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■ (a 






^ibrarü of t^e Hluseum 






COMPARATIYE ZOOLOGY, 






AT HARVARD COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 




m 


jFountJEÏi 1)1) ptfbatc subsrrfptfon, fn 18G1. 
Deposited by ALEX. AGASSIZ. 

/ No. yzo 7 











Mp, 



nsroTBS 



FK.OM THE 



LKYDBJSr MUSKUJVL. 



NOTES 



FROM THE 



LEYDEN MUSEUM 



FOUNDED BY THE LATE 



Prof. H. SCHLEGEL, 



CONTINUED BÏ 



Dr. F. A. JBNTINK:. 

Director of the Museum. 



VOL. XIII. 



LEYDEN 

E. J. BRILL. 
"^^ 1891. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XIII. 



Page 
t Arcliey Thomas Demery. By J. Büttikofer 248. 

MIA-lMlMALiIA.. 

Cercopitkeeus wolfi, n. sp.- By A. B. Meyer 53 

Einiges über die Myoxidae oder Schliifer. Von Dr. C. L. Keuvens. (Tafel 5). 65. 

On the Malayan and Papuan Pigs in the Leyden Museum. By Dr. F. A 
Jentink ot- 

On Dactylomys dacfylinus wid Kannabateomys amllvonvx Bv Dr F A Jen- 
tink. (Plate 7) "........'.'.'.. 105 

Some observations relating Cynopterus brachjods MuWer and Ket-ivoula pellucida 

Waterhouse. By Dr. F. A. Jentink 202 

Some additions to the Mammalian-fauna of Billiton. By Dr. F. A. Jentink . 207. 
On Zepus netscheri Schlegel , Felis megalotis Muller and Anoa santena Dubois 

By Dr. F. A. Jentink 217 

A new Mammal from Sumatra. By Dr. A. A. W. Hubrecht 241. 

AVES. 

The Birds of Billiton. By Dr. A. G. Vorderman ]21. 

On a collection of Birds from Flores, Samao and Timor. By J. Büttikofer . 210. 

RICPTILIA. 

List of Reptiles brought from Siam by Mr. R. C. Keun. By Dr. Th. W. van 
Lidth de Jeude _ " 05= 

PISCES. 

On Engrmtlis japonicus Schlegel. By Dr. C. L. Reuvens 176. 

Ueber eine neue Tohjpterus-kxï aus Liberia. Von Dr. F. Steindachner . . . 179. 

INSECXA. 
COLEOPTERA. 
Description de nouvelles espèces de Curculionides. Par W. Roelofs (Planche 8 

% 4) . . : 115. 

description d'un Curculionide nouveau Par W. Roelofs. (Planche 8, fig. 5). I45. 

A new genus of Calandrinae. Characterized by C. Ritsema Cz I47. 

A new species of Uhynchophorus. Described by C. Ritsema Cz 151. 

Two synonymical remarks about Curculionidae. By C. Ritsema Cz 154- 



VI CONTENTS OF VOL. XIII, 

Page 
Poli/ctesis igorrota , nova species Rii[)r('stiilarum By K. M. ITellor .... 159. 

Contributions to the knowledge of the family Brenthidae. By Dr. A. Senna. VI. 161. 

Genre nonveaii et espèccs noiivelles du groupe des Oxyopisfhen. Decrits par 

W. Roelofs ') 167. 

On the Ceylon Cetoniidae collected by J. Z. Kannegieter. By J. R. H. Neer- 

voort van de Poll and J. Z. Kannegieter 181. 

Synonymical remarks on Cetoniidae. By J. R. H. Neervoort van de Poll . 188. 

A new species of the Longicorn genus Neopkarsalia v. d. Poll. By J. Z. Kan- 
negieter 189 

Quatre espèces nouvelles de Gyrinide.s du genre Oreciogyrus. Decrites par M. 

Regirabart 191. 

Synonymical remark about Cetonia bifida Oliv. By J. Z. Kannegieter . . . 196. 

Two new species of the genus Helota from Borneo. Described by C. Ritsema Cz. 197. 

Synopsis and alphabetical list of the described species of the genus Helota Mc. 

L. By C. Ritsema Cz 223. 

Two new species of the Lucanoid genus Cyclommatus Parry. Described by C. 

Ritsema Cz. (Plate 10, fig. 1) 233. 

Description de neuf Elatérides nouveaux du Musee de Leyde. Par E. Candêze 243. 

A new oriental species of the Coleopterous genus Chelonarium. Described by 

C. Ritsema Cz 249. 

Further contributions to the knowledge of the S^eZo^A-species of Burma. By 

C. Ritsema Cz 251. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

List of the Lepidopterous insects collected by Mr. A. G. Vorderman in the 

island of Billiton. By P. C. T. Snellen 131. 

Lomofropa vellerialis, nouvelle espèce de Pyralide. Décrite par P. C. T. Snellen. ') 239. 
CRUSTACEA.. 

Carcinological studies in the Leyden Museum. By Dr. J. G. de Man. n°. 5. 

(Plate "l— 4) 1. 

MOLLXJSCA. 

Description of a new species of Fusus from Japan. By M. M. Schepman. (Plate 

9, fig. 3) 62. 

On a new species of Lanistes. By M. M. Schepman. (Plate 8, figs. I and 2). 111. 

A new species of TJnio. Described by M. M. Schepman. (Plate 8, fig. 3). . . 113. 

On three Eastern Mollusks. P.y M. M. Schepman. (Plate 9) 155. 

A new species of Latirus. Described by I. C. Melvill 158. 

VERIMES. 

Descriptions of Earthworms. By Dr. R. Horst. VI. (Plate 6) 77. 

1) On p. 167, line 12 (from l)ottom), there is erroneously printed 0. scalnris Roel. in stead of 
0. sutnrale Roel. (see p. 170). 

2) Erratum: p. 239, line 4 (from bottom), for "marques de taches" read "marque de taches." 



Vol. XIII was issued in parts in the following order 
N°. 1 — January 1891, Note I— III. 
N°. 2 — April 1891, Note IV— XIII. 
N°. 3 — August 1891, Note XIV— XXXIV. 
N°. 4 — October 1891, Note XXXV— XLI. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 



NOTE I. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES IN THE LEIDEN MUSEUM. 



Dr. J. G. de MAN. 



N°. 5. 1) 
(Plate 1—4). 



LIST OF SPECIES. 



Actaea rugata Ad. d- White. 
Actaeodes pubescens M. E. 
Etisus anaglj'ptus M. E. 
Etisodes frontalis Dana. 
Epixanthus corrosus A. M. E. 

» subcorrosus , n. sp. 

Cardisoraa quadratum de Sauss. 
Gelasimus vocans M. E. 

» tetragonon Herbs t. 

» Dussumieri M. E. 

» arcuatus de Haan. 

» coarctatus M. E. 

» forcipatus Ad. d- White 9 

» Urvillei M. E. 

» signatus Hess. 

» » » , var. an- 

gustifrons de Man, 



Gelasimus annulipes Latr. 
» Gaimardi M. E. 
» chlorophthalmus Latr. 
» inversus Hoffm. 
» triangularis A. M. E. 
var. variabilis de Man. 
Metopograpsus messor Forskal, 

var. gracilipes de Man. 
Grapsus maculatus Catesby. 
Sesarma Büttikoferi de Man. 
» Germani A. M. E. 
» oceanica de Man. 
Heterograpsus crenulatus Guérin. 

» spinosus M. E. 

Calcinus intermedins de Man, 
Pseudosquilla oculata Brullé, 



1, Actaea rugata Ad. & White. 

Aegle rugata., Adams and White, Zool. of the voyage of H. M. S. 
Samarang, Crust., 1848, p. 43, PI. VIII, fig. 5. 



1) See for N°. ] and 2: Vol. Ill, p. 121 and p. 245; for N". 3: Vol. V, 
p. 150, and for N°. 4: Vol. XIT, p. 49. 

Notes from the Leyden Museum , Vol. XJII. 

] 



2 CARCiNOLOGtCAL STUDIES. 

Actaea rugata, A. Milne Edwards, in: Nouv. Archives du Muséum , 
T. [, p. 269. 

Aclaea rufopunctala , de Man, in: Journal Linnean Society of Lon- 
don , Vol. XXII, 1887, p. 20, and in: Arcliiv fur Naturgeschichte , 
Bd. 53, 1888, p. 261. 

One female specimen without eggs, from Samoa, pur- 
chased from the Museum Godeffroy. 

This species is closely allied to Actaea rufopunetata M. E., 
so that oue easily may confound them. I now studied in 
Paris adult type-specimens of the two species, and I observed 
the following differences. 

The cephalothorax of A. rufopunetata is a little more 
enlarged and the distance between the external orbital angles 
(and therefore also the breadth of the front) is compara- 
tively somewhat smaller in this species than in A. rugata. 
The upper surface of the cephalothorax of A. rufopunetata 
is covered with a very short close down, similar to that 
of Actaeodes tomentosus M. E. ; the interregional grooves, as 
well as -the lobules themselves , are clothed with it , excepted 
the granules with which the lobules are covered. In A. 
rugata , however , the lobules of the upper surface of the 
cephalothorax and the legs are clothed, besides with a 
close down , with tolerably long stiff yellowish brown hairs , 
which are inserted between the granules. 

As regards the form of the front , the two species agree 
with one another. In both species the regions 2 M are 
by longitudinal grooves divided into four protogastric 
lobules; in A. rufopunetata these lobules are nearly of 
the same size, but in A. rugata the external proto- 
gastric lobules are about twice as broad as the 
internal ones. The cardiac region of A. rufopunetata shows 
anteriorly a trace of a median longitudinal furrow , whereas 
in A. rugata this lobule appears always quite undivided. 

The legs , finally , present a different appearance in both 
species. The carpopodites and propodites of A. rufopunetata 
are, namely, very nodose and these tubercles are 
especially characteristic to the ambulatory legs. In A. rugata 

Notes from ttie Leyden IMuseum, "Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. S 

the legs are also grooved above , but they do not present 
the characteristic prominent tubercles of the other species. 

The cephalothorax and the legs of A. rugata are also 
marked with some symmetrically arranged spots of a reddish 
or violet colour , the largest of which covers the whole 
mesogastric and the two internal protogastric lobules. 

The specimens from the Mergui Archipelago and those 
from the Bay of Batavia , which I have referred (1. c.) to 
A. Tufopunctata ^ now appear to be true representatives of 
A. rugata. 

In a very young female specimen from the Fiji Islands, 
which Prof. Milne Edwards likewise refers to A. rufopunc- 
tata, the front projects a little less forward, the median 
emargination is not so deep, and on each side of it the front 
appears only slightly eraarginate towards the external angles. 

Actaea Riippellii Krauss , from Natal , is probably iden- 
tical with A. rugata, but the cephalothorax of the species 
of Krauss appears to be still somewhat narrower and less 
enlarged. Dr. Hilgendorf , however , unites the two species. 

Actaea rugata Ad. & White has been recorded from Zan- 
zibar, Mozambique, Mauritius, the Mergui Archipelago, 
the Bay of Batavia , Macassar , the Philippines and New 
Caledonia. 

The dimensions of a type-specimen of Actaea rufopunctata 
M. E. from the Paris Museum , obtained in the Red Sea , 
are the following : (ƒ 

Breadth of the cephalothorax 39 mm. 

Length (the front included) ^^^^'u ^ 

Distance between the external orbital angles 

(measured at the tips of the corneae) . . IVVg » 

Distance between the internal orbital angles . 11 ^/g » 

The dimensions of three specimens of Actaea rugata 
Ad. & White are the following: 1. 

Breadth of the cephalothorax . . 32 26^/3 25 '/j mm. 
Length » » » . . 23 

JN'otes from tlie X^eyden JMuseum, Vol. X^III. 



2. 


3. 


d 


9 


26V3 


25'/, 


19V4 


18 



4 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

1. 2. 3, 

Distance between the external or- cf cf 9 

bital angles iGVg IS'/g I3V4 mm. 

Distance between the internal 

orbital angles 10 8 » 

N". 1. Specimen collected in New Caledonia, from the 

Paris Museum. 

N**. 2. Specimen from the Bay of Batavia. 
N**. 3. Specimen from Samoa. 

2. Actaeodes pubescens M. E. 

(PI. 1, fig. 1). 

Zozymus pubescens^ H. Milne Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crustacés, 
T. I, p. 384. (1834). 

Liomera pubescens, A. Milne Edwards, in: Nouv. Archives du 
Muséum, T. I, p. 223, PI. XII, fig. 6, 6a. 

A male and a female from the Fiji Islands. 

The nearest ally o{ this rsn-e sipecies is Actaeodes Richtersii 
de Man, from Tahiti. As regards the general form and 
structure of the cephalothorax , these two species closely 
resemble one another. The regions of the upper surface , 
which is somewhat convex in the anteroposterior direction 
and slightly also transversely , are as little defined as those 
of Act. Richtersii, at least in these two specimens, one 
of which has been kindly determined for me by Milne 
Edwards. The sutures defining the gastric region are absent, 
so that the quoted figure in the »Nouvelles Archives", in 
which they have been figured, is perhaps not exact. I observe 
only the median frontal furrow, which is divided itself as usual 
in two furrows, but these two furrows are short and do 
not reach to the lateral borders of the gastric region. The 
grooves defining the gastric and cardiac regions are indeed 
quite absent in these specimens , and only two small im- 
pressed points , placed in a transverse line near one another , 
Notes from the Leyden Zytuseixm, "Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 5 

separate the two regions from one another. In the male 
specimen a shallow transverse impression separates still the 
cardiac from the intestinal region, but in the larger female 
even this impression is almost indistinguishable. The two 
furrows which border the third lobe of the antero-lateral 
margins, are as short as in A. Richtersii, and the furrow 
which extends along the upper margin of the orbits and 
the two anterior antero-lateral lobes, quite resembles that 
which exists in A. Richtersii. 

The somewhat prominent front is about as narrow as 
in the other species, and divided by a narrow incision in 
two rounded lobes ; these lobes are directed obliquely back- 
ward and are more distinctly emargiuate towards 
their external angles , which are dentiform and scarcely 
separated from the internal angles of the orbits. The eye- 
peduncles and the orbits resemble those of the other species. 

The antero-lateral margins are a little longer than 
the postero-lateral ones , but they are equal in length in 
the other species. They are rather indistinctly divided into 
four lobes, the first of which is only a little longer 
than the second: the first antero-lateral lobe of ^ . i?w;/itersM, 
however, is nearly as long as the three other lobes taken 
together. The third lobe is separated by more distinct 
notches from the second and the fourth, than the first 
lobe from the second. The third lobe measures two thirds 
of the length of the second , and is slightly rounded and 
prominent. It ought to be observed that in the younger 
male specimen the antero-lateral margins appear to me to 
be comparatively a little longer than those of the adult 
female , and that the third lobe of the former projects a 
little more outward laterally than the fourth , whereas in 
the female the fourth lobe projects more outward than 
the third. As regards the granulation of the cephalothorax, 
both species almost agree with one another, and the upper 
surface is covered with very short hairs which are also 
inserted at the base of the granules. 

The under surface of the cephalothorax is everywhere 

Notes from the Leyden IMuseutu, Vol. XIII. 



6 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

granulated , the granules being larger towards the lateral 
margins. The external maxillipedes are uniformly granu- 
lated and this is also the case with the sternum. The male 
abdomen is five-jointed and nearly smooth , except the two 
basal joints; the penultimate joint is nearly quadrate and 
scarcely shorter thau the breadth of its posterior margin. 

The seven-jointed abdomen of the female is also some- 
what granulated on the two first joints and on the lateral 
sides of the two following. 

The anterior legs are especially characteristic. They are 
equal , both in the male and in the female. The arms are 
everywhere granulated , and the granules are a little larger 
on the upper and on the infero-external margins. The wrist 
is everywhere granulated , and armed with a single tooth 
at the internal angle. The hands are almost three times 
as long as high, like in A. Richtersii, but the fingers 
are comparatively shorter. They measure, in- 
deed, little more than a third of the length of 
the palm, and the palm is twice as long as 
high. The upper margin and almost the whole outer and 
inner surfaces of the palm are covered with conical gra- 
nules , which are arranged , at least in the middle of the 
outer surface, more or less distinctly in longitudinal series. 
The granules disappear gradually towards the distal end 
of the outer surface and of the lower margin , somewhat 
more in the younger male than in the female specimen. 
A few granules are seen along the distal margin of the 
outer surface. The granulation evidently extends on a some- 
what greater part of the outer surface of the palm than 
in A. Richtersii, and in this species the granules show 
nowhere a disposition to an arrangement in longitudinal 
series. The short fingers are feebly dentate, but distinctly 
excavated at their ends; the upper margin of the 
dactylus presents two deep longitudinal furrows , and the 
outer and inner sides of the fingers are also furrowed. 
The hands have the same form and proportions in the 
male and in the female , though it ought to be obser- 

Notes I'voai tlie Leydeii Museum, "Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. / 

ved that the male is much 3'ouuger than the female. 

The ambulatory legs are similar io those of A. Richter sii , 
but they are more distinctly and more uniformly 
granulated, and clothed only with short and 
scanty hairs, whereas the ambulatory legs of A. Richtersii 
are provided with long, yellowish and silky hairs. 

The upper surface of the cephalothorax and the upper 
sides of the legs present a fine rose-colour, the under 
surface is paler. Quite as in the species from Tahiti , the 
upper surface of the cephalothorax is ornamented with 
small round white spots, some of which occur also 
on the under sides of the carapace. The fingers are of a 
dark lead-colour with paler tips , and this lead-colour 
extends in the male on the distal part of the outer and 
inner surfaces of the palm, but not in the female. 

Aciaeodes puhescens appears to be widely distributed , the 
original specimen of the Paris Museum having been collected 
at Mauritius. 

Measurements : cf 
Greatest width of the cephalothorax 2373 luni. 
Length » » » 12^/3 » 
Distance between the external or- 
bital angles 9 » 

Length of the hands 12 » 

Height » » » 4V4 » 

Length » » fingers 8^/5 » 

3. Etisus anaglyptus M. E. 

Etisus anaglyptus, H. Milne Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust. T.I, 
p. 411. (1834). 

Etisus anaglyptus, Miers, Report on the Zool. Coll. made in the 
Indian Ocean during the voyage of H. M. S. Alert, 1884, p. 218. 

The Leyden Museum contains two males from Ti or, 
and a male and a female from Samoa. 

Notes iroin the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



9 




297^ 


mm. 


16 


» 


n'U 


» 


14V.-; 


» 


5 


» 


47. 


» 



8 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

Prof. Milne Edwards enabled me to compare these spe- 
cimens with the original individual , which has been figured 
by the late Milne Edwards in the large illustrated edition 
of Cuvier. As Miers already supposed , the frontal lobes 
are not merely truncated , but slightly emarginated , and 
they are separated by a triangular notch , which is more 
distinct than in the figure of Cuvier. The upper surface 
of the cephalothorax of the male from Samoa is marked 
with five yellowish red spots, viz. one on the gastric, one 
on each hepatic region , and one on the anterior part of 
the areolae 5 L. The upper surface of the cephalothorax 
of the female specimen appears slightly more rugose , and 
the tubercles , with which the anterior legs are provided , 
are a little more distinct and prominent than in the male. 
The black colour of the fingers does not extend over the 
palm, but in the male it extends over a distal part of the 
inner and outer surface of it. 

The cephalothorax of the larger male from Timor pre- 
sents the following dimensions: 

cT 
Greatest width (distance between the penulti- 
mate antero-lateral teeth) ^3^/2 mm. 

Length of the cephalothorax ^) 29 » 

Distance between the tips of the internal orbital 

angles llVg » 

This species has also been recorded from the Philippines 
and from the North-eastern coasts of Australia. 

4. Etisodes frontalis Dana. 
(PI. 1 , fig. 2). 

Etisodes frontalis, Dana, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences of Philadelphia , 
4852, p. 77, and United States Expl. Exp. Crust. 1852, T. I , p. 
187, PI. IX, fig. 3. 



1) The length of the cephalothorax is measured exactly in the dorsal median 
line, from the base of the median frontal incision to the posterior margin. 

JVotes from the Leyden M.useutu, Vol. JiCllI. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 9 

Etisodes frontalis, A. Milne Edwards, in: Nouv. Archives du Mu- 
séum, T. IX, p. 235. 

Two fine male specimens from üpolu , one of which is 
adult. The latter was sent by me to Prof. Milne Edwards , 
who informed me that this species was referred in the 
Collection of the Museum to Etisodes frontalis Dana, and 
that the specimens of the Museum were also collected at 
Upolu. I believe he is right, though 1 must observe that 
the cephalothorax of Dana's specimen appears comparati- 
vely less enlarged and narrower than those of our indivi- 
duals; but the original specimen, described by Dana, was 
very young , the cephalothorax measuring only eight millim. 
in breadth , and the difference may , therefore , perhaps be 
ascribed to this fact. 

This species is certainly different from Etisodes Electra 
Herbst = sculptilis Heller, and Miers (Report Crustacea 
Voyage of H. M. S. Alert, p. 217) was wrong in uniting 
these two species. 

The cephalothorax is exactly once and a half as 
broad as long. The upper surface is slightly convex 
anteriorly, and more depressed posteriorly; it is rather 
strongly lobulate, and the interregional grooves are 
rather deep, though narrow. The median frontal furrow is , as 
usual , divided in two furrows which border the mesogastric 
area 3 M, issuing into the gastrobranchial i. e. cervical suture. 
The epigastric lobes are prominent, and distinctly separated 
from the less prominent postfrontal lobules 2 F; they are also 
separated from the upper walls of the orbits by longitudinal 
grooves , which run parallel with the median frontal furrow , 
and which begin at the hiatus between the internal orbital 
and external frontal angles. The protogastric regions 2 M 
are subdivided only anteriorly by the described longitudinal 
grooves which border the epigastric lobules laterally , and 
are for the rest undivided. The urogastric lobe 4 M is 
distinctly defined. This is not the case with the cardiac 
region , which is coalescent laterally with the postero-lateral 

>Jotes from tlie Leyden IMuseuna, Vol. XIIX. 



I'O CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

regions 3 R ; but it is sepai'ated from the intestinal region 
by a transverse groove , which runs parallel with the pos- 
terior margin of the cephalothorax and which is interrupted 
in the middle. The hepatic region is divided into three 
prominent lobules 1 L , 2 L and 3 L , and the three areolae 
4 L , 5 L , 6 L are also distinctly separated from one 
another and , at least the first, prominent. The postero-lateral 
regions 1 R , 2 R and 3 R are equally distinct , and the 
two latter are separated from one another by a rather 
deep oblique groove. The lobulation of the cephalothorax 
evidently much resembles that of Etisodes Electra. The 
lobules are irregularly punctate, and the anterior ones appear 
slightly granulated on their most prominent portions , only 
visible, however, under a lens of sufficient power. The distance 
between the external orbital angles is slightly more than 
half as broad as the greatest width of the cephalothorax. 
The front does not project so much forward as in Etis. 
Electra and is , somewhat obliquely , directed downwards. 
It presents two arcuate and granulated internal 
lobes, which are separated from one another by a small 
triangular incision; these lobes are separated by a 
slight emargination from the less prominent external 
lobes, which are much smaller, obtuse and denti- 
form. The frontal lobes are ornamented on their upper 
surface with a transverse rowofobtuse granules, 
which runs close to the anterior margin of the front , and 
which is interrupted in the middle by the median frontal 
furrow. The external frontal lobes are separated from the 
obtuse internal orbital angles by a rather wide triangular 
hiatus, in which the external antennae are placed. The 
orbits are scarcely broader than long. The upper margin 
presents externally two triangular incisions , the external 
angle is obtusely dentiform , and separated from the lower 
margin by a triangular hiatus; the latter is finely granu- 
lated like the upper margin and terminates at its internal 
angle into a prominent dentiform lobe. 

The antero-lateral margins are a little longer than the 

Notes from the LiCyden IMusoum, Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 11 

postero-lateral ones and armed , behind the extraorbital teeth , 
with four triangular teeth. The two first are subacute, the 
two posterior ones very acute, almost spiniform , and some- 
what directed forward. The penultimate tooth projects a 
little more outward than the last , so that the cephalothorax 
presents its greatest width at the penultimate teeth. The 
margins of these teeth are ornamented , especially at their 
base, with acute conical granules, and the antero-lateral 
teeth are also somewhat granulated above. The postero- 
lateral margins are nearly straight and somewhat granulated. 
There is, finally, a transverse sinuated groove immediately 
before the posterior margin of the cephalothorax. 

The lateral parts of the under surface of the cephalo- 
thorax are covered with long hairs , especially in the middle 
and posteriorly; they are also somewhat granulated. 

The second joint of the outer foot-jaws is marked with 
the usual longitudinal furrow near and parallel with the 
inner margin ; this furrow reaches neither to the anterior , 
nor to the posterior margin of the joint. The third joint 
is slightly broader than long and quadrangular; its an- 
terior margin is straight , the external margin very slightly 
concave. The outer foot-jaws are almost smooth, though 
punctate. 

The sternum is smooth , shining and somewhat punctate , 
especially anteriorly. The male abdomen is five-jointed. 
The penultimate joint is somewhat longer than broad, the 
terminal joint obtusely rounded and a little shorter than 
broad at its base ; the abdomen is smooth , except the 
lateral sides of the basal segment which are granulated. 

The legs resemble those of Etisodes Electra. The right 
chelipede is the larger in both specimens. The arms project 
scarcely beyond the lateral margins of the cephalothorax. 
Some small acute teeth are observed on the upper margin, 
which is clothed with long hairs ; the anterior margin 
presents a few acute granules, but the infero-external mar- 
gin is rounded and unarmed. The distal margin of the 
outer surface is also somewhat hairy. The arms are for 

JNotes Iroiu tlie I-ieydeii JVIuseiiixi, Vol. XIIII. 



12 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

the rest almost smooth. The wrist is armed with an acute 
tooth at the inner angle , below which a second , somewhat 
smaller one, occurs. The upper surface bears a tubercular 
eminence near the articulation with the hand , and appears 
somewhat rugose, uneven and punctate. The larger hand 
is twice as long as high , the fingers included ; the smaller 
one appears to be comparatively a little longer. The upper 
margin of the palm presents three tubercular eminences at 
the proximal end; the outer surface is covered with nu- 
merous slightly transverse or oblique and reticulating rows 
of confluent and little distinct granules, some of which 
are finer and smaller than the others. These granules are, 
however , scarcely distinguishable to the naked eye. The 
under margin of the palm is smooth and rounded. These 
transverse and oblique granular ridges are a little more 
prominent on the smaller than on the larger hand. The 
fingers measure scarcely two thirds of the length of the 
palm. They are widely gaping. The mobile finger is strongly 
arcuate and presents two longitudinal furrows on its upper 
margin , of which the inner one is very short ; three tuber- 
cular eminences exist at the base of the upper margin , 
and are placed transversely. The inner margin of this 
finger is armed with a strong, obtuse tooth at the base, 
with a much smaller tooth immediately before it. The lower 
finger, which is also longitudinally sulcate on its outer 
surface , is slightly curved upward at its tip , and armed 
in the middle with a strong tooth , which is preceded both 
on the outer and inner side by three or four smaller teeth. 
The strongly excavated extremities of both fingers are 
ornamented with a tuft of yellow hairs. The teeth with 
which the fingers of the smaller hand are armed , are much 
smaller , especially those of the dactylus. The inner surface 
of the hands and of the fingers is quite smooth. 

The ambulatory legs are short. They are armed along 
their upper margins with small acute conical granules , 
which become somewhat larger and spiniform on the dac- 
tylopodites; some smaller granules are moreover observed 

Notes Iroiti tlie Leydeii ]Museu.m, Vol. Xlll. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 13 

on the lower or posterior margins of the propodites and 
at the base of those of the meropodites. The outer surface 
of these legs is for the rest nearly smooth. They are covered 
along their margins with tolerably long yellow hairs. 

Measurements : (ƒ cf 

Greatest width of the cephalothorax 21 V^ mm. 14 mm. 
Length » » » l^^/a » 9^/4 » 

Distance between the external orbital 

angles I2V4 » 8V5 » 

The cephalothorax presents, on a pale yellowish gray 
ground-colour , a few purplish spots , one on the middle 
of the gastric and one on the cardiac region; that part 
of the upper orbital margin which lies between the two 
incisions, is also marked with purple. The hands and the 
other legs are also marbled with this colour. The fingers 
are pale brown, with white tips and white teeth, and the 
brown colour does not extend on the palm. 

The hands of this species somewhat resemble those of 
Actaea Danae A.. M. ^. = Actaeodes areolatus Dana (Dana, 
I.e., PI. IX, fig. 8b). 

Etisodes frontalis was discovered in the Sooloo Sea. 

5. Epixanthus cor ro sus A. M. E. 

Confer: de Man, in: Archiv f. Naturgeschichte , Jahrg. 53,1888, 
p. 292, PI. XI, fig. 3, and in: Zool. Jahrbücher von J. W. Spengel, 
T. IV, 1889, p. 422. 

The Leyden Museum contains a single male from Padang. 

The figure of this crab in the »Nouv. Archives du Mu- 
seum, T. IX, pi. 9, fig. 1" is not quite exact, as I found 
by an examination of the small type-specimen of this species 
in the Paris Museum. The cephalothorax indeed has been 
drawn a little too long. The front, which in larger 
individuals is comparatively narrower than in the young 
ones, has been well figured. 

The cephalothorax of the Padang specimen is compara- 

Notes from the Leydeii IVIuseuxxi, "Vol. XIIII. 



14 CAUCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

tively a little less enlarged than that of the adult individual 
from Batavia, which I described some time ago. 

Type specimen Padang 

Measurements: of Paris. specimen. 

Breadth of the cephalothorax . . 13 mm. 27 mm. 
Length » » » . . 7^/- » I5V4 » 

Distance between the external 

orbital angles 6^/2 » QVa » 

6. Epixanthus subcorrosus , n. sp. 
(PI. ] , fig. 3). 

The Leyden Museum has purchased from the Museum 
Godeffroy two specimens of a new Epixanthus , a male 
and an ova-bearing female , collected on the Island of Upolu. 

This new species at first sight strongly resembles Epix. 
frontalis M. E., and is apparently more closely allied to 
this species than to Epix. corrosus A. M. E. = rugosus 
Kossra. I have before me specimens of £pi^. /ronto/zs (PI. 2, 
fig. 4) from the Mergui Archipelago and from the Bay of 
Batavia , and furthermore the two specimens of Epix. corrosus 
mentioned above. 

As to the general form of the cephalothorax , this new 
species strongly resembles Epix. frontalis ; thus the pro- 
portion of the breadth and the length is precisely the same, 
and the upper surface is as much depressed. As in 
Epix. frontalis^ the upper surface is neither lobulated nor 
grooved , except on the postfrontal or epigastric region , 
where there is the usual longitudinal median suture which 
is posteriorly bifurcated. 

The epigastric lobes are faintly indicated. The upper 
surface of the cephalothorax of Epix. frontalis appears , 
when seen under a lens , somewhat minutely granulated 
anteriorly and towards the antero-lateral margins ; in our 
new species, however, the upper surface is distinctly 
rugose and uneven on the antero-lateral parts in front 
of the minutely granulated line, which in both species 

Pïotes from the Leyden JMuseum, Vol. X.III. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 15 

proceeds from the last aiitero-lateral tooth obliquely forward 
and inward. The upper surface of the front appears like- 
wise slightly rugose and granular. Now 1 must 
remark that these rugosities are considerably less developed 
in Epix. subcorrosus than in Epix. corrosus. These rugosities 
are also observed on the postero-lateral sides , immediately 
behind the oblique grauulated line. The rest of the upper 
surface of the cephalothorax is quite smooth as in Epix. 
frontalis , and appears only minutely punctate when seen 
under a magnifying glass; the points are, however , a little 
more distinct and more crowded than in Epix. frontalis. 

In Epix. corrosus, on the contrary, the whole upper 
surface appears distinctly granulated. 

As regards the form of the front and the size and the 
shape of the orbits , our species almost entirely agrees with 
Epix. frontalis , but the distance between the external 
orbital angles fand consequently also the front) is a little 
broader in proportion to the breadth of the cephalothorax 
in Epix. frontalis than in Epix. subcorrosus , as is shown 
by the measurements given below. Thus the upper margin 
of the orbits is entire and the lower one does not present a 
hiatus near the external angle, which is not at all prominent. 
The antero-lateral margins are comparatively as long as 
those of frontalis and are , quite as in this species , divided 
into four lobes; these lobes are similar to those of Epix. 
frontalis and are separated by notches of quite the same 
form , but the third lobe is comparatively a 
little longer. Iq Epix. frontalis the second anterola- 
teral lobe is one and a third , in Ejjix. subcorrosus scarcely 
one and a seventh as long as the third lobe. At first sight, 
therefore, the second lobe appears distinctly longer than 
the third in Epix. frontalis., but scarcely so in Epix. 
subcorrosus. 

The lower surface of the cephalothorax at the subhe- 
patic region is only minutely granular in Epix. frontalis , 
but moreover slightly rugose in the other species. The basal 
joint of the outer antennae of Epix. frontalis is , for a 
Notes from ttie Ley den IVLuseuixi , Vol. XJII. 



16 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

soraewbat louger extent, ia contact with the infero-lateral 
process of the front, and comparatively a little broader than 
in Epix. subcorrosus. 

As to the external maxillipedes , I will observe that 
the merus-joint is a little more transverse , and the exognath 
also slightly broader in our new species than in Epiv. 
frontalis. The abdomen is seven-jointed and strongly resem- 
bles that of the other species , but the penultimate segment 
is slightly more transverse in Epix. subcorrosus , in both 
sexes, and the abdomen of the female is generally more 
enlarged. 

The anterior legs are comparatively a little shorter and 
a little less slender, but for the rest strongly resemble 
those of Epix. frontalis as to their form ; they differ , 
however, essentially by the upper surface of the 
wrist and the upper margin of the palm being 
distinctly rugose and uneven, whereas they are 
smooth or nearly smooth in Epix. frontalis. 

The outer surface of the palm , which is strongly rugose 
and granulated in Epix. corrosus , is perfectly smooth both 
in Epix. frontalis and in Epix. subcorrosus,, at least in 
the larger hand , the outer surface of the palm of the 
smaller hand being somewhat minutely granular, when 
seen under a lens, in both species. As to the form and 
the dentition of the fingers , Epix. frontalis agrees with 
Epix. subcorrosus, but the distal half only is black coloured, 
whereas this colour extends slightly farther in Epix. frontalis. 

The ambulatory legs resemble those of Epix. frontalis , 
but they are comparatively a little shorter and present 
therefore a slightly less slender form. 

Epix. subcorrosus is closely allied to Ozius Agassizii 
A. M. E. from Panama and to Ozius reticulatus Isis Des- 
borne and Schramm , which inhabits the West-Indian Seas. 
Our species differs from the former by the more regularly 
oval form of the cephalothorax and by the hands being 
subcorrose on the upper margin , but not covered with 
small tubercles , whereas it may be distinguished from Ozius 

Notes from tlie Leyden ]Miiseuiii, "Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 



17 



reticulatus by the different form of the hands, which are 
less high in proportion to their length. 

Ozius rugulosus Stimps. differs by a less enlarged , more 
convex cephalothorax , by the shorter fingers of the ante- 
rior legs , etc. 

When we exclude EpLv. dentatus White , which is easily 
recognized by the prominent antero-lateral teeth separated 
from one another by deep incisions, the three other Indo- 
pacific species oï Epixanthus may be distinguished as follows: 

distinctly granulated. 



Posterior half of the 
upper surface of the 
cephalothorax and < 
outer surface of the 
anterior legs 



corrosus. 






smooth; antero-lateral 
regions , upper surface 
of the wrist and upper 
margin of the hands 



distinctly ^ 
rugose, g 



smooth ^ 
or only § 
minutely S„ 
granular. • 



The dimensions of the two specimens of Epix. subcorrosus 
are the following : (ƒ 9 

Breadth of the cephalothorax. . 21 '/^ mm. 25 mm. 
Length » » » . . I2V2 » 14^4 » 

Distance between the external 

orbital angles 10 1/3 » IP/3 » 

I add the measurements of the three specimens of 
Epix. frontalis M. E. , mentioned above : 

cT cf 



Breadth of the cephalothorax 
Length » » >^ 

Distance between the external 
orbital angles .... 



30 mm. 202/. ^^^ 
18 » 12'/I » 



15 



11 



9 

24V,, mm. 
14'/; » 

12 '/^ » 



The upper surface of the cephalothorax 0? Epix. subcorrosus 
seems to be ornamented with a few symmetrically arranged 
small spots. 



J«Iotes from thie Leyclen INXuseuxxx, Vol. XHI. 



18 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

7. Car disoma quadrat urn de Sauss. 

Cardisoma quadrata, de Saussure, Mém. pour servir a l'Histoire 
naturelle du Mexique, des Antilies et des Etats-unis. ie Livraison , 
Crustacés, p. 22, fig. 13. 1858. 

Cardisoma quadratum , S. J. Smith, in: Transactions Connecticut 
Acad, of Arts and Sciences, vol. II, 1869, p. 16. 

One adult male from the West-Indies, collected by Mr, 
Neervoort van de Poll , and a somewhat younger female , 
collected at the Island of Aruba by Prof. Martin. 

These specimens have certainly reached the largest size 
which this species may attain ; they are considerably larger 
than those which were measured by Smith. Nevertheless they 
present still distinctly all the characters by which this 
species differs from Cardisoma Guanhumi. According to de 
Saussure the distance between the external orbital angles 
is , in young specimens , a little longer than the length of 
the cephalothorax and measures Vg of the breadth of the 
latter. In the female specimen the external orbital angles 
are exactly as far distant from one another as measures 
the length of the cephalothorax , and in the male the length 
of the cephalothorax is a little larger than the distance 
between the external orbital angles. Both in the male and 
in the female there is a very small, though distinct epi- 
branchial tooth at a short distance behind the acute 
external orbital angles , and the raised line defining the 
antero-lateral margins is still distinctly developed in both 
individuals. The lateral sides of the cephalothorax are some- 
what swollen, and project but little beyond the raised lines 
which define the lateral margins. 

The orbits are comparatively high and only little more 
than once and a half as broad as high; they are 
comparatively a little higher in the male than in the female 
specimen, and a little broader than the anterior margin 
of the front. The inferior margins of the orbits pass with 
an obtuse rounded angle to the extra-orbital teeth. The 

Notes frona the Leyden Museum , Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 19 

basal joint of the external antennae is slightly enlarged 
and about once and a half as broad as high, 
and has the anterior margin emarginate for the insertion 
of the second joint. 

In the male the larger chelipede is on the left, in the 
female on the right side. In both specimens the arm is 
sharply trilateral, and the internal as well as the ex- 
ternal margin of the under surface are armed with several 
more or less acute small teeth , more developed in the female 
than in the male , whereas the upper margin is transversely 
wrinkled. The outer surface of the arm is somewhat gra- 
nular. The upper surface of the carpus is almost smooth 
in the larger, but distinctly granulated on the inner and 
outer sides in the smaller chelipede; the carpus of the larger 
chelipede is armed with a small acute tooth at the inner 
angle of its upper surface, that of the smaller with a longer 
and more acute tooth. The larger hand is about as long 
as the breadth of the cephalothorax. The upper and espe- 
cially the lower margin of the palm are granulate, the 
outer surface is smooth and punctate , the inner surface 
a little granular. The upper margin of the mobile and the 
lower margin of the immobile finger of the larger hand 
are covered with small sharp granules. The fingers of the 
larger hand of the male are a little gaping, scarcely also 
those of the female. 

The meropodites of the ambulatory legs are armed with 
an acute tooth at the distal end of their upper margin. 
The legs are somewhat hairy and covered , especially 
on the propodites and carpopodites , with tufts of rather 
short black hairs. 

This species is most closely allied to Cardisoma arma- 
Uim Herklots from the western coast of Africa , as is already 
observed by S. J. Smith , but I may add that it likewise 
so strongly resembles Card. Urvillei M. E., which inhabits 
the islands of Samoa , Celebes and the Moluccas , that it 
also might be misfcakea for this ludiaa species. 

JVotes from tlae Leyden JMuseuca, Vol. XIXI. 



20 



CAÏICINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 



Measurements : 
Distiince between the ext. orb. angles 
Greatest width of the cephalothorax, 

the swollen lateral parts of the 

body included . . , . 
Leno;th of the cephalothorax 
Breadth of the orbits . 
Height » » » . . 



Length of the larger hand 



d' 


9 


56 ram. 


52 Vj mm 


75 » 


70 


59 » 


53 » 


19 » 


18 » 


IVI, » 


lOi/g » 


77 » 


67 V„ » 



Genus Gelasiimts Latr. 

I am acquainted by personal observation with fifteen 
Indopacific species of this genus, which may be distinguished 
by the following characters: 
I. Fi'ont between the eyes narrow. 
A. liower wall of the orbits without 
an accessory row of granules near 
the inferior margin. 
oi. Anterior margin of the arm of 
the larger chelipede of the male 
with an acute and prominent 
tooth. Cephalothorax little nar- 
rowed backwards. 
/3. Orbits only a little oblique. 
Hand internally with two 
strongly granulated ridges, vocans M. E, 
/3/3. Orbits very oblique. Hand 
internally without granu- 
lated ridges tetragonon Herbst. 

»x. Anterior margin without an acute 
and prominent tooth. Cephalo- 
thorax more or less strongly 
narrowed posteriorly. 
y. Lower finger or index with a 
single tooth a little before 
the middle. Hands elongate. Dussumieri M. E. 



^otes from, tlie Leytlen Museum, Vol. X!III. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 21 

^y. Lower finger with two teeth. 
5. Lateral margin arcuate 
in the shape of an 5. 
Frontal furrow narrow. . arcuatus de Baan. 
55. Lateral margin nearly 
straight, very oblique. 
Frontal furrow broad. . acutus Stimps m. 

AA. Lower wall of the orbits ornamented 
with an accessory row of granules. 
Cephalothorax more or less narrowed 
backwards. 

X. Mobile finger or dactylus with a 
prominent lobe or tooth at the 

distal extremity coarctatus M. E. 

xoi. Mobile finger without a promi- 
nent tooth at the distal extremity. 
/3. Lower finger with two only 

slightly promin. lobes or teeth, forcipatus (Ad. & 
/3/3. Lower finger presenting but White) de^^Ian. 
one single tooth. 
y. Tooth of the lower finger 
conical , a little before 

the middle Urvillei M. E. 

•yy. Tooth of the lower finger 
broadly triangular, a little 
beyond the middle. . . signatus Hess. 

IL Front between the eyes broad. 

A. Lower oblique crest of the inner sur- 
face of the palm quite absent. Dactylus 
(mobile finger) with a prominent 
tooth at the distal extremity. . . inversus Hoffm. 

AA. Lower oblique crest more or less 
distinct. Dactylus without a tooth 
at the extremity. 

X. upper border of the palm mar- 
gined by a slightly raised edge. 

?^otes from the Hieyden IVluseura , "Vol. XHI. 



22 



CARCrNOLOGICAL STUDIES. 



/3. Cephalothorax moderately narrowed 
backwards. Hand elongate, fingers 
considerably longer than the palm. 
Dactylus not farrowed on its outer 
surface Gaimardi M. 



E. 



Cephalothorax mode- 
rately narrowed back- 
ward. Fingers scarcely 
longer than the palm. 
Dactylus not furrowed 
on its outer surface. In- 
ner surface with two 
parallel rows of slightly 
(3(3. Hand ra- prominent granules near 
ther short, the articulation of the 

fingers little fingers chlorophthalmus Latr. 

longer than Cephalothorax extraor- 

the palm. dinarily narrowed back- 
ward. Fingers almost once 
and a half as long as the 
palm. Dactylus with a dis- 
tinct longitudinal impres- 
sion on the outer surface. 
Only one single row of 
granules near the articu- 
lation of the fingers, triangularis K.^.^. 

XX. Upper border of the palm rounded. 

y. Cephalothorax scarcely narrowed 
backwards. Antero-lateral margins 
nearly parallel. Inner margin of the 
index only slightly arcuate before 
the tip lacteus de Haan. 

yy. Cephalothorax distinctly narrowed 
backwards. Antero-lateral margins 
oblique and convergent. Index with 

Notes from the Leyden ^luseum. Vol. iXIlI. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 23 

a prominent tooth immediately before 

the extremity. annulipes Latr. 

8. Gelasimus vocans M. E. 
(PL 2, fig. 5). 

Gelasimus vocans^ H. Milne Edwards, in: Annales des Sciences Natu- 
relles, T. XVIII, 1852, p. 145, PI. Ill, fig. 4. 

Gelasimus vocans ^ de Man, in: Notes from the Leyden Museum, 
Vol. II, 1880, p. 67. — Miers, Report on the Brachyura ot the Chal- 
lenger Expedition, 1886, p. 242. 

I have before me the following specimens , about which 
I will remark the following. 

Three male specimens collected at Atjeh , Sumatra, from 
my own collection. They apparently belong to the typical 
form of this species, and I have figured the larger hand of one 
of tbem (fig. 5). The inner margin of the immobile finger 
is armed with two triangular, prominent teeth, 
of which the distal one is slightly larger tban the other, 
and with a third very small one quite at the base ; the 
mobile finger presents two small prominent teeth near the 
base and a third still smaller one which is found a little 
before the prominent distal tooth of the index. The two 
crests on the inner surface of the palm are strongly developed. 

Secondly a male from the Island of Morotai. This spe- 
cimen only differs from the foregoing ones by the two promi- 
nent teeth of the lower finger, these being about of the same 
form and size. 

In the third place an adult male and an ova-bearing 
female from the Fiji Islands, and two somewhat younger 
males and a female from the Samoa Islands. In these spe- 
cimens the larger hand of the male appears a little 
more elongate than in the Atjeh-specimens, i. e. slightly 
longer in proportion to the height, and the lower margin 
is less strongly arcuate. The middle one of the three teeth 
of the immobile finger is much less prominent, more or 

rMoLes froai ttie Lejden IVIaseuLu , Vol. XIII. 



24 UARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

less rounded and agrees with the quoted figure of Milne 
Edwards; the distal tooth is also comparatively smaller, 
especially in the adult male from Fiji. In the latter the 
dactylus is also comparatively higher than in the other 
specimens, so that the fingers leave a small hiatus between 
them when closed , and the dactylus presents no trace of 
the small distal tooth which exists in the other specimens. 
These individuals from the Fiji and Samoa Islands are 
probably to be referred to the variety cultrimanus Ad. & 
White , though , according to Miers , in the type-specimens 
of that form the proximal tooth of the two large triangular 
teeth of the index is always entirely wanting, whereas a 
trace of it still exists in our specimens. I have figured the 
hand of the larger male from Samoa (fig. 5^). 

The larger hand of one of the Atjeh males has a length of 
31^)2 mm. and is 14 mm. high ; these numbers are for the adult 
male from Fiji 4272 I'Qi^- ^^^ 1*^^/3 nim. , and for the 
larger male from Samoa 33 mm. and 13 mm. 

9. Gelasimus tetragon on Herbst. 
(PI. 2, fig. 6). 

Gelasimus tetragonon, Herbst; Milne Edwards, I.e. p. 147, PI. Ill, 
flg_ 9. — Kingsley, in: Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences of Philadelphia, 
1880, p. 143, PI. IX, fig. 11. 

Gelasimus variatus, Hess, Beitrage z. Kenntniss der Decapodenkrebse 
Ost-Australiens, 1865, p. 20, PI. VI, fig. 7. 

An adult male and two very young males from Tahiti, 
and a fine male and a female without eggs from the 
Samoa Islands. 

The nearest ally of this species is Gelos. voeans M. E. 
The cephalothorax of GeJas. tetragonon is, however, strongly 
convex in the antero-posterior direction, much more 
than that of Gelas. voeans, the orbits have a much 
more oblique direction and the front and the 
frontal furrow are comparatively broader. The 
lateral margins of the cephalothorax are indicated in both 

Notes frona the Leyden Museum, Vol. XUl. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 25 

species by a minutely granulated , little prominent line. 
In both species also the cephalothorax appears 
little narrowed backwards and they may be dis- 
tinguished already by this character alone, at first sight, 
from many others, as e. g. from Gelas. Dussumieri, arcua- 
tus , coarctatus , acutus , Urvillei etc. The inferior orbital 
margin does not present even a trace of an accessory row 
of granules , which occurs in other species , as e. g. Gelas. 
signatus Hess, neither in the male nor in the female. 

In both species the anterior margin of the arm of the 
larger chelipede of the male is armed with an acute 
prominent tooth near the distal end. The carpopodite 
is perfectly smooth on its rounded external surface, and 
presents only a few minute granules on the upper surface 
towards the inner margin. The larger hand shows some 
resemblance , as to its general form , to that of Gelas. 
acutus Stiraps. (vide de Man , in : Journal Linnean Soc. of 
London, Vol. XXII, PI. VIII), but the inner surface of 
the palm , though being somewhat granulated , does not 
bear the granulated ridges which exist in that species and 
which are so strongly developed in Gelas. vocans. The outer 
surface of the palm is rather finely granulated , the 
fingers are only a little longer than the palm. The immo- 
bile finger , which is slightly curved upward , presents , 
about as in Gelas. vocans, a shallow pit at its base and 
is here a little more coarsely granulated; it is marked on 
this place with a large red patch , which , according to 
Miers , extends sometimes over the whole outer surface of 
the palm. Both fingers are regularly tapering. The lower 
finger bears two little prominent teeth or prominences on 
the distal half of the inner margin; on the dactylus 
only six or seven somewhat larger and several smaller 
granules occur. 

The fingers of the smaller hand of the male are a little 
shorter in proportion to the length of the palm than in 
Gelas. vocans. 
The ambulatory legs fully resemble those of the latter species. 

Notes from the Leyden Miuseum , Vol. XIH. 



26 CARCINOLÜGICAL STUDIES 

Gelas. tetrogonon Herbst is disüibuted from the Red 
Sea and Zanzibar to the Sandwich Islands, Tahiti and 
Sydney (Hess). 

10. G e I a s im u s Dussumieri M. E. 

Gelasimus Dussumieri ., H. Milne Edwards, in: Annales des Scien- 
ces Naturelles, T. XYIII , 4852, p. 148, PI. IV, fig. 12. 

Gelasimus Duss-xmieri, de Man, in: Journal Linnean Soc. of Lon- 
don, Vol. XXII, 1888, p. 108, PI. VII, fig. 2—7. 

The Leyden Collection contains five male specimens from 
Java, some of which are adult, a male from the Island 
of Nossy-Faly near Madagascar, a large number of rather 
young specimens, both males and females , from Amboina , 
and two male specimens from the Island of Ponape , pur- 
chased from the Museum Godeffroy. I have given a complete 
description of this common Indian species in my » Report 
on the Crustacea of the Mergui Archipelago", so that I 
will only add the following remarks. 

In the specimen from Nossy-Paly the immobile finger 
of the larger hand is rudimentary ; this hand has been 
figured by Hoffmann (Crustacés de Madagascar, 1874, PI. 
HI, fig. 22). 

In a few male specimens of those collected at Amboina 
and which are all very young , I observe a trace of an 
accessory row of granules on the walls of the 
orbits near the inferior margin. This fact is of 
some importance as there is usually in this species n o 
trace of that accessory row. But as the cephalothorax 
of these individuals has exactly the same form as that of 
the other specimens, being quite as long in proportion to 
the distance between the external orbital angles, and as 
they have been collected in the same locality , they are 
without any doubt to be referred to the same species. 

It is not easy to indicate the diff'erences by which Gelas. 
Dussumieri may be distinguished from the Japanese Gelas. 
arcuatus de Haan. The lateral margins of the cephalotho- 

Notes from the Leyden Museum , Vol. XUI. 



CARCINOI.OGICAL STUDIES. '27 

rax have a different direction; they form a regularly- 
undulate, S-1 i k e line in the species of de Haan , 
different from what is seen in Gelas. Dussumieri. 

The two longitudinal grooves by which the gastric and 
cardiac regions are separated from the branchial regions , 
are deep in the male of Gelas. Dussumieri, but rather 
shallow in the other species. The external orbital angles 
are much more acute and directed more obliquely outward 
than those of Gelas. arcuatus. 

The larger hand of the male has a different form in 
both species. The lower finger of Gelas. Dussumieri is 
constantly armed with only one single prominent 
tooth a little before the middle, but for the rest 
it is unarmed and terminates in an acute point, slightly 
curved upward. The dactylus or mobile finger presents 
only some more or less prominent granules along its pro- 
ximal half. The lower finger of Gelas. arcuatus, on the 
contrary, presents always two teeth, one a little before or 
in the middle, the other near the extremity, and more or 
less prominent granules are observed in this species along 
the whole length of the inner margin of the dactylus. 

The ambulatory legs, finally, are a little less slender 
in Gelas. arcuatus , the meropodites being slightly more 
enlarged. 

I give the measurements of some specimens: 

Millim. 
1. 
Distance between the ext. orb. angles 87^/3 
Length of the cephalothorax (front 

included) 22 V4 

Length of the larger hand ... 72 

» » » palm of ditto . . .18 

N°. 1, adult male from Java; N°. 2, male from Ponape ; 
N°. 3, young male from Amboina without, and N°. 4, young 
male from Amboina provided with a trace of an accessory 
row of granules near the inferior margin of the orbits. 

N'otes from the Leyden. ÜMuseum , Vol. ^XIIII. 



2. 


3. 


4. 


23V4 


18'l, 


151/2 


14 


111/3 


9V4 


41 


22'/2 


18V, 


12 


91/0 


9 



28 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

11. Gelasimus arcuatus de Haan. 
(PI. 3, fig. 7). 

Gelasimus arcuatus^ de Haan, Fauna Japonica, Crustacea, p. 53, 
PI. VII, fig. 2. 

This Japanese species is apparently still insufficiently 
known. I have before me two typical specimens from the 
Leyden Museum, one of which agrees exactly with the 
quoted figure in de Haan's classical work, whereas the 
other represents an interesting individual variety. 

It differs from Gelas. vocans M. E. and Gelas. tetragonon 
Herbst by the form of the cephalothorax , which is strongly 
convex in the antero-posterior direction, and considera- 
bly narrowed backwards; its lateral margins , defined 
by a rather prominent carina which is only slightly granu- 
lated anteriorly, present a characteristical S-like 
course, which has been very well figured by de Haan. 
The orbits are transverse, so that the acute external 
orbital angles , which are directed almost straightly forward 
and scarcely outward, project nearly as far forward as the 
middle portion of the upper orbital margin. The inferior 
one of the two lines which form the upper orbital margin 
is distinct and tolerably far distant from the upper line. 
The inferior margin presents no trace of an accessory row 
of granules; this margin is distinctly crenulate along its 
whole length. The frontal furrow is narrow and linear 
with parallel margins, but its form appears rather 
triangular in the figure of de Haan , which is not exact. 

The anterior margin of the arm of the larger chelipede 
of the male is n ever armed with a prominent tooth, 
which exists in Gelas. vocans and in Gelas. tetragonon , but 
it bears only a few small granules. The upper surface of 
the wrist is rather coarsely granulated, considerably flat- 
tened and distinctly separated from the entirely smooth 
and convex outer surface. The size of the larger chela is 
somewhat variable; in some specimens it is twice as long 

Notes from the Leyden JMixseum, Vol. X.III, 



GARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 29 

as the widtli of the cephalothorax , and a similar specimen 
has been figured by de Haan , but in the other type spe- 
cimen the larger hand is scarcely more than once and a 
half as long as the distance between the external orbital 
angles. The hand is rather elongate, but the comparative 
length of the fingers is as much variable as the length of 
the hand itself. In the specimen figured by de Haan the 
fingers are twice as long as the palm and considerably 
gaping, the dactylus being strongly arcuate. In the other 
specimen the little gaping fingers are slightly more than 
once and a half as ong as the palm ; the upper finger is 
straight, the larger hand presents some resemblance to that 
of Gelas. vocans M. E. The outer surface of the palm is 
coarsely granulated, the granules being largest towards 
the slightly concave base of the immobile finger. In Gelas. 
vocans the immobile finger is more distinctly concave at 
the base than in the species of de Haan and almost quite 
smooth , whereas in Gelas. arcuatus it is also covered with 
granules. In both species the upper border of the palm is 
distinctly margined. The fingers have nearly parallel mar- 
gins in the specimen figured by de Haan, and they are 
tapering only near the extremities ; but in the other spe- 
cimen they are regularly tapering towards the tips. Both 
fingers are longitudinally furrowed on the middle 
of their outer surface , whereas the mobile finger of Gelas. 
vocans and of Gelas. tetragonon is never furrowed on its 
outer surface. 

The iriuer margin of the lower finger presents a more 
or less promineut tooth a little before the middle in the 
specimen similar to that which was figured by de Haan , 
and a second less prominent one a little before the extre- 
mity ; in the other specimen, with shorter hand, the first 
tooth stands almost in the middle of the margin. The 
small tooth which in Gelas. vocans is observed at the base 
of this finger , does not occur in Gelas. arcuatus. The 
dactylus or upper finger appears somewhat granulated at 
the base; its inner margin is armed in the specimen with 

JVotes iroin the Leyden. Museum, Vol. XIII. 



3Ü CARCINOLOÜICAL STUDIES. 

elongate band with two small teeth , one of which stands 
a little before the first prominent tooth of the index, the 
other a little before the subdistal tooth of the latter. In 
the other specimen it is not provided with prominent 
teeth, but it presents only several granules, four or five 
of which are larger than the others , and the largest of 
which lies quite opposite the prominent tooth on the 
middle of the index. The ordinary crests on the inner 
surface of the palm are distinct and coarsely granulated. 
The ambulatory legs are less slender than those of the three 
preceding species; the meropodites are more enlarged in pro- 
portion to their length, so that e. g. those o f t h e penul- 
timate pair are exactly twice as long as broad. 

I will finally observe that Gelas. acutus Stimps. from 
Macao and from the Mergui Archipelago , of which I have 
published a complete description in my » Report on the 
Mergui Crustacea" , is somewhat allied to Gelas. arcuatus 
de Haan. The anterior as well as the ambulatory legs 
present indeed the most striking resemblance in both spe- 
cies, when comparing Stimpson's species with the variety 
of Gelas. arcuatus in which the fingers of the larger hand 
of the male are little longer than the palm. But the 
cephalothorax of Gelas. acutus is still more narrowed back- 
wards; the lateral margins are straight, extre- 
mely oblique and not presenting an S-1 ike 
course; the external orbital angles, finally, are much more 
acute and directed very obliquely outward , projecting much 
less forward than the middle part of the upper orbital margin. 

The measurements of the two Leyden types of Gelas. 
arcuatus de Haan are as follows: 1. 2. 

Distance between the ext. orb. angles SGVg mm. Si','^ mm. 
Length of the cephalothorax (front 

included) 22'/, » 20'/^ » 

Length of the larger hand ... 67 » 54^/2 » 

Height of the palm 21 » lOVg » 

Length of the fingers 46 » SSVg » 

Notes frona the Leyden Mixseum, Vol. X.III. 



CARCiNOLOGICAL STUDIES. 31 

12, Gelasimus coarctatus M. E. 

(PI. 3, fig. 8). 

Gelasimus coarctatus, H. Milne Edwards, 1. c. p. 146, PI. III, 
fig. 6. — A. Milne Edwards, in: Nouv. Archives du Muséum, T. 
IX, p. 272, PI. XII, flg. 4. 

Gelasimus forcipatus , Kingsley, 1. c. p. 142, PI. IX, fig. 9. 

A fine male from the Moluccas , collected by Macklot , 
and a young male from the Island of Ponape. 

This species is closely allied to Gelas. Dussumieri and 
Gelas. Urvillei, but differs by the following characters. 

The cephalothorax resembles much that of Gelas. Dus- 
sumieri, it being about quite as long in proportion to 
the distance between the external orbital angles , but the 
lateral margins are (at least in our two specimens) straight 
or even slightly concave and still more oblique. The 
narrow frontal furrow presents the same form in both 
species. The wall of the orbits is ornamented with au 
accessory row of granules near the inferior margin; 
the row consists only of four or five rather prominent 
granules. 

The larger hand of the male closely resembles that of 
Gelas. Dussumieri, but it may always be distinguished by 
the existence of a prominent tooth near the ex- 
tremity of the upper or mobile finger; this tooth 
is constantly wanting both in Gelas. Dussumieri and in 
Gelas. Urvillei. In the young male from Ponape this distal 
tooth is already present. Both fingers are longitudinally 
furrowed on their outer surface. 

Measurements: (ƒ cT 

Distance between the ext. orb. angles 26'/4 mm. 15'/^ mm. 
Length of the cephalothorax . . 15 » 9*^/3 » 

I think Kingsley is wrong when uniting Gelas. forcipatus 
White with this species , because in the former also the 
lower finger of the larger hand of the male seems to be 

Notes from, the Leyden IMuseuixi , Vol. !X.I1I. 



32 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

toothed , which is not the case in Gelas. coarctatus. 
Gelas. coarctatus is known from the Philippine Islands, 
Australia and New Caledonia. 

13. Gelasimus forcipatus Ad. & White? 

(PL 3, fig. 9). 

Gelasimus forcipatus, Adams and White, Voyage of H. M. S. 
Samarang, Crustacea, 1848, p. 50. 

It is not but with much hesitation that I refer a fine 
male specimen from the Indian Archipelago , probably 
from the shores of Celebes, to this species, which is only 
known to me by the short latin diagnosis reproduced by 
Milne Edwards (Ann. Sc. Nat. T. XVUI, 1852, p. 147). 

This crab closely resembles the described variety of Gelas. 
arcuatus de Haan , in which the fingers of the larger hand 
are but little longer than the palm ; it differs by the fol- 
lowing characters. The lateral margins of the carapace are 
a little more oblique, so that the external orbital 
angles are more acute and directed a little more obliquely 
outward than in the species of de Haan. The front presents 
the same form and the orbits are equally transverse. The 
lower wall of the latter, however, is ornamented near the 
inferior margin with an accessory row of eight or 
nine small granules, which are not found in Gelas. 
arcuatus de Haan. The abdominal segments are compara- 
tively a little less enlarged than in the Japanese 
species. 

The larger hand has the same length, being almost once and 
a half as long as the distance between the external orbital 
angles. The palm , which is but little shorter than the fingers 
and almost as high as long , appears comparatively a little 
hio-her than the palm of Gelas. arcuatus. The outer surface 
is densely granulated and the granulation is a little finer 
and closer, the granules being somewhat smaller 

Notes from tlie Leyden Museum , "Vol. ^III. 



ÖARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 33 

than in the species of the » Fauna Japonica". The upper 
border of the palm is margined and the lower border 
granulated about in the same manner in both species. The 
two crests on the inner surface of the palm are coarsely 
granulated in both forms. As I already observed, the fin- 
gers are scarcely longer than the palm and both are faintly 
furrowed in a longitudinal direction on their outer surface. 
They are regularly tapering and present about the same 
form as in the described variety of Gelas. arcuatus] the 
mobile finger is granulated at the proximal end of its 
upper margin. The inner margin of the dactylus is similar 
to that of the other species and armed with fourteen 
or fifteen granules , of which one in the middle and a few 
near the extremity are a little more prominent. The lower 
finger or index is scarcely concave at the base of its outer 
surface and armed along its inner margin with about the 
same number of granules; one of them, situated in the 
middle, is somewhat prominent and tooth-like, and a few 
at the extremity are also a little more prominent. These 
two prominences are, however, much less deve- 
loped than in Gelas. arcuatus. The ambulatory legs, 
finally , have about the same form. 

The upper surface of the cephalothorax of our specimen , 
preserved in spirits , is green anteriorly , violet posteriorly 
and on the lateral sides. The hand is of a uniform reddish tinge. 

I cannot identify this species with Gelas. dubius Stimpson 
from the Loo Choo Islands , because the orbits are not 
more oblique than those of Gelas. vocans, and because the 
lateral margins are distinct. 

Gelas. acutus Stimpson (pi. 3, fig. 10) differs by the 
ceplialothorax being more strongly narrowed backwards, 
by the nearly straight and extremely oblique lateral mar- 
gins, and by the absence of an accessory row of granules 
on the walls of the orbits. 

Measurements : <ƒ 

Distance between the external orbital angles . . 34 mm. 
Length of the cephalothorax (front included). . 20 » 

Notes frova. tlie Leyden JMu^eum, Vol. JCIII. 



34 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

Length of the larger hand 53 mm. 

Height of the palm 21 » 

Length » » » 24 » 

14. Gelasimus Urvillei M. E. 

Gelasimus Urvillei, H. Milne Edwards, I.e. p. 148, PI. Ill, fig. 10. 
Gelasimus Dussumicri, Hilgendorf, in: Baron von der Decken's 
Reise in Ost-Africa , Crustaceen , p. 84, Taf. IV, fig. 1. 

Three probably adult males, collected by Messrs. Pollen 
and van Dam on the Island of Nossy-Faly. 

Prof. Milne Edwards enabled me to study the original 
type-specimen of this species , which was discovered at 
Vanicoro , and which has been figured by his father. 

The three Nossy-Faly individuals , which have been 
described by Hoffmann as (re/a.s. i^usswrnzm , perfectly agree 
with the Paris type , and belong evidently to the same 
species. They are, however, considerably larger than the 
Paris type, which is a rather young specimen. 

Hilgendorf has published a very good figure of Gelas. 
Urvillei, for the specimens referred by him to Gelas. Dus- 
sicmieri, evidently belong to Gelas. Urvillei. I refer there- 
fore to those figures. 

The nearest ally of this species is indeed Gelas. Dussumieri 
M. E. It differs firstly by the shape of the cephalothorax, 
which is a little shorter in proportion to the 
distance between the external orbital angles; 
the cephalothorax appears therefore slightly more enlarged 
anteriorly. In the second place the lateral margins 
are more oblique, so that the upper surface of the 
cephalothorax appears a little more narrowed backwards. 
The walls of the orbits are constantly ornamented near 
their inferior margin with an accessory row of small 
granules: 1 observe about ten or eleven granules 
which are placed near the middle portion of the lower 
margin of the orbits. 

