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THE main idea in the Herbartian system of psychology 
is that the mind is built up of its own contents. Herbart > 
following Locke, not only denies the existence of " innate 
ideas," but puts contemptuously aside the doctrine of 
inborn faculties or capacities for acquiring knowledge. 
According to him, and others of his school, the mind 
possesses but one single original power : that of entering 
into relation with externals. Given this power, the 
mind at certain points of contact receives into itself 
" presentations " (sense percepts), each reception causing 
growth or, as he would put it, "widening the circle of 
thought ". But these mental contents are not often 
merely passive, they most frequently become " presen- 
tative activities," their force and suggestiveness being 
increased every time one returns to the surface of con- 
sciousness. By a process of selection and assimilation 
new " presentations " are joined to old, while the earliest 
and most simple by their interaction produce others of 
varying complexity. 

When a child comes for the first time to a teacher 
a certain number of these "presentations," with more 
or less cohesion among themselves, are already to be 
counted as its mental furniture and equipment, having 
entered partly by way of experience and partly by way 


vi Preface 

of intercourse, which is pretty much the same as saying 
that the mind has found out something of or by itself, 
and has learnt other things from previous instructors. 
This being so, Herbart's idea of the teacher's work is 
that out of the " presentations " existent he is to create 
" Knowledge" and by intercourse he is to arouse " Sym- 
pathy". As there are no "faculties" save and except 
the one of receiving impressions from without, the 
Herbartian does not set out to train and exercise and so 
develop the mind, but begins to provide the very food 
and substance of the mind ; to build up a mind, in fact, 
by carefully building " apperception masses" up. The 
word " apperception " was used before Herbart used 
it, but with slightly different meaning : with him it 
signifies the taking into the mind new " presentations " 
by means of groups of similar ideas which already form 
part of the mental content. It is almost equivalent to 
assimilation, for by it ideas already in existence receive 
not alone an addition but a new determination. 

It is not the aim of the writer to inquire at length 
into this theory of " Apperception " and " Apperception 
Masses," nor to trace the family resemblance between 
the action of groups of " similar masses " and our old 
friend the Association theory, since without at all sub- 
scribing to the principles put forward by Herbart we 
may clearly assent to the conclusion he arrives at, viz., 
the absolute necessity for teaching thoroughly by means 
of assimilation ; of using in the process of instruction 
the knowledge, and even the smallest particle of know- 
ledge, already possessed by the pupil ; and finally, 
in the act of instruction, to stimulate, concentrate, 
associate, reflect on, and cause the pupils consciously 
to reproduce the subject-matter of the lesson. It is 
here that Herbart has done good and lasting educational 
work. He has emphasised the old axiom " Teach from 

Preface vii 

the known to the unknown " ; but he has done more, and 
shown us how to do it. True, the Herbartian " Steps," 
as they have been called, are not wholly new to thought- 
ful teachers, but they are lucid and concise, and must 
infallibly prove extremely helpful to young teachers. 

As a preliminary, Herbart lays much stress on " In- 
terest " (though we demur at his tendency to identify 
it with Attention): "To be wearisome," he says, "is 
the cardinal sin of instruction ". He also evidently 
appreciates the position of the inexperienced teacher 
when about to prepare his lesson ; to select and classify 
and put into order, not alone the matter to be pre- 
sented, but the mode of presenting it the " Procedure " 
as it is called in the " Notes rt which follow. " The 
teacher's greatest difficulty," he says, " is to find real 
particulars ; to analyse his own thoughts into their 
elements." It is to lighten this difficulty that the 
present volume of lessons is issued, drawn up in con- 
formity with Herbart's plan, but, as the reader will see, 
not following his psychology in the " Aim " of the 

The " Steps " briefly are : Preparation, Presentation, 
Assimilation, Application or Association, and Recapitu- 

Reference has already been made to the fact that 
even the youngest pupil comes to a lesson with pre- 
existing knowledge. Herbart intimates the first step 
by saying that " This circle [of thought] is to be widened, 
or its contents more thoroughly examined," so that the 
Preparation will sometimes consist of a question or two 
which acts like a searchlight on the pupil's mind. The 
questions oftenest refer to the last lessons in the 
particular branch, e.g., in Grammar, Arithmetic, Euclid, 
etc. The questions resuscitate ideas, rules, principles, 
examples, etc., in order to concentrate or determine 

viii Preface 

the direction of concentration before the actual teach- 
ing begins. 

When the right ideas are uppermost in the con- 
sciousness, the new cognitions are placed clearly before 
the class. This is the second step, or Presentation ; and 
under this heading the teacher groups as much new 
matter as can be clearly apprehended in the allotted 
time. I do not say assimilated, because it most fre- 
quently happens that the work of assimilation (using 
the word in its general sense) goes on slowly and 
gradually, perfect illumination coming irregularly. 

Nothing is more foreign to the Herbartian method 
than " cram," so it would be a fundamental error to 
overload this second stage. 

Following the " presentation," or going hand in 
hand with it, is the work of connecting the new and 
old, of illustrating, questioning on, and so helping the 
pupil towards Assimilation. The place in time in the 
lesson of Association varies with different branches : e.g., 
in an object-lesson on an animal the description of its 
various parts and organs (presentation) is associated 
with its uses, the latter presentation being the comple- 
ment of the former. In a natural science lesson the 
experiments are the associating link, the deductions from 
them form the new presentations. Lastly, there is the 
important Recapitulation which summarises and re-pic- 
tures for the pupils the important parts of the lesson ; 
which searches their minds by concise and pointed 
questions, forces them finally to concentrate their atten- 
tion on the subject-matter as a " unity," and fans their 
flagging interest. 

Such in brief is the Herbartian method of in- 
struction. It is applied in practical form to various 
branches in the "Notes of Lessons" which follow. 
Here and there a sufficient number of lessons on one 

Preface ix 

topic have been written to form a " series," but this has 
not been attempted in general. If the " Lessons " 
give to English Teachers a working knowledge of all 
that is best in the Herbartian method, they will fulfil 
their end. 


WIMBLEDON, December, 1901. 




Early English Prose and Poetry ! 

Explanation and Paraphrase of a Poetical Extract 3 

Elizabethan Literature ........... 7 

Elizabethan English as illustrated by As You Like It . . . .11 

The Diction of Poetry X 6 

Introductory Lesson to As You Like It 20 

The Date of As You Like It 23 

Act ii., Scene i, As You Like It 26 

Act ii., Scenes, As You Like It 29 

The Parts of a Simple Sentence 34 

The Analysis and Parsing of a Piece of Poetry . . . . . .36 

The Transitive and Intransitive Verbs : 35 

The Voice of Verbs (English Grammar) 40 

The Function of certain Words ........ 43 

The Elements of the English Language ....... 45 

Lesson on Synonyms 50 

The Change of Meaning of Words 54 

Translation of a Selected Passage from French 57 

The Formation of the Plural of French Nouns 61 

The Rules for the Agreement of Past Participles in French ... 65 

Selected French Idioms 68 

Rebellions in the Reign of Henry VII 71 

The Spanish Armada 74 

The Prosperity of England during Elizabeth's Reign .... 80 

The Character of Philip II. of Spain 86 

The Marian Persecutions .......... 89 

The Character of James I. of England 93 

The Civil War in Reign of Charles 1 96 

The Battle of Marston Moor 99 

The Career of Oliver Cromwell 103 

The Great Fire of London 108 

The Puritans . . . . . . . . . . . .112 

The Rebellion of Monmouth 115 

The Trial of the Seven Bishops . . . . . . . .117 

The War of the Spanish Succession ........ 122 

The Battle of Trafalgar 126 

The Physical Features of Switzerland 132 

xii Contents 


The Winds 137 

The Phases of the Moon 141 

The Tides 144 

The Physical Features of Scotland 148 

The Sculpture of the Land 152 

The Cape to Cairo Railway 156 

The Nature of Heat and its Effects 160 

The Propagation of Heat . . . . . . . . .164 

The Conduction of Heat 168 

The Mercurial Thermometer .......... 171 

First Lesson on Sound . 174 

The Pressure of Fluids (in a Closed Vessel) 177 

Evaporation (of Water) 181 

The Barometer 184 

The Mechanical Powers . . . . . . . . . .187 

The Principle of Archimedes ......... 192 

A Problem in Geometry .......... 194 

Pythagoras' Theorem . . .197 

A Theorem in Geometry 200 

Rider in Geometry ........... 203 

Rider in Geometry ........... 206 


Profit and Loss .......... 208 

Clocks and Time ... 211 

Brokerage (Stocks) 214 

Extraction of the Square Root 217 


Symbolic Expressions . ........ 222 

Factors 224 

Quadratic Equations 228 

Extraction of the Square Root (Compound Expression) . . . 230 
Object- Lessons 

The Spider ........... 233 

The Horse 


The Butterfly 239 

The Camel . . 242 

The Elephant 244 

The Bat .246 

The Seed 249 

The Flower 252 

The Apple 255 

Sugar 257 

Cork 258 

First Lesson on Form (Elementary Euclid) 261 

Method of Passing a Bill in Parliament 264 

The Invention of Printing 267 


Class Age, u to 13 years. Time Half an hour. Aim To exercise 
imagination of class and lead them to know the origin of English Prose 
and Poetry. 


I. Preparation. 

i. Meaning of 


How Literature 
has been pre- 

A collective term for all writings not 
connected with any special art or 
Two kinds, Prose and Poetry. 

II. Presentation. 

'(a) Stored up by memory,^ 

repetition and tradi- [Ex. : Homer 
tion. Bards, Min- 1 for^ooyears. 

(6) By signs and letters on leaves, parch- 
ment, flattened reeds and inner 
bark of trees. 

(c) Writing on parchment f Monks, 

and paper. \Scriptorium. 

(d) Printing after Caxton, 1474. 
(Cadmon. Whitby and St. Hilda, 670. 

I Para P hrased Old and New Testament. 
[Form. Head rhyme or alliteration. 

(a) Father of English prose, Ven. Bede, 

seventh century. 

(b) A monk at Jarrow-on-Tyne. 

(i.) Ecclesiastical his- 

(ii.) Gospel of St. John 


(d) Story of death as told by his disciple 


P tr 

3. First English 

(c) Chief works- 

Nofes G& Hcrbartian Method 

4. Saxon Chronicle. < 

'(a] " The newspaper, the Annals, the 
History of the Nation." 
(b) Lasted till 1154. 

(c) Various writers. Monks. King 

III. Association. 

Compare literature of to-day as regards 

(a) Methods of preserving. 

(b) Subjects chosen. 

(c) Character of writers. 

IV. Application. 

I (a) History ; Ex. : Saxon Chronicle. 
(6) Change of language. 
(c) Bad or good influence. 
(d) As regards education. 

V. Recapitulation. 

Class to write out brief answers to following questions : 

(a) Define the term " literature ". 

(b) What was the Saxon Chronicle P 

(c) Write a short essay showing how a modern school 

would differ from one in early English times. 


I. i. Question pupils as to the different subjects about 
which books are written, and show that the manner in which 
a thing is expressed has more to do with literature than 
the subject-matter. Give examples of lesson books, etc., 
which would not be considered literature. Literature is 
divided into prose and poetry. 

II. i and 2. Literature preserves the thoughts of great 
people, and when they had no books how could these thoughts 
be remembered ? Explain bard, minstrel, and refer to Homer 
carried down by repetition for five hundred years. What were 
the very earliest kind of books ? Tell the class how leaves, 
bark, and flattened reeds were used for books and to preserve 
writing. Who wrote the books and spent their lives copy- 
ing, etc. ? When was this state of things changed ? how ? 
why ? What difference would this make to the value of 

Explanation and Paraphrase of a Poetical Extract 3 

books and the spread of literature? Now the first English 
poetry was written, composed by Caedmon. (Tell story of 
St. Hilda and Caedmon.) Subject was parts of Old and 
New Testament, and kind of rhyme very strange. All 
words of same initial letter were used. Called "Allitera- 
tion" or head-rhyme. Quote "An Austrian army awfully 
arrayed," etc. Show Whitby on map, and then relate 
account of first English prose writer, Venerable Bede, in 
seventh century, a monk at Jarrow-on-Tyne. (Show on 
map.) He wrote a history of what he would naturally 
study, as he was a priest. He also translated the Gospel of 
St. John, etc. (Tell story of his death.) 

3. As there were no books or papers such as we have 
now to tell the news, how is it we know so much about 
those times ? Bards, minstrels, etc., and the Saxon Chronicle, 
which was written till 1154. (Who was reigning then?) 
The chief writers were again the monks. 

III. Now we see how difficult it was to keep account 
of events in those far-off times. What methods have we 
to-day of keeping a history of news, events ? What subjects 
did our first prose and poetry writers take ? and what is 
chosen now ? What sort of people wrote in early times, 
who made the books, etc., and who does it now ? From this 
we see that the Church was the first to help on literature. 

IV. What uses can be made of good literature ? 


(Introduction to Lay of Last Minstrel.) 

Class Average age, 13. Time Half an hour. Aim To lead class 
to understand the full meaning and appreciate the beauty of the passage, 
and thus be able to reproduce it in their own words. 

I. Preparation. 

(Sir Walter Scott. 

i. Source. -j Introduction to Lay of Last Minstrel. 
Other works of same author. 

Notes on Herbartian Method 

2. General Sense of 
the Passage. 

A patriotic burst of enthusiasm. 

Whatever else a man may have he will 
be deemed unworthy, and will soon 
be forgotten if he have not this love 
of country. 

II. Presentation. 

i. Inversions 



2. Omissions. 

3. Meaning of 
Words and 

4. Figurative 

(d) " Breathes there a man." 

(b) "As home his footsteps he hath 


(c) " For him no minstrel raptures," etc. 

(d) " High tho' his titles," etc. 

(a) " High tho' his titles (be)." 

(b) (As) " Boundless his wealth as wish," 


(c) " Living (he) shall forfeit," etc. 

(a) " hath " : poetical. 

(b) " strand " = shore ; here = land. 

(c) "(/there be," subj. mood, less often 

used now. 

(d) "tho' high his titles," subj. mood, 

less often used now. 

(e) "minstrel raptures," noun, used as 


(/) "despite" = notwithstanding. 
(g) " pelf" = riches. 
(h) "vile dust" = the earth. 
(i) " sprung," past partic. for past tense. 
>JJJ) " concentred," i.e., concentrated. 

(a) " soul so dead," i.e., with so little 


(b) " Whose heart burned " metaphor. 

(c) " footsteps turned "1 Synec- Jpart for 
" foreign strand " J doche\ whole. 

(d) "power and pelf'j 

"forfeit fair" ^Alliteration, 

"doubly dying" ) 

Explanation and Paraphrase, of a Poetical Extract 5 

IV. Application. 

Paraphrase of Passage. 

" Is there any one so devoid of love for his 
country as to feel no thrill of emotion 
when he returns home from travel in other 
lands ? If so, note him ; for the poet's 
song is not for him, however great may 
be his rank and riches : notwithstanding 
all these, the unhappy man, wrapped up 
in himself, will lose his reputation during 
life, will die without friends, or honour, 
forgotten by all." 

III. Assimilation. 

I. Refer briefly to the writer of the passage, who he 
was, where he lived, his first poem. Ask what else he 
wrote and how he is best known now. Tell class his poetry 
is noted for his many inversions of the natural order of 
words ; let them look out for such in reading the passage. 
(Now read passage while class follow with their books.) 
Ask them for the general sense of passage, and point out 
what a beautiful patriotic outburst it is. Ask to what 
country Scott referred naturally. Have we any similar one 
of Shakespeare referring to England ? 

II. Next let class read it simultaneously, then ask what 
unusual order we find in the opening words. Why thus 
placed ? Find out the examples of inversions for emphasis. 
Where is the emphatic word placed ? What is meant by 
" heart . . . burned " ? Is it literally true ? What kind of 
language is it then ? How can we express it simply ? What 
figure of speech is it ? Ask for other examples of metaphors 
from class. Call attention to other figures in the first six 
lines and draw from class their force and meaning ; then let 
one of the class express the first six lines in his own words. 

Take the next four lines in a similar way. Ask the mood 
of " If such," etc., and if it is common now. Is there any 
other example of subjunctive mood in these lines ? When 

6 Notes on Herbartian Method 

is the subjunctive used ? What is understood before " bound- 
less " ? What would be the natural order ? Why changed ? 
Paraphrase these lines. Read the last six, ask meaning 
of "pelf," and if often used, where chiefly found? Note 
" concentred ". What is unusual about this word ? What 
form has it generally ? Compare " centred " and " concen- 
trated ". What do both mean ? How expressed otherwise ? 
Ask what the class notices about the first letters of some 
words in lines 13 and 14. Tell them about alliterative poetry 
and give another example. What is meant by " doubly 
dying," " vile dust " ? both poetical. What part of the verb 
is " sprung " ? Is it correctly used here ? How do we ex- 
press " unwept" and " unsung " in simpler form ? 

IV. Let one or two pupils now paraphrase the last six 
lines, then several go through the whole without interrup- 
tions as to allusions or grammar, seeking only the best 
way to express the thoughts of Scott truly but in natural 

Let class write out the paraphrase for home-work. 

" Breathes there the man, with soul so dead, 

Who never to himself hath said, 

* This is my own my Native Land ! ' 

Whose heart hath ne'er within him burned 

As home his footsteps he hath turned 

From wand'ring on a foreign strand ? 

If such there breathe, go mark him well : 

For him no minstrel raptures swell ; 

High though his titles, proud his name, 

Boundless his wealth as wish can claim 

Despite those titles, power and pelf, 

The wretch, concentred all in self, 

Living, shall forfeit fair renown ; 

And, doubly dying, shall go down 

To the vile dust from whence he sprung, 

Unwept, unhonoured and unsung ! " 

Elizabethan Literature 


Class Age, 15 to 17 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Aim 
To exercise imagination and judgment while imparting a general idea 
of the period. 

I. Preparation. 

Causes leading 
to this new 
and great pe- 

II. Presentation. 
(a) Rise. 


(a) Effect of Renaissance began to be 

felt in England only in the sixteenth 

(b) Peace and prosperity at home. 

(c) Impulse received from discoveries in 

the New and Old World and in 

((a) Pageants, Mysteries and Moralities 
of olden Times. 

(b) Translations of classical dramas. 

(c) Original dramas. 


( I 

" J(i) Comedy. 

I First English comedy, Ralph Royster 
Doyster, acted before Queen Eliza- 
( beth ; composed by Nicholas Udall. 

^1(2) Tragedy. J First En S lish tragedy, Gorboduc ; by 
\ Sackville on classical model. 

(a) Inns and courtyards acting in open 

(c) Theatres. 


(b) First theatre, Blackfriars, greater 

Part still uncovered. 

(c) Before end of reign eighteen in 

London alone. 

(d) Contrast between sixteenth and 

nineteenth century theatres. 

Nofes on Hcrbartin-n Method 


(a) Chris. Mar-( l ' 
lowe, greatest- 
of ist period. 

the greatest 
<J English dra- 

greatest after 

Short and dissolute life. Style, coarse 
and bombastic, yet full of passion. 

Works : chief, Dr. Fanstus, i.e., 
Faust of Goethe. 

Contrast with (a). 

Remarkable for large vocabulary 
wide experience of human nature, 
and wonderful delineation of char- 

Works : Comedies, tragedies, his- 
torical dramas. 

Like (a) led dissolute life and died 
in poverty. 

Chief Works : Two comedies, The 
AlcJiemist and Volpone the Fox, 
belonging to later Elizabethan 



4. PROSE. 

(a) A pastoral and allegorical poet. 

Made a name for himself by the 
Shepherd's Calendar. 

(b) Chief Work : Faerie Queen, an alle- 

gory. Plot: Twelve knights fight 
in defence of twelve virtues against 
their contrary vices. The Queen 
Gloriana personated Elizabeth. 

Hooker. A divine. Wrote Laws of 
Ecclesiastical Polity, a work on 
Church matters, written in rich 
language and elaborate style. 

Francis Bacon. A scientist ; the inaugu- 
rator of a new Philosophy. Greatest 
work : The Advancement of Learn- 

Elizabethan Literature g 

III. Association. 

Connect literature with history, manners and customs 
of the times, and show how the one is influenced by the 

(Passages from Spenser and Bacon to be read to the 
class so as to enable class to perceive difference of their style 
from that of modern times.) 

IV. Recapitulation. 

What were the chief causes of the great advance of 
literature in this period ? Describe the rise of the modern 
drama. Name the first comedy and tragedy in English. 
Who wrote Dr. Faustus, Julius Ccesar, The Faerie Queen, 
Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, Volpone, Advancement of 
Learning ? What was the character of each of these ? 


I. Begin by asking pupils what was the great event in 
1453, and how it affected literature in general, and why the 
revival was not felt in England till a century later. Draw 
from this that in time of war there is no opportunity for 
literature to advance, and ask whether it was likely to pros- 
per in the time of the Tudors and especially Elizabeth. The 
dawn of a new and great period of English literature began 
with the fifteenth century, and reached its full meridian 
splendour in Elizabeth's reign, owing to the peace and 
prosperity at home, and the spirit of adventure and discovery 

II. i. (a) Tell class that the most striking characteristic 
of this period is the birth and rapid growth of the modern 
drama. Ask what were the only kinds of plays acted before 
this time, and what was their aim. (To teach the people 
morals and religion.) Can this be said of the modern 
drama ? Describe its rise from the translations and imita- 
tions of the classical plays just then so popular at the 
Universities, helped on by encouragement from Elizabeth, 

IO Notes on Hcrbartian Method 

who was very fond of pageants and entertainments of all 

(6) Ask what are the two kinds of dramas now quite 
common, and what is the difference between them. 

The first original play was a comedy called Ralph 
Royster Doyster, composed by Nicholas Udall, to be acted 
before the Queen by the Temple students. Describe the 
plot briefly. 

Two years later we hear of the first English tragedy (by 
Sackville), exactly on the model of ancient Greek plays 

Tell the story, and point out it went to excess in tragic 
deeds, almost every character of any importance being mur- 
dered before the end ! Compare this with any of Shake- 
speare's plays which were written shortly after. What 
must be concluded ? 

(c) Before considering a few of the greatest dramatists, 
we must take a glance at the places for acting in the early 
days of the drama. Draw from class where the Mysteries 
and Moralities used to be acted, and what were the rude 
attempts at scenery. The first theatre proper was built at 
Blackfriars in the beginning of Elizabeth's reign. Describe 
it, and compare with the many magnificent buildings of the 
present day. Call attention to the fact that no female actors 
were ever seen then ; boys always acted their parts. 

2. Let us now consider the character and works of the 
three greatest Elizabethan dramatists. Two of them are no 
longer acted, but the third is perhaps better appreciated now 
than in his own time. Ask who is our greatest dramatist. 

(a) Christopher Marlowe was the greatest of the first 
period of Elizabeth's reign. A man of passionate and dis- 
solute character. Describe his end. (Stabbed in a tavern 
brawl.) Nevertheless a great genius. Name works. Ask 
who else has dramatised the legend of Dr. Faustus. In 
same way treat of Shakespeare and Ben Jonson, and compare 
their characters, lives, and, in consequence, the tone of their 

Elizabethan English n 

3. This general outline of Elizabethan literature would 
not be complete without referring to the poetry and prose of 
the period, though not so important. The greatest poet was 
Edmund Spenser a pastoral and allegorical poet. (Ask 
meaning of these terms.) Mention his two chief works, 
and show how the Faerie Queen is a true allegory. 

4. Among the prose writers of the period may be men- 
tioned Hooker, a divine, who wrote a prodigious work on 
Church matters (give name). Also Francis Bacon, the great 
originator of experimental science. (Ask meaning and ex- 
plain.) He belongs in great part to a later period, as most 
of his works, and among them his greatest, The Advance- 
ment of Learning, were written in James I.'s reign. 

Might mention that Ben Jonson's play, The Alchemist, 
was lately produced in London by the Society of Players 
that modern critics found dialogue too lengthy and action 
too little. 


Class Oxford Junior Grade. Time Fifty minutes. Aim To 
exercise judgment of the class in discovering the Elizabethan English in 


I. Preparation. 

1. Refer to diffi-f Chaucer. 

culties in read-| Spenser, 
ing [Shakespeare. 

2. Cause of ("Living languages. 

changes. \Cf. dead languages. 

II. Presentation. 

fWhy important. 
I. Elizabethan J Rise of drama . 

English. [Literature increased. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

2. Effects of 'Period 
on Language. 

3. Some Points of 

(a) Transition period in English lan- 

(6) Influx of new discoveries new 
thoughts require new words. 

(c) Revival of classical translations of 

Latin and Greek authors caused 
change of construction. 

(d) Destruction of inflections ; therefore 

experiments made. 

((a) Any part of speech used for any 
other : 

" Thou speakest wiser than thou 
art ware of" (Act ii., 4, 52) 
adjective for adverb. 
" In their barks my thoughts I'll 
character" (Act iv., 2, 6) 
noun for verb. 

" Let no face be kept in mind but 
the fair of Rosalind " (Act iii., 
2, 84) adjective for noun. 

(b) Double negatives for emphasis : 

" Nor did not with unbashful 
forehead" (Act ii., 3, 50). 

"I cannot go no further" (Act 

ii., 4> 8). 
Double comparatives for emphasis : 

" A more sounder instance " (Act 
iii., 2, 55). 

(c) Omission of relative : 

" But that . . . they call compli- 
ment " (Act ii., 5, 22). 

" But is there any else . . . longs 
to see, etc., ... is there yet 
another . . . dotes upon rib- 
breaking" (Act i., 2, 127, 128). 

(d) Quasi-singular verb and plural sub- 
ject (accounted for by the fact that 

^ play was written to be spoken) : 

Elizabethan English 

3. Some Points of 

III. Association. 

Compare differ- 
ences of 

Also change of 

" There comes an old man and 
his three sons " (Act i., 2, 106). 

"There is none of my uncle's 
marks upon you " (Act iii., 2, 


" There comes a lover of mine 
and a lover of hers " (Act v., 2, 


(e) Formation of participles tendency 
to drop "en " : 

" He would not have spoke such 

a word " (Act i., i, 77). 
" If thou hast not broke from 

company" (Act ii., 4, 37). 
" Why I have eat none yet " (Act 

ii., 7, 88). 

(/) Unsettled accent due to tendency to 
retain Latin accent versus inclina- 
tion to put English accent ; there- 
fore changes took place in the same 
word : 

" Now my co-mates and brothers 

in exile " (Act ii., i, i). 
"And as mine eye doth his ef- 
figies witness " (Act iii., 7, 193). 
" The quintessence of every 
sprite" (Act iii., 2, 128). 

(Chaucer's English. 

\Norman English. 

JCustoms, manners, environment, ideas, 

\ etc. 

IV. Application. 

Good features in C i 
Elizabethan| 2 
English. (3 


"Artless and unlaboured harmony seems to be the 
heritage of Elizabethan poets." 

1 4 Notes on Plerbartian Method 

V. Recapitulation. 

1. Influences affecting Elizabethan English. 

2. Chief differences. 

3. Pupils to discover for themselves one example of each 



I. i and 2. Question the class as to reason of difficulties 
found in reading old English authors Chaucer, Spenser (write 
lines from each on blackboard) and Shakespeare. What is 
the cause of this ? Contrast Latin and Greek why not 
so difficult to those who know the language, although older 
than Shakespeare's works. Why this difference ? What do 
we call languages which change ? Those which do not 
change ? What sort of English do we meet in Shakespeare? 
What is his age called ? 

II. i and 2. This Elizabethan age is of importance 
why ? What arose at this time that made Shake- 
speare such a great poet ? How was literature increased 
at this period, and why ? There were many events and 
circumstances which affected the language at this time. 
We shall try to find some. Then question so as to elicit 
Revival of Classics, discoveries at sea and on land, and results 
of each to language. The language was in an unsettled state 
(refer to periods of English), and, therefore, while people 
were altering spelling, construction, inflections, etc., what 
would this licence lead to ? A variety of methods; no settled 

3. Now we shall see how some of these irregularities are 
to be found in Shakespeare's English : 

(a) Any part of speech used for any other. (Quote 
examples, and ask reason for such change and irregularities.) 

(b) The poets of the age tried to be emphatic and brief: 
hence often double negatives (quote examples, and question 
on them), also double comparatives. (Cf. modern sense of 
such.) The Elizabethan authors aimed at brevity. What 
would this naturally lead to in their writings ? Omissions, 
but not such as to destroy the sense. (Quote examples, and 

Elizabethan English 15 

ask the class to supply the missing word.) What was the 
end for which Shakespeare's plays were written ? Was it 
to be read by future generations ? (To be acted at the time : 
hence they were written to be spoken.) This fact has led to 
some irregularities, as, for instance, singular verb and plural 
subject. Elicit reason for this, and quote examples. 

This period of English forwarded loss of inflection. Give 

What influences affected language by revival of learning, 
and what words would be likely to come into the language 
at this time ? This led to the unsettled accent on words 
some tended to the Latin accent and some to the English 
accent ; therefore changes took place in the same word. 
(Quote examples.) 

III. Now these are the chief differences we have to 
encounter in Elizabethan English as read in Shakespeare. 
Now, if we were to read Chaucer, would our difficulties be 
greater or less ? (Show, by reference to Chaucer's Prologue, 
that spelling would be quite different, more inflections, and 
pronoun it not used yet.) Is there any other influence which 
would affect the language of an author ? Surroundings, 
manners, customs: hence passages that would not have 
sounded coarse according to customs in those times would 
do so now. 

IV. Still, although these difficulties exist, how does the 
language of Shakespeare rank to-day ? What quality would 
result from neglect of rules ? from omissions and peculiar 
construction ? and from emphasis and force ? A certain 
writer has said, " Artless and unlaboured harmony has 
seemed to be the heritage of Elizabethan poets". Cf. effect 
of laboured efforts at harmony, etc., by moderns, and the 
result not to be compared with Shakespeare. 

V. Recapitulate by questions on points given. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 


(Illustrations from Richard II., Clarendon Press Ed.) 

Class Pupils from 13 to 15 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Aim To lead class to an appreciation of the niceties and beauties of 
language and so cultivate a critical taste. 


