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i&Myxca, it int(r«CommunC(atCott 




"When found, make a nob ot" — Captain Cuttlb. 


July — December, 1853. 






M VOThen found* make a note of;*' — Captaiw Cuttlk. 

No. 192.] 

Saturday, July 2. 1853. 

C Price Foarpence. 

l Stamped Edition, 54f. 

NoTBs: — 







Oblationora white Bull - - - - - 

Newst^ad Abbey, by W. a Hasleden - - - 

On a celebrated Passage in " Romeo and Juliet/* 
Act III. So. 2., by S. W. Singer . - - 

On the Passage ftom ** King Lear •• - - - 

Manners of the Irish, by H. T. Ellacombe, &c. - 

Minor Notes : — Burial in an Erect Posture — The 
Archbishop of Armagh's Cure for the Gout, 1571— 
The last iinnwn Survivor of General Wolfe's Army 
in Canada— National Methods of applauding— Curious 
Posthumous Occurrence - - - - 6 

^Queries : — 

Did Captain Cook first discover the Sandwich Islands? 

by J. S. Warden 6 

Superstition of the Cornish Miners - - - 7 

Minor Queribs : — Clerical Duel —Pistol — Council of 
Laodicea, Canon 35. — Pennycomequiclc, adjoining 
Plymouth— Park the Antiquary— Honorary D.C.L.'* 

— Battle of Villers en Couche — Dr. Misaubin — 
Kemble, Willet. and Forbes— Piccalyly— Post- Office 
«bout 1770 — *' Carefully examined and well-authenti- 
cated"— Sir Ueister Kyley — Effigies with folded 
Hands .----.-7 

Minor Queries with Answers : — Passage in Bishop 
Horsley — '* Marry come up ! " — Dover Court — 
Porter— Dr. WhiUker's ingenious Earl— Dissimulate 9 

tRsPLiBs : — 

Bishop Ken, by the Rev. J. H. Markland - .10 

Bohn's Edition of Hoveden, by James Graves . - II 

Coleridge's Christabel, by J. S. Warden - - - H 

Its - - 12 

Family of Milton's Widow, by T. Hughes - - 12 

'Books of Emblems — Jacob Behmen, by C. Mansfield 

Ingleby -.-----13 
Raffaelle^s Sposalizio - - - - - 14 

Wmdfali 14 

Mr. Justice Newton, by the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe and 

F. Kyffin Lenthall • - - - - 15 

Photographic Correspoivdencb : — Mr. Lyte's Treat> 
ment of Positives — Stereoscopic Angles — Query re- 
specting Mr. Pollock's Process — Gallo-nitrate of 
Silver 15 

SlBPLiBs TO Minor Queries : — Vcrney Note decyphered 

— Em*>lemt by John Banyan — Mr. Cobb's Uiary — 
" Sat cito si sat bene " — My the versus Myth — The 
Gilbert Family — Alexander Clark — Christ's Cross 

— The Rebellious Prayer — '* To the Lords of Con- 
vention " — Wooden Tombs and Effigies — Lord 
'Clarendon and the Tubwoman — House-marks — 
** Amentium haud amantiiim " — The Megatherium 
in the British Museum — Pictorial Proverbs —*' Hur- 
rah," and other War-cries .... 

Miscellaneous : — 

Notes on Books, &c. 
Book» and Odd Volumes wanted > 
Notices to Correspondents 
Advertisements . . . 



V0L.VIII. — No. 192. 


By lease dated 28th April, 1533, the Abbat of 
St Edmund's Bury demised to John Wright, 
glazier, and John Anable, pewterer, of Bury, the 
manor of Haberdon appurtenant to the office of 
Sacrist in that monastery, with four acres in the 
Vynefeld, for twenty years, at the rent of 51, 4s. to 
the Sacrist ; the tenants also to find a white bull 
every year of their term, as often as it should 
happen that any gentlewoman, or any other 
woman, should, out of devotion, visit the shrine of 
the glorious king and martyr St. Edmund, and 
wish to make the oblation of a white bull. (Dodsw. 
Coll. in Bibl. Bodl,, vol. Ixxi. f. 72.) 

If we are to understand a white bull of the an- 
cient race of wild white cattle, it may be inferred, 
I suppose, that in some forest in the vicinity of 
Bury St. Edmund's they had not disappeared in 
the first half of the sixteenth century. The wild 
cattle, probably indigenous to the great Caledonian 
forest, seem to have become extinct in a wild state 
before the time of L eland, excepting where pre- 
served in certain ancient parks, as Chillingham 
Park, Northumberland, Gisburne Park in Craven, 
&c., where they were, and in the former at all 
events still are, maintained in their original purity 
of breed. They were preserved on the lands of 
some abbeys; for instance, by the Abbats of 
Whalley, Lancashire. 

Whitaker (History of Craven, p. 34.) mentions 
Gisburne Park as chiefly remarkable for a herd of 
wild cattle, descendants of that indigenous race 
which once roamed in the great forests of Lanca- 
shire, and they are said by/ some other writer to 
have been originally brought to Gisburne from 
Whalley after the dissolution. One of the de- 
scendants of Robert de Brus, the founder of Gains- 
borough Priory, is stated by Matthew Paris to 
have conciliated King John with a present of 
white cattle. The woods of Chillingham Castle 
are celebrated at this day for the breed of this 
remarkable race, by which they are inhabited ; and 
I believe there are three or four other places in 
which they are preserved. 

In the form and direction of the horns, these 
famous wild white oxen seem to be living repre- 


I - ■ . . ■ ,.■■■■ 

sentatives of the race whose bones are fonnd in a under the only roof that kept out wet of all this vast 
fossil state in England and some parts of the Con- P«l«» the fifth Lord Byron breathed his last; and to 
tinent in the " diluvium " bone-caves, mixed with this inheritance the poet succeeded." 
the bones of bears, hyenas, and other wild ani- It is not necessary for me to refer to the lofty 
mals, now the cotemporaries of the Bos Gour, or expression of the poet's feelings on such hi» in- 
Asiatic Ox, upon mountainous slopes of Western heritance, nor to the necessity of his parting from 
India. I have read that white cattle resembling the estate, which appears now to be happily re- 
the wild cattle of Chillingham exist in Italy, and stored to its former splendour ; but possessing 
that it has been doubted whether our British wild some knowledge of a lamentable fact, that neither 
cattle are descendants of an aboriginal race, or Mr. Pettigrew nor Mr. Ashpitel appears to be 
were imported by ecclesiastics from Italy. But aware of, 1 feel inclined to soften the asperity of 
this seems unlikely, because they were not so easily the reflections quoted; and palliate, although I 
brought over as the Pope's bulls (the pun is quite may not justify, the apparently reckless proceed- 
unavoidable), and were undoubtedly inhabitants ings of the eccentric nfth Lord, as he is called, 
of our ancient forests at a very early period. In the years 1796 and 1797, after finishing my 

However, my present object is only to inquire clerkship, I had a seat in the chambers of the late 

for any other instances of the custom of offering a Jas. Hanson, Esq., an eminent conveyancer of 

white bull in honour of a Christian saint. Perhaps Lincoln's Inn ; and while with him, amongst other 

some of your correspondents would elucidate this peers of the realm who came to consult Mr. 

singular oblation. Hanson regarding their property, we had this 

I am not able to refer to Col. Hamilton Smith's eccentric fifth Lord Byron, who apparently came 

work on the mythology and ancient history of the up to town for the purpose, and under the most 

ox, which may possibly notice this kind of offering, painful and pitiable load of distress, — and I must 

W. S. G. confess that I felt for him exceedingly ; but his case 

Newcastle-upon.Tyne. was past remedy, and, after some daily attendance, 

pouring forth his lamentations, he appears to have 

returned home to subside into the reckless opera- 

NEWSTEAD ABBEY. tious reported of him. His case was this : — Upon 

The descent of property, like the family pedi- the marriage of his son, he, as any other father 

gree, occasionally exhibits the most extraordmary would do, granted a settlement of his property, 

disruptions ; and to those who may be ignorant of including the Newstead Abbey estate ; but by 

the cause, the effect may appear as romance. I some unaccountable inadvertence or negligence of 

have been particularly struck with the two inte- the lawyers employed, the ultimate reversion of the 

resting papers contained in the April number of fee-simple of the property, instead of being left, as 

the ArchcEological Journal, having reference to the it ought to have been, in the father as the owner of 

Newstead Abbey estate, formerly the property of the estates, was limited to the heirs of the son. 

Lord Byron's family, which, amongst other mat- And upon his death, and failure of the issue of the 

ters, contain some severe remarks on the conduct marriage, the unfortunate father, this eccentric lordy 

of one of its proprietors, the great uncle and pre- found himself robbed of the fee-simple of his own 

decessor of our great poet, and having reference inheritance, and left merely the naked tenant for 

to dilapidation. Mr. Pettigrew, in his paper, states life, without any legal power of raising money upon 

that — it, or even of cutting down a tree. It is so many 

- Family differences, particularly during the time of yf ^? ^S^' *^*,*^ I now do not remember the detail 

the fifth Lord Byron, of eccentric and unsocial manners, 0^ ^^^^t passed on these consultations ; but it wmild 

suffered and even aided the dilapidations of time, appear, that if the lawyers were aware ot the eflect 

The castellated stables and offices are, however, yet to of the final hmitation, neither father nor son ap- 

be seen." pear to have been informed of it, or the result 

And Mr. Ashpitel adds that- ^lil.'S'l^r^i"'^^^^'^^^^^^^^ 

** The state of Newstead at the time the poet sue- order* Whether this case was at all a promoting 

eeeded to the estate is not generally known: *the ^jj^^gg ^f ^jj^ alteration of the law, I do not know ; 

wicked lord' had felled all the noble oaks, destroyed the ^^. ^g ^^^ j^^^ jj^^ stands, the estate would revert 

finest herds of deer, and, in short, had denuded the ^^^j^ ^^ ^^^ f,^^YieT as heir of this son. This case, 
^e of everything he could. The hirelings of the ^ j . j gi^^ ^^ me, and I once had 

attoriiey did the rest: they stripped away all he fur- ^ a similar erroneous proposition in a 

mture, and everything the law would permit them to , . \ , j ^^i i. j t tl*^^ *k;o -.^r^ 

remove. Tbu buildings on the east side were unroofed ; la^ge mtended settlement ; and I quoted this un- 

the old Xenodocblum, and the grand refectory, were fortunate accident as an authority. JSTow, altnough 

full of hay ; and the entrance-hall and monks' parlour tbis relation may not fully justify the reckless 

were stable for cattle. In the only habitable part of waste that appears to have been committed, it cer- 

the building, a place then used as a sort of scullery, tainly is a palliative. I do not recollect whether 

Jm-T 2. 1853.] 


onr fifth iopd had taj surviving daughter to pro- 
vide for; but if he had, hia situation woi^ld be it 
stiU more a^ravated portion, W. S. Haslecbh. 


Few passagea in Shakspeare have so often and 
so ineffectuttU]' been "winnowed" as the opening 
of the benutiful and passionate soliloquy of Juliet, 
when ardently and impatiently invoking night's 
return, which was to bring her newly betrothed 
lover to her arms. It stands thus in the first folio, 
from whiiJi the best quarto differs only in a few 
unimportant points of orthography : 
« Gallop flpflce, you fiery footed sleedes. 
Towards Phiibus' lodging, such a wagoner 
As Phaeton would whip you to the wish. 


night ir 

Spred thy close curtaine, Loue-performing night, 
That run-awayes eyes may wincbe, and Roi 
Leape to these aimes, untalkt of and unseen 
The older commentators do not attempt 
cban^ the word run-aieattes, but seek to explai 


Warburton saja Phcebua is the runaway. 
Sleevens has a long ailment to prove that Night 
s the runaway. Douce thought Juliet herself 

the runaway; and at a later period the Rev. Mr. 
Halpin, in a very elegunt and ingenious essay, 
attempts to prove that by the runaway we must 
■understand Cupid. 

Mb. Knight and Mk, Collier have both of 
them adopted Jackson's conjecture of unatmres, 
and have admitted it to the honour of a place in 
the text, but Mb. Dtce has pronounced it to be 
" villainous;" and it must be confessed that it has 
nothing but a slight similarity to the old word to 
recommend it. Ma. Dvce himself has favoured 
us with three suggestions ; the first two in his 
Remarks on Collier and KnigAft Shakspeare, in 
1844, where he says — 

" That my) (the last ayllable of run-ouayi) ought to 
be day9j 1 feel next to certain; but what word ori- 
ginally preceded it I do not pretend to determine : 
' Spread thy close euitun, love-peTfarming Night I 
That ^^(?) Day', eyes may wint, and Uomeo 
Leap to these amis, untalk'd of and unseen,' &<:.' 
The correctors of tSm. Coujer's folio having 
substituted — 

" That nwnio eyes may wink," 
Ub. Dvce, in his recent Feiv Notei, properly re- 
jects that reading, and submits another conjecture 
of his own, founded on the supposition that the 
word roving having been written illegibly, roaninge 
was mistaken for fia-meayet, and proposes to 

" That ranny cjrai may wmk." 

Bvery snggestiou of Mb. Dtce, certainly the 

most competent of living commentators on Shak- 
ipeare, merits attention ; but I cannot say that I 
think he has succeeded in either of his proposed 

MoQck Mason seems to have had the dearest 
QOtion of the requirements of the passage. He 
;aw that " the word, wliatever the meaning of it 
might be,'Was intended as a propername;" Dut he 
was not happy in suggesting renomy, a French 
word with an English termination. 

In the course of his note he mentions that 
Heath, " the author of the JfenwoZ, reads 'flumour's 
eyes may wink;' which agrees in sense with the 
rest of the passage, but diSers widely from run- 
aways in the trace of the letters." 

I was not conscious of having seen this sugges- 
tion of Heath's, when, in consequence of a question 
put to me by a gentleman of distinguished taste 
and learning, I turned my thoughts to the passage, 
and at length came to the conclusion that the 
word must have been nimourers, and that from its 
unfrequent occurrence (the only other example of 
it at present known to me being one afforded by 
the poet) the printer mistook it for runawaget; 
which, when written indblinctly, it may have 
strongly resembled. I therefore think l^at we 
may rend with some confidence ; 

" Spread thy close curtains, love-performing Night, . 
That rmnmiren' eyes may wink, and Eomea 
Leap to these arms, unlali'd a/ and uiueea." 
It fulfils the requirements of both metre and 
sense, and the words unUdh'd of and unseen make 
it nearly indisputable. I had at first thought it 
might be "ruraorcms eyes;" but the personifica- 
tion would then be wanting. Shakspeare has per- 
sonified Rumour in the Introduction to the Second 
Part of King Henry IV.; and in Coriolaitui, 
Act IV. Sc. 6., we have — 

" Go see this Tunumrer whipp'd." 
I am gratified by seeing that I have anticipated 
your able correspondent, the Eev. Mb. Amaow- 
suiTH, in his elucidation of " ciomour your tongues," 
by citing the same passage from Udall's Apoph- 
thegmea, in my Virtaication of the Text of Shak- 
speare, p. 79. It is a pleasure which must console 
me for having snbjected myself to his just animad- 
version on another occaston. If those who so 
egregiously blunder are to be spared the castigation 
justly merited, we see by late occurrences to what 
it may lead ; and your correspondent, in my judg- 
ment, is conferring a favour on all true lovers of 
our great poet by exposing pretension and error, 
from whateverquarterit may come,— a duty which 
has been sadly neglected in some late partial re- 
TJews of Mb. Colueh's " clevtr" corrector. M». 
Abrowbhitb'b communications have been so truly 
ad rem, that I think I shall be expressing the sen* 
timenta of all Toor readers interested in sudi 


[No. 192. • 

m&tMn, in espraoaing a 

(Yol. V 


one or two. He might consider, first, that his 

OWD dignity would Buffer least by letting them 
pass bj him " as the idle wind ; " and, secondl j, 
that Bome allowance Bhould be made for gentle- 
men who engage in controversj on a subject 
which, atrangelj enough, next to religion, seems 
to be most productive ofdiacord. ' S. H. 

Will you allow me t« suggest to your ingenious 
Leeds correspondent (whose communications 
would be read with only the more pleasure if they 
evinced a little more respect for the opinions of 
others) that before he asserts the existence of a 
certain error which be points out in a passage in 
King Lear to be "undeniable," it would be de- 
sirable that he should support his improved 
reading by other passages Irom Shakspeare, or 
froD) cotemporary writers, in which the word he 
proposes occurs ? For my own part, I think 
A. £■ B.'s suggestion well worthy of consideration, 
but I cannot admit that it "demonstrates itself," 
or "that any attempt to support it by argument 
would be absurd," for it would unquestionably 
strengthen bis case to show that the verb " re- 
cuse was not entirely obsolete in Shakspeare'a 
time. Neither can I admit that there is an "ob- 
■vious opposition between means and defects," the 
two words having no relation to each other. The 
question is, which of two words must he altered ; 
and at present I must own I am inclined to put 
more faith in the authority of " the old corrector " 
than in A. E. B. 

Having taken up my pen on this subject, allow 
me to remark upon the manner in which Ma. 
Cohibb's folio is referred to by your corre- 
spondent. I have carefully considered many of 
the emeudations proposed, and feel in my own 
mind satisfied that so great a number that, in the 
words of your correspondent, demonstrate Ihem- 
xehes, could not have been otherwise than adopted 
from some authority. Even in the instance of the 
paasftne from He^iry V., " on a table of green 
frieae, ' which A. E. B. selects, I presume, as being 
especially absurd, I think "the old corrector" 
right ; although I had frequently cited Theobald's 
correction as particularly happy, and therefore 
the new version was at first to me very distasteful. 
But, whatever opinion may be held as to the value 
of the book, it is surely unbecoming to the dis- 
cussion of a literary question to indulge in the 
unsparing insinuations that have been thrown out 
on all sides respecting it, I leave out of question 
the circumstance, that the long and great services 
of Mb. CoLLiEB ought to protect bim at least from 
such unworthy treatment. Samdei, Hicksos. 

P.S. — Since Writing the above, I have seen 
Mb. Keiqutlet's letter. I hope he will not de- 

Eive the readers of " N, & Q." of the benefit of 
1 valuable communications for the offences of 

Does not Shakspeare here use secure as a verb, 
in the sense "to make careless?" Ifso, the pas- 
sage would mean, "Our means," that is, our power, 
our strength, make us wanting in care and vigi- 
lance, and too self-confident. Gloucester says, 
"I stumbled when I saw ;" meaning. When I had 
eyes Iwalked carelessly; when I had the "means" 
of seeina and avoiding atumbling-blocks, I stum- 
bled and fell, because I walked without care and 
watchfulness. Then he adds, " And our mere de- 
fects prove our commodities." Our deficiencies, 
our weaknesses (the sense of them), make us use 
such care and exertions as lo prove advantages to 
us. Thus the antithesis is preserved. 

How scriptural is the first part of the passage ! 

"Let bim that thinketh be standeth uke heed lest 
he fall." — 1 Cor, T. ]2, 

" He hath laid in his heart. Tush, I shall never be 
Pa. X. 6, 

The second part is also scriptural ; 

"My strength is made perfect in weakness." — 
2 Cor. lii, 9. 

"When 1 am weak then am I strong." — 3 Cor. lii. 

In Timon of Alkens we find secure used as a 
verb ; " Secure thy heart," — Act II. Sc, 2, 

Again, in Othello : 

" I do in 

n the ei 

-."—Act I. Sc3. 

In Du Cange's GloM. is the verb "Secware 
nudS pro securum reddere." In the " Alter Index 
sive Glossarium" of Ainsworlh's Dictionary is the 

verb "SecKro, as to live carelessly," In 

the " Yerba partim Graces Lattne scripta, partim 
barbara," &c., is " Securo, as securum reddo." 

The meajis of the hare in the fable for the race 

(that is, her swiftness) secured her ; the defects of 

the tortoise (her slowness) proved her commodity, 

i\ W. J. 

The following are extracts from a MS. volume 
of the sixteenlji century, containing, inter alia, 
notes of the Manners and Superstitions of the 

July 2. 1853.] 


Celtic Irish. Some of our readers may be able to 
elucidate the obscure references : 

« The Irish men they have a farme. 
They, kepp the bread. 

And make bot/ranne. 
They make butter and eatt molchan. 
And when they haue donne 

They have noe shamm. 
They burne the strawe and make loishran. 
They eatt the flesh and drinke the broth, 
And when they have done they say 
Deo gradas is smar in Doieagh,** 

The next appears to be a scrap of a woman's 

" Birch and keyre 'tis wal veyre a spyunyng deye a 

tow me. 
I am the geyest mayed of all that brought the somer 

Justice Deyruse in my lopp, and senscal in my 

roame/* &c. 

John Devereux was Justiciary of the Pala- 
tinate Liberty of Wexford in the early part of 
Henry VIII.'s reign. That Palatinate was then 
governed by a seneschal or " senscal." The jus- 
tice would seem to have been a gallant and sensual 
man, and the song may have been a little satirical. 
Among the notes of the " Manners " of the Irish, 
it is declared that — 

*< Sett them a farme — the grandfather, father, son, 
and they clay me it as their own : if not, they goe to 

Will any antiquary versed in Celtic customs 
explain whether this claim of possession grew out 
of any Celtic usage of tenancy ? And also point 
out authorities bearing upon the customs of Celtic 
agricultural tenancy ? 

The next extract bears upon the communication 
at Vol. vii., p. 332. : 

** An XJUagh hath three purses. He runneth behind 
dore to draw his money: one cutteth the throte of 

Now, was an ZJltagh an Irish usurer or money- 
lender? Your correspondent at page 332. re- 
quests information respecting Roger Outlaw. Sir 
William Betham, in a note to the ** Proceedings 
against Dame Alice Ugteler," the famous pseudo- 
[Kilkenny witch, remarks that " the family of Ut- 
lagh were seated in Dublin, and filled several 
situations in the corporation.*' Utlagh and Out- 
law are the same surnames. The named Utlagh 
also occurs in the Calendar of Printed Irish Patent 
Bolls. William Utlagh, or Outlaw, was a banker 
and money-lender in Kilkenny, in the days of 
Edward I. He was the first husband of the witch, 
and brother of Friar Koger Outlaw. In favour of 
the latter, who was Prior of Kilmainham, near 
Dublin, a mandamus, dated 10 Edw. II., was issued 
for arrears due to him since he was '* justice and 

chancellor, and even lieutenant of the justiciary, 
as well in the late king's time as of the present 
king's." He was appointed Lord Justice, or deputy 
to the Lord Lieutenant, by patent dated Mar. 15, 
9 Edw. III. 

Many of the Irish records having been lost, your 
correspondent will do an obliging service in point- 
ing out the repository of the discovered roll. Per- 
haps steps might be taken for its restoration. H. 

[The following communication from our valued 
correspondent, the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, affords at 
once a satisfactory reply to H.*s Query, and a proof of 
the utility of " N. & Q.**] 

Roger Oudawe (Vol. vii., p. 559.). — Thanks to 
Anon, and others for their information. 

As for " in viiij mense," I cannot understand it : 
I copied it as it was sent to me. B. Etii was an 
error of the press for R. Etii, but I purposely 
avoided noticing it, because my very first commu- 
nication on the subject to " N. & Q.," under my 
own name and address, opened a very pleasing 
correspondence, which has since led to the re- 
storation of these Irish documents to their con- 
geners among the public records in Dublin ; a 
gentleman having set out most chivalrously from 
that city at his own cost to recover them, and I 
am happy to say he has succeeded ; and in the 
English Quarterly Magazine there will soon 
appear, I believe, an account of the documents in 
question. It would not, therefore, become me to 
give in this place the explanation which has been 
kindly communicated to me as to the meaning of 
the last conquest of Ireland ; but I have no doubt 
it will be explained in the English Quarterly, 

H. T. Ellacombe. 

Rectory, Clyst St. George. 

;^tn0r fifAtii* 

Burial in an erect Posture. — In the north transept 
of Stanton Harcourt Church, Oxon, the burial- 
place of the Harcourt family, is a circular slab of 
blue marble in the pavement, in which is inlaid a 
shield of brass bearing the arms of Harcourt, — two 
bars, dimidiated with those of Beke ; the latter, 
when entire, forming a cros ancree. The brass is 
not engraved, but forms the outline of the shield 
and arms. It is supposed to be the monument of 
Sir John, son of Sir Richard Harcourt and Mar- 

faret Beke, who died 1330. (See extracts from 
«ord Harcourt's " Account," in the Oxford Archi- 
tectural Guide, p. 178.) Tradition relates, if my 
memory does not mislead me, that the knight was 
buried beneath this stone in an erect posture, but 
assigns no reason for this peculiarity. Is the pro- 
bability of this being the case supported by any, 
and what instances ? Or does the legend merely 
owe its existence to the circular form of the stone? 


[No. 19a. 

I ihiak that its diameter is about two feet If 
Mb. Fbasbr has not met with the information 
already, he may be interested, with reference to his 
Query on " Dimidiation " (Vol. yu^ p. 548.), in 
learning that the above-mentioned Margaret was 
daughter and coheiress of John Lord Beke of 
Eresby, who by his will, made the 29th of £dw. L, 
devbed the remainder of his arms to be divided 
between Sir Robert de Willoughby and Sir John 
de Harcourt. And this may lead to the farther 
Query, whether dimidiation was originally or uni- 
Tersally resorted to in the case of coheiresses ? 


The Archbishop of Armagh^ s Cure for* the Gout, 
1571. — Extracted from a letter from Thomas 
Lancaster, Archbishop of Armagh, to Lord 
Burghley, dated from Dublin, March 25, 1571 : — 

** I am sorofull for that yo' honor is greved w*'» the 
goute, from the w^^ I beseche Almighty God deliver 
you, and send you health ; and yf (it) shall please y' 
honor to prove a medlcen for the same vf^^ I brought 
owt of Duchland, and have eased many w*^ it, 1 trust in 
God it shall also do you good; and this it is. Take 
ij spaniel whelpes of ij dayes olde, scald them, and 
cause the entrells betaken out, but wash them not. 
Take 4 ounces brymstone, 4 ounces torpentyn, I ounce 
parmacete, a handfull nettells, and a quantyte of oyle 
of balme, and putt all the aforesayd in them stamped, 
and sowe them up and rost them, and take the dropes 
and anoynt you wheare your grefe is, and by God*s 
grace yo* honor shall fynd helpe." — From the Original 
in the State Paper Office. 


The last known Survivor of General Wolffs 
Army in Canada. — In a recent number of the 
Montreal Herald^ mention is made of more than 
twenty persons whose ages exceed one hundred 
years. The editor remarks that — 

** The most venerable patriarch now in Canada 
is Abraham Miller, who resides in the township of 
&rey, and is 115 years old. In 1758 he scaled the 
cliffs of Quebec with General Wolfe, so that his resi- 
dence in Canada is coincident with British rule in the 
province. He is attached to the Indians, and lives in 
idl respects like them." 



National Methods of Applauding, — Clapping 
with the hands is ^oing out of use in the United 
States, and stamping with the feet is taking its 

. {^ce. When Mr. Combe was lecturing on phre- 
nology at the Museum building in Philadelphia 
twelve or thirteen years ago, he and his auditors 
were much annoyed by the pedal applause of a 
company in the room above, who were listening to 

, the concerts of a negro band. Complaint was 
made to the authorities of the Museum Society ; 
.but the answer irs^i that nothing could be done, as 

stamping of the feet was ^^ the national metkod of 

The crying of " hear him ! hear him ! " during 
the delivery of a speech, is not in use in the United 
States, as an English gentleman discovered who 
settled here a few years ago. He attended a meet- 
ing of the members of the church to which he had 
attached himself, and hearing something said that 
pleased him, he cried out " hear him ! hear him ! ** 
Upon which the sexton came over to him, and 
told him that, unless he kept himself quiet, he 
would be under the necessity of turning him out 
of church. M. E. 


Curious Posthumous Occurrence. — If the follow- 
ing be true, though in ever so limited a manner, 
it deserves investigation. Notwithstanding his 
twenty-three years' experience, the worthy grave- 
digger must have been mistaken, unless there is 
something peculiar in the bodies of Bath people ! 
But if the face turns down in any instance, as 
asserted, it would be right to ascertain the cause, 
and why this change is not general. It is now 
above twenty years since the paragraph appeared 
in the London papers : — 

" A correspondent in the Bath Herald states the 
following singular circumstance : — * Having occasion 
last week to inspect a grave in one of the parishes of 
this city, in which two or three members of a family 
had been buried some years since, and which lay in 
very wet ground, I observed that the upper part of the 
coffin was rotted away, and had left the head and 
bones of the skull exposed to view. On inquiring qf 
the grave-digger how it came to pass that I did not 
observe the usual sockets of the eyes in the skull, he 
replied that what I saw was the hind part of the head 
(termed the occiput, I believe, by anatomists), and that 
the face was turned, as usual, to the earth 1 1 — Not 
exactly understanding his phrase * as usual,* I inquired 
if the body had been b^iried with the face upwards, as 
in the ordinary way; to which he replied to my 
astonishment, in the afBrmative, adding, that in the 
course of decomposition the face of every individual 
turns to the earth ! ! and that, in the experience of 
three-and-twenty years in his situation, he had never 
known more than one instance to the contrary.* " 

A. B. C. 



ISLAin>S ? 

In a French atlas, dated 1762, in my pnos- 
session, amongst the numerous non-existing 
islands laid down in the map of the Pacific, and 
the still more numerous cases of omission in- 
evitable at so early a period of Polynesian dis- 
covery, there is inserted an island styled '^I. St. 
Fran9ob," or " I, g. Francisco," which lies in 

Joi-T 2. 1853.] 


ahoat 20° N. and 224° E. from the meridiw ol 
Ferro, and, of course, slrnost exoctlj in the eitu- 
Ationof Owhjhee. That tbia large md loftj group 
BUT have bwn seen by some other voyager long 
beKH^ is far from improbable; but, bejoad a 
question, Cook was the first to visit, describe, and 
lay them down correctly in our maps. Professor 
Ueyen, however, as quoted in Johnston's Phyaicai 
Ath*, mentions these islands in terms which would 
almost lead one to suppose that he, the Professor, 
considered them to have been known to the 
Spaniards in Anson's time or earlier, and that 
they had been regular calling places for the gal- 
leons in those days! It is difficult to conceive 
auch a man capable of such a mistake ; but if he 
did not suppose them to have been discovered 
before Cook's voynge in 1778, bis words are sin- 
gularly calculated to deceive the render on that 
point J. S. Wabdek. 

Celtic LeiicoD. By the Rev. Robert Willums, M.A., 
Oion., to be published in one toL 4to., price 31i, ed." 
When shall we see this desirable lexicon? I 
was reminded of it the other day by hearing of 
the subscriptions on foot for the publication of the 
great Irish dictionary, which the eminent Irish 
scholars Messrs. O'DoDOvan and Curry have had 
in hand for many years. Eibionhacb. 

. Mb. KiNGSLEit records a superstition of the 
Cornish miners, which I have not seen noted else- 
where. In reply to the question, " What are the 
Knockers f " Tregarva answers t 

" They are ike ghmtt, the miners holrj, o/ the Old 
JilBS that crucified our Lord, and vert tent for slauet bi/ 
: and we find 


old > 


call Jem 

ir blocks of the bottom of the great logs, which 
we call Jem' tin: and then, a town among us, too, 
which we call Mariit Jea, but the old name was Ma- 
nalon. that means the Bitterness of ZioD, they tell me ; 
and bitter work it tras for them no doubt, poor souls' 
We used to break into the old shafts and adiu which 
they had made, and And old stags-horn pickaies, that 
enimbled to pieces when we brought them lo grass. 
And they say that if a man will listen of a still night 
about those old shafts, he may hear the ghosts of them 
at working, knocking, and picking, as clear as if ihere 
was a man at work in the neat leiel."— Veait; a 
Proilan: Lond. I85I. p. S5S. 

Miners, as a class, are peculiarly susceptible of 
impressions of the unseen world, and the super- 

an^ work on Cornish folk lore which alludes 
this superstition respecting the Jews? It would 
be useless, I dare say, to consult Carew, or Borlase ; 
besides, I have not them by me. 

Apro^ to Cornish matters, a dictionary with 
a very tempting title was advertised for publication 
two or three years ago : 

" Geslerar Cernewac, a Dictionary of the Cornish 
Dialect of the Cymraeg or ancient British Language, 
in which the words are elucidated by numerous ex- 
amples from the Cornish works now remaining, with 

^inar tStuttiti. 

Clerical Duel. — I shall be obliged to any cor- 
respondent who will supply the name of the 
courtier referred to in the following anecdote, 
which is to be found in Burckhurdi's Kirchen- , 
GesdhicMe der Dctitschen Gemeinden in London, 
Tub. 1798, p. 77. 

Anton Wilbelm Biihme, who came over as 
chaiibin with Prince George of Denmark, officiated 
at the German Chapel, St. James's, from the year 
1705 to 1722. He waa afavourite ofQueenAnne, 
and a.friend of Isaac Watts. On one occasion he 
preached against adultery in a way which gave 
great offence to one of the courtiers present, who 
conceived that a personal attack on himself was 
Intended. Me accordingly t b !l t the 

preacher, which was without h t t pted; 

and at the time and place app t d h h plain 
made his appearance in full I w th his 

Bible in his hand, and gave th b 1) a lec- 

ture which led to their reco t nd f nd- 

I should like also to know whether there is any 
other authority for the story than that which I 
have quoted. S. R. Maitlanb. 


Pistol. — What is the date of the original intro- 
duction of this word into our vocabulary in either 
of the senses in which it is equivocally used by 
Falstaff in 1 IitKr)j IV., Act V. Sc. 3. ? In the 
sense of fire-arms, pistols seem to have been un- 
known by that name as late as the year 1541 ; for 
the Stat. 33 Hen. VIII. c. 6., after reciting the 
murders, &c. committed " with cross-bows, little 
abort band-guns, and little bagbuts," prohibits the 
possession of " any hand-gun other than such as 
ihall be in the stock and gun of the length of one 
whole yard, or any h^but or demibake other than 
iuch as shall be in the stock and gun of the 
length of three quarters of one yard." But 
throughout the act there is no mention of the 
word " pistol." J. F. M. 

Council of Laodicea, Canoa 35. — Can any of 
pour readers inform mc whether, in any early 
iTork on the Councils, the word angelos is in the 
sxt, without baying ungulos in the margin ? If 
10, oblige me by stating the editions: 

CLEBicrs (D). 



[No, 192. 

Petmycomequick^ adjoining Plymouth. — The Bath 
and West of England Agricultural Society held 
their recent annual meeting here. Will any of 
jour correspondents oblige me with the derivation 
of this remarkable word ? R. H. B. 

Park the Antiquary. — In a note to the third 
Tolume (p. Ixxiii.) of the Orenvitte Correspondence 
is the following passage : *^ Barker has printed a 
second note, . which Junius is supposed to have 
■written to Garrick, upon the authority of Park 
the antiquary, w?io states that he found it in a co- 
temporary newspaper," &c. This is not strictly 
correct. Barker says (p. 190.), " The letter was 
found in a copy of Junius belonging to [Query, 
* which had belonged to ?] T. Park, &c. He had 
[Query, it is presumed ?] cut it out of a news- 
paper ; but unfortunately has omitted to furnish 
the date of the newspaper." [Query, How then 
known to be cotemporary ?] The difference is 
important ; but where is the copy containing this 
letter ? By whom has it been seen ? By whom 
and when first discovered? Where did Barker 
find the story recorded ? When and where first 
printed? P. T. A. 

Honorary D.C,L.''s. — It was mentioned in a 
report of proceedings at the late Installation, that 
the two royal personages honoured with degrees, 
having been aoctored by diploma, would be en- 
titled to vote in Convocation, — a privilege not 
possessed by the common tribe of honorary 

Can you inform me whether Dr. Johnson had, 
or ever exercised, the right referred to in virtue 
of his M.A. degree (conferred on the publication 
of the Dictionary), or of the higher academical 
dignity to which his name has given such a world- 
wide celebrity ? Cantabsigiensis. 

Battle of Villers en Couche. — Some of your cor- 
respondents, better versed than myself in military 
matters, will doubtless render me assistance by 
replying to this Query. Where can I find a 
copious and accurate account of the battle, or per- 
haps I should rather say skirmish, of Villers en 
Couche ? If I am rightly informed, it must be one 
of the most remarkable actions on record, when 
the comparative numbers of the troops engaged 
are taken into consideration. We have, as an heir- 
loom in our family, a medal worn by an ofiicer on 
that occasion: it is suspended from a red and 
white ribbon, and is inscribed thus : 



24th APRIL, 


I do not remember to have read any account of 
the battle ; but, as I have heard from the lips of 
one who gained his information from the omcer 

before alluded to, the particulars were these : — • 
General Mansell, with a force consisting of two> 
squadrons of the 15th Hussars, and one squadron 
of the German Legion, two hundred and seventy^ 
two in all, charged a body of the French army, ten 
thousand strong. The French were formed in a 
hollow square : but five times, as I am informed, 
did our gallant troops charge into and out of the 
square, till the French, struck with a sudden panic, 
retreated with a loss of twelve hundred men. I 
am desirous of authenticating this almost incredible 
account, and shall be thankful for such information 
as may guide me to an authoritative record of the 
action in question. W. Sparrow Simpson, B.A. 

Dr. Misaubin. — Will any of your numerous 
correspondents give me any information, or refer 
me to any work where I can find it, respecting 
Dr. Misaubin, who appears to have practised in 
London during the first half of the last century ? 
What was the peculiarity of his practice ? 


Kemble, WiUet, and Forbes. — What are the 
two concluding lines of an epigram published tea 
or twelve years ago, beginning, — 

" The case of Kemble, Willet, and Forbes, 
Much of the Chancellor's time absorbs ; 
If I were the Chancellor 1 should tremble 
At the mention of Willet, Forbes, and Kemble ** ? 


Piccalyly. — The ornament, somewhat between 
a hood, a scarf, and an armlet, worn hanging over 
the right shoulder of judges and Serjeants at law, 
is called a piccalyly. What is the origin of thi& 
peculiarity of judicial costume, what are the 
earliest examples of it, and what its etymology ? 


Post-Office about 1770. — Mr. Smith, in the not^^ 
prefixed to the Grenville Correspondence, say* 
several of Junius*s letters appear to have been 
sent from the same post-office ** as the post-mark 
is ''peny post payd,* " — a peculiarity of spelling 
not likely to occur often. Have any of your cor- 
respondents letters of that date with a like post-^ 
mark ? and, if so, can they tell us where posted ? 

P. A. O. 

" Carefully examined and weU-authertticated.''^—-' 
I agi'ee with Mr. Cramp (Vol. vii., p. 569.) that 
" the undecided question of the authorship of^ 
Junius requires that every statement should be 
carefully examined, and (as far as possible) only 
well-authenticated facts be admitted as evidence. 
I take leave, therefore, to remind him that my 
Question (Vol. iii., p. 262.) remains unanswered ;^ 
tnat I am anxious that he should authenticate hi* 
Statement (p. 63.), and name some of the ^ many** 

Jolt 2. 1853.] 


Sir Heitter JRuleff.—Who was the author of the 
Viiions of Sir HeUter Ryley, and whence did it 
derive its name? It iriui publielfed in 1710, and 
consists of papers periodicallj published on serious 
subjects. It was one of the mnnj ahort-lived 
periodicals thut sprung up in imitation of the 
TaiUr, and appears to have died a natural death 
at the end of the so-called first volume. 

H. T. RiLBT. 

Effigies imtk folded Handi. — On the south side 
of Llangathen Church, Carmarthenshire, is a huge 
monument (of the style well designated as bed- 
stead) for Dr. Anthony Kudd, Bishop of SL 
David's, and Anne Dalton, bis wife, 1616, with 
their recumbent effigies, and those of four sons 
kneeling at their head and feet. From all these 
figures the iconoclasts had smitten the hands up- 
raised in prayer, and they have been replaced by 
plaister hands folded on the bosom. Tbe effect is 
singular. Is there any other instance of such re- 
TStoration? * E. D. 

mt, interjections given by Brockett. Many andihaU, 
that I w|[l I Marry come up. my dirty csusi's, a saying 
addressed to aiiy one who'aSects excessive delicacy.] 

Doner Cotir(.— "What is the origin of the ex- 
pression of a "Dover Court, where all are talkers 
and none are hearers?" There is a place called 
by this name in the vicinity of Harwich ? 

H. T. KiMT, 

[Tliere Is a legend, that Dover-Court Church in 
Essex once possessed a miraculous cross wbicb spoke, 
thus noticed la the Collier of Croydtm : 

" And hoT the TOad of Dovercol did speak. 

Confirming his opinions to be true." 

So tliat it is possibly as Nares suKt^e^its. tliat this 


scene of c> 
T Court; all speaker 


Passage in Bishop Horsley. — In the Introduction 
to Vtnim Horum, a rather curious work by Henry 
Care, being a comparison of the Thirty-nine Ar- 
ticles with the doctrines of Presbyterians on tbe 
one hand, and the tenets of the Church of Borne 
■on the other, is an extract from Dr. Hakewill's 
Ansurer (1616) to Dr. Carter, "an apostate to 
Popery." In it occurs the following passage : 
"And so, through Calvin's sides, you striKe at the 
throat and heart of our religion." Will you allow 
me to ask if a similar expression is not used by 
Bishop Horsier in some one of his Charges ? 

S. S. S. 


you a 

1 your I 

and what ia not : 
1 it is of late be- 
come the fashion lo abuse under the name o( Calvinism, 
you can distinguish with certainly that part of it which 
is Dothing better than Caliinism, and that which be- 
longs to our cammon Christianity, and the general 
faith oF the Reformed Churches; kit, uAcn you mtaa 
Old;/ lo fall fuvl of CidBiHiim, you thould tmaarily altaci 
wmething more lacrtd anil of higher origin."'] 

"Marry comevp!" — What is tbe origin of this 
expression, found in tbe old novelists ? It perhaps 
originates in an adjuration of tbe Virgin Mary. 
If so, how did it gain its present form ? 

H. T. Eu-Br. 

[Halliwell explains it as an Intarjeclion equivalent 
4a indeed I Marry on tu, marry eomt tqi, Marry tonu 

donr, which therefore stood open night and day ; and 
that the resort of people to it was much and very 

Porter. — In what book is tbe word porter, 
meaning the malt liqnnr so called, first found ? 
I have an impression that the earliest use of it that 
I have seen b in Nicholas Amherst's Terra Filiia, 
about 1726. H. T. Kilet. 

[We douht whether an earlier use of this word, as 
descriptive of a malt liquor, will be found than the one 
noticed by our correspondent ; for it was only about 
1722 that Harwood, a Ixindon brewer, commenced 
brewing this liquor, which he called " entire," or " en- 
tire butt," implying that it was drawn from one cast 
or butt. It subsequently ohtaiued the name of fiar'er, 
from its consumption by porters and lahourers.] 

Dr. Whiiaker's Ingenious Earl. — 
" To our equal surprise and vciation at times, we 
find the ancients possessed of degrees of physical know- 

quainted outseliE-i. I need not appeal in proof of this 
to that extraordinary operation of chemistry, by which 
Moses reduced the golden calf to powder, and then 
give it mingled with water as a drink to the Israelites ; 
sn operation the most difficult in all tbe processes of 
chemistry, and concerning which it is a sufficient 
honour for the moderns to say. that they have once or 
twice practised it. I need not appeal to the mummies 
of Egypt, in which the art of embalming bodies is so 
eminenily displayed, that all attempts at imitation have 
only showed the infinite superiority of the original to 
the copy. I need not appeal lo the gilding upon those 
mummies so fresh in its lustrej to the stained silk of 
them, so vivid in its colours after a lapse of aOOOyears ; 
to the ductility and raalteabiiity of glass, discovered by 
an artist of ILome in the days of Tiberius, but instantly 
lost by the immediate murder of the man nnder the 
orders of the emperor, and just now boasted vainly to 
be re-discoveted by the wildly txcentric, yet vividly 
vigorous, genius of that earl who professes to teach law 
to my lord cbaDceUor, and divinity to my lords the 



[No. 192. 

bishops, who proposes to send a ship, by the force of 
steam, with all the velocity of a ball firom the mouth of 
a cannon, and who pretends by the power of his steam- 
impelled oars to beat the waters of the ocean into the 
hardness of adamant; or to the burning-glasses of 
Archimedes, recorded in their effects by credible 
writers, actually imitated by Proclus at the siege of 
Constantinople with Archimedes* own success, yet 
boldly pronounced by some of our best judges, demon- 
strably impracticable in themselves, and lately de- 
monstrated by some faint experiments to be very prac- 
ticable, the skill of the moderns only going so far as to 
render credible the practices of the ancients. ** — The 
Course of Hannibal, by John Whitaker, B. D., 1794, 
vol. ii. p. 142. 

Who was the earl whose tmiTersality of genius 
is described above by this "laudator teniporis 
acti?" H.J. 

[Charles Earl Stanhope, whose versatility of talent 
succeeded in abolishing the old wooden printing-press, 
with its double pulls, and substituting in its place the 
beautiful iron one, called after him the ** Stanhope 
Press." His lordship*s inventive genius, however, 
ikiled in the composing-room; for his transmogrified 
letter-cases, with his eight logotypes, once attempted 
at The Timea^ office, were soon abandoned, and the old 
process of single letters preferred.] 

Dissimulate, — ^Where is the earliest use of this 
word to be found ? It is to be met with in Ber- 
nard Mandeville^s Fable of the Bees, 1723 ; but is 
not to be found, I think, in any dictionary. I was 
once heavily censured at school for using it in my 
theme ; but I have more than once of late seen it 
used in a leading article of 77ie Times, 

H. T. Riley. 

[Dissimulate occurs in Richardson's Dictionary, with 
the two following examples : 

<* Under smiling she was dissimulate, 
Prouocatiue with blinkes amorous.** 

Chaucer, The Testament of Creseide, 

" We commaunde as kynges, and pray as men, that 
al thyng be forgiuen to theim that be olde and broken, 
and to theim that be yonge and lusty, to dissimulate for 
a time, and nothyng to be forgiuen to very yong chil- 
dren.*' — Golden Boke, c. ix.] 


(Vol. vii., p. 526.) 

By converting a noun into a surname, Dodsley 
has led J. J. J. into a natural, but somewhat 
amusing mistake. The lines quoted are in Horace 
Walpole*8 well-known epistle, from Florence, ad- 
dressed to his college friend T[homas] A[shton,] 
tutor of the Earl of P[lymouth]. 

In Walpole's Fugitive Pieces, printed at Straw- 
berry Hill, 1758 (the copy of which, now before 

me, was given by Walpole to Cole in 1762, and 
contains several notes by the latter), the passage 
stands correctly thus : 

** Or. with wise ken, judiciously define. 
When Piits marks the honorary coin. 
Of Caracalla, or of Antonine." 

Your correspondent refers to an edition of the 
Collection of Poems of 1758. In a much lat«r 
edition of iJiat work, viz. 1782, the line is again 
printed — • 

** Or with wise kkn,*' &c. 

It is strange that the mistake was not corrected, 
at the instance of Walpole himself, during this long 

Turning to Bishop Ken, I would observe that in 
his excellent Life of this prelate, Mr. Anderdon 
has given the three well-known hymns " word for 
word," as first penned. These, Mr. A. tells us, are 
found, for the first time, in a copy of the Manual 
of Prayers for the Use of the Winchester Scholars, 
printed in 1700. The bishop's versions vaxy so 
very materially from those to which we have been 
accustomed from childhood, that these original 
copies are very interesting. Indeed, within five 
years after their first appearance, and during the 
author's life, material changes were made, sever^ 
of which are retained to the present hour. It must 
be admitted that some of the stanzas, as they first 
came from the bishop's pen, are singularly rugged 
and inharmonious, almost justifying the request 
made by the lady to Bjrrom (as I have stated else- 
where *), "to revise and polish the bishop's poems.** 
How came these hjrmns, so far the mostpopular of 
his poetical works, to be omitted by Hawkins in 
the collected edition of the poems, printed in 
4 vols., 1721 ? 

My present object is, to call your attention to % 
" Midnight Hymn," by Sir Thomas Browne, which 
will be found in his works (vol. ii. p. 113., edit. 
Wilkin). Can there be a question that to it Ken 
is indebted for some of the thoughts and expres- 
sions in two of his own hymns ? 

The good bishop's fame will not be lessened by 
his adopting what was good in the works of the 
learned physician. He doubtless thought far more 
of the benefit which he could render to the youth- 
ful Wykehamists, than of either the originality or 
smoothness of his own verses. 

Sir Thomas Browne. 

" While I do rest, my soul advance ; 
Make my sleep a holy trance : 
That I may, my rest being wrought, 
Awake into some holy thought. 
And with as active vigour run 
My course as doth the nimble sun. 

" Sleep is a death : O make me try, 
By sleeping, what it is to die ! 

* Sketch of Bishop Ken^s Life, p. 107. 

JtiLT 2. 1853.] 



And as gently lay my bead 
On my grave, as now my bed. 

" These are ray drowsy days ; in vain 
I do now wake to sleep again. 
O come that hour when I shall never 
Sleep again, but wake for ever I 

*< Guard me *gainst those watchful foes. 
Whose eyes are open while mine close ; 
Let no dreams my head infest, 
But such as Jacob's temples blest.** 

Bishop Ken. 
** Aw^e, my soul, and with the sun 
Thy daily stage of duty run. 

" Teach me to live that I may dread 
The grave as little as my bed. 

*< O when shall I in endless day 
For ever chase dark sleep away. 
And endless praise with th* Heavenly cboir. 
Incessant sing and never tire. 

" Tou, my blest Guardian, whilst I sleep. 
Close to my bed your vigils keep ; 
Divine love into me instil. 
Stop all the avenues of ill. 

'< Thought to thought, with my soul converse 
Celestial joys to me rebearse ; 
And in my stead, all the night long. 
Sing to my God a grateful song.** 

In the work referred to — one of the most 
valuable and best edited of modern days — Mr. 
Wilkin, when speaking of a fine passage on music 
in the Religio Medici (vol. iL p. 106.), asks whe- 
ther it may not have suggested to Addison the 
beautiful conclusion of his Hynm on the Glories of 
Creation : 

** What tho' in solemn silence, all,** &c. 

This passage in Sir Thomas Browne appears for- 
cibly to have struck the gifted author of Confes- 
sions of an English Opium-^ater (see p. 106. of 
that work). J. H. Mabkland. 


(Vol. vii., p. 579.) 

Mb. KiiiEx mistakes my purpose if he thinks 
that my object was to make a personal attack on 
him ; and for anything in my last communication 
which may have appeared to possess that ten- 
dency, I hereby freely express my regret. Still I 
cannot allow that he has explained away the mis- 
takes of which I complained, and of which I still 
have to complain. The kingdom of Cork never 
** extended to within a short distance of Waterford ; " 
■and the territory of Desmond was never co-exten- 
sive with Cork, having been always confined to 
the county of Kerry. Mb. Relet, therefore, is in 
error when he uses " Cork " and ** Desmond " as 
-synonymous. Again, he falls into the same mis- 

take bv assuming "Crook, Hook Point, or The 
Crook,' to be synonyms. I never heard that 
Henry 11. landed at Uook Point, which is in the 
county of Wexford, and from which a land journey 
to Waterford would be very circuitous. At Crook, 
however, on the opposite side of Waterford 
Harbour, and within the shelter of Creden Head, 
he is said to have done so; and as that point 
answers pretty exactly to the Crock of Hoveden, 
why assume some indefinite point of the " Kingdom 
of Cork " as the locality, even supposing that its 
boundary did approach Waterford city f Really 
Mb. Riley's explanations but make matters worse. 
With regard to " Erupolensis " being an alias 
of Ossoriensis, I may quote the authority of the 
learned De Burgo, who, speaking of the diocese 
of Ossory, observes : 

'* Quandoque tamen nuncupata erat EyrupoUnais 
ab Et/ro Flumine, vulgo Neoro, quod KUkenniam al- 
luit.*' — Hibemia Dominicana, p. 205. note i, 

I maintain that the reading public has just cause 
to complain, not (as I said on a former occasion) 
because the editor of such a book as Hoveden's 
Annals does not know everything necessary to 
elucidate his author, but because baseless con- 
jectures are put forward as elucidations of ihe 
text. James Gbavxs. 



(Vol. vii., pp. 206. 292.) 

It is difficult to believe that the third part of 
Christabel, published in Blackwood for June, 1819, 
vol. V. p. 286., coidd have either " perplexed the 
public, * or " pleased Coleridge.** In the first place, 
it was avowedly written by " Morgan Odoherty ; " 
and in the next, it is too palpable a parody to have 
pleased the original author, who could hardly 
have been satisfied with the raving rhapsodies put 
into his mouth, or with the treatment of his inno- 
cent and virtuous heroine. This will readily be 
supposed when it is known that the Lady Gre- 
raldine is made out to have been a man in woman's 
attire, and that ^^ the mark of ChristabeVs shame, 
the seal of her sorrow," is neither more nor less 
than the natural consequence of her having shared 
her chamber with such a visitor. 

Is your correspondent A. B. R. correct in stating 
this parody to have been the composition of Dr. 
Maginn ? In the biography of this brilliant writer 
in the twenty-third volume of the Dublin Uni' 
versity Magazine^ Dr. Moir, who had undoubtedly 
good opportunities of knowing, mentions that h& 
first contribution to Blackwood was the Latin 
translation of " Chevy Chase," in the number few 
November 1819 ; if this be correct, many of the 
cleverest papers that appeared under the name of 
Odoherty, and which are all popularly attributed 


[No. 192. 

to Afagino, muat have been tbe work of other 
authors, a circumstance which I had been already 
led to Bus^ct from the frequent local allusions to 
Scotland in general, and to Edinburgh in par- 
ticnlar, which could have Bcorcelj proceeded from 
the pen of a native of Cork, who had then never 
visited Scotland. Since Dr. Moir's own death, it 
appears that the Eve of St. Jerry, and the Rhyme 
of the Aunciertl Waggonere, have been claimed for 
him, as well as some other similar pieces ; and I 
believe that the series of Boxuaa, which also ap- 
peared under the name of the renowned ensign 
and adjutant, was written b; Professor Wilson. 
Mag^n'a contributions were at first under varioua 
aignatures, and some time elapsed before he made 
. use of the noin de guerre of Morgan Odohertj, 
- which eventually became so identified with him. 
J. S. Wabseh. 
Falemoalei Row. 

is substituted for it. I have a note of one other 
instance from Perkins on Rev. ii. 28, (ed. 1606) : 
■' For as the aunne in the spring time quickeneth 

In conclusion, may I request that if any genuine 
instance of the use of thia word Hi, is olraerved by 
any of your many contributors, they will commu- 
nicate the fact to you ? At present we can only 
BO back to Shakspeare, in his Wiater't Tale and 
Henry VIII. B. H. C. 

KEIGDTI.ET, Ma. Rtk, and myself, are more or 
less mistaken. 1. Mr. Keiqbtley, in his quo- 
tation from Fairfax's Taaso (Mb. Sihoeb's ac- 
curate reprint, 1817), has Ai's in both lines. 2. Mb. 
Rtb, in understanding me to refer to any trans- 
lation proper ; unless Sternhold and Hopkins are 
to be considered as having produced one. 3. My- 
aelf, in aapposing the old metrical version in the 
Book of Common Prayer originally had the word 
its. I copied from the Oxford edition in fol. of 
1770 ; but a 4to. edition, " printeii by lohn Daye, 
dwelling over Aldersgate, anno 1574," does not 
exhibit the word in the places specified; we have 
instead her in both places. 

Hitherto, then, the oldest examples of the use 
of thia word have been adduced from Shakspeare. 
These are to be found in the first folio, but are in 
each case printed with the apostrophe after the 
t, — iCs. This method of writing the word, how- 
ever, soon disappeared, for in a treatise of Pemble's, 
printed 1635 (the author died in 1623), it appears 
aa we write it now : 

" If faith alone by id own virtue and force,"— JTorf), 
fol. p. 171. 

I have not observed the fact remarked, that be- 
sides the use of hU, her, hereof, thereof, of it, and 
the, it was customary to employ the unchanged 
word ii for the possessive case. I will (jive an 
example or two. In the Genevan version, at 
Rom. viii. 20,, wa read "Kot of it owne wille." 
This passage is thus quoted in 1611 and in 1622, 
bnt in a later edition of the same work, 1616, iti 

As your correspondent Crahmorb has long been 
a deserter from the ranks of " N. & Q.," I may 
perhapa, without presumption, for once " stand in 
his shoes," and reply to the challenge addressed to 
him by V. M. 

Much obscurity has ^I along prevailed among 
the many biographers of Milton, in reference to 
the family of Ehzabeth Minshull, his third wife, 
and eventually, for more than fifty years, his 
widow. Philips, Warton, Todd, and numerous 
others, state her to have been "the daughter of 
Mr. Minshull, of Cheshire," — a very vague asser- 
tion! when we consider that there were at least 
three or four different families of that name then 
existing in the county. Pennant, who delighted 
in particularities, sometimes even at the expense 
of historical fact, tells us, fur the first time, in 1782, 
that she was the daughter of Mr. (or Sir) Edward 
Minshull, of Stoke, near Nantwicb, and that she 
died at tbe latter town in March, 1726, at an ad- 
vanced age. Mr. Ormerod, again, whose splendid 
History of Cheshire will be the standard authority 
of the county for ages after he himself ia carried 
to his fathers, has unfortunately adopted the same 
conclusion, and ao given a colour, as it were, to 
this erroneous statement of our Cambrian anti- 
quary. The Rev. Benjamin Mardon's paper, 
printed in the Jaamal of the British Archaological 
Association for 1849, is another and more recent 
instance of the way in which such errors as thia 
may become perpetuated. Another writer (Palmer) 
conjectures her to have been the daugliter of Min- 
shull of Manchester; but thia alao has been proved 
to be entirely destitute of foundation. 

The truth of the matter is (and I am indebted 
to Mr. Fitchett Marsh's clear and succinct disser- 
tation in tbe MisceUaay of the Chetham Society 
for the information), the poet's widow was 
daughter of Mr. Handle Minshull, of Wistaston, 
in me county of Chester, whose great-great- 

Srandfather, a younger son of Minshull of Min- 
lull, settled on a small estate there in tbe I'eigit 
of Queen Elizabeth, and so founded the house ot 
Minshull of .Wistaston. Milton was introduced 
to his Cheshire wife by his friend Dr. Paget ; and 

July 2. 1853.] 



k was by his advice that the author of Paradise 
Lost once more entered into the bonds of wedlock. 
Mr. Marsh, to clear up all doubt upon the subject, 
and having previously -established the identity of 
the family, examined the parish retjister at Wist- 
aston, and there found that " Elizabeth, the 
daughter of Randolph MynghuU, was baptized the 
80th day of December, 1638;" so that, if baptized 
shortly after birth, she must have been about 
twenty-six years old when united to Milton in 
1664, and about eighty-nine at her death, which 
occurred in 1727. 

V. M., and all others who desire farther en- 
lightenment on the subject, will do well to refer 
to the volume before mentioned, which forms the 
twenty-fourth of the series published by the 
Chetham Society. T. Hughes. 



(Vol. vii., pp. 469. 579.) • 

Perhaps you will allow poor old Jacob Behmen, 
the inspired cobbler of Gorlitz, a niche in your 
temple of writers of emblems. I think he is legi- 
timately entitled to that distinction. His works 
are nearly all couched in emblems ; and, besides 
his own figures, his principles were pictorially illus- 
trated by his disciple William Law (the author of 
Hie Way to Divine Knowledge, The Serious Call, 
&c.), in some seventeen simple, and four com- 
pound emblematic drawings. Of these the most 
remarkable, and in fact the most intelligible, are 
three compound emblems representing the Crea- 
tion, Apostasy, and Redemption of Man. Every 
phase of each stage in the souFs history is dis- 
closed to view by means of double and single 
doors. We are now concerned only with such of 
Behmen^s emblematic works as have been trans- 
lated into English. The following list contains 
only those in my own library. I am acquainted 
with no others : 

(1.) "The Works of Jacob Behmen, the Teutonic 
Theosopher, to which is prefixed the Life of the 
Author, with Figures illustrating his Principles, 
left by the Rev. William Law, M.A. In four 
thick Volumes, royal 4to. London : printed for 
M. Richardson in Paternoster Row, mdcclxiv." 
With a fine portrait of Behmen facing the title- 
page of the first volume. This edition contains 
the following works : 

1. Aurora : the Day-spring, or Dawning of the Day 
in the East ; or Morning-redness in the Rising of the 
Sun: that is, the Root or Mother of Philosophy, 
Astrology, and Theology, from the True Ground ; or, 
A Description of Nature. 

2. The Three Principles of the Divine Essence of 
the Eternal : Dark, Light, and Temporary World. 

S. Mysterium Magnum : or an Explanation of the 
First Book of Moses called Genesis. 

4. Four Tables of Divine Revelation. 

5. The High and Deep-Searching of the Threefold 
Life of Mai^^ through or according to the Three Prin- 

6. Forty Questions concerning the Soul, proposed 
by Dr. Balthasar Walter, and answered hy Jacob 

7. The Treatise of the Incarnation. 

8. The Clavis, or an Explanation of some Principal 
Points and Expressions. 

9. Signatura Rerum. 

10. Of the Election of Grace; or of God's Will to- 
wards Man, commonly called Predestination. 

11. The Way to Christ discovered in the following 
Treatises : — I. Of True Repentance. II. Of True 
Resignation. III. Of Regeneration. IV. Of Super- 
natural Life. 

12. A Discourse between a Soul hungry and 
thirsty after the Fountain of Life, the sweet Love of 
Jesus Christ, and a Soul enlightened. 

13. A Treatise of the Four Complexions, or a Con- 
solatory Instruction for a Sad and Assaulted Heart in 
the Time of Temptation. 

14. A Treatise of Christ's Testament, Baptism, and 
the Supper. 

(2.) " Theosophic Letters, or Epistles of the Man 
from God enlightened in Grace, Jacob Behmen^ 
of Old Seidenburgh, wherein everywhere [are ?] 
Divine Blessed Exhortations to true Repentance 
and Amendment, as also Plaine Instructions con- 
cerning the highly worthy and precious Know- 
ledge of the Divine and Natural Wisdome ; toge- 
ther with a Right Touchstone or Triall of these 
Times, for an Introduction to the Author's other 
Writings : published in English for the good of 
the sincere Lovers of true Christianitie, by I. S.*" 
(I have only a MS. copy of this publication.) 

(3.) A beautiful MS. translation of " The Way 
to Christ." This is hardly so accurate as the one 
already referred to, though some of the expres-. 
sions are better chosen. The date of this MS. is 
about 1730, or earlier. 

(4.) A fair MS. translation of Jacob Behmen's 
treatise called " A Fundamental Instruction con- 
cerning the Earthly and concerning the Heavenly 
Mystery ; how they two stand in one another, and 
how in the Earthly the Heavenly becometh mani- 
fested or revealed, wherein then you shall see 
Babell the great citty upon Earth stand with its 
Forms and Wonders; and wherefore, or out of 
what, Babell is generated, and where Antichrist 
will stand quite naked. Comprised in Nine Texts. 
Written May 8, 1620, in High Dutch." (I have 
seen no printed translation of this treatise.) 

(5.) MS. translation of the fourth treatise of 
" The Way to Christ," viz. " of the Supersensual 
Life." This is a less accurate rendering than 
either of the others above mentioned. 

Perhaps your mystic correspondents will kindly 
furnish fists of other publications and MSS. of 

[♦ J. Sparrow. — Ed.] 



[No. 192. 

" the Teutonick Theosopher." There are sixteen 
more of his works, of which fiHeen are cow extant 
!□ Hi^h Dutch. As old Behmen ie but little known 
in tliia country, save by ill-repute, as having led 
astray William Law in his old age, and, through 
him, having tinctured the religious philosophy of 
Coleridge, it way be worth noting, that no less a 
philosopher than Schilling (to whom, as we know, 
Coleridge stood so greaMy indebted) elole from 
the Lusatian shoemaker the comer-stonea of his 
Pk&o*ophy o/Nabire. C. Huhfibld Inqlbbt. 

the woman is, as we term it, giTen away, if she be 
a spinster, she ii to have her band uncoxiered; if a 
widow, covered: the words are — 

(VoL vii., p. 595.) 
With regard to your correspondent Mb. G. 
Brindlet Aceworth's Query respectine Baf- 
faeWt Sposalizio, I am induced to think ttiat the 
cmtode at the chnrch of the Santa Croce at Flo- 
rence WHS risht as to Ua information. In the 
copy which I have of the "Ordo ad faciendum 
Sponsftlia," according to the ancient me of Salii- 
■ ■ ■ ^ "^ n the 

lis : quod si putlla Bil, diicooperlam hibeat mannin, n 
JHO. ttclaM," 

There is no reason given for thin distinction, 
nor do I ever remember to have seen it noticed. 
F. B. W. 

Tlie Spotalixuf, at "espouads," or hetrothiiig, 
is certmniy a different ceremony from the mar- 
riage. Is not the fact of yonn^ ladies popularly 
MHisidering and calling the third finger of the 
right band the engi^ed finger, and wearing a rinc 

I that finger when engased, a confirmation M 
' ■' " ^ ■ itthis "betrothal'^ 

joar correspondent's idea, ft 

the ring was placed in the r^kt hand; 
marriage ceremony on the left P 

Mry, the ring is nndonbtedly to be pit 

bride's right hand. Wheatiy indeed savs, that 

" when the man espoases his wife with it (i. e. the 
ring), he is to put it vpon the fourth Jhger of her 
left hand;" and then refers, for the reason of this, 

the vein going from this finger directly to the heart. 

Now, what are the precise words of this rubric f 
After giving directions for the benediction of the 
ring, provided it has not previously been blessed, 
the rubric goes on thns ; 

" K autem anlea fuerit annulus ille benedietus tunc 
statim poslquam ilr pOBuerit annulum super librum, 
sccipiena sacerdos annulum tradst ipsum viro: quem 
VIC accipiat mnnu sua Jeitera cum tribus principiili- 
ontbus digitis, et msnu sua sinistra tenens deilenm 
spouse docente sacerdote dic^t." 

The man is to receive the ring from the priest 
with the three principal fingers of the right hand ; 
and then, holding the right hand of the bride with 
his own left hand, he shall say, " With this ring," 
&c. He is then to place the ring on her thumb, 
saying "In nomine Patris;" then on her second 
finger, saying "et Filii ;" then on the third finger. 
Baying "et Spiritua Sancti ;" then on the fourth 
finger, saying "Amen;" and there he is to leave 
it. There is not a word said about the bride's 
left hand, the right is alone mentioned ; and why 
should the man hold her right hand with his l^fl, 
but that with his right hand he may the more 
easily place the rin", jfrsi on the thumb, then on 
the other fingers of her right hand, until it arrives 
at its final destination f 

While I am upon this subject, allow me to point 
out another singular direction given in a rubric in 
this same " Ordo ad faciendum Sponaalia." When 

(Vol. vii., p. 2aS.) 

leativ indeed says, that ,„™,.,. ,. . ,. „ 

his wife with it (1. e. the " • " ■ " desmms of interpreting windfaO, m 

- ' ■• - -' necetsanty from its origin d(aioting a gain. He 

is, perhaps, expecting a handsome bequest ; I wiidi 

he may get it; but he may rely on it that the 

windfaU of the bequest will be accompanied by the 

windfall of the " Succession Act" Let us hear 

what our great Doctor says; his first explanation 

is, " Fruit blown down from the tree." 

W. W.'s little boys and girls would d 

windfall of unripe apples, at this time of the yei 
a good ; tbey will make a pie for dinner. W. V 

But let us see how Johnson illustrates lus ex- 
planation : 

■* Their bou^hi were too great for their stem, they 
became a aindfallupan tlie sudden."— Batoi,, Essay 39. 

Webster copies this for his first explanation, as 
he does also our Dr's. second for his second; but 
BB it is not his plan to illustrate by examples, he 
is saved from the eccentricity of hia original. 

If we refer to Bacon we shall be remijided of 
Johnson's warning, that by " hasty detruncation 
the general tendency of a sentence may be 
changed." The sentence bore so haatily detrun- 
cated, stands thus in the Essay : 

" The SpaiUns were a nice people in point of natu- 
ralisation, wliereby while they kept their compaase, 
ttiey stood fjrme. But when then did spread, and 
thtir houghti were becommen loo great for their stemme, 
thry became a windfall upon the suddaine. ' Fotentia 

Theg, in Johnson's mutilated sentence, refers to 
the boughs ; in Bacon, to the Spartans ; so that, in 

July 2. 1853.] 



the first place, the Spartans are transformed into 
boughs, and, in the next place, the boughs into 
fruit. Detruncation, however, had nothing to do 
with this latter metamorphosis ; and I am afraid 
this is not a solitary instance of lexicographical 

W. W. may assure himself that a windfall is 
" whatever /a^ by the wind, or with similar sud- 
denness or unexpectedness, whether bringing good 
or ill." 

And if he will take the trouble to refer to " The 
Case of Impeachment of Waste," quoted by Mr. 
Abbowsmith, Vol. vii., p. 375., he will find, only a 
few lines before that gentleman's quotation begins, 
a legal question at issue as to the right of property 
in windfalls. Q. 



(Vol. vii., pp. 528. 600.) 

It would ^eatly enhance the value of contribu- 
tions to '^ N. & Q.," save much trouble, and often 
lead to a more direct intercourse between persons of 
similar pursuits, if contributors would drop initials, 
and sign their own proper name and habitat; and 
in saying this, I believe the Editor will second me. 
If C. S. G. had done this, I should have been 
happy to send him an envelope full of proofs that 
Mr. Justice Newton did not die in 1444, for that 
a fine was levied before him in 1448 ; that he is 
not buried in Bristol Cathedral, but in the Wyke 
Aisle in Yatton Church, Somerset, where may be 
seen his efiSgies beautifully carved in alabaster, in 
his judge's robes, and his head resting on a wheat- 
sheaf or garb ; that there was no relationship be- 
tween the second baronet of Hather, his arms 
being cro«« hones^ &c., and those of the judge, who 
was truly a Cradock, were three garbs, &c. I 
would now beg leave to refer C. S. G. to my former 
communications in "N. & Q." about Cradock 
Newton, particularly Vol. ii., pp. 248. 427. ; Ckro- 
nica Jvdicialia^ 1635 ; Foss's Lives of the Jvdges; 
and a paper of mine in the forthcoming volume of 
the Proceedings of the ArchcBological Institute at 
Bristol H. T. Ejllacombe. 

Rectory, Clyst St. George. 

From C. S. G.*s reply to my inquiry respecting 
Mr. Justice Newton I conclude that at least two 
individuals of this name have, at different periods, 
and at a considerable interval apart, occupied the 
judicial bench. 

The portrait I wish to trace is of a well-known 
character of the Commonwealth era, and could not, 
of course, have belonged to a judge then some two 
centuries deceased. My omission to state this cir- 
cumstance, in the first instance, has very naturally 
occasioned complete misapprehension throughout. 

Since my Query was written, a duplicate of the 
drawing in the Bodleian (minus the inscription), 
out of the Strawberry Hill collection, has, curiously 
enough, appeared in an extensive public sale. It 
was likewise said to be by Bulfinch ; and farther 
examination leads me to infer that both this and 
the Oxford copy were, in respect of artist, in all 
probability not incorrectly described. As Bulfinch 
lived temp. Charles II., and the Bodleian inscrip- 
tion points to his original painting as *4n the hands 
of Mr. Justice Newton," it may fairly be presumed 
that a second judge of the name flourished in this 

Substantially, then, my original Query yet re- 
mains unanswered, notwithstanding C. S. G.*s 
obliging reply. F. Kyttin Lenthall. 

36, Mount Street, GhrasTenor Square. 

photogbaphic cobbespondence. 

Mr. Lyte's Treatment of Positives. — It would 
be quite superfluous, after the very excellent 
communication of Mb. Pollock, were I to give a 
detailed account of my method of printing albumen 
positives, as, in the main, we both follow the process 
of Mr. Le Gray. But as we both have our own 
improvements on the original process, I will ask 
for space in which to record our differences in 

First, in regard to the chloride of gold, I 
always find, and I believe such is the experience 
of many photographers, that all salts of gold, 
though they heighten the effect at first, have a 
slow, but sure, destructive action on the picture. 

Next, I find that acetic acid, by generating^ 
^phurous acid, has a similar effect, and my care 
was to try and make a solution which should be 
free from these defects. I first take my positive, 
which, as a general rule, I print at least half ai 
dark again as the shade required. This done, I 
wash it well with water, and next with salt and 
water in the proportion of about half a grain per 
gallon, or quite a tasteless solution ; this removes 
all the nitrate of silver from the paper, or if there 
is any left, the bath of salt decomposes it, leaving 
none in the texture of the paper to unite with the 
hypo., which otherwise forms a sticky substance, 
difficult to remove, which may be readily seen on 
looking through a positive which has been too 
hastily finished in the usual way, giving a dark 
shade, and a want of transparency to the lights. 
I then place the picture in a bath composed as 
follows : 

Soda3 hyposul. - - - 3 oz. 

Argent, chlorid. - - 70 grs. 

Fotassii iodidi - - - 5 grs. 

Pyrogallic acid - - - 1^ to 2 grs. 

The iodide of potassium I add on the same prin- 
ciple as Mb. Pollock^s iodide of silver, but as being 



[No. 192. 

more convenient, as immediately on being added 
it decompose? some of the chloride of silver, and 
forms iodide of silver. I am happy to find that 
Mb. Pollock confirms me in the use of this salt, 
which I had long thought to improve the tone of 
my pictures. The liquid, which will become ra- 
pidly very dark coloured, must be set aside in an 
open vessel in a warm place for some weeks, e.g, 
till, when a positive is placed in it, left for a short 
time, and then washed with water, it shows clean 
and not mottled in the light. The solution may 
be kept always exposed, and much improves by 
this : if much used, it should be replenished with 
a simple solution of hypo, three ounces or two 
ounces to the pint ; if little used, it may be filled 
up as much as evaporates with pure water. 

The positive is left in this solution till the re- 
quired tint is obtained, when it is to be placed in 
plain hypo, two ounces to the pint, and in about 
a quarter of an hour transferred to a basin of pure 
water, and well washed in several waters. The 
other detail of Mb. Follock*s process is so ad- 
mirably and clearly given, and so like that I 
pursue, that I will not trouble your columns with 
it again. 

The after-bath of pure hypo, is not absolutely 
necessary ; and where it is desired to obtain fine 
olive, and dark sepia, and black tints, a better 
tone results from washing well, long, and fre- 
quently, with water alone. 

This bath also gives very rich tints with paper, 
prepared without albumen : viz. — 

Chloride of ammonium - - 5 grs. 

Water - - - - 1 oz. 

Lay the paper on this, and then hang it up to dry, 
and excite with ammonio-nitrate containing seventy 

grains of nitrate of silver to one ounce of water, 
hould the above solution not give the requisite 
tints soon after being made, add more chloride of 
silver; but bear in mind that the solution will 
then soon become saturated when setting posi- 
tives, and when this occurs it must be rectified 
by the addition of a small portion of fresh hypo. 
sione, F. Maxwell Ltte. 

P. S. — I may add that I have only lately tried 
the addition of the iodide of potassium to my 
• setting liquid, and so must qualify my recom- 
mendation of it by saying so. 
Fiorian, Torquay. 

Stereoscopic Ans^les. — 1 am obliged to Mbssbs. 
Shadbolt and Wilkinson for the information 
given in reply to my Queries (Vol. vii., p. 505.). 
My mode of operation is precisely that of Mb. 
Wilkinson : " I obtain all the information I can 
from every source; then try, and judge for myself." 
Hence the present letter. 

I regret to be obliged to differ from Mb. Shad- 
bolt, but there is a point in his communication 

which appears to me to arise from a misconceptioa 
of the stereoscopic problem. He sajs (p. 557.), 
" for distant views there is in nature scarcely any 
stereoscopic effect." Now, surely visual distance 
is merely visual stereosity ; for, to see an object 
solid is merely to see its parts in relief^ some of 
them appearing to project or recede from the 
others. It is the difficulty of producing this effect 
in landscapes, by the ordinary camera process, that 
renders views taken by such means so deficient in 
air, or, as the artists term it, aerial perspective, 
most distant objects seeming almost as near as 
those in the foreground. This indeed is the nuun 
defect of all photographs: they are true repre- 
sentations of nature to one eye — cyclopean pic- 
tures, as it were — appearing perfectly stereoscopic 
with one eye closed, but seeming absolutely flat- 
tened when viewed by the two eyes. I remem- 
ber being shown a huge photograph of the city of 
Berlin, taken from an eminence; and a more 
violent caricature of nature I never set eyes upon. 
It was almost Chinese in its perspective : the 
house-tops appeared to have been mangled. It 
was a wonderful work of art, photographically con- 
sidered ; but artistically it was positively hideous. 
But the same defect exists in aU monopbotogra* 
phic representations, though in a less degree, and 
consequently less apparent than in views to which 
a sense of distance is essential. In portraits, the 
features appear slightly flattened ; and until photo* 
graphers are able to overcome this, the chief of all 
obstacles to perfection, it is idle to talk of the art 
giving a correct rendering of nature. This is what 
is wanted, more than colour, diactinic lenses, mul- 
tiplication of impressions, or anything else. And 
when it is remembered that the law of an ordinary 
convex lens is, the farther the object from the lens 
the nearer the focus, and, vice versa, the nearer 
the object the farther the focus, it becomes evident 
that by such an instrument distant objects must 
be made to appear near, and near objects distant, 
and nature consequently mangled. 

The stereoscope gives us the only demonstrably 
correct representation of nature ; and when that 
instrument is rendered more simple, and the 
peep-show character of the apparatus discon- 
nected from it, the art of photography will tran- 
scend the productions of the painter — but not 
till then. 

I am anxious to obtain all the information I 
can from such of your photographic readers as are 
practically acquainted with the stereoscopic portion 
of the art relative to the angles under which they 
And it best to take their pictures for given dis- 

Mr. Fenton, the secretary of the Photographic 
Society, takes his stereoscopic pictures, when the 
objects are 50 feet and upwards from the camera, 
at I in 25. This is, as Mb. SnAnnoLT states, Pro- 
fessor Wheatstone*s rule for distances. 

JniT 2. 1833.] NOTES AND QUEKIES. 17 

Mk. WtLKiHBOH, on the other hand, BBsei^ that asnearlyas posuble the centre of the ground glaw 

3 feet Id SOO yards is sufficient separation for the plate. 

cameras : this is on]; 1 in 300, — a vait difference Nor is it esaen-^ that perfect horizontalitj or 

truly. parallelism of the cameraB should be mainlauied 

" For TiewB across the Thames," sajs the editor in copjing trees. For buildings, however, it is 

of the PAafcignyfAic Jburnni, "Ihe cameras should absolutely necessary that the cameras be kept 

be placed 12 ftet apart, and wilh this separation straight. 

the effect is declared to be astonishing." I am sorry thus to trespass on your apace, but 

Mb. WiLKinsoK, however, asserts that from 4 being anxious, as Mb. Wiulisson says, lo collect 

to 6 feet in a mile will do well enovgh 1 information from every source, and your periodical 

Fariher, Mr. Latimer Clark (the inventor of an being a happy medium for conveying and re- 
ingenious stereoscopic camera) slates that with ceiving instruction, I am glad to avail myself of 
regard to the distance between the two positions such a channel. *. (2) 
of the cameras, he knowfl no ^ reason why the p.S. — Mr. Claudet has, I perceive, been 
natural distance oflheeyes. VIZ. 2i inches, should „„jed the prize given by the Society of Arts 
be much exceeded. '_' A litUe extra relief .s ob- f^^ ^^^ ^est eSsay oS the stereoscope. Can yoo, 
tamed, he ad da, "without visible distortion, by ^^ any of your readers, inform me whether this is 
mcreasing the separation to about 4 or 5 inches j uteiy to be published, and when and at what 
but if this distance be greatly exceeded, especially ^^^ f 
for near objects (1 give the gentleman's own 

■words), they become Mpparently diminished in Query respecting Mr. PoUock'i Procen. — In 

size, and have the appearance of models and dolls Mb. Pollock's directions for obtuning poaitivea, 

rather than natural objects," which appeared in "N. & Q." (Vol. vii,, p. S81,), 

The reason for making the separatJon between iodide of silver is to be dissolved in a saturated so- 

the cameras greater than that between the two lution uf hypo. Can you give me the quantity of 

eyes, is exceedingly simple. The sterec^raph is iodide of silver to be dissolved, and the quantity 

to be looked at much nearer than Ihe object itaelf, of the saturated solution of hypo, in which it is to 

and consequently ia to be seen under a much be dissolved ? N. T. B. 
larger angle than it is viewed by the two eyes in 

nature. Hence the two pictures should be taken Gallo-mtrate of Silver. — Can you inform me 

at the angle under whieb they arc to be observed what the true nature of the decomposition is 

in the stereoscope. Suppose the object to be 50 which takea place after a short time in the gallo- 

feet distant, then of course it is seen by the two nitrate solution of silver ? and if there be any 

eyes under an angle of 2', inches in 50 feet, or 1 ready means of rendering the silver it contains 

in 240. But it is intended that the stereograph again available for photographic use? 

should be seen by the two eyes when but a few Sib W. Newton, in the description of his calo- 

inchea removed from them, or generally under an type process, says : " Bring out with the saturated 

angle of 2^ in 12 inches, or nearly 1 in 5. Hence solution of gallic acid, and when the subject 

it is self-evident that the stereoscopic angle should begins to appear, add the acelo-nitrate of silver 

be considerably larger than that formed by the solution." Which way of doing this is the best, — 

cptic axes of lie two eyes when directed to the mising the two solutions togeLher and applying 

object itself. them to the paper ; _o ' "■ *•-" 

t there is great diversity of opinion as to the wetted wilt the gallic 

extent of the angles requisite for producing the T- L. 

precise stereoscopic or distantial effect of nature. 

For myself I prefer Professor Wheatatone's rule, ^ta\\ti tn -fflinnr rtuertetf 

1 in 25 for objects beyond 50 feet distant. For »rptuS In JHinOr ffluerU*. 

portraits 1 find the best angle 1 in 10 when the Verney Note decypJtered (Vol. vii., p. 568.). — 

Sllter is 10 feet off, and for busts about 1 in 5 I am extremely obliged to Mb. Thompson Coopsb 

when placed about 5 or 6 feet from the cameras, for his decyphered rendering of Sir Ralph Ver- 

But I should be happy to receive information from ney's note of a speech or proceeding in parliament. 

any of your readers concerning this important The note itself is not now in my possession, but I 

branch of the phutograpbic art. For months past have requested the owner to be good enough to 

I have been engaged In a series of experiments in re-collate it with the original, and if any mistakes 

connexion with the subject, and wish for larger should appear in the copy, or the printing (which 

experience than it is possible for any single operator is very likely), I will give you notice of the fact, 

to acquire for himself. that Uie doubtful words in Mb. Coopbb'b version 

Mr. Fenton, I may observe, does not keep the maT,'if possible, be set right. 

cameras parallel in taking landacapea, but in- Students in the art of decyphering may be 

dines them so that the same object may occupy pleased to have the key to the cy^ier recorded in 


[No. 192. 

roar pve9. I therefore give it yon as diieovered 
3y^ Mb. CooPBB, and bee. Id the strongest naj, to 
reiterate mv thftnka to Uiat gentleman. 

0/^ aiu. (..ooPBB, ana oee, m toe 
reiterate mj thanks to Aat gentl< 
2. 3, 4, S.e, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 1? 
f, r, k, t, b, ' 

20, 22, 27, 21 

. P. d. 

cases thej retun the Greek form of the adjective, 
as iapkytiqat, EnbatantiTe and adjective, while we 
generally have pairs of adjectives, as pkiloiophie, 
15 16 17 18 philosophical; exialie, exlatical; &c. Some m»y 
e i o u think this an advaati^ ; I do not. 

Taoe. Keighti^t. 

. The cyphers (if any) for j, q, y, 2 have not 
been discovered, and the numbers 1, 19,21,23, 
24, 25, 26 remain unappropriated. Josh Bbuce. 

Etnbiema by John Statyan (Vol. vii., p. 470.), — 
This work, wbiuh Ma. Cobser has not met with, 
is in the folio edition of his works, forming pp. £49. 
to 868. of vol, ii. (1768). The plates are small 
woodcuts of Tery iudifferent execution. E. D. 

Mr. Cobb's Diary (Vol. vii,, p. 477.). —This 
volume was printed solely for private distribution 
by the family, who also presented their relatives 
and friends (amongst whom the writer was 
reckoned) with another volume compiled on the 
decease of Francis Cobb, Esq., the husband of 
Mrs. Cobb, and entitled, Memoir of the late 
Francis Cobb, E»q., of Margate, compiled from 
his Journals and Letters : Maidstone, printed by 
J. V. Hall and Son, Journal Offite, 1833. Bolh 
of these are at the service for perusal of your in- 
quiring correspondent, John Maetin. E. D. 

"Sal cito si sat bene" (Vol. vii., p. 594.). — I 
have not Twiss at hand j but I think F. W. J. is 
mistaken in calling it a "favonrire maxim" of 
Lord Eldon. I remember to have heard Lord 
Eldon tell the story, which was, that the New- 
castie Fly, in which he came up to town, in I forget 
how many days, had on its panel the motto, "Sat 
cito si sat bene;" he applied it jocularly in defence 
of his own habits in Chancery. C. 

Mylhe versus Myth (Vol. vii., pp. 326, 373.). — 
It gives me much pleasure to have afforded Mb. 
Thieiold an opportiinity for displaying so much 
learning and sagacity ; but I hope he does not 
imagine that he has confuted me. As T only spoke 
of words which, like jiSfloj, had a single consonant 
between two vowels, such words as piinih, laby^ 
riath, &c. have nothing to do with the' question. 
If nythe, differing from the other examples which 
are to be found, happens to have the for its ter- 
mination, and thus resembles words of Anglo- 
Saxon origin, I cannot help it, but it was formed 
secundum erlem. As to Mb. TBiaioij>*s myth, un- 
less to written, and printed, it will always be pro- 
nounced mplh, like the French mythe. 

As to the hybrid adjectives, I only wished to 
avoid increasing the number ofthem. The French, 
I believe, have only one, musical; for though, like 
ourselves, they have made sabstantivea of the 
Greek nivauiii (ac. t*x*ii). ^wiioi, &c^ in all other 

The Gilbert Family (Vol. vii., p. 239,).— If youi 
correspondent seeking genealogical information in 
reference to my ancestors, calls on me, I will show 
him a presentation copy of A Oenealoeicul Me- 
moir of the Qiibert Family in Old and New Eng- 
land, by J. W. Thornton, LL.B., Boston, U. S^ 
1850, 8vo. pp. 24, only fifty printed. 

Jahbs Gilbebt. 

Alexander Clark (Vol. vii., p.580.). — I should 
feel obliged if J. 0. could find leisure to commu- 
nicate to "N. & Q." some particulars relative to 
Clarlc. He is supposed to have been the author 
of a curions poem : The Institution and Progress 
of the Buttery College of Slains, in the Parish of 
Cruden, Aberdeinshire ; ivilh a Catalogue of the 
Boohs aad MSS. in the Library of that Utti- 
versitr/: Aberdeen, 1700. Mr. Peter Buchan thus 
mentions him in his Gleanings of Scarce Old 

" Clark, n drunken dominie at Slaiiia, author of a 
poetical dialogue between the garricneis nnd Iiilors on 
the oiigia of iheir craFis, and a most curious Latin and 
English poem called the ■ Buttery College oF Slains,' 
which resembled much in langu.ige and style Drum, 
mond of Ilawthornden's ■Polemo Middino.'" 

This poem is-printed in Watson's Collection of 
Sluttish Poents, Edin. 1711 ; and also noticed in 
the Edinburgh Topographical and Antiquarian 
Magazine, 1848, last page. I am anxious to ascer- 
tain if the emblem writer, and the burlesque poet, 
be one and the same person. The dates, I con- 
fess, are somewhat against this conclusion ; but 
there rnay have been a previous edition of the 
Emblematical Representation (1779). The Uni- 
versity Clark is supposed to have been an Aber- 
deenshire man. Possibly J. O. may be able to 
throw some light on the subject. Pebthensis. 

Christ's Cross (Vol. iii., pp. 330. 465.). — In 
Morley's Introduction to Practical Music, originally 
printed in 1597, and which I quote from a repriijt 
by William Randall, in 4to., in 1771, eighteen 
mortal pages (42 — 59), which, in my musical 
ignorance, I humbly confess lo be wholly out of 
my line, are occupied with the " Cantus," " Tenor," 
and " Bassus," to the following words : 

" Christes Crosse be my speed in all vertue to pro- 
ceede. A, b, c, d, e. f, g. h. i. k. I, m, n. o, p, q. r, b. & 
I, double w, I, T, ivitli y, eiod, & per ae, can per se, 
tittle tittle «t Amen, When you haue done begin 
again, begia agun.- T P M 

July 2. 1853.] 



ne ReheUwAs Prayer (VoL vii., p. 286.). — 
J. A. may find the poem, of which he quotes the 
opening lines, in the ChurckmcuCs Monthly Penny 
Magazine^ October, 1851, with the signature 
L. E. P. The magazine is published bj Wertheim 
& Macintosh, 24. Paternoster Row. M. E. 

" To the Lords of Convention " (Vol. vii., p. 596.)- 
— L. Evans will find the whole of the ballad of 
"Bonnie Dundee," the first line of which he 
quotes, in Sir Walter Scott's Doom of Devorgoil, 
where it is introduced as a song. Singularly 
enough, his best ballad is thus found in his worst 
play. FicuLNUs. 

Wooden Tombs and Effigies (Vol. vii., pp. 528. 
607.). — In a chapel adjoining the church of He- 
veningham in Suffolk, are (or rather were in 
1832) the remains of a good altar tomb, with re- 
cumbent effigies carved in chesnut, of a knight and 
his lady : it appeared to be, from the armour and 
architecture, of the early part of the fifteenth 
century ; and from the arms. Quarterly or and gules 
within a harder engrailed sable, charged with es- 
callops argent, no doubt belonged to the ancient 
family of Heveningham of that place; probably 
Sir John Heveningham, knight of the shire for the 
county of Suffolk m the 1st of Henry IV. 

When I visited this tomb in 1832, it was in a 
most dilapidated condition : the slab on which the 
ef^gy of the knight once rested was broken in ; 
within the head of the lady, which was separated 
from the body, a thrush bad built its nest : not- 
withstanding, however, the neglecji and damp to 
which the chapel was exposed, these chesnut 
effigies remained wonderfully sound and perfect. 


The monument to Sir Walter Traylli and his 
lady, in Woodford Church in Northamptonshire, 
is of wood. 

There is a wooden effigy in Gayton Church, 
Northamptonshire, of a knight templar, recum- 
bent, in a cross-legged position, his feet resting 
on an animal : over the armour is a surcoat ; the 
helmet is close fitted to the head, his right hand 
is on the hilt of his sword, a shield is on the left 

There is also a fine wooden effigy of Sir Hugh 
Bardolph in Burnham Church in Norfolk. ' J. B. 

In Fersfield Church, in Norfolk, there is a 
wooden figure to the memory of Sir Robert Du 
Bois, Kt., ob. 1311. See Bloomfield*s Norfolk, 
vol. i. p. 68. J. B. 

Lord Clarendon and the Tubwoman (Vol. vii., 
pp. 133. 211. 634.). — Upon reference to the story 
of the " tubwoman" in p. 133., it will be seen that 
Idx. Hyde is distinctly stated to have himself mar- 
ried the brewer's widow, and to have married her 

for her money. It k farther said that Ann Hyde, 
the mother of Queen Mary and Queen Ann, was 
the only issue of this marriage; whereas Ann 
Hyde had four brothers and a sister. No alliision 
is made in this account to Sir Thomas Ailesbury. 
Your correspondent Mb. Warden says, that "tfe 
story has usually been told of the wife of Sir 
Thomas Ailesbury,** and that it may be true of 
her. Will he have the kindness to furnish a re- 
ference to the version of the story in which Sir 
Thomas Ailesbury is said to have married the tub- 
woman P L. 

House-marks (Vol. vii., p. 594.). — I do not 
know whether a. recollects the frequent occur- 
rence of marks upon sheep in this country. Al- 
though I have often seen them, I cannot just now 
describe one accurately. Some sheep passed my 
house yesterday which were marked with a cross 
within a circle. 

Riding with a friend, a miller, in Essex, about 
thirteen years ago, he jumped out of the gig and 
over a gate, to seize a sack which was lying in a 
field. Seeing no initials upon it, I asked how he 
knew that it was his; when he pointed out to me 
a fish marked upon it, which he told me had been 
his own and his father's mark for many years. 
He also said that most of the millers in the neigh- 
bourhood had a peculiar mark (not their names or 
initials), each a different one for his own sacks. 

A. J. N. 


" Amentium haud amantium^^ (Vol. vii., p. 595.). 
— Your correspondent's Query sent me at once to 
a queer old Terence in English, together with the 
text, " opera ac industrid R. B,, in Axholmensi in- 
siddyLincolnsheriiEpwortheatis. [London, Printed 
by John Legatt, and are to be sold by Andrew 
Crooke, at the sign of the Green-Dragon, in Paul's 
Church Yard. 1641.] 6th Edition." 

Here, as I expected, I found an alliterative 
translation of the phrase in question : " For they 
are fare as they were lunaticke, and not love-sicke, ' 

The translation, I may add, is in prose. 


The Megatherium in the British Museum 
(Vol. vii., p. 590.). — It is much to be regretted 
that A Foreign Surgeon should not have 
examined the contents of the room which contains 
the cast of the skeleton of this animal with a little 
more attention, before he penned the above article. 
Had he done so, he would have found many of the 
original bones, from casts of which the restored 
skeleton has been constructed, in Wall Cases 9 
and 10, and would not have fallen into the error 
of supposing that it is a facsimile of the original 
skeleton at Madrid. That specimen was exhumed 
near Buenos Ayres in 1789; whilst our restoration 



[No. 192. 

has been made from bones of another individual, 
many of which are, as I have stated, to be found 
in the British Museum itself, and others in that of 
the Royal College of Surgeons. I am not about 
to defend the propriety of putting the trunk of a 
palm-tree into the claws of the Megatherium, 
though I do not suppose that the restorer ever 
expected, when he did so, that any one would 
entertain the idea that this gigantic beast was in 
the habit of climbing trees ; but I would fain ask 
your correspondent on what grounds he makes the 
dogmatic assertion that " Palms there were none, 
at that period of telluric formation." I will 
simply remind him of the vast numbers of fossil 
fruits, and other remains of palms, in the Londofi 
clay of the Isle of Sheppey. 

W . J. Bebnhabd Smith. 

Pictorial Proverbs (Vol. v., p. 559.). — Perhaps 
the book here mentioned is one of the old Ger- 
man Narrenhuchs, or Book of Fools^ which were 
generally illustrated with pictures, of which I have 
a curious set in my possession. 

Can any of your correspondents give some 
account of the nature and merits of these books P 
Are any of them worth translating at the present 
day ? The one from which my pictures were taken 
Las the title Mala GaUina^ malum Ovum, and was 
published at Vienna and Nuremburg. It seems 
to have been a satire on the female sex ; but the 
text, I am sorry to say, is not in my possession. 

H. T. RlLET. 

' "HiirraA," and otherWar-cries (Vol.vii., p. 596.). 
— The following passage (which I find in my notes 
with the reference Menagiana^ vol. ii. p. 328.) may 
partially assist your correspondent Cape : 

**Le cri des anciens Comtes d'Anjou 6toit RcHlie, 
£n voici Torigine. £ude II., Comte de Blois, marchant 
aveo une armee considerable centre Fouike Nerra, 
Comte d'Anjou, ces deux princes se rencontr^rent k 
Fontlevoi sur le Cher, oit ils se livrerent bataille le 
6 Juillet, 1016. Fouike eut d'abord quelque desa van- 
tage ; mais Herbert, Comte du Maine (dit Eoeillechien\ 
6tant venu a son secours, il rallia ses troupes, and d^fit 
absolument, &c. Depuis ce temps-]{l le cri des anciens 
Comtes d'Anjou etoit Rallie. £t a ce propos je vous 
rapporterai ce qu*en dit Maitre Vace, surnomm4 le 
Qerc de Caerif dans son Roman de Normandie : 

' Fran9ois crie Montjoye, et Normans Dtx-aye : 
Flamands crie Arast et Angevin Rallie : 
£t li ouens Thiebaut Chartre et Pdssavant crie.' " 

^ This last cry is not unlike the Irish *^ Faugh- 
a-Ballagh" in signification. J. H. Lebeschb. 


The following extracts from Sir Francis Pal- 
grave's History of Normandy and England, vol. i. 
p. 696., explain the origin of the word ** Hurrah," 
respecting which one of your correspondents in- 
quires : 

" It was a * wise custom* in Normandy, established 
by Rollo's decree, that whoever sustained, or feared to 
sustain, any damage of goods or chattels, life or limb, 
was entitled to raise the country by the cry of haro, or 
haroHt upon which cry all the lieges were bound to 
join in pursuit of the offender, — Haron! Ha Raoulf 
justice invoked in Duke Rollo's name. Whoever failed 
to aid, made fine to the sovereign; whilst a heavier 
mulct was consistently inflicted upon the mocker who 
raised the clameur de haro without due and sufficient 
cause, a disturber of the commonwealth's tranquillity. 

'* The clameur de haro is the English system of * hue 
and cry.' The old English exclamation Harrow I our 
national vernacular Hurrah! being only a variation 
thereof, is identical with the supposed invocation of 
the Norman chieftain ; and the usage, suggested by 
common sense, prevailed under various modifications 
throughout the greater part of the Pays Coutumier of 

A. M. S. 


Among the books which we have for some time in- 
tended to bring under the notice of our readers is a 
new and cheaper edition of The Coin Collector's Manual, 
or Guide, to the Numismatic Student in the Formation 
of a Cabinet of Coins : comprising an Historical and 
Criticcd Account of the Origin and Progress of Coinage, 
from the Earliest Period to the Fall of the Roman Em- 
pire i with some Account of the Coinages of Modem 
Europe, more especially of Great Britain, by H. Noel 
Humphreys : and we have been the more anxious to 
do this, because, except among professed collectors, 
greater ignorance probably exists on the subject of coins, 
their date, value, &c., than upon any other subject with 
which educated people are supposed to possess some 
acquaintance. Yet there are few numismatic ques- 
tions likely to occur which ordinary readers would not 
be enabled to solve by a reference to these two little 
volumes, enriched as it is with numerous illustrations; 
especially if they would place beside them Akerman's 
most useful Numismatic Manual, 

We are indebted to Mr, Murray for two volumes 
which will be among the pleasant additions to the 
cheap books of the month, namely, the new volume, 
being the fourth of the reprint, of Lord Mahon's His- 
tory of England to the Peace of Versailles, which com- 
prises the interval between the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle 
and that of Hubertsburg; and in the Railway Reading, 
for half-a-crown I the fourth edition of Lockhart's 
spirited translations of Ancient Spanish Ballads, His- 
torical and Romantic, Thanks, Mr. Murray, thanks ! 

That Mr. De la Motte, who is so well known as an 
accomplished draughtsman, should turn his attention 
to photography, is no slight testimony to the value of 
the art That he has become a roaster in it, may be 
seen by one glance at his own works on the walls of his 
Fhotographio Gallery. The beginner may therefore 
receive with confidence the results of that gentleman's 
experience; and Th« Practice of Photography, a Manual 
for Students and Amateurs, just published by him, will 

JtJLT 2. 1853.] 



be found a most useful and instructive companion to 
every one who is now contemplating an excursion, 
armed with a camera, for the purpose of securing for 
the gratification of his friends truthful records of bis 
wanderings. Mr. De la Motte wisely confines his in- 
struction to the paper and glass processes ; his details 
on these are clear and minute, and the book is well 
worth the money for those pages of it alone which are 
devoted to the ** Chemicals used in Photography." 

Books Received. — On the Archaic Mode of express' 
ing Numbers in English^ Saxon, Friesic, ^c, by £. 
Thomson, Esq. ; a learned and ingenious tract, written 
originally fur insertion in ** N. & Q.," but which fact 
ought not to prevent our speaking of it in the terms 
which it deserves. — A Few Words in Reply to the Ani- 
madversions of the Rev, Mr, Dyce on Mr, Hunters " DiS' 
quisition on the Tempest^'* 1839, and his " New Illns- 
trations of the Life, Studies^ and Writings of Shakspeare,^ 
1845, §-c. A short but interesting contribution to 
Shakspearian criticism, by one who has already done 
good service in the same cause. If we cannot agree 
with Mr. Hunter in all that he seeks to establish, we 
can admire his knowledge of Elizabethan literature, 
and appreciate the spirit in which he writes. — The 
Antiquary, This is the first number of a small work 
consisting of reprints of proclamations, curious adver- 
tisements from early newspapers, and such odd matters 
as paint more forcibly than the gravest historian, the 
colours of the times. 



The Complaynts of Scotland. 8vo. Edited by Leyden. 1804. 
Suakspeare's Plays. Vol. V. of Johnson and Steevens's edition, 

in Ift vols. 8vo. 1739. 
Circle of the Seasons. I2ino. London, 1828. (Two Copies.) 
Jones* Account op Aberystwith. Prevecka, 8vo. 1779. 
M. C. H. Brobmel's Fest-Tanzbn der Ersten Christen. 

Jena, 170S. 
Cooper's Account op Public Records. 8vo. 1832. Vol. I. 
Fassionael epte DAT Lrvknt der Hgiliobn. Basil, 1522. 
Lord Lanmdownb's Works. Vol. I. Tonson, 1736. 
James Baker's Ficturbsqur Guide to the Local Beauties 

of Wales Vol. I. 4to. 1794. 
"Web'«tek'8 Dictionary. Vol. H. 4to. 1832. 
Walkkr'o Particles. 8vo. old calf. 1683. 
Warner's Serm -ns. 2 Vols. LongmaM, about 1818. 
Author's Printing and Publishing Assistant. 12mo., cloth, 


J. Nichols, 

Sanders* Histokt op Shbnstonb in Staffordshire. 

London, 1794. Two Copies. 
Herbert's Carolina Threnodia. 8vo. 1702. 
Theobald's Shakspeare Restored. 4lo. 1726. 

*** Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested 

to send their names, 

*«* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 

- - of "NOTES 

to be tent to Mr. Bell, Publisher 
QUERIES." 186. Fleet Street. 


fintitti in Corretfpoiilrentir. 

Our Eighth Volume. IVe avail oursHoes of the opportunitff 
qffbrded by the commencement of a new Volume^ to state that our 
attentiitn has been called to the shnrp and somewhat personal tone 
of several of the recent Cimtributionn to '• N. & Q.," and which^ we 
are reminded, is the more striking from the marked absence of 
anything of that character in our earlier Volumes. We are per- 
haps ourselves somewhat to hlimefor Uus^from our strong indis- 
position to exercise our editorial privilege of omission. Our notice 
of the subject wiU^ we are sure, be sufficient to satiny our contri- 
butors qf the inconvenience which must result to themselves as well 
as to us from, the indulgence in too great license of the pen. We 
know that when men write currente calamo, words and vhrases 
are apt to escape^ the full application of which is not observed, 
untilt as Charles Lamb said, " print proves it : " but being con-, 
scions that, when treating on the subjects with which we deal, no 
one would willinglv write anything with design to give qff^rtce, we 
shall in future " play the tyrant " on all such occasions with more 
vigilance than we have done. 

L. K. The lines — 

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xpB mw Atn> ntrBOTHD e 

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the QKinu i^upwudi oF loo/no)' moiUontd In 

pr«rLudc Ui bptaK jwkIh piialol In H extended 
knd cumprthmiiTQ m titrm, end tbe preient 
^porluclLv win c(nu»queiitlj' ba tbe only DIM 


"Tlu Ufmolrv of Hence WelpoLe b»rly 
gompL«t« Ibe climiil of pervmitf wjlltlciU, JLn4 
UUruy hliBin. i»iniDeiicin( irilti EnlJD Uld 


_The Oiidm Id Ibe WiUnuBw." »e. One 
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rALES. Bt MRS. LOCKK. OBaTa].,»« 


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Saturday, July 9. 1853. 

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Notes: — Page 

The Eye : its primary Idea - - . . 25 

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VoL.VnL— No. 193. 


I do not; remember to have remarked that any 
writer notices how uniformly, in almost all lan- 
guages, the same primary idea has been attached 
to the eye. This universal consent is the more 
remarkable, inasmuch as the connexion in ques- 
tion, though of course most appropriate and sig- 
nificant in itself, hardly seems to indicate the most 
prominent characteristic, or what we should deem 
to be par excellence the obvious qualities of the 
eye ; in a word, we should scarcely expect a term 
derived from a physical attribute or property. 

The eye is suggestive of life, of divinity, of in- 
tellect, piercing acuteness (acies) ; and again, of 
truth, of joy, of love: but these seem to have been 
disregarded, as being mere indistinctive accidents, 
and the primary idea which, by the common con- 
sent of almost all nations, has been thought most 
properly to symbolise this organ is a spring— /ow5, 

Thus, from VV, manare, scatere, a word not in 
use, according to Fuerst, we have the Hebrew T^J?^ 
fons aquarum et lacrimarum, h. e. oculus. This 
word however, in its simple form, seems to have 
almost lost its primary signification, being used 
most generally m its secondary — oculus, (Old 
Testament Hebrew version, passim.) In the sense 
of fonsj its derivative V]i^ is usually substituted. 

Precisely the same connexion of ideas is to be 
found in the Syriac, the Ethiopic, and the Arabic. 

Again, in the Greek we find the rarely-used 
word 6ir^, a fountain, or more properly the eye^ 
whence it wells out, — the same form as oir^, oculus ; 
^, 6rlfi5y i^ofiai. Thus, in St. James his Epistle, 
cap. iii. 11. : /lw{ti ^ mj*)^ Ik t^s ahrris Iv^s $p6€i rh 
yKvicb KoA rh viKpSv, 

In the Welsh, likewise, a parallel case occurs : 
Llygad, an eye, signifies also the spring from 
which water flows, as in the same passage of St. 
James : a ydyw ffynnon dr vn Uygad (from one 
spring or eye) yn rhoi dwfr melus a chwerw f 

On arriving at the Teutonic or old German 
tongue, we find the same connexion still existing : 
Avg, augOf — oculus; whence ougen ostendere-^ 
Gx>this augo ; and awe, auge, ave, campres ad am' 


[Ka 193. 

nem. (Tld. SchUteri, Thes^ toI. Si. ad boc.) Am 
here we cannot help noticing the similarity betweei 
these words and the Hebrew ni<^ which (as wel. 
Ba the Coptic iari) means primarilj a river oi 
fltream ftoia a spring ; but, according to FrofeMoi 
Lee, is allied to -nn, ligh^ the enlighteament o: 
the mind, the opening of the ejes ; and be adds 
" the application of the term to water, as runniitg. 
(roiulticul, &a., is eosj." Here, then, is a sinulai 
COnnezioa of ideas with a change in the metaphor 

In the dialects which descended from the Teu- 
tonic in the Saxon branch, the connexion between 
these two distinct objects is also singularly pre- 
served. It is to be found in the Low German, 
the Fricsio, and the AnglO'SazoD. In the lattei 
ve have ea, eah, eagor, a welling.^flowing stream : 
and eak, agh, eage, an eje, whiSi might be abun- 
dantly iilustrated. 

We could hardlj fail to £nd in Shakspeare some 
allusion to these connected images in the old 
tongae; no speck of beautj could exist and es- 
cape his ken. Thus : 
* la that respect, too, like a loving child. 

Shed yet Kinie small drop* from th; tender ipiing. 

Because kind Nature doth lequire it so." 

2^ Jad., Act V. Se. 3. 

*■ Bsdc, fooliab lems, back to your native spring; 
YoDT tributury drops belong to woe. 
Which you, mtBtaking, offer up for Joy." 

Son. OHd Jul., Act IIL Sc 2. 

Many of the phrases of the ancient tongues, in 
which the eje bears a part, have been handed 
down to us, and are still preserved in our own. 
My space, however, forbids me to ^o more than 
allude to them; but there is one very forcible 
expression in the Hebrew T^3 fJV, literally, eye in 
eye, which we render much less forcibly^face to 
fice. The Welsh have preserved it exactly in 
thehr Uygad yn Uygad. Indeed, this is not the 
only instance ia which they are proud of having 
handed down the Hebrew idiom in all its purity. 
Shakspeare twice uses the old phrase: 

" Since then my office bath so fai prevailed. 

That face to face, and royal eye to eye. 

Ton have congreeted." _ /T™. V., Act V. Sc. S. 

And in Tro. and Crea^ Act IIL Sc 3 ; but it ap- 
pears now to be obsolete. 

Before concluding, I cancot help noticing, in 
connexion with this subject, the Old English term 
*> the apple of the eye." I am unable to trace it 
beyond lie Anglo-Saxon. The Teutonic sehandes 
cugen, papilla oculi, is totally distinct ; teha being 
merely medium mincfiu oetdi, whence sehan, eidere. 
In the Semitic languages, as well as in the Greek 
and Latin, the origin of the term is the same, and 
^Tes no clue to the meaning of the Saxon term. 
Thus, in the Hebrew riE"N, dun. of E^'K, komwt- 
cv&u, the small image of a person seen in the eye. 

In Arabic it is the man or daughter of &e eye. In 

Greek we have n^pih xnp^'oy, copiurtSav; and in 
Latin, pupa, pupula, pvpilia. 

Has any li^hi been thrown on the Anglo-'SaxoB 
tenu ? Can it be that irU, not the pupi^ is taken 
to represent an apple f The pupl itself irould 
then be the eye of the apple of the eye. 

H. C.K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 


In proof of the severity with which the laws 
against forgery were enforced, I have been re- 
ferred to the case of Hatfield, banged in 1803 for 
forging franks. It is given very fully in Mr. De 
Quincey's " Literary Recollections of Coleridge" 
in the first volume of the Boston edition of his 

The story has some romance in it, and excited 
great interest fifty years ago. Hatfield had lived 
by swindling J and, though be underwent an im- 
prisonment for debt, had, upon the whole, a long 
career of success. The last scene of his depreda- 
tions was the Lakes, where he married a barmaid, 
who was called " The Beauty of Buttermere." 
Shoi-tiy after the marriage he was arrested, tried, 
and execnted. Mr. De Quincey anerwards lived 
in the neighbourhood, dined at the public-house 
kept by Mary's father, and was waited upon by 
her. He had the fullest opportunities of getting 
correct information : and his version of the story 
is so trutblike, that I should have accepted it 
without hesitation but for the hanging for forging 
a frank. As that offence never was capital, and 
was made a felony punishable with transportation 
for seven years by 42 Geo. HI. c. 63., I was im- 
pelled to compare the statement founded on gossip 
with more formal accounts ; and I send the result 
in illustration of the small reliance which is to be 
placed on tradition in such matters. The arrival 
of Hatfield in a carriage is graphically described. 
He called himself the Hon. A ugustus Hope, brother 
of the Earl of Hopetoun. Some doubts were felt 
at first, but — 

" To remove suspicion, be not only received letlen 

continually franked letters by thai name. Now, that 
bcitu/ a capita! offcTice, being not only a forgery, but (as 
a forgery on the Posl-oflice) sure lo be prosecuted, 
nobody presumed to question his prelensiooB any longer; 
and henceforward he went lo all places with the con- 
sideration due loan carl's brDlher." — P. 196. 

The marriage with Mary Robinson, and the 
way in which they passed the honeymoon, are 
described : 

Jin.T 9. 1853.] 



<iffrighUd numntaineerSf the bubble burst ; officers of 
Justice appeared, the stranger wtu easily intercepted 
Jrom flight, and, upon a capital charge, he was home 

away to Carlisle, At the ensuing assizes he was tried 
Jbr forgery on the proseeution of the Posi-office, found 
guilty, left for execution, and executed accordingly."^ 

P, 199. 

^ One common scaffold confounds the most flinty 
bearts and the tenderest. However, it was in some 
measure the heartless part of Hatfield's conduct which 
^irew upon him his ruin : for the Cumberland jury, as I 
bave been told, declared their unwillingness to hang him 
Jbr having forged a frank ; and both they, and those who 
refused to aid his escape when first apprehended, were 
leeoneiled to this harshness entirely by what they heard 
<lf his conduct to theur injured young feUow-country^ 
awMum.**— P. 201. 

Hatfield was not " easily intercepted from flight." 
Sir Frederick Vane granted a warrant to appre- 
bend him on the charge of forging franks. Hatfield 
ordered dinner at the Queen's Head, Keswick, to 
be ready at three ; took a boat, and did not return. 
This was on October 6 : he was married to Mary 
•on the 2nd. In November he was apprehended 
near Brecknock, in Wales : so those who refused 
to aid his escape, if such there were, were not 
•* reconciled to the hardship by what they heard 
of his conduct to their young fellow -country- 
woman." The "startling of the thunderclap" 
was preceded by an ordmary proclamation, de- 
«cribmg the offender, and offering a reward of 
-601, for his apprehension. He was not " hurried 
«way to Carlisle," but deliberately taken to Lon- 
don on December 12 ; examined at Bow Street, 
remanded three times, and finally committed; 
And sent to Carlisle, where he was tried on 
August 15, 1803. 

Three indictments were preferred against him : 
tbe first for forging a bill of exchange for 20^., 
drawn by Alexander Augustfis Hope on John 
Crump, payable to George Wood ; the second for 
a similar bill for 30Z. ; and the third for counter- 
feiting Colonel Hope*s handwriting to defraud 
the Post- office. 

The Cumberland jury did not " declare their 
unwillingness to hang him for forging a frank," 
that not being a capital offence. I infer, also, 
that it was one for which he was not tried. He 
was convicted on the first indictment ; the court 
rose immediately after the jury had given their 
Terdict ; and the prisoner was called up for judg- 
ment at eight the next morning. Trying a man 
under sentence of death for a transportable felony, 
is contrary to all practice. Hatfield was executed 
«t Carlisle on September 3, 1803. 

Mary*s misfortunes induced the sympathising 

public to convert her into a minor heroine. She 

seems to have been a common-place person, with 

^emall claims to the title of "The Beauty of But- 

*tennere.** A cotemporary account says, " she is 


rather gap-toothed and somewhat pock-markedJ 
And Mr. De Quincey, after noticing her good 
figure, says, " the expression of her countenance 
was often disagreeable." 

« A lady, not very scrupulous in her embellishment 
of fiicts, used to tell an anecdote of her which I hope 
was exaggerated. Some friend of hers, as she affirmed, 
in company with a large party, visited Buttermere a 
day or two after that on which Hatfield suffered ; and 
she protested that Mary threw on the table, with an 
emphatic gesture, the Carlisle paper containing an 
elaborate account of the execution." — - P. 204. 

Considering the treatment she had received, 
it is not unlikely that her love, if she ever had 
any for a fat man of forty-five, was turned inta 
hatred ; and it was not to be expected that her 
taste would keep down the manifestation of such 
feeling. When Hatfield was examined at Bow 
Street, Sir Richard Ford, the chief magistrate, 
ordered the clerk to read aloud a letter which he 
received from her. It was : 

«< Sir, — The man whom I had the misfortune to 
marry, and who has ruined me and my aged and 
unliappy parents, always told me that he was the Hon. 
Colonel Hope, the next brother to the Earl of Hope- 

" Your grateful and unfortunate servant, 

** Mart Robinson." 

I do not blame Mr. De Quincey, having no 
doubt that he believed what he was told ; but I 
have put together these facts and discrepancies, to 
show how careful we should be in accepting tra- 
ditions, when a man of very high ability, with the 
best opportunities of getting at the truth, was so 
egregiously misled. 

My authorities are. The Annual Register^ 1803, 
pp. 421. and 428.; The GentlemxnCs Magazine^ 
1803, pp.779. 876. and 983.; Kirby's Wonderful 
Magazine, vol. i. pp. 309. and 336. The Newgate 
Calendar gives a similar account ; but not having 
it at hand, I cannot vouch it. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 


I. I have never seen it yet noticed, that the 
names Pyrrha, JEolus, Xuthus, Ion, are all names 
of colours. Is there anything in this, or is it for- 
tuitous ? 

II. In accordance with the above, I think we 
may refer most of the names of the early inhabit- 
ants of Greece to words denoting light or colour^ 
or the like. 

(1.) Pelas-gi, The first part of this word is, hj 
Mr. Donaldson, connected with /*€A.-as, which i8 
also, probably, the root of Mol-ossi, 

(2.) Hellenes, connected with HeUi, SeUi, <r^Aaf, 
c0Ai|, 9fi<ws. Thb derivation is made more probable 


[No, 19». 

bj the fact, tliftt the neighbouring Felosgic tribes 
lui*e a similar meaning ; t.g^ 
Ferrhabi, alike to JVrrAo and np; MOiicei, 

idVai; Tymphiei, tu^; Hestiiri, tarla. Add to tbis, 
that the name PMhiotis seems indubitnbly to de- 
rire its name from Phlhah, the Egyptian Hephas- 
tUM, and to be a translation of tbe word Heluu. 

N.B The existence of an Egyptian colon;r in 

that part is attested by the existence of a Phthiotio 

(3.) On tbe other hand, the word Aehtetu seems 
to be connected with tExat, ix"^!"") ^^^ ix'^"' in the 
sense of gloom (ol oipirior a^Dt). So tbe Homeric 
Cinaaeriana are derived from '"i*")?? (Job), de- 
noUng darkne^a. 

(4.) Lastly, I submit with great diffidence the 
following examination of the words Dorut and 
the ^dian Minj/ir, which I shall attempt to de- 
rive from words denoting ran and moon respec- 

Tbe word Bonis I assume to be connected with 
ihe first part of the names Dry-opes and Dol-opes. 
The metathesis in the first case eeems sanctioned 
by the analog; of the Sanscrit drt and Greek iiipai, 
ftod tbe mutation of I and r in the second is too 
common in Greek and Latin to admit of any 
donbt, e.^. ip-ya^.4os and iAyoX/rot ; Sol and Sor* 
acte. With this premised, I think we may be 
jnstified in connecting the followicg word with 
one another. 

Dores, Drymes with 2cfpiai (of liis and A'oi) 
e/poj, the Scythian sun-god oh-i-nofiui, the Egyp- 
tian O-siris, and perhaps tbe Hebrew 1^1 and 
'Greek Jijpi; (the course of the sun being the 
emblem of eternity),— Doi-opes with Sol, •&.)), 
SeUi, &c. 

On the other hand, the neighbouring Mim/te 
Beem connected with /wiBai, /iin/ySOf tniniM, — all 
with tbe sense of decreaaijig or waning ; hence re- 
ferable, both in sense and (I fancy) m derivation, 
to Greek M", and Latin men-sit, 3. H. J. 

over again the same note aa above, a little diversi- 
fied, and placed parallel to Theobald's edition in 
this way : 

." It lies as sightly on the back of him 
As great AlcideV (Aoici upon an au." 

woiik not hire beta to over- might he lAul (ihsed) wiUt 

Now who, in reading these parallel notes, but 
would suppose that it is Mr. Ejii^ht wbo restores 
shoes to tbe text, and that it is Mr. Knight who 
points out the common allusion by our old poets 
to the shoes of Hercules P Who would imagine 
that tbe substance of this correction of Theobald 
was written by Steevens a couple of generations 
back, and that, consequently, Theobald's proposed 
alteration bad never been adopted P 

I should not think of pointing out this, but 
that Mr. £nigbt bimself, in this same prospectus, 
has taken Mr. Collier to task for the very same 
thing ; that is, for taking credit, in hia Noles and 
EmeJidotums, for all the folio MS. i 
whether known or unknown, necessary ( 

Indeed, the very words of Mr. Knight's com- 
plaint against Mr. Collier are curiously applicable- 
to himself; 

" It requires the most fixed attention to the nice 
distinctions of such constantly-recurring ' notes and 
emendations,' to distmbiirrass tha cursory reader from 
the notion tliat these are bou& fide corrections of the- 

" It lies as sightly on the hack of him 
As great Alcldes' shoes upon an ass." 