The anterior legs of the male quite resemble those of 
I<fotes from the Leyden JMuseum, "Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 



35 



Gelas. Dussumieri and I cannot find any essential difference. 
The hand of the larger specimen perfectly agrees with 
Hilgendorf's figure Ic, those of the two other specimens 
belong to a variety , which occurs also in Gelas. Dussumieri 
and which is characterized by the lower finger being fully 
unarmed. The meropodites of the ambulatory legs, finally, 
are a little more enlarged than those of Gelas. Dussumieri. 
I give the measurements, in millimeters, of two specimens 
from Nossy-Faly, of the Paris type-specimen of Gelas. Urvillei, 
and of two male specimens of Gelas. Dussumieri from the 
Mergui Archipelago. 



Distance between the ext. orb. angles . 
Length of the cephal. (front included) . 

Length of the larger hand 

Length of the palm of the larger hand. 



1 

41 
13» 



2 


3 


4 


(f 


cT 


d 


234 


184 


26 


13 


10^ 


154 


37^ 


17^ 


34 J. 


10 


H 


9^ 



d 

20^ 
124 
221 



N°. 1 and 2 are Nossy-Faly specimens of Gelas. Urvillei. 

N°. 3. Paris type of Gelas. Urvillei. 

N°. 4 and 5. Male specimens of Gelas. Dussumieri. 

The proportion of the distance between the external 
orbital angles, and the length of the cephalothorax is there- 
fore in Gelas. Urvillei as 25 : 14, in Gelas. Dussumieri as 
25 : I4V4 or as 25 : 15. 

15. Gelasimus sig natus Hess. 
(PL 4, fig. 11). 

Gelasimus signatus , Hess , Heitrage zur Kenntniss der Decapoden- 
krebse Ost-Australiens , 1865, p. 20, Taf. VI, fig. 6. 

Gelasimus signatus , Miers , Report on the Zoolog. Collect, made 
during the voyage of H. M. S. Alert, 1884, p. 236. 

Gelasimus signatus, de Man, in: Zoolog. Jahrbücher, herausge- 
geben von J. W. Spengel, M. II, 1887, p. 697. 

Gelasimus bellator, Kingsley, I.e. p. 138, PI. IX, fig. 3. (an etiam 
Gelas. bellator White?). 

Two adult male specimens from the eastern coast of 
Australia. As to its general appearance, the cephalothorax 

Notes from tlie Leyden JMuseum, V^ol. X.U1. 



cl6 CARCINOLOGICAL STUüIEfcJ. 

of this Species closely resembles that of Gelas. arciiatus de 
Haan, but it differs by the different form of the 
front and by the existence of an accessory row 
of small granules on the lower wall of the 
orbits near the inferior margin. The front of 
Gelas. arcuatus is more distinctly constricted at the insertion 
of the eye-peduncles than in the other species; the frontal 
furrow extends beyond the middle of the front , is narrow , 
and its margins are parallel , but in Gelas. signatus the 
frontal furrow does not or only scarcely reach the 
middle of the front and it is broadly triangular, 
with rounded tip, and with divergent lateral 
margins (fig. ll"). The orbits are transverse, quite as 
those of Gelas. arcuatus , but they are ornamented below 
with an accessory row of fourteen or fifteen small granules 
near the middle of the inferior margin , which are not 
found in the species of de Haan. The lateral margins have 
the same form and direction as those of Gelas. arcuatus , 
as they have the same undulated course in the form of 
a S. The abdomen of the male is a little less enlarged than 
in the Japanese species. 

In both specimens the larger hand occurs on the left 
side. The anterior and the lower margin of the arm are 
finely granulate and the anterior margin presents a more 
or less distinct, compressed and denticulate lobe at the 
distal end. The outer surface of the wrist is smooth , the 
upper one is finely granulate and the internal margin 
somewhat denticulate. The hand (fig. lib) presents the same 
elongate and slender form as that of Gelas. Dussumieri 
and is a little more than once and a half as long as the 
distance between the external orbital angles. The outer 
surface of the palm is more finely granulate than in Gelas. 
Dussumieri; like in this species the inner surface of the 
palm is somewhat granulated in the middle and the two 
ordinary oblique rows of larger granules are equally distinct 
in both species. The fingers are twice and a half as long 
as the palm , and therefore appear comparatively as long 

Notes from tlie Leyden jMuseum, "Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 37 

as those of Gelas. Dussumieri; they are smooth and as 
strongly compressed on the outer as on the inner surfaces. 
The outer surface of the lower finger is longitudinally fur- 
rowed and this furrow proceeds close to the lower 
margin of the finger; in Gelas. Dussumieri this fur- 
row proceeds quite on the middle of the outer surface of 
that finger. The outer surface of the upper finger or dac- 
tylus is also faintly furrowed and the furrow proceeds on 
the middle of the finger. Whereas the immobile finger of 
Gelas. Dussumieri presents a prominent conical tooth a 
little before the middle, the inner margin of the lower 
finger of Gelas. signatus is armed with a broadly tri- 
angular lobe or tooth of a characteristic form 
at some distance beyond the middle (fig. ll''); in the 
larger specimen the distance between the tip of this lobe 
and the extremity of the finger is distinctly shorter than 
the distance between the tip of the tooth and the base of 
the finger , but in the smaller specimen , the fingers 
of which are a little shorter in proportion to the length 
of the palm, the tip of the triangular lobe lies exactly as 
far from the base as from the extremity of the finger. The 
upper finger or dactylus has exactly the same form as that 
of Gelas. Dussumieri and the same dentition : I observe 
one small granule immediately before or opposite the tip 
of the large lobe of the index, and three or four granules 
near the proximal end of the finger. 

The ambulatory legs present about the same form in 
both species. 

The cephalothorax of these two specimens has a dark 
green colour; arm, carpus and palm of the larger chelipede 
are yellowish red , the fingers white. 

The larger individual has the following dimensions: 

0^ 
Distance between the external orbital angles. . 21 mm. 
Length of the carapace (the front included) . . 12'/2 » 

Length of the larger hand 34 » 

Length of the fingers 24 » 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, "Vol. XIII. 



38 CARCINOLOGFCAL STUDIES. 

Gelasimus signatus inhabits the eastern coasts of Australia, 
Gelas. hellator Kingsley is certainly the same species, 
though Kingsley describes only one row of granules on the 
inner surface of the palm. -But I do not know whether Gelas. 
hellator Ad. & White is also identical with this species or not. 

16. Gelasimus signatus Hess, var.: 
angusti frons de Man. 

f PI. 4, fig. lie). 

The Leyden Museum contains twenty six specimens (twenty 
males and six females) of a Gelasimus , which I consider 
to form a distinct variety of Gelas. signatus Hess. They 
were collected on the seashore of Batavia, and only one 
female is provided with eggs. These specimens , which are 
of a somewhat smaller size than the two typical 
individuals from the eastern coast of Australia , which I 
have described above , indeed exactly agree in all their 
characters with these Australian types , with exception 
of the front. This latter is namely a little narrower in 
proportion to the distance between the external orbital 
angles and the frontal furrow is longer, reaches 
beyond the middle of the front and appears 
also much narrower with only little divergent 
lateral margins. I must, however, observe that in 
some specimens these characters are more distinctly pro- 
nounced than in others. The accessory row of granules on 
the lower walls of the orbits is distinctly present in all 
these individuals , both in the males and in the females. 

In the fifteen male specimens, which are provided with 
their larger chelipede, eleven have it on the left and only 
four on the right side of the cephalothorax. This chelipede 
agrees perfectly with the Australian types, presenting as 
distinctly the characteristic triangular lobe or tooth beyond 
the middle of the lower finger , and the dactylus presenting 
quite the same granules. In one specimen the fingers are 
a little narrower and more slender than usual , and appear 
Notes from the Leyden IVIuseum, Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 39 

also a little longer in proportion to the shorter palm. In 
another , on the contrary , the fingers are a little higher 
in proportion to their length as ordinarily and the lobe 
of the index is rounded and but little prominent. These are , 
however , individual variations. 

I must finally remark that the coloration of these spe- 
cimens difiers also a little from the type, as the arm, 
the carpus and the palm of the larger hand 
are of a pale greenish or bluish gray colour, 
instead of presenting the yellowish red observed in the type. 

Dimensions of the two largest specimens: 

d 9 

Distance between the external or- 
bital angles I7V4 mm. I4V3 mm. 

Length of the cephalothorax . . lOVj » QVj » 

Length of the larger hand . . . SGVg 

» )) )) fingers IT'/j ' 

17. Gelasimus annulipes Latr. 

Gelashnus annulipes, Latreille, H. Milne Edwards, 1. c. p. 149, 
pi. 4, fig. "15. — de Man, in: Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. 
II, 1880, p. 69; idem, in: Journal of the Linnean Soc. of London, 
Vol. XXII, 1888, p. 118, PI. VIII, fig. 5—7: idem, in: Archiv f. 
Naturgeschichte, Jahrg. 53, 1888, p. 353. 

Two male specimens belong to that variety , in which 
the larger hand is more slender and more elongate. In a 
typical specimen from the Mergui Archipelago the larger 
hand has a length of 22^4 mm. and a height of 8'/4 mm. 
In the two specimens from Upolu these numbers are 24^/3 
mm. and 7\/4 mm. for the larger, 23 mm. and 7V4 mm. 
for the smaller specimen. This variety occurs also in Amboina. 

18. Gelasimus G aim ar di M. E. 

Gelasimus Gaimardi, H. Milne Edwards, 1. c. p. 150, PI. IV, fig. 17. 
I refer to this species a male and a female from Samoa 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, "Vol. XIII. 



40 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

some mostly young individuals from the Banda Sea, and 
twelve young specimens from Amboina. 

This species is closely allied to the preceding and to 
Gelas. Latreillii M. E., of which I have a Paris type be- 
fore me. The cephalothorax is strongly convex in the an- 
tero-posterior direction and comparatively a little longer 
in proportion to the distance between the 
external orbital angles than that of Gelas. annu- 
lipes. The orbits in the male are rather much oblique, the 
external orbital angles acute and directed obliquely 
outward, whereas they are directed straightly forward 
in Gelas. lacteus de Haan. The lateral margins are rather 
oblique and converge rather much backwards , a little 
more in the male than in the female. I do not observe 
accessory granules on the wall of the orbits of the fema- 
les near the lower margin, which exist in the female of 
Gelas. annulipes. 

The larger hand of the male agrees with the figure of 
Milne Edwards (PI. IV, fig. I7a). The distal crest on the 
inner surface near the articulation with the dactylus is 
represented in the male from Samoa only by two small 
granules, and the other is also very indistinctly granula- 
ted; but in the male from the Banda Sea I observe two 
parallel distal rows of granules near the articulation of 
the mobile finger. I suppose that the development of these 
rows of granules is somewhat variable according to the 
individuals. In both males the lower finger presents a very 
small tooth close to the extremity; it bears, moreover, 
some more or less prominent granules, and in the male 
from the Banda Sea even a small tooth in the middle of 
the margin. The upper finger is strongly arcuate in the 
male from Samoa and appears unarmed , but in the male 
from the Banda Sea a few prominent gianules are obser- 
ved along the proximal half of the margin. 

The meropodites of the ambulatory legs are a little more 
enlarged than those of Gelas. annulipes. 

Notes from the Leyden jMuseuria, Vol. ^III. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 41 

Measurements : Samoa. Banda. 

Distance between the external or- 
bital angles 18% iinm. ll^/^ mm. 

Length of the cephalothorax . . llVj » 10% » 

» » » larger hand ... 28 » 27 » 

Length of the meropodites of the 

last pair of legs GVg » 6% » 

Breadth of the meropodites of the 

last pair of legs 2 V5 » 2 V5 » 

I add the dimensions of the Paris type of Gelas. Latreillii : 

Distance between the external orbital angles 22^/g mm. 

Length of the cephalo thorax IS'^ » 

Length of the larger hand 37 » 

)) » » fingers of the larger hand . . 25 » 

)) » » meropodites of the last pair of 

legs 9 » 

Breadth of the meropodites of the last pair of 

legs 4V4 » 

The meropodites of the ambulatory legs are rather con- 
siderably enlarged in Gelas. Latreillu^ being only twice 
as long as broad; they are less enlarged in Gelas. Gai- 
mardi and in Gelas. aiinulipes , whereas those of Gelas. 
lacteus are still narrower , as they are almost four times 
as long as broad. 

19. Gelasimus c h I r p ht h a I mu s Latr. 

Gelasimus chlorophthalmus , Latreille; H. Milne Edwards, Hist. 
Nat. des Crustacés, T. II, 1837, p. 54, and in: Annales des Sciences 
Natur. T. XVIII. 1852, p. 150, PI. 4, fig. 19. 

Nee: Gelas. chlorophthalmus ., Hilgendorf, in: Monatsberichte der 
königl. Akad. der Wissensch. Berlin, 1878, p. 803. 

Two specimens , a male and a female , were presented 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



42 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES, 

in 1878 by Milne Edwards to the Leyden Museum under 
the name of Gelas. Latreillii. As I thought this name to 
be incorrect, I lately sent back the male specimen to 
Paris, whereupon Prof. Milne Edwards informed me that 
it is a true representative of Gelas. chlorophthalmus Latr. 

The nearest ally of this species is Gelas. Gaimardi M. 
E,, but they may be distinguished by the different form 
of the larger hand of the male. The cephalothorax of the 
male presents exactly the same form in both species, I 
find no difference of any importance. The two lines of the 
upper orbital margin are a little more distant from one 
another than in Gelas. Gaimardi. As to the cephalothorax 
of the female, I observe that the antero-lateral margins 
are directed a little more obliquely in Gelas. Gaimardi 
than in the species of Latreille, and that the two lines of 
the upper orbital margin are equally distant in both spe- 
cies. In both species there is no trace of an accessory row 
of granules near the lower orbital margin , neither in the 
male nor in the female. 

The arm of the larger chelipede of the male has the 
same form in both species; in both I observe an obtuse 
tubercle a little before the distal end of the anterior mar- 
gin, and in both the upper margin is a little granulated. 
In both the upper surface of the wrist is finely granula- 
ted. The larger hand of Gelas. chlorophthalmus i s 
considerably higher in proportion to its 
length than in Gelas. Gaimardi and is only twice 
and a half as long as high, but that of Gelas. Gai- 
mardi three times as long as high, Milne Edwards says 
that the palm is longer than the fingers; this is not the 
case on the figur which he published in 1853, nor in 
the male from New Caledonia. In our specimen the 
fingers are once and a third as long as the 
palm and the latter is quite as long as high. 
In both species the palm is margined on its upper bor- 
der , which is not the case in Gelas. annulipes , where the 
upper border is simply rounded. The outer surface is exactly 

J^otes from the Leyden M-useum , "Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 43 

as finely granulate as in Gdas. Gaimardi, the very- 
small granules being visible for the naked eye only towards 
the upper margin. The under margin of the palm bears a 
row of granules, about as in Gelas. Gaimardi and Gelas. 
annulipes. The fingers are quite smooth , except the base 
of the dactylus which is somewhat granulate as in the 
other species. The fingers agree with the quoted figure as 
regards their form. The mobile finger presents at its inner 
margin four granules along the proximal half, and a fifth 
at the beginning of the distal third, but no prominent tooth. 
Whereas the immobile finger of Gelas. annulipes is marked 
with a longitudinal furrow close to the lower margin, the 
lower margin of the index of Gelas. Gaimardi and Gelas. 
cJilorophthalmus is simply rounded and not furrowed , the 
furrow, which runs near the lower margin of the palm, 
being interrupted at the base of the finger. The inner 
margin of the index is armed with a small tooth imme- 
diately before the middle, preceded by four smaller granules, 
and a second smaller tooth is placed at the distal extre- 
mity. Milne Edwards describes the inner surface of the 
palm as wanting the granular crests; but I find in our 
specimen the three ordinary granular crests distinctly deve- 
loped , one at the inner margin of the flattened under 
surface of the palm , the granules of which are little pro- 
minent, and two rows of granules near the articulation 
of the fingers. 

The ambulatory legs also fully agree with those of Gelas. 
Gaimardi; those of Gelas. annulipes and of Gelas. lacteas 
de Haan are considerably more slender. So e. g. the mei'O- 
podites of the penultimate pair of legs of the male have 
a length of 8 mm. and a breadth of S'/g mm.; in a spe- 
cimen of Gelas. annulipes these dimensions are respectively 
6^/4 mm, and 2^'2 °^"i- 1 ^^^ in ^ male of the Japanese 
Gelas. lacteus 10 mm. and SV- mm., in a male of Gelas. 
Gaimardi, however, 8V2 mm. and 3V5 mm. 

Gelas. chlorophthalmus may also be distinguished by its 
colour (vide: Guerin, Icon. Crust., PI. 4, fig. 3), the cephalo- 

PJotes from the Leyden JMuseum, "Vol. XIIJ. 



44 CARCINOLOGfCAL STUDIES. 

thorax being dark green, the larger hand of a beautiful red, the 
fingers of a paler colour and the ambulatory legs reddish brown. 

This species has been observed at Mauritius and seems 
to be very rare. 

The two specimens were labelled » G«/as. Za/m//w, Nou- 
velle Calédonie" ; but this label not being applicable to these 
specimens, and Milne Edwards not quoting Gelas. chloro- 
phthalmus amongst the species of New Caledonia, the locality 
where our specimens have been collected , remains uncertain. 

20. Gelasimus inversus Hoffm. 
(PI. 4, fig. 12). 

Gelasimus inversus, Hoffmann, Criistacés de Madagascar et de 
rile de la Reunion, 1874, p. 19, PI. IV, fig. 23—26. 

Gelasimus chlorophthalmus, Hilgendorf, in : Monatsberichte konigl. 
Akad. der Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1878, p. 803. 

Three of the four original specimens of this species, 
which were described by Hoffmann , exist still in the Leyden 
Museum , unfortunately in a very bad and mutilated state. 
They have been collected on the Island of Nossy-Faly , 
where their indigenous name is »Cava tangena". 

There can be little doubt that the specimens referred to 
Gelas. chlorophthahnus by Hilgendorf belong to Gelas. inver- 
sus, and Hilgendorf, apparently, was not acquainted with 
Hoffmann's description. As this latter is rather complete, 
I will only compare the species with its nearest ally, viz. 
Gelas. lacteus de Haan. 

The lateral margins of the cephalothorax are a little 
more oblique than those of the species of de Haan, in 
which the antero-lateral margius are directed forward and 
scarcely outward. As to the structure of the upper orbital 
margin, both forms fully agree with one another, the 
inferior of the two lines which constitute this margin, 
being very indistinct and scarcely separated from the upper 
line. The lower margin of the orbits of Gelas. lacteus appears 
slightly convex , when the cephalothorax is seen from above, 

Notes from, the Leyden ]VIuseu.m, Vol. iX.111. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 45 

and distinctly crenulate along its whole length ; the lower 
orbital margin of Gelas. inversus^ however, is slightly 
concave in the middle and quite entire, except 
towards its external rounded angle, which ap- 
pears somewhat crenulate. In both species the orbits 
present no trace of an accessory row of granules near the 
lower orbital margin. 

The larger chelipede of the male is characteristic. The 
anterior margin of the arm is somewhat granulate in Gelas. 
lacteus , but in Gelas. inversus this margin is dilated distally 
in a longitudinal lamellate crest, which appears 
somewhat denticulate. The upper surface of the wrist is 
somewhat granulate , its inner margin finely denticulate , 
its outer surface nearly smooth. The larger hand has about 
the same form in both species , being three times as long 
as high, and the fingers being scarcely more than once 
and a half as long as the palm. 

In Gelas. inversus the palm is a little longer than high, which 
is also the case in the other species. The upper border of 
the palm is slightly rounded in the Japanese species , but 
in Gelas. inversus this border is somewhat flattened, 
though also granulated, and separated exter- 
nally from the outer surface of the palm by a 
longitudinal row of granules. The upper half of 
the outer surface of the palm is rather coarsely gra- 
nulated , but in Gelas. lacteus this granulation is much 
finer: in both species the greater under half of the palm 
appears smooth for the naked eye, very finely granulate 
under a lens of sufficient power. The lower sharp margin 
of the palm is distinctly granulate in Gelas. inversus , but 
very finely so in the other species. The fingers are smooth 
for the naked eye , and present about the same form and 
length in both species. They are nowhere furrowed, neither 
in Gelas. lacteus nor in Gelas. inversus. 

The granulation at the base of the dactylus is a little 
coarser in the species of Hoffmann than in the other. 
The mobile finger of Gelas, inversus is constantly 

Notes from the Leyden M.useiim, "Vol. XIII. 



46 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

armed with a triangular prominent tooth at 
the distal extremity; in some specimens the granulated 
internal margin of this finger presents still a second smaller 
tooth a little beyond the middle , and a few somewhat 
prominent granules near the base, but in other specimens 
only the distal tooth of the dactylus exists. This distal 
tooth is not found in Gelas. lacteus. The dactylus is only 
slightly arcuate towards its extremity. The lower finger 
or index is nearly straight, scarcely directed upwards at 
the pointed.extremity. The granulated and straight 
inner margin bears in Gelas. inversus only one 
single tooth, which lies immediately before 
the middle, and no teeth exist at the distal extremity; 
Gelas. lacteus presents also a small tooth a little before 
the middle , but the inner margin is somewhat arcuate 
immediately before the tip. 

The inner surface of the palm is highly characteristic 
of this species. There is namely no trace of the 
more or less oblique granulated ridge, which 
in nearly all other species of this genus borders the un- 
der surface of the palm, proceeding in an oblique direc- 
tion from the articulation of the wrist to the base of the 
index, but the internal surface of the palm is, on this 
place, simply rounded, smooth for the naked eye , very 
finely granulated when seen under a magnifying glass. 
In Gelas. lacteus, on the contrary, there is, like in most 
other species, a prominent oblique granulated crest, defi- 
ning the under surface of the palm. Gelas. inversus pre- 
sents , however , one single row of prominent granules 
near the articulation of the mobile finger, but this row 
exists also in Gelas. lacteus. For the rest the inner sur- 
face of the palm and of the fingers appears smooth for 
the naked eye in both species. 

The ambulatory legs are slender, almost in the same 
degree as those of Gelas. lacteus : so e. g. the meropodites 
of the last pair of legs of the latter have a length of 7''/4 
mm. and a breadth of 2^/5 mm., those of Gelas. inversus 

Notes frona the Leyden Museum, Vol. JKIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 



4? 



respectively 7^/4 mm. and 2^/5 mm. The meropodites of 
the penultimate pair have a length of 8^/3 mm. , and a 
breadth of 8^4 mm. in Gelas. inversus, whereas these 
numbers are IOV3 ^^" ^^^ ^^'4 ™'^- ^^ ^^^ Japanese species. 

As V7ill be seen when comparing my description with 
that of Gelas. cMorophthalmus , this species is quite dis- 
tinct from Gelas. inversus. 

Gelas. inversus Hoffmann has been collected on the 
shores of Mozambique and of the Island of Nossy-Faly. 

21, G ela simu s triangularis A. M. E. 
var, variabilis de Man. 

(PI, 4, fig, 13). 

Gelasimus triangularis, A. Milne Edwards, in: Nouv. Archives 
du Muséum , T. IX , p. 275. 

Gelasimus triangularis, de Man, in: Journal of the Liimean Soc, 
of London, Vol. XXII, 1888, p. 119, PI. VIII, figs. 8—11. 

The Leyden Museum contains about forty specimens ((ƒ , 
Q) which were collected at Amboina. These individuals 
present some slight differences from specimens of Gelas. 
triangularis from the Mergui Archipelago , which I have 
before me and which are to be considered as to represent 
the typical form of this species , having been compared 
with type-specimens of the Paris Museum by myself when 
writing my j» Report on the Mergui Crustacea". 

As to the cephalothorax , I observe that the inferior 
margin of the orbits is a little less finely crenulate, espe- 
cially externally, than in the Mergui specimens, and that 
an accessory row of fifteen or sixteen small 
granules exists on the lower wall of the orbits 
near the inferior margin , both in the male and in the 
female, which are not found in the Mergui form. In the 
second place the teeth with which the inner margins of 
the fingers of the larger hand of the male are armed , are 
placed otherwise than those which are found on the hands 
of the Mergui specimens. These teeth, indeed, are placed 

JNotes from the Leyden IMuseixm, Vol. XIII. 



4Ö CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

in the seven male individuals before rae , on four different 
manners, and on this reason I named this variety » varia- 
bilis". In two specimens the lower finger bears two teeth 
which stand, on the proximal half of the margin, 
at a small distance from one another, the smaller tooth 
quite at the base, the second, which is slightly larger, 
immediately before the middle of the margin. The longer 
distal end presents fourteen or fifteen granules, the fifth 
of which (counting from the tip) is a little more promi- 
nent than the others. In these individuals the upper fin- 
ger is armed, quite at the base , with two teeth which are 
smaller than the opposite teeth of the index , and with 
two or throe prominent granules near the distal end. 

In three other specimens the proximal smaller tooth of 
the two of the lower finger lies also quite at the base , 
but the other is found exactly in the middle of the 
margin. The upper finger presents several granules, like 
in the first variety, three or four of which are a little 
more prominent than the others. One specimen differs 
from the three last described ones only by the absence of 
the basal tooth of the lower finger , and in the last spe- 
cimen , finally , the teeth are entirely absent on both fin- 
gers. In this specimen the row of granules at the inner 
surface of the palm near the base of the fingers is not 
developed , in the other ones it is also less distinct than 
in the Mergui specimens. 

The ambulatory legs are a little more slender than those 
of the type-specimens, the meropodites as well as 
the other joints appearing a little less en- 
larged. 

The upper surface of the cephalothorax has a reddish 
gray ground-colour, and is marked with a few transverse 
purplish stripes'. The larger hand is uniformly yellowish. 

The occurrence of this variety at Amboina is to a cer- 
tain degree remarkable, as the typical form occurs in New 
Caledonia and in the Mergui Archipelago. 

Notes from the Leyden JMixseum , "Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 49 

22. Metopograpsus mess or Forskal , 
var. g r a cilip e s de Man. 

(PI. 4, fig. 14). 

Metopograpsus messor , Forskal; de Man, in: Journal Linnean 
Society of London, Vol. XXII, 1888, p. 144, PI. IX, fig. 11. 

One young male from the Pacific Ocean was purchased 
from the Museum Godefïroy. This specimen agrees with 
the typical representatives of this species from the Red 
Sea, but the propodites of the ambulatory legs 
are a little more slender. I cannot decide whether 
this difference is individual or characteristic of those repre- 
sentatives of Metop. messor , which inhabit the Pacific 
Ocean, because I have only one single specimen before 
me. But when this slight difference might indeed prove 
to be proper to the specimens of the Pacific Ocean, then 
1 propose to designate this form as a variety under the 
name of gracilipes. The front is also a little narrower than 
in the type. 

Dimensions : cT 

Distance between the external orbital angles . 20 mm. 

Length of the cephalothorax 15 » 

Breadth of the front 122/^ » 

23. G r a p s u s maculatus Catesby. 

Grapsus maculatus, Catesby; H. Milne Edwards, 1. c. p. 167, 
PI. VI, fig. 1. 

This species is at present regarded to be one of the 
most widely distributed forms aud to occur both in the 
Atlantic and in the Indopacific Regions. I must, however, 
remark that a young sterile female specimen from Djed- 
dah , Red Sea , differs from female specimens of equal size 
from the West-Indies , which I have before me , by the 
postfrontal lobes, especially the internal ones, project- 
ing somewhat less forward. The cephalothorax of 
this Djeddah specimen has a length of 33 mm. 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 

4 



50 CARCINOLOGICA.L STUDIES. 

The Leyden Museum contains also an adult male of this spe- 
cies, from the Gulf of California. This specimen , the cephalo- 
thorax of which has a length of 63 mm., fully agrees 
with the specimens from the Bahama Islands and the An- 
tilles, but the coloration is somewhat different. The upper 
surface of the cephalothorax has , especially on the gas- 
tric and branchial regions , a violet colour and the pale 
spots are much less numerous, more distinctly defined 
and not confluent. The anterior legs as well as the am- 
bulatory ones are • of a bright red , more or less mixed 
with yellow , especially on the posterior legs, and the pale 
spots are here also few in number and not confluent. 

24, Se s a rm a Büttikoferi de Man. 

Sesarma Büttikoferi, de Man, in: Notes frono the Leyden Mu- 
seum, Vol. V, 1883, p. 163. 

A male and a female from the Junk River, Liberia. 

The male specimen is of a somewhat larger size than 
the original type-specimen described by me in 1883. As 
to the female, I observe that the hands are comparative- 
ly much smaller than those of the male. In the adult 
male the palra projects considerably outward beyond the 
carpus, and the fingers measure only a third of the whole 
length of the hand , the palm being twice as long as the 
fingers. In the female , however , the fingers are still a 
little longer than the palm and the latter is not at all 
produced outward beyond the carpus ; but the outer sur- 
face of the hands is flattened as in the male , and the 
other characters are also nearly the same. 

Measurements : cf Q 

Distance between the external orbital 

angles IS^/g mm. ll^/g mm. 

Length of the cephalothorax . . . 12\'5 » 9% » 
Breadth of the upper margin of the 

front 91/3 » 7 » 

Length of the hands 15 » 6V4 » 

Notes from tlie Leyden IMuseutn, Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 51 

25. Se s ar m a G e r m a n i k. M. 'Et, 

Sesarma Gennani, A. Milne Edwards, in: Nouv. Archives du 
Muséum, T. V, Bulletin, p. 28. 

Sesarma Germani , de Man , in : Zoolog. Jahrb. herausgegeben von 
J. W. Spengel, Bd. II, 1887, p. 651. 

This species is identical with Sarmatium eras- 
sum Dana ; Milne Edwards informs me that he is of the 
same opinion. I was enabled to study a typical male spe- 
cimen of Ses. Germani of the Paris Museum , and I cannot 
find any important difference between this form and Dana's 
species. Milne Edwards says that the antero-lateral mar- 
gins present two teeth , including the external orbital 
angle: I observe, however, a small, though distinct, 
second emargination , so that the antero-lateral margins 
present three teeth. The second lobe is almost twice as 
long as the first, formed by the external orbital angle. 
These teeth or lobes are slightly rounded , and the third 
is very small and may easily be overlooked. The inferior 
margin of the front is slightly emargiuate in the middle. 

The internal angle of the carpopodite of the anterior 
legs is acute. This species , finally , at first sight may be 
recognized by the six or seven parallel, trans- 
verse and smooth, characteristic crests or rid- 
ges, with which the upper margin of the palm 
is ornamented. 

It is to this species that I now refer , with some doubt 
however, a young female specimen from the Pacific Ocean 
because it presents some slight differences from the 
male. The antero-lateral margins present no trace of the 
second emargination behind the external orbital angles, 
and the transverse furrows on the upper margin of the 
palm , which are characteristic of the male , are only re- 
presented by a few transverse rows of impressed points. 

Measurements of this specimen: 9 

Distance between the external orbital angles 8^/^ mm. 
Greatest width of the cephalothorax . . . . IP, 



'5 



» 



Notes from the 1-ieyd.en Museum, Vol. X.HI. 



mm. 



52 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

Length of the cephalothorax 9'^^ 

Breadtli of the front 4^/2 » 

Dana's specimen was collected on the Samoa Islands, 
that of Milne Edwards on Pulo-Condore. 

26. S e s a r m a oceanica de Man. 

Sesarma oceanica , de Man , in : Zoolog. Jahrb. von J. W. Spen- 
gel, Bd. IV, Abth. f. System. 1889, p. 429, Taf. X, fig. 9. 

A male specimen collected at Tjibodas , in the interior 
of the Island of Java , and two young females without 
eggs from an unknown locality. 

The male is larger than those of my original descrip- 
tion (see the measurements). The small tubercles at the 
lower margin of the front are wanting in this specimen. 
The upper margin of the mobile finger is till near the 
extremity covered with small acute teeth with horny tips. 

This species is most closely allied to Ses. dentifrons A. 
M. E. from Upolu. Prof. Milne Edwards sent me an un- 
published drawing of this species , and this drawing presents 
a so striking resemblance with my Ses. oceanica that I 
suppose the two species to be identical. After having sent, 
however, the male from Tjibodas to Prof. Milne Ed- 
wards , this learned carcinologist wrote me that he still 
considers Ses. dentifrons to be a distinct species, distin- 
guished by the frontal margin being armed with four or 
six small tuberculiform teeth. Unfortunately the single 
original specimen of Ses. dentifrons does not make part 
of the Paris collection , having belonged to the Museum 
Godeffroy in Hamburg, and I do not know where it is 
at present. I have , however , described very small frontal 
tubercles in the type-specimens of Ses. oceanica , and as 
these specimens had only a third of the size of Ses. den- 
tifrons., it is very probable that the frontal teeth were 
still too little developed. In the very young female spe- 
cimen of the Leyden Museum they are already distinctly 
visible. 

JS^otes from th.e Leyden JMuseum , Vol. XIll. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 53 

Dimensions of the male from Tjibodas : 

cf 

Distance between the external orbital angles 18^/^ mm. 

Greatest width of the cephalothorax .... 22V3 » 
Breadth of the upper margin of the front . 8V4 » 

Length of the cephalothorax 21^/2 » 

Sesarma oceanica de Man has been found on the Is- 
lands of Ponape and of Java. 

27. Heterograpsus crenulatus Guerin. 

Heterograpsus crenulatus^ Guerin; H. Milne Edwarris, in: Anna- 
les des Sciences Naturelles, T. XX, 1853, p. 193. 

A male from New Zealand was presented in 1878 by 
Milne Edwards to the Leyden Museum under the name 
of Heterograpsus harhimanus Heller. As Miers and Filhol 
have, however, pointed out, this species is identical with 
Heterogr. crenulatus Guerin. 

Heterogr. crenulatus is closely allied to Heterogr. peni- 
cillatus de Haan (confer de Man, in: Notes from the 
Leyden Museum, T. I, p. 71). The differences are the 
following : The cephalothorax of the Japanese species is 
broader anteriorly , the distance between the external 
orbital angles being greater in proportion to the length 
of the cephalothorax than in Heterogr. crenulatus. The 
front o{ Heterogr. penicillatus 'is exactly half as broad 
as the greatest width of the cephalothorax and compara- 
tively broader than in the other species. The upper sur- 
face of the cephalothorax of Heterogr. penicillatus is near- 
ly smooth and only minutely punctate, showing only a 
few granules on the postfrontal lobes, on the protogastric 
regions on each side of the shallow bifurcated frontal fur- 
row, and a few also on the antero-lateral parts of the 
upper surface. This fine granulation is much more dis- 
tinct in Heterogr. crenulatus , in which the greatest part 
of the upper surface is covered with granules, the cardiac 
region only being smooth. 

Notes from the Leyden ÜMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



54 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

The antero-lateral teeth present the same form and size 
in both species. The margins of these teeth, of the or- 
bits and of the front are a little more coarsely granulated 
in Heterogr. crenulatus than in the other , and the poste- 
rior margin of the cephalothorax is a little broader than 
the anterior margin of the front , but in Heterogr. penicillatus 
the front is distinctly broader than the posterior margin. 

The impressed line on the second joint of the external 
maxillipedes proceeds closer to the internal margin in the 
Japanese species than in the other , its distance from the 
internal margin being a fourth of the breadth of the joint 
in Heterogr. penicillatus , but two fifths of it in Heterogr. 
crenulatus , when measured in the middle of the joint. 
The external margin of the third joint appears more 
straight and less arcuate in crenulatus than in the other, 
and is also a little more distinctly emarginate at its posterior 
end than in penicillatus. 

The carpopodite of the anterior legs oi Heterogr. penicillatus 
is armed with an acute tooth at its inner angle , but only 
with a prominent granule in the other. The upper surface 
is a little more distinctly granulated and the antero-internal 
surface a little more hairy than in Heterogr. penicillatus. 

The hands have quite the same form in both species; 
like the wrist they appear smooth for the naked eye, but 
the fine granulation which they present under a magni- 
fying-glass , is somewhat more distiuct in Heterogr. crenu- 
latus than in the other. Nearly the whole inner surface 
of the palm and of the fingers of Heterogr. crenulatus is 
covered with hair, but these hairs do not occur on the 
outer side of the fingers. In Heterogr. penicillatus , on the 
contrary, the fingers are clothed at their bases with hair 
on the inner as well as on the outer surface, 
and the tuft of hair on the inner side occupies only a 
small part of the inner surface of the palm , extending 
neither to the upper nor to the under margin. 

The ambulatory legs present about the same form in 
both species , but the meropodites of Heterogr. penicillatus 

Notes from tte Leyden IMuseuxxi, "Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLO(JICAL STUDIES. 55 

are armed at the distal end of the upper margin, with 
an acute tooth, which is not found in the other species. 
The ambulatory legs of Heterogr. crenulatus are very 
hairy, not only along the anterior margin of the mero- 
podites , but also along the anterior and posterior margins 
of the following joints. The ambulatory legs of the Japanese 
species are described by de Haan as glabrous in the male. 
This is not quite exact. The meropodites are hairy along 
their anterior margin, but the following joints are clothed , 
especially along their margins, only with numerous small 
tufts of very short dark- coloured hairs, the long hairs 
of Heterogr. crenulatus are entirely wanting. 

Heterogr. penicillatus is marked on the cephalothorax as 
well as on the legs with small round red spots. 

This species inhabits Japan , and extends until Amoy 
and Hongkong, Heterogr. crenulatus inhabits the coasts of 
New Zealand. 

I add the measurements of the two species: 

penicillatus, crenulatus. 

Distance between the ext. orbit, angles I7V4 nam. 15 mm. 

Greatest width of the cephalothorax. 2OV2 » l-ö'^ » 
Breadth of the anter. marg. of the front 9^/.^ » TVg » 

Length of the cephalothorax . . . ITVg » 17 » 
Breadth of the posterior margin of 

the cephalothorax 8V4 » 8 » 

These two species differ from Heterogr. crassimanus Dana 
from the Sandwich Islands, which may be identical with 
Heterogr. maculatus M. E., by the more hairy legs, espe- 
cially by the hands which are clothed with hair at the 
base of the fingers. 

Heterogr. nudus Dana from San Francisco is closely allied 
to , but may be distinguished from Heterogr. penicillatus by 
the almost glabrous ambulatory legs , which are less slender 
and the meropodites of which present no tooth at the distal 
end of their upper margin. It differs from Heterogr. crenu- 

Notes Irom the Leyden IVIuseum , Vol. XIII. 



56 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

latns also by its almost glabrous ambulatory legs; the 
inner surface of the palm of the anterior legs of the male 
is almost entirely clothed with hair in Heterogr. crenuhtus^ 
whereas in Ileterogr. nudua the base of the fingers only is 
hairy , as in Heterogr. penicillatus. The ambulatory legs , 
especially the dactylopodites , are likewise more slender in 
the species of Guerin , than in Ileterogr. nudus , if Dana's 
figure is correct, 

I must, finally, observe that Kingsley (Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Scienc. of Philadelphia, 1880, p. 208) is quite wrong in 
uniting Heterogr. nudus with Heterogr. sanguineus de Haan , 
for in this latter species the hands are quite naked , with- 
out a tuft of hair on the inner surface , the wrist of the 
anterior legs presents an acute tooth at the inner angle, 
and the meropodites of the ambulatory legs are armed with 
a sharp tooth at the distal end , whereas those of Heterogr. 
nudus appear to be unarmed. 

Heterogr. maculatus M. E. may be identical with Heterogr. 
sanguineus de Haan. Heterogr. crassimanus Dana also may 
be identical with the species of the » Fauna japonica", but 
the merus-joint of the outer foot-jaws appears more enlarged 
and more dilated externally , with a more convex outer 
margin in the species of Dana , and the penultimate joint 
of the abdomen in the male is shorter in proportion to 
its breadth. Moreover, in Dana's figure, the carpus of the 
anterior legs does not present the sharp tooth at the inner 
angle, which exists in Heterogr. sanguineus. 

28. Heterogr ap sus spinosus M. E. 

(PI. 4, fig. 15;. 

Heterograpsus spinosus, H. Milne Edwards , in : Annales des Sciences 
Naturelles, T. XX, 1853, p. 194. — A. Milne Edwards, in: Journal 
des Museum Godeffroy, Heft IV, 1874, p. 6. 

A young male and an ova-bearing female from Upolu. 
This rare species may be easily recognized by the charac- 
teristic shape of the cephalothorax. This latter is a little 

Notes from the Ley den IMiaseurri, Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 57 

broader than long, its upper surface is very slightly convex 
trausversely as well as in the antero-posterior direction , 
especially in the female. The regions are tolerably well 
indicated and defined by distinct, though shallow grooves. 
The upper surface is minutely granulated anteriorly and 
on the mesobranchial regions , for the rest smooth and 
somewhat finely punctate. The front is strongly deflexed , 
and the anterior margin appears nearly straight; the 
epibranchial (or internal post-frontal) lobes are separated 
from one another by the rather deep median furrow , which 
is bifurcated as usual. The hepatic region is somewhat 
concave. The orbits are large. The antero-lateral margins , 
which in the other species of this genus appear more or 
less convex, are, on the contrary, slightly concave 
in Heterogr. spinosus ; they are armed moreover 
behind the acute and prominent external orbi- 
tal angle with three subequal, somewhat spi- 
niform and comparatively small teeth; the 
first tooth, formed by the external orbital 
angle, is as long as the three posterior teeth 
together. The cephalothorax has therefore its greatest 
breadth at the fourth antero-lateral teeth. The postero- 
lateral margins are nearly straight and slightly converge 
backwards. The external maxillipedes leave a small rhom- 
boidal gape between them , about as wide as those of 
Heterogr. sanguineus de Haan and several other species. 
Kingsley in his » Analytical key to the genera of G rap- 
si da e" (Proc. Acad. Nat. Scienc. of Philadelphia, 1880, 
p. 188) divides the genera according to the presence or 
absence of the rhomboidal gape between the external foot- 
jaws , and refers the genus Heterograpsus to that section in 
which the outer foot-jaws are not gaping. He is evidently 
wrong in doing so , and it would perhaps have been better 
to have made no use at all of this character. The external 
foot-jaws of Heterogr. oregonensis Dana leave no hiatus 
between them , and Dana , for that reason , brought this 
species to another genus (Pseudograpsus) and referred those 

Notes from the Leyden IMiiseum, Vol. XIII. 



5 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

with gaping maxillipedes to the genus Hemigrapsus. I am 
also inclined to refer these forms to different genera. 

The inferior margin of the orbits of the male is entire 
and appears only very minutely granulated when seen under 
a strong magnifying-glass. 

The carpopodite of the anterior legs is rounded and 
unarmed at the internal angle. The hands are quite smooth, 
but the slightly gaping fingers are provided 
with a patch of hair externally as well as in- 
ternally. 

The ambulatory legs are rather slender. The meropodi- 
tes are armed with an acute tooth at the distal end of 
their upper margin. The propodites and dactylopodites of 
the male are tomentose along their inferior margin; the 
toment has its greatest development on the propodites and 
dactylopodites of the first pair, and gradually diminishes 
on those of the other legs. 

This species, on account of its more strongly deflexed 
front and slightly concave antero-lateral margins , is quite 
different in appearance from its congeners. 

I give the measurements of the two quoted individuals and 
of a male type-specimen from Australia of the Paris Museum. 

1. 2. 3. 

cT cT 9 
mm. mm. mm. 

Distance between the ext. orbit, angles . IS^/g 10 Vg 12^/3 

Greatest breadth of the cephalothorax . lö^/^ HVg 14 

Length of the cephalothorax .... I3V4 10^/3 IIV3 

Breadth of the front 7V,, ^'1, ^\ 

No. 1 is the original specimen of the Paris Museum , 
N°. 2 and 3 are the Leyden specimens. 

Heterograpsus spinosus , a rare species , has been record- 
ed from Vanicoro and Australia. 

29. Calcinus intermedins ^& Man. 

Calcinus intermedius , de Man, in: Notes from the Leyden Mu- 
seum, Vol. Ill, 188i, p. 102. 

Notes from the Leyden JMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 59 

I consider this species to be identical with Calcinus 
latens (Rand.) Dana, finding no difference of any impor- 
tance between the original specimen of intermedius from 
Djeddah , Red Sea, and a specimen from Tahiti, which 
I formerly referred to Dana's species. The granules with 
which the fingers of the larger hand are covered , are more 
flattened and less prominent than in the Tahiti specimen, 
but this may perhaps be ascribed to the larger size of 
the Red Sea specimen, in which the granules are more 
worn of. This species may be distinguished both from 
Calc. elegans M. E. and Calc. nitidus ^e\\. by the quite 
different coloration, as well as by the lower mar- 
gin of the left hand being sharp and granulate, and 
by the dactylopodites of the second and third pair of legs 
being more slender and almost as long, but not shorter 
than the propodites. The fingers of the larger hand are 
also but finely granulate and they are not provided with 
the larger tubercles which are characteristic of Calc. elegans. 

This species may at first sight be recognized by the 
dark violet coloration of the basal half of the dactylopo- 
dites of the second and third pair of legs ; these legs are 
clothed with some tufts of hair especially on the last joints. 

Calcinus latens has been recorded by Richters from 
Mauritius, and by Dana from the Indian Archipelago, the 
Fiji- and the Sandwich Islands. 

30. Pseudosquilla o culat a Brulle. 

Squilla oculata, Brullé, in: Webb et Berthelot, lies Canaries, 
Zool. Crust, p. 18, fig. 3 (1836—44). 

Pseudosquilla oculata, Miers, on the Sqiiillidae, in: Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History for February 1880, p. 110, PI. Ill, fig. 
3 and 4. 

The Leyden Museum received two specimens of this 
Atlantic species from the Samoa Islands. 

Prof. Milne Edwards enabled me to compare them with 
a type-specimen of Brulle's Squilla oculata from the Cape 
Verd Islands, and I cannot find differences of any im- 
Ndtes from tlie Leyden ]MuseuEu, Vol. X!III. 



60 CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

portance between these specimens. I only observe that the 
eye-peduncles of the Samoa-specimens are a little more 
dilated at the distal end , and that the rostral plate is 
slightly more transverse and has the small median spinule 
comparatively a little longer than the specimen from the 
Cape Verd. The terminal joint of the antennular peduncle 
appears in the figure , published by Miers , to be about 
twice as long as the penultimate one; but in reality, in 
the Samoa-specimens , as well as in the Atlantic indivi- 
dual the terminal joint is only a little longer than the 
preceding one. 

The larger specimen measures a little more than 5 cen- 
tim. in length. 

As we know, still another species of this genus appears 
as widely distributed, occurring both in the Pacific and 
Atlantic oceans , viz. : Pseudosquilla ciliata Miers , which I 
consider to be specifically distinct from Pseudosquilla oculata 
Brulle. 

Middelburg, April 1890. 



JNotes from the Leyderi IVIusetim, Vol. XIII. 



CARCINOLOGICAL STUDIES. 61 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

PLATE 1. 

Fig. I. Actaeodes pubescens M. E., outer view of the hand of the young male, X 3. 
// 2. Etisodes frontalis Dana, adult male, X 2; 3«, larger hand of the 

male, X 2. 
// 3. Epixantkus subcorrosus, n. sp., female, X 2. 

PLATE 2. 

» 4. Epixanfhus frontalis M. E., female from the Mergui Archipelago, X 2. 

V 5. Gelasimus vocans M. E,, larger hand oi a maie specimen from Atjeh, 
Sumatra, X IW^; 5«, larger hand of the male from Samoa, which 
belongs to the variety cultrimana Ad. & White, X I'^j- 

-/ 6. G'e/a^?»?/* ifei^rasyowo» Herbst, adult male from the Samoa Islands, X I'/i- 

PLATE 3. 

» 7. Gelasimus arcuatus de Haan, type-specimen from the Leydeu Museum, 
front of a male, X 4 ; 7a, larger hand of a male, similar to that 
figured by de Haan, X I'/i; 7d, a variety of the larger hand of a 
type-specimen from the Leyden Museum, X I'/j. 

„ 8. Gelasimus coarcfatus M. E., front and orbit of ' a young male from 
Pona|é; Sa, larger hand of the same individual, X I'/j- 

-/ 9. Gelasimus forcipatus (Ad. & White) de Man, outer view of the larger 
hand of a male from Celebes, X !'/»• 

II 10. Gelasimus acutus Stimpson, front and orbit of a male specimen from 
the Mergui Islands, X 3. 

PLATE 4. 

-/ 11. Gelasimus signatus Hess, male from the eastern coast of Australia, 
X 1'/»; 11^' ^"^oni and orbit of the same, X 3; \\b, outer view of 
the larger hand of the same individual, X I'/a! -^•^^' ■'^'"°''*' of^iial^ 
specimen from Batavia, belonging to the variety angusti frons de M., X 4. 

,1 12. Gelasimus inversus Hoffmann, outer view of the larger hand of a male 
type-specimen from Nossy-Faly, X I'/j- 

// 13. Gelasimus triangularis A. M. E, var. variabilis de Man, outer view 
of the larger hand of a male from Amboina, X ''^■ 

II 14. Metopograpsus messor Forskal, var. gracilipes de Man, right leg of the 
penultimate pair of a male specimen from the Pacific Ocean, X 2. 

,1 15. üeterograpsus spinosus M. E, an ova-bearing female from Upolu, X 
2; \ha, outer view of the hand of the young male, X 4. 



Notes from the Leydeti IMuseuiii, Vol. XIII. 



'62 FÜSUS SIEBOLDI. 



NOTE IL 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF FÜSUS 
FROM JAPAN. 



M. M. SCHEPMAN. 



Fusus Sieboldi, n. sp. 

Shell fusiform, white ; whorls 8 , slightly concave at the 
upper part, rather inflated and rounded beneath; nucleus 
smooth and semitransparent, each of the next whorls 
with about 10 eostae , which become obsolete on the Q^^ 
and are entirely wanting on the ultimate and penultimate 
whorl. The entire surface of the shell , with exception of 
the nucleus, is covered with close set lines of growth and 
spiral lirae, of which latter there are 13 on the penulti- 
mate whorl, besides a few much finer intermediate ones, 
which alternate rather regularly with the coarser lirae and 
are more clearly seen on the ultimate whorl ; the lirae are 
slightly granulate. Last whorl regularly contracted to the 
base and produced into a moderately long canal , which 
is slightly curved. Aperture oval, columella smooth, slightly 
excavated , with a thin white callosity ; interior of the aper- 
ture smooth and white. 

Length 40, diam. 16 mill. — Length of the aperture, 
including the canal, 24, width 7^2 mill. 

Hab. Japan , collected by von Siebold (Leyden Museum). 

llhoon near Rotterdam, November 1890. 



Notes from tlie Ley den ÜMuseum , "Vol. XIII. 



CERCOPITHECUS WOLFI. 63 



NOTE III. 
CERCOPITHECUS WOLFI, N. SP. 



BY 

A. B. MEYER. 



In the Zoological Garden of Dresden, since the year 1887, 
there has been a living specimen of a Cercopithecus, brought 
hither from Central West-Africa by Dr. Ludwig Wolf. This 
specimen so obviously represents an undescribed species of 
monkey , that I need not hesitate any longer in describing 
it shortly, though this can be done but imperfectly during 
its life-time. The following remarks, therefore, must be 
looked upon as preliminary only, to be completed after 
the animal's death. 

This new species belongs to the Mofia-group , which 
was divided by Prof Schlegel (Cat. Mus, Pays-Bas, Singes, 
1876, p. 80) into those with white over the root of the 
tail and those without it. 

The first division is represented solely by C. inona Erxl. ; 
the second is composed of C. Camphelli Wat., C.pogonias 
Benn. {Erxlebenii Dahlb. & Puch.) , and C. erythrogaster 
Gray , all occurring in Western Africa. To this latter group 
C. Wolji belongs , though it may at a glance be distinguished 
from all other species by its ferruginous hind legs 
and by the light patches on inside of thighs and 
arms. Hereby it would be sufficiently characterized, as 
this , as far as I am aware , does not occur in any known 
species. I give, however, as detailed a description as is possible 
while the animal is living. 

Above bluish gray , on sides of body darker , middle of 
back shading into yellowish brown. Cap brownish gray. 
An upraised yellowish white semicircular frontlet reaching 

Notes from the Leyden Mluseura, Vol. XIII. 



64 CERCOPITHECUS WOLFI. 

to the ears, bordered in front by a narrower black one 
produced very narrowly over the ears, becoming broader 
on sides of neck and dissolving into the black of outside 
of arms. Froat part of snout dull orange flesh colour. 
Nose and other naked parts of face blackish gray or bluish. 
Eartufts of a dark orange colour. The long hairs of the 
cheeks citron yellow, vermiculated with brownish and pro- 
duced into long yellowish white whiskers. Throat and 
breast yellowish white , the latter in the middle with an 
elongated pure white patch. A stripe along the sides of 
the body saffron yellow. Middle of belly lighter. Arms 
outside deep black , the hairs being more or less tipped with 
yellowish brown, inside yellowish white with an outer 
edging of saffron yellow. Legs outside orange ferruginous, 
most vivid on tibia , on upper thighs with darker tips to the 
hairs; inside lighter and on midst of upper thiglis white 
(whether naked skin or hairs could not be decided). Tail 
above mousegray, distal third darker, more bluish gray, 
underneath whitish. Iris reddish brown. 

Length of body circa 50 cm. 

» » tail » 68 » 

Height of body (hindlegs) ... » 35 » 

I name this beautiful species Cercopithecus Wolji, in 
honour of its discoverer , whose early death , which took 
place in Africa the 26*'^ of June 1889 , the scientific world 
has to deplore. The decease of Dr. Wolf prevents me 
from ascertaining the exact locality, where this specimen 
was procured. 

Royal Zoological Museum, Dresden, 
December 15, 1890. 



Notes from the Leyden IMuseuixi , "Vol. XIII. 



MYOXIDAE. G5 

NOTE IV. 
EINIGES ÜBER DTE MYOXIDAE ODER SCHLAFER. 



Dr. C. L. RÈUVENS. 

December 1890. 



(Tafel 5). 

lm Nachfolgeudea habe ich raich beraüht , eine Uebersiclit 
meiner Abhandluug » Die M y o x i d a e oder Schlafer. Ein Bei- 
trag zur Osteologie und Systematik der Nagetliiere, mit 
5 Tafeln. Verlag von Trap, Leiden, 189Ö" zu geben. Dass 
dieses Excerpt, denn raebr ist es nicht , in der Zeitscbrift des 
Leidener Museums seiuen Platz findet, ist mir deshalb 
sehr lieb , weil die ganze Abbandlung im biesigen Museum 
ausgearbeitet ist. 

Im System sind die Scbliifer bei den Nagetbieren unter- 
gebracbt, wo sie das eine Mal zu den Eichbörncben , das 
andere Mal zu den Mausen gerecbnet werden. Waterbouse 
(Observations on the Rodentia. Charlesw. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
New Ser. Vol. III. p.p. 91, 184. 1839) spricht zum ersten 
Male von einer Familie der Myoxidae. Ihm folgt spater 
Wagner (Gruppirung der Gattungen der Nager in natürlichen 
Pamilien. Wiegm. Arch, f, Naturgescb. T. I. 1841), und 
Brandt, Lilljeborg und Alston beweisen durch ihre Unter- 
sucbungen , dass die Myoxidae mittels gut umschriebener 
Schadelmerkmale eine besondere Familie bilden. Da Alston's 
Eintheiluug der Nagethiere als die gegenwartig beste 
angeuommen wird , so werden die Schlafer jetzt als besondere 
Familie zwischen die der Eichbörncben und Mause gestellt. 

Die Merkmale, a if welche sich diese Eintheilung basirt, 

Notes from th.e Leyden. Museum , "Vol. JX.IiI. 



6G MYOXIDAE. 

sind bis jetzfc hauptsaclilicb osteologischer Natur. Wohl 
ist vou deu europaischen Schlaferu , und nach F. Cuvier 
(Descriptiou des caractères propres aux geures Graphiure et 
Cercomys. Ann. du Musée d'Hist. Nat, T. I, p.p. 441 — 
452. 1832) auch von Graph, capensis constatirt , dass ihnen 
der Blinddarm fehle; dies Merkmal wird wahrscheinlich 
auch wohl bei den übrigen Reprasentanten der Familie 
vorkommen und würde diese letzte hierdurch allein schon 
scharf von den übrigen Nagern, so weit sich namlich die Un- 
tersuchungen hierüber bis jetzt ausstrecken, abgegrenzt sein. 

Beschreibt F. Cuvier im Jahre 1821 die Zahney on M. glis 
und im Jahre 1832 ausführlich die Schadelmerkmale von 
Graph, capensis , so giebt G. Cuvier in seiner Arbeit über 
die fossilen Skeletreste (1821—24) schon die Unterschiede 
im Gebiss bei M. glis, E. quercinus und Musc. avellanorius an. 
Waterhouse macht in seiner vorher erwahnten Arbeit auf- 
merksam auf das Fehlen des Processus postorbitalis und 
auf das grössere Foramen infraorbitale , Merkmale , wodurch 
Myoxus von Sciurus gut zu unterscheiden sei. Sich auf 
üifferenzen am Schadel , hauptsachlich den Zahnen, basirend, 
bestimmt Wagner in 1841 , dass die Familie der My oxin a, 
wie er die Schliifer nennt , ein Genus Myoxus und vier 
Subgenera, namlich Graphiurus , Eliomys , Glis und Mus- 
cardinus besitze (statt Glis hat sich spater Myoxus auch 
als Untergattungsname eingebürgert). War bis jetzt nur 
ein Vertreter jedes Subgenus bekannt, so fügt Wagner 
diesmal einen neuen , E. melanurus dazu , und im Jahre 
1848 einen zweiten : E. orobinus. Mit dem Scbiidel unbe- 
kannt , wusste Wagner nicht , wo er den M. nitedula 
unterbringen soUte ; bis heute ist diese Art von allen 
Autoren , rait Ausnahme von Trouessart (Catalogue des 
Mammifères. 1887) und Jeutink (Catalogue du Museum 
d'Hist. Nat. des Pays-Bas. T. IX, XII.) welche sie zu 
Eliomys rechnen , zu M. glis gesetzt. Meiner Meiuung nach 
kanu sie diesen Platz behalten, doch könnte sie als Ueber- 
gang von Myoxus zu Eliomys betrachtet werden. 

Osteologische Merkmale über seinen M. elegans giebt 

Notes from th.e Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



MYOXIDAÉ. 67 

Temminck in seiner Beschreibung vom Jahre 1851 nicht 
und sagt er auch nicht ob er Myoxus als Allgemeinnameu 
zur Andeutung der Verwantschaft oder als Beziehung zum 
Genus oder Subgenus nimmt. 

War seit dem Jahre 1820 schou eine Schlaferart aus 
Afrika bekannt, welcher Desmarest den Nanieu M. mu- 
rinus giebt , erst im Jahre 1852 beschreibt Peters (Reise 
nach Mossambique) den Schadel dieser Species und stellt 
sie zu Eliomys. Asien und Europa lieferten bis heute keine 
neuen Schlaferarten mehr , Afrika jedoch bot ein frucht- 
bareres Jagdgebiet, und danken wir diesem Continent seit 
dem Jahre 1883 fünf neue Schlafer, namlich : Graphiurus 
hueti aus Senegambien (de Rochebrune, Faune de la Séné- 
gambie. 1883), Bifa lerotina aus Algier (Lataste , Descrip- 
tion d'un nouveau rongeur de la Familie des Myoxides. 
1885), Eliomys nagtglasii und crassicaudatus aus Liberia 
(Jentink, Zoological Researches in Liberia. 1887), und 
Eliomys kelleni aus Damara-land (Reuvens , Die Myoxidae 
oder Schlafer. 1890). Im Ganzen sind also 13 Species, 
vertheilt in 4 Subgenera zu einem Genus gehorend , bekannt : 
Eliom,ys quercinus (L.). 

» nagtglasii (Jent.). 

» kelleni Reuv. 

» crassicaudatus (Jent.). 

» murinus (Desm.). 

•» melanurus Wagn. 

» orobinus Wagn. 

Graphiurus capensis Cuv. 

» hueti Roch. 

Myoxus nitedula Pall. 

» glis (L,). 

» elegans Temra. 

Muscardinus avellanarius (L.). 

Von diesen sind E. orobinus und Graph, hueti mir nur 

nach der Beschreibung bekannt , von alien anderen babe 

ich ent weder die Typen oder doch mehrere Reprasentanten 

gesehen. Da ich hier natürlich , des beschrankten Raumes 

J«Jote8 from the Leyden ]Museu.in, "Vol. X!11I. 



68 MYOXIDAE. 

wegeu , nicht weit ausschweifeii kanu , so verweise ich für 
die allgemeineii Charactere, sowohl ausserliche als osteolo- 
gisclie, uacli meiner obeu citirten Mouographie, doch habe 
ich hier vou E. kelleni eiiie Abbilduug (Taf. 5) beigefügt 
und findet maa ara Ende dieser Abharidluug eine kurze 
Beschreibung dieser Art. Bei dieser Arbeit komrat es rair 
hauptsachlich darauf au , die geographische Verbreitung an 
zu geben. Deshalb folgt hier ein Verzeichniss aller von rair 
geseheuen ludividueu , geordnet nach den Museen in denen 
sie sich befinden, und rait Angabe ihrer Fundorte; man 
hat dann sogleich eiu üebersicht des Materials. 

Berlin. 

Da ich selbst nicht in Berlin war, stand rair nur eine 
Liste der anwesenden Exemplare zur Verfügung; es zeigt 
sich daraus folgende Anzahl: 

E. quercinus (L.) 6 (2 Spir., 2 Ausg., 1 Sk., 1 Sch.)i). 

E. nagtglasii (Jent.) 1 (Ausg.). 

E. murinus (Desra.) 6 (1 Spir., 2 Ausg., 1 Sk., 2Sch.). 

E. melanurus Wagu. 1 (Ausg.). 

Gr. capensis Cuv. 1 (Ausg,). 

M. nitedula Pali. 3 (1 Spir., 1 Ausg., 1 Sch.). 

M. glis (L.) 4 (2 Ausg., 1 Sk., 1 Sch.). 

M. elegans Temra. 2 (1 Spir., 1 Sch.). 

Musc. avellanarius (h.) 4 (1 Spir., 1 Ausg., 1 Sk., 1 Sch.). 

Braunsch weig. 

E. quercinus (L.) 12 (6 Spir., 3 Ausg., 3 Sch.) ■^). Von 
diesen kommen 5 aus dem Harz , 1 vom St. Gotthardt, 1 
von Charaouny ; 5 sind ohne Ortsangabe. 

M. nitedula Pali. 14 (7 Ausg., 7 Sch.J. Es stamraen 2 Ex. 
von der Wolga (H. Möschler) , 2 aus Sarepta, 2 aus der 
Dobrudscha, I vora Altai; die Schadel gehören zu den Balgen. 

M. glis (L.) 19 (8 Spir., 7 Ausg., 2 Sk., 2 Sch.). 10 
Exeraplare aus der Nahe von Braunschweig, 4 aus Ander- 



1) Spir. = auf Spiritus, Aiisg. = Balg oder ausgestoplt , Sk. = Skelet, 
Sch. = Schadel. 

2) Die 3 Schadel sind leider in meiner Abhandlung anzugeben vergessen. 

Notes rrom thie Leyden JMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



MYOXIDAE, 69 

matt (N. Donazian) , 1 aus der Lombardei; 4 sind ohne 
Ortsangabe. 

Musc. avellanarius (L.) 11 (8 Spir., 2 Ausg,, 1 Sch.). Von 
diesen kommen 3 aus der Lombardei, 3 aus der Nahe 
von Braunschweig , 1 von Charaouny , 1 aus der Schweiz 
(H. Möschler); 3 ohne Fundort. 

Darmstadt. 

E. quercinus (L.) 1 (Ausg.). Ortsangabe: Deutscbland. 

M. glis (L.) 4 (Ausg.). Von diesen komt einer aus 

Hessen und 2 aus der Nahe von Darmstadt; 2 haben als 
Localitatsangabe » Deutschland." 

Dresden. 

E. quercinus (L.) 6 (2 Spir., 4 Ausg.). Von diesen stam- 
men 4 aus Sachsen ; 2 ohne Ortsangabe. 

M. glis (L.) 8 (6 Ausg., 1 Sk., 1 Sch.). Nur eines hat 
eine bestimmte Angabe des Fundortes , namlich ïïohenleipa 
in Böhmen. 

Musc. avellanarius (L.) 1 (Spir.). Ohne Ortsangabe. 

Erlangen. 

E, quercinus (L.) 1 (Ausg.). Aus der Nahe von Erlangen. 

M. nitedula Pali. 1 fAusg.). Ohne Ortsangabe. 1st sehr 
wahrscheinlich der Typus von M. dryas Schreb. 

M. glis (L.) 3 (Ausg.). Aus der Nahe von Erlangen. 

Musc. avellanarius (L.) 6 (3 Ausg., 3 Sch.). Drei sind 
aus der Nahe von Erlangen , die übrigen haben keine 
Ortsangabe. 

Frankfurt. 

E. quercinus (L.) 4 (3 Ausg., 1 Sk.). Alle aus der Nahe 
von Frankfurt. 

E. murinus (Desm.) 3 (2 Ausg., 1 Sch.). Von diesen hat 
das Exemplar wozu der Schadel gehort , folgende Beischrift : 
»S. Afrika. Von H. Verreaux ertauscht in 1837. Typus 
»von M. cineraceus Rüpp." ; das andere kommt vom Gap 
(Dr. Priedleben, 1848). 

N"otes from the Leydeii Museum , Vol. X!III. 



70 MYOXIDAE. 

M. glis (L.) 2 (Ausg.). Das eine aus dem Odenwald , 
das andere aus der Schweiz (Comersee). 

Musc. avellanarius (L.) 3 (Ausg.). Alle aus dem Tauuus. 
Leiden. 