I. Preparation. 

Why poetic diction 
should differ 
from prose. 

(a) Poetry and prose differ" 
in their object, the one 
mainly is to give plea- 
sure, the other infor- 

one must be 

beautiful, the 
other clear. 

mation : hence 

On account of form poetry isj rhyme, 

limited by exigencies of \metre. 

II. and III. Presentation and Association. 

Some marks of poetic diction. 
i. It is rendered picturesque by : 

/'woe, for sorrow, p. 49. 
alack, alack, for woe. 
why he cometh hither " (for here) t p 

(a) Use by pre- 
ference of un- 

familiar words, i " our eyes do hate the dire aspect," p. 13. 
e.g. : " 'tis nameless woe, I wot " (for know). 

' " to bear the tidings of calamity." 

foryond methinks he stands," p. 49. 

(b) Figures 



" Edward's seven sons were as 

seven vials," p. 7. 
" Be swift like lightning," p. 12. 
" In rage deaf as the sea, hasty 

as fire." 

The Diction of Poetry 

(b) Figures of 

(c) Personification 
and personal 

My oil-dried lamp shall be 


My inch of taper," p. 16. 
Ere my tongue shall 

wound," p. 6. 

Meta- I " Thou most beauteous inn," 
J phor. \ p. 66. 

" Time made me his number- 
ing clock," p. 79. 
" This precious stone set in 

the silver sea," p. 21. 
" Men are but gilded loam." 

"That strew the green lap of the new 

come spring." 

" Might fright fair peace." To wake, p. 13. 
" Some of ... by the Destinies cut," p. 7. 
" Truth hath a quiet breast," p. 12. 
" ignorance ... a gaoler," p. 14. 

2. It is rendered terse and euphonious : 

" The sullen passage of thy weary steps," 

p. 17. 
" Vassal hand/' p. 49 ; " my stooping 

duty," p. 48. 
" my weeping eye," p. 9 ; " maid-pale 

peace," p. 49. 
" a ceremonious leave." 
" the fearful bending of my knee." 

" Is near the hate of 
I those [who] love 
, Antecedent and not." 

relatives, e.g.A " And duty bids defend," 
objectives. p. 32. 

"That receipt [which] 
> I had," p. 5. 
Conjunctives: e.g., "He would have 

been so brief," p. 47. 
Particles: "'Venge," p. 8; "'gainst," p. 15. 

(a) By the use of 

(b) By the sup- 
pression of 
words and 

1 8 Notes on Herbartian Metlwd 

Summary : The choice of words in prose and poetry is 
affected by the widely different objects of these, one being 
to give information, must be clear before all else, the other 
must be beautiful before all else. This is secured by certain 
artifices, viz., the use of figures of speech, the use of epithets, 
the suppression of all unnecessary words and the use of un- 
familiar words provided always they be more euphonious. 

IV. Eecapitulation. 

i. Name some devices of poets in order to give beauty 
to their passages. 2. Quote one metaphor from Richard II. 
3. What faults may metaphors have ? 4. Give examples. 
5. Name the chief Shakespearian device for shortening and 
beautifying expression of his ideas. 


i. Introduce lesson by pointing out to class that the 
object of the ordinary prose writer is to impart either some 
information or a moral lesson. Draw from them that clear- 
ness is the first thing the writer aims at. Nothing will 
excuse a fault against clearness. Question them as to dif- 
ference of poetry. Ask if it is as a rule clear and easy to 
understand. Is this counted a fault? Show that some 
kinds of rhetoric prose, impassioned speech, etc., very closely 
resemble poetry. Why ? Because beautiful. Draw from 
class meaning of word diction. What other limitations 
as to diction in poetry ? Give examples. 

(a) Remark at opening that Richard II. is chosen as 
means of illustration only because of utility. Other plays, 
as Midsummer Night, Tempest, etc., more poetic. An 
historical play more like prose. Beauty dependent on 
pictures ; prove this. Write on board one or two examples, 
and question as to the word that would betray the quotation 
to be from vers-e. Give reasons as to metre and novelty for 
use of "hither" "dire" "wot". Show from " yond 
methinks " that metre is not always dictating principle. 
Make pupils supply second syllable, "yonder I think"; 

The Diction of Poetry 19 

read this aloud. Draw from class it is commonplace, and 
that this alone makes it unsuitable. 

(b) Give some examples, e.g., " Quick as thought," 
" White as snow," etc., to show that comparison forms a 
large part of our speech. Elicit two or three figures of com- 
parison, and get definition from class. 

Quote some similes and get others from class. Turn 
one of the examples into a metaphor. Show increase of 
force. Compare to colour scheme in painting. Contrast 
needful to art. 

Take one or two metaphors, " Men are but gilded loam"; 
work out the comparison fully. Point out how metaphors 
may fail may be mixed, e.g., " He smelt a rat, he saw it 
brewing in the air, but he would nip it in the bud". Draw 
from class why the Parliamentary orator who was guilty of 
this failed. Give another example from text, e.g., "Who 
when they see the hours ripe . . . will rain hot vengeance". 
Ask pupils to alter so as to make metaphor consistent. 
Point out fault of too many details, e.g., passage beginning 
"Time made me his numbering clock". Show fault. Call 
attention to " even in the glasses of thine eyes," etc. Show 
part of this is literally true; therefore not good as an effective 
metaphor. Read "ere my tongue shall wound . . . or sound". 
Question as to fault of metaphor. (Recap, i by a few 

(c) Pass on to Personification, treating examples after 
same mode. 

2 (a) Coming to the use of epithets, point out that class 
is now to examine a favourite Shakespearian device. Select 
first passage quoted in matter, and expand the ideas in 
sullen and weary. Ask class how it gains. Show that one 
word makes a picture. 

Do this with two or three examples, and then draw from 
class the terms Terse and Euphonious. 

(b) In same manner go through next point, asking class 
to supply omissions. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 


Class Oxford Junior Grade. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Previous Knowledge The story of the play. Aim To give the class 
notions of the general character of the play and its place among Shake- 
speare's works, so as to form a foundation upon which the course of 
lessons may be built. 

I. Preparation. 

ent styles 



2. Examples of 

II. Presentation. 


i. Style of Play: 
As You Like-^ 

2. Story and its 

3. Circumstances 
connected with. 





TT. A , ' fTragic, melodramatic. 
Historical. | 


Midsummer Night's Dream. 
Richard II., Henry V. 
Merchant of Venice, As You 



Pastoral. Scene laid 
in a forest (Arden). 

Written after 
Henry V. 

One of Shake-"| Best of them with 
later I Midsummer 
} Night's Dream. 
'Therefore scene 
in France, and 
from camp 
and Court to 
forest and 
Lodge's Tale of Rosalynde. 

( Rosalind, Celia, 
Chief characters. j Qrlando. 

Dedication of Lodge (Cl. 

Press Ed., p. viii.). 
As reply to criticism of 

Ben Jonson. 
Shakespeare took part of Adam. 
Why Shakespeare philosophises 
about adversity. 

He mocks the folly of the Court. 
The refinement of the jester's jokes. 

Title of I 

Introductory Lesson to "As You Like //" 21 

III. Association. 

1. With Midsummer Night's Dream as to style. 

2. With other plays, where woman is the chief char- 


3. With Hamlet, as Shakespeare took part in it also. 

4. Contrast Shakespeare's delineation of character with 

Dickens's method. 

IV. Application. 

'(a) To show types of love in Court and 

, in the country, 

i. Shakespeare s (fe) The refinement of fun and i aughter . 

(c) To look at formalities of the Court 
in their true light. 

V. Recapitulation of chief points connected with style of 

play, source of the story, chief characters and any 
circumstances connected with the plot. 
Blackboard sketch (filled in as the recapitulation proceeds). 


I. i and 2. Introduce lesson by questions on the differ- 
ent plays of Shakespeare known to class, those they have 
learnt, and deduce the three classes Historical, Legendary 
and Fictitious. Ask what prose works fall under this last 
class. Refer to the fact of the plot being the product of 
the imagination or taken from some work of fiction. Give 
examples of each, and then elicit from what they know 
already of As You Like It that it is a play of fiction and 
a comedy. 

II. i. We see then that it is a comedy, and is considered 
one of Shakespeare's best with Midsummer Night's Dream. 
The scene of As You Like It is laid in a forest, therefore 
what kind of comedy is it ? (Pastoral.) The Forest 
" Arden ". Two suppositions as to name. Where have 
we allusion to the Ardennes ? This play was written after 
Henry V. Draw from class contrast in style from Court 
to country and forest; and that Shakespeare's own circum- 
stances at the time made him bitter against the follies of 
the Court, and inclined him to philosophise on adversity. 

22 Notes on Herbartian Method 

2. The story is not original, but taken from a novel 
called Tale of Rosalynde, written by Lodge about Shake- 
speare's time, and Lodge had already borrowed it from some 
one else. (Refer to the idea prevalent at that time with regard 
to original plots.) Elicit chief characters Rosalind, Celia 
and Orlando by reference to story of play. Origin of title 
uncertain. Supposed to have been taken from a passage in 
Lodge's dedication. (Make class read it together from text- 
book, Cl. Press Edition.) Second supposition is that it is 
a mocking reply to Ben Jonson's criticism on the comedies 
of Shakespeare. 

3. In connection with this play we may note that Shake- 
speare himself took a part, that of Adam (this and Ghost of 
Hamlet are the only parts which it is certain he took). Relate 
legend about his brother having seen him. Refer to personal 
troubles, and as a result his philosophy about Court. Touch- 
stone the most refined jester of Shakespeare. " His wit was 
half foolery, his foolery half wit." 

III. As in this and other plays, the character of women 
comes out strong. Cf. Portia in Merchant of Venice. Com- 
pares with Midsummer Night's Dream in style and fun ; 
with Hamlet in part taken by Shakespeare. Plot not much 
in itself, but out of sentiments and characters interest arises 
rather than events and situations. Contrast with Dickens 
in character drawing. Shakespeare's characters are from 
within, Dickens's from without. Resulting in drama and 
prose respectively. 

IV. Question as to results often effected by a poet's or a 
prose writer's works (Dickens, Besant, etc., etc.). Dreyfus 
case. . . . Shakespeare's intention in this play was to show 
up the types of love in the high-born maiden and in the 
peasant. The jokes made are more refined than those in 
other plays, and he aimed at exposing the formalities of the 
Court in their true light. 

V. Recapitulate chief points of style, source of story and 
circumstances connected with the play in general. 

Set class a question, requiring as answer the substance 
of lesson given. This to be answered in writing. 

The Date of " As You Like It" 


Class Oxford Junior Grade. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Ai m To exercise judgment of the class in deciding date from proofs 
evident, and to interest them in circumstances connected with the 

I. Preparation. 

i. Means of ascer- 
taining Date. 

II. Presentation. 

I. Extrinsi cP roofs.- 

[(a) Why difficult. No date given by S. 

(b) Whether belonging to early or later 


(c) External evidences. 
.(d) Internal evidences. 

\(a) Entry : 

i. Entered in Stationers' Register with 
Henry V., Much Ado About No- 
thing, Every Man in His Humour 
Ben Jonson. 

ii. "To be staid," i.e., not printed, date 
4th August ; no year given. Only 
printed in 1623. 

iii. Previous entry, 2yth May, 1600, 1601. 

iv. Name not menO Cf. Merchant 
tioned by Mere, j- of Venice, 
1598. J Richard II. 

(b) Allusions : 

i. " Whoever loved, that loved not at 
first sight" (Act iii., 5, 82) quoted 
from Marlowe's Hero and Leander, 
published in 1598. 

ii. " Like Diana in the fountain " (Act 
iv., i, 134) probable reference to 
statue at Cheapside, 1596, for a 

iii. " They are all like one another as 
half-pence are" (Act iii., 2,327) 

2 4 

Notes on Hcrbartian Method 

i. ExtrinsicP roofs. 

2. Intrinsic Proofs A 

half-pence only coined in 1582-83, 
reign of Elizabeth. 

iv. Possible reference in v., 2, 63, and 
iv., i, 164, but would put date too 
Therefore possible date 1599 or 1600. 

(a) Style and mode of thought influ- 

enced by signs of premature age in 
Shakespeare due to adversity, loss 
of friends, etc. ; therefore a later 

(b) Language alive with imagery. Group- 

ing of characters not so artificial. 

(c) Verse tests : 

i. Run on verse and not end stop as in 
early plays (Act ii., i, 3, 10, 56). 

ii. Feminine endings, body. (Act ii., i, 
8, 64 ; Act ii., 2, 9) 18 / in play. 

iii. Less rhyme in later plays (cf. Richard 
II.). Unimportant matter not in 
rhyme (Act i., i, 2 ; Act iii.). 

iv. Speech end test (Act i., 2, 272 ; Act 
ii., i, 17, 43 ; Act iii., 5, 27 ; Act v., 
4, 158). 

History of the times. 
Personal history of writer. 
Contrast in this case with Henry V. 
A^re when written. 


III. Association. 

i. Compare the In- ((a) 
fluences of the ] (b) 
Date on the} (c) 
Play. ((d) 

IV. Recapitulation. 

1. Means of discovering date. 

2. External evidences.) 


3. Internal evidences. ] 

V. Application. 

Get class to observe and discover for themselves some 
internal evidences of later comedy, as 
Run on verse. 
Feminine endings. 
Speech end test. 

The Date of "As You Like It" 25 


I. Question class on meaning of date of the play, and 
why the difficulty has arisen about deciding the date. Which 
are the periods of Shakespeare's works ? What sort of dif- 
ferences would one naturally expect to find in an author's 
later and his earlier works ? There are two evidences which 
help to give date first, those external to play or connected 
with it, or extrinsic (give derivation) ; others internal, or 
change in the play itself. 

II. Now we shall find what external proofs we can find 
as to the date of the play. First, the entry (here explain 
meaning of entry) gives when As You Like It was entered ; 
year not put, 4th August, and "to be staid," i.e., printed 
1623. Some clue is given by the fact that the previous 
entry was in 2yth May, 1600, and next 1603. What will 
conclusion be then ? 1599 or 1600. Just about opening of 
Globe Theatre, where it was acted (Adam). Not mentioned 
in Mere's list, and this was entered in 1598. Must be between 
1598 and 1600. 

1. Allusions in play may also help us as to date. Why? 
Here point out and let the class read in text, and explain 
allusions to Marlowe's work, Diana fountain, half-pence 
(coined 1582). (Who was reigning?) Also possible refer- 
ence to statutes passed against oaths v., 2, 63 ; iv., i, 164; 
but these last quotations mentioned are not supposed to have 
any intentional reference on the part of the author. (Here 
recapitulate external evidence.) 

2. Deduce the mode of thought brought out by the 
author ; its cause ; and hence date of play about time of Shake- 
speare's temporal troubles, loss of friends, etc. . . . One of his 
later comedies. If later, shall we expect to find it better 
from a literary point of view than former plays ? Why ? 
One of great tests of date and internal evidence is the 
verse test (a) Run on verse, seen in later plays. (Point out 
and show examples.) (b) Feminine endings. (Explain and 
point out passages marked.) (c) Less rhyme in later plays. 
Why ? Prose more perfect in style and form, also the play 
lends itself to prose, as there is much conversation, and 

26 Notes on Herbartian Method 

unimportant parts are generally prose. (<7) Speech end test 
the broken line. Also seen in Richard II. (Show passages 

III. How could the date of composition influence the play 
itself? History of times affect the mind of the poet? 
Personal history ? How shown in this case ? Coming after 
Henry V., what effect did this produce in scene, place, 
character and contrasts, and lastly, age of the poet ? Mature 
lost the glare of worldly goods sees by experience use of 
sorrow and adversity learnt by experience. 

IV. Recapitulate internal evidence, verse test and lan- 
guage, and ask some of the examples that were pointed out 
and shown. 

V. Make class discover for themselves some of the in- 
ternal tests for next lesson as run on verse, feminine endings, 
speech end tests. 

Blackboard Sketch. 

Date of Play. 

( External. 
Means of d,scovery{ Intemal 


Allusions (6). 

1. Style and mode of thought. 

2. Language. 

Verse test 



Class Oxford Junior Grade. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Aim To give the class increased literary knowledge ; to stimulate their 
imagination, and so lead them more easily to realise the play in an appre- 
ciative manner. 

I. Preparation. 

Class to read whole of scene before the lesson. 

Shakespeare's "As You Like It" 

II. Presentation. 

i. Analysis 

It describes 
of action. 

Natural : see " winter's 
wind," " antique oak," 
" brawling brook ". 

Moral: the Duke, "happy 

is your grace ". Jaques, 
J " weeping and comment- 


It adds nothing to action, but contains 
several beautiful and well-quoted lines, 
e.g., " Sweet are the uses of adversity ". 

Words and phrases selected, 
(a) co-mates. 

(6) old custom of the sea- 
son's difference. 

(c) painted pomp. 

(d) envious court. 

(e) the penalty of Adam. 

. chur- 

Explanation or appreciation of. 

the redundancy, cf. brothers. 

mode by which Shakespeare 
marks length of exile. 

Alliteration : notice con- 
trast continued. 

figure of speech and force 
of envious. 

classical, not biblical, cf. 
golden world. 

contrast/aw^-, bites, chiding, 

work out figure of speech. 

force of feelingly. Para- 
phrase passage. 


(/) icy fang and . 
lish chiding, 
of winter's wind. 
(g) no flattery counsellors 

that feelingly. 

(h) Sweet are the uses of 
. . . venomous, 
wears yet a precious 
jewel, etc. 

Note the familiar and oft-quoted lines " Sermons in 
stones," and paraphrase and give general meaning. 
(i) " Happy is your grace," etc. 

Deduce i. That the Duke is resigned, nay, content, 
ii. That he must be magnanimous, 
iii. That Amiens admires him. 

28 Notes on Herbartian Method 

III. Recapitulation. 

A few questions of general import, e.g. : 

1. Give a very brief description of the forest. 

2. What is the function of this scene in the play ? 

3. Why does Shakespeare lead Orlando to Rosalind in 

the forest ? 

4. Repeat the lines about adversity. 

IV. Assimilation. 

As a written exercise the class may sketch from memory 
the forest and the personages, or paraphrase one or other 
speech or learn some lines by heart. 


I. Teacher begins by reading to class last two lines of 
Act i. : 

Celia. " Now go we in content 

To liberty, and not to banishment." 

Point out that these lines prepare our minds for the scene 
which Shakespeare is now to put before us, in which we see 
the forest that is to be the place where Rosalind's fortunes 
are to be played out. 

Who are the characters in this scene ? What relation is 
there between the Duke and Rosalind ? and why is the former 
in banishment ? Quote some phrases from the text which 
picture the forest for us. (" Winter's wind," " antique oak," 
" brook," etc.) Point out to class that the poet is here deftly 
and with great art making the personages describe Arden. 
Draw from them greater need of this in his day, when stage 
properties were rude. If any place in locality lends itself 
to contrast, here direct attention to it. Why is Shakespeare 
so particular as to his background ? How will it affect the 
life of Rosalind and Orlando as conceived by us? With 
what other life will it contrast ? Given his upbringing, in 
which life will Orlando show to most advantage ? Where do 
we first see this truth ? (Wrestling match.) 

Next show that not alone our natural surroundings, but 
those with whom we associate colour our lives, and therefore 

Shakespeare's "As You Like It n 29 

Shakespeare carefully discloses to us the personages with 
whom his hero and heroine are to be thrown. 

How does Amiens comment on the Duke's first speech ? 
(" Happy is your grace," etc.) 

What does this tell us of the Duke's character ? What 
do we learn further from the lords about Jaques ? (" Weep- 
ing and commenting," etc.) 

Do the lords criticise this adversely ? If not, what of 
their characters ? 

Is there any incident at all in the scene ? Why finally 
did Shakespeare write it ? 

II. Next the teacher proceeds to read or let a member of 
the class read the Duke's first speech, and then discuss the 
words and phrases in something like the following mode : 

(a) Co-mates: i. What is the meaning of particle co ? 
Give examples of other words. (Co-workers, etc.) 

2. What is the meaning of mates ? 

3. What do you call this doubling ? Why does the poet 
use it ? 

Is there any other word pointing to the same idea ? 

Old custom: Suppose the Duke had merely said custom, 
what would have been implied ? But if the custom is old 
what further is implied ? Find another phrase that marks 
the lapse of time in exile. (" Season's differences.") 

Note. All the other phrases are commented on after the 
same mode, the teacher putting searching questions, connect- 
ing the force of passages, and only supplying what pupils 
cannot find out. 


Class Oxford Junior Grade. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Aim To cultivate a literary taste and to increase the appreciation of 
class for Shakespeare. 

I. Preparation. 

Class read through scene before coming to lesson. 
Subject-matter recalled briefly by a few searching questions. 

Notes on Herbartian Method 


II. Presentation. 

Its function in the play : 

(a) To bring into relief the gentleness 

and lovableness of Orlando's char- 
acter, and thus to heighten our 
appreciation of the hero of the 

(b) To advance the action of the play 

by preparing us for the sojourn of 
Orlando in the forest, where his 
good qualities will appear to ad- 

( Words and phrases selected. Give explanation or appreciation of. 
(a) " O you memory of old Memory for memorial ; use 

A nalysis of 

Sir Roland." 

of abstract for concrete. 

(b) " Why would you be so Would you = were you 



" The bonny priser of humorous = whimsical. 
the humorous duke." 

(d) " Your virtues are sanc- 


tified and holy traitors redundan ^ | a nd holy}' 

to you." 

figure of speech, personi- 

allusion to poisoned robe 
sent to Hercules. 

me to the malice of a 
diverted blood and 
bloody brother." 

(e) " When what is comely 
envenoms him that 
bears it." 

(/) " I will rather subject Orlando's nobility of char- 
acter in preferring to 
suffer evil rather than 
commit it. Diverted 
blood : the feeling of a 
relation turned from its 
proper course. 

(g) " The thrifty hire." use of thrifty Hypallage. 

Cf. "youthful wages," 
" weak evils ". 

(h) "When service should in alliteration and metaphor, 
my old limbs lie lame." 





Shakespeare's "As You Like It" 31 

(f) " And unregarded age expand metaphor into a 

in corners thrown." simile. 

(j) " He that doth the Shakespeare's religious mind 
ravens feed, be com- in thus expressing trust 
fort to my age." in God's providence. 

(k) " My age is as a lusty use of kind to mean season- 
winter, frosty but able, natural. Cf. use of 
kindly." kind, iii., 2, 87, " cat will 

after kind ". Figure of 
speech simile. 

(/) Give substance of Orlando's last speech. 
To be deduced by class : 
i. Character of Adam from his speeches, 
ii. Shakespeare's modesty in choosing to act the 
part of Adam, one of minor characters in the 
play ; also how Shakespeare must have entered 
into the character of Adam since in acting his 
part he was giving expression to his own sen- 

iii. To notice rhyming passage a thing unusual in 
play occurring generally at the close of a 
speech or scene. 

III. Association. 

Refer to source of As You Like It, i.e., Lodge's novel. 
Contrast Shakespeare's treatment of the relations between - 

master and servant, and point out to class how much 

truer Shakespeare is to nature. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

1. What is the function of this scene in the play ? 

2. What light does it throw on Shakespeare's own 

character ? 

3. What classical allusions are in this scene ? What 

Scriptural allusions ? 

4. Give two instances of figures of speech. 

5. Quote some lines revealing Orlando's love of what is 


32 Notes on Herbartian Method 


Introduce lesson by recalling Shakespeare's intention 
in choosing the forest as the scene of the greater part of the 
play, i.e., to bring into prominence all Orlando's good 
qualities, these surroundings being more calculated to do so 
than those of the Court. 

Questions : Who are the only persons in this scene ? 
What effect has this limitation to two persons on our minds? 
To whom does Shakespeare wish to direct all our attention ? 
What points in Orlando's character are brought out in this 
scene ? Point out Shakespeare's choice of the situation in 
which to bring Orlando before us. The dialogue is between 
master and servant, and the words of each serve to bring out 
Orlando's nobility and lovableness. What sentiments to- 
wards his master does Adam's first speech reveal ? What 
are Orlando's feelings towards his old servant ? Adam's 
loving admiration for his master and Orlando's respectful 
words to his aged servant show us the delicacy of his treat- 
ment of inferiors. The fact, too, that Adam had spent his 
years from " seventeen till almost fourscore " in the service 
of Orlando says much for the character of both Orlando and 
his father. How does this dialogue at once affect our feelings 
towards Adam ? By what means has Shakespeare previously 
endeavoured to win our admiration for Orlando ? Did he 
succeed then ? Has he succeeded now ? The effect of this 
scene, then, is to increase our admiration of the hero, and to 
make us desirous of following his fortunes. What, then, is 
the function of this scene ? To advance the action of the 
play by preparing us for Orlando's stay in the forest. 

Read through Adam's first speech, and ask following 
or similar questions : 

Why does Adam in a manner regret his master's virtues? 

Phrases: i. What is meaning of memory here? Who 
was old Sir Roland ? 

2. What is the meaning of " fond " ? the force of " would 
you " ? 

Shakespeare's "As You Like It" 33 

3. To what incident does this refer ? Who is the 
" bonny priser " ? The humorous Duke ? 

Why does Adam regret Orlando's having overcome the 
wrestler ? Who else was affected in a different way by 
Orlando's success. Comment on the word humorous here, 
meaning whimsical. Show how the Duke deserves the 
epithet by his conduct towards Rosalind and his change of 
feeling towards Orlando after the wrestling match, simply 
because he was the son of Sir Roland, whom the Duke's 
father hated. 

4. What does Adam mean by these words ? Notice how 
beautifully Shakespeare clothes his ideas. He gives expres- 
sion to the same idea in Hamlet, " Breathing like sanctified 
and pious bonds, the better to beguile" (i., 3, 130). 

What figure of speech is this ? What is noticeable about 
the two adjectives in the line ? What effect on the idea has 
the repetition ? 

5. Notice the classical allusion, and tell the incident of 
Hercules and the poisoned robe. 

6. What point do these words bring out in Orlando's 
character ? What is the meaning of " diverted blood " ? 

7. What is the meaning of "thrifty"? of " hire " ? Is 
it the wages that are thrifty ? Give examples of this trans- 
ference of adjective. (Needless stream, weak evils, youthful 

8 and 9. Note alliteration and metaphor, which, expanded 
into a simile, would run thus : 

" I should be cast aside in my old age, just as useless 
things are thrown into a corner." Would Orlando be the 
man to cast off his servant ? 

10. Notice Shakespeare's religious-rnindedness in his 
reference to Providence. 

11. Note the simile of the use of "kindly" to mean 

Class to give Orlando's speech in their own words. 
What do we learn of Adam from his speeches ? What is 
Adam's function in this play ? 

Recapitulate as in matter. 


34 Notes on Herbartian Method 


Class Average age, 12. Time Half an hour. Previous Know- 
ledge Subject, predicate and object (direct). Aim To exercise pupils' 
understanding and teach them to generalise. 


I. Preparation. 

'(a) The boy skates. 

(b) The boy loves games. 

(c} The good boy desires to please his 

1. Examples. 


(d) Walking in the woods is pleasant. 
<(e) " Alas ! " said she. 

2. Analyse above examples under head of subject, predicate, 

and object. 

3. Define sentence, subject, predicate, object. 

II. Presentation. 

((a) Subject. 

(i) EssentialParts.Ub) Predicate. 

[(6 1 ) Object if (b) is transitive. 

'(a) Enlargements of subject. 

(b) Indirect object. 

(2) Non-essential 


I h 
Parts. 1, v " Place - 

(c) Extension, j ...^ Manner< 

l^iv. Cause. 
Further Examples to illustrate 2 : 

1. Diligent children receive their reward at the distribu- 

tion of prizes. 

2. The kind master gave a holiday to his pupils yesterday. 

3. He took them to London by train, as a reward. 
(2) continued : 

(a) Enlargement consists of adjective or phrase qualifying 

subject or object. 

(b) Indirect object denotes person or thing indirectly af- 

fected by the action, through medium of a preposition. 

(c) Extension or enlargement of predicate denotes cir- 

cumstances of time, place, manner or cause. 

Parts of a Simple Sentence 35 

III. Association. 

A nalysis of last 

(Subject : The master 
Enlargement : kind 
Predicate : gave 
Extension : yesterday (time) 

Object (direct) : a holiday 

(indirect) : to his pupils. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

What are the essential parts of a sentence ? What are 
the non-essential ? What does indirect object denote ? 
How many kinds of extension ? Give examples of each. 

V. Application. 

Ask class to form a sentence with direct and indirect 
object ; another with two kinds of extension ; also make 
pupils analyse : " Grateful children make a return to their 
parents in their old age by their love and care ". 


I. Begin lesson by asking the definition of a sentence. 
Ask for a few examples, and write some on blackboard, 
supplying some such as given in matter. Ask for the 
subject in each case, and what it denotes, and how found. 
Also for predicate. Draw from class whether predicate is 
complete or incomplete. If the latter, as in (a] and (e), how 
is it completed ? What name is given to completion ? 
Write analysis of one or two sentences. 

II. Elicit now from class what are the necessary parts in 
every sentence ; then refer to (c) and (d), and ask what un- 
necessary words are in the subject ; what are their use ? To 
enlarge or give us a larger knowledge of subject, therefore 
called enlargement. Next give further examples (i) and (3). 
Ask for enlargement of subject in (i). Get class to analyse 
sentence. Ask to what " At the distribution " refers, and 
thus elicit that it enlarges or extends the meaning of the 
predicate, therefore is called extension. Now analyse (3), 
elicit the kinds of extension, and ask for other examples 
of extension of time, place, etc. 

36 Notes on Herbartian Method 

III. Lastly, give sentence (2), and point out that the 
master cannot give a holiday without giving it to somebody. 
By comparison with direct object which completes the sense 
directly -, show that "his pupils" completes it indirectly 
through a preposition. Some verbs need such a completion, 
e.g., give, send, take, etc. Ask examples of these, and which 
are the direct and which the indirect objects. 

