all," &c. The 
greater number of the pieces I am able to identify^, 
but there are others which, as they are new to^ 
me, I transcribe, that your more erudite readers 
may inform me whose they are. If too well known- 
to claim insertion, I shall be obliged by a brief 
reply as to their authorship. 

« 7%c Cryer, 

** Grood folk, for gold or hyer, 
Come help mee to a cryer, 
For my poore heart is "gone astray 
After her heart that went this way. 
Hoe yes ! hoe yes I 

" If there bee any man, 
In towne or country, can 
Help mee my heart againe, 
I'll please him for his' paine ; 
And by these marks I will yoa show, 
That only I the heart doe owe. 

** It was a true heart, and a deare, 
And never us'd to rome ; 
But having got this harme I feare^ 
Will hardly stay at home. 

" For Cod-sake, walking by the way^ 
If you my heart doe see, 
Either impound it for a stray, 
Or send it back to mee." 

That such language as the following should 
have come from " a great papist," is explained by 
remembering that, about the time of the present- 
ation of this new yearns gift, the negociations re- 
lative to the match between Charles and the In- 
fanta of Spain, and the visit of the prince and 
Buckingham to Madrid, had led to a somewhat 
sudden relaxation of the harsh statutes against the 
Catholics, who had great hopes from this alliance. 

** Vertes written on a rich cusnon which wa» given to f&e 
^ng hy Lady Cann^tiby (f), a great Papist, for a Newu 
Yeerea gift, 1624. 

** The Solomon of peace, life's living bred 
X' onl^ is, and under him our heade, 
His faithfull steward, James, Create Brittain's king^: 
Preserves and feedes his people, from him spring 
Plenty and peace ; above all monarks blest ; 
Of good the greatest, and of great the best." 

** An anagram made upon the Prince tqxm his €U8uranct 
with the lady of France, 

*« Charles, Prince of Wales, 
Will chose France's pearl." 

Polperro, Cornwall. 




[No- 272. 


The Allowing notes on a small parcel of scarce 
and carious tracts lately come into my possession, 
are at the seryice of any reader taking delight in 
•och matters. They may serve as the commence- 
ment of what is much needed — a descriptive cata- 
logue of the rarer tracts of the period. 

1. ** The Infancie of the Soole : or the Soale of an 
Infant Gathered from the boosome of Trueth, Begunne 
in Loae, and finished in the desire to profit others. By 
William Hill. Imprinted at London, by W. W., for 
C. Knight, and are to be solde at his shop in Paules 
Churchward at the Signe of the Holy Lambe. 1605. 4to." 
No pagination. 

Upon a fly-leaf is written, in the hand of the 

"Nouember y« 29, 1620. 
" In the Riuer Seuem was the greatest flood that euer 
was sinse the flood of Noah ; there was drowned at Horn- 
tones Loade [Hampton's Lode] 68 persons asthey whare 
going to Bewdly Faire." 

2. " Vox Coeli, or Newes from Heaven, or a Consulta- 
tion there held by the high and mighty Princes, King 
Hen. 8., King Edw. 6., Prince Henry, Queene Mary, 
Queene Elizabeth, and Queene Anne; wherein Spaines 
ambition and treacheries to most Kingdomes and free 
estates of Evrope, are vnmasked, and truly represented, 
but more particularly towards England, and now more 
especially vnder the pretended match of Prince Charles, 
with the Infanta Dona Maria. Written by S. R. N. J. 
Printed in Elisium. 1624.'' 4to. 60 pp. 

All the members of which Consultation, except 
Queene Mary, pr(^06ticate ruin to England, and 
misery to " Baby Charlie*' if the alliance is formed. 

3. "His Majesties Declaration, concerning His Pro- 
ceedings with fiUs Subjects of Scotland, since the Pacifi- 
cation in the Camp neere Berwick. London, 1640." 4to. 
63 pp. 

Finely engraved portrwt (half-length) of Charies 
as frontispiece. 

4. "The Replication of Master Glyn, in the name of 
aU the Commons of England, to the generall answer of 
Thomas Earle of Strafford, April 13, 1641. London, Printed 
1641." 4to. 19 pp. 

^. " The last Declarations of the Committee of Estates 
now assembled in Scotland. Edinburgh, Printed bv 
Evan Tyler, and reprinted at London, 18 Octob. 164£.^' 
4to. 24 pp. 

6. "ARevdationofMr.Brigtman*s Revelation. Printed 
in the yeere of falffiUng it, 1641." 4to. 37 pp. 

R. a Waedb. 



Sir F. Thesiger asserted the other day, in the 
Court of Queen*s Bench, that the word swindle 
was not to be found in any EngUsh dictionary 
good or bad. 

Lawyers are famous for bold assertions, and it 
is their good luck to escape unharmed, however 

erroneous those assertions may prove. They all 
go to the account of zeal for their clients. 

Sir Frederick is most singularly unfortunate in 
this particular instance. Lord Campbell inter- 
rupts him, and tells him it is in Richardson's; 
and adds, *^ It is not in Johnson's.** And this ii 
true ; but it is in Todd, who quotes from James's 
Military Dictionary. And for swindler he also 
refers to Ash's Supplement to his Dictionary^ pub« 
lished in 1775 : Swindle, Swindler, Swindling, are 
all in Smart's Walker, remodelled. 

Mason, in his Supplement to Johnson, publidied 
more than fifty years ago, says that swindler is a 
"modern colloquial word." And farther, the 
learned knight might have found it in a dictionary 
by a member of his own profession, as a word re- 
cognised by the law of the land ; in that bv Mr. 
Tomlins, who treats us with the exquisitely re- 
fined legal distinction between the word spoken, 
and the word written, as actionable or not action- 

Richardson says, the time and manner of intro- 
duction require to be ascertained. His own ex- 
ample "of the scandalous appellation *iotnd/cr " is 
from the Essays of the Rev. Vicesimus Knox, 
which were published at least eighty years ago. 
That author deserves now to be remembered, as 
one of the earliest advocates for the improvement 
of academic education. The probability is, that 
there is not now in use a single English dictionary 
that does not contain these words. 

I remember hearing the late Lord Erskine, 
when in his zenith at Sie bar, denounce the word 
derange as not English. It was not in Johnson : 
nor was it, though now in all our dictionaries. 
(See Todd's Johnson, and Richardson.) In England 
men were not formerly deranged. The down, in 
Hamlet, tells us they were mad. Q* 


" Traverse.** — The omission of a comma in 
Dr. Johnson's copy of Milton, apparently gave 
this word the place among prepositions which he 
and most subsequent lexicographers have conceded 
to it. Johnson's folio has — 

"Traveesb, adverb (a trovers, French), crosswise; 


•* T&AVBBBB, prq). through, crosswise.** 
the latter with a quotation firom Paradise Lost 
(L 569.x pointed thus : 

** He through the armed files 
Darts his experienced eye, and soon traverse 
The whole battalion views their order due." 

Ash, referring to Milton as authority, borrows 
Johnson's definition, but inserts a comma between 

Jax. la. 1855.] 



the two words, "through, crosswise." Sheridan 
gives the same definition. Webster, as if to make 
the blunder more apparent, substitutes a semi- 
colon for the comma, and defines '* Tbavebsb, 
prep, through; crosswise," citing Milton's lines, 
pointed as in Johnson. 

The earliest edition of the Paradise Lost which 
I have at hand (1688), has a comma after " views," 
in the line cited. So has i^ewton's edition (1749). 
Bentley, Todd, and nearly all recent editors of 
Milton, place a semi- colon there : 

" And soon traverse 
The whole battalion views ; their order due, 
Their visages and statures as of gods." 

This pointing, which is obviously the more correct, 
restores traverse to its proper place among the 
adverbs, and takes away the only authority on 
which its occasional use as a preposition rests. 
Dr. Johnson, it will be observed, made but one 
blunder, where subsequent lexicographers have 
contrived to make two ; for " traverse," if a pre- 
position, would be correctly defined by " through 
crosswise." But Webster, by separating the two 
words of this definition, has fallen into the ab- 
aurdity of defining a supposed preposition by an 
adverb, "crosswise." Yebtaub. 

Hartford, Connecticut. 

MiltorCs Description of Rome* — Would it not 
be well that Mr. Murray, in his Ouide to Central 
Italy^ on introducing the English traveller into 
Kome, should Open the scene with the general 
description of an English poet, who himself wrote 
ffooL recollection of the spot ; I mean, of course, 

** A river of whose banks 
On each side an imperial city stood, 
With tow'rs and temples proudly elevate 
On seven small hills, with palaces adorn'd. 
Porches, and theatres, batiis, aqueducts. 
Statues, and trophies, and triumphal arcs : 

. There the Capitol thou see'st 
Above the rest lifting his stately head 
On the Tarpeian rock, her citadel 
Impregnable ; and there Mount Palatine, 
The imperial palace, compass huge and high 
The structure, skill of noblest architects. 
With gflded battlements conspicuous iar, 

Torrots, and terraces, and glittering spires 

Thenoe to the gates cast round thine eye, and see 
What conflux issuing forth, or entering in ; 
Praetors, pro-consuls to their provinces 
Hasting or on return. .... 
Or embassies fV(Hn regions far remote, 
In various habits, on the Appian road, 
Or on the Emilian." 

Paradise Regainedy book iv. 

There are few Englishmen of taste who will 
not have read or repeated these lines, as they 
gased on the scene described from the campanile 
«f the CapitoL Wm. Ewabt. 

Custom observed in drikking at public Feasts, — 
hk*^^.& Q.»*'Tol. X., p. 307., is mentioned the 

custom at Queen's College, of placing the thumbs 
on the table while the superiors drink. The fol- 
lowing custom has been observed from time im- 
memorial, and still* is, at dinners given by the 
mayor, or at any public feast of the corporation of 
Lichfield. The first two toasts given by the 
mayor are " The Queen," and " Weale and Wor- 
ship," both which are drunk out of a massive em- 
bossed silver cup, which holds three or four 
quarts, and was presented to the corporation in 
1666 by Elias Ashmole, a native of the city. 
The ceremony is as follows : — The mayor drinks 
first, and on his rising the persons on his right and 
left also rise ; he then hands the cup to the person 
on his right side, when the one next to him rises, 
the one on the left of the mayor still standing ; 
then the cup is passed across the table to him, 
when his left-hand neighbour rises ; so that there 
are always three standing at the same time, one 
next to the person who drinks, and one opposite 
to him. I presume that though the ceremony is 
different, the object was the same as that observed 
at Queen's College, that is, to prevent injury to 
the person who drinks. T. G. L. 


Female Bank, — Few, save private friends and 
their friends, know the heroic conduct of Miss 
Nightingale in the hospital at Scutari, which is 
certainly beyond all praise. Not only has she, 
since her arrival, attended all the death-beds of 
the soldiers under her charge, but she has had the 
most dangerous cases placed in a room next to 
her own, that she may be near, and thus enabled 
to render them greater attention. Certaiulv this 
nobleness will be repaid by the praise of this and 
succeeding generations, but more especially by 
the blessing of God. Nevertheless, may we not 
ask, why great women should not be rewarded 
from henceforth as great men, excepting, as we 
feel bound to do, great authors ? Commissions 
are given away at present to non-commissioned 
officers, and Canrobert is made a C.B. What 
would seem more appropriate, than that this. IMjt 
who has willingly given up the luxuries of private 
life for public good, should be henceforth known 
as Lady Florence Nightingale ? E. W. J. 

The first Dublin Newspaper, — The following 
paragraph from Gilbert's History of the City of 
Dublin (p. 178.), of which the first volume has 
lately appeared, may deserve a corner in *' N. & 

** Thornton issued the first newspaper published in 
Dublin, which was styled T%e Dublin News Letter, printed 
in 1685, by * Joseph Ray in College Green, for Robert 
Thornton, at the Leather Bottle m Skinner Row;' it 
consisted of a single leaf of small folio siee, printed «i 
both sides, and written in the form of a ktter; each 
number being dated, and commencing with the word Sir, 
The existence of this publication was totally unknown to 



[No. 272. 

former writers, who universally alleged that Pue*s Occur- 
rences was the first Dablin newspaper." 


GALEin)AB OP saints' DATS. 

In the Additional Notes appended to Nicholls' 
Commentary on the Book of Common Prayer 
(p. 8. col. 2. 1. 13.), the following passage occurs : 

" In this kalendar, which preserves the memory of 
some ancient holy men and women that were famous in 
the Church (although their days be not now appointed 
by the new statute to be kept Holy Days, nor were they 
all of them appointed to be kept so before), there is some 
difference between this edition and that of Edward VI. to 
which the Act of Uniformity referreth. In January, 
Lucian and Prisca are omitted, with Fabian : so Bast is 
added in the fifth of Edward VI. In February, Dorothy 
and Mildred are added. In March, Perpetua, St. Gregory, 
and St. Benedict are omitted ; Adrian is added. In Apnl, 
Richard and Alphage are omitted. In May, John Bever- 
ley, Pancrace, Helena, Adelina, are added, and Pernelle. 
In June are added Edmund, and the Translation of Edw. 
In July, Martin and Swithin are omitted ; Seven Sleepers 
are added. In August, Name of Jesus, and Beheading of 
St John Baptist, are omitted ; Assumption of the Virgin 
Mary, Magnus, Bernard, Felix, and Cuthbert are added. 
In September, Eunarchus [^Enurchus ? ], Holy Cross, 
Lambert, and Cyprian are omitted. In November, Brice, 
Machute, St. Hugh, B. St Edmund King, and Cecily are 
omitted; and Theodore is added. In December, O Sapi- 
entia and Sylvester are omitted, and Osmond is added." 

This is an extract from some MS. notes in 
Bishop Cosin's handwriting. It would appear as 
if Bishop Cosin had before him a kalendar at- 
tached to a Book of Common Prayer of the fiflh 
year of King Edward VI., commonly called the 
Second Book of Edward ; being that which, with 
certain specified alterations, was confirmed by the 
Act of Uniformity of 1 Eliz. The edition which 
he compares with this, and speaks of as dififering 
from it, was that in use prior to 1662. 

Now the difliculty which leads me to apply to 
" N. & Q." for help, is this : I have not been 
able to find a calendar in any Common Prayer- 
Book of the fifth of Edw. VI., or of any other 
year of his reign, which answers to the descrip- 
tion here given. The copies of Edw. VI.'s 
Common Prayer-Books, which I have met with, 
contain only our red-letter Saints' Days, with the 
addition of a very few black-letter days in the 
editions of 1552. The calendar of the primer of 
1553 (as printed in the Liturgies, and otner docu- 
ments of King Edw. VI., by the Parker Society, 
1844, p. 365.) contains many more black-letter 
days than the Prayer-Books, but yet does not 
correspond to the calendar Bbhop Cosin seems to 
have had before him. 

What adds to the interest of the inquiry is, that 
the Puritans, at the Savoy Conference, desired 
respecting Saints* Days, ** that the names of all 

others (Saints), now inserted in the calendar, which 
are not in the first and second books of Edward the 
Sixth, may be left out." Now Bishop Cosin was 
an active member of the party opposed to the 
Puritans ; but in the Bishop's Answer nothing is 
said which implies, that any books of Edw. vl. 
contained the Saints* Days objected to. 

I shall be grateful to any of your readers who 
may be able to point out any calendar which cor- 
responds, in the List of Saints* Days, with that 
described by Cosin. Indagatob. 


I hope that you will furnish me with inform- 
ation respecting what appears to me a curious in- 
quiry. We all know that the word leech waa 
commonly used some centuries ago to designate a 
physician. It was employed in that sense by 
Spenser, and once (in Timx)n of Athens) by Shak- 
speare, as well as by many other writers. Sir 
Bulwer Lytton states, in one of the notes ap- 
pended to his novel Harold^ that the derivation of 
the word has been perplexing to many of the 
learned, but that leich is the old Saxon word for 
surgeon ; and that it has been traced to lich or 
Use, a body ; a word not signifying, like the pre- 
sent German Leiche^ a dead body. Lich-fe was, 
in Saxon, a physician's fee, as I have been in- 

The word has been thought b^ some to be de- 
rived from a Saxon verb, signifying, like the 
French IScher, to smooth or assuage. But what i 
wish to ascertain is, whether the worm, the blood- 
sucker, the use of which appears fast disappearing 
from medical practice, was named from the phy- 
sician, or whether the physician was named from 
the little animal ? It is a curious fact, if it can be 
known; either vr&j showing how great was the 
use of phlebotomy in surgical practice. But how 
great must have been the belief in the benefit of 
these small blood-suckers, if the healing physician 
allowed himself to be called by the same name ! 
We know that the first surgeons were also bar- 
bers. When did the use of the leech come into 
competition with that of the lancet ? Surely some 
old medical works must contain this information^ 
and would explain if, like many improvements in 
medical science, the use of leeches was derived 
from the East. C. (2) 

Minor ^ntxM. 

Foreign Collections of Floral Poetry. — What 
works are there similar to our Poetry of Flowers^ 
and others with like titles, in the French, Italian, 
Spanish, and Portuguese f Communications from 
foreign booksellers will oblige. A. Challstbtb. 

Jan. 13. 1855.] 



A Ryder. — Why is an additional clause added 
to a resolution, &c. cidled " a ryder ? " I know 
enough of criticism to be aware of the canon, that 
the most obvious meaning of a doubtful word or 
sentence is generally the wrong one. Blackstone, 
in describing the process of mdcing a law, says : 

** The Bill is then ordered to be engrossed, or written 
in strong gross hand, on one or more long rolls or presses 
of parchment sewed together. When this is finished, it 
is read a third time, and amendments are sometimes then 
made to it ; and if a new clause be added, it is done by 
tacking a separate piece of parchment on the bill, which 
is called a ryder (Noy, 84.)." — Blackstone's Comm., book L 

Wm. FbaSEB, B.C.L. 


•* Crakys of War^ — John Barbour, Archdea- 
con of Aberdeen, states that King Edward III. 
had artillery in his first campaign against the 
Scots in 1327, and calls the guns "crakys of 
war." (Vide Metrical Life of Robert Bruce, 
pp. 408, 409.) May we credit John Barbour on 
this subject ? B. A. 

Sestertium. — I shall be much obliged to any of 
your classicfll correspondents who will kindly give 
me some rule for determining the sum of the fol- 
lowing figures. They occur m Cicero in Verrem : 

«« HS. lo millia - - Act U. 1. 2, 25. 

HS. CIoCIo - - - H 1- 3, 32. 

HS. CIo - - - n L 4, 17." 


Epigram in a Bible. — Who was the writer of 
ihe following satirical epigram, found inscribed in 
a Bible ? — 

** Hie liber est, in quo qoaerit sua dogmata qoisque, 
Invenit et pariter dogmata qoisque sua.** 


Eminent Men bom in the same Year, — The 
year 1769 was singularly productive of great men : 
Wellington; his military rival Soult; the dis- 
tinguished minister during their campaigns. Vis- 
count Castlereagh ; the Emperor Napoleon I. ; 
Chateaubriand; Cuvier; and Sir Walter Scott! 
Can any of the readers of " N". & Q." adduce the 
names of seven persons equally famous of the same 
age? N.L.T. 

Published Lists of the Users of Hair Powder. — 
Mr. Pitt, in his budget, 23rd Feb. 1795, when 
lading a tax of 1/. Is. per head on hair powder, 
said the names of all those who wore hair powder 
would be published. {Pari. Hist.<f vol. xxxi. 
1313.) Have such lists ever been published? 
If so, where may they be deposited ? As mention 
has been made of Pitt, perhaps some of your 
readers would tell why the editor (W. S. Efath- 
Away) omitted so many of Pitt*s budgets f I 
refer to the edition of 1806. M. M. 

Legal Query. — Does 41 George III. c. 73, ex- 
clude the ministers of the established Kirk of Scot- 
land from sitting in parliament ? Would it ex- 
clude those who have noly orders in the Episcopal 
Church of Scotland ? Wiujam Fbaseb, B. C. L. 

Alton, Staffordshire. 

Burial by Torch-light — It is an idea very 
generally prevalent that all burials by night are 
illegal, and that none but the Boyal family may be 
buried by torch-light. A clerical friend mformed 
me that the same statement had been made to 
him on the occasion of his using a candle to assist 
him in reading the office at a late funeral. What 
is the authority for it ? 

William Fsaseb, B. C. L. 

Alton, Staffordshire. 

*^ Proverbes Gascons:^ Translation wanted. — 
Perhaps some correspondent, acquainted with the 
Gascon tongue, who has access to a copy of the 
following work, would kindly supply me with a 
translation (English or French) of the Proverbs 
on pp. 10 — 14. : Anciens Proverbes Basques et Gas- 
cons, recueiUis par Voltaire et remis au jour par 
G.B. : Parb, 1845. A. Challsteth. 

Nitrous Oxide and Poetry. ^-^l have before me 
a letter written in 1808, and containing a passage 
to the effect, that a Dr. Stancliffe repeated at the 
house of the writer*s father some *' Lines written 
after inhaling the nitrous oxide,** by a living poet. 
Can any reader of " N. & Q." refer me to the 
lines and their author? I have heard Southey 
named ; but I find no evidence of the fact in his 
printed poems. Dr. Stancliffe was, I believe, a 
popular (Quaker ?) lecturer on chemistry at the 
period alluded to. D. 

^^Whychcote of St. JohrCs^ — Some years since 
(Vol. iii., p. 302.) I submitted, under the foregoing 
title, two Queries ; neither of which has been yet 
answered. As I perceive "N. & Q." has now an 
intelligent correspondent at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
to which place my Queries P^nt, perhaps he could 
answer one of them, viz. Who is the author of 
Whychcote of St. John's f H. D. 

Latinizing Proper Names : Index Geographicus. 
Some few years ago a work was published, in Lon- 
don, if I mistake not, explaining the manner in 
which modern proper names, more especially of 
persons, ought to be Latinized, according to 
classical usage. Not remembering either the 
title or the publisher's name, I would feel greatly 
obliged if any of your able correspondents could 
favour me, through the medium of your valuable 
pages, with this information ; also with the title 
of the most copious Index Geographicus of the 
names of countries, cities, towns, &c. in English 
and Latin. A Plain Man. 




[No. 272. 

Rephf to Leslies "Caw $Med:'^QBXk any one 
inform me who is the author of the fcdlowing work, 
which is a Roman Catholic reply to Leslie : 

** The Case stated between the Ghnrch of Borne and the 
Gfanreh of England, in a Second Conversation betwixt 
a Roman Catholick Lord, and a Gentleman of the Church 
of England, [s. 1.] 1721. 8o."* 


" Bridgewater Treatises,^* — In what year were 
the Bri^ewater Treatises established ? with what 
object, and with what endowment ? Were they 
limited in number ? and by whom were the sub- 
jects chosen ? Who were appointed as the judges 
of them? C. (1) 

[The Right Hon. and Rev. Francis Henrv E^rton, 
Earl of Bridgewater, died in Feb. 1829, and by his will, 
dated Feb. 25, 1825, he directed certain trustees, therein 
named, to invest in the public funds the sum of 8000^ — 
this sum, with the accruing dividends thereon, to be held 
at the disposal of the president for the time being of the 
Royal Society of London, to be paid to the person or 
persons nominated by him. The testator farther directed 
that the person or persons selected by the said president 
should be appointed to write, print, and publish one thou- 
sand copies of a work, **C>n the Power, Wisdom, and 
QoodnesB of God, as manifested in the Creation; illus- 
trating each work by all reasonable arguments ; as, for 
instance, the variety and formation of Grod's Creatures in 
the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Kingdoms ; the 
effect of Digestion, and thereby of Conversion ; the Con- 
struction of the Hand of Man, and an infinite variety of 
other Arguments; as also by Discoveries, ancient and 
modern, in Arts ajid Sciences, and the whole extent of 
liiterature." The late president of the Royal Society, 
Davies Gilbert, Esq., requested the assistance of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and of the Bishop of London, 
in determining upon the best mode of carrying into effect 
the intention of the testator. Acting with this advice, 
and with the concurrence of a nobleman immediately con- 
nected with the deceased, Mr. Davies Gilbert appointed 
the following eight gentlemen to write separate treatises 
on Uie different branches of the subject : — ^Rev. Dr. Chal- 
mers; JohnKidd, M.D.; Rev. Wm. Whewell ; Sir Chas. 
Bell; Peter Mark Roget, M.D.; Rev. Dr. Buckland; 
Rev. Wm. Kirby; and Wm. Prout, M.D. It is to this 
Earl of Bridgewater that the nation is indebted for the 
fine collection of manuscripts in the British Museum, 
called the *♦ Egerton Collection."] 

" Caucus,^' its Derivation. — Unde derivatur the 
American electioneering word caucus f Can it 
possibly be from the middle age Latin and Greek 
word caucus, kuvkios, Kawto, a cup or vessel? a 

[* We are inclined to think this work is by Robert 
Manning, Professor of Humanity and Philosophy at 
Douay College. About this time, Dodd states, Manning 
published several books of controversy much esteemed 
by the learned : see his Oiurch Hiatoryt vol. iii. p. 488. 
Dolman, a few years unce, republished most of Man- 
ning's productions ; and it is probable some clue to the 
authorship of the work noticed by our correspondent will 
be found in these reprints.] 

Tessel fbr receiring noting papers? The Latin 
word is used as early as by St. Jerome and by 
St.Bede. (Eccles. Hist,, il 16.) I fear this would 
be refinin? in their terms to a greater degree tha& 
is probable in America. But can any of your 
correspondents give a better explanation ? 

JOHN B. Cabbals. 
Tavistock SqoMre. 

[Mr. John Pickering, in his Vocabulary, or Collection 
of Words and Phrases, which have been supposed to be 
peculiar to the United States (Boston, 1816), calls eamem 
a cant term, used throughout the United States for thosa 
meetings which are held by the different political parties^ 
for the purpose of agreeing upon candidates for office, or 
concerting any measure which they intend to carry at the 
subsequent public or town -meetings. The earhest ac- 
count he has seen of this extraordinary word is in Grordon's 
History of the American Revolution, 1788, vol. L p. 240. 
Grordon says that more than fifty years previous to th^ 
time of his writing, ** Samud Adams's father, and twenty 
others, in Boston, one or two from the north end of the 
town, where all ship-business is carried on, used to meet, 
make a caucus," &c. From the fact that the meetings 
were first held in a part of Boston ** where all the ship* 
business was carried on," Mr. Pickering infers that cauem 
may be a corruption of caulkers, the word meeting being 
understood. Mr. Pickering was afterwards informed that 
several gentlemen had mentioned this as the origin of the 
word. He thinks he has sometimes heard the expression 
a caucus meeting (caulkers* meeting). Mr. Pickering aaja, 
that this cant word and its derivatives are never used in 
good writing ; although occasionally found in the news- 
papers of the United States.] 

Ballad quoted hy Burton. — Burton {Anatomy 
of Melancholy, part ni. sec. ii. memb. 4.) quotes 
from a ballad : 

** Thou honeysuckle of the hawthorn hedge. 
Vouchsafe in Cupid's cup my heart to pledge," &c. 

The reference in the notes is " S. R. 1600." What 
does this mean ? A. Challsteth. 

[The reference is to one of the satires of Samuel Row- 
lands, and will be found in The Letting ofHvmovrs Blood 
in the Head- Vaine. With a new Morissco, daunced by 
Seauen Satyres, vpon the bottome of Diogenes Tnbbe. 
Lond. 18mo. 1600, Satire iv., Sig. K] 

Family Arms. — Can any of your readers give 
me any information as to the arms of a family 
" Manzy," and the arms of the family " Prevost. ' 

[The arms of Prevost are given in Robson's British 
Berald: — **pRJEVOST, Bart (Belmont, Hants, 6th Dec. 
1805) az. a dexter arm, in fesse, issuing from the sinister 
fesse point, the hand grasping a sword, erect, ppr. pomel 
and hilt or; in chief two mullets ar. Crest, a demi-lion 
ramp. az. charged on the shoulder with a mural crown or, 
the sinister paw grasping a sword, erect, as in the arms. 
Supporters (assigned by Royal Sign-manual : vide (7a- 
zette, 11th Sept. 1816) on each side a grenadier of the 
sixteenth, or Bedfordshire, regiment of foot, each sup« 
porting a banner; that .on the dexter side inscrib^ 
* West Indies,' and that on the sinister, * Canada.' Motto, 
Servatum sincere.'^ We cannot discoYer the arms of 

Jan. 13. 1855.] 



Menenius, — To whom are we indebted for 
an 8vo. volume of pamphlets, published a few 
years ago, and entitled Ireland: the Political 
Tracts of Menenius f On their appearance frcMn 
the press they attritcted a considerable share of 
public attention. Abhba. 

[These remarkable political tracts are attributed to 
IMgby Pilot Sarkie in the Catalogue of the British 

HanweUy Oxon, — Can either of your correspon- 
dents supply, or give a reference to any work 
containing, information respecting a ruin called 
The Castle in this parish ? also a Dr. Gill, who 
was the rector about fifty years ago ? N. 

[Some accoant of Sir Antony Cope's "gallant honse at 
Hanwell," as Leland calls it, will be found in the Beauties 
of England and Wales, voL xii. part ii. p. 618.] 


OOIiOEN TABLE OP LUNEBUEG (Vol. V., p. 256. ; 

Vol. vii., p. 355. ; Vol. x., p. 428.) : ancient 

PUNISHMENT OP THE JEWS (Vol. X., p. 126.) 

I have never seen the Vortrefflich Geddchtniss 
der Gottlicher Regierung, but have a Dutch trans- 
lation, the jibridged title-page of which is 

" Yerhael van meede geplegede en nooit gehoorde Dief- 
stallen, als voomamentlyk an de zeer beruchte Goude 
Tafbl, in 't Hooge Autaar van St. Michiels Kerke te 
Lunenburg. Door M. S. H. uit de Hoogdnits vertaald. 
Amsterdam, 1710, 4to., pp. 425." 

The book contains the lives, deaths, and por- 
traits of twelve leading members of a large and 
well-organised gang of thieves, who operated 
chiefly on churches and goldsmiths' warehouses. 
The most important of the many cases proved 
against them was the plunder of the golden table 
at Luneburg. Besides the portraits there are — 
a frontispiece, in four divisions, representing the 
thief's career, stealing, spending, imprisonment, 
hanging ; an Indian plant called Datura, used to 
produce temporary unconsciousness in persons 
intended to be robbed ; and three folding plates : 

1. The place of execution at Zell, with the bodies 
of the culprits, showing how each was executed ; 

2. A plan of the golden table, with the parts which 
were not stripped distinguished in stipple ; and 
S. An engraving from a drawing of the pictures 
on the table. These seem to have been beautiful. 
The body is divided into eighteen compartments, 
each illustrating an event of Gospel history ; 
and on each of the two volets twelve saints are 

How the table got to St. Michael's Church is 
not known. The received tradition was, that it 
was made from the gold and jewels which Otto II., 
m the ^ear 965, won from the Saracens at a great 
kittle m Italjc So many were killed that it bore 

the name of '* Pallida Mors Smrecenorum,'" yet 
there is no satisfactory evidence that any sudi 
battle was fought. Another tradition is^ that the 
table was taken from the Greeks when they were 
defeated at Apulia by Otto I. Upon these points 
the author refers to H. Bunting's Brunswychse em- 
Lunenburgsehe Cronyk, fo. 47. ; Meibomius, Bar, 
Oerm., tom. iii. p. 77. ; and Wittichindus, Aiiaai» 
i. 3. 

The table stood at the back of the high altar ^ 
St. Michael's Church. It was safe on Wednesday^. 
March 9, 1698. On the following Sunday the 
sacristan, going to open the doors,, found them 
forced, and the table stripped of nearly all the 
gold and jewels.' Two lists are given ; one of the 
articles stolen, the other of those left. The first 
contains 105 items of enormous value ; the second 
only 21, and those mostly relics in silvar or ivory 

In the second folding plate a place marked 
No. 3. id vacant. The explanation is — 

<*Eenig goud, dat zekere Koningin van England in 
steede van &t zy^er wel eer ten Sieraad haarer kroohe hadde 
idtoenoomen, volgens oude gedenkenisse zou weder vereerd 
bebben. Want vermlds deze Koningin zimieloos wien), 
heeit men dit volgens het oude er^eruchte, aan haare 
kroon toegeschreven, en haar vervolgens geraaden hot 
goud aan de Tafel weder te schenken; waar van d§. 
kruis-beelden, in het tweede vak van vooren te reekenen, 
en in het tweede van 't laatste staande, die van een tavc* 
lyke breete en hoogte waren, en met edel gesteente oo- 
paerlen bezet, gemaakt zyn ; en in gem^de vakken 
onder No. 3. stonden." — P. 377. 

I think there can be no doubt that the above 
relates to the crown mentioned by Paul Hentzner. 
Who was the "certain queen ?" At p. 364. the 
author pauses between two executions, and says : 

" Tegenwoordig will ik de oude overievering van eea 
zekere Konin^nne uit Engeland niet gaan ouderzoeken, 
die, van deze Tafel iets tot sieraad haarer kroone yerzogt, 
en na dat men 'er het zelve uitgenomen hadde, eerlang 
zinnelos wierd, derhalven zy vervolgens twee goude 
kruis-beelden van eener groote, nevens het goud wede- 
rom zond. Zeker ist, dat er in een bezondere Lyst op 
veele plaatsen iets ingelast was, dat men uit de bleeke 
kleur, tegens *t andere goud te rekenen, ligtelyk k<m 
merken. Indien 'er eertyds diergelyks was vorgevallen, 
zoo hadde men reden te denken, dat zulks ten tyde van 
Henryke Leo moest gebeurt zyn, die met de Engelsch^ 
Prlnses Machtild, Dogter van Konig Henrik den Tweede» 
gehouwd was, en als Bruid, in den Jaare 1168 uit de 
lande gevoerd met Hartog Henrik Leo, te Minden voor 
St. Pieters Autaar het Huwelyk sloot, dat ook in 't voU 
gende Jaar 1169, met een ple^ige Bvlegering zeer prag* 
tig te Bronswyk voltrokken wierd. Als wanner men toea 
met Engeland in een vertrouwelyk Vrendschap leefde." 

A slight foundation for 4i charge of larceny I 

The table, though impoverished, was of import- 
ance in 1710. I find no subsequent notice of it 
in the descriptions of Luneburg to which I have 
referred. Several things worth seeing there are 
enumerated in Murray s Handbook of Northern 
Oermany for 1854, but none of those ia tlie 



[No. 272. 

^ second inventory. It is said, however, ^' In an- 

* other apartment, under lock and key, is the 

* corporation plate. Many of the vessels are 
masterpieces of goldsmiths* work of the fifteenth 

• century** (p. 329.) Perhaps some relic of the 
liable may be found among these; and I hope 
readers likely to visit Luneburg will make a note 
to look. 

The book describes with tedious minuteness the 
discovery, trials, and executions of the thieves. I 

^ shall enter into these no farther than is necessary 
to answer P. B. E.*s Query. On March 21, 1699, 

- *8ix were executed at Zell. Christian Zwanke and 
Andrew Zwart were broken on the wheel ; Jur- 
jam Kramer and Chrbtopher Pante were be- 
neaded, — the sentence states that the beheading 
was a favour, because they had confessed without 
being tortured, and Pante had behaved with 

• credit as a soldier ; Gideon Peerman and Jonas 
JMeyer were hanged, — no reason for the distinc- 
tion is given in the sentences. Perhaps some 
might be discovered by a careful perusal of the 

' history; perhaps it was only for variety. The 
*■ Court, in its post-mortem treatment of Jonas 
Mejer, showed folly enough to warrant the sus- 
%picion. At the scaffold Andrew Zwart* blas- 
\phemed and behaved with great violence, but 
grew calmer and joined in prayer just before he 
was broken. The Jew Meyer persisted in re- 
pelling the ministers, and blasphemed till he was 
drawn up. This being told to the Court, on the 
next day a strange judgment was given : 

<* That the body of Jonas Meyer be taken from the place 
•of execution and brought before the Court, and that the 
itongne with which he has blasphemed God be torn from 
his throat and publicly burned ; that the body be dragged 
back to the place of execution, and there hung up by the 
iftet with a dog by its side." 

Absurd and shocking as this was, it was not in- 
{iflicted on Jonas Meyer as a Jew, but as a blas- 

On May 23, 1699, six more of the gang were 
>^xecuted: two were broken on the wheel, the 
other four hanged. Two of the latter were Jews. 
It was expected that Christian Miiller would 
n>eak ill of the authorities as Zwart did, and 
tnat the two Jews would blaspheme, after the 
example of Meyer ; so they were told that if they 
did their tongues should be torn out before their 
•execution, and the executioner was ordered to 
%ave an assistant ready with the proper instru- 
ments. The assistant, fully prepared for action 
(met gloijenden tangen)^ accompanied them to 

* ^Dezen Misdader, over zyn voorgeleezen .Straf- 
vonnis, in hevigen toorm ontsteeken, kon door geena re- 
denen tot bedaaren gebragt worden. Zyn gemoed 
Stond, wegens yver en wraaklust, in vollen vlam, en 
n[>raakte, in de tegenwoordigheid van' alle- aanschouwers, 
rgelyk de Berg Vesuvius, somwylen geheele klompen van 
weorwraakuit."— P.287. 

the scaffold, but his services were not required 
(p. 361.). 

In July, 1700, two more of the gang, one of 
whom was a Jew, were simply hanged (p. 367.). 

The translator, in his prefkce, states that the 
original work had ^ne through two editions, and 
that the author, a Protestant minister, was dead. 
He acted as gaol-chaplain, attending the prisoners 
afler sentence, and at their execution. Telling 
the truth seems to be his only merit. His matter 
is a mixture of Newgate calendar and condemned 
sermon — facts, morals, and theology jumbled into 
almost inextricable confusion, so that it would be 
as difficult to arrange a connected and continuous 
story or sets of stories from it as to make a draw- 
ing of the back of an enffine-turned wateh. Even 
the dates are confused, uie year being often sepa- 
rated from the month, and the month from the 
<iay, by twenty or more pages about what took 
place at twenty different times, some before and 
some after that which is wanted. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 


(VoLx., pp.433. 511.) 

There are three distinct classes of commissioned 
officers in the army, viz. the company ofiScers, the 
regimental or field officers, and the general officers. 
Of these three classes, the captain, the colonel, 
and the general may be considered respectively 
the chiefs; each having a locum tenens and a 
second assistant, thus : 

1. Captain Colonel General. 

2. Lieutenant Lieut-Colonel Lieut -General. 

'• ^E^i^iX**"!"'} Major Major-Gener^ 

Here the junior, or No. 3, of each class is only 
major to the senior of the class immediately be- 
low him. 

It will thus be observed, that the major belongs 
to a distinct class from the lieutenant, and cannot 
be compared with him ; as a lieutenant-general 
may be compared with the major-general, being 
in the same class. The lieutenant bein^ in each 
case the second officer of his class, the third being 

If for an instant we allow the head of each 
class to be called magnus (the great man of his 
class), the second will of course be minor to him ; 
and, to continue the supposition, the junior will 
be minimus (of his class). Starting with these 
data, and carrying on the comparison into the 
next higher class, the junior of that class being 
senior to magnus becomes major. 

Your correspondent Abchdeacon Cotton sug- 

** Whenever any of the last three (major, lieutenant- 
colonel, and colonel), who are called field officers, are 

Jan. 13. 1855.] 



intrusted with higher and more extensive commands, the 
word general is added to their respective ranks, and the 
titles are shortened in the following manner: captain- 
major-general, lieutenant-co/oneZ-general, and colonel- 

Does he mean that the major becomes a major- 
general, the lieut.-colonel a lieut.-general, and 
the colonel a general ? Surely not. 

At the risk of being tedious, I will give an ex- 
tract from the QueeiCs RegvIationSf which will 
show what the colonel does become when intrusted 
with a higher and more extensive command : 
Command and Rank of Officers. 

** 3. Officers serving on the staff in the capacity oi briga- 
dier-generals, are to toke rank and precedence from their 
commissions as colonels in the army, and not from the 
dates of their appointments as brigadiers."— P. 3. 

Thus we see the colonel intrusted with a higher 
command is not a general officer ; he is not given 
a higher commission, he is appointed to a supple- 
mental grade in his own class as a colonel. The 
army in the Crimea has afforded numerous in- 
stances of colonels being appointed to brigades, 
and subsequently gazetted to commissions as 
major-generals ; that is, to the rank of a general- 
major to the former titles of brigadier-generals, 
or in reality of colonels. The title may be con- 
sidered as major-^^a(/ter-general : 

'< 5. Captains having the brevet-rank of field officers 
are to do duty as field officers in camp and garrison ; but 
they are to perform all regimental duties, according to 
their regimental rank, agreeably to the established rales 
of the service."— P. 3. 

Here again we see the captain jealously kept to 
his own class as a company officer. 

The final inference I would therefore draw is, 
that a major and a lieutenant being in distinct 
classes, and having no intimate connexion with 
each other, cannot be compared as can a lieutenant- 
general and a major-general. The term major 
implies only two persons under comparison : had 
three been intended (the lieutenant, the captain, 
and the major himself), the word would have 
been maximns. 

I hope that the foregoing will answer O. S. 
with regard to the major-colonel he refers to. 

Page 1. of the Queen* s Regulations will show 
Abchdeagon Cotton that the term ^^captain- 
general or field-marshal commanding the army," 
IS recognised though not used in the British army. 
It means the general at the head {caput) of the 
generals. R. A. 


(Vol. X., pp. 351. 409. &c.) 

Perhaps it may interest Sis J. £. Tennent and 
the other contributors to " N. & Q." on the sub- 
ject 'of the last of the Palaeologi, to know, that a 
branch of that imperial house settled in Malta, 

and descendants, in the female line, still exist, 
and occupy an honourable position in society. It 
appears by a pedigree, sufficiently proved by bulls 
and grants of various popes and emperors, and 
other documentary evidences, the enumeration of 
which would occupy too much valuable space, 
that Giorgio Palseologus, sixth in descent from 
Teodoro, rrince of Thebes and Corinth, third son 
of the Emperor Manuel, settled in Malta about 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. Maria 
Palseologus, daughter and heiress of this Giorgio, 
married one Filippo Stafragi, and left an only 
daughter, wife of a Roman patrician, Michaele 
Wizzini. In the fourth generation this family 
ended also in a daughter, Maria Wizzini- 
Palseologo, who carried the imperial name and 
blood into the family of the Counts Ciantar, a 
Maltese race of some note and antiquity. The 
great-granddaughter of this marriage espoused 
Dr. Francesco Uhapelle, one of the judges of her 
Majesty's superior courts of law, and in her issue, 
I believe, the representation of this branch of the 
imperial house remains. 

I remember to have met in society, some years 
ago, in London and Paris, a certain John Palseo- 
logus, a Greek, and an oriental scholar of some 
pretension, who claimed to be a scion of the im- 
perial family. John o' the Fobd. 

Having met with a passage respecting this 
family in looking over A Survey of flie Turkish 
Empire^ SfCj by C. Eton (8vo. London, 1799), I 
venture to transcribe it, upon the possibility that 
it may possess some interest for your correspon- 
dents under this head. At p. 373. of this work is 
preserved a memorial, presented in April 1790 to 
the Empress of Russia, by three deputies from the 
Greek nation, in which these words occur : 

** Give us for a sovereign your grandson Constantine ; 
it is the wish of our nation (the family of our emperors is 
extinct), and we shall become what our ancestors were." 

To this Mr. Eton adds the following note : 

** In Europe we are apt to think that those who bear 
the names of Comnenos, Paleologos, &c., are descendants . 
of the imperial family ; the Greeks however, themselves, 
have no such notions ; they are either christian names 
given them at their baptism, or that they have taken 
afterwards, and they only descend to the second genera- 
tion. A man is called Mcolaos Papudopulo ; the former 
is his name received in baptism, and the latter a surname, 
because he was the son of a priest ; his sons take the 
surname of Nicolopulo (son of Nicolaos) added to their 
christian name, and the children the father's christian 
name as a surname. Those of Fanar have, particularly 
lately, affected to keep great names in their families, 
which were only christian names, or names which they 
have taken of themselves, or were afterwards given them 
by their parents, relations, or friends. The same may be 
said of some names in the Archipelago, particularly when 
the family has preserved for some generations more pro- 
perty than their neighbours ; but their names do not add 
to their respect among the other Greeks, who all know 



[No. 272. 

the origin of them, and have not the least notion that 
there is any lineal descent to be traced of their ancient 
imperial or noble families, notwithstanding the pretensions 
often of some of them, who bear their names when they 
come to Europe." — P. 373. 

WiLUAM Bates. 

(V0I.X., p. 185.) 

In the preface to the original folio edition of 
the Life of Edward Earl of Clarendon (Oxford, 
1759), the following passage occurs : 

** The reason why this history has lain so long con- 
cealed, will appear from the title of it, which shows that 
his lordship intended it only for the information of his 
children. Bat the late Lord'Hyde, judging that so faith> 
fhl and authentic an account of this interesting period of 
our history, would be an useful and acceptable present to 
the public, and bearing a grateful remembrance of this 
' place of his education, left by his will this and the other 
remains of his great-grandfather in the hands of trustees, 
to be printed at our press, and directed that the profits 
arising from the sale should be employed towards the es- 
tablishing a riding-school in the uniyersity. But Lord 
Hyde dying before his father, the then Earl of Clarendon, 
the property of these papers never became rested in him, 
and consequently this bequest was void. However, the 
noble heiresses of the Earl of Clarendon, out of their re- 
gard to the public, and to this seat of learning, have been 
pleased to fulfil the kind intentions of Lord Hyde, and 
adopt a scheme recommended both by him and his great- 
grandfatiier.* To this end they have sent to the uni- 
versity this history, to be printed at our press, on con- 
dition that the profits arising from the sale of this work 
be applied as a beginning for a fund for supporting a 
manage, or academy for riding, and other us^ul exer- 
cises, in Oxford.** 

In Gibbon*s Memoirs of his own life, he thus 
alludes to the subject : 

"According to the will of the donor, the profit of the 
second part of Lord Clarendon's history has iMsen applied 
to the establishment of a riding-school, that the polite 
exercises might be taught, I know not with what success, 
in the university." 

Upon this passage Dean Milman makes the 
following remark : 

** See the advertisement to Lord Clarendon*^ ReUffion 
and Policp, published at the Clarendon Press, 1811. It 
appears that the property is vested in certain trustees, 
who have probably found it impracticable to carry the 
intentions of the testator into effect. .1^ as I am informed, 
the riding-school depends in the least on the sale of the 
HeSgion mnd Policy, the university is not likely soon to 
obtain instruction in that useful and manly exercise.** — 
Ed. Mihnan, pp. 83. 86. 

In the advertisement prefixed to the Religion 
and Policy (Oxford, 1811), it is stated that the 
Duehess- Dowager of Queensberry gave the MSS. 
in anestion by deed to Dr. Robert Drummond, 
Archbishop of York, William Earl of Mansfield, 
find Dr. Wilfiam Markham, Bishop of Chester, 

* Ste his Dialogue on Education, 

upon trust for the Hke purposes as those ez- 

?ressed by Lord Hyde in the codicil to his wilL 
t is added that the then present trustees, Wil- 
liam Earl of Mansfield ; John, Lord Bishop of 
London ; the Rt. Hon. Charles Abbot, Speaker of 
the House of Commons ; and the Rev. Dr. Cyril 
Jackson, late Dean of Christ Church, Oxford^ 
having found the MS. of Religion and Policy 
among the Clarendon Papers, have proceeded in 
the execution of their trust to publish it. This 
advertisement, however, affords no explanation of 
the reasons which induced the trustees to abstain 
fr6m taking any steps for performing the condition 
with respect to the establishment of a riding- 
school, upon which the manuscript of the Life of 
Lord Clarendon, and his other papers, were ac- 
cepted by the university. 

It is possible that the profits arisin? from the 
sale of the Life and the other manuscripts, which 
were at the same time presented to the university^ 
were not sufficient to defray > the cost of a riding- 
school ; but it does not appear that any statement 
of the inadequacy of the trust fund for the pre- 
scribed object, or any other explanation of the 
course which they pursued, was ever published by 
the trustees. L. 


(Vol. ix., p. 240,— Additional List,) 

Miller's Church Bells. Words to Ringers. 12mo., 1845. 

Beaufoy*s (S.) Ringer's true Guide. 12mo., 1804. 

Reeve*s Representation of an Irish Ecclesiastical Bell of 
St. Patrick. Fol., Belfest, 1850. 

Orders of the Company of Ringers in Cheapside, &c, 
from Feb. 2, 1603, MS. cxix. in All Souls' Library. 

Lampe de Cymbalis Veterum. 

Laurentius, Collectio de Citharedis, Fistulis, et Tia'> 

Barbosa (D. Aug.), Duo Yota consultiva, unum de Cam-^ 
panis, alterum de Cemetariis. 4to., 1640. (** LibeUns 
rarissimus,** " N. & Q.," Vol ix., p. 310.) 

Quinones (De Johan., D.D.), Specialis Tractatus de 
Campana in villa dicta Yililla in Diocesi CfesaraugustaoA 
in Hispania, 1625. 

Pygius (Albert), Hist Ang. 

August de Herrera, De Pulsatione Campanarum pro 

Laurentius Beyerlink. 

The last four are among those quoted by Bar- 
bosa in his very rare little book, which I had 
not met with when I published the list (Vol. ix., 
p. 240.), for the loan of which I am since indebted 
to the courtesy and kindness of its possessor. 

R. Hospinianus, in his volume (1672) De Tem» 
plis, has an interesting section " De Campania 
et earum Consecratione." This author quotes 
largely from Johan. Beleth, Thos. Nageorgus, 
and Thos. Rorarius, 1570. 

Forster, in his Perennial Ccdendar, p, 616., re- 
fers to a memoir of Reaumur, in Memoirs of tht 
Paris Academy, on the shape of bells.* • 

Jail 13. 1855.] 



M. GhateanlMriaiid, in vol. iii. of his Genie de 
CkrStienisme^ chap. prem. ^ Des Cloches," has 
some beautiful remarks on bells. 

Dionysius Bar. Salibi, in the twelfth century^ 
wrote on bells. This is on the authority of Mr. 
Fletcher, in his Notes on Nineveh. 

Allow me to correct an error in my Note of a 
bell inscribed "Signis cessandis," &c. (Vol. x., 
p. 332.). It is at Claptony not Weston^ in 6or- 

The following Notes on bells and ringing may 
be acceptable to some of the readers of " N. & Q." 

Sermon BeU, — In the injunctions of Edw. VI., 
quoted from Sparrow's CoU, in Crcmmer's Letters^ 
by Parker Society, p. 498. : 

''All ringing and knolling of bells shall be ntterly for- 
borne at that time (Litany, Mass, &c.), except one bell 
in convenient time to be rung or knoUed before the ser- 

Bell-ringing on Allhallows Day, at night, with 
other ceremonies, abolished by a minute of the 
king's letter to Archbishop Cranmer, 1546. (See 
the Letter published by Parker Society, p. 414.) 

Easter Bells, — Bells were never rung during the 
last three days of Passion week (Roccha) ; and on 
Easter Day no bells could be rung before the bells 
of the cathedral or mother church were rung. This 
was settled under Leo X., a.d. 1521, by an order 
of the Lateran Gottncil. The number of bells in 
a parish church was limited to three by a decision 
of Char. Boromeo in the sixteenth century. 

Before the Reformation no layman was allowed 
to be a ringer ; the office was confined to eccle- 
siastics, and it is said they were obliged to per- 
form their office in surplice. If so, it is a proof 
that in those days there could be nothing but 
tolling and chimmg; for it would be dangerous 
and difficult to rir^ in a surplice. And yet, to 
quote from Fosbroke's Ahridgmejit of SmitKs 
Lives of the Berkeley s^ p. 166., there were "good 
rings of bells formerly, because so much employed 
in funerals." At the ceremonial of Lady Isable, 
wife of Mauric Berkely, who died 1520, there is 
the entry, — 

''Item. Ryngyng daily with all the bells continually, 
that is to say, -— 

At St. Michell*s ... xxxiij peles. 

At Trinitie - - - - xxxiij peles. 

At St John's - _ - xxxiij peles. 

At Babyllake, becaose it was so nigh Ivii peles. 

And in the Mother Church the - xxx peles. 

And every pele xiid." 

The peals rung on Christmas Eve or Christmas 
morning were called "the Virgin chimes." 

The ^^ pardon bell" was silenced by Shaxton, 
Bishop of Sarum, in 1538, according to Burnet, 
in his Reformation, book iii. p. 14. : 

<* That the bell cidled the Pardon or Ave Bell, which 
of loDge tyae bathe been used <tQ be tolled thxee tymes 

after and before divine service, be not hereafter in any 
part of my diocesse any more toUyd." 

Query, What was the pardon bell ? 

H. T. Ellacombx* 
Clyst St George. 

I send for insertion a cutting from the old book 
catalogue of John O'Daly (9. Anglesea Street, 
Dublin), thinking it may prove an addition to the 
list of books on the same subject which have al- 
ready appeared in your pages : 

" 47. Bells. Roccha (A Fr. Angelo, Episcopo Taga- 
stensi), de Campania Commentarius, plates, 4to. vellum, 
extremely rare, 5^ EomsB, 1612. 

<* The author of this curious and unique work must be 
an Irishman ; as there is a portion of it devoted to Irish 
bells, and to the powerful efifect produced by the ringing 
of bells in expelling demons ; although there are demons 
that could not be rooted out, had all the bells that ever 
were manufactured and consecrated been rung at their 

Will some of your readers who may have studied 
the subject, and have examined this work, give an 
account of it and its author ? En£vsi» 

Cushendall, Antrim. 


On developing long-excited Collodion Plates. — To ascer- 
tain the limit within which syruped collodion plates will 
give perfect negatives, I have, during the last tmree weeks, 
made a number of experiments with 8^x6^ plates.. The 
mean temperature during that period was 46o, and the 
mean degree of humidity '836. The plates were iodized 
as usual, immersed in a one-grain nitrate-of-silver bath 
for a few seconds, drained, and coated with two doses of 
syrup. It is much better to be a little prodigal of syrup» 
and make sure work with it ; for if it is repeatedly used 
there is great risk, in long-excited plates, of the reduction 
of some of the nitrate of silver it contains, and consequent 
speckling of the negative. I got perfect negative with 
plates kept up to 198 hours ; but, taking the average of 
eight experiments, I should say that 150 hours is about 
the limit, after which there is more or less uncertainty. 
Beyond this time, owing to the hardening of the svrup, 
and its almost total insolubility in the one-grain Wth, 
the negatives were very defective, the image being ex- 
tremely faint, and obscured by a veil of indurated s^Tup^ 
and the plate mottled over with black patches. 

The syrup, after it has been on the plate a short time^ 
consists of two layers ; an outer one, which remains soft 
and hygrometric for a long time, and is soluble in cold 
water; and an inner film next the collodion, a compound 
of s}'rup and nitrate of silver, which is insoluble in cold 
water. This is easily proved by washing the plate in a 
vertical glass bath, when this layer is seen separating in 
bran-like scales, the water mechanically removing it. 
This inner layer, after about 150 hours, becomes adherent 
to the collodion, at first round the margins of the plate, 
then to the whole surface, covering it as with a varnish 
which no amount of washing in cokl water vnll remove. 

Seeing, however, that plates kept long beyond tha 
above periods were still sensitive, yielding images, al- 
though extremely imperfect, I felt satisfied that cxmld 
the indurated syrup be removed,, porfect negatives might 
still be obtaiawL. It occunod to m« that steaming the 



[No. 272. 

plate would probably dissolve this indurated syrup, and 
after a few trials I met with perfect success. 

The following is the method I have pursued'with plates 
which had been excited upwards of ten days before expo- 
sure in the camera ; and you may judge of its success by 
the positives I send (one being from a negative which 
had been kept 271 hours), although I am satisfied that 
the limit to the keeping of plates, with this manipulation, 
extends much beyond that period. 

On removing the plate from the dark slide, immerse it 
m the one-grain bath for five minutes, to remove the 
outer syrup ; drain it ; then hold it, collodion downwards, 
over the steam of boiling water poured into a flat pan, 
for about ten minutes, taking care to keep the plate four 
or five inches from the surface of the water ; the indurated 

rip will gradually be seen to dissolve, and by inclining 
plate the greater part is easily run off any angle you 
choose. Allow the plate to drain and cool ; then remove 
the remaining syrup by gently pouring over it distilled 
water. Having drained the plate, x>our on pyrogallic 
acid (no image appears under this); after a minute or 
two, when the collodion has been well impregnated, pour 
off the pyro. into a glass containing about twenty-five 
minims of a ten-grain nitrate-of-silver solution, and im- 
mediately pour it over the plate ; the image rapidly comes 
out, and may be developed as usual to any extent. With 
some kinds of collodion, or in very cold weather, it may 
be advisable, before using the pyro., either to pour over 
the plate a weak solution of nitrate of silver, or to mix 
the nitrate of silver with the pyro. in the first instance. 
I merely suggest this, having as yet found the method I 
have given quite sufiicient. 

Steaming the plates cleans them so perfectly, and gives 
us such mastery over this method, that it is always better 
they should be so treated, whenever there is the least fear 
that the syrup is indurated. Thos. L. Mansbll. 


CoUodionized Glass Plates^ 8fc. — It is with some con- 
siderable regret that I find myself differing from so expe- 
rienced a photographer as Mr. F. M. Lyte has proved 
kimself. Such however being the case, there is no 
alternative but to give expression to my opinions, or else 
to be silent, and thus tacitly admit the correctness of a 
statement which I can by no means accede to. 

In Mb. Lyte's late communication (Vol. x., p. 511.) he 
states that my preservative process seems to differ in no 
essential point irom his instantaneous one, except that Mb. 
Lyte mixes the nitrate of silver with the syrup, whereas 
I wash off all but a slight trace, and add none to the 
syrup ; and then adds that I am a discoverer quite as in- 
dependent 'as himself, thereby seeming to imply that his 
•riginal object was as much to preserve the sensitiveness 
of the plate as to obtain a more highly exalted condition 
of impressionability. Now, the exception alluded to ap- 
pears to me to be the most essential difference that can 
well be conceived ; and Mr. Lyte says, ** I never leave it 
(the nitrate of silver) out of the syrup as he does, as that 
causes unequal development.** 

That the latter allegation is totally unfounded I can 
most readily prove, having sent eight pictures to the 
forthcoming exhibition that have been thus taken, not 
one of whidi has the fault complained of. 

Moreover, I find from expenence that the addition of 
nitrate of silver to the syrup materially interferes with 
the keeping qualities of the plate thus treated, more 
Mpecially if the weather be at all warm. In Mr. Lyte's 
original process, as published in " N. & Q.'* (Vol. ix., 
p. 670.), the quantity of nitrate of silver there directed 
would certainly spoil the plate in less than twelve hours ; 
the quantity recently adopted is very infinitesimal, but 

the whole process as now given appears to me to be but 
a variation of mine, directions for making grape sugar 
being interpolated. 

That Mr. Lyte was experimenting upon grape sugar, 
honey, &c. simultaneously with myself does not admit of 
a doubt, but his object in using it and tnitte were totally 
different, so far as I can judge by his published state- 
ments. Most assuredly mine was not any exaltation in 
sensibiUtifj but preservation of what it had, either entirely 
or partially ; and in this research I was not indebted to 
any one for a single hint, beyond what I have already 
stated as due to Messrs. Spiller and Crooke, viz. that of 
exciting the plate first and preserving it afterwards. 

With regard to the efficacy of the formula I last save 
(Vol. X., pp. 372. 452.), I may state that, on the 30th of 
last November, I excited and preserved six plates for 
small stereoscopic negatives, and was only able to use 
four of them on that day, and from press of business had 
no opportunity of using the remaining two until Decem- 
ber 28, exactly /our weeks from the time of exciting. I 
did not develope the pictures until twelve hours after 
exposure, yet the result is most satisfactory, being per- 
fectly dense pictures and most evenly developed. 

In conclusion, I cannot but express my regret that I 
am thus obliged to appear in an antagonistic position 
with Mb. Lyte, possibly in consequence of some mis- 
apprehension on my part as to his meaning, or some oyer- 
sensitiveness to an implied plagiarism. 

Gbobgb Shadbolt. 

^tplM to Minor ^uttiti. 

The biographical dictionary of living atUhors 
(Vol. xi., p. 17.). — The late Mr. Frederick Sho- 
berl, printer to his royal highness prince Albert, 
printed three volumes under my inspection — all 
for private distribution. The last volume was the 
memoirs of my friend Mr. Raimbach, which was 
completed in 1843. I continued, however, to call 
on Mr. Shoberl from time to time till almost the 
close of his short career. 

I there sometimes met his father, Mr. Frederic 
Shoberl, and on one of those occasions the con- 
versation turned on the National Benevoi^ent 
Institution. "I gave my votes," said I, "in favour 
of Watkins, the author of the Biographical dic- 
tionary *' — " and of the Biographical dictionary 
of living authors,^ added Mr. Shoberl senior. 
*♦ What I was he the author of that work ?" So 
far I can report our colloquy almost verbatim^ but 
must now have recourse to narrative. Mr. Sho- 
berl proceeded to assure me, in presence of his 
son, that the work was written by Watkins as far 
as the letter F — that some dispute with the pub- 
lisher then arose — that the materials were there- 
fore handed over to himself — and that he com- 
pleted the work as it now appears. 

Mr. Upcott may have contributed biographical 
cuttings, as he told me that he had made a collec- 
tion of such materials, but in the Catalogue of the 
library of the London Institution the work was 
entered by himself as anonymous, 

A list of the works written, revised, translated, 
or edited by Mr. Shoberl would equal in extent 

Jan. 13. 1855.] 



any one to be found in his own volume. The 
first is dated in 1800 ; the last, I believe, in 1850. 
As it is in few hands, I subjoin the title of it : 

"The patriot father; an historical play, in five acts. 
Freely translated from the German of Augustus von 
Kotzebue by Frederic Shoberl. London: printed for 
private circulation only, [by F. Shoberl junior] 1860." 
8vo. pp. 66. 

Bolton Cornet. 

''^Political Register,*^ — Your correspondent P. 
R. (Vol. X., p. 492.), after declaring, " the writers 
in it are not known to me, and to speculate on 
the subject would occupy too much of your 
space," concludes by stating "Wilkes was cer- 
tainly a contributor." How is this apparent in- 
consistency to be explained ? or is this merely a 
random assertion, resting on no other ground than 
the attention (not unnatural, looking at the cir- 
cumstances of the time and the character of the 
publication) which the Political Register paid to 
Mr. Wilkes' affairs ? C. Ross. 

Irish Newspapers (Vol. x., p. 473.). — Your 
correspondent Wiixiam John Fitzpatbick, 
Monkstown, Dublin, states that " the Public Re- 
gister or FreemarCs Journal appeared on Satur- 
day, Sept. 10, 1763. Saunders sprang into vitality 
almost simultaneously with the Freeman^ but is 
I believe its junior." 

As I know the character of "N. & Q." to be to 
elicit facts, I have to state that No. 13. of the ori- 
ginal of Saunders's News Letter is in my posses- 
sion, styled Esdaile's News Letter^ bearing date 
Wednesday, February 5, 1745. 

In 1754, Henry Saunders, printer, became pro- 

Erietor, and changed the name, calling it after 
imself, as his predecessor had done. At this 
period it was published three times a week. 
^ In 1777 it became a daily paper, and has con- 
tinued so ever since; having now attained the 
greatest amount of circulation ever enjoyed by 
any daily pajjer in Ireland. These are facts which 
cannot be gainsayed, and I authenticate them with 
my signature. H. B. 


The Belfast News Letter would appear to be 
the oldest of the existing Irish newpapers (pro- 
vincial or other). It was established in the year 
1737. For many years it was published twice, 
it is now published thrice a week. 

Joseph Wabbin Dobbin, A.M. 

7. Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn. 

Fleniin^s in England (VoL x., p. 485.). — 
M.D. is mformed that many Flemings came to 
England with William the Conqueror, more in 
HeniT I.*8 time, and many as mercenaries, to help 
the If orman barons to hold their grants against 
the Welsh. That the chief authoritieg for the 

above are, William of Malmesbury, book v.; 
Giraldus Cambrensis, book xi. ; Leland, torn. viii. ; 
Holinshed, vol. ii. ; Camden, p. 154., and p. 652. 
folio edition ; George Owen and Hoveden, to 
which one or two others may be added. Wil- 
liam the Conqueror's queen was Countess of 

As to names, if M. D. would favour Welsh 
archaeologists with some of the more ancient 
Flemish names, could they be communicated by a 
native of Flanders, it might be of service to them, 
living as they do among the descendants of the 
Flemish, who were collected together from the 
more fertile provinces of England, where they are 
said to have "swarmed" to the no little discontent 
of his nobles, and drafted into South Wales by 

Of the names mentioned by M. D., most of them 
seem to be of Norman origin. Kemp and Vayle 
are conjectured to be Flemish, and are found still 
in South Wales. The result of inquiries after 
names and customs in Flanders would be gratify- 
ing. GlX^BEBT PE Bois. 

Saint TeUant (Vol x., pp. 265. 514.). — Db. 
Rock is quite right as to the sex of St. Tellant ; 
the feminine termination given at p. 265. being an 
error of the press. He is, however, mistaken in 
supposing that I imagined him to be a Flemish 
samt. mj Query was as to the probability of the 
tradition, which gives the bell a Spanish origin, 
containing any shadow of truth. It has been 
made clear that it does not, the inscription refer- 
ring to a Welsh saint. Sbleucus. 

Col. Maceroni (Vol. x., p. 153.). — In answer 
to the Queries of D. W. S., I believe there is not 
any account excepting the Memoir by himself. I 
believe him to have been far more Italian than 
English. I believe the name Maceroni not to be 

In the summer of 1814, dining at the table of a 
German friend at Naples, I was startled by some- 
thing icy cold touching my neck ; and found it to 
be a snake, winding about the back of my chair, 
which was immediately removed by the party next 
to me, who put it into his hat, and apologised to 
me for the annoyance : this gentleman was intro- 
duced to me as Signer Maceroni. My inquiries 
regarding him established to my belief that his 
mother was English and hb father Italian ; his 
own manners gave the impression of Italian 
suavity, enlivened by French vivacity ; he spoke 
both lan^a^es fluently, and without the accent 
or peculiarities that generally characterise the 
natives of either country, when speaking the lan- 
guage of the other ; his English was perfect, but 
spoken with a flippancy ver^ unusual in a native 
Englishman, which he certainly was not. During 
my stay at Naples, we became rather intimate ; I 



[No. 272. 

found him to be a most amusing compaoion, full 
of anecdote and varied information; but our careers 
lay widelj separate, and I never saw him after- 
wards. It is too true that he was very badly off 
when he wrote his Memoirs, and that he died 
after many years of misery — a disappointed and 
ruined man — in spite of energy and talent, that 
ought to have commanded an abundance of this 
world's goods, and the respect of his cotempo- 
raries. J. K. 


Origin of the Terms ''Whig" and ''Tory" 
(Vol. X., p. 482.). — Rapin the historian's able 
Dissertation sur les Whigs et les Torys, 1717, con- 
tains the following passage : 

" Les partisans du Roi farent d'abord nommez Cava- 
liers, nom qui a 4t4 change depuis, en celui de Torys. 
Ceax du Parlement, qu'on appelU d'abord THes Rotuies, 
ont recii, ensuite, le nom de Whigs. Yoici Torigine de 
ces deux demiers noms de Totyg et de Whigs. On ap- 
pelloit, en ce terns 1^ Torysy certains brigands ou bandits 
d'Irlande qui se tenoient sur les montagnes, ou dans les 
isles que forment les vastes marais de ce pais-lk. On les 
nomme, k present, Rapperies. Comme les ennemis du Roi 
raccusoient de favoriser la rebellion d'Irlande, qui ^lata 
dans ce m§me terns, ils donn^rent i ses partisans le nom 
de Torgs. D*un autre c6t^ ceux-ci, pour rendre la pa- 
reille k leurs ennemis, qui ^toient ^troitement unis avec 
les Ecossois, leur doon^rent le nom de Whias, qui ^toit 
oeloi qu*on donnoit en Ecossekune sembable esp^ de 
bandits. H paroit, par la, que ces deux noms sont aussi 
anciens que les comraencemens des troubles, et n^anmoins, 
ils ne sont venus k la mode que plusieurs ann^ apr^s. 
Je ne saurois dire pr^cis^ment en quel terns ; mais il me 
semble, que les noms de Cavaliers et de THes Rondes ont 
dnr^ jusqu'au r^tablissement de Charles II., et qu'ensuite, 
peu-4-peu, ceux de Torys et de Whigs ont pris leur place. 
Ce sont ces deux partis qui ont commence k diviser I'An- 
gleterre du tems de Charles I., et qui la divisent encore 

In this work I find the (to me) first application 
of the terms now in common use, "ultra (autrez) 
and "moderate" (moderez) to political parties. Is 
there an earlier example of the employment of 
those words in this sense ? C. Roes. 

BeU-childe (Vol. x., p. 508.). — With no pre- 
tension to legal knowledge, or acquaintance with 
old terms, but from a mere common view of the 
word in question, I should say it meant son-in-law, 
from beau-jus, or hel-ef^wnt, F. CL H. 

SedU, Books relating to (Vol. x., p. 485.). — In 
reply to your correspondent for books on seals, 
I woold beg to recommend him to ITte Catalogue 
of Ancient Scottish Seais, by F. Laing, Edinburgh, 
4to. {dates, 1850, as the latest work on l^e subject. 

Many valuable remarks are to be found in the 
Tsrious publications of the Society of Antiquaries 
and the different ArcfasBcdogical Institutes ; but as 
an entire work on the subject, Laii^*8 Ancient 
SeaU is much esteemed by those ooorasant witk 

the matter. It is, I believe, the onl^ one that 
fully treats of it. It gives an interestmg, though 
brief, account of the art of engraving and the use 
of seals, as well as descriptions of above 1200. 

In Ruddiraan*s Introduction to Anderson's 
Diplomata Scotia are some interesting notes on 
seals ; and the fine work of Les Sceaux des Comtes 
de Flandres may be consulted with advantage ; as 
also Natter's Traite de graver en pierre fine, and 
Tassie*s Catalogue of Gems. But these works, 
and many others equally valuable, treat the sub- 
ject more specially as one of the fine arts, than in 
' the official character which most of the mediaeval 
seals assume ; and it is, I presume, this view your 
correspondent takes. Signet. 

Your correspondent Adrian Adninan will find 
some assistance upon an examination of the un- 
dermentioned books, viz. : 

1. ** Astle's Account of the Seals of the Kings, Royal 
Boroughs, and Magnates of Scotland. Folio. 1792." 

2. ** Lewis's Dissertations on the Antiquity and Use of 
Seals in England. Small 4to. 1740." 

3. ** Laing*s Descriptive Catalogue of Impressions from 
Ancient Scottish Seals, Royal, Baronial, Ecclesiastical, 
and Municipal; embracing a Period from a.d. 1094 to 
the Commonwealth Taken from Original Charters and 
other Deeds preserved in Public and Private Archives. 
4to. * Only one hundred and fifty Copies printed for 
Sale.' 1850." 

T. G. a 


I can help your correspondent Adninan to the 
titles of a few works, in which he will find numerous 
engravings of seals, viz. Sandford*s Oenealogicai 
Hist, of England ; Laing*s Catalogue of the Scot" 
Hsh Seals; Trisor de Numismatique (a very fine 
work) ; Uredius' SigiUa Comitum Flandria ; 
D*Anisy, Recueil de Sceaux Normands et Anglo' 
Normands, Z. z. 

The Schoolmen (Vol. x., p. 464.). — In reply to 
your Querist J. F., I beg to say that the best way 
m which he can satisfy himself will be to read, on 
any point of Theology which may be most interest- 
ing to him, some one or more of the Schoolmen. 

The first Schoolman is Peter Lombard, Bishop 
of Paris, who compiled the Sentences, i, e. the 
" decisions " of the Fathers. This great work is 
the foundation of all the scholastic writings. Our 
own Alexander of Hales, the Doctor Irrefragabilia, 
in whom I have also read, is one of those who 
followed and amplified the master of the Sentences, 
St Thomas Aquinas, the Doctor Angelicus, did 
the same thin^, leaving an authority and a repu- 
tation behind him whidi perhaps no other writer 
since the Fathers has obtained. Your corre- 
spondent wiU find, to hia great satisfaction, and 
probably to his surprise, that those questions 
n^ch, in aamaum a&d unlearned talk, «re daily 

Jan. 13. 1855.] 



ventilated at dinner parties, religious or ordinary, 
all over England, have been seized upon, perfectly 
analysed, and set at rest, ages ago, by "the 
Schoolmen.*' I particularly recommend to him, 
for example, the Decalogue, in our countryman 
Alexander of Hales. D. P. 


J. F. does not state what branch of the School 
philosophy he wishes to study. If it be ethical 
philosophy, he cannot have a more favourable 
initiation into ethics than in the Secunda SecundcB 
of the Summa of St. Thomas Aquinas. I cannot 
boast of having read tlie Summa through ; but 
I use it for constant reference, and scarcely ever 
rise from its perusal without the acquisition of 
some new idea, or a suggestion of some new 
trains of thought. The angelic doctor certainly 
not only compiles but thinks, and they who enter 
into his full discussions of every subject will be 
constrained to think too. If J. F. is in earnest 
about studying the Schoolmen, I venture to recom- 
mend him especially to commence with the Secunda 
SecundcB. Some previous knowledge of Aristotle's 
method and style is desirable. 


Alton, Staffordshire. 

Sandbanks (Vol. x., p. 508.). — The force of 
gravitation which brings down the silt irom a 
river is opposed at or near its mouth by another 
force, that of the tide of the estuary or sea into 
which such river flows. Where these two coun- 
teracting forces meet, the sediment contained in 
the river-water settles and forms a bar across the 
river's mouth, and sandbanks beyond it, the op- 
position of the two streams (river versus tide) 
producing quiescence and facilitating the deposit 
of which sandbanks are composed. These sand- 
banks, the origin of deltas, are deserving of close 
attention, as their accretion constitutes a natural 
chronometer, wherebv the age of the river itself 
may be aj^proximately estimated, by ascertaining 
tiie quantity of deposit accumulated in a given 
time, and therefrom inferring the ratio of the time 
of the aggregate accumulation of the whole sand- 
bank. T. J. BUCKTON. 

Brasses restwed (Vol. x., p. 535.). — Would 
Mb. Richardson or W. W. oblige me by giving 
the composition of the ball, which being rubbed 
npon black paper, placed over an engraved brass, 
pvodtioes a perfect fac-simile, and the metallic 
appearance of the original, or say where it can be 
purchased ? Sob. 

Clog Tobacco-pipes (VoL ix., p. 872. ; VoL x., 
m. 23. 48. 21 L). — I have the bowls of two clay to- 
Mcco-pipes of very small size and peculiar shape ; 
■ftnuigely enough, they were both found in churoh- 

yards in this county (Somerset), within Ave miles 
of each other ; they are cast in the same mould, 
and have on the heel the potter's name impressed, 
*'iBFFEY HVNT." The Small size of the bowl, 
and the use of v for u in the stamp, point to some 
antiquity. Perhaps some reader of " N. & Q." 
who may be acquainted with the time and place 
at which Jeflry Hunt exercised his useful caUing, 
will communicate a note thereon. 

Arthur Paget. 

Churches dedicated to St Pancras (Vol. x., 
p. 508.). — Z. asks for the localities of the twelve 
churches dedicated in honour of St. Pancras. 
Here are eight of them ; some other correspondent 
can probably supply the others. 

Exeter ----- Devon. 
Widecomb-in-the-Moor - - Devon. 
Pancrasweek - - - - Devon. 
Chichester - - - - Sussex, 
Wroot ----- Lincolnshire. 
Coldred - - - - * Kent- 
London, St. Pancras, New Road - Middlesex. 
Do. St. Pancras, Soper Lane 
(incorporated with St. Mary-le- 
Bow) ----- Middlesex. 

The best representation of St. Pancras I have met 
with is in the magnificent brass of Prior Nelond 
at Cowfold in Sussex : he is drawn with a youth- 
ful countenance, holding a book and a palm branch, 
and treading on a human figure, probably intended 
ibr one of his pagan persecutors. Norris Dbgk. 

Your correspondent Z. states, that there are 
twelve churches in England dedicated to St. Pan- 
cras, and wishes to know where they may be 
found. I suppose he has some authority for the 
specific number which he has mentioned, although 
he has not informed us of it. I send you the fd- 
lowing list comprising ten^ which are all that I can 
discover, but probably some other correspondent 
may be able to supply the other two. 

Alton Pancras - • - - Dorset. 

Arlington ----- Sussex. 

Chich«st«r - - - - - Sussex. 

Coldred Kent 

Exeter - « - . • Devon. 

London, Soper Lane ... Middlesex. 

St Pancras ..... Middlesex. 

Pancrasweek - - - - Devon. 

Widecome-in-the-Moor - - Devon. 

Wroot - . - - • Lincein. 

F.B— w, 

[Our correspondents have overlooked the old St Pan- 
eras Church, near Kentish Town.] 

Oxford Jeu cT Esprit (Vol. x., pp. 364. 431.).— 
In a copy of Johannis Oilpini iter, latine reddUum^ 
in my possession, I find a MS. note, referring 
the authorship either to Robert Lowe, of Mag- 
dalen College ; or to John Caswdl, of New Inn 
HaU. That note was inserted on the authority of 



[No. 272. 

an ex-Fellow of Oriel College, and a first- class- 
man in Literis Humanioribus of Michaelmas Term, 
1833. I am still unacquainted with the name of 
the author of the Rime of the New-made Bac- 
calere, G. L. S. 

Song of (he Cuckoo (Vol. x., p. 524.). — Uneda 
refers to an old rustic and nursery rhyme, of 
which there are several slightly varying editions. 
That of my early recollections ran thus : 

" The cuckoo is a merry bird, 

She sings as she flies ; 
She brings us good tidings. 

She tells us no lies. 
She sucks little birds' eggs 

To make her voice clear ; 
And when she sings 'cuckoo* 

The summer is near." 

May I be allowed to refer Uicbda to a paper of 
mine on the subject, published in Bohn's recent 
edition (edited by Mrs. Howitt) of Aikins' Calendar 
of Nature. Caroline Catherime Lucas. 


« Nag'' and « Knagg'' (Vol. x., pp. 29. 172.).— 
Are there not good and sufficient reasons for be- 
lieving these to be the same word, differently 
written, and to be diflferent forms of gnaw for 
hnaw ; in Ang.-Sax. Gnag^an, in Ger. Nagenf 
Todd tells us, that **Anaw" is "sometimes written 
for gnsiwy The interchange of k and g is com- 
mon ; so is the change of the guttural g into u or w, 
Todd gives no examples of " Anaw." Richardson 
has three : from Chaucer, Sir Thomas More, and 
North's Translations of Plutarch. 

To keep gnawing or hna^ging at a bone ; to fret 
or eat into by contmued biting, by repeated trials, 
is a literal explanation from which aQ our conse- 
quent metaphorical usages seem easily to derive. 



Sir Henry Johnes (Vol. x., p. 445.).— J. P.O.'s 
Query is truly " the voice of one crying in the 
wilderness," for, like many another traveller on the 
same road, he has lost his way in the thicket of a 
Welsh genealogy. I will endeavour, under cor^ 
recttoUf to restore him to the right track. Both 
Burke and Courthope, in their Extinct Baronetages^ 
proceed upon the assumption that there was but 
one Sir Henry Johnes, Bart., of Albemarlis ; that 
he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Salis- 
bury, Knt., and widow of John Salisbury, Esq., of 
KAg, and that by her he left no issue, whereby the 
baronetcy became extinct. Now, it is perfectly 
clear to my mind that this is an error, for there 
were, beyond doubt, at least two Sir Henries, 
Baronets, of Albemarlis ; consequently the first 
Sir Henry must have left male issue, by one or 
other of his wives, Miss Salbbury or Elizabeth 
Herbert, for it appears to be quite certain he was 

twice married. Elizabeth Johnes, who was married 
to Sir Francis Cornwallis, Knight, was one of two 
daughters of the second Sir Henry Johnes, Bart., 
by Margaret, his wife, daughter and coheiress of Sir 
Henry Williams, Bart., of Gwernevet, as is expressly 
stated in Burke's General Armoury, Magdalen 
and Priscilla, who, as J. P. O. states, were married 
to the brothers Stepney, were daughters, as I con- 
ceive, of the^r*^ Sir ELenry Johnes, by Miss Her- 
bert ; whereas Magdalen, who became the wife of 
Sir Anthony (not Sir Price) Rudd, of Aberglassny, 
was in all probability a niece of these ladies, a 
sister of Lady Cornwallis, and, by the same token, 
daughter and coheiress of the second Sir Henry 
Johnes, Bart., of Albemarlis. I cannot discover 
when either of the baronets Johnes died ; indeed, 
neither Burke nor Courthope state when the 
baronetcy became extinct. If J. P. O. knows 
where the family generally were buried, a reference 
to the monumental inscriptions or parochial regis- 
ters would set the matter at rest. 

As I stated at the onset, I have advanced these 
remarks entirely under correction, and it is there- 
fore quite possible that I may be wrong upon some 
points ; yet, in the main, I trust and believe mj 
reasoning will prove correct. As Sir Francis 
Cornwallis was styled of Albemarlis, at least as 
early as 1710, I conclude the baronetcy became 
extinct sometime previous to that date. 

T. Hughes. 


Battledoor (Vol. x., p. 432.). — Thanks for the 
answer to my Query. Now as to the derivation of 
the word. It can scarcely be from hattoir, the 
name both of the washing beetel and the toy ; but 
Alberti gives " Battoir,grosse palette avec laquelle 
on bat la lessive ! ** and on bat Teau also ; thercf 
fore may not our word have been originally "battre 
d*eau ?** It is curious that, instead of adopting the 
name of the implement and the toy, we should 
have made a longer and a meaningless name for 
ourselves. In the case quoted from Annals of 
Cambridge^ the implement was doubtless used to 
prevent infection by handling the clothes of per- 
sons who had the plague ; the hint might be tik&n 
in the present day. F. 0. B. 


Ahelardand the " Damnamus*' (Vol. x., p. 485.). 
— See Berengarius, " Apologet. contra B. Ber- 
nardum,** &c. m 0pp. Abalard., 4to., Paris, 1616, 
p. 305. But it was never intended as a serious 
narrative. C. P. E. 

Novel in Manuscript and the " Sea Otter.^ — 
(Vol. vii., p. 130. ; Vol. x., p. 465.). — In answer 
to the Queries of your correspondent William 
DuANE, of Philadelphia, I have gone over the 
principal part of "Lloyd's List" for the year 1809, 
and can find no such ship as the "Sea Otter/* 

Jan. 13. 1855.] 



Captain Niles, named therein, either arriving at 
any port, sailing from anywhere, or even any 
notice taken of her loss in the list of shipping 
disasters, from August to December in that year, 
llie " Sea Otter," if there was such a ship, did 
not belong to the port of London, for a friend of 
mine has kindly searched the books in the Custom 
House here, from 1805 to 1811, and no such name 
of vessel appears : separate books are kept at the 
Customs here for the various out- ports, so per- 
haps all hope ma^ not yet be lost to your corre- 
spondent of finding her out. As no mention is 
made of such a vessel in Lloyd's List, as far as I 
can see, I am inclined to think it is a fictitious 
name,— could it be " Swallow," badly written ? ^ I 
have seen two or three vessels of that name regis- 
tered. Is the year correct ? J. S. A. 
Old Broad Street. 

Does a Circle round the Moon foretell had 
Weather f (Vol. x., p. 463.).-— Among the people 
of Scotland a " hrrigh about the moon " has been 
long considered as betokening a change of weather, 
usually to wet; and from observation it will in 
most cases be found to hold true. The hrugh or 
fog is supposed to be caused by the atmosphere 
being charged with moisture ; and the longer and 
deeper the circle the more chance of copious rain. 
Dr. Jamieson, s. v, , says, " a hazy circle round the 
disk of the sun or moon, generally considered as a 
presage of a change of weather, is called a hrugh 
or hrogh" That however, as regards the sun, does 
not appear to have popularly settled down with the 
same strength of prognostication, G. N. 

I beg to inform W. W. that, in the opinion of 
country people, a circle round the moon always 
portends rain ; and if very large, the fall of rain 
will be very great. It is considered an indication 
of much rain, rather than stormy weather. This 
was first pointed out to me when I was a child, 
by a gentleman who was a great observer of these 
natural signs ; and my own observation since has 
convinced me of its truth. H. J. 


What is Amontillado Sherry f (Vol. ix., p. 474.). 
— I do not see that any of your correspondents 
has given what I believe to be the correct account 
of this curious wine. The peculiar flavour is 
caused by a process of fermentation, over which 
the growers have no control, and for which they 
cannot account. Sometimes only one or two 
butts in a vintage will be affected, and in other 
years none at all. Those which some mysterious 
influence designs for Amontillado, produce a kind 
of vegetable weed after having been put in the 
cask; it is long and stringy, like some of our 
fresh-water weeds, but with very fine fibres, and 
bears a very minute white flower. Immediately 
after shedding these flowers, the whole plant dies 

away, and never again appears, but it leaves that 
peculiar flavour. I have had this description po- 
sitively stated and verified by those who have vi- 
sited the Spanish wine districts : and in Chamheri 
Edinhnrgh Journal I remember reading the same ; 
the exact reference I cannot give, but it was before 
August, 1852. I have looked over the indices 
since, and think it must be one of those articles 
which bears no relation to its title ; a very bad 
habit, which prevents an index being of any use. 


Artificial Ice (Vol. x., p. 414.). — I had in- 
tended myself to have called attention to the mis- 
apprehension of my Query on this subject. W. J. 
Bernhard Smith is quite right as to what I alluded 
to. I understood, however, when making inquiries 
upon the subject, that the surface was smoothed 
by being rubbed with wet cloths. This was in 
answer to my question as to whether it would be 
necessary to roof over any place laid with the com- 

I>osition. This, joined to its being then a patent, 
ed me to think no more of it at the time ; but I 
am now anxious to find out the composition, and 
therefore beg to renew my Query. What was the 
substance exhibited under the nameof artificial ice 
for skating on at the Egyptian Hall and Baker- 
street Bazaar, many years ago ? I. P. O. 

" The Modem Athens'' (Vol. x., p. 525.).— The 
manuscript entry referred to by our Editor, 
assigns the wrong Christian name to the author of 
this work. The Modem Athens was written by 
the late Mr. Rohert Mudieii' author of The British 
Naturalist ; Guide to the Ohservation of Nature ; 
and of many other popular works on Natural 
History and other subjects. C. Forbes. 


Quotation for Verification (Vol. x., p. 464.). — 
'* Son of the morning, whither art thou gone ? 
Where hast thou hid thy many-spangled head 
And the majestic menace of thine eyes, 
Felt from afar?" 
This passage is from Blair*8 Grave, lines 134—137 ; 
but the last word of the first line is " gone," not 
" fled," as given by AV. Eraser. The poem being 
in blank verse, a rhyme here would be a fault. 

An Old Bengal Civilian some time since 
(Vol. v., p. 137.) informed us, that the phrase 
" Son of the Morniqg," in Childe Harold, cant. 2. 
stanza 3., is an oriental expression for " traveller," 
in allusion to their early rising to avoid the heat 
of the sun ; but, however applicable this interpre- 
tation may be to the passage in Childe Harold, 
the phrase can hardly, I think, bear this sense in 
the lines from Blair. Can any of your readers 
say what it means here ? The context seems to 
refer it to Alexander the Great. E. L. N. 



[No. 272. 



King's FcmmhleU, — The frequenters of the reading 
rooms of the British Mnseam were gratified, at the re- 
opening of the library this week, by the appearance of 
nine huge folio volumes labelled *'Eang*s Pamphlets." 
Tim is not a catalogue, however, of the splendid collection 
of pamphlets, .about 40,000 in number, which generally 
pass under this name — ** the most valuable set of docu- 
ments,*' says Thomas Carlyle, " connected with English 
history." The new catalogue we speak of represents some 
20,000 pamphlets belonging to the royal library, which 
were presented to the nation more than thirty years ago, 
but whose existence was made known to the public only 
on Tuesday last. They were disinterred by Mr. Panizzi, 
and, we understand, a catalogue was made of them fifteen 
years ago, but chiefly for the use of the librarians. This 
catalogue has been revised and recopied, and is now ac- 
cessible to the public. The collection contains all the 
most important pamphlets written during the reign of 
George 111. on trade, commerce, finance, administration, 
and politics generally. It embraces also an immense 
number of tracts, placards, statutes, &c., in Dutch and 
French, having reference to Spanish rule in the Nether- 
lands. To Mr. Panizzi's energy the public is indebted 
for the banquet thus set before it. The old collection of 
King's Pamphlets, known to bibliographers as the Tho- 
mason Collection, was made during the reign of Charles I. 
and the Commonwealth. After experiencing a variety of 
vicissitudes, it was purchased by George III., who pre- 
sented it to the British Museum library. It is catalogued, 
in manuscript, in twelve small volumes folio. On the 
fly leaf of the first volume is written, — " Actions that 
may be presidents to posteritie ought to have their re- 
cords : and doe merit a most usefull preservation." l^e 
tracts are entered according to their sizes. A distinct 
catalogue, alphabetically arranged, is much required for 
this most invaluable historical collection. 

Mr. Peter Cunningham, by the publication of the third 
volume of his edition of Johnson^ s Lives of Ihe Poets, has 
brought to a close his many years' labours on these cele- 
brate biographies. The present volume, like its prede- 
cessors, contains not only evidence of the great pains 
which the editor has taken to do justice to the labours of 
Johnson, but also much curious illustration of the accu- 
racy of Johnson in cases where his accuracy has been 
doubted, and also some curious instances of the shrewd- 
ness of his conjectures in the absence of positive know- 
ledge. Thus when Johnson says, ** To read Euatathius, 
of whose work there was then no Latin version, I suspect 
Pope, if he had been willing, not to have been able," 
Mr. Cunningham shows how well founded is the suppo- 
sition by the following note : ** « All the crime that I have 
committed is saying that he is no master of Greek ; and I 
am so confident of this, that if he can translate ten lines 
of Eustathius, I'll own myself unjust and unworthy.* — 
Brome to Fenton, 16th June, 1727 (unpublished Letter in 
Mr. Croker's possession)." It is by such apposite notes as 
this, and by the free use of unpublished materials, ori- 
ginal letters, &c., of which he has been fortunate enough 
to procure many well suited to his purpose, that Mr. Cun- 
ningham has succeeded in making his book, what we 
believe it will long continue to be, l£e standard edition of 
Johnson's Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets, 

Mr. Bentley, encouraged we presume by the success 
which has attended his cheap editions of rrescott's his- 
torical writings, has determined to make a monthly issue, 
in a cheap yet beautifpUy^ printed form, of many of the 
valuable copyright works of which he is the proprietor. 

The first of these Monthly Volumes of Standard and Po- 
pular Modem Literature (for so the series is to be entitled) 
is the first of that amusing and popular bit of gosaipiii^^ 
history, Jesse's Court of England under the Reign, of the 
StuartSf a work undertaken to supply — in some measave^ 
and so far as the period to which it refers — the want of 
those anecdotical memoirs in which the French are so 
rich. And although the book may want somewhat of the 
freshness, quaintness, and, so to speak, the unity of any 
one of these, it of course has on the other hand the ad- 
vantages which ought to attend all selections, of consist- 
ing of good things only ; so that for a wet day in the 
country, a long evening at home, or a long ride by rail, 
Jesse's Court of Enaland under the StuartSf in its new 
and cheap form, will be found an admirable companion. 

Books Received. — Knowledge is Power; a Vtew of 
the Productive Forces of Modem Societg, and the Results 
of Labour, Capital, and Skill, by Charles Knight, — an 
expansion and adaptation to the more advanced views of 
the present day of Mr. Knight's popular and most tisefiil 
volumes, The Results of Machinery, and CapitcU and 

Gibbon* s Rome, toith Variorum Notes. Volume SixA ~~ 
Bohn's British Classics. In announcing the extension of 
this edition to seven volumes, Mr. Bohn promises that the 
seventh shall contain *' an Index more circumstantial and 
complete than any heretofore published." 

The Ecclesiastical History of Sozomen, and <Ae JScelesi" 
astical History of Philostorgius, translatai from the Greek, 
by Edward Walford, is the new issue of Mr. Bohn's Ec- 
cUsiastical Library, and is another of his claims to the 
support of those who wish to see knowledge made accessible 
to all. 

James* Life of Richard Cceur-de-Lion, in Two YolumeSy 
which forms the issue of Bohn*s Standard Library for the 
present month, is one of the most popular of Mr. James* 
historical biographies. 

Fly Leaves. The Second Series fully justifies what we 
said of its predecessors, viz., that it is a fitting companion 
for Davis's Olio, and other works of that kind, prized by, 
because useful to all bibliographers. 



Ibicon OF JoHir Bbtbvhb, thb Sootch Fobt. By hifl bantiMr, Alex- 
ander Bethune. 

Intbodoctory Essat ow Enolish Histort, prefixed to ** Live* of fhft 
Stateflmen of the Commonwealth," by John Fonter, Eeq. Xioiigiiuui 
ft Co. 

Cawood'b Sbrmons. 2 Vols. Svo. 



18 Vol. Edition. 
LfooLDSBT Lbobnm. Yol. I. Fintt Edition. 
SooiBTT or Arts' Joormal. No. 39. YoL L, and TShe, fiS. 51. Ik fiC 

Yol. H. 
Turn Etbbt Man'i MAOABnra for 1770 and 1771. 

•«* Letterfl, stating particulars and lowest prloe« earriatfe frmt to bs 
sent to MRrBau, Publisher of ** NOTES ANlTaOBi^DSS.** 
188. Fleet StreetT^ -«*-«. 

Partionlars of Price, fte. of the following Books to be tent dinet to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whoee nomee ond ed- 
dresses are giy^n for that purpose : 

Ombuit's Handbook of Cbbiciitrt. 
Cavbndub Sooibtt. All the Yols. published. 

Wanted by Bev. Frederick Smithe, Churchdown, OioIteiiluHn. 

Ai«TrAx.n7M BccLBSiAsncoRUM POST Baronivm, aoctoro Abr. Bsorfoh 
TomusXY. Colon. A«r- About 1610. 

Wanted by Rev. Dr. Todd, Librarian of Trinity OoUeffe, Dnblla. 

Jan. 13. 1855.] 


Orbat Exhibition ; Poetical Bhapsody. Fearce, Sheffield. 
Dr. Commino on tbb Qrsat ExBiBiTiorr. Shaw. 
HiooiNson's KoH-i-KooR. FietTman and Nixon. 


Nbw ExammoM. Cooper, Quebec Street. . . ^ , ^ „ . ^ 

Cbystax. PAI.ACB ; a Sketch. Square. Christian Knowledge Society. 

J. H. Martin*! Odb in CoautBMORATioN or Grxat Exbibttion. 

MmiNos ON TBB ExBXBmoN, by Gray of Idoy. Gilchrirt. 

IiONOBBS BT l*Expo«ition. DurT. 

Mrs. Bkbwbr's Limbs on Gathbrino of tbb Nations. 

Nbw Map of London, with Abbanobmbnts of Crtstax. Pax.acb. 

Kbllt's Exhibition Goide. English Ec^ition. Kent. 

Ooodb's Sbrmon, '* What have thbt bbbn in Tht Hoosb ?" 8vo. 

Crtbtai. Labyrinth : a Pnzzle. 1851. Ackexmann. 


Tbboiaoy and Moralitt of Exhibition. 6d. Painter. . j . 

Threb Cards, in Gbrman, French, and English. Lithographed in 

Gold by C. J. Smith ^ ^ . 

Paulcb of G1.A88 AND THE CiTT OF Gou>. Wertheim. 
A Loyal Stansa : Jambs Prior. Bath. 
Exhibition Shbbt Almanac. Gilbert. 
Lb Pilots, a Newspaper. 

Wanted by Mr. Francis, 14. Wellington Street North, Strand. 

Wbalb's Quartxrlt Papbrs on Arobitbcturb. Fart 1. 
Cayblbr's Gothic Arch iTECTOBB. Fart 3. 

Pdoin's Examfles or Gothic Abcritbctdrb. Farts 3 & 4 of Vol. I. 

Wanted by John Hebib, 9. Lanrence-Fountney Lane. 

Hbbbino's Prbsbrvattybs against thb Plaodb. 4to. 1665. 
Strott's Chboniclb of England. Vol. II. 4to. 1778. 
Sha&spbarb's Flays. Vol. II. Svo. Printed by Bensley, 1803. 

Wanted by R. Thorbwm, 2. Carthusian Street. 

Catbndish Socibtt Publications. A set 

Wanted by Wm. Blackwood <$- Sons, Edinburgh. 

p. P— M. vriUfind much Ubutratitm o/efte epitaph 

" Earth walks on Earth 
Glittering in gold '* 

m**N.ftQ.,"VdLTii.,p. 486. ; atKiVoLTiii.,pp. Ii0.aH. 
A. P. 

** Hell is pared with good intentions " 

is a aaytng of Johnson's iMticA has become proverbiaL^ See Botmtil^B 
Johnson, by Croker, ed. i848,p. 450. 

• J. E. The head on the seal is that of a laughina Faun copied from a 
weU-krumn gem by the Oreek artist Amnumios. We are sorry the rqpiies 
to the other Query have bean overlooked. They shaU be seen to. 

Bromo-iodidb of Silybr. We are sorry to be compelled to 
until next week a valuable conmuTiication on this swn'ect, by 


FuU price will be given for clean copies of** Notes and Queries " of 
UtJanuary^ 1853, No. 166, upon appUaUion to Mr. Bbll, the Publisher, 

A few complete sets of** Notes and Qubbibs," Vols. i. to x., price ,fioe 
guineas, wiU be ready very shortly. For these, early appiKotion is 

**NoTBS AND Queries" is ptMished at noon on Friday, so ihat Vu 
Country Booksellers may receive Copies in thai night's parcels, and 
deliver them to their Subscribers on the SeUurday. 

"Notes AND Queries" is also issued in Monthly Parts.^br theoon- 
venience of those who may either have a difficulty in procuring the im^ 
stamped weekly Numbers, or prefer receiving it montmy. WmU parties 
resident in the country or abroad, who may be desirous of receivmg the 
weekly Numbers, may have stamped copies forwarded direct front the 
Publisher. The subscription for the stamped edition of "Notes and 
Queries " {including a very copious Index) is eleven shillings and four- 
pence for six months, which may be paid by Post- Office Order, drawn m 
favour of the PtAUsher, Mr. George Bbll, No. 186. Fleet Street. 

^YLO- IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Pho- 
tographic^ Establishments.— The superiority of this i 
the best Photographers anc 
lerto no preparation has 

]^owledge<f. Testimonials fr9m 

warrant the assertion, that hitherto j 

preparation is now uniTersally ac- 
id principal scientific men of the day, 
B been discovered which produces 

, preparatl , 

uniformly such perfect pictures, combined with the greatest rapidity of action. In all cases 

rice in separate 
'ull instructions 

where a quantity is required, the two solutions may be had at Wholesale pr 
Bottles, in which state it may be kept for years, and Exported to any Climate. Fx 
for use. 

Caution.— Each Bottle is Stamped with a Bed Label bearing my name, BICHABlf W. 
THOMAS, Chemist, 10. Fall Mall, to counterfeit which is felony. 

CYANOGEN SOAP : for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains, i 

The Genuine is made only by the Inventor, and is secured with a Red Label bearing tliis Signature 
and Address, BICUAliD W. THOMAS, CHEMIST, 10. PALL MALL, Manufacturer of Pure * 
Photograi hie Chemicals : and may be procured of all respectable Chemists, in Pots at \s., is., 
and 3s. M. each, through MESSRS. EDWARDS. 67. St. Paul's Churchyard ; and MESSRS. 
BARCLAY 81 CO., 85. Fanringdon Street, Wholesale Agents. 