E. quercinus (L.) 11 (2 Spir., 6 Ausg., 3 Sch.). Von 
diesen stammen 2 aus Deutschland (Heidelberg) , 2 aus 
Frankreicli (Champagne), 1 vom S*. Gotthardt (aus den 
Saramlungen von Blasius) , 1 aus Rusland (von Brandt), 
1 aus Süd Europa , die übrigen haben die Angabe » Europa". 

E. nagtglasii (Jent.) 7 (4 Spir., 2 Ausg., 1 Scli.). Von 
diesen kommen 2 von der Goldküste (von Nagtglas ge- 
sammelt) , und hierzu gehort auch der Schadel ; 3 kommen 
aus Liberia (Hill-Town am Du Queah River , Farmington 
River ; gesammelt von Büttikofer und Stampfli). Obenge- 
nannte Exemplare haben Dr. Jentink zur Beschreibung der 
Art gedient, sind also die Typen. In 1888 ist noch ein 
Exemplar von der Goldküste stammend, dazu gekommen. 

E. kelleni Reuv. 1 (Spir.), Dies Exemplar , der Typus der 
Art, hat v. d. Keilen in S. W. Afrika (Damara-land) 
gesammelt. 

E. crassicaudatus (Jent.) 1 (Spir.). Von Büttikofer in 
Liberia (Hill-Town am Du Queah River) gesammelt; Typus 
der Art. 

E. murinus (Desm.) 6 (3 Ausg., 1 Sk., 2 Sch.). Ein 
Exemplar (wozu einer der Schadel gehort) ist von Pel an der 
Goldküste (Dabocrom) gesammelt, und von Temminck in 
»Esquisses Zoologiques" beschrieben; ein Exemplar ist von 
Brehm in S. Afrika ('Algoa-Bai) gesammelt, 2 andere 
stammen vom Cap, und das letzte ist von Peters' Reise in 
Mossambique (Tette). 

Graph, capensis Cuv. 3 (2 Ausg., 1 Sch.). Diese stammen 
alle vom Cap ; das eine der ausgestopften Exemplare (wozu 
der Schadel gehort) ist von v. Horstock mitgebracht. 

M. nitedula Pali, 2 (1 Ausg., 1 Sch.). Das eine Exemplar 
stammt vom Caucasus, das andere ist obne Ortsangabe. 

M. glis (L.) 6 (1 Spir., 3 Ausg., 1 Sk., 1 Sch.). Von 
diesen kommt 1 aus Livorno (von Cantraine gesammelt) , 
Notes from tUe Leyden IMuseum, Vol. X!III. 



MYOXIDAE, 71 

1 aus Croatien (aus den Saramlungen von Blasius) , 1 hat 
die Angabe » Europa", 1 (wozu der Schadel gehort) ist 
ohne Andeutung des Pundortes , das Skelet ferst seit kurzem 
ira Museum) stammt aus Böhmen. 

M. elegans Temm. 5 (3 Ausg., 2 Sch.). Diese Exemplare , 
die Typen der Art , sind von Burger in Japan gesammelt 
und von Temrainck in der » Fauna Japonica" beschrieben. 

Musc. avellanarius (L.) 10 (1 Spir., 5 Ausg., 1 Sk., 3 
Sch.). Von diesen komt 1 aus Sachsen , 1 aus Böhmen ; 
4 kommen aus Ungarn; 2 haben die Angabe » Europa, 
Deutschland" , 1 Exempl. ist von Blasius bei Rome (Tivoli) 
gesammelt und 1 ist ohne Angabe des Fundortes. 
London. 

E. quercinus (L.) 17 (5 Spir., 7 Ausg., 2 Sk., 3 Sch.). 
Von diesen kommen 3 aus S. Deutschland (Dr. Günther), 

2 aus Frankreich (Dr. Gray und Danford) , 1 aus der 
Schweiz (Alston) , 1 aus der Nahe von Lissabon (Friend) 
und 4 aus S. Europa; 3 sind von Eraser in N. Afrika 
(Tangiers und Karouana) gesammelt, und bei 3 ist der 
Fundort nicht angegeben. 

E. nagtglasii (Jent.) 6 (4 Spir., 2 Sch.). Alle in W. Afrika 
(Aschanti) gesammelt. 

E. crassicaudatus (Jent.) 1 (Spir.). Von Burton in Fer- 
nando Po gesammelt. 

E. murinus (Desra.) 10 (3 Spir., 6 Ausg., 1 Sch.). Von 
diesen stammt 1 vom Kilima-ndjaro (^Jackson), 1 von 
Zanzibar (Dr. Kirk); 2 kommen von Port-Natal, 3 sind 
von Gurney, Rock und Smith in S. Afrika gesammelt; 1 
stammt aus dem Piriiwalde (Lt Trevelyan), 1 vom Senegal 
und 1 ist ohne Angabe des Fundortes. 

Graph, capensis Cuv. 3 (2 Ausg., 1 Sk.). Alle drei sind 
in S. Afrika gesammelt; einer der Balge ist der Typus von 
Al. elegans Og. 

M. nitedula Pali. 5 (2 Spir., 3 Ausg.). Von'diesen sind 
2 aus der Nahe von Belgrad (Coll. Robson), 1 stammt 
aus Georgien (gesammelt von Mlokosievitsch), 1 aus O. Per- 
sien (gesammelt von Blanford und Typus SQine.^ M. pictus) ^ 

Notes from the Leyden JMuseum , Vol. XIII. 



72 MYOXIDAE. 

1 aus Central Klein-Asien (Issa Fakyr) von Danford's Reise. 

M. glis (L.) 12 (3 Spil-., 6 Ausg., 3 Sch.). Von diesen 
kommen 7 Exemplare aus Frankreich , 1 aus der Schweiz , 
3 aus Italieu (Begato , in der Nahe von Genua) , 1 ist ohne 
Ortsaugabe. 

M. elegcms Temm. 2 (Spir.). Beide Exemplare siud von 
Pryer in Japan (Fuysan) gesammelt; nach einem (cf, 1880^*^/3 
N°. 28) hat O. Thomas seinen M. lasiotis bestimmt. 

Musc. avellanarius (L.) 11 (5 Ausg., 1 Sk., 5 Sch.). Von 
diesen kommen 2 aus England , 2 aus Frankreich , 1 ist 
ohne Ortsangabe. 

Mainz. 

Ej. qnercinus (L.) 1 (Ausg.). Fundort: Deutschland. 

M. glis (L.) 3 (Ausg.). Fundort: Deutschland. 

Musc. avellanarius (L.) 3 (Ausg.). Fundort: N. Europa. 
M ün chen. 

E. quercinus (L.) 5 (2 Ausg., 1 Ök., 2 Sch.). Von diesen 
kommt 1 aus Baiern , 1 aus der Schweiz, 1, wozu einer 
der Schadel, aus Portugal (von Dr. Erdl als »var. /M.sz'^fmeca" 
bezeichnet) , 1 hat keine Angabe des Fundortes. 

E. murinus (Desm.) 4 (2 Ausg., 2 Sch.). Alle 4 stammen 
aus S. Afrika. 

E. melanurus Wagn. 3 (2 Ausg., 1 Sch.). Diese typischen 
Exemplare sind von v. Schubert auf dem Sinaï gesammelt. 

M. nitedula Pali. 2 (1 Ausg., 1 Sk.). Das eine Exemplar 
stammt aus Georgien, das andere aus dera Caucasus (Coll. 
Hohen acker). 

M. glis (L.) 13 (9 Ausg., 1 Sk., 3 Sch.). Von diesen 
kommen 6 aus Baiern (Franken , Eichstadt) , 1 aus der 
Schweiz, 1 hat die Angabe » Deutschland", die übrigen 
sind ohne Angabe. 

Musc. avellanarius (L.) 6 (4 Ausg., 2 Sch.). Nur bei einem 
Exemplare ist der Fundort, Franken, angegeben. 

Paris. 

E. quercinus (L.) 19 (8 Ausg., 3 Sk., 8 Sch.). Fünf dieser 
stammen aus Frankreich , 3 aus Algerian (unter diesen ist 

Notes Iroin the Leyden Museum, "Vol. X!III. 



MYOXIDAE. 73 

der Typus von E. mumbyanus Pomel) ; die übrigen haben 
keiae Angabe des Fundortes. 

E. murinus (Desra.) 11 (8 Ausg., 3 Sch.). Von diesen 
Exemplaren stammen 5 vom Senegal , unter welclien der 
Typus von M, coupei Cuv. sammt dessen Schadel (mit Bei- 
schrift » crane de l'individu dans » Mamraifères") , wahrend 
die anderen von Delcorabre , Kiener und Prevost gesammelt 
sind ; 4 Exemplaren stammen vom Cap , namlich die beiden 
Typen von Desmarest und 2 andere , welche Verreaux in 
1837 gesammelt bat und die übrigen 2 sind von Raffray 
und Schim ba von der Ostküste Afrika's mitgebracht. 

Graph, capensis Cuv. 1 (Sch.). Dieser Schadel ist von 
F. Cuvier abgebildet und beschrieben in »Annales du Musée 
d'Hist. Nat. T. I, pp. 441—452, Tab. 16, 17." 

M. nitedula Pali. 3 (Ausg.). Diese 3 Exemplare [d^ ,Q , 
juv.) sind von Tyzenhauz in Lithauen gesammelt. (Sehe seine 
Beschreibung und Abbildung in » Revue et Magasin de 
Zoölogie, T. II, pp. 359—369"). 

M. glis (L.) 14 (11 Ausg., 1 Sk., 2 Sch.). Von diesen 
kommen 7 aus Frankreich (Doubs , Dyon , Lorraine) , 3 aus 
den Pyrenaen, 1 aus Algerien ; die übrigen haben keine 
Angabe des Fundortes. 

M. elegans (Temm.) 1 (Ausg.). Dieses Exemplar stammt 
aus Japan und ist im Jahre 1844 von Temminck aus 
Leiden als Tausch-exemplar nach Paris abgegeben. 

Musc. avellanarius (L.) 8 (7 Ausg., 1 Sk.). Von diesen 
kommen 3 aus Frankreich , 1 aus Savoien , 2 aus Italien , 
1 von Sicilien; 1 hat keine Ortsangabe. 
Stuttgart. 

E. guercinus (L.) 12 (3 Spir., 5 Ausg., 4 Sch.). Alle diese 
Exemplare stammen aus Württemberg (Schramberg , Rat- 
zenried , Tuttliugen , Mossingen , Hirschau , Urspring). 

E. nagtglasii (Jent.) 1 (Spir.). Stammt von der Goldküste 
(Aburi). 

E. murinus (Desm.) 5 (3 Ausg., 1 Sk., 1 Sch.). Von 
diesen stammen 1 vom Senegal, 1 aus Sierra Leone, 
3 aus Natal. 

2<J^otes from the Leyden IMuseum , "Vol. XIII 



74 MYOXIDAE. 

M. nitedula Pali. 3 (l Ausg., 1 Sk., 1 Sch.). Von v. Henglin 
in Kleia-Asien gesammelt. 

M. glis (L.) 38 (7 Spir., 17 Ausg., 3 Sk., 1 1 Sch ). Alle 
in Württeraberg (Steinheim, Stuttgart, Hohlenstein , Met- 
zingen, Warthausen , Aueudorf, Arthshofen , Leonberg) 
gesammelt. 

Musc. avellanarius (L.) 9 (Spir.). Von diesen stammt 1 
aus England, die übrigen kommen alle aus Württemberg 
(Altenstadt, Dietenbeim, Zwiefalten, Steinheim, Blaubeuren). 

Eliomys kelleni Reuvens. 

Beschreihung des typischen JExemplares , eines 
erwachsenen Weibchens. 

Taf. 5. 

Aeussere Charactere. 

Dichter, weicher Pelz. Die Haare sind sowohl auf der 
Ober- als auf der Unterseite des Körpers auf ihrer Basis- 
halfte dunkelgrau. Auf der Oberseite jedoch haben sie nach 
der Spitze bin einen braunlich weissen Ring, wahrend die 
Spitze selbst dunkelbraun ist. Dies giebt dem Thiere ein 
eigenthümliches , mausefarbiges A usehen. Auf der Unterseite 
und den Wangen bis zum Ohre ist die Spitze jedes Haares 
weiss. Die Schnauze ist heller als der Hinterkopf. Von 
den Bartborsten ab bis zum Auge und um dasselbe herum 
zieht sich ein dunkler Streif. Das Öbr ist breit , abgerundet 
und deutlich aus dem Pelze hervortretend; es ist von aussen 
ganz und von innen auf der Endhalfte mit feinen , dunklen , 
am Rande weiss-spitzigen Harchen besetzt. Der Schwanz ist 
auf dem ersten Drittel sehr kurz behaart, uach dem Ende 
hin jedoch allmalig langer; die Unterseite ist abgeplattet 
und in der Mitte viel kürzer behaart als auf den Seiten, 
die Behaarung ist daher etwas zweizeilig. Die Haare des 
Schv^anzes sind an dessen Basis braunlich grau mit vï^eisser 
Spitze; das Weiss nimmt nach hinten mehr und mehr zu , 
so dass der Schwanz ein weisses Ende bat ; die Unterseite 
ist heller als die Oberseite. Die Füsse sind weiss. 

JVptes from the Leyden Museuni, Vol. XIII. 



MYOXIDAE. 75 

Körpermaasse : 

Lange von der Nase bis zur Schwanzbasis . . 64 mM. 

» ties Schwanzkörpers 67 » 

» der Haare am Schwanzende .... 19 » 
» desHinterfussesmitNageldesMittelfingers 15.4 » 
» des Ohres auf der Innenseite .... 11 » 
» der Bartborsten 23 » 

Diese Maasse sind rait dem Zirkel nach den typischen 
Exemplare (in Spiritus) genommen. 

Osteoiogische Character e. 

Ueber den Schadel , der aus dem Spiritus-exemplare 
heraus praparirt ist, ist Folgendes zu bemerken. Die Nasen- 
beine reichen ein gutes Stuck über den Processus zygoma- 
ticus hinaus. Die Aeste des Processus, von welchen der 
obere sich unter einem schiefen Winkel an den Oberkiefer 
anschliesst, sind kurz und schmal; das zwisclien ihnen 
liegende Foramen infraorbitale ist schmal, fast doppelt so 
hoch als breit und in der Mitte am breitesten. Der uutere 
Ast liegt mehr nach hinten als der obere, und ist viel 
dicker, etwas dreieckig im Durchschnitte. Der Gauraenbogeu 
reicht ein wenig über die Mitte des let/ten Backenzahnes 
hinaus. Der absteigende Ast des ünterkiefers hat kein Foramen. 

So weit dies von aussen her zu sehen ist, zeigt sich 
dass die Alveolen der oberen Schneidezahne bis zum unteven 
Aste des Processus zygomaticus sich erstrecken ; im Unter- 
kiefer laufen sie bis zur Basis des Gelenkfortsatzes. Die 
Kronen der Backenzahne , welche auch nicht die geringste 
Abnutzung zeigen , haben einen , an allen Seiten erhöhten 
Rand , doch sind Aussen- und Innenrand höher als Vorder- 
und Hinterrand. Die Backenzahnreihe des Oberkiefers bleibt 
ein wenig hinter dem Processus zygomaticus zurück. 

Oberkiefer. Der Pramolar, der kleinste, ist stark von 
vorn nach hinten zusammengedrückt und von aussen und 
vorn nach innen und hinten gerichtet; die beiden ersten 
Molare sind viereckig, jedoch von innen etwas kürzer als 
von aussen , der dritte Molar ist deutlich trapezförraig, 

N^otes from tlie Leyden Museuiu, Vol. J4.J.H. 



76 



MYOXIDAE. 



Alle vier Baekenzaline zeigen auf der Aussenseite , in der 
Mitte, eiue sehr deutliche Einsenkuug, wodurch zwei 
Hoeker entsteheu; die drei Molare haben nach vorn noch 
eiue zweite, sehr schwaehe Einsenkung. Die Kauflachen 
zeigen beim Pramolar zwei, von den Höckern nach der Innen- 
seite durchgehende Querleisten ; bei den drei Molaren ebenfalls 
zwei solche, zwischeu welche sich beim ersten eiue, beim 
zweiten und dritteu zwei kürzere von aussen her eiuschieben. 
Unterkiefer. Der Pramolar ist dreieckig mit nach 
vorn gerichteter Spitze; die drei Molare sind viereckig. 
Nur der letzte Molar zeigt auf der Aussenseite eine deut- 
liche Einseukung. Der Pramolar hat eine durchgehende , und 
nach vorn noch die Spur einer sehr undeutlichen Querleiste. 
Die drei Molare haben je zwei durchgehende Querleisten. 
Von den Alveoleu der Backenzahne ist noch nichts mit 
zu theilen. 

Schadel maa sse: 
Foramen occipitale bis Nasenbein. . . . 15 mM. 

Nasenbeine 8.8 

Backenzahne bis Nagezahne 5 

Obere Backenzahnreihe 3.1 

Untere » 3 

Foramen occipitale bis Nagezahne. . . . 17.8 
Grösste Breite bei deu Jochbogen. . . . 12.4 



Verbreitung. Diese Art ist bis jetzt nur aus Süd 
West Afrika (Damara-land) bekannt. 



Notes from the Leyden IMiiseum, Vol. XIII. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF EARTHWORMS. 77 



NOTE V. 
DESCRIPTIONS OF EARTHWORMS. 

BY 

Dr. R. HORST. 



VI. 

On A nt eu s g ig a s Perrier. 
(Plate 6). 

Last year our Museum received a very large earth- 
worm, collected in Brazil by Mr. H. du Dreneuf. I believe 
the specimen must be identified with Anteus gig as , though 
it does not agree in all its characters with the descrip- 
tion given by Perrier of this species '). This description 
was based upon two specimens , one from Cayenne , the 
other from an unknown locality. Although our worm is 
not in a very good state of preservation , so that some 
interesting points of its organisation remained unknown to 
me, my examination has enabled me to add something to 
our rather scanty knowledge of this species , and to come 
to a certain conclusion about the question of its supposed 
identity with Microchaeta rappi. 

Vaillaut ^) pointed out that , according to Perrier's des- 
cription , Anteus gigas agrees in many respects, i.e. the 
arrangement of the setae, the indistinctness of the clitel- 
lum, the thick anterior septa, the shape of the nephridia, 



1) Nouv. Archives du Museum d'hist. natur de Paris, T. VIII, 1872, p. 49, 
pi. 1, fig. 13 and 14. 

2) Suites a Buffon, Anneles, 1889 (quoted after Benham). 

Notes frora the Leydeii Mtiseu.111, Vol. XIII. 



78 DESCRIPTIONS OF EARTHWORMS. 

with Microchaeta rappi from the Cape, afterwards descri- 
bed by Beddard ') and Beaham '^). Though Benham seems 
to be disposed to join Vaillant's suggestion , he has ranged 
in his Classification of Earthworms '^) the genus Anteus 
among the Lumbricidae incertae sedis and concludes 
his description of this worm with the remark: »it would be 
exceedingly interesting to investigate more fully the ana- 
tomy of Anteas ., for its locality, Cayenne, is so far re- 
moved from the home of Microchaeta in South Africa , that 
it seems scarcely credible that the two are identical." 

Our specimen is broken up in two pieces, measuring 
together 86 cm.; the number of its segments amounts to 
about 425. Its colour is bluish green , darker at the dor- 
sal side, with a brownish tint on the clitellum. The pro- 
stomium is a quadrangular lobe, not embedded in the buc- 
cal segment. The two anterior segments are narrow, whilst 
the eight succeeding ones have about a double longitudinal 
diameter. 

The clitellum commences with the 14th or 15th seg- 
ment and extends over nineteen segments. Segment 15 — 
28 have a glandular appearance and are separated by obvi- 
ous intersegmental grooves; on segment 22 — 27 the edges 
of the ventral side are thickened and surround a shallow 
area, Perrier in his specimens observed an obvious glan- 
dular modification on the segments 13 — 29, though he 
found in segment 8 the epidermis already somewhat thick- 
ened and modified ; in segment 18 — 29 there was a pro- 
jecting ridge on each side of the ventral surface. 

The setae (fig. 2) are arranged in four couples; on the 
13th segment those of the ventral couples (1 and 2) be- 
come separated from each other, and in the middle of the 
clitellum the distance between them is half as great as 
the distance between the internal ventral setae of both 



1) Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. XII, 1886, pi. XIV and XV. 

2) Quarterly Journal of Microsc. Science, Vol. XXVI, p. 267, pi. XV, XVI 
and XVI bis. 

3) loc. cit. Vol. XXXI, p. 265. 

JN^otes from the Ley den JMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF EARTHWORMS. 79 

sides (1 and 1). lu the segments behind the clitellum the 
setae of each ventral couple become a little closer to each 
other, whilst the median distance between the internal 
ventral bristles is somewhat greater. The distance between 
a ventral and dorsal couple measures about thrice the 
distance between 1 aud 2 ; the setae of the dorsal couple 
are placed somewhat closer to one another than those of 
the ventral couple. In most of the segments of the clitellum 
and in those in front of it dorsal bristles could not be re- 
cognized ; in the four anterior segments the ventral setae 
were also invisible. The setae are not very long, 0.80 mm.; 
they have the ordinary shape , but are ornamented near 
their distal ends with several rows of crescent-shaped ridges 
(fig. 4, a). These ridges are much more marked in the cli- 
tellar setae (fig. 4, b), which are very different in shape 
and length from the ordinary setae ; they are twice and a 
half as long as the latter (2 mm.) and only slightly curved, 
want the usual thickened region in the middle , and have 
their distal end of a lanceolate shape. It may be obser- 
ved that in the other giant earthworm of Brazil, Geoscolex 
maximus Leuck. ^) ( Titanus hrasiliensis Perr.) ~), the setae in 
the posterior segments have also a tendency to separate. 
However, my observations about Anteus gigas are not quite 
in accordance with Perrier's description. According to this 
author the setae are arranged like in the common earth- 
worm , in four series of pairs , two of them situated quite 
ventrally , the two others dorsally , the series are con- 
stantly parallel to each other from the anterior to the 



1) Zoologische Bruchstücke , Heft II, 1841, p. 104, pi. V. 

2) loc. cit. p. 57 , pi. 1 , fig. 15 and 16. 

Rosa, sul Geoscolex maximus Leuck., BoUett. dei Musei di Zoologia di 
Torino, N°. 40, 1888. Perrier afterwards described in his paper on Ponto- 
drilus (Archiv. de Zoölogie expérim. Vol. IX, 1881, p. 217 and 235) an 
other species: Tit. forguesii ; it appears however somewhat dubious to me if 
this species really belongs to the same genus, because it differs from Tit. 
hrasiliensis by having the setae in four series of pairs, by its male pores 
opening on segment XVII and by the situation of the nephridiopores in front 
of the dorsal setae. 

Notes from ttie Leyden ]Museuixi , Vol. X!II1. 



80 DESCRTPTIONS OF EA.RTHWORMS. 

posterior end of the body, aud the bristles of each pair 
are placed close to each other. Though this difference 
between my description and that of Perrier may perhaps do 
arise some doubt about the identity of our specimen with 
A. gigas , I believe our observations agree with one another 
in so many points to give sufficient grounds for my assertion. 

The nephridiopores are very large and apparent in the 
segments of the clitellum and the posterior region of the 
body; they are situated in front of the external dorsal setae , 
the first of them in the intersegmental groove of segment 
3 and 4. Dorsal pores are absent. Like Perrier I have 
not been able to find the orifices of the genital organs. 

On opening the worm (fig. 1) we are struck by the 
immense development of the anterior septa; the 5th to 10th 
septum are very thick , overlapping one another and bid- 
ding totally the intestine and other organs. In the two 
anterior septa the central portion is carried far backward 
and has another structure and colour than its peripheri- 
cal portion; it is of a pale brown colour and appears 
to be covered with a layer of short prismatical bodies of 
a fine granular structure, standing vertically on the sur- 
face of the septum. In the following septa the central 
modification spreads out peripherically and reaches the 
periphery in the ninth septum , giving to it the singular 
appearance over its whole surface. The tenth septum is 
not so thick as those in front of it. All these septa are 
fixed to each other by meaus of longitudinal muscle- 
strands. The segments 11, 12 and 13 are covered at their 
internal side with a brown , horney layer, thicker than the 
longitudinal muscular layer and showing the same structure 
as the modified septa. As suggested by Perrier this orga- 
nisation most give firmness as well as strength to the 
anterior region of the body for the purpose of burrowing. 

The intestinal canal (fig. 2) commences with a 
large pharynx, the wall of which shows no glandular 
structures as in many other Lumbricidae ; then follows the 
oesophagus , with a rather wide lumen , which , before passing 

iN'otes from the Leyden JVIuseuin , Vol. ^III. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF EARTHWORMS. 81 

into the gizzard, shows a wider portion, a specimen of proven- 
triculus. This portion of the digestive tube is situated in front 
of the first thickened septum (5th), so the gizzard appears to 
belong to the fifth segment, though lying much farther back- 
ward. The tubular intestine then following is furnished in 
segment 6 , 7 and 8 on each side with a large , dark coloured, 
intestinal gland. Perrier found in his specimen the gizzard 
situated in segment 6 ; intestinal glands are not mentioned 
by him. 

The main truucs of the vascular system consist of a 
dorsal, a ventral and a supra-intestinal vessel. The dorsal 
vessel is a single tube , which communicates with the ven- 
tral trunc by six pairs of commissural vessels in segment 
3 to 8; in segment 9, 10 and 11 three pairs of large 
abdominal hearts (fig. 1, ah) are situated, arising from the 
supra-intestinal vessel, which in the following segments be- 
comes visible on the dorsal surface of the intestinal canal. 
In this region the dorsal trunc shows a series of large 
ampullae, and communicates with the supra-intestinal vessel 
by small vertical vessels, arising from its ventral side. The 
ampullae of the dorsal trunc are described and figured by 
Perrier; he found only four pairs of commissural vessels 
in segment 7 — 10. 

Of the genital organs only the pairs of vesiculae 
seminales (fig. 1 , vs) could be recognized ; they are not 
very large and attached to the posterior side of the ante- 
rior septum of segment 10 and 11. Perrier found them 
in the 11th and 12th segment. 

The nephridia resemble somewhat those of Microchaefa 
(fig. 3). They consist of a great number of brown-coloured 
tubules , situated in a longitudinal row close to one another; 
each tubule forms a loop , the two limbs of which are spirally 
wound round each other. The whole set of tubules is united 
by connective tissue and attached to the end of a wide 
glandular tube , forming a loop which consists of a short 
limb that descends and a long one that ascends along the 
row of tubules ; the ascending limb forms another U-shaped 

Notes from tlie Leyden jMuseum, Vol. X^III. 

6 



82 DESCRIPTIONS OF EARTHWORMS. 

bend and passes into a long narrow duct communicating 
with the interior. Neither the internal funnel, nor the 
manner of communication of the tubules with the main 
duct could be observed. It is probable that the whole 
set of tubules form together one continuous duct, as sug- 
gested by Benham for Microchaeta. Perrier describes the 
nephridia as : » des organes simplement un pen flexueux , 
termines par uue sorte de houppe formee par une série de 
replis membraneux implantes sur sa portion terminale libre. 
Cette houppe constitue le pavilion vibratile au milieu 
duquel s'ouvre le canal." The third nephridium , belonging 
to segment 5 , is modified in au extra-buccal pepto-nephri- 
dium (Benham) ; it consists of a large mass of tubules , 
covering like a brown gland the whole lateral side of the oeso- 
phagus , whilst its main duct forms a loop which extends till 
near the jrst nephridium. The communication of Perrier 
»un oesophage membraneux portant sur ses parois quelques 
corps glaudulaires" no doubt is referable to this organ. 

Although our knowledge of the organisation of Anteus 
gigas remains rather incomplete , I believe it may be con- 
cluded from the foregoing description, that this species 
certainly is not identical with Microchaeta rappi. This 
species differs from Anteus gigas by the following cha- 
racters: its setae are very minute and arranged in four 
couples; its segments consist of a number of anuuli, so 
that it is difiicult to limit the anterior somites; its anterior 
septa , though very strong , are far separated from each 
other, free from any overlapping; its tubular intestine has 
only one pair of intestinal glands; its nephridia have a 
different structure. Perhaps a following fuller investiga- 
tion will learn us , that both species belong to the same 
genus , a question which at this moment cannot be settled , 
because we want any knowledge about the structure of 
the genital organs. At any rate I believe it can be stated , 
that there is a close relation between Anteus , Microchaeta 
and Rhinodrilus. 

Notes from tlie ILieyden IMuseum, "Vol. XIII. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF EARTHWORMS. 83 

On the circulation of the blood in earthworms. 

In a paper recently published »0n Megascolex coeruleus''' 
(Quart. Journal of Microsc. Science, Vol. XXXII, p. 49, 
pi. VI — IX) Mr. A. G. Bourne gives a detailed account 
of the vascular system of this gigantic earthworm. Upon 
these observations, partially made in the living animal, 
the author bases a theory about the probable course of 
the blood in this worm, and concludes »that throughout 
the body blood is forced from the contractile vessels into 
peripherical networks; thence it is conveyed by a system 
of intestino-tegumentary vessels to intestinal capillaries , 
and from these it returns to the contractile vessels." It 
seems to be unknown to Mr. Bourne, that about twelve 
years ago I put forward the same view as his with regard 
to the main question of the circulation in earthworms: 
whence comes the blood into the dorsal vessel? In my pa- 
per »Aanteekeningen op de anatomie van Lumbricus ter- 
restris" (Tydschrift der Nederl. Dierkund. Vereeniging. Dl. 
Ill, pi. 6) he will find on page 37: »As to the direction 
of the course of the blood all observers agree in this point, 
that the blood flows in the dorsal vessel from the poste- 
rior extremity forwards, in the commissural vessels from 
the dorsal side downwards, and in both ventral vessels 
(supra- and sub-neural vessel) from the anterior extremity 
backwards. The integumentary vessels are usually consi- 
dered to be the afferent vessels, the intestinal vessels to be 
the efferent vessels of the dorsal trunc. Because the skin is the 
respiratory-apparatus of Lumbricus , the dorsal vessel should 
be supplied with arterial blood and to be considered as a 
specimen of aorta , whilst the venous blood , coming from 
the intestinal canal , should flow to the ventral vessel , 
which therefore should be comparable with the vena cava. 
This opinion is also maintained and elaborated by Perrier 
in his detailed description of the circulation in Urochaeta. 
However I cannot agree with this view. First 
it must be stated , that the vessel vt' (a branch of the 

^otes from tlie Leyden Mixsenm, Vol. XUI. 



ö4 DESCRIPTIONS OF EARTHWORMS. 

dorso-iiitegumentary vessel of Bourne) rightly is considered 
by Perrier himself in Urochaeta to be the homologue of the 
afferent vessel of the dorsal branchiae in Annelida bran- 
chiata. Now these branchiae receive always their afferent ves- 
sel from the dorsal trunc or its commissural vessels , whilst 
their efferent vessel joins the ventral trunc. In the vicinity 
of those branchiae there occur often contractile dilatations 
of the vessels , which of course tend to surmount the greater 
resistance, caused by the flowing of the blood through 
the branchiae. While therefore in the majority of Annelids 
the dorsal vessel is considered to contain venous blood , 
that flows in the directions of the branchiae , this should 
according to Perrier a. o. not be the case in Lumhricus , the 
vascular system of which is constructed on the same pattern." 
I believe that Vejdowsky, who agrees with my view that 
the blood flows from the intestinal capillaries into the 
dorsal vessel, based his opinion upon the same morpho- 
logical data, for, on p. 117 of his System und Mor- 
phologic der Oligochaeten , he refers to Alma nilotica , 
which is furnished with branchiae in the posterior region 
of the body; this curious Oligochaeta from the banks of 
the Nile was first mentioned by Grube (Archiv fur Na- 
turgesch. 1855, p. 129, pi. V, fig. 11 — 15) and later on 
described by Levinsen under the name of Digitihranchus 
niloticus (Vidensk. Meddel. naturh. Forening i Kjjzibenhavn , 
1889, p. 321, pi. VII, fig. 7 and 8). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 6. 

Fig. 1. Aniens gigas Perrier; general view of the contents of the body cavity, 
when the body wall has been cut along the dorsal mid-line : ah. abdo- 
minal heart; cv. commissural vessel; iv. supra-intestinal vessel; n. ne- 
phridiam; pii. extra-buccal pepto-nephridiura; vs. vesicula seminalis. 
X 14 diara. 

Fig. 2. View of the intestinal tract and the setae , after removal of other 
structures: g. gizzard; gl. intestinal gland; oe. oesophagus. 

Fig. 8. Nephridium of the sixth segment. X 3 diam. 

Fig. 4. a. Ordinary seta; b. elongated seta of the clitellum. X 25 diara. 



Notes from the Leyden jMuseum , "Vol. XIII. 



ON THE MALAYAN AND PAPUAN PIGS. 85 



NOTE VI. 

ON THE MALAYAN AND PAPUAN PIGS IN THE 
LEYDEN MUSEUM. 



Dr. P. A. JENTINK 

January 1891. 



If we separate some aberrant forms like Babirussa, Di- 
cotyles , PJiacochoerus , Potamochoerus and Porcula ^) from 
Gray's suborder Setifera, there remains a large series of 
Pigs which present a striking resemblance in external ap- 
pearance and in dentition; they more or less remember 
our common Sus scrofa. The latter is the only represen- 
tant in Europe , meanwhile the others are distributed over 
Asia, the islands of the East Indian Archipelago and 
New-Guinea. If comparing the members of this group 
with Sus scrofa and at the same time if paying attention 
to their geographical distribution , one discovers that the 
group may be split in several smaller ones which gene- 
rally coincide with a more or less restricted geographical 
area; names have been given to the latter smaller groups 
and different species have been admitted. But if all the 
large and small islands where at present Pigs are to be 
found were connected by land with the Indian continent, 
then I am convinced that there would be naturalists at 
hand to look upon those Pigs as varieties of «Sus scrofa , 



1) Porcula salvania Hodgson is, according to Dr. Garson (P. Z. S. L. 1883), 
only a young state of Sus scrofa. 

IS^otes from the Leyden üMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



86 ON THE MALAYAN AND PAPUAN PIGS 

and perhaps with more chance of probability than has 
been attained by defenders of the opposite view , authors 
like Dr, Gray and Père Heude, who have divided the 
mentioned large group in numerous genera and in an un- 
limited number of species. So Dr. Gray (Catalogue, 1869 
and Hand-list, 1873) recognized the following — according 
to him well defined — genera : Euhys , Aulacochoerus , Dasy- 
c/werus , Sus , Scrofa and Centuriosus , and Père Heude (Mé- 
moires concernant I'histoire naturelle de I'Empire chinois , 
1888) distinguished in East Asia eleven distinct new spe- 
cies of the genus Sus , viz. : ussuricus , dicrurus , taininen- 
sis , calamianensis , cehifrons , minutus , effrenus , conchy vorus, 
jalaensis, microtis and frenatus. 

Gray ^) correctly observed that the study of the Pigs 
is attended with considerable difficulty, probably arising 
from three peculiarities of the group : 

1". That most of the wild or presumed wild species are 
easily reduced to a domestic or semidomestic condition. 

2". That the domestic breeds return to their wild con- 
dition , even in countries situated far away from their na- 
tive habitats, and that, under favourable circumstances, 
the newly enfranchised animals are able to hold their own 
against the native and colonial cultivators. 

3". That the domestic, and possibly the wild species 
have a great facility in breeding together, having fertile 
offspring. 

The difficulty increases still more if we reflect on the 
facts that we do not know what has been the origin of 
our Sus domesticus and even not in what different parts 
of the world this tame Pig has been introduced by man 
in foregoing centuries. In the latter respect we possess only 
a few directly and credible notices. So I find in the Jour- 
nal of Dr. Forsten, written by himself in September 1840, 
the following notice: » There are in the island of Banka , to 



1) Mr. de Blainville made about the same observations, see Osteographie, 
1839-64, T. IV, Sus, p. 108. 

Notes from tlae Leyden IMuseuxa, "Vol. XJII. 



IN THE LEYDEN MUSEUM. 87 

the North of North Celebes, a large number . of Pigs from 
European origin. A dutch vessel should have been stranded 
there and plundered by pirates , the Pigs on board hov^^e- 
ver landed and propagated. The inhabitants of Liku- 
pang often frequent the named island with perogues to 
get them ; the Pigs are very tame and easily to catch ; 
they are of a whitish color and agree very well with dutch 
tame Pigs." — In Forster's Reise um die Welt, 1783, 
p. 325, we read: »Es ist merkwiirdig, dass Hunde und 
Schweine , die vorztiglichsten taheitischen Reichthümer , 
nicht einmal auf alien Insein des Südmeeres vorhanden 
sind. Die Bewohner der niedrigen Eilande besitzen zwar 
durchgehends Hunde, aber keine Schweine; hingegen hatte 
man Schweine auf den freundschaftlichen Insein , ohne 
Hunde anders als dem Namen (Ghurri) nach , zu kennen; 
vermuthlich ist das Thier bey ihnen ausgestorben. In Neu- 
seeland fehlten ebenfalls die Schweine; in Neukaledouien 
aber, fehlten beydes, Schweiue und Hunde. Auch in 
Tanna hatte man nur Schweine allein. Den Taheitiern 
scheukten wir das erste Ziegeupaar, welches sich bey un- 
serer zweyten Ankunft daselbst , bereits um zwey vermehrt 
hatte. Den Einwohnern von Tongatabbu und Tanna scheuk- 
ten wir die ersten Hunde , den Neuseelandern , Schweine 
und Hüner; den Neukaledoniern ein paar Hunde und ein paar 
Schweine. Diese beyden Thierarten, die an und fur sich schon 
so schnell und stark sich vermehren , kommen unter dera 
sanften Himmelsstriche in den Siidlandern um desto besser 
fort, und erreichen friihzeitig ihr völliges Wachsthum." 

Every body knows that Pigs are excellent swimmers and 
herewith they have a very proper way to reach by sea 
distant islands. Indeed they do so , as we learn f. i. from 
Forrest (Voyage a la Nouvelle-Guinee ^)) ; »les cochous sau- 
vages, nommes Ben, passeut souvent a la nage , en file, 
d'uue lie a une autre: le cochon de derrière appuyant son 
groin sur la croupe de celui qui precede" ; and Wallace 



1) See Lesson et Garnot, Voyage autour du Monde, 1826, Tome I, p. 174. 
J*fotes frona the Leyden IMuseixm , Vol. XIIIX. 



öö ON THE MALAYAN AND PAPUAN PIGS 

(the Malay Archipelago, vol. II, p. 141) wrote: »Pigs 
are spread all over the Archipelago , even to several of 
the smaller islands , and in many cases the species are 
peculiar. It is evident, therefore, that they have some 
natural means of dispersal. There is a popular idea that 
pig cannot swim , but Sir Charles Lyell has shown that 
this is a mistake. In his Principles of Geology he addu- 
ces evidence to show that pigs have swum, many miles at 
sea, and are able to swim with great ease and swiftness. 
I have myself seen a wild pig swimming across the arm 
of the sea that separates Singapore from the Peninsula of 
Malacca , and we thus have explained the curious fact , 
that of all the large mammals of the Indian region , pigs 
alone extend beyond the Moluccas and as far as New- 
Guinea, although it is somewhat curious that they have 
not found their way to Australia." 

De Blainville (Osteographie, Stis , p. 172) says: »Pen- 
nant a fait I'observation que , dans I'Archipel Indien , le 
Cochon de Chine avait passé souvent a la nage , d'ile en 
lie, jusque dans la Nouvelle Guinee, oü il n'en existait 
pas originellement . . . qu'ensuite ils ont emigre aux Nou- 
velles Hebrides, puis et successivement aux iles des Amis, 
de la Société et des Marquises." 

Finally it is well known that Pigs are very apt to pro- 
duce varieties, by domestication, combined with differences 
in food and climate; so Fitzinger (Ueber die Racen des 
zahmen oder Hausschweines) summed up sixty distinct races 
of Sus scrofa , the supposed origin of our domesticated Pigs ; 
d'Albertis (P. Z. S. L. 1875, p. 531) reports: »that he 
has not seen two specimens of Sus papuensis , in the Yule- 
island , alike amongst a hundred", so that we may sup- 
pose that also among wild pigs there is a great variation 
among the individuals belonging to a given species. 

Now we may suppose the so-called species of wild Pigs 
to be offsprings from one ^) or from more species , or main- 



1) Vide A. Milne Edwards, Mammiferes du Tibet, 1868—74, p. 379: «Je 
serais assez porté a penser que les nombreux Sangliers asiatiques constituent 

Notes from ttie Leyden Miusetacn , Vol. XIII. 



IN THE LEYDEN MUSEUM. 89 

tain another hypothesis — it is indisputable that the longer 
they have been isolated by natural barriers, f. i. by broad 
and deep waters, the greater chance we have to find the 
differences of the several groups more constant and more 
fixed , and therefore the species more circumscribed. And 
in this respect the large islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, 
Celebes and New-Guinea with the surrounding smaller is- 
lands are in the best and most favorable condition. And 
indeed no other part of the world is so rich in Pigs and 
in no other part of the world the area of distribution is 
more circumscribed for each species, so that about each 
large island here has its own distinct Pig. 

I will try to give in the following pages an idea of the 
geographical distribution of the Pigs in the named Archi- 
pelago, especially based upon the collections in the Ley- 
den Museum , where are stored up larger and more com- 
plete series of Pigs than in any other Museum. 

Sus vittatus S. Muller. 

a, 5. Adult females, stuffed, types of the species. Suma- 
tra. Collected by S. Muller, 1836. 

c. Adult male , stuffed , one of the types of the spe- 
cies , figured in » Verhandelingen" *), pi. 29. Suma- 
tra, Padang. Collected by S. Muller, 1836. 

d. Young male, stuffed, one of the types of the spe- 
cies. Padang. Collected by S. Muller, 1836. 

e, f. Adult specimens, stuffed. Java. Collected by Kuhl 
and van Hasselt. 



des races locales on espèces secondaires issues d'une souche commune plutot 
que. des es])èces proprement dites, mais pour resoudre la question, il faudrait 
pouvoir comparer la tête osseuse et les autres parties du squelette chez un 
grand nombre d-individus appartenant ïi chacune de ces variéte's, afin de deter- 
miner Ie degré de fixité des caractères employés par les zoologistes pour les 
distinguer entre elles; et ces objets d'étude manquent dans nos Musées euro- 
pe'ens." Cf. also de Blainville „Oste'ographie, 1839—64, T. IV, p. 131". 

1) Verhandelingen oyer de Natuurlijke Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche over- 
zeesche bezittingen. Zoölogie, 1839 — 1844. 

Notes from the Leyden IMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



90 ON THE MALAYAN AND PAPUAN PIGS 

g. Young specimen , stuffed. Java. Collected by von 

Rosenberg, 1866. 
h. Young specimen, stuffed. Java. Collected by Kuhl 

and van Hasselt. 
i. Very young specimen, stuffed. Java. Collected by 

Boie and Macklot. 
(See Jentink, Catalogue osteologique , 1887). One skele- 
ton, Java, Tjikao; eleven skulls, Java, Sumatra (Padang 
and Deli). 

(See S. Müller's Verhandelingen). The Sundanese in Java 
call this species Baiien ; at Batavia and at other localities 
along the north-coast it generally is better known under 
the name Bahi alang-alang ., because it likes to live under 
this high and thick growing grass alang-alang {Imperata 
Koenigii), wherein it absconds by day. The Malays of the 
west-coast of Sumatra call it simply Bahi-oetan , i. e. wild 
Pig. In Java and Sumatra it is very frequent and is to 
be found everywhere from the sea-shore till up the moun- 
tains at 5000 feet; higher up we did not observe it. It 
likes large plains grown with alang-alang , wild dales over- 
grown with trees , shrubs and briers , low mountains thickly 
covered with wood and bamboos , and dark moist regions , 
along the foot of the high mountains, covered with wil- 
dernesses impenetrable to man ; the moist and cool djatti- 
and teakwoods in low countries too are to its taste. It ge- 
nerally lives in bands from 3 — 5 individuals: very old 
specimens and especially the sow , if with young , often 
are met with isolated. The sow prepares a nest from dry 
leaves , small pieces of wood , stalks of glaga (Saceharum 
gloga) and tapoes (Eletteria coccinea): this nest forms exter- 
nally a large heap , but internally it is hollow , furnace- 
shaped , sometimes with a single opening or with two ope- 
nings the one opposite the other: it whelps 4 — 7 young 
ones , generally about in the midst of the dry monsoon , 
or in June , July or August. — These Pigs cause much 
trouble to the farmers by their great number, and great 
damage by their gluttony. They may be called omni- 

Notes irom tlae JLieyden ]VIu.seuiii, Vol. XIII^ 



IN THE LEYDEN MUSEUM. 91 

vorous; at the sea-shore and in the neighborhood of the 
villages inhabited by fishermen , they prey upon all kinds 
of animal substances , especially upon small Equulae , which 
the fishermen spread over the warm sand on the shores 
for drying. Such animal substances give generally a very 
disagreeable odor and taste to the flesh of the animal. — 
In its stomach sometimes there are to be found more or 
less large balls, agreeing with the so called aegrago- 
philae. 

(See H. von Rosenberg, der Malayische Archipel , 1878). 
Wildschweine , Sus vittatus , Bahi-utan , findet man mit 
Ausnahme der steileren und felsigen Berggelande überall 
(auf Sumatra) vom Seestrand an bis zum Gebirge , im Wald 
wie auf den Grasebenen. In der ümgegend der Redoute 
zu Pertibi zeigten sie sich besonders haufig, — Ueber die 
ganze Inselkette (westlich von Sumatra) in grosser Anzahl 
verbreitet ist endlich ein Wildschwein {Sus vittatus'^) , worauf 
die Eingeboreneu überall hauptsachlich Jagd machen. Die 
Hausschweiue , welche namentlich auf Nias haufig in den 
Dörfern gehalten werden, sind entweder eingefangene 
Wildlinge , oder Abkömmlinge von solchen. 

(See Dr. B. Hagen , Die Pflauzen- und Thierwelt von 
Deli auf der Ostküste Sumatra's. Tijdschrift van het Kon. 
Nederl. Aardrijksk. Genootschap, 1890). Das Wald- oder 
Wildschwein, Mal. Bahi-utan, kommt auf Sumatra und 
Java vor und lebt in Deli in grossen Mengen, die sich, 
durch das Ausbreiten der Tabakskultur , welche den Hoch- 
wald vernichtet und dafür ungeheure Flachen dichten Ge- 
strüppes schafft, nur noch vermehrt hat. Das Wildschwein , 
etwas schwacher als das europaische , lebt in diesen wüsten , 
mit Lalang und niederem Busch bestandenen Landereien 
rudelweise, und höhlt sich förmliche, oft eine V^iertelstunde 
und mehr lange , verzweigte Gange oder besser Röhren 
aus in dem todten Laub und Lalanggras, das in dichten 
Lagen , Generationen übereinander , den wirklichen Boden , 
oft bis zu vier Fuss Höhe, bedeckt, wahrend die lebende 
Generation über diesem Moder, triumphirend , ihre grünen 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, "Vol. XIII, 



92 ON THE MALAYAN AND PAPUAN PIGS 

Fahuen schwenkt, bis auch sie in das Grab zu ihren Füs- 
seu binabsinkt. Icb selbst bin schon einem angescbossenen 
Eber in einer solcben stockfinsteren Röbre auf Handen 
und Füssen über bundert Meter weit nachgerutscbt. Das 
Wildscbwein ricbtet , durcb seine Wiiblereien , in Pflan- 
zungen grossen Schaden an , namentlich in den Padi- 
(Reis)feldern zur Zeit der Reife , ferner in Pisanggarten , 
wo es oft in einer einzigen Nacht ganze Gruppen von 
mannsdicken Stammen unterwühlt und umwirft, in Zuc- 
kerrohr- und Maispflanzungen u. s. w. In Gegenden , wo 
keine Pflanzungen sind, halt sich das Wildscbwein mit 
Vorliebe an die Wurzelknollen verschiedener Kladi- {Colo- 
casia, Caladium) Arten. Des eminenten Schadens halber, 
welcben es in den Pflanzungen der Malaien anricbtet, 
lauern ibm dieselben in den Padifeldern auf und scbiessen 
es. Da ihre Religion ibnen den Genuss von Schweine- 
fleisch verbietet, ja selbst das Geld, welches sie durch 
den Verkauf des Kadavers lösen könnten , für unrein er- 
klart, so lassen sie ibre Beute einfach an Ort und Stelle 
verwesen. Höchstens lasst sich Einer herbei, einem un- 
glaubigen, europaischen oder chinesisehen Schweinefresser 
mitzutheilen , dass da und da ein frisch geschossenes Wild- 
scbwein liege. Das Bahi-utan ist wild und mutbig, und 
greift , scblecht angeschossen , oft den Schützen an , wie 
mein Jager zu seinem Schreck erfahren bat, den ein Wild- 
eber über den Haufen warf, mit seiuem Gewafien jedoch 
glücklicherweise auf den Schaft der Flinte traf und den- 
selben nebst Hahn und Schloss völlig zerbrach und zer- 
splitterte. In mein Hospital erhielt icb einst einen chine- 
sisehen Kuli, dessen Schenkel durch die Bisse eines 
Wildschweins bös zugerichtet waren. — Das ein Wildeber 
sich mit dem zahmen , überall in Deli gehaltenen , chine- 
sisehen Schwein paart, kann ich als verbürgt mittheilen. — 
Die Battas halten als Hausthier ein Schwein von ausnahm- 
los schwarzlicher Farbe, das etwas böher auf den Beinen 
steht als das vorige und über den ganzen Rücken eine 
bedeutend grössere Mahne von langen Borsten bat. Ich 

Notes from thie Leyden Museum, "Vol. XIII. 



IN THE LEYDEN MUSEUM. 93 

habe mir leider keinen Schadel des Thieres verschaffen 
köonen. 

Habitat. Sumatra and Java; probably all the islands 
westward Sumatra (von Rosenberg, der Malayische Archi- 
pel), Banka (S. Muller, Verhandelingen) and Flores (Max 
Weber, Zoologische Ergebnisse, 1890). 

Sus verrucosus S. Muller. 

a. Adult male, stuffed, one of the types of the spe- 
cies, figured in the » Verhandelingen", pi. 28. Java, 
Parang. Collected by Boie and Macklot. 

h. Adult specimen , stuffed , one of the types. Java. 
Collected by Diard, 1830. 

c. Half grown female , stuffed , one of the types. Java. 
Collected by S. Muller, 1833. 

d. Young specimen , stuffed , one of the types. Java. 
Collected by van Raalte. 

e. Young male, stuffed. Java. Died in the Rotter- 
dam Zoological Garden, 1880. 

ƒ. Very young specimen, stuffed, one of the types. 
Java, Parang. Collected by Boie and Macklot. 
g ih. Skins of young male- and female-specimens, Java. 
From the Amsterdam Zoological Garden, 1861 and 
1868. 
(See Jentink, Catalogue osteologique , 1887). One ske- 
leton , Java ; ten skulls , Java. 

(See S. Muller, Verhandelingen). This Pig is called by 
the Sundanese with the Malay name Bahi. It generally 
is less frequent than the Banen (Sus vittatus) , lives more 
in the high alang-alang , ia thick grown dales and other 
distant wild localities in the lower parts of the moun- 
tains, and seldom is to be met with in troops but gene- 
rally alone or two or three together. Its nature is wilder 
and more courageous, and its strong canines are very 
dangerous to the dogs. To solitary plantations it is not 
less disadvantageous than the Banen ^ and therefore the 

Notes from the Leyden M.useiam, Vol. XIII. 



94 ON THE MALAYAN AND PAPUAN PIGS 

natives pursue and destroy it where they can. Its flesh is 
somewhat ruder and less tasteful than that of the Banen, 
so that the Chinese like it but little and it nearly never 
is to be eaten by the Europeans. 
Habitat. Java. 

Sus harhatus S. Muller. 

a. Adult female , stuffed , one of the types of the spe- 
cies, figured in the » Verhandelingen", pi. 30, fig. 1. 
Borneo, Banjermassiug. Collected by S. Muller, 1837. 
h. Adult specimen , stuffed. Borneo. Collected by 

Schwaner, 1846. 
c. Young female, stuffed, one of the types, figured 
in the » Verhandelingen", pi. 30, fig. 2. Banjer- 
massing. Collected by S. Muller, 1837. 
d , e. Very young specimens , stuffed. Borneo , Pontia- 
nak. Collected by Diard. 
(See Jentink, Catalogue osteologique , 1887). One ske- 
leton, Borneo; six skulls, Borneo. 

(See S. Muller, Verhandelingen). We often saw the 
traces of this Pig along the banks of the river Doeson 
and in the Lawut-lands, but only observed the animal 
itself a few times , once a sow with four youngs , in the 
western part of the Lawut-lands. The adult female, figu- 
red in the » Verhandelingen" has been hunted by the Dajaks 
with dogs in the neighborhood of the village Poeloe- 
lampej , at a little distance from the river Moloekko , in a 
high forest. The Dajaks along the river Doeson call Sus 
harhatus: Bahoei or Bawoeï (the tame Pig Oenek), the 
Bejadjoe-Dajaks call it Bawoeï himha (Forest-Pig, dutch 
Boschvarken). The Malays and Europeans bestow this wild 
Pig with the name Bahi poetih (white Pig, dutch ivit 
varken) on account of the light color of its skin and bristles. 
Habitat. Borneo, Pontianak, Pleyharie and Banjermassiug. 
N. B. Sus longirostris Nehring is a species chiefly based 
upon skulls , no judicious naturalist has seen it in living state 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, "Vol. XIII. 



IN THE LEYDEN MUSEUM. 95 

and never a skin of it has been brought over. If — as I 
suggested ') — it will turn out to be Sus barbatus in very 
advanced age, or if Nehring's view is correct must be made 
out by future investigations. 

Sus tintori e nsis S. Muller. 

a. Semi-adult female , stuffed , one of the types of the 
species. Timor. Collected by Muller and Macklot, 
December 1829. 

b. Semi-adult male, stuffed, one of the types, figu- 
red in the » Verhandelingen", pi. 31, fig. 1. Timor, 
Pritti, bay of Koepang. Collected by Muller and 
Macklot, 1829. 

c^d. Young females, stuffed, types of the species. Timor. 
Collected by Muller and Macklot, 1829. 

(See Jentink, Catalogue osteologique , 1887). Three 
skulls, Timor, Pritti. 

(See S. Muller, Verhandelingen). We have not been 
lucky enough to procure fullgrown specimens of this spe- 
cies, although we once saw in a forest of the mountai- 
nous country Amarassie (Timor) a much larger individual 
than that figured (on pi. 31): it, however, was not so tall 
as the above mentioned species from the large western 
Sunda-islands. It too seemed to be somewhat darker co- 
lored than the five not fullgrown specimens collected by 
us in the flat coast-land near Pritti. Sus timoriensis agrees 
in external appearance very closely with Sus vittatus , and so 
its behavior too is about the same. We observed the animal , 
but much more its traces , in the mountains as well as in 
the flat land, and at the occasion of a beat at Pritti we 
often saw troops of four to seven specimens. The natives 
call it simply Taji mepat or nassi (wild pig, dutch wild 
varken) , the Rottinese in the same sense Baji foei. 

Habitat. Timor. 



1) Cf. Ueber Sus celebensis und verwandte, von Dr. Alfred Nehring. In 
Abhandlungen und Berichte des K. Zoologischen und Anthropologisch-Ethno- 
graphischen Musfeums zu Dresden, 1889, N°. 3, p. 19. 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



96 ON THE MALAYAN AND PAPUAN PIGS 

Sus celebensis S. Muller. 

a. Adult male , stuffed , type of the species , figured in 
the » Verhandelingen", pi. 28*^'*, fig. 1. Celebes, 
Meuado. Collected by Forsten, 1841. 
h,c. Nearly fullgrown male and female, stuffed. Cele- 
bes, Goroutalo, Toelabollo. Collected by von Ro- 
senberg, April and May 1864. 
d^e. Young females, stuffed. Toelabollo. Collected by von 
Rosenberg, April 1864. 
f,g,h. Very young individuals , stuffed. Celebes. Collected 
by Forsten. 
i. Skin of an adult specimen. Morotai. Collected by 

Bernstein, 1 May 1863. 
j. Skin of an adult female. Morotai. Collected by 
Bernstein, 1862. 
k, I. Skins of very young specimens. Morotai. Collected 
by Bernstein, 1862. 
m. Skin of a young specimen. Batjan. Collected by 

Bernstein, February 1862. 
(See Jentink, Catalogue osteologique , 1887). Eight 
skulls, Celebes, Batjan and Morotai. 

(See von Rosenberg, die Malayische Archipel, 1878). 
Sus celebensis (Bovi ^) ist sehr algemein , zumal in dem 
offenen , mit Gras bewachsenen Flachland in der Umge- 
gend von Limbotto und Bone, und unterscheidet sich wesent- 
lich von seinen auf Java lebeuden Gattungsverwandten. 
Der Eber tragt als besonderes Kennzeichen einen Büschel 
weisser Borsten zwischen Hals und Schulter. Die Jungen 
haben das bekannte gelblichbraun gestreifte Jugendkleid, 
welches spater braun , und beim ausgewachsenen Thier 
schwarz wird. In Gegenden , wo sie weuig gestort wer- 
den , sieht man öfters wilde Schweine unter zahmem Vieh 
auf der Weide. Als Mahomedaner verabscheuen die Be- 



1) Bovi is not correct , I suppose , as von Rosenberg wrote always in Lis 
Catalogues Dooi, the title too used by him in his «Reistogten in de Afdee- 
ling Gorontalo." 

Notes from tlie Leyden Museum, Vol. IXIII. 



IN THE LEYDEN MUSEUM. 97 

wohner dieses Thier unci machen allenfalls nur , um es zu 
tödten, Jagd darauf. 

(See von Rosenberg , Reistogten in de Afdeeling Goron- 
talo, Kon. Inst. Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 1865). 
This species , especially peculiar to Celebes and neighboring 
islands, is to be met with here (Gorontalo) everywhere 
in small troops or families. 

Habitat. Celebes: northern (Menado, Bone, Limbotto , 
Toelabollo), Forsten and von Rosenberg; southern (Pare- 
Pare, Loka near Bonthain, Katjang, Bira, Birakeke), 
Max Weber (Zoologische Ergebnisse, 1890). Saleyer, Max 
Weber (1. c). Batjan , Bernstein. Morotai , Bernstein. Ter- 
nate, Halmahera, Batjan, Amboina and Celebes (see 
Dr. Finsch , Neu-Guinea und seine Bewohner, 1865). 

Sus papuensis Lesson. 

a. Skin of a halfgrown female. Arou , Wokam. Col- 
lected by von Rosenberg, April 18, 1865. 

b. Skin of a rather young specimen. Waaigeou. Col- 
lected by Bernstein, March 24, 1863. 

Skull belonging to skin a. 

(See von Rosenberg, Die Malayische Archipel). Sus 
papuensis {Byen in Misool , Kau in die Aru-Inseln , Aouran 
in Jappen, Nava in Hattam, Neu-Guinea) kommt in aus- 
serordentlicher Menge vor , zumal in flachen Gegenden , 
wie z. B. auf Biak. Die Eingeborenen lieben das Fleisch 
sehr und jagen das Thier mit Hunden. Zu Kwawi war 
ich einst Augenzeuge, wie rasch ein eben erlegtes Schwein 
zersttickt und vertheilt wurde. Dasselbe ward, schmutzig 
wie es war, in ein hellflammendes Feuer geworfen, um 
die Borsten oberflachlich abzusengen, hierauf in Stiicke 
zerschuitten , mit Haut und Eingeweideu unter die ITm- 
stehenden vertheilt und Vj Stunde nach Anlegung des 
Feuers war das ziemlich grosse Thier bis auf die Knochen 
vertilgt. Als Hausthiere findet man Katzen, Schweine und 
Hunde. Die Schweine, welche hie und da in den Dörfern 

^otes frorii th.e Leyden IMuseurri, Vol. ^III. 

7 



98 ON THE MALAYAN AND PAPUAN PIGS 

in Stiillen gehalten werden sind gewohnlich eingefaugene 
Wildlinge. 

(See von Rosenberg, 1. c. p. 362). ^Sus aruensis {Tafu) 
kennzeichnet sich durch einen weisslichen von der Wange 
nach dem Hals laufenden Streifen, weissliche Kehle und 
Unterhals. Man findet das Thier in Menge auf alien gros- 
seren Insein der Aru- und Kei-Gruppe, sowie auf Koor, 
sowohl in der Nahe der Kuste , als tiet' im Walde ; zunial 
in den baumlosen Grasflacheu der Insel Trangan wird es 
ausserordentlich haufig angetroffen". Sus aruensis v. Rosen- 
berg z= Sus papuensis Lesson , for 1" v. Rosenberg descri- 
bed in the above short lines the true papuensis , and 2*^ our 
skin a , from the Arou-island Wokam , is really a Sus 
papuensis. 

(See P. Z. S. L. 1875, p. 531). Among the animals 
from Yule-island , at the south of New-Guinea , d'Albertis 
recorded the Sus papuensis, of which he relates that he 
has not seen two alike amongst a hundred. I think his 
meaning is not very clear, but to my purpose the fact is 
important that in the Yule-island Sus papuensis is to be 
found. 

Peters and Doria (Annali del Museo civico di Storia 
Naturale, Vol. XVI, p.p. 666 and 698) suppose that Sus 
papuensis may have been introduced from elsewhere in 
New-Guinea. So p. 666: »il genere Sus degli ungulati è 
probabilmente importato alia N. Guinea per opera dell' 
uomo", and p. 698: »anche il porco (-S, papMews^s) potrebbe 
essere stato introdotto alia N. Guinea; i nostri viaggiatori 
lo hanno raccolto in varie localita." 

Several years before Peters and Doria wrote, Mr. de 
Blainville (Osteographie , 1839 — 64, T. IV) expressed him- 
self in much more positive terms: »quoique aujourd'hui ce 
Cochon {Sus papuensis) soit devenu sauvage dans la Nou- 
velle Guinee , oü il est extrêmement abondant , on sait 
positivement qu'il y a été importé." 

The first living specimen of Sus papuensis brought over 
to Europe is, as far as I am aware, the animal mentioned 

Notes from the Leyden IMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



IN THE LEYDEN MUSEUM. 99 

by Dr. Sclater in the P. Z. S. L. 1881, p. 165, and in 
the List of the vertebrated animals in the Zool. Gardens , 
1883, from Brooker-island , Louisiade Archipelago, and pre- 
sented by Lieut, de Hoghton. Another living specimen 
has been brought home by Dr. Fiusch and deposited in 
the Zoological Gardens at Berlin (see P. Z. S. L. 1886, 
p. 218); it has been obtained in the month of May, on 
the north coast of New Guinea, near the place noted on 
the charts »Passir Point", a point however, which does 
not really exist; it was then striped, but has now (1886) 
changed to the coloration of the adult animal. 

The material in the different Musea to study this spe- 
cies is very incomplete and the description and plate given 
by Lesson rather insufficient, so that I think it to be of 
great importance to reproduce descriptions made by trust- 
worthy scientific travellers as Dr. Bernstein and Dr. Finsch 
are. In one of Bernstein's manuscripts I find the fol- 
lowing description of our specimen h from Waaigeou: 
»Haare der Seiten schwarz mit röthlichgelber Helfte nach 
der Spitze, wahrend die Wurzelhelfte schwarz ist. Haare 
des Rückens starker, langer und vorherschend schwarz. 
Stirn und Nase mit schwarzlichen Haaren. Oberhalb des 
Mundwinkels begin ut ein weisslicher Streifen der schmaler 
werdend sich über die Wange bis unter das Ohr fortsetzt, 
ja minder deutlich sogar bis an den vordern Rand des 
oberen V orderschenkels. Auf dem Bauche ebenfalls einzelne 
weissliche Haare und an dem vordersten Theil der Innen- 
seite des Oberschenkels. Ohren inwendig zum Theil mit 
weisslichen Haaren nur zum kleineren mit röthlichfahlen 
besetzt. 

Longitudo corporis 575 Mm. 

Höhe über dem Vorderfuss 310 » 

Oberarm bis Sohle 175 » 

Höhe am Kreuz 350 » 

V. d. Ohröflfnung bis Riisselspitze 166 » 

V. d. Ohröffnung bis zum hintern Augenwinkel 45 » 
Umfang am Nabel 500 » 

Notes from tlie Leyden IMuseum, "Vol. XIII. 



100 ON' Tilt MALAYAN AND PAPUAN PIGS 

Dr. Finsch was kind enough to send to rae a description 
as follows: »Nocli nicht ganz altes Weibchen von Tagai 
(angegeben auf der Karte in » Finsch , Samoafahrten"). Kopf 
und ganze Körper rostbriiunlich , liings Nacken und Rücken 
mit schwarzen Borsten gemischt, daher hier melirt; die 
Borsten nicht sehr lang. Schnauze und der Unterkiefer bis 
zum Mundwinkel, sowie ein schraaler Ring urns Auge 
schwarzlich ; Kinn und vom oberen Rande des Mundwinkels 
an , die Unterseite weissfahl (nicht rein weiss) ; das Weiss- 
fahl erstreckt sich über die Kehle , Brustmitte , die Innen- 
seite der Vorderbeine bis zum Knie , den Bauch , bis auf 
die Bauchseiten und auf die Innenseite der Hinterbeine und 
den vorderen Rand derselben bis zur Achilles ; Vorder- 
und Hinterbeine vom Knie an dunkler graulichweiss als 
die Bauchseite. Ohrrand innen weisslich gesaumt, aber die 
Ohren abgeschnitten , ebenso die Schwanzspitze , so dass 
man uichts von eiuem Pinsel sieht, aber der Schwanz 
graulichfahl , gegen die Spitze zu heller (der Pinsel war 
wohl noch heller) weiss. Nasenlöcher (Nüstern) fleischfar- 
ben ; Iris braun, Hufe braun. 

Lange von Schnauzenspitze bis Schwanzbasis 102 Cm. 

» » Schnauze bis Auge 14 » 

» » » » Ohrbasis .... 25 » 

Schwanz nicht gemessen, da verstümmelt". 