King John, Act II. 8c. I. 
" The ass was to vtar the shoes, and not to bear 
them on his back, as Theobald supposed, and therefoie 
would read ihoai. The 'shoes of Hercules' were aa 
commonly alluded to bf our old poets, as tbe <x ptde 
Marculeai was a familiar allusion of tbe learned." ( Mr. 

night in 


Fourteen years' additional consideration has not 
altered Mr. Knight's view of this passage. Inl8fi3 
we find him putting forth a prospectus for a new 
edition of Shakspeare, to be called "The Stratford 
Edition," varioua portions from which he sets be- 
fore the public by way of sample. Here we have 

"Who cares to know what errors are corrected in" 
(the forthcoming Stratford edition), "that exist in no 
other, and which have never been introduced into tho 
modem test?" — Sptcimtn, UiC, p. xxiv. 

The impression one would receive irom Mr. 
Knight's note upon Theobald is, that Shakspeare 
had bis notion of the shoes from " our old poets," 
while ike learned had Iheirs from ex pede Her- 
cvlem; but where the analogy lies, wherein tbe 
point, or what tbe application, ia not explained. 
Steevens' original note was superior to this, in so 
much that he quoted tbe words of these old poets, 
thereby giving bis readers an opportunityof con- 
sidering the justness of the deduction. The only 
se^ofi' to this omission by Mr. Knight is tbe intro- 
duction of "ex pede Herculem," tbe merit of wbicb 
is doubtless bis own. 

But it so happens that the size of the foot of 
Hercules has no more to do with tbe real point of 
the allusion than tbe length of Frester John's ; 
therefore ex pede Herculem is a most unfortunate- 
illustration, — particularly awkward in a specimen 
sample, the excellence of which may be ijaes- . 

July 9/ 1853.] 



It is sin^lar enough, and it says a great deal 
for Theobald's common sense, that he saw what 
the true intention of the allusion must be, although 
he did not know how to reconcile it with the ex- 
isting letter of the text. He wished to preserve the 
spirit by the sacrifice of the letter, while Mr. Knight 
preserves the letter but misinterprets the spirit. 

Theobald's word " shows," in the sense of ex- 
ternals, is very nearly what Shakspeare meant by 
^hoes, except that shoes implies a great deal more 
than shows, — it implies the assumption of the 
eharacter as well as the externals of Hercules. 

Out of five quotations from our old poets, given 

by Steevens in the first edition of his note, there is 

sot one in which the shoes are not provided with 

foet But Malone, to his immortal honour, was 

the first to furnish them with hoofs : 

** Upon an ass ; t. e, upon the hoofs of an ass.** 


But Shakspeare nowhere alludes to feet ! His 
■ass most probably had feet, and so had Juvenal's 
verse (when he talks of his " satyr^ sumente co- 
thurnum ") ; but neither Shakspeare nor Juvenal 
dreamed of any necessary connexion between the 
feet and the shoes. 

Therein lies the diflerence between Shakspeare 
und "our old poets;" a difierence that ought to 
be sufficient, of itself, to put down the common 
cry, — that Shakspeare borrowed his allusions from 
them. If so, how is it that his. expositors, with 
these old poets before their eyes all this time, 
together with their own scholarship to boot, have 
so widely mistaken the true point of his allusion ? 
It is precisely because they have confined their 
researches to these old poets, and have not followed 
Shakspeare to the fountain head. 

There is a passage in Quintilian which, very 
probably, has been the common source of both 
Shakspeare's version, and that of the old poets ; 
with this difierence, that he understood the original 
4ind they did not. 

Quintilian is cautioning against the introduction 
of solemn bombast in trifling afiairs : 

** To get up,** says he, " this sort of pompous tragedy 
about mean matters, is as though you would dress up 
•children with the Tnask and buskins of Hercules.** 

[" Nam in parvis quidem litibus has tragoedias movere 
tale. est quale si personam Herculis et cothurnos aptare 
Infantibus velis.*'] 

Here the addition of the mask proves that the 
allusion is purely theatrical. The mask and bus- 
kins are put for the stage trappings, or properties, 
of the part of Hercules : of these, one of the items 
was the liorCs shin ; and hence the extreme aptitude 
of the allusion, as applied by the Bastard, in KiTig 
John, to Austria, who was assuming the importance 
of Coeur de Lion ! 

It is interesting to observe how nearly Theo- 
bald's plain, homely sense, led him to the necessity 

of the context. The real points of the allusion can 
scarcely be expressed in better words than his 

** Faulconbridge, in his resentment, would say this to 
Austria, * That lion's skin which my great father, King 
Richard, once wore, looks as uncouthlyon thy back, as 
that other noble hide, which was borne by Hercules, 
would look on the back of an ass ! * A double allusion 
was intended : first, to the fable of the ass in the lion's, 
skin; then Richard I. is 6nely set in competition with 
Alcides, as Austria is satirically coupled with the ass.** 

One step farther, and Theobald would have dis- 
covered the true solution : he only required to 
know that the shoes, by a figure of rhetoric called 
synecdoche, may stand for the whole character and 
attributes of Hercules, to have saved himself the 
trouble of conjecturing an ingenious, though infi- 
nitely worse word, as a substitute. 

As for subsequent annotators, it must be from 
the mental preoccupation of this unlucky "ex 
pede Herculem," that they have so often put their 
foot in it. They have worked up Alcides' shoe 
into a sort of antithesis to Cinderella's ; and, like 
Procrustes, they are resolved to stretch everything 
to fit. A. E. B. 



The Note in your valuable Journal (Vol. vii., 
p. 591.) requires, I think, so far as it relates to 
Gothe, several corrections which I am in the positioa 
of making. The amount which that great man is 
said to have received for his "works (aggregate)" 
is "30,000 crowns." The person who originality 
printed this statement must have been completely 
Ignorant of Gothe's affairs, and even biography. 
Gothe had (unlike Byron) several publishers 
in his younger years. Subsequently he became 
closer connected with M. J, G, Cotta of Stuttgardt, 
who, in succession, published almost all Gothe's 
works. Amongst them were several editions of 
his complete works : for instance, that published 
conjointly at Vienna and Stuttgardt. Then 
came, in 1829, what was called the edition of the 
last hand (^Ausgabe letzter Hand), as Gothe was 
then more than eighty years of age. During all 
the time these two editions were published, other 
detached new works of Gothe were also printed ; 
as well as new editions of former books, &c. Who 
can now say that it was 20,000 crowns (thalers f^ 
which the great poet received for each various 
performance ? — No one. And this for many rea- 
sons. Gothe always remained with M. Cotta on 
terms of polite acquaintanceship, no more : there 
was no " My dear Murray" in their strictly busi- 
ness-like connexion. Gothe also never wrote on 
such things, even in his bio^aphy. or diary. But 
some talk was going around in Grermany, that for 
one of the editions of his complete works (there 



[No. 198, 

tppenred itill many volumei of posthumoui), he 
had rec«iYed the above sum. I can asiert on 
ffood Ruthorlt3r, that GOthc^ foreieeing his increae- 
biff popularity even lon^ afier hii death, stipulated 
with M. Cotta to pay his heirs a certain sum fbr 
•Terj new edition of either his complete or single 
works. One of the recipients of these yet cufrent 
accrmnti is Bardn Wolfgang von Giithe, Attache 
of the Prussian Legation at Rome. 

A FoRmoN SvRoaoN. 

Charlotte Street, Bloomibury Squnre. 

II i^e Father of the godft his glory shrouils, 
Involved in tempests and a night of clouds.** 

Dryden^s ^rgiK 

" Mars, hovering o*er his Troy, hU terror shrouds 
tn gloomy tempests and a night of clouds.** 

Pope*8 Uomtr'i IHadt book xx. lines 69) 70. 

Unpublished Epitaphs. — I copied the fbllowlntt 
two epitaphs from monuments in the churchyard 
of Llangerrig, Montgomervshirc, last autumn. 
Thev perhaps deserve printing from the slight re- 
eemblance they bear to that Tn Melrose Church- 
yard, quoted in Vol. vil., pp. 676, 677. : 

" O earth, O earth I observe this well — 
That earth to earth shall come to dwell i 
Then earth In earth shall clo^e remain 
Till earth fVom earth shall rise again.** 

•• From earth my body first arow ; 
But here to earth again it goes. 
1 never desire to have it more, 
To plague me as it did befbre.** 

P. H. FtSftBft. 

The Colour qflnh in Writings. — My attention 
was called to thig subject some years ago by an 
attempt made in a Judicial proceeding to prove 
that part of a paper produced was written at a 
ditiTerent time than the rest, because part differed 
from the rest in the shade of the ink. The follow- 
ing conclusions have been the result of my ob- 
•ervations upon the subject : 

1. That if the ink of part of a writing Is of a 
dtfierent shade, though of the same colour, fVom 
that of the other parts, we cannot infer fVom that 
droumitanoe alone that the writing was done at 
different times. Ink taken (Vom tne top of an 
Inkitand will be lighter than that fVom the oottom. 
wher« the dregt are : the deeper the pen is dipped 
into Uie ink, the darker the writing will be. 

3. Writing performed with a pen that hai been 
used before, will be darker than that with a new 
pen ; for the dry residuum of the old Ink that is 
encrusted on the used pen will mix with the new 

ink, and make It darker. And ibr the same 

8. Writing with a pen previously used will b« 
darker at first than it is afler the old deposi^ 
having been mixed up with the new ink, is used 
up. M. B. 


Literary /^tfwI/^/tf.-- Has it ever been noticed 
that the well-known epitaph, sometimes assigned 
to Robin of Doncaster, sometimes to Edward 
Courtenay, third Earl of Devon, and I believe to 
others besides : ** What I gave, that I have,** ltc.» 
has been anticipated by, if not imitated fVomi 
Martial, book v. epigr. 4^., of which the last two 
lines are : 

*' Extra fbrtttnam est, quiequld donatur amiels ) 
Quaa dederis, solss semper habebis opes.** 

The English is so much more terse and senten* 
tlous, besides involving a much higher moral si^-^ 
nifioation, that it may well be an original itsclt i, 
but in that caae, the verbal coincidence is striking 
enough. J. S. Wardbm. 

Latin Verses pr^ed to Parish Registers, — On 
a fiy-leaf in one of the registers of the parish of 
Hawsted. Suffolk, Is the following note in the 
handwrittnff of the Hcv. Sir John CuUum, the- 
rector and historian of the parish : 

** Many old register books begin with some Latin 
lines, expressive of their design. The two following, 
in that of St. Saviour's at Norwich, are as good as any 
I have met with i 

< Janua, Baptisms t medio stat T<»dajn$nUs 
Utroque es folix, mort pia si sequltur.* ** 

Can any of your correspondents contribute other 
examples f Buntsifite. 

Napokon's Bees fVol. vil., p. 535.). — No one> 
I believe, having addressed you farther on tha 
subject of the Napoleon Bees, the models of 
which are stated to nave been found in the tomb 
of Childeric when opened in 1653^ '* of the purest 

gold, their wings being inlaid with a red stone., 
ke a cornelian, t beg to mention that the small 
ornaments resembling oees found in the tomb of 
Childeric, were only what in French are called 
Heurons (supposed to have been attached to the 
narness of liis war-horse^. HandfVtls of them 
were found when the tomo was opened at Tour-^ 
nay, and sent to Louis XtV. They were de- 
posited on a green ground at Versailles. 

Napoleon wishing to have some regal emblem 
more ancient than the fleur*de4ys^ adopted the 
fteurfms as bees, and the green ground as the 
original Merovingian colour. 

This fkot was related to me as unquestionable 
by Augustin Thierry, the celebrated historian^ 
wW I was last in Vim, Wn. Ewaxt. 

University Club. 

Jolts. 1853.] 


In the Qaaiierls Review for 18S2 (toL xc. 
Ko. 179.) appeared a clever and speciouslj writ- 
ten article on the long debated question of the 
identity of Juniua, in which the writer labours at 
great length to prove that Thomaa, second Lord 
Ljttelton, nho died in 1779, was the rati sub- 
staace of the shadow of Jmuus, hitherto sought ia 
▼sin. That this Lord LjtteltOD was fully com- 
petent to the task, I do not doubt j and that there 
are^jnanj points in his character which may well 
be reconciled with the knowledge we possess of 
the imaginary Junius, I also admit — but this is 
all. The author of the rsTiew has wholly fiuled, 
in my opinion, to prove his ease ; and the remark 
Le makes on Mr. Britten's theory (as to Col. Barre) 
may equally well apply to his own, namely, that 
it affords "a [another] curious instance of the 
delusion to which ingenious men may resign them- 
selves, when they have a favourite opinion to up- 
hold 1 " The reviewer, indeed, admits that he baa 
"traced the parallel from the scantiest materials;" 
and in auotber passage repeats, that but " few 
materials exist for a sketch of Thomas Lyttelton'a 
life." Of these materials used by the reviewer, 
the principal portion has been derived from the 
twoYolumes of letters published in 1760 and 1782, 
attributed to Lord Lyttelton, bnt the anthorship 
of which has since been claimed for Williun 
Coombe, The reviewer argues, that they are 
■"Bubstantiaily genuine;" but evidence, it is be- 
lieved, exists to the contrary.* According to 
Chalmers, these letters were "publicly disowned" 
■by the executors of Lord Lytlelton ; and this ia 
confirmed by the notice in the Oentleman'a Maga- 
xint for 1780, p. 138., shortly after the publication 
of the first volume. Putting aside, however, this 
moot-point (which, I trust, will he taken up by 
abler hands, jis it bears greatly on the theory ad- 
^-aaced by the author of the Review), I proceed to 
another and more conclusive line of ailment. 
In the Prelimimn/ Eitay, prefixed to Wocdfall's 
edition of Junius, 1812 fvof. i. p. '46.), the follow- 
ing Btatement is made in regard to that writer, 
the accuracy of which will scarcely be doubted : 

■■ The™ 

I point 

3 life 

during hia 

not be nifTeied to pua b? without observation : and 
ttut is, that daring a great part of thit Htm, from Jmti- 
ary HSS to Januaiy 1772, he lalfomlg raided la 
jAmdim, or itt iamaliait VKinify, and that Ae mver 
gnUitd hit itaied habiiatum for a langtr period than a 

. • I huT 

Now, do tie known facts of Thomas Lyttelton's 
life correspond with tiiii striemeot «r not ? The 
reviewer says, p. US. : 

" For a period of three jean after Mr. Ljttelton 
lost his seat" — Ihat period dun'itg whidi Juaivt tn»*r 
hit adntouAedged compotititmi — ve bnnijy find a trvoe 
of him in any of the c«tt«niponuieau> letters or ms- 
miMrs that have f^len under our obserTEtion." 
But how is it, let me ask, that the author of the 
review has so studiouslv avoided all mention of 
one work, which would at once have furnished 
traces of Thomas Lyttelton at this very period P 
I allude to the volume of Poemi by a Young 
Nobleman of diitingyUlied Abilities, Intely dececuBO, 
published b;^ G. Kearsley : London, 17S0, 4to. 
Does not this look much like the aappressio veti 
which follows close on the footsteps of the oraertip 
falsi T It is hardly credible that the reviewer 
should not be acquainted with this book, for he 
refers to the lines spoken in 1765, at Stowe, in the 
character of Queen Mab, which form part of ite 
contents ; and the existence of the work is ex- 
pressly pointed out by Chalmers, and noticed by 
Lowndes, Watt, and other bibliographers. Among 
the poems here published, are some which ongfat 
to have received a prominent notice from Uie 
author of the review, if he had fairly stated tlie 
case. These are : 

1. Lines "to G e Ed d Ays— gh, Esq., 

[George Edward Ayscaugli, cousin to Thomas Lyt- 
telton]Jr™ Veaict, the 20lh Jflii, 1770."— P. 22. 

S. " An Irrc^ul^ Ode, torote ai Ficema, in ilo^, lit 
2CM* of ^i^iui, 1 770."— P. 29. 

3. '■ On Mr. , at Venice, in J- , 1770." 

4. " An Invitation to Mrs. A— a D , moU at 

Ghent in Flanden, the 2Srd of March, 1769." — P. 11. 

5. " An Extempore, by Lord Lyttdton, in Itah/, oimtr 
1770." — P. 48. 

Admitting that these poems ere genuine, it is 
evident that their author, Thomas Lyttelton, w8B 
abroad in Flanders and Ita^ durin» the years 
1769 and 1770; and consequently could not have 
been the mysterious Junius, who in those years 
(particularly in 1769) was writing constantly in 
3r near London to Woodfall and the t^diHc 
AdverttMer. Of what value then is the assertion 
to confidently made by the reviewer (p. 133.) : 

" The position of TTiDnms Ljttelton in the five years 
From IT&7 Co 1779, is exactly aucb a one u it is rw- 
lonable to mppoae thit Junius held during the period 
)f his writings ; " 

jr how can it be made to agree wilh the fact of 
lis residence on the Continent during tJie greater 
jart of the time f 


The rtciewer, indMit, (ellR u« thitt "jiwl ni The sbove Mr. ]taberli wm nn IntlniMe per- 

JuniiM cnnolurled his (treot work, TliomM Ljt- tonjl IVlpnd; niid fVoin Ills Inril inniience «i liniliff 

tellon returned ti> lii« fittlier'f house, nnil OhnlUun ninl deputy -rccni^er nf Itewille;, bail no ihmbt 

«u one of the first tn confTMiluUte Lord Lyl- cimlriliuted towftnls lliuinM Ljtlelton'n return 

telton on the event." Thii wrs in l''ebruBr7 177'i i Tor tlmt borouph in ITiiR. lli« inn continued to 

KuA in the Chatham CorretpoHdenrr, vol.iv. [i. 1B3., keen up a elnw connexion with the Vfljentift rmnily 

Ii Lord Ljttelton'n letter of thtnki in reply. «t Arley Itoll* ; and this fitol, onntited with the 

The reviewer would evidenil* hs»e It Inferred, clone proximity of Hewdley. ArJeyi nod llitglejr, 

thtit TimniRfl Ltttellon had relumed home like A «nd the cii-Dumstnnce of the co-ex ecutorohip of 

prodigal son, niter n temtxirarr cfltritngement, unit Lord Valentia and Mr. Kuberts, would make tu 

iVoiu n coniimratiTet; short distance i but surely, natnr^ly look to the library at Arhr ns a not 

hail tlie volume of Poemi been referred tn, It unlikely place nf dejMwit for llinmBt Lytielton'a 

mlftht or rather mtml have occurred to a candid impera. This is not mere eot\|eciure, anrl brinn 

Inquirer, that in February 1773 Thomas Lyt- me immedialelr to the imtnt at Issue: for, nt the 

telton returned from his irarfli on the CDnHwnlt «ale of the Valentia Lltmtry at Arley Utstle, In 

ttfUr an abgenft of nraHf thref yMm I tlut, per- December last, a manuscript volume maile lis ap- 

haps, the authenticity ol' the Potmt may nt once pearance In a lot with others thus designated ; 

be Wdly denied f Is this the easef Chalmers „n.i-i— i tii... _■■ t i r-r t-^ v.i_„.i.i 

certaiidy'include. them with the 1,(1,,-,, as haring , '?'^^l M „!„12™ n J, „r ll^^J^-nJ 

1 ,,-,. Ill I T 1 I 1 , . . ^ vols. 1 five i»lifnior«nnum Hooss of -Poutnevi ana 

been " disowned by Loril L. ■ executors i but ■i-„,_i. , -i„, 7^.., „u pj.-« i-.j«..u «*■ it^^.^i n_>;. 

•ays, "as to tlie /Vm*, the;y added, ' grenl part pi,ttf." 

KtTtvfare tindimUetllv xpnrwwi' " It Is certain, „,,„,., , , , , 

therefore, that snmc -if the Potm, are genuine ; '^« 1^ ">e fol'o volumes thus patslo^t.ed subse- 

and it is a pity that the exceiiHons were not spe- H"*"*'; '••'"e into my ham^ an. I Is evi.lcnilv one 

cified, as tlie disciiPsion might then have bUn ofthe mnnuscrliUslellby Ih.miasLordLyituliona 

confined within narrower limlls. The editor of "•'• J" the care of Mr. Uobertc, smce it consista 

the iVms. in his address " To the Header," writes 'V*'>"J of pieces In terse and prose of his conipo- 

thus in vindicaiion of them : *'^'"'' ^'^'ten either m A„ mm Aonrf, ns rough 

4™ ,„, b., ir^""^;;^^;.-:;";,''';,;;-;;-; p«,, i„ ,1,1, m i «n,i S,. A; ,., i .;. 

».»»«.».^«i fciti. «» xf. t.^ i^^.^ '""ft poem printed In the edition nf liSO, p, 1., 

.™, ,., .,;.,nK* ™*« ..^M-nS «lf'l.^i\- «•>• .r E«.i.";i In .!» I.™- > W 

«.. «iun..i«l. ihnt B..KO-. ftnrf.rtfoflt tnwM ft. fnn.- «"'«" <" •" .Ute in the MH,, but in itie etit- 

rfi.r./v <irtfrif^,' tiiin beara ilnle Mnirh 21, IT7I i nn lik<!ivi«e th. 

TbH is <b? te.timnny nf one wbo "hml tbe «,i,i„u .„™-... u .i,- Mu ^:.{..,..i .... . .hJ 

h.n™ii- »r hi> IHenMnp, -MA Wmto.le.l only S'VfE™! !..„ i. «il Ti' 

W, o.n ronriellon !■ In fatotir of 8.. .{ntSnllolt. fk. „i „?, ' v!jj° i.™ ' 5 £ i K w 

ofii,. .boi. , lint, .1 .11 .™,i^ 1 .i,.ii b. .bit li ;• "X" °/„ y."^;, ,i;fr?: . 1 ' " I Ki; 

..... „r .t I . .„ 1 . 1 ii.t ....I »,. .r .1... .b. omlttwl In tlie ei iHon on woouni of tbeir imle- 

w.rt If tbe Tobinie, .ml mlilitlon.l proof th.t the ,.„„, 'n..« .» ....») , 1..!..^. t« .).. ...... 

Intlior ».. .lit«.r.l tke lireel.e time .h.n, If S'- ,iS"™.r,w il. J .1.1; 1™ ™ 

William rienry Lor.1 Westeole. and Wilson Ayies- '*"* »''« «*''''*^ ^«"t«'"'» "^ "''* "'<"»'«^'-'l'» ""'"'"e = 
bury llnberts of Hewdley. To the Utter he let) all Dntnahia of (bur leiicts rrittn hg nomni Ls^rt- 

hts " letters, verses, speeches, and writings," with W" /'«« Lfw, ihijtm i^nMrh u rfsM i^cpirmlirr m, 

directions that, If published. It should be for his l^ns. 

able emolument, llie Imiiortant Query therefore I'«"'« "' " •"'" "f Dinlopin. In liniWIlon of 

«t mice arises, «Aal btf«mt of Oieu maniucripit, " i«jl«g«" of 'he Dead." b, M, milicr (teorsp. first 

■°^"^' ^-» *rtn,erforpr.«n.^^^ "-"^tWi^U^ts. Imitated tVom Lu,«llu. 

" In thePflH(r.^rfpfr(inTlbt Januiirv 1, |JJ9[IT90], 

apu^s red ■ notice oniie /Wmi, until tohavr linn "pub- * The eiitale at Arlev was IvR to the llun. Geotf* 

lt*liedynt?rdaf •"■udalltiouiili lwo|iieTessree*traet«il Anneslcy (afterwards Karl of MminiumiU), son i^ 

at let>Kth, not a sillable of doubt li eiprwed •> to Lord Vilenila, bj iht will of HiomH Lotil Lytullodi 

their gentibiFiieH. and Mr. lloberts was oue of th« Irualen ippidnled. 

JiTLT 9. 1853.] 



Tito letters addressed by Thoinu Lytlelton to hia 
father ; and a third to " Dear George," probabi; bis 

cousin Geo^e EdiraTd Ayscaugh. 

Some Latin lines, not remarkable fbr their deli- 

Folillcal letter, airiHm /ram Jfifan, by Thomas 
Lyttelton ; in which indignant notice is taken of the 
eommilal of Brass Crossby, Lord Major, which too* 
plate in March, 1771. 

Fragment of a poem on Superstition, and Tarious 
other unfinished poetical scraps. 

Private memoranda of cipenses. 

A page of writing in a fictitious or short-hand 
character, of ntiich I can make nothing. 

Remarks, in prose, on the polypus, priestcraft, &o. 

Poem in French, of an amatory character. 

Portion of a remarkable polilical letter, containing 
■ome bitter remarks by llioaias LytteltOB on the 
"first minister." He ends thus: "The play now 
draws to a conclusion. I am guilty of a breach of 
trust in telling him so, but I shall [not] suffer by my 
indiscretion, for it is au absolute itn possibility any 
man should divine who Is the author of thi letter 
ugned AnusFEX." 

It would appear from tbe water-mark in the 
paper of wliich this MS. is composed, that it waa 
procured in Italy ; and there can be little or no 
doubt it was used by Thomas Lyttelton as a 
draught-hook, during his travels there in 1769 — 
1771 ; during which period, nearly the whole of 
the contents seem to have heen written. The 
evidence afforded therefore by diis volume, comes 
peculiarly in support of the datea and other cir- 
cuuistanoea put forth in the printed volume of 
Poeins; and leads ns inevitably to the conclusion, 
that it was utterly impossible for Thomas LyttelUm 
to haee had any share in the Letters of Junius. H6 
Las enough to answer for on the score of his early 
profligacy and scepticism, without being dragged 
from the grave to be arraigned for the crime of 
deceit. Hia heart need not, according to the re- 
viewer, be " stripped hare" by the scalpel of any 
literary anatomist; but he may be leU to that 
quiet and oblivion which a sepulchre in general 
bestows. Before I conclude these remarks (which 
I fear are too diffuse), I will venture to add a few 
words in regard to the signature of Thomas Lord 
Lyttelton. In the Chatham Correspondence, a 
letter from him to Earl Temple is printed, vol. iv. 
p. 343., the sionature to which is printed Ltt- 
TLETOK, and the editors point out in a note the 
" alteration adopted" in the spelling of the name ; 
but it is altogether an error, for the fac-simlle of 
this sijrnature in vol. iv. p. 29., as well as his will 
in the Prerogative Court, prove that he wrote hia 
name Lyttelion, in the same manner as his father 
and uncle. As to the resemblance pointed out by 
the author of the Remeta between the handwrit- 
ing; of Thomas Lyttelton and that of Junius, it 
exists only in imagination, since there is really no 
BuniUtude whatever betweoi tiiem. 

Some Queries are now annexed, in reference to 
what has been above discussed : 

1. In what publication or in what form did the 
executors of Thomas Lord Lyttelton disown the 
Letters and Poems ? 

2. Is it known who was the editor of the Poenu 
published in 1780? 

3. Can the present representadve of the family 
of Roberts give any farther information respecting 
Thomas Lord Ljttelton's manuscripts P 

4. Lastly, Is any letter tnown to exist in tha 
public journals of the years 1770, 1771, under the 
signature of ABCapEx? F. Maddxs. 

British Museum. 

Lord CAafAam. — I would suggest as a Query, 
whether Lord Chatham's famous comparison of the 
Fox and Newcastle ministry to the confluence of 
the Khone and Saono at Lyons (Speech, Nov, 13, 
1755), waa not adapted fi'om a passage in Lord. 
Roscommon's Essay on translated Verse. Possibly 
Lord Chatham may have merely quoted the lines 
of Roac;ommon, and reporters may have converted 
his quotation into prose. Lord Chatham (then of 
course Mr. Pitt) is represented to have said : 

" I remember at Lyoni to haie been carried to the 
eonflui of the Rhone and the Soane : the one a gentle, 
feeble, languid stream, and, though languid, of no 
depth ; the other, a boisterous and impetiiout torrent." 

Lord Roscommon says : 

'• Thus iave I sua a rapid headlong tide. 
With foaming vaves the pas^ve Saone divide 
Whose lazy waters without motion lay. 
While be, with eager tbree, urg'd his impttimut way." 
W. EwAitr. 
University Club. 

Slow-worm Superslition. — <kiuld any of your 
correspondents kindly inform me whether there is 
any foundation for tfie superstition, that if a slow- 
worm be divided into two or more parts, those 
parts will continue to live till sunset (life I snp- 
pose to mean that tremulous motion which the 
divided parts, for some time after the cruel ope- 
ration, continue to have), and whether it exists in 
any other country or county beades Sussex, in 
which county I first heard of it ? Towbb. 

Tan^iers (Tol, vli., p. 12.). — I have not seen 
any opinion as to these Queries. A. C. 

Snail Gardens. — What are the continental en- 
closures called snfdl gardens ? C. M. T. 

Naples and the Campa^na Felice. — Who wiia 
the author of letters bearing this title, which uri- 



[N<x 193: 

ginftllj appeared in Ackermann's Reponiory, and 
were published in a collected form in 1815 ? 

In a catalogue (^ Jno. Miller^s (April, 1853), I 
see tliem attributed to Combe. Q. 


" The Land of Green Ginger ^^ — the name of a 
street in Hull. Can any of your correspondents 
inform me why so called ? K. H. B. 

Mugger. — Why are the gipsies in the North of 
England called Muggers f Is it because they sell 
mugs, and other articles of crockery, that in fact 
being their general vocation 'r* or may not the word 
be a corruption of Maghraibee^ which is, I think, a 
foreign name given to this wandering race ? 

H. T. Riley. 

Snail-eating. — Can any of your correspondents 
inform me in what part of Surrey a breed of large 
white snails is still to be found, the first of which 
were brought to this country from Italy, by a 
member, I think, of the Arundel family, to gratify 
the palate of his wife, an Italian lady ? I have 
searched Britton and Brayley's History in vain. 

H. T. RttET. 

Mysterious PersoTtage, — Who is the mysterious 
personage, what is h^ real or assumed lineage, 
who has, not unfrequently, been alluded to in 
recent newspaper articles as a legitimate Roman 
Catholic claimant of the English throne? Of 
course I do not allude to those pseudo-Stnarts, the 
brothers Hay Allan. W. Pinkekton. 

George Wood of Chester: — Of what family was 
George Wood, Esq., Justice of Chester in the first 
year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 1558 ? 


A Scale of Vowel Sounds. — Can any correspon- 
dent tell me if such scale has anywhere been 
agreed on for sdentj^c purposes ? Researches into 
the philosophy of philology are rendered exces- 
avely complex by the want of such a scale, every 
different inquirer adopting a peculiar notation, 
which is a study in itself, and which, after all, is 
unsatisfactory. I should feel obliged by any re- 
fierence to what has been done in thb matter. 


Seven Oaks and Nine Elms. — Can any reader 
of " N. & Q." inform me whether there is any old 
custom or superstition connected with Seven Oaks 
and Nine Elms, even to be traced as far back as 
the time of the Druids ? 

In some old grounds in Warwickshire there is a 
drcle of nine old elm- trees ; and, besides the well- 
known Nine Elms at Vauxhall, and Seven Oaks 
in Kent, there are several other places of the same 
names in England. J. S. A. 

Old Broad Street. 

Murder of Monaldeschi. — I will thank snyof 
your correspondents who can ^ive me an account 
of the murder of Monaldeschi, equerry to Chris- 
tina, Queen of Sweden. 

In the 2nd volume of Miss Pardoe's Louis XIV. 
(p. 177.), Christina is stated to have visited the 
Court of France, and housed at Fontainebleau, 
where she had not long been an inmate ere the 
tragedy of Monaldeschi took place ; and in a letter 
to Mazarin she says, " Those who acquainted, you 
with the details regarding Monaldeschi were very 
iU-informed." T. C, T. 

Governor Dameram, — I should be glad of any 
particulars respecting the above, who was Go- 
vernor of Canada (I think) about the commence- 
ment of the present century. He had previously 
been the head of the commissariat department in 
the continental expeditions. Tes Bmb. 

Ancient Arms of the See of York. — Can any cor- 
respondent enlighten me as to the period, and 
why, the present arms were substituted for the 
ancient bearings of York ? The modern coat is, 
Gu. two keys in saltire arg., in chief an imperial 
crown proper. The ancient coat was blazoned, 
Az. an episcopal staff* in pale or, and ensicrned 
with a cross patee arg., surmounted by a pail of 
the last, edged and fringed of the second, cnarged 
with six crosses formce fitchee sa., and diiSered 
only from that of Canterbury in the number of 
crosses formee fitchee with which the pall was 
charged. Tee Bes. 

Hupfeld, — Can any correspondent of "N. & Q." 
tell me where I can see Hupfeld, Von der Naiwr 
lind den Arten der SprachlaiUe, which is quoted by 
several German authors ? It appeared m Jahn 8 
Jahrh. der PhiloL und Pdd.^ 1829. If no corre- 
spondent can refer me to any place where the 
paper can be seen in London, perhaps they can 
direct me to some account of its substance in some 
English publication. £. G. 

Inscription on a Tomb in Finland. — Can any 
reader of " N. & Q." explain the meaning of th0 
following inscription ? 



IV " 

It appears on an old monument of considerable 
size in a Finnish burial-ground at Martishkin near 
Peterhofi'on the Gulf of Finland. The letters are 
in brass on a stone slab. The dots before the iv.^ 
and in the other word, are holes in the stone where- 
in the missing characters had been fixed. 

«r« s. A«- 

Old Broad Street 

Sir Isaac Newton and VdUaxre on Bailway Trm* 
veiling. — Having been forciblj impressed b^ a 

July 9. 1853.] 



paragraph in a popular periodical {The Leisure 
Hour^ Ko. 72.)9 I am desirous of learning upon 
irhat authority the statements therein depend. 
As, perhaps, it may also prove interesting to some 
of the readers of ** N. & Q." who may not already 
have seen it, and in the hope Uiat some of your 
•contributors may be able to throw a light upon so 
^curious a subject, I herewith transcribe it: 

**Sir Isaac Newton and Voltaire on Railway Travdling. 

— Sir Isaac Newton wrote a work upon the prophet 
Daniel, and another upon the book of Revelation, in 
one of which he said that in order to fulfil certain pro- 
phecies before a certain date was terminated, namely, 
1260 years, there would be a mode of travelling of 
which the men of his time had no conception ; nay, 
that the knowledge of mankind would be so increased, 
that they would be able to travel at the rate of fifty 
miles an hour. Voltaire, who did not believe in the 
inspiration of the scriptures, got hold of this, and said: 
•* Now look at that mighty mind of Newton, who dis- 
covered gravity, and told us such marvels for us all to 

-admire. When he became an old man, and got into 
his dotage, he began to study that book called the 
Bible ; and it seems, that in order to credit its fabulous 
nonsense, we must believe that the knowledge of man- 
Icind will be so increased that we shall be able to travel 
at the rate of fifty miles an hour. The poor dotard ! ' 
•exclaimed the philosophic infidel Voltaire, in the self- 
complacency of his pity. But who is the dotard now ? 

— Rev, J, Craig,'' 

The Query I would more particularly ask is 
^presuming the accuracy of the assertions), What 
is the prophecy so wonderfully fulfilled ? R. W. 

Tom Thumb's House at Oonerhy, Lincolnshire, — 
On the south-west side of the tower of the church 
of Great Gonerby, Lincolnshire, is a curious cor- 
nice representing a house with a door in the 
<jentre, an oriel window, &c., which is popularly 
called "Tom Thumb's Castle." I have a small 
-engraving of it (" W. T. del. 1820, R. R. sculpt.") : 
and a pencil states that on the same tower are 
other " curious carvings." 

I would ask, therefore. Why carved? From 
"what event or occasion? For whom? Why 
■called "Tom Thumb's House?" And what are 
the other curious carvings ? G. Creed. 

Mr, Payne Collier's Monovolume Shakspeare, — 
I should be extremely obliged to Mb. Collier, if 
he would kindly give me a public reply to the fol- 
lowing question. 

The express terms of the publication of his 
monovolume edition of Shakspeaxe, as advertised, 
were — 

" The text regulated by the <M copies, and by the 
recently discovered foUo of 1632." 

These terms manifestly exclude corrections from 
any other source that those of coUaiian of the old 
cQpies^ and tbeilif^. correcfim of the fi>lio of 1632. 

Now the text of Mb. Collibb*8 monovolume 
reprint contains many of the emendations of the 
commentators not referred ta in Notes and Emend* 
ations. For example : in The Taming of the Shrew^ 
where Biondello runs in to announce the coming 
down the hill of the " ancient ansel " (chansed by 
the corrector into ambler), two other alterations in 
the same sentence appear without explanation in 
the regulated text, namely, mercatante substituted 
by Steevens for "marcantant" of the folios; and 
surely in lieu of " surly," which latter is the word 
of the folio of 16S2, 

I now ask Mr. Collier, on what authority were 
these emendations adopted ? 

C. Mansfield Inglbbt* 



(Vol. vii., pp. 175. 233.) 

Perhaps the following may prove of some use te 
Enivri, m reply to his Query respecting the names 
of certain wild flowers. 

1. Shepherd's Purse (Bursa pastoris). " Sic 
diet, a folliculis seminum, qui crumenulam referre 
videntur." Also called Poor Man's Parmacitty, 
" Quia ad contuses et casu afflictos instar sper* 
matis ceti utile est." Also St. James's Wort, 
" Quia circa ejus festum florescit," July 28th. 
Also called Pick-purse. 

2. Eye-bright, according to Skinner {Euphra* 
sia\ Teut. Augentrost ; " Oculorum solamen, quia 
visum eximie acuit." Fluellin (Veronica femina)^ 
" Forte a Leolino aliquo Cambro-Brit. ejus inven- 

3. Pass Wort, or Palsy Wort (Primula veris). 
" Herba paralyseos." 

4. Guelder Kose (Sanibucu^osea), "Quia ex 
Gueldrid hue translata est." flmeldria is, or rather 
was, a colony, founded by the Hollanders, on the 
coast of Coromandel. 

5. Ladies' Tresses, a corruption of traces, A 
kind of orchis, and used, with its various appel- 
lations, " sensu obsc." 

6. The Kentish term Gazel is not improbably 
the same as Gale, which. Skinner says, is from the 
A.-S. Gagel (Myrtus brabantica'), 

7. Stitch Wort (Gramen leucanthemum, aliaa^ 
Hohstium pumUum), " Sic diet, quia ad dolores 
laterum punctorios multum prodesse creditur." 

8. The term Knappert, for Bitter Vetch, is pro- 
bably a corruption of Knap Wort, the first syl- 
lable of which, as in ICnap W eed and Knap Bottle^ 
is derived from the sound or snap emitted by it 
when struck in the hollow of the hand. 

9. Charlock (Rapum sylvestre); Anglo-Saxon 



[No. 193. 

10. London Pride or Tufts (Armeria proliftra). 
" Sic diet, quia flfres propter pulcbritudinem 
Londtoi vald£ expetuntur." (P) 

11. Arens; also HerbBennet QCaryophj/Sata). 
Skinner says, " Herba Benedicta ab inaignt radios 
vulDerariS vi." (?) 

12. Mill Mountain, or Pur^e Flax (Zinum sj/l- 
vettre catharlicunt, or Chamalinum). " Montibua 

13. Jack of tbe Buttery. "Sedi ipecie^; sic 
diet, quia in tecto galacterii cresc'it." Pricket ; " a 
Bapore acri." 

14. Cudweed or Cotton Weed ; Live-long, 
" Quia planta perennis est." 

15. Sun Spurge. " Quia flores ad ortum soils 
se aperiunt." Churn Staff, from ita similarity. 

16. Welcome to our House {Titkymaliis Cypa- 
ruaiaa). " Ob pulcbritudinem suam omnibus ex- 

IT. Kuddes {Fl. Calendulti). "Acolore aureo." 
Wild or Cora Marigold. "Q. d. aurum Marite, 
a colore so. floria luteo." Glouls or Goulans, with 
& half-suppressed d, may Tery well be supposed to 
indicate ita natural name — Gold. Anotner name 
of this plant ia Lockron, or Locker Goulans. 

18. Sparry (Spergula). " Sio diet, quia folia 
ejus,octo, angusta, stelliformio, radios calcaris satis 
exacte referunt." 

19. Mercury (Joose-foot. Probably a gooae-foot 
resembling Mercury (Mercurialis), a herb con- 
cerningwhich Skinner doubts, but suggests, " Quia 
Mercurio, tit ceteree omnea plantEe pbinetis, appro- 
priata sit." Another name is Good Henry, — I find 
notOoodffing- Henry — (Lapatkum utictmium), "A 
commodo ejus usu in enemalis." It is also called 
All-good, forasmuch aa it is useful, not only for Its 
roedicioal qualities, but also in supplying the table 
with a substitute for other vegetables, such as 

A plant termed in this country Gang Flower Is 
tbe sam^ as Ro^rati^^ Flower, recalling the peram- 
bulation of parishes on one of those days. There 
is a vast fund of interesting matter in tliose old 
names of wild flowers (mixed up, of course, with 
much that is trifling) ; and I cordially agree with 
your correspondent, that it is well worth a steady 
efibrt to rescue the fast-fading traditions relating 
to thent. It must be confessed, however, that the 
obstacles in the way of tracing the original mean- 
ing and supposed virtues, will in many instances 
te found very great, arising principally from the 
&nciful translations and corruptions which our 
ancestors made of the old names. Take, for in- 
stance, the following : 

Loose Strife or Herb Willow, from Lt/timachia, 
the original being undoubtedly a man's name, 

Ale-hoof (Hedera terrestris). Anglo-Saxon Al 
hehdjian. " Herba it&-/xpti<rros, ad mi5(<}B osua effi- 

Herb Ambrose has a Greek origin, finSporoi, and 
ia not indebted to the saint of that name. 

Corafrey or Cumfrey. " Herba vulnera confer- 
nmdnam ;" good for joining the edges of a 
wound. ■ 

Calathian Violets. Simply cupped violets, from 

Brank Ursin (AcanOmt). " It, brancba, ungai» 

Blood Strange ; properly. String. To stanch. 

Bertram. A corruption oinipiBfor {Pyrethrum). 

Spreusidany, Hair-strong, Sulphur Wort. Cor- 
rupted from Peucedanum. 

Pell-a-mountain, Wild Thyme. From Serpjfl' 
lum montanum. 

Faceless. From Phaseolus, dim. of Phoielus; s» 
called from its shallop shape. 

Stick-a-dove, French Lavender, From uroixir, 
ffTDixifloi, Strechas; so called Irom the irregularity of 
the petals. 

Such instances might be multiplied to almost 

There is, doubtleaa, a good deal of scattered in- 
formation respecting old English wild (lowers to 
be met with, not only in books, but also among 
our rural population, stored up by village sages. 
Contributions of this description would surely bo 
welcome in "N. & Q." ^^ ^ ~ 

Rectory, Hereford. 

I surely b 
H. C. B 

curious, and I believe rather scarce, pharmacopoeia 
by Wm. Salmon, date 1693, I find some 414 pagei 
devoted to their uaea. This pharmacopceia, or Coin, 
pleat EagluK Phy^cian, was dedicateil to Mary, 
second Queen of England, Scotland, France, Ire- 
land, &c., and appears to have been the first. The 
preface says " it was the first of that kind extant 
in the world, a subject for which we have no pre- 

" I have not trusted," he says, "to the reports of 

most things therein ; and it is nothing but what I 
knov and have learnt bj daily eiperlence fur tliirtj 
years together, so that my prescriptions may in some 
measure plead a priiilege ahove the performances of 

1. Capaella (Sursa pasioria) he describes as cold 
1°, and dry in 2", binding and astringent. Good 
against spitting of blood or bfcmorrhage of thfr 
nose, and other fluxes of the bowels. The leaves, 
of which 3j, in powder may be given. The juice 
inspissate, drunk with mine, helps ague. A cata- 
plasm applied in inflammations, Anthony's fire, 
&C-, represses them. 

2, Verotiica Chamadrys he calls Euphrasia, 
Eupkrommee, and says it is much commended by 
Arnoldus de Villa Nova, who asserts that it not 
only helps dimness of tbe sight, but tbe use of it 

Jttlt 9. 1853.] NOTES AND QUEUrES. 87 

makea old men to read small letters without spec- 1659, in which he spells his nune with an e in- 

tacles, who coutd scarcely read great letters with stead of a, which seems to have been altered to an 

spectacles before ; but that it did restore their a by his son Jacob. ■ 

sight who had been a long tJnie blind. Truly a Li Vertummit it says Bobart's Horiiu Sicetu 

most wonderful plant ; and, if be Ireely used it, wa» in twenty volumes ; but the Oxford Bolamo 

must hare been a great drawback to spectacle- Garden (hade only mentions twdve ^uairto to- 

makers. Inmes : which is correct, and where is it? In 

3. Primida veria, he says, moreproperly belongs one of my copies of Vertummu, a scrap of paper is 
to the primrose than cowslip. The root is hau- fixed to p. 29., and the following is written upon 
matic, and helps paina in the back. The herb is it: 

cephalic, neurotic, and artbritio. The juice or •■ The Hortus SImus here alluded to whs sold at the 

essence, with spirits of wine, stops all manner of Rer. Mr. Hodgklaaon's ale at SarBden, to Mrs. De 

fluxes, is excellent against palsy, gout, and pains, Salis, wife of Dr. De Salis.' 

and dUwmpers of the nerves and joints. A cata- j, ^,^3^ pedigree of the family P 

plasm of the juice, with rye mea^ is good against i„ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ g^^. Kay's to Mi. Aubrey is the 

luxations and ruptures. JChe flowers are good foiicing ■ 

asainst palsr. numbness, convulsions, and cramps, _ 

biing gfven in a sulphurous or 9 saline Unctu!^e . "^ ""B'"^ **■"' Mr. Bobart hath been so d.hgent 

or an oily tincture, or an essence of the juice with '" °''«""'K "^^ ■"«>""« » <»llect»>n of .osecu." 

spirits ot wine. The juice of the flowers, or an Is there any coilecljon extant? 

ointment of the ^ouier or its juice, cleanses the » He may give me much assbunce in my intended 

skin from spots, though the worthy old physician SynopHs of our English Animals, and contribute much 

only gives a receipt for making essence as follows : to the perfecting of it." 

Beat the whole plant well in a mortar ; add to it -j-jjj he do so P 

an equal quantity of brandy or spirits of wine ;- j^ ^^ .„^ ^j. ^[^ j ^^ b^j,^^^^ ^ j^^ g;. 

dose up tight m alarge bolt-head, aod set 't to j^^^^^^j,^ , 

digest in a very gentle sand-beat for three mooths. y^^ j -^ . ^ ^j ^ Loggan 

Stram out all the liquor, which close up ma bolt- 3,, g ^.^ J^ p ^ij^P , -^ ^ portrait of j!^b 

head .^ain, and digest in a gentle sand-heat for g^t^j %^ „^ j^ q^j-^^ AlTnaiu^k for 

two months more. Rather a troublesome and 1719. can I procure it? H.T.Bobaet. 

slow process this. "^ 

4. Geum tirbanum he calla Caryopkyltata, Herba " 
imedicta, and Geitm Plinii, and should be gathered, ■ hekaxhic qubbies. 
be says, in the middle of March, for then it smells ^ . .. .^. . 
sweetest, and is most aromatic. Hot and dry in" . . ''^"'' P ■* 

the 2", binding, strengthening, dbcussive, cepba- Cetbep is informed, 1st, That a shield in the 
lie, neurotic, and cardiac. Is a good preservative ''* form of a lozenge was appropriated exclusively to 
against epidemic and contagious disease; helps ■( females, both spinsters and widows, in order to 
digestion. The powder of the root, dose JJ. The Bdistinguish the sex of the bearer of a coat of arms, 
decoction, in wine, stops spitting of blood, dose Jss m^^ '' "^^ doubtful origin, though supposed, from the 
to 5JBs. The saline tincture opens all obstructions iS^orm, to symbolise the spindle with yarn wound 
of the viscera, dose Jj to ^iij. ^'*"''"' '' ' of gf^d authority, and not of very modern 

Should Enivbi wish to know the medical virtues fjdate. Many instances may be seen in I'uUer, in 
of our wild plants, I have no doubt but that this the coata of arms appended to the dedications of 
worthy old physician will tell him what virtues the various chapters of his Church History. In 
they were considered to pogsesa in his day, at least sect, ii, book vi. p. 282. ed. 1655, he has separated 
by himself; and I can assure him that 1195 of the the coats of man and wife, and placed them aide by 
English Physician's pages ascribe marvellous pro-*«ide; that of the latter upon a lozenge- shaped 
parties, not only to plants, but to anunals, fiah, and ^shield — Party per pale arg, and gules, two eagles 
even the honea of a stag's heart. E, J. Shaw, diaplaved, counteruhanged. 

K 2ndly, No one has a right to inscribe a motto 

' : upon a garter or riband, except those dignified 

JACOB BOBABT With one of the various orders of knighthood, For 

„^ , „ i- \ ""y other person to do so, is a siUy assumption. 

(Vol, vii., pp.428, 578.) jhe motto ahouldbe upon a scroll, either over the 

I am exceedingly obliged for the information crest, or beneath the shield. 

afforded by D&.E. F,Riubaui.t concerning the _ Srdly, I cannot find that it was ever the CQstom 

Sobarts. Can he give me any more communication ■" this country for ecclesiastics to bear their pa- 

Oncemiiu; them ? I am annous to learn all I can. temal coat on an oval or circular shield. For- 

Ihave old Jacob Bobart's signature, bearing date Ridden, as they were, by the first council of Mas- 



[No. IS 

«on, Bingham, vi. 421., in the I/xcerptions of 
Ec^bright, a.d. 740, Item 1^4., and the Consti- 
tutions of Othobon^ a.d. 1268, can. 4^ to bear 
jams for the purposes of warfare, it is a question 
whether any below the episcopal order ought, in 
strict right) to display any armorial ensigns at alL 
Archbishops and bishops bear the arms of th^ 
aees impaled (as of their spouse) with their own 
paternal coats ; the latter probably only in right of 
their baronies. It is worthy of remark that, since 
the Reformation, and consequent marriage of 
bishops, there has been no official decision as to 
the bearing the arms of their wives, nor has any 
precedence been granted to the latter. H. C. K. 
■ Rectory, Herrford. 


(Vol. vii., pp. 23. 190. 585.) 

A few years ago I copied the following inscrip- 
tion from over the door of the residence of a parish 
priest at Cologne : 

" Protege Deus parochiam banc propter 
Te et S.S. tuum, sieut protexisti 
Jerusalem propter Te et David servum 
tuum. IV Reg. xx. 6. 

A.D. 1787.** 

From the gateway leading into the Villa 
Borghese, just outside of the "rorta del Fopolo," 
At Rome, 1 copied the following : 

" Villae Burghesise Pincianae 

Custos haec edico. 

QuisquLs es, si liber 

legum compedes ne hie timeas. 

Ite quo voles^ carpite quae voles, 

Abite quando voles. 

Exteris magis haec parantur 

quam hero. 

[ In aureo saeculo ubi cuncta aurea, 

temporum securitas fecit 

bene morato : 

Hospiti ferreas leges prsefigere 

herus vetat. 

Sit hie pro amico, pro lege 

honesta voluntas. 

Verum si quis dolo malo, lubens, sciens 

aureas urbanitatis leges fregerit. 

Caveat ne sibi 

Tesseram amicitiae subiratus villicus 

advorsum frangat.*' 

On the entrance into the Villa Medici are the 
two following : 

'* Aditurus hortos hospes, in 
summo ut vides 
coUe hortulorum consitos, 

si forte quid 
audes probare, scire debes 

ho8 hero 

herique amicis ease apertos 


** Ingressurus hospes bosce quoa 
instruxit hortos sumptibus 

suis Medices 

Femandus expleare viseudo 


atque his fruendo plura 

Velle nondecet." 

The following I copied from a gateway leadii 
into a vineyard near the church of San £usebi 
at Rome : 

** Tria sunt mirabilia ; 
Trinus et unus, 
Deus et homo, 
Virgo et mater." 



(Vol. vii., pp. 407. 480.) 

I forward the accompanying observations on tl 
origin of the Rosa d'Oro, in compliance with ti 
request contained at page 480. of the 185th N 
of " N. & Q.," in case they should not have con 
under your observation. They are to be found i 
Histoire de Lorraine^ par R. P. Dom. Calmel 
Nancy, 1745. 

<* Le troisieme monastdre fonde par les parens < 
St Leon est PAbbaye de Volfenheim, a deux lieues ( 
Colmar, vers le Midi, et a deux lieues environs d'Ege 
heim, chateau des Comtes de Dasbourg, aujourdiii 
(1745) inhabite, mais bien remarquable par ces vast« 
ruines, sur le sommet des montagnes qui dominent si 
r Alsace. 

** Volfenheim etoit un village considerable, a une liev 
et demi de Colmar. On voie encore aujourd*hiii a uz 
demi lieue de Sainte Croix dans les champs, T^glise qi 
lui servoit autrefois de paroisse. L*abbaye ^toit 
quelque distance de la, au lieu oii est aujourd'hui 1 
bourg de Sainte Croix. 

" Volfenheim ay ant ^toit [ Qu<sre, 6te] ruin^ par li 
guerres, les habitans se sont insensiblanent ^tabli 
autour de Tabbaye, ce qui a form^ un bon bourg, conn 
sous le nom de Sainte Croix ; parceque Tabbaye ^toi 
consacree sous cette invocation. Le Pape Leon IX 
dans la BuUe qu*il donna a ce monast^re la premiei 
annde de son pontificat, de J. C. 1049, nous appr^i 
qu*il avoit ete fonde par son pere Hughes et sa m^ 
Heilioilgdis, et ses freres Gerard et Hugues, qui 6toiei 
deja decedes ; il ajoute que ce lieu lui etoit tomb6 pi 
droit de succession ; il le met sous la protection sp^uJ 
du Saint Siege, en sorte que nulle personne, de qnetqu 
qualite qu'elle solt, n'y exerce aucune autorit^, xnai 
qu*il jouisse d*une pleine liberty, et que Tabbesse et Ic 
religieuses puissent employer quelque eveque ils jugc 
roient apropos pour les benedictions d'autels, et autre 
fonctions qui regardent le tninist^re episcopal : que so 
neveu, le Comte Henri Seigneur d'Egesbeim, en soi 
la voile, et apr^s lui, I'aine des Seigneurs fl*£gesh«i 
a perp6tuit& 

*' Que si cette race vient a manquer, rabbesse at ] 
convent choisiront quelque autre de la parool^ da ^ 

July 9. 1853.] 



seigneurs^ afiir que I'avoeatie ne soit pas de ]eur race^ 
«t qu'apres la mort de Koentza, qui en etoit abbesse, 
ct k qui le Pape avoit donne Is bien^dlctioa abbatiale, 
les religieuses choisissent de leur communaut^ ou 
d^aiUeurs, celle qui leur paroitra la plus propre, re- 
servant toujours au Pape le droit de la b6nir. £t en 
Teconnaissance d'un privilege si singulier, I'abbesse 
donnera tous les ans au Saint Si^ge une Rose d*Or du 
poids de deux onces Romaines. £lle Penvoyera toute 
faite, ou en envoyera la matiere prepar^e, de telle sorte 
qu'elle soit rendue au Pape huit jours auparavant qu'il 
la porte, c^est-a-dire, le Dimanebe de Careme, 06 Ton 
ofaante k Tlntroite, * Oculi niei semper ad Dominum ;' 
afin qu'il puisse benir au Dimanebe *■ Laetare/ qui est 
le quatrieme du Careme. Telle est Torigiue de la 
£ose d*Or, que le Pape benit encore aujourd'bui le 
quatrieme Dimanebe de Careme, nomm^ ' Laetare,* et 
qu'il envoye a quelque prince pour marque d'estime 
et de bienveillance. Ce jour-la, la station se fait k 
Sainte Croix de Jerusalem. Le Pape, accompague des 
cardinaux, vetus de couleur de rose, marche en caval- 
cade k I'eglise, tenant la Rose d'Or a la main. II la 
porte, allant a I'autel, cbarg^ de baume et de mare. II 
ia quitte au ' Coniiteor,' et la reprend apres ^Tlntroite.' 
II en fait la Benediction, et apres I'Evangile, il monte 
«n chaise et explique les proprietes de la rose. Apres 
la Messe il retourne en cavalcade a son palais, ayant 
toujours la Rose en main et la couronne sur la tete. On 
appelle ce Dimanebe ' Pascba rosata,' ou ' Laetare.* 

" Nous avons encore un sermon du Pape Inno- 
cent III., compose en cette occasion, au commence- 
ment du treizieme siecle. Le Pape Nicholas IV., en 
1290, dans le denombremeot qu'il fait des 6glises 
qui doivent des redevances a Teglise de Rome, met le 
monastere de Sainte Croix, diocese de Basle, qui doit 
cleux onces d'or pour la Rose d'Or, qui se benit au 
Dimanebe Laetere, Jerusalem." 

P. P. P. 


O^ol. ii., p. 130. ; Vol. vi., p. 177. —Vol. iii., p. 490.; 
Vol vi., pp. 42. 147.) 

Loskiel, in his account of the Moravian missions 
to the North American Indians *, tells us that, — 

" The Indians are remarkably skilled in curing the 
bite of venomous serpents, and have found a medicine 
peculiarly adapted to the bite of each species. For 
example, the leaf of the Rattlesnake-root {PoJygala 
senega) is the most efficacious remedy against the bite 
of this dreadful animal. God has mercifully granted 
it to grow in the greatest plenty in all parts most in> 
fested by the rattlesnake. It is very remarkable that 
this herb acquires its greatest perfection just at the time 
when the bite of these serpents is the most dangerous. 
• . . • . Virginian Snake-root QAristolochia serpentaria) 

* The title of this curious book is, Geschtchte der 
itfiMMit der ewmgelUehen Bruder unter den Indianem in 
Nvrdamerika, durch Georg H. Loskiel: Barby, 1789, 
8 VOL, pp. 783. Latrobe's transUtion of this book was 
puUiafaed LoDd. 1794. 

chewed, makes also an excellent pouhice for woinkis o£ 

this sort. The tat of the serpent itself, rubbed 

into the wound, is thought to be efficacious. Hicr 
ilesh of the rattlesnake, dried and boiled to a broth, is 
said to be more nourishing than that of the viper, and 
of service in consumptions. Their gall is likewise used 
as medicine." — P. 146. 

Pigs are excepted from the dreadful effects of 
their bite ; they will even atta^ and eat them. It 
is said that, if a rattlesnake is irritated and cannot 
be revejtged^ it bites itself, and dies iu a few hours: 

** Wird dieses Thier zornig gemacht, und es kann 
sich nicht rachen, so beiszt es sich selbst, und in wenig 
Stunden ist es todt." — P. 113.* 

** I have seen some of our Canadians eat these rattle- 
snakes repeatedly. The flesh is very white, and they 
assured roe had a delicious taste. Their manner of 

dressing them is very simple Great caution, 

however, is required in killing a snake for eating ; for 
if the first blow fails, or only partially stuns him, he tn- 
stantly bites himself in different parts of the bodg, which 
thereby become poisoned^ and would prove fatal to any 
person who should partake of it." — Cox's Adv. on the 
Columbia River .• Lond. 1832, p. 74. 

** Dr. Fordyce knew the black servant of an Indian 
merchant in America, who was fond of soup made of 
rattlesnakes, in which he always boiled the head along 
with the rest of the animal, without any regard to the 
poison." — Rees's Cyclopadia. 

" There is a religious sect in Africa, not far from 
Algiers, which eat the most venomous serpents alive / 
and certainly, it is said, without extracting their fangs. 
They declare they enjoy the privilege from their 
founder. The creatures writhe and struggle between 
their teeth ; but possibly, if they do bite them, the 
bite is innocuous." 

Mrs. Crowe, in the concluding chapter of her 
Night-side of Nature^ gives the testimony of an 
eye-witness to "the singular phenomenon to be 
observed by placing a scorpion and a mouse to- 
gether under a glass." 

** It is known that stags renew their ape by eating 
serpents; so the phoenix is restored by the nest of 
spices she makes to bum in. The pelican hath the 
same ^virtue, whose right foot, if it be put under hot 
dung, after three months a pelican will be bred from 
it. Wherefore some physicians, widi some confections 
made of a viper and hellebore, and of .some of the flesh, 
of these creatures, do promise to restore yotUh, and some-^ 
times they do if* f 

On reading any of our old herbalists, one would 
imagine that serpents (and those of the worst 
kind) abounded in " M^rrie Englande," and that 
they were the greatest bane of our lives. It ia 

* This reminds one of the notion respecting 
" The scorpion girt with fire," 
immortalised by Lord Byron's famous simil^ 

t Eighteen Books of the Secrets of Art and Nature ; 
being the Summe and Substance of NaturaU Philosophy 
methodicalfy digested : London, 1661. 



[No. 193^ 

hard to stumble on a plant that is not an antidote 
to the bite of serpents. Our old herbals were com- 
piled, however, almost entirely from the writings 
of the ancients, and from foreign sources. The 
ancients had a curious notion relative to the plant 
Basil (Oscimum baailicum)^ viz., **That there is a 
property in Basil to propagate scorpions, and that 
oy the smell thereof they are bred in the brains of 
men." Others deny this wonderful property, and 
make Basil a simple antidote* 

** According unto Oribasiui, phynloian unto Julian, 
th« Africani, men best experienced in poiiont, affirm, 
whoAoever hath eaten Basil, although he be stung with 
A scorpion, shall feel no pain thereby, which is a very 
different eflbot, and rather antidotally destroying than 
seminally promoting its production." — Sir Tliomas 
Browne, Vulgar Errort, 

An old writer gives the following anecdote in 
point : 

** Francis Marcio, an eminent statesman of Genoa, 
having sent an ambassador from that republic to the 
Duke of Milan, when he could neither procure an 
audience of leave from that prince, nor yet prevail 
with him to ratify his promises made to the Genoese, 
taking a fit opportunity, presented a handful of the 
herb Basil to the duke. The duke, somewhat sur- 
prised, asked what that meant ? * Sir,' replied the am- 
bassador, ' this herb is of that nature, that if vou handle 
it gentlv without squeezing, it will emit a pleasant and 
grateful scent ; but if you squeeze and gripe it, 'twill 
not only lose its colour, but It will becottu productive of 
icorpionn in a little time."— 2%« Enttrtaintr : London, 
1717, p. 23. 

Pliny tells us that a decoction fVom the leaves 
of the ash tree, given as a drink, is such a remedy 
that ^* nothing so sovoraignc can be found against 
the poison of^erpents ;*' and farther : 

'* That a terpent dare not come neare the thaddow of that 
tree. The serpent will chuse rather to goe into the 
fire than to flie from it to the leaves of the ash. A 
wonderful goodnesse of Dame Nature, that the ash 
doth bloome and flourish alwaies before that serpents 
oome abroad, and never sheddeth leaves, but oontinueth 
green untill they bo retired into their holes, and hidden 
within the ground." 

The ancient opinion respecting the rooted anti- 
pathy between the ash and the serpent is not to 
De exniained merely by the fact in natural history 
of its being an antidote, but it has a deeply myth- 
ical meaning. See, in the Proae JSdda^ the account 
of the ash Yggdrasill, and the serpents gnawing its 
roots. Loskiel corroborates Pliny as to the ash 
being an antidote : 

*' A decoction of the buds or bark of the white ash 
(Fraxinut Carolina) taken inwardly is said to be a cer- 
tain remedy against the effects of poison," i*e, of the 

Serpents afford Pliny a theme for inexhaustible 
wonders. The strangest of his relation! perhaps 

is where he tells us that serpents, **when the^ 
have stung or bitten a man, die for very greefe 
and sorrow that they have done such a mischeefe.** 
He makes a special exception, however, of the 
murderous salamander, who has no such ** pricke 
and remorse of conscience,** but would ** destroy ^ 
Ti^hole nations at one time,*' if not prevented. In 
this same book (xxix.) he gives a receipt for 
making the famous theriacum^ or treacle, of vipers* 
flesh. Another strange notion of the ancients waa 
**that the marrow of a man*s backe bone will breed 
to a snake ** (Hitt, Nat<, x. 66.). This perhapt,. 
originally, had a mystic meaning; for a ^eat pro- 
portion of the innumerable serpent stories have a 
deeper foundation than a credulous fancy or lively 

Take, for instance, the wide-spread legend of 
the sea-serpent. Mr. Deane says, — 

*' The superstition of *the serpent in the sea' was 
known to the Chinese, as we observed in the chapter 
on the * Serpent-worship of China.' But it was doubt- 
less, at one time, a very general superstition among th(» 
heathens, for we find it mentioned by Isaiah, ch. xxvii. 
1., ' In that day the Lord, with his sore and great and 
strong sword, shall punish Leviathan the piercing ser- 
pent, even Leviathan that crooked serpent : and Ua 
shall slay the dragon that ie in the eea* " 

In Blackwood's Magazine^ vol. ii. p. 645., vol. ir. 
pp. 33. 205., may be found some interesting papers # 
on the " Scrakin, or Great Sea Serpent.'* 

Mr. Deane*s Worship of the Serpent (London, 
1830), and The Cross and the Serpent^ by the Rev, 
Wm. Haslam (London, 1849), are noble works 
both of them, and ought to be in the hands of 
every Christian scholar. In these two words, 
" Cross '* and " Serpent,'* we have an epitome of 
the history of the world and the human race, at 
well as the ground-work for all our hopes and 
fears. In them are bound up the highest mys- 
teries, the truest symbolism, the deepest realitiei, 
and our nearest and dearest interests. 

Lord Bacon thus narrates the classical fablo 
which accounts for the Berpent*s being gifted with 
the power of restoring youth : 

** The gods, in a merry mood, granted unto men not 
only the use of fire, but perpetual youth also, a boon 
most acceptable and desirable. They being os it wera 
overjoyed, did foolishly lay this gifl ot the gods upon 
the back of an ass, who, being wonderfully oppressed 
with thirst and near a fountain, was told by a serpent 
^which had the custody thereof) that he should not 
drink unless he would promise to give him the burthen 
that was on his back. The silly nss accepted the con- 
dition, and so the re$toration nf youth (eoldfor a draught 
of water) paeaed from men to terpentt,** "^ The IViedom tf 
the Ancientt (Prometheus, xxvi.). 

That this, as well as the whole of the legend re- 
lating to Prometheus, is a confused account of an 
early tradition relative to the Fall of Man, and 
his forfeiture of immortality, is obvious to any 

JUhY ti. \HiV,U] 

NdTKH AND ClUliltlKH. 


fhfrt'lt (if' f«iM iihhn\Ai'Mimp\f m.¥h(\ulim\^ M\i\ ftlwf>yi» 
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/^//f V,uy\f\SM\ (hiH*; H*inUtitM WiiitpHi tAtik\tiM% 

^^t$0ffmt<tfUft (f^l,^l\tt^^a^^ nbt\rtshl.)i tittt OUh Mit\ llifi 
MitUti, (hnts iUtt AillttfUUtH AfhtuMitliUimt iU' 

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[No. IB 

Sthl J. In hii paper process, does not tlie ROaking 
in water aiW iodizing merelj take airBj a portion 
of iodide* of Bilver and potassium from tbe paper ; 
or, if not, what end ii answered bj it f W. F. E. 

Bath) for the CoOodion iVocen— HaTmg latelj 
been awured, b; a gentleman of scientific atiain- 
mentg, that tiie gensidTcaess of the prepared col- 
lodioQ plate dependt rather upon the strength of 
the nitrate of silver bath than on the collodion, 
I am desirooB of asking how far the experience of 
^nr correspondents confirms this statement. Mj 
informant sasured me, that if, instead of nung a 
■olntion of thirty grains of nitrate of silTcr to the 
ounce of water for the bath, which is the propor- 
tion recommended bj Meitsrs. Archer, Home, 
Delamotle^ Diamond, &c., a sixty grain solution 
be substituted, the formation of the image would 
be the work of the fraction of a secoud. This 
seems to me so important as to deserve being 
brooght under the notice of photographers — espe- 
ciallj at this busj season — without a moment's 
delay,- and I therefore record the statement at 
once, as, from circumstaoces with which I need 
cot encamber jour pages, I shall not have an 
(^portunity of trying anj experiments upon the 
point for a week or two. 

Upon referring to the authorities on the sub- 
ject of the best solntion for baths, I have been 
struck with their nniformitj. One exception only 
bas presented itself, which is in a valuable pnper by 
Mr. Thomas in the 6th Number of the Journal of 
the Photographic Society. That gentleman directs 
the bath to be prepared in the following manner ; 

Into a 20 oz. stoppered bottle, put — 
Nitrate of silver • - 1 oz. 
Distilled water • - 10 ox. 

On mixing these two solutions, a precipitate of 
iodide of silver is formed. Place the bottle con- 
tuning this mixture in a saucepan of hot water, 
keep it on the hob for about twelve hours, shake 
it occasionallj, now and then removing the stop- 
per. The bath is now perfectly saturated with 
iodide of silver ; when cold, filter through white 
filtering paper, end add — 

Alcohol - - - 2 drs. 

Sulphuric ether - - 1 dr. 
The prepared glass is to remain in the bath about 
dght or ten minutes. Now, is this bath appli- 
cable to all collodion, or only to that prepared by 
Mr. Thomas ; and if the former, what is the ra- 
tionale of its beneficial action P A Beqibiieb. 

SfpTM to ^fnoT AurrfnC 

Mitigation of Capital Pamihment to a Ftm 
Toh viL, p. 573.). — If jonr correi^iondBI 
k. B. C. redlj wishes to be releoeed from U 

hard work in hunting i^ the trnth of mj a 
other narratives of the mitigatian of ei^ntaijm 
aithntnt to forgers, I shall be happy to recove i 
note ftom him with his name and addrese, wheai 
will give him the name and address of mj m 
funnant in return. Bj this means I may be aU 
to relieve his shoulder from a portion of it 
burden, and mjself from any farther imputatkn 
of " mythic accompaniments, ' Inc., which are n 
palatable phrases even when coming from a gen 
tleman who only discloses his initials. 

AlfSED Gatti 


Chroiu^ramt (Vol. Tt p. S85.) and Atu^rat 
(Vol. iv., p. 226 ). — Though we Kbtb ceased I 
practise these " literary follies," they are not wifl 
out interest ; and you will perhaps tbink it woH 
while to add the following to your list : 

has no date on the title-pase, the real date i 
1652 being supplied by the cbroDOgram, which 
a better one than most of those quoted in "N. . 
Q.," inasmuch as all the numerical letters are en 
ployed, and it is consequentiy not dependent a 
the typ(^aphy. 

James Howell concludes his Parly of BeaMtl 1 
follows : 

" Gloria lausque Deo sxCLorVM in siecVIa aimbi. 
A GliTonognminaticall vene which include* not cad 
this year, 1660, but batli numericall letters enow [i 
illustration, by tlie way, offnoiB as eiprenive of nim 
ber] to reach above a thousand years fartber, untill tt 
year 2867." 

Query, How is this made out P And are tha 
any other letters employed as numerical than tl 
M, D, C, L, V, and I ? If not, I can only mal 
Howell's chronogram equivalent to 1927. 

The same author, in his Qerman Diet, after na 
rating the death of Charles, son of Fbilip XL i 
Spain, says : 

" If you de»ii» to know the yeer, this chnuiagTa 
will tell you : 

riLIVs ante DIeM patrlos InqVIrlt In annas," 

AUgtul (Vol. iv., p. 424. ; VoL v., pp. 38. & 
450.). — Can it be shown that this word was i 
general nse, as meaning a " lady's maid," befoi 
thetimeof Queen Anne. It probably was so usee 

Jult9. 1853.] 



but I hav« always thought it likelj that it became 
knuch more extensivelj employed, after Abigail 
Hill, Lady Masham, became the favourite of Uiat 

3ueen. She was, I believe, a poor cousin of Sarah 
ennings. Duchess of Marlborough, and early in 
life was employed by her in the humble capacity 
of lady*s maid. After she had supplanted the 
haughty duchess, it is not unlikely that the Whigs 
would take a malicious pleasure in keeping alive 
the recollection of the early fortunes ot the Tory 
favourite, and that they would be unwilling to 
lose the opportunity of speaking of a lady*s maid 
as an;^thing else but an " Abigail." Swift, how- 
ever, in hb use of the word, could have no such 
design, as he was on the best of terms with the 
Mashams, of whose party he was the very life and 

80U1. H. T. BiLET. 

Burial in uncoTtsecrated Oround (Vol. vi., p. 448.). 
—Susanna, the wife of Philip Carteret Webb, Esq., 
of Busbridge, in Surrey, died at Bath in March, 
1756, and was, at her own desire, buried with 
two of her children in a cave in the grounds at 
Busbridge ; it being excavated by a company of 
soldiers then quartered at Guildford. Their re- 
mains were afterwards disinterred, and buried in 
Godalming Church. H. T. Rilbt. 

« Cob'' and " Conners'' (Vol. vii., pp. 234. 321.). 

Kr— These names are not synonymous, nor are they 
Irish words. It is the pier at Lyme Regis, and 
not the harbour, which bears the name of the Cob, 
In the ** Y Gododin" of Aneurin, a British poem 
supposed to have been written in the sixth century, 
the now obsolete word chynnivr occurs in the 
seventy-sixth stanza. In a recent translation of this 
poem, by the Rev. John Williams Ab Ithel, M.A., 
this word is rendered, apparently for the sake of the 
metre, "shore of the sea." The explanation given 
in a foot-note is, " Harbour cynivr from cyn dicfr.** 
On the shore of the estuary of the Dee, between 
Chester and Flint, on the Welsh side of the river, 
there is a place called " Connah's Quay." It is 
probable that the ancient orthography of the name 
-was Conner, 

Goby I think, is also a British word, — cop, a 
mound. All the ancient earth-works which bear 
this name, of which I have knowledge, are of a 
circular form, except a long embankment Cfdled 
The Cop, which has been raised on the race-course 
At Chester, to protect it from the land-floods and 
spring-tides of the river Dee. JST. W. S, (2.) 

CoHeri^e's Unpublished MSS, (Vol. iv., p. 41 1. ; 
Vol. vi., p. 533.). — Thbophilact, at the first re- 
ference, mquired whether we are " ever likely to 
receive from any member of Coleridffe*8 family, or 
£x»m his friend Mr. J. H. Green, the fragments, 
if not the entire work, of his Logowphiar Agree- 
11^ with your correspondent, that *'we can ill 
anord to lose a work the conception of which en- 

grossed much of his thoughts," I repeated the 
Query in another form, at the second reference 
(«tfpra), grounding it upon an assurance of Sara 
Coleridge, in her mtroduction to the Biographia 
Literarioj that the fragment on Ideas would here- 
after appear, as a sequel to the Aids to Reflection^ 
Whether this fragment be identical with the Logo* 
sophiOf or, as I suspect, a distinct essay, certain it 
is that nothing of the kind has ever been published. 

From an mteresting conversation I had with 
Dr. Green in a railway carriage, on our return 
from the Commemoration at Oxford, I learned 
that he has in his possession, (1.) A complete sec- 
tion of a work on Tlie Philosophy of Nature^ 
which he took down from the mouth of Coleridge^ 
filling a large volume ; (2.) A complete treatise 
on jS>gic; and ^3.) If I did not mistake, a frag- 
ment on Idea9, The reason Dr. Green assigns for 
their not having been published, is, that they con- 
tain nothing but what has already seen the light 
in the Aids to Reflection, The Theory of Life, and 
the Treatise on Method, This appears to me a 
very inadequate reason for withholding them from 
the press. That the works would pay, there can 
be no doubt. Besides the editing of these MSS.> 
who is so well qualified as Dr. Green to give us a 
good biography of Coleridge ? 

C. Mansfieij) Ingl£bt» 


Setting a Wife (Vol. vii., p.602.).— A case of 
selling a wife actually and bond fide happened in 
the provincial town in which I reside, about 
eighteen years ago. A man publicly sold his wife 
at the market cross for 161, : the buyer carried her 
away with him some seven miles off, and she lived 
with him till his death. The seller and the buyer 
are both now dead, but the woman is alive, and is 
married to a third (or a second) husband. The 
legality of the transaction has, I believe, some 
chance of beins tried, as she now claims some 

Eroperty belongmg to her first husband (the seller), 
er ri^t to which is questioned in consequence of 
her supposed alienation by sale ; and I am mformed 
that a lawyer has been applied to in the case. Of 
course there can be little doubt as to the result. 


Life (Vol. vii., pp. 429. 608.).— Compare with 
the fines quoted by your correspondents those of 
Moore, entitled " My Birthday," the four follow- 
ing especially : 

** Vain was the man, and false as v^n, 
Who said*, * Were he ordain'd to run 
His long career of life again. 

He would do all that he had done.' ** 

Many a man would gladly live his life orer 
again, were he allowed to bring to bear on his 

* Fontenelle. 



[No. 198i 

geoond life the experience ho had acquired in that 
past. For in the grave there is no room, either 
for ambition or repentance ; and the degree of our 
happiness or misery for eternity is proportioned to 
the state of preparation or unpreparation in which 
we leave thts world* Instead of many a man, I 
might have said most good men ; and of the others, 
all who have not passed the rubicon of hope and 
grace. The vista of the past, however, appears a 
long and dreary retrospect, and any future is 
bailed as a relief: yet on second and deeper thought, 
we would mount again the rugged hill of life, and 
try for a brighter prospect, a higher eminence. 


" Immo Deui mlhl li dedorit ronovare JuYontam» 
Ucve itsrum in ounis posilm vagirfi t rooui«m." 
Itaao Ha^vkins Browna, Dt Animl Immot' 
tatilattf lib. i., near tho «nd. 

(See Selecta Poemata Anglorum Latina. iii. 251.) 

F. W. J. 

passage of Thucydiden on the Oreek Factiom 
(Vol. vii., p. 594.). — The passage alluded to by 
Sir a. Alison appears to oe the celebrated de- 
scription of the moral efiects produced by the con- 
flicts of tho Greek factions, which is subjoined to 
the account of the Corcyrasan sedition, iii. 82. 
The quotation must, however, have been made 
fVom memory, and it is ampliflod and expanded 
from the original. The words adverted to aeem 
to be: 

Thucydides, however, proceeds to say that the 
cunning which enabled a man to plot with success 
against an enemy, or still more to discover his 
hostile purposes, was highly esteemed. L. 

Archbishop King (Vol. vii., p. 430.). — A few 
da^s since I met with the following passage in a 
brief sketch of Kane O^tlara, in tho last number 
of the Irish Quarterly Review : 

*' In the extramely meagre publishsd notices of 
0*Hara (the celebrated burletta writer), no referenoo 
has been made to hid skill at an artist, of which wo 
have a specimen in his etching of Dr. William Kingi 
archbishop of Dublin, in a wig and cap, ot which por- 
trait a copy has been made by Richardson.'* 

This extract is taken from one of a very in- quotation, 
teresting series of papers upon ** The Streets of 
Dublin. Abhba. 

their name for a bookbinder is fforelufr^ literallyi 
one who covers books. I may mention another 
Devonianism. The cover of a book is called its 
healing, A man who lays slates on the roof of A 
house is,, in Devonshire, called a hellier* 

« N. W. S. (2.) 

Perseverant^ Perseverance (Vol. vii., p. 400.). — 
Can Mr. AftaowsMiTH supply any instances of the 
verb persever (or perceyuer^ as it is spelt in tho 
1555 edition of Hawes, M. i. col. 2.), from any 
other author? and will he inform us when thit 
** abortive hog ** and his litter became extinct. 

In explaining speare (so strangely misunder* 
stood by the editor of Dodsley), he should, I 
think, have added, that it was an old way of 
writing spar. In Shakspeare's Prologue to Troilui 
and Cressida^ it is written sperr. Sparred^ quoted 
by Richardson from the Romance of the Rose^ and 
Troiltu and Creseide^ is in the edition of Chaucer 
referred to bv Tyrwhitt, written in the Romance 
" ipered," antl in Troilus " sperred." Q. 


" The Good Old Cause'* (Vol. vi., passim), — 
Mrs. Behn, who gained some notoriety for her 
licentious writings even in Charles It.*s days, wat 
the author of a play called 7'he Roundheads^ or the 
Good Old Cause : London, 1082. In the Epilogjua 
she puts into the mouth of the Puritans tne foU ^ 
lowing lines respecting the Royalists : ^p 

** Yet then they raird against The Good Old Cautt t 
RaiPd fooliiihty for loyalty and laws t 
But when the Saints had put them to a stand, 
We left them loyalty, and took their land : 
Yea, and the pious work of Ueformation 
Rewarded was with plunder and sequestration.** 

The following lines are quoted by Mr. Teale in 
his L^fe qf Viscount Falkland^ p. 131. : 

** The wealthiest man among us is the best i 
No grandeur now in Nature or in book 
Delights us— repose, avarice, expense, 
This is the idolatry ; and these we adore : 
Plain living and high thinking are no morei 
Tho homely beauty of The Good Old Caute 
Is gone I our peace and fearful innocence, 
And pure religion breathing household laws.** 

Whence did Mr. Teale get these lines f Either 
The Oood Old Cause is here used in a peculiar 
sense, or Mr. Teale makes an unhappy use of tho 


Devonianisms (Vol. vii., p. 544.). — Pl7m, For* 
rell, — Pillom is the full word, of which pilm is a 
contraction. It appears to have been derived 
fVom the British word pylor^ dust. Forell is an 
archaic name for the cover of a book. The Welsh 
appear to have adopted it firom the English, oi 

Saying of Pascal (Vol. vii., p. 596.). — In reply 
to the question of W. FttAssa, I would refer him 
to PasoaKs sixteenth Provincial Letter, where, in 
the last paragraph but one, we read, — 

•* Mas r^v4rends p^res, mes lettres n'avalent pas ae« 
ooutum^ de sa suivre de si pr^t, ni d'etre si tftendues* 
Le pen d$ temps que fat en a 4t4 eauee rfs Vuh et d» 
Cautre, Je n*ai fkit celte^ci plwt lonyue que pareequs Je 

JULT 9. 1853.] 



Painl taken off of old Oak (Vol. vii., p. 620.).— 
About twen^-Bis years ago, by tbe adoption of a 
very gimplo process recommended by iJr, Woi- 
laston, the pant was entirely removed from tha 
screen of carved oak which fills the north end of 
the great hall at Audlev End, and the wood re- 
assumed its original colour and brillispcy. The 
result was brought about bjr the application of 
soft-soap, lud on of the thickness of a shilling 
over the whole surface of the oak, and allowed to 
remain there two or three days ; at the end of 
which it was washed off with plenty of cold water. 
I am aware that potash has been ollen tried with 
success for the same purpose; but, in many in- 
stances, unless it is. used with due caution, the 
wood becomes of a darker hue, and has the ap- 
pearance of having been charred. It is worthy 
of remark, that Dr. Wotiaston made the suggestion 
with great diffidence, not having, as he said, hud 
any practical experience of the effect of such an 
BpplicatioQ. Bbaybbookb. 

Fatiage in fke " Temoeit" (Vol. ii., pp. 259. 399. 
337. 429.).— As a parallel to the expression "most 
busy least" (meaning "least busy emphatically), 
I would surest the common expression of the 
Uorthumbrians, " Far over near " (signifying 
"much too near"). H. T. Bu.Br. 

The Committee appointed by the Society of Anti- 
quaries to comider what improvemerla could be intro- 
duced into its management, has at length isaued a 
Bepott; and we are glad to Gud that the allerationa 
suggested by tbem have been frankly adopted by the 
CounciL The piiticipal changes proposed refer to the 
election of the Council ; the haying but one Secretary, 
who is not to be a metnbet of that body i the appoint- 
ment of Local Secretaries ; the retirement annually of 
the Senior Vice-President ; and lastly, that which more 
than anything else must operate for the future benefit 
(^ the Society, the appointment of ■ third Standing 
Committee, to be called The Executive Cainmiltet, whose 
duty shall be " to superintend the corcespondence of 
the Society on all subjects relating to literature and 
antiquities, to direct any antiquarian operations or ei- 
cavations carried on by the Society, to examine all 
papers sent for reading, all objects sent for exhibition, 
and to assist the Director generally in taking care that 
the publications of the Society are consistent with its 
position and importance." It is easy to see that if a 
proper selectiati be made of the Fellows to serve on 
this Committee, their activity, and the renewed interest 
which will be thereby awakened in the proceedings of 

and papers for reading, worthy of the body — and there- 
fore unlike many which we have too frequently heard, 
and to wbich, but for the undeserved imputation which 
weshouldieem to cast upon our good friend Sir Henry 
Ellis, might be applied, with a slight alteration, that 
couplet of Matbias which t«lls — 

>■ How o'er the bulk of these tnauacltd deeds 

Sir Henry pants, and d ns 'era as be reads." 

We have now little doubt that better days are in store 
for the Society of Antiquaries. 

The Annual Meeting of the Archeological Institute 
commences at Chichester on Tuesday next, under the 
patronage of the Dukes of Norfolk and Richmond, and 
the Bishop of Chichester, and the Presidentship of Lord 
Talbot de Malahide. There is a good hill of fare pro- 
vided in the shape of Lectures on the Cathedral, by 
Professor Willis i excursions to Boigrove Priory, 
Halnaker, Godivood, Cowdray, Petwortb, Pevensey, 
Amberley, Sboreliam, Lewes, and Arundel ; excava- 
tions on Bow Hill i Meetings of the Sections of His- 
tory, Antiquities, and Architecture; and, what wo 
think will be one of the pleasantest features of the 
programme, the Annjial Meeting of the Sussei Archa. 
ological Society, in tbe proceedings of which the 
Members of ihe Institute are invited to participale. 

Books RECicrvED. — A Gloagary of Pr&pincialiama lit 
Un in tht Counly of Sunex, by W, Durrant Cooper, 
ieamd uUtion : a small but very valuable addition to 
our provincial glossaries, with an introduction well 
worth the reading. We shall be surprised if the meet- 
ing of the Institute this year in Suasei does not fur- 
nish Mr. Cooper with materials for a third and 

enlarged edition The TrawUeri Library, No. «„ 

A Tout on the Constant bij Raii and Road, by John 
Sarrow : a brief itinerary of dates and distances, show.- 
ing what may be done in a two months' visit to the 
Continent — - No. 45. Smiit Men and SwUe Mountaint, 
by Hobert Ferguson : a very graphic and well-written 
narratife of a tour in Switzerland, which deserves a 
comer in the knapsack of the " intending" traveller.— 
The Enagt, or Coanteli Civil and Moral, by J='rancit 
Baam, I^mbb* St. Alban, edited by Thomas Markby: 
a cheap edition of this valuable " handbook for think- 
ing men," produced by the ready sale which has at- 
tended The Adamctmenl of Learning by the same 
editor— Sepnard the Fox, ajier Ihe Gernum Feriionof 
auihe, with Illustrations by J. Wolf, Part VII., in 
wbich the translator carries on the story to T^e Ouf- 
lavry in well-tuned verse. — Cgcioptedia Bibliographica, 
PartX. Tbiatenth Part concludes the drst half of Ihe 
volume of authors and their works ; and the punc- 
tuality with which the Parts have succeeded each other 
is a soflicient pledge that we shall see this most useful 
library companion completed in a satisfactory manner. 


m. Editnt itj ijtjiva. 1S04. 
bason uhI SleeveDi't edltloD, 

Vt. lima. London. ISSS. (Two Copln.) 



SDirr'w Fitauc HuouH. tro. ISM. Vol. L 
Ti DiT Lnun Di> HoLwn. Bult.lStl. 
■rni'i Wmii. VaLI. Taniw.ini. 


QUBRllia," IM. FlMt Stmt. 

fiatUtt to enrrn^anlimu. 

I. M. O, u«s Brtlci raprdmt Hit Lilgk Frtratf. U «|bnwd 

. Rii 

_. .. It apclariu U mamir JHemdi 

C. P. F. TVCh IS It(iMiiHii/Clu>ltsii> ttiq'I' Hcrefi 
CoUsH vMin >/<v m«« o/Uk Cmv- 
ItninKJuneMtb). Thm U mrnck am renIrM U ieiHtn 
„__. y^i^ 


—tnUit taMrary.mtpmg a bright uriiim: colour li b 
Annni Man ok q/ a »ife primrcK. Too bri ija a gr, 
aiv indicate an msv^irmt ujn^ifg i an4mff^rmgH 

? H. H. (Kin(ilonl. yioUI-coiaitrcd glau.rTO^mil oi 
vur be stiainrd tu lid. per lltLUrr fool qflHrari. i 

admlve aeana fivm Ot mie i^ larift M»rtu,amt it ii 

iffmaUe Jot aria, Nq damht ttith an apptieatiam w torn 

ont^mUteiurfiUi lmt,fromArdieienlltlliertiBinknriwg 

tc wl fivm a flail roiif, M uMiM te xry aVeeHanatle. 

aeyond a Trfernce to «r ohKHijimit aJmmnt.iH <»»> twier 

,iponllunb}eaBjUupricet<^eXeimciUiandlhe,rpurilf In 

maUnt gm aiUm, IMt liiteilf nmnerium InlAearl^ rnul teUe 

lame fi>r licnilr giatv M M ang large fiunDfr :"*<?*"■ 

OfTt it c ftcaliar ctitpnrii m lit caan, ana il i, f^^'^J^^" 

neuoftnaviti unil Jorvtard kit addr 

JImi irtrniKfc| MtuMc; imi Ik earn ampart It wU Oial < M* 

V. N. (lUla). IK. Wi m injormat tf Di. DuHfurp MM 

c ,., paper, in Ul kanit ki kai fotatd na errtainln lit «* 

ani,Joru* ' ' •— '—-•-—-— — 



Wim ani »tLUli knpo., and Ike drUneal'lim il egmalin MAmto- 

at aTsadelt <U- ^ro' £i«MlH.., inlm Itc IflWr. 1^ rrdwlri 6 

»f)l^iwr^. M< di^Biil ninivi Uf beatUiM rppearmia Ifdaa4 
vliiu ulttr, kawut£ none tf ikt rrytectimg fnaUiiet ^ tke m ri a i 

C E. F. (Jonfi 13tfl). TV ipati In Ike tpeeimen lent iSrpfn£ 

Em i a ntr tnbitancei in tour collodion moe reeeiftmg tke artloit 
■gk a prepared plate after it not been intke tnl'ote balk, and 
prrtlaaiitt IB kt ewer karing been In Ike camera. Tkrg aiaji be iodida 
or iodaU Hi Bluer, or imall rryilalt i^ nitrate iif paaik. if IM 

Iteoaumafeellodieni or if ikt latter, il trniiU depenS npam a 
dtfttllH ttdiklng iif Ike gnn caiun it trkKk all ite toMbli talu 

e been wpoiled bp lie ilatnt ^ Ike balk. AliavlH agaim 

to dratp ifonr idlmlion lo Ike pructtt gioen bg Ul. Pollock j IM 
kiHH teen matt talitfaeiorp piituret prcdmccdbp il. 

- ■■ - (aollbaU}. Tke-fiiMfd-^apptaramitmUeh 

, and one paint ixktb'Inig 
negalitet Ike idea tkal Ike i 

^feiueampleletelt liT " NOTU tm> Qirnin," Vol.. 1. tori., 
j2^^»r«Uj™M, magntm, be kad i fin- vkiek carlptpplt- 

- HOTB km Qmaiu ■■ a pabOiked at napm on Prldap. at Ikat 
tke C«iattry BaokieUen ntaif receive Copiei intkat nigki't paredt^ 

WEUROTONICS, or the Art of 


HlTH^i OptDEbTtn, ID (be pfflrcl ion of ^HcUckt 





i>itBs«Kriti>r«ii«twoaii^7^'^'°'^^^ BBsnmr, vaiah. Clock, ud tiBnu 

«lb«j|j»»in«^llli n i, na lite >111 In MikBtaUuBsnlObHrrUiiiT Uw Bh 

iMftwment lb. ba- woA. ;Mr lanriiiillr wnimn 1 . »• i^iliiltt. ua tM (tan. 

ANTED, for the UAin' In- 


1 Jm-T 9. 1853.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


aiw tx nxB U BLAND ■ LONG'S, lU. FltM 

iftjs"ffiifcr — ' — 

BLiSD > LONG, OgHdlull, FUlHOiiUist 


T. OmtwmL (ftom Honw » Co. 
MrtnmKtflillT >°^ ■'>' uaoUon • 
MmriaTitr of hU bcwIt nriMnoDO 
SpIES'rOLDINO t/3tKllAe. po 

^dlm Cuncn.vHh tin pgrliitdUtr * 
Tmlnm DfUie FuidjDi Hud. 
£tqj dacrlffUon Df A^ipuAtui to on 


Jut DQbUilitd. vriH II., tne br FoN 1j. td., 

!«»' mik*. W«nd-Piper for La Cnj-t 
Tngw. iDdbnlmiulAiiiiUiTaPkparliiiimT 
kind of niotofniihj. 
Bold br JOHN jAMFORD, PhclfiawtiMa 





^niii Dar. Dffw mnd 



Edmoa, pnl Biui., (Tha RortinltDnl 

^mriii liT lh> SEV. H. BBOWin, 
d edltcdbr tbi RET. T. K. ARMtHS 
Lc lt«cl« of Lmdnk. and fivm^t 


The Bjxma YalDiDH of Mamr'i BtSlwij 













.n... DkitiDnKr. isit <nib1li1ied 




ereat Krftafn aiiti IrcUnlf. 





3t._HIPP0LlrTDB, «. —HECUBA, 


_ FHILOCT'eTBS, It. — AJijSt^—. 

EwTtiinbw, BkE. Wool, uidj 


L CASTLE, >nd of miny who b« 
eco^di i Kim, from the Prlv«te M«H 

31 UqBRAY, Albemulc B(n 

. ^'l ClU]D«D«, DODUlniDf KH V- 

Look of Booki hi «U tb« lAoga^em of 
Ld. msT bs hid ftx <d_B. Q-'iHonthlr 

HuBO&^c^to Hnd Autlqultte 



hi ^>!l*<> of Bl.Hat7iTilliuflaii 





** vnten fomid, make a note of." — Captain Cuttlx. 

No. 194.] 

Saturday, July 16. 1853. 

C With Index, price XQd. 
i Stamped Edition, Htf. 

Notes : — Page 

Deprivation of the Word " Island " - - - 49 

Weather Rules, by Edward Peacock - - - 50 

On the modern Practice or assuming Arms - - 50 

Morlee and Lovel, by L. B. Larking • • - 51 

Shakspeare Correspondence, by Robert Rawlinson and 
John Macray • - - - - * 51 

Unpublished Letter . - . - - 53 

Minor Notes : — Lines on the Institution of the Order 
of the Garter— Old Ship— The Letter "h " in "hum- 
ble"— "The Angels' Whisper " — Pronunciation of 
Coke — The Advice supposed to have been given to 
Julius III. - - - - - - 63 

Queries : — i 

Bishop Gardiner " De Vera ObedientiA *' 

- 54 

IVIiNOR Queries: —Lord Byron — Curious Custom of 
ringing Bells for the Dead — Unpublished Eiisay by 
Lamb — Peculiar Ornament in Crosthwaite Church — 
Cromwell's Portrait — Governor Brooks — Old Books 
— The Privileges of the See of Canterbury — Heraldic 
Colour pertaining to Ireland — Descendants of Judas 
Iscariot — Parish Clerks and Politics — " Virgin Wife 
and widowed Maid "— ** Cutting off the little Heads of 
Light "i^Medal of Sir Robert Walpole— La Fete des 
Chaudrons — Who first thought of Table-turning ? — 
College Guide ...... 55 

Minor Queries with Answers : — Done Pedigree — 
Scotch Newspapers, &c. — Dictum de Kenilworth — 
Dr. Harwood . . . - - -57 

Replies : — 

Names of Places, by J. J. A. Worsaae . . - 58 

Cleaning old Oak, by Henry Herbert Hele, &c. . ■ . 58 

Burial in an Erect Posture, by Cuthbert Bede, B.A. • 59 

Lawyers' Bags . . . . > .59 

Photographic Correspondbmcb:— New Photographic 
Process .......60 

Bbplies to Minor Queries : — The Ring Finger — 
The Order of St. John of Jerusalem— Calvin's Cor- 
respondence — Old Booty's Case — Chatterton ^ 
House-marks, Sec Bibliography. — Parochial Li- 
braries — Faithful Teate — Lack-a-daisy — Bacon — 
Angel-beast : Cleek : Longtriloo— Hans Krauwinckel 
— Revolving Toy — Rub-a-dub — Muffs worn by 
Gentlemen — Detached Church Towers— Christian 
Names — Hogarth's Pictures — Old Fogie — Clem — 
Kissing Hands —Uniform of the Foot Guards — Book 
Inscriptions — Humbug — Sir Isaac Newton and 
Voltaire on Railway Travelling — Engine-^- verge — 
*' Populus vult decipi," &c. — Sir John Vanbrugh — 
Erroneous Forms of Speech — Devonianisms . 61 

Miscellaneous : — 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - . • • 

Notices to Correspondents . • . . 

Advertisemeuts , . . - . • 


VoL.VnL— No. 194. 


Lexicographers from time to time have handed 
down to us, and proposed for our choice, two 
derivations of our English word Island ; and, that 
one of these two is correct, has, I believe, never yet 
been called in question. The first which they 
offer, and that most usually accepted as the true 
one, is the A.-S. Ealand, JEalond, Igland ; Belg. 
Eylandt : the first syllable of which, they inform 
US, is ea, Low Germ, awe, water, i. e, water-landj 
or land surrounded by water. If this etymon be 
deemed unsatisfactory, they offer the following: 
from the Fr. isle, It. isola, Lat. insrda^ the word 
island, they say, is easily deflected. 

At the risk of being thought presumptuous, I 
do not hesitate to say, that both these alternatives 
are manifestly erroneous ; and, for the following 
reasons, I propose a third source, which seems to 
carry conviction with it : first, from analogy ; and 
secondly, from the usage of the language from 
which our English word is undoubtedly derived, 
the Anglo-Saxon. 

First, from analogy. Let us only consider how 
frequently names are given to parts of our hills, 
shores, rivers, &c., from their supposed resem- 
blance to parts of the human body. Thus, for 
instance, we have a head land, a neck of land, a 
tongue of land, a nose of land (as in Ness, in Or- 
fordness, Dungeness, and, on the opposite coast, 
Grinez) ; also a mouth of a river or harbour, a 
brow of a hill, haxik or chine of a \x\\\foot of a hill ; 
an arm of the sea, sinus or bosom of the sea. With 
these examples, and many more like them, before 
us, why should we ignore an eye of land as un- 
likely to be the original of our word island f The 
correspondence between the two is exact. How 
frequently is the term eye applied to any small 
spot standing by itself, and peering out as it were, 
in fact an insulated spot : thus we have the eye of 
an apple, the eye or centre of a target, the eye of 
a stream (i. e. where the stream collects into a 
point — a point well known to salmon fishers), and 
very many other instances. What more natural 
term, then, to apply to a spot of land standing 
alone in the midst of an expanse of water than an 
eye of land ? 


In niHllrniKUim uT t)il« vlow, Ixtun Wk tittlio ^ ir JNiiii«ry ma (Migi Hi, ISiiiISi il>i]i) liv Iktr. li 

orluliml litn|iUN|i<> t tWiv wo flu't Ui« in)m)tt>UHi)« pramWoH bMtt|))' ywn Urn irvlumly, wlnilr.dr mlny, 

«l' rrnTi "ti •W*! ll'" ""VS "I" v>'fy ftmiiipiil uww "iliwwW 1 I"»« III till. ««■« vflim nii Miii'lnti Jiiill«l>iu( 

IVIii'K! All i>r tlioiii *)i«wlii|i iIihL tliio i't>iii|iimllil Mli^luttvi'n'rlleo 

tm-luntH» luamljr lnullliiMle. l>ul. oMmuflji iini> <irm. l*«ul b* Iktr imri diHir, 

ImIiI^. 'tliii* wo fliiil. HW*w>/if><, lliP |iii)il1 omIix II )>n>iHUn llwii * liH|>|<y yuari 

fjni I mv-i'h)')!, a wIiu1i>w-U|{1ii, ovu-iIihu' i nw ■>•*, Hiil If ll vlmiii'i' in •iiiki' or mIii. 

|mIii III llio oyot niA-JIWiijr<i«, W» iiiblM i? lh» fdvii will bo ttvM all Mtrli orHinliu 

oyoa. Ill Uto Invt iiiiUiioD, tlio v U <lii>|>|iml i Hiij *>r tl* llic w W du Mnw alotk, 

It U oBi-Whi Uml »«jf WM hiimmmooJ iiwii'W m f "»' «'" *"' **" "»■ •''"'I'' f^i" "" ' 

flw Huw U. Fmn all ilil., I. it t.«i t.t win* *'«' '"••* * ..ii-l* .b ;tli^ .Vv, 

pfuUe diHl Mt-tMwf U tl.,. ■Hiiio M« f «.*.«/ ^ Ititt '^' I*""' »»'' "«'• "^ «■"' '"'• 

IVrlUui', /if (A.'H.) MiiualliHVK kIhiiiIk Iiv llaoll' flir " Ml*l* 'w lnwr IVim> wi iIh< iwiili «f Murvli li^ 

Ml IoInikI, hi hIwi tlu lgl»»nt Hiiil /ir>>tA, tiiitl h WIiwm(*'«)<i iilviitmil )Mt, l>ui m>t wliluml Mtw««lh» 

WM Lbd (iltl iiKiiiD lit' liwn, Niiw I muhoI lliitl «•»»*" 

thM thsft" ever wm thp ■lluliMt i'finiie>.lt» Mw«h>ii .". "■ '» ""' I*'" '^'*'; *«' '" <»viiiWr. ln«ll)^ »r (h»iii 

th« A.-H. V unil-wAirf iiw ilo 1 l»H«e thnl *'"'«"" J't" l"*».«"tl«««iH lli»"-.i'l««''t>»"« »»*■'? 

■uuti mi iU«ft w««l.l OYor liAVu l.«.n HtniltH), Iwt to *''"*' *"'' ""'"'' """*' 

*u|>|iurt llio oW <li>rivNUiin of Uib wiiH t 1 hnvo Vltiilpr *• 'rtn* Sljiiia iiT lUlii In CiPftliiitw" ww 

mvpi' iiM>ii H (tohiilutt UiKlMiimi uf fuiOi coniiPMlni) Wo ilit> Otlliiwliiji' 

liroii([lil Hu-w»rd. UVn thp woitl /«■, H' li Im " Ik grwM, 

KuniHiMol to uiDHn an fjrMw 1 ..uHtomf. ihhj vwy «ii,l ihlpkwiliiitlHiaiJmwn*.'' 

woll »Untl t>jr llMir Hit utnmli hut. It' ooi'r)' Im> "Hit fr«M. wuvli «r»«ktiiK in iIIipIkx u\A |i.».K 

ttKtWDiUWil liy it, I OMIIiut iitiitpMtaItt) liuw li mn '^^>^. in lliv wvutiiu, Itirripll. mln tii liillv llnio in lUI. 

tsrvn tu InitMilt iMtif, luw i «l«i, tlic kwmlluH •if ■tmip iiaiorn nr lumlu dw. 

If liny ftfllitii' Mnltrmiitlitn be wnntuJ, we Imvti •i'«» ml"." 

It In tho illmltiuliv* mbI^ rf whlek *if, -uf*/, »irAI " '*''>• "*«» i-v^ »'' •""'"« "I' *«'« H-*! lWwiha*» 

Rre .•.imi|.llmiii. ll. OK, ml" tawl»ii4" . , , 

Iteloiy, )l*r»fi.fd, " ?*" >',"«"!^^ '"""'' '"■^'"* ''""""• ™''V, . 

I hero I* « II«l iilven tir ].ii<'k,r Umk. wuloh ran> 

— ^-^ iHliiimll UteivdlMWrMlnU'tUviut ilit>Ht>t\ii'mwl 

tmifuuH auLBi. KlljllWl kklMl^nr. Wtt Wt> olio IlinD'llliHl that 

" ""** lliw* dw nllmc iliiyit In >»iw>li woiiUi whlvU "BW 

TlitnuM l'ituBn|i<'v, whu ilwoli at Ilia Thro* pnnwMHtl cmmjili,'' 'I'lmii — 

flIliU nmt Hm, .w l.m»W Ilrl.lif.^ wm -wv* .. i„ j,„h„, Ui««. >ii>o ll.iw. vl«, IB. IM, tM, 

wMu'wlwil iliii' UiuiliB Uii".- i-Bvi .4-ili>. <i«vMil»onih |„ tvupHiIv »v^ (. vU, hv In. «, «. 

wn iiry ftw pu|.lUlti|i |ia).i.W lil.lni-U hii.I Plifl|i. |„ M«fol, lUv m^ Iw.^ vl*. H. 1k, 

book*. Ill« ■liiiii MMiiM tii liftVB Wn tlid iirlnclnHl In A|ii'l1 ilivr* orv iIiwp, vU Id, HU. Wl, 

rtlitPtiiirrMuHliM' llim lntwkni^ wli<i ihpn iiiiti|illiE>tt In Mh^ ibv^iuv Htis vk ii. S. t, II, lU, 

tile (iniviiium wltli |||«pittiii<i), Mmiy itl' ike wiirkt In June iIimvkiv Aiuri vk Ki. IT, W, VT. 

wIiMiWiimI tVuiiikl<i|iit>Miii«nuwv»i'y Mn>; mil! In July lliorvtirviiU, *)>, I. in, Im Ml. i1, AO. 

ftf llio tiitMH nHi'luuii, mill, Ml (lio Mine tlniis liiB '" An«ii«t Hip"* wp iIiivp, vk tX. 7, A 

rWHxl, in Thr .VAf>/>Amr« Aiif(>wli<«> ,> .«■, Ht»<SH' '" NpI'Iphi'ipi' Hipi* meflff, »k J, «, II. I*. 11*. 

»•»■» Mmt (\w»«* ,'# ;jmV* ('.iwMiNiVw, ftp. J" <>i'l"lwMliPfP «■• IlifPP, vi., t, H. irt, 

Tke eiiiiteiiU uC tklii nw .il' n veVy p.ln«tiliu- " J'""^'*' '"'"' "f* «'"'• *'•■ »■ * j '; >«• 

nmniv. It Iminit « kln.l of eiiltuiue i.r lfi» tWl- U '" "•«»"'*' 'I'-"''' "i* 'l"**< *'«> »■ '"■ "■ 

WM tlK^ii ik«uirlit iiei>e>>iiiii7 llir k niiiniryniHn to ICn«*nt> IWoMK. 

be He<|iinlnted witli, A tHiiMl<lprn1>te |ii>i'lliin uT DuilpiriUnl. MMaliiRliom. Klciun4n-14iid>*y. 

the wm^i U oixnipliHl Uv ivinafkii ini (lie wenlbei', 

ami on lucky nniliiiiliieKvikya; It' I wei-oloejilnii't ' 

»ll on tlimiB miijimo, tliU eouimuiil.-iiUon w«iiM ,in tmm moiumk l-HAOTtuii o^ AMtiMlHU ARMI, 

Wlnml lo Hn uurtxiHinnlilti lenitili, „ . > ■ , .„ ... 

Wp ure lnlUrn«..l, uinlei' llielieml •■(>|«ef«ili.m. ," '^""y i'**'^, '?" "'''"'"^I "<" »« ««« w dtanll* 

m Iteww'kulJenny.. to know luiw tkowliule Vew ""^ '";';'''"" •"""'"""';'"' '"* I' "JH'^ wi'twiwl**!!. 

•Ill iiuiwnmt In Wu^iitiMi. IH«..i- " ji.„ .i,»7 lumiUll. tif pliilll i »n lli«l lli« miiiP otHpP PHm»M> 

Will Kuw-eit tn W e»mei'. I lanly. fte,. tlmt- h„„,,, li^u^um .^ rf(i,W»«W, tlf^hm, elttwr 

"irtnetunriilnpplMriininirliilil xnnirlmmHaiW illunlilu or u* iIip Imhi) n iTiIp uf itliuliyei lli» 

It HninilnPlli K (wwiMblp fpitr IVmu plNinnun unil xlrl^ llcrNlilv ninal not rpltiap In ilevUp in onvli n itubllque 

•na flirpwU. nmeli |il«niy tn Pnouet Inil ir tlie wtuJ itpr.nn, iiiniii lil> IiiunuI m\Mmi Hud wllhURiieii la 

Wow *innny Mwiirtia wwnA, It IwiukeiKtli idekniwi tn bvuve Hip miiip wlilmni Feinnplip, * pimiH of mfdhm i 

llie xi'tlnii Olid Huiuwii iiUMleri." mA tlieiispHirlli tu m*lrUHhile hltn. with hli iMtN 

JuLT 16. 1853.] NOTES AND QUEEIEa 51 

marri^es. Mid inues descending, in the itfpuer of the The episcopal bencli, m particular, are Tery 

Gentle and Noble." generally faulty in this respect, and, for the greater 

Thus wrote Sir John Feme in The Blazon of part, content themselves (if not by birth entitled 

Centric, printed in the year ]586. So also Coates, to bear wms) by asBumiog the ooat of some old- 

in hia addilioos to Gwillim, irriting in 1724, says : established family of the same, or aemiy the same, 

.,„.,, .... name. In the case of temporal peerages, which 

r., il,.,gh .,.1 m th«, «,,i „.,p,.uo., .„. „^ ^„, „,j J ^ thr«i.cient con.liiulion 

(as IS sliewed) taken up at any jrentlemaQs pleaaure, c-d-_j j . j ^ ■!. -jji j , 
yet hBlh tlmt liberty for m-ny iges been deny'd ; and "f England, renorat^d from the middle and low(^ 
.hey, by regal authorlly, madrthe rewards and en- "i»^^> *^ P"^?.** '! ""rem accordance wiA 
signs of merit, &c., the gracious fasours of princes i ^"^ precepts of The Biazo» of Genlrie ; but I be- 
no one being, by the Uw of gentility in England, ^''\ 'here is at least one italaace, that of a lawyer 
illowed the bearing thereof, but tbosa that either bare "^ "le greatest eminence, who was last year ad- 
' 41ie[D by descent, or grant, or purchase IVom tfae bod; vanced to a peerage, and to the highest rank iu 

■ or badge of any prisoner they in open and lawful war his profession, who has assnmed both arms and 
liad taken." supporters without the fiat of the College of Arms. 

\ He proceeds to adduce various authorities on The " novi homines " of a former age set a better 

■ this subject, for which I would refer to the Intro- example to those of the present day, and were 
. Auction to the last edition of Gwillim's Benddry, '^\ ashamed to go honesUy to the proper office 
' St 16' &c and take out their patent of arms, thus founding 

'Poi-ny defines (MiwmprtMaj™ to be— f family" who have a rigU to the ensigns <S 

^ honour which they assiune. araa. 

' "Such as are taken up by the caprice or fancy of 

vpttarti, who, being advanced lo a degree of fortune, 

[ assume them without baling deserved them by any ,«,~. 

\ glorious action. This, indeed (he adds), is grtat abvu UOIUXK ASB lOVSL. 

^/ heraldry; but jet SO common, and so much tole- The following document, m connexion with the 

^ rated, almost eretywhere, that little or no notice U trial between Morice and Lovell, in the Court of 

itatenofit." Chivalry, will probably interest your heraldic 

This was written in 1765. Archdeacon Nares, readers. L. B, Labkisg. 

In his very amusing fleraific AnoTiialiei, printed Ceste indentur tesmoyne q' mos' Johfi de 

, M» 1823, says: Cobehm t' de Cobehm ad bailie p awent de les 

•■ At preaent, limiUrUy of tuoue is quite mouf^ to sires de Morlee et Louel dys lib' de bone moneye 

lead any man to condude himietf to be a branch of amest' John Barnet, cest aasau' cent south p' le 

■wime very ancient or noble atock, and, if occasion arise, un ptje et cent south p" lautre ptye acause q' 

to assume the arms appropriate to such families, with- mesme le dit mestre John et meat' WiUm Dawode 

<ut any appeal to the Heralds' office ; nor would any gj ^ggj' WJUE Sondeye serrount assessours sur la 

■ ^Idmnaj, Gttihergreai!, living in affluence, he without jaWirt pcndaunt Dentre les deux syngn" susdite rf 
^uch marks and symbol, on his plate, seaK carriages, j^^^ ^^^^ ^^ j^ J^^^j ^^ Chiualerie. En tesmoy- 

fc^cy'^and rancel*' ''"'*"'"'^' ''"'"P'' """ ^ "'"' naunce de quel payment a ycestes endentur lea 

^ nt.vH fliTwIitf^v: pntrr^nhniinrrRahlement aunt mra 

iityes Busditez entrechaungeablement ount myi 

It must be confessed that the middle of the lours sceals. 

-nineteenth century offers the most ample facilities DonftLonndreslexxiu'dePew'erlandureagne 

-for the would-be aristocrats of the age, and Suit le Koy Richard secounde quinzisme. 

■without troubling Sir Charles Young or the Col- rj^ dorso 1 

^^f^it'T^: "'"''' *^,f''''?"''>S «d^e'-'i»ement Lei«l,„t„, de * U paye ft mesf Joh£ Bamet p' 

-cut from a newspaper of the day:- Morlee et Louel. 

"Thk FimtT LivuT. — Arm* and Crests cor- _^____ 
lectly ascertained, and in any case a steel die eiprwaly 

'Out for the butlDDs, free of cost," &c, shakspeaks cobxesfondbhcb. 

There can, indeed, be no doubt that this foolish Shakspeare Emendatunu—AB this iathetf&ot 

E'actice of assuming arms without right has of Shakspeare emendations, I beg to propose the 

te years grown to ait absurd height ; and I fear following for the consideration of the numerous 

' the assumption is by no means confined to persons readers of " N. & Q." I am the more emboldened 

f who have riseD by trade, or by some lucky specu- to do so, as I find several marginal correctirau 

' letiou in railwayfi, &c. ; even those who have beeo made from time to time are verified by the manu.- 

"advaneed iMto on oSce or digmfy qf publiqte script corrections in Mb. Coujbk's folio of 1632, 

' ■ednmuttreiion" have but seldom made tlieir tn- These proposed aTenot,however, theie, orlwoul4 

^ jtmU reqtieet" to tJie heralds "to devise a eeole qf not have troubled you, though it is many moullig 

, «rM«« to bt bome bg Oem mliout rtprodt." siace I first al(«ced the reading of my copy. 



[No. 194. 

TamtTig of the Shrew, Act V. Sc.2. — On the 
exit of Kathitriaa to " fetch " la the disobedient 
wives, Lucentio remarks : 

/' Lvc. Here is ■ wonder, if jrou talk of a wander. 
HorU And >o il U. I wonder what it bodef. 
Pel. Marrj. peace it bodes, and love, and quiet life, 
A<t awful rule, and right lupiemaoy ; 
And, to be ahort. what not that'i sweet and happy." 
I'or " an awful rule " I propose to subslitute and 
lawful rule, as agreeing better with the text and 
context; indeed, the whole passage indicates it. 
Fetruchio means that the change in Katliadna's 
temper and conduct bodes lore, peace, law, and 
order, in contradistinction to awe or fear. The 
repetition of the conjunction and also makes the 
harmony of the language more equal ; "and love, 
and quiet life, and lawful rule, and right supre- 
macj," rings evenly to the ear. Considering the 
number and character of the emendations in Mb. 
COllibk's volume, I have the less hesitation in 
proposing this one. The language of Shakspeare 
IS, as we know it, for the most part so clear, har- 
monious, distinct, and forcible, that I think we 
are justified in considering an^ obscure, incon- 
■istent, or harsh passage, as having met with some 
mishap either in bearing, transcribing, or in print- 
ing. Some months ago, and certainly before Mb. 
Cou-ieb's volume of corrections appeared, I for- 
warded to "N. & Q." (it never appeared) a cor- 
rection from Aidony and Cleopatra, Act V. Sc. 2., 
where Cleojatra, contemplating suicide, says it is — 
" To do that thing that ends all athei deeds. 

Which Bhscklea accidcnli, and bolu up change; 

Which Bleeps, atid never palates more the dung. 

The beggar's nurse end CiBBar's." 
The word " dung" ending the third line, was so 
evidently dug, or nipple, that I thought no man 
to whom it was pointed out could have a doubt 
about it. Mb. Collieb remarks in his recent 
volume, "This emendation may, or may not, have 
been conjectural, but we may be pretty sure it is 
right." I doubt if Me. Collieb would have ac- 
cepted any authority other than that of his own 
folio, although Shakspeare has frequently used the 
word dug as a synonym for nipple, as see Romeo 
and Juliet, Act I. Sc. 3. : 
" NurK. And she was wean'd, — I never shall forget 

Of all the days of the year, upon that day : 
For I had then laid wormwood to my dug. 

' but, as I said. 

When it did tsste the wormwood on the nipple 

Ofmy dug, and felt it bilter, pretty fool, 

To see it telehy, and fall out with Ihe dug 1" 

This quotation proves cleai'ly, I consider, that dug 

was meant by Cleopatra, and not dung; and so I 

considered before the old manuscript correction of 

Mb.Coujbx'b appeared. The words "an awful" 

are as clearly to my mind and lawful. I doubty 
however, if they will be so acknowledged, as the 
use of the words " an awful," it may be contendedi 
are countenanced by other passages iu Shakspeare ; 
I quote the following. 

Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act IV. Sc. 1. — 

" Srd OutlaiB. Know (hen, that some of ui are gen- 
Such as the fury of ungovern'd youth 
Thrust from Ihe company otaic/al men." 
The word " awful " is surely, in this place, lawfvl; 
an outlaw would be little inclined to consider men 
as "awful," hut the contrary. Read the last linft 
as under — 

" Thrust from the company of lawfid men," 

and the meaning is simple and clear. The out- 
laws were thrust from the company of lainfid men, 
that is, men who obeyed the laws ihey hnd broken 
in " the fury of ungovern'd youth." 

In King Richard IL, Act III. Sc. 3., the follow- 
ing use of the words lawfid and awful occurs : 

" K. RicA. We are amazed ; and thus long have we 

To watch the fearful bending of thy knee, 

[ To NorthHTRberlaad, 
Because we thought ourself thy lawful king; 
And if we he, how dare thy joints forget 
To pay their awful duly to our presence? " 

The meaning in this case is no doubt clear enough, 
and the words "awful duty" may be the right 
ones ; but had they stood lawfid dutj/ in any old 
copy, he would have been a bold man who would 
have proposed to substitute awful for lawful. 

Second Part of King Henry JV., Act 17. 
Sc. 1.— 

" Arch. To us, and to our purposes, confin'd i 
We come within our aafvl hanks again, 
And knit our powers to the arm of peace." 

The use of the word " awful " in this passu!;e may 
be right, but, as in the preceding case, Ithink, 
' ' ' iha stood in any old 
been found, in Ms. ( 
lume, the fitness would have been acknowledged. 

Shakspeare used the word "lawful" in many 
instances where, no doubt, it mny with renson, 
strong as any given here, he changed to awful. 
In the historicnf plays, lawfidking, lawful nrogenjr 
lawful heir, lauful magistrate, lawful enrth, lawful 
sword, &c., may be found. These suggestions, 
like the pinch of sand thrown on the old woman's 
cow, if they do no good, will, I trust, do no harm. 


Shakspeare. — A German writer, Professor HU- 
gers, of Aix-la-Chapelle, published in 18S2 & 
pamphlet, in which he endeavoured to prove that 
many passages in Shakspeare, which were ori^in- 
yiy written in verse, have been "degraded" mioi 
prose, and quotes several passages from the playft 

July 16. 1853.] 



in support of his thesis. Professor Hilgers says 
that emendation of the text, by means of such a 
mode of correction as would restore the corrupted 
verses to their original form, has hitherto been 
almost entirely neglected by commentators, or 
else employed by them with yery little ability and 
success. I have not seen the Proressor*s Treatise, 
and only write from a short notice which I have 
just perused of it in a German review; but, if 
what Professor H. states be correct, the subject 
appears to deserve more particular attention from 
the writers in the *^ N. & Q.,*' who have devoted 
their ingenuity and research to the illustration of 
Shakspeare. In the hope of attracting them to 
*^ fresh fields and pastures new," in which to re- 
create themselves, and to instruct and delight the 
world-wide readers of the great dramatist, I ven- 
ture to solicit attention to Professor Hilger^s pam- 
phlet and its subject. In this I only echo the 
German reviewers language, who most highly 

E raises the Professor^s acuteness, and the value of 
is strictures, and promises to return to them at 
greater length in a future number of the periodical 
in which he writes. John Macbat. 