Just published. 

PHY on GLASS and PAPER, a Manual 
containing simple directions for the production 
of PORTRAITS and VIEWS by flie agency 
of LiKht, including the COLLODION, AL- 
PAPER Processes, by CHARLES A. LONG. 
Price Isw; per Post, Is. 6d. 

Published by BLAND ft LONG, Opticianf, 
Philosophical and Photographical Instru- 
ment Makers, and Operative Chemists, 158. 
Fleet Street, London. 

Jn>t published. Second Edition. Price Is., by 
Post Is. 6d. 


Price Is., by Post Is. 6d, 

CESS of GUSTAVE LE GRAY (Translated 
ftY>m the French). To this has been added a 
New Modiflcai ion of the Process, by which the 
Time of Exposure in the Camera is reduced to 
one-fourth, by JAMES HOW, Assistant in 
the Philosophical Establishment of the Pub- 

GEORGE KNIGHT ft 80NS« Foster Lane, 



Mannflietonr, S4. ft 25. Charlotte Terrace, 
Caledoniaii Boad, Islington. 

0TTEWILL*8 Registered Double Body 
Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or 
Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS, Feather- 
atone Buildings, Holbom t the Fhotomiphie 
Institution, Bond Street t andat the Manu- 
Ihetory u$ above, where every 4eecription of 
Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The 
Trade supplied. 

L - MESSRS. KNIGHT ft SONS respect- 
llv inform Artists, Amateurs, and thePro- 
llession, that tbey are the Sole Agents for 
VOIGHTLANDER ft SON'S Photographic 
liCnses for Portraits and Views. The different 
sizes can be seen at their Establishment, where 
they have every convenience for testing their 
powers. The Fhotograpliic Department of 
their Establishment comprises every useftil 
improvement in this interesting Art. 
GEOBGE KNIGHT ft SONS, Foster Lane, 

ATIONS requisite in the various Pro- 
cesses of the Photographic Art, manufactured 
and sold by GEORGE KNIGHT ft SONS, 
who having considerably reduced the price of 
many of their preparations, will have plea- 
sure in forwardmg their new list on appli- 


Foster Lane, 

ft CO.'S Iodised Collodion, for obtaining 
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits In firom 
three to tliirty seconds, according to light. 

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy 
of detail, rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, 
specimens of which may be seen at their Esta- 

Also every description of Apparatus, Che- 
micals, ftc. ftc. used in this beautiAal Art.-> 
1 83. and 12I. Newgate Street. 

AND VIEWS obtained with the greateit 
S%,«*S<* certainty bv using BLAND ft 
LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton ; cer- 
tainty and uniformity of action over a length- 
ened period, combined with the most faithftil 
rendering of the half-tonea, constitute this a 
most valuable acent in the hands of the pho- 

Albumenized paper, for printing tnxn glaii 
or paper negatives, giving a minuteness of de- 
tail unattained by any other method, 5s. per 

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quali^. 

Instruction in the Processes. 

BLAND ft LONG, Opticians and Photogra^ 
phical Instrument Makers, and Operative 
Chemists, 153. Fleet Street. London. 

The Pneumatic Plate-holder for Collodion 

«•« Catalogues sent on application. 

THE SIGHT preserved by the 
Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit 
every variety of Vision by means of SMEE'S 
OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents 
Injury to the Eyes from the Selection of Im- 
proper Glasses, and is eztens vely employed bf 

BLAND ft LONG, Opticians, 158. Fleet 
Btreet, London. 


[No. 272. 

12moM price U. 6df. 


^ GUAOE : an Exposition of "Tooke'i 
Inversions of Purley." By CHARLES 
RICHAKD60X, LL. D., Author of a New 
Dictionary of the English T 

" What an epoch in many a student's intel< 
lectoal ]ife has been his first acquaintance 
with the * Diversions of Parley.'"— 2VencAo» 
tJte Study of Wordi, 

•* The judicious endearour of a veteran phi- 
lologist to extend the philosophical study of 
lanenage by popularising Home Tooke's 
* Diversions of Purley,' Dr. Richardson has 
done good service to the study of language in 
this very judicious and compact recast, for the 
book is much more than an abridgment." — 

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 




^11? to iTifctrm tl]« FuhUi:^ tliat ihew ^ui^^ly all 
Boijkj, >f mraziTi^ii, lUivJu^^H', Period li^Li. Al- 

nt ]«. anrl ii|;bwji.rdf^ at a mcductfon of^iL In tlie 
^Mllbije, toTtlnHh. Country Urclera csrecTited 
an [he wume tvrmn, and d'ellYerpri on ihv fti1« 
inirtiig morninyr, at u char::e for Fnptace of 6d« 
ft>reaeh iifinnr]e>j'r frnfti.ii of w pocipd weifEbtt 
Sch'W}! An^l Kxl'm:'- ^ 'i''4-"j ;<i-i?inptly attended 
to. Plejuie noti 1 ■ . '■. 

S. ft T. GILBERT, Booksellers, 
4. Copthall Buildings, Moorgate Street. 


1ATAL0GUE of Ancient and 

KJ Modern BOOKS on Painting. Per- 
spective, Pictures, Architecture : Books of 
Prints ; Chess ; and Interesting Works in 
Miscellaneous Literature : marked at low 
Prices for Cash : may be had Gratis on Appli- 
cation, or Free by Post for One Penny Stamp. 

S. & B. NOCK, 16. Bloomsbury Street, London. 


THE greatest variety for Ladies 
«ci[l Getitremen at .MECFll'S Manufiu:^ 
toTf antl Einrwjrlnm of KtpirRiii;i;. i. LEA- 
UK SHALL STREET, L0NIW>N, wlnsru may 
bte niTtcd the economical «ntl lu3^aHci-iii. Jia- 
jEatcUc TublM^Spf. lOa, t£J IM ] Writing Doekn, 
fic, to«lV. J Dr«silns Ciw;i, la?. tni IflKU. i Work 
Boxci, As, to 3W^ i; Jjcaihef Writing CastiK lO*. 
to 71. 3 Ditto with I>re«(iiiE_ Case ; il. tii US/, j 
TuChestt, ?j. ntL to Hi. : Knvploin! Ctupi, 6*, 
tb U. i lukstttiids in Woo^l, Bn^nfet flncJ parlor 
Meeh^.iu. ro JL i Parier M»cb^ Work TaWe*, 
61. i^. to ^iL ; Tea Tr^rst i»i-io ^l^ per lefc t 
Work and Cuke EMketi^ I ft*, to ii.x Card 
Raeks, I6t. to ZI, ; Hand Scrmn^^ ii'^ to ii in*. % 
Pole Bcr€(fiu^ W, 5*. to 4^ iii^ : Nettincr 13a3ie»t 
Cvd Boxnit Ladliet' CornpninEffiia In Pparl. 
StwU, Ptipler Mnchil and h^jtihnr t f parties' 
Swnt Cjun end Toilet Bfilths; LadW Card 
Caiu^, Cheni Boajdfl ADc) ht^n : '?JL>fant Pa[»i(-r 
Machv' Chtw Tabid ; ©oid and SilTCr ppiicil 
Catci fn cvtryTurisily 3 ciod Tiwth QruBhea, 
ftcf. each-, Caft« (if PJated nnd SilVLr DestsEirt . 
Kulves anrl rurl** s ShcfflcM Plaloi sjiltnjlld 
Table Cutlery 3 warranlctj Raxura mrnlSLrai\i, 
3*.edf. eaphs^EMjriSn^ KnEv«», and cvury dE- 
Kilptlon ofFaniiy Cutliujy. "VS'lth a Varittv of 
other arll,cli<s>« nf vhlrh Catalaeutj may tjc liad 
gciatli. AaAiECHI mikniifadtunit ejtcfnslvcljf 
on his QTrn p^Tni^qs, thit quiiUty af every 
•rtiiele U warranted. 


PUPILS will RE-ASSEMBLE, after the 
present Vacation, on the 29th Januarv. A late 
Pupil hasjust been elected to a Scholarship at 
Lincoln College, Oxford. Two others passed 
the Army Examination last September, and 
have already received Commissions — All par- 
ticulars about the School can be had on Appli- 
cation to the Principal. 

Seo4^!)d EditfeDt with lofi^ mapt price &f.t 
cloib bcMidSi 

RE^TEB. of QitOTifi. F.H.G.S. of London, 
Faris, Befliii. S;c., Atirhor of ** Oriiiiiiil Sur- 
vtys of the Port Vine Diitrititi j " of the 
" ^Tcr Dtmru from the OL-enii tii thefSuAu^iU 
FrgntitT ; " and of tlie " Geoloffy f*f tne Brd 
and Uanks of the Dotitt) ; " aluu^jfa project (t«r 
ti.e imii.r(jvieTi:)*!nt of the navJi^ntitin of that 
dter, j^A'd of vaiicius other works on PortusaL 
JOHir WE ALE, U. lll«h UQllJom. 

Just pubTIftheit, Part, L, aupfr- royal evo., in 
p4ip4^r dovei', sewed., oA I CM. tu nua-^nlncriKr*. 




N,B. ^^ /u ttfflWr/ Nrnc* f^f the. nuinertiua apftli- 
ealion^ far Mr. liu^kin^a Katnif, ilic Cfifnn'if n/ 
KAu! ArHWlil 'Stjcifrtif havt ■mtoti'ed ia aetf il Ui 
the I*ifltHe withotit the Enffraviags wiahI to Hvt. 

Pnliluhed at the (iWnni of the Arundel Society, 
31. Uhl Sotid Street i end ^ be obialDed 
Itkroueh any lkH>k«eHer) of BKUj & 

DALDY, Fleet Street. 

ARV, firici; \». (cammeiicliiff VijI. IT.>, 
coQtaini : ^ I . Tlie IiintH>liMtcy of Time. 3. A 
DoTneiilt: Ilninlly on OiriKtiau Ia>v^. 3. Tfut 
Prayer, Soclai MnjoiSitv. Cliriifi VEaion ufUfta. 
*. The True Suldicrpbip. 5. Phaseo of Tte- 
dcmjitSTc Ti-iitli, 6, TheEriJHof RedtJmjftUoii. 
7. EiMt ^cene in ihf Mora] IlliHry of Re- 
dekJiDt'rl Humiinkr. w. The Fl¥e Brrthrtn ; a 
TcnlWu PScinrc uf Ilume«tii(' Life. ■». Paul 
and BamBbiis ; llictr Contention pnd Sepa- 
ratiofi, ID. Thu Fr«aent God. IL GlAnccft at 
Great Preachers. Lii^rmy Notiee», *c, *c* 

WAuRD & CO., S7. Pat«m(ritifr Mqw. 

& CO. fSucwfSHifi to thi! Isti! T* ABM- 
^ON(j1i. ^. YJilkrS £trtct. Strai^d, AoliclC 
ey^ty Dwcrlptlon of Work TVlntinEr to their 
Art. A Hit ol" Prices for C]oih. Halt-calf, 
Calf, JVlofoeftt, or Autiq^ue Bindinff, «>an he 
h^d uvaji ApijiliesrlcMi, ori/i'fII Tm: lorirjirrled fur 
One Stamj/, SookblndlEij; fuf tho Tie^cle, 

£IANOFORTES, 25 Guineas 
each.— D'ALMAINE ft CO., En. Poho 
(re I established &.&, i'i^K iwTe tnanufne- 
turen of the ROVALFtANOFOHTES, aiti 
Ouineaa each^ Every Initnirti^nt varmnt'^El, 
The p«;uUaT ad^qntajccj f>f thtK i^ljiiioiart^ 
are hwl dfBqribctl in the foUowinif profcsiionai 
tcFlimnnml, Btencil by Hie mn|ority df the lead- 
InET in ui^ciAni of Lhc ace i — "* We^ t]]« nndpr^ 
■ijnied nttml^n of the muilcial ]»rofeuJQn^ 
hiLiHng dartfully titinitned the Fiyrnl Piano- 
forte* ntuntifaL^Urtd hy ME5SRS. D'AIj- 
MAINE fi C<.^.,h[LVE! prcut plcasxin^ In hearJnj^ 
testimony to their nicHts and capabi titles. It 
a^peon to uti im^ionlhlc to [iroduce instruments 
of tbe same size iidsflcadni; n rit^her nud ftiier 
toDra. morft eliutic toucli, ar more equal tein- 
perwueDt, vrhHe the i^Fc^nce of their cunitnte- 
uon irendert theiti a httncl^anic omanient lor 
the library, l^udt^ drawimj-rouiri- tSlened) 
J. L. Ab«1,F. Defied iel« ILK. Qi^liap, J. Hleir- 
Itl, J. BritrJ, T. P. CliEjifi, P. fJclaVnntJ^ C, H* 
Dolbr^ E. F. FUiwillllam, W. Fdrdc, Stephen 
Glovrr. Henri Hera, B. irnnrlsun, TLP, Kqjvf, 
J. L. Hatton. Catherine linyii, V*\ IL Holmei, 
W. kuhe, U, F, Kiallmcrk, E. Land. Q,Lhiu. 
Atexamler Lee, A, Lem«f^ E. J. I^oder^ W. U. 
MnBtffomeTy^ ?+Nc1nn, G. A. O^bfime. John 
Pam *H* Paofifka. tiennr PhiltiTUH F, Preeirar, 
E, F, Himbavk. tnnk Homer, O. II. HodvelU 
E. Koc^t^L Blsna Bcevei. J* Ttmi^leton, F- We- 
ber, IL Wwtroi^ T. H. Wrlfhtr Ae. 

D^ALMALKE & CD,, nj. Soho i^iaare. 
and Deilsiu Gratl*. 



rf MONOGRAPH: includtnff mn Awmint 

of the WyeUffe MSB. in tJie BrRTah Mu-'tum. 
OTfordt CiuibrJd«i<H fcc, i with m. Portrait and 
Iiluiimtioni, ^m DravlMurt tAk«n m% Wvcliflb 
n nd Lv tter worth. By KOB ERT V A UG tlAJT, 
UJi. One'N'oL, tmaJl 4to., price 16*. ctotb. 

"Dr. Vftuflian wHtet with more ^ape and 
Tljptmir than In bin youth, and thijre are eri- 
dencKi af incrciuKidsch^laTihlp and deeper re- 
fievtiun. We have Laid iswr ueneU on manj 
pIetnT»ciuQ and tmtium* ptnuoigu.'^ ^^fAe- 

"A irio«t CLimtjUte nnd natSf factory fUMuttot 
or the Jifc luid w«rk» (if the RtfLjrifier, with 
inany Jtitcre*tiup it^temfntt otr lo the (general 
aUU ry and t'onditlon trf KriEland in the four- 
teenth cenlurj'. , . . We coni^rBtulatc the 
learned author on the mn^pletioii of a, work of 
•o mudi reneiUTJu." ^Literary Ou^/^tts, 

RORM EVa"nGELIC^ ; or, 

tht Internal Evfdentse nf thci OobhiI 1Tt«tarr. 
By the REV. T, H, BIRK!^, M.A., Rflctorof 
Kif'l^haEl, In pent Bvo.j ^trlci! lot, &f. cloili. 

'* Niat uft'eti do ve ftclmowlodpe tht nr'peor- 
anfft of n Imcik with bxj tnLcli and 
thankfii]ne« m we havt- ft'll 3d niacinjr at the 
hejid uf an ELrt.iti'i^ the title which we havp joft 
written, for H ii the title of a iri^rk whi^ili it 
not mily in Itpelt wortliv of all pmlsc, bat 
which ortive* at the rfiiht moment i, 'was de- 
manded l>y jrr^Knt eiltten^iea t and will* we 
art [pemikdcd, enntribule timely liflp to 

inacy juixfona AuQ. inqoirlDE "Mndi.** C%n«- 

tian CUiKmfw. 

ISRAEL In"'eGYPT; heing 

TLUe»tratitiiiK of thu Bnok of Genesli fui. 
Exodut, from tfiditins Monnment*. With a 
preat number of EnuTATiDfii. In onnm BTO-t 
priced, eloih. 

" Thia (wok U one of tlie mwt remarkable 
pnhUiMitiona of our time, a»d mn h&rdlyi^ll 
to t}^iUi the attentiim t]f thx Chrlitiati wotrld/' 
— ChriMiimn WitnsM. 


ANNA ? or, Passajres from 

ItomeLifb : heinn a New mnd £n1«nceil Fdl- 
tiois of * PauMpOft from the Life of %. Uaaghber 
ut Home." Fifih Editiont iznaU «¥&,, aa. ^ 

" A J a. pirtnre of the iMver of relljtion ia 
ftmdunlJy- Mibdnin? the a»(vc;rili«!« of a elDcwr 
dispcultUm and a morhld ti'mp^r, thij cturj'U 

at. FIe«t Street- 

Juit fiuhti^bcd, In Jbap+STO.t Portrait, S«.G!f. 

TIAN BlOOKAPfTY. Under the Sa- 
mrinttndencE of the REV. BOBKBT UtCK- 
EKSiTETIL M. A., EUctnr of it^GClci'j-Lii-the- 
Fldd*, and CanaO of fisHltibiUT* 



VoL IL. htmg the LIFE OF 

FELTX NEFF, with Portrait, will be pnJj- 
Hshcd on the Igt of March. 

Sitreet ; and B. liECLET, Hanovtr Street. 

idte t 


_ EVANS, SONS, ft CO. TTtTwrtfnllT In- 
Jte their fHcnd:i and the public ia an In- 
ifftctinn of the enrtensiint and brautifu] STflCE 
Qf th^sc mnph-admired Lamp;*, jii*t rei^lTed 
fruM raria^cmhranriinirftll rewnl imi.>rovement]L 
in hp-mjic, or^Tnoulut ciryi^BJ, aTaba«tcr, una 
porcelain, uf viarinui elegant deiJlCDi. snitnbia 
for the ciuttiiE'P or manHTon. ^how Rooini, 

^^^^ T"??^^^!^*/,®"^^' o' ^?* 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mary. Mfaifton, at No. 6. Now Street BqiwN, in the Pftrldi of 
St. Bride, in the Ci^ of London ; and puWithed by Gaomo. Bbil, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in tht Pariah of St. Duifltui ia tht WMt, ta the 
Oktr of London. PooUshor, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforeaoid.. Saturday, Jacnaiy 13, 18&5. 

Jan. 20. 1855.] 



steward, prior to 1696, destroyed the whole of 
them and the ordinances, to cover her husband*s 
defalcations. (Prouten's Winchester Guide, p. 38.) 
A similar statement was made to the Court of 
Queen*s Bench in June, 1851, wherein it was al- 
leged that in the time of James I., one of the 
masters being resident in Scotland, left the care 
of the Hospital to his son, who again left it to a 
Mr. Wright, in whose time all the papers were 
lost, and that the wife of Wright burned all the 
records of the Hospital. (Shaw's Justice of the 
Peace, vol. xv. p. 433.) 


The commissioners (from whose report the copy 
of De Blois*8 charter is taken) say that the regu- 
lations for the government of the ELospital and of its 
funds, if any were ever prescribed by the founders 
or visitors, appear to have been lost anterior 
to the year 1660, and the establishment was long 
conducted upon the authority of traditional custom 
only ; that the defect was at last supplied by com- 
mon consent of the master and brethren, about the 
end of the seventeenth century, by the preparation 
and adoption of a document called the Consuetu- 
dinarium, in which, after reciting that upon dili- 
gent and strict search made among the records of 
the Hospital, no statutes nor footsteps of any 
statutes could be found, directing the government 
and regulation thereof; but it then was and had 
been time out of mind governed by customs taken 
from and in pursuance of former grants and 
donations of the founder thereof . . . and to pre- 
■vent all differences and disputes in future, the 
then master and the brethren, the steward and 
chaplain, mutually agreed and declared that the 
several customs and usages thereinafter written 
were those by which the said Hospital had been 
and was then governed. The instrument then sets 
forth the number and description of persons that 
were to be supported by the establishment, the 
allowance to each weekly, yearly, and on parti- 
cular days, which, together with other matters of 
rule and regulation, although important, are too 
long for insertion here. It also states, that it 
had been and was the custom and usage that the 
master should govern all persons in and belonging 
to the Hospital; that he should receive all the 
profits and revenues thereof, with which he was to 
bear the whole charge of the house, and to keep it 
and the church in sufficient repair ; the overplus he 
was to retain for himself, &c. (P. 847.) 

The representations made in the Guide Book, 
in the Court of Queen's Bench, and of what was 
told to the Commissioners, may be received as 
matter of information only, and given without due 
warrantry ; but the statements in the Consuetudi- 
narium, attested by the signatures of the several 
parties thereto, and ratified conditionally by the 
then bishop of the diocese, demanded and received 

strict examination at the hands of the learned 
judge who presided over the court in which the 
inquiry was conducted. His searching eye and 
acute power of investigation soon detected the 
erroneous and fallacious assertions therein set forth. 


The learned gentleman's opinion of that instru- 
ment is expressed with such a vigorousness of 
purpose, that it is not only startling, but forcibly 
impressive. He said ; 

" This Consuetudinarium is one of the most extraordinary 
documents that ever was produced or relied upon in a 
court of justice : it begins by reciting that search had 
been made among the records of the Hospital, and that no 
statutes or trace of any statutes could be found, directing 
the government and regulation thereof. At that time they 
who were the parties to this recital had in their possession 
a copy of the sentence against Roger de Clowne [one of the 
masters called severely to account by William of Wyke- 
ham in 1372, for endeavouring to convert the revenues of 
the House to his own use], a copy of the Bull of Pope Gre- 
gory respecting the abuses introduced by the Master of 
the Hospital by the appropriation of its revenues, and ap- 

Eointing a commission to inquire into the same. They 
ad also a copy of the evidence and proceedings under 
that commission, besides which they had various docu- 
ments respecting the establishment'of the Alms-house of 
Noble Poverty. These documents, then and now in their 
possession, contain ample evidence of the original rules 
and statutes, showing the object and destination of the 
charity to have been the very opposite to that to which 
they were about to convert it. The continuation of this 
document is of a piece with the opening ; it recites that 
it had been time out of mind governed by customs taken 
out of and in pursuance of the grants of the founders, the 
interpretation of which might occasion differences between 
the master and brethren ; and in order to prevent which they 
(the master and brethren) had agreed on what the cus- 
tom was .... Thereupon they proceed to settle 
the custom, or rather the distribution of the revenues of 
the charity, in elaborate detail, according to their own 
will and pleasure, in direct violation of an act of parlia- 
ment passed one hundred and twenty years before, and in 
direct opposition to the evidence and documents then in their 
own custody .... A more barefaced and shameless do- 
cument, in my opinion, than this Consuetudinarium could 
not have been framed, nor could a more manifest and pro- 
bably wilful breach of trust have been committed b}" the 
master and brethren. The bishop who ratified this docu- 
ment trusted to the word of the master and brethren, but 
he gave his ratification qualified so as not to be in dero- 
gation of the statutes of the founder, if these should 
afterwards be discovered."-rZ*aM? Journal, 1853, Chancery 
Cases, 793—809. 

I am thankful to Mb. Chables T. Kelly for 
the corrections of my list of Masters supplied in 
Vol. X., p. 473. ; and through the medium of your 
columns request, on behalf of myself and other 
readers, the dates of appointment of the under- 
mentioned gentlemen, named by the Rev. Mac- 
kenzie Walcott, in his volume on Wi^keham and 
his Colleges^ as having been Masters of the above 
celebrated House : 

Page 347. "John Rede, D.D., Fellow of New College, 
1474. Warden of Winchester, &c. Master of St Cross. 
Died 1521." 




Pag© 418. ** John Crooke, Fellow of Winchester Ool- 
Im, 1619. Prebendary of Winchester Cathedral, 1640. 
]|£ister of St. Cross," &c. Died about 1645. 

Page 484. The Right Hon. « Charles Wolfran Corn- 
wail, Barrister-at law, one of the Lords of the Treasury, 
and twice Speaker of the House of Commons, 1780, 1784. 
Master of St. Cross." Died 1789, and was buried in the 
Hospital Church. 

Hbnby Edwabds. 


The love of the Dutch for extreme cleanliness 
has become, as it were, proverbial ; and every one 
who has travelled through the country, and wit- 
nessed their grand hebdomadal ,schoonmaken, can 
testify to the almost fanatical excess to which the 
passion for purification is carried among them. 
It would appear, nevertheless, from various allu- 
sions in the works of our older writers, that in this 
vespect, as well as others, the Dutch of the present 
day are " unlike their Belgic sires of old ;" and 
that while they have lost the bold and warlike 
character ascribed to their ancestors by Goldsmith 
in his Traveller, they have at the same time ceased 
to be characterised by the ruggedness of dress and 
fildiiness of person which served at one time to 
point the moral of the wit and the satirist Thus 
ijke punning allusions in Prince Henrv*s taunting 
speech to Poins have ceased to be intelligible, and 
f am not aware that any commentator has endea- 
"voured to explain them : — 

"What a disgrace is it to m« to bear the in- 
ventory of thy shirts; as, one- for superfluity, and one 
a&ier for use? — but that, the tennis-court keeper knows 
better than I ; fbr it is a low ebb of linen with thee, when 
thou keepest not racket there ; as thou hast not done a 
great while, because the rest of thy low-countries have 
mad^ a $hijft to eat un thy hoUand : and Grod knows, 
whether those that bawl out the ruins of thy linen,, shall 
ijidierit his kingdom," &c — Second Part of King Henry 
IV,, Act IL Sc 2. 

An explanation of these allusions would be 
desrabie : they may be thought to receive some 
illustration from the following passage from Earle*s 
Micracosmt^aphtf ; or, a Piece of the World 
diicovered; jrc., ]2mo., London, 1732. In his 
character of "A Younger Brother,** the Bishop 
says : " His last refuge is the Low Countries, 
WMre rags and linen are no scandal, where he lives 
a poor gentleman of a company, and dies without 
a shirt' So also in a satirical work by Owen 
Felltham (A Brief Character of the Low Countries 
under the States, being Three Weeks' Observation of 
the Vices and Virtues of the Inhabitants, London, 
1659, 12mo.), the sailors (that is, the inhabitants) 
are characterised as being able to "drink, rail,, 
swear, niggle, steal, and be hwsie alike** (p. 40.). 
Groldsmith is reported to have said (where ?) 
tftttt **a Dutchman's house reminded' him of a 
temple dedicated to an ox f* and in bis Citizen of 

the World (chap, xxziv.), he says : " My Lord 
Firmly is certainly a Goth, a Vandal, no tafit« ia 
the world for painting. I wonder how any call 
him a man of taste ; passing through the streets o£ 
Antwerp a few days ago, and observing the nakedt* 
ness of the inhabitants, he was so barbarous as toi 
observe, that he thought the best method the* 
Flemings could take was to sell their pictures and 
buy clothes.'* 

Perhaps, afler all, these ill-natured sneers ma^r 
have little better foundation than in those physical 
peculiarities and eccentricities which have so long 
marked out the Low Countries as a stock theme 
for the exercise of satirical humour — from the 
witty and extravagant descriptions of Marvell and 
Butler, to the pathetic " Adieu ! canaux, canards, 
canaille" of Voltaire, and the sarcastic description 
of the author of Vathek. William Bat£S. 


Minor fiatti. 

The Turkish Troops, a.d. 1800. — 

"It is, perhaps, a fortunate circumstance for Europe^ 
that the efforts which have been made at different times^ 
and which are still making, by European officers, to in«- 
troduce a discipline among the Turks, have proved in-' 
e£fectual ; for, if they are considered in regard to their 
personal courage, their bodily strength, or their militacy 
habits, they will be found to equal, if not to surpass, ai^ 
other body of men. A loaf of bread, with an onion, is- 
what many of them have always lived upon ; rice is & 
luxury, and meat a dainty to them. With this abste)- 
mious diet they are strangers to many of our diseases,, 
and the hardships of a camp life are habitual to them.; 
because, from their infancy, they have slept upon th* 
ground and in the open air. Discipline would certainly 
make men who are possessed of such natural advantages 
very formidable ;. whereas, from a want of it, they are- 
despicable enemiesi" 

The camp at El-Arish : 

"The view of the camp the morning after my arrival, 
at El-Arish, was to me. a very singular sight, as I believ*^ 
it was original in its kind. The ground upon which it 
stood was irregular, and a perfect desert of white sand^ 
with no other signs of vegetation than a ftw date-trees, 
which stood in a cluster at asmall distmce. The tenti^ 
which are of different colours and shapes, were irregulariy^ 
strewed over a spaoe of ground several miles in circuit^ 
and everything that moved was conspicuous to the. eye,, 
from the white ground of the landscape. The whole re- 
sembled a large fair ; a number of the soldiers who serve' 
without pay carry on a traffic by which- they subsist; 
there are, besides, tradesmen of aU descriptions who fol-* 
low the camp ;. some keep coffee-houses, which are dis- 
tinguished bv a red flag; others are. horse-dealers ; and 
a number or public cr^rers are constantly employed in 
describing to the multitude things lost, or in selling 
divers articles at auction. This scene of confusion- i» 
certainly more easily conceived than told ; buto a yeey- 
ingenious definition of it was given, by a Turk, who waf> 
asked to describe their mannw of encampment ' Thus,' 
said he; puUing from his pocket a handful of paras [a 

.^Aaj; 20.. 1855.] 



small, silver coin], and throwing them, carelessly on a 
table."— J. P. MoRiEB, 1801. 

The above extracts, are from a Memoir of a 
isampaign mth the Ottoman army in Egypty from 
February to July 1800. Loudon, 1801, 8vo. ; an 
intereating pamphlet of uncommon occurrence.. 
Mr. Morier was private secretary to his excel- 
lency the earl o£ Elgin. BoiiTON Cobnet^ 

Curiosities of Letter-writing. — I subjoin a per- 
fect gem, wiiich I have just received from a female 
correspondent : 

** I Lucay * • ♦ Beges to informe you that i Have 

nothing a gaints the * * * Compnay But my 

Husband is a Soulder And i Have nothing a Loud me 
from the Parish and the Hous that I Live in is wear my 
Sorounden Nebors Bee wear I Pick Hup my Little Bred 
for me and my famley And i Cannot Leave it without i 
Have a Nother Clous at and." 

The " nebors," I hear, consider the poor woman 
a witch ! In my judgment, the appeal would 
h8y« been less eloquent had it been couched in 
leas exceptionable vernacular. 


The Duke of Monmouth, — The following is a 
copy of a letter addressed to the Corporation of 

** Whitehall, 23 Aug. 
*• Gentlemen, 
•* Upon my arrivall att London I mett with the report 
«f Mr. Marveirs death, oneof theburgesees for yo'towne, 
which gives me occasion to become a suitor to you in 
b^alfe of Mr. Shales, that yoo. would elect him to supply 
that vacancy in Parliament, whom I look upon as a person 
very well qualifyed to serve the king, his country, and 
yo^ Corporation in particular, to whose interests I shall 
always have a peculiar regard, and shall owne your kind- 
ness herein as an obligation to, 

^ Grentjemen, 
" Y' very humble Ser^, 

" Monmouth.'* 
JxL ADOtiler band — 

f Rec* the-29» AugS '78."^ 

It appears, however, that the duke's friend^ Mr. 
Shales, was not elected to supply the vacancy 
occasioned' by the death of Andrew Marvel, but 
apparently Mr. Anthony Gilby. Shobbolds. 

Curious Magical Compact — In Tableau de 
rFhconstanee des mavvais Anges et Demons, par P. 
De Lancre, k Paris, 1612, p. 174., he relates the 
following : 

** £n I'an 1574 vn homme nomm^ Troia Rieux, 8*obliga 
enners vn M^decin Escossois qui s'estoit venu accazer en 
cette ville de Bourdeaux nomm^ Macrodor [or, as he 
would be- called in Scotland, MuroAer or Maegrowther'], 
de loy temiv apiez sa mort do Demon, et h ces fins 11 lay 
«]igag»pit SOIL eiprit, s'obligeant de luy veueler toutea 
chosas secretes incognues aux hommes, et luy faire toos 
les bons offices, qne semblables Esprits ont accoustum^ de 
faire k ceux qpi entrent en pareilles curiositez : mesme se 
troiraer et apiMmoir visiblement Ik sa dextre toutea les 
\, MM/oo sa robbe et un juppimon ottmqpim 

de veloux tan^ et des chausses de mesme estoffe et con- 
leur ; href en mesme habit qu'il estoit lors dudict pacte et. 
conuention* lequel estoit escrit sur de parchemin viei^ge. 
en lettre de sang d'homme que le tSps auoit faicte vio- 
lette ; et fut trouuer la dicte obligatiSt auec une platine de. 
cuyure de forme r<kle d'assez mediocre grSdeur, dana. 
laquelle estoyent grauez les sept noms de Dieu, des sept. 
Anges, des sept plan^tes, et plusieurs autres caracterosj, 
lignes, poincts et autres choses h moy incognues. 

" Or ce Macrodor estoit communement tenu pour Ma-^ 
gicien et sorcier, et k faict luy et toute sa famille un fort 
pauure fin ; et pendant sa vie sa plus grande fortune a 
esti^ de seruir de M^ecin aux pauures prisonniers de la 

May not such dark practices as the fore^otn^ 
have given some countenance' to the old phrase 
" Buying and selling the Devil ?" G. Iff. 

OsberrCs. Life of Odo. — Alban Butler, in hiff 
Lives cf the Saints, vol. vii. p. 39., states that ^* that 
life of St. Odo, written by Osbern, and quoted- 
by William of Malmesbury, seems- nowhere to h^ 
extant.** In torn, cxxxiii. col. 931. &c. of the 
PatrologicB Cursus Completus, by the Abbe J. P. 
Migne, we find ^' Vita S. Odonis auctore, u& 
videtur, Osberno monacho Cantuariensi (Apud 
MabiL Acta Sanctorum ordinis S. Bened., &c.)« * 
This life states that Odo was Bishop of Sherborne^ 
not Wilton, previously to his promotion to the see 
of Canterbury. Jossbh B. M^Caul. 

British Museam^ 

" Why spare Odessa .^" — We have all seen this 
Query many times repeated in the " leading 
journal :** its transference to the more peacefiu 
columns of " N". & Q." is now madie more with a 
view to the introduction of some quotations from; 
the chapter entitled '^ La Russie ** of the Abb6 de 
Pradt's celebrated work, Le Congres dk Vienne^ 
than from any special desire to see Odessa razed 
to the ground. At the same time I do wish to see 
that finely-situated port in the hands of a gene- 
rous power like England, which would render it a 
free mart for all the nations of the world, rather 
than an entrepdt to be opened or shut at the ca- 
price of a despot like Nicholas. The spiritual 
Abbe says (he was no admirer of Russia forty 
years ago ; what would he say now ?) : 

** Une oration d'arts et de commerce h Odessa mln- 
spire plus de cnantes qne Sowarrow avec son arm^ ea; 
Italic : les arm^ pasaent^ les arts restent. La Russie »^ 
pris la route da Midi ; elle s'avance sur lui avea une 
population vaillante et robuste, avec les instruments deik 
arts, et sous des che& anssi polled que- les £nrop^n8». 
. . . . Toute arm^ pnrement Europ^nne est civilis^;* 
toute arm^ Russe Test seulement dans' ses ohsfr et im. 
Test pas dana le reste de sea membres.. Quels que soioit. 
les progr^ de la clvilisationi en Russie, cette distance dan 
chefs aux subaltemes durera encora longtemps. MaiSi 
c*est Ik pr^s^inent qu^est le danger. Une barbarie ro- 
buste et ob^issante est tonjours aux ordres de la civffi^ 
sation la plusexquiae. Des- mains. savsntes. manient dee 
instrumens barbares, et s'en servent. comma, des. mains 
savantea peuvent le Mv^ ..... II parait epe ramiti^ et 
la reconnaiaaanoa de la Pmsae ont fiadllM las asauige- 



[No. 278. 

mens de la Rossie. On a pa croire n*avoir rien h con- 
tester h qui Ton pouvait croire tout devoir. .... C*^tait 
contre les agrandissemens de la Rassie que le Congr^s 
devait dresser toutes les forces de sa raison, de ses re- 
pr^ntations et de son opposition : c*eat 4i6 un int^res- 
sant plaidoyer que celui au midi de TEurope, demandant 

au nord de cesser de Talarmer, et de s'arreter enfin 

£n n^gligeant ce point capital, le Congr^ s'est complete- 
xnent m^pris sur rint^ret principal de TEurope. II n'a 
pas connu le clef de la voCLte de son propre ouvrage." 

J. M. 

Recapitulations. — The pages of " N. & Q." are 
too valuable to be encroached on by recapitula- 
tions, the greater part of which might be avoided 
by a reference to the very clear and copious in- 
dices of the volumes. In Vol. x., p. 494., Mb. 
Henbt H. Bbeen gives a quotation from Darwin 
illustrative of the simile " Stars and Flowers," and 
refers to Vol. vii. passim. Now, if Mb Bbeen 
had taken the trouble to verify his passim refer- 
ence, he would have seen that the simile is referred 
to in three places only in the seventh volume ; 
and that, in one of those places (p. 513.), the 
quotation from Darwin (which Mb. Bbeen gives 
with the air of its discoverer) was noted down by 
me. I may also here take the opportunity of 
pointing out another needless recapitulation. In 
Vol. ix., p. 346., I gave several parallel passages 
relative to "Death and Sleep;*' and among them 
I quoted Thomas Warton's well-known Latin 
epigram on sleep;* and Peter Pindar's equally 
well-known English version. In Vol. x., p. 356., 
J. G. again quotes the Latin epigram, " adding" 
the lines, as he says, to the "passages already 
given," with the remark: "I have heard them 
attributed to an eminent dignitary in the Church, 
whose name has escaped me." And at p. 412., 
D. S., after remarking, " there are several trans- 
lations or imitations of the elegant lines which 
have been sent you by J. G.,** quotes the English 
version of Peter Pindar. Cuthbebt Bede, B.A. 



May I ask whether any of your antiquarian 
readers can inform me what has become of the 
originals of the collection of letters known as the 
Bromley Letters, published by the late Sir Geo. 
Bromley, Bart., 8vo., London, 1787, printed for 
Stockdale of Piccadilly ? They contain letters to 
and from the Queen of Bohemia and other mem- 
bers of the Palatine family, from whom that of 
Bromley descends, through a natural daughter of 
Prince Rupert. The letters were sold with the 
other effects of the late Sir George Bromley, who 
assumed the surname of PaunceK)rt, at his house 

* Written for a statue of Somnus, in the garden of 
Mr. Harris, father of the first Lord Malxnesbury. 

in Russell Square, in 1809, but who was their 
purchaser I am unable to ascertain, unless I can 
do so through your medium. 

I should also be much obliged if any of your 
correspondents can inform me of letters of Queen 
Henrietta Maria existing in private collections^ 
or in printed works of not very usual occurrence, 
I am preparing a series of her letters for publica* 
tion, which I wish to render as complete as pos- 
sible. Mabt Anne Evebett Gbebn. 

7. Upper Gower Street. 

Mixwr c^uerM. 

" Bonnie Dundee'^ — The tune to which Scott*s 
song, " The Bonnets of Bonnie Dundee," begin- 
" To the Lords of Convention 'twas Claver*se that spoke," 

is usually sung, is not the tune called " Bonnie 
Dundee," in Thomson's or Wood's Collection of 
Scotch Songs, In Scott's Diary (see Lockhart's 
Life, vol. vi. p. 170.), he says the words were 
written to the tune of " Bonnie Dundee." Now, 
is the tune, to which the words are generally sunff, 
an old air ? Is it the air of " Bonnie Dundee^* 
which was running in Scott's head, when he wrote 
the verses ; or what is the history of the air, if 
written to suit Scott's words ? H. B» 

Rev, William Mackay, — At the east end of 
Martham Church, Norfolk, are stones commemo- 
rative of the Mackay family, and until recently 
there was one commemorative of himself; it la 
now removed, owing to the decayed state of the 
tomb, and placed about the centre of the porch in 
the pathway ; it bears the following inscription : 

** In Memory of Wm. Mackay, Rector of Fishly, Vicar 
of Upton, Sequestrator of Ranworth, and Curate of Repps 
with Bastwick. Died July 13, 1752, aged eighty -seveik" 

Where can any account of the above be found ? 
Did he publish any theological work ; and if so^ 
what ? J. W. DiBOLL. 

Great Yarmouth. 

Doddridge and White field. — Long before the* 
existence of "N. & Q.,' I asked for an explana- 
tion of the following singular plagiarism through 
the medium of another periodical, but received no 
satisfactory reply. I trust I may be more fortu- 
nate in my present inquiry. 

In vol. IV. of Doddridge s Collected Worhs, there 
is a sermon on Luke x. 42., " One thing is need- 
ful;" and the same identical sermon appears 
amongst those of Whitefield, edit. London, 1825^ 
p. 312. 

Can any of your readers account for this as- 
tounding fact P C. W. Bingham. 

Jak. 20. 1855.] 



Tartar Conqueror. — Who is the Tartar con- 

Sueror referred to in the following passage of 
\, I. Wilberforce's Inquiry into the jPrincipIes of 
Church Authority^ and where is the statement to 
be found? 

** Those whose converse is onl^ with books, and who 
live in that circle of thoughts which is suggested by our 
creat divines, may imagine that the Church of England 
has one consistent system of teaching, and inculcates a 
single body of truth ; but experience dissipates the de- 
lusion, and shows such hopes to be like those of the 
Tartar conqueror, who discarded morning and evening 
prayer because he imagined himself to have reached the 
land of eternal sunshine." — P. 279. 

WiLUAM Fbases, B. C. L. 

Alton, Staffordshire. 

Clarkson Monument, — In 1827 a subscription 
-was set on foot for the erection of a monument 
near Wade's Mill, on the road to Cambridge, the 
spot where Thomas Clarkson conceived the idea 
of entering on his anti-slavery labours. Was the 
memorial erected ? X. 

Copying-ink. — For some years I have saved 
Ahe expense and the mistakes of an amanuensis in 
copying what I write, by taking fac-simile copies 
on damped tissue paper by the simple pressure of 
the hand. For this purpose I have used Tarling's 
copying-ink, and recently Plowman's. The former 
is frequently so deficient in gum as to fail in 
producing a distinct fac-simile ; and the latter so 
abundant as to smear or run when a copy is taken. 
Can any of your readers tell me what gum is the 
best, and how much should be put to a pint of 
•common black ink, and if any other ingredients 
must be added to produce a distinct fac-simile ? 


Van Lemput or Remee. — Since favoured by a 
reply in " N. & Q.," respecting the painter Van 
Lemput, I have in vain endeavoured to trace the 
issue of his sons. 

Perhaps one of your able correspondents could 
enlighten me farther on this point. I have been 
told they occasionally bore the name of Remee 
(from the father's name Remigius). The family 
is historically celebrated at Antwerp as well as in 
Utrecht. New Yobk. 

Inscription Query. — Between the leaves of my 
copy of Sylveira's Commentary on the Acts (fol., 
Venet, 1728), I found the other day a piece of 
paper, rather smaller than an ordinary visiting 
<5ard, with the followinff inscription printed on it, 
except the last numertu, which has been inserted 
Yfiih, the pen : 

*« Anno 1734. 
Capax est 
in Irschenberg." 

I shall be glad to receive an explanation of it from 
yourself or one of your correspondents. F. A. 

Professors, — What constitutes a professor? 
Many small individuals assume that title, and 
many good philosophers do not use it, although 
they give lectures of the highest quality. Mimi. 

Nuns acting as Priests in the Mass. — At a 
short distance from Schaffhausen, on the Swiss 
side of the Rhine, is a place called Diessenhofen, 
near which there is a convent of Dominican nuns 
dedicated to St. Catherine. In a Guide-book, 
entitled Nouvel Ehel. Manuel du Voyageur en 
Suisse et en Tyrol^ 10"* edit., revue et corriff^e 
par L. Maison, Paris, 1852, 1 find the following 
account of this convent (pp. 190, 191.) : 

*'Avant Diessenhofen, on voit le beau couvent dit de 
Ste. Catherine. II contient quarante religieuses avec nne 

Erieore. Du temps de la reformation, les nonnes dirent 
I messe, n'ayant pas de pr§tre, et choisirent Tune d*elles 
pour faire les fonctions de pr^dicateur. Les scaurs qui 
habitent maintenant ce convent, fond^ au xiii°>« sifecle, 
8*abstiennent de toute nourriture animale ; leur ^gllse est 
d^cor^e avec beaucoup de magnificence." 

What is the truth of this story ? Does it mean 
that one of the nuns actually performs the part of 
a priest in the Mass, as well as that of preacher ? 
And are we to infer, from the words " Du temps 
de la reformation," that the nuns of this place 
have taken upon themselves to act in this way, in 
consequence of having adopted some form of Pro« 
testantism ? 

Possibly some of your readers may be able to 
say whether there is any, and what, foundation 
for this singular statement. J. H. T. 


« What I spent,'' ^c. — The following epitaph 
is of course well known : 

« What I spent I had ; 
What I saved I lost ; 
What I gave I have.** 

But can you or any of your readers give the ori- 
ginal ? W. (1) 

Lord Audley at Poictiers. — Do the manuscripts 
preserved in Worcester College Library, Oxford, 
said to describe the achievements of Edward the 
Black Prince, with the names of his English at- 
tendants correctly spelt, contain those of the 
esquires who were companions of the great Lord 
Audley at the battle of Poictiers ? Battlefielp. 

" Cur mittis violas,^' SfC. — Jovianus Pontanus 
has a short poem commencing — 

** Cur mittis violas ? nempe ut violentius uret ; 
Quid violas violis me violenta tuis ?" 

I shall be thankful for a copy of the remaining 
lines, as I am unable, just at present, to lay my 
hands upon the works of this writer. Does Pon- 
tanus dally with other fiowers in this manner ? 

A. Challstbth. 



[Ko. MIX 

Trial of DareU of LUdecote. — Is there Any old 
book, or pampblet, giving the details of the trial 
of Darell of LittlecoteP L. (1) 

Penitentiaries for Females, — When was the 
£rgt penitentiary for the restoration of fallen wo- 
men establbhed ? Was there any penitential de- 
partment in any of the religious hoases 1l>efore the 
Beformation ? or is the penitentiary, as such, 
subsequent to that datef We read that St. Yin- 
c&at de Paul founded one in Paris under the 
superintendence of secular ladies ; but the insti- 
tution having very soon fallen into abuse, he 
placed it under the care of three nuns of a reli- 
gious order. This step created, we are told, a 
mreat deal of surprise at the time, and would 
tiierefore seem to prove that the Church in 
Jbrance lat least ihad not bad the penitentiary, as 
svch, previous to the lime of St. Vincent de Paul. 

Geo. NuaiE. 

Anglo-Saxon^ SfC, — Will some one of the Anglo- 
Saxon students who correspond in *^ N. & Q.** be 
so good as to inform a lady, whether it would be 
possible, with limited time and at small expense, 
to obtain a knowledge of that language ; and also 
to what extent it would be a useful assistant in 
the study of English etymology-? She would feel 
obliged by the titles of any French or Greranan 
works equivalent in those languages to the Dvoer^ 
sums of Purley and the works of Messrs. Trench, 
Loiwer, &c. in our own. A Kiuldss. 

Cowley on Shakspeare. — I have a memorandum 
that Cowley was of opinion that the grosser pas- 
sages in the plays of Shakspeare were interpolated 
by the players, but cannot find the particular 
reference. If any of your readers are acquainted 
with it, perhaps they would kindly make the re- 
quisite extract, whidh would 'be worth a place in 
"N. & Q." independently of any personal object. 

J. O. H. 

Theophilus Iscanus. — Who was Theophilus 
Iscanus, who appeared on Bishop .HaH's side in 
•the Smectjrranuan Controversy, in a tract entitled 
Philaddpius vapulans against Lewis du Moulin? 
He dedicates the work to Bishop Hall ; and from 
the dedication it would appear that he was one of 
his lordshicTs chaplains. It would appear that 
Bishop Hau had a chaplain named Jackson ; and 
if so, can any information be obtained regarding 
him? W.H. C. 

Niagara, — What is the supposed depth of 
water as it passes over the edge of the rock in 
this matchless waterfall ? Mim. 

" The Schoolmaster, or Teacher of PhOosopkieJ* 
— I have an old black-letter tract, bound up with 
some others, about 1607-8, signed T. T., and with 
the running title of " Table PhUosophie :** unfor- 
tunately, the title-page is wanting : could any of 
your correspondents favour me with an exact 
copy of the title-page ? To assist in the identic 
fication, I may add, that in the preface, vThich is 
printed in Romain tjpe, the author lias tbsM 
words : '* And for this cause I fatve determined 
to intitle this work The Schoolmaster, or Teacher 
of Table Philosophies and have divided the same 
into foure severall partes.** And then he goes on 
to give the " argument thereof.'* W. H. C. 


[Thk work is by Thomas Twinfi or Twyne. The fol- 
lowing is acopv of the title-po^e: — ''The Schoolemastar, 
or Teacher of Table Phylosophie. A most pleasant and 
merie Companion, well worthy to be welcomed (for a 
dayly Gheast) not onelye to all mens booide, to gnid» 
them with moderate and holsome dyet; but sibo into 
eaery mans companie at all tymes, to recreat their 
mindes, with honest. mirth and delectable deaiaes: to 
simdry pleasant purposes of pleasure and pastymt. 
% Gathered out of diuers, the best approued Anctbors : 
and deaided into ibare pithy and pleasant Treatises, em 
ft may appeare by the contentes. % Imprinted at Loo- 
don by Kichard lohnes, dwelling at the Signe of the 
Bose and the Crown, neere Holburne Bridge. 1£88.*'3 

Conway e: Booh of Prayers, — I have in nqr 
possession a curious and early book of pray^es 
entitled : 

'* Meditations and Praiers gathered out of the Sacred 
liOttBrs and Yertaous Writers, disposed in Foarme of .the 
Alphabet of the Qoeene her Most Excellent Majesties 
Name. Imprinted at London in Fleet Street, by Henry 

The dedication to Elizabeth is signed J. Con- 
waye. Any information respecting the volume 
or its compiler will oblige. Vbuat. 


[Sir John Conway, of Arrow, in Warwickshire, being a 
person of great skill in military affairs, was made governor 
of Ostend by Robert, Earl of Leicester, Dec. l9, 1586 
(29 Elizabeth), the said Earl being then general of the 
Engliidi auxiliaries in behalf of the States of the United 
Provinces. From some cause or other, Sir John wfs 
made a prisoner ; as the Harleian MS. No. 287, fol. 102» 
contains *' an original letter of Sir John Conway to Sir 
Francis Walsin^ham, dated at Ostend, Sept. 8, 1588» 
concerning his imprisonment, and of the uses that nur^ 
be made of Bemey lihe spy, who has great credit wkh 
the Prince of Parma." Daring his confinemsnt, Sir John 
wrote his " Posye of Flowred Praiers '* on his trencher, 
" with leathv penseU of leade." He died Oct. 4, 1608. 
See Dugdale^ JFarwiciahire, vol. ii. pp. 860. 852., edit 

" Tableau de Parish* — Who is the author of a 
work, which appears to have been produced 
periodically, entitled Tablesm de Paris f The 
edition I peneis is in twehns volumes octavo, and 

Jajt. 2a 1855.] 



on its tide-page there ia " Nouvdle edition, cor- 
Tig6e et augmenti^e, k Amsterdam, 1783." In 
the Avertissement des Editeurs it is called an 
edition in four Tolumes, and anot;her edition of 
-Le Sieur SamuBl Fauche pere is spoken of as a 
defective copy of the first edition in two volumes 
wbich appeared in June, 1781, and ^whicb, ap- 
pearing at a distance of a hundred leagues from 
£he author, is itself irery imperfect.*' Amom. 

[This work is by Lonis-S^bastien Mercier, according to 
Barbier, DicHonncnre des Qtevrages, See also Qu^rssd^ La 
France lattSraire, ». «.] ' 

Long S. — Is it known what adventurous printer, 
and at what date, first disused the long sf In a 
cursory examination of several books, the latest 
which I find printed with the long s is The Di- 
versions of Parley^ printed by J. Johnson, 1805. 
Probably some of your correspondents remember 
noticing the innovation, which seems to have taken 
place soon after 1800. Eden Wabwiok. 

[Mr. J. Bell, bookseller m the Strand, who printed and 
published an edition of Shakspeare, The BritUh Theatre, 
and The Poets, about 1795, first set the example, which 
soon became general, of discarding the long f. As the 
Elzevir type is now coming into feshion, the long f, and 
its combinations, will remind us of olden times.] 

Ttco Stimames joined by AHas. — One ia con- 
tinually meeting this, as ^^ Simon Sudbury, alias 
Tibold, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1381." Per- 
haps some of your readers would obligingly assign 
the reason of it ? AujkB. 


^Godwin, in his Catalogue of the Bishops cf England, 
p. 101., thus explains it: ** This Simon was the sonne of 
a gentleman named Kigellos Tibold, so that liis tnie 
name was Simon Tibold. But he was borne at Sudbur}', 
a town of Suffolk, in the parish of S. George, and of that 
towne tooke his name, according to the manner of many 
cleargymen in those daies." See a notice of this prelate 
in « N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 194.] 

Sir Thomas Tresham. — In what work can I 
find a detailed account of Sir Thomas Tresham, 
father of the Gunpowder Plot conspirator ? 

K P. H. 

[Some few notices of Sir Thomas Tresham may be 
gleaned from Bridges' Northamptonshire, vol. ii. pp. 324. 
874., &c. ; Fuller's Worthies, art. Northamptonshire; 
Leland's Itiaeran/i, vol. vi. p. 38. ; Beauties of England 
and Wales, vol. xi. p. 169. ; and Gent. Mag. for August, 
1808, p. '680.] 

Colophon, — Unde derivatur ? J. M. 

[ColoiJhon is derived from a city of that name in Ionia, 
acsth-wett (^ Ephesus, and one of the places that con- 
tended Ibr tilfce birth of Homer. The C<^ophonians were 
excellent honemen, and generally turned the scale on 
the side on which they fought ; hence the proverb, 
*'KoAo^oJva imr^ivcu."* — **to add a Colophonian '* — put 
the iftnisfaing hand to an affitir ; hmce also, in the early 
periods of printhig, the last .thing printed at the end of 
:ihe lioak was «8U£l the oehf^om. The aama phiaae 'was 

used by the Romans, as well as by Erasmus, whose-words 
are CobuahoTiem addidi — " I have put the finishing touoh 
to it." Consult Lempri^re's Classical Diet, by Anthon and 
Barker, and Thomas s Sxst. of Frtating in America, voLi. 
p. 14.] 

NotHngham Biots. — WiU you inform me where 
I can meet with a good account of the Nottingham 
Riots, which took place some time about the paas- 
ing of the Re£(yaa Bill ? W. E. Howx^btt. 

Kirton in Lindseiy. 

[A long .accoont of iSie riots at Ndtfingham on the 
memorable days of Oct 9th, 10th, and Ilt^ 1831, when 
the castle and Mr. Lowe's silk mill were demolished, will 
be found in the Nottingham Journal of Oct 15, 1831, and 
in the Nottingham Iteview of Oct. 14, 1831, which was 
most probably copied into -the London papers.] 



(VoL vTi., p. 286. ; Vol. x., p. 530.) 

I shall be very much obliged to A. K. M., 
M. L. B., or to any other correspondent of " K.^ 
Q.,** to furnish me with particulars of the ancestry 
of this worthy reformer. 

As a clue, I will recite all that Iliave been able, 
with limited resources, to collect. William Bill, 
D.D., was appointed Master of St. Jolm*s Collm;ey 
Cambridge, in 1546. He was invited to Trinity 
College, and became the second master on that 
foundation in 1551. Queen Mary ejected him in 
1553, and he was restored by Queen Elizabeth in 
1558. In the following year Dr. Bill was ap- 
pointed, with several other learned divines, Arxsh- 
bishop Parker being at their head, to take a re- 
view of the two liturgies of King Edward YI^ and 
to frame from them a Book of Common Prayer 
for the use of the Church of England. On the 
21st of May, 1560, Queen Elizabeth refounded .tiie 
establishment at Westminster Abbey as a col- 
legiate church, to be governed by a dean and 
chapter, and appointed I>r. Bill to be the first 
dean. He died 15th June, 1561, in possession of 
the Deanery, the Mastership of Trinity College^ 
and, I believe, the Provostship of Eton. Burke, 
in his Armory^ says that Dr. Bill's niece, the heir 
of his elder brother Thomas Bill, of Ashwell, co. 
Hertford, married James Haydock of Greywell, 
CO. Southampton. In his JExtinct Baronetage, 
under the family Samwell he says that Francis 
Samwell, Esq., of Cotsford, co. Oxford, who re- 
moved first to the town of Northampton, and 
aflerwards settled at Rothersthorpe in that diire, 
was auditor to Henry VIII., and married Mary, 
sister to the Eev. William Bill, D.D., of Aahwd, 
CO. Hertford, almoner to Queen Elizabeth, by 
whom he had issue Sir William Samwell, auditor 
to Queen EIiza(beth, Inughted by James X^ .and 
ancest<ir of ^the IxuBoneta dfthatwuily. 




portraits in chalk ; and, lastly, Mr. Thurston Thompson's 
copies of the Raphael drawings belonging to Her Majesty. 
Had w« but these, we should scarcely envy Her Majesty 
the poasession of the origpinals. 

Epigram quoted hy: Lord Derby (Yol. x., 
p. 524.); — Lord Derby, as reported, certainly 
misquoted the epigram, but so does Jatdee in its 
best point. The true and pungent reading is, — 

**-Lord Chatham with his sword undrawn, 
Is waiting for Sir Richard Strachan; 
Sir Richard longing to be at them. 
Is waiting for the Earl of Chatham." 

Unlike moat epigrams, the point was in the first 
line, the ** sword, undlraiim^" I well remember its 
first appearance (in, I think, the Morning Ghro^ 
mde)\ and we thou^t it was Jekyirs ; some one 
afterwards added a couplet, not very neatly ex- 
press^, but quite as near the historical truth as 
tbe rest: 

"What then, in mischieTs z»me, can stop *fem?' 
They both are waiting* for Hi>me Popham." 


Cutritmi Ceremony at QueenHs College, Oxford 
fVofc X., p; 306^ — The practice of scholars wait- 
uig, upon the E^lows* table was discontinued in 
the year 1796^ I am assured, by one who has 
himself waited in this way, that the ceremony al- 
luded to by Di^ BiBffrington. waa &. jokey never a 
practice. H; H}. Wood. 

Qli6en?s Coll. 

Anastatic Printing (Vol. x., pp. 2S8. 364.). — In 
rqjly to your correspondent J. P., I beg. to ob- 
sttrre. that he will obtain iJie information he re- 
cpMJXa in. a. work publi^ed in IS4B by Bbyne, 
enttliied On the various Applicationa of AmastoUc 
PrinUng: ami Papyrography^^ by P.. £L De la 
MbMe;. J. H^Ggtch. 

Fuar^ Garden (Vol. x.,. p. 4fiS0-— '^Mm J. Ei>. 
moftms will find the foUbwing mention of Lt made 
in: Mr. Gunnih^amV Hemddook ; 

<*A manor or liberty on the Banksidte ia Soothwark, so 
called, ftom Robert da Paris, who had a house and garden 
thavft in Richard II.'s< time, who by proclamation or- 
daiiied that the bntchers of London should buy that 
gaxdan for the: receipt of their ^acbage- and entrails of the end the city might not be- auioyed. thereby. 
^-Bdonnt'i^ Ghiauanjphia, ed. 1B81, p« 473. 

« Thia manor anerwasds appertained;, to the monastery 
of St Scviour'S, Bermondsey, and at. the dissolution to 
Henry YIII. It was sub6e(|ueBtly held by Thomaa Cure, 
founder of the alma>housesin Sontluradc which bear hia 
and. last- of all' by Rich.. Tavemer aixd WiUlauL 

"A. circus existed in the mmor of Paris Oai^den, erected 
for bidl and bear-baiting, as early as tho 17 Henry VIIL, 
wiien the Eari of Northumberiand iavsaid (inr the House- 
liDld Book of the family) to have gpDfrta PariaGasdea to 

behold the bear-baiting, there. The best view of Parifr 
Garden Theatre forms the frontispiece to the second. 
volume of Collier's Annals of the StageJ*^ 

J. H. GuTCtt 

''Biding Bodkin'' (Vol. x., p. 524.). — I pre- 
sume N. L. T. had exhausted all the sources of 
information usually attainable, such as JobnsonV 
Dictionary and its confreres, before he burthened 
your paper with the Query above referred to. I 
therefore give an explanation as given to me more 
than once by a learned man and diligent antiquary, 
the late Henry Thomas Payne, Archdeacon of 
St. David's. ** Bodkin" is body kin (little body), 
as manikin (little man), and was a little person to 
whose company no objection could be made on 
account of room occupied by the two persons ac- 
commodated in the corners of the carriage. 

, Gborse E. Fbbxk. 


Spanish Epigram (Vol. x., p. 445.). — May not 
J. P. R. have mistaken the following Italian for a 
Spanish epigram, in praise of small things some- 
times enfolding in themselves the largest value ? 
A huge lump of coal cries out : 

" Bench^. son' nevo, sono gigante.'' 

I To this boast a tiny but sparkling speok of dia-^ 
I mond answers : 

*« Bench^ son* piccolo, sono brillante." 


Abigail Hill (Vol. x., p. 206.).— The notorioiia, 
Mrs. (a Lad^) Masham was daughter of Francis 
Hill, a Turkey merchant, and sister of General 
John Hill of Enfield Green. Her husband Samuel 
Masham was in 1711 created Lord Masham^ wfaiok 
title expired with his son Samuel, the second bacon^ 
in 1776. 

Can any of your correspondents^ mform me 
whether Sir Scipio Hill, baronet of Scotland^ waa 
connected with this^ family, or whiok was hm 
parentage ? He was certainly an Englishman; and. 
in the notice of his death in 1729, he is called ''s 
gentleman whose character is very well knawn.? 
He was a colonel in the army, and served in Scotr- 
land, where he was concerned in the massacce of 
Glencoe. From a litigation in 1 7 1 1 in the Scottish 
courts, he seems to have been a gambler* &. B. 

A Russian and an English Regiment (Vol. xi»,^ 
p. 8.). — CoiJBBiDGE*s Fbiund has, ludicrousl/' 
enough,, kicked down his own anecdote ; for he 
says that the critic on national physiognomies that 
he quotes was in truth so miserable a judge as to 
mistake Colbridgs^s Fbi£Nd for a Neapolitan., 
I do not remember when a. Russian and an English 
regiment were likely to have been drawn up in 
the same square at Naples ; but if both regiments 
had been English or both Russian, but that one 
had been clean shaven^ while the other wore beards 

Jan. 20. 1855.] 



the phrase ecrasez Vinfame could never have been 
understood by any one as applicable to Jesus 
Christ. The fact is, infdme is an adjective, and is 
the same in both genders. When used as a noun, 
as in the passage from Voltaire, the elision leaves 
it doubtful whether the article intended be le or 
la ; nor is this uncertainty removed till we come 
to la and elle in the subsequent part of the sen- 
tence. Henry H. Bbeen. 
St. Lucia. 


(Vol. X., pp. 242. 355, 356. 510.) 

Mr. Hayeses suggestion as to the probable cir- 
cumstance which led the Greek surgeons to stop 
hollow teeth, is, I think, inadequate, especially as 
the fact of the imbedding of a grape or any other 
seed in the hollow of a decayed tooth would not 
afford relief; on the contrary, the swelling of the 
seed after it had remained awhile in such a po- 
sition, would produce inconvenience, pain, and 
sometimes intense suffering, as I have more than 
once experienced. It is, however, matter of less 
importance whence the practice was derived, than 
whether we possess reliable evidence of the fact, 
nor is it affected by the condition of the material 
used. Teeth were stopped with several intentions, 
-r-to prevent their breaking during extraction, to 
preserve them, and to alleviate pain. Celsus gives 
the following advice as to the first : 

** Turn, si fieri potest, manu ; si minus, fbrfice dens ex- 
cipiendus. Ac, si exesus est, ante id foramen vel lina- 
mento, vel bene accommodato pluTnho replendam est." — 
lib. vn. c. xii. 

How the lead was prepared for this purpose we 
have no information. 

Paulus -SJgineta (Adams's Trans., published by 
the Sydenham Society), vol. ii. p. 294., also ad- 
vises the filling a carious tooth with a small tent, 
with the same object as mentioned by Celsus. 
Marcellus recommends filling a hollow tooth with 
gum from the ivy to prevent its falling out. Se- 
rapion, the filling a like tooth, and painful, with 

As regards filing teeth, Paulus ^gineta advises 
that an unusually large tooth, or the projecting 
portion of a broken one, be scraped away with a 
JUe* Albucasis gives directions for filing down 
the teeth for fastening them with gold threads, 
and gives drawings for extracting the fangs of 
teeth. (P. JEginet., ut supra, vol. ii. p. 295.) 

The references given to Mr. Hayes by M. D. 
will supply him with a vast amount of information 
on the subject to which he has turned his at- 
tention. R.WiLBRAHAM Falconer, M.D. 


photographic correspondence. 

BromO'iodide of Silver. — I have read the communi- 
cations of Mr. Leachman and Mr. Ltte on this photo- 
genic agent with much interest, and in reply I beg to 
offer the following observations. Mr. Leachman proves 
that bromide of silver is entirely dissolved in a saturated 
solution of muriate of ammonia, and that bromo-iodid6 of 
silver (for such is, in fact, the precipitate he forms, though 
he doubts it) is altogether insoluble in that menstruum. 

Mr. Lyte proves that iodide of silver and the "so- 
called bromo-iodide of silver," when digested in strong 
lia. amm., are each similarly acted upon by an excess of 
dilute nitric acid. He then forms a true bromo-iodide of 
silver, but in such combination as to exhibit the same 
kind of milkiness which occurs with pure bromide of 
silver on the addition of an acid ; and hence he leads to 
the conclusion that bromide, and not iodide, of silver is 
exhibited by this experiment ; whereas Mr. Leaohmak 
thinks that by his experiment on the same double com- 
pound, the precipitate cannot be bromide of silver at all, 
but must evidently be the iodide. In this point of view, 
therefore, to use a legal formula, the case is one of Lytk 
V. Leachman. 

I now offer with some confidence the following expert" 
mentum crucis, as a proof of the accuracy of my former 
statement: — Form bromide of silver by the addition of 
the nitrate to bromide of potassium ; wash the precipitate, 
and dissolve it in an' excess of bromide of potassium. It 
is scarcely necessary to say that bromide of silver is 
thrown down on diluting this solution with water. 
Next, form iodide of silver and dissolve it in an excesa of 
iodide of potassium. Mix the two solutions together to 
form a bromo-iodide of silver ; and should any cloudiness 
appear, it is immediately removed by the addition of a 
few grains of iodide of potassium. Now the addition of 
water to this compound so entirely throws down the 
whole, both of the bromide and iodide of silver (or, as we 
may now term it, the bromo-iodide of silver), that not a 
trace of silver is to be found in the filtered supernatant 
fluid. Hydrochloric acid, that stem detector of silver, 
leaves it as clear as rock-crystal. I Cannot devise a more * 
stringent formula of verification as to the correctness of 
Dr. Diamond's theory ; and when we find that in prac- 
tice the results he obtains can be arrived at by no other 
method, it is probable that his present opponents will be 
converts to his views. J. B. Readb» 

The Photographic ExhUniion.^ The display of photo- 
graphic pictures this year is most satisfactory ; not only 
as showing the gradual progress and general improve- 
ments of the art, but also for the evidence it affords of 
the many purposes to which the art is applicable. We 
cannot enter into details of the beauty of the landscapes, 
&c., by Mr. Fenton, Mr. Delamotte, Mr. Leverett, Mr. 
Stokes*, &c ; of Mr. MayalPs admirable portraits and won- 
drous stereoscopic likenesses ; of the excellence of some 
of the small collodion positives exhibited by Mr. Rosling; 
of the ♦* clouds" and portraits of Mr. Hennah ; or of the 
promising pictures of Mr; Lake Price: all these, excellent 
as they are, belong, with the exception perhaps of Mr. 
Price's works, to general photograph}^ — and admirable 
they are. But there are some of the more special pur- 
poses to which photography has been applied with most 
satisfactory results, to which we would rather direct 
attention. Its application to the physiognomy of disease, 
as shown by Dr. Diamond's "Melancholy;'* to the 
microscope, as shown by Mr. Kingsley's beautiful illus- 
trations of the " Breathmg Svstem of Insects," &c ; are 
striking instances of this. Not less so are the Count 
de Montizon's '^zoological portraits, which make him the 
Landseer of photography j Mr. Contencin's copies of 




portraits in chalk ; and, lastly, Mr. Thurston Thompson's 
copies of the Raphael drawinffs belonging to Her Majesty. 
Had we but these, we should scarcely envy Her Majesty 
the possession of the originals. 

WifflM to Smnav ^tttrM. 

Epigram quoted hy Lord Derby (Yol. x., 
p. 524.); — Lord Derby, as reported, certainly 
misquoted the epigram, but so does Jatdbb in its 
best point. The true and pungent reading b, — 

**-Lord Chatham with his sword undrawn. 
Is waiting for Sir Richard Strachan ; 
Sir Richard longing to be at them. 
Is waiting for the Earl of Chatham." 

Unlike most epigrams, the point was in the first 
line, the *' sword undrawn," I well remember its 
first appearance (in, I think, the Morning ChrO" 
mde)\ and we thought it was JekylPs ; some one 
afterwards added a couplet, not very neatly ex- 
pressed, but quite as near the historical truth as 
the rest : 

**'What then, in mischiisrs name, can stop 'fem ? 
They both are waitingfor Home Popham.** 


Curiout Ceremony at QueeiCe College^ Oxford 
fVoU X., p; 3O60 — The practice of scholars wait- 
ing, upon the Fallows* table was discontinued in 
the year 1796. I am assured, by one who has 
himself waited in this way, that the ceremony al- 
luded to by D& Barrington. waa &. jokey never a 
practice. n; HL Wood. 

Qpaenfs Coll. 

Anastatic Printing (Vol. x., pp. 2S8. 364.). — In 
reply to your correspondent «f. P., I beg to ob- 
senre that he will obtain the information he re- 
quires in. a. work published in 1848 by Boyne, 
entitled On the various Applications of Anastatic 
Pnniing. and Papyrographyn by P.- K. De la 
MbMe; J. fi. Gutch. 

Farit Garden (Vol. x., p. 4fiS.);— Mm J. Ed- 
wmxns will find the foUbwing mention of it made 
in: ]|fr. Cunnihg^am*s Handbook ; 

**A manor or liberty on the Bankside in. Soothwark, so 
called Aram Robert de Paris, who had a house and garden 
then: in RiehaM II.'8> time, who by proclamation or* 
djdnsd that the butchers of London should buy that 
gwdan for the receipt of their garbage- and entrails of the end the city might not be- annoyed, thereby. 
— Blount'^ Ghiiuaraphia, ed. 1681, p« 478. 

** This manor afterwaisds appertained- to the monastery 
of St Skmour's, Bermondsey, and at the dissolution to 
Henry YIII. It was subsecpeBtly held by Thoma»Cure, 
founder of the alma-houses m Southjwadc which bear his 
name ; and Ust of allf by Rich. Tavemer and WilUam 

<* A.ciicus existed' in themanorof Paris Gacden, eractod 
fSor bull and bear-baiting, as early as the 17 Henry VIIL, 
wiien the £ari of Northumberiand is^said (in th* Howe* 
fanld Book of the ianuly) tor hav« gpoftto EariaGaniea to 

behold the bear-baiting there. The best view of Paris- 
Garden Theatre forms the frontispiece to the second, 
volume of Collier's AnnaU of the Sta^:* 


''Riding Bodkin" (Vol. x., p. 524.). — I pre- 
sume K. L. T. had exhausted all the sources of 
information usually attainable, such as JohnsonV 
Dictionary and its confreres, before he burthenedi 
I your paper with the Query above referred to. I 
I therefore give an explanation as given to me more 
I than once by a learned man and diligent antiquary, 
the late Henry Thomas Payne, Archdeacon of 
St. David's. ** Bodkin" is bodykin (little body), 
as manikin (little man), and was a little person to 
whose company no obiection could be made on 
account of room occupied by the two persons ac- 
commodated in the corners of the carriage. 

, Gborgb £. Fbbbv. 


Spanish Epigram (Vol. x., p. 445.). — May not 
J. r. R. have mistaken the following Italian for a 
Spanish epigram, in praise of small things some- 
times enfolding in themselves the largest value f 
A huge lump of coal cries out : 

** Bench^ son' nevo, sono giganta." 

To this boast a tiny but sparkling speok of dis* 
mond answers : 

♦* Bench^ son* piccolo, sono briUante." 


AbigaU Hill rVol. x., p. 206.) — The notorioua. 
Mrs. (a Lady) Masham was daufrhter of Francis 
Hill, a Turkey merchant, and sister of General 
John Hill of Enfield Green. Her husband Samuel 
Masham was in 1711 created Lord Masham, whiok 
title expired with his son Samuel, the second bacon,, 
in 1776. 

Can anjr of your correspondents mform me 
whether Sir Scipio Hill, baronet of Scotland,. w«s 
connected with this family, or whiob was hia^ 
parentage ? He waa certainly an Englishman ; aod 
in the notice of his death in 1729, he is called "ar 
gentleman whose character is very well known.!* 
He was a colonel in the army, and served in Scot^ 
land, where he was concerned in the massacre of 
Glencoe. From a litigation in 1 7 1 1 in the Scottish 
courts, he seems to have been a gambler. &. B. 

A Russian and an English Regiment (Vol. xL„ 
p. 8.). — GoLBBiDQB*8 Fbibnd has, ludicrously 
enough,, kicked down his own anecdote; for ha 
says that the critic on national physiognomies that 
he quotes was in truth so miserable a judge as to 
mistake Golbbu>os*s Fbijsmd for a Neanolitan^ 
I do m)t remember when a Russian and an English, 
regiment were likely ta have been drawn up ia 
the same square at Naples ; but if both regiments 
had been English or both Russian, but that one 
had been dean shaven^ while the other wore beards 

J AS. 20. 1855.] 



and moustaches, a looker-on would see more indi- 
vidualitj of countenance in the regiment that was 
shaven. NovACOLiu 

^ The Episcopal Wig (Vol. xL, p. 11.).-- 1 be- 
lieve that the first bishops that appeared without 
wigs in the House of Lords were some of the 
Irish bishops after the Union. I remember par- 
ticularly that Archbishop Beresford, who had a 
very fine figure, a bald patriarchal head, and most 
benevolent expression of countenance, made a 
great and favourable impression amongst his pe- 
rvqued brethren of England ; but the custom was 
not general even on the Irish bench. The adop- 
tion of it bj English bishops has been recent. I 
remember to have heard, fifty years ago, that an 
English bishop, whose name 1 heard but have for- 
gotten, applied to George III. for his sanction to 
leave off the wig, alleging that the bishops of even 
as late as the seventeenth century wore, as their 
pictures testified, their own hair. "Yes^ my 
lord," said the king, " but the same pictures show 
that they then also wore beards and moustachios. 
I suppose you would hardly like to carry out the 
precedent. I think a. distinction, of some sort 
necessary, and I am satisfied with that which I 
find established." C. 

I believe that the present Bishop of London 
was the first to commence the disuse of the un- 
sightly and unecclesiastical wig. When a loyalist 
Cantab appeared in the recently imported 
Louis XIv . wig, Charles II. issued an order for- 
bidding such imitation of lay costume. Tillotson 
is the first bishop represented in a wig, and wrote 
a sermon to defend himself. The archbishops and 
Bishops of Gloucester and Durham done retain 
it, I believe. Aim- Wig. 

Ribhonf of Recruiting SergeaTits (Vol. xi., p. 11.). 
-- Allow me to answer Russeiol Gole by asking 
him in return why cockades are worn ? why 
ribbons are worn by parties at elections ? why by 
benefit clubs on Whit Monday? why by Eree- 
masons ? why by horses in a fair ? why by ladies 
at all times?' and why by princes, lords^ and 
heroes when they can get them — blue, green, or 
red? Simply for distinction,, to attract attention. 


Recruiting^ ribbons show the colours of the 
clothing of the particular regiment for which the 
party is employed. We have red, white, and blue 
for a royal regiment, the red cloth, white lace, and 
blue icings : other corps have yellow, sreen, buff, 
black and purple ; m, such cases no blue is em* 
ployed in the cockade and^ ita streamers. 


Account, of ^e Jubilee (YoLxLt p* 13.). — An 
account of the. celebratiou of the jubilee was 

the Commercial Herald^ Birmingham^ either iu 
the year 1809. or IB 10; and bears as a frontisK 
piece a very excellent portrait of George III.,, 
drawn and engraved by F. Egginton of Birming^* 
ham. The volume consists of 203 pages; and. 
contains, according to the alphabetical order of: 
the counties, accounts, in some instances copious,, 
of the rejoicings upon this occasion in the various 
cities, towns, and villages in the kingdom. I. 
should have stated, that the. book. begins with the; 
celebration; of the jubilee in the metropolis. The- 
title-page states that the compilation was made 
by a lady, the wife of a naval officer. This was 
really the case. Her name was Davis, and sha 
resided at Solihull, Warwickshire. The expenses, 
of the work were defrayed by subscription^ of 
which the book furnishes- the names of nearly- 
350 subscribers. The profits were given to the 
Sbciiety for the Relief of Prisoners confined fiu: 
Small Debts. The work, is curious, and I know 
of no other similar account of this celebrated 
national rejoicing. From some knowledge of the 
family of the printer of the work, I think it may 
be stated that but few copies found their wa^ to 
other persons than the subscribers. 

John Woddjbbspooh. 

True Crossi Selic cf, in the Tower (ToL li,, 
pi 1:2.). — I am enabled so'far to enlEgfaien< J. A. D; 
on the above, as to inform him l^at I haire seen* ar 
small piece of wood, with accompanying docu^ 
ments attesting that it was a p<N:tion. of the stunip, 
of the true Cross,, and that it waa formerly kept ia. 
the Tower of London among the jewels of Kinjg'. 
James I. I begged a splinter of this, and have it* 
still ; set in a suv^fillagree cross, with crystal on 
both sides, in tiie form, of a crosa. It is move 
than thirty years since tl^s occurred, but I r8f 
member thinking the attestations very curious 
and worthy of credit. If I do not mistaise^ tRej 
accounted for the way in which* the supposed 
relic was removed from the Tower, and- came inUr 
the possession of the party who then held' it. BT 
I can obtain farther particulars, they shall he* 
given ; but, at tiiis distance of time, I almost de- 
spair of finding the person in whose- hands tfto. 
treasure thai remained. F.. C. HnssziBflTH. 

TkekutJaco^es (Yoi x.,,p.507.).— Valentiaftt 
Lord Cloncurry was a nobliemao who waa oni verjp 
intimate terms* with Cardinal York. Whether 
he was one who " indulged the hojje of placing 
him upon the throne of Great Britain" or not, X 
cannot say. But it.looiu suspiciou8|. when we bear 
in mind that as a young man he joined, heart aad 
soul, the aQti<-govemmait party, was^ an UnitedTi 
Irishman,^ became a member of the- Exeouti^er- 

J „_ directory of the United Irish. Soeiaty, wrota m. 

printed in quarto by Mr. R. Jabety^gcopmetor of . pamphlei,. and booomiiig.aiL object of g^vemaieBAw 



[No. 273. 

suspicion, was arrested in 1798, and examined 
several times before the privy council. A twelve- 
month later the government again arrested him, 
and kept him in the Tower for two years. In his 
autobiography, amongst some sketches of his visits 
to France and Italy, he thus speaks of the last of 
the Stuarts : 

"Amongst the prominent members of Roman society in 
those days was the last of the Stuarts, Cardinal York, 
with whom I became somewhat of a favourite, probably 
by virtue of addressing him as * Majesty,* and thus going 
a step farther than the Duke of Sussex, who was on 
familiar terms with him, and always applied to him the 

style of Royal Highness. ' Upon the occasion of 

my visit to Frascati, I presented the cardinal with a tele- 
scope, which he seemed to fancy, and received from him 
in return the large medal struck in honour of his acces- 
sion to his unsubstantial throne. Upon one side of this 
medal was the royal bust, with the cardinal's hat, and the 
words * Henricus nonus Dei gratia rex ; * and upon the 
other the arms of England, with the motto on the exergue, 
* Hand desideriis hommum, sed voluntate Dei.* " — PerMonal 
lUcollectkms of the Life and TimeSy ^c. of Lord Cloncurry : 
Dublin, McGlashan. 


DnddTs Circle (Vol. x., p. 524.). —In Rhodes's 
Peak Scenery it is said : 

**Near Middleton-by-Youlgrave we found the cele- 
brated Druidical monument of Arber-LoWt one of the most 
striking remains of antiquity in any part of Derbyshire. 
This circle includes an area of from forty to fifty yards 
diameter, formed by a series of large unhewn stones, not 
standing upright, but all laid on the ground, with an 
inclination towards the centre : round these, the remains 
of a ditch, circumscribed by a high embankment, may be 
traced. Near the south entrance into this circle, there is 
a mount or burial-place ; in which some fragments of an 
urn, some half-burnt bones, and the horns of a stag were 

Your correspondent L. M. M. R. will observe 
the name is Arher-Low^ not Arbelon, as stated in 
the Query. . John Algos. 

Bishop Andrewes^ Puns (Vol. ix., p. 350.). — 
The play upon words, so frequent in the sermons 
of that holy man, was the vice of the age. A few 
instances will, probably, suffice your correspon- 
dent : 

" Their anointing may dry up, or be wiped off ; and so 
kings be unchristed, cease to be Christi Domini." — 
Serm. IIL on Growrie's Conspiracy, p. 66. 

** The train ready, and the match ; they stayed but for 
the con, for the time, till all were con; that is, simul 
swnpH, and then consumpti should have straight come 
upon all." — 76. Sermon IV. p. 266. 

Some curious particulars might be collected 
respecting quaint texts and sermons, such as that 
of the Dean of St. Stephen's, when Vienna was 
relieved by King John Sobieski of Poland (St. 
John i. 6.) ; and that of Dr. South before the 
Merchant Taylors' Company : " A remnant shall 
be saved," Romans ix. 27. ; and Dr. Gardiner's 
Sermon on Derbyshire, (Select, from Gent. Mag., 
Tol. iii. p. 420.) Mackbnzib Walcott, M.A. 

Bolinghroke^s Advice to Swift (Vol. x.,p. 346.). — 

" Nourrisser bien votre coips ; ne le fatiguer jamais ; 
laisser rouiller Pesprit, meuble inutil, votre outil dan- 
ffereux ; laisser souper nos cloches le matin pour ^veiller 
les chanoines, et pour faire dormir le doyen d un sommeol 
doux et profond, qui lui procure de beaux songes ; levez- 
vous tard," &c. ^ 

The mistakes in this quotation are all reducible 
to misprints. The verbs " nourrisser," " fatiguer," 
" laisser " (the imperative mood being intended) 
should terminate in z instead of r ,* inutil should 
be inutile, and nos is a misprint for vos, unless 
it can be supposed that Bolingbroke meant to 
describe himself as one of the canons of St. 
Patrick's. The only difficulty is the word souper^ 
where Bolingbroke is made to recommend that the 
bells should be allowed to have their supper, and 
that too in the morning. Mr. Inqlebt suggests 
soupir, or, as better still, s^assoupir: but, in my 
opinion, neither is admissible. Laisser soupir is ob-' 
viously incorrect: soupir is a noun, and laisser 
requires after it a verb in the infinitive mood. 
Soupirer (which was probably what Me. Inglebt 
intended) would give us the bells performing the 
functions of " breathing " or " sighing." Again, as 
regards s'assoupir, to say laisser s^assoupir nos 
cloches would oe to recommend that the bells 
should be kept motionless ; and in that state how 
could they eveUler les chanoines f 

I have no doubt the word used by Bolingbroke 
was sonner, both 'because the variation from that 
word to souper is little more than the lengthening 
of the first stroke of the second n ; and also be- 
cause it is the only expression which will give us 
the effect of awaking the canons : 

" Let your bells be rung in the morning, to awake the 
canons, and induce in the dean a sweet and profound aleep^ 
accompanied by pleasing dreams ; rise late," &c. 

Henry H. Breen. 

St. Lucia. 

Old Almanacs (Vol. x., p. 522.). — Contemotu- 
ously as old almanacs have been spoken of, they 
are really most valuable helps to history, and a 
regular series of them is so rare, that I have never 
met with one of any early origin. The Museum, 
I think, does not possess even a tolerable one, and 
I hope that the Scotch series mentioned by your 
correspondent may be looked after and acquired 
for that national treasury. I myself have the 
good fortune to have completed a regular series of 
the French Almanachs Royaux, Nationaux, Impi' 
riaux, and Royaux, Nationaux, and Imperiavx 
again, from 1700 ! inclusive to the present year, 
in all the various and very significant bindings of 
their respective times. I have heard that the late 
Duke of Angoul^me had a similar collection com- 
plete to 1830, but that it was plundered and dis- 
persed at that revolution. I suppose, therefore, 
that my set is almost unique in private hands, at 
least in England. C. 

Jan. 20. 1855.] 



Quotatio-ns of Plato and Aristotle (Vol. x., 
p. 125.). — The passage in Plato referred to by 
jour correspondent H. P. will be found in bis 
JEpinomis, vol. ii. p. 978., edit. Serrani. The fol- 
lowing extract from an analysis of this treatise, in 
Dr. Caesar Morgan's Investigation of the Trinity 
of Plato and of PhUo Judatis^ will 1 hope be ac- 
ceptable : 

'''The God that gave number is the Heaven, who 
taught men the first principles of enumeration by the 
succession of day and night, the variations of the moon,* 
&c. The same method of instructing men in number is 
likewise mentioned in the Tinueus, Philo also, adopting 
the same method of teaching, says, ' the stars were placed 
in heaven to answer many purposes,' &c." 

The nocti-diurnal rule of Scripture, and of 
various nations, respecting which inquiry has re- 
cently been made in " N. & Q.," is copiously 
illustrated by quotations and references in the 
Kev. Edward GreswelFs Fasti Catholici et Indices 
Calendari(B, vol. i. pp. 130—236. : 

" In the allusions to the component parts of the w\9r\' 
litpov, which occur in Greek writers, it is observable that 
the idiomatic form of the allusion is invariably night and 
d€u/, and day and night. We may infer from this fact that 
these two ideas were so associated in the minds of the 
Greeks, that they always presented themselves in this 
order; first night, and then day."— P. 167. 

To the specimens there given may be added 
the words of Plato, following those referred to by 
your correspondent : 

*' noAAa$ fiev Sri wktois iroKXai 2c i^/xepa? a$ ovpavo? ovSeirorc 
■aravtrai SiSavKuv avOpuirovi cv re icat 8vo" 


Work on the Reality of the Devil (Vol. xi., 
p. 12.).- 

"Semler. (1.) Untersuchung der damonischen Leute, 
Oder sogenanten Besessenen : nebst Beantwortung einigen 
Angriffe. 8vo. Halle, 1762." 

" (2.) De Demoniacis, quorum in Evangeliis fit Mentio. 
4to. Edition. 1779." 

These are the only works by Semler in the very 
copious list of his writings to be found inKayser*s 
VoUstdndiges BOcher-Lexicon, that treat directly 
on this subject ; although it is not unlikely that 
Semler may have written upon it in some of his 
miscellaneous treatises, or in the theological re- 
views of Germany. In Farmer's work on the 
Demoniacs of the ffew Test, there are some refer- 
ences to Semler. J. M. 

Antiquity of Swimmine-belts (Vol. xi., p. 4.). — 
There are many examples in the Nineyeh sculp- 
tures in the British Museum, which plainly prove 
that something like the swimming-belt was in 
common use at the time which they are meant to 
represent. I do not recollect whether there is a 
single figure, but there are many instances of 
several people together passing a river supported 
by inflated skins. ^ M. E. F. 

Jennens of Acton Place (Vol. xi., p. 10.). 

From the several inquiries which have appeared 
in " N. & Q.,** it seems evident that an impression 
exists that some portion of William Jennens* large 
property remains undisposed of. This, however, 
IS not the case. The pedigree (which is not cer- 
tified) may be seen in the Townsend Collection in 
the Heralds* College. I would send you a copy 
if I thought it of sufiicient interest to appear in 
your columns. John Jennens, of Birmingham, 
left a son, Humphrey Jennens, of Erding and 
Nether Whitacre in the county of Warwick, who, 
by Mary, daughter of John Mil ward, of Snitterton, 
CO. Derby, had issue (with other children) Charles 
Jennens, eldest son, from whom descends Earl 
Howe and Robert Jennens, the father of William 
Jennens of Acton Place. Also two daughters: 
Esther, who married William Hanmer, Esq. ; and 
Ann, who married Sir Clement Fisher, Bart., of 
Packington. From Esther descended William 
Lygon, Esq., afterwards Earl Beauchamp; and 
from Ann descended Lady Mary Finch, born in 
1716, and who married William, Viscount An- 

William Jennens of Acton Place, by his will, 
simply devised his real estate to his wife for her 
life, leaving the reversion, as well as the whole of 
his personal estate, undisposed of. He appointed 
no executor, and on the 6th July, 1798, admini- 
stration, with the will annexed, was granted to 
" William Lygon, Esq., and the Right Honorable 
Mary, Viscountess Dowager Andover, the cousins- 
I german once removed and next of kin of the said 
I deceased.*' As next of kin, the personalty was 
shared between these parties ; while the real estate 
descended to the testator's heir-at-law, George 
Augustus William Curzon, and from him to his 
brother, the present Earl Howe. Q. D. 

I Death-bed Superstition (Vol. xi., p. 7.). — I 
j remember to have seen hanging up in the entrance 
' of a relative*s house at Clapham, many years ago, 
a large brass shallow dish, with a representation 
I (cast in the metal) of Adam, Eve, the serpent, the 
I Tree, &c. Inquiring the use of so curious- looking 
I an article, I was told that such vessels were not 
uncommon in the houses of old families in Hert- 
fordshire, and it was generally placed, filled with 
salt, immediately after death, upon the breast of 
the deceased member of the family. Probably 
this has reference to the curious circumstance re- 
corded by W. N. T. It would be interesting to 
trace the origin of such observances. W. P. 

Holy-loaf Money (Vol. x., p.488.). — Referring 
to Ds. RocK*s corrections, I must observe, that 
when I asserted that the practice of distributing 
blessed bread was ** the sole remnant of the obla- 
tions of the faithful,** I alluded to those made 
during mass only, being quite aware of some 
others, which Dr. R. particularises. F. C. H* 



[No. 27S. 

**J?x ^uavis Ugno mm Jit Mercurms^ (Yol. x., 
pp.447. 527.). — A printer's error tuifortunately 
stultifies my communication on this subject. I 
•vvrote to show that ihe manufacturer of the note, 
wfaidh you quoted in reply to Me. Fbasbb*8 
Query, 'had mistaken the wcnrds of Erasmus him- 
self for an extract from Pliny, and never having 
taken the trouble of referring to the latter writer, 
iiad set them down as the result of independent 
vesearoh, though, like many other purlomers of 
other folks* goods, he was only leaving a certain 
clue for his detection and exposure. This was the 
^fashion** after which **uie note-maker had 
blundered.** Tour printer, however, kind man ! 
by substituting a colon for the full-stop after 
** Item Plinius libro decimo-sexto,** and by placing 
the two succeeding periods, which form the pas- 
sage in question (^Quidam superstitiosus . . . 
ai'tibus**), between inverted commas, has made 
me the sole blunderer : — in other words, making 
me show that the passage actually m an extract 
from Pliny, while the express object of my com- 
munication was to declare that it is not 

A. Challsteth. 

Sonnet by Blanco White: Bacon (Vol. x., p. 31 1.). 

*« Scitissime diadt quidam Platonicas,*' &c 

Has this quotation been traced to the original 
author, or does it remain to be discussed ? I find 
the same comparison as the one here quoted, and 
Which is repeated in the Novum Organon, prsefat. : 

** Sensus enim instar Soils globi terrestris faciem aperit, 
ccalestia claudit et obsignat.*' 

In Philo Judseus, Legum AUegorus^ lib. ii. : 

**Itaque sensaam evigilantia mentis somnusest, mentis 
vero evigilantia somnus sensonm. Quemadmodam et 
sole oriente splendores alianim stellarum obscari sunt: 
occidente autem manifesti: sic solis plane in modum 
mens evigilans quidem inumbrat sensus : dormiens autem 
ipsos facit efPulgere." 

I had written thus far when I looked into Wats*s 
translation of Bacon*s Advancement of Leamin^^ 
where there is a reference, in loco, to Philo 
JudsBus de Somniis, Neither are these "Night 
Thoughts,** any more than the preceding, the same 
verbatim as Bacon*s, to whom language was a 
virgula divina, and — 
** Who needs no foil, but shines by his own proper light.*' 


Cannon-baa Effects (Vol. x., p. 386.). -- Apro- 
pos to my former inquiry on this subject, I here- 
with subjoin an illustrative extract, culled from the 
columns of this day*s Edinburgh Ladies* Journal : 

** The Wind of a Cannon-ball. — The 8alut Public of 
Lyons relates the following fact, which it points out to 
the attention of physiologists : — * An officer of the French 
army, whom General de Martimprey had sent to make a 
reconnaissance in the neighbourhood of Sebastopol, was 
knocked down, not by a cannon-ball itself, but by the 

wind of it as it passed close to him. The commofticm pro- 
duced was so intense that the tongue of the officer iiH 
stantly contracted, so that he could not either put it out 
of his mouth or articulate a word. Having obtdnad 
leave of absence, he returned to Marseilles, where be 
underwent treatment by means of electricity. After the 
first few shocks the tongue began to move with moie 
facility, but without his being able to speak. On the 
twelfth day he was subjected to an unusually vi<doat 
shock, which produced the desired effect, and in a few 
minutes after the patient recovered his speech. He is 
now fully recovered, and expects to return to his post in 
a few days.* " 

David Fobstth. 
Edinburgh, Dec. 23, 1854. 

Praying to the Devil (Vol. v., pp. 273. 351.). — 
The infamous " Society of Blasters** was exposed 
in Dublin in 1738. One of its members, Peter 
Lens, a printer, in his examination, declared him- 
self a votary of the Devil; and acknowledged 
having offered up prayers to him, and publicly 
drunk to his health. See speech of Earl Granard^ 
Friday, March 10, 1737-6. I copy from a paper 
of the period. R. C. Wards. 




MncoiR OF Joan Bbthcnk, ths Scotch Post. By Ma brother* Alez> 

ander Bethone. 
Introdcctory EasAv on Enolish Histort, inrefixed to **LlTetof fhft 

statesmen of the Commonwealth," by John Forater, Esq. Longmaik 

ft Co. 
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Miss Strickland's Lrvss op thb Qurbms op Eirai.AirD. Tol. II. of 

12 Vol. Edition. 
Ingoldsbt Lbgbnos. Vol. I. First Edition. 
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Vol. n. 

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Particulars of Price, fto. of the following Books to be sent direet to 
the sentlemen bir whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

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Jas. Bohn, 18. Kin«r William Street, West Strand. 1835. 

Wanted by W. H., Post Office, Dunbar.*s Handbook of Crbmistrt. 
CAysNouB SociBTY. All the Vols, published. 

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AnnaziTttm BccLBsiAsncoRaM POST Baronium, auetore Abr. Bzorio. 
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Pooin'b ExAMPUts OP Gothic ABcawBcrnRB. Parts 3 ft 4 of Vol. I. 

Wanted by John Hebb, 9. Laurence-Pountney Lane. 

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M. S.M. C. The beautiful poem 

** Like to the fifdling of a star. 
Or aaihe flights of eagles are** _ 

is entitled Sic^^Qta, tmd was written by Br, Henry Ming^ BUsap «f 


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[Na 274. 

teen is ten times eight, ten times eight is eighty, and — 
a — a — carry one. lExit, ] " 

The latest numbered edition of Cocker I have met 
with is called the 55th, by Geo. Fisher, London, 
1758, 12mo. 

Rather too scientific, — The piece broken off 
from a mass of saltpetre, to test it, was culled the 
refraction ; and this word passed into a technical 
term for the per-centage of foreign matter found 
by common chemistry. A scientific journal took 
it that the goodness of saltpetre was measured by 
its refraction of the rays of light, and undertook 
to add that the less the angle of refraction the 
better the quality of the salt. 

Arithmetical Scale, — I know of but two at- 
tempts to alter our arithmetical scale altogether. 
Perhaps others can bring forward more. 

** The Pancronometer, or universal Georgian Calendar 
. . . and the Reasons, Rales, and Uses of Octave Com- 
putation, or Natural Arithmetic. By H. J. London, 
1763, 4to." 

The word Georgian looks so like Gregorian, that 
probably many persons passed the book over as 
one of those which the change of style produced 
by the score. The author*s system of arithmetic 
is that in which local meaning proceeds by eights : 
thus 10 stands for eight, 100 for eight eights, &c. 
He has a mania for the comparative and super- 
lative terminations. His leading denominations 
are units, ers (eights), ests, thousets, thouseters, 
thousetests, millets, milleters, &c. He calls the 
square of a number its power, and the cube — by 
an oversight, not the ipov/est but — the powerest. 
Eight feet make a feeter, eight feeter^ a feet est j 
eight pounds make a pounder, &c. If the crotchet 
which possessed this unfortunate H. J. were to 
return with seven others as bad as itself, thus, 
and thus only, would this crotchet of a system, as 
itself tells us, be made a crotcheter. But, strange 
as H. J. may appear, there is a stranger, not 
meaning eight, but only one. 

" Calcolo decidozzinale del Barone Silvio Ferrari . . 
• . dedicato alU natione Inglese." Torino, 1854, 4to. 

This work has probably been suggested by the 
discussions on the decimal coinage. The system 
is duodecimal. The author goes farther than 
H. J., for he takes old words under new meanings. 
Thus 10 is called ten, but means twelve; 100 is 
called a hundred, but means twelve twelves. Of 
course I translate the Italian into English. New 
names and symbols are wanted for old ten and 
old eleven (which now mean twelve and thirteen). 
They are kappa, denoted by a sign like w, and 
pendoy derived from pendulum, with a symbol 
like 6 turned left side right. Thus what we call 
twenty-four is twenty, what we call a hundred and 
twenty is kappaty (ten twelves). What we call 
twenty- three is ten-pendo (twelve and eleven). 
The year of grace now commencing is one thou- 

sand and happaty seven, 10w7 ; 1000 meaning 
1728, wO meaning 120, and 7 being unchanged : 
and a happy new vear it would be if we had to 
commence it with this new reckoning. We should 
pay money at the door of a show to see a man with 
ten fingers ; and it would seem very strange, in a 
philological point of, view, that, after the traitor 
had hanged himself, the number of apostles left 
should be designated by pendo. 

The author dedicates his work to our country. 
His system, he says, — 

" Abbisogna di mettere le prime sue radici in un ter- 
reno vergine, in cui non abbia a perire oppresso dalP ombra 
della rigogliosa pianta decimale." 

This means that our persistence in refusing to de- 
cimalise our coinage, weights, and measures, is 
enough to make any one think we are open to an 
offer to rid us of the decimal numeration alto- 
gether. A. De Morgan. 


On looking over a collection of old letters, I 
found several from T. Amory (John Buncle), 
and very curious ones they are. I send you a 
copy of one, which you may perhaps think worth 
preserving in your entertaining and instructing 
pages. C. DB D. 

" My dear Miss , 

" I send you a curious paper for a few minutes* amuse- 
ment to you and the ladies with you. It was written 
above thirty years ago. Perhaps you may have seen it hi 
the magazines, where I put it; but the history of it was 
never known till now that I lay it before you. 
I am, 

Miss , 

Your faithful, humble servant, 

"Julys, 73, 
Newton Hall. 