Habitat. New-Guinea; Jappen, v. Rosenberg ; Waaigeou, 
Bernstein; Misool, Salawatti , Batanta, Koor, Key- and 
Arou-islands , v. Rosenberg ; Yule-island , d'Albertis ; Loui- 
siade Archipelago , de Hoghton. 

Sus nig er Finsch. 

a. Skin of an adult male. Tidore. Collected by Bern- 
stein , 1862. 

h. Skin of a very young individual. Ternate. Collected 
by Bernstein, November 8, 1862. 

c. Half grown female, stufifed. Goram. Collected by von 
Rosenberg, September 19, 1865. 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, "Vol. XIII. 



IN THE LEYDEN MUSEUM. 101 

cl. Skiu of a young specimen. Waaigeou. Collected by 
Bernstein, March 25, 1863. 

Skull belonging to specimen c. 

In his »Malayische Archipel, 1878 , p. 362", von Rosen- 
berg described a new species of the Pig-family under the 
name Sus ceramensis , in the following terms: »Einfarbig 
schwarz ohne irgend welche Zeichnung, identisch mit dem 
auf Seram lebenden Schwein. Es findet sich auf alien Insein 
von Seramlaut bis Tijoor" ; and 1. c. p. 322 : »Sus spec, und 
Cervus moluccensis kommen in ungeheuer Menge vor und 
bilden das gewöhnliche Wild fur die Alfuren auf Seram." 

Dr. Bernstein remarked in his Manuscript after having 
given the above (page 99) mentioned description of Sus 
papuensis from Waaigeou: »ein auderes ganz schwarz mit 
weissliche untern Theile der Vorderfüsse" ; the individual 
meaned herewith by Bernstein is skin d in the Leyden 
Museum. 

Dr. Finsch (P. Z. S. L. 1886, p. 217) described a new 
species of Pig from New Guinea as follows : » uniform blackish, 
even when young", and he named it Stis niger. 

Now it is evident — and with the above mentioned four 
specimens before me I am convinced of the fact — that Rosen- 
berg's ceramensis and Finsch 's niger are names for one and 
the same uniform black species and that therefore there 
is reason to reject niger (Finsch, 1886) in favor of cera- 
mensis (v. Rosenberg, 1878), notwithstanding niger is a 
much better name than the title ceramensis , an ill chosen 
local title for a species with a great geographical distri- 
bution. There is, however, in the British Museum the skull 
of a Pig from Ceram, collected by Mr. Wallace and men- 
tioned (in Gray's Catalogue, 1869, and Hand-list, 1873) 
under the name Sus verrucosus, var. ceramica (1869), or 
DasycJioerus verrucosus^ var. ceramicus (1873). Now it may 
be that it later on appears that this skull really belongs 
to a specimen of the black Pig , and then I think it logical 
to call it by the name ceramicus Gray or ceramensis v. 
Rosenberg, but I think it wise — in the first place in 

JSotes from the Xjeyden Miuseiim, Vol. XIII. 



102 ON THE MALAYAN AND PAPUAN PIGS 

order to avoid confusion — for the present to accept the spe- 
cific title niger^ bestowed upon the black Pig by Dr. Finsch, 
a name moreover preferent as it so excellently expresses 
the most prominent character of the species. 

Our four above mentioned specimens have all the bristles 
of a uniform black color, the adult as well as the young 
ones; however I remark that our very young specimen h 
(it measures from tip of snout to base of tail about 32 
Cm.) presents under a certain lighting very feeble tra- 
ces of reddish black stripes, one from the angle of the 
mouth over the cheeks to the shoulder and two along the 
sides of the body: I suppose that they only are present 
in very young (younger perhaps than six weeks , see Finsch, 
P. Z. S. L. 1886, p. 218) specimens and very soon disappear, 
and therefore not have been observed by Dr. Finsch. 

Among our specimens of niger and papuensis are indi- 
viduals with one or more legs partly differing in color 
with the rest of the body , that is to say : there is a more 
or less broad whitish ring just above the hoofs. I wrote 
to Dr. Finsch and asked him if he had perhaps observed 
the like , whereupon he had the courtesy to inform me as 
follows: »die Zeichnungen (Samoafahrten , mit Holzschuitt) 
sind nach der Aquarelle gemacht die Sie copiren liessen und 
zwar nach den Exemplaren, welche ich lebend mitbrachte 
nach Berlin. Sie wurden dort von Moritz Hoffmann nach 
dem Leben gemalt, avoI die ersten verniinftigen Abbildun- 
gen , den die von Lesson taugt auch nichts. Aber diese 
Bilder stellen nur junge, kaum halbwachsene Thiere {Sus 
papuensis and Sus niger) dar. Alte sehen mit ihreu gewal- 
tigen Gewehren ganz anders aus, und namentlich alte Eber 
von Sus niger sind collossale Thiere. Ich babe in den Wilduiss 
die Thiere nur fliehen , brechen horen , aber nie eins ge- 
sehen , da sie sehr scheu sind. Aber in den Niederlassungen 
der Eingeborenen sieht man stets Wildschweine in halbzahmen 
Stande , wenn noch jung ziemlich zahm , altbösartig; ganz 
junge (Frischlinge) so zahm als Hunde , Lieblinge der Weiber, 
die junge Ferkel haufig an ihren Brüsten saugen. Alte 
IVotes from tlie Leyden IMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



IN THE LEYDEN MUSEUM. 103 

Schweine , namentlich Eber , sieht man selten , da sie vor* 
her gegesseo werden. Schweine zur Festmahlzeit der Manner. 
Man halt gewöhnlich, aber iramer in beschrankter 
A n z a h 1 , Sauen ; wenn diese hitzig werden , laufen sie in 
den Wald und lassen sich von wilden Ebern decken , dann 
kommen sie wieder ins Dorf. Sie werden dabei wol immer 
Eber ihrer Art aufsuchen , denn ich habe nie Bast- 
arde von beiden Species gesehen. Dagegen kom- 
men unter den halbdomesticirten Schweinen der Eingebo- 
renen zuweilen Exemplare mit weiss an den Beinen 
vor, vielleicht eiu Vorderfuss oder Fessel oder an zwei 
Beinen , aber immer unregelmassig. Dies sind Schweine die 
vermuthlich schon in ein Paar Generationen in Domesti- 
cation gezuchtet warden , uud solche weisse Flecke 
sind sichere Zeichen von Domestication. Die 
zahmen Schweine von Port Moresby und Blanche Bai in 
Neu Pommern rechne ich nicht, denn an diesen Platzen 
sind schon europaische Hausschweine eingeführt und daher 
nur gemischtes Blut." 

Dr. Finsch's view may be correct or not , it appears that 
white rings on the legs of the Pigs in question are not 
uncommon. Our Sus niger h has the right hindleg ringed ; 
c has four ringed legs, the hindlegs very broadly; mean- 
while d has only rings round the fore legs. Our Sus cele- 
hensis k and I have four white ringed legs , and Sus papu- 
ensis c? has the hind legs for their greatest part white. 

Although it now is to be supposed that the specimens 
of Sus niger living in the above mentioned small islands 
in a wild state or in domestication, once may have origi- 
nated from New Guinea , I hardly can believe that there 
will be some evidence that the most accurate investigations 
in loco will give any trustworthy answer to this question 
and that we are obliged to content us with a mere sup- 
position. 

Habitat, New Guinea , Finsch ; Waaigeou , Ternate and 
Tidore, Bernstein; Ceram to Tijoor, von Rosenberg. 

Dr. Finsch wrote me: »ich habe Sus niger und Sus 

Notes from the Leyden M.iiseuixi , Vol. XJLII. 



104 ON THE MALAYAN AND PAPUAN PIGS. 

papuensis überall beobaclitet, wo ich an der Kuste voa 
Neu Guinea war , dass ist von Freshwater-Bai bis Keppel- 
Bai an der Südostküste , und au der Ostküste von Ostcap 
bis Humboldt-Bai ! Auf den d'Eutrecasteaux und in Neu 
Brittannien giebt es ebenfalls Wildschweine , doch habe 
icli nie welche geseheu , nur die Hauer. Dasselbe gilt von 
Neu Irland." 

N. B. There has been described in the Trans. Linn. Soc. 
London, 1879, p. 276, a Pig from Ter nate under the name 
Sus ternatensis Meyer. It is a young specimen and was 
lent to Prof. Rolleston by Dr. A. B. Meyer : Prof. Rolleston 
stated , that in colouring of the head it differs from that 
of any other Sus seen by Dr. Meyer or figured by Schlegel 
— the head being covered all over with long black hairs , 
except in the region occupied by a broad yellowish brown 
streak beginning between the eyes and descending to the 
snout, where it broadens. 

I strongly suspect that it is a young Sus niger and that 
the yellowish brown streak is a merely accidental one. 



IVotes from tlie Leyden Museum , "Vol. XIII. 



ON DACTYLOMYS DACTYLINUS ETC. 405 



NOTE VII. 

ON DACTYLOMYS DACTYLINUS AND KANNA- 
BATEOMYS AMBLYONYX. 



Dr. P. A. JENTINK. 

March 1891. 



(Plate 1). 



Dactylomys is the name of a genus of South-American 
Rats, created in 1838 by Mr. Is. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire ') 
for the reception of Echimys dactylinus of Mr. E. Geoffroy- 
Saint-Hilaire (1817). Mr. Is. Geoffroy bestowed the specific 
title typus on that animal and herein all the later authors ^) 
have followed him , although according the rule of priority 
it would have been more correct to retain the name given 
by Mr. E. Geoffroy and to call the animal Dactylomys 
dactylinus. But as it perhaps is a matter of euphony and 
as Is. Geofifroy's name typus once had gained the victory 
I followed in my paper in the Notes from the Ley den 
Museum , 1887 , p. 224 , the bad example of my predecessors. 

Natterer brought home from his journeys in South- 
America two rats , described ^) by Andreas Wagner , as 
belonging to the mentioned genus , under the name Dac- 
tylomys amblyonyx Natterer, with the following short diag- 



1) Compte rendu des seances de rAcademie des Sciences, 1838, p. 888; 
Annales des Sciences naturelles. Seconde Série, T. X, 1838, p. 126, and Ma- 
gasin de Zoölogie, 1840, p. 26. 

2) Except Dr. Trouessart, see Catalogue des Mammifères vivants et fossiles, 
Rongeurs, 1881, p. 124. 

3) Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, 1845, p. 146. 

Notes from the Leyden Museum , "Vol. XIII. 



106 ON DACTYLOMYS DACTYLINUS 

nose: y> Dactylomys supra flavus, nigro-adspersus , subtus 
pulchre ochraceus ; unguibus dilatatis ; cauda tota pilis 
vestita." The named author published later on ^) a more 
detailed description based upon the same type-specimens 
from Natterer's collections. In that paper Wagner makes 
no mention of skull or dentition. The very exact descrip- 
tion of the external parts ends with the following terms : 
»Natterer erhielt 2 Exemplare, Mannchen und Weibchen, 
aus den Waldungen von Ypaneraa (Provinz San Paulo). 
Diese Thiere leben auf Baumen , klettern sehr gut und 
tragen in Baumhöhlungen Vorrathe von Samen und Früch- 
ten fur den Winter zusammen. Das Weibchen war mit 
einem Jungen trachtig." 

As far as I am aware no other specimens of this spe- 
cies have been brought over to Europe , or have been descri- 
bed or mentioned up to the year 1867; in the interim 
Wagner's paper was the only source. D. amhlyonyx was 
unknown or ignored by Mr, Deville, who in 1852^) 
wrote: »il n'existe dans ce genre (Dactylomys), qu'une 
seule espèce .... caractérisée par Mr. Isidore Geoffroy- 
Saint-Hilaire, Dactylomys typus Is. G. S. H." 

In 1872 Mr. R. HenseP) read a paper entitled: »Bei- 
trage zur Kenntniss der Saugethiere Süd-Brasiliens", be- 
fore the members of the ))Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 
Berlin", after haviug shortly mentioned in 1867*) his 
specimens of Dactylomys amhlyonyx , and after haviug pu- 
blished in »der Zoologische Garten 1872", a paper concer- 
ning more especially the biology of the mammals observed 
or collected by himself in Southern Brazil. He explained 
in a very satisfactory way why specimens of Dactylomys 
amhlyonyx are so rarely to be found in European Musea: 



1) Abhandlungen der 11. Classe der Kon. Akademie der Wissenschaften, V. 
Bd., II. Abth., p. 304. 

2) Revue et Magasin de Zoölogie, 1852, p. 556. 

3) Abhandlungen der Kön. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1873; 
Der Zoologische Garten, 1872, p. 80. 

4) Sitzungsber. der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, 1867, p. 21. 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. ^XJLII. 



AND KANNABATEOMYS AMBLYONYX. 107 

»Diese Fingermaus (oder Bambusratte) lebt vorzugsweise an 
den Uferu der Flüsse , wo sie mit baumhohem Bambusrobre 
dicbt bewaebsen sind. Da , wo die jungen Schösslinge des- 
selben abgefressen sind , kaun man das seltene Tbier 
vermutbeu , das bei Tage vielleicbt stets verborgen ist. 
Fabrt man dagegen in windstiller Nacbt und bei bellen 
Scbeine des Vollmondes in der Canoa unter jenen Bam- 
busdickicbten bin , so bört man bald bocb in denselben 
einen merkwürdigen Scbrei, den man unbedingt eiuem 
Vogel zuschreiben sollte. Bei der grössten Rube und Auf- 
merksamkeit entdeckt man wobl zufalligerweise gegen den 
bellen Nacbtbimmel und bocb in den Kronen der Bambu- 
sen das kleine rattenabnlicbe Tbier , wie es auf den scbwan- 
kenden Zweigen mit blitzabnlicber Scbnelligkeit auf und 
nieder klettert. Man scbiesst und wartet bis zum Morgen, 
um zu seben , ob man getroffen bat, denn in die Tiefe des 
Dickicbts vermag bei Naebt Niemand einzudringen ; da fin- 
den wir einzelne Haare oder üeberreste des Körpers am 
Boden und gewinnen die traurige Ueberzeugung , dass un- 
terdess eine Beutelratte uns zuvorgekommen ist. Für den 
kundigen Leser wird es keine weiteren Erklarung bedür- 
fen, weshalb das Tbier so selten in unseren Museen ist." 
Very interesting is tbe following observation: »Merkwür- 
dig ist die Eigentbümlicbkeit , dass die Fingermaus die 
glatten Robrstengel bei dem Klettern zwiseben die zweite 
und dritte Zebe der Hinterfüsse nimmt und dass darnacb 
diese beiden Zeben gebaut sind." Like Natterer so Hensel 
observed: »Czwei) tracbtige Weibcben batten nur je einen 
Fötus." 

Hensel collected 2 skeletons , 2 skulls , 2 foetus and 3 
specimens in spirits. Skeleton witb 1 3 ribs , 6 lumbares , 
3 sacrales and 36 (or more) caudales. He observed *): »Nach 
der Form des Scbadels und der Zabne scbeint die Gattung 
Dactylomys mit den Hystricinen verwandt zu sein , unter 



1) Sitzungsbericht der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, 
1867, p. 21. 

Notes from th.e Leyden IMuseura, Vol. 2?dJ[I. 



108 ON DACTYLOMYS DACTYLINUS 

denen sie sich zunachst an Chaetomys anschliesseu wiirde." 
For the rest Hensel said not a single word concerning 
the remarkable dentition of D. amhlyonyx nor in this nor 
in his other papers on the subject. 

In 1888 Prof, H. Winge wrote a paper on » Jordfundne 
og nulevende Gnavere fra Lagoa Santa, Miuas Geraes, 
Brasilien." He had two specimens of D. amhlyonyx from 
Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre; skull and dentition 
(partly) figured on plate VII , head and feet on plate VI. 
As I cannot understand Winge's language I am not able 
to tell what he stated about the species in question. 

Dr. E. A. Göldi from Rio de Janeiro relates ^) that he 
personally collected specimens of D. amhlyonyx and con- 
firms the biological observations made by Dr. Hensel. 
Nothing about dentition. 

The dentition of D. typus {dactylinus) has been very in- 
sufficiently described and figured — I remarked it already 
in 1887 — meanwhile the dentition of amhlyonyx has 
not sufficiently been studied and described — as I just poin- 
ted out — and therefore I think that a very accurate and 
minutely made description of both dentitions may be called 
a desideratum ; the conclusion we arrive at will be unexpected 
and surprising. 

dactylinus ^) : the series of molar teeth of opposite sides 
of the upper jaw very converging and nearly meeting 
in front, of the lower jaw also converging but in 
front not surpassing half the distance of the hindmost 
molars. In both jaws all the enamel folds are directed 
backward under an angle of about 45°. Each molar 
divided into two separate lobes; those of the 
upper jaw in the form of a tuning-fork; in those of the 
lower jaw (except in the premolars) the foremost lobe pre- 
sents more the form of a V, meanwhile the other lobe 



1) Der Zoologische Garten, 1889, p. 225. Die Bambasratte oder brasiliani- 
sche Fingerratte, Bactylomys amhlyonyx Natt. 

2) Skull of the specimen discussed in the Notes from the Leyden Museum, 1887. 

Notes from the Leyden JMuseiim, Vol. XIII. 



AND KANNABATEOMYS AMBLYONYX. 109 

is a simple elongate enamel fold. The lower premolars 
present a quite diiferent shape , although like the other 
molars each divided into two separate lobes , for the ante- 
rior lobe is a very short and simple enamel fold, the pos- 
terior lobe, however, shows the same enamel folds (one 7- 
shaped and one simple elongated) like the other lower 
molars but here united together by a small enamel bridge. 

amblyonyx ^) : the series of molar teeth of opposite sides 
of the upper jaw very slightly converging, of the lower 
jaw not converging but each series in the middle very 
slightly curved. In both jaws the enamel folds are nearly 
perpendicular to the molar series. Molars not divided 
into two separate lobes (except the lower premo- 
lars); the lobes on each tooth of the upper jaw present two 
very irregular tuning-fork-like folds, united together 
by a small enamel bridge. The lobes on each tooth 
(except the premolars) of the lower jaw present an ante- 
rior V-shaped fold and a posterior elongate one, united 
together by a small enamel bridge. The lower 
premolars show about the same shape and folds like 
those parts in dactylinus , the anterior fold, however, is re- 
latively and absolutely larger than in that species. 

The difference in the form of the enamel folds of the 
dentition in the two named species is so great as to com- 
pel me to form a new genus for the reception oï amblyonyx. 
This genus I propose to call Kannahateomys^). 

Dactylomys dactylinus and Kannahateomys amblyonyx 
present moreover in their bony parts as well as in their 
external characters some differences , as appear to me of 
more than specific value. So the upper molar series are 
much more pushed forward in dactylinus, and the nasal 
bones in that species are more elongate and remember 
what is to be found in Cavia, Dolichotis , Lagidium and 
Lagostomus , meanwhile in amblyonyx the named parts 



1) Skull of an adult specimen in the Leyden Museum recently procured 
from Brazil. 

2) Kxvva, reed , cane and jSxTsai, I mount. 

Notes from the Leyden JVIuseum, Vol. :X11II. " 



110 ON DACTYLOMYS DACTYLINUS ETC. 

agree much more with Lasiuromys . Loncheres and Echimys ; 
D. dactylinus lias a typical rat-tail , at first sight naked , 
so extremely small and short are the few hairs upon it ; 
K, amhlyonyx on the other hand has a very hairy tail , 
more like Lasiuromys villosus and ending in a tuft of 
long hairs like in Loncheres hispida. * 

It seems to me very puzzling that amhlyonyx up to this 
date always has been regarded as belonging to the genus 
Dactylomys and I think that lack of material has been the 
mere reason why it not rather has been enregistered as 
a Loncheres with some species of which genus — f. i. 
with Loncheres hispida — it has indeed much more in 
common (in external characters , in shape and hairiness of 
tufted tail , in size , in form of skull , in form of bony 
palate , in color of the molars , a. s. o.) than with Dacty- 
lomys dactylinus , notwithstanding L. hispida has spiny 
hairs and sharply pointed curved claws. 

Some measurements of the skull of an adult specimen 
of Kannabateomys amhlyonyx in our Museum : 

Length of skull 58 Mm. 

Width between zygomata 28.5 » 

Length of nasal bones 16 » 

» » upper molar series 14 » 

» » lower » » 15.5 » 

Diastema upper jaw 12 » 

The molars of Dactylomys dactylinus are white colored, 
those of Kannahateomys amhlyonyx reddish brown; in both 
species the incisors are smooth and orange colored. 

Habitat of Kannahateomys amhlyonyx: Brazil, Province 
San Paulo (Göldi), Ypanema (Natterer), Prov. Minas Ge- 
raes (Museum at Rio de Janeiro, vide Göldi, 1. c. p. 230), 
Prov. Rio de Janeiro , Porto Real (Leyden Museum), Porto 
Alegre (Winge), and Prov. Rio Grande do Sul (Hensel). 



Notes from the Leyden JMuseuixi, Vol. XIII. 



LANISTES CüNGlCUS, 111 



NOTE VUL 
ON A NEW SPECIES OF LANISTES. 

BY 

M. M. SCHEPMAN. 



(Plate 8, figs. 1 and 2). 
Lanistes congicus Boettger. 

Testa sinistrorsa , anguste umhilicata , conico-glohosa , aut 
flavido- aut viridi-olivacea , semper fasciis spiralihus pur- 
pureis angustis in anfr. ultimo picta ; spira scalaris , magis 
minusve conica; apex obtusus. Anfr. ö^/j , superne vel acute 
angulati vel carinati, supra plani, carina interdum linea 
spirali impressa circumscripta , infra convexiusculi, sutura 
impressa disjuncti, irregulariter ruguloso-striati ^ spiraliter 
non lineati , ultimus ^j. altudinis aequans , convexus , modice 
inflatus, carina suturalis magis minusve evanescente , ad umhili- 
cum compresso-carinatus , carina obtusa. Aperiura subsemi- 
circularis , intus alba , purpureo spiraliter f asciata , peristoma 
simplex^ margine parietali hrevi subprotracto , columellari 
inferoque modice incrassatis. — Operculum, tenue , corneum , 
superne subangulatum , basi subrotundatum. 

Alt. 32 — 35, diam. max. 33^/2 — 34^/2, alt. apert. 21, 
lat. apert. 14 — 15 mm. 

Specimens of this species , collected at Landana , have 
been procured by the Leyden Museum from Mr. Petit Ainé. 
I sent some of them to Dr. Boettger of Frankfort o/M., 
who has occupied himself some time ago with Mollusks 
from the Congo , and who found them identical with the 
species described above. 

Notes from tlie Ijeyden IMuseum, "Vol. XIII. 



112 LANISTES CONGICUS. 

As the species was not yet described , Dr. Boettger kindly 
allowed me to publish here his description of the type 
specimens, which were collected near the village Elau, on 
2 days journey from San Salvador, Congo. 

The specimens of the Leyden Museum (see plate 8, figs. 
1 and 2) are, however, much smaller than those of Dr. 
Boettger , who says on this subject : I think that none of 
your two small varieties ought to bear a distinct name. 

The specimens vary in the carina of the base , which is 
more or less sharply marked , and in the elevation of the 
spire, which is much eroded in nearly all the specimens. 

The measurements of a few specimens of the Leyden 
Museum are: 

Alt. 23, diam. max. 2172, alt. apert. 15, lat. apert. 11 mm. 
» 16, » » 21, » » 13, » » 10 » 
» 16, » » 19, » » 13, » » 9^/2 >'- 
» 11^/2? >> * 14, » » 9, » » 7 » 

Rhoon near Rotterdam, February 1891. 



Notes from the Leyden IMuseum, Vol. !X.III. 



UNIO LANDANENSIS. 113 



NOTE IX. 
A NEW SPECIES OF UNIO. 



DESCRIBED BY 



M. M. SCHEPMAN. 



Unio landanensis , n. sp. 

(Plate 8, fig. 3). 

Shell oblong, attenuated towards the anterior part, in- 
aequilateral , rather inflated, very thin, rather smooth but 
covered with a thin closely wrinkled epidermis, greeuish- 
olive , with two indistinct green rays on the posterior slope. 
Upper- or hinge-margin nearly straight, lower margin ir- 
regularly curved , its anterior part rising obliquely into 
the anterior margin, which is regularly rounded and meets 
the upper margin at an obtuse angle. Posterior side gra- 
dually sloping to a wedgelike point. Beaks slightly in- 
curved , eroded , placed at the distance of about one third 
from the anterior edge of the upper margin ; they are 
slightly inflated , rather elevated , and sculptured with small 
wavy wrinkles and traces of small knobs , the wrinkles 
extend towards the front and also , though indistinctly , 
towards the posterior slope. Ligament rather long, narrow, 
yellowish brown. From the beaks two shallow grooves are 
running towards the posterior margin, which correspond 
with the green rays. Inside of the shell nacreous , nacre 
rosy. Hinge and teeth very thin , right valve with an 
elongate triangular tooth , with a slightly notched crest , 
lateral tooth much elongated , slightly furrowed length- 
Notes from tlie Leyden jVLuseum , Vol. X^III. 



114 UNIO LANDANENSIS. 

wise ; left valve with a very indistinct tooth and two late- 
ral ones ; anterior muscular scars shallow , posterior ones 
and pallial scar scarcely visible. 

Length 41, breadth under the beaks 19, behind the li- 
gament 22 mill. Diam. 18 mill. 

Hob. Landana (Congo), collected by Mr. Petit Ainé 
(Leyden Museum). 

This shell has externally much the appearance of being 
an Anodonta, the very weak hinge increases still the re- 
semblance. Prom Unio Juliana Rang , which should also 
look like an Anodonta , it differs , as far as may be j udged 
from the description , by the form , which in Juliana is 
described as »oblongue ou arrondie, concave", by the epi- 
dermis which is yellow , often adorned with a large num- 
ber of green rays in U. Juliana^ while the nacre in that 
shell is not rosy. About the sculpture of the beaks of U. 
Juliana, Rang says: »leurs soramets a l'extérieur sont ar- 
mes, surtout dans le jeune age, de petits tubercules spi- 
uiformes." 

Rhoon near Rotterdam, March 1891. 



JS^otes from the X^eyden iMuseuixi, Vol. X.1II. 



OMMATOLAMPUS PICTUS. 115 



NOTE X. 

DESCRIPTION DE NOUVELLES ESPÈCES DE 
CURCULIONIDES. 



W. ROELOFS. 



Otnmatolampus p i c tu s ^ n. sp. 

(Planche 8, fig. 4). 

Rouge-brun , orné de taches noires ; dessous d'un rouge- 
brun jaunatre. — Long. 22 mill., rostr. excl. 

Tête presque noire. Rostre brun-uoiratre , rugueusement 
ponctué, surtout a la partie basilaire, pourvu d'un point 
allonge entre les yeux , d'un autre plus faible vers l'inser- 
tion des antennes et d'une rainure profonde sur ses cótés. 
Antennes de la couleur du rostre. 

Prothorax tres finement ponctué sur les cótés, orné sur 
Ie disque de deux taches noires allongées. 

Elytres avec des stries ponctuées larges et peu profon- 
des ; une tache noire se trouve sur les épaules ; la mênie 
couleur couvre les cótés des élytres , commen9ant avant Ie 
milieu; elle s'étend d'abord jusque vers la troisième strie 
prés de la suture , se rétrécit en arrière , couvre l'extré- 
mité et remonte un peu au bout de la suture. Au milieu 
de ce dessin noir , vers Ie bord de l'élytre , se voit encore 
une petite tache rouge. 

Pygidium assez fortement ponctué, surtout aux bords; 
il est couvert d'une courte pubescence, ayant dans un 
certain jour, un aspect argeutin. Ses cótés et Ie bout sont 
noirs. 

Notes from the Leyden M.useuiu, Vol. !XIII. 



116 OMMATÜLAMPUS PICTUS. 

Dessous d'un rouge-brun-jaunatre. Le prosternum et les 
cótés des deruiers segmeuts de l'abdomen ponctués, le der- 
nier segment plus profoudément. Les sutures des pieces du 
métasternum , deux lignes allant des hanehes antérieures 
vers le bord autérieur du prothorax , une bande allant des 
pattes postérieures jusqu'au dernier segment de l'abdomen, 
le bout de ce dernier et les bords postérieurs des trois 
segments intermédiaires sont noirs. Les cótés du métaster- 
num et du premier segment abdominal sont garnis d'une 
pubescence extrêmement fine et serrée , ayant dans un cer- 
tain jour un aspect argentin. Les pattes sont finement 
ponctuées; le bout des cuisses, des jambes et les tarses 
sont noirs. 

Le prothorax et les élytres présentent dans un certain 
jour l'aspect poussièreux, qui se voit chez beaucoup d'es- 
pèces du groupe des Rhynchopliorides. 

Un individu originaire de Tandjong Morawa, Serdang 
(N. O. Sumatra) et provenant des chasses du Dr. Hagen. 
— Musée de Leyde. 

Ohs. UO. Cuvieri Bob. est synonyme avec VO. tetTaspilo- 
tus Guér. La description de Boheman date de 1845 , celle 
de Guérin de 1843 au plus tard (voir la fin de la page 
384 des »Insectes" de l'Iconographie du Règne animal). 

Chevrolat a eu tort de rebaptiser VO. Germari Boh. en 
O. Allardi a cause du Rhynchopliorus Germari Perty du 
Brésil , qui actuellement fait partie du genre Di/narnis Chevr. 
(Ann. Soc. Ent. de France. 1882. p. 563 , et Bull. ent. p. 159). 

Depuis la publication du tome VIII du Catalogue de 
Munich (1871) une seule espèce du genre Ommatolampus 
a été décrite, savoir: O. stigma Pascoe (Ann. & Mag. N. 
H. 5th ser. vol. XIX (1887) p. 374; pi. 11, fig. 8) des ïles 
Andaman. 

Oxyopisthen deplanatum^ n. sp. 

Prothorax aplati par dessus. Noir, cótés du mésoster- 
num , du métasternum et du premier segment de Tabdo- 

Notes from tlie Leyden Museum , "V ol. ^III. 



OXYOPISTHEN DEPLANATUM, 117 

men couverts par une taclie blanche. Cuisses rouges , ex- 
cepté leur extréraité. — Long. 15 mill., rostr, excl. 

Rostre d'un noir-bruuatre, peu courbé , obsolètement 
ponctué , avec une depression peu profonde , courte et plus 
fortement ponctuée sur les cótés devant les antennes. Cel- 
les-ci de la couleur du rostre. Tête finement ponctuée. 

Prothorax aussi long que large a la base , qui est ar- 
rondie ; fortement aplati par dessus , la partie aplatie pa- 
raissant d'un noir mat, par une ponctuation forte , presque 
confluente. Une carêne tres faible est a peine indiquée au 
milieu. Les cótés du prothorax et Ie prosternum d'un noir 
luisant et munis d'une ponctuation moins serrée que celle 
du dessus. Les cótés du prothorax sont un peu déprimées 
au dessus des hanches , et devant les épaules. Le bord ré- 
tréci antérieur du prothorax , assez fortement séparé sur 
les cótés , porte une ponctuation fine et serrée. Ecussou 
allonge, ovale. 

Elytres a peine plus larges que le prothorax a sa base, 
presque une fois et demi aussi longues que celui-ci , un peu 
rétrécies en arrière , déprimées autour de l'écusson , derrière 
les épaules et transversalement derrière le milieu ; d'un 
noir laisant et munies de stries ponctuées. 

Pygidium déclive suivant une ligne courbe, en triangle 
allonge, portant une carêne sur la ligne médiane, ses cótés 
également élevés en carêne, son extrémité d'abord un peuélargi 
et finissant en pointe aiguë. Il est couvert d'une ponctuation 
allongée et présente vers les carênes latérales un espace mat. 

Cótés du mésosternum , épisternums métathoraciques ainsi 
qu'une tache sur les cótés du premier segment de l'abdomen 
blancs. 

Dessous d'un noir luisant, métasternum vaguement ponctué , 
segments de l'abdomen plus fortement surtout le bout du der- 
nier segment. Le métasternum est déprimé au milieu de sa partie 
postérieure et cette depression se continue sur le premier 
segment abdominal. Le dernier segment porte vers l'extré- 
mité une depression allongée fortement ponctuée , suivie d'un 
bourrelet transversal, isolant Textrémité de l'abdomen. 

Notes from tlae Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



118 OXYOPISTHEN DEPLANATUM. 

Cuisses postérieures atteignant presque rextrémité du 
pygidium. Toutes les cuisses sont rouges jusque prés du 
bout, et portent une petite dent vers leur dernier tiers 
oü la cuisse est un peu evasée sur sa tranche inférieure. 
Leur dessous est garni de pubescence brune jusqu'a eet en- 
droit. Jambes postérieures munies d'une dent triangulaire 
sur leur tranche intérieure , prés de la base. 

Un individu unique , provenant du pays des Niams- 
Niams, et fourni au Musée de Leyde par Mr. Schlüter. 

Oxyopisthen Süttikoferi, n. sp. 

Subparallèle , d'un noir uniforme , luisant, antennes d'un 
brun-rougeatre vers la base , élytres un peu déprimées , 
striées-ponctuées ; pygidium horizontal, pointu. — Long. 13 
mill., rostr. excl. 

Rostre environ de la longueur de la tête et Ie protbo- 
rax pris ensemble , lisse. Tête finement ponctuée sur Ie 
vertex. 

Prothorax un peu plus long que large a sa base , qui 
est presque droite; peu rétréci en avant, un peu déprimé 
en arrière, couvert d'une ponctuation serrée. Ecusson pe- 
tit, allonge. 

Elytres presque une fois et demie plus longues que Ie 
prothorax , a peine plus larges que lui , a leur base ; un 
peu déprimées a la base et transversalement derrière Ie mi- 
lieu , munies de stries ponctuées assez larges. 

Pygidium horizontal, tres allonge, couvert de points 
plus denses a sa base ; ses cótés sont élevés en carêne ; 
une carêne médiane se prolonge en pointe a l'extrémité 
et deux taches grisatres se remarquent vers Ie bout. 

Dessous tres luisant , vaguement ponctué , dernier seg- 
ment de l'abdomen plus fortement surtout vers l'extrémi- 
té qui porte une depression , suivi d'un rebord peu élevé 
et un enfoncement plus profond vers la pointe. Le méta- 
sternum est un peu déprimé en arrière aiusi que le pre- 
mier segment de l'abdomen. Cuisses postérieures un peu 
sinueuses et courbées vers le haut, atteignant environ au 

NotBs from tlie Leyden ]M.useu.ixi, A^ol. XIII. 



OXYOPISTHEN BÜTTIKOFERI. 119 

dela du milieu du dernier segment; elles sont fortement 
dentées vers leur tiers postérieur; les autres cuisses sont 
faiblement dentées. 

Les deux individus que j'ai sous les yeux présentent 
quelques differences sexuelles ; chez la Q , Ie rostre est un 
peu plus long et Ie pygidium plus étroit et plus allonge. 
Captures par Mr. J. Büttikofer a Grand Cape Mount 
(Liberia). — Musee de Leyde. 

xy pi sthen v it t at u m , n. sp. 

Lineaire, subparallèle , noir, peu luisant; le bout des 
jambes antérieures brun-rouge ; la ponctuation du protho- 
rax et des élytres remplie d'un enduit gris-jaunatre ; une 
bande blanc-jaunatre laterale sur le prothorax, se continue 
sur les cótés du mésosternum , du métasternum et du pre- 
mier segment de l'abdomen. — Long, 10 mill., rostr. excl. 

Rostre d'un noir luisant , courbé , environ de la lon- 
gueur du prothorax et de la tête pris ensemble , avec une 
petite ligne imprimée a la base. Massue des antennes peu 
élargie vers le bout, presque cylindrique. Tête ponctuée. 

Prothorax de la moitié plus long que large , tres faible- 
ment élargi sur les cótés, peu rétréci en avant, arrondi 
a la base, couvert d'une ponctuation tres serrée , remplie 
d'un enduit gris-jaunatre, décoré d'une bande laterale, 
étroite, blanc-jauuatre , plus rapprochée sur le devant. Ecus- 
son tres petit. 

Elytres a peine une fois et demie aussi longues que le 
prothorax et de la largeur de celui-ci, tronquées au bout, 
parallèles sur les cotés , garnies de stries ponctuées , dont 
les points sont remplis d'un enduit gris-jaunatre , les épau- 
les sont d'un noir luisant. 

Pygidium en triangle allonge , rétréci avant l'extrémité 
qui finit par une pointe aiguë, prolongement d'une carêne 
médiane. Il est couvert d'une ponctuation serrée et ses 
cótés sont un peu relevés vers le bout ; on y remarque deux 
espaces couverts d'un enduit grisatre. 

14'otes from tlae Leyden IMCtiseura, "Vol. XIII. 



120 OXYOPISTHEN VITTATUM. 

Le prosternum est garni au milieu d'un enduit analo- 
gue qui couvre également une petite carêne droite entre 
les Jianches antérieures. La bande gris-jaunatre du pro- 
sternum se continue sur les cótés du corps jusqu'au bout 
du premier segment de l'abdomen. Le métasternum est 
fortement ponctué , l'abdomen porte une ponctuation en- 
core plus forte, tres espacée; le dernier segment présente 
un petit bourrelet limitant la pointe terminale. 

Les pattes sont fortement ponctuées. Les cuisses des 
deux paires antérieures ont une dent au dela du milieu, 
les cuisses postérieures sont longuement pédonculées, cour- 
bées vers le haut et munies d'une dent vers le dernier 
tiers ; elles dépassent un peu la base du dernier segment 
de l'abdomen. 

Un seul individu , pris par Mr. Greshoff au Congo. — 
Musée de Leyde. 

Obs. Chez les trois espèces iVO.vyopisthen décrites ci- 
dessus , le scape des antennes ne dépasse pas le bord anté- 
rieur du prothorax et les articles du funicule sont moins 
allonges que chez O. funehre 111. { ^= funerarium Thoms. 
suivant Chevrolat, A.nn. Soc. Ent, de France. 1882. p. 568) 
et O. Westermanni Auriv., que j'ai sous les yeux. 

Sauf VO. Westermanni Auriv. (Entom. Tidskr. VII (1886) 
p. 97, note) de la cóte de Guinee, qui est la seule espèce 
de ce genre décrite depuis la publication du tome VIII 
du Catalogue de Munich , trois genres voisins ont été pu- 
bliés , savoir : 

Haplorhynehus (Valdaui) Auriv., Entom. Tidskr. VII 
(1886). p. 95. Cameroon. 

Stenophida (linearis) Pascoe, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIX (1886). 
p. 386. Momboia. 

Anoxyopisthen (Büttneri) Kolbe, Stett. Ent. Zeit. (1889). 
p. 131. Congo. 

La Haye, Mars 1891. 



Notes from the Leyden IMuseum , Vol. XIII. 



BIRDS OF BILLITON. 121 



NOTE XI. 
THE BIRDS OF BILLITON. 



A. G. VORDERMAN, 

Correspondiug Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Amsterdam. 



The Island of B i 1 1 i t o n is situated between Sumatra, 
Borneo and Java. From a geological point of view , it 
may be considered to be a continuation of the chain , form- 
ed by the Malay Peninsula, the Mountains of the Rio uw- 
and Linga Archipelago and of the Island of Banka, from 
which latter it is separated by Strait Gaspar , while the to- 
lerably broad Karimata Passage separates it from Borneo. 

Although Billiton lies in the centre of a zoologically 



*) Our readers will remember the communication in the Notes of last year, 
from the hand of Dr. Jentink, on the Mammals collected by Dr. A. G. V or- 
de rman on the Island of Billiton, during the month of June 1888. Shortly 
afterwards the well-known Ornithologist of the Malay Archipelago published 
the ornithological results of the same journey, in a paper: De vogels van 
Billiton, in » Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië" (deel L 
(1890), pp.410 — B19). As the Mammals above mentioned are already publish- 
ed in our Notes, and the Natuurkundig Tijdschrift not being easily accessible 
to every Ornithologist, the mentioned paper, moreover, being printed in Dutch, 
and ornithological investigations having been the principal reason of Mr. Vor- 
derman's visit to the island, it may be advisable and Mr. Vorderman kindly 
allows to publish here a brief extract from this interesting paper. The list of 
Birds will immediately be followed by another, enumerating the Lepidopterous 
Insects collected on the same trip, prepared by Mr. P. C. T. Snellen, and 
originally published in the //Tijdschrift der Nederlandsche Entomologische 
Vereeniging" (vol. XXXIII, p. 379, pi. 13). 

Leyden Museum, February 1891. J. Büttikofer. 

Notes from tlie Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



122 BIRDS OF BILLITON. 

tolerably well-explored region , the fauna of this island 
was still unknown. That was the reason for my visit to 
the island in the mouth of June 1888 , during which time 
I not only travelled through the greater part of it, but 
also chanced to cross to the neighbouring Island of Men- 
danao, where I spent three days in the vicinity of the 
light-house, situated on the mountain-ridge. This tolerably 
large island belongs to the same geological formation as 
Billiton, and is separated from this latter island by a nar- 
row passage. 

The ornithological collection, brought together during 
my stay on Billiton and Mendanao , contains not a single 
species of which the habitat is restricted to these islands. 
Of the 93 species, contained in the list, there are 32 
which are not found in Java, 10 which are not found in 
Borneo, 8 are not known from Malacca, and only 5 not 
from Sumatra. The avifauna of Billiton, therefore, seems 
to agree more with that of Sumatra than with that of 
Malacca , less with that of Borneo , and the least with that 
of Java. To my and ray huntsmen's astonishment we found 
no crows ou the islands, nor any species of Ploceus , nor 
Sturnopastor jalla and melanopterus , nor Acridotheres gri- 
seus , all of them species which are tolerably common in Java. 

FAM. FALCONIDAE. 

1. Onychaëtus malay ensis (Reinw.). Billiton. 

2. Haliastur indus (Bodd.). Billiton, Mendanao. Na- 

tive name : Lang. 

FAM. STRIGIDAE. 

3. Scops lempiji (Horsf.j. Billiton, one specimen. 

4. Ketupa javanensis (Less.). Billiton, one specimen. 

FAM. PSITTACIDAE. 

5. Palaeornis longicauda (Bodd.). Native name: 

Bajang. Very common on both islands, generally 10 
Notes from tlie X-ieyden Museuua, "Vol. XIII. 



BIRDS OF BILLITON. 123 

to 15 specimeDS together, becomes very tame and 
is often kept as cage-bird by the natives. 

6. Loriculus g algulus (Linn,). Native name: Kelin- 

sak. Billiton , Mendanao , nesting in hollow trees. 

FAM. TROGONIDAE. 

7. Py rotrog on duvaucelli (Temm.). Native name : 

Pandai dare. Billiton. 

FAM. CAPITONIDAE. 

8. Chotorea versicolor (Raffles). Native name : Toe- 

woei. Very common on both islands, all day long pro- 
ducing the monotonous sounds; too-too tootoot, re- 
peated several times after each other. 

FAM. PICIDAE. 

9. Jyngipicus fusco-albidus, Salvad. Billiton , one 

specimen. 

10. Callolophus malaccensis (Lath.). Billiton, two 

specimens. 

11. Meiglypte s tukki (Less.). Native name: Platoh 

hadok. Billiton, 3 males and 1 female obtained. 

12. Micropte rnus 6 r acAj/wrws (Vieill.).Nativeiiame: 

Platok kidjang. Very common on both islands. 

13. Sasia abnormis (Temm.). Billiton , where it seems 

to be a rare species. Only one specimen obtained. 

FAM. CÜCÜLIDAE. 

14. Cacomantis sepulcralis , S. Mull. Billiton. One 

specimen obtained. 

15. Rhopodytes sumatranus (Raffl.). Native name: 

n Doroe. Very common on both islands, and not 
shy at all. 

FAM. BÜCEROTIDAE. 

Buceros species. Billiton. On a high tree, I saw once 
two hornbills, which, with the aid of my spyglass, easily 

Pfotes from the Leyden IMuseuru, "Vol. XIII. 



124 Brans of bflliton. 

were recognized to be Buceros rhinocer os. It would 
have been very interesting to make out if they belonged 
to the Sumatran form or to B. rhinocer oides Temm., 
from Borneo. Unfortunately I was not happy enough to 
have a shot at them, and the question, therefore, could 
not be dissolved. 

FAM. MEROPIDAE. 

16. Me r ops bicolor, Bodd. Native name: Birik. Not 
rare in Billiton. 

FAM. ALCEDINIDAE. 

\1 . Alcedo meninting, Horsf. Native name: Penin- 
ting itam. Billiton, along the small rivulets, but 
much rarer than the very common Ceyx innominata. 

18. P elarg opsis leucocephala (Gm.). Native name : 

Tidaut kalak. Along the banks of the Lingang 
River, Billiton. 

19. C ey X innominata^ Salvad. Native name : Peninting 

merali. Billiton , along rivulets. 

20. Caridagrus concretus (Temm.). Native name: 

Kekoewai. Not rare in the interior of Billiton. 

21. Sauropatis c hi o ris (Bodd.). 'NsitiYenameinKake. 

Billiton and Mendanao, along the beach. 

22. Sauropatis s a not a (Vig. & Horsf.). Native name 

as above. Billiton and Mendanao. 

FAM. CORACIIDAE. 

23. Eurystomus orientalis (Linn.). Native name: 

Tiong batoe. Tolerably common on both islands. Iris 
brown, bill and feet lively red , eyelids red. 

FAM. EURYLAEMIDAE. 

24. Eurylaem us jav aniens^ Horsf. Native name: Sem- 

pder oedjan. Tolerably common all over in Billiton ; 
his voice is compared by the sound of falling rain. 

25. Eurylaemus ochromelas, Raffl. Native name: 

Sempoer oedjan dar at. Billiton. 

TN"ote8 from the Leyden JMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



BIRDS OF BILLITON. 125 

26. Cymhorhynchus macrorhyncTius (Gm.). Na- 

tive name: Sempoer oedjan soengai. Billiton. Two 
specimens, both with white spots on the three 
outermost pairs of tailfeathers. 

FAM. CAPRIMULGIDAE. 

27. Caprimulgus af finis, Horsf. Native name : Ko- 

long. Common in Billiton. 

28. Caprimulgus concretus, Bp. Native name: 

Kolong. One specimen from Billiton. 

FAM. CYPSELIDAE. 

29. Collocali a fuciphaga (Thunb.). Billiton. I shot 

one specimen on the plain at the northern foot 
of the Tadjem Mountain. No informations about 
the nesting places could be obtained from the 
natives. 

30. Dendroch elidon longipennis (Rafin.). Native 

name : Kelajang Jcclepitoet. Billiton , very com- 
mon near Begantong in the interior. 

FAM. HIRUNDINIDAE. 

31. Hirundo javanica, Sparrm. Native name: Kela- 

jang. Billiton , Mendanao. Plentiful at Tandjong 
Pandan , where it is found nesting in the open 
galleries of the European dwelling-houses. 

32. Hypothymis azure a (Bodd.). Native name: 

Boeroeng taroem. Very common in Billiton. 

33. Leucocerca javanica (Sparrm.). Native name: 

Gandarassi. Billiton , not common. 

34. Terpsiphone af finis (Hay). Native name: Boe- 

roeng tali hepang. Billiton. 

FAM. ARTAMIDAE. 

35. Artamus leucorhynchus (L.). Billiton, Mendanao. 

FAM. CAMPEPHAGIDAE. 

36. Pericrocotus arden s, Boie. Billiton. 

Xotes from the Leyden JMuseum , Vol. XIII. 



126 BIRDS OF BILLITON. 

37. I rena cyanea, Begbei. Native name: 3'tas kapor. 

Mendanao. 

FAM. LANIIDAE. 

38. Myiolestes o Z»scMrM 5 (Horsf.). Billiton. One male 

collected. 

39. Hy loterpe brunneicauda, Salvad. Billiton. 

FAM. NECTARINIIDAE. 

40. Prionochilus percuss us (Temm.). Native name: 

Pintis koemhang. Billiton , not very common. 

41. Prionochilus thoracicus (Temra.). Billiton. 

Only one specimen obtained. 

42. Prionochilus maculatus (Temm.). Native name: 

Pentis koedong. Billiton. 

43. Dicaeum trigonostigrna, Scop. Native name: 

Pentis , of the female : Pentis h'énaloeng. Billiton. 

44. Aethopy ga siparaj a (Ra£9.). Native name: 

Kelajoet, Billiton , not common. 

45. N ectarophila hasseltii (Temm.). Native name: 

KMajoet. Billiton. 

46. Chalcostetha in si g nis (Jard.). Native name: 

Kelajoet. Billiton. 

47. Anthreptes malaccensis (Scop.). Native name: 

Kelajoet. Billiton , Mendanao. 

48. Chalcoparia sing alensis (Gm.). Native name: 

Kelajoet. Billiton. 

49. Arachnothera Zo w^zrosif ra(Latli.).Nativename: 

Tjotjapan, Billiton. 

■FAM. MELLIPHAGTDAE. 

50. J or a viridissima, Bp. Native name: Poenaiara. 

Billiton, common. 

51. Phyllornis sonneratii (Jard. & Selby). Native 

name: Boeroeng daun, Billiton. 

52. Phyllornis icter ocep hala , Less. Native name: 

Boeroeng daun. Billiton. 

Notes froin the Leyden M-useuxn , Vol. XIII. 



BIRDS OF BILLITON. 127 

FAM. BRACHYPÜDIDAE. 

53. Pycnonotus ana lis (Horsf.). Billiton. 

54. Pycnonotus plumosus^ Blyth. Native name: 

Berehe. BillitoQ. 

55. Pycnonotus pusillus ^ Salvad. Native name: 

Berehe. Billiton. 

56. Jol e olivacea , Blyth. Native name: Berehe. Bil- 

liton. Iris in adult and young white. 

57. B rachy podius melanocephalus (Gm.). Native 

name: Pelintang. 

58. Criniger phaeo cephalus (Hartl.). Native name: 

Berehe irang. Billiton. 

FAM. TIMELIIDAE. 

59. Mixornis gularis (Raffl.). Native name: Sepom- 

pong. Billiton. 

60. Cyanoderma erythropterum (Blyth). Billiton. 

61. Macronus ptilosus , Jard. & Selby. Native name: 

Sepompong gadoek. Billiton. 

62. Drymocataphus nigricapitatus (Ejt.). Native 

name : Boeroeng pelandoek. Billiton. 

63. Brachypteryx malaccensis j Hartl. Native 

name: Boeroeng pelandoek. Billiton. 

64. Set aria pectoralis (Salvad.). Billiton. 

FAM. PITTIDAE. 

65. Pitta cucullata, Hartl. Native name: Popak. 

Billiton, common. 

FAM. SYLVHDAE. 

66. Orthotomus horneoensis , Salvad. Native name: 

Kroedjik. Billiton. 

67. Orthotomus cineraceus , Blyth. Native name: 

Kroedjik. Billiton. 

68. Orthotomus ruficeps (Less.). Native name: 

Kroedjik. Billiton. 

Notes from the Leyden M!useura, Vol. XIII. 



128 BIRDS OF BILLITON. 

69. Orthotomus flai^oviridis , Moore. Native name : 

Kroedjik. Billiton. Hitherto only known from 
Malacca. 

70. Cisticola cur sit an s (Frankl.). Native name: 

Ketoppi. Billiton. 

FAM. SAXICOLIDAE. 

71. Kittacincla macroura (Gm.). Native name: 

m' Boeroek. Billiton. 

72. Copsychus mindanensis (Gm.). Native name: 

Moerai. Billiton, Mendanao. 

FAM. STURNIDAE. 

73. Calornis chalyhaea (Horsf.). Native name: 

Perlhig. Billiton. 
74 Gracula j avanensis (Osb.). Native name: Tiong. 
Billiton, Mendanao. 

FAM. ORIOLIDAE. 

75. Oriolus indie us, Briss. Billiton. 

FAM. TRERONIDAE. 

76. Tver on nasica, Schleg. Native name: Poenai 

koenok. Billiton. The colors of the naked parts 
are as follows: anterior part of bill Naples-yellow, 
posterior part wine-red, Loral part, space round 
the eye and behind the latter pale yellowish 
green , iris orange yellow , feet wine-red , nail 
pale horn-color, bottom of feet dirty yellow. On 
the plate , contained in the work on the Sumatra- 
Expedition , the colors of these parts are inaccurate. 

77. Tver on vernans (Linn.). Native name; Poenai 

daun. Billiton , Mendanao. 

78. Treron fulvicollis (Wagl.). Native name: Poenai 

sawang. Billiton. 

79. P tilonopus j arnhu (Gm.). Native name: Poenai 

djamboe. Billiton. 

Notes from tlie Leyden ]Museu.m , Vol. ^III. 



BIRDS OF BILLITON. 429 

80. Carpophaga a en e a (Linn.). Native name: Per- 

gum. Billiton , Mendanao. 

81. Carpophaga hicolor (Scop,). Billiton. 

FAM. COLÜMBIDAE. 

82. Spilopelia tigrina (Temm.). Native name: Te- 

koekoer. Billiton. 

FAM. GOURIDAE. 

83. Chalcophaps indica (Linn.). Native name: Lim- 

hokan. Billiton. 

84. C all oenas nicobarica (Linn.). Native name: 

Boeroeng djoenai. This pigeon is not found in 
Billiton, but on some small neighbouring islands , 
for instance in Poeloe Lima in the Gaspar Strait, 
where no beasts of pray and no monkeys are 
found. 

FAM. ROLLULIDAE. 

85. Rollulus roulr ou I (Sco^.). Native name: Siauio. 

Billiton. 

FAM. PERDICIDAE. 

86. Areoturnix plumbipes (Hodgs.). Native name: 

Poejo. Billiton , one specimen. 

87. Excaljactoria chinensis (Linn.). Billiton. A 

male specimen obtained. 

FAM. GLAREOLIDAE. 

88. Glareola Isabella, Vieill. Billiton. 

FAM. SCOLOPACIDAE. 

89. Numenius phaeopus (Linn.). Billiton and Men- 

danao. 

FAM. ARDEIDAE. 

90. Herodias intermedia (v. Hasselt). Billiton. 

One specimen shot on the Lingang River. 

Notes from tlie Leyden IMuseuin, "Vol. XIII. 

9 



130 BIRDS OF BILLlTOfi. 

91. Butorides javanica (Horsf.). Native namet 

Roetjau. Billiton. 

FAM. CICONIIDAE. 

92. Leptoptilos jav aniens (Horsf.). Native name: 

Bango. Billiton , on the sand-banks near Cape Roe. 

FAM. PELECANIDAE. 

93. Fregat a a q uil a (Linn.). Native name: Bientajong. 

Billiton. On the neighbouring Island of Lankwa.s 
and probably on other small islands , this bird 
is passing the night in great number. The fact, 
that never a nest of these birds was found , caused 
the belief amongst the natives, that this bird flies 
so extremely high up in the air to drop his egg, 
that this latter breeds out while dropping, and 
that, in stead of the egg, the young bird reaches 
the sea. 



Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



LEPIDOPTERA OF BILLITON. 131 



NOTE XII. 



LIST OF THE LEPIDOPTEROUS INSECTS 

COLLECTED BY M^'. A. G. VORDERMAN IN THE 

ISLAND OF BILLITON. 



P. C. T. SNELLEN. 



Up to this clay only a single information concerning the 
Lepidopterous fauna of the island of Billiton, situated 
between Sumatra and Borneo , was published (see: Godman, 
Salvin and Druce in Proceed. Zool. Soc. of London for 
1878, p. 637 , pi. 40). This communication was based upon 
a small collection made by Mr. S. N. Walter and consist- 
ing of thirty-three species. A more extensive collection , 



*) In order to have in one and the same journal a complete enumeration of 
the animals brought from the island of Billiton by Dr. Vorderman, Mr. Snellen 
kindly allowed me to insert in the Notes from the Leyden Museum the list 
of the Lepidoptera, published by him in the Tijdschrift voor Entomologie (vol. 
XXXllI, p. 279; pi. 12) with interesting notes concerning the geographical 
connection of the species, and with a description and figure of the two new ones. 

Besides Mr. Piepers the Leyden Museum also received a certain number of 
the collected Lepidoptera, and, moreover, a few representatives of other insect- 
orders, viz. COLEOPTERA : Aeeraius emarginatus Weber, Cat har sius molossus 
Fabr., Lachnosterna spec, Lepidiota spec, Tric/iolepis vestita Sharp , Anomala 
spec; IIYMENOPTERA: Fespa tropica Linn, Sp/iex diabolicus Smith, 
Mygnimla anrosericea Guér. {= gigas Taschb ) with its prey: a Mygalid; two 
species (males only) of Muf ilia , Camponotus gigas Latr. ; ORTHOPTERA: 
Panestkia javanica Serv. and a Mantid. 

Among the Lepidoptera sent to our Museum were 2 species which are re- 
corded neither by Messrs. Godman, Salvin and Uruce, nor by Mr. Snellen, 
viz. Adolias Diardi Snell. v. Voll. var. and Papilio Agamemnon Linn., which 
make the number of Rhopalocera known as yet from Billiton amount to 93 
and the total number of Lepidoptera to 108 species. I have intercalated both 
species iu Mr. Snellen's list, with the numbers 35 as and 78 «. 

Leyden Museum, February 1891. C. Ritsema Cz. 

Notes from tlie Leyden Museum , "Vol. XIIX. 



132 LliPIUÜPTERA OF BlLLlTON. 

however, was received in 1888 by Mr. M. C. Piepers , which 
collection owed its origin to the following circumstances : 

During the month of June 1888 Mr. A. G. Vorderman, 
town-surgeon at Batavia, undertook an excursion to Billitou 
and the neighbouring island of Mendanao for the sake of 
his Ornithological studies. In the meantime he had brought 
together , besides many other natural history objects , an 
important collection of Lepidoptera, chiefly Rhopalocera, 
which , for the greatest part , was sent by him to Mr. 
Piepers. In none of these islands high mountains are 
found , and the height of the localities where the insects 
were captured does not surpass 3000 feet. The Lepidoptera , 
which at present make part of our collection, are of great 
interest, especially with regard to their geographical con- 
nection with those of the neighbouring islands of Sumatra 
and Borneo , and of the peninsula of Malacca. In my ori- 
ginal paper (see Tijdschr. v. Entom. XXXIII , p. 279 ; pi. 
12) all the differences I met with are carefully mentioned, 
in order to increase the value of ray remarks, and to 
make use as much as possible of the important collection 
brought together by Mr. Vorderman. 

The collection received by Mr. Piepers contained 82 spe- 
cies of Rhopalocera and 11 of Heterocera, together 93 
species. Messrs. Godman, Sal vin and Druce, moreover, 
notice 9 Rhopalocera and 4 Heterocera, so that the num- 
ber of the Rhopalocera known as yet from Billitou increa- 
ses to 91 species ^). Though there are certainly still many 
more species to be found , especially of the small Lycaenina 
and Hesperidina, we have already sufiicient evidence that 
the Lepidopterous fauna of Billiton is much closer con- 
nected with that of Malacca , Sumatra and Borneo than 
with that of Java, 

There are only two species , an Aclolias and a Chalcosia , 
which I believe to be new. Messrs. Godman, Salvin and 
Druce described 3 species as new , one of which {Myrma 



1) See, however, the footnote on the foregoing page. 

Notes from the Lieyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



LEPIDOPTERA OF BILLITON. 133 

nivea) was also contained in Mr. Vorderraan's collection; 
the second (Antheraea billitonensis) was wanting, and the 
third [Nyctalemon docile) does not differ specifically from 
Nyctalemon Patroclus. On the other hand I feel entitled 
to name three remarkable , probably local , varieties , viz. 
var. immaculata of Lexias dirtea ^ var. saturata of Amhly- 
podia Apidanus , and var. aurago of Cathaemia haemorrhoa. 

The species recorded by Messrs. Godman , Salvin and 
Druce, but not collected by Dr. Vorderman , are: 

1. Hestia Clara Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. of London. 

3rd ser. , vol. V, p. 469. (Identical with Hestia 
Leuconoë Erichs.). 

2. Euploea Menetriesii Felder, Wien. Ent. Mo- 

natschr. IV, p. 398. (Probably a variety of 
Euploea Alcathoë Godart.). 

3. Euploea Thoosa Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schmett. 

(Variety of Euploea Radamanthus Fabr.). 

4. Zeuxidia Hot sjieldii Felder , Novara-Reise. Lepid. 

p. 460; pi. 62, fig, 4. 

5. Char axes Schreiheri Godart, Encycl. Method. 

IX, p. 825. 

6. Callidry as Catilla Cramer, Uitl. Kap. I, p. 87; 

pi. 55 , fig. C , D. (The species figured here is not 
named Catilla but Crocale , and no doubt syno- 
nymous with Pomona Fabr.). 

7. Papilio Antip hates Cramer, Uitl. Kap. I, p. 

113; pi. 72, fig. A, B. 

8. Papilio Eurypylus Linné , Syst. Nat. I, p. 754. 

(Strongly resembling Evemon Boisd. which was 
met with by Mr. Vorderman). 

9. Casyapa Thrax Linné, Syst. Nat. I, p. 794. 

10. Chaerocampa sujfusa Walker, Cat. Lep. Brit. 

Mus. Heterocera. VIII, p. 146. — Snellen, Tijdschr. 
V. Eutom. XXVIII, p. 254; pi. 9, fig. 2. 

11. Hypsa Silvandra Cramer , Uitl. Kap. IV, p. 155; pi. 

369, fig. D. (Cf. also Tijds. v. Ent. XXXI, p. 141). 

Notes from the Leyden IMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



134 LEPIDOPTERA OF BILLITON. 

12. Antheraea Billitonensis nov. spec. Druce, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. of London, 1878, p. 642. 

13. Hypopyra Feniseca Guenée, Noct. 3, p. 200. 

Species collected by Mr. Vorderman: 

1. Euploea Grameri Lucas, Revue Zoologique, 1853, 

p. 318 (c^). 

2. Euploea Mid a mus Linn., Papilio Mulcïber Cram,, 

Uitl. Kap. II, p. 45; pi. 127, fig. C, D. 
Trepsichrois Linnaei Moore , Proc. Zool. Soc. of 
London, 1883, p. 286. 

3. Euploea Aegyptus Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. of 

London, 1866, p. 316. — Snellen, in Midden- 
Sumatra. Lepid. p. 13; pi. 1, fig. 1, 2. 

4. Euploea Alcathoë Godart , Eucycl. Method. IX, 

p. 178. 

5. Danais Aspasia Fabr., Mant. Ins. II, p. 15, n°. 

145; id.. Ent. Syst. III, p. 170, n°. 526. — 
Distant, Rbopal. Malay, p. 13; pi. 1, fig. 7. 
Euploea Philomela Zincken , Nova Acta Acad. Nat. 

Cur. XV, p. 184; pi. 16, fig. 17. 
Danais Crocea Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London, 
1866, p. 57, n°. 53; pi. 4, fig. 5. 

6. Danais Agleoïdes Felder , Wien. Ent. Mon. IV, 

p. 398, n°. 17. — Distant, Rbopal. Malay, p. 
15 ; pi. 1 , fig. 5. 

7. Danais similis Linn., Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 299; id., 

Syst. Nat., Ed. XII, I, 2, p. 782, n°. 193. 
Danais vulgaris Butler, Ent. Mo. Mag. XI, p. 164. 
— Distant, Rbop. Mal. p. 10 ; pi. 1, fig. 8 {Radena). 

8. Danais Juventa Cram., üitl. Kap. II, p. 139; pi. 

188, fig. B. — Distant, Rbopal. Malay, p. 407; 
pi. 39 , fig. 4 {Radena). 

9. Danais Me la nip pus Cram., Uitl. Kap. II, p. 44; 

pi. 127, fig. A, B. — Distant, Rbopal. Malay. 
p. 19; pi. 2, fig. 1 (var. Hegesippus). 
Papilio Hegesippus Cram., 1. c. p. 128 ; pi. 180, fig. A. 

Notes trom thie Leydeii JMuseum, "Vol. XIII. 



LEPIDOPTERA OF BILLITON. 135 

10. Cyllo Leda Linn., Syst. Nat., Ed. XII, I, 2, p. 

773. — Cram., Uitl. Kap. III, p. 5; pi. 196, 
fig. C, D. 

11. Yphthima Bal dus Fabr., Syst. Ent. App. p. 809. 

12. Yphthima Pandocus Moore , Cat. Lep. Mus. East- 

Ind. Comp. I , p. 235. — Hewitson , Trans. Ent. 
Soc. of London. 3rd ser. Vol. II, p. 290; pi. 
18, fig. 12. 

13. Mycalesis Mineus Linn., Syst. Nat., Ed. XII , I , 

2, p. 768, n°. 126. — Distant, Rhopal. Malay. 
p. 50; pi. 4, fig. 13, 14 (cf , 9). 
Papilio Justina Cram., Uitl. Kap. IV, p. 75 ; pi. 
326, fig. C, 

14. Mycalesis Hesione Cram., Uitl. Kap. I, p. 16; 

pi. 11, fig. C, D. 
Mycalesis Medus Fabr. — Distant, Rhopal. Malay. 
p. 40; pi. 4, fig. 8. 

15. My calesis fuscum Felder , Wien. Ent. Mon. IV, 

p. 401. — Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 53; pi. 
5, fig. 1 (9). 
Mycalesis Diniche Hewitson , Exot. Butt. Mycalesis , 
pi. 4, fig. 23. 

16. Mycalesis Ana pit a Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. East- 

Ind. Corap. I, p. 232. — Distant, Rhopal. 
Malay, p. 418; pi. 39, fig. 8. 

17. FAy mnias Leucocyma Godart , Eucycl. Method. 

IX, p. 326. 
Elymnias nigrescens Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 61; 
pi. 6, fig. 1 (9) and pi. 9, fig. 4 (9). 

18. Elymnias Panther a Fabr., Mant. Ins. II, p. 39. 

Melanitis Dusara Horsfield , Cat. Lep. Mus. East- 
Ind. Comp. pi. 5, fig. 7 (1829). 