I have thought that the following old letter, 
from a retired lawyer of the seventeenth century 
to his future son-in-law, might not be altogether 
uninteresting to your readers, as referring to the 
value of land and money at the period when it was 
written. C. W. B. 


July >• 16^(16)95. 

w° your sister marry s, there is a 1000 pounds 
more to be provided. Pray putt all these things 
together, and propose some way of solving all 
these difficultys ; and, if you can, I should be glad 
to have it annexed to your estate, and settled upon 
the heirs male of your body. Upon w*'** consicter- 
ation I shall be more inclined to farther your 
desires in a reasonable manner. 

Pray, w** you hear any more of that coiiselor^s 
amours send me word, but lett me advise you 
never to say anything of him or his estate that 
may come to the lady's ears. I hope my Lady 
Morton will not tell M*^' Tregonell any more than 
what all the world should know. I heard the K^ 
had bid adieu to the Woodland Lady. I am very 
glad of it, for I wish him better fibrtune. I writt 
lately to S' John, who honoured me with a letter. 
As for public news, you have heard, I suppose, of 
our burning St. Mafos and Grandvile ; and that 
wee have left a great many of our men before 
Namur, but they continue the siege vigorously. 
They say the firench are about to sett downe be- 
fore Dixmude, to bring us of by revultion. Pray 
p'sent mine and my daughter's service to your 
sister, and believe me to be, S*", your afiectionate 
kinsman and servant J. Potenger. 

Hemember, at this time there is a great deal of 
land to be sold, but fevr purchasers. I have 
spooke to S' Miles Cooke, who promises to lett 
me have your settlement to peruse, and to end 
matters fairly. Since I writt my letter 'tis re- 
ported .... is surrendered or taken. 

These ifor Richard Bingha, Esq., at 
Bingham's Malcombe, to be left at 
the post-house in St. Andrew*Sy 
Milborne, Dorsett. 

Since you are pleased to demand my opinion 
concerning your mtended purchase, I shall give 
you it as well as I can upon so short a warning. 
You say, if lett, you suppose it was worth a 130/. 
per annu. I cannot tell by your letter whether 
the mills, lett at 201, per annu, are a part of y* 
130Z. : if it be, I think 2600/. a great price, being 
much above twenty years' purchase, considering 
the lord's rent. But if they are not included in 
that sum, 'tis a good twenty years' purchase. Now 
you must consider what returne this will make for 
your money. I am sure, as times goe, not three 
per cent; and money makes full five, and very 
seldom, if ever, pays taxes. I believe it may be 
very convenient for you, and it is very advan- 
tageous to be entire ; but if you should contract a 
debt tO' buy this estate you will be very uneasy, 
and, if you marry, the first setting out will be 
expensive, and it will be ill taking up money to 
defray necessary charges. I conceive the lartU is 
in hand, and not lett ; so that, if you have not a 
tenant you must be at the expence of stocking, 
w*'** will sett very bard upon you. And you know, 

Minor fiaM* 

Lines on the Institution of the Order of the 
Garter, — I send you the following, which may bo 
worth a corner in " N. & Q." The only account 
I can give of them is that I found them in MS. 
among other poetical extracts, without date or 
author's name : — 

<* When Salisbury's famed Countess was dancing with 

Her stocking's security fell from her knee. 
Allusions and hints, sneers and whispers went round; 
The trifle was scouted, and left on the ground. 
When Edfvard the Brave, with true soldier-like spirit. 
Cried, * Tlie garter is mine ; 'tis the order of merit ; 
The first knight in my court shall be happy to wear. 
Proud distinction! the garter that fell from the fair: 
While in letters of gold— 'tis your monarch's high 

wUl — 
Shall there be inscribed/ "111 to him that thinks 

Teb Bbb. 



[Na 194. 

Old Ship, — It may be of interest to some of 
TOUT readers to learn that the ship which conveyed 
General Wolfe on his expedition to Quebec is 
itill afloat under the name of the '^ William and 

She was built in 1759 for a bomb-ketch, and 
was in dock in the Thames a few days since, 
sound and likely to endure for many years yet : 
she is mostly now engaged in the Honduras and 
African timber trades, which is in itself anroof 
of her great strength. A. 0. H. 


The Letter "^" in "AumWe."— I was always 
taught in my childhood to sink the h in this word, 
and was confirmed in this habit by the usage of 
all the well-educated people that I met in those 
days, as also by^ the authority of every pronoun- 
cing dictionary in the English language : and to 
this day hear many people quite as well educated, 
and of as high station m all but literary society, 
as Mr. Dickens, use the same pronunciation ; but 
this eminent writer has thought fit of late to pro- 
scribe this practice as far as in him lies, by making 
it the Shibboleth of two of the meanest and vilest 
characters in his works. I should like to know 
whether the aspiration of this letter is due to 
Mr. D.*s London birth and residence, or whether 
it has become of late the general usage of good 
society. If the latter, it is clear that a new edi- 
tion of Walher is required for the benefit of such as 
have no wish to be confounded with the "Keeps." 

Your late Numbers have given some curious in- 
stances of Cockney and other rhymes. I am sorry 
to see that the offensive r not only appears to be 
gaining ground in poetry, but also in the mouths 
of many whose station and education might have 
been supposed to preserve them from this vul- 
garism. If the masters of our srent schools took 
as much pains with their pupils pronunciation of 
English, as with that of Latin and Greek, wo 
should hear less of this. J. S. Wardan. 

" The Angela* TTAiVrper."— The admirers of that 
popular song will bo surprised to find that there 
prevails in India a tradition very similar to the 
one on which that song is founded. 

The other day our Hindoo nurse was watching 
our baby asleep, and noticing that it frequently 
smiled, said,^ ^'^ God is talking to it 1 " The tra- 
dition, as elicited from this woman, seems to be 
here, that when a child smiles in its sleep, God is 
flaying something| pleasing to it; but when it cries. 
He is talking to it of sorrow. J. C. B. 


Pronmciation of Coke (Vol. vii., p, 586.). — 
Probably the under-mentioned particulars may 
tend to elucidate the Quer^ discussed in your 
paper touching the pronunciation of Chief Jus- 
tice Coke*s surname m his Lordship^s time. 

In numerous original fkmily "Coke dooamenta** 
in my possession, amongst which are a mott 
spirited and highly interesting letter written bj 
tne celebrated Lady ElizaMth Hatton*| Sir 
Edward Coke*8 widow, quite in character witb 
her ladyship, shortly after her husband*! death; 
and likewise several letters written by his ohil* 
dren and mndchildren ; Sir Edward • samame 
is invariably spelt Coke, whilst in other his family 
documents t and public precepts I possess, the 
latter of which came under the eye of Lord» 
Keepers Coventry and Littleton, Sir Edwnrd** 
name is, in nine cases out of ten in five hundred 
instances, spelt Coohe and Cooh ; thus, I submit^ 
raising an almost irresistible presumption that^ 
however the Chief Justice*s surname was written^ 
it was pronounced CooA and not Coke. 

T. W. JoiiBs. 


The Advice supposed to have been given ft^ 
Julius III, — The Consilium^ sometimes and inad- 
vertently called a Council^ addressed to Julius IIL^ 
Pope of Eome, by certain prelates, has just been 
once more quoted, for the fiftieth time, perhaps^ 
within the present generation, as a genuine docu- 
ment, and as proceeding from adherents of the 
Church of Rome. This re-quotation appears in 
an otherwise useful little volume of the Religious 
Tract Society, entitled The Bible in many Tongues^ 
p. 96. ; and it may tend to check the use made of 
the supposed Advice or Council to state, what a 
perusal either of the original in Brown's FascieuXm 
Herum Expetend, et Fugiend,^^ or of a translation in 
Gibson's Preservative (vol. i. pp. 183. 191., ed- 
1848), will soon make evident, tnat the document 
in question is a piece of banter, and must be at- 
tributed to the pen of P. P. Vergerio, in whose 
Worhs it is in fact included, in the single volume 
published Tubing. 1 568, fol. 94— 1 04. 

So fVequently has this supposed Advice beea 
cited as a serious affair, that the pages of **N. k Q.**^ 
may be well employed in endeavouring to stop tjie* 
somewhat perverse use of a friendly weapon. 



♦ ♦» 


It is probable that others of your readers be- 
sides myself have had good reason to complaia 
that Dr. Maitland has cruelly raised the price of 
this little book to a bibliomaniacal height, by his 
inimitable description of its curious contents and 
history. (Essaifs on Subjects connected with (he 
Reformation^ xvii. xviii. xix.) 

* net surname is so written. 

f Some of them of so early a date as the year IBOO, 
when Sir Edward was Attorney- General to Queeii 

July 16. 1853.] 



Some of the tiling which seem to be iodubitable 
respectm^ the original work are these : — 1. That 
it was first printed in 153^. 2. That, consequently, 
Bishop Burnet {Hist o/Ref.^ Parti, b. iii. prl66.: 
Dubhn, 1730) was mbtaken ia representing it as 
Jioying been written in reply to Cardinal Pole. 

3. That there uhis an octavo edition published at 
Strasburg in 1536, and that Groldastufi followed it. 

4. That there was an addki(mal reprint of the 
tract at London in 1603. (Schelhorniiy Amom, 
JSist EccUs,^ tom. i. ppt. 15. 849.) But I am 
anxious to make three inquiries relative to this 
really important document and its fictitious pre» 

1. The Koane volume, certainly the earliest in 
English, professes to have been printed by " Mi- 
cbal Wood" in 1553. Can we not determine the 
place of its origin by the recollection of the fact, 
that Bishop Bale*s Mysterye of Iniquyte^ or Con' 
filiation of Ponce Pantolabus, was printed at Geneva 
by "Mychael Woode" in 1545? 

2. With regard to the typographical achieve- 
ments of the Brocards, is it not rather an apropos 
circumstance, that "Biliosus Balaeus," as Fuller 
calls him, was the author of a Historia Divi Bro- 
cardif (Ware's Works, ii. 325.) 

3. May not Bale (or Baal, according to Pits) 
be suspected to have been the composer of the 
Bonnerian Preface ? He might have reckoned it 
among the many Facetias et Jocos which he de^ 
Glares that he had put forth. It is observable that, 
while the writer of this Preface designates Bishop 
Grardiner as the " common cutthrot of Englande, 
the same title is bestowed upon Bonner in the 
Foxian Letter addressed to him by " an unknown 
person" (Strype*s Memor. iii., Catal. p. 161.: Lon- 
don, 1721), and which, from internal evidence 
taken from the part relating to Philpot, must be 
referred to the year 1555. The style of these per- 
formances is similar; and let ^^gaie Gardiner, 
blow-bole Boner, trusti Tonstal, and slow-bellie 
Samson " of the Preface be compared with " glo- 
rious Gardiner, blow-bolle Bonner, tottering Tun- 
stal, wagtaile Weston, and carted Chicken." (Bale's 
Declaration of Bonner's Articles, fol. 90. b., Lon- 
don^ 1561.) R. G. 

Minnx <SL\xzxiti. 

Lord Byron. — What relation to the poet was 
the Lord Byron mentioned in the Apology for the 
Life of George Ann Bellamy f Ui«£I>a. 


Curious Custom of ringing Bells for the Dead. 
— In Marshfield, Massacnusets, it has been cus- 
tomary for a very long period to ring the bell of 
the parish church most violently for eight or ten 
minutes, whenever a death occurs in the village ; 
then to strike it slowly three times three^ wiuch 

makes known to tiie inhabitants that a man or 
boy has expired, and finally to toll it the number 
of times that the deceased had numbered years of 

The first settlers of Marshfield having been 
Englishmen, ma.j I ask if this custom ever did, or 
does now, exist m the mother country ? W. W. 


Unpublished Essay by Lamb-. — Coleridge is 
represented in his Table Talk (p. 253. ed. 1836% 
to have said that *^ Charles Lamb wrote an essay 
on a man, who had lived in past time." The 
editor in a note tells us he knows " not when or 
where." I do not find it in the edition of his 
works published in 1846, nor have I been able to 
discover it in any of the journals, to which he 
contributed, that have fallen in my way. Haye 
any of your correspondents met with it ? 

R. W. Elliott. 

Peculiar Orncmient in Crosthwaite Church. — On 
lately visiting Crosthwaite Church, Cumberland, 
I was exceedingly struck with the great peculi* 
arity of a carving, pointed out to me by the sexton, 
on the left jambs of all the windows in the north 
and south aisles, both inside and out. It is in the 
form of a circle with eight radiations, and always 
occurs about half-way between the shoulder of the 
arch and the sill. During the late restoration of 
the church, it has been covered with plaster in 
every case in the interior, save one in the north 
aisle, which is left very distinct. It does not 
appear on any of the windows at the east end or 
in the tower. I noticed a similar figure over the 
stone door-way of the old inn at Threlkeld, with 
the letters C G inscribed on one side, and the 
date 1688 on the other. The sexton said, he had 
never been able to obtain any intelligence as to 
its symbolical meaning or , history, although he 
had inquired of nearly every one who had been 
to see the church. Can any of your correspon- 
dents throw a light upon the subject ? 

R. W. Elliott. 

CromwelVs Portrait, — In the Annual Register^ 
1773, " Characters," p. 77. ; in Hughes's Letters^ 
ii. 308. ; in Gent Mag., xxxv. 357. ; and in 
Noble's House of Cromwell, i. 307., is a statement, 
originally made by Mr. Say, of Lowestoft, in his 
account of Mrs. Bridjijet Bendish, importing that 
the best picture of Oliver which the writer had 
ever seen, was at Rosehall (Beccles), in the pos- 
session of Sir Robert Rich. Where is this pof" 
trait ? Has it ever been engraved ? S. W. Kix. 


Governor Brooks, about a century since, was 

governor of one of the West India Islands. I have 
eard Cuba named as his government; and it 
Might have beea thai, the short time Cuba was in 



[No. 194. 

tho pofidMion of the English^ ho wni governor of 
it; out t Atn unoerUin. If Any con^Cipondent, 
vomod in Wcit tndinn AfTttim, cao gtvo mo Any pAr- 
ticulAn of tho ilimily And Antocodchu of the Abovi*, 
or Any roA^ronco to*nit «orvicoii (for I iupt)oiio hint 
to bAvo boon AmilitAry mAn)| it will grcAtobUflo 

Tim lijm. 

Old Booh* — I notice lomo of your corronpon- 
dontfi, hAving fAnciod tlmt thcv Imvo picked up At 
Aomo oltl book-MtAll An invHhuiblo troA«urc. Aro 
coolly told by others nioro loArnod. ^* It would be 
A bAd oxchnn^o for a ihilling ;** anU| AgAin» **If it 
cost throo tthiUingi And Alxponcc, tho purohAaor 
WAi most unforttinate.** 

> MAy I Ask tho vaIuo of tho following ? Thoy 
oamo into poMOMion of my fAmily About thirty 
yoAfi Ago : 

** Kpltomo TlieiAurl AntlqviltAtum hoo ttiit Impp. 
Rom. ori«ntttUum ot occldtftitAlium tconum ttx AiitlquiM 
nuniiiimiitibuii mmm (iiiclliwlme (lellncAtum. 

** Ex MusAK) Jacobi dit Stntila Manlunni Antiiiuiitum. 

**LugiUini, m|MhI Jacobum tla StrndA «t Thomam 
Ouerolnum, Mi)t.itt. (155.*)). Cum PriviUglo Ittfglo.** 

IlandMomcly got up ; gilt odgci, pp, 330. Alio, 

*< Sommarlo dtilU vlttt de Gl/Impcriatortt Romanl da 
C. Giolio C«Nar« nIoo a Fordinaiulo It., con lo loro 
ttffitfl« CauHttf dallo ^fcdaglie i In Uoma aprcMO) 
Lodovico Oiigtiani, Mi)Ckxxvit» pp. 80," 


The Privil(*ge« qf ihe Sifn of Canterbury.'^ I 
And proftcrvca by vVilllnni of MAlmtibury, in his 
Chronich^ book ill., the fbllowing lottor ft'om Popo 
Bonlfaco to Justus Archbishop of Cantorbury, 
rospcctittg tho privilogos of his sco : 

** Tai* bo It fVom every ChrUtlan, that anything 
ooncerning tho city of Canterbury bo diminiiihed or 
ehanged, In present or /ktktt h'w?*, wbich was ap* 
pointed by our predeeomor Pope Orogory, honnnvtr 
humnH vhcmH9fnHifp» mn^ 6« ehnnp^d i but moro espe- 
olally by the authority of St. IVter, tho chlvf of the 
Apowtleii, xve oommand and ordain, (hat the city of 
Canterbury thnH pii?r fi(>rtr\fUr f>« f^tttmtd tht A/c^ti/m- 
ttinn S<>i of all Ibitaln ; and wo dcoree and appoint 
immHtabfj^t that all tho provlnoeN of the kingdom of 
£nffland ihall be Nubject to the Metropolitan Churoh 
of tho aforesaid Hee. And If any one attempt to injuro 
this ohurob, which U moro ONpecially under the power 
And protection of the Holy lloman Church, or to 
loMon tho Jurisdiction conceded to It, may Ooo ex- 
punge him fVom the book of lif^ ) and let him know 
that ho is bound by tho sentence of a curse.** 

- How cAn tho exproisions I havo ttAlloised bo 
rooonoilcd with tho croation of tho Archioj)iscopAl 
Bed of Wostminstur f W. FiusttR, 


Tienddk Colour pertaimnff to Ireland, — Thero 
occurs ill tho ImdiH Umvereitjf Magagine for 
October, 1863, An Article oiUitlod '* A Night in 

tho Fino ArU* Court of our NAtionAl Exhibition,** 
and At tho oonolusion a ** Noto/* in which I find 
tho following rotnArks : — t 

**Tlds last (tho Aguro of Krin), as described, it 
purely Ideal, but legitimately brought In, as lloftan^t 
figuro of * nilMrnIa* occupied a position in the Kino 
Arts* Court, and suggested it. It may l>o as well to 
add that KrIn Is described as wearing a ^/ms manilti 
as blue, not green, is the horaldio colour pertaining to 
Ireland now. 

May I inquire At what time, and under what 
olrouniitAnceA, bluo waa aubitituted for tho old 
fkvourlto green P IImniiy IL Driibn. 

St. Luoia. 

Deecendanta qf Judai hcariot.'^ln Southey*! 
Omniana is the following : 

" It was l>oUo¥od In Tier della Valle*s time that the 
descendants of Judas still oxiiteil at Corl\i, dioutfh the 
pemons wbo ■ufHtred thU Imputation stoutly denied 
tho truth of the genealogy." 

Is anything fArther to be met with on thia cu- 
rious suiyect ? G. CiittiiD. 

Parinh Clerh and Politics, — In Twentif^HM 
Pmlfm of Thanhgimnff and Praiee^ Love emd 
Olorjf^ for the nee of a Parish Church (tCxon.| 
And. Brioe, 1736), the rector ^who compiled it)i 
among other reasons for omitting aU tlie impre* 
ca/ory PsAlmi, lAyi, — ' 

** Lest a parUh clerk, or any other, should bo whetting 
his «M/ctfN, or oblli^lng his 9pttt, when ho iihould bo tn» 
tertaining his devotion.** 

That such praotioes were Indulged In, we hAT9 
tho farther evidence of DrAmston the satirist : 

** Not lontf Mince pnritih clnk«t with saucy airs, 
Apply*d Ari>|r havid't iWms to 9tah't\fftiiri,'''* 

Can any readers of ** N. k Q.** point out ox* 
amples of such misApplicAtion 1* J. 0. 

''Virgin Wife and widou^d A/iiW."— Wheneo 
come the words "Virgin wife and widow'd maid/* 
quoted, AppArenily, by LiddcU And Scott in their 
Greek Lexicon, s. v. Airtttf^fCdy, as a rendering or 
illustration of Hoc. CIO. f 


" Cutting tifthe little heade of light:' — Perhapa 
you or one of your oorrespondents would help mn 
to tho wheroAbouts of some thoughtful linos which 
t recently cauio Across, in a volume which I accU 
dentAlly took up, but the nAine of whicb has com* 
pletely slipped my memory. 

* The Art qf n^Htiekh in imitittiim qf Nmieet I7i8^ 
with A hybrid portrAit of Heidegger, tho wbit. ek$mnU 
of his day. 

July 16. 1853.] 



The lines referred to typified Tyranny under the 
form of the man who puts out the gas-lights at 
dawn : *' Cutting off the little heads of light which 
lit the world." I am not sure of the rhythm, and 
so have put the lines like prose ; but they wind up 
with a fine analogy of the sun in all its glory 
bursting on the earth, and putting the proceedings 
of the light extinguisher utterly to nought. 

A. B. R. 

Medal of Sir Robert Walpole, — On a brass 
medal, without date, rather larger than half a 
crown, are these effigies. 

On one side the devil, horned and tailed proper, 
with a fork in his right hand, and marching with a 
very triumphant step, is conducting a courtier in 
full dress (no doubt meant for Walpole), by a 
rope round his neck, into the open jaws of a 
monster, which represent the entrance to the 
place of punishment. Out of the devirs mouth 
issues a label with the words, '^ Make room for Sir 
Robert." Underneath, " No Excise." 

On the reverse are the figures of two naval 
officers, with the legend, " The British Glory re- 
revived by Admiral Vernon and Commodore 
Brown." This refers of course to the taking of 
Porto Bello in November, 1739. 

Is this piece one of rarity and value ? J. 

La Fete des Chaudrons, — In the exhibition of 
pictures in the British Institution is one (No. 17.) 
by Teniers, entitled "La Fete des Chaudrons." 
In what publication can the description of this 
fete, or fan*, be found ? C. I. R. 

Who first thought of Tahle-tuming f^ Whilst 
the people are amusing themselves, and the learned 
are puzzling themselves, on the subject of table- 
turning, would you have any objection to answer 
the following Query ? 

Who first thought of table-turning P and whence 
has it suddenly risen to celebrity ? J. G. T. 


CoUe^e Guide. — Will some of your correspon- 
dents kindly inform a father, who is looking for- 
ward to his boys going to college, in what work 
he will find the fullest particulars respecting 
scholarships and exhibitions at the different col- 
leges in both universities ? Querist is in posses- 
sion of Gilbert's Liber Scholasticus (1843), the 
Family Almanack for 1852, and, of course, the 
University Calendars, S. S. S. 

Done Pedigree, — A very old MS. pedigree of 
the family of Done of Utkington, in the county 
before me, connects with that family no less than 
twenty-three Cheshire families of distinction, viz. 
Cholmondeley, £gerton,Wilbraham, Booth, Axden, 

Leicester, and seventeen others. Now, as it ap- 
pears by your note on the communication of a 
correspondent (Vol. vi., p. 273.), that there exists 
a pedigree of the family of Done, of Utkington, in 
the British Museum, Additional MS. No. 5836. 
pp. 180. and 186., perhaps you will be good 
enough to say whether that pedigree discloses the 
extensive Cheshire family connexion with the 
Done family above noticed. T. AV. Jones. 


[Tlie following families connected with Done of 
Utkington occur in the pedigree (Add. MS. 5836. 
p. 186.): " Richard de Kingsley, a.d. 1233 ; Venables, 
Swinerton, Peter de Thornton, Lord Audley, Dutton, 
Aston, Gerrard, Wilbraham, Manwaring, Eliz. Traf- 
ford, widow of Geo. Booth of Dunham, Ralph Legh 
of High Legh, Davenport, Thomas Stanley de Alder- 
ley, Thomas WagstafT of Tachbroke, and Devereux 
Knightley of Fawsley." This pedigree was copied by 
Cole from an old MS. book of pedigrees formerly be* 
Idnging to Sir John Crew. See also Ormerod's Cheshire, 
vol. ii. p. 133., for a pedigree of Done of Utkington, 
Flax- Yards, and Duddon, compiled from inquisitions 
post mortem, the parochial registers, and the Visitations 
of 1580 and 1664.] 

Scotch Newspapers^ SfC, — What are the earliest 
publications of Scotland giving an account of the 
current events of that kingdom ? T. F. 

[ The Edinburgh Gazette, or Scotch Postman, printed 
by Robert Brown on Tuesdays and Thursdays, ap- 
pears to have been the earliest gazette. The first 
Number was published in March, 1715. This was 
followed by The Edinburgh Evening Courant, published 
on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Thursdays. No. 1. ap- 
peared on the 15th December, 1718, and has existed 
to the present time. There was another paper issued 
on May 8, 1692, called The Scotch Mercury, giving a 
true account of the daily proceedings and most remark- 
able public occurrences in Scotland ; but this seems to 
have been printed in London for R. Baldwin. The 
earliest Jlmanack published in Scotland was in 1677, 
by Mr. Forbes of Aberdeen, under the title of A New 
Prognostication, calculated for North Britain, and which 
was continued until the year 1700.] 

Dictum de KenUworth, — Said to have passed 
anno 1266. What was the nature of it ? 


[It is a declaration of the parliament of Henry IIL, 
containing the terms on which the king was to grant a 
general pardon to the malcontents of ElV) namely, that 
all who took arms against the king should pay him the 
value of their lands, some for five years, others for 
three and for one. A copy of it is in the Cottonian 
Library, Claudius, D. ii., 119.b., and in Tyrrel's Hist, 
of England, p. 1064.] 

Dr. Harwood. — Can you tell me in what year 
the Rev. Dr. Harwood of Lichfield, author of a 
History of that city, and other works, died ? X 



[No. 194. 

believe it was about 1849 ; but I have not been 
able to ascertain the exact date. A. Z. 

[Dr. Harwood died 23rd December, 1842, aged 75. 
For a biographical notice of him, see Gent, Mag, for 
February, 1843, p. 202.] 


(Vol. vii., p. 536.) 

I have been travelling so much about in the 
country since I left England, that I have not al- 
ways the opportunity of seeing your " N. & Q." 
until l(Mig after the publication of the different 
Numbers. I have in this way seen some Queries 
put to me about matters connected with the his- 
tory of the Danish settlements in England. But 
as I have had no particular information to give, I 
have not thought it worth while to write to say 
that I know nothing of any great consequence. 

Just when I left Copenhagen, some days ago, a 
friend of mine showed me that Mr. TAViiOB, of 
Ormesby in Norfolk, asked some questions re- 
garding the Danish names of places in Norfolk. 

In- answer to them I beg to state, that all the 
names terminating in -by unquestionably are of 
Danish origin. Mr. Tayi^b is perfectly right in 
supposing that several of these names of places 
contain the names of the old Danish conquerors. 
But I do not think that Ormesby originally has 
been Grormsby. Gorm certainly is the same as 
Guthrum ; but both of these names are distinctly 
different from the name " Orme " or " Orm," 
which, in our old language, signifies a serpent, 
and also a worm. (The famous ship, on board of 
which King Olaf Tryggveson was killed in the 

J rear 1000, was called " Ormen hin lange," i.e, the 
ong serpent.) I have observed that several En- 
glish families (undoubtedly of old Scandinavian 
descent) at this day have the family-name **Onn*' 
or "Orme." 

Among the other names of places quoted by 
Mb. Taylob, KoUesby roost probably must be de- 
rived from the name "Rollo" or "Rolf;" but I 
lizard the origin of the other names as being 
much more doubtful. If we had the original 
ferms of these names, it might have been easier to 
decide upon it. As the names are now, I do not 
■ee anything purely Scandinavian in them, except 
ibe termination -by. It is not at all unlikely that 
tlie name Ashby or Askeby might have been called 
so from " Ash-trees " (Danish " Ask eller Esk "), 
but I dare not venture into conjectures of this 

I should be very happy if I in any other way 
could be of any service to Mb. Taylob in his re- 
searches about the Danish settlements in East 
Anglia. His remarks upon the situation of the 
villages with Danish names are most interesting 

and instructive. I always sincerely wish that in- 
habitants ef the different old Danish districts in 
the North and East of England would, in the 
same way, take up the question about the Danish 
inffuence, as I feel fully convinced that very re- 
markable and important elucidations might be 
gained to the history of England during a long 
and hitherto very little known period. 

J. J.^ A. Wo&SAAE. 


(Vol. vii., p. 620. ; Vol. viii., p. 45.) 

Having been so frequently benefited by the in- 
struction, especially photographic, issuing from 
your most useful periodical, I feel myself almost 
bound to contribute my mite of information when- 
ever I may chance to have the power of doing so ; 
consequently, should you not get a better method 
of assisting Mb. F. M. Midjdleton out of his diffi- 
culty of softening old paint, as described in the 
" N. & Q.," No. 191., I beg to offer him the fol- 
lowing, and from experience I can vouch iav its 
certainty of leading him to the desired result. 

Some years since, having had occasion to enter 
a lumber-room of an old building, I was struck 
with the antiquated appearance of an arm-chair, 
which had, in days long gone by, been daubed 
over with a dirty bluish paint. Finding, on in- 

?uiry, that its owner set no particular vidue on it, 
met with but little difSculty in inducing him to 
make an exchange with me for a good mahogany 
one. Soon after its being brought into my house, 
one of my domestics discovered that it positively 
swarmed with a species of lice, issuing from innu- 
merable minute worm-holes and crevices, which of 
course rendered it in its present state worse than 
useless. Determined not to be deprived of mv 
prize, I resolved on attempting to rid it of this 
troublesome pest by washing it over with a strong 
solution of caustic soda, made by mixing gome 
quick-lime with a very strong solution of the 
common washkig soda (impure carbonate of soda), 
and pouring on the clear supernatant liquid itii 
use. This proceeding, much to my satisfaction^ 
not only succeeded in entirely getting rid of l^e 
vermin, but on my servant's scrubbing the chair 
with a hard brush and hot soap and water, I found 
that the caustic soda had formed a kind of soap, 
by chemically uniting with the oil contained m 
the old paint, thereby reducing it to such a state 
of softness, that by a few vigorous applications and 
soakings of the above-named solution, and subse- 
quent scrubbings, my new favourite was also freed 
from its ugly time-worn jacket of dirty paint, dig- 
covering underneath a beautifriHy carved send 
darkly coloured oaken surface. 

After being perfectly dried and saturated wit^ 
linseed oil, it was frequently well rubbed, and th^ 

July 16. 1853.] 



cbair standis to this day, like some of the yaluable 
discoveries made by the alchemists when in search 
of the Elixir Vit», or the Philosopher's Stone, an 
example of a fortunate and unexpected disclosure 
made when not directly in search of it. I have 
since learnt that a fluid possessing the above- 
named detergent qualities, is to be purchased at 
some of the oil and colour shops, the formula fbr 
its preparation being kept a secret. 

Hei^&t Hkbbsrt Hslb. 
Ashburton, Devonshire. 

F. S. — In makin? the solution on a caustic 
alkali, perhaps I should have said that the common 
carbonate of potass of commerce will do as weH as 
the common carbonate of soda, if not better, from 
the probability of its making a stronger solution. 

The following recipe for taking paint off old 
oak is from No. 151. of The Builder: 

" Make a strong solution of American potash (which 
can be bought at any colour>shop, and resembles burnt 
brick in appearance); mix this with sawdust into a kind 
of paste, and spread it all over the paint, which will 
become softened in a few hours, and is then easily re- 
moved by washing with cold water. If, after the wood 
has dried, it becomes cracked, apply a solution of hot 
size with a brush, which will bind it well together and 
make it better for varnishing, as well as destroy the 
beetle, which is often met with in old oak, and is erro- 
neously called the worm.'* 

The following is also from the same Number : 

<'- To make dark oak pale in colour, which is some- 
times a desideratum, apply with a brush a Httle dilute 
nitric acid judiciously ; and to stain light oak dark, use 
the dregs of black ink and burnt amber mixed. It is 
better to try these plan» on oak of little value at first, 
as, to make a good job, requires cave, practice, and 

XX. C. K.. 

F. M. Mn)i>LETON will find that American 
potash, soft soap, and warm water, will remove 
paint from oak. The mixture should be applied 
with a paint-brush, and allowed to remain on until 
the paint and it can be removed by washing with 
warm water and a hard brush. Getsbn. 


(Vol. viii., p. 5.) 

Your correspondent Chbvbbblls refers to the 
** tradition** of one of the Harcourt family being 
buried in an ereet posture, and asks, *^ Is the pro* 
babiltty of this being the ease supported by any, 
aad what instances r" As this Query has been 
raised, it may be worth while to mention the fol- 
lowing circumstance, as a ainffular illustration of 
* remarkable subject ; though (as will be seen) 
the aetwai buml in aa erect posture is here also 
probd^ky '^^trsditioiid;* 

Towards the elose of the last century, there 
lived in Kidderminster an eccentric person of the 
name of Qrton (not that Orton, the friend of Dod- 
dridge, who passed some time i«i the town), but 
"Job Orton," the landlord of the Bell Intt. 
During his lifetime he erected his tomb ki the 
parish churchyard, with this memeniO'mori inscrip- 
tion graven in large characters on the upper slab : 

** Job Orton, a man from Leicestershire ; 
And when he's dead, he must lie under here." 

This inscription remains unaltered to this day, 
and may be seen on the right-hand of the broad 
walk on the north side of t& spacious churchyard. 
His coffin was constructed at the same time ; and, 
until it should be required for other and personal 
purposes, was used as a wine-hin. But, to carry 
his eccentricity even to the grave, he left strict 
orders that he should be buried in an erect posture : 
and " tradition" (of course) says that his request 
was complied with. Your correspondent says that 
tradition " assigns no reason for the peculiarity'* 
of the Harcourt knight's burial ; but tradition has 
been more explicit in Job Orton's case, whose 
reason (?) for his erect posture in the tomb was, 
that at the last day he might be able to rise from 
his grave before his wife, who waa buried in the 
usual horizontal manner I Job Orton appears to 
have had a peculiar talent for the composition of 
epitaphs ; as, in his more playful moments, he was 
accustomed to tell his better-half that if he out- 
lived her he should put the following lines on her 
tombstone : 

** Esther Orton— a bitter, sour weed; 
God never lov*d her, nor increased her seed." 

He seems, however, to have spared her this 
gratuitous insult. As a farther illustration of the 
characters of this singular couple, the following 
anecdote is told. Esther Orton having frequently 
declared, that she should " never die happy untd 
she had rolled in riches,** Job, like a good hus- 
band, determined to secure his wife's happiness; 
Having sold some land for a thousand pounds, he 
insisted that t^e money should be paid wholly in 

fuinea& Taking these home in a bag, he locked 
is wife up in & voonr; knocked her down, opened 
his bag of guineas, and raining the golden wealth 
upon her^ rolled his Danae over and over in the 
coin. " And now, Esther," said Job Orton, " thee 
mayst die as soon as thee pleases : for thee'st had 
thy wish, and roWd in richiss'^ 


ukwzBBa* B^es. 

(VoL vii., p. 5570 

Additional evidence of the Ikct thst lawyers 
used to carry green baga towsrdi tiie ond of the 



[No. 194, 

■eventcenth century, is to bo found in the Plain 
Dealer^ a comedy by Wychorloy. 

One of the principal cliaraclers in tlio play is 
tbe Widow Blackacre, a petulant, litigious woman, 
always in law, and mother of Jerry Blackacre, ** a 
true raw souire under ago and his mother's go- 
vernment, bred to the law,^* 

In Act I. So. 1., I find the following stago di- 
rections : 

" Enter Widow Blackacre with a mantle and a ffreen 
bag, and sovcrnl papers in the other hand. Jerry 
Blackacre, her son, in a gown, laden with green bags, 
following her." 

In Act III. So. 1. the widow is called imper- 
tinent and ignorant by a lawyer of whom she 
demands back her feo, on his returning her brief 
and declining to plead for her. This araws from 
her the following reply : 

** Impertinent again and ignorant to mo I Oadkbo- 
dikins, you puny upstart in the law to use mo so, you 
preen hag carrier, you murderer of unfortunate causes," 

Farther on, in the same scene, Freeman, a 
gentleman well educated, but of a broken fortune, 
a compiler with the age, thus admonishes Jerry : 

'< Come, Squire, let your mother and your trees fall 
as she pleases, rather than wear this gown and carry 
green bags all thy life, and be pointed at for a tony. 
But you shall be able to deal witii her yet the cbmmon 
way. Thou shalt make false love to some lawyer's 
daughter, whose father, upon the hopes of thy marrying 
her, shall lend thee money and law to preserve thy 
estate and trees." 

A. W. S. 



[By the courtesy of our valued cotemporary Th9 
Atnenentm, we are permitted to reprint the following 
interesting communication, which appeared in that 
Journal on Saturday last.] 


** Henley Street, July 6. 

*' Your insertion of the annexed letter fVom my 
brother-in-law, Mr. John StewUrt, of Pau, will 
much oblige me. The utility of this mode of 
reproduction seems indisputable. In reference to 
its concluding paragraph, I will only add, that the 
publication of concentrated microscopic editions of 
works of reference — maps, atlases, logarithmic 
tables, or the concentration for pocket use of pri- 
vate notes and MSS., &c., &c., and innumerable 
other similar applications — is brought within the 
reach of any one who possesses a small achromatic 
object-glass of an incn or an inch and a half in 
diameter, and a brass tube, with slides before and 
behind the lens of a fitting diameter to receive the 
plate or plates to be operated upon, — central or 

nearly central rays only being required. The de> 
tails are too obvious to need mention. — I am, &o, 

*' J. F. W. IIbbschbl, 

« Pau, June 11. 

" Dear Herschol. — I sent you some time ago a 
few small-sized studies of animals from the life, 
singly and in flocks, upon collodionised glass. The 
great rapidity of exposition reauired for such sub* 
jects, bemg but the fraction or a second, together 
with the very considerable depth and harmony 
obtained, gavo me reason to hopo that ere this 
I should have been able to pro(iuco microsoopio 
pictures of animated objects. For the present, I 
nave been interrupted. Meantime, one of my 
friends here, Mr. Ileilmann, following the same 
pursuit, has lighted on an ingenious method of 
taking from glass negatives positive impressions of 
different dimensions, and with all the delicate mi^ 
nutencss which the negative may possess. This 
discovery is likely, I think, to extend the resources 
and the application of photography, — and witk 
some modifications, which I will explain, to in- 
crease the power of reproduction to an almost un- 
limited amount. The plan is as follows : — - The 
negative to be reproduced is placed in a slider at 
one end (a) of a camera or other box, constructed 
to exclude the light throughout. The surface pre- 
pared for the reception of the positive — whether 
albumen, collodion, or paper — is placed in another 
slider, as usual, at the opposite extremity (c) of 
the box, and intermediately between the two ex- 
tremities (at b) is placed a lens. The negative at 
a is presented to the light of tho sky, care being 
taken that no rays enter the box but those travers- 
ing the partly transparent negative. These raya 
are received and directed by the lens at b upon 
the sensitive surface at c, and the impression of 
the negative is there produced with a rapidity pro- 
portioned to the light admitted, and the sensibility 
of the surface presented. B v varying the distances 
between a anu c, and c and &, any dimension re* 
quired may bo given to the positive impression. 
Thus, from a medium-sized negative, I have ob- 
tained negatives four times larger than the original^ 
and other impressions reduced thirty times, ca- 
pable of figuring on a watch-glass, brooch, or ring. 

" Undoubtedly one of the most interesting and 
important advantages gained by this simple ar- 
rangement is, the power of varying the dimensions 
of a picture or portrait. Collodion giving results 
of almost microscopic minuteness, such negatives 
bear enlarging considerably without any very per- 
ceptible deterioration in that respect. Indeed, as 
regards portraits, there is a gain instead of a loss ; 
the power of obtaining good and pleasing likenesses 
appears to me decideoly increased, the facility of 
suDsequent enlargement permitting them to be 
taken sufficiently small, at a sufficient distance 
(and therefore with greater rapidity and certainty) 

July 16. 1853.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 61 

to avoid all the focal distortion bo much complained b^ increase of size till the harsbness is much dilm- 

of, — while thedueenlargement of a portrait taken nished, and landscapes, alv a jb more or leas un- 

on glass has the effect, moreover, of depriving it pleasing on collodion from that cause, are rendered 

of uiat hardoesa of outline so objectionable in a aomewhat less dry and crude, 
pollodion portrait, giving it more artistic effect, " A vei^ little practice will suffice to show the 

anil tbis without quitting the perfect focal point as operator the qualit7 of glaaanegatiTeg- — I mean as 

has been suggested. to vigour and development — best adapted for rei 

. " But there are manj other advantages obtained producing positives by this method. He will also 

bj this process. For copying bj engraving, &c. the find that a great power of correction is oblainedi 

exact dimensipn required of any pictnre may at by which overdone parts in the negative can be 

once be given to be copied from. reduced and others brought up. Indeed, in conse- 

' " A very small photographic apparatus can thus quence of this and other advantages, I have litUa 

be employed when a large one might be inconve- doubt that this process nill be very generall; 

nient or impracticable, the power of reproducing adopted in portrait taking. 

on a larger scale being always in reserve. Inde- " Should your old idea of preserving public 

peiidentoflhia power of varying the size, positives records in a concentrated form on microscopio 

BO taken of the same dimension as the negative negatives ever be adopted, the immediate positive 

reproduce, as will be readily understood, much reproduction on an enlarged readable scale, with- 

moi-e completely the finer and more delicate details out the possibility of injury to the plate, will be 

of the negatives thnn positives taken by any other of service. 
process that I am acquainted with. "I am, &c. " Johh Stxwabt." 

- "The negBtive also may be reversed in its position 

at a ao na to produce upon glass a positive to be 

seen either 'upon or under toe glass. And while J&tpTiti tO ^(lur Qucirfctf. 

tlie rapidity and facility of printine are the same _, „. „. _, , .. „., , _. 

as in iU oL of positiv'es taten on paper prepared ^ ^f ^"^, ^"."ff*^ O'"'-.,'"-. ?■««»■); " ^^^ 

with the iodide of silver, the negafiveB. th<ie on Greek Church directs that the ring be put on the 

glass particularly, being eo easUy fnjured. are much ^.ght hand (Schmid Liturpk, m. 352 : Nassau, 

better preserved, all actual contact with the poai- \i^^) ^ ?"^ although the Erection of the Sarum 

tive being avoided. For the same reason, by this ^""«".' "" ^? "° ■"«»"» =lf" (see Palmer a Ongt^t 

process ^tive impressions can be obtained not ^^t"'^^"^ "■ 213., ed 2.) such may have formerl^F 

only upoVwet paper, &c., but aUo upon hard in- *'^° *« ?"?'«'« '" England, since Baatell, in bia 

flexible substanoer, auch as porcelain, ivory, glass, counter- challenge to Bishop Jewel, notes it as a 

&c., — and upon this last, thrpositives being trans- "O"^'? "^ '■^^ Eeformalion, — 

[larent are applicable to the stereoscope, magic " That the man should put the wedJlng-ring on the 

antern, &C. fourth finger in the left band of the woman, and not on 

"By adopting Ihe following arrangement, this the right hand, as hath been many hundreds of years 

process may be used largely to increase the power continued." — Heylyn, Hut. Smf., u. 430. Bva ed. 

and speed of reproduction with little loss of effect. But the practice of the Roman communion 

From a positive thus obtained, say on collodion, jn general agrees with that of the Anglican. 

eeneral hundred negatives may be produced either (Schmid, iii. 350-2.) Martene quotes from an 

on paper or on albumenised glass. If on the latter, ancient pontifical an order that the bridegroom 

and the dimension of the original negative is pre- should place the ring successively on three fingera 

served, the loss in minuteneas of detail and bar- of the right hand, and then shall leave it on the 

inonj is almost imperceptible, and even when con- fourth finger of the left, in order to mark the 

siderabt; enlarged, is so trilling as in tbe majority dlfierence between the marriage ring, the symbol 

of cases to prove no objection in comparison witn of a love which is mixed wilh carnal affection, and 

the advantage gained in size, while in not a few the episcopal ring, the symbol of entire chastity, 

cases, as already stated, the picture actually ^ains (Afart de Antiquis £ccL Ritibvs, u. 128., ed. Venet. 

by an augmentation of size. Thus, by the simut- 1783; Schmid, p, 3S2.) J-C. B> 

taneous action. If necessary, of some hundreds of 

negatives, many thousand impressions of the same The Order of Si. John of Jervtalem (Vol. vii., 
picture may be produced in the course of a day. pp. 407, 628,1. — As my old neighbour R. L. P- 
" I cannot but think, therefore, ^at this simple dates from the hanks of the Lake of Constance, 
but ingenious discovery will prove a valuable ad- and may possibly not see W. W.'s communication 
dition to our stock of photographic manipulatory for some time, I in the meanwhile take the liberty 
processes. It happily turns to account and utilises of informing W. W. that the order of St, John 
eneof the chief excellencies of collodion— that ex- was restored in England by Qoeen Mary, and, 
treme minuteness of detail which from its excess with other orders revived by her, was again sup- 
becomes almost a defect at times,— toning it down pressed by tie act 1 Eliz, c. 24. J. C. E. 



[No. IM. 

CahMi Carretpamlenee (Vol. yii., pp. 501. 
631.). — It may h% well to mentioii that all tlie 
letten of CalTin which Mm. Waltmb quotef, are 
to be found in the old collectioa of his corre- 
ipondence; perhaps, however, the latter copies 
maj be fuller or more correct in some parts. 

The original French of the long letter to Pro- 
tector Somerset is printed by Henrj in his Lift 
of Calvin ; but, like the other documents of that 
laborious work, it is omitted without notice in the 
English trsYestie which bears the name of Dr. 

Heyljn^s mis-statement as to Calvin and Cran- 
mer is exposed, and the ground of it is pointed 
out, in the late edition of the Ecclesia RestauratOy 
▼ol. 1. p. 134. J. C. B. 

Old Booty's Com (Vol. vii., p. 634.).— A friend, 
on whose accuracy I can rely, has examined the 
London Gazettes for 1687 and 1688, in the British 
Museum : they do not contain nny report of 
Booty*8 case. I thought I had laid Booty s ghost 
in Vol. ill., p. 170., by showing that the foots of 
the case were unlikely and the law impossible. 

H. B. C. 

U. U. aub. 

ChaUerton (Vol. vii., p. 267.). — We nre all 
werj curious m Bristol to know what evidence 
or light J. M. G. of Worcester can bring to bear 
upon the Rowley Poems, from the researches (as 
he states) of an individual here to prove not only 
that Chatterton was not their author, but that 
probably the " Venerable Rowley ** himself was. 

I had thought in 1853 no one doubted their 
authorship. There is abundance of proof to show 
Rowley could not have written them, and that 
only Chatterton could hare done so. 


Hous€'marks, ffc. (Vol. rii., p. 594.). — It is 
▼ery well known that the sign of the ^ Swan with 
two Necks," in London, is a corruption of the 
private mark of the owner of the swans, viz., two 
nicks made by cutting the neck feathers close in 
two spaces. It is also a common custom in 
Devon to mark all cattle, horses, &c. with the 
owner's mark when sent out on Exmoor, Dart- 
■loor, and other large uninclosed tracts for sum- 
mering: thus. Sir Thos. Dyke Acland*8 mark is 
an anchor on the near side of each of his large 
herd of ponies, on £xmoor. W. Collths. 


BUfliagrapky CVoi, y\l, p. 597.). — The foUow- 
ing may assist MxmicomyjL : 

Fiseber : Beschreibong chifger Typographischer Set- 
Itenheiten nebst Beytriigcii sur Erfindungsgescfaichte 
dtr BucbdruckcrfcuiMt, 8vo. Maine, 1800-4. 

Origin of Prhniog, in Two JEsMiyt; with Remarks 
and Appendix, 8ro. 177C. 

The Typographical Antiqtitties of Gff«t Britain* hf 
J. Jobnion, Dr. Dibdin, Dr. Wilkins^ and otbets* 
liongnuins, 18S4. 

He will also find a list of works under the head 
TmnnTitfo in the Pgnny Cydapmdia. Gnrnnr. 

Parochial Libraries (Vol. vi., p. 433. ; VoL viL 
passim,), — A parochial library was for manv 
years deposited in the room over the unok 
entrance of Beccles Chureh. Tho^ books consist 
chiefly of old divinity, ftc, and appear to ha^r« 
been ffifts from various persons; among whom 
were Bishop Trimnel (of Norwich), Sir Samud 
Bamardiston, Sir Edmund Bacon of Oillinffhanii 
Sir John Playters, Mrs. Anna North, and Mr« 
Ridgly of London. There is a copy of Walton's 
Polyglot Bible, 1655-7, besides an odd volnoM 
of the same work (Job to Malachi), 1656, uncut. 
It is probable that many of the books have been 
lost, as the room in which they were kept wM 
used as a repository for discarded ecdestastieal 
appliances, and, lotterly, for charity blankets du* 
rmg summer. In 1840, with the consent of the 
late bishop of Norwich, and of the rector and 
churchwardens of the parish, the remaining 
volumes (about 170) were removed to the public 
library room, and placed under the care of the 
committee of that institution. A catalogue oC 
them was then printed. The greater part k«v« 
been repaired, with the aid of a donation of 102. 
from a former inhabitant, who had reason to 
believe that some of the works had been lost ia 
consequence of their having been in his hands 
many years sgo. Are there not numerous in* 
stances elsewhere in which this example might be 
copied with propriety ? S. W. Rnu 


Faith/ull rea/<? (Vol. vii., p.529.).— «*ThongIi 
this author*s name be spelt Teate, there is great 
reason to believe that he was the father of Nahtta 
Tate, truislator of the Psalms.** — JBt^/. Anglo- 
postica, p. 361. In the punning copy of verses 
preceding the *' Ter Tria is this distich : 

*« We wish that TeaU and Herberts may inspire 
Randals and Davenants with poetick fire. 

Jo. CHismm." 

My copy is on miserable paper, yet priced 
3\s,6d,, with this remark in MS. by some rormer 
possessor : *• Very rare : which will not be won- 
dered at by any one who will read five pages care* 
fully." B. D. 

Lack-a-daisn (VoL ri., p. 535.). — Todd had 
better have allowed Johnson to speak for himself: 
laek'a'daijty, lack^a'dav, alack the day, as Juliette 
nurse exclaims, and ams'the'dayf are only varione 
readings of the same expression. And of such in* 
quiries and such soiuuons as Todd*s, I camiol 
rcfiraan from expressing my sentiments in tke 

July 16. 1853.] 



9 words of poor Ophelia^ '* Alack! and fje for 
shame I" Q. 


Bacon (Vol. ii., p. 247. j V(4. iii., p. 41.). — I 
tliink that you have not noticed one yerj common 
use of this word, as evidently meaning heechen. 
Schoolboys call tops made of boxwood, boxers; 
while the inferior ones, which are generally made 
of beechwood, they call docoiw. H. T. ]^lst. 

Angel'heast — Cteek — Longtriho (Vol. v., 
p." 559.). — ^An account of these games, the nature 
of which is required by your correspondent, is 
given in the Complecd Gamester, frequently re- 
printed in the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The first, which is there called beast, is said 
to derive its name from the French la bett, mean- 
ingy no doubt, bete. It seems to have resembled 
the game of loo. Gleek is the proper name of the 
second game, and not check, as your correspondent 
suggests. It was played by three persons, and the 
cards bore the names of Tib, Tom, Tiddy, Towser, 
and Tumbler. Hence we may conclude that it 
was an old English game. The third game, or 
lanterloo, is evidently the original form of the 
game now known as loo. Its name would seem to 
indicate a Dutch origin. H. T. Ku^et. 

Hans Kraumnckel (Vol. ▼., p. 450.). — When 
the ground in Charterhouse Square was opened in 
1834, for the purposes of sewerage (I believe), vast 
numbers of bones and skeletons were found, being 
the remains, as was supposed, of those who died 
of the Plague in 1348, and had been interred in 
that spot, as forming a part of Pardon Churchyard, 
which had lately been purchased by Sir Walter 
Manny, for the purposes of burial, and attached 
to the Carthusian convent there. Among the 
bones a few galley halfpence, and other coins, were 
found, as also a considerable number of abbey 
counters or jettons. I do not recollect if there 
was any date on the counters; but the name 
"Hans Krauwinckel" occurred on some of them 
which fell into my possession, and which I gave 
some years ago to the Museum of the City Librarv, 
Guildhall. If these were coeval, as was generally 
supposed, with the Plague of 1348, it is singular 
that the same name should be found on {3)bey 
counters with the date 1601. I should be obliged 
if any of your correspondents could inform me 
when the use of jettons ceased in England ; and 
whether Pardon Churchyard was used as a place 
of sepulture after^l348, and, if so, how long? 

H. T. KiEET. 

Revolving Toy (Vol. vi., p. 517.). — The Chinese 
Iiave lanterns with paper figures in them which 
revolve by the heat, and are very common about 
New Year time. H. B. 


Rub'a'dtib (Vol. iii.> p. 388.). — Your corre- 
^ndent seems at a loss for an early instance o£ 
tnis expression. In Percy's Reliques there is a 
8ong» the refirun or burden of which is: 

** Rcib-a»dob, rub-a-dub, so beat your druras^ 
Tantar% tantara, the Englishman eomes." 

H. T. RiLET. 

Mt0fs worn by Oendemen. — In one of Gold- 
smith^ Essojfs I remember well an allusion to the 
practice. The writer of the letter, or essay, states 
that he met his female cousin in the Mall, and after 
scNDie sparring conversation, she ridicules him for 
carrying " a nasty oW-fashioned [a.d. 1760] muff;" 
and his retort is, that he " heartily wishes it were 
a tippet, for her sake," — glancing at her dress, 
which was, I suppose, somewhat what we modems 
call " decolletee. E. C. G- 

Detached Church Towers. — The Norman tower 
at Bury St. Edmund*s should not be included in 
the lists. Although now used as the bell tower of 
the neighbouring church of St. James, it was 
erected several centuries before the church, and 
was known as the " Great Gate of the Church* 
yard," or the " Great Gate of the Church of St- 
fedmund." It would be very desirable to add to 
the list the date of the tower, and its distance from 
the church. Bubiensis. 

Add to the list the modem Roman Catholic 
chapel at Baltinglass, Ireland. It has a detached 
tower built in a field above it, and, although de- 
void of architectural beauty, is so placed that it 
appears an integral part of the chapel from almost 
any point of view. Alexander Lesfbb. 


Is not the bell-tower at Hackney detached from 
the church ? I do not remember that it has been 
yet named by your correspondents. B. H. C. 

Christian Names (Vol. vii., pp.406. 626.).— Oa 
the name of Besilius Fetiplace, Sheriff of Berk* 
idiure, in 26 Elizabeth, Fuller remarks, — 

*< Some may 'colourably mistake it for Basilius or 
Basil, whereas indeed it is Besil, a surname .... 
Reader, I am confident an instance can hardly be pro* 
dueed of a surname made Christian, in England, sare 
since the Reformation ; before which time the priests 
were scrupulous to admit any at font, except they were 
baptized with the name of a Scripture or legendary 
saint. Since, it hath been common ; and although the 
Lord Coke was pleased to say he had noted many of 
them proTe unfortunate, yet the good success in others 
confutes the general truth of the observation.**^ Worthies, 
y<A. i. pp. 159, 160., edit Nuttall. 

«F. C. S* 

Lord C. of Ireland, which Me. William Bate^ 
guesses to be Lord Castlereagh, was Lord Clarey 
Chancellor of Ireland^ who used also to caH men 


[No. 194. 

Hogarih'i Pictares (Vol. vii. poifint). — One of 
the correspondents of " N. & Q," inquires where 
he could see some pictures from this great artist. 
Ma; J ask if he is anarc of the three verj fine 
large paintings in the Church of St. Mary, Red* 
cliffe, Bristol? which I am told will shorlly be 

sold. BBlBTOLIBNSia. 

P.S. — They were painted for the church, and 
the vestry holds hia autograph receipt for the pay- 
ment of tiiem. 

OM Fogif (Vol. vii., pp. 354. S59. 6320 Whe- 
ther the origin of thla term be Irish, Scotch, or 
Swedish I know not; but I cannot help stating 
the significant meaning which, as an Edinburgh 

applying it to the veterans of the Castle garrison, 
to the soldiers of the Town Guard (veterans also, 
and especial foes of my school-mates), and more 
generally to any old and objectionable gentleman, 
civil or military. It implied that, like stones which 
have ceased to roll, they had obtained the pro- 
verbial covering of mosj, or, as it is called in Scot' 
land (probably in Ireland also), fog. I have heard 
in Scotland the " Jlfos* Rose " called the ^'' Fogie 
Rose ;" and there is a well-known species of the 
humble bee which has its nest in a mossy bank, 
and is itself clothed with a moss-like covering : its 
name amoug the Scottish peasantry is the fogie 
bee. G. J. F. 


Clem (Vol. vii., p. 615.).— Mb. EBiGHti.KT 

considers this word to mean preas or restrain, and 
qnotes three passages from Massinger and Jonson 
in support of his opinion ; admitting, however, 
that it is usually rendered starve. Now, whatever 
may have been the root of this word, or whence- 
Boever it may have been derived, I think it must 
be admitted that starve is the correct meaning of 
the word in these passages. Let the reader test it 
by substituting alame for clem in each case. In 
Cheshire and Lancashire the word is in common 
use to this day, and invariably means starved for 
want of food. Of a thin, emaciated child it is 
Mud, " His mother clemt him." A person exceed- 
in^y hungry says, 'Tm wellv clemd; I'm almost 
or well-nigh starned." It is we ordinary appeal of 

Kissing Hands (Vol, vii., p. 595.). — Capb will 
find in Suetonius that Caligula's hands were kissed. 

forms of the Foot Guards, 1660 to 1670, 1 have to' 
refer him to the Orderly-room, Horse Guards, 
where he will see the costume of the three re^- 
ments since they were raised. In Mackinnon'g 
Histori/ of the Coldstream Ovards, he will find 
that regiment's dress from the year 1650 to 1840. 
C. D. 

Booh Iracriptiora (yol.Yii., p. 455.). — At the 

end of No. 1801. Harl. MSS. is the following : 

"Hie liber eat scriptus, 

Q,ui Bciipsit sit benedictus. 

Qui scriptoria rnaaum 

Culpat, bflsiat anum." 

In the printed catalogue there is this note: 

"Neotricui quidam hos scripsil venlculos, en alio 
forsaa Codice depromplos." 


I have not seen the following amongst your de- 
precatory rhymes. It may come in with another 
batch. The nature of the punishment is somewhat 
different from that usually selected, and savours of 

" Si quisquis furelur 
This little libellum, 
PerPhoebum, perjovem. 
ril kill him. I'll fell taim t 

I'll stick my scalpeltum, 
And teach him to Meal 
JMy little libelluDi.'' 

In a. Gesner'a Thesaurus I have the following 
label of the date 1762 ; 

" Ei Caroli Ferd. Hommelii Bibliotheca. 

" Intra qUBtuDrdecim dies comadatum ni reddi- 

Hun^mg (Vol. viiT pp. 550.631.). — I do not 

remember any earlier use of this word than in 
Fielding's Amelia, 17SI. Its origin is involved in 
obscurity : but may it not be a corruption of the 
Ijaim ambages, or the singular ablative amia^e.' 
which signifies guibbliTtg, subler_fage, and that kind 
of conduct which is generally supposed to consti- 
tute hufnbtig. It is very possible that it may have 
been pedantically introduced in the seventeenth 
century. May, in his translation of Lucan, uses 
the word ambages as an English word. 

H. T. RiLBT. 

A severe instance of the use of the term 
"humbug" occurred in a court of justice. A 
female in giving her evidence repeatedly used 
this term. In her severe cross-examination, the 
counsel (a very plain, if not an ugly person) ob- 
served she had frequently used the term humbug, 
and desbed to know what she meant by it, and to 

July 16. 1853.] 



have an explanation ; to which she replied, *' Why, 
Sir, if I was to say you were a very handsome 
man, would you not think I was humbugging 
you ? ** The counsel sat down perfectly satisfied. 

G. H. J. 

Sir Isaac Neivton and Voltaire on Railway 
Travelling (Vol. viii., p. 34.). — The passage in 
Daniel alluded to is probably the following : — 
" Many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall 
be increased," chap. xii. v. 4. Mb. Cbaig should 
send to your pages the exact words of Newton 
and Voltaire, with references to the books in 
which the passages may be found. John Bhuce. 

Engine- d'verge (Vol. vii., p. 619.). — Is not this 
what we term a garden engine? The French 
vergier (viridariun^ is doubtless so named, quia 
virgd definita ; and we have the old English word 
verge, a garden, from the same source. H. C. K. 

— Rectory, Hereford. 

" Populus vult decipi" ^c, (Vol. vii., p. 572.). — 
The origin of this phrase is found in Thuanus, 
lib. xvii. A.D. 1556. See Jackson's Works, book iii. 
ch. 32. § 9. note. C. P. E. 

Sir John Vanhrugh (Vol. vii., p. 619.). — Sir 
John Vanbrugh was the grandson of a Protestant 
refugee, from a family originally of Ghent in 
Flanders. The Duke of Alva's persecution drove 
him to England, where he became a merchant in 
London. Giles, the son of this refugee, resided in 
Chester, became rich by trade, and married the 
youngest daughter of Sir Dudley Carleton, by 
whom he had eight sons, of whom Sir John Van- 
brugh was the second. The presumption is he 
was born in Chester, but the precise date is un- 
known. Anon. 

Erroneous Forms of Speech (Vol. vii., pp. 329. 
632.). — With regard to your two correspondents 
E. G. R. and M,, I hold that, with Cowper's dis- 
putants, " both are right and both are wrong." 

The name of the ^Id beet is, in the language of 
the unlearned, mangel-umrzel, " the root of po- 
verty." It acquired that name from having been 
used as food by the poor in Germany during a 
time of great famine. Turning to Buchanan's 
Technological Dictionary, I find, — 

** Mangd-wurz^. Field beet ; a variety between the 
red and white. It has as yet been only partially cul- 
tivated in Britain." 

In reference to the assertion of your later cor- 
respondent, that " such a thing as mangel-wurzel 
is not known on the Continent," I would ask if 
either he or his friends are familiar with half the 
beautiful and significant terms applied to English 
flowers and herbs ? If he prefer using mangold 
for beet, he is quite at liberty to do so, and I be- 

lieve on suflSciently good authority. What says 
Noehden, always a leading authority in German : 

** Mangold, Red beet ; name of some other plants, 
such as lungwort and sorreL'* 

Mangold is here, then, a generic term, standing 
for other plants equally with the beet. One sug^ 
gestion, however ; I would recommend the generic 
term, when used at all, to be used alone, leaving 
the more familiar appellation as it stands, for the 
adoption of those who prefer the homely but sug- 
gestive phraseology to which it belongs. E. L. H. 

Devonianisms (Vol. vii., p. 630.). — Plum, adj. 
I am at a loss for the origin of this word as em- 
ployed in Devonshire in the sense of " soft," e. g. 
" a plum bed : " meaning a soft, downy bed. 

Query : Can it be from the Latin pluma ? And 
if so, what is its history ? 

There is also a verb to plum, which is obscure. 
Dough, when rising under the influence of heat 
and fermentation, is said to be plumming well ; and 
the word plum, as an adjective, is used as the 
opposite of heavy with regard to currant and other 
cakes when baked. If the cake rises well in the 
oven, it is commonly said that it is *^nice and 
plum ;" and vice versa, that it is heavy. 

Clunk, verb. This word is used by the com- 
mon people, more especially the peasantry, to 
denote the swallowing of masses of unmasticated 
food ; and of morsels that may not be particularly 
relished, such as fat. What is the origin of the 
word ? 

Dollop, subs. This word, as well as the one 
last-named, is very expressive in the vocabulary 
of the vulgar. It is applied to lumps of any sub- 
stances, whether food or otherwise. Such a phrase 
as this might be heard : *^ What a dollop of fat 
you have given me!" "Well," would be the 
reply, " if you don't like it, clunk it at once." I 
should be glad to be enlightened as to the etymo- 
logy of this term. Isaiah W. N. Keys. 

Plymouth, Devon. 



A Karrativb op thb Holy Lipb and Happt Death op Mr. 

John Angibr. London, 16d3. 
Moore's Melodies. 15th Edition. 

Wood's Athena Oxonibnsbs (ed. Bliss). 4 toIs. 4to. 1813-20. 
The Cobiplaynts op Scotland. Svo. Edited by Leyden. 1804. 
Suakspbare's Plays. Vol. V. of Johnson and Steevens's edition, 

in.l5 vols. 8ro. 1739. 

%• Correspondents sending Lists qf Books Wanted are requested 

to send their names. 

%• Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent to Mr. Bell, Publisher of *' NOTES AND 
QUERIES.*' 186. Fleet Street. 


[Na 194. 

fittUaM to CorrrtponVinU. 

lU T«S-PIV tf OMt lii»nth VoluiM, we ari mmftltti In nmtl 

AiiiDOHiHiii tmuil It rtflrrti » IlK FhllOMphkil Truiu- 
tlont, »m. xllll. p.«»., Jar a rn>l)> t* *K «|iirfli. RiofUlr m0I- 

«nAc Jiim, anif nn lAlrel if trtal atriaUf M tin pUlmtaJiieml 
utrU. II ii not ilmlal ton' &tt lu Hurt, or wtif MircrWlea t> 

Mmrl/i* o^ " drparlmnUiifllUniliirt or arl." 
H. S. aHU JlHt M t»r SihbUi VoIbdm, y. 1«)., Ikt Ui 
•• rctbipi II oil ilfht lo [Uucmbl* r^"'' loo." Ac, 


'. B. (COHI1117). ?< 

n^K'^ , ,. .^ . 

JM-^rfiirrd. r<k( 'ollrr f iwni nj iwurt MM* OurooH ixt iff- 

IttpmptT, vUeli MM k Am( t* tufffru n^ MrelwM ndllHfj 
<■ MHJ«r, nod inrMif l*f ^(lUi «■ Ui^lfWr. 
H. H. K. (Aihburtoa). AU Ikilnl amikorilUi murnt hulu 

Dttmirmliimn wtM tuM iMIl MM<lM •!«>( (JlrH VMr), M 
IM» UtatoiuM lit nUt 1/ (ft^ «U •■>«** ikk MV DMI 

C. H. U. rAblMr HudJ. Vfw t<^Mom « U Mr mm ki 
VniMf'tninvaMvn'rd ta Atofr Nkn»er, TlHjIlm u'ilfeit |«_ 
■uUH'im U< tai/arr iif yow nil. lUtir tnl* irprmli taton M« 
MOMinnu pgrffoH •>! fllrr In Hi cclleHb-m toMf litirouJ, inIM, 
— '— r »ff» Kl-Uf ta wiilrr.iM-c- " 

imlf pHilleaiim i/i 
I k rrfrrur*. II ii a ii 
Fkautrarkgt tml a renuVri 

mtn.from Ui ilrrcUom, malu a , 
JhnM. — P. It., UMJlB*. rnd "eu 


itn," VMI. 1. M*ll., 
V K kadi J^ MM 

urUfri HMir mafx Ctaf W «• (jU( nigltei partlll, 
m Uulr antterlhtrt <m M( StmrdKf. 


OESPECTFULLY tnftrrai the 

iirinlkinniUiHi u la PrlaH. MaittH' w" 
MoliH, KMliBiM, fUMm of ilSuiliiU. Oh 


[IT k ion. nMn Lafc 


not, fiinnlHi'r Howl. til^glM. 

i.«>^'<Rf,'7.?'i"i."JtS'I^4*'3JS; QPECTACI,E8._WM. ACK- 

rtauoiiUioAimlnUIT.iiTidauttuHn, Roll to inlfN HAHfOHn »><>lK»>iiktn ti'i IWltlin M » 'T ■g^i"* 'iBJRlimi^oHtitfr 


lutniiiinu Vlvvi, Had l*r>Tlrkl(i In rnim 
tlino 10 liilrtir nwndi, ugorlliic lo Ufht. 

of dH«ll rlT»r Lht dholoHt Itairaarnalrni- 
•MrlBflHatirUiilltiur blHU ■lUi^CiM- 




Sm, Lmooi. 

July 16. 1853.] NOTES AND QUERIEa 




KMlLj cured hiDo Bmtt'i fiwd O THOMAS CAKLYlj;. Rmrinttdfnmi 
n Umi — W. S. Ku-B, tml '' CiiUeiJ mud UknUuecim Gmri." 


ragved bjDnBurrj't diUi 


[No. 194. 



Hill D^-. nnr uul mjHl Edllku. roit ! 

UlBl. ilh Wom. by JOHN aiBSON LOCK- 


Tl» formet Tolnnia Hi Homr'i BiUnr 





rt MIM Iir PBOr. 


I inaHliiiqi • Srlmiem ftom XBITO- 
Num. Bfntix. uid 1 OLoauli] Indu. Bj 


BOOK L or. ttw I>uL Fpnr Bwki of XENO- 
il'i Chutcli Tud. Hill 

Gorron. p>i«u. 












lord MiUON. 


M^UhRLuma^toniLlKpoloht. Uop.HiLy. 


r>URKE'S(RiglitRon. Edmnnd) 


Tht TvBiti'-tigtiUi tMOaa. 
_....„ TfTEUROTONICS, or the Art of 

4GEL8- Si.flif. Il HUviatlHBbu llH NerTCB, conl^bilnf 

"■™' mHiiiiifCiin&fN^T0iiiini.I>(U1ltT,Mt- 
linchDlr, ud hLL Ctmnle DIkum by DK. 


JLOABT^tUdiDf Buy whs lun ilrcA 

rjfumiJtMaA^n In UitTI^ ofSliciriT 
7*n, irUEliliid«ile nuloui cutkiilui of ibc 
Obnrt of Chu-la I., when u Voik, and nftac- 
wiirdi >t Orftird. By ihe EIOHt HON. 

flEonae BANxea. h.f. 

^ COLLECTION of CURIOUS, "w,™oon-ife„a™b.™™ri'N«. 


rtSUtaiDLimiiiERoidiiiticifThRTnomcUr, W r 

'[nd. >nd Wulhu d^r. Id Uc NdiUi ot i^joi 

iitillihtd led Sold by JQ 

Ki SiRtt nDiniitld EiBuilu.^tilr is. 




■ ■ BMa Cr*' V OAttAItt CufTtil. 

No. 198.] 

SATUttltAr, JtftiY 8<1. lfl/I3. 


wiiiiiim tiitk 

A I'lwm l>r *Mtrf, HlH In 1>l> Wnikl > 

TI»liii|HiHibl1ltlM«rttHliirr ■ 

" litiam l>*iii villi |<i>r<li>Hi |itliii iliMNnit 

li|»i)ti|i>ntii CnrrHtHinilfHni, li|i J. P. 

" N '!•> '. 
• l'iillli<ri 

iimipo III Iti-aih, 

«Kii nm i'fm^M)H'^WNFirt*nHh~''MHHit Hi 
ftiiai •! iiiKtiiliiMi '' - " PutiiiiM |iHir iMtlMo II " 

Nmnit UMMIta KitN Aphwijui- Pljiw-n Cliiitth-. 
ttl Ahiif. *«..-Ki!IKw> hF AtirU-hl mit MinIhh 

HcWHHf MllMl of AMhnfl •-•>•' 
On (li> |in> Ht ih* IIiwi.kIuii In Piil|iii> - 

laollH' AlHIl Wn* In M f rKMINM 

PmiiiHXiii'nin l!ii|iiiMriiNti*Niiiii- Miillliilindnii ur 


Hiinli.KHtl llilil VnliiiHM aHilal • 
Kitllriii W l'nttM|Hiiitenlt • 

Allt«>ll>l*lll(HIII ' ■ • 


My ntiiliiiinrlnii 

WIM.tAM niiAMtt. 


tnAivr \init\U\i lllcrNliii'p, wliii, 

ntlvr ■' n'eUliitt I'liolr liotir" ti|iiiii \Wn ninga, Itnva 

rmMPil nwnj' | lt>N¥lii|t tli^li' timtiPii pHtmnliEHl ii|iiiii 
lie (l(lp'|ii^M nC Miiiin iiimt<til'iH'lrtl(Hl nr milcti^U)' 
biHik, ititij' t<i bi nilin>1 ii|ii>ti ItiR iiti«lvwi nf Ilia 

To ItHik ll'f MiBW 111 Kliniln, ('linlnti'w, (liirdin, 
ur lt<wi< wmilil lin it wwiP: «( iIiiib i huiI nlilionj]!) 
HRiVBltitt li>«<>iii« PMtflMl. wIMi Itin tmihui'ih; fliNt 
wp liAVP nil ti\M ymi wuHli tireiiPi'vliiH >'( tli» Hiifx- 
iMmnH*, I'liPfp In. I rliliik) liPtK nml llmi-P n nniiin 
wnrlll rpnllM'ltHlllIf', tuiMfiHll'K I'lntiii* in n nWlm III 
tiMi' "Aiillijiim'i) Npwp>|iii]ipi'|" hihI fur Hint >IU> 
llllMlim, I Wnltlll MIIW liiii III V. \Aph nil lipliiiir uf 
' ' 't, Wtllimn ntnU. 


il mililpi' 

' hiiiImii- tipliiiigN III tim mv'nMh 

ImmiuIi r „ 

'giiru,\\n In ti nlmi'ni'M<r Hut nlilr ilMPrvtiiH nf 
]>'p, iMit A iMiii1i>l Itir liiiltitltiiit I (\w " >ipr lit litg 

litmnnl" hnvlim *t>i lil> 

illwutlmi (if A iHrgn iihilnHlhtiim flic 

ntiil (piii|iiii'nI liifprpxla oriiU n>ll>iw n 

Ilia Nvin[ii«lli1pa In itin Imnliliy 
Inrgp iihilnHlhtiim nir tlip HiilrltiiHl 

tttptilttt rpmlpf lina nlfpwly, 1 ilnill-t mit^ 

HtillplitniPiniinl I nin nli'Hil In liilriiiliiit* lliiit tiiiii> 
ilp«'rf|<l liniik lient-liii; lltp I'liiinliiK iIlIp— mttl Id 
fipvpp liiul miy iilliPi-— «r,Wiwc /Mi/i*. nr S>rl>m» 
t'hiiufi iiiD'i'iii'l'liiiti III H klml nr piiliiiiliiiii, III li» 
>• wi-litPii liy Wllllniit lll»lit>, liiiiiapkpp]iPi' h> iIih 

l.nitlpa* IHinHl.; N.^l I,"* 'I'Iip t'lirloiin tit <il<l 

liiNik* ktiiiwH Inn, llmr-i ntini't IVniti lla miMpi'^ Hin 
mm-Jtmim «f W. ti, )m iiaiinlly mi Hlli'ii«ltvii 
iiiiiRl nf llio^ PimuiilitU-m «lil>'li Iiukb 

i ittiilfi' my iinlliip Iwliiit fiiHti|>f.iinitaly hniiiiil 

' --liiwly tnnlpiti nrlllt IIip tmiiia 

II It hml ii|i|mi'Piill/ liDPit |irt» 

III n|i| iiinmmi, timliiMly |.nnlpit| nrlllt ifii 
(■r llie fNi'ly In wliiMii lUtml nil. 
KPtilwIi iitniii|ip<l lit H |ini II I in I' I IIIP II 1 11(11111 iIip «i _. 
tl* vnliiP Ja Ikrilipf Ptiliniii'pil liy Ur iilianrlnl unit 
Biiililpiiinlliint mM'iiiiiiiniilitipiilRi 'ilipiie nre nmr In 
iiiiiolipi' I Hip tlrat rp|ii<FapMliiiK n tienrt, wliPiPfHi 

■ •< Mn Ilvi'ty lliiFiiMi, iiifMiniil," mm » fiiniUllllir 
nr IIIhIiii'* In llil* ('tiilrlliilil*> ilililvHaktiiil | Nlitl «• Ihll 
AtilitmNii WD* iinl tmiPiilNl nnlll \n*n, lltta tMiillii* 
lIuH irnty li* N>«i||itt<it Id Kl'inil ll'nl <In1«i 



tNo. 195. 

a fanciful picture of Charity supported by angels ; 
second, a view of Highgate Charity Schools (Dor- 
chester House) ; third, Time with his scythe and 
hour-glass*; and the fourth, in three compart- 
ments, the centre containing butterflies; the 
smaller at top and bottom, sententious allusions 
to the value of time — " Time drops pearles from 
Lis golden wings," &c. These are respectable en- 
gravings, but by whom executed I know not. 
After these, and before coming to the Silver Drops, 
which are perhaps something akin to Master 
Brooks' Apples of Gold^ the book begins abruptly : 
" The Ladies* Charity School- house Roll of High- 
gate, or a subscription of many noble well-disposed 
ladies for the easie carrying of it on." " Being 
well informed," runs the Prospectus, " that there 
is a pious, good, commendable work for main- 
ts^ning near forty poor or fatherless children, 
born all at or near Highgate, Hornsey, or Ham- 
sted : we, whose names are subscribed^ do engage 
or promise, that if the said boys are decently 
cloathed in blew, lined with yellow ; constantly 
fed all alike with good and wholsom diet ; taught 
to. read, write, and cast accompt^, and so put out 
to trades, in order to live another day ; then we 
will give for one year, two or three (if we well 
like the design, and prudent management of it,) 
once a year, the sum below mentioned," &c. The 
projector of this good work was th« subject of my 
present note ; and after thus introducing it, the 
worthy " woollen-draper, at the sign of the Golden 
Boy, Maiden Lane, Covent Garden,'' for s\ich he 
was, goes on to recommend and (enforce its im-* 

Eortance in a variety of caj oiling addresses, or, as 
e calls them, "charity-school sticks," to the great 
and wealthy ; ostensibly the production of the 
boys, but in reality the concoctions of Mr. Blake, 
and in which he pleads earnestly for his hohhy. 
In An Essay, or Hvmhle Oue;^, how the Noble 
Ladies may he inclined to give to and encottrage 
their Charity-school at Highgate, Mr. Blake farther 
humorously shows, up the various dispositions of 
his fair friends : — " And first," says he, " my lady 
such-a-one cryed. Come, we will make one purse 
out of our family;" and "my lady such-an-one 
said she would give for the fancy of the Roll and 
charity stick. My lady such-an-one cryed by her 
troth she would give nothing at all, for she had 

[♦ It appears, from the following advertisement at 
the end of Silver Drops, that the plates of Time and 
Charity were used as receipts: — "It is humbly de- 
sired, that what you or any of you, most noble Ladles, 
Gentlewomen, or others, are pleased to bestow or give 
towards this good or great design, that you would be 
pleased to take a receipt on the backside of Time or 
Charity, sealed with three scales, namely, the Trea- 
surer's, Housekeeper's, and Register's ; and it shall be 
fairly recorded, and hung up in the school-house, to be 
read of all from Time to Time, to the world's end, we 
hope."— Ed.] 

waies enough for her money ; while another vrould 
give five or six stone of beef every week." Again, 
in trying to come at the great citizen -ladies, he 
magnifies, in the following characteristic style, the 
city of London ; and, by implication^ their noble 
husbands and themselves: — " There is," says Mr. 
Blake, " the Tower and the Monument ; the <^d 
Change, Gurld-Hall, and Black wall- Hall, which 
some %oo%ddfain hum again ; there is Bow steeple, 
the Holy Bible, the Silver Bells of Aaron, thegodlg' 
outed ministers; the melodious musick of the 
Gospels ; Smithfield martyrs yet alive ; and the 
best society, the very best in all the world for 
civility, loyalty, men, and manners ; with the 
greatest cash, bulk, mass, and stock of all sorts of 
silks, cinnamon, spices, wine, gold, pearls, Spanish 
wool! and cloaths ; with the river Nilus, and the 
stately ships of Tarshish to carry in and out the 
great merchandizes of the world." In this the city 
dames are attacked collectively. Individually, he 
would wheedle them thus into his charitable plans : 
— " Now prayy dear madam, speak or write to my 
lady out M mend, and tell her how it is with us; 
and if she will subscribe a good gob, and get the 
young ladies to do so too; and then put in alto- 
gether with your lordship's aitd Sir James's also : 
for it is necessary he or you in his stead should do 
something, novo the great ship is come safe in, and 
by giving some cf the ^rst-fruits of your great bay, 
or netp p^ntatiom, to our school, the rest unll be 
blessed the hetterr The scheme seems to Lave 
offered attractions to the Highgate gentry: — 
*^ The great ladies do allow their house-keeper," 
he continues, ** one bottle of wine, three of ale, 
half a dozen of rolls, and two dishes of meat 
a- day ; who is to see the wilderness, orchard, great 
prospects, walks, and gardens, all well kept and 
rolled for their honours' families; and to give 
them small treats according to discretion when 
they please to take the air, which is undoubtedly 
the best round London." Notwithstanding the 
eloquent pleadings of Mr. Blake for their assist- 
ance and support, it is to be feared that the noble 
ladies allowed the predictions of his friends to be 
verified, and did " suffer such an inferiour meane 
and little person (to use his own phraseology) to 
sink under tiie burden of so good and great a 
work : " for we find that Gough, in allusion thereto, 
says (Topographical Anecdotes, vol. i. p. 644«) : — 

** This Hospital at Highgate, called the Ladies* 
Charity School^ was erected by one W. Blake, a 
woollen -draper in Covent Garden ; who having pur- 
chased Dorchester House, and having fooled away his 
estate in building, was thrown into prison." 

Even here, and under such circumstances, our 
subject was nothing daunted; for the same 
autnority informs us, that, still full of his philan- 
thropic projects, he took the opportunity his lei- 
sure there admitted to write another work upon 
his favourite topic of educating and caring for the 

July 23. 1853,] 



poor ; its title is, The State and Ctue of a JDesign 
for the better Education of Tkotaands of Parish 
Children successively in the vast Northern Suburbs 
of London vindicated^ Sfc. Besides the ftbore^ 
there is another remarkable little piece whteh I 
Lave seen, beginning abruptly, *' Here fblloweth a 
briefe exhortation which I gave in mj owne house 
at mj wife*8 fimerall to our friends then present," 
hy Blake, with the MS. date, 16^0 ; and exhibits 
this original character in another not less amiable 
light : — ** I was brought up," says he, " by my 
parents to learne Hail Mary^ paternoster^ tfaie 
Beliefe, and learne to reade ; and where I served 
my apprenticeship little mcu'e was to be found." 
He attributes it to God^s grace that he fell a 
reading the Practice of Piety, by which means he 
got a little persuading of God's love to his soul : — 
*' Well, my time being out, I set up for myselfe ; 
and seeking out for a wife, which, with long waiting 
and difficulty, much expence ami charge, at last I 
got. Four children God gave me by her ; but he 
liath taken them and her all again too, who was a 
woman of a thousand." Mr. B. then naturally 
indulges in a panegyric upon this pattern of wives, 
and reproaches himself for his former insensibility 
to her surpassing merits: relating with sreat 
nawetS some domestic passages, with examp&s of 
her piety and trials, in one of which latter the 
^nemy would tempt her to suicide : — "There lie 
your garters," said he ; "but she threw them aside, 
4ind so escaped this will of the Devil." 

In conclusion, let me inquire if your Highgate 
correspondents are cognisant of any existing in- 
>stltution raised upon the foundation of William 
Blake*s Charity School at Dorchester House ? 


[Our correspondent's interesting eommunieation 
suggests a Query : Is there any biographical notice of 
William Blake ; and was be the author of the following 
piece, preserved among the Kings* pamphlets in the 
British Museum ? " The Condemned Man's Reprieve, 
or God's Love- Tokens, flowing in upon the heart of 
William Blake, a penitent sinner, giving him assur- 
ance of the pardon of his sins, and the enjoyment of 
eternal happiness through the merits of Christ his 
Saviour. Recommended by him (being a condemned 
prisoner for manslaughter within the statute) unto his 
fiister, and bequeathed unto her as a legacy.*' It is 
•dated from " Exon Jayle,*' June 25, 1653, and was pub- 
lished July 14, 1653."— Ed.] 


The following poem was published in a South 
Carolina newspaper in the 3rear 1839. The per- 
son who communicates it states that it was among 
the papers of a deceased friend, in a small packet, 
endorsed "A letter and two poems written by 
Shelley the poet, and lent to me by Mr. Tre- 
lawoey la 1823. I ww prevented iron rotunung 

them to him, for which I am sorry, nnce this is 
the only copy of them — they have never been 
published." Upon this poem was written, "Given 
to me by Shelley, who composed it as we were 
sailing one evening together." Uneda. 


« The Calm. 

« Hush ! hark ! the Triton calls 

From his hollow shell, 

And the sea is as smooth as a well ; 

For the winds and the waves 
In wild order form. 

To rush to the halls 

And the crystal-roord caves 

Of the deep, deep ocean, 
To hold consultation 

About the next storm. 

** The moon sits on the sky 

Like a swan sleeping 
On the stilly lake : 
No wild breath to break 
Her smooth mcusy light 

And ruffle it into beams : 

*< The downy clouds droop 

Like mo^s upon a tree ; 
And in the earth's bosom grope 

Dim vapours and streams. 
The darknesa is weeping, 

Oh, most silently 1 
Without audible sigh, 

All is noiseless and bright. 

** Still *tis living silence here. 
Such as fills not with fear. 
Ah, do you not hear 

A humming and purring 

All about and about ? 

'Tis from souls let out, 

From their day-prisonff freed, 
And joying in release. 

For no slumber they need. 

** Shining through this veil of peace. 

Love now pours her omnipresence, 
And various nature 
Feels through every feature 

The joy intense, 

Yet so pagsionless. 
Passionless and pure ; 

The human mind restless 
Long could not endure. 

** But hush while I tell. 

As the shrill whispers flutter 
Through the pores of the sea,—* 

Whatever they utter 

I'll interpret to thee. 
King Neptune now craves 

Of his turbulent vassals 
Their workings to quell ; 

And the billows are quiet, 

Thov^h thinking on riot. 
On the left and the right 
In ranks they are coil*d upi .^ . 


[Na 193. 

Like make* on the plain ; 
And each one liai loli'd up 

A bright flasliing streak 
Of the whiu moonlight 

On hii g1as9x green neck : 
On every one'* forehead 

There glitlera a star, 
With a hairy train 

Orlight^oatiny/mni afar. 
And pale or fiery red. 
How old Eolua goes 

To each muttering blast. 
Scattering blavg : 

And some he bindi fiist 

In hollow rocks vast, 

Wiih thick lieay; foam. 
< Twing Ihem round 

The sharp rugged crags 

That are slicking out Dear,' 

Grovls he, ' ftir tine 
They all should rebef. 
And so play bell.' 
Those that he bound. 

Their prison-walls grasp. 
And through the dark glooin 

Scream fierce and jell; 

While all the rest gasp^ 

In rage fruitless and vain. 
Their shepherd nov leaves them 

To howl and lo roar— 
Of bis presence hereatce them. 

To fiei sotne young breeze- 
On the violet odour. 


sach it 

I find no record that "the stem old solilier," 
who waa then fortr-two years of nge, and whom 
the writer oddlj calls Richari] II., had any reason 
to complain of want of Kenl in hia troops. They 
fought well, and flogced well — if they flogged at 
all. Richard died of gangrene in the shoulder; 
and I hare the authority of an eminent phyBician 
for Baying, that gnngrene, so near the vital parta, 
would produce such mental and bodily prostra- 
tion, that it ig highly improbable that the patient, 
unless in delirium, should give such an order, 
and impoBsible that be should live through its 

To rock tl 


In The Tablet of June 18 is a leading article 
on the proposed erection of Baron Marochetti'a 
statue of Richard Coiur de Lion, Theolony and 
history are mixed; of course I shall carefully ex- 
clude the former. I have tried to trace the state- 
ments to their sources ; and where I have failed, 
perhaps some of your readers may be able to help 

« When the physicians told him thut they could do 
nothing more for him, and when his confessor Iind 
done his duly faiihfolly and wiib all honesty, the slern 
old soldier commanded his attendants to take him off 
the bed, and lay him naked on the bare floor. When 
this was done, he then bade ihem take a discipline 
and scourge liitn with all their might. This was the 
last command of their royal masier; and in this he 
was obeyed with more zeal than he (bund displayed 
when at the bead of bis troops in Palestine." 

Hume and Linsard do not allude to the " disci- 
pline ;" and the sdence of the latter is important. 
Henry eays : 

" Having eipresaed great penitence for bis vices, and 
having undergone a very severe discipline from the 
hands of the clergy, who altended him in iiis last nW' 
menH,"&c — Vol. iii. p. 161. ed. 1777, 

He Cites Brompton, and there I find the penanw 
given much atronger than in The Tahiti: 

" PiBcepitque pedes sibi iigari. et in altum suspendl 
nudumijue corpus flagellis ciedi el lacerari, donee ipse 
pTBciperat lit silerent. Cumque diu ciedereTur, ex pre- 
eepto, ad modicum siluerunt, Et spiritu iterum 
reassumplo, hoe idem secundo sc terlio in abundanlia 
sanguinis com plevenmt. Tamdiu inse revertens, aflerri 

contra dominum suum ligatis pedibus fune trahi." 

This is taken from Brompton'g Chronicle in De- 
cent Seriptoret Historic Aiiglicana, 1652, p. 1279., 
edited by Selden, As Broraplon lived in the 
reign of Edward III., be is not a high authority 
upon any matter in that of Richard I. I cannot 
find any other. Hoveden and Knyghton are silent. 
Is the fact stated elsewhere ? Hoveden states,, 
and the modern historians follow him, that aller 
the king's death, Marchader seized the archer, 
flayed him alive, and then hanged him. Sly 
medical authority says, that no man could be- 
flayed alive: and that the most skilful operator 
could not remove the skin of one arm from the 
elbow to the wrist, before Ihe pntient would die 
from Ihe shock to his system. 

Mi\ Riley, in a note on the passage in Hoveden, 
cites from the Winchesler Chronicle a possible 
account of Gurdum being tortured to death. The 
historian of The Tablet, in the same article, snya : 

" We are far from attributing absolute perfection to 
the son of Henry II.. one of [hat aivful race popularly 
believed to be descended fiom the devil. When 
Henry, as a boy, practising Whiggery by revolting 

Court of the King of France, the saint looked at bim 
with a son of terror, and said, • From the Devil you 
came, and to the Detil you will go,' " 

The fact that Henry II. rebelled against his 
father is not given in any history which I have 

JuLT 23. 1853.] 



read; and the popular belief in the remarkable 
descent of Henry, and consequently of our present 
Toyal family, is quite nevr to me, and to all of 
whom I have inquired. Still, finding that the 
"writer had an authority for the " discipline," he 
may have one for the Devil. If so, I should like 
to know it ; for I contemplate something after the 
example of Lucian*s Quomodo Historia sit con' 
scribenda, H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 




Having disposed of the allegation that the 
Oreek Iambic, 

was from Euripides, by denying the assertion, I 
s,m also, on farther investigation, compelled to 
•deny to him also the authorship of the cited pas- 



orety 8e Aaifioty dy^pl xoptritrri iraic^, rhv vovp il€\aipt 

Its fii*st appearance is in Barnes, who quotes it 
from Athenagoras " sine auctoris nomine." Car- 
nieli includes it with others, to which he prefixes 
the observation,-— 

** A me piacque come al Bamesio di porle per disteso, 
«d a canto mettervi la traduzlone in nostra faveila, senza 
entrnre trallo tratto in quistioni inutili, te alcuni versi 
appartengano a Tragedia di Euripide, o no,** 

There is, then, no positive evidence of this pas- 
sage having ever been attributed, by any competent 
scholar, to Euripides. Indirect proof that it could 
not have been written by him is thus shown : — In 
the Antigone of Sophocles (v. 620.) the chorus 
fiings, according to Brunck,— 

** ^^Iq, yhp l«c TOW 
k\uvov ttfos Tr4<f>can(u' 
Th Kcuchv Sofcciy tot* iffOKhy 
r^5' l/tjucv, 0T<p <l>pevas 
Bfhs &yu vphs &Tav 
irpdo'oeiy 8* 6?<iyo(rThy XP^^^ herbs &ras,^ 

<* For a splendid saying has been revealed by the 
wisdom of some one : I1iat evil appears to be good to 
him whose mind God leads to destruction ; but that hs 
•( God) practises this a short time without destroying such 
a one J* 

Now, had Barnes referred to the scholiast on the 
Antigone, or remembered at the time the above- 
cited passage, he would either not have omitted 
the conclusion of his distich, or he would at once 
have seen that a passage quoted as "^c rov^ of some 
otie" by Sophocles, seventeen years the senior of 
Euripides, could not have been the original com- 
position of his junior competitor. The conclusion 
of the distich is thus given by the old scholiast : 
** Zray 8* 6 Aaifuay dyZpl itopaiyyf kok^ 
rhv yovy H\w^%irpS»Tov f fiov\%{t%TaC* 

The words "when he wills it" being lefl out by 
Barnes and Garmeli, but which correspond with 
the last line of the quotation from Sophocles. 
The old scholiast introduces the exact quotation 
referred to by Sophocles as " a celebrated (noto- 
rious, holiiiiov) and splendid saying, revealed by 
the wisdom of some one, fiera aotpias yap 6r6 rtyos.^* 

Indeed, the sentiment must have been as old as 
Paganism, wherein, whilst all voluntary acts are 
attributed to the individual, all involuntary ones 
are ascribed to the Deity. Even sneezing was so 
considered: hence the phrase common in the lower 
circles in England, "Bless us," and in a higher 
grade in Germany, "Gott segne euch," which 
form the usual chorus to a sneeze. 

The other scholiast, Triclinius, explains the pas- 
sage of Sophocles by saying, "The gods lead to 
error (0\a€riy) him whom they intend to make 
miserable (Bwrruxf^y) : hence the application to 
Antigone, who considers death as sweet." 




A Passage in ^^The Taming of the Shrew.** -^ 
Perhaps I mistake it, but Mb. C. Mansfieu> 
Inglebt seems to mc to write in a tone as if he 
fancied I should be unwilling to answer his ques- 
tions, whether public or private. Although I am 
not personally acquainted with him, we have had 
some correspondence,' and I must always feel that 
a man so zealous and intelligent is entitled to the 
best reply I can afford. I can have no hesitation 
in informing him that, in preparing what he terins 
my " monovolume Shakspeare," 1 pursued this 
plan throughout ; I adopted, as my foundation, the 
edition in eight volumes octavo, which I completed 
in 1844; that was "formed from an entirely new 
collation of the old editions," and my object there 
was to give the most accurate representation of 
the text of the folios and c^uartos. Upon that 
stock I engrafted the manuscript alterations in my 
folio 1632, in every case in which it seemed to 
me possible that the old corrector might be right — 
in short, wherever two opinions could be enter* 
tained as to the reading : in this way my text in 
the "monovolume Shakspeare" was "regulated 
by the old copies, and by the recently discovered 
folio of 1632." 

Mb. Inglebt will see that in the brief preface 
to the "monovolume Shakspeare," I expressly 
say that " while a general similarity (to the folio 
1632) has been preserved, care has been taken to 
rectify the admitted mistakes of the early impression^ 
and to introduce such alterations of a corrupt and 
imperfect text, as were warranted by better au- 
thorities. Thus, while the new readings of the 
old corrector of the folio 1632, considerably ex- 
ceeding a Uiousand, are duly inserted in the places 



[No. 1«5. 

to wUch tbej belong, the old readings, wkidi, 
durii^ the last century and a half^ haye recom- 
mended themselves for adoption, and bare been 
derived from a comparison of ancient printed 
editions, have also been incorporated.** I do not 
know how I could have expressed myself with 
greater clearness ; and it was merely for the sake 
of distinctness that I referred to the result of my 
own labours in 1842, 1843, and 1844, during which 
years my eight volumes octavo were proceeding 
through the press. Those labours, it will be seen, 
essentially contributed to lighten my task in pre- 
paring the " monovolume Shakspeare.^ 

My answer respecting the passage in The 
Taming of the Shrew, referred to by Ma. Inglbbt, 
will, I trust, be equally satisfactory ; it shall be 
equally plain. 

I inserted ambler, because it is the word sub- 
stituted in manuscript in the margin of my folio 
1632. I adopted mercaiante, as proposed by 
Steevens, not only because it is the true Italian 
word, but because it exactly fits the place in the 
verse, mercatant (the word in the folios) being a 
syllable short of the required number. In the 
very copy of Florio's Italian Dictionary, which I 
bought of Kodd at the time when I purchased my 
folio 1632, I find mercatante translated by the 
word "marchant,** "marter,** and "trader,** 
exactly the sense required. Then, as to " surely ** 
instead of surly, I venture to tliink that ^ surely ** 
is the true reading : 

" In gait and countenance surely like a father.** 

** Surely like a father *' is certainly like a father ; 
and although a man may be surly m his ** counte- 
nance,** I do not well see how he could be surly in 
bis " gait ; ** besides, what had occurred to make 
the pedant surly f This appears to me the best 
reason for rejecting surly in favour of *• surely ;*' 
but I have another, which can hardly be refused 
to an editor who professes to follow the old copies, 
where they are not contradicted. I allude to the 
folio 1623, where the line stands precisely thus : 
** In gate and countenance surely like a Father." 
!rhe folio 1632 misprinted " surely ** swiy, as, in 
Julms Casar^ Act I. Sc. 3., it committed the op- 
poute blunder, by misprinting "surly** surely. 
Another piece of evidence, to prove that " surely ** 
'was the poet*8 word in The Taming of Ike Shrew, 
has comparatively recently fallen in my way; I did 
not know of its existence in 1844, or it would have 
been of considerable use to me. It is a unique 
/quarto of the play, which came out some years 
before the folio 1623, and is not to be confounded 
with the quarto of The Taming of the Shrew, with 
the date of 1631 on the title-page. This new 
authority has the line exactly as it is given in the 
fcdio 1623, which, in truth, was printed firom it. 
]^ is now before me. J. JPayns Collibb. 

July 10. 

CriHetd Digest of various Readings in Ike Worhs 
of Shakspeare, — There is much activity in the lite- 
Taiy world just now about the text of Shakspeare : 
but one moat essential w(»rk, i& reference to that 
text, still remains to be perfcMrmed, — I mean, the 
pubUeation of a complete digest of aU the varioiis 
readings, in a concise shape, such as those whidi we 
possess in relation to tlie MSS. and other edttUNis 
of nearly every classical author. 

At present, all editions of Shakspeare which 
claim to be considered critical, contain much loose 
information on readings, mixed up with notes 
(frequently very diffuse) on miscellaneous tojHCS. 
This is not in the least what we require : we need 
a regular digest of readings, wholly distinct from 
long debates about their value. 

"What I mean will be plain to any one who is 
familiar witib any good critical edition of the 
Greek New Testament, or with such books as 
€raisfbrd*s Herodotus, ihe. Berlin Aristotle, the 
Zurich Plato, and the like. We ought to have, 
first, a good text of Shakspeare: such as wxj 
represent, as fairly as possible, the real results of 
the labours of the soundest critics ; and, secondly,, 
page by page, at the foot of that text, the follow- 
ing particulars : 

I. All the readings of the folios, which should 
be cited as A, B, C, and D. 

II. All the readings of the quartos, which might 
be cited separately in each play that possesses 
them, either as a, b, c, d ; or as 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

III. A succinct summary of all the respectable 
criticisms, in the way of conjecture, on the text. 
This is especially needed. The recent volumes of 
Messrs. Collier, Singer, and Dyce, show that even 
editors of Shakspeare scarcely know the history of 
all the emendations. Let their precise pedigree be 
in the last case recorded with the most absolute 
brevity ; simply the suggestion^ and the names of 
its proposers and adopters. 

IV. To simplify this last point, a new siglation 
might be introduced to denote the various critical 

Such a publication should be kept distinct from 
any commentary ; especially from one laid out in 
the broad fiat style of modern editors. Mr. Ckd* 
Iier*8 v<^ume of Emendations, ipc., for instance, 
need not have occupied half its present space, if 
he had first denoted his MS. corrector by some 
short symbol^ instead of by a lei^thy phrase; 
and, secondly, introduced his suggestions by dome 
such formularies as those employed in claswcal 
criticisms, instead of toiling laboriously afler vari- 
ations in his style of expression, till we are wearied 
b^ the real iteration which lies under the seeming 

^ There should be none of this phrasework in the 
digest which I recommend. If indeed it were 
found absolutely necessary to connect it with a 
commentary, then arrange the two portions of the 

July 23. 1853.] 



apparatus as ia Arnold*! edttt^n of Thucydidet: 
the vari<B UcHonet in the middle of the page, and 
the comment in a different type below it. But 
I repeat^ it would be better still to give us the 
digest without the comment. All would go into 
one large volume. And it caimot be doubted 
that sudi a volume, if thoroughly well done, would 
furnish at once a sort of textus reeeptus^ and a 
critical basis, from which future editors might 
commence their labours. It would also be an 
indispensable book of reference to all who treat of, 
or are interested in, the poet*s text. Such, I say, 
would be its certain proi^ects if the editor were 
at once an accurate, painstaking scholai*, and a 
man of true poetical feeling. The labour would 
be great, but so would be the reward. It is only 
what the ablest scholars have proudly undertaken 
for the classics, even in the face of toils far more 
severe. Would that Mr. Dyce could be roused 
to attempt it ! B. 

[Some such edition as that alluded to by our corre- 
spondent has been long desired and eonteraplated. A 
proposal in connexion with it has been afloat for some 
time past, and we had hoped would have been pidblidy 
made in our pages before now. There are difficulties 
in the way which do not exist in the parallel uastanees 
from classical literature, and which do not seem to have 
occurred to our correspozkdent ; but the project is in 
good bands, and we hope vlU soon be brought to 
bear. — Ed.]] 

Emendaiions of Shdkspeare. — I am sadly afraid, 
what with one annotates* and another, that we, 
in a very little time, shall have Shakspeare so 
modernised and weeded of his peculiarities, that 
he will become a very second-rate sort of a per- 
son indeed; for I now see with no little alarm, 
that one of his most delightful quaintnesses is 
to give way to the march of refinement, and 
be altogether ruined. Hazlitt, one the most 
original and talented of critics, has somewhere 
said, that there was not in any passage of Shak- 
speare any single word that could be changed to 
one more appropriate, and as an instance he gives 
a passage from macbeth^ which certainly is one of 
the most perfect and beautiful to be found in the 
whole of his works : 

*' This castle hath a pleasant seat ; the air 
Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself 
Unto our gentle senses. 

This guest of summer. 
The temple-haunting martlet, does approve 
By his loved mansionry, that the heaven*s breath 
Smells wooingly here : no jutty, frieze, buttress; 
Nor coin of vantage, but this bird hath made 
His pendent bed, and procreant cradle : where they 
Most breed and haunt, I have observed, the air 
Is delicate.** 

There are some who differ from Hazlitt in the 
preieBt day, and assert that there is an error in 

the press in Dogberry's reproof of Borachio for 
calling him an '^ ass." The passage as it stands is 
as follows : 

** I am a wise fellow ; and whieh is viore, an officer, 
and which is more, a Juyuseholder, and which is more, as 
pretty a piece of flesh as any is in Messina, and one 
that knows the law, go to ; and a rich fellow enough, 
go to ; and a fellow that bath had hssesf and one iJtaX 
hath two gowns, and everythii^ handsome about him." 

His having had losses evidently meaning, though 
he was then' poor, that his circumstances were at 
one time so prosperous, that he could afford to 
hear losses ; and he, even then, had a superfluity 
of wardrobe in ** two gowns, and everything hand- 
some about him." But this little word losses^ the 
perfect Shakspearian quaintness of which is uni- 
versally acknowledged, is to be changed into 
lecLS€9 ; if it should be leases^ how is it that it does 
not follow upon " householder," instead of being 
introduced so many words after ? as, if leases were 
the proper word, it would assuredly have sug- 
gested itself immediately as an additional item to 
his respectability as a householder : for a moment 
only fancy similar corrections to be introduced in 
others of Shakspeare's plays, and Falstaff be made 
to exclaim at the robbery at Gad's Hill, " Down 
with them, they dislike us old men," instead of 
" they hate us youth ;" for Falstaff was no boy at 
the time, and this might be advanced as an au- 
thority for the emendation. But seriously, if this 
alteration is sent forth as a specimen of the im- 
provements about to be effected in Shakspeare, 
from an edition of his plays lately discovered, I 
shall, for one, deeply regret that it was ever ret- 
cued from its oblivion ; for witb my prejudices 
and prepossessions against interpolations, and in 
favour of old readings, I shall find it no ea&y 
matter to reconcile my mind to the new. Strip 
history of its romance, and you deprive it of its 
principal charm ; the scenery of a play-house im- 
poses upon us an illusion, and though we know it 
to be so, it is not essential that the impression 
should be removed. I remember once trav^li^g 
at night in Norfolk, and a part of my way was 
through a wood, at the end of which I came upon 
a lake lit up by a magnificent moon. I subse- 
quently went the same road by day : the wood, I 
Uien found, was a mere belt of trees, and the Idke 
had dwindled to a duck- pond. I have ever sinoe 
wished that the first impression had remained UBr 
ehanged; but this is a digression. There b bo 
author so universal as Shakspeare, and would that 
be the case if he was not thoroughly understood? 
He is appreciated alike in the closet and on tbe 
stage, quoted by saints and sages, in the pulptt 
and the senate, and your nostrum-monger «A- 
vertises his wares with a quotation from his pages; 
does he then require interpreting who is his owa 
interpreter ? Johnson says of lum that — 
** Panting Time toil'd after him in vain.** 



[No. 195. 

And that he — 

** Exhausted worlds and then imagined new.** 

There is no passion that he has not pourtrayed, 
and laid bare in its beauty or deformity ; no feel* 
ing or affection to which his genius has not given 
the stamp of immortality : and does he want an 
interpreter ? It is treading on dangerous ground 
to attempt to improve him. Even Mb. Knight, 
enthusiast as he is in his veneration for Shak- 
speare, and who, by his noble editions of the poet*s 
works, has won the admiration and secured the 
gratitude of every lover of the poet, has gone too 
far in his emendations when he changes a line in 
Romeo and Juliet from 


** Hence will I to my ghostly father*s cell. 


** Hence will I to my ghostly friar*s close cell.** 

As in the latter case the line will not scan unless 
the word ^^ friar" be reduced to a monosyllable, 
which, on reflection, I think Mb. Knight will be 
inclined to admit. But my paper is, I fear, ex- 
tending to a limit beyond which you have occa- 
sionally warned your correspondents not to go, 
and I must therefore draw my remarks to a close, 
with a hope that not any offence will be taken 
where none is intended by those to whom any of 
my observations may apply. Geobge Blink. 


"the dance of death." 

Amongst the numerous emblematic works, it 
has often appeared to me that the above work 
should be republished entire ; to give any part of 
it would be spoiling a most admirable series. I 
should desire to see it executed not as a fac-simile, 
but improved by good modern artists. The his- 
tory of " The Dance of Death " is too long and too 
obscure to enter upon here ; but from the general 
tenor of the accounts and criticisms of the work, 
it does not appear to have originated at all with 
Hans flolbein, or even his father, who also really 
painted it at Basil, in Switzerland, but to have 
had its origin in more remote times, as quoted 
in several authors, that anciently monasteries 
usually had a painted representation of a Death's 
Dance upon the walls. It is a subject, therefore, 
open to any artist, nor could it be said he had 
pirated anything if he treated the subject after 
his own fashion. *' The Dance of Deatn " begins 
of course with king, the queen, the bishop, the 

'yer, the lovers, &c., and ends with the child, 
wuom Death is leading away from the weeping 

ther. The original plates of Hollar, from 
uulbein^s drawings, are possibly still extant, but 
they are by no means perfect, although admirable 
in expression. The deaths or skeletons are very 
ill-drawn as to the anatomical structure, and were 
they better the work would be excellent. The 

Death lugging off the fat abbot is inimitable ; and 
the gallant way he escorts the lady abbess out the 
convent door is very good. I have the engravings 
by Hollar, and have made some of the designs 
afresh, intending to lithograph them at some 
future day ; but there being thirty subjects in all, 
the work would be a difficult task. Mr. J. B. 
Yates might, indeed, with his excellent collection 
of Emblemata, revive this old and beautiful taste 
now in abeyance : it is now rarely practised by 
our painters. There is, however, a very fine 
picture in the Royal Academy Exhibition, by 
Mr. Goodall, which is, strictly speaking, an emblem, 
though the artist calls it an historical episode. 
Now it appears to me an episode cannot be re- 
duced into a representation ; it might embrace a 
complete picture in writing, but as I read the 
picture it is an emblem, and would have been still 
more perfect had the painter treated it accord- 
ingly. The old man at the helm of the barge 
misht well represent Strafibrd, because, though he 
holds the tiller, he is not engaged in steering 
right, his eyes are not directed to his port 
Charles himself, rightly enough, has his back to the 
port, and is truly not engaged in manly aflTairs, 
nor attending to his duty ; but the sentiment of 
frivolity here painted cannot, I should say, attach 
itself to him, for he is not to be reproached with 
idling away his time with women and children, as 
this more strictly must be laid to his son. But 
the port where some grim-looking men are se- 
riously waiting for him, completes a very happy 
and poetical idea, but incomplete as an emblem, 
which it really is ; and were the emblematic rules 
more cultivated, it would have told its story much 

At present, the taste of the day lies in more 
direct caricature, and our volatile friend Punch 
does the needful in his wicked sallies of wit, and 
his fertile pencil. His sharp rubs are perhaps 
more effective to John BulFs temper, who can take 
a blow with Punch's truncheon and bear no malice 
after it, — the heavy lectures of the ancients are 
not so well suited to his constitution. 

Weld Tatlob. 


Old Lines newly revived, — The old lines of 
spondees and dactyls are just now applicable : — 

** Contikrbabantiir Constantinop511tanl 
InntimSrablllbus sollcltudiaibus. *' 


Inscription near Cirencester, — In Earl Bathurst*s 
park, near Cirencester, stands a building — the 
resort in the summer months of occasional pic-nic 
parties. During one of these visits, at which I 

Jdlt 23. 1853.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


JtTLT 23. 1853.] 



passage : " They bought herrings during the sea- 
son, and then departed, as those Jishermen which 
kill fish at Wardhouse do use to do atpresent^^ 

Where was Wardhouse, and wAat was the 
custom there ? ^ C J. P. 

Great Yiirtiiouth. 

^' Adrian tunCd the bull,''* — In an old MS. in 
my possession, the following verse occurs : — 

** Of whate'er else yonr head be full. 
Remember Adrian turn'd the bull ; 
''Tis time that you should turn the diase. 
Kick out the knave and take the place.*' 

Would any of the correspondents of " N. & Q." 
be so good as to explain to me the reference in 
the second line of ihe verse ? G. M. 

Carifs ^^Palavlogia Chronical — I have an old 
book entitled : 

" Palaeologia Chronica ; a Gironologlcal Account of 
Ancient Time. Performed by Robert Gary, D.LL., 
Devon. London : printed by J. Darby, for Richard 
Chiswell, at the Rose And Crown in St. Faults Church 
Yard, 1677." 

rand shall be glad to be informed whether the 
author was any relation of Dr. Valentine Carey, 
who was consecrated bishop of Exeter in 1620, 
and died in 1626. (See Walton's Life of Dr. 
Donne.') Chsis. Robebts. 

Bradford, Yorkshire. • 

The Southwarh Pudding Wonder. — ^I have been 
very much pleased with tne perusal of a collection 
of MS, letters, written by the celebrated anti- 
quary William Stukeley to Maurice Johnson, Esq., 
tne founder of the Gentlemen's Society at Spald- 
ing. These letters have not been published; the 
MSS. exist in the library of the Spalding Society. 
They contain much interesting matter, and fur- 
nish many traits of the manners, character, and 
modes of thinking and 4kcti»g ^ their respected 

Can an^ of your readers explain the meaning of 
the following passage, whsck is found in a letter 
dated 19th June, 1718: '' The Sautkieark Fkdding 
wonder is over ? " 

In the same letter the Dr. alludes to a con- 
tested election for the office of €3iamberlain of 
the City of London, which took place in 1718 : 

^ The city is all in an uproar about the election of 
a (^amberlain, like a country corporation foK burgesses, 
where roast pig and beef and wine are dealt about 
freely at taverns, and advertisements about it more 
volimnnous than the late celebrated Bangorean Nottfi- 
eation, though not in a calm and undisturbed way.** 

Pisfi£T Thompson. 
Stoke Newington. 

''Boman Catholics ccmfined in Fens qfJEfy. — Mr. 
Dickens, in Household Wards^ Ko. 169. p. 382., in 

the continuation of a " Child's History of Eng- 
land,^ S£i7s, when alluding to the threatened invA- 
sion of England by the Spanish Armada : 

" Some of the Queen's advisers were for seizing the 
principal English Catholics, and putting them to 
deatii ; but the queen — who, to her honour, used to 
say that die would never believe any ill of ber subject^ 
which a parent would not believe of her own children 
— neglected the advice, and only confined a few ^ 
those who were the most suspected among them, ia 
the fens of Lincolnshire.** 

Mr. Dickens had, of course, -as he supposec^ 
l^ood authority for making this statenaent; boti 
m reply to a private communication, he states b6 
should have been Fens of Ely. I am, perhaps, 
convicting myself of gross ignorance by seeking tat 
information respecting it ; nevertheless, I y&aUxrm 
to ask the readers of " N. & Q." for a reference to 
the authentic history^ where a corroboration of Mr. 
Dickens* statement is to be found ? 

FiSHET Thompson. 

Stoke Newington. 

White Bell Heather transplanted, '^Is it gene* 
rally known that white bell heather becomes pmk 
on being transplanted from its native hills into a 
garden F Two plants were shown to me a iem 
days ago, by a country neighbour, flowering pink, 
which were transplanted, the one three, and the 
other two, years ago ; the former had white bells 
for two years, the latter for one year only. What 
I wish to know is, Wkether these are eiLceptioBal 
cases or not ? W. 0. 


Oree-rCs *^ Secret Plot?' — Can you inform «ie 
where the scene of the following drama is laid, 
and the names of the dramatis persona f The 
Secret Plot ; a tragedy by Rupert Green, l^mo., 
1777. The author of this «plajr, which was pub- 
lished when he was only in his ninth year, was 
the son of Mr. Valentine Green, who wrote a 
history of Worcester, A. Z» 

« Thefidl Mow brings fine Weather:' — Wheft 
did this saying originate, and have we any proo£ 
of its correctness ? The late Duke of Wellington 
is reported to have said, that, as regarded llio 
weather, it was '' nonsense to have any faith in the 
moonJ** (Vide Larpent's Private Journal^ vol. iL 
p. 283.) W. W. 


Nash the Artist — In the year 1302, Mr. E, 
Nash made a wAter-cc^onr drawing of the TomwL 
Hall, chur<Ae8, &c., in the High Street of 4^ 
ancient borough of Dorchester ; a line engraving 
(now rather scarce) was rfiortly aftcrwarus pub- 
lished therefrom by Mr. J. Frampton, then a 
bookseller in the town. Can anyxeffder of thsB 


[N6. 196. 

" N. & Q." inform me nhAt Mr. Kuh tbli waa, 
and what became of him ? Wm he related to the 
Cattle* aad Abbeys N^osh F Johk G&buhd. 


WoodiBork of St. Andrew'* Priory Chtrch, 
SarmeeU. — The Cambridge Architectural Sooietj, 
which is now attempting the restoration of St. 
Andrew's Priory Church, Barnwell, will feci 
deeply indebted to any of your readers who can 
pve iheni any information respecting; the carved 
woodwork removed from that church some forty 
years ago, to make way for the present hideous 
arrangement of pews and pulpit. A man who 
lives OD the spot speaks of a fine wood screen, and 
highly decorated pulpit, some porlJODS of which 
were sold by auction ; and the rest was in his pos- 
session for some time, and portions of it were 
given away by him to all who applied for it. 

Tbb Tbeasurbb. 

Tiin. Coll. Camb. 

" The Mitre and ike Crown" — I find the followmg 
work, at first publuhed anonymously, reprinted as 
Dr. Atterbury's in Sir Walter Scott's edition of 
the Somen' Tracti. Ho reason is assigned by the 
editor for ascribing it to him, and I should be glad 
to know whether there is any satisfactory evidence 
for doing so. The original tract appears as anony- 
mous in the Bodleian Catalogue : 

** The Mitre and the Crown, or a real Distinction 
betceen them : in a Letter to a Rererend Member 
of the ConTocation: Lond. nil, Svo." 



MiUbxry Mtuie. — Was military music ever 
played at night in the time of King Charles L P 


Minor <atmftri fnft^ 'SivStani. 

Sloven Church. — Can you give me any inform- 
ation conceroing the origimd church of Stoven, 
Safioik, which was of good Norman work through- 
out, as lately ascertained by the vast number of 
Norman mouldiogs found in the walls in restoring 
h I" L. (2) 

[In Jermyn's "Suffolk Collcctioni,'- vol. vi. (Add. 
H8S. SI73.), in the British Museum, are the following 
NdUs of this church, taken Ist June, IBOS, by H. I. 
and D. E. D. : " The Church consiila of a nave and 
chancel, bolh under one roof, which is coTcred with 
thatch. ThechincelisSO tt SiiLlong, and 15 ft. 9 in. 
wide. Ilie communion-table is neitber raised nor in- 
closed. The floor of the whole church ii also of ibe 
tame hdght. The nave is 30 ft long, and 16 ft. 1 in. 
wide. Between the chancel and nave are the remains 
of ■ acreen, and over it the alms of George II, between 
two tables containing the Lord's Prayer, &c. In the 

N. E. angle is the pulpit, which la of oak, hexagon, 
ordinary, as are alio the pewa and teats. At the W. 
end stands the font, which is octagon, the faces con- 
taining roses and lions, and two figures holding blank 
eacutcheons, the pedestal supported by four lions. The 
steeple is in the usual place, small, square, of flinty 
but little higher than the roof. In it is only one bell, 
inscrilied 1 759- The entrance Into the church on the 
N. side is through a circular Saion arch, not much 
ornamented. On the side is aivothet of the same de- 
scription, but more ornamented, with zig-zag moulding, 
&c." Then follow the inscriptions, &i;. in the chancel, 
or Mia. Elizabeth Brown, John Brown, Thomas Brown j 
in the nave, of Henry KeabU, with eitracls from the 
pariah register commencing in 1653.] 

2^e Statute of Kilhenny. — Said to have been 
passed in 1361. What was the nature of it P 


[This statute legally abolished the ancient code of 
the Irish, called tlie Brehon laws, and was passed in a 
parliament held at Kilkenny in the 40th Edward III., 
under the government of Lionel, Duke of Clareno; 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. By this act, the English 

selves by the common laws of England, so that who- 
ever submitted himself to the Brehon law, or the lav 
of the Marches, is declared a traitor. Among other 
things the tUtute enacted that " the alliaunce of the 
English by marriage with any Irish, the nurture of 
inbntes, and gossipred with the Irish, be deemed high 
treason." And again, " If anie man of English race 

or fashion of the Irish, his lands' shall be sciicd, and 
his bodie impilsoned, till he shall conform to English 
modes and customs." This statute was followed by the 
ISIh Henry VI. c. i. ii. iii., and the 28tb Hen. VI„ 
c. i., with similar prohibitions and penalties. These 
prohibitions, however, had liitle effect j nor were ihe 
English laws universally submitted to throughout Ire- 
land until the lime of James I„ when Ibe final extir- 
pation of the ancient Brehon law was effected.} 

Kenne of Ketme. — Can any of yonr Kentish 
correspondents inform me to whom a certain 
Christ. Eenne of Kenne, in co. Somerset, sold the 
manor of " Oaklej'," in the parish of Higijam, near 
Rochester; and in whose possession it was about 
the close of the reign of Queen Elizabeth or com- 
mencement of James I. ? 

The above Kenne, by marrying Elizabeth, the 
daughter of Sir Roger Cholmeley, and widow of 
Sir Leonard Beckwith, of Selby, In co. York, 
acquired possession of the same manor in co. 

After the death of his first wife, be married ft 
Florence Stalling, who survived him. He died in 
1592. F. T. 

[■ Christopher Kenne of Kenne, in the county of 
Somerset, Esq., was possessed of the manor of Little 
Okeley, in Higham, Kent, in the right of his wile, the 
daughter and co-har of Sir Roger Cholmeley, anoa 

July 23. 1853.] 