"A Song 
In praise of Miss Rowe, 

Written one night extempore by a club of gentlemen in 
the county of Tipperary in Ireland. It was agreed that 
each member should, off-hand, write four lines, and 
they produced the following vei-ses : 

" A whimsical pain has just caught me. 
Much worse than the gout in my toe ; 
What damsel on earth could have taught me 
To love, but enchanting Moll Rowe ? 

Written by Sir Harry Clayton, 

** When chatting, or walking, or drinking, 
No person or subject I know ; 
For all my whole power of thinking's 
Employ'd about sweet Molly Rowe. 

By John Macklin, Esq, 
" Some people love hunting and sp 
And chace a stout buck or a doe, 

Jan. 27. 1855.] 



Bat the game I am fond of is coarting 
A smile, from my dear Molly Rowe. 

By Thomas Dundon, Esq, 

" In the dance, through the coaples a scudding. 
How graceful and light does she go ! 
No Englishman ever Ioy*d pudding 
As I love my sweet Molly Rowe. 

By Mr, T, Amory, 
" In the duftips, when my friend says, *How goes it ? * 
I answer him surly, * So, so.' 
I'm sad, and I care not who knows it ; 
I suffer from charming Moll Rowe. 

By William Bingham, Esq, 

" Tho* formerly I was a sloven. 

For her I will turn a great bean ; 
I'll buy a green coat to make love in. 
And dress at my tempting Moll Rowe. 

By John G'Rourke, Esq. 
" She's witty, she's lovely and airy. 
Her bright Qye% as black as a sloe ; 
SWeet's the county of sweet Tipperary, 
The sweetest nymph in it's Moll Rowe. 

By Oliever St. George, Esq. 

** So great and so true is my passion, 
I kindle just like fire and tow ; 
Who's the pearl of the whole Irish nation ? 
Arra ! who should it be but Moll Rowe ? 

By Popham Stevens, Esq, 

" Your shafts I have stood, Mr. Cupid, 
And oft cry'd, * A fig for your bow : ' 
But the man who escapes must be stupid, 
When you shoot from the eyes of Moll Rowe. 

By Thomas Mcilineux, Esq, 

" Come, fill up in bumpers your glasses, 
And let the brown bowl overaow ; 
Here's a health to the brightest of lasses, 
The queen of all toasts, Molly Rowe. 

By Thomas Butler, Esq. 

" Nota bene, — When by our mutual contributions we 
had finished our song, we all drank bumpers to Miss 
Rowe*s health, and sang the last verse in grand chorus. 

** I do not remember, in all my reading or acquaintance, 
that such a thing was ever done before, and, perhaps, will 
neyer be again. 

** All the composers of thb song (except Amory^ and 
Miss Rowe are now in the grave. Here I am, round and 
sound, by the order of Providence, for some of God's 
adorable decrees. 

"Newton in Yorkshire, July th'8, 1773." 


By one of those coincidences which are oflen so 
suggestive, it has happened that shortly after . . „ 

reading your address on the commencement of the I ^? **^? conjectures there can be no necessity for disturbing 

Men of the Time. In doing so I was reminded of 
what has been objected to it as a defect, the 
number of " unknown " names which it contains, 
by which I mean names of men active and influ- 
ential in their generation, but to a great part of 
that generation almost unknown — the writers on 
the public press. Writers of this class are too 
much disregarded by their cotemporaries, and too 
soon forgotten by their successors ; and the con- 
sequence is, that of no body of men have we so 
little knowledge as of political writers. What 
would we not give for a succession of volumes of 
Men of the Time, say from the commencement of 
the last century, or even from 1760? What a 
flood of light might occasionally be thrown upon 
an obscure page of history by a knowledge, not 
only of what was written upon that subject, but 
of those by whom it had been written. If we 
cannot now hope to discover all that we desire to 
know, we may yet do something to supply that 
deficiency. Let no reader of ** N. & Q." think any 
fact that bears upon this subject — any hint of 
authorship, or any discovery of this kind, in any out 
of the way corner of his reading — too insignificant 
to be recorded, but throw it as a mite into the 
common treasury. More especially, let him not dis- 
regard any scrap of information tending to identify 
the author of any pamphlet. It may be a link in 
a chain of evidence the most important. What 
might not Mb. Crossley, Mr. Cobnef, Mb. 
Cunningham, Dr. Maitlani>, and many other of 
your recognised correspondents, furnish in this 

manner ; to say nothing of Mr. , Mr. , and 

Mr. , whose pens it is not difiicult to recog- 
nise* in your columns without their signatures^ 
and to whom the men of the last century are 
as familiar as household words. Pray, Mr. Editor, 
excuse thi% suggestion, hastily thrown out and im- 
perfectly developed. Open your columns to this 
important subject, and,'my word for it, generations 
yet unborn will thank me for the suggestion, and 
''*' N. & Q.'* for having adopted and carried it out. 


[If we rightly understand the object of our corre- 
spondent, viz., that we should invite contributions of all 
facts which serve to identify the authors of political pamph- 
lets, we readily accede to his proposal. But we desire ta 
do far more. \Ve would not confine ourselves either to the 
period or class of works to which our correspondent alludes. 
We hope every reader of " N. & Q." who can identify the 
author of any anonymous work upon any subject will record 
his discovery in our columns as a contribution towards 
that great desideratum in English literature, a Dictionary 
of Anonymous Books, 

We may take this opportunity of stating that we have 

We have struck out the names given bv our cor- 
respondent for the very obvious reason, that if he be right 

Eleventh Volume, I have had occasion to refer 
to Mr. Bogue*8 useful but imperfect little volume, 

the incognito of the gentlemen to whom he alludes ; 
while the doing so would be a manifest discourtesy. — Ed. 



[No. 274. 

) in contemplation, somewhat in connexion with 
this proposal, which, if we are enabled to carry it out 
effiBCtufdly, will give a feature of new and increasing in- 
teiast to our pages. —Ed. " N. & Q."] 


" Beware 
Of entrants to a quarrd; butt being tn, 
Bear it that the opposer may beware of thee." 


The preliminaries of peace is a phrase with 
which most persons are familiar, and many must 
remember when the reports of such proceedings 
— when notes and conferences, propositions and 
counter-propositions — were the objects of con- 
stant and earnest discussion. 

The preliminaries of war seems to be a new 
phrase, and to deserve a place in the vocabularies 
of diplomacy. It would serve to indicate the cir- 
cumstances which chiefly require the consideration 
of sovereigns and statesmen previous to the de- 
claration of war. The subject may be rather out 
of date at this moment ; but while some are intent 
on passing events, others may choose to glance at 
afiauTs retrospectively. 

A just cause, and a just appreciation of the 
force with which we have to contend, as com- 
pared with our own resources and expectations, 
should be considered as the indispensable prelimi- 
naries of war. The first circumstance would 
carry with it a partial consolation for the evils 
and miseries which war produces, and the second 
would give us some assurance of the probability 
of its successful termination. 

The expediency of the war now in progress is 
a political question, and therefore unsuited to the 
publication in which this appears : it i% neither a 
qiiestion of facts nor figures, but a labyrinth of 
SETguments. An estimate of the force with which 
we have to contend is a more tangible subject, 
and I need not conceal that the notes thereon 
about to be transcribed are assumed to be of con- 
siderable importance. 

** Les forces de terre [de la Bussie] sont estim^es ^ un 
million d'hommes arm^ y compris rarm^ polonaise de 
50,000 hommes. Mais sur cette masse de. troupes, on n'en 
oompte qu'un peu plus de 700,000 de parfaitement r^gu- 
litems, et 48,000 de troupes dMlite formant la garde. Si 
Ton consid^rel'^tendue des fronti^res du cdt^ de I'Europe, 
Ita distances et les points susceptibles d'etre attaqu^s, 
eafln la population de I'empire, on ne trouvera pas cet 
tftat militaire plus fort que celui des autres monarchies 
continentales. Mais le projet de transformer peu k peu la 
population agricole des domainea de la couronne en une 
milice permanente, organist ^ la mani^re des Kosaques 
sous le nom de ooZontes tailitaires [syst^me aujourd'hui 
bien ^tabli], donnerait h la Russie une force arm^ pour 
ainsi dire illimit^.*'— Conrad Maltk-Brun, 1826. 

** Les statisticiens et les g^ographes les plus distingn^s 
donnent les Evaluations les plus disparates sur Tarmee de 
I'bmpire Russe.— Mais les faits positife et les raisonnemens 
de M. Schnitzler, dans sa statistique de I'empire Basse, 

nous out engage h ikire de nouvelles recherches ; leur rE- 
sultat nous a prouvE la justesse des calculs de ce statisti- 
cien, et nous n'h^sitons pas k les admettre dans le tableau 
en r^uisant le cadre de I'arm^ russe sur le pied de paix, 
k la fin de 1826, k 670,000 hommes ; encore ferons-nous 
observer avec M. Schnitzler que ce nombre doit $tre re- 
gardE h cette Epoque plutot comme TumuruU q\i*efflictif.** 
— Adrien Balbi, 1844. 

" Le courage du soldat russe n'est pas impEtueux comme 
celui du soldat fran9ais ; c'est, si je puis m'exprimer ainsi, 
un courage de resignation, et celui des recrues est peut- 
etre supErieur k celui des anciens soldats, mais ces demiers 
sont pr^fi^rables, parce qu'ils savent mieux leur metier." 

— Le marquis de Chambrat, 1823. 

** Les Kosaques sont d'une \ngilance extreme, mais ils 
ne font point consister leur gloire k braver le danger ; ils 
n'attaquent qu'avec une grande sup^riorite de forces, et 
se retirent k I'instant si I'on fait bonne contenonce ; ils 
craignent beaucoup le feu, et ne s'y exposent jamais volon- 
tairement : leur principal but 4tant de faire du butin, et 
les bagages de I'arm^ en contenant de trfes-pr^cieux, ils 
redoublaient d'activitE." — Le marquis de Chambrat, 

*' Ce qui nous frappait surtout [^k Sevastopol], c'Etait 
de voir ces memes soldats, tour k tour terrassiers, char- 
pen tiers, forgerons et ma9ons, accomplir k merveille toutes 
ces t&ches si di verses. — Ajoutons que le soldat russe est 
non-seulement un habile artisan, mais encore un ouvrier 
docile par caractfere, respectueux sans bassesse, adroit et 
actif sans forfanterie." — Anatole de Demidoff, 1840. 

"Ce grand spectacle guerrier de Yosnessensk, dent 
j'^tais assez heureux pour admirer de si prfes tons les 
details, devait naturellement me trouver tout rempli de 
respect et d'attention. Certes ce nMtait pas un int^r^ 
vulgaire qui m'avait conduit dans cette ville de soldats, 
et, aprfes le premier Etonnement, je n*eus rien de plus 
pressE que de me rendre compte de ces forces terribles, 
surtout de cette cavalerie formidable, qui n'a pas son 
Egale dans le monde. C'est pourtant k Vinstitution des 
colonies militaires qu'il fisiut demander le secret de ces 
r^sultats admirables; de Ik est sortie cette arm^e impo- 
sante. Le nombre, la discipline, le bien-§tre des hommes, 
la rare beauts des chevaux, et jusqu'ii Pair martial de ces 
escadrons, tout proclame les heureux efiets de ce systems 
et son incontestable superiority."— Anatole de Dbmidoff, 

** On courre la poste en France et en Angleterre, mais en 
Russie on vole, surtout dans le gouvernement de la nou- 
velle Bussie. Je partis k huit heures et deniie du matin 
de Nicolaief, et k midi un quart j'avais parcouru soixante 
verstes, et jMtais aux portes de Cherson." — Le baron dk. 
Bbuilly, 1806. 

While thus reviewing the vast power in array 
against us, and reflecting on some oversights, and 
marks of public disappointment, I give no place 
to dismay. The only remedy is prompt and in- 
creased exertion — more oflicers — more soldiers 

— more excavators — more ammunition — more 
supplies of every description. 

The skill and activity of the commanders in 
this conflict^- the bravery and patient endurance 
of the troops and seamen — a rapid succession of 
unsurpassed victories — are the themes of admir- 
ation with all manly and candid minds. In one 
particular only there seems to have been a re- 
laxation of discipline, and on that essential point 
I presume to transcribe a word of advice : 

** Among the many precautions to which a commander 

Jan. 27. 1855.] 



should attend, the first is that of observing secrecy." — 


" The commander of the Forces — has frequently la- 
mented the ignorance which has appeared in the opinions 
communicated in letters written from the army, and the 
indiscretion with which those letters are published." — Sir 
Arthur Wellesley, K.B. Celorico, 1810. 

Bolton Coenbt. 


In the very interesting and ably drawn up 
account of Dr. Routh, said to have been written 
by a Fellow of Magdalen, and which appeared in 
The Times, no mention was made of the Presi- 
dent's first publication, the Etdhydemus and Gor- 
gias of Plato; and the omission was soon after 
noticed by a correspondent of The Times, who 
wrote from Cambridge ; but who was in error in 
placing the date of the Dialogues in 1774, instead 
of 1784, which is the true date. In connexion 
with Dr. Routh, and as a slight contribution both 
to biography and bibliography, I send you the 
following quotations ; the first from Moss's Manual 
of Classical Bibliography (London, 1825) : 

** After reading through the heavy and bairen list of 
editions of the Dialoauesy published separately, I am at 
last arrived at the nrst specimen of classical editorship, 
which my venerable, pious, and highly esteemed friend, 
the learned President of Magdalen College, Oxford, pre- 
sented to the world. (Oxon, Ivo., 1784. ) That such and 
80 highly appreciated presents are so seldom to be met 
with, is to every scholar a subject of regret The Latin 
version is by the editor, in which he appears rather to 
have aimed at perspicuity and brevity, united with a 
correct interpretation of hu author; yet, nevertheless, we 
often meet with elegancies. Of the materials em- 
ployed by Dr. Routh, in the compilation of this edi- 
tion, I shall present my reader with the detail given 
by Findeisen in his edition of the Georgias: — *Routhii 
viri doctiss. egregdum opus,' &c For far- 
ther information, 1 reffer my readers to the brief but 
eloquent character of Dr. Routh, drawn up by my late 
lamented friend Dr. Parr, in his Characters of C. J. Fox, 
vol. ii. ; who, by the long and intimate acquaintance 
which subsisted between him and the President, was 
duly able to discern and estimate that character, the 
virtues and accomplishments of which he has so pleas- 
ingly pourtrayed ; to the Preface of Findeisen ; to the 
CHtteal Beniew for July, 1786, pp. 46—61. ; Fabricii Bibl 
Grmea., torn, iii p. 136., edit. Harless ; Dibdin's Introd., 
vol ii. p. 137.;. Brunet^ Manuel de Xi6nare." — Moss, 
vol. ii. p. 434. 

The next extract is from Dr. Parr, in reply to 
the- accusations of Gibbon a^inst Oxford in 
general, and Magdalen College m particular : 

** Dr. Home was a monk of Magdalen [a contemptuous 
expression made use of by 6ibl>on], but he composed 
several volumes of sermons, to which Mr. Gibbon will not 
refose the praise of ingenuity ; and he also drew up a 
Commentary on. th& Ps^ms, for nobler purposes than the 
amusement of scholars or the confutation of critics. Dr. 
Chandler is a monk of Magdalen. But he has published 
T^ravels into Gnasce and Ama Mtnor^ which have been 
well received in the learned world ; and, with great credit 
to himself he: lia& BapohUshed thft Miarmora Ontaniensku 

Dr. Routh is a monk of Magdalen. But he is now en* 
gaged in a work of ffreat difficulty, and of great use, for 
which he is peculiany qualified by his profound know- 
ledge of the tenets and the language of the earlier fathers* 
in the Christian Church; and long before the death of 
Mr. Gibbon, this very monk had sent forth an edition of 
Two Dialogues in Plato : an edition which, in common 
with many of my countrymen, I have myself read with 
instruction and with delight ; an edition which the first 
scholars on the Continent have praised ; which Charles 
Bumey * loves,' and which even Richard Person * en- 
dures.' " — Spiled Semum, notes, p. 128., London, 1801. 

I am informed, by a late Fellow of Magdalen, 
that the first scholars of Germany still continue to 
speak in terms of high praise of Dr. Routh*s Two 
Dialogues of Plato, It is with deep feelings of 
gratitude for great kindness experienced from 
Dr. Routh, and of veneration for the character of 
one, who, even at a comparatively early period of 
life, seems to have inspired all who approached 
him with feelings of veneration, that I send these 
few hasty memoranda to the Editor of " N. & Q." 

John Macrat. 


*^ Seventy-seven.''* — I lately asked an "old in- 
habitant " his age ; and he answered, with a smile 
at his own bit of humour : " Why, Sir, I belong 
to the sevens ; born in the three sevens (1777), 
I must this year (1854) of course confess to the 
two sevens (77).'* Another century must elapse 
before this reply can be given, after the year 
which has just expired. N. L. T. 

Cloch Inscription, — Under the clock in front 
of the Town Hall in the town of Bala, Merioneth- 
shire, North Wales, is the following inscription : 

" Here I stand both day and night. 
To tell the hours with all my might ; 
Do you example take by me, 
And serve thy God as I serve thee." 

H. J. 

Sun-dial Motto. — One at Hebden Bridge, 
Yorkshire : 

** Quod petis, umbra est." 


Ancient Usages of the Church (Vol. ix. passim).. 
— There was, a few years ago, and probably stilL 
exists, in the parish church of Yeovil^ a practice of 
singing, or rather saying, after the Gospel, words 
which incidentally themselves perhaps refer to an- 
other more ancient custom. The words, thus said 
or sung by the parish clerk, were these : " Thanks 
be to God for the Light of His Holy Gospel." 

J. J. 

Johnson and Swift. — Johnson's prejudice against 
Swift is visible in many passages in Boswell. That 
in which he declared " Swift is clear, but he is 


[No. 274. 

shallow" (Croker's ed. 1847, p. 277.)» if curiously 
illustrated by the following characteristic anec- 
dote, which I have just disinterred from the Town 
and Country Magazine for Sept. 1769. 

Dr. Johnson, being one evening in company 
with some of the first-rate literati of the age, the 
conversation turned chiefly upon the posthumous 
volumes of Swift, which had not been long pub- 
lished. After having sat a good while collected 
in himself, and looking as if he thought himself 
prodigiously superior m point of erudition to his 
companions, he roundly asserted in his rough way 
that " Swift was a shallow fellow ; a very shallow 
fellow." The ingenious Mr. Sheridan, not relish- 
ing so despotic an assertion, and in his opinion so 
false a one, as he almost venerated the Dean of 
St. Patrick's literary talents, replied, warmly but 
modestly, " Pardon me, Sir, for differing from 
you, but I always thought the Dean a very clear 
writer." To this modest reply the following la- 
conic answer was immediately vociferated, '^AU 
shallows are clear ! " M. N. S. 

Lord Derby andManzoni. — While Lord Derby's 
quotations are a matter of interest, let me recall 
attention to one which he made in a speech on the 
death of the Duke of Wellington. It was, re- 
markably enough, taken from Manzoni's Ode on 
the Death of Napoleon,* 

" Ov'fe silenzio e tenebre 
La gloria che passb." 

But where was the speech made ? I cannot now 
recall, and should be thankful to any one who 
would inform me, and say how I may obtain a 
copy. I do not find the quotation in his speeches 
in the House, and believe it was made in one 
spoken at some public dinner. 

The Classics have for so long a time usurped 
the foremost place as subjects for quotation, that 
it was delightful to find so great a man as Lord 
Derby breaking through conventional rules and 
doing honour to the beauties of the Italian muse ! 


Vessels of Observation, — Vegetius (de re Mil,., 
iv. 37.) has the following : 

" Ne candore prodantur, colore Veneto, qui marinis est 
fluctibus similis, vela tinguntur et funes : cera etiam qua 
unguere solent naves, inficitur : nautas quoque vel milites 
Yenetam vestem induunt, ut non solum per noctem, sed 
etiam per diem facilius lateant explorantes." 

Is this the origin of our Blue-jackets ? And 
would our present Board of Admiralty pooh-pooh 
the introduction of blue or sea-green sails ? 

Young Veedant. 

* J7 Cinque Maggio. 



In the interesting Journal of John Byrom, 
F. R. S., one of the latest publications of the 
Chetbam Society*, he states, under the date of 
June 3rd, 1725, that — 

" At a meeting of the Royal Society, Sir Isaac Newton 
presiding. Dr. Jurin f read a case of small-pox, where a 
girl who had been inoculated and had been vaccinated, 
was tried and had them not again, but another (a) boy 
caught the small-pox from this girl, and had the connoent 
kind and died." 

The paper referred to by Byrom was commu- 
nicated by Mr. Sergeant Amand. It has been 
kindly transcribed for me by Mr. Weld, the libra- 
rian of the Royal Society. The case occurred at 
Hanover. The inoculation of the girl seems to 
have failed entirely. It was suspected that she 
had not taken the true small-pox. Doubts, how- 
ever, were removed, as a boy, who daily saw the 
girl, fell ill and died, " having had a very bad 
small-pox of the confluent sort." 

The point to which I would draw your readers' 
attention is the mention of ^* vaccination " in this 
journal in 1725 ; it is one of some interest and 
curiosity, as it is supposed that no one, before 
the time of Jenner, attempted to introduce the 
virus from the cow into the human species. The 
word does not occur in Amand*s paper, of which 
Byrom is speaking. Kor is it to be found in the 
dictionaries of Bailey, Ash, or Johnson, until in- 
troduced into the last by Todd. Richardson, in 
his Dictionary, says that " it is a word of modem 
formation." Did Byrom borrow it, or was it his 
own invention ? He studied medicine, and it was 
suggested to him to practise as a physician in his 
native place. He so far obtained the title of 
doctor from his acquaintance, that he was com- 
monly so addressed; and on one occasion he desired 
that his letters should be directed Mr., not Dr. 
In 1727 he says that he had not health or ex- 
perience to practise in Manchester. 

Byrom*8 attention appears to have been much 
turned to the subject of inoculation. Other refer- 
ences to the practice will be found in the Diaryy 
and he mentions reading Dr. Wm. Wagstaffe*s 
Letter to Friend, on the danger and uncertainty of 
Inoctdation, published in 1722 {Diary, p. 140.). 

It was in 1762 or 1768 that Jenner s attention 
seems to have been first awakened to the subject 

* This diarj'-, with a striking portrait, was generously 
given to the Chetham Society by its accomplished possessor, 
the poet's descendant. The MS. was happily committed 
to the hands of an editor, most competent to do full justice 
to it. In his preface and notes, Canon Parkinson has 
heightened the vivid picture which Byrom has drawn of 
the habits and manners of our grandsires, by his own 

t At one time President of the College of Physicians. 

Jan. 27. 1855.] 



of his great discovery, by the chapped hands of 
milkers sometimes proving a preventative of small- 
pox, and by those amongst them whom he en- 
deavoured to inoculate resisting the infection. In 
1770 he mentioned the cow-pox to John Hunter ; 
ten years afterwards his anticipations were quick- 
ened, and about 1796 he performed the first 
successful operation. These dates I gather from 
Mr. Pettigrew's carefully compiled and very in- 
teresting life of Dr. Jenner.* 

Some of your correspondents will very probably 
tell me that what I have quoted is not a solitary 
instance of the use of the word vaccination early 
in the last century, J. H. Mabkland. 



Can any correspondent of " N. & Q." help me 
with answers to the following questions ? 

Who were the Sheringtons of Selmeston, co. 
Sussex, one of whom, Katherine, daughter and 
heiress of Simon Sherington, was married to John 
Selwyn of Sherington, about the year 1350 ? 

Are there any Sheringtons still extant tracing 
their descent from this family ? 

The grandson of this marriage is Nicolas Sel- 
wyn, of Sherington. I cannot find the surname 
of his wife ; her christian name is given in Berry's 
Genealogies of the Sussex Gentry as Laura. 

I have been told that the name of Nicolas 
Selwyn is found also Shulder. I shall be glad to 
know whether there is any confirmation of this, 
independent of the authority on which I have re- 
ceived it, which authority, 1 should add, is a high 

In the collections of Peter Le Neve, Esq., 
Norroy King of Arms, now remaining in the 
College of Arms, there is the following remarkable 
discrepancy with the statement of the monument 
of Sir Edward Selwyn still extant in Friston 
Church. The monument speaks of one son only 
of Sir Edward, by name William Thomas Selwyn, 
who survived his father only two months, Sir 
Edward dying Dec. 9, 1704, and William Thomas 
Feb. 9, 170^, in his twenty-first year. The young 
man is deplored as, ** Qui sola spes fuit, et nunc 
exstincta, antiquae Selwynorum familise. Ultimus 
hie Selwynorum jacet," &c. 

On the other hand, Peter Le Neve gives to Sir 
Edward Selwyn a son, whose christian name is 
unrecorded, colonel of a regiment which is unde- 
scribed, except as a regiment of foot, and who 
married a daughter of a Battinson of Chiselhurst, 
the christian name neither of the lady nor of her 
father being given. The house is easily identified 
still as that of the late Sir Edward Beterson. 

* Biographical Memoirs of the most celebrated Physicians, 
Surgeons, |*c., vol. IL 

Now I have no doubt that the monument is 
here to be believed, and that the learned herald is 
in error. But I shall feel obliged by any one of 
your readers who will kindly fill up the deficien- 
cies of this record, and refer Colonel Selwyn to 
his proper father, or who will give me any other 
clue to the satisfactory solution of the difficulty. 

Sir Edward Selwyn was M. P. for Seaford in 
1681 and 1684, and High Sheriff of Sussex in 
1682. Can any of your readers tell me by what 
means I am likely to discover precisely why he 
was knighted. His uncle, Sir Nicolas Selwyn, 
was '* one of the honourable band of pensioners of 
King Charles.'* I shall be glad to learn something 
about these pensioners, and especially for what 
services Sir Nicolas was knighted and admitted 
into " the honourable band." 

I shall be thankful for any information con- 
cerning the following Sussex families, or for re- 
ferences to documents where they are mentioned : 
— Sherington of Selmeston, about 1350; Marshall 
of Maresfield, about 1380; lieresby, about 1440; 
Bates or Batys, about 1470 ; John Adam, about 
1500. E. J. Selwyn. 



An intelligent and imaginative, though unedu- 
cated old friend of mine (now dead), who had 
led a most eventful life, ran away from his parental 
home, in Edinburgh, when about sixteen years 
old. As is the case with all the strays and waifs 
of the British empire, he straightway bent his 
course to London. Of course the theatre was not 
long unvisited ; and one incident in a play which 
he then saw acted became indelibly stamped upon 
his mind, and exerted an important influence upon 
him in after-life. This is his description of it. 

A sturdy, middle-aged farmer was hard at work 
in his field, when he was interrupted by the ap- 
pearance of his daughter, whom he heartily loved. 
She was a beautiful, blooming, innocent-looking 
girl of eighteen. Leaning upon his spade, and 
ceasing from his toil, the farmer looked fondly 
upon her, and passionately exclaimed, " How 
I love thee, Sukey ; Oh, how I loves thee ! 
Thou'rt a sweet lass, thou*rt ; how thy old father 
loves thee ! " And then he threw his spade down, 
and drew her to his bosom, fairly weeping with 
joy. But suddenly, and as if stung by some wild 
thought^ he held her away from him at arms' 
length, and gazing fixedly and even sternly upon 
her face, cried, half inquiringly, half in soliloquy : 
" Dost know what Virtue is like, Sukey ? It is 
like — ah, now, what is it like ? Let me see. It is 
like — like " (doubtfully, and as if he saw through 
a glass darkly), "like — Oh! I see what it*s like. 
Didst ever see, dear Sukey, didst ever see a 



[No. 274. 

beautifiil and thrlftj field of grain, waving its rich 
and. golden top backward and forward so grace- 
fully in sun and shadow, and filling the air around 
with sweet fragrance ? Well, it is a lovely and a 
pleasant sight ; a sight that makes glad the heart 
of Grod's creatures. And a virtuous woman is like 
it. But ah ! Sukcy dear, take a keen, cruel knife, 
and cut off the tops of the grain ; and then it 
becomes a sorrowful sight. Nought but straw, 
worthless straw, b lefl; which man and beast 
shall tread under foot, and trample on, and defile ! 
So it is with a woman despoiled of her virtue ! ** 

Can any of your correspondents refer me to any 
play illustrating an incident similar to this ? it 
must have been acted in London prior to the 
Mutiny of the Nore, for my old friend, shortly 
after he witnessed it, was pressed into the naval 
service, and was a participator in that celebrated 
outbreak. C. D. D. 

New Brunswick, N. Jersey, U. S. A. 

Minax eftuerutf. 

Heidelberg, — A spot in the plan of this cele- 
brated castle is called " Clara bettings Garden." 
Who was Clara Dettin ? N. 

The Sign of Griffiths the Publisher. — What 
could induce Griffiths, the publisher of the 
Monthly Review, to adopt The Dunciad for his 
ngn? J. M. 

OUberfs " History of the City of Dtiblinr —Jxi 
Mr. Gilbert's very interesting History of the City 
ofDvblin^ vol. i. p. 94., I have met with the follow- 
ing passage : 

**A woman, known as * Darkey Kelly,* who kept an 
infamous establishment in this alley [Copper Alley], was 
tried for a capital offence about 1764 ; sentenced to death, 
and publicly burnt in Stephen's Green." 

The author informs us in the next sentence, 
that ^* her sister, Maria Llewellin, was condemned 
to be hanged, for her complicity in the afiair of 
the Neals with Lord Carhampton ;** and therefore 
it is not likely that the printer has mistaken the 
date of Kelly's execution. But is it a fact, that 
any one was "publicly burnt in Stephen's Green** 
in or about the year 1764 ? Abhba. 

Newspaper Cutting. — 

'< It is not 400 years since a baron of this realm was 
tried for hieh crimes and misdemeanors ; and one of the 
charges exhibited against him was, that holding in con- 
tempt the respect that man ought to have for man, he 
had suffered himself to be carried about his own grarden 
in a sort of a chair, with poles put to it, bv two of his own 
servants."— Aris's ^tnmi^^Muit Gazetbs, June 22, 1795. 

Who was the baron P KG. Waedb. 


Richard Brayne, Braine, or Brain. — Can any 
of your readers favour me with any information 
respecting the family of Kichard Brayne, Braine, 
or iBrain, who lived at or near Northwood, in the 
county of Salop, and died August, 1755 ? and what 
was the maiden name of his wife, who also died is 
1755, and who was her father ? S. B. 

Sir John Crosby. — Can any one through your 
journal inform me, who, if there are anv, are the 
descendants of Sir John Crosby, who is said to 
have built Crosby Hall in fiishopsgate Street, and 
who lived about the middle or latter end of the 
fifteenth century ? Qubrt. 

Bishop Oldham. — Information is reauested 
relative to the descendants of Dr. Hugh Oldham ^ 
Bishop of Exeter, who died June 15, 1519. 

Thos. F. Hassall. 

59. Lord Street, Chetbam, Manchester. 

Arms of Sir J. Russell. — What were the armi 
of Sir James Russell, Knight, Lieut.-Govemor of 
the island of Nevis, and Governor and Com- 
mander of the Leeward Carribee Islands, 1686? 
and his family*s lineage ? M. M. 

Distributing Money at Marriages. — Perhaps 
some of your able contributors will favour me 
with the origin of the custom practised in Allen- 
dale, Northumberland, and otner northern dis- 
tricts ? The male guests, as soon as they emerge 
without the precincts of the churchyard, com- 
mence distributing money to the spectators, anA 
continue so to do from thence to where they 
remain for refreshments. — I might also add another 
peculiarity in connexion with a marriage in the 
same place. Previous to the bride entering the 
doorway of the house after the marriage ceremonyt 
she is met at the door, a veil is thrown over her 
head, and a quantity of cake is pitched over her. 
Have these customs anything m common with 
Eastern customs? if not, what are their symbolical 
meaning? J. W. 


Gentleman hanged in 1 559-60. — A private 
gentleman, of a good family and of a large estate, 
suffered death by hanging in March 1559-60, for 
" a great robbery." There is no doubt that the 
" great robbery " must have been connected with 
political events. Can anv of the many readers 
of ♦* N. & Q." throw any light on this subject hf 
means of theur knowledge either of the immediate 
fact, or of the general passages of the political 
events of the time ? Cabringtov. 

Ormonde Correggio. — Could you through your 
valuable publication ffive me any information as to 
the Ormonde Collection, and the Corresgios in it? 
I possess a fine Correggio, a Madonna, rormerly in 

Jah. 27. 1855.] 




the Ormonde Collection at Kilkenny Castle ; and 
am very anxious to ascertain how it came into that 
family, and the exact date when it left it. 

There is much historical interest connected with 
this picture, which was a heirloom in the family. 
The engraving, when seen by Colnaghi, was im- 
mediately recognised by him as one respecting 
which there had been much discussion, the paint- 
ing not being known to be in existence, — in fact, 
a lost one. 

The print is in the British Museum in three 
stages of engraving, with the following inscription : 

"Antonio da Correggio pinxit R. Cooper del. et 
sculp. 1763. To the Qaeen this plate is humbly in- 
scribed by her Majesty's most devoted and humble servant, 
Richard Cooper. From the original painting of Cor- 
reggio, formerly in the Ormonde Collection, but now in 
the possession of John Butler, Esq." 

Now, in 1716, the Duke of Ormonde had been 
attainted, and his estates confiscated. He died a 
pensioner on the bounty of the King of Spain, 
having taken part with the Pretender. John 
Butler was heir, and would inherit this picture as 
a heirloom. In 1791 he became seventeenth Earl 
of Ormonde, so that the painting was engraved 
when the title was extinct. 

It has been thought that the painting may 
have been one of the Escurial Correggios, and was 
given by the King of Spain to the Duke of Or- 
monde for his services. If you can put the 
Queries for me in your publication, so as to elicit 
any information as to the time when it was given 
or purchased by the Ormonde family, and the cir- 
cumstances under which it was parted with, you 
will confer a great obligation. Mabgabet Fisom. 

New Court House, Charlton, Cheltenham. 

P. S. — There appears to have been a sale at 
seme time or other, jit which I believe the picture 
was purchased, and came from that channel into 
our possession. 

Churchill Property, — About ten years ago 
Bome law proceedings were noted in The Times, 
referring to a fund for the benefit of persons 
named Churchill. Can any of your readers furnish 
the particulars of its origin and distribution, &c. P 

One of the Name. 

Bells heard hy the drowned, — Will any one 
kindly refer me to the story of a man who was 
drowned in a Danish lake ; and who described, on 
"being restored, after a long period of suspended 
animation, that he heard under water, in his last 
moments of consciousness, the sound of the Copen- 
hagen bells ? AiiFBBD Gattt. 

Dean Smedley, — I beg to renew my inquiry 
(Vol. X., p. 423.) after Dean Smedley, both on its 
own account, and to correct a blunder made by 
your printer in my former Query, of " Patres sunt 
t^etulae," for ** Patres sunt vetvlBd^^ L e, old women. 

In reply to S. A. H.'s inquiry in ' the same 
Number (p. 418.), I am sorry to say that no ex- 
planation has yet appeared of Pope's agglomerated 
mention of Blackmore and Quarles, Ben Jonson 
and Old Dennis, the Lord's Anointed and the 
Russian Bear. Nor has Mb. Cbosslet either re- 
tracted or supported his assertion as to the appear- 
ance of " Sober Advice " so early as 1716. I have 
no doubt that on reconsideration he finds that he 
was mistaken. Every paragraph of the poem 
proves that it could not have been written earlier 
than 1730. a 

Gelyan Bowers, — What is the origin of the 
Julian (or Gelyan) Bowers, found in the north of 
England? M. J. S. 

Dial, — How may I learn to accurately mark, 
out and set a dial ? John Scbibb. 

Death of Dogs, — In November I saw in War- 
wickshire a printed bill offering a reward for the 
discovery of " some evil-disposed person or per- 
sons who did poison a dog." Making inquiry last 
week, I was told that many dogs had smce died 
in the neighbourhood very suddenly, and where 
there was not the least reason to suspect that 
poison had been administered ; but it was a nev 
disease which had afflicted the canine race. Has 
a similar mortality taken place in other distriots P 
and what is the nature of the disease ? H. W. D. 

Verses. — In the Exchequer Record Office^ 
Dublin, there is deposited an original paper upon 
which the following lines have been written : 

*'Lett England, old England in glory still rise, 
And thanks to y« D. y* open'd her eys." 

The document to which I referred bears no date, 
but it appears to me to have been written in or 
about the year 1710. To whom is allusion made 
by the words (or rather the word and letter) "y* 
D.?" J.F.P. 


Psalm-ginging and the Nonconformists, — Can 
any one explain why the early Nonconformists so 
much neglected the practice of psalm-singing in 
their woiihip ? John Scbibb. 

" The Lay of the Scottish Fiddle,"^ a poem in 

five cantos, supposed to be written by W ^ 

S , Esq.; first American, from the fourtk 

Edinburgh edition, London, James Cawthom, 
1814. The names of the author of the aboye will 
oblige. R. H. B. 

Heavenly Ouides, — Who was the author df 
The Poor Man's Pathway to Heaven, a small black- 
letter w^rk, dated about 1600 f My copy laclB 
title-page. E. C. Wabsb. 




[No. 274. 

Minav ^nttitH fBitb ^nitotri. 

FairchUd Lecture at St, Leonard's, Shoreditch, 
— Thomas Faircbild, whose communication to 
the Royal Society of Experiments on the Circula- 
tion of the Sap is printed in the Philosophical 
Transactions, 1724, and who died at Hoxton in 
1729, bequeathed money to trustees, for a lecture 
to be delivered in the church of St. Leonard, 
Shoreditch, annually, on Whit-Tuesday. The 
subject must be either " The wonderful works of 
-God in the Creation, " or " The certainty of the 
Resurrection of the Dead proved by the certain 
.changes of the animal and vegetable parts of the 
Creation." Dr. Morell (I presume the author of 
ihe Thesaurus that bears his name, and the friend 
of Hogarth) preached this lecture for several 
years. I am desirous of knowinu^ whether it is still 
delivered according to the will of the testator ; and 
if 80, at what hour on Whit-Tuesday I must 
4ittend at the church in order to hear it ? 

Geo. E. Fbebe. 

Boydon Hall, Diss. 

[Some celebrated men have preached tliis lecture, among 
others Dr. Dcnne, Dr. Stukeley, and Samuel Ayscough ; 
but we never heard of Dr. MoVell as one of the "lecturers, 
nor does his name appeur in the list furnished by Sir 
Henry Ellis, in his History of Shoreditch, p. 288. Mr. 
Ayscough delivered it from 1787 to 1804, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. J. J. Ellis, Rector of St. Martin's 
Outwich, in 1805, who has continued lecturer until the 
present time. Next Whit-Tuesday will be the 125th an- 
niversary ; Divine Service commences at eleven o'clock. 
There was a local periodical published in 1852, called the 
Shoreditch Herald^ which if our correspondent could be 
fortunate enough to pick up on any bookstall, he will find 
an interesting account of the worthy founder of this lec- 
ture. See the number for July, 1852, p. 42.] 

" Penelope^ s Wehh,^^ — I have a much mutilated 
tsopy of a black-letter volume so entitled. I 
should be glad to learn its date, exact title-page, 
and degree of rarity. R. C. Waede. 


[This work is by Robert Greene, and, from the prices 

fiven in Lowndes, must be extremely rare : " Boswell, 
86., 11 lbs. Roxburghe, 6656., 6/." It contains the 
following full title-page : ** Penelopes Web : wherein a 
Christall Mirror of Feminine Perfection represents to the 
view of euery one those vortues and graces which more 
curiously beautifies the mind of women, then eyther 
sumptuous Apparel, or Jewels of inestimable value : the 
one buying fame with honour, the other breeding a kinde 
of delight, but with repentance. In three seuerall dis- 
courses also are three special 1 vertues, necessary to be 
incident in euery vertuous woman, pithely discussed: 
namely, Obedience, Chastity, and Sylence. Interlaced 
with three seuerall and Comicall Histories. By Robert 
Greene, Master of Artes in Cambridge. Om'ne tulit 
punctum qui miscuit vtile dulce. London, printed for 
lohn Hodgers, and are to be soldo at his shop at the 
Fiowerdeluce in Fleete Streete, neere to Fetter Lane end. 
1601." See a list of Greene's innumerable pieces in Beloe's 
Anecdotes of Literature, vol. ii. pp. 168. 196. 291. ; and 
Centura Literaria, vol. viii. pp. 380—391. Dibdin, in his 
Seminitcencet, vol. i. p. 437., remarks, *< There is more to 

be loamt of the express character of the times in the 
pieces of Greene, Harvey, Decker, Nash, &c., than in the 
elaborate disquisitions of learned historians. And yet, 
after all — how singular ! — in none of these cotempora- 
neous productions is there the slightest mention of Shak- 
speare, who was not only living but in high repute. One 
would have thought that his very *hose, doublet, and 
jerkin ' would have been described by some of this viva- 

' cious and talkative tribe. Who would wish to * lose one 

: drop of that immortal man ? * "] 

Rev, Dr. Gosset. — Can any of your readers 
oblige me with any recollections they may have 
of the Rev. Isaac Gosset, D.D., of bibliographical 

I celebrity, other than may be found in darkens 

I Repertorium Bihliographicum^ p. 455., or in the 
Gentleman* s Magazine, to which I have referred ? 

' I am also desirous of knowing where he was 
buried, and if he has an epitaph. His father, 

I whose name also was Isaac, died at Kensington in 
December, 1799, at the advanced age of eight; 




[An interesting notice of Dr. Isaac (rosset will be 
found in Dr. Dibdin's Decameron^ vol. iii. pp. 6—8. 78., 
and some passing notices in Dibdin's Reminiscences, vol. L 
pp. 205. 295. Gosset is described under the character of 
Lepidus in the Bibliomania, and those amusing lines, 
"The Tears of the Booksellers," on the death of Dr. 
Gosset ( Gent. Mag., vol. Ixxxiil. pt. i. p. 160.), are by 
the Rev. Stephen Weston. Consult Home's introd. to 
Bibliography, vol. ii. p. 651., and the Classical Journal, 
vol. viii. p. 471. &c., for some of the prices for which the 
Gossetian tomes were sold. We cannot discover Dr. Goa- 
set*s burial-place.] 

Winchester Drdce Domum and Tabula Legum 
Padagosicarum. — Will any reader give, or direct 
me to, the history of these ? J. W. Hewett. 

Bloxham, Banbury. 

[Dr. Milner, in his Ilistori/ of Winchester, vol. ii. 

p. 130., edit. 1801, remarks: "That the existence of the 

song of Dulce Domum can only be traced up to the dJi- 
I tance of about a century; yet the real author of it, and 
I the occasion of its composition, are already clouded with 

fables." Some of these traditionary notices will be found 
' in Walcott's WiUiam of Wykeham and his Colleges, p. 266. ; 
' and in Gentleman^ s Mag. for March, 1796, p. 209., and 

July, 179G, p. 670.] 

Levinus Monk. — Who was Levinus Monk, whose 

daughter and coheiress, Mary, married Thomas 

I Ben net of Babraham, Cambridgeshire, created a 

baronet in 1660 ? P. P— m. 

, [Levinus Monk was clerk of the signet in 1611. His 
signature is affixed to two documents in the British 
i Museum (Add. MSS. 5750. f. 134. ; 5756. f. 161.), and is 
I there spelt Levinus Munck.] 

Quotation. — Who is the author of the line 
I " The glory dies not, and the grief is past," 

quoted in Lockhart*s Life of Scott, vol. vi. p. 224. ? 


[This fine line is from a sonnet on Sir Walter Scott's 

death, by the late Sir Egerton Brydges, as stated in the 

one- volume edition of L^khart*s Life of Scott, edit. 1846.] 

Jan. 27. 1855.] 



Waverley Novels. — When and where did Sir 
Walter Scott publicly acknowledge the author- 
ship of the Waverley Novels ? John Scribe. 

[At a theatrical dinner, February 23, 1827, of which an 
account is given in Lockhart's Life of Scott, edit. 1845, 
pp. 652, 663.] 



(Vol. xi., p. 12.) 

The supposition of Niebuhr with respect to 
bull's blood in old Greek writers, is extremely 
far-fetched, and unworthy of his great reputation. 
It is to be regretted that Blakesley, in his elabo- 
rate edition of Herodotus, has taken no notice of 
the passage (lib. iii. cap. 15.) where Psammenitus 
is said to have been put to death by Cambyses by 
means of this poison ; for a subject which could 
present such difficulty to the acutest historian of 
modern times, ought not to be slurred over by an 
English commentator, whose professed object is 
"to illustrate, through his text, the time in which 
his author lived, and the influences under which 
his work would necessarily be composed." 

If we allow that the Greeks were acquainted 
with prussic acid, we must reject the usual 
modern opinions respecting the conditions of 
chemical science in ancient times, and must sup- 
pose there were men, living two thousand years 
ago, who were acquainted with all the discoveries 
hitherto supposed to have been due to the re- 
searches of the alchemists, who knew in fact as 
much, or more, of chemistry than many an expe- 
rienced practitioner of the last century. We have 
then to account for the strange fact, that they 
have not chosen to reveal such scientific acquire- 
ments in writing, for not the remotest trace of 
such extensive knowledge is to be found in Greek 
authors. Although bull's blood contains the che- 
mical agents necessary for the production of 
prussic acid, the process of its preparation from 
animal substance in any form, but especially in 
that of blood, is long and intricate ; such as re- 
cjuired the advanced science of 1782, and the 
ingenuity of a Scheele, combined with far greater 
patience for scientific investigation than Greeks 
generally seem to have been capable of to dis- 
cover. The process commences with evaporating 
the blood to dryness, and then heating it in a 
close crucible; but in its next stage it requires 
an acquaintance with other chemical agents, such 
as is not to be found in any extant Greek work. 
Moreover, the blood, in character and appearance, 
diffei-s so entirely from the acid, that it is highly 
improbable the Greeks, careful as they generally 
were to mark in terms such differences, should 
have used the same name for substances so wholly 

dissimilar : still more improbable that the Romans 
would have imitated them in such carelessness. 
I am surprised that the acute and cautious Niebuhr 
did not use a little research, or consult a scien- 
tific man, before he propounded such improbable 
hypotheses. Had he referred to the Alexiphar' 
maca of Dioscorides Pedacius, a Greek writer on 
the materia medica of the time as supposed of 
Nero, and whose work, though it probably em- 
bodied all that had been previously known, as it 
was certainly long after held the very best on the 
subject, is replete with mistakes, he would have 
found a much more probable solution of the 
difficulty than that he has attempted. Chap. xxv. 
of the Alexipharmaca, which is wholly devoted to ^ 
this poison, commences thus in the translation of 
the editor (J. A. Saracenus) of the best edition : 

" Tauri recens jugulati sanguis epotus, spirandi diffieul' 
tatem strangulatumque condtat, dum tonsiUarumfauctumqtte 
meatus cum vehementi convuhione ohstruit. vomitum in 
hoc malo vitabimus ne forte gruml ejusmodi attractu in 
sublime elati gulsB magis impingantur." 

He then propounds such remedies as we might 
expect. The simple experiment of stirring a 
little fresh blood with a stick, when a mass of 
fibrine will form around it, will serve to explain 
its modus operandi as poison. Pliny too, in his 
Natural History^ repeatedly refers to the danger 
of swallowing bull's blood, owing to the celerity 
with which it coagulates : see Hist Nat, lib. xi, 
90. 1., and lib. xxviii. 41. 1. And it is worthy of 
notice, that he recommends the very same reme- 
dies as Dioscorides, viz. alkaline solvents com- 
bined with purgatives ; as *• semen brassicae 
tostum," lib. XX. 26. 3. ; " grossi caprifici," lib. 
xxiii. 64. 3. ; " nitrum cum lasere," lib. xxxi. 46. 
13.: " coagulum haedi et leporis ex aceto," lib. 
xxxviii. 45. 4. 

In brief, then, as ancient authors themselves 
inform us that the oT/ua raOpov veo(r<f>ayls acts as 
poison by coagulating in the stomach, we need 
not have recourse to the fanciful hypothesis that 
prussic acid was so designated, when we are told 
that Psammenitus, Hannibal, Themistocles, and 
others, died by its means. F. J. Leachman, B. A. 

20. Compton Terrace, Islington. 


(Vol. X., pp. 147. 192. 374.) 

Among those moral diagnostics by which the 
philosophic observer is enabled to predicate the 
condition of nations and individuals, the tendency 
to utter gloomy vaticinations respecting them- 
selves is not the least unfavourable. Indicative, 
in the first instance, of the presumptive probability 
of the event foretold, and of that wa^t of confi- 
dence in their own powers in itself so conducive to 
failure, the prediction, once uttered, assumes the 



[No. 274 

terrors of divine judgment and irresistible fate ; 
and spreading irom mind to mind with a rapidity 
proportioned to its plausibility, gathers strength 
from its very diffusion, till at length with the ac- 
cumulated impetus of the avalanche, it crushes its 
yictim in its resistless course. Thus the pro- 
phecies which relate to this citj, and which seem 
to have been adopted by its successive occupiers 
as a baneful charge upon the inheritance, testify, 
from their number and their purport, how uncer- 
tain, whether Greek, Latin, or Turk, they felt 
their tenure to be. That, for instance, may be 
cited of the Emperor Heraclius, related by Ri- 
gor d (Vie de Philippe' Auguste^ collection Guizot, 
tom. XL pp. 29,30.), that the Roman dominion 
would be destroyed by a circumcised nation^ erro- 
neously supposed by him to be the Jews ; and that 
this nation, who turned out to be the Saracens, 
should, as farther predicted by the martyr Me- 
thodius, make another irruption at the time of the 
coming of Antichrbt, and overspreading the face 
of the world, punish the perverseness of Christians, 
by the perpetration of unheard-of atrocities for 
the period of ei^ht octaves of years. Then there 
10 the cloud of sinister predictions which darkened 
the reign of the last emperor Constantine Dra- 
goses ; the portentous oracle of the Erythraean 
^bil adduced by Leonard of Chios, and cited by 
Hammer ; and the answer given by a soothsayer 
to Michael Palssologus, who was anxious to know 
if the empire which he had usurped would be 
peacably enjoyed by his descendants : 

** L'oracle lui r^pondit, Mamaini, mot qui ne signifie 
lien par lai-mlme, mais qui fat expliqu^ par le devin de 
cette sorte : L'empire sera poss^d^ par autant de vos de- 
scendants qu'il y a des lettres dans ce mot barbare. Puis 11 
sera dt^ de votre poet^it^ de la ville de Constantinople." 
— Duccu, ch. 42. 

Finally the predicted event took place, and the 
Turks seized upon the doomed city, accomplishing 
a prophecy in the manner of their triumphant 

''Par suite d'une proph^tie analogue on avait bouch^ la 
porte du Cirque. La veille de la prise de Constantinople 
par Mahomet II. I'empereur Constantin Pavait fait ouvrir 
pour iaciliter une sortie, et par une fatale impr^voyance, 
elle n*avait pas 4t4 referm^ Ce fiit par Ik que les Tnrcs 
86 pr^ipitferent dans la ville." — Lalanne, Curiosit^s de 
TradUions, §-c., Paris, 1847, p. 36. 

The same author records another prediction, 
which possesses a present interest, inasmuch, 
though once supposed to bode evil to the Greeks, 
it is now, as is asserted, applied by the Turks to 
themselves : 

''Suivant Baool de Dicet, historien anglais, dont la 
chronique ne s'^tend pas au-del& de 1199, la porte d*Or k 
Constantinople, par laquelle entraient les triomphateurs, 

rtait cette proph^tie: Qoand viendra le roi blond 
rOccident, je m'ouvrirai de moi-mgme 1 Ce ne fnt 
poortant pas par cette^ porte que les Latins p^n^tr^rent 
.dans la ville en 1204, car la crainte des proph^ties qui la 
eoncemaient I'avait fitit morer depnis longtemps. An- 

jourd'hui les Turcs se sent appliqa^ la tradition^ qnl, 
jadis, efVrayait les Grrecs; ils croient fermement qne la 
porte d'Or livrera un jour passage mux Chz^tiens qoi 
doivent, comme ils en sent ^isuaidm, finir par jncoooqiiair 
laville." — JAid,p.36. 

We now come to the celebrated prophecy rf 
the equestrian statue in the square of Taums, M 
emphatically recorded by the sceptical Gibbon as 
of unquestionable purport and antiquity. In 
chap. Iv. of the Decline and FaU^ we read, — 

^ The memory of these Arctic fleets, that seemed to de- 
scend from the polar circle, left a deep impression on the 
imperial city. By the vulgar of every rank it was as- 
serted and believed, that an equestrian statue in the 
square of Taurus was secretly inscribed with a prophecy, 
how the Russians in the last days should become maitBB 
of Constantinople. . . . ." 

To this the historian adds a conjecture, the verifi- 
cation of which we trust is still distant : 

** Perhaps the present generation may yet behold the 
accomplishment of the prediction, — of a rare predicdon, of 
which the style is unambiguous, and the date unqaestioih 
able."~i>ec/tne and FaU, Mihnan's ed. 1846, voi v. 
p. 312. 

A reference to the Byzantine and monkiBh n- 
thorities cited by Gibbon in his note to the abovs^ 
may lead, so far as their obscure phraseology cm 
be understood, to a different opinion as to the 
purport of this prophecy ; as, however, its value 
and meaning have already been ^scmsed in 
Fraser's Magazine^ July, 1854, p. 25., to wliidi 
the reader is referred, farther remarks are hen 
unnecessary. It is doubtless the same propheejr 
that Dr. Walsh records in his Journey from Qm^ 
stantinople to England, London, 8vo., 1828, p.50L 

The opinion of a Frenchman a century agowil 
appear in striking contrast with those of his eomi* 
trymen at the present day ; whose future co-op^ 
ration in preventing the fulfilment of his prediobOB 
was a circumstance which he did not foresee ti 
his philosophic previsions. In a letter to tiie 
Empress of Russia, dated 2lBt Sept 1770, Ysl- 
taire writes, — 

'<J'ai dit il y a longtemps, que, si jamais I'empin 
Turc est d^truit, ce sera par la Russie ; mon aoffoste im- 
p^ratrice accomplira son pr^iction. . . . Je ne Mk 
pas surpris que votre iLme, faite pour toutes les gnadm 
choses, prenne go^t k une pareille guerre. Je crois vw 
troupes de d^barquement revenues en Gr^ce, et vos flottes 
de la Mer Noire mena9ant les environs de ConstJUBti- 

In a subsequent letter : 

** Pour pen que vous tardiez h vous asseoir snr le tHks 
de Stamboul, u n*y aura pas moyen que je sols t^moin ds 
ce petit triomphe. . . . J'esp^re que votre Blajesttf 
chassera bientdt de Stamboul la peste et les Tores.** 

To this the imperial correspondent briefly it- 
marks : 

** Pour ce qui regarde la prise de Constantinople, je vs 
la crois pas si prochaine. Cependant il na faitt» dit-os^ 
ddwQi^rer de rien." 

jAifF. ar. 1855.] 


As not altogether irrelevant, the following re- 
marks of the empress may be cited, in reference 
to her invasion and conquest of the Crimea : 

** A propoB de fiert^, j*ai envie de vous faire sur oe pohit 
ma confession g^n^rale. J'ai en de grands sneers darant 
cette guerre; je m'en suis r^ouie tr^ naturellement ; j'ai 
dit: La Rmsie sera bien connne par cette guerre; on 
verra que cette nation est mfatigable, qu'elle possMe des 
bommes d'une m^rite Eminent, et qui ont toutes les qua- 
lit^s qui forment les Mros ; on verra qu'elle ne manque 
point des ressoifirces, et qu'elle pent se d^fendre et faire la 
guerre avec vigueur lorsqu'elle est injusteraent attaqu^e." 
— Letter to Voltaire, 22nd July (2nd August), 1771. 

A somewhat different version of the prophecy 
quoted by Anon from Sansovino*s Collection will 
be found in a treatise entitled A Discoursive Pro- 
bleme concerning Prophecies^ by John Harvey, 
Physician of King's Lynn in Norfolk, London, 
4to. (1588) ; and is cited in a curious fatidical re- 
pertory. Miraculous Prophecies and Predictions of 
Eminent Men^ Sfc.,, 12mo^ London, 1821, p. 26. 

Dr. Walsh, in the Appendix to the work before 
alluded to, gives (p. 436.) two copies of a very 
-singular document ; one the original, said to have 
'been inscribed on the tomb of Constantine the 
Great, and the other its interpretation, ascribed 
to Grennadius, the first patriarch of Constantinople 
after its capture by the Turks. It predicts the 
overthrow of the race of the Palaeologi by " the 
kingdom of Ishmael and him who is termed Ma- 
homet ; " and the destruction of Ishmael in turn 
by " the yellow-haired race," vnth the assistance of 
the western nations^ who shall take "the seven- 
hilled city with its imperial privileges." Eton 
alludes to the same prediction, as asserting that 
the Russians, under the title of "the Sons of 
Yellowness," will conquer Constantinople; and 
Forster, referring to it, cites the following passage 
in the notes to his singular work, Mahommed- 
anism Unveiled^ SfC, London, 2 vols. 8vo., 1829 : 

** Wallachius inYitfi. Mahometis (p. 168.) refert, Turcas 
hodiemos in annalibus suis legere, tamdiu perstiturum 
zegnum Muhammedicum, donee veniant ^/tuo/t biondi; 
i. ^flavi et cJbiiiHiy vel fiUi ex septentrione, flavis et albis 
eapiUis, secundum aliorum interpretationem ; utri autem '■ 
fined hie intelllgendi, ceu volunt nonnulli, aliis disca- 
tiendum relinquo.**— Schultens, EccUa, Muhamm, Brev, 
JMm^ Argent. 1668, p. 22. 

It is, perhaps, the same prediction, though more 
xmiinous and presently significant in expression, 
which is related by a Greorgian author, probably 
of the eighteenth century, luso as having been en- 
graven on the tomb of Constantine the Great : 

<* Plusieurs nations se r^nniront sur la Mer Noire, et sur 
le continent; les Isma^ltes seront vaincus, et la puissance 
de leur nation affaiblie tombera dans ravilissement. 
Les peuples coalis^ de la Russie et des environs subju- 
gueront Isnuiel, j>rendr<mt les sept collines, et tout oe qui 
Jtes entonre." — Lebeau, Histmre du Bfu-Empire, Edition 
JBaint-Martiii, p.'ddO. 

The Russians for their part seem fully alive to 
the policy of ftMniming to themselves the appa- 

rently divine mission of fulfilling these various 
prophecies. We are informed by the Edinburgh 
Review (vol. 1. p. 343.), that in 1769 a pamphlet 
was published at St. Petersburg, entitled The 
FaU of the Turkish Empire^ predicted by the 
Arab astrologer, Mousta Eddin, the unlucky au- 
thor of which is said to have been thrown into the 
sea by the Turkish Sultan ; and a collection of 
curious predictions concerning the same event 
was published at Moscow in 1828 ; perhaps, as 
the reviewer suggests, as a sort of Pifice Justijica' 

Those who may wish to pursue the subject, are 
referred to the chapter on the Ottoman Empire in 
Dr. Miller's Lectures on the Phil, of Mod. History ^ 
the Mohammedanism Unveiled of the Bev. Charles 
Forster, before alluded to ; and the able essay on 
" Providential and Prophetical Histories " in the 
Edinburgh Beview, vol. 1. p. 287. 

There remain yet to be noticed the vaticinal 
deliberations of that class of writers who have be- 
lieved themselves qualified to aoc^t the Apoca- 
lyptic invitation, '* Let him that hath understand- 
ing count the number of the beast" Among 
these Dr. Miller has succeeded in making out to 
his own satisfaotion that there was a period of 
exactly 666 years between the second Nicene 
Council by which the worship of images was au- 
thorised, and the taking of Constantinople ; thiuii 
he thinks, the identity is established between the 
Greek Church, and the' prediction concerning the 
second beast. Others are as firmly convinoe^y 
and with as good reason, that " the man " referred 
to is the heresiarch Mahomet, the numeral value 
of whose name spelt with Greek characters will 
be found to amount to the mystical sum, three 
hundred three score and six ; thus, — 

M+a+o+/x+e+ t +t+ s =xfs 
40 + 1 + 70 + 40+6 + 300 + 10 + 200 = 866 
which Constantinople, being like Rome, built 
upon seven hills, is aptly typified by the seven- 
headed beast " on which the woman sitteth." See 
the able essay on " Emblematic and Chronological 
Prophecies" in the British Review, vol. xviii. 
p. 396., the learned author of which is so convinced 
of the plausibility of this theory, that he makes it 
the basis of his scheme of Apocalyptic interpret- 
ation. The same view was held by the Roman 
Bishop Walmsley, whose theory, however, has 
been decisively disproved by that able controver- 
sialist, G. S. Faber. 

Li conclusion it may be observed that these 
prophecies, however variously worded and vaguely 
recorded, have yet a certain significance and con- 
sistency ; they show that the belief is entertained 
by the Turks themselves that the Ottoman em- 
pire will eventuallv be destroyed by a northern 
and a Christian nation : tJhis belief is itself an im- 
portant agent in the fulfilment of the prediction ; 
but we trust fervently that the fulness of time is 



[No. 274. 

not now at hand for its accomplishment, and that 
Great Britain may not have her share by some 
irretrievable reverse to her arms, perhaps her 
first step in that " Decline and Fall which his 
tATj tells us is the fate of all nations. 

William Bates. 


(Vol. X., p. 464. ; Vol. xi., p. 36.) 

My knowledge of the schoolmen is too slender 
to warrant me in offering an opinion unasked; 
but I come within J. F. s requisites, being " a 
living man who has read one treatise;" and 
having perused ten volumes and two numbers of 
** N. & Q." may claim " the advantage of some 
modern reading." I am sorry that he finds Smi- 
glecius "obscure and unconnected;" but hope 
tiiat, as his view was taken on " looking into," it 
will be changed by reading, I know no book 
more likely to appear " obscure and unconnected" 
than Simpson*s Euclid on a cursory perusal, or 
less so than the logic of Smiglecius if gone through 
with the attention usually bestowed on the other. 
The title-page of the only edition which I know 
(I believe it is the last), that of Oxon, 1658, 4to., 
pp.761., says: 

" In (^ua quicquid in Aristotelico Organo, vel cognitu 
necessarium, vei obscuritate perplexum, tam clare et 
perspicue, quam solide ac nervoae pertractatur." 

This, I presume, was not a compliment paid by 
the author to himself ; but from the great assist- 
ance I derived from his book, in reading the 
Organon^ I think it well-deserved. 

Though J. F. objects to the judgments of "co- 
temporaries," I wish to add, in support of my 
opinion, that of Rapin, as quoted approvingly by 
Bayle. {Diet, art. Smiglecids.) 

" Smiglecius, j^suite polonais, fut un des derniers dia- 
lecticiens qui ^rivit sur la logique d*Aristote le plus 
subtilement et le plus solidemont tout ensemble. Il a 
J^n4tr4f par la sagacity de son esprit, ce qu'il y avait k 
approfondir en cette science, avec une clarteet unejtutease 
qu*on ne trouve presque point ailieurs,*^ — Kapin's Reflexions 
8ur la Loffiquct p. 383. 

Bayle observes, that the English have done 
justice to this work by reprinting it, and that 
some were disposed to do more than justice, may 
be inferred from a story in Terrts Fuius, No. 21., 

** A member of a college, where Aristotle had no reason 
to complain of being treated with disrespect, having been 
heard to sav, * That the best book that ever was written, 
except the l^ible, was Smiglecius.' " 

I know less of Zabarella, but in reading his 
commentary on the Posterior Analytics, I did not 
perceive " the diffuseness of style." That subject, 
at least, is not "frivolous;" and I do not think 

any of those enumerated in the table of contents, 
prefixed to his logical works, are so. I refer to 
the 17th edition, Venetiis, 1617, 4to., pp. 700. 
Bayle cdls him " un des plus grands philosophes 
du 16*" si^cle," and says : 

" II enseigna la logique pendant quinze ann^ et pais 
la philosophie jusquli sa mort. II pnblia des commen- 
taires sur Aristote; qui firent connaitre qne son esprit 
^tait capable de d^brouiller les grandes difficult^ et de 
comprendre les questions les plus obscures." 

If J. F. has time and patience to go thorouebly 
into the object of his inquiry, I believe the best 
book is the Disputationes Metaphysicce of Suarez 
(torn. ii. fol., Geneva, 1614). 1 say this, not on 
my own experience, having referred to it oc- 
casionally only, but on that of Schopenhauer 
(1 Parerga una Paralipomena, p. 51.), who calls it : 

" Diesem Uchten Kompendio der ganzen scholastischen 
Weisheit, woselbst man ihre Bekanntschaft zu suchen 
hat, nicht aber in dem breiten Getrttsche ^eistloser 
deutscher Philosophie Professoren, dieser Qumtessenz 
aller Schaalheit und Langweiligkeit." 

Schopenhauer is perhaps the highest authority on 
these questions ; and I am confident that he would 
not express an opinion on a book without reading 
it, or bestow praise where it was not fully de- 
served. H. B. ۥ 
U. U. Club. 


(Vol. ix. passim.) 

The following addition to your notes on this 
subject, I coppr from the Silva Theohgim Symbolises 
of Joh. Henricus Ursinus, Norimbergse, 1665 : 
" cxcix. 
'^ Smaragdini oculi, 

** * Rex sedons in solio judicii dissipat, omne malum 
intuitu.' — Proverb, xx. 8. 

** Apud Cvprios juxta Cetarias marmoreo Leon! in 
tumulo Reguli Ilermias oculi erant inditi ex Smaragdis^ 
ita radiantibus etiam in gurgitem, ut territi instrumenta 
refugerent thynni, diu mirantibus novitatem piscatoribos, 
donee mutav^re oculis gemmas " (PKnitiSt lib. xxxviL 
cap. 17.) " Ita bonus justusque princeps fugat oculonun 
quasi fulgore improborum colluviem. Odere illi istum 
non minus quam ululffi solem. Innocentia sola non fngit, 
amat etiam ct colit ; quid enim oculis Smaragdinis lastins? 
visuve jucundius ? 

" * 'A0o/3ia fityCarri rh iftoPtitrOaL tov? v6«.ov?.* 

SynesiuB^ Epist. ii. 

Leges qui metuit, nil habet metuere." 

Mr. Douce, in his Illustrations of Shakspeare 
(1807, vol. ii. p. 192.), refers to several old writers, 
by whom the epithet " green '* has been applied to 
eyes, particularly the early French poets. Chaucer 
has given to one of the characters in The Knightes 
Tale, eyes of the same colour : 

" His nose was high, his eyin bright citrynJ* 

Jan. 27. 1855.] 



In The Two Noble Kinsmen (Act V. Sc. 1.) we 
also find : 

" Oh vouchsafe, 
With that thy rare green eye," &c. 

Steevens notes these two instances on the passage 
in Romeo and Juliet already quoted by Mr. Temple, 
adding — "Arthur Hall (the most ignorant and 
absurd of all the translators of Homer), in the 
fourth Iliad (4to., 1581), calls Minerva 

" * The green eide goddese.' " 
I remember receiving, when at school, as an " im- 
position," for persistently translating yXavKwirit: 
"green," or rather "sea-green eyed," as many 
hundred lines of the ^neid as there were letters 
in the offending epithet. A couplet, which pro- 
bably prompted the offence, still clings to my 
memory in connexion with this incident of my 
" salad " days ; it comes, perhaps, from an imita- 
tion of some old French or Spanish ballad, and 
refers of course to the eyes of some fair damsel : 

" Now they were green as a morning sea, 
And now they were black as black can be." 

Late years have added strength to the viridity of 
this opinion, and, to use the words of Ursinus, 
" quid oculis Smaragdinis Isetius ? visuve jucun- 
dius ? " Indeed, I can only think of the goddess, 
" too wise to look through optics black or blue," 
as possessed of eyes tinged with the emerald. 
Will any correspondent say why we should not so 
interpret Homer's epithet ? A. Chaixsteth. 


Dr, ManseWs Process (Vol. xi., pp. 33, 34.). — It is 
with very considerable pleasure that I notice the comma- 
nication from Dr. Mansell, detailing an improved me- 
thod of developing the preserved coUodionised plates. It 
is evidently so perfect and so simple of application, that 
there can be but one opinion about the matter. I need 
scarcely add that I shall certainly adopt it, and beg to 
offer my best thanks for so happy a suggestion. With a 
manipulator so sagacious as Dr. Man sell, there is no 
photographic process that is good in principle that could 
ultimately fail in his hands. Geo. Shadbolt. 

Mr, Thompson's Copies of the Rwphael Drawings. — By 
what process did Mr. Thurston Thompson procure his 
negatives of the Raphael Drawings, so justly praised bv 
you in your notice of the Photographic Exhibition ? Will 
that gentleman be kind enough to sav whether it was by 
simple superposition? or were they taken by the camera? 

R. D. 

TaUiot V. Laroche. — We are glad to hear that the 
qtuBstio vexata which has so long agitated the photogra- 
phic world, is at length at rest. We understand that on 
the one hand no attempt is to be made to set aside the 
verdict, nor on the other to raise the points of law which 
were mooted at the trial; and finally that Mr. Talbot, 
notwithstanding he has been a great loser by the ex- 
penses incurred in the experiments, &c., undertaken by 
him before taking out his patent, does not intend to per- 
severe in his sppUGation for its renewal. 

" Hittotype. — We have received the following from 
Mr. Hill, in relation to the natural colours. We are 
unable to give any farther information upon this subject 
than that which the notice contains. We may say, how- 
ever, that one cause of Mr. Hlirs delay is owing to the 
lingering illness of his wife, who is at the present moment 
lying very low with consumption. He says, * Her case 
has required and received most of my attention for a 
year past, or, without any doubt, I would have been out 
with the colours.' 

" * The Natural Cofottra.— Daguerreotypists, and others, 
who wish to be informed as to my present plan for im- 
parting a knowledge of my Heliochromic Process, will 
please furnish me, postage paid (no other will be received), 
with their Names, Post Office, County, and State. Those 
who do so will be addressed with full particulars. My 
delay for the past year, and other matters, will be satis- 
factorily explained. Address, 

L. L. Hill, 


Greene Co., N. Y. 

« * Westkill, Dec. 11, 1854.* " 

From Humphrey's Journal of the Daguerreotype, 8fc. 

30itpXlei t0 Minor €iutviti* 

Sir Bevil Grenville (Vol x., p. 417. ). — T. E. D. 
sent a letter of Sir Bevil Grenville's for insertion. 
Will you be so good as to give place to these lines 
of inquiry, to ask whether T. E. D. is aware of 
any other letters of Sir Bevil Grenville hitherto 
unpublished ? or of any MS. annals of that illus- 
trious family, as an antiquary is desirous to trace 
the early history and connexion between the 
Grenville branch at Stowe in Cornwall, and 
George Lord Lansdowne the poet. Did the 
latter ever live at Stowe? and when did the 
Cornwall property pass into other hands ? Again, 
in what degree of consanguinity did Sir Richard 
Grenville, Lord of Neath Abbey in Glamorgan, 
South Wales, stand to the renowned Sir Bevil 
and Lord Lansdowne? and what caused the 
breaking up of the Grenville branch in South 
Wales? G. G. 

Anecdote of Canning (Vol. xi., p. 12.). — If 
E. P. S. will turn to the second series of A Resi' 
dence at the Court of London, by Richard Rush, 
the American ambassador, he will, I believe, find 
the anecdote he is in search of. I cite this from 
memory. The game is not of twenty-one, but that 
of ** Twenty questions;" and on this occasion, if I 
remember rightly, eighteen or nineteen had been 
asked when Canning guessed " The Wand of the 
Lord High Steward." The success of the ques- 
tion depends upon his power of logical division, 
and with this aid it rarely requires even twenty 
questions to arrive at the object thought of. 

D. W. 

Biblical Question (Vol. x., p. 495.). — You no- 
tice a Bible (Cambridge, 1663), sold for fifteen 
guineas at Sothebj and Wilkin8on*s, having 



[Na 274. 

(1 Tim. iv. 16.) •*Thy" instead of "The" doc- 
trine. Will you or any of your readers inform 
me of the cause of value of this volume ? Is it 
from its being supposed to be an intentional mis- 
print, or the rarity of the edition ? I possess one 
of the date of 1660 (John Field, London), having 
the- same reading of the above passage. H. W. D. 

The Episcopal Wig (Vol. xi., p. 11.). — The 
first modern bishop who abandoned the episcopal 
wig, was the Honourable Edward Legge, Bishop 
of Oxford, 1815 ; and he, it was said, had a specisd 
permission from the Prince Regent to do so. 

E. F. 

James IL's Writings (Vol. x., p. 4850- — G-. N. 
inquires whether certain devotional writings by 
King James II. were ever published, and, if so, 
under what title, &c. ? I have an 

" Abridgment of the Life of James II., extracted from 
an English manuscript of the Rev. Father Francis San- 
ders, of the Society of Jesus, and Confessor to his late 
Majesty, &c. 

" Also, a Collection of the said King's own Thoughts 
upon several subjects of Piety, by Father Francis Britton- 
neau, one of the same Society. Done out of French from 
the Paris Edition. 1703. London, printed for R. Wilson, 
Bookseller at Maidstone in Kent, and sold by the Book- 
sellers of London and Westminster. 1704. Price 25." 
12mo. pp. 192. 

from p. 109. to the end are — 

" The Sentiments of James IL upon divers subjects of 
Piety," which collection, such as it is, says the French 
translator's advertisement, ** is no more than a plain and 
foithful Translation of what he had set down with his 
own hand in English.*' 

" The approbation " of this work is dated Paris, 
the 13th of December, 1702. E. P. Shirley. 


Canons of York (Vol. xi., p. 11.). — The va- 
cancy of a canon residentiary of York is obliged 
to be given, not to the first man, but to the pre- 
bendary of York, who applies for it. My au- 
thority is a prebendary of that cathedraL £. F. 

Base of S?iaron = Jericho (VoL x., p. 508.). — I 
think Ms. Middi^eton must allude to the '* Rose 
of Jericho," Anastatica hierochuntica^ a cruciferous 
plant, t\ie Kaf Maryam, " Mary's Hand," of the 
Arabs, which, growing in the wastes of Arabia and 
Palestine, has the property of recovering its fresh- 
ness when placed in water, after having been ga- 
thered and dried. Most botanical works will give 
farther information on this point. Seleucus. 

Eminent Men horn in the same Year (Vol. xi., 
p. 27.). — Looking at the circumstances that your 
correspondent has taken both England and France, 
and has included Chateaubriand and Caatlereagh, 
it ia not too much to suppose that twenty men 
might have beea named, EngUahBien or FDench^ 

men, of whom seven being born in the same year 
would be quoted as a coincidence. Again, co« 
temporaries of the highest note are usually between 
fifty and sixty years of age at the same time. 
The search for a coincidence, then, may be fairly 
conducted by picking out twenty men of fame 
who are born in the same decade. Supposing each 
year of that decade to be as likely as any other to 
be the year of birth, it is not more than seventeen 
to three against some one year givins seven or 
more of them. It is about an even cnance that 
the coincidence would be found once, at least, in 
four trials. 

It appears then that of twenty cotemporaries 
who are within ten years of each other, it is not 
six to one against seven or more being of one 
year. And it is never difficult to find, in two 
great countries, twenty such cotemporaries who 
are all of high fame. It is true that a cluster 
containing men so remarkable as Napoleon and 
Wellington cannot often be found. 1. 4. IS. 

Murray of Broughion (Vol. x., p. 144,). — In 
answer to Y. S. M., I beg to inform him that 
there is no proof that Mungo Murray of Brougfa- 
ton (or Brochtoun), who had a charter in 1508 
of lands in Galloway, was second son of Cuthbert 
Murray of Cockpool, as stated by the inaccurate 
peerage writer Douglas. It is very likely, how- 
ever, that he was a cadet of that family. " Johne 
of Murray, of Kirkcassalt, sone and ayr of Un- 
quhile Stevin of Murray of Brochtoun," is pur- 
suer of an action before the Lords Auditors, 
March 23, 1481 ; and is styled "of Brochtoun" 
in a subsequent notice respecting the lands of 
Kirkcassalt in 1490. Between these dates, how- 
ever, appears the name of " Moungo Murray of 
Brochton ;" and I have met with notices of 
" Herbert Murray, son to Unquhile Mungo Mur- 
ray of Brochtoun," as flourishing in 1563 and 
1564. A descendant, probably George Manm 
of Brochtoun, had a charter in 1602 of the lanob 
of Mekill Brochtoun and Little Brochtoun; in 
which, after the heirs male of his body, John 
Murray (afterwards Earl of Annandale), son o£ 
Charles Murray of Cockpool and the heirs male of 
his body, whom failing, William Murray and Mal- 
colm Murray, brothers-German of George, and 
their heirs male respectively, are called to the 
succession. It is probable that George was fatlw 
of John Murray of Brochtoun, who married a 
coheiress of Cockpool, as mentioned by Y. S. M. 


Knights of St, John of Jerusalem (VoL z., 
p. 301'.). — In Uie notice of James Sandilandfl 
several mistakes occur, which only require to be- 
noticed. Sir James Sandilands is said to have 
resigned the property of the Order into the handi 
of the Queen of England^ instead of the Queen of 
Scotland. Torphicnen ia printed TarphiMa; and. 

Jaw. 27. 1855.] 



Polmaise, Polonaise. Sir James sat in the Scot- 
tish Parliament at the head of the Baron? as Lord 
St. John, in virtue of his office of Preceptor of 
Torphichen ; and a^r the erection of the posses- 
sions of the Order into the temporal lordship of 
Torphichen, was designated "Lord St. John," 
"Lord Torphichen," and "Lord St. John of Je- 
rusalem," indiscriminately. He was dead in 1587, 
being in that year called "deceased;" and from 
his grandnephew and heir descends the present 
Lord Torphichen. R. R. 

Charles I. andhis Relics (Vol. vi., pp. 173. 578.; 
Vol. vii., p. 184. ; Vol. x., pp. 245. 416. 469.). — 
Your correspondent Mb. Hughes suggests that a 
list of authentic relics of the royal martyr would 
be an acceptable offering to " N. & Q.'' Allow 
me to contribute my mite towards such an under- 
taking, by the following extract from Hillier's 
Narrative of the attempted Escapes of Charles /., 
London, 1852: 

** An ancestor of the name of Howe, of Mr. Thomas 
Cooke, now resident at Newport, in the Isle of Wight, 
was at this time [Jan., 1648] Master Gunner at the 
Castle of Carisbrook ; and as a mark of the king's sense 
of the attention paid to him by that officer, he on one 
occasion presented him with the staff he was using. The 
ivory he^ of this relic is still in the possesion of Mr. 
Cooke ; it is inlaid with silver, and imscrews, the top 
forming a scent-box. Mr. Howe had also a son, a little 
boy who was a great favourite of Cliarles : one day, seeing 
him with a child's sword by his side, the king asked him 
what he intended doing with it ? * To defend your majesty 
from your majesty's enemies,' was the reply ; an answer 
whicli so pleased the king, that he gave the child the 
signet ring he was in the habit of wearing upon his finger. 
The ring hae descended to a Mr. Wallace {of Southsea), 
a kinsman of Mr. Cooke. 

** It is also recorded that Mr. Worseley of Gratcombe, 
received his Majesty's watoh (still preserved in the family) 
as a gift, the morning he was- leaving the island," &c. 

Engravings of the cane-head and ring are given 
at p. 79. of the work. 

Perhaps the following extract from the Diary of 
Capt, Richard Symonds may serve to discover the 
whereabouts of the king's chess-board. 

** (May 1644). Bbimd about the king's chess-board this 

' Subditus et Princeps istis sine sanguine certent.' " 


Epigram in a Bible (Vol. xi., p. 27.). — Perhaps 
some of your readers, while looking up the author 
of this epigram, may happen to find out the author 
of the following translation : 

** One day at least in every week, 
The sects of every kind. 
Their doctrines here are sore to seek, 
And just as sure to find." 

It is rather an illustration of our monosyllabic 
language, that thoush the translation has more 
matter than the original, yet, counting every as a 
cBfliyllable, it has one syllable less. M. 

Authority of AristoUe (Vol. x., p. 508.). — lii 
his Hist Anim.^ iii. 5., Aristotle says : 

*' Ta 6i ytvpa rots ^«ooi^ ^t rourov tov rpovw, 19 ftey opxh «al 
ToU'mv e<m.v eic t^? KopiCtK* * 

Thus translated by Theod.. Gaza j 

" Nervorum mox ordinem persequemur. Origo eorum. 
quoque in corde est." 

See also De Spiriiu, cc. vi. ix. There can be 
no doubt, therefore, as to the opinion of Aristotle, 
that the nerves have their origin in the heart. 
Dr. Southwood Smith (PhU. of Health, i. 76.) 
appears to corroborate the Aristotelian view : 

" The organic nerves, distributed to the organic organs, 
take their origin and have their chief seat in the cavities 
that contain the main instruments of the organic life, 
namely, the chest and abdomen. These nerves encom- 
pass the great trunks of the blood-vessels that convey 
arterial blood to the organic organs." 



" KOstliche Beispiele von der unglaublichen Verstockt- 
heit der scholastiker f tthrt Galilfti in seinem DiaJogiu de 
8j/stemate Mundi (Colloq. 2 August. Treboc. 1636 J an. 
Ein beriihmter Arzt zu Venedig demonstrirte ad oculos in 
einer anatomischen Vorlesung, dass der grdsste Nerven- 
stamm von Him ausgehe und nur ein sehr dUnner Faden 
gleich einem Funiculus zum Herzen dringe, und wandte 
sich dann mit der Frage an einen anwesenden Peripate- 
tiker, ob er sich nicht ttberzeugt habe, dass der Ursprung 
der Nerven das Gehim und nicht das Herz sei ? Aber 
der Peripatetiker gab zur Antwort, nachdem er sich eine 
Zeit lang besonnen hatte : * Equidem ita aperte rem ocu- 
lis subjecisti, ut nisi textus Aristotelius aperte nervos ex 
corde deducens obstaret, in sententiam suam pertractures 
me fueris.' "—P. 258. (Feuerbach, Pierre Bayle, Leipzig, 

H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

Farranis Anthem (Vol. ix., p. 9.). — Farrant, 
in his anthem, appears to have compiled it from 
several sources, probably the following : 

" Lord, for Thy tender mercies' sake [St. Luke i 78., 
St. James v. IL], forgive us that which is past; [forgive 
us all that is past, — Om/., Holy CommtawmJ] and give us 
grace to amend our sinM lives; [That it may please 
Thee to endue us with the grace of Thy Holy Spirit, to 
amend our lives, — Litany.'] that we may incline to virtna 
[Lord, incline our hearts to keep this law,-—Cbmm., Hdl§ 
Ckmmunion.'] and decline from vice. [Concede, ut ad nul^ 
liim declinemus peccatum, — Breviar. Sardb., £ 13.] " 

Mackenzie Walcott, M.A.. 

Well Chapel (Vol. x., p. 525.). — DuiraiBOKiy 
writes, " The spring of water flows from under 
the altar, which is marked with four crosses." 
After a tolerably extensive search I must admit I 
have- never found an altar or tombstone so marked, 
the very Usual number of crosses on Roman 
Catholic altars erected during the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries is *^ five," intended, as sym- 
bols of the five wounds of Christ ; some few are 
marked with " seven," these are figurative of the 
seven sorrows of the Virgin ; and to these may be 



[No. 274. 

added the number of " eight," a rare occurrence, 
and perhaps used only on tombstones, where thej 
are commemorative of the eight Beatitudes. Your 
correspondent will confer a great kindness by ex- 
plaining the meaning intended to be conveyed by 
" four crosses." In modern Roman Catholic altars, 
no longer or rarely built of stone, a small square 
piece of marble is let into the wood on which a 
single cross is inserted. Henbt Davenet. 

" Condendaque LexicOy** Sfc, (Vol. ix., p. 421. ; 
Vol. X., p. 116.). — These lines, for which Me. 
Gantim-on inquires, and which are quoted in 
the preface to Liddell and Scott^s LexicoUj will ' 
be found, as might be expected, in the Poemata ' 
of our great English lexicographer Dr. Johnson. | 
They occur as follows in the first verse of the 
well-known poem, ; 

•* TNOei 2EAYT0N. 

(Post Lexicon Anglicanum auctum et emendatam.) 

" Lexicon ad finem longo lactamine tandem ' 

Scaliger ut duxit, tenuis pertasus opellae, 
Vile indignatus studiuni, nugasque molestas, 
Ingemit exosus, acribendtique lexica mandat 
Damnads, poenam pro pcenis omnibus unam/' &c. i 

This has been very pleasingly rendered in En- i 
glish verse hj his biographer Mr. Murphy (" Es- i 
say on the Life and Genius of Samuel Johnson, ; 
LL.D.," prefixed to many editions of the Dic- 
tionary and Works), which I shall here transcribe : | 


(After revising and enlarging the English Lexicon or | 
Dictionary.) : 

♦* When Scaliger, whole years of labour past, 
Beheld his Lexicon complete at last, I 

And, weary of his task, with wond'ring eyes, I 

Saw from words piled on words a fabric rise, ' 

He cursed the industry, inertly strong. 
In creeping toil that could persist so long ; 
* And if^' enraged he cried, * Heaven meant to shed 
Its keenest vengeance on the guilty head, 
The drudgery of words the damn'd would know, 
Doom'd to write Lexicons in endless woe,' " &c 

It appears from the above that B. H. C. was 
quite correct in attributing the original lines to 
Jos. Scaliger. The epigram which he noted will 
be found in the Gentleman* s Magazine for 1748, 
p. 8., and which, as Mr. Murphy remarks, was 
" communicated without doubt by Dr. Johnson " 
to his friend " unwearied Urban." J. R. G. 


Rhymes connected with Places (VoL v., p. 293.). 
— The following are in the moorlands of Stafford- 
shire, not far from Alton ; Grin is Grindon : 

"Calton, Caldon, Waterfall, and Grin, 
Are the four fou'est places 1 ever was in.'* 

Ita testor, Gulielmus Fbaseb, J. C. B. 

Alton, Staffordshire. 

Poetical Tavern Signs (Vol. x., pp. 33. 329.).— 
At Street-Bridge, Chadderton, near Manchester, 
referring to a coalpit chimney hard by : 

** Altho' the engine smoke be black. 
If you'll walk in I've ale like sack." 

John Sgube. 

In riding through Dorsetshire two or three 
years ago, my attention was causht in passing by 
a very old sign-board, representmg a stag with a 
ring round its neck, and the following lines below : 

" When Julius Caesar reigned here, 
I was then but a little deer ; 
When Julius Caesar reigned king. 
Upon my neck he placed this ring. 
That whoso me might overtake, 
Should spare my life for Caesar's sake.-'* 

The stag was almost effaced, and the lines were 
much obliterated by the action of rain and sun. 
The inn is called ** King's Stag." It is on your 
right, a little off the road from Lydlinch to Hasel- 
bury Bryan. Before you come to it, you pass 
an inn called " Green Man," with a very old 
sign-board, representing a gentleman entirely 
clad in green. Philologos. 

Bolingbrohe's Advice to Swift (Vol. x., p. 346. ; 
VoLxi., p. 54.). — Mr. Bbeen does not seem to 
be aware of the fact that, in French, instructioiui 
(ordonnances) are commonly put in the infinitlje, 
rarely in the imperative. Such being the- &ct, 
there is no need to adopt the suggested change of 
r into z, at the end of the verbs nourrisser^faHguer^ 
and laisser, 

Ms. Bbeen charitably suggests that by soupir 
I probably intended soupirer. Certainly : the 
error was occasioned by the proximity o£ s'assatqnr 
in my note. I think soupirer far preferable ta 
sonner, and I have now little doubt that the former 
was Bolingbroke's word. Allow me to thank 
Mb. Bbeen for his reply. Though I have been 
obliged to dissent from some of his remarks on 
Sterne's French, I am fully sensible of the sound* 
ness of most of his criticisms on French composi* 
tion, and think he has done good service for 
" N. & Q." C. Mansfield Inglbbt» 


Tenw*e per Baroniam (Vol. ii., p. 302. ; Vol. x., 
p. 474.). — Babo and Rev. William Fbaseb are 
referred to a treatise, entitled Tenure and 
Peerage by Barony, published by Messrs. Stevens 
& Norton in August, 1853, where they will find 
the subject in question discussed. Copies of the 
pamphlet are left for them with the writer^s com- 
pliments at the publisher's, Mr. BelFs, 186. Fleet 
Street. Anoh. 

Earthenware Vessels found at Fountains Abbey 
(Vol. X., p. 386.). — It was a frequent practice to 
use bellarmines, or grey-beards (the glazed jugs 

Jan. 27. 1835.] 



80 called from a bearded mark on the neck), in 
the construction of old walls. There are constant 
examples of this in England. The object was 
probably to combine strength with lightness, on 
the principle of our modern hollow bricks. In 
the upper portion of the wall of Caracalla's Circus, 
near Kome, are many large globular amphorae 
embedded in the masonryin rows. 

W. J. Bebnhabd Smith. 

Jubilee o/1809 (Vol.xi., p. 13.).— -4n Account 
of the Celebration of the Jubilee (>/* 1809, in various 
Parts of the Kingdom^ was published in a quarto 
volume at Birmingham shortly after. A copy is 
or was on sale at Kussell Smithes, Soho Square. 
An ex-Lady Boswbll Scholar. 

MOTES ON books, ETC. 

The decision of the great literary prizes. The Burnett 
Bequest, for the two best treatises " On the Being and 
Attributes of God," took place at Aberdeen on Saturday 
last. The successful competitors were, for the first prize, 
of 1800Z., the Rev. Robert Anchor Thompson, AM., of 
Louth, Lincolnshire; and for the second, of 600/., the 
Rev. John Tulloch, Principal of St. Mary's College, St. 
Andrew's. There were no less than 208 competitors, and 
the judges, Professor Baden Powell, Mr. Henry Rogers, 
and Mr. Isaac Taylor, were unanimous in their decision. 
They reported very favourably of several others of the 
venr numerous essays submitted to their judgment 

The Rev. Canon Stanley, whose article on the " Murder 
of Becket " in the Quarterly Review for September, 1853, 
was read with so much interest by historical students, 
has reprinted it in a volume entitled Historical Memorials 
of Canterbury. He has thrown in as make-weights three 
other papers, namely, the Landing of Augustine; Ed- 
ward the Black Prince ; and Becket's Shrine, being the 
substance of four lectures delivered by him. These, how- 
ever, are inferior in value, because obviously less care- 
fully prepared than his contribution to the Quarterly Re- 
view. But they have been illustrated with many curious 
and valuable notes by Mr. Albert Way, one of which, on 
& subject formerly discussed in our columns, namely, 
**The Pilgrim's Road," will be read with interest by all 
who took part in that discussion. 

If Lord John RusseH's definition o^ a Proverb — « The 
wisdom of many and the wit of one*' --be correct ; and 
if Lord Bacon be justified in declaring, that " the genius, 
wit, and spirit of a nation are discovered by their 
proverbs;" what a book of wit and wisdom, what an 
illustration of national character of the English, must 
that be which Mr. Bohn has recently issued under the 
title of A Handbook of Froverbs, S^c. ! And, certainly, 
a very curious collection it is. It certainly does not 
contain, as it professes to do, "an entire republication 
of Ray's Collection of English Proverbs:" for no publisher 
could reprint Ray's work entirCf and Mr. Bohn has ad- 
mitted quite as much of it as he decently could ; yet the 
collection is a valuable and useful one, and made still 
more so by its extensive Index. 

If it be a well-founded observation, that the life of anv 
man written with truth must be of interest, how much 
interest must there also be in a like truthful history of 
any city,— a history which shall tell, not only of its 

bricks and mortar, or even of the scenes enacted in it, 
but also of those who congregated within its walls, 
and made its name famous among the people of the 
earth. Pennant did much of this ror London, Saintfoix 
for Paris ; and we cannot bestow higher praise upon The 
History of the City of Dublin by J. T. Gilbert, of which 
the first volume is now before us, than by saying that the 
Honorary Secretary of the Irish Archaeological and Celtic 
Society has produced a work which may well be placed 
beside those models of amusing and instructive topo- 
graphy. The volume is replete with most curious matter, 
suggestive of many interesting inquiries, and deserves 
such patronage as will insure its early completion. It is 
altogether most creditable to the author. 

Books Recefved. — Gibbon^s Roman Empire^ tvith Notes 
by MUman and Guizot, edited by Dr. Smith, Vol. AHC., 
which carries the work down to the fifty-second chapter. 

Voyages and Discoveries in the Arctic Regions, by F. 
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Actuary, PETER HARDY, ESQ., E.R.S. 



Two Members of the Court in rotation, and 


Superintendent, PHILIP SCOONES, ESQ, 


THIS CORPORATION has granted A»- 
lurances on Lives for a Period exceeding One 
Hundred and Thirty Teare, having issued its 
ilnt Policy on the 7tb. June, ITSl. 

Two- thirds, or 66 per cent, of the entire pro- 
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Policies may be opened under cither of the 
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At a low rate of premium, without partici- 
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The abatement for the year 1866 on the 
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The high character which this ancient Cor- 
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The Corporation bears the whole Expbivsxs 
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A II Policies are isaued free from Stamp Duty^ 
or tram charge of any description whatever, 
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The attention of the Public is especial)/ 
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Enactments, by which it will be found that, to 
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ject to Income Tax. 

The Fees of Medical Referees are paid by the 

APolicy may be effected for as smalla sum 
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without the necessity of a new Policy. 

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or exchan^ie of Policies, or any other suitable 
arrangement will be made for the convenience 
of the Assured. 

Prospectuses and all other information may 
be obtained by eitlier a written or personal 
application to the Aetuary^r to the Superin- 
tendent of tlie West End ttBoe. 

JOHN LAURENCE, Secretary. 


il. CATALOGUE, eontainingSise, Price, 
and Deseilption of upwards of 100 articles, 

Ladies* Fortmanteaos, 

DRESSINCMSABEB, and otter teavidllBic re- 
gnisites, Gratis on applioafeiea, or sent free by 
Post on receipt of Two Stamps. 

MESSRS. ALLEN*B registered Despateh- 
box aad Writing-desk, their Travelling-bag 
with the opening as lane as the bag, and the 
new Portmanteau contai nin g four compsart- 
ments, are imdoubtedly the best articles of the 
Idnd ever produced. 

J.- W. k. T. ALLEN» 18. Jt St. WcstStiaiid. 

W ATCH,af ihawn at the GREAT EX- 
HIBITION, Nn, 1, CisM X.. in Gold sod 
j^ijvprtliiari, tn flv«[ qunlJtSfti, Slid tidapted to 
bI;, Ciiniatq^, may now b^ hnJ nt the MANU- 
FACn>K¥,tt5. CUEAPeilJE. Superior Ciuld 
I^ndi!;in-ina4e PaHiit I^icn, I J, 14, and IS 
.^neiH. Ditto, Id ^i1v«r Cbmh, S, % and 1 , 
^iDcuai. FirilTAtfi (jtnf^va levers. In Gold I 
Cve«« i^, \^^ and i euiani. Dkto, In Silver 
CMei, Hh ti. (uid i iniiiteMH Suiwrior Lc ver. with 
(.■iirDnomelcr Balance, Ciold, 37, S, and 10 
Foineai . BeboeEt^t Pwtet Cliruno meter^Gol 1+ 
OfliniineaA 1 Sil?er| 40 i^iaeM, Every Watch 
■lUlfulLy aaunin^itbnexl^and Its pcrnn-imoce 
ruatanteed. Barpnicteri,tLf3£.,and4iI. Ttier- 
m If. each. 


tE3 tndlgCiilion (dyipepsfa), coEi^tinaticii 
and diarrhiisa, djientcrji nervcnwnew, bttiuu*- 
nif^sanLl livo- compllaJnM, flatultncT, dEsl^n- 
tlon, scidltj', heartburn^ paiplt^Urnii of tba 
Iienn. ncrvinia headache^. rf<!afneH, ooljit^ In, 
tlit head and wars, painn in alm'>at etcct part 
of till? t*pd}f,tieHliou]i;mrMmt fiMswclifl. dajcmie 
irHitmniaiioi], CAUoer »nd utcTmUdn of tte 
flomarli, nalus at the pU of the vtoRinch and 
b€ tw?«:m t>vi& ihciui ders. eTTwt|4lut erqpiltinia df 
th«t ikiitplxiLlB aud carbiiucks, inipuntiH and 
poverl J c^f t]it blood, icivfUta, iiuiuch, Bithma^ 
con«unnti:i^n, dropsy, rliE-ttnmtum. gunttf 
naqiea and fliokntss durlnir pregnnncy, afk& 
entiniEi "r at aca, law aifiiit?, HDosirtt, chjzum, 
er^l^Ei^i"' iHi, di]Lc:ien, Ecnei-al d^^blUty, Ini^ule- 
tmie, BtiieirilcAEiieu, iDvoluntarr bludbLnifi, pa- 
i%Ly4»k treEnon, dMUie to KcitiyiiiTifltiKSS ^W 

BENNETT, Watch, Clodc, aau -«._ — ._ - 
Maker to the Royal Observatonr, the Board of 
Ordnaaca.the Adniirahy, and the Qn 

Founded A.D. 184S. 


T. S. Cock8,Jun. Esq. 

G. H. brew, Esq. 
W. Evans, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
J. H. Ooodhart, Esq. 


J. Hunt, Esq. 

J. A. I^thbridge.Esq. 

E. Lucas, Esq. 

J. Lys Seager, Esq. 

J. B.White, Esq. 

J. Carter Wood, Esq. 


W.Whateley,Esq.,Q.C. 1 George Drew, Esq. 

T. Orissell, Esq. 

PAysteian. — William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

l^anJker*.— Messrs. Cooks, Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 


POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come Toid through temporary difficulty in pay- 
ins a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
I oof., with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits : 

^f. . 

M s.d. 


* «. d. 

- 1 14 4 


. - 8 10 8 

s - 

- 1 18 8 

17- ■ 

. - 9 18 6 


- 8 4 6 

48- . 

. -8 8 8 

Nwr rtady, ptice lOifii/o Second Editlan, 
wilh material odditiouf, INUUSTHIAL IN- 
vrSTMKNT and EMIGEATION^ bclni a 
T H E A T I B t dti B KH KFl T B \JUA>1 M G iTo^ 
t;iE I ItlB, and on the i^enenl Prln«lplEi of 
Land InV«stni«nt,axnnpUfle(JI in the Cases of 
FT«hciid l*iid Soetoilo. Building Companies, 
»c. With a Mathematlcat Appendix on Com- 
CKjuud Intiresl and Life AwtiroQCC. By AB- 
VhUK SCitATLHLEYt M*A.. Actopy tP 
the ncjtern Lite AHuranoe 8odi!iy,l.PariJa- 

itudy. io** uf mMflory, de , ^ 

to the h?ad,«ihaumen, melanchoWteniiund^ 
lets fear, indi^cisloD, wretched n'Ssv^, though Is of 
self'i1evt:m(.-ti(in, and many Dth^r complatnts. 
It \%, morcwvor, the betd; food for Inf-jnts and 
5Dyaliiif E^enemlly^ a« it never turns acid ou 
the weahcet itt^mach, nor Interierei with a 

food If Item.] dttt, but Imparti a he&lthyrel3ili 
ur laxkfh and dinner, and restorei thefoeulb' 
of diKeatii?n, and nsncmeand musculareaerfty 
t^ the mnft enfeebled. In whooiHim cougE, 
metu^Lrj. imaLl-pux. and chicken at wind pox, 
1% fcndvLTt alJ inedid,iie snperAuom by w- 
niortng oU Lndatuiuatory and feverish lymp- 
tDmi. ^ 

iMpanfAKT CAtmiaw i!L(raInst the ffarAd 
daii^eii nf i[»Uri4it]B imltltlunft : — Tlie Vlec-- 
Chancellor 8lr Willi ajii Ptt(«3 Wool if rail ted 
jin Injunc:ti<Hi Oil Mjin:k lo» 1*54, mrflinst 
Alfred UiiDptjr N*v|[l. for InkitatlDg " Ihi 
BarrjF'a |t«valenta Aiabka Food.'' 
BARRY, DU BAERY,* CO., !7. EeEaul 

A ftw imi qfSBjam C-urts: 

CuTv Noh 6«;iaa ; _ '* I havn inflfered thesfl 

thirty 'three yvum cnntlnuallj fWnii dia^mnA 

lun^rs. »ri<iU3i?ff nf bluod* liver tlorane^cfncqt, 

.I...JL iiDSinff in the <?arB, oi:»n«dp«t]OTij, 

h E I 

deaftiL... .._,. _ 

debility, flhortnfiii of brn^lh and wiukI 

during that T»eriod tmken to much mediqinCt 
tliatl can nfely aay I havii iaid nai upwiuda 
of a thouHiiid [munds with the r.hi!irijtB mid 
doctDrs. 1 have actnatly vuTU out two mimical 
men durlnjf jb^ ailmcnis, vlthEiiit ftndlDg any 
ln>I)jrDvem<€Tt E m my Lwnitli. Indteil I waa 'ax 
utter deiRtaiFi, ojid ni^vcr tipvcted tCK^etoTcr 
it, when J was Inrtuilatu enirujih to bcteom^ 
ncnxiuinl cd with your ituvak-uta AtftlitcaL s 
vhiC-hi Heaven ha E>ralm;d, rcitoTcd Tad lii a 
•UtC of ineakh whiiJi I Inng flinre deaMircd ct 
a^^^Jjnr- My Liinga, lifL^l-, Btomadi, bead^ 
and «BJi4 an;] all r%ht, my heaxinjf p4:7ft^E:t, and 
mif recnvtrry La a mai-v«l t& ali my tji^tuML- 
HPoesL I am, respectful i;. 