19. Elymnias Lais Cram., Uitl. Kap. II, p. 21; pi. 

110, fig. A, B. — Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. 
of London, 1869, p. 325. — Distant, Rhopal. 
Malay, p. 62; pi. 9, fig. 2. 

20. Ergolis Ariadne Linn., Syst. Nat., Ed. XII, I, 

Notes from the Leyden ]Mu.seum, "Vol. XIII. 



136 LEPIDOPTERA OF BILLITON. 

2, p. 778. — Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 137; 
pi. 11, fig. 6. 
Papilio Coryta Cram., üitl. Kap. I, p. 136; pi. 
86, fig. E, F. 

21. Limenitis Nefte Cram., üitl. Kap. Ill, p. Ill; 

pi. 256, fig. E, F. — Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
of London, 1858, p. 13; pi. 50, fig. 5. 
Athyma Nefte var. nivifera Distant, Rhopal. Malay, 
p. 163; pi. 16, fig. 6. 

22. Limenitis Kresna Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. of 

London, 1858, p. 12; pi. 50, fig. 4. — Dis- 
tant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 161; pi. 16,, fig. 3. 

23. P audita Sinope Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. East-Ind. 

Comp. I, p. 182; pi. 6, fig. 3. — Distant, 
Rhopal. Malay, p. 146; pi. 12, fig. 13. 

24. Ace a Procris Cram., Uitl. Kap. II, p. 15; pi. 

106, fig. E, F. 

25. Neptis Acer is Lepechin , Reise etc. I, p. 203; pi. 

17, fig. 5, 6. — Ochsenheimer , Schmett. von 
Europa. I, 1, p. 1 36 ; IV, p. 17 and 129. — 
Snellen , in Midden-Sumatra. Lepid. p. 15. 
Papilio Léucothoë Cram., üitl. Kap. IV, p. 15; pi. 
296, fig. E, F. 

26. Charaxes P olixena Cram., Uitl. Kap. I, p. 85; 

pi. 54, fig. A, B. 

27. Cyrestis Rahria Westw., Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. 

East-Ind. Comp. I, pi. 3a, fig. 2. — Distant, 
Rhopal. Malay, p. 142; pi. 12, fig. 4. 

28. Zeuxidia D ouhledaii Westwood, Gen. Diurn. 

Lep. p. 329, n°. 2, note; pi. 52, fig. 1. — 
Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 424, fig. 124 ((ƒ) 
and pi. 38, fig. 6. 

29. Amathusia Pkidippus Linn., Syst. Nat., Ed. XII, 

I, 2, p. 752. — Cram., Uitl. Kap. I, p. 108; 
pi. 69, fig. A, B. 

30. Thaumantis Klugius Zincken , Nova Acta Acad. 

Nat. Cur. XV, p. 165; pi. 15, fig. 11 (^T). 

Notes from the Leyden JMuseuni, Vol. XIII. 



LEPIDOPTERA OF BILLITON. 137 

31. Clerome Stomphax Westwood , Trans. Ent. Soc. 

of London , 2nd ser., vol. IV, p. 186 ; pi. 21 , 
fig. 3 and 4. 

32. Dia de ma Bolina Linn. — Distant, Rhopal. Malay. 

p. 164; pi. 10, fig. 10 and 12 (cT) , and pi. 
15, fig. 12 (9). 

33. A do lias A lp he da Godart, Encycl. Method. IX, 

p. 384. 
Adolias Octogesima Snell. v. Voll., Tijdschr. v. Entom. 

V, p. 193; pi. 10, fig. 5 (the male, not the 

female: p. 194; pi. 11, fig. 1). 
Adolias Jama Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 119; pi. 

14, fig. 8 (cf), and pi. 15, fig. 4 (9). 

34. Adolias decoratiis Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. of 

London, 1868, p. 605; pi. 45, fig. 2 and 9. 

Euthalia decorata Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 122, 

fig. 41, woodcut (9); pi. 14, fig. 9 (cf). 

35. Adolias Blumei Snell. v. Voll., Tijdschr. v. Entom. 

V, p. 204; pi. 12, fig. 3 and 4. 
2)ha. Adolias Diardi Snell. v. Voll., Tijdschr. v. Entom. 
V, p. 188; pi. 10, fig. 2. 
An example of a variety in which the blue colour 
on the hind wings remains farther removed 
from the outer margin. Four similar examples 
from Banka are in the Ley den Museum. 

36. Adolias (Tanaecia) super cilia Butler, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. of London, 1868, p. 610, n°. 4; pi. 
45, fig. 7. — ? Distant, Rhopah Malay, p. 131; 
pi. 15, fig. 8. 

37. Adolias (Tanaecia) Pulasara Moore, Trans. 

Ent. Soc. of London. 2nd ser., vol. V, p. 71 ; 
pi. 6, fig. 2. — Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 130; 
pi. 14, fig. 30 (9). 

38. Adolias (Tanaecia) Vordermani., nov. spec. 

Snellen, Tijdschr. v. Entom. XXXIII, p. 293; 
pi. 12, fig. 1. 

39. Lebadea Martha Fabr., Mant. Ins. II, p. 56; id. 

Notes from the Leyclen Museum, "Vol. XIII. 



138 LEPIDOPTERA 01- bILLlTON. 

Ent. Syst. IIT, 1. p. 139. — Butler, Cat. Diurn. 
Lepid. by Fabr., p. 59 ; pi. 1 , fig. 4. — Dis- 
tant, Rliopal. Malay, p. 145; pi. 17, fig. 10 and 11. 
Aconthea Alankara Horsfield , Cat. Lep. Mus. East- 

Ind. Corap. pi. 5, fig. 6 (1829). 
Limenitis Paduka Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. East-Ind. 
Comp. I, p. 179. 

40. Messaras Erymanthis Drury, Illustr. Exot. Eutom. 

I, pi. 15, fig. 3 and 4. — Cram., Uitl. Kap. Ill, 
p. 77; pi. 238, fig. F, G. — Distant, Rhopal. 
Malay, p. 177; pi. 8 , fig. 4 (cf). 

41. Cynthia Arsinoë Cram., Uitl. Kap. II, p. 100; 

pi. 160, fig. B, C. 
Cynthia Dejone Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 185; 
pi. 10, fig. 1 and 2. 

42. Prothoë Franckii Godart, Encycl. Method. IX, 

p. 825. 
Prothoë Angelica Butler, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. 

Hist. 5th ser., vol. XVI, p. 53. 
Prothoë uniformis Butler , I.e. — Distant , Rhopal. 
Malay, p. 434; pi. 38, fig. 4. 

43. Lexias Dirtea Fabr., Ent. Syst. Ill, 1. p. 59. 

Symphaedra Dirtea Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 112; 

pi. 12, fig. 7 and 8 (cf , 9);_ 
Var. immaculata Snellen, Tijdschr. v. Entom. 

XXXIII, p. 296. 

44. Apatura Osteria Westwood, Gen. of Diurn. Lep. 

p. 305 , note. 
Eulacera Osteria Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 100; 
pi. 12, fig. 5 and 6 (c^, 9). 

45. Precis Ida Cram., Uitl. Kap. I, p. 66; pi. 42, 

fig. C, D (abominable!); IV, p. 167; pi. 374, 
fig. C, D. _ 

46. Junonia Laomedia Linn. — Cram., Uitl. Kap. I, 

p. 13; pi. 8, fig. F, G (too dark). 

47. Ahisara Echerius Stoll , Uitl. Kap. p. 140; pi. 

31, fig. 1, la, 16. 

Notes from the Leyden JMiiseuin , Vol. XIII. 



LEPIDOPTERA OF BILLITON, 139 

Ahisara Kausamhi Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 189; 
pi. 18, fig. 10 and 11 (cT', 9). 

48. Allotinus suhviolaceus Felder, Novara Reise, 

II, p. 368; pi. 35, fig. 27 and 28. 
Allotinus Alkamah Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 452; 

pi. 44, fig. 3. 
Logania Andersom Moore, Journ. Linn. Soc. Vol. 

XXI, p. 39; pi. 3, fig. 6. 

49. Lycaena Osias Röber, Iris n°. 3, p. 56; pi. 5, 

fig. 17. — Staudinger, Iris n°. 2, pi. 1, fig. 4. 
Lycaena Amphissina Staudinger, 1. c. p. 109. 

50. Lycaena Ar at us Cram., Uitl. Kap. IV, p. 144; 

pi. 365, fig. A, B. 

51. Lycaena Celen o Cram., Uitl. Kap. I, p. 50; pi. 

31, fig. C, D. 
Lampides Aelianus Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 228 ; 
pi. 21, fig. 18, (ƒ (nee Stoll). 

52. Lycaenesthes [Nip ha n da) tessellata Moore, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. of London, 1874, p. 572; pi. 
66, fig. 6. — Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 458; 
pi. 42, fig. 13 and pi. 44, fig. 21. 

53. Sithon {My r in a) nivea Godman, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

of London, 1878, p. 640; pi. 40, fig. 3 and 4. 
Myrina hiemalis Godman, 1. c. fig. 5 and 6. — 
Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 249, pi. 22, 
fig. 13. 

54. Sithon Amrita Felder, Wien. Ent. Monatschr. IV, 

p. 395. 
Neocherkra Amrita Distant , Rhopal. Malay, p. 252 ; 
pi. 20, fig. 15 (9) and pi. 23, fig. 12 (cT). 

55. Sithon Tharis Geyer, in Hübner's Zutrage, 5tes 

Hundert, p. 22; fig. 883, 884. — Distant, 
Rhopal. Malay, p. 257; pi. 20, fig. 19. 

56. Sithon Est el la Hewitson , Illustr. of Diurn. Lep. 

p. 31, n°. 15; pi. 16, fig. 50 and 51. 

57. Sit ho 71 Lisias Fabr., Mant. II, p. 65. — Boisdu- 

val, Spec. Gen. I, pi. 22, fig. 2. 

ISTotes frona the Leyden M,useuni, "Vol. XIII. 



140 LEPIDOPTERA OF RILLITON. 

Biduanda Boisduvalii Moore , Journ. Asiat, Soc. 
Bengal. 1884, p. 31. 

58. Deudoryx D omit ia Hewitson , Tllustr. of Diurn. 

Lep. p. 12; pi. 6, fig. 6 and 7. — Distant, 
Rhopal. Malay, p. 280; pi. 23, fig. 7 ((ƒ). 

59. Deudoryx Timoleon Stoll, Uitl. Kap. p. 146: pi. 

32, fig. 4. — Boisduval, Spec. Ge'n. I, pi. 22, fig. 4. 
Iraota Bosioelliania Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 258 ; 
pi. 22, fig. 23 (9). 

60. Amhly podia Centaur us Fabr., Syst. Ent. p. 520. 

Narathura Centaurus Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 261; 
pi. 21, fig. 4 and 5 (cT, 9)- 

61. Amhly podia Ana r te Hewitson, Cat. Lycaen. Brit. 

Mus. p. 5, no 20; pi. 3, fig. 16 and 17; idem, 
Illustr. of Diurn. Lep. p. 4, n" 8 ; pi. 1, fig. 6 and 7. 
Narathura Agnis Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 362 ; 
pi. 21, fig. 29 (9). 

62. Amhlypodia Eumolphus Cram., Uitl. Kap. IV, 

p. 19; pi. 299, fig. G, H. 
Narathura Farquhari Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 264 
and p. 463; pi. 23, fig. 3 (cT). 

63. Amhlypodia Ahseus Hewitson, Cat. Lycaen. Brit. 

Mus. p. 9, n» 40; pi. 5, fig. 51 and 52. 

64. Amhlypodia Singhapura Distant, Rhopal. Malay. 

p. 273, fig. 84, woodcut (9). 

65. Amhlypodia A pidanus Cram., Uitl. Kap. II, p. 

63; pi. 137, fig. F, G. - Distant, Rhopal. Malay. 

p. 273, fig. 85 (woodcut). 
Papilio Dorimond Stoll, Uitl. Kap. p. 166; pi. 37, 

fig. 4, 4 D. 
Var. saturata Snell., Tijds. v. Ent. XXXIII, p. 30 1 . 

66. Amhly podia Antimuta Felder, Wien. Ent. Mon. 

IV, p. 233. — Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 266; 
pi. 13, fig. 11. 

67. Amhlypodia Metamuta Hewitson, Illustr. of 

Diurn. Lep. p. 13; pi. 2, fig. 14 and 15. — 
Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 267; pi. 33, fig. 19. 

Notes from the Leyden ]VIuseum, Vol. XIII. 



LEPIDOPTERA OF BILLITON. 141 

68. Ambly podia Lycaenaria Felder, Wien. Ent. 

Mon. IV, p. 396 ; idem , Novara Reise , II , p. 
232; pi. 29, fig. 13. — Distant, Rhopal. Malay, 
p. 269, fig. 79 (woodcut). 

69. Amhli/ podia Narada Horsfield, Cat. Lep. Mus. 

East-Ind. Corap. I, p. 98; pi. 1, fig. 8. - Dis- 
tant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 276; pi. 21, fig. 23 (cT). 

70. Pier is Panda Godart, Eucycl. Method. IX, p. 

147. — Boisduval, Spec. Gen. I , p. 485. — Snell. 

V. Vollenh., Monogr. des Piérides , p. 44. — 

Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. of London. 4th ser., 

vol. IV, p. 369 (Tachyris). 
Pieris sulphurea Snell. v. Voll., 1. c. p. 32; pi. 4, 

fig. 4. 
Pieris Nathalia Felder, Wien. Ent. Mon. VI , p. 285. 
Tacliyris Nathalia Wallace, I.e. p. 369. 
Saletara Nathalia Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 317; 
pi. 26, fig. 1 and 2 (cT, 9). 

71. Cathaemia haemorrhoa Snell. v. Voll., Monogr. 

des Piérides. p. 10; pi. 2 , fig. 5. 
Var. aurago Snellen, Tijdschr. v. Entom. XXXIII, 
p. 303. 

72. Terias Hecahe Linn. — Cram., Uitl. Kap. II, pi. 

124, fig. B, C. 

73. Callidry as Chryseis Drury , Illustr. Exot. Entom. 

I, pi. 12, fig. 3 and 4. — Distant, Rhopal. 
Malay, p. 300; pi. 25, fig. 1 and 2, pi. 26, 
fig. 20 9 var. 
Papilio Alcyone Cram., Uitl. Kap. I, p. 89; pi. 

58, fig. A, C. 
Callidryas Pyranthe Snell. v. Voll., Monogr. des 
Piérides, p. 59. 

74. Papilio Polytes Linn., Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 186. — 

Cram., Uitl. Kap. Ill, p. 129; pi. 265, fig. A, C. 
Papilio Pammon Linn., 1. c. p. 189. — Cram., 1. 

c. II, p. 169; pi. 141, fig. B. 
Papilio Theseus Cram., 1. c. II, p. 128; pi. 180, 

^otes from the Leydeii Museum, "Vol. JCIII. 



14.2 LEPIDOPTERA OF BILLITON. 

fig. B. — Wallace, Trans, Linn. Soc. of Lon- 
don , XXV, p. 52; pL 2, fig. 2, 4 and 7. 
75. Papilio Helenus Linn., Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 185. — 
Cram., UitL Kap. II, p. 90; pi. 153, fig. A, B. 
Papilio Isioara White , Entom. I , p. 340. — Dis- 
tant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 344; pi. 30, fig. 1 
and 2. 
7G. Papilio Memnon Linn., Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 193. 

Papilio Agenor Linn., 1. c. p. 194. — Distant, 
Rhopal. Malay, p. 339; pi. 29, fig. 1 (Q). 

77. Papilio Sarpedon Linn., Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 196. — 

Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 359; pi. 32, fig. 6. 

78. Papilio E v em on Boisduval, Spec. Gen, I, p. 234. 

- Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 360; pi. 32, fig. 1. 
18a. Papilic Agamemnon Linn., Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 

202. — Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 363; pi. 
32, fig. 7. 
Papilio Aegistus Cram., Uitl. Kap. II, pi. 106, 
fig. C, D. 

79. Hesperia Hyela Hewitson, Descr. Hesper. p. 23. 

— Plötz, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1882, p. 322. 
Pirdana Hyela Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 376; 

pi. 35 , fig. 6 (9). 

80. Tagiades Gana Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. of Lon- 

don, 1865, p. 780. — Plötz, Jahresber. Nas- 
saui. Vereins. Jahrg. 37 (1884), p. 36. — Distant, 
Rhopal. Malay, p. 388; pi, 34, fig. 2. 
Tagiades Atticus var. Caligana Distant, Rhopal. 
Malay, p. 387; pi. 34, fig. 6. 

81. Tagiades Folus Cram., Uitl. Kap. I, p. 118; pi. 

74, fig. F. — Plötz, Jahresber. Nassaui. Ver- 
eins. Jahrg. 37 (1884), p. 55. 
Udaspes Folus Distant, Rhopal. Malay, p. 398; 
pi. 34, fig. 3. 

82. Ismene Chromus Cram., Uitl. Kap. Ill, p. 163; 

pi. 284, fig. E. — Plötz, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1884, 
p. 57, n°. 19. 

Notes from flie X^eytlen Museum , "Vol. X^III. 



LEPIDOPTERA OF BILLITON. 143 

Ismene Chabrona Plötz, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1884, p. 

56, n°. 16. 
Ismene Contempta Plötz, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1884, 

p. 56, n°. 17. 
Ismene Vitta Butler , Trans. Linn. Soc. of London. 

2nd ser., vol. I, p. 554. — Plötz, Stett. Ent. 

Zeit. 1884, p. 57, n°. 18. 
Hasora Vitta Distant , Rhopal. Malay, p. 375 ; pi. 

35, fig. 4. 
Ismene Malayana Felder, Wieu. Ent. Mou. IV, p. 

401; idem, Novara Reise, pi. 72, fig. 15. — 

Plötz, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1884, p. 57, n°. 20. 
Choaspes Mala>jana Distant , Rhopal. Malay, p. 

373; pi. 35, fig. 2. 

83. Ckalcosia Eusemioïdes Felder, Novara Reise, 

II, 2, pi. 83, fig. 10. 

84. Ckalcosia Metachloro s Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. 

E.-L Comp. II, p. 321; pi. 8a, fig. 4, 4a (cT, 9). 

85. Ckalcosia ana lis, nov. spec. Snellen, Tijdschr. v. 

Entom. XXXIII, p. 307; pi. 12, fig. 2 (Q). 

86. Hyp sa Dam a Fabr., Spec. Ins. II, p. 216; idem. 

Ent. Syst. III, 2, p. 29. — Snellen, Tijdschr. 
V. Entom. XXXI, p. 139. 

87. P sexidohlahes bifasciata Felder, Novara Reise. 

II, 2, pi. 106, fig. 11 (9;. — Snellen, in 
Midden-Sumatra. Lepid. p. 36. 
Padenia transversa Moore , Lepid. of Ceylon , VI , 
p. 59; pi. 103, fig. 1 ((ƒ). 

88. B ir nar a nuhila Butler, Trans. Linn. Soc. of Lon- 

don. 2nd ser., vol. I, p. 560. — Tijdschr. v. 
Fntom. XXXIIT, pi. 12, fig. 3. 

89. Macroglossa rectifascia Felder, Novara Reise, 

II, 2, pi. 75, fig. 7. — Boisduval, Suites a 
Buffon , Héter. I, p. 353. — Moore, Lepid. of 
Ceylon. V, p. 27; pi. 90, fig. 2. 

90. Nyctipao crepuscularis Linn. — Guenée, Sui- 

tes a Bufibn. Noct. III, p. 182. 

Notes from th.e Leyden Miuseum., Vol. XIII. 



444 LEPmOPTERA OF BILLITON. 

91. N yctalemon P atroclus Linn., Mus. Lud. Ulr. 

p. 204. — Gueuée , Suites a Buffon , Urau. et 
Phaléu. I, p. 15. 
Nyctalemon docile Butler , Godman , Sal vin and Druce , 
Proc. Zool. Soc. of London, 1878, p. 642. 

92. Uraptery X Crocopterata Kollar, in von Hügel's 

Kashmir, p. 483. — Guenée, Suites a BuSon, 
Uran. et Phalén. I, p. 433. 
Uraptery x praetoraria Felder & Rogenli., Novara 

Reise, II , 2 , pi. 122, fig. 13. 
Thinopteryx nehulosa Butler, Illustr. VI, p. 51; 
pi. 113, fig. 8. 

93. Nazis Bellonaria Gueuée, Suites a Buffon, Uran. 

et Phalén. II, p. 193; pi. 18, fig. 1. 
Euschema subrepleta Butler, Illustr. I, p. 57 ; pi. 14, 

fig. 4. 
Euschema Bellonaria Dewitz , Verh. Leop. Carol. 

Akad. 44, p. 267; pi. 9, fig. 10, 10a, b. 
Euschema Ares Weymer, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1885, 

p. 279; pi. 2, fig. 9. 



Notes from the Leyden TMuseum , Vol. XIII. 



EUGITHOPUS ELEGANS. 145 



NOTE XIII. 

DESCRIPTION D'UN CURCULIONIDE NOUVEAU 

PAR 

W. ROELOPS. 



Eugithopus e l e g a n s , n. sp. 
(Planche 8, fig. 5). 

D'une forme ovale , analogue a celle de Poteriophorus 
vittatus Gylh. ; noir, couvert d'un enduit brun-olive plus 
OU moins foncé; oraé de taches blanches en dessus; des- 
sous d'un blanc-jaunatre. 

cf . Long. 16 a 17 mill., rostr. excl. — Rostre médiocrement 
courbé , plus épais a la base jusqu'a l'insertion des antennes , 
finement ponctué a l'exception de l'extrémité, muni d'un 
point imprimé entre les yeux. Tête finement ponctuée. 
• Prothorax ün peu arrondi sur les cótés et plus large que 
chez P. vittatus, obsolètement ponctué, orné de deux bandes 
d'un blanc-jaunatre, plus étroites vers leur milieu; une 
bande de la même couleur , s'effa9ant en avant , se trouve 
un peu plus bas que l'épaule et sur les cótés se voit une 
autre bande assez large , séparée par une bande brun-olive , 
de la couleur blanc-jaunatre du prosternum. Ecusson en 
triangle allonge , blanc-jaunatre. 

Ely tres assez larges, subarrondies au bout, avec des 
stries faiblement ponctuées. Le tour de Técusson est blanc- 
jaunatre et cette couleur se prolonge un peu sur la su- 
ture. La même teinte forme les taches suivantes : une de 
forme carrée un peu irreguliere sur la partie antérieure 
des élytres, une tache transversale, ou bande, devenant 
plus étroite vers la suture, derrière le milieu, un petit 
trait au bout de la suture et un autre prés du bout du 
5e intervalle. 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 

10 



146 EUGITHOPUS ELEGANS. 

Dessous d'un blauc-jaunatre , peu densément ponctué, 
avec une ponctuation plus serrée sur rextrémité de l'ab- 
domen et les cótés de ses segments. Des taches brun-oli- 
ves se voient sur Ie mésosternum , sur les cótés du méta- 
sternum et les cótés des trois derniers segments de l'ab- 
domen. Les pattes sont d'un blauc-jaunatre, tirant par 
place sur Ie brun-olive; Ie mucro des jambes et les tarses 
sont noirs. Sur les jambes se voient de faibles lignes pi- 
lifères et sur leur tranche intérieure deux rangées de cils 
jaunatres. 

Le pygidium , brun-olive , est densément ponctué et por- 
te une carène peu élevée au milieu, 

9. Long. 20 mill., rostr. excl. — Avec la forme plus 
large commune aux femelles l'individu que j'ai sous les 
yeux , présente les caractères sexuels suivants : 

Le rostre, plus long et plus gros que celui du male, 
porte a sa base un point imprimé, séparant deux tuber- 
cules peu élevés; il garde a peu prés la même grosseur 
jusqu'au bout ; il est fortement ponctué , pourvu d'une rai- 
nure laterale et de deux rangées de petits tubercules et de 
poils en dessous, 

Le métasternum est évasé au milieu. Le premier seg- 
ment de Tabdomen est applati, le pygidium plus arrondi 
et plus convexe que celui du male et n'a point de carêne 
au milieu. 

Le prothorax, le dessous de l'insecte et les pattes sont 
converts de pubescence. 

Davao , Mindanao , iles Philippines. Deux cf et une 9 pro- 
venant du Dr. Platen, — Collection Neervoort van de Poll, 

L'espèce doit faire partie du genre Eugithopus Chevro- 
lat (Ann. Soc. Ent. France. 1882. p. 576), quel'auteur a 
forme pour quelques espèces voisines de Poteriophorus ^ et 
dans lequel il fait également entrer une ancienne espece 
que Schönherr avait placee dans ce genre: P. vittatus de 
Gyllenhal. 

La Haye, Mars 1891. 



Notes from the Ueydeu IMuseain, Vol. .Xlll. 



ON CALANDRINAE. 147 



NOTE XIV. 

A NEW GENUS OF CALANDRINAE 

CHAKACTEEIZED BY 

C. RITSEMA Cz. 



Having received from Mr. A. L. van Hasselt of Padang 
Sidempoean , among some other interesting beetles from 
Sipirok (North West Sumatra), a couple of a beautiful 
Calandrid of the group Rhynchophoridae , viz. Macrocheirus 
spectahilis Dohrn , I carefully examined the materials of this 
group in the Leyden Museum , and this examination con- 
vinced me of the necessity of dividing Schönherr's genus 
Cyrtotrachelus in two genera. 

The following table will clearly show the distinctive 
characteristics of the genera of the first division of Lacor- 
daire's group Rhynchophorides (Genera des Coléoptères. 
Tom. VII. p. 271): 

a. Elytra distinctly narrowing backward, conjointly emar- 

ginate at the end. 
h. Anterior coxae rather widely separated, 
c. Joints of the funiculus slender, its 2nd joint much 
longer than the 1st. Rostrum curved. Scutellum elon- 
gate lanceolate. The metasternum very strongly con- 
vex in its anterior half. — (ƒ. Anterior tibiae fringed 
with long hairs at the under margin of their apical half. 

Macrocheirus Schönh. 

cc. Joints of the funiculus not or but little longer than 

broad, its 1st and 2nd joints about equal in length 

to each other. Rostrum straight. Scutellum acutely 

triangular with concave sides. The metasternum not 

JMTotes from the TLjeyden. Museum , Vol. XIII. 



148 ON CALANDRINAE. 

strongly convex. — cf. Anterior tibiae fringed with 
long hairs all along their under margin. 
* Elytra with a strong sutural spine at the end. — (ƒ. 
Anterior legs very elongate, their femora strongly 
curved near the base. The abdominal segments 
simple. RoELOFSiA nov. gen. 

** Elytra with a very minute sutural spine. — cT . An- 
terior legs but slightly elongate , their femora straight 
or nearly so. The centre of the 1st, 2nd and last 
abdominal segment provided with shallow impressions 
which bear short bristles. Cyrtotrachblus Schönh. 

hh. Anterior coxae approximate. Otidognathus Lacord. 

aa. Elytra nearly parallel, conjointly truncate or hardly 
emarginate at the end. Protoceriüs Schönh. 

The type of the genus Macroclieirus is M. praetor QjWi. 
from Java^), and up to now two other species of this 
genus have been described, viz. M. spectabilis Dohru (Stett. 
Entom. Zeit. 1883. p. 362 and 397) from Nias and West 
Sumatra, and the allied M. herveyi Waterh. (Ann. and 
Mag. of Nat. Hist. (5) vol. XIX. 1887. p. 295) from 
Malacca. — The specimen described by Dohrn as being 
a male , no doubt belongs to the female sex according to 
the furrow on the sides of the rostrum and the triangular 
pygidium, whereas no mention is made of the two rows 
of crenulations on the rostrum nor of the fringe of long 
hairs on the under margin of the apical half of the front- 
tibiae, which are very conspicuous characteristics of the 
male sex. In the genus Macroclieirus the penultimate joint 
of the tarsi is nearly circular (the sides strongly and regu- 
larly rounded) , in Roelof sia and in Cyrtotracheliis it is 
triangular (the sides straight). 

The type of the genus Roelof sia m. is Cyrtotrachelus 
Buquetii Guér. from Bombay , and with this Cyrtotrachelus 
dux Boh. from Assam is congeneric. The male of a third 



I) Perhaps Cureulio {Calandrd) longipes Drury, a species unknown to me, 
will prove to belong likewise to this genus. 

Notes from the Lieyden Museum, Vol. :KIII. 



ON CALANDRINAE. 149 

species of this genus, originating from Cochin China, is 
described by Fairraaire under the name of Cyrtotrachelus 
dichrous (Ann. Soc. Ent. de France. 1878. p. 273). The 
specimen, however, described by him as the female of 
this species , no doubt will prove to be a male of another 
genus, judging from the rostrum, this being described as 
slightly denticulate on the margins , and having before 
the extremity a compressed triangular tubercle. 

The type of the genus Cyrtotrachelus Schönh. is Cur- 
culio longimanus F. (^=. longipes F.) from China, of which 
a presumed variety occurs in the Sunda Islands. A second 
species of this genus is Calandra lar Erichs. from Manilla, 
whereas two other species have been described by Chevro- 
lat, viz. C. rufopectinipes from the Andaman Islands, and 
C. obscuriceps from Ceylon (Ann. Soc. Ent. de France. 
1882. p. 556). 

The type of the genus Otidognathus Lacord. (=: Li- 
torhynchus Schönh. nee Macquart) is Litorhynchus Wester- 
manni Bohem. from Assam. Moreover the following species 
seem to belong to this genus: 
quadrimaculatus Buq. , Guer. Icon. Règne anim. Ins. p. 

177 {Cyrtotrachelus) Java. 

myrmidon Buq., I.e. (Cyrtotrachelus) . . . Java. 
Jansoni Roel., Ann. Soc. Ent. de Belgique. 

Tom. XVIII (1875). p. 186 Japan. 

Davidis Fairm. , Ann. Soc. Ent. de France. 

1878. p. 127 (Cyrtotrachelus) China centr. 

elegans Fairm., 1. e. p. 128, note ( Cyrtotrachelus) Manilla. 

nigropictus Fairm., 1. c. p. 128 China centr. 

subfasciatus Chevrol. , Ann. Soc. Ent. de 

France. 1882. Bull. p. Ill Sylhet. 

bifasciatus Chevrol. , 1. c Sylhet. 

rubriceps Chevrol., 1. e. p. 112 Sylhet. 

decemstriatus Chevrol. , 1. c. p. 557 .... Sylhet. 
comptus Pasc. , Ann. a. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 

vol. 19 (1887). p. 373; pi. 11 , f. 6 . . Cambodia. 
celatus Pasc. , 1. c. p. 374 Cambodia. 

Notes from the Leyden M.u.seum, Vol. XIII. 



150 ON CALANDRINAE. 

The type of the genus Protocerius Schönh. is Calan- 
dra colossus Fabr. from Java. Besides this , and molossus 
Oliv. , grandis Guer. and laetus Voll. (see Munich Catalo- 
gue. VIII. p. 2641), the following species have been 
described : 
fervidus Pasc. , Journ. Linn. Soc. XI (1871). 

p. 216 Kumaon. 

purpuratus Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1881. p. 447. Sarawak. 
marginatus Chevrol., Ann. Soc. Ent. de France. 

1882. p. 558 Java. 

angustipennis Chevrol. , 1. c. p. 559. ..... Sylhet. 

aemulus Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1882. p. 458; 

1883. p. 159 Nias. 

Ley den Museum, April 1891. 



Notes from the Leyden IMuKeum, Vol. XIII. 



RHYNCHOPHORUS SWIERSTRAE. 151 



NOTE XV. 
A NEW SPECIES OE RHYNCHOPHORUS 



DESCRIBED BY 



C. RITSEMA Cz. 



Rhynchophorus Sioierstrae, n. sp. cf. 

Length (without rostrum) 41 mm., that of the rostrum 
11 mm.; breadth at the shoulders 17 mm. 

Pronotum and elytra dull brown, the former narrowly 
margined with black and provided on the middle of the 
disk with an elongate ovate black patch which is divided 
in a longitudinal direction by a brown stripe; the elytra 
likewise are narrowly margined with black, which colour 
widens out on the shoulders and just behind the middle 
of the lateral margin; the scutellum and a narrow edge 
along the suture black ; the pygidium dull black , fringed 
at the tip with fulvous hairs ; the head , rostrum and an- 
tennae as well as the under surface, glossy black; the 
rostrum above with a brown spot at the extreme base, 
and the basal abdominal segment with a brown spot at 
the sides ; the legs are glossy ; the coxae , trochanters and 
tarsi are black ; the femora and tibiae ferruginous , black 
at base and tip and along the under surface, which is 
moreover densely fringed with fulvous hairs, which are 
short on the posterior femora. 

The rostrum is slightly waved on the under surface, 
strongly so on the upper surface which makes it thinnest 
about the middle; it has strong punctures in front of the 
usual interocular pit , then it becomes strongly scabrous ; 

Notes irom th.e ILieyden IVIuseum, Vol. XJLII. 



152 RHYNCHOPHORUS SWIERSTRAE. 

this scabrous portion bears some very short and stiff brist- 
les and some black granulations which , towards the end of 
the rostrum , are arranged in two convergent rows and 
are placed on a strongly raised compressed ridge ending 
a little before the apex of the rostrum in an obtusely 
pointed tooth which slopes towards the extreme tip ; a faint 
furrow is to be seen at about the middle of the sides. The 
club of the antennae is much less transverse than it is in 
the male of Rli. serrirostris Fabr. 

The pronotum is more strongly convex than in serrirostris ; 
the sides are regularly rounded , slightly narrowing towards 
the constricted front-portion ; the basal lobe is more deeply 
sinuated and its median portion distinctly more prolonged 
backwards. The scutellum is elongate lanceolate. 

The elytra are more elongate and more narrowing towards 
the end than in serrirostris , in other respects they are 
similar. The pygidium is triangular with rounded tip , and 
it is covered with distinct punctures which are not very 
close together. 

The undersurface is laterally covered with very minute gra- 
nulations which are placed close together but become sparser 
and sparser on the abdomen ; the deflexed lateral margins of 
the apical ventral segment are strongly punctured , and frin- 
ged at the end ; the apex itself truncate in a sinuate man- 
ner and provided with a strong and dense punctuation ; 
along the middle the under surface is smooth showing only 
a few punctures; the metasternum and basal ventral seg- 
ment have a shallow furrow along the middle. 

The legs are distantly punctured , the femora notched 
on the under surface near to the tip , the under surface 
of the anterior femora moreover provided on the inside 
with a compressed ridge which is delicately rugose; the 
tibiae are slightly dilated on the under surface near to the 
base which is caused by a ridge which has a thickened 
margin. The tarsi are spongious beneath. 

Hah. Ambarawa: East Java (Bernelot Moens). — A single 
male specimen in the Ley den Museum. 

r<fotes from the Leyden Miuseuin, Vol. XIII 



RHYNCHOPHORUS SWIERSTRAE. 153 

I have dedicated this species, which belongs to Chevro- 
lat's genus Omotemnus ^), to the late K. N. Swierstra , the 
well-kwown Conservator of the Entomological Collections 
of the Zoological Garden at Amsterdam, who died on 
April 18th, aged 50 years. 

Rhynchophorus Swierstrae is a narrower species than Rh. 
serrirostris but especially distinct from it by the waved 
and keeled rostrum , by the much less transverse antennal 
club, by the more convex prouotum and its otherwise 
shaped basal lobe, by the keeled anterior femora, etc. 

Ley den Museum, May 1891. 



1) Annales de la Société entomologique de France. 1882. p. 559. 



Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



i54 SYNONYMICAL REMARKS 



NOTE XVI. 

TWO SYNONYMICAL REMARKS ABOUT 
CURCULIONIDAE 



C. RITSEMA Cz. 



1. Macropterus Verlorenii S. v. V. (Tijdschr. v. Entom. 
XIV (1871). p. 101; pi. 4, fig. 1) from Timor = Cer- 
cophorus fioccosus Chevrol. (Ann. Soc. Ent. Prance. 1880. 
p. 259 , fig.) from the same island. 

2. Rhynchophorus (Calandra) ruhigineus Wiedem. (Mag. 
Zool. I, 3. 1819. p. 174) and Gyllenhal (Schönh. , Gen. 
Cure. IV. p. 824) := Rhynchophorus elegans Guer. (Icon. 
Règne anim. Ins. p. 176; 1843). — Notwithstanding Chevrolat 
(Ann. Soc. Ent. France. 1882. p. 564) created a new ge- 
nus, viz. Raratasis , for the reception of Rhynchophorus 
ruhigineus (erroneously called by him rubiginosus) , its syno- 
nym elegans occurs as the first Indian species in the genus 
Rhynchophorus (1. c. p. 560). 

Leyden Museum, April 1891. 



!N^otes from the Leyden IVIuseutn, "Vol. XIII. 



TRITONIDEA UNDULATA. 155 



NOTE XVII. 
ON THREE EASTERN MOLLUSKS 

BY 

M. M. SCHEPMAN. 



1 ritonidea undulata, n. sp. 
(Plate 9, fig. 1). 

Shell fusiformly ovate, yellowish, with brown spiral 
ridges. Whorls about 6 , the apical ones , which are slightly 
eroded , appear smooth , the rest rather convex , depressed 
near the sutures, vertically ribbed with large swollen ribs 
of which there are from 10 to 14 on the penultimate 
whorl, and spirally ridged with 4 or 5 waved ridges on 
the upper whorls, with finer intermediate ones. On the 
last whorl , the ribs and waves become obsolete about the 
periphery ; this whorl is encircled with a large number of 
spiral ridges of which from 10 to 12 form conspicuous 
brown lirae, with from 1 to 6 intermediate ones. Aper- 
ture occupying more than half the length of the entire 
shell, ovate, pale blue within, lip thickened exteriorly, 
internally with about 10 ridges forming small denticula- 
tions towards the lip. Columella callous , slightly excava- 
ted above, towards the middle with a few small tuber- 
cles on the left margin and a more conspicuous one near 
the upper part of the aperture. Canal short, oblique. 

Length 26, diam. 16, length of apert, with canal 14 mill. 

Hab. Japan , collected by von Siebold (Leyden Museum). 

This species approaches in form T. fumosa Dillw. r= pro- 
teus Reeve , in colour T. undosa Linn. , but differs from 
both in form and sculpture. T. suhruhiginosa Smith should 
;>rotes from tlie Leyden. IMuseuxu, Vol. XIII. 



156 TRITONIDEA UNDULATA. 

be , after the description , still more remote. The speci- 
mens vary slightly in the thickness of the ridges, which 
give the shell a more or less dark appearance. 

Canidia Helena Meder, 
var. rotundicosta Schepman. 

Shell narrower than in the type , with the last whorl 
smaller. Colour much darker, greenish olive brown, costae 
more broadly rounded , with rather narrow intermediate 
spaces. 

Hab. Java, collected by Groen (Leyden Museum). 

Typical specimens of this variety might be considered as a 
new species, but the character of the costae is rather 
variable , so as to pass into the typical form , with nar- 
row flattened ribs. The specimens vary in form , some 
of them being extremely narrow , such specimens may be 
named : forma angustior. They are all darker in colour 
than the type, which is more decidedly greenish. 

A^assa javana, n. sp. 

(Plate 9, fig. 2). 

Shell acuminately ovate, whitish, marbled with red- 
brown markings, showing a tendency to form a band near 
the middle of the last whorl and a second one towards 
the base, where the brown colour becomes more confluent, 
and with an articulated band of blue brown blotches near 
the sutures. Whorls 10, spire acuminate, 3 apical whorls 
smooth, the 5 subsequent ones rather flat, crossed by 
numerous ribs and spiral striae; penultimate and ultimate 
whorls rather inflated , nearly smooth , with only 2 or 3 
striae near the suture and 8 near the base; sutures distinct, 
irregular ; aperture oval , white , columella callous, with two 
plicae near the upper angle of the aperture, and termina- 
ting with a sharp curved spine, with a few plicae or 
granules above it. Outer lip with a thick varix externally 
and a few folds behind it; edge sharp, with 7 denticles 

Notes from the Leyden M^useum, Vol. XIII. 



NASSA JAVANA, '157 

near the base , thickened and ridged within , with 1 3 
strong ridges. Canal rather broad , slightly turned backwards. 

Length 23, breadth 12* j,^, length of aperture 10 mill. 

Hab. Southern Java: Tjilatjap , collected by Mr. verdijk 
(Leyden Museum). 

This species resembles iV. picta Dunker in colour , but 
may be distinguished from that species by the sculpture 
of the upper whorls , by the denticles of the outer lip and 
by the larger size ; in sculpture it resembles certain varie- 
ties of N. mutahilis Linn., but it is suflSciently distinct in 
all other respects. 

Rhoon near Rotterdam, May 1891. 



N.B. Besides Tritonidea undulata Schepm. (fig. 1) and 
Nassa javana Schepm. (fig. 2) the two following 
species, described in the „Notes" at an earlier 
date, are figured on Plate 9. 

Pig. 3. Fusus Sieboldi Schepm., from Japan (Notes Leyden 
Museum. XIII (1891) p. 62). 

Pig. 4. Oliva Semmelinki Schepm., from the Strait of 
Larantoeka between Plores and Adonare (Notes 
Leyden Museum. XII (1890) p. 196). 



Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



158 LATIRUS EPPI. 

NOTE XVIII. 
A NEW SPECIES OF LATIRUS 

DESCBIBED BY 

J. C. MELVILL. 



Latirus Eppi^ sp. n. 

L. testa ovato-fusiformi , crassa , fulvo-hrunnea , anfrac- 
tibus Icevibus , longitudinaliter costatis , nitentihus , transversim 
obscure Jilo-liratis , liris ad suturas distinctioribus , canali 
subproducto , spiraliter lirato , aperturce fauce sidcata , albes- 
cente, columella quadriplicata , alba. ~ Long. 24 milL, lat. 
10 mill. 

Hab. Insula Cura9ao (Dr. C. Epp). 

This very interesting addition to the genus is at present 
unique and forming part of the collection of the Leyden 
Museum. It has been kindly forwarded me by Mr. M. M. 
Schepman , of Rhoon near Rotterdam , with the request 
that I would describe it, at the same time wishing that 
it should bear the name of its discoverer. The nearest 
approximations to this species are undoubtedly L. castaneus 
(Reeve) and acuminatus (Kiener) from both of which it 
can easily be differentiated by its small size, and other 
reasons. This specimen is full-grown, and slightly worn, 
the transverse lirse would in a younger specimen be regu- 
larly distributed over every portion of the whorls. 

Dr. Epp also found at the same locality an interesting 
well coloured but small variety of Latirus distinctus (A. 
Adams), a species of rare occurrence, and which has not 
been figured. I am giving a representation from a large 
typical specimen in my » Historical account of the genus 
Latirus." 

Prestwich, Manchester, March 1891. 



jNotes from the Leydeix ZMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



PÜLYCTESIS IGURROTA. 159 



NOTE XIX. 



POLYCTESIS IGORROTA, 
NOVA SPECIES BÜPRESTIDARÜM 



K. M. HELLER. 



Statura habitusque P. rhoidis , cuprea , elytris viridi-cyaneis, 
maculis flavis ornatis ; una macula oblonga prope scutellum^ 
una curvata circa angulum liumeralem , una in medio prope 
suturam , una transversa ante apicem et pars media mar- 
ginis lateralis Jlava ; elytris punctatO'Striatis , interstitiis pri- 
mis , secundis et tertiis antice obscure subtiliterque . interstitiis 
reliquis distincte remote striato-punctatis ; scutello punctiforme 
subtransverso ; thorace lateribus late flavo-marginato ; seg- 
mentis abdominis utrinque Jlavo-guttatis. Long. 12 — 14 mm. 

Habitat in insula Luzon. 

Agreeing in size and shape with Polyctesis rhois Mars., 
but differing in colour and sculpture , and consequently 
easily distinguishable. 

Coppery, elytra dark blue-green, each of them with the 
following yellow spots: an oblong spot near the scutellum, 
a c-shaped one around the shoulder , one about the middle 
of the length near the suture, and an undulate transverse 
band at the base of the posterior third. 

The spots seem to be variable in form , as one of my 
two specimens shows the hinder part of the humeral spot 
widened out, so as to form a circular blot, and the trans- 
verse band, which extends over eight interstices, simply 
curved ; the other specimen has an additional small longi- 
tudinal stripe inside of the shoulder-protuberance , and the 
transverse undulate band recurved in front near the suture. 

The sides of the thorax are rather broadly margined 
with yellow. 

Notes from the Jueyden Museum, "Vol. XIII. 



160 POLYCTESIS IGORROTA. 

Underside coppery, the meso- and metasternum as well 
as the abdominal segments with a yellow spot on the sides. 

Sculpture similar to that of rliois , but finer , with excep- 
tion however of the head , where it is as coarse if not 
slightly coarser. Thorax very finely punctured along the 
middle of the disk, coarsely so on the sides where the 
punctures are separated by narrow transverse wrinkles; 
along the middle the thorax is shallowly impressed, the 
impression deeper and better limited at the base; more- 
over a rather indistinct basal impression is present near the 
lateral angles. 

Sides of elytra straight in their basal fourth , then sinuate , 
and furnished at the end of the straight portion with a 
small tooth ; elytra punctate-striate , the striae behind dee- 
per and broader , interstices sparingly striate-punctate , the 
punctures in the anterior half of the first, second and 
third interstices almost completely obliterated , those of the 
other interstices becoming deeper and closer towards the 
apex and sides. Outer margin of elytra from the middle 
to the tip finely serrulate, apex of each truncate and 
ending in four teeth , the outermost of which stretches 
beyond the sutaral one. — Sutural margin behind distinctly 
raised. 

The whole insect is thinly sprinkled with short white hairs. 

P. igorrota may be distinguished from P. foveicollis 
Fairm. from Cambodia (Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1888. p. 
344 — 45) by its smaller size, by the spotted elytra, by 
the fine interstitial punctures , etc. etc. 

This interesting new species from the Philippine Islands , 
and P. rhois Mars, which occurs in Egypt , Cyprus and 
Syria, are, with P. foveicollis Fairm. the only known 
representatives of this genus. It was discovered in the 
North of Luzon near Vigan by Dr. R. Schadenberg , to 
whom the Royal Dresden Museum is indebted for two 
specimens of it. 

Royal Zoological Museum, Dresden, June 1891. 



Notes from the JLéeyden IMuseum, "Vol. XILL. 



ORYCHODES RITSEM.E. 161 



NOTE XX. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OE 
THE FAMILY BRENTHIDJl 



Dr. A. SENNA. 



VI 1), 

Descriptions of two new species and Remarks on the 
female of Achrionota hilineata Pascoe and oï Prophthalmus 
planipennis Pascoe hitherto undescribed. 

Ory chodes Ritsemce , n. sp. 

Castaneo-hrunneus ; capite nitido , postice mutico ; rostro 
prothorace paulo breviore , supra inter antennas et parte ba- 
sali sxilcato, ante antennas planiusculo ^ utrinque carinula 
denticulata instructo; prothorace conico, nitidissimo , impunc- 
tato ; elytris fortiter punctato-striatis , interstitiis angustis , 
lineolis flavis exornatis. — Long. 13 milL , latit. thoracis 
2V3 milL, cT. 

Hah. Malacca. (ColL Senna). 

Entirely of a chestnut-brown , the legs and the elytra 
slightly paler. The head is moderately short , rounded above , 
shining , impunctate , with a very fine longitudinal impres- 
sion between the eyes , and the posterior angles without 
any spine; at the base it is truncated. Eyes rather pro- 
minent , olive-greenish. Rostrum shorter than the protho- 

1) See for the 1st to 5th Contributions : Bullettino d. Soc. Entom. Italiana, 
Anno XXI, pp. 33—38 and 101-109. 

Notes from the Leyden JMuseum , Vol. XIII. 

11 



162 ORYCIIODES RITSEM^. 

rax, thickish at the base and furrowed, slightly broader 
to the insertion of the antennae and canaliculate , beyond 
these its sides are parallel and with a raised line of 
small teeth; beneath the apical portion is almost smooth 
and glossy, while the portion between the antennae has 
a longitudinal keel and the basal part is deeply punctu- 
red. Antennae distinctly longer than the prothorax and the 
head with the basal portion of the rostrum taken together ; 
the first joint stout, clavate and as long as the 2"^^ and 
S""^ joints taken together, which are very short; the re- 
mainder subcylindrical, pubescent and almost equal in size; 
the 1 1*'^ is the longest of all and obtusely pointed at the tip. 

Prothorax about two third the total length of the elytra , 
conical , narrower anteriorly than at the base , widest be- 
hind the middle, with the sides rounded and the base 
transversely furrowed ; above brown , the apical margin 
blackish , impunctate , very shining. 

The elytra are about as long as the prothorax and the head 
with the basal portion of the rostrum taken together , 
broader than the base of the prothorax, the shoulders 
are rounded, the sides subparallel, but towards the apex 
attenuated and at the apex emarginate. The elytra are 
punctate-striate ; the 1^* furrow near the suture impunc- 
tate , the 2°'^ and S'^'^ with small punctures , the remainder, 
which are also broader , deeply and regularly punctate , with 
the punctures approximate and the interstices convex , 
raised. The maculation of the elytra is the following: the 
S'*^ interstice near the suture has a basal line covering 
a space equal to five punctures ; behind the middle , a 
short line and another near the apex; the 4*^ interstice 
has a line equal to three punctures towards the middle , 
and a shorter line behind the middle; the 5"^ has a line 
before and another behind the middle; the 6^^ has two 
lines as the 5*'' ; the 8*^'' a line before the middle ; the 
9*^'' has a line before the middle and another near the apex. 

The undersurface of the body is brown-red , impunctate, 
shining; the metasternum and the two basal segments of 

iN^otes from the Lieydeu ]Museixm, Vol. XIII. 



ORYCHODES RITSEM^. 163 

the abdomen are hardly furrowed ; the last abdominal seg- 
ment is fringed with golden hairs. 

The anterior legs stout, with the tibise angularly dila- 
ted in the middle, all the femora are toothed, the tarsi 
pubescent. 

This OrycJiodés belongs to the group formed by 0. 
lineolatus Kirsch *), insignis Lewis ^) and pictus Pascoe '') , 
which have the head posteriorly unspined ; it differs from 
0. lineolatus , by the rostrum and the lines on the elytra, 
from 0. insignis and pictus , by the elytra being differently 
punctured and spotted. 

I have much pleasure in dedicating this species to Mr. 
Ritsema, as a slight sign of friendship. 

Achrionota bilineata Pascoe*). 

9. Elongated, narrow, blackish, opaque; covered here 
and there with yellow-whitish scales. The apical portion 
of the rostrum is brown, shining, the neck pitchy, the 
legs ferruginous brown. The head is moderately elongate , 
deeply separated from the neck , with a shallow groove 
in the middle extending to the basal portion of the ros- 
trum ; above punctured , with a few scales at the sides , be- 
neath almost entirely covered with ochreous scales; the 
basal portion of the rostrum is as long as the head but 
more slender, with two longitudinal furrows along the 
middle and vaguely punctured; the apical half is longer 
than the head, filiform, impunctate. The antennae are 
scarcely longer than the rostrum, nearly filiform, with 
the first joint as long as the second and third together ; the 
remainder subcylindrical and greyish pubescent with rare 
blackish hairs; the IV^ as long as the basal joint and 
acuminate at the tip. 



1) Mittheilungen a. d. k. zoologischen Museum zu Dresden, I Heft, p. 49. 1875. 

2) Journal of Linn. Society, XVII, p. 301. 1883. 

3) Journal of Entomology, 1, p. 389. 1862. 

é) Annals and Magazine of Natural History for November 1872 , p. 325. 

Notes from the Leyden Mixseixm , Vol. XIII. 



164 ACHRIONOTA niLlNEATA. 

Protliorax similar in shape to that of the male, elongate, 
scarcely longer than the basal portion of the rostrum and 
head taken together, the sides are very convex ; it is widest 
about the middle and strongly contracted at the apex ; along 
the middle furrowed ; the longitudinal impression is covered 
with yellow-whitish scales , forming at the sides two lines 
which are slightly curved inwards ; laterally the scales are 
scattered here and there , beneath very numerous. 

The elytra are as long as 2^j^ the prothorax , subpa- 
rallel at the sides; at the apex sinuatetl and the angles 
with a spine slightly curved inwards. Above the elytra 
are regularly subsulcate-punctate and bear along the su- 
ture two lines of yellow- whitish scales; moreover minute 
scales are in the 3'^'' and 9*'' furrows at the base and at 
the apex. Metasternum and the two basal segments of the 
abdomen ashy, irregularly punctured ; the last abdominal 
segments and the sides have numerous scales. Legs slen- 
der, with scattered small yellow-whitish scales. 

Length 19 mill., breadth of the prothorax 2 mill. 

Hah. Borneo: Sarawak. (My collection). 

Prop ht halm us planipennis Pascoe ^). 

9. Black, more or less shining. Head short, transverse, 
irregularly punctured : the posterior angles moderately pro- 
duced , rounded , above and beneath at the base eraargi- 
nate , deeply separated from the neck , the undersurface is 
roughly punctate , slightly pubescent. Rostrum shorter than 
the prothorax , the basal portion shorter than the head 
and furrowed, the apical half filiform , conspicuously curved 
and furrowed ; beneath bisulcate and moderately punctured ; 
antennae as in the male. 

Prothorax similar in shape to that of the male, but 
less flattened in the middle; shining, rarely subshining. 
In the elytra , the declivity at the sides , the furrows and 



1) Annals and Magazine of Natural History for November 1872, p. 323. 
JS'otes from the Leyden M.useum , "Vol. XIII. 



PROPHTHALMUS PLANIPENNIS. 465 

interstices are as in the cf, but I have in my collection 
a female with the elytra and the pro thorax proportiona- 
tely narrower; the second yellow line on the elytra is 
sometimes interrupted in the middle. 

The undersurface of the body shining; metasternum and 
the two basal segments of the abdomen obsoletely canali- 
culate, the apical segment margined with fine hairs. Fe- 
mora toothed , internally the basal half pubescent. 

Length 13 to 21 mill., breadth of the prothorax 2V2 to 
4'/3 mill. 

Hah. Malacca and Batchian. (My collection). 

Miolispa Ma rice, n. sp. 

Robusta , nigro-cenea , nitida , capite thoraceque sulcatis , 
crebre punctatis , elytris nigro-brunneis , prope suturam vitta 
ferruginea, apicibus castaneo marginatis , dor so striato-punc- 
tatis, lateribus subcancellatis ; pedibus nigro-brunneis. — Long. 
8^2 mill., latit. thoracis P/4 mill., cf. 

Hab. Penang. (Coll. Senna). 

This fine and conspicuous species is allied to M. pimc- 
ticoUis Boisd. ^) but easily distinguishable by its robustness, 
by the head and the apical portion of the prothorax clearly 
punctured , moreover by the shape of the prothorax. Head 
nearly square, slightly longer than broad, convex on 
the vertex , in the middle furrowed , at the base strongly 
emarginate , irregularly punctured ; between the eyes trisul- 
cate , the lateral impressions broader than the central one ; 
beneath convex, shining, very finely punctured. Rostrum 
robust, as long as I'/s the head, moderately curved; the 
basal portion as long as the apical one , trisulcate , the sides 
parallel ; the anterior portion widened at the apex which 
is smooth, emarginate and finely punctured; the interme- 
diate furrow extending almost to the end of the rostrum; 



1) Voyage de 1' Astrolabe, II, p. 313; sub Orychodes in Gemminger and von 
Harold, Catal. Coleopt. 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



166 MIOLISPA MARI^. 

mandibles small , exserted ; beneath with a distinct longi- 
tudinal J^eel in the middle, near the antennae and in the 
apical half distinctly punctured. Antennae short, not so 
long as head and prothorax taken together, the basal joint 
short , equal in length to the 2"^ and 3''^ together, the 2°^ 
joint shaped as in M. suturalis , the S"^*^, 4*^'' and 5^'' moni- 
liform; the 6*^, 7*^'^ and 8*'' transverse , the remainder three 
joints conspicuously larger and perfoliate. 

Prothorax nearly as long as broad , ovate, near the apex 
angularly contracted , with the sides rounded and the base 
transversely furrowed; above and at the sides irregularly 
but densely punctate , the punctures very numerous laterally. 

The elytra are sinuate at the base, as long as twice 
the prothorax and equal in broadness; the sides are sub- 
parallel, near the apex attenuated, the apex is truncated 
with the marginal portion turned upward ; above punctate- 
striate , the inner furrow impunctate , the 2"^'^ and S'"^^ near 
the suture punctured, the remainder uniformly and deeply 
punctate , the interstices raised , convex ; . dark-brown , the 
S*'^ interstice ferruginous , the portion along the suture 
ferruginous-brown , the apical margin red-brown. 

The undersurface of the body is dark-brown , shining ; 
metasternum densely punctate and with a central furrow ; the 
two basal segments of the abdomen with a few very fine 
punctures , the second only sulcate in the middle ; the 
remainder segments short and sloping rapidly. Legs short, 
dark-br©wn , the femora are clavate , brown-red in the 
middle, finely punctured, at the apex densely punctate; 
tibiae short , strongly punctured , dark brown-red in the 
middle , tarsi pubescent. 

1 have dedicated this new species to Miss Maria Magnaghi. 

Pa via. Laboratory of Zoology of the university, June 1891. 



Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



OXYOPISTHEN. 167 



NOTE XXI. 

GENRE NOUVEAU ET ESPÈCES NOUVELLES DU 
GROUPE DES OXYOPISTHEN 

DÉCRITS PAR 

W. ROELOPS. 



Mr. Neervoort van de Poll vient de recevoir parmi des 
Coléoptères de la cóte ouest de l'Afrique , un certain nombre 
d'espèces du genre Oxyopisthen et genres voisins. J'en ai 
entrepris la description, comme suite aux quelques nou- 
velles espèces du Musée de Leyde, publiées récemment dans 
les » Notes". (Vide antea p. 116). 

Notre connaissance du groupe se trouve beaucoup avan- 
cée par ces nouvelles espèces ; toutes celles qui appartien- 
nent a l'ancien genre Oxyopisthen Thomson , ont Ie pro- 
thorax sans prolongement a la base et se rapprochent par 
cela du rufofemoratum de Thomson; toutes ont Ie facies 
habituel du genre et sont plus o a moins parallèles sur les 
cotés et linéaires, sauf une espèce {O. scalaris Roel.) qui 
est élargie aux épaules des élytres et présente par consé- 
quent une forme plus ovale. 

Mr. Aurivillius n'avait connue que Ie cT de son Haplo- 
rhynchus Faldaui; Mr. van de Poll vient de recevoir de 
plus deux iudividus de l'autre sexe. La connaissance de 
la Q offre un grand iutérêt par ses caractères insolites et 
sa grande difference du (ƒ. 

Le nouveau genre, que je décris sous Ie nom de Acherus, 
est un des plus curieux dans la série des Curculionides, et 
offre daus la familie un uouvel exeraple de l'absence du 
dernier et de la forme nou bifide de l'avant dernier article 

Notes from the Leyden Museum , Vol. XIII. 



168 OXYOPISTIIEN. 

des tarses. Son rostre, qui se rapproche de celui de la 9 du 
Haplorliynchus Faldaui, est égalemeut d'une construction 
remarquable. Malheureusement nous n'en connaissons jusqu'a 
présent qu'un des deux sexes (la femelle?) de la seule 
espèce connue du genre. 

Oxyopisthen nitidum, n. sp. 

Subparallèle , noir luisant, avec trois taches blanches 
sur les cótés du corps , élytres transversalement déprimées , 
striées-ponctuées , pygidium horizontal , tres pointu. — Long. 
13 mill., rosir. excl. 

Tres voisine du Büttikoferi Roel. et de la même taille, 
d'un noir luisant, rostre et antennes d'un noir-brunatre , 
une tache sur Ie mésosteruum devant l'épaule des élytres, 
une tache allongée sur Ie métasternum contre Ie bord de 
l'élytre, une troisième sur Ie premier segment de l'abdo- 
men a la même place, blanches. 

Rostre de la longueur du prothorax, légèrement arqué, 
muni d'une ligne obsolete vers la base. Tête a peine ponctuée. 

Prothorax un peu plus long que large, ses cótés faible- 
ment arrondis, peu rétréci en avant, la base un peu 
arrondie , son disque un peu déprimé , couvert d'une ponc- 
tuation grosse et serrée, muni d'une courte et fine ligne 
imprimée au milieu. Ecusson allonge , ses cótés parallèles , 
arrondi au bout . 

Élytres a peine plus larges que Ie prothorax , graduelle- 
ment rétrécies vers Ie bout , droites sur les cótés , garnies 
de stries dont les intérieures ont des points confluents, 
les extérieures des points plus arrondis. Les élytres sont 
planes , transversalement déprimées derrière la base et offrent 
deux depressions vers Ie milieu. 

Le pygidium , subhorizontal , est en triangle aigu , muni 
d'une carène médiane , fiuissant en pointe a l'extrémité , 
comprimé latéralement , ses cótés costiformes ; sa ponctua- 
tion est forte et plus serrée a la base. 

Dessous du corps luisant, a peine ponctué, extrémité 

Notes from the Leyden IVIuseura, "Vol. XIII. 



OXYOPISTHEN NITIDUM. 169 

du dernier segment avec des points assez gros et serres. 
Métasternum ayant une impression au bout , ainsi que la 
base du premier segment de l'abdomen. Le dernier segment 
porte au bout une impression transversale, l'extrémité du 
pygidium en dessous en forme de fer de lance. 

Les quatre cuisses antérieures ont ane petite dent vers 
le milieu , les postérieures une dent vers le tiers terminal ; 
elles sont un peu sinueuses, courbées vers le haut et at- 
teignent le cinqième segment abdominal. 

L'unique individu que j'ai sous les yeux me parait un 
(ƒ d'après l'insertion des antennes. — L'espèce est tres 
voisine du Büitikoferi Koel., elle s'en distingue surtout 
par les taches blanches sur les cótés du corps; le protho- 
rax est moins densément ponctué, plus rétréci en avant, 
le pygidium plus comprimé, etc. 

Hah. Le Gabon. 

Oxyopisthen clavatum ^ n. sp. 

De la forme du rufofemoratum Thoms., mais d 'une taille 
plus grande. 

Noir luisant; les quatre pattes de devant , saufFextrémité 
des cuisses et les tarses, ainsi que les cuisses postérieures 
rouges ; la massue des antennes , sauf sa tranche termi- 
nale , d'un rouge jaunatre ; quelquefois avec des taches 
blanches sur les cótés du corps. — Long, 16 a 17 mill., 
rostr. excl. 

Rostre de la longueur du prothorax, d'un noir mat, un 
peu épaissi a sa base , qui porte une faible ligne imprimée ; 
il est muni plus en avant, d'une carène peu élevée. An- 
tennes insérées a sa base, leur scape de la longueur du 
funicule , la massue grande , d'une forme un peu carrée , 
sa surface comme oudulée, elle est d'un brun-jaunritre , 
son extrémité noire. Tête finement ponctuée, avec une 
impression entre les yeux. 

Prothorax déprimé sur le disque , tres faiblement arrondi 
sur les cótés , peu rétréci en avant , sa base faiblement 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, "Vol. XIII. 



170 OXYOPISTHEN GLAVATUM. 

arrondie; il est garni (l'urie ponctuation grosse et tres 
serrée vers la base. Une depression se remarque au dessus 
des épaules. Ecusson longuement ovale. 

Elytres a peine plus larges que Ie prothorax, droites 
sur les cótés , rétrécies en arrière , trausversalement dépri- 
mées derrière la base et au milieu du dos ; garnies de stries 
a points confluents et plus gros dans les stries latérales. 

Pygidium déclive selon une ligne courbe, comprimé 
latéralement et relevé a l'extrémité , qui porte une carène 
medians et dont les bords sont un peu élevés. Le pygidium 
est garni d'une ponctuation tres grosse et confluente vers 
le bout. 

Le métasternum est lisse sur les cotés , ponctué en avant, 
tres lisse dans une excavation en arrière , qui se continue 
de la mêrae fafon sur le premier segment abdominal ; le reste 
de l'abdomen est ponctué. 

Les quatre cuisses antérieures ont une petite dent un 
peu en dessous de leur milieu et sout garnies de poils 
courts brunatres de la base jusqu'a cette place. Les cuisses 
postérieures sont droites, atteignent le pygidium et ont 
une petite dent prés de leur extrémité; des poils les gar- 
nissent de la même fa9on que dans les cuisses antérieures. Les 
tibias postérieures sont un peu coraprimées et triangulaire- 
ment élargies pas loin de leur base. 

Trois individus du Gabon , dont je ne saurais deter- 
miner le sexe et dans lesquels je ne découvre pas de diffe- 
rence sexuelle ; dans un des trois on remarque une petite 
tache blanche sur les cótés du métasternum et une seconde 
sur les bords du premier segment abdominal ; dans un autre 
individu il ne reste qu'un vestige de la seconde tache; le 
3^ n'en a pas du tout. Ces taches paraissent par consé- 
quent peu constantes. 

O xy o pis then suturale, n. sp. 

D'une forme plus large et plus ovale que les autres es- 
pèces du genre ; d'un noir mat , velouté , décoré d'une bande 

Notes from tlie Leyden M.useum , Vol. XIII. 



OXYOPISTHEN SUTURALE. 171 

blanche laterale sur Ie pro thorax qui se continue sur les 
cotés du corps, une ligne étroite blanche sur la base du 
prothorax se continue sur l'écusson et couvre la suture 
des élytres jusqu'a leur uioitié. — Long. 8 a 1 5 mill., rostr. 
excl. 

Rostre environ de la longueur du prothorax ((j^) ou plus 
long que lui (9), de la même grosseur partout, peu arqué, 
d'un noir un peu luisant, avec une ligne imprimée peu 
marquee a la base. Antennes assez longues , leur scape de 
la longueur du funicule. Tête obsolètement ponctuée, mu- 
nie d'une impression allongée entre les yeux. 