IV. To exercise class in enlargement, object and exten- 
sion give sentences, and ask pupils to supply different parts. 

V. Lastly, write sentence in application on blackboard, 
and analyse it with class. 

Conclude lesson by questions in matter and examples 


Class Oxford Preliminary Grade. Time Half an hour. Previous 
Knowledge The structure of the simple sentence. Aim To exercise 
pupils' understanding and teach them to analyse. 


Extract. First two verses of Cowper's Boadicea. 
"When the British warrior Queen, 
Bleeding from the Roman rods, 
Sought with an indignant mien, 

Counsel of her country's gods ; 
Sage beneath a spreading oak 
Sat the Druid, hoary chief; 
Every burning word [which] he spoke 

[Was] Full of rage and full of grief." 
Herbartian Steps. 
I. Preparation. 

1. (a) Meaning of predicate. 

(b) Number of sentences depends on number of predi- 


(c) Underline predicates in extract. 

2, Subject to each predicate found by question who or what. 

Analysis and Parsing of a Piece of Poetry 37 
II. Presentation. 

When . . . gods 
(first sentence). 

Sage . . . chief 
(second sentence). 

'Subject : The Queen 

Enlargement : British warrior bleeding, 


Predicate : sought 
Object (direct) : counsel 

(indirect) : of her country's gods 
Extension : with an indignant mien. 
Subject : The Druid 
Enlargement : hoary chief 
Predicate : sat 
Extension : beneath a spreading oak 

(place) sagefly] (manner) 

.Subject : word 
Enlargement : every burning 
(third sentence), "j Predicate : was full 

{Object (indirect) : of rage and grief. 
( Subject : He 

(Fourth sentence) J Predicate : spoke 
[Object : which 

Parsing of words underlined : 

British: Proper adj. of qual., qualif. Queen. 

Bleeding : Pres. part, of irreg. intrans. verb to bleed, 

referring to Queen. 
Sought : Irreg. trans, verb, act. v., ind. m., past tense, 

3rd per. sing., to agree with subj. Queen. 
Country's : Com. n., 3rd per. sing., neut. g., poss. c., govd. 

by gods. 
Gods: com. n., 3rd per. plu., com. g., obj. c., govd. by 

prep. of. 

Spreading : Part, adj., qual. n. oak. 
Sat : Irreg. intrans. verb, indie, mood, past tense, sing., 

3rd per., to agree with subject Druid. 
Chief: Com. n., masc. g., sing., 3rd per., nom. c., in app. 

with Druid. 
Spoke : Irreg. trans, verb, act. v., indie, mood, past 

tense, sing., 3rd per., to agree with subject he. 

38 Notes on Herbartian Method 

III. Association. 

Rules of syntax and etymology as brought into the 
" procedure " column. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

Questions on what has been gone through, and the same 
bit to be written by the pupils without further help. 


I. Read the verse to be analysed. Before beginning to 
analyse it with class question as to what is a sentence. 
What parts are necessary to every sentence ? Of what 
must predicate consist ? What is a finite verb ? Which 
words are finite verbs in the extract ? Underline them. 
How many sentences therefore shall we have ? How is the 
subject found ? Now collect round each predicate the 
sentence which belongs to it. Is "bleeding" a finite verb? 
Why not ? How much is the first sentence ? (The first 
four lines.) What is the predicate here ? About whom are 
we speaking ? What then do we call the words " The 
queen " ? (Subject.) What are we told about the kind of 
queen ? What place is for words qualifying the subject ? 
How much of sentence is the enlargement of the subject ? 
Is the predicate transitive or intransitive ? If transitive, 
what completion must it have ? Where is the object 
direct here ? Is there any further completion required in 
the case of " seeking" here? What name is given to the 
gods of whom she seeks ? To what does the phrase "with 
an indignant mien " refer ? Where shall we put it in then ? 
Work out the other sentences in the same way, and let class 
write out the whole for home-work, or let them write one or 
two sentences at once in class. 

Parsing : Underline some of the more difficult words in 
the passage for parsing. Ask pupils to parse them orally, 
and question as to the function of each word, in order to find 
the part of speech it belongs to. Ask the reason for each 
case given to the nouns. Lead class to distinguish between 
the verbal forms in " ing," and discriminate when it is a 
participle, when an adjective, when a noun giving examples. 

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 39 

In parsing chief teach the rule for nouns in apposition, 
and draw from class why they should agree in case, and ask 
for other examples of the same. 


Class Average age, 12 years. Time Half an hour. Aim To 
exercise pupils' understanding and teach them to generalise in English 


I. Preparation. 

1. Examples drawn from class. 

2. Definition of sentence. 

(subject ) 

3. Two principal parts j predicate j meaning 01. 

II. Presentation. 

1. Examine examples given and deduce: 

(a) Some verbs are complete in themselves. Others 

require a noun or its equivalent after them. 

(b) Latter express action passing over from subject 

to an object. Former a state of being, or an 
action not passing over to an object. 

^Transitive (Lat. transire = to pass 

2. Two kinds of verbs -j over). 

[intransitive (Lat. in = not). 

III. Association. 

Give short sentences, e.g., " He ran," " She broke her 
doll," " The boy reads well," etc. Get class to distinguish 
kind of verb, and give reason in each case. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

Definitions of transitive and intransitive verbs. 

V. Application. 

Get class to make six sentences with transitive and six 
with intransitive verbs. 


I. Introduce lesson by asking for sentences from the 
class. Write four or five on the blackboard, choosing some 

40 Notes on Herbartian Method 

with objects and some without. Ask what two parts are 
common to all, and what each denotes. 

II. In what do the sentences differ ? 

Taking an example containing an ^transitive verb, ask 
if sense is complete with subject and predicate alone. Take 
a transitive verb in same way, underline verb in each case, 
and write complete or incomplete, as case may be, after it. 
vSo with all the examples. Ask why some e.g., " The child 
sees a hare " are incomplete. Elicit that one cannot see 
without seeing something, therefore the verb requires some- 
thing, i.e., a noun or its equivalent to complete its meaning. 
Ask for other examples of verbs incomplete without something 
after them. What do they express in every case ? (Action.) 
Give two examples, such as " The boy runs " and " The boy 
struck his brother". Deduce that both express actions, 
the difference being that one remains with the doer, the other 
passes to an object. 

Give derivation, and draw from class the definition of 
transitive and intransitive verbs. 

III. Next, go round class with examples, and ask what 
the verb expresses in each case, and to which class it belongs, 
and if transitive, where is the object. 

IV. Briefly recapitulate by asking definition and derivation 
of transitive and intransitive verbs. 

V. Conclude lesson by application, as in matter. 


Class Oxford Preliminary Grade. Time Half an hour. Aim To 
exercise the pupils' reasoning powers and lead them to discriminate 
between active and passive voice. 


I. Preparation. 

, . . , r u f 1 - Transitive. 
Refer to kind of verbs | 2 Intrans4tive< 

Draw from class examples of i. 

II. Presentation. 

Put examples on blackboard, or such as : 
i . The boy received a bicycle. 

The Voice of Verbs 41 

2. The child loves its parents. 

3. She gave the book to the mistress. 

(a) A bicycle was received by the boy. 

(b) The parents are loved by the child. 

(c) The book was given by her to the mistress. 
Compare by analysis i and (a), 2 and (b), 3 and (c). 
Contrast : 

1. The position of boy, child, and she in each case. 

2. The form of the predicate in each case. 

3. What the subject denotes in each case. 

4. What becomes of the former subject in (a), (b) and (c). 
Deduce : 

In i, 2, 3 "The subject denotes the doer of the 

action ". 
In (a), (6), (c) "The subject denotes the sufferer of. 

the action ". 
(a) Corresponding to these two cases the verb has 

two distinct forms to denote the above. 
(6) In the second case it consists of the verb to be 
plus past participle. To these changes in form 
of the verb the name voice is given. 
f Definition of voice : The change in the form of the 
3.J verb to show whether the subject denotes the doer 
[ or the sufferer of the action. 

f Active : Subject denotes the doer. 
Two forms ^p assive . Subject denotes the sufferer. 
Cf. derivation actum = done, passum = suffered. 
4. How the passive is formed. 

III. Association. 

Use of analysis throughout lesson. 

IV. Application. 

Exercise pupils : 

1. In changing sentences from active to passive and 

vice versa. 

2. In telling the voice of miscellaneous examples, in each 

case giving the reason. 

V. Recapitulation 

Of definitions of (i) voice, (2) active, (3) passive, etc. 

42 Notes on Herbartian Method 


I., II. and III. Begin lesson by asking the meaning of 
transitive and intransitive verbs, and drawing examples of 
each from class. Our lesson has to deal with transitive 
verbs only. Put three examples of pupils' own making 
on blackboard ; ask where is the subject, predicate and 
object in each, and what the subject denotes. Underneath 
each example write the same idea in the passive voice, and 
let class analyse each. Compare the subject in each case, 
and the object. What does the subject denote ? What the 
object ? What else has changed in the sentence ? When 
does the change in the predicate take place? Of what does 
it consist in the second case ? We find, then, the verb has 
two forms corresponding to the function of the subject, and 
to these the name "voice" is given. Now give another 
example, e.g., "The king governs England". Question as 
to meaning of subject and object. What connection they 
have with the action of governing. Let class change the sen- 
tence, making the assertion about England. What follows? 
What does the subject now denote ? Give names active and 
passive connecting them with their derivations. Give some 
examples of verbs, e.g., "was killed," "learns," "had 
written," "was loved," and draw from class whether subject 
denotes doer or sufferer of the action in each case, which 
voice it is, and why. Call attention to voice belonging to 
the verb, not subject, and elicit definition from class. Lastly, 
examine forms of passive voice in sentences on blackboard, 
and deduce the general rule of how it is formed, verb to be 
plus past participle. Give one or two examples of pro- 
gressive active to guard against mistaking it. Contrast the 
subjects in each case. Also ask class why we took no 
account of intransitive verbs in this case. 

IV. Conclude lesson by letting class apply their know- 
ledge by exercises in the application. 

V. Recapitulation : What is voice ? How many forms 
are there, and what does each denote? What changes take 
place in making a sentence active that was passive ? etc. 

The Function of Certain Words 43 


Class Oxford Preliminary Grade ; average age, 12. Time Half an 
hour. Aim To exercise reasoning powers of the class and lead them to 
discriminate between the different functions of words. 


I. Preparation. 

1. Meaning of " parts of speech ". 

2. Words are classed according to their function in a 


3. Give examples, e.g., that, back, round, well, but, and 

show that they cannot always be classed if they 
stand alone, but must be read in a sentence. 

II, Presentation. 

(a) That book is mine (dist. adj., points out a noun). 
(6) You may have the book that is here (rel. pron., 


stands for book and joins sentence). 


(c) He said that you took it (conj., joins sentence). 

(d) That is not so (adj., used as a noun). 

(a) His back was turned (noun). 

(b) He took the back seat (adj.). 

(c) They back the winner (verb). 
.(d) They turned back (adverb). 
'(a) Take one round more (noun). 

(b) A round table is useful (adj.). 
Round.\ (c) They rowwd the cape (verb). 

(d) They went round (adv.). 

) They went round the house (prep.). 
(a) The child is well (adj., only used in predicate). 
. (b) He knows well (adv.). 
?/ ^ (c) Leave well alone (noun). 

.(d) Well, how did you know it ? (interjection). 

((a) You study, but do not always succeed (conj.). 
_ (6) Who can it be but him (prep.) = except. 

1 (c) There was but one thing to do (adv.) = only. 
{(d) He began with a " but " (noun). 

44 Notes on Herbartian Method 

III. Association. 

In above examples associate the classification of the 
word in each case with its function. Refer to definitions 
of different parts of speech. 

IV. Application. 

1. Ask pupils to classify words in examples such as: 

(a) " She said that, that that, that he used was 


(b) " They sang a round as they ran round the round 

table which others watched round" 

2. Give other words as "front," "after," "even," etc., 

and ask pupils to give examples showing them as 
different parts of speech. 

V. Recapitulation 

Of matter of lesson by questions. 


I., II. and III. Question class as to what we mean when 
we say " What part of speech is such a word? " or that it is 
an adjective, or a verb, etc. Show by examples that we 
cannot always tell the function of a word taken by itself apart 
from its sentence. For instance, round, back, etc. Put 
these on blackboard, and ask what class they belong to. Ask 
for or supply different examples of that, and question in each 
case as to what office it fulfils, e.g., in (a) it points out the 
word " book ". What qualifies or limits a noun ? What is 
that in this case then ? In (b) what does that do ? What 
could we put in its place ? What part of speech is it 
then ? What else does it do besides taking the place of the 
noun ? Can we ever use that to join sentences only ? Give 
examples (c). Lastly, give the fourth example, and ask what 
is its function here. Then recapitulate the four parts of 
speech that can be, and elicit other examples of each from 
the class. 

IV. Treat the other words in a similar manner, and after 
going through all the words in the matter, write the sentences 

Elements of English Language 45 

given in Part IV. (Application) on the blackboard, and let the 
class write to what part of speech each of the words in italics 
belongs ; then correct aloud, making the pupils give reasons 
in each case. 

V. Recapitulation questions : 

What must .we know about a word before being able to 
classify it ? 

What parts of speech can that be ? Also well, back and 

Give examples of well, back and but used as nouns. 

What are the following words in italics ? Why are they 
so classed ? 

Front seat. The front of the house. In after years. 
After you. Afterwards. 


Class Oxford Seniors ; age, 15 to 17. Time Fifty minutes. Illus- 
trations Use map of Europe for I., and put chart on blackboard. Aim 
To increase knowledge of historical grammar ; to lead class to connect 
historical events and growth of language. 


I. Preparation. 

1. Who the English were, and whence they came. 

2. Who were their predecessors, and whither they were 


(a) Erse or Iberians, to Ireland and Scotch High- 


(b) Britons, to Wales and Cornwall. 

3. English nation was the only conquered nation that 

preserved its own tongue. 

4. Story of creation of the English language. 

II. Presentation. 

Teutonic branch of Aryan language, 
i. Source. Low German dialect akin to Dutch, 

Flemish, Danish, Icelandic. 

4 6 

Notes on Herbartian Method 



\a) Keltic. 

(b) Scandinavian. 

(c) Latin (Norman French). 

(d) Greek and Hebrew. 

(e) Almost all modern languages. 

Periods of influx of above additions : 

i. Words direct from ancient f Rivers : Avon, Ouse. 

Britons. [Mountains: Pen, Ben. 

ii. Words lately introduced) 

through modern authors, I clan ' P laid ' P ibr <*h, 
chiefly Sir Walter Scott. I slo ^ an ' etc ' 

Through Danish P" ^/T'l "A"*?'" 6 /" 
East of England alone; also 
Invasion and^ r n ,. , , 

Settlement. [ M > ' rth > thor P e > vllla S e ' klrk ' 


i. Early Latin. 

ii. Norman 

iii. Later Latin. 

dairy, plough. 

(1) Roman occupation, B.C. f street ' 

43 tOA.D. 410: ] colony, 


(2) Conversion to Christi- faltar, 

unity, A.D. 596 : words j chalice, 
relating to church : [creed. 

(1) W T ho the Normans were, and 

what was their influence on 

(Feudalism : Chivalry, 
joust, lance, vassal. 

(2) Feudal- Chase : Brace, forest, 

ism. I venison. 

Law : Assize, attorney, 

(3) Largest influx took place at this 


(1) Through Renaissance : fall of 

Constantinople, 1453 ; words 
chiefly classical. 

(2) Contrast pure Latin form with 

the mutilated form of Norman 

Elements of English Language 47 

i. Through Latin with Christianity: Deacon, anthem, 
I martyr. 

ii. Through classics and science : Thermometer, tele- 

German : Meerschaum, poodle, Dutch. 
Italian and Spanish : In music, etc. 
^ ^1 American: Wigwam, squaw, cannibal, tobacco. 
African : Gypsy, canary, morocco. 


Indian : Rajah, ayah, etc. 
^ ^Russian : Knout, drosky, Czar. 

III. Association. 

1. Connect words derived from other languages with our 

relations with different nations. 

2. Show how we in a similar way influence the language 

of other countries. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

1. Summary of chief elements of English language. 

2. Examples of each. 

V. Application. 

Classify the following according to their origin : Boy, 
steppe, phonograph, canon, volcano, canoe, Whitby, ama- 
teur, shillelagh, wall, vizor. 

Elements of English Language. 


(including Norman French). 

Italian, Spanish, American, Russian, 
Hebrew, Indian, etc. 

48 Notes on Herbartian Method 


I. Introduce lesson by questioning on the ancient in- 
habitants of Britain and their successive conquerors ; thus 
explain the difference of language of the Scotch, Welsh, 
Irish. Refer briefly to the invasion of the Romans, Picts 
and Scots, Angles and Saxons, Danes and Normans. Draw 
from class that our present tongue must be a great mixture, 
made up largely from those of the above-named nations and 
other contributions, and tell the little legend about the 
English being forgotten at Babel. 

II. Tell the class source (i) of our language, and its 
indirect connection with all the other European tongues 
through the Aryan family (Lapps and Finns excepted). 
Draw from class foreign elements by referring to history, and 
write (2) on blackboard. Now we shall consider each in 
particular, and see how and when it influenced our language. 

(a) Keltic : The language of the ancient Britons. 
Where were they driven ? Very few words of their language 
survived. What names were most likely to remain after 
them ? Elicit words expressing physical features, e.g., rivers 
Ax, Usk, etc.; mountains Pen, Ben. Again, in modern 
times many Irish and Scotch words have crept in through 
popular authors who chose subjects relating to these nations. 
Draw from class such authors, and elicit the words in matter 
by giving their meaning. 

(b) When did English proper begin to be spoken ? By 
whom ? Who were the next invaders of the land ? (Danes.) 
Where did they settle ? Whence did they come originally ? 
Becoming settlers in the land, how did they influence the 
language principally ? Refer to their agricultural tastes : 
such words as dairy , plough. Also give terminations " by," 
" thorpe," and ask examples of names of places. Where 
are all such names found ? Why in East of England ? 

(c) We now come to by far the largest element in the 
language, i.e., the Latin element. Its influx may be divided 
into three periods, according to the time of the different 

Elements of English Language 49 

additions made. The character of words introduced de- 
pended much on the cause of introduction. By questioning 
in history draw from class the words of the i. Early Latin 
Period, both from Roman occupation and introduction of 
Christianity. Ask where Christianity came from originally, 
and show that many of these ecclesiastical words were of 
Greek and Hebrew origin. ii. In a similar manner elicit 
the Norman French Period. Ask how it comes under the 
head Latin. How words thus introduced are likely to differ 
from classical Latin. Why was the Norman French in- 
fluence so much greater than that of previous foreign 
elements ? Refer to the struggle between French and 
Anglo-Saxon or old English for the mastery for two centuries, 
the one spoken at Court, the other by the conquered serfs. 
Compare German and English of the present day to show 
the work done during those centuries. Ask class for some 
examples of words relating to feudalism, chase and law. 
Why are they Norman French ? iii. For the next Latin 
Period refer to 1453. Fall of Constantinople, and the results 
on the learning of the age. Ask in what the Latin and 
Greek words now introduced differed from the earlier 
additions. How account for this ? 

(d) Greek : Besides words introduced through Latin with 
Christianity and those of the Renaissance, there is a steady 
influx to meet the needs of the science of the present day. 
Ask for examples of words for modern inventions. Why is 
Greek chosen for coining these new words ? 

(e) Finally, refer to acquisitions which must come from 
intercourse, commercial or otherwise, with other nations, 
and draw from class examples of these, some such as in 
Matter V. Point out that we give as well as take in this 
way, e.g., French : nous five-o'clockerons, high-life (hig-lif), 
bifteck, tennis, cricket, etc. 

Recapitulation : The English language has for its basis 
the Anglo-Saxon and Low German dialect of the Teutonic 
branch of the Aryan family. Its vocabulary consists mostly 
of Latin words, however, introduced chiefly at three different 
periods. (Ask time and character of each.) It also contains 


50 Notes on Herbartian Method 

contributions from Greek (when and how). Keltic (ditto), 
Danish, and nearly all modern languages. (A few examples.) 
Conclude lesson by drawing diagram, and asking the 
words given in the Application. 


Class Age, 16 to 17 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Aim To increase knowledge of historical grammar, and to lead class 
to connect historical events and growth of language. 

I. Preparation. 

. rSyn = with, onoma = a name a name 
i. Nominal defim- 1 of wofd haying the game meaning 

tionofterm. another . 

(Terms of like significance in the main 
Dn '{ with slight differences established. 
'(a) Exact meaning not generally appre- 
hended : hence looseness of use of 

Why there are 
few true syno- 


(6) Shades of meaning arise from this 
cause, and usage gives one to one 

nyms. word and a different one to its 


(c) Differences of etymology. 
4. Why English r (a) Vocabulary mainly derived from two 
has many ap- 1 sources Latin and English, 
parent syno-1 (b) Two forms off i. Norman French, 
nyms. Latin element. \ii. Classic. 

II. Presentation, 
i. Examples of: 

English. Norman French. 

(Begin Commence. 

Will Testament. 

.Buy Purchase. 

n > rms - Hearty Cordial. 

IWish Desire. 



(6) Different shades ) Luck 
of meaning. I Work 

Norman French. 
Member (of society). 
Fortune (riches). 
Labour (hard work). 
Branch (of sea, etc.). 

2. Cause : Norman and Saxon intercourse. 

Later Latin. (Derivation.) Norman Fr. 

Examples of 
Latin doublets 
(apparent sy- 
nonyms), same 
words in dif- 
ferent forms. J 

Benediction (Benedictionem) Benison. 
Pauper (Pauperem) Poor. 
Example (Exemplum) Sample. 
Fragile (Fragilem) Frail. 
Separate (Separatum) Sever. 

How shorter 

forms of Nor- 

Spoken language tends to shorten 

man French 


are accounted 

Words introduced through writing keep 


their full form. 

Greek doublets^ Through (Qr Der) Later Forms. 

/ \ iV OWHClHSt 

(apparent sy- Fancy (Phantasia) Phantasy. 
nonyms). dif- K , * / 
r Palsy (Paralysis) Paralysis, 
ferent shades _. * ; ; \. \ /, 
f Slander (Scandalon) Scandal, 
ot meaning. ) 

III. Association. 

1 . Connect change of meaning with cause where possible. 

2. Show how for better mutual understanding yokes of 

words came to be used ; e.g. 

Acknowledge and confess. 
Aid and abet. 
Mirth and jollity. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

As to : i. Meaning and kinds of synonyms. 

2. Difference between doublets and synonyms. 

3. How former came to exist. 

4. Examples of all. 

V. Application. 

Class to supply synonyms in a passage set. 

52 Notes on Herbartian Method 

Blackboard Sketch. 

1. Definition. 

r i r f( a ) Usage. 

2. Causes of shades of meaning. | (6) Etymology< 

3. Norman French influence. 


4. Doublets.| Greek 


I. Begin lesson by giving derivation of words, and ask- 
ing the meaning. Draw distinction between nominal and 
real definitions of them ; according to the former the words 
should agree exactly, but according to the latter there are 
essential resemblances but partial differences of meaning, 
e.g., shepherd and pastor. Ask for some other examples of 
synonyms, suggesting such words as forgive, limb, buy, work, 
sympathy, etc. Ask how the shades of difference in mean- 
ing can be explained (i) by custom and looseness of ordinary 
speech, (2) by etymology. 

Examples of: 

1. Famine and hunger, ghost and spirit. 

2. Felicitate and congratulate. 

Criticise etymological distinctions between following by 
examining derivations of each : 

J Arrogant (ad rogo), homage demanded as due. 

\ Presumptuous (prae sumo), homage taken before due. 

( Felicitate, to wish happiness to. 
2 ' \ Congratulate, to rejoice with another. 

( Invent (in venio), to make what did not exist before. 
3' [ Discover, to show that which existed. 

J Desert. ) Refer to James II. and Commons, as in 

| Abdicate. J Trench. 

II. Refer to former lesson on sources of our vocabu- 
lary, and ask whether English is likely to have many or few 
synonyms, and why. Show that in many cases the Norman 
French superseded the English, and vice versa; but that the 
two have been retained in many instances, though the tendency 

Synonyms 53 

to discriminate between the uses of the two leads to our 
having few perfect synonyms. Ask class for the synonyms 
of wretched, cordial, testament. (Refer to technical or law 
language, "This is the last will and testament of . . .". Draw 
from class reason for having two words.) Next lead class to 
examine how others have slightly differed in meaning through 
constant usage, e.g., shepherd, love, kingdom, freedom, luck, 
deed, bough, etc. ; also, fancy and imagination, fanaticism 
and enthusiasm, feminine and effeminate, famine and 

III. Refer again to Latin element in English; ask the 
different periods at which the influxes took place, and what 
differences would naturally be seen between the words intro- 
duced through the French and those of the later classical 
period. Show that some words introduced by the Normans 
were reintroduced in a more classical form at the Renaissance. 
(Give Norman French, and draw second form from class in 
some cases, and in others give Latin derivation, and elicit 
both.) Call attention to the change in the word itself, and 
to the change in meaning. 

Treat Greek doublets in same way. 

Next show that, owing to the various sources of our 
vocabulary, we have even some triplets, viz., English, Latin 
and Greek or Norman French. 

Give English, and let class discover the'other synonyms. 

English. Latin. Greek. N. F. 

Fellow-feeling. Compassion. Sympathy. 
Kingly. Regal. Royal. 

Explain differences in form causing doublets, by the 
contractions used in daily speech, varieties of pronunciation, 

IV. Recapitulate briefly as to meaning of synonyms; 
their use. Why England has so many. How doublets 
came into the language. What is the tendency of the 
language as to the use of synonyms. 

Conclude lesson by reading the passage from Ivanhoe 
which brings out the Norman French influence in the forma- 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

tion of synonyms, and show the meanings naturally differed 
from the very circumstances of the case, and question class 
as to its application. 


Class Oxford Junior Grade. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Aim To exercise judgment of the class and interest them in discovering 
the laws which govern the change of meaning of words. 


I. Preparation. 

f i. Passage from one language to another. 
Causes of Changes.^ Passage from one age to anothen 

II. Presentation. 

Laws of Changes. -\ 

( i. Change of Association : Plum, prune, 
raisin, heathen, pagan, gossip. 

2. Law of Contraction : As the number 

of words increase the province of 
each diminishes (especially measure- 
ment), foot, stone, acre, furlong, 
perch (poke, a bag), bushel (little 
box), chant, preach, speculation, 
extravagant, censure. 

3. Law of Metaphor : When foreign 

words are side by side with native 
in meaning, as videre = to see, 
the latter retain ordinary meaning, 
and the former 
(a) Abstract or philosophical term 


(6) Extraordinary sense vision, 

4. Law of Extension : Wider meaning, 

especially as regards war and law, 

Laws of Changes. 

The Change of Meaning of Words 5 5 

e.g., influence, formerly a term in as- 
trology, triumph, privilege (law for 
individual), legion, character, paper. 
Law of Deterioration : Caused by a 
difference in the moral sense 
cunning, craft, impertinent (not to 

the point), officious (exact in per- 

formance of duty), villain, knave. 
6. Law of Amelioration: Improved in 
meaning, as humility, fond, minister, 
servant, Whig and Tory, Christian, 
generous, gentle (noble birth). 

III. Association. 

Compare with changes of manners and customs, which 
are results of changes of thought, in : 

1. Education. 

2. Living, furniture, dress and fashion. 

3. War. 

IV. Application. 

Words changed in meaning illustrated from As You 
Like It : Conceit, amaze, taxation, character. 

V. Recapitulation. 

i. Causes of (Passage from one language to another, 
change. \ from one age to another. 

(Examples : Association, contraction, 
metaphor, extension, deterioration, 


I. Give some examples to pupils, such as chant, preach, 
raisin, beef words derived from other languages, and in the 
passage have lost meaning in the original language, and 
thus have a slightly different meaning in English. Also 
give examples like villain, conceit, amaze, censure, knave, as 
examples of change occurring in passage from one age to 
another. The words that change in meaning are many and 

56 Notes on Herbartian Method 

various, and cannot be classified exactly, but only in a very 
general way. 

II. i. There are six laws (general) which have governed 
the alteration in meaning of many of our words. Here give 
examples, such as plum, prune, raisin, heathen, pagan, 
gossip, clumsy, disaster, gazette, and from the derivation of 
each deduce law of change by association, e.g., raisin = grape 
in French, to us = dried grapes, as this is the particular 
association we give to grapes from France ; heathen = living 
on a heath, and as the religion of such was non-Christian, 
we associated this fact with the dwelling-place, and hence 
heathen means pagan. 

2. Give examples, as foot, acre, furlong, peck, bushel, 
chant, preach, etc., and from derivation elicit that meaning 
has contracted, as chant, from cantare = to sing, but to us 
applied to a particular kind of singing. 

3. Give examples, as vision, from visum = seen, used 
side by side with see and sight, but in altered sense ; also, 
palliate = to throw a cloak over, transferred to lessen, find 
excuse for. Trivial = where three roads meet, means common 
or unimportant. 

4. Give examples of influence, triumph, privilege = law 
for individual, and now any special favour granted ; legion, 
character, paper, boor (boer = a Dutch farmer); explosion = 
hissing offthe stage; harbinger = prepare harbour or lodging. 
What can we remark about these changes ? Has the meaning 
contracted ? Compare with Law 3. 

5. Give examples, as villain, knave, impertinent, cun- 
ning = obsolete, pres. participle of verb caw; censure, churl = 
country man now disobliging person ; officious, insolent = 
unusual now rude ; conceit = thought : what is cause due to 
here ? The idea conveyed by word has altered in its moral 
sense. What is the reason of this ? 

6. In an opposite way words have risen and improved in 
meaning. Ask original meaning of humility, fond, minister, 
Whig and Tory, generous, gentle, companion, shrewd = 
wicked now means clever. These words faJl under law of 
"Amelioration ", 

Translation of a Selected Passage from French 57 

Summary : Words change their meaning by passing from 
one language to another, and by passing from one age to 
another, therefore we cannot tell the acknowledged meaning 
by derivation always. Six laws govern these changes the 
Laws of Association, Metaphor, Contraction, Extension, 
Deterioration and Amelioration. 