""Jammm RtiBEanL 

" Bridceh^iue, Fiinilej, 3^ ISM." 

Nu.i!j30r Major-General King, curcof|r&* 
neml ditbilitr and nerTonsncsit, Ni», Jraifl*^ 
Cnptaln Parker D. Vtmghtm, R,N-t who wii« 
eiinfil of li^euty-MiTen ytt-n' diiiiepiiJa fn liic 
wtekt Ume. Cure Nr.*«,4i<l, WjlJia-r. Hunt, 
Essfi. H Bai riilcr-at-Liw, sljity y^'arp' iHvrtisLl p*- 
mifmlf. No, as, AM. Captain Alkn, nrcurdmg 
the mre of a Wy ftom a^Uevlk Ats^ Id a- %il^ 
Th« Rev. Charics Kerr, a Cure of ftlntiticmil 
dlKjrdent No. f 4^ H. The Rbt. Th Wum Mia- 
eter, t-ure of fl\'c jea.n' uerrfYuancn, * ith Fppifmf 
■nd ih-Uy ToinltLniin. No. *l,til?. Dr. Jom^ 
Silurian d, late surgetm in the &&th K^une^t, 

No. Jiif,lifl. irr. (JrlM, Mo^deburtr, rroordr 
injr the ctire of lirs wife rrom pylnioctiLTy tioB- 
FumptiuiK with tAght ivcats and ulcerated 
LuDgB, wliich liad n.btsttd all medMnn. and 
appeared a hDt»elC0S cajr, Ho. I . JJr. Ga^ 
tiker, Ktiritl'i i; irtiKi jf ean«T of th« •tomaah 
aiid ficBjfyllj^ diiitffMllUE Tomitlr^p, hahltual 
AaiulinL:)', aitd to'ic, AU rhe jtbuve itartlcs 
wlU be iinppy b>KUSWBTauy Inquiries. 

In caniRtepi, niltabty it«2Vcd ibr all di- 
matcit and with mil inatrtruti-jm — Hb.. ts. 
^d^i Xlh., iji, i'nL i :>Lb., lif.i i^Jh.,:^^ j tuper- 
tisflnert. lib,, iyt. i Hb., \it. ; &lt>* iU.i lolh., 
Xu . Tlie I cab. and islh. carriage fr«f ( u |xiit- 
flrtca order- Barry, I>u Barry. * Co,, 77- 
Event Blrrat, l^udt^n; Furtitaro, Mji»>n, & 
Co , tiurveytirt To Her iHa}estv> FicCJidllly s 
aljcj at 60. GrftOMhutrh Btrett ; 330. Strmtid ; of 
Ikinilay, Edwunis, button, EatngKT, JlatitiAf^ 
Ntwberryt i-lld maj' bt orrlered IhroiiNih Mil re- 
MPtetatge QfiokaBUBia, OnHn, osd Qtemiita. 



[No. 275. 

Jastinian, bj a constitution made at the time of 
the fiflh general council of Constantinople, or- 
dained that the writings of heretics should be 
burnt. Especial reference is made to Apthimus, 
Severus of Antioch, Zoaras, &c. 

Justinian, by another edict against Severos, 
forbad " that the sayings or writmgs of Severus 
should remain with any Christian man ;** and 
ordered that ** they should be burnt with fire by 
their possessors. Whoever disobeyed was to have 
his hands cut off." 

In 1120, a council at Suessa condemned a book 
by Abailard, and compelled him to put it into the 
fire with his own hands. 

By will, Virgil required his own poems to be 
burnt; but Augustus prevented it from being 
effected. (Pliny, Nat. HUt vii. 30.) 

The first Roman libraries were burnt when the 
city was set on fire by Nero. (Sueton., Nero^ Sfc) 

The library adjoining the Temple of Peace at 
Rome was burnt under Commodus. Compare 
Herodiaut i. 44. B. H. Cowf£B. 

(7\> be continued.) 


Every one acquainted with Scott's Border 
Minstrelsy is aware that " Christie's Will " is the 
name of a famous border reiver of the seventeenth 
century : 

** Traquair has ridden up Chapelhope, 

And sae has he down by the Gray Mare's Tail ; 
He never stinted the light gallop, 
Until he speer'd for Christie's Will. 

" Now Christie's Will peep'd frae the tower, 
And out at the shot-hole keeked he ; 
* And ever unlucky,* quo' he, * is the hour, 
That the warden comes to speer for me ! ' 

** * Good Christie's Will, now, have na fear ! 
Nae harm, good Will, shall hap to thee ; 
I saved thy life at the Jeddart air, 
At the Jeddart air frae the justice tree. 

« * Bethink how ye swore, by the salt and the bread, 
By the lightning, the wind, and the rain, 
That if ever of Christie's Will I had need, 
He would pay me my service again.* 

« * Gramercy, my lord,' quo' Christie's W^ill, 
* Gramercy, my lord, for your grace to me I 
When I turn my cheek, and claw my neck, 
I think of Traquair, and the Jeddart tree.' 

" And he has open'd the fair tower yett. 
To Traquair and a' his companie ; 
The spuile o' the deer on the board he has set, 
The fattest that ran on the Hutton Lee. 
** * Now, wherefor sit ye sad, my lord ? 
And wherefor sit ye mournfullie ? 
And whv eat ye not of the venison I shot 
At the dead of night on Hutton Lee? ' 
« < weel may I stint of feast and sport. 
And in my mind be vexed and sair! 
A vote of the canker*d Session Court, 
Of land and living will make me bare. 

" • But if auld Dturie to heaven were flown, . 
Or if auld Durie to hell were gane. 
Or ... if he could be but ten dajrs stoun. 
My bonnie braid lands would still be my ain.' 

<* * mony a time, my lord,' he said, 

* I've stoun the horse frae the sleeping loon ; 
But for you I'll steal a beast as braid. 
For I'll steal Lord Durie frae Edinburgh town I ' " 

As the ballad goes on to relate, and as Sir Walter 
Scott*8 notes explain, Christie's Will was as good 
as his word. He kidnapped the " auld lurdane ** 
near the sands of Leith, and enveloping him in a 
cloak, carried him to the Tower of Grahame, in 
Annandale, where he was detained in close con* 
finement until the lawsuit in which Traquair was 
concerned had been decided in his favour. Lord 
Durie, it was understood, would have voted in 
favour of the opposite party. Various other 
daring deeds are recorded by the freebooter, 
which well entitle him to distinction in Border 

But who was Christie's Will? Sir Walter 
states, on the authority of a somewhat ambiguous 
tradition, that his real name was Armstrong, and 
that he was the son or grandson of Cristopker^ 
son of ** the famous John Armstrong of Gilknockie, 
executed by James V. ; " hence called ChrisUe*8 
Will by way of distinction. 

The *^ Johnnie Armstrong; " alluded to was ex* 
ecuted, it is believed, in 1529. His son Christo- 
pher appears to have been an infant at the time : 

" And God be with thee, JTtrafy, my son, 
Where thou sits on thy nurse's knee** 

If this was. the Christopher, as Sir Walter sup- 
poses, who grants a bond of man-rent to Lord 
Maxwell in 1557, he would then be about twenty- 
nine years of age, and could not well have been 
the father of Christie's Will, who kidnapped Lord 
Durie ; which circumstance must have occurred 
nearly eighty years afterwards. Alexander Gib- 
son, Lord Durie, the well-known collector of 
Durie 8 Decisions^ was promoted to the bench 
10th July, 1621, and died in July, 1646.* As he 
ia described as ** Auld Durie " in the ballad, the 
probability is that his abduction took place to- 
wards the close of his life, about 1640. At all 
events Christie's Will, who is represented as 
having performed certain dexterous feats during 
the troubles of Charles I., must have been in the 
prime of life at the time, and was more likelr» if 
an Armstrong at all, to have been the grandson 
than the son of Kirsty ; hence, unless Christopher 
had continued as a family name for two or taree 
generations, the designation of Christie's Will is 

We have been led into these remarks by the 
fact, not generally known, perhaps, that Cryistu- 

* Another authority mentions his death as occorring 
10th June, 1644. 

Feb. 3. 1855.] 



woll was, and still maj be, for aught we know, a 
surname in this country. This appears from the 
following extract : 

** TesL Chryistiswoll — The testament, tefltamentar, 
&C., of vmqle Johne ChryistiswoU, zonger, ane of the 
portioneris of Lunderstoun, ffaithfallie maid, &c., the 
ziiij day of November, 1606 zeiris. Quhairin he nominat 
and constituit Thomas Chryistiswoll, in Brae, his brother, 
and Jonet Sympsone, spous to the defunct, his exrs , &c. 
• . . This testament was maid be the mouth of the 
deid, day, moneth, zeir and place, foirsaid. Befoir thir 
witnesses — Mr. Thomas Zonger, minister atlnnerkipe; 
Thomas Sympsone in Brae ; James Tailzeour, ane of the 

SDrtioneris of Lunderstoun, and James Hyndman, in 
lochmuir. . . . Confirmed at Glasgow, the penult 
day of May, 1608 zeiris." 

It farther appears that Chryistiswoll, or Crystis- 
woll, was the name of a place as well as of persons : 
Kobert Stewart, of Crystiswoll^t is a witness to the 
testament of *^ Kobert Birsbane of Bishoptoun, 
within the parochiu of Erskyne," dated 16th Ja- 
nuary, 1610. 

In Scotland, " Christie's Will," and " Cryistis- 
woll," as pronounced by the peasantry, are pre- 
cisely similar ; hence the possibility that the one is 
merely a misnomer of the other, and that the 
freebooter of the ballad was not an Armstrong at 
ally but a genuine descendant of the CryistiswoUs ! 



It has sometimes been maintained, that every- 
thing material has its symbolical signification. 
Have any of your readers, who incline to this 
opinion, ever observed how remarkably this theory 
is supported by the following facts in regard to 
colour ? 

If twenty persons were asked which they con- 
sidered the most beautiful of the three primary 
colours — blue, red, or yellow? probably fifteen 
out of the twenty would reply " blue" — heaven's 
own hue. Tet ask those nfteen to name the two 
colours which they consider would form the most 
harmonious combination, probably not one of them 
would mention blue as forming part of this fa- 
Tourite mixture. 

It is a law of colouring, that no two primary 
colours will blend — the effect would be harsh, the 
contrast too violent ; but a primary colour must 
always be united with a compound, and in that 
compound the primary must bear a part. Thus, 
red and purple are a good mixture, because red 
is an in^edient of purple. Green and gold are a 
good mixture, because yellow is an ingredient of 
green. Upon the same principle, blue and green 
ought to be an agreeable combination, because 
blue is an ineredient of green ; yet blue and green 
are universally considered a bad mixture. Thus 
we; see that blue will not harmonise either with 
xedy yellowy or green. It stands alone, exquisitely 

beautiful, but almost incompatible with other 
colours. Nevertheless, by mixing it with red, we 
produce purple — a colour which harmonises more 
universaUy than any ot^r, whether primary or 
compound. Thus purple and red, purple and 
gold, purple and green — nay, even purple and 
blue itself — are all manifestly good mixtures. But 
though purple is so harmonious, and is in itself so 
beautiful, yet it has this peculiarity, viz. it loses 
all its charms when seen by an artificial light. 

Surely none can be so dull of imagination, as 
not to see the obvious spiritual meaning of all this. 
Blue — the hue of heaven — is too bright and piure 
to blend with earthly hues. How, then, can we 
bring heavenly things to harmonise with things 
earthly ? Has it not been by the shedding of blood P 
Is it not the red stream of our Saviour's blood, 
which has brought down Heaven to earth ? Is it 
not that crimson stream which has restored har- 
mony between man and his Maker, between earth 
and Heaven ? And as purple — an apt emblem 
of the Gospel — is the only colour which is suited 
to all other colours, so the Gospel is the only 
scheme of religion which is suited to the condition 
of all men. And as purple, so beautiful when 
seen by the light of Heaven, looks dead and mean 
by an artificial light, so the Christian religion, 
when contemplated by a heaven- illuminated mind, 
is seen to be the subhmest of ideas ; but, seen by 
the dim taper of human reason, it looks mean 
and despicable. 

If there be any truth in these considerations, 
how much might colouring, in every branch of 
the art, be improved and ennobled by a due re- 
gard to its symbolical meaning ! — a meaning 
which seems to have been graciously implanted in 
matter, in order that it may act as an antidote to 
itself, and raise the mind from an undue attach- 
ment to material things to the contemplation of 
things spiritual. Surely it is presumptuous to 
condemn Mr. lluskin as romantic and fanciful, 
because he considers that to be the most perfect 
system of colouring in which red, blue, and pur- 
ple (the colours revealed to Moses on Mount 
Sinai) predominate. It may be objected that 
blue harmonises with brown and grey ; but it 
should be remembered, that these are neutral 
tints, and, as far as the present argument is con- 
cerned, must be placed in the same category with 
black and white. E. H. 



It is not without reason that readers are puzzled 
when finding such contradictory statements in the 
works of well-known authors, as are to be met 
with in the following passages : 

1. ''The lake Asphaltites is vastly great in circum- 
ference, as if it were a sea. It is of an ill taste, and la 



[No. 375, 

penudoos U> tbe •djokiinf countij hj iU strop^ smell ; 
the ^rind raiees no warea there, nor will it mftintaia githar 
Ml or iock bix4A aa hn tlie wate^/^*— T«i^c^U4r, lib. t". 

2. *• Thi* lake Asphaltydea is bj some also called Mare 
MoFtmnia, for by reason of the saltnea, and thicknes of it, 
DothiiQg can live in itj. neytber will it mix with the 
waters of Jordan, though the river rtin through the Tery 
midst of the lake. No creatore can po^ibly sink in It, 
though it were A horse, or oxe, and their legs were tyd 
together ; nay, the very burda that sometimes would fly 
jover it, are by the noysome smell of it suiTucated^ and fall 
dead into it,"* — Teooge's Diary, p. 120» 

3» "Tha river Jordan running a great way further 
with many windings^ ail it were to delay his ill destiny, 
gUdin^ through the plains of Jericho not fur below where 
that city stood* ia at length devoured by that accut^d 
lake Asph^tyde^ ao named of the bit amen which it 
vomitetli; calleil also the Dead Soa^ perhaps in that it 
nourishoth no Living creature, or (ot its heary waters, 
liardly to be moved by the wind."* — Sttndyt, lib* ill 
p. 110,, L1500. 

4. "We found the hills, which ara of white atone, 
higher the nearer ^^ approached the Dead Sea. The air 
hoA been alwaya thou^jht to be bad ; and tlie Arabs and 
people who go "near it^ banks, always bind their handker- 
chiefs before their mouths, and draw their breath through 
tliflir noatrila, through fear of its pernicious effects*" * — 
FifcoeMt vol. ii. pp. B7, aa„ 1739, 1710. 

5* "Everything abont it was in the highest def^ree 
grand and itivful. Its desolate, though majestic features, 
are well gniied to the tales told about it/'* — Clarke's 
Visit to the Rolt/ Land, imL 

C. " I went oHi and came near to those waters of death ? 
they stretched deeply into the southern desert, and before 
me^ and all around as far away as th« eye could follow, 
blank hills pileil high over hills, pale, yellow, and naked, 
walled up in her tomb for ever— the dead and damned 
Gomorrah. There was no fly that bummed in the for- 
bidden air — but instead, a deep stilhiefls* No gross grew* 
from the earth, no weed peered through the void sand| 
But in mockery of all lifi.v there were trees borne down by 
Jordan in souie ancient flood, and these, grotesquely 
planted upon the forloru shore, spread out their grim 
skeleton arms, all acorehed and charred to blackness by 
the heatft of long silent years," — Eoili&u^ cap. xiii, p. 10 b- 

7. " At length wo rcaebed the shore of the fatal se^, 
and eneamped within a few yards of the water's cUgc. The 
shore was strewn with logs of wood, and withered branches 
that presented something of a potritied appearance, and 
lighted into a fire ivith great facility* There was no shell, 
<yT flvi or any sign of hfa aloa^ the curving sand." — 
Wflrbur ton's Qr^sceni and the Cfvss, cap. xi. p. 107, 

a, " About six ws entered the great plain at the end of 
the Dead Sea ; for about a quarter of an hour we passed 
a few bushes, but aftertvarda found the soil sandy and 
^rfeetly barren* At dark, we stopped for the night in a 
ravine at the side of a hill, much agaitist the wishes of 
our guides i who strongly urged the want of water and 
the dread of dvtchmaan, as inducements to nmke us pro- 
ceed. We collected a quantity of wood which the Dead 
Sea had thrown up at high -water mark, and endeavoured 
to make a fire in order to bake bread, as wq had flour* 
The wood however was so impregnated with salt, that all 
our effbrti to light it were unavailing j and we contented 

. * ITie references tlsos marked are to be seen in Teonge*fl 
J>iary^ London, 1825, pp, 120. 123. 

ourtelves with drinking the flour and water mixed, whicll, 
though not verr pabtkble, served to appease our hungw." 
^Irby and ftiangles' Travels m £^wtf iVk&ui, S]/rk 

and the Holy Lemd, London, 1845, p.lu7. 

9. " We ornved all at once at the lake % I m all at 
once, because I thought we were a coualdorable distance 
from it. No murmur, no cooling breeze, announced oor 
approBjch to ita margin. The strand, bestri^wed witli 
stones, was hot ^ the waters of the lake were motioalra^ 
and absolutely dead, along the shore- There was no 
want of wood, for the shorn was strewed with branches df 
tamarind trees brought by the Arabs; and such is th« 
forte of habit, that our ]3ethlemitei, who bad preceded with 
^reat caution over the plain, were j)ot lilVald to kindle a 
lire which might so easily betra.y us. One of them cm- 
ployed a singular expedient to make the flre: sliding 
across the pile, he stooped down over the tire till his 
tunic became inflated with the smoke; then rising britkly, 
the airi expelkd by this species of bellows, hUw up m. 
brilliant flame. 

" About midnight I heard a noise upon the lake. Tlie 
Bethlemites told me that it proceeded from l^ooi of 
small fish which como and leap about on the ahora Thii 
contradicts the opinion generally adopted, that the Dead 
Sea produces no living creature," — Chateaubiiuid^a 
Trav:d& to Jtrasalem and the Holy Land, London, 1S&5| 
vol. i, pp. 343, 344, 

10. *■■ Since our return (to America), some of the WAtu 
of the Dead Soji has been subjected to a powerful micro- 
scope, and no animalculai or vestige of animal matter 
could be detected.*' — Lvnch*3 United States* MarpediA* 
to the n&ad Sea, 1849, p.' 37 7. 

11. '* Almost at the moment of my turning from the 
Jordan to the Dead Sea, notwithstanding the long credited 
aceounta that no bird could Uy over without dropping 
dead upon its surface, I saw "a floc'k of gulls floating 
quietly upon its bosom ; and when I roused them fey a 
stone, they fle^ down the lake, skimming its sotrnine 
until they had carried themselves out of sight.** ^ 
Stephen's lacidetUt of Travel^ cap, xxxii. p. 122, 

12. ** The general appearance of this wildemeai iif Und, 
and water over which an aw fa I sikuce reigns, is gtocimy 
in the extreme, and ealculated to depress the spirit ofths 
bebolder. The suil around (the Dead Sea) being im- 
pregnated with salt, produces no jdants; and the air 
itself, which becomes loaded with saline particles frcua 
evaporation, cannot be favourable to veeetation, Henc* 
the deadly aspect which reigns around the lake. Ihuing 
the few hours we remained in Ibis neighbourhood, wa 
canfe-ii we liid not see any birds * but it is not trim that 
the exhalations of the lake are so pestiferous as to Mil 
those which attempt to fly over it." — HoblELBOu'a Fak»- 
tias, vol. i- pp. 6^1 Ij7. 

19. *' Nothing in this place gare me the least ide& of 
the desolation spoken of in the Tlible. The air is pturey 
and the fields extremely verdant/' — Maritl'a Visxt to tki 
Dead Sea^ 17(50, vol, vii. p, 372, 

14. *' The old stories about the pestiferous qualities of the 
Dead Sea and its waters, are mere fables or delusiona; 
and actual appearances arc the natural and obvious eflecta 
of the c^nflned and deep situation, the intense heat* and 
the uncommon saltness of the w*atei^. Lying in its deep 
catildrcint surrounded by lofty clifl'zj of naked limestono 
rock, exposed for seven or eight months in the year to 
the undo tided beams of a burning sun, nothing but sta-^ 
rility and solitude can be looked for upon its shores : and 
not li lug ebe is actually fouoil, exeept in those parts 
where there are fountains or streams of fresh water j in 
aU of wbioh places ther« is a tertflfi soil, and abvmistit 

.Feb. 3. 1855.] 



vegetation. Birds also abound, and they are observed to 
fly over and across the sea without being, as old stories 
tell, injured or killed by its exhalations." — Pictorial 
Bible, London, 1849, vol. lii. p. 672. 



• Upon the stern and desolate shore I stood 
Of that grim lake, within whose foul recess, 
Jordan's sweet waters turn to bitterness. 

' O'er the dull face of the sepulchral flood, 
2^0 spirit moved. In vain with soft caress. 
The gentle breeze its sullen waters wooed : 
No token answered. Nor was it the less. 
When there arose a tempest fierce and rude, 
A ghastly scene ; for like no living sea, 

• Whose billows, buoyant with a sparkling life, 
Ride on the storm, rejoicing in the strife. 
Was this ; but when the strong wind mightily 
Lifted its leaden waves, with dismal roar. 
And heavy corpse-like sound, they fell upon the shore.' 

" From Bethany we struck into a path, a little to the 
south of the Jericho road, and leading directly to the 
head of the lake. This was, if possible, even more dreary 
than the other ; on all sides rose, peak above peak, blasted 
and desolate mountains, each like the crater of an extinct 
volcano. And as I descended into the silent plain of the 
Dead Sea, the only living creature in sight Avas a long 
thin snake, like a whipcord; that, curling itself away 
among the stones, seemed quite in character with the 

** But there was nothing gloomy in the colour of the 
lake itself: on the contrary, it was a deep and beautiful 
blue ; and if those naked rocks around were but covered 
with foliage, and those barren sands with verdure, it 
would indeed be a lovely and enchanting scene. And 
such it was once, — * even as the garden of the Lord, before 
the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah.* 

** But as I drew nearer to the water's edge, its character 
seined to change, and I perceived how rightly it has 
received its name. Like the mirror held to the dead 
man's face, no breath of life dimmed the polished bright- 
ness of its surface. The gentle breeze played over it 
unheeded: there it lay, motionless and dumb — with its 
blue eye turned up to the naked sun, in a fixed and glassv 
stare." — Ferguson's Pipe of Repose, London, 1851, 
pp. 102. 108, 109. 

16. " I have no bright recollections of pleasant scenes, 
or happy hours experienced during my tour. Parching 
heat and intolerable thirst, the dusty wilderness, stum- 
bling and faded horses, the vain shelter of tents ; the by 
no means vain stings of fleas, flies, and their coadjutors 
and •accomplices; the fights with muleteers, and tbe im- 
positions of divers hirelings ; make up the sum of my 
recollections, to which I may add a fever I caught bath- 
ing in .the Jordan, and which has clung to me until my 
safe arrival home — a favour seldom accorded to other 
Europeans similarly situated, as they are almost invari- 
ably, and in a few days, relieved from their torments by 
death." — Neal's Eight Years in Syria and Palestine, 
London, 1851, vol. i. p. 146. 

17. •* I must here assert most positively, that the al- 
leged impossibility of horses wading through the waters 
of the Dead Sea, in consequence of the density of those 
waters, which would make them lose their balance, con- 
stitutes a wild fable, resting on no foundation ; and which, 
like many other fallacies, has been repeated at pleasure, 
thus acquiring progressive and increasing currency in the 
narratives of succeeding travellers. 

^ •* And here we are encamped once more for the last 
time on the shore of this sea, which has become so dear 

to us; now we can estimate at their correct value the 
fantastic fables so long invented to represent it as a place 
of malediction and death. I must confess, however, that 
on this particular occasion the attractions of the neigh- 
bourhood are materially qualified, owing to the swarms 
of musqnitoes by which we were assailed. Not content 
with assaulting such parts of our bodies as are exposed to 
their sting, these persevering enemies contrive to get 
within our clothing, and stab us even through cloth, 
linen and flannel — with venom enough to drive us out of 
our senses." — De Saulcy's Journey round the Dead Sea, 
London, 1854, vol. ii. pp. 33. 36. 

18. ** The Dead Sea was anciently called * Sea of the 
Plain,' * Salt Sea,' * East Sea ; ' and by Josephus, and the 
Greek and Roman writers, * Lacus Asphaltites ; ' that is, 
bitumenous lake, on account of the bitumen found in its 

** The water of the Dead Sea contains one-fourth of its 
weight in a hundred of saline ingredients, in a state of 
perfect desiccation. It is also impregnated with other 
mineral substances, especially with bitumen, which often 
floats on its surface in large 'masses ; it is most probably 
cast up from the bottom by volcanic action, and is re- 
corded to have been seen after earthquakes in masses 
resembling small islands. (Considerable quantities of 
wood, and other vegetable matter, are found cast on the 
shores by the great buoyancy of the water, in which it is 
difficult to swim ; the feet being buoyed up to a levd 
with the head. Its specific gravity is to that of distilled 
water, as 1212 to 1000 ; and greater, therefore, than that 
of any other water known. 

"Josephus relates, that some slaves, thrown in with 
their hands tied behind them, by order of Vespasian, all 
floated. Modern travellers have floated in its waters 
without moving, and were able to read a book or sleep ; 
and a horse having been driven in on one occasion, did 
not sink, but floated on his back, violently throwing his 
legs upwards. 

" There are some hot brackish springs on the shores, 
but only two of sweet water, at Ain Jidy, and on the 
peninsula of the eastern shore. Not a trace of vegetation 
nor a patch of verdure is to be found anywhere but in 
the two last-mentioned spots, except some canes and 
reeds near the salt-marshes ; all is death-like sterility ; 
not u living creature is seen, because the smallest bird 
would not find a blade of grass for its sustenance. The 
scenery is thus awfully wild and sublime, presenting a 
vivid picture of the grim terrific abode of eternal death." 
— Journal of a Deputation to the East, London, 1854, 
Part II. pp. 379, 380, 381. 

The space required for the insertion of the 
above extracts in "N. & Q." will prevent my taking 
some other quotations from standard works : that 
of Professor Kobinson, and his well-known learned 
coadjutor the Rev. ^ir. Smith, being among the 
number. De Saulcy, to whose interestinof volumes 
a reference has already been given, differs from 
all preceding travellers, as be does from many 
biblical scholars, when stating that the doomed 
cities of Sodom and Gomorrah may not have been 
destroyed by any sudden irruption of the Dead 
Sea. He states that the two places were distant 
from each other seventy-five miles ; and if ever 
submerged, the ruins, on the "recession of the sea, 
were left on dry land,** which he has discovered. 
A critical writer has recently remarked, that 
Mr. De Saulcy*8 claim to this discovery cannot 



[No. 275. 

be disputed, and to this opinion manj readers will 
readily give their assent. 

Long as this note may be, still it cannot be 
closed before briefly referring to three distin- 
guished travellers, who perished shortly after 
navigating the Dead Sea, and lefl their remains 
not very far from its banks. The first was the 
much-regretted Costigan, whom the writer met at 
Constantmople before starting on his fatal expe- 
dition, and whose "melancholy story is known." 
Lieutenant Molyneaux, of H. M. S. " Spartan," 
in 1847 was the second unfortunate victim. He 
passed three days, and as many nijjhts, in his boat ; 
and died on returninnj to his ship of the fever which 
he caught at that time. The notes left by this 
gallant young officer " were read before the Geo- 

S*aphical Society, and noticed in the Athenaum" 
ne other name remains only to be mentioned, 
that of the lamented Dale ; he breathed his last 
on the hills of Lebanon, and was buried at Bey- 
rout. Second in command of the United States* 
Expedition to the Dead Sea, he died in the ser- 
vice of his country ; and the beautiful tribute paid 
to his memory by Commander Lynch will tell 
bow much his loss was regretted. 

William Winthrop. 


** Mon in the mone, stond and streit ; 

On is bot-forke is burthen he bereth. 
Hit is muche wonder that he na doun slyt. 

For doute leste he valle, he shoddreth'ant shereth : 

When the forst freseth much chele he byd 
The thomes beth kene is hattren to-tereth ; 

Nis no wytht in the world that wot wen he syt 
Ne, bote hit hue the hegge, whet wedes he wereth. 

" Whider trowe this mon ha the wey take, 

He hath set is o fot is other to foren, 
For non hithte that he hath ne sytht me h3nn ner shake, 

He is the sloweste mon that ever was yboren. 

Wher he were othe feld pycchynde stake, 
For hope of ys thomes to dutten is doren, 

He mot myd is twybyl other trous make. 
Other al is dayes werk ther were yloren. 

" This ilke mon upon heh whener he were, 

Wher he were y the mone boren aut yfed. 
He leneth on is forke ase a grey frere. 

This crokede ca}'nard sore he is adred. 

Hit is mony day go that he was here, 
Ichot of is ernde he nath nout ysped ; 

He hath hewe sumwher a burthen of brere. 
Therefore sum hayward hath taken ys wed. 

" 3ef thy wed ys y take, bring hom the trous. 

Set forth thyn other fot, stryd over sty ; 
We schule preve the haywart hom to ur hous. 

Ant maken hym at heyse for the maystry ; 

Drynke to hym deorly of fol god bous, 
Ant our dame Douse shal sitten hym by. 

When that he is dronke ase a dreynt mons, 
Thenne we schul borewe the wed ate bayly. 

** This mon hereth me nout, thah ich to hym crye» 
Ichot the cherl is def, the del hym to-drawe. 

Thah ic %e!»e upon heth nulla nout hye 

The lostlase ladde can nout o lawe. 

Hupe forth, Hubert, hosede pye 
Ichot thart amarstled in to the mawe ; 

Thah me teone with hym that myn teh mye. 
The cherld nul nout adoun er the day dawe.** 

Harl MS, 22W. 

We are here presented witb the idea our an* 
cestors entertained of an imaginary being*, the 
subject of perhaps one of the most ancient as well 
as one of the most popular superstitions in the 
world. He is represented leaning on a fork, on 
which he carries a bunch of thorns, because it was 
for " pycchynde stake " on a Sunday that he is 
reported to have been thus confined. There can- 
not be a doubt that the following is the origin of 
the idea, however the moon became connected 
with it. See Numbers xv. 32. : 

" And while the children of Israel were in the wilder- 
ness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the 
sabbath day," &c. 

To have a care " Lest the chorle may fall cat 
of the moone" appears from Chaucer's TroUus and 
Cressida to have been a proverbial expression in 
his time. In the Midsummer Nighfs Dream^ 
Peter Quince, in arranging his dramatis persaius 
for the play before the duke, directs that " one 
must come in with a bush of thornes and a lan- 
tern, and say he comes in to disfigure or to present 
the person of moonshine,** which we afterwards 
find done. ** All that I have to say,** concludes 
the performer of this strange part, "is, to tell you 
that the lantern is the moon, I the man in the 
moon, this thorn-bush my thorn-bush, and thia 
dog my dog.*' See Tempest also. Act XL Sc. 2. : 
" Ste. I was the man in the moon, when time was, 
Cal. I have seen thee in her, and I do adore thee ; 

My mistress showed me thee, thy dog, and bush." 

So far the tradition is still preserved among 
nurses and schoolboys ; but how the culprit came 
to be imprisoned in the moon is still to be ac- 
counted for. It should seem that he had not 
merely gathered sticks on the sabbath, but that 
he has stolen what he had gathered, as appears 
from the following lines in Chaucer*s Testafjient 
of Creseide, where the poet, describing the moon, 
informs us that she had 
*' On her brest a chorle painted painted fill even. 
Bearing a bush of thorns on his backe. 
Which for his theft might clime no ner the heven.** 
We are to suppose that he was doomed to per- 
petual confinement in this planet, and precluded 
from every possibility of inhabiting the mansions 
of the just. With the Italians Cain appears to 
have been the offender, and he is alluded to in a 
very extraordinary manner by Dante in the 20th 
canto of the InfemOy where the moon is described 

[* Our correspondent is of course aware that the sonff^ 
with some similar remarks on this " imaginary being/* 
have been noticed by Ritson in his Ancient Songs, p. BLt 
edit 1792. — Ed.] 

Feb. 3. 1855.] 



by the periphrasis " Caino e le spine." One of the 
commentators on that poet says that this alludes 
to the popular opinion of Cain loaded with the 
bundle of faggots ; but how he procured them we 
are not informed. The Jews have some Talmud- 
ical story that Jacob is in the moon, and they be- 
lieve that his face is visible. The natives of Ceylon, 
instead of a man, have placed a hare in the moon. 
Clemens Alexandrinus quotes Serapion for his 
opinion that the face in the moon was the soul of 
a sibyl. See Plutarch's Morals also (p. 559., 
Holland's transl., fol. 1603), where Sibylla is 
placed in the moon : 

■"And the daemon said it was the voice of Sibylle, for 
she, being carried about in the globe and the face of the 
mooD, did foretell and see what was to come." 

These last two instances may throw some light on 
the obscure passage in Dante. H. S. 

Old French Monthly Rules, — In the Calemlrier 
ffistorial attached to La Bible, de Vlmprimerie 
de Francois Estienne, 1567, there are the follow- 
ing monthly rules, each accompanied with a neat 
illustrative woodcut : 

" Janvier. Ce mois est figure de la mort corporelle. 
Feurier. En ce mois on reclost les hayes. 
Mars. En ce mois on seme Torge et autres legumes. 
Auril, En ce mois on meine les troupeaux aux champs. 
May. En ce mois on s*addonne aux esbats. 
Jmn. En ce mois on tond les moutons. 
JuiUet. En ce mois on fauche les prez. 
Aoust. En ce mois on fait moissons. 
Septembre. En ce mois on vendange. 
Octobre. En ce mois laboure les terres. 
Nouembre. En ce mois les champs prennent leur faces 

Decembre. En ce mois Thyuer fait ranger les gens a la 


The benevolent intention of Francis Stephen, 
the eminent compiler of this beautiful specimen of 
a very early almanac, is thus expressed in his 
Preface " Av Lectevr :" 

*• Gomme ceux qui considerent peu Fetemele proui- 
dence et gouuernemente deDieu en ces choses inferieures, 
et moins dependans d'icelle, attribuans quasi le tons aux 
causes secondes et aux estoilles. Dont le plus souuent 
viennent a dire choses non seulement c5tre toute piet^ 
chrestienne, mais aussi eslong^es de toute verity, ainsi 
que le demOstre assez ce qui succede de leurs vaines et 
brasses pronostications." 


MutUation of Chaucer. — At p. 22. of a lecture 
On DesvUory and Systematic Reading, by the 
Kight Hon. Sir James Stephen, K.C.B., one of 
the publications of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, is the following : 

^ I saw his sleeves perfumed at the hand 
With greaee, and that the finest in the land.'* 

In Bell's edition of Chaucer (1782) it is — 

** I saw his sieves purjUed at the hond 
With grisy and that the finest of the lond." 

Before quoting, the lecturer says : " I will, how- 
ever, read it (Chaucer's language) as it stands, 
with the charge only of an obsolete word or two." 
His change in this instance simply makes the pas- 
sage absurd. Bell's note <^ " purfiled" is " from 
the Fr. pourfiLer, which properly signifies, to work 
on the edge'* " Gris" is a species of fur. 

J. H. Ayeukg. 

Thucydides and Mackintosh. — I was struck the 
other day with a coincidence of thought, ap- 
parently undesigned, between Sir J. Mackintosh 
and Thucydides. In speaking of the Crusades, 
the former observes : 

** The warlike spirit of the age was set in motion by 
religion; by glory; by revenge; by impatient valour; 
by a thousand principles, which being melted into one mass 
were not the less potent because they were originally unlike 
and discordatU." — Hist, of England, vol. i. p. 121. 

Compare this with Thucyd. (vi. 18.) : 

** No/xurare • . . T<i re ^avkov k<u rb fitvov icai rh tow 
axpi/3cs av ^%ryKpa$€V luaXivr av iaxvttv.** 

T. H. T. 

Fastener for loose Papers. — Every literary 
man knows that loose papers have a power of 
travelling about a table or a room. At the Ame- 
rican store in New Oxford Street are sold, for a 
penny a-piece, little wooden nippers, acting by a 
spring of brass wire, in a most efficacious manner. 
One of them will hold from one sheet to several 
quires of paper so tightly, that it will be impos- 
sible to shake the nippers off the paper, and very 
difficult to shake the paper out of the nippers. 


London Directory, 1855. — In 1954 some con- 
tributor to " N. & Q." may be thankful that your 
pages have embalmed the following means of com- 
paring the then London Post' Office Directory with 
that of 1855 : 

<* A new edition of the London Post-Office Directory has 
just made its appearance. It contains 175 sheets of super- 
royal, or 2620 octavo pages. The whole of this vast bulk 
of information is constantly kept * in type,* so that cor- 
rections and additions may readily be made. The present 
edition has been worked from a new fount, — the largest, 
we are told, that Messrs. Besley and Co. ever cast. There 
is a peculiarity in the binding which deserves attention : 
to facilitate reference, the different parts of the volume are 
coloured blue, red, or yellow, on the fore-edge, and the 
contents printed upon it. Each volume took a quick hand 
an hour and a half to sew ; but the whole number, 7000, 
weighing when ready for delivery upwards of 30 tons, 
were bound in ten days ! " 


The Congress at Rhinocorura, — The Greek 
Church father Epiphanius, the same who inter- 
dicted the reading of the writings of his celebrated 
colleague Origenes^ indicates (in his Paruurio Hcere^ 



[No. 2W. 

sibus) the time when the first political congress 
was held since the Creation. It was, he assumes, 
the three sons of the patriarch Noah, who had met 
at a congress at Rhinocorura, for the purpose of 
dividing the world among themselves. Having 
come to an understanding, he continues, the 
treaty was submitted to their father Noah, who 
gave his consent to it in his last will. That will 
must have been read by the pious Philastrius, 
cotemporary of Epiphanius ; for he was so sure of 
the fact, that in his work De Hceresihus the dis- 
belief in that division, and its legitimacy, forms 
the 11 8th species of the heresies described in it 

Db. Michelsen. 

Twins. — In an Historical Dictionary of England 
and Wales, printed 1692, I have met with the fol- 
lowing entry, which may perhaps be interesting to 
the readers of " N. & Q.," as showing that the 
sympathy of "The Corsican Brothers" may be 
discovered nearer home. 

" Tremane, — Nicholas and Andrew Tremane were twins, 
born in Devonshire, alike in all lineaments, and felt like 
pain, though at a distance, and without any intelligence 
given. They equally desired to walk, sit, eat and drink 
together ; and were both slain together at New Haven in 
France, 1562 ; the one a captain of horse, the other but a 
private soldier." 

Ebt. L. B. 

Whittlebury Oaks* — As it is possible that the 
zeal of some of the photographic correspondents 
of " N. & Q." may be sufficiently fervent to sus- 
tain them through a short winter's excursion for 
the sake of securing representations of magnifi- 
cent objects which will very shortly cease to exist, 
I beg to call their attention to the exceedingly 
fine old oaks in Whittlebury Forest, some of 
which are of enormous size, and are in the most 
picturesque state of partial decay. This forest is 
about to be disafforested, and the trees are at this 
time marked for destruction, and will shortly be 
cut down, under (I believe) the authority of the 
Crown, previous to the land being allotted to the 
various claimants. It is difficult to understand 
why these magnificent wrecks of trees should be 
felled before the land is assigned to its new 
owners, for the value of them as (fire?) wood 
cannot be supposed much, if at all, to exceed the 
cost of cutting them down. Many persons would 
willingly pay much more than their real value for 
the sake of securing them on their property ; and 
not a few keen agriculturalists would much rather 
bear the obstruction they might cause than allow 
such splendidly picturesque old trees to be de- 
stroyed. XX, 

Inscriptions on Buildings. — The following in- 
scription in capital letters, in relief, is in front of 
the gallery in the Court House, Aberdeen : 




Coventry, in a letter to Barker (Claims^ jr., 
p. 298.), says that " at the sale of Wilkes's boob 
there was a Junius with Wilkes*s notes, bron^ 
51. \7s. 6d.^ One would suppose that this wast 
fact admitting of no doubt ; bat Barker follows 
with this comment : " I have examined the sale 
catalogue of Mr. Wilkes's books, and do not find 
any mention of the Junius.*' Afler this one would 
suppose there could be no doubt the other wst. 
Now I have a catalogue of the sale of Wilkeri 
books, with prices and names of purohaaersy and 
there I find — 

" No. 715. Junior's Letters, 2 voL 1794 [the last figure 
defaced]. 15«. 

^'No. 716. Junius's Letters, 2 voL 1. Lond. 1771 
5/. 15s. 6J." 

Both editions were bought in the name of Wall, 
or Wales, but from my copy it is difficult to make 
out the exact name. 

All is not jet made clear. In 1800, Ghakners 
published separately his Appendix to the Sum^ 
mental Apology, intended to prove that Hugh 
Boyd was Junius. Therein (p. 42.) he writes : 

" I have now before me Mr. Wilkes's edition of Jiiiiiiii?!^ 
Letters, with MS. notes which were written with his own 
hand. The first note is, * This edition is imperibct and in- 
correct. It was printed by Dryden Leach.' " 

It is obvious that an edition printed by Drjden 
Leaoh was not the edition of " 1772," for that, it 
may fairly be assumed, was the genuine Woo^dl 
edition ; indeed I know of no other in whi(^ the 
two volumes are dated 1772. Then again, how 
did any edition which belonged to Wilkes, and had 
his private MS. notes, come into the possession of 
Chalmers in 1800 ; for Wilkes's books were not sold 
for two years after — Nov. and Dec. 1802 P To 
make confusion greater, in Aug. 1853 the boob 
of Mr. Roche of Cork were sold by Messrs. Sotheby 
and Wilkinson, and one lot is thus described : 

« 614. Junius's Letters, 2 vol. old russia. H. S. Wood- 
fall, 1772. 

*^* This copy contains the notes, interlineations^ and 
index references copied f¥om those fonnd in that belongiaf 
to John Wilkes, Esq., sold at his sale in 1802.** 

Can any of your intelligent readers say what are 
the facts ? Where is the copy which ChalmeES 
quoted from in 1800 ? Where the copy which sold 
for 61 \6s. ^d. in 1802 ? W. C. J. 


I inclose you two wax impressions of the^tiifo' 
sides of a medal I possess, in order the better to 
describe it. The medal is of silver, with a very 
handsome head on one side, and on the other side 

Feb. 3. 1855.] 



a dead tree, with a young living tree in leaf 
springing out of its roots. I think the tree is in- 
tended to be an oak. Over the top of the dead 
tree is the word " revirescit ;" and at the bottom, 
" 1750." The medal is rather larger than a half- 
orown of 1823 ; indeed, the half-crourn will nearly 
go within the outside rim of the medal, which is 
considerably broader than that of the half-crown. 

The account I received many years ago of this 
medal is, that it was giv^i by the Pretender to 
Colonel Goring; who, I believe, died a field- 
marshal in the Prussian service, and from him 
came into the possession of a member of my 
family, in which it has continued ever since. I 
am descended, through my grandmother, irom 
William Goring of Kingston and Fradley in Staf- 
fordshire, and Colonel Goring was of the same 
family. I was told that very^few of those medals 
were struck, as they were intended only for the 
intimate friends and warm supporters of the Pre- 
tender. As my grandmother was about ten years 
of age when the medal was struck, I think it pro- 
bable that the account she gave of it was correct, 
and the more so, as it was always held in par- 
ticular esteem. I have never heard of any other 
medal of this kind, but possibly some of your readers 
may : and I should be obHged to any of them for any 
farther information, either respecting the medal 
itself or Colonel Goring. 

I may add, that the medal is considerably worn, 
as if it had been carried in the pocket ; but not 
so as to obliterate any of its parts. 

Chas. S. Geeaves, Q. C. 

[This medal, which was struck in Italy, is not uncom- 
mon. It represents Prince Charles ; and the reverse, the 
voung tree springing from the withered trunk, alludes to 
nis hopes of re-establishing his family. Impressions exist 
in copper. The likeness of the Prince was an approved 
one, for it appears upon three other medals of different 
sizes, bearing date respectively 1745, 1750 ; 1752, Sept. 23. 
To what does this latter date refer?] 


Some time since a friend of mine requested me 
to obtain for him information respecting a gentle- 
man of the name of Sir Samuel Bagnall. He said 
it was supposed he resided in Ireland, and held 
acme military command there, either at the latter 
part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, or beginning 
of that of James I. 

To satisfy my iriend*s request, I examined with 
some care many of the existing historical and 
other documents relating to the reign of Eliza- 
beth, and ascertained that the family of Bagnall 
belonged to the county of Stafford ; also that one 
John Bagnall, Esq., had two sons, Ralph and 
Nicholas. That th9 eldest son. Sir Ralph Bag- 
aaU, was described of BarlMton in that county, 

and that he married Elisabeth, the second daugh- 
ter of Robert Whitgrave, Esq., of Burton, in the 
same county, and by whom he had an only son, 
Samuel Bagnall. ant by several pedigrees of 
that family which I consulted, it appears that Sir 
Ralph was never married, and that his son Samuel 
was illegitimate. 

The second son of John was Sir Nicholas Bag* 
nail, who married and had a large family, and re- 
ceived in the early part of the reign of Elizabeth- 
the appointment of " Marshall of the Army in 
Ireland," which he retained until his death, and 
which occurred in 1575 at his seat, Newry Castle, 
in the county of Armagh. He was succeeded by 
his eldest son, Sir Henry Bagnall, who was also 
married and had several children. The queen, 
upon the death of his father Sir Nicholas, ap- 
pointed him to the same command, which Sir 
Henry held until his death in August, 1598, when^. 
during the rebellion, he was slain in a battle at 
Blackwater, fought against the celebrated O'Neill, 
Earl of Tyrone. ^ 

Upon the death of Sir Henry Bagnall, the queen, 
gave that command to Sir Richard Bingham; but' 
he dying very suddenly shortly afterwards, the 
queen appointed Sir Samuel Bagnall, the cousin 
of Sir Henry, to that very important office. Sir 
Samuel was very much distinguished at thali. 
period as a military man. He had accompanied 
the famous Devereux, Earl of Essex, in the ex- 
pedition against Cadiz in 1596, and at the taking 
of that city by assault, he received eight wounds, 
and was knighted on that occasion by the Earl of 
Essex, under the authority granted specially to 
him by Queen Elizabeth. So soon as Sir Samuel 
received the appointment, he immediately put 
himself at the head of 2000 infantry and 300 ca- 
valry, and crossed over the channel into Ireland. 

The latest account I have as yet been able to, 
find of him is, that he stUl held the same command 
in 1602 ; but whether he died or resigned about 
that time, I cannot ascertain. Sir Samuel Bag-. 
nail married, and left issue several daughters, but' 
whether he had any sons I do not know. 

As the correspondents of ** N, & Q." are so 
numerous and so well read, I have thought it very, 
probable that some of them may be able to fur- 
nish me with the additional information I am in 
search of. My Queries are : 

1. The name of the wife of Sir Samuel Bag- 
nall ? 

2. Where his residence was, and when and 
where he died ? 

3. The names of his sons (if any ?) and the 
names of his daughters, and whether married or 
not P Chabtham. 



[No. 275. 

ff mar ^utrtetf. 

Pope and " The Dunciad'' — Do any of your 
correspondents know of an edition of The Dun- 
dad (alone) in Timo. or small 8vo., of the date of 
1750 ? Such an edition there certainly was. If 
any gentleman happens to possess it, and would 
kindly send it to the publisher's for my inspection, 
it should be safely and thankfully returned in two 
or three days. C. 

Gurney's " Burning of East Dereham,^* — An 
Account of the lamentable Burning of East Dere- 
ham, in the County of Norfolk^ on the 1st of July, 

1581, by Arthur Gurney, in verse, black letter, 

1582, London. Mentioned by Blomefield, who 
refers to Anecdotes of Topography, p. 371. 

Where can I meet with a copy of this scarce 
poem ? I could not find it at the British Museum. 

G. A. C. 

NeiUon Family, — What branch of the family 
of Neilson bears the arms of the Neilson of Cor- 
sack ; and what are the arms, crest, and motto, if 
any P The same information respecting the family 
of Neilson of Grays; Neilson of Craigcaflfie; 
Neilson of Maxwood ; Neilson of Grangen ; Neil- 
son of Galloway or Galway. In Naphtali, p. 323., 
the name of John Neilson of Corsack is mentioned, 
the said J. N. having died nt Edinburgh, Dec. 14, 
1666. The name of Neilson, jun. (I suppose the 
son), appears in the list of fugitives. May 5, 1684. 
The land which appertained to this family was 
confiscated, it is said. Can you give any reliable 
information on the subject ? To whom is it sup- 
posed to have belonged ? 

The name William Neilson appears in the list 
of provosts of Edinburgh, a. d. 171 7-1 8. Who are 
the descendants of this William Neilson, and what 
were his arms, crest, motto, &c. ? 

In the time of Robert Bruce, one of the family 
was entitled to bear two shields. What were 
they, and to whom descending, with crest ? 

From what heraldic work can this be learned ? 

Ex Famiua. 

P. S. — Would you kindly say whether the 
Neilsons are descendants of the 0*Neils, kings of 
a province of Ireland ; or from whom supposed to 
be descended, and how far back they can trace 
their pedigree ? 

Lucifer's Lawsuit, — After having described the 
dispute between Corcyra and Corinth, respecting 
Epidamnus, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian 
war, Niebuhr adds the following remark : 

•* From a legal point of view, much might indeed have 
been said on both sides to justify the interference : and if 
the matter had been tried in a court of jostice with all the 
trickery of law^'ers, very different decisions might have 
been come to ; as in a very learned lawsuit of Lucifer 
against Christ, for doing injury to paganism, which was 

compofled in the seventeenth century.'* — Leet, <m Ama, 
Hiitory, vol. il. p. 89., ed. Schmitz. 

Can any of your correspondents explain this allu- 
sion ? L. 

Hushmidman, — What is the original signifi- 
cation of this term? In the present day we 
usually understand by it an agricultural labourer, 
a cottager, and such like. I have, however, seen 
it put as an addition, in former times, to persons 
whom I am disposed to think must have been in 
a somewhat higher position in life than those 
above mentioned. In Burn*s History of Paritk 
Registers in England, p. 98., is an extract from, 
the register at Barwell, October 7, 1655, of " Mr. 
6re<;ory Isham, attorney and husbandman ;** and 
at Hawsted, p. 129. : 

** William Cawstone and Mary Baldwin, of this pariah, 
were married 8 Sept [1710]. The said William is a 
husbandman, and liable to pay 2«. 6dL as the king's 


Talismanic Ring. — I have a ring in my posses- 
sion to which my father attached superstitious 
importance, and it bears the following inscription : 

« C«. 0. A2. = M'. T«. R». Talisman *.»' 

Can any of your readers enlighten me as to the 

meaning of these signs, and inform me if such 

rings are common ? 6. C. 

11. Mark Lane. 

Booch or Butch Family, — Information is re- 
quested as to the family of Booch or Butch, who 
lived in Carlisle or its neighbourhood. Upwards 
of one hundred years ago Elizabeth Booch (or 
Butch) from Carlisle settled in Dublin. Her 
father was an ensign in the army of William IIL, 
at the battle of the Bojne. Her husband*s father 
was an officer in James*s army. He either belong^ 
to Tyrone, or settled in that county after the 
revolution. Any information will interest 

A Descend Airr. 


Dramatic Queries, — Can you give me any in- 
formation regarding the following curious dramt, 
the names of dramatis personce, &c. ? — The Mlanu^ 
script, an interlude, by William Lucas, 1809. This 
drama is published in a volume along with 7^ 
Travels of Humanus in search of the Temple of 
Happiness, an allegory. I would also be obligeid 
for any account of the author. Besides the works 
I have mentioned, he has written The Fate of 
Bertha, a poem, 4to., 1800 ; The Duellist; or Men 
of Honour, London, 8vo., 1805, — a story calcu- 
lated to show the folly, extravagance, and sin of 

Can any of your readers give me the names of 
the authors of the following dramas, all of which I 
believe are very scarce P — The Planters of A« 

Feb. 3. 1855.] 



Vineyard; or the Kirk Sessions confounded, a 
comedy : Edinburgh, 1771. Malvina, a tragedy : 
printed at Glasgow, 1786. The Duke of Roch- 
ford, a Tragedy from the Posthumous works of a 
Lady of Quality : performed at Edinburgh, 1799. 
Can any of your Newcastle correspondents give 
me any account of T. Houston, author of The 
Term-Day; or the Unjust Steward, a comedy: 
printed at Newcastle, 1803 ? ' R. J. 

First Booh printed in New England, — At the 
sale of the residue of Mr. Pickering*s books at 
Sotheby*s Kooms on the 12th ult., a lot (531) 
was sold, comprising various editions of the Psalms 
betwixt the years 1630 and 1675; it was pur- 
chased by Mr. Stevens, the American agent, who 
stated that one of the versions, dated 1646, was 
the first book printed in New England. Any 
bibliographical information respecting this volume, 
and its claims to priority, will oblige. 

C. J. Fbancis. 


" The woodviUe sung^^ Sfc. — 

'* The woodviUe sung, and would not ceasa, 
(Sitting upon the spruy) ; 
So loud he waken*d Robin Hood, 
In the greenwood where he lay." 

It is desired to know whence the above is a 
quotation, and also what bird is intended by the 
"woodviUe?" E. A. B. 

F.S.A. Question, — Can any of your correspon- 
dents state if there be any, and what, legal rights 
with reference to the assumption by individuals, 
members or fellows of any societies, chartered or 
otherwise, to affix this or that series of letters to 
their names ; or any and what legal remedies for 
wrongful assumption ? I apprehend that there is 
no legal remedy ; and that the assumption at all, 
except where the authority is specially granted 
by charter, is a mere matter of taste or custom. 
How far a bye-law could give such authority, is 
another question. Nemo. 

" William and Margaret,''* — This beautiful 
ballad has been set to music no less beautiful than 
itself. But who is the composer? It opens in 
the key of D minor, but the key changes with every 
verse. It is not to be found in the list of Purcell s 
works. I hope Dr. Rimbault, or some of your 
musical correspondents, can answer my question. 


Armorial, — To what families do the following 
arms belong ? 

1. Azure, a griffin rampant or. 

2. Argent, a chevron gules between three bugle- 
horns sable. 

The tinctures may not be quite correctly given 
on the plate from which the above are copied. 

P. P— M. 

Arms ofHsley, — On the floor of the chancel of 
the parish church of Toxall, co. Staffi)rd, is a stone 
slab, with a Latin inscription, commemorating 
Thomas Swinnerton of High- Wall-Hill, in the 
parish of Yoxall, gentleman, second son of Thomas 
Swinnerton of Butterton, co. Stafford, who died 
3rd July, 1713 ; and above the inscription is 
carved the arms of Swinnerton, a cross fleur^, 
over all a bendlet, impaling a chevron between 
three birds, or martlets. 

This Thomas Swinnerton married Sarah, second 
dauffht-er and coheiress of Thomas Ilsley, of Hish- 
WaU-Hill; and the adjoining stone records her 
death on 12th August, 1717, and styles her ''wife 
and relict of Thomas Swinnerton, Gentleman." 

What is the blazon of the lady*s arms ? 

Shaw, in his History of Staffordshire, vol. i. 
p. 101., describes the birds as "Cornish choughs.** 
The arms of Ilsley are generally given as. Or, 
two bars gemelles sable, in chief three pellets. 

D. W. B. 

Joyce Family, — Could any of your correspon- 
dents, who have access to a copy of Nichols's 
Leicestershire, inform me whether, in that work, 
there is any account of the family of Joyce, at 
Blackfordby in the hundred of West Groscote ? 
Also, could any one give me any particulars con- 
cerning William Joyce, mentioned in Pepys's 
Diary, as to the place of his birth, &c. M. (1) 

[In Nichols's Leiceitershire, vol. iii. pt. ii. pp. 63, 64., 
edit. 1804, under Blackfordby, appears the following : — 
** Mr. John Joyce, who owned an estate at Blackfordby, 
veiy pleasantly situated on an eminence, well wooded, 
and excellent land both for tillage, sheep, and dairy, died 
more than twenty years since, leaving four sons, William, 
Nicholas, John, and Henry. The eldest, William, an. 
attorney, died a few years after his father ; when the 
estate came to Nicholas, the present possessor, who now 
lives at Billesdon, and was an apothecary there. John, 
the third son, who was likewise an apothecary at Coles- 
hill, on the death of William, relinquishing business, came 
to reside at Blackfordby, and farmed the estate, which he 
rented of his elder brother Nicholas. This John died very 
lately, and has left a family, among whom is a son, also 
named John. Henry, the fourth brother, lives unmarried 
at Ashby. In the chapel yard, at the east end of the 
chapel, is an old altar tomb of stone, for William 3oyc^ 
gent., who died 1706, aged 51 ; and Sarah his wife, who 
died 1731, aged 67. There are several head-stones for 
their descendants, who have long inhabited the house 
opposite." This William Joyce does not appear to be the 
same person who is noticed in the Diary as repys's cousin, 
whose wife's name was Kate, " a comely fat woman.'* 
Anthony Joyce kept the Three Stags at Holbom Conduit, 
as we learn from a token issued by him, and described by 
Akerman, p. 105.] 

The Irish Palatines. — Can you tell me where 
to look for a satisfactory account of the Palatines 
in Ireland ? I am aware of what is said of them 



[No. 275. 

by Ferrar in his History of Limericky pp. 409 — 
412., edit 1787. Abhba. 

[The following notice of the poor Palatines ocean 
in the Mltmoin of Hiomas dlarquU of Wharton, by Sir 
R. Steele, p. 66.: 

•* In this year (1709) the poor Palatines came into 
England, and my Lord Wharton, whose wisdom was too 
extensive to be confined to the narrow views of an igno- 
rant selfij^ Action, procured the Privy Council of Ireland 
to join with him in an humble address to Her Majesty, 
that as many of the poor Palatines as Her Majesty should 
think fit, might be settled in that kingdom ; where they 
should be very kindly received, and advantageously 

Some fiuther notices of these poor Palatines will be 
found in The Annals of Queen Anne, 1709, 8vo. pp. 166— 
168. Ck>nsalt also Beyer's FoUtical State of Great Britain, 
vol. I pp. 138. 276—280.] 

Etruscan Bronzes, — At the sale of the collec- 
tion of the late Crofton Croker, last month, were 
several Etruscan bronzes labelled — 

'* Dug up in 1829, under the immediate inspection of 
Lucien Buonaparte, Prince of Canino, on his estate at 
Canino, in Romanpr, on the borders of Tuscany, from the 
tombs of the ancient Etruscan kings ; discovered to be 
the ruins of Vitulonia, which existed previous to the 
foundation of Rome, and 800 years before the birth of 
Christ Purchased by Mr. W. lilt. Great Kussell Street, 
Covent Garden." 

Can any of your readers refer me to an account 
of this discovery ? R. H. B. 


[In ArchiBologia, vol. xxiii. pp. 180 — 276., is a ** Cata- 
logue and account of certain Vases and other Etruscan 
Antiquities discovered in 1828 and 1829, by the Prince of 
Canino, translated and communicated to the Society of 
Antiquaries, by Lord Dudley Stuart, in a letter to.the 
Earl of Aberdeen." In an appendix to the article is a 
note by the Prince, containing an account of the origin of 
the excavations, &c. Consult also the Gent. Mag., vol c. 
pt L pp. 162. 352.] 

ne " TeUiamed." ^ Jm a publication called 
TeUiamed (about 1750) known to any of your 
readers ? D. 


[The following notice of this work occurs in Barbier, 
Dictionnaire des Ouvraaes Anonymes, s. v. : " TeUiamed 
oa^ Entretiens d*ttn Phjlosophe indien avec un Mission- 
mire irancois, sur la diminution de la mer, mis en ordre 
snr les M6moires de M. de Maillet, par. A. G. [A. Guer]. 
Amsterdam, THonw^ 1748, 2 vols. 8vo. Nouvelle ^- 
tion, augment^ sur les originaux de I'auteur, avec une 
Tie de M. de Maillet [par Tabb^ le Mascrier]. Paris, de 
Sure, 1755, 2 vols. 12mo."] 

•' The Twa Bairns,'' a Ballad. — In Mr. Kings- 
ley's lecture on English Literature^ at Queen*s 
College, Harley Street, published with other 
lectures in 1849, he asked : 

'' How many poets are there in England now who could 
have written «The Twa Baima,' or ' Sx Patrick Spense ? ' " 

We all know " Sir Patrick Spense,'* through Percy's 

Religues; but where is the balhid of " The Twa 
Bairns" to be found ? C. (2) 

[This ballad is entitled ** The Bonnie Bairns," and will 
be found in Allan Cunningham's Songs of Scotland, toL iL 
p. 70., edit 1825 ; it commences — 

" The lady she walk'd in yon wild wood, 
Beneath the hollin tree, 
And she was aware of twa bonnie bairns 
Were running at her knee."] 

THX devil's DOZBN. 

(Vol. X., pp. 346. 474. 531.) 

I might, I think, complain of the tone of G. N.'s 
reply ; I shall content myself with proving that he 
is wrong on every point, of both his Querv and 
his ** defence ** of it. He says he has never heard 
of the *' baker's dozen." I wonder where he has 
lived. I beg leave to inform him, that the 
" baker's dozen " is not a phrase, but a fact of 
daily occurrence in the trade for the numbet 
fourteen, or more commonly thirteen ; and if he 
will send to any baker's shop for a dozen of rolls, 
he will receive thirteen of a larger size, or fourteen 
of a smaller. I will venture a conjecture at ex- 
plaining whence this custom may have arisen. 
Under the highly penal statutes for the assise of 
bread, bakers were liable to heavy penalties for 
any deficiency in the weight of loaves, and these 
weights were specified for loaves of every pricei 
from 18^. down to 2d. ; hut penny loaves, or roUs^ 
were (no doubt from their minute weights) not 
specified in the statute : and therefore the bakers, 
when selling these nondescripts, to be on the safii 
side, threw in a thirteenth of the larger rolls ok 
two of the smaller ones. And though the assise 
has been discontinued, the practice still survives; 
and my housekeeper, onlv last week, received 
fourteen small rolls for the dozen. !N^or is the 
use of the term confined to the technicality of the 
trade; it is frequently used metaphorically to 
express thirteen or fourteen : for instance, in 
G-rose's Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, Gr. N* 
will find : 

*< Bakek's Dozesh, fourteen; that number of rolls beiiig 
allowed to purchasers of a dozen." 

And it is so ancient, that old Hudson, when he 
discovered the Bay of that name, gave to a cluster 
of thirteen or fourteen islands on the east shore of 
it the name of the ** Baker's Dozen," as may be 
seen in all the charts, and even in the foreign 
ones, for D'Anville's great atlas exhibits those 
islands as *' La Douzame du Boulanger." 

The passage G. N. quotes from Dr. Jamiesoot 
is an eeregious mistake of both his and the ^ood 
Doctors. It refers to a matter of an entirely 
different nature, viz. the superstitious dislike 

Feb, 3. 1855.] 



which manj people have to sit down to table with 
thirteen gnests. Dr. Jamieson sajs, he cannot 
account for so strange a prejudice; but I need 
hardly say, that it aSudes, not to any supposed 
"Devil's dozen," but to the very contrary — a 
supper where there were a dozen righteous per- 
sons, and one only the Devil's, Judas Iscariot. C. 


(Vol. xi., p. 48.) 

For the satisfaction of J. O. H., I copy from an 
old edition of Cowley in my possession, printed by 
Herringman in 1680, the passage to which I sup- 

?ose he refers. It occurs in the preface to his 
hems, in which he complains of a publication of 
his verses without his concurrence, full of errors 
and interpolations. He then proceeds : 

*" From this which has happened to myself, I began to 
reflect on the fortune of almost all writers, and especially 
poets, whose works (commonly printed after their deaths) 
we find stuffed out, either with counterfeit pieces, or witn 
such which, though of their own coin, they would have 
called in themselves^ for the baseness of the alloy; 
whether this proceed from the indiscretion of their friends, 
or by the unworthy avarice of some stationers, who are 
content to diminish the value of the author, so they may 
increase the price of the book. This hath been the case 
with Shakspeare, Fletcher, Johnson, and many others, 
part of whose poems I should take the boldness to prune 
and lop awa}', if the care of replanting them in print did 
belong to me,'* &c. 

While on the subject of Shakspeare, may I be 
excused for noticing an allusion to one of his cha- 
racters which I have just met with, written sonie 
thirty years previous to this preface, and by no 
less a person than Ghillingworth ? It is in his 
first answer to " Charity Maintained," and is as 
follows : 

" So that, as a foolish fellow, who gave a knight the 
lie, desiring withal leave of him to set his knighthood 
aside, was answered by him, that he would not saSSec 
anything to be set aside that belonged unto him," &c. 

This seems clearly to refer to the scene between 
Falstaflf and the Lord Chief Justice, where the 
attendant says, — 

*•! pray you. Sir, then set your knighthood aside, and 
give me leave to tell you, you lie in your throat," &c. 

To which the knight replies, — 

"I give thee leave to tell me so ! I lay aside that 
which grows to me! If thou get'st any leave of me, 
hang me," &c. 

I hope Cowley would not have " pruned and 
lopped away" this passage. F. White. 


(Vol. xi., p. 12.) 

I have extracted (literally so) the following page 
from my Memoir of Ike Campaign of 1708, by 
John Marshall Deane, privately printed in 1846 : 
and I send it to you as an answer to Mr. G. Tat- 
liOB of Reading, who (Vol. xi., p. 12.) wishes ta 
know the particulars of the story of Sir Thos. 
Frendergast's dream or vision. 

** Sir Thomas Prendergast was Colonel of the Twenbf^ 
second Regiment in 1709, when he fell at Malplaquet under 
very extraordinary circumstances, as testified by the fol- 
lowing extract. fromBoswell's Life ofDr, Johtuon, vol. iii. 
c viii. p. 220. 12mo. 1835. 

"* General Oglethorpe told us that Prendergast, an officer 
of the Duke of Marlborough's army, had mentioned to 
many of his friends, that he should die on a particular 
day ; that on that day a battle took place with the French j 
that after it was over, and Prendergast still alive, his 
brother officers, while they were yet in the field, jestingly, 
asked him, * Where was his prophecy now ? * Prendergast. 
gravely answered, ' I shall ^e notwithstanding what you 
see.' Soon afterwards there came a shot from a French 
battery to which orders for a cessation of arms had not yet 
reached, and he was killed on the spot. Colonel Cecil, who- 
took possession of his effects, found in his pocket-book the> 
following solemn entrv : — [Here the date J * Dreamt — 

or * Sir John Friend meets me.*^ [here the very 

day on which he was killed was mentioned?] 

" 'Prendergast had been connected with Sir John Friend^ 
who had been executed for high treason [by William the 
Third]. General Oglethorpe said he was with Colonel 
Cecil when Pope came and inquired into the truth of this 
stoiT, which made a great noise at the time, and was then 
connrmed by the coloneL' 

" Such is this remarkaWe story. Mr. Croker endeavours 
to throw doubt upon it : * Colonel Sir Thomas Prender- 
gast, of the Twenty-second Foot, was killed at Malplaquet, 
Aug. 31, 1709; but no trace can be found of any Colonel 
Cecil in the army at that period. Colonel Wm. Cecil, the 
Jacobite, sent to the Tower in 1744, could hardly have 
been, in 1709, of the age, rank, and station which Ogle- 
thorpe's anecdote seems to imply.* 

** But General Oglethorpe does not say that Cecil was a 
Colonel in 1709 : he might only have been a subaltern at 
that time, and a colonel when spoken of in the above con- 
versation. If he was a relative of Sir Thomas Prender- 
gast, he would probably administer to his property and 
take charge of his papers, as he is reported to have done. 
It is at all events clear, that Friend, Prendergast, and 
Colonel Cecil, were of the same political party. Whatever 
then may be the measure of our credulity in respect of 
apparitions of spirits, or premonitions of death, this ex-* 
planation, or rather objection, by Mr. Croker, has not, in 
my mind, cleared away the difficulties of the direct nar- 

J. B. Deaiw. 


* Note by Boawell. — « Here was a blank which may 
be filled up thus, or was tbld by an apparitUm" 



[No. 276. 

(Vol. xi^ p. 33.) 

Thanks ore due to an Irish correspondent for a 
Note from a bookseller's catalo^e (would he had 
given the date), showing the vdue (five pounds !) 
set upon a book on beUs. He will see the work 
enumerated in my first list, Vol. x., p. 240. 

I have before alluded to the same work as one 
full of information on the subject (Vol. vi., 
p. 610.) ; but to sive such an account of it as is 
asked for, would oe to abridge the whole work, 
and would take up too many pa^es of *'N. 
& Q." However, I will copy the title-page, and 
all that I find in the volume about Irish bells. 
For a fuller account of the good old bishop (who 
was a very voluminous writer), I would refer 
Enivbi to biographical dictionaries. Should he 
wish to possess the work, I shall be happy to re- 
ceive the value set upon it by John OjDaly, and 
to devote it to the fund for the restoration of this 
church, in which I am engaged; or if he will | 
favour me with a direct communication, dropping 
his assumed (I presume) name, I shall be ready to 
lend it to him should he wish to read it ; it is a 
thin 4to. of 166 pages besides an index, with 
plates. The title-page (nicely ornamented) runs 











*^ In quo multa non minus admiratione, ac scitu digna, 

quam lectu jucunda, in Ecclesia Dei reperiri narratur. 

<'Juxta diyersa Quaesita, quae in pagina quinta vldere 







^ Cap, VII. Admiranda de Campanis consecratis. 

''Silentio prsetermittenda non censentur admiranda 
Ilia, et scitu quidem dignissima, quae de Campanis con- 
secratis narrantur, praesertim vero juramentum in primis 
lllud in Hibernia, Scotia, et alibi super Campanas praestari 
consuetum, ob magnam reverentiam, quae ipsis adhibetur 
dictis in locis. Si qui enim super Campanas pejerare, hoc 
est falso, et animo fallendi jurare audeant, plerumque 
tacite, ut ita dicam, vel caelitus puniuntur. Si qui vero 
tales convicti ab homine pejerasse inveniantur, gray iter in 
eos animadverti solet, at collig^tur ex eo, quod in Topo- 
graphia Hibemiae scriptum reliquit Silvester Giraldns in 
hiec verba. 

** * Hoc etiam non pnetereundum puto, quod Campanas 
baiulas, baculosque Sanctorum in superiori parte recurvos, 
auro et argento, vel aere contextos, sive contectos, in 
magna reverentia tarn Hibemiae, et Scotiae, quam Guoal- 

liae, vel XJualliae Populus, et Clerus habere solent ; ita nt 
Sacramenta (hoc est juramenta), super hsBC longe magisb 
quam super Lvangelia, et praestare vereantur, et pejerare. 
£x vi enim quadam occulta, et iis quasi divinitus icsitat 
necnon et vindicta (cujus praecipue Sancti illi appetibiles 
esse videntur) plerumque puniuntur contemptores, et 
graviter animadvertitur in transgressores.' 

** Haec de juramento super Campanas praestari memo- 
ratis in locis consucto, narrat Giraldus.*' 

From which, methinks, a Scotch or a Welsh 
bookseller might as well claim the author for a 
countryman, as John 0*DaIy of Dublin fancies he 
must have been an Irishman ! 

H. T. Ellacombe. 
Rectory, Clyst St George. 


ChUodionized Glass Plates, ^c, — As I should be very 
sorry to make my old friend ** N. & Q." the medium oif 
any personal discussion between Mr. Shadbolt and my- 
self, 1 will be contented with merely acquitting myself of 
the various allegations contained in his letter (YoL zLy 
p. 34.), and leaving the case as it stands to the opinion of 
the public. I am not a little surprised that my letter oa 
the subject of preserving collodion plates shoidd so have 
disturbed Mr. Shadbolt, and at the same time I am 
rather at a loss to find out what I have done to merit hit 
statements concerning me. 

In my reply I must divide his statement into two 

First, he savs I accuse him of plagiarism. Secondlyt 
he states that 1 have pla^arised on his process. 

Now, as to the first point I must repeat what I said, 
which was nearly as follows : That it was singular Mb. 
Shadbolt and myself should have been experimenting 
in the same line at nearly the same time, as his procoM 
seemed only to diffier from mine in the fact that he left a 
slight excess of nitrate on the plate, whereas I kept the 
excess in the syrup. I then stated that I felt Mr. Shad- 
bolt to be a perfectly independent discoverer, but claimed 
for myself the priority of publication. Then I gave an- 
other method of preparing the plate for keeping it ; andy 
having some delicacy as to even taking that part of his 
process, I said that I adopted his plan of washing the 
plate with a weaker nitrate bath. I might add, that in 
his first publication of his process, Mr. Shadolt never 
even alluded to mv previous publication, although my 
process was published on the 17th of June, and his not 
till the 20th of the following month. He can sorelyt 
therefore, have nothing to say on this head ? I do thea 
most distinctly claim being the first to apply the honey 
or grape sugar to the collodion plate. Next, I do claim 
having also applied the same substances to preserving^ the 
plate sensitive, as may be seen in four instantaneous views 
which will appear in the Exhibition before the end of this 
month, in one of which the plate was kept for twenty-four 
hours, and the other three were carried two miles in sl 
hot summer sun, and kept five hours. These were shown 
at the Royal Institution before the publication oi my 

In my first publication I said that the stability d the 
process was greatly increased by my method. And again, 
in another place, that by my method the plates would 
keep for four hours at least 

The combination of nitrate of silver with the grape 
sugar I still hold to be quite essential, as without it 1 find 
that not only are the half-tones not so perfect in the deep 

Feb. 3. 1855.] 



shades, bat next, that otherwise, with the utmost care 
possible, I cannot help getting one part of the plate more 
sensitive than the other, by the syrup washing the nitrate 
more from the side on which it is first poured on, than 
Arom that on which it runs off. It is evident, however, 
that after a certain time Mr. Shadbolt*s syrup will be- 
come suflficiently nitrated by what it will wash off from 
the plate, and this nitrate will not, as he says, all preci- 
pitate by exposure to light, but a considerable portion 
will always remain in combination. My object is to pre- 
vent the washing off by having the" syrup and the wash- 
ing bath each about equally charged with nitrate ; and 
this small excess of nitrate does not injure the solution 
of grape sugar so much as it will most samples of honey, 
as the uncrystallisable sugar which the latter contains 
generally decomposes and causes the plate to fog. 

Now for the other portion of his statement : that I have 
taken his process, merely interpolating mine for making 
grape sugar. In my letter I said that I adopted the plan of 
Mr. SHADBOLTin washing the plate, which was excellent ; 
and as that makes the essential difference between his 
process and mine, I felt that in so saying I had given him 
all his due. And then I gave a process in which, for 
reasons before stated, I used grape sugar, not honey, and 
put nitrate of silver in the syrup ; and these differences 
being certainly at least as great as those between Mr. 
Shadbolt's process and mine, I leave it to the public to 
decide whether he has behaved as justly to me as I have 
to him. 

I may add also, in answer to what he says of the in- 
finitesimal nature of my dose of nitrate, that to all ac- 
quainted with the chemistry of photography it is well 
known what is the comportment of iodide of silver in the 
presence of even the smallest excess of nitrate of silver, 
and of the same substance when nitrate is not present. 
I feel the utmost confidence that my plan will be the one 
ultimately adopted for preserving the plates, as by tiiis 
method with the grape sugar the results must be much 
more certain and regular than when honey, a substance 
which is of so uncertain a constitution, is employed. In 
conclusion, I may add that I am very sorry to have tres- 
passed on your pages for so long a space; but as you 
nave given publication to Mr. Shadbolt's letter, I hope 
you will permit me, with your usual kindness, to make 
my response to it, and I promise that I will not trouble 
you farther on this matter ; for should any reply be 
made to this letter, having now fully stated my case, and 
being also at present in a foreign country, I shall leave it 
to your readers to decide whether Mr. Shadbolt or my- 
self is in the right, and feel no doubt as to the result. 

F. Maxwell Lyte. 

Maison George, Rue Montpensier, Pan. 
Jan. 19, 1855. 

Bromo-iodide of Silver. — Mr. Reade, in a letter he 
addressed to you (Vol. xL, p. 51.), endeavours to show 
that the statements I made in my former letter in refer- 
ence to this subject are at variance with those of Mr. 
Lyte, which is not the case. He says that I prove, or 
think I prove, by my experiment, which he describes, 
that thd so-called bromo-iodide of silver (for such, he 
says, is the precipitate I obtain from Dr. Diamond's 
solution) is in fact nothing of the kind, but consists en- 
tirely of iodide of silver ; whereas, he says, Mr. Lyte 
first of all proves that the same compound and iodide of 
silver when dissolved in strong liq. amm. are each simi- 
larly acted upon by dilute nitric acid, and then forms a 
true bromo-icmde of silver, but in such combination as to 
exhibit the same kind of milkiness which occurs with 
pnre bromide of sUver on the addition of an acid, and 
hence leads to the conclusion that bromide and not iodide 
of silver is exhibited by this experiment. 

Now I beg to remark, in the first place, that the tme 
bromo-iodide of silver which Mr. Lyte forms by adding 
an excess of nitrate of silver to a solution of the'bromide 
and iodide of potassium, consisting as it does of a mixture 
of bromide with iodide of silver, is a very different com- 
pound from Mr. Readers bromo-iodide of silver ; and, 
secondly, that my statement as to the latter being iodide 
of silver, is confirmed by Mr. Lyte, although Mr. Reads 
is endeavouring to prove the contrary. 

Again, Mr. Reade states that the whole of the silver 
from a solution of the double bromide and double iodide 
of silver is precipitated by water, which is quite true ; but 
what it has to do with the question under discussion I 
am at a loss to conceive. The whole of the silver from 
Dr. Diamond's solution is precipitated by water, but it 
does not necessarily follow that the precipitate consists 
either wholly or partly of bromide or bromo-iodide of 
silver. On the contrary, the whole of the bromide of 
silver is, as I stated in my former letter, decomposed by 
the iodide of potassium, iodide of silver and bromide of 
potassium being formed ; and if Mr. Reade will take 
the trouble to test the precipitate for bromine, after hav- 
ing well washed it with water, he will find that it does 
not contain a trace of that element. 

Farther, Mr. Reade states that paper prepared with 
Dr. Diamond's solution is more sensitive than ordinary 
calotype paper in the proportion of 10 to 1 ; but what 
does Dr. Diamond himself say as to the effect of his so- 
lution of bromide of silver? He says {Photog. Journal^ 
vol. L p. 132.) it does not increase the general sensitive- 
ness of the paper, although it seems to accelerate its power 
of receiving impressions from the green rays ; a statement 
which, as far as regards the general sensitiveness of the 
paper, is quite in accordance with my experience. 

In conclusion, if Mr. Reade will wash his paper more 
thoroughly after applying the solution, so as to get rid of 
the whole of the bromide and iodide of potassium, I am 
confident he will not find it more sensitive than ordinary 
calotype paper. J. Leachmait. 

20. Compton Terrace, Islington. 

Death'hed Superstition (Vol. xi., p. 7.). — An 
extract from your paper, thus headed, having 
been extensively copied, I beg to state that the 
whole story is a misrepresentation, no doubt un- 
intentional. I was the clergyman of Charlcombe 
at the time alluded to, and no death took place in 
the parish during the year 1852 ; but in 1850 the 
clerk came to me to borrow, not the plate, for 
there was none, but a pewter plate to place it on 
the body of a person already dead, to prevent the 
body swelling. It is true I used the plate as a 
pateii, but it was asked for simply because it was 
pewter ; so that it might be a case of quackery, 
out not of superstition ; and I think it is plain to 
any one that a dying person could hardly bear a 
pewter plate filled with salt upon his chest, and if 

E laced there it would be much more likely to 
asten death than to alleviate it. 

£d.MUND WaBD F£AB8. 

" Whychcotte of St John's"* (Vol. iii., p. 302. ; 
VoLxi., p. 27.). — The authorship of this very 



[No. 275. 

interesting work has often been questioned. I am 
however enabled to state, that it was written by 
the Rev. Erskine Neale, now rector of Wood- 
hridge. This gentleman is still actively engaged 
in literary pursuits. Among the best known of 
his later works are T?ie Experiences of a Gaol 
Chaplain and The Coroner's Clerh. 

RoBEBT S. Salmon. 

BaUroads in England (Vol. x, p. 365.). — The 
following extracts may perhaps interest your cor- 
respondent W. W,, who inquires for notices of 
railroads earlier than 1676 : 

" It appears by the order of the Hostmen's Company, 
•at a couTte holden the thirde day of February, anno 
Beginse Elizabethse, &c. 43, annoque Domini 1600,' that 
waggons and waggon-ways had not then been invented ; 
but that the coals were at that time brought down from 
the pits in wains (holding eight bolls each, all measured 
and marked), to the staiths by the side of the river 
Tvne." — Brand's History of Newcastle-upon-Tyne^ vol. ii. 

Again : 

** 1671. Waggon-ways, or railways, for the conveyance 
of coals, appear to have been in use on the Tyne at this 
period. In Bailey's View of Durham, p. 35., it is stated 
{on the authority of Mr. Robson, then agent at Ravens- 
worth) that the earliest mention of coals delivered by 
waggons occurs in 1671, at Team Staith." — Richardson's 
Local Historian^ a Table Book, vol. i. p. 301. 

And the following seems to confirm the date : 

** September 2, 1674. The hostmen of Newcastle en- 
deavoured to procure an Act of Parliament to regulate 
the great abuses and exactions upon the collieries for 
their way leaves and staith-rooms." — Brand's History of 
Newcastle, vol. ii. p. 297. 

To the coal-owners on the river Tyne, there- 
fore, is due the honour of having commenced the 
system of Railways. The system was not adopted 
on the neighbouring river, the Wear, until a much 
later period, as appears by the following extract 
from Hutchinson's History of Durham : 

" 1693. Waggon-ways were now first used on the river 
Wear by Thomas Allan, Esq., of Newcastle, who amassed 
a large fortune in collieries, and purchased estates, a part 
of which still retains the name of * Allan's Flatts,' near 

Robert S. Salmon. 


"" Talented'' (Vol. xi., p. 17.). — Coleridge, a 
great authority in such matters, objected to the 
use of this word. In p. 181. of Table Talk, he 

" I regret to see that vile and barbarous vocable talented, 
stealing out of the newspapers into the leadingreviews 
and most respectable publications of the d&j. Why not 
shiUingedyfarthinged, tenpenced, &c.? The formation of a 

Earticiple- passive from a noun, is a license that nothing 
ut a very peculiar felicity can excuse." 

Coleridge evidently is not aware of its being a 

revived word, for he goes on to say that such 
slang mostly comes from America. I our corre- 
spondent adduces several words; he might have 
added gifted as analogous in formation to talented, 
and in most constant use. £• 

« Snick up'' (Vol. i., p. 467. ; Vol. ii., p. 14. ; 
Vol. iv., p. 28.). — Respecting this expression, I 
quote a passage from Middleton*s Blurt, Master 
Constable, Dyce'sedit., 1840, vol.i. p. 284., to show, 
as I think, that it is not invariably used as a stage 
direction for " hiccough," whatever it may sigoLrf 
in Twelfth Night : 

** Sim, You smell a sodden sheep's head: A rat? 
Ay, a rat ; and you will not believe one, marry, fob ! I 
have been believed of your betters, marry, snick up I" 

I think it likely to mean "shut your shop," a 
vulgar expression of the present day, — " 'What do 
you know about it ? " E. H. B. 


The Post-mark on the Junius Letters (VoL viiL, 
p. 8. ; Vol. X., p. 523.). — For the information of 
your correspondents, allow me to say that I have 
in my possession several letters of the required 
date, and bearing the peculiar mark. They are 
among the family correspondence of the late Dr. 
Doddridge. One of his daughters, while on a visit 
to the neighbourhood of London, writes to her 
mother at Northampton, and posts her letter 
(franked) at the suburban office. The mark is 
invariably a triangular stamp, with the words 
"PENT-posT PAYD," countcrsigned "ilfcic Cvl' 
lock," These letters are written from the house of 
a Mr. Streatfield ; and though the name of the 
place is in no case given at the head of the first 
page with the date (June, 1763), there is internal 
evidence sufficient to fix the post-office to have 
been situated in Highgate. Charles Rssd* 

Paternoster Bow. 

''Netae in, dock out" (Vol. iii., p. 468.).— In 
addition to the instances jdready given of the use 
of this expression, I give you one from Middleton*s 
More Dissemblers besides Women, Dyce's edit., 
vol. iii. p. 611. : 

« Is this my in dock, out nettle? '* 
And the editor, in his note, refers to Sir Thomas 
More's Work&, 1557, fol. 809. E. H. B. 


Poems of Ossian (Vol. x., pp. 224. 489.).— The 
John o' Groat Journal says : 

^ We lately sent a deputation to wait on an aged 
widow of fourscore years, resident in Sutherland, who can 
repeat not much less than a thousand lines of poetry, 
which she regards as Ossianic, or belonging to a very 
remote age I Upwards of eight hundred lines, rather im- 
perfectly copied, we have got and can produce them • . . 
In the language of our friends who waited upon her, and 

Feb. 3. 1855.] 


passed two long snmmer days in copying her lays : * She 
jiever heard these poems imputed to any bat Ossian and 
Other bards of the Finndian age.' She firmly believed 
that the very words of these poems were those of the 
Fingalians. She never heard of the Macpherson contro- 
versy, nor that ever the poems of Ossian were in print" 

In addition to this, I may add, that when I 
attended University and King s College, Aberdeen, 
there were several students from Nova Scotia. 
We all lodged in the same house. Our conversa- 
tion one evening happened to turn on the Poems 
of Ossian. I asked if they were known in Nova 
Scotia ? I was told, that many of the people who 
had emigrated from the Highlands could repeat 
many lines of his [wems ; although they could 
neither read nor write, and that they had never 
heard of Macpherson. W. G. 


Books chained in Churches (Vol. viii., pp. 93. 
206. 273. 328. ; Vol. x., pp. 174. 393.). — As re- 
ference has several times been made in your pages 
to this ancient custom, perhaps you may not deem 
the following unworthy of your notice. The 
usage, it is evident, was owing to a scarcity of 
books, and may be traced back to distant ages. 
It was common in St. Bernard's time, for he says, 
in Serm. IX. de Divers, No. 1. : 

" Et est velut communis quidam liber, et catenft alli- 
gatus, ut assolet, sensibills mundus iste, nt in eo sapien- 
tiam Dei legat, quicumque voluerit." 

The saint does not here mention churches as con- 
nected with this custom, for he spoke of what was 
known to all. But his meaning is more clearly 
set forth by St. Thomas k Villanova, who was 
bom in 1480, in his " Concio prima" in Festo Sti 
Augustiniy No. 3. He says, — 

** Unde Bernardus, mundum istum sensibilem, librum 
communem catena ligatum appellat, ut in eo sapientiam 
legat quicumque voluerit, sicut solent esse in Ecclesiis ca- 
thedralibus breviaria promiscuae multitudini exposita, 
catenul^que appensa." 



Prophecies of Nostradamus^ Marino^ and Joa- 
chim (Vol. X., p. 486.).— 

" Scrisse gift Nostrodamo in un Tacuino 
Autor, che mai non dissela bugia; 
L'istesso afferma un' altra Pro^tia 
Del reverendo Abbate Gioacchino ; 
Che quando una bestiaccia da molino 
Parlar con voce humana s'udiria. 
Subito r Antechristo nasceria 
E '1 fin del Mondo sarebbe vicino.'' 

Marino, La Murtoleide, Fisch. xlviii., 
ed. Spira, 1619. 

H. B. C. 
tJ. U. Club. 

The Divimng Rod (Vol. x. passim), — Perhaps^ 
like many of your correspondents, I had imagined 
that the vuppoted properties of the divimng rod 

had been a discovery recently made, either by 
that great American artist, Mr. Barnum, or by 
one of the Dii minores of this country. To my 
mortification, however, I find that it is '^ as (dd as 
the hills," or at least cotemporaneous with the 
" Sortes Virgil ianae," et id genus omne. I have 
before me Jne Works of Mr, Abraham Cowley^ 
in two vols. 12mo., London, printed in 1681 ; and 
in one of his "Pindarique Odes," addressed to 
Mr. Hobs (voL i. p. 41.), I find the followmg 
lines : 

** To walk in ruines, like vain ghosts, we love. 
And with fond divining wands. 
We search among the dead 
For treasures buried." 

And to these lines is added (p. 43.) the following 
note : 

"Virgula Divina, or divining wand, is a two-forked 
branch of a hazel tree, which is used for the finding out, 
either of veins, or hidden treasures of gold or silver ; and 
being carried about, bends downwards (or rather is said 
to do so) when it comes to the place where they lye.'* 

D. W. S. 
Amontillado Sherry (Vol. xL, p. 39.). — Mosto 
(French, mout; (xerman, must% or raw wine, is 
made up and flavoured by the addition of the wine 
grown in the district of Montilla. The product 
is Amontillado, or MontUiated sherry. This is 
the real derivation of the term. I do not pretend 
to deny the peculiarity of the fermentation of 
Montilla wine. H. F. B. 

Mortality in August (Vol. x., p. 304.). — Sep- 
tember will, I think, be found to be the month of 
greatest mortality in most of the plague years, 
although it does not appear to have been the case 
at Cambridge in 1666, or at Bury in 1637. From 
the extracts from the registers of St. Mary's, Bury 
St. Edmunds, printed in Tymms*s History of that 
church, it appears that in 1544 " the highest rate 
of mortality was in August and September, when 
45 persons in the one month, and 75 in the other, 
are entered with the plague mark." In 1637 
there were 74 in July, 128 in August, and 117 in 
September. Buriensxs. 

Clay Tobacco-pipes (Vol. xi., p. 37.). — The 
Hunts appear to have been a family of pipe- 
makers, but where established I am unable to 
state. In my collection of old pipes from various 
localities, there are now about fifty dififerent 
marks, and amongst them are two with the name 
in question, but of different individuals, " lomc 
HVNT " and " THOMAS HVNT." One was found in 
London, the other at Ogden St. George in Wilt- 
shire. In both cases the letters are sunk, not 
embossed; the v is substituted for the u, the a 
has a cross-bar at top, and in one the n and t are 
combined like a monogram. Jeffry Hunt is new 
to me. Pipes of the sev^iteenih century ne often 



[No. 275. 

found in churchyards ; I picked up several when 
the surface ground of tiiat at Much Wenlock was 
lowered. W. J. Bebnhakd Sbcith. 


Brasses restored (VoL x., pp. 104. 535. ; Vol. xi., 
p. 37.). — For the information of Sob I bee to say 
that tiie " metallic rubber " and prepared paper 
for monumental brasses are sold by U. S. Bichard- 
son, Stockwell Street, Greenwich. I have em- 
ployed this method, but I doubt if Sob will find it 
answer so fully as he probably expects. Its com- 
position is not made known, but it appears to be 
simply bronze powder melted with bee8*-wax. 
Rubbings made with it on black paper certainly 
produce very faithful representations of the 
original brasses, but they have the disadvantage of 
not bearing to be folded ; and the bright colour of 
the bronze soon fades. F. C. H. 

St Pancras (Vol. xi., p. 37.). — The figure of 
this saint on the noble brass of Prior Neiond is 
described by Norbis Deck as "treading on a 
human figure, probably intended for one of his 
Pagan persecutors.'* I should suppose it rather 
intended to symbolise his triumphs over the arch- 
enemy of mankind, in allusion to the etymology of 
the saint*s name. He is said to have been Bishop 
of Taormina in Sicily, to have been ordained by 
St. Peter himself, and finally stoned to death. 
Hence he is often represented with a sword in one 
hand and a stone in the other. F. C. H. 

Artificial Ice (Vol. xi., p. 39.). — Your corre- 
spondent I. P. O. inquires " What was the sub- 
stance exhibited under the name of artificial ice 
for skating on at the Egyptian Hall and Baker 
Street Bazaar, many years ago ? ** I believe it 
was merely a strong solution of Epsom or Glauber 
salts, which was frequently replaced, as it was soon 
cut up by the skaters. F. C. H. 

CampbeWs Imitations (, p. 506.).— The 
line — 

" And coining events cast their shadows before." 
has been compared with similar thoughts in Leib- 
mtz and Chapman. It has also a prototype in 
Shakspeare, though the resemblance is not so 
close as to amount to plagiarism in Campbell. 

In Troiltts and Cress^a^ Act I. Sc. 3., Nestor 

" And in such indexes, although small pricks 
To their subsequent volumes, there is seen 
TT^e babtfjigure of the giant mass 
Of things to come at large.** 


Turning the Tables (Vol. iii., p. 276.). —This is 
derived from the game of backgammon, formerly 
called *'The Tables,** where the tables are said to 
be turned, when the fortune of the game changes 
from one player to the other. Uneda. 

Sestertium (VoL xi., p. 27.). — The following ex- 
tract from Zumpt, § 84., is perhaps the best reply 
that can be given to Mb. Miodlbton*s Query : 

** The neuter testertium, which denoted a sum and not a 
coin, was equal to a thousand tutertiL In reckoning by 
a»»eMj as the Romans carried their numbers only to centena 
mUUa and formed higher numbers by adverbs (§ 29.), the 
words eentena miUia came to be left out, and only the 
numeral adverbs, deciet, vunet, &c used, with which 
eentena mUiia is to be supplied. Thus ckeiet aeris was 
decies eentena millia atsium aerig. In reckoning by sea- 
terces, the neuter noun sestertium was joined in the case 
required by the construction with the numeral advexb. 
Thus decies sestertium (^-i-o-um-o) was decies eentena m^lia 
sestertiorum (gen. pi. of sestertius), a million oi sestertii The 
adverb often stood alone ; e. g. decies, vicies. There were 
therefore three forms, carefully to be distinguished from 
each other : the sestertius, joined with the cardinal num- 
bers, denoting a single nummus sestertius ; the secferfiauM, 
joined in the plural with ordinals, denoting so many 
thousands o{ the nummi sestertii ; and sestertium, joined in 
the singular only with numeral adverbs, denoting so 
many hundred sestertia, or hundred thousand sestertiL 
See Yall. Pat 2. 10. sex millibus («e. sestertiis maac.\ 
Suet. Aug. 101. Yicena sestertia. Nep. AtL 14. 2. Sesteitio 
vicies . . . sestertio centies. These three combinationa 
-were distinguished in wr iting; HS. X was decern setlerfn- 
HS. X] decem sestertia ; HS. X. decies sestertium. But the 
distinction was not always observed, if our present MSS. 
of the classics are correct Yid. Ascon. Ped. Gc. Fer, In 

Subject to the correction of Cicero's text, or to 
his mystification, the following are the respectiye 
values of — 

HS. D. millia * = 5 hundred sestertia « £4085 
HS. MM. = 2 thousand sestertii — 16 

HS. M. = 1 „ w = 8 

These English values are from Ainsworth. The 
Penny Cyc, art. Sestertius, values the sestertiom 
at 8Z. I7s. Id, See Anthon*s SaUust, Caial. 
XXX. Conf Say, Pol. Ec, b. i. c. 31. § 7. as to the 
comparative value of Koman and modern mone;||r- 
On the text of Act, ii. 3. 32., see Valpy's ed. yi. 
p. 532. T. J. BucKTOir. 


Cummin (Vol. xi., p. 11.), or rather Cumin 
{Cuminum cyminum, Linn.), was probably placed 
in cofiins with the dead body (as many other plants 
and herbs) on account of its antiseptic, aromatic 
properties. That it was extensively used for some 
purposes in ancient times may be inferred from 
the mention of it in holy writ (both Old and New 
Testaments), in the old Medical Classics both 
Greek and Roman, and in the writings of Horace, 
Persius, and others ; but it was most in use ap- 
parently by the Arabian physicians : much is said 
of it by Rhazes, Serapion, Avicenna, and Aver- 
rhoes ; but whether there is anything to connect 
the plant with any necrological purposes, I hare 
not been yet able to ascertun. The inquiry would 
be well worth pursuing. Wiluam Fampuk. 

* Here the word rnUUa is used instead oiaeMtertku 

Feb. 3. 1855.] 



TaUies (Vol. x^ p. 485.; Vol. xi., p. 18.).— 
Tallies are aniversally used in the hop-gardens in 
the neighbourhood of Canterbury, oetween the 
overseer of the garden and the hop-pickers, to 
mark the number of baskets filled. E. F. 

HangmarCs Wages (Vol. xi., p. 13.). — I knofr 
not how hangmen are remunerated now for their 
disgusting work ; but six or seven and twenty 
jrears ago there were always two persons employed 
m London to perform all executions, hangings, 
whippings, pillories, &Cn and each of them had a 
salary of 50Z. a year. I can assure you that when 
a vacancy occurred, there were many candidates 
for the office. E. F. 

Charm for a Wart (Vol. xi., p. 7.). — Twenty- 
five years ago there resided at the little village of 
Ferry Hincksey, near Oxford, in a cottage adjoin- 
ing the church, an old woman who had a great 
reputation for charming warts. Being at that 
time a lad, and much troubled with these ex- 
crescences, one of which was as large as a four- 
penny piece, I was recommended to pay the old 
lady a visit. With fear and trembling I entered 
her little hut, and after being interrogated as to 
the number of warts upon my person, a small stick 
was produced, upon which certain notches were 
cut, a cross having been first slightly imprinted on 
the larger wart; the old lady then retired into 
her garden to bury the stick, and I was dismissed. 
From that day my troublesome and unsightly 
adherents began to crumble away, and I have never 
been troubled since. Silence as to the transaction 
is strictly enjoined, nor must any remuneration be 
ofiered until the warts have quite disappeared. 