22 Eliz. ; and theii) having levied a fine of it, sold it to 
Thompson, and he, in the reign of Charles I., alienated 
it to Best." — Hasted. 

Of course, the Christian name of Thompson, and 
other particulars if required, can be obtained by a 
reference to the foot of the fine in the Record Office, 
Carlton Ride.J 

Rents of Assize^ SfC, — In the Valor Ecclesuut^ 
ticus, the following varieties of income derived 
from rent of land constantly recur, viz. : 

" De redditu (simply). 
De redditu assisse. 
De redditu libero. 
De redditu ad voluntatem.** 

Can the distinction between these be exactly 
explained by any corresponding annual payments 
for land according to present custom P And will 
any of your readers be kind enough to give such 
explanation P J. 

[^Reddilus. — Rents from lands let out to tenants; 
modern farm rents. 

Redditus Assise. — Quit rents : fixed sums paid by 
the tenants of a manor annually to the lord; as in 
modern times. 

JReddituB Libert, — Those quit rents which were paid 
to the lord by ** liberi tenentes," freeholders ; as dis- 
tinguished from ** villani bassi tenentes,** &c. 

Redditus ad volunttxtem. — Annual payments <* ad 
voluntatem donatium ; " such as *< confrana," &c. The 
modern Easter Offering perhaps corresponds with them.] 

Edifices of Ancient and Modem Times. — Can 
any of your architectural or antic^uarian readers 
inform me where a chronological list of the prin- 
cipal edifices of ancient and modern times can be 
found ? Gbtsbn. 

[Consult Chronological Tables of Ancient and Modem 
History Synchronistically and Ethnographically arranged^ 
fol., Oxford, 1835. For those relating to Great Bri- 
tain, see Britton's Chronological and Historical lllustra* 
tions, and his Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain,^ 

Gorram. — Please to direct me where I can find 
a short account of Gorram, an ecclesiastical writer 
(I suppose) mentioned by D*Aubign^ vol. v. 
p. 245. L. (2) 

[The divine alluded to by D*Aubign^ is no doubt 
Nicholas de Gorran, a Dominican, confessor to Philip 
the Fair of France. He was an admired and eloquent 
preacher, and his Sermons, together with a Commen- 
tary on the Gospels, appeared at Paris, 1523 and 1539. 
He died in 1295.] 

^ Rock of Ages'' — Wlio is the author of the 
hymn beginning *' Rock of Ages P ** J. G. T. 

[That celebrated advocate for The Calvinism of the 
Church ofEnglandf the Rev. Augustus Montague Top- 


(Vol.vii., p.591.) 

Responding to the challenge of your correspon- 
dent Mb. Andrews, I copy the foUowing from my 
common-place book : 

From Lintots memorandum'book of ** Copies when 



1705. Recruiting Officer - 

1706. Beaux Stratagem - 

£ s.d. 

- 16 2 6 

- 30 O 


1712. The Miller*s Tale, with some charac- 
ters firom Chaucer - - - 5 7 6 

Mr. Centlivre. 

1703. May 14. Love*s Contrivance - - 10 O 

1709. May 14. Busy Body - . - 10 O O 

Mr, Cibber, 

Nov. 8. A third of LoVe's Last Shift 3 4 6 

Nov. 5. PeroUa and Izadora - - 36 11 O 

Oct. 27. Double Gallant - - 16 2 6 

Nov. 22. Lady's Last Stake - - 32 5 O 

Feb. 26. Venus and Adonis - - 5 7 6 

Oct. 9. Comical Lover - - - 10150 

Mar. 16. Cinna*s Conspiracy - - 13 

Oct. 1. The Nonjuror - - - 105 



Mr, Gay. 

1713. May 12. Wife of Bath - - - 25 

1714. Nov. 11. Letter to a Lady • - 5 76 

1715. Feb. 14. The What-d'ye-call-it? - 16 2 6 
Dec. 22. Trivia - - - - 43 O 

Epistle to the Earl of Bur- 
lington - - - - 10 15 O 
1717. May 4. Battle of the Frogs - - 16 2 6 
Jan. 8. Three Hours after Marriage 43 2 6 
Revival of the Wife of Bath 75 
The Mohocks, a farce - - 22. 1 Of. 
Sold the Mohocks to him again. 

234 10 O 

Captain KiUegrew. 
1718-19. Feb. 14. Chit Chat - - - 84 

Mr. OzdL 

1711. Nov. 18. 7 Translating Homer*s Iliad, 

1712. Jan. 4. J books i. ii. iii. . - 10 8 6 

1713. April 29. Translating Moliere - 37 12 6 

N. Rowe, Esq. 

Dec. 12. Jane Shore • - - 50 15 
1715. April 27. Jane Grey - - - 73 5 O 

1727. July 14. A Collection of Poems - 35 15 



flTo. 195. 


1712. Feb. 19. Statius, 1st book, and Ver- £ 

tumnus and Pomona - - - 
Mar. 21. First edition of the Rape 
April 9. To a lady presenting Voi- 
ture. Upon Silence. To the author 
of a poem called Successio - 
1712-13. Windsor Forest (Feb. 23) 

1713. July 23. Ode to St. Cecilia's Day - 

1714. Feb. 20. Addition to the Rape 
Mar. 23. Homer, vol. i. - - 
650 copies on royal paper 

1715. Feb. 1. Temple of Fame 
April 21. Key to the Lock 

1716. Feb. 9. Homer, vol. ii. - 
May 2. 650 royal paper 
July 17. Essay on Criticism - 

1717. Aug. 9. Homer, vol. iii. 

1718. Jan. 6. 650 royal paper - — - 
Mar. 3. Homer, vol. iv, 

650 royal paper 
Oct 17. Homer, voL v, - 

1719. April 6. 650 royal paper - "- 

1720. Feb. 26. Homer, vol. vi. 
May 7. 650 royal paper- 

1721. Parnell's Poems - - - . 
Paid Mr. Pope for the subscription- 
money due on the 2nd volume of his 
Homer, and on his 5th volume, at 
the agreement for the said 5th vol. 
— ( I had Mr. Pope*s assignment for 
the royal paper that was ^en left of 
his Homer) ... 

Copy-money for the Odyssey, vols. i. ii. iii., 
and 750 of each volume printed on royal 
paper, 4to. -...-. 615 

Copy- money for the Odyssey, vola. iv. and 
v., and 750 of each royal . . - 425 


9. d. 


2 6 



16 6 

























18 7J 

£4244 8 7J 

From that storehouse of instruction and amuse- 
ment, Nichols's Anecdotes, vol. vilL pp. 293—1 

I take this opportunity of forwardifig to you a 
curious memorandum which I found in rummaging 
the papers of a "note-maker" of the last century. 
It appears to be a bill of fare for the entertain- 
ment of a party, upon the " flitch of bacon" being 
decreed to a happy couple. It is at Ilarrowgate, 
and not at Dunmow, which would lead us to be- 
lieve that this custom was not confined to one 
county. The feast itself is almost as remarkable, 
as regards its component parts, as that product 
by Mr. Thackeray, in his delightful " Lectures," 
as characteristic of polite feeding in Queen Anne*s 
reign : 

"•/ame 25. — Mr, and Mrs. UdddTs Dinner mt Green 
Draffon, Harrowgate, -on taking FJiitch Baeon Oaik. 

BUI Fare. 
Beans and bacon. 
Cabbage, colliflower. 

Three doz. cbickeDs. 

Two shoulders mutton, eoweambenL 

Two turbets. 

Rump beef, &c. &c. 

Goose and plumbpudding. ] 

Quarter lamb, sallad. 

Tarts, jellies, strawberries, cream. ' 

Cherrys, syllabubs, and blomopge. 

Leg lamb, spinnage. 

Crawfish, pickled salmon, 

Fryd tripe, calves' beads. 

Gravy and pease soop. 

Two piggs. 

Breast veal, ragoud. 

Ice cream, pine apple. 

Surloin bea£ 

Pidgeons, green peas. 

lobsters, crabs. 

Twelve red herrings, twenty-two dobils:*' 




(Vol. viL, p. 4890 

Perhaps the following may be of seryioe as i 
farther illustration ef this subject. 

ZAcharie Boyd says, in The Last BaUeU qf fht 
Sovle in Deaths 1629, reprinted Glasgow, 1681, at 
p. 469. : 

-** Now after his Battell ended hee hath mxnemdiani 
the spirit, Clepstfdra effluxit, his houre-gkisse is now 
nmne oat, and his soule is come to its wished iMne, 
where it is fireefimn the fetters of ^esh.** 

Tius divine was minister of tlie banmj parigk 
of Glasgow, the church for which was then in tlM 
crypt of the cathedral. I have no doubt the hoar- 
^as8 was there used from which he draws Us 
simile. Y<ittr correspondent refers to sermons 'sn 
hour long, but, to judge from the contents of *• Mr. 
Zacharie 8 ** MS. sermons still preserved m Ite 
library of the College of Glasgow, each, at the rate 
of ordiniEuy speaking, must hAve occupied at least 
an hour and a half in delivery. When he had 'he* 
come infirm and near his end, and had found ift 
necessary to shorten his sermons, his '* kirk jas* 
sion ** was ofiended, as — 

** Feb. IS, 1651. Some are to speak to Mr. Z. Bc^ 
about the soon akailing (dismisaing) of the Banonie 
Kirk OB Sunday afternoon." 

Though senttons are bow genendly restrietai 
from three quarters to an bourns Misery, tktt 
practice of long preaching in the olden times in 
the west of Scotland had much prevuled. Widiin 
my own recollection I have neard sermcms tit 
nearly two hours* duration ; asid eariymMngmlGnr 
classes of the first I^ssenfcers, on **^ 8aerime iitti 
Occasions** as they are yet called, the senrieai 
lasted altogether (not u n frequ ently) continuouslj 
from ten o^ock on Sabbath forenoon, to three and 

July 23. 1853.] 



£aiir o*olo(^ ibe following mormn^. Jk. traditional 
anecdote is current of an old Fresbjterian clergy- 
man, onusually full of matter, w1m>, liaving preached 
out his hour-glass, was accustomed to pause, and 
addressing the precentor, ^^ Another glass and then,^^ 
lecommenced his sermon. 

A pictorial representation of the hour-glass 
in a country church is to be seen in &ont of 
the precentor*8 desk, or pulpit, in a ver^ scarce 
humorsome print, entitled ^^ Fresbjtenan Pe- 
nance," by tne famous David Allan. It also 
figures in the engraving of the painting by WHkie, 
of John Knox preaching before Mary Queen of 
Scots. About twenty years ago it was either in 
the Cathedral of Stirling or the Armory of the 
Castle (the ancient chapel), that I saw the hour- 
glass (about twelve Inches high) which had been 
connected with one or other of the |mlpits, from 
both of which John Knox is s!ud to have preached. 
It is likely the hour-glass is there "even unto 
this day " (unless abstracted by some relic hunter) ; 
and if it could be depended on as an original ap- 
pendage to the pulpits, would prove that its use 
was coeval with the times of the Scottish Re- 
formation. I think its high antiquity as certain 
as the oaken pulpits themselves. 

At an early period the general poverty of the 
country, and the scarcity of clocks and watches, 
must have given rise to the adoption of the hour 
sand-'glass, a simple instrument, but yet elegant 
and impressive, for the measurement of a brief 
portion of our fleeting span. G. N. 


On the 3 1st May, 1640, the churchwardens of 
Great Staughton, co. Huntingdonshire, " are, and 
stand charged with (among oUier churdi goods), a 
jmlpit Btandinge in the church, having a cover 
over the same, and an houre-^asse adjominge." 

Copy of a cutting from b ssagazine, name and 
date unknown : 

** Among Dr. 'Rawlinson^ manuscripts in the Bod- 
leian Library, No. 941 contains a collection of Miscel- 
laneous DisconrseSf by Mr. Lewis of Margate, in Kent, 
whence ihe following extract has been made : 

** * It-appears that these hour-glasses were coeval with 
our Reformation. In a fine frontispiece, prefixed to 
the Holy Bible of the bishops' translation, printed in 
4to. by John Day, 1569, Archbishop Parker is repre- 
sented in the ptilpit wiA an hour-glass standing on bis 
right hand ; ours, here, stood onthe left without any 
frame. It was proper that«some time should be pre- 
scribed for the 4eng^ of the serman, And clocks and 
txatcbes wore not then so common as they are •novr, 
2lnB-time of an hour con^ued till ihe Aevoluiion, as 
appeals by Bishop Sanderson's, TiIletson*s, StiUing- 
€oetljB, Dr. Barrow's, and othersVaermons, printed dur* 
ii^thot tine.* 

'^ The writer of .this artide was informed in 1811 
by the.U«r« Mr. ^Busder, «rko Jbad the oumcy of St. 

Dunstan'a, Fleet-Street, that the large silver liour-glasar 
formerly used in that church, was melted down into 
two staff heads for the parish beadles. 

^ An hour-glass frnme of iron, fixed in the wall by 
the side of the pulpit, was remaining in 1797 in the 
church of North Moor, in Oxfordshire." 

JosBFH Hnc. 

St. Neots, Huntingdonshire. 

In many of our <Ad pulpits built during the 
seventeenth century, wh^ hour sermons n^ere the 
rule, and thirty minutes the exception, the shelf 
on which the glass used to stand may still be seen. 
If I recollect rightly, that oi' Miles Gover4ale was 
thus furnished, as stated in the newspapers, at the 
time the church of Bartholomew was removed. 
Perhaps this emblem was adopted on gravestones 
as significant of the^^aracter of Death as a minister 
or preacher. 

The late Basil Montague, when delivering a 
course of lectures on ^' Laughter " at the Islington 
Institution some few years since, kept time by the 
aid of this antique instrument. If I remember 
aright, he turned the glass and said, ^^Another glass 
and ffien^^ or some equivalent expression. 

£. G. Ballabp. 

There is an example at the churdi of St. Alban, 
Wood Street, Cheapside. This church was rebuilt 
by Sir C. Wren, and finished 168^ ; showing that 
the hour-glass was in use subsequent to the times 
alluded to. J. D. Aluc^owt. 

I saw, on 13th January last, an iron hour-glass 
stand affixed to a pillar in the north aiale of Belton 
Church, in the Isle of Axholme. 

Edwaud Peacock. 

Bottesford Moors, Kirton-in-Xindsey. 


(Vol. vii., p.571.) 

The subject of the Query put by your corre- 
spoBdent is one ihat has frequently occurred to 
me, but which is involved in obscurity. Heraldic 
writers generally have contented themselves with 
the mere statement of ladies* arms being thus 
borne ; and where we do£nd an opinion hazarded, 
it is uoore in the form of a quotation from a name- 
less author, or of a timid suggestion, than an at- 
tempt to elucidate the questifm by argument <kr 
from history. 

By some this form of shield is said to have 
descended to us from the Amazons, who .bore such: 
others say, from the form of their tombstones I 
Now we find it to represent the ancient spindle 
so much used by ladies ; and again to be a shield 
found by the Romans unfit &r use, and therefore 
transferred to the weaker sex, arho wefle *^ allowed 
to place their ensigns npoQ it, ivith one comer 
always uppermost.** 



[No. 195. 

"" Here are quotations from a few of our writers 
on the science of Heraldry : — 

Burke, Encychp. Herald, 1844. Queen Victo- 
ria bears her arms on a full and complete shield ; 
** for," says the old rhyme — 

<* Our sagest men of lore define 
The kingly state as masculiney 
Paiseant, martial, bold and strong, 
The stay of right, the scourge of wrong ; 
Hence those that England's sceptre wield, 
Must buckle on broad sword and shield. 
And o*er the land, and o'er the sea. 
Maintain her sway triumphantly.** 

This, unfortunately, is only one side of the ques- 
tion : and, though satisfactorily accounting for the 
shape of the shield of royalty, does not enlighten 
us on the " origin and meaning " of the lozenge. 
Babrington, Display of Heraldry^ 1844: — 

*' An unmarried daughter bears her father's arms on 
a lozenge>shaped shield, without any addition or altera- 

Berrt, Encych Herald, 1830 : — 

** The arms of maidens and widows should be borne 
in shields of this shape.** 

RoBSON, British Herald^ 1830 : — 

<* Lozenge, a four-cornered figure, differing from 
the fusil, being shorter and broader. Plutarch says 
that in Megara [read Megura], an ancient town of 
Greece, the tombstones under which the bodies of Ama- 
zons lay were of that form : some conjecture this to be 
the cause why ladies have their arms on lozenges. '* 

PoRNT, Elements of Heraldry, 1795, supposes — 

The lozenge may have been originally a fusily or 
fusee, as the French call it : it is a figure longer than 
the lozenge, and signifies a spindle, which is a woman*s 

This writer also quotes Sylvester de Petra 
Sancta^ who would have this shield to " represeiU 
a cushion, whereon women used to sit and spin, or 
do other housewifery." 

Brydson, Summary View of Heraldry^ 1795: — 

** The shields on which armorial bearings are repre- 
sented are of various forms, as round, oval, or some- 
what resembling a heart; which last is the most 
common form. Excepting sovereigns, women un- 
married, or widows, bear their arms on a lozenge 
shield, which is of a square form, so placed as to have 
one of its angles upwards, and is supposed to resemble a 

Botes, Crreat Theatre of Honour, 1754. In 
this great work the various forms of shields, and 
the etymology of their names, are treated on at 
considerable length. The Greeks had five: — the 
Aspis, the Oerron or Oerra, the Thurios, the 
Laiveon, and the Pelte or^ Pelta. The Romans 
had the Ancile, the Scutum, the Clypeus, the 
Parma, the Cetra, and others ; but none of these 
approached the shape of the lozenge. The shields 

of modern nations are also dealt with at length; 
still the author appears to have had no informa- 
tion nor an opinion upon the lozenge, which he 
dismisses with these remarks : — 

" L*^cu des filles est en lozenge, de mSme de celtii dw 
veuves ; et en France et ailleurs, celles-ci rornent et 
Tentourent d'une cordelidre ou cordon k divers neuds. 
Quant auz femmes marines, elles accollent d*ordinaire 
leurs armes avec celles de leurs ^poux ; mais qudque- 
fois elles les portent aussi en lozenge,^ 

CoATv,s, Dictionary of Heraldry, 1725, quotes 
Colombiere, a French herald, who, he says, gives 
upwards of thirty examples of differently formed 
shields ; but no allusion is made to the lozenge. 

Carter, Honor Redivivus, 1660. 

DuGBALE, Ancient Usage in bearing Arms, 1682. 

GwiLLiM, Display of Heraldry, 1638. 

Camden, Remains, 1637. 

Gerard Legh, Accedence ofArmorie, 1576. 

None of these authors have touched on the sub- 
ject ; which, considering that at the least two of 
them are the greatest authorities, appears some* 
what strange. 

Ferne, Blazon of Gentrie, 1586 — 

** Thinks the lozenge is formed of the shield called 
Tessera or Tessela, which the Romans, finding unfit for 
use, did allow to women to place their ensigns upon, 
with one of its angles always upmost.** 

Though unable at this moment to furnish ex- 
amples m proof of my opinion, I must say that 
it is contrary to the one expressed by vour corre- 
spondent Cetrep, that " formerly all ladies of 
rank** bore their arms upon a complete shield, or 
bore shields upon their seals. The two instances 
cited by him are rather unfortunate, the connexion 
of both ladies with royalty being sufficiently close 
to suggest the possibility of their right to the ''full 
and complete '* shield. 

Margaret^ Duchess (not Countess) of Norfolk, 
was sole heir of her father, Thomas of Brotherton^ 
fiflh Earl of Norfolk, son of King Edward I., and 
Marshal of England. She, '* for the greatness of 
her birth, her large revenues and wealth,**j{|wa8 
created Duchess of Norfolk for life ; and at the 
coronation of King Kichard II. she exhibited her 
petition '*to be accepted to the office of High 
Marshal,** which was, I believe, granted. In such 
case, setting aside her royal descent^ I apprehend 
that, by virtue of her office, she would not bear 
her arms in a lozenge. She bore the arms of 
England with only a label for difference. 

Margaret, Countess of Richmond, was herself 
royally descended, being great-granddaughter of 
John of Gaunt^ son of Edward III. ; was daugh- 
ter-in-law of Henry V.'s widow, and mother of 
Henry VII. Being descended from the ante- 
nuptial children of John of Graunt*8 third wife, 
who had been legit imatised by act of parliament 
for all purposes except succession to the crowD, 

July 23. 1853.] 



Henry VII. would probably desire by every 
means in his power to suppress anything sugges- 
tive of bis unsubstantial title to the crown. It 
might be by his particular desire that his mother 
assumed the full regal shield, on which to emblazon 
arms differing but slightly from those of her sou, 
the king. 

It is not, however, my opinion that the form of 
shield under consideration is anything like so 
ancient as some of the authors would make it. I 
do not believe it comes to us either from the 
Amazons or the Romans. 

My own opinion, in the absence of any from the 
great writers to guide me, is, that we owe the 
use of this form of shield amongst ladies to hatch" 
■merits or funeral achievements. During the time of 
mourning for persons of rank, their coats of arms 
are set up in churches and over the principal 
entrances of their houses. On these occasions it is 
well known their arms are always placed in a large 
black lozenge ; a form adopted as the most proper 
figure for admitting the coats of arms of sixteen 
ancestors to be placed round it, four on each of 
the sides of the square. 

It was not until the reign of Richard III. that 
the College of Arms was regularly incorporated; 
and though the science of heraldry received its 
highest polish during the splendid reigns of 
Edward III. and Henry V., it had yet scarcely 
been subjected to those rules which since the 
establishment of the College have controlled it. 
Mark Noble, in his History of the College ofArms^ 
says that the latter reign — 

" If it did not add to the wealth of the nation at 
large, gave rise to a number of great families, enriched 
by the spoils of Azincourt, the plunder of France, and 
the ransom of princes. Tlie heraldic body was pecu- 
liarly prized and protected by the king, who, however, 
was very whimsical in the adoption of cognizances and 

During the greater portion of the fourteenth 
century, and the early part of the fifteenth, there 
was a rage for jousts, tilts, and tournaments ; and 
almost every English nobleman had his officers of 
arms ; dukes, marquesses, and earls were allowed 
a herald and pursuivant ; the lower nobility, and 
even knights, might retain one of the latter. To 
these officers belonged the ordering of everything 
relating to the solemn and magnificent funerals, 
which were so general in these centuries, and 
which they presided over and marshalled. 

During the reign of Edward IV. the exact form 
of these obsequies was prescribed. Not only were 
the noblemen*s own heralds there, but the king*s 
also : and not in tabards bearing the sovereign's, 
but the deceased's arms. . 

So preposterously fond of funeral rites were 
monarchs and their subjects, that the obsequies of 
princes were observed by such sovereigns as were 
in alliance with them, and in the same state as if 

the royal remains had been conveyed from one 
Christian kingdom to another. Individuals had 
their obsequies kept in various places where they 
had particular connexions.* 

Is it too much then to presume that in the 
midst of all this pomp and affectation of grief, the 
hatchment of the deceased nobleman would be 
displayed as much, and continued as long, as pos- 
sible by the widow ? May we not reasonably 
believe that these ladies would vie with each 
other in these displays of the insignia of mourning, 
until, by usage, the lozenge-shaped hatchment 
became the shield appropriated to the sex ? 

These hypotheses are not without some found- 
ation ; but if any of your correspondents will 
enunciate another theory, I shall be glad to give 
it my support if it is found to be more reasonable 
than the foregoing. Bboctuna. 

Bury, Lancashire. 

photographic cosbespomdence. 

Mvltiplication of Photographs. — In Vol. viii., 
p. 60. is a letter from Mb. John Stewart of Pau 
suggesting certain modes of operating in pro- 
ducing positive photographs, and which sugges- 
tions are apparently offered as novelties, when, in 
fact, they have been for some considerable time in 
practice by other manipulators. Of course, I do 
not suppose that they are otherwise regarded by 
Mr. Stewart than as novelties, who cannot be 
acquainted with what is doing here ; but it ap- 
pears to me desirable to discriminate between facts 
that are absolutely^ and those that are relatively 

Most of the transparent stereoscopic photographs 
sold in such numbers by all our eminent opticians, 
are acttudly produced m the way recommended 
by Mr. Stewart ; and reduced copies of photo- 
graphs, &c., have been produced in almost every 
possible variety by Dr. Diamond, and many 
others of our most eminent photographers. Very 
early in the history of this science, the idea was 
suggested by Mr. Fox Talbot himself, of taking 
views of a small size, and enlarging them for mul- 
tiplication ; and, if I am rightly informed, Mr. 
Ross was applied to to construct a lens specially 
for the purpose. Some months back, as early at 
least as March or April in the present year, Mr. 
F. H. Wenham actually printed on common chlo- 
ride paper a life-size positive from a small nega- 
tive on collodion ; and immediately afterwards 
adopted the use of iodized paper for the same pur- 
pose; and after he had exhibited the proofs, I 
myself repeated the experiment. In fact, had 
there been time at the last meeting of the Photo- 
graphic Society, a paper on this very subject 
would have been read by Mr. Wenham ; but the 

♦ Noble. 



[No. 195. 

business before ihe meeting was too extensive to 
admit of it. My object is not, of course, to offer 
anj objection to tbe proposition, but simply to put 
in a claim of merit for the idea originiuly due to 
Mr. Fox Talbot, and secondarily to Mr. Wenham, 
who I believe was an earlier operator in this way 
than any one. Geo. Shasbolt. 

Yellow Botttes for FhotograpMc Chemicals^ — 
As light transmitted through a yellow curtain, or 
yellow glass, does not affect photographic ope- 
rations, would it not be desirable to keep the 
nitrate of silver and its solutions in yellow glass 
bottles, instead of covering the plain white glass 
with black paper, as I see directed in some cases ? 


Donnyhrook Fair (Vol. vii, p. 549.). — Abhba 
will find his answer in D' Alton's History of the 
County of DvbUn^ p. 804. : 

" About the year 1 174, Earl * Strongbow'gaTe Don- 
nybrock (Devonalbroc), amongst other lands, to Walter 
de Riddlesford ; and in 1204, King John granted to 
the corporation of Dublin license for an annual tight- 
day fair here, commencing on the day of th? finding of 
the Holy Cross (May 3rd), with similar stallages and 
tolls, as established in Waterford and Limerick.** 

This scene of an Irishman's glory has been 
daguerreotyped in lines that may be left in your 
pages, as bemg probably quite as little known to 
your readers as is the work above cited : 

** Instead of weapons, either band 
Seized on such arms as came to hand. 
And as famed Ovid paints th* adventures 
Of wrangling Lapitbae and Centnurs, 
Who at their feast, by Bacchus led* 
Threw bottles at each others' head ; 
And these arms failing in their scuffles. 
Attacked with andirons, tonges, and shovels : 
Sd clubs and billets, staves and stones. 
Met fierce, encountering every sconce. 
And cover*d o*er with knobs and pains. 
Each void receptacle for brains.** 


Abigail (Vol. iv., p. 424. ; Vol. v., pp. 38. 94. 
450.; Vol. viii., p. 42.). — Not having my "N. & 
Q.** at hand, I cannot say what may have been 
already told on this subject, but I think I can 
answer the Queries of your last correspondent, 
H. T. Kylev. There can be, I think, no doubt that 
the familiar use of the name Abigail, for ih^ genus 
" lady's maid," is derived from one whom I may 
call Abigail the Great ; who, before she ascended 
King David's bed and throne, introduced herself 
under the oflt-reiterated description of a '^ hand- 
maid." (See 1 Sam. xxv. 24, 25. 27, 28. 31.) I 
have no Concordance at hand, but I suspect there 
is no passage in Scripture where the word hand- 

maid is more prominent ; and so the idea 
associated with the name AbigaiL An Abigml Sk 
a hand-maid is therefore merely analogous to a 
Goliaih for a giant ; a Job for a patient man; a 
JSamiou for a strong one ; a JezeM for a ahrev, 
&c. I need hardly add, that H. T.*8 coa- 
jecture, that this use of the term Abigail had iQj 
relation to the Lady Masham, is, therefore, quite 
supererogative — but I aiay go fkrther. tiie oU 
Duchess of Marlboroagh's Apology^ which Jnt 
told the world that Lady Masham*8 Christian 
name was Abigail, and that she was a poor ooaaa 
of her own, was not published till 1742« wheaaH 
feeling about ^^ Abigau Hill and her brother Jack" 
was extinct. In fine, it will be found that the me 
of the term Abigail for a lady's maid was muflb 
more frequent before the change of Queen Anne's 
Whig ministry than after* C. 

Honorary Degrees (Vol. viii , p. 8.). — ^Honoraiy 
degrees give no corporate rights. Johnson nerer 
himself assumed the title of Doctor ; conferred <B 
him first by the University of Dublin in 1765, 
and afterwards in 1775 by that of Oxford. See 
Croker s Boswell, p. 168. n. 5., for the probable 
motives of Johnson's never having called himself 
Doctor. C. 

Red Hair (Vol. vii., p. 616.). — The Danes are 
said to have been (and to be even now) a red- 
haired race. 

They were long the scourge of England, and to 
this possibly may ba attributed in some degree 
the prejudice against people having hair of diit 

In Denmark, it is said, red-hair is esteemed a 

That red-haired people are fiery and paauonaie 
is undoubtedly true ; at least I vouch for it as fitf 
as my experience goes ; but that they enut a dis- 
agreeable odour when inattentive to personal 
cleanliness, is probably a vulgar prejudice ariang 
from the colour of their hair, resembling that S 
the fox — unde the term " foxy." A. C. IL 


Historical Engravir^ (VoL vii., p. 619.}« — ^I 
am glad I happen to be able to inform £L S. 
Tatlob that his engraving, about the restoration 
of Charles II., is to be found in a book entitled — 

** Verhael in forme van JounuhU van de Rsjrs fatim t 
V^rtoeven van den seer Doorluohtige ende Madht^ 
Prins Carel de II.*' &c ** la 's GxaveB-ha|(fl^ bg 
Adrian Vlack, m.i>c.i:.x.** &c 

Folio. The names at tbe eomer of the e wg imf iag 
are apparently "F. T. viiet, jn. P. fwiapc, 
sculp." J. iL 6. 

Proverbs quoted by Suetonius (VoL vii., p. ^M.). 
— A fuU explanation of the proverb 

July 23. 1853.] 



wUl be found in the Ade^^ia of Enumue^ under the 
head '* Festina knte/* p. 588^ edit. 1599. That it 
was a faTOurite proverb of ihe Emperor Angustus 
is also stated by Gelliias, Noct. Att. x. 11., and 
Macrob., Saturn^ vi. 8. The versei— 

•* ij9^m!K\tt yip 4<rT* ifAtlyttv ^ dpa<rvs ffrparrjXdTriSf** 
is from the Phosnissce of Euripides, y. 599. L. 

" Sat cito^ SI sat hetie^ (Vol. v., p. 594 ; Vol. vili., 
p. 18.). — Your correspondent C. thinks that F. 
W. J. is mistaken in calling it a favourite maxim 
of Lord Eldon. Few persons are more apt to 
make mistakes than F. W . J. He therefore sends 
the following extract from Twiss's Life of Lord 
C. Eldon, vol. i. p. 49. They are Lord Eldon's 
own words, after having narrated the anecdote to 
which C. refers : 

** In short, in all that I have had to do in futare life, 
professional and judicial, I have always ielt $he effect 
of this early admonition on the pannels of the vehicle 
which conveyed me from school, * Sat cito, si sat bene.* 
It was the impression of this which made me tliat de- 
liberative judge-— as some have said, too deliberative ; 
and reflection on all that is past will not authorise me 
to deny, that whilst I have been thinking * Sat cito, 
si sat bene,* I may not sufficiently have recollected 
whether ' Sat bene, si sat cito* has had its iafluence.*' 

The anecdote, and this observation upon it, are 
taken by Twiss from a book of anecdotes in Lord 
Eldon*s own handwriting. F. W. J. 

CouocU of Leufdieea, Canon 35. (VoL viii., p. 7.). 
— Cx£Bicus (D.) will find Angelas in the text, 
without Angulos in the margin, in any volume 
which contains the version by Dionysius Exi^us, 
or that by Gentianus Hervetus ; the former prmted 
Mogunt. 1525 ; Paris, 1609, 1661, and 1687 : the 
latter, Paris, 1561 and 1618 ; and sufficientlv sup- 
plied by Beverege and Howel. Both translations 
are given by Crabbe, Suriua, Binius, and others. 

The corrupt reading Angvlos^ derived from 
Isidorus Mercator, appears in the text, and without 
a marginal correction, in James Merlin's edition 
of the Councils, Colon. 1530 ; in Carranza*s Summa, 
Sahnant 1551, Lugd. 1601, Lovan. 1668 (in 
which last impression, the twelfth, the true head- 
ing of the Canon, according to Dionysius and 
Crisconius, viz. " De his qui Angehs colunt," is 
restored) ; and in the Sanctiones Ecclesiasticce of 
Joverius, Paris, 1555. 

For Angelos in the text, with a courageous 
"fort^ legendum** Angrdos in the margin, in Pope 
Adrian's Epitome Canonum^ we are deeply in- 
dited to Oantsius (Tkesamr, Mmmm,, ii. 271. ed. 
Basnage); and this is the method adopted 
Longus it CoriQiano and Bail. B 

Anna Lightfin^ (VoL vii., p. 595,}. — I have 
heard my mother speak of Anna Lightfbot: her 
family beknged to the xeligioaa community called 

. O. 

Friends or Qnsdcers. My mother was bom 1751, 
and died in the year 1836. The aunt of Anna 
Eleanor Lightfoot was next-door-neighbour to my 
grandfather, who lived in Sir Wm. Warren s 
Si|uare, Wapping. The family were from York- 
shire, and the father of Anna was a shoemaker, 
and kept a shop near Execution Dock, in the same 
district. He had a brother who was a linendraper, 
living in the neighbourhood of St. Jameses, at the 
west end of the town ; and Anna was frequently 
his visitor, and here it was that she became ac- 
quainted with the great man of the day. She was 
missing, and advertised for by her friends : and, 
after some time had elapsed, they obtained some 
information as to her retreatv, stating that she 
was well provided for ; and her condition became 
known to them. She had a son who was a corn- 
merchant, but, from some circumstance, became 
deranged in his intellects, and it is said eommdtted 
suicide. But whether she had a daughter, I neyex 
heard. A retreat was provided for Anna in one 
of those large houses suiTounded with a high wall 
and garden, in the district of Cat-and-Mutton 
FieldS, on the east side of Hackney Road, leadii^ 
from Mile End Road ; where she lived, and it is 
said died, but in what year I cannot say. All this 
I have heard my mother tell when I was a young 
lad : furthermore your deponent knoweth not. 

J. M. C. 

Jack and GiU (Vol. vii., p. 572.). — A some- 
what earlier instance of the occurrence of the ex- 
pression " Jack and Gill " is to be found (with a 
slight difference) in John Hey wood's Dialogue of 
Wit and FoUy, page 11, of the Percy Society's 
reprint : 

** No more hathe he in mynde, ether payne or care. 
Than hathe other Cock my hors, or Gyll my mare ! '* 

This is probably not more than twenty years 
earlier than your correspondent's quotation from 
Tusser. H. C. K. 

Simile of the Soul and the Magnetic Needle 
(Vol. vi. passim ; Vol. vii., p. 508.). — Southey, in 
bis Omniana (vol. i. p. 210.), cites a passage from 
the PartidaSy in which the magnetic needle is used 
in illustration. It is as ToUows : 

^£ bien aasi como los maritierog se guian en la 
noche eseura por el aguja, que les es medianera entre 
la piedra 4 la estrella, 6 les muestra por de vayan, tam- 
bien en los malos tiempos^ como en los buenos ; otroii 
los que han de coBsejar al Key, se deven sienpre giiiar 
por la justicia ; que es medianera entre Dios 6 el 
mundo, en todo tiempo, para dar guardaloa & los 
buenos, 6 pena & los malos, d cada uno segund su me- 
rescimiento."-— 2 Partida, tit. ix. ley 28. 

This passage is especially worthy of attentioOy 
as having been written half a century before the 
supposed invention of the mariner's compaas fay 
Flavins Gioias at Amalfi; and, as Southey re* 


[No. 196. 

tnari:!, "it miut have been nell known and in 
general use before it would tUus be rererred to as 

a familiar illustration." 

I do not think that an/ of j'our correspondents 
have quoted the halting linea wilh which Bjron 
mars the pathos of the Rousseau-like letter of 
Donna Juba {Don Jaan, canto i. stanza cxcvi.) : 
" Mj heart is feiDiniDe, dot can forget — 
To all, except one imagE, madly blinit ; 
So shakes the needle, and so stands the pole. 
As vibrates my fond heart to my Hx'd •oul." 

Oibbott't Library (Vol.vii., pp.407. «5. 535.). 
— The following quotation from Cyrua Reddin^'s 
" Recollections of the Author of Vathek " (iVeio 
Montkla Magazine, vol. Ixxi. p. 308.) maj interest 
J. H. M. and jour other correspondents under this 

« ' I bought it (says Beckford) to have something to 
md when I passed through Lausanne. 1 have not 
been there since. I shut myself up for sliweeks, from 
arly in the morning until nighl. only sow aod then 
taking a iide. The people thought me mad. I read 
myself nearly blind.' 

" I inquired if the books were rare or eiirioui. He 
replied iu the negativp. There were eicellenl editions 
of ths principal historical writers, and an extensile 
eolleclion of (ravels. The most Taluahle work was an 
edition of £iu(iilAiiii,- there was also a MS. or two. 
All the books were in eicelleoE condition; in number, 
considerably above six thousand, near seven perhaps. 
He should have read himself mad if there had been 
noTelty enough, and he had stayed much longer. 

" ' I broke away, and dashed among the mountains. 
There is eicellent reading there, loo, equally to my 
taste. Did you ever travel alone among niounUins? ' 

•• I replied that 1 had, and been fully sensible of 
their mighty impressions. ■ Do you retain Gibbon's 

" ' It is now dispersed, I believe. I made il a pre- 
•ent to my excellent physician. Dr. Schall or Scholl 
<I am not certain of the name). I never saw it after 

WlLUAH Batbs. 

St. PayTi EpUOes to Seneca (Vol.Tii, pp.500. 
S83.). — The affirmation so frequentl/ made and 
alluded to by J. M. S. of Hull, that Seneca became, 
in the lost jear of his life, a convert to Christianity, 
ia an old tradition, which has just been revived by 
a French author, M. Amedee Fleury, and is dis- 
cussed and attempted to be established bj him at 
great length in two octavo volumes, I have not 
read the book, but a learned reviewer of it, M. S. 
De Sacj, shovrs, with the greatest appearance of 
reason and authority, that the tradition, instead 
of being strengthened, is weakened by all that 
M. Fleury has said about it. M. De Sacj's re- 
view is contained in the Journal Jet DSbatt of 

June 30, in which excellent paper he is a frequetit 
and delightful writer on literary subiecta. In the 
hope that it may interest and gratify J. M. S. to 
be informed of M. Fteury'a new work, I send tlui 
scrap of information to the " N. & Q." 

JOBK Maceit. 

" Bip, Bip, BvrraA .'" (Vol. vit, pp. 595. 633.). 
— The reply suggested by your correspondent 
R.S.F., that the above exclamation originated in 
the Crusades, and is a corruption of the initial 
letters of *' Hierosolyma est perdita," never ap- 
peared to me to be very apposite. 

In A Collection of National EnglitA Battadt, 
edited and published by W. Chappie, 1838, in s 
description of the song " Old Simon, the King," 
the favourite of Squire Western in TVnt Jonei, toe 
following lines are quoted : 

** ' Hang up all the poor htp drinkers,' 
Cries old Sim, the king oFskinken." * 
A note to the above states, in reference to tie 
word " hep," that it was a term of derision, lo- 
plied to those who drank a weak infusion of the 
" hep " (hip) berry, or sloe. " Hence," says the 
writer, " the exclamation of ' Hip, Wp, hurrah,' 
corrupted from 'Hip, hip, away.' Tne couplet 
quoted above was written up in the Apollo Room 
at the Devil Tavern, TempTe Bar, where Ben 
Jonson's club, the " Apollo Club," used to meet. 
Many a drinker of modern Fort h;is equally good 
reason to exclaim with his brethren of old, "Hip, 
hip, away ! " J. Bmbkt. 

Emblemata (Vol. vii., p. 614.). — I have a small 
edition of the EmbUmata Horatiana, with the fol- 
lowing title-page : 

" Othonis Vnen I Emblemata Horatiana Imaginibai 
in at incisis atque Latino, Germanieo, Gallica «t 
lielgico carmine Illuslrata i AmsteUedami, apud Hen- 

n WeU 

. lae, 

The engravings, of which there are ] 
about four inches by three ; the book < 
207 pages, exclusive of the index. " Amioitis 
Trutino," mentioned by Mb. Weui Tatlok, is 
the sixty-sixth plate on page 133. 

There is another volume of Emblems by Otho 
Venius, of which I have s copy : 

" Amornm Emhlenuta Figuiis M.aea Ineita, studio 
Othonis Vicnl : Batato Lugdunensis Antverjus Veoalia 
apud Anctorem proslaut apud Hieronymum Ver- 

The engravings, of which (besides an all^orical 
frontispiece representing the power of Venui) 
there are 124, are oval, measuring five inches in 
len^h by three and a half inches m heighL The 
designs appear to me to be very good. On the 

July 23. 1853.] 



first plate is the name of the engraver, " C. Boel 
fecit. Each engraving has a motto, with verses 
in Latin, Italian, and French. Recommendatory 
verses, by Hugo Grotius, Daniel Heinsius, Max. 
Yrientius, Fh. Rubentius, and Petro Benedetti, 
are prefixed. It appears from Rose*s Biographical 
Dictionary (article "Van Veen"), that Venius 
published another illustrated work, The Seven 
Ttoin Sons of Lara. Is this work known ? 

Horace Walpole did not appreciate Venius. He 
says : 

**The perplexed and silly emblems of Venius are 
well knowtL*'—' Anecdotes of Paintittfff vol. ii. p. 167. 

The Emblems of Gabriele Rollenhagius (of 
which I have also a copy) consist of two centuries. 
The engravings are circular, with a motto round 
each, and Latin verses at foot. My edition was 
published at Utrecht, MDCxin. 

I write rather in the hope of eliciting inform- 
ation, tlian of attempting to give any, on a subject 
which appears to me to deserve farther inquiry. 


Campvere, Privileges of (Vol, vii., pp. 262. 440.). 
— Will your contributors J. D. S. and J. L. oblige 
me with references to the works in which these 
privileges are mentioned P 

They will find them noticed also at pages 67. 
and 68. of the second volume of L. Guicciardini*s 
Belgium (ed. 1646) : " Jiw. Oruis libera.'' This 
is mentioned as one of the privileges of Campvere. 
Can any of your legal friends tell me what this is, 
and where I may find it treated of? E. 

Slang Expressions : " Jtist the Cheese " (Vol. vii., 
p. 617.). — This phrase is only some ten or 
twelve years old. Its origin was this : — Some des- 
perate witty fellows, by way of giving a comic 
turn to the phrase ** C*est une autre chose,** used 
to translate it, " That is another cheese ; ** and after 
awhile these words became ^' household words,** 
and when anything positive or specific was in- 
tended to be pointed out, " That's the cheese ** be- 
came adopted, which is nearly synonymous with 
" Just the cheese.*' Astolpho. 

Tlie Honorable Miss JE, St, Leger (Vol. vii., 
p. 598.). — Perhaps your correspondent Mb. 
IBreen may like to be informed that the late 
General the Honorable Arthur St. Leger related 
to me the account of his relative having been made 
a master mason, and that she had secreted herself 
in an old clock-case in Doneraile House, on pur- 
pose to learn the secrets of the lodge, but was dis- 
covered from having coughed. The Rev. Richard 
Arthur St. Leger, of Starcross, Devon, has an en- 
graving of the lady, who is represented arrayed in 
all the costume of a master mason, with the apron, 
ring, and jewel of the order. W. Collyns. 


Queries from the Navorscher (Vol. vii., p. 595.). 
— "The Choice of Hercules," in the Taller, was 
written by Addison; Swift did not contribute 
more than one article to that publication, a treatise 
on *' Improprieties of Language.** The allegory of 
" Religion being the Foundation of Contentment** 
in the Adventurer , was the work of Hawkeswortb, 
to whose pen most of those papers are attributable. 

" Amentium hand amantium.** — The alliteration 
of this passage in the Andria of Terence is some- 
what difficult to preserve in English ; perhaps to 
render it 

•* An act of frenzy rather i^kKw friendthip,** 

would keep up the pun, though a weak translation, 
bringing to mind the words of the song : 

** O call it by some other name. 
For friendship is too cold.** 

In French the expression might be turned "foUe- 
ment plut6t que fol&trement,** although this is a 
fault on the other side, and a stronger word than 
the original. T. O. M. 

" Pity is ahin to love ** (Vol. i., p. 248.). — 
Though a long time has elapsed since the birth- 
place of these words was queried, no answer has, 
I think, appeared in your columns. Will you then 
allow me to refer H. to Southern*s Oroonoko^ 
Act II. Sc. 1. P 

«* Blandford, Alas ! I pity you. 

Oroonoko, Do pity me ; 
Pity's akin to love, and every thought 
Of that soft kind is welcome to my soul. 
I would be pity*d here.** 

W. T. M. 

Hong Kong. 



Our library table is covered at this time with books 
for all classes of readers. The theological student will 
peruse with no ordinary interest the learned Disserta" 
Hon on the Origin and Connexion of the Gospels, with a 
Synopsis of the Parailel Passages in the Original and 
Authorised Version, and Critical Notes, by James Smith, 
Esq., of Jordan Hill : and when he has mastered the 
arguments contained in it, he may turn to the new 
number of The Journal of Sacred Literature, in which 
will be found a great variety of able papers. Our 
antiquarian friends will be gratified with a volume 
compiled in a great measure from original family 
papers, by its author Mr. Bankes, the Member for 
Dorsetshire; and which narrates The Story of Cor/e 
Castle, and of many who have lived there, collected from 
Ancient Chronicles and Records ; also from the Private 
Memoirs of a Family resident there in the Time of the 
Civil Wars, The volume, which is with good feeling 
inscribed by the author to his friends and neighbours^ 
Members of the Society for Mutual Improvement in 
the borough of Corfe Castle, contains many interesting 



[No. I9S. 

nMicM ofhi9enc»tors,iheire)l-known jndg*, SirJiAn 
Bankei and his Isd; — ao nwinanble far her gallant 
defiince of Cotfe C»Mle— drmwn 6om the femilj papen. 

3^ Boynl DticaU of Ntltea aad tTtBiafflim fiom Ed- 
amrd /„ Kii^ of EnpUad, witA Tailit of Pedigrtt and 

Genialegieai Mtmoirt, compiled bj C. E. Frtoeb, ia > 
boiidBomelf pointed volume, which will pleasa the 
gencilogiu ; while the bistoiimd Uudeot will be moie 
interested in The Flawtri of fliHory, tiptai^ luch oi 
Ttlate to lit Again of Brilamfrom Ikt Btgiaiting of the 

World to tht Ftar 1307, calletted by Matthea iff Ifal- 
miniltr, tramlaled by C. D. Vongc, Vol. I., a new vo- 
lume of Bohn's Anliqaarias Library, and an important 
addition tohia series oftranslation«<rf OUT call; national 
chioDicles. The daiBical student ia indebted to the 
same publisher fur the aecond Tolume of Mr. Owen's 

JVan»fa(i'on of tht Orgaaan, or Ltigical Trtatiia of 
AriilalU : nor will he regard ai the least important 
addiUon to his libraiy, the new Part (No. VII. ) of 
Smith's Dictionary of Crttk and Soman Giegraphy, 
vhich extends from Cyrrhui to Etruria, and is distia- 
gnished by the same eicellencea aa the preceding Paris. 
We must conclude these Notes with a brief reference 
to a handsome reprint of the great >rark of De Quincy, 
the appearance of which in the London Magoiiae some 
tbirlj jears wuce crealed so great a senealioo, we 
mean of couise his Cmfenioia of an Eagliti Opiuia- 


-.tittn ma lit Satardim. 

.Kdiiioii.Hri*^ PHOTOGRAPHIC PIC- T A LUMIEEE; Frenrfi Phote- 
DT BpKU nr r TCUB.— A BelaeOaa tt tka'afcm \j (rmUeJouratl. Thtta^Iaarm^-^^ 


^otTPg^ Dagne i 'ieu ti ue. and Blaaa Ffctnwi Tcrmi. lu- per ■ 


■KTETTROTGNICS, or the Art of 

11 Btmathmbu Hu Htrm. Ill 1 ) 

Siinuki n tha InluHU at Ihn NamaunK 

the HhIUi of Bulr uia Mlgj^ Jll 'its 

ro CA- uSS^ ud all CtSlSrStltrtst.S'SL 

Hum or MAFIKiL MJ>. LHdoai HOUUKW k 

ibomlti BTONBHAN. Price M.. oFMnaa OSB 

•"^-"""^ g.-*^;,,^.-^^..^^,,^-; 

ilat^ltmni." EniT DtKriDtloa oT Cuaera. or SIMcl Tit- nver, Jim e, 1SU. 

t*lHd at ill. MA'JinTAin'OBif.'cLrfciMB __ 

A CO.'8Ii>tl»dCDllo<lin,lt*cMaiiiJB( 
antaaeoua Vieva, and PortraLU bl fnm 

Fntn^^SuiKd b* (ba abiin, fci^oagr 
of detail ilvfi '*^ ^n^M^ tCI..— .-.j-..^ 

JtTLT 18. 1803.] 


1. PAHUAMRH-r wnMwt, LOKODir. 


\J AMUllAIiaiUOMFANrKItnlill.liHl J TRU*. NRn-miTPtniW. liF, - HAimr, 


Pnt>tr]RN tllMH Tn IhN OfflTf ^n fint ti*- 

Cw TcHil lllTMIIh tnii|i"fiirrfllmGiillj In i<Br- 
■ FHiitliHii, M lyririlp.f'* h ^'lai "imn 


till MVAi^iiTA AH ABIC A roon. 

Ji^ii'SElS'.'i""'" "" ™'' """"■'■ r-i'"""*. ""■! f 
WTnilMnrui. „^j i.Uhmrt nHHnr, imirfnii, 

F.%A„ ffro^nf^ F. C. KiUruiiliRn, liilmr*, 

r^ nnvhit Cvrtit. WIllluiiHilltnii^i^, •nj.iini.i 
-T^- ^ F-H-'J7uifii.iin,E"(, m^inni 

mnwAi. cirnoRiM. 

IP. . 


fItH niBililnihlv hMipIt fMii rnir fteralcim 

.fit. iasssisSs.*™'' 

Our, Kn. nM'—"TtnT mn* MHrrlh- 


.7— ?i - ei-iwU, cumHIiMtliin, flitnli^rv, .iiHHi.. ilrir- 

MitortiH ••'«■ 


ffrllAIlll, rinrt fttdvpTM. II o«1iIm •(»■ run i* InHplmt h^tr •mnnrilllla nnj m- 

^JpTlliJlr 'E^MSl.'hmHil nmi'lttTlbt'lli* 

IKAIi A wm. BtMHH ■■ 
ailwtiimp, IMiTDiiniliii 


piroTtMinAPIITI' rAl'FR. 

1 , lti«lf" ■ml r.»(t!rf P.[»« -r Wli 




1*011 HiliiiK-lr Injuml tv qni.(fnr< JnUtmlhina 
III. Jrr plnSr *Bll"' »■""•, •fh "f, "'""^'f ■ 
AH^i.«luliilh<n.>^P><lil^*)(l Ani^Gi 


[No. 195. 











— lONT. JkW. 



rrsoL. tt. 







, Neir Facts and RectificatiMU 

WILTSHIRE TALES, illuetrative of the Mannen, Costoma, and 

Halect cf UiU ud uUnliiiiiii Counlla. B; J. Y. AEERUAN, ESq. IlmD. elnth, b. ad. 

1 the Origin and History of 

M Aoglo-Saxon and Englidi 

BOSWOHTH'S (Rev, Dr.) Compendii 

LOWER'S (M. A.) ESSAYS on English Saraames. a vols, post 8to 

Third EdlUon, (imUt enlircKl, clatli. 19. 

WRIGHT'S (THOS.) ESSAYS on the Literature, Popular SnpemU 
GUIDE to ARCHEOLOGY. An Archceoloracal Index to Remaioi 

AKeRKA^.Ftlliiit uid SKreUiy'uihiiki^lrnf'^qn'i^. 1^, miunmHdtia 

A NEW LIFE OF SHAKSPEAREi including many ParhcDlars 

rtawcClnB the Poet imd hi. FiHnilr. iie*vr befbre paMLibed. Br JAHE9 ORCSABD BALLI- 
WELL, F.B.S.. F.S.Am SC- Mo.. 76 Eii(nTlD(ibi F^iitult. eloUh !»■ 

.- SUuiIh. July la. lau. 





% ^ Wlien found, make a note of^" «— Captaik Cuttlb. 

No. 196.] 

Satubdat, July 30. 1853. 

f Price Fourpence. 

1 Stamped Edition, ^. 

Notes : — 



Books chained to Desks in Churches : Font Inscription : 

Parochial Libraries, by W. Sparrow Simpson, B.A. - 

Real Signatures versus Pseudo-names, by the Rev. James 

Graves --_.-- 
Popular Stories of the English Peasantry, by Vincent 
T. Sternberg .----- 
Shakspeare Correspondence^y Cecil Harbottle, Sec. - 
Epitaph and Monuments in Wingfield Church, Suffolk - 
Original Royal Letters to the Grand Masters of Malta - 

Minor Notes :— Meaning of *' Clipper ".» Anathema, 
Maran-atha — Convocation and the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts — Pigs 
said to see the Wind — Anecdote of the Duke of 
Gloucester - • - • 


- 94 



. 100 

Queries : — 

Lord William Russell 

Ancient Furniture — Prie-Dieu - 

. 100 
- 101 

Minor Queries : —Reynolds* Nephew —Sir Isaac New- 
ton — Limerick, Dublin, and Cork — Praying to the 
West — Mulciber — Captain Booth of Stockport — 
" A saint in crape" — French Abbes — What Day is it 
at our Antipodes ?— " Spendthrift " — Second Growth 
of Grass — The Laird of Brodie — Mrs. Tighe, Au- 
thor of " Psyche "— Bishop Ferrar — Sir Thomas de 
Longueville — Quotations wanted— Symon Patrick, 
Bishop of Ely : Durham : Weston : Jephson — The 
Heveninghams of Suffolk and Norfolk — Lady Percy, 
Wife of Hotspur (Daughter of Edmund Mortimer, Earl 
of March)— Shape of Coffins— St. George Family Pic- 
tures — Caley (John), "Ecclesiastical Survey of the 
Possessions, 8tc. of the Bishop of St. David's," &c. — 
Adamson's " Lusitania lllustrata"— Blotting-paper — 
Poetical Versions of the Fragments in Athenseus 

Bbplibs : •— 

Robert Drury ..-.-- 

The Termination -by - - • - - 

The Kosicrucians, by William Bates ... 
Inscriptions on Bells, by W\ Sparrow Simpson, B.A. - 
Was Cook the Discoverer of the Sandwich Islands ? by 
C. E. Bagot ------ 

Megatherium American um, by W. Pinker ton . 

Miscellaneous : — 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to Correspondents 
Advertisements . . . 




Photographic Correspondence :— Stereoscopic Angles 

— Yellow Bottles for Photographic Chemicals - 109 

Replies to Minor Queries : — Earth upon Earth, &c. 

— Picalyly — Mr. Justice Newton — Manners of the 
Irish — Anns of the See of York — " Up, Guards, and 
at 'em ! " — Coleridge's Christabel : the 3rd Part — 
Mitigation of Capital Punishment — The Man with 
the Iron Mask — Gentleman executed for Murder of a 
Slave — Jahn's Jahrbuch — Character of the Song of 

the Nightingale, &c. . - . . - 110 

. 114 
. 114 
. 115 

Vol. VIII. — No. 196. 


It would be interesting to have a complete list 
of the various books still to be found chained to 
desks in our ancient churches. The " Bible of the 
largest volume," the " Books of Homilies allowed 
bj authority," and the Book of Common Prayer, 
are ordered by Canon 80. to be provided for every 
church. In some places this regulation is still com- 
plied with : at Oakington, Cambridgeshire, a copy 
of a recent (1825) edition of the Homilies lies on 
a small desk in the nave. But besides these au- 
thoritative works, other books are found chained 
to their ancient desks : at Impington, Cambridge- 
shire are, or were, " three black-letter volumes of 
Fox*8 Martyrs chained to a stall in the chancel." 
(Paley's Ecclesiohgisfs Guide, ^c.) At St. Ni- 
cholas, Rochester, chained to a small bracket desk 
at the south side of the west door, is a copy of A 
Collection of Cases and other Discourses to recover 
Dissenters to the Church of England, small 8vo., 
1718. The Paraphrase of Erasmus may probably 
be added to the list (see Professor Blunt's Sketch of 
the History of the Reformation, 10th edit., p. 130.), 
though I cannot call to mind any church in which 
a copy of this work may now be found. In the 
noble minster church at Wimborne, Dorsetshire, 
is a rather large collection of books, comprising 
some old and valuable editions : all these books 
were, and many still are, chained to their shelves ; 
an iron rod runs along the front of each shelf, on 
which rings attached to the chains fastened to the 
covers of the works have free play ; these volumes 
are preserved in an upper chamber on the south 
side of the chancel. The parochial library at St. 
Margaret*s, Lynn, Norfolk, is one of considerable 
interest and importance ; amongst other treasures 
are a curious little manuscript of the New Testa- 
ment very neatly written, a (mutilated) black- 
letter copy of the Sarum Musal, and many fine 
copies of the works of the Fathers, and also of the 
Reformers ; these are preserved in the south aisle 
of the chancel, which is fitted up as a library, and 
are in very good order. At Margate Church are 
a few volumes, of what kind my note-book does 



[No. 196. 

not inform me. I may also mention, in connexion 
with St. Nicholas, Rochester, that the font is oc- 
tagonal, and inscribed with the following capital 
letters, the first surmounted by a crown : 


. A . K. 

The large panel on each side contains one of the 
letters ;°the font is placed close to the wall, so 
that the remaining letters, indicated by asterisks, 
cannot now be read : the sexton said that the 
whole word was supposed to be "Christian," or 
rather "Cristian." Beside the font is a very 
quaint iron bracket-stand, painted blue and gold, 
" constructed to carry " two candles. 

TV. Spaeeow Simpson. 

P. S. — Permit me to correct an error of the 
press in my communication at p. 8. of your present 
volume, col. 1.1. 10. from bottom; for "worn," 
read " won." 


It is pleasant to see so many of the correspon- 
dents of " N. & Q." joining in the remonstrance 
against the anonymous system. Were one to set 
about accumulating the reasons for the abandon- 
ment of pseudo-names and initials, many of the 
valuable columns of this periodical might be easily 
filled ; such an essay it is not, however, my in- 
tention to inflict on its readers, who by a little 
thought can easily do for themselves more than a 
large efiusion of ink on the part of any corre- 
spondent could effect. I shall content myself with 
recounting the good which, in one instance, has 
resulted from a knowledge of the real name and 
address of a contributor. 

The Rev. H. T. Eixacombe (one of the first to 
raise his voice ngainst the use of pseudo-names) 
having observed in " NT. & Q." manj communi- 
cations evincing no ordinary acquaintance with 
the national Records of Ireland, and wishing to 
enter into direct communication with the writer 
(who merely signed himself J. F. F.), put a Query 
in the "iJotices to Correspondents," begging 
J. F. F. to communicate his real name and address. 
There in all probability the matter would have 
ended, as J. F. F. did not happen to take 
"N. & Q.," but that the writer of these lines 
chanced to be aware, that under the above given 
initials lurked the name of the worthy, the cour- 
teous, the erudite, and, yet more strange still, the 
unpaid guardian of the Irish Exchequer Records 
— James Frederick Ferguson, — a name which 
many a student of Irish history will recognise with 
warm gratitude and unfeigned respect. Now it 
had so happened that by a strange fortune Mb. 
Ellacombe was the repository of information as 
to the whereabouts of certain of the ancient 
Rteords of Ireland (see Mb. Ellacombe's notice 
cf the matter, Vol. yiii., p. 5.), abstracted at some 

former period from the " legal custody " of some 
heedless keeper, and sold by a Jew to a German 
gentleman, and the result of his communicating' 
this knowledge to Mr. Ferguson, has been the' 
latter gentleman's "chivalrous" and successful 
expedition for their recovery. The English Qmr' 
terly Review (not Magazine^ as Mb. KmkcoMBB 
inadvertently writes), in a forthcoming article on 
the Records of Ireland, will, it is to be hoped, 
give the full details of this exciting record hunt, 
and thus exemplify the great utility^ not to speak 
of the manliness, of real names and addresses, 
versus false names and equally Will-o'-tbe-Wisp 
initials. James Gbatss. 


(Vol. v., p. 363. &C.) 

Will you allow me, through the medium of " N. 
& Q.," to say how much obliged I should be for 
any communications on this subject. Since I last 
addressed you (about a year ago) I have received 
many interesting contributions towards my pro- 
posed collection ; but not, I regret to say, quite to 
the extent I had anticipated. My own researches 
have been principally confined to the midland 
counties, and I have very little from the north 
or east Such a large field requires many gleaners, 
and I hope your correspondents learned in Folk- 
lore will not be backward in lending their aid to 
complete a work which Scott, Southey, and a 
host of illustrious names, have considered a desi- 
deratum in our national antiquities. 

I propose to divide the tales into three classes— 
Mythological, Humorous, and Nurse-taies. Of 
the mythological I have already giv6n several 
specimens in your journal, but I will give the 
following, as it illustrates another link in the 
transmission of Mb. Keightley's Hindustani 
legend, which appeared in a recent Number. It is 
from J!^orthamptonshire. 

T?ie Bogie and the Farmer. 

Once upon a time a Bogie asserted a claim %o a 
field which had been hitherto in the possession of 
a farmer; and after a great deal of disputing, 
they came to an arrangement by agreeing to 
divide its produce between them. At seed time, 
the farmer asks the Bogie what part of the crop 
he will have, " tops or bottoms." " Bottoms," said 
the spirit : upon which the crafty farmer sows the 
field with wheat, so that when harvest arrives thd 
corn falls to his share, while the poor Bogie is 
obliged to content himself with the stubble. 
Next year the spirit, finding he had made such an 
unfortunate selection in tne bottoms, chose the 
tops ; whereupon cunning Hodge set the field 
with turnips, thus again outwitting the simple 

July 30. 1853.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 96 

claimant. Tired of this unproGUible farming, the Any notes of legends, or Ruggesttons of anj 

Bogie agrees to hazard his claims on a moving' kind, forwarded to mj addreaa as below, will be 

match, Ihinking that his supernatural atrengch thaukfull/ received and acknonledoed. 

vould give him an easy victorj ; but before the Yikcbht T. Siebsbbbo. 

day of meeting, the cuiming earth-tiller procures 15, Slors Street, Bedford Square, 

a number of iron bars which he stows among the 

grass to be mown by his opponent; and when the 

tri.l oommenM. tk. Miu.pecting goblio «nd. bi. ,,„„„„ co..«.poNra»CE. 
progress retarded by bis scythe coming into con- 
tact with these obstacles, which he takes to be The old Corrector on " The WiTiier'i Talc."— 
Bome very hard — very hard — species of dock. I am glad to find that you have another corre- 
" Mortal hard docks, these," s^d he ; " Nation spondent, and a very able one too, under the sig- 
hard docka ! " His blunted scythe soon brings nature of A. £. B., who takes the same view of 
him to a stand Btlll, and as, in such cases, it is not " Aristotle's cheeks " as I have done ; though I 
allowed for one to sharpen without the other, he think he might have paid mc the compliment of 
turns to his antagonist, now far ahead, and in- J<f< noticing my prior remonstrance on this suh- 
quires, in a tone of despair, "When d'ye wiffle- ject. It is to be lamented, that Ma. Collier 
waffle (whet), mate ?" " Waffle 1 " said the should have hurried out his new edition of Sbak- 
■, with a well-feigned stare of amazement, speare, adopting all the swefeping emertdatUm* of 

*' O, about noon mebby." " Then," said the de- bis newly-found commentator, without paying Iha 
Bpairing spirit, "That tbief of a Christian has done slightest heed to any of the suggestions which have 
me i " and so saying, he disappeared and was never been offered to him in a friendly spirit, or afford- 
beurd of more. ing time for tha farther objections which are con- 
Under Nvrse-tales, I include the extremely tinually pouring in. At the risk of probably 
puerile stories of the nursery, often (as in the wearying some of your readers, I cannot forbear 
-German ones) interlaced with rhymes. The foU submitting to you a few more remarks ; but I shall 
lowing, from the banks of the Avon, sounds like confine tbeoi on this occasion to one play. The 
sn echo from a Gterman story-book. Winier'a Tale: which contains, perhaps, as many 
T III VU poetical beauties as any single work of our great 
±,ilUe ±.Uy. dramatic bard. With reference to the passage 
In the old time, a certain good king laid all the quoted in p. 437., I can hardly believe that Shak- 
ghosts, and hanged all the witches and wizards speare everwrotesucha poorunmeaningfine bs>— 
save one, who fell into a had way, and kept .. . . they arc false as ^^ ««*.." 
a school in a small vdlafie. One day Little Elly ^ . ..,,.. 
looked through a chink-hole, and saw him eat- '"'.'' .'^'"! ^ perceive any possible objection to the 
ing man's flesh and drinking man's blood; but """'E'"*" "ords "oer dyed blacks. They may 
Little Elly kept it all to herselt; and went to school ^"''" mean false mourners, putting an ore/- dark 
as before. .And when school was OTer the Ogee semblance of grief ; or they mav allude figuraUvely 
filed his eyes upon her, and said — *" "'^ material of mourning, the colours of which 
' , . . T-,1 " over-dyed will not stand. In either of these 
A 4*^., *"" ''.. senses, the passage is poeticol ; hut there is nothiBg 
And Elly coma torn.." likel^etry in '-Sur d^ ifacit." ^ 
And when thev were gone he said, " What did you in p. 450. the alteration of the word " and" to 
see me eat, Elly f "heaven" may be right, though it is difficult t« 
■• O tomething did I see, conceive how the one can have been mistaken for 

iiut ootiiing will [ (ell, the other. At all events, the sense is improved 

Unto my dying day." by the change ; but I do not sec that anything is 

And so he pulled off her shoes, and whipped her gained by the substitution in the next line of 

till she bled (this repeated three days) ; and the "dream" for "theme." Whotever the king said 

third day he took her up, and put her into a rose- '° ^^^ ravings about Hermione, might as aptly be 

bush, where the rain rained, and the snow snowed, ""Hed part of bis " theme " as part of his " dream." 

and the hall hailed, and the wind blew upon her The subject of his dream was in fact his tteme.' 
all night. Quickly her tiny spirit crept out of Neither^ can I discover any good reason for 

her tiny body and hovered round the bed of her changing, in p, 452t 

parents, where it snng in a moumftil voice for " . . and nne may drink, depart, 

erermore — And yet purtake no venom," 

" Dark, weary, and cold am I, into " drink a part." The context clearly shows 

Litile knoneth Gunmie where am I." the author's meaning to have been, that if any one 

Of the Humorous stories I have already given departed at once after tasting of the beverage, hd 

S specimen in VoL t, p. 363. would have no knowledge of what he had drtink ; 



[No. 19& 

but if he remained, some one present might point 
out to him the spider in the cup, and then *' he 
cracks his gorge," &c. 

In p. 460. Mb. Collier says that the passage, 
"dangerous, unsafe lunes i* the king," is mere 
tautology, and therefore he follows the old cor- 
rector in substituting ^^unsane lunes.'^ Now it 
strikes me that there is quite as much tautology 
in " unscme lunes " as in the double epithet, " dan- 
gerous, unsafe." It is, in fact, equivalent to " in- 
sane madness ; " and, moreover, drags in quite 
needlessly a very unusual and uncouth word. 

In p. 481. we have the last word of the follow- 
ing passage — 

" I never saw a vessel of like sorrow. 
So fiird and so becoming," -» 

converted into " o'er-running.^^ This may possibly 
be the correct reading ; but, seeing that it is im- 
mediately followed by the words — 

«* . . .in pure white robes. 
Like very sanctity," 

I question whether " becoming " is not the more 
natural expression. 

** There weep — and leave it crying," 
is made — 

" There wend — and leave it crying," 

which I submit is decidedly wrong. I will not be 
hypercritical, or I might suggest that in that case 
the words would have been ^Hhither wend;" but I 
maintain that the change is contrary to the sense* 
The spirit of Hermione never could have been in- 
tended to say that the child should be left crying. 
She would rather wish that it might not cry ! The 
meaning, as it seems to me, is, that Antigonus 
should weep over the babe, and leave it while so 

In p. 487. the words " missingly noted" are 
altered to " musingly noted," which is a very ques- 
tionable improvement. Camillo, missing Florigel 
from court, would naturally note his absence ; and 
he may have mused over the causes of it, but 
there could be no necessity for musing to note the 
fact of his absence : and I cannot help thinking 
that the word missingly is more in Shakspeare*s 

I cannot subscribe at all to the alteration in 
p.492. of the word " unrolled " to " enrolled." To be 
enrolled and placed in the book of virtue is very 
like tautology ; but I conceive Shakspeare meant 
Autolycus to wish that his name might be unrolled 
from the company of thieves and gypsies with 
whom he was associated, and transferred to the 
book of virtue. 

I am entirely at issue with the old corrector 
ppon his emendation in p. 498. : 

** . . Nothing she does or seemst 
But smacks of something greater than herself; '* 

he says, ought to be : " Nothing she does or says,^^ 
And how does Mb. Collier explain this misprint? 

Why, by stating that formerly "says" was often 
written " sales." Now, I cannot for the life of me 
discover why the word "saies" should have beea 
mistaken for "seems," any more than the word 
** says." But surely the phrase, " nothing she 
does or seems," is far more poetical and elegant 
than the other. It says in effect : there is nothing 
either in her acts or her carriage, ** but smacks of 
something greater than herself." We have posi- 
tive evidence, however, that the passage could not 
have been "nothing she does or says," viz. that 
this speech of Polixenes immediately follows a 
lonff dialogue between Florizel and Perdita, which 
could not have been overheard, because CamiUe 
directly afterwards says to the king : 


He tells her something. 
That makes her blood look out.** 

Thereby clearly proving, that the king could not 
have been remarking on what she said. 

The transformation of the last-mentioned line 
into — 

« That wakes her blood — look out !*• 

cannot, I think, be justified on any ground. He 
tells her something which " makes her blood look 
out." That is, something which makes her blush 
rush to the surface to look out upon it I What 
can be more natural ? The proposed alteration is 
not only unnecessary, but awkward ! 

In p. 499., if the words " unbraided wares" must 
be altered, I see no reason for the change to " «n- 
broided" wares. It seems to me that embraided 
would be the most proper word. 

What possible reason can there be for convert- 
ing " force and knowledge," in p. 506., to " sense 
and knowledge ? " If I may be excused a play 
upon the words, I should say the sense of the pas- 
sage is not at all improved, and the force is en- 
tirely lost. 

I must protest most decidedly against the cor- 
rection of the following lines, p. 507. : 

" . . . . Can he speak ? hear ? 
Know man from man? dispute his own estate?** 

Dispute his own estate means, defend his property, 
dispute with any one who questions his rights. 
The original passage expresses the sense quite 
perfectly, while "dispose his own estate" appears 
to me poor and insipid in comparison. 

Mr. Collier's objection to the speech of 
Camillo, in p. 514., 

** . . it shall be so my care 
To have you royally appointed, as if 
The scene you play were mine ; " 

is, that to make the scene appear as if it were 
Camillo's, could be of no service to the young 
prince. Now Camillo says nothing about the scene 
appearing as his. He says he will have the prince 
royally appointed, as if the scene he played were 
really his own : that is, as if he were the party 
interested in it, instead of the prince. 

JuLT 30. 1853.] 



The reading of the old corrector—. 
The Kcne <rou pla; vete tiue," 
iTOuld be nonsense ; because, so for as the [>Tince 
appearing to be Bohemia's son (which was what 
he was most amioua about), the scene to be 
plitred was really tmt ! 

The lust correction I have now to notice i» in 
the suliloquj of Autoljcua in p. £22. : where Mb. 
CoLLiEB prr>po8es to read, " who knows how that 
may turn luck to mj advantage," instead of " may 
turn hack to raj advantage." I see no advantage 
in the change, but the very reverse. " Who 
knows but my availing myself of the means to do 
the prince my master a service, may come back to 
tue in the shape of some advancement P" This 
seems to me to be the author's meaning, and it is 
legitimnlcly expressed. How frequently it has 
been said Uiat an evil deed recoils upon the head 
of the perpetrator! Then why not a good deed 
turn back to reward the doer ? Cecil Ha.bbottle. 

F. S. — It is rather singular that A. E. B., who, 
as I have already shown, has so completely ahelned 
me in bis remarks upon "Aristotle's checks," 
should now complin of the yerj same thing him- 
self, and snj that his " humble auxilia have been 
coolly appropriated, without the slightest acknow- 
ledgment." However, as our opinions coincide 
upon the passage in question, I am not disposed 
to pick a quarrel with him. I cannot, however, at 
all concur in his alteration of the passage in King 
Lear : " Our means secure us," to " Our means 
reciae us." I will certainly Leave him " in the 
quiet possession of whatever merit is due to this 
rettoration," or rather this invention I Can A. E. B. 
show any other instance in which Shnkspeare has 
used the TCrb reciue; or will he point out any 
other author who has adopted it in the sense re- 
ferred to ? Johnson culls it a "juridical word :" 
and T certainly have no recollection of having met 
with it, except in judicial proceedings. 

I Clin neither subscribe to the emendation of 
A. E. B., nor to that of the old commentator, but 
inRnitely prefer the original words, which appear 
to me perfectly intelligible. The sense, as it 
strikes me, is, that however we may desire things 
which we have not, the meant we already possess 
are sufficient for our security ; and even our de- 
J^cU prove serviceable. Blinilness, for instance, 
will make a man more careful of himself; and 
then the other faculties he enjoys will secure him 
from harm. 

"King Lear," Act IV. Se. 1.— 

" Our meini secure ui, and our mere defeela 
Prove our commodiciei.'* 

1 defence of this 
o which he 

cough are both deceptive, the word "recuse" is 
nownere to be found in Shakspeare ; nor, as far as 
I know, in any dramatist of the age. If it be used 
by any of the latter, it is probably only in the 
strict legal meaning, which is quite different fronl 
that which A.B. B. would attach to it. This is 
conclusive with me; for I hold that there is no 
sounder canon in Shakspearian criticism than 
never to introduce by conjecture a word of which 
the poet does not himself elsewhere make use, or 
which is not at least strongly sanctioned by co- 
temporary employment. 

I therefiire, as the passage is flat nonsense, re- 
turn to the well-abused " 
dester emendation, " want 

And now permit one v 
deceased and untoward personage. 

I think much of the unpopularity int 
has fallen with a certain class of critic 
to their not allowing him fair play. 

Suppose a MS. placed in our hands, containing, 
beyond all doubt, what Ma. Collieb's corrected 
second fulio is alleged to contain, authoritatire 
emendations of the text : what should we, a priori, 
expect to find in it? 

That text is abominably corrupt beyond a 
doubt ; it contains many impossible readings, 
which must he misprints or otherwise erroneous ; 
many improbable readings, harsbi 
' tciuate, and the like. 

Now it is excessively unlikely that a truly cor- 
rected copy, could we find one, would remove all 
the impossible readings, and leave all the impro- 
bable ones. 

It is still more unlikely that, in correcting the 
improbable passages, it would leave those to which 
Mr. A., or Mr. B., or Mr. C, ay, or all of us to- 
gether, have formed an attachment from habit, 
predilection, or prejudice of some kind. Such 

Ebrases as " the blanket of the dark," " a man that 
ath had losses," "unthread the rude eye of re- 
bellion," and many more, have become consecrated 
in our eyes by habit; they have assumed, as it 
were, the character of additions to our ordinary 
Tocabulary ; and yet I think sound reason itself, 
and iJiat kind of secondary reason or instinct which 
long familiarity with critical pursuits gives us, 
combine to suggest that, occurring in a corrupt 
text, they are probably corruptions; and cor- 
ruptions in lieu of some very common and even 
prosaic phrases, such as the corrector substitutes 
for them, and such as no conjectural critic would 
venture on. 

In short, the kind of disappointment which 
many of these corrections unavoidably give to the 
reader, is with me an argument in favour of tbeie 
genuineness, not against it • ■ j 

And, lastly, in so very corrupt a text, it is a 
priori probable that manv phrases which appear 

"aecore," but that, unless my memory and Ayi- to need no correction at aU, are misprints or mis- 



[No. 196. 

takes nevertheless. It is probable that the true 
text of the poet contained many variations utterly 
unimportant, as well as others of importance, from 
the printed one. Now here it is precisely, that 
we find in the corrector what we should anticipate, 
and what it is difficult to account for on any 
theory disparaging his authority. What could 
have induced him to make such substitutions as 
swift for " sweet," then for " there," all arose for 
** are arose," solemn for " sorry," fortune for 
" nature," to quote from a single play, the Comedy 
of Errors^ which happens to lie before me, — none 
of them necessary emendations, most of them 
trivial, unless he had under his eye some original 
containing those variations, to which he wished 
his own copy to conform ? It is surely wild 
guessing to attribute corrections like these to a 
mere wanton itch for altering the text ; and yet no 
other alternative is suggested by the corrector's 

I am myself as yet a sceptic in the matter, 
being very little disposed to hasty credulity on 
such occasions, especially where there is a possi- 
bility of deceit. But I must say that the doctrine 
of probabilities seems to me to furnish strong ar- 
guments in the corrector's favour; and that the 
attacks of professed Shakspearian critics on him, 
both in and out of " N. & Q.," have hitherto 
rather tended to raise him in my estimation. 


i Aristotle's Checks t. Aristotle's Ethics, — 

*' Only, good master, while we do admire 
This virtue, and this moral discipline. 
Let's be no stoicks, nor no stocks, I pray ; 
Or so devote to Aristotle's checks. 
As Ovid be an outcast quite abjur'd." 

Taming of the Shrew, Act I. Sc. 1 , 

The following are instances of the use of the 
substantive check by Shakspeare : 

« Orlando. A man that had a wife with such a wit, 
might say, — * Wit whither wilt?* 

** Bosalind. Kay, you might keep that check for it, 
till you met your wife's wit going to your neighbour's 

" Falstaff. I never knew yet, but rebuke and check 
was the reward of valour." 

^ Antony, This is a soldier's kiss ; rebukable. 
And worthy shameful check it were to stand 
On more mechanic compliment." 

" Belarius O, this life 

Is nobler, than attending for a check." 

** lago. However, this may gall him with some 

*' Desdemona, And yet his trespass, in our common 

is not almost a fault 

To incur a private cheek," 

These instances ma^ show that the word in 
question was a favourite expression of the poet. 
It is true there was a translation of the !Ethics of 
Aristotle in his time, The Ethiqucs of Aristo&e. 
If he spelt it ethiques, no printer would have blun- 
dered and substituted checks. 

Judge Blackstone suggested ethicks^ but John- 
son and Steevens kept to checks. And Johnson, 
in his Dictionary^ sub voce Devote, quotes the pas- 
sage, but which, by a strange printer's misreaoing, 
is referred to " Tim. of Ath.' instead of Tarn, of 
Sh, in Todd's edit. o£ Johnson's Dictionary (1818). 


Fall Hall. 



I am not aware if the following epitaph has 
yet appeared in print ; but I can safel v assert 
that it really has a sepulchral origin ; unlike those 
whose doubtful character causes them to be placed 
by your correspondent Mb. Shibi<et Hibbbbd 
among the "gigantic gooseberries** ("N". & Q.," 
Vol. vii., p. 190.). I copied it myself from a grave- 
stone in the churchyard of the village of Wing- 
field, Suffolk. After the name, &c. of the (k- 
ceased is the following verse : 

" Pope boldly says (some think the maxim odd), 
• An honest man's the noblest work of God ; * 
If Pope's assertion be from error clear, 
The noblest work of God lies buried here.** 

Wingfield Church itself is an interesting old 
place, but has been a good deal mauled in times 
past ; and the brasses, of which there were once 
several, are all gone. It is, I believe, a good deal 
noted for a parvise, or room over the porch, from 
which, by an opening in the wall, a view of the 
altar is obtained. There are two or three piscinas 
in different parts of the church, and a sediila near 
the altar, ihe most interesting objects are, how? 
ever, three altar tombs, with recumbent figures of 
the £arls of Suffolk ; the earliest, which is of 
wood, representing either the first or second peer 
of the family, with his spouse. The next in date 
is that of the celebrated noble who figures in 
Shakspeare's Henry VI. The monument is, if I 
recollect right, of alabaster. The figure is attired 
in complete armour, and was originally painted ; a 
good deal of the colour still remaining. This and 
the following monument are partly let into the 
wall, and are surmounted by beautiful Grothic 
canopies. The third is, I believe, also of alabaster,, 
and is the ef^gy of (I think) the nephew of Mar- 
garet of Anjou's earl, and who lies by the side of 
his wife, one of Edward IV.'s family. 

It is very likely that all I have been writing i& 
no news to any one. In that case I have but to 
ask your pardon for troubling you with suck a 
worthless Note. Fxctob. 

July 30. 1853.] 





In searching through the manuscripts now filed 
away in the Record OflSce of this island with Dr. 
Villa, who has charge of them, and for whose 

assistance in my search I am greatly indebted, I 
have been gratified by seeing several original 
letters, addressed by difiereot monarchs of Eng- 
land to the Grand Masters of the Order of St. 
John of Jerusalem. Each of the royal letters in 
the following list bears the signature of the writer : 



In what Lan- 

To whore addressed, or by vihom 

r*"- t 

guage written. 


Henry VIII. 


8th January, 1523 


Villiers de L*Isle Adam. 

Ditto - 


1st August, 1524 



Ditto - 


14th January, 1526 



Ditto - 

■ - - • 

10th day, 1526 (month 



Ditto - 


22ad November, 1530 



Ditto - 


17th November, 1534 



Charles II. 


17th January, 1667-8 


Nicholas Cotoner. 

Ditto - 


29th April, 1668 



Ditto - 

. - - - 

26th January, 1675-6 



Ditto - 


I^ast day of Novem* 
ber, 1674 



Ditto - 


21st June, 1675 



James II.- 


13th July, 1689 


Gregory Carafa. 



8th July, 1713 


Raymond Ferellos de Roccaful. 

George I.* 


24th August, 1722 


Anthony Manoel de Villena. 

James (the Pretender) 

14th September, 1725 



George II. 


19th June, 1741 


Emanuel Pinto de Fonseca. 

Ditto - 


8th December, 1748 



Ditto - 


6th November, 1756 



* The letter of George I. is countersigned " Carteret;" those of George II. by "Harrington," " H. Fox," 
and " Bedford." None of the other letters in the above list bear any signature but that of the king or queen 
who wrote them. Among the letters of Henry VIII,, addressed to Villiers de L'Isle Adam, there is one of 
much interest. I refer to that of the earliest date, in which his majesty strongly recommended the Grand 
Master to accept of Tripoli, on the coast of Barbary, and the islands of Malta and Gozo, as a residence for the 
convent, which Charles V. had ofifered him. The importance oS Malta as a military station was known in 
England three hundred years ago. L'Isle Adam (with the exception of La Valetta), the most distinguished of 
all the Maltese Grand Masters, died on the 21st of August, 1534. The last letter of Henry VIII., addressed to 
him, came to his successor, Nicholas Cotoner. On the mantle which covered the remains of thb great man these 
few words were inscribed, — " Here lies Virtue triumphant over Misfortune." 

Intending in a short time to examine these royal 
letters more closely, and hoping to refer to them 
again in " N. & Q.," I refrain from writing more 
at length on the present occasion. W. W. 

La Valetta, Malta. 

P.S. — Perhaps the following chronological table, 
referring to the Maltese Grand Masters who are 
mentioned in the above Note, may not be un- 
interesting to the readers of " N. & Q." : 


When elected. 

When deceased at Malta. 

Villiers de L'Isle Adam . - - . . 
Nicholas Cotoner ....... 

Gregory Carafa ....... 

Raymond Perellos -.---•- 
Anthony Manoel de Villena - - • • - 
Emanuel Pinto de Fonseca • . • » . 

At Rhodes, 1521 
At Malta, 1663 
Ditto 1680 
Ditto 1697 
Ditto 1722 
Ditto 1741 

1534, 21st of August. 







[Na 196. 

^InDi: fiattt. 

Meaning of "Clipper." — I have more than 
once been atikeil the meaning and derivation of 
the term clipper, which has been so much in vo^ue 
for some years pa»t. It is noer quite a nautical 
term, at lenst amonz the fresh-water sailors : and 
we find it most treqaentl; applied to j'achcs, 
steamers, fast-sailing merchant vessels, &c. And 
in addition to the colloquial use of the word, so 
common in praising the appearance or qualities of 
a vessel, it has become one quite recognised in the 
official description pven of their ships bj mer- 
ohants, &c. Thus we often see an advertisement 
headed " the well-known clipper ship," " the 
noted clipper bark," and so forth. This use of the 
word, however, and its application to vesaeU, is 
somewhat wide of the origmal. 

The word in former times meant merely a 
hackney, or horse adapted for the road. The 
owners of such atiimala naturally valued them in 
proportion lo their capabilities for such service, 
among which great speed in trotting was con- 
sidered one of the chief: fast trotting horses were 
eagerly sought after, and trials of speed became 
the fashion' A horse then, which was pre-eminent 
in this particular, was termed a clipper, i. e. a 
hackney, par excellence. 

The original of the term ia perhaps the tbllow> 
ing: Klepper-lehn was a feudal tenure, so termed 
among the old Germans, where the yearly due 
from the vassal to the lord was a klepper, or, in its 
stead, so many bushels of oats : and the word 
klepper, or Ueopper, is explained by Haltaua. Qloi. 
Germ. Med. Mvi, 1738: 

made lome progreu in the business referred to them, 
m charter wai presently procured to place the cod- 
■identioD of thnt matter in other huids, where it nov 
remains, uid will, we hope, produce excellent fruiti. 
But whaterer tliej are, thej must be acknowledged to 
hare sprung from the overture! to tliat purpose firstmulB 
by the lower house of Convocation." — Sotat Proceediuft 
in till ConmcatiOM of 1705 fuiUifi^ npmtitWl, p. Ift 
of Preface. 

W. FxAsn. 


Pigt said to tee ike Wind. — In Hudibraa, Inde- 
pendant says to Presbyter : 

*> You ilole from the beggars all your toaes. 
And gifted mortifying groani ; 
Had lighu when better eyes were blind. 
At pigt art laid toue Ike icmrf. " 

Pt. 3, 
That most delightful of editors. Dr. Zachary Grey, 
with alt his muItifBrious learning, leaves us here 
in the lurch for once with a simple reference to 
"Hudibras at Court," Potthumous Works, p.213. 

Is this phrase merely an hyperbolic wajr of 
saying that pigs are very sharp -sighted, or is it an 
actual piece of folk-lore expressing a belief that 
pigs have the privilege of seeing " the viewless 
wiud?" I am inclined to take the latter view. 
Under the head of " Superstitions," in. Hone's 
Year-Book for Feb. 29, 1831, we find : 

" Among CI 

in sayings at present i 

e these, that 

Rectory, Hereford. 

Anathema, Maraa-atiia. — Perhaps the follow, 
ing observation on these words may be as in- 
structive to some of the readers of " X. & Q." as 
it was to me. Maran-atha means "The Lord 
Cometh," and is used apparently by St. Paul as a 
kind of motto : compare j xipiat tyyij, Phil. iv. 5. 
The Greek word has become blended with the 
Hebrew phrase, and the compound used as a for- 
mula of execration. (Sec Conybeare and Howson's 
Life and EpisUee of Si. Paid, p. 64., note 4 ) 

F. W. J. 

Convocation and the Society for the Propagation 
of the Qotpel in Foreign Parte. — 

"When the committee I have mentioned wai ap- 
pointed, March IS, 1700, to consider what might be 
done towards propagaling the Ciriitian Rdigim ai 
jmfated in Ike Church of Eagtand ia our Forfign 
Plantotiom 1 and the committee, composed of very 
venerahle and experienced men, well Eulted for such 
an inquiry, bad sat several limes at St. Paul's, and 

The version I have always heard of it is — 
" Pigs can see the wind 'tis said. 
And it seemelh to them red." 


Anecdote of the Duke of Gloucetler. — Looking 
through some of the Commonwealth journals, I 
met with a capital mot of this spirited little Stuart. 

•• It is reported that the titulsr Duke of Gloueester, 
beintt informed that (he Dutch fleet wbs about the Isle 
of Wight, he was asked to which side he stood most 
addicted. 'Hie foung man, apprehending that his 
livelihood depended on the parliament, and that it 
might be on art to circumvent him, turning to the go- 
vernor, demanded of him how he did construe 'Quam- 
diu se bene gesserit.' " — Wccilg IiUtlligautr. 




Can any of your correspondents inform me 
where the virtuous and patriotic William Lord 
Bussell was buried? It is singular that neither 
Burnet, who attended him to the scalTold, nor his 
descendant Lord John Russell in writing his life, 
nor Collins's Peerage, nor the accounts and letters 
of his admirable widow, make any allusion to his 

July 30. 1853.] 



remains. At last I found, in the State Trials^ 
vol. ix. p. 684., that after the executioner had held 
Tip the head to the people, " Mr. Sheriff ordered 
his Lordship*s friends or servants to take the body 
and dispose of it as they pleased, being given 
them by His Majesty's favour." Probably, there- 
fore, it was buried at Cheneys ; but it b worth a 
Query to ascertain the fact. 

My attention was drawn to this omission by the 
discovery of the decapitated man found at Nune- 
ham Regis (" N. & Q.," Vol. vi., p. 386.), and from 
observing that the then proprietor of the place 
appears to have been half-sister to Lady Russell, 
VIZ. daughter of the fourth Lord Southampton, 
by his second wife Frances, heiress of the Leighs, 
Lords Dunsmore, and the last of whom was 
created Earl of Chichester. But a little inquiry 
satisfied me this could not have been Lord Rus- 
selFs body ; among other reasons, because it was 
very improbable he should be interred at Nune- 
ham, and because the incognito body had a peaked 
beard, whereas the prints from the picture at 
Woburn represent Lord Russell, according to the 
fashion of the time, without a beard. 

But who then was the decapitated man ? He 
was evidently an offender of consequence, from 
his having been beheaded, and from the careful 
embalming and the three coffins in which his re- 
mains were inclosed. The only conjecture I see 
hazarded in your pages is that of Mb. Hbsleden 
(Vol. vi., p. 488.), who suggests Monmouth ; but 
he has overlooked the fact stated in the original 
communication of L. M. M. R., that Nuneham only 
came into the possession of the Buccleuch family 
through the Montagues, i. e, by the marriage of 
Henry, third Duke of Buccleuch, to Lady Eliza- 
beth Montagu ; the present proprietor, Lord John 
Scott, being their grandson. This marriage took 
place in 1767, or eighty- two years after Mon- 
mouth^s execution, and thirty-three years after the 
death of his widow, the Duchess of Buccleuch and 
Monmouth, who is supposed to have caused the 
body to be removed from Tower Hill. 

Notwithstanding the failure of heirs male in 
three noble families within the century, viz. the 
Leighs, the Wriothesleys, and the Montagus, the 
present proprietor is their direct descendant, and 
there are indications in the letter referred to, that 
the place of interment of his ancestors, as well as 
of this singular unknown, will no longer be aban- 
doned to be a depository of farm rubbbh. 

W. L. M. 


Perhaps some of the readers of " N. & Q." will 
be able to give me some information as to the use 
of an ancient piece of furniture which I have met 
with. At Codrington, a small village in Glou- 
cestershire, in the old house once the residence of 

the family of that name, now a farm-house, they 
show you in the hall a piece of furniture which 
was brought there from tne chapel when that part 
of the building was turned into a dairy. It is a 
cupboard, forming the upper part of a five-sided 
structure, which has a base projecting equally 
with the top, which itself hangs over a hollow 
between the cupboard and the base, and is 
finished off with pendants below the cupboard. 
The panel which forms the door of the cupboard 
is wider than the sides. All the panels are carved 
with sacred emblems ; the vine, the instruments of 
the Passion, the five wounds, the crucifix, the 
Virgin and child, and a shield, with an oak tree 
with acorns, surmounted by the papal tiara and 
the keys. The dimensions are as follows : 

Depth from front to back, 2 feet 4J inches. 

Height, 4 feet 8 inches. 

Height of cupboard from slab to pendants, 
2 feet 6 inches. 

Height of base, 9 J inches. 

Width of side panels, 1 foot 8 inches ; of centre 
panel, 1 foot 10^ inches. 

Width of the door of the cupboard, 1 foot 
6 inches. 

The door has carved upon it a scene represent- 
ing two men, one an old man sitting upon a chair, 
the other a young one falling back from a stool ; a 
table separates them ; and in the next compart- 
ment (for an arcade runs through the group) a 
female figure clasps her hands, as if in astonish- 
ment. This I can hardly understand. But the 
panel with the papal ensigns I think may throw 
some light on the use of the whole. In the year 
1429, «fohn Codrington of Codrington obtained a 
bull from Pope Martin V. to have a portable altar 
in his house, to have 'mass celebrated when and 
where he pleased. I find that such a portable 
altar ought to have " a suitable frame of wood 
whereon to set it.'* Such altars are frequently 
mentioned, though I believe very few remain ; but 
I never could hear of the existence of anything to 
show what the frame would be. It occurs to me 
as possible that this piece of furniture may have 
been used for the purpose. The whole Question 
of portable altars is an interesting one, ana if this 
account should by the means of " N. & Q." fall 
into the hands of any one who is acquainted with 
the subject, I hope he would consider it worth a 

For some time I was at a loss for another in- 
stance ; however, I have just received from a 
friend, who took interest in the subject, a sketch 
of something almost identical from the disused 
chapel at Chillon in the Canton Vaud. Of this I 
have not the measurements, but it stands about 
breast-high. It is there called a "prie-dieu," and 
is said to have belonged to the Dukes of Savoy, 
but the size is very unusual for such a use. I 
send sketches of each of the subjects of my Query, 



[No. 196 

and liopa thut, if this ehould be thought wortliy of 
ft place in " N. k Q.," some one nil! be able and 
wUting to afford some icformatioii aboat them. I 
would add aa a farther Query, the question of the 
meaning of the battle-aie and pansy, which appear 
on the " prie-dieu " at Chillou. Is it a known 
badge of the Savoy family t B. U. C. 

MiRUt (BturM. 

Regrwldt' Nephew. — In the Correspondi 
" "arriok, vol. i. pp. 664. 658., 4to. 

letters of Sir Joshua Reynolds regarding 

David Garriok, vol i. pp. 664. 658., 4to., 1831 

Joshua Reynolds re^ 
a play written by bis nephew, uan you tell 

•( S 

whether this was the Rev. Mr. Palmer, mioiaUr 
of the Temple Church, and who was afterwards 
Dean of Caslicl ; or had Sir Joshua any other 
nephew? The letters are dated 1774, and the 
author appears to have been resident in London 
about that time. A. Z. 

Sir Itaac Ifewton. — Which i» the paisage in 
Newton's Optict to which Flamateed refers, in his 
account of the altercation between them, as having 
given occasion to some of the enemies of the former 
to tax him with Atheism ? and is there any evi- 
dence, besides what this passage may aSbrd, in 
favour of Dr. Johnson's assertion, that Newlon set 
CTi/a)aniafldeIf (Boswell, July 28, 1763.) The 
Optici were not published till 1704, but had been 
composed many years previously. J. S. Wardem. 

Limerick, Dublin, and Cork.- — Can any of your 
Irish or other correspondents inform me to whom 
we are indebted for the lines — 

" Limerick was, Dalilio is, and Cork shall be. 
The fincEt city of the three" ? 

Also, in what respect Limerick waa formerly bu- 
periot to Dublin r If. 


Frayiag to Sie West. — A. friend of mine told 
me that a Highland woman in Strathconan, wish- 
ii^ to say that her mother-in-law prayed for my 
fnend daily, said : " She holds up her hands to the 
Weit for yon every day." If to the Ea»t it would 
have been more intelligible ; but why to the West F 
L. M. M. R. 

Midciher. — Who was Mulciber, immortalised (!) 

in Garth's Diepensary (ed. 1699, p. 65.) as "the 

Majbr of Broinicham?" My copy contwns on 

the fly-leaf a MS. key to all the names save this. 

H. C. Wakdb. 


Captain Booth of Stoc^orl (Vol vl., p. 340.).— 
Aa yet, no reply to this Query has been elicited; 
but as it b a subject of some interest to both 
Lancashire and Cheshire men, I shmiH Uks to 

ascertain from Jatteb in what'callection be met 
with the MS. copy of Captain Booth's Ordiaarf 
of Arms f Its existence does not appear to have 
been known to any of our Cheshire or Lancashire 
historians; for in none of their works do I find 
any mention of such an individual as Capt. Booth 
of Stockport. Sir Feter Leycesler, in hia A^ 
guities of Buckhv) Hundred, Cheshire, repeatedly 
acknowledges the assistance rendered him by John 
Boodi of Twanbow's ifooA of Pedigrees ; but this 
entleman appears merely to have collected for 
'heahire, and not for Lancashire. Sir Georeo 
Booth, afterwards Lord Delamere, Is the oiJy 
Captain Booth I have yet met with in my limited 
sphere of historical research ; and I am not aware 
that he ever indulged much in genealogical study. 
I. HuOBsi. 

a saint in lawn." 

W.T. M. 

Whence this line P 
Uong Kong. 

French Abbet. — What was the precise ecclest- 
Mtical and social slaias of a Frencn Abb6 before 
the Revolution f W. Fxaui. 


Wluil Dai/ it a at our ArUipodei * — F^bapi yoa 
can give me a satisfactorj' answer to the followiag 
question, a reply to which I have not yet beai 
able to procure. 

I write this at 11 p.m. on Tuesday, JuV 13 ; at 
our Antipodes it is, of course, 11 a-m. ; but is it 
II a.m. on Tuesday, July 12, or on Wednesday, 
July 13 P And whichever it is, what is the reason 
for Its beinj £0 ^ fo' 't' seems to me that the aolu- 
tion of the question must be perfectly arbitrary. 

" SpendthH/i." — In Lord John RusseU'a Memo- 
rinU of Charlet James Fox, vol. t. p. 43., there i« 
a letter addressed to Mr. Hichard Fitiputrick, ill 
which Mr. Fox asks " if he was in England when 
Lord Carlisle's Spendthrift came out." And at the 
foot of the same page there is a note in nhich it is 
stated that this " was probably some periodical 
paper of 1767." 

My object in writing the above is for the par- 
pose of asking what publication the Spend&rift 
really was, and where it can be purchased or seen P 


Second Orowth of Orass. — The second frrowth 
of grass is known by different names in different 
localities. In some it b called /(ig-, in others afier- 
math and after-graxt. The former name la com- 
mon about Uxbridge, and the latter about St(^ 
Pogis, in Buckinghanishire. In Uertfoidahira it ia 

Jolt 30. 1853.] 


ntllnl higfrri-mntifff'i T am tint certiiln thnt this In 
tlie (wirrwl nticllhiit nf (lie imme, nerer Imrlng wvn 
H eillipr In wrltlnn or itlnt. In tiHcei't^riihlre 
nod t5iinilirl(lf!P!'hire Ihe nnme ttMlnli mernWn, I nm 
tnlil, nnil hpwe flilifh r/tftiir, miide mim \he milk 
vF <'iiwH nlik'li liHte gi'RKeil pihlinli. (jnn nn/ (if 
yniir ccrr^RnnniletitR (iiW In the nbove nnitieo, or 
llirnir n tight iipoii llielt origin r H. W. l^ 


Th« T.itiM nf IhmllP, — Onn but of ynur corre- 
PpoiiilcrilB rxi'.lniii what Jniiiiw V. vT Hv'Wlsiiil 
mentis in IiIn ct^li-brnted bRlkil when he injfl : 

" I llldclll T> 

en»i il< 

Aci'iT'llriff I" (he literHl mennini!, il wmilil leeni 
thnt Ihe Lnin) of llniille nnn niiinptliiti|{ lens Ihnn 
n {!<<iifl<<MinMr Conlil lii» m«\Mj Inleml lo ka- 
tlripp the nllpppd niTnl iVfliwiit nf Ilrnilie finiD 
Knililhle, tlie non or'Dllli, kitijr tiF Ihe J'tHx (oce 

Jlfr». Tlnh', Anlhnr nf " Pfgrhf." — Tliprfl Is n 
mnnunipnt In InWIiiHo'ftiMrHijnnl, ro. Kilhrnnj', 
(o Ihe niomorj' of llie nnlhoreoFt of thnt WntlTnl 
imi'm I'tj/rhp, Mm. MHrj 'I'ljihe, wllh h nUtne of 
lipr, oniil I'l Iri- Uj KlnnMinn, which ii|ii|.emrii(, no lo 
IlK Ippiiif. fioni (1.P Miiflel of ihnt cr.1el,rnlMl (ipiil|it(ir, 
t hflTP fiprii runlrftdii'l.ctl. Hhn was Ihe ilnt(j(lil« 
(if Ihn It'-T. W, Illncfcflird, nnri mnrrloil Mr. irpMi-j' 
I'lulioof lV..<.ilF.(n,.k. Irplanr), In \7»n. 'JIhHm- 
Bi!ri|iti'iii, wliirli, t tiplierp, In In eiilDleiiOP, wnn ii'jl 
niWiHl In iliP nidiuimpnt In lB4fl, C'hm anr nf jour 
4'nrrpc|ioii(lL'iils fnioiir me willi npopyofltf nml 
wflH (hpnintiie hj flnxinnn f U (here nn* milhr-nllc 
meni'iii' Mri1il!> (lellghlfnl pnelpflsr Whpndjil her 
Itniiliflnil Mr. Tljihe dk' f lie l<> nnid In hnre mir- 
vlrtHl hlK Inrlj, who lilcd In Intn, Imt a rimrt IIimp! 
niid Ihnt he wns tlio nnllior nf n tlinlmv nf the 
finiiil,/ nf Kllkfiina. I tiellere It wnn imTliiiliiijj 
llio pfinfchvnrd (if tiiUlloge Ihnt Sirs, llcirinim 
wrnip " The Itrnro nf a PupIpm." Rhe U rnlil to 
Imri' tipen *ery hennliriil. In Ihpre miy ollipr 
piit'rR»''i1 [Hirtrnlt of her In eslnlenre liecide the 
wie nniiPiifd lo Ihe ceiprnl eilitliiim uf her (menu. 
Anj iinrlii'iiliirs rptnllii^ In thin Indj or her hiiK- 
bninl If ill he eitteeined \sj T, I). IVHtTBoRiiJi. 

/7;»*o/i l-'ftrm: —Vfta llin TUnhoti fprrftr (irt- 
Fnrrnr), llip iiiflrljr who mifTpred during Ilip relftn 
(if MnrV, nf Ihe wnmr fflmlly b« Kerrerit (iir Kerrnrn) 
fnri of rierh]' nnd NotlhiKhnm, In (lie rpl^n of 
Ilenr/Ttt. r A C-mitAnT UnAnnit. 

mr Tlinmniito r.ntiKHi-rlll'.^Jn (ha JMC 17/10, 
n HIr Tlioiiin* tip l.nnoiietllle, Imtonet, tnui » 
tlmlRnnnt In hin Mnjml/ii (lf>p(, nnd hi* cnmmlii- 
ilon bure dnts flrd June, 1TIU. I abmild be gl«l 

If any of r 

irrespnndpnl* (.■mild Inlhnn me If 

he WRfi n dwmidnnt of Urn lie LnneuPTlllp, Ihe 

(■epnnd /Vrfw ArHtlPn nf B Innd'n '■ lll-rp^nllwl 

chief." The tphI Hir 'rhnnin<> ile ImiiBneTllla 
rppiiM>fi In the chnnOiTni'il of Ilourl jp. In Hip roiinl.v 
nf Ahenkpn. Ihinttie In n imrinh friiiiirht wliU 
hinlnrlo repiillpFHon!.. On Ihe hill of llnrra, with- 
in n tnilQ of the pnrinh chnn-h, Unice nt on<H> nnit 
Kir eier imt r jipriod lo (he rwht nml power nf Iha 
Ctimlnff. I xhonhl be i-lnd In lenrii If nnr of llm 
ileBPeminnlB of Ihe t.ieulfimnt J<oiii;iip»illo nllU 
nnrrirp, nnd if he wnn niir (Ipsppoilnnl. nf Ihe fft- 
Twite "iJe hnngnp.ill(." of (Ik- oM-ii llinp. 

iilMlolmit "IIHlfll. — 

(f.) " N»pr Piiil)ii|!. xlill WHiniiini!.-' 

(9.) "Clipn- llip liillcr nld i-f (li•|^tl].(li(llnlpnt." 
WhPll^(. f C!, MUNPFIM,!. j!»01,»l!T. 


Si/mm IhMrh, JtUnp of niii — Jlnrhnm ~ 
IVFthin ~ Jptihiin — III A Rinnll nnliililoHrniihr 
of Bjnioi, I'lilrl'-l., IhP 1iMi<.,i-f. wifP i- Mrtd-it In 
lin»p lippn /'•■nrl'i/'i' .tpphfrn, ernn-lnhihl cf Imilj 
Iliirhnni of lliirclnll. Cnii nut nf T'mr remlerB 
inform me who llild I.mlj. Diirlinin wmP 

reiiphipe .fi'iih-'in wb-i ilnn^ililr-i' of Rlr (Vnc 
llni.(P> .liipli-on. I (.npiir™. nf Mnllnw In Irclnnd. 

line of lliolirm I'lilrii'k'o f;rnn<liliinf;*, I'e* 
tiPlnpp, mnrrii"! K'lwnnl lVi>»liin, I liidpr-Hi-crpUry 
ofHlnle. nrCiiikroiinli'Ji (llcrta?), tinprr, Whn 
wnn lip, nnd nre lliere nii/ ilceotimlHiils of llili 
man Inge T K. U. 

7'fti* Trrr>-iii»ffhim> nf flii/fnll, nml IVni-fnU. - 
'nil. niiclt'iil. r,.Miil/ Irnri'fl il? pi-diKti-" ihri.iijth 

Iwenlj-livp kni.ulilp In pi ^minn lo linlllr lie- 

tenlniflinme, whn lived wlnm (.'nnnle wn* kinff of 
k,i>|!lnM'l, nun. 11120. (Hpe llnrlPJnn MBH. 1449. 
fol. til I., i mid Riinlhpr'n Dnrlnr, fty.) 

" ■• n-p kniuhl-, Wr .Inhn Ilprpnyiig- 
,ln,,.i<nr|<>d n poltnlernl lirnnrh, 
/nllPi' llr>«pnilit<linin nn*ipellHlI 
ami AkIoii PBliilPfi, KlnHiinlKliire (IJIIiii), who mnr- 
ripd Annpin, dniijihlpr nf MlKliprhert llip .IiiiIkp. 
Ills eldp^t non wnn Nirlmln*, who ninrritil Kl\r,B, 
dniiHhlerof Hir.lohn Ilppyorj nnd Hip oIiIp"! non 
[>r iTie iRPl-nmnpil wnn I'ir Wnlter IIpTPiilnf{h«a 

(inia. ob. Kiiin. 

Nnw I rIwiiM TppI (jrpnilr n1.1i(ii"l In nny of 
ymir rendprn If, froin aiij of llii? ]in1iliiihpd or 
wrltlpn domimcnifl relnlinE In llip pniinlj nf 
Hlnm>ril, or from nnj nihcr nonrpp, Iher pniiU 
rhvnnr me wllh nnnwern In Ihe fiilhmlnit <j'npriei : 

1. Whom did Wr IVnllnr Il-vpninghni" itiRrrj-f 
Ills (*cnnrt Bon mnrrlpd the widow nf HIr Bdwird 
Hlmcnn, Itnrl. j but 

g. WhnI nnn Ihe nnmp of Rlr Wnlter'H H<)etk 
atm, mkI wkniD did ht mmtj ? The Inns of tlila 

hnin (I.I 


[No. 19& 

latter mnrriage was Charles HeTeningham of 
Lichfield (ob. 1782), who married a dauahter of 
Bobinson of Appleby, and John Ueveningham. 

A Chip or the Out Blocs. 
ladg Perq/, Wife of Hotspur (Bavghter of 
Edmiatd Mortimer, Earl of March). — Upon what 
authority does Mias Strickland say (Live* of the 
QaeeTu of England, vol. iv. p. 300.) that it is 
BtBted "by all ancient heralds" that this lady died 
without issue F What herald can say this nithout 
bastardising the second £arl of Nortbumberland ? 
This assertion is a very sweeping one, and I have 
sought in vain for the statement said to be made 
by all heralds. G. 

Shape of CoMru. — It would be interesting to 
ascertun in what localities any peculiar form of 
coffin is used ? 

lu Devonshire, particularly among the farmers 
and poorer classes, the ridged coffin is very ge- 
neral, the end being gabled. The top, instead of 
being flat with one board, is made of two boards, 
like the double roof of a house ; in other respects 
the shape is of the common form. The idea is, 
that such cofSns resist much longer the weight of 
the superincumbent earth ; but there can be no 
doubt that it is a very aocient shape. Many years 
ago I heard that in some parish in this county the 
coffin was shaped tike a flat-bottomed boat ; the 
boat shape is known to have been an old form. 

H. T. EuJlCOxbb. 

Clyst St. George. 

St. George Family Pieturet, — In Gaa^a Sepul- 
chral Monumenlt, vol. iii. p. 77., it is mentioned, 
with reference to the estate of Hatley St, George, 
in connty of Cnmbridge, that, at the sale of the 
house in 1782, "The family pictures were removed 
to Mr. Fearce's house at Cople, Bedford." Can 
any one tell me if the family pictures here spoken 
of irere those of the St. George family (which in- 
habited the house for six hundred years) ; and if 
BO, what has become of them ? B. A. S. O. 

Ceylon, June 11, ISSS. 

Caleg (John), " Eccleaiastieal Samei/ of the Poi- 

Blotting-paper — When did blotting-paper firat 
come into use. Carlyle, in hia Life of Cromw^ 
twice repeats that it was not known in thoae daya 
Is not this a mistake? I have a piece which] 
am able to refer to 1670. -SpEBiEini. 

Poetical Virsiona of the Pragmenlf in Athejiaiu. 
— Can any of your correspondents inform me of 
the locun of any of tbe>e, in addition to BlacAwood, 
xxsvi., and Eraser's Magazine T 

P. J. F. GAIiTlIJA>K, B. A 


logue, to be privately printed. It is unknown ™ 
the bishop of the diocese and Mr. Black. Can 
any of your readers give any information about itP 



AdamiorCa "Ztuttonia lUiutrala" — Is there any 
]^ospect of Mr. Adamson continuing his Liuitaitia 
Itluslrata f Could that accomplished Portuguese 
student kindly inform me if there is any better 
insight into Portuguese literature than tbnt con- 
tuned in Bouterweck's Qesehichie der Poetie laid 
BeredtamkeUt W.M.M. 


(Vol. r., p. 533. ; Vol. vii., p, 485.) 
Under the conviction that Robert Drury wai t 
real character, and his Madagatrar a true narra- 
tive of his shipwreck, sufierings, and captivity, I 
crave your permission to give a few additional 
reasons why I think he should be discharged fhini 
the fictitious, and admitted into the catalogne of 
real and hnnafide English travellers. 

I have before stated that Drury did not skulk in 
the background when he published hts book in 1727i 
but, on the contrary, invited the public to Tom's 
Coffee-house, where he engaged to satisfy the in- 
crclulous, and resolve the doubting. By the 3rd 
edition of Madagascar, 1743, it farther appears 
that he continued " for some years before his 
death" to resort to the above-named house; "at 
which place several inquisitive genilemen received 
from his own mouth the confirmation of those 
particulars which seemed dubious, or carried with 
them the air of romance." The period was certainly 
unpropitious for any but a writer of fiction, and 
Drurj seems to have anticipated no higher rank 
for his Treatite, in point of authenticity, than thai 
occupied by the several members of the Bobineos 
Crusoe school. He, however, positively- affirms it 
to be "a plain honest narrative of the muter of 
fact;" which is endorsed in the follovring terms 
by " Capt. William Mackett :" 

" Thli is to cerllff, that Robert Drary. fifteen yean 
a slave in Madagascar, nov living in London, wai re- 
deemed froni thence anri braught into England, hit 
native country, by myselC I eateem him an honot 
industTioiis man, of good reputation, and do firmly be- 
lieve that the account he gives of hia itrmnge and itir- 
prising adventures it genuine and authentic." 

Mackett was a commander in the E. I. Comp^ 
lerrice ; and the condenser of Drury's MSS., afler 
showing the opportunities the Captain had of as- 
suring himself upon the points he cerUfies to^ 
characterises him as a well-known person, of the 
highest integrity and honour : a man, indeed, as 
unlikely to be imposed upon, as to be guilty of 
lendinv himself to others, to carry out a deception 
upon the public. 

July 30. 1853.] 



Mr. Burton, in his lately published "Narra- 
tives," points out another source of information 
regarding Drury, in the Gent. Mag. for 1769, 
•where will be found an account of W. Benbow ; 
in this, allusion is made to his brother John Ben- 
bow, who was wrecked with Drury in the " De- 
grave " Indiaman, on Madagascar. W. D., who 
communicates the information to Stlvanus Ur- 
ban, asserts that he recollects hearing the MS. 
Journal of this John Benbow read ; and that it 
afforded to his mind a strong confirmation of the 
truthfulness of Drury's Madagascar. He adds 
the following curious particulars anent our sub- 
ject : — "Robin Drury," he says, "among those 
who knew him (and he was known to many, being 
a porter at the East India House), had the charac- 
ter of a downright honest man, without any ap- 
pearance of fraud or imposture. He was known 
to a friend of mine (now living), who frequently 
called upon him at his house in Lincoln*s Inn 
Fields, which were not then enclosed. He tells 
me he has oflen seen him throw a javelin there, 
and strike a small mark at a surprising distance. 
It is a pity," he adds, " that this work of Drury's 
is not better known, and a new edition published* 
(it having been long out of print) ; as it contains 
much more particular and authentic accounts of 
that large and barbarous island, than any yet 
given ; and, though it is true, it is in many respects 
as entertaining as Gulliver or Crusoe." 

It may farther be mentioned that the French, 
who have a good acquaintance with Madagascar, 
** have found Drury's statement of the geography, 
the natural history, the manners of the people, 
and the conspicuous men of the time, in Mada- 
gascar, remarkably accurate." (Bib. Gen. des 
Voyages^ Paris, 1808.) Archdeacon Wrangham 
says : " Duncombe (?) calls Drury's Madagascar 
the best and most genuine account ever given of 
the island;" and the missionary Ellis quoted 
Drury without the slightest suspicion that any 
doubt hangs over the genuineness of his narrative. 
Drury's account of himself runs thus: — "I, 
Robert Drury," he says, when commencing his 
book, " was bom on July 24, 1687, in Crutched 
Friars, London, where my father then lived ; but 
soon after removed to the Old Jury, near Cheap- 
side, where he was well known, and esteemed for 
keeping that noted house called *• The King's 
Head,' or otherwise distinguished by the name of 
the Beef-stake House ; and to which there was all 
my father's time a great resort of merchants, and 
gentlemen of the best rank and character." To 
this famous resort of the Revolutionary and Au- 
gustan ages I lately betook myself for my stake, in 
the hope that mine host might be found redolent 

* The editions of Madagatear known to me are those 
oM787, 1731, and 1743, by the original publisher, 
Meadows, Hull, 1807, and London, 1826. 

of the traditional glory of his house. But alas ! 
that worthy, although firmly believing in the an- 
tiquity of the King's Head, and of there being 
som^ hook in existence that would prove it, could 
not say of his own knowledge whether the king 
originally complimented by his predecessor was 
Harry the Eighth or George the Fourth ! 

In conclusion, I would just add, is not the cir- 
cumstance of our subject holding the humble post 
of porter at the East India House confirmatory of 
that part of his story which represents him as one 
of the crew of Hon. Company s ship " Degrave," 
whose wreck upon Madagascar I take to be an 
undoubted fact r What so probable as this recog- 
nition, in a small provision for a man in his old 
age, whose misfortunes commenced while in their 
service? Finally, to me the whole narrative of 
Robert Drury seems so probable, and so well 
vouched for, that I have given in my adhesion 
thereto by removing him to a higher shelf in my 
library than that occupied by such apocryphal per- 
sons as Crusoe, Quarle, Boyle, Falconer, and a 
host of the like. J. O. 


(Vol. vii., p. 536.) 

I would suggest a doubt, whether the suffix - Jy, 
in the names of places, afibrds us any satisfactory 
evidence, per se, of their exclusively Danish origin. 
This termination is of no unfrequent occurrence in 
districts, both in this country and elsewhere, to 
which the Danes, properly so called, were either 
utter strangers, or wherein they at no time esta- 
blished any permanent footing. The truth is, there 
seems to be a fallacy in this Danish theory, in so 
far as it rests upon the testimony of language ; 
for, upon investigation, we generally find that the 
word or phrase adduced in its support was one 
recognised, not in any single territory alone, but 
throughout the whole of Scandinavia, whose dif- 
ferent tribes, amid some trifling variations of dia- 
lect, which can now be scarcely ascertained, were 
all of them as readily intelligible to one another 
as are, at this day, the inhabitants of two adjoin- 
ing English counties. If this were so, it appears 
that, in the case before us, nothing can be proved 
from the existence of the expression, beyond the 
fact of its Norse origin ; and our reasonable and 
natural course is, if we would arrive at its true 
signification, to refer at once to the parent tongue 
of the Scandinavian nations, spoken in common, 
and during a long-continued period, amid the 
snows of distant Iceland, on the mountains of 
Norway, the plains of Denmark, and in the forests 
of Sweden. 

This ancient and widely-diffused language was 
the Icelandic, Norman, or Donsk tunsa, — that 
in which were written tlie Eddas and Sk^da, the 



[No. 19& 

Nj41a nnd Heimskringla. In it we have the suffix 
5y, under the forms of the verbs ek by, eh hid, or 
at hua, and ek hyggi or hyggia, manere, habitare, 
incolere, struere, edificare ; also the nouns hu 
(Ang.-Sax. by, Dan. ho, hy), domus, habitaculum ; 
and hui, ineola, colonus, vicinus ; closely assimi- 
lated expressions all of them, in which the roots 
are found of our English words hide, abide, be, by 
(denoting proximity), buUd, borough, bury (Ed- 
mondsbury), harrow, byre, bower, abode, &c. Now, 
these explanations undoubtedly confirm the inter- 
pretation assigned by Mb. E. S. Taylor to his 
terminating syllable; and it is probable enough 
that the villages to which he refers received their 
titles from the Danes, who, we know, on the sub- 
jugation of its former inhabitants, possessed them- 
selves of the country in which they are situated. 
This, however, is a begging the question ; for, 
resting simply on the evidence of the suffix, it is 
equally probable that these places preserved the 
names assigned to them by their former northern 
colonists. But our b^ or hua, the Ang.-Sax. bugan 
and bedn, and the Germ, (ich) bin and bauen, have 
all been referred by learned philologists to the 
Greek ^vos, or to fii6a), or to ira^a, iraOoixai ; and the 
word has affinities scattered throughout numerous 
languages (there are the Camb.-Brit. bydio, habi- 
tare, and byw, vivere, for instance), so that we are 
surrounded by difficulties, if we attempt to esta- 
blish from its use any such point as that involved 
in your correspondent's Query. CowgIll. 


(Vol.vii., p.619.) 