Recapitulation : What do I mean by the law of contrac- 
tion ? Give examples. The law of association ? Give 
examples. Which law is exemplified in the words : com- 
passion, church, minister, disease, trivial, fond, impertinent, 
privilege, palliate, villain, speculation. 


Class Average age, 15. Time Forty minutes. Aim To lead 
class to note difference between English and French modes of expression, 
and to express following passage in good English. 


I. Preparation. 

i. Class will read passage through to get a general 
knowledge of its meaning, which they will give in 
their own words. 

II. Presentation. 

On dit que Sir Isaac Newton etait d'une humeur egale 
et douce, qu'aucun accident ne pouvait le troubler ; on 
raconte a ce sujet 1'anecdote remarquable que voici : 
Sir Isaac, avait un petit chien favori qui s'appelait 
Diamant. Un soir qu'il avait du passer dans une 
chambre a cote, Diamant resta seul. A son retour, 
Sir Isaac, qui n'avait etc absent que quelques minutes, 
cut le chagrin de voir que Diamant, en renversant 
une bougie, avait mis le feu a des papiers qui con- 
tenaient le travail a peu pres acheve de plusieurs 

58 Notes on Herbartian Method 

annees. Ses papiers s'etaient enflammes et avaient 
etc presque entierement mis en cendres. Cette perte 
considerant 1'age avance de Newton, etait irrepar- 
able ; mais, sans punir le chien : " Ah ! Diamant," 
s'ecria-t-il, " tu ne sais pas quel mal tu viens de 
Words in italics to be commented on. 

III. Association. 

1. On dit may be translated by "it is said" or " they 

say ". This construction is one way of avoiding 
passive voice, which is less frequently used in French 
than in English. Example : " On vous demande," 
"you are wanted"; "on m'a dit," "I was told"; 
" on 1'a renvoye," " he was dismissed ". 

2. Qui s'appelait : Another way of rendering the passive. 

Translate by " who was called " or " whose name 
was ". Other examples are : " Cela se mange vert," 
" that is eaten green " ; " Les portes s'ouvraient," 
" the doors were opened ". 

3. Anecdote remarquable : Usual position of adjective is 

after the noun, adjectives of colour always ; e.g., 
chapeau blanc, robe noire, etc. Some adjectives 
precede the noun, especially those of one syllable ; 
e.g., beau, bon, digne, etc., " un beau cheval ". 

4. Petit chien favori : When two adjectives accompany 

a noun one precedes and the other follows, " une 
belle rose blanche," " une petite fille intelligente ". 

5. Mis le feu : Different meanings of mettre 

(a) To put on, " mettre son chapeau ". 

(b) To begin, " elle se mit a pleurer ". 

(6 1 ) " fitre mis," "to be dressed," "une personne 
bien mise". 

6. Annees instead of ans when used with an adjective to 

denote the whole duration, " toute 1'annee". 

7. Renversant, pres. part, after prep, en ; all other preposi- 

tions require infinitive "de venir," "pour faire," etc. 

8. Viens de faire : "Venir de," followed by an infinitive 

= " to have just . . .". Other examples. 

Translation of a Selected Passage from French 59 

IV. Recapitulation. 

Passage will be translated through quickly by a member 
of the class. 

V. Application. 

Class will answer questions in French on the subject- 
matter as in procedure, or similarly. 


I. Begin lesson by letting a pupil read through passage 
aloud for the class, and then give in a few words its general 

II. Then take each sentence, and let member of the 
class give its exact meaning, and then polish each one until 
it reads quite smoothly. 

III. Then take each of the passages in italics in matter, 
and deal with them somewhat after following manner : 

1. On dit, on raconte : Ask some one to translate again, 
and point out difference between the English and French 
usages. Let class supply other examples. 

2. Qui s'appelait : Ask a member of the class to translate 
this. Show how this form is often used to avoid the passive 
voice, which is less frequent in French than in English. 
Let class supply more examples, and then ask them to 
translate such sentences as " What is his name ? " " His 
name is Charles," etc. Give class more examples as in 

3. Anecdote rernarquable, petit chien favori : Let class 
point out how the French differs from English with regard to 
position of adjectives. In English they are placed after the 
noun sometimes for effect, in French they are sometimes 
placed before for the same reason. 

4. Get more examples from class. Give class some 
examples of a noun qualified by two adjectives, and then let 
them supply others, some of which may be written on board. 
Let class point out how the French usage differs from 
English, viz., in placing one adjective before and the other 

60 Notes on Herbartian Method 

after. There are, however, exceptions to this rule, es- 
pecially if the adjectives are of one syllable Une bonne 
petite fille. 

5. Mis le feu : Give some examples to class, such as 
J'ai mis mon chapeau ; elle se mit a pleurer ; voila une per- 
sonne bien mise, and let them say what different meanings 
mettre may have. 

6. Annees : Give a few examples, using the words ans 
and annees. II a ete la il y a trois ans. Nous avons eu 
une tres bonne annee. Let class point out difference in 
use. Annee generally used instead of ans when accom- 
panied with an adjective to denote the whole duration of 

7. Renversant : What part of verb is this ? What pre- 
cedes it ? What part of speech is en in this case ? Let them 
supply other examples of the same kind. Then give examples 
of other prepositions, and let class point out how the construc- 
tion differs. Example : J'ai besoin d'une plume pour ecrire. 
J'ai envie d'ecrire maintenant. II commence a pleuvoir, etc. 
En is the only preposition which is followed by present 

8. Viens de faire : Ask class to translate again, and show 
that venir de followed by an infinitive means "to have just"; 
while venir a means " to happen ". Get several other 
examples from class. 

IV. Let a member of the class translate passage through 
again quickly. 

V. Class will now close books and answer questions set 
to them. 

Que savez-vous de 1'humeur de Sir Isaac Newton ? Etait 
ce facile de le troubler ? Aimait-il les animaux ? Qu'est ce 
qui vous fait penser 9a ? Comment s'appelait-il ce petit 
chien ? Qu'a-t-il fait un jour etant seul dans la chambre ? 
Comment se fit-il que Diamant restat seul ? Que vit Sir 
Isaac a son retour ? Se facha-t-il ? Que dit-il ? 

The Formation of the Plural of French Nouns 61 


Class Average age, 14. Time Half hour. Aim To point out to 
class the reason for the various irregularities in the plural of nouns. 


I. Preparation. 

Refer to the modern formation of plural of the nouns 
in English. This formation came from the 
Norman French as one of the results of the 

II. and III. Presentation and Association. 

General Rule. 

Reason for 5 rather 
than any other 

Certain endings 
we must look 
to in consider- 
ing plural of 

(i) Nouns ending 
in 5, x. z. 

Add 5 to the singular. Ex. : le jardin, 
les jardins. 

French language borrowed from the 
Latin accusative both its singular 
and its plural : the letter 5 was 
generally the sign of the accusative 
plural in Latin. Ex. : rosas = roses ; 
homines = hommes ; sonos = sons ; 
planities = plaines. 

(a) s, x y z: fils, voix, nez. 

(b) au y ou, en : chapeau, clou, neveu. 

(c) al, ail : cheval, gouvernail. 

If not ending in one of these ways we 
know that the plural is formed by 
adding 5. 

( Remain same in plural. 
-I La voix, les voix. Le lis, les lis. Le 
[ nez, les nez, etc. 
Take x in plural. 

(2) Nouns ending 
in au. eu. 

Le chapeau, les 

Le neveu, les 

One ex. to | landau(s) 
each. j bleu (s). 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

Nouns ending in ( Follow general rule. 
Le cou, les cous; exc. 





hiboujoujou, pou, 

which take x. 
TOne of the relics of old French. In 
Reason for this! Middle Ages we find z or x for s ; 
irregularity, j thus voiz for voix, nex for nez. 

[This licence has survived in bijou, etc. 


, v Tv T ,. f Change al into^ 

(3) Nouns ending! I 

in al. 

aux. hexc. 


Reasons for this. 

regal, and about 
ten more which 
follow general 
In early French al became in plural 

als : cheval, chevals. 
In thirteenth century al = au before a 

consonant : chevau-leger. 
Chevals then became chevaus, and sub- 
sequently chevaux. 

,. . f Follow general fbail. 
Nouns ending in ., 

J tMil^k fYf\ 1 1 \ 7 * r _ ' r*/"\i*Q i 


-i rule : gouver--^ corail, email, soupirail. 
I nail (s) ; exc. [travail, vantail, vitrail. 
Same remark applies to these as to nouns in al. 

L'aieul, Les ai'eux, ancestors; Les a'ieuls, 

Le ciel, Les ciels, skies in paintings ; Les 

cieux, heavens. 
L'oeil, Les yeux, eyes; Les ceils (in 

Le travail, Les travails, brakes; Les 

Four nouns with 
irregular, in 

addition to 
the regular 

travaux, works. 

The irregular plural generally has the 
same signification as the singular, 
while the regular gives the noun 
a peculiar signification. 

The Formation of the Plural of French Nouns 63 

IV. Recapitulation. 

Question on the foregoing rules. 

V. Application. 

Get from class a number of examples with their 

Formation of plural of French nouns. 

(Add s to sing., therefore the sign of Lat. 
i. General Rule. \ 

ace. pi. 

(a) 5, x, z remain same in plural. 

t au, eu take x, except lan- 
dau and bleu. 

ou takes 5, except seven : 
bijou, caillou, chou, 
genou, joujou, hibou, 
pou, which take x. 

al change into aux, ex- 
cept bal, etc. 

2. Endings to be* 
looked to. 

(b) au, ou, eu.- 

(c) al, ail. 

3 Nouns with ir 

| ail follow general rule, ex- 
{ cept seven : bail, etc. 

ouns with ir-\ 

i 7 i } ai'eul, ciel, travail, ceil. 
egular plural.} 


I. Introduce lesson by questioning class on modern 
formation of plural of English nouns. Whence do we get 
this plural ? When did French begin to influence the 
English language ? The French language then must have 
formed its plural in same way. Hence general rule is to add 
s to sing. 

Then get a few examples from class, and ask meaning 
of "general rule ". 

II. and III. Now there is a reason for the choice of s 
rather than any other letter. 

From what language is French derived ? Tell class that 
majority oi French nouns are formed from Latin accusatives, 
not nominatives. Get some examples from class as in 
matter, and let them say that s is present in all the declen- 

64 Notes on Herbartian Method 

sions in the accusative plural. Hence the s in French in 
accordance with etymology. 

The first thing we are to look to when asked to form 
plural of a French noun is the termination, because the 
plural depends upon this. Ask various examples from class, 
and supply any endings which class fails to give, then classify 
them on blackboard. Three classes : 

(1) Nouns ending in s, x, z. 

(2) au, ou, eu. 

(3) al, ail. 

These are the only three classes of endings we need 
trouble about. Then consider each in turn. 

(1) Write a few examples on board, putting the nouns in 
the plural. Ex. : Get arbre est couvert de belles noix. Ma 
soeur m'a donne trois lis. Les grands nez. Let class say 
these remain same in plural as in singular, and supply other 
examples of same ending. 

(2) Write examples on board, and let class give rule as 
for (i). 

(3) Write examples of nouns in ou, choosing also some 
of the exceptions, e.g., bijou, etc. Let class say that some 
take 5, others x in plural. Then give the seven exceptions. 
Point out cause for this. In Middle Ages 5, x and z were 
used indiscriminately voiz or voix. This licence has 
survived in seven words bijou, etc. 

The third class of endings, those in al, ail. Write 
examples on board, and let class give rule. Then give the 
seven exceptions. 

Reason for the aux. In early French nouns in al followed 
general rule. In the thirteenth century al was softened into 
au before a consonant, e.g., chevau-leger. Chevals then 
became chevaus, and as x and 5 were used indiscriminately, 
it gradually became chevaux. The old plural survived in a 
few words. Write them on board. 

Nouns in ail. Write examples on board, and let class 
supply rule as before. 

Then write nouns with irregular plural as in matter, and 
draw from class that the irregular plural leaves the noun the 

Rules for the Agreement of Past Participles in French 65 

same signification as it has in singular, while the regular 
imparts a peculiar signification. 

IV. What is the general rule for forming plural of French 
nouns ? Why s ? What have we to look to when asked 
to form plural of a noun ? Which endings particularly con- 
cern us ? How is plural of nouns ending in s, x, z formed ? 
Give example. Plural of nouns ending in au, eu, ou ? 
Which of those in ou take x ? Why ? Plural of nouns 
ending in al? Why? Give some exceptions. Nouns in 
ail ? Mention some nouns with irregular plurals. What 
meaning does the regular plural give to the noun ? Give 
an example. 

V. Let class write down quickly plural of chou, clou, 
cardinal, chapeau, landau, bleu, neveu, and similar 




Class Average age, 14. Time Half an hour. Aim To give 
class an accurate knowledge of the agreement of past participles. 


I. Preparation. 

A word of comparison between English and French 
grammar as to the number of inflexions. In English few 
inflexions ; in French many. Words related to each other 
must be in agreement. Adjectives must agree with the 
nouns to which they refer ; likewise past participles. 

II. Presentation. 

i. Examples: Des merites recompenses. 
Des bonheurs passes. 
Des lettres bien forties. 
Une personne etonnee. 
Un devoir bien fait. 


66 Notes on Herbartian Method 

Deduce Rule i. Past participle used without an auxiliary 
performs function of an adjective ; therefore agrees in gender 
and number with noun to which it refers. 

2. Examples : II est venu. Elle est venue. 

II sera arrive. Elle sera arrivee. 

Us sont venus. Elles sent venues. 

Us seront alles. Elles seront allies. 

Deduce Rule 2. Past participle conjugated with auxiliary 
etre agrees in gender and number with the subject of the 

3. Examples : (a) II a chante. 

Elle a chante. 
Us ont chante. 
Elles ont chante. 

Deduce that past participle conjugated with avoir does 
not depend on the subject. 

(b) J'ai vu le roi. 

Nous avons vu la reine. 

Vous avez vu les rois. 

Elles ont vu les reines. 

Difference between (a) and (b), but no difference in parti- 
ciple ; therefore past participle conjugated with avoir remains 
invariable (i) when without an object, (2) when object fol- 

(c) Les rois que j'ai vus sont morts. 

La lettre que vous avez ecrite est sur la table. 
Les devoirs que vous avez ecrits sont sur le pupitre. 
Les reines que j'ai vues sont tres belles. 
Deduce that past participle conjugated with auxiliary 
avoir agrees in gender and number with direct object when 
this, precedes. 

Avez-vous re9u de ses nouvelles ? Oui j'en ai re9u. 
Avez-vous des fruits ? Oui ma sceur m'en a donne. 
Show that it is only with direct object that participle 

III. Association. 

More examples to illustrate foregoing rules. 

Rules for the Agreement of Past Participles in French 67 

IV. Recapitulation. 
Questions on above matter. 

V. Application. 

Class supply examples, giving reason for agreement or 
non-agreement of participles. 


I. Introduce lesson by comparing the English and 
French languages with regard to the number of inflexions, 
and let class point out that the English language has com- 
paratively few,, and the French many. Get from class a few 
examples of agreement in French, e.g., adjectives agreeing 
with nouns to which they refer. 

II. Write Examples i on board, and draw from class the 
function of the participle in each case. That of an adjec- 
tive, therefore what rule of agreement must it follow ? The 
same as the adjective, i.e., it takes the gender and number 
of the noun to which it refers. Let class supply other 
examples, and then write one or two of them on board. 

Write Examples 2 on board. Let class point out dif- 
ference between the use of these participles and those of 
Examples i. With what part of the sentence does each 
agree ? Then let class state rule, and supply a few examples : 
Elle est couchee. La mere est arrivee. Le pere est parti. 
Les enfants sont tombes, etc. 

Write Examples 3 (a) on board. Let class point out the 
different auxiliary, i.e., avoir, likewise that the participle 
does not depend on the subject, since it is invariable in each 
case, though the subjects are of different genders and numbers. 
Get other examples of same kind from class. 

Write (b) on board, and let class point out difference 
between these sentences and those in (a). Draw attention 
to non-agreement of participle. Then let class state rule. 
Past participle conjugated with avoir remains invariable 
when there is no object, or when the object follows the 

68 Notes on Herbartian Method. 

Write sentences (c) on board. Ask gender and number 
of participle in each case. Then let class point out in each 
sentence a word of the same gender and number as participle, 
excepting, of course, the subject, since participles conjugated 
with avoir do not depend upon the subject. Ask function of 
this word in sentence, and what position it occupies with 
regard to participle. Then let class state the rule. Past 
participle conjugated with avoir agrees in gender and number 
with the direct object when preceded by that object. 

Write some examples on board, such as : Avez-vous re9u 
de ses nouvelles ; Oui j'en ai re9u, and draw from class that 
it is only with the direct object that the participle agrees. 

III. Let class supply examples of various kinds, and then 
analyse participle in each case. 

IV. Question in the following or a similar manner : State 
rule for the agreement of past participles conjugated without 
an auxiliary. When used in this way to what part of 
speech is the past participle equivalent ? Give examples. 
How does the past participle agree when conjugated with 
auxiliary etre ? With auxiliary avoir ? When does past 
participle conjugated with avoir remain invariable ? etc. 

V. Class to take pencil and paper and write down sentences 
from dictation, applying foregoing rules to participle. 


Class Average age, 15. Time Half an hour. Aim To teach by 
comparison the use of French idioms. 


I. Preparation. 

1. Meaning of an f Mode of expression peculiar to any 

idiom. i language. 

f Because it necessitates an acquaintance 

2. Why difficult with the minds of the people in ques , 

for foreigners. 

Selected French Idioms 69 

3. A few examples of English idioms : How do you do ? 
What is the matter ? To carry the day. To owe a 

II. and III. Presentation and Association. 

1. // ny a pas de petit chez soi. 

I There is nothing small in one's own 
house ; or, People do not find their 
house too small. Idea same in both 
English equivalent : There's no place like home. 

2. Chat echaude craint Veaufroide. Literally, a scalded 

cat fears cold water. 

(We fear that which has caused us suffer- 
ing. Idea is same as in English, but 
manner of expressing it in French is 
somewhat more forcible. 
English equivalent : A burnt child dreads the fire. 

3. jfe n'en peux mais. Literally, I am capable of no 

more mais (Lat. magis), " more ". 

I cannot do otherwise. Idea same in 
both languages ; therefore if one can- 
not do otherwise one cannot help 
what one is doing. 
English equivalent : I cannot help it. 

4. Passer une nuit blanche. Literally, to pass a white 


Blanche or blanc denotes the absence of 
that which one expects to find in the 


ordinary course of things, in this case 

sleep ; therefore nuit blanche = a sleep- 
less night. 

IV Recapitulation. | As jn dure 

V. Application. J 


I. Introduce lesson by asking what is meant by an idiom. 
Why are the idioms of any language difficult to foreigners ? 
Get some examples of idioms in English. 

70 Notes on Herbartian Method 

II. and III. Write i on board. Draw from class its 
meaning (literal), and that if people do not find their house 
too small they are likely to be satisfied, and will not want to 
change, therefore, No place like home. 

Write 2 on board. Class translate literally. Put 
English of echaude on blackboard. Draw from class the 
meaning of the idiom. The idea is same in both languages, 
each denoting a shrinking from something that has caused 
suffering, therefore, A burnt child dreads the fire. 

Write 3 on board. Show connection between mais and 
Latin magis more. Deduce meaning, I cannot do other- 
wise. Idea same in both languages, I cannot help it. 

Write 4 on board. Refer to expression " carte blanche," 
which means perfect freedom. "Carte blanche " meaning, 
as it were, a card on which one can fill in anything one 
chooses. Draw from class meaning of blanche, i.e., 
absence of what one expects to find in the natural course of 
things. At night one looks for sleep, hence blanche 
sleepless. Idea here differs from the English. 

IV. Recapitulation : What is an idiom ? What is the 
equivalent of II n'y a pas de petit chez soi ? What is the 
meaning of the idiom ? What is the equivalent of Je n'en 
peux mais ? From what is mais derived. Give the French 
equivalent of To pass a sleepless night. What is the 
meaning of blanche in the like expressions ? 

V. Application Class will answer following questions 
by making use of the proper idiom : Vous avez Tair fatigue 
qu'avez-vous ? N'avez-vous pas bien dormi cette nuit ? 
Passez-vous souvent des nuits blanches ? N'osez-vous plus 
vous promener a cheval ? Pourquoi pas ? Quelle excuse 
fait-on lorsque 1'on ne veut pas se corriger de quelque faute ? 
Vous etes done content de revoir votre pays et d'etre de 
nouveau chez vous ? 

Rebellions in the Reign of Henry VI L 



Class Age, 13 to 15 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Previous Knowledge General outline of reign of Henry VII. Aim To 
exercise imagination of the class and lead them to interest themselves 
in the causes and results of these rebellions. 

I. Preparation. 

General Causes. 

II. Presentation. 


Defective title of Henry VII. 

Presence of real heir. 

Henry's partiality to Lancastrians. 


i. Personated Earl of Warwick, son of 

George of Clarence, 
ii. Joined by Irish and Germans. 
k iii. Disproved by exhibition of real heir. 
"o oppose Henry and place the Earl or 

Warwick on the throne, 
i. Defeat at Stoke by Earl of Oxford, 
ii. Simnel captured and placed in king's 


(b\ Ob' t 

(c] Result 

I iii. Elizabeth crowned to please Yorkists. 


/ Personated Richard, Duke of York, sup- 
posed to have escaped from the 

(a) Leader. 4 Tower. 

Sought help from Ireland, Scotland, 
V France and Flanders. 

(b) Object. To put Warbeck on the throne. 

(Warbeck's failure in Ireland. 

France. Treaty of Estaples, 1492. 
/ \ n jfo i Flanders. Great Intercourse. 

Insurgents land at Deal. 
Warbeck sails to Ireland and thence to 

72 Notes on Hcrbartian Method 

I James IV.'s marriage with Cath. Gordon. 
Joined Cornish rebellion, defeated at 
() Results. Taunton. 

Warbeck imprisoned in the Tower. 
Attempted escape with Warwick. Exe- 
cuted, 1499. 
IV. Recapitulation and Summary. 

The causes of the rebellions in this reign were (i) The 
defective title of Henry VII., (2) Presence of real heir, (3) 
Partiality to Lancastrians. The first rebellion, headed by 
Lambert Simnel, who personated the Earl of Warwick, son 
of Clarence. He was defeated at Stoke by Earl of Oxford, 
captured and placed in king's kitchen. Second rebellion, 
headed by Perkin Warbeck, 1495, personated Richard, Duke 
of York. Sought help of France and Flanders, but was 
refused. At length went to Scotland, helped by James IV., 
but thrown off again. Joined the Cornish rebellion, and 
defeated at Taunton. Imprisoned and executed 1499. 

III. Association. 

I. Introduce lessons by questions on the descent of 
Henry VII. What was the last battle of the Wars of the 
Roses ? Give date. Who was crowned on battlefield ? 
Refer to descent of Henry from Henry V.'s widow ; also from 
John of Gaunt. Why was Henry's title weak ? What led 
the people to accept him ? In the ordinary course of things 
who ought to succeed a king ? Where were Edward IV.'s 
sons? Who had the next right? What had become of 
George Duke of Clarence ? His son ? Edward Earl of 
Warwick was alive, and Henry, knowing how popular the 
Yorkists were, had him confined in the Tower. From what 
we have said, is there any reason why Henry did not feel 
secure on his throne ? (Elicit three reasons.) Did he try 
to please the Yorkists, and how ? What had he to fear ? 
(C/. other sovereigns in same condition.) What did he do 
with the real heir ? and as result what took place in his reign ? 
(Recapitulate three causes, and write on blackboard.) 

Rebellions in the Reign of Henry VII. 73 

II i. (a) The first rebellion was in favour of Lambert 
Simnel, who personated the real heir. Who was the real 
heir ? Why was he the real heir ? L. S. was really a tool in 
the hands of Yorkists, because they knew where the real 
heir was; it was an artifice to test their chances of popularity. 
In Wars of Roses what people were partial to Yorkists ? 
What Yorkist leader took refuge in Ireland? What would 
that nation naturally do now ? He was also joined by 
Germans, who, with the Irish and Simnel, sailed to England. 
Why was it easy to prove that Simnel was not Earl of 
Warwick ? Henry made a point of exhibiting his prisoner 
in London, so that people might distrust Simnel. Would 
this news have travelled very quickly to Ireland in those 
days ? and why not ? 

(6) If Simnel personated the real heir, what must have 
been his object ? Whom were the Yorkists personally against ? 
It had seemed to them that Henry did not even trust his 
wife Elizabeth (" The White Rose ") as befitted her position 
in giving him a greater right to the throne, and they knew 
that Henry tried to advance his own descent as sufficient. 

(c) Relate events as given in matter ; use map to show 
places, and notice policy of Henry with regard to the 
coronation of Elizabeth. 

2. (a) and (b) Relate account of leader of second rebellion, 
Perkin Warbeck. Whom he personated. Made up a story 
about his escape. Why was this story as likely to be credited 
as the last ? When was the truth about the two princes 
really known ? How did Henry disprove the last impostor ? 
Why could he not do anything similar now ? The very 
personation caused the truth to be confessed by Tyrrel. 
What effect on the people had this difficulty in disproving 
the new claimant ? 

(c) Warbeck sought help from Irish. How would they 
receive him ? Why ? Next with French. This led to 
Treaty of E staples (show on map), 1492. (Explain its terms, 
etc.) Next with Flanders, where some relatives of Edward 
IV. still lived. Henry interfered. Result, the Great Inter- 
course. Why is there such a difference in Henry's dealings 

74 Notes on Herbartian Method 

with Simnel and Warbeck ? Relate Warbeck's final attempts 
in Deal and in Ireland. How received ? Scotland. Pro- 
jected marriage with Catherine Gordon, who always believed 
in royalty of her husband. James's attitude. His invasion 
resulting in tax, and rebellion in Cornwall in consequence. 
Defeat at Taunton. Took sanctuary in Beaulieu Abbey. 
His end. Whom did he meet in the Tower ? Their escape, 
and execution in 1499. 

IV. "Recapitulation : What were the chief causes of re- 
bellion in this reign ? Who headed the first insurrection ? 
Whom did he personate ? Give result of insurrection. 
How did Henry try to satisfy the people ? What led to the 
second rebellion ? Whom did Warbeck person-ate ? Where 
did he seek help ? With what results ? Where was he 
defeated in the end ? 


Class Oxford Juniors. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Aim 
To stimulate the imagination of the pupils while increasing their know- 
ledge of and interest in history. 

I. Preparation. 

i. Preliminary ((a) Position of Philip II. of Spain in 
description of \ Europe. 

State of Euro- j (b) Relations between England and 
pean Politics. { Spain about the time of the Armada. 
Causes which led to the Armada : 
i. The murder of Mary Queen of Scots, 
ii. England opposed Philip's armies in 

Causes leading 
to, and Aim 
of Philip in, 
the Armada. 

iii. Drake had plundered Spanish ships 


At Pope Sixtus V.'s invita- 

^ . j tion to invade England, 

seize the kingdom and 
make it once more Catholic. 

The Spanish Armada 

II. Presentation. 


i. Preparations of 
the Fleets: the \ 
Two Fleets. 

2. Plan of attack. 

^136 large galleons and gal- 

2o,ooosoldiers,besides 8,000 

sailors and 2,000 oars- 
2,000 cannon and all kinds 

of weapons. 
Preparations for invasion, 

and war on land. 
Comma nde r Duke of 

Duke of Parma in Flanders 

at head of a large army. 
Fleet took three years to 
\ prepare. 

^hirty small vessels soon 

increased to 180 light 

merchant crafts. 
About 17,000 men. 
Commander - in - chief 

Howard of Effingham. 
Other noted Officers - 

Drake, Hawkins and 

Allies the Dutch fleet. 

'(a) Sail through the Channel. 

(b) Unite with Parma's forces in 


(c) Combined forces attack English 

and advance to London. 
(<7) Depose Elizabeth and place Philip 
on the throne. 


7 6 

Notes on Herbartian Method 

3. Chief events. 

i. Spanish fleet damaged 

in a storm delay. 

(a) Before 

ii. Appears in Channel in 

reaching the * 

form of crescent seven 


miles wide. 

iii. Scene on the Hoe at 


' i. English let fleet pass, 

then harassed their 


ii. Small fight offPortland. 

iii. Great losses to Span- 

(b) During I 

. \ 

iards off Gravelines. 


iv. Anchored at Calais. 

v. Parma's forces block- 

aded by Dutch Protes- 


vi. Fireships complete the 

^ defeat. 

i. Oquendo's ship and 

the gunner. 

ii. Pedro de Valdez' sur- 

(c) Incidents 

iii. The Biscay Galleon 

with at- 

not surrender. 


iv. The St. Ann duel with 

Hawkins Spanish 

unfair play. 

v. Dutch plunder of Span- 

k ish galleon. 

i. General confusion - 

between 4,000 and 

(d) After 

5,000 killed, 
ii. Whole Spanish fleet 

scattered many of 

largest ships sunk or 



The Spanish Armada 


3. Chief events. 

/iii. Remainder sailed round 
Scotland and Ireland, 
pursued by English 
as far as Scotland. 
(d) After Shattered by the 

attack. storms. 

iv. Only fifty-three reached 
Spain after two 
months' struggle with 
\ the elements. 

III. Assimilation. 

(i. To the power of Spain on sea. 
2. To the power of England on sea. 
3. To the cause of Catholicism at home 
and abroad. 

IV. Association. 

1. Compare Philip II. with Napoleon. 

2. Contrast modern warships with those of Spain and 

England in the sixteenth century. 

3. Refer to the late Spanish - American War, and 

point to the similar causes of failure of the 

V. Recapitulation 

Of chief points of the matter. 

Map of Europe. 

Picture of the Armada, and incidents 
connected with it. 

(a) Elizabeth at Tilbury Fort. 

(b) Scene on the Hoe at Ply- 


(c) The defeat of the Armada. 

(d) Drake on board the Revenge. 
Sketch of a Spanish galleon, and 

English merchant ship. 