Z. z. 


The Camden Society has just issued another valuable 
contribution to our materials for the History of England. 
It is'ientitled Grants from ike Crown during the Reign of 
Edward the Fifth, from the Original Docket Book, MS. 
HarL 433., toith an historical Introduction, by John Gongh 
Nichols, F.S. A. The manuscript, of which the documents 
here printed form a part, has long been known as a record 
of great value, and as such has been quoted by several of 
our most painstaking historical writers. Of the import- 
ance which Humphrey Wanley attached to it, no better 
proof can be given than the fact, that his account of its 
contents occupies no less than sixty pages of the folio 
Catalogue of the Harleian MSS. Short as was the reign 
and Dr. Lingard, the leading events of it are still involved 
in an obscurity, to the removal of which this volume will 
of Edward V., and despite the labours of Sharon Turner 
greatly contribute : and few, we think, will rise from its 
perusal without a feeling that it is one, the publication of 
which reflects credit auke on the Camden Society, and 
the accomplished antiquary by whom it has been so 
carefully edited. 

We have before had occasion to make favourable 
mention of the Jounud of the Architectural, Archaological, 

and Historic Society for the County, City, and Neighbour^ 
hood of Chester; and the Third Part (January to De- 
cember, 1852), which has just been issued, deserves the 
same treatment. Like its predecessors, it is properly con- 
fined to subjects of local interest, and is profusely, rather 
than elegantly, illustrated. 

The mention of this local Society recalls our attention to 
a small contribution to local biography, the publication 
of which calls for a few lines of record in our columns. 
We allude to a series of Profiles of Warrington JForthieSf 
collected and arranged by James Kendrich, M. D. 
Among these Warrington Worthies it may be remem* 
bered are the Aikins, Barbaulds, Dr. Priestley, &c. 

We learn that the library of the late learned and re- 
spected President of Magdalen College, Oxford, Dr. Bouth, 
is to be transferred from Oxford, where books abound, to 
Durham. By a deed of gift, made two years ago, it is 
conveyed to the Warden, Masters, and Scholars of the 
University of Durham. The library is said to contain 
nearly 20^000 volumes. 

The world-renowned collection of the late Mr. Bemal 
is to be sold by Messrs. Christie & Manson at his late 
residence, in Eaton Square, early in March. The Cata- 
logue, which is illustrated with woodcuts of the most 
valuable and interesting articles, has just been issued; 
and when the assemblage of matchless objects, which the 
liberality and good taste of the late proprietor had enabled 
him to bring together, are dispersed abroad, the Catalogue 
will find its place on the shelf of every lover of earlpr art, 
not only as a memorial of the collector, but as a guide to 
his own studies in the same department. We advise our 
readers not to lose the onportunity of seeing, before it is 
broken up, a collection which has, we believe, scarcely its 
equal in Europe ; and our friends who are collectors, to 
remember that such another sale cannot occur again for 

While on the subject of Sales, we may direct attention 
to the very curious — indeed Messrs. Southgate & Barrett 
are perhaps justified in calling it unique — collection of 
prints and cuttings, entitled " Notes and Illustrations,** 
treating on every subject interesting to the antiquary, 
the historian, and the topographer, and comprised in one 
hundred and thirty quarto volumes, which they are 
about to sell by auction. Those only who have endea- 
voured to make collections upon any particular subject, 
can form an estimate of the value of materials such as 



Shakspkarb. Bj Johnion and Sterenf. 15 Toll. Sto. 17S3. The 

Fifth Volume. 
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Thb Intbrluob op Jorn Boiv and Mast. Prbson. Edited by W. H. 

Wanted by Edbert Stewart, Bookseller, Paisley. 

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[No. 275. 

DiSDUf'i TrvooKAPHicAA Amtxqdxtws. 4tQ. Vol. n. 

atMnn AKira : Xbvi fbom nu Dkad. 4to. 1651. 
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SooxTxtK Famoiu. 8T0. ThxwFarti. 

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Tbb PoLincAx. Co?rrBST. Letters between Junius and Sir W. Draper. 

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Ditto Ditto 1770. Publiahed by Wheble. 

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RBAaom roB BBjannro tbb EnsBitCB ov Mb. Auiok. 1807. 
AjrOTBBR GVBM AT JvNivt. 1809. 

Boohe. 1818. « , , 

Attbmpt TO AKsBTAiN TKB AuTHOB OP jvmvt. Bj BiBKeway. 1818. 
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A Orbat Fsbwitaob vBorsD to batb bbbw Jumus. No date. 
A DxacorxBT of tbb Apthob of trb LsTTSBa of Jumzoi. Taylor and 

Hessey. 1813. 
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Kbt to tbb Dunciao. 1728- 

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Ex.nBA : a Tragedy. 1763. 

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Fbtition of an Enoushman. By Tooke. 177-. 
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NICLE for FKBRI' ARY eontwnj t ^ 
I. M!ehelet'9 Womi^Q of the R^ToliUinn. a. 
OricLujJ T>6ttpT during the Annerican War- 
3. The t,li]rl Church iu Old Eo^t. *- ^"r- 
mnfler at' Cnrlt to Oliver Cromwell. 5, Tlie 
WriCJBRiE of Mrir. JdLme»ciii. 0. The KriEliitti'- 
vmaan in fttiad^. 7. Ttie Batruw Mutiimient 
■tUlVtsrrton Cwitha Piatfik Pw OHjTtnnl I^et- 
tDi of Swift tp the PubH^ttf of Qui liver's 
Trafel** D^ Th.t Cutiii.ilutcn^itiii StEtMiiurint, 
"With CarreaipcitKleiiw! af Sylvan uftUrDiJin, Ilis- 
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the M^inth^ Aritittunrinii Rese&rdi^^B, HjatorSci,! 
ChntriklG, Milk Obttl-' Art i ittcltidlirtt^ Alemoirt 
of HJr AUx, CriLy Onkntn KEl^Ii^ lioii. Sir Jamej 
Kumptt i*Qril RolHtrtjon* Sir Adiitn Fe rw; usoii , 
Rev, Dr- Konth* Rev. CbinecUur Raikes, Rev, 
Dr. Jeireiijkh ilmliiit 'A- J- '^ilj'Ji Esu, j Mf, 
T* €4 Bunkv^ Captain Mttnhy, J. J. CMiCju, 
W. H, BarU^«T *0- *«' Frlije 2*. 6J. 

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Just published, bound in cloth, 12mo. size, 
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tUoveri Henri Hen. E. HarHaun, U.F. Hiud*\ 
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Just published. New and Cheaper EdlOon, 
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How to Live and What to LSv« ftrt 
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London : PIPEB, BROTHERS ft CO., S8.F^ 
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Frfintier ! " and of t!i« **Ge(>!ojr>' of the Bed 
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f'P !'• i •■'•■ * ■! I - '■" i '-«-•■.■ ■ '' 'hrtt 

rw- . :■ -i ■ . ■■ . •■■'.. . I'.:,-; , ,L 

JOHN WEALE, fiO. High Hdlbom. 


HOOK, D. D., Vicar of Leeds. Sixth T " 
Price 6d., or 4s. the d 

London : GEOBOE BELL, 186. Fleet StxMt, 

TV. F. HOOK,D.D. Large paper, doth, U. 6£t 
calf, 3s. 6d. 

London : GEOBGS BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 

Fkh. :\. iHur,.] 


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[No. 275. 



MB. 8KEFFINOTON, having porehHed the entire remainders of these Talnable works, begs to inform thi jmbllc that only the small nnmber 
of Sixteen complete Sets remain, while the largest stock of any separate volume is but Eighteen, some being out of print, and several others 
nearly so. Collectors of line libraries may therefore rest assured that these publications must ere long become of great rarity. 

All are printed in Quarto, uniform with the works of the BOXBUBOEDE and other private Book Clubs, the impression of each wwk beint 
meet strictly limited to a small number of copies. 

MORTE ARTHURE : The Alliterative Romance 

of the Death of King Arthur ; now first printed, ftom a Manuscript in 
the library of Lincoln Cathedral. Seventy-live Copies printed. 51. 
••• A very curious Romance, tall of allusions interesting to the 
Antiquary and Philologist. It contains nearly eight thousand 


Only One separate Copy left. 



BEBT OB08TESTE, Bishop of Lincoln t now llrst printed fh>m in- 
edited MS8. of the Fourteenth Century. One Hundred Copies printed. 

««« This is a religions poetical Bomance, unknown to Warton. 
Its poetical merits are beyond its age. 


LITEBATTJRE, derived chiefly from Rare Books and Ancient Inedited 
Manuscripts from the Fifteenth to the Seventeenth Century. Seventy- 
flve Copies printed. 32.3s. 

CoNTRNTs:— The Soddidne Tume of Fortune's Wheele, an in- 
edited Poem, by Taylor, the Water Poet < the Life of Saint Ka- 
therine ; the Knight and his Vf\ts : Dr. Cxius's Magical MS. ; the 
Tale of the Smyth and his Dame ; the Booke of Robin Conscience ; 
Ballads on Hugh of TJncoln : Band, Ruflfe, and Cuffe t Newes out 
of Islington i a Derbyshire Mummer's Play ; the Interlude of 

Out of print separately. 



AND 8TBATK0RD-0N-AY0N, illustrated with numerous woodcuts 
and facsimiles of Shakspeare's Marriage Bond, and other curious Ar- 
ticles. Seventy-five Copies printed. 12. Is. 

Out of print separately. 


tensive Collection of Ancient Poems and Ballads relating to Cheshire 
and Lancashire ; to which is added THE PALATINE GARLAND. 
One Hundred and Ten Copies printed. il.2s. 

Out of print separately. 


Extensive Collection of Ballads and Poems, respecting the County of 
Torluhire. One Hundred and Ten Copies printed. 22. 2s. 

»•« This Work contains upwards of 400 pages, and includes a 
reprint of the very curious Poem, called '' Yorkshire Ale, 
as well as a great variety of Old Yorkshire Ballads. 

' 1697, 


AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES, illustrated by Beprlnta of Teqr 
Bare Tracts. Seventy-five Copies printed. 22.1s. 

CoKTBNTs : — Harry White his Humour, set forth by M. P.— 
Comedie of the two Italian Gentlemen — Tailor's Travels from 
London tu the Isle of Wight, 1648 -. Wyll Buoke his Testament— 
The Booke of Merry Riddles, 1629- COmedie of All for Money; 
1 578— Wine, Beere. Ale, and Tobacco, 16S0 — Johnsoa'i New 
Booke of New Conceites, 1630— Love's GarUmd, 1614. 

Out of print separately. 


TORIES, niustratinsr the History of Prices between the Years 1680 and 
1750, with Copious Extracts fh>m Old Account-Books. Eigh^ Copies 
printed. 12. Is. 

«*« This is an interesting account of a very curious and valnable 
collection presented by Mr. Halliwell to the Smithsonian In- 



by Copies of the Plays on the Lancashire Witches, by Heywood and 
Shad well. viz.. the " Late Lancashire Witches," and the ** Lancasldre 
Witches and Tcgue o'DiveUy, the Irish Priest." Eighty Copiee printed. ' 
22. 2s. 



of Poems, Ballads, and Rare Tracts, relating to the County of NorfbUc 
Eighty Copies printed. iL 2s. 



OTHER REI.IQURS. Illustrative of the Life and Works of Shak- 
speare. Illustrated with Woodcuts. Eighty Copies printed. 11.1s. 


Mr. Halliwell to the Public Library, Plymouth, with pieces by I^. 
Forman, Siiirlcy, &c., from inedited MSS., 4to. Eighty copies printed. 
2/. 2s. 

xm, XIV. 

THE ARCADIA, and of the Shaksperian Doctmients at Bridgewatcr 
House. Two Tracts, 4to. Twenty-five copies printed. 

Out of print separately. 

A complete Set may, for the present, be obtained for 127. 12s. Four Sets have been i^old since this was issued a few weeks since, so only 
Twelve Sets now remain. Those works marked with an asterisk may be purchased at the prices affixed. The rest are out of print exoepi in 
complete Sets. 

All Applications for Copies to be made to MR. SKEFFINGTON, 163. Piccadilly. 

Printed by Thomas Ci^aa SnAw.of No. 10. 8tonefleId8trMt,in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street SqvaN, bi theParidi of 
St. Bride, in the City of London t and published by Oaoaoa Bsxx, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dnnstan In the Weat, in the 
City of London, PnbUshar, st No. IM. Fleet Streot aforMaid,-. Satnrday , February 3, 1865. 

I^». 10. 1855.] 



The Every Niglit Book. By the Aathor of The Cigar. 

The Foarth Estate ; or the moral effect of the Press. 
By a Student at Law.* London, Ridgway. 8yo. 1839. 

WiixiAM Bates. 


P. S. — The above Queries were transmitted to 
*^ N. & Q.^' before the appearance of tbe paper on 
the " Identification of Anonymous Books," VoL xi., 
p. 59. I have only to add that I entirely coincide 
with the remarks appended by oar Editor, and 
look forward with much interest to the develop- 
ment of the plan which he has in contemplation. 


(Vol. xi., p. 23.) 

The Citizen of the Worlds letter cvi., speaks of 
his havinn:, after long lucubration, devised a me- 
thod " by which a man mi<rht du himself and his 
deceased patron justice, without being under the 
hateful reproach of self-conviction," and gives his 

«legy " On the Death of the Right Hon ," 

as a specimen of a poem " in which the flattery is 
perfectly fine, and yet the poet perfectly inno- 
cent." Though Goldsmith may be the first who 
adopted the expedient in elegiac poetry, yet this 
compromise between truth and flattery had been 
made in amatory verse before his time, as the 
following lines will sliow. 

The terminations of two or three of the stanzas 
seem to be taken from old ballads, that of the 
third especially being a part of a song, of which 
all that I remember is, that its wit was of the very 
coarsest kind. 

To his Migtrese. 
** O lore, whose power and might 
None ever yet withstood, 
Thou forcest mee to write. 
Come tume about Robin Hood. 
" Sole mistress of my rest, 
Let mee this far presume. 
To make this bold request, 
A black patch for the rhume. 
** Your tresses finely wrought, 
Like to a golden snare, 
My silly heart hath caught, 
As Sfoss did catch his mare. 
" What is't I would not doe 
To purchase one good smile ? 
Bid mee to China goe, 
And rU stand still the while. 
** I know y* I shall dye. 

Love so my heart bewitches ; 
It makes mee hourly cry. 
Oh how my elbow itches. 
** Teares soe oreflow my sight 
With waves of daily weeping, 
That in the earefull night 
/ take no rest for sleeping. 

[* Frederick Knight Hunt] 

** Bat rince my simple merrits 
Her loving looks most lack, 
Come cheer my vital spirritts 
With claret wine and sack, 

** And since that all reliefs 

And comfort doth forsake mee» 
ril hang myselfe for griefe, 
Ar^ then the DeviU take mee.** 

I forbear to copy "her aunswere," which has 
neither wit nor delicacy. 

Who is the author of the following graceful 
lines ? 

" Wrong not, deare empress of my heart. 
The merit of true passion, 
By thinking hee can feele no smart, 
That sues lor no compassion. 

** For since that I doe sue to serve 
A saint of such perfection, 
Whome all desire, yet none deserve 
A place in her affection, 

" I'd rather chuse to wante releife. 
Than hazard y« revealing ; 
Where glory recommends y® greefe, 
Dispare dissuades y healing. 

•* Since my desires doe aime too high 
For any mortall lover, 
And reason cannot make them dye. 
Discretion shall them cover. 

<* Silence in love doth show mors woe 
Than words, though none so witty. 
The beggar that is dumb, you kuowc^ 
Deserveth double pity."' 

Polperro, Cornwall. 

T. Q. C. 


The Almanach royal de France, which has hetOBL- 
briefly described on a late occasion, deserves a. 
separate note ; and our alliance with France, an 
event at which I heartily rejoice, recommends this, 
voluminous series to the keepers of public li- 
braries. A few stray volumes of it are as much. 
as we ever meet with in private collections. 

Brunet omits this important publication, and 00 
does Ebert. I proceed to describe it in the words 
of a well-informed writer : 

" L* Almanack royal de France, un des plus anciens et 
des plus utiles, remonte h I'ann^e 1679 oil il re<jut ses 
premieres lettres de privilege. Son contenu se bornait 
alora au calendrier proprenient dit, k quelques observa- 
tions sur les phases de la lune, k Tindication des jours de 
depart des courriers, des fetes du palais, des principales 
foires et des villes oil Ton battait monnaie. On y ajouta, 
depuis 1699, les naissances des princes et princesses de 
r Europe, le clerg^ de France, Tepee, la robe et la finance. 
Aujourd*hui on y trouve le tableau officiel de tons les 
principaux employ6i,et T^tat des gouvernemens Grangers 
tels qu'ils sont reconnus par la France. Successivemeat 
agrandi, il exckle <\4}k mille pages d'un grand formaL"— 

It must be added, in proof of the alleged im- 
portance of this publication, that the proprietors 



[Na 27e» 

of it are authorised, by Uttres de prioUege^ to collect 
such information as maj be required to complete 
it partotd ou besoin sera^ It is the authenticity of 
its information which gives it so peculiar a claim 
on the attention of historians and biographers. 

There was a set in the choice collection of the 
late M. Armand Bertin, redacteur en chef du 
Journal den dehats^ which collection was sold at 
Paris last year. It is thus entered in the sale- 
catalogue : 

«• 1679. Almanachs royaux. Parlt, 1700 & 1846, 145 
Tol. in«8, reli^ en maroquin v^in et veau, la plupart avec 
armoires. OoUection eurieu§e et rcare." 

I shall conclude with two Queries. 1. Was the 
above set purchased for the British Museum ? 
2. What are the deficiencies of the Museum set ? 

Bolton Cornet. 

Former Power of the Turks, — At the present 
time, the following passage from the letters of 
Busbequius, ambassador from Ferdinand II. to 
the Sultan Solyman II., may interest the readers 
of " N. & Q." I extract it from the Loungers 
Common place Book^ the name of the author of 
which I should be glad to know."^ The biogra- 
phical articles are frequently very curious, and 
prove the author to have had an extended literary 

" When I compare the power of the Turks with our own, 
I confess the consideration fills me with anxiety and dis- 
may, and a strong conviction forces itself on* my mind 
that we cannot long resist the destruction which awaits 
OS ; they possess immense wealth, strength unbroken, a 
perfect knowledge of the art of war, patience under every 
difficulty, union, order, frugality, and a constant state of 

** On our side, exhausted finances and universal luxury, 
oar national spirit broken bv repeated defeats, mutinous 
soldiers, mercenary officers, licentiousness, intemperance, 
and a total contempt or neglect of military discipline, fill 
up the dismal catalogue. 

**I8 it possible to doubt how such an unequal conflict 
most terminate? The enemy's forces being at present 
directed ajjainst Persia, only suspends our fate; after 
subduing that power, the all-conquering Mussulman will 
rush with undivided strength and overwhelm at once 
Europe as well as Germany." 

H. W. D. 

Dr. Routh, President of Magdalen College, — 
Dr. Routh, the late learned President of Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, was born before the Seven 
Years* war had begun ; before Clive conquered 
India, or Wolfe bought with his blood Canada ; 
before the United States ever thought of being 
an independent country, or Poland was dismem- 
bered. He was M. A. and Fellow of that Society 
when Gibraltar underwent its memorable siege. 
He was past fifty years when Sir Arthur Wel- 

[♦ By Jeremiah Whitaker Newman.] 

lesley sailed for Portugal. The last of the Stuarts 
was not dead when Routh was a boy ten years 
old. He was president before the French Rero* 
lution broke out; he had known Dr. Leigb, 
Master of Baliol, Addison*8 cotemporary; had 
seen Dr. Johnson scrambling up the steps of Uni- 
versity College ; talked with a lady whose aunt 
had seen Charles II. walking in *^the parks'* with 
his dogs ; he persuaded Dr. Seabury to seek con- 
secration from the Scotch bishops; he died 
Friday, Dec. 22, 1854. 

MACKEN2nE Walcott, M. a. 

Strange typographical Error, — In a copy of 
Johnson*s tragedy of Irene^ which I bought many 
years ago, one of the characters has to address 
Mahomet II. thus : 

** Forgive, great Sultan, that, by fate prevented, 
I bring a tardy message from Irene." 

The unlucky printer forgot the 6 in ** fate,** and 
gave it : 

" Forgive, great Sultan, that hyfat prevented," Sec 
leaving it to be inferred that the honest mes- 
senger was too corpulent to reach his royal master 
in time to save the heroine's life. 

Alfsed Godfbst. 
14. Canonbury Square. 

Exchange of Brasses, — The inability to obtain 
anything like a good scries of brasses by inde- 
pendent exertion is felt by all amateur collectors. 
I would suggest that all persons who are willing 
to exchange rubbings of brasses from their own 
neighbourhood for others more remotely situated, 
should unite together. 

I would held each party responsible for the 
brasses within a radius of, say five miles from his 
or her address (I must not omit the ladies). 

Manning's List, and a map of England, would 
then only be required. The Editor of *'N. & 
Q." would, I am disposed to think, publish the 
addresses ; if not, the expense of printing would be 
merely nominal. 

In the absence of an abler hand, I should be 
willintr to arrange the materials. The above plan 
is only recommended for simplicity and economy 
of space in printing, and any farther suggestions 
will be received with thanks. Henbt Moodt» 

Bury School. 

The Euxine^ or Black Sea, — The following 
note of Wells on the 151st verse of the Perie- 
gesis of Dionysius, explains the origin of the 
name Pontus Euxinus : 

** Pontus* «car i^oxnv antiquis dictus est, tanqnam 
Mare Maximum, et quasi Oceanus alter: sed ettAxenua^^ 
hoc est, inhospitabilis, olim dictus est, sive ob maris tur- 
bulentiam et importuosa littora,sive ob barbaros Accolas. 

♦ Ovid. Triit, iv. 4. 66. 

t Polyb. IV. 5. 

Feb. 10. 1855.] 



Postea in Euxinvm noraen mutatnm est, sive ob GrsB- 
corum urbes in ejas littore conditas, undo hospitalior ea 
ora facta est, sive Kat' cv^i}/uii<rfibv solum : negat enim Ovid, 
etiam suo sssculo nomen hoc ei vera convenire : 

* Euxinutfcdso nomine dictus adest.^ " 

In the Penny Cyclop.,, art. Black Sea, this ex- 
planation is called unsatisfactory ; but the writer 
should have borne, in mind, that Europe, Asia, 
Africa, and even America, are names of Greek 
origin, as well as the Euxine. The Turks, Arabs, 
Russians, French, Grermans, and English designate 
it the Black Sea — probably from its stormy 
character. T. J. Bucktow. 


CampbeWs Poems. — 

** Sweet was to us the Hermitage 

Of this unplough'd, untrodden shore ; 
Like birds all joyous from the cage. 
For man*a neglect we loved it more.** 

0*Connor*8 Quid. 

The last line of the above extract is repeated 
hj the poet, in almost the same words, in his 
** Lines on leaving a Scene in Bavaria :" 

" Yes ! I have loved the wild abode. 

Unknown, unplough'd, untrodden shore: 
Where scarce the woodman finds a road, 
And scarce the fisher plies an oar ; 
For man's neglect Hove thee more." 


Cold'protectors. — Our innate patriotism, now 
breaking out in mysteriously-knitted "comforters," 
finds a parallel in the winter campai crn of 1760. 
The then Dean of Gloucester has an advertisement 
in a local paper (Journal^ No. 1949., 1760) offering 
" a warm flannel waistcoat to any volunteer, to 
defend him against the inclemency of the approach- 
ing season." R. C. Waedb. 


" Gcdorey — This word, now in common use, is 
derived from the Irish go leor, i. e. in abundance. 
An Oxford B. C. L. 

Creation of a Baronetess. — The following is a 
curious instance of the creation of a baronetess in 
her own right, which is recorded in the last page 
of the Gentleman* 8 Magazine for the year 1754, in 
the list of " Foreigners who have rereived the 
Dignity of English Baronets from our Kings :" 

** Created by King James II. 

** Sept 9, 1686. Cornelius Speelman, of the United 
Provinces, a Greneral of the States of Holland ; with a 
«pecial clause to the GeneroTt mother of the rank and title 
of a baroneteu ofEn^and.** 




I send you some extracts from a MS. <*hronicle 
of English history, in hopes that you will inform 
me whether you, or any of your readers, recognise 
them as coming from any known history. 

The MS. is small folio, and begins : *' In ye 
year fro ye begginning of ye worlde 3990, yer 
was in ye noble lond of Greece a worth! kyng." 
And ends : " The Wennesday next aft' uj>p<»n the 
morow, Edwarde^ the noble Erie of March, was 
chosen kyng in the cy te of London, and began for 
to reygne," &c. 

From cap. xli. : 

" Yis Constantyn (the Great) first endowed ye 
Chirche of Rome with possessions. And thanne 
yer was a voys yherd above in ye cyr yat sade yus, 
Hodie infusum est venenU in ecclid dei " (in margin 
nota bene). 

King John is said to have died by poison. His 
" Letter obligatory to ye Pope of Kome " is given 
at full length in English. 

From cap. cvii. : 

"... Maister Robert Grostet, bisshop of Lin- 
coln • . . because ye pope haddc provided his 
nevew yt was a child to a curid benefice ... ye 
said Robert wolde not admitte, and wroot ngeeii 
to ye pope, yat he wold not, ne owed not admitte, 
eny suche to have cure and rewle of soules that 
cowde not rewle theymself, ne understand ye 
English tunge ; wherefore ye said Robert was . • . 
acursid, and he appelid fro ye pope's court to ye 
court of hevene. And sone after ye said Robert 
dcide acursid; and ii yeer after his deih, he ap- 
perid lik a bisshop to ye pope as he lay in his bed, 
and saide. Surge miser vent ad judicia .... 
And with ye pricke of his bisshoppis staf he 
pricked ye pope . . unto ye herte, and in ye 
morow ye pope was founde ded .... And be- 
cause ye said Robert deide acursid notwithstond- 
ing . . . miracles, ye court of Rome will not 
suftre him to be canonized." 

From cap. czlvi. : 

(0) " Henry IV. as a defence for having put 
the Archbishop of York to death, sent to the pope 
the * habergeon yat yarchbisshop was armed ynne 
with these word is : Pater vide si tunica hac sit JUii 
tui an non* And ye pope answerde .... Sive 
h(BC sit tunica JUii met an non scio quia /era pessima 
devoravitflium meum** (6th of Henry IV.) 

From the same chapter (3rd of Henry IV.) : 

(o) Richard II. was supposed to be still nlive : 
" And a frere menour of ye covent of Aylesbury 
cam to ye kyng, and acusid a frere of ye same 
hous, a prest ; and saide that he was glad of kyng 
Richardes life, and he was brought to ye kyng. 



[Na 276. 

and he saide to him, * Thou hast herd 'jat kyng 
Richard is alive, and art glad yereof P' Ye frere 
answerde : * I am as glad as a man is glad of ye 
liff of his friende, for I am holden to him . . .' 
Ye kyng saide : ' Thou hast noised and told 
openli yat he livith, and so thou hast excited and 
Btirid the peple agens me.* Ye frere saide, * Nay.* 
Thanne saide ye kyng : ' Tell me trouthe, as it is 
in thi herte, yf thou sawest kyng Richard and me 
in ye feld fighting togedir, w' whom woldest thou 
holde ?* * Forsoth,' saide ye frere, * with him ; for 
I am more beholde to him.* Thanne saide the 
kyng : * Thou woldest yat I and alle ye lordis of 
my reme were ded?* Ye frere saide, *Nay.' 

* What woldest thou do with me,* saide ye kyng ; 
*yf thou haddest ye victory ovyer me?* Ye frere | 
saide : * I wolde make you duke of Lancaster.* 

* Thou art not my friend,* saide ye kyng ; * and 1 
yerefor thou shalt lese thin hed.* And thanne he j 
was dampned ....** j 

Other interesting conversations follow on the i 
same subject. But I have already to apologise j 
for the length of this letter. Can you inform me I 
what my chronicle is ; and also, whether such an 
one has ever been printed ? J. S. D. | 

Oxford. ; 

[The chronicle would appear, at first sight, to be a | 
rersion of the " Brut." It is obviously one deserving of j 
farther examination; and if our correspondent would ! 
tntrust it to us for a short time, we think we may pro- j 
mise him a satisfactory report upon it. — ¥a>. " N. & Q."] \ 

and the writer*s opening remarks, which I tnui- 
Bcribe, contain the explanation to which I refer : 

" The title of the work which we here introduce to our 
readers is taken, as well as numerous allusions in the 
body of the periformance, from the celebrated satirical 
play of the Duke of Buckingham, called the MAearaal; 
in which the principal dramatic writers of the age d the 
Restoration were severely, but justly, ridicul^ The 
hero of the Duke of Buckingham's satire is an ignorant 
and bloated play- writer, called Bayet, This wretched 
and affected scribbler invites two Ariends to vritness a 
rehearsal of a new play which he has just finishet} ; and, 
as the rehearsal is proceeding, he entertains his fkitnig, 
by disclosing to them the rules by which he compoaed 
his plays. The following brief extract from the Dake'i 
Eehearsal, will explain the design of Marvell in calling 
his work the Rehearsal Transprosed, as well as throw 
some light upon the character of the ambitious eccle- 
siastic whom the author has dubbed Mr. Baye». Marrell, 
by this ingenious artifice, shielded himself from the le^ 
consequences which, in that intolerant age, the infuriated 
churchman might have brought upon him. Bayt$ says : 

** * My first rale is the rule of trantverwm, or rtguiar 
duplex; changing verse into prose, or prose into verse^ 
alternative as vou please. 

** * Smith. \VeI], but how is this done by rule. Sir? 

" * Baye$. Why thus. Sir ; nothing is so easy when 
understood. I take a book in my band, either at home 
or elsewhere, for that's all one ; if there be any wit in't, 
as there is no book but has some, I transverse it : that is, 
if it be prose, put it into verse (but that takes up some 
time) ; and, if it be verse, put it into prose. 

** * Johnson. Methinks, Mr. Bayes, that putting verse 
into prose should be called transprosina. 

" * Bayes. Sir, it's a very good notion, and here- 
after it shall be so.' " 

H. Mabtis. 



Is there an annotated edition of this witty and j 
learned production ? * The work is not infrequently ! 
spoken of as The Rehearsal Traiu^posed^ and two i 
instances of this error are now before me. One ! 
occurs in vol. iv. p. 226. of Flet.cher*s History of i 
the Revival and Progress of Independency in Eng- 
land (4 vols. 12mo., 1849). The other is to be 
found in " N. & Q.,*' Vol. v., p. 513. As the latter 
is in a quotation, the error may probably be found 
also in the volume whence the passage is taken. 
There is not, I believe, in Marvell's pages, any 
explanation of the meaning which he attached to 
the word " transprosed ;*' but in his day it would 
be so well understood as to need none. The best 
that has fallen in my way is to be found in the 
Congregational Magazine for June, 1821 (vol. iv. 
p. 318.). Under the head of " Literaria Rediviva, 
or The Book-worm,** Marvell's work is reviewed ; 

[• Tliere is a work, entitled A Common-pJace Bf>ok out 
of the *^ Rehearsal Transprosed," with useful Notes, 8vo., 
London, 1673; but we have never met with it. Marvell 
seems to have taken the title of his work from the comedy 
of The Rehearsal, written by John Sheffield, Duke of 
Bnckinji^ham, in revenge for the cliaracter drawn of him 
hgr Dryden under the charaeter of ZimrL] 


The following curious poem is copied from aa 
old MS. formerly in the possession of one of the 
c^athedral dignitaries, and there is good reason for 
believing that it has never appeared in print. If 
any of the readers of " N. & Q.** can give me any 
information as to the author or the circumstancet 
to which it refers, I should esteem it a very great 
favour. The original MS. is indorsed "Wells 
Procession, 1716.** 


In a iMter to Sir Will. W—d—m. 
" In eightv-six, when tricksters rul'd the State, 
And tools of Rome in Aron*s chair were sett. 
When grave processions march'd in solemn pomp. 
And brawny Jesuits lampooned the rump ; 
Fine sights' there were, that pleas'd the giddy mob; 
Each priest was then ador'd as much as G — d ; 
And justly too, for every man must own, 
If Levites'can make gods, their work's their own: 
Yet their processions, and their noise of bells, 
Were trifles all conipar'd to ours at Wells, 
Where Querpo march'd in state, and sable drest. 
Mounted on Horner's 8tee<l above the rest, 
Attended by our rake-hell lilly white. 
Who loudly roar'd, * I'm for the Churches right ! ' 

Feb. 10. 1855.] 




A brave support (I think) ; we must do well. 
Since oar good Church has stole a prop from hell ; 
For faith the figure was as black as ink, — 
I took him for a devil by his stink. 
In his right hand he held a branch of birch, 
With it (says he) Til sweep our Mother Church. 
After him march'd three worthies of the gown, 
Whose honesty to all the West is known. 
Except the Whigs, who say that they have none 
And dare assert that college plate has paid 
Por many hearty meals Cremona made. 
That some Wells scholars to their cost can tell 
How, chapman like, young Whackum books w'd sell ; 
Tranquillo might have past in silence here. 
Had modest Jone contained another year. 
Then follow'd all the rabble of the town 
With hideous noise, declaring they were sound. 
Siy Querpo, finding how they were inclln'd, 
Proclaims a halt, and thus declared his mind: — 
* Townsmen and lovers, partners in my woe ! 
'Tis true our cause is sunk, and hopes so low. 
That I'm become so faint I scarce can speak. 
Of a bad markett we must make the best ; 
We'll nose the Whigs and bravely raise our crest. 
Though we at Preston and elsewhere are foil'd. 
Though a septenniall act our measures spoil'd. 
Though last November fiU'd us all with pain, 
October now shall raise our spirits again. 
Learn'd Thomas is returned in health to Wells, 
Our James is safe at Rome (huzza!), then ring the 


The Lyme Regis and Bridport *^ Domesday^ and 
*^Dom Books.^^ — These ancient volumes are known 
under the above titles. The latter has entries, it 
is stated, of the reign of Henry VI. 

The Lyme Regis DomesdHay^ called. also The 
Broad Book, is a ponderous volume to which 
allusions, in reference to entries therein, are fre- 
quently made in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

This MS. volume is supposed to have been sent 
to the late Mr. Dean, a solicitor, living in Guilford 
Street, at the time of a law-suit about the year 
182&. Mr. Dean died suddenly, and the volume 
has not been seen for years. It has been heard of, 
and, as is believed, was offered for sale. It is the 
property of the Town Council, who succeeded the 
former corporation. The Mayor of Lyme Regis 
would be glad of an answer to this Query : Who 
can pive any information respecting this Domes- 
day Book f 

The Mayor will thankfully treat for the above, 
to be replaced in the archives. The late Mr. 
Greorge Smith was town clerk at the time of the 
law-suit before alluded to. 

Gbobob Roberts (Mayor of Lyme Regis). 


Turkish Emblematical Flower. — Has Turkey 
an emblematic flower, a^ Enjrland has the rose, 
And Ireland the shamrock ? If so, what is it ? 

J. J. W. 

Value of Money in 1653. — Can any correspon- 
dent inform me of the value of a pound sterling 
in the year 1653, as compared with the value of a 
pound sterling in 1855 : adopting as the standard 
of value the price of a quarter of wheat, or of an 
ox, or of any other important commodity in the 
country ? G. N. 

Rev. Roger Ddle,^^l shonld feel greatly obliged 
to any of your readers who could furnish me with 
any particulars relating to the Rev. Roger Dale, 
his family connexions, and the various prefer- 
ments he held ? Mr. Dale was appointed curate 
of Denton, in the parish of Manchester, in 1679.; 
which he resigned in 1691 for that of Northen, or 
Northenden, in Cheshire. J. B. 

Quotations wanted. — 

Who is the author of the ** Evening Hymn" com- 
mencing -^ 

" Soon as the evening star, with silver ray," &c. ? H. 

** The heart may break, yet brokenly live on." F. M.E. 

" Earth has no sorrow which heaven cannot heal" 

J. BL A. B. 

'* Which maidens dream of when they muse on love." 
Whence? R. V. T. 

«*. . . . strew'd 
A baptism o*er the flowers." 
Whence? B. V. T. 

What Christian Father wrote this, and where? 

" Creavit angelos in ccelo, vermicolos in terra ; non 
superior in istis, non inferior in illis." A Naturalist. 

" Romance of the Tyrenees^^ Sfc. — Who was 
the author of The Romance of the Pyrenees^ 
Sancto Sebastiano, Adelaide, The Forest of Mant- 
albano, and Rosabella, romances published fifty 
years ago, and popular in their day ? Uif bi>a. 


Lucky Birds. — There is an ancient custom in 
Yorkshire, and I presume it is more or less general 
throughout Enjrland, of having a boy to enter 
your house early on Christmas and New Year's 
Day ; and this boy is called a lucky bird. Now 
can you inform me the date and origin of this 
custom ? why a black-haired boy is universally 
preferred ? and why he is called a lucky bird ? 

R. B« 


CardinoTs red Hat. — In the Eistoria Literaria 
of Cave, the author says of the Synod of Lyons in 
1245 (1243 ?) : "In this synod, if I mistake not, 
the red hat, as a sign of the dignity of cardinal, 




was first instituted.** In the Supplement to the 
same work, H(enry) W(harton) says Paul II. 
(1464) was the first to make the grant. " If I 
mistake not,'* Cave is right. Paul ^ded the pfd- 
Hum or cloak, and Gregory XIV. made some other 
alterations. B. II. C. 

Archbishop Leighton, — The Rev. J. N. Pearson, 
in his sketch of the above prelate's life, mentions 
that — 

** There is still in existence a humorous poem on Dr. 
^Vikenhead, Warden of the College (at Edinburgh), which 
Leighton wrote when an undergraduate. It evinces a 
good-natured playfulness of fancy, but is not of a merit 
that calls for publication." 

I doubt not many of your readers would, 
nevertheless, agree with me in thanking any one 
who has access to this document, by bringing 
it to light through your pages ; provided it be of 
reasonable dimensions, and unpublished by any 
other biographer. If even one of the Juvenilia 
of Leighton should prove to be without merit, the 
greater would be its literary curiosity. 

C. \V. Bingham. 

Marriages decreed hy Heaven. — What is the 
origin of this saying? I find that the opinion 
prevails among the Chinese. I have also met 
with it in the writinr^s of Dietcrich, a Lutheran 
divine who wrote early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. B. H. C. 

Greek ^^ Dance of Flowers^ — Where is the 
best account of this ancient dance? On what 
authorities do the moderns found their descrip- 
tions? Did similar dances obtain among other 
nations, either of old or to-day ? A. Challst£TH. 

Theatrical Announcements. — Can any of the 
readers of " N. & Q.** inform me when the custom, 
now universal among the daily papers, originated, 
of placing the theatrical announcements of the 
evening*s performances immediately preceding the ' 
leading articles ? I should also like to know the 
rationale of the custom in question, and whether 
the notices are considered as advertisements, and 
paid for accordingly. H. W. D. 

^^At ftc, quisquis eris^* Sfc. — Dr. Johnson has 
prefixed to the 41st number of his Idler (the 
paper on the death of his mother) the following 
not very appropriate verses. Can any of your 
readers tell me whence they are taken ? 

** At tn, quisquis eris, miseri qui cnida poeta) 
Credideris fletn funera di^a tuo, 
Hac postrema tibi sit flcndi causa, fluatque 
Lenis inoffenso vitaque morsque gradu." 

Some of the editions have given them to Ovid, 
but I cannot find them anywhere in the works of 
that poet. F. W. 

Right Bev. Charles Lloydj D.D.^ Bishop of 
Oxford. — Can any of your correspondents furnisk 
reminiscences of this prelate, who was also Regim 
Professor of Divinity at Oxford, and prematurely 
removed by death in 1829? Have any notes of 
his Lectures on the Book of Common Prayer ever 
been published, or could you be the medium of 
collecting some of their disjecta membra from 
among your readers ? 

Dr. Lloyd was, I believe, the first Professor for 
many years who gave private lectures in additioD 
to his formal prelections on theology, when ap- 
pointed in 1822. The announcement of them 
created a sensation at the time ; but, from cir- 
cumstances, it was not my happiness to have heard 
them. I may mention one happy sug^restion of 
his, viz. that the versicle, towards the end of the 
Litany — " O Son of David, have mercy on us,**— 
had dways appeared to him to be incorrect, and 
not agreeable to the meaning of the first com- 
pilers of the formulary ; inasmuch as our Saviour, 
after His ascension, was never invoked with re- 
ference to His ancestor acconling to the flesh. In 
the course of our examination of some ancient 
MSS., or editions of the Liturgies to which our 
own is indebted, the correspondinsr invocation was 
found written contractedly, " O fill D. viv," (Le, 
Dei viventis), in such a way that a hasty glance 
might lead a copyist to transcribe it as '* O fill 

Bishop Lloyd was son of the Rev. Thomai 
Lloyd, who died at High Wycombe in 1815, 
having held the rectory of Aston-sub-Edge, co. 
Gloucester, from 1782. Baixiolehsol 

[Our correspondent is probably aware that Mr. Palmer, 
in nis Origines Liturgical has made some use of Bislu^ 
Lloyd's liturgical Qotes. In his preface he states, ** That 
the' late Bishop of Oxford (Dr. Lloyd) was so conviDced 
of the expediency fof having the English Offices in their 
original languages], that ho was himself collecting mate- 
rials for the purpose, which he intended to publish « 
soon OS his avocations should permit. His lordship^ col- 
lections were entered on the mar^n of a folio Prayer 
Book, in the library given by Dr. Allestree for the use of 
the Regius Professor of Divinity in this university [Ox- 
ford] ; and having been kindly permitted to compare 
them with the results of my own investigations, I have 
derived from them several valuable observations, which . 
are acknowledged in their proper places." In a note Mr^ 
Palmer adds, "I have been informed that his lordship 
delivered several private lectures, entirelv on this topic, 
to a class of theological students in this university." 
Some passing notices of these private lectures, ddiverel 
in 1826, will be found in Fronde's Remains, vol. i. pp. IK). 
39. 47, 48. ; but the lectures have never been printed. la 
1825, Dr. Lloyd edited for the Clarendon Press the JFhram- 
larieg of Faith, put forth by authority during the reign 
of Henry VIII. In 1827 he published a revised and en- 
larged edition of the Syttoge Confesaonum ; and in 182S 
produced a very correct and elegant edition of tht 
Greek New Testament, for the use of junior biblical 
students, which has been reprinted in 1880 and 1847, 

Feb. 10. 185.5.] 



Biflhop Lloyd also acknowledged the authorship of an 
article in the British Critic for October, 1825, entitled "A 
View of the Roman Catholic Doctrines." For biogra- 
phical notices of this learned prelate, consult the Georgian 
Era^ vol. i. p. 526. ; Annual Biography and Obituary, 
vol. xiv. p. 353. ; and the Gent, Mag. for June, 182*9, 
p. 560.] 

Paisley Abbey. — On the altar wall of Paisley 
Abbey Chapel a series of sculptures are carved 
which, though whitewashed over, refuse to be 
obliterated. The series seems to rudely set forth 
the life of a saint^ at all events an ecclesiastic, 
from his cradle to his grave. In one a stream of 
light descends on his head as he pens some annals 
in a hook. Paisley's " Black Book" is well known ; 
could this have any connexion with the sculpture? 
In this chapel there is also a tomb, which rumour 
assigns as the shrine of Marjory Bruce ; with 
what authority ? and what is the history of the 
sculpture ? Dunheoed. 

[This seems to be what is called "Queen Bleary's 
tomb," of which the late Dr. Boog wrote an account, 
published in the Transactions of the Society of the Anti- 
quaries of Scotland, vol. ii. part ii. pp. 456 — 461. He 
seems to conjecture, from the figures in the east end of 
the aisle being so different from any other work about 
the church, that they must be referred to a period prior to 
that of the building of the present fabric ; and he adds, 
"it is certain, from the foundation charter, that a church 
existed at Paisley before that time." In his account of 
the tomb, while' he considers the basement as forming 
part of the monument, he puts no faith in the Paisley 
tradition of its being that of Marjory Bruce, mother of 
Robert II. On this subject some curious conjectural in- 
formation may be found in Appendix in. to the volume 
of the Maitland Club for 1831, entitled Pescriptions of the 
Sheriffdoms of Lanark and Renfrew, pp. 296--304. Con- 
sult also the Neio Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. vii. 
pp. 217—220.] 

Demonohprical Query. — In Barlcei Adversaria 
Traject. ad Rhenum, 1C72, are some notes on the 
third book of Apuleius, in which it is stated, that 
witches seem to have lost the art of assuming 
various forms, but that they still use ointments to 
enable them to fly. Some examples are given ; 
among them is : 

" Viri tenuis qui ab uxore ad amatorem ejus videndura 
In csBtu demonum in arenarias Burgadalenses ductus erat, 
ut recens et notissimum est,** 

In the margin ^^ Bins, de C M.^* is cited. As 
several of your correspondents are learned in 
damonolofryi perhaps one may oblige me with the 
facts of the case, or the full title of the book so 
briefly referred to. J. E. T. 

[The work quoted in the margin is by Petrus Binsfel- 
dius, entitled Tractatus de Confessionilnts maleficorum et 
sagarum, an et quanta fides eis adhibenda sitf 8vo., Aug. 
Trev., 1691, 1596, et Col. Agr., 1623. Praeludium xii. 
seems to treat upon this subject: — '^DsBmones possunt 
assumere corpora, et in ipsis apparere hominibus." J 

Early English and Latin Orammar, — I observe 
that you and your correspondents are directing 

some attention to early works on education. A 
volume of English arid Latin Crrammar is now 
before me, which I found in the library at Mel- 
ville, in Fifeshire, and which bears date 1557; 
but whether it is rare or not, I do not know. 
Neither the name of the printer, nor the place of 
printing, is given. There are two works. The 
title of the first is thus : 

** A Short Introduction of Grammar ^enerallie to be 
used. Compiled and set forth for the bnnging up of all 
those that intend to attaine the Knowledge of the Latin 

Below is this motto : 

" In time truth cometh to light, and prevaileth." 

with an engraving representing Time handing 
Truth out of a cave ; and the words " cum privi- 
legio." It contains 55 pajjes. 

The second part is of the same date, and con- 
tains 127 pages. The engraving represents a 
printing-press. It is entirely Latin, with thig 
title, Brevissima Instituting seu ratio Grammatices 
cognoscenda, &c. It includes " Propria quae mari- 
bus *' and " As in praesenti." 

These books may be quite common ; and if so, 
I have said enough to allow of their being verified. 
If rare, any question relating to them can be 
answered. W. L. M. 

[These works were printed by Reynold Wolfe, the first 
who had a patent for being printer lo the king in Latin* 
Greek, and Hebrew. The first edition of them is dated 
1549, 4to., London, and is in the Bodleian, but is not no- 
ticed either by Ames or Dibdin, who both speak of Wolfe's 
edition of 1569. Our correspondent's copy is probably in 
8vo. ; if so, it is the Paris edition. Both works have been 
frequently reprinted.] 

"To rat." — What may have been the origin 
of this phrase as applied to any sudden and mer- 
cenary change in politics ? Abhba. 

[This modem cant phrase originated, no doubt, from 
the sagacity of rats forsaking ships not weather-proof. It 
is not only applied to those who desert their political 
party from some mercenary motive, but is used in most 
trades for those who execute work at less than the re- 
gular scale prices. These individuals are hooted at and 
despised like rats.] 

" Domesday Book** — What is the precise deri- 
vation of Domesday Book f G. R. L. 

[Stow, AnnaJs, p. 118., 1631, tells us, "The Booke of 
Bernumdsey saith this book was laid up in the King s 
treasurie (which was in the church of Winchester or 
Westminster), in a place called Domus Dei, or (rod's 
house, and so the name of the booke therefore called 
Domus Dei, and since, shortly, Domesday** The author 
of Dialogus de Scaccario, however, gives the following 
explanation of the name : « Hie liber ab indigenis DomeS" 
dei nuncupatur, id est. Dies Judicii, per metaphoram: 
sicut enim districti et terribilis examinis illius novissimi 
sententia nulla tergiversationis arte valet eludi ; sic, cum 
orta fuerit in regno cont^ntio de his rebus qusB illic anno- 
tantur, cum ventum fuerit ad libmm, sententia ejus in- 
fatuari non potest, vel impnne declinari. Ob hoc not 



[No. S76. 

oandem Librum. Judiciarium nominavimus ; non quod ab 
eo sicut a praedicto Judii-io non licet uUa rationc disce- 
dere." (Madox, Hist Excheq.y edit. 4to., vol. ii. p. 398.) 
So Rudborne, Angl. Sacr. torn. i. p. 257. : ** Vocatus 
Domyaidaj; et vocatur sic, quia nulli parcit, sicut nee 
magnus dies Judicii." These derivations are quoted in 
Sir Henrv £11L»*8 General Introduction to Domuday Book^ 
pp. 1, 2.] 



(Vol. X., pp. 120. 137.246.) 

The attack made upon Col. Lehmanowskj in 
the first of the above articles having been re- 
published in the United States, that gentleman, 
who has been for many years a clergyman of the 
Lutheran Church in this country, has taken notice 
of it in the following letter to the editor of the 
Independent^ a religious newspaper published in 
the city of New York. Uneda. 


Letter from Colonel Lehmanowshy. 

Hambur&r, Clark co. Indiana, 
Dec. 15, 1854. 

Me. Editor or the Independent, 

A few days ago, a gentleman gave me to read 
an article, published in a London (England) pe- 
riodical, called Notes and Queriex^ in which a writer 
criticised my statement abriut the destruction of 
the Inquisition Chemastin, near Madrid, in Spain. 
In perusing this article, my first intention was not 
to take notice of it, and let it pa^s for what it is 
worth. But yesterday, a friend of mine handed 
me your paper, The Independent^ in which my 
attention was drawn to an article signed ** In- 
quirer." In said article I am called a " Polisli 
refugee;" whereas, the Polish refugees came in 
this country only in 1833 ; whilst I came after the 
battle of Waterloo, in 1816, and have had the 
honour, since 1821, to be a citizen of these United 

Secondly, the gentleman says that in the year 
1814 the king of Spain re-established the "In- 
quisition," and in 1820 he or his friend saw that 
massive building yet standing, anl therefore I 
must have made a false statement about its being 
blown up. It seems the learned gentleman thinks it 
needs to rebuild an " Inquisition " as Icmg as it 
needed to build St. Peter s at Rome, and in eleven 
years time it could not be rebuilded, as it was blown 
up in 1809 by the troops under my command. 
May be, if the gentleman would go to Moscow, in 
Hudsia, at the present time, he will likewise say, 
Moscow has never been burned, and the Kremlin 
bad never been blown up by powder in 1812, 
because, he would say, the houses are all standing, 
and the " masaive " buddings in the Kremlin are 

Thirdly, this kind gentleman says that Marshil 
Soult was not the Commandant of Madrid. Who 
said so? not I. My statement ih, that Count 
Mejol^s was the Commandant, but Marshal Soult 
the Military Commander of the division, which 
not only occupied Madrid, but twenty or thirty 
miles round about Madrid. 

And now, Mr. Editor, I think I have done so 
far my duty in answering this very learned gen- 
tleman, who made the criticism in the Notes and 
Queries, But allow me to remark, that I sm 
astonished that any one should wait twenty yesn 
since my first statement, to correct the same. It 
seems to me that those who were always wisbiof 
to have this statement hushed up, waited untu 
they were sure Marshal Soult and Col. De Lisle 
were dead, and no doubt suspected Col. Liehmi- 
nowsky was also numbered amonp: the dead, so 
that they may have free play ; but they are 

I will only add, as the Lord has blessed me to 
be nearly eighty-two years of age, they should 
wait a little longer, until they are sare that none 
are living who took part in the destruction of the 
" Inquisition Chemastin." 

In conclusion, let me inform yoo, Mr. Editor, 
that it is (with the help of God)^ my firm resola- 
tion to write no more on this subject, as I am 
advanced in age, and can employ my time a great 
deal better to do the work of my Captain o£ Sal- 
vation, Jesus Christ, in preaching His Goapel to 
saints and sinners. 

I remain, with due regard, your obedient ser- 
vant, J. J. LBHBiANOWSXT. 


(Vol. xi., p. 62.) 

T cannot inform Hermrs where Lord Derby 
delivered the speech in which he is said to have 
quoted the lines from Matizoni's Ode to NapoUm, 
but I know that his admiraticm of that ode dates 
frotn many years back. At Rome, in the year 
1821, when it was still in its first fame, and a 
common topic of conversation. Lord Derby ex- 
pressed his liigh opinion of its merits in the com- 
pany of English ladies, of whom one or two did 
not understand Italian, and were a good deal 
chagrined to be thus excluded from the pleasure 
which its recitation appeared to convey to the 
rest Lord Derby took up the book and said, 
" Oh ! I will try to give you some general notion 
of the matter of the poem ; its fire and inspiratidi 
will all evaporate in translation ; " and with a 
wonderful rapidity he struck off an improvised 
paraphrase in English, which I well remember 
thinking, at the time, gave earnest of the talents 
which his maturer years have so splendidly dev^ 

Feb. 10. 1855.] 



loped. I am not sure that he translated the whole 
ode. I never possessed a copy, but some pHSsa^es 
have remained in my recollection, and though the 
incident has probably long passed from the me- 
mory of the distinguished author, I will vouch for 
the correctness of mine for a stanza or two. 

" qnante volte, al tacito 
Morir d' un giomo inerte, 
Chinati i rai fulminei, 
Le braccia al sen conserte, 
Stette - e del d\ che foKxao 
L' asaalse il souvenir. 

" E ripensb le mobili 
Tende, ei percorsi rail! 
£ i camp! del manipoli — 
E 1' onda dei cavalii — 
£ il concitato imperio — 
£ 11 celere obbedir.*' 

" Oft, as in silence closed some listless day. 

His eyeball's lightning ray 

Bent on the tumbling flood. 

With folded arms he stood — 

And bitterly he number'd o'er 
The days that had been — and that were no more. 

*He saw the quick-struck tents again — 
The hot assault — the battle plain — 
The troops in martial pomp array 'd — 
The pealing of tlie artillery — 
The torrent charge of cavalry — 
The hurried word 
In thunder heard — 
Heard— and obeyed." 



(Vol. X., pp. 453. 533.) 

When I was in Edinburgh in 1821-2, a man of 
gentlemnnly appearance and manners was moving 
m good circles, and went by the name of Prince 
Crinijzary Cattygary, or Khrim Gherri Khatti 
Gherri, and afterwards married a Scotch Jady. 
But if she was thenceforward called " Sultana," it 
could only be in jest. ITie prince was said to 
have been sent to Edinburgh for his education by 
the Emperor Alexander. This also was probably 
said idly, it being well known that no Russian 
notable could reside abroad without the Emperor's 

In Chambers's edition of darkens Travels, p. 94., 
I find this note : 

" It was here (Sympheropol) that Katti Gherri Krim 
Gherri resides. He is a descendant of the Tartar Khans ; 
and having become acquainted with the Scotch mission- 
aries at Carass in the Caucasus, he was sent to Edinburgh 

for education. Here he married Dr. Lyall visited 

him in 1822; and describes him and his Sultana as living 
in great happiness. According to Mr. Spencer, he had 
not succeeded in the year 1836 in making a single convert 
(vol. ii. p. 89.). A great indisposition to Christianity 
exists amongst the Tartars, arising from its being pro- 
ieased by the Russians.'* 

Clarke gives a detailed account of the Russian 
intrigues in becoming possessed of the Crimea. 
He says : 

** It is well known that, by the last treaty of peace which 
Russia made with the Turks, prior to the conquest of the 
Peninsula, Shahin Ghirei, of the family of the Khans^ 
who had been a prisoner and a hostage at PeterBbnig, 
was placed on the throne of the Crimea." 

Then follows his (Clarke's) account of the depo- 
sition and miserable fate of this poor yictim of 
Russian perfidy and aggression. 

The note of your correspondent Anat (Vol. x., 
p. 533.) assumes that the Query at p. 326. is *Hlie 
Sultan's account of himself." Surely this is gra- 
tuitous. There must be scores of men in Edin- 
burgh who will be able to verify the circumstancea 
above related. It is possible, but not very pro- 
bable, that the hero of the tale may have left the 
Russian territory, and taken refuge in this country. 
He cannot now be very young. M. (2) 


(Vol.ix., pp. 38. 225.) 

By some original papers I am enabled to con- 
firm the accuracy of that part of Mr. G. Grey's 
letter to his brother Dr. Zachary Grey, your cor- 
respondent C. DE D. quotes from Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes in one of your recent Numbers, whicn 
states that there were three widow Mil tons there 
(i. e, Nantwich). The three persons alluded to 
were: — 1. Milton the poet's widow, who is first 
traced to that town in the year 1688. 2. The 
widow of a Mr. Humphrey Milton, an attorney 
and a freeholder there. And 3. The aunt of 
Dr. Grey and his brother. But as respects the 
time of the death of Milton's widow mentioned by 
Mr. Grey, it has already been shown by one or 
two of your able contributors, that she died in 
1727, and not in 1730 — the year in which he fixes 
her death to have taken place ; and a recently 
discovered inventory and appraisement of her 
effects, taken by Mr. John Allcock, the acting 
executor of her will, on August 26, 1727, pre- 
served with her original will proved at Chester on 
October 10th in the same year, puts the matter be- 
yond all doubt ; inasmuch as it shows that her dis- 
solution must have occurred between the dates of 
her will, the 22nd of August, and the inventory 
the 26th of the same month, 1727 ; and most pro- 
bably on the very day her will bears date, judg- 
ing from the extremely short interval between the 
two dates. The details of the inventory I have 
referred to, also assist in identifjfing the testatrix 
as being the poet's widow, if any farther evidence 
on that head was requisite. This document will 
be looked upon as interesting, when it is known 
that it describes with the greatest minuteness, not 



[No. 276. 

onlj all the old lad/s household goods, but like- 
wise the whole of her wardrobe ; the value of each 
article being placed opposite thereto, and, on 
running over the items, I think I may safely 
bazard an opinion, that she took with her on 
leaving London a few of her husband^s movables. 
The inventory is comprised in seven common law 
folios, and am)rds a curious specimen of the man- 
ner in which habitations occupied by persons in 
Mrs. Milton*s station of life were furnished at that 
period, and of the apparel she was accustome<i to 
wear. The following are some of its most attrac- 
tive items : " A large Bible," estimated at Ss. ; 
" two books of Paradise" at 10*. (I must leave 
jrour readers to form their own judgments on the 
probability of these books being Milton*s own 
copies of bis Paradise Lost and Regained) ; " some 
old books, and a few old pictures," at 12*. ; " Mr. 
MiIton*3 pictures (unquestionably his portraits) 
and coat arms," at 10/. \0s. ; "two teaspoons and 
one silver spoon, w*** a seal and stopper," at 12*. 6c?. ; 
" a tofershell knife and fork, w'** other odd on<»s," 
at Is.; and " a tobacco-box," at 6d. The aggre- 

fate account of the appraisement is SSL Ss. 4d. 
regret to say, that, after the most diligent in- 
quiries in this town and the neighbourhood, I 
Lave not been successful in discovering any of the 
articles I have particularised, nor any of the 
others enumerated in the inventory, except one 
of the knives and forks ; the history of which I 
have had the good fortune to trace satisfactorily. 

The subject of the relationship, histoi'ians had 
persuaded themselves, and led others to believe, 
existing between our poet's widow and the family 
of Minshull of Stoke, having engaged my atten- 
tion, I cannot close my present communicati(m 
without mentioning, for the information and satis- 
faction of such of your readers as take an interest 
in her genealogy, that I am in possession of evi- 
dence of the most conclusive character, which 
fully goes to establish that Sir Edward Minshull 
of Stoke Hall resided at that mansion with his 
family in 1667, and up to the time of his death, 
which happened a few years afterwards ; and that 
he had issue by his wife Dame Mary, who was 
the youngest daujrhter and coheiress of Edward 
Moryall, Esq., of Gray's Inn (whose eldest daughter 
was Barbara, the wife of Randle Dod, Esq., of 
£dge, of this county), viz. five children: — I. 
Edward, his successor ; 2. William of Gray's Inn, 
living in 1715 ; 3. Mary ; 4. Ann; and 5. Eliza- 
beth, so long supposed to have been the third wife 
of Milton. The two youngest daughters, Ann 
and Elizabeth, lived with their mother Lady Min- 
shull, after Sir Edward's death, at a house she 
enjoyed as a portion of her jointure, called *' The 
New Bell," situate in Nantwich, in 1674—- being 
the identical year in which our immortal bard 
breathed his last, and ten years subsequently to 
1u8 last marriage; thus rendering it utterly im- 

possible that his widow could have been Sir 
Edward Miushull's daughter. T. W. Jones. 



Preservation of sensitised Plates. — It appears there il 
now no doubt that the method of preserving collodion 
plates in a sensitive state for eight or ten days is quite 
practical. I have determined to try it as soon as the 
weather becomes more favourable. Mr. Siiadbolt having 
been so liberal in giving us his plan, I have no doubt but 
he will not think me intrusive if I ask him two or three 
questions on the subject. What method does he parsoe 
when from home and has more sensitive plates to expose 
than are in the dark frames ? That is, does he recom- 
mend keeping the sensitive plates in a plate-box, and 
using only one dark frame for exposing the whole of the 
plates? If so, does Mr. S. use a tent in order to remove 
the plates into the frame and back into the plate-box? 
It certainly would be a cumbrous affair to have as many 
dark frames as we had plates, or even half the number 
providing they were double dark frames. I will be glad 
to learn Mr. Siiadbolt's plan, or any other photographer's 
who may have had some practice in this process. 

R. £lliott. 

Fading of Positives. — Nothing is more vexatious in 
photography than to find our pictures fade and disapp^ir, 
even after we suppose we have taken all the precautions 
in our power to preserve them. The fading of positives 
sometimes takes place soon after they are printed; at 
other times they preserve their tints for many months or 
even years, and then begin gradually to lessen in inten- 
sity and beauty of colour. This has generally been at- 
tributed to some portion of the hyposulphite of soda 
being allowed to remain, and no doubt that is the general 
cause. But I beg to call the attention of your photo- 
graphic friends to other causes, viz. the card-board on 
which they are pasted, as well as the material used for 
causing them to adhere to it. Near four vears since I 
was presented by a friend with a beautiful landscape 
view, which has remained unaltered until lately, having 
during the whole time been framed and exposed to light. 
The picture has been stuck to its mount, round its edg^ 
to the extent of a quarter of an inch ; and here only, 
where the picture is in contact with its mount, has the 
colour gone. In my collection other pictures, which were 
mounted at one tim'e, appear to have deteriorated, whilst 
they have not done so at another ; the mode of manipu- 
lation being the same. I am therefore led to infer, that 
bleaching chemicals have been suffered to remain in some 
samples of card- board which has caused this decay; and 
it is probable that even the paste itself, or other material 
used for sticking, may undergo some change by time, 
causing this effect. I am sure any hint tending to pre- 
serve our works will be acceptable to us all. 11. W. D* 

Oranges among the Romans (Vol. xi., p. 41.). 
— Your correspcmdent L. has made it very pro- 
bable that the orange-tree was not planted at 
Rome till the thirteenth century. Gibbon is not 
the only writer who has made the mistake of sup- 
posing that the ancient Romans were acquainted 

Feb. 10. 1855.] 



with this tree. Barbie du Bocage, in his work on 
Sacred Geography (edit. Migne, Paris, 1848), s. 
TOO. Italicy has the following extraordinary state- 
ment : 

'* II parait qne les Ph^niciens tiraient diff<^rents produits 
de ritaiie, puisqae £zechiel (ch. xxvii. 6. in the Vul- 
gate) parle de ce qui vient dltalie, et sert h faire les 
chambres et les magasins des vaisseaux tyriens. Peut- 
etre le proph^te eatend-il parler des bois pr^cieux 
d'orangers, de citronniers et autres que Tltalie donne eu 

No doubt the Vulgate is in error in translating 
Chittiiu by Italy, and the writer in supposing that 
the Flioenicians derived the wood of the orange- 
tree from that country. B. H. C. 

Leverets marked with white Stars (Vol. x., 
p. 523.). — The Rev. W.B. Daniel, who was well 
known as a 8i)ortsman in his day, has the loUow- 
ing passage in his book on Rural SportSy vol. i, 
p. 448.: 

**In the spring of 1799, in the orchard of W. Cole, of 
Helions Bampstead, in Essex, seven young hares were 
found ill one form ; each was marked witli a star of white 
in its forehead. This mark, according to received opinion, 
is always seen when the young exceed two in number.*' 

I well remember, more than thirty-five years ago, 
having seen four very young leverets in a form, 
all marked with white stars on their forehead, 
and doubtless belonging to the same litter, for 
they were under a balk in the parish of Little 
Chesterford, then unenclosed. 

This corroboration of Mr. Daniel's theory is, 
however, shaken by the testimony of three of my 
gamekeepers, who have had much experience in 
such matters, and have been recently questioned 
on the subject. One of tliem states his having 
seen, some years ago, at Shortgrove, in this county, 
a litter or cast, as he expressed himself, of four 
leverets, one of which only had a white star, but 
that he had often observed a single young rabbit 
marked in the same way. Another keeper had 
occasionally seen one young hare with the white 
mark, and the third keeper had never observed or 
heard of the peculiarity. 

Perhaps some of the correspondents of " N. & 
Q." may throw farther light on the subject; 
apropos to which, it has often struck me as a 
matter of regret, that gamekeepers are in general 
illiterate persons, whereas they might, if better 
educated, have ample opportunities of observing 
the habits of birds and wild animalsi, and muking 
valuable discoveries, as well as confuting vulgar 
traditions, which have been copied from one au- 
thority to another, till they have obtained a 
certain degree of credibility, without resting on 
any good foundation. Bbatbbooke. 

Aadley End. 

Major Andri (Vol. viii. passim). — Sebvibns 
** bemg engaged upon a biography of Major 

Andre,** I send the £>llowing, trusting it may be 

** Colonel Hamilton to Miss Schuyler. 

•* Head Quarters of the Annr, 

Tappan, October 2, 1780. 

..." Poor Andr^ suffers to-day. Everything that it 
amiabi in virtue, in fortitude, in delicate sentiment, 
and accomplished manners, plead for him ; but hard- 
hearted policy calls fur a sacritice. He must die. I send 
you my account of Arnold's affair ; and to justify myself 
to your sentiments, I must inform you tliat I urged a 
compliance with Andre's request to be shot, and 1 do not 
think it would have had an ill effect. But some people 
are only sensible to motives and policy, and sonietimes 
from a narrow disposition mistake it. 

" fVfien Andrffi tale comes to be told, and present resent- 
ment is over, the refusing him the privilege of choosing 
the manner of his death will be branded with too much 

**\t was proposed to me to suggest to him the idea of an 
exchange for Arnold i but I knew I should have forfeited 
his esteem by (loing it, and therefore declined it. As a 
man of honour he could not but reject it ; and I would not 
for the world have proposed to him a thing which must 
have placed me in the unamiable Ught of supposing him 
capable of meanness, or of not feeling myself the iuipro- 
prietj' of the measure. I confess to you I had the 
weakness to value the esteem of a dying man because I 
reverenced his merit." 

The much-respected lady to whom the above 
letter was addressed, died at Washington, No- 
vember 9th, 1854, at the ativanced age of ninety- 
seven years, having outlived her husbftid. General 
Hamilton, for more than half a century. W. W. 


Designation of Works under Review (Vol. ix., 
p. 516. ; Vol. X., p. 473.). — I beg to thank Mb. 
iToBBES for reminding your correspondents of my 
original Query. I am as much surprised as he i» 
that some one has not taken the trouble to answer 
it. Caption is a pure Americanism. To save the 
trouble of reference, I beg to repeat my Query : 

Under what technical term should a reviewer 
refer to the group of works forming the heading 
of the article ? Example : " The subject is ela- 
borately treated in the second work of our * * *." 
What word ought technically to supply this 
blank ? C. Mansfield Imglebt. 


Tobacco- smoking (Vol. x. passim), — The fol- 
lowing passage appears to have been not yet. 
quoted, and will be interesting both to smokers 
and to teetotallers. Speaking of Bechion, or 
coltsfoot, as a remedy for a bad cough, Pliny 
says : 

" Hujus aridae cum radice fumus per arundinem, 
haustus et devoratus, veterem sanare dicituT tussim ; sed 
in iingulttt haustus possum gustandum est" — Nat Hist, 
xxvi. 16. 

That is, the smoke of the plant, dried along with 
its root, when imbibed and inhaled through a 
tube, is said to be a cure for a long-standing 



[No. 276. 

cough. But between the whiffs you must take a 
drop of wiiie ! Verhum sapieuti sat. ^ 

This passage is clearlj the original of that from 
Dodoena, in my former communication on this 
subject. I cannot lay my hands upon the refer- 
ence. B. H. C. 

" What I spentr ^c. (Vol. xi., p. 47.). — The 
epitaph alludeid to was in Tiverton Church, on the 
tomb of Edward Courtenay, third Earl of Devon, 
commonly called *'*' the blind and good earl ;" who 
died 1419, and his countess Maud, daughter of 
Lord Camois. The following was the true in- 
scription : 

** Hoe, hoe ! who lies here? 
I, tiie goode Erie of Devonshere ; 
With SlauU, my wife, to meo full dere, 
We lyved togeather fytly-fyve yere. 
What wee gave, wee have ; 
What wee spent, wee bad ; 
What wee lefte, wee loste." 


** Doncoiter, in Yorkshire. 

" Howe! howe! who is heare? 
I, Robin of Doncastcre, 
And Margaret my feare. 

That I spent, that I had, 

That I gave, that I have. 

That I left, that I lost 

A.D. 1579. Qtfbth Robertus Byrkes, who in this world 
did reigne threescore years and* seven, yet liv'd not one." 

This man gave Rossington Wood to the public. 
I have foun<l two or three inscriptions like this : 
one in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey; another 
in Sl Olave Church, Hart Street, in Southwark ; 
and a third in the church of St. Faith, as part of 
the epitaph of one William Lamb. But the oldest, 
and that from which the others may have been 
taken, is in the choir of St. Peter's Church at 
St. Alban's. There was to be seen in Scotland, 
some years ago, upon a very old stone, the same 
thought thus expressed : 

" It that I gife, I haif. 
It that I len, I craif. 
It that I spend, is mvne. 
It that 1 leif, 1 tyne." 

This is an extract from llackett*s Epitaphs, vol. i. 
p. 37. edit. 1757. J. R. M., M.A. 

In reply to W. (I), the following is the original 
of the lines he quoted : 

" Quod expcndi habui, 
Quod donavi habeo, 
Quod ncgavi punior. 
Quod servuvi perdidi." 


[Wo must remind our correspondents that this epitaph 
has already been discussetl in " N. & Q. ; " the one on 
Bobin of Doncaster, in Vol. v., p. 179. ; and the lines 
quoted by Bkistoliknsis, at p. 452. of the same volume, 
nrom the brass of John Kellynworth, 1412. Mr. J. S. 

Warden (Vol viii., p. 30.) has also noticed that it has 
been antiopated, if not imitated from. Martial, book rt 
epig. 42. Quarles, in his Divifu FanctUf lib. iv. art 70.* 
1G83, has made the following riddle upon it : 

** The gooils we spend we keq>; and what we iare 
We h»e; and only what we lose we have."'] 

''Star of the tmlight grey" (Vol. x., p 445.). 
— In a volume bearing the X\x\eJacokite Melodi^s^ 
a Collection of the most popular Legends^ BaUads^ 
and Songs of the Adherents to the House of Stuart^ 
Edinburgh, printed by William Aitchison, 1828, 
" Star of the twilight grey,** given at p. 260., it 
ascribed to J. H. Allen, Esq. £. D. R. 

Quintus Calaber (Vol. x., p. 345.). — I am not 
aware of any complete translation, but I have 
before me Select Translations from the Oreek of 
Quintus Smyrmeus, by Alexander Dyce, A.B. of 
Exeter CoUeee, Oxford, &c., 8vo, Oxford, 1821, 
pp. vi. 123. Mr. Dyce, now so well known for hii 
editions of early dramatists, btates in the preface 
that nothing is known of the author : that be re- 
ceived the <me name Q. SmymsQUs, — ^^ becaun 
Tzetzes (Chiliad, ii. 489.) applies it to him; and 
because he himself, in his xii books, says that the 
muses inspired him while he was feeding theep 
near Smyrna;" the other (Q. Calaber), **from 
his poem having been discovered by Cardinal 
Bessarion in a monastery of Calabria.** 

Mr. Dyce goes on to say : 

" His * Supplement to the Iliad ' consists of xir books. 
of which no trctnakuion hms appeared iu ow language : it is 
p:eneraUy supposed that he borrowed largely from the 
Cyclic poets, chiefly from Leaches." 

quoting "Heyne, Excurs I. (de rerum Trojanonxm 
Auctoribus) ad ^neid. II" Baluolbmbib. 

Oriel (Vol. x., pp S91. 535.). — Your correspon- 
dent Ovris thinks that I come so nesir the Ueri- 
vation of. this word, that, in school-boy phrasCi 
^* I burn.** By his own admission, I think I mxf 
say that I am not only so near the hidden object 
of search, but that^, in Buonaparte phrase, Je le 
fiens! I liuve already said that it is the Norman- 
Frt'neh oreil " with a dilFerence," and classes with 
the majority of the figurative appellations of ar- 
chitecture derived from that language. Amongst. 
the many figurative uses of the word Oreille^ re- 
ferred to by Boiste in his excellent Pan-Lexigua^ 
we find several to imply a partie saillante^ and, 
amongst them the oreillons or orillons of fortifi- 
cation, as remarked by Jacob Bryant. M, (2) 

Weather Rides (Vol. viii., pp. 50. 535. ; VoL ix, 
pp. 9. !>77. 307. 585.). — 

" Portuguese Weather and Season Rules. — A wet Ja- 
nuary is not so {rood for corn, but not ko bad for cattle. 
January blossoms fill no man's cellar. If February is dry, 
there is neither good corn nor good hay. When March 
thunders, tools and arms get rusty, lie who freely lops, 
in Marcli will get his lap full of fruit. A cold April 

Feb. 10. 1855.] 



brings wine and bread in plenty. A cool and moirt April 
fiJia tiie cellar and fattens the cow. A windy May makes 
a fair year. He who mows in May will have neither fruit 
nor bay. Midsummer rain spoils wine Block and grain. 
In Mav an east-lyins field is worth wain and oxen ; in 
July, the oxen and the yoke. The first day of August, 
tbe'tirst day of harvest August rain gives honey» wine, 
and safiron. August ripens, September gathers in. Au- 
gust bears the burthen, September the fruit. September 
dries up wells or breaks down bridges. Preserve j'our 
fodder in September, and your cow will fatten. In Oc- 
tober dung your field, and the land its wealth shall 3'ield. 
On All tSaints' Day there is snow on the ground ; on St. 
Andrew's, the night is twice as long as day. He who 
dungs his barley well shall have fruit a hundred fold ; 
and if it has been a wet season there is nothing to fear. 
No one thrives who godless drives. None in August 
should over the land ; in December none over the sea. 
lAziness is the key to poverty. The usurer's gokl sits 
down with him to table.^ 


Spirit Rappings (Vol. ix., p. 200.). — 

** A writer giving an account of some very remarkable 
* spiritual manifestations,' declares that he saw and ex- 
perienced at the house of a neighbour, among otiier things, 
the spirit of his grandfather, which rapped him on the 
forehead with such force, * that the tourid could be heard 
in every part of the room.' We should think," says the 
Boston Post, ** it very likely. There are heads which, as 
is common with emptjyr she'lls of all sorts, make capital 
mediums of sound. His 'grandfather' could not have 
made a better selection." 



The following extract from a work not likely to 
fall into many hands, will, it is hoped, be accept- 
able, and help to counteract fanaticism and lolly : 

** These are not to be set down — at least so it is to be 
hoped — among the normal and catholic superstitions in- 
cident to humanity. They are much worse than the 
worst form of the doctrine of materiality. These aber- 
rations betoken a perverse and prurient play of the ab- 
normal fancy, groping for the very holy of holies in 
kennels running with the most senseless and god-aban- 
doned abominations. Our natural superstitions are bad 
enough; but thus to make a systematic business of 
fatuity, imposture, and profanity, and to imagine all the 
while that we are touching on the precincts of God's 
spiritual kingdom, is unspeakably shocking. The horror 
and disgrace of such proceedings were never even ap- 
proached in the darkest days of heathenism and idolatry. 
Ye who make shattered nerves and depraved sensations 
the interpreters of truth, the keys which shall unlock the 
gates of heaven, and open the secrets of futurity — ye who 
inaugurate disease as the prophet of all wisdom, thus 
making sin, death, and the devil the lords paramount of 
creation — have ye bethought yourselves of the backward 
and downwaid course which ye are running into the pit 
of the bestial and the abhorred? Oh, ye miserable 
mj-stics! when will ye know that all God's truths and all 
mail's blessings lie in the broad heath, in the trodden 
wa^'s, and in the laughing sunshine of the universe, and 
that all intellect, all genius, is nierelj' the power of seeing 
wonders in common things." — /jwii^jites of Metaphysics 
p. 22.5 , by Professor Ferrier, of the Universitv of bt. An- 
drew's, Edinburgh, 18M. 

J. Macbat. 


The Sekoolbay Formula (Vol. x., p. 124.). — 
The follow ii^ are used in the United States fat 
the selection of the tagger, before oommencing a 
game of tag. A boy is touched by one in the 
middle of the ring at each word. The one last 
touched goes out of the circle. The process is re- 
commenced and continued until only one b left, 
who is the first tagger. 

** Eeny, meeny, moany, mite, 

liutter, lather, boney, strike^ 

Hair, bit, frost, neck, 

Harrico, barrico, we, wo, wack." 
" Eeny, meeny, tipty, te, 

Teena, Dinah, Domine, 

Hocca, proach, Domma, noach. 

Hi, pon, tus." 
** One-ery, Two-ery, Hickory, Ann, 

Filliston, Follaston, Nicholas, John, 

Queeby, Quawby, Virgin, Maty, 

Singalum, Sangalum, Buck." 


To 'Uhou'' or to ''thee'' (Vol. x., p. 61.).— 
Thorpe was undoubtedly right, in a grammatical 
point of view, in saying '' to thou,** but it is evi- 
dent that Soutbey, in saying that sonoe one ^theed*' 
his neighbours, meant to give a good -humoured 
rebuke to the Quakers for snying "• thee ** instead 
of "thou.** Ill this country, this corruption is 
almost universal among the Society of Friends, 
who say ** Howz thee do ? ** for ** How dottt thou 
do P ** "I hope tJiee is well ? *' '* WiU thee come 
and take tea with us ? ** 

Not one in a thousand is correct in this matter. 
While making it a matter of conscience not to use 
the plural you for the singular thou, they have no 
qualms about using the objective in place of the 
nominative ; — swallowing a camel after straining 
at a gnat. Ubbpa. 


** As big as a parson's bam '* (Vol. xi., p. 7.)« — 
The following remark in Mr. Huntington's Banh 
of Faith has doubtless reference to the above 
Dorsetshire saying (Mr. H.'s wife was a Dorset- 
shire woman). Speaking jocosely of having made 
their bed-room into a depository for the corn 
gleaned by his wife, H. says : 

" So we slept defended with the staff of life, having all 
our tithes in our bed-chamber, which, by the bve, I 
believe was one of the smallest tithe barns in Christendom." 
— Huntinfrton's Bank of Faitfi, p. 48. (tenth edition), 
London, 1822. 

William Pamplin. 

''The ViUage Lawyer'* (Vol. ix., p. 493.).— 
The printed edition of this farce bears date 1795, 
and is stated in the Biographia Branuiiica to be 
pirated. It is of French origin, and the author 
never printed it ; and it is thought that Mr. Od- 
man purchased the copyright. E. H. B. 




[No. 276. 

Unregistered Proverbs (Vol. x., pp. 210. 355.). — 
To the list add *' As peart as a pearmoDger ** 
(costermonger P), belonging to Lancashire. 

P. J. F. Gantillon. 

Old Jokes: ''John Chinaman s Pig'' (Vol.x., 
p. 534.).— 

" Baotut. Mucx(Sf ya /uiaxot otrot, 
DicceopolU. 'AAA' airav jcojcoi'." 

Achamenset, 900. 

He might have added pigeon's milk^ — 

Garrick Club. 

Aves, 1872. 

U. B. C. 

Barristers' Oowns (Vol. ix., p. 323.). — I have 
always understood the piece hanging from the 
back of barristers' gowns, to represent the hood 
which formerly formed a part of that robe. 

E. H B. 


Man-of-War, why a Ship of War so called f 
(Vol. iv., p. 40.). — May not this term have its 
origin thus: a ship manned for war — inde, man 
of war ? Or, because it is a ship which carries 
men of war P E. H. B. 


Sharp Practice (Vol. x., p. 343.).— With re- 
ference to this notice from Mr. Fbas. Bbent, I 
inclose a copy of a song which has been in my 
family many years (in manuscript), and I know 
not whether it has been printed. It certainly is 
identified with the account in the London Chro- 
Jiic&of Jan. 11—13, 1781. 

** A lawyer quite famous for making a bill, 

And who in good living delighted : 
To dinner one clay with a hearty good will 

Was by a rich client invited.' 
But lie charged six and eight-pence for going to dine, 

Which the client he paid, tho' no ninny ; 
And in turn charged the lawyer for dinner and wine, 

One a crown, and the other a guinea. 
But gossips, you know, have a saving in store. 
He who matches a lawj'er has only one more. 
•* The lawyer he paid it and took a receipt. 

While the client stared at him with wonder, 
With the produce he gave a raagniticent treat. 

But the lawyer soon made him knock under. 
That his client sold wine, information he laid. 

Without licence, and, spite of his storming. 
The client a good thumping penalty paid. 

And the lawyer got halt for informing. 
But gossips, you know, have a saving in store, 
He who matches a lawyer has only one more.'* 

W. D. Hagqabd. 
Ballion Office, Bank of England. 

Latinizing Proper Names (Vol. xi., p. 27.). — 
There is a dictionary of pniper names which, I 
believe, will give your correspondent just the in- 

formation he requires. Unfortunately I eannot 
find a copy of it, ami the only clue which 1 can 
give is that the author's name is Pye. It is a very 
useful book, and any of your readers who possess 
a copv, and will communicate the exact title, will 
thereby oblige not only A Plain Mam but your 
obedient servant, Q. 

[The work noticed bv our correspondent is probably 
the following : A New hictimary of Ancient Geography^ 
exhibiting the Modem in addition to the Ancient Names 
of Places. Designed fur the Use of Schools, and of those 
who are reading the Classics or other Ancient Authors. 
By Charles Pye : London, 8vo., 1808.] 

HandeVs Wedding Anthem (Vol. x., p. 445.). — 
Is the anthem noticed by 11. £. difierent from that 
composed in 1736 for the wedding of Frederick, 
Prince of Wales, and the Princess of Saxe Gotha, 
and which is printed in Dr. Arnold's Collection of 
HandeVs Works? The words of this are from 
Psalm Ixviii. v. 32. ; Psidm cxxviii. v. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. ; 
Psalm xlv. v. 17.; Psalm cxxvii. v. 4, 5, 6.; 
Pcalm cvi. v. 46 ; and it is the only Wedding An- 
them by Handel I ever met with, either in print 
or MS. If the anthem referred to by H. E. be 
not the same, it is probable that it was a com- 
pilatiim from several C'>m|>ositions, an ex|>edienttO 
which Handel had frequent recourse for tem- 
porary occasions. W. H. H. 

Doddridge and Whitefield (Vo\, xi., p. 46.).— 
Your correspondent should have said that the 
sernum ho alludes to is undoubtedly the pit>- 
duction of Dr. Doddridge. This is manifest irom 
the date of its original publication ; the Advertise- 
ment to the Header is dated '* London, July 29, 
1735." Now Whitefield's ordination did not take 
place till Sunday, June 20, 1736, or nearly one 
year later than the publication of this sermon. 
Whoever included it in the collection of diacourset 
bv Geo. Whitefield, appears to have made a stupid 
blunder : — Suum cuique. B. H. C. 

The Crescent (Vol. vii. passim). — - You have 
already inserted several Notes on this subject; 
will the following add anything to what has ap- 
peared ? Doubtless originally connected with toe 
worship of Diana, or the Moon, who is represented 
** assez souvent avec un croissant sur la tfite.** 
But not only Diana, Greek and Roman princesses 
have frequently attached to themselves the sym- 
bol of the crescent upon coins and medalss &e. 
^lonaldini, in his Lstituzione Antiquario-numisma* 
tica, p. 91., alludes to this fact in these words : 

"La luna crescente h spesso adoprata a sostenere.Sl 
busto delle Principesses che sono negli state, come la Imia 
nel cielo." 

At the end of his work he gives a medal on which 
the crescent appears eleven times. I would re- 
mark that the worship of Diana or Arterius pre- 
vailed very extensively in the Old World. The 

Feb. 10. 1855.] 



Scjtbians were especially addicted to it ; and in 
the Taurica Chersnnesus, now called the ("rimea, 
it was customary to sacrifice to this goddess the 
strangers who came to their shores. We regret 
to see the horrid rites, we may say, renewed in 
our own day, and celebrated at this moment. 

B. H. C. 

Rhymes on Places (Vol. x., p. 369.). — 
** Sutton for mutton, 
Tarn worth for beef, 
Walsall for bandy-legs, 
Birmingham for a thief.*' 

Another has in it the following line : 
, ** Worcester for pretty girls." 
I am unable to supply the remainder.* B. H. C. 


Gifted with a ready pen and as ready a pencil, and a 

Sower of observation which seems to allow few objects 
eserving of notice to escape his attention, Mr. George M. 
Musgrave, M.A., has produced an octavo volume under 
the title of Rambles through Normandy ; or Scenes^ Cha- 
racters, and Incidents, in a Sketching Excursion through 
Caloados, which will afford a few hours' amusing reading 
to those who love to travel by the fireside ; and, on the 
other hand, will be found an interesting travelling com- 
panion to those who may be tempted to visit the romantic 
and picturesque scenes to which it relates. 

We have received a small volume from America, pret- 
tily illustrated, and containinpc a good deal of pleasant 
semi-antiquarian gossip, entitled The History and Poetry 
of Finger Rings, by Charles Edwards. The worthy 
Counsellor-at-Law of New York, for such it appears is 
the profession of the writer, has collected his materials 
from a great variety of sources, and produced a little 
volume which, if not so profoundly learned as those in 
which Kirchmann, Gorleus, Kirclier, &c., dissertate De 
Anfitdis, will, we doubt not, be found lighter and more 
agreeable reading. 

Books Received. — Cornwall, its Mines, Miners, and 
Scenery, by the author of Our Coal Fields and our Coal 
Pits, forms, like that work, a portion of Longman's Tra- 
veller's Library, and will be found as full of information 
and interest as its predecessor. 

Curiosities of LoTidon, exhibiting the most rare and 
remarkable Objects of Interest in the Metropolis, with nearly 
lyty Years' Personal Recollections, by John Timbs, F.S. A. 
Mr. Timbs might have added in his title-page, to his list 
of advantages under which the present volume has been 
produced, the many years for which he edited The Mirror, 
and those which must have resulted from his long-con- 
tinued connexion with the Illustrated London News. 

Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Raman Empire, edited 
by Dr. Smith, with Notes by Dean Milman and M. Guizot. 
The seventh Volume of this handsome edition, one of 
Murray's British Classics, brings Gibbon's narrative down 
to the victory of the Genoese over the Venetians and 
Greeks in 1352. 

The Pocket Peerage of Great Britain and Ireland, with 
Genealogical and Historical Notices of the Families of the 

£• See " N. & Q.,** Vol. v., pp. 374. 404., for two other 
versions of the above.] 

Nobility, ^c, by Henry Rumsey Forster, of the Morning 
Post, Fifth Year, revised by the Nobility. Having tidken 
some pains to test the accuracy of this compact Pocket 
Peerage, we can bear evidence to the great variety of 
information which Mr. Forster has compressed into his 
volume, and to the reliance which may be placed upon it. 


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Rbv. J. B. Rbadb on Bromo- iodide of Silver is unavoidably postponed 
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J. M.S. (Manchester.) It is always the case, if a portrait trhen par- 
tially developed in the dark be brought into liqht, that the negative parts 
become positive. You will see some observations in farmer Numbers of 
this Journal upon the same svJbJect. 

Dr. Manskll's Process. Having had an opport%tiiity of eramfnina 
three views taken by Dr. Manseu. at intervals cf ISO. 198, an'' 271 Aours 
aft- r the excitement of the respective Collodion Plates, we gladly bear our 
teslitmmy to their perfect development, beauty, and ^ect. 



[No. 276. 

EL H. (OlMffow.') Plaoas /brward a tpeeimen^ no wtatter haw tmatl, 
tfikt JkOure qfvkkk yon oom9.lain^ and no doula we tkall be able to 

XitRATA. — Vol. xi., p. 28. eol. S. Uat line, /br " Ibrdcn bookwllen,** 
rtad " fareign-houkiellen ; " p. X7. eol. S. I. »., for ** VoUiire," read 
" Voltoire"; p. M. eol. f. I. i8.,^r**ioi»," read** m« '; p. 8B. Oil. f. l.Sl. 
Jbr " delib«ntioiii«" read ** delintiuiii " ; L 4h., for ** which," read 
"^ while." 

A few complete eete of Norn and QriRin Vols. I. to X., are wnr 
ready, price rivK Guinbas. For theee early apftlication it dctirabU. 
They may be had by order qfcuty Bookseller or Ifew»man, 

**NoTn AND Qosiiib" ie pmbliehed at noom on Friday, ao that tkt 
Country BonkmRera may reeeire (\ipiee in AeU nioht'e paroett, owf- 
deUi<er tJknm to their Suberriher* on the Saturdnit. 

"NnmANoQuBHiu" it alto iamted in Month!/ VexU^fitr theeom- 
vtMience of tkuae who may either have a d\0letdty tn r ' "- 

tlatHped tceeidy .VHmbem^ or pnfer reeeivmq it mtndluy. Whilt porCta 
retufentm the country or abrtttuf, who ma,y be deeirout of^ reie imm g Aft 

wwkly Xumbere^ may have stamp^ copiet fttrwardtd dirtet from tih* 
Pybliaher. The tHbecrijition ftn- the ttamtted edition of **NoTm» ahs 
Ui'bhim" KiHelmling a n-ryaipituu fmihx\ it eienm cAt/Niwa oarf /b«r> 
pence for six montht, which may be paiti by Pott-Office Orders drawn in 
faoour of the Publither, Mr. Qkuhob Bbll. No. 186. Fleet Street. 

TAtely published, 


iOM nui>. ediU a T. 8. R\LPII. 4to. 
Platea and Map. \U. (1629-41.) London, 18i7. 

The varioiu 'Worki may aluo be had tepa- 
rately, ▼!>. t 

Iter Plantarum investigationis 

eivo •usceptum in agrum Cantianum. Ac. 
Brie-tu'n Ilamitedianum nive PlaDtarum ibi 
CTeicentium obwnratio. 1629. 3t. 

Descriptio Itineris plantarum 

iavefltieationfi enro nutoe'-ti in Atfnun Cantia- 
nnm.&c 1632. Plate. At. 

Mercurius Bo^anicus sive plan- 
tarum itratla suMenti Itineris anno 1631. 
iyuad>*m ercurii Botanici pars altera sive 
Itinerii in Cainbriam deserlptio, Ac. 1641. bt. 

«•» The above are beautifully reprinted, 
•nd with a strict resard to fidelity. 
WILLIAM PAMPLIN. 45. Frith Street, 
Soho, London. 

Just published, price 3j>. 6d. 

li .lOIIN DONNE, D.D., srmetimo Dean 
of St. Paur . Reprinted fn>m the Kdition of 
16S1. ami e<1ited, with a lAfo of Donne, by the 
REV. A. .lESSOPP. M.A., of St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridnre. 

JOHN TUPLING, 320. Strand. 

Just published, in paper cover, sewed, super- 
royal 8vo., price 10s. 


VT TN PADUA. (Bdnjr an explanatorj- 
BTbtice *»f the Series of Wood Enjrravinicrs 
ezecuttHl for the Anmdel Society, a-t-r the 
fVescoes in the Arena Chapel.) By JOBN 
BUSKIN. Part I. 

N.B. — Tn ronteqitence of the nianerout appli- 
eations/or the Essay contributed by Jfr. BHskin 
to the fifth year't publication of the Society, the 
Cotmcil hare retolvfjl to tell it tit the Public ge- 
nerallu >cithout the Woo<l Engravingt comprised 
in the ittue to the Subscr&ters. 

Published at the Office of the Arundel Soci- ty. 
24. old B.Mtd Street; and to be ob ained 
(throntrh any Bookseller) of BELL & 
DALDT, Fleet Street. 

JOHN NORTON, Secretary. 

QAXON OBSEQUIES illustrated 

dlscove-ed in n CEMETERY rear LITTLE 
WILBRAHAM. in li»5i. By tht- HON. R. C. 
NEVII.LE. Forty Plates from Drawinizs hy 
Stanirsliy . Comprisinc 521 beaui iAiUy coloured 
Fac-simt cs, with a Plan of the Site. 

**In all respects this is as creditable and 
eomplete a work of Antiquarian Illustration 
as we are acquainted with. The editorship is 
efficient, comprisinc. tusether witli a brief 
preface and narrative or facts, a ca efUl cata- 
lof^uc of the quality and dintribution of the 
artiulea, and the position of the skc'etons dis- 
interred, as well as a plan of the site, and a 
judiciouii selection of objects for ensruviug."— 

One vol. roval 4to. eztraeloth. Published at 
41. 4a. ; reducfd to 2/. 2«. 

•»• Only Eighty Copies remain unsold. 

BICKERS k BUSH, I^icetter Souare, 

The beautiful Library of RALPH BERNAL, 


ft JOHN WILKINSON, Aurtienwrs 


Cit Ltterwrl^njBertT a.nti V^'qrJ^s iJliKlratSvc nf 
ti-e fine AtU, will SKLL hy A IJCTJON. at 
their House* JL We'limaWn SItlpL, SLmnd. cp 
Itondiny. KebruaJT I** ^i^i' Jivt fmULiwitiif 
Davii, m 1 u'dtM-lc prcrLwhjfH (he very clinfis;, 
vajDAblf', anrl hi"iMitiftil LiltTa^y of t^r laie 
J4A I.PB EllRNAf. KSli. ftimiT yesT^Chnir- 
:niart Elf Ways anfl Moiiiia, and nT CLimmilLi^i 
cjf ihi; Ho-qstf frf C"Tnmona, and M-P. fur Ro- | 
rho«t?r. f ompriNns; fine B<.i*ikfl of Print* l ■ 
Beaufitul P^cioreaqnc J:^piji?rii'a t WQrk« on | 
CiHtunie 1 fllartrsH(>l3«rif MviHfflval Ari i flal- 
Vrtfi, and (ilher Pnj^inE^tEciTi.^ uf a aplendir) chu^ i 
rt,FtF<r, vnaJi'v nin'E]nt«iJ n^n CardHniiai tl. mndl CK- I 
fin m'\ t ] Y col" n fWi* w dp*? i mitst jun iif thi" flue I 
uriiTiml Drftwlinn : RaTP Wurl-iauil B' eiIc» (if i 
ISnit)l4f(ni ;; I1lufnmat4>fl Mif-Hli and Prin ed ' 
HortU i ]l1itilratl:Dn«r<'rt.ht2dllfirn:nt hrjuichif 1 nf 
N«,"tiral in (ury ; Polur mntl oihtr htervf me 
VoyiL'MtHCl Tr<i»el!», in the Kn^Hihs Frenth, 
»nd S}MJ'itli L4iiijrmMie> ■■, Pcwry *''d rbe 
Dram* ; R(hllojrriiphv, LttPi^ary JTirtar* I He- 
raldry : f>cne4loiryiOTPDlt andl^vtln i'ltmivi 
B' ■u'h i Cf ^ an ';|y aurJ ImjuHnalSun ; lorre vitlu- 
ahli! Cuunl; m-lnTiefl, ani^ a ftp let ion of rhe 
hfst Vi't-rks In thi.' d i ffcrfrvt Bi^ntihf'^ MfEnffHsh 

Tll»i«:r.r -.'■,- ;■ ■■ . |„t„,f 

iiaU-^ • ■ • ■ , i] St 

examph s of the respective cla!««es. Ir has i u* ti 
fo'mi-d with much <:a e, and the exqni-iite 
bindin<;H and conditions nre inaocoidance with 
the hijrh taste of the late Pioifietor. There 
are also some Antosraph I^etters of R yul 
PersonuireR ond Literary CharacU'rs, including 
some tine Holotrranh S|)ecimen8 by Charles the 
First, Alexander Pope, and Samuel Richaid- 

May be viewed two day* prior. Catolomies 
are now ready, and may be hodon Anplioation; 
fbrworded to the Country on receipt of Six 

Tn post Rvo., price Its., with Portraits, 


tiuD, revised, with a Memoir of Lord Nogcnt. 



Just published, in S vols. Svo.. price S4s. cloth. 


/V EMBASSY in the Years 1653 and i65l, 
iirmanialiy written by the Ambassador, BIJL- 
STKODE WHITELCK^KK: and tir«t pub- 
lished from the original M-^. hy DR. C. M »K- 
TON.F.S A.,Libr.rian of the British Mu-K-nm. 
A New Edition, ievi»ed by 1IK^KY REEVE, 
Esq., F.S.A. 


Just published. New and Cheaper Edition, 
price Is. ( or by Post for \t. 6d. 


I How to Live and Wlmt to Live for « 
with ample Rules f r Diet, Regimen, and Seif- 
Mana^ement : together with instructions tor 
securing health, loueevity. an-i that hterlin:; 
happiu'ss only attainable throu'jrh the judi- 
cious observance of a well-re^'ulutcd course of 
life. By A PHYSICIAN. 

London : PIPER, BROTHERS & CO., 83. Pa- 
ternoster Row ; HANNAY, 63. Oxford 
Street ; MAMN, 39. Comhill ; and all Book- 

LING. Second Edition. PoetSvo. \ti§.9d. 


TEUFEU<iDR6KII. Third EdiUon. Vod 
8vo. 10s. 8(2. 

PHLETS. Post 8vo. 9s. 


cidutions and Connecting Narrati«-e. 1 hM 
Edition. In Four Volume*. Fostavo. ttk. 


New Edition, with a Portrait. Small SfO. 
8s. 6f/. 


Second Kdition. Pust8vo. 10s. 6'f. 


AND HER* V WORSHIP. Fourth Bditiim. 

Small 8vo. 9a. 

TION. AHI.STtRY. Thiid Edltioo. Thne 
Volumes. Vust8vo. If. n«.6<i. 


NE »US ES-iAYS. Third Edition. Fov 
Volumes. PostHvo. S7. Ss. 


WILHELM-MEI.STER. Second Editlun. 
Tlirce V lunics. Small 8vo. 18s. 

London : CHAPMAN k. HALI*, 
193. Piccadilly. 

This Day, octavo, 7«. 6d. 

by Members of the Univerdty. 


Lucretius and the Poetic Characterl«tlei of 
hin Al'c. By W. Y. Sellar, Ute Fellow ofOrtel 

SutcL-estions on the best Means of Teadiinff 
En^'lish History. By J. A. Froude, late FelWv 
of Exeter College. 

, Alfred de Mu«et. By F. T. PalcraTe, Fri- 
low of Kxeter College. 

The Plurality of Worlds. By Henry J. •. 
Smith, Fello^v ot Balliol College. 

Persian Literature. By E. B. Cowell, Vac- 
d:il>n Hall. 

C ime and its Excuses. By the Rer. W. 
TlvunsKU, F.-llow of (Queen's College. 

The Neighbonrhoiid ot Oxfbid andit4 0«»> 
loiry. By John Phillips, F.K.S.,F.U.S., DepntT 
RiMuier of (Je -logy 

Hegel's Ph I.* phy of Right. By T. C 
Sandars. late Fell w of Oriel College. 

Oxford Studies. By the Rev. M. PattiMM, 
Fellow ot Lincoln College. 

In April, u:iiform with the above, Oetavti. 


Written by Members of the University. 

London : JOHN W. PARKER * 80S. 
West Strand. 

Fbb. la 1855.] 