Prothorax en triangle tronqué, un peu plus long que 
large; ses cótés tres faiblemeut arrondis, sa base un peu 
avancée en lobe au dessus de l'écusson , un peu écliancrée 
au dessus de chaque élytre. Il est garni d'une ponctuation 
superficielle , en grande partie cachée par l'enduit qui Ie 
couvre , ses cótés sont décorés d'une bande blanche, s'élar- 
giasant en arrière au dessus de l'épaule , une ligne étroite 
blanche médiane n'atteint pas son bord antérieur et va 
jusqu'a la base. L'écusson est cordiforme , blanc et finement 
bordé de noir sur les cotés. 

Elytres uu peu plus larges que Ie prothorax, ovales , ar- 
rondies au bout , garnies de fines stries ponctuées peu ap- 
parentes, décorées sur la suture d'une ligne blanche jusqu'a 
leur moitié. 

Pygidium du male court , triangulaire , peu déclive , muni 
d'une carène médiane et entouré d'un rebord élevé ; une 
ponctuation obsolete se voit sous l'enduit blanc qui Ie cou- 
vre. Le pygidium de la femelle est prolongé dans une pointe 
obtuse, un peu relevée, et porte une bordure de poils bruns. 

Prosternum et cótés du corps d'un noir mat, portant 
une ponctuation dense, superficielle, remplie d'enduit blan- 
chatre. Une bande blanche décore les cótés du mésosternum, 
du métasternum et des premiers segments de l'abdomen , et 
s'élargit sur les deruiers, couvrant l'extrémité. Le milieu 
du prosternum et du mésosternum sont blaucs. Le métaster- 
num est évasé , luisant et ponctué (cT), ou garni d'une pu- 

Notes from tho Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



172 OXYOPISTHEN SUTURALE. 

bescence brune (9); la depression se continue sur Ie premier 
segment abdominal. 

La pointe saillante du pygidium de la femelle est gar- 
nie en dessous d'une pubescence brune. 

Les pattes sout longues et assez faibles, couvertes d'une 
ponctuation superficielle et remplie d'un enduit blauchatre , 
qui couvre plus densément la tranche supérieure des cuisses. 
Les cuisses droites, inermes, les postérieures atteignent presque 
Ie bout du pygidium ; les quatre cuisses antérieures sont 
garnies de poils bruns chez la femelle. 

Hab. Le Gabon. — Deux males et trois femelles. 

Haplorhy nchus Valdaui Auriv. 9- 

Mr. Aurivillius a créé et décrit (Entom. Tidskrift, arg. 
7 (1886) pag. 95) le genre Haplorhynchus , pour une espèce 
(Valdaui Auriv.) dont il n'a connu que le cT. 

Mr. Neervoort van de Poll possède, avec un individu 
male , deux individus femelles de cette espèce. La 9 duf- 
fere beaucoup du cT, et sa connaissance nécessitera, par cette 
raison, quelques modifications dans la determination du genre. 

Voici les caractères de la 9 : 

Taille tres supérieure a celle du cf (17 a 18 mill., rostr. 
excl.). Rostre séparé du front par une légere depression, 
tres robuste , épaissi a sa base , fortement aminci vers Textré- 
mité , brusquement courbé et finissant dans un petit pro- 
longement sous la bouche; le rostre est garni en dessous 
de rangs de brosses raides de couleur brune, laissant un 
espace libre entre eux et qui s'étendent de la place de 
l'insertion des antennes (vers son tiers postérieur) jusqu'a 
l'angle du prolongement au bout, ses cótés portent une 
rainure s'éteudant de l'insertion des antennes jusque pres 
de son extrémité; il est d'un noir velouté, plus ou moins 
garni d'un enduit blancbatre. 

Le scape des antennes est plus court que chez le cf et 
que le funicule. 

Les hanches antérieures sont saillantes, grosses, et pré- 

Notes from tlie Leyden Museum, "Vol. XIII. 



HAPLORHYNCIIUS VALDAUI. 173 

senteut en dessous une tranche aigue, un peu courbée en 
avant. 

Le pygidium est raoins pointu que celui du (ƒ, son im- 
pression en dessous ovale , peu profonde. 

Deux iudividus du Gabon. 

Les caractères énumérés sont aussi remarquables par eux- 
mêraes que par leur difference avec ceux de Fautre sexe. La 
construction du rostre et la forme des hanches antérieures 
sont surtout dignes de remarque. 

La forme de la 9 ^t sa grande difference avec le (ƒ font 
du genre Haplorhynchus et de Tespèce qui nous occupe, un 
des Curculionides les plus interessants. 

Ackerus, u. g. 

Corps étroit, lineaire ; rostre légèrement arqué , paraissant , 
par la courbe plus forte du dessous, comme évasé, garni de 
brosses de poils sur la tranche inférieure , qui finit en avant 
par une protuberance triangulaire (9 ?)• 

Antennes insérées prés de sa base, droites, le scape ayant 
a peine un quart de leur longueur totale, Ir article du fu- 
nicule plus gros que les autres, 2^ plus long que les sui- 
vants, partie spongieuse de la massue non saillante. 

Prothorax long, faiblement arrondi a la base. 

Ecusson petit, allonge. 

Pygidium peu déclive , latéraleraent comprimé, épais. 

Les deux premiers segments de l'abdomen grands, sé- 
parés par une suture superficielle , les deux suivants réunis 
moins longs qu'un des precedents. 

Cuisses faiblement dentées , le 3^ article des tarses ar- 
rondi ^), le 4e absent. 

L'absence totale du quatrième article des tarses et par 
conséquent des crochets, la forme non échancrée du 3^ ar- 
ticle , ainsi que la construction du rostre (dans le sexe connu), 
constituent les caractères saillants et remarquables de ce 



1) La tranche antérieure présente une échancrure h peine visible. 
"Notes from the Leyden Aluseum, "Vol. XIII. 



174 ACHERUS. 

genre. Ne eonnaissant qu'uu individu unique et par con- 
séquent qu'une seule espèce du genre , je ne saurais deci- 
der avec certitude , a quel sexe appartient l'insecte que 
j'ai sous les yeux. Jugeant d'après l'insertion des antennes, 
qui est un peu éloignée de la base du rostre comme chez 
les femelles de ce groupe , ainsi que par analogie avec la 
forme du rostre chez la femelle du Haplorhynchus Faldaui, 
je crois qu'il appartient au même sexe; Ie rostre du cf 
est tres probablement différent et son pygidium présente 
sans doute quelques differences sexuelles. 

Ach er us nigricans , n. sp. 

D'un noir mat, couvert d'un enduit blanchatre dans la 
ponctuation ; rostre garni en dessous de brosses brunes , 
avec une protuberance en dessous. Prothorax allonge , por- 
tant une ponctuation superficielle. Elytres avec des stries 
finement ponctuées. — Long. 11 mill., rostr. excl. 

Rostre moins long que Ie prothorax, légèrement arqué, 
couvert d'une ponctuation obsolete et lougitudiualement con- 
fluente, garni a la base d'une ligue imprimée assez pro- 
fonde; il est en outre longitudinalement imprimé au des- 
sus de la bouche, son dessous comme excavé par une 
courbe plus forte que la ligne du dessus , la partie con- 
cave s'étendant jusqu'a une saillie triangulaire, surmontée 
par une petite protuberance. Cette protuberance, située 
prés de l'extrémité du rostre, est d'un noir luisant, comme 
Ie bout de ce dernier. Des rangées de brosses raides , courtes , 
de couleur brune, s'étendent de la place de l'insertion des 
antennes jusqu'a la protuberance. Les cótés du rostre 
portent une rainure, allant de l'insertion anteunaire jus- 
qu'au bout. Tête obsolètement ponctuée. 

Prothorax presque du double plus long que large , peu 
rétréci en avant , tres faiblement arrondi sur les cótés et 
a sa base, un peu aplati et inégal sur Ie disque, garni 
d'une ponctuation tres superflcielle , assez grosse et serrée , 
remplie d'un enduit blanchatre. Ecusson tres petit , déprimé. 

]Sotes from the Leyden Aluseura , Vol. XIII. 



ACHERUS NIGRICANS. 175 

Elytres de la longueur du prothorax , pas plus larges 
que lui, droites sur les cótés, se rétrécissant seulement en 
arrière , tronquées a rextréraité, leur surface un peu dé- 
primée, garnies de stries tres fines composées de points 
confluents , plus allonges au milieu du dos , plus ronds 
sur les cótés; la 10" strie est complete; les intervalles des 
stries finement ponctués. 

Le pygidium est latéralement comprimé , muni d'une 
carène obtuse et couvert d'une ponctuation assez grosse et 
plus serrée a la base. Ces points portent de petits poils 
blanchatres ^). 

La ponctuation du métasternum et des deux premiers 
segments de l'abdomen est plus forte que celle des der- 
niers segments ; elle est remplie , comme celle qui couvre 
les jambes , de petits cils ou poils blanchatres. Les cótés 
du mésosternum et du métasternum sont garnis d'une fine 
pubescence blanchatre. Le prosternum offre , avant les han- 
ches antérieures , un espace garni de pubescence brune. 
Le premier segment de l'abdomen offre une impression 
profonde longitudinale, continuée sur la base du second 
segment, le dernier segment de l'abdomen est muni d'une 
impression triangulaire , allongée , s'élargissant en arrière. 
Les quatre cuisses antérieures sont obsolètement dentées, 
un peu plus bas que leur milieu ; la paire postérieure pos- 
sède une dent un peu plus grande vers son tiers terminal. 
Des poils courts, bruns, garnissent la tranche inférieure 
des quatre cuisses antérieures, de la base jusqu'a la petite 
dent. Les jambes ont de petites cótes élevées. 

Hab. Le Gabon. — Un seul individu. 

La Haye, Juin 1891. 



1) Le pygidium est d'une forme différente de celui des Oxyopisthen,%\iriQ\iX 
par sa plus grande hauteur , de fa9on i lui donner, réuni au dernier segment 
et vu de cóté, l'apparence d'une lame S. pointe obtuse. 



]N'otes from the Leyden IMuseuxu , Vol. XJII. 



176 ENGRAÖLIS JAPONICUS. 



NOTE XXII. 

ON ENGRAÜLTS JAPONICUS SCHLEGEL 



Dr. C. L. REUVENS. 

June 1891. 



In his » Catalogue of Fishes", Vol. VII, 1868, p. 387, 
Dr. Günther says , that he agrees with Valenciennes ^) in the 
opinion , that Engraulis japonicus Schlegel (Fauna Japonica, 
1850, Pisces, p. 239, tab. CVIII, fig. 3) should be iden- 
tical with E. ringens Jenyns (Voyage of the Beagle, 1842, 
Fishes, p. 136). On p. 390 of the same volume the au- 
thor mentions Atherina japonica Houttuijn , with E. com- 
mersonianus Richards, as synonyme. 

E. ringens is found at the Pacific coast of America , 
E. japonicus Schleg. in the Japanese seas ; yet Günther 
considers it not a very extraordinary fact , that a same 
species should occur on these two widely separated coasts. 
As the author, in 1880, described the shore-fishes of 
the Challenger-expedition (Chall. exped., 1880, Zoology, 
Vol. I, p*. VI, p. 72), he named the specimens from the 
Chinese coasts , mentioned in his Catalogue under the name 
E. japonica , E, chinensis and uttered his opinion , that 
A. japonica Houttugn should be identical with E. japo- 
nicus Schleg. According to Günther's opinion on p. 387 
(Cat. of Fishes, Vol. VII, 1868) E. japonicus Schleg. is 
= E. ringens, therefore we should have the following two 
species : 



1) Cuvier et Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des Poissons, 4°. T. XXI, p. 20. 
JS'otes from the Leyden ]Mu.seiitii , Vol. XIII. 



ENQRAULTS .lAPONlCUS 177 

a. E. ringens Jenyns (Giinther , Cat. of Fishes , Vol. VII, 
1868, p. 386) s. E. japonicus Schleg. s. A. japonica 
Houttuijn. 

Diagnostic : The height of the body is one-fifth of the total 
length (without caudal), the length of the head a little less than 
one-third; sides and lower parts silvery , back dark-coloured; 
D. 14 — 15, A. 19 — 22. Japan, Pacific coast of America. 

b. E. chinensis Gthr. (Chall. exped., 1880, Zoology, T.I, 
pt. VI , p. 72) s. E. commersonianus Richards. (Ichth. 
Chin., 1845, p. 308, not Lacep.). 

Diagnostic: The height of the body is one-fifth of the 
total length (without caudal), the length of the head two- 
ninths ; a well-defined silvery band runs along the side ; 
D, 17, A. 22. China. 

Studying Engraulinae in the Leyden Museum, I found 
a bottle from Dr. Bleeker's collection ^) (Catalogue des Col- 
lections formees et laissees par M. P. Bleeker, 1879, p. 46, 
n". 74) with superscription : "^Stolephorus japonicus ^ohlQ^. 2. 
According to the asterisk , the specimens should be in 
bad condition. Examining the bottle , I saw there were 3 
specimens, two of them, very damaged, belonging to one 
and the same , the third , entirely unimpaired, to quite another 
species ^). After a careful examination the latter (without a 
silvery band) proved to be E. japonicus Schleg., the first 
two (with a silvery band) will probably be identical with 
Günther's E. chinensis. 

Comparing the descriptions of E. ringens Jenyns , E. ja- 
ponicus Schleg., A. japonica Houttuijn ''), and E. chinensis 
Gthr. with the specimens in the Leyden Museum , I must 
conclude that they belong to three species with the fol- 
lowing short diacfnostics : 



1) When in 1879 Dr. Bleeker's cullections were sold by auction, the Leyden 
Museum purchased „Collection A", containing among all other species , the types of 
Bleeker. 

2) This specimen is probably put in the bottle, after the latter has come 
in the Museum; the true locality, where it is found, is unknown. 

3) Houttuijn says that his Atherina japonica has a well-defined silvery band. 

Notes from tlie Leyden. JMuseuoi, Vol. Xilll. 

12 



178 ENGRAÜLIS .lAPONICUS. 

a. E. ringens Jeuyns (Günther , Gat. of Pishes, 1868, 

Vol. VIT, p. 386, neither Schlegel, nor Bleeker). 
Diagnostic: see above. Pacific coast of America. 
h. E. chinensis Gtbr. (Chall. exped , 1880 , Zoology , T. I, 
pt. VI, p. 72) s. E. eommersonianus Richards. (Ichth. 
Chin., 1845, p. 308, not Lacép.) s. Atheriiiajaponica 
Houttuijn (Verh. Holl. Maatsch. Wet. Haarlem, XX, 
2, 1781, p. 340). 
Diagnostic: see above. China. 
c. E. japonicus Schleg. (Pauna Japonica, 1850, Pisces, 

p. 239, tab. CVm, fig. 3). 
Diagnostic : The height of the body is one-seventh of 
the total length (without caudal), the length of the head 
a little less than one-fourth ; sides and lower parts silvery, 
back dark-coloured; D. 13 — 14, A. 18. Japan. 

I believe this comparison will sufficiently show the dis- 
tinctness of the above mentioned three species. ^ 



:N'otes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



POLYPTERUS BÜTTIKOFERI. 479 



NOTE XXIIl. 

UEBER EINE NEUE POLYPÏERUS-ART 
AÜS LIBERIA 



Dr. F. STEINDACHNER , 

Director der zoologischen Abtheiliing des k. k. Hofmuseums in Wicn. 



Bei einer vorlaufigen Untersuchung der durch Herrn 
Büttikofer und seine Gefahrten in Liberia gesammelten 
Fische fand sich eine Polypterus-Avt , die ich für neu halte 
und vorlaufig hier kurz beschreibe. Zu Ehren des Reisenden , 
der sie zuerst gefunden und herübergesandt , neune ich 
dieselbe 

Polypterus büttikoferi. 

Char. Habitus wie bei P. senegalus Cuv. Kopflange 6 — 
6^4 Dial bei Exemplaren von lö'/j — 26 Cm. Lange, B'/j — 
S'/j mal bei jungen -Individuen von 10 — 11 Cm. Lange in 
der Totallange, Kopfbreite l*/^ — P/4 mal, Schnauzenlange 
4^4 — 4^2 mal, Augendiameter 6^/3 — 9 mal, Stirnbreite 
3''/4 — nahezu 4 mal, Kopfhöhe 2^/3 — 2 mal in der Kopflange 
enthalten. 

7 — 8 Flösselcheu in der Dorsale, 23 — 27 Schuppen vor 
der Dorsale , welche letztere stets um eine Kopflange hinter 
dera hinteren Rande der Pectorale beginnt. II — 12 Schup- 
pen zwischen der Einlenkungsstelle der Ventrale und der 
Dorsale in einer verticalen Linie, 33 — 34 unmittelbar 
vor dera Beginn der Dorsale und der Bauchlinie , 53 — 55 
Schuppen langs der Seitenlinie. P. 35 — 36. A. 13 — 15. 
V. 11 — 12. Untere Körperhalfte gelb oder braunlich gelb , 

Notes from the Leyden IMuseum , Vol. X!1II. 



180 POLYPTERUS HÜTTIKOl-'ERI. 

obere bei jungen [ndividuea gelblich , mit zahlreicheu vio- 
letten , schriige nacli hiuteii zieheuden Querbinden ; bei 
alten Individuen ist die Grundfarbe des Rückens heil oder 
dunkel grauviolett, daher die dunkleren Querbinden meist 
nur schwach liervortreteu. Bei zwei alteren Exemplaren 
ist die gauze Rückenseite (mit Eiuschluss des Kopfes) gelb 
gesprenkelt. 

Fuudorte : Mahfa River ira Sumpfe , Sumpf bach bei 
Buluina , Sumpf bei Juring am Solymah River. (Reichs 
Museum in Leiden). 

Wien, 30 Juui 1891. 



Notes from tlie Leyden M!useuxri , Vol. IKIII. 



CEYLON CETONIIDAE. 181 



NOTE XXIV. 



ON THE CEYLON CETONIIDAE COLLECTED 
BY J. Z. KANNEGIETER 



J. R. H. NEERVOORT van de POLL 



J. Z. KANNEGIETER 



The list of Cetoniidae enumerated hereafter is the result 
of an entomological trip made during the months April 
and May 1889. The collections, which are in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Neervoort van de Poll , are chiefly made in the 
following localities, viz. Belihul-Oya on the southern slo- 
pes of the central mountains; Wadduwa near the coast, 
south of Colombo; Nalanda on the way to Trincomalee, 
on the northern slopes of the central mountains, whilst 
several of the more common insects were obtained in the 
immediate vicinity of Colombo. 

Generally Cetoniidae are insects of rare occurrence on 
flowers and foliage. The common Glycyphana versicolor F., 
however , was taken very abundantly by native boys in the 
ancient cinnamon gardens near Colombo. 

In order to render this paper as useful as possible, all 
the species hitherto authentically recorded or described 
from Ceylon, but not met with by Mr. Kaunegieter , are in- 
corporated in this list and printed in brackets. 

As for our collaboration , it may be noticed to avoid 
confusion, that new species or varieties are always marked 
with our respective names. 

Notes from the Leyden IMusetim, "Vol. X!III. 



182 CEYLON CETONIIDAE. 

Coryphocei'a etegans F. 

Belihul-Oya; Wadduwa ; Colombo. 
Not rare. 

var. cyunoptem Westw. 

Belihul-Oya; Nalanda ; Colombo. 
Scarce. 

var. fulgidissimu Kanneg. 

North from Nalanda. 

Four specimens of this splendid variety were taken by 
a native collector. 

They are entirely of a deep brilliant fiery red colour, 
with the black markings of the typical form. As the blue 
and the black colour-varieties of elegans have got already 
a name, I thought it best to bestow also a name on the 
red form , although 1 am no protector of naming such 
varieties of complementary colours , which exist — and may 
be named in advance — of all these emerald-green species. 

Clint eria itnperialis Payk. 

Belihul-Oya; Colombo. 
Not rare. 

[var. incerta Parry]. 
Clinteriu chtoronottt Blanch. 
Belihul-Oya; Wadduwa; Colombo. 

I found this species rather abundantly at Belihul-Oya 
on foliage bordering a brook. Blanchard describes the pro- 
thorax with six white punctures without making mention 
of the position of these spots. The number of spots is very 
variable ; the form with unspotted thorax is not rare , usu- 
ally there are on the disc in front two .., three .*., 

four \ /or five ^ . , white punctures — sometimes the 

Notes from tlie I-ieyden Museum , Vol. XIII. 



CEYLON CETONMDAK. 183 

central one is replaced by a short longitudinal stripe — 
the form with six spots is very rare and then the sixth 
one is placed on the basal lobe. I got one specimen with 
two discal punctures, a central line and a large guttiform 
spot on the lobe , not unlike the common form of CI. 
conjinis Kirby. 

[Cl«f»#ct»«« rufipcnnis Jans.]. 
The Entomologist. Vol. XXII (1886), p. 100. 

Ctintei'ia coerulen Hbst. 

Not at all rare in the vicinity of Colombo. Among the 
extensive series collected , there is not a single coeruleous 
specimen, tbey are all metallic or bronze green, a few cu- 
preous. A comparison with some specimens, originating 
from old collections, and with no more peculiar indication 
of localities than » India or." oflers some differences in 
general aspect and sculpture which could led to regard 
the Ceylon form as a distinct race when having sufficient 
material of authentic specimens from the continent. 

Specimens without spots on the thorax are scarce, gene- 
rally there is a rather large white puncture near the 
middle of the sides and very often still a smaller one 
may be observed more in front. 

The elytra have no less than eight spots on each, 
moreover the tip of the scutellum is bordered with white. 

var. megaspilota Kanneg. 

North from Nalanda , my native collector captured three 
male specimens of a quite distinct looking large variety of 
coerulea Hbst. ; it is much more robust in all its dimensions, 
the white spots have exactly the same position but are 
very large , the thorax is ornated with four spots , the 
mesosternal process is rather less produced. 



Notes from the Leyden Museum, "Vol. XIII. 



184 CEYLON CETONIIDAE. 

Clintevia putnila Swtz. 

Nalanda. 

In the Munich Catalogue Clinteria pumila Swartz is 
placed as a variety of CI. coerulea Hbst. ; now there is 
among the Ceylon Cetoniidae a C/znima-species allied to 
but quite distinct from coerulea Hbst. , which I feel 
strongly inclined to regard as the true pumila^ although 
neither Swartz's description nor Burmeister's redescription 
are sufficiently complete to prevent every doubt, I there- 
fore consider it useful to give a full description of this 
Ceylon insect. 

9. Shining, dark cupreous, under surface, pygidium and 
tarsi almost black with strong cupreous reflexions. 

Head coarsely punctured, somewhat convex in the middle, 
with four small impressions, two near the insertion of the 
antennae and two along the sides of the clypeus; clypeus 
rather broad , slightly elevated laterally , front margin 
moderately emarginate, with the lobes broadly rounded 
and narrowly reflexed. 

Prothorax feebly angular in the middle, very narrowly 
margined along the sides , with an irregular impression 
filled with white pubescence about the middle ; deeply but 
rather distantly punctured all over. The disc in front 
with two hardly perceptible white punctures. 

Elytra broad , but very little narrowed posteriorly , 
broadly rounded at the tip, obtuse at the suture, with 
seven rows of large angular punctures on each, and a 
few small scattered punctures along the sides , sutural 
costae and the S»"'!, 5th, and 1^^ interstice — the latter 
but very short — strongly raised; ornated with numerous 
white spots , eleven on each wingcase , placed exactly as in 
Cl. chloronota Blanch. 

Pygidium finely rugosely striated , clothed with a fulvous 
pile. Underneath with the sides of the breast strigose, 
sides of the abdomen roughly punctured, mesosternal pro- 
cess obtusely produced , anterior tibiae with two strong 

Notes from the Leydeii IMuseuixi, Vol. Z?!CI1I. 



CEYLON CETONIIDAE. 



185 



lateral teeth , legs and breast covered with a sparse ful- 
vous pubesceuce. 

The colour does not agree with the description of Swartz, 
but this, as well as slight modifications of the white 
markings, I consider of subordiuate value, and the prin- 
cipal characters , viz. the strongly punctured prothorax , 
and the pygidium without spots, are present in this 
Ceylon Cetoniid. (van de Poll). 

[Agesfmta nigvitn P.]. 
Thautnastopeus ceylonicws v. d. Poll , n. sp, 

Nitid black. Head longitudinally depressed at the sides, 
slightly convex in the middle. The emargination in front 
deep and triangular, the lobes produced and somewhat 
acute , smooth on the vertex , coarsely punctured laterally. 

Thorax moderately convex , anterior margin slightly pro- 
duced over the head, sides somewhat angular in the middle 
and narrowly margined, posterior lobe broad, triangular, 
truncated at the tip ; disc smooth , at the sides (chiefly in 
front) with a few deep irregular punctures and scratches. 

Scutellum acute, impressed at the tip. 

Elytra moderately convex , strongly depressed at the suture 
near the scutellum, sutural costae sharply elevated posteriorly, 
terminating in an acute point, the disc with several regular 
rows of deeply impressed large horse-shoe shaped punctu- 
res , the two innermost rows on each obliterated above 
near the suture, the sides and the apex closely striated. 

Pygidium transversely convex , impressed in the middle, 
very finely and densely strigose. Underneath covered with 
very deep and irregular punctures, prosternum and sides 
of the abdomen strigose, all the ventral segments with 
irregular transverse rows of circular and semi-circular 
punctures ; mesosterual process long , subcylindrical , almost 
straight, obtusely pointed and slightly recurved at the 
apex ; legs punctured and strigose , with short black hairs , 
anterior tibiae with two strong acute lateral teeth. 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



186 CEYLON CETONlinA.E. 

The male is rather narrower , with the elytral sculpture 
much obliterated on the disc ; the pygidiuin still more 
densely strigose along the middle , the mesosternal process 
somewhat bent downwards , the sculpture of the whole 
under surface shallower. 

Length 25 — 28 mm., breadth at the shoulders iP/g — 
13 mm. 

Allied to pulla Billb. from the Himalayas , but differing 
greatly in its broader form — chiefly in the female sex — 
and in its very strong and regular punctuation of the 
elytra ; moreover the forceps is very unlike that of any other 
Thaumastopeus-^'^QCies I have examined. 

Three females and one male taken at Belihul-Oya and 
near Colombo. 

HÊavronofa quadrivittuta Schaum. 

I captured a single cT specimen, together with a female 
of the next following species , on flowers in the Botanical 
Garden at Peradenia. 

MacfOMota sculpticollis Thoms. 

This species may be considered with great probability 
to be only the female sex of M. quadrivittata. Nine spe- 
cimens examined proved to be all females , whilst sixteen 
specimens of M. quadrivittata invariably belonged to the 
male sex. 

[^Mucfonotu Malyi Sharp]. 

The Ent. Mo. Mag. Vol. XXII (1886), p. 197. 

Glycffphttna liot'sfietdi Hope. 

Belihul-Oya. 

A few specimens. 

Gttjcyphana versicolor F. 

Colombo. 

Very abundant and exceedingly variable in colour and 

Notes from the J-ieyden IMuseum , Vol. XIII. 



CEYLON CETONIIDAE. 



187 



markings. I may mention a very rare variety, a single 
specimen out of three or four hundreds , with a small 
white spot on each side at the base of the thorax. 

Pfotaetia reffiilis Burm. 

Two specimens of this fine species were brought to me 
when at Colombo; they are entirely black instead of purple- 
coppery , and also smaller than the numerous specimens 
from the continent I have had for comparison. 

[JPfof«e#«« Whitehousei Schaum]. 

Protaetia ulhoguttata Vigors. 

Nalanda; Colombo. 

Three specimens only ; they are all of a dark bluish-black 
colour. The individual from Colombo has a rather singular 
aspect , the elytral spots , with exception of the marginal 
one below the middle, being of much reduced size. 

Protaetiu tnacuJutu F. 

Colombo. 
Not rare. 

Protuetia peregrina Hbst. 

Colombo. 

Several specimens. 

Anthracophor'a crucifera Oliv. 

Belihul-Oya. 

A few specimens. 

[Coe»oc#»tfM* tnprobanicus Westw.]. 

Thesaurus Ent. Oxon. 1874, p. 46, pi. XIII, fig. 8. 

[Vtttgus addendum Walker]. 

This is probably only a synonym of Valgus podicalis Blanch. 

Amsterdam, July 1891. 



P^otes from the L^eyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



488 SYNONYMICAL REMARKS. 



NOTE XXV. 
SYNONYMICAL REMARKS ON CETONIIDAE 

BY 

J. R. H. NEERVOORT van de POLL. 



1. Lomaptera marginata Kraatz (Deutsche Ent. Zeitsclirift, 
1890, p. 31) = Lomaptera Duhoulayi Thorns. (Bull. 
Soc. Ent. de France. (5) VIII, 1878, p. cxxxviii ; Aid 
to the Identification of Insects, plate 144, fig. 3). 

2. Cirrhospila fiavo-maculata Kraatz (1. c. p. 279, taf. II, 
fig. 14) = Gnorimidia Toyae Lansb. (Notes from the 
Leyden Mus. IX (1887), pp. 168 and 169). 

NB. This insect is authentically recorded from the 
»Kodeicanel Mountains" near Madras , the locality 
»Java" given by Kraatz for it, will be just as 
erroneous as it is for Melinospila (Macronota) fiavo- 
maculata G. & P., a species from Pondicherry, 
which Mr. Nonfried should have received , together 
with G. Toyae, from Java. 

Amsterdam, July 1891. 



Notes Irom the Leyden Mlnseum , Vol. XIII. 



NEOPHARSALIA VAGaNS. 189 



NOTE XXVI. 

A NEW SPECIES OF THE LONGICORN GENUS 
NEOPHARSALIA v. d. POLL 



J. Z. KANNEGIETER 



Neopharsalia vagans^ u. sp. 

Head brown , covered with a thin greyish pubescence , 
the under-lobes of the eyes more thickly bordered with 
ochraceous pile , two oblique stripes of the same colour on 
the vertex ; mandibles black ; a fine central line along the 
middle , antennary tubers bluntly toothed at the innerside. 
Antennae very long and slender , the last 5 or 7 joints 
generally more or less incurvate , the scape of the colour 
of the head, the other joints becoming gradually paler, 
being only infuscate at both the extremities. 

Prothorax rather longer than wide , the sides produced 
into a pointed tooth in the middle ; the front margin straight , 
the basal margin tri-sinuate, with a shallow straight trans- 
verse impression near the basal margin , and another strongly 
angular one in front; the disc with a short impressed 
central line (which, however, is quite obsolete in one spe- 
cimen), and some large distant punctures ; brown , clothed 
with a greyish tomentuni , ornated with three irregular 
longitudinal ochraceous stripes, one in the middle, not 
quite extending to the base, and a somewhat broader one 
near the sides ; a few small ochraceous spots may be ob- 
served below the central tooth . 

Scutellum small, semi-circular, with a small ochraceous 
spot at the tip. 

Notes trouo. tlie 1-aeyd.en Museum , "Vol. X.IU. 



190 NEOPHARSALrA VAGANS. 

Elytra straight at the base , rouuded at the shoulders , 
the sides slightly narrowing towards the apex , where they 
are truncate in an oblique direction towards the suture ; co- 
vered with a deep punctuation , strongest and somewhat 
granular at the base, and gradually diminishing near the 
tip. Derm brown , covered with a sparse greyish pile, or- 
nated with a few scattered ochraceous spots, chiefly near 
the shoulders, whilst the apical third is almost entirely 
occupied by more or less confluent spots of the same colour. 

Under surface and legs pale brown , clothed with a fine 
greyish pubescence , on the abdominal segments some in- 
distinct ochraceous patches ; mesosternum provided with 
a small obtuse knob. 

The female differs only by the shorter antennae and the 
less attenuated elytra. 

Length 14 — 15 mm., breadth at the shoulders 5 — 6 
mm. — In Mus. van de Poll. 

Allied to N. Costeri v. d. Poll, but much more slender, 
the elytra longer and less attenuated , the antennary tubers 
more strongly pointed at the innerside , the mesosternum 
slightly produced. 

I captured a 9 specimen at Pandan Aroem , an estate 
on the southern slopes of the Goenoeng Endoet in the 
Preanger districts (W. Java). Moreover I have had at my 
disposal two cf examples from Soekaranda: Langkat-Deli 
(E. Sumatra), and another male from South Borneo. Finally 
Mr. Neervoort van de Poll noticed the presence of specimens 
from Celebes in the Dresden Museum. 

Amsterdam, July 1891. 



Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



ORECTOGYRUS SEXUALIS. 191 



NOTE XXVII. 



aUATRE ESPÈCES NOUVELLES DE GYRINIDES 
DU GENRE ORECTOGYRUS 



DECRITES PAK 



M. REGIMBART. 



Or eet o Cf 1/ r us sexualis ^ n. sp. 

Long. 7 — S'/g mill. — Ovalis , sat elongatus , fortiter con- 
vexus ; supra nitidissimus , viridi-aeneus , leviter cupreus , 
rufo-tomentosus ; infra pallide testaceus , pedibus anterioribus 
nigro-variegatis . Labro semi-elliptico , in medio minime cari- 
nato nee laevi. In ebjtris spatio suturali laevi (ƒ lato, postice 
longe et profunde bijido et medium attingente , subtilissime 
reticulato , Q latissime lanceolato et paululum ante apicem 
terminato, subtilissime quoque reticulato et praeter ad api- 
cem tenuiter subundulatim striolato ; costa laevi approximata, 
sat lata^ postice obtusa, Q paulo longiore, ante truncaturam 
desinente ; truncatura in medio fere recta , extus fortiter 
convexa et sinuata , angulo suturali recto, externo fortiter acuto^ 
spinoso. Tibiis anterioribus, praeeipue apud marem, sat 
robustis , margine externo valde convexo, angulo externo for- 
titer rotundato , omnino deleto. 

Cette espèce bien caractérisée présente une tres grande 
analogie avec VO. Leroyi Rég.-, (lont elle se distingue par 
sa forme moins trapue et plus allongée et sa couleur plus 
verte, en même temps que par la structure des espaces lis- 
ses. La couleur est en dessus d'un beau vert bronze avec 
des reflets cuivreux sur Ie pronotum et la region suturale , 
en dessous d'un testacé pale, avec les pattes antérieures 

JVotes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. X^III. 



192 ORECTOGYRUS SEXUALIS. 

variées de noir. L'espace sutural lisse du male est assez large 
et divisé postérieurement depuis Ie milieu de sa longueur 
en deux lobes étroits doat la pointe ne dépasse pas Ie 
milieu de Télytre ; entre les lobes la ponctuation est plus 
rare et plus grosse ; chez la femelle eet espace sutural est 
largement lancéolé , se termine un peu avant Ie sommet 
et en outre de la fine reticulation il est pourvu, saufvers 
son sommet , de strioles rugiformes serrées , peu profondes, 
un peu ondulées et légèrement obliques ; la cóte lisse en 
est tres rapprocbée, assez large, obtuse en arrière oü elle 
se termine a peu prés au même niveau que l'espace sutural 
chez la femelle ; elle est un peu moins développée chez Ie male. 

Le tibia antérieur a une structure remarquable : son bord 
externe est tres convexe en dehors, avec Tangle externe 
tres largement arrondi et entièrement efface. 

Hah. Liberia occidental; pris par Mr. A. T. Deraery 
(Musée de Ley de). 

Orectogyrus angularis , n. sp. 

Long. 6^2 a 7^/2 mill. — Oblong o- ovalis , elongatus , valde 
convexus ; supra metallicus , viridi-aeneus , purpurascens et 
iridescens, subtilissime reiiculatus , griseo-tomentosus ; infra 
omnino pallide testaceus, tihiis anticis ad basin et intus ni- 
gricantibus. Labro semi-elliptico , porrecto , fortiter punctato^ 
in medio subcarinato et anguste laevi; pronoti regione tomen- 
tosa lata , in margine interno leviter undulata ; in elytris 
sutura paululuni elevata , cf antice tantumrnodo^Qfereusque 
ad apicem laevi, utringue costa f ere recta laevi, ^ angus- 
tula et vix post medium prolongata , Q latiuscula et paulo 
ante apicem terminata; truncatura ohliqua ^ fortiter convexa , 
extus sinuata , angulo apicali externo acuto , fortiter promi- 
nulo , suturali subacuto , praecipue apud feminam leviter spi- 
nose producto. Tibiis anterioribus sat robustis , extus ante 
apicem sinuatis , angulo apicali externo , praecipue apud marem., 
acuto et fortiter extus producto , tarso elongato flavo. 

Espèce tres voisine de l'O. cuprifer Rég. et surtout de 
VO. Büttikoferi Rég. Elle diffère du premier par sa forme 

Notes from the Leyden. IMuseum , Vol. XIII. 



ORECTOGYRUS ANGULARIS. 193 

un peu plus allongée, par la couleur plus foncée et d'un 
pourpre plus bleu , par la pubescence moins argentée , par 
Ie labre plus allonge et développé , par la cóte et la por- 
tion lisse de la suture plus larges et plus prolongées vers 
Ie sommet, par l'augle interne de la troncature plus aigu et 
subépineux, par Tangle externe du tibia antérieur qui est 
beaucoup plus aigu et saillant en dehors. 

Elle se distingue du second, dont elle a la forme allon- 
gée et la couleur, par les deux derniers caractères, c'est 
a dire ceux des angles interne de la troncature et externe 
des tibias antérieurs et en même temps par la couleur 
noiratre de la base et du bord interne des tibias antérieurs 
dans les deux sexes. 

Hah. Liberia occidental; pris par Mr. A. T. Demery 
(Musée de Leyde). 

Je serais tres disposé a admettre que l'espèce actuelle 
et VO. Buttikojeri n'en font qu'une seule; mais je ne 
pense pas qu'on puisse ne les considérer que comme des 
variétés de VO. cuprifer^ car tons les O. cuprifer tres 
nombreux que j'avais d'Afrique occidentale, oriëntale ou 
meridionale sont bien semblables entre eux comme forme, 
couleur et sculpture ; la variété elongatus Rég. seule se dis- 
tingue par sa forme plus allongée et étroite, sa taille un 
peu plus petite et un peu plus d'ampleur dans les parties lisses. 

Ore c tog ^ rus D em er y i, n. sp. 

Long. 4'/2 — 5 mill. — O valis , elongatus , convexus ; supra 
nitidus j suhtiliter reticulatus; viridi-ae7ieus , griseo-tomentosus, 
fiavolimhatus ; injra pallide testaceus. Labro semicirculari^ 
fortiter punctato ^ antice laevi; prothoracis limbo luteo in 
medio intus triangulariter dilatato, margine tomentoso angus- 
tissimo j antice post oculos anguste dilatato; in elytris spatio 
suturali laevi communi lato , lanceolato , fere usque ad api- 
cem prolongato , sat fortiter elevato , cosia suhlaterali latissime 
elevata , parallela , fere in truncatura desinente ; truncatura 
fere recta , vix convexa , angulis leviter obtusis. Sculptura 

Notes trom tlie Ljeyden Aluseam, Vol. X.II1. 

13 



194 ORIÏCTOGYRUS DEMERYf. 

sexubus inter se similibus ; (ƒ tibiü anterioribus latis , ad 
basin attenuatis , angulo apicali externo recto , subprominulo ; 
tarso angusto , elongato , omnino parallelo. 

Charmante espèce , jusqu'ici la plus petite du genre , d'une 
belle couleur vert brouzé saus reflets cuivreux ni pourprés 
en dessus , d'uu testacé tres pale en dessous , ainsi que sur 
les pattes. La bande jaune affecte sur Ie pronotum une forme 
triangulaire par sa dilatation interne , la bordure tomenteuse 
y est tres étroite et se dilate en avant derrière les yeux. 
Sur les élytres l'espace lisse sutural commun est élevé, lar- 
gement lancéolé, acuminé et se termine presque a l'angle 
sutural; la cóte lisse, également élevée et située tres en de- 
hors , est tres large , parallèle et se termine par une extré- 
mité obtusément arroudie qui n'est séparée de la troncature 
que par une languette tomenteuse extrêmement étroite; la 
troncature est presque droite et a peine convexe, avec les 
deux angles un peu obtus, mais nou eflacés. Le tibia du 
male est assez large , subparallèle dans sa seconde moitié , 
tres rétréci a la base, avec l'angle externe droit et pres- 
que saillant , le tarse est long, étroit et absolument paral- 
lèle. A part ces caractères sexuels des pattes, les deux 
sexes sont semblables. 

Hab. Liberia occidental; pris par Mr. A. T. Demery 
(Musée de Leyde). 

Orectogi/rus Alluaudi Rég. 
(Ann. Soc. Ent. Prance. Octobre 1889, p. 250). 

Les exemplaires males recueillis par Mr. Demery a Cape 
Mount sont identique a ceux qu'avait pris Mr. Alluaud a 
Assinie; les femelles paraissent un peu plus allongées et 
l'espace lisse sutural commun est un peu plus attéuué et 
a peine plus prolongé en arrière. 

Orectogyrus discors, n. sp. 

Long. 5^/2 — 6^/4 mill. — Ovalis, valde elongatus, forti- 
ter convexus ; supra nitidissimus , subtilissime reticulatus , 
nigro-aeneus , plus minus virescens et cupreus , Jlavo limbatus, 
JMotes from the Xjeyden IMuseuin , Vol. XIII. 



ORECTOGYRUS DISCORS. 195 

fulvo tomentosus ; injra paüide testaceus , pedihus concolori- 
hus. Labro f ere semicirculari , leviter transverso; prothoracis 
limbo fiavo intus vix angulatim dilatato , margine tomentoso 
parum lato , antice non dilatato , in elytris spatio scutello-su- 
turali cf elliptico , postice vix brevissime hilohato , post me- 
dium desinente , V longius elliptico , deinde multum ante 
apicem fortiter strangulato et postice rectangularitér dilatato 
et totam suturam praeter ad angidum externum occupants; 
truncatura (ƒ leviter ohliqua , sat cönvexa , extus paululum 
sinuata , angulo externo recto subprominulo , interno recto , 
9 valde ohliqua , bisinuata , angulo externo leviter acuto , 
prominulo , suturali recto. cT tibiis anterioribus parum latis, 
angulo apicali externo valde rotundato et deleto; tarso latius- 
culo parallelo. 

Espèce tres dissemblable dans les deux sexes, a bordure 
jaune du pronotum tres peu anguleusemeut dilatée au 
milieu. Chez Ie male l'espace lisse scutello-sutural est ellip- 
tique et se prolonge jusqu'aux deux tiers de l'élytre par 
une extrémité qui est a peine et tres brièvement bilobée sur 
la suture ; la troncature est faiblement oblique , assez con- 
vexe , un peu sinuée en arrière avec l'angle externe droit 
et un peu saillant, Tinterne droit et subarrondi. Chez la 
femelle l'espace lisse commun a sa première partie ellipti- 
que jusqu'aux trois quarts postérieurs oü il est fortement 
rétréci, puis il se dilate de nouveau brusquement a angle 
droit et occupe toute la troncature, moins Ie voisinage de 
l'angle externe , afiectant aiusi la forme d'un verre a boire 
a pied ; dans ce sexe la troncature est tres fortement oblique, 
bisinuée , avec l'angle externe sensiblement aigu et saillant, 
l'interne droit. 

Hab. Liberia occidental; pris par Mr. A. T. Demery 
(Musée de Leyde). 

Evreux, Juillet 1891. 



Notes from the Leyden Museum, "Vol, XIII. 



1% CÜTUNIA BIFIDA. 

NOTE xxvm. 

SYNONYMICAL REMARK ABOUT 
CETONIA BIFIDA OLIV. 

BY 

J. Z. KANNEGIETER. 



In a paper on the Australian Schizorrhinidae Dr. 
Kraatz established a. o. a new genus Dysephicta (Deuts. Ent. 
Zeitschr. XXIV, p. 208) for the reception of Cetonia bifida 
Oliv. (the Schizorrhina bifida of G. & P., Schaum and the 
Munich Catalogue), which was said to be from India or. 
The type specimen of G. & P. having now passed into 
the possession of Mr. Oberthiir, it has, however, turned 
out to be, instead of an Indian insect, the well-known 
Anochilia republicana Ooq. from Madagascar, for which 
Dr. Kraatz has proposed the new generic name Coquerelia 
(1. c. p. 314). About this genus Mr. 0. E. Janson remarks 
at the end of his description of Anochilia incilis (Cist. Ent. 
Ill, p. 147), »the characters given by Kraatz to distin- 
guish his genus Coquerelia from Anochilia are evidently not 
of generic value , as they almost entirely fail in this species." 
The synonymy of G. bifida consequently may be esta- 
blished as follows : 

Anochilia bifida Oliv. 

Cetonia bifida Oliv. 

Schizorrhina bifida G. & P. 

Schizorrhina bifida Schaum. 

Dysephicta bifida Kraatz. 

Anochilia republicana Coq. 

Coquerelia republicana Kraatz. 
It is worthy of note that Thomson in his list of types 
of Gory & Percheron (Typi Cetonidarum , p. 36) correctly 
referred this insect to Anochilia. 

Amsterdam, July 1891. 



JNTotes irom the Leyden Museum , Vol. X!III. 



HELOTA VANDEPOLLI. 197 



NOTE XXIX. 

TWO NEW SPECIES OE THE GENUS HELOTA 
FROM BORNEO 

DESCRIBED BY 

C. RITSEMA Cz. 



Besides Helota Vigorsii Mac Leay no other ^e/oto-species 
were as yet known from Borneo '). Now, in a recent con- 
signment of beetles, received by Mr. Neervoort van de 
Poll and brought together in the Doeson-countries (S. E. 
Borneo, P South, 115° East) by Mr. Wahnes, two new 
species , each represented by a single female specimen , 
were present, and Mr. van de Poll kindly allowed me to 
describe them. One of them , which I have much pleasure 
in naming after its possessor, is allied to Helota i^ga e Rits. 
from Burma ^) , the other to the Japanese Helota cereopunc- 
tata Lewis ^). 

Helota V andepolli, n. sp. 9- 

Length 11 mm. — Shining; narrow and elongate, nar- 
rowed in front and behind ; the colour of the upper sur- 
face is greenish bronze , here and there with faint tinges 
of purple; the antennae reddish testaceous at the base, 



1) The specimens from Borneo with which I am acquainted are in the col- 
lections of Mr. Rene Oherthiir and of Mr. Neervoort van de Poll. — A male 
specimen of a variety of the same species, from the neighbouring island of La- 
buan, is in the collection of the Genoa Museum (see: Ann. Mus. Civ. di Ge- 
nova, Vol. XXX, p. 885). In this specimen the punctuation of the head is 
somewhat coarser than in the specimens from the other localities. 

2) Ann. Mus. Civ. di Genova, Vol. XXX (1891), p. 886. 

3) Ent. Mo. Mag. Vol. XVII (1881), p. 255. 

Notes from the Leyden lytuseum , Vol. XIU. 



198 HELOTA VANDIfiPOLLI. 

passing iuto dark pitchy towards the end ; the four con- 
vex yellow elytral spots small ; surrounded with bluish 
black , and situated between the S^d and Q^^ striae. The 
colour of the underside is reddish testaceous , with the 
exception of the head (the throat alone has a testaceous 
colour) , the lateral portions and the anterior edge of the 
prosternum , and the elytral epipleurae , these parts being 
of a bronze green colour; the pro- and mesosternum show 
a metallic green hue ; the legs are reddish testaceous , 
with the apex of the femora, the base and apex of the 
tibiae, and the tarsi dark pitchy or black, whereas an 
infuscate stripe is present along the upperside of the an- 
terior femora. 

Head strongly produced in front of the eyes, with a 
raised streak along the middle , deeply punctured , the punc- 
tures in the raised middle portion large and remote, near 
the eyes they are smaller and placed close together , in 
front they are very small ; underneath the metallic middle 
portion of the head is finely and very remotely punc- 
tured. 

Prothorax subtransverse , widest at the base, narrowing 
in regularly curved lines to the front ; the sides irregular- 
ly and rather indistinctly crenulate, the front angles 
slightly produced ; the base deeply bisinuate , the lateral 
angles acute, the median lobe subtruncate and with an 
indistinct punctiform impression ; the disk strongly and 
somewhat irregularly closely punctured , with the usual 
nearly impunctate raised patches , viz. a mesial forked one 
extending from the base on to the anterior margin, an 
elongate slightly oblique basal one on each side of the 
former, and a very small one in front of the oblique ba- 
sal patches. The scutellum is small and transverse. The 
sterna show laterally a few distinct punctures; the metal- 
lic coloured sides of the prosternum are faintly and irre- 
gularly wrinkled anteriorly. 

Elytra subparallel, the sides faintly convex, rapidly nar- 
rowing in straight lines at some distance before the 

Notes from th.e Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



HELOTA VANDEPOLLI. 199 

apices') which are subacute, and dehiscent at the suture; 
each elytron with ten regular, punctured striae of which 
the 4*h and 5^^ are interrupted by the yellow convex spots 
and are not continued behind the posterior one; the punc- 
tures in the striae become larger and larger towards the 
sides , and at the same time the interstices become narrower 
and alternately more costiform ; the interstice between the 
2id and S^d striae becomes costiform towards the end and 
extends on to the extreme tip of the elytra; the punctua- 
tion on the shoulders is obsolete; the epipleurae are smooth 
and impunctate. 

Abdomen smooth , with a few minute hair-bearing punc- 
tures along the middle; the last ventral segment regularly 
rounded posteriorly. 

The legs are smooth and impunctate, the anterior tibiae 
slightly curved. 

Helota VandepoUi is at once distinguished from Helota 
Feae by the colour of the sides of the prothorax, these 
being bronze green in stead of reddish testaceous. 

Helota b rev is, n. sp. 9- 

Length 8 mm. , breadth at the posterior angles of the 
prothorax 3 mm. — Broader than any of the other species 
of the extensive division characterized by the evenly punc- 
tured pronotum without raised patches. 

Rather dull ; above dark bronze green , with coppery 
tinges on the front portion of the head and along the in- 
ner orbits; the middle of the anterior margin of the pro- 
notum , its whole basal margin , the scutellum , and the 
basal margin and sutural interstice of the elytra of a bright 
golden or coppery colour; the antennae dark reddish tes- 
taceous, the club somewhat lighter, the basal joints with 
a metallic green hue ; each elytron provided between the 



1) On this spot of the outer margin the described specimen shows on the 
left side one, on the right side two minute angular notches. 

^Votes from the Leyden Mvuseuiu , Vol. X.III. 



'200 HET-OTA CREVIS. 

S""'' and 6*^ striae with two pale fulvous round spots. — 
The colour of the underside is reddish testaceous , with the 
exception of the head , the lateral portions and the anterior 
margin of the prosternura , and the elytral epipleurae , 
these parts being of a bronze green colour; the coxae and 
femora are reddish testaceous , the tip of the latter and 
the entire tibiae bright metallic green , the tarsi dark pit- 
chy brown. 

Head very broad , not strongly produced in front of 
the eyes , strongly but rather remotely punctured , the 
punctures somewhat smaller but closer set along the inner 
orbits, very fine on the narrowed front portion. 

Prothorax distinctly broader at the base than long; the 
sides , which are minutely crenulate , converge in faintly 
curved lines towards the front margin , the latter slightly 
emarginate , the anterior angles consequently only very 
slightly protruding; the base deeply bisinuate, the lateral 
angles acute, the median lobe rounded; the upper surface 
regularly convex, strongly and closely punctured , especially 
at the sides , leaving free , however , a line along middle , 
which is broadest at the base. The scutellum is strongly 
transverse. 

Elytra subparallel , narrowing at the posterior third in 
regularly curved lines towards the apices, which are nar- 
rowly rounded, and slightly dehiscent at the suture; an 
extremely minute tooth is present at the sutural margin 
at some distance from the extreme tip, and also two or 
three extremely minute denticulations , better seen from 
beneath , on the lateral margin at about two-thirds of the 
length of the elytra. Each elytron has ten striae of deeply 
impressed punctures , of which the 4*^ and Stb are inter- 
rupted by the fulvous spots and are not continued behind 
the posterior one; the interstices, which become somewhat 
costate on the apical portion , are very finely punctured 
and show moreover a row of punctures which become lar- 
ger towards the sides. 

The under surface of the head is covered with very large 

Notes from the Leyden ]M 1186111x1, Vol. XIII. 



HELOTA BREVIS. 



201 



punctures ; the prosternum strongly punctured , somewhat 
obsoletely however on the testaceous middle portion ; the 
sides of the metasternum with a few large punctures, the 
middle portion with an impressed longitudinal line; the 
elytral epipleurae with irregular, not sharply defined 
punctures. 

The ventral segments extremely finely punctured, the last 
segment subtruncate at the apex. 

The legs smooth , the tibiae strongly punctured , those 
of the anterior pair slightly curved. 

Leyden Museum, July 1891. 



Notes from the Leytlen IMuseura, Vol. XIII. 



202 CYNOPTERUS BRACHYÜTIS. 



NOTE XXX. 

SOME OBSERVATIONS RELATING CYNOPTERUS 

BRACHYOTIS MULLER AND KERIVOULA 

PELLUCIDA AVATERHOÜSE 



Dr. P. A. JENTINK. 

July 1891. 



Gynopterus brachyotis S. Muller. 

In van der Hoeven's Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Ge- 
schiedenis en Physiologic, 1838-39, a small bat has been 
described by Dr. S. Muller under the name Pachysoma bra- 
chyotis. That author collected a large number of specimens , 
all in the same locality , a deep lime-stone cave , on the 
bank of the river Dewej , in the interior of Borneo : these 
type specimens are in our Museum. 

Dobson (Catalogue, 1876) remarks under the head Gy- 
nopterus brachyotus that an examination of the types of 
brackyotus (lege brachyotis) in the Leyden Museum has 
shown him that the Andaman-island variety (described by 
him in 1873 as Gynopterus marginatus,\ax. andamanensis) 
is identical with Müller's species. In the well-known Ca- 
talogue published by Dobson in 1878, no word however, 
concerning this species ; Gynopterus brachyotis Muller seems 
to be entirely overlooked by that author. I am not aware that 
the species has been recorded or mentioned after the year 
1876, neither in the P. Z. S. nor in any other periodical , 
so that I fear that it is on the way to disappear among 

Notes from the Ijevcieti Mnseiim, "\^ol. XTTT. 



CYNOPTERUS BRACHYOTIS. 203 

its fellows ; the more 'as Dobson has bestowed the specific 
title of hrachyotis upon a new species of the with Cynop- 
terus so closely allied family Cynonycteris (see P. Z. S. 1877 
and Catalogue, 1878) and so one perhaps might confound 
them and believe that Müller's hrachyotis would be the 
same as Dobson's hrachyotis , meanwhile they represent two 
well defined and really very different species , belonging 
to two distinct families. 

Muller observed that hrachyotis is about one third smaller 
than tithecheilum f = marginatus) , for the rest colored like 
that species , the wings however being darker , of a sooty 
color , meanwhile the ears present too a sooty color : Tem- 
minck (Mon. mamm, II) compared the type-specimens with 
Pachysoma hrevicaiidatum ( ^ C. marginatus) and remarked 
that Müller's hrachyotis »diffère néanmoins par ses petites 
oreilles courtes , arrondies , depourvues de toute bordure 
marginale et de plis verticaux internes ; elles sont aussi moins 
larges et toujours d'une couleur noire." Although Müller's 
specimens are at present nearly white , with exception of 
the reddish colored collar, so that the dark tinge of ears 
and wings has disappeared (they have been preserved in 
a stuffed state and have been bleached by the influence of 
light) , the white margin of the ears, however, is very clear 
to see, so that I cannot understand how Temminck over- 
looked this characteristic and could write that the ears 
are » depourvues de toute bordure marginale." 

But taking leave of badly preserved and bleached stuffed 
specimens I now proceed to give a better exposition of 
the two Cynopterus-s^Qoie^ with white-bordered ears, C. 
marginatus and C. hrachyotis , based upon fresh material , 
preserved in alcohol, recently received from Java and Su- 
matra. 

C. hrachyotis at a glance is distinguished from C. mar- 
ginatus by its white fingers , strikingly contrasting with the 
dark wing-membranes, smaller ears, more elongate muzzle 
and smaller head. 

The tinge of the hairs on the back of C. marginatus is 

Notes from the Leyclen Museum , Vol. XIII. 



204 CYNOPTERUS BRACHYOTIS. 

somewhat black, meanwhile iu C.hrachyotis a more brown- 
ish tinge prevails. In the males of C. hrachyotis (some- 
times too present in the females) the collar is much more 
developed and generally redder colored than in male-speci- 
mens of C. marginatus. 

The dimensions , in Millimeters, taken from about twenty 
specimens of C. hrachyotis and several specimens of C. 
marginatus vary as follows : 

C. hrachyotis. C. marginatus. 

Length ear (anteriorly) . . . 15 — 17 . . . 18 — 20,5 

» ear to eye 9 — 11 . , . 13 — 14 

» eye to tip of nostril. 10,5—11 . . . 12—13 

» forearm 60—70 . . . 75—80 

» second finger 101 — 117 . . 126—133 

» fourth finger 78—80 . . . 97—102 

» tibia, foot and claws. 35 — 42 . . . 49 — 52 

I failed to detect difference in length in the sexes; all 
the measured specimens are fullgrown , f. i. pregnant fe- 
males. They have been collected by Mr. Kannegieter in 
Java (Buitenzorg) , and in Sumatra (Deli-Bedagei , Krapoh 
and Palembang , Lahat) and have been presented to our 
Museum by Mr. J. R. H. Neervoort van de Poll. 

Kerivoula pellucida Waterhouse. 

Waterhouse described this species after a specimen col- 
lected by Mr. Cuming in the Philippine Islands (P. Z. S. 
1845) and presented by the latter to the Zoological Society's 
collection. According to Dr. Dobsou (Catalogue, Indian 
Museum, 1876) the type is an adult (ƒ preserved in al- 
cohol; in 1878 (Catalogue, Chiroptera, British Museum) 
Dobson has exhibited a second specimen , a youug 9? too 
from the Philippines: his descriptions and measurements 
given in 1878 exactly and verbally agree with those given 
in 1876. Mr. Tomes (P. Z. S. 1858) said that the exami- 
nation and comparison of Waterhouse's type-specimen of 

Notes frona tlae Leyden M^useura, Vol. X.III. 



KERIVOULA PELLUCIUA. 2U5 

V. pelluciduü and the type of Horsfield's K. hardwickii 
has proved beyond question their identity and he gives 
the dimensions taken from the type-specimen of V. pellu- 
cidus, adding that the dimensions may be considerably 
altered by the state of preservation of that specimen. And 
indeed if we compare the measurements given by Water- 
house , Tomes and Dobson , it seems somewhat difficult to 
believe that they have all been taken from one and the 
same specimen. 

Waterhouse , Tomes, Dobson. 
1845 1858 1876,1878. 

Longitudo ab apice rostri ad 

caudae basin 1,8 .... 1,9 .. . 1,65 

Longitudo caudae 1>9^|2 ... 1,11 . . 2. 

» antibrachii . . . 1,3 .... 1,3 . . . 1,25 

» auris 0,7 .... 0,7 ... 0,7 

Alarum amplitudo 9,6 .... 10,6 

Length of head 0,8 ... 0,6 

» » tragus 0,4 . . .0,35 

» » longest finger 2,10^12 . 2,9 

» » fourth finger 2,1 ... 2. 

» » foot and claws 0,4 . . . 0,3 

Dobson (Catalogue , 1876) again separated pellucida from 
hardwickii', he said that Tomes confounded the two species 
and that the size and shape of the ears at once distinguish 
the species. 

I am not aware that after the year 1878 Kerivoula 
pellucida has been mentioned in scientific papers or other 
publications , and I think that , except the type and a 
young specimen in the British Museum, both from the 
Philippines, no specimen has reached Europe. 

In the above mentioned collection there are four speci- 
mens , from Krapoh , Deli-Bedagei , East Sumatra , a male 
and three females, which I, without any hesitation, enre- 
gister as Kerivoula pellucida Waterhouse. It is at once dis- 
tinguished from K. hardiüickii by its color, size and shape 
of the ears and diöerent length of body and wings. 

r^otes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



.206 KERIVOULA PELLUCIDA. 

Meanwhile in hardwickii a rather dark tinge prevails 
and the difference between upper- and under parts of the 
body hardly is perceptible , in pellucida the upper parts are 
of a brownish red, meanwhile the underparts are much 
lighter colored so that those parts make the impression 
of being whitish. 

In hardwickii the muzzle is very hairy , in pellucida how- 
ever that part is provided with a few scattered hairs, so 
that at first glance one would believe the muzzle to be 
bald. 

With regard to the ears 1 refer to Dobson's description. 

Measurements in Mm. of the four Sumatra-specimens 
preserved in alcohol in our Museum: 

K. pellucida. K. Jiardwickii. 

^ 9 9 9^ cT 

tail 40 . . 41 . . 42 . . 45 . . . 55 

ear 14,5 15,5 15,5 16 . . . 12,5 

tragus 8,5 . 8,5 . 9 . . 8,5 . . 7 

forearm 30 . . 30 . , 31 . . 32 . . 33 

second finger. ... 67 . . 66 . . 67,5 . 70 . . 72 
fourth finger .... 49 . . 50 . . 49 . . 51 . . 52 
foot and claws. . . 6,5 . . 6,5 . . 6,5 . . 7 . . . 7 

As may be seen from the above measurements K. pellu- 
cida always is smaller in all directions except in length 
of ear and tragus , which parts constantly are strikingly of 
a much larger size, relatively and absolutely. 



Notes from the Leyden Museura, Vol. XIII. 



ON MAALMALS FROM BILLITON. 207 



NOTE XXXI. 

SOME ADDITIONS TO THE MAMMALIAN-FAUNA OF 
BILLITON 



Dr. P. A. JENTINK. 

July 1891. 



In the Notes from the Leyden Museum, 1890, p. 149, 
I said that Sciurus prevostii belongs to the fauna of Billi- 
ton; this statement was based upon two specimens procu- 
red by the late Teysmaun in 1877 in that island and pre- 
sented to our Museum (cf. Cat. syst. des Mammifères , 1888, 
p. 26, m and n). Dr. Vorderman kindly informs me that 
Sciurus prevostii perhaps formerly has been introduced there 
and afterwards has grown wild. Specimens have been 
brought over from Mendanao, a small island close to the 
west coast of Billiton , and are at present living in Billi- 
ton in the neighborhood of Tandjong Pandan , N. W. Bil- 
liton, in the gardens, having escaped from their cages. 
He nowhere in the interior observed a single specimen. 

According to Dr. Vorderman in Billiton is living the Cervus- 
species known from Banka, viz. Cervulus mu7itjac , moreover 
the Kidang and Napoe are very common. In a collection 
of animals from different localities presented by Dr. Vor- 
derman to our Museum there is a yVa;5rM^Ms-specimen , ac- 
cording the label called Pelandock by the indigenous — I 
remember that Dr. Hagen ^) remarked that in Deli the 



1) Die Pflanzeu- und Thierwelt von Deli, auf der Ostküste Sumatra's. Na- 
turwissenschaftliche Skizzen und Beitrilge, in Kon. Ned. Aardrijkskundig Tijd- 
schrift, 1890, p. 102. 

Notes from the Leyden jMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



208 ON MAMMALS FROM BILLITON. 

Malays call Tragulus napu, Blandoh, perhaps a contrac- 
tion of Pelandock. 

This Billitou-specimen is quite different in color from 
all other hitherto described species or varieties and , com- 
pared with our very large number of Tra^/u^ws-specimens , 
there only is a single specimen with which it agrees, na- 
mely an individual collected by Teysmann in Banka: the 
Banka-specimen is an adult, the Billiton-specimen a nearly 
adult one (the hindmost molars are not yet developed). As 
will be clear by reading the following description it most 
likely can be brought under one of the known species and 
so I think it correct to describe it not as a new species, 
but rather as a melanistic variety of 

Tragulus napu. 

It attains the size of Tragulus napu and agrees with 
this species too in color of the upper parts, that is to say 
it has such a dark color as the darkest colored specimens 
of napu present. From eye to nose runs a black stripe like 
in napu and stanleyanus. Nape of the neck (in javanicus 
the nape of the neck and sides of throat are grizzled, in 
kanchil there is a well defined black band from between 
the ears along the nape of the neck) and round the throat 
of a shining black , only interrupted by the well known 
white throat-bands. In napu and stanleyanus there are five, 
in javanicus and kanchil three white throat-bands meeting 
on the chin in a broadly developed white spot; in our 
melanistic specimens however the chin is bald, the bands 
along the sides of the chin are very small, hardly visible 
and in the Billiton-specimen only represented by a white 
spot on the posterior angle of the lower jaw. The three 
other white streaks are very small and meet together in 
the Banka-specimen , meanwhile in the Billiton-specimen 
only the central streak is complete and of the two side- 
streaks only the posterior half slightly is present. Belly 
like in kanchil with a very well developed dark brown co- 
lored line along its middle. 

Notes from the Lieyden JMuseum , Vol. XIII. 



OK MAMMALS FROM BILLITON. 209 

We possess a true Tragulus kanchil and a true Tragulus 
napu both collected too in Banka by Mr. Teysmann, and 
if kidang has the same signification as kanchil then Tra- 
gulus napu and kanchil may be reckoned to live both in 
Banka and Billiton , being napu in the latter locality re- 
presented by a peculiar melanistic variety. 

Cercocebus cynamolgos Schreber. 

Observed in Billiton by Dr. Vorderman and known by 
the indigenous under the name Kralt , exactly like in Deli , 
Sumatra (cf. Dr. Hagen's book above mentioned , p. 80). 

Semnopithecus maurus Schreber. 

In Dr. Vorderman's collections from Billiton is an albino- 
variety of this species. He wrote me that a colony of this 
variety is living in the neighborhood of Gantoeng, East Bil- 
liton , where he however could not procure a specimen , 
but that the individual he sent to me had been presented 
to his wife by one of his friends and that it died shortly 
after its being in her possession. 

It is called lutong or loetong by the indigenous , exactly 
like in Sumatra. 

I demonstrated in 1889 , Notes from the Leyden Mu- 
seum, p. 217, that S. pruinosus Desmarest is a mere va- 
riety of S. maurus Schreber. 

In conclusion the following Mammals are stated to inhabit 
the island of Billiton : 
Semnopithecus maurus (albino- Cervulus muntjac. 

variety). Tragulus napu (melanistic 

Cercocebus cynamolgos variety). 