When Pope, in dedicating his Rape of the Lock 
to Mrs. Arabella Fermor, was desirous of put- 
ting within the reach of that lady the information 
which Mb. E. S. TATiiOB has sought through your 
pages, he wrote : 

** The Rosicruciana are a people that I must bring 
you acquainted with. The best acoount of them I 
know is in a French book called Le Cornpte de Gabalis, 
which, both in its title and size, is so like a novel, that 
many of the fair sex have read it for one by mistake." 
— Dedicatory Letter to the Rape of the Lock, 

This celebrated work was written by the Abb6 
Montfaucon de Villars, and published in 1670. 
** C'est une par tie (says Voltaire, Siecle de Louis 
XIV.) de Tancienne mythologie des Perses. 
L'auteur fut tue en 1675 d'un coup de pistolet. 
On dit que les sylphes Tavaient assassine pour 
avoir revele leurs myst^res." In 1680, an En- 
glish translation appeared (penes me), entitled : 

" The Count of Gabalis ; or the Extravagant Mys- 
teries of the Cabalists, exposed in Five Pleasant Dis- 
courses on the Secret Sciences. Done into English by 
P. A. (Peter Ayres), Gent., with short Animadver- 
sions. London: printed for B. M., printer to the 

Royal Society of the Sages at die Signe of the Bosy 

The original French work went througli serenl 
editions : my own copy bears the imprint of Am' 
sterdam, 1715, and has appended to it La SuHe A 
Cornpte de Gabalis, on JEntretiens sur les Scieneet 
secretes, touchant la nouvelie Philosophies*^ &c. 

So much in deference to Pope, — whose onlj 
object, however, was to make Mrs. Fermor ac- 
quainted with so much of Rosicrucianism as was 
necessary to the comprehension of the machinery 
of his poem. Mb. E. S. Tatlob must go farther 
afield if he is desirous of " earning the vere 
adeptus,** and becoming, like Bailer*s Malpho — 

'< For Mystic Learninq wondrous able. 
In magic Talisman and Cabal, 
Whose primitive tradition reaches 
As far as Adam*s first green breeches ; 
Deep-sighted in Intelligences, 
Ideas, Atoms. Influences ; 
And much of TERRA-lNcooNrrA, 
Th* intelligible world could say ; 
A deep Occult Philosopbbr, 
As learned as the wild Irish are. 
Or Sir Aoripfa ; for profound 
And solid lying much renowned. 
He Anturofosophus, and Fludd, 
And Jacob Behmen understood ; 
Knew many an amulet and charm* 
That would do neither good nor harm ; \ 
In Rosy- Crucian lore as learned 
As he that vere adeptus earned.** 

Hudibras, Part i. Canto 1. 

These lines enumerate, in a scarcely satiricil 
form, the objects and results of a study o^BosUsrui' 
danism, in so far as it differs from that of alchemy 
and the occult sciences. The history of the 
Bosicrucians, — or rather the inquirv as to whether 
actually existed at any time such a college or 
brotherhood, and, if so, to what degree <2* an- 
tiquity can it lay claim, — forms another and, per- 
haps, somewhat more profitable subject of atten- 
tion. This question, however, having been fullj 
discussed elsewhere, I will conclude bv a catalofwe 
raisonne of such books and essays (tiie most un- 
portant of which are readily obtainable) as wiH 
enable your correspondent to acquire for himself 
the information he seeks. 

Allgemeine und Genend Refimnation der 
weiten Welt, beneben der Fama Fratemitatis, oder 
Enstehung der Briiderschaft des loblichen Ordens des 
Roaenkreutzesj &c. 8vo. Cassel, 1614. [Ascribed to 
John Valentine Andrea. la this pamphlet occurs tba 
frst mention of the society ; no allusion being made to 
it in the works of Bacon, Paracelsus, Agrippa, &c. It 
was republished at Frankfort in 1617 under a some- 
what different title. Appended to it is a tract en- 
titled " Sendbrieff, oder Bericlit an Alle welche von 
den neuen Briiderscbaflfl des Ordens von itosen-Creittr 
genannt etwas gelesen,'* &e. This work eontaioa a fafl 
account of the origin and tenets of the hrotheflMO^ 

JuLT Sa 1853.] 



and is the source whence modern writers have drawn 
their information. It called into existence a host of 
pamphlets for and against the very existence and tenets 
of the society.] 

Histoire de la Philosophie Hermetique, accom- 
pagnee d'un Catalogue raisonn^ des Ecrivains de cette 
Science, par I'Abbe Lenglet du Fresnoy. 3 vols. 12mo. 
Paris, 1742. 

Theomagia, or the Temple of Wisdom, containing 
the Occult Powers of the Angels of Astromancy in 
the Telesmatlcal Sculpture of the Persians and jEgyp- 
tians ; the knowledge of the Rosie- Crucian Physick, 
and the Miraculous in Nature, &c., by John Heydon. 
8vo. 1664. [The works of this enthusiast are ex- 
tremely curious and rare. He is also the author of 
the following.] 

The Wiseman's Crowne, or the Glory of the Rosie- 
CrosSf &c. ; with the Regio Lucis, and Holy House- 
hold of jRo5i«- Crucian Philosophers. 8vo. 1664, 

Elhavarevna, or the English Physitian's Tutor in 
the Astrabolismes of Mettals RosiC' Crucian^ Mira- 
culous Sapphiric Medicines of the Sun and Moon, &c., 
all Harmoniously United, and Operated by Astro- 
mancy and Geomancy, in so Easie a Method that a 
Fine Lady may practise and compleat Incredible, 
Extraordinary Telesmes (and read her Gallant's de- 
vices without disturbing her fancy), and cure all 
Diseases in Yong and Old, whereunto is added Pson- 
thonphancia, &c. 8vo. 1665. 

Dictionnaire Infernal ; ou Repertoire des Etres, 
Apparitions de la Magique, des Sciences occultes, 
Impostures, &c., par Collin de Pladcy. Svo. Paris, 

To render this list more complete, a great num- 
ber may be added, the titles of which will be found 
in the following essays, from which much inform- 
ation on the subject will be gained : — 

New Curiosities of Literature. By George Soane, 
B. A. 2 vols. Svo. London, 1849. [In vol. ii. p. 135. 
is an able and interesting essay entitled " Rosicrucian- 
ism and Freemasonry" in which the author, with 
considerable success, endeavours to show that Rosi- 
crucianism had no existence before the sixteenth 
century, and is a mere elaboration of Paracelsian 
doctrines : and that Freemasonry is nothing more than 
an offspring from it, and has, consequently, no claim 
to the antiquity of which it boasts.] 

Swift's Tale of a Tub. [In Section X. of this won- 
derful book will be found a caustic piece of satir« on 
the futility of the Rosicrucian philosophy.] 

Butler's Hudibras. [Gray's notes to part I., 

Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions. By 
Charles Mackay, LL.D. 2 vols. Svo. [In the section 
devoted to the AlchymistSy is a carefully compiled 
account of the Rosier ncians.'] 

Chambers's Papers for the People, No. 33., vol. v., 
** Secret Societies of the Middle Ages." 

Idem, No. 66.^ " Alchemy and the Alchemists.*' 

The Guardian, No. 166. 

The SpecUtor, No. 574^ 

Idem, No. 379. [This number contains Budgell's 
L^emi of ike Sqtukhre of Mosieruciut,'} 

The Rosicrucian : a Novel. 3 vols. Svo. ;, 
Zanoni. By Sir E. L. Bulwer. 

After the slumber of a century, with new ob- 
jects and regulations, Rosicrucianism (so to 
speak) was revived in the country of its birth. 

A very curious volume was published fifty years 
s^o, entitled Proofs of a Conspiracy against all 
the Religions and Governments of Europe^ carried 
on in the secret meetings of Freemasons^ lUuminaOf 
and Reading Societies, by John Kobinson, A.M., 
&C., 8vo,, London, 1798. This volume is chiefly 
occupied by a history of the origin, proceedings, 
and objects of the lUuminati^ a sect which had 
rendered important services to revolutionary in- 
terests, and laid the foundations of European 
propagandism. Much curious matter relative to 
this sect will also be found in George Sand's 
Comtesse de Rudolstadt, vol. ii. ; upon, or just 
before, its extinction, a new political association 
was formed at Baden and Carlsruhe, under the 
auspices of Baron von Edelsheim, prime minister 
of the Elector, under the title of Die Rosenkrietzer, 
This society was called into existence by a re- 
actionary dread of that republicanism in politics, 
and atheism in morals, which seemed at that time 
to prey upon the vitals of European society. The 
society soon spread, and had its affiliations in 
various parts^ of Germany, giving such uneasiness 
to Buonaparte, to the accomplishment of whose 
projects it exercised an adverse influence, that he 
despatched a secret messenger for the purpose of 
obtaining information as to its projects and de- 
velopments. He did everything in his power to 
destroy the association, which, however, survived, 
until his murder of Palm, the bookseller, for pub- 
lishing the Geist der Zeit, seeming to call for a 
new and modified association, led to its extinction, 
and the creation of a new secret society, the cele* 
brated Tungen-Bund, in its place. 

It will be seen that in the foregoing I have 
confined myself to that part of your correspon- 
dent's Query which relates to " the Brethren of 
the Rosy-Cross." I have not ventured to allude 
to the Alchymists, or the writings of Paracelsus, 
his predecessors and follow ei*s, which form a 
library, and demand a catalogue for their mere 
enumeration. If Me. E. S..Tatlob, however, is 
desirous of farther information, and will favour 
me with his address, I shall be happy to assist his 
researches in Hermetic philosophy to the extent 
of my ability, William Bates. 


The Society of Rosicrucians, or Rosecroix (whom 
Collier calls a sect of mountebanks), first started 
into existence in Germany in the seventeenth 
century. They laid claim to the possession of 
divers secrets, amonc^ which the philosopher's 
stone was the least. They never dared to appear 
publicly, and styled themselves The Invisible. 



[No. 19t 

In 1622 they put forth the following advertise- 

** We, deputed by our College, the principal of the 
brethren of the Rosicrucians, to make our visible and 
invisible abode in this city, through the grace of the 
Most High ; towards whom are turned the hearts of 
the just : we teach without books or notes, and speak 
the languages of the countries wherever we are, to draw 
men like ourselves from the error of death.*' 

The Illuminati of Spain were a branch of this 
sect. In 1615 one John Bringeret printed a work 
in Germany containing two treatises, entitled The 
Manifesto and Confession of Faith of the Fraternity 
of the Rosicrucians in Oermany. H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 


(Vol. vi., p. 554. ; Vol. vii., p. 633.) 

My note-book contains a considerable number 
of inscriptions on bells ; some extracted from 
books, but others transcribed from the bells them- 
selves. I send you a few of the most remarkable 
inscriptions,* with one or two notes on the subject. 

Chesterton, Cambridgeshire : 

1. "God save the Church." 

2. ** Non sono animabus mortuorum, sed viventium.*' 

S. Benet*s, Cambridge (see Le-Keux' Memo* 
rials) : 

1. ** Of all the bels in Bennet, I am the best, 

And yet for my casting the parish paid lest. 


2. ** Non noraen fero ficti, 

Sed nomen Benedict!. 1610.** 

S. " This bell was broke, and cast againe, 

by John Draper, in 1618, 

as plainly doth appeare : 

Churchwardens were, 

Edward Dixon, 

for one, 

who stood close to his tacklyn, 

and he that was his partner then, 

was Alexander Jacklyn.** 

Girton, Cambridgeshire : 

'* Non clamor sed amor cantat in aure Dei.** 

l^toneleigh, Warwickshire : 

1. ** Michaele te pulsante Winchelcombe a petente 

diemone te libera. 
S. ** O Kenelme nos defende ne maligni sentiamus 


Eastry, Kent : 

** One bell inscribed with the names of the church- 
wardens and the maker; a shilling of William III., 
and other coins are let into the rim.** 

Erith, Kent : 

** A tablet in the belfry commemorates the ringing 
of a peal of 726 changes in twenty-six minutes.'* 

S. Clement, Sandwich, Kent : 

** In the ringing chamber of this noble tower is t 
windlass for lowering the bells in case of repairs be- 
coming necessary, with a trap-door in the floor open- 
ing into the church.** 

S. Mary, Sandwich, Kent : 

** This bel was bought and steeple built, a.d. 171S. 
J. Bradley, R. Harvey, Cb. wardens. R. P. F." 

S. Andrew, Histon, Camb. : 

** Coins of Queen Anne in the rim of one bell ; but 
dated 1723.** 

S. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster (Weever, 
Ftm. Mon., p. 491., edit. fol. 1631) : 

** King Edward the Third built in the little sane- 
tuarie a clochard of stone and timber, and placed therein 
three bells, for the vse of Saint Stephen's Cbappel 
About the biggest bell was engrauen, or cast in the 
metall, these words : 

' King Edward made mee thirtie thousand weight 
and three : 
Take mee downe and wey mee, and more you sbsU 
fynd mee.* 

But these bells being to be taken downe, in the raigne 
of King Henry the Eight, one writes Tndemeath with 
a coal : 

* But Henry the Eight will bait me of my weight*" 

If any farther extracts may interest you, the/ 
are very much at your service. 

W. Spabbow Simpson, B.A. 



(Vol. viii., p. 6.) 

Mb. Wabben will find this question dlscossed 
by La Perouse (English 8vo. edit., vol. ii. ch. 6.)t 
who concludes unhesitatingly that the Sandwidi 
group is identical with a cluster of islands dis- 
covered by the Spanish navigator Ghietan in 1542, 
and by him named *' The Kmg*8 Islands.** These 
the Si)aniard placed in the tenth, although tiie 
Sandwich Islands are near the twentieth, degree 
of north latitude, which La Perouse believed wss 
a mere clerical error. The difference in longi- 
tude, sixteen or seventeen degrees, he ascribed 
to the imperfect means of determination possessed 
by the early navigators, and to their ignorance of 
the currents of the Pacific. 

Allowing for the mistake in latitude, the Kjn|fs 
Islands are evidently the same as those found on 
some old charts, about the nineteenth and twen- 
tieth degrees of north latitude, under the names 
of La Mesa^ Los Mayos^ and La Disgraeiada; 
which Capt. Dixon, as well as La Perouse, soiigfat 
for in vain in the longitude assigned to them. 
They appear to have been introduced into the 

July 30. 1853.] 



English and French charts from that found in the 
galleon taken by Commodore Anson, and of which 
a copy is given in the account of his voyage. 
Cook, or Lieutenant Roberts, the compiler of ue 
charts to his third voyage, retained them; and 
La Ferouse was the first to erase them from the 
map. There can, indeed, be little doubt of their 
identity with the Sandwich Lslands. But although 
Cook was not actually the first European who had 
visited those islands, to him rightly belongs all the 
glory of their discovery. Forgotten by the Spa- 
niards, misplaced on the chart a thousand miles 
too far to the eastward, and unapproached for 
240 years, their existence utterly unknown and 
unsuspected. Cook was, to all intents and pur- 
poses, their real discoverer. C. E. Baoot. 



(Vol. vii., p. 590.) 

Ts not the cast of a skeleton in the British Mu- 
seum, recently alluded to by A Foreign Surgeon, 
and which is labelled Megatherium Americanum 
Blume., better known to English naturalists by its 
more correct designation of Mylodon rohustus 
Owen ; and if so, why is the proper appellation 
not painted on the label ? If that had been done, 
A Foreign Surgeon would not have fallen into 
the error of confounding the remains of two dis- 
tinctly different animals. 

Might I beg leave to add, for the information of 
your correspondent, that no British naturalist " of 
any mark or likelihood," has ever assumed that 
(though undoubtedly sloths) either the Myhdon^ 
Scelidotherium^ or Megatherium^ were climbers. 
Indeed, the whole osseous structure of those 
animals proves that they were formed to uprend 
the trees that gave them sustenance. By no other 
hypothesis can we intelligibly account for the im- 
mense expanse of pelvis, the great bulk of hind- 
legs, the solid tail, the massive anterior limbs 
furnished with such powerful claws, and the ex- 
traordinary large spinal chord — all these the 
characteristic features of the Mylodon. 

Whether there were palms or not at the period 
of the telluric formation, I cannot undertake to 
say ; but as A Foreign Surgeon assumes that a 
palm is an exogenous tree (!), I am induced to 
suspect that his acquaintance with geology may be 
equally as limited as his knowledge of botany. 
Besides, what can he mean by speakmg of a sloth 
*' the size of a large bear ? " W hy, the Mylodon 
must have been larger than a rhinoceros or hippo- 
potamus. The veriest tyro in natural history 
would see that at the first glance of the massive 

It is a painful and ungracious task to have to 
pen these obseryations, especially, toO| in the case 

of a stranger. But " N. & Q." must not be made a 
channel for erroneous statements, and we '* natives 
and to the manner born** must be allowed to know 
best what is in our own museums. 




Stereoscopic Angles, — Like many of your cor- 
respondents, I have been an inquirer on the sub- 
ject of stereoscopic angles, which seems to be still 
a problem for solution. What is this problem ? 
for until that be known, we cannot hope for a 
solution. I would ask, is it this? — Stereoscopic 
pictures should create in the mind precisely such a 
conception as the two eyes would if viewing the ob" 
ject represented hy the stereograph. If this be the 
problem (and I cannot conceive otherwise), its 
solution is simple enough, as it consists in placing 
the cameras invariably 2 j- inches apart, on a line 
parallel to the building, or a plane passing through 
such a figure as a statue, &c. In this mode of 
treatment we should have two pictures possessing 
like stereosity with those on the retinas, and con- 
sequently with like result ; and as our eyes enable 
us to conceive perfectly of any solid figure, so 
would the stereograph. I believe, therefore, that 
this is, under every circumstance, the correct 
treatment ; simply because every other mode may 
be proved to be false to nature. 

Professor Wheatstone recommends 1 in 25 when 
objects are more than 50 feet distant, and this 
rule seems to be pretty generally followed. Its 
incorrectness admits of easy demonstration. Sup- 
pose a wall 300 feet in extent, with abutments, 
each two feet in front, and projecting two feet 
from the wall, at intervals of five feet. The 
proper distance from the observer ought to be 
450 feet, which, agreeably with this rule, would 
require a space of 18 feet between the cameras. 
Under this treatment the result would be, that 
both of the sides^ as well as the fronts^ of the three 
central abutments would be seen ; whilst of all 
the rest, only the front and one side would be 
visible. This would be outraging nature, and 
false, and therefore should, I believe, be rejected. 
The eyes of an observer situated midway between 
the cameras, could not possibly perceive either of 
the sides of the buttress opposite to him, and only 
the side next to him of the rest. This seems to 
me conclusive. 

Again, your correspondent *. (Vol. vii., 
p. 16.) says, that for portrait's he finds 1 in 10 a 
good rule. Let the sitter hold, straight from the 
front, t. e, in the centre, a box 2^ inches in width. 
The result would be, that in the stereographs the 
box would have both its sides represented, and 
the front, instead of being horizontal, consisting 
of two inclined lines, t. e. unless the cameras were 



[No. 196. 

I^aoed on one line, wken it would be horizontal. 
In such treatment the departure from both is as 
great as in the first example, and the outrage 
greater, inasmuch as, under these circumBtances 
(I mean a boy with a box), to any person of 
common sense, the caricature would be at a glance 
obvious. This rule, then, although it produces 
stereosity enough, being false, should also be re- 

I believe that 2^ inches will be found to be 
right under any circumstance ; but should suffi- 
cient reasons be offered for a better rule, I trust I 
am open to conviction, and shall hail with great 
pleasure a demonstration of its correctness. 

Should it, however, turn out that I have given 
a right definition, and a correct solution of this 
most interesting problem, I shall rejoice to know 
that I have rendered an essential service to a 
great number of anxious students in photography. 

T. L. MEBBrrr. 


"* Yellow Bottles for Photographic Chemicals. — 
The proposal of your correspondent Geridwen to 
employ yellow glass bottles for preventing the de- 
composition of photographic solutions has been 
anticipated. It was suggested by me, in some 
lectures on Photography in November 1847, and 
in January of the present year, that yellow bottles 
might be so used, as well as for preventing the 
decomposition, by light, of the vegetable sub- 
stances used in pharmacy, such as digitalis, ipe- 
cacuanha, cinchona, &c. For solutions of silver, 
however, the most effectual remedy against pre- 
cipitation is the use of very pure water, procured 
by slow redistillation in glass vessels at a tempe- 
rature much below the boiling point. 

Hugh Owen. 

3Sitpliei to §^inav ^ntvit€. 

Earth upon Earthy SfC. — ^I think the information 
which has been elicited in connexion with the so- 
called " Unpublished Epigram by Sir W. Scott," 
"N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 498., sufficiently curious 
to justify an additional reference to the senti- 
laent in question ; the more so as I have to men- 
tion the name of its putative author. In Mont- 
gomery's Christian Poet, 3rd edit. p. 58., he gives, 
imder the title of " Earth upon Earth," five verses, 
which it would appear are substantially the same 
as those published by Weaver (whose Funeral 
Monuments, his only publication, I have not within 
reach), but they exhibit considerable verbal dif- 
ference in the verses corresponding with those 
cited in " N. & Q," Vol. vii., p. 576. Montgo- 
uery tells us in a note that this extract, given 
under the name of William Billyng, along with 
aiwther from a poem entitled "' The Five Wounds 

of Christ," by the same author, were froaa **• 
manuscript on parchment of great aDiiquity, in 
possession of William Bateman, Esq.," of whidt 
a few copies had been printed at Manchester, aad 
^* accompanied by rude but exceedingly curtouB 
cuts." Now who was AVilliam BiUyng? AjA 
whan did he live? Montgomery saya ^^theagei 
of this author is well known." The death of tke 
Archbishop of Canterbury, to whom Wearer 
(Fun. Mon. 1631) applies the^ratfbrd epigrapli, 

'sMS. int 

is temp. Edward III. Is Mr. Bateman' 
hand indicating so early a date ? 


Picali^y (Vol. viii., p. 8.). — In Bamabj Kidi's 
Honestie of this Age, p. 37. of the Percy Society 
reprint, we find this passage : 

" But be that some fortie or fifty yeares sitbens 
should haue asked afler a Pickadilly, I wonder who 
could haue understood him, or could haue told what a 
Pickadilly had beene, either fish or flesh.*' 

Little did the writer think that in future years 
the name would become a "household word;" 
though his prophecy as to the meaning of tiie 
word has been fulfilled by the appearance of tlie 
Query in the pages of " N. & Q." 

The editor of the work, Mr. Peter Cunningham, 
has a long note on the above passage ; and I am 
indebted to him for the following. 

" Ben Jonson ( }Forks by Gifford, viii. S70.) speaks 
of a picardill as a new cut of band much in fashion : 

* Ready to cast at one whose band stands still. 
And then leap mad on a neat picardilL* 

" But Middleton, The World tost at Tennis, 1620^ 
speaks of a pickadill in connexion with the shears, the 
needle, &c. of the tailor ; from which it appears to hate 
been an instrument used for plaiting the picked Van- 
dyke collar worn in those days. 

** Mr. GiSbrd, in a note on another passage in Ben 
Jonson, says : 

' Picardil is simply a diminutive o£pieca (Span, and 
Ita).), a spear-head ; and was given to this article of 
foppery from a fancied resemblance of its stiffimed 
plaits to tl}e bristled points of these weapons. Blonnt 
thinks, and apparently with justice, that PietuHUy took 
its name from the sale of the ' small stiff eoUars fo 
called,* which was first set on foot in a house noar the 
western [eastern] extremity of the present street by 
one Higgins, a tailor.* " 

The bands worn by the clergy and judges^ fte., 
at the present day, are lineal descendants of the 
old picadilSi reduced to a more sober cut ; and the 
picked ornament alluded to by your correspon- 
dent no doubt derived its name from its resem- 
blance in shape to these tokens of ancient fashion. 

XX. O. K* 

— Rectory, Hereford. 

Mr. Justice Newton (Vol. vii., pp. 52S. 600l ^ 
Vol. viii., p. 16.). — I did not answ^ Mb. F. 
KTrrxN Lenthall's first Qnery^ because it wii 

July 30. 1853.] 



palpable, from the context, that the ** Mr. Justice 
Newton" he inquired after could not possibly be 
the Chief Justice who flourished in im fifteenth 
century; and because I am not aware of any 
judge of the superior courts of that name, during 
the time of the Commonwealth, or the years which 
immediately preceded or followed that period. 
Indeed, his designation as " Mr. Justice Newton, 
of the Middle Temple,'" plainly proves that he 
could not have been a judge upon the Bench at 
Westminster. He may perhaps have been a Welsh 
judge; or, remembering that "JVIr. Justice'* was 
the common title for a Justice of the Peace, it is 
still more probable that he was merely a magis- 
trate of the county in which he resided. 

EnwABD Foss. 

Manners of the Irish (Vol. viii., p. 5.). — In the 
very curious extract given by your correspondent 
H., hoyranne is very likely to stand for horhhan, 
the Irish for " lamentation " or " complaint." An 
Irish landlord knows full well that, even up to the 
present day, his tenants "keep the bread, and 
make horbhan,^ Molchan, I suspect, comes from 
miolcy whey. Loccdran stands for loisgrean, corn 
turned out of the ear. As to the concluding line 
of the extract, I must leave it to some better Irish 
scholar than I can boast myself. 

" I am the geyest mayed of all that brought the somer 

plainly has reference to the old practice, still pre- 
valent in some parts of Ireland on May-day, when 
young girls carry about a figure dressed as a baby, 
singing the Irish song, ru5An7A|i ifhrt) ^n fATT)fiA 

lli)P, "We have brought the summer with us" 
(See Transactions of the Kilkenny Archtsological 
Society), JJUagh {JJltojch) is Irish for an Ulster 
man, as H. will see by consulting any Irish dic- 
tionary, and can have no connexion with Utlagb, 
the Kilkenny money-lender. UgteUer is of course 
f^ misprint for Kyteller, Would that H. would 
give us his real name and address, or at least allow 
me to ask whether H. F. H. do not constitute his 
initials in full. James Graves. 


Arms of the See of York (Vol. viii., p. 34.). — 
I was about to send a note to " N. & Q., pointing 
out that Mr. Knight, in his heraldic illustrations 
to 2 Hen, /F., in his Pictorial Edition of Shah' 
spearey has given the modern bearings of the see 
of York to Archbishop Scroope, instead of those 
which belonged to that date, when I observed a 
Query from Tee Bee, asking the date and origin 
of the change of arms which took place. I am sorry 
that I am imable to give any authority for my state- 
ment, but I believe it to be not the less true, that 
the change in question took place when Cardinal 
Wobey came to the see. Nor can I give any 

farther reason fi3r that change than the not(M*ioa9 
jealousy of the Cardinal towards the superior 
rank of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Up to 
this period the arms of the two sees were precisely 
the same, though Tee Beb gives the number of 
crosses " patee fitchee " on the pall for difference ; 
I should be glad to know whether there is good 
authority for this statement. The present arms of 
the see evidently have reference to the dedication 
of the ancient cathedral church to St. Peter. 

Ha C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 

" Up, Guards, and at 'em!'' (Vol. r., p. 426.).-— 
These oft-quoted words have already engaged the 
attention of the readers of " N. & Q." Your fre- 
quent correspondent C. (Vol. v., p. 426.) is of 
opinion that the Duke did make use of these, or 
equivalent, words. The following extract I have 
copied from an article in the June number of 
BenUey's Miscellany, It will be found at p. 700. 
as a foot-note to a clever article, one of a series;, 
entitled "Bandom Recollections of Campaigns 
under the Duke of Wellington," written by an 
officer of the second brigade of Guards. 

" The expression attributed to the Duke of * Up, 
guards, and at them again 1 * I have good reason for 
kn»mng was never made use of by him. He was not 
even with the brigade of Guards in question at the time 
they rose from their recumbent position to attack the 
French column in their iront> and therefore could not 
well have thus addressed them. I never heard this 
story till long after, on my return to England, when it 
was related by a lady at a dinner-table ; probably it 
was the invention of some goodly Botherby. I re- 
member denying my belief at the time, and my view 
has since been sufficiently confirmed. Besides, the 
words bear no internal evidence of the style either of 
thought or even expression of him to whom they were 

The invention of the goodly Botherby has pros- 
pered ! CUTHBERT BeDE, B. A. 

Coleridge's Christahel-^The Srd Part (Vol. viii., 
pp. 11, 12.). — Mb. J. S. Warden asks if I am 
correct in stating the Srd part of Christahel to be 
the composition of Dr. Maginn. I can but ^^give 
my awthority''' in a reference to a sketch of 
Maginn's life, in a new and well-conducted peri- 
odical, The Irish Quarterly Review, which, in the 
number for September, 1852, after giving a most 
humorous account of a first interview betweea 
Blackwood and his wild Irish contributor, who 
had for more than a year been mystifying the 
editor by contributions under various signaturef, 
proceeds thus : — 

«* A few days before the first interview with Blaek- 
wood, Magtnn had sent in his famous * Third part of 
Christahel.* It is only to be found in the Magazine ; 
and as many of our readers must be unacquainted with 
Hm potoa, we here sub^join it." 



[No. 196. 

The poem follons, contBining the Uaes which led 
to the first inquirj on this subject. 

It nas hanng read the Memoir in Th« Iritk 
Qaarl^ly which eoabled me ho promptly to ra- 
member where the liQes were to be found ; but I 
had long before beard, and never doubted, that the 
clever parody waa composed by Dr. Maginn. 

A. B. R. 


MUigaiion of Capital Pumthment (Vol. viii., 
p. 42 ). — I am sorry Mb. Gattt takes the phrase 
" mythic accompaniments " as an imputation on 
himself. I did not intend it for one, having no 
doubt that he repeated the story na he heard it. 
In it were two atatementa of the highest degree of 
improbability. One I showed (Vof v., p. 434.) to 
be contrary to penal, the other to forenaic practice. 
One Ma. Gattt found to have been only a report, 
the other to have occurred at a different place and 
under different circumatancea. Had theae been 
stated in the first version, I should not have dis- 
puted them. Whittington was thrice Lord Mayor 
of London — that is history, to vfhich the pro- 
phecy (if Bow-bella and the exportation of the cat 
are "mythic accompaniments. 

A word as to " disclosing only initials." I think 
you, aa a means of authentifiuation, should have 
the name and address of every correspondent. 
You have mine, and may give them to any one 
who pars me the compliment of asking ; but I do 
not seek farther publicity. H. B. C. 


The Man with the Iron Mask (Vol. vii., pp. 234. 
344.). — I think that Mr. James, 'mhU Life and 
Times of Louit XIV^ has, to say the least, ahown 
strong grounds for doubting the theory which 
identifies this person with Mathioli ; and since 
then several writers have been inclined to fall 
back, in the want of any more probable explana- 
tion, on the old idea that the captive was a twin 
brother of Louis. What has become of the letter 
from M. de St. Mara, said to have been discovered 
Bome years ago, confirming this last hypothesis P 
Has any such letter been published, and, if so, 
vhat is the opinion of ita genuineness f 

J. S. Wasdbk. 

GetUUman executed for Murder of a Slave 
CVd. vii., p. 107.) — Sometime between 1800 and 
I80S, Lora Seaforth being Governor of Barbadoei, 
a slaveowner, having killed one of his own slaves, 
was tried for the murder and acquitted, the law 
considering that such an act was not murder. 
Thereupon Lord Seaforth came to England, ob- 
twnedan act of parliament declaring the killing of 
a slave to be murder, and returned to Barbadoea 
to resume his ofBcial duties. Soon allerwards 
another slave was killed by his owner, who was 
tried, convicted, and Kntenced to be hanged for 

murder under tbe new act of parliament. At the 
time appointed the prisoner was brought out for 
execution, but so strong was public feeling, that 
the ordinary executioner was not forthcoming; 
and on the governor requiring the sheriff to per- 
form his office either in peraon or by deputy, after 
some excuses he absolutely refused. The go- 
vernor then addressed the guard of soldiera, de- 
siring a volunteer for executioner, adding, " who- 
ever wonld volunteer should be subsequently 
protected aa well aa rewarded then." One pre- 
sented himself, and it thenceforth became aa dan- 
gerous to kill a slave as a freeman in Barbadoes. 
Jahn's Jahrbuch (Vol. viii., p. 34^. — Permit 
me to inform your correspondent E. C. that there 
is a copy of Jahn's JiihrbOcher fUr Fhilologie vtd 
Fadago^ in the library of Sir Robert Taylor's 
Institution, Oxford. Although this library is for 
the use of members of the university, I am sure 
the curators of the institution will give their per- 
mission to consult the hooka in it, to any gentle* 
man who is properly recommended to them. 

J. Mac BAT. 


Character of the Song of thx Nightingdie 
(Vol. vii., p. 397.). — I imagine that many of the 
writers quoted by your correspondent lived in 
places too far removed ia the north or west (as is 
my own case) ever to have heard the nightingale^ 
and are, in consequence, not competent authorities 
as to a song they can only have described at 
second hand ; but that Shelley was not far wrong 
in styling it voluptuous, and placing it amidst the 
luxurious bowers of Daphne, may receive some 
condrmation from an anecdote told by Nimrod 
(" Life and Times," Frater't Magazine., toL xxv. 
p. 30t.) of the sadefiects produced both on morals 
and parish rates by the visit of a nightingale one 
summer to the groves of Ertbig, near Wrexham. 
J. S. Waxdbs. 

I accidently met with a scrap of evidence on 
thb point lately, as I was driving at midnight on 
a sudden call to visit a dying man. The nightin- 
gales were singing in full choir, when my servant, 
an intelligent young man from the country, re- 
marked, " A cheerful little bird the nightingale. 
Sir. It is beautiful to hear them singing when one 
is walking alone on a dark night." 

Unaophiaticated judgment of this sort, when 
met witn unsought, seems to be of real value in a 
question depending for its decision so much upon 
the faithful record of impressions. Oxoxumsis. 


Mb. CnrHBBBT 'BanB gives, in his liat of 
epithets of the nightingale, "solemn," as used 
by Milton, Otway, Graingle. How the last two 
employ the term I do not knoW) perlu^ tbejr 

JuiT 30. I8S3.] SOTES Aire) QUERIES. 



[Na !»«• 

siniplj, their coats of aims Tarjing only in metal 
and colour : 

Aynisworthe. Gyves. 

Bainbrige. Gibbes. 

Batten. Hftll. 

Daueys. HakelcCt. 

Daverston. Lewston. 

Stephen Hoby Tthe earliest ancestor of the 
fiisham family of wnom any record is preserved), 

mRrried , the daughter and heiress of — 

Bylmore, whose arms were — Gu. three halberds 
(long-handled battle-axes) in pale ar. handled 
or. : hence, no doubt, the three battle-axes in con- 
nexion with the Hoby or Hobby name at Bisham 
Church. William Hoby, of Leominster, the tenth 
in descent from the above-mentioned Stephen, 
married Catherine, sole daughter and heiress of 
John Forden alias Fordaprne, hj Gwentwynar, 
daughter and heiress of Sir Griffith Vahan alias 
Vaughan, Knight Banneret; who was, as I am 
led to think, of Denbigh or its neighbourhood. 
I shall be happy to find I have thrown any light 
upon the Query of A. C. H. C. C. 

Sir O, Browne, Bart (Vol. vii,, p. 528.). — ^Your 
correspondent Newbubt is in error in styling this 
George Browne a baronet, nor was he of West 
Stafford or Wickhara. He was the sole son and 
heir of Sir George Browne, Knight, of Wickham- 
breux, co. Kent, Caversham, co. Oxford, and Cow- 
dray in Midhurst, co. Sussex ; which last estate 
devolved on this family by the will of William 
Fitzwilliam, Earl of Southampton, the son of Lucy 
(daughter and co-heiress of John Nevill, Marquess 
of Montagu) by her first husband. Sir Thomas 
Fitzwilliam of Aldwark, co. York ; which Lucy 
became the wife of Sir Anthony Browne, who was 
knighted at the battle of Stoke, June 6, 1487, 
and succeeded as above-mentioned to the Cowdray 

George Browne, who married Elizabeth or 
Eleanor, the daughter of Sir Richard Blount, was 
of Wickhambreux, Caversham, and also of West 
Shefford in co. Berks ; his name appears as thus 
in the Visitation of this county anno 1623. Of the 
nineteen children, he had three sons whose names 
are not given, and who died in the Royal cause 
during the civil wars : but as Richard, the third 
«on, is expressly mentioned, ho certainly was not 
one of the three killed in the service of King 
Charles I. Sir George Browne, second, but eldest 
surviving son, was made a K.B. at the coronation 
of King Charles IL ; and was celebrated by Pope 
in his " Windsor Forest." He married ElizabeUi, 
daughter of Sir Francis Englefield^ the second 
bai'onet of Wootton Bassett^ co. Wilts, and died 
3, p. m. George, the eldest born, died an infant. 
Henry, the fourth son, died unmarried March 19, 
1668, and was buried at West Shefford; and 
John, the fifth son, was of CAversham, and created 

a baronet May 19, 1665. He married tbe widow 
of —— Bradley, and was the ancestor of the 
baronet! of Caversham, extinct in 1774. Three 
daughters, whose names are not ^iven, became 
nuns. Eleanor, another daughter, died unnuurried, 
Nov. 27, 1662, and was buried at West Shefibrd: 
and Elizabeth was the wife of John Yate of West 
Hanney, co. Berks ; and who died Jan. 26, 1671, 
before his wife. H. C. C 



MBMOtitf OF TffV Ron, by Mr. John Holland. 1 Vol. 12mo. 18H 

LiTKItARY GaKBTTI, 1834 to 1846. 

Athbnjkum, commencement to 1835. 

A Narrativb op thb Holy Lipb and Happy Dbatb op Kft. 

John Anoibr. London, 1665. 
Moorb'i Mblodibs. 15th Edition. 

Wood's AiUBNiB Oxonibnhbi (ed. Bllff). 4 toIi. 4to. 1618-flO. ' 
Thb CoMPLAYNTi OP Scotland. 8ro. Edited by Leyden. 1804. 
Shakbpbarb*! Playh. Vol. V. of Johnion and Steeveni*! Bdltkw, 

in 15 voli. 8vo. 1739. 

%* CorretpondenU tending Lfstt qf Bookt Wanted are rtfuetUd 

to tend their namet, 

%* LettMTf , ftatlng partlcuUrt and loweit prle«, earrfage ftttt 
to be Mnt to Mr. Bbll, Publisher of ** NOTKa AM0 
QUBRIKS," 186. Fleet Street. 

imWtti ta Correiirpaiiirdttir. 

7ft conteiiiunce qf being compelled to go to prett with the prmnt 
Ifwnber on Thurtday^ and qf the number qf Rbplibb to MiNOl 
QuBRiBS watting f»r intertion, ute have been con^fteUed to omit om 
NoTM ON Booai, &0. 

T. M. B. The qft-quoted linet — 

** So down thy hill, romantic Aahbourn, Rlidof, 
The Derby dilly, carrying Thkeb insides," ftc.— 

wtiO be found in the Poetry of the Antijncobin, at the Ooto of the 
Second Part qf The Lovei of the Triangles. 

J. D. Where it the tentence qf which you atk an eaplanaiicn # 
be found t Send the context^ or farther particutart. 

C. E. F. and T. D. (Leeds). Your inquiry at to the bett 
qf conttructing a glatt chamber for photographic purpotet wilt be 
ontwered in our next. 

Mr. John Cook hnt tent ut a plan for taking cheaper pietttret 
for ttereoteopic purpotet by meant qf m common camera^ and the 
tubttitutionfor the ordinary ground glatt qf a piece qf plate glmte 
and a piece qf paper, on whtch the outline qf the figure te to be 
traced. When one iketch it thut made, the camera it to be mooe4 
fifteen or tixteen inchct to the right or Uft, and a tecond drmotng 
made in the tame tray. The plan it a very obviout one ; mm 
though adapted for thote who can draw and have an ^or dit t mf 
camera, it pretenttfew advantaget to photographer t. 

H. H. H. (Ashburton). Were we to recommend pou to any 
particular maker for your collodion tent, we thould deviate from 
our rule qf impartiality where teverat vendort are concerned, ami 
we would thertfore refer you to our advertiting columnt. 

W. y. (Kingston). We are torry we cannot affbrd tpaeefbr 
antwering all your Quetiet on the making qfgun cotton. A portion 
made according to Dr. Diamond 't formulary hat been forwarded 
to your addrett ; and if it it not entirely toluble, then the fault ie 
in your ether. 

A few complete tett qf" Notrs and Qubribb,** Vols. I. fo yH.. 
price Three Guineat and a Half, may now be had ; for wMek 
early application it detirable. 

** NoTii AND Qubribb " it puhUthed at noon on Friday, to that 
the Country Sooktellert may receive Copiet in that night*t pareett, 
tmd 4tltoer them tetkeirSmbiertbenom Ike 8titur4a§, 

July 30. 1853.] NOTES AND QUEEIEa 115 


DU BAIlir > C0.« HEiLTH-EESTOR. ^J^Jl^L ^Sirtl^I*!f{l^A*tc'"l •■ PiUUAMEST grilBBT, LONDON. 

mo FOOD tor INVAUDS ud EWiireS. mi^rW«o-l BOND t LONG Jo^'FlKt Founded A.D. isa. 

THB BKTALENXA ASIBICA FOOD, ta^eZ*""" Pl»"i»r^*7 In ill tli i«-i~n Ei^""'t^w 

tbe obTv mtDrml. nlEulnt. And fiffeetani »- CKU>rn4pllBffneTT«ityr#,uid Glui^cturei T- 8- Ct»GkB»Jim.E:»^ J. Hunt. F^m, 

B„ptkmrfa«.kln,A«n..llB..I«.t.drapm. P "J^iiDiON MMe8S%irihTliri=« Wjr.™.,— William W=b!B..l,™,M.I>. 

ilckDEMUlbe rtoIOMh ilurlnj preenoncr, «l lnipn)«iMnU;C«lot7pfcD»ii«™o™.SM- Bmken. -Hem, Cook.. Biddolph, »BdCo., 

■E>,uidiiMn>UMIi«cirGDm»u»»,dabUitr i?i£«i)lc. and Mliiiwi£«te ncl«<>"(le^ OuuIde Cish. 

ta lbs .Jtd mi «lt u lofiioU, fit". "H"™". 31Si<S'^'^S!id''pfcnii« 'to 5™1aS(^ „ TALTTABI,! 

«ni<..«n]nU.*<!. .- Tirfc, |,. in wnmtt, mA II, ftl. elotli. fOLlcifa rttcttd 

« Bl Port f« IftJ. come wlj. Umiutk Mi 

1 : CLARK, U.WirwLcfc Lm 

IhbinnFliGC. BAKBB, »t. 

Sfa'te^aJiS^KlS.^'^'^"' T * LUMIEREi French Photo- i."^ 

"Cnft, No. t9«B-— "Fins' ysKi' Icdowrib- «i"" ""ill "H Iho* prtnrt™! PhoWenmhlc -*■• 

tWt»!<myfVon:it».pei«ltiier»oii>ncB.iiilhiii«. Sj^ | S'[ dCnm' k «"' ' *ti'' " - 

*■"•■" PnbliihBltTm BATUBDAT Bl PASIS, 

Cii».No. IBOi-" T-mlJ-nvf Tf on' nnroni- "■ """ "' " ^"■"■ 

nan, nnifliwtbw, tndEfJitiou, uid debflltr- Termi, IGJ. per nourn In idvann. All 

from vhlA 1 hul tuffEifd eieit mliery.Hid English Subsi^ricltona and {^mDnlCftlloTU to 

Aalhoiif > TlTerhm." ~^ ' " ' '^^^ 

Cim,»ii.ij«._''BWil T»«- drwvli, PHOTOGRAPHY, — HORNE 

aerTDiiiiiu«,de1iLU^,viU0wnH,nuini,u]d F * C0,'3 lodlnd Collodion, fbr obtalnlnr 

thtndVica of muirybnw bKB oAcnHllr it- thrte (o thirty mofidi, BooordiDf lo llffhl. 

fdiortt1tl& lihiiUbahuprtobiivorHyiii- Portrait! jAttined to Iho atort foe doMoaer 

qnlria-^ni'' John w v.x.»,. BldUoEtoa ^ detail rival ITie ohotoert DoflUerreDtTpGi, 

£«etory,NAftdk.*' ■pedmrrtg of vhieh Eoay b« teen at their £ita- 

"" deinHnHcm of ApparatDi. Che- ^____*__ _ _ _ ^_^ ,^^^^_^ 

0. EKj In tbii bf^tifui An— oamaK&i ^^pa orrius, 

iHilteCw*nklH.TWtinluBiCunitBoad. ASDiiu7MBet«(.«ihe|iR!nlonHT(14 

^^^__^__^_^_^_^_^^^^^^^_^^___^_ WM added to tne poUcjea at laat DlTidoa of 

eOected before SOtli June, Un3, will piirUclpaU. 

Ua. SbXKnSTmm otlnr^n^nnailon. may In Umlned at Ihc 

Own 1 Hadna k Bi SeoretarritlheChlef 6aoe,oioi>>ppl>ea^ 

StUnFhalliW U any oflhe SochSr*' Amiti in tba coonttj. 
■■< BilUdlitiUden T Q r NEIBON Aclnaiy. 

HaK^bT^ldm '^- 1""^"-*' amOEB. Starttrr. 


0t- Hut, IiUnfton, kt No. I 

Piriih or il. Dnutu la 





M WII9B Diiiadf mttli« m ■•«• •€•" «— CArtAiK Cvmn* 

No. 197.] 

Satuhday, August fl. 1863. 

C Price Fo«rpmic§. 
( Stamped Kdltion, §it 

19otM I — 

lUgh tlhiiteh ntn\ hrnn Chitfch - - • - 

C(Y(ie1iit1ht(t No»ei «ti sev«>r<tl tnliunderBtriod Wordi, by 

tlie Ret. W. H. Arrow«Tnlth - . - - 

fineeMlnit nn (Imen end n DpHy, by T. 3. Biicktoii 
Abttdet of Mftckrtpy Confihei . _ - - 

ShnkHppere irresponelence, by C. Miuiifleld In^teby, 

Thomni Felooner, Ac. - - - - - 

MtNOR NotRsit — Ffllnlflpd Ofrtre«totie In Stretfbfd 
Churehyard - nnrnflclei In the filver Th«me§ — Note 
for tiondnri Tnpographerti — The Alleiei «nd tnithitf 
or Authors— Pure -~ Darltng't " Cyclopedia Bibllo. 
graphica" • - - • • - - 184 






DttKtillti t — 

Delft ManuraHure, by 0. Morgan 

- 180 

Mmoa Qttfhfet t — The Withered Hand and Motto 
" UHnam " — lllfitory nf York — " Hauling over the 
coali"— Dr. llutler nod ftt. Kdmiind'i flury — Waih- 
Ington— Nortiiifi of WInster— Sir Arthtir Alton — 
•' Jrtmlf«on the PIppr "— " Reiser (Homer " - Tletk'i 
'•Comtedlft Dlvltm "—Fossil Trees between Cairo and 
Rup« 1 Strenm Ilk" that In Bar of Argastoll — Presby- 
lef Inn TitU'S— Mnimrs and RherKh — The Beauty of 
Buttermere — Sheer Hulk -The Lapwing or Peewitt 
fVMnellus crlstntus) — " Could we with Ink," Ac — 
Laimciilng Query ■-. Manliness • - *• 

MiNON QiikwiBS WITH AwswfittS! — Pues or 
•• Jerningham •' and ♦' Doteton " 

^f fSCfeLLANKOfa : — 

Notes on Books, Ac. 

Book* and Odd Volumes wanted 

Notices to Correspondents 


. 185 


- 187 

flattie of Vniers en Courhe, by T. C. Smith, Ac. - 187 
Rnall-eating, liy .tohn Tlmbs, Ac. - - -188 

losfrlptlon near Cirencester, by P. M. Fisher, Ac, - 189 
Curlou* Custom of rinfting Bells for the Dead, by the 

Hev. 11. T. Rllacomhe and M. W. RIHot - - 130 

"Who first thought of Table-turning ? by John Macray lal 

•Scotchmen In Poland - - - - - 181 

Anticipatory Use of the Cross, by Gden Warwick - 188 

l»MotooasFMio CoRHtsrofitiUHcif » — Olais Chambert 
ftir Photoaraphtr — Dr. Diamond's Bepilei — Trial of 
],i>nse«— la it dangerous to use the Ammonlo^Nltrate 
of Sliver? 188 

IDtrMBs TO MiHoa Ot'iRtKi ! — Burke's Marriage — 
The House of Falahill- Descendants of Judas IscaHot 

— Milton's Wldow—Whltaker's Ingenlotis Fart— Are 
White Cats d af? _ Consecrated Hoses — The He- 
fonned Frtilh—lbiuse-tnaiks - Trash — Adamsnniana 

— Portrait of Crnmwell - Btirke's " Mighty Bnar of 
the Forest "— " Anientlum baud Atnintlum *•— Talley. 
rmid'a Maalm — FngiUh Blsliops deprlted liy Queen 
Kticalieth— Cloves at Fairs— St. Domloic— Names of 
Pliutts— Specimens of Foreign Fnglish, Ac. - • 184 

. 188 

. 188 

- 188 

. 139 

Vol. Vllt No. 107. 


tttOtt C»UltCll AND LOW Ottt71ICtf. 

A Univermt Hintory of Party ; with the Origin 
qf Party Names* would form an acceptable addi- 
tioti to liternrjr history : *' N. & Q.'* has contributed 
towards such a work some disquisitions on our 
party names Whig and Tory^ and The Oood Old 
Cau«e» Such names as Puritan^ Malignant^ Evan** 
gelical-ff can be traced up to their first oommenoe* 
mentf but some obscurity hangs on the mintage* 
date of the names we are about to consider. 

As a matter of fact, the distinction of High 
Church and Low Church always existed in tuo 
lleformed Engliflli Churchy and the history of these 
parties would be her history. But the ttames were 
not coined till the close of the seventeenth oen« 
tury, and were not stamped in full relief as party- 
names till the first year of Queen Anne^s reign. 

In October, 1702. Anne's first Parliament and 
Convocation assembled : 

** From the deputes in Conirooation at this period* 
the AppellfltionA MipH Chureh and Low Church originated* 
And they were afterwards awA tu dlstinguiah the clergy. 
It is singular that the bishops | were ranked among 

• There is a book called Wttory of Pitrty^ fVom the 
Wm of the Whiy and Tary Facthm Chat. IL to the 
t*a»»tny qf the Hefbrm Bill^ by G. W. Cooke : Lond. 
tS36-57, B vols. 8yo. } but, as the title shows, it Is 
litnited In scope. 

f See tiaweis's Sermnna on tSnangeflcal PHHctptef 
and Praetke : Lond. 17G9, 8vo. j T/ieTrue Churchmen 
atvcrtaincd / or, An Apology Jhr tho$c of the Ilegular 
Clergy of the ketabtinhmentf who are Bometimes called 
Evangefical MinUten: occaeioned by the PnblicattoHt 
of Lfr», Mey, Hey^ Croft ; Meiers, Daubeny^ Ludtam^ 
Polwhete^ P'eJlowee t the Itevlewert, ^c. t by John Over- 
ton, A.B., York, 1809, 8vo., 2nd edit. See also the 
various memoirs of Wlillfleld, Wesley, ftc. ) and Sir 
J. Stepheti's Esenys on *' The Clapham Sect " and «• The 
Evangelical Succession." 

I It is not so very " singular," when we remember 
that the bishops were what Lord Campbell and Mr. 
Macaulay call '* judiciously chosen" by William. On 
this point a cotemporary remarks, " Some steps have 
been made, and large ones too, towards d Smtth re* 
formation, by suspending and ejecting the chief and 
most sealous of our bishops, and others of the higher 



£No. 197. 

the Low Churchmen (see Burnet, ▼. 138. ; Calamy, 
i. 643. ; Tindal's Con/.,iv. 591.)"— Lall^bury's Hiit,of 
the Convocation, Lond. 1842, p. 319. 

Mr. Lathbury is a very respectable authority in 
matters of this kind, but if he use "originated" 
in its strict sense, I am inclined to think he is 
mistaken ; as I am tolerably certain that I have 
met with the words several years before 1702. At 
the moment, however, I cannot lay iny hands on 
a passnge to support this assertion. 

The disputes in Convocation gave rise to a 
number of pamphlets, such as A Caveat against 
High Church, Lond. 1702, and T?ie Low Church^ 
men vindicated from the unjust Imputation of being 
No Churchmen^ in Answer to a Pamphlet called 
" The Distinction of High and Low Church con- 
tidered:"^ Lond. 1706, 8vo. Dr. Sachevereirs 
trial gave additional zest to the dudgeon eccle- 
siastick, and produced a shower of pnmphlets. I 
give the title of one of them : Pulpit War, or Dr. 
S — /, the High Church Trumpet, and Mr. H — ly, 
the Low Church Drum, engaged by way of Dia- 
logue, Lond. 1710, 8vo. 

To understand the cause of the exceeding bit- 
terness and virulence which animated the parties 
denominated High Church and Low Churchy we 
must remember that until the time of William of 
Orange, the Church of England, as a body — her 
sovereigns and bishops, her clergy and laity — 
comes under the former designation ; while those 
who sympathised with the Dissenters were com- 
paratively few and weak. As soon as AVilliam 
was head of the Church, he opened the floodgates 
of Puritanism, and admitted into the church what 
previously had been more or less external to it. 
This element, thus made part and parcel of the 
Anglican Church, was denominated Low Church. 
William supplanted the bishops and clergy who 
refused to take oaths of allegiance to him as 
king de Jure ; and by putting Puritans in their 
place, made the latter the dominant party. Add 
to this the feelings of exasperation produced by 
the murder of Charles L, and the expidsion of the 
Stuarts, and we have sufficient grounds, political 
and religious, for an irreconcilable feud. Add, 
again, the reaction resulting from the overthrow 

clergy ; and by advancing, upon all vacancies of sees 
and dignities, ecclesiastical men of notoriously Preabt/- 
terian, or, which is worse, of Erastian principles. These 
are the ministerial ways of undermining Episcopacy ; 
and when to the seven notoriotis ones shall be added 
more, upon the approaching deprivation, they will 
make a innjority ; and then we may expect the new 
model of a church to be perfected." (Somers* Tracts, 
vol. X. p. 368. ) Until Atterbury, there were few High 
Church Di&hops in Queen Anne's reign in 1710. Bur- 
net singles out the Bishop of Chester : " for he seemed 
resolved to distinguish him<;elf as a zealot for that 
which is called High Church:* -- Hist, Own Time, 
voL iv. p. 26a 

of the tyrannous hot-bed and forcing-system, 
where a sham conformity was maintained by coer- 
cion ; and the Church- Papist, as well as the Churek- 
Puritans, with ill-concealed hankering after the 
mass and the preaching-house, by penal statutes 
were forced to do what their souls abhorred, and 
play the painful farce of attending the services of 
'* The Establishment.'* 

A writer in a High Church periodical of 1717 
(prefacing his article with the passage from Pro- 
verbs vi. 27.) proceeds : 

** The old way of attacking the Church of England 
was by mobs and bullies, and hard sounds ; by calling 
Whore, and Babylon, upon our worship and litargy, sim 
kicking out our clergy as cfttfR6 day* : but now they 
have other irons in the 6re ; a new ei^ne is set up 
under the cloak and disguise of temper, tni«ty, eonqtre' 
hension, and the Protestant religion. Their business nov 
is not to storm the Church, but to hdl it to ahep: to 
make us relax our care, quit our defences, and neglect 
our safety .... These are the politics of their Popish 
fathers: when they had tried all other artifices, Uiey 
at last resolved to sow schism and division in tlie 
Church : and from theuce sprang up this very gene- 
ration, who by a fine stratagem endeavoured to set vs 
one against the other, and they gather up the stake*. 
Hence the digtineiion of High and Low Church^** ^ 7%0 
Scourge, p. 251. 

In another periodical of the same date, in the 
Dedication ^^ To the most famous University of 
Oxford," the writer says : 

** These enemies of our religious and civil establish- 
ment have represented you as instillers of davitih doe- 
trines and principles . . . if to give to God and Cesar his 
due be such towVing, and High Church principles I 
am sure St. Peter and St. Paul will scarce escape being 
censured for Tories and Hiyhjlyers.** — The Entertainer, 
Lond. 1717. 

"If those who have kept their first love, and whose 
robes have not been defiled, endeavoar to stop these 
innovations and corruptions that their enemies would 
introduce, they are blackened for High OhmrA PapiUs, 
favourers of I know not who, and &11 under the .public 
resentment."— 76. p. 301. 

I shall now give a few extracts from Low Church 
writers (quoteil in The Scourge)^ who thus de- 
signate their opponents : 

" A pack or party of scandalous, wicked, and pro- 
fane men, who appropriate to themselves the name of 
High Church (but may more properly be said to be 
Jesuits or Papists in masquerade), do take liberty to 
teach, preach, and print, puhlickly and privately, sedi- 
tion, contentions, and divisions among the Protestants 
of this kingdom." — Motives to Union, p. 1. 

" These men glory in their being members of the 
High Church (Popish appellation, and therefore they 
arc the mure fond of that) ; but these pretended sons 
are become her persecutors, and they exercise their 
spite and lies both on the living and the dead."— The 
Snake in the Grass brought to Light, p. 8. 

Aug. 6. 1853.] 



*' Our common people of the High Church are as 
ignorant in matters of religion )Eu the bigotted Papists, 
which gives great advantage to our Jacobite and Tory 
priests to lead them where they please, or to mould 
them into what shapes they please.*' — Reasons for an 
Union, p. 39. 

** The minds of the populace are too much debauched 
already from their loyalty by seditious arts of the Hiffh 
Church faction,^ — Convocation Craft, p. '84. 

•* We may see how closely our present Highflyers 
pursue the steps of their Popish predecessors, in reck« 
oning those who dispute the usurped power of the 
Church to be hereticks, schismaticks, or what else they 
please." — /ft. p. 30. 

** All the blood that has been spilt in the late un- 
natural rebellion, may be very ju.stly laid at the doors 
of the High Church clergy." — Christianity no Creature 
of the State, p. 16. 

" We see what the Tory Priesthood were made of in 
Queen Elizabeth's time, that they were ignorant, lewd, 
and seditious : and it must be said of 'em that they are 
true to the stuff still." — Toryism the Worst of the Two, 
p. 21. 

"The Tories ^nd High C%«rcA, notwithstanding their 
pretences to loyalty, will be found by their actions to 
be the greatest rebels in nature," ^-^ Reasons for an 
Union, p. 20. 

Sir W. Scott, in his Life of Dry den^ Lond. 1808, 
observes that — 

** Towards the end of Charles the Second's reign, 
the High- Church-men and the Catholics regarded them- 
selves as on the same side in political questions, and not 
greatly divided in their temporal interests. Both were 
sufferers in the plot, both were enemies of the sectaries, 
both were adherents of tlie Stuarts. Alternate con- 
version had been common between them, so early as 
since Milton made a reproach to the English Univer- 
sities of the converts to the Roman faith daily made 
within their colleges : of those sheep — 

* Whom the prim wolf with privy paw 
Daily djvours apace, and nothing said.' " 

Life, 3rd edit. I8S4, p. 272. 

I quote this passage partly because it gives Sir 
Walter's interpretation of that obscure passage in 
Lycidas, respecting which I made a Query (Vol. ii., 
p. 246.), but chiefly as a preface to the remark 
that in James II.'s rergn, and at the time these 
party names originated, the Roman Catholics were 
in league with the Puritans or Low Church party 
against the High Churchmen, which increased the 
acrimony of both parties. 

In those days religion was politics, and politics 
religion, with most of the belligerents. Swift, 
however, as if he wished to be thought an excep- 
tion to the general rule, chose one party for its 
politics and the other for its religion. 

" Swift carried into the ranks of the Whigs the 
opinions and scruples of a High Church clergyman . . . 
Such a distinction between opinions in Church and 
State has not frequently existed : the High Churchmen 

being usually Tories, and the Low Church divines uni- 
versally ffhigs," — Scott's Life, 2nd edit.: Edin. 18^» 
p. 76. 

See Swift's Discourse of the Contests and DisseU' 
sions between the Nobles and Commons of Athent 
and Rome : Lond. 1701. 

In his qvLsAnt Argument against abolishing Chris^ 
tianity^ Lond. 1708, the following passage occurs : 

** There is one advantage, greater than any of the 
foregoing, proposed by the abolishing of Christianity : 
that it will utterly extinguish parties among us by 
removing those factious distinctions of High and Low 
Church, of Whig and Tory, Presbyterian and Church 
of England." 

Scott says of the TaU of a Tub: 

" The main purpose is to trace the gradual corrup- 
tions of the Church of Rome, and to exalt the English 
Reformed Church at the expense both of the Roman 
Catholic and Presbyterian establishments. It waft 
written with a view to the interests of the High Church 
party." — Life, p. 84. 

Most men ' will concur with Jeffrey, who ob- 
serves : 

" It is plain, indeed, that Swift's High Church prin- 
ciples were all along but a part of his selfishness and 
ambition ; and meant nothing else, than a desire to 
raise the consequence of the order to which he happened 
to belong. If he had been a layman, we have no 
doubt he would have treated the pretensions of the 
priesthood as he treated the persons of all priests who 
were opposed to him, with the most bitter and irre- 
verent disdain." — Ed. Rev., Sept. 1816. 

The following lines are from a squib of eigitt 
stanzas whicli occurs in the works of Jonathan 
Smedley, and are said to have 'been fixed on the 
door of St. Patrick's Cathedral on the day of 
Swift's instalment (see Scott, p. 174.) : 

" For High Churchmen and policy, 
He swears he prays most hearty ; 
But would pray back again to be 
A Dean of any party." 

This reminds us of the Vicar of Bray, of famous^ 
memory, who, if I recollect aright, commenced liis 
career thus : 

" In good King Charles's golden days. 
When loyalty no harm meant, 
A zealous High Churchman I wa<;, 
And so I got preferment," 

How widely different are the men we see classeil 
under the title High Churchmen! Evelyn and 
Walton *, the gentle, the Christian ; the arrogant 
Swift, and the restless Atterbury. 

It is difficult to prevent my note running 
beyond the limits of *' N. & Q.," with the ample 

♦ Of Izaak Walton his biographer, Sir John Haw- 
kins, writing in 1760, says, "he was a friend to a 
hierarchy, or, as we should now call such a one, a High 



[Na 197. 

materials I have to select from ; but I cannot wind 
up without a definition ; so here are two : 

« Mr. Thelwall says that he told a pious old lady, 
who asked him the difference between High Church and 
Low Churchi •The High Church place the Church 
above Christ, the Low Church place Christ above the 
Church.* About a hundred years ago, that very same 
question was asked of the famous South: — 'Why,* 
said he, * the High Church are those who think highly 
of the Church, and lowly of themselves; the Low 
Church are those who think highly of themselves, and 
lowly of the Church.**— Rev. H. Newland*8 Lecture on 
Tractarianism, Lond. 1852, p. 68. 

The most celebrated High Churchmen who lived 
in the last century, are Dr. South, Dr. Samuel 
Johnson, Rev. AVm. Jones of Nayland, Bp. Home, 
Bp. Wilson, and Bp. Horslej. See a long passage 
on " High Churchmen" in a charge of the latter to 
the clergy of St. David's in the year 1799, pp. 34. 
37. See also a charge of Bp. Atterbury (then 
Archdeacon of Totnes) to his clergy in 1703. 




(Continued from Vol. vii., p. 568.) 

Not bein^ minded to broach any fresh matter 
in " N. & Q.,'* I shall now only crave room to 
clear off an old score, lest I should leave myself 
open to the imputation of having cast that in the 
teeth of a numerous body of men which might, for 
aught they would know to the contrary, be as 
truly laid in my own dish. In No. 189., p. 567., 
I affirmed that the handling of a passage in 
Cymbeline, there quoted, had betrayed an amount 
of obtuseness in the commentators which would 
be discreditable in a third-form schoolboy. To 
substantiate that assertion, and rescue the dis- 
puted word " Britaine " henceforth for ever from 
the rash tampering of the meddlesome sciolist, I 
beg to advertise the ingenuous reader that the 
clause, — 

« For being now a favourer to the Britaine/' 

is in apposition with Deaths not with Fosthumus 
Leonatus. In a note appended to this censure, 
referring to another passage from L. L. L., I 
averred that Ma. Collier had corrupted it by 
changing the singular verb dies into the plural 
die (this too done, under plea of editorial li- 
cence, without warning to the reader), and that 
such corruption had abstracted the true key to 
the right construction. To make good this last 
position, two things I must do : first, cite the whole 
passage, without change of letter or tittle, as it 
stands in the Folios '23 and '32 ; next, show the 
trivial and vulgar use of ** contents ** as a singular 
noun. In Folio *23, thus : 

** Qu. Nay my good Lord, let me ore-rule you now ; 
. That sport best pleases that doth least know how. 

Where Zeale striues to content, and the contents 
Diet in the Zeale of that whieh it presents : 
Their forme confounded, makes moat forme in mirth, 
When great things labouring perish in their birth.** 

Act IV. p. 141. 

With this the Folio '32 exactly corresponds, save 
that the speaker is Ptin^ not Qu. ; are^ruUs is 
written as two words without the hyphen, and 
strives for striues. 1 have been thus precise, be- 
cause criticism is to me not " a game,'* nor admis- 
sive of cogging and falsification. 

I must now show the hackneyed use of conientg 
as a singular noun. An anonymous correspondent 
of " N. & Q." has already pointed out one m Mea- 
sure for Measure, Act I V. Sc, 2. : 

*< Duke. The eontente of this is the retume of the 
Another : 

** This is the contents thereof.** — Calvin's 82nd Ser» 
mon upon Job, p. 419., Golding*s translation. 

Another : 

" After this were articles of peace propounded, y* 
eontente wherof was, that he should departe out of 
Asia.** — The Sist Booke of Justine, fol. 139.» Gelding's 
translation of Justin's Trogue Pompeius, 

Another : 

*< Plinie writeth hereof an excellent letter, the eos- 
tents whereof is, that this ladie, mistrusting her husband, 
was condemned to die,** &c. — Hietorieail Meditationt, 
lib. iii. chap, xl p. 178. Written in Latin by P. Came- 
rarius, and done into English by John Molle, Esq.: 
London, 1621. 

Another : 

<* The contents whereof is this.** — Id,, lib. v. chap.Ti. 

p. 342. 

Another : 

" Therefore George, being led with an heroicall dis- 
daine, and neuertheless gluing the bridle beyond mo- 
deration to his anger, vnderstanding that Albert was 
come to Newstad, resolued with himselfe (without 
acquainting any bodie) to write a letter vnto him, the 
contents whereof was,'* &c. — Id., lib. ▼. chap. xii. p. 366. 

If the reader wants more examples, let him give 
himself the trouble to open the first book that 
comes to hand, and I dare say the perusal of a 
dozen pages will supplv some ; yet have we two 
editors of Shakspeare, «fohnson and Collier, so un- 
acquainted with the usage of their own tongue, 
and the universal logic of thought, as not to know 
that a word like contents, according as it is under- 
stood collectively or distributively, may be, and, 
as we have just seen, in fact is, treated as a sin- 
gular or plural ; that, I say, contents taken seve- 
rally, every content, or in gross, the whole mass, is 
respectively plural or singular. It was therefore 
optiond with Shakspeare to employ the word 
either as a singular or plural, but not in the same 
sentence to do both : here, however, he was tied 

Aus. 6. I8S3.] 



to tbe singuIaT, for, wanting a rhjnie to eosieiUi, 
the nominative to preients muat be siDSular, and 
that nominatiTC was the pronoun of confentt. 
Since, therefore, the pluml die and the singular if 
could not both be referable to tbe same noun eon- 
tenb, by Bilentlj substitu^ne die for dies, Mb. 
CoLLiBB has blinded his reader and wronged his 
author. The purport of the passage amounts to 
this: the cotiteiUt, or structure ^towit, of the sboir 
to be exhibited), breaks down in tbe performer's 
zeal to the subject which it presents. Johnson 
Tery properly adduces a much nappier eipression 
of the same thought from A Midtammer Ntgkt't 

The reader cannot fail to have observed the fault- 
less punctuation of the Folios in the forecited 
passage, and I think concur with me, that like 
many, ay, most others, all it craves at llie hands 
of editors and commentators is, to be left alone. 
The last two lines ask for no explanation even to 
the blankest mind. Words like eostenlt are by no 
means rare in English. We have tiding* and neaii, 
both singular and pluraL Mk. Collier himself 
rebukes Malone for bis ignorance of such usage 
of the latter word. If it be said that these two 
examples have no singular form, whereas contetds 
Las, there is means, at any rate precisely ana- 
logous. On the other hand, so capricious is lan- 
guage, in defiance of tbe logic of thought, we have, 
if I may so term it, a merely auricular plural, in 
the word coTpte referred to a single carcase. 

I should here close my account with " K. & Q." 
were it not that I have an act of justice to per- 
form. When I first lighted upon the two ex- 
amples o! ehoMmhre in Udall, I tuought, as we say 
in this country, it was a good " fundlas," and re- 

farded it as my own property. It now appears to 
e but a waif or stray; therefore, naim cuiqae, I 
cheerfully resign the credit of it to Mb. Sinoeb, 
the rightful proprietary. Proffering them for the 
inspection of learned and unlearn^ I of course 
foresaw that speedy sentence would be pronounced 
br that division, whose judgment, lying ebb and 
close to the surface, must needs first reach the 
light. I know no more appropriate mode of re- 
quiting the handsome manner in which Mr. Sinqeb 
has been pleased to speak of my trifiing contribu- 
tions to " N. & Q." than by asking him, with all 
the modesty of which I am master, to reconsider 
the passage in Romeo and Juliet; for though his 
substitution (ruTnoiireri vice runawa^ei) may, I 
think, clearly take the wall of any of its rivals, yet, 
believing that Juliet invokes a darkness to shroud 
her lover, under cover of which even tbe fugitive 
from justice might snatch a wink of sleep, 1 must 
for mj own part, as usual, still adhere to the 
authentic text. W. K. Arrowbhitu. 

P. S. — In answer to a Bloomsbury Querist 
(Vol, viii., p. 44.), I crave leave to soy that I never 
have met with the verb perceyaer except in Hawes, 
he. cit. ; and I gave the latest use that I could call 
to mind of tbe noun in my paper on that word. 
Unhappily I never make notes, but rely entirely on 
a somewhat retentive memory ; therefore the in- 
stances that occur on tbe spur of the moment are 
not always the most apposite that might be selected 
for the purpose of illustration. It, however, he 
will take the trouble to refer to a little boob, con- 
sisting of no more than 448 pages, published in 
1576, and entitled A Panoplie of Epiulles, or a 
Loohin^-giasac far the VjSeamed, by Abraham 
Flemming, be will find no fewer than nine ex- 
amples, namely, at pp. 25. 144. 178, 2S3. 277. 2B3. 
(twice in the same page) 333. 382. It excites 
surprise that the word never, as far aslam aware, 
occurs in any of the voluminous works of Sir 
Thomas More, nor in any of the theological pro- 
ductions of the Reformers. 

With respect to speare, the orthography varies, 
as ^re, sperr, »parr, laispar; hut in the Prologue 
to Troiltu and C'retsida, tperre is Theobald's cor- 
rection of ttirre, in Folios '23 and '32. Let me 
add, nbat I bad forgotten at the time, that an- 
other instance of budde intransitive, to bend, oc- 
curs at p. 103. of The Life of Faith in Death, by 
Samuel Ward, preacher of Ipswich, London, 1622. 
Also another, and a very sijjnificant one, of the 
phrase to have on the hip, in Fuller's Hittorie oftkt 
Holy Wan-e, Cambridge, 1647 : 

" Arnulphus iras at (]uiet as b lambr, and dursl never 
challenge hia interest in Jermalem Irom Godlrey's do- 
nation; as fearing to areitle with the king, who torf 
Aim on tht hip, and could out him at pleasure for his 
bad maanen." — Book ii, cbap. viii. p. 55. 

In my note on the word traih, I si 
too peremptorily) that overtop wa 
hunting term (Vol. vii., p. 567.). At the n: 
I had forgotten tbe following passage : 

" Thetefoie I would penwade all lovers of hunting 

twice a ireek to fuUow after them a train-scent; and 
when he is able to top Ihem an all soria of earth, and to 
endure heats and colds stoutly, then he may the better 
relie on his speed and toughness." — The HnKting-hom^ 
cbap. vii. p.TI., Oxford, IGtiS. 

d (somewhat 

In the Odyaaey, xvii. 541-7., we have, imitating 
tbe hexameters, the following passage : 
" Thus Penelope ipake. Then quickly Telemachui 

rupid and high-toned words td 



[No. 197. 

• Go then directly, Eurosas, and call to my presence 

the strange guest. 
See*8t thou not that my son, tv'ry word 1 have spoken 

hath gneez'd atf* 
Thus portentous, betok*ning the fate of my hateful 

AU whom death and destruction await by a doom 


Dionysius Halicamassus, on Homer's poetry 
(«. 24.), says, sneezing was considered by that 
poet as a good sign (jar6fi€o\ov &ya06v) ; and from 
the Anthohgy (lib. ii.) the words o68i A^yei, Ztv 
ffUffov, ihv irrapyt show that it was proper to ex- 
claim "God bless you !'* when any one sneezed. 

Aristotle, in the Problems (xxxiii. 7.), inquires 
why sneezing is reckoned a God (9ioi ri rhu fxep 
irrttpfi6vy ^fhy •nyo^fitda tlvai) ; to which he suggests, 
that it may be because it comes from the head, the 

most divine part about us (^tiordrov ray trcpi rjfias). 
Persons having the inclination, but not the power 
to sneeze, should look at the sun, for reasons he 
assies in Problems (xxxiii. 4.). 

Autarch, on the Daemon of Socrates (s. 11.), 
states the opinion which some persons had formed, 
that Socrates* daemon was nothing else than the 
sneezing either of himself or others. Thus, if 
any one sneezed at his right hand, either before or 
behind him, he pursued any step he had begun ; 
but sneezing at his left hand caused him to desist 
from his formed purpose. He adds something as 
to different kinds of sneezing. To sneeze twice 
was usual in Aristotle's time ; but once, or more 
ihan twice, was uncommon (Prob. xxxiii. 3.). 

Pctronius {Satyr, c. 98.) notices the " blessing " 
in the following passage : 

** Giton collectionc splritus plenus, ter continuo ita 
sternutavit, Ut grabatum concuteret. Ad t\\iQva motum 
Eumolpus con versus, solvere G'ltom, jvheV 




[The following proclamation on this subject is of 
interest at the present moment. ] 

By the King. 

A Proclamation to restrain the Abuses of Hackney 
Coaches in the Cities of London and Westmin- 
ster, and the Suburbs thereof. 

Charles R. 
Whereas the excessive number of Hackney 
Coaches, and Coach Horses, in and about the 
Cities of London and Westminster, and the Sub- 
urbs thereof, are found to be a common nuisance 
to the Publique Damage of Our People by reason 

* The practice oi snuff-taking has made the sneezing 
at anything a mark of contempt, in these degenerate 

of their rude and disorderly standing and pts^ 
ing to and fro, in and about our said CHfcies aad 
Suburbs, the Streets and Highways bei^ thereby 
pestred and made impassable, the nrenmli 
broken up, and the Common Passages obstructed 
and become dangerpus, Our Peace Tiolated, and 
sundry other mischiefs and eyils oocastoned : 

We, taking into Our Princely consideratioi 
these apparent Inconveniences, and resolving that 
a speedy remedy be applied to meet with, and 
redress them for the future, do, by and with the 
advice of our Privy Council, pubiisb Our Royal 
Will and Pleasure to be, and we do by this Gar 
Proclamation expressly charge and command^ That 
no Person or Persons, of what Estate, Degree, or 
Quality whatsoever, keeping or using any Hack- | 
ney Coaches, or Coac;h Horses, do, from and after 
the Sixth day of November next, permit or suftr 
the said Coaches and Horses, or any of them, to 
stand or remain in any the Streets or Passages 
in or about Our said Cities either of Liondon or 
Westminster, or the Suburbs belonging to dtiier 
of them, to be there hired ; but that tlaey and every 
of them keep their said Coaches and Horses withm 
their respective Coach-houses, Stables^ and Tarda 
(whither such Persons as desire to hire tiie same 
may resort for that purpose), upon pun d Oar 
high displeasure, and such Forfeitures, Pains^ and 
Penalties as may be inflicted for the Contempt fd 
Our Royal Commands in the Premises, whereof 
we shall expect a strict Accompt. 

And for the due execution of Our Pleasure 
herein, We do further charge and command the 
Lord Mayor and Aldermen of Our City of London, 
That they in their several Wards, and Our Jus- 
tices of Peace within Our said .Cities of London 
and Westminster, and the Liberties and Suburbs 
thereof, and all other Our Officers and Ministers 
of Justice, to whom it appertaineth, do take 
especial care in their respective Limits that this 
Our Command be duly observed, and that they 
from time to time return the names of all those 
who shall wilfully offend in the Premises, to Our 
Pi*ivy Council, and to the end they may be pro- 
ceeded against by Indictments and Presentments 
for the Nuisance, and otherwise according to the 
severity of the Law and Demerits of the Ofienders. 

Given at Our Court at Whitehall the 18tih day 
of October in the 12th year of Our Reign. 

God save thb Einq. 

London : Printed by John Bell and Christopher 
Barker, Printers to the King^s most Excellent 
Majesty, 1660. 

Pepys, in his Diary, vol. i. p. 14i2., under date 

8th November, 1660, says : 

" To Mr. Fox, who was very citil to me. Notwith- 
standing this was th« first day of the King'b prodama* 

Aug. a 1853.] 



tion. against hackney coaches coming into the streets ta 
stand to be Iiired, yet I got one to carry me home." 

T. Ih 


Passage in " The Tempest^ Act L Sc, 2. — 

** The sky, it seems, would pour down stinking pitch, 
But that the sea, mounting to the welkin's cheek. 
Dashes the fire out,** 

**The manuscript corrector of the folio 1632,"^ 
Mr. Collier informs us, " has substituted heat for 
* cheek,' which is not an unlikely corruption, a 
person writing only by the ear." 

I should say very unlikely : but if heat had been 
actually printed in the folios, without speculating 
as to the probability that the press-copy was 
written from dictation, I should have had no 
hesitation in altering it to cheek. To this I 
should have been directed by a parallel passage in 
Richard IL, Act III. Sc. 3., which has been over- 
looked by Mr. Collier : 

** Methinks, Ring Richard and myself should meet 
With no less terror than the elements 
Of fire and watert when their thundering shock 
At meeting tears the cloudy cheeks of heaven.^* 

Commentary here is almost useless. Every one 
who has any capacity for Shakspearian criticism 
must feel assured that Shakspeare wrote cheeky 
and not heat. 

The passage I have cited from Bichard II, 
strongly reminds me of an old lady whom I met 
last autumn on a tour through the Lakes of Cum- 
berland, &c. ; and who, during a severe thunder- 
storm, expressed to me her surprise at the per- 
tinacity of the lightning, adding, " I should think. 
Sir, that so much water in the heavens would 
have put all the fire out." 

C. Mansfield Ingleby. 


The Case referred to hy Shakspeare in Hamlet 
(Vol. vii., p. 550.). — 


If the water come to the man." — Shakspeare. 

•The argument Shakspeare referred to was that 
contained in Plow den's Report of the case of 
Hales V. Petit, heard in the Court of Common 
Pleas in the fifth year of the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth. It was held that thouuh the wife of 
Sir James Hale, whose husband was felo^de'se^ 
became by survivorship the holder of a joint term 
for years, yet, on office found, it should be for- 
feited on account of the act of the deceased hus- 
band. The learned Serjeants who were counsel 
for the defendant, alleged that the forfeiture 
should have relation to the act done in the party's 
Uletime^ which was the cause of hia death. '^ And 

upon, this," tliey said, " the parts of the act are to 
be considered." And Serjeant Walsh said : 

<* The act consists of three parts. Tlie first is the 
imagination,, which is a reflection or meditation of the 
mind, whether or no it is convenient for him to destroy 
himself, and what way it can be done. The second is 
the resolution, which is the determination of the mind 
to destroy himself, and to do it in this or that par- 
ticular way. The third is the perfection, which is the 
execution of what the mind has resolved to do. And 
this perfection consists of two parts, viz. the beginning 
and the end. The beginning is the doing of the act 
which causes the death ; and the end is the death, which 
is only the sequel to the act. And of all the parts, the 
doing of tlie act is the greatest in the judgment of our 
law, and it is, in effect, the whole and the only part 
the law looks upon to be material. For the imagination 
of the mind to do wrong, without an act done, is not 
punishable in onr law ; neither is the resolution to do 
that wrong which he does not, punishable ; but the 
doing of the act is the only point the law regards, for 
until the act is done it cannot be an offence to the 
world, and when the act is done it is punishable. Then, 
here, the act done by Sir James Hale, which is evil and 
the cause of his death, is the throwing of himself into 
the water, and death is but a sequel thereof, and tliis 
evil act ought some way to be punished. And if the 
forfeiture shall not have relation to the doing of the 
act, then the act shall not be punished at all, for inas- 
much as the person who did the act is dead, his person 
cannot be punished, and therefore there is no way else 
to punish him but by the forfeiture of those things 
which were his own at the time of tlie act done ; and 
the act was done in his lifetime, and therefore the for- 
feiture shall have relation to his lifetime, namely, to 
that time of his life in which he did the act which took 
away his life." 

And the judges, viz. Weston, Anthony Brown, 
and Lord Dyer, said : 

" That the forfeiture shall have relation to the time 
of the original offence committed, which was the cause 
of the death, and that was, the throwing himself into 
the water,, which was done in his lifetime, and this 

act was felony.** " So that the felony is attri-- 

buted to the act, which act is always done by a living 
man and in his lifetime^" as Brown said; for he said, 
" Sir James Hale was dead, and how came he to his 
death ? It may be answered. By drowning. And who 
drowned him ? Sir James Hale. And when did he 
drown him ? In his lifetime. So that Sir James 
Hale being alive, caused Sir James Hale to die ; and 
the act of the living man was the death of the dead 
man. And then for this offence it is reasonable to 
punish the living man who committed the offence, and 
not the dead man. But how can he be said to be 
punl^ed alive when the punishment comes after his 
death ? Sir, this can. be done no other way but by 
devesting oat of him, from the time of the act done ia 
his life, which was the cause of his death, the title and 
property of those things which he had in his lifetime." 

The above extract is long, but the work from 
which it is taken can be accessible to but very few 



[No. 197. 

of jour readers. Let them not, however, while 
they smile at the arguments, infer that those who 
tooK part in them were not deservedly among the 
most learned and eminent of our ancient judges. 

Thomas Falconer. 

Shakspeare Suggestion, — 

** These sweet thoughts do even refresh my labours ; 
Most busy— less when I do it." 

Tempeit, Act III. So. 1. 

I fear your readers will turn away from the 
Tery sight of the above. Be patient, kmd friends, 
I will be brief. Has any one suggested — 

** Most busy, least when I do**? 

The words in the folio are 

** Most busy lest, when I do it.** 

The *Mt** seems mere surplusage. The sense re- 
quires that the thoughts should be **most busy" 
whilst the hands **do least;" and in Shakspeare*8 
time, **lest" was a common spelling for least. 


Shakspeare Controversy. — I think the Shak- 
speare Notes contained in your volumes are not 
complete without the following quotation from 
The Summer Night of Ludwig 'neck, as translated 
by Mary Maynard in the Athen. of June 25, 1853. 
Puck, in addressing the sleeping boy Shakspeare, 
flsys : 

" After thy death, V\\ raise dissension sharp. 
Loud strife among the herd of little minds : 
Envy shall seek to dim thy wondrous page, 
But all the clearer will thy glory shine.** 


Falsijied Gravestone in Stratford Churchyard. 
— The following instance of a recent forgery 
having been extensively circulated, may lead to 
more careful examination by those who take notes 
of things extraordinary. 

The church at Stratford-upon-Avon was re- 
paired about the year 1889 ; and some of the 
workmen having their attention directed to the 
fact, that many persons who had attained to the 
full age of man were buried in the churchyard ; 
and, wishing ** for the honour of the place,** to 
improve the note-books of visitors, set about 
manufacturing an extraordinary instance of lon- 

§evity. A gravestone was chosen in an out-of- 
le-way place, in which there happened to be 
a space before the age (72). A figure 1 was 
cut in this space, and the age at death then 
stood 172. The sexton was either deceived, or 
assented to the deception ; as the late vicar, the 
Rev. J. Clayton, learned that it had become a 
practice with him (the sexton) to show strangers 

this gravestone, so falsified, as a proof of the ex- 
traordinary age to which people lived in the pariah. 
The vicar had the fraudulent figure erased at once, 
and lectured the sexton for his dishonesty. 

These facts were related to me a few weeks since 
by a son of the late vicar. And as many strangers 
visiting the tomb of Shakspeare "made a note** of 
this falsified age, "N. & Q.'* may now correct the 
forgery. Robert Rawlinson^. 

Barnacles in the River Thames. — In Porta's 
Natural Magic^ £ng. trans., Lond. 1658, occurs 
the following curious passage : 

** Late writers report that not only in Scotland, but 
also in the river of Thames by London, there is a kind 
of shell-fish in a two-leaved shell, that hath a foot full 
of plaits and wrinkles : these fish are little, round, and 
outwardly white, smooth and heetle*.shelled like an 
almond shell ; inwardly they are great bellied, bred as 
it were of moss and mud ; they commonly stick in the 
keel of some old ship. Some say they come of wornM* 
some of the boughs of trees which fall into the sea ; if 
any of them be cast upon shore they die, but they 
which are swallowed still into the sea, live and get out 
of their shells, and grow to be ducks or such like 
birds (!)." 

It would be curious to know what could give 
rise to such an absurd belief. Sfebibmd. 

Note for London Topographers. '-^ 

** The account of Mr. Mathias Fletcher, of Green- 
wich, for carving the Anchor Shield and King's Arms 
for the Admiralty Office in York Buildings, delivered 
Nov. 2, 1668, and undertaken by His Majesty's com- 
mand signified to me by the Hon. Samuel Pepys, £sq.» 
Secretary for the Affairs of the Admiralty : 

*« For a Shield for the middle of the £ s. d^ 
front of the said office towards the Thames, 
containing the Anchor of Lord High Ad- 
miral of England with the Imperial Crown 
over it, and cyphers, being 8 foot deep and 
6 foot broad, I having found the timber, 
&c. 30 O 

** For the King's Arms at large, with 
ornaments thereto, designed for the pedi- 
ment of the said front, the same being in 
the whole 1 5 foot long and 9 foot high, I 
finding timber, &c. - - - • 73 15 

£103 15 O** 

Extracted from Rawlinson MS. A. 170, fol. 132. 

J. Yeowblim 

The Aliases and Initials of Authors. — It ha» 
often occurred to me that it would save much 
useless inquiry and research, if a tolerable list 
could be collected of the principal authors who» 
have published their works under assumed names 
or initials : thus, " R. B. Robert Burton," Nathaniel 
Crouch^ "R.F.Scoto-Britannicus," RohertFairUif^ 
&c. The commencement of a new volume of 

Aug. 6. 1853.] 



^' N". & Q." affords an excellent opportunity for at- 
tempting this. If the correspondents of " N. & Q." 
would contribute their mites occasionally with this 
view, by the conclusion of the volume, I have little 
doubt but a very valuable list might be obtained. 
For the sake of reference, the whole contributions 
obtained could then be amalgamated, and alpha- 
betically arranged. Pebthensis. 

Pure, — In visiting an old blind woman the 
other day, I was struck with what to me was a 
peculiar use of the word pure. Having inquired 
after the dame*s health, and been assured that she 
was much better, I bei^n^ed her not to rise from 
the bed on which she was sitting, whereupon she 
said, '* Thank you, Sir, I feel quite pure this 



Oakridge, Gloucestershire. 

Darling's ''^ Cyclop<Bdia Bibliographical'' — The 
utility of Mr. Darling's Cydoposdia Bihliographica 
is exemplified by the solution conveyed under the 
title " Crellius," p. 813., of the following difficulty 
expressed by Dr. Hey, the Norrisian professor 
(^Lectures, vol. iii. p. 40.) : 

" Paul Crellius and John Maclaurin seem to have 
been of the same way of thinking with John Agricola. 
Nicholls, on this Article [Eighth of the Thirly-nine 
Articles], refers to Paul Crellius's book Be Liberlate 
Christiana^ but I do not find it anywhere. A speech of 
his is in the Bodleian Catalogue, but not this work." 

Similar information might have been received 
by your correspondent (Vol. vii., p. 381.), who 
inquired whether Huet's Navigations of Solomon 
was ever published. In the Cyclopaedia reference 
IS made to two collections in which this treatise 
has been inserted, Crit Sac, viii. ; Ugolinus, vii. 
277. With his usual accuracy, Mr. Darling states 
there are additions in the Critici Sacri printed at 
Amsterdam, 1698-1732, as Huet's treatise above 
referred to is not in the first edition, London, 




I am extremely desirous of obtaining some in- 
formation respecting the Dutch manufactories of 
enamelled pottery, or Delft ware, as we call it. 

On a former occasion, by your connexion with 
the Navorscher, you were able to obtain for me 
some very valuable and interesting information in 
reply to some question put respecting the Dutch 
porcelain manufactories. I am therefore in hopes 
that some kind correspondent in Holland will be 
so obliging as to impart to me similar information 
on this subject also. I should wish to know — 

When, by whom, at what places, and under 
what circumstances, the manufacture of enamelled 
pottery was first introduced into Holland ? 

Whether there were manufactories at other 
towns besides Delft ? 

Whether they had any distinctive marks ; and, 
if so, what were they ? 

Whether there was more than one manufactory 
at Delft ; and, if so, what were their marks, and 
what was the meaning of them ? 

Whether any particular manufactories were 
confined to the making of any particular sort or 
quality of articles ; and, if so, what were they ? 

Whether any of the manufactories have ceased ; 
and, if so, at what period ? 

Also, any other particulars respecting the ma- 
nufactories and their products that it may be pos- 
sible to communicate through the medium of a 
paper like " N. & Q." Octavius Morgan* 

fRinav ^xtztici. 

The Withered Hand and Motto " UtinamJ'^ — 
At Compton Park, near Salisbury, the seat of the 
Penruddocke family, there is a three-quarter 
length picture, in the Velasquez style, of a gen- 
tleman in a rich dress of black velvet, with broad 
lace frill and cufis, and ear-rings, probably of the 
latter part of Queen Elizabeth*s reign. His right 
hand, which he displays somewhat prominently, is 
withered. The left one is a-kimbo, and less seen. 
In the upper part of the painting is the single 
Latin word " utinam " (O that !). There is no 
tradition as to who this person was. Any sug- 
gestion on the subject would gratify J, 

History of York, — Who is the author of a 
History of Yorh^ in 2 vols., published at that city 
in 1788 by T. Wilson and R. Spence, High Ouse- 
gate ? I have seen it in several shops, and heard 
it attributed to Drake ; and obtained it the other 
day from an extensive library in Bristol, in the 
Catalogue of which it is styled Drake's Ehoracum. 
Several allusions in the first volume to his work, 
however, render it impossible to be ascribed to 
him. It is dedicated to the Right Honourable Sir 
William Mordaunt Milner, of 2Tunappleton, Bart., 
who was mayor at the time. R. W. Elliot. 


^^ Hauling over the coals,"" — What is the origin 
and meaning of the phrase, " Hauling one over 
the coals ;** and where does it first appear ? Fabeb. 

Dr, Butler and St. Edmund's Bury, — Can any 
of your readers give me any information respect- 
ing the Mr. or Dr. Butler, of St. Edmund's Bury, 
referred to in the extracts from the Post Boy and 
Gough's Topography, quoted by Mr. Ballard in 
Vol. vii., p. 617. ? BuRiENSis. 

Washington, — Anecdotes relative to General 
Washington, President of the United States, in- 



[No. 197. 

tended for a forthcoming work on the " Homes of 
American Statesmen," will be gratefully received 
for the author by Joseph Stansburt. 

26. Parliament Streer. 

Norman of Winster. — Can any of your corre- 
spondents afford information bearing on the family 
of Norman of Winster, county of Derby ? 

" John Norman of Winster, county of Derby, 
married, in 1715 or 17 16, to Jane (maiden name par- 
ticularly wanted). The said J. Norman married 
again in 1723, to Mary" (maiden name wanted 

I shall be particularly obliged to any one afford- 
ing such information. W. 

Sir Arthur Aston, — I shall be much obliged, 
should any of your very numerous correspondents 
be able to inform me in which part or parish, of 
the county of Berkshire, the celebrated cavalier 
Sir Arthur Aston resided upon his return from the 
foreign wars in which he nad been for so many 
years engaged ; and previously to the rupture be- 
tween Charles I. and the Houses of Parliament. 

I believe one of his daughters, about the same 
period, married a gentleman residing in the same 
county: also that George Tattersall, Esq., of 
Finchampstead, a family of consideration in the 
same county of Berkshire, was a near relative. 


^^Jamieso7i the Piper,** — I am anxious to ascer- 
tain who was the author of the above ditty ; it 
was very popular in Aberdeenshire about the 
beginning of this century. The scene, if I remem- 
ber rightly, is laid, in the parish of Forgue, in 
Aberdeenshire. Possibly some of the members of 
the Spalding Club may be able to enlighten me 
on the subject. Batheksis. 

^^ Reiser Glomer^^ — I have a Danish play enti- 
tled Keiser Olomer, Frit oversatte afdet Kyhhmske 
vech C. Bredahl: Kiobenhavn, 1834. It is a mix- 
ture of tragedy and farce : the former occasionally 
good, the latter poor buffoonery. In the notes, 
readings of the old MS. are referred to with 
apparent seriousness ; but Gammel Gumbas Saga 
is quoted in a manner that seems burlesque. I 
cannot find the word " Kyhlam" in any dictionary. 
Can any of your readers tell me whether it signi- 
fies a real country, or is a mere fiction ? The 
work does not read like a translation ; and, if one, 
the number of modern allusions show that it is 
not, as it professes to be, from an ancient manu- 
script. M. M. E. 

TiecKs Comadia Divina, — I copied the follow- 
ing lines six years ago from a review in a Munich 
newspaper of Batornicki's UhgottUche Comodie. 
They were cited as from Tieck's suppressed (zu- 
riickgezogen) satire, Za Comodie Divina^ from 

which Batornicki was accused of plundering freelj, 
thinking that, from its variety, he would not be 
detected : 

** Spifzt so hoch ihr konnt euer Ohr, 
Gar wunderbare Dinge kommeD hier vor. 
Gott Vater identificirt sich mit der Kreatur, 
Denn er will anschauen die absolute Natar ; 
Aber zum Bewustseyn kann er nicht gedeihen. 
Drum muss cr sich mit sich selbst entzweien." 

I omitted to note the paper, but preserved the 
lines as remarkable. I have since tried to find 
some account of La Divina Comedia^ but in vain. 
It is not noticed in any biography of Tieck. Can 
any of your readers tell me what it is, or who 
wrote it P M. M. E. 

Fossil Trees between Cairo and Suez — JS^eam 
like that in Bay of ArgastoU, — Can any of yovt 
readers oblige me by stating where the best in- 
formation may be met with concerning the veiy 
remarkable fossil trees on the way from Cairo ta 
Suez? And, if there has yet been cOscovered 
any other stream or rivulet running from the 
ocean into the land similar to that in the Bay of 
ArgastoU in the Island of Cephalonia ? B« IL 

Presbyterian Titles (Vol. v., p. 516.). — Where 
may be found a list of '* the quaint and nncouA 
titles of the old Presbyterians r " 

P. J. F. GiJXTULuoim, B. A. 

Mayors and Sheriffs, — Can you or any of your 
readers inform me which ought to be considered 
the principal ofiicer, or which is the most import- 
ant^ and which ought to have precedence of the 
other, the mayor of a town or borough, or the 
sheriff of a town or borough ? and is the mayor 
merely the representative of the town, and the 
sheriff of the Queen ; and if so, ought not the re- 

Eresentative of majesty to be considered more 
onourable than the representative of merely a 
borough ; and can a sheriff of a borough claim to 
have a grant of arms, if he has not any previous ? 



The Beauty of BuUermere. — In an article con- 
tributed by Coleridnje to the Morning Post (yid. 
Essays on his own Times, vol. ii. p. 591.), he says; 

<' It seems that there are some circumstances attend- 
ing her birth and true parentage, which would aoeooDt 
for her striking superiority in mind and manners, in a 
way extremely flattering to the prejudices of rank and 

What are the circumstances alluded to P 

R. W. EuuoT. 


Sheer Hulk, — Living in a maritime town, i^d 
hearing nautical terms frequently used, I had al- 
ways supposed this term to mean an old 

Aug. 6. 1853.] 



with sheers, or spars, erected upon it, for the pur- 
pose of masting and unmasting ships, and was led 
to attribute the use of it, by Sir W. Scott and 
other writers, for a vessel totally dismasted, to 
their ignorance of the technical terms. But of 
late it has been used in the latter sense by, a 
writer in the United Service Magazive professing 
to be a nautical man. I still suspect that this use 
of the word is wrong, and should be glad to hear 
on the subject from any of your naval readers. 

I believe that the word " buckle " is still used 
in the dockyards, and among seamen, to signify to 
»' bend" (see " N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 375.), though 
rarely. J. S. Warden. 

The Lapwing lor Peewitt ( Vanellus cristaius). — 
Can any of your correspondents, learned in natural 
history, throw any light upon the meaning in the 
following line relative to this bird ? — 

** The blackbird far its hues shall know, 
As lapwing knows the Tine." 

In the first line the allusion is to the berries of the 
hawthorn ; but what the lapwing has to do with 
the mne^ I am at a loss to know. Having forgotten 
whence I copied the above lines, perhaps some one 
will favor me with the author's name. 

J. B. Wbitbobne. 

" CouM we with ink,^^ Sfc. — Could you, or any 
of your numerous and able correspondents, in- 
form me who is the bona fide author of the follow- 
ing lines ? — 

'' Could we with ink the ocean 'fill. 

And were the heavens of parchment made, 
Were every stalk on earth a quill, 

And every man a scribe by trade ; 
To write the love of God above, 

Would drain the ocean dry ; 
Nor could the scroll contain the whole. 

Though stretch*d from sky to sky.** 


Launching Query. — With reference to the acci- 
dent to H.M.S. CaBsar at Pembroke, I would ask, 
Is there any other instance of a ship, on being 
launched, stopping on the ways, and refusing to 
move in spite of all efforts to start her ? A. B. 

Manliness. — Query, What is the meaning of 
the word as used in " N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 94., 
col. 2. 1. 12. Anonymous. 

Pues or Pews. — Which is the correct way of 
spelling this word ? What is its derivation ? Why 
has the form pue been lately so much adopted ? 


[The abuses connected with the introduction of pues 
into ohuTcfaes have led to an investigation of their his- 
tory, as veU 4W to the etymology of the word. Heooe 

the modern adoption of its original and more correct 
orthography, that of pve ; the Dutch puyCf puyd, and 
the English pue, being derived from the Latin podium. 
In Vol. iii., p. 56. ■, we quoted the following as the earliest 
notice of the word from the Vision of Piers Plouman: 

** Among wyves and wodewes ich am ywoned sute 
Yparroked in pties. The person hit knowetb.** 

Again, in Richard III. t Act IV. Sc. 4. : "And makes 
her pue-fellow with others moan.*' — In Decker's Wett" 
ward Hoe : ** Being one day in church, she made mone 
to her pue-fellow.** — And in the Northern Hoe of the 
same author : ** He would make him a pue-fellow witb- 
lords." — See a paper on TTie History of Pews, read be- 
fore the Cambridge Camden Society, Nov. 22, 1841.] 

** Jemingham*^ and " Doveton.** — Who was the 
author of Jemingham and Doveton^ two admirable 
works of fiction published some twelve or fifteen 
years ago ? They are equal to anything written 
by Bulwer Lytton or by James. J. Mt. 

[The author of these works was Mr. Aastrutber.^ 


(Vol. viii., p. 8.) 

I possess a singular work, consisting of a series 
of Poetical Sketches of the campaigns of 1793 and 
1794, written, as the title-page asserts, by an 
" officer of the Guards ;" who appears to have been,, 
from what he subsequently states, on the personal 
staff of His Royal Highness the late Duke of York. 
This work, I have been given to understand, was- 
suppressed shortly after its publication ; the ludi- 
crous light thrown by its pages on the conduct of 
many of the chief parties engaged in the transac* 
tions it records, being no doubt unpalatable ta 
those* high in authority. From the notes, whidi 
are valuable as appearing to emanate from an eye- 
witness, and sometimes an actor in the scenes he 
describes, I send the following extracts for the 
information of your correspondent ; premising 
that the letter to which they are appended is dated' 
from the " Camp at Inchin, April 26, 1794." 

" As the enemy were known to have assembled in 
great force at the Camp de Caesar, near Cambray, 
Prince Cobourg requested the Duke of York would 
make a reconnaissance in that direction : accordingly, 
on the evening of the 23rd, Major- General MansePs 
brigade of heavy cavalry was ordered about a league' 
in front of their camp, where they lay that night at 
a farm-house, forming part of a detachment under 
General Otto. Early the next morning, an attack was 
made on the French drawn up in front of the village 
of Villers en Couchee (between Le Cateau and Bou- 
cbain) by the 15th regiment of Light Dragoon?, and 
two squadrons of Austrian Hussars : they charged ' 
the enemy with such velocity and force, that, darting 
through their cavalry, they dispersed a line of infantiy 
formed in their rear, forcing them also to retreat pre- 



[No. 197. 

cipitately and in great confusion, under cover of the 
ramparts of Cambray ; with a loss of 1 200 men, and 
three pieces of cannon. The only British officer 
««rouDded was Captain Aylett : sixty privates fell, and 
''about twenty were wounded. 

** Though the heavy brigade was formed at a dis- 
itance under a brbk cannonade, while the light dragoons 
luid so glorious an opportunity of distinguishing them- 
selves, there are none who can attach with propriety 
any blame on account of their unfortunate delay ; for 
which General Otto was surely, as having the com- 
mand, alone accountable, and not General Mansel, who 
acted at all times, there is no doubt, according to the 
best of his judgment for the good of the service. 

** The Duke of York had, on the morning of the 
26th, observed the left flank of the enemy to be unpro- 
tected ; and, by ordering the cavalry to wheel round 
and attack on that side, afforded them an opportunity 
of gaining the highest credit by defeating the French 
army so much superior to them in point of numbers. 

** General Mansel rushing into the thickest of the 
enemy, devoted himself to death ; and animated by his 
example, that very brigade performed such prodigies of 
valour, as must have convinced the world that Britons, 
once informed how to act, justify the highest opinion 
that can possibly be entertained of their native courage. 
Could such men have ever been willingly backward? 
Certainly not. 

<* General Hansel's son, a captain in the 3rd Dragoon 
Guards, anxious to save his father's life, had darted 
forwards, and was taken prisoner, and carried into 
Cambray. Since his exchange, he has declared that 
there was not, on the 26th, a single French soldier left 
in the town, as Chapuy had drawn out the whole gar- 
rison to augment the army destined to attack the camp 
of Inchi. Had that circumstance been fortunately 
known at the time, a detachment of the British army 
might easily have marched along the Chauss^e, and 
taken possession of the place ere the Republicans could 
possibly have returned, as they had in their retreat 
described a circuitous detour of some miles." • 

Mb. Simpson will perceive, from the above 
extracts, that the brilliant skirmish of Villers en 
Couche took place on April 24th ; whereas the 
defeat of the French army under Chapuy did not 
occur until two days later. A lar^^e quantity of 
ammunition and thirty-five pieces of cannon were 
then captured ; and although the writer does not 
mention the number who were killed on the part 
of the enemy, yet, as he states that Chapuy and 
near 400 of bis men were made prisoners, their 
loss by death was no doubt proportionately large. 

The 15th Hussars have long borne on their 
colours the memorable words ** Villers en Couche" 
to commemorate the daring valour they displayed 
on that occasion. T. C. Smith. 

In CruttwelFs Universal Gazetteer (1808), this 
^lage, which is five miles north-east of Cambray, 
18 described as being '* remarkable for an action 
between the French and the Allies on the 24th of 
April, 1794.** The following officers of the 15th 

regiment of light dragoons are there named as 
having afterwards received crosses of the Order of 
Maria Theresa for their gallant behaviour, from 
the Emperor of Germany, viz. : 

" Major W. Aylett, Capt, Robert Pocklington, Capt. 
Edw. Michael Ryan, Lieut. Thos. Granby Calcraft, 
Lieut. Wm. Keir, Lieut. Chas. Burrel Blount, Cornet 
Edward Gerald Butler, and Cornet Robert Thos. 

D. S. 


(Vol. viii., p. 33.) 

The Surrey snails referred to by H. T. Hilet, 
are thus mentioned by Aubrey in his account of 
Box Hill : 

** On the south downs of this county (Surrey), and 
in those of Sussex, are the biggest snails that ever I 
saw, twice or three times as big as our common snails, 
which are the BavoU or Drivalle, which Mr. Elias 
Ashmole tells me that the Lord Marshal brought 
from Italy, and scattered them on the Downs here- 
abouts, and between Albury and Horsley, where are 
the biggest of all.*' 

Again, Aubrey, in his Natural History of Wilt' 
shire, says : 

" The great snailes on the downes at Albury, in 
Surrey (twice as big as ours) were brought from Italy 
by * ♦ * Earle Marshal, about 1638." — Aubrey's 
History, p. 10., edited by John Britton, F.S.A., pub- 
lished by the Wiltshire Topographical Society, 1 847. 

The first of these accounts, from Aubrey's Surrey, 
I have quoted in my Promenade round Dorking, 
2nd edit. 1823, p. 274., and have added in a note : 

" This was one of the Earls of Arundel. It is pro- 
bably from this snail account that the error, ascribing 
the planting of the box (on Box Hill) to one of the 
Earls of Arundel, has arisen. The snails were brought 
thither for the Countess of Arundel, who was accus- 
tomed to dress and eat them for a consumptive com- 

When I lived at Dorking (1815—1821) a breed 
of large white snails was found on Box Hill. 

John Times. 

Mr. H. T. Rilet is informed that the breed of 
white snails he refers to is to be plentifully found 
in the neighbourhood of Shere. I have found 
them frequently near the neighbouring village of 
Albury, on St. Martha*s Hill, and I am told they 
are to be met with in the lanes as far as Dorking. 
I have always heard that they were imported for 
the use of a lady who was in a consumption ; but 
who this was, or when it happened, I have never 
been able to ascertain. Kbdlam. 

The breed of large white snails is to be found 
all along the escarpment of the chalk range, and is 

Aug. 6. 1853.] 


BOt confined to SurrOT. It ia said to have been 
introduced into England bj Sir Eenelm Digbj, 
Wid was considered very nutritious and wholeiome 
for consuniptire patients. About the end of the 
kst century I was in the habit of collectin_g a few 
of tbe common garden snails from the fruit'trees, 
and taking them every morning to a lady who was 
in a delicale atate of health ; sbe took them boiled 
or stewed, or cooked in some manner witb milk, 
making a mucilaginous drink. E. H. 

I have eomewbere read of the introduction of a 
foreign breed of snails into Cambridgeahire, I 
forget the exact locality, for the table of the 
monks who imported them ; but unfortunately it 
was before I commenced making *■ notes " on tbe 
subject, and I have not been able to recollect 
where to find it. Seledcds. 

(Vol. Tiii., p. 76.) 

This inscription ia not " in Earl Bathurst's 
|HU'k," as your correspondent A. Smitr saya, but 
IS in Oakley Woods, situated at some three or four 
miles' distance from Cirencester, and being sepa- 
rated and quite distinct from the park j nor ia the 
inscription correctly copied. Hudder, in bis new 
HUtory of Oloueeitershire, 1779, says: 

" Concealed u it were in the wood atands Airred'a 
Ball, a building that has the sembUnce of great aii- 
tiquily. Over the door opposite to the south entrance, 
on the inside, is the follawmg inscription in the Saion 
character and language [of whicli there follows ■ 
copy]. Over the south door is the fuUowiiig Latin 
translation : 

" ' Fcedua quod ^Ifrodua & Gylhrunus reges, 
omnea Aitj^lla tapiaita, Sf piicuig ; Angllnm incolebant 
orientalem, ferierunt ; & non aolum de aeipsia, verum 
etiam de natfa suis, ac nondum in lucem editis, quot. 
quot miiencoTdiie divintc aut regiv Telint esse parti- 
cipe^ jurcjurando sanierunt. 

'"I'rimd ditionis nostra fines ad TAainesin eie- 
huiitur, inde ad Leam uaq; ad fontem ejus ; turn recta 
ad BedlbrdUin, *ac deniq; per Usam ad viam Vete- 

I copy from Rudder, with the atopa and con- 
tracted " et's," as they stand in his work ; though 
I think the original has points between each word, 
SS marked by A. Smith. 

The omissions and mistakes of your correspon- 
dent (whiuh you will perceive are important) are 
marked in Italics above. 

Rudder adds, — 

■' Behind this building is a ruin with a stone on the 
chimney-piece, on which, in ancient characters leliered 
on the stone, is this inscription : 

who should not have Informed the reader that this 
building ia an eicellent imiutiun of antiquity. The 
name, the inscription, and the ivrlting over the doors, 
of the eonrention between the good king and his pagan 
enemies, were probably all suggested by the similarity 
of Achelie, the ancient name of this place, to ^cglta, 
where King Alfred tested with bis army the night 
before he attacked the Danish camp at Ethandun, 
and at length forced their leader Godrum, or Cuthrum, 
or Gormund, to make such convention." 

It is many years since I saw the inscription, and 
then I made no note of it ; but I have no doubt 
that Rudder baa given it correctly, because when 
I was a young man I was intimately acquainted 
with him, who was then an aged person ; and a 
curious circumstance that occurred between ua, 
and is still full in my memory, impressed me with 
tbe idea of his great precision and exactness. 

I would remark on tbe explanation given by 
Rudder, that the Iglea of Asser is supposed by 
Camden, Gibson, Gougb, and Sir Richard Colt 
Hoare to be Clayhill, eastward of Warminster ; 
and Ethandun to be Ediiielan, about three miles 
eastward of Weslbury, both in Wilts. 

Asser says that, " in the same year," the year of 
tjie battle, " the army of tbe pagans, departing 
from Chippenham, as had been promised, went to 
Cireneealer, where they remained one year." 

On tbe signal defeat of Guthrum, be gave bos- 
tages to Alfred ; and it is probable that, if any 
treaty was made between them, it was made im- 
mediately after the battle j and not that Alfred 
came from liia fortress of ^Ihelivgay to meet 
Guthrum at Cirencester, where bis army lay afler 
leaving Chippenham. 

If the treaty was made soon af^r the battle, it 
might have been at Alfred's Hall near Cirences- 
ter, especially if Hampton (Minchinhampton in 
Glonceaterahire), which ia only six miles from 
Oakley Wood, be the real site of the ^reat and 
important battle, as was, a few years since, very 
plausibly argued by Mr. John Marka Moflatt, in a 

Eaper inserted, with the signature " J. M. M.," in 
irayley's Graphic and Hialoricalllhatrator, p. 106. 
et teq., 1834. 

The mention of Rudder's Illstory brings to my 
mind an inscription over the door of Westbury 
Court, which I noticed when a boy at school, in 
the village of Westbury in this county. This man- 
sion was taken down during the minority of Mav- 
nard Colchester, Esq., the present owner of tbe 
estate. Rudder, in bis account of that parish, has 
preserved the inscription — 

" It would have been inexcusable in the topographer 
to have passed by so eurioui a place without notice ; 
but the bislariau would have bten equally culpable 

He reads the first three letters "Deo Optimo 
Maximo," and says the subsequent line contains 
the initials of the following hexameter : 


[No. 197. 

alluding to the successive descent of property fron 
one generation to another. 

Perhaps one of your reitdera may be enabled tc 
tell me whether the above line be original, oi 
copied, and from whom. P. H. Fibbeb 


The agreement referred to is no other than 
the famous treaty of peace between Alfred and 
Guthrun, whose name, by the substitution of at 
initial " L." for a " G.," among various other inac- 
curacies for which your corrcapondent is perhapf 
not responsible, has been disguised under the form 
of "LvthrTnvs." The inscription itself forma the 
commencement of the treaty, which is stated, in 
Turner's Anglo- Saxoas, book iv. ch. t., to be still 
extant. It ia translated as follows, in Lambard'e 
4pX«o«V"«, p. 36. ; — 

"Fndus quoJ AlureJui & Gjthruaui r^ei » w- 
plenlum Anglorum, alque eorum ommuiii qui orLea- 
talem incolebuit Angliam oonsiilto ferieroDt, !□ quod 
praterea sioguU uan boIlub de se ipns, verum etUm ie 
nJitis suls, Bc nondum in lucem editii (quotquot saltern 
miserioorcli« ditinc aut regie veliat cste participes), 

"Ftimo i^tur diiionii nostra fines ad Thameehn 
AuTinm evehuntor : Inde od Leam flumen profecti. ad 
fontem ejui deferuntor: turn recti ad Bedfcmliani por- 
riguDtor. ae denique per Usam fluriuiniiorrecti kd Tiam 
Vetelingianam deainuntD." 

Another translation will be found in Wilkins's 
I^etAnglo-SaxonKie, p. 47., and the Saxon ori- 
^ual in both. As to the boundaries here defined, 
see note in Spelman's Alfred, p. 36, 

At Cirencester Guthrun remained for twelve 
months afler his baptism, according to his treaty 
with Alfred. (See Sim. Dmulm. dcge^ii Region 
Angloram, sub anno 679.) J. F. M" . 

Ctruous ctrstOH c 



W. Wt alluding to such a castora at Marshfield, 
Maaaachnaeta, asks "if this custom ever did, or 
doM now exist in the mother country?" The 
curiosity is that jour worthy Querist has nevDr 
beard of it ! Dating from Malta, it may be he has 
never been in our ringiitg i^antl .- for it must be 
known to every Englishman, that the custom, 
varying no doubt in different localities, exists in 
every pariah in England. 

Tacpaagi?is bell is of older date than the canon 
of our church, which directs " that when any is 
passing out of this life, a bell shall be tolled, and 
the mmiater shal! not then slack to do bia daty. 
And after the party's death, if h so fall ont, thai 
shall b« rung no more than one ibort peaL" 

It is interesting to learn that our colouiata keep 
up this custom of their mother country. 

In this parish, the custom has been to ring as 
quickly aftj^r death as the aexton can be found; 
and toe like prevails elsewhere. I have known 
persons, lenaible of their approaching death, direct 
the bell at once to be tolled. 

Durand, in his Rituali of the Roman Church, 
aays : " For expiring persons bells must be tolled. 

And auch ia Btill the general custom : either before 
or after the hteli ia rung, to toil three times three, 
or three times two, at intervals, to mark the sex.* 
"Defunctos plorare" is probably ag old as any 
use of a bell ; but there is every reason to beliere^ 
that — 

" the ringiDg oF bells at the departure of the soul (to 
quote from Brewster's Eney, ) originated in the darkest 
ag«a, but with a different view fram that in which the; 
■re DOW employed. It was to avert the inlluenoe of 
Demons. Bui if the Biiperstition of our ancestort 
did not originate in this ima^nary virtue, while Ibey 
preaerved the practice, it is cerlaia tbey believed the 
mere nolae had the asme effect; and as, according to 
their ideas, evil apirita were always hoTering around to 
make ■ prey of departing louls, the tolling of belli 
struck them with terror. We may trace the practio* 
of tolling bells during funerals to the like aource^ This 
baa been practised from times of great antiquity ; the 
bells being muffled, fin the nke of greater solemnity, 
in the aame way as drums are muffled at mililary 

H. T. Ellacohbb. 
iteclory, Qyat Sl George. 

At St. James' Church, Hull, on the occurrence 
of a death in the parish, a bell is tolled quickly 
for about the space of ten minutes ; and before 
ceasing, nine knells g^ven if the deceased be a 
man, six if a woman, and three if a child. As far 
as I have been able to ascertain, the custom is 
now almost peculiar to the north of England ; but 
in ancient limca it must have been very general 
according to Durandua, who has the following in 
his ila/iona^e, lib. i. cap. 4. 13.: 

" Verum allquo morlente, cnmpanx dcbent pulsari; 
ul populus hoe audiens, oret pro illo. Pro muliero 
quidem l>i$, pro co quod invenit asperitatem .... Pro 

vicibus simpulsatur. quot ordines h 
ultimum vero compulsiirl debet cum o: 
■ populuspioquositoranduc 

1. aid Cult., I 

. 176. 

—Mr. SlruU** 

* This custom of three tolls for a nun, and [wo for 
1 woman, ia tlius eipiained in an ancient Homily on 
rHnity Sunday: — " At the deth of a meune, three 
ImIIi ^ould be ronge as hit knyll in worship of the 
Trinitie. And for a woman, who wai the second per- 
il^ of the Trinitie, two bells should be ronge." 

Aug. 6. 1853.] 



Also a passage is quoted from an old English 
Homily, ending with : 

" At the deth of a manne three bell is 'shulde be 
ronge, as his knyll, in worscheppe of the Trinetee ; and 
for a womanne, who was the secunde persone of the 
Trinetee, two bellls should be rungen." 

In addition to the intention of the "passing- 
bell," afforded by Durandus above, ijb has been 
thought that it was rung to drive away the evil 
spirits, supposed to stand at the foot of the bed 
ready to seize the soul, that it might '* gain start." 
Wynkyn de Worde, in his Golden Legend^ speaks 
of the dislike of spirits to bells. In alluding to 
this subject, "Wheatly, in his work on the Book of 
Common Prayer, chap. xi. sec. viii. 3., says : 

** Our Church, in imitation of the Saints of former 
ages, calls in the minister, and others who are at hand, 
to assist their brother in his last extremity." 

The 67th canon enjoins that, " when any one is 
passing out of this life, a bell shall be tolled, and 
the minister shall not then slack to do his duty. 
And after the party's death, if it so fall out, there 
shall be rung no more than one short peaV* 

Several other quotations might be adduced 
(vid. Brand's Antiq,, vol. ii. pp. 203, 204. from 
which much of the above has been derived) to 
show that " one short peal " was ordered only to 
be rung after the Reformation : the custom of 
signifying the sex of the deceased by a certain 
number of knells must be a relic, therefore, of very 
ancient usage, and unauthorised by the Church. 

R. W. Elliot. 


was living in Bremen, and who, in her correspon- 
dence with her brother, had been rallying him 
about the American spirit-rappings, and other 
Yankee humbug, as she styled it, so rampant in 
the United States. Her brother instanced this 
table-moving, performed in America, as no delusion, 
but as a fact, which might be verified by any one ; 
and then gave some directions for making the 
experiment, which was forthwith attempted at the 
lady's house in Bremen, and with perfect success, 
in the presence of a large company. In a few 
days the marvellous feat, the accounts of which 
flew like wildfire all over the country, was exe- 
cuted by hundreds of experimenters in Bremen. 
The subject was one precisely adapted to excite 
the attention and curiosity of the imaginative and 
wonder-loving Germans; and, accordingly, in 
a few days after, a notice of the strange pheno- 
menon appeared in The Times, in a letter from 
Vienna, and, through the medium of the leading 
journal, the facts and experiments became rapidly 
diffused over the world, and have been repeated 
and commented upon ten thousand fold. As the 
experiment and its results are now brought within 
the domain of practical science, we may hope to 
sep them soon freed from the obscurity and uncer- 
tainly which still envelope them, and assigned to 
their proper place in the wondrous system of 
** Him, in whom we live, and move, and have our 
being." John Maceat. 



(Vol. viii., p. 57.) 

Respecting the origin of this curious pheno- 
menon in America, I am not able to give your 
correspondent, J. G. T. of Hagley, any inform- 
ation ; but it may interest him and others among 
the readers of " N. & Q." to have some account 
of what appears to be the first recorded experi- 
ment, made in Europe, of table-moving. These 
experiments are related in the supplement (now 
lying before me) to the AUgemeine Zeitung of 
April 4, by Dr. K. Andree, who writes from 
Bremen on the subject. His letter is dated 
March 30, and begins by stating that the whole 
town had been for eight days preceding in a state 
of most peculiar excitement, owing to a pheno- 
menon which entirely absorbed the attention of 
all, and about which no one had ever thought 
before the arrival of the American steam-ship 
" Washington " from New York. Dr. Andree 
proceeds to relate that the information respect- 
ing table-moving was communicated in a letter, 
brought through that ship, from a native of 
Bremen, residing in New York, to his sister, who 


(Vol. vii., pp. 475. 600.) 