CURES InirtigeiUau idyfpepiiiLJ, conitlpitiaa 
Mtd dUiirrlinEa, dyArntcfr- iMnrafHneH, Mliai«»- 
ncn uid Wret oomiilainto, iaCnlfiKDf * fHilvn- 
■lou. AClidk^, liL-Artbuna, pftlt^iAtlon of tb* 
iheurt, utrviiiis headni^hes dedfnes, aoUh Ih 
the htfiid ntjd fir*, ^ojni [n jtlmfirt vvmry i-irt 
of the iHjdy, tk dauLoun^ux, J'iicsii'i:li«. cHnJuic 
tDll4Tniria.Tliin, eaneer wn4 iiltfTiitidji of (Jie 
utomtch, Eimlirt At the pli vf tbe itJ^niaclL tiid 

tht akin, boil* and CAfb^nelH^ tmjJiiritkB und 
povcrli^ of Khc: bLood, tcroJ^lB. «■ ujjtu mtiiiint, 
CDitALmi^tEon. dropvr^ rfm-muotiptri. iiout, 
BftUMU *I)d EickDvH (lurinE ]ir^'na.nL:y, Hfter 
ii»,l\nfi. or ftl «ea, iLiwipirif. f[HMma^ iii-amjw^ 
epllep'kflu, ipiifen, SKin?r»l dibit t>H hiquie- 
tudf , nkteiJleMTiew. inrctJuniBJ-j hlufl JnL, |Jn- 
nJrd3i^tr«inQn>diilike lo«j l»?ty,uiifltii«M tor 
■tuilyt luHt sif memory, ft^lmiinin*, verESHifO, likxid 
to tfie hcAd.VKhllDiU'T^n. int!l»»isround- 
len fi'iir, Inrtedflon. wreselie^nKSft^ iKdiiitIup of 
»e)f-deitniifttuii. Hnd miiny oiher Kjn' ^jIaIii ti- 
lt !■. moTd^Teri the beai fixxJ Ibr Inl' nie itud 
inVuEHj ueneriilly, lu U nevtjr tunia ncld oa 
tin- vtitikpRt itomiijclu nnr ijtberi<»^e witit & 
rootl tCli^ral ditt, but: imxiikr!:!! m hen I thy tvWsh 
fur luiit.-l]. unii dinn^j', hue] r^Alurvi Mic tacuU^ 
af dJiTL-fltioii^ ftud nervirup mntl iiLUMriil&rtMCfity 
idi the tnmt cafpt'blcd !■■ wJiochjIhj* ernji£h» 
me^Jei unifill-cKrx, JtTid dik*k«i- or vrltid poi^ 
II rciiiJcn nil rvieclik'liie suFwi-fluous hy n^ 
movliiie nil JifcAHmm^tury and icveiiili »ymp- 

Important Caution against the fearftil 
dantceri of spuri- us imitaiiond : — The Vice- 
ChanceUor 8ir William Page Wood granted 
an Injunction on March 10. 1H64. against 
Alfred Hooper N«viU. for imitating *'Dvi 
Barry'* lt«valenta Arabica Food." 

BABBY, DU BABRY, ft CO., 77. Bcgni 
Street, London. 

AJiwout 4/'S0/)0O Curea: 
Cure No. 71.. of dyapepsiH, from the Right 
Hon. the I<ord Stuart de Decieii: — '*! have 
derived c<inaiiderab?e benefit from Du Barry's 
Bev len'a Arabica Fo d, und consider it due 
to yourselves and the public to authorise the 

eifiliuation of these lines." — Stuart dx 

Cure No. 180 : — ** Twenty-five years' ner- 
▼ousDcss, constipation, indigestion, and de- 
bility, from whidi I have suffer d great misery, 
and which no medicine could remove or re- 
lieve, have been effuctunlly cured by Du 
Barry's Food in a very short time."— W. B. 
Bkbvks, Pool Anthony, Tiverton. 

Cure No. 49,"32 :_" Fifty years' indescribable 
agonv from dysitepsia, nervousness, asthma, 
cough. ( onstipatioi , flatulency, spasms, sick- 
neas at the stomach and vomiiing. have been 
removed by Dn Barry's excellent ibod."— 
Maria Jox.i.y, Wortham Ling, near Diss, 

No. 4208. " Eight years' dyspepcia, nervous- 
ness, debility witli cramps, spasms, and nausea, 
have been efiV^ctuaily removed by Du Barry's 
health- restoring food. I fhall be huppy to 
answer any inquiries," Rev. John W. Fla- 
vBLi.. Ridlington Rectory, Norfolk. — No. Ri. 
** Twenty years' livfr comp aint, with dis- 
orders of the stomach, bowels, and nerves," 
Andrbw Fraskr, Haddingtou. 

No. 25^36. " Three years' excessive nervous- 
ness, with pains in my neck and left arm, and 
general deoility, which rend red my Ufe very 
miserable, have been radically removed by Dn 
Barry's h» alth-restorin ' food."— Alexander 
Stoart, Archdeacon of Ross, Skitiep eu. 

No. 5(1.084. Grammar 8c ool. Stevenage, 
Dec 16. I8&0 : **Oentltmen, We have found it 
admirably adapted for infants. Our ^aby has 
never once had dUordertd bowels since tidiing 
it." — 

In canisters, snitablr packed ibr all cli- 
mates, and with ftill instructions — lib.. 2s. 
9d. i 21b.. 4«. 6d. I 51b., \\B. i I2lh..22ji. ; super- 
reflne<<. lib.. 6s. ; 21b.. Il«. : 51b . ^2s. < lOlb. , 
Sm. The lOlb. and ISib carriage ft«f , < n poet- 
oflSce order. Barry, Du Barry, & Co., 77. 
Regent Street, London; Fortnum, Mason, & 
Co, purveyors to Her Majest>, Piccxdilly ^ 
also at 60. Oraeechnrch Street i K(0. Strand i ol 
Barclay, Edwurds, Sutton, Sanger, Hannsy, 
Mewberry, end may be oriered throoeh all re- 
■Kctablc BcfOkMUm, Ovown. Mid Chemista. 



Head OAce, 7. Royal Exchange, ComldU. 





Nath . Alf^x«n.dcr, E^iq^ ,T+ Alen* Hankey t ^^- 

H, llftiTjiiftlliay, Ciq, fit Hamiigei Eari^ 

Xi* Barnes, Lki, ItonU Hw h, M.fq* 

Li K Bimhum B*nc, E*(i. Wiliiiira King JKi(i. 

Jamef Hlyth, £#4. Charlvti LvbiL Eaq, 

J. W, Burmdiiik* £sq* loKu i>rdt *>q- 

Ch a«. Craw ]ey» Emj* David Fo*f ei i , Eiq. 

w . iJutlM, E«i. Ci. PxuhynH Ksq. 

B. iJabre^s. JiiB,, Eaq. P. l\ iUshonmn. M.P- 

H, a <jonkin^ Esq, Altji. TFuttvr |ini. 

Edw5 n (To* 1 r, Euq . ThiM. W ct^dln g, hJ q. 

UhiviNl (J . li u I tiriL't fc^Hi4 r Lent. P. W i I eon , Esq. 

Actuary, PETER HARDY, ESQ.. F.R.S. 



Two Members of the Court in rotation, and 



Superintendent, PHILIP SCOONES, ESQ. 


THIS CORPORATION has granted As> 
surances on l^i ves tor a Period exceeding One 
Huitdrvd and Thirty Yeara^ having iMued its 
first Pol cy on the 7th June, 1721. 

Two-thirds, or 66 per cent, of the entire pro- 
fit«, uTt giypD. to the Assured. 

Puliciis may be opened under either of the 
following plans, viz. — 

At a low rate of premium, without partici- 
pation in promts, or at a somewhat higher rate, 
en itiing the Assured either, afier the first five 
> ears, to an annual abatement of premium for 
the remainder of life, or, after payment of the 
first premium, to a participation in the ensuing 
quinqut:nnial Bonus. 

The abatement for the year 1855 on the 
Annual Pnmiumsof i ersons who have been 
assured under Series ** 1831 " tor five years or 
longer, is upw ards of 33 per cent. 

The high character which this ancient Cor- 
po ation has maintained during nearly a 
Century and a Half, secures to the pubuc a 
full and faithful declaration of profits. 

The Corporation bears the whole Expsnses 
OF Manaobmknt, thus givinjt to th<- Assured, 
in coni«quence of the protection afibrded by 
irs Corporate Fund, advantages equal to those 
of any system ot Mutual Assurance. 

Piemiums may be paid Yearly, Balf-yearly, 
or Quarterly. 

A 11 Policies are iuued free from Stamp Duty, 
or tro'> clianre ot any description whatever, 
beyond the Premium. 

The attention of the Public is especially 
called to th** great adx^antaget offered to life 
Assurers by the legislature in its recent 
E lactmcnts. by which it will be found that, to 
a 'Icflned extent. Life Premiums are not sub- 
ject to Income Tax. 

The Fei^ o' Medical Jtefereee are paid by the 
Corp ration 

A Policy may be effected for as small a sum 
as 202., and progressively increased up to 5M., 
without the necessity of a new Policy. 

Eve- y fucility will be given for the transfer 
or exchange of Follcies, or any other suitable 
arrangement will be made for the convenience 
of the AMnred. 

Proei>ectuses and all other information may 
be obtained by eitner a written or personal 
apt) ication to the Actuary, or to the Superin- 
tendent of the West End Office. 

Founded A.D. IMS. 


R. E. Bicknell,Esq. 
T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. 

G. H. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evans, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Eeq. 
F. Fuller. Esq. 
J. H. Ooodhart, Esq. 

T. Grisiell, Esq. 
J. Hunt, Esq. 
E. Lucas, Esq. 
J. Lys Seager, Esq. 
J. B. White, Esq. 
J. Carter Wood, Eaq. 

W.Whateley,Esq., Q.C. t George Drew, Km. 

T Qrissell. Esq. 

PikysMon.- William Bich. Bariiam.M.D. 

Sflni;er«.— Messrs. Cocks. Biddulph, aBdCo»» 

Charing Cross. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporanr difficulty in pay- 
iuK a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest^ 
aocordintf to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 

imens of Rates of Premium for Asamtef 
with a Share in three-fSourths of th* 
Profits t 

Age iT s. d. I Age M a. d. 

t7 - - - 1 14 4 8S- • -f 10 » 
»- - -118 887- - -SI8 6 
t7- - -9451 42- - -Btt 
Now ready, price 10s. 6rf., Second Bditiom, 
with material additions, INOU8TKIAL W- 
CIETIK8, and on the (pemeral Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the ('ases dt 
Freehold I^md Rneieties. Building Oompaniee* 
iic. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to 
the Weatem Liie Assurance Society, S. Parlia- 
ment Street, London. 

CATALOGUE, eontaining Sisc, Price, 
and Description of upwards of 100 urticlet, 
consisting OT 


Ladies* Portmanteau, 

DRESSING <;a8ES, and other travelling re- 
quisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by 
Post on receipt of Two Stamps. 

MESSRS ALLEN'S registered Despatch- 
box and Writing-desk, their Travel ling-bac 
with the opening as large as the bag, and the 
new Portmanteau containing four compart- 
ments, are Hn<lonMediy the best articles ot the 
kind ever produced. 

J. W. ftT. ALLEN„I8. m It. WeatStnad. 

W ATCH, -s ihown at the ORK AT EX* 
HTBtTK^N No. 1. Clum X.. In noU\ and 
^iivf rCacfi, In flyequiiUlicf, and adapl^r) 1^ 
hll Climiilifi^ may now ht hmd at thu MA.VLT- 
FArTi]iHl!\A.V CHKAPtiltJE. Huprrtcr liold 
l^ndon-maflc Fat^nt I^vara, 17. I&i aud It 
truineoa. Initio, Eti Silvtr Cvgem. Ek «» and % 
zujiieoji. Flnt-rai* Cfeneva Ijev^r*. in uotd 
Ca«*. 12, 10, njid « gulneM. FHitp. In Silver 
OiBsciK ^, tt. add a f ttJneoE. BuuHor i^v^r, wUh. 
Chnjnomeldr Efaluriec, (rold, 'i7, 23. and 1> 
gninea>. LtiMine'tt's FochetChr^niJlTiiSter.Uoldp 
if\ •juiiuiv.a t f^iWtT, 4« iruiiicai. Evi^ry vVitoh 
ikirfulF> GicainiEied. timed, and its perf^fn iiiia' 
piiiu-Ktiteed. Barijnicicni,3J'.,if.*aBd**. Tii«r» 

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Inetnimen t 
Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of 
Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 




[No. 277. 

copy belonged to the same edition with that which 
we are now considering, it will ^o far, I think, to 
prove that he was both the editor and the au- 
thor of the work. The following extract from a 
note by Mr. Bobn, giving an account of the sale 
of Sir Philip Francis's library, Feb. 3, 1838, is of 
service as supplying the information of which we 
are in search : 

" Among the lots which more particularly concern the 
present inquiry were several different editions of Junius*s 
Letters, and some of the printed inquiries as to their 
authorship. These sold for rather high prices, as the fol- 
lowing quotations will show : 

** 416. Junius's Letters, 2 vols., with some MS. correc- 
tions of the text, and notes by Sir Philip Francis. In 
calf. 1783. 12/. 12«. Armstrong." 

*' 417. Junius*s Letters, with notes by Heron, 2 vols., 
with some MS. notes and corrections of the text, by Sir 
P. Francis. 1804. 2L 2s. Armstrong." 

"421. Junius. A collection of the Letters of Atticus, 
Lucius, and Junius ; with MS. notes and corrections, and 
blanks filled up by Sir Philip Francis. 1769. And other 
tracts in the volume. 3/. 55. Armstrong." 

" These and most of the other annotated books were 
bought, under the pseudonyme of Armstrong, for Mr. 
H. K. Francis, then master of a Grammar School at 
ELingston-upon-Hull, in whose possession they still are." 
— Wade's Junius, vol. ii. p. 86. 

I have omitted in the above list those books 
mentioned by Mr. Bohn which had no immediate 
connexion with our present subject. 

Thus, by another chain of evidence wholly un- 
locked for, and totally different from all that was 
produced in Junius Identified, we are again led to 
the conclusion that Sir Philip Francis was the 
author of Junius's Letters, John Taylor. 

7. Leonard Place, Kensington. 


The elevated portion of the Crimea, which lies 
between Cape Chersonese and Kaffa, and extends 
some twenty miles inland, may be said to be better 
suited to the constitutions of Englishmen than 
many places at which our soldiers are stationed. 
Nevertheless, it is not the climate for a winter en- 
campment. The rest of the peninsula should be 
avoided at all seasons of the year. In autumn it 
would be the destruction of an army. 

With regard to the positions now occupied by 
our own troops, or by our allies, there are some 
sanitary hints to which I wish to give additional 
circulation. They are quite independent of the 
doings or mis-doings of official persons, whether 
at home or abroad. 

SehastopoL — 

* " Trente mille hommes [soldats], abrit^s par les tentes 
d'un camp, pretent leurs bras h ces gigantesques meta- 
morphoses [des travaux de nivellement, 1837], et c'est 
ik un coup d*oeil vraiment plein d'int^ret, que cette foule 
laborieuse, toute vetue de toile blanche, s'agitant et se 

croisant dans le nuage de cette poussi^re qa*ils enl^ent 
sac par sac, et pour ainsi dire poign^e par poig^^ anx 
mamelons abaiss^s : veritable travul de fourmili^re, oh la 
division infinie des forces arrive k. la longne aa meme r^- 
sultat que T^nergie des moteurs et la puissance des ma- 
chines. Cependant, parmi cette troupe active et pers^- 
yerante, un^Z^au redoutable s^Stait manifesto : une ophAalnde 
intense, Tophthalmie ^gyptienne, contagieuse iehn 1e» tens, 
ip^Umique, disaient les aittres, exergait des ravages mal' 
Mureusement trap constates. On VattribuaU giniraUment 
a la prodigieuse poussiere que les, vents font totarlnUonner 
sur ces coteaux, depouUUs depuis que les travaux de ntveZfe- 
ment ont iti entrepris. Mais quelle que soit la cause de ee 
mal, ce mal est horrible. Vingt-quatre heures suffitent 
souvent ^ corrompre Fceil entier et b. Varracher de ton 
orbite." — Anatole de Dbmidoff, 1840. 

Inkerman. — 

" L*histoire de la Crim^e n'offre sur Inkerman que des 
notions fort incertaines. Selon cmelques savants chroni- 
queurs, les temps antiques de la Gr^ce Tont connue floris- 
sante sous le nom de Th^odosie ; d*autres y veulent 
retrouver le Stenos de la geographic des Grecs. Pallas, 
au contraire, est dispose k croire que les G^nois sent les 
premiers qui se soient etablis sur ces rochers escarpes. 
Aujourd'hui des murailles en ruine, quelques rest«8 de 
tours et un grand nombre de petites grottes align^ sur 
le flanc abrupte de la montagne, sont tout ce qu'on pent 
voir dans une courte visite. Les habitants de S^vasitmol 
qui vous accompagnent dans cette promenade vous conseilunt 
ordinairement d*abrSger votre s4jour, tant les marais voisins 
ont une mauvaise renomm^e.*' — Anatole de Demidoff, 

Eupatoria. — 

" Si cette grande ville tatare [Eupatorie aHas Kozlof ] 
fut autrefois florissante, il faut avouer qu'on ne troave 
presque plus aujourd'hui que des mines pour temoigner 
de cette ancienne prosperite. — Les veritables causes de 
I'abandon de Kozlof sont la prosperity envahissante 
d'Odessa, et Paccroissement du cabotage dans la partie da 
port de Sevastopol reservee au commerce. II faut dire 
aussi, dussions-nous trouver des coniradicteurs, que le cHmat 
de cette cote et son voisinage des itangs salins de 8ak doivent 
etre contraires a la santS des habitants de Kozlof, Durant 
notre sijour — il nous fut aisi de remarquer parmi les lut- 
bitants des symptomes assez nombreux defevres end^miques." 
— Anatole de Demidoff, 1840. 

Bolton Cobnst. 


I have sometimes thought of asking a corner in 
"N. & Q." for the insertion, under the above 
heading, of those articles which a book-worm 
occasionally meets in the course of very miscel- 
laneous reading, and to which may be applied the 
distich : 

" The thing we know is rather strange and queer. 
And wonder * how the devil it came there ? * ** 

Take as a specimen the following, which would 
well suit Cunningham*s Handbook of London^ but 
looks very incongruous in the midst of a — ^'funeral 
sermon ! " 

Sometime since I purchased, among other old 
books, one entitled Oratio Panegyrica in obitum 
Jacobi Frey^ Basil, 1636. I was induced to buy 

JFeb. 17. 1855.] 



it by seeing that, though a Swiss " Professor of 
Greek," he had been, at the time of his decease, 
'^Dean-elect of Armagh, in Ireland." Upon looking 
through the volume this was explained, by finding 
that Frey, having gone to England with high 
reputation as a scholar and divine, was engaged as 
tutor to Lord Dungarvan, son to one of the lead- 
ing men of the day, " the great Earl of Cork ; " this 
led to his introduction at Court, to an acquaint- 
ance with Archbishop Usher, and his nomina- 
tion to a Deanery, which would have placed him 
in close relation with that learned Primate, who, 
"without respect of persons," loved a scholar 
wherever he found him. This appointment was cut 
short by Frey's premature death in Switzerland, 
August 26, 1636, while preparing to take posses- 
sion of his new dignity. And it was on the occa- 
sion of his funeral, that the panegyric I refer to 
was delivered. 

Now comes the " queer thing" for which I wish 
a place in "N. & Q." In the funeral oration, 
Frey's various wanderings and journeys are briefly 
touched on ; his landing at Dover ; — his journey 
by Canterbury and Rochester to London ; — "a 
brief note of Westminster Abbey ; " and then, as 
the orator says, " ut tristihus dliquid Joci admis- 
cearrit" he proceeds to tell of " A famous tavern 
in London (^ApoUo ei nomeri) Regulated by twenty- 
four golden rules for keeping all in order and 
decency." ^^ Leges convivales, nisi memoria mea 
decoxit, sunt istce." Will you allow me (with a 
Query, whether any other record of this classic 
tavern remains ?) to offer you the rules, with my 
version of their meaning. They certainly seem " as 
practical as classical ;" though, from the change of 
manners, and the disparagement of the classics in 
modern education, it may be advisable to translate 
for " the use of country gentlemen " and tavern 
frequenters in general : 

" 1. Nemo Asymbolus, nisi Umbra, hue venito, 

2. Idiota, insalsus, tristis, tarpis, abesto, 

3. Eruditi, urbani, hilares, honesti, adsciscuntor, — 

4. Nee lecta foeminae repudiantor, 

5. In apparatu quod eoavivis eorrugat nares, nil esto, 

6. Epulse delectu potius, quam sumptu, parantor, 

7. Obsonator et coquus, convivarum gulae periti sunto. 

8. De diseubitu non contenditor — 

9. Ministri a dapibus occulati et muti, 

a poculis aariti et celeres sunto, 

10. Vina puris fontibus ministrantor, aut vapulet hospes, 

11. Moderatis poculis provoeare sodales fas esto. 

12. At fabulis magis quam vino velitatio fiat, 

13. Convivae nee muti, nee loquaces sunto, 

14. De seriis aut sacris poti et saturi ne disserunto^ 

15. Fidicen, nisi accersitus, non venito. 

16. Admisso risn, tripudiis, ehoreis, cantu, 
salibns, omni gratiarum festivitate 
sacra celebrantor. 

17. Joci sine felle sunto, 

18. Insipida poemata nulla recitantor, 
j 19. Versus scribere, nullus cogitor. 

20. Argumentationis totns strepitus abesto, 

'21. Amatorlis querelis, ac snspiriis, liber angulus esto, 


22. Lapitharum more scypbis pugnare, vitra coUidere, 
fenestras excutere, supellectilem dilacerare, nefas 


23. Qui foras vel dicta, vel facta eliminat, eliminator, 

24. Neminem reum pocula faciunto. 

Focus perennis esto." 

Idem Anglice redditum, 

** 1. All pay the reck'ning here, save * hangers on ;' 

2. Fools, blockheads, sad dogs, scoundrels, get t/ou gone ! 

3. Men learn'd, polite, eay, honest, here may crowd j 

4. Even well-conducted ladies are allowed. 

5. Let nothing mean in dress provoke a sneer. 

6. You'll find your dinner rather good, than dear, 

7. Caterer and cook are bound for wholesome fare. 

8. None must strive here for upper place or chair. 

9. Waiters — at tables sharp and silent stand. 
To fill the cups, be quick-ear'd and at hand. 

10. Guests, you may rate the host, if bad the wine. 

11. Challenge to cheerful glasses while you dine : 

12. Yet more to repartee, than drink incline ; 

13. Neither be moody — nor too free of prate, 

14. No sertous subjects in vour cups debate. 

15. Unless when sent for, here no music plays ; * 

16. Yet mirth, dance, song, and all the joy of praise 
Are here allow'd in Christmas Holidays. 

17. If jokes be pass'd, let them be void of spite ; 

18. Insipid poems none must here recite. 

19. No one need sing, unless he thinks it fit, 

20. Loud noisy argument, we don't permit. 

21. A comer's here to make love-quarrels up ; f 

22. But none must bawl, smash windows, plates, or cup. 

23. Who hence take tales, had best betake them hence ; 

24. Let none for words o'er wine take deep offence." 

A. B. R. 


[Our correspondent's memory has proved treacherous 
for once: he has only to open the works of rare Ben 
Jonson (edit. 1846, p. 726.), where he will find the famed 
" Leges Convivales " with a translation. Mr, Cunning- 
ham thus notices them in his Handbook, art. "Devil 
Tavern, Temple Bar : " — "The great room was called 
*The Apollo!' Thither came all who desired to be 
* sealed of the tribe of Ben.' Here Jonson lorded it with 
greater authority than Dryden did afterwards at Will's, 
or Addison at Button's. The rules of the club, drawn up 
in the pure and elegant Latin of Jonson, and placed over 
the chimney, were, it is said, * engraven in marble.' In 
The Tatler (No. 79.), they are described as being * in gold 
letters;' and this account agrees with the rules them- 
selves — ih gold letters upon board — still preserved in 
the banking-house of the Messrs. Child, where I had the 
pleasure of seeing them in 1843, with another and equally 
interesting relic of the Devil Tavern — the bust of 
Apollo." Pepys twice notices this celebrated tavern in 
his amusing Diary ; — " Feb. 25, 1664-65. To the Sun 
Taveme, and there dined with Sir W. Batten and Mr. 
Gifford the merchant ; and I hear how Nick; Colborne, 
that lately lived and got a great estate there, is gone to 
live like a prince in the country, and that this Wadlow, 

* It would seem as if this rule had been prepared pro- 
phetically t against the " organ nuisance." ^ 

f This is obviously the unsu^cted original of a stanza 
in the song of "Mrs. Casey the Hostess," in one of 
O'Keefe's dramas : 

" Let Love fly here on silken wings, 
His tricks I can connive at ; 
A lover who would say lioft things,^ 
Can have a room in private ! " 




tliat did the like at the Devil Tavern by St. Dunstan's, 
did go into the country, and there spent almost all he had 
got, and hath now choused this Colborne out of his house, 
that he might come to his old trade again. But, Lord I 
to see how full the house is, no room for any company 
almost to come into it. Late home, and to clean myself 
with warm water ; my wife will have me, because she do 
use it herself." Again, "Oct. 22, 1668. To Arundell 
House, where the first time we [the Royal Society] have 
met since the vacation, and not much company; and 
afterwards my Lord and others and I to the Devil Ta- 
vern, and there ate and drank, and so home by coach ; 
and there found my uncle Wight and aunt, and Woolly 
and his wife, and there supped, and mighty merry."] 


{Continued from p. 100.) 

Arnobius alludes to the burning of tlie books 
of Christians by the Pagans. {Adversus NationeM^ 
book iv. c. 36.) He speaks in general terms of 
the suppression and destruction oi' Christian books 
in book iii. c. 7. 

Under the Emperor Valens all books of magic 
were diligently sought after and burnt. This 
appears to have been in consequence of the 
offence committed by the " table-turninpj " philo- 
sophers, as already reported in " N. & Q.," Vol. ix., 
and recorded by Zosimus (book iv. 13.) and 
others. To this circumstance allusion is made in 
those laws of the Theodosian code which were at 
that time published. 

Baronius says that the use of bodks of magic 
was formerly forbidden both among the Greeks 
and Komans ; and that the ancient practice was to 
burn them as well as other books of a dangerous 

The same author says that the library at Con- 
stantinople when burnt under Zeno (not by 
Leo T. of Rome, as has been said) contained above 
12,000 volumes ; among which was a MS. 120 feet 
long, containing the Uiad^ Odyssey^ and other 
poems, written in letters of gold, upcm the intes- 
tine of a dragon ! 

After the conversion of the Arian Goths, Isi- 
dore of Seville composed for them an office which 
continued in use till the invasion of the Arabs, 
who scattered the Christians of Spain, except 
those of Toledo. These were called Mozarabs, 
and they persevered in the use of the office of St. 
Isidore until after the expulsion of the Moors. It 
was tilien intimated that they must adopt the 
Boman rite ; they objected, and it was eventually 
determieed, after fastings, processions, and prayer, 
to kindle a great fire, and commit to it a copy of 
each ritual. This was done. The Mozarabian 
office was triumphant^ for it was not in the least 
injured, while the Koman was reduced to ashes. 
(GSographie des JUgeadet^ Paris, 1852.) 

The city of Lyena, wln^ had been 4?verthrown 
by the Saracens, was restored by Charlemagne, 

who established there a fair library in t^ Isle of 
Barbe. The library thus formed was **piliie et 
bndeepar Us CalvinUtes en 1562.** (See tke work 
last named, pp. 642. 671.) 

In his History <if BenuvctiSj Loavet relates tiiat 
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the ar- 
chives of the Chapter of Clermont were destroyed 
by different fires. (From the same work, p. 379.) 

Petrus Alcyonius, in a work entitled De Exilio^ 
Venice, 1522, says : 

** When a boy I heard the learned Greek Demetrius 
Chalcondyles relate that the priests had so mach aathority 
with the Byzantine Ctesars, that to please th»n they 
burnt entire' poems of the ancient Greeks, but eapedalJ^ 
those which record the loves, impure dalliances, and fail- 
ings of lovers. In this way perished the poems of Menan- 
der, Diphilus, Apollodorus, Philemon, and Alexis, and the 
fancies of Sappho, Erinna, Anacreon, Mimnermas, Bion, 
Alcmanus, and Alcaans. For these they substituted the 
poems of our Nazianzen, which, although they excite 
the mind to a more ardent attachment to religion, yet do 
not teach the Attic propriety of words, nor the graces of 
the Grecian tongue. — Quoted in PrefJEu^e to Anacreon, 
Parma, 1791, 

At Florence, in 1547, a law was made which 
required all who possessed heretical books, par- 
ticularly those written by Ochino and Martyr, to 
deliver them up within fifteen days, under penidtj 
of one hundred ducats and ten years in the 
galleys. Heretic books were burned by the In* 
quisition with great ceremony. 

In 1548, the Senate of Venice ordered all who 
held books containing anything contrary to the . 
Roman Catholic faith, to deliver them up within 
eight days, or be proceeded against m heretics. 

In 1679, Cardinal Spinola, Bishop of Lucca, 
wrote a letter to the descendants of the Luccheae 
Protestants at Geneva, inviting them to return to 
the bosom of the church. They sent him an able, 
and yet a respectful, reply. But the pope ordered 
that every copy of it which came into Italy should 
be burnt. 

On the 12th of May, 1521, Thomas Wolsey, 
chancellor, cardinal, and legate, went in solemn 
procession to St. PauFs. This procession carried 
to the burning pile the works of Luther, which 
were devoutly consumed before an immense 
crowd. (D'Aubigne.) 

The niece of the learned Peiresc is said to have 
burnt his correspondence ta save the expense of 

In 1671 "a fire consumed the greatest part of 
the Escurial Library (Madrid), rich in the spdk 
of Grenada and Morocco." (Gibbon.) 

Giordano Bruno, the phUosopher, was burnt in 
1600, as well as his books. 

About 1537 many copies of an English version 
of the Scriptures, which was being printed «t 
Paris, were seized and burnt on a complaint made 
by the French clergy. 

In the retreat of T«n?e8 Yedcaa in 181I«Mas> 

Feb. 17. 1855,] 



sena burnt and plundered every village through 
which he passed. The church and convent of 
Alcobaga — " the value of which," says Mr. 
Sou they, " may be expressed to an English 
reader by saying, that they were to the Portuguese 
what Westminster Abbey and the Bodleian are to 
the history and literature of England" — were 
burnt by orders from the French head-quarters. 

In my next, which will consist chiefly of En- 
glish examples, this series of notices will be con- 
cluded. B. H. COWPEE. 
(To he continued.) 


The highest flower of the Roman law falls in the 
times of the deepest decline of civil liberty, in the 
second and third centuries. The greatest jurist, 
Fapinian, was the Frefectus Prcetorio of the greatest 
tyrant, Caracalla. The organs of despotism, and 
even the municipal decuria, had sunk during the 
prevalence of that law to such a depth of degra- 
dation, that criminals were condemned to accept 
the decury ; a post which also Jews and heretics 
were competent to fill, and by which illegitimate 
children were declared legitimate. The panegy- 
rists of that law, such as Savigny and others, in 
vain try to persuade us, that not the law itself, 
but its tyrannical application, had wrought mis- 
chief in the country. They forget, however, that 
the emptiness of a legislation shows itself not only 
by the wrongs accruing from its own direct force 
and application, but also by the absence of those 
provisions by which a wrong application or inter- 
pretation might be prevented. 

In striking contrast with the above, stands the 
welfare and prosperity of the English nation, de- 
spite the defects in their laws and judicial admi- 
nistration. The difierence between the two is, 
that the Romans could not have been more un- 
happy even without their laws, while the English 
might probably be still more happy without theirs, 
i, e, by reforming, them. 

The laws of tne Germanic nations were the 
emanation of their times, customs, manners, and 
way of thinking; and they were consequently 
adapted to their mdividual and national wants and 
necessities. The Roman laws, on the contrary, 
possessed no national peculiarities. They found 
a home in all countries, because they were at 
home nowhere : they might be adopted or dis- 
carded everywhere according to circumstances; 
they could in short be applied to everything, and 
all cases, because they did not suit any case in 
particular. Db. Michblsen. 

Spenser and Tasso. — Although the " lovely 
lay' which, with the exception of one line, forms 
the 74th and 75 th stanzas of Canto xii. book ii. of 
The Fairie Queene^ meets with neither note nor 
comment in any of the editions of that poem to 
which I have referred, I can scarcely believe that 
its origin is unknown. 

The author of that fragrant volume Flora 
Domestica, marks a "striking resemblance" be- 
tween it and a passage in Tasso ; and on referring 
to La Gerusalemme Liherata^ I find that is in 
reality a pretty faithful translation of the 14th 
and 15th stanzas of Canto xvi. The comparison 
of human life with the frail fleeting beauty of the 
flower, can only become a poet*s own by the man- 
ner of its treatment : for, as your readers are well 
aware, the thought is to be found in every litera- 
ture, and admits of almost endless illustration. 
Its teaching here, as that of the poets of old, is — 

". . . . citraque juventam 
iEtatis breve ver, et primes carpere fiores." 

A. Challsteth. 

Duration of a Visit, — With the saying of an 
old lady in one (which ?) of Miss Ferrier's novels, 
as referred to in Lockhart*s Life of Scott, 
chap. Ixiv. p. 570. (People's edition), viz. " that a 
visit should not exceed three days, the rest, the 
drest, and prest day," compare Plautus, Mil, Olor., 
III. i. 145.: 

** Hospes nallus in amici hospitiam devorti potest, 
Qain, ubi triduum ibi continuam fuerit, jam odiostis 

P. J. F. Gantillon. 

" Muratorii Iter, ItaV — A large paper copy of 
Muratorii Rerum Italicarum ScHptores has been 
recently purchased for a public liorary. On col- 
lating vol. iv., I found the paging to run thus : 
pp. 353, 354, 355, 354. 359, 358, 359, 360. This 
I found to be not an error in paging, but a dupli- 
cation of pp. 354. 359., and a deficiency of pp. 356, 
357. On mquiry I found the small paper copies 
correct; and our copy has been completed by 
leaves taken from an odd volume of one of those. 
From what I have learned, I believe the British 
Museum copy to be perfected in a similar manner. 
As some of your readers possessing copies of this 
work may not be aware of the above error, I 
hope you will not object to inserting the above 
memorandum in your valuable periodical, of which 
I have been a most warm advocate from its very 
commencement, thoush (from pressure of busines^ 
not a contributor to it. B. V. 

John Gait and Jeremy Taylor. — In Sir An- 
drew Wylie, the hero acquires the sobriquet of 
"Wheelie" by calling out, when a four-wheel 
carriage passed him «nd hsf sehoolmoffter, " Wee 



[No. 27r. 

dune, wee Wheelie ; the muckle ane canna catch 

The same idea occurs in Jeremy Taylor's 
Sermons : 

"The hinder -vrheel, though bigger than the former, 
and measures more ground at every revolution, yet shall 
never overtake it." 

And in Persitis, sat. v. 1. 70. : 

" Nam quamvis prope te, quamvis temone sub una 
Yertentem sese, frustra sectabere canthum ; 
Cum rota posterior curras, et in axe secundo." 

as quoted by Taylor. 
Is the same idea found elsewhere ? 


Tailed Men, — The reappearance of exploded 
errors, both in natural and moral science, is one 
of the least satisfactory phenomena observable in 
the history of our race. 

I extract the following from old Purchas, on a 
subject now again presented to the credulous 
public. I fear that we have not made so much 
progress in the intervening 250 years as we some- 
times imagine. Writing of the Philippine Islands 
he says : 

" Lambri, the next kingdom, hath in it some men with 
tayles, like dogges, a spanne long." 

And of Sumatra : 

<* They say that there are certaine people there called 
Daraqui Dara, which haue tayls like to sheepe." 

"As for those tailed people (a slander by Becket's 
legend **, reported of some Kentish men, iniurious to that 
angrie saint, and after applied to our whole nation ; many, 
indeed, esteeming the English to be tayled), Galvano 
affirmeth, that the King of Tidore told hini that in the 
islands of Battochina there were some which had tayles." 

The monstrosities depicted by mediaeval limners 
are abundantly justified by the descriptions of this 
worthy geographer. I cannot resist quoting a 
whole catalogue of wonders from the description 
of the Moluccas, in which the strange truth is 
outdone by the stranger fiction : 

" In this iland are men hauing anckles, with spurres, 
like to cockes; here are hogges with homes; a riuer 
stored with fish, and yet so bote, that it flaieth off the 
skinne of any creature which entreth it ; there are oisters 
80 large that they cristen in the shells ; crabbes so strong 
that with the claws they will breake the yron of a pick- 
axe; stones which grow like fish, whereof they make 
lime." — Furcfias his Filgtimage, edit. 1613. 

S. R. P. 

John Shdkspeare. — In a roll of the seventh 
year of Edward I., entitled 

" Placita corone coram Johanne de Rey^ate et sociis suis 
Justiciariis itinerantibus apud Gantuar. m octabis Sancti 
Hillarii anno regnl Regis Edwardi septimo, Salom." 

occurs the following entry : 

" Danyel Pauly suspendit se in villa de Freynden. Et 
Mariota fil* p*dci Danyelis prima inventrix no venit nee 

* See Lawberfs PerambulfUionm 

male^e se credit'. Et fuit attach' per Willm Morcok et 
Alanu Bryce Ido in m^a. Judm felon de se catalla p'dci 
Danielis Lix. s un Rob§ de Scotho vie respond' et Will& 
Paly et Rici Pally duo vicini no ven nee maletr. Et 
Wills fuit attach'^ p Petf Fabrtt et Joh6m Shakespere. 
Et Rics Mtjittach' j^ Gilbm atte Hok et Willm de Freyn- 
den, ido in mia." 

I have not consulted any other documents in 
order to discover a farther account of this John 
Shakspeare. Perhaps some of your readers may 
be able to show some connexion with the poet's 
ancestors. William Henst Hart. 

New Gross. 

Deaths in the Society of Friends, — Statement 
of deaths in the Society of Friends in Great 
Britain and Ireland between January 1 and 
December 31, 1854 : 

Males. Females. Totals. 

Under 1 year*- . - - n 9 20 

Under 5 years - - - - 16 15 81 

From 5 to 10 ----87 10 

„ 10 to 15 - . - - 7 7 14 

„ 15 to 20 - - - - 1 6 7 

„ 20 to 30 - - - - 11 16. 27 

„ 30 to 40 - - - - 9 20 29 

„ 40 to 50 - - . - 9 11 20 

„ 60 to 60 - - - - 14 27 41 

„ 60 to 70 - - - - 38 82 70 

„ 70 to 80 - - - - 85 54 89 

„ 80 to 90 - - - - 13 21 34 

„ 90 to 100 - - - - 1 1 2 

167 217 


Average of age, 52 years, 8 months, 10 days- 
One- third have attained 70 years and upwards. 
Many are total abstainers from stron<r drink. 

Wm. Collixb. 

Woodside, Plymouth. 


CAN^ :" LONDON, 1671. 

Amongst the numerous dictionaries produced 
in England during the seventeenth century, there 
existed one, cited largely by Dr. Skinner in his 
Etymologicon^ and which was known also to Ray, 
entitled the DicHonarium Anglicum, I am de« 
sirous to ascertain any particulars regarding this 
work, which appears to have comprised a remark- 
able assemblage of archaisms and words of rare 
occurrence. It is wholly unknown, ^ so far as I 
can learn, except through the citations by the 
authors above mentioned ; and the most diligent 
search for a copy has hitherto proved ineffectual. 
The recondite character of the words given from 

* These numbers are included in the next, under 
6 years. 

Feb. 17. 1855.] 



it by Dr. Skinner, amply suffice to excite curiosity 
to see the whole of a work which would probably 
afford much assistance in the investigation of 
obsolete and provincial expressions. 

The only precise indication given by Dr. Skin- 
ner, in regard to this dictionary, occurs in the 
first part of his Etymologicon^ under the word 
Babteb, of which he offers the following deriva- 
tion : ** Author Dictionarii Anglici, anno 1658 
editi, nescio quam bene, a Lat. Vertere deflectit." 
I have found no other passage where the date of 
publication is mentioned. 

I may observe that, having submitted the diffi- 
culty of tracing this book to Sir Frederic Madden, 
of whose friendly aid in all such inquiries I cannot 
speak without grateful esteem, he informed me 
that he had long sought in vain for this dictionary 
so copiously used by Skinner. The late Mr. 
Rodd, whose information in regard to the rarities 
of early lexicography and works on language was 
rarely at fault, was likewise unable to afford any 
clue. Sir Frederic informed me that he supposed 
it might have been a dictionary published with 
the initials only of the author, about the middle 
of the seventeenth century. I thought at one 
time that it might have been an enlarged edition 
of The English Dictionaries by H. C, Gent., 
namely, Henry Cockeram; as may be gathered 
from the signature to his Dedication to Lord 
Boyle. Lowndes mentions the editions of 1632, 
1653, and 1659 ; and I possess those of 1631 (the 
third, revised and enlarged) and 1655 (the tenth). 
The comparison of the words cited by Skinner 
fails, however, to identify his Dictionarium with 
the curious little production of Cockeram. The 
only work in which I have been able to trace 
some of the curious archaisms cited by Skinner, 
is the English Dictionary by Elisha Coles, school- 
master, published about 1700. As, however, that 
author makes boast of his knowledge of English 
lexicography — and that he knew "the whole 
succession from Dr. BuUoker to Dr. Skinner, from 
the smallest Volume to the largest Folio" — it is 
rery possible that he may have transcribed the 
archaisms in question from the pages of Skinner, 
without even having seen the Dictionarium of 
which I am in quest. 

Books of this class are often of rare occurrence ; 
scarce a copy in some cases seems to have escaped 
the heedless destructiveness of schoolboys. In 
the hope, however, that this curious production 
may exist in the collections of some reader of 
"N. & Q.," I would invite attention to the 
numerous citations which occur in Skinner's 
Etymologicon^ from which I append the following 
examples. They will at least enable the possessor 
of any dictionary of the period to test its identity 
^ith the Dictionarium Anglicum of 1658. 

In the first division of Dr. Skinner's work, com- 
prising the more common English words traced to 

their derivation, he made comparatively little use 
of the work to which my inquiry relates. The 
following word is found, however, which deserves 
notice : 

" GowTs, vox quae mihi in solo Diet. Angl. occurrit. 
Author dicit esse Somersetensi agro usitatissimum, iisque 
Canales Cloacas seu sentinas subterraneas designare," &c. 

A clue seems possibly here afforded to the 
county of which the author of the Dictionarium 
was a native, or with which at least he was most 
familiar. I may refer also to the following words 
givSi in this first part of Skinner's work, as de- 
rived from the same authority : Criplings, Gusset, 
Hames, Haphertlet, Heck, Mammet, Mond^ Pai^ 
sage, Portpain, Posade, Spraints, Tanacles, &c. 

In the more archaic, the fourth division of the 
Etymologicon, comprising — 

" Originationes omnium vocum antiquarum Anglicarum, 
quae usque a Wilhelmo Victore invaluerunt, et jam ante 
parentum setatem in usu esse desierunt," — 

the citations are more frequent. The following 
may serve as examples : 

" Abarstick, vox qu8B mihi in solo Diet. Angl. occurrit, 
inter veteres Anglicas voces reeensita, alioqui nunquam 
vel lecta vel audita ; exponitur autem insatiabilis," &c. 

** BuTTEN, vox Venatiea quae mihi in solo Diet. Angl. 
occurrit, exp. lingua quam ego vix interpretari possum 
(the first part in putting out a stag's head) forte prima 
pars comu cervi tenelli," &e. 

** Cebratane, Authori Diet. Angl. apud quem solum 
occurrit (exp. a trunk to shoot out on), Fistula pilarum 
Explosoria, corrupt, a Fr. G. Sarbataine," &c. 

" Cosh, Authori Diet. Angl. apud quem solum vox 
occurrit, dicit esse idem cum Cotterell, et utrumque Casam 
exponit, ridicule ut solet omnia; Cotterell enim Casam 
sed Villicum notat." 

" MusTRiCHE, Authori Diet. Angl. apud quem solum 
occurrit, exp. a shoemaker's last, a voce Lat. quam Festus 
ex Afranio citat, Mustrieula," &c. 

" RuTTiER, vox qu83 mihi in solo Diet. Angl. occurrit 
exp. ab Authore, a direction for the finding out of courses 
by land or sea, also an old beaten souldier," &c. 

" Wreedt, vox quae mihi in solo Diet. Angl. occurrit, 
Author dicit vocem esse Belgieam quod facile credo, 
nullus tamen credo esse Anglicam licet centies juraret, 
vox oritur a Belg. Wreed, saevus," &c. 

These may suffice as examples. I might farther 
refer to the following: Afgodness (impiety), 
Alifed (allowed), Anweald, Bagatelly Berry (ex- 
plained as "villa viri nobilis"), Borith (a plant 
used by fullers), Fisgig, Griffe graffe, or by 
" hook or crook," Hord (vacca pregnans), 
Himple (claudicare), Jobling, Nacre, Pimpompet^ 
Tampoon, Vaudevil, and a multitude of other 
uncommon or obsolete words, many of which are 
not elsewhere found. Skinner, it should be ob- 
served, gives his etymological observations in 
Latin ; but it is probable that the Dictionarium 
Anglicum was composed in English. 

I have found no other author of the seventeenth 
century who appears to have availed himself of 



[No. 27t. 

the labours of his cotemporary, with the exception 
of Ray. In his Collection of English Words not 
generally used (first produced in 1674), I find ; 

" Braoqbt, or Braket ; a sort of compound drink made 
up with honey, &c. The author of the English Dictionary, 
set forth in the year 1668, deduces it from the Welsh 
word brag, signifying malt ; and gots, a honeycomb." — 
P. 10., 2nd edit. 1691. 

I hope that some careful inquirer into the 
sources of English lexicography may solve the 
singular difficulty now for the first time, as I 
believe, submitted for investigation ; and that the 
curious production, so copiously, though ungra- 
ciously, used by the learned Dr. Skinner, may be 
identified and rescued from oblivion. 

Albebt Wat. 


I have a scarce old book (Schedel Cronik^ a 
block book apparently), which upon its own au- 
thority was printed at Augsburg in 1396. It is 
in' the original cover, and on the fly-leaf in front 
is the following note, written in a bold legible 
hand : " Liber valde rarus teste Jo. Vogt in catal. 
libr. rar. & al. pi. W. Eichhold ; " and there are 
some other manuscript notes not very legible. 
But it appears to be doubted whether the date 
should be 1396 or 1496 ; and if you would give 
this letter a place in your valuable publication, it 
is likely that some of your readers will be able to 
clear up the doubt. 

In considering this question, the following facts 
appear to be deserving of consideration. Printing 
by movable metal types was in use before 1462, 
wnen, as we are informed, bv the* dispersion of the 
servants of Fust and Shoener, in consequence of 
the sacking of Mentz in that year, the invention 
of printing with movable types was publicly di- 
vulged. (Knight's Old Printers, 169.) Before 
movable metal types were invented, block books 
were in use ; and there is a print, dated in 1423, 
of St. Christopher bearing the Infant Christ. 
(Knight's Old Printers, 53?) By the invention 
of movable types the expense of printing was 
greatly reduced, and it is not very probable that 
the book in question, which is a large foolscap 
folio full of wood engravings, should be published 
at the distance of thirty or forty years afterwards. 
Is it not equally or more probable that it should 
# have been published forty-four years before the 
invention of printing by movable types (in 1440), 
than fifty-six years afterwards? 

Should any of your readers desire to see the 
book, I shall have pleasure in showing it. 

Thos. Lbabbitteb. 
No. 8. Lansdowne Place, 
Brunswick Square. 

Hymn'book wanted, — In the Every MavCs 
Magazine for 1770 or 1771, about the middle of 
\ the volume, is a letter complaining (^ a new prac- 
' tice of adapting theatrical airs, ,and even the words 
I of sonffs, to sacred purposes. The writer gives 
I examples from a recently published hymn-book, 
of which I remember two. 

■ " The echoing belLs call us all to the church, 

i To the church my good lads then awaj' ; 

The parson is come, and the beadle and clerk 
Upbraid our too tedious delay.** 

The second is : 

" Let gay ones and great 

Make the most of their state, 
Still running Arom foible to foible ; 

Well ! who cares a jot ? 

I envy them not. 
While I have my psalm-book and Bible." 

" Should the stage retaliate," says the writer, " we may 
expect to hear a religious Hawthorne singing psalms, and 
I a religious Macheath preaching sermons." 

' I shall be much obliged by the full title of the 

hymn-book, if known to any reader of " N. & Q." 

I I do not approve the practice of quoting books 

I from memory, but my excuse for so doing is, that 

I it is many years since I saw the Every MarCt 

Magazine ; the library which contained it is dis- 

persed, there is no copy in the British Museum^ 

i and I have advertised for one without success. 


U. U, Club. 

Burton of Twickenham. — There is an ancient 
monumental brass plate in the north aisle of the 
parish church of Twickenham, Middlesex, with 
this inscription : 

**Hic jacet Ric'dus Burton, nup* capitalis maj' d'ni 
Regis et Agnes ux* ejus, qui obiit 2SP die JuUi, A9 Do* 
MCCX3CXLIII. q*r* a'i'ab's p*ptciet D"." 

To this is affixed the royal arms as borne by 
Henry V. (who reduced the fleurs-de-lis to three), 
but without supporters. As this person died 
22 Henry VI^ it is possible he might have held 
some distinguished post under both monarchs, but 
what that may have been I am not able to unravel 
from the words "capitalis maj';" and I request 
some reader of " N. & Q." will decipher them ; 
and also, if possible, inform me where I can find 
some account of a person whom I judge to have 
been of some importance by bearing the king's 
arms. Qu^ko. 

Coats of Arms of Prelates. — I should feel 
indebted to any of your correspondents who would 
give me the coats of arms of the following pre- 
ktes : — Chandler, Sarum, 1415; Yonge, Callipolia, 
1513; Wellys, SydoB, 1508; Penny, Carlisle, 
1509 ; Owen, Cassano, 1588 ; Underbill, Oxford, 
1589 ; Rowlands, Bangor, 1598 ; Owen, Llandafl; 

Feb. 17. 1855.] 



1639 ; Lavington, Exeter, 1747 ; Harris, Llandaff, 
1729 ; Burgess, Sarum, 1825 ; Batson, Clonfert, 
1804 ; Maltby, Dunelm. ; Mant, Down and Con- 
nor ; Lipscomb, Jamaica. Also any particulars 
of the life of Lord George Murray, Bishop of St. 
David's ? Mackenzie Walcott, M.A. 

^^ Adolescentia similis est^ ^. — " Adolescentia 
similis est serto rosse senectus serto urticse.** I find 
this comparison called a proverb. An authority 
for the assertion, and an early instance of its use, 
would oblige A. Chaixsteth. 

" Actis cevum impiety'* 8fc, — 

<< Actis »yum implet, non segnibos annis." 

The above epigraph is continually ascribed by 
some to Ovid, and by others to Fublius Syrus. 
But I can neither find it in one nor the other. 
Would any of your correspondents obligingly 
indicate its author or origin? M. (1) 

GarricKs Portrait in the Character of Satan, — 
In a note on The Sisters, a'novel by Dr. Dodd, so 
injudiciously written as almost to encourage the 
vice it professed to expose, it is stated that Gar- 
rick was requested by the artist, who illustrated 
Dr. Newton s edition of Milton, to give him the 
benefit of his wonderful powers of expression to 
assist him in the conception of an illustration for 
book iv. of Paradise Losty — that the scowl of 
malignant envy, with which Satan is represented 
as regarding the happy innocence of our first 
parents in that print, is therefore to be taken as 
Garrick's conception of the character. Can this 
be substantiated from other authorities ? 


ChdUmer Family. — Mb. CoBmsB will be very 
thankful for any information respecting the two 
Sir Thomas Chaloners, from temp. Henry VIII. 
to James I., their ancestors or descendants, be- 
yond what is contained in the memoirs in the 
Biographia Britannica and Anthony k Wood's 
Athena Oxon.^ and the works there referred to ; 
and Mb. Cobneb is desirous of learning if there 
were any, and, if any, what connexion between 
that family and the Chaloners of Sussex and 

8. Paragon, New Kent Road. 

George Miller^ D,D. — In the Records of the 
Particidars of the Consecrations of the Irish Bishops 
since the Restoration^ of which a part is -appended 
to tihe last (February) number of the Irish Church 
Jounudy it is stated that Dr. Miller preached the 
sermon on the consecration of Bishop Saurin in 
the cathedral of Armagh, Dec. 19, 1819. The 
author of Modem History Philosophically lUus- 
trated was well known ; and I have nuiny, if not 
the whole, of his publications. Did the sermon 
in question ever appear in print P Abhba. 

Bibliographical Queries, — Can you oblige me 
with the names of the respective authors of the 
following pamphlets ? 

1. " Remarks occasioned by some Passages in Doctor 
Milner's Tour in Ireland : Dublin, 1808." 

2. "^ A Sketch of the SUte of Ireland, Past and Present 
Fifth Edit : Dublin, 1810." • 

3. '* A Commentary on the Proceedings of the Catholits 
of Ireland: Dublin, 1812." 

4. « An Address to the Public on behalf of the Poor: 
Dublin, 1816." 

5. " An Inquiry into the Abuses of the Chartered 
Schools in Ireland. Second Edit : London, 1818." 

6. " One Year of the Administration of the Marquis 
of Wellesley in Ireland. Fourth Edit : I^ndon, 1828." 


Passage in St. Augustine. —Where, in the writ- 
ings of St. Augustine, can the following words be 
found : ^* Unus erat, ne desperes ; unus tantum, 
ne pra^sumas ?" £. D. R. 

Sir Thomas Bodleys Life. — I have in my pos- 
session a MS. autobiography of Sir Thomas 
Bodley, with a copy of his will, &c. (pp. 110, 8va.), 
and apparently in the handwriting of the early 
part of the seventeenth century. Can you give 
me any information respecting this interesting 
memoir of one to whom scholars are so deejay 
indebted, besides what has been ' recorded by 
Lowndes ? Abhba. 

Letters of James I, — It is mentioned in Sir 
P. Francises Historical Questions, that letters freoi 
King James were printed by Lord Kaimes from 
MSS. in the Advocates* library, Edinburgh ; bat 
innnediately suppressed for reasons there giveiit 
and not worth quoting. Is this true, and are the 
letters still in the Advocates* library ? L. J. I. 

Reading in Darkness. — Joseph Justus Scaliger 
said that he was able during darkness to read 
without the aid of artificial light ; and moreover 
adds, that the same power was possessed by Jerome 
Cardan and his father. This statement of Sca- 
liger is alluded to, and seemingly believed, by the 
writer of an article on Cardinfd Mezzofanti in the 
January number of the Edinburgh Review. D© 
any of Scaliger's cotemporaries mention this 
faculty ? Is such a power of vision physically 
possible ? Edwabd JPeacocb. 

Bottesford Moors, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

Prayers and Sermon by Bishop Symon Patrick,'-^ 
1. In the year 1689, Dr. Patrick published A 
Prayer for perfecting our late Deliverance, and in 
1690 A Prayer for the King's Success in Ireland. 

[• By John Wilson Croker, Esq. On a fly-leaf of a 
copy of the eighth edition before us is the following MS. 
note : ** First published in 1808 ; the seventh edition in 
1816. Being too even-handed, it pleased no party-seB 
of any fiustioii, but all adnired it aa an exeeUent, if aot 
the very best imitation of Tacitus.*'] 



[No. 277, 

These have become scarce, and are not to be met 
with in the British Museum, Bodleian, Lambeth, 
or Cambridge University libraries. 

2. Watt (BibL Brit) and Cooke (Preacher's 
Asaistani) ascribe to him an Accession Sermon on 
Psalm Ixxii. 15., with the title Ad Testimonium, 
published in 1686. This is not included in the 
ordinary lists of his works in the Biographia Bri- 
iannica, &c. ; but there is no accurate list extant. 

I shall be obliged to any of your correspondents 
who will inform me if they possess copies of the 
Prayers or Sermon* in question, or can direct me 
-to any library which contains them. 

Alexander Tatlob, M.A. 
"3. Blomfield Terrace, Paddington. 

Works on India. — A civil engineer who is 
going to India will be obliged if any of the 
readers of " N. & Q." will refer him to the best 
books, maps, &c. on the physical features of that 
country, particularly with reference to its en- 
gineering wants and capabilities, or descriptive 
of engineering works actually executed. 

This information is wished for especially with 
regard to the presidency of Madras ; and if it be 
addressed C. E., care of Mr. G. Bell, 186. Fleet 
Street, on or before the 18th of this month, it will 
be thankfully received. 

Story of the blind Man, — There is, if I recol- 
lect rightly, in an old jest-book, a story of a blind 
man whose basket is stolen from him, and he beats 
a post, thinking it the thief. If any of the 
readers of " N. & Q." can give the reference to 
this, it will confer a peculiar favour, S. D. L. 

Stone-Henge. — Where is the Stone forming 
" Stone-Henge " supposed to have been quarried ? 
How many of the upright stones are now capped? 


Athenaeum Club. 

Flexible Moulds for Electrotype. — Can any of 
your scientific correspondents give me a good 
receipt for the above, so that casts much undercut 
can be copied in one mould? G. E. T. S. R. N. 


Society of Friends or Quakers. — When the 
name of any member of this sect of Christians is 
mentioned in the public journals, or any other 
print, why is the fact that he is a member of this 
religious body invariably appended, the same care 
never being bestowed in publishing the religious 

r* The Sermon is in the British Museum, in a volume 
of Sermons collected by Letsome, and entered in the new 
catalogue of "King's Pamphlets:" the press-mark 226, 

profession of the individuals of any other com- 
munity ? G. Dtmond. 

[We presume that it simply arises from the fact that 
the Friends as a religious body are seldom found taking 
an active part in the political, scientific, or literary insti- 
tutions of the country, although of late years there have 
been a few honourable exceptions. In the cause of hu- 
manity, such as their efforts for the abolition of slavery', 
this marked distinction is not so generally observable. 
Besides, they are more easily distinguished from other 
sects by their peculiar dress.] 

Bishops in Chess. — What was the original 
name of those pieces which we call bishops? 
Vida*s lines are : 

" Inde sagittiferi juvenes de gente nigranti 
Stant gemini, totidem pariter candore nivali ; 
Nomen Areiphilos Graii fecere vocantes. 
Quod Marti ante alios cari fera bella lacessant 
Continub hos inter rex, necnon regia conjux 
Clauduntur medii." 

D. S.B. 

['Aprji^iAos is an Homeric epithet, signifying fond of 
battle, or devoted to Mars. The poet seems to have sub- 
stituted it for the usual word elphin or alphin, for the sake 
of the metre, and this very appropriately, as the polemic 
traverses of chess are a mimicry of the tactics of war : 

** In either line the next partitions daim 
Two archers, Areiphili their name, 
Belov'd bv Mars ; to whose distinguish'd care 
, Belongs the guard of each imperii pair : 
The guards inclosing, and the pairs inclos'd. 
Are white and white to black and black opposed." 

In Rees^s Cyclopcediay we read that " the piece called the 
bishop has been termed by English writers alphirij aujinf 
&c., from an Arabic word signifying an elephant ; some- 
times it was named an archer ; by the Germans the hound 
or runner; b^ Russians and Swedes the elephant; by- 
Poles the pnest ; and by the French the fou, or fooL 
When it was first introduced cannot be exactly ascer- 
tained; as in Caxton*s time this piece was styled the 
elphin. Probably the change of name took place after the 
Reformation." Sir Frederic Madden, however, in Ar^ 
chceologioy vol. xxiv. p. 225., has given the most satisfac- 
tory account of the original names of this piece : he says, 
" The original name of the piece (bishop) among the 
Persians and Arabs was Pit or Philt an elephant, under 
the form of which it was represented by the orientals ; 
and Dr. Hydfe and Mr. Douce have satisfactorily proved 
that hence,* with the addition of the article a/, have been 
derived the various names of alfil, arjily alferezt alphilus, 
alfinOy aJphinOf alfiere, aufitif alfyrit awfyrij cdphyn^ olfyn, 
as used by the early Spanish, Italian, French, and English 

Godderten. — What is the signification of the 
word godderten, or goddert, which I have re- 
cently met with in a MS. of the sixteenth cen- 
tury ? T. Hughes, 


[Nares, in his Glossary ^ speaks of goddard as a kind of 
cup or goblet, made with a cover or otherwise, but states 
that he can find no certain account of the origin of the 
name. Godard, according to Camden, means godly the 
cup; and appears to have been a christening cup.] 

Feb. 17. 1855.] 




(Vols. X. and xi.) 

As several of your correspondents have lately 
been inquiring about some of the so-called Ox- 
ford jeux (Tesprit, it has occurred to me that it 
might be well if some person qualified for the 
task would undertake to make a permanent col- 
lection of those amusing but perishable articles. 
They contain a great deal of humour, some salt 
and spice, and 720 malice ; and in many of them 
will be found valuable allusions to men and things 
connected with Oxford and its institutions, which 
are now fast wearing out of memory, yet do not 
deserve to be utterly forgotten. 

My idea is, that any collection of those pieces 
ought to begin with the Visitatio fanatica of the 
University by the Commissioners under the Com- 
monwealth, an excellent edition of which was 
pubfished about thirty years ago bv a gentleman 
who is still living within fifty miles of Oxford. 
This ought to be followed by Thomas Warton's 
admirable squib. The Companion to the Guide, and 
Guide to the Companion. Selections ought to be 
added from The Oxford Sausage, and possibly 
from Huddesford'a Salmagundi, and his Whimsical 
Chaplet. And all these ought to be edited cum 
notis Scribleri et variorum. These pieces would 
bring us down to the productions of the present 
century, which are pretty numerous, both in 
Greek, Latin, and English. Those of their authors 
who are living should be requested to permit their 
effusions to be printed, and to accompany them 
with such short explanatory notes as the subjects 
may require, coujDled with a due regard to the 
feelings of all parties concerned. 

I trust that there will easily be found, among the 
present residents of the University, some bel esprit 
willing to undertake the binding of this faggot. 
Of course the little volume would not be a book 
for the 01 iroXXol; nor would it be bought by the 
01 <^p6vifjLoi^ (the dons) ; but still I think that some 
fifty or sixty kindred spirits will be found ready 
to subscribe freely for such a souvenir; or per- 
haps they would prefer to divide the labour, the 
cost, and the copies among themselves. 

I throw out these loose hints for the consider- 
ation of your Oxford readers. If the idea should 
be taken up upon the foregoing plan, or anything 
like it — but not as a bookseller's speculation, I 
shall beg to be allowed to become one of the sub- 
scribers, undertakers, proprietors, or whatever 
they may choose to call themselves, in return for 
these suggestions. X. E. D. X. T. I. 


(Vol. X., p. 377.) 

One of your correspondents, William S. 
Hesleden, of Barton-upon-Humber, forwarded 
you, a short time since, a very interesting speci- 
men of the manner in which a " Will and Testa- 
ment" was made in the reign of Henry VIII. 
The will is dated in 1535, and made by one 
" Robert Skynner, of the parish of St. John in 
Wykeford, in the citie of Lincoln;" and Mb. 
Hesleden seems desirous of obtaining such in- 
formation as may enable him to correct the pedigree 
of that very ancient family. 

Your correspondent says : " We have often 
heard of a distinction without a difference ; and 
as an exhibition of the distinction between the 
will and the testament, I send you a copy of the 
will and testament of one of the Skynner family.'* 
Also another of your correspondents, Ouris, takes 
the same view as Mb. Hesleden ; and considers 
that the will is intended for real, and the testa- 
ment for personal property. Now I take leave to 
differ with both your correspondents on that point, 
' as I do not consider there is the slightest differ- 
\ ence between the "will and the testament" in 
the sense your correspondents understand it. 

It was a very common practice, at the period 
referred to, the making a marked separation be- 
tween real and personal property, and conse- 
quently the division into two parts ; but by no 
means universd. I have now before me several 
wills of that period, some of which make the entire 
separation, as in the case before us of Robert 
Skynner ; while others make no difference in the 
form of the will and testament. One of the latter 
kind is that of one of the Vice-Chancellors of 
Cambridge University. And I have also another 
one before me, which most clearly and strikingly 
shows the sense and true meaning of the phrase 
alluded to. After the usual preliminary descrip- 
tion, the will proceeds : 

" Beinge sicke in body by the visitation of God, but in 
good and perfecte remembrance, lawde and praise be unto 
Hjrm, do make this my presente testamente, cOteyninge 
therein my last wyll, in manner and forme followinge." 

Perhaps it will not be impertinent my remarking, 
that the word testament simply means the witness- 
ing by a writing, that which the individujd de- 
clares to be his last will ; and which is sufficiently 
apparent by the Latin word testamenium, which is 
evidently the testatio montis. 

In reference to the remark of Mb. Hesleden, 
that he has reason to think that the Robert Skin- 
ner, who makes the will with a copy of which he 
has favoured the readers of " N. & Q.," was the 
grandfather of Sir Vincent Skynner of Thornton 
UoUeffe, in co. Lincoln, I believe there is no 
question that that learned man was a member of 




the ancient family of the •*Skynners" of that 
county ; and from the same family (although at a 
very early period), according to tradition, the old 
fiunily of the " Skynners*' of the county of Here- 
ford was descended. But the arms are entirely 
different, the Skinners of Hereford bearing — SaUe, 
a chevron or, between three griffins' heads erased 
argent. And there still exists in one of the old 
windows of the church of " Little Malvern,'* on 
the borders of Herefordshire (which formerly 
belonged to the monastery of the Benedictine 
monks), the following inscription : 

** Orate pro animabiis Robert! Skinner et Isabelle uxorls 
ejus, et filiorum suorum et filiarum." 

From a junior branch of this family was de- 
scended Anthony Skinner, of Shelford Park, in 
the county of Warwick ; who married Joane, one 
of tiie daughters of Chief Justice Billinge, temp. 
Henry VI. and Edward IV. Also, from another 
branch was descended the ancestor of the cele- 
brated Dr. Robert Skinner, Bishop of Oxford in 
the reign of Charles I. ; who is" remarkable from 
the circumstance of his being the only bishop who 
continued to ordain ministers during the period of 
the Commonwealth, and after the Kestoration he 
was created Bishop of Worcester. 

A much-valued friend of mine, who belongs to 
the ancient branch of the Hereford Skinners, pos- 
sesses a very curious history of the original family 
of the "^ynners;'* and which I think com- 
mences near the time of the Conquest, and which 
appears to have been written upwards of a cen- 
tury and a half since. And he has also a very 
curious will of one of his ancestors, Edward 
Skynner of Ledbury, in co. Herefordshire, made 
m the reign of Philip and Mary ; but as he is now 
in the country, I cannot ascertain the particulars. 
But should your correspondent Mb. Heslbden 
wish for farther information, I feel quite certain 
my friend will be most happy to forward you any- 
thing which you may thinK at all useful or enter- 
taining. Chabtham. 

died under age in 1712, and with him the title 
became extinct. But the property appears to 
have descended, on the death of William Henry, 
to Grace, the sister of Charles, and aunt of Wil- 
liam Henry, who was then the widow of George, 
Lord Carteret, and created Countess Grenvifle, 
and through whom it has come to the present pos- 
sessor. Lord John Thynne. 

George, Lord Lansdowne, the poet, was the 
second son of Bernard Grenville, who was the 
fifth son of Sir Bevil. He was created Baron 
Lansdowne in 1712, and does not appear to have 
possessed the Stow property. The mansion was 
dismantled in 1720, and the materials sold by 
public auction. Georse, Lord Lansdowne, had 
four daughters, three of whom died without issue, 
and the fourth was married to Lord Foley, by 
whom she had issue. The last male branch of the 
line of Sir Bevil was Bernard, who was the son of 
Bernard, the brother of G^rge, Lord Lans- 
downe, and who died 5th July, 1775. • 

Many boxes of letters are said to have been 
sent some years smce to George, Lord Carteret^ 
the late possessor of the Stow estate, and he is 
reported to have conmiitted them to the flames. 
A few original letters of Sir Bevil and his wife, 
and others, are still in existence, and also copies 
of other lettei's to and from Sir Bevil and Ins 
family. Sir Bevil was in a direct line of descent 
from Sir Richard de Grenville, who endowed the 
monastery at Neath about the year 1100. Sir 
Richard was one of the twelve knights among 
whom Wales was divided by Robert Fitz Hamon, 
who conquered it ; but Sir Richard appears not 
to have retained the gift, but to have bestowed 
I the whole on the monastery, and to have returned 
to Bydeford, where he was settled. T. E. D. 


(Vol. X., p. 417. ; Vol. xi., p. 71.) 

I readily reply to the inquiries of G. G. as far 
as it 18 ia my power. 

John, the third son of Sir Bevil Grenville, suc- 
ceeded to the Stow property on the death of his 
two elder brothers without issue, and was created 
Earl of Bath. He rebuilt Stow about 1680. The 
cedar wainseottings of the chapel, so greatly ad- 
mired, were said to have been taken out of a 
Spanish prize. He died 2lst' August, 1701, 
leaving an eldest sen Charks, who was created 
Viscount Lansdowne in his father's lifetime, but 
who died from an accident a few 6ajs aftor his 
father, leaving an only son William Henry, who 


(Vol. X., p. 265.) 

The following letter, the original of which is in 

the possession of a friend of mine, seems pertinent 

to W. C.'s inquiry. To whom it was addressed 

does not appear. G. A. C, 

Lynn R«. 10th Novemb', 1781. 

I am extreamly oblig'd to you for yo' kind 
remembrance of the 1* instant. And since I 
observe, by what you there mention, that you have 
been lately in London, I account it my misfortune 
that I had not known it, because I verily believe 
I was in London at the same time, where I should 
have readily imbrac*d the pleasure of waiting 
upon you, and have been proud to accompany you 
to Chelsea, when you went to dine there with 
S' Rob* Walpole. 

I left London a week sooner than I should have 

Feb. 17. 1855.] 



done in order to be in the country at the time when 
the D. of Lorrain was to come to Houghton. I 
dia*d at Houghton last Thursday, and observed 
that the preparations for the reception of his 
Highnesse were very great. On Saturday his 
Highnesse came, and with him Count Kinski, 
Count Althan, Gen** Nieubourg and Gen" Die- 
mar, the Dukes of Grafton, Ricmnond, Newcastle, 
and Devonshire. My Lord Essex, Delaware, 
Scarborough, Albemarle, Baltimore, Lovell, Port- 
more and Liffbrd. Besides severall persons of 

I was at Ho— n on Saturday last, and had the 
honour to be presented to the Duke of Lorrain 
(with some other gent*°), and afterward din*d 
with him in the Great Hall, at the most magnifi- 
cent entertainm^ I ever yet saw. The table 
where the D. of Lorrain din'd was serv'd with 
twice 26 dishes : and after that a noble disert of 
more (prepared by Mr. Lambert, the King*s con- 
fectioner, who attends all the time to furnish the 
disert). The second table, where- I din*d, was 
twice serv'd with 16 dishes, and afterw** with a 
disert suitable. 

The greatest rarities were there in 'greatest 
plenty. And everything appeared with the 
greatest elegance, as well as grandeur, and manag*d 
with the greatest order and oeconomy. 

The same method of entertainm* will be con- 
ttnu*d all the time his Highnesse stays there ; w*^*^ 
will be till Fryday next. 

The Duke himself appears to be affable and 
easy ; and after dinner was over, seemed to be gay 
and pleasant as if he lik*d his company, and made 
himself one with them. 

The crowd of visitants upon this occasion is 
inconceivable. And the going out in the morning 
to hunt, looks more like an army than a body of 
sportsmen. I should have been in the field to- 
day, but that it has prov*d so thorough bad, that 
it was neither fit for hunting nor visiting : to- 
morrow I hope I shall not be prevented. But 
I have already been too tedious, and it is time to 
put a stop to what might farther be said upon 
this subject. 

I am very glad to hear Mr. Musgrave is well, 
and I hope you will favour me with the tender of 
my humble respects to him. 

I take this opportunity, with pleasure, to kiss 
your hands : and to assure you that I am, with 
the greatest respect, 
To' most obedient and most humble 

Hbn. Hare. 

I must not forget my old friend Mr. Mason. 
I hope he is well. 


(Vol. xi., p. 49.) 

Since writing the preceding article, I have ob- 
tained the following notices of the family in Hert- 

A Dr. Bill was Rector of Wallington, havmg 
succeeded William De Thoratoft, who was insti- 
tuted 2 Edward IL (Chauncy.) 

Roger Bill, cap., was instituted 26th August, 
1418, to the vicarage of Weston, by Bishop Re- 
pingdon of Lincoln. 

Roger Bille was '.instituted to the Rectory of 
Aspenden during the episcopate of Bishop Aln- 
wick (1436—1450). Walter Dale succeeded, 
15 th July, 1447, upon the death of Roger Bille. 

John Bill, Clk., S.T.B., was instituted to the 
rectory of Letchworth, 13th February, 1597. 

John Bill, S.T.B., was instituted to the arch- 
deaconry of St. Albans, a.d. 1604. (Clutterbuck.) 

Dr. Thomas Bill received 12L 10*. per quarter 
as one of the physicians to Henry VII 1. 

In the Prmcess Mary's " Privy Purse Ex- 
penses,** under June, 1543, is entered, ''Item, 
payed to Docto' bill for a wagier that hir gee lost 
to hyme, x Zi." (Madden.) 

King Edward VI., by letters patent dated 
2nd March in the fifth year of his reign (1551), 
panted the chantry of Rowney, together wi^ 
divers lands, tythes, kc^ in the parishes and places 
of Rowney, Sacomb, Stondon, and Great and 
Little Munden, co. Herts, to Thomas Bill, the 
late king's physician, and Agnes his wife, and to 
the heirs and assigns of the said Thomas Bill for 
ever. Thomas Bill, by his will dated 1st June, 
1551, devised these premises, after the death of 
his wife Agnes, to his daughter Margaret, who 
married Michael Harris of Grawell, co. Hants, 
Gent, (compare with Burke*s account above). 
Michael and Margaret Harris sold the estate in 
38 Eliz. (1595-6) to John Heming the Elder, of 
Rowney, yeoman. (Clutterbuck.) 

Ann, wife of William Branfield of Clothall, one 
of the daughters of J^hn Byll of Ashwell, gentler 
man, died 5th November, 1578. Mont. Insc. at 
Clothall. (Chauncy.) Patohcb. 


(Vol. X., p. 264.) 
Hozer is a misprint of Hojier, a Swedish, n^ 
a Crerman, metaphysician. Sturzenbecher (Die 
neue Schweditche Literatnr^ p. 29., Leipzig, 1850) 
says that he had prepared to edit a new literary 
journal, and condescended {demuthi^ sicK) to 
solicit permissicm, but could not obtain it, as the 
king thought one such work enough for the whole 
kingdom. Sturzenbecher allows bis dissent from 
the royal judgment by eailing Hoijer the ^ Phi» 



[No. 277. 

losopher of Upsala," and his favoured rival, a 
certain (einem gewisseri) Heir Wallmark, whose 
Journal for Literaturen och Theatem issued an- 
tiquated and empty criticism from 1809 to 1814. 

I have found no other notice of Hoijer, and the 
only work of his which I know is entitled A/hand^ 
lung om den Philosophiska Constructionen^ af Benj. 
Carl H. Hoijer, Stockholm. 1799, pp. 202." The 
original of the passage quoted by J. A.JE. is at 

" Forklarar den ei hoad den skall fttrklara ; den for- 
klarar genom en cirkel. Tingen och realitaten skola fdr- 
klara tingen och realitaten. Det absoluta tinget ar en 
drOm ; men den i dlmftana lefvernet atom den toma spe- 
colationen g&llande realitaten &r och blir den enda ver- 
kliga, och borrtages den, sft forsvinner ttfven dess forkla- 

A better translation might be given, but my 
knowledge of Swedish is very superficial ; and to 
translate metaphysics, one ought not only to know 
a language well, but to be familiar with its onto- 
logical phraseology. 

J. A. E. asks, " Was Hoijer a follower of 
Fichte ? " I think not ; for, though giving Fichte 
high praise for acuteness, and assentmg to many 
of his doctrines, he differs often and too freely to 
be held a follower. I give this opinion with some 
diffidence, warned by the example of Fortlage, 
who is reproached by Frauenstadt (Briefe iiber 
die Schopenhauer* sche Philosophies p. 45.) with 
classing Schopenhauer among Beneke and the 
realists. When two such men differ as to the 
meaning of a third, writing in their own language 
on matters with which they are thoroughly con- 
versant, a foreigner may well be cautious. 

H. B. C. 

u.u.ciub. ; 


Bromo-iodide of Silver. — Your correspondent Bromo- 
lODiDB, who commenced this chemical debate last No- 
vember, will be Ratified to find that Mr. Lyte and Mr. 
Leachman admit his real existence, and that the only 

Practical question is how to throw him down. Mr. 
iBACHMAN confirms my statement that the whole of the 
silver in a solution of the double bromide and double 
iodide of silver, is precipitated hy water. Hence it is only 
necessary to prove that in mixing these solutions the 
bromide of silver is not converted into iodide. Now it is 
ascertained by experiment that equal quantities of bro- 
mide and of iodide of silver require the same quantity of 
iodide of potassium to effect their perfect solution. Thus, 
80 grains of each of the former are dissolved in 650 grains 
of the latter, and a less quantity is insufficient. But if 
80 grains of the bromide are to be converted into the 
iodide, it would require 74 grains of iodide of potassium to 
supply the requisite quantitv of iodine ; and a perfect so- 
lution of the precipitate coflid not be effected without 724 
grains of iodide of potassium, which is contrary to ex- 
periment. Moreover, the conversion would be farther 
proved by the change of the peculiar whiteness of the 
bromide into the characteristic yellow tint of the iodide, 
which again is contrary to experiment. The case of the 

double bromide and double iodide is still stronger. For 
here, if the former robbed the latter of 74 grains of iodide 
of potassium, a large precipitate of iodide of silver would 
be immediately formed on mixing these solutions. Ex- 
periment, therefore, appears to confirm both my theory 
and my facts, and practical men may attack red and 
green as readily as blue and white. 

Mr. Leachman is also in error in supposing that I 
compare Dr. Diamond's solution with " ordinarjr calotype 
paper." He will find, on reference to my note m Vol. x., 
p. 472., that I compared it rigidly with « Mr. Talbot's 
calotj'pe paper." The former, as he is well aware, is well 
washed for at least four hours in many changes of water ; 
the latter, after remaining for one or two minutes in a 
solution of iodide of potassium, is merely dipped into 
water, and consequently is very far from being free from 
that compound, which greatly impairs its sensibility. In 
fact, there is as much difference between the well- washed 
paper and the dip, as there is between a pint of brandy 

Fure and a pint of brandy mixed with a quart of water, 
admit that Dr. Diamond's paper is not superior to 
" ordinary calotj'pe paper " in sensitiveness, but only and 
especially in its action on those tints upon which pure 
iodide of silver con make no impression. J. B. Beads. 

1 have been very much pleased with reading the dis« 
cussion which has taken place in " N. & Q." relative to 
my recommendation of bromo-iodide of silver for negative 
calotype pictures ; and I trust even to your non-photo- 
grapnic readers that this friendly controversy has not 
been useless. It may induce some to undertake photo- 
graphic views when they learn that the greens of a land- 
scape may be much more perfectly delineated than 
fdrmerly ; for no doubt the indistinctness of delineation in 
this respect has caused an indifference in many to attempt 
photographic productions. I will not say one word m 
addition to what I conceive Mr. Reade has so ably urged, 
beyond bearing witness to the accuracy of the experi- 
ments which have been conducted in elucidation of the 
question ; but I appeal to the practical results. If I find 
the inclosed landscape has all the detail in foliage which 
an artist would bestow or desire, and that this result is 
obtained on paper prepared as I have suggested with 
bromine as well as iodine, and if I find contrary results 
when iodine alone is used, I think the argument of ima- 
ginary decomposition having taken place to be perfectly 
set aside. 

Again, will you cast your eye on the inclosed portraits 
of a well-known antiquary, taken in a few seconds on a 
dull December day; in one, the scarlet coat and dark 
trowsers, and in the other the tabard, with all its various 
colours, are delineated with all the proper gradation of 
tone. The collar of SS even is not solarised, another 
benefit I attribute to bromine being the mitigation of the 
over-exposure of the high lights. It may not be inap- 
propriate here to make a reference as to the diflference 
between actual practice, and mere scientific theory with- 
out it ; for it has been observed by some that a fractional 
part of a drop of nitric acid added to the nitrate of silver 
bath, completely destroj's its power of producing rapidly 
good pictures; whereas the bath used on this occasion 
was made with a sample of nitrate of silver so strong of 
nitric acid that the cork and leather with which it was 
secured in the bottle were destroyed by the fumes of the 
free acid. Hugh W. Diamoxcd. 

[We have of course seen the photographs alluded to by 
Dr. Diamond, and can bear testimony to the accuracy 
with which that gentleman describes the peculiar cha- 
racteristics which they exhibit — Ed. **N. a Q."] 

Feb. 17. 1855.] 



Photographic Likenesses of Soldiers and Sailors. — It has 
lately occurred to me vrhat a treasure the friends of a 
poor private, non-commissioned officer, or A. B., would 
consider a photographic likeness of their absent hero; 
and that perhaps you, in the midst of London and photo- 
graphy, might be able by yourself or by others to organise 
a scheme whereby every soldier or sailor, before embark- 
ing on service, might be able to leave behind with his 
friends such a memento of himself. 

There must be, I should think, many a skilful amateur, 
who, being furnished with materials and his expenses 
paid, would be pleased to attend at the barracks, or at 
the port of embarkation, and take the likeness of each 
poor fellow who presented himself with an order from his 

What difficulties there may be in the amount of labour 
or expense, not being a photographer, I cannot estimate ; 
but if you think the idea worth proposing to the public, 
I shall be happy when the scheme is started to assist it 
with such small contribution as I can afford. 


Janus Vitalis (Vol. x., p. 523.). — The poet 
Janus (or John) Vitalis, of Palermo, died in 1560. 
He must be distinguished from two others of the 
same name, priests of the fourteenth century ; one 
a cardinal, and the other a writer for the imma- 
culate conception. With the exception of some 
scattered epigrams, the only work mentioned by 
Fabricius as printed is Medit in Ps. li., Bonon. 
1553, 8vo. Fabricius refers to Ant. Mongitor, 
Bibl. Sicda^ v. i. p. 305. M. 

He was a divine and poet of Palermo, who died 
about 1560. His writings are : 

" Meditationes in Ps. li,, Bononise, 1553, 8vo. ; Para- 
phrasis in Ps. cxxx. et Ps. Ixvii., Ibid. ; Hymni in An- 
gelos, et Poema de Archangelo ; Epithalamium Christi et 
Ecclesiae, Ibid. ; De Elementis, de Pietate erga Rempub. 
et Hymnus de Pace, Roma, 1654; Epigrammata varia, 
obvia in Pauli Jovii elogiis utrisque virorum litteris et 
bellica laude illustrium, et in Deliciis Poetarum Italia 
Gruterianis, torn. ii. p. 1411, seq. ; Bellum Africae illatum 
a Siciliae Prorege Joanne Vega ; Elogia Romanorum Pon- 
tificum, et Julii III. atque Cardinalium ab ipso creatorum ; 
Triumphus Ferdinandi Francisci Davali Aquinatis Magni 
Piscariae Marchionis et lacrymae in eundem ; Theratorizion 
sive de Monstris," &c. 

The above account is taken from the Bihlioth, 
Latina med, et inf, atatis of Jo. Alb. Fabricius. 


The Episcopal Wig (Vol. xi., pp. 11. 72.). — 
E. F. is m error, when he says that the Hon. 
Edward Legge, Bishop of Oxford, was the first 
who left it off; so is your previous correspondent 
Anti-Wig, who ascribes its disuse to the present 
Bishop of London. It was first abandoned by 
the Hon. Richard Bagot, late Bishop of Bath and 
Wells, under the express permission of George IV. 
He (the bisho|fj was a remarkably handsome man ; 
and, many years before he was elevated to the 

Bench, the Prince Regent had said to him, before 
many witnesses (no doubt much more in joke than 
earnest) : " It would be quite a shame to put you 
into a bishop's wig. Remember, whenever I make 
you a bishop, I dispense with your wearing it." 
Accordingly, when towards the end of the reign 
he was nominated to the See of Oxford, the 
bishop reminded the king of his promise, and, not 
without some difficulty, prevailed upon his Majesty 
to release him from this preposterous head-gear. 

The Bishop of London speedily took advantage 
of the dispensation ; but not immediately, since 
those who were present at the coronation of 
William IV. may remember that Bishop Blomfield 
officiated in the orthodox peruke. That Bishop 
Legge always wore it, many an All- Souls man 
can yet testify. B. (2) 

The Irish bishops do not appear to have worn 

"Archbishop Magee, in protesting against the Tithe 
Bill, and other innovations on the Church of Ireland, 
said that the fate of the English Church was involved in 
that of the Irish one. * Pardon me,' says Lord Welles- 
ley, * the two churches differ materially ; for instance, the 
English bishops wear wigs, and you do not wear any. 
1*11 wig you, if you do not take care.' " — Moore's Diary, 
iv. 141. 

Mackenzie Walcott, M.A» 

Portrait at Shotesham Park (Vol. x., p. 465.). — 
At the Visitation of the county of Norfolk in 1664 
a short pedigree was entered, by which it appears 
that Richard Pead, of Garboldisham, in that 
county, gentleman, then living, was the son of 
Thomas Pead. His arms were : Or, on a bend 
azure, three human feet couped above the ancle 
argent. Crest : a chapeau gules, turned up er- 
mine, ornamented with two (ostrich) feathers or. 

Sir Thomas Tresham (Vol. xi., p. 49.). — In 
addition to the works mentioned as containing 
notices of Sir Thomas Tresham, I would call the 
attention of E. P. H. to a little book by Mr. Bell 
of Barnwell, in the county of Northampton, on the 
family of Tresham. It is entitled The Ruins of 
Liveden ; with historical Notices of the Family of 
Tresham and its Connexion with the Gunpowder 
Plot, It 'may be purchased, I believe, from the 
author, or from Mr. Russell Smith, Soho Square. 

G. R. M. 

In the Visitation Book of the County of North- 
ampton, a pedigree of Tresham was entered in 1618. 
Sir Thomas Tresham, of Newton, in that county, 
knight, was the son of Maurice Tresham by Maria, 
daughter of Edmund Odingsells, of Ichington, 
in the county of Warwick ; and married Anne, 
daughter of Bartholomew Tate, of Delapre, near 
Northampton, Esq., by whom he had issue Henry 
Tresham, his son and heir apparent (who married 
Abigail, daughter of Cecil Cave, of Stanford, 



[No. 277. 

Esq.) ; Thomas Tresbam, of Newton, his second 

son, who married Elizabeth, daughter of 

Dickinson, of Manchester, and several daughters. 


Jevnens of Acton Place (Vol. xi., pp. 10. 55.). — 
Your correspondent Q. D. has given with perfect 
accuracy the devolution of the vast property of 
Mr. Jennens, real and personal. Can he authen- 
ticate the following anecdote? I have heard it 
upon authority so apparently unexceptionable, 
that I know not how to doubt it. 

Mr. Jennens was supposed to possess a Bank 
of England note of 100,0002. Two of this pro- 
digious amount had been issued by the Bank 
since its institution. One had been returned 
years ago, and cancelled; and the other was 
universally considered to be in Mr. Jennens*s 
possession. He had the habit of hoarding and 
secreting his money ; and he left a written memo- 
randum, directing his executors to search in such 
places for such and such sums, specifying how 
much in notes, how much in coins, &c. Every 
direction was strictly accurate, except that which 
referred to the Leviathan note. That note was 
missing. It was not in the place indicated, and 
has never been recovered. Such is my story. 
Query, Is it true ? B. (2) 

Psalm-singing and Nonconformists (Vol. xi., 
p. 65.). — John Scribe will probably find an 
answer to his question in the Poet of the Sane- 
tuary^ a centenary commemoration of Dr. Watts, 
by Josiah Conder (Snow, London, 1851). This 
book contains an essay of an historical character 
upon the subject of psalm and hymn singing. If 
John Scribe can refer to Ainsworth on the Pen- 
tateuch, he will find in the early editions both 
rhymes and music at Exod. xv. and Deut. xxxiii. 
Ainsworth was one of the earliest who adopted 
the principles of Independency. The fact appears 
to be, that while bad singing characterised all 
classes of British Protestants till a recent period, 
it was worst among Dissenters. This arose partly 
from the acknowledged circumstance, that many 
of them refused to smg any human compositions. 
But it is certain that next to nothing of value was 
^ther written or borrowed by the Nonconfi)rmists 
to be used by them in the worship of praise till 
the last century. There are other reasons which 
lie deeper, but which are scarcely suitable for 
these pages. B. H. C. 

''BelchilcT' (Tol. x., p. 508.).— I beg, through 
your communicative publication, to inform Mb. 
Davenet that a helchild is a grandchild ; and in 
confirmation thereof, I give the^^foUowing extracts 
from early wills : 

'* John Porter, of Long Stratton, by will, dated xiiij 
daye of Julv, Mcccccxm, baqoeths to eche of his bd- 
ekudren, vid ; and every of my godchildren, iKjd!.* 

** Agnos Borugfas, by will, dated the fynt daye of 
March, alcccccxluii, beqaeth to either ofhe^belehUdrem, 
Agnus Cowpe (otherwise Knott), and Isabell her sister, 
xxcL; and bequeth to either of my godchildren, John 
Ffecke and Stephen Ffecke, v}«. viijrf. Also becraeth to 
eche of my belchildren, William Cowie the yonger, ICaryon 
Bowie, and Margaret Bowie, iijs. iiijd Also beqaeth to 
Rose Aldred, vj5. Yil)d,; and to my godchild, Agnos 
Aldred, xxd." 

In another will, of about the same period, is : 

** I give to John Goche, my helchUd, one cowe ; to be 
delivered at the age of xij yeres of the said John Goche.'* 

Archdeacon Nares, in his Glossary, explains 
helsyre and beldame to be grandfather and grand- 
mother ; though beldame is now applied as a term oi 
disgrace, as is the term *' wench" — which formerly 
was used respectfully to young ladies of the most 
respectable families, and even to royalty. (See 
Nares under the latter term. Wench.) 

GoDDABD Johnson. 

Death of Dogs (Vol. xi., p. 65.). — A circum- 
stance of the same nature as that described by 
your correspondent H. W. D. has just happened 
in Surrey ; a gentleman having about a fort- 
night since lost three valuable dogs, which were 
supposed to have been poisoned : on examination, 
however, no traces of poison were found in the 
stomachs. I shall endeavour to find out whether 
any others in the neighbourhood have suffered 
losses of the same sort, and, if so, communicate 
the fact, as well as anything else that may tend to 
throw a farther light on the subject. J. S. A. 

Old Broad Street. 

Dying Words of the Venerable Bede (Vol, x., 
pp. 139. 329.). — The passage from Cicero's Let- 
ters, wherein the expression ^'atramento tempe- 
rate** occurs, would seem decidedly to favour the 
interpretation put on the word tempera by Rupi- 
CASTEENSis and Sui E.meeson Tennent. JPerhaps 
the following lines from Persius may deserve^ a 
passing notice, and tend to illustrate the practice 
of moisteninj* or diluting ink with water, to which 
they have alluded : 
" Jam liber, et bicolor positis membrana capillis, 

Inque manus chart® nodosaque venit anmdo. 

Turn qaerimnr, crassos calamo quod pendeat homor : 

Nigra quod infuaa vanescat sepia Jympha ; 

Dilutas querimur geminet quod fistula guttas." 

Satin. 10— 14. 

In connexion with the mention of Bede, I 
observe, in looking over Dr. Burton's Description 
of the Antiquities of Rome, it is stated that his 
remains were said to have been buried under a 
stone near the silver gate of the old church of 
St. Peter's. A resident in the diocese of Durham 
mav be excused for disbelieving this tradition. 

^ E. H. A- 

Oelyan (or JFtdian) Bowers (Vo\||ki., p. 65,). — 
I find the following extract in mycommon-place 
book, under the head of " Julian's Bower, near 

Feb. 17. 1855.] 



Aukborou^, Linoolnshire ;** but I ha^e omitted to 
note the work from which it is taken. I believe 
it is from some county history : 

" The places called Julian Bowers are generally fbtmd 
near Roman towns. They are circular works made of 
banks of earth, in form of a maze or kbyrintfa. Dr. Stnkeley 
thinks it was one of the old Roman games, which were 
brought to Italy from Troy ; and that it took its name of 
bower from horoughy or earth-work, not bower or arbour ; 
and Julian from Julus, son of iEneas, who introduced it 
into Italy, according to Virg. u£n. v." 

J. R. M., M.A. 

[Julian's Bower is noticed in Stukeley's IHnerarium 
Cfmriosum, p. 91. The passage quoted by J. R. M. occurs 
in Allen's Lincolnshire, vol. ii p. 220. note,'] 

Dial (Vol. xi., p. 65.). —If Mr. Scribe will 
search the old book- stalls for a book, called 
Meckanick DiaUwg, or the New Art of Shadows, 
by Charles Leadbetter, 1737, he will find his 
question answered : for it professes to show how — 

" Any person, though a stranger to the ait, with a pair 
of compasses and a ruler only, may make a dial upon an j 
plane mr any place in the world." 

He will also reap no small amusement from what 
is called by Mr. Leadbetter " a choice collection 
of mottoes in Latin and English," the transla- 
tions being more distinguished for freedom than 
accuracy. As for example : 

" Dies diem trudit. 
* A day kicks me down ! * " 

** Ita vita. 
* Such is life's hatf circle II*" 

** Sic transit gloria mundi. 
* So marches the god of day.' " 

*< Aut Caesar aut nihil. 
< I shine or shroud.' " &c 

Let me take this opportunity of thanking very 
sincerely those of your correspondents who have 
contributed to the collection of genuine dial 
mottoes. A verjr beautiful one might perhaps be 
added to the list in the text — 

" Watch, for ye know not the hour." 

In these days of revival of old church architec- 
ture, it seems a pity that the dial over the porch 
should be totally forgotten. Hermes. 

See that most useful of all pocket-books, The 
Literary and SciewHfie Register and Almanac for 
1854, p. 48. J. D. 

Doddridge and Whitefield (Yol. xi., p. 46.). •— 
Mb. Bingham considers it an "astounding fact** 
that one of Doddridge's sermons should appear in 
a volume of Whitefield's as the production of that 
celebrated preacher. He does not, however, say 
whether Whitefield himself paUiahed, or rather 
republished tJie iermoQ, or whether it was not 
included in 9>.4KM3thumous collection of his dis- 
courses P Thore liave been several instences of 
this last kind. A pmacbtt borrows iox hb occa- 

sion a sermon by some good author; which is 
found accordingly^ but unacknowledged, among 
his manuscripts. His friends, in presenting the 
world after his death with a specimen of his 
method, select the best they can discover, and 
inadvertently include, among the discourses pub- 
lished, one or more not his own. The last example 
that I remember of such an oversight occurred 
in the posthumous publication of the sermons of 
the late Mr. Suckling of Bussage. This error of 
the first edition was detected, and subsequently 

A much more striking instance of bold appro- 
priation is mentioned by a modern author, giving 
an account of the excellent commentary on the 
Bible compiled by the famous and unfortunate 
Dr. Dodd : 

" What is extraordinary," he says, ** with respect to 
it (the Commentary) is, that it was republished as an 
original work by Dn Coke the Methodist, with several 
retrenchments, but with few, and those unimportant, 

That this statement contains no exaggeration is 
evident, from the testimony of Dr. Adam Clarke, 
contained in the " Greneral Preface" of the last 
edition (Tegg, 1844) of his Commentary on the 

" The Rev. Thomas Coke, LL.D., has lately published 
a Commentary on the Old and New Testament^ in 6 vols. 
4to. This is, in the main, a reprint of the work oi Dr. 
Dodd ; with several retrenchments, and some additional 
reflections .... Dr. Coke should have acknowledged 
whence he collected his materials, but on this point he is 
totally silent." 

S, A. 

7. Lower James Street. 

Two Brothers with the same Christian Name 
(Vol. X., p. 513.). — The younger son of James ILL 
of Scotland, who was created the Duke of Ross 
and Marquis Ormonde, was christened James; 
though his elder brother, afterwards James IV., 
bore the same name. Having determined on 
becoming an ecclesiastic, he was nominated to the 
primacy when not more than twenty-one years of 
age, and died Archbishop of St. Andrew's m 1508. 
(Vide Lyon*s History of St, Andrew's, vol. i. 
p. 244.) 

Another instance occurs in the Seymour family. 
The first Duke of Somerset, brother-in-law of 
Henry VIII., and uncle of Edward VI., was twice 
married. Sir Edward Seymour, ancestor of the 
present Duke of Somerset, was the son of his first 
wife. Edward, Earl of Hertford, who married 
Lady Katharine Grey, was the son of his second 
wife. The dukedom of Somerset and barony of 
Seymour reverted to the elder brandi of ihi 
family on the extinction ot the yovnger branch, 
according to the singular terms of the origiiud 
grmU (Vide NiooIas*s Sp»psiM ef&e -Pw^-) 



[No. 277. 

Doorway Imcriptions (VoL x., p. 253.). — The 
following inscriptions are so placed over the arch- 
way of the Forth Mawr (^reat gate) at Llanover, 
the residence of Sir Benjamin Hall, near Aber- 
gavenny, that the first meets the eye on entering 
the grounds, and the other on leaving them. The 
beauty of the original Welsh is necessarily much 
lessened in the translation here annexed, for the 
use of those who unfortunately are unacquainted 
with that fine and ancient language : 

" Pwy wyt, ddyfodwr? 
Os cyfaill, eresau calou i ti t 
Os dieithr, Tlettwgarwch a'th erys ; 
Os celyn, add fwynder a*th garchara." 

( Translation.') 
" Who art thou, traveller? 
If a friend, the welcome of the heart to thee ! 
If a stranger, hospitality shall meet thee ; 
If an enemy, courtesy snail imprison thee." 

** Ymadawydd hynaws, gad feudith, 
Ar dy ol : a beudithier dithau. 
le chyd a hawddfyd it ar dy daitb, 
A dedwydd ddychweliad." 

( Translation.') 
** Departing guest, leave a blessing 
On th V footsteps ; and mayst thou be blessed. 
Health and prosperity be with thee on thy journey. 
And happiness on thy return." 


Old Pulpit Inscriptions (Vol. ix., pp. 31. 135.). 
— To the inscriptions which I have already given 
may be added the following from St. Helen's 
Church, Sefton, Lancashire. On the pulpit : 

" He that covereth his sins shall not prosper, but whoso 
confesseth and forsaketh them shall have mercie ; happy 
is the man. Anno Domini 1633." 

On the sounding-board : 

" My son, fear thou the Lord and the King, 
And meddle not with them that are given to change.** 


Heavenly Guides (Vol. xi., p. 65.). — I think it 
not improbable that the work about which Mr. R. 
C. Wardb inquires, is an early edition of the 
following : 

" The Plaino Man's Pathway to Heaven j wherein 
euery Man may cleerely see whether he shall be saued or 
damned. Set forth Dialogue-wise, for the better Vnder- 
standing of the Simple. By Arthur Dent, Preacher of 
the Word of God at South Shoobery, in Essex. The One- 
aud-twentieth Edition : London, 1631.** 


" The Plain Man's Pathway to Heaven ; wherein every 
Man may clearly see whether he shall be saved or damned. 
Set forth Dialogue- wise, for the better Understanding of 
the Simple. By Arthur Dent, Preacher of the Word of 
God at South Shoobery, in Essex,'* 

was reprinted in 1831 by Baynes of Paternoster 
Row, from the 7th edition of 1607. The work is 
considered to have been written about 1590 ; and 

must have been very popular, as a copy published 
in 1704 is stated to be the 40th edition ; and that 
by computation, one hundred thousand copies 
have been sold. The matter is curious, and the 
language quaint. The chapter against *^ Pride 
of Dress" seems to have furnished Hamlet with 
some weapons of abuse asainst the fair sex in the 
nunikery scene with Ophelia. L. A. B. W. 