Note. This lesson might with profit be given in two 
parts (about half an hour each) ; it is written as one lesson 
to preserve continuity of form. 

78 Notes on Herbartian Method 


1. i. Refer to history of Europe at this period, and 
especially to the central figure in this history. Who he was 
His dominion. How was England related with Spain at 
this time ? What connection had she in the last reign ? 
Refer to the Spanish marriage, etc., etc. 

2. Lead on to Causes, and draw from class by questions on 
the history of the times the three main causes. From a re- 
ligious point of view, what was Philip's aim ? His ideas as 
regards religion ? Refer to lesson on character. Finally 
mention Pope Sixtus V.'s attitude. How was the aim 
viewed in England, and why ? 

II. i. Compare preparations of our own times and in the 
olden times. Why was it necessary to spend three years in 
preparation ? Relate circumstances connected with Spanish 
preparations for the " Invincible ". The effect on people. 
Why ? The mistakes made, etc., and give names of leaders. 
Use map to show Tagus. Show sketch of Spanish galleon, 
or draw on blackboard. Compare with modern ships 
advantages and disadvantages, etc. 

Now we turn to England. Her attitude : hope or fear ? 
Why ? What about her navy then ? Who lent vessels ? 
" There came a gallant merchant ship full sail to Plymouth 
Bay." Commander. What religion ? What does this 
prove about general attitude of England ? (All creeds com- 
bined to resist it, and religious struggle for a moment put 
aside.) Other officers of note. Ask questions to find where 
we hear of Drake before this. Frobisher and Hawkins. 
What do we owe to them ? Name allies. Why the 
Dutch ? What relations had Elizabeth with the Dutch ? 

2. Explain plan of attack, and trace on map. Are first 
plans always successful ? Give some examples where they 
have been entirely abandoned, and altered. (Cf. Transvaal 
War.) Who was the Duke of Parma ? Where have we 
heard of him before ? If the combination had succeeded, 
would the conquest have been secure ? Why ? What was 

The Spanish Armada 79 

the immediate object ? And when Philip was on the throne, 
what then ? Why ? Did the Catholics not seem to wish 
for Philip ? (Loyalty of English always.) 

3. Relate series of mishaps which attended the " In- 
vincible" from the very outset. (Show photo with ships 
in form of crescent.) What was the object of this position? 
Compare Trafalgar. Spanish and French in crescent. 
Describe scene on Hoe at Plymouth. Show picture of the 
game, and ask why all were so unconcerned. When fleet 
appeared it was allowed to pass. Why ? The wind unfavour- 
able to Spanish but not to English. Why could not English 
fleet face the crescent ? Describe the various Channel fights : 
Portland, Gravelines. Anchored at Calais. English success 
with such smaller crafts. Why ? What about Parma ? 
Were any in Holland favourable to Elizabeth? Who? 
They showed this now by blockading Parma's fleet. Result, 
and final success by means of fireships. To add to interest 
relate incident mentioned in matter, and draw from class 
how character of opponents was seen on those occasions. 

After attack. What would be result of such a defeat? 
What was the only route open to returning to Spain With 
safety ? Give account of the journey round Scotland and 
Ireland. The wrecks and the relics of the saved who 
settled on these coasts seen to-day, especially North of 
Scotland. (Organ and chandelier to be seen in Trinity 
College, Dublin.) Why were the ships in great danger 
in coasting these countries north ? Trace journey on map. 
Only fifty-three ships returned to Spain. Out of how 
many ? 

III. Deduce from class the results of this great victory, 
first, as regards power of Spain at sea. How would this be 
affected ? Why ? Has she shown any great power since 
at sea ? (Late Spanish-American War.) On contrary, 
what then was the effect on English power at sea ? Name 
some other naval victories that secured our power at a 
critical moment. (Camperdown, Trafalgar.) As regards 
religion, how was the Catholic cause affected ? Why in 
this way ? 

8o Notes on Herbartian Method 

IV. Compare Philip II. and Napoleon as to ambition, 
aims and methods, and success of his enterprises. Which 
character is to be preferred ? Contrast modern warships 
with those of sixteenth century. Show pictures of each, and 
draw from class general advantages of one and disadvantages 
of the other. As regards bravery and courage, which kind 
of warfare (modern or old-fashioned) leads to the greatest 
exercise of these virtues ? Refer again to Spanish-American 
War, and point to similar causes of failure of Spaniards. 

V. Recapitulate chief points of matter, and write principal 
heads on blackboard class to reproduce account in their 
own words in form of an essay. 




Class Age, 16 to 17 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Aim 
To give class an accurate idea of the state of England in Elizabeth's reign. 


I. Preparation. 

A few questions as to the character of the Tudor Sove- 
reigns in general powerful rulers, the material prosperity 
of country necessarily great. 

II. Presentation. 


(a) Change in mode of cultivation 
favoured production. 

New methods and 
their conse- 

(b) Change, moreover, brought about a 

taste for improvement. 

(c) This more careful and constant culti- 

vation necessitated greater number 
of hands. 

Hence this state of things was a distinct gain to many 
among labouring classes. 

The Prosperity of England during Reign of Elizabeth 81 


(a) Woollen manufacture an important 


(b) Silk weaving introduced. 

(c) Weaving, fulling and dyeing of cloth 

spread rapidly over country. 
Industries and / } Worsted trade> centred at Norwich) 

extended over whole of eastern 

(e) Iron manufactures in Kent and 
Sussex for northern towns began 
to rise. 

This development of manufactures gave work to the 


((a) Cannot judge of it by any modern 
standard, for whole population can 
hardly have exceeded five or six 

(b) Most important part with Antwerp 

and Bruges. 

(c) After siege and ruin of Antwerp by 

Duke of Parma supremacy of our 
own capital first established. One- 
third of Antwerp merchants and 
manufacturers took refuge on banks 
of Thames. 

(d) Growth of Boston and Hull marked 

an increase of commercial inter- 
course with North. 

(e) Prosperity of Bristol, which depended 

in great measure on trade with 
Ireland, stimulated by colonisation. 

(/) Trade with Russia created. 

(g) Lucrative traffic with coast of 
Guinea, to whose gold-dust and 
ivory the Southampton merchants 
owed their wealth. 

Commercial seats 
and countries { 
traded with. 

82 Notes on Herbartian Method 


(a) Conception of domestic comfort takes 
its rise from this period. Carpets, 

silver, pillows in general use. 
Wealth and Com- | (& Tend to lu and di } f 


actenstics. I/ \ ^ ,. t_ uur , 

I (c) Lrreat households fast breaking up. 

Whole of feudal economy disappear- 

f (a) Dwellings of brick and stone super- 

seded rough wattled farmhouses. 
(b) Gloomy walls and serried battlements 

Characterised by 
pomp and ele- 

disappeared from dwellings of the 
gentry, strength fast giving way to 
magnificence and elegance. 

) Prodigal use of glass a marked 

III. Association. 

The procedure and different illustrations used. 

IV. Recapitulation. 
Questions as in procedure. 

V. Application. 

Class to take down heads of matter and write a short 
essay on the subject for next lesson. 


I. Introduce lesson by questioning class as to the state of 
England during the reigns of Henry VII. and Henry VIII. 
with regard to material prosperity. Why was it so prosperous ? 
Why had it not been so prosperous under the preceding 
dynasties ? 

Point out that during the reign of Elizabeth this pros- 
perity reached its zenith, not only in one department, but 
in many. 

II. Improvements may be classed under five heads, viz.: 
Agriculture, Manufactures, Commerce, Social Progress and 

The Prosperity of England during Reign of Elizabeth 83 

Architecture. Tell how new methods of agriculture were 
introduced, and draw from class that under these methods 
the land naturally improved. How would the farmers be 
affected by seeing the great improvements consequent upon 
the improved systems ? They were stimulated to greater 
efforts, and hence was developed in them a taste for improve- 
ment which resulted in raising the tone of this portion of 
the people. Draw from class that, as the cultivation of 
the land became more constant and careful, a greater 
number of hands were required for the Work. Let class 
point out who would be" the gainers by this, and show that 
if this had been the only improvement it would have been 

As regards manufactures, then, as now, the woollen manu- 
factures formed a most important element in the national 
wealth ; but it was confined to the West of England. What 
is the seat of the woollen manufacture at the present day ? 
Point out places on the map. Tell how we are indebted to 
the French for the introduction of silk weaving to the 
numerous Huguenot emigrants who settled at Spitalfields. 
Hitherto England had sent all her fleeces to the Continent 
to be woven and dyed, but now the weaving, fulling and 
dyeing were carried on at home, and were spreading rapidly 
over the country. The worsted trade, which was centred at 
Norwich, began to spread all over the south-eastern counties, 
and the farmers' wives began everywhere to spin their wool 
from their own sheep's backs. What advantage was there 
in all this ? Women became thrifty and domesticated, and 
were kept from the miseries of idleness. Then the iron manu- 
facture was carried on, but was confined to Kent and Sussex. 
Where is it carried on now ? Why ? Point out that the 
manufactures were gradually transferred from these counties 
to the northern towns, and draw from class the consequence 
of this transference, i.e., that Manchester, York, Halifax, etc., 
began to rise in importance. What class of people specially 
profited by this development of manufactures ? The working 
classes. Show advantage of this, for as long as these were 
well employed they were guarded against discontent and its 

84 Notes on Herbartian Method 

consequent evils. Draw from class that commerce was 
furthered by this development of manufactures. Point out 
that we cannot judge of it by any modern standards, and 
why. Most important branch was with Antwerp and 
Bruges, but after siege of Antwerp many merchants came 
over and settled on banks of Thames. What was the effect 
of this? 

Boston and Hull then began to grow in importance, and 
increased in intercourse with North of Europe. Prosperity 
of Bristol greatly stimulated by colonisation of Ireland, 
Show Bristol on map, and point out reason for this inter- 
course ease of access. Tell of the discovery of Archangel 
by Richard Chancellor, and let class say what advantages 
accrued to England from this, i.e., trade with Russia opened 
up. Besides all this, a lucrative trade with Guinea was 
begun. Show Guinea on map, and let class say what it is 
noted for. This trade proved a great source of wealth to 
the Southampton merchants. Point out the shame that it 
brought to England by being the cause of the beginning of 
slave trade, which was not abolished till 1833. 

Now to come to social progress. Point out that in some 
ways it can hardly be considered progress. First notion of 
domestic comfort, however, takes its rise from this period. 
Carpets now came into fashion. What had been used 
hitherto ? Pillows, which had formerly been despised, now 
came into general use. Use of silver almost general. Some 
yeomen had quite a fair show of plate. Great tendency 
towards luxury and display of all kinds. People were be- 
coming more particular in choice of food, and were not 
satisfied with the simpler fare of former days. Consumption 
of wine, too, increasing. Cecil, the Minister, complained 
that " England spendeth more in wines in one year than it 
did in ancient times in four". Dress, also, became much 
more lavish. Queen's robes rivalled by the slashed velvets, 
ruffs and jewelled doublets of the courtiers. Green says : 
"Men wore a manor on their backs". Show pictures of 
the costumes of the period. Draw from class the effect 
of all this luxury on the character and habits of the 

The Prosperity of England during Reign of Elizabeth 85 

people. How did Elizabeth look upon these social 
changes ? Why ? 

Increase of wealth influenced the architecture of the time. 
Rough wattled farmhouses began to give way to dwellings 
of brick and stone. This served to beautify the towns. 
Show pictures of mediaeval castles and of Elizabethan archi- 
tecture, and let class point out wherein the differences lay. 
Another marked feature was the prodigal use of glass. Long 
lines of windows stretched across the fronts of the new 
manor-houses. Draw from class the advantages of this from 
a physical point of view. The enjoyment of light and sun- 
shine was a mark of the temper of the age. Lord Bacon on 
this : " Your houses are so full of glass, that we cannot tell 
where to come to be out of the sun or the cold ". Here read 
passage from Green, p. 388 " Transformation . . . oriel," 
p. 389. Point out to class Elizabeth's contribution to this 
development was the peace and order from which it 
sprang, and the thrift which spared the purses of her sub- 
jects. She contented herself with the ordinary resources of 
the Crown. 

IV. Recapitulation : Under what heads may we class the 
progress of the country during Elizabeth's reign ? What 
benefits were derived from the improved system of agricul- 
ture ? What were the chief industries, and where were they 
carried on ? Who were the gainers by this development of 
manufactures ? Why can we not compare the commerce of 
the period with that of the present day ? What English 
towns 'rose in importance? and why? With what foreign 
countries did England trade ? What were the characteristics 
of the social life of the period ? What advantages and dis- 
advantages from this ? What of the architecture ? 


Notes on Herbartian Method 


Class Oxford Juniors. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Aim 
To stimulate the imagination of the pupils while increasing their know- 
ledge of and interest in history. 


I. Preparation. 

i. Refer to class's previous knowledge of him as to 
(a) Queen Mary's husband. 
(6) Author of Armada. 
(c) Who he was. 

II. Presentation. 

1. Son of Charles V., Emperor of Austria, grandson of 
Jane the Mad and Philip the Handsome of Burgundy. 

2. Heir to the greatest heritage that Christendom has 
ever seen. 

/ i. To periods of gloom, 
ii. To extreme religious views bordering 

on madness. 

iii. To consider himself a "junior part- 
ner " with Providence in the estab- 
lishment of an universal supremacy 
of Catholicism through Spanish 
\ influence and power. 

i. Hereditary tendencies accentuated 
by his father's constant wars with 
ii. Narrow - minded religious views 

deeply instilled. 

iii. Instructed by his father in politics, 
taught self-control and distrust of 
others, to be secret, crafty and over- 

iv. Lost the soft influence of his mother 
at the age of twelve, hence his cold, 
\ hard exterior. 

(a) Hereditary 


(b) His Training. 

Character of Philip II. of Spain 

(c) Character as a 
King. /- 

i. Essentially a statesman, not a 


ii. His whole career influenced by his 
conviction of Divine appointment to 
do the Almighty's work, 
iii. Hence his depending too entirely 
on supernatural means and neg- 
lecting the temporal, 
iv. His distrust of others and desire of 
blind obedience from all while he 
\ ordered every point. 

v. His painstaking and laborious 
attention to details, and no sense 
of proportion as to their religious 

vi. His marble serenity, unmoved in 
the midst of failure, trusting to the 
belief that his cause was God's, 
and therefore must succeed at last, 
vii. Independent in dealing with the 
Pope about powers of Inquisition. 
A dutiful son. 

A faithful and affectionate husband 
to all four wives, under difficult 

iii. A patient and loving father. (Don 
Carlos.) His natural character re- 
veals itself in his family life. 

IV. Application. 
As in procedure. 

V. Recapitulation. 

Set pupils an essay on foregoing, or, bid them institute 
a comparison of Spain under Philip, and England under 


III. Association. 

I. Lead class by questions to see that Philip in both (a) 
and (b) was moved by the same ambition and desire to restore 
Catholicism through the supremacy of Spain. 

(d) His Domestic 

88 Notes on Herbartian Method 

Show that he was regarded as the Champion of the 
True Faith by reason of his dominions. 

(a) Here give his parentage, alluding to his grand- 
mother's mental state, showing that it passed on to his 
father after middle age, and his son in youth. What is 
therefore to be expected in Philip ? Point out what form 
these hereditary tendencies took in him. His training only 
strengthened his views. Refer to his father's work at the 
time the Reformation just beginning war on heretics in 
his dominions. What influence it must have had on Philip. 

(6) Describe shortly the character of his early teachers. 
Narrow-minded devotees, and elicit the effect on him. Also, 
his mother's death, and falling entirely under his father's 
control and influence. Describe the kind of training re- 
ceived from him, relating his advice to him about counsellors 
when entering on his life as king at sixteen years of age. 
Mention, in passing, how well he followed it through his 
whole career, and especially in the Armada. 

(c) Deduce that he was a statesman and no soldier, from 
fact that there is no record of his taking part in any battle 
during the many wars. Contrast him with Charles I. in 
idea of Divine appointment, and also favouritism, showing 
that his independence of latter was logical result of former. 
Describe, however, his Court policy, and how it affected the 
government of the kingdom and his popularity. Refer to 
Philip's policy in England as Mary's husband (moderation). 
Also, his independence of the Holy See in ecclesiastical 
affairs and in his rule of Naples, and use of the Inquisition. 
Instance of Pope's Bulls suppressed in Spain, and the 
treatment of Carvanza. 

(d) Deduce by question in matter already assimilated by 
the class the points remarkable in the domestic character of 
this king, and how his natural character shows itself most in 
his family life. 

IV. Application : Draw moral lesson concerning the 
formation of character. How are we affected by our sur- 
roundings, our company, and our history ? C/. Napoleon. 

V. Recapitulation : As in matter. 

The Marian Persecutions 


Class Age, 16 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Aim 
To lead class to a just and impartial knowledge of the matter and its 
results to Catholicism in England. 

I. Preparation. 

Religious changes 
under Henry 
VIII. and 
Edward VI. 


, Broke with Rome on 
i Under I divorce question. 
Henry VIII. Claimed supremacy. 

Suppressed monasteries, 
[ etc. 

Hertford and Council 
Protestant in sym- 

Cranmer from a bad 
Catholic drifted into 
Six Articles repealed, 
forty - two Articles 

r Book of Com- 
mon Prayer. 
New Com- 
munion Ser- 

Sweeping Marriage of 
changes, clergy. 

Pictures and 
images de- 
Altars abo- 
. lished. 

Revolts, e.g., in Devon 
and Cornwall, put 

2. Under 
Edward VI. 

down with 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

II. Presentation. 

i. Position of 
Catholics at 
Mary's acces- 


In Eng- j divided , 

land. \ into 
.; parties. 

(b) On the] 
Continent, j 



Factors in-( 

In a state of indecision 
as to their duty until 
Council of Trent. 

i. Those who 
admitted the 

ii. Those who 
refused to 
take the 
[ oath. 

Church had suffered 
great pecuniary losses 
I. under Edward. 
Catholic Powers of Spain, 
Austria, France and 
the Emperor against 
Germany and Holland. 

Emperor sided with 
Rome and Philip. 

His son shared his 
opinions, and Mary 

(a) The Span-J and England were in- 
ish marriage.^ volved in same. 

Meant submission to 

Secured throne for Mary 

Queen of Scots. 

(b) Wyatt's insurrection. Protestants 

in panic. 

^Followed the marriage. 

(c) Submis- Was made to Cardinal 
s i o n of Pole, led finally to the 
Parliament. revival of the Statute 

of Heresy. 

The Marian Persecutions 91 

'(a) Were outcome of misplaced, ill- 
advised zeal. 
(6) Were against advice of Cardinal 

Pole and many bishops. 
(c) Were cruel and against true interests 

of religion. 

The Persecu- | (d) Resulted in great ill-feeling in Eng- 
tions. land against Catholics. Death of 

Ridley and Latimer, etc. 
(e) Did more than anything else to 
make Protestants popular since the 
persecutions were identified with 
the Spanish Philip against English- 

III. Association. 

See the procedure. 

Summary : The religious strife begun under Henry VIII. 
and Edward VI. led under Mary Tudor to reprisals, and by 
the Statute of Heresy formerly used against Lollards, many 
Protestants were tried and condemned to death. In thus 
acting, Mary, far from advancing the cause she had at heart, 
really did much harm and roused a hatred of Catholics which 
still exists. 

IV. Recapitulation. 
Questions as in procedure. 

V. Application. 

Show how true charity leads us to be tolerant, and con- 
clude by a few remarks on the evils caused by bigotry. 


I. i. Introduce lesson by questioning class as to the 
claims which Henry made to be Head of the Church, and 
show them how, by the suppression of the monasteries, 
many thousands of the poor were left without means either 
spiritual or temporal. Show how ill-instructed Catholics 
would not know how to act when time of danger really 

g2 Notes on Herbartian Method 

came. Discuss the policy of Cromwell, and show how 
moderate it was, and draw from class the reason of Crom- 
well's downfall. 

2. Begin by questioning class as to Council appointed 
by Henry VIII. Show its Protestant bent, as was also that 
of the character of Edward VI. If possible enumerate 
changes, and write chief on blackboard. Show class how 
these affected the large class of the uneducated already 
left without guides since 1536 and 1539. Tell, however, of 
the popular revolts, and show on map the chief strongholds 
of the ancient faith. Relate how great and severe measures 
at the point of the sword were adopted, and describe the 
period of Protestant misrule which preceded the death of 
Edward. Elicit from pupils that in such times of disorder 
men eagerly follow what promises to restore peace and 

II. i. (a) Illustrate the various opinions held about what 
was lawful and not lawful as to compliances with regard to 
the new religion. Get from pupils the names of those who 
best understood the trend of " Royal Supremacy," i.e., More 
and Fisher, and even Erasmus, and compare them with 
Margaret Roper and Gardiner. Illustrate further by the 
terms Papist and Church Papist the two classes of 

(b) Show on map of Europe the Catholic Powers, and 
describe the position of the Emperor Charles and his relation- 
ship to Philip. If possible, get from class the traditional 
feeling of Christendom as to the Pope's temporal power. 
Point out the extent of the Protestant revolt. 

2. (a) Lead pupils to see why England was averse to 
the Spanish marriage, and why the nation preferred it to 
Mary of Scots, and lead class to see that Scotland was an 
ancient enemy. Refer to Pinkie. 

On the other hand, show how it would involve Mary and 
England in European politics, and get from class which side 
she was most likely to take. 

(b) Tell how all this led to Wyatt's futile insurrection, 
and show how this attempt strengthened Mary in her 

The Character of James I. of England 93 

position. Lead class to see how Mary had some of her 
father's pure obstinacy, and point out that she was narrow in 
her views, though otherwise a good woman. 

(c) Describe the progress of Cardinal Pole up the Thames, 
and the events which soon followed. 

Refer to the Statute of Heresy; get date when first 
passed and against whom used. Get other instances of 
burning, e.g., Joan of Arc. 

3. Show that we must not judge those times by the 
standards of the present century. Ask why not. 

Enumerate the Protestant martyrs, and impress on class 
the injustice of not accepting Cranmer's recantation. 

IV. i. What was the most important religious change 
under Henry VIII. ? 2. Name three political events which 
greatly influenced Mary and her advisers. 3. Why do we 
condemn the action of Mary ? 4. What were the Catholic 
Powers in Europe after the Council of Trent ? 

V. Application ; As in matter. 


Class Average age, 12. Time Half an hour. Previous Know- 
ledge Principal events of his reign. Aim To lead class to draw con- 
clusions from facts and events by eliciting character of James I. 

I. Preparation. 

State of England 
on death of 
Elizabeth, the 
last of the 


Great prosperity with regard to com- 
merce and social life. 

Religion in a disturbed state, three- 
fourths Puritans. Catholics hoping 
for better things under James I. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

II. Presentation. 

Principal faults 
in James's 
character and 
the events 
which called 
them forth. 



i. Vanity and conceit in his own 


ii. Weak-mindedness. 
ii. Duplicity. 
iv. Obstinacy. 

i. Tyranny, seen in his dealings 
with his Parliament. 

ii. Prodigality. 

iii. Favouritism, shown in his treat- 
ment of Buckingham. 

James's failure due in great part to the tyranny of his 
predecessors, the Tudors. 

-As a king he is devoid of good qualities, 
but as a man he possesses the 

(a) Just in his intentions. 
(6) Love of learning. 
.(c) Humour. 

III. Association. 

Compare James with Edward II. Both were addicted 
to favouritism and tyranny. With Richard II. ; both being 
worthless sons of good parents. 

IV. Recapitulation 

Of points in his character, both good and bad. 

V. Application. 

As James had suffered from the despotism of the Tudors, 
so Charles I. was to suffer the effects of his father's mis- 
government. Here say a word about considering our actions 
in the light of their consequences to others. Mention the 
Reformation, etc. 

2. Good points in 
his character. 


I. Question class on the state of England on the death 
of Elizabeth. Why was the nation so prosperous ? What 
was the state of the country as regards religion ? What 
were the Catholics expecting ? Why ? 

The Character of James I. of England 95 

II. i. Let us see now whether James was the kind of 
man to answer their expectations. We shall consider him 
under two aspects: (a) That of a man; (b) That of a 

(a) James was very learned, and in consequence of this fell 
into a fault to which learned people are often liable. He was 
vain, and did not turn his knowledge to account. Henry IV. 
of France called him the wisest fool in Christendom. 

i. Vanity, then, is one point in his character. 

You remember how James allowed himself to be led by 
his favourites. Who was the chief among these ? Now 
what would you say of a man that allows himself to be led 
so easily by others, particularly when they are bad advisers ? 
That he is weak. 

ii. Weak-mindedness was James's second defect. 

Before he came to the throne he promised the Catholics 
toleration, and then he broke his promise. What do you 
say of people who say one thing and mean another ? 

iii. Hypocrisy or duplicity his third fault. 

Last of all, how did he accept the advice given him by 
the Parliament ? Why would he not listen to it ? What 
fault is that, to refuse to listen to good advice because we 
think we know better ? 

iv. Obstinacy his fourth fault. 

(b) Then elicit his faults as a king. 

1. Tyranny, in refusing to listen to the just demands of 

ii. Prodigality, shown in his expenditure. 

iii. Favouritism. 

James was not wholly to blame for his failure in govern- 
ment. He came at a difficult time. What sort of rulers 
were the Tudors ? Tyrannical, therefore inclined the people 
to discontent and risings. 

2. Like every one else, James was not without his good 
points. His intentions were just, but he did not carry them 
out. Show class that it is not sufficient to mean well. 
Then he loved learning, which is a good point, and he was 
very good-humoured. 

96 Notes on Herbartian Method 

III. Now let us see if James is like any other king we 
know. What other king was ruled by favourites and 
tyrannised over his subjects ? Edward II. He also 
resembles Richard II. in being the bad son of good parents. 

IV. What points of character does James display as king? 
How does he show his vanity? His obstinacy ? Why is 
he not wholly to blame ? With what kings may he be 
compared ? 


Class Age, 16 years. Time Forty minutes. Aim To exercise 
imagination of class in following fortunes of Charles during the Civil War. 

I. Preparation. 

Refer to Charles's Parliament and the mind of the nation 
after suffering so many wrongs. 

fOne carried on between two parties of 

Meaning of civil 

II. Presentation. 

i. Cause of war. 

the same nation. In this case one 


siding with, other against, 

2. Leaders. 

Ii. Tyranny of Tudors. 
ii. Misgovernment of 
James I. 
iii. Incapacity of Charles. 

Refusal of Charles to give 
(b) Immediate up all armed forces 

cause. to the control of Par- 

liament. . 

(Royalists Charles and his nephew, 
Prince Rupert. 
Parliament Earl of Essex, Cromwell, 
John Hampden. 

The Civil War in Reign of Charles I. 97 

Ob'ect /^ ta ^ e ^ rom Charles the power of which he 

(^ made such bad use. 
((a) Edgehill, 1642 ; favourable to Charles. 

(b) Brentford, 1642; gained by Parliament. 

(c) Chalgrove, 1643 ; gained by Royalists. 

(d) Stratton, 1643 ' gained by Royalists. 

(e) Atherton Moor, 1643 ; gained by Royalists. 
(/) Lansdown, 1643 ; gained by Royalists. 

to / 

<u ( 

(g) Roundaway Down, 1643 ; gained by Royalists. 
(h) Newbury, 1643 ; gained by Parliament. . 
(i) Cropredy Bridge, 1644; indecisive. 

(j) Marston Moor, 1644; gained by Parliament. 
(k) Naseby, 1645 ; gained by Parliament. 
(/) Tippermuir, 1644; gained by Royalists. 

) Philiphaugh, 1645 ; gained by Parliament. 
Charles gives himself up to Scotch Parliament. 
R . J Royal power totally destroyed. 
^King taken prisoner. 

III. Association. 

Compare with Wars of Roses as to : 

(a) Cause. 

(b) People engaged. 

(c) Results. 

IV. Recapitulation. 
Question as in procedure. 

V. Application. 

Map to be drawn by class marking districts which 
were for the king and those which were for the Parliament, 
and writing a short account of causes and results of the war. 


I. Introduce lesson by a few questions on the Parliaments, 
and draw from class that the result of all Charles's injustice 
was a feeling of great indignation amongst his subjects. 
Looking back in history, what have we seen to be the result 
of oppression ? Get examples from class : Barons' War, 


98 Nbtes on Herbartian Method 

Wat Tyler's Insurrection, Pilgrimage of Grace, Ket's 
Rebellion. Human nature had not changed, therefore 
Charles's conduct brought about same results, rebellion in 
the hope of obtaining better things. What do we call a 
rebellion where two parties of a nation are at variance ? 

II. Draw from class the causes that had led up to the 
war. What act on part of Charles was the immediate cause 
of war? Point out reason why nation feared to leave Charles 
in possession of the army, viz., that he would use it for his 
own purposes. Point out which class of the nation sided 
with Charles, viz., chiefly the nobles and aristocracy and the 
Catholics. Show reasons of this : (i) The middle classes 
had grievances on the subject of religion greater part 
Puritans, who objected to the king's innovations. (2) These 
also resented more than others anything which interfered 
with their privileges. (3) The middle classes, too, knew 
Charles only as the tyrannical king, while the nobles and 
aristocracy knew more of him personally, and so could ap- 
preciate his good qualities. Tell of the loyalty of the Uni- 
versities. St. John's College stripped its roof of the lead to 
make bullets for the king. Catholics sold their plate. Tell of 
Basing House called " Loyalty Castle". War began in 1642, 
the leaders being Charles and his nephew on one side, and 
Earl of Essex, John Hampden and Cromwell on other. Mark 
on sketch-map districts held by each party at the beginning 
of war; put in Edgehill as scene of the opening battle. In 
beginning of war Charles generally victorious. Draw from 
class the reason of this, i.e., army of Parliamentarians com- 
posed chiefly of merchants and those unaccustomed to arms. 
Cavaliers, on contrary, skilled in horsemanship. Difficult to 
say how it would have turned out had not Cromwell seen 
necessity of training his " Ironsides". First appearance of 
these at Marston Moor, where Charles sustained a crushing 
defeat. Mark battles on sketch-map as lesson proceeds. 
Surrender of Charles to army after Naseby, 1645. War 
resulted in total defeat of king, and his capture. 