" Religious freedom was at that time [the middle of 
the sixteenth century] enjoyed in Poland to a degree 
unknown in any other part of Europe, where generally , 
the Protestants were persecuted by the Romanists, or 
the Romanists by the Protestants. This freedom, united 
to commercial advantages, and a wide field for the exer- 
cise of various talents, attracted to Poland crowds of 
foreigners, who iled their native land on account of 
religious persecution ; and many of whom became, by 
their industry and talents, very useful citizens of their 
adopted country. There were at Cracow, Vilna, Posei^ 
&c., Italian and French Protestant congregations, A 
great number of Scotch settled in different parts of 
Poland ; and there were Scotch Protestant congr^a- 
tions not only in the above-mentioned towns, but also 
in other places, and a particularly numerous one at 
Kieydany, a little town of Lithuania, belonging to the 
Princes Radziwill. Amongst the Scotch families set- 
tled in Poland, the principal were the Bonars, who 
arrived in that country hefore the Heformation, but 
became its most zealous adherents. This family rose, 
by its wealth, add the great merit of several of its 
members, to the highest dignities of the state, but b&f 
came extinct during the seventeenth century. There 
are even now in Poland many families of Scotch de- 
scent belonging to the class of nobles ; as, for instance, 



[No. 197. 

tlic Hsliburtani, Wllsani, Fergusei, Stuarts, HftsUn, 
Watsons. &c. Tvo PratettHiit clergymen of Scotch 
origin, Fonjlh and Inglis, have composed lome sacred 
poetTf. But the most eontpicuous of all the Polish 
Seolchinen is undoubtedly Dr. John Johnstone [born 
in PoUnd 1603, died 16T5], perhaps the most remark- 
able writer of the serenteenth century on natural his- 
torj-. It seems, indeed, that there is a mysterious linL 
connecting the two distant countries ; because, if many 
Scotsmen had in bygone days sought and found a 
wcond tatherland in Poland, a strong and acliie sym- 
pathy for the sufferings of the last-named country, and 
her exiled children, has been evinced in our own times 
by the natives of Scotland in general, and by some of 
the most distinguished amongst them in pirlicular. 
Thui it was an eminent bard of Caledonia, the gifted 
author of The Pkmurn of Hopt, who, when 

' Sarmatia fell, unwept, without a crime,' 
ha* thrown, by bis immortal strains, over the &II of her 
liberty, ■ halo of glory which will remain unfaded as 
long as the Eni;1ish language lasts. The name of 
Thomas Campbell is venerated throughout all Pohnd; 
but there is also another Scotch name [Lord Dudley 
Stuart} which is enshrined in the heart of every true 
Pole."— From Count ValerUn Krasinski's Skttch of 
the Stligioii Hiitory of the Sclavonic NUlioaj, p. 167. : 
Edinburgh, Johnstone and Hunter, 18S1. 



(VoL vii., pp. 548. 629.) 
IthinkTsE Wbiterof "Commdnii 
THE Un9EBH World " would hiive some difficulty 
in referrinn; to the works on which he bnsed the 
Btatement that " it was a tradition in Mexico that 
when that form (the cross) should be victorious, 
the old Ttjliginn should disappear, and that a 
eimtlar tradition attached to it at Aleiandria." 
He doubtless made the statement from memorj, 
and uniDlentionally confounded two distinct facts, 
-viz. that the Mexicans worshipped the cross, and 
bad prophetic Intimations of the downfall of their 
nation and religion bj the oppression of bearded 
Btrangers from the East. The quotation hj Mr. 
Peacock at p. S49., quoted also in Purchas' Pil- 
grima, vol. v., proves, as do other authorities, that 
the cross was worshipped in Mexico prior to the 
Spanish invasion, and therefore it was impossible 
that the belief mentioned hy The Wbitbs, &c. 
could have prevailed. 

On the first discovery of Yucatan, — 
" Grijaha was astonished at the sight of large crosses, 
evidently objects of worship." — Prcscolt's Mtxito, 
vol. i. p. 203. 

The cross on the Temple of Serapis, mentioned in 
Socrates' Ecc. Hut., was undoubtedly the well- 
known Crux aiaata, the symbol of life. It was as 

the latter tliat the heathens appealed to it, and the 
Christians explained it to them as fulfilled in the 
Death of Christ. 
Mb. Peacock asks for other instances : T subjmn 

In India. — The great pagoda at Benares is 
btiilt in the form of a cross, (Maurice's Ind, 
Ant., vol. iii. p. 31., City, Tavernier.) 

On a Buddhist temple of cyelopean structure 
at Muadore (Tod's Rajasthan, vol. i. p. 727.), the 
cross appears as a sacred figure, together witb 
the double triangle, another emblem of very wide 
distribution, occurring on ancient British eotni 
(Camden's Bn'tonniiw), Central American build- 
ings (Norman's Travels in Yucatan), amonj; the 
Jews as the Shield of David (Brucker's HUtary 
of Philoiophy), and a well-known masonic symbol 
frequently introduced into Gothic ecclesiastical 

In Palettine. — 

" According to R. Solomon Jarchi, the Talmud, and 
Maimonides, when the priest sprinkled the blood of 
the victim on the consecrated cakes and hallawed 
utensils, he was always careful to do it in the form of 
a croif. The same symbol was used whrn the kings 
and high priests were anointed." — Faber's Horn 
Moiaica, vol. ii. p. I8S. 
See farther hereon, Dcano on Serpent Worship. 

In Persia. — The trefoil on which the sacrifices 
were placed was probably held sacred from its 
cruciform character. The cross (*) occurs on 
Persian buildings among other sacred symbols. 
(E. K. Porter's Travels, vol. ii.) 

In Britaia. — The cross was formed by baring 
a tree to a stump, and inserting another crosswise 
on tbe top ; on tbe three arms thus formed were 
inscribed the names of the three principal, or 
triad of gods, Hesas, BeUuuM, and Tarams. The 
stone avenues of the temple at Ciasserniss are 
arranged in the form of a cross. (Borlase's An- 
tiquities of Cornwall.) 

In Scandinavia. — The hammer of Thor was in 
the form of the cross ; see in Herbert's Select let' 
landic Poetry, p. H., and Laing'aKVng's q/'iVonmiy, 
vol. i. pp. 224. 330 , a curious anecdote of King 
Haoon, who, having been converted to Christianity, 
made the sign of the cross when he drank, but 
persuaded his irritated Pagan followers that it was 
the sign of Thor's hammer. 

The Ggure of Thor's hammer was held in the 
utmost reverence by his followers, who were called 
the children of Thor, who in the last day would 
save themselves by his mighty hammer. The 
fiery cross, so welt known by Scott's Tivid de- 
scription, was originally the hammer of Thor, 
which in early Pagan, as in later Christian times, 
was ased as a summons to convene the people 
either to council or to war. (Herbert's Stleet Ice- 
landic Poetry, p. 11.) Edbh Warwick. 

Acq. 6. I6S3.] 




Oloit Chamber* /or Photography. — I am 
lirouB to construct n imsll glau chamber 

Uking portraits in, and Bhall be much oblige 
^ou can BBiiat me hy piving me instractioDi I 
It glioiild be conii meted, or dj dirccting[ me wl 
I si I all find clear and sufficient directions, bi 
dimensions, mnterials, and arrange men la, I: 
essential that it should be all of violet-eoloi 

5 loss, ground at one side, at that irould add a g 
cal to the expense F or vrill nbile glass, witli 
blue gauze curtain* or blinds, aniner P 

I'robablj a full ansirer to this iiic^uirj, ace 

Esnied nitn such woodcut illiutrations as vrt 
e necessarj to render the description comp] 
and such as an artificer could work byr w 
confer a boon on many amateur photographen 
veil as your obliged servant, C. E 

[In the coQitruction of ■ pljotograjiliic houK 
beg lo infurin our corrrtpondent ttiar it is l>]r no m 
aenitixX lo u» entirely violet-coloured glau, but 
roof tliereof rxpowd lo llie rajs o( (lie sun ahouli 
so prolecled ; for alihougli tliu light ii much aubd 
and the glare lo painful to llie eja of (tie sill 
■aken away, yei hut few of the aclinic rsys ura 
■iructed. It hug bren proposed to cost the interior 
amalt mixed with itirch, and Bflcrwards varnished ; 
thia dues not nppear to hnve aniwered. Calico, 
white nnd coloured, has alio been uicd, hut it is 
tainl; not so elTectual or pleaaant. Upon the w' 

the a 


■ir ; blinds Lo be apptird at $uvh tpota only ai 
found rerjuiallr. Adjoining, or in one corner, a ■ 
closet should be provided, admitting only yellow 1 
which nuy be eflecttuilly accompliahed by mear 
yellow calico. A freeiupply of water iaindiapens 
which may be conveyed both to and fram by mes 
the gutta percha tubing now in such geneial uie. 
apprehend, however, thai iha old proverb, " Vou i 
cut jouc conl according lo jour clolh," is mos' 
pGclelly applicalile lo oui qneriat, for not only i 
(he houie be oonitructed according to the advani 
afforded hy the localily, but the amount of ei[ 
will lie very dilTercnlly lliouglit of hy diKerent pen 
one will be content with any moderate arrangei 
which will ansffer the purpose, where anolher wi 
aearcely utiaflcd unleis everything la quite of an 
character. ] 

Dr. DiamotuTi Repliet. — I am sorry I ! 
not before replied to the Queries of jT^^ur 
respondent W.P.E., contained in Vol.viii,, p, 
but absence from home, together with a prei 
of public duties here, bu prevented me froi 

lat. No doubt a tmall portion of tiitrat 
potash ii formed when the iodiied collodion ii 

mersed in the bath of nitrate of silver, by mutual 
decomposition ; but it is in so small a qusnUty h 
not to deteriorate the bath. 

3nd, I t>clieve collodion will keep good much 
longer than is generally supposed ; at the be- 
ginning of last month I obtained a tolerably ^ood 
portrait of Mr. Pollock from some remains m a 
small bottle brought to me by Mr. Archer in 
September 18fi0; and I especially notice tbii fact, 
as it is connected with the first introduction of the 
use of collodion in Ensland. Generally speaking, 
I do not find that it deteriorates in two or three 
months ; the addition of a few drops of the iodizing 
solution will generally restore it, unless it has be- 
come rotten : this, I think, is the cate when the 
gun cotton has not been perfectly freed from the 
acid. The redness which collodion asaumes by 
age, may also be discharged by the addition of a 
few dropi of liquor ammoniEe, but I do not think 
it in any way accelerates its activity of action, 

3rd. "Washed ether," or, as it ia sometimes 
called, " inhaling ether," has been deprived of the 
alcohol which the common ether contains, and it 
will not dissolve tlie gun cotton unless the alcohol 
is restored to it. I would here observe that an 
encesa of alcoliol (spirits of wine) thickens the 
collodion, nnd gives it a mucilaginous appearance, 
rendering it much more dilhcult to use by its 
aWnesa in fiowing over the glass plate, oa well as 
producing a lesa even surface than ivhcn nearly all 
ether ia used. A collodion, however, with thirty- 
five per cent, of spirits of wine, is very quick, 
allowing from its leas tenacious quality a more 
rapid action of the nitrate of silver bath. 

4tb. Cyanide of potassium has been used to re- 
dissolve the ioilide of silver, but the results are by 
no means so satisfactory ; the cost of pure iodide 
of potassium bought at a proper market is certainly 
very inconsiderable compared to the disappoint- 
ment resulting from a false economy. 


Surrey County Asylum. 

Trial of Lenaet. — When you want to try a 
lens, first be sure that tlie slides of your camera 
are correctly constructed, wliicb ia easily done. 
Place at any distanco you please a sheet of paper 
printed In small type; focus thia on your ground 
glaas with the OBsistance of a magnifying-glass ; 
now take the slide which carries your plate of 
glass, and if you have not a piece of ground glasa 
at hand, insert a plate which you would otherwise 
excite in the bath after the application of collodion, 
but now dull it by touching it with putty. Ob- 
serve whether you get an equally clear and well- 
focuBsed picture on this ; if you do, you may con- 
clude there ia no fault in the construction of your 

Having ascertained this, take a chess-board, and 
place the pieces on the row of squares which rua 



[No. 197. 

from corner to corner ; focas the middle one^ 
whether it be king, queen, or knight, and take a 
picture; you will soon see whether the one best in 
the visual focus is the best on the picture, or 
whether the piece one or more squares in advance 
or behind it is clearer than the one you had pre- 
liously in focus. The chess-board must be set 
square with the camera, so that each piece is 
farther oflf by one square. To vary the experi- 
ment, you may if you please stick a piece of 
printed paper on each piece, which a little gum or 
common bees'-wax will effect for you. 

In taking portraits, if you are not an adept in 
obtaining a focus, cut a slip of newspaper about 
four inches long, and one and a half wide, and 
turn up one end so as it may be held between the 
lips, taking care that the rest be presented quite 
flat to the camera ; with the help of a magnifying- 
glass set a correct focus to this, and afterwards 
draw in the tube carrying the lenses about one- 
sixteenth of a turn of the screw of the rackwork. 
This will give a medium focus to the head : ob- 
serve, as the length of focus in different lenses 
varies, the distance the tube is moved must be 
Learned by practice. W. M. F. 

Is it dangerous to use the Ammonio-Nilrate of 
i^ilver f — Some time ago I made a few ounces of 
a solution of ammonio -nitrate of silver for printing 
positives; this I have kept in a yellow coloured 
glass bottle with a ground stopper. 

I have, however, been much alarmed, and re- 
frained from using it or taking out the stopper, 
lest danger should arise, in consequence of reading 
in Mr. Deiamotte*s Practice of Photography, p. 95. 
(vide " Ammonia Solution ") : 

** If any of the ammonio •nitrate dries round the 
stopper of the bottle in which it is kept, the least 
friction will cause it to explode violently ; it is therefore 
better to keep none prepared.*' 

As in pouring this solution out and back into 
the bottle, of course the solution will dry around 
the stopper, and, if this account is correct, may 
momentarily lead to danger and accident, I will 
ifeel obliged by being informed by some of your 
learned correspondents whether any such danger 
exists. Hugh H£kd£bson. 

Burke's Marriage (Vol. vii., p. 382.). — Burke 
married, in 1756, the daughter of Dr. Nugent of 
Bath. (See Nat. Cycl, s. v. *' Burke.") 

P. J. F. Gantillon, B. A. 

The House of FalahiU (, p. 533.). —As 
I have not observed any notice taken of the very 
interesting Query of Abrbdoniensis, regarding^ 

s ancient baronial residence, I may state that 
I ! is a Falahill,. or Falahall, in the parish of 

Heriot, in the county of Edinburgh. Whether it 
be the FalahiU referred to by Nisbet as having 
been so profusely illuminated with armorial bear- 
injjs, I cannot tell. Possibly either Messrs. Laing, 
Wilson, or Cosmo Innes might be able to give 
some information about this topographical and 
historical mystery. Stobnowat. 

Descendants of Judas Iscariot ( Vol.viii., p. 56.). — 
There is a collection of traditions as to this person 
in extracts I have among my notes, which perhaps 
you may think fit to give as a reply to Mb. 
Creed's Query. It runs as follows : 

" On dit dans TAnjou et dans le Maine que Judas 
Iscariot est ne a Sable ; la-dessus on a fait ce vers: 

* Pcrfidus Judaeus Sabloliensis erat.* 

** Les Bretons disent de meme qu*il est ne au Nor- 
mandie entre Caen et Rouen, et i ce propos lis reeitoif 
ces vers . 

* Judas etoit Normand, 

Tout le monde le dit — 
Entre Caen et Rouen, 
Ce maUieureux naquit. 
II vendit son Seigneur pour trente marcs contants. 
Au diable soient tous les Normands.* 

^ On dit de meme sans raison que Judas avoit dn- 
meui e a Corfi>u, et qu*ii y est ne. Pietro della Valle 
rapporte dans ses Voyages qu'etant a Corfou on lui 
montra par rarete un bomme que ceux du pays assu- 
roient etre de la race du traitre Judas — quoiqu'U le 
nidt. C'est un bruit qui court depuis long terns ea 
cette coutr^e, sans qu'on en sache la c»use ni Torigine. 
Le peuple de la ville de Ptolemais (autrement de 
I'Acre) disoit de meme sans raison que dans une tour de 
cette ville on avoit fabriqu^ les trente deniers pour 
lesquelles Judas avoit vendu notre Seigneur, et pour 
cela ils appelloient cette tour la Tour Maudite.** 

This is taken from the second volume of JHfe- 
nagiana, p. 232. J. H. P. Lbreschs. 


Milton's Widow (Vol. viii., p. 12.).— The in- 
formation once promised by your correspondent 
Cbanmobe still seems very desirable, because the 
statements of your correspondent Mb. Hughbs 
are not reconcilable with two letters given in 
Mr. Hunter's very interesting historical tract on 
Milton, pages 37-8., to which tract I beg to refer 
Mb. Hughes, who may not have seen it. These 
letters clearly show that Richard Minshull, the 
writer of them, had only two aunts^ neither of 
whom could have been Mrs. Milton, as she must 
have been if she was the daughter of the writer's 
grandfather, Randall MinshuU. Probably 1^ 
Blizabeth died in infancy, which the Wistaston 
parish register may show, and which roister 
would perhaps also ahow (supposing Milton took 
his wife from Wistaston) the wanting marriage ; 
or if Mrs. Milton was of the Stoke-MinshuU fa- 
mily, that parish register would most likely dis- 

Aug. 6. 1853.] 



dose hiff third marriage, wbich eertainlj did not 
take place sooner than 1662. Gabuchithb. 

Whitaker's Ingenious Earl (VpL viiL, p. 9.)« — 
It was a frequent saying of Lord Stanhope's, that 
he had tanght law to the Lord Chancellor, and 
divinity to the Bishops ; and this saying gave rise 
, to a carieature, where his lordship is seated acting 
the schoolmaster with a rod in his hand. £. H. 

Are White Cats deaff (Vol. vii., p.331.).— 
In looking up your Numbers for April, I observe 
a Minor Query signed Shiblet Hibbebd, in 
which your querist states that in all white cats 
stupidity seemed to accompany the deafness, and 
inquires whether any instance can be given of a 
white cat possessing the function of hearing in 
anything like perfection. 

I am myself possessed of a white cat which, at 
the advanced age of upwards of seventeen years, 
still retains its hearing to great perfection, and is 
remarkably intelligent and devoted, more so than 
cats are usually given credit.for. Its affection for 
persons is, indeed, more like that of a dog than of 
a cat. It is a half-bred Persian cat, and its eyes 
are perfectly blue, with round pupils, not elon- 
gated as those of cats usually are. It occasionally 
suffers from irritation in the ears, but this has 
not at all resulted in deafness. H. 

Consecrated Roses (Vol. vii., pp. 407. 480. ; 
Vol. viii., p. 38.). — From the communication of 
P. P. P. it seems that the origin of the consecration 
of the rose dates so far back as 1049, and was " en 
reconnaissance " of a singular privilege granted to 
the abbey of St. Croix. Can your correspondent 
refer to any account of the origin of the conse- 
cration or blessing of the sword, cap, or keys ? 


The Reformed Faith (Vol. vii., p. 359.). — I 
must protest against this term being applied to 
the system which Henry VIII. set up on his re- 
jecting the papal supremacy, which on almost 
every point but that one was pure Popery, and 
for refusing to conform to which he burned Pro- 
testants and Roman Catholics at the same pile. 
It suited Cobbett (in his History of the Reform- 
ation), and those controversialists who use him 
as their text-book, to confound this system with 
the doctrine of the existing Church of England, 
but it is to be regretted that any inadvertence 
should have caused the use of similar lanofuage in 
your pages. J. S. Wabden. 

House-marhs (Vol. vii., p. 594.). — It appears 
to me that the house-marks he alluded to may be 
traced in what are called merchants' marks, still 
employed in marking bales of wool, cotton, Sec, and 
which are found on tombstones in our old churches, 
incised in the slab durincr the sixteenth and seven- 

teenth centuries, and which tilt hLtely puzzled the 
heralds. They were borne by merchants who had 
no arms. £. G. Batj.atmk 

Trash (Vol. vii., p. 566.). — The late Mr. 
Scatchard, of Morley, near Leeds, speaking in 
Hone*s Table Book of the Yorkshire custom of 
trashing, or throwing an old shoe for luck over a 
wedding party, says .- 

'< Although it is true that an old shoe is to this day 
called * a trash/ yet it did not, certainly, give the name 
to the nuisance. To * trash * originally signified to 
clog, encumber, or impede the progress of any one 
(see Todd's Johnson) ; and, agreeably to this explana- 
tion, we find the rope tied by sportsmen round the 
necks of fleet pointers to tire them well, and dieck 
their speed, is hereabouts universally called *■ trash 
cord,* or *dog trash.* A few miles distant from 
Morley, west of Leeds, the • Boggart * or * Barguest,* 
the Yorkshire Brownie is called by the people the 
Gui-trathy or Ghei-irash, the usual description of which 
is inimriably that of a shaggy dog or other animal, en- 
cumbered with a chain round its neck, which is heard 
to rattle in its movements. I have heard the common 
people in Yorkshire say, that they * have been trashing 
about all day ; * using it in the sense of having had a 
tiring walk or day*s work. 

" East of Leeds the * Boggart * is called the Pad^ 

Adamsoniana (Vol. vii., p. 500.). — Michel 
AdaTzson (not Adamson), who has left his name to 
the gigantic Baobab tree of Senegal {Adansoma 
digitata), and his memory to all who appreciate 
the advantages of a natural classification of plants 
— for which Jussieu was indebted to him — was 
the son of a gentleman, who after firmly attaching 
himself to the Stuarts, left Scotland and entered 
the service of the Archbishop of Aix. The En- 
cyclopcedia Britannica, and, I imagine, almost all 
biographical dictionaries and similar works, con- 
tain notices of him. His devoted life has deserved 
a more lengthened chronicle. Seleucus. 

Your correspondent E. H. A., who inquires re- 
specting the family of Michel Adamson, or Michael 
Adamson, is informed that in France, the country 
of his birth, the name is invariably written "Adan- 
son ;" while the author of Fanny of Caernarvon, or 
the War of the Roses, is described as "John Adam- 
son." Both names are pronounced alike in French; 
but the difierence of spelling would seem adverse 
to the supposition that the family of the botanist 
was of Scottish extraction. Henry H. Bbeen. 

St. Lucia. 

Portrait of Cromwell (Vol. viii., p. 55.). — The 
portrait inquired after by Mb. Rix is at the 
jDritish Museum. Being placed over the cases in 
the long gallery of natural history, it is extremely 
di^ult to be seen. JoBir Bbvcb; 



[No. 197. 

Burke's ''Mighty Boar of the Forest'' (Vol. iii., 
p. 493. ; Vol. iv., p. 391.)' — It is not, I hope, too 
late to notice that !Burke*s description of Junius is 
an allusion neither to the Iliadj xiii. 471., nor to 
Psalm Ixxx. 8-13., but to the Iliad, xvii. 280-284. 
I cannot resist quoting the lines containing the 
simile, at once for their applicability and their 
own innate beauty : 

Kawplipj ooT* iu 6ptaai Kxivas doK^pois r* difyohs 
*Prittites ^Kc'Sfluro'cv, i\i^<^fyos 8td fi^ffffos, 
Us vihs TcAoftwvos.*' 

W. Fraseb. 

" Amentium hand Amaniium" (Vol. vii., p. 595.). 
— The following English translation may be con- 
sidered a tolerably close approximation to the 
alliteration of the original : '' Of dotards not of the 
doting." It is found in the Dublin edition of 
Terence, published by J. A. Phillips, 1845. 

C. T. R. 

Mr. Phillips, in his edition, proposes as a trans- 
lation of this passage, " Of dotards, not of the 
doting:' Whatever may be its merits in other 
respects, it is at all events a more perfect alliter- 
ation than the other attempts which have been 
recorded in " N. & Q." Erica.. 


When I was at school I used to translate the 
phrase '' Amentium baud amantium ** (Ter. Andr,, 
1. 3. 13.) ''Lunatics, not lovers," Perhaps that may 
satisfy Fidus Imterpres. n. B. 

A friend of mine once rendered this " Lubbers, 
not lovers." P. J. F. Gantillon, B. A. 

Talleyrand's Maxim (Vol. vi., p. 575. ; Vol. vii., 
p. 487.). — Young^s lines, to which Z. E. B. refers, 

** Where Nature's end of language is declined. 
And men talk only to conceal their mind." 

With less piquancy, but not without the germ of 
the same idea. Dean Moss (ob. 1729), in his ser- 
mon Of the Nature and Properties of Christian 
Humility, says : 

" Gesture is an artificial thing : men may stoop and 
cringe, and bow popularly low, and yet have ambitious 
designs in their heads. And speech is not always the 
just interpreter of the mind : men may use a condescend- 
ing style, and yet swell inwardly with big thoughts of 
themselves." — Sermons, ^c, 1737, vol. vii. p. 402. 


English Bishops deprived by Queen Elizabeth 
(Vol. vii., pp. 260. 344. 509.).— The following par- 
ticulars concerning one of the Marian Bishops are 
at A. S. A.*s service. Cuthbert Scot, D.D., some- 
time student, and, in 1553, Master of Christ*s 
Church College, Cambridge, was made Vice-Chan- 

ccUor of that University in 1554-5 ; and had the 
temporalities of the See of Chester handed to him 
by Queen Mary in 1556. He was one of Cardinal 
Pole*s delegates to the University of Cambridge, 
and was concerned in most of the political move- 
ments of the day. He, and four other bishops, 
with as many divines, undertook to defend tbe 
principles and practices of the Bomish Church 
against an equal number of Beformed divines. On 
the 4th of April he was confined, either in the 
Fleet Prison or the Tower, for abusive language 
towards Queen Elizabeth ; but having by some 
means or other escaped from durance, he retired 
to Louvain, where he died, according to Bymer*s 
F(zdera, about 1560. T. Hughes. 


Gloves at Fairs (Vol. vii., passim,). — To the list 
of markets at which a glove was, or is, hung out, 
may be added Kewport, in the Isle of Wight 
But a Query naturally springs out of such a note, 
and I would ask. Why did a glove indicate that 
parties frequenting the market were exempt from 
arrest ? What was the glove an emblem of? 

W. D— N. 

As the following extract from Gorr*s Liverpool 
Directory appears to bear upon the point, and as 
it does not seem to have yet attracted the atten- 
tion of any of your correspondents, I beg to for- 
ward it : — 

** Its (t. e. LiverpooVs) fair-days are 25th July and 
11th Not. Ten days before and ten days after each 
fair-day, a hand is exhibited in front of the Town-hall, 
which denotes protection; during which time no person 
coming to or going from the town on business con- 
nected with the fiiir can be arrested for debt within its 

I have myself frequently observed the " hand,** 
although I could not discover any appearance of a 
fair bemg held. B. 

St. Dominic (Vol. vii., p. 356.). — Your cor- 
respondent BooKWOBM will find in any chronology 
a very satisfactory reason why Machiavelli could 
not reply to the summons of Benedict XIV., 
unless, indeed, the Pope had made use of " the 
power of the keys,** to call him up for a brief 
space to satisfy his curiosity. J. S. Warden. 

Names of Plants (Vol.viii., p. 37.).— Ale-hoof 
means useful in, or to, ale; Ground-ivy having 
been used in brewing before the introduction of 
hops. " The women of our northern parts" (says 
John Gerard), " especially about Wales or Cheshire, 
do tunne the herbe Ale-hoof into their ale ... • 
being tunned up in ale and drunke, it also purgeth 
the head from rhumaticke humours flowing from 
the brain.** From the aforesaid tunning, it was 
also called Tun-hoof (eWorld of Words) ; and in 
Gerard, Tune- hoof. 

Aug. 6. 1853.] 



Considering what was meant by Ladj in the 
names of plants, we should refrain from supposing 
that Neottia spiralis was called the Ladj-traces 
*' sensu obsc.," even if those who are more skilled 
in such matters than I am can detect such a 
sense. I cannot learn what a ladj*s traces are ; 
but I suspect plaitings of her hair to be meant. 
*' Upon the spiral sort,'* says Gerard, " are placed 
certaine small white flowers, trace fashion," while 
other sorts grow, he says, " spike fashion," or " not 
trace fashion." Whence I infer, that in his da 

trace conveyed the idea of spiral. 

Specimens of Foreign English (Vol. iii. passim,), 
— I have copied the foUowmg from the label on a 
bottle of liqueur^ manufactured at Marseilles by 
" L. Noilly fils et C'«." The English will be best 
understood by being placed in juxtaposition with 
the original French : 

•* Le Vermouth 
est un Yin blanc l^Srement amer, parfum^ avec des 
plantes aromatiques bienfaisantes. 

** Cette boisson est tonique, stimulante, febrifuge et 
astringente; prise avec de Teau elle est aperitive et 
raffraichissante : elle est aussl un puissant pr^servatif 
contre les fi^vres et la dyssenterie, maladies si frequentes 
dans les pays cbauds, pour lesquels elle a et^ particu- 
lierement compos^e." 

** The Wermouth 
is a brightly bitter and perfumed with aromatical and 
good vegetables white wine. 

** This is tonic, stimulant, febrifuge and costive 
drinking ; mixed with water it is aperitive, refreshing, 
and also a powerful preservative of fivers and bloody- 
flux ; those latters are very usual in warmth countries, 
and of course that liquor has just been particularly 
made up for that occasion.** 

Henbt H. Breen. 

St. Lucia. 

Blanco White (Vol. vij., pp. 404. 486.).— Your 
correspondent H. C. K. is right in his impression 
that the sonnet commencing 

*' Mysterious Night ! when our first parents knew,** &c. 

was written by Blanco White. See his Life 
(3 vols., Chapman, 1845), vol. iii. p. 48. 

J. K. R. W. 

Pistols (Vol. viii., p. 7.). — In Strype's Life of 
Sir Thomas Smith, Worhs^ Ox on. 1821, mention 
is made of a statute or proclamation by the Queen 
in the year 1575, which refers to that of 33 
Hen. VIIL c. 6., alluded to by your correspondent 
J. F. M., and in which the words pistol and pistolet 
are introduced : 

** The Queen calling to mind how unseemly a thing 
it was, in so quiet and peaceable a realm, to have men 
KO armed ; . . . did charge and command all her sub- 
jects, of what estate or degree soever they were, that 
in no wise, in their journeying, going, or riding, they 
carried about them privily or openly any dag, or pistol, 

or any other harquebuse, gun, or such weapon for fire, 
under the length expressed by the statute made by the 
Queen*s most noble father. . . . [Excepting however] 
noblemen and such known gentlemen, which were 
without spot or doubt of evil behaviour, if they carried 
dags or pistolets about them in their journeys, openly, 
at their saddle bows,** &c. 

Here the dag or pistolet seems to answer to our 
" revolvers," and the pistol to our larger horse- 
pistol. H. C. K. 
Rectory, Hereford. 

Passage of Thxtcydides on the Greek Factions 
(Vol. viii., p. 44.). — If L., or any of your readers, 
will take the trouble to compare the passage 
quoted, and the one referred to by him, in the 
following translation of Smith, with Sir A. Alison's 
supposititious quotation* (Vol. vii., p. 594.), they 
will find that my inquiry is still unanswered. 
The passage quoted by L. in Greek is, according 
to Smith : 

'< Prudent consideration, to be specious cowardice ; 
modesty, the disguise of effeminacy ; and being wise in 
everything, to be good for nothing.** 

The passage not quoted, but referred to by L., is : 

** He who succeeded in a roguish scheme was wise ; 
and he who suspected such practices in others was 
still a more able genius.** — Vol. i. book iii. p. 281. 
4to. : London, 1753. 

In this " counterfeit presentment of two bro- 
thers, L. may discern a family likeness ; but my 
inquiry was mr the identical passage, " sword and 
poniard" included. 

If L. desires to find Greek authority for the 
general sentiment only, I would refer him to pas- 
sages, equally to Sir A. Alison*s purpose, in 
Thucydiaes^ iii. 83., viii. 89.; Herodotus^ iii. 81.; 
Plato*s Republic^ viii. 11. ; and Aristotle*s Politics, 
V. 6. 9. I beg to thank L. for his attempt, although 
unsuccessfuL T. J. Bdckton. 


The earliest Mention of the Word ^^ Party** 
(Vol. vii., p. 247.). — In a choice volume, printed 
by "Ihon Day, dwelling over Aldersgate, be- 
neath St. Martmes," 1568, 1 find the word occur- 
ring thus : 

" The paiiy must in any place see to himselfe, and 
seeke to wipe theyr noses by a shorte aunswere.** — A 
Discovery and playne Declaration of the Holy Inquisition 
of Spayne, fol. 10. 

Permit me to attach a Query to this. Am I 
right in considering the above-mentioned book as 
rare? I do so on the assumption that "Ihon 
Day " is the Day of black-letter rarity. 

R. C. Waede. 


* Europe, vol.ix. p. 397., 12mo. 



INo. 197. 

Creole (Vol. vii., p 381.). — It U curious to 
obserre how differently thia word is applied by 
difTerent naUoiu. The English apply it to whi^ 
children born in the West Indies ; the French, I 
believe, exclusively to the miKed racea ; and ^e 
Spanish and Portuguese to die blacks born in 
their coloniefl, never to whitet. The Utter, I 
think, is the true and original meaning, as its 
primary signification is a home-bred slave (front 
" criar," to bring up, to nurse), as distinguished 
from an imported or purchased one. 

J. S. Warden. 


pen. A euiiaui litUe pamphlet on a /act in Nat>al 
PhiloHphy, whidi we belie** no pbilouvhec oac eidHr 
undentaad or iceouul for. 

Siuiu Recuvid. — STKrTOf'i Bailuay JUading: 
HUlory at a Comdltion of Social Pragrea, by Santaet 
Lucas. An able lecture on an interesting subject — 
TV TianttiT'i Library, No. 4€. ; Tmtntf Ytttrt i* Oc 
PUIippi^ei, by De la Gironi^re. One of the bnt 
numbers of this valuable tcriei. — Cj/tl/fmlia BSeo- 
graphica. Part XI., Auguat. This eleventh Fart rf 
Mr. Darling's useful Catalogue extendi froiii jamct 
IbbetMn 10 Bemaid—Archaobigla Camirvm. 
JVa« Sn-iti, No. XF. : Offlilaining, among oltier papoi 
of interest to the Inbabitants of Ihe principality, one on 
tbe arms of Oo-en Glendwr, by the acoompli^wd in- 
liquary to vhom our readers were indebted for a pa}ici 
on the same subject in our owa oolurous. 

We have before us a little volume by Mr. Willich, 
the able Actuary of the University Life Auuranee So- 
ciety, eniitled Pipu/xr TabUi anwtgtd in a hcio Form, 
giving Iriformation at S'tfhtfor atctrtaining, according fo 
tht Carlide Tabh if MorlaliU/, the Palut nf Lifihold, 
Liatehatd, and Church Property, Satewai Finn, ^c, 
lie Putlic Fundi. Jnmial Amrage Price and Intirr^ an 
Conioltfrow 1731 to 1851 , alio tmioui iiterating and 
aieful fablei, tquaUg adapted to tie Office and the Li- 
brary Tablt. Ample as is this title-page, it really gives 
but an impeifeet notiim of the varied contents of this 
useful library and wiiting-desk companion. For in- 
stance, Table Vni. of the Miscellaiieoos Tables gives 
the average price of Consols, with the average rate of 
interest, Irom 1731 to 1851 1 but this not only shows 
when Consols were highest and when lowest, but aUo 
wbst Administration was then in power, and the cbief 
events of each year. We give this as one instance of 
the vast amount of curious inibrmation here combined ; 

students the notices of Chinese Chronology in tbe pre- 
Gice, and the Tables of Ancient and Modern Itinerary 
Measures, as parts of the wort espeeisily deserving of 
their attention. In ihort, Mr. Witlicb's Popular Tabia 
form one of those useful valumes, in which mnsses of 
scattered information are concentrated in such a way as 
to render the book indispensable to all who have once 

MorTnimiim, itt Hiitory, Dodrina, and Pracliea, by 
tbe Rev. W. Sparrow Sitnpsou, is a small pamphlet 
containing thesuhstanoe of two lectures on this pestilent 
heresy, delivered by the author before tbe Kennington 
Branch of the Church of England Young Men's So- 
ciety, and is worth the attention of these who wii,h to 
know something of this now vide-spread mania. 


ISnio. WitHI^rtr 

iLSn. Rid. Bditpd b; Lcydeb. ISM. 
■. of JohoioD Kid Steeveij.'i edlUto, 

.till of Sookt Wanted art rtfmatid 

in anil Icweir prtco, earriare An, 
■„ PubUiher of " NOTBiT AND 

fiatUei to CarrcifpiiHtieiitil, 

•unig of %Bi. Hi., pp. Sti'.tK. 

On Ihe CuUom of Borough- Eagb'ii i. 

Suites, by George R. Corner, Esq. ims well-eon- t. „jo«, 

sidered paper oti a very curious custom owes its origin. CoUodAi* are 

we believe, to a Query in oin" columns. We wish hII canaaiailcuii 

questions agitated In " N. & Q." were as well illua- n,*n°I"i^'Afi 

trated as this has been by the learning and ingenuity Camicorim.' 

of Mr. Comer. Afi-rc<,^ 

A Narnaive of Practical Exptrimentt proving to De- price Tkreir ■ 

manitration the I>iKWery of Water, Coali, and Mineral, ""'* '^^'" 

in tie Earth by miani of the Bowing Fori or Divimng .J-'^X'f 

Sod, j-c, calltcled, reported, and edited by Francis Fhip- ^it^ih 

ho inqviret rerpectimg the Ut 

tjrom Da. DimaKi 
-Vol. vtll,.p.l(M.. 
nioni, '■ D'ltraeli'i 

Id M in Uc BnA 

Aero. 6. 1853.] 





V AtmAgetotmr 

uoifoKAXT nxnatwrt. 

Wm, Campbell, E#<1., 


IT. BUIr Itum, ICiq' I D, Q- lUnrlqnAi, Raq. 
B,LaDnBord,Riq.. J' U. HBHrltrutyR^. 

)l ud INT ANIS. 



"■ C»'>*|BI<l>liiJvli> u 


.EY. U.A., r.B.A s. 

Brnniddtdlo ^^^ 
AMind. ABunil. .Pfirth 

jln imiJId taiH. 

JMin iitfin ma ati'Wtoa'i«ni liii 


VllSlIOK, PAH IHMII IKST, Ifftlll Ario.) 
Mnvt, irhtia fumf |U» Ih prmmrvd Afipv*- 
tu of rr«TV IMnriutkni. iml pure Cbamloali 
fit th* matiM of PhMi— ■-- ■ -" '- 

nvLriii^BiicmrtiaavittUlrti'loulirHitvP'ilicr Ciin.Nd.LBai— "TittnU-AveHnn'nfrHHif- 
llir uau., IIH unaiU lanniml IW whlgk t> ntm Dnialliallun, lnillcviliig, ud i^il^lllcy, I In laiT.lK S«l iwtil In Bmnluna lynm Hhkh I ImI •ulb'Dl irwt ni>m:rt,*ad 
lau. lli.M.1 twl Ik* piulla iKiiw tf iMH MM. whWi no mtUMna oiuld ifli>»ve uf riMfa. 
miuuion. H terimn>«>*d iiriiu; ^ tawlwii.Jta:l«.g1rfli'(dbi;_l)ii>i.,'.fia 
iU. MJN wmmi hr™* laaa/.J >» ii^ ffii varfahiM Uina.-W.IL Uairi.. P«l 

"■"-^-KISavmtlialaiii.aMehthaiimt t.Hifa.Ko.aJOli— "Blitht Tan™- dfipaval^ 

'a™ "la™ >>h«' o'l rnlill™^ """T'^'iSSm n^^iiK^m 


i> Iblil aibd lAa 

PwIrnjtfoliliilMdliTlhatlwM.ftir ikllaMi msA (wiUaBi. iiMuUitac, imI mbmilliia 
■u'lmrDiiif <rlilcKiii(Tbai>aill1^'eilik-' CSd> at iwdl^iw. Illi »^^lii£^«^ 

Irrii^leo and anw afoba 
Ilia klilugpa BDd Uaodartatrl 



A UIMIKHEi FrenoU Photo- 

Pabilibed a'orv BATURDAT at PA&IR, 


_Ta™ii, ia#, im annum In adnnoa. All 

Bnvllili SnliapTlUliiaiaiHlOomRibnuiBflnM (f 

T«RHt. Caindni Town, lAndm. ' 

Piiotoorapiik; paper.- 

m.n'.*"^".?V te'n^S-Sr'™d"'<*n™ 
l*rac«ia, jDdifld Bid SciuULva Papar Ibr e?arr 
klHfl uf Phmacrapliir. 


HallnuT. AldliH UluBl 

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caati Htnuat Ibr liar mA- Arvly BH'iamallr Me thKlaaah raiitawt hjata ma vania Binmt. 

Ml If* Tlim)«l»r. N.B, lISIh Eauibl by P".'h'JSjL^ii^' "wii' "^' l-°ndgn. 



TTE. CollillHIWbiWie4B'n».),clillll,lV ' - - - - 



•ill MS. U Dolttli OMtn. 

^^.""S^lic^u Bernard QUARrreH, B«™a.h»d 

Cw^nil. bt Dr. ,„ g ^., ,i,„Uilr CiUloiini ui Hnl 

DnlU(V UU. London r* ' d 

FoRftt. loriu I r 

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d br tlia TerjrRev. H-^uI Vohimfl ^ircs, it 

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tkrnlwLlltnKwia ta ili« CominuWiiMiiu, 

BAIX, Madnl IIMnHStor ud OrEuLn b> 
HtrlMan. tlo., neit. !■ m<mca> cLott, 
mk« Eat- To be lud of Hr. J. B. SALE, il. 
lIolTTfll SMN, wmm^WHMiliHter. on 

ass".;B.Tsa„.«,.„„- gilbert j. French, 

rf'^™™2t'irt33.'*UM'S^'- PESPECTFULLY iDforms the 





** "WlieB fOQBdf make a note of." — Caftain Cuttlx. 

No. 198.] 

Saturday, August 13. 1853. 

C Price Fourpence. 

t Stamped Edition, Qd, 



Bacon*t Eitayi, by Markby 
Ttie Isthmus of Panama - 


. 141 
. H4 

Folk Lore : ~ Legends of the County Clare — Moon 
Superstitlons—'Warwiclishire Folk Lore— Nurthamp- 
tonshire Folk Lore — Slow-worm Superstition — A 
Devonshire Charm for the Thrush - - - 145 

Old Jokes . . . . . . -146 

An Interpolation of the Players : Tobacco, by W. Robson 147 

Minor Notbi : — Curious Epitaph — Enigmatical Epi- 
taph — Books worthy to be reprinted — Napoleon's 
Thunderstorm-- Istamboul: Constantinople - - 147 

Queries : — . 

Striit-stowers, and Yeathers or Yadders, by C. H. 
Cooper ....... 148 

Minor Qcbribs : — Archbishop Parker's Correspon. 
dence— .Amor Nurami — The Number Nine — Position 
of Font — Aix Ruochim or Romans loner— ** Lessons 
for Lent/' &c. — ** La Branche des reaus Lignaget "— 
Marriage Service — " Caar " or " Tsar " — Little 
Silver — On Asop's (?) Fable of washing the Blacka. 
moor — Wedding Proverb — German Phrase — Ger> 
man Heraldry — Leman Family — A Cob-wall— Inscrip- 
tion near Chalcedon — Domesday Book — Dotinchem 
— "Mirrour to all," /^c — Title wanted — Portrait 
of Cliarles I. : Countess Du Barry . . .149 

Minor Quvribs with Answers: — "Preparation 
Martyrdom " — Reference wanted — Speaker of 
House of Commons in 1697 ... 

Replies : — 

Inscriptions In Books .... 

The Drummer's Letter, by Henry H. Breea 
Old Foaies ...... 

Descendants of John of Gaunt, by William Hardy 


. 152 

- 153 
. 153 

- 154 

- 155 

Photographic Corresfondrncb : — Lining of Cameras 

— Cyanuret of Potassium — Minuteness of Detail on 
Paper — Stereoscopic Angles — Sisson's developing 
Solution — Multiplying Photographs — Is it dangerous 

to use the Ammonio-nitrate of Silver ? . - 157 

Replies to Minor Queries : — Burke's Marriage — 
Stars and Flowers — Odour from the Rainbow — 
Judges stvled Reverend — Jacob Bobart — " Putting 
your foot into it " — Simile of the Soul and the Mag- 
netic Needle — The Tragedy of Polldus — Robert 
Fail lie — " Mater ait natseJ;' &c Sir Juhn Vanbrugh 

— F6t« des Chaudrons — Murder of Monaldeschi — 
Land of Green Ginger— Unneatb — Snail Gardens — 
Parvise— Humbug — Table-movins — Scotch News- 
papers^ Door- head Inscriptions — Honorary Degrees 

— " Never ending, still beginning " - 

Miscellaneous : — 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted 
Notices to Correspondents 
Advertisemeuti . . 

. 158 

- 162 

- ]6i 

- 163 

Vol. vm;— No. 198. 


Mr. Markby has recently published his promised 
edition of Bacon*s Essays ; and he has in this, as 
in his edition of the Advancement of Learnings 
successfully traced most of the passages alluded to 
by Lord Bacon. The following notes relate to a 
few points which still deserve attention : 

Essay I. On Truth:— "The poet that beauti- 
fied the sect that was otherwise inferior to the 
rest.'*] By '* beautified" is here meant " set ofi* to 
advantage," ** embellished." 

Essay II. On Death. — 

Many of the thoughts in the Essays recur in 
the " Exempla Antithetorum," in the 6th book 
De Augmentis Scientiarum, With respect fo this 
Essay, compare the article "Vita," No. 12., in 
vol. viii. p. 360. ed. Montagu. 

" You shall read in some of the friars* books 
of mortification, that a man should think with 
himself what the pain is, if he have but his finger's 
end pressed or tortured, and thereby imagine what 
the pains of death are when the whole body is cor- 
rupted and dissolved."] Query, What books are 
here alluded to ? 

" Pompa mortis magis terret, quam mors ipsa."] 
Mr. Markby thinks these words are an allusion 
to Sen. Ep. xxiv. § 13. Something similar also 
occurs in Ep. xiv. § 3. Compare Ovid, Heroid, 
X. 82. : " Morsque minus poenas quam mora mor- 
tis habet." 

" Galba, with a sentence, * Feri si ex re sit populi 
Romani.* "] In addition to the passage of Tacitus, 
quoted bj Mr. Markby, see Sueton. Galh. c. 20. 

" Septimus Severus in despatch, ' Adeste si quid 
mihi restat agendum.' "] No such dying words are 
attributed to Severus, either in Dio Cassius, 
Ixxvi. 15., the passage cited by Mr. Markby, or 
in Spartian. Sever, c. 23. 

In the passage of Juvenal, the words are, " qui 
spatium vitae," and not " qui finem vitse," as quoted 
by Lord Bacon. Length of life is meant. 

Essay III. Of Unity in Religion. — 
" Certain Laodiceans and liikewarm persons."] 
The allusion is to Rev. iii. 14 — 16. 



[No. 198. 

person alluded to. The saying is repeated in 
Apophthegms^ No. 14. p. 414. 

** xhe Spartans and Spaniards have been noted 
to be of small despatch : ' Mi venga la muerte de 
Spagna, — Let my death come from Spain, for 
then it will be sure to be long in coming. "] The 
slow and dilatory character of the Lacedaemonians 
is noted in Thucyd. i. 70. : ** KaX /uV xal ioKvoi irphs 
^fxas utWrirds'* And again, i. 84. : ^^Kai rh fipaSh 
Kol /AcXAov, h fi4fupovr(u /MUicrra iiyuS»v,^ Livy repre- 
sents the Rhodians making a similar remark to 
the Roman senate in 167 B.C.: ** Atheniensium 
populum fama est celerem et supra vires audacem 
esse ad conandum : Laccdaemoniorum cunctato- 
rem, et vix in ea, (^uibus fidit, ingredientem,*' 
xlv. 23. Bayle, in his Pensies sur les Cometes^ 
§ 243., has a passage which illustrates the slowness 
of the Spaniards : — "D'un c6t6 on prevoyoit, que 
Tempereur et le roi d*£spogne se serviroient de 
tr^s grandes forces, pour opprimer la chr6tient^ : 
xnais on prevoyoit aussi de Tautre, quMls ne seroient 
jamais en ^tat de Taccabler, parceque la lenteur 
et les longues ddlib^rations qui ont toujours fait 
leur partage, font perdre trop de bonnes occasions. 
Vous savez la pens6e de Malherbe sur ce sujet : 
S*il est vrai, dit-il dans quelqu*une de ses lettres, 
que TEspagne aspire h. la monarchie universelle, 
je lui conseille de demander k Dieu une surs^ance 
de la fin du monde.** 

Essay XXVI. Of seemingwise. — 

" Magno conatu nugas."] Trom Terence, Heaut 

iii. 5. 8. : ** Ne ista, hercle, magno jam conatu mag- 

nas nugos dixerit.'* 

Essajr XXVII. Of Friendship.— 

^^Epimenides the Candian."] Bacon calls the 
ancient Cretan priest Epimenides a **Candian,** 
as Machiavel speaks of tlie capture of Rome by 
the " Francesi under Brennus. Mr. Pasbley, in 
his Travels in Crete^ vol. i. p. 189., shows that 
Candia is a name unknown in the island; and 
that among the natives its ancient denomination 
is still in use. The name Candia has been pro- 
pagated over Europe from the Italian usage. 

" The Latin adage meeteth with it a little : 

* Magna civitas, magna solitudo.*"] See Erasm. 
Ada^.y p. 1293. It is taken from a verse of a Greek 
comic poet, which referred to the city of Megalo- 
polis in Arcadia : " *Eprifxia fxtydw* ffrlp t} MrydKrj 
Waij." — Strab. viii. 8. § 1. 

** The Roman name attaineth the true use and 
cause thereof, naming them * participes curarum.* *'] 
To what examples of this expression does Bacon 
refer P 

" The parable of Pythagoras is dark, but true : 

• Cor ne edito.* "] Concerning this Pythagorean 
precept, see Diog., Laert. viii. 17, 18., cum not. 

The saying of Themistocles is repeated in Apo» 
phthegmsy No. 199. p. 392. 

The saying of tieraclitus is repeated, ApO' 
phthegmSf No. 268. ; De Sap. Vet^ vol. xi. p. 846. 

It IS alluded to in Nov. Org.^ ii. 32. : " Quicquid 
eniin abducit intellectum a consuetis, sequat et 
complanat aream ejus, ad recipiendum lumen sic-- 
cum etpurum notionum verarum.** 

** It was a sparing speech of the ancients, to say 
that a friend is another himself.**] See Aristot.^ 
Mag. Mor. ii. 11.: **M/a ^ati^ ^v^^ i/ ifA^i kcU i 
roiW-ov;** and again, c. 15.: **ToioDror olos ?r<pos 
tlyeu iyiff 6,v 7< Kal aipdBpa ^ihov iroi'ti<rpSy &<nrfp rh 
\ry6yLWov * IkKKoi oVroi 'HpoKXris^ * &?^os ^l\os iy^^ ** 
Eth. Eud. vii. 12. : ** 'o y^p ^ihos fio6\tTat ^tim^ 
&ffirtp tf mipoifita ^o'lv, Ah\os 'HpoicX^f, &AXof o^f .** 

(To be continued.) 


The interest which the execution of the railroad 
across the Isthmus of Panama excites, induces me 
to transmit you the following extract from Grafi^e*8 
New Survey of the West Indies^ 8vo., London, 1699. 

A few lines relative to the author, of whom but 
little is known, may be also of use. He was the 
son of John Gage, of Haling ; and his brother was 
Sir Henry Gage, governor of Oxford, killed at the 
battle at Culham Bridge, Jan. 11, 1644. Hi» 
family were of the Roman Catholic faith; and he 
was sent by his father in 1612 into Spain, to study 
under the Jesuits, in the hope he would join that 
society ; but his aversion to them led him to enter 
the Dominican Order at Valladolid, in 1612. His 
motives were suspected; his father was irritated- 
threatened to disinherit him and to arouse against 
him the power of the Jesuits of England if he re» 
turned home. He now determined to pass over to 
the Spanish possessions in South America; but as an 
order had been issued by the king, forbidding this 
to any Englishman^ it was onlv by inclosing him 
in an empty sea-biscuit case, he was able to sail 
from Cadiz, July 2, 1625. He arrived at Mexico 
on October 8 ; and after residing there for some 
time to recruit himself from the voyage, resolved 
to abandon a missionary scheme to the Philippine 
islands he had planned, and occordinglj', on the 
day fixed for their departure to Acapulco, escaped 
with three other Dominicans for Chispat. ne 
was here well received, and went subsequently to 
the head establishment at Guatimala. He was 
soon appointed curate of Amatitlan ; and during 
his residence at this and another district contrived 
to amoss a sum of 9000 piastres, with the aid of 
which he sought to accomplish his long-cherished 
desire of returning to England. Many difficulties 
were in his way ; but on the 7th January, 1637, 
he quitted Amatitlan, traversed the province of 
Nicaragua, and embarked from the coast of Costa 
Rica. The ship was soon after boarded by a 
Dutch corsair, and Gage was robbed of 8000 
piastres. He succeeded in reaching Panama^ 
traversed the Isthmus, and sailed from rorto Bella 

Aug. 13. 1853.] 



** Keither give thou ^sop*s cock a gem," &c.] 
Compare Apophthegms^ No. 203. p. 3d3. 

" Such men in other men*s calamities are, as it 
were, in season, and are ever on the limdiag part^'\ 
By " the loading party" seems to be meant the part 
which is most heavily laden ; the part which sup- 
ports the chief burthen. 

" Misanthropi, that make it their practice to 
bring men to the bougb, and yet have never a tree 
for the purpose in their gardens as Timon had."] 
Query, What is the allusion in this passage? 
Nothing of the sort occurs in Lucian^s dialogue of 

Essay XIV. OfNobility.— See-4wft7Aeto,No. 1. 
vol. viii. p. 354. 

Essay XV. Of Seditions and Troubles. — 

" As Macbiavel noteth well, when princes, that 
ought to be common parents, make themselves as 
a party," &c.] Perhaps Lord Bacon alludes to 
Disc, iiL 27. 

'^ As Tacitus expresseth it well, ' Liberius quam 
ut imperantium raeminissent.* "3 Mr. Markby is 
at a loss to trace this quotation. I am unable to 
assist him. 

The verses of Lucan are quoted from memory. 
The original has, '* Avidumque in tempora," and 
"** Et concussa fides." 

*' Dolendi modus, timendi non item."] Query, 
Whence are these words taken ? 

" Solvam cingula regum."] Mr. Markby refers 
to Job x^i. 18. ; but the passage alluded to seems 
to be Isaiah xlv. 1. 

The story of Epimetheus is differently applied 
in Sap, Vet, vol. x. p. 342. 

The saying of Caettar on Sylla is inserted in the 
Apophthegms^ Na 135. p. 379. That of Galba is 
likewise to be found in Suet. Galb, 16. 

Essay XVI. Of Atheism.-— See AntUheta^ No. 13. 
vol. viii. p. 360. 

*^ Who to him is instead of a god, or melior 
natura."] From Ovid, Met. 1. 21. : " Hanc deus 
€t melior litem natura diremit." 

Essay XVII. Of Superstition. — See Antitheta^ 
No. 13. vol. viii. p. 360. 

Essa^ XIX. Of Empire. — See Antitheta^ No. 8. 
vol. viii. p. 358. 

" And the like was done by that league, which 
Guicciardini saith was the secuiily of Italy," &c.3 
The league alluded to, is that of 1485. See Guic- 
ciardini, lib. i. c. 1. 

"Neither is the opinion of some of the school- 
men to be received, that a war cannot justly be 
made but upon a precedent injury or provocaticm."] 
Grotius lays down the same doctrine as Bacon, 
De J. B. et P., ii. 1. §§ 2, 3, Query, What school- 
men are here referred to ? 

Essaj XX. Of Counsd.— See AntUhetm, No. 44. 
vol. viit. p. d77. 

Jupiter and Metis.] See Sap, Vet^ vol. xi. 
p. 354. 

"For which inconveniences, the doctrine of 
Italy» and practice of France, in some king^^ times, 
hath introduced cabinet councils : a remedy worse 
than the disease."] By " cabinet councils " are here 
meant private meetings of selected advisers in the 
king's own apartment. 

"Frincipis est virtus maxima nosse suos.**] 
From Martial, viii. 15. 

" It was truly said, ^Optkni consiUarii mortuV **] 
Compare Apophthegms^ No. 105.: "Alonzo cJ 
Arragon was wont to say of himself, that he was a 
great necromancer ; for that he used to ask counsel 
of the dead, meaning books." 

Essajr XXI. Of Delays.— See AntUheta, No. 41. 
vol. viii. pb^ 376. 

" Occasion (as it is in the commcm verse) turnetii 
a bald noddle," &c.] See " N. & Q.," Vc^. iii., 
pp. 8. 43., where this saying is illustrated. 

Essay XXII. Of Cunning. — 

" The old rule, to know a fool from a wise man : 
*Mitte ambos nudos ad ignotos, et videbis.'"] 
Attributed to " one of the philosophers " in Apa-^ 
phtkfgmsy No. 255. p. 404. 

'* 1 knew a counsellor and secretary that never 
came to Queen Elizabeth of England with bills to 
sign, but he would always first put her into some 
discourse of estate, that she might the less mind 
the bills."] King*s or queen^s bills is a technical 
expression for a class of documents requiring the 
royal signature, which is still, or was recently, itt 
use. See Murray's Official Handbook^ by Jdr. 
Redgrave, p. 257. Query, To which of Queen 
Elizabeth's Secretaries of State does Bacon allude ? 
And again, who are meant by the " two who were 
competitors for the Secretary's place in Queen 
£lizabeth*8 time," mentioned lower down ? 

Essay XXin. Of Wisdom for a Man's Self.— • 
•* It is the wisdom of rats, that will be sure to 
leave a house somewhat before it fall."] Query, 
How and when did this popular notion (now en- 
grafted upon our political language) originate ? 

" It is the wisdom of crocoailes, that shed tears 
when they would devour."] This saying seems to 
be derived from the belief^ that the crocodile 
imitates the cry of children in order to attract 
their mothers, and then to devour them. See 
Siilgues, Des Erreurs et des Prejttges, torn. ii. 
p. 406. 

Essay XXIV. Of Innovations.— See Antitheta^ 
No. 40, vol. viii. p. 375. 

Essay XXV. Of Despatch. •— See Antitheta, 
No. 27. vol. viii. p. 368. 

" I knew a wise man, that had it for a by- word, 
when he saw men hasten to a conclasioDy ' Stay a 
little, that we may make an end the sooner.'"] 
Mr. Markby says that Sir Amias Faukt is the 

144 NOTES AND QUERIES. [No. 19& 

person alluded to. The saying is repeated in It is alluded to in Nov, Org., ii. 32. : " Quicquid 

Apophthegms, No. 14. p. 414. eniin abducit intellectum a consuetis, sequat et 

** The Spartans and Spaniards have been noted complanat aream ejus, ad recipiendum lumen sic- 

to be of small despatch : * Mi venga la muerte de cum etpurum notion um verarum." 
Spagna, — Let my death come from Spain, for "It was a sparing speech of the ancients, to say 

then it will be sure to be long in coming.' "] The that a friend is another himself."] See Aristot, 

slow and dilatory character of the Lacedaemonians Mag. Mor. ii. 11.: "M/a ^>afily tf^vx^ rj ifi^ kcSl ft 

is noted in Thucyd. i. 70. : ^"^ KaX ii)\v koX ikOKvoi rtphs toiJtow;" and again, c. 15.: "ToioOros oios Zrtpot 

IfjMs fitWrirds" And again, i. 84. : " Kol rh fipaSh €tyeu iyia, &v yt koI a<p6^pa ^l\w rcovti<r(fi, &CT9p tJ 

Kol ficXXov, ft fjL^fupovrou fxdKuTTa tjixwy" Livy repre- \€y6fi€V0¥ * &Wos odros 'HpcutKriSf * &Wos ^(\os iy<&* ** 

Bents the Rhodians making a similar remark to JSth. Eud. vii. 12. : " 'o y^ ^ixos fio6\€Tat cfratj, 

the Koman senate in 167 b.c. : " Atheniensium &<nrcf) ^ wapotfxla ^<r2v, &x\os 'HpoicX^y, (Saaos ©Jtoj.** 
populum fama est celerem et supra vires audacem L. 

esse ad conandum : Lacedcemoniorum cunctato- (^To he continued.) 

rem, et vix in ea, quibus fidit, ingredientem," _«_«__ 

atlv. 23. Bayle, in his Pensees sur les Cometes, 

§ 243., has a passage which illustrates the slowness the isthmus or paitama. 

of the Spaniards :-:" D^^un c6t6 on prevoyoit, que rphe interest which the execution of the raiboacf 

1 empereur et le roi d Espagne se serviroient de ^^^^gg ^^^ Isthmus of Panama excites, induces me 

tr^ grandes forces, pour oppnmer la chr^tient6 : ^^ transmit you the following extract from Gi^'s 

mais on prevoyoit aussi de 1 autre, qu ils ne seroient j^^^ Survey of the West Indies, 8vo., London, 1699. 
jamais en ^tat de 1 accabler, parceque la lenteur ^ ^^^ lines relative to the author, of whom but 

et les longues deliberations qui ont toujours fait ^^^jg jg ^nown, may be also of use. He was tiie 

leur partage, font perdre trop de bonnes occasions, g^^ of John Gage, of Haling ; and his brother was 

Vous savez la pensee de Malherbe sur ce sujet : sj^. genry Gage, governor of Oxford, kiUed at the 

Sil est vrai,dit-il dans quelquunedeseslettres, y^^^^^^ at Cufham Bridge, Jan. 11, 1644. His 

jue 1 Espagne aspire k fa monarchic universelle, f^^ji ^^^^ ^f ^j,e Ron,|n Catholic faith; and he 

le lui conseiUe de demander k Dieu une surseance ^^s sent by his fatlier in 1612 into Spain, to study 

de la fin du monde. ^ ^^^^^ the Jesuits, in the hope he would jom that 

Essay XXVI. Of seeming wise. — society ; but his aversion to them led him to enter 
^^ "Magno conatu nugas."] From Terence, ficaw^. the Dominican Order at Valladolid, in 1612. His 
iii. 5. 8. : " Ne ista, hercle, magno jam conatu mag- motives were suspected; his father was irritated- 
pas nugas dixerit." threatened to disinherit him and to arouse against 

Essay XXVII. Of Friendship. — him the power of the Jesuits of England if he re- 

" Epimenides the Candian."] Bacon calls the turned home. He now determined to pass over to 

ancient Cretan priest Epimenides a "Candian," the Spanish possessions in South America ; btit as an 

as Machiavel speaks of the capture of Rome by order had been issued by the king, forbidding this 

the " Francesi'* under Brennus. Mr. Fashley, in to any Englishman, it was only by inclosing him 

his Travels in Crete, vol. i. p. 189., shows that in an empty sea-biscuit case, he was able to sail 

Candia is a name unknown m the island ; and from Cadiz, July 2, 1625. He arrived at Mexico 

that among the natives its ancient denomination on October 8 ; and after residing there for some 

is still in use. The name Candia has been pro- time to recruit himself from the voyage, resolved 

pagated over Europe from the Italian usage. to abandon a missionary scheme to the Philippine 

" The Latin adage meeteth with it a little : islands he had planned, and accordingly, on the 

* Magna civitas, magna solitude' "] See Erasm. day fixed for their departure to Acapulco, escaped 
Adag.,^.\2^Z. It is taken from a verse of a Greek with three other Dominicans for Chispat. He 
comic poet, which referred to the city of Megalo- was here well received, and went subsequently to 
polls in Arcadia : " *Eprifxia fieydM (rrlv t} MeydKrj the head establishment at Guatimala. He was 
Waw." — Strab. viii. 8. § 1. soon appointed curate of Amatitlan ; and during 

" The Roman name attaineth the true use and his residence at this and another district contrived 

cause thereof, naming them* participescurarum.'"] to amass a sum of 9000 piastres, with the tad of 

To what examples of this expression does Bacon which he sought to accomplish his long-cherished 

refer ? desire of returning to England. Many difficulties 

" The parable of Pythagoras is dark, but true : were in his way ; but on the 7th January, 1637, 

• Cor ne edito.' "] Concerning this Pythagorean he quitted Amatitlan, traversed the province of 
precept, see Diog., Laert. viii. 17, 18., cum not. Nicaragua, and embarked from the coast of Costa 

The saying of Themistocles is repeated in Apo' Rica. The ship was soon after boarded by s 

phthegms, No. 199. p. 392. Dutch corsair, and Gage was robbed of 8000 

The saying of Heraclitus is repeated, Apo' piastres. He succeeded in reaching Panama^ 

phthegms, No. 268. ; De Sap, Vet., vol. xi. p. 346. traversed the Isthmus, and sailed from rorto Bello 

Aug. 13. 1853.] 


in the Spanish fleet, wbicli reached Sao Sucar, 
STov. 28, 1637. He returned to England after 
an absence of twentj-four yeara. His father was 
dead ; he found himself disinherited, and altbougk 
bardly recognised by his family at first, he met 
ultimately with kindly treatment. During bia 
residence in S. America, doubts had arisen in his 
nind as to the truth and validity of the creed 
And ritual to which he was attached. Whether 
this was the consequence of reflection from his 
theological studies, or animated love of change 
which his conduct at times betrayed, cannot be 
decided. He resolved to proceed to Italy, and 
renew his studies there. Upon his return, after a 
short residence, he renounced Catholicism in a 
sermon he preached at St. Paul's. About 1642 
he attached himself to the Parliament cause, and 
it is said be obtained the living of Deal in Kent; 
as the parish registers contain an entry of the 
burial of Mary daughter, and Mary wife, of 
Thomas Gage, parson of Deal, March 21, 1652 ; 
but when he was married, and whom he married, 
does not appear. Gage's work has been rather 
too much decried. It contains matter of interest 
relative to the state of the Spanish possessions ; and 
his credulity and superstition must be considered 
in relation to his opportunities and his age. 
Perhaps some of your readers may contribute 
farther information concerning him, as the general 
accounts I have been able to meet with are con- 
tradictory and insufficient. The Biographic Uni- 
verselle states, that it was his Survey of the Wetl 
Ivdiet that led to the English expeditions to the 
Spanish Main, which secured Jamaica to the En- 
glish in 1654, and adds he died there in 16S5. 
The registers at Deal could probably prove this 
fact; but I confess to doubt as to whether Gage 
really were the parson alluded to as resident there 
in 1652. He was evidently of a roving unsteady 
nature, fond of adventure, and the first to 0[>en to 
English enterprise a knowledge of the atate of the 
Spanish possessions, to prevent which the council 
Of the Indies had passed so many stringent laws, 
Colbert caused tins work to be translated, and it 
tias been often reprinted on the Continent, but 
much mutilated, as bis statements relative to the 
Koman Catholic priesthood gave offence. A good 
memoir of Gage is still to be desired. The folTow- 
tng is the extract relative to (he Isthmus of Pa- 
nama, Wegt Indies, p. 1 5 1 . : — 

"Tbe Peruvian pait cnntainelh all the loulherD 
truit, and is lyed lo the Meiican by the Isthmus or 
Strait of Darien, being no more than I T, or. aa olhcn 
•■7, in ths narrowest place, but 12 miles broad, from 
the Dortli to the south sea. Many have menlloned to 
tlie Council of Spain the cutting ot a navigable channel 
through this small Isthmus, so to shorten the voyage 
to China and the Moluecoet. But the kingi of Spain 
bare not yet idtempted to do it ; some say lest in the 
work he should lose thoie tew Indians which are Iril 

(would to God it were lo, that they were or had been 
so careful and tender of the poor Indians' lives, more 
paputoui would that vait and spacious country be at 
tliii day), but otheTi say he halh not attempted it lest, 
the passage by the Cape Bona Esperania (Good 


r, Ihos 

night b 

ceptacie for pirates. Uoivever, this hath not been 
attempted by the Spaniards; they give not for reason 
any extraordinary great charge, for that would soon be 
recompensed with the apeeUie and easie conveying that 

This bears reference to projects before 1635, 
or during his residence in S. America, between 
1625—1637 ; but Gage could hardly have under- 
stood the nature of the Spanish character, and ths 
geniiu of the government, to specuUte upon the 
cause of their neglect of every useful enterprise 
for the promotion of commerce and public good. 

Legendi of the County Clare. — On the weflt 
coast of Ireland, near the Cliffs of Moher, at some 
distance out in the bay, the waves appear con- 
tinually breaking in white foam even on the 

le, and that it becomes visible 
once every seven years. And if the person who 
sees it could keep his eyes fixed on it till he 
reached it, it would then be restored, and ha 
would obtain great wealth. The man who related 
the legend stated farther, that some years a^ 
some labourers were at work in a field on the hdl 
aide in view of the bay; and one of them, hap- 
pening to cast hia eyes seaward, saw the city In all 
Its splendour emerge from the deep. He called 
to his companions to look at it ; but though thejr 
were close to him, he could not attract their at- 
tention ; at last, he turned round to see why they 
would not come ; but on looking back, when ha 
had succeeded in attracting their attention, the 
city had disappeared. 

The Welsh legend of the Islands of the Blessed, 
which can only be seen by a person who stands 
on a turf from St. David s churchyard, bears ft 
cunous coincidence to the aboTe. It is not im- 
possible that there may have been some found- 
ation for the vision of the enchanted city at Moher 
in the Fata Morgana, very beautiful spectacles of 
which have been seen on other parts of the coast 
of Ireland. Fbahcu Kobekt Davibs. 

Moon SupersCitioiu (Vol. viii., p. 79.). — In this 
ase of fact and science, it is remarkable that even 
with the well-informed the old faith in the "chango 
of the moon " as a prognostic of fair and foul wea- 
ther still keeps its hold. W. W. asks " have we 
any proof of" the "correctness" of this faith P To 
suppose that the weather raries with the amount of 



[No. 198. 

31ummated rarfaee on the moon ironld make tlie 
ehange in tbe weather yary with the amount of 
moonshine, which of course is absurd, as in that case 
the clouds would have much more to do with the 
question than the moon*s shadow. But still it may 
be said the moon may influence the weather as it 
is supposed to cause the tides. In answer to this 
I heg to state the opinion of Dr. Ick, who was for 
upwards of ten years the curator of the Birming- 
ham Philosophical Institute, an excellent meteoro- 
logist, geologist, and botanist. He assured me 
that after the closest and most accurate observa- 
tion of the moon and the weather, he had arrived 
at the conclusion that there is not the slightest 
observable dependence between them. 

C. Mansitbld Inolebt. 


Warwickshire Folk Lore. — The only certain 
remedy for the bite of an adder is to kill the 
offending reptile, and apply some of its fat to the 
wound. Whether the fat should be raw or melted 
down, my informant did not say, but doubtless 
the same effect would be produced in either case. 

If a pig is killed in the wane of the moon, the 
bacon is sure to shrink in the boiling ; if, on the 
other hand, the pig is killed when the moon is at 
the full, the bacon will swell. Erica. 


Northamptonskire Folk Lore. — There is a sin- 
gular custom prevailing in some parts of Nor- 
thamptonshire, and perhaps some of your cor- 
respondents may be able to mention other plaees 
where a similar practice exists. If a female is 
afflicted with fits, nine pieces of silver money and 
nine threehalfpences are collected from nine ba- 
chelors : the silver money is converted into a ring 
to be worn by the afflicted person, and the three- 
halfpences (t. e. 13^) are paid to the maker of 
the ring, an inadequate remuneration for his la- 
bour, but which he good-naturedly accepts. If 
the afflicted person be a male, the contributions 
are levied upon females. E. H. 

Slow'tmrm Superstition (Vol. viii., p. 33.). — As 
a child I was always told by the servants that if 
any serpent was " scotched, not killed," it would 
revive if it could reach its hole before sunset, but 
that otherwise it must die. Hence the custom, so 
universal, of hanging any serpent on a tree after 
killing it. Seubucus. 

^ A Devonshire Charm for the Thrush. — On 
Tisiting one of my parishion^nn, whose infant was 
ill with the tbrusfa, I asked her what medicine she 
had given the child ? She replied, she bad done 
nothing to it but say the eighth Psalm over it. I 
found that her cure was to repeat the eighth Psalm 
over the infant three times, tl^ee days running; and 
on my hesitating a doabt m to the effica^ of the 

remedy, she appealed to llie case of another of her 
children who had su^red badly from the ^rasii^ 
but had been cured by the use of no other means. 
If it was said ^ with the virtue,*' it was, «he de- 
clared, an unfailing cure. The menUon, iu this 
Psalm, of ^ the mouths of babes and sucklings,** 
I suppose led to its selection. W. Fkasbe. 



Every man ought to read the jest-books, Ihat 
he may not make himself disagreeable by re- 
peating ^ Ml Joes ** as the y^ry last good thinffs. 
One book of this class is little more than ue 
copy of another as to the points, with a change 
of the persons; and the same joke, slightly varied^ 
appears in as many different countries as the same 
fairy-tale. Seven years ago I found at Prague 
the " Joe " of the Irishman saying that there were 
a hundred judges on the bench, because there was 
one with two cyphers. The valet-de-place told, 
me that when the Emperor and Metternich were 
together they were called " the council of ten,**. 
because they were eins und zero. 

It is interesting to trace a joke back, of whicli 
process I send an example. In the very clever 
version of the Chancellor of Oxford's speech on 
introducinsf the new doctors {Punchy No. 622.). 
are these lines : 

*< En Henleium I en Stanleium ! Hie emlnens pr»» 
sator : 
Ille, filiuB pnldhro patre, faercle pulchrior orator ; 
Demosthenes in herba, $ed in ore retinent iilos 
QuoM, antequam peroravit, Grteeus respuit lapUlos." 

Ebenezer Gmbb, in his description of the oppo- 
sition in 1814, thus notices Mr. F. Douglas : 

** He is a forward and frequent speaker ; remarkable 
for a graceful inclination of the upper part of his body 
in advance of the lower, and speaketh, I suspect (^after 
the manner of an ancient^ witfi pebbles in his mou/A.'*-— >' 
New Whiff Guide, 1819, p. 47. 

In Foote*s Patron, Sir Boger Dowlas, an East 
India proprietor, who has sought instruction in 
oratory from Sir Thomas Lofty, is introduced U> 
the conversazione : — 

** Sir Thomas. Sir Roger, be seated. This geatk- 
man has, in common with the greatest orator the world 
ever saw, a small natural infirmity ; he stutters a little t 
but I have prescribed the same remedy that Demo- 
sthenes used, and don*t despair of a radical cure. WeU, 
sir, have you digested those general rules ? 

^ Sir Jioger. Pr-ett-y well, I am obli-g*d to yoa^- 
Sir Th-onoas. 

Sir Thomas. Did you open at the last fpeaerail 

Sir Itoffer. I att*empt-ed Ib-ur or five times. 

Sir Thomas, What hindered your progress ? 

Sir Roger. 2%epe~6-^fc«. 

Aus. 13. 1853.] 



Sir Thomcu, Oh^ the pekbUs in kig mouth : but they 
are only put in to practise in private : you ghould take 
Aem out when you are addrening the pubKc,** 

I cannot trace the joke farther, but as Foote, 
though so rich in wit, was a great borrower, it 
might not be new in 1764. H. B. C. 

Garrick Club. 


I have witoessed the represenUUion of the Twe^h 
Night as often, during ti^ bat five-aad-forty years, 
as I have had an opportunity- ; and, in every in- 
stance. Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, and the Clown, in 
their rollicking orgies, smoke tobacco. Now, this 
must be an " interpolation of the players ;" for not 
only was tobacco unknown in Illyria, at the period 
of the story, but Shakxpeart does not once name to- 
hacco in his works^ and, therefore, was not likely 
to give a stage-direction for the use of it. The 
great poet is freely blamed for anachronisms ; it is 
but fair he should have due credit when he avoids 
them. The stories of his plays are all antecedent 
to his own time, therefore he never mentions 
either the drinking of tobacco, or the tumultuous 
scenes of the ordinary which belonged to it, and 
which are so constantly met with in his cotem- 
porary dramatists. I see there is a note in my 
oommonplace-book, after some remarks upon 
Greenes Friar Baaan and Friar Bungay, " that this 
play, though wntten by a pedant^ ami a Master of 
Arts, contains more anachronisms than any one 
play of Shakspeare's." 

Can any of your correspondents learned in stage 
traditions say when this *' smoking interpolation" 
was first made ? 

But, Sir, I think I shall surprise some of your 
readers by pointing out another instance of the 
absence of tobacco or smoking. In the Arabian 
Night's Entertainments, which are said to be such 
faithful pictures of oriental manners, there is no 
mention of the pipe. Neither is coffee to be met 
with in those tales, so delightful to all ages. We with 
difficulty imagine an oriental without his chibauk ; 
and yet it is certain they knew nothing of this 
luxury before the sixteenth century. At present, 
such is the almost imperious necessity felt by the 
Turk for smoking and cofiee, that as soon as the 
gun announces the setting of the sun, during the 
fast of the Ramada, before he thinks of satisfying 
his craving stomach with any solid food, he takes 
his cup of coffee and lights his pipe. — As I think 
it dishonest to deck ourselves with knowledtj^e 
that is not self- acquired, I confess to the having 
but just read this "note" in the last number of 
the Revue des Deux Mondes, in a fine work upon 
America by the celebrated savant, M. Amn^e. 



Curious Epitaph, — In the Diary of ThomoB 
Moore, Charles Lamb is said at a certain dinner 
party to have "quoted an epitaph by Clio Rickraan, 
m which, after several lines in the usual jog-trot 
style of epitaph, he continued thus : 

' He well perform*d the husband's, fiither's part, 
And knew immortal Hudibras by heart.' *' 

There is an epitaph in the churchyard of New- 
haven, Sussex, in which the last of these two lines 
occurs, but which does not answer in other respects 
to the character of the one quoted by Lamb. On 
the contrary, it is altogether eminently quaint, 
peculiar, and consistent. The stone is to the 
memory of Thomas Tipper, who departed this life 
May the 14th, 1785, aged fifty-four years ; and the 
upper part is embellished with a representation, 
in bas-relief, of the drawbridge which crosses the 
river, whence it might be inferred that the compre- 
hensive genius of Mr. Tipper included engineering 
and architecture. The epitaph runs thus : 

(* Reader, with kind regard this grave survey, 
Nor heedless pass where Tipper's ashes lay. 
Honest be was, ingenuous, blunt and kind. 
And dared do what few dare do — speak his mind» 
Philosophy uid History well be knew. 
Was versed in Physlck and in Surgery too : 
The best old Stingo he both brew*d and sold. 
Nor did one knavish act to get his gold. 
He play'd through life a varied comic part. 
And knew immortal Hudibras by heart. 
Reader, in real truth this was the man : 
Be better, wiser, laugh more if you can.** 

Is there any reason for supposing this epitaph 
to have been written by Clio Rickman ; and s 
anything known of Mr. Tipper beyond the bio- 
graphy of his tombstone ? G. J. De Wiij>b» 

Enigmatical Epitaph, — I offer for solution sxi 
enigma, copied from a tomb in the churchyard of 
Christchurch in Hampshire : 



I. R. 


The popular legend is, that the ten men perished 
by the falling in of a gravel-pit, and that their re- 
mains were buried together. This, however, will 
not account for the ** men of strife." 

Is it not probat)Ie that, in the time of the civil 
wars, the bodies might have been disinterred for 
the sake of the leaden coffins, and then deposited 
in their present resting-jdace P 


[No. 198. 

The tomb mar have been erected some time 
afterwards by " 1. E.," probably a relative of the 
" Henry Kogers," the date of whose death U com* 
memorated. T. J. 

Books vtorthy to he reprinted (Vol. vii., pp. 153. 
203.). — In addition to those previously mentioned 
in " N. & Q.," there i^ one for which a crying 
necessity exists for a new edition, namely, The 
Complaj/tii of ScoSand, It is oflen advertised 
and otherwise sought for ; and when found, can 
only be had at a moat extravaeant price. It was 
originally wrilten in 1548 ; and in ISOl, a limited 
impression, edited by Dr. Leyden, was published; 
and in 1829, "Critiques upon it by Duvid Herd, 
and others, with observations in answer by Dr. 
Leyden," to the number of seventy copies. TAt 
Complaynt o/Seotland and Sir Tristram, an edition 
of Vhich was edited by Sir Walter Scott, and 
published in 1804, are two of the oldest MOtk» of 
which the literature of Scotland can boaat. 


NapoleoiCt TAuaderslorm. — The passage of the 
Niemen by the French army, and its consequent 
entry on Uussian territory, may be said to have 
been Napoleon's first step towards defeat and ruin. 
A terrible thunderstorm occurred on that occasion, 
according to M. Segur'a account of the Euaaian 

When Napoleon commenced the retreat, by 
which he yielded all the country beyond the Elbe 
(and nhicD, therefore, may be reckoned a second 
step towards his downfall), it was accompanied by 
a tnunderstorm more remarkable from occurring 
at such a season. Odelben says ; 

" C'^tait un pheDom^ne b]en eitiaaidinaire dmni un 
parell siiiMin, eC avec te froid qu'on venait d'^prouver," 
&c. — Odelben, Canqi. de ISIfl, vol. i. p. SB9. 

The first step towards hia second downfall, or 
third towards complete ruin, was hia advance upon 
the British force at Quatre-Braa, June 17, 1813. 
This also was accompanied by an awful thunder- 
storm, which (although gathering all the forenoon) 
commenced at the very moment he made his at- 
tack on the British rear-guard (about two p. m.), 
when the first gun fired was instantaneously re- 
sponded to by a tremendous peal of thunder. 

Thunder, to Wellington, was the precursor of 
victory and triumph. Witness the above-men- 
tioned introduction to the victory of Waterloo; 
the terrible thunder, that scattered the horses of 
the dragoons, the eve of Salamanca ; also, the 
night preceding Sabugal. And perhaps some of 
the Duke's old companions in arms may be able 
to add to the category. A. C. M. 


Titamboid — Corittantinople. — Mr. (aflerwarda 
Sir George) Wheler, who took holy orders and 

became rector of Houghton-le* Spring in the 
diocese of Durham, makes the following remarb 
in his Journey into Oreeee, ffc. (fol., Lond. 1683), 
p. 178. : 

'■ Conitantinople it now vulgarly called Slaiabiil hj 
the Turks ; bul by the Greeks more often IttampeE, 
which mutt needi be a corruption from the Oratk 
.... 1 either ^m Constantinopolia, which in prct 
ceH of time might be corrupted tnio Slanpolit or /><aa- 
pnli 1 or rather, from it being culled r6Xis hot' ^o^^. 
For the Turks, bearing the Greeks eipren their going 
to Constantinople by *l['H)rT^i', which tbey pronounce 
Is-tia-polln, and often for brevity's sake Stinpoli, might 
•oon ignorantly call it Iilaitpoli or SlaniM, according 
as either of them came into vogue first. And Ihere- 
tbre I think theirs i* a groundless fancy who fetch it 
(rom the Turkish word Iitaaboid, which aignifin t 
city full of or abounding in the true faith, the nunc 
being so apparently of Greek origiaal." 

W. S.6. 

Newcaitle-on. Tyne. 


STanr-STOWBBS, ahd ibaibbbs oa tasduu. 

In the Collection of divers curious Historical 
Pieces printed by the Eev. Francis Peck at the 
end of his Memoirt of Oliver Cromwell, is — 

" Some account of the Murder of the Hermit of 
Eskdsle-aide, near Whitby, in Com. Ebor. by WillUm 
de Bruce (Lord of Ugle Bamby), Ralph de Peiiey 
(Lord of Snealou), and one Allalson, a GeuL, andef 
the remarkable penance which the Hermit ei^oyoad 
them before be died." 

The B 

f is briefly this:— On the 16tli Oo- 

Allalaon were bunting the wild boar in Ea'kdale- 
aide, where was a chnpel and hermitage, in which 
lived a monk of Whitby, who was a hermit. The 
boar beins hotly pursued by the dogs, ran into 
the chapel and there laid down and died. The 
hermit shut the door on the hounds, who stood at 
bay without. The three gentlemen coming up, 
flew into a great fury, and ran with their boar- 
ataves at the hermit and so wounded him that he 
ultimately died. The three gentlemen, fearing 
bis death, took sanctuary nt Scarborough, btit the 
Abbot of Whitby being in great favour with the 
king, removed them out of sanctuary^, wherebj 
they became liable to the law. The dying hermit 
(he survived till the 8th December), on the 
abbot's proposing to put them to death, suggested 
the following penance, to which, in order to isve 
their lives and goods, they consented, and to which 
the abbot likewise agreed : 

" You and yours shell hold your lands of the Abbat 
of Whitby and his suceessots alter this manner, via. 
upon the eve (or morrow before] Ascension Day, you, 
or some of you. shall come to the wood of Stray- Head, 
which is in Eikdale-side, by auc-rlsing, and there shall 

Auo. 13. 1853.] 


the officer of the abbat blov bU hom, that ye may 
know fao<r to find him. And he shall ddiier to joa, 
William de Bruce, ten sUkes, eleven strut-stowers, and 
eleven yeathers, to be cut by you, and those that come 
for you, with a knife of a penny price. And you, 
Kalph de Peircy, ahall take one and tirenty of each 
■OTl, to be cut in the some manner. And you, Al- 
lat«on, shall take nine of each sort, to be cut as afore- 
said. And then ye sliall tnke Ihem on your tracks, and 
carry Ihem to the toirn of Whitby, and take care to be 
there before nine of the clock, and at the same hour, if 
it be a full sea, to cease your service. But, if it below 
vater at nine of the dock, then each of you shall, the 
same hour, let your stakes at the edge of the vater, 
each stake a yard from Ihe other, and so yeather them 

your slrut.rtowers, that they may stand three tides, 

each of you shall" really do, perform, and execute this 
service yearly at the hour appointed, except it be afull 
Bca, when this service shall cease ; in remembrance that 
ye did most cruelly slay me. And that ye may the 
more seriously and fervently call upon God far mercy, 
and repent unfeignedly of your sins, and do good 
works, the officer of Kskdale-side shall blov. Out on 
you I Out on you ! Outonyoul forthis heinous crime 
of yours. And if you or yours shall refuse this service 
■t the aforesaid hour, when it shall not be a full sea, 
then you shall forfeit all your lands to the Abbat of 
Whitby and bis succeasotB." 

There is a similar accounl, with verbal and 
Otlier variationj, "From a printed copy published 
at Whiibv a few years ogo," in filount'g Joeaiar 
Tenarei, by Beckwith, pp. 537—560. In that ac- 
count the iTord, which m Mr. Peck's account is 
"yeithers," is " yadders." Mr. Beck with stales, 
"This service ia sriU annually performed." 

Sir Walter Scott (Marmion, Canto u. si. 13.) 
thus alludes to the legend : 

" Tlien ^Vhitby's nuns exulting told. 
How to their house three Barons bold 

Must menial service do ; 
While horns blow out * note of shame. 
And monks cry ■ Fye upon your name I 
In wrath, for loss of silvBD game. 
Saint Hilda's priest ye slew.' — 
•This on Ascension Day, each year. 
While labonring on our harbour pier, 
Must Herbert, Bruce, and Percy hear.' " 
In note 2. C. the popular account printed and 
circulated at Whitby is given. It is eubatantially 
the same with that given by Beckwith, but for 
" strut-s lowers" we have " strout-stowers j" and 
for "yadders" we have "yethers." It appears, 
also, that the service was not at that Ume per- 
formed by tbe proprietors in person ; and that 
Eart of the lands charged therewith were then 
eld by a gentleman of tbe name of Herbert. 
I shail be giad if any of your correspondents 
will elucidate the terms strut-itAwers, and yea- 
thers or yadders. C. H. Coofbb. 


ArchhUhop Pariej's Correspondence. — I am 
now engaged in carrying out a design which has 
been lone entertained by the Parker Society, that 
of publishing the CorresponiJence of the distin- 
n;uished prelate whose name that Society bears. 
If any of your readers can favour me with refer- 
ences to any letters of tbe archbishop, either un- 
published, or published in works but little known, 
I shall feel exlremely obliged, I add my own 
address, in order that I may not encumber your 
pages with mere references. Any information be- 
yond a reference will probably be as interesting to 
your readers generally as to myself. 

John Bbucb. 

S. Upper Gloucei 

I, Dorset Squa 

AmorNummi. — Can any of your correspondenla 
inform me as to the authorship of the following 

So SI 

rt-loads t 

■e told. 

(ruth, we [no?] doubt, in days of old. 

But now, thanks to our good friend, Billt Pitt, 

This wholesome golden adage will not sit [Gt?] ; 

On English ground the vice dissolves in vapour. 

Being at best only a love — of paper." 
It must have appeared in an English ministerial 
paper about the year 180S. — From the Navortcker. 


The Niimher Nine. — Can any of your mathe- 
matical correspondents inform me of tbe law and 
reason of the following singular property of the 
numbers? If from any number above nine the 
same number be subtracted written backwards, 
the addition of tbe figures of the remiuuder wilt 
always be a multiple of nine ; 



fi6340 the sum of whici 


714483 the sum of whicI 

45 the sum of which is 

sis, t 


John Lahuehs. 

Fosilion o/Tonf. — The usual and very signiS- 
cant position of the font is near tbe church door. 
But there is one objection to this, viz. that the 
benches being best arranged facing the chancel, 
the people cannot without much confusion see the 
baptisms. This being so, perhaps a better place 



[No. 198. 

for the font is at the entrance of the chancel. The 
holy ri(e, so edifying to the congregation, as well 
as profitable to the recipient, can then be duly 
seen ; and the position is tolerably symbolical, 
expressing as it were " the way that is opened for 
us into the holiest of all.'* I am curious to know 
if there are any ancient examples of this position, 
and how far the canon sanctions it, which directs 
that the font be set up in ^^the ancient usual 
places *' [plural] ? While on the subject let me 
put another Query. The Rubric directs that the 
font be "then," i,e, just before the baptism, 
filled with pure water. In what vessel is the 
water brought, and who fills the font? What 
are the precedents in this matter? Rules, I 
think, there are none. A. A. D. 

Aix Huochim or Romans loner. — On the verge 
of the clifi*at Kingsgate, near the North Foreland, 
is a small castle or fort of chalk and fiint, known 
by the above name. Can any of your readers give 
any information regarding the date of the erection 
of this curious edifice ? Some of the local guide- 
books attribute it to the time of Vortigern, or 
about 448; but this seems an almost fabulous 
aBtiquity, A. O. H. 


" Lessons for Lent^^ Sec, — Lessons for Lenty or 
Instructions on the Two Sacramento of Penance 
and the B. Eucharist^ printed in the year 1718. 
Who was the author ? H. 

"ia Branche des reaus Lignages^ — Have any 
of jour correspondents met with a romance, of 
which I have a MS. copy, entitled " La Branche 
dea reaus Lignages ?" The MS. I possess is evi- 
dently a modern copy, and begins thus : 

" Et tens de cell mandement 
Duquel j'ai fait ramembrement 
£t qu'aucun liomme d'avis oit 
Jehan, qui Henaut justisoit 
Guerr^oit et grevoit yglises 
!En la garde le roi commises 
Ne . . . li vouloit faire bommage." 

The^ poem is divided by numbers, probably re- 
ferring to the pages of the original : beginning with 
1292, and ending with 1307. It is also evident, 
from the first verses themselves, that I have only 
a fragment before me. — From the Navorscher, 


Marriage Service, — Are there any parishes in 
which the custom of presenting the fee, together 
with the ring, in the marriage service, as ordered 
by the rubric, is observed ? E. W. 

"Caror" or «* 2>ar." — Whence the derivation 
of the title Czar or Tsar f I know that some 
suppose it to be derived from Caesar, while others 
trace it from the terminal ^sar op 'Zar in tlie 

names of tlte kings of Babylon and Assyria : as 
Phalas-5ar, Nebuchadnez-zar, &c. In jPersian, 
sar means the supreme power. I have heard much 
argument about its origin, and would be much 
obliged if any reader of " N. & Q." could state 
the correct derivation of the word. 

By which Emperor of Russia was the title first 
assumed ? J. S. A 

Old Broad Street 

Utile SUver, — There are several places in 
Devonshire so called, villages or hamlets. It is 
said, they are alway situated in the immediate 
neighbourhood of a Roman, or some oUier aneient 
camp. Hence, some people suppose the name is 
given to these localities from the number of silver 
coins frequently found there. 

Will any of your correspondents throw light on 
this subject ? 

As Qv^ry one knows, there is also a Silverton in 
Devonshire — Silver-town par exceUemce, Is it 
in any way connected with the ''Little Silvers ?** 



On JEsoj^^s (?) FaMe of washing the Blacka' 
moor, — Is it possible the well-known fable was a 
real occurrence? The following extract would 
seem to allude to an analogous fact : 

" Counting the labour as endlessc as the maids ia 
the Strand, which endeaToured by washing the Blaek- 
a-more to make him white.*' — Ca%e of Sir Ignoramiu 
of Cambridge, 1648» p. 2S. 

R. C. Wards. 


Wedding Proverb, — Is the ff^iowing distich 
known in any part of England? — 

** To change the name, but not the letter. 
Is to marry for worse, and not for better.** 

I met with it in an American book» but it was 
probably an importatioii. Spiksteb. 

German Phrase, — What is the origin of a sar- 
castic German phrase often used ? 

** £r erwartet dass der Himmel voU Basi^eigen 

X»« M. M. R. 

German Heraldry, — Where can I refer to a 
book in which the armorial bearings of all the 
principal German families are engraved ? 


Lemon Family, — About the middle of the seren- 
teenth century, say 1650 to 1670, two gentlemea 
lefl England for America, who are sapposed to 
have been brothers or near relatives dT §nr John 
Leman, who was Lord Mayor of London in 1616. 
Traditions, which have been preserved in maan-' 
script, and which can be traced back OTer cue 

AVG. 13. 1853.] 



hundred years, tell of a correspondence which 
took place between the said Sir John and the 
widow of one of the brothers, in relation to her 
returning to England. 

The writer of this (a descendant of one of these 

fentlemen) is anxious to learn the names of the 
rothers and near relatives of this Sir John ; and 
■whether any evidence exists of their leaving Eng- 
land for America, &c., &c. ; and would feel much 
indebted to any one who would supply the inform- 
ation through your paper. R. W. L. 

A Cob-wall, — Why do the inhabitants of Devon- 
shire call a wall made of tempered earth, straw, 
and small pebbles mixed to;zether, a coh-wall ? 
Walls so constructed require a foundation of stone 
or bricks, which is commonly continued to the 
height of about two feet from the surface of the 
ground. Has the term cnh reference to the fact 
that such a wall is a superstructure on the found- 
ation of stone or brick ? A. B. C. 

Inscription near Chalcedon. — Tn 1675, when 
Sir Geo. Wheler and his travelling companion 
visited Chalcedon (as recorded in his Voyage from 
Venice to Constantinople^ fol., Lond. 1682, p. 209.), 
it was famous only tor the memory of the great 
council held there in a.b. 327, the twentieth of the 
reif^n of Constantine the Great : 

** The first thing we did (he says) was to visit the 
metropolitan church, where they say it was kept ; but 
M. Nanteuil assured us that it was a mile from 
thence, and that he had there read an inscription that 
mentioneth it. Besides, it is a small obscure building, 
incapable to contain such an assembly.'* 

Has the inscription here spoken of been noticed 
by any traveller, and can any of your readers refer 
to a copy of it ; and say whether it is cotem- 
porary, and whether it has been more recently 
noticed ? W* S. G. 

Newcastle-on- Ty DC. 

Domesday Booh. — What does the abbreviation 
gld", or geld", applied to terra, signify ? Also, in 
the description of places, there is frequently a 
capital letter, B., or M., or S. before it, as in one 
oase, e,g, " B. terr. gld wasta." Can any one in- 
form me what it signifies ? 

In the case of many parishes, it is stated that 
there was a church there : is it considered com- 
elusive authority that there was not one, if it is 
not mentioned in Domesday Book f A. W, H. 

Dotinchem, — What modern town in Holland, 
or elsewhere, bore or bears the name of Dotinchem, 
at which is dated a MS. missal I have inspected, 
written in the fifteenth century ? The reason for 
believing the place to be Dutch is, that the Calen- 
dar marks the days of the principal saints of 
Holland with red letters. There are other indi- 

cations in the Calendar of the missah having been 
written in and for the use of a community situated 
where the influence of Cologne, Li^ge, Maestricht, 
and Daventer would have been felt. 

Perhaps, should the above Query not be an- 
swered itt England, some correspondent of your 
Dutch cotemporary the Navorscher may have the 
goodness to reply to it. G. J. B. Gobdoit. 

Sid mouth. 

" Mirrmir to aU," ^c, — Can yon refer me to any 
possessor of the poetical work entitled a Mirrour 
to aU who love tofoUow the Wars (or Waves), 4to.: 
London, printed by John Wolfe, 1589 ? A copy 
was sold by Mr. Rodd for six guineas. (See hig 
Catalogue for 1846.) H. Dblta. 


Title wartted,^^! have a copy of the Pt^^ 
Porcorum, the margin of which is covered with 
illustrative and pardlel passages, among which it 
the following : 

Ad magnum se accingit opus fermmque bifurcuiA ] 
Cote aeuit, pinguique perungit acumina lardo; 
Deinde suts, vasto consurgens corpore, rostrum 
Perfurat et furcam capulo tenus urgct, at ilia 
Prominuit rostro summisque in naribus bsesit.** 

Xmpoxotpoy. 182. 

I shall be much obliged to any one who will 
give me the full title to the book from which this 
is quoted, and any account of it. G. H. W. 

Portrait of Charles L — Countess Du Barry, — 
In Bachaumont*s MSmoires Secrets, 8fc., I read 
the following passage under date of March 25, 

«* LUmperatrice des Russies a fait enlever tout }« 
cabinet de tableaux de M. le Comte de Thiers, amateur 
distingu^, qui avait une tr^»-belle collection en ce 
genre. M. de Marigny a eu la douleur de voir passer 
ces richesses chez T^ranger, faute de fonds pour les 
aequ^ir pour )e eompte da roi. 

" On distinguait parmi ces tableaux un portrait en 
pied de Charles I., roi d'Angleterre, original de Van- 
dyk. C*e8t le seul qui soit rest^ en France. Madame 
la Comtesse Dubarri, qui d^loie de plus en plus son 
go6t pour les arts, a ordonn^ de Vacheter : elle Ta pay6 
24.000 livres. 'Et sur le reprocbe qu*on lui faisait 4a 
choisir un pareil morceau entre tant d'autres qui auraient 
d{^ lui mieux eonvenir, elle a repondu que e*^it im 
portrait de famille qu*elle retirait En effet, les Do- 
barri se prdtcndcnt parents de la Maison des Stuarda." 

Can you give me any account of this portrait of 
King Charles by Vandyk, for which the Countess 
Du Barry paid the sum of 1000/. sterling ? 

What grounds are there for the allegation, that 
the Countest was related to the royid House of 
Stuart? Hbubt H. Bbsbx. 

8t« Jjomm. 


[No. X91 

" Preparation for Martyrdom." — Can any of 
jowc correspondents ^cover for me the anthor of 
the fallowing work F — 

" A Preparation fbr Martyrdom ; a DUeourse about 
the CauK, the Temper, the AsaisUncea, and Renrdi 
of a Martyr of Jnus Chriit : in Dialogue betwixt a 
Itfinister and a Gentleman his Parishioner. Land. 
1681, ^to." 

In order to aSbrd somewhat of a clue to this 
discovery, I send a few extracts from another 
WQonjmoua work : A Letter to the late Author of 
the ^'Preparaiioafor Martyrdom^' alluding to ya- 
rious circumstances relating to the author : 

" I muil confess that I had once as great a vene- 
I.U<,» f=. ,.u .. for «,, o. [ot] ,.ur l^^,. in Ih. 
fdiurch ; hut tlien you preach'd honestly, and liy'd 
peaceably ; but since pride or ambitious discontent, 
or some particular respects to some special friends of 
the adverse party, or something 1 know not what elsf, 
has thrust you upon scribbling, and ■ design of being 
popular ; since you had forsufcon your first love (if 
CTer you had any) to our church and establishment, 
and appear to be running over ad parltra Doaali, to 
the disturbers of our church and peace, you must needa 
pardon thia abort reflection, thougii from an old Irleud, 
and sometimes a great admirer of you. 

" Aa for the present establishment, you have (you 
conclude) as much already irom that as you are likely 
to have, but you claw the democratical party, hoping 
at long run to see an (Englii/,) Parliament ) that is, 
we must know, one that has no French pensioners 
ahuCBed into it to blast the whole business, such as will 
be govem'd by your instructions j and then Presbytery 
(you trust) will lie turn'd up Trump, the Directory 
onee more take place of the Liturgy, and God knows 
what become of the Monarchy, and Mr. C. be made a 

. " What an excellent design was lliat of your Stipu- 
lation, which I heard one say was like a new modell'd 
Independency. 'Twai intended, I suppose, as an ex- 
pedient to reduce the sheep of your own flock, which 
through your default chiefly (as is commonly reported) 
were gone astray; but because this tool could not 
work, without the force of a law to move it, therefore 
by law it must have been establishc, and the whole 
nation forsooth eomprehended under it, and all muat 
have set their instruments to your key, and their voices 

! had tl 

impious, in your unworthy reflections upon almod aB 
the honest people of England since the beginning of 
the reign of Olivtr the First, and some time before; 
not sparing many loyal worthies' memory who held up 
a good cause upon their sword paints (as you eiprus 
it) as long as they could ; and when they could do so 
no longer, either dy'd fbr't, or deliver'd themselves np 
to the will of the conqueror, yet never (aa you) ahjor'd 
the cause. Our rulers you suppose are ill eOected 
(otherwise your talk of Popery at your rate ia like 

piracy li 


with firm footings in Psrllament, as was hoped, our 
Eytiih world had been lifted offits pillars long before 
this day ; it had gone round, and in the church all old 
things had been done away, and everything bad ap- 
peared new. But, Sir, I trust the foundations of our 
eburch stand more sure than to need such silly props as 
your Caiholicon (as you vainly call il) to support 'em. 

" What an excellent thing too is your book of Pa- 
tronage? 'Twere no living f<>r Simon Magui, or any 
of his disciples here, if those rules you there lay down 
were but duly attended to. 

" But in those two books you showed yourself prag- 
matical only J hut in tbis of Martyrdom not a little 

bring in Popery) : and, undoubtedly, it had been in 
already, had not the prayers of Mr. C, and the fifty 
righteous iVon- Cant in every city, prevented iL" 


[The Prtparation far Martyrdom is not to be fbund 
either in the Bodleian or British Museum Cataloguo. 
The author of the Lilltr in reply to it, however, has 
afiorded a clue to its authorship. Zachary Cawdrcy, 
who appears to have been an admirer of the Vicar of 
Bray, was Rector of Barthondty in Cheshire durpg 
the Commonwealth, and for fourteen years after the 
Restoration ; this explains the hint in the l.ttter, of 
" setting their voices to the tune of B — &y." Cawdrey, 
moreover, was the author of Diieoane of Patronofti 
heing a Modtit laqahy into the OrigiiuU of it, and a 
farther Promution of the Hillary of if: which is also 
noticed in the Letter. Zaehary Cawdrey was bora at 
Melton Mowbray shout ISlfi; at (he age of sixteen 
he entered St. John's College, Cambridge; and in 
1649 became Rector of Barthomley, where he died 
Dec. 24, 1684. His brother David was one of tb* 
ejected, and the author of several warks.J 

Reference mmted. — I finiJ, in Blackwood, 
No. XXXVI. p. 431}., a reference to an article in 
the Ediabtirgh BevietB, by Sir D. E. Sandford, on 
Greek banquets. As I cannot find the article 
iticlf, may X a«k your assbtance ? 

P. J. F. Gaktiuxir. 

N. B. — In the article in Blackwood, p. 441., for 
" Hegesanrfer " read Hegeeippui ; p. 444., for 
"Deingfe"readDemgli«,- p. 450.,for"Nan»iifi^" 
read Nausiniftu; p.4SS., for " He«perideg " read 

Speaker of the ffotue of Cotnmotu in 1697. — 
Who was the Speaker who succeeded Sir John 
TreTor, and was Speaker of the House of Com- 
mons in 1697 ? W. Fbaser. 


[Peter Foley, Esq, succeeded Sir John Trevor, 
March 14, 1694- Sr Thomas Littleton, Bart., wa» 
chosen the next Efpeaker, December S, IG98.] 

Aug. la. 1853.] 




(VoLvii. passim.) 

Under this head the following translation of 

?art of the inscription at Behistun may be classed, 
t is, I apprehend, the earliest of this sort of in- 
scription : 

** Darius rex dicit: si hanc tabulam, hasque effigies 
spectas, et lis injuriam facias, et quamdiu tibi proles 
sit non eas conserves, Oromasdes hostis fiat tibi, et 
tibi proles non sit, et quod facias id tibi Oromasdes 

See Kawlinson*s ** Translation of the Great Per- 
sian Inscription at Behistun,** par. 17. Asiatic So' 
cietifs Transactions, 

The following is an extract from Maitland*s 
Dark Ages, p. 270., notes 3 and 4 : 

"Terrible imprecations were occasionally annexed 
by the donors or possessors of books ; as in a sacra- 
mentary which Mastene found at St. Benoit sur Loire, 
and which he supposed to belong to the ninth century. 
* Ut si quis eum de Monasterio aliquo ingenio non 
redditurus abstraxerit cum Juda proditore, Anna et 
Caipha, portionem aetemse damnationis accipiat. Amen, 
Amen, Fiat, Fiat.* " 

' There is a curious instance of this in a manu- 
script of some of the works of Augustine and Am- 
brose in the Bodleian Library : 

'* Liber S. Mariae de Ponte Robert!, qui eum abs- 
tulerit, aut yendiderit, vel quolibet modo ab hac do mo 
absciderit, sit anathema maranatha. Amen.'* 

In another hand (alien^ manu), — 

'* Ego Johannes £xon Epus, nescio ubi est domus 
predicta, nee hunc librum abstuli, sed modo legitimo 

Also page 283. : 

** Liber B. Mariae de Camberone : si quis eum abstu- 
lerit, anathema esto." 

In the preface to a late publication (1853), 
FragmeiUs of the Iliad of Homer from a Syrian 
Palimpsest, edited by William Cureton, the editor 
tells us : 

« The Palimpsest Manuscript, in which I discovered 
these fragments of a very ancient copy of the Iliad of 
Homer, formed a part of the library of the Syrian 
convent of St. Mary Deipara, in the Valley of the 
Ascetics, or the Deserts of Nigritia. On the first page 
of the last leaf the following notice occurs: ' This vo- 
lume of my Lord Severus belongs to the reverend and 
holy my Lord Daniel, Bishop of the province of 
Orrhoa (Edessa), who acquired it from the armour of 
God, when he was down in the province of the city of 
Aroida, for his own benefit, and that of every one that 
readeth it. But under the curse of God is he who- 
soever steals it, or hides or removes it «... or 
tears, or erases, or cuts off this memorial from it, for 
«ver. And through our Lord Jesus Christ may he 

who readeth it pray for the same Daniel, that he may 
find mercy in the day of judgment 1 Yea, and Amen^ 
and Amen. And upon the sinner who wrote it, may 
there be mercy in the day of judgment ! Amen. But 
at the end of his life he bequeathed it to this sacred 
convent of my Lord Silas, which is in Tarug (a city of 
Mesopotamia), for the sake of the remembrance of 
himself and of the dead belonging to him. May the 
Lord have mercy upon him in the day of judgment I 
Amen. Whosoever removeth this volume from this 
same convent, may the anger of the Lord overtake him 
in both worlds to all eternity ! Amen.* " 


In some of Dugdale*s MS. volumes in this College 
is the following, written by himself: 

** Maledictus sit qui abstulerit" 

Thomas W. EIing, York Herald. 
College of Arms. 

THE drummer's liETTER. 

(VoLvii., p. 431.) 

Mr. Forbes rightly describes the Drummer's 
Letter in the SentimentalJoumey as "not only cor* 
rectly but elegantly written." There is, more- 
over, in two or three places, a play upon words, 
which indicates an intimate acquaintance with the 
idiomatic turns of the language. But all these 
circumstances are, to my mind, only so many 
CTounds for the belief that the French of the 
letter is not Sterne's. 

If we are to judge of Sterne's French from the 
samples to be met with in Tristram Shandy and 
the Sentimental Journal, there is ample evidence 
that his knowledge of that language was some* 
what superficial. I shall give a few examples. 

Your readers are familiar with the incident in 
Tristram Shandy, where the Abbess and Mar- 
garita, having occasion to make use of two very 
coarse and indecent expressions, resort to the 
ludicrous expedient of splitting them in two, each 
pronouncing a separate syllable. Those words 
are scandalously common in the mouths of French- 
men ; and yet Sterne seems so little aware of the 
correct spelling of them, that he makes the poor 
nuns give utterance to two words, one of which, 
"bouger," means "to move," and the other, 
" fouter," is unknown to the French language. 

Farther on, in chapter xxxiv., the commissary 
employs the expression "C'est tout egal;" but 
this is merely the translation of our English 
phrase " 'Tis all one." The French say " C'est 
^gal," but never " C'est tout 4gal." 

In the Sentimental Journey, under the head of 
" The Bidet," La Fleur is made to say " C'est ua 
cheval le plus opini&tre du monde." Now, the 
man who could write the Drummer's Letter 
would not have applied the epithet "opini&tre** 



[No. 198. 

to ft horse ; and, ftt ftnj rate, he would have Sfud 
♦* CTest le cheval le plus opini&tre du moncle." 

In the chapter headed "The Passport" and 
also in another place, we have the phrase " Ces 
Messieurs Anglais sont des gens tr^s extraordi- 
naires/* This should be " Messieurs les Anglais/* 


Again, under the head of " Characters,** Count 
de B. says, " But if you do suppoii it, Af. Anglais , 
jon must do it with all your powers.** This " M. 
Anglais *' is our " Mr. finglisoman.** The correct 
expression is " M. TAnglais ** — Mr. the English- 

I might add other instances ; but these, I 
trust, are sufficient to warrant the opinion that 
the Drummer*8 Letter^ in its present shape, was 
not written by Sterne. JEIbnst H. jBsben. 

St. Lucia. 


(Vol. vii., p. 632.) 

At the place above referred to, Me. Ebightlet 
puts to me several Queries ; but being resident in 
the country, I had not an opportunity of seeing 
them till the 15th instant, and it took some days 
to get the information that would enable me to 
amwer them. 

I have now obtained the most ample evidence 
•f the existence, in the latter part of the last, and 
the beginning of the present, centuries, of the 
existence of a peculiar body of men called the 
Fogies^ in Edinburgh Castle. My informants 
agree in describing them as old men, dressed in 
red coats with apple-green facings, and cocked 
hat9. One says that they fired the Castle guns ; 
another says that he understood them to be the 
keepers, or, as we might say, the warders of the 
Castle, and that they were sometimes brought into 
the town to assist in quelling riots ; and this gen- 
tleman*s recollection of them goes back to 1784 at 
least. But the oldest date I have been able to get 
is from a much respected friend, the retired Town 
Clerk of Edinburgh, who writes to me thus : *' I 
have a most vivid recollection of the Castle Foggies* 
They were an invalid company, and my recol- 
lection of them goes as far back at least as 1780, 
when I was at Stalker*s English school in the 

To the testimony of these still living witnesses, 
I have to add that of Dr. Jamieson, who gives the 
word in his Dietionaiy as one of common and well- 
known use in Scotland in his time, 1759 — 1808 ; 
though he may have been mistaken in supposing 
it to be exclusively Scottish. It was for his tes- 
timony to this /act that I referred to Dr. Jamie8on*8 
Dietionary^ and not for bis etymology, for I am 
tH>t so much of a ** true Soot ** as to consider bim 
iofiillible in that d^artment. I have BOi leisare 

at present to search any farther for the word in 
books, but in the meantime I presume to think 
the evidence I have procured or its use in Scot- 
land, will carry us nearly as far back as Mx. 
Keightl£T*s for its use in Ireland. 

I cannot pretend to much acquaintance with 
the Swedish langunge, but I was quite well aware 
that that " is what is meant by the mysterious Sa.- 
G.*' I was also aware that in the kindred Teu- 
tonic tongues the word runs through the various 
forms of vogt^ fogat^ phogat^ voget, tfoogd^ fi^g^% 
ff*g^dy fogett^ with the meaning of bailiff^ steward, 
preses, watchman, guard or protector, tutor, over- 
seer, jud<re, mayor, policeman; and I doubt not 
that fogie belongs to the same family, though it 
has lost its tail. Ma. Kbigrtlbv does not need 
to be told that words frequently degeneriite in 
meaning, falling from the noblest to the basest, 
from the purest to the most obscene. Is there 
then anything improbable in supposing that a wwd 
once applied to the governor or ehief keeper of a 
castle, came at last to be applied to all, even the 
meanest, of his subordinates P Dr. Jamieson as- 
serts that theword/(;^c2ein the Su.-G. has actually 
had that fate ; can Mb. Kbightlbt controvert 
him ? 

As a proof, quantum valeat, that the Castle fogies 
were so called for some other reason than merely 
because of their being ^* old folks,** I may neii« 
tion that there was in Edinburgh, for more than 
a century, another bo(ly of veterans, called the 
Town Guard, or City Guard, maintained by the 
magistrates as a sort of military police, or tteit^ 
doruierie, and finally disbanded m 1817. This 
corps was generally recruited from old soldiers ; 
and during the period of my acquaintance with 
them (9J years) they were all aged, and some of 
them very old men ; yet I never heard the word 
fogies applied to them. On the contrary, they 
were always distinguished from the fogies by the 
elegant appellation of the ^*Toon Rottens,** or 
Town Rats, as well as by their facings, which 
were dark blue. Some, indeed, of my younger 
friends, who remember the ** Rats ** very well, say 
they never heard of the ** Fogies ** at all ; onlj 
one of them, who lived when a boy at the Castfe 
Hill, perhaps about forty years ago, recollects of 
the word "fogie** as being then applied to the 
soldiers of the ordinary veteran or garrison bat- 
talions, with blue facings, that had superseded the 
fogies in the keeping of the Castle; but of the 
veritable apple-green fogies of the older establish- 
ment, he nas no remembrance. As my own re- 
collections of Edinburgh go back to 1808, the 
fogies, I presume, must have been by that time 
eitinct, for I never saw any of them, thoagh I 
frequently heard them spoken of by those who 
had seen them. 

I may mention also that while " fogie** was in 
me, aad of well understood appHcation in Seet- 

Aug. 13. 1853.] 



land, the pbrase " old folks," or, to write it accord- 
ing to our vernacular pronunciation, " auld fo*k," 
was also, and continues to be, in general and fa- 
miliar use ; but nobody in Scotland, I dare say, 
ever imagined that " the auld fu'k " of his or- 
dinary acquaintance were just "old fogies," or 
had anything whatever to do with- that peculiar 
class of men, properly so called, the keepers of the 
royal castles. It is most remarkable, also, that 
while the corrupt derivative, as Mb. Keightlbt 
says " old fogie * is, has been almost quite for- 
gotten among us, having disappeared with the 
men that bore the name of fogies, the parent form, 
as he would have " old folks *' or " auld fo'k " to 
be, should remain in full vigour and common use, 
as part of our living speech. In a word, from all 
I can learn it would appear that the word " fogie," 
in its most general acceptation, means by itself, 
without the *' old," an old soldier ; and that " old 
fogie " is only a tautological form, arising from ig- 
norance of its meaning. Be its origin, however, 
what it may, I have no hesitation now m express- 
ing my conviction that Mb. KsiGHTiiEr's etymo- 
logy of the word is utterly groundless. J» L. 
City Chambers, Edinburgh. 


(Vol. vii., p. 628.) 

All persons will, I think, agree with Mb. Wab- 
DBN in his very just complaint of the carelessness 
with which many of the English Peerages are com- 
}Mled. It would be a task, little short of a new 
compilation, to correct the errors and inaccuracies 
with which many of these productions abound, the 
less pardonable now, bcMsause of the facilities 
afforded for consulting the Public Records, should 
even our older genealogists, without such aids, be 
in some degree excused ; but as Mb. Wabdeb in- 
vites, by a personal appeal, the rectification of a 
chronolc^icail error which has crept into all the 
Peerages, founded upon the authority of Dogdale, 
respecting the period of the death of Thomas, 
sixth Lord Fauconberge, I^am induced to send 
you a few Notes, which a recent examination of 
the Records in the Tower of London has supplied. 

When the facts are made patent, there will be 
no need to dwell upon the inconsistencies pointed 
out by Mr. Wabden, and the alleged incompati- 
bility in regard to age for an union between two 
persons of some note in family history, the son of 
the first Earl of Westmoreland and his Countess 
Joan and the daughter and heir of the Lord Fau- 
conberge, who formed an alliance from which the 
co-heirs are, it is believed, represented at this 

The birth of William Nevtll, Lord Faucon- 
l»er^ afterwards created Earl of Kent, second 
son of a marriage which took place early in, or 

just before, the year 1397, may be assif^ned to in 
or about the year 1400; and we shall presently 
see that his future wife was bom on the 18th ra 
October, 1406, and married to him before the 1st 
of May, 1422. 

Walter, fifth Lord Fauconberge, died on the 
29th of September, 1362 (Esc. 36 Edw. III., 1st 
part. No. 77.), leaving a sou Thomas (issue of his 
first marriage with Matilda, sister and co-heir of 
Sir William de PateshuU, Kt., Esc. 33 Edw. III., 
1st part. No. 40., and Eot. Orig.^ 34 Edw. III., 
Ro. 2.), then a minor, under eighteen years of 

Thomas, who was bom circa 1345, was already 
in 1362 married to his first wife Constancia, by 
whom he does not appear to have left any issue 
surviving. His was rather an eventful life ; some 
incidents not noticed by Dugdale will be briefly 
cited. On the 10th of August, 1372, being then 
a knight or chivaler, he had letters of protection 
on going abroad in the king*s service, in the com- 
pany of Thomas de Beauchamp^ Earl of Warwick 
{RoL FruHc.^ 46 Edw. III.). Here it seems he 
forgot his allegiance, and having gone over to the 
French side was branded "tanquam proditor 
domini Regis Angli» " (Esc. 5 Ric. II., No. 67., 
6 Ric. IL, No. 180., and 11 Ric. IL, No. 59.). 
Can this have been the origin of the error in as* 
signing his death to the year 1376 P He was, 
however, yet living in 1401, as in that year be 
succeeded to the reversion of the estates which his 
step-mother Isabella (a sister of Sir John Bygot, 
Chivaler), the widow of Walter Lord Faucon- 
berge, held in dower (Esc. 2 Hen. IV., No. 47.). 
Not long after this, and apparently a few years 
only before his death, and when somewhat ad- 
vanced in years, he married a second time. I 
have not been able to ascertain to what family his 
wife Joan, or Johanna, belonged, but she survived 
her husband only a short time. About the period 
of his marriage, too (9th August, 1405), an oc^ 
currence of some importance to bis descendants 
is recorded, namely, a grant by the king to Sir 
Thomas Bromflete and Sir Robert Hilton, of the 
custody and governance of all his estates in Eng- 
land, which bad come into the king*s hands ^* ra« 
tione ideociae ThomsB Fauconberge, Chivaler," to 
hold during the life of the said Thomas. This 
grant, however, was in the following year, on 
24th December, 1406, revoked and annulled, be-, 
cause the said Thomas had proved belbre the 
king and his council in Chancery, "quod ipse 
sanae discretionis hactenus fuerit et ad tunc ex* 
istat," and he was thereupon re-admitted to his 
estates which had descended to him ''jure hsere- 
ditario post mortem Walteri Fauconberge patria 
stti, cttjus hseres ipse est** {Rot Pat,i p» 1^ 
8 Heo. IV., m. 16.). He had only a few months 
before (15th February, 1406) obtained from the 
king liverj of an estate which had eome to him in 



[No. 198. 