P. S.— R. C. W. calls it the '^Poor Man's Path- 
way," &c. 

Curious Incident (Vol. xi., p. 63.).-— The play 
in which this passage occurs is, I believe. Speed 
the Plough; but I have not a copy to refer to. 

L. A. B. W. 

Capital Punishments in Henry Villus Reign 
(Vol. xi., p. 21.). — I have no disposition to plead 
for the truth of the fact alleged by Hume and 
Macaulay, on the authority of Harrison, or to 
lessen the weight of Mb. Walteb*8 arguments ia 
support of his doubts ; but as I have looked into 
Harrison, I may as well quote what he says on 
the subject, for the sake of rectifying two errors 
into which Ma. Walter has fallen: — 1. That 
Harrison's authority was the Bishop of Tarbes ; 
2. That ** his object was to set forth the advan- 
tages enjoyed by Elizabeth's subjects, as compared 
with their state under her father's reign." The 
following are his words : 

<*It appeareth by Cardane (who writeth it upon the 
report or the Bishop df Lexovia) in the geniture of King 
Eaward the sixt» now Henrie the eight, executing his 
laws verie seuerelie against such idle persons, 1 meane 
great theeues, pettie theeues and roges, did hang up 
three score and twelve thousand of them in his time. B!e 
seemed for a while gr^atlie to have terrified the rest : but 
since his death the number of them is so increased, yea al- 
though we have had no warres, which are a great occasion 
of their breed . . . that except some better order be 
takenf or the lawes alreadie made be better executed, such as 
dwell in uplandish townes and little villages shall liu^ but in 
small safetie and rest.*' — Harrison's Description ofEngkand^ 
chap. ii. 

I have verified the reference to Cardan, who, 
towards the conclusion of his geniture of Ed- 
ward VI., speaking of his father Henry VHI., 
says, — 

" Antistes Lexoviensis mihi narrabat Besuntii, scilicet 
ut biennio antequam periret inventa sint lxxii millia 
hominum judicio et carnifice sub hoc rege periisse." 

The "antistes Lexoviensis," or Bishop of Lisieux, 
spoken of, was probably Jacques d*Annebaut, 
who, according to the OaUia Christiana^ occupied 
that see from 1545 to 1558. *hXi^is, 


CooKs Translation of a Greek MS. (Vol. x., 
p. 127.). — If Mb. Philip E. Butleb had read 
Vincent Cook's account of the way in which the 
Greek MS. came into his grandfather*s hands, I 
think he would have had no doubts as to its au- 

Feb. 17. 1855.] 



thenticitj. Cleobulus bears the same relation to 
Plato that Cid Hamet Benengeli does to Don 
Quixote. The title of the second edition is, — 

** Platone in Italia, Tradozione dal Greco da Vincenzo 
Cuoco. Parma, 1820, 2 torn. 8vo." 

A note states that this is an exact reprint of the 
Milan edition in three vols. Svo., but does not 
give its date. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

Eminent Men lorn in 1769 (Vol. xi., p. 27.).-- 
Sir Walter Scott was not born in 1769, but in 
1771: Humboldt, the great traveller, and the 
author of Cosmos^ was bom in 1769 ; Arndt, the 
German poet, whose songs and other productions 
roused all Germany to oppose Napoleon, was 
another child of that remarkable year j and per- 
haps your readers can supply other instances. 
Humboldt and Arndt are still living in the enjoy- 
ment of their vigorous faculties. A. 

The Queen's regimental Goat (Vol. x., p. ISO.). — 

"The celebrated snow-white goat presented by Her 
Majesty to the 23rd Royal Welsh Fusileers, died on the 
20th ult. After weathering the campaign in Bulgaria, 
and marching proudly at the head of his regiment from 
Kalamita Bay to Sevastopol, he has at last fallen without 
wearing the Alma medal he had earned on the way. His 
stately demeanour and reverend beard made him a pro- 
minent feature in the appearance of the regiment as it 
moved along ; and the gap left by his absence will force a 
recollection of the fine animal upon the memory of every 
one familiar with the gallant 28rd. He had been hutted, 
and every care had been taken to protect him against the 
exposure and inclement weather; but all this attention 
was unavailing.** — English Chiarchman, Jan. 18. 

Her Majesty's present of a goat to a Welsh 
regiment would seem to favour Dr. Hahn*s as- 
sertion, and to prove that it is a custom in regi- 
ments from mountainous districts to have such an 
animal attached to the corps, as a fond reminis- 
cence and symbol of home and country. Perhaps 
some of your military readers can give more pre- 
cise information. J. M. (1) 

^^Amentium, hand Amantium" (Vol. vii., p. 595.). 
— A translation preserving the alliteration : 
" Brainless, not brainsick.*' Stylites. 

"TV? the Lords of Convention'' (Vol. vii., 
p. 596.). — This ballad has been set to music, and 
published by OUivier, 41. New Bond Street, 
under the title of "Bonnie Dundee." The name 
of the author is not given, but I have always 
supposed it to be written by Sir Walter Scott, in 
which case it is doubtless to be found in any 
edition of his works.* Stylites. 

Niagara (VoL xi., p. 48.). — ^WTien at Niagara 
last summer, I was at some pains to ascertain 

[♦ In Scott*s Doom of DeoorgoU, See «N. & Q.," 
Vol. viii., p. 19.1 

the thickness of the water falling over the Horse 
Shoe cataract. Within the concavity, where the 
water is most abundant, it is estimated at twenty 
feet, which is probably not far from the truth; 
but on either side of the curve the depth is con- 
siderably less, probably not averaging more than 
five feet. C. R. Weld. 

Somerset House. 

The depth of water on the edge of the Horse 
Shoe Fall is estimated, by Sir Charles Lyell, at 
twenty feet ; and when at Niagara in June, 1854, 
I was told a circumstance by one of the guides 
which corroborates this opinion, — that when the 
ship "Detroit" was sent over the Falls in 1829, 
her hull, which drew eighteen feet, passed clear 
over the point of the Horse Shoe Fall, without 
touching. I believe the earliest engraving of 
Niagara is to be found in Father Hennepin's New 
Discovery of a vast Country in America,^ &c., 
London, 1698. A letter from a Swedish gentle- 
man, describing the Falls, appears in the Gent. 
Mag, for January, 1751 ; and in the following 
number Mr. Urban palms off upon his readers 
Hennepin's view, sligntly altered to suit the nar- 
rative of the Swede, as " a new print of this 
wonderful fall or cataract." There appears to be 
a view of Niagara in Popple's Maps of the British 
Empire in America^ engraved by Toms, folio, 
London, 1733 and 1740. Is this original, or a 
copy of Hennepin ? Are there any other early 
views of the Falls ? Abthub Paget, 

Bishop Oldham (Vol. xi., p. 64.). — It will 
perhaps be a sufficient answer to this Query, to 
advert to what I should have conceived to have 
been a universally known fact, that in 1519, and 
for centuries previously, the clergy were pro- 
hibited from marrying, and could not therefore 
have any descendants. Thompson Coopeb. 


Death-led Superstition (Vol. xi., p. 55,), — It 
is the common custom in Wales to borrow, if there 
should not be one belonging to the house, a deep 
pewter plate, which, filled with salt, is placed on 
the body of a deceased person as soon as possible 
after the corpse is laid out. The reason generally 
given is, that it will prevent the swelling of the 
body. N. 


We have received the first and second Parts of the 
interesting Private Journal and Literary Remains of John 
Byrom, edited for the Chetham Society by the Bev. 
Canon Parkinson. After the encomiums which have 



[Na 277. 


^TMdj be€n paned upoa it in thk JctimAl (onl^ p. 82*), 
bj one no well quatiM t« Judgs of lU miiriu» und to 
Wlioae judj^wCTit nil will m readily defor^ we monn our 
Tftlu^d rornfapcrtidetit Mn, MARRLAND^^-it la ttlmcKit A 
w«ric i»f i*a(»rt?mpttion for ua to sity otwt word m to th© 
inlef«fl| of the Dmry and Lettert. Ib^ cntiQU^ and grttphie 
uictarffii which thoy furiiisb bftih of Hyr^m and of hia 
Mtoes, or of the npprapHa(e illiifltratlans of tho t«]tt with 
which thu li!Aftitn|^ and industry of Canon Parkinwn 
have enabled him to enrich every page. All who like 
inch trutliful representAtiona of bygone times are under 
real obltgminns to the CheiiLain Society, to Ciinon 
^arkinAon, and mrist eepticially to Mias Atherton, the 
po«t*s d&k.'^emlemt, who baa nioist liberally made the hook 
And it» cotitetils alikn a pretient to the Roejety. 
A nun tly- printed little roluttie^ JT^ftip m Dtmrntif hy 

Mj^gV^f^Ui^ Je**Opp, M.A., nf SL Jnhn^B Cuflwg^ (Mtnttridpe^ 
ftjippwpritttiily dedicated to' Dr. Bliea, as one wbii, with itia 
wide knowredge, is "always abla, aud in his j^eneroua 
kindness \» a) wjiva willing, ttr help and enc^ourage lilft \em- 
experjenccd feilo^w-labourora in thofleldr* of En^^lisb IHtra- 
turev" has a twofold rhiim to notice ; (trst, on account of 
the ohvicHiA citra and attention bentciwed itpon it fay the 
•dltor ; next^ ba being the Brat^fruiu of some veara" labour 
devoted lo ttie praparitlion of an edition of lionno'^ col- 
ieoted works. 

EfKiRy Rkckivrh, — A Supfjietnent t& the ImpermI 
IHctitmajy^ KiifffiMh, Technologist and Seientific^ cimtum- 
mg an tJ^ttHmH: OtllectiOH of H'nrdt, Ttma^ iPAr>fi*A, ^c,* 
mot iAciml&l in premouM A'nqthh DktionarieJ, by JidiO 
Ogilvks D-R, Parts L and It Of the ntility of iindi a 
mpplement In *iur t-'n^'lish dirtionaries there can be no 
doubt, evt'U ihf^up^fh the editor should be mii^iiaken iu be- 
lieving that a// the words in hia eupplemoat at& not to be 
ftntud in any uf ouf exiAtlng dictiotiftriea, 

A Pttpiiittr HannoHt/ qf the Btftfet HtMlortcaHy ttnd 
OinynohijiPiiHij nrnifujeii, by !L M. Wheeler^ will unques- 
tionably Hfromplijiib the object for which it was under-- 
taken, njiinelyi throve a i^oml scLhilitute for ^uch expensive 
yet truly valuable ftnd learned works ma "^FownjiendiV Ar^ 
rans^ment of ih^ Oid TeUamtnti juid GreawoIFs Hnrmany 
of me AW 

Pttetirn^ IForkx of James Thnmimnt edited by Robert 
Bell, Yfd. I. This new volnnie of the Annotated Edition 
tf the Britiiih Pnefi w introduceA by a vety pleaaant 
biography of the poet 



BiHcrvT'* OisHjiairi-rueH &»■« 

M* l*tt*ra, ^tvrtfid^ fisrltcnMnn nitd lomit price, cftfrintf^JWe, in b« 

■eia to .^Ijt. Bkxj., Publiihw <jt ■*JfOTi;s ANU uCbeies*" 

186. Fleet Street. 

PtiftiitnU«9of PriHta& of the fifll^wlDr B^tJk* to be lint dlreet tm 
th« tentiBmen biy wtrnni ttier m rv^jiUrfd, a,iii1 wfaqte Bcmes uid «&• 
drwtt* «re al ir«n for tKut parpow i 

WaaM W Mr. BimAam, BaaikamaMr, BvOkie. 

OoiLwooit'f Wui.tKa¥DPf DupATCHij. Voti. n. it hl \«sst a ii*e. 

Wnsted tur J. f^ww, 9. BirtiiiKt BlrtBt. 
fDVAMM mm Tita Wiui, 

Want«d by J. T, ChetiAnm. FirwiMk!, ftftir Mctu^erter. 
Brascm AT tiB?ri»rti olr tIIii Deaa tir Bkptohs dm a McmOBr POft 1HJ 

Tpk ARnnoiPt i,Hi» Itt*mv?riiiiii (tv Fami Tiu««eAA, dlworend In a 
Viiitiitiqn gurmoii 1 pmendhsd li Orc^ou. Ui Surreal HI itjr Itii. Iftlk. 

Tm Cin'iieiii nr ^iLMa^A^i^ lioir gvFBa.nirt«icr», m& Bg^ WiLLllim Tm- 

well. U.t\. 17 1«^ 
FmrbtcA Anni^TiLLic4 ii«*iktiiiii« AocoHnniMn^K, In mnin Jmneotvlli 

AiSArteitiienj, Authiifc Gut. TftMWiiU, !*► T. P. tj>n*1onJ, l^Jft. 
i^KTrrirHiiT Hx«hdr.HD A]hc»mo yhh fixer av Qqaw«4. Ti ».n#wer ta a 

buuk CullUtd "Tlte ftector Ourrccted/' Dy WjiMiun TuwvJI.BJX 

UucsLLiMfeA Bacna : GOfli^fclnlnir tlw Story (^ Dfebofmb Wil Bvraki Bii-^ 

fidV ].jmteiua.tlmii uvtr l^iiul ahd JnnMhiint » PliidBjiti l^mt vad 

tneFrnj^eruFekitoflion tt the Dfidtcmtku of tirt Temyiii. Bf fi. Tm- 

TiJ* NKCxfaLARY QcfRbiu TwcrrTtTNa TUB PEitMiit41^t TuBATim very n»« 
fkil Kiid tiiCHiuf^ tik 1^ (Njinpldered. Aliu n. rLidit I>aHirl[i'tl4]4t or a 
Ciivttn«r. Wlttt tume' t>rup« lu (luetieh the Fltry Btili ut CuJchntar* 
Hj' jKinAtTiuiwelL. lfl>4B. 

Wimlfd bj Mr^ John TanMtMU, !k Klnc'a B&igih W^lk. Ti^topld > 

Brwsr't Bi tu.1* i!^^. Tt^le ftud firvt ftw IriiTU. 
IlAfsV Binu, FuMo. lAftl. TUketidlXfrllcatlcnili^ B.Bechfc 
Tin DAI,* TWAjf CKT. Itjr Jtuec. I am*. T! lie mud laic Iwf* 
CAwaof*"! BiMR^ iag&, Tlu3 Tfttilisj ftud end, 

Wilntcit bjr P. J?iJ*ft Prifiter, BircutmetdT Brbtdl. 

AbltABf Ac mfe IRH, wLtlt^Irr Wilhoilt tllifl Omntwtiioii. 
Wwb»d by J. S. JM, 1A. Orcnfleld Stmt. UTirrsiaal. 

Loire^if M*»*iPi«rB van ltn-4, «k1 l?ia, 

HoHrrtf tB Ccirretf{iatt1lfiiU* 

Wr aAoK »ft?-* liffc* nrt'itat flw KWw^ffT ipfrA n fonff infdUted and mWff 
im$mr^nff feMer/™™ Luc.* toU/WoHUrr, .ftwd, 

J^irW prto wfl*&- fftWii .fljT el^B» et^te* uf M9. IM. onrf yv. it».wm 
ttptitietrtiim to ikt r^ubtttfm-. 

A /btf ammhtsKit ^'Kqvm ahp Qotrntia, Vale, L to« ti«HP 
TMg lOHif be had by ordrr q/'anji' SookMclUr or J 

•' NoT» AHA Qurktm"' m jinhlinhaii itt mmti on FtviaV' «» tAal ti« 
CSnmttFV Smk*^km mmn rw^iiv fl^pidt in Mai n^;r4l'i>m!fi4i, «wl 
ri>f/jvi^ '^^iiKPi fo (Afir b'^wiwpWJkina 011 the StitMitiilft. 

"NitmAmailirrntwa^' u n/m itmud M Mtmihlf Pftfti'.j'^ tkaeoif^ 
Vtmeru-f af ihiiiN! v^hu mnj/ citiiff knaA d dUtcidttf IM proclfrwip the 1 

■■ ■' ■ ' firpivinB it momahf' J^^"^ k— -i- 

" iM^j jftruwnffiPii dfrVPl /hsfli tAe 

Htimi^td jrvrJtly .V prifiArf ?, fir jtn'fft rft^iA?!*© 1^ 

wtrklif jViimAFn^THrijv Aahv itUni||rd u 
I /aixmr (/(Ae />u6{uAe}', Mr. QEonee Bui,, No. IMr^toet Street. 

Jiut published, New and Cheaper Edition, 
price \s. t or by Post for \$. 6d. 

. How to Live and What to Live fori 
th ample Rules f r Diet, Retrimen, and Seif- 
ManaKement : totrether with instructions for 
■eouring health, lonsevlty, and that sterling 
happimsH only attainable through the judi- 
cious observance of a well-regulated course of 
lift. By A PHYSICIAN. 

London : PIPER, BROTHERSaC0.,tS.Pa. 
ternoiter Row 5 HANNAY, 63. Oxford 
Street i MANN, 39. ComhUl ( and aUBook- 


Vt my money? or. Thoughts about 

Safe Investments. 

" Exceedinsly usef\il to parties desirous of 
ascertaininir the best mode of Inreetlng their 
money." — Htrapath'a Journal. 

To be had, price >«., of the Author, 
T. 8. HARVEY, la. Pall Mall East i WASH- 
BOURNE a CO., Ivy Lane < and all Book- 

Applir fbr Sixth Edition, and lent Poet Free 

Thie Day, In ftap. 8T0m prloe 3«. 

AND APOPHTHEGMS extracted (bv 
permission) ftrom some of the Writinge of 

"... deserve the individual prominenoe 
given them." — CUrical Journal. 

** Carefully and inteUlgenUy aelMtod.". 
Leader^ Jva. 13. 

*' The compiler will be thanked by a na- 
meroui publie.** — JToneoi^/brmist, Jan. SI. 



Feb. 17. 1855.] 




GUBEB indiji^tlQa {djapcpn^.X coQstlpatioQ 
{VUl(lJiTT]ia><i, d; ■fiQ'tery , n-crvniunfiMi, bi^liLiilii' 
UHtUld li'Fcr cumpUinU^ HatulcDcy. dhUn- 
, acIdLt]^, hru-tburn. [t&1 iiftAI Iciti uf IM 
M^mtU Dtrvuufl bvul^izhe-j [lualHiCis, uoEpCS In 
file head &tid van, utltn b &1ni(i«t crtrr ii&rE 
6rf the bodVn tEc tluulciurtux^ facc(H.-1ic. chmnic 
laflumnfelioii, cuuccr imd tiJi.-eniion of th« 
ttomieli.Tvlaiii A,t the pli of Lbe stomach luid 
between iJ^ie «houLdent crysiiseljuiT «rupU<>n« «f 
fluitktii, boili ttid carbuncl^i, impuntiiia and 
IWYerty of tlve l>bio<], «raft3]*H unujrh.astlnnii, 
con*«miitioTi4 drurflf. Tlnfumatiim. (rout, 
aaiiKa iLiwi iiTclcnfH dndnc prcsufliicy^ mftcT 
e»tJnE'i €^ B.t «C!ft. luir BiiiTiii, apuini, crtLtnm, 
ffil]ct)tktili«« ■pleieEi^ ConefBl dcbihty, inqai^- 
tude, Blr*?i4pMnp»> InVfiluota^' blilBhinfr, p^^ 
rftiyFia> trt'mora, diiMk^! to BH'ici J^ , iclifietiLflir for 
itudy> licwii of iTictnory, dbluBioni.vcrtUto, blrjo4 
l&tbe >iend^ f Jtbaustir^il, tt]tl»ru;hob\ffr«und- 
IsH ftfmr, ind«diiat), wrein^bedntM, tbauj*lit^ of 
idd^deitnijctliiiiK mnd many otJiet t5CpinT>liitiiLtg, 
ItfatmoRvvern the ben food lor inf ii(s au*l 
lUVmUib jKntfrnMy, ah It never tiiroi «Gkl nu 
Hit wvfUiv«t ftoniiitili^ nut iDEerieref vltb a 
eoadllberiU di?t. but imj^rt^ n liesltlty r«lbb 
for Ititicb Ksid dinner, and retlore! Ihefneultr 
t^ db!«Btiq'a, iwd nervrjiic and niiLitcultreriemr 
to tbt tnttat erfpffb'Led, In whooplne e'»usb, 
nuu1ea,small-pc»XT imitchiekeTi or wbid ipt'ir, 
it rtuideTB ali mecll'"me «n peril ■iom'i ^y f«^ 
morinj; All uiflnmmn.t«-jr^' Riui ff»ver>''li "ymih- 

Ikportant CAvnoir againtt the feArfhl 
onogen of >pnri<ms imitationi : — The Vice- 
Chancellor Sir William Page Wood granted 
an Injunction on March 10. 1854. against 
Alfred Hooper NeviU, for imitating *'Du 
Bany'i Revalenia Arabica Food." 

SABRY, DU BABRT.Ac CO., 77. Regent 
Street, London. 

A few out (ifiOJHO Curet: 
Cture Nii. fiS.iH i — '*I hiTc iuffered thew 
fhlTt}^-tbn:£ yeijn eoatlELually trom diwuied 
fiuufs. «^»tEtlug of blood, iiv^T dFrATiereirbem. 
j|«AiVi4!Ht Bidilng In tlie em-i, o^nEtip^tion, 
dfhiLf ly, #hurtnrfi af hreiith Rnd ccuMfli ; unA 
duiinff thiit r^riod tiJten mJ much nK-didnc, 
that Ic*n wiftlr wy 1 JmVE laid out upwarda 
at a thf^u^Add |jfiUEid« with the chetiiiala nml 
dbc^qn. I hAVG ^^ctiially vorn otit twu tncdhnd 
Bttzn duriDc my ■.! 9 mttn U, without finding: nloy 
imptovftnciLt In niy licaUh. Indeed I woj ia 
utter dcjipulir. Kud iitvi:!r ex)M;cted to^etu^tr 
It, H-bcn I wn* lurtuuiite enough to hei-ijrne 
uq^uiinltd i*ilh yuur KevalentA Areyea ; 
which, Hc-*Tfn W rirtiJsetJ, resttKn-i^ ine l» » 
atAl« irf health whieli J Innj; ^inct.' it^av^TTtfi nf 
attainiDiT. My lujigre^ Uvcr, stamH^liL. }iB;ud, 
imtl tan, at« all liirht, my bcarlbi; pi^rfixt, and 
HUT recovery In a mavTcl Iq all my an^Mahit- 
aneei, I am, re«peetfuLI]r, 

** JAjhis Kobbbtw. 
*' Bridgehonw, Frimley, April 3, 1854." 
No.iSJSTt. Mdjnr-Gtticml KmSt mrt of ffc- 
aeral dcliility mtd ticrrauBi^fsii. I^Tiph ^,H0. 
Captftlb Purkc^ D. Bhiirhatn, R.Tf^T Whn w*a 
(Mtred of t\ietiti'-H:VCii yt-ara' dyaLiriMila in wx 
WKkr UlJie. Cupe No. a&,4l6. Willia t Hunt, 
£iq«,EiirrUtc:r'Kt-Lfiiw,«l3ity y«fii^' ]Mrtiai ijh- 
nUyfis. No>31!t»iH. CmjjtuJn Aiien, reconlina 
tht ctjJi! uf a lady from epikiiitiir Hi*. No. 186,419. 
Tbt Rev. ChBrlPf Ktrr. a i-ure of fUtictlounl 
dijorderv. Nn. S!*JftHn Tiu? Key, Tbomai Mlit- 
ater^ctina nf Ave y^wrfi* nervonannti with apflami 
and d.ily voFi>]tin«^ No. ^Mif* I*r* JamH 
aboriasd, iatc vof^Bwa ia the f«th BegiiDenit 
aciijt! Lif dropay. 

No. «.418. Dr. Gries, Magdeburg, record- 
ing the cure of his wife from pulmonary con- 
sumption, with night sweats and ulcerated 
lungs, which had resisted all medicines, and 
•jroeared a hopeless case. No. 52,42 1 . Dr. Gat- 
tiker, Zurich t cure of cancer of the stomach 
and fearfully distressing vomitings, habitual 
flatulency and colic. All the aboye parties 
will be happy to answer any inquiries. 

In qajilvlem, tultjubly jmRktd for ill eli- 
mattt^ Biid wlUi full inatruianjtlS -. lib.* is, 
M,iSlb., 43. fiflf. , sib., lU. s islb.,¥tir„ i »tiper- 
refliiftri, lib,, &r. i 5lb,, llj. ; ilb . flto, t HHb , 
1^, The 1 (Jib . B Md mh . earriaf e f rw , <n po«- 
offlcc order. Bury, Du Bttrry. ii Ciu^ 77* 
Kegent 1>itreet, L^indtm; Fortnuni, Mamin, iL 
Co ♦ purTcyors to Her MajcttT, PiccxJilty ± 
mlKJ It on. Gractehurch Htn^ % 58ft> Strand i of 
Barclay, EdwurfLi, button, BaDe«r, HaniLay, 
Newbcj^rj, Knd may bt ordered thronjfh all rt- 
iq^eetabte EbokKllcTi^ Gnxxn, and Chemlatj^, 

Founded A.D. 184S. 


H. E. Bkknell.Esq. 
T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. 

G. U. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evans, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
J. H.Ooodhart.Esq. 

T. Grinell, Etq. 

J. Hunt, Esq. 

J. A. I^thbrfdge,Esq. 

E. Lucas, Esq. 

J. Lys Seager, Esq. 

J. B. White, Esq. 

J. Carter Wood, Esq. 


W.Whateley,Esq.,Q.C. i George Drew.Eeq. 

T. Orissell, Esq. 

PAl/stetan.— William Rich. Basham,M.D. 

Z7anX-ers. — Messrs. Cooks, Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difficulty in pay- 
ine a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest, 
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Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
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[No. 278. 

sideratioQ that makes conversation with the living 
a Uiing much more desirable and useful, than 
consultmg the dead ; would the living but be in- 
quisitive after truth, and apply their thoughts 
with attention to the gaining of it, and be in- 
d^erent where it was found, so thej could but 
find it. 

The first requisite to the profiting by books, b 
not to judge of opinions by the authority of the 
writers ; none have the right of dictating but God 
himself, and that because he is truth itself. AU 
others have a right to be followed as far as I, t. e. 
as far as the evidence of what they say convinces ; 
and of that my own understanding alone must be 
judge for me, and nothing else. If we made our 
own eyes our guides, and admitted or rejected 
opinions only by the evidence of reason, we should 
neither embrace or refuse any tenet, because we 
find it published by another, of what name or 
character soever he was. 

You say you lose many things because they slip 
from you : I have had experience of that myself, 
but for that my Lord Bacon has provided a sure 
remedy. For as I remember, he advbes some- 
where, never to go without pen and ink, or some- 
thing to write with, and to be sure not to neglect 
to write down all thoughts of moment that come 
into the mind. I must own I have omitted it 
oflen, and have often repented it. The thoughts 
that come unsought, and as it were dropt into the 
mind, are commonly the most valuable of any we 
have, and therefore should be secured, because 
they seldom return again. You say also, that you 
lose many things, because your thoughts are not 
steady and strong enough to pursue them to a just 
issue. Give me leave to think, that herein you 
mistake yourself and your abilities. Write down 
your thoughts upon any subject as far as you have 
at any time pursued them, and then go on again 
some other time when you find your mind dis- 
posed to it, and so till you have carried them as 
far as you can, and you will be convinced, that, 
if you have lost any, it has not been for want of 
strength of mind to bring them to an issue, but 
for want of memory to retain a long train of rea- 
sonings, which the mind having once beat out, is 
loth to be at the pains to go over again ; and so 
your connexion and train having slipped the 
memory, the pursuit stops, and the reasonino^ is 
neglected before it comes to the last conclusion. 
If you have not tried it, you cannot imagin the 
difference there is, in studying with, and without 
a pen in your hand ; your ideas, if the connexions 
of them that you have traced be set down, so that 
without the pains of recollecting them in your 
memory you can take an easy view of them again, 
will lead you further than you expect. Try, and 
tell me if it is not so. I say not this that I should 
not be plad to have any conversation upon what- 
ever pomts you shall employ your thoughts about. 

Propose what you have of this kind freely, and 
do not suspect that it will interfere with mj 

Know that besides the pleasure Uiat it is to 
converse with a thinking man and a lover of truths 
I shall profit by it more than you. This you 
would see by the frequency of my visits, if yoa 
were within the reach of them. 

That which I think of Deut. 12. 15. is this, that 
the reason why it is said. As the Roebuck and the 
jEIart, is because (Levit 17.), to prevent idolatry, 
in offering the blood to other gods, they were com- 
manded to kill all the cattle that they eat, at the 
door of the tabernacle, as a peace-offerins, and 
sprinkle the blood on the altar; but wilde lieasts^ 
that were clean might be eaten though their blood 
was not offered to God (v. 12.), because being 
killed before they were taken, tieir blood could 
not be sprinkled on the altar; and therefore it 
sufficed in such cases, to pour out their blood 
wherever they were killed and cover it with dust* 
And for the same reason, when the camp was 
broken up, wherein the whole people were m the 
neighbourhood of the tabernacle, during their 
forty years* passage from Egypt to Canaan, and 
the people were scattered in habitations through 
all the land of promise ; those who were so rar 
from the Temple were excused (Deut. 12. 21.22.) 
from killing their tame cattle at Jerusalem, and 
sprinkling their blood on the altar. No more was 
required of them than in killing a roebuck or any 
other wilde beast ; they were only to pour out the 
blood and cover it with dust, and so they might 
eat of the fiesh. These are my thoughts concern- 
ing this passage. 

What you say about critics and critical inter- 
pretations, particularly of the Scriptures, is not 
only in m^ opinion true, but of great use to be 
observed m reading learned commentators, who 
not seldom make it their business to show in whaC 
sense a word has been used by other authors; 
whereas the proper business of a commentator is 
to show in what sense it was used by the author 
in that place, which in the Scripture we have 
reason to conclude was most commonly in the 
ordinary vulgar sense of the word or phrase known 
in that time, because the books are written, as you 
rightly observe, and adapted to the people. If 
critics had observed this, we should have m their 
writings lesse ostentation and more truth, and a 
great deal of darkness now spread on the Scrip- 
tures had been avoided. I have a late proof of 
this myself, who have lately found in some pas- 
sages of Scripture a sense quite different from 
what I understood them in before, or from what I 
found in commentators; and yet it appears so 
clear to me, that when I see you next, I shall 
dare to appeal to you in it. But I read the Word 
of God without prepossession or bias, and come 
to it with a resolution to take my sense from it, 

Feb. 24. 1855.] 



and not with a design to brins it to the sense of 
any system. How much that has made men wind 
and twist and pull the text in all the several sects 
of Christians, I need not tell you. I design to 
take my religion from the Scripture, and then 
whether it suits, or suits not, any other denomin- 
ation, I am not much concerned : for I think at 
the last day, it will not be inquired, whether I 
was of the Church of England or Geneva, but, 
whether I sought or embraced truth in the love 
of it. 

The proofs I have set down in my book of one 
infinite, independent, eternal Being, satisfies me ; 
and the gentleman that designed others and pre- 
tended that the next proposition to that of the 
existence of a self-sufficient being should be this, 
that such a being is but one, and that he could 
prove it antecedent to his attributes, viz. infinity, 
omnipotency, &c., I am since pretty well satisfied, 
pretended to what he had not. And I trouble not 
myself any further about the matter. As to what 
you say on the occasion, I agree with you, that 
the ideas of modes and actions of substances are 
usually in our minds before the idea of substance 
itself; but in this I differ from you, that I do not 
think the ideas of operations of things are antece- 
dent to the ideas of their existence ; for they must 
exist before they can any ways affect us to make 
us sensible of their operations, and we must sup- 
pose them to be before they operate. 

The Essay is going to be printed again ; I wish 
you were near, that I might show you the several 
alterations and additions I have made, before they 
go to the press : the warm weather that begins now 
with us, makes me hope I shall now speedily get 
to town. If any business draws you thither this 
summer, I hope you will order it so, that I may 
have a good share of your company; nobody 
values it more than I, and I have a great many 
things to talk with you. 

I am, Sir, 
Your most affectionate humble servant, 

John Locke. 

Oats, May 16, 1699. 

« Timoleon'' (Vol. xi., p. 98.5. — M. K S., re- 
ferring to the Taum and Country Magazine for 
1769, asks "what is known of his (Pope's) tragedy 
of Timoleonf" I think it probable that the 
magazine has erroneously ascribed to Pope what 
belongs to another. I have before me " Timoleon^ 
a tragedy, as it is acted at the Theatre Royal, 
by His Majesty's Servants.: London, printed for 
J. Watts, at the printing-office in Wild Court, 
near Lincoln's Inn Fields, 1730." The dedication 
to the king (George II.) is signed by the author, 
Benjamin Martyn, who statM that in the thfard act 

he has " endeavoured to copjr from His Majestj 
the virtues of a king who is a blessing to his 

The play, in blank verse throughout, is coane 
and obscene ; the epilogue, spoken by a Uzdy^ dis- 
gustingly so. There is a ghost scene in the fourth 
act, the idea of which has been made up from the 
chamber scene in Hamlet and the banquet scene 
in Macbeth. I may add that the play is hand- 
somely printed in 8vo., and my copy is sumptu- 
ously bound in crimson morocco, richly tooled 
and gilt, evidently of the date of the work. 

L. A. B. W. 

Pope and Warburton. — The assertion that 
Warburton published the Ethic epistles of Pope 
in 1742 {Literary anecdoteSy v. 578.) seems to be 
contrary to the joint evidence of Pope and War- 
burton, p. 586. It may be said, however, that he 
published the Ethic epistles because the Essay 
on man was formerly entitled Ethic epistles, the 
first hook to U. St. John, Z. Bolinghrohe. The 
date only may be erroneous. The very precise 
statement of Warburton as to the extent of his 
editorial doings with regard to Pope had been 
before printed by bishop Kurd. 



The following remarks relate to a MS. chro- 
nicle of English history in my possession, some 
extracts from which were inserted in " N. & Q.," 
Vol. xi., p. 103. At the time I made those ex- 
tracts, I thought that the chronicle in question 
might be a translation, or a copy of some known 
MS. ; and that others might be able to help me 
to its source, though I had been unable to trace 
it myself. 

I think I can now show that it is, as I supposed, 
neither a translation nor a copy, but an indepen- 
dent and unknown chronicle. Of course this 
might be established by sufficient examinations of 
the MS. ; but I wish to call attention to the fol- 
lowing interesting fact, which is; that it is quoted 
by Speed in his History of Oreat Britain, and 
always as an independent authority. 

It is well known that Speed was assisted by 
some of the most eminent literary men of his day, 
Cotton, Selden, Barkham, &c. ; he enjoyed their 
friendship, and shared their treasures of know-^ 
ledge. And though probably the best use was 
not always made of the rich materials at com- 
mand, nor always a right estimation of their value 
held : yet, when the great historian quotes as from 
an independent source, his opinion will be allowed 
to have some considerable weight. His references 
to the chronicle do not convey much Information 
about it : he calls it " antiq. MS.,** ^ an old MS." 




(widi er without the Dumber of the chapter to 
which reference is made), " an ancient MS^** ** a 
namelesse old MS." It maj seem strange that he 
should apply these epithets to a MS^ which at the 
time he wrote could not be more than 150 years 
old; yet such is the case. With regard to its 
authorship, I fear we are likely to remain in the 
dark: obviously, as Speed was ignorant of the 
author, it does not seem likely that we shall dis- 
cover him at this distance of time, except by the 
nerest accident 

It will be allowed, however, that the MS. de- 
rives a peculiar value as having been used by 
Speed : and invested with his authority, and the 
interest thus attadiing to it, we must be content 
to leave it until some more ancient user of this 
interesting work can be produced; or indeed 
HBtS, by sadi an accident as scmietimes happens, 
the author is discovered. 

I was led to examine the pages of Speed, after 
having looked into most of the well-known chro- 
Bides, from the fact of my family having been 
eoDoected with the Speeds; and from our poe- 
sessing books and MSS. of theirs, one being in 
the historian's own handwriting, — David's Harp 
tuned unto Tears. I had not before supposed thie 
book to have belonged to him, since only one his- 
torical MS. has come down to us through his 
family : and I could not think that this long- 
neglected volume was Speed*s one possession, as it 
seems likely to have been. In company with a 
friend, the Rev. J. Sansom, I compared Speed 
with the MS., and we found the results to be as 
I have stated. A few extracts are subjoined : 

«. Speed, edit. 1632, p. 271. : 

•« Arthur threatened to have a tribute firom Borne : for 
in his letters to that end, sent unto the Senate, thus in on 
old MS. we find it indited : * Understand, among you of 
Some, that I am King Arthur of Britaine, and freely it 
hold and shall hold ; and at Rome hastily will I be, not 
to give you truage, but to have truage of you : for Con- 
stantine, that was Helen's sonne, and other of my an- 
cestors, conquered Rome, and thereof were Emperours; 
and that they had and held, I shall have yourz Goddis 
grace." (In margin, "A namelesse old MS. cap. cliv.") 

MS. fol. 45 b. (cap. Ivui.) : 

* Understondeth among you of Rome that I am Kyng 
Artur of Britayne, and frely it holde and shall holde, and 
at Rome hastily will I be, not to giue you truage, but for 
to haue truage of you, for Constantyn that was Heleyne's 
sone, and other of myn auncestris, conquerid Rome, and 
thereof were £mperoars ; and that thay hadde and held 
I diall haue thorous Goddis grace." 

fi. Speed, p. 95. Account of the victory of 
Marius, King of Britain, over Roderic, King of 
the Picts — his trophy. He "also in an old MS. 
is called Westmer^ cap. xliii.*' 

MS. fol. 20 b. (cap xxxii.) His victory, trophy. 
"And at that stoon (trophy) begynnetb West- 
xnerland, after the name of We Marius.** 

7. Speed, p. 104. Eleutheriua's letter, sent bj 
Fa^n and Damian to Lucius, encouraged him to 
be oaptized. Thirty-one heathen flipmens ** oon- 
vertea into so many Chnstian bishops, whereof 
London, Yorke, and Carlein [margin, "Chester, as 
saith an old MS., chap. xxxiv.'*J, now S. David's, 
were made metropolitants.^ 

MS. ibl. 22 b. (cap. zxxiv.). Exactly the same 
story, more circumstantially told ; reference is to 
"And the setis of the archebisshoppis were in Ssode 
citeez, that is to say, York, Chestre^ and London ; 
and to thaym 3, the othir 28 bisshops were obe- 

8. Speed, p. 117.: 

** The testimonies of these many writers aot?nt]ifltand« 
ing, together with the jdaee and drcomstaiices of hia 
dmiith (Antonimts Batshnus CaraemUa^s), and the person 
by whom it was committed, the Brkith historians do 
contradict, reporting him to be slain in Britaine, in bat- 
tell against the Picts, by one OBoramseus, a man of a loW 
and obscure birth.*' (Margin, ««C»d MS., capw cxxxvi")* 

MS. fol. 23 b. (cap. xxxvi) : 

'* Curcutnce coma of power kyn .... gadrid he a 
great ost of Peightis and Britons^ and firast with Bosstoii, 
and slow him," &c 

(. Speed, 203. Origin of the words Wednesday 
and Friday ; same given (and referred to in margmj 

MS. foL 30. in margin is "No de Wodennesdaj 
et Ffriday." 

f. Speed, 26a-9. Account of Arthur's birth; 
and of Merlin's magic in behalf of Uter ; remark* 
ably agrees with (margin, " an aacient MS.**) 

MS. fol. 37. " Meriyn chaun^ed the kyng in 
to the likenesse of the £rll Grorlois," &c. 

Such extracts might be multiplied very consider-' 
ably, but these are probably sufficient. 

The earlier part of the MS. agrees remarkably 
in some points with the " Brut.* Unfortunatdy 
I have not been able to compare it with' Sir F« 
Madden*s valuable edition of the La|amon: no 
copy of that work is in the Bodleian Library 
(though De Lincy*s from the Paris MS. is there), 
and of course it was only La|amon*s "Brut" that 
our unknown author could have used. But if he 
did use if, I feel pretty confident that he used it 
only as he used Geoffry of Monmouth : only as 
every younger lustorian must use and have re- 
course to the works of the older. 

The MS. is a well-written folio, containii^ 
actually 212 folios. Unfortunately there are three 
gaps in the middle, about 14 folios altogether being 
lost. The halves of six remain, and the quarters of 
two have apparently been neatly cut witn a knife! 
The rest is in excdlent condition. Thinkii^ this 

* It wfll be seen that many of the reftrenoes ta the 
chapters are incorrect. How to aecoiuit Pit thia I do not 
know, unleaa by the carelessaess of those engaged in 
transcribing, &c. 

Fbb. 24. 1855.] 



notice might be interestii^ to some, I have for- 
warded it to " N. & Q." X S. D. 
Pembroke College, Oxford. 


^ Every person in this eotaUrg has a ds^ to perform at 
^ds motneKt" — The marquis of Labbdowne, Feb. 8. 

It is about fifty years since I read a clever little 
book entitled The arts of life. It consists of 
essays on food, clothings and shelter. With snch 
a help to the light of nature I have always be- 
lieved that food, cloihii^, and shelter are the in- 
dispensable reqairements of man. 

After this exordium, need I announce the subject 
in hand ? We cannot reflect on the necessities of 
life vrithout also reflecting on the consequences of 
want and exposure — without being transported, 
by the irresistible power of associated ideas, to 
the camp before Sebastopol ! 

The question as to food and clothing may be 
despatched in ten lines. Every man knows what 
are his own requirements, and with such data 
arithmetic would teach what are the requirements 
of thirty thousand men. Common sense, and a 
decent share of official activity, would have ob- 
Tiated all complaints with regard to those articles. 
More might be said, but it would be useless to 
dwell on circumstances which all vividly remem- 
ber and many must ever lament. 

The necessity of shelter is as obvious as that of 
food and clothing; but on the nature of the shelter 
best adapted to a winter encampment, there is 
scope for variety of opinion. It is the point which 
I now propose to discuss. 

When it was announced that wooden huts were 
to be provided for our troops in the Crimea, I 
doubted the wisdom of the measure ; and when it 
was reported that carpenters had been engaged to 
set them up, I uttered an exclamation which would 
not bear repetition. 

With entire approval of the object in view — 
the diminution of human sufferings — I objected 
to the plan adopted on the score of its incongruity. 

One of the elements of success in war is rapidity 
of movement ; and assuming, with regard to two 
hostile armies, an equality m other respects — it 
may be called the prime element of success. 

xTow, admitting that the huts could be set up as 
required, what is to become of an army with such 
a mass of additional camp-equipage? How are 
the huts to be taken to pieces at short warning? 
How can the means of transport be provided ? It 
is certain that an army so encumbered, and re- 
c^uired to advance or retire with rapidity, must 
either bum its cogUy huts, or abandon them to 
the enemy. 

In illustration of tkk crgnment I must have re- 
course to the logic of figures. It is required to 

provide shelter for an army of 30,000 men. ^ Now, 
according to major James, the old circular tent, 
which accommodated 12 men, weighed 43rb. ; and 
aecording to field-mar^al Raglaa the woodea 
huts, which may accommodate about 24 men^ 
weigh each 560(Hb. The number of tents required 
would therefore be 2500, and the entire we^ht 
would be 107,5001b. The number of huts required 
would be 1250, and the entire weight would be 
7,000,0001b. Therefore, the weight of ihe tents 
compared with that of the huts would be in the 
proportion of 1 to 65 f 

The description of the tents may be seen in 
the Military dictionary, 1805. The weight of the 
huts is given in the despatch of which an extract 
follows : — 

« Before Sebastopol, Jan. 18. 

** Every effort is making, and with tolerable success, ia 
landing and putting up the hats; their great weight 
(2^ tons each) is a serious obstacle to their conveyance 
to the camp, with our limited transport. £ach hut re- 
quires three stripped artillery waegons, with from eight 
to ten horses each, or 180 men. Much sickness continues 
to prevail. — Raouin." 

The tents, we are assured, afford a very insuf- 
ficient shelter. I am quite sensible of it^ and 
might have made no objection to the huts bad I 
not devised a substitute. Without any apology, 
here follows my project. 

I propose the same tents with stouter tent-poles, 
stouter tent-pins, and thicker ropes — so as to 
ensure stability in tempestuous weather. I also 
propose an additional covering of some water- 
proof material, whether painted canvas, or felt, or 
otherwise, and a fioor-cloth of the same or other 
similar material. Even plain canvas might an- 
swer the purpose. The apex of the covering should 
be fixed. The rest of the covering might be at- 
tached thereto by hooks or lacings ; and might be 
removed in summer, or be added at nighty or on 
the approach of cold or wet weather. Each tent 
should also be furnished with a spade or iron scoop. 
It would be useful in case of snow, and would 
serve to make trenches to carry off the water, or 
for other sanitary precautions. I have suggested 
felt as a material for the tent-coverings, b^anse 
there is a manufactory of that article at Eupatoria. 
So says M. Anatole de Demidoff. 

As the additions to each tent would scarcely 
double its weight, the whole weight of the camp- 
equipage would still be less than a thirtieth part of 
that of the huts ! 

Those who have occasion to visit foreign coun- 
tries should inquire into the practices and habits 
of the natives. In so doing they would benefit by 
the experience of successive generations. Now! 
can prove, by a short extract, that the nomadic 
tribes of Crimean Tartars protected themselves 
against cold and wet by means very similar to 
those which I have proposed : — 



[No. 278, 

** Loan tentes rsavoir, lea tentes des Tatars nomades] 
•ont d^ esp^ces de hattes portatives en forme circulalre 
et de halt pieds de diam^tre, composes d'un treillage on 
dale de bagaettes ^paisses et larges d'un pouce, formant 
ane esp^ de mar d'appai d'environ qaatre pieds do haul, 
tar leqael se pose an ddme on comble de m^me structure : 
le tout est reconvert de nattes de joncs et d'un feutre 
hrun que U vent et la pluie ne peuvent pinitrer. An 
haut du comble est un trou de deux pieas de diam^tre 
qui sert de passage au lour et k la ftimee : la porte recou- 
yerte d'une natte est la plus ^troite possible. Trois ou 
qaatre coossins rembourres de crin, une petite table basse 
en bois, deux marmites de fer, deux ou trois plats de bois, 
et une natte de joncs, composent tout I'ameublement." — 
Thounmann, cite par M. de Rbuilly, 1806. 


" Their tents [so. the tents of the nomadic Tartars of 
the Crimea] are a sort of portable huts of a circular form, 
and eight feet in diameter, composed of lattice- work or 
hurdle-work of thick sticks about an inch in width, form- 
ing a sort of dwarf- wall of about four feet high, on which 
is placed a dome or roof of the same construction : the 
whole is covered with rush matting and with brown felt 
which neither wind nor rain can penetrate. At the top of 
the roof there is a hole, two feet in diameter, which serves 
to admit light, and for the escape of smoke : the door, 
covered with matting, is as narrow as possible. Three or 
four cushions stuffed with horse-hair, a small low wooden 
table, two iron pots, two or three wooden platters, and a 
rash mat, compose all the furniture." — Thounmann, 
quoted by M. de Reuilly. 

I should state how the idea of this proposition 
arose. It is four months since I gave a brief 
analysis of the Voyage en CrimSe of M. de Reuilly. 
On a re-examination of the volume, I resolved to 
call attention to the waterproof tents therein 
described. But I wished to treat the subject in 
connexion with the wooden huts, on which I 
could procure no reliable information, and the 
extract from M. de Reuilly has therefore remained 
in type about six weeks. 

Having travelled beyond my customary bounds 
in order to bring this project to light, I venture 
to recommend that a trial of it should be made at 
Aldershot. A guard may be required there be- 
fore the time of the approaching encampment, and 
the trial might be made on a small scale. In the 
event of bad weather, I am sure it would con- 
tribute to the health and comfort of the troops. 

It should always be borne in mind, and I lament 
the necessity of repeating such truisms, that man 
in a state of health is the prime motive power — 
that the best devised enterprise must inevitably 
fail without his active agency — and that such 
agency can never be secured without a sufficiency 
of food, of clothing, and of shelter. To provide 
such requirements for the champions of our na- 
tional fame and prosperity is a debt of policy — a 
debt of gratitude — a debt of Christianity. 

Bolton Cornbt. 


A Shropshire Superstition. — A remarkable case 
of a superstition yet lingering in this county having 
come under my notice, I have made farther in- 
quiries, and find it by no. means uncommon. At 
certain places the devil is supposed to exert a 
stronger influence than at others, and this is most 
perceptible in narrow and difficult ways. A 
village stile is a favourite resort of the adversary, 
and when, under such circumstances, an unfor- 
tunate wight attempts the surmounting, he finds 
his effisrts fruitless, till he has turned some article 
of clothing inside out. So strongly is this super- 
stition implanted, that I have heard of women, 
deliberately turning their gowns before crossing 
the stile. The germ of this is doubtless from the 
fact of the devil impeding the progress of those who 
travel along the " narrow way,'* but the ceremony 
used by the annoyed is evidently a propitiation. 

B. C. Wabdb. 


Fishermen^a Superstition. — The following scrap 
is worthy of a nook in your curiosity shop : 

** The herring fishing being very backward, some of 
the fishermen of Buckie, on Wednesday last, dressed a 
cooper in a flannel shirt, with burs stuck all over it, and 
in this condition he was carried in procession through the 
town in a hand-barrow. This was done to * bring better 
luck ' to the fishing. It happened, too, in a village where 
there are no fewer than nine churches and chapels of 
various kinds, and thirteen schools." — Banff JournaL 

A. ChaiiLstbth. 

Salt-spilling. — The probable origin of the 
common superstition as to salt-spilling; did it 
come from the East ? As appears from a passage 
in Cervantes, it was at one time in Spain confined 
to members of a single noble family, the Men- 
dozas. {Don Quixote, vol. vi. ch. lvui. p. 154., 
ed. Paris, 1814.) Abkba. 


"kabbljaauwen" and the "hobks." 

" We must not omit to notice the existence of two fac- 
tions, which, for near two centuries, divided and agitated 
the whole population of Holland and Zealand. One bore 
the title or Hoeks (fishing-hooks^ ; the other was called 
Kaaheljauws (cod-fish). The origin of these burlesqne 
denommations was a dispute between two parties at a 
feast, as to whether the cod-fish took the hook, or the 
hook the cod-fish? This apparently frivolous dispute 
was made the pretext for a serious quarrel ; and the par- 
tisans of the nobles, and those of the towns, raneed them- 
selves at either side, and assumed different badges of 
distinction. The Hoeks, partisans of the towns, wore red 
caps ; the Kaabeliauwt wore grey ones. In Jacqueline's 
quarrel with Philip of Burgundy, she was supported by 
the former; and it was not till the year 1492 that the 
extinction of that popular and turbulent faction struck a 
final blow to the dissensions of both." — Grattan's Hittory 
of the Netherlandtt p. 49. 

Feb. 24, 1855.] 



** On the death of her hnsband the Emperor (Lewis of 
Bavaria), Margaret transferred the government to her 
son William V. for an annual tribute of 26,000 florins. 
Her son, however, not being able to pay this sum, wished 
to resign the government; but the towns opposed his 
doing so. Margaret recalled her abdication, and a civil 
war ensued. The son's partisans were called Kabeljaau- 
iven; the mother's, Hoduehen or Hocks, and for this 
reason : William V. was of the House of Bavaria, and his 
partisans therefore wore the colours of that house — blue, 
with white or silver checkered in oblique angles. From 
these scale-formed angles, William's partisans were called 
Kabeljaauwen ; while the opposite party assumed the 
name of the ffoeks, because the cod-fish {Kabeljaauws) 
is caught by a hook." — Elbert's Geschiedenis der Voder- 
lands, p. 24. 

It strikes me that the version given by the 
Dutch historian is not only by far the more pro- 
bable, but the more allied to common sense. It is 
incredible that a nation should allow itself to be 
divided by civil war in defence of such an argu- 
mentam ad absurdum as that vouched for on the 
authority of the English historian of the Nether- 
lands. I am by no means deeply read in the 
history of this remarkable country ; but I have 
often alluded to the English version of the origin 
of the two factions in the hearing of eminent 
Dutch scholars, all of whom impugn its veracity. 

C. H. GUNN. 



(In completion of List at Vol. x., pp. 361. 520.) 
I find that the second part of my communi- 
cation, containing corrections and additions to 
Manning's List of Monumental Brasses was, in 
consequence of some mistake, not inserted ; and 
as several readers of " N. & Q." have inquired of 
me the cause of the omission, I again forward it 
for their satisfaction. 

Barking. Elizabeth Powie (lost). 

Barking. A group of seven children. 

Coggeshall. Thomas Peacock, 1580. 

Coggeshall. A civilian and wife. 

Harlow. A knight and lady, c. 1430. 

Hariow. E. Bugge and wife, 1582. 

Harlow. W. Newman, 1602. 

Harlow. R. Lawson and wife, 1617. 

Latton. A lady, c. 1560. 

Latton. A civilian and wife, c. 1600. 

Latton. Francis Frankelin. 1604. 


Upminster. A lady Hoose in vestry\ c. 1450. 

Upminster. A lady (loose in vestry), c. 1630. 



Trinity Almshouse. John Barstaple and wife, 1411. 

Fairford. Sir E. Tame and ladies, 1583. 


Nether Wallop. Lady Gore, abbess, 1434. 
CrondalL A priest, e. 1870. 

Headboum. John Kent, scholar, c. 1460. 
Kympton. R. Thomburgh and wives, 1622. 
Rmgwood. John Prophete ( ?"), priest, 1416 ? 
Somboume, King's. Two civilians, c. 1380. 
Thruxton. Sir John Lysle, 1407. 


Hereford, Cathedral. Richard de la Barr, priest (cross), 

Hereford, Cathedral. Richard Delamare and wife (fine), 

Hereford, Cathedral. Edmund Frowcetoure, dean, 1529. 


.Buckland. W. Langley, priest, 1478. 
Flamsted. John Oundeby, priest, 1414. 
Hinxworth. John Lambarde and wife, 1487. 
Langley, Abbot's. Thos. Cogdell and wives, 1607. 
Litchworth. A civilian and wife, c. 1400. 
Litchworth. Thos. Wyriey, priest, 1475. 
Sandon. J. Fitz Geoffrey and wife, 1480. 
Wyddial. Margt. Plumbe, 1575. 

Ash. A widow with canopy, c. 1440. 

Ash. A knight and lad v. 

Ash. John Brooke, 1582. 

Boxley. W. Snell, priest, 1451. 

Birchington. A civilian, c. 1440. 

Birchington. Inscription, and children of JohnJCryspc, 

Chart, Great. A notary, e. 1470. 
Chart, Great. W. Goldwelle and wife, 1485. 
Chart, Great. N. Toke and three wives, 1680. 
Dover, St. Mary's. A Greek inscription, c, 1600. 
Mailing, West. A heart and scrolls (figure lost). 
Snodland. Roger Perot, 1486. 
Snodland. Edw. Bischoptre and wife, 1487. 
Snodland. Wm. Tilghman and wives, 1541. 
St. Peter, Thanet. A female figure (lost). 
Wye. J. Andrew, T. Palmer and wife, 1467. 


Isleworth. A knight, c. 1450. 
Isleworth. Margt. Dely, nun, 1561. 
Stanwell. R. de Thorp, rector, 1408. 


Charwelton. Thos. Andrewe and wife, 1490. 
Chipping Warden. W. Smarte, priest, 1468. 
Chipping Warden. R. Makepeace and wife, 1584. 
Doddington. W. de Pateshull, 1359. 
Floore. T. Knaresburght and wife, 1498. 
Kelmarsh. M. Osbeme and wives, 1584. 
Naseby. John Oliver and wife, 1446. 
Spratton. R. Parnell and wife, 1474. 

F. S. Gbowsb. 

Mimx finXti. 

" Oilins hoilins:'-^ In Cumberland this puzzling 
ejaculation is in frequent use amongst the common 
people ; as, for instance, when a woman is sending 
off an unwilling urchin to school, she will say, 
*♦ Oilins hoilins, but thee shall go.*' A learned 
gentleman from St. Bees' College explains it to be 
a corruption of the Latin nolent voleM. J. E. J. 



[No. 278. 

Derivation of " retract^ — Trench On the Studif 
of Words, 4th edition, 18^3. The learned writer 
of this invaluable little book says, at p. 34. : 

" To retract means properly, as its derlyatioo plainly 
declares, no more than to handle over again, to reconsider 
.... bat has oome to signify, as we commonly use 
it, to withdraw." 

I would humblj submit that the latter is the 
original and proper meaning of the word, as it is 
derived from reiraho'Xi'Ctym^ to withdraw, and 
not from retracto-avi-atum^ to handle over again ; 
or would not our verb have been retractate f 

Johnson gives rHract as from troho. The 
London EncydopiBdia has retraction^ act of wiO^ 
drawing a declared opinion; retratkatiomy change 
of declared opinion. Coius. BonfiBTS. 

Bradford, Yorkshire. 

A Literal^ Critical^ Poetical Transcript from 
Lloyd's : — 

« A Black and a White, with a Brown and a Green, 

And also a Grey at Lloyd's room may be seen ; 

With Parson and Clark, then a Bishop and Pryor, 

And Waters *, how strange, adding fuel to fire ; 

While at the same time, 'twill sure pass belief. 

There's a Winter, a Garland, Furse, Bud, and a Leaf; 

With Freshfield, and Greenhill, Lovegrove, and a Dale ; 

Though there's never a Breeze, there's alw^s a Sale. 

No Music is there, though a Whistler and Harper ; 

There's a Blunt and a Sharp, many flats, but no sharper. 

There's a Daniell, a Samuel, a Sampson, an Abell ; 

The first and the last write at the same table. 

Then there's Virtue and Faith there, with Wylie and 

Disagreeing elsewhere, yet at Lloyd's never clash. 

There's a Long and a Short, Smafi, Little, aad Fatt, 

With one Robert Dewar, Who ne'er wears his hat. 

No drinking goes on, though there's Porter and Sack. 

Lots of Scotchmen there are, beginning with Mac; 

McDonnald, to wit, Madntoah and McGhie, 

McFarquhar, McKenzie, McAndrew, Mackie. 

An evangelised Jew, and an Infidel Quaker ; 

There's a Bunn and a Pye with a Cook and a Baker. 

Though no Tradesmen or Shopmen are found, yet here- 

Is a Taylor, a Saddler, a Paynter, a Smyth ; 

Also Butler and Chapman, with Baker and GloT«r 

Come up to Lloyd's room their bad risks to cover. 

Fox, Shepherd, Hart, Buck, likewise come every day; 

And though many an ass, there is only one Bray. 

There's a Mill and Miller, A-dam and a Poole, 

• A CoBStable, Sheriff, a Law, and a Rule. 

There's a Newman, a Niemann, a Redman, a Pitman, 

Now to rhyme with the last there is no other fit man. 

These, with Young, Cheap, and Lent, Luckie, Hastie, 
and Slow, 

With dear Mr. Allnutt, Allfrey, and Auldjo, 
.. Are all the queer names that at Lloyd's I can show." 

I do not know whether you may deem the above 
lines worthy (^insertion in "N. & Q.;" they were 
written a few y^ars since by a member of Lloyd's. 
Some of the individttals named are now deceased, 

• These three were noted for religions ^putes. 

but A frequenter of Lloyd's in former years will 
recognise all the parties jueationed. N. Y. fi. 


Shipwreck and Disasters at Sea. — Permit me 
to suggest that parties sailing to distant countrieB 
should organise themselves into a committee befiire 
the ship starts (the captain to be diairmanX «m1 
ascertain that she is well provided with all the 
means of escape and safety, so far as human fore- 
sight and care can provide, in case of danger. It 
is proved by toe many melancholy instances, that 
to trust to dte captain's or the owi^s forethought 
and skill is not sufficient. Boi 

Oenuine Rejected Addresses. — Allow me te sos- 
gest, through the columns of " N. & Qi," the pub- 
lication of the above, as a companion to the glo- 
rious shilling's worth of humour lately re-issned. 
F. J. F. Gantillobt. 

Cutty-pipes. — Probably not many know, that 
"cutty" is a corruption of Xtcfotdl, a city of Asia 
Minor, N. E. of Smyrna ; where a species of soft 
white stone is found, which is exported by the 
Turks to Germany, for the mantttactnre of to- 
bacco-pipes. B. H. C. 

Newspapers. — In a paper on " News," read hy 
C. Kemplay, Esq., before the Leeds Philosophiciu 
Society, on Tuesday, Jan. 2, 1855, it was stated 
that the oldest regular newspaper published in 
England was established by Nathaniel Butter in 
1662 ; the oldest in France, by Theophrastus 
Renaudot in the time of Louis AlV., called the 
Gazette de France, in 1632. The EngHshe Mer- 
curie, now in MS. in the British Museum, Mr. 
Kemplay stated to be now clearly established as a 
forgery. B» Bowlbt. 


Friar Bacon's Study. — The following lines, 
found among Upcott's MSS., were written on 
the intended demolition of Friar Bacon's study, 
April 6, 1779 : 

" Roger ! if with thy maeic glasses 
Running, thoa see'st below what passes, 
As when on earth thou didst descry 
With them the wonders of the sky — 
Look down on these devoted walls ! 
Oh I save them — ere thy study &118 1 
Or to thy votaries quick impart 
The secret of thy mystic art : 
Teach us, ere learning's quite forsaken. 
To honour thee, and — save our Bacow! * 

J. Yeoweel. 
Early Disappearance of Publications. — Is it 
generally known how soon publications of merely 
temporary interest utterly disappear? I hare 
lately made great exertions to obtain a celestial 
map, published about forty years ago ; a piece of 
music published some twenty years; ana a co- 

Feb. 24. 1856.] 



loured engr%Ymg^ about fifteen jears old. They 
are ail three as unattainable and forgotten as if 
thej were three hundred years old. Stylites. 



Can any of the waders of •* N. & Q." state 
when the usage of engraying the arms of the 
bishops, together with their sees, was commenced 
in peerage books, and when discontinued f In The 
British Compendium, or, a particular Account of 
all the NohiUty, both Spiritual and Temporal, &c., 
published in 1799, 1 find the whole of the prelates 
have shields engraved of their family arms im- 
paled with the respective sees, and the name of 
each individual placed beneath the shield. That 
this usage should ever have been abandoned is a 
subject of much regret, as all will readily admit 
who have attempted to collect the armorial bear- 
ings of our epifioopal dignitaries ; and it is with 
the hope of directing the attention of the com- 
pilers and publishers of the Peerages of Great 
Britain to tiiis defect, that these remarks are now 
made. Of what use is it, on referring to a peer- 
age for some acoonnt of any prelate, to find only 
a shield containing the arms of his see, which 
nobody wants to consult. Surely, as a temporal 
lord, he has as much rigbt to have his familj arms 
engraved as any lay member of the peerage f It 
would certainly add additional value to a volume, 
if such information were given ; it is due to the 
public, who require this information, and it is also 
due to the individual whose talents have raised 
Lim to the episcopal bench. As to the extra ex- 
pense to be mcurred in engraving these coats of 
arms, I do not suppose for a moment that any 
respectable publisher would object to it. 

F. Madden. 


I request the attention of some legal corre- 
spondent to the followhig Query. 

Mr. Creesj has stated, in his work On the En- 
glish Constitution, that the right of devising real 
property did not exist in England till the reign 
of Henry VIII. (Creesy, p. 102.) He refers to 
Blackstone, i. p. 181. 

I have not found any passage confirmatory of 
this in the edition of Blackstone which came into 
my hands in the first volume ; but in the second, 
p. 83., it is said, — 

« It was not, in genecal, p«rmitted for a man to dispose 
Of his tenements by wiH, after the Conquest, till the reign 
of Henry VIIL, ^iou^ m ffte 8ax<m times it wtuaOowable,'* 

In the same volume also, Blackstone says, con- 

cerning tbe fine levied by an heir in order to bar 
entail, — 

** It seems to have been the intention of that politic 
prince, Henry VIL, to have extended fines to a bar of 
estates-tail, in order to unfetter the more easily the es- 
tates of his powerful nobility, and lay them more open to 
alienations, being well aware that power will aiwajt 
accompany property." 

A passage in Hall's Chrcnielei^ while it ooa- 
firms the knowledge that this was one of the most 
important subjects exciting the minds of men, 
yet materially qualifies the assertion oi' the kingV 
readiness to confer the privilege. In the twenty- 
third year of this reign, according to Hall, the 
king expressed some dissatisfaction with those 
members of parliament who sought the redress of 
their grievances, and — 

** The cause why the king spoke thus was this : daily 
men made feofiixieats of their lands to tbeir usen, and de- 
clared their wills of their lands with such remainders, 
that both the king and all other lords lost their wards, 
marriages, and reliefs, and the king the profit of tha 
livery, which was to him a great loss ; wherefore he, not 
willing to take all, nor to lose all, caused a bill to be 
drawn by his learned council, in which it was devised 
that every man might make his will of the half of hii 
landsj so that he left the other half to his heir by •de- 

** Wise men," says Hall, ** would gladly have i 
to this proposal, but it encountered so much opposition im 
the Commons, that 'although the Lords had been fa^ 
vourable to it,' the king caUed the judges and learned 
men of his realm, and they disputed the matter in the 
chancer}', and agreed that land could not be willed by 
the order of the common law; whereupon an act was 
made that no man might declare his will of any part of 
his land, which act sore grieved the lords and gentlemen 
that had many children to set forth. Therefore," so Hall 
concludes with a moral, **you may judge what mischief 
Cometh of wilful blindness and lack of foresight." — 
P. 785. 

Knowing as we do that "power will always 
accompany property,** and that the ri^ht to dif- 

rse of our own is one of our greatest privilegefi 
feel surprised that the emancipation of testa- 
mentary bequests from feudal restraint should not 
be put forth in history as clearly and triumphantlj 
as the obtaining a right to vote in parliament. 
Surely there must be law books, not difficult of 
access, which throw light on this interesting 
question ? C. (1 J 

Tax on Clocks and TFateAe*. — In a printed 
form of receipt for a half-year's taxes due from a 
small farmer in Essex, dated April 10, 1798,* 
occurs the item, "For clocks and watches^ 
6s. lyt,^ It was a novelty to me that the owners 
of clocks and watches had been liaUe to taxation 
for the luxury at so recent a period. It may als* 
be new to others of your readers. E. L. C: 



[No. 278. 

A Lady restored to Life. — I have lately met 
irith the following statement : 

« Elka, the wife of Sir W. Fanshaw of Woodley Hall, in 
Gloucestershire, was interred, having, at her own reouest, 
a valuable locket, which was her husband's gift, hung 
upon her breast. The sexton proceeding to the vault at 
night, stole the jewel, and by the admission of fresh air 
restored the lady, who had been only in a trance, and 
who, with great difficultv, reached Woodlev Hall in the 
dead of the night, to the great alarm of the servants. 
Sir William being roused by their cries, found his lady 
with bleeding feet, and clothed in the winding-sheet, 
stretched upon the hall. She was put into a warm bed, 
and gave birth to several children aixer her recovery." 

On what authority has this statement been 
made ? And, if true, when did the occurrence 
take place? Change the scene to the town of 
Drogheda, the Iady*s name to Hardman, and the 
locket (o a ring, and you have a tolerably ac- 
curate account of what occurred in the early part 
2! think) of the last century, and with the tra- 
tion of which I have been familiar from my 
childhood. Can you give me any information ? 


Fox Family, — May I ask for any account of 
the parentage of John Fox, who died Nov. 19, 
1691 ; and Thomas Fox, who died Aug. 18, in 
the same year, and buried in Westminster Abbey ? 
Their arms are : A chevron between three foxes* 
heads erased. There does not appear to be any 
connexion with the family of Sir Stephen Fox, 
buried near them. Did they die without issue ? 
Information is particularly requested by 

One of the same Name. 

" Nan omnia terra ohrttta^" Sec. — In an Indian 
paper, the Agra Messenger^ May 6th, 1854, in an 
article on the late Mr. Justice Talfourd, is the 
following : 

** Non omnia terra 
Obruta: vivit amor, vidit dolor." 

No reference is given. The quotation is not 
familiar. Can you tell me whence it is taken ? 


Progressive Geography, — You woul4 confer a 
great service on historical students if you would 
name some atlas or series of maps illustrating the 
political changes that have taken place in the di- 
Tision of the world, more especially as regards 
Europe. What reader of the history of England 
knows the exact limits of Anjou, Maine, and Nor- 
mandy, although these countries are referred to 
in everpr page of the annals of the Middle Ages. 
Countries have indeed been more than blotted 
from the map of Europe, for a blot might indicate 
^here they once existed ; but as it is, where would 
the present generation look for the monarchy of 
Poland ? — not to mention Burgundy, Alsatia, and 
a hundred others. The assistance of yourself and 
jour, learned correspondents would greatly oblige 
every Student op Histobt. 

Walter Wilson's MSS.-^Where are the MSS. 
of the author of the Life and Times of Defoe f 

B. H. C 

Roman Stations and Roads, — Is any small book 
or pamphlet published, giving an account of the 
above, with the present names of what were 
formerly stations of Iron Rome ? Is there a map 
to be purchased with the present modern and 
ancient Roman roads on the same sheet ? If not» 
one printed red and the other in black ink would 
be very useful and highly appreciated by anti<- 
quaries. Mtmmt,. 

Athenieum Clnb. 

Mildew on Pictures, — Can any of your readers, 
tell me how to preserve a picture (in crayons) 
from mildew ? It hanss in the same house with 
many oil paintings which are untouched. Would 
a lining of caoutchouc at the back be of any avail ? 


Queen's College^ Oxford, — Is anything knownr 
of the " mysterious scrawl " noticed m the follow- 
ing lines, composed in 1746 upon a singular pieces 
of writing in Queen*8 College Library, Oxford ? 

** An Oxford rarity at Queen's is shown, 

Unmatch'd by all the rarities of Sloane's ; 

A manuscript, yet, as the leam'd have thought. 

Such as by mortal hand was never wrote. 

Druids and Sybils ! this transcends ye all, 

A dark, oracular, mvsterious scrawl : 
- Uncouth, occult, unknown to ancient Greece^ 

The Persian Magi, or the wise Chinese. 

Nor Runic this, nor Coptic does appear ; 

No, 'tis the diabolic character. 

No more, ye critics, be your brains perplex'd 

T* elucidate the darkness of the text; 

No farther in the endless search proceed, 

The devil wrote it — let the devil read I " 

J. Yeowell. 

The Rev, John Angier. — Is any portrait of thia 
celebrated Nonconformist minister known to exist 2 
and if so, where ? J. B. 

Greek and Roman Churches, — I Kkow Not 
would be very thankful if any of the readers of 
" N. & Q." would furnish her with instances in 
which the Greek and Roman Churches have, since 
the schism, either severally or mutually, acknpw* 
ledged each other*s existence as a Church ? 

" Leda*' by Leonardo da Vind. —In 1853, Mr J 
Bernard Isaacs, of 33. New Bond Street, exhibited 
a picture of ** Leda,** professing to be an original 
of Leonardo da Yinci. It was offered for sale at 
4000/. During the year a French artist brought 
an action, asserting that the picture was not an 
original, but a copy painted by himself. Query» 
What was the result of the action ? What was 
the name of the French artist? Where can a 
report of the whole transaction be found f And 
finally, What became of the picture ? Anon. 

Feb. 24. 1855.] 



Ireland — Ancient Usage, — 

** Irdand : Ancient Usage. — The following ancient 
usage was observed yesterday in the Court of Excheqaer. 
Three of the choir boys and one of the clerg3rmen, of 
Christ's Church, attended before their lordships to com- 
ply with the terras oh which certain lands are held bv 
the Dean and Chapter of Christ's Church Cathedral, 
namely, that on specified days they shall render homage 
to Her Majesty in her Court of Exchequer. A hymn 
having been sung, and certain prayers recited, the cere- 
mony terminated!" — The Evening Joumtdy February 2, 

Will some Dublin reader of " K & Q." place 
on record in its pages, full particulars as to this 
ancient usage ? L. L. L. 

Ancient Order of Hiccahites, — Is anything 
known of a society with the above title ? I find 
a lodge of the Order existing in Chester about 
ninety years ago, and should be glad to know 
something of the nature and constitution of the 
society. The Order must not be confounded with 
the Rechahites^ inasmuch as the chapters were 
held at an inn, which would of course be an 
abomination to the latter-named fraternity. 

T. Hughes. 


Authors of Latin Plays, — Can any of your 
readers who may have an opportunity of consult- 
ing Cole*s MS. Athens Cantab., give me any 
account of the following authors of Latin plays ? 
1. Henry Lacy, author of Richardas Tertius, a 
Latin tragedy, MS , 1586. The author was Fel- 
low of Trinity College, Cambridge. 2, Stubbe, 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, author of 
Frans HonestOf a Latin comedy, 8vo., 1632. 3. 
Mr. Hawksworth, author of Labyrinthiis, a Latin 
comedy, 1635. 4. Thomas Vincent, author of 
Paria, a Latin play, 8vo., 1648; acted before 
King Charles L, 1627. 5. Mewe, of Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, author of Pseudomasia, a 
Latin play, MS. R. J. 

[Cole's notices of these dramatic writers are extremely 
meagre. Of Henry Lacy he simply states that he was 
the author of Richardua Tertius, of which two copies are 
in the Harleian Collection, Nos. 2412. 6926. — Edmund 
Stubbe, Fellow of Trinity College, and author of Frans 
Honesta, 1632. « On Tuesday, February 25, 1622-3, on 
the arrival of Don Carlos ^e Colonne and Ferdinand 
Baron de Boyscot, ambassadors from the King of Spain 
and the Archduchess of Austria, who came to Cambridge, 
they were welcomed into Trinity College by Stubbe." — 
Walter Haukesworth, author of Labtprinthus, 1635. " In 
a MS. note," says Cole, ** is this added, * This comedy was 
exhibited in the College of the Holy Trinity in the year 
1602, at the election of bachelors. The spectators were 
many noblemen and academicians. It was written by 
that very eminent person Master Walter Haukesworth.' " 
Cole then adds the following : ** Query, Was he the author 
of Fedantiut : Comoedia oum Cantabrig. Acta in ColL 

Trin. Nunquam antehac Typis evulgata. Lond., 12mo., 
1631 ? " — Thomas Vincent, of Trinity College, author of 
Paria, 1648. ** Other Latin plays printed with it, as 
Loilat &C., but ¥rithout name." — The only notice of Mewe 
is the following : " William Mewe, B.D., Emmanuel Col- 
lege, author of The Bobbery and Spoiling of Jacob and 
Israel : a fast-sermon before the Commons, Noyember 29>,> 
1643, on Isaiah xlii. 24, 25., 4to., 1643." He was rector 
of Eastington, in Gloucestershire.] 

Ross or Rouse, — " Lives of the Earls of War- 
wick and Kings of England." MS. in Bibl. Cott* 
Has this been printed ? If so, where ? 

G. E. T. S. R. N. 

[This MS. is in the Bodleian, and has been published 
by Thomas Hearne: "Joannis Rossi Antiquarii War- 
wicensis Historia Rerum Angliae, e codice Ms. in Biblio- 
theca Bodleiana descripsit, notisque et indice adornayit 
Tho. Heamius, A.M. Oxoniensis. Accedit Joannis Le- 
landi Antiquarii Nsenia in Mortem Henrici Duddelegi 
Equitis ; cui prasfigitur testimonium de Lelando amplum 
et prasclanim, hactenus ineditum." Oxonii, 1716, 8va. 
Editio secunda, Oxonii, 1745, 8vo. Both editions contaia 
two plates : 1. The statue of Guy, and the portraicture of 
lohn Rous. 2. The prospect of Guye's Cliffe. Speakin^^ 
of Guye's Cliffe, Hearne says, **Ilere it was that our 
Warwickshire antiquary John Rous (whose portraicture 
likewise, exactly taken from an ancient roll, wherein it 
was drawn to the life by himself, I haye represented)^ 
after he came from the uniyersity, liyed, being a chantiy 
priest in this chapel, and compiled his Chron. de Regibus ; 
of whom, considering his special afiection to, and know- 
ledge in, antiquities, being loth to omit anything which 
may do honour to his memory, I shall here observe, that 
for his parentage he was the son of Geffrey Rous of 
Warwick, but descended of the Rouses of Brinklow in 
this county ; and touching his education, course of life, 
and death, have transcribed what Bale from Leland hath 
expressed of him." — Page xxix. There is also a MS. in 
the College of Arms, and another belonging to the Duke 
of Manchester. The latter was transcribed verbatim et 
literatim some years ago as a kindness to the late Mr. 
Pickering, by our yalued correspondent the Rcy. L. B. 
Larking. From this transcript a copy was written out 
in extenso by the late Mr. Stapleton, which was beauti* 
fully printed by Whittingham at least ten years ago» 
with all the portraits and arms in their proper colours. 
All that was required was an Introduction, which we 
believe would readily have been prepared by one most 
competent to the task, but who for some reason was 
never asked to undertake it We hope it may still be- 
given to the world, and wish Mr. Pickering had been 
spared to witness its publication.] 

Hon, AnchiteU Grey, — Who was the Hon. 
Anchitell Grey, compiler of Debates of the House 
of Commons, in 10 vols. 8vo., 1769 ? To what 
family did he belong ? L. J. 

[The Hon. Anchitell Grey belonged to the Greys of 
Groby, and was the second son of Henry, first Earl of 
Stamford. Collins (^Peerage, vol. iii. p. 369.) states that 
"Anchitell married Mary [the pedigree says Anne], 
daughter and coheir of Sir Henry WiUoughby, of Risley, 
in Derbyshire, Bart., by whom he had a son, Willoughlnr, 
who died unmarried; and a daughter, Elizabeth, who 
died before her father." In 1681, he was Deputy-Lieute- 
nant in the county of Leicester; is mentioned as one of 
the Commissioners of Somerset in Clarendon's RebelUoHf 
ToLiv. p. 21., edit 1849; and represented the town of 




JUathv for ihiriy ytwn, TIm Debates were imblished aAer 
hie death. See Nichols's Ltienterakin, ¥oL iii p. 682., 
for A pedigree of the family.] 

Zawrejiee Holden, — ^Who was Lawrence Holden, 
aathor of Twemij^-imo Sermons en the most Interett- 
ing and Important SubjeeU relative to the Christian 
faith and Practice^ published in 1755 ? He ap- 
pears to have afterwards published An Exposition 
of the Poetical Boohs of Scripture, He ia described 
in the title-page ^ of Maldon, in Essex.** 

E. H. A. 

[Lawrence Holden was an Unitarian minister at Mal- 
don, in Essex, bom 1710, died 1778. Bendes his Senmms, 
he pnbli^ed A Panpkrate, wUk Nittes on the Bookt tf 
Job, Pialnu, PrwerbSf and Ecclenasles, London, 1768, 
4 Tols. 8vo. ; Ditto on Iwaiah, 1776, 2 rois. 8vo. Mr. 
Orme, in his BibHo^uca JKMica, speaking of the Para- 
J^frme, says, " This is one of the worst speetmeDS in the 
Xnglish language of paraphrastic interpretation.'' The 
Mimthlf Review, O. S., Toi. xxxi p. 88., remarks, •* To 
what class of readers this performanee will be nsefnl or 
yeeable we really know not" And the Rer. Thomas 
Hartwell Home cautions the inexperienced stodent net 
to purchase it on account of the very low price at which 
it IS now offered.] 

Dictionaries, Cyclopedias^ Spc. — Can you in- 
form me wheUier there has been any recent edi- 
tion of Bailey's Dictionary ? If not, which is the 
best amongst diose recently puUished for general 
reference, as to pronunciation, deriyation, &c. ? 
Also,^ which is the best Cyclopaedia amongst those 
now in vogue (excepting, of course, the re-issue 
of the Britannica) for general information ? 

[The best edition of Bailey's Universal Etymohffical Dic- 
mnary, by Dr. Scott, was published in 1772, fol. Among 
those of more recent date. Dr. Richardson's may be ad- 
tantegeously consulted for derivations ; whilst Dr. Ogil- 
▼le's will be found useful for general reference. The 
best, and one of the most recent of the Cyclopedias, is 
Knight's English Cyclopedia, in which the materials of 
the Penny CycbptBdia have been remodelled, so as to 
adapt them to the existing state of knowledge. The 
work, when completed, will consist of four divisions. Geo- 
graphy, Natural History, Biography, Sciences and Arts.] 

" To fe-Ae."— What is the meaning of the verb 

to te-he" in the following passage of Madame 
D*Arblay*8 Diary, under the year 1779 P — 

*• She had not however been in the room half an in- 
stant, ere my father came up to me ; and tapping me on 
the shoulder, said: * Fanny, here's a lady who wishes to 
speak to you.' 

*• I curtsied in silence ; she too curtsied, and fixed her 
2^8 full in my face ; and then, tapping me with her fan, 
she cried : * Come, come — you must not look grave upon 

" Upon this, Ite-he*d; she now looked at me vet more 
•srnestly, and, after an odd silence, said abruptly: * But 
IS It true?' " — Vol L p. 148., edit. 1854. 


[« To te-hee " is a cant wwd, meaning «to tiitAt," to 
lai^rh contemptuously er insoleaUy. It wiU be found im 
Ugilvie s Imperial Dictionary,'} 

AUhaUows, — While speaking of tbe word haH- 
low as obsolete, I was told, as a proof of its being 
so, that all churches originally dedicated to AlC 
hallows had had their dedicaticm cluu^ged to AH 
Saints. Is this the ease? E.CLCL 


£Oar correapondeiit has only to tarn to the Index to 
the Parishes in the Population Tables, 1852, and he wffl 
find thirteen churches in England still naaud AU- 


(Vol. xi., pp. 12. 67.) 
The Greeks may possibly luure known the 
noxious quality of some preparatians from plants, 
as the cherry-laurel and bitter almond, tbe active 
principle of which is hydrocyanic (prussic) acid. 
(Diosciu-ides, i. 39. 50., iv. 147. &c ; Pliny, N, JBL^ 
XV. 7. 23. &C.) Their priesUiood may have used 
something of the kind during the display of their 
oracular powers. (" Pharmaceutica, by W. A. 
Greenhill, M.D., in Smith's i>ic^ Antiq!) They 
were certainly acquainted with many vegetable 
and animal, and even with some mineral, poisons ; 
such as were readily prepared from substances 
easily obtainable. Such were the white and 
black hellebore, described by Dioscorides; the 
Aconitum, or wolfs bane, mentioned also by Tbeo- 
phrastus ; the Hyoscyamvs^ or henbane ; and the 
Conium mactdatam, or common hemlock (used in 
Athenian executions), which were probably abun- 
dant on the waste and hilly parts of Greece. 
Dioscorides especially, in his AiexipharmaccL, has 
given a great number of different poisons, the 
principal and most easily identified of which are, 
Cantharides; Ephemeron (colchicum) ; AconUtan; 
Cicuta or Conium (hemlock) ; Hyoscyamus (hen- 
bane); Papaveris liquor; Cerussa (white lead) 
Fungi; Veratrum album (white hellebore); and 
Elaterium. The Alexipharmaca appears to hare 
been pretty accurately transcribed, with some 
additions, by A^tius, an eminent Greek medical 
writer of the fifth or sixth century, in his BibHst 
latrica Hehkaideha, in which (Tetr. iv. serra. L 
cap. 74.) is a section on poisoning by bulTs blood, 
the symptoms mentioned and treatment recom* 
mended being almost word for word the same as 
in Dioscorides. It is singular, however, that none 
of the poisons treated of in the Alexi/Aarmaea 
appear to have prussic acid for their basis, and I 
am inclined strongly to doubt whether preparations 
containing that poisoii were generally or accsL- 
rately known to Greek physicians. But that ther 
knew how to prepare the acid from bulfs bloo^ 
or that, if they did, it should have been used in 
preference to many other poisons far more readily 

FsB. 24. 1855.] 



obtainahle, a^sipears highly improbable, from the 
absence of any allusion to its preparation in 
medical writers, Mid Irora ^ manner in which 
cases of poisoning bj bulFs blood are related. It 
maj be us^ul to compare some of these. 1. Apol- 
lodorus Atheniensis {BibUoth^ ed. Heyne, Getting. 
1803) says that Pelias wished to kill Aison, but 
the latter wished to kill himself; and "Ai/o-W 

(C(»nf Diodor. Sic, B, H^ iv. 50.) 2. Strabo 
{^Oeogr^ ed. Casauboni, Amstel. 1707, lib. i. 
p. 106.) speaks of Midas as ** oT/ia ralpw tciovru ; ** 
and 3. Herodotus (iii. 15.) uses the same term, 
^* drank bulFs blood,** of Psammoiitus. 

4. The variotts allusions to tbe death of The- 
mistocles bj this poison are equally strong against 
Niebuhr's hypothesis ; Aristoph., Equites, 83, 4., 
putting into the mouth of Nicias an allusion to 
this event, uses the same {^raseology, *' utfui ra{f 
peiou mea/. Similarly, Plutarch, who adds tltat 
this was the common report {6 ttoKvs Kiycs) as to 
the cause of Themistodes* death, but that some 
thou«i:ht ** (pdpfxmcov i^yi^fw^ The language, how- 
ever, of Diodor us, if he could be trusted, would 
be far more to the purpose. In lib. xi. c. 58. 
(referred to by Grote, v. p. 386. note, wbo, by 
the way, as Dr. Smith in the case of Psammenitus, 
appears to find no difficulty in the account of 
poisoning by bull's blood) be says, " (n^arfiwrBivros 
hi rod ravpov^ Kal ruu BpKwv ycyofievay, rhv (df/uffro' 
K\4a KvXiKu Tov cXfKVfs vk^pt^ffayra imrietu,'^ and died 
immediately. Here, as in the case of Aison, the 
blood appears to have been drunk during the sacri- 
fice of the animal, from which it was drawn in a cup ; 
there is no intimation wliatever of the long process 
of converting the blood into prussic acid. 

5. The only other case I am acquainted with is 
that of Hannibal, of whom Plutarch says (Life of 
T, Q. FlaminiuuSj ed. Bryan i, vol. iL p. 426.) that 
some persons asserted that in imitation of The- 
mistocles and Midas he ♦* drank bull's blood." An 
account of these and similar passacres, differing 
materially from Niebuhrs, and equally opposed 
to the one adopted (p. 67.) from Dioscorides, re- 
quires examinaiaoQ. It is to be fiiund in a note 
of Brunck or Bothe, on a fragment of a lost play 
of Sr)phocle8, yarioosly asserted to be tlie (Egeus 

, and the Helena (last vol., Lips. 1806). The frag- 
ment, as given by the German editors, consists of 
two lines only, and has in the former the words 
" ir&pa radpiov irtfiK," which the Scholiast on Ari- 
stophanes, Ech 83., attributes to the Helena of 
Sophocles (followed by the editor of Dioscorides, 
Argent. 1523)» and reads instead "of/it. raipov 
y iKviflt';'" in refia-ence to which reading Brunck 
quotes Eus t a t hi u s to show that Sophocles referred 
to a river« Taunu^ and adds : 

"Observat Tetng iaCeij^ies Comici e Symmacho, opi- 
"itionem de epoto tanriao aaanpiine, quo siW mortem con- 
sciverit Themistocles, e male intellecto Sophoclis loco I 

ortam ease. Nempe irAfuui ravptov pro taurino sanguina 
accepemnt, unde atf&a ex glossa intrusum /uisse vide- 

But, allowing the possibility of the corropUom 
oontended for taking place during Sophocles* li£e 
(to say the least, highly improbable), several 
cogent objections to the oonclusion based on it 
readily occur. I will only mention three. 

1. Herodotus, a younger contemporary of So- 
phocles, had prabably never seen the (Egetis (or 
Helena) at the time he compiled the materials for 
his account of Egypt. If he had, is it probably 
that he should have misread it, misunderstood his 
own false reading, <»r wilfully forged from it his 
account of the death of Psammenitus, to whom it 
probably had not the remotest reference ? 

2. I^ it credible that Aristophanes sliould hKw% 
ignorantly or wilfully, made the same alteratiofft 
and misapplication of these lines (which possibly 
Sophocles never wrote at all), and have based or 
them his allusion to the manner of Themistodetf 
death, when he must have had several independent 
accounts of that event to work upon ? He 
brodflfht out the Equiies, containing that allusi^ 
in 424 B.C., nearly twenty years before the death 
of Sophocles (the unwitting cause of such mis- 
takes), who probably was present at the rqpre« 
sentation, wid when, therefore, there was fuU 
fvpportunity for the mistake to be corrected. It 
is most probable Aristophanes adopted the po- 
pular belief, otherwise the words of Nicias (Eg, S$^ 
4.) would have been unintelligible to the audience; 
and that belief was not likely to be founded on a 
corrupted line of Sophocles, which probably had 
no rdference to Themistocles. According, how- 
ever, to the German commentator, and his old 
authority (the vetus interpres), the death of Psaaa^ 
menitus in Herodotus, and of Themistocles in 
Aristophanes, were bodi alike compassed, during 
So|>hocle8* life, from a corrupted and misunder- 
stood line of that poet ! 

3. Allowing this singular supposition, whence 
did Pliny and Dioscorides derive their ideas re- 
specting the modus operandi of buIKs blood as 
poison ? Whence did the latter draw his account 
of the symptoms produced by it ? Did they both 
invent? Their testimony appears to be inde- 
pendent, as they refer not to each other. 

On the whole, Kiebuhr's supposition is more 

gausible than that of the Sophoclean annotator. 
ut in any case they derive no assistance from 
each other. If Pliny, Dioecoridesi, and Agtiuf, 
either purposely or 'mistakenly, intend somethii^ 
different when they speak of bull's blood, the 
symptoms of poisoning, and treatment they advise, 
prove that it is not prussic acid. Or if they, to- 
gether with Aristophanes, Herodotus, Diodorus, 
Athenodorus, and Strabo, blindly copied from each 
other the mistake attributed to them, can their 
knowledge of chemistry have been very accurate ? 



[Ko. 5V8. 

Or was it probably far behind that of the gene- 
ralitjr of Greeks ? 

Either hypothesis in fact, considered with re- 
ference to the other (and Niebuhr*8 per se\ 
appears self-contradictory. F. J. jL>., B.A. 


(V0I.X., pp.832. 434.) 

The Rev. Db. Rock has kindly sent me the 
following remarks, and allowed me to use them : 

•* The interpretation of Mb. Wabd is very in- 
genious, but I do not fall in with it ; before offering 
you my ideas of it, I must call to your attention a 
curious passage from The Rites of Durham^ lately 
republished by the Surtees Society : 

«< Every Sonnday in the yere there was a sermon 
preched in the Galleley at afternonne, from one of the 
docke till iij ; and at xii of the clock the great bell of 
the Galleley was toulled, every Sonnedaie iii quarters of 
an hoare, and ronng the forth quarter till one of the 
clock, that all the people of the towne myght have 
wamyug to come and here the worde of God preched.' 
— F.83. 

" Again, you may perhaps know, that the high 
mass or parochial mass for Sunday was celebrated 
immediately after undem or tierce, which canonical 
hour began at our 9 a.m., and as it took not more 
than ten minutes or so, the parochial mass may 
be said to have begun at nine o'clock, and would 
be over a little after ten o'clock. From church 
people went home to their meals; and as mid-day 
was then a somewhat late hour for dining, we may 
be sure that almost every one had by that time 
done his dinner, and his servants had cleared the 
things away. 

** What used to be the practice at Durham I 
think used to be followed in most parish churches, 
and some kind or other of instruction was every 
Sunday given in the afternoon. To warn the parish 
of the sermon time a bell was rung, perhaps m the 
country at twelve o'clock, perhaps in the towns 
at one o'clock. The first ringing was on the signa, 
or large bells ; the last quarter of the hour's ring- 
ing was on the smaller bell, the sancte bell ; and 
as the instruction was calculated to be for the 
poor, for servants, for those particularly set at 
liberty from their household duties after their 
masters* meal of the day was over, very properly 
was the instruction called ghostly food, with which 
these poor, these servants, were to be fed. Hence, 
to my thinking, of what is called the ting'tang 
was it said ' servis clamo cibandis.' " 

H. T. Ellacombe. 
Rectory, Clyst St. George. 


(Vol. xi., p. 106.) 

In reply to your correspondent C. W. Bihg- 
ham's request, I send you copies of the ^* humo- 
rous poem" wanted. In that very curious col- 
lection of Scottish Pasquils and Lampoaru [edited 
by James Maidment], three vols. 12mo., 1827- 
28, and which consisted of only *^ sixty copies,** 
printed chiefly for " private circulation •* by the 
late John Stevenson, bookseller, in Edinbuigh, I 
find as follows : 

** Epigram on Provost Aikaiktad, 

That which is said, is falsely said. 
To wit, his head of aiken timber made; 
For had his head been but composed so, 
His fjTie nose had burnt it long ago.** * 

Again, upon looking into that highly interesting 
but rather neglected work, entitled — 

<< Analecta Scotica ; collections illustrative of the Civil, 
Ecclesiastical, and Literary History of Sootlaiid, chiefly 
from original MSS. [Edited by James MaMmmt], 2 vols. 
8vo., 1834-37." 

I discover there another version -of the ^* Epi- 
gram," together with " His Apologie,** said to be 
printed for the first time from a MS. formerlv 
belonging to Wodrow, the historian of the Church 
of Scotland. It is entitled : 

<< Verses by Bishop Leighton upon David Aihenksad, Lord- 
Provost ofEdinburgk, 

That quhilk his name pretends (is (klahr said) 
To wit that of ane aike his head is made^ 
For if that it had been composed see 
His fyrie nose had flaim'd it long agoe. 


Come muses al, help me to overcome 

This thing which som ill mynded muse hes done^ 

For sure the furies, and no sacred muse 

Hes caught madde braines such patrones to abuse; 

Bot since the fault comitted is so great* 

It is the greater honour to remitt 

For if great Jove should punish everie cryme. 

His quiver emptie wold become in tyme ; 

Therfore, some tymes he fearful thunder sends, 

Som tymes sharpe arrowes on offenders' spends^ 

Som tymes aganis he swan-lyke doth appeared 

Or in a showre of crystall waters deare. 

Fooles scome Apollo for his glistering beams, 

Lykwayes the Muses for their sacred steeames, 

Bot as they doe, so may you eike despyae 

These scorners ; for quny ? egales cattm no ffym; 

Fooles attribute to you a fierie nose ; \ 

Bot fyre consumeth paper, I suppose; 

Therfoir your lordship wold seeme voyd cifjfit 

If that a paper doe dispell your ayre ; 

And if that this remeid doe stand insteid. 

Then shall a lawrell croune yomr Aikenheid. 

* To this jeu d'esprit is prefixed this notice : <* Robert 
Leighton, a/ter Bishop of Dunblane, was extruded ^ 
College of Edinburgh for this epigram on Provost Aiken- 

Fbb. 24. 1855.] 



Now, Since its thas (your lordship if it please), 
Accept ane triple cure for ane disease. 

Mb. R. Lichtoune.* " 

T. G. S. 


Your correspondent says there is still in existence 
a humorous poem on Dr. Aikenhead, Warden of 
the College of Edinburgh, which Leighton (after- 
wards the archbishop) wrote when he was an 
undergraduate ; and a wish is expressed to see the 

There was no such person as ** Dr. Aikenhead, 
Warden of the College." The subject of Leigh- 
ton's epigram was " David Aikenhead, Provost or 
Chief Magistrate of the city for many years," who 
was by no means popular, for many reasons, and 
particularly because m the year 1620 he had con- 
trived to have Patrick Sands appointed Principal 
of the College, for no better reason than that he 
was married to the sister or daughter of Aikenhead. 
The lines in question may be found in the second 
▼olume of Mr. David Laing's second series of Fu- 

fitive Scottish Poetry of the seventeenth Century. 
t is proper to state, for the information of English 
readers, that the Scottish word aiken means oaken. 
Here are the .original lines : 

" Upon the Provost of Edinburgh. 

That which his name pretends is falsely said, 
To wit, that of an aike his head is made ; 
For if that it had been composed so, 
His fiery nose had flam'd it long ago." 

It has commonly been said that Leighton was 
rusticated for ridiculing the chief magistrate. 
This does not appear to have been the case ; for he 
was matriculated as a student in Nov. 1627, and 
was admitted to the degree of M. A. in 1631, at 
the same time with a large number who had 
entered on their studies along with him. The 
culprit, it is said, was doomed to apologise in 
verse for the offensive lines. 

The Apologie, printed also by Mr. Laing, ex- 
tends to twenty-four lines, evidently written after 
Leighton had obtained his degree of Master. 
Neither the original provocation nor the apolo- 
getical verses can be fairly represented as having 
any claim to humour or wit, or any merit whatever. 

S. T. P. 

Edinburgh College. 

• "Leighton's estimable character is admitted even by 
those whose religious opinions did not coincide with his 
own, — a circumstance very remarkable, as usually such 
differences produce the most unchristian-like hostility. 
He was Bishop of Dunblane, and thereafter of Glasgow.** 


Pading of Positives. — I am glad to see that Dr. Dia- 
mond's attention is directed to the subject of the fading 
of positives. I have myself suffered from the same an- 
noyance. He justly remarks, that hyposulphite of soda, 
not being sufficiently washed out» is a fertile source of 
future decay. But I have often not only washed, but 
subjected the positives to heavy pressure between blot- 
ting-paper, after each washiuj^, two or three times over, 
and the result has been far from certain. Since I have 
discontinued the use of ammonio-nitrate, and used simply 
nitrate of silver upon albumenized paper, I have had 

greater success, so far as the period of time has gone. 
»R. Diamond's caution respecting paste should be borne 
in mind. I have generally found that positives fade at 
those portions which come in contact with the card-board, 
before the other parts which have not been touched by 
the paste : not so with gum, which appears to be a per- 
fectly safe substance ; as those which are mounted with 
it, which I have had an opportunity of observing, fade 
uniformly, without reference to the portions which are 
gummed. Whether or not the bleaching chemicals 
alluded to by Db. Diamond being used in the card-board 
are a cause of decay to the positive, is an interesting and 
important inquiry. Where positives are mounted by 
connecting the entire back of the picture to the cara- 
board, I can imagine that it may be a cause of future 
£iding; but I have always mounted mine by merely 
gumming the edges to the card-boards, and subjecting 
them to pressure, and yet am annoyed by the same un- 
certainties. Any photographer who has experienced 
continued and uniform success in the preservation of 
positives, would be conferring a great benefit by stating 
what method has been pursued to effect this desirable 
result. £. K. 

Photographic Copies of Raphael Drawings (Vol. xi., 
p. 71.). — In reply to your correspondent R. D.'s Queries 
regarding the method of making the negatives of the 
Raphael drawings, I beg to state that they were made in 
the camera, and not by superposition. 

C. Thurston Thompsor. 

1. Campden Hill Terrace, Kensington. 

Photographic Exchanae Society. — This Society, which 
we have no doubt will be the first of many similar asso- 
ciations, has at length been formed. It consists of twenty 
members : among whom are the names of Messrs. Currey, 
Delamotte, Eaton, Forrester, Eater^ Mackinlay, Major, 
Pollock, Lake Price, Roslyn, Thorns, Sir W. Newton; 
The Ladies Nevill; Drs. Diamond, Mansell, Percy, &c 
The Rev. J. R. Major is the Hon. Secretary and Treasurer.* 
The subscription is a merely trifling one of five shillings 
per annum, to cover the expenses incidental to the ex- 
change. The great and obvious advantage of such asso- 
ciation is, that every member receives nineteen different 
pictures in return for the one which such member con- 

30itpliti ta Minat <Etuf rM* 

Fairchild Lecture (Vol. xi., p. 66.).— The Fair- 
child Lecture, from 1768 to 1783, was preached 
wholly, or nearly so, by Dr. Morell ; in 1789 by 
Dr. De Salis ; and from 1790 to 1804 by the Rev. 
Samuel Ayscough. H. £. 