III. Compare with the Civil Wars of the Roses, and draw 
from class how the Transvaal War differed from those. 

The Battle of Marston Moor 99 

Summary : Charles's tyranny and his refusal to give up 
the command of the army led to the Civil War in 1642. 
The nobles and aristocracy for the most part sided with the 
king, whilst the middle classes were against him. First 
battle fought at Edgehill, 1642 indecisive, yet somewhat 
favourable to the king. In the beginning king's army was 
successful, because better trained and disciplined than that 
of Parliamentarians'. Cromwell perceived reason of king's 
success, and trained his Ironsides, whom he first used at 
Marston Moor, 1644, with disastrous results to the king 
and Royalist cause. Several battles fought with varying 
success until that of Naseby, 1645, after which Charles 
surrendered to Scotch army. This closed first period of 
the war. 

IV. What paved the way for the Civil War ? What was 
the immediate cause ? What was the object of the war ? 
Who were the two parties engaged ? Why was Charles 
successful at the outset ? Who discovered the secret of his 
success ? What use did Cromwell make of this knowledge ? 
What was the result of this training of the Parliamentary 
army ? What battle closes the first period of Civil War ? 

V. Application : As in matter. 


Class Average age, 15. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Previous 
Knowledge Outlines of Civil War. Aim To exercise imagination of 
the class, and make them interested in the successes and failures at 
Marston Moor. 


I. Preparation. 

fRoyalists held North, West and South- 
i. Progress of the! west. 

war in 1644. 1 1ronsides formed in East, 
ICharles at Oxford. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

i. Immediate cause 
of battle. 

2. Opposing forces. <[ 

II. Presentation. 

.(a) York under Glemham and 1 XT T 
rv ' XT .IN. Leven. 

Newcastle hard pressed > c ^ . f 
, r> , . . [S. Fairfax. 

by Parliamentarians. J 

(b) Charles's message to Rupert, " Save 

York, and fight at all costs ". 

(c) Siege abandoned and Parliamen- 

tarian troops march west to bar 
the way of relief force. 

Cavaliers, ( Rupert, 8,000 horse, 
" God and thej 10,000 foot ; O'Neil, 
King ". I Newcastle, Goring. 

f Manchester's 1 1ronsides. 

RoundheadsJ ^ / Scotch - 
Leven s army. 

^Fairfax, father and son. 

Plan of b ttl /Position of forces near, only ditch and 
\ road between. 

Advantages : 

(a) Rye-field on rising ground. 

(b) Ditch in front. 

(c) Royalists more cavalry. 

(d) Parliamentarians more infantry. 

'(a) Three till five, desultory firing. Corporal in Royalist 
army slain by first shot. Frequent rainstorms. 

(b) Six o'clock, consultation ; agreed to retire. 

(c) Attack suddenly begun by the Parliamentarians. 

Nephew of Cromwell killed. 

(d) Meeting of Cromwell's and Rupert's forces. Crom- 
well wounded. Retreat of Rupert. 

(e) O'Neil repulsed. Newcastle roused. 

(/) Fairfax chased Goring to York; "White Coats" 

routed rest of Fairfax's army. 
(g) Scotch regiments fled under Leven. 
(h) Manchester ran away, but returned. 
(i) Final rout by Cromwell. Royalists fled to York. 
\ 4,000 dead lay on field. 

The Battle of Marsion Moot 


5. Result. 

'Royalist cause lost in North. 


I Flight of Newcastle ; loss of 100 colours. 
| Surrender of York and Newcastle. 
[Turning point in Civil War. 

';.:; V"^/^.*"'^' 



Jidy 2* d 1644 


o j \ ! 

n Royalist. 

I I Parliojnentcary . 


III. Association. 


{Map of England, showing strength of 
opposing parties in 1643. 
Pictures of relics of the battlefield ; style 
of armour, and arms in use. 

Contrast war of 
1644 with Boer< 
War as to 

Command of forces. 

( swords, 
Arms, method of fightings guns, 


f uniform, 
Condition of army | armour< 


TO2 Notes 07 1 Hcrbartian Method 

What were the immediate causes of this battle ? The 
forces engaged ? The chief leaders ? What action saved 
the Parliamentarians ? What act was fatal to Royalists ? 
Who was against fighting and who for it ? Why is this 
called the battle of " Runaway Generals " ? Who showed 
special bravery ? Who came out best after the battle ? 

What were its final results ? In how many ways may 
we compare the warfare with that of the Boer War ? etc. 


I. Question class as to conditions of opposite parties 
in the Civil War. What parties were gaining ? Why ? 
Did the Parliamentarians realise their weakness ? Who 
determined to overcome the difficulty ? (Show map to ex- 
plain how much of country still held by Royalists.) What 
victories were already won by Charles ? Who were leaders 
on his side ? on opposite side ? By 1644 where was Charles's 
great stronghold ? At this time Charles was at Oxford. 

II. i. Tell of success of Ironsides in East, Lincolnshire, 
etc. Advance of Scotch in North, and progress of Rupert 
in West : hence position at York dangerous. Message of 
Charles to Rupert. Hesitation of Parliamentarians and 
final resolve to abandon siege and cut off relieving force 
under Rupert. Result meeting at Marston Moor. 

2 and 3. Draw plan, completing it during course of lesson, 
and describe opposing forces ; tell of dispute between Rupert 
and Newcastle and its issue, also retreat of Manchester's 
army and its recall on seeing movement of Rupert. 

From position and plan deduce advantages and dis- 
advantages to each side. 

Compare Hastings and Agincourt with regard to hill. 
Number of cavalry (these regiments originated in the Civil 
War). Number of forces on each side not always a test of 
result (Boers in Transvaal War). 

4. Course of Battle. Describe weather, etc., time of 
beginning, unsettled state of forces on each side. Final 
agreement to retire Newcastle to bed and Rupert to dinner ! 
Sudden attack on part of Parliamentarians. First shot Sir 

The Career of Oliver Cromwell 103 

John Houghton and Cromwell's nephew wounded. Retreat 
of Rupert. Newcastle roused. Action on right wing, Goring 
chased to York ; reaction on part of White Coats. 

Scotch regiments fled under Leven. Manchester fled, but 
returned. Action of Cromwell saved the day. Royalists fled 
to York by Micklegate Bar. Four thousand dead on field : ex- 
cavations in 1858 and 1859 prove the amount of carnage, etc. 

5. What was result to Royalists ? to Parliamentarians ? 
Which general came out best after battle ? What had 
Newcastle done? White Coats ? etc. 

Here note name of battle : " Runaway Generals". 

Causes of Failure. What would disunion on one side 
lead to ? Would position of forces help on results ? Which 
side had greater advantage ? Compare method nowadays 
of supreme commander-in-chief, who regulates major tactics, 
and generals the minor tactics. Compare General Duller 
and Transvaal War. 

III. Association. Show illustrations and compare with 
Transvaal War as to : 

Command of Forces. " Union makes strength " one 
commander-in-chief. In former times bravery of one often 
lost battle, as in present case. 

Arms. Heavy armour a hindrance ; pistols, not many 
guns ; often hand-to-hand fight, and now Gatling guns, 15- 
pounders, etc. So much ammunition to kill one man, as 
seen from statistics of Crimean War. 

Condition of Soldiers. 111 fed and badly paid, depended 
much on energy of commander. In modern times, compare 
transit of supplies to the Transvaal and likeness between Boers 
and Parliamentarians. Want of provisions obliged a retreat 


Class Oxford Preliminary. Time Half an hour. Previous Know- 
ledge Civil War and the Commonwealth. Aim To lead class to an 
appreciation of the man by following him in the different stages of his 

I. Preparation. 

Question class on what they already know of Cromwell. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

II. Presentation. 

C Son of Robert Cromwell, a gentleman 
Birth and Paren- 1 of Huntingdonshire, said to be qon- 

tage. 1 nected with House of Stuart. 

Born 1599. 

Educated at first at a school at Hunt- 
Early Education. J Later on at Cambridge, whence he was 

recalled by the death of his father. 
I Settled on his estate. 

f i. Elected Member of Parliament for 
Huntingdon in 1628. Did not take 
an active part in its proceedings, 
though he opposed Charles's scheme 
for draining the Fens. 

2. In 1640 elected member for Cam- 

bridge, and soon showed himself to 
be on the Parliamentary side. 

3. Civil War being declared, Cromwell 

threw himself heart and soul into 
it. Parliamentarians at first un- 
successful. Cromwell sees reason, 
and remedies it. 

4. Victory over Charles at Marston 

Moor ; beginning of his fame. 

5. Created Lieutenant-General of Par- 

liamentary forces, which he re- 

6. Defeats Charles at Newbury and 

Naseby, 1645. 

7. Appointed Lord-Governor of Ireland. 

8. Proclaimed Lord - Protector of the 

Commonwealth, 1653. 

9. Quelled insurrection in Ireland. 

10. Engaged in a war with Spain, in 

which he was victorious. 

Public Career. 

The Career of Oliver Cromwell 


Closing years. 

Ch aracter. 

For a year or two before his death his 

health began to fail. 
One of his last acts was to dissolve the 

Parliament, and before he could 

summon another, health gave way 

owing to care and anxiety. Died 

1658, on the anniversary day of 

two great victories. 
( Cruel, shown by his ruthless massacres 

in Ireland. 
Unscrupulous, shown in his treatment 

of the king. 
Narrow-minded in his application of 

everything to religion. 
Tyrannical, shown in his treatment of 

the Parliament. 

Ambitious of power. Superstitious. 
Great decision and energy of character, 

shown in his discipline of army. 
In domestic life a good husband and 


III. Association. 

Compare him with Thomas Cromwell, so as to make 
class distinguish between the two. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

Question on heads of matter. 

V. Application. 

Show that Cromwell desired power, and succeeded in 
obtaining it. It did not, however, bring him happiness. 
Power does not always mean content, especially if unlawfully 


I. Introduce lesson by a few questions on what the class 
know already of Cromwell. Draw from class that he is a 
very important character in history ; but for him the fortunes 
of England might have been different from what they are. 

106 Notes on Herbartian Method 

II. He was born in 1599. Here notice his 3ooth anni- 
versary. Son of a Huntingdonshire gentleman, said to be 
connected with the House of Stuart. Early education 
carried on at a school in Huntingdon ; later on sent to Cam- 
bridge, etc. Public career begins with his election as member 
for Huntingdon in 1628. Connect this date with Charles's 
third Parliament and the Petition of Right. Do we hear 
anything of him in connection with this third Parliament ? 
Why not ? Because it was his first election, and he was 
still a young man. However, mention is made of his 
opposing Charles's scheme for draining the Fens. Draw from 
class what draining the Fens would entail, and why Cromwell 
opposed it. In 1640 he was elected member for Cambridge. 
What Parliament was this ? What was the great work of 
this Parliament ? Presented the " Grand Remonstrance " 
and conducted the trial of Charles. Cromwell showed him- 
self to be on the Parliamentary side, one reason for this being 
his religious opinions, which were very Puritanical. Civil 
War declared in 1642. Cromwell threw himself heart and 
soul into it. Draw from class where the successes lay in the 
beginning of the war. Why was this ? Who would be the 
first to see cause of this success ? What did he set himself 
to do ? What was the consequence of this superior training ? 
At what battle did the Ironsides first distinguish themselves ? 
Draw from class the effect of this great victory on Cromwell's 

After victory at Marston Moor he was created lieutenant- 
general of the Parliamentary forces. Tell class how he 
proposed the passing of the Self-Denying Ordinance for the 
purpose of excluding from the army such incompetent com- 
manders as Essex. Remodelled army, which met and de- 
feated Charles at Newbury and Naseby, 1645. Charles 
imprisoned ; in 1649 trial conducted and sentence passed, 
Cromwell being one of the judges. On very day of execution 
a Council of State was appointed to carry on the govern- 
ment, and England was declared a Commonwealth. Draw 
from class that this was not pleasing to the nation, whose 
idea was a constitutional government, therefore confidence 

The Career of Oliver Cromwell 107 

in Cromwell began to decline. Power of the Government 
rested on the terror inspired by Cromwell. Tell class how, 
on king's death, Ireland declared in favour of the Prince of 
Wales, and draw from them the effect this would have on 
Cromwell. Tell of his behaviour in Ireland, and how he 
earned the hatred of the nation by his barbarous cruelty. 
Scotch likewise took up arms for Charles II., but Cromwell 
defeated them at Dunbar, 1650. A Scotch army invaded 
England, but was defeated at Worcester, 1651. Describe 
his dealings with the Long Parliament, which he finally 
expelled, and chose another, which was a failure, and finally 
resigned its powers to Cromwell. Then he became Lord- 
Protector and drew up " Instrument of Government," by 
which he provided that Parliament should be called every 
three years : to consist of 400 members for England, 30 for 
Scotland, and 30 for Ireland, and Catholics should be debarred 
from voting. Tell of his first Parliament, 1654. Draw 
from class how this Parliament disapproved of his absolute 
rule, whereupon Cromwell adopted Charles's plan of ruling 
without a Parliament. Point out his inconsistency in mak- 
ing use of the very plan he had so loudly condemned in the 
king. If not very popular at home, he was very successful 
abroad. Went to war with Spain to secure for England 
undisturbed trade with America, 1656. Called his second 
Parliament, and excluded 100 members. Remainder pressed 
him to take title of king, which he refused. Why ? In 1658 
a fever, brought on by anxiety and the cares of government, 
end-ed fatally. Draw from class what his closing years must 
have been. His acts of cruelty had made him many enemies, 
lived in constant fear of assassination, slept with loaded 
pistol under his pillow, haunted with superstitions owing to 
his guilty conscience. Died on his birthday, 3rd September, 
1658, which was the anniversary of his two great victories of 
Dunbar and Worcester. 

Draw from class his character : (i) His cruelty from his 
treatment of the Irish. Tell incident of his setting fire to 
church. (2) His unscrupulosity, shown in his treatment of 
the king. His words, " If I met the king in battle, I would 

io8 Notes on Herbartian Method 

fire at him as at another". (3) His narrow-mindedness in 
wishing to enforce his Puritan notions on every one. (4) 
His tyranny, shown in his harsh rule on the declaration of 
the Commonwealth. (5) His ambition of power, shown in 
his dealings with those who opposed him. 

Describe his appearance : Plain and awkward, usually 
dirty in his attire ; a great contrast to Charles, with his 
refined manners. 

Draw from class his good points : Energy and decision 
of character, shown in his disciplining of his army. Love 
of country, though perhaps not unmixed with selfishness. 
Taught the people to know their power, and caused name of 
England to be respected abroad. In his private life a good 
husband and father. 

III. Association. 

Draw from class that, though Cromwell succeeded in 
acquiring power, it did not make him happy, because not 
lawfully acquired. 

IV. Recapitulation : When may Cromwell's public career 
be said to begin ? Why did the battle of Marston Moor 
bring him into public favour? How did he treat the Irish and 
Scotch ? With what result ? What does this reveal to us of 
his character ? What were the good points in his character ? 



Class Oxford Junior. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Previous 
Knowledge Great Plague. Illustrations Picture of Old London ; map 
to show part covered by fire. Aim To exercise imagination of the class 
and interest them in the account of the Great Fire, 


I. Preparation. 

i. Question class on state of London at this period, 
Causes which made it unhealthy. 

The Great Fire of London (1665) 


2. Causes 

2. Compare slums of East London to-day and part called 
Old London. 

3. Great Plague its spread and destruction of 100,000 

II. Presentation. 

i. People just beginning to recover from shock of plague 
when fire broke out. 

i(a) Outbreak in baker's shop, Pudding 
(b) Spread owing to wooden houses. 

f (a) Flickering light seen over tops of 

(b) Feeble fire-engines of day. 

(c) Increase of fire caused by wind. 

(d) Panic of people. Church attacked. 

(e) No need for rumour, fire announced 


(/) State of streets, fleeing families. 

(g) 100 churches in ashes, 400 streets. 

(h) Ordinary means useless, extraordi- 
nary resorted to. 
Raged four days, finally spent itself. 

r Attributed to Catholics. Why? Cf. 
Nero. Inscription on Monument 
(name of station now). Pope says 
of it : 

" Where London's column pointing to the skies 
Like a tall bully lifts its head and lies ". 

^s* ( Loss of fortune to many. 
1 Ruin and starvation. 

3. Description. 

Rumours as 
to Origin. 

5. Results. 4 

of streets. 

A blessing in disguise. 

'Id' <r f Two years toclearaway. 

| Original sites found, 
erects, i . 

v Bricks used again. 

Cleared away plague. 
Sanitary conditions improved. 
Generosity of Lord Mayor. 

no Notes on Herbartian Method 

III. Association. 

Compare Fire of London with that of Moscow. Con 
trast causes, effects and results as affecting the fortunes ot 

IV. Application. 

A word on the great results that often spring from small 
causes, and events that often look like calamities are in 
reality blessings. 

" There is some soul of goodness in things evil, would 
men but observingly distil it out." Shakespeare. 

V. Recapitulation. 

Question on matter in points given ; sketch outline on 
blackboard, as foundation for class to write an essay as 


I. Introduce lesson by questions on period. Who was 
reigning ? What great calamity had taken place ? What 
led to it ? What was the state of London at this time ? 
Compare with London of to-day. Is there any part still in 
a similar state ? Old London. Show picture, and draw 
from class reasons for dire results. Question on Great Plague 
and the terrible destruction which it caused. 

II. i and 2. Inhabitants just beginning to recover from 
this shock when the fire broke out. Began in a baker's shop in 
Pudding Lane. (Show position on map of London of to-day.) 
Why would houses burn easily ? Why would fire be more 
liable to spread then ? Cf. fires of to-day, speedily put out, 
and checked by material of buildings very often. 

3. Here describe the fire as given by many historians. 
The appearance. Its increase by wind. The panic of 
people and the spread of the rumour. The streets of flame. 
The roaring of fire. The cries of the terrified multitude. 
Refer to fact that such occasions bring out true human nature 
in its worst and best sense. Cf. accounts of shipwrecks, 
where heroes and heroines are first discovered. Church 
attacked, The result. Means taken to stop it. Why 

The Great Fire of London (1665) In 

very feeble. Cf. engine of to-day. Let class suggest from 
cause of spread the only means of stopping it. Destroying 
the buildings to make a gap between flames. Slight success 
obtained. Fire continued for four days, and then spent 
itself. Picture the scene when all was over the destruction, 
the loss of property, life, etc. 

4. Then when all was quieting down again the usual 
question arose. What is this question ? What does it lead 
to ? (Rumour.) Who were held in disrepute at this time ? 
Cf. Nero and Christians. Why could they not clear them- 
selves ? For how long had they been held in abhorrence ? 
Refer to Monument, its appearance, where it stands, etc. 
Now a railway-station. The inscription, and Pope's lines 
about it. (Part of this was erased in late years.) What is 
general opinion now ? Cf. Gunpowder Plot and modern 
ideas since State Papers have been open to the public. 

Results. Bad : Question class on loss to people in way 
of money. Fortune. Business. What part of city was 
it ? What sort of people lived there ? Can we see traces 
of it to-day in the way of good results ? What had led to 
the plague ? How could this be remedied now ? Was it ? 
Relate how it took two years to clear away rubbish from 
original sites of buildings, and some streets found and rebuilt. 
Some of old bricks used again. Result is city of to-day. 
St. Paul's rebuilt. Refer to generosity of mayor at the 
time, etc., and lead class to see that it really was a " blessing 
in disguise ". 

III. Compare with other great fires in cause and results. 
Moscow. What were some of great differences ? But 
results to England. 

IV. Close by drawing a lesson on the great results from 
little things in cases of both good and bad. Cf. origin of 
Penny Post, one kind act, etc. Ask class to quote some 
lines which teach us to find good in everything. Refer to 
stories which are founded on the Fire of London (Henty, 
etc., etc.). 

V. Recapitulate and question on points given in matter, 
and set class, as home-work, to write an essay on subject. 

1 1 2 Notes on Herbartian Method 


Class Oxford Junior Grade. Time Half an hour. Previous. 
Knowledge General outline of Tudor period. Aim To impart accurate 
knowledge of the character of a sect which characterised England for so 


I. Preparation. 

/Henry VIII. 

Previous Religious] Edward VI. 
Changes. 1 Mary. 


II. Presentation. 

I (a) Popular party in sixteenth and seven- 
teenth century. 
(b) Champions of religious liberty who 
desired purer doctrine: hence name. 
I (a) Private judgment. 
(b) Church not State should reform. 
(c) Reaction from the Marian persecu- 
'(a) Holy Scripture guide in doctrine. 

(b) Use of surplice, ring in marriage, 

sign of Cross, kneeling. 

(c) No external ceremonies, all internal. 
4. Their History : 

r,,. , 1 rBrownists to Amsterdam on account of 

Elizabeth. { 


( Ask for freedom ; 1,000 clergymen. 

y antes I. J Result: emigration of PILGRIM FATHERS, 

^ 1620. 

(Persecuted by Laud. 
rCromwell and 
Parliamentary side. { Ironsides> 

20,000 Puritans in ten years left on account of persecu- 
tions and prosperity in the Colonies. 

~ ,,, f Character lost between Independents and 

Commonwealth. \ 



The Puritans 113 

III. Association. 

Compare with Lollards, difference of history on account 
of the temper of the people of England at the time. 

IV. Application. 

(i. Manners and customs. 

Their Influence. \ 2 ' Literature and stage. 
3. Commerce. 
[4. History. 

V. Recapitulation. 

Summarise with points on blackboard, and question as 
to who the Puritans were. How they arose. Their 
doctrine. Their history during four reigns, and their 
influence on the times. 


1. Begin lesson by reference to religious changes of 
Henry VIII. Cause of first great change. Original in- 
tention of first Reformers. In what sense did the Church 
need reform ? Note tendency in all such cases to excess of 
zeal. Refer to Edward VI. and his advisers. The Book of 
Common Prayer. Was his father really a Protestant? 
Catholics and Protestants suffering side by side in his reign. 
What was the cause of this confusion ? Finally, relate the 
bad effect of Marian persecution, the reaction of which led 
to a further excess of reform. The outcome was Puritanism. 

II. i. Who they were. Their idea of purer reform: 
hence name. Religion brought into everything, even their 
dress. Ask pupils name of some sects now who carry zeal 
to same extent. What was the attitude of people's minds 
towards interpretation of Scriptures ? What would this 
naturally lead to ? What is teaching of Catholic Church on 
this point ? 

2. What is the outcome of private judgment to-day ? 
(Over 400 sects in England !) Relate the Puritan idea of 
reform, and how the Marian persecution had led up to 


114 Notes on Herbartian Method 

3. Doctrine guided by Holy Scripture. All outward 
signs done away with. (Here relate ceremonies, etc., which 
were abolished.) Refer to Catholic doctrine in this respect. 
Why externals necessary ? Man made up of soul and body 
one reacts on the other, even in all our passions, e.g., 
outward signs of anger, etc., therefore necessary in religion, 
but of no value without internal sentiment. Ex. : Genu- 
flexion, etc., in church. (Show illustration of costume, 
etc., of Puritans.) 

4. Draw from class, by questions on period, the history of 
Puritans, beginning with Elizabeth. How they were persecuted. 
The emigration, resulting in foundation of our American 
colonies. Mayflower. They did so much good, and founded 
New England. James I.'s attitude. How did this coincide 
with his character ? Charles I. Who was his great adviser? 
His attitude towards Puritans. Refer to Civil War. What 
celebrated army was raised at this time ? What was the 
foundation of Cromwell's success with Ironsides ? (Fight 
for religion.) Cf. the Boers. (Give some details about 
Ironsides, and show illustrations if possible.) 

Do we hear much of Puritans after Commonwealth ? 
What sects arose then ? Puritan character lost between 
Independents and Presbyterians. 

III. Association: As in matter. 

IV. Recapitulate history briefly. Draw from class their 
influence on manners and customs. Why would these be 
so affected ? Lead on to literature and stage. Who is the 
great Puritan poet ? On what subjects did he write ? The 
emigration would lead to progress. In what way ? What 
good results have we now of the New England colonies ? 
In what way have the Puritans influenced our history ? 

V. Recapitulate points in matter, and ask questions as 
given in matter; and, finally, contrast Quakers and Salvation 
Army, etc., of our own day with the Puritans, 

Monmouth' s Rebellion 115 


Class Average age, 13. Time Forty minutes. Aim To exetcise 
imagination and give class clear idea of the unsettled state of James II. 's 


I. Preparation. 

A word or two on James II.'s religious opinions and how 
he behaved when he came to the throne. 

II. Presentation. 

r T [Opportunity afforded to rebellious spirits 

i. Cause of Insur- r 

through the general dissatisfaction 
rection. .. . 

of people at James s religious views. 

"To place on the throne Monmouth, who 
. had become very popular owing to 

his personal attractions and gener- 
ous disposition. 

( (a) Earl of Argyll. 
3. Leaders. ... SJ 

\(b) Duke of Monmouth. 

'(a) Argyll kindled rebellion in Scotland. 

(b) Monmouth landed at Lymein Dorset, 

marched to Taunton and proclaimed 
himself king. 

(c) Battle of Sedgemoor, 1685, in which 

Monmouth was defeated. 

(a) Execution of Argyll and Monmouth. 

(b) Confidence of James raised consid- 
Result. { erably. He set about schemes for 

securing ascendancy of Catholics. 
Ruin of many innocent persons. 

III. Association. 

Compare with Wat Tyler's Rebellion in Richard II.'s 

Failure of Monmouth due to the inability of rebels to 
cope with a disciplined army. 

n6 Notes on Herbartian Method 

IV. Recapitulation. 

Questions as in procedure. 

V. Application. 

Point out evil effect of revolution on nations. Cf. French 


1. Introduce lesson by questioning class on religion of the 
Stuarts. Tell them how James II. was inclined towards 
the Catholics, whom possibly he wished to gain for his ends. 
Let class say what would follow from this preference of 
James. Moreover, James had given his word that he would 
uphold the English Church. 

II. i. Point out that the nation was in a state of dis- 
satisfaction, which seemed to afford an opportunity for a 

2. Tell class that two notable men, Argyll and Mon- 
mouth, a son of Charles II., were in Holland, whither 
they had fled because they feared the displeasure of James 
owing to their agreeing to the Test Act. Monmouth very 

3. Tell class how they agreed to create a rising Argyll 
in Scotland, and Monmouth in England. 

4. Argyll sailed from Holland, arrived at Orkneys on 
6th May, 1685. Captured and executed. Monmouth had 
agreed to start six days later, but did not do so, in hopes that 
the bulk of the army being occupied with Argyll, England 
would be left unprotected. Landed at Lyme Regis; gathered 
a number of followers. Marched to Taunton, and proclaimed 
himself king. Followers amounted to 6,000 men; 1,000 
horse plough-horses chiefly. Draw from class what class 
of men these recruits were drawn from. Government ap- 
prised of movements of the rebels. Militia sent out against 
them. Royal troops encamped at Bridgewater. Monmouth 
descries them from top of a steeple. Plans a night attack. 
Advance in dead silence. Accidental pistol-shot reveals 
their presence. Refer to same incident at the Modder 
during the Transvaal War. Royal troops immediately on 

The Trial of the Seven Bishops 117 

alert. Desperate fighting. Memorable battle of Sedgemoor, 
1685. Last battle fought on English soil. Monmouth fled 
when he saw his cause hopeless. Followers fought until 
all perished. Monmouth found hiding in a ditch, taken and 

5. Point out how elated James was after the victory, 
which he attributed to his own abilities. Show how he set 
all manner of schemes on foot in favour of Catholics, and 
this did not tend to make him more popular with the nation 
at large. Point out how this rebellion enraged the partisans 
of the king, who inflicted unheard-of cruelties on many in- 
nocent persons, as well as on those who had taken part in 
the rebellion. 

III. Compare this rebellion with Wat Tyler's with regard 
to the class of men forming the rebel ranks. Show how the 
victory over rebels in each case was due to the existence of 
a standing army. Although the insurgents fought with great 
bravery, they were overpowered by the trained and disciplined 

IV. What was the cause of this rebellion ? Its object ? 
Mention some of the events during the rebellion. Why did 
it fail ? How did it end ? What result did it bring about ? 

V. Application : As in matter. 


Class Age, 16 years. Time Forty minutes. Aim To exercise 
imagination of class and give them a clear idea of the unsettled state of 
James II.'s reign. 

I. Preparation. 

Difficulties beO -,.-. 

I i. Religious, 
tween ames > T^- 

I 2. Dispensing power, 
and Nation. 

Notes on Herbartian Method 

II. Presentation. 

((a) Declaration of Indulgence, 1687. 

'By giving liberty of con- 
science to all, to win 
Object. - Catholics and Puritans 
to his side against Pro- 

(6) King's attempt to force Universities 
i. Events leading^ to elect Catholics proposed by him. 
to Trial. Steady resistance offered. 

(c) Second Declaration of Indulgence, 


Swept away penal laws, religious 
tests, etc., and removed hindrances 
to State or military appointments. 

(d) King's order to read Declaration in 

church on two successive Sundays. 

fOnly four out of about 100 ministers 

At Assembly in Lambeth Palace, petition 
drawn up by Primate Sancroft to 
the effect that king had no power 
to dispense with the laws in Church 
matters. Signed by Lloyd, Turner, 
Lake, Ken, White and Trelawney. 

Petition presented by them in person ; 
dismissed in disgrace. 

Petition circulated in coffee - houses. 
Public feeling for the bishops 
heightened by birth of an heir. 

(Imprisonment in Tower; tried before 
King's Bench for libel. Two judges 
for, two against them. Jury's ver- 
Aneii. < v diet "Not guilty," after hours of 

consultation. Unprecedented en- 
thusiasm of people on hearing the 

2. Resistance to 

4. Results. 

The Trial of the Seven Bishops 119 

,(a) The trial a landmark in history of 
the Constitution amounting to a 
denial of king's power to dispense 
with laws. 

(b) Invitation to William of Orange to 

take possession of English throne. 