1375 as one of the co-heirs, on his mother*8 side, 
of his grandmother Mabilia, a sister of Otho de 
Graunson, upon the death without issue of Thomas 
de Graunson, son of the said Otho. {Rot Pat,, 
p. 1., 7 Hen. IV., m. 6.) 

Was there in fact any real ground for the sug- 
gestion of Lord Fauconberge s idiocy ? This is 
one of the gravest imputations that can be cast 
upon a family, and it is a most unpardonable pre- 
sumption to make it lightly and without justice; 
but it is somewhat singular that nearly fifly years 
afterwards, his only daughter and heir, born at 
the very period when this charge was being re- 
futed, and when he himself was upwards of sixty 
^ears of age, became the subject of a commission 
issued to inquire of her alleged imbecility and 
idiocy. The commissioners sat at Gisburn in 
Cleveland in the county of York, on the 28th of 
March, 1463, and it was then found by the in- 
quest that " Johanna Fauconberge nuper comi- 
tissa de Kent, fatua et ydeota est, et a nativitate 
sua semper fuit, ita quod se terras et tenementa 
sua neque alia bona sua regere scit, aut aliquo 
tempore scivit : ** the jury also returned that she 
had not alienated any lands or tenements since 
the death of William, late Earl of Kent, her late 
husband. That Joan, the wife of Sir Edward 
Bethom, Kt., thirty years old and upwards, 
Elizabeth, the wife of Richard Strangeways, Esq., 
twenty-eight years old and upwards, and Alice, 
wife of John Uonyers, Esq., twenty-six years old 
and upwards, were the daughters and heirs, as 
well of the said William the late eai*l, as of the 
said Joan the late countess. (Esc. 8 Edw. IV., 
No. 33.) 

Thomas Lord Fauconberge died on the 9th of 
September, 1407, leaving the above-mentioned 
Joan, or Johanna, his daughter and heir, an infant 
of one year old. (Esc. 9 Hen. IV., No. 19. ; see 
also Esc. 9 Hen. V., No. 42.) His widow Joan 
had assignment of dower after her husband^s 
death on 20th October, 1408, and she herself died 
in the following year, on the 4th of March, 1409. 
(Esc. 10 Hen. I v.. No. 15.) A later inquisition, 
however, taken on 1st of April, 1422 (Esc. 
10 Hen. v., No. 22*.), states that the said Joan, 
widow of Sir Thomas Fauconberge, Chivaler, died 
on the 23rd of June, 1411. The first date is most 
probably the correct one, as a fact would be more 
likely to be accuratelv stated by a jury impan- 
neled a few months only after the event recorded, 
than by an inquest, taken after an interval of 
twelve or thirteen years. 

On the formal proof of age (Esc. 10 Hen. V., 
No. 22**.) of Joan Fauconberge, daughter and heir 
of Thomas Lord Fauconberge and Joan his wife, 
taken at Northallerton, in the county of York, on 
the 1st of May, 10 Henry V., 1422, she was de- 
scribed as the wife of William Neville. She 
appears to have been born at Skelton in the said 

county, and baptized in the church there on the 
feast of Saint Luke the Evangelist (18th of Oc- 
tober), 1406 ; and on the same feast in 1421, being 
the 9th of Henry V., she had accomplished her 
fifteenth year. Dugdale (tom. ii. p. 4.) has fallen 
into a singular mistake in alluding to this events 
not to speak of the obvious inconsistency which 
those writers who follow his account have intro- 
duced in assigning the year of Lord Fauconberge*s 
decease to 1372, thus making the daughter's birth 
to have occurred more than thirty years after her 
father's death. It is this : — One of the witnesses^ 
who speaks to the period of the baptism of Joan, 
was named Thomas Blawefrount the elder, fifly 
years of age and upwards, and the reason as- 
signed by him for his remembrance of the event 
is as follows : " Et hoc scit eo quod Isabella filia 
prsedicti Thomse desponsata fuit cuidam Johanni 
Wilton, et idem Thomas fuit ad sponsalia eodem 
die quo prsfata Johanna baptizata fuit, propter 
quod bene recolit quod prsefata Johanna fuit 
setatis prgedictse." Dugdale has by a strange over- 
sight made the Isabella here described to be the 
daughter of Thomas Fauconberge, and sister of 
Joan, instead of the witness* own daughter. 

It is not quite evident, from the language of the 
document which records the imbecility of the 
Countess of Kent in March 1463, whether she 
was then actually dead. It appears, however, 
clear that she survived her husband, who lived but 
a few months to enjoy his newly acquired dignity. 

The account given by Dugdale of John, son of 
Thomas Lord Fauconberge, is scarcely intelligible. 
He says this lord ** left issue John, his son and 
heir,** and subsequently adds, ** which John died 
without issue in the lifetime of his father.** 

Lord Fauconberge may have had a son by his 
former wife, but I have seen nothing to confirm 
this supposition. By an inquisition taken afler 
the death of Sir Walter Fauconberge, Chivaler, at 
Bedford, on the 18th of November, 1415, it was 
found that Joan, widow of one Sir John Faucon- 
berge, Chivaler, deceased, whom Thomas Broun* 
flete, junior, afterwards married, was then living, 
and that she granted to the said Sir Walter all the 
estate which she had in certain rents payable by 
Matilda AVake, formerly the wife of Sir Thomaft 
Wake, Chivaler; that the said Sir Walter died 
on the 1st of September, 1415, but the jurors 
knew not who was his heir, (Esc. 3 Hen. V., 
No. 15.) Dugdale (vol. ii. p. 234.) cites a feoff- 
ment dated 9 Hen. IV., 1407-8, which shows that 
Thomas Brounfiete, Esq., was then married to the 
said Joan, and consequently that Sir John Fau- 
conberge was dead at that time. 

I must close this, for I fear I have now ex* 
ceeded the limits which your valuable paper may, 
with justice to others, spare to subjects of this 
nature. Whjjam Hakdt. 

Aug. 13. 1853.] 




Lining of Cameras, — I find nothing so good to 
line a camera with as black velvet; for, black the 
inside of a camera as you will, if it is hard wood or 
any size used, there will be reflection from the 
bottom, which, with very sensitive plates, gives a 
dulness which, I think I may say, is caused by 
this reflection. I think even the inside of the lens 
tube might advantageously be lined with black 
velvet. W. M. F. 

Cyanuret of Potassium, — ^I have been using lately 
12 grs. of cyanuret of potassium in 1 oz. of water 
for clearing the collodion plates, instead of hypo. 
There is one advantage, that there are no crystals 
formed if imperfectly washed, which is too common 
with hypo. You must take care to well wash off 
the developing fluid, whether pyrogallic, proto- 
nitrate, or protosulphite : if you use the latter 
40-grains strong, the whitest pictures can be ob- 
tained, nearly as white as after bichloride of 
mercury. A good formula to make it is — 

Distilled water - - - 11 drachms. 

Alcohol - - • - 1 drachm. 

Nitric acid - - - 20 minims. * 

Protosulphate of iron - - 60 grains. 

This I know to act well with care, and it will keep 
a long time. 

I find protonitrate solution -— 

Water - - - - 1 J ounce. 
Barytes - - - - 150 grains. 
Protosulph. - - - 150 „ 

mixed in a proportion of 8 to 4, with a 3 -grain 
solution of pyrogallic — a very nice developing 
mixture ; and, if poured back again after being 
used, will suffice 6 or 8 times over ; but it is best 
new. W. M. F. 

Minuteness of Detail on Paper, — Being fond 
of antiquarian studies, and having learned from 
" N. & Q.'* the value of photography to the ar- 
chaeologist, I have serious thoughts of taking up 
the practice of the art. Before doing so, however, 
I am anxious to learn how far that minuteness of 
detail which I so much prize, and which is of such 
value to the antiquary, is to be obtained by any of 
the processes on paper. I have seen some spe- 
cimens produced by collodion which certainly ex- 
hibit that quality in an eminent degree. Is any- 
thing approaching to such minuteness attainable 
by any of the Talbotype processes ? F. S. A. 

[Had this Query reached us last week, we should 
then, as now, have replied in the afiirmative. We 
should then have referred, for evidence in support of 
our statement, to Mr. Fenton*s Well Walk, Chelten- 
ham, published in the Photographic Album, and to Mr. 
Buckle's View of Peterborough. But we may now 
adduce a work almost more remarkable for this quality, 
namely, a view of Salisbury, by Mr. Russell Sedgefield, 

a young wood engraver, which is about to appear in 
the forthcoming part of the Photographic Album, 

To this beautiful specimen of the art we may cer- 
tainly refer as a proof that it is quite possible to obtain 
upon paper the greatest nicety of detail; in short, 
every minuteness that can be desired, or ought to be 

Stereoscopic Angles. — I think there can be little 
doubt that Mr. T. L. Merbitt (Vol. viii., p. 110.) 
has solved the problem as to stereoscopic angles : 
there can be no reason why one angle should be 
used for near objects, and another for distant. A 
true representation of nature is required ; and, as 
we cannot view any object with one of our eyes 
eighteen or twenty feet separate from the other, 
so it appears to me a true picture cannot be ob- 
tained by taking two views so far apart. The 
result must be to dwarf the objects ; and, in con- 
firmation of this, I may state that I was not con- 
vinced that the stereoscopic views were taken 
from nature till I understood the cause of their 
reduction. All views that I have been able to 
purchase, of out- door nature, appear to me to be 
taken from models, and not from the objects them* 

A view of a tower conveys the idea, not of a 
tower of stone and lime, but of a very careful 
model in cardboard ; and this is exactly what 
might be expected from taking the views at so 
wide an angle. A church is seen, as it would be 
seen by a giant whose eyes were twenty feet apart, 
or as we would see a small model of it near at 

I hope that some of your photographic corre- 
spondents will settle this question, by taking views 
of the same object both by the wide and close 
angle, and, by comparing them, ascertain which 
conveys to the mind the truest representation of 
nature. T. B. Johnston. 


Sisson*s developing Solution (Vol. vii., p. 462.). 
— Will you be so good as to ask Mr. Sisson if he 
finds the above to answer as a bath to plunge the 
plate intOy instead of pouring on, as in the case of 
pyrogallic ? 

He is entitled to the warm thanks of all photo^* 
graphers for the discovery of a solution which 
produces such pleasing tints with so much ease ; 
and it needs but the qualification I inquire after 
to render it perfect. I have used it when at least 
three weeks made, and am not sure that it is not 
even better than when fresh. S. B. 

P.S. — Why not devote a little more space to 
this fascinating art in " N. & Q.'' ? I think, if 
anything, it grows less latterly. 

MulHplpng Photographs. — In Vol. yiii., p. 60., 
you reprint a communication from Sir W. Her* 
schel which has appeared in TAe Athenaum, 


Ave. 13. 1853.] 



John Moi?e, Esq^ London, 1635, which lately esme 
into my hands : — La navel NaJtara Brevmm dm Juge 
Tresreverend Jfansievr Aidhony Fitzherbert ; with 
a new table by William Rastall. The preface is 
headed as follows: — ** La Preface sur ceet lieua 
compose per le Reverend Justice Anthony Fitz- 

Anthony Fitzherbert was appointed Chief Jus- 
tice of the Common Fleas in 1^23, and died io 
30 Hen. VIU. WilUam Raatall was appmnted 
Serjeant-at-law in 1554, and one of tlie Justices 
of the Common Fleas in 1558: it would seem, 
therefore, that as Rastall ts not styled ^ Serjeant- 
at-law" tn die title-page of the hock, when he 
made a new table to its contents, that the com- 
plimentary style of Reverend, as applicable to the 
judges, was used at least as late as the middle of 
the sixteenth century. 

Thomas W. King, York Herai/D. 

College of Arms. 

Jacob Bolmrt (Vol. viiL, p. 37.). — I beg to 
supply the followinjr additional particulars relating 
to the Bobart family. In the Correspondence of 
Dr. Richardson, edited by Mr. Dawson Turner, 
will be found a letter from Bobart junior to the 
Doctor, with a reference to two other letters. In 
pages 9, 10, and 11, a copious note respecting the 
Bobart family, by the enditor, is given. A short 
notice of Bobart jun. also appears in the Me- 
moirs of John Miirtyn, Frofessor of Botany at 
Cambridge. The following epitaph on Bobart 
jun. is in Amherst's Terns Films, 1726 : 

" Here lies Jacob Bobart, 
Nail*d up in a cupboard." 

In the preface to Mr. Nichols* work on Atdographs, 
among other albums noticed by hitn as being in 
the Britiiih Museum, is that of David Krieg, with 
Jacob Bobart*s autograph, and the following 
verses : 


Thhik that day lost whose descending sun. 
Views from thy hand no noble accion done. 
Tovr success and hftppyness 
Is sincerely wished by 

Ja. BoaAitT, Oxibrd." 

Mr. Richardson's engraved portrait of Bobart 
the Elder is only a copy of Burghers' engraving, 
so highly spoken of by Granger, and cannot, 
therefore, be nearly so valuable as the latter. 


« PuUing your foot into it'' (Vol. viii., p. 77.) 

W. W. is certainly " Will o' the Wisp" himself. 
We must not allow him to lead us into Asia, hunt- 
ing for the origin of a saying which is nothing 
more than a coarse allusion to an accident that 
happens day after <lay to every heedless or be- 
iu|[hted pedestrian in England ; but if a foreign 
ongim mut be found £nr ^ia saying, let us travel 

to Grreeee rather than to Hindofitm, and we ahall 
see in the writings of .£schylus : 

'^X^^* tfapaii^eiif yot^eruv re rhv Kokws 
Tlpda-trotr?" K.r, \. — Pirom, Vine, 27 1 . 


Simile of the Sotd and the Magnetic Needle 
(Vt)l. vi., pp. 127. 207. 280. 368. 566. ; Vol. vii., 
p. 508.). — We have all overlooked the following 
use of this simile in Thomas Hood's poem, ad- 
dressed to Rae Wilson : 

** Spontaneously to God should tend the soul. 
Like the magnetic needle to ihe Fole ; 
But what were that intrinsic virtue worth. 
Suppose some feUour, with more zeal than knowledge, 

Fresh from St. Andrew's College, 
Should nail the conscious needle to the north?** 



The Tragedy of Polidus (Vol. vii., p. 499.). — 
This tragedy, printed at London 1723, 12mo., has 
a farce appended to it called All BedeviCd, or the 
House in a Hurry, Browne was patronised bj 
Hervey, the author of the Meditations, The scene 
of the drama is in Cyprus. The lover of Folidus, 
" the banished general," and Rosetta, daughter to 
Orlont, chief favourite to the king, form the 
groundwork of the plot. My copy was formerly 
in the collection of plays which belonged to Stephen 
Jones, author of the Biographia DramaUoa. 

J. Mt. 

Robert Fairlie (Vol. vii., p. 581.). — In answer 
to the Query as to Robert rairley, or more pro- 
perly Fairlie, I may mention that there is in my 
possession a presentation by the Faculty of Advo- 
cates, dated July 27, 1622, to "Robert Fairlie, 
son lawfuU to Umquhill Robert FaiHie, goldsmith, 
Burgh of Edinburgh, to the said bursar place and 
haill immunities quhill he pass his course of Phi- 
losophie," in the College of Edinburgh. This un- 
doubtedly was the author of the two very rare little 
poetical volumes referred to ; and it proves, from 
the use of Uie word " Umquhill," that his father 
was then dead. 

There is an error in stating that the Kalendariwn 
is dedicated to the Earl of Ancrum. In the copy 
before me it is inscribed " Illustrissimo et Nobilif* 
simo Domino, Domino Roberto Karo Comiti a Sum- 
merset," &c. The other work is the one dedicated 
to Lord Ancrum. I have both works, and they cer- 
tainly were costly, as I gave five guineas for them« 
They had originally been priced at ten guineas. 

A Bursary, according to Jamieson, b " the en- 
dowment given to a suident in a university, bm 
exhibition." It is believed that Fairlie wis of the 
Aynhize &mii j of tiiat name. J* Ms . 



[Na 198. 

"JWofcr ait nata," j-c. (Vol.Tii., pp.247, 248.).— 
When calling attention to these lines in "N.&Q." 
(Vol. vii., p. ISS.), I at the same time asked if 
Buch ■ relationship as that mentioned in them woa 
ever known to eiist ? This Query was verj 
kindly and aatiBfactorily answered by your cotre- 
Bpondents Anok and Tra. Bu^ remarkable as were 
the instances mentioned by them of the two old 
ladies in Cheshire and Limington, who could speak 
to their descendants in a female liue to the fifth 
geueration, still that Z am non to record of an old 
man in Montenegro ia much more singular, as be 
could converse with hia lineal descendants in an 
■uninterrupted male line one generation farther 
from him, (i. e.) to the sixth. The case is too well 
authenticated to admit of a doubt, and until some 
one of your correspondents shall favour me with 
another equally to be credited, it will remain in 
the columns of " N. & Q." as the only one known 
to its readers : — 

" Colonel Vialla de SommUtes, a Frenchman, wlio 
wu for a long time goiemor of Ibe proiince of Catano, 
mentiEjns a faniiLy he saw in a villaj^e of Montene^o, 
which reckoned lir generations. The veneralile head 
of the family was 117 yenrs old, his son 1 00, his grand- 
lon 82, great-grandson 60, and the son of this last, wba 
was 43, bad a son aged SI, whoae child was 2 years 


Sir John VaniTVgk (Vol. Tiii., p. 65.). — Anoh. 
points at Chester as the probable birthplace of the 
above knight, named in Mb. Huohbs'b Query. 
Now, Mr. Davenport, in his Siog. Diet., p. 546. 
(wherein is a wood-engraved portrait of Sir John), 
states that he was bora in London, about 1672 ; 
but, supposing hia place of nativity was, as your 
correspondent auggeats, Chester, it might very 
easily be ascertained by searching the parochial 
register of that city in or about the above year. 

Fete de> Chaudroia (Vol. vii!., p. 37.). — Some 

account of this f?te will probably be found In Du- 

cange't Olossariam Media et Infimm LatimtaHa. 

I have not a copy of the work at hand for reference. 

John Macbat. 


Murder of Monaideschi (Vol. viii^ p. 34.). — 
The following account of this event is taken from 
the Biographia Universelie, article "Christine, reine 
de Sugde :" 

" Cet Itallen avait joul do loute la confiance de U 
reine, qui lui avait i&vUk ses pensles lea plus secretes. 
ArriT^e & Fontaineblesu, elle Taccusa de trahiion, et 
riaolut de le faire mourir. Un religieui de I'ordre de 
la Trinili. le P. Lebet, fut appele pour le priparer k la 
nort. Maaaldeschi se jeta aui pieda de la reine et 
Ibndii en larmes, Le teligieox, qm a public lui-meme 

un rfcit de I'fvfnement, fit i Chrii^ne lea plus fortei 
reprfaentalioni sur cet acle de vengeance qu'elle vauiait 
eiereer arbitrairemeut dans une terra ^trang^re et dans 
le palais d'un grand aouveraini mais elle resta inSei* 
ible, et ordonna a Suntinelli, capitaine de ses gardea, da 
faire eifcuter I'arrSC qu'elle avait prononc^. Moual- 
descbi, H)up(onnant le danger qu'd courait, a'etait cui- 
rass^ : il falInC le Trapper de pluaieurs coups avant quH 
eipirit, et la galerie des Cerfs. oil se paua cctte ac^na 
r^voltante, fut leiute de son sang. Pendant ce tempi, 
Christine, au rapport de pluueura hiMoriens, ftail darn 

calme de choses indiSerenies ; selon d'autres rapporla, 
elle fut pr£sente i I'eiecutioo, accabla Monaldesi^i de 

dissimuler. Que cea details soient fond£s ou non, la 
Diort de Monaideschi est une Uche inefTafable k la me- 
moire de CbriitJne, et c'est k regret qu'on voiC sur la 
liate de aes apologiatea le nom du tameui Ideibnilz." 

In the answer which Queen Christina sent lo 
the objectioDB made in Poland to her election aa 
their sovereign, occurs the following passage ; 

" Le Pere dira en tSmoignagc de la vinxi, que cet 
homme me forja de le faire mourir par la trahison la 


nal £cr 

mfme, en presence de irois t^moins, et du F^re ptieui 
de Fontainebleau : qu'ils savent qu'il diC lui-meme: 
' Je suis digne de mille morls.' et que je lui fis donner 
lea sacremeos dont il £tait capable avant que do le &irB 
mourir." ~ Mlmoira conctrnant Chritimt, Anul. et 
I^eipiig, 1759, torn. iii. pp. 386-7. 


Tour correspondent will find an account of thli 
affair in the Appendix to Ranke's HUtory of Vim 
Popes. ' f.£H. 

Zand of Green GiBger (Vol. ylii., p. 34.). — It 
is so called from the sale of ginger having been 
chiefly carried on there in early times. As far as 
lean recollect, none of the locw histories gives any 
derivation of the name; those of Gent and Frost 
certainly do not, and this is the one generally re- 
ceived by the inhabitants. Salthouse Lane and 
Blaoket Row are other streets, which may be 
referred to as having obtained their names in a 
similar way. B. W. Elliot. 


An inhabitant of Hull has informed me that thi* 
street was so named by a house-proprieUr wfaosa 
fortune had been made in the West Indies, and I 
think by the sweetmeat trade. T. K. H. 

UnnealA (Vol. vii., p. 631.). — It strikes me that 
^our correspondents Ma. C. H. Coopsnand E. G. B., 
in reply to Ma. Wsaaur'a inquiry respecting the 

AtTG. 13. 1853.] 



use of the word " unneatb," used in PameU's 
Fairy Tale, have fallen into a slight mistake in 
supposing that the seemingly old words used in 
this poem are really so. I make no doubt that 
Mb. Halliwell is correct in noting the word 
*• unneath ** as signifying " beneath," in the patois 
of Somerset ; but I gravely suspect that Parnell 
had picked up the word out of our older poets, 
and used it m the passage quoted without con- 

The true meaning of " unneath " (which is of 
Saxon oricrin, and variously written ''unnethe, 
unnethes ") is scarcely, not easily. 

Thus Chaucer says : 

" The miller that for-dronken was all pale, 
So that unnethes upon his bors he sat.** 

The MiUers Prologue^ v. 3123. [Tyrwhitt.] 

And again : • 

" Yeve me than of thy gold to make our cloistre. 
Quod he, for many a muscle and many an oistre» 
When other men hau ben ful wel at ese 
Hath been our food, our cloistre for to rese : 
And yet, God wot, unneth the fundament 
Parfourmed is, ne of our pauement 
K' is not a tile,'* &c. 

The Sompnours Tale, v. 7685» 

"Unneath," signifying difficult, scarcely, with 
diffijcuUy, occurs so frequently in Spenser, that it 
is unnecessary to burden your pages with refer- 
ences. It may be remarked, however, that this 
latter author occasionally employs this word in the 
sense of almost T. H. de H. 

Snail Gardens (Vol. viii., p. 33.). — In very 
many places on the Continent snails are regularly 
bred for the table : this is the case at Ulm, Wir- 
temberg, and various other places. A very lively 
description of the sale of snails in the Roman 
market is given by Sir Francis Head. I have 
collected much interesting information on t|his 
point, and shall feel grateful for any farther 
'* Notes " on the subject. Sbleucus. 

Parvise (Vol. vii., p. 624.). — Perhaps the fol- 
lowing quotation may throw light on your cor- 
respondent D. P.*s inquiry respecting this word, 
in French Parvis. It is taken from a Dictionnaire 
Universel, contenant generalement tons les mots 
franqois, tant vieux que modemes, Sfc, par feu 
Messire Antoine Furetiere, Ahhe de ChaJivoi, 
three vols, folio. La Haye et la Rotterdam, 1701 : 

" Parvis, *. w. — Place publique qui est ordinaire- 
ment devant la principale face des grandcs Eglises. 
IjC parvis de Notre Dame, de Saint Genevieve. On 
le disoit autrefois de toutes les places qui ^toient de- 
vant les paluis, et grandes maisons. Les auteurs 
Chretiens appellent le Parvis des Gentiles, ce que les 
Juifs appelloient le premier Temple, II y avoit deux 
Parvis dans le Temple de J6ru&alem ; Tun int^rieur, 
qui ^oit celui des Pr^tres ; et Tautre ext^rieur, qu'on 

appelloit aussi le Parvis d^Israel, ou le Grand Parvis* 
— Le Cl. 

" Quelques-uns disent que ce mot vient de Paradisus ; 
d'autres de parvisium, qui est un lieu au bas de la oef 
oh Ton tenoit autrefois les petites Ecoles, d docendo 
parvis pueris, Voyez Menage, qui rapporte plusieurs 
titres curieux en faveur de Tune et de Tautre opinion. 
D'autres le derivent de pervius, disant qu*on appelloit 
autrefois pervis, une place publique devant un bati- 

T. H. DB H. 

Humbug (Vol. vii., p. 631.). — Allow me to add 
the following to the list of explanations as to the 
origin of this word. There appeared in the Berwick 
Advertiser the following origin of the word hum* 
bug, and it assuredly is a very feasible one. It 
may be proper to premise, that the name of bogti^ 
is commonly pronounced bug in that district of 
Scotland formerly called the ** Meams^' * 

" It is not generally known that this word, presently 
so much in vogue, is of Scottish origin. There was in 
olden time a race called Bogue, or Boag of that ilk, in 
Berwickshire. A daughter of the family married a 
son of Hume of Hume. In process of time, by default 
of male issue, the Bogue estate devolved on one Geor* 
die Hume, who was called popularly * Hume o* the 
Bogue,* or rather *Aum o* the Bug.* This worthy 
was inclined to the marvellous, and had a vast incli- 
nation to exalt himself, his wife, family, brother, and 
all his ancestors on both sides. His tales however did 
not pass current ; and at last, when any one made an 
extraordinary statement in the Mearns, the hearer 
would shrug up his shoulders, and style it just * a hum 
o' the bug.* This was shortened into hum-bug, and the 
word soon spread like wildfire over the whole kingdom.** 

How far this is, or is not true, cannot be known ; 
but it is certain that the Lands of Bogue, com- 
monly called by country folk " Bug," passed by 
marriage into the Hume family ; and that the male 
representatives of this ancient family are still in 
existence. This much may be fairly asserted, 
that the Berwickshire legend has more apparent 
probability about it than any of the other ones. 

^ J.Mt. 

P. S.--" That ilk," in old Scotch, means "the 
same:" in other words, Hume of that ilk is just 
Hume of Hume ; and Brodie of that ilk, Brodie 
of Brodie. 

Table-moving (Vol. vii., p. 596.). — I imagine 
that the great object in table-moving is to produce 
the desired effect without pressure. During ex- 
periments I have often heard the would-be " table- 
movers" cry "Don't press: it must be done 
without any pressure." J« A. T. 

Scotch Newspapers (Vol. viii., p. 57.).— In Bud- 
diman's Life, by G. Chalmers (8vo. Lend. 1794), 
it is stated that Cromwell was the first who com* 
municated the benefit of a newspaper to Scotland. 



[No. 1961 

In 1652, Cbrifltopher Hig^ins^ a prkiter, wbom 
Cromwell had conveyed with his army to Leitb, 
reprmted there what had been ah-eady poblkhed 
tt London, A IHurrud cf somepassc^es and affairs 
for the information of the Engliah Soldiers, A 
newspaper of Scottish manufacture appeared at 
£dlnburgh, the same authority relates, on the 3 1st 
of December, 1660, under the title of Mercuritts 
Ccdedonius; comprising the affairs in agitation in 
Scotland, with a survey of foreign intelligence. 
It was published once a week, in a small 4to. form 
€# eight pages. Chahners adds, that — 

" It was a son of the Bishop of Orkney, Thomas 
Lydserfe, who now thought h€ had the wit to amuse, 
tbs knowledge to instruct, and the address to eap ivate 
Ibe lovers of news in Seotland. Bat he was only able, 
wttii all h» pcHvers, to extend his publication to ten 
mimbers, whiefa were very hiyal, very ilLttcrste, and 
very affected.** 

John Macsat. 


Door^kead InscripOons (Vol. vii., pp. 23. 190. 
588.; Vol. viii., p. 38.). — Over the door of the 
house at Sahrfngton, Sussex, in which Selden was 
bom, is this inscription : 

** Gcatirs, honeste, mlhi ; non clavdar, inito sedeq' 
Fvr, abeas ; non sv* fisicta solvka tibi." 

It has been thus paraphrased : 

1. By the late William Hamper, Esq., Crent, 
Mag,y 1824, vol. ii. p. 601. : 

'* ThouVt welcome, honest friend i walk in, make free : 
Thie^ get thee gone ; my doors are clofi*d to thee." 

2. By Dr. Evans : 

<* An honest man is always welcome here ; 
To rogues 1 grant no hospitable cheer.'* 

3. In Evans's Picture of Worthing, p. 120. : 

*' Dear to my heart, the honest here shall find 
The gate wide open, and the welcome kind ; 
Hence, thieoes, away \ on you my door shall close, 
Within these waits the wicked ne*er repose." 

4. In Shearsmith's Worthing, p. 71. : 

" The honest man shall find a welcome here, 
My gate wide open, and my heart sincere ; 
Within these walls, for him I spend my store. 
But thieves, away I on you I close my door.'* 


Honorary Degrees (Vol. viii., pp. 8. 86.). — The 
short note of C. does not elucidate — if, indeed, it 
touches upon — the matter propounded. It was 
stated, whether correctly I know not, that hono- 
rary doctors created by diploma (reference being 
made to the Duke of Cambridge, and one or two 
other royal personages) would have the distinctive 
privil^e of voting in Convocation. It then oc- 
curred to me that Johnson — whose Oxford dignity 
was conferred in 1776, by special requisition of 
tlie Chancellor, Lord North (his M. A. degree had 

*»* Letters, stating particwlars and lowest pvie«, emtr^ge Jt^mt, 
t» b« sent to Mr. Bbll. PuUishar oC ** NOT&ii Alltt 
QUERIES." 186. Fleet Street, 

been, I judge, likewise by diploma) — i» not me»» 
tioned bj Buswell or CrdLer, as having on aaj 
occasion exereised the right referred to. Did lie 
possess that right ? and, if so, was it ever exer- 
cised ? The fre()uency of hb visits %» Oxfiwrd, aad 
the alleged rigid ailberence to academical rostuiT, 
make the question one of some interest : beside^ 
in regard to a person so entirely «ici generis^ and 
upon whose cliaracter and career so much uiinatd- 
ness of biographical derail has been bestowed, it ia 
not a little remarkable how many point* are abnost 
barren of illustration. IL A. 

^^Never ending, stiU beginning** ^ohym^i^ 109.). 
— See Dry den's Alexander's F'east^ I. 101. 




Scott's Novels, without the Notes. ConstabTe't ICnfatnre 
Edition. The Vc>lara«s containing Anne of G c ter st e iiK Be- 
trothed, Cas le DaagHrous, CmuU Uolwrt of Plwria. Fair Maid 
of Perth, Highlani Widow. &c.. Red GaiiBtkt, St iloiMai's 
Well, Woodstock, Surgeon's Dmghter, Tatismao. 

Weddell's Voyaob to thb South P lb. 

Scin.osMBR's Hi^TouY OP THE Ihth Cbnturt, translated by 
Davison. Parts XIII. and following. 

SowEKBY*^ Engush Botaky, wuh or vithoat Sun^eaMnluj 

DuooALB s Rhgland aho Walba, Vol. VIII. Lowh>n» Lk TNBIk. 

LiMGABo's History of Enalajid. Second Editioo. 18aS» 9tti 
and Tol lowing Volumes, in Boards. 

Long's Rmtomt oi^ Jamaica. 

LiFB op thb Rkv. Isaac MtLLKa. 1721. 

Sm Thomas Hkbbbkt's Thkbnodia Carolina : or. Last Dsjs 
of Charles I. Old Eiiition, and th^t of 1813 bgr Ntcol. 

SiK Thomas Hekbert's Travels in Asia and Aprica. FoUo. 


Bishop Moblby*^ Vindication. 4Co. 1683. 

LiPB ov AuBUKAi. Blakb. writtm ^ a GentlcmMi bred in his 

Family. Lou«ion. l'2ino. With rortraik by Fourdriuier. 
Ohwalih Ckollii Opera. Genevn, 169^. ISmQ. 
Unhbahd-op CrRiosiriES, traastttled by CbXtrnttad. 

V')W. I2mo. 
Beaumont's Psychb. Second Editfon. Camb. 170>. fbL 

*•* CorrespondenU setuting Lists qf Books IVmnled are 

to send tkeir memue^ 

J. M. (Dublin), who inquires respecting the or%in qfStevm'e 
'* Gnd tempers the wind to the »horn lamb,** is referre4 tf» esir 
Ist Volume, pp. 31). 236. 323. Vfl. 418. 

Clbriccs ( !>.). The Beag ar's Petition was written imthe Ac*. 
T. Mo»s^ minister i^ Btierly HiU and Trenikam^ in 5/<i^P&nbMr«. 
See " N. & Q.,'» Vol. ill., p 209. 

ARTBRfts should c tmplt'fe his Query by stating where the iMths 
lines resembling Shak peare*» Seven Ages are to be found, fVe 
shall then glaiiy insert it. 

Brginnbr m**st cmsuli some Photographic friend^ or our Ad^ 
vertising Columns. Wt cannot. Ji>r ohpitms reasons^ rewntmead 
wkere to purchase Photographic necessaries. 

A fef complete sets <if** Notes and Qubbibs,** Vols. i. to vii.« 
price Three Guineas and a Ua^ft may now he hods for whiek 
early application is desirable. 

** Notes and Qubries ** ts published at noon on Friday^ so tka$ 
ike Country Booksellers may rteeittt Copies fn tkat nigkts ptaxdS, 

Ace. 13. 1853.] NOTES ADD QUEBIES. 


[Na 198. 





















JOH-T UURKAT, Altcmult Stnct. 





inliniic — diidililid UttaMon' and tmsfd IB 

DnznH In EnilMfl Iv airm (^ ilis inxrii 

of 8»pnnw mM MMiaiitaii oCtht roMdw 

now uhlBnd lor DoBUBtle AnUt«tar« in 

coiintrrdn^ W tvvlfw Uld thittHna 


X tr,a VIev of Uu HUtory mi FoUtltt of 

■a in^Uu WeH, Id Ihg 

Avo. Sa 1853.] 



^ Like as it was with JBsopV damsel, tmmed 
from a cat to a woman."] See Babrius, Fab. 32» 

" Otherwise they maj saj, * Mnltum incola fait 
anima mea.* "] Whence are these words bor- 
rowed ? 

Essay XXXIX. Of Custom and Education.— 
See AtUith.y No. 1Q« voL viiL p. 3^9. 

*' Only superstition is now so well advanced, that 
men of the first blood are as firm as butchers bj 
occupation, and votary resolution is made equi- 
pollent to custom, even in matter of blood.**] This 
IS an allusion to the Gunpowder Plot. 

^The Indian wives strive to be burnt with the 
corpse of their husbands.**] The practice of sut- 
tee is of great antiquity. See Strabo, xv. 1. § 30. 
62. ; Val. Max. ii. 6. 14. 

" The lads of Sparta, of ancient time, were wont 
to be scourged upon the altar of Diana, without so 
much as quechingJ''] To queche here means to 

" Late learners cannot so well take the />/y."] 
To take the ply is to bend according to the pres- 
sure ; to be flexible and docile under instruction. 

Essay XL. Of Fortune. — See Antith,^ No. 11. 
vol. viii. p. 359. 

" Serpens, nisi serpentem comederit, non fit 
draco.**] What is the origin of this saying ? 

The character of Cato the elder, cited from 
Livy, is in xxxix. 40. ; but the words are quoted 
memoritery and do not agree exactly with the ori- 

For tlie anecdote of Timotheus, see " N. & Q.,** 
Vol. vii., p. 493. 

Essay XLII. Of Youth and Age. — See Antith,, 
No. 3. vol. viii. p. 355. 

" Herraogenes the rhetorician, whose books are 
exceedingly subtle, who afterwards waxed stupid.**] 
Hermogenes of Tarsus, who lived in the reign of 
Marcus Aurelius, wrote some able rhetorical works 
while he was still a young man ; but at the age of 
twenty -five fell into a state of mental imbecility, 
from which he never recovered. 

** Scipio Africanus, of whom Livy saith in effect, 
• Ultima primis cedebant.* **] The allusion is to 
Ovid, Heroid, ix. 23-4. : 

** Ccepisti melius quam desinis : ultima primis 
Cedunt : dissimiles hie vir et iile puer." 

Essay XLIIL Of Beauty.— See Antith.^ No. 2. 
Tol. viii. p. 354. 

^ A man cannot tell whether Apelles or Albert 
Durer were the more trifler; whereof the one 
would make a personage by geometrical propor- 
tions, the other by taking the best parts out of 
divers faces to make one excellent.**j With re- 
gard to Apelles, Lord Bacon probably alludes to 
the story of Zeuxis in Cic. De Inv. it. 1. 

*' Pulcrorum autumnus pulober.**] Query, What 
is the source of this quotation P 

EsssyXLVI. Of Gardens;-* 

Many of the names ef plants in this Essay re- 
quire illustration. GermiHngs appear to be broom, 
irom genista i qttotffins are codlings, a speciee of 
api>le ; wardens are a species of pear, concemmg 
which see Hud8on*s Domestic Architecture of the 
Thirteenth Century ^ p. 137. Buihces are explained 
by Halliwell to be a small bl&ck and tartish plumt* 
growing wild in some parts of the country. 

" My meaning is perceived, that you may have 
ver perpetuuniy as the place a£fords. ] The allu- 
sion, probably, is to Virgil, Oeorg. ii. 149. : 

*^ Hie ver assiduicm, atque altenis menslbiis antas.** 

" Little low hedges, round, like welts, with some 
pretty pyramids, I like welj.**] A welt was the 
turned-over edge of a garment. 

** Abeunt studia in mores.**] From Ovid*s 
Epistle of Sappho to Phaon, JEp, xv. 83. 

^^ Let him study the schoolmen, for they are 
cymini sectores.""] The word KVf4,afoirpl(mis is ap- 
plied in Aristot., JEih, Nic. iv. 3., to a miserly 
person ; one who saves cheeseparings and candle^ 

Essay LII. Of Ceremonies and Respects. — See 
Antitk y No. 34. vol. viii. p. 371. 

" It doth much add to a man*s reputation, and 
is (as Queen Isabella saith) like perpetual letters 
commendatory, to have good forms.**] Query, 
Which Queen Isabella was the author of this 
saying P 

Essay Lm. Of Praise. — See Antith.^ No. 10. 
vol. viii. p. 858. 

"Pessimum genus inimicorum laudantium.**] 
From Tacit. Agric. c. 41., where the words are: 
*' Pessimum inimicorum genus, laudantes.** Zatc- 
dantium for laudantes in the text of Bacon is an 

Essay LIV. Of Vain-glory.— See iln^iYA., No. 19. 
vol. viii. p. 364. 

Essay L VI. Of Judicature. — 

*^ Judges ought to remember that their office is 

jus dicere, and not ju^ dare,''^^ Compare Aph. 44. 

and 46., in the eighth book l)e Augmeniis» L. 


The following curious piece of literary history 
is quoted from pp. 145—147. of Smith*s De Be 
Nummaria : 

** But having thus owned the bishop's generosity, I 
must next inform the reader what occasion I have to 
make some complaint of hard usage, partly to myself, 
but infinitely more to Dr. H. Wharton, and that after 
his decease also. The matter of fact lies in this order. 
After Ant Harmer had published his Specimen of 
Errors to be found in the Bishop's History of th§ Bs" 
formation, there was a person that frequented the 
cofl^-boute where we met daily at Oxon, and who 



Pfo. 169. 

his History of Henry VII. : " Like to eoppice- 
woods, tbat, if j'ou te&ve in them itsddles too 
thick, they will run to bushes and briars, and 
hsTe little clean underwood " (vol. iii. p. 236,, ed. 
MontBgu). The word ttaddle means an uncut tree 
in a coppice, left to grow. Thus Tusaer says, 
" Leave growing for staddlea the likest and best." 
See Richardson in v., and Narea' Ohsaary in 
Staddle, where other meaningB of the word are 

"The device of King Henry VII."] See Lord 
Bacon's HUlory, ib. p. 234. 

"Nay, it Beemeth at this instant tliey [the 
Spaniards] are sensible of this want of natives ; 
aa by the Fr^matical Sanction, now published, 
sppeareth."] To what law does Lord Bacon ol- 

"Eomalus, after his death (as they report or 
f^gn), sent a present to the Bomans, that above 
all they should intend arms, and then tbey should 

E-ove the greatest empire of the world."] See 
ivy, i. 16., where Romulus is described as giving 
this message to Proculus Julias. A similar mes- 
sage is reported in Pint. Rom. 28. 

"No man can by caretaking (as the Scripture 
suth) add a cubit to his stature.^ See Matt. ti. 

Essay XXX. Of Regimen of Health. — See 
AntOh., No. 4. vol. viii. p. 355. 

Essay XXXI. Of Saspicion. — See Antith., 
No. 43. vol. viii. p. 377. 

Essay XXXIL Of Discourse.— 

"I knew two noblemen of the west part of 
England," &c.] Query, Who are the nobloncD 
referred to ? 

Essay XXXIH. Of Plantations.-- 

" When the world was young it hegat more 
children ; but now it is old it begets fewer."] 
This idea is taken from the ancients. Thus Ln- 
cretius : 

" Sed quia gaem aliquam pariendi debrt habere, 
Destitit, ut mulier spatio defessa vetusto." 

V. 823-4, 

" Consider likewise, what commoditieB the soil 
where the plantation is doth naturally yield, that 
they may some way help to defray uie charge 
of the plantation ; so it be not, as was said, to the 
dLtimely prejudice of the main business, at it halh 
fared ivilh tobacco in Virgima."'] On the excessive 
cnltivation of tobacco by the early colonists of 
Virginia, see Grahame's Hialory of North Ame- 
riea, vol. i. p. 67. King James's objection to to- 
bacco is well known. 

"But moil not too much underground."} This 
old word, for to toil, to laboar, has now become 

"InranrijAandunwholesoijaegrounds."] Marith 
is here used in its original sense, as the adjective of 

mere. Spenser and Milton nse it as s substantive; 
whence the word Trmrifi, 

" It is the guikineea of blood of moiiy eoix- 
miierable persons."] No instance of the word 
commiaerahU is cited in the Dictionaries from any 
other writer than Bacon. 

Essay XXXIV. Of Ridies.— See AntUh., No. 6. 
vol. viii. p. 356. 

"In sudore vnltus alien!."] Gen. iii. 19. 

"The fortune in being the first in an iDTeo* 
tion, or in a privilege, doth cause sonietiiiiei a 
wonderful overgrowth in riches, as it wax with tin 
firat sngar-rnan in the Canaries."] When was (he 

frowth of sugar introduced into the Canaries? 
'o what does Bacon allude ? It does not appeir 
that sugar is now grown in these islands ; nt Wt 
it is enumerated among their imports, and traC 
among their exports. 

Essay XXXV. Of Prophecies.— 

" Henry VI. of England said of Henry VII, 
when he was a lad and gave him water, 'Thb ia 
the lad that shall enjoy the crown for which we 
strive.' "] Query, la this speech reported by my 
earlier writer? 

" When I was in Franco I heard from one Dr. 
Pena, that the queen-mother, who was given to 
curious arts, caused the king her husband's na- 
tivity to be calculated under a false name, and 
the astrologer gave a juiigment that he should be 
killed in a du^ ; at which the queen laughed, 
thinking her husband to be above chaltenfrea and 
duels ; but he was slain upon a course at tilt, tie 
splinlera of the staff of Montgomery goine in at his 
beaver."] The king here alluded to is Henri II., 
who was killed at a tournament in ISS9 ; his queen 
was Catherine de Medici. Bacon's visit to France 
was in 1576-9 (Life, b^ Montagu, p. xri.J, dur- 
ing the reign of Henri III., when Catherine of 
Medici was queen-mother. Query, Is this pro- 
phecy mentioned in any French writer P 

" Octon;esimus octavus mirabilis annns."] Con- 
cerning ^e prophecy which contained this verse, 
see Bajle, Diet., art. Slower, note b i art. Bntaekita, 

Essay XXXVn. Of Masques and Trionwhs.— 

" The colours that show best by candlelignl are 
white, carnation, and a kind of sea-water green ; 
and oei, w apangs, as they are of no great cost, so 
they are of most glory."f Mr. Markby says diat 
Montagu and Spiers take the liberty of altering 
the word oes to ouches. Halliwell, in his Die- 
tionary, explaina oes to mean eyes, citing on; 
manuscript esample. This would agree tolerably 
with the sense of the passage before ns. (htches 
would mean jVuie^s. 

Essay XXXVm. Of Nature ia Men. — See 
Antith., No. 10. vo!. viii. p. 439. 

"Optimus iile animi vindex," &C.] "Dle-^ 
vindex " in Ovid. " 

Axro. 2a 1853.] 



'* Like as it was with Mse^p^s damsel, tmraed 
from a cat to a woman."] See Babrius, Fab. 32» 

" Otherwise iheymstj say, ' Maltum incola ftiit 
anima mea.' "] Whence are these words bor- 
rowed ? 

Essay XXXIX. Of Custom and Education.— 
See Antith,,, No. IQ. voL viiL p. 359. 

'' Only superstition is now so well advanced, that 
men of the first blood are as firm as butchers by 
occupation, and votary resolution is made equi- 
pollent to custom, even in matter of blood.**] This 
IS an allusion to the Gunpowder Plot. 

"■ The Indian wives strive to be burnt with the 
corpse of their husbands."] The practice of sut- 
tee h of great antiq«dty. See Strabo, xv. 1. § 30. 
62. ; Val. Max, ii. 6. 14. 

" The lads of Sparta, of ancient time, were wont 
to be scourged upon the altar of Diana^ without so 
much as queching,^''] To qmche here means to 

" Late learners cannot so well take the ^/y."] 
To take the ply is to bend according to the pres- 
sure ; to be flexible and docile under instruction. 

Essay XL. Of Fortune. — See Antith.^ No. 11. 
vol. viii. p. 359. 

" Serpens, nisi serpentem comederit, non fit 
draco."] What is the origin of this saying ? 

The character of Cato the elder, cited from 
Livy, is in xxxix. 40. ; but the words are quoted 
memoriter^ and do not agree exactly with the ori- 

For the anecdote of Timotheus, see " N. & Q.," 
Vol. vii., p. 493. 

Essay XLII. Of Youth and Age. — See Antith., 
No. 3. vol. viii. p. 355. 

" Hermogenes the rhetorician, whose books are 
exceedingly subtle, who afterwards waxed stupid."] 
Hermogenes of Tarsus, who lived in the reign of 
Marcus Aurelius, wrote some able rhetorical works 
while he was still a young man ; but at the age of 
twenty -five fell into a state of mental imbecility, 
from which he never recovered. 

'* Scipio Africanus, of whom Livy saith in effect, 
•Ultima primis cedebant.' "] The allusion is to 
Ovid, Heroid. ix. 23-4. : 

" Ccepisti melius qu«m desinis : ultima primis 
Cedunt : dissimiles hie vir et ille puer.'* 

Essay XLIIL Of Beauty.— See Antith., No. 2. 
Tol. viii. p. 354. 

•* A man cannot tell whether Apelles or Albert 
Dnrer were the more trifler; whereof the one 
would make a personage by geometrical propor- 
tions, the other by taking the best parts out of 
divers faces to make one exceUent."j With re- 
^gard to Apelles, Lord Bacon probably alludes to 
the story of Zeuxis in Cic. De Inv, ii. 1. 

•' Pttlcrorum autnmnus puloher."] Query, What 
is the Mmree of this quotation ? 

Es8«yXLVI. Of Gardens:— 

Many of the names of plants in this Essay re- 
quire illustration. Oennitings appemr to be broom, 
from genista; qtio^ins are codlings, a species of 
apple ; wardens are a species of pear, concerning 
which see Hudson*s Domestic Architecture of the 
Thirteenth Century, p. 137. Bultaces are explained 
by Halliwell to be a small black and tartish plum^ 
growing wild in some parts of the country. 

" My meaning is perceived, that you may have 
ver perpetuuntj as the place affords. ] The allu- 
sion, probably, is to Virgil, Georg, ii. 149. : 

*^ Hie ver asuduma, atqoe altenis mensibiis aestao.** 

" Little low hedges, round, like welts, with soBae 
pretty pyramids, I like well."] A twft was the 
turned-over edge of a garment. 

** Abeunt studia in mores.**2 From Ovid's 
Epistle of Sappho to Phaon, Ep, xv. 83. 

" Let him study the schoolmen, for they arc 
cymini sectores.**'] The word KVfjLiuoirpi<rrris is ap- 
plied in Aristot., JEth, Nic. iv. 3.^ to a miserly 
person ; one who saves cheeseparings and candle^ 

Essay LII. Of Ceremonies and Bespects. — See 
Antith, No. 34. vol. viii. p. 371. 

" It doth much add to a man's reputation^ and 
is (as Queen Isabella saith) like perpetual letters 
commendatory, to have good forms."] Query, 
Which Queen Isabella was the author of this 
saying P 

Essay LIEI. Of Praise. — See ATUiih,, No. 10. 
vol. viii. p. 358. 

"Pessimum genus inimiccMmm laudantium."] 
From Tacit. Agric. c. 41., where the words are: 
*' Pessimum inimicorum genus, laudantes." Zau^ 
dantium for laudantes in the text of Bacon is an 

Essay LIV. Of Vain-glory. — See Antith.^ No. 1 9» 
vol. viii. p. 364. 

Essay L VI. Of Judicature. — 

"Judges ought to remember that their office is 

jv^ dicere, and not jv^ dare.^^'] Compare Aph. 44. 

and 46., in the eighth book be Augmentis, L. 


The following curious piece of literary history 
is quoted from pp. 145 — 147. of Smith's Ih Me 
Nummaria : 

" But having thus owned the bishop's generosity, I 
must next inform the reader what occasion I have to 
make some complaint of hard usage, partly to myself, 
but infinitely more to Dr. H. Wharton, and that »fter 
his decease also. The matter of fact lies ia this order. 
After Ant Harmer had published his Specimen of 
Errors to be found in the Bishop's History of th* JU' 
fonmation, there was a person that frequented the 
cofifee-bouie where we met daily at Oxod^ and who 



[No. 19gf. 

afterwards became a prelate In Scotland, that was con- 
tinually running dotvn that History for the errors dis- 
covered in it, many of which are not very material, and 
might in so large a work have been easily pardoned ; 
and in order to obtain such a pardon, I acquainted his 
Lordship with some more considerable errata to be 
found in the first volume of Anglia Sacra, out of which 
I had drawn up as many mistakes as I could possibly 
meet with, and had descanted upon them, as far as I 
was able, in the same method Ant. Harmer had drawn 
up his, and without acquainting the Bishop who was 
the author, sent them up to his Lordship with license, 
if he thought fitting, to print them. But when the 
collection was made, I had prefixed a letter to his 
Lordship, and next an epistle to the reader. In the 
former it was but fitting to compliment his Lordship, 
but the latter was altogether as large a commendation 
of Dr. Wharton's skill, diligence, and faithfulness in 
viewing and examining the records of our English 
church history. The disgust that this last gave his 
Lordship obliged him to stifle the whole tract ; but yet 
he was pleased to show part of it to many by way, as 
I suppose, of excuse or answer for his own mistakes ; 
but as I take it, after the Doctor's decease, he made it 
an occasion of foully bespattering him as a man of no 
'Credit, and all he had writ in that Specimen was fit to 
go for nothing ; which practice of his lordship, after I 
came to read both in the preface and introduction to 
his third volume, I was amazed at his injustice both to 
the living and the dead. For I had acquainted his 
Lordship that the faults were none of Dr. Wharton's 
own making, who had never seen the MS. itself, but 
only some exscript of it, writ by some raw and illiterate 
person employed by some of his Oxford friends to send 
him a copy of it. I once threatened my Lord Bishop's 
son that I had thoughts of publishing this and some 
other facts the Bishop had used to avoid the discovery 
of some other errata communicated to him by other 
hands; but I forbore doing so, lest I should seem. un- 
grateful for kindnesses done and offered to me." 

E. H. A. 

« * I shall not give you ray name,* 4S. Stamper's 

" What you please,' 49. Market Street." 

In the errata are the following : 

" For Cross Woman read Cross Widow.** 
« For Cox Cats read Cox Cato.** 

The alphabetical arrangement of a Directory is 
as great a leveller as the grave. In the Directory 
for 1798, after — 

« Dennis, Mr., Tai/Ior, Pewter Platter Alley.** 

appears the following : 

** Dorleans, Messrs., Merchants, near 100. South 
Fourth Street.** 

These were Louis Philippe an(! one of his brothers, 
who lived at the north-west corner of Fourth and 
Princes Streets, in a house still standing, and now 
numbered 110. 

Talleyrand and Volney lived for some time in 
Philadelphia ; but, not being house -keepers, their 
names do not appear in any of the Directories. 




The first Philadelphia Directories were published 
in the year 1785, when two appeared : Wnite*s and 
M'Pherson's. The latter is a duodecimo volume 
of 164 pages, and contains some things worth 
making a note of. 

Some persons do not seem to have compre- 
hended the object of the inquiries made of the 
inhabitants as to their names and occupations ; 
supposing, perhaps, that they had some connexion 
with taxation. The answers given by such are 
put down in the Directory as the names of the 
respondents. Thus : 

« * I won't tell you,* S: Maiden's Lane.** 
« * I won't tell it,' 15. Sugar Alley." 
" * I won't tell you my name,' 160. New Market 

« * I won't have it numbered,* 478. Green Street." 
" < I won't tcU my name,' 185. St. John's Street." 


Shakspeare Readings, No. X, — " Sheer^^ versus 
" Warwick-sheer,^^ — At page 143. of Notes and 
Emendations^ Mr. Collier mdulges in the following 
reverie : — 

" Malone did not know what to make of * sheer 
ale,' but supposed that it meant sheering or reaping ale, 
for so reaping is called in Warwickshire. What does 
it mean ? It is spelt sheere in the old copies ; and that 
word begins one line, Warwick having undoubtedly 
dropped out at the end of the preceding line. . . . 
It was formerly not at all unusual to spell * shire * 
sheere ; and Siy's * sheer ale * thus turns out to have 
been Warwickshire ale, which Shakspeare celebrated, 
and of which he had doubtless often partaken at Mrs. 
Hacket's. We almost wonder that, in his local parti- 
cularity, he did not mention the sign of her house," &c. 

The meaning of sheer ale was strong ale — that 
which we now call " entire " — ale unmixed, un- 
reduced, unmitigated — the antithesis of that 
" smaU ale," for a pot of which poor Sly begged 
so hard, sinking his demand at last to " a pot o the 
smallest ale." If Christopher lived in our own 
times, he might, on common occasions, indulge in 
small; but for great treats he would have Barclay's 
entire : and, mstead of bullying Dame Hacket 
about " sealed quarts," he would perhaps, in these 
educated days, be writing to The Times under the 
signature of " A Thirsty Soul." Sly evidently was 
rather proud of underlying a score of fourteen- 
pence for sheer ale. 

Let us hear in what sense old Phil. Holland, in 
Precepts of Healthy uses the word : 

<* And verily water (not that onely wherewith wine 
is mingled^ but also which is drunke betweene whiles, 

Aug. 20. 1853.] 



apart by itselfe) causeth the wine tempered therewith 
to doe the lesse harme : in regard whereof, a student 
ought to use himseife to drinke twice or thrice every 
day a draught of sheere water/' &c. 

Here "sheere water" is put in apposition to 
that with which " wi7ie is mingled; " the meaning 
of sheer, therefore, is integer: and sheer milk 
would be milk before it goes to the pump. 

But perhaps it will be objected that sheer, ap- 
plied to water, as in this place, may mean clear, 
bright, free from foulness. Well, then, here is 
another example from Fletcher's Double Marriage^ 
where Castruccio is being tantalised after the 
fashion of the Governor of Barataria : 

**Cast. (tastes.) Why, what is this? Why, Doctor I 
Doctor, Wine and water,, sir. *Tis sovereign for your 

heat : you must endure it. 

Villio. Most excellent to cool your night-piece, sir 1 
Doctor. You*re of a high and choleric complexion, 

and must have allays. 
Cast. Shall I have no sheer wine then ? ** 

The step from this to sheer ale is not very 

It may be remarked that, at present, we apply 
several arbitrary adjectives, in this sense of sheer, 
to different liquors. Thus, to spirits we apply 
" raw," to wines and brandy " neat," to malt drink 
"stout" or "strong;" and then we reduce to 
"half and half," until at length we come to the 
very "small," a term which, like other lowly 
things, seems to have been permitted to endure 
from its very weakness. A. E. B. 


" Clamour your tongues^^ ^c. — ' 

" Clamour your tongues, and not a word more." 

Wint. Tale, Act IV. Sc. 4. 

Notwithstanding the comments upon this word 
clamour, both in the pages of " N. & Q," and by 
the various editors of Shakspeare, I have not yet 
seen anything that appears to my mind like a 
satisfactory elucidation. 

Gifford, not being able to make anything of the 
word, proposed to read charm, which at all events 
is plausible, though nothing more. Nares says the 
word is in use among bell-ringers, though now 
shortened to clam. Unfortunately the meaning 
attached to the term by the ringers is at variance 
with that of clamour in the text ; for to clam the 
bells is what we should now call putting them on 
sette or setting them, and this is but preparatory 
to a general crash: still it is possible that the 
words may be the same. 

Mb. Aubowsmith (Vol. vii., p. 567.) maintains 
the genuineness of clamour in preference to charm; 
and, without a word of comment, quotes two pas- 
sages from UdalFs translation of Erasmus his 
Apothegms — "oneless hee chaumbreed his tongue," 
&c. ; and again — " did he refrein or chaumbre 
the tauntying of his tongue." I confess I cannot 

fathom Mb. Abbow8mith*s intention ; for the 
obvious conclusion to be drawn from these quota- 
tions is, that charm, and not clamour, is an abbre- 
viation of the older word chaumbre, 

I am very much inclined to think that the verb 
in question comes directly from the A.-S. We 
find the word clam or clom — a bond, that which 
holds or retains, a prison ; in the latter form the 
word is frequently used, and for the use of the 
former in the same sense Bosworth quotes Boe- 
thius (Kawlinson's ed., Oxon. 1698, p. 152.), which 
work I am unable to consult. From these words, 
then, we have clommian, clcemian, &c., to bind or 
restrain. It seems not very unlikely that from 
this original came Shakspeare's word clammer or 
clamour, I may add that Skinner explains the 
word clum by a note of silence, quoting " Chaucer 
in fab. Molitpris " (I have no copy of Chaucer at 
this moment within reach) ; and in the A.-S. we 
find clumian, to keep close, to press, to mutter, 
comprimere, mussitare : all these words probably 
have the same root. 

An instance of the use of the word clame or 
clamour is to be found in a work entitled The 
Castel of Helthe ; gathered and made by Syr 
Thomas Elyot, Knight, SfC. ; printed by Thomas 
Berthelet: London, 1539 (black-letter). At p. 52* 
is the following : 

" Nauigation or rowynge nigh to the laude, in a 
clame water, is expedient for them that haue dropsies, 
lepries, palseyes, called of the vulgar people, takynges, 
and francies. To be carried on a rough water, it is a 
violent exercise," &c. 

H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 

Shakspeare Suggestions (Vol. viii., p. 124.). — 
Icon asks — "Has any one suggested 'Most 
busy, when least I do.' The ' it ' seems mere sur- 
plusage ? " 

The same suggestion, nearly verbatim, even to 
the curtailment of the " it," may be found in this 
present month's number of Blackwood's Magazine, 
p. 186. 

But Icon will also find the same reading, with 
an anterior title of nearly three years, together with 
some good reasons for its adoption, in " N. & Q.," 
Vol. ii., p. 338. And he may also consult with ad- 
vantage an illustrative quotation in Vol. iii., p. 229. 

In the original suggestion in " N. & Q.," there 
is no presumption of surplusage : the word " it " is 
understood in relation to labours ; that word being 
taken as a collective singular, like contents, and 
other words of the same construction. 

The critic in Black wopd disclaims consulting 
" N. & Q. ; " and it is, no doubt, a convenient dis- 
claimer. He follows the herd of menstrual Aris- 
tarchi, by hailing, with wondering admiration, the 
substitution of ethics for checks ! And he shows 
his fitness for the task he has undertaken, by stat- 


[No. IMl 

inf tlikt " Mr. Siiiger aU»e IimI tlie good Uate to 
print it (etkica) in bit text «f 1 836." 

Mr. H>lUvcell, fcowerer, ia ■ rocent pamphlet, 
states tliat — 

** Tbia jKw tmatdatimt hn not onl; been meotioned 
in ■ jcmt Tarietv of editioaiT but tua bem introduced 
hita On ttxt bf no f<mr titm fiet edilort, the fint, I 
believe, in point of time, being the llei. J. liaon, irbo 
■abMitnled ttluei into tbe text u early u 1T8T.' 

A, E. B. 

Critic^ Digeit. — Your readers huve seen 
no more welcome anDouncement than that con- 
tauned in p. T5. of your present volume, that this 

C'DJect of a worlc, bringing into one view the 
hours of preeeilintt editors and comment»lor», is 
in good hands and likely to be brought to bear. 
On the form of such a work it is perhaps prema- 
ture to offer an observation ; bat, to be perfect, it 
ought to range with that remarkable monument 
of a lady's patient industry, Mrs. Cowdeo Clarke's 
Concordance. On the materiaU to be employed, 
all your readers have such an interest in the sub- 
ject as to warrant them in making suggestions ; 
and it will be well to do so before the plana are 
fiilly matured. 

It ounht, in my opinion, to be more compre- 
heoure flian even the largest scheme suggested by 
your correspondent ; for, in addition to the com- 
ments wbicD may be thought most worthy of inser- 
tion in full, or nearly so, it ought to contain at least 
a referenee to every known comment, in the alighl«Bt 
degree worthy of notice, in relation to any passage 
in the work. To accomplish this would of course 
be a work of enormous labour, and the object of 
the present Note is to suggest as a first step, the 
circulation of a list of works intended to be con- 
sulted, for the purpose of inviting additions ; not 
that such a list should encumber the pages of 
"H. &Q.," but I am much mistaken if you would 
not afibi^ facilities for receiving tt 
tioni aaked for. This course is the i 
inasmuch as, in addition to works 
MToly on the subject of Shakspeare, there is a 
TMt amount of Shakspearian criticism spread over 
works, the titles of which give no indication of the 
noceiaity for consulting them. For instance, up- 
wards of two hundred pages of Coleridge's Literary 
Seaatnt are so employea ; and though, perhaps, 
llie work is so well known that it would have 
ftnnd a place in the first copy of the list I have 
BOggested, it may serve aa an illustration of the 
■ort of information which it would be desirable to 
inTite. J. F, M. 

narrmng a 

it then oocorred to me, tiiat it wodd be catioa 
to collect in like manner a cofBjrfete list of Iha 
sentences, which, as is well known to atudenttef 
history, the Emperors of Germany were aocot- 
tomed to assume at their coronations, A reoMt 
risit to Frankfort has given me an opportMMJty of 
making and sending you such a Ibt Tbe mato^ 
are collected from inscri^ons on a aeries of kn- 
perial portraits which adbim the principal i liaai 
ber in the Bomer or town hall of that city. jHm 
list, if it have no oilier interest, will al least Bern 
to remind us that some of the Latin aphorism* aad 
"wise saws" current among us now, have bea 
doing duty in the same capacity for centuriei: 
Conrad I, 911. (Franconia.) Fortttiut cam Hn- 

Henry I. 91B. (Saiony.) Advin([ietamtardw,ed 

beneficentiam velox. 
Otho I. (The Great.) 93G. (Saxony.) SaHn* tH 

ratione aqaitalU mortem oppetere, qttamfugattl 

inhoneita vivere. 

Saxony.) Cunt omttihtu paeem; 
Otho III. 983. (Saxony.) FacOe tingvla rwH- 

pjaiurjaeulaq non eonjuwla. 
Henry II. 1002. (Bavaria.) Niha imperue amtt, 

ita fiet vC 171 nuUo contrialeril. 
Ccnrad II. 1024. (Franconia.) O u ut i um vwru, 

imprimis obiervato. 
•Henry III. 1039. (Franconia.) QaiHtema^M; 

exeerationem in benedictionem mviat. 
Henry IV. 1056. (Franconia.) MuitinmltatawU, 

Henry V. 1106. (Fi 

I was much interested in the listi given in 
"N. &Q." last year of the nottos adopted by 

,) Miter qui morUn 

1125. (Saxony.) Audi alleram partem. 
Conrad HI. 1137. (Swabia.) Paucaaimaliis,mxia 

tecum lomiere. 
Frederick!. (Barbarossa.) 1 152. (Swabia.) Pra- 

habet artem, nee novit loguendi. 
Philip. 1197. (Swabia.) Qaod male ctEptmn eti, 

Tie pudeat muta»se. 
OthoIV. 1208. (Brunswick.) Sb-epU eouer inter 

Frederick H. 1218. (Swabia.) Complurimim 

TArionitn, ego ttrepilum audiri. 
1250—1272. Qrmid interregnum. (See Hallara, 

Middle Ages, eh. v.) 
Rodulph of Hapsburgh. 1273. MeVitu hem im- 

perare guam imperiiirn ampliare. 

• Hallnm sajs, that the imperial prerogntive nevei 
Teacbed so high ■ point as in the reign of thiamonanh. 
The tuccnsion to the throne appears to btrre bam 
regiTded as hereditaiy; imrt a very efficient oantnil 
ptMsrved by th» empenn over the usually i>wbar£- 

Aug. 20. 1853.] 



Adolphus. 1291. (Nassau.) 

Albert I. 1298. (Austria.) Fvgam victoria nescit. 

Henry VII. 1308. (Luxemburg.) Calicem mtm 

dedisti mihi in mortem.* 
Louis IV. 1314. (Bavaria.) 
Charles IV. 1347. (Bohemia.) 
Wenceslaus. 1378. (Bohemia.) 
Robert. (Count Palatine.) 1400. Misericordia 

non caiisam, sedfortujiam spectat. 
Sigismund. 1411. (Luxemburg.) Mala vitro ad- 

Albert IL 1438. (f Austria, House of Hapsburgh.) 

Amicus optimcs vitce possession 
Frederick III. 1440. AustricB imperare orbi ttm- 

Maximilian L 1493. Tene mensuram et respice 

Charles V. 1519. Plus ultra, 
Ferdinand I. 155S. Fiat justiHa^et per eat mundus, 
Maximilian H. 1564. Deus providebit, 
Rodolph II. 1576. Fidget Ccesaris astrum, 
Matthew. 1612. Concordi lumitie major, 
Ferdinand II. 1619. Legitime certantibus. 
Ferdinand III. 1637. Pietate etjustitia. 
Leopold I. 1657. Consilio et industrid, 
Joseph I. 1705. Amore et timore, 
Charles VI. 1711. Constantid et /ortitudine, 
Charles VIL 1742. 

Francis I. 1745. Pro Deo et imperio. 
Joseph II. 1765. Virtiite et exemplo. 
Leopold II. 1790. Opes regum^ corda subditorum. 
Francis II. 1792. Lege etfide, 

I have added, by way of rendering the catalogue 
more complete, the name of the particular family 
of German princes, for which each emperor was 
selected. A glance at these names furnishes a 
remarkable illustration of an observation of Sis- 
mondi : 

*' That the great evil of an elective monarchy, is the 
continual struggle on the part of the rulers to make it 

It is scarcely necessary to remind your readers, 
that the integrity of Charlemagne's empire was 
preserved until the deposition of Charles the Fat ; 
that France and Germany did not become sepa- 
rate until after that event ; and that Conrad was, 
therefore, the first of the German sovereigns, as 
he was certainly the first elected by the confede- 
rate princes. Joshua G. Fitch. 

♦ At the death of Henry, Frederick the son of 
Albert disputed Louis's election, alleging that he had 
a majority of genuine votes. He assumed the motto, 
Beatd morte nihil beatius, 

f All the succeeding princes were of this family. 


If the accompanying soi^ have not been 
printed before, they may perhaps be worth pre- 
serving. They were written and set to music by 
a highly nccomplished lady, the daughter of Ed- 
ward Hussey Delaval, Esq., the last of his name 
and race, sometime Fellow of Pembroke College, 
Cambridge ; the cotemporary of Gray and Mason, 
and well known for his literary and scientific at- 
tainments : 

** Where the murm'ring streams meander, 

Where the sportive zephyrs play, 
Whilst in sylvan shades I wander, 

Softly steal the hours away. 
I nor splendor crave nor treasure. 

Calmer joys my bosom knows ; 
Smiling days of rural pleasure. 

Peaceful nights of soft repose.** 

** Oh Music, if thou hast a charm. 
That may the sense of pain disarm, 
Be all thy tender tones address'd 
To soothe to peace my Anna's breast, 
And bid the magic of thy strain 
To still the throb of wakeful pain ; 
That, rapt in the delightful measure. 
Sweet hope again may whisper pleasure, 
And seem the notes of spring to hear, 
Prelusive to a happier year. 
And if thy magic can restore, 
The shade of days that smile no more, 
And softer, sweeter colors give 
To scenes that in remembrance live. 
Be to her pensive heart a friend ; 
And whilst the tender shadows blend. 
Recall, ere the brief trace be lost. 
Each moment that siie priz'd the most." 

E. n. A. 

§Siixmx fiaM. 

The Rights of Women. — Single women, ifho 
were freeholders, voted in the State of New Jersey 
as late as the year 1800. In a newspaper of that 
date is a complimentary editorial to the female 
voters for having unanimously supported Mr. 
John Adams (the defeated candidate) for Presi- 
dent of the United States, in opposition to Mr. 
Jefferson, who was denounced as wanting in 
religion. Unbda.. 


Green Pots used for drinking from by Members 
of the Temple. — During the summer of 1849, when 
the new part of Paper Buildings in the Temple 
was being built, the workmen, in making the ne- 
cessary excavations, dug up a great number of 
pots or cups, which are supposed to have been 
used for drinking from by the students. I have 
recently met with the following letter from Sir 



[No. 199: 

Julius Caesar to Sir W. More, whicli may be in- 
teresting to some of your readers : 

** After my hartie commendac*ons, &c. Whereas in 
tymes past the bearer hereof hath had out of the Parke 
of Farnham, belonging to the Bishoprickc of Winches- 
ter, certaine white clay for the making of grene potts 
usually drunk in by the gentlemen of the Temple, and 
nowe understandinge of some restraint thereof, and that 
you (amongst others) are authorized there in divers re- 
spects during the vacancye of the said Bishopricke; 
my request, therefore, unto you is, and the rather for 
that I am a member of the said house, that you would 
in favo' of us all p*mytt the bearer hereof to digge and 
carrie away so muche of the said claye as by him shalbe 
thought sufficient for the furnishinge of the said house 
w*^ grene potts aforesaid, paying as he hath heretofore 
for the same. In accomplishment whereof myself with 
the whole societie shall acknowledge o'selves much be- 
holden unto you, and shalbe readie to requite you at 
. all times hereafter w^** the like pleasure. And so I bid 
you moste hear til ie farewel. 

•* Inner Temple, this xix*'' of August, 1591. 

'* To the right worshipful Sir W*m More, Knight, 

geve these." 

This letter is printed in the Losely Manuscripts^ 
p. 311. B. 


Quarles and Pascal, — In Quarles' Emblems^ 
book i. Emblem vi., there is a passage : 

** The world's a seeming paradise, but her own 
And man's tormentor ; 
Appearing fixed, yet but a rolling stone 

Without a tenter ; 
It is a vast circumference where none 
Can find a centre,** 

And Pascal, in one of his Pensees^ says : 

'* Le monde est une sphere infinie, dont le centre est 
partout, la circonference nuUe part.** 

Here we have two propositions, which, whether 
taken separately, or opposed to each other, would 
seem to contain nothing but paradox or contradic- 
tion. And yet I believe they are but different 
modes of expressing the same thing. 

Henbt H. Bbeen. 
St. Lucia. 


Offer to intending Editors. — I had hoped that 
some one would accept Mb. Cbossley*s offer of 
Ware's MS. notes for a new edition of Poxes and 
Firebrands. I myself will with pleasure contri- 
bute a copy of the book to print from (assuming 
that it will be properly executed), and also of his 
much rarer Coursing of the Bomish Pox, which 
should form part of the volume. 

If any one is disposed to edit the works of Dr. 
John Rogers, the sub-dean of Wells, I will, with 
the same pleasure, supply his Address to the 
Quakers, of which I possess Mr. Brand's copy, 
which he has twice marked as extra rare; and 

Rodd, from whom I purchased it, had never seen 
another copy. The entire works might be com- 
prised in two volumes octavo. 

It is to be regretted that Mr. Flintoff has not 
yet published Wallis's Sermons on the Trinity, to 
accompany his excellent edition of Wallis's Letters, 
1840. Would it not be possible to obtain so many 
names as would defray the expense of printinor ? 

S. Z, ij, s.. 

Head-dress. — The enormous head-dresses worn 
in the time of Charles I. gave rise to the follow- 
ing lines : 

" Hoc magis est instar tecti quam tegminis ; hoc noir 
Ornare est ; hoc est aedificare caput.** 

Clebicus (D.y 

PoX'hunting, — Can any of your correspondents: 
inform me, when the great national sport of fox- 
hunting first came into vogue P 

Gervase Markham, whose work on sports, called. 
Country Contentments, or the Husbandman* s Recre- 
ations, was published in 1654, gives due honour ta 
stag-hunting, which he describes as " the most 
princely and royall chase of all chases." Speaking 
of hare-hunting, he says, " It is every honest manV 
and good man's chase, and which is indeed the 
freest, readiest, and most enduring pastime ;" but 
he classes the hunting of the fox and the badger 
together, and he describes them as " Chases of a 
great deal lesse use or cunning than any of the 
former, because they are of a much hotter scent^ 
and as being intituled stinking scents, and not 
sweet scents." 

Although he does admit that this chase may be 
profitable and pleasant for the time, insomuch as^ 
there are not so many defaults, but a continuing, 
sport ; he concludes, " I will not stand much upon 
them, because they are not so much desired as the 
rest." R. W. B. 

Broderie Anglaise, — Being a young lady whose- 
love for the fine arts is properly modified by a 
reverence for antiquity, I am desirous to know 
whether the present fashionable occupation of the 
" Broderie Anglaise," being undoubtedly a revival^ 
is however traceable (as is alleged) to so remote & 
period as the days of Elizabeth ? Sabah Anna.. 

" The Convent,''* cm Elegy, — Among the works 
ascribed to the Abbe FranQois Arnaud, a member 
of the French Academy, who died in 1784, there 
is one entitled, Le Couvent, Elegie iraduite de 
V Anglais, What is the English poem here alluded 
to ? IlENBr H. Bbeen. 

St Lucia. 

Memorial of Newton, — The subscription now 
in progress for raising a statue to Sir Isaac Newton 

Aug, 20. 1853.] 



at Grantham, the place of his early education, 
recalls to my recollection a memorial of him, about 
which I may possibly learn a few particulars from 
•some one of the numerous readers of " N. & Q." 

I remember hearing when a school-boy at the 
college, Grantham, some thirty-five years ago, that 
Newton's name, cut by himself on a stone in the 
recess of one of the windows of the school-house, 
was to be seen there no long time back ; but that 
the stone, or the portion of it which contained the 
name, had been cut out by some mason at a time 
when the building was being repaired, and was in 
the possession of a gentleman then living in the 
largest house in Grantham — built, I believe, by 
Mmself. Those of your readers who knew Gran- 
tham at the time, will not need to be told the 
name of the gentleman to whom I allude. The 
■questions I would wish to ask are these : 

1. Was such a stone to be seen, as described, 
«ome forty or fifty years since ? 

2. Is it true that it was removed in the way 
that I have stated ? 

3. If so, in whose possession is the stone at this 
present time ? M. A. 

Mammon, — Perhaps some of your readers could 
refer me to some work containing information in 
Teference to the following allegation of Barnes, on 
Matt. vi. 24. : 

<* Mammon b a Syriac word, a name given to an idol 
worshipped as the god of riches* It has the same mean- 
ing as Plutus among the Greeks. It is not known that 
•the Jews even formally worshipped this idol, but they 
•used the word to denote wealth." 

My question relates to the passages in Italics. 

Derivation of WeUesley. — In a note to the 
lately published Autobiographic Sketches of Thomas 
T)e Quincey, I find (p. 131.) the following passage : 

'< It had been always known that some relationship 
•existed between the Wellesleys and John Wesley. 
Their names bad in fact been originally the same ; and 
the Duke of Wellington himself, in the earlier part of 
Jiis career, when sitting in the Irish House of Com- 
mons, was always known to the Irish journals as 
Captain Wesley. Upon this arose a natural belief, 
Ihat the aristocratic branch of the house had improved 
the name into Wellesley. But the true process of 
change had been precisely the other way. Not Wesley 
bad been expanded into Wellesley, but inversely, Wel- 
Jesley had been contracted by household usage into 
Wesley, The name must have been Wellesley in its 
earliest stage, since it was founded upon a connexion 
with Wells Cathedral." 

May I ask what this connexion was, and whence 
the authority for the statement ? Had the illus- 
trious Duke*s adoption of his title from another 
town in Somersetshire anything to do with it ? 


Cranwells, Bath. 


The Battle of Cruden — A Query for CopeU' 
hagen Correspondents, — In the year 1059, in the 
reign of Malcolm III., king of Scotland, a battle 
was fought on the Links of Cruden, in the county 
of Aberdeen, between the Danes and the Scots, 
in which the Prince Royal, who commanded the 
Danish forces, was slain. He was buried on the 
field, near to which, according to the custom of 
the times. King Malcolm " biggit ane kirk." This 
church was overblown with sand, and another 
built farther inland, which is the present parish 
church. To the churchyard wall there leans a 
black marble gravestone, about 7 ft. X 3 ft. 6 in., 
which is said to have been sent from Denmark as 
a monument for the grave of his royal highness. 
The stone has the appearance of considerable an- 
tiquity about it, and appears to have been inlaid 
with marble, let into it about half an inch ; the 
marks of the iron brads, and the lead which se- 
cured it, are still visible. 

" Tradition says it did from Denmark come, 
A monument the king sent for his son." 

And it is also stated that, until within the last 
hundred years, a small sum of money was annually 
sent by the Danish government to the minister of 
Cruden for keeping the monument in repair. I 
should be glad to learn if there are any documents 
among the royal archives at Copenhagen, which 
would invalidate or substantiate the popular tra- 
dition. Abbedonemsis.. 

Ampers and (Iff or &). — I have heard this 
symbol called both ampers and and apusse and. 
Which, if either, is the correct term ; and what is 
its derivation ? C. Mansfield Ikgleby, 


TTie Myrtle Bee. — I should feel much obliged 
to any reader of " N. & Q." who would answer 
the following questions respecting the bird called 
the Myrtle Bee ; separating carefully at the same 
time the result of his personal experience from any 
hearsay evidence that he may have collected on 
the subject. In what places in the British Isles 
has the bird been seen ? During what months ? 
Is it gregarious, or solitary ? What are its haunts 
and habits, and on what does it feed ? What is 
its colour, shape, and size ? Its mode of flight ? 
Does any cabmet contain a preserved specimen, 
and has any naturalist described or figured it 
either as a British or a foreign bird ? 

W. R. D. Salmon. 


Henry Earl of Wotton, — Jan van Kerckhove, 
Lord of Kerkhoven and Heenvliet, who died at 
Sassenheim, March 7, 1660, married Catherine 
Stanhope, daughter of the Earl of Chesterfield ; 
and had issue Charles Henry, who in 1659 was 
chief magistrate of Breda, and was created Earl 



[No. 199. 

of Wotton by the king of England. Could any 
of your readers favour me with the date of the 
above marriage, as also those of the birth of 
the father and the son ; as well as that of the 
elevation of the latter to the peerage of Bfhgland ? 
— From the Navorscher. A. I. 

Connexion hetiveen the Celtic and Latin Lan^ 
guages. — Can any of your correspondents supply 
any links of connexion between the Celtic and 
Latin languages ? M. 

Queen Anne's Motto, — What authority have we 
for asserting that "Semper eadem" was Queen 
Anne*s motto, and that it expired with her ? 

Cleric us (D.) 

Anonymous Books. — Can any of the readers of 
" N. & Q." furnish the names of the authors of 
either of the following works ? 

1. The Watch ; an Ode, humbly inscribed to the 
Right Hon. the Earl of M— f— d. To which is added, 
the Genius of America to General Carleton, an Ode. 
liondon : J. Bew, 1778. 4to. 

2. Fast Sermon, preached at — — Feb. 10th, 1779, 

by the Reverend ; showing the Tyranny 

and Oppression of the British King and Parliament 
respecting the American Colonies. Inscribed to the 
Congress. 8vo. (^Sine loco aut anno. An ironical 
Piece, severe on America.) 

3. National Prejudice opposed to the National In- 
terest ; candidly considered in the Detention or Yield- 
hig up Gibraltar' and Cape Breton, by the ensuing 
Treaty of Peace, &c. In a Letter to Sir John Bernard. 
London : W. Owen, 1748. 8vo, 

4. The Blockheads; or Fortunate Contractor. An 
Opera, in Two Acts, as it was performed at New York, 
&c. Printed at New York. London : reprinted for 
G. Kearsley, 1783. 12rao. 

5. The Present State of the British Empire in 
Europe, America, Asia, and Africa, &c. : London, 
1768, 8vo., pp. 486. 

Who prepared the chapters on America in this 
volume f Sbrviens. 

Major Andre. — A subscriber having observed 
the amount of valuable and recondite information 
elicited by a happy Query concerning General 
Wolfe, hopes to obtain like success in one he now 
puts forward in regard to the personal history, &c. 
of the unfortunate Major John Andre, who was 
•hung by the Americans as a spy during their 
Revolutionary War. Being engaged upon a bio- 
graphy of Major Andre, he has already collected 
considerable matter ; but wishes to leave no stone 
unturned in his task, and therefore begs his bre- 
thren of " N. & Q." to publish therein any anec- 
dotes or copies of any letters or documents con- 
cerning that gallant but ill-fated gentleman. A 
reference to passages occurring in printed books 

bearing on this subject, might also well be given ; 
for there is so little known about Major Andre, 
and that little scattered piecemeal in so many and 
various localities, that it is hardly possible some of 
them should not have escaped this writer's notice. 


[Smith's Authentic Narrative of Major Andre, 8vo, 
1808, has most probably been consulted by our cor- 
respondent. There is a good account of the Major in 
vol. ii. of the Biographical Dictionary of the Useful 
Knowledge Society, and it is worth consulting for the 
authorities quoted at the end of the article. See also 
the Eneyclopcedia Americana, article *' Benedict Ar- 
nold ; ** the American Whig Review, vol. v. p. 381.; 
New England Magazine, vol. vi. p. 353. ; and for a vin- 
dication of the captors of Andr6, the Analectie Maga- 
zine, vol. x. p. 307, Articles also will be found re- 
specting him in Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 1. pp. 540. 
610. ; vol. li. p. 320. ; vol. lii. p. 514. Major Andr^ is 
one of the principal subjects of The British Hero w 
Captivity, a poem attributed to Mr. Puddicombe, 4to. 

" The Fatal Mistake,''^ — Can you tell me where 
the scene of the following play is laid, and the 
names of the dramatis personce : The Fatal Mistake, 
a Tragedy, by Joseph Haynes, 4to., 1696? 

The author of this play, who was known by the 
name of Count Haynes, was an actor in the theatre 
at Drury Lane about the time of James II., and 
died in 1701. There is an account of his life 
written by Tom Browne. Gw. 

[The title-page of A Fated Mistake states that it was 
written by Jos. Hayns ; but according to the Biog, 
Dramatica, it is not certain that Count Haines was 
the author. The dramatis personce are : Men, Duke, 
Duke of Schawden's ambassador, Rodulphus, Baldwin, 
Eustace, Ladovick, Albert, Godfrey, Amulph, Fre- 
derick, Welpho, Conradine, Gozelo, Lewis, Ferdi« 
nando. Women, Duchess Gertruedo, Lcbassa, de- 
mentia, Idana, Thierrie, Maria, Lords and Ladies, 
Masquers, Soldiers.] 

Anonymous Plays, — 

1. A Match for a Widow ; or, the Frolics of Fancy. 
A Comic Opera, in Three Acts, as performed at the 
Theatre Royal, Dublin. - London : C. Dilly, 1788. 

2. The Indians ; a Tragedy. Performed at the 
Theatre Royal, Richmond. London : C. Dilly, 1790. 

3. Andr6 ; a Tragedy in Five Acts, as now per- 
forming at the Theatre in New York. To which is 
added the Cow Chase ; a Satirical Poem, by Major 
Andre. With the Proceedings of the Court Martial, 
and authentic Documents concerning him. London : 
Ogilvy & Son, 1799. 8vo. 


[1. A Match for a Widow is by Joseph Atkinson, 
Treasurer of the Ordnance in Ireland, the friend and 
associate of Curran, Moore, and the galaxy of Irish 
genius. He died in 1818. 

Aug. 20. 1853.] 



2. The Indians is by William Richardson, Pro- 
fessor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow, who 
died in 1S14. 

3. Andre is by William Dunlap, an American dra- 

High Commission Court — Can any of your 
readers refer me to works bearing on the proceed- 
ings of the High Commission Court ? The sort of 
information of which I am in search is not so much 
on the great constitutional questions involved in 
the history of this court, as in the details of its 
mode of procedure; as shown either by actual 
books of practice, or the history of psirticular cases 
brought before it. J. F. M. 

[Some account of the proceedings of the High 
Commission Court is given in Reeves's Hiatory of the 
English Law, vol. v. pp. 215 — ^218. The Harleian 
MS. 7516. also contains Minutes of the Proceedings 
of the High Commissioners at Whitehall, July 6, 1616, 
on the question of Commendums, the king himself 
being present. It makes twentyone leaves.] 



(Vol. vii., p. 619. ; Vol viii., p. 106.) 

We frequently see Queries made in these pages 
which could be satisfactorily answered by turning 
to the commonest books of reference, such as 
Brand, Fosbroke, Hone, the various dictionaries 
and encyclopaedias, and the standard works on 
the subjects queried. Now it seems to me that 
"K. & Q." is not intended for going over old 
ground, and thus becoming a literary treadmill ; 
but its mission lies in supplying information not 
easily founds and in perfecting, as far as possible, 
our standard works and books of reference. Mr. 
Taylor's Query affords an opportunity for this, 
as the ordinary sources of information are very 
deficient as regards the Rosicrucians. 

According to some, the name is derived from 
their supposed founder. Christian Rosencreutz, who 
died in 1484. And they account for the fact of 
the Rosicrucians not being heard of till 1 604, by 
saying that Rosencreutz bound his disciples by an 
oath not to promulgate his doctrines for 120 years 
after his death. The mystical derivation of the 
name is thus given in the JEncyc, Brit, : — 

*' The denomination evidently appears to be derived 
from the science of chemistry. It is not compounded, 
as many imagine, of the two words rosa and crwx, 
which signify rose and ci'DSSy but of the latter of these 
two words and the Latin ros, which signifies dew. Of 
all natural bodies dew was deemed the most powerful 
dissolvent of gold ; and the cross in the chemical lan- 
guage is equivalent to light, because the figure of the 
cross exhibits at the same time the three letters of 
which the word lux, light, is compounded. Now Itix 
is called by this sect the seed or menstruum of the red 

dragon, or, in other words, gross and corporeal lights 
which, when properly digested and modified, produces 
gold. Hence it follows, if this etymology be admitted, 
that a Rosicrucian philosopher is one who, by the in- 
tervention and assistance of the dew, seeks for light ; 
or, in other words, the phiiosopher*s stone. 

" The true meaning and energy of this denomination 
did not escape the penetration and sagacity of Gassendi, 
as appears by his Examen Philos, Fludd, torn. iii. s. 15. 
p. 261 . ; and it was more fully explained by Renaudot 
iu his Conferences Publiqnes, torn. iv. p. 87." 

The encyclopaedist remarks that at first the title 
commanded some respect, as it seemed to be bor- 
rowed from the arms of Luther^ which were a cross 
placed upon a rose. 

The leading doctrines of the Rosicrucians were 
borrowed from the Eastern philosophers* ; the 
Christian Platonists, schoolmen, and mystics: 
mixed up with others derived from writers on 
natural history, magic, astrology, and especially 
alchemy. All these blended together, and servea 
up in a professional jargon of studied obscurity, 
formed the doctrinal system of these strange pm- 
losophers. In this system the doctrine of elemental 
spirits, and the means of communion and alliance 
with them, and the doctrine of signatures^ are the 
most prominent points. 

Let me refer Mr. Taylor to Michael Meyer's 
Themis Aurea, hoc est de legihus Fraternitatis Rosea 
Ci^cis, Col. 1615 ; the works of Jacob Behmen, 
Robt. Fludd, John Hey don, Peter Mormius, Eu- 
gene Philalethes ; the works of the Rosicrucian So- 
ciety, containing seventy-one treatises in different 
languages ; the Catalogue of Hermetic books by 
the Abbe Lenglet du Iresnoi, Paris, 1762 ; Man- 
get's Bihlioth, Chem. Curios.^ Col. 1702, 2 vols, 
folio ; and the Theatrum Chemicum, Argent. 1662, 
6 vols. 8vo. 

I must make particular mention of the two 
most celebrated of the Rosicrucian works; the 
first is La Chiave del Cabinetto, Col. 1681, 12mo. 
The author, Joseph Francis Borri, gives a most 
systematic account of the doctrine of the Rosic 
Cross in this interesting little volume. He was 
imprisoned for magic and heresy, and died in his 
prison at Rome in 1695 at the age of seventy 
years. On this work was founded one still more 
remarkable — 

" Le Compte dc Gabalis, ou Entretiens sur les 
Sciences Secretes. * Quod tanto impendio absconditur 
etiam solum modo demonstrarc, destruere est.*— r 
Terlull, Sur la Copie imprimee k Paris, chez Claude 
Barbin. — m.dc.lxxi. 1 2mo., pp. 1 50." 

• The Jewish speculations on the subject of ele- 
mental spirits and angels (especially those that assumed 
corporeal forms, and united themselves with the daugh- 
ters of men) were largely drawn on by the Rosicrucians. 
(See the famous Liber Zohar, Sulzbaci, 1684, fol. ; and 
Pbilo, Lib. de Gigantibus, See also Hoornbeek, Lift. 
pro Convert, Jud,, Lug. Bat., 1665, 4to.) 



[No. 199. 

This work, thus published anonjmoualy, was from 
the pen of the AbW da Villars, An English 
translation was published at London in 1714. 

The doctrine of the Rosj Cross entered largely 
into the literature of the seventeenth eenturj. 
This applies especially to the masques of James I. 
and CLai-les I. To the same source ShakBpeare 
owes his Ariel, and Milton much of his Comut. 

It Is strange, but instructive, to obserTO hoir 
Tariouslj diflerent minds make use of the same 
juateriara. What greater contrast can ire haie 

th»n The Rape of the Lock and Undine.'— tha 

• one redolent of the petit-maitre and the Cockney; 
the other a work mi generii, of human conceptions 

. tho most exquisite and splrit-frn grant. WIeland'a 
Idria und Zenide, Bulwer's Zanoni, nnd Mackay's 

' Salamandrine, are also based on Rosicruclon prin- 
ciples. Mention of the Rosicrucians occurs In 
Izaak Walton's Angler and Butler's Hadibna — 
see Zachary Grey's note nnd authorities referred 
to by him. See also l?ro interesting papers on the 
subject In Chambers's Edinb. Journal, ed. 1846, 

-vol. vi, pp. 298. 316. Eibionnacu. 

Jul; SO, 1S53. 

" Atalanta Fugiens, hoc est, Ernblemsta Nova de 
^Seereda Natural Chjmica. Accommodati pu-Cim 
Dculis et intellectui, figurU cupr 

Hca AuUnta ut fugit, sio una toi muticalii leinpeT 
fugil ante aliam el altera intequitur, ut Hippomeaes: 
stabiliuntur et iirmanlur, qua: Eimplei 



: Ilict 

virgo mer£ chymica e«t, nempe Mercuriui philoio- 
pbiciis a sulfure auceo in fuga Hiatus et retentus, quern 
si quia sistere noTerit, aponsam. quom ambit, babebit, un 
minua, pecditionem suarum rerum est intsrilum," &e. 
— Page 9, 


). 131.) 


i plus minus 50 Fugii Muaicslibua 

dism distichia canendii peraptAm correspond^ant, non 
absq: lingulari jucunditate videnda, legenda, roedi- 
tinda, intelligenda, dijudlcanda, canenda, et eudienda. 
AutboreMichaeloMajerD, Imperial. ConsiBtorii Comite, 
Med. D. Eq. Ei. etc. ; Oppenheimii, ei Typograpbia 
Hieronytni Galleri, sumptibui Job. Tbeodori de Bry, 
HDCiTiii." Small 4to. pp. 211. 

The title-page is adorned with emblematical 
figures. The work contains a portrait of the 
Author, and fifty emblems executed nlth much 

Sirit. Amongst others we Lave a Salamander in 
e fire, a green lion, a berm aphrodite, a dragoon, 
&C. Every right page has a motto, an emblem, 
and an epigram under the emblem in Latin. Tlie 
left page gives the same in German, iritb the Latin 
words set to music. After each emblem we have 
a " Dlscursus." 

The following remarks on the title occur ia the 
preface : 

*■ Atalanta Po'etia oelebrata est propter fugam, qui 

. victis pro Virgine, priEmio Vjcloriio propoaito, mors 
obiigit, donee ab Hippomene, Juvene audacloie et 
provido, auperala et obtenta ut tiium malorum aure- 
oruin per Vices inter currendum objectu, qua dum 
iUa toUerel, praveota eat ab eo, metam Jam allingente : 

John Searson was a merchant in Philadelphia in 
the year 1766. A few days before seeing the in- 
quiry respecting bim, I came across his advertise- 
ment In the PenTttylvania Qazelle ; but not having 
made a note of the date, I have since been unable 
to find it. His stock was of a very miscellaneous 
character, as "Bibles and warming pans," "spell- 
ing-books and Bwords," figured in it in juxta- 
position. He taught school at one time In Bask- 
ing Ridge, New Jersey. 

A copy of his poem on " Down HIU" Is before 
me i and it is quite as curious a production as the 
volume of poems which lie afterwards published. 

He describes himself In the title-page ns " Late 
Master of the Free School in Colerain, and formerly 
of New York, Merchant." The volume was printed 
in 1794 by subscription at Colerain. 

The work is introduced by " A Poem, being a 
Cursory View of Belfast Town," thus commencing: 
« With pleasure I view the Toim of Beltiut, 
Where many dear friendi their loll baie been east : 
The Buildings are neat, the Town very elean. 
And Trade very brisk are here to be seen; 
Their Shipping are numeraui, as I behold. 
And JUercbanta thiire here in rlcbei, I'm told." 

Here are some farther specimens from this poem: 

" I'«e walk'd alone, and vieWd the Paptr Mia, 
Its walk, the eye with pleasure fill. 
I've view'd the Mountains that surround Bilfjibt, 
And find they are romantic to the last 

The Church of ia auperb and grand. 
And to the Town an ornament does Bland i 
Their Meeting HouKs alio is so neat, 
The congregation large, fine and complete." 

The volume contains a dedication to tlie Ber. 
Mr. Josiab Klarshall, rector of Maghera, a preface, 
a table of contents, and "A Prayer previous to tho 

The whole book is so intensely ridiculous tliat 
it is difficult to select. The following are rather 
chosen for their brevity than for any pre-eminent 
absurdity : 
•• The Earl of BriBtol here some time do dwell, 

Which after-ages sure of him will tell." 

Aug. 20. 1853.] 



** Down- Hill's so pleasing to the traveller's sight, 
And th' marine prospect would your heart delight." 

'* The rabbit tribe about me run their way, 
Their little all to man becomes a prey. 
The busy creatures trot about and run ; 
Some kill them with a net, some with a gun. 
Alas ! how little do these creatures know 
For what they feed their young, so careful go. 
The little creatures trot about and sweat, 
Yet for the use of man is all they get.** 

** He closed his eyes on ev'ry earthly thing. 
Angles surround his bed : to heaven they bring 
The soul, departed from its earthly clay. 
He died, he died ! and calmly pass'd away, 
His children not at home ; his widow mourn. 
And all his friends, in tears, seem quite forlorn." 

Some of the London booksellers ought to re- 
print this work as a curiosity of literature. Some 
of the subscribers took a number of copies, and 
one might be procured for the purpose. The 
country seats of the largest subscribers are de- 
scribed in the poem. 

The book ends with these lines (added by the 
" devil " of the printing-office, no doubt) : 

" The above rural, pathetic, and very sublime per- 
formance was corrected, in every respect, by the author 

This is erased with a pen, and these words written 
below — " Printer's error." Uneda. 


"feom the sublime to the ridiculous,*' etc. 

(Vol. v., p. 100.) 

Since my former communication on the use of 
the phrase "From the sublime to the ridiculous 
there is but a step," I have met with some farther 
examples of kindred forms of expression, which 
you may deem worth inserting in " N. & Q." 

Shakspeare has an instance in Romeo and Juliet, 
where he describes " Love " as — 

'* A madness most discreet,^ 
A choaking gall, and a preserving sweet." 

Quarles has it in his Emblems, Book iv. Epi- 
gram 2. : — 

" Pilgrim, trudge on; what makes thy soul complain? 
Crowns thy complaint ; the way to rest is pain : 
The road to resolution lies by doubt ; 
The next way home's the farthest way about." 

We find it in this couplet in Butler : 

*^ For discords make the sweetest airs. 
And curses are a kind of prayers." 

Kochester has it in the line — 

** An eminent fool must be a man of parts." 

It occurs in Junius*s remark — 

*« Your Majesty may learn hereafter how nearly the 
slave and the tyrant are allied." 

and in the following well-known passage in th6 
same writer ; 

" He was forced to go through every division, re- 
solution, composition, and refinement of political 
chemistry, before he happily arrived at the caput 
mortuum of vitriol in your grace. Flat and insipid in 
your retired state; but, brought into action, you 
become vitriol again. Such are the extremes of alter- 
nate indolence or fury which have governed your 
whole administration." 

The thought here (be it said in passing) seems 
to have been adopted from these lines in Ro- 
chester : 

" Wit, like tierce claret, when 't begins to pall, 
Neglected lies, and *s of no use at all ; 
But in its full perfection of decay 
Turns vinegar, and comes again in play." 

But the most beautiful application of this senti- 
ment that I have met with, occurs in an essay on 
" The Uses of Adversity," by Mr. Herman Hooker, 
an American writer : — 

<< A pious lady, who had lost her husband, was for a 
time inconsolable. She could not think, scarcely could 
she speak, of anything but him« Nothing seemed to 
take her attention but the three promising children he 
had left her, singing to her his presence, his look, his 
love. But soon these were all taken ill, and died within 
a few days of each other ; and now the childless 
mother was calmed even by the greatness of the stroke. 
As the lead that goes quickly down to the ocean's 
depth ruffled its surface less than lighter things, so the 
blow which was strongest did not so much disturb her 
calm of mind, but drove her to its proper trust." 

Henbt H. Bbeen. 
St. Lucia. 


(Vol. viii., p. 78.) 

« Tn the midst of life we are in death." 

A writer in the Parish Choir (vol. iii. p. 140.) 
gives the following account of this passage. He 
says : 

** The passage in question is found in the Cantarium 
Sti, GaUi, or choir-book of the monks of St. Gall in 
Switzerland, published in 1845, with, however, a slight 
deviation from the text, as we are accustomed to it. 

« Medid Vita of St Nother. 

* Medi& Vitd in morte sumus : quem quajrimus ad- 
jutorem, nisi Te Domine, qui pro peccatis nostris justd 
irasceris. Ad te clamaverunt patres nostri, speraverunt, 
et liberasti eos. Sancte Deus : ad te clamaverunt patres 
nostri, clamaverunt et non sunt confusi. Sancte Fortis, 
ne despicias nos in tempore senectutis : cum defecerit 
virtus nostra, ne derelinquas nos. Sancte et misericors 
Salvator amarae morti ne tradas nos.* 

'*On consulting the Thesaurus HymwAogicus of 
Daniel (vol. ii. p. S29.) I find the followuig notice. 



[No. 199. 

It is called ' Antiphona pro Fcccatis/ or * de Morte ;* 
and the text there given corresponds nearly with that 
in our Burial Service. 

" Media vltd in morte sumus : 
Quern quaerimus adjutorem nisi Te Domine, 
Qui pro pcccatis nostris juste irasceris: 
Sancte Deus, sancte fortis, sancte et misericors Sal- 

Amarae morti ne tradas nos. 

" Rambach siys, * " In the midst of life" occurs in 
MSS. of the thirteenth century, as an universally com- 
mon dirge and song of supplication on all melancholy 
occasions, and was in this century regularly sung at 
Compline on Saturdays. A German translation was 
known long before the time of Luther, and was en- 
larged by him by the addition of two strophes.' Mar- 
tene describes it as forming part of a religious service 
for New Year's Eve, composed about the year 13CX). 

** Hoffmann says that this anthem * by Notker the 
Stammerer, a monk of St. Gall's (an. 912), was an 
extremely popular battle-song, through the singing of 
which, before and during the fight, friend and foe 
hoped to conquer. It was also, on many occasions, 
used as a kind of incantation song. Therefore the 
Synod of Cologne ordered (an. 1316) that no one 
should sing the Media vita without the leave of his 

** Daniel adds that it is not, to his knowledge, now 
used by the Roman Church in divine worship ; but 
that the admirable hymn of Luther, * Mitten wir im 
Leben sind,* still flourishes amongst the Protestants of 
Germany, just as the translation in our Prayer-Book 
is popular with us." 

Geo. a. Trevor. 

Your correspondent J. G. T. asks whence comes 
the expression in the Burial Service, " In the 
midst of life we are in death ? " There are some 
lines in Petrarch which express precisely the same 
idea in nearly the self-same words ; but as the 
thought is by no means an unlikely one to occur 
to two separate and independent authors, we may 
not go to the length of charging the seeming^ pi a- 

fiarism upon the compilers of our Prayer-Sook. 
have mislaid the exact reference*, but subjoin 
the lines themselves : 

' Omnia paulatim consumit longior atas, 
Vivendoque siinul morimurj rapimurque manendo : 
Ipse mihi collatus cnim, non ille videbor ; 
Frons alia est, moresque alii, nova mentis imago, 
Voxque aliud mutata sonat." 

John Booker. 

Patrick's purgatory. 

(Vol. vii., p. 552.) 

Dr. Lanigan, in his learned Ecclesiastical HU' 
iory of Ireland (vol. i. p. 368.), states that the so- 
called Patrick's Purgatory is situated at Lough 

[* Barbftto Sulmonensi, epUt. i. — En.] 

Derg (Donegal). It is never mentioned in any 
of the lives of the apostle, nor heard of till the 
eleventh century, the period at which the canons 
regular of St. Augustine first appeared, for it was 
to persons of that order, as the story goes, that 
St. Patrick confided the care of that cavern of 
wonders. Now there were no such persons in the 
island in which it is situated, nor in that of St. 
Davoc [Dabeoc ?] in the same lake, until about tiie 
beginning of the twelfth century. This purgatory, 
or purging place, of Lough Derg, was set up against 
another Patrick's purgatory, viz. that of Crough 
Patrick, mentioned by Jocelyn, which, however 
ill-founded the vulgar opinion concerning it, was 
less objectionable. Some writers have said that 
it got the name of Patrick's Purgatory from an 
Abbot Patrick, that lived in the ninth century ; 
but neither were there canons regular of St. Au- 
gustine at that time, nor were such abridged 
modes of atoning to the Almighty for the sins of a 
whole life then thought of. It was demolished in 
the year 1497, by order of the Pope, although it 
has since been in some manner restored. 

The original Patrick's Purgatory then, it would 
appear, was at Croagh Patrick, in Mayo, near 
Westport ; speaking of the pilgrimages made to 
which, the monk Jocelyn (in his Life of St Patrick^ 
written a.d. 1180, cap. 172.) says that — 

** Some of those who spent a night there stated that 
they had been subjected to most fearful torments, which 
had the effect, as they supposed, of purging them from 
their sins, for which reason also certain of them gave 
to that place the name of St. Patrick's Purgatory." 

By the authority of the Lords Justices who 
governed Ireland in 1633, previously to the ap- 
pointment of Wentworth, Lough Derg Purgatory 
was once more suppressed ; but the sort of piety 
then fostered among the members of the Roman 
communion in Ireland could ill afford to resign 
without a sti*uggle what was to them a source o£ 
so much consolation. High influence was, there- 
fore, called into action to procure the reversal of 
the sentence ; and the Roman Catholic Queen of 
Charles I. was induced to address to the Lord 
Deputy of Ireland a letter in which she requested 
that he would be pleased *' to allow, that the 
devotions which the people of that country have 
ever been wont to pay to a St. Patrick's place 
there, may not be abolished." The Lord Deputy 
declined acceding to this request, and said in his 
reply, " I fear, at this time, when some men's zeal 
hath run them already, not only beyond their 
wits, bitt almost forth of their allegiance too^ it 
might furnish them with something to say in pre- 
judice and scandal to his majesty's government, 
which, for the present indeed, is by all means to 
be avoided." And adds, ** your Majesty might do 
passing well to let this devotion rest awhile." 
After this second suppression, the devotion has a 
second time been *^ in some manner restored ;** and 

Aug. 20. 1853.] 



multitudes throng to tlie place on the faith of a 
false tradition, so long since exposed and exploded 
by their own authorities. Three hundred find 
fifty years ago, the Pope, the representative of the 
Bishop of Clogher, and the head of the Franciscans 
in Donegal, combined their efforts to put down 
the scandalous fabrication ; but yet it remains to 
this day an object of cherished religious venera- 
tion — an object of confidence and faith, on which 
many a poor soul casts itself to find consolation 
and repose. And those multitudes of pilgrims, 
year after year, assemble there, no influence which 
they look to for guidance forbidding them, to do 
homage to the vain delusion. 

D. W. S. P. will find farther information on 
this subject in The Catholic Layman for April 
last : Curry, Dublin. William Blood. 



(Vol. viii., p. 100.) 

In answer to W. L. M.'s inquiry, "where the 
virtuous and patriotic William Lord Russell was 
buried ? " I beg to state that I possess a pamphlet 
entitled : 

" The whole Tryal and Defence of William Lord 
Russel, who Dyed a Martyr to the Romish Fury in 
the Year 1683, with the Learned Arguments of the 
Council on both sides. Together with his Behaviour 
and Speech upon the Scaffold : His Character and 
Behaviour. London : printed by J. Bradford, at the 
Bible in Fetter Lane." 

There is no date to it ; but from the appearance 
of the paper, type, a rude woodcut of the execu- 
tion, &c., I doubt not that it was printed soon 
after the event, or certainly immediately after the 
Revolution, to meet the popular wishes to have 
information on the subject. It consists of sixteen 
octavo pages, very closely printed. The opening 
paragraph says : 

•* Among the many that suffered in a Protestant 
cause [all the Italics used in this communication are 
those of the pamphlet], and indeed whose measure 
seem'd to be the hardest of all, was this honorable per- 
son William Lord Jiussel, who was generally lamented 
for his excellent Temper and good Qualities; being 
allowed to be one of the most sober and judicious 
Noblemen in the Kingdom, which even his Enemies 
could not deny ; and the Merit and Esteem he bore 
was more cause of Offence against him than any Mat- 
ter that was reap'd up at his Tryal ; all which in effect 
was merely grounded upon Malice (I mean Popish 
Malice) that could not be forgot, from his Lordship's 
being one of those earnest sticklers for Protestant 
Liberty, and jeven the very foremost that prefer*d the 
Bill of Exclusion," &c. 

Then follows the trial, headed "July 13, 1683, 
the Lord Russel came to his Tryal at the Old 

Bailey." The indictment is described ; the names 
of the jury are given ; judges and counsel named ; 
the evidence, examinations, and cross-examinations 
(by Lord Russel) very interestingly narrated: 
the Report concluding, after a short address from 
Lord Russel, "Then the Court adjourned till 
four in the afternoon, and brought him in guilty.*' 
These particulars are followed by " The last 
Speech and Car^nage of the Lord Russel upon the 
Scaffold^ Sfc" As to the executioner's work, all 
other accounts that I have seen state that after 
" two " strokes the head was severed from the 
body. The publication says : 

" The Executioner, missing at his first Stroke, 
though with that he took away his Life, at two more 
severed the Head from the Body .... Mr. Sheriff 
[continues the account] ordered his Friends or Ser- 
vants to take the Body, and dispose of it as they pleased, 
being given them by His Majesty's Favour and BouaUi/,** 

The narrative proceeds : 

" His Body was conveyed to Cheneys in Buckingham^ 
shirct where *twas Buried among his Ancestors. There 
was a great Storniy and many loud Claps of Thunder 
the Day of his Martyrdom. An Elegy was made on 
him immediately after his Death ; which seems, by 
what we have of it, to be writ with some Spirit, and a 
great deal of Truth and Good-will ; only this Frag- 
ment on't could be retriev'd, which yet may not be 
unwelcome to the Reader : 

* * Tis done — he*s Crown'd, and one bright Martyr moref 
Black Rome, is charged on thy too bulky score. 
All like himself, he mov'd so calm^ so free, 
A general whisper questioned — Which is he ? 
Decked like a Lover — thd" pale Death's his Bride, 
He came, and saw, and overcame, and dy*d. 
Earth weeps, and all the vainly pitying Crowd : 
But Heaven his Death in Thunder groaned aloud,* " 

A "sketch of his character" closes the account. 
Perhaps W. S. M. may deem these particulars not 
wholly uninteresting, but tolerably conclusive, 
considering the time of publication, when the fact 
must have been notorious. 

A Hermit at Hampstbad. 

OAKEN tombs, ETC. 

(Vol. vii., p. 528.) 

At Banham, Norfolk, in a recess in the wall of 
the north aisle of the church, is an oaken effigy 
of a knight in armour in a recumbent position. 
Blomefield says : 

« It is plain that it was made for Sir Hugh Bardolph, 
Knight, sometime lord of Gray's Manor, in this town, 
who died in 1203; for under his left arm there is a 
large cinquefoil, which is the badge of that family," &c. 

Since he wrote, however (1739), with a view to 
the better preservation of this interesting reliei 
some spirited churchwarden has caused it to be 



[Ka 199. 

veil painted ttnd sanded ; so thitt it now looks 
edmott aa well m stono. At the Bume time, the 
marks bj which BlomcGelJ thought to identlfj it 
are necessarily obliterated. T. B. D. H. 

William de Valente, Ear! of Pembroke, who 
was slain at Bayonne in 1296, — hia effigy in wood 
is in St. Edmund's Chapel in Westminster Abbe^, 
covered with enamelled brass. There is also in 
Abergavenny Church, amongst the general wreck 
of monumental remains there, a cross-legged effigy 
in wood, represented in chain mail ; which tlie 
tate Sir Samuel Mevrick supposed to have been 
that of William de Valence. It is mentioned in 
Coxe's MoamoulAiAire, p. 192. 

The effigy of Aymer de Valence referred to in 
Whitaker ("N. & Q.," Vol. vii.. p. 528.) is not of 
wood i he evidently refers to that of William de 

In Gloucester Cathedral there is the wooden 
monument of t. croas-legged knight attributed to 
Bobert Duke of Normandy, the eldest son of the 
Conqueror; but it is probably of a little later 
period. Thomas W. Kimq (York Herald). 

Cullege of Arms. 

In the Cathedral of Gloucester, there is a 
wooden effigy of the unfortunate Robert Duke of 
Norm.indy, eldest son of the Conqueror. It is so 
many years since I saw it, that 1 do not offer any 
description : but, if my memory be correct, it has 
the legs crossed, and (what is curious) is loose, 
and can be turned about on the tomb. A. C. M. 


On the south side of Hie chancel of St. Giles' 
Church, Durham, is a wooden effigy in full armour; 
the head resting on a helmet, and the hands raised 
as in prayer. It is supposed to be the tomb of 
John Heath, who became possessed of the Hospital 
of St. Giles Kepyer, and is known to have been 
buried in the chaneel of St. Giles' Church. He 
died in 1590. At the feet of the wooden effigy, 
are the words " hodie uichi." The figure was 
restored in colours about ten years ago. 

CtllllBBRT BbDB, B. a. 

ones, which form part of a beautiful ode on iba 
attributes of God, not unmixed with a considerable 
proportion of the fabulous, which is sung in every 
synagogue during the service of the first day M 
the feast of Pentecost. 

May I now be permitted to ask you, or any of 
your numerous correspondents, to inform me wlw 
was the bona file translator of Rnbbi Uaylr ben 
Isaac's lines ? The English lines are often quoted 
by itinerant advocates of charity societies as hav- 
ing been found inscribed, according to some, on 
the walls of a lunatic asylum, according to others; 
on the walls of a jprlson, as occasion requires ; but 
extempore quotations on platforms are sometimea 
vague. Moses Maboouohth. 


The verses arc in Grose's Olio (p. 292.), and 
are there said to be written by nearly an idiot, 
then living (March 16, 1779) at Cirencester. It 
happens, however, that long before the supposed 
idiot was born, one Geoffrey Chaucer made use erf 
tlie same ides, and the same expressions, although 
applied to a totally different subject, vii. in his 
" Balade warnynge men to beware of deceitful 

Wer parcliment smoth, white and scribbabell, '' 
And tbc gret see, that called is th' Ocein, 
Were tourned into ynke blackir than aabell, 
Ectie sticks a p«a, ache man a scrivener able. 
Not coud thei wrilin woman's treacherie, 
Beware, tberefbrc, the blind cicth many a flie." 

Again in the " Remedic of Love," the same lines 

occur with a few slight alterations. 

In vol. X. of the Modem Uninersdl Hiatory, 

p, 430. note, I meet with this sentence : 

ided by Jocbanan ; not in liglit of 

t of his 


{Vol. viii., p. 127.) 
The bona fide author of the following linos — 

" Could we with Ink the ocean till, 

And were the heavens ot parchment made. 



And every man a scribe by trade i 
To write the love of God bIiotc. 

Would drain the ocean dry i 
Nor could the scroll contain the whole, 
Tliough streEch'd from sky to sky." 
is Rabbi Mayir ben Isaac. The above eight lines 
ore almost a literal translation of four Chaldee 

Rabbles, ai 

prising a height, that, according (o them, if the whole 
heavens were paper, all the trees in the world pen^ 
and all the men writers, they would not suffice to poi 
down all hia lessous." 

In later times, in Miss C. Sinclair's HiSI and 
Vidlei/, p. 25., we have : 

■■ If the lake could be transformed into an ink-atan^ 
the mountains into paper ; and if all the birds that 
hover on high were to subscribe their wings for quiUi^ 
it would be atill insufficient to write balf the praise and 
admiration that are jusllv due." 


These lines are by Dr. Walls. I cannot jart 
now distinctly recollect whet^ they are to be found, 
but I think in Milner's Life of Waili. My recol- 
lection of them is that they were impromptu, mvoi 
at an evening party. H. eL 8. 

f Aug. 20. 1853.] 



Wathing or not wasiing CoUoJioa Picbirei after 
developing, previotu lofixii^. — Since the question 
hu been mooted 1 have tried both ways, and have 
come to the conclusion that there is verj little 
difference in the resulting appearance of the pic- 
ture. The faypo. ia certoiiilj deteriorated wnen 
no washing is adopted. I think it is beet to pour 
off the first quantity applied into a cup kept for 
the purpose ; this is diecoloured : I then pour on 
more cleun hypo., and let it reniiun till the picture 
clears, and pour this into another cup or bottle for 
future use. What was poured into the first cup 
mAj, irhen a sufficient quantity is obtained, be 
filtered, and by addin" more of the sail is not use- 
less. I pour on merely enough ,it first to wash oET 
the developing fluid, and pour it off at once. The 

C'cture ia cicured much sooner if the saturated 
fpo. solution is waruicd, which I do by plunging 
die bottle into a pewter pint pot filled with hot 
■water. W. M. F. 

Slereoscopie Angles (Vol. viil., pp. 109. 157.). — 
I perfectly agree with jour correspondent Mb. T. 
Ii. Mebbitt (p. i09.J respecting " stereoscopic 
angles," having arrived at the same conclusion 
eome months since, while at Hastings, where I 
produced stereoscopic pictures by uioviog the 
camera only two inchea : having in one, seven 
bouses and five bathing-machines ; and in the 
Other,^oe houses and eight bathing. machines. If 
I had separated the two pictures more, I should 
have had all balhivg-machines in one and aU houses 
in the other ; which convinced me that nothing 
more is required thnn the width of the tnro eyes 
for all distances, or, sliditly to exaggerate it, to 
three inches, which will produce a pieaaing and 
natural effect : for it is quite certain that our eyes 
do not become wider apart as we recede from an 
object, and that the intention is to give a true 
representation of nature as seen by one person. 
!Now, most stereoscopic pictures represent nature 
as it never could be seen by any one person, from 
the same point of view ; and I feel confident that 
all photographers, who condescend to make stereo- 
scopic pictures, will arrive at the same conclusion 
before the end of this season. 

If this be correct, nil difficulty is reraoTed ; for 
it is always advisable to take two pictures of the 
same prospect, in case one should not be good ; 
and two very indifferent negatives will combine 
into one very good positive, when viewed by the 
stereoscope : thus proving the old saying, that two 
negatives make an affirmative. 

Hehbi Wilkihsob. 

it on, believing that it was easier to observe the 
progress of the picture by that mode. If S. B. 
will forward me his address, I shall be happy to 
enter more minutely into my mode of operating 
with it than I can through the medium of "h! 
& Q." I have receiied other favourable testi- 
mony as to the value of my developing fluid for 
gloss positives. 

While I am writing, will you allow me to ask 
your photographic correspondents whether any of 
them have tried Mr. BlUIIer'a paper process re- 
ferred to by Mr. Delamotte at p. 143. of his work? 
It was first aimounced in the Athenaum of Nov. 2, 
1851. When I first commenced photogr^by 
(June, 1652), I tried the process ; and from what 
I did with it, when I was almost entirely ignorant 
of the manipulation, I am inclined to think it a 
valuable process. The sharpness of the tracery in 
my church windows, in a picture I took by the 
process, is remarkable. Mr. Delamotte truly says ; 
" This ia a most striking diacovery, as it super- 
sedes the necessity of any developing agent after 
the light has acted on the paper." Mr. Miiller 
says, Uiat simple wasliiug in water seems to be 
sufficient to fix the pictui e. This is also a striking 
discovery, and tolally unlike any other very sensi- 
tive process that I am acquainted with ; and more 
striking still, that the process should not have been 
more practised. J. Lawsoh Sissos. 

EdingChorpe Iteclory. 

Sissou's Deeelopiitg Solution. — In answer to 
8. B.'s inquiry, I beg to say, that I have not tried 
the above solution as a bath. I have always poured 

SrjiTfrij to ^tnnc &\uxtti. 

Robert Dnirg (Vol. v., p. 533. ; Vol. vii,, p, 485.; 

Vol. viii., p. 104.).~I believe the Journal of Eo- 

bert Drury to be a genuine book of travels and 

adventures, and here is my voucher : 

" The best and most authentic account ever given 
of Madogascsr was pulilislied in 1TZ9. by Robert 
Drury, who being shipwrecked in the Degrave Eiat 
Indiaman, on the south side of Hint ii,U«d, in ITOS, 
being then a boy, Uvsd there as a slave BUeta yeara, 
and after his return to England, among those who 

at (he East India House), had the character ofu down, 
right honest man, without any ■ppearaoce of fraud or 
impoilure." — John Duncombe, AI. A., one uf the Ui 
preachers in ChiLst Church, Canterbury, 1775. 