Tarsius spectrum. Tragulus kanchil (?). 

Sciuropterus vordermanni. Tupaja javanica. 

Sciurus albiceps. Rhinolophus trifoliatus. 

» soricinus. Vesperugo vordermanni, 

» notatus. Vespertilio muricola. 

» prevostii (introduced). Emballonura semicaudata. 



Notes from the Lieydeu Museum, Vol. XIII. 

14 



210 BIRDS FROM FLO RES , SAMAO AND TIMOR. 



NOTE XXXII. 

ON A COLLECTION OF BIRDS FROM FLORES 
SAMAO AND TIMOR 



J, BUTTIKOPER. 



Last month the Leydeu Museum received a small num- 
ber of birds, presented by Dr. H. ten Kate, who had 
collected them during his recent voyage through the above 
mentioned islands. Though most of the 29 species are already 
mentioned in the list given by Wallace, P. Z. S. 1863, 
p. 484, I do not hesitate to give an enumeration of ten 
Kate's collection , the more as it has given me the chance 
of describing a new species of Tropidorhynchus , years ago 
discovered by Forsten and sent over since by Mr. van 
Lansberge, Prof. Max Weber and now contained in ten 
Kate's recent collection. 



1. Collocalia spec. ? 
Two nestlings from Samao. 

2. Merops ornatus , Lath. 
One specimen from Samao. 

3. Anthus rufulus , Vieill. 
Anthus medius, Wall. T. Z. S. 1863, p. 488. 

One specimen from Samao. 

Notes from the Lieyden ]Musen.ua, Vol. ^CIII. 



BIRDS FROM FLORES, SAMAO AND TIMOR. 211 

4. Pratincola caprata (L.)- 

Adult male and female from Kupang (Timor), and an 
adult male from Samao. 

5. Oreicola melanoleuca (Vieill.). 

Adult male and female from Samao and Kupang (Timor). 
A third specimen, with the plumage of the female but 
the tail as in the adult male (from Samao), seems to be 
a young male in transitional stage of plumage. 

There is much difference in the distribution of white in 
this species, though hardly sufiScient to base different species 
upon. Amongst the 15 specimens now in the collections 
of the Leyden Museum , there are three in which the white 
superciliary stripe is absolutely wanting , while the fourth 
shows some very slight traces of them. This form considered 
to be a species, would have to bear the name of 0. luc- 
tuosa (Bp. Consp. I , p. 304). The base of the four outer 
pairs of tail-feathers is white in this form , the white occu- 
pying one basal third in the outermost pair and increasing 
in extent on the next pairs , the two basal thirds of the 
fourth pair being white. 

The other form , with a distinct white superciliary stripe , 
might again be divided into a form with the white base 
of the tail-feathers like in the above mentioned form [the 
typical specimens of 0. melanoleuca (Bp.)], and another with 
only the extreme base of the tail-feathers white. 

There is no noticeable difference in size between the three 
mentioned forms, and all three seem to be spread over 
one and the same area. Of the three birds sent by Dr. 
ten Kate, all three with a well-pronounced superciliary 
stripe, the adult male would belong to the third group, 
with only the extreme base of the four outermost pairs 
of tail-feathers white, while the not fully adult male, with 
the fourth pair of tail-feathers white at about half its length, 
seems to be intermediate between the second and third 
group. 

J^otes from the Leyden IMuseutn, Vol. X.11I. 



212 BIRDS FROM FLORAS, SAMAO AND TIMOR. 

6. Siphia hyacinthina (Temm.). 

An adult female from Kupang (Timor) and another from 
Samao. 

7. Rhipidura rujiventris (Vieill.). 
Two specimens from Kupang (Timor). 

8. Piezorhynchus trivirgaius (Temm.). 
An adult specimen from Kupang (Timor), 

9. Monarcha inornata (Gam.). 
One specimen from Kupang (Timor). 

10. Artamus leucogaster (Val.). 

One specimen from Kupang (Timor) and another from 
Endeh (Flores). 

11. Artamus perspicillatus , Bp. 
One specimen from Samao. 

12. Lalage timoriensis (S. Mull.). 

An adult male from Kupang (Timor). 

13. Pachycephala orphea^ Jard. 

Three specimens from Kupang (Timor). 

14. Corvus macrorhynchus , Wagl. 

An immature specimen with the lower mandible white 
at the base, from Kupang (Timor). 

15. Tropidorhynchus timoriensis , S. Mull. 

An adult male with the characteristical white lateral 
edging of the crown , from Kupang (Timor). 

^otes from the Leyden Museum, "Vol. X^III. 



BIRDS FROM FLORES , SAMAO AND TIMOR. 213 

16. Tropidorhynchus neglectus , n. sp. 

Tropidorkynchus timoriensis , Wall, (part.) P. Z. S. 1863, p. 48t3. 
Philemon timoriensis , Gadow (part.), Cat. Birds Br. Mus. Vol. IX. 
p. 273; — Guillemard, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 509 (ex Sumbawa). 

Similar to T. timoriensis , but the silvery whitish edge 
along each side of the crown, thoroughly mentioned by 
S. Muller in his original description of the latter species, 
entirely wanting. 

General color above brownish gray, underneath paler, 
centre of abdomen and under tail-coverts almost white, 
crown somewhat more fulvous than the back , not flanked 
with white, the feathers of the hind neck in adult birds 
like the crown or but little lighter, only in immature spe- 
cimens forming a more or less silvery white collar. Tail 
like upper surface, tipped with white. Front and whole 
sides of head except the ear-coverts bare , the latter very 
dark brown, nearly black, chin and throat silvery white, 
with black shaft-streaks on each feather, feathers on lower 
throat and chest similar in color and lanceolate. Bill , well- 
developed knob on the culmen , naked parts of the head , 
and feet black. 

Measurements like in T. timoriensis : wing 13,6 — 15 cm.; 
tail 1,2 — 1,5 cm.; tarsus 3,8 cm., bill from behind the hump 
to the tip 4,2 — 4,5 cm. 

Hab. Lombok (probably) , Plores , Sumbawa , where it 
represents T. timoriensis^ which latter inhabits Timor and 
Wetter. 

Already some years ago , when looking through a col- 
lection of birds we had received from Mr. van Lansberge, and 
amongst which was a Tropidorhynchus, I was struck by 
the want of the silvery stripe which flanks the crown in 
T. timoriensis , and found that another specimen in the 
Leyden Museum , collected by Forsten at Bima (Sumbawa), 
and a third , collected by Semmelink at Larantuka (Flores), 
differed in the same way from our Timor-specimens , where- 
fore I gave these specimens the manuscript name T. neglectus. 

Notes from the T^eyden IMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



214 BIRDS FROM FLORES , SAMAO AND TIMOR. 

Since that time we received three other specimens of this 
long overlooked species from Prof. Max Weber, who col- 
lected them at Maumeri and Reo on the South Coast of 
Flores ; and two specimens from Endeh , also South Coast 
of Flores , which are contained in Dr. ten Kate's present 
collection , prove to belong to the same species, while a third, 
collected at Kupang (Timor), has the silvery edgings to the 
crown which are particular to T. timoriensis. 

The specimen from Sumbawa, presented by Mr. van 
Lausberge, is not fully adult. The knob on the culmen 
is feebly developed, the whitish collar on the hind neck 
very conspicuous , throat and chest are not as white as 
in the adult , but strongly tinged with olive brown , and 
the feathers on the back show conspicuous terminal white 
edgings. 

17. Ptilotis limhata (S. Mull.). 
One specimen from Kupang (Timor). 

18. Ptilotis reticulata (Temm.). 
Three specimens from Kupang (Timor). 

19. Myzomela vulnerata (S. Mull.). 

An adult female from Kupang (Timor). 

20. Zosterops citrinêlla? Bp. 

Two specimens from Kupang and two from Amarassi 
(Timor). All four specimens differ from our typical Z. ci- 
trinêlla in being much paler. The upper surface is olive 
green with a very strong grayish tinge , the lower silvery 
gray instead of isabelline. The yellow on the front does 
not extend over the upper surface of the head, this latter 
being of the same color as the back , and the yellow on the 
throat is not spread over the upper breast. These diflFe- 
rences would be sufficient to base a new species upon , but 

!Notes from, the ILieyden JVIuseuEu., "Vol. X.III. 



BIRDS FROM FLORES , SAMAO AND TIMOR. 245 

the birds having been preserved in spirits, it woukl be 
rather venturous to do so , as they might have been bleached 
in the liquor. 

21. Zosterops mnlleri (Hartl.). 
One specimen from Kupang (Timor). 

22. Dicaeum mackloti, Mull. & Schl. 
A male and two females from Kupang (Timor). 
23. Cinnyris pectoralis (Horsf.). 

An adult female, from Samao. This species has not yet 
been recorded from Timor. 

24. Cinnyris Solaris (Temm.). 

An adult male from Kupang (Timor). 

25. Munia quinticolor (VieilL). 

One specimen from Kupang and three from Amarassi 
(Timor). 

26. Munia fuscata (Vieill.j. 

Three adult specimens from Kupang and tvs^o from Ama- 
rassi (Timor). 

27. Taeniopygia insularis (Wall.). 

Two specimens (cf, 9) from Kupang (Timor), and five 
(2 (ƒ , 3 9) from Samao. This species is , moreover , repre- 
sented in the Leyden Museum by specimens from Sumbawa, 
Letti and Kisser. 

28. Charadrius geoffroyi, Wagl. 

Charadrius leschenauUi , Wall. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 487. 

Adult male and female , both from Kupang (Timor). The 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII, 



216 BIRDS FROM FLORLS, SAMAO AND TIMOR. 

'male with the red on head and collar not fully developed ; 
the female shows no trace of red at all. 

29. Parr a gallinacea, Temm. 

Parra crisUUa , Schl. (nee Vieill.) Mns. P.-B. Ralli , p. 68; id. 
Dierentuin, p. 265 (cum fig.). 

An adult specimen from Kupang (Timor), which fully 
agrees with our specimens from Celebes. This species has 
not been recorded from Timor before, and the locality 
»Java" mentioned for it in Gray's »Handlist" seems to be 
very doubtful. 

Leyden Museum, August 1891. 



Notes from the Leyden JMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



LEPUS NETSCIIERr. 217 



NOTE XXXIII. 

ON LEPUS NETSCHERI SCHLEGEL, EELIS MEGA- 
LOTIS MULLER AND ANOA SANTENG DUBOIS 



Dr. F. A. JENTINK. 

August 1891. 



Lepus netscheri SchlegeL 

The type-specimen of this species described by me in 
the Notes from the Leyden Museum, 1880, p. 62, has 
been figured on plate 1 of the work entitled: » Bijdragen 
tot de kennis der Fauna van Midden-Sumatra, 1887". 
Although there is no reason to suppose that it is a very 
rare species , it nevertheless si a fact that it very seldom 
has been observed. 

Mr. P. J. van Houten, formerley at Padang, related 
(see Fauna van Midden -Sumatra , p. 23) that he was told 
that there has been seen a Hare in a coff'eeplantation in 
the neighborhood of Padang. 

In March 1887 Mr. J. L. Weyers at Païnan, West 
Sumatra, wrote to Mr. C. Ritsema Cz., the well known 
Entomologist in the Leyden Museum , about Lepus netscheri 
as follows : 

»En décembre 1881 Mr. I, A. Harten, Directeur-gérant 
de la mine de Salida, qui occupe encore actuellement les 
mêmes fonctions , se trouvait avec le mecanicien de la mine 
sur les bords de la bale de Païnan , surveillant le débarque- 
ment d'une machine , a peu de distance du promontoire 
situe a la partie septentrionale de cette baie et qui fait 
face a deux petites iles, nommees Poeloe tjinko besaar et 

Notes from the Lieyden Museum , Vol. XIII. 



218 LF.PUS NETSCHERt. 

Poeloe tjiuko ketjil. Soa attentiou fut attirée par un 
group d'indigèues eutouraut uu petit animal mort, qu'ils 
semblaient examiner avec curiosité et étonnement; il s'ap- 
procha a son tour pour examiner eet animal et fut fort 
étonné de constater que c'était un lièvre ; e'était Ie pre- 
mier animal de ee genre qu'il voyait depuis son arrivée 
aux Indes qui datait de plusieurs années déja. Il demanda 
naturellement quelques reuseignements aux indigenes; 
ceux-ci lui répondirent qu'ils ne connaissaient pas eet 
animal et que c'était la première fois qu'ils en voyaient 
un specimen. Mr. Harten , n'étant pas naturaliste , n'atta- 
cha pas une grande importance a ce fait et ne s'en pré- 
occupa plus; mais, lui ayant montré dernièrement la 
planche qui représente Ie Lepus netscheri dans l'ouvrage 
de l'expédition de Midden-Sumatra , que l'on m'avait com- 
muniqué, il reconnut immédiatement l'animal a ses oreil- 
les relativement courtes pour Ie genre et aux particularités 
si remarquables de son pelage. 

Des faits cités dans l'ouvrage de l'Expédition de Midden- 
Sumatra et de celui que je communique, il résulte évidemment 
que Ie Lepus netscheri est une espèce excessivement rare, 
du moins dans la partie de Sumatra oü on l'a rencontre 
jusqu'ici , tres accidentellement sans doute ; il est non moins 
évident qu'il est confine a cette grande ile oü il forme 
une espèce bien spéciale et distincte. — Le fait que eet 
animal est totalement inconnu aux indigenes de cette partie 
de Sumatra, semblerait démontrer que les rares specimens 
rencontres jusqu'ici, l'ont été tout a fait accidentellement 
et que ce n'est pas la que se trouve sa veritable localisa- 
tion. Si nous raisonnons par analogie, en prenant en con- 
sideration les habitudes et le genre de vie des espèces du 
genre Lepus, nous voyons qu'elles habitent les contrées 
tempérées et même septentrionales de notre globe ; nous 
serons done tentés de supposer qu'on pourra s'attendre a 
rencontrer le Lepus netscheri sur les hauts plateaux ou 
les hautes montagnes de Tintérieur, et que c'est bien la 
son veritable habitat. 

Notes from the Leydeii Museum , Vol. XIII. 



LEPUS NKTSCHERr. 219 

Peut-être est ce bien la Ie cas et peut-être aussi nous 
trouvons-nous en presence d'un de ces cas de localisation 
tres restreinte et assez étrangement exceptionnelle , comme 
on en rencontre assez souvent en entomologie, mais qui 
sont beaucoup plus rares pour les mammifères. Les rares 
naturalistes qui ont parcouru l'intérieur de Sumatra ont 
peut-être passé quelquefois pres du Lepus netscheri sans 
s'en douter." 

I am very indebted to Mr. Ritsema for the kind per- 
mission to publish the foregoing letter , which v^ill interest 
naturalists, the more as I can hereafter add an extract 
from a letter received on June 23 last and written by 
Mr. J, C. van Hasselt, Controller at Solok, Sumatra. Mr. 
van Hasselt writes: »I possess a female specimen of Lepus 
netscheri described in the Notes from the Leyden Museum , 
1880. I procured the animal when alive: after its dead I 
put it in spirits." Although some observations about the 
living animal would have been very welcome , these short 
lines suffice to convince us that a second specimen of 
Lepus netscheri has now been secured, and I express the 
hope that we will have it in Leyden at a not very 
remote date. 

Felis megalotis S. Muller. 

Again a very rare species, only known from the type- 
specimen in the Leyden Museum, described in the work 
entitled: » Verhandelingen over de Natuurlijke Geschiede- 
nis der Nederlandsche Overzeesche Bezittingen, Zoölogie, 
p. 54, 1839 — 44." — I am not aware that any travel- 
ler or naturalist has seen the species or has brought over 
a specimen. The type is a not adult specimen from Timor. 

Giebel (Die Saugethiere, 1855) remarked: »vielleicht 
ist Miiller's Felis megalotis von Timor nur eine blosse 
Varietat von Felis minuta Temminck." 

Blyth (P. Z. S. L. 1863, p. 186) said: ^> Felis megalotis 
Temminck. Hab. Timor, (uon vidimus)." 

Notes Ironi the Leyden Museum, Vol. Xlil. 



220 FEMS MEGALOTIS. 

Dr. Gray has euregistered it iu his Catalogue of' Car- 
nivorous, 1869, p. 33 and in P. Z. S. L. 1867, p. 275, in the 
following short terms: »Hab. Timor. Not seen by me." 

Dr. Mivart has given a translation of Müller's original 
description (see: The Cat, an introduction to the study 
of Backboned Animals, 1881, p. 417). Dr. Mivart however 
failed to give Timor as certain locality: perhaps Mivart 
did so because some time before Mr. Elliot had given no 
credit to that locality and because Wallace (the geographi- 
cal distribution of Animals, 1876, Vol. I, p. 422) too 
was of Elliot's opinion , for he wrote : » the Felis tnegalotis^ 
long supposed to be a native of Timor, has been ascer- 
tained by Mr. Elliot to belong to a different country al- 
together." 

The other day I received a collection of animals col- 
lected by Dr. H. ten Kate in Timor, and among other 
mammals he sent over a nearly full-grown male-specimen 
of Felis megalotis in spirits, with the request to expedite 
it to Dr. Max Weber in Amsterdam. Dr. ten Kate wrote 
to me that it seems to be a very rare animal , and that 
the Timorese call it meo-foeik {meo == cat and foeik =: 
wild) , the Malay poes-oetan (poes =: cat and oetan = 
wood). 

I think that now a second specimen from the same 
island has been brought over, nobody will doubt whether 
Felis megalotis really is a Felis-s-pecies from Timor. 

Anoa santeng Dubois. 

Under this name I exhibit a problematic mammal dis- 
cussed by a friend of mine, who at present is in Java, 
Kediri Residency , excavating and studying fossils. I should 
not have fixed the attention of naturalists upon this mam- 
mal , were it not that my friend , Dr. Dubois himself has 
spoken about it — although in very short terms — in 
the Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Iudië , 1891, 
Deel LI, Afl. I, p. 96. He relates there »that among 

Notes from the Leyden ÜMuseum , "Vol. XIII. 



ANOA SANTENG. 221 

5> other fossils he found bones of an ^noa, which should have 
» attained the size of a goat, and probably will turn out 
»to be no other dwarf-buffalo than the small santeng , 
» whereof the Javanese talk , and which differs from all 
» other known living and fossil species." 

Now everyone will be very anxious to hear more con- 
cerning the santeng and therefore I will reproduce what 
Dr. Dubois wrote to me: »I found small horn-cores, 
measuring ±10 cm., which I at first regarded as belonging 
to a Capra-species ; having however now found rather 
large parts of frontlets with the same mentioned horn- 
cores attached to it, it seems to me that they are im- 
planted like in the typical bovine-skulls. The fore-head is 
about half as broad as the same part in a middle sized 
karbouw. The animal attained , I think , the size of a ffoat. 
Now I recollect having been told by several Javanese of 
a very small species of banteng — and again inquiring 
some old men assured me that they had see7i the animal. 
A Wedono drew the head with the horns , whereby it 
struck me that he was not brought to confusion by my remark 
that the horns were bent downward , he drew the horns 
upward and said that the color of the animal is black , 
excepting the legs which are white: size somewhat larger 
than kanchil. Highly interesting is that all the reports 
agree in the main points , f. i. as to the form of the 
horns, generally described as that of the fruit of a lom- 
bok (red pepper) — and that they accord , as far as it 
seems to me , with the fossil form. I think the small size 
ascribed to the animal to be a common exaggeration , like 
all relating originating from a not fresh source. This pa- 
radoxical animal generally is known under the name san- 
teng and I therefore think to do homage to the Javan 
mind to natural history in calling the fossil animal later 
on Anoa santeng. The form of horns and of molars and 
its size make it namely very probable that it belongs 
truly to the same genus as the Celebiau species." 

So far Dr. Dubois. Although it may be that he is quite 

Notes from the Leyden IMuseutn, Vol. XIII. 



222 ANOA SANTENG. 

right as to his new fossil , before having seen its skin , 
skull and horns I cannot believe that in Java an animal 
of such a rather large size still should be living, for I 
am of the opinion of Wallace who expressed his view 
about unknown mammals in Java as follows: »we should 
be almost as likely to find new species of (large) mam- 
mals in Central Europe as in Java." 



Notes from the Leyden IMuseum , "Vol. Xlll. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE llELOTA-SPECIES. 223 



NOTE XXXIV. 



SYNOPSIS AND ALPHABETICAL LIST 

OF THE DESCRIBED SPECIES OF THE COLEOPTEROUS 

GENUS HELOTA McL. 



C. RITSEMA Cz. 



Synopsis of Species.') 

I. Base of elytra coloured as apex. 
A. Elytra with four convex flavous spots. 
a. Pronotum rugose, with raised patches. 
X. Elytra regularly punctate-striate all over. 
X . Upper surface bright ruetallic green , 
flavous elytral spots large. 
*. Apical half of antennae pitchy black; 
narrowed front-portion of head finely 

punctured Vigorsii. ^) 

**. Antennae entirely pale fulvous; nar- 
rowed front-portion of head strongly 

punctured scintillans. 

X X . Upper surface coppery red or dark 
bronze, flavous elytral spots small, 
f . Upper surface and elytral epipleurae 
bronze coloured. 
#. Sides of pro thorax reddish testaceous, Feae. 
#*. „ „ „ coloured as the disc. Vandepolli. 

ff. Upper surface and elytral epipleurae 
coppery red. 



1) For a summary of the principal divisions with reference to the pages, see p. 232. 

2) As to the aullior-n;imes I refer to the alphahetical list of species. 

.Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. X^III. 



224 SYNOPSIS OF THE HELOT A-SPECIES. 

«. Lateral streaks of prouotura irregu- 
larly confluently punctured , leaving 
some smooth interspaces, — cf . Api- 
ces of elytra conjointly rounded, with 
a spine at the suture. — 9- Apices 
of elytra not or slightly prolonged. 
3. cf. Anterior tibiae with a small com- 
pressed dilatation a little before the 
apex of the inner margin or without 
it. — 9* Apices of elytra slightly 
prolonged, last ventral segment roun- 
ded posteriorly. 
» . cf . Anterior tibiae with a small di- 
latation, hindlegs of normal length, 
— 9- Apices of elytra dehiscent. Sermllei. 
»». cf. Anterior tibiae without dilata- 
tion, hindlegs very slender and elon- 
gate. — 9. Apices of elytra not 

dehiscent longipes. 

5j. cT. Anterior tibiae with a very con- 
spicuous compressed dilatation at the 
end of the inner margin. — 9- Api- 
ces of elytra conjointly rounded , 
last ventral segment broadly trun- 
cate posteriorly Fairmairei. 

••. Lateral streaks of pronotum regularly 
densely punctured , without smooth 
interspaces. — cT- Apices of elytra 
faintly bidentate near the suture (about 
as in Vigorsii). — 9- Apices of ely- 
tra acutely prolonged, last ventral seg- 
ment truncate in a bisiuuate manner. Oberthüri. 
(3. Elytra punctured in rows near the suture , 
the remaining portion irregularly punc- 
tured; flavous elytral spots small. 
§. Space between the suture and the line 
which unites the centres of the flavous 

Notes irom tlie Lieyden IMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE HKLOTA-SPECIES. 225 

spots provided with four rather regular 
rows of punctures. 
*. Outer half of elytra more or less punctu- 
red in rows , its sculpture not strongly 
contrasting with that of the inner half. 
Abdomen dark coloured in the middle, 
the margins rufous. — (ƒ. Last ven- 
tral segment without tomentose im- 
pression , its apical margin faintly tri- 
sinuate. — Q. Last ventral segment 

triangular with rounded tip Kolbei. 

**. Outer half of elytra rugose in conse- 
quence of the extremely dense punctu- 
ation, its sculpture therefore strongly 
contrasting with that of the inner 
half. Abdomen rufous. — (ƒ . Last ven- 
tral segment with a tomentose impres- 
sion. — 9- Last ventral segment 
strongly transverse. 
». 3""'^ and 5*^'' interstices (the sutural one 
reckoned as the P*) continuous, here 
and there with a large puncture. — 
cT. Anterior tibiae with a compressed 
dilatation at the end of the inner 
margin. — 9- Apices of elytra point- 
ed, last ventral segment with an im- 
pression at the apex gemmata. 

»». 3^*^ and 5^'' interstices divided by the 
often coalescing bordering striae into 
detached ovate portions. — cf. An- 
terior tibiae without dilatation at the 
end of the inner margin. — 9. Api- 
ces of elytra separately rounded , last 
ventral segment without impression 

at the apex fulviventris. 

§§, The two innermost striae only rather 
regular. 

Notes Ironi the JLieydeii Museum, Vol. XIII. 

15* 



226 SYNOPSIS OF THE HELOTA-SPECIES. 

0. Raised thoracical patches impunctate 
or nearly so. (Large or moderately 
large species : IS^g mm. — 1 2^1-, mm.). 
a. 9' Apices of elytra rather bluntly 
prolonged; last ventral segment as 
long as the 3''^ and 4*^'' taken toge- 
ther. — cf. Middle of metasternum 
with a tomentose spot, sutural spine 

very distinct Gorhami. 

Si. 9- Apices of elytra very acutely pro- 
longed; last ventral segment deci- 
dedly shorter than the S'"' and 4''' 
taken together. — ((ƒ unknown), caudata. 
0©. Raised thoracical patches punctured. 
(Smaller species : 8^2 mm. — 9 ^/^ mm.). 
X. Sides of prothorax finely creuulate 
(each with 12 — 14 crenulations) ; 
under surface and legs dark pitchy 

brown sinensis. 

X X . Sides of prothorax coarsely creuu- 
late (each with 8 or 9 crenulations) ; 
middle of sterna and the abdomen 
pale fulvous; femora pale fulvous 
with green tips , tibiae and tarsi 
alternately pitchy and pale fulvous, thibetana. 
b. Pronotum more finely and evenly punctu- 
red, without raised patches. 
a. Prosternum entirely fulvous. 
X. Legs partly fulvous, partly metallic 
green. 
•}•. Tips of femora and the tibiae metal- 
lic green. 
*. Anterior and posterior elytral spots 
situated between the same striae , 
viz. between the 3''^ and 7"' .... Gmrinii. 
**. Anterior and posterior elytral spots 
situated between difierent striae. 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE HELOTA-SPECIES. 227 

. Anterior spots between the 4^'' and 
C', the posterior ones between the 

3'''' and 6*'' striae curvipes. 

35. Anterior spots between the 4*'' and 
7*'', the posterior ones between the 

3''^ and 7*'' striae ocellata. 

3Ï3. Anterior spots between the 4*'" and 
7*'', the posterior ones between the 
3"' and 6*'' striae. 
». Outer margin of elytra entire. . . Dohertyi. 
» » . Apical third of outer margin of ely- 
tra serrulate serratipennis. 

ff. Tips of femora metallic green; tibiae 

pitchy, marked with brow-n-red on the 

apical half; the spots on the elytra 

between the 3"' and 6^'^ striae .... rotundata. 

XX. Legs fulvous, without metallic green, 

and, especially in the cf , very slender 

and elongate laevigata. 

(3. Prosternum fulvous in the middle , lateral 

portions metallic green, 

§. Tibiae entirely metallic green, 

*-. Shape narrow (long. 7^/3 — 8V2 mm. ; 

lat. 2V.i — 2V2 mm.); coppery bronze; 

anterior elytral spots between the 4*'' 

and C*'', the posterior ones between the 

S^^ and 6'-'' striae cereopunc- 

**. Shape broader (long. 8 mm.; lat. 3 mm.); [tata. 

bronze green ; elytral spots between the 

3"^ and 6^^ striae brevis. 

§§. Tibiae metallic green at the base, the 
rest fulvous. 
0. Anterior and posterior elytral spots 
between the same striae , viz. between 
the 3^'' and 7*''. 

X. Prothorax quadrate Gestroi. 

XX. •» narrowed to the front (trapezoidal). 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



228 SYNOPSIS OF THE HELOTA-SPECIES. 

i. Length uot quite 7 mm notata. 

Qv c\ \ Boysii. (cf ). 

S3. » 8')^ — 9 mm ] y ' ' 

'~ ldubia.(Q). 

00. Anterior and posterior elytral spots 

betw^een different striae. 

*. Anterior spots between the 4"' and 

1^^, posterior ones between the 3"^ 

and 7'*^ striae pusilla. 

**. Anterior spots between the 3'''^ and 

7"\ posterior ones between the 3"' 

and 8*^'' striae ') culta. 

B. Elytra without flavous spots immaculata. 

II. Base of elytra fulvous, apex metallic green 

or black. 

A. Apical portion of elytra metallic green; 
pronotum entirely fulvous. (Asiatic species). 

a. Flattened lateral margins of elytra narrow, semifulva. 
h. » » » » » broad. 

IX,. Tarsi fulvous fulvitarsis. 

(3. » dark pitchy brown difficilis. 

B. Apical portion of elytra black ; pronotum 
fulvous at the sides , black along the mid- 
dle. (African species). 

a. Elytral interstices flat. 
X. Fulvous basal half of elytra with an elon- 
gate black spot between the 3'''^ and 4"' 

striae africana. 

(3. Fulvous basal half of elytra without black 

spots guineensis. 

h. Elytral interstices alternately costate. . . . costata. 



1) Mr. Sidney Olliff erroneously ascribes eight rows of punctured striae 
to each elytron. Culia however has, like the other species, ten striae on 
each elytron. 

Notes from the Leyden Museum , Vol. XIII. 



alphabetical list of thf helota-species. 229 

Alphabetical List of Species. 

Helota 

Mac L e ay. Annulosa javanica, 1825, p. 42; Ed. 
Lequien, 1833, p. 151. 

africana Olliff. Ann. a... Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) Angola. 

XIII, 1884, p. 479. — Aid Ident. Ins. 

t. 153, ƒ. 3. 
Bojsii Rits. Notes Leyd. Mus. XI, 1889, India. 

p. 189. 
brevis Rits. Notes Leyd. Mus. XIII, 1891, Borneo. 

p. 199. 
candata Rits. Notes Leyd. Mus. XI, 1889, China. 

p. 102. 
cereo-pnnctata Lewis. Ent. Mo. Mag. XVII, Japan. 

1881, p. 255. — Aid Ident. Ins. 1. 133,/. 1. 
costata Rits. Notes Leyd. Mus. XI, 1889, Zanzibar. 

p. 108. 
culta Olliff. Cist. Ent. Ill, 1883, pp. 55 India bor. 

a7id 101; t. 3, /'. 2. 
curvipes berth. Coleopt. Novit. I, 1883, Himalaya. 

p. 60. — Rits. Notes Leyd. Mus. XI, 

1889, p. 105. — id. Ann. Mus. Civ. 

Genova, XXX, 1891, p. 889. 
difflcilig Rits. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, XXX, Burma. 

1891, p. 896. 
Dohertyi Rits. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, XXX, „ 

1891, p. 898. 
dabia Rits. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, XXX, „ 

1891, p. 901. 
Fairmairei Rits. Notes Leyd. Mus. XI, 1889, Sikkim. 

p. 101. 
Feae Rits. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova^ XXX, Burma. 

1891, p. 886. 
falTitarsis Rits. Notes Leyd. Mus. XI, 1889, Darjeeling. 

p. 107. 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



230 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE HELOTA-SPKCIES. 



falTivenlris Kol be. Arch.f.Naturgesch.LlI,i, 

1886, p. 182; t. 11, /. 25. — Rits. iVo- 

tes Leyd. Mus. XI, 1889, p. 104, 
gemmata G o r h. Trans. Ent. Soc. London^ 1874, 

p. 448 (pars) '). — Reitter. Verkandl. 

naiurf. Ver. BrUnn, XIV, 1876, p. 65; 

t, 1, ƒ. 1 — 5, — Harold. Abhandl. na- 

turw. Ver. Bremen, V, 1876, p. 119. — 

Rits. Notes Leyd. Mus. XI, 1889, p. 104.— 

id. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova.^ XXX, 1891, 

p. 888. 
Gestroi Rits. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova , XXX, 

1891, pp. 893 and 900. 
Gorhami Olliff. Cist. Ent. Ill, 1883,jt>^. 53 

and 56, — Kolbe. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 

LII, I, 1886 , p. 181. — Rits. Notes Leyd. 

Mus. XI, 1889, p. 102. 
Guerinii Hope. Coleopt. Manual, III, 1840, 

p. 188, — Olliff. Cist. Ent. HI, 1883, 

pp. 54, 56 and 100 (without synonyms); 

t. d, f. 1. — Rits. Notes Leyd. Mus. XI, 

1889, p. 105. 
gnineensis Rits. Azotes Leyd. Mus. XI, 1889, 

p. 108. 
immacnlata Rits. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 'KX.IL, 

1891, p. 895. 
Kolbei Rits, Notes Leyd. Mus. XI, 1889, 

p. 103. — id. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 

XXX, 1891, p. 889. 
lacTigata berth. Coleopt. Novit. I, 1883, 

p, 59. — Olliff. Cist. Ent. Ill, 1884, 

p. 100. — Aid Ident. Ins. t. 144, /. 1. 



Korea. 



Japan 



Burma. 
China, 

Travancore. 



Assinia. 

Burma. 

China. 

Darjeeling. 



1) A very badly drawn figure of this species is published on plate 133 
(fig. 2) of Waterhouse's Aid to the Identification of Insects. — If the larva 
described and figured by Sidney Olliff (Gist. Ent. Ill, p. 52; pi. 3, f. 8) be- 
longs to this or to the foregoing species I cannot say, Mr. Lewis having cap- 
tured both species. 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, "Vol. XIII. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE HELOTA-SPECIES, 



231 



longipes Rits. Notes Leyd. Mus. XI, 1889, Sikkim. 

p. 101. 
uotata Rits. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, XXX, Burma. 

1891, p. 900. 
Oberthiiri Rits. Notes Leyd. Mus. XI, 1889, Darjeeling. 

p. 100. 
ocellata Rits. Notes Leyd. Mus. Ill, 1881, Java. 

p. 79. — id. I. c. XI, 1889, p. 105. 
pasilla berth. Coleopt. Novit. I, 1883, Darjeeliug. 

p. 60. — OUiff. Cist. Ent. Ill, 1884, 

p. 101. — Aid Ident. Lis. t. 144, /. 2. 
rotnndata Rits. An7i. Mus. Civ. Genova., XXX, Burma. 

1891, p. 891. 
scintillans Olliff. Cist. Ent. Ill, 1884, jo. 99. Java. 
semifulva Rits. Notes Leyd, Mus. Ill, 1881, „ 

p. 80. — Olliff. Cist. Ent. Ill, 1883, 

p. hi. — Aid Llent. Lis. t. 153, ƒ. 4. 
serratipennis Rits. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoca^ Burma. 

XXX, 1891, p. 890. 
Servillei Hope. Coleopt. Manual, III, 1840, Poouah. 

p. 187; «. 3, ƒ. 4. — Rits. Notes Leyd. 

Mus. XI, 1889, p. 100. 
sinensis Olliff. Cist. Ent. Ill, 1883, p. 54; China. 

«.3, /. 3. 
thibetana Westw. Ann. a. Mag. Nat. Hist. Simlah. 

VIII, 1842, p. 123 '). — Rits. Stett. 

Ent. Zeit. 1876, p. 19. — Olliff. Cist. 

Ent. Ill, 1883, pp. 54 and 56. — Rits. 

Notes Leyd. Mus. XI, 1889, p. 110. 
Mellii Westw. Cah. Orient. Ent. 1848, 

p. 86; t. 41, ƒ. 8. — Rits. Notes Leyd. 

Mus. XI, 1889, p. 110. 
Yandepolli Rits. Notes Leyd. Mus. 'Kill, 1891, Borneo. 

p. 197. 



1) Published in October 1841. 

Notes irom th.e Leyden Museum, Vol. X^III. 



232 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE HELOTA-SPECIES. 

Vigorsii Mac L. Annul. Javan. 1825, p. 43; Java. 
t. 1, ƒ. 9; Ed. Lequien, 1833, p. 152; 
t. .5, ƒ. 4. — Genera des Coléopt. Atlas, 
t. 131, ƒ. 2. 
war. Rits, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, XXX, Labiian. 
1891, p. 885. — id. Notes Leyd. Mus. 
XIII, 1891, p. 197, note. 

Summary of the principal Divisions, 

WITH reference TO THE PAGES. 

p. 223. I. Base of elytra coloured as apex. 

A. Elytra with four convex flavous spots. 
a. Pronotum rugose, with raised patches. 
X. Elytra very regularly punctate striate all over. 
p. 224. /3. Elytra punctured in rows near the suture, 

the remaining portion irregularly punctured. 
p. 226. 6. Pronotum more finely and evenly punctured, 
without raised patches. 
X. Prosternum entirely fulvous. 
p. 227. /3. Prosternum fulvous in the middle , lateral 

portions metallic green. 
p. 228. B. Elytra without flavous spots. 

II. Base of elytra fulvous, apex metallic green 
or black. 

A. Apical portion of elytra metallic green; pro- 
notum entirely fulvous. (Asiatic species). 

B. Apical portion of elytra black ; pronotum ful- 
vous at the sides, black along the middle. 
(African species). 

Leyden Museum, August 1891. 



JS'otes from the Leydeii M.useuixi , Vol. XIII. 



CyCLOMMATUS PASTEURI. 233 



NOTE XXXV. 

TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE LUCANOID GENUS 
CYCLOMMATUS, PARRY 

UESCUIBED BY 

C. RITSEMA Cz. 



Cy c lorn mat us P asteuri , n. sp. cf. 
(Plate 10, % 1). 

This magnificent species, the most robust one known up 
to this day, may easily be recognized by the shape of the 
strongly porrected clypeus and by the tooth on the outer 
margin of the under surface of the mandibles near to the 
base. 

Length 54 mm., breadth at the shoulders 14 mm. — 
The colour of the insect is bronze green with faint coppery 
tinges , the elytra and upper side of the femora pale yel- 
lowish brown with a metallic green and coppery hue; the 
teeth of the mandibles glossy black , and the palpi and 
antennae dark pitchy brown; the thickened outer margin 
of the elytra and the elytral epipleurae are metallic green, 
the sutural margins narrowly edged with pitchy brown. 

The whole insect is sparsely covered with elongate hair- 
like white scales which on the elytra are only present along 
the basal and lateral margins and on the epipleurae ; on 
the legs and abdomen these scales are very small, on the 
tarsi they are wanting ; the under surface of the tarsi and 
of the tibiae and the tip of the mentum are clothed with 
golden ferruginous hairs. 

The mandibles are broadest at the base and strongly 
curved downwards in their apical half; their outer margin 

Notes from tlie I-ieyden IMuseum, Vol. XIII. 

15** 



234 CYCLOMMATUS ÜASTEURI. 

rather regularly convex , their inner margin armed , a little 
before the base , with a small tooth , and midway between 
this and the large post-median tooth two very small teeth 
are present, which are accompanied by some inconspicuous 
undulations of the margin ; the ante-apical tooth is strong 
and obliquely truncate at the tip , and between it and the 
apex of the mandible are four small teeth. Moreover the 
mandibles are provided on the outer margin of their under 
surface, a little before the base, with a very distinct tooth. 
The mandibles are extremely densely and finely granulated 
and thereby opaque , with the exception , however , of the 
tips of the teeth and the apical portion which are glossy. 

The upper side of the head shows a large semilunar 
flattened depression which does not quite extend to the 
front-margin of the thorax ; laterally this depression is 
bordered by a sharply raised margin , which is continued 
to the sides in front of the eyes; outside of this margin 
the sculpture of the head is very rough in consequence of 
irregularly arranged ridges, the interspaces of which show 
some punctures. In front of the semilunar depression , the 
front-margin of which is bisinuate , the head slopes slowly 
and ends in the middle in a processus which widens out 
at the tip and has the front-margin broadly emarginate 
in the middle. 

The sides of the prothorax are angular about the middle ; 
the front-margin is accompanied by a very regularly con- 
tinued narrow groove , and a shallow impression runs along 
the middle. The sculpture of the prouotum is similar to 
that of the mandibles and of the depressed and declivous 
portion of the head , but coarser , especially at the sides , 
and along the middle the granulations are replaced by 
some large punctures. 

The elytra are subshining in consequence of an extremely 
fine sculpture which is somewhat coarser at the extreme 
base and is wanting along the suture where a few small 
but distinct punctures occur. Two faint longitudinal costae 
are present on each elytron. 

Notes from tlie Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



CYCLOMMATüS PASTEURI. 235 

The under surface of the head and the sterna are densely 
and finely granulated , the abdomen and femora shallowly 
punctured , each puncture bearing a narrow white scale. 
The prosternum is keeled along the middle , and the inter- 
coxal part strongly elevated and, posteriorly, compressed. 
The metasternum has, just behind each intermediate coxa , 
an excavation , which excavations are separated by the 
raised anterior portion of the central line. 

The fore-tibiae are straight , not very elongate , and 
without any spine on the outside. 

The described male-specimen , a representative of the 
forma maxima, originates from Padang Sidempoean (Tapa- 
noeli Residency : West Sumatra) and has been offered last 
year to the Leyden Museum , together with other very 
interesting beetles from the same locality , by Mr. J. D. 
Pasteur, whose name I have much pleasure in associating 
with this conspicuous species. 

Cyclommatus eanaliculatus , n. sp. cT, Q. 

Likewise a very interesting species and easily recognizable 
by the very distinct median groove on the pronotum , which 
groove becomes deeper towards the base in consequence 
of the raising margins. Moreover the outer upper margin 
of the mandibles is notched at some distance from the tip 
so as to form here a small tooth. 

Length of a male of the forma maxima 50 mm., 
breadth at the shoulders 1 1 mm. — Dark red-brown , with 
faint tinges of metallic green and purple, the margins of 
the mandibles and of the prothorax, the front-margin of 
the head and the outer margin of the elytra blackish ; the 
antennae and tarsi pitchy black, the upper side of the 
femora pale yellowish brown. 

The whole insect is sparsely (from abrasion ?) covered 
with small ovate dirty grey scales; the tarsi are glabrous 
with the exception of the under surface which is densely 
covered with pale ferruginous hairs. 

Notes froixi the Leyden IVfuseutn, Vol. XIII. 



236 CYCLOMMATUS CANALICULATUS. 

The mandibles are loug , as long as the distance between 
the front-margin of the head and the posterior coxae , their 
outer margin is straight at the basal third, thence slowly 
curved inwards and downwards , their inner margin armed 
at about one third of its length with a strong tooth which 
is slightly directed forward ; between the ante-apical tooth , 
which is obliquely truncate at the tip , and the apex of 
the mandible three small teeth are present. On the apical 
third of the mandibles the outer upper margin rises slowly , 
but opposite the front-margin of the ante-apical tooth this 
raised margin ends suddenly so as to form here a small 
toothlike projection. The mandibles are densely and extre- 
mely finely granulated , sub-opaque , with the exception , 
however, of the apical portion which is glossy. 

The upper side of the head shows a large flattened de- 
pression , which extends as far as the front margin of the 
thorax; laterally the margin of this depression is slightly 
raised and joins the sides of the head in front of the 
eyes ; outside of this depression the head is roughly sculp- 
tured , the sculpture of the depression itself is similar to 
that of the mandibles but somewhat coarser. The front- 
margin of the head between the outer margins of the man- 
dibles is broadly bisinuate, and beneath it the head is deeply 
excavated ; the clypeus is slightly declivous , its front-margin 
bisinuate, the middle lobe slightly upturned. 

The sides of the prothorax have an angular tooth about 
the middle ; the front-margin is accompanied by a groove 
which is interrupted in the middle and widened out towards 
the sides; along the middle a distinct groove is present'), 
which at the base of the thorax becomes deeper in conse- 
quence of the raising margins. The pronotum is very den- 
sely sculptured, and the narrow interspaces are irregularly 
flowing together. 

The elytra are rather densely covered with very distinct 
punctures , very densely however along the base and sides ; 



1) A faint continuation of this groove is to be observed on the base of the head. 
Notes from tlie Leyden JMuseuixi, Vol. Xlll. 



CYCLOMMATUS CANALICULATUS. 237 

each elytron shows two indistinct costae, of which the 
outermost runs along a raised streak ending in the apical 
callus , and moreover a longitudinal impression commencing 
behind and just within the shoulder and obliquely widening 
out towards the suture. 

The sculpture of the under surface is very fine , with a 
few large punctures on the glossy portions of the head. 
The prosternal process is narrow and conically projecting. 
The fore-tibiae are straight and unarmed. 

Length of a male of the forma media 36 mm., breadth 
at the shoulders S^g m"^- — Agreeing with the forma maxima, 
but the colours are brighter and the insect is more densely 
covered with scales. 

The mandibles are shorter, having the length of the 
distance between the front-margin of the head and the 
intermediate coxae ; they are more regularly curved inwards 
along their whole length , and the strong ante-basal tooth is 
replaced , very near to the base , by a broad process which 
is bicuspidate on the left , tricuspidate on the right mandible. 

The front-margin of the head between the outer margins 
of the mandibles is broadly emarginate forming a regularly 
curved line ; at this line the head sinks suddenly down 
towards the clypeus which is declivous and similar in shape 
to that of the forma maxima ; the middle lobe of the front- 
margin , however , is not upturned. 

On the thorax the groove which accompanies the front - 
margin is inconspicuous , and that along the middle less dis- 
tinct, but at the base the raised margins are still observable. 

The longitudinal impressions on the elytra are less dis- 
tinct, and the prosternal process not so strongly projecting. 
The tibiae are likewise unarmed. 

Length of a female IS^/g mm., breadth at the shoulders 
6'/2 mm. — The colour is dark red-brown, the upper side 
of the femora, however, pale yellowish brown, the tarsi, 
antennae , palpi and apical half of mandibles pitchy black. 
The head has a round spot on the centre and another 
behiod each eye blackish with a bronze hue; the central 

Notes from tlie Leyden Museum, Vol. XIll. 



238 CYCLOMMATÜS CANALICÜLATUS. 

one is convex. On the pronotum two stripes, an elongate 
central spot and a spot on the middle of the sides touching 
the margins are bronze black, and these markings are more or 
less united along the margins of the thorax. The scutellum 
and the sutural and lateral margins of the elytra are 
blackish, the latter with a bronze hue, and an indistinct 
iufuscate stripe runs from the shoulders backwards. The 
punctuation is strong , somewhat finer but closer set on the 
elytra than on the head and pronotum. The under surface 
is bronze coloured and , as well as the legs , covered with a 
scale-bearing punctuation. Besides the apical tooth , the fore- 
tibiae have on their outer margin three sharp teeth which 
become larger towards the end of the tibiae; the middle- and 
hind tibiae are armed beyond the middle with a distinct tooth. 

Hah. The island of Nias , West of Sumatra. — The des- 
cribed three specimens were presented to the Leyden Museum 
by Mr. J. D. Pasteur. 

As yet only five species of Lucanidae are known from 
Nias , and these are all-together represented in the Leyden 
Museum , viz. Cyclommatus Maitlandi Parry , Cycloinmatus 
canaliculatus Rits., Odontolahis gracilis Kaup , Odontolabis 
inaequalis Kaup and Eurytrachelm Titan Boisd. 

N.B. Together with Cyclommatus Pasteuri '^Hb. (;^ ^ ^q 
following beetles are represented on plate 10: 

Pig. 2. Lamprophorus nepalensis Gray , bred from the 
larva (fig. 2») by Mr. J. D. Pasteur (see: Tijd- 
schrift voor Entomologie, Vol. XXXIV (1891), 
p. cxiv). 

Fig. 3. Noëmia apicicornis Rits. cf i from East Sumatra 
(Notes Leyden Museum, XII (1890), p. 136). 

Fig. 4. Eurybatus inexspectatus Rits. (ƒ , from East Java 
(Notes Leyden Museum , XII (1890), p. 135). 

Fig. 5. Thermonotus Fasteuri Rits, (ƒ, from Nias (Notes 
Leyden Museum, XII (1890), p. 248). 

Fig. 6, Atossa hipartita Rits. 9, from Borneo (Notes 
Leyden Museum, XII (1890), p. 250). 

Leyden Museum, September 1891. 

Notes from the Lieydeii JVIiiseum, Vol. X.III. 



LOMOTROPA VELLERIALIS. 239 



NOTE XXXVI. 

LOMOTROPA VELLERIALIS, 
NOUVELLE ESPÈCE DE PYRALIDE 

DÉCRITE PAR 

P. C. T. SNELLEN. 



Un male en assez bou état. Envergure 46 mm. — Quoique 
cette espèce, dans Ie seul sexe connu jusqu'ici, se distin- 
gue fortement du male de la costijiexalis Guen. par les 
ailes postérieures plus larges , dont la surface est totalement 
revêtue de poils assez longs et soyeux mais dont Ie bord 
intérieur ne possède pas de ciliation blonde touffue , elle 
est d'ailleurs très-conforme a cette espèce quant aux autres 
caractères génériques. Je renvoie pour ceux-ci au travail 
de feu Lederer, Wien. Ent. Monatschr. VII (1863), et je 
n'hésite pas a placer ma nouvelle espèce dans Ie genre 
Lomotropa. 

Palpes moitié blancs et brun grisatre, ne dépassant pas 
Ie front, comme chez costijiexalis. Vertex brun grisatre, 
finement bordé de blanc. Le collier et Ie thorax sont 
endomraagés, mais le dernier montre encore des traces de 
lignes longitudinales jannes comme cbez l'autre espèce. 
Antennes sétacées , avec une ciliation très-courte et de plus 
sur chaque anneau avec un poil plus long. Ce dernier 
caractère manque chez l'espèce déja connue. 

Ailes antérieures d'un gris-brun bronze , noiratre vers la 
base, marqués de taches blanches comme chez costijiexalis 
mais a contour moins précis , elles ressortent chez cette 
dernière plus distinctement sur le fond gris-violet unicolore. 
Cependaut , chez vellerialis la série de trois taches blan- 

Notes from the Leyden JVIuseuni, "Vol. X.III. 



240 LOMOTROPA VELLERIALIS. 

ches coütigues Ie long du bord terminal manque. Les ailes 
postérieures sont saus dessin ; elles ont pour ornement la 
toison touffue et soyeuse d'un gris de souris mentionnée 
plus haut. Frange grise. 

Dessous des ailes d'un gris clair a léger reflet bronze; 
sur les ailes antérieures on aper9oit les mêmes taches blan- 
ches qu'en dessus mais très-peu distinctes. La moitié basale 
des ailes postérieures est blanche , la seconde est marquee 
d'une bande blanche élargie vers Ie sommet, a partir de 
la nervure 5. 

Abdomen a dos gris, marqué de deux lignes blanches 
interrompues , ventre blanc comme la poitrine et les pattes ; 
tarses de celles-ci légèrement rembruuis , les genoux et les 
tibias autérieurs marqués d'une petite tache brunatre. 

Hab. Hes Obi. — Capture par feu Mr. Bernstein. 
(Musée de Leyde). 

Rotterdam, Septembre 189L 



Notes from tlie Leyden museuua , Vol. Xllt. 



TRICHOMANIS HOEVENII. 



241 



NOTE XXXVII. 
A NEW MAMMAL FROM SUMATRA 

BY 

Dr, A. A. W. HUBRECHT. 



A few years ago a new and interesting mammal, which 
is exceedingly rare , even in its native haunts , was brought 
to the then Resident of Palembang , Mr. A. Pruys van 
der Hoeven. This gentleman who is not only an eager 
sportsman, but also well-versed in natural history, reco- 
gnised it to be new to science and to be more closely 
allied to certain representatives of the Edentata, than to 
any other order of mammals. — The type-specimen was 
held in captivity for several weeks , was fed on ants 
and afterwards on cooked rice and was sent alive to Europe 
in order to be examined , described and ultimately preserved 
in the Royal Museum at Leyden. It unfortunately died on 
board the vessel , on its way to Holland , and by an un- 
accountable blunder on the part of one of those in charge, 
its remains were not preserved , but thrown overboard. 

During my own stay in Sumatra from February till May 
1891 1 took particular trouble to obtain further inform- 
ation concerning this animal and have found the fact of 
its existence — though at the same time of its exceeding 
rarity ! — confirmed in a way which does not allow me 
to doubt that ere long further specimens will be available 
for a thorough examination , also with respect to anatomical 
detail. My own attempts to secure a second specimen have 
as yet not been successful , but as they have turned the 
attentiou of many persons towards this animal I feel bound. 

Notes from the Lieyden IMuseum, Vol. XIII. 

16 



242 TRICIIOMANIS HOEVENII. 

iu deference to the claims to priority of its original disco- 
verer, who has put his preliminary description as well as 
sketches of the animal at my disposal , to introduce this 
peculiar mammal into science, notwithstanding the type-spe- 
cimen has been lost. The generic name has been selected, 
not with a view of indicating any closer anatomical rela- 
tion with the genus Manis , but only to indicate that a 
hairy anteater is meant. 

1 richomanis hoevenii, n. g. et n. sp. 

Animal of the size of a very large cat. Fur 
grey, with a black longitudinal band along 
the middle of the back. Snout elongated and 
conical, with a small mouth at the extremity. A 
long cylindrical tongue, which is thrust out, 
serves the animal in the collecting of ants, 
which are its natural food. A more or less bushy 
tail. Ears not conspicuous. Legs higher than 
those of Manis, strong claws to the feet. 

I have no doubt that this description — however super- 
ficial — is more than sufficient to recognise the animal 
as soon as it will have been reobtained. The type-specimen 
was caught in the mountainous districts that separate the 
Residencies of Palembang and Bencoolen in Sumatra. 

Utrecht, September 7, 1891. 



Notes from the Leyden IVLuseum , Vol. XIII. 



LACON ANGULICOLLIS. 243 



NOTE XXXVIII. 

DESCRIPTION DE NEUF ELATÉRIDES NOUVEAUX 
DU MUSÉE DE LEYDE 



E. CANDEZE. 



L a c o n angulicollis^ n. sp. 

Brunneus , dense fulvo-pilosidus ; prothorace longüudine 
paulo latiore , laterihus basi crenulatis et ante medium angu- 
latim Jlexis , dorso cequali; elytris ante medium dilatatis ^ 
postice attenuatis ^ leviter striato-punctatis ; subtus sulcis 
tarsalibus destitutus. — Long. 8 mill., lat. 2^/^. 

Hab. Java. 

Non loin de litigiosus. Il a pour caractères principaux 
l'absence de sillons tarsaux, runiformité de couleur des 
teguments et de la vestiture , les premiers bruns , la seconde 
fauve, la structure des bords latéraux du prothorax qui 
sont légèrement crénelés en arrière et coudés vers Ie tiers 
antérieur. 

Trois exemplaires ont été trouvés par M. J. D. Pasteur 
dans l'ouest de Java. J'en possède, d'autre part, un grand 
nombre récueillis dans l'est de l'ile. 

La con feralis, n. sp. 

Brunneus, confertissime squamulis minutis fulvescentibus 
obductus ; prothorace subquadrato, paulo convexo, dorso cequali, 
angulis posticis tumidis, apice rotundatis; elytris striatis , 
striis minute punctatis , interstitiis convexis , basi f ere cari- 
natis; subtus sulcis tarsalibus destitutus. — Long. 21 mill., 
lat. 6 mill. 

Hab. Sumatra occidental: Mandeling. 

Notes iroin tUe Leyden Museum , Vol. X!III. 



244 LACON FERALIS. 

L'uue des grandes espèces du genre. Sa vestiture jaunatre 
est assez dense pour caclier la couleur foncière brune des 
teguments. Les flancs du prothorax et du métathorax n'ont 
pas de sillons pour recevoir les tarses au repos; Ie second 
n'en présente que des traces peu pronoucées. Il est encore 
caractérisé par les iutervalles des stries des élytres convexes. 
Sa place est prés du L. discedens. 

Un seul exemplaire présenté par M. Ie Dr. H. J. Veth. 

Anthracalaus Pasten 7' i, n. sp. 

Nigerrimus , nitidissimus , glaber ; antennis articulo quarto 
triangulari , sequentibus sensim angustiorihus ; fronte incequali; 
prothorace latitudine paulo longiore , versus basin coarctato, 
lateribus et antice grosse punctata^ medio parce punctulato, 
angulis posticis carinatis , carina prolongata; scuteUo brevi^ 
tumido ; elytris brevibus , a basi attenuatis , striis destitutis, 
IcBvissimis. — Long. 26 mill. , lat. 9 mill. 

Hob. He Nias. 

Cette belle espèce, que je dédie a M. J. D. Pasteur qui 
en a re9u un seul exemplaire de l'ile citée ci-dessus , est 
la troisième du genre Anthracalaus^ genre établi par M. 
Fairmaire pour les Alaus noirs et glabres. Celle-ci se dis- 
tingue de 1'^. Westerman7ii , Ie plus anciennement connu, 
par ses élytres sans stries, et du second, 1'^. Moricei, de 
Cochinchine , par les angles postérieurs du prothorax forte- 
ment carénés. La carène en question est tres rapprochée 
du bord externe et va se réunir a lui non loin des angles 
antérieurs. Il se fait remarquer par la brièveté relative des 
élytres et leur attenuation graduelle d'avant en arrière 
qui leur donne une forme de triangle allonge. 

M e g a p e nth e s se.vmaculatus., n. sp. 

Fusco-castaneus , parurn nitidus , fulvo-pubescens ; antennis 
ferrugineis; prothorace latitudine vix longiore, a basi angus- 
tato, regulariter sat dense punctato, basi jlavescente, angulis 
posticis acute bicarinatis ^ retrorsum productis] elytris f or titer 

Notes from tlie Leyden. IVIuseum , Vol. ILlll. 



MEGAPENTHES SEXMACULATUS 



245 



punctato-striatis , apice integris , maculis sex Jiavescentihus ; 
epipleuris pedihusque flavis. — Long. 8 mill., lat. 2 mill. 

Hab. Sumatra oriental : Deli. 

Les taches jannes des élytres , genre de coloration excep- 
tionnelle chez les Megapentkes, lui donuent uu facies di'j'Eolus. 
Ces taches sont disposées, les deux premières basilaires, 
les quatre autres marginales , a la moitié et avant l'extré- 
mité des élytres. 

Un seul specimen, presenté par M. Ie Dr. H. J. Veth. 

Megapenthes sericeïis, n. sp. 

Brunneus , nitidus, puhe flavescente sericea vestitus ; pro- 
thorace latitudine longiore , ronve.i'o, reguloriter punctato, basi 
tantum sulcato, angulis posticis bicarinatis ; elgtris punctato- 
striatis , apice fortiter emarginatis ; subtus pedibusque conco- 
loribus , his basi paulo pallidioribus. — Long. 12 — 14 mill., 
lat. 3—4 mill. 

Hab. Sumatra oriental: Deli. 

J'en ai vu trois exemplaires, présentés par Ie Dr. H. J. Veth, 
dont la taille varie beaucoup. L'espèce ne présente aucun 
caractère bien saillant , si ce n'est son aspect un peu soyeux 
du a la pubescence. 

Sa place est dans Ie groupe dont Ie marginatus est Ie type. 

Cardiophorus gramineus, n . sp. 

Niger, nitidus , discrete pilosulus ; antennis nigris, articido 
primo apice rufo ; prothorace latitudine vix longiore , minus 
conve.vOj subtiliter discrete et irregulariter punctulato, angulis 
posticis haud pubescentioribus ; elytris flavis, depressis , punc- 
tato-striatis , regione scutellari, apice maculaque laterali male 
definita nigris; subtus niger, pedibus flavis, f emoribus nigris, 
unguieulis minutis simplicibus. — Long. b^j^ mill., lat. 
1-^/, mill. 

Hab. Java occidental. 

Un seul exemplaire trouvé par M. J. D. Pasteur. J'ai 
fait counaitre récemment un Cardiophorus de Birmanie , Ie 
C. seminalis , a ongles simples, noir, a élytres jaunes ma- 

Notes from the Loyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



246 CARDIOPHORUS GRAMINEUS. 

culéevS latéralemeut de uoir. Celui-ci est mauifestement une 
espèce voisine , au moins sous Ie rapport de la coloration 
toute particuliere; toutefois il est un peu plus grand, son 
piothorax est moins bombé , autrement ponctué , moins pu- 
b(!scent aux angles postérieurs et les taches noires des 
élytres autrement disposées. 

P e nia dub i a , u. sip. 

Brunneo-ferriiginea , nitida , pallide longe pubescens ; an- 
tennis brunneis; prothorace trapezoideo, longitudine paulo 
latiore, fere plano, subtilissime punctulato; elytris prothorace 
latioribus , punctato-suhstriatis , basi tantum striis fortiter 
inipressis; tarsis bilamellatis. — Long. 10 mill., lat. 4 mill. 

Hab. Java. 

M. Pasteur a recueilli quatre specimens de cette nou- 
velle espèce dans l'ouest de Java. Elle parait, du reste, 
habiter toute l'ile , car, de mon cóté , je l'ai refue en grand 
nombre des regions voisines de Sourabaia. 

Lu di u s a e m u lu s , u. sp. 

Rufo-ferrugineus , nitidus , pxdye tenui concolore obductus ; 
f rente pardo obscuriore , regulariter convexo et punctato ; pro- 
thorace latitudine longiore, punctato^ a basi angustato, dorso 
cequali, basi cum scutello sensim obscurioribus ; elytris parum 
convexis , punctato -striatis , interstitiis punctatis antice gra- 
datim subgranulatis , apice anguste emarginatis nigrescenti- 
busque. — Long. 12 mill., lat. 2^/4. 

Hab. Java occidental. 

Le prothorax est sensiblement d'un rouge ferrugineux 
plus brillant que les élytres, Sa forme plus aplatie et sa 
pubescence moins apparente le distinguent bien des autres 
Ludius indiens de même taille et également ferrugineux. 
Je n'ai vu que deux exemplaires , trouvés par M. Pasteur. 

Agonischius taeniatus^ n. sp. 

Obscure ceneus , elongatus , Jlavo-pubescens ; fronte ru^a , 
ruyosa ; antennis nigris , serratis , articulo tertio sequentibus 

Notes from the Leyden Museum, Vol. XIII- 



AGONISCHIUS TAENIATUS. 247 

simili; prothorace latitudine lonqiore, rufescente, aneovittato, 
strangulator crehre fortiterque punctata, angulis posticifi oiva- 
ricatis , subbicarinatis ; elytris prothorace latioribus , dorso 
depressis , fortiter punctata- striatis , obscure flavescentibus , 
regione suturali antice lateribunque ceneis. — Long. 10 mill., 
lat. 2 mill. 

Hab. Java occidental. 

Cet Agonischius appartient a un groupe d'espèces allon- 
gées, a corselet étranglé, s'éloignant par Ie facies de la 
majorité des espèces du genre. J'ai fait connaitre autrefois, 
sous Ie nom de Corymbites coarctatus , un Elatéride de Java 
qui, étant donné Tadjouction ultérieure des espèces en question, 
serait mieux place dans Ie genre actuel. 

Deux specimens, captures par M. J. D. Pasteur. 

Glain-lez-Liége, Septembre 1891. 



Notes from the T-ieyden Museum, Vol. XIII. 



248 



t 



AllCHEY THOMAS DExMERY. 



A few weeks ago we received the sad news from Ro- 
bertsport of the decease of our Liberian collector A. T. De- 
in ery. This is a great loss for the sake of zoological in- 
vestigation in Liberia and the neighbouring districts of 
Sierra Leone , and especially for our Museum which , by 
this death , looses its last direct connection with that part 
of Western Africa. As the readers of our » Notes" will 
remember, the collections received from Mr. Demery since 
about a year were very interesting, and amongst many 
objects contained several novelties. His last collection, 
made on the Sulymah River, is expected in here every 
day, and as soon as we will have received it, an ample 
list will be prepared of the birds collected by him on the 
mentioned river. 

Ley den, Oct. 12tii 189L J. Büttikofbr. 



Notes from ttie Leyden Museum , Vol. XIII. 



CHELONARIUM UORSALE. 249 



NOTE XXXIX. 

A NEW ORIENTAL SPECIES OF THE COLEOPTEROUS 
GENUS CHELONARIUM 

DESCRIBED BY 

C, RITSEMA Cz. 



C helonarium dor sal e , n. sp. 

Length 7 mm. — Elongate elliptical, much more broadly 
rounded in front than behind , convex (above and beneath) 
in the transverse as well as in the longitudinal direction 
so that the insect is highest just before the middle of its 
length. Subshining , pitchy brown , darker above than beneath 
and than the legs and antennae, the tarsi and the short 
antennal joints pale rusty red ; the whole insect covered 
with a tomentose pubescence and moreover, especially on 
the upper surface , with long erect hairs ; the colour of the 
entire pubescence is greyish yellow with the exception of 
an ill-defined transverse spot on the highest portion of the 
back where the hairs are black , which spot is very con- 
spicuous when the insect is seen sideways. 

Head entirely hidden under the pro thorax, strongly and 
densely punctured. — Prothorax distinctly broader than 
long , slightly narrower than the elytra , very broadly rounded 
and sharply edged in front , the front-margin slightly up- 
turned, the sides constricted before the posterior angles so 
as to make the latter divergent ; the basal margin bisinuate , 
the middle-lobe subtruncate with rounded angles ; the prono- 
tum equally and rather densely covered with very distinct 
punctures. Scutellum as long as broad , with strongly curved 

Notes from the Leyden. Museum, Vol. X.III. 



250 CHELONARIUM DORSALE. 

sides and rounded tip, — Elytra rather finely and irregularly 
punctured, having here and there the appearance of being 
faintly rugose , and showing traces of faint costae ; the shoul- 
ders are prominent in consequence of a shallow impression 
along the base and a narrow deeper one along the basal por- 
tion of the lateral margins. — The under surface is very 
densely punctured. 

Hah. Java occid. — Captured by Mr. J. D. Pasteur, who 
presented four specimens to the Leyden Museum. 

Together with these four specimens, and from the same 
sources, I received two others which agree perfectly with 
the described ones, but they are smaller (measuring 6 mm. 
in length), the pro thorax is more narrowly rounded in 
front and consequently of a narrower shape, and the 
pubescence is denser and of a more yellow colour. Most 
probably these two specimens are males, the four larger 
ones females. 