(c) Indirectly strengthened Protestant- 

ism and made religious toleration 
farther off than ever. 

(d) Flight of James. 

III. Association. 

Compare with Charles I.'s tampering with Parliament. 
Arrest of five members and triumph of people at Charles's 
failure. Civil War immediate result. 

James's "Dispensing Power" outgrowth of Tudor des- 
potism and James I.'s and Charles I.'s " Divine Right " 

IV. Recapitulation. 

Questions on above as in procedure. 

V. Application. 

Class to answer in writing for next lesson the following 
questions : 

1. What events led up to the trial of the bishops ? 

2. What were the results of this trial ? 


I. Introduce lesson by recalling to class Argyll and 
Monmouth's insurrection. Show how confident James 
became after Sedgemoor, and tell class that this confidence 
led him to aim at two things. Draw from class what these 
two ends were (i) To make himself absolute ; (2) to restore 
Catholic religion. C/. James with Charles I., who was like- 
wise apt to attribute any prosperity in nation to his own 
power and good government. Refer to Stuarts' idea of the 
" Divine Right," and show class how James exasperated the 
nation by claiming the "Dispensing Power". Judges, fearing 

I2O Notes on Herbartian Method 

to be turned out of office if they dissented, sided with the 
king, although against their conscience. James then began 
to fill chief offices of Church and State with Roman Catholics. 
What effect had this on nation ? Point out to class that it 
was perfectly natural that the people should be incensed. 
Meantime Louis XIV. revoked Edict of Nantes, and 
thousands of French Protestants took refuge in England. 
Let class point out what effect their coming would naturally 
produce on nation. 

II. i. Point out that James, seeing people against him, 
wished to make friends and allies for himself. Why was it 
useless to look to the Protestants ? Let class say what 
other denominations there were besides Church of England. 
What is the general name for these ? To these James 
turned, and, in order to win their favour, issued a " Declara- 
tion of Indulgence," by which he permitted liberty of con- 
science to all. Let class say how they would expect this 
"Declaration" to be received. Show how, contrary to 
James's expectations, the Nonconformists, as a whole, de- 
clined to avail themselves of it. Draw from class the reason 
for this, i.e., because they saw that James merely wished to 
use them as tools in getting absolute power. Point out that 
the effect of the " Declaration " was to increase the dis- 
pleasure of the people. Then James made an attack on 
Universities. Members refused to elect Catholics, therefore 
turned out. In 1688 the king issued a second " Declaration," 
simply to show that his mind was unchanged on the sub- 
ject. No one paying much attention, king ordered it to be 
read in every church on two successive Sundays. This 
" Declaration " swept away penal laws, etc. 

2. Out of about a hundred ministers four complied ; rest 
presented petition signed by Sancroft and six other bishops. 
This petition was presented by them in person, but they 
were dismissed in disgrace, and committed to Tower. Tell 
how the petition was rapidly circulated, and show how its 
effect was to turn the sympathy of nation to the bishops. 
Before trial came on a son was born to James. Draw from 
class what effect the birth of an heir was likely to have on 

The Trial of the Seven Bishops 12 1 

people. Show how they declared it to be untrue. Here 
recapitulate events which led up to trial. 

3. Tell class that, after a week's imprisonment, bishops 
were brought to King's Bench to be tried for libel. Date 
fixed for 2gth June, and then bishops liberated on their own 
sureties. Describe feeling of people when 2gth dawned. 
King's Bench filled in every corner. Crowds clustered in 
every space to hear the verdict. Nearly every one on the 
side of the bishops. Show how this want of sympathy ought 
to have opened James's eyes to his unconstitutional method 
of government, but that it did not. Contrast way in which 
nation now rallies round sovereign who considers its interests 
in everything. Four judges present two for king, two 
against him. Charge brought against bishops was the writ- 
ing of a false and malicious libel. Speeches made for three 
hours. Two judges said "A libel," two said "No libel,"- 
these last boldly declaring that the "Dispensing Power" 
was unlawful. All night jury were up without food. One 
brewer refused to decide against king for fear of ruin. When 
at last he was overruled by a certain country squire, a 
verdict of acquittal was pronounced about six o'clock in 
morning. Describe feelings of nation at the news. London 
said to have gone mad with delight. 

4. Draw from class results of trial : 

(a) Landmark in history. Show how powerful nation 
was growing to be able thus to denounce king's assumed 

(b) Nation despaired of getting its rights from James, 
therefore, driven to desperation, resolves on choosing another 
sovereign. William of Orange invited over. 

(c) Protestants strengthened and religious toleration made 
further off than ever. Refer to Catholic Emancipation Act, 

(d) Flight of James. 

III. Compare James's conduct with that of Charles I., 
who was continually tampering with his Parliaments. What 
was the result of Charles's tyranny ? James's likewise led 
to revolution. 

122 Notes on Herbartian Method 

Lead class to see that James possibly meant well in 
wishing to secure liberties for Catholics, but he did not work 
it in the right way, and so only exasperated his Protestant 
subjects without benefiting his Catholic ones. Cf. Mary 

Show also that his "Dispensing Power" was the out- 
growth of Tudor tyranny and inherited ideas about the 
" Divine Right," and that allowances must be made for his 

IV. Question in following or similar manner : 

1. What was the " Declaration of Indulgence" ? 

2. What was its object ? 

3. What did it lead to ? 

4. What was the bishops' opinion about this " Declara- 
tion " ? 

5. Give a short account of the trial of the bishops. 

6. What were the results of the acquittal of the bishops ? 

V. Application : As in matter. 


Class Average age, 15. Time Forty minutes. Aim To give class 
a clear idea of the events which led to this war and the part played by 
England in it. 

I. Preparation. 

A reference to the Peace of Ryswick, showing why 
Louis XIV. had been obliged to accept its terms, i.e., need 
of preparing for a new and greater struggle. Charles II., 
King of Spain, was dying, and with him ended male line of 
Austrian princes, who for 200 years had occupied Spanish 

War of Spanish Succession 

II. Presentation. 

Table showing the Claimants to Throne. 

Philip III. (Spain). 


Philip IV. 

Anne = 

Maria = Ferd. III. 

Louis XIII. (France). 

Louis XIV. = 
Maria Teresa. 

Louis the Dauphin. 


Charles II. Maria Teresa. Marguerite. Leopold I. = 

Princess Marguerite. 

Philip of Anjou. 

Marie Antoinette (by Marg.) = El. of Bav., 
Charles the Archduke. 

Joseph Ferdinand. 

Summary of Table : Three claimants to throne : Louis 
the Dauphin ; Joseph Ferdinand, grandson of Charles II. 's 
youngest sister ; and Leopold the Emperor, a son of Charles's 
aunt. Claim of last really the strongest, because that of 
the other two was barred by Treaty of Pyrenees. 

If Louis the Dauphin succeeded, France 
would become too powerful for the 
interests of Europe. If the Em- 
peror succeeded, Austria would be- 
come too powerful. William III. 
wished for the succession of Joseph. 
Union of Spanish colonies with 
France most feared. 

Difficulties attend- 
ing the Succes- 

Partition Treaties. 

f First, in 1698 in favour of the Electoral 
Prince ; Spain ceding its Italian 
possessions to Louis and the Em- 

124 Notes on Herbartian Method 

Partition Treaties. \ 

Second, in 1700 ; Spain, Netherlands 
and Indies assigned to second son 
of Emperor, Charles Archduke of 
Austria. Emperor protested and 
refused to join in treaty, but if he 

persisted in his refusal his share 
was to pass to some unnamed 
prince. Final arrangement by Peace 
of Utrecht, 1713. 

'Charles II., worried by the different fac- 
tions, made will in favour of Philip 

Circumstances al- r A r T ^TTTT 

.1 of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV. 

He came to Spanish throne on con- 
dition of renouncing all claim to 
French throne. 

of Charles II. 

III. Association. 

Compare with Hundred Years' War. 

IV. Recapitulation. 
As in procedure. 


I. Introduce lesson by referring to Peace of Ryswick, and 
let class say what the clauses were. From what class know 
of Louis XIV. let them say whether he signed it willingly. 
Point out how he had been almost forced to sign it, not only 
because France had suffered from the war with William III., 
but also because he saw a storm gathering in another quarter 
which needed all his strength. Point out how Spain had 
been at one time very powerful. Proof of this in the planning 
of the Armada. Tell how it had declined and lost much 
of its brilliance, yet still had enormous resources, and the 
extent of its empire very vast possessions in Old and New 
World, Naples, Sicily, Netherlands. Only a vigorous ruler 
was needed to restore its former glory. Tell class that the 
Spanish king, Charles II., was dying, and a difficulty arose as 
to his successor, since he had no children. 

II. Put the table on the blackboard, marking the three 
claimants in coloured chalk. Let class say which of the 

War of Spanish Succession 125 

three had the best claim by descent. 'Tell them of the 
marriage treaties by which Louis the Dauphin and the 
Elector Joseph were debarred, so that there remained the 
Emperor, who really, in strict law, had the best claim. 

Let class say what difference would be made to 
France by the Dauphin's accession to the Spanish throne. 
William was as resolute in repulsing claims of Emperor as 
those of Louis. 

It became necessary to bribe the two rival claimants, 
Louis and the Emperor, to waive their claims, and the suc- 
cession of the Electoral Prince was recognised by the First 
Partition Treaty between England, Holland and France, 
1698, on condition that Spain would cede its Italian posses- 
sions to his two rivals. Thus the Milanese would pass to 
the Emperor and the two Sicilys to France. Treaty hardly 
concluded when a fresh difficulty arose from the death of 
Joseph Ferdinand, the Electoral Prince. Show how France 
and Austria were now face to face, and what success of either 
would entail. Point out how great danger England was in. 
The army and navy had been reduced ; the people wished 
for peace, and William could not back his policy by arms. 
Second Partition Treaty in 1700. Spain, the Indies and the 
Netherlands to go to the Archduke of Austria, Charles, 
second son of the Emperor. 

Spaniards much averse to the dismemberment of the 
monarchy, and the various factions succeeded in wresting 
from Charles II. a will bequeathing all his dominions to 
Philip of Anjou, a grandson of Louis XIV. Louis XIV. 
hesitated to accept this. Point out to class his reasons : 
(i) Recency of Partition . Treaty, and (2) the great risk to 
himself. His fears, however, were overruled by the convic- 
tion that William III. could offer no opposition, owing to 
the peace policy of Government. Every one seemed to 
prefer this arrangement to the Partition Treaty. Point out 
how William was angered at Louis XIV.'s breach of faith, 
but that he had no means of punishing it. Why not ? In 
1701 Philip peaceably entered Madrid, and Louis proudly 
boasted that there were no longer any Pyrenees. Final act 

126 Notes on Herbartian Method 

of Louis which hastened the war was his promise to James 
II., who lay dying at St. Germains, to acknowledge the old 
Pretender King of England, Scotland and Ireland. This 
promise amounted to a declaration of war, and in a moment 
all England was at one in accepting the challenge. 

III. Compare with Hundred Years' War as to causes 
and results. 

IV. Recapitulation : 

1. Who were the three claimants for the Spanish throne 
at death of Charles II. ? 

2. W T hich had the best claim ? 

3. What difficulties were in the way of their succession ? 

4. Who did William III. wish should succeed ? 

5. What arrangement was first agreed upon ? 

6. How was this frustrated ? 

7. What agreement was then made ? 

8. How was this arrangement upset ? 

9. Did the different parties agree to the succession ? 

10. On what condition ? 

11. What was the final act of Louis which amounted to 
a declaration of war ? 


Class Average age, 16. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Aim 
To exercise the imaginations of the class and lead them to be interested 
in " The deeds that have won the Empire ". 

I. Preparation. 

) Napoleon's plan for conquest of 

(b) Camp at Boulogne. " Give me the 

channel for twenty-four hours." 
T. Remote Cause t x _ _ __ , J ... '. 

f B ttl \( C ) Decoy of Nelson to West Indies. 

Villeneuve from Toulon, Gravina 
from Spain unite. Nelson drawn 
to Orinoco. Return of French and 
Spanish, but chased by Nelson. 

Battle of Trafalgar 


II. Presentation. 

i. Immediate Causes. 

(a) Villeneuve and Gravina encountered by English fleet 
under Calder at Finisterre ; two Spanish ships taken. 
Villeneuve anchored in Cadiz and spoilt Napoleon's 

(b) Collingwood kept him trembling by signalling to an 
imaginary fleet. 

(c) News of Villeneuve's retreat reached Nelson who had 
returned home to Merton for rest. Hastened to Pitt 
to announce intention of destroying allied fleet. After 
a fortnight was within easy sail of Cadiz. 


2. The Two Fleets. 

3. The Battle. 

f (a) French ^33 sail of line.^ Villeneu 
and 5 frigates. and 

Spanish. I 2 brigs. J Gravina. 

^27 first rates. 
I 4 frigates. 
1 i schooner. 
L i cutter. 

(b) English 

(a) Before. 

I i. Nelson hid behind Cape St. Mary, 
twenty leagues west of Cadiz, 
watched as a " cat watches mice ". 
ii. igth October, Villeneuve stole out. 
Fleet sighted by Nelson off Tra- 
falgar, on 2ist October, twenty 
miles off. 

iii. Position of English fleet two 
columns at right angles to enemy, 
who were in crescent shape. Columns 
led by Victory and Royal Sovereign, 

\ under Nelson and Collingwood. 

Plan of Battle (sketched on blackboard in coloured chalks 
while lesson is proceeding). 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

Battle of Trafalgar 


(b) During. 

i. Famous signal, " England expects 
every man to do his duty," i.e., not 
wait for signal but reserve fire till 
alongside of enemy's ships. 

ii. French opened attack by trying 
range with a few shots. 

iii. Collingwood broke line and engaged 
in duel with Santa Anna and Fou- 
gueux ; surrounded by five vessels at 
once, but four soon turned to defend 

iv. Nelson then directed his ship to the 
horn of the crescent towards Cadiz. 
Attacked Santa Trinidad, and was 
surrounded as Collingwood, but no 
cannon was let off till he reached 
Bucentaur, where Villeneuve was 
supposed to be, and which soon 
swung like a log on the rolling sea. 

v. Victory and Redoubtable got rigging 
entangled. Nelson's uniform at- 
tracted eye of musketeer on mizzen- 
top of French vessel, and he aimed 
the fatal shot which pierced through 
epaulette, shoulder and spine. He 
died three hours after, but heard the 
cheers of victory. 

vi. Nineteen ships of the line had struck 
the French or Spanish flag. 

(c) Results. 

I i. 



French fleet destroyed and English 

once more masters of the ocean. 
Effect on Pitt new lease of life. 

On country in general. 
Effect on Napoleon " I cannot be 

in two places at once ". 
Honours paid to memory of Nelson 

Trafalgar Square. 


130 Notes on Herbartian Method 

III. Association. 

Compare with victories of the Nile and Copenhagen. 
Nelson's position in each, and results of each to England. 

IV. Recapitulation 

Of causes and account of battle. Scheme on blackboard 
to be filled in, and given as notes, on which pupils are to 
reproduce in their own words an account of the battle. 


1. Introduce lesson by questions on history of period and 
Napoleon's last attempt on England. What were his plans ? 
How did he begin to carry them into execution ? What 
did he say boastfully ? Nelson was decoyed to West Indies, 
but not for long. His genius recognised the idea of Napoleon 
at once, and he turned to chase the Spanish and French 
vessels to Europe. Their encounter off Spain, and Nelson's 
return to Merton. Home for a rest. 

II. i. Give account of the adventures of the Spanish 
and French fleets on their way to join Napoleon. Trace 
on map. The defeat suffered, and what Villeneuve was obliged 
to do. Napoleon's action. (Compare usual behaviour on 
such occasions.) Cleverness of Collingwood in keeping 
Villeneuve in trembling till further help came from England. 
Why was this a good plan ? How do you think Nelson 
would receive the news of such an opportunity ? He forgot 
his own need of rest, his weak health, etc., and begged to 
go, and within a fortnight was within easy sail of Cadiz. 
(Show map of Spain and position of fleets.) 

2. Describe the two fleets, the number of vessels each 
possessed, the style of vessels, and show famous picture of 
some of them. Compare state of fleets and condition of 
leaders. When victory seemed secure, and when not. 
What do we know of Nelson's tactics in former battles of 
1798 and 1 80 1 ? Why was he always successful ? What 
kind of fighting did he dislike ? and why ? 

3. (a) Battle : Describe how Nelson watched for his 
prey. His action when Villeneuve at length crept out of 

Battle of Trafalgar 131 

Cadiz. (Sketch on blackboard.) Describe the positions 
taken up by opposing fleets. Spanish in crescent. (Cf. 
Armada.) Nelson and Collingwood two columns at right 
angles to crescent. Their plan of attack. Why was this 
course likely to be successful ? 

(b) During: Refer to famous signal. What it meant. 
What Nelson had first suggested, and who advised the 
change to " England expects ". What was this duty ? 
Why was it a hard duty to reserve fire ? (Cf. Waterloo and 
Wellington.) Here describe the battle according to points 
given in the matter. Give details as to behaviour of the 
men on the Victory and the Royal Sovereign, the encounter 
of the ships, etc. Show picture of battle by Stanfield. Why 
was it possible for rigging to get entangled in those times ? 
Compare ships of to-day. How Nelson received his death 
wound : a chance shot. How the man who aimed the fatal 
shot was treated by the English. Describe the last moments 
of Nelson, and show picture of the death. Its effect on the 
men. How Nelson had tried to avoid letting them know of 
his danger. Draw from class other cases where the hero 
has lost his life in his greatest achievement. 

(c) What would the result of such a victory be to Eng- 
land ? When would she have secured her power ? Why ? 
Who would be especially glad to get the good news in 
England ? How did the people receive it ? Why was the 
joy mingled with sorrow ? Tell account of news brought 
to Napoleon ; his answer, so characteristic of the man. Draw 
from class the national honours paid to Nelson. Where 
is his tomb ? Where are monuments to him ? etc., etc. 

III. Compare the victory with those of Nile and Copen- 
hagen. How Nelson was not really in command in either of 
these, but his superior officers were noble-minded enough 
to give place to his genius. The results to England. 

IV. What were the immediate causes of the battle ? 
Who were the chief leaders ? Explain the plan of attack. 
How did the men obey the signal ? Why was this such an 
important victory ? What were its results to England ? to 
Napoleon ? etc., etc. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 


Class Average age, 16 years. Time Forty minutes. Aim To 
exercise reasoning powers of class in connecting cause with effect. 

I. Preparation. 

Position and 

II. Presentation. 

i. Relief. 

2. Rivers. 

3. Lakes. 

4. Climate and 


{Centre of Europe. 
Bounded on north by Germany, south 
by Italy, west by France, east by 

(a) Surface elevated. 

r *s 

CO tfl 

<l> C 



i. Central Alps, filling 
up S.E. and N.E., 

or of whole, 
ii. Jura Mountains, 
> c '! stretching from S.W. 
H toN.E., | of whole. 

A plateau 100 miles long and 
12 broad, situated between 
the two ranges and occupying 
f of whole. 
Switzerland has the sources and upper 
courses of many rivers ; generally 

Most of them take their rise in glaciers : 
hence well supplied. 

(Numerous and important, lying in the 
outer valleys. 
Chief: Lucerne, Geneva, Zurich, Con- 

Severe in winter owing to great eleva- 
tion. Alps in south so high as to 
exclude mild southern winds. Nor- 
thern district open to cold north 

The Physical Features of Switzerland 133 

4. Climate and 

rSummer very hot in lower valleys on 
account of depth and narrowness. 
Summer rainfall and melting of 
the snows cause country to be well 


III. Association. 

^u T^ i f i. Relief. 
Compare with Italy 

-4-u A 4. \ 2 - Climate, and consequent effects on 

with regard to . ' 

13. Habits of people. 

IV. Application. 

Class to de- 
duce effects 
of surround- 
ings on 


2. Manufactures. 

(Half country too high for 
cultivation. Chief pro- 
I duct of soil is hay : 
\ hence cattle-rearing. 
No coal nor iron, yet im- 
portant owing to the 
utilising of the water 
supply. Cf. Holland. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

Class to de- 
duce effects 
of surround- * 
ings on 

Occupation of 

Character of 

Large portion of them 
herdsmen, therefore 
simple and frugal. 
Country offers no great 
resources, therefore 
people turn all to 

{Possessed of great sense 
of beauty and love of 
Nature ; bold, hardy, 
thrifty ; lovers of inde- 

V. Recapitulation. 

Question on matter as in procedure. 


I. Introduce lesson by questioning class as to position 
and general character of Switzerland. Show on map the 
countries touching it. 

II. What can be said of general elevation of country? 
What is the chief mountain system of Switzerland ? 
Let class give the names of these Alps from their 

position. " Central Alps," portion occupying Switzerland. 
" Western Alps," stretching from north-west of Apennines 
to Mont Blanc. " Eastern Alps," extending from Bavaria 
to North Italy, and from borders of Switzerland to Northern 
Plain. Let class say what proportion the Central Alps 
occupy. They are situated on each side of Rhone valley, 
more northerly known as Bernese Oberland. Contrast 
Matterhorn with Jungfrau. Second system of mountains 
the Jura much less striking in appearance than the Alps. 
Point out on map the plateau lying between the two ranges 
of mountains. Numerous outlying spurs stretch from the 
Alps and Jura into this tableland. Slope of both systems 
abrupt towards south and long towards north and west. 
Let class point out effect of this on appearance., i.e., moun- 
tain summits more striking seen from the Italian than from 
the Swiss side. 

The Physical Features of Switzerland 135 

III. Contrast relief with Italy. Latter has great plain 
in the north, and the peninsula is occupied by the Apennines, 
which have lowlands on each side. 

What is determined by the slope of a country ? 

Why are the rivers of Switzerland of little use ? 

Where do they take their rise ? What effect has this on 
them ? 

Show on map how Mont St. Gothard forms a kind 
of knot in which numerous branches of the Alps meet, and 
here are the sources of four great rivers, viz., Rhine, Rhone, 
Reuss and Ticino, going off in different directions. Note 
the Falls of Schaffhausen. Rivers are closely connected 
with the lakes, which are noted for their number, their size, 
their beauty and their depth. 

Draw from class the use of these lakes. 

Rhone on account of its rise in a glacier is muddy 
and troubled at its source, but on leaving Lake Geneva 
it is a clear blue stream, therefore the lake serves to 
purify it. 

What effect has the melting of the snows on the volume 
of a river ? When a river enters into a broad lake what 
of its waters ? (C/. Gulf Stream.) 

What of the volume of the river on leaving the lake ? 

What advantage is there in this ? Inundations pre- 

Owing to the elevation of the country, what can be 
said of climate ? 

The lower valleys being deep and narrow, what kind of 
climate may we expect in winter ? in summer ? 

How does the climate differ from that of Italy ? 
IV. Draw from class the effect of this climate on pro- 
ducts, etc. 

Products : Half country too high for cultivation ; a little 
less than half is under grass. What occupation follows in a 
country where there is an abundance of grass ? 

What do the products of a country determine ? 

136 Notes on Herbartian Method 

Grass being the chief product results in the rearing of 
cattle. What manufacture follows from this ? 

What should we expect of the manufactures of a country 
possessing no coal nor iron. 

Manufactures of Switzerland important notwithstanding. 
Draw from class there must be something which enables 
her to carry them on. 

By what means other than steam can machinery be 
worked ? 

What must be character of stream which works a mill ? 

Has Switzerland any rapid torrents ? Why ? 

Here compare with Holland, another country carrying on 
important manufactures without coal or iron. 

Can Holland make use of water for machinery like 
Switzerland ? Why not ? 

Tell class that Holland makes use of the regular winds, 
which work numerous mills. If possible, show class a 
picture of typical scene in each country. 

Draw from class the occupation of number of people 
since cattle-rearing is carried on. How does this kind of 
life affect their character ? 

What effect has the lack of resources on the people ? 
Makes them thrifty. 

What effects 'have the surroundings on the character? 
Mountains make them bold, hardy lovers of independence. 
Cf. mountaineers of Scotland. * Natural beauty of their 
country fosters in them a love of the beautiful. 

V. Recapitulation : How is the country divided ? Why 
are the summers hot ? Why are the rivers of little use for 
navigation ? How is it that Switzerland is prosperous in 
her manufactures ? How are the occupations and character 
of people affected by the nature of the country ? 




Class Oxford Juniors. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Previous 
Knowledge General notions as to distribution of temperature over earth's 
surface. Aim To interest class in causes of natural phenomena. 

I. Preparation. 

A few questions as in procedure to elicit the definition 
" Air in motion ". 

II. Presentation. 

i. Cause of Winds. 

fUnequal heating. 
(a) Difference of pres-U ing amoun 

sure in air owing to 

of ^ 
( Flows from region of high 

(b) Movement of air to K fo ion of , ow 

obtain equilibrium 

pressule s p iraUy . 



Candle flame at top and bottom of 
an open door into a warm room 
from a colder hall. 


138 Notes on Herbartian Method 

2. Direction. 

i. Unequal heating of tropics and polar 


What deter-In. Unequal heating of land and water. 
mines gene-{ General circulation through zones. 

By day and 

ral direction. 

Causing : Alternation of 
land and sea breeze. 

.By seasons. 

'olar/ \Regions 

Calms of Cancer 

Equator of Heat 


Calms of Capricorn 


Po/arv 4 Regions 


i. Ascending cur- 
rent heated lighter 
TRACES air. 

ii. Descending 
current cooled hea- 
vier air. 

iii. Ascendingcur- 
rent heated air. 

iv. Descending 
current cold heavy 



Winds 1 39 

3. How the direction of a wind is changed. 

(a) By shifting^ 

of situation | See change of monsoons. 

of greatest I See steadiness of Trades over ocean. 


rln N. hemisphere from N. through E. 

(b) In a fixed ) and S. to W. 

hemisphere from N. through W. 
and S. to E. 

S. Hem. 


| In 5. 

V- ai 


III. Application and Association. 

As described in procedure while teaching above. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

For questions see procedure. 


I. Open lesson by picturing for class a large room in mid- 
winter in which there has been no fire, though there is a 
fire laid at one end. Elicit facts that (a) it is equally cold 
in all parts, (b) that there is no draught ; but when fire lighted 
if we sit near it at first experience tells us that it is the most 
draughty place ; or if room very warm on cold day, and go 
to open window, which way is air moving ? If passage 
cold and room warm and you open door, what result ? 
What is the name people give to these movements of the 
air ? Draughts. They are artificial and small winds, for by 
a wind we simply mean air in motion. Lastly refer to fact 
that in a house equally heated within and well sheltered 
from outside air there would be no draughts. 

140 Notes on Herbartian Method 

II. This brings us to the chief part of our lesson, which 
is to find out the cause of winds. If they are only large 
draughts they will be caused by same reason, and that we 
found to be unequal heating. We have now to find why 
this should cause air to move. What is effect of heat on 
gaseous bodies ? If I have a vessel full of air and heat it, 
what effect on air ? But we have learned gases like liquids 
press in all directions equally if sum total of atoms is less 
than sum total of pressures, therefore effect of heat is to 
alter pressure. Remind class that unequal heat is the 
point to which they must direct their attention. Given two 
air masses at same temperature, we have same pressure ; 
heat differently result ? 

Refer to water ; vapour lighter bulk for bulk affects 

Elicit from class desire of gas for equilibrium; refer to 
the spread of house gas all over room equally. The dis- 
semination of odours will illustrate same principle. 

Draw two areas of pressure. Ask a few questions as to 
the direction of draughts. Do the experiment with candle 
and elicit that the movement to restore equilibrium is from 
the region of high to the region of low pressure. Give other 
areas from map. 

Proceed next to apply and associate same idea to the 
explanation of land and sea breezes in the explanation of 
why they blow and change at stated intervals. Draw the 
diagram on p. 138 (Direction of Winds), and describe the 
circulation of the air currents from Equator to Poles and back 
again in search of equilibrium. Only refer very briefly to 
the fact that the earth's rotation affects direction (this should 
form subject of another lesson). Conclude by referring again 
to land and sea breezes, and from them deduce reason of 
change of monsoons. If time permit show the cyclic move- 
ment of wind by a diagram on blackboard. 

III. Application and Association : As in matter. 

IV. i. Define wind and say how it is caused. 

2. Explain why on a cold day there is a draught inwards 
from the window of a warm roorn,, 

The Phases of the Moon 141 

3. Where do the Trade winds really originate? 

4. Why do the Polar winds creep along on the surface of 
the earth ? 


Class Age, 14 to 16 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Illustrations An orange and blackboard sketches. Aim To exercise 
the judgment and excite interest in Nature, and thus stimulate the class 
to inquire into. 

I. Preparation. 

. ( (Gk. phasis = an appearance). 

1. Meaning of J The different appearances presented to 

[ the earth by the moon. 

2. Rotation of fit makes a complete revolution round the 
Moon. \ earth in 28 days, i.e., a lunar month. 

. Direction 






E is the position of the Earth. The eight small circles represent the 
chief positions of the Moon in its orbit, and the figures outside them 
represent the corresponding phases. 


Notes on Herbtirtian Method 

II. Presentation. 

i. Explanation of 

(Blackboard in 
coloured chalks.) 

2. The Phases. 

Why full 
moon is not 
always ec- 

[(a) Large circle, moon's orbit. 

(b) Small circles on it, transverse section 

of moon, shaded to show its illumi- 
nation by sun's rays in different 
positions, now the lunar circle of 

(c) Letters a and b mark how much of 

moon illuminated and non-illumi- 
nated is seen at E. 

(d) Outer figures show the appearance 

it presents in each case as seen in 
longitudinal section. 

A New moon or no moon. 

B Crescent (cresco = I grow). 

C First quarter. 

D and F Gibbous (gibbus = a hump). 

M Full moon. 

G Last quarter. 

H The old moon (half). 

Inclination of plane of moon's orbit 
Plane of Moon's Orbit 

Plane of Earth's Orbit 

III. Association. 

Questions in procedure. 

IV. Summary and Recapitulation. 

The phases of the moon are caused by the varying 
amount of illuminated surface visible to the earth during its 
rotation round that body. 