Mr. Duncombe quotes several statements from 
Drury which coincide with those of the Eeverend 
William Hirst, the astronomer, who touched at 
Madagascar, op his voyage to India, in 1759. Ten 
years afterwards Mr. Hirst perished in the Aurora, 
and with him the author of The Shiptvreci. 

Bolton Cosnet. 

Seal Sigmtures Eersvt Pseudo-Name* (Vol. vi^ 
p. 310.; Vol. viii., p. 94.), —There i» no doubt 
that the straighifoiwardness of open and undis- 
guised communications to your excellent miscel- 


{No. 19». 

Isny ia desirable ; but a few words may be said on 
behalf of your anonymoiia contributora. If the 
rule were established that every correspondent 
should add hia name to hia communication, many 
of your friends might, from motives of delicacy, 
decliDc asking a question or hazarding a reply. 
By adopting a nom-de-guerre, men eminent in 
their various pursuits can quietly and unosten- 
tatioualv ask a question, or contribute information. 
If the latter be done with reference to standard 
works of authority, or to MSS. preserved in our 
public depositories, the disclosure of the name of 
the contributor odds nothing to the matter con- 
tributed, and he may rejoice that he baa been the 
means of promoling the objects of the " N. & Q." 
without the " blushing to find it fame." It should, 
however, be a tiae qua non that all original com- 
munications, and those of matters of fact, should 
be authenticated by a real signature, when no re- 
ference can be given to authorities not accessible 
to the public; and it is to be regretted that such 
authentication baa not, in such cases, been ge- 
nerally afforded. 

Thos. Wm. Kibq (York Herald). 

Lines on the Instiiution of ike Oarter (Vol. viiL, 

" Her stocking's security fell from her tnee, 
Allosions and hints, sneers and whispers went round." 
May I put a Query on the idea auggested by 
these lines — that the accidental dropping of her 
garter implied an imputation on the fair fame of 
uie Countess of Salisbury. Why should thia be? 
That it did imply an iniiiulation, I judge as well 
from the vindication of the lady by King Edward, 
as also from the proverbial expresaion used in 
Scotland, and to be found in Scotfs Works, of 
"casting a leggln girth," as synonymous with a 
female "faux pas." I have a conjecture, but 
diould not like to venture it, without inquiring 
the general impression as to the origin of this 
notion. A. B. R, 


"Short red, God red," ^c. (Vol. v 11., p. 500.). 
— Sir Waller Scott has committed an oversight 
when, in Tnlei of a Grandfather, vol. i. p. 85., he 
mentions a murderer of the Bishop of Caithness to 
have made use of the expression, " Schort ted, 
God red, slea ye the biachop." Adam, Bishop of 
Caithness, was burnt by the mob near Thurso, in 
1222, for oppression in the exaction of tithes; 
John, Earl of Orkney and Caithness, was killed in 
retaliation by the bishop's party in 1231. 

The language apoken at that time on the sea- 
coast of Caithness must have been Norse. Suther- 
land would appear to have been wrested fiom the 
Orkney -Norwegians before that period, and the 

the Norae continued to be the apoken tongue till 
a later period, when it was superseded by the 
Scottish. The Norwegians in tlie cod ti the 
ninth century colonised Orkney, and expdled or 
destroyed the former inhabitants. The WeMen 
Isles were olao subjugated by them at that tiae, 
and probably Caithness, or at all events a little 
later. It would be deairable to know the race and 
tongue previously eziating in Caithness, and if 
these were lost in the Norwegians and Nopse, and 

an earlier Christianity in Scandinavian l:'i^ranism. 
This may, however, lead tb the unfathomably dari: 
subject of the Picts. Is it known when Nor 

spoken in Caithness? Tbe etoiy itf 
the burning of the Bishop of Caithness forms the 
conclusion of the Orkneyinga Saga; and ride 
TorfKUB, Oreadei, p. 154,, and Dalrymple'e Am¥iU 
of ScoUand, of dates 1222 and 1231. F. 

Martlin. Mount (Vol. vii., pp.38. 117.).— At 
" Brandon," the seat of tlie Harrisons on the 
James River, Virginia, ia a likeness of Miaa Blotmt 
by Sir Godfrey Kneller; and at "Berkeley," alao 
on the J.imes Hiver, and the reaidence of another 
branch of the same family, is one of the Duelieas 
of Montagu, also by Kneller. Thus much in an- 
swer to the Query. But in this connexion I ivould 
mention, that on the James River are siany fine 

Eictures, portraits of worthies famous in JGosliah 
istory. At " Shirley" there is one of CoLHfll, 
by Vandyke ; at Brandon, one of CoL Byrd, by 
Vandyke ; alao Lord Orrery, Duke of Areyle, 
Lord Albemarle, Lord Egmont, Sir Robert Wal- 
pole, and others, by Kneller. 

These pictures are mentioned in chap. is. of 
Travels in North America during the Years 1834 — 
ISSG, by the Hon. Charles Augustus Slomty ; a 
gentleman who either is, or was, Msst^ of the 
Queen's Household. T., 


Longevity (Vol. viil., p. 113.^.— As W. W. 
asserts that Uiere is a lady livmg (or was two 
months ago) in South Carolina, who is inoun to 
be 131 years old, h<!will no doubt be good enough. 
to let tlic readers of " N. & Q." know it also. And 
although W. W. thinks it will not be necessary to 
search in "annual or parish registers" to prove 
the age of the aingujar Singleton, yet he most 
produce documentary evidence of aome sort; 
unless, indeed, he knows an older person who re- 
members the birth of the aged Carolinian. 

Having paid the wcll-knowu Mr. Bamum a fee 
to see a negretss, whom the cute showman exhibited 
as the nurse of the great Washington, I have fifty 
cents worth of reasons to subscribe myaelf 


Celtic tongue and race gaining on the Norse; but 
on the aea-coast of Caithneas I should appre' 

Iti (VoLviL, p.578.). — B.H.C. ia perfectly 

irrect in saying that I waa nuatalcen in my qoo- 

appreheod tallon from Fairlks's Tatao. It only rr "- 

Aug. 20. 1853.] 



me to ezi^ain how I fell into tibe error. It was, 
then, from using Mr. Knight*s edition of the work^ 
for though the orthography was modernised, which 
I like, I never dreamed of an editor's taking the 
liberty of altering the text of his author. I love 
to be corrected when wrong, and here express my 
thanks to B. H. C. I inform him that there is 
another passage in Shakspeare with its in it, but 
not having marked it, I cannot find it just now : I 
think it is in Lear. 

I have said that I like modernised orthography. 
We have modernised that of the Bible, and of the 
dramatists ; why then are we so superstitious with 
respect to the barbarous system of Spenser P I 
am convinced that the Fairy QueeUj if printed in 
modern orthography, would find many readers who 
are repelled by the uncouth and absurd spelling 
of the poet, who wanted to rhyme to the eye as 
well as to the ear. Let us then have a " Spenser 
for the People." Thos. KeightiiET. 

Oldham, Bishop of Exeter (Vol. vii., pp. 14. 
164. 189. 271.). — Me. Walcott will be interested 
to learn, that Bishop Hugh Oldham was not a 
native of Oldham, but was bom at Crumpsall, in 
the parish of Manchester ; as appears from Dug- 
dale s Visitation of Lancashire, and the " Lanca- 
shire MSS.," vol. xxxi. His brother, Richard 
Oldham, appointed 22nd Abbot of St. Werburgh's 
Abbey, Chester, in 1452, was afterwards elevated 
to the bishoprick of Man, and, dying Oct. 13, 1485, 
was buried at Chester Abbey, Chester. 

T. Hughes. 


Boom (Vol. vii., p. 620.). — This word, expres- 
sive of the cry of the bittern, is also used as a 
noun : 

** And the loud bittern from his bull-rush home, 
Gave from the salt-ditch side his bellowing boom** 

Crabbe, The Borought xxii. 

Ebenezer Elliott is another who uses the word 
as a verb : 

" No more with her will hear the bittern boom 
At evening^s dewy close." 

Cuthbebt Bede, B.A. 

Lord North (Vol. vii^ p. 317.). — If C. can pro- 
cure a copy of Lossing*s Pictorial Field-book of 
the American Revolution, he will find in one of the 
volumes a woodcut from an English engraving, 
presenting to our view George 111. as he appeared 
at the era of the American Revolution. It may 
serve to modify his present opinion as to the 
king's figure, face, &c M. £. 


Dutch Pottery (Vol. v^ p. 343. ; Vol. vi., p. 253.). 
— At Arnhem, about sixty -five or seventy years 
ago, there existed a pottery foimded by two Ger- 

mans: H. Brandeis, and the well>known savant 
H. Ton Laun, maker of the planetarium (orrery} 
described by Professor van Swinden, and pur- 
chased by the Society Felix Meritis in Amsterdam. 
The son of Mr. Brandeis has still at his residence^ 
No. 419. Bapenburgerstraat, several articles manu- 
factured there : such as plates, &c. What I have 
seen is much coarser than the Saxon porcelain, 
yet much better than our Delft ware. Perhaps 
Mr. Van Embden, grandson and successor of Von 
Laun, could give farther information. 


p. S. — Allow me to correct some misprints in 
Vol. vi., p. 253. Dutch and German names 
are often cruelly maltreated in English publica- 
tions. In this respect " N. & Q." should be an ex- 
ception. For " Ltchner " read Lcichner ; for " Dorp- 
Aeschryver" read Dorp&eschryver ; for "Blasse** 
read BliiasS ; for " Hceren " read Haeren ; for 
"PallandA" read Palland; for "Daenbar" read 
Daewber. — From the Navorscher, 

Cramners Correspondences (Vol. vii., p. 62 L). — 
Will Me. Walter be so good as to preserve in 
your columns the letter of which Dean Jenkyns 
has only given extracts ? 

Two points are to be distinguished ; Cranmer's 
wish that Calvin should assist in a general union 
of the churches protesting against Komish error 
— Calvin^s offer to assist in settling the Church of 
England. The latter was declined ; and the reason 
is demonstrated in Arc^bp. Laurence*s Bampton 
Lectures, S. Z. Z. S. 

Portable Altars (Vol. viii., p. 101.). — I am not 
acquainted with any treatise on the subject of 
portable altars, from which your correspondent 
can obtain more information, than from that which 
occupies forty- six pages in the Becas DissertO' 
tionum HistoricO'Theologicarum, published, for the 
second time, by Jo. Andr. Schmidt, 4to. Helmstad. 
1714. R. G. 

Poem attributed to Shelley (Vol. viii., p. 71.). — 
The ridiculous extravaganza attributed to Shelley 
by an American newspaper, was undoubtedly 
never written by that gifted genius. It bears 
throuochout unmistakeable evidence of its trans- 
atlantic origin. No person, who had not actually 
witnessed that curious vegetable parasite, the 
Spanish moss of the southern states of America, 
hanging down in long, hairy-like plumes fixwn the 
branches of a large tree, could have imagined the 
lines, — 

** Ihe downy'clouds droop 
Like moss upon a tree.*' 

Who, again, could believe that Shelley, an En- 
glish gentleman and scholar, could ever, either in 
writing or conversation, have made use of the 
common American vulgarism, " play heU ! *' 


[No. 199. 

is, in taj humble opicion, a matter of little 
interest. But ns ft probable guess, I should say 
tbat it carries strong internal evidence of having 
been iriitten b; that erratic mortal, Etigar Fa<?. 



indy Peres, TFi/e of Hotspur (Daushler nj 
Edmund Mortimer, Earl of Marck) (Vol. viii., 
p. 104.). — On reference to the volume and page 
of Misa Strickland's Liees of the Queens of Eng- 
land, cited by your correspondent G., I find that 
not only does this lady, hj her sweeping assertion, 
bastardise the second E. of Northumberland, but, 
in her zeal to outsay all that " ancient heralds " 
ever can have said, she annihilates, or at least 
reduces to n mjtli, the mother of Thomas, eighth 
Lord Clifford. This infelicitous statement may 
have been corrected in the second edition of the 
Lives, for in "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 42., there is 
a detailed pedigree tracing the descent of Jane 
Seymour tlu-ough Margaret Wentworth, her mo- 
ther, by an intermarriage with a Weatworth, and 
a granddaughter of Ilolspur, Lord Percy, (not 
dmtghter, as Miss Strickland writes) from the 
blood-royal of England. My object, however, in 
writing this is not farther to point attention to 
Miga Strickland's mistake, but to invite discussion 
to the point where this pedigree may be possibly 
faulty. I will not say " all ancient heralds," but 
some heralds, at least, of acknowledged reputation, 
viz. Nicolas, Collins, and Dugdule*, have stated 
that the wife of Sir Philip Wentworth was a 
daughter of Roger fifth Lord Clifford. If (his be 
so, m truth there is an end at once of the Sey- 
ffiOnr's claim to royal lineage ; for it is an un- 
doubted fact that it was the grandson of Roger 
fifth Lord, namely, John, seventh Lord Clifford, 
K.G., nlio married Uotspur's only daughter. 

" Up,_ guards, and at them .'" (Vol. v., p. 426. ; 
Tol.viii., p. 111.). — Some years ago, about the 
time that the Wellington statue on the arch at 
Hyde Park Corner was erected, I was dining at a 
table where Wyatt the artist wns present. The 
conversation turned much upon the statue, and 
the exact neriod at which the great Duke is repre- 
sented. Wyatt said that ho was represented at 
that moment when he is supposed to have used 
the words ; " Up, guards, and at them I " It having 
been questioned whether he ever uttered the 
words, I asked the artist whether, when he was 
taking the Duke's portrait, the Duke himself 
acknowledged using them ? To which he replied. 

not Bay what expression he did u 

sion. The company at dinner seemed much it 

Pcnnycomequick (Vol. viii., p. 113.). — A similar 
story to that relaled by your correspondent Mr. 
Hele is told of FiUmouth. Previously to its being 
incorporated as a town by Charles II., it was called 
Smtkick, from a smith's shop, near a creek, which 
extended up Ihe valley. The old Cornish word 
ick signifies a "creek ;" and as it became a village it 
was called " Penny com equick," which your corre- 
spondent H. C. K. clearly explains. The Welsh 
and Cornish languages are in close affinity. The 
name " Penny com equick" is evidently a corrupted 
old Cornish name: see Pryce's .Irrftco/o^ta Com» 
Brilannica, v. "Pen," " Coomb," ond " lek," Uie 
head of the narrow valley, defile or creek, It has 
been thought by some to mean " the head of the 
cuckoo's valley; and your correspondent's Weldi 
derivation seems to countenance such a translation. 
The cuckoo is known in Scotland, Wales, and 
Cornwall as " the Gaick Gmieh." Ma. Hble, 
perhaps, will be amused at the traditional story 
of the Falmouthians respecting the origin of 
Penny comequick. Before the year 1600, there 
were few houses oti the site of the present town; 
a woman, who had been a sei-vant with an ancestor 
of the late honourable member for West Cornwall, 
Mr. Pindarves, came to reside there, and that 

fentleman directed her to brew some good ale, as 
e should occasionally visit the place with his 
friends. On one of bis visits he was disappointed, 
and expressed himself angry at not finding any ale- 
It appeared on explanation that a Dutch vessel 
came mto the harbour the preceding day, and the 
Dutchmen drained her supply ; she said the Pemtg 
anae ao guiek, she could not refuse to sell it. 



Captain Booth of Stoehport (Vol. viii., p. 102.). 
— In answer to Mr. Hdgbes'b inquiry about this 
antiquary, I beg to state that he will find an 
Ordinary of Arms, drawn up by Captain Booth 
of Stockport, in the Shepherd Library, Preston, 
Lancashire. It is one among the numerous valu- 
able MSS. given by the executors of the Iota 
historian of Xancashire, Ed. Bnines, Esq., M.P., 
to that library. In Lysons' Magna j 

(volume Cheshire), your c 

indent will also 

find a mention of a John Booth, Lsq., of Twemlow, 
Cheshire, who was the author of various heraldlo 
manuscripts. It may, perhaps, be hardly necessary 
to inform Cheshire antiquaries that an almost in- 
exhaustible fund of information, on heraldry and 
eenealo^, ia to be found in tbe manuscripta of 
Kondle Holme, formerly of Chester, whioi are 

Aug. 20. 1853.] 



now preserved among the Harleian MSS. in the 
British Museum. Jattee. 

" Hurrah,'' ^c. (Vol. viii., p. 20.).— The clameur 
de Haro still exists in Jersey, and is. the ancient 
form there of opposing all encroachments on 
landed property, and the first step to be taken hj 
which an ejectment can be finally obtained. It 
was decided in Pinel and Le Gallais, that the 
clameur de Haro does not apply to the opposal of 
the execution of a decree of the Royal Court. 

It is a remarkable feature in this process, that 
it is carried on by the crown ; and that the losing 
party, whether plaintiff or defendant, is mulcted 
in a small fine to the king, because the sacred 
name of Haro is not to be carelessly invoked with 

See upon the subject of the clameur, Le Geyt 
sur les Constitutions, etc, de Jersey, par Marett, 
vol. i. p. 294. M. L. 

Lincoln's Inn. 

I do not think that the explanation of these 
words, quoted by Mr. Beent, is much more pro- 
bable than that of " Hierosolyma est perdita." In 
the first place, if we are to believe Dr. Johnson, 
hips are not sloes, but the fruit or seed-vessels of 
the dog-rose or briar, which usually go by that 
name, and from which it would be difficult to 
make any infusion resembling wine. In the next 
place, it will be found, on reference to Ben Jon- 
son's lines " over the door at the entrance into the 
Apollo" (vol. vii. p. 295., ed. 1756), of which the 
distich forms a part, that it is misquoted. The 
words are, — 

" Hang up all the poor ^op-drink crs, 
Cries old Sym, the king of skinkers;" 

the hop or ale-drinkers being contrasted with the 
votaries of wine, " the milk of Venus," and " the 
true Phoebeian liquor." Is it not possible, after 
all, that the repetition of, " Hip, hip, hip," is 
merely intended to mark the time for the grand 
exertion of the lungs to be made in enunciating 
the final " Hurrah !" ? Cheverells. 

Detached Belfry Towers (Vol. vii., p. 333. ; 
Vol. viii., p. 63.). — The bell-tower at Hackney, 
mentioned by B. H. C, is that of the old parish 
church of St. Augustine. This church was rebuilt 
in the early part of the sixteenth century, which 
is about the time of the present tower ; and when 
the church was finally taken down in 1798, the 
tower was forced to be left standing, because the 
new parish church of St. John-at-Hackney was 
not strong enough to support the peal of eight 
bells. H. T. Grifeith. 


Blotting-paper (Yol.Ym., p. 104.). — I am dis- 
posed to agree with Speriend in thinking Carlyle 
must be mistaken in saying this substance was not 

used in CromwellV time. The ordinary means for 
drying writing was by means of the fine silver 
sand, now but rarely used for that purpose ; but 
I have seen pieces of blotting-paper among MSS. 
of the time of Charles I., so as to lead me to think 
it was even then used, though sparingly. This is^ 
only conjecture ; but I can, however, establish its 
existence at a rather earlier date than 1670. In 
an "Account of Stationery supplied to the Receipt 
of the Exchequer and the Treasury, 1666 — 1668," 
occur several entries of " one quire of blotting- 
paper," "two quires of blotting," &c. Earlier 
accounts of the same kind (which may be at the 
Rolls House, Chancery Lane) might enable one to 
fix the date of its introduction. J. B — t» 

The following occurs in Townesend's Preparative 
to Pleading (Lond. 12mo. 1675), p. 8. : 

** Let the dusting or sanding of presidents in books 
be avoided, rather using Jine brown paper to prevent bhi- 
ting, if time of the ink's drying cannot be alloured ; for 
sand takes away the good colour of the ink,* and getting 
into the backs of books makes them break their 

From this passage it may be inferred, that fine 
brown paper, to prevent blotting, was then rather 
a novelty. C. H. Coopeb. 


Biddies for the Post- Office (Vol. vii., p. 258.),— 
The following is an exact copy of the direction of 
a letter mailed a few years ago by a German living 
in Lancaster county. Pa. : 

" Tis is fur old Mr. Willy wot brinds de Baber in 
Lang Kaster ware ti gal is gist rede him assume as it 
cums to ti Pushtufous." 

meaning — 

** This is for old Mr. Willy, what prints the paper in 
Lancaster, where the jail is. Just read him as soon as 
it comes to the Post- Office." 

Inclosed was an essay against public schools. 



Midciher (Vol. viii., p. 102.).— I beg to inform 
Mr. Wardb that in the printed Key to the Dis- 
pensary it is said, " *Tis the opinion of many that 
our poet means here Mr. Thomas Foley, a lawyer 
of notable parts." T. K, 


Although, like Canning's knife-grinder, we do not 
care to meddle with politics, we have one volume on 
our table belonging to that department of life which 
deserves passing mention, we mean Mr. Urquhart's 
Progress of Russia in the West, North, and ^outh, ly 
opening the Sources of Opinion, and appropriating the 



[Wa I9d. 

CkmmeU of Wealth and Power, whicb those who differ 
nott widely from Mr. Urqubart will probably deem 
worth reading" at a moment when all eyes are turned 
towards St. Fetersburgh. It is of course a knowledge 
of the great interest ererywhere felt in the Russian- 
Turkish question, which has induced Messrs. Longman 
to reprint in their TVave&r'a Library, in a separate 
form and with additions, Turkey and Chrutendom, an. 
Sietorieal Sketch of the Relations between tho Ottoman 
Empire and the States of Europe. 

The Rev. R. W, Eyton announces for publication 
by subscription Antiquiliee of Shropshire, which is in- 
tended to contain such accessible materials as may 
serve to illustrate the history of the county during the 
first two centuries after the Norman Conquest, though 
that period is not proposed as an invariable limit. The 
pre&ee to the first Number will give an account of the 
public authorities which the author has consulted* as 
well as of the materials which have been supplied or 
promised by the kindness of individuals. Each Number 
will contain six sheets (96 pages), and will be accom- 
panied by maps or illustrations referable to the period. 
Each fourth Number will include an Index. TTie 
first part will be put to press as soon as 200 Subscribers 
are obtained, and the number of copies printed will be 
limited to those originally subscribed for. 

We are again indebted to Mr. Bohn for several 
valuable additions to our stores of cheap literature. In 
his Standard Library he has published two volumes of 
Lectures delivered at Broadmead Chapel, Bristol, by the 
late John Foster. In his Antiquarian Library he has 
given us the second volume of Matthew of Westminster's 
Flowers of History, translated by C. D. Yonge, who 
has added a short but very useful Index : while in his 
Classical Library we have the first volume of The 
Comedies of Aristophanes : a New and Literal Trans- 
lation from the revised Text of Dindorf, with Notes and 
Extracts from the best Metrical Versions, by W. J. Hickie. 
The present volume contains The Acharnians, Knights, 
Clouds, Wasps, Peace, and Birds. 

Fabkbubct o» t^ Dtvnnrr or Ovm Saioovb. I?t7. 

Hawardbm on the Trinity. 

Bbrriman*& Seasonable Rbvibw Op Whistom's IXgxxHaoataa. 

— ^— — SacoND Review. 1719. 
Bishop or London's LsTTEa to Incttmbbrts oir I>o»m.eonMu 

26th Dec. 1718. 
Bishop Marsh's Spbscb iir thi BEoum •¥ Loam^ Ttii Jnm^ 

Address to the SSnatb (Cambridge). 


Reply to AcADBmccs by a Friknd to Dr. KiPUNOf. MOS. ' 
Ryan's Analysis of Ward's Errata. Dubl. 1808. 
Hamilton's Letters on Roxan Catbouc Bibue. DiAi.. ms. 


Stephen's Sermon on the Personality op the Holt Ghobt. 
1736. Third Edition. 

Union op Natures. 1722. Second Edition. 

. Eternal Generation. 1723. Second Edition. 

Heterodox Hypotheses. 1784, or Second BditioB. 

Scott's Novels, without the Notes. Coiistable*» Minrature 
Edition. Tiie Volumes containing Anne of Geierstein, Be- 
trothed, Castle Dangftrous, Count Rt^ert of PBris, Fair Maid 
of Perth, Highland Widow, &c.. Red Gauntlet, St. Booaa's 
Well, Woodstock, Surgeon's Daugliter, Talisman. 

Wbddell's Voyage to the South Pole. 

Sghlossbr's History of the 18th Cbntubt, trsnslatad hf. 
Davison. Farts XIII. and following. 

Sowbrby's English Botany, with or without BappUmmDiMSf 

Dugdale's England and Wales, Vol. VIII. London, L. IWUs. 

Lingard's History of England. Second Edition, 18S3, 9th 
and following Volumes, in Boards. 

Long's History of Jamaica. 

Life op the Rev. Isaac Milles. 1721. 

Sir Thomas Herbert's Threnodta Carolinti : or, Ijmt DBjr 
of Charles I. Old Edition, and that of 1813 by Nicol. 

Sir Thomas Herbert's Travels in Asia and Apeica. FoUq. 

Letters op the Hbrbbrt Family. 

Bishop Morley's Vindication. 4to. 1683. 

Life op Admiral Blake, written by a Goitlenan bred in hii 
Family. London. 12mo. With Portrait by Fourdrinier. 

OswALDi Crollii Opera. Genevae, 1635. I2mo. 

Unheard-of CraiotiiTiBs, translated by Chilmead. London* 
1650. 12mo. 

Beaumont's Psyche. Second Edition. Camb. 17t)3. IbL 



Howard Family, Historical Anecdotes of, by Charles 

Howard. 1769. 12mo. 
Tookb's Diversions op Purley. 
KucBS PaiLosoPHiCiB, by E. Johnson. 
Paradise Lost. First Edition. 
ShalRpe's (Sir Cutbbert) Blmhoprick Garland. 1834. 
Lashley's York Miscellany. 1734. 
Dibdin's Typographical Antwuities. 4to. Vol. IL 
Bayley's Londiniana. Vol. II. 1829. 
The Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity Justified. 1774. 


Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wttnted are reftsesM 

to send their names. 

%* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage fTee, 
to be sent to Mr. Bell, Publisher of ** NOTES AND 
QUERIES." 186. Fleet Street. 

HiAitti t0 C0rre]!^0ti:^entfr* 

A Constant Reader rs informed that the line ** Tempora ma- 
tantur,'* &c., is from Borbonhts. See ** N. & Q.,** Vol. Li, pp. 934. 

Verus has misunderstood our Ni^b:e. Omr o^^eef tMU <a 
ascertain where he had found the Ltmn lines which farmed the 
stdffect of his Query. 

J. O. J. H. wotUd be obliged if our correspondent J. O. ( " N. 
& Q.,'* Vol. v., p. 473., May 22, 1852) would say how a tetter may 
be forwarded to him. 

** Notes and Queries ** is published at noon on Pridmg, ta^Uud 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies i» that night's paarceis, 
and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday, 

Now ready, Volume T., royal 8vo. cloth, price 


ANDERING JEW. Embracing a Period 
of nearly Nineteen Centuries. 

**A narrative derived from and illastratiye 
off ancient hbtory. penned in a free and vieorous 
■Kyle, and abounding in traits whidi make the 
etadf ot the past a positive pleasure. It is in- 
ibnned by a larsre and liberal spirit, it is en- 
dowed with good feeling and good taste, and 
eaanot fkil |o make a deep impression iqton the 
Ceneral mini."— Obaerver. 

Regent Street. 

Just published, 

TAIN ; with some other Communications 
made to the ATinnni Meeting of the Archsao- 
logical Institute, held at Bristol in 1851. Price 
21«. } or, to those who haTe subscribed befine 
Publication, 16s. 
London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 

Now ready, Two New V<dnmea (pritoe S8s. 
doth) of 

and ttie Conrts at Westminster. Br 


Volume Three, 1272 — 1S77. 
Volume Four, 1377—1485. 

Lately published, price 28s. clotii* 
Volume One, 1066—1199. 
Volume Two, 1 199 — 1272. 

**A hook which is eaeetdiaXbr mmnd and 
truthfiil, and must therefore take ita stand hpi 
the permanent liten^we of oar eoluifeij."-. 

London : LONGMAN ft GO. 

Aim. 90. 1853.] 


± Tias.ssB.rovasEas.ka.-BjtWY. IT kascm AUDASSUirraocsKTY, JLJ Ar 

'*''^'^*"^ -^^ — ' llul of CDqjtdwD I lA^ EtpMulDTifl 

iBABICA FOOD, IM f t sK rt. Kwl Lirtn ud Mil- lort tftllimB 

A .*-» . H.S.BIi*bHI,I:«. T Ori-en,Etai. nS'^fH-oAnrT W^Snobdl I 

Cim, No. 71. o(dnp«^«j IVom llK » 
IIOD. lu Lord BUiut de Dmei ]— ^ I_tLfcn_i 

^d^iraliliim. HilhfnHw Bl8 
tbcH lino.— SnuTm Skii^"' 




,». -MS'" 














»— ■- 


TW IBIli ft pmoil 1^ lUrtf tD(A out ■ PDlldr 

Ittr unaz., ait ■■■bbI ■umant Ibr whJidk b 
W. u. S(/. 1 hi IMT ht Eat ttIA hi bmdnu 
iaH.IIAU.1 tall ihivnatiMulfparoi^ 

— I. UK. ulM N Uh Fsltor, alnmt ■• miiC 


li^ M tUHr •Hmlh nOBIidlBt to Ufht. 


So HuAT > Cih.n. Si^l Blr»l,IaindDih' HEAXi 
blAill,uiUimCiiiMeiniiiiciie«uAK. DUh 




[No. 199. 


■t tbi OsJnnlli et 



r D-'ritt'i^ARTur-; 


JAMBfaURKE. Eiq."'' °°' ™' ' 


DR. WJI. SMITH'S DICTION- b"/'""''' 



14 Luirer Wark. CHhaph EdlOim. vilh 100 


Turnips. Loll WmIoi 

Hr.Legard TorkiKlra Aplotiltl^ 




B.' PhlUn r£fi- O-rf™. iliirli iMe. Smiltiflelil. ud liTornot* 
D) i-ai.ip ueii- pri,,, ,iii,roli.nnfniniUnPot»to.Hi>n.fl»T, 
B; Hnnh 0>™ "^'' ^>>i>>*r' Birk, Waul, and Seed lit ■Jkrtfc 



A CATALOGUE of a particn- 

BOOK8 In BuUdi HktoTT. TopociwitLr. Ad- 

(b* iwbliiK* at Uia OrWiid ' Bub- K:' 

THE PRACTICE OF PHO- iraj«^*g]yfi[^^™M?ji^^ 

y Oh QiMntm iimiimllT, sad Net SnhKriben 
niAr itm hKT« the VrDrtiftWA thcdooiwuca- 

3[Mrt' •nbterlntLon. TheOAMwIa of "S&M. 
BON'." vablbii^ fbr th« uvent rt^r, li ua* 








** ixnien found, make a note of." — Captain Cuttlb. 

No. 200.] 

Saturday, August 27. 1853. 

C Price Fourpence. 

I Stamped Edition, S^ 

t^OTBR : — 



The English, Iribh, and Scotch Knights of the Order of 

St. John of Jerusalem, by William Wlnlhrop - - 189 

Diiport's Lines to Izaak Walton - - - - 193 

tihakspearo CMrrespondencc*, by C. Mansfield Inglcby, 
James Cornish, ike. ..... 193 

Minor Notes : — Sir Francis Drake — Similarltv of Idea 
in St. Luke and Juvenal — Sincere — Epitaph 'in 
Appleby Ctmrchyard, liCicestershire - - -196 

<2(^GRIB8 : — 

The Crescent, by W. Robson 

. 19G 

JBIiNOR QuEHiBS : — The Hebrew Testament — Dr. 
Franklin — Flemish Refugees— " Sad are the rose 
leaves " — References wanted — Tea-marks —William 
the Conqueror's Surname — Old Saying— To pluck 
a Crow with One — *' Well's a fret " — Pay the Piper 

— Greek Inscription upon a Font, mentioned by 
Jeremy Taylor— Acharts — Attainment of Maiority— 
>lartman's Account of Waterloo _ Henry Chicheley, 
Archbishop of Canterbury— Translation of Atheneeut 

— Passages from Euripides — Anderson's Royal Gene- 
alogies .-.---- 

']Ml.iGELLANB0U8 '. — 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to Correspondents 
Advertisements . . . 


Minor Queries with Answers : — Louis le Hutla - 199 

S^KPUBs: — 

Bee- Park — Bee- Hall 199 

Milton's Widow, by J. F. Marsh and T. Hughes - 200 

J'cculiar Ornament in Crosthwalte Church • - 20) 

Curious Mistranslations, by Henry H. Breen - - 2Ul 

♦• To speak in lutestring." by the Rev. W. Eraser - 202 
vBurial in Unconsecrated Places, by Wm. T. Hesleden 

and R. W. Elliot 202 

Photographic Correspondbncb:— Mr. Muller's Pro- 
cess-— Detail ou Negative Paper — Ammonlo-nltrate 
of Silver • - - - - - - 203 

Heplies to Minor Quebies: — "Up, guards, and at 
them I " — German Heraldry — The Kye — Canute's 
Point, Southampton — Symon Patrick, Bishnp of Ely: 
Durham: Weston — Battle of Villers en Couch6 — 
•Curious Posthumous Occurrence— PasHuge In Job — 
'St. Paul and Svneca — Haiilf naked — Books chained 
•to Desks in Churches — Scheltrum— Quarrel — Wild 
Plants, and their Names — Jeremy Taylor and Chris, 
topher Lord Hatton — Burial on the North Side of 
Churches — Rubrical Query — Stone Pillar Worship 
— - Bad — Porc-pisee — Luwbell — Praying to the West 

— Old Dog— Contested Klections — " Rathe" in the 
Sense of "early "—Chip in Forrit«ge — " A saint in 

'crape is twice a saint in lawn " — Gibbon s Library : 
West's Portrait of Franklin — Derivation of " Island" 

— Spur— On the Use of the Hour-glass in Pulpits — 
Selling a Wife — Impossibilities of History — Lad and 
Lass — Enough ....-- 204 

- 210 
. 210 
. 210 

VoL.VIir. — No.200. 


For the following list of the English, Irish, and 
Scotch knights of the Order of St. John, who are 
mentioned in the records of this Island when 
under its rule, I am in a great measure indebted 
to Dr. Vella, who, after having made at my re- 
quest a diligent search through very many old 
volumes and manuscripts, has kindly favoured me 
with the result of his labours. The names of the 
knights and places mentioned in this Note are 
written, in every instance, as Dr. Vella and my- 
self have seen them recorded. Before commenc- 
ing with the list, I have a few remarks to offer, 
that the terms peculiar to the Order which I shall 
make use of may be understood by those of your 
readers who are unacquainted with its history. 

The English tongue comprised the priories of 
England, fieland, and Scotland, and thirty-two 
different commanderies. Its property, which was 
seized by Henry VIIF. in 1534, was afterwards 
restored by Queen Mary, and finally and effec- 
tually confiscated by Elizabeth in the first year 
of her reign. Her Majesty's order for the seizure 
of the Irish estates was duted on the 3rd of June, 
1559, and addressed to William Fitzwilliam. 
Vide the " Diplomatic Code of the Order," and 
Rymer, vol. xv. p. 527. 

Although Dr. Vella and myself had every wish 
to classify the knights of the English tongue 
under their different languages, still we have 
failed in our first attempt, and to enable us to 
succeed we must ask for assistance from your cor- 
respondents in England. Tbey must be known 
by their names ; thus, for instance, the Dundas*s of 
1524 and 1538 were as evidently of Scotch, as the 
Russells of 1536, 1537, and 1554 were of English 
descent. We might apply the same remark to 
many other knights whose names will be found 
recorded in the Ujllowing list. 

Whenever a vacancy occurred by the death of 
a grand master, who was always a sovereign 
prince, the election for bis successor could only- 
take place in the convent. It was not necessary that 
the person elected should be present. Villiers De 



£No. 200. 

L'Isle Adam was residing m France in 1521, when 
his brethren at Rhodes made him their chief. The 
grand priors, commanders, and knights, who were 
absent from Malta, whether employed in the 
service of the Order or not, had neither a voice nor 
ballot in the election ; and the more effectually to 
prevent their interference, as also that of the 
Roman pontiff, only three days were allowed to 
transpire before a successor was chosen, and pro- 
claimed as the head of the convent. 

Henry VIII. addressed L' Isle Adam as follows : 
" Reverendissimo in Christo Patri Domini, F. de 
Villers L. Isleadam, Magno Hierosolymitani Or- 
dinis Magistro, et consanguineo, et amico nostro 
carissimo." George II., as the king of a Protestant 
country, sent a letter to Emmanuel Pinto, bear- 
ing the following superscription : " Eminentissimo 
Prineipi Domino Emmanuel! Pinto, Magno Or- 
dinifi Melitensis Magistro, Consanguineo, et Amico 
Nostro Carissimo." 

Boisgelin hns stated in the first volume of his 
History of Malta, p. 194., that the — 

** King of England addressed the grand master by 
the following titles: * Eminentissime princeps consan. 
guinea et amice noster carissime.' The King of 
France gave the Order the title of * Tres chers et bons 
amis ; * and the grand master that of * Tres cher et tres 
wame cousin,' in the same style as he addressed the 
Dukes of Tuscany." 

That this note may not occupy too much space 
in your interesting publication, I would now 
merely remark that the " convent ** was known as 
the place where the grand master, or his lieute- 
nant, resided, and the *' tongue," according to the 
code of the Order, was the term applied to a 
nation. A grand prior was the chief of his lan- 
guage, who resided in his native country. A 
" Turcopolier " was the title of the conventual 
bailiff of the venerable language of England, *' and 
it took its name from the Turcopoles, a sort of 
light horse mentioned in the history of the wars 
carried on by the Christians in Palestine." The 
English knights won for themselves this high 
honour by their gallantry in the Holy Land, and 
in remembrance it ever after remained with their 
tongue. A Turcopolier was the third dignity in 
the convent, and the last knight who enjoyed it 
was Sir Richard Shelley, Prior of England. At 
bis decease the grand master assumed the title for 
Itimself. The two interesting letters addressed 
by Sir Richard Shelley to Henry VIII., in which 
he complained of his majesty's treatment to the 
Order of St. John, and pleaded in its favour, were 
published in the English language, and five years 
ago were to be seen in the government library of 
this island. But, on my asking a short th»e ago to 
refer to them, I regretted to find that they had 
been taken from the library by a genHeman who 
was well introduced to the librarian, afid whose 
eondaet in this, and some other tranBactioiis where 

valuable l)ooks are concerned, cannot be too 
strongly condemned. Before returnins? from this 
brief digression to the subject of my Note, might 
I ask if these letters are known in England, and 
whether copies could be easily procured for a 
friend who is desirous of having them inserted in 
a forthcoming publication? 

The Knights of St. John being members of a 
masonic institution, termed each other brothers, as 
is customary with members of the craft at the 
present time. And it may not be out of place to 
remark that several of the chapels, churches, and 
fortifications of !Malta are ornamented with, ma- 
sonic signs and emblems, which have been several 
times referred to, and cleverly explained within 
the last three years in different numbers of the 
Masonic Quarterly Review* Those of your 
readers who take an interest in masonry may 
peruse these papers of a distinguished mason, now 
stationed in the West Indies, with instruction and 

Boisgelin has recorded in the first volume of his 
History of Malta, p. 182., that the Order of St. 
John of Jerusalem ** might with propriety be con- 
sidered as being at the same time hospitaller, re- 
ligious, military, republican, aristocratical, mon- 
archical," and lastly, as if these different terms, 
which, without his explanation, would appear to 
be incorrect as applying to one institution, were 
not suflScient, he has added in a note, that in the 
last days of its existence it might also have been 
called democratical. He has stated that it was — 

** Hospitaller, from having hospitals constantly open 
for the reception of the sick of all coimtries and re- 
ligions, M'hom the knights attended in persMi. Re- 
ligious, because the memhers took the three vows of 
chastity, obedience, and poverty, whicili last eonsisted 
in havinj( no property independent of the Order at 
large, aad on that account the Pope was their superior. 
Military, from being constantly armed, ffid always at 
war vith the infidels. Republican, as their chief was 
chosen from anr>ong themselves, and could not enact 
laws, or carry them into execution, without their con- 
sent. Arifitocratical, since none but the k»i^fats and 
grand master had any share in the legislartive and ex- 
ecutive power. Monardiical, from having a superior 
who could not be dispossessed of his dij^raty, and iras 
invested with the right of sovereignty over the subjects 
of the order, together with those of Malta and ite de- 
pendencies. And lastly, Democratical, from the in- 
troduction of a language which did not reijiiire any 
proofs of nobility.** 

Before taking leave of Boisgelin, it should be 
recorded that he was a Knight of Malta ; and his 
history, one of the best now extant., appeared in 

* The language to which Boisgelin re&rs, warn that 
of England. A iexv years afler the Reformation, and 
in 15^5^ the council decreed that it was no longer re- 
quired for those who joined the English tongue to be 
noblemen. Vide fol. 35. 

AtJG. 27. 1853.] 



ihoee troubled tim«s, wlien lie hoped bj eondli- 
ating all gavenimeixts, to see his Order again re- 
stored. Inflaenced in fill tbii^s by thk hope, 
yain os it was, his Btatemests diouki be received 
with some grains of allowance. 

Before calling attention to the following list, I 
have to state that a knight could not becoane a 
commander before he had made four cruises in 
the galleys, or served five years in the convent. 
He had also to remain three years a commander 
before he could claim a pension. Those knights 
who are known to have been at Malta will be dis- 
tinguished by a t- 


f Aylmer, Sir George - - - . 
Commander of Holstone. 

Adfil, George ----- 
Albrit, Oliver - - - - . 


Bouth, John - - - - - 

Turcopolier, killed at the siege of Rhodes. 

Blasly, Robert - - - - - 

Boydel, Edward - - - - - 

fBabttngton, John - - - - - 
Bailiff of Agaila, Commander of Dslbj. 

tBabington, Philip - - - - - 

jBelingham, Edward - - - - 
Commander of Dynmore. 

fBalfard, Richard - - - - - 

fBrown, Edward - - - - - 

f Broke, Richard - - - - - 
Commander of Mount St. John. 

Boydel, George - - - - - 

Boydel, Roger - - - - - 

fBentham, Anthony - - - - 

Boyse, Andrew - - - - - 


Corbet, William - - - - 
Commander of Templebruer. 

Cane, Sir Ambrose - - - 

Chanure, John - - - - 
Campledik, Tihomas ... 
Commander of 'Carbr&ke, 

Chambers, Sir James - - - 


Deston, Claude . - - . 

Docray, Thomas - . - . 
Prior of the English tongue. 

T)undas, George - - . - 
Commander of Tarfichin in Scotland. 

•fDingley, Thomas - - - - 




- 1526 

- L529 

- 1531 

- 1531 

- 1531 

- 1531 

- 1531 

- 1531 

- 1532 

- 1533 

- 1536 

- 1588 

- 1522 

- 1525 

- 1525 

- 1529 

- 1533 

- 1522 

- 1523 

- 1524 
. 1531 

fDundas, Alexander .... 1538 
Dudley, Gewge - - - - . 1546 
Received in the Order at Malta tn 1545. 

Edward, George - ... - 1525 
•fEluyn, Edmund ... - - 1545 
Received in the 0*der at Malta in 1545. 


Fairfax, Nicholas 1522 

Commander of T«mp1e Combe. 

Fitzmorth, Robert .... 1527 
Fortescue, Adrian .... 15^ 

This brave knight perished on the iBcaffi»ld in Eng- 
land at the time of the Reformation (vide 
*'N.& Q.," Vol. viL, p. 628.); was enrolled among- 
the Saints ; and his portrait, with a sprig of palm 
in the hand, as an emblem of his martyrdom, is 
now to be seen in one of the chapels of St. John's 
Church at this island. The 8th of July is the 
day now observed in commemoration of his suf- 
ferings, and of those who suffered with him. 

Fortescue, Nicholas - . - - 1638 
This nobleman, of the same family as die preceding, 
was received in the Order on bis own urgent ap- 
plication ; and with the hope that, by bis assist-^ 
ance, the English language would be restered. 


- 152a 

Golings, Thomas - - - - 
Commander of Bbdisford. 

tGonson, Sir David - - - - 1533 

The last lieutenant of the Turcopolier at Malta. 

fGerard, Sir Jlenry - . - . 1541 
Glene, Lewis - - . - - 1^55 


Hyerton, George - 

Hall, Thomas 
fHa-lison, James 

Hufisey, Edmund - 

Hussey, Nicholas - 

HiU, Edward 
■fHoi'nehill, Thomas 


- 1523 

- 1S36 

- 1526 

- 1528 

- 1531 

- 1531 

- um 


Irving, James - - . - . 

Solely by the strenuous exertions of this knight it 
was decided, in a general chapter held in l£69f 
that the Scotch should enjoy the s»me dignities 
and emoluments whidi bad been <previeusly 
granted to the English and Irish knights. 

Jones, William 


Laytcm, AznJwxMe - 
Commander ef Beveriy. 

- 1522 

- 1627 



[No. 200. 

Layton, Cuthbert 
Lyndesey, Walter 
Lambert, Nicholas 

Mobysteyn, John - 

- 1528 

- 1532 

- 1538 


- 1526 

Capellano, and Chancellor, of the Provincial Chap- 
ter of the English Language. 

Massinbert, Oswaldus - - - - 1527 


Newport, Thomas - - - -1528 

Bailiff of Aquila, and Commander of Newland. 

Nevil, Richard 1528 

Commander of Willington. 

Newton, Thomas 1529 

- 1536 

Newdegatt, Donston 


Ozis, John. 

On the 1 6th of March, 1 533, this knight obtained 
permission to return to England. Vide fol. 1 68. 


Pole, Alban - - - - 

Commander of Mount St. John. 

Philip, Thomas - - - - 

Plunket, Nicholas - - - 

Pool, George - - - - 

Pool, Henry . - - - 

Pemperton, Thomas - - - 
Commander of Mount St. John. 

- 1520 

- 1521 
. 1527 

- 1531 

- 1531 

- 1533 



Ransom, John (Senior) 
Prior of Ireland. 

Roberts, Nicholas - - - - 1522 

Roche, Edward 1527 

Ransom, William ----- 1527 

tRoger, Anthony ----- 1533 

fRansom, John (Junior) - - - 1533 

tRussell, Philip 1536 

fRuBsell, Anthony ----- 1537 

•(•Russell, Egidius ----- 1554 

Governor of the city, and Captain of the forces. 


Sheffield, Thomas - 
Commander of Beverly. 

Sand, George 
f Sandiland, James - 
Sutton, John 
Salisbury, William 
fStarkey, Oliver - 

- 1521 

- 1528 

- 1530 

- 1530 

- 1537 

- 1555 

Confidential secretary of La Valetta, and buried in 
St. John*s Churchy at the foot of his tomb. 

tShelley, Sir Richard - - - - 1566 
Prior of England, and last Turcopoltefr of his lan- 
guage. On the 25th of June, 1567, Sir Richard 
obtained permission to dispose of his property as 
he wished. 

fShelley, James ----- 1566 

j-Shelley, John 1582 

fStuart, Fitzjames 1689 

A natural son of James IL A letter is now exist- 
ing in which this monarch requested the Grand 
Master to receive his son as Grand Prior of the 
English language, if it should be agreeable Co the 
will of the Pope. It may be noted that the 
Germans were the only knights in the Convent 
who would never admit a natural son of a noble 
or monarch among them. 

Theril, William 
Tyrell, William 

- 1533 

- 1535 


Urton, George ----- 1523 
Upton, Nicholas ----- 1536 

Turcopolier, and greatly distinguished in July, 
1551, when, at the hesd of thirty knights and 
four hundred mounted volunteers, he very gal- 
lantly repulsed Dragufs attack on the island. 
Returning to the convent he died of his wounds. 
On the 20th of June, 1565, Dragut fell mortally 
wounded in the famous siege of Malta, and the 
point where he was killed still bears hb name. 
His scimetar is now to be seen in the Maltese 


Wagor, John - - - . - 1523 
Weston, Sir William - - - - . 1525 

A brief historical description of Sir William 
Weston's sufferings, decease, and burial will be 
found in the second volume of Sutherland's 
Kniyhts of Malta, p. 115., which appears to be a 
correct translation from Vertot's Wsiory of the 
Order.— Vide « N. & Q.," Vol. vil, p. 629. ; and 
Vertot, lib. 10. 

Wyhtt, Sir Rowland - - - . 1528 
West, Clement - - - . . 1532 

This knight was a Turcopolier, and never placed 
his signature to a document without writing im- 
mediately above it " As God wills." 

Wise, Andrew ----- 1593 

Nominally Prior of England in 1598. Being re- 
duced to the greatest extremity, the Roman 
Pontiff decreed that the language of Castile and 
Leon should allow him out of its revenue a 
thousand ducats a-year. The Spanish knights 
objecting to pay this sum, there was a trial 
before the Grand Master to enforce it ; a report 
of which is now in the Record Office. Tiie 
Popc*s decree was confirmed. 

Aug. 27. 1853.] 



In looking through the records of the " English 
tongue," I have met with the name of only one 
lady, Catherine Burchier, who was prioress of 
Buckland in 1524. Any information respecting 
her history, or that of the knights whose names 
are recorded in the above list, will be most ac- 
ceptable. William AVinthrop. 

La Valctta, Malta. 


Sometime since I met with the following epigrams 
of the learned scholar, divine, and loyalist James 
Duport, written on the fly-leaf of a copy of his Muses 
SubsecivcBj seu Poetica Stromata, presented by him 
to Izaak Walton. I presume that they have never 
been printed, and that they were written inDuport's 
own hand. If so, they may be thought worthy of 
a place in the columns of " N. & Q." They will 
be read with some interest by those who respect 
Duport, and love the memory of good old Izaak 
Walton. I may add, that the autograph of I. W. 
is in the book, thus : 

"Izaak Walton", 

Given by the Author, 

so May, 1679." 

" Ad virum optimum mihique amicissimum Isaacum 
Waltonum, de Hbris a se editis, mihique doDO missis, 
nee non de vita Hookeri, Herbert!, et aliorum : 

Munera magna mihi mittis ; nee mittis in hamo 

Rex Piscatorum sis licet, atque Pater. 
Mutus ego ut piscis semper 1 nunquamne reponam ? 

Piscibus immo tuis et tibi mitto Sales : 
Sed quid pro vitis Sanctorum ? mitto Salutem ; 
Vita etenim non est vita, Salutis inops. 


J. D." 

<< Ad cundem de sua Episcopi Sanderson! Vita. 

Quern Juvenis quondam didici, Tutore magistro, 
Nunc Sandersonum, te duce, disco Senex. 

Macte nove o Plutarche Biographe ; dans aliorum 
Qui vitas, vitam das simul ipse tibi : 

Nempe erls oeternum in Scriptis, Waltone, superstes, 
Non etenitn nurunt hacc monumenta mori. 

J. Duport," 


W. H. G. 


ZacTiaridh Jackson, — "N. & Q." will not, I am 
sure, refuse to give his due to Zachariah Jackson, 
the author of Shakspeare's Genius Justified^ by 
showing to how great an extent the conjectures 
of Jackson had, by thirty-four years, anticipated 
the Notes and Emendations, I subjoin a list of the 
old corrector's emendations, which are also found 
in Jackson's work : 







Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act 11. Sc. 1, - 
Merry Wive« of Windsor, Act I. Sc. a - 
Measure for Measure, Act I. Sc, S. • - 

Ditto Ditto ActIILSc.2. . 
Taming of the Shrew, Act IV. Sc. 4. - 
All's Well that Ends Well. Act III. Sc. 1. - 
Twelfth Night, Act V. Sc. 1. - 
Winter's Tale, Act IV. Sc. 3. - - - 
Henry V., Act V. Sc. 2. 

" In telling her mind." 
" She carves" 
** Propagation of a dower." 
" What say'st thou, trot?'* 
" Except they are busied." 
** Happiness and prime." 
'• TAen cam'st in smiling." 
" So attir'd, sworn." 
" Untempering eflTect." 

" In telling ^ott her mind." 
" She craves." 
•• Procuration of a dower." 
♦* What say'st thou, troth f " 
" Except while they are busied." 
" Happiness in prima" 
" Thou cam'st in smiling." 
« So attir'd, so worn." 
" Untempting eflfect." 










Besides these nine verbatim coincidences, the fol- 
lowing four are very approximate. 

Taming of the Shrew, Induction, Sc. 2. : 

Folios. — "And when he says he is, say that he dreams." 
Collier MS. — "When he says what he is, say that he 
dreams." — Notes and Emendations, p. 142. 

Jackson.— ." And what lie says he is, say that he 
dreams." — JRestorations and lUustrations, p. 114. 

Taming of the Shrew, Act 11. Sc 1. : 

Folios.—" No such jade, Sir, as you, if me you mean." 

Collier MS — " No such jade to bear you, if me you 
mean." — Notes and Emeitdations, p. 147. 

Jackson. — ** No such jade as 5"ou, — bear ! if me you 
mean,"— Restorations and Illustrations, p. 11 9. 

1 Henry VI., Act V. Sc. 3. : 

Folios. — " Confounds the tongue, and makes the senses 

Collier MS. — " Confounds the tongue, and mocks the 
sense of touch,'* — Notes and Emendations, p. 276. 

Jackson. — " Confounds the tongue, and makes the 
senses touch,*' — Restorations and Illustrations, p. 233. 

Cymbeline, Act III. Sc. 4. : 
Folios. — . , . . " Some jay of Italy, 

Whose mother was her painting, hath betrayed him." 
Collier MS. — "Who smothers her with painting, hath 

betrayed him." — Notes and Emendations, p. 495. 
Jackson. — " Who smoother was : her painting hath be* 

tray'd him." — Restorations and Illustrations, p. 375. 

Besides these four emendations, which at any 
rate are very suggestive of those in Mr. Collier 8 
folio, I beg to caU attention to Jackson's defence 
of TheobSd's (and his own) proposition to read 
untread for unthread, in King John, Act V. Sc. 4., 
which is strikingly like Mr. Collier's defence of 
the same reading in the margin of the Folio 1632. 



[No. 200. 

The whole of Jackson^s notes on King John are 
wdl worth reading. I beg to mention two of 
these, as iHustrations of oil Jackson*s acuteness, 
when not under the warping influence of the ca- 
coethes emendandi. His defence of untrimmed 
bride, in Act IL Sc. 1., is most convincing. He 
says, — 

" Constance stimulates [Lewis] to stand fast to his 
purpose, and not to let the devil tempt him, in the like- 
ness of an untrimmed bride, to waver in his determin- 
ation ; for that the influence of the Holy See would 
strip King John of his present royalty. Where then 
would be the great dowry Lewis was to receive with 
his wife? At present he has only the promise of five 
provinces, and 30,000 marks of English coin ; there- 
fore, as the dowry has not been paid, Blanche is still 
Mt tnUrimmmi bride." — BecoUeciiona and lllustrationst 
p. 179. 

His note on the use ot invisible, in Act V. Sc. 7., 
is also excellent : 

*' Death having prayed upon the reduced body of the 
king, quits it, and now invisible, has laid siege to the 

I have elsewhere stated my opinion that -'^ all 
Jackson's emendations are bad." I should have 
added that some few are very plausible and spe- 
cious, and worthy of consideration. I will men- 
tion one in King Jokti, Act lY. Sc. 2. Pembroke 
says, — 

** If, what tit rest you have, in right you hold," &c. 

Now, rest and rigJit are no antithesis, nor are they 
allied in meaning. Jackson inserts a f between in 
and rest — 

" If, what infrest you have in right you hold," &c. — 

which lie supports by admirable parallels from the 
same play. I will cite one more example of Jack- 
son's sagacity, from his notes on 1 Henry I V., Act L 
Sc. 3. Plotspur says, — 

*' Never did hare and rotten policy," &c. 

Jackson reads, — 

« Never did barren, rotten policy," &c. 

Mr. Collier never once refers to Jackson. Mr. 
Singer, however, talks familiarly about Jackson, 
in his Shakspeare Vindicated, as if he had him at 
his fingers' eids ; and yet, at page 239., he favours 
the world with an original emendation (viz. " He 
did hehood his anger," Timon, Act HI. Sc. 1.), 
which, however, will be found at page 389. of 
Jackson's book. I may be in error, but I cannot 
but think such ignorance, on the part of profes- 
sional Shakspearians, very culpable. 

C. Mansfield Ingleby. 


On Three Pftssages in " Meam»refor Measvre.^^ 
— I have to crave a small space in your columns, 
which have already done much good service kit 
the text of Shakspeare, to aiake a very few re- 

marks on three passages in the play of Measure 
for Measure. It is no sweeping change of reading 
that I am about to advocaite, nor, as I think, any- 
thing over ingenious ; inasmuch as, in two of the 
passages in question, I propose to defend the 
reading of the first folio, which, I contend, has 
been departed from unnecessarily ; while, in the 
third, I suggest the simple change of an f into 
an s. 

In Act II. Sc. 4., these lines occur in Angelo's 
soliloquy, in my folio of 1623 : 

" The state whereon I studied 
Is like a good thing, being often read, 
Growne feard and tedious." 

Mr. Knight, and other editors, read /card, as in 
the original, but give no explanation ; though such 
a strange epithet would seem to require one. I 
propose to read seared, i.e. dry, the opposite of 
fresn. This, as the saying is, *' retjuires," I think, 
" only to be pointed out to be admitted." 

Lower down in the same scene we find the 
following passage, in one of Angelo's addresses to 
Isabel : 

** Such a person. 

Whose creadlt with the judge, or owne great place, 

Could fetch your brother from the manacles 

Ofthe all. building law." 

The word building has always been a stumbling- 
block to editors. Johnson first proposed to read 
binding, and his successors have adopted it, and 
such is now the generally received reading. Mr. 
Collier's old corrector is also in favour of the 
same change. I have always felt convinced, how- 
ever, that building was the word which Shakspeare 
wrote. That which answers to it in the A.-S* is 
bytling, hytleing, a building ; bytUem^ to bvild ,* 
which are inflected from byth, biotuL, a hammer or 
mallet (whence our beetle) ; so that the strict 
meaning of the verb is Jirmare, confirm€are^ to 
fasten, close, or bind together. This will ^ive 
much the same meaning to building as that im- 
plied in the proposed substitute binding. 

Not having met with the word used inr this 
peculiar sense by any old writer, I covdd not 
venture to maintain the reading of the folk) on 
these grounds, which I have just mentioned, aloiie. 
At length, however, I have been successful^ and I 
am now able to quote a passage from a wodc 
published very shortly before this play, entitled : 

« The Jewel House of Art and Nature," &c., ** Wth- 
fuUy and familiarly set downe according to the 
Author's owne experience, by Hugh Platte, of I4b- 
coln's Inne, geutleniaii« London, 1594." 

in which this word building is used in precisely 
the same sense as that whicn I defend. In ^ tiie 
Preface of the Author,** the following passage 
occurs : 

** I made a eondieioaall promise of some farther dis- 
couerie in arteficiall conceipts, then either mj health 

Aug. 27. 1853.] 



or leisure would then permit : I am now resolued 
(notwithstanding the vnkind acceptation of my first 
fruits, which then I feared and hath since falne out, is 
a sufficient release in law of the condition) to make the 
same in some sort absolute (though not altogether 
according to the fulnesse of my first purpose), and to be- 
come a building word unto me." 

I apprehend that this parallel instance is all 
tliat is wanting to preserve, for the future, the 
reading of the first folio unimpaired. 

The third passage on which I have a remark to 
offer, is that much tormented one in Act III. 
Sc. 1., which stands in my first folio thus : 

" Cla. The prenzie, Angelo ? 

Isa. Oh, 'tis the cunning liuerie of hell, 
The damnest bodie to inuest, and couer 
lu prenzie gardes." 

I need not say a word about the various sug- 
gestions of primzie, priestly, princely, precise, &c., 
which have appeared from time to time ; my 
business is solely with the original word in the 
first folio. I have always felt sure that this is 
none other than the poet*s own word, and no error 
of the printer ; for how could it be possible to 
make a gross mistake in a word which occurs 
twice within four lines, and one, moreover, so un- 
usual ; the printer must surely have been able to 
decipher the letters from one of the two written 
specimens. It will be observed that there is a 
comma after prenzie in the original, indicating 
that the word is a substantive, not an adjective. 
Now what is the Italian for a prince? Not only 
principe, but also prenze; and in like manner we 
find principessa and prenzessa, I have no doubt 
that what bhakspeare did write was — 

** The prenzie, Angelo ? " 

while a little lower down he converted the word 
into an adjective : 

" To inuest and couer 
In prenzie gardes." 

It is obvious to remark that this meaning of 
prenzie exactly fits the sense : Angelo was a prince, 
and he was clad in robes of ofEce, adorned with 
princely " gardes," or trappings. Shakspeare, no 
doubt, was very well acquainted with Italian 
tales and poems ; the word may have become 
quite familiar to him. His intention here, in put- 
ting the term in question into Claudio's mouth, 
may have been to give an Italian character to the 
scene, introducing thus the local term of dignity of 
the deputy; thus recalling the audience, by the 
occurrence of a single word, to the scene of the 
plot ; for though this is said to be in Vienna, yet 
it is to be observed that not a name throughout 
the play is German, everything is Italian. And 
let it not be objected that the use of this word 
involves an obscurity which Shakspeare would 
have avoided ; we are hardly able to judge, now- 
a-days, whether a particular word was obscure or 

not in his time : at all events,, there would be no 
difi[iculty in adducing instances of what we should 
call more obscure allusions, and I think there can 
be little doubt that the well-educated in those 
days well understood the Italian prenze to mean a 
prince. H. C. K. 
Rectory, Hereford. 

^^ Hamlet'* and G, Steevens. — In Act I. Sc. 4., 
Horatio asks Hamlet : *' What does this mean, my 
Lord?" (The noise of music within). Hamlet 
replies : 

" The king doth wake to-night, and takes his rouse. 
Keeps wassel, and tJte swaggering up-sprii^ reels*** 

G. Steevens, in a note of this passage, says: 
" The swaggering up-spring was a German danced 
Is not the allusion directed to the king, whom 
Hamlet describes as " a swaggering up'Spring,^ or 
" upstart f " Should not the line — 

" O horrihUt O horribhy most horrible ! ** 

in the Ghost's narrative in ih.^ fifth scene, be given 
to Hamlet ? James Cornish. 


Sir Francis Drake. — Having traversed the 
globe within three years, his travels were thus 
noticed by a poet of his day : 

" Drake, pererraii novit quern terminus orhis, 
Quemque semel mundi vidlt uterquc Polus. 
Si tacuant homines, faciant te sidera notum, 
Sol uescit comitis non memor esse sui." 


Similarity of Idea in St. Lvke and Juvenal. ^-^ 
Examples of identity of expression existing be- 
tween the Scriptures and ancient heathen writers 
have already appeared in " N. & Q." Permit me 
to add the following passages, which appear to me 
to afford an instance of similarity of idea : 

" hiyu vfjuVf Zri iky odrot, ciwirijatMriyf oi \idoi jccjcp^- 
loyroi." — Luc. cap xix. v. 40. 

*' Audis, 
Jupiter, haec, nee labra moves, quum mittere vocem 
Dcbueras, vel roarmoreos, vel aeneus? 

Juven. Sat. xiii. v. 113. 

The satirist would seem to say (taking the sor- 
tie's view), that even if Jupiter existed only la 
brass and marble, the very statues would "cry 
out " against the impious perjury. 

I drop my initials, and beg to subscribe myself 

Abch. Wsn. 

Sincere.— Trench, On the Study of Words,, 4 A 
ed., p. 197., says : 

** They would be pleased to learn tliat ' sincere ' may 
be, I will not say that it is, without wax (sine cer&}» 
as the best and finest honey sliould be.*^ 



[No. 20a 

Is not this derivation erroneous ? Sincere does 
not mean "pure, like virgin-honey;" but it ex- 
presses the absence of deception. I doubt not 
that it is derived from — 

" The practice of Roman potters to rub wax into the 
flaws of their unsound vessels when they sent them to 
market. A sincere [without wax] vessel was the same 
as a sound vessel, one that had no disguised flaw." 

So says Bushnell (God in Christ, p. 17.). The 
derivation is no novelty. I reproduce it merely 
to correct an error which is obtaining currency 
under the name of Mr. French. I should he 
obliged to any of your correspondents who would 
refer me to, or still better cite, any passages in 
the Latin classics relating to the practice I have 
mentioned. C. Mansfield Ingleby. 


Epitaph in Applehy Church-yard, Leicester' 

shire, — 

" T was a fine young man, 
As you would sec in ten. 
And when I thought of this, 
I took in hand my pen, 
And wrote it down so plain 
That every one might see ; 
How I was cut down, 
Like blossoms from a tree.** 

J. G. L. 



I shall be obliged to any correspondent of 
** N. & Q." who will point out the period at 
which the crescent became the standard of Ma- 
hometanism. Poets and romancers freely bestow 
it upon any time or scene in which Mussulmans 
are introduced ; Sir Walter Scott mentions it 
in the Talisman, but after the strange liberties 
he has taken with Saladin and Richard, he be- 
comes, on such a question, no higher authority 
than writers of meaner name. I cannot find it in 
the history of Mahomet, or in that of his imme- 
diate successors. The first time Michaud, in his 
fine Histoire des Croisades, speaks of it is in the 
reign of Mahomet II., which is many centuries 
after periods at which modern poets, and even 
historians, have named it as the antagonistic 
standard to the cross. The crescent is common 
upon the reverses of coins of the Eastern empire 
long before the Turkish conquest, and was, I have 
reason to believe, in some degree peculiar to the 
Sclave nations. Was it the standard of the Turks, 
as contradistinguished from other Saracens ? or, 
was it adopted by Mahomet II. after his conquests 
of Constantinople and the eastern countries of 
Europe? I am aware that if this last idea be 
substantiated, it will make it much more modern 
than it is generally supposed to be, but our ideas 

of everything Turkish were for so long a time 
mixed with the wonderful and the romantic, that 
we must not expect much correctness on suck 
points. The Turks came into fearful contiguity 
with the West in the fifteenth century ; Europe 
had as much to dread from them then as from tn& 
Russians now. This event and the art of printing . 
were almost cotemporary, and the crescent haa 
been presented to us as the symbol of Maho- 
metanism ever since ; but I much doubt it can be 
proved to have been so at a far remoter period. 


Stock well. 

:^ut0r ^uerierf. 

The Hebrew Testament. — Having lately com- 
pleted the above work, so as to be " ready for the 
press" without much delay, I should be glad,, 
before I resign the MS. to the hands of the 
printer, to have the advantage of the suggestions 
of those of your erudite readers who have made 
sacred criticism their study. 

MosEs Mabgolioutif.. 

Dr. Franklin. — I possess the following lines in 
the handwriting of Dr. Franklin, written in the 
year 1780. Can any of your readers tell me whe 
was the author of them, and when and where they 
were first printed ? 

" When Orpheus went down to the Regions below» 

Which men are forhidden to see ; 
He tun'd up his Lyre, as historians show. 

To set his Euridice free. 
All Hell was astonished, a person so wise 

Should so rashly endnn^^er his life. 
And venture so far ! But how vast their surprise,. 

When they heard that he came for his wife. 

** To find out a punishment due to the fault, 
Old Pluto had puzzled his brain ; 
But Hell had not torments sufficient he thought,. 

So he gave him his wife back a^^ain. 
But pity succeeding, soon mov'd his hard heart,. 

And, pleas'd with his playing so well, 
He took her again, in reward of his Art ; 
Such power had Music in Hell 1" 

G. M. R 

Flemish JRefvgees. — In the troubled times of 
the Keformation, England was not seldom the 
refuge for Flemings who, for the sake of religion,, 
abandoned their country. Among these was Mr. 
Joos Tuck, who, according to a consistorial deci- 
sion of Dec. 14, 1582, was proposed by G. Van 
Den Haute, then pastor at Sluis, to the brethren 
of the Flemish Class, since " they had taken know- 
ledge of the sound and good gifts of their brother.*' 
He left Sluis soon after, probably in July, 1583, 
and withdrew to England. I should be glad to 
learn what befell him there. 

Peter Lambert was a student'of the University 
of Ghent : though, as far as I am aware, he is not 

Aug. 27. 1853.] 



mentioned in Te Water's History of the Reformed 
Church and University in Ohent On July 21, 
1583, a student made known his wish to propose 
himself as candidate for the ministry ; and on 
August 4 appeared Peter Lambert, student of 
the University of Ghent, before the consistory, 
requesting the brethren to grant him the twenty- 
iive guilders which had been promised ; because, 
on account of the troubled state of the country, 
he wished to flee to England, on which request 
was decided : '^ Since a well-known and pious 
brother, who is compelled to flee, is in need of 
help, let the deacons and pensionary of the town 
be addressed thereon." Very probably, therefore, 
lie also took refuge in England. Can any one give 
me farther information ? — From the Navorscher, 

J. H. Van Dale. 

" Sad are the rose leaves^'^ Sfc, — Can you or 
Any of your correspondents tell me whence come 
the following lines ? — 

" Sad are the rose leaves which betoken 
That there the dead lie buried low ; 
But sadder, when the heart is broken, 
Are smiles upon the lips of woe." 

They are quoted from memory from the album of 
a lady friend. Iseldunensis. 

Wanted^ the original habitat of the following 
Sentences : 

1. " Ministerium circa, non magisterium supra. 

2. " Virtus rectorem ducemque desiderat, vitia 
5ine maffistro discuntur." 

3. "In necessariis unitas, in non-necessariis 
libertas, in omnibus charitas." 

4. " Exiguum est ad legem bonum esse." Wet- 
etein assigns this last to Seneca, Epist, 17. ; but 
there is some error. It very likely is in Seneca. 

5. "Verbum audimus, motum sentimus, prae- 
sentiam credimus, modum nescimus." Durandus 
is the author. 

6. " En rem indisnam ! nos qui jam tot annos 
6umus doctores S. Tneologise, denuo cogimur adire 
ludos literarios." Spoken by the adversaries of 

What is the eai'liest authority for the story of 
St. John and his partridge ? 

Will Mr. Bolton Coeney be kind enough to 
explain the occasion of Person's notable speech 
recorded on the last page of his Curiosities Illus" 
trated f 

His sagacity was not at fault in suspecting a 
French origin for D'Israeli*s story, p. 89. See 
Bassompi^re, in Retrospective Review^ xiii. 346. 

S. z. z. s. 

Teo'tnarks, — Accident threw in my way lately a 
catalogue of a large sale of teas in Auncing Lane ; 
nod my attention was drawn to certain marks 

against the several lots, which appeared to indi- 
cate particular qualities, but to me, as uninitiated, 
perfectly incomprehensible. In this dilemma I 
asked one of our principal brokers the meaning of 
all this, and I was informed that teas are sampled 
and tasted by the brokers, and divided in the 
main into seven classes, distinguished as follows : 


No. 2. 

No. 3. 

No. 4. 

No. 5. 

No. 6. 

No. 7. 















Can any of your correspondents tell us when 
this classincation was first introduced, or the ori- 
gin of the first two characters ? Can they be 
Chinese, and the names given from some fancied 
resemblance to the gallows, or the letter T turned 
sideways ? My friend the broker, though a very 
intelligent man, could give me no information 
whatever on these points. W. T. 

42. Lowndes Square. 

William the Conqueror'' s Surname, — Had Wil- 
liam a surname ? If so, what was it ? By sur- 
name I mean such as is transmitted from father to 
son, not the epithets he used to bestow on himself 
in documents, as " I, William the Bastard," " I, 
William the Conqueror," &c. Tee Bee. 

Old Saying, — 

** Merry be the first 
And merry be the last. 
And merry be the first of August." 

Having frequently heard this old saying, I take 
the liberty of asking, through your much valued 
paper, if any of your readers are able to tell me 
its origin P Edm. L. Baoshawe* 

Bath Literary Institution. 

To pluck a Crow with One, — It is a common 
expression in all ranks, I believe, of this country, 
to speak of ** plucking a crow " with such a one ; 
meaning, to call him to account for some delin- 
quency. Can any of your correspondents inform 
me of the origin of the phrase ? W. W. 

" WelFs afretr — When, after a short pause in 
conversation, any one utters the interjection, 
" Well ! " it is a very common practice in Not- 
tingham to say : 

** . . . . . . and \otJt9 afretf 

He that dies for love will not be hang'd for debt.** 

I have asked a great number of persons for an 
explanation, but they all use the phrase without 
any meaning. Can you, or any of your readerg, 
tell me if it liave any ; or if it be only nonsensical 
doggrel ? D£yoNiEN8i8« 



[No. 200. 

Pay the Piper, — This expression surely has a 
firm foundation. Can any of your correspondents 
trace it P W. T. M. 

Hong Kong. 

Greek Inscription upon a Font^ mentioned by 
Jeremy Taylor, — 

" This w&s Ingeniously signified by that Greek in- 
scription upon a font, which is so prettily contrived, 
that the words may be read after the Greek or after 
the Hebrew manner, and be exactly the same : 

* Lord, wash my sin, and not my face only.*" — Life of 
Christy part i. sect. 9. disc. 6., *< On Baptism," vol. ii. 
p. 235,, £den*s edition. 

Can any reader of " N". & Q.** state the bishop*8 
authority for this iugenious device ? A. Tatlob. 

Aoharis. — The following is extracted from Dug^ 
dale*s Monasticon : 

** Radulphus WiolifF armiger tenet in Wicliff duas 
partes decimarum de dominicis quondam Aeharia^ quon- 
dam ad 5. s. modo nihil quia ut dicit sunt incluse in 
parco suo, ideo ad consilium." 

What is the meaning of the term Acharis^ and 
of the passage ? It is an extract from the Bentale 
spiritualium Possessionum atque temporalium Prio* 
ratus Sancti Martini juxta Richmund in agro Eho^ 
racensi. A. W. IL 

Attainment of Majority, — ^Professor De Moboan 
will, I am sure, permit me to put this question to 

In a short treatise " On Ancient and Modern 
Usage in Reckoning," written by him for the 
Companion to the Almanac of 1850, he explains, at 
page 9., the usage of attainment of minority in 
these words : 

** Nevertheless in the law, which here preserves iho 
old reckoning^ he is of full ago on the 9th : though he 
were born on the 10th, he is of KgQ to execute a 
settlement a minutt after midnight on the morning of 
the Qth." 

I want to have this statement reconciled with the 
openinpr scene of Ben Jonson's Staple of Newsy 
where Penny boy jun. counts, as his watch strikes 
— " one, two, three, four, five, six I " — 

« Enough, enough, dear watch, 
Thy pulse hath beat enough 
— The hour is come so long expected," &o. 

Then " the fashioner " comes in to fit on' the heir*a 
new clothes ; ho had " waited below *till the clock 
struck," and gives, as an excuse, "your worship 
might have pleaded noiiage^ if you had got 'em 
on ere I could make just affidavit of the time.*' 

All these particulars are too verbatim to admit 
of doubt as to the peculiar usage of that time ; and 
firom other sources I know that Ben Jonson was 
right : but it is not alluded to in the treatise first 

mentioned, nor is it stated when the usage was 
altered to " a minute after midnight." A. B. B. 


ffartman^s Accotmt of Waterloo. — In the note 
to the 3rd Canto of Childe Harold^ Stanza 29, 
Lord Byron says : 

" The place where Major Howard fell was not far 
from two tall and solitary trees, which stand a few 
yards from cnch other at a pathway*s side* Beneath 
these he died and was buried. The body has since 
been removed to England." 

I have a copy on which one has written — 

** Hartman*8 account is full and interesttng. H« 
wa» in conversation with Miyor Howard when he was 
killed ; and afterwards gave directions for bis burial. 
Though no poet, he could describe graphically what 
he saw and did." 

The position of Hartman, and his apparent 
familiarity with Major Howard, seem to take him 
out of the herd ot writers on Waterloo; but I 
cannot learn who he was, or what he wrote. Can 
any of your readers tell me ? The note may have 
been made in mere wantonness, but it looks 
genuine. Gr. D. 

Henry Chicheley^ Archbishop of Canterbury, — 
When was Henry Chioheley, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, born ; who, Camden tells us, was the 
" greatest ornament" of Higham Ferrers P I have 
seen his birth somewhere stated to have taken 
place in the year L360 ; but no day or month was 
given. I should also be glad to know to what 
extent he was a contributor towards the restoration 
of Croydon Church, the tower and porch of which 
bear his arms ? rLW, Elliot. 

Translation of Athenans, — I find| in the das^ 
sical Journal, xxxviii. 11., published in 1828, that 
an English translation of Athensous had been com- 
pleted before his death by R. Fenton, Eso^., F.R.3;, 
author of the History of Pembrokeshire, The 
writer fiu^ther says : "We have reason to believe 
that the MS. is now in possession of his son, the 
Rev. S. Fenton, Vicar of Fishguai^ in Pembroke- 
shire." Has this version, or any part of it, ever 
been published? F. J. F. Gantillon,.B.A. 

Passages from Euripides, — Rogers transli^tes 
two fine passages from Euripides : 

** There is a streamlet issuing from a rook," &o». 

** Dear is that valley to the murmuring bees," &a 

Where is the original Greek to be found P F. 

Anderson^s Royal Genealogies, — Is there any 
memoir or biographical account extant of James 
Anderson, D.D., tlie learned' compiler of that most 
excellent and valuable work bearing the above 
title, and published in London, 1732, fol. P G. 

Aug. 27. 1853.] 



Miliar ^utxiti toftg ^n^tx^. 

Louis le Hutin, — When or for what reason was 
the sobriquet "Hutin" attached to Louis X. of 
France ? And what is the meaning of " Hutin ? " 

F. S. A. 

\^Hutin is defined by Roquefbrt, brusque, emportey 
guereUeur, from the Low Latin Hutinus j and in illus- 
trating the word he furnishes the following reply to 
our correspondent's Query : " Mezerai rapporte que 
Louis X. fat surnomm^ Hutin, parceque, des son en- 
fance, il aimait A quereller et d se battre, et que oe 
sumom fut* lui donne par allusion k un petit maillet 
dont se servent les tonneliers, appele hutinet, parce- 
qu'il fait beaucoup de bruit. "3 


(Vol. v., pp. 322. 498.) 

Enjoying as we do the advantages of the ex- 
tension of scientific knowledge, and its application 
to our routine of daily wants, we are apt to forget 
that our forefathers were without many things we 
deem essentials. Your correspondents C. W. G. 
and B. B. have touched upon a curious feature of 
antiquity, wiiich science and commerce have ren- 
dered obsolete. Yet, before the introduction of 
sugar, bees were important ministers to the luxu- 
ries of the greats as mentioned at the above-cited 
pages. I was struck with the following passage in 
the first forest charter of King Henry In. : 

« Every freeman . . . shall likewise have the 
honey whieh shall be found in his woods." 

This, in a charter second only in importance, 
perhaps, to Magna Charta itself, sounds strange to 
our ideas ; modems would not think it a very 
royal boon. But the note with which Mr. R. 
Thomson {Historical Essay on the Magna Charta 
of King John^ p. 352.) illustrates this passage is 
interesting, and, though rather long, may be worth 
insertion m your columns : 

** The second part of this chapter secures to the 
woodland proprietor all the honey found in his woods ; 
which was certainly a much more important gift than 
it would at first appear, since the Hon. Daines Har- 
rington remarks, that perhaps there has been no law- 
suit or question concerning it for the last three hun- 
dred years. In the middle ages, however, the use 
of honey was very extensive in England, as sugar was 
not brought hither until the fifteenth century; and it 
w» not only a general substitute for it in preserving, 
but many of the more luxurious beverages were, prin- 
cipally composed of it, as mead, metheglin, pigment, 
and morat, and these were famous from the Saxon days, 
down even, to the time of the present charter (1217). 
In the old Danish and Swedish laws bees form a prin- 
cipal subject ; and* honey was a considerable article of 
rent in Pdland, in which It was a custom to bind anyi 

one who stole it to the tree whence it was taken. The 
Baron de Mayerberg also relates, that when he tra- 
velled in Muscovy in 1661, he saw trees there ex- 
pressly adapted to receive bees, which even those who 
felled their own wood were enjoined to take down in 
such a manner that they who prepared them should have 
the benefit of the honey. Nor was the wax of less im- 
portance to the: woodland proprietors of England, sinee 
candles of tallow are said to have been first used only 
in 1290, and those- of wax were so great a luxury, that 
in some places they were unknown : but a statute con- 
cerning wax- chandlers, passed in 1433 (the 11th of 
Henry VI. chap. 1 2.), states that wax was then used 
in great quantities for the images of saints. Only re- 
ferring, however, to the well-known use of large wax 
tapers by King Alfred in the close of the ninth cen- 
tury, it may be observed that in the laws of Hoel Dha, 
king of South Wales, which are acknowledged. as au- 
thentic historical documents, made about a. d. 940, of 
much older materials, is mentioned the right of the 
king's chamberlain, to as much wax as he could bate 
from the end of a taper." — Coke;,Manwoodi BcW' 
rington ;. Statutes of the Recdm, 

Perhaps jou will allow a few words more in 
illustration of B. B.'s Queiy (Vol. v., p. 498.). 
A recent correspondent, writing of some modem 
experiments on the venom of toads, suggests the- 
propriety of contributing to a list of "vulgar 
errors " which have proved to be " vulgar truths." 
It would not much surprise me to learn that, after 
all, the popular belief in the eflScacy of the rough, 
music of the key and warming-pan might be. 
added to his list. At all events the reason stated: 
by B. B. to prove its uselessness, viz. that bees'' 
have no sense of hearing, must; I think, be 
abandoned, as a Query of Mb. Stdket Smibkit 
(Vol. vii., p. 499.), and an answer (Vol. vii., 
p. 633.), will show. That all insects are possessed; 
of hearing, naturalists seem now as well convinoed; 
of as that they have eyes ; though some naturalists 
formerly considered they were not, as LinneeuA 
and Bonnet; while Huber (liis interesting ob- 
servations on bees notwithstanding) seems to have 
been quite undecided on the point. Bees, as welL 
as all other insects, hear through the medium of 
their antennae, which in a subordinate degree are 
used as feelers ; observing which, perhaps, Huber 
and others were indisposed to ascribe to them the* 
sense in question. 

In reference to Mb. Sydney Smibkb*s Query, 
so far from other naturalists confirming Huber*r 
observations as to the effect produced by the sound 
emitted by the Sphynx atropos on the bees, be- 
sides Dr. Bevan (quoted Vol. vii., p. 633.), the 
intelligent entomologist, Mr. Duncan, author of the^ 
entomological poHion of The Naturalises Library 
(vol. xxxiv; pp. 53 — 65.), completely disprovea^ 
them. He tells us that he has closely, watched* 
bees, and has seen the queen attack the larva cells ;. 
but the sentinels^ notwithstanding the reiteratioa- 
of the queenly sound, so far ^m remaining mo*- 



[No. 200. 

tionless, held their sovereign in check, and stub- 
bornly persisted in the defence of their charge 
against the attacks of their queen and mother. 
Besides this disproval of the incapacitation of bees 
by the emission of a sound, another from the ex- 
periments of Huber himself may be mentioned. 
He introduced a Sphynx atropos into a hive in the 
daytime, and it was immediately attacked and 
killed by the workers. Query, Might not the 
explanation of the robbery of hives by this moth 
be, that the darkness of night incapacitates the 
bees, while it is the time nature has provided for 
the wanderings of the Sphynx ? Tejb Bee. 


(Vol. vii., p. 596. ; Vol. viii., pp. 12. 134.) 

A contribution of mine to the miscellaneous vol. 
' of the Chetham Society's publications having been 
introduced to your readers by the handsome no- 
tice of Mr. Hughes, I feel bound to notice the ob- 
jection raised by your correspondent Garlichithe 
(Vol. viii., p. 134.), who has confounded Randle the 
grandfather and Randle the son of the writer of 
these letters quoted by Mr. Hunter. Richard Min- 
shuU, who was the writer of these letters in 1656, 
and died in the following year, had several sons, 
- of whom the eldest, Randle, correctly described 
by Mr. Hughes as the great-great-grandson of 
*tiie Minshull who first settled at Wistaston, had 
^«even children, of whom Elizabeth, the widow 
of Milton, was one. She was baptized at Wistaston 
on the 30th Dec. 1638. In 1680 (about six years 
after her husband's death), by means of a family 
arrangement with Richard Minshull of Wistaston, 
frame- work knitter, who, there can be little doubt, 
was her brother, evidenced by a bond in my posses- 
sion, she acquired a leasehold interest in a farm 
at Brindley, near Nantwich. On the 20th July, 
1720, by her name and description of Elizabeth 
Milton, of Nantwich, widow, she administered to 
the effects of her brother, John Minshull, in the 
Consistory Court of Chester ; and her will, the 
probate of which is also in my possession, is dated 
22nd August, and proved 10th October, 1727. Mr, 
Hughes having given a reference to the volume 
where this information will be found in detail, a 
reference to it might have saved Garltchithe 
the trouble of starting an objection, and shown 
him that, so far from the facts stated being irre- 
concilable with Mr. Hunter*s tract-, that gentle- 
man's reference to Randle Holme's Correspondence 
was suggested by a communication of my own to 
The AthetKBum, and in its turn furnished me with 
the clue from which I eventually ascertained the 

?articulars of Mrs. Milton's birth and parentage, 
am sorry to say that I have wholly failed in 
finding the register of her marriage : it is not in 
the register-book of her native place. It might 

be worth while to search the register of the 
parishes in which Milton's residence in Jewin 
Street, and Dr. Paget's in Coleman Street, are 
situate. There is no uncertainty as to the date, 
which Aubrey tells us was in " the yeare before 
the sicknesse." 

Though Cranmore (Vol. v., p. 327.) is said to be 
a deserter from the ranks of " ]N. & Q.," I hope he 
is known to some of vour readers, and that they 
will convey to him a hint that he is under some- 
thing like a promise to furnish information, which, 
as regards Dr. Paget's connexion with the poet's 
widow, will still be welcome. J. F. Marsh. 

Despite his acknowledged infidelity, I must 
tender my thanks to Garlichithe for his oblig- 
ing reference to Mr. Hunter's tract ; albeit there 
is, I may be permitted to suggest, no position 
assumed in my note upon Milton's widow which 
that tract in any way contravenes or sets aside. 
The fact is, Garlichithe, in the outset, entirely 
misapprehends the nature of my argument ; and 
so leads himself, by a sort of literary " Will-o'- 
the-wisp," unconsciously astray. 

It was not Randle the grandfather of Richard 
Minshull, writer of the two letters transcribed by 
Mr. Hunter, but Randle the eldest so7i of this 
Richard Minshull to whom I referred as the father 
of Elizabeth Milton. Nor is it possible that this 
Elizabeth could have "died in infancy," seeing 
that I possess a copy of a bond Tthe original is 
also extant) from her brother Richard, then of 
Wistaston, where he was baptized April 7, 1641, 
secured to her as Elizabeth Jafilton, dated June 4, 

As to the marriage itself, it may have taken 
place in London, wnere the poet resided; or, 
which is more probable, at or near the residence 
of their mutual friend. Dr. Paget. Milton was 
certainly not over-careful about ritual observances, 
and it is not therefore unlikely that the rigid 
Puritan preferred a private, or what is termed a 
civil marriage, to one religiously and properly 
conducted in tlie church of his forefathers. 

T. HuoHss. 

peculiar ornament in crosthwaite church. 

(Vol. viii., p. 55.) 

It is probable that these circles with eight ra- 
diations are the original dedication-crosses of the 
church. Such crosses are still to be seen painted 
on the piers of the nave in Roman Cati^olio 
churches. Durandus, describing the consecration 
of a church, says : 

** In the meanwhile within the building twelve 
lamps be burning before twelve crosses, which be de- 
picted on the walls of the church Lastlyi he 

[the bishop] anointeth with chrism the tweWe crosses 

Aug. 27. 1853.] 



depicted on the wall." — Durandus On Syn^lism, ed. 
Neale and Webb, p. 115. 

In the Pontifical, De Ecclesics Dedicatione, the 
rubric directs, — 

** Item, depingantur in parietibus Ecclesia? intrinse- 
ciis per circuitum duodecim cruces, circa decern palmos 
super terram, videlicet tres pro quolibet, ex quatuor 
parietibus. Et ad caput cujuslibet crucis figatur unus 
clavus, cui affigatur una candela unius uncia;." 

Dedication-crosses occur at Salisbury Cathedral, 
and at Uffin^ton Church, Berks, and in both cases 
on the exterior of the buildings. 

The crosses at Salisbury are seven in number, 
viz. one over each side-door at the west end, two 
on the buttresses of the north and south transepts, 
two on the buttresses of the east end, and one in 
the centre of the east wall. The number at Uf- 
fington is twelve, disposed as follows : Three under 
the east window, three under the west window, 
one under the south window of the south tran- 
sept, one under the north window of the north 
transept, one on the south wall of the nave, one 
on the north wall of the nave, one on the south 
wall of the chancel, and one in the east wall of 
the south transept. In each case the crosses have 
been of brass inlaid in the wall, with the exception 
of one, which is of stone, and of more elaborate 
design. The rationale of dedication-crosses, ac- 
cording to Durandus, is, — 

" First, as a terror to evil spirits, that they, having 
been driven forth thence, may be terrified when they 
see the sign of the cross, and may not presume to enter 
therein again. Secondly, as a mark of triumph ; for 
crosses be the banners of Christ, and the signs of his 

triumph Thirdly, that such as look on them may 

call to mind the passion of Christ, by which he hath 
consecrated his Church, and their belief in his passion," 
&c.— Page 125. 

Under these aspects the exterior would seem the 
more fitting, and may have been the original posi- 
tion of them. Perhaps Me. Elliot will inform us 
what is the number of crosses at Crosthwaite ? 



(Vol. vL, p. 321.) 

I have found, in D'Israeli*s Curiosities ofLitera' 
ture^ two or three instances in which he mistrans- 
lates from the French. The first occurs in the 
following passage in the article headed " Inquisi- 

" Once all were Turks when they were not Ro- 
manists. Raymond, Count of Toulouse, was con- 
strained to submit. The inhabitants were passed on the 
edge of the sword, without distinction of age or sex.'* 

From the words which I have marked for Italics, 
it is clear thatD^Israell translated the passage from 

some French author ; but not being aware of the 
idiomatic expression " passer au fil de Tepee," and 
that it means "to put to the sword," he trans- 
lated the words in their literal sense, which in 
English is no sense at all. 

The second example will be found in the article 
headed "Mysteries, Moralities," &c. D'Israeli 
quotes some extracts from the Mystery of Sf, 
Vennis, and concludes with the following on the 
subject of baptism : 

" Sire, oyez que fait ce fol prestre : 
II prend de I'yaue en une escuelle, 
Et gete aux gens sur le cervele, 
Et dit que partants sont sauves.*' 

which he translates thus : 

** Sir, hear what this mad priest does : 
He takes water out of& ladle, 
And, throwing it at people*s heads, 
He says that when they d^art they are saved I" 

The error of " out of" for "into" is unimpor- 
tant; but not so where he renders "partants" by 
" when they depart." The word " partant," in the 
original, is an adverb, and means "thereupon," 
"forthwith." This DTsraeli has mistaken for 
" partant," the participle of " partir :" and hence 
the erroneous construction given to the passage. 

A third sample occurs in the same article, where 
the author quotes from one of the dramas called 
Settles, a passage in which are these lines : 

" Tuer les gens pour leurs plaisirs, 
Jouer le leur, I'autrui saisir.*' 

These he translates as follows : 

** Killing people for their pleasures, 
Minding their own interests, and seizing on what be- 
longs to another.*' 

Here we have "jouer le leur," to gamble, ren- 
dered by " to mind their own interests ; " a rather, 
eq^uivocal method, it must be confessed, of accom- 
plishing that object. 

These are among the very few instances in 
which DTsraeli, by quoting from the original au- 
thorities, enables us to form an opinion as to the 
correctness of his anecdotes ; and when we con- 
sider that by far the greater proportion of these 
are drawn from French sources, there is reason to 
apprehend that they may not have always been 
given with sufiGicient fidelity. I am confirmed in 
this view by another quotation which DTsraeli 
seems to have misunderstood. He is speaking of 
the feudal custom of the French barons, according 
to which they were allowed to cohabit with the 
new bride during the first three nights after mar- 
riage. Upon this he remarks : 

« Montesquieu is infinitely French when he could 
turn thb shameful species of tyranny into a bon mot ; 
for he boldly observes on this : * C*etait bien ces trois 
nuits U qu*il fallait choisir; car pour les autres on 

202 NOTES AND QUERIES. [No. 200. 

n'auriit pai donni buueoup d'nrgenl.' Tho IcgislBtor, whilt I have BiipposeJ it to mean— to apeak u the 

in the wil, forgot the fuelingB of his henrt." echo or exnct repeater of another man's wordj. 

I have never been able to conceive wbat mean- Where cnn instances be found of the Duke of 

ing D'laraeli could bavc attached to this quotation Grafton's using this expression, which Fhilo- 

from Montesquieu, so as to tortum it inlo a 6o« Junius ridiculusf W. Fusu. 

mot. Not onlj Is tliere nothing of tlio kind in the Tor>Mo1iun. 

words ho quotes, but there is not even an attempt . 

at it. Tho writer merely suggests a reason for tlie ^^ 

S reference given to the first three niglits ; and in noRiii. in rKCONSBCRATBD riMima. 

oing so he expi-esaes tlio sentiments of the barons, /y^] ^; posstnt 1 
and not his own. And yet, it is upon this strange 

misapprehension of Monteninieu's meaning, that So inony interostbg noUees have been made by 

DTsraeli lays at the door of that illustrious mnn joar correspondents on the subject of peouliar 

the imputation of being " infinitely French," and intornientB, — skipping about from one part of the 

of forgetting, for the sake of a ton niol, tlie feelings country to another, and dropping down from the 

of hisheartj IIbhbt II. Bbehh. south into Lincalnshire, as if in search of far- 

St, Lucia. ^^^' instances, — that I am induced to add to the 

^__^^^ number of records, by stating the fact as to th& 

•^-~-^^ ]^(g ]yp_ Dent, of Winterton, whose body, at hU. 

"to spmak in lutestbino." particular request, was dqiosited aflar his death 

/T7„i :•.: ., ioo\ in his own garden, on the south of the honaeia. 

(.vol. 111., p. IW.) Winterton, where he not only lived but died. 

The Query on the meaning of the phnue " to Friend Jonathan, as he was Guniliarly called, 

speak in lutestring," used by Philo-iMiniut, has wassnuwof shrewd understanding, iwdpoHesHOB^ 

remained lo long without an answer, that to at- strong common sense ; yet, like othera, ha h«d hu 

tempt to give one now seems almost to require au fulinss, and amongst tiiem the amor nvmmi was 

apology. I will however do so. In Letter XL VII., cot the least obtnisirc. As a very wealthy nun he 

dated May 28, 1771, Fhilo-Junius says ; ^^ looked up to by a little aspiring community of 

"Iws. Irf to trouble you with tl,r«. ob.erv.lions '^""•'^.'■' in the nciglibourW; and.hieown drew, 

bj a p.i»ge, wliich, to ^ai fn luu,tri<,g, ' I met with ^.''<5" '" " _ bet tor suit, exhibited an appearanoe of 

e of mj roading,' i 

is connexion with that fraternity. 

whicli I mean to put a quntion to the ■dTacntca fur "^^^ Quakers had a small burial-grotind at 

piitilegf." Thcalby, in the parish of Burton-upon-Stother, 

Now we know that If twn liit^ji or nthor '^^'^ ^ ""^ 7^" "8° ^^^ '•" cunowty to in- 

»h.". chord of ooTof tfom i, .Irudt.lS 00"; ,"t f"°"' f^T""' Li"." ,'-?.,°?-i* 'l£" 

.ponding ohord of tb. olhnr „in in nni.on, r*"'iT" ' A "/"■""J.;' V'"^' *'Tl£°" 

.Id gi.; . .imilB not. i on. lotctrlng ,ill ,cbo 2° f" , k. '^'""f ^'"f\ 'T. K'°f^ 

lb. olhor. Tb. .tor, of tb. nud.n ,& b.ll.rri "'"f" m'kiM .t on. Urn. .tood . lot of oott™. 

tb,t tho .piril of l,r d..d l0T.r wu ».„• hS "'l =■?"■• ■""."■'•'' by jommon .ton. .J^ 

boi..,o li. h,rp .o.ndod ro.poniiT, not., to bra S™ '"" f' *" "»" ,"^5° "'SS -""v ■'^. 

.nd ,ho died i..rt-brok,n U.n J,o ,„ «„2 ""' " ""f ' 'f, "> "8l.»'.l -" <i» W 

clvod, i. macionlij well known. " To .pmk in ST"' ""!,' °°?V "PX?* ■'. ,'» .»?"'•''« 'f.'!;' 

IntCTlring- i, th.n to .p..k u motb.r n„n', 'J,""j'°,°, ''..""t ■■■". L -i 1 , .v u V "' 

•oho i .nd Pbilo-Juniu. b™ t.u tb, eobo of tbo "'""'" '° ''"" } V'""^ "' ""' "'%'}<'''>. ™ 

Dnk. of Gmaon, .nd u>«i ihi. rtMiri pb™, ™ ""Jj' " »»» '""^"J °^P ,"' f>o.n>ii«g 

dni,i«lj, u . f.„urit., or at !.«• w.ll- "",'.'■' ■"■ " ;•"".;"' I'* ..A'"' " » P"". 

known .,prM.ion of bi.. In . l.ttn- wbicb U ".J!" """5° ."V" °?.'r"l'"'°"' " =?» '' 'S 

upondtd 1. . noto to L.tKr XX, .nd wbioh i, "»!""« < "? '?' "f . P""."!" ,'" '"'^ ""' '"* 

S& «x dny. pr.rioa. to tb, on^ j«.l ,uot.d, °^'"' •""«»" ". "g" !■>». b."" "•» .• 

m. M.y 22,1771, bo «17.: piotl^r.Mu. .pot, b.nng tiros or fonr l.rg« trMii 

^ ' ' overlooking it. 

" But Juniu. ha. . poU .uthoril)- to .upport him. Upon nn nfter innuiry I w.a told that . funMd, 

whiih X T^ "»;. •'• 1^ f a,^^; • I «... b»i Utol, takon pl.t. Sir,, .t wbi.b Fri,nd Jono- 

JSil' " I, ,". ' ."" -°J""«.;." »• ?"""• "'.T' tb«. wa. th. prJ«ding .tUndrmt. But in pm- 

difficulty m stubbing up the strong nettles, and 

I haTe not found tho phrase " to speak in lute- digging the roots to form a decent grave ; and 

Btnng anywhere else j hot I think, from a com- it was after all to difficult to find comfbrtable. 

pariaon of these two quotations, that it must mean standing-room about the grave, that I haTB erer 

Abo. i1. 1853.] 


since concluded that Mr. Dent must have been 
disgusted ivith it, as, upon deporting their lost 
friend in the earth, he, ns spokesntsn, thought it 
unnecessary to m^e any observations, and he 
recommended that thej should at once cover the 
body up; and so it was done. 

That Mr. Dent had anv antipathy to the church 
I do not know, but that he had a great dislike to 
paying unnecessary fees I have a good recollection 
of. Before his death he requested that his body 
should be deposited in his own garden ; and his 
request was attended to by his nephew. 

After the old gentleman's death, the present 
Mr. Dent, with a praiseworthy attention, repaired 
and restored in the Elizabethan style the old 
dilapidated dwelling-house and homestead where 
his uncle lived. And I one day paid a'visit to the 
grave, which is an unpretending ridge on a well- 
mown graBs-pIat, and which, with the house and 
ground, appeared to be property attended to ; and 
so, I presume, it continues to be, 

Wu. T. Hbbledeh. 

J, H. M., in bringing forward BaskerviUe as an 
example of this unuaual occurrence, says, that " he 
directed he should be buried under a ariudmill near 
his garden." In a volume of Epitaphs, printed at 
Ipswich in 1806, once the property of Archdeacon 
Nares, end containing several MS. notes by him, 
Baskerville'a is given, with a note by tie editor, in 
which he is stated to have been "inumed accord- 
ing to his own desire in a corneal building near bis 
late widow's house." The epitaph, written by 
Baskerville himself, commences with these lines — 

Beneith this eont. in anamtecraled ground, 
A fiiend to tbe liberties of mankind directed 
His body to he inurned." 
Tbe expression in eadi case, respecting the place 
of his interment, seems scarcely strong enough for 
us to conclude it was atcimhailL Ferliaps J. H.M. 
will kindly favour me with tJie authority for his 
statement. Nares has made the following note on 
the epitaph at the bottom of the page : 

"I heard John Wilkea, after praising BaaterTille,ftdd, 
' But lie was a teirible infidel i he used to shock me I ' " 
E. W. Elliot. 

[At tbe suggestion of serenil dorrSBpondents we hare 
ropiinted rrom Tie Alitmeatn of tbe S2nd Nov. 1G51, 
the artiole detailing the new process by Mr. Muller 
n£antd to by the Rev. Ms. Sussn in our lut Number.] 

Mr. Mtdler's Process. — "The following photo- 
graphic process has been communicated to us by 
Mr. C J. Muller, from Ptttna in the £a<t Indies. 
We hare submitted it to an experienced' photo- 
gnqilier; and he informs us diat it offers many 

advantage over the Talbotype or tbe Catalisw 

a' pe of Dr. Woods, which it somewhat resembles ; 
at it is easy in all its manipulatory details, and 
certain in Its results. We give Mr. MuUer's own 

" ' A solution of hydriodate of iron is made in 
the proportion of eight or tengrains of iodide of 
iron to one ounce of water, "nuB solution I pre- 
pare in the ordinary way with iodine, irou-tummgs, 
and water. — The ordinary paper employed in pho- 
tography is dressed on one side witit a solutioa of 
nitrate of lead (fifteen grains of the salt to an 
ounce of water). When dry, this paper is iodiied 
either by immersing it completely in the solution 
of the hydriodate of iron, or by floating the leaded 
surface on the solution. It is removed after the 
lapse of a minute or two, and lightly dried with 
blotting-paper. This paper now contains iodide 
of lead and protonitrate of iron. While still moiii^ 
it is rendered sensitdve by a solution of nitrate of 
silver (one hundred grains to the ounoe) and 
placed in the camera. After an exposure of the 
duration generally required jbr Talbot's paper, it 
may be removed to a dark room. If ^e image is 
not already out, it will be found speedily to ap- 
pear in great strength and with beautiful sharp- 
ness wHlioui any farther application. The yellow 
tinge of the l^hts may be removed by a little 
hyposulphite of soda, though simple washing in 
water seems to be sufficient to Qx the picture. 
The nitrate of lead may be omitted ; and plain 
paper only, treated with the solution of the hydrio- 
date of iron, and acetic acid may be used with the 
nitrate of silver, which renders it more senaitive. 
Thelead, however, imparts apeculiar colorific efibot. 
The red tinge brought about by the lead may be 
changed to a black one by the use of a dilute solu- 
tion of sulphate of iron : — by which, indeed, the 
latent im^e may be very quickly developed. The 
papers however will not keep after being iodized.' 

" Mr. Muller suggests, that as iodide of lead is 
completely soluble in nitrate of silver, it might 
furnish a valuable photographic fluid, which could 
be applied at any moment when required. 

" No small degree of interest attaches to this 
process, originating in experiments carried on in 
C«i^^ India. It appears perfectly applicable to 
tiia albumenised glass and collodion processes." 

DetaU on Negative Paper. — I have not obserred 
before this, that any pbotomphic operator has 
"noted" the burnishing of the iodized paper 

frevious to adding the exciting solution, though 
know it b usual to burnish before taking aproof. 
This 13 a very useful adjunct to obtaining- minute- 
ness, and it is a plan I have sometimes adopted^ I 
at first thought it would injure or knock off thtt 
iodized surface, but no injury whatever arises 
from the rubbing. I use a small piece of glass 
rod, polished flat at one end, so that it may present 



[No. 200. 

a facet about half an inch square ; but I should 
imagine a better instrument might be manufactured 
with a proper handle, and some mode of obtaining 
pressure ; not obtaining sufficient is the cause of 
a little after-disarrangement if the nitrate of silver 
is laid on with a brush, but if floated the polish 

It cannot be doubted but paper is adequate to 
any detail ; and when a paper shall be manufac- 
tured of a perfect kind, there is no reason to sup- 
pose but paper generally will rival collodion tot 
most purposes. 

Nothing prevents it at present but the uneven 
surface of paper. It is very nearly perfect in the 
French negative paper; but that nas so many 
other drawbacks to its use that it cannot be safely 
depended upon. Our manufacturers have still 
some improvements to make ; for if Canson Fr^res 
bad lefl out the blackening chemical in the paper, 
it would have been better than anyof ours in my 
estimation. Weld Tatlob. 

Amnumio-nitrate of Silver. — Will any of your 
scientific correspondents explain the chemical 
cause of my inability to form the ammonio-nitrate 
of silver from a solution of nitrate of silver upon 
which albumenized paper has been previously 
floated ? Having excited some albumenized paper 
on a forty-grain solution of nitrate of silver, I kept 
the solution which had not been consumed for the 
purpose of converting it into the ammonio-nitrate. 
But on dropping in the ammonia, not only did no 
precipitate take place, but the ammoniacal smell 
which usually gives place to the tarry odour re- 
mained. No albumen appeared to be dissolved 
from the paper, and the solution had lost none of 
its silver, which I subsequently collected by means 
of having formed a chloride. Thb has occurred 
to me more than once, and I call attention to it, 
as the investigation of it may lead to some new 
results. Philo-Pho. 

" Up, Guards, and at them /" (Vol. v., p. 426. ; 
Vol. viii., pp. 111. 184.). — It will, I hope, close all 
debate on this anecdote, to state that the account 
I gave of it in Vol. v., p. 426., was from the Duke 
himself. I thought it very unlike him to have 
given his order in such a phrase, and I asked him 
how the fact was, and he answered me to the efl*ect 
I have already stated. C. 

Oerman Heraldry (Vol. viii., p. 150.). — Your 
Querist will probably And what he inquires for in 
Fursten*s German Arms, published at Nurenberg 
in folio, 1696. The plates are sometimes divided 
and bound in three or four oblong volumes. The 
work known as Fursten's German Arms was com- 
menced by Siebmacker, continued by Furst and 

Helman, and, in 1714, by Weigel. It is oftea 
quoted under these respective names ; but of later 
years, more frequently under that of Weigel's 
Book of German Arms (Weigel Wapenbuch). It 
consists of six Parts, and professes to give the 
arms of the principal nobility of the Roman king- 
dom : dukes, princes, princely counts ; lords and 
persons of position, foregone and existing, in all 
the provinces and states of the German empire. 
The Preface is by John David Kohler. G. 

In the year 1698 a book was published by J. A. 
Rudolphi, at Nurenberg, entitled Heraldica Cu- 
riosa. It is in German, a thin folio, with an in- 
numerable quantity of engravings of the arms of 
German families. J. B. 

The Eye (Vol. viii., p. 25.). — I hope that in- 
teresting question raised by your correspondent 
H. C. K., respecting the term '* apple of the 
eye," will meet with attention from some philo- 
logist. It might help to solve it, if it comd be 
discovered when the phrase first came into use 
in our language. Is it possible that the word 
" apple" is a corruption of the Latin ** pupilla ?" or 
is it, according to U. C. K.*s suggestion, that the iris, 
and not the pupil, is taken to represent an apple ? 
Doubtless your learned correspondent is aware 
that in Zech. ii. 12. the Hebrew phrase is varied, 
the word riDS being used, and occurring only in 
this passage. If Gesenius*s derivation of this word 
be correct, which makes it to signify " the gate of 
the eye," we have this idea put into a fresh shape. 
Have not the Arabs a phrase, " He is dearer to 
me than the pupil of mine eye," as well as the 
other one, "The man of the eye?" Curiously 
enough, the Greeks express this idea by another 
word than KSfnt, viz. yK-fivri (i.e. K6fnis alyfi, the 
splendour of the pupil (kin. c^yKrf), or the pupil 
itself, o<f>ea\fiov K6pi\), in which the change of signi- 
fication is exactly the converse of what it is in 
K6ftri\ viz., 1st, pupil; 2nd, a little girl; whence, 
as a term of reproach, l/o/oe koi^ yxiivn. QuissTOB. 

Canute^ s Point, Southampton (Vol. vii., p. 380.). 
— A correspondent having noticed the inscription 
on the Canute Castle Inn, Southampton, inquires 
for proof to authenticate the locality of the tra- 
dition referred to. I submit the following extract 
from a local history : 

<* Canute*s Point was a projection of the shore near 
the mouth of the Itchen, where it is supposed the cde- 
brated but much-embellished reproof to his courtiers 
was administered ; and it was preserved by a line of 
piles driven into the beach, until the construction of 
the docks, which effaced the old beach line. Of Ca^ 
nute*s Palace there are still a few remains, and the 
position fully justifies the presumption of its identity.** 

These piles were, I believe, in existence in the 
year 1836, when the act for the construction of 
the docks was obtained. Wulliam Spook* 

Aug. 27. 1853.] 


Sijmnn Patrick, Bishop of Eli/ — Durham — 
Weilon (Vol. viii., p. 103.).— , 

"Eilwatd Wcslon, A.B. 17Z3, A.M. 1727, born at 
Eton, ton of Steven Weston or 1682, Bisbop of Eieler. 
He iras secretary to Lord Townsenit at HanoTer, 
during the king's residence there in 1729. He con- 
tinued ^veral years In tlic ollice of Lord Hnrringlon 
as Becretary. He vras also Iraasmllltr (query, troni- 
ftrfor ?) of the State PapeTS,and one of the clerks to the 
Signet. In 1741 he was appointed gazetteer, a ptsce 
of considerable einolunwnt. In 1746 he was secretary 
to Lord Haningtoii, Lord- Lieu (en ant of Irclaiitl, and 
became a privy councillor of that kinititom. He pul>- 
lialied, tbough a layman, a volume v( sermons. His 
son Is nour [vii. 1797] a prebendary of Durham and 
Si. Paul's, and rector of Theitield near Royston."— 
Jiaiwood'* Alumni Etoneaiei, p. 300., under I7t9. 

Corkenhatcli must be Coekenhatcb, near Bnrk- 
way, J. H, L. 

Satile of rnicra en Couche (Vol. vjii., pp. 8. 
127.), — All autUoiitalive record of tbis action may 
be found iu — 

" An Historical Journal of tlie British Campaign 
ou Hie Continent, in the year I7<)4; nltli the Retreat 
through Holland, in the year 1795. By Captain L.T. 
Jones, of the 14lh regimenl. Dedicated, by permit 
sion. to his Royal Highness Field Marshal the Duke 
of York. Printed fur the Author. Birmingham, 

The list of subscribers contains about a hundred 
names. There ia a. copy of it in the Britisb Museum. 
The one now before mc is rendered more valuable 
by copious marginal notes, evidently written by the 
author, which are at the service of your corre- 
spondents. They funiiEh the following exlra- 
orJinary instance of personal bravery : 

" The same officer of this corps (3rd dragoon 
guards), who lore ofT the corpse of General Mansell, 
relate! $ome particulars in the nclion of the S4tl), under 
Gen. Otto : —that a man of the name of Barnes, who 
bad been unfortunately reduced from a Serjeant lo the 
ranks, had bravely advanced, doing eiecu|ion ou the 
enemy, till his retreat was foreclosed, and he w»» seen 
engaged with live French dragoons at once; all of 
these he fairly cut down, when nine more came upon 
him, whom lie faced and faitly kept at bay, till one of 

" It is not possible to describe the bravery of the 
army on that day, nearly the whole of the British 
eavalry were engaged, and gained immortal honour." 

The Duke of York's address to the army, 
publiBhcd on the 2Sth of April, thus concludes : 

" His Royal Highness has, at all times, had the 
highest confidence in the courage of the British troops 
in general, and he trusts that the cavalry will now be 

convinced that whenever they attack villi the firmneti, 
velocity, and order nhich they bliowed on this occasion, 
no number of the enemy (we have lo deal with) can 


Carious Poslhumoui Occurrence (Vol. viii., p. 5.), 
— Though the viortby grave -Jigger's account, re- 
ported by A. B. C., may be cibargeable with some 
exaggeration as to the generality of body -turning, 
and though the decomposing reason assigned may 
not be true, yet, that many dead human bodies 
are found with their faces downwards, is never- 
theless quite correct. 

WorlM are now in progress, at tlie east end of 
this metropolis, under my own immediate observ- 
ation, where this fact has been incontestably veri- 
fied. How long since, or on what occasion, these 
remains of mortality were placed there, I know 
not ; but, in the course of excavation required for 
the foundations, they are frequently met with, 
and, in many instances, in tliis strange position, 

I had couie to the conclusion, that, during some 
raging pestilence (and which may indeed again 
occur, unless an acceleration takes place in our 
wounded- snake-like motion in the way of sanitary 
improTenient), I say, it had been my impression, 
that during some such awful calamity, the anxiety 
of the uncontaninated to avoid infection bad in- 
duced them to remove their less fortunate fellow- 
creatures out of the way with so much haste as 
actually to bury Ibem alive I and in some con- 
vulsive struggle between life and death, they had 
turned themselves overt K. M. 

In reply to this Note, I would remark that I 
have consulted a grave-digger "grown old in 
the service" here, and he tells me he never re- 
members a case where, after interment, in pro- 
cess of time the occiput lakes the place of the 
facial bones ; but, he says, very frequently the 
head drops either on one side or the other — a ai- 
cumstance which any one conversant with the 
human skeleton and the connexion of the cranium 
vritU the vertebr» would deem most natural. 


Passage in Job (yd\.\ii., p. H.). — This question 
is answered, as far as it seems possible, hy^ameB, 
in his Notes on Job, which Mr. Edwin Jokes may 
easily consult. The fact appears to be that we have 
no informiition respecting the passage in question 
beyond what is furnished by itself fi. H. C. 

St. Pa>d and Seneca (Vol. viii., p. 88.).— There 
ia an account of the work referred to in the July 
number of the Journal of Sacred Literature, edited 
by Dr. Kitto. It will be found among the "Foreign 
Intelligence." " "^ 

B. H. C. 

Hanlf-naked (Vol.vii., pp.432.558.). — Aa my 
Query m reference lo this place has drawn forth a 



[No. 200. 

Note or two from some correspondents of yours, 
allow me to thank them, and at the same time to 
inform them that " A general Collection of all 
the Offices of England, with the Fees, in the 
Queene*s guifte," a manuscript temp. Elizabeth, 
contains the following reference. Under the head 
•* Castles," &c. occurs, — 

Walbertoa and 

" Com, Sussex. 

'Keeper of the Manor of 
Half-naked and Good- 
Keeper of the Wood and 
Chace of Walberton - 



- 20 O 

3 O 10." 
Chablbs Heed. 

Books chained to Desks in Churches (Vol. viii., 
p. 94.). — An engraving of a very fine perpendi- 
cular lettern, having a book fastened to it by a 
chain, is given in the Proceedings of the Arch. Inst. 
for 1846, as existing at that time in the church of 
St. Crux, York. In 1851 I noticed the upper 
part of one in Chesterton Church near Cambridge, 
placed on the sill of the east window of the south 
usle with a book lying upon it, very much torn 
and wanting the title-page. I ascertained the 
subject of it at the time ; but omitted to make a 
note of it, and I am sorry to say it has now slipped 
my memory. 

Hutter, in his Somersetshire, speaks of some old 
reading-desks, which were still remaining in 1829 
in Wrington Church, fastened to the walls of the 
chancel,, on which were several books, " especially 
Fox's Martyrs, and* the Clavis BibUorum of 
F. Roberts, who was rector of the parish in 1675." 
There was one also about the same time at Chew 
Magna Church, Somersetshire ; with a copy of 
Bishop Jewel's Defence of the Church chained to 
it. In Kedcliff Church, Bristol, there is a small 
mahogany one supported by a bracket, with a 
brass chain attached, near the vestry on the north 
side of the choir. Until within a very few years, 
a desk, with Fox's Martyrs lying upon it, was in 
the Holy Trinity Church, Hull, affixed to one of 
the pillars in the nave. 

A fine old Bible and chain is shown amongst the 
relics at Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon. 

It would appear that theological woi^s were 
not the only ones secured in this manner : for I 
find (Butter's Somersetshire, p. 258.) that one 
Captain S. Sturmy of Easton in Gordano pub- 
lished a folio, entitled The Mariner's or ArtisarCs 
Magazine, a copy of which he gave to the parish 
to be chaii^d and locked in the desk, -until any 
ingenious person should borrow it, letting 3/. as 
a security in the hands of the trustees against 
damage, &c. B. W. Elliott. 

It is somewhat strange that I should have 
omitted the following passage whilst writuag on 
this subject in a recent Number, as the work 


to which it refers, Bishop Jewel's I>efence of hU 
Apology for the Church of England^ ii so wdl 

known : 

"At the desire of Archbishop Parker, a copy of the 
Defence was set up soon after Jewel's death, in almost 
every parish church in England ; and fragments of it 
are still to be seen in some churches, together with the 
chain by which it was attached to the reading-desk 
provided for it." 

This extract is taken from the Life qf Bishop 
Jewel, prefixed to the English translation of the 
Apology, edited by Dr. Jelf for the Societj for 
promoting Christian Knowledge (8vo. Lend. 1849), 

p. XX. 

An order for the setting up of "^the Parcphrases 
of Erasmus in English upon the gospels " in some 
convenient place within all churches and chapels 
in the province of York, will be found in Arch- 
bishop Grindal's Injunctions for the Laity, § 4. 
(Remains, ^c, Parker Society, p. 134.) See also 
the Articles to be enquired of within Ae Province 
of Canterhurie, § 2. (Ibid. p. 158.) 

W. Sparrow Simpsov. 

In Malvern Abbey Church is a stand to which 
two books are chained. The one in a commentary 
on the Book of Common Prayer ; the other is a 
treatise on Church Unity. In Kinver Church 
(Worcestershire) are three books placed in a desk 
(not chained) in the south aisle : being The WhoU 
Duty of Man (1703) ; A Sermon made in Latiite in 
the Reigne of Edward the Sixte, by John Jewel, 
Bishop of Sarisburie ; and lite Aetes and MonU' 
mentes of Christian Martyrs (1583). 


At Bowness Church, on Windennere Lake, 
there is (or at least was, in 1842) a copy of 
Erasmus's Paraphrase chained. If I am not mis- 
taken, some of Jewel's works wiU ako be found 
there. E. H. A. 

Schellrum (Vol. vi., p. 364.). — Kari* will find 
sckeUrum, variously written *^ scheltrun, aheltrun, 
shiHroun, schetrome," of very common occurrence 
in the translation of the Old Testament \yj WicUff 
and his followers ; it is there rendered from the 
Lat. ades. The instances quoted by Jamieson, 
from the Latin testudo, come nearer to the origin, 
shield. Q. 


Quarrel (Vol. vi., p. 172.). — Baixiolsnsis will 
be pleased with Mr. Trench's ingenious account of 
our conversion of a complaint into a quarrel. 

" The Latin word (qttereJa) m^ns properly < com- 
plaint,' and we have in 'querulous* this its prosier 
meaning coming distinctly out. Not so, however, in 
< quarrel,' for Englbbmen, being wont not merely to 
* complain,' but to set vigorously about righting and 
redressing themselves, their grie£i being also grievaacai* 
out of thift word, whi^ might hftv« given tb«m only 

Aug. 27. 1853.] 



' querulous ' an^d * qnerulousness,* have gotten ' quarrel ' 
as well." — On the Stutfy of Words, p* 57. 

" We migbt safely conclode,*' Mr. Trench prenmcs, 
** that a nation would not be likely tamely to submit 
to tyranny and wrong, which made * quarrel ' out of 
* querela.' " 

This, I say, is very ingenious, but did this nation 
make qwarrel out of querela ? Did they not take 
it ready made from their neighbours, the French, 
Italian, Spanish, who have all performed, and, I 
presume, l