If the above described species , which is very closely 
allied to Ch. unifasciatum Reitt. from East Sumatra (Notes 
Leyd. Mus. Vol. VIII, p. 219), did not possess the spot of 
black pubescence on the middle of the back , I should have 
meant to have Macleay's Ch. villosum before me, the short 
description of which (see Notes Leyd. Mus. Vol. XI, p. 47) 
being for the rest pretty well applicable to my insect. 

Leyden Museum, October 1891. 



Notes from the Leyden Muse am, "Vol. X.II1. 



HEI.OTA VENTRALIS. 251 



NOTE XL. 

FURTHER CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE 
OF THE HELOTA-SPECIES OF BURMA ') 



C. RITSEMA. Cz. 



Mr. Rene Oberthiir of Rennes again sent me for identi- 
fication four ^eZo^a-specimens from Upper-Burma , collected 
by Mr. Doherty in the neighbourhood of the » Mines des 
Rubis" at an elevation of 1200 — 2300 meter above the 
level of the sea. 

These specimens belong to three species of which two 
are new to science ; the third species , Helota notata Rits. *), 
was represented by a female specimen which is now in 
the collection of the Ley den Museum. 

Helota ventralis , n. sp. 9* 

This species is closely allied to and strongly resembles 
Helota Kolbei Rits. ^) from China , but is at once distinguished 
from it by the colour of the abdomen , this being bright 
coloured all over , not darker along the middle , by the 
bright colour of the femora, and by the less prolonged 
apices of the elytra. 

Length 17 — 18 mm. — The entire upper surface bronze 
coloured , here and there with coppery and purple tinges ; 



1) Ann. Mus. Civ. di Genova, Vol. XXX (1891), pp. 885 and 89 

2) Ann. Mus. Civ. di Genova, Vol. XXX (1891), p. 900. 

3) Notes Leyd. Mus. Vol. XI (1889), p. 103. 

Notes from the Leyden IVIuseum , Vol. !?dll. 



252 HELOTA VENTRALliS. 

the two basal joints of' the autennae red , the succeeding 
cues gradually passing into dark pitchy , the apical joint 
pale rufous ; each elytron provided between the S^^ and 
Qth. striae with two small convex flavous spots. Underneath 
the head , the pro- and mesosternum and the elytral epipleurae 
are coloured like the upper surface, the metasternum and 
abdomen however are of a uniform bright reddish testaceous 
colour , the former with the hinder margin and an impressed 
line along the middle , black ; the legs are reddish testaceous 
with the coxae and trochanters , the apex of the femora 
and the base and apex of the tibiae black , the tarsi dark 
pitchy brown approaching to black. 

Head strongly produced in front of the eyes, slightly 
raised along the middle, deeply punctured, the punctures 
on the raised portion large and remote, near the eyes they 
are smaller and closely set, on the narrowed front portion 
they are fine and remote; underneath the middle portion 
is sparsely and finely, the lateral portions strongly punctured. 

Prothorax widest at the base , narrowing towards the 
front in slightly curved lines ; the front angles strongly 
produced , rounded ; the sides crenulate on their anterior 
half; the base deeply bisinuate , the lateral angles acute, 
the central lobe rounded and with a more or less distinct 
impression ; the disk strongly and very closely punctured , 
with the usual raised impunctate patches. The scutellum 
is small and slightly transverse. The sterna are impunctate, 
the lateral portions of the pro- and metasternum, however, 
remotely covered with rather large punctures. 

Elytra parallel, conjointly but not broadly rounded 
behind, the apices which are not dehiscent are but very 
little prolonged ; each elytron with ten rows of punctures 
of which the 4*^^ and 5th are interrupted by the flavous 
spots and are not continued behind the posterior ones ; 
on the shoulders the punctuation becomes obsolete; the 
punctures in the rows become gradually larger towards the 
sides; the five inner interstices are rather broad and flat, 
the remaining outer ones narrow and costiform, and these 

JVotes from the Leyden IMuseum, Vol. XIII. 



HELOTA VENTRALIS. 253 

latter are often interrupted by deeply impressed punctures ; 
the 3fd and 5th interstices show some large punctures ; the 
interstice between the 2ii'l and d''''^ striae becomes costiform 
towards the end and extends to the extreme tip of the 
elytra; the epipleurae are impunctate. 

The abdomen is distantly covered with extremely fine 
but distinct punctures , and the segments have an ill-defined 
impression at the sides ; the apical segment is not quite as 
long as the d^^ and 4*^ taken together and regularly 
rounded behind. 

The legs are smooth , sparsely and extremely finely 
punctured , the anterior tibiae more distinctly punctured. 

Two female specimens , one of which is now in the col- 
lection of the Leyden Museum. 

Helot a affi n is , n. sp. Q. 

Closely allied to Helota duhia Rits. ^) and strongly resem- 
bling it. In the new species, however, the flavous spots 
on the elytra are larger , the front angles of the prothorax 
are much more broadly rounded , and the apices of the 
elytra are less acuminate. 

Length 8^/2 mm. — Very narrow and elongate, somewhat 
narrower than duhia ; shining , above metallic green with 
bronze and coppery tinges; the antennae pale reddish 
testaceous, the terminal joint of the club infuscate; each 
elytron provided with two proportionately large flavous 
spots which are narrowly surrounded with bluish black ; 
the anterior spot is situated between the 3'"'^ and 7th gtriae , 
the posterior one between the S'^i and 8th Underneath the 
head (except the throat) , the lateral portions of the proster- 
num and the elytral epipleurae are bright golden green , 
the rest is testaceous; the legs reddish testaceous with the 
apex of the femora and the basal half of the tibiae metallic 
green; on the tibiae the green colour is slightly continued 



1) Ann. Mus. Civ. di Geaova, Vol. XXX (1891), p. 901. 

Notes from tlie Leyden IVIuseuixi, Vol. XIII. 



254 HELOTA AFFINIS. 

along the outer margin ; the tarsi (except the testaceous 
basal half of the claw-joint) pitchy. 

Head strongly and rather densely punctured ; on the 
narrowed front-portion the punctures are much finer. 

Prothorax subtrapezoidal , the sides nearly straight , 
faintly constricted a little before the base, and crenulate; 
the anterior angles very broadly rounded , not at all pro- 
minent, the posterior ones acute and divergent; the front- 
margin straight, the base bisinuate, the median lobe 
narrowly rounded. The disk is somewhat irregularly covered 
with very large and deep punctures which are closer set 
towards the sides ; in front of the scutellum an impuuctate 
streak is present. The impuuctate scutellum is small and 
strongly transverse. 

Elytra very elongate , slightly narrowing towards the 
end and here separately rounded in an angular way. Each 
elytron with ten regular striae of punctures which become 
larger towards the sides; the S^d and 9*^ interstices are 
strongly costate ou the apical portion and join the margin. 

Under surface of the head with a few distinct punctures 
on the middle, strongly punctured on the sides, the throat 
impuuctate ; the metallic lateral portions of the prosternum 
deeply but not very densely punctured ; the legs apparently 
impuuctate, the metallic coloured portions, however, with 
a few distinct punctures; the anterior tibiae straight; the 
tarsi very slender and elongate. 

A single female specimen which is in the possession of 
Mr. René Oberthür. 

Leyden Museum, October 1891. 



^otes from the Leyden IMuseura, "Vol. XJII. 



REPTILES FROM SIAM. 255 



NOTE XLI. 

LIST OF REPTILES BROUGHT FROM SUM 
BY Mr. R. C. KEÜN 

DRAWN UP BY 

Dr. Th. W. van LIDTH de JEÜDE. 



In the beginning of this year Mr. R. C. Keun , formerly 
Consul of the Netherlands at the empire of Siam, presented 
the Leyden Museum with a small collection of Reptiles 
from the neighbourhood of Bangkok. As Mr. Keun, because 
of ill-health , resigned his honourable employment , he will 
not be in a position again to add other Siamese specimens to 
those we have already received , and it is therefore that I 
give a list of this valuable collection, the more valuable 
as the Reptiles of the Indian continent are very poorly 
represented in our Museum, those of Mr. Day's precious 
collection ') being almost our sole representatives of the 
Indian herpetological fauna. 

In making up this list I follow the nomenclature and 
the arrangement adopted by Mr. G. A. Boulenger in his 
»Reptilia and Batrachia" in »the Fauna of British India" 
except in his adoptation of the genus Trimeresurus Lacépède. 
The sole characteristic that, according to Lacépède, sepa- 
rates the snakes of the genus Trimeresurus from all other 
Opisthoglypha and Proteroglypha is the peculiar 
arranfjemeut of the subcaudals. This characteristic is not 



1) Described by Dr. A. A. W. Hubrccht in „Notes from Leyden Maseum", 
IV, p. 138, 

Notes from tlie Lieyden IMuseuixi, Vol. X.1II. 



256 REPTILES FROM SIAM. 

to be fouud in one of the species belonging to the genus 
Trimeresurus according to Mr. Boulenger. Moreover the 
species first described by Lacépède, viz. Trimeresurus 
leptocephalus (a snake in my opinion very closely related 
to Naja porphyriaca Shaw and Naja australis Gray, both 
agreeing in having the peculiar arrangement of the sub- 
caudals described by Lacépède) can by no means be classed 
in the genus Trimeresurus according to Mr. Boulenger. I 
think it better to adopt Wagler's genus Bothrops and , if 
it should be found desirable to preserve Lacépède's genus 
Trimeresurus, I would substitute it for Wagler's genus 
Pseudechis. 

Mr. Keun's collection consists of 14 specimens belonging 
to 12 species, viz. 11 species of Op hi dia and 1 species 
of Batrachia apod a. 

Ophidia. 

1. Cylindrophis rufus Laur. 

2. Hydrophohus davisonii Blanf. 

3. Simotes cyclurus Cant. 

4. Zamenis korros Schleg. 

5. Tropidonotus subminiatus Schleg. 

6. „ piscator Schneid. 

7. Dryophis mycterizans Daud. 

8. Chrysopelea ornata Shaw. 

9. Homalopsis buccaia L. 

10. Hypsirhina enhydris Schneid. 

11. Bothrops gramineus Shaw. 

JBatfitchia npoda. 

12. Ichthyophis glutinosus L. 

Leyden Museum, October 1891. 



Notes irum the Leyden Aluseutxi , Vol. X.I11 



INDEX. 



A. 

Abisara 138, 139. 

abnormis (Sasia) 123. 

abseus (Amblypodia) 140. 

Acca 136. 

Aceraius 131. 

aceris (Neptis) 136. 

Acherus 167, 173. 

Achrionota 161, 163. 

Aconthea 138. 

Acridotheres 122. 

Actaea 1, 2, 3, 13. 

Actaeodes 1, 2, i, 13, 61. 

acuminatus (Latinis) 158. 

acutus (Gelasimus) 21, 25, 30, 33, 61. 

addendus (Valgus) 187. 

Adolias 131, 132, 137. 

aegistus (Papilio) 142. 

Aegle 1. 

aegyptus (Euploea) 134. 

aelianus (Lampides) 139. 

aemulus (Ludius) 246. 

// (Protocerius) 150. 
aenea (Carpopliaga) 1'29. 
Aeolus 245. 
Aethopyga 126. 
affinis (Capriinulgus) 125. 

// (Helota) 253. 

rr (Terpsiplione) 125. 
africana (Helota) 22S, 229. 
agamcmnon (Papilio) 131, 142. 
agassizii (Ozius) 16. 
agenor (Papilio) 142. 
Agestrata 185. 
agleoides (J)anais) 134. 
agnis (Narathura) 140. 
AgonischiuK 246, 247. 
alankara (Aconthea) 138. 



Alaus 244. 

albiceps (Sciurus) 209. 

alboguttata (Protaetia) 187. 

alcatlioë (Euploea) 133, 134. 

Alcedinidac 124. 

Alcedo 124. 

alcyone (Callidryas) 141. 

„ (Papilio) 141. 
alkamali (AUotinus) 139. 
allardi (Ommatolampus) 116. 
AUotinus 139. 
alluaudi (Orectogyrus) 194. 
Alma 84. 

alpheda (Adolias) 137. 
Amathusia 136. 
amblyonyx (Dactylomys) 105, 106, 

108, 109, 110. 

amblyonyx (Kannabateomys) 105, 

109, 110. 
Amblypodia 133, 140, 141. 
ampliissina (Lycaena) 139. 
amrita (Neoclieritra) 139. 

f' (Sithou) 139. 
auaglyptus (Etisus) 1, 2. 
analis (Clialcosia) 143. 

// (Pycnonotus) 127. 
anapita (Mycalcsis) 135. 
anarte (Ambly))odia) 140. 
andamaneiisis (Cynopterus) 202. 
andersoni (Logania) 139. 
angelica (Prothoc) 138. 
angularis (Orcctogynis) 192. 
angulicollis (Lacon) 243. 
augustifrons (Gelasimus) 1, 38, 61. 
angustipennis (Protocerius) 150. 
annulipes (Gelasimus) 1, 23, 39, 

40, 41, 42, 43. 
Anoa 217, 220, 221. 
Anockilia 196. 

17 



258 



INDEX. 



Auodonta 114. 

Aaomala 131. 

Anoxyopistheii 120. 

Anteus 77, 78, 82. 

Antheraeii 183, 134'. 

Anthracalaus 244. 

Anthracophora 187. 

Anthreptes 126. 

Anthus 210. 

antimiita (Amblypodia) 140. 

antiphates (Papilio) 133. 

Apatura 138. 

apicicornis (Noëmia) 238. 

apidanus (Amblypodia) 133, 140. 

aquila (Fregata) 130. 

Araclmothera 126. 

aratus (Lycaena) 139. 

arcuatus (Gelasimus) 1, 21, 25, 26, 

27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 36, 61. 
Ardeidae 129. 
ardens (Pericrocotus) 125. 
areolatus (Actaeodes) 13. 
Areoturnix 129. 
ares (Euschema) 144. 
ariadnc (Ergolis) 135. 
armatum (Cardisoma) 19. 
arsinoë (Cynthia) 138. 
Artamidae 125. 
Artamus 125, 212. 
aniensis (Sus) 98. 
aspasia (Danais) 134. 
Atherina 176. 
Athyma 136. 
Atossa 238. 
atticus (Tagiades) 142. 
Aulacochoerus 86. 
aurago (Cathaemia) 133, 141. 
aurosericea (Mygnimia) 131. 
australis (Naja) 256. 
avellanarius (Muscardinus) 66, 67. 

68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74. 
azurea (Hypothymis) 125. 

B- 

Babirussa 85. 

baldus (Yphthima) 135. 

barbatus (Sus) 94. 

barbiinanus (Heterograpsus) 53. 

Batrachia 256. 

bellator (Gelasiinus) 35, 38. 

bcUonaria (Euschema) 144. 

// (Hazis) 144. 

bicolor (Carpophaga) 129. 

// (Merops) 124. 
Biduanda 140. 



Bifa 67. 

bifasciata (Bseudoblabes) 143. 
bitasciatus (Otidognathns) 14 9. 
bifida (Anochilia) 196. 
„ (Cetonia) 196. 
II (Dyscphicta) 196. 
// (Schizorrhina) 196. 
bilineata (Achrionota) 161, 163. 
billitonensis (Aiitheraea) 133, 134. 
bipartita (Atossa; 238. 
Birnara 143. 
bluraei (Adolias) 137. 
boisduvalii (Biduanda) 140. 
bolina (Diadema) 137. 
borneoensis (Orthotomus) 127. 
boswcUiana (Iraota) 140. 
Bothrops 256. 
boysii (Helota) 228, 229. 
brachyotis (Cynonycteris) 203. 

// (Cynopterus) 202, 203, 

204. 
„ (Pachysoma) 202. 
brachyotus (Cynopterus) 202. 
Brachypodidae 127. 
Brachypodius 127. 
Brachypteryx 127. 
brachyurus (Micropteruus) 123. 
brasilien§is (Titanus) 79. 
Brenthidae 16]. 

brevicaudatum (Pachysoma) 203. 
brevis (Helota) 199, 227, 229. 
brunneicauda (Hyloterpe) 126. 
buccata (Homalopsis) 256. 
Buceros 123. 
Bucerotidae 123. 

biittikoferi (Orectogyrus) 192, 193. 
„ (Oxyopisthen) 118, 168, 

169. 

„ (Polypterus) 179. 

,; (Sesarma) 1, 50. 

büttneri (Anoxyopisthen) 120. 

buquetii (Cyrtotrachelus) 148. 

// (Uoelofsia) 148. 
Butorides 130. 

C. 

Cacomantis 123. 
Caladium 92. 
calamianensis (Sus) 86. 
Calandra 148, 149, 150, 154. 
Calandrinae 147. 
Calcinus 1, 58. 
caligana (Tagiades) 142. 
Callidryas 133, 141. 
Calloenas 129. 



INDEX. 



259 



Callolophus 123. 

Calornis 128. 

campbelli (Cercopithecus) 03. 

Campephagidae 125. 

Camponotus 131. 

canaliculatus (Cyclommatus) 235, 

238. 
Canidia 156. 
capensis (Graphiiirus) 66, 67, 68, 

70, 71, 73. 
Capitonidae 123 
Capra 221. 

caprata (Pratincola) 211. 
Caprimuigidae 125. 
Capriinulgus 125. 
Cardiophorus 245. 
Cardisoma 1, 18, 19. 
Caridagrus 121. 
Car])ophaga 129. 
castaneus (Latirus) 158. 
Casyapa 133. 
Cathaemia 133, 141. 
Catharsius 131. 
catilla (Callidryas) 133. 
caudata (Helota) 226, 229. 
Cavia 109. 
cebifrons (Sus) 86. 
celatus (Otidognathus) 149. 
celebensis (Sus) 95, 96, 103. 
celeno (Lycaena) 139. 
centaurus (Amblypodia) 140. 

// (Narathura) 140. 
Centuriosus 86. 
ceramensis (Sus) 10 L. 
ceramica (Sus) 101. 
ccramicus (Dasychoerus) 101. 
Cercocebus 209. 
Cercophorus 154. 
Cercopithecus 63. 
cereopunctata (Helota) 197, 227, 

229. 
Cervulus 207, 209. 
Cervus 101. 
Cetonia 196. 
Cetoniidae 181, 188. 
ceylonicus (Thaumastopeus) 185. 
Ceyx 124. 

chabrona (Ismcne) 143. 
Chaerocampa 133. 
Chaetomys 108. 
Chalcoparia 126. 
Chalcophaps 129. 
Chalcosia 132, 143. 
Chalcostetha 120. 
chalybaea (Calornis) 128. 
Charadrius 215. 



Cliaraxes 133, 136. 

Chelonarium 249. 

chinensis (Engraulis) 176, 177, 178. 

„ (Excalfactoria) 129. 
chloris (Sauropatis) 124. 
chloronota (Clinteria) 182, 184. 
chlorophthalmus (Gelasimus) 1, 22, 

41, 42, 43, 44, 47. 
Ckoaspes 143. 
Chotorea 123. 
chromus (Ismcne) 142. 
chryseis (Callidryas) 141. 
Chrysopelea 256. 
Ciconiidae 130. 
ciliata (Pseudosquilla) 60. 
cineraceus (Myoxus) 69. 

// (Orthotomus) 127. 
Cinnyris 215. 
Cirrhospila 188. 
Cisticola 128. 
citrinella (Zosterops) 214. 
clara (Hestia) 133. 
clavatum (Oxyopisthen) 169. 
Clerome 137. 
Clinteria 182, 183, 184. 
coarctatus (Corymbites) 247. 

n (Gelasimus) 1, 21, 25, 

31, 32, 61. 
coccinea (Elcttcria) 90. 
Coenochilus 187. 
coerulea (Clinteria) 183, 184. 
coeruleus (Mcgascolex) 83. 
Coleoptera 131. 
Collocalia 125, 210. 
Colocasia 92. 
colossus (Calandra) 150. 

// (Protocerius) 150. 
Columbidac 129. 
conunersonianus (Engraulis) 176, 

177, 178. 
comptus (Otidognathus) 149. 
conchyvorus (Sus) 86. 
concretus (Caprimulgus) 125. 

II (Caridagrus) 124. 
confinis (Clinteria) 183. 
congicus (Lanistes) 111. 
contempta (Ismene) 143. 
Copsychus 128. 
Coquerelia 196. 
Coraciidae 124. 
corrosus (Epixauthus) 1, 13, 14, 

15, 16, 17. 
Corvus 212. 
Corymbites 247. 
Coryphocera 182. 
coryta (Ergolis) 136. 



260 



INDEX. 



coryta (Papilio) 136. 
costata (Helota) 228, 229. 
costeri (Neopharsalia) 190. 
costiflexalis (Lomotropa) 239. 
coupei (Myoxiis) 73. 
crameri (Euploea) 134. 
crassicaudatiis (Eliomys) 67, 70, 71. 
crassimaüus (Heterograpsus) 55, 56. 
crassum (Sarmatium) 51. 
crenulatus (Heterograpsus) 1, 53, 

54, 55, 56. 
crepuscularis (Nyctipao) 143. 
Criniger 127. 
cristata (Parra) 216. 
crocale (Callidryas) 133. 
crocea (Danais) 134. 
crocoptcrata (Urapteryx) 144. 
crucifera (Anthracopliora) 187. 
Cuculidae 123. 
cucullata (Pitta) 127. 

culta (Helota) 228, 229. 

cultrimanus (Gelasinius) 24. 

cuprifer (Orectogyrus) 192, 193. 

Curculio 148, 149. 

Curculionidae 154. 

cursitans (Cisticola) 128. 

curvipes (Helota) 227, 229. 

cuvieri (Ommatolanipus) 116. 

cyanea (Irena) 126. 

Cyanoderma 127. 

cyanoptera (Coryphocera) 182. 

Cyclommatus 233, 235, 238. 

cyclurus (Simotes) 256. 

Cylindrophis 256. 

Cyllo 135. 

Cymborhynchus 125. 

cynamolgos (Cercocebus) 209. 

Cynonycteris 203. 

Cynopterus 202. 

Cynthia 138. 

Cypselidae 125. 

Cyrcstis 136. 

Cyrtotrachelus 147, 148, 149. 

r>. 

dactyliniis (Dactylomys) 105, 108, 

109, 110. 
dactylinus (Echimys) 105. 
Dactylomys 105, 106, 107, 110. 
dama (Hypsa) 143. 
danae (Actaea) 13. 
Danais 134. 
Dasychoerus 86, 101. 
davidis (Cyrtotrachelus) 149. 
// (Otidogiiathus) 149. 



davisonii (Hydrophobu.s) 256. 
decemstriatus (Otidognathus) 149. 
decorata (Euthalia) 137. 
decoratus (Adolias) 137. 
dejone (Cynthia) 138. 
demcryi (Orectogyrus) 193. 
Dendrochelidon 125. 
dentatus (Epixanthus) 17. 
dentifrons (Sesarma) 52. 
deplanatum (Oxyopisthen) 116. 
Deudoryx 140. 
diabolicus (Sphex) 131. 
Diadcma 137. 
diardi (Adolias) 131, 137. 
Dicaeum 126, 215. 
dichrous (Cyrtotrachelus) 149. 
// (Roelofsia) 149. 

Dicotyles 85. 
dicrurus (Sus) 86. 
difScilis (Helota) 228, 229. 

Digitibranchus 84. 

diniche (Mycalesis) 135. 

dirtea (Lexias) 133, 138. 
// (Symphaedra) 138. 

discedens (Lacon) 244. 

discors (Orectogyrus) 194. 

distinctus (Latirus) 158. 

docile (Nyctalemon) 133, 144. 

dohcrtyi (Helota) 227, 229. 

Dolichotis 109. 

domesticus (Sus) 86. 

domitia (Deudoryx) 140. 

dorimond (Amblypodia) 140. 
n (Papilio) 140. 

dorsale (Chelonarium) 249. 

doubledaii (Zeuxidia) 136. 

dryas (Myoxus) 69. 

Drymocataphus 127. 

Dryophis 256. 

dubia (Helota) 228, 229, 253. 
„ (Penia) 246. 

dubius (Gelasimus) 33. 

duboulayi (Lomaptera) 188. 

dusara (Melanitis) 135. 

dussumieri (Gelasimus) 1, 20, 25, 
26, 27, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37- 

duvaucelli (Pyrotrogon) 123. 

dux (Cyrtotrachelus) 148. 
,1 (lloelofsia) 148. 

Dynamis 116. 

Dysephicta 196. 

E. 

cchcrius (Abisara) 138. 
Echimys 105, 110. 



INDEX. 



261 



effrenus (Sus) 8G. 

electra (Etisodcs) 9, 10, 11. 

elegans (Calcinus) 59. 

// (Coryphocera) 182. 

„ (Cyrtotrachelus) 149. 

II (Eugithopus) liö. 

// (Myoxus) 66, 67, 68, 71, 
72, 73. 

// (Otidognatlius) 149. 

// (Rhynchophoriis) 154. 
Eletteria 90. 
Eliomys 66, 67. 
elongatus (Orcctogyrus) 193. 
Elymnias 135. 
emarginatus (Aceraius) 131. 
Emballonura 209. 
Engraulinae 177. 
Engraulis 176. 
enhydris (Hypsirhina) 256. 
Epixanthus 1, 13, 14, 17, 61. 
eppi (Latirus) 158. 
Equula 91. 
Ergolis 135. 

erxlebenii (Cercopithecus) 63. 
erymanthis (Messaras) 138. 
erythrogaster (Cercopithecus) 63. 
erythropterum (Cyanoderma) 127. 
estella (Sithon) 139. 
Etisodes 1, 8, 9. 13, 61. 
Etisus 1, 2. 
Eugithopus 145, 146. 
Euhys 86. 
Eulacera 138. 

eumolphus (Ambiypodia) 140. 
Euploea 133, 134. 
Eurybatus 238. 
Eurylaemidae 124. 
Eurylaemus 124. 
eurypylus (Papilio) 133. 
Eurystomus 124. 
Eurytrachelus 238. 
Euschema 144. 
eusemioïdes (Chalcosia) 143. 
Euthalia 137. 

evemon (Papilio) 133, 142. 
Excalfactoria 129. 

W. 

fairmairei (Helota) 224, 229. 

Falconidac 122. 

farquhari (Narathura) 140. 

feae (Helota) 197, 199, 223, 229. 

Eelis 217, 219. 

feniseca (llypopyra) 134. 

feraUs (Lacon) 243. 



fervidus (Protocerius) 150. 
flavomaculata (Cirrhospila) 188. 
// (Macronota) 188. 

'I (Melinospila) 188. 

flavoviridis (Orthotomus) 128. 
floccosus (Cercophorus) 154. 
folus (Tagiades) 142. 

// (Udaspes) 142. 
forcipatus (Gelasimus) 1, 21, 31, 

32, 61. 
forguesii (Titauus) 79. 
foveicollis (Polyctesis) 160. 
franckii (Prothoë) 138. 
Fregata 130. 
frenatus (Sus) 86. 
frontalis (Epixanthus) 14, 15, 16, 
17, 61. 
// (Etisodes) 1, 8, 9, 13, 61. 
fuciphaga (CoUocalia) 125. 
fulgidissima (Coryphocera) 182. 
fulvicollis (Treron) 128. 
fulvitarsis (Helota) 228, 229. 
fulviventris (Helota) 225, 230. 
fumosa (Tritonidea) 155. 
funebre (Oxyopisthen) 120. 
funerarium (Oxyopisthen) 120. 
fuscata (Munia) 215. 
fusco-albidus (Jyngipicus) 123. 
fuscum (Mycalesis) 135. 
Eusus 62, 157. 

gaimardi (Gelasimus) 1, 22, 39, 41, 

42, 43. 
galgulus (Loriculus) 123. 
gallinacea (Parra) 216. 
gana (Tagiades) 142. 
Gelasimus 1, 20, 61. 
gemmata (Helota) 225, 230. 
geofFroyi (Charadrius) 215. 
Geoscolex 79 
germani (Sesarma) 1, 51. 
germari (Ommatolampus) 116. 
// (Rhynchophorus) 116. 
gestroi (Helota) 227. 230. 
gigas (Anteus) 77, 79, 80, 82, 84. 

// (Camponotus) 131. 

// (Mygnimia) 131. 
glaga (Saccharum) 90. 
Glareola 129. 
Glarcolidae 129. 
Glis 66. 
glis (Myoxus) 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 

72, 73, 74. 
glutinosus (Ichthyo])liis) 256. 



262 



INDEX. 



Glyc\rphana 181, 186. 

Gnorimidia 188. 

gorhami (Hdota) 226, 230. 

Gouridae 129. 

gracilipes (Metopograpsus) 1,49,61. 

gracilis (Odontolabis) 238. 

Gracula 128. 

gramineus (Bothrops) 256. 

// (Cardiophonis) 245. 

grandis (Protocerius) 150. 
Graphiurus 66. 
Grapsus 1, 49. 
griseus (Acridotheres) 122. 
guanhumi (Cardisoma) 18. 
gucrinii (Helota) 226, 230. 
guineensis (Helota) 228, 230. 
gularis (Mixornis) 127. 

H. 

liaemorrhoa (Cathaemia) 133, 141. 
Haliastur 122. 
halyi (Macronota) 186. 
Haplorhynchus 120, 167, 168,172, 

173. 
hardwickii (Kerivoula) 205, 206. 
Hasora 143. 

hasseltii (Nectarophila) 126. 
Hazis 144. 
hecabe (Terias) 141. 
liegesippus (Danais) 134. 
// (Papilio) 134. 

lielena (Canidia) 156. 
hclenus (Papilio) 142. 
Helota 197, 199, 223, 229, 251. 
Hemigrapsus 58. 
Herodias 129. 

herveyi ( Macrocheirus) 148. 
hesionc (Mycalesis) 135. 
Hesperia 142. 
Hestia 133. 

Heterograpsus 1, 53, 56, 57, 61. 
hiemalis (Myrina) 139. 
Hirundinidae 125. 
Hirundo 125. 
hispida (Loncheres) 110. 
hoevenii (Trichomanis) 242. 
Homalopsis 256. 
horsfieldii (Zcuxidia) 133. 
hucti (Graphiurus) 67. 
hyacinthina (Siphia) 212. 
Hydrophobus 256. 
hyela (Hesperia) 142. 

„ (Pirdana) 142. 
Hyloterpc 126. 
Hymenoptera 131. 



Hypopyra 134. 
Hypothyinis 125. 
Hypsa 133, 143. 
Hypsirhina 256. 



I. 



Ichthyophis 256. 
icterocephala (Phyllornis) 126. 
ida (Precis) 138. 
igorrota (Polyctesis) 159, 160. 
immaculata (Helota) 228, 230. 
// (Lexias) 133, 138. 

Imperata 90. 

imperialis (Clinteria) 182. 
inaequalis (Odontolabis) 238. 
incerta (Clinteria) 182. 
incilis (Anocbilia) 196. 
indica (Chalcophaps) 129. 
indicus (Oriolus) 128. 
Indus (Haliastur) 122. 
incxspectatus (Eurybatus) 238. 
innominata (Ceyx) 124. 
inornata (Monarcha) 212. 
iusignis (Chalcostetlia) 126. 

// (Orycliodes) 163. 
insularis (Taeniopygia) 215. 
intermedia (Herodias) 129. 
intermedius (Calciuus) 1, 58, 59. 
inversus (Gelasimus) 1, 21, 44,45, 

46, 47, 61. 
Iraota 140. 
Irena 126. 

Isabella (Glareola) 129. 
Ismene 142, 143. 
isware (Papilio) 142. 

J. 

jalaensis (Sus) 86. 

jalla (Sturnopastor) 122. 

jama (Adolias) 137. 

jambu (Ptilonopus) 128. 

jansoni (Otidognathus) 149. 

japonica (Atlierina) 176, 177, 178. 

// (Engraulis) 176. 
japonicus (Engraulis) 176, 177, 178. 

// (Stolephorus) 177. 

javana (Nassa) 156, 157. 

javanensis (Gracula) 128. 

// (Ketupa) 122. 

javanica (Butorides) 130. 

II (Hirundo) 125. 

I, (Leucocerca) 125. 

// (Panestliia) 131. 
(Tupaja^ 209. 



INDEX. 



263 



javanicus (Eurylaemus) 124. 

„ (Leptoptilos) 130. 

// (Tragulus) 208. 
Jole 127. 
Jora 126. 

Juliana (Unio) 114. 
Junonia 138. 
justina (Mycalesis) 135. 

// (Papilio) 135. 
juventa (Danais) 134. 

// (Radena) 134. 
Jyngipicus 123. 

K. 

kanchil (Tragulus) 208, 209. 

Kannabateomys 105, 109. 

kausamba (Abisara) 139. 

kelleni (Eliomys) 67, 68, 70, 74. 

Kerivoula 202, 204. 

Ketupa 122. 

Kittacincla 128. 

klugius (Thaumantis) 136. 

koenigii (Imperata) 90. 

kolbei (Helota) 225, 230, 251. 

korros (Zamenis) 256. 

kresna (Limenitis) 136. 



Lacbnosterna 131. 

Lacon 243. 

lacteus (Gelasimus) 22, 40, 41, 43, 

44, 45, 46. 
laetus (Protocerius) 150. 
laevigata (Helota) 227, 280. 
Lagidium 109. 
Lagostomus 109. 
lais (Elymnias) 135. 
Lalage 212. 
Lampides 139. 
Lampropborus 238. 
landaneusis (Unio) 113. 
Laniidae 126. 
Lanistes 111. 
laomedia (Junonia) 138. 
lar (Calandra) 149. 

,1 (Cyrtotracbelus) 149. 
lasiotis (Myoxus) 72. 
Lasiuromys 110. 
latens (Calcinus) 59. 
Latirus 158. 

latreillii (Gelasimus) 40,41,42,44. 
Lebadca 137. 
leda (Cyllo) 135. 
leini)iji (Scops) 122. 



Lepidiota 131. 
Lepidoptera 131. 
leptocephalus (Trimeresurus) 256. 
Leptoptilos 130. 
Lepus 217, 218. 
lerotina (Bifa) 67. 
leroyi (Orectogyrus) 191. 
leschenaulti (Cbaradrius) 215. 
leucocephala (Palargopsis) 124. 
Leucocerca 125. 
leucocyma (Elymnias) 135. 
leucogaster (Artamus) 212. 
leuconoë (Hestia) 133. 
leucorbyncbus (Artamus) 125. 
leucotboë (Neptis) 136. 

II (Papilio) 136. 

Lexias 133, 138. 
limbata (Ptilotis) 214. 
Limenitis 136, 138. 
linearis (Stenopbida) 120. 
lineolatus (Orycbodes) 163. 
linnaei (Trepsichrois) 134. 
Liomera 4. 
lisias (Sitbon) 139. 
litigiosus (Lacon) 243. 
Litorbyncbus 149. 
Logania 139. 
Lomaptera 188. 
Lomotropa 239. 
Loncberes 110. 
longicauda (Palaeornis) 122. 
longimanus (Curculio) 149. 

„ (Cyrtotracbelus) 149. 

longipennis (Dendrocbelidon) 125. 
longipes (Calandra) 148. 

// (Curculio) 148, 149. 

// (Cyrtotracbelus) 149. 

// (Helota) 224, 231. 
longirostra (Aracbnotbera) 126. 
longirostris (Sus) 94. 
Loriculus 123. 
luctuosa (Oi'eicola) 211. 
Ludius 246. 
Lumbricus 83, 84. 
lusitanica (Eliomys) 72. 
Lycacna 139. 

lycaenaria (Amblypodia) 141. 
Lycaenesthes 139. 

M. 

mackloti (Dicacum) 215. 
Macrocbeirus 147, 148. 
Macroglossa 143. 
Macronota 186, 188. 
Macro nus 127. 



264 



INDEX 



Macropterus 154. 
macrorhynchus (Corvus) 212. 

,, (Cymborhynchus)125. 
macroura (Kittacincla) 128. 
maculata (Protaetia) 187. 
maculatus (Grapsus) 1, 49. 

// (Heterograpsus) 55, 56. 

// (Prionochilus) 126. 

maitlandi (Cyclommalus) 238. 
malaccensis (Anthreptes) 126. 

// (Brachypteryx) 127. 

II (Callolophus) 123. 

malayana (Choaspes) 143. 

,1 (Ismene) 143. 
nialayensis (Onychaëtus) 122. 
Manis 242. 

marginata (Lomaptera) 188. 
marginatus (Cynopterus) 202, 203, 

204. 
marginatus (Megapenthes) 245. 

„ (Protocerius) 150. 

inariae (Miolispa) 165. 
martha (Lebadea) 137. 
maiirus (Semnopithecus) 200. 
maximus (Geoscolex) 79. 
medius (Anthus) 210. 
medus (Mycalesis) 135. 
megalotis (Pelis) 217, 219, 220. 
Megascolex 83. 
Megapenthes 244, 245. 
megaspilota (Clinteria) 183. 
Meiglyptes 123. 
melanippus (Danais) L34. 
Melanitis 135. 

melanoceplialus (Brachypodius) 127. 
melanoleuca (Oreicola) 211. 
melanopterus (Sturnopastor) 122. 
melanurus (Eliomys) 66, 67, 68, 72. 
Melinospila 188. 
mellii (Helota) 231. 
Melliphagidae 126. 
memnon (Papilio) 142. 
menetriesii (Euploea) 133. 
meninting (Alcedo) 124. 
Meropidae 124. 
Mcrops 124, 210. 
Messaras 138. 

messor (Metopograpsus) 1, 49, 61. 
metachloros (Chalcosia) 143. 
metamuta (Amblypodia) 140. 
Metopograpsus, 1, 49, 61. 
Microchaeta 77, 78, 81, 82. 
Micropternus 123. 
microtis (Sus) 86. 
midamus (Euploea) 134. 
miiidancnsis (Copsychus) 128. 



mineus (Mycalesis) 135. 
minuta (Felis) 219. 
minutus (Sus) 86. 
Miolispa 165. 
Mixornis 127. 
molossus (Catharsius) 131. 
,/ (Protocerius) 150. 
moluccensis (Cervus) 101. 
mona (Cercopithecus) 63. 
Monarcha 212. 
moricei (Anthracalaus) 244. 
mülleri (Zosterops^ 215. 
mulciber (Euploea) 134. 
,, (Papilio) 134. 
mumbyanus (Eliomys) 73. 
Munia 215. 

muntjac (Cervulus) 207, 209. 
muricola (Vespertilio) 209. 
murinus (Eliomys) 67, 68, 69, 70, 

71, 72, 73. 
murinus (Myoxus) 67. 
Muscardinus 66. 
mutabilis (Nassa) 157. 
Mutilla 131. 
Mycalesis 135. 
mycterizans (Dryophis) 256. 
Mygnimia 131. 
Myiolestes 126. 
Myoxidae 65. 
Myoxina 66. 
Myoxus 66, 67. 
Myrina 132, 139. 
myrmidon (Cyrtotrachelus) 149. 

,1 (Otidognathus) 149. 

Myzomela 214. 

N. 

nagtglasii (Eliomys) 67, 68, 70, 

71, 73. 
Naja 256. 

napu (Tragulus) 208, 209. 
narada (Amblypodia) 141. 
Narathura 140. 
nasica (Treron) 128. 
Nassa 156. 
nathalia (Pieris) 141. 

„ ('Saletara) 141. 

// (ïacliyris) 141. 
nebulosa (ïhinopteryx) 144. 
Nectariniidae 126. 
Nectarophila 126. 
nefte (Athyma) 136. 

// (Limenitis) 136. 
neglectus (Tropidorliynchus) 213. 
Neochcritra 139. 



INDKX. 



265 



Neopharsalia 189. 

nepalensis (Lampropliorus) 238. 

Neptis 136. 

netscheri (Lepus) 217, 218, 219. 

nicobarica (Calloenas) 129. 

niger (Sus) 100, 101, 102, 103, 104. 

nigrescens (Elymnias) 135. 

nigricans (Acherus) 174. 

nigricapitatus (Drymocataphus)127. 

nigrita (Agestrata) 185. 

nigropictus (Otidognathus) 149. 

nilotica (Alma) 84. 

niloticus (Digitibranchus) 84. 

Niphanda 139. 

nitedula (Eliomys) 66. 

„ (Myoxus) 66—74. 
nitidum (Oxyopisthen) 168. 
nitidus (Calcinus) 59. 
nivea (Myrina) 133, 139. 

„ (Sithon) 139. 
nivifera (Athyma) 136. 
Noëmia 238. 

notata (Helota) 228, 231, 251. 
notatus (Sciurus) 209. 
nubila (Birnara) 143. 
nudus (Heterograpsus) 55, 56. 
Numenius 129. 
Nyctalemon 133, 144. 
Nyctipao 143. 

O. 

obertbüri (Helota) 224, 231. 
obscuriceps (Cyrtotrachelus) 149. 
obscurus (Myiolestes) 126. 
oceanica (Sesarma) 1, 52, 53. 
ocellata (Helota) 227, 230. 
ocliromelas (Eurylaemus) 124. 
octogesima (Adolias) 137. 
oculata (Pseudosquilla) 1, 59, 60. 

// (Squilla) 59. 
Odontolabis 238. 
Oliva 157. 
olivacea (Jole) 127. 
Ommatolampus 115, 116. 
Omotemnus 153. 
Onychaëtus 122. 
Ophidia 256. 
Orectogyrus 191 — 194. 
oregoaensis (Heterograpsus) 57. 
Oreicola 211. 

orientalis (Eurystomus) 124. 
Oriolidae 128. 
Oriolus 128. 

ornata (Chrysopelea) 256. 
ornatus (Merops) 210. 



orobinus (Eliomys) 66, 67. 
orphea (Pachycephala) 212. 
Orthoptera 131. 
Ortliotomus 127. 
Orychodes 161, 163, 165. 
osias (Lycaena) 139. 
osteria (Apatura) 138. 
„ (Eulacera) 138. 
Otidognathus 148, 149. 
Oxyopisthen 116, 118, 119, 120, 

167—170, 175. 
Ozius 16, 17. 



Pachycephala 212. 
Pachysoma 202. 
Padenia 143. 
paduka (Limenitis) 138. 
Palaeornis 122. 
pammon (Papilio) 141. 
panda (Pieris) 141. 

// (Tachyris) 141. 
Pandita 136. 

pandocus (Yphthima) 135. 
Panesthia 131. 
panthera (Elymnias) 135. 
Papilio 131, 133, 134, 135, 136, 

140, 141, 142. 
papuensis (Sus) 88, 97, 98, 101, 

102, 103, 104. 
Paratasis 154. 
Parra 216. 
pasteuri (Anthracalaus) 244. 

// (Cyclommatus) 233, 238. 
„ (Thermonotus) 238. 
patroclus (Nyctalemon) 133, 144. 
pectoralis (Cinnyris) 215. 

// (Setaria) 127. 

Pelargopsis 124. 
Pelecanidae 130. 
pellucida (Kerivoula) 202, 204, 205, 

206. 
pellucidus (Vespertilio) 205. 
Penia 246. 
penicillatus (Heterograpsus) 53, 54, 

55, 56. 
pcrcussus (Prionochilus) 126. 
Perdicidae 129. 
pcregrina (Protaetia) 187. 
Pcricrocotus 125. 
perspicillatus (Artamus) 212. 
Phacochoerus 85. 
phaeocephalus (Criniger) 127. 
phacopus (Numenius) 129. 
phidippus (Amathusia) 136. 



266 



INDEX, 



Philemon 213. 
philomela (Euploea) 134. 
rhyllornis 126. 
Picidae 123. 
picta (Nassa) 157. 
pictus (Myoxus) 71. 

// (Ommatolampus) 115. 

// (Orychodes) 163. 
Pieris 141. 
Piezorhynchus 212. 
Pirdana 142. 

piscator (Tropidonotus) 256. 
Pitta 127. 
Pittidae 127. 

planipennis(Prophthalmus)161, 1 64. 
Ploceus 122. 

plumbipes (Areoturnus) 129. 
plumosus (Pycnonotus) 127. 
podicalis (Valgus) 187. 
pogonias (Cercopithecus) 63. 
polixena (Charaxes) 136. 
Polyctesis 159. 
Polypterus 179. 
polytes (Papilio) 141. 
pomona (Callidryas) 133. 
Pontodrilus 79. 
Porcula 85. 

porphyriaca (Naja) 256. 
Potamochoerus 85. 
Poteriophorus 145, 146. 
praetor (Macroclieirus) 148. 
praetoraria (Urapteryx) 144. 
Pratincola 211. 
Precis 138. 

prevostii (Sciurus) 207, 209. 
Prionochilus 126. 
procris (Acca) 136. 
Prophthalmus 161, 164. 
Protaetia 187. 
proteus (Tritonidea) 155. 
Prothoë 138. 
Protocerius 148, 150. 
pruinosus (Semnopithecus) 209. 
Pseudechis 256. 
Pseudoblabes 143. 
Pseudograpsus 57. 
Pseudosquilla 1, 59. 
Psittacidae 122. 
Ptilonopus 128. 
ptilosus (Macronus) 127. 
Ptilotis 214. 

pubescens (Actaeodes) 1, 4, 7, 61. 
// (Liomera) 4. 

II (Zozymus) 4. 

pulasara (Adolias) 137. 
„ (Tanaecia) 137. 



pulla (Thaumastopeiis) 186. 
pumila (Clinteria) 184. 
puncticoUis (Miolispa) 165. 
purpuratus (Protocerius) 150. 
pusilla (Helota) 228, 231. 
pusillus (Pycnonotus) 127. 
Pycnonotus 127. 
pyranthe (Callidryas) 141. 
Pyrotrogon 123. 

Q. 

quadrata (Cardisoma) 18. 
quadratum (Cardisoma) 1, 18. 
quadrimaculatHS (Cyrtotrachelus) 

149. 
quadrimaculatus(Otidognatlius)149. 
quadrivittata (Macronota) 186. 
quercinus (Eliomys) 66 — 73. 
quinticolor (Munia) 215. 

radamantbus (Euploea) 133. 
Radena 134. 
rahria (Cyrestis) 136. 
rappi (Microcbaeta) 77, 78, 82. 
rectifascia (Macroglossa) 143. 
regalis (Protaetia) 187. 
republicana (Anochilia) 196. 
// (Coqiierelia) 196. 

reticulata (Ptilotis) 214. 
reticulatus (Ozius) 16, 17. 
rbinoceroides (Buceros) 124. 
rbinoceros (Buceros) 124. 
Rbinodrilus 82. 
Rhinolophus 209. 
Rhipidura 212. 
rbois (Polyctesis) 159, 160. 
Rbopodytes 123. 
Rbyncbopborus 116, 151, 154. 
richtersii (Actaeodes) 4, 5, 6, 7. 
ringens (Engraulis) 176, 177,178. 
ritsemae (Orychodes) 161. 
Roelofsia 148. 
Rollulidae 129. 
Rollulus 129. 

rotundata (Helota) 227, 231. 
rotundicosta (Canidia) 156. 
roulroul (Rollulus) 129. 
rubigineus (Rbyncbopborus) 154. 
rubiginosus (Rbyncbopborus) 154. 
rubriceps (Otidognathus) 149. 
ruficeps (Ortbotomus) 127. 
rutipennis (Clinteria) 183. 
rufiventris (Rbipidura) 212. 



INDEX. 



267 



rufofemoratum (Oxyopisthen) 167, 

169. 
rufopectinipes (Cyrtotrachelus) 149. 
rufopunctata (Actaea) 2, 3. 
rufulus (Anthus) 210. 
rufus (Cylindrophis) 256. 
rugata (Actaea) 1, 2, 3. 

'/ (Aegle) 1. 
rugosus (Epixanthus) 14. 
rugulosus (Ozius) 17- 
riippellii (Actaea) 3. 



S. 



Saccharuin 90. 

Saletara 141. 

salvania (Porcula) 85. 

sancta (Sauropatis) 124. 

sanguineus (Heter ograpsus) 56, 57. 

santeng (Anoa) 217, 220, 221. 

Sarmatium 51. 

sarpedon (Papilio) 142. 

Sasia 123. 

saturata (Amblypodia) 133, 140. 

Sauropatis 124. 

Saxicolidae 128. 

scalaris i) (Oxyopisthen) 167. 

Schizorrhina 196. 

Scliizorrhiuidae 196. 

schreiberi (Charaxes) 133. 

scintillans (Helota) 223, 231 

Sciuropterus 209. 

Sciurus 66, 207, 209. 

Scolopacidae 129. 

Scops 122. 

Scrofa 86. 

scrofa (Sus) 85, 88. 

sculpticoUis (Macronota) 186. 

sculptilis (Etisodes) 9. 

semicaudata (Emballonura) 209. 

semifulva (Helota) 228, 231. 

seminalis (Cardiopliorus) 245. 

semmclinki (Oliva) 157. 

Semnopitliecus 209. 

senegalus (Polypterus) 179. 

sepulcralis (Cacomantis) 123. 

sericeus (Megapenthes) 245. 

serratipennis (Helota) 227, 231. 

serrirostris (liynchophorus) 152, 

153. 
servillei (Helota) 224, 231. 
Sesarma 1, 50, 51, 52, 53. 
Setaria 127. 



sexmaculatus (Megapenthes) 244. 
sexualis (Orectogyrus) 191. 
sieboldi -.Fusus) 62, 157. 
siguatus (Gelasimus) 1, 21, 25, 35, 

36, 37, 38, 61. 
silvandra (Hypsa) 133. 
sLmilis (Danais) 134. 
Simotes 256. 

sinensis (Helota) 226, 231. 
singalensis (Chalcoparia) 126. 
singhapura (Amblypodia) 140. 
sinope (Pandita) 136. 
siparaja (Aetliopyga) 126. 
Siphia 212. 
Sitbon 139. 
Solaris (Cinnyris) 215. 
sonneratii (Phyllornis) 126. 
soricinus (Sciurus) 209. 
spectabilis (Macrocheirus) 147, 148. 
spectrum (Tarsius) 209. 
Sphex 131. 
Spilopelia 129. 
spinosus (Heterograpsus) 1, 56, 57, 

58, 61. 
Squilla 59. 

stanleyanus (Tragulus) 208. 
Stenophida 120. 
stigma (Ommatolampus) 116. 
Strigidae 122. 
Stolephorus 177. 
stomphax (Clerome) 137. 
Sturnidae 128. 
Sturnopastor 1 22. 
subcorrosus (Epixanthus) 1, 14, 15, 

16, 17, 61. 
subfasciatns (Otido^nathus) 149. 
subminiatus (Tropidonotus) 256. 
subrepleta (Euschema) 144. 
subrubiginosa (Tritonidea) 155. 
subviolaceus (Allotinus) 139. 
suffusa (Chaerocampa) 133. 
sulphurea (Pieris) 141. 
sumatranus (Rhopodytes) 123. 
supcrcilia (Adolias) 137. 
// (Tanaecia) 137. 

Sus 85, 86, 88, 89, 93, 94,95,96, 

97, 100. 
suturale (Oxyopisthen) 167 ••2), 170. 
suturalis (Miolispa) 166. 
swierstrae (Rhynchophorus) 151, 

153. 
Sylviidac 127. 
Symphaedra 138. 



1) Must be suturale (see p. 170). 

2) In stead of scalaris as is printed by mistake. 



268 



INDEX. 



Tachyris 141. 

taeniatus (Agonischius) 246. 

Taeniopygia 215. 

Tagiadcs 142. 

taininensis (Siis) 86. 

Tanaecia 137. 

taprobanicus (Coenochilus) 187. 

Tarsius 209. 

Terias 141. 

ternatensis (Sus) 104. 

Terpsiphone 125. 

terrestris (Lumbricus) 83. 

tessellata (Lycaenesthes) 139. 

„ (Niphanda) 139. 
tetragonon CGelasimus) 1, 20, 24, 

26, 28, 29, 61. 
tetraspilotus (Ommatolampus) 116. 
tharis (Sithon) 139. 
Thaumantis 136. 
Thaumastopeus 185, 186. 
Thermonotus 238. 
theseus (Papilio) 141. 
thibetana (Helota) 226, 231. 
Thinopteryx 144. 
tboosa (Euploea) 133. 
thoracicus (Prionochilus) 126. 
thrax (Casyapa) 133. 
tomentosus (Actaeodes) 2. 
toyae (Gnorimidia) 188. 
tigrina (Spilopelia) 129. 
Timeliidae 127. 
timoleon (Deudoryx) 140. 
timoriensis (Lalage) 212. 

// (Philemon) 213. 

// (Sus) 95. 

// (Tropidorhynchus)212— 214. 
titan (Eurytrachelus) 238. 
Titanus 79. 

tithecheilum (Cynoterus) 203. 
Tragulus 207, 208, 209. 
transversa fPadenia) 143. 
Trepsiclirois 134. 
Treron 128. 
Treronidae 128. 

triangularis (Gelasimus)l, 22, 47, 61. 
Tricholepis 131. 
Trichomanis 242. 
trifoliatus (Rhinolophus) 209. 
trigonostigma (Dicaeum) 126. 
Trimcresurus 255, 256. 
Tritonidea 155. 

trivirgatus (Piezorhynchus) 212. 
Trogonidae 123. 
tropica (Vespa) 131. 



Tropidonotus 256. 
Tropidorhynchus 210, 212, 213. 
tnkki (Meiglyptes) 123. 
Tupaja 209. 
tyjnis (Dactylomys) 105, 106,108. 

U. 

Udaspes 142. 

undosa (Tritonidea) 155. 

undulata (Tritonidea) 155, 157. 

unifasciatum (Chelonarium) 250. 

uniformis (Prothoë) 138. 

Unio 113, 114. 

Urapteryx 144. 

Urochaeta 83, 84. 

urvillei (Cardisoma) 19. 

// (Gelasimus) 1, 21, 25, 31, 
34, 35. 
ussuricus (Sus) 86. 

V. 

vagans (Neopharsalia) 189. 
valdaui (Haplorhynchus) 120, 167, 

168, 172, 174. 
Valgus 187. 
vandepolli (Helota) 197, 199, 223, 

231. 
variabilis (Gelasimus) 1, 47, 48, 61. 
variatus (Gelasimus) 24. 
vellerialis (Lomotropa) 239. 
ventralis (Helota) 251. 
verlorenii (Macropterus) 154. 
vernans (Treron) 128. 
verrucosus (Dasycboerus) 101. 

// (Sus) 93, 101. 

versicolor (Uhotorea) 123. 

// (Glycyphana) 181, 186. 

Vespa 131. 
Vespcrtilio 205, 209. 
Vesperugo 209. 
vestita (Tricholepis) 131. 
vigor.sii (Helota) 197, 223, 224, 

232. 
villosum (Chelonarium) 250. 
villosus (Lasiuromys) 110. 
viridissima (Jora) 126. 
vitta (Hasora) 143. 

„ (Ismene) 143. 
vittatum (Oxyopisthen) 119. 
vittatus (Poteriophorus) 145, 146. 

// (Sus) 89, 91, 93, 95. 
vocans (Gelasimus) 1, 20, 23, 24, 

25, 28, 29, 33, 61. 
vordermani (Adolias) 137. 



INDEX, 



Ü69 



vordermani (Tanaecia) 137. 
vordermanni (Sciuropterus) 209. 

// (Vesperugo) 209. 

vulgaris (Danais) 134. 
vulnerata (Myzomela) 214. 



W. 



westermanni (Anthracalaus) 244. 

n (Litorliynchus) 149. 

,; (Oxyopislhen) 120. 

whitehousei (Protactia) 187. 
wolfi (Cercopithecus) 63, 64. 



Yphthima 135. 



Zamenis 256. 
Zeuxidia 133, 136. 
Zosterops 214, 215. 
Zozymus 4. 



N.L.M. 1891. 



l>latr -1. 



■d vS 



j^ 




% 







X'-''<' :"':"• ''"■ ir" 






Dr. T.(;. de Man del. 



A.J.J.Wendellith. 



1'. \V. M.Tr.i]) inipr. 



I. Actaeodes pubescens M. E. 2. Ktisodes frontalis Dana. 

3. Kpixanthus subcorrosus de Ma/i. 



N. I.. M. 1891. 



Plate 2. 









^ ' 





Dr. J.G. de Man del. 



A.J.J.Wendellith. 



P. W. M.Trap impr. 



4. Rpixanthiis frontalis M. E. 5. Gelasimus vocans M. E. 

6. Cielasimus tetragonon Herhst. 5^?. id. 7W7'. cultrimana ^4*^/. ó^ [F/z/Vt'. 



N.L.M. 1891. 



Plate 3. 







, o a » ' 



'':^^V-^i 



X~ ' >■'»■' o ,,0 "",, 



ö« 





9 




I 



Dr. |.(;,(lcM;uiflel. 



A J j.Wendel lith. 



1'. \\ . M. 1 in]i impr. 



7. Gelasinnis arcuatus de /{aan. 9. Cclasimus forcipatus AtL è>- U'/ii/c? 

8. „ coaictatusyl/. A'. (jiiv.). 10. ,, acutus Sfir/ij^s. 



N. L.M. 1891. 



Plate 4. 




Dr.J.G.deMandel. 



A.j.J Wendelliih. 



1'. W. M. Trai) impr. 



II. Gelasimus .signatus ff ess. 12. Gelasimus inversus //o(r»i. 

13. Gelasimus triangularis M.E., var. variabilis ik Man. 

14. Metopograjisus niessor Forsk., var. gracilipes d<: Ma„. 

15. Heterograpsus spinosus M. E. 



N.L.M. 1891. 



Plate 5. 




Dr. H.\V..le(;r.aafaclnat. del. A. J. [. Wemle! lith. 

Kliomvs kelleni Ecinr/is. 



V. W . M. Tra]> iniji 



N.L. M. 1891. 



Plate 6. 




Dr. R. Huist ad nal. del. 



A.J.J.Wendcllilii 



P W. M.Trap impr. 



Plate 7. 




•A.J.J.Wendeldel.etlitli. 



r.W. M.'rin.]i iiiipv. 



I — 5. Dactylomys dactyliiuis Ji. G. St. /lilairc. 

6 — II. Kannabateomys amblyonyx Nattercr. 

2. Upper molar series. 

3 and 9. Lower molar series. 

4 and 10. Right upper molar series, enlarged. 

5 and II. Right lower molar series, enlarged. 



N.L.M. 1891. 



Plate 8. 




1^ 



^ 



IC ..a^ 




...-^3^' 



2? ,;^ 










I, 2, 3- A.J JAVendel | ^^ ^^^^ ^j^, ^ j J.Wendel lith 

4, 5. W. F. Jacobs I -^ -^ 

I, 2. Lanistes congicus Boctt,i^. var. 
3. Unio landanensis Schcpvi. 




r.W.M.Trap impr 

4. Ommatolampus i)ictus Roel. 

5. Eugithopus elegans Roel. 



N. L. M. 1891. 



Plate 9. 







w/^ 



ill 



'■^^ 




3. 






A.|.}.\Vendel ad nat. del. et lith. 

1. Tritonidea undulata Schepen. 

2. Nassa javana Sclicpm. 



P.W.M. Trap iiiipr. 

3. Fusus Sieboldi Schcpiii. 

4. Oliva Semmelinki Schepm. 



N.L.M. 1891. 



Plate 10. 



-il 




W. F. Jacolis ad nat. del. 



A.J.J. Wendellith. 



1'. W. M. Trap inipr. 



1. Cyclommatus Pasteuri JiUs. 4. Eurybatus inexspectatus Rifs. 

2. Lamprophorus nepalensis Gray. 5. Thermonotus Pasteuri Ri/s. 

3. Noemia a])icicornis Ri/s. 6. Atossa bipartita Rits. 



^ ISrO T BS 



FROM THE 



LEYDEN MUSEUM 



EDITED 



BY 



Dr. F. A. JENTINK, 

Director of the Museum. 



VOL.. XIII. 



N°. 1. January 1891. 



LEYDEN 

E. J. BRILL. 



LIST OF CONTENTS. 

PART I — 1891. 



Page 
Note I. Carcinological studies in the Leyden Museum. By Dr. J. G. de Man. 

n°. 5. (Plate 1—4) 1, 

"Note II. Description of a new species of Fusua from Japan. By M. M. Schep- 

MAN 62. 

Note III. Ceraypithecui Wolf,, n. sp. By A. B. Meyer 63. 



NOTES 

FEOM THE 



LEYDEN MUSEUM 



EDITED 



BY 



Dr. F. A. JENTINK, 

Director of the Museum. 



VOL.. XIII. 



N°. 2. April 1891. 



LEYDEN 

J. BRILL. 



LIST OF CONTENTS. 

PART II — 1891. 



Page 
Note IV. Einiges iiber die Myoxidae oder Schlafer. Von Dr. C. L. Redvens 

(Tafel 5) 65. 

Note 'V. Descriptions of Earthworms. By Dr. R. Hokst. — VI. (Plate 6). 77. 
"Note "VI. On the Malayan and Papuan Pigs in the Leyden Museum. By 

Dr. F. A. Jentink 85. 

Note VII. On Dactylomys dactylinus and Kannabat'eomys amhlyonyx. By 

Dr. F. A. Jentink. (Plate 7) 105. 

Note VIII. On a new species of Lanistes. By M. M. Schepman. (Plate 8, 

figs. 1 and 2). . . .^ HI. 

Note IX. A new species of TJnio. Described by M. M. Schepman. (Plate 8. fig. 3). 113. 
Note X. Description de nouvelles espèces de Curculionides. Par W. Roelofs. 

(Planche 8, fig. 4) 115. 

Note XI. The Birds of Billiton. By Dr. A. G. Vorderman 121. 

Note XII. List of the Lepidopterous Insects collected by Mr. A. G. Vor- 
derman in the island of Billiton. By P. C. T. Snellen ....... 131. 

Note XIII. Description d'un Curculiouide nouveau. Par W. Roelofs. 

(Planche 8, fig. 5) 145. 

N.B. Plate 8 will be published in the July-number. 



fe 



NOTES 



FROM THE 



LEYDEN MUSEUM 



EDITED 



BY 



Dr. F. A. JENTINK, 

Director of the Museum. 



VOL. XIII. 



N°. 3. July 1891. 



LEYDEN" 

E. J. BRILL. 



Published in August leSOl. 



LIST OP CONTENTS. 
PART III — 1891. 



Page 
JVote XIV. A new genus of Calandrinae. Characterized by C. Kitsema Cz. 147. 
Note XV. A new species of Rhi/nehopliorus. Described by C. Eitsema Cz. 151. 
JVote XVI. Two synonymical remarks about Curculionidae. By C.RiTSEMA Cz. 154. 
I^ote XVII. On three Eastern MoUusks. By M. M. Schepman. (Plate 9). 155. 
Note XVIII. A new species of Laiirus. Described by I. C. Melvill. . 158. 
Note XIX. Polyctesis igorrota , nova species Buprestidarum. By K. M. 

Heller 159. 

Note XX. Contributions to the knowledge of the family Brenthidae. By 

Dr. A. Senna. — VI 161. 

Note XXI. Genre nouveau et espèces nouvelles du groupe des Oxyopisthen. 

üécrits par W. Roelofs 167. 

Note XXII. On Engraulis japonicus Schlegel. By Dr. C. L. Reüvens . 176. 
Note XXIII. Ueber eine neue Poli/pterus-k\t aus Liberia. Von Dr. F. 

Steindachxer 179. 

Note XXIV. On the Ceylon Cetoniidae collected by J. Z, Kannegieter. 

By J. R. H. Neervoort va.v de Poll and J. Z. Kannegieter . . . . 181. 
Note XXV. Synonymical remarks on Cetoniidae. By J. R. H. Neervoort 

VAN de Poll . 188. 

Note XXVI. A new species of the Longicorn genus Neopharsalia v. d. Poll. 

By J. Z. Kannegieter 189. 

Note XXVII. Quatre espèces nouvelles de Gyrinides AMgtnxt Orectogyrus. 

Decrites par M Kkgimbart 191. 

Note XXVIII. Synonymical remark about Cetonia bifida Oliv. By J. Z. 

Kannegieter 196. 

Note XXIX. Two new species of the genus Relota from Borneo. Described 

by C. RiTSEMA Cz 197. 

Note XXX. Some observations relating Cynopterus hrachjotis Muller and 

Kerivoula pellacida Waterhouse. By Dr. F. A. Jentink 202. 

Note XXXI. Some additions to the Mammalian-fauna of Billiton. By Dr. 

F. A. Jentink 207. 

Note XXXII. On a collection of Birds from Flores, Samao and Timor. 

By J. Büttikofer. . . , 210. 

Note XXXIIT. On Lepus netscheri Schlegel, Talis megalotis Muller and 

Anoa santniig Dubois. By Dr. F. A Jentink 217. 

Note XXXIV. Synopsis and alphabetical list of the described species of 

the genus Helota Mc.L. By C. Ritsema Cz 223. 



NOT E-S 



DEC ^U89l 



FROM THE 



LEYDEN MUSEUM 



EDITED 



BY 



Dr. F. A. JENTINK, 

Director of the Museum. 



VOL. XIII. 



N°. 4. October 1891. 



LEYDEN 

E. J. BRILL. 



LIST OF CONTENTS. 

PART IV — 1891. 



Page 
JSTote XXXV. Two new species of the Lucanoid genus Cffclommaius Vslttj . 

Described by C. Ritsema Cz. (Plate 10, fig. 1) 233. 

Note XXXVI. Lomotro'pa vellerialis, nouvelle espèce de Pyralide. Décrite 

par P. C. T. Snellen . 239 

Note XXXVII. A new Mammal from Sumatra. By Dr. A. A. W. Hu- 

BRECHT 241. 

Note XXXVIII. Description de neuf Elaterides nouveaux du Muse'e de 

Ltyde. Par E. Candèze 243 

Note XXXIX. A new oriental species of the Coleopterous genus Chelo- 

narium. Described by C. Ritsema Cz 249 

Xote XL. Further contributions to the knowledge of the Helofa-apecies of 

Burma. By C. Ritsema Cz 251. 

Note XLI. List of Reptiles brought from Siam by Mr. R. C. Keun. By 

Dr. Th. W. van Lidth de Jeude 255. 

t Ajrcliey Thomas Demery. By J. Büttikofer 248. 

Index 257. 

Title-page and Contents. 



3 2044 106 277 379 





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