Bishop9 m Chen (YoL xL, p. 126.). — I can 
throw no light upon this subject, and indeed Sir 
F. Madden seems to have settled the question ; 
but it reminds me of ajVv d'esprii ot Mr. Dudley 
North in the House of Commons, whidi I myself 
heard many years ago, and which may amuse some 
of TOOT readers. 

During the progress of the bill through Parlia- 
ment for the establishment of coloninl prelates, 
soBie opposition was i4>prehended; and Mr. North, 
being asked to suppcMrt the measure, replied, ** I 
will certainly attend if you wish it, but I protest 
I TKver met a black bishop except at chess.** 


Monastery o/NutceUe (Vol. x-, p. 287.). — This 
aoBastery, to which Winfrid, the Anglo-Saxon 
missionary (afterwards called Boniface), once be- 
longed, is, I beKeve, Nutwell in DcTon : this place 
situated on the left bank of the Exe, a few 
aules from Exmouth. ^ 

I am not able to giye any particulars of Nut- 
well as an abbey, and I have no work of reference 
by me which would supply the information. I 
can at present only state that at the dissolution a 
portion at least of Nutwell was granted by Ed- 
ward VI. to one of the family of Prideaux ; the 
original grant under the great seal is in the pos- 
session of Mr. Georse Prideaux of Pl^outh. 
As Crediton was the birthplace of Winfnd (alias 
Boniface), it seems far more probable that his 
monastery was situated in the same district, and 
on the bank of the same river, than in the nM>re 
distant locality of Netky. Lailius. 

Use of the Term " vaccinated** in 1725 (Vol. xi., 
p. 62.). — It would be desirable to obtain expla- 
nation whether the precise word "vaccinated" does 
really occur in Byrom*s MS. Journal, in his notice 
of the paper communicated to the Royal Society 
by Mr. Claudius Amy and. Sergeant Surgeon, in 

Byrom's MS. Journal is stated in his editor's 
introduction (p. yiii.) to be " shrouded in the ob- 
seurity of his own shorthsmd," and to have been 
"hitherto unintelligible." If the word there 
written is obscure, but its meaning obvious, a more 
recent synonyme may have been introduced, 
without considering explanation necessary. 

It is admitted that Jenner's merit lay in the 
scientific application of results known practically 
to be preventatives by milkers, as your corre- 
spondent mentions. They were probably known 
far beyond Jenner's range, and long before his 
time. I can speak to such results having come 
within the observation of a Cheshire gentleman 
who died in 1753, and who had been informed 
of them shortly after settling on his estate in 
Pisestbury parish, in or about 1740. 


English Bishops* Mitres (VoL x., pp. 87. 227.). 

— If the following brief notices be worth inserting 
in a quiet corner of " N. & Q.,*' they are perfectly 
at the worthy Editor*s service. 

Bishops wore their mitres at the coronations 
of Henry VIII., Edward VT., Queen Mary, and 
Queen Elisabeth. At that of James I. they wore 
their rochets, and therefore, most probably, their 
square capu At the coronation of Charles L the 
account given of that ceremoity it not sofficientlj 
explicit to say whether or not mitret were worn 
on that occasion. The Archbishop, after the Re- 
cognition, invested himself ^ in pontificalibus.*' 
Whether this term is to be received in its fidl 
signification, in reference to the Roman Cath<^ 
ritual, or simply as a conventional term s^ifyins^ 
that the bishops were in their proper ecclesiastical 
habits, is not ouite dear. The ceremony was per- 
formed as at Edward VI.*s oorooation, accordingr 
to the form agreeable to the use of the Reformed 
Church of England. In the ceremonial of Ed- 
ward*s coronation Uie same term b used, and the 
bishops wore their mitres. 

At the coronation of Charles II. the bbhops 
wore their rochets; as abo at the coronation of 
James II., with theur scjuare caps in their hands. 
At the coronation of William and Mary they wore 
their rochets and caps. The bishops wore their 
caps at Queen Anne^s coronation. At the corona- 
tions of George I., George 11., and George III. 
they carried their caps in their hands, and put 
them on at the time tne peers put on their coro- 
nets, immediately after the " crowning." Had the 
bishops worn their mitres at the coronation of 
George III., the circumstance would not have 
escaped the observation of Leake (afterwards 
Garter), who was present at the ceremony, and 
who has left a very particular account in manu- 
script of the various costumes worn on that occa- 
sion. It needs scarcely be remarked, that at the 
coronations which have happened during the pre- 
sent century, the bishops wore their caps, whidi 
they put on when the peers put on their coronets. 
Thos. Wm. King, Yobk Hxrald. 

College of Arms. 

Earthenware Vessels found in the Foundations of 
Buildings (Vol. x., pp. 386. 434. 516. ; Vol. xi., 
p. 74.). — I do not think any of your correspondents 
have offered a satisfactory solution of thb curious 
subject, for it seems to me improbable that jugs 
would be employed either as acoustic instrnments, 
or to hold the ashes of the dead, or for the purpose* 
of strengthening foundations. 

In Cambridge they are very frequently found in 
digging up the foundations of old nouses, not em- 
bedded jn the masonry, but lying in the soil below 
the basement floor ; they are generally of the type 
known as Bellarmines, or Grey-beards, and my 
attention has been called at different times to 

Feb. 24. 1855.] 



Sloh ii^ p. 420.), offered some remarks on the 
riental friiits which hftve been introduced mto 
Europe, I read with much inter eet the Note of 
your correspondent on Gibbon's erroneoua Ac- 
count of tlie orange. 

The opinion of Targioni, which yotir corre- 
spondent L» has cited, la probably the right one. 
Had the orange been brought at once into 
Europe from China, we should hardly have !had 
the namea naranjaj iirranciOf and ora-ngSy modifi- 
cations of which are found in all the languages of 
Europe witU which I have any accjuaintance. 

The first of these names was introduced into 
Spain by its Arabian invade fb, from their own 
word ^li» ifhich they borrowed from the Per* 

sian CJ^i^J^ Th^^ word^ I believe, was derived 
from the Sanscrit, as I fijid in several books of 

It Is curioua that we should derive from the 
Arabic, through the Spanish, the namci of several 
other fruits which were known in Extern Europe 
with Latin names, long before the inlercourie of 
the Arabs with Western Europe ; and it is not 
easy to discover whether those Latin names, 
which are not without moaning, were originally 
corruptions from the Persian, or names invented 
by the Romans, and afterwards, from commercial 
intercourse, adopted in the East, 

About the orange, however, there can be no 
doubt. Gibbon possibly thought that the aurea 
mala of Virgil's tbird Eclogue were oranges ; for 
it was once a common opinion, and the modern 
Latin of the botB.nist£j Aitraa^tum, seemed in 
favour of that notion. Auraniium^ however, can- 
• not be traced even to medieval Latin, and the 
aurea mala were merely apples, aueh as those 
with which Theocritus* lovers courted their mis- 
tresses, and with which Virgil's Galatea pelted 
Damoetas, The epithet resembles our own 
^^ golden pippins." E. C* H. 

"No doubt,'' says B, H. C, '* the Vulgate is in 
error in translating Chittitn by TtaJtf.^^ The trans- 
lation, neverthelefij, is defemible- The text is 
(Ezekiel xxvll B*)t " Et prsetoriola de insnlis 
Italic i " " And cabins with things brought from 
the islands of Italy," The Chaldaic has : " From 
the islands of Apulia," that is, from Cyprus, Crete, 
Sicily, and other islands near to Apulia and Italy, 
There is a passage (Numbers xxiv, 24.) where 
the same word (Chiitim) occurs, and the Vulgate 
reads thus: " Venient in tneribus de Italia;" 
'' They shall come in gaUeys from Italy." Chii^ 
tim or Citium was a city of Cyprus, from which 
the whole island was called Ceti7n or Chittim. 
Kow, the Hebrew is literally, *' They shall come 
from the aide," or, as the English Protestant ver- 
sion has it, from the c&ast (Sept. e^ xmp^i>) of 
Chittim, which sufficiently applies to Italy. More^ 

over, the Chaldaic Tersion hai distinctly, ** Ships 
shall come from the Romans/' The translation, 
then, of Ezekiel is borne out from the parallel 
passage in Numbers. It is probable that precious 
woods were imported from Italy ; but whether 
the orange- tree grew there so early is another 
question, upon which I give no opinion, my only 
object at present being to defend the translation 
in the Vulgate* F. C, H. 

The ''Teliiamed'' (Vol. xi,, p. 88.). — In my 
collection of books at present for sale, I find l 
have got a fine clean copy of the work asked for 
by your correspondent at Leamington. It h en- 
titled, — 

"TelHamedi or Diseaim^ betweea an Indian PhiTo* 
Etopber and a French Miasionair on the Dimlnntion oT 
the Seflt the Formation of the Eaith, the Origin of Man 
and Animalsr and other curious subjects relating to- 
Natural History and Fliilosophy. Being a iransfation^ 
from ths French ori^nai of M. Ma^et : London, T. Os- 
borne, 1750." 

It may be had for 3i. X. G. Si. 


Mason*s Hymn (Vol. xi*, p. 105.)* • — The line 
quoted by 11^ is the one that opens Mason's 
" Hymn before Evening Service i" 

" Soon will [not a*] the eveniiig star wllh silver ray.'* 

J. H. M. 

*' O S(m of David'' (VoL xi,, p. 106.). — The 
suggestion of the late Bishop Lloyd regarding ih^ 
veraicle " O Son of David,'* was mentioned to me 
several years a^o at Lambeth, by the late Canon 
Vaux, one of tne Archbishop's chaplains, as au 
interesting diieovery of Bishop Lloyd's, 

J. H. M, 


Tliat a ^abject so provqcatire of a good^natarcd laagli 
as photographyt with its difficulties, and infinite failures 
in the handet of 1>eginn[!]'B, should be seized upon a-^ the 
subject of hi^ mirth by one who has m keen a sense of 
the ridiculous as the ftiithor of Vtrdcmi Gmen, was only 
to be expected* U waa therefore with, no earprise that 
wa have received Photographic Phus-uret popidarly por- 
trayed with Pen and PmcU by Cuthbert Bede, BhA. We 
have been much amuaod by its perusal^ oven though we^ 
are not without a feeling that we may have feathered the^ 
arrow which hos h^an aimed at our camera; and few will 
turu over tlie pagca of it wiUiout sharing our enjoymeat 
of the flourishes of Cuthbert Bcde's pen, aad admiring the 
point of his pencil. 

Water! ow & Sons, the patentees of tha Autographic 
Prest, iiare jiist publisbed a volflmfl of inatructioaa for 
its uae, which will no doubt contribute greatly to extend 
the appUcation of this invention. It is entitled, Every 
Mtm nis own Frinterj or Lith^raphy maffc Etfsy ; heiny an 



[No. 278. 

Thomas Middleton about 1620, Hrestone sajt 
to his mother, the witch : 

<* Mavjou not haye one o'ehek in to thedoxen. Mother? 
Witdi, No. 

Firestone, Your spirits are then more unconscionable 

Stoke Newington. 

" The Woadweele sang^ and wold not cecae^^ jrc. 
(Vol. xi., p. 87.). — E. A. B. will find the stanza 
commencing with the above line in the old ballad 
of " Kobin Hood and Guj of Gisborne," printed 
in Perc/s Reliques, Ritson*s Robin Hoodj &c. 

The woodweele is said by Percy to be " the 
golden ouzel, a bird of the thrush kind.** 

J. K. R. W. 

Nuns acting as Priests in the Mass (Vol. xi., 
p. 47.). — The probability is, that, at the time of 
the Reformation, the nuns being left without a 
priest, " n*ayant pas de pr^tre," consoled them- 
selves in some measure for the loss of the real 
mass, by saving what used to be called a *^ Missa 
Sicca,** or, in fact, no mass at all, as the Consecra- 
tion and Communion were omitted, and merely 
the preparatory prayers said as far as the Secret, 
and of those after the Consecration only the Pater 
Noster and some of the concluding prayers. This 
substitute for a real mass used oflen to be said at 
sea, as it was daily before St. Louis ; but it has 
long been condemned and gone into disuse. Your 
correspondent seems to think that the nuns of the 
Convent of St Catherine still continue this prac- 
tice. The extract he gives, however, does not 
warrant that inference, but appears to allude 
merely to a temporary expedient in the absence 
of a chaplain. F. C. H. 

Osbem's Life of Odo (Vol. xi., p. 45.). — It 
seems very difficult to ascertain of what See 
St. Odo was bishop previously to his translation 
to Canterbury. Sherborne and Wilton are men- 
tioned ; but the curious old English Martyrologe 
says that he was first made Bishop of Wells, 

F. C. H. 

^ Husbandman (Vol. xi., p. 86.). — The original 
signification of this term is *'the head of any 
house*' (A.-S. hur, " a house," and banba, »»bond**), 
" the man who binds or kee^s together the family.** 
In its technical meaning it corresponds to the 
smtdl tenant farmer of the present day. Thus, in 
a chapter on ** heriots ** in the Scotch law, it is 
stipulated that a heriot should be taken from a 
husbandman, only provided he be tenant of the 
eighth part of a donate of land or more, a datate 
being as much as would employ four ploughs of 
eight oxen each. Affain, in one of the statutes of 
David II., rectors, vicars, religious, and husband- 
men are classed togeUier. These instances, toge- 
th^ with the usage of the word by our translators 

of the Bible, would seem to warrant J. C.^s su]^- 
position that it was formerly applied to persons m 
a somewhat higher position of life than it now la. 

J. Eastwood. 


♦* Planters of the Vineyard ** (Vol. xi., 5. 86.). — 
The author of this play was a Mr. Lothian, clerk 
to the Custom House in Leith, and was written 
in consequence of the presentation of the Rot. 
Mr. Logan to one of the churches there. Mr. L. 
appears in the list of dramatis personcsy in the 
character of *' Easy.** It is entitled — 

«The Planters of the Vineyard; or a Kirk-Session 
confounded, a comedy of three Acts, as it was performed 
at Forthtowa (Leith ), by the persons of the drama ; with 
a few epitaphs, 1771/' 

It was reprinted several years ago in 12mo. 

T. G. S. 


Partu (Vol. vii., pp. 177. 247. 367.; Vol. viii., 
p. 137.;. — Add to the mstances of the early use 
of this word that have appeared in your columns, 
one from the Apocrypha : 

*< Then the young man said to the angel, Brother Asa- 
nas, to what use is the heart and the liver and the gall of 
the fish? 

** And he said unto him, Touching the heart and the 
liver, if a devil or any evil spirit trouble any, we must 
make a smoke thereof before the man or the woman, and 
the party shall be no more vexed.** — Tohit, vi. 6, 7. 



Venom of Toads(Jo\, vi., pp. 338.517.; Vol. xi., 
p. 16.). — The story told in the extract from 
Lupton*s A Thousand Notable Things, 1630, 
quoted by Ma. Peacock, had been told nearly 
three centuries before that date by Boccaccio. See 
the Decameron, Day iv. Novel 7. C. Fobbbs. 


Ancient Beers (Vol. vi., pp. 72. 233.). — 

" The law concerning the due observance of the Pass- 
over will be transgressed by using the following articles, 
namelv, Babylonian nniD^ Median beer made of wheat 
or barley, Edomite vinegar', Egyptian zeitham', the 
dough 0? bran used by dyers, the dough used by cooks, 
and the paste used by writers. 

** 1 This is explained to be a mixture of mouldy bread 
with milk and salt, used to dip food in. 

** > That is, vineffar made in the Idumean manner, by 
the fermentation of barley and wine. 

**» The name of a medicine of Egyptian origin, men- 
tioned by Pliny, book xxii. c Ixxxii., under the name of 
zytham. According to the Talmud, it was composed of 
equal parts of barlev, salt, and wild saflEron."— Transla- 
tion of 7%e JtftsAna, "Pesachim," ch. iii. 

None of the above appear to present any fflreat 
temptations to a teetotaller. Am Oxfobd B.C. L. 

Oranges among the Romans (Vol. xi., p. 41.). 
—Having, in an early Number of "N.&Q." 

Feb. 24. 1855.] 



rVol. ii., p. 420.), offered some remarks on the 
Orient^ fruits which have been introduced into 
Europe, I read with much interest the Note of 
your correspondent on Gibbon's erroneous ac- 
count of the orange. 

The opinion of Targioni, which your corre- 
spondent L. has cited, is probably the right one. 
Had the orange been brought at once into 
Europe from China, we should hardly have .had 
the names naranja^ arrancia^ and orange^ modifi- 
cations of which are found in all the languages of 
Europe with which I have any acquaintance. ^ 

The first of these names was mtroduced into 
Spain by its Arabian invaders, from their own 
word ^l5> which they borrowed from the Per- 
sian ijjijlj. This word, I believe, was derived 
from the Sanscrit, as I find in several books of 

It is curious that we should derive from the 
Arabic, through the Spanish, the names of several 
other fruits which were known in Eastern Europe 
with Latin names, long before the intercourse of 
the Arabs with Western Europe ; and it is not 
easy to discover whether those Latin names, 
which are not without meaning, were originally 
corruptions from the Persian, or names invented 
by the Romans, and afterwards, from commercial 
intercourse, adopted in the East. 

About the orange, however, there can be no 
doubt. Gibbon possibly thought that the aurea 
mala of Virgil's fliird Eclogue were oranges ; for 
it was once a common opinion, and the modern 
Latin of the botanists, Aurantium, seemed in 
favour of that notion. Aurantium, however, can- 
• not be traced even to mediaeval Latin, and the 
aurea mala were merely apples, such as those 
with which Theocritus' lovers courted their mis- 
tresses, and with which Virgil's Galatea pelted 
Damoetas. The epithet resembles our own 
^* golden pippins." E. C. H. 

"No doubt," says B. H.C., "the Vulgate is in 
error in translating ChitHm by Italy'' The trans- 
lation, nevertheless, is defensible. The text is 
(Ezekiel xxvii. 6.), " Et praetoriola de insulis 
Italiae;" "And cabins with things brought from 
the islands of Italy." The Chaldaic has : " From 
the islands of Apulia," that is, from Cyprus, Crete, 
Sicily, and other islands near to Ajjulia and Italy. 
There is a passage (Numbers xxiv. 24.) where 
the same word (Chittim) occurs, and the Vulgate 
reads thus: "Venient in trieribus de Italia;" 
" They shall come in galleys from Italy." Chit^ 
tim or CUium was a city of Cyprus, from which 
the whole island was called Cetim or Chittim, 
Now, the Hebrew is literally, " They shall come 
from the side," or, as the English Protestant ver- 
sion has it, from the cocut (Sept. ck x^H^^^ ^^ 
Chittim, which sufficiently applies to Italy. More- 

over, the Chaldaic version has distinctly, " Ships 
&hall come from the Romans." The translation, 
then, of Ezekiel is borne out from the parallel 
passage in Numbers. It is probable that precioua 
woods were imported from Italy; but whether 
the orange-tree srew there so early is another 
question, upon which I give no opinion, my only 
object at present being to defend the translation 
in the Vulgate. F. C. H. 

The ''TeUiamed'' (Vol. xi., p. 88.\ — In my 
collection of books at present for sale, I find I 
have got a fine clean copy of the work asked for 
by your correspondent at Leamington. It is en- 

"Telllamed; or Disconrses between an Indian Philo- 
sopher and a French Missionary on the Diminution or 
the Sea, the Formation of the EUurth, the Origin of Man 
and Animals, and other curious subjects relating ta 
N'atural Histoiy and Philosophy. Being a translation^ 
from the French original of M. Maillet : London, T. Os- 
borne, 1760." 

It may be had for 3*. % G. S* 


MasorCs Hymn (Vol. xi., p. 105.). — The line 
quoted by H. is the one that opens Mason's 
" Hymn before Evening Service :*' 

** Soon will [not cw] the evening star with silver ray." 

J. H. M. 

« O Son of David'' (Vol. xi., p. 106.). — The 
suggestion of the late Bishop Lloyd regarding the 
versicle '' O Son of David,** was mentioned to me 
several years ago at Lambeth, by the late Canon 
Vaux, one of the Archbishop's chaplains, as an 
interesting discovery of Bishop Lloyd's. 

J. H. M, 


That a subiect so provocative of a good-natured laugh 
as photography, with its difficulties, and infinite failures 
in the hands of beginners, should be seized upon as the 
subject of his mirtii by one who has so keen a sense of 
the ridiculous as the author of Verdant Green, was only 
to be expected. It was therefore with no surprise that 
we have received Photographic Pleasures popularly por- 
trayed with Pen and Pencil by Cuthbert Bede, B.A. We 
have been much amused by its perusal, even though w» 
are not without a feeling that we may have feathered the 
arrow which has been aimed at our camera ; and few will 
turn over the pages of it without sharing our enjoyment 
of the flourishes of Cuthbert Bede*s pen, and admiring the 
point of his pencil. 

Waterlow & Sons, the patentees of the Autographic 
Press, have just published a volume of instructions for 
its use, which will no doubt contribute greatly to extend 
the application of this invention. It is entitled, Every 
Man hts own Printer, or Lithography made Easy ; being an 




JSMoy upon Uiko^rafHuf maUita Brame^ tkowmg more 
partieukurfy the Advantages of tke PaUnt Aitk)jraphk 
Press, Thouffh we cannot speak practicallj as to the 
advantages of the press, we can speak of the dearneas and 
'simplicity of these directions for its use. 

« A discoyery," says The Atheiueum of Saturday last, 
''whkh, perhaps, wul prove an important one to the 
German literature of the sixteenth centoij, has recently 
been made in the Baihe-archiv (Record OfSoe of the 
Senate), at Zwickau, in Saxony, where Dr. Herzog, qoite 
unexpectedly, found thirteen manuscript folios, all of 
them containing poems of old Hans Sachs, the cobbler 
poet of Nuremberg. A dose investigation has led to the 
knowledge, that these thirteen folios are the remainder of 
a series o£ thirty-four volumes ; forming a complete col- 
lection of all the works of Hans Sac^ (the imprinted 
ones included), and compiled by order, and for the private 
use, of the celebrated <Meisters&nger' himself The 
MSLf though not an autograph of Hims Sachs, is yet full 
of corrections by his own hand." 

Books Bjbceivbd. — We have under this heading to 
notice no less than six- of Mr. B<im's contribntions to 
dieap literature. 

History of the Dominion of the Arabs m Spain, (renis- 
latedfrom the Spanish of Dr. J. A. Conde, by Mrs. Jona- 
than Foster, Vol. II., is the new volume of Bohn's 
Standard Library. 

The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, 
Vol. II., containing his Political Miscellanies^ Reflections 
en ike Rsvoluiion in France, and Letter to a Membar of the 
National Assembly, is the new volume of Bohn's Briiis/i 

The Works of Philo-Judceus, the cotemporary of Jose- 
cAtu, translated from the Greek, by C D. Yonge, RA., 
voL ni., is the addition to the same publisher's Ecclesi- 
astical Library. 

Elementary Physics, an Introduction to the Study of 
Natural Philosophy, by Robert Hunt. A new edition, 
with corrections, of Professor Hunt*s Popular Introduc- 
tion, will, we have no doubt, prove one of the most suc- 
cessfid volumes of Bohn's Scientific Library. 

The Lives of the Twelve Ccesars, by C. Suetomus Tran^ 
quUlus, to which are added The Lives of the Grammarians, 
Rhetoricians, and Poets, the translation of Alexander 
Thomson, M.D., revised and corrected by T. Forester, 
A.M., form this month's issue of the Classical Library. 

The Life and surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, 
§*c. This volume of Bohn*s Illustrated Library is one 
which will be welcome to all the admirers of this master- 
piece of Defoe's genius, being illustrated with no less than 
twelve engravings on steel after Stothard, and seventy 
characteristic wood engravings, chiefly from designs by 



Xhb, Works ov Abuu Fnblialied at Chzistiuia. The nuMrt zeoent 

edition. % 

Iktekmabrzaox. By Alexander Walker. 


Tbk Obbk riu.1 CoHRBSPONDKHCB. Yol. III. MuTTaj, 1853. 
SrsPHBNs't EiMTioiv o» Common Pratsr. 


«•• Letten, itatiiur particalan and lowest vrioe, carriage frte^ to be 
sent to MaTBazx, Pabliiher of "NOTES AND QOXBIES,** 
186. Fleet Street. 

FartIoulanofPrice,ftc of the foHowinc Books to be sent direet to 
Um gentlenien by vhom they are reqnirvd, and whoae names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose t 

QiMoit't Dbcunb aitd Falz.. VoL L Editioii 1828, in 4 Yob. Fnb- 
liihed in Jones'a series of British Historians. 

Wanted by J, A., at Mr. MUlikin's. BookieUer, CoUege Gxeen, Dublin. 

PAmKiMBOir's Sbrmsms on V^mras ov DMiBnra sxm 1 

Yol. I. FostSTO. Blvhsfftons, IS 
Bmmpiblb'i NoRvoaK. Tlie part t ^_ _. 

hnndieds of East and West nea. «r the^&l« 

Wanted by iSm. £.& Itayipr, 


lisbed by William Fkkeiing, GhaaearEane, 
Waatedby E, 8. Tudor^ W. Vwtm 

tnlT faia Y bla . Jft ib- 
B& JUaHMndcnlBon. 

Thanes Stiwi. 

Vol XO. 

Lrrss or BcomSK Wortrzbs. By AJerandec T. Tytler. 
Londosi, lOB. 


Wanted by Matthew J. Joyce, Blaekltacdby. AAbr-de-la-Zoadi. 

Long's Oai— ▼ATiWfS oir « 

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GtrairooD^i WRLLmoTOir Dbspaxcbbs. YoIs. H. Sc HZ. U 

Wanted by J. Evatu^ 9. Portugal Street. 



Strbmbold Aifo Hopkins's Psalms. Edition UIO(V). 
Wanted by J. T. Cheetham, Firwood, m 

Stbrch at lbnoth of trr Dokb of Bbdford 081 A. Vsa 
DisMMSAi. OF MunstRT. Svo. Jordan, 1717. 

Wanted by 2^ XOfwfan, Wobum Abfeer« 

A rsw WoHt)! TCI- aun QiTEarm. Wc hlKe to rtrmind otfT QmrCsig AaK 
tfit 6bf&^ af ^ N. &. Q." a fa aatac digksilifiB. nut t*>fummh r^ie* t> iH 
guLnVj whifih fnaf/ lit ifciiled Ifff a rfiffTemrt fn cuiv KncjftltfjifBifia^^^^ 
ffraphictil DictiuNufyt iff otJv^ oAc^tffxl ivcwtv^ of n^/tinwimwL twtftk 
€W0T/ di^nniiitm ta aitui ali ij^uirm, wc rdaUt/ canmni isA^jrt SMCft 
Qw:rvLi aA ** What u tha mtaxraff af S«>ld far a mei« mn^, if*^ aS old 
iDttiT ! " *' What partkltitmf ViJp^ «hu (kt- CttfuiteUatio* YhfO i 
afterf " ** TTho are S. GodoIllMD attd L. U.yie, wAa Ji^ 

A Last's Qubbt respecting ViihdalLAIibeyJku met ieemneelMd. 

Q. Does our ( 

fotrndinaKsedititm i 

** Wlien the moon doth shine both ni^^ -TiHair 
On the Majoraltie chaire of London gaye. 
The Gorporate will play such triekea 
The vorlde shall deeme them Lunatiekea." 
W. H. T. (Norwich) trtZZ find answers to Ms first and « 
i» our earlier Vohtmeg. HuMrdshaUhamearlgsdr'*-' 

J. T. H. Lord Derhg'a name is p ronomced Darlnr. 

H. H. (Durham.) 1. We hnow no method of «^ „ .^^- 

Netnttiyefl. 2. After producing your chloride qfsSoert dm it; mix d 
with altout twice itaweifht ofpearUmk or carionate e/aodmj ea^fset it to 
a high temperature tna crucwle,aiuf tAe metaJUcsOner se^SeredtaosdL 

Mr. HBNDKBaoN (Glasgow). We apprehend the fitOmresmartfy arte 
fiwn thedefeetive make cf tAs aaatpteof pomer^amd paHffJrvmmmm 
'error in its mode of aJbumenization. Weshomdaa^iBeyou todUmmemlM 
ytmr own paper according to the instructions dXready tff sen <a **>. fc ^*' 
CTsea thinner paper, and you unJiget a betiertone,forwe mmmBtCBS^ 
gratvkUe you on that of the specimens sent. 

-Yol. xi.. p. 110. 1.94m /or " aocofut "r«a[««'«Malf" 
• • '^ . ... " L47.,Jbr •*lla«»all-f«a« 

FuU price w^ he given for clean copies of Ko, 186. andJn. W.^pOB 
etpptieaiion to the PubV^ier. 

A few compteiesets nf Norms and Qurribs, Yola. 1. 1» 

ready, price Fitr Guinbas. For these early appUcation is 
They may 6e had by order of any SookaeUer or Jfewaman. 

**NoTBs AND QaBBiRs" is pubUshsd €tt noon on JHtfay, •• IfesI Af 
Country BookseUers may receive Copies m that niffht'g yorasb, ami 
driver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday- 

resident in the country or abi^adtwJio maybe desirous of reee faw g Ai 
weekly Ifundiers, may have stamped copies forwarded aireet firmm At 

Publisher, the' suiicryption for the stamped 
»" {includvng a very copious Index! is < 


jMnes Am _„ _,_ 

favour qfOie PtMsha-t Mr.' Qbor'or BaxirNo. ISsT 

m of "B 

Noras AR» 

pence for stamM^u^maybepaidbyPo$t'(Ma Order, Auim^ 

Mab. 3. 1855.] 




I regret that no one has yet answered satisfac- 
torily the inquiries of C. (Vol. x., p. 102.), who 
asks for information about Arthur Moore. The 
substance of what has been communicated amounts 
to little, and was already known. I have resolved, 
therefore, to throw together such notes as I have 
made from time to time on the subject of these 
Moores; although unable at the moment to fol- 
low out their suggestions, or seek farther for 
information. If your correspondent be not con- 
tent in such doubtful questions with '^ secondary 
evidence," let me hope that he will produce 
evidence more direct ; and if he cannot see by my 
" torch," he may iJhereat light his own, and I hope 
help us to see farther. 

Of the antecedents of Arthur Moore, I know 
nothing; but if we put faith in the assertions of 
the adverse faction, he was of very humble origin : 
an Irishman born at Monoghan, the son of " the 
jailer," — " the first and last of his family that 
ever was upon record : " bom, says another, " at 
the paternal seat of his family — the tap-house at 
the prison-gate :" and, as a third tells us, brought 
up " a groom." Such assertions are, of course, to 
be read with suspicion ; and I observe that Arthur 
was a common name in the Drogheda family ; and 
the Irish Peerage (1768) mentions that Arthur 
Moore, one of the sons of the first Viscount 
Moore, settled at Dunnoghan (very likely Mo- 
naghan), and that his posterity still remain there. 
Perhaps we ought only to infer that Arthur 
Moore was what in popular phrase is called " the 
architect of his own fortune." I first meet with 
him in 1702, when he was elected one of the 
Managers of "The United Trade to the East 
Indies." In 1705 he was one of the Controllers 
of the Army Accounts : and under the Tory 
government of Queen Anne still a prosperous 
gentleman — one of the Commissioners of Trade, 
a Director of the Soiith Sea Company, and M.P. 
for Great Grimsby. 

It is probable, I think, that Moore was one of 
the Commissioners of the South Sea Company 
nominated on its establishment. This conjecture 
is strengthened by many cotemporary hints and 
assertions : 

*' Next open to all a subscription-book stood, 
In which, if some fools would not enter. 
These statesmen not only proposed what was good, 
But they likewise compdVa them to venture. 
La, la, &c. 

** And such fair accounts the subscribers will see, 
That surely there can be no loosing ; 
For Shepherd and Blunt the Directors shall be. 
With More of her M— y's choosing. 
La, la," &c. 

The Whigs were clamorous against the South 
Sea Company, and they generally associated 
Moore*s name with it : 

" Now trading will flourish, and tradesmen grow rich. 
For the South Sea will do it, depend on*t ; 

Or else A r M is a son of a b— , 

Who makes us believe there's no end on't." 

It was generally believed too, or asserted, that 
Moore was in some way associated with Prior— 
" Plenipo-Rummer," as he is called — in carrying 
on the secret negotiations with France, which lea 
to the Peace; that Moore suggested the Afl* 
siento Contract : and in one of the angry attacks 
on him he is called " Don Artureo,, le Compte 
de Tarifie, Marquis d'Assiento." In another of 
the cotemporary ballads we read : 

" Great treaties, like ours, must infallibly bear, 
Since the persons employed are so able ; 
Though one was a drawer, and t'other, some swear. 
Was the politic groom of a stable." 

Again : 

"... a box is just landed by which we may find. 
Our work done in France and Peru is ; 
And the long-wish'd-for peace already is sign'd 
Betwixt Arthur More and King Lewis." 

The following will throw farther light on the 
subject, or on the opinion of the Whigs : 

" The South Sea trade goes on a-pace, 

We rfiall now grow rich of a sudden, 
Tho' its all for the knight of the spurious race. 

Whom the Tories swear's a good one : 
They've money now at St. Germain's store. 

Which Prior convey'd from Dover; 
As sure as a gun. 
They'll bring in the son. 

And baffle the House of Hanover. 
Toryf Ron/, Tories, Jacks, St. George U the heroyouhonour, 
" There's Arthur Moor the jailer's son. 

Who we know was whelp'd in a manger. 
And from the North of Ireland came. 

To preserve our Church firom danger : 
In Monnachon's town he was bom and bred, 

And hir'd the ship for Prior; 
But Gregg still the Great, 
Bamboozles the State, 

And Sophia is never the nigher. 
Tory, Rory," &c. 

Gregg was the clerk in Harley's office who was 
hanged for betraying official secrets to the enemy. 
The Whigs affected to believe that he was the 
mere tool of Harley, and no doubt " Greg^ the 
Great" of the ballad was meant for the minister. 
Moore's association with Prior in the secret n^o- 
tiations is constantly referred to ; but the hirmg 
the ship was, I suspect, the extent to which he 
was engaged : for Macky, who was at that time 
agent fcr the packets at Dover, having receiyed 
notice from Calais that an English gentleman had 
arrived there " direct from the Thames," had 
taken " post immediately for Paris," and that the 
boat " waited his return," suspected naturally that 
some treasonable projects were on foot, gave im- 



[No. 2t9. 

mediate orders for a vigilant watch to be kept 
along the coast, and havins thus learnt that the 
parties had landed at Deal, on their return, he 
hurried off to Canterbury, and there apprehended 
Prior, Mesnager, and the Abb^ Grautier (Macky*8 
Memoirs, p. xvii.). If Moore therefore went with 
Prior, he had either been left in France, which is 
not probable, or had returned in the boat to the 
Thames, which is I think even less probable. 

The Whig party, however, had resolved to run 
him down, and they charged him with offences 
which contradict each other. Thus we have just 
heard that the parties engaged in the secret nego- 
tiation had conveyed money to St. Germains, and 
now that they brought money hence, — 

"Now Pr— r and M— r, with pistoles in great store, 
From France are arrived at Dover." 

Another charge in a pamphlet called A Letter 

to the Honourable A r M—re, Com — ner of 

Trade and Plantations, is specific ; that when he 
was " Arbitrator between Sir T. C — ke. Sir B— 
F — b — , and the East India Company," he " ex- 
torted of the said gentlemen a bribe of above ten 
thousand pounds in I — a Stock, for awarding and 
procuring them a general release." 

There can be no doubt that Moore, though not 
perhaps personally engaged in carrying on the 
secret negotiation, was afterwards active in ar- 
ranging the details of the commercial treaty, and 
for that purpose went to France, probably with 
Bolingbroke. Keference is made to this in the 
above pamphlet : 

« We all know," says the writer, " that it was to your 
ability the care of our trade was left at the late treaties, 
and to your discerning judgment the care of the Crown's 
property in America was recommended. The fatigues 
you underwent in your iourney to Paris, the indefatigable 
industry and skill you have show'd in your management 
of the late treaties, and your disinterested aims through 
the whole course of them, are evident proofs how zealous 
you are for the welfare of the country." 

In this pamphlet, which is satirically addressed 
to Moore as an *' honourable " friend, Moore is 
himself therein described as a third party, mixed 
up with Defoe, who wrote in favour of the peace, 
and was at that time denounced by the Whigs as 
a turncoat. We ought perhaps to infer from what 
follows that Moore had once been condemned to 
the pillory ; but the allusion may be figurative, or 
refer to the official duties of the Monoghan jailer : 

** They being both the offspring of the pillory, no doubt 
are naturallv endow'd with a large portion of sincerity. 
One of 'em, t must acquaint you, is so insolent as to in- 
terfere in your province, and to assume the management 
of our commerce to himself, he says he is Prime Minister 
of Trade . . . he is a huge fellow ; and has a face 
that strikes terror into all who approach him . . . 
and will do unspeakable damage to our country, if you 
do not take care to get him tum'd out. Such an impostor 
as this ought to be sent to Newgate, and from thence 

. The man has good understanding, and talks well, 

bat makes a bad use of all his talents ; he has, however, 

raised himself by his genius firom a mean native of the 
town of Monoghan," &c. 

At that time, as I learn from another reference, 
Moore resided in Bloomsbury Square, where it is 
said Defoe, " his man Daniel," went every night 
to consult with him. There are constant re- 
ferences to '* shim-sham projects, formed in the 
refined air of Bloomsbury Square." Bloomsbury 
was first named, and long popularly called, South- 
ampton Square, and his residence there is con- 
firmed by the following announcement : 

** There is lately imported from France, by Messiean 

Mesnager and P r, a very neat, cheap, ana fine Peaoe^ 

truly French, which will be disposed of at the following 

places ; at . . ., at . . ., at Mr. A M.'s house 

in Southampton Square^ N. B. That for the satisfaction 

of persons of quality, Mr. P r will draw himself, and 

Mr. M r will wait in his proper person." 

The references in the party squibs and songs to 
Arthur Moore are indeed endless. I will throw 
some of them together. The first is from a ballad 
satirically called The Damnable Protestant Plot : 

** Large countries late given to Lewis, 
Are owin^ to Marlbro*8 duke, 
For of nothmg comes nothing, most true is, 
Unless he those Places first took. 

** Our statesmen, religious and wise. 

That never take trouble in vain, 
Base lucre are known to despise. 

Pray witness the Indies and Spain. 
Their care is our trade and increase. 

With many more blessings in store, 
And procured us a plentiful peace. 

By the help of Matt. Prior and Moore." 

In another are satirically celebrated the festivi- 
ties of a Jacobite party accustomed to meet at 
" Daniel's, the Globe at Mile End,** and amongst 
the company are, — 

" Jolly Swankies a pair, 
With Arthur most rare. 
Adorers of tipple divine." 

An excellent New Ballad to a New Tune is un- 
fortunatelv too broad in its humour for much 
extract; but there Arthur is found in better 
company : 

" A junto of statesmen were late met together, 

Lewd Harry and Robin, Matt, Simon, and Moore, 
With a sanctified bishop, all birds of a feather, 
Declaring for Perkin, the son of a ." 

I cannot but believe that Arthur Moore had 
more influence in his day than might be inferred, 
considering the necessity we are under of hunting 
him out from such obscure paragraphs. In an- 
other of these squibs, a dialogue between Pasquin 
and Marphorio, the former inquires for news 
from England, and is joyously informed that the 
queen is delivered from the controlling influences 
of the junta — the church established — and the 
honour of the nation retrieved. 

" Pasa. How came these things to be effected? 
Marph, By a religious, wealthy, and artless commoner, 

Mab. 3. 1855.] 



the two great politicians D h and St J— ns, the 

learned civiKan Dr. D — nt, the chaste divine Dr. Sw — ^ft, 

the great statesman A M— re, and the worthy 

Mr. P— r." 

There are other references which I have noted 
down, but which I shall not forward, as they 
are too vague to help your correspondent to in- 
formation. Moore, nowever, was not forgotten, 
even by the Balladmakers, when the Tory triumph 
was over, which I take to be good evidence that 
he once possessed power. Here is the first verse 
of a song written upon the Queen's death, and to 
be sung, we are told, to the tune of " Oh Simkin, 
thou hadst better been starved at nurse. Than be 
bang'd at Tyburn for taking a purse :" 

**A11 honest brave Britons attend and give ear. 
To a ditty most dismal and doleful God wot. 
The dire effects of it daily appear, 

By Prior and Moore 'twill ne*er be forgot ; 
We've lost our Queen Ann, with Robin her man. 

Lewd Harry and Brinsden, with Lady M ^m. 

Oh Parkin, toe bid thee for ever adieu. 

For in loosing of them we have oho lost you" 

Affairs, however, now assumed a more serious 
aspect, and next week I shall proceed from verse 
to prose. The Weitbr or the 

Abticles in the Athen^um. 

(To be continued,) 


This quaint old house, situated in Wildman 
Street, and close to the railway station, is passed 
daily by many a lake tourist without even a glance 
bestowed upon it ; whereas it is worth while, for 
those who have leisure and a taste for such things, 
just to look inside this relic of the olden time. I 
will endeavour to give a slight sketch of its ap- 

On a stone outside, within a sunk panel, are 
incised the letters " a. g.," of an ancient fashion, 
a cord with sundry knots being intertwined, and 
the date, 1564 : — for Anthony Garnett, then pro- 

On the upper bevelled stonework of a window to 
the extreme left are incised "qvi vadit plane — 
VADiT BA.KE " and " A. G." in cypher. This same 
idea is rendered into English on coeval glass in 
Worlingworth Church, Suffolk, "^C Jj' iaalit^ 
^latnlu -- toalii^tp itaueli?." 

Entering what is now the kitchen, but which is 
only a portion of the original apartment parti- 
tioned off, the clavey, or mantelshelf, extends the 
whole breadth of the house, and is formed of oak 
in curved panels, the moulding battlemented, with 
which the opposite end, now forming part of the 
entrance passage, corresponds. In the south win- 
dow of the same is a quarrel (No. 1.) with, 
"1567 — oBffNiA vANiTAs — A. G.," With inter- 
laced cord, " viBNDBA LB lovB,*' a skull. Ano- 

ther (No. 2.) with a fleur-de-lis within a tasteful 
border in cinque cento style, surmounted by a 
crown ; both executed in yellow stain. 

In a bed-room upstairs is a massive carved-oak 
bedstead, the head-board of which has upon [it, 
carved in bold relief on the top triangular panel, 
the centre-piece gone, first row below — dexter, 
a mask with horns, after the Roman antique ; 
middle, a scroll, with "0mnCa uatltta^," a shield, 
having "a. g." conjoined by a fanciful knotted 
cord, a scroll with *' WimtSXK It tour," and skull; 
sinister, mask in cinque cento style : lower row, 
three lions* masks in as many panels. 

On a buffet or ambry; upper part, " oia : vani- 
TAS : honor [a central piece missing] divicie : 
POTESTAS;" lower part, "anno dni 1562." On 
each side " a. g.," as before. The bedstead above 
named is of the same date, as the carving on both 
in certain parts coincides. 

In the window, on a quarrel (No. 1.), "a. g.," 
and the date "1565." (No. 2.) An oak tree 
erased argent, fructed or ; on its branches an 
eagle and child of the second. No. 3. as No. 1. 
in the room below (No. 4.), an oak tree erased ; 
on its branches an eagle and child or, the face 

(in oak bosses on the ceiling; that next the 
window has a shield of four quarterings : 1st, two 
fesses engrailed, on the upper one a mullet pierced, 
Parr ; 2nd, three chevronels in fess braced, Fitz- 
hugh; 3rd, three water bougets, two and one, 
Boos ; 4th, apparently three rabbits, two and one, 
.... On another, farther from the window, a 
second shield of four quarterings ; first and fourth 
a fess dancette between ten billets, four and 
six, Deincourt; second and third three cockle- 
shells, Strickland of Sizergh Hall. 

This house was an appendage to the adjoining 
Kendal Castle, which belonged to the noble family 
of Parr, of whom was Katherine, last queen of 
Henry Vni. 

The house under notice now belongs to Mrs. 
Garnett Braithwaite. Some years ago a chest was 
found in it, which contained among other things 
a Missal, and a neatly-turned beechen box, just 
holding to a nicety a dozen beechen roundles, 
which I shall proceed to describe. The Missal, 
the- calendar of which has a catalogue of English 
saints, may be described hereafter, if thought de- 
sirable. Both are in the possession of the said lady. 

The roundles are extremely thin ; say as thm 
as a delicate well-made pancake, five inches and a 
quarter in diameter, gilded and painted, six of one 
pattern and six of another. In the centre of each 
an animal, and beneath a quatrain, as follows : 

[The representation of a skull, and below it the following 
« A wyfe y* maryethe husbandes thre 
Was neuer wyshed therto by me ; 




I wolde my wyfe aholde ntther dye, 
Than for my death to wepe and cry." 


FA leopard, as anciently represented in the arms of Enjr- 
<* And he that reades thys verse eaer nowe, 
May hape to haae a loarynge* sowe 
Whose louckes^ are lyked^ nothjmge so bad 
As ys hyr toaqge to make hym made." 


[A white greyhound collared,^ the collar besant^] 
^ If that a batoheler thoa be, 
Kepe thee so styll ; be rulede by me% 
Lest that repentaonce all to latt 
Kewarde thee yryth a brocken patte." 
[A red fox.] 
^ I shrowe hys harte that maryed mee ; 
My wyfe and I canne neuer agree ; 
A knauyshe qaene by Jys^ I sweare, 
The goodman^B bretche shee thynkes to weare.** 
[Axed squirrel.] 
** Thys woman may haue husbands fyuc, 
Butt neuer whyll shee ys alyne ; 
Tett doth shee hoppe? ao well to spede; 
Geue up thy hopp, yt shall not nede." 
[A red camel. ] 
** Aske thou thy W3rfe yf shee cann tell 
Whether thou in maryage hast spede well ; 
And lett Jiyr speake as shee doth knowe, 
Por XX pounde she will say no." 

[A white elephant] 
** Thou aret^ the hapest man alyue. 
For euery thynge doth make the thryve; 
Yett maye thy wyfe thy master be, 
Wherfore tacke thryft and all for mee.** 

[A white panther spotted.] 
** If thou be younge then marye not yeat ; 
If thou be olde thou hast more wytte ; 
For young menes wyues wyll nott be taught. 
And old menes wyues be good for noaght.** 
[A white talbot. ] 
** Take upp thy fortune wythe good happ,^ 
Wythe ryches thou dost fyll thy lappe, 
Yett lese weare better for thy store. 
Thy quietnes y» shall be the more." 

[A golden leopard, or spotted panther.] 
** Reseue thy hape^o as fortune sendeth, 
For god yt ys that fortune lendeth ; 
Wherefor yf thou a shrowe i* hast goett, 
Thynke with thy selfe yt ys thy lott." 

[A white hare.] 
** Thou mayst be poore, and what for y*? 
Hou »» yf thou hadeste nether cappe nore hatte ? 
Yett may thy mynde so queyt be, 
What thou maytt wyn as mioche as Ukm," 


[A white unicorn.] 

" Thou hast a throwe to thy good man, 

Parhapes anunthryft^' to what than; 

Kepe hym as lounge as he cann lyue. 

And at hys ende hys passpot i* geue." 

These roundles, to which I wish particularly te 
call the attention of the curious, are said to be of 
the time of Henry VIII. The letters are similar 
to those of his day, in half printing, half running 
hand, the initials at the beginning of each line 
being in red, and what are termed Lombardic 
(Query, Why so called ? •) The tone throughout 
is ungallant and somewhat libertine, suoh as might 
be expected in his day, when he set his own royal 
will as an example for his loving subjects. (Query, 
Were these roundles used in some game of ckance f 
as besides in No. 12., where throwe alludes to the 
use of dice, a sinular allusion agfpeus in other 

I hope to excite the. interest of some of the kind 
correspondents of " N. & Q.," and thereby elicit 
information on the subject of roundles. 

G. Habbsfield. 

P. S. — I think it as well to add, that besides 
these memoranda respecting Castle Dairy, I have 
made tracings of glass and of each roundle, ta 
ensure accuracy ; likewise sketches of sundry por- 
tions I have described above. 

No. 1. The comiexion between this design and the ac- 
companying rhymes is more obvious than many tliat 

No. 2. 1 A leopard is the correct heraldic term for the 
English lion, as here drawn, lean, gaunt, and right 
savage-looking, with tail and tongue well developed; 
a verv different animal from that degenerate brute de- 
picted now-a-days, — a fet, smiling, good-tempered beast 
of the Van Amburgh breed. 

• Lowering. 3 Looks. 

* Likened, or like to. Tounge, in the fourth line, has 
reference to that rubicund member of the royal beast as 
depicted in the original. .„--, 

No. 3. * This was one of the supporters of Henry VXll.*s 
^ An evasive oath. 

7 Hoppe and hcpp^ a play of words with reference to 
the habits of this mercurial little animal. 

8 " Thou art the happiest ; " Query, What is the precise 
meaning of thryft here and shrowe in the 4th ? 

^ 10 nap in 9, and hape in 10, luck. 
»i ** A shrew hast got." *2 How. 

1' " A spendthrift " too in modem phraseology. 
1* Passport 

[* Because introduced by the Lombards, in 669. The 
ancient Lombardick is distinguished by long heads and 
tails ; the more recent is thicker. — Fosbroke's Ency. of 
Antiq., p. 486.] 

Mab. 8. 1855.] 



%00K8 BtJftlfr. 

(Vondudedfrom p. 121.) 

About 1534, Bp. Tonstall purchased through a 
mercliant of Antwerp many copies of l^yndale's 
Translation qf ike New *resiament, which were 
publicly burnt in Gheapside. 

In 1554, Queen Mary burnt with her oWn hands 
a memorial which had been presented to her, ad- 
vising unconstitutional measures. 

1554. The lower house of Convocation pre- 
sented a petition which contained a clause for 
condemning heretical books. 

1555. Convocation condemned all heretical 
books. [In this reign all documents wer« burnt 
or erased which contiuned anything against the 
see of Rome, or religious houses.] 

1567. The dead bodies of Bucer and Fagius 
were disinterred at Cambridge, and with many 
heretical books were all burnt in one fire. 

1558. It was ordered by proclamation that who- 
ever received certain heretical writings and did 
not at once burn them, without either reading 
them or showing them to others, was to be im- 
mediately executed by martial law. 

The Books of Convocation perished in the' Fire 
of London.* 

Dr. Thomas Groodwin lost half his liteary in 
the Fire of London. 

The library at Oxford is said to have been 
set on fire by the soldiers of Cromwell. 

Charles II. burnt the Solemn League and 
Covenant by the hands of the hangman, and the 
Scotch in revenge burnt the Acts of Supremacy, 

De Laune's Plea was burnt in 1684, and its 
author thrown into prison, where he died. 

Drake*s Memorial of the Church of England^ \ 
4to., 1705, was presented at the Old Bailey, 
Aug. 31 St, and ordered to be burnt both there 
and at the Royal Exchange by the common hang- 

r* On this flaming topic Pepys has a note or two: 
« Sept. 26, 1666. By Mr. Dugdale I hear the great loss of 
books in St. PauFs Churchyard, and at their Hall also, 
which they value at abont 160,000/. ; some booksellers 
being wholly undone, and among others, they say, my 
poor mrton. And Mr. Cnimlum, all his books and house- 
hold stuff burned. His father [Wm. Dugdale] hath lost 
above 1000/. in books ; one book, newly printed, a Dis- 
couJnBe, it seems, of Courts." [ThiB was the Origims Ju- 
ridiciales.'} Again, "Oct. 5. Mr. Kirton's kinsman, my 
bookseller, come in my way ; and «o I am told by him 
that Mr. Kirton is utterly undone, and made 2000/. or 
3000/. worse than nottiing, from being worth 7000/. or 
SOOOl, He do believe there is above 160,000/. of bo^s 
burned; all the great booksellers almost undone; not 
only these, but theit warehouses at their Hall and under 
Christ Church, and elsewhera, being all burned. A great 
want, therefore, there will be of books, specially Latin 
books and foreign books; and, among others, the Poly- 
glottes and new Bible, which he believes wiH be pre- 
soBtly worth 4I0L a jMMe.'^] 

nran. The order was eixecuted in the presence of 
a great multitude idf people, and tiie court of 
aldermen returned thiariks to the ^ury hr tiieir 
loyalty upon the oceasion. 

The pleasant story of Sir Isaac Newton and his 
dog Diamond, who overthrew a candle amfong his 
papers, is too well known to'need particular narta-' 

So also ttat of Wm. Cowper, Bishop of Lin- 
coln (?)♦ His wife burnt the results of eight 
years' studies to deter him from study. He 
meekly bore his loss, and set at work at ence to 
repair it. 

The Cotton Library was partly burnt in 1731, 

In the riots of 1780, Earl Mant^eld's papers 
were burnt by the mob. 

In 1791, at the Birmingham riots, many yHvL" 
able books and papers were burnt in the houses 
of Dr. Priestley, Mr. Kyland, Mr. Hutton, &c. 

Dobree relates, in his preface to Person's Ari" 
stophanica, p. 2., that some of Person's annotated 
books, &c. were consumed by fire about 1797. 

Bp. Burnet's Pastoral Letter, published in 1689, 
was three years later condemned by the parlia- 
ment and consigned to the fiames. 

The same parliament which burnt Burnet's 
book pronounced a similar sentence upon a pam- 
phlet by Charles Blount, entitled King WtUimn 
and Queen Mary Conquerors, &c., 1693. 

De Foe's Shortest Way with the 'Dissenters was 
burnt by order of the Commons, made 25th Feb. 
1702-3. De Foe says: 

" I have heard a bookseller in King James's time say, 
that if he would have a book sell, he would have it burnt 
by the hands of the common hajigmaa," ~^ JSstay on 
Projects, p. 173. 

The Polyglott Bible of Messrs. Bagster was 
partly burnt, and a complete copy of the quarto 
edition cannot be had. This happened, I believe, 
when the premises were burnt, March 2, 1822. 

Many books have been burnt in this way, as the 
following list of fires will prove : 

At the printing-office of S. Hamilton, Falcon 
Court, Fleet Street, Feb. 2, 1803. Damage 80,000^. 

At Smeeton's printing-office, St. Martin's Lane, 
May 27, 1809. 

Li Conduit Street, July 8, 1809, Mr. Windham 
was fatally injured in his endeavour to save Mr. 
North's library and MSS. 

At Mr. Paris, printer's, Tooke's Court, July 20, 

Gillet's printing-office burnt, Salisbury Square, 
1805 and 1810. 

Library of Mr. C. Boon, Berkeley Square, burnt, 
Feb. 11, 1816. 

Architectural Library of Mr. Tayloir burnt, 
Holborn, Nov. 23, 1822. 

* QMty Galloway ? 



[No. 279. 

Fart of the Catalogue of tbe Rich MSS., by 
Forshall, was burnt while in sheets, 1838. 

The Great Exhibition Catalogue, &c., burnt at 
Clowes & Son's, Duke Street, Stamford Street, 

Part of the MS. of Doddridge's Expositor was 
accidentally burnt in June, 1750. 

At the Houses of Parliament, Oct. 16, 1834, 
and at the Tower of London, many v^uable books 
and documents were burnt. 

Robert Robinson of Cambridge collected most 
of the materials for a history of public preaching, 
but these he himself burnt and otherwise destroyed. 

** Throughout the Russian empire the Czar forbids the 
study of the literature and philosophy of our ancestors, 
and the more effectually to seal up the lessons of political 
wisdom impressed on the minds of men by the perusal of 
our great authors, our Demosthenes, and our Plato, — he 
has ordered them to be burnt wherever they are found I " 
— From Letter from Athens in The Time* of Dec. 22nd, 

The records of the Hospital of St. Cross were 
burnt by a Mrs. Wright, who had been left in 
charge of the house, temp. Jas. I. See " N. & Q.,'* 
Vol. X., p. 43. 

Such are a few of the examples on record of the 
destruction of books and papers by fire, and but a 
few of the myriad instances which have occurred. 
Nearly every one is from books in my own limited 
collection. B. H. Cowp£b. 


It is very well known that Shakspeare makes his 
carpet-knight, when visiting the field of Holme- 
don after the battle, declaim against gunpowder 
and fire-arms as a vile and cowardly means of 
destroying brave men ; and that Milton ascribes 
the invention to Satan. In the former the cour- 
tier says : 

" And that it was great pity, so it was 
That villanous salt-petre should be dug 
Out of the bowels of the harmless earth. 
Which many a good tall [brave] fellow had destroyed 
So cowardly ; and but for these vile guns, 
He would himself have been a soldier." 

Ist Part Henjy VI., Act I. Sc. 3. 

In Milton, Satan in council with his angels 
proposes to dig up and temper certain metals : 

** Which into hollow engines long and round. 
Which, ramm'd, at the other bore with touch of fire 
Dilated and infuriate, shall send forth 
From far with thundering noise, among our foes 
Such implements of mischief as shall dash 
To pieces and overwhelm whatever stands 
Adverse, and they shall fear we have disarmed 
The Thunderer of his only dreaded bolt." 

Far. Lost, b. vi. 1. 398, &c. 

Addison says, "It was certainly a very bold 
thought in our author to ascribe uie first use of 

artillery to the rebel angels;** and that "such a 
pernicious invention mav be well supposed to 
have proceeded from such authors.** (Spectator, 
No. 333.) But he does not seem to have been 
aware that the same thought had previously been 
expressed both by Ariosto and Cervantes. 

Ariosto represents the King of Frisia as em- 
ploying in battle the first invented cannon, by 
means of which he twice obtuns the victory : 

** Porta alcun' arme, che V antica sente 
Non vide mai, ne, fuor ch' a lui, Ta nova; 
Un ferro bu^io, lungo da due braccia, 
Dentro a cui polve ed una palla caccia," &c 

" He bore certain arms unknown to former times, and 
in our own only used by him ; an iron tube, two cubits 
long, into which he rammed powder and a ball," &c — 
Orlando Furioso, canto ix. st. 28, 29. 

Like a true knight-errant, Orlando, having 
conquered this formidable monarch, would ti^e 
no part of the spoil, except the gun, which he in- 
tended not for his own defence, but to throw into 
the sea ; ** for he always deemed it the act of a 
feeble spirit to take an advantage in any enter- 
prise.** Wherefore, addressing the gun, he ex- 
claims : 

*' Perche pih non stea 
Mai cavalier per te d' esser ardito, 
Ne quante il buono val, mai pih si vanti 
II rio per te valer, qui gih rimanti. 
Oh maladetto, oh abominoso ordigno I 
Che fabbricato nel tartareo fondo 
Fosti per man di Belzebu maligno, 
Che ruinar per te disegnb il mondo, 
All' inferno, onde usciti, ti rassigno. 
Cosl dicendo lo gitto in profondo." 

" * That the valour of the knight mav never be ascribed 
to thee, nor the coward be enamed, hy Vie advantage which 
thou ffivest him, to overcome the brave, lie thou there below. 
Oh, cursed instrument I oh, abominable device 1 fabric 
cated in the depth of Tartarus by Beelzebub, who by thee 
intended to lay waste the world ; I consign ithee to the 
hell from whence thou camest.' So saying he threw it 
into the abyss." — /6iU st. 90, 91. 

I do not remember to have seen the coinci- 
dence noticed between the passages above quoted 
from our two great poets, and the following senti- 
ment of the renowned cavalier Don Quixote de 
la Mancha, in his '* Curious Discourse on Arms 
and Letters:** 

" Bien hayan aquellos benditos siglos 'que careci^ron 
de la espantable furia de aquestos endemoniados instru- 
mentos de la artillena, ^ cuyo inventor tengo para mf c[ue 
en el infiemo se la esU dando el premio de su diab<51ica 
invencion, con la qual di<5 causa que un infame y cobarde 
brazo quite la vida H un valeroso caballero, y que sin 
saber c6mo 6 per donde, en la mitad del corage y brio que 
enciende y anima 6, los valientes pechas, llejga una des- 
mandada bala, disparada de quien quizd huyoy se espantd 
del resplandor que hizo el fuego al disparar de la maldita 
m^uina, y corta v acaba en un instante los pensamientos 
y vida de quien la mare^ia gozar luengos siglos. T asf 
considerando esto, estoy por decir que en alma me pesa 
de haber tornado este exercicio de caballero andante en 
edad tan detestable como en esta en que ahora vivimos, 
porque aunque 4 mi ningun peligro me pone miedo, toda- 

Mab. 3. 1855.] 



Via me pone rezelo pensar si la pdlvora y el estano me 
han de qaitar la ocasion de hacerme famoso y conocido 
por el valor de mi brazo y filos de mi espada, per todo lo 
descubierto de la tierra." 

" Happy were those blessed ages that were strangers to 
the horrible fury of those infernal instruments of artillery, 
whose inventor^ 1 very believe, is now in hell, receiving the 
reward of his diabolical tnuenft'ow, by means of which the 
hand of an infamous cotoard can deprive the most valiant 
cavalier of life, and through which without knowing how 
or from whence, in the midst of that courage and reso- 
lution which fires and animates gallant spirits, comes a 
chance ball, shot off perhaps, by one that fled and was 
frightened at the flash of his own accursed machine, and 
in an instant puts an end to the life and purposes of him 
who deserved to have lived for ages. And therefore, 
when I consider this, I am almost ready to regret having 
taken up the profession of a knight-errant in an age so 
detestable as this in which we live ; for though no danger 
can daunt me, still it gives me some concern to think 
that powder and lead may deprive me of the opportunity 
of becoming famous and renowned through the whole 
world, for the valour of my arm and the keenness of my 
steel." — Tom. iL 1* parte, cap. xxxviii. 

J. W. Thomas. 


Nugent, — As some workmen were repairing 
the floor of the church of St. Mary's, Tuam, they 
dug up a coffin plate, on which was the following 
inscription: "John Nugent, second son of ye 
Rt. Hon. ye Earl Westmeath, aged 26 years; 
died 30 June, Anno Dom. 1725." (From Saufi' 
ders's Newspaper^ Dec. 8, 1853.) . . Y. S. M. 

Lord Carlisle on " latebrosus^ — Lord Carlisle, 
in his Diary, lately published, challenges any of 
his readers to translate the word latehrosus by an 
English equivalent, also one word. Now, it rather 
surprises me, that his lordship (evidently, from his 
beautiful Latin and English poetry, one of our 
most accomplished and classical scholars), should 
apply to others to do what, if he could not manage 
it, few would be likely to strive after : but, using 
the privilege he grants, I would venture to sug- 
gest that our adjective obscure renders the mean- 
ing as nearly as one language can the other. 
Thus : 

**. . . . ! might I here. 
In solitude, live savage, in some glade 
Obscure, where highest woods, impenetrable 
To sun or starlight, spread their umbrage broad." 

If obscure is not satisfactory, then we have 
hidden, which also expresses concealment and um- 
brageousness ; and lastly snug, which appears best 
of all to correspond with the sense of latebrosus. 

Would his lordship allow me, in return, to ask 
him how he construes the "improbus labor*' of 
Virgil ? 

" . . . Labor omnia vincit, 
Improbtu " 

More puzzling, I am inclined to think, than hie' 
brosus, M. 

University Club. 

Inherent Strength and Sap of Nationalities and 
Hereditary Principles : — The French Protestants 
and the Poles, — This subject having been recently 
touched upon in " N. & Q.," will you permit nae 
to say, that in the present eventful crisis of poli- 
tical affairs in Europe, and when the meditations 
of statesmen and warriors are wistfully directed 
towards the best means of counteracting the 
enormous ambition of Russia, it is well to draw 
consolation and instruction — as regards the resto- 
ration of Poland as a barrier on the West against 
Russian aggression — from observing the vital 
strength and permanency of nationalities and 
far-descended principjes, even when long down — 
trodden and oppressed, and threatened, of set pur- 
pose, with utter extinction. Every means that a 
ruthless despotism can devise have been set in 
operation by Russia to extinguish national feelings 
and spirit in Polaiid, but in vain ; and whenever 
the hour of her deliverance sounds its joyous peal, 
we shall see her start from her wakeful watch, 
burning with life and energy. Thus it was with 
the Protestants in France, when restored to a part 
only of their natural rights by Louis XVI., in 
1787, just before the great Revolution. 

Weiss, in his valuable History of the French 
Protestant Refugees, says : 

** It was admirable to observe that this people, excluded 
for more than a century from idl employments, impeded 
in all professions, hunted like wolves in the forests and 
mountains, without schools, without any family recog- 
nised by law, without any certain inheritance, had lost 
nothing of its ancient energy." 

The imperfect legislation of 1787 was soon com- 
pleted by successive decrees of the revolutionary 
government, which, in this respect at least, is en- 
titled to the eternal gratitude of mankind. 

R. M. O. P. 

Apple-trees in America, — In 1629 apples were 
cultivated in Massachusetts, the seed having been 
imported from England by order of the governor 
and company of the colony. Governor's Island, in 
Boston harbour, was given to Governor Winthrop 
in 1632, on condition that he should plant an or- 
chard upon it. The famous Baldwin apple, not 
unknown in England, originated in Massachusetts,' 
and in that portion of the State now known as 
Somerville. (New York Sun, Dec. 1854.) 

W. W. 


Longevity, — Last evening (Feb. 2, 1855) died 
in Wade Street, Poplar, Mr. G.Fletcher, who was 
born on February 2, 1747. He therefore died on 
his birthday, and was aged exactly one hundred 
and eight. His personal appearance was tall and 
spare, somewhat stooping in his gait. He fought 



[No. 2H9. 

as a soldier in tbe American war ; and at the com- 
mencement of this century engaged in the service 
of the West India Dock Company, where he con- 
tinued for many years. His end was hastened by 
a fall from a cart on Blackheath last summer. He 
was considered a very good man ; and, till within 
these few months, has been accustomed to preach 
occasionally for the Wesleyans, to whom he was 
attached. A portrait of this truly remarkable 
aiazi was published about twelve months since: 
and a letter appeared in The Times respecting 
him just at the close of last year. I am sorry I 
cannot now furnish you with a fuller notice of 
iMs patriarch, who appears to have been much 
respected. B. H. C. 

Charles IL^ 8 Cap, — On the return of Capt. Sir 
Bichard Haddock, after the battle of Solebay, 
King Charles II. bestowed upon him a very sin- 
gular and whimsical mark of his royal favour, a 
9atin cap which he took from his own head and 
l^ced upon Sir Bichard^s. It is still preserved 
m the family, with the following account pinned 
to it: 

' ** This satin cap was given by King Charles the Second 
in the year 1672 to Sir Richard Haddock, after the English 
battle with the Dutch, when he had been Captain oi the 
* Royal James,' under the command of the Earl of Sand- 
wich, which ship was burnt, and Sir Richard had been 
wounded ; given him on his return to London." — Naval 
Qironichf xvi. 198. 

E. H. A. 



What is known of the personage, " Mackenzie 
of that ilk," as his countrymen would say, whose 
estate or farm is so frequently mentioned in the 
Crimean dbpatches ? Is it to him that the Prince 
de Ligne refers ; and his family, at whose hands 
the^ prince received the graceful hospitality of 
whicn he speaks in one of his letters from the 
Heracleootic Chersonesus (1787) ? 

"Comme je revenois sous la conduite de mon conn^- 
table, j*ai cru me tromper en voyant une maison au milieu 
de d^erts odorif^rans, mais plats et verts comme un bil- 
liard. J'ai bien cru me tromper davantage en la trouvant 
bUndie, propre, entour^ d*un terrain cultiv^, dont la 
moiti^ ^toit un verger, et I'autre moiti^ un potager, qui 
traversoit le plus pur et le plus rapide des ruisseaux; 
mais j'ai i\^ bien plus surpris encore d'en voir sortir 
deux figures celestes habillees en blanc, qui m'ont pro- 
pose de m'asseoir k une table couverte de fleurs, sur la- 
fuelle il y avait da beurre, et de la crime. Je me rap- 
pelai les d^luners des romans anglois. C'dtoient les filles 
€l*un riche fermier que le ministre de Russie h, Londres 
avoit eavoy<^ an prmce Potemkin, pour faire des essais 
d'agriculture en Taunde. J'en reviens aux admirations 
ft aux merveilles. Nous avons trouv^ des ports, des 
ann^ et des flottes dans T^tat le plus brillant. Chirson 
et Sevastopol surpassent tout ce qu*on peat en dire."— 

Lettrea ef Pens^n du Mdrit^ud Prmce de Jjignef Paris et 
G^n^ve, 8vo. 1809, p. 76. 

This eminent strategist enjoyed the confidence 
of the Empress Catherine, " aupr^s de laquefle," 
according to the Bib, Universelle^ " les graces de 
son esprit, autant que sa belle et noble physio- 
gnomic, lui avait fait obtenir des succes de plus 
d*un genre." One of these was the gift of an 
estate in the Crimea ; and his letters from that 
storied land, which recent events have made 
" The ocean to the river of our thoughts," 
possess so peculiar an interest at the present mo- 
ment, that I am led to think that a few extracts 
from them (as the book is not common) may not 
be thought to occupy space unworthily. 

The Fortification of Sehastopol. — 

** Vous savez, dit Tlmp^ratrice, que votre France, sans 
savoir pourquoi, prot^e toujours les Musulmans. S^gor 
pHlit, Nassau rougit, Fitzherbert bailla, Cohenzl 8*agita» 
et je ris. Eh bien, point du tout ; il n*avoit ^t^ question 
que de blltir un magasin dans une des sept ances du 
fameux port de Sevastopol. Quand je parle de mes esp^- 
rances h ce sujet h. S^gur, il me dit : — Nous perdrions les 
^chelles du levant ; et je lui r^ponds : — II faut tirer 
r^chelle aprfes la sottise minist^rielle que vous venez de 
faire par votre confession g^n^rale de pauvret€ \jk Tassem- 
bMe ridicule des Notables." — P. 49. 

Classic Recollections of the Crimea. — 

" C*est peut-etre ici qu'Ovide ^rivoit ; peut-6tre il ^toit 
assis oh je suis. Ses Elegies sont de Ponte : voilJH le Pont- 
Euxin ; ceci a appartenu h. Mithridate, Roi de Pont ; et 
comme le lieu de Texil d'Ovide est assez incertain, j'ai 
plus de droit h croire que c'est ici qu'a Carantschebee, tinsl 
que le pr^tendent les Transilvains. 

"Leur titre'ii cette pretention c'est: Cccra mia eedee, 
dont ils s'imaginent que la prononciation corrompue a fait 
le nom que je viens de citer. Oui, c'est Parthenizza, dont 
I'accent Tartare a chang^ le nom Grec, qui ^toit Parthe- 
nion, et vouloit dire Yierge ; c'est ce fameux cap Parthe- 
nion oh il s'est pass^ tant de choses : c'est ki que la 
mythologie exaltoit I'imagination. Tous les tal^ an 
service des Dieux de la &bTe exer^oient ici leur empire. 
Veux-je un instant quitter la fable pour I'histoirei? Je 
decouvre Eupatori, fondle par Mithridate : je ramasse id 
prfes, dans ce vieux Cherson, des debris de oolonnes d'al- 
b^tre ; je rencontre des restes d'aqueducs et des murs qui 
me pr^ntent une enceinte aussi grande k la fois ana 
Londres et Paris. Ces deux villes passeront comme ceUe- 
a"— P. 66. 

The Niece of the last Khan, — 

" Je n'ai aperQU qu*une seule femrae : c'est une Princesse 
du sang, la nifece du dernier Sultan Saym Gheray. L'lm- 
p^ratrice, devant qui elle se d^voila, m'a fait cacher der- 
rifere un ^cran ; elle ^toit belle comme le jour, et avoit 
plus de diamans que toutes nos femmes de Yienne en- 
semble, et c'est beaucoup dire." — P. 82. 

Impressions and Reflections, — 

**Jq comptois eiever mon &me, en arrivant dans le 
Tauride, par les grandes choses vraies et fausses qui s'y 
sont pass^es. Mon esprit ^toit prit k se tourner vers 
I'heroYque avec Mithridate, le fabuleux avec Iphig^nie, le 
militaire avec les Romains, les beaux-arts avecs les Grecs, 
le brigandage avec les Tartares, et le mercantile avec les 
G^nois. Tous ces gens-U me spnt assez familiers : mais 

Mak. 3. 1855.] 



en void Wen dNm autre, Traiment; ils ont tons dispam 
poor les Mille et nne nnits. Je snis dans le Harem dn 
dernier Kan de Crim^ ; qui a eu bien tort de lever son 
camp, et d*abandonner, il y a qoatre ans, aox Russes, le 
plus beau pays du monde. Le sort m*a destin^ la cbam- 
bre de la plus jolie de ses sultanes, et k Segux celle du 
premier de ses eunuques noirs." — P. 61. 

Military Costume and Accoutrements. — 

**Le Turcs m'ont fait faire une autre reflexion trfes- 
importante. lis courent, ils grimpent, ils sautent, parce 
qu'ils sont arm^ et habill^ k la leg^re. Le poids que 
portent les sots Chretiens las onpeche presque de se mou« 
voir."— P. 172. 

I would willingly quote more if space allowed, 
especially from chap, xi., where the character of 
the Turks is drawn with the vipforous hand which 
has so skilfully traced the portraiture of Prince 
Potemkin (p. 164.)» " ventablement un chef- 
d'ceuvre," as the editress of this volume, Madame 
de Stael, observes. 

The collected works of this spirituel warrior 
were published in 30 vols. 12 mo., Vienna and 
Dresden, 1807; and a reference to the second 
division, ^^CEuvres militaires et sentimentaires,** 
will not be found unproductive of interest 

William Bates. 


" A Soldier* 8 Portune.'* — One of the works by 
Mrs. Marsh, the author of Emilie Windham, and 
other popular novels, which is named The Triumphs 
of Time, contains two tales translated from the 
French. The first of these is taken from De 
Vigny's Vie Militaire, Who was the author of 
the other, called by the translator A Soldier's For^ 
tune f It is a very interesting story ; and would, 
with slight alterations, such as the omission of 
superfluous oaths, be a popular and useful tale for 
the young and for the working classes — showing 
forth *as it does the benevolence of a sister of 
charity and of a poor apothecary, and the hard- 
ships of a soldiers life. Now that there is so 
much brotherly feeling between the armies, tales 
of this kind, which throw light upon the amiable 
points of French character, might be usefully dis- 
seminated ; though we hope never to lose the 
strong points of English rectitude, through ad- 
miration of scenic sentimentality. I have endea- 
voured in vain to discover the author of A 
Soldier's Fortune. C. (2) 

Rogers and Hughes, — ^I have a small oil picture 
by Rogers, which must have been painted about 
the time of Nieson, and another by Hughes (son 
of a Sir R. Hugihes) ; who died young, and just 
after he had been appointed portrait painter to 
Her Majesty! so the story is told. Can any of 
your readers obl^ me with information as to 
«ther of these parties ? R. L. 

Advowsons aUenated to manorial Lords, how f 
— Hutchins records, in his History of Dorset' 
shire, that twenty-seven Jadvowsons of rectories 
and seven of vicarages passed from religious 
houses at the Reformation to the several lords of 
the manors in which the churches were situate. 
Many others became vested in the Crown, in 
private individuals, and in colleges, by legal 
tenure ; but the process is not named by which 
manorial lords became seised of their advowsons. 
Is that process known ? J. D. 

Enigmatical Verses. — In the Additional MS. 
D351., in the British Museum, is a treatise in Latin 
on the games of Chess, Tables (i.£. backgammon), 
and Merells ; illustrated with numerous diagrams. 
It was compiled by an inhabitant of Bologna, who 
conceals his name in some obscure rhythmical 
verses prefixed by way of preface. The treatise 
is dated by the rubricator 1466, which is probably 
the date of transcription ; but the period of its 
composition may be much earlier. The verses 
are as follows, copied literally : 

" Ubicunque fueris : ut sis generosus. 
Nee te subdes ociis : nam vir ociosus. 
Sive sit ignobilis : sive generosus. 
Ut testatur sapiens : erit viciosus. 
Ut a te removeas vicium prefatum : legas et intelligas 

hunc meum tractatum. 
£t sic cum nobillibus cordis ad optatum : certos sum 

quod poteris invenire statum. 
Statum ad scacarii me volvo partita : in quo multipli- 

citer fiunt infinita. 
Quorum hie sunt plurima loculenter scita: ne forte 

mens labilis quamcumque sit oblita. 
Ibi semel positum nunquam iteratur : postea de Tabulis 

certum dogma datur. 
Tum Mexillos [/. Merellos] docet quibus plebs jocator: 

et sic sub compendio liber terminatur. 
Hec hujus opusculi series est tota. Quis sim scire 

poteris traddens tot ignota. 
Versum [joroversuum] principiis sillabas tu nota. Eo- 

rundem media litera remota. 
Givis sum Bononie ista qui colleg^. Qui sub breviloquio 

varia compegi. 
Disponente domino opus quod peregi. Presentari prin- 

cipi posset sive regi." 

Is there any reader of " N. & Q." who can assist 
me in decyphering the name thus enigmatically 
expressed ? fu 

Etching by Rembrandt — I have by me an 
etching of Rembrandt's representing the death of 
a person of consequence. To the right of the 
bed are some priests, to the left the doctors and 
nurses and afflicted relatives, and a group of 
staring gossiping attendants about the door. The 
attitudes and countenances are quite wonderfully 
natural. Of course this etching must be wdyl 
known ; but my Query is. Whose death is it sup- 
posed to represent ? Abtoil 

Decrees issued by the Congregation of the In- 
dex, — I have just rec^ved throBghmy bookseller 



[Na 27ft. 

(who on inquiry ifl not able to give me the in- 
formation I seek) seven "Decreta" issued by the 
Congregation of the Index, each specifying sundry 
books as prohibited : 

** Itaque nemo cujoscumqae grados et conditionis nne- 
dicta Opera damnata atqae proscripta, quocumqae loco, 
et qaocamque idiomate, aut in posterum edere, aut edita^ 
legere, vel retinere audeat sed locorum Ordiaariis, aat* 
haereticse pravitatis Inquisitoribus ea tradere teneatur, sub 
poenis in Indice librorum vetitorum indictis." 

These Decrees are octavo size, each Decree oc- 
cupying with the works specified two and a half 
pages, printed at Rome: Ex Typographia Rev. 
Cam, Apost The dates of those I possess are : 
April 26, 1853; July 24, 1853; September 5, 
1853; December 10, 1853; February 13, 1854; 
April 6, 1854; September 5, 1854. Now my 
Queries on these are : 

1. How can I obtain these regularly as issued ? 

2. Where could I get an accurate list of the 
dates of those issued since the publication of the 
last Index at Rome. (Query 1835; I have its 
Mechlin reprint of 1843.) 

3. Are these Decrees published in any collected 
official form ? and where ? 

4. Are similar decrees issued in Spain ? and if 
so, how can they be procured ? Enivri. 

Coshendall, co. Antrim. 

New 'Moon, — Will any correspondent favour 
me with an accurate rule for finding the time of 
new moon? The rules I have met with are hardly 
intelligible to an unastronomical capacity. 

E. S. Taylor. 

Numismatic, — I have in my possession a small 
bronze coin which I found in the neighbourhood of 
Trasimene. On the obverse is a head of a negro, 
tiie reverse has an elephant, both beautifully de- 
signed. This coin has no inscription. I should 
be very much obliged to any one who could give 
me any particulars on its origin. 

F. DE Bernhardt. 

34. Dover Street, Piccadilly. 

Colonel Norman buried in Ouemsey, — It is 
said that this gentleman, or some one bearing the 
name of Norman, whether a military man or a 
civilian, is buried in a churchyard distant a very 
few miles (a morning drive) from Peter le Port, 
Guernsey; and that the tombstone records that 
he was the son of a Norman of Bleadon, or Bridge- 
water, in Somerset. A copy of the inscription, 
together with any particulars relating to this 
Norman, or his family, would not only gratify the 
curiosity, but perhaps prove greatly to the benefit 
of A Descendant. 

House of Coburg, — The present Queen will, 
I presume, be the last sovereign of the Brunswick 
lijUe. The Prince of Wales, when he comes to the 
throne, will be the first of a new dynasty. We 

have had in succession the Plantagenets, the 
Tudors, the Stuarts, and the Guelphs. Will some 
one of your correspondents supply the surname or 
the Coburg family ? E. H. A* 

''Yew Tree Aoenue'' at Tytherley, Hants, — 
When and by whom made ? A. W. 

''Leigh Hunt's Journal," — I should feel very 
grateful to any of your readers who would favour 
me with information of the quantity of numbers 
issued of this work, and where I could procure 
one or more copies. Geo. Newbouk 

Campion's " Decern Rationes," — In 1581, Father 
Campion printed, at a private press at Stonbr, an 
edition of his famous Decern. RationeSy four hun- 
dred copies of which were secretly distributed at 
Oxford before the great University Meeting. 
There is no copy of this edition in the Britisa 
Museum or the Bodleian. Can one be pointed 
out in any public or private library ? C. D. R. 

De Caut Family. — Could any of your corre- 
spondents furnish me with the genealogy of the 
family of De Caut, who it is supposed fled to the 
eastern coast of England at the time of the revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes ? And whether any 
of their descendants are known now to exist in 
the mother country (France) ? W. H. Tillbtt. 

Wycklyffey and the Doctrine of Dominion fousaded 
in Grace, — In the Advertisement to Dr. ToddV 
edition of Wycklyfie's Three Treatises^ the fol- 
lowing passage occurs : 

« They [the doctrines of the 'Treatise on the Church'} 
differ, in fact, but little fi-om the daogeroos and anti- 
social principles afterwards put forward by the extreme^ 
Puritans of a subsequent age, who maintained that Do- 
minion was founded in Grace," &c. 

Inquibeb would feel much obliged if any of the 
contributors to " N. & Q.** would point out the 
paragraph in the " Treatise on the Church,** %hich. 
appears to show that Wycklyfle mainttnned the 
Doctrine of Dominion being founded in Grace ? 

The careful and erudite manner in which the 
above work has been edited, is felt by Inquibeb. 
not only as an obligation to himself as a reader of 
Church history, but renders him a little doubtful 
as to the propriety of querying anything asserted 
by the editor in connexion with it. He writes,i 
however, solely for information, after having care- 
fully examined the work referred to himself. 

Latimer or Za^iwcr.— Sir John Latimer, second 
son of William, first Lord Latimer of Danby, who 
died in 1305, married Joan, daughter and heiress 
of Sir William de Grouis, Knt. (Burke*s Extinct 
Peerage,) Could this have been the same person 
who, in Harl. MS. 1451. is called Robert Laty- 
mer (died 1336), who married Joan, daughter of 
William Goude (died 1311)? And which spelling 

Mab. 3. 1855.] 



is correct ? This Robert was father of Sir Robert 
Latymer of Fittiford, Dorsetshire, Ent., in 1379. 
What arms did Gouis or Goude bear ? And what 
were the arms of Walter Ledit, Baron of Warden, 
in Northamptonshire, grandfather of Sir John 
Latimer? The Latymer arms in the above .MS. 
are given as " Gules, a cross patoncee or, charged 
with five roundlets sa." Y. S. M. 

Edward Gibbes, — A Genealogist would be 
obliged by any information respecting the ancestry 
and burial of Edward Gibbes, Esq., Deputy- 
Governor of Chepstow Castle, and major in the 
army ; he is described as of Gloucestershire, and 
left a son, Edward Gibbes, Esq., of the city of 
Gloucester, born 1666, and buried at Barrow in 
1703, aged thirty-six. He is supposed to have 
had a younger son. 

Beviews of Charles Auchester. — Can any of 
your correspondents tell me where I can find a 
book called Charles Auchester reviewed, which 
was published in 1853? A Cecilian. 

[It was reviewed in The Athencsum of Nov. 12, 1853, 
p. 1352., and in the Literary Gaz. of Oct 1, 1853, p. 953.] 

" Where Scoggin looked for his Knife,*' Sfc, — 
Trial of Elizabeth Cellier for writing and pub- 
lishing a libel. 

" Cellier. I desire George Grange may be called. (Who 
was sworn.) 

Mr, Baron Weston. What can you say for Mrs. Cel- 
lier ? Tell me what questions you will ask him ? 

Cellier. I desire to know whether I did not send him 
to find witnesses ? Who he went for ? What answers 
they returned ? And where they be ? 

Mr. Bar. Wetton, Well, what witnesses were you sent 
to look for? 

Grange. I went to look for one Mrs. Sheldon, that lives 
in Sir Joseph Sheldon's house ; thev told me she was in 
Essex. I went to the coach to send for her. 

Mr. Bar. Weston. Why, Scoggin looked for his knife 
on the house-top." — State TriaU, vol. iii. p. 97., second 
edition, 1730. 

The learned baron here evidently quotes a pro- 
verb, and one which I cannot find in Ray, or 
any collection that I have consulted. Can you, 
Mr. Editor, or any of your numerous correspon- 
dents, point out where it is to be found, or give 
any clue as to what its allusion is ? C. de D. 

[This seems to be one of Scoggin's jests, and will pro- 
bably be found in the following scarce work, " The First 
and Best Part of Scoggin* s Jests : full of witty Mirth and 
pleasant Shifts, done b}' him in France and other Places : 
being a Preservative against Melancholy, gathered by 
Andrew Boord, Doctor of Physicke, London, 12mo., 1626." 
Some notices of Scogan, or Scoggin, will be found in 
Warton's Hist, of Eng&sh Poetry j vol. ii. p. 335., edit. 
1840 ; Malone's notes to Shakspeare, 2 Hen. /F., Act IIL 
Sc. 2. ; and Nares*s Ohtsary, s. v.] 

Hats. — Can you tell me the meaning of the fol- 
lowing entries in the book of the churchwardens'^ 
accounts of the parbh of Woodbury, in Devon- 
shire ? 

« Mich* 1576 to Mich* 1577.— Paid to the Commis- 
sioners for wearing of hattes, 12$." 

«Mich« 1577 to Mich' 1578 To Gregory Stoke a» 

concerning hattes, ISd,** 

Henrt H. Gibbs» 


[These entries seem to relate to the act passed in 1571^ 
13 Elizabeth, c. 19., for the continuance of making and 
wearing woollen caps, in behalf of the trade of Cappers, 
when it was enacted, that '* every person (except ladies, 
peers, &c.) shall on Sundays and holidays wear on their 
head a cap of wool, made in England, by the Cappe]:B ; 
penaltv, 3«. 4d. per day." This act was repealed by 
39 Eliz. c. 18.] 

Book-worm. — I am desirous of information as 
to the nature, &c. of the worm which injures old 
books, and any means of checking and destroying 

[Among other means to prevent the ravages of this 
insect, it has been recommended that the book be shut up 
in a box along with some camphor or hartshorn; the 
leaves opened, so as to allow the vapour to penetrate 
{Gent. Mag.y Feb. 1844, p. 114.). Another correspondent 
recommends a solution of corrosive sublimate of mercury 
in clean rain-water, applied with a pen or feather to the 
covers {lb. June, 1844, p. 596.). Other directions are 
given in Rees's CychpcBoia, s. v., where will be found 
some notices of the different species of this mischievous 
insect. See also " N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 526. ; and 
Vol. ix., p. 527.] 

Sir Francis Stonor, — Sir Francis Stonor, Knt., 
of Stonor, co. Oxford, left money wherewith the 
stone rail about the King's Bath, Bath, was 
erected. Can any of your correspondents supply 
me with information concerning him or his familyf 
R. WiiiBEAHAM Falconer, M.D. 


[Some notices of the Stonor family will be found in 
Magna BritannuB, vol. iv. p. 425. ; and Beauties of Eng- 
lancl and Wales, vol. xii. part n. p. 322.] 


(Vol. xi., p. 122.) 
It is singular that the question put by Mr. Wat 
has never been raised before, for Skinner, in hi& 
Etymologicon, has availed himself so largely of 
this "English Dictionary," as naturally to lead to 
inquiry ; perhaps it was to some, who would take 
interest in its identification, considered too ob- 
vious for remark. For myself I must confess, 
without ever attempting to verify the quotations, 
I concluded that they were made either from 
Blount's Ohssographia, or Phillips's New World 



[No. 879. 

of Wards^ as tlie most copious English dictionaries 
produced about that time. In using these two 
books I had often been struck with the remark- 
able similarity of the explanations of obsolete 
words, and concluded that one must have copied 
firom the other, or else both from xsome common 

Me. Way's question led me to examine more 
closely. My first reference was to Blount's Olos- 
sographia^ of which the only edition accessible to 
me at present is the fifth, printed in 1681. In 
this Oowts does not appear, out we have ** Ooutes^ 
common sinks or sewers." Of the other words 
mentioned by Mb. Wat we have tiie following 
only: — Hames^ Heck, Mond, Paisage, Posade^ 
Spraints, Tcmacles, Ruttier, Wreedt, Bagatelle 
Berry (explained thus, "a dwelling-place or 
court : the chief house of a manor, or the lord's 
seat, is so called in some parts of England to this 
day, especially in Herefordshire, where there are 
the Berries of Luston, . Stockton," &c.), Griffe 
graffe^ Himole, Tampoon, VaudeviL 1 concluded, 
therefore, that this could not be the dictionary 
cited. I then turned to Edward Phillips's New 
World of Word&, or a Chneral Ertglish Dictionary^ 
the third edition, 1671, fol. Here OowU does 
not appear in any form, but all the other words, 
with exactly the explanations cited by Skinner ; 
so that I at once concluded that it must be the 
first edition of this book which he quotes, and in 
which probably the author's name does not appear, 
but merely his initials E. P., and it is possible 
that GowU would there be found. 

It appears that the first edition of Blount's 
Olossographia was published in 1656, and in 
1658 the first edition of Phillips's World of 
Words, There was naturally a rivalry between 
the two publications. Not having any of the 
earlier editions of the Glossographia at hand, I 
cannot say who commenced the attack, but in the 
preface to this third edition of the World of 
Words^ Phillips thus glances at some of the defects 
of his rival : 

" I do not deny, indeed, but that there are many words 
in this book (though fewer than in other books of this 
kind) which I would not recommend to any for the puritv 
or r^Mitation of them ; but withall I have set my mark 
upon them, to beware of them either in discourse or 
writing ; and if any of them have chanc't to have escap't 
the Obelisk, there can arise no other inconvenience from 
it but an occasion to exercise the choice and judgement 
of the reader (especially bemg forewarned), who if he 
hav« a fancy capable to .judge of the harmony of words, 
and their musical cadence, cannot but discern when a 
word falls naturally firom the Latin termination, when 
forc't and torn from it, as Ifubellick, which might indeed 
come from ImbeUicuSf if any such word were ; but how 
they can handsomely deduce it from ImbelHsf is hard to 
resolve ; if this be bad, impresariptibU is worse, being de- 
rived neither I nor anybody ebe know how, since Prm- 
8ariptuu8 is the nearest they can go. Nor less to be ex- 
ploded is the word Suicide^ which may as well seem to 
participate of Sus, a sow, as from Sui, There are also, 

worth the pains of avoidhig, oertahi khid of mule-irordfl^ 
propagated of a Latin sire and Greek dam, such as Aeri^ 
iogie, Aurigraphy, and others tjusdem farima." 

Now these words are to be found in Blount's 
Glossographia ; and smarting under this mild 
censure, and perhaps from being interfered with 
by a learned and able rival, it appears that he 
published a pamphlet in 1673 in folio, so that it 
might be bound with his rival's book, under the 
following title : 

« A World of Errors discovered in the New World o£ 
Words, or Greneral English Dictionary ; and NomolkdUf 
or the interpreter of the Law." 

The Nomothetes being also a rival publication to 
Blount's Jjuw DictioTiary. This pamphlet I have 
not seen. 

Skinner, although he has so copiously availed 
himself of Phillips in regard to obsolete words, 
has not been grateful to him, but deals out his 
censure on many occasions. Thus in voce 

" Borithy Authori i)ict Angl. apud quern solum occurrit, 
exp. herba qa4 fuUones maculas pannis eximunt ; utinam 
vulgatius herbflB nomen protulisset, vel cujus provincise 
propria sit, hsBc vox nam certfe communis non est, osten- 
disset; interim proclive et justura est ipsum hanc, ut et 
multas alias, ex proprio cerebro finxisse existimare." 

Under the word Cosh, after giving the explan- 
ation of Phillips, he says: "ridicule ut solet 
omnia ; " and under Dag he thus breaks out : 

** Vox qui hoc sensu in solo Diet Angl. occurrit, nbi 
notare est miserrimam Authoris ignorantiam, qui Tor- 
mentura bellicum manuariura minus a pistoU exponit, et 
dictum putat k Dacis, qui primi hoc armorum genere nsi 
sunt. Imb ultimi omnium Europae populorum. v. Doffp 
in Et. Gen." 

We turn to Dagger in the EtymoL Generale, and 
find the absurcuty on the part of Skinner, who 
there says : 

** Author Diet. Angl. Dag et Dagger, h, Dacis ^te 
nobili dicta putat, quod unde resciverit nescio. oatis 
feliciter alludit Gr. 0^, Acuo ! " 

Under the word CoUock Skinner says: ** Credo 
igitur Authorem hie, ut fer^ semper, somniasse;" 
and under Rigols, " Author somniando, ut solet,'* 
&c. In other places, *' pro more Authoris exponitur 
absurdissime," &c. The Etymologicon is a highly 
valuable book, no doubt ; but the tables mi^t w^ 
be turned upon its author in regard to absurd 
etymologies. Skinner was a Lincolnshire man, 
and has preserved to us many local words. He 
was no doubt of the family referred to by your 
correspondent Chabtaam, at p. 128. of this volume. 
He died in 1667, and his book, which was not 
published until 1671, did not receive the advan- 
tage of his own ultimate revision. 

The dictionary of PhilUps is interesting as well 
as useful, for in it -we fancy we trace the influence 
of the compiler's uncle, the illustrious Milton. 
There are many references to poetic fable, and, 
among others, one which would certainly have 

Mae. 3. 1855.] 



struck tbe eye of Sot Fsbdbsic Mapdek when 
he had occasion to eonsult the book : 

** Havklock, a certain Danish foundling of the roy oJ 
blood ; who, as it is reported, was fostered by one Grim c^ 
a merchant, and from a scuUen in the king's kitchen, wa« 
for his valour and conduct in military alairs, promoted 
to the marriage of the king's daughter." 

That the word Oowts will be found in the first 
edition of 1658 I make no doubt, as I find it in 
the Gazophylacium A^glicanum, 1689, which hss 
borrowed much from Pliillips, thus : 

^* GowtSf a word much med in Somersetshire, signifying 
canals, or pipes under ground ; from the Pr.-G. Goutten^ 
drops ; whence comes tlK word JSsgoider, to run down drop 
by drop ; all from the Latin Gutta, a drop." 

The dictionary of Phillips continued popular for 
more than half a century ; an edition, consider- 
ably enlarged, was given by John Kersey, Philo" 
bibl, in 1706. 

A work containing a complete chronological 
account of English lexicography and lexico- 
graphers, would be a most acceptable addition tc» 
lingubtics and literary history. I have reason to 
think that my late friend, Mr. Douce, once con- 
templated something of the kind, and know that 
he had made collections on the subject. In the 
present more advanced state of philological in» 
quiries, it is to be hcmed that some one of the 
many highly qualified philologers of our time may 
be induced to achieve a work which might afford 
a complete historical view of the progressive 
changes in our language. S. W. Simgeb, 

South Lambeth. 

The " singular difficulty now for the first time 
submitted" by Me. Way •*for investigation," 
under the above heading, admits of easy solution : 
if, without presumption, that may be termed easy 
of discovery, " which has been long sought in vain 
by Sir F. Madden, and which found the late 
Mr. Rodd at fault." 

The Dictionarium Ang^icmn, used by Skinner, 
referred to by Me. Wat, is merely — 

« The New World of English Words, or, a General 
Dictionary ; containing the Interpretation of such hard 
Words as are derived from other Languages, whether 
Hebrew, &c. . . . , Collected and published by E. P. 
London : printed bj £. Tvler for Nath. Brooke, at the 
Sign of the * Angel' in Coriihill, 1658." 

It is hardly necessary to say, that E. P. is 
Edward Phillips. W. E. Aeeowsmith. 

Broad Heath, Presteign. 




(Vol. iL, p. 199.) 
Your correspondent M. asks, **What is the 
earliest printed l>ook on Logic P " He motions 

the exposition of Petnui Hispanus by Joh. Yer- 
sor, in 1473 ; and the SnmnndcB of Paulus Yenetuf^ 
in 1474. If these dates are correct, there is little 
doubt that M. has discovered what he asks for. 
From Mr. Bobert Blakey*s valuable, but imper- 
fect Catalogue of Works on Logic, a]3pended to Yob 
Essay on Logic, I cuM the following names of 
works on Logic published in the fifteenth century : 

** Buridanns (J.), Summnla in Logicam, S. L. 1487, 4to. 
Andrea (Antoninus), Questiones in Aristotelis Logicam, 

Albertus Magnus, Commentaria in iv libros IiOgiciB 

Aristot Colon., 1490, foL 
Albertus Magnus, Opera ad Logicam pertinentia, Yenet 

Albertus Magnus, Commentaria in Isagogen Porphyxii 

et in omnes libros Aristot de vetere Logicli : GoL 

Agr. 1494, fd. 
Bricotus (Thomas), Abbre. Textus totius Logices: 

Paris, 1494. 
Albertus Magnus, Epitomata sive Reparationes Logicn 

veteris et novie Aristot : Col., 1496, 4to. 
Van Brussel, Facillima in Aristotelis Logica Interpre- 

tatio : Paris, 1496, 4to. 
Buridamus (J.), Compendium Logicae : Venet., 1499. 
Valerius (C), De Dialectic&, lib. ui. : Venet, 1499. 
(Anonymous), Commentaria in iv libros novae Logica 

secundum Processus bursas Laurent Colon, ubi Doc- 

trlna Alberti Magni, etc : Colon., 1494, fol." 

To these works from Blakey's Catalogue, I add 
the following : 

** Comment, in prim. lib. pr. Anal. Aristot Gr. : Venet, 
Valla (Laurentins), De Dialectic^: Venet, 1499." 

I shall be obliged to any of your correspondents 
who may assist me in the completion of a Cata- 
logue of Works on Logic published in the fifteenth 

Has your correspondent M. ever seen the two 
works which he refers to ? I have especial doubts 
as to the date he gives of the Summtdm of Yenetus. 
Mistakes in dates are not uncommon in catalogues; 
t?.^,, Mr. Blakey gives 1202 as the date of an 
tidition of NoeFs Logimie de CondiUac! 

Perhaps Paor. Db Morgan would assist me in 
completing the Catalogue in question. 

C. Mansfield Liglebt. 


(Yol. X., p. 507.) 

In spite of Valentine, Lord Cloncurry, with 
his? obnoxious pamphlet, his connexion with the 
"United Irishmen,** and his friendship for the 
Cardinal de York, I cannot help believing that 
your eorrespondent R. C. C. is correct in the view 
lie takes of the Jacobites as they existed in 1807. 
I could have wi^ed the aocomplished writer In 
Hansehold Words to have given us his ^latliorities. 
As he has not done so, a few remarkt from me 
may not be deemed intrusive. 



[No. 27»^ 

In Mr. R. Chambers' History of the Rebellion of 
1745-6, we find the Cardinal de York described 
as " a^ mild, inoffensive man." We know that 
when in 1747 he was made Cardinal, the exiled 
Jacobites regarded his advancement as the final 
destruction of their hopes. Many of them did 
not scruple to " declare it of much worse conse- 
quence to them than even the battle of Culloden." 
(Mahon*s History of England^ vol. iii. p. 349.) 
From this time the Cardinal devoted himself to 
church affairs. On h