V. Application. 

1. How to know when it is first or last quarter. 

2. Popular notions 

connected with . 

r>7 ^ 77 } quarter 

Phases of the ,, , ^ rr r r ,, 

(b} Effect of full moon on lunatics. 

j (n) Change of weather with change of 



The Phases of the Moon 143 


1. Introduce by asking what changes we perceive in the 
moon from week to week. Ask what these are called, and 
give derivation. Whence does the moon derive its light ? 
What motions has it ? Contrast with those of the earth. 
What is a lunar month ? 

II. i. Draw diagram on blackboard. Ask how much of 
moon's surface is illumined by sun ; put in dark shading. 
These represent how the moon would appear as seen from 
the heavens. As seen from the earth, E, draw from class 
that only a, b can be seen, and of this only the part n, b is 
illuminated. Next take half a peeled orange to represent 
the half of the moon turned towards E. Ask how much 
would be illuminated in position A none. Now in B. 
Show that the section n, b would appear in longitudinal 
section like one flake ; in like manner at C it would repre- 
sent quarter of whole orange, which looks at a distance like 
a semicircle. The appearance at D can be represented by 
the half orange minus two flakes. In like manner elicit the 
other appearances. 

2. Repeat order of movement, asking names given to 
each. Give derivations, drawing from class meaning of 
crescent and gibbous, as applied to the moon. 

3. Refer again to diagram, and show that if the orbit of 
the moon were in the place of the sun and earth, how much 
then would be illumined at M (eclipse). If then on contrary 
we do see the full moon, what must we conclude? Elicit 
3, and draw diagram showing moon's inclined plane, and 
illustrate further by tub of water, balls for earth, moon and 
sun (pi. of water = the plane of ecliptic). 

IV. After giving summary, recapitulate. What is a lunar 
month ? When do the following phases occur : Full moon ? 
New moon ? Last quarter ? Crescent ? Gibbous ? 

V. i. Ask what letter is formed by producing the diameter 
of first quarter (p) ; connect it with premier (first). In like 
manner last quarter (d), and connect it with dernier (last). 

2. Draw from class popular ideas (a) and (b) ; ask 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

what has given rise to (a], and if there are any scientific 
grounds for it. Prove not, by showing that the change is 
very gradual. In case of (b) show connection in derivation ; 
tell class it is a disputed question. 


Class Age, 14 to 16 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Pre- 
vious Knowledge- Currents and winds, also elementary idea of gravitation. 
Aim To lead class to reason by connecting cause and effect and to give 
accurate notion of the subject-matter. 


I. Preparation. 

i. Ordinary signi- fRise of ocean = flood, 
fication of-! and 

". I Fall of water = ebb. 

term "Tides 
2. Where seen. 


[At sea-shore. 
\At mouths of some rivers. 
Twice each day. 

II. Presentation. 

i. Causes. 

(a) Pull of moon or force of gravitation 

to moon. 

(b) Effect on solid earth and on water. 

(c) Difference of this effect on side under 

moon and on remote side. 


2. During Earth's ( Two high tides on opposite sides. 
Rotation. \Two low tides on opposite sides. 



III. Association. 

f(a) Caused by heat. Currents, 
Compare other | v ' 

cases of 
of Water. 


In seas 
and oceans. 

Caused by rain and snow. In rivers 
and lakes. (Rise of Nile, Ganges.) 

IV. Formulation. 

Full Definition of Tides. 

" Tides consist of the alternate rise and fall of the waters 
of the ocean caused by the difference between the attractive 
force exerted by the moon on the solid earth and on the 
water. They occur twice in the course of an interval of 
twenty-five hours." 

V. Application. 

j. Effects produced 
by Tides. 

(a) Physical. 

r i. Wearing of land. 
I ii. Formation of capes 


and points. (Spurn 

Landing of 

Advantage at 

(b) Commercial. mouth of river to 

a port. 

Usein construction 
of piers, etc. 

" Time and tide wait for no man." 
" There is a tide in the affairs of men, 
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to 

fortune ; 

Omitted, all the voyage of their life 
Is bound in shallows and in miseries." 


I. i. Introduce lessons by questions as to the simple 
knowledge the class have of tides. What do we notice 
about water when tide is in and when out ? What do we 
call rise of water and what the fall ? How does it appear to 
come in ? to go out ? 


2. Moral Applica- 

146 Notes on Herbartian Method 

2. Where can we see tide come in and go out ? Why 
at mouths of rivers ? So it has to do principally with 
the ocean. When do we see the tide come in generally ? 
(Refer to the sea-side where people wait for the tide, 
bathing, etc.) 

3. How often each day ? Is the time regular ? 

II. i. Now we shall discover the causes of tide. For a long 
time before real reason was discovered people noticed all we 
have noticed ; but besides this astronomers remarked that 
high tide always occurred when the moon was opposite that 
portion or meridian of earth where the waters rose. This 
led to the conclusion that the moon must have some in- 
fluence on the tide. Refer to attraction of moon to earth 
this is what keeps it revolving round it ; also attraction of 
earth to moon. Which part of earth will be attracted most ? 
Why ? If the part just opposite is ocean, which will have 
most attraction, water or solid earth ? Why ? Therefore 
when both receive it together the increase of attraction of 
water must be perceptible. Why ? If both equally attracted 
would a rise in water be noticeable ? Why not ? It was 
also remarked that the tidal wave travelled from east to 
west. This showed connection with moon. (Here draw 
diagram and show tide.) 

2. Explain why two high tides, one at opposite sides at 
b, caused by difference in attraction ; but this time it is 
because earth is drawn away from water. Ask why. And 
make the class explain this two low tides caused by depres- 
sion, etc. 

III. Now we know why water rises in ocean and makes 
tide. But are there no other occasions when water rises ? 
What happens at Equator when water is heated ? Why is 
this not like tide ? Refer to currents and then to rise in 
rivers and lakes floods. Give example of Nile and Ganges, 
and make the class give reasons for rise in these rivers. 
Why is it constant, but varying in height ? What is 
the difference between these cases of rise of water and 
tides ? 

IV. From this we see it is not sufficient to say that tide 

Tides 147 

is a rise and fall of water of the ocean. What must we add 
to the definition ? and what is the cause ? Why the difference 
between attraction ? When do they occur ? Make class 
give the full definition several times, deducing it by ques- 
tions. Explain why every twenty-five hours is more correct 
than every twenty-four hours. 

V. All natural phenomena have been meant by God to be 
of use to man, and we must see now what effects tides have 
first on the land physically, and then which concerns man 
even more commerce. 

1. (a) Refer to the wearing of the coastland. W T ould 
it be possible if there were no tide ? Give example of its 
action (Goodwin Sands ; Holland) ; meeting of two tides 
(formation of capes or heads : Flamborough Head and 
Spurn Head, Dungeness) ; other effects, too, in ocean 
(whirlpools, rapid current called race : Race of Alderney 
dangerous; refer to loss of Stella). 

(b) Commercial : Ports landing of ships. Compare 
Germany, where water in ports is so shallow. Baltic has no 
tides. Refer to estuary of Thames and Severn ; use to ships ; 
wait for tide ; saves steam and sail in coming in or going 
out. At seaside, use to construct under water. Explain how 
works of a pier are built. Refer to longest pier at Southend. 
Tide goes out for two miles nearly, so pier is built straight 
out. Make class repeat effects of tide, and deduce the 
great value of its being twice a day regularly. 

2. Refer to proverb " Time and tide wait for no man ". 
Also get from class, or give Shakespeare's words, " There 
is a tide in the affairs of men," etc. Show how in commerce 
it is necessary to take it at the flood and not delay, etc., etc. 
Apply this to opportunities in life in spiritual order and 
natural order. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 


Class Age, 12 to 14 years. Time Half an hour. Illustrations Map 
of Scotland, and sketch map on the blackboard. Aim To exercise the 
imagination and judgment of the class in picturing physical features 
and deducing their effects. 


I. Preparation. 


i. Position and 

(a) Northern part of Great 

divided by Cheviot Hills. 

(b) Shape irregular, deeply indented ; 

width varies from 30 to 150 miles. 
II. Presentation. 

((a) Covered with mountains in groups and 
short ranges. Long valleys, generally 
sloping towards east : hence direction of 
(b) Country divided by two depressions into 

/ . c North of line from 

M ^^ tQ Loch 

Lynne _ 

ii. Central ( Between Glenmore 
Highlands. \ and Strathmore. 

r (i) Plateau. 
n Southern j A ion> 

2. Coastline. 

i. Relief. \ 






,. Northern 


Uplands. l(3) A hilly fegion 

West, rocks hard, indented ; sea deep. 

East, stretches of cliff, not so high ; 
capes are bold headlands ; sand 
dunes from Kinnaird Head to Moray 

^North, wild cliffs of gneiss, 300 ft. high. 

III. Association. 

1. Compare relief with England and Ireland. 

2. Compare position of mountain ranges and mineral 

3. Compare effect of Atlantic on all three countries. 

The Physical Features of Scotland 149 


150 Notes on Herbartian Method 

IV. Recapitulation. 

1. Summary of lesson. 

2. Repetition of points of relief of coastline. 

V. Application. 

Effect of Physical f 1 ' National character (,/. Switzerland). 

E, . 2. History. 

features on , . 

13. Productions and commerce. 

Physical Features of Scotland. 

Position and Shape, 

{i. Northern Highlands. 
2. Central Highlands. 
3. Southern Uplands. 
C North. 

Coastline. [ East. 

I West. 

f i. Character. 
Effects of Physical Features. - 2. History. 

3. Prosperity. 


I. Question the class on the position of Scotland as 
regards England and Wales, the boundaries ; notice shape, 
irregular compared with England and Ireland, yet they are 
irregular in comparison with other countries. On account 
of indented coast the width varies from 30 to 150 miles. 
What would be result of this as regards distance from sea ? 
Compare England. 

II. i. Relief resembles England in being higher in west 
than east, but country is generally covered with mountains 
in groups, short ranges and long valleys, sloping towards 
east. How will this influence direction of rivers? Country 
divided by depressions into : 

The Physical Features of Scotland 151 

1. Northern Highlands, north of line from Moray Firth 
to Loch Lynne. 

ii. Central Highlands, between Glenmore and Strath- 
more ; and 

iii. Southern Uplands, which consist in a plateau, and 
two successive hilly regions (draw on blackboard if possible). 

2. Now we shall look at the coastline. What have we 
remarked about it already ? and in what way would a moun- 
tainous country affect the coastline ? In the west, on 
account of high coast, rocks are hard and sea deep. In the 
east, stretches of cliff, not so high. The capes are bold 
headlands. Sand dunes from Kinnaird Head to Moray Firth. 
North, wild cliffs of gneiss, 300 feet high. Sea very rough. 
Refer to Spanish Armada. Ships lost off these coasts in 
dangerous strait. 

III. Compare relief with England and Ireland, situation 
of mountains, greater height, position of mountains and 
minerals ; also effect on climate, more rainfall. How does 
the Atlantic affect England and Ireland ? On coastline or in 
climate ? But Scotland and Ireland get the full force of its 
waves, therefore western coasts most indented. 

IV. Recapitulation : Repetition of points of relief and 
coastline, west, east and north. 

V. Our surroundings affect our lives in character, in 
our homes, and at school ; so a nation is affected as a whole 
by the physical features of their native land in three ways, 
i. National character, independence ; the natural defences 
and fortresses have enabled them to resist invasion (cf. 
Switzerland). 2. History ; refer to long resistance, and 
really never conquered by the sword. 3. Productions and 
commerce ; question on comparison of products in flat 
countries and hilly or mountainous ones. How does ex- 
tent of coastline affect commerce, ports, good harbours ? 
etc., etc. 

Recapitulate points, and ask a few questions. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 


Class Oxford Seniors. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Aim 
To exercise the understanding of the pupils and lead them to apply their 
previous knowledge of physiography to explain the present formation of 
the land. 

I. Preparation. 

Consider the earth as a Divine masterpiece. God the 
Divine Sculptor. Nature His Hand. 

1. Original cooling of earth's surface. 

2. The atmosphere. 
Rivers and glaciers. 
Frost, ice and avalanches. 

5. The sea. 

6. Upheavals and earthquakes. 
.7. Volcanoes. 

Instruments used. 


Cooling process. 


The work of each of the above tools : 

(a) Subsidence of some parts (oceans), 

and consequent relief of others 
(continents) from the strain of con- 

(b) Chief mountain ridges thus formed 

in direction of axis. 

(c) No part of present land is part of 

original solid surface, though pos- 
sibly on the same sites. Why ? 
The dissolving or wearing work of gases, 
vapours, winds, evaporation and 
condensation, the cause of (c). 
(a) Wearing away mountains. 

I (b) Forming ridges out of tablelands. 

| (c) Cutting valleys and canons. 

i (<l) Depositing debris partly on plains 
and chiefly in the sea. In general 
levelling the high lands to the sea. 

2. Atmosphere. 

Rivers and 

The Sculpture of the Land 


/^Filling crevices and joints of rocks, 
loosing pieces, thus forming ava- 

4. Frost and Ice. - lanches, which wear away cliffs and 

preserve the sharpness of mountain 
I peaks. 

5. The Sea. Continually denuding the coastland. 

Result of 3, 4 and 5. Laying low of the land and forma- 
tion of stratified rocks of consolidated debris in the bed 
of the sea. Only at considerable depths is the earth's 
surface preserved from decay. 

Action of the above counterbalanced by : 

C /Large tracts of sea-floor 

raised in its original 
level condition, seen 
(a) Gentle by the horizontal posi- 
and uniform. ( tion of the stratified 
rocks, e.g., 1,000 miles 
of Central and North 
Russia and China. 
/By volcanic action ; 

6. Upheavals. when the stratified 

rocks present a crum- 
bled appearance as if 
tilted up ; the oldest 
rock highest. Age 
of mountains can be 
told by the number of 
upheavals apparent. 

(c) Volcanoes form mountain peaks with 
^ lava. 
III. Association. 

Comparisons and examples throughout. 
For i. Compare cooling of roast apple. 
For 2. The work done by a cyclone on land or by a 
strong wind dashing sea on land. 

For 3. Glaciers of the Alps. Deltas of Mississippi and 
Nile. Canons of Colorado. 

(b) Disturbed 
and sudden.^ 

154 Notes on Herbartian Method 

For 4. Landslips after severe frosts. Peaks of the Alps 
called "Needles". 

For 5. West coast of England and Scotland indented 
and rugged. 

For 6. (a) North of Russia and Siberia. 

(b) Andes and Rockies, Alps, etc. 

(c) Teneriffe, Vesuvius (Herculaneum and Pompeii). 

IV. Recapitulation. 

Question on the agents at work and the work done by 

V. Application. 

Moral lesson, some such as the following : 

1. The slowness and continuity of God's work. 

2. All things work together towards His end. 


Introduce lesson by comparing the formation of the 
land to the work of a sculptor. Briefly draw from class the 
points of resemblance. By referring to the earth as a planet 
and comparing with Jupiter, elicit what was its original 
condition. Let us now consider the influences at work upon 
it which have in course of ages reduced it to its present 
condition. What took place gradually in the gaseous globe ? 
Ask what effect this cooling process had on the globe when 
it solidified. Refer to the familiar example of a roast apple 
cooling, to elicit the subsidence of some parts and relief of 
others ; deduce from this the cause of unevenness of earth's 
surface, and how oceans and continents were formed. From 
map of world show that the greatest mountain ranges are 
from north to south owing to the great lateral pressure 
caused by the subsidence of land forming the oceans. Show 
diagram of section of a mountain range with evidences of 
successive upheavals, and let class deduce from this that 
possibly the position of them has remained the same through 
all these ages. From the well-known destructive work of 
rain, rivers, etc., draw from pupils that though the sites may 

The Sculpture of the Land 155 

be the same the actual substance must have been worn 
away many times and built up again. This leads us to 
consider the chief instruments Nature uses to wear away 
the land. Let class name some, e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5. For 
examples of 2, refer to the destructive power of winds, e.g., 
cyclones in tropics ; also air loosening the rocks by expansion 
in their crevices. Then go on to the results of evaporation 
and condensation, and elicit the work of rivers and glaciers. 
Give examples of glaciers grinding down valleys and carry- 
ing debris to the sea. What rivers do to the land below 
snow-line glaciers do above it. From example of deltas of 
Nile, Ganges and Mississippi, draw from class the work of 
rivers ; describe the canons of Colorado. 

Compare the action of rain in the gutter to show how 
rivers cut up plains and tablelands, even when composed of 
hard rock. Next, pass to the action of frost, and elicit land- 
slips and avalanches. Ask how these are caused. Lastly 
ask how the sea helps in the work of degradation of the 
land, and elicit instances of its work, e.g., Zuyder Zee, 
" The Needles," west coast of British Isles, etc. Collect 
together the work of (i) The atmosphere ; (2) rivers and 
glaciers ; (3) frost ; (4) the sea ; and ask class what is 
common to it all, and what must be the eventual result if 
there were not some counter-action. 

Show illustrations of 6 (a) and (b). Question as to their 
manner of formation, and deduce the two kinds of upheavals. 
What facts can be deduced from the structure of our coal- 
fields ? Point out that these stratified rocks were formed in 
the ocean beds which must have risen gradually judging 
by the horizontal position of the layers the newest on top. 
Contrast illustrations of sudden upheavals as to position 
of oldest rock. Finally refer to volcanoes and earthquakes, 
and how they influence the earth's crust, even in the ocean 

Conclude lesson by a short summary, dividing the instru- 
ments of Nature into two classes : those which level, and 
those which raise the land's surface, and recapitulate. 

Give some examples of how the change of temperature 

Notes on Herbartian Method 

is instrumental in sculpturing the land. Trace the work of 
rain falling on a tableland. How does it resemble the action 
of snow above snow-line ? What reason is there for sup- 
posing the principal mountain ranges of the continents to 
be on the sites of the original contractions of the earth's 
crust ? 


(The subject-matter will need bringing up to date.) 

Class Average age, 16 years. Time Forty minutes. Aim To 
interest the class in the progress of modern times and especially in the 
scheme of Mr. Cecil Rhodes. 


I. Preparation. 

What led to its 

II. Presentation. 

i. The Idea. 

2. Route. 

3. Three Parts, 
(a) Completed. 


/(a) The telegraph the pioneer. 

(b) i, 800 miles to Umtali. 

(c) " White man's wire that talks." 

(d) One-tenth of funds found by Rhodes. 

(e) To be completed in five years, pro- 

bably 1904, and reduce 55. to 33. 6d. 

'(a) To connect British territory in North 
and South Africa. 

(b) Outcome of telegraph. 

(c) Attraction of name Cape to Cairo. 

r (a) First in direction north to south on 


(b) Egypt, Soudan, German East Africa, 
Rhodesia and Cape Colony. 

I Kitchener and late Egyp- 
tian War. Cf. Gordon. 
Atbara Bridge, 37 
days' order from Ame- 
rica. Want of water. 

Idea of natives : " Spirit " hard worked. 

The Cape to Cairo Railway 

1 S7 

Sketch Map 
to show the projected 


English Miles 
100200 400 600 800 

158 Notes on Herbartian Method 


\Bechu a naland Ur - Rhod s own 

Vryburg in 

, , r .,., Bechu a nala 

() Completed. . fo Bul penses, few < 

1 in Rhodesia. { tO en g ineers - 
Idea of natives in south : Engine full of oxen. 

Ii. Buluwayo to Salisbury and Zambezi. 
ii. Berber to Khartoum. Difficulties of 
clearing ; level ; fording of rivers. 
Valley of Zambezi, etc., in i. and ii. 

I German East Africa, British East Africa, 
Abyssinia, Rhodesia and Lake 

III. Association. 

1. Compare with Canadian Pacific of 1885 as to engineer- 
ing and uses. 

2. With Siberian line ; so useful to England ; brings 
Australia nearer. 

3. Cape to Cairo, not much saving to time or traffic. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

Recapitulate chief points by questions and write them on 
blackboard, and allow pupils to copy the scheme as founda- 
tion for an essay. 

V. Application. 

1. Great undertakings generally due to energy of one or 
two, who never reap the good result of their efforts. Cf. 
various inventions, the pioneers of Australia and Africa, etc. 

2. Class to reproduce account in their own words in 
the form of an essay. 


I. Introduce lesson by asking class what is the mean- 
ing of the saying, "The world is shrinking". What 
inventions in the past century have caused it to appear to 
become smaller ? Then lead on to the telegraph and the 
railway systems of the world how the telegraph is generally 
a pioneer of the railway, and relate how the idea of Cape to 

The Cape to Cairo Railway 159 

Cairo was the work of Mr. Rhodes. Relate circumstances 
connected with points in preparation, and give the class 
the latest result reached by the telegraph, and how much 
more still to be completed, etc., etc. 

II. Origin of idea not very useful to commerce. Why 
are North and South Africa connected in the British mind ? 
But are they connected as to commerce, trade, interest ? 
Why not ? Notice direction of railway. Compare with other 
great systems ; this is the first in a north and south direc- 
tion. Use map of Africa and draw from class the countries 
to be traversed by the railway. Are they all British terri- 
tory ? Which are, and which are not ? Will the whole route 
be an easy matter then ? Why not ? 

(Trace on blackboard with coloured chalk a sketch of 
route, dividing it into three parts : completed, building, and 
proposed.) Question as to parts completed ; when finished. 

How the war in the north led to completion as far as 
Berber. Relate energy of Kitchener and the famous Ameri- 
can bridge. What does this augur as to British trade ? 
Would Gordon's destiny have been averted if a railway 
had existed ? Why ? Explain difficulties in construction. 
Would the Nile be a help or hindrance ? Show how the idea 
of natives at first sight of train was the outcome of their 
general characteristics. Contrast with south. Who was 
the leader here (show photo). How had the late war 
affected the railway ? Different result to North Africa. Why 
would engineering be easier here ? What great river will 
have to be crossed ? Relate estimation of engineers as to 
the bridge across the Zambezi, and show picture of Victoria 
Falls. What is usual mode of conveyance in south the 
chief beast of burden ? Hence idea of natives that the engine 
was full of oxen. 

(Trace places on blackboard, sketch as lesson proceeds, 
and show pictures, etc., where possible.) Treat in a similar 
manner the part building. Refer to difficulties, and draw 
these from class by questions on the physical features of 
the country ; also part proposed. What new difficulty will 
arise ? What nations will have to be consulted ? Why ? etc. 

160 Notes on Herbartian Method 

III. Compare with Canadian Pacific, which began as a 
political necessity and became a commercial enterprise. 
The marvels of engineering in the construction, etc., also 
with " Russia's iron grip on China," which will not cost 
England anything, but be of more service to the British 
than to any other nation. Why ? What countries will it 
bring nearer ? The Cape to Cairo not much saving of time, 
journey of eleven days estimated from Cape to Cairo ; while 
England to Cairo is five, thus sixteen in all ; and now 
England to Cape by sea is seventeen. 

Probably in the unknown future the railway will prove 
to be of great use when its originators are beyond the reach 
of praise. 

IV. Recapitulate points by questions, and give short 
notes for essay. 

V. Draw lesson of life that few reap here below the 
reward of their inventions, labours and enterprises. Draw 
from class examples of this in history, great sailors and 
soldiers, artists, statesmen, inventors, etc. 


Class Oxford Junior and Senior. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Previous Knowledge Some of the common effects of heat. Aim To 
exercise reason in discovering cause and effect, and deducing principles 
from examples. 

I. Preparation. 

/i. Relative sensation of heat. 
. Heat absent = cold. 

Experiment with 
basins of hot, 
cold and tepid 

3. Heat is the agency which produces 

a difference of physical condition in 

4. The different condition produced, as 

long as no change of state occurs, 
is called temperature. 

Nature of Heat and its Effects 
II. Presentation. 


i. Nature of HeatJ 

2. Effects of Heat. 

(a) Formerly thought to be fluid. 

(b) Now a vibratory movement among 

the particles of matter. 

1 Chemical change 
due to interac- 
tion of mole- 

(d) Heat as form of (Does work. 
k energy. \Bullet and target. 

(a) Change of tern- (Example : Sun and 
perature. \ fire effect this. 

Bar of metal. 
Exceptions : 
Boiling and 
rising of 

Cf. cause of 

(c) Change of state of aggregation. 

(d) Chemical action. 

(b) Expan- 

i. SolidsJ 

ii. Liquids.^ 
iii. GasesJ 



1 62 

Notes on Herbartian Method 


V. Application. 

Allowances made 
for effects of\ 


1. Gravesand Ring. 

(Expansion of solids.) 

2. Expansion of Liquids. 

(a) Bulb expands and liquid 

sinks to b. 

(b) Liquid expands and rises 

to d. 

(c) If cooled liquid returns 

to a. 

III. Association. 

All familiar examples given during 
the course of the lesson. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

1. Definition of heat. 

2. Its nature and effects. 

3. Experiments as proof. 

Railways. Bridges. 
Metal pipes. Wheels. 
Effects felt in summer. 
Safety valves. 

Nature and effects of heat. 

i. Nature. 

((a) Temperature. \ 
(b) Expansion. -Solid, liquid, gas. 

(c) Change of state J 
(d) Chemical change. 

Illustrations : Three basins of water. Candle, bell, gas. 
Gravesand ring and expansion of liquid in tube. 


I. Question the class as to ordinary meaning of hot, 
warm, as applied to things we feel and touch (perform ex- 
periment with basins of water and deduce that the sensation 
is relative). Explain relative by reference to relative move- 

Nature of Heat and its Effects 163 

ment, relative weight. Question so as to deduce that cold 
is the absence of heat. What is it then that produces this 
physical difference in bodies ? What name do we give to 
the doer of any act ? Then we say heat is the agency which 
produces a difference of physical condition. Is there any 
other way of expressing the fact that one body is hotter than 
another? Instead of saying it has greater heat we say 
what ? Therefore the condition produced by heat so long as 
no change of state occurs is called temperature. 

Now we shall consider .what this heat is. Formerly it 
was thought to be a fluid. What is a fluid ? What two 
states of matter come under the name of fluid ? But now 
heat is discovered to be a vibratory movement among the 
particles of matter. (Exemplify this in boiling water, then 
in combustion, which is an interaction of molecules producing 
a chemical change.) Heat as a form of energy. 

II. Question class as to effect produced by sun, the great 
centre of heat, and by fire. What is this physical condition 
called ? It is only so called when no change of state occurs 
in the body effected by heat. The first effect of heat then 
is change of temperature. (Here show experiment of 
Gravesand ring on blackboard if apparatus not available, and 
deduce the result that heat causes expansion.) Is there any- 
thing else besides solid matter that will expand with heat ? 
What causes the kettle lid to move ? the water to boil ? 
(Refer here to separation of molecules, and hence resistance 
of pressure.) (Show experiment 2.) Now in physical 
geography is there any example of another state of matter 
being affected by heat and expanded ? Hence cause of winds. 
Use of a fire in room causing a draught, etc. Now we have 
seen that in the second effect of heat how many things may 
be made to expand. (One exception to this, india-rubber.) 
Now what did we say occurred when water boils ? But does 
not the heat change the water ? Into what ? Steam. Can 
this be said to rise in temperature ? Why not ? What is 
temperature ? Apply heat to ice, what change shall we have ? 
Now we see that heat can change state in how many ways ? 
Liquid to gas, and solid to liquid. What happens to wax 

164 Notes on Herbartian Method 

under heat ? Therefore what is the third change effected by 
heat ? This is called state of aggregation. 

III. There is one more effect produced by heat, and this 
has to do with combustion. Now, when for instance a 
candle burns, what effect has the heat upon wax ? Under 
which effect may we class this ? Do experiment of water 
and soot formed from candle, and deduce that new sub- 
stances have been formed from heat applied to candle-wick, 
and these are formed by combination of different materials 
in wax, etc. This is called a chemical change because new 
substances are found by combination. 

IV. (Recapitulate effects of heat and examples of each.) 
Now all these effects of heat cannot be overlooked in working 
materials which are so affected. In the summer-time, when 
temperature is so high, what will happen to metal bridges, 
pipes, etc. ? To counteract this allowance has always to 
be made for expansion. Why ? In railway lines, bridges, 
pipes, etc. ? To come to familiar examples, gloves in sum- 
mer, loosening glass stopper. In engine's safety valve. 

V. Recapitulate nature of heat and its effects. Proofs of 


Class Oxford Junior and Senior Divisions. Time Three-quarters 
of an hour. Previous Knowledge Nature of heat. Aim To exercise 
reason and judgment of class in discovering cause and effect. 


I. Preparation. 

,-, .,. ,-, /-i. The heating of a kettle of cold water. 

Familiar hxam-\ 

, , I 2. Use or fires and stoves. 

pies to prove ,., 

.1 , rr i ! 3. Mixing of water at different tempera- 

that Heat ts}^ 




Things dried in sun. 

The Propagation of Heat 

II. Presentation. 

Heat transmitted in three ways. 

I (a) Transfer from particle to particle 
through mass of substance in direc- 
r J r 

tion ot decrease or temperature. 
(b) In solids. 

Example : Poker in the fire. 

Good Conductors. Metals ; less good marble, slate, 

Bad Conductors. Organic substances, brick. 

,i. How objects feel to the touch. 
2. Woollen material to keep in heat. 
Copper ball wrapped in handkerchief 

and held over burner. 
Differences proved by bars of different 
metals in fire. 


(a) Transmitted by mo- 

tion of heated par- 
ticles from one point 
of body to another. 

(b) In fluids. 

/ i 


Boiling water and 

Draughts, ventila- 

iii. Trade winds, land 
and sea breezes. 

iv. System of heating by 
hot-water pipes. 


(a) Transmitted from one body to another 

through an intervening medium, 
without affecting the temperature 
of medium. 

(b) Fire and sun give heat in this way. 

3. By Radiation. 

1 66 Notes on Herbartian Method 

Ii. Thermometer in vessel exhausted of 
air, affects sides, 
ii. Something held in front of fire, 
iii. Stoves ; hot-water pipes. 

III. Application. 

, Heat passes from furnace to water 
through boiler by conduction. 

Example of Work- 
ing of Hot- 
water Pipes. 

2. Passes through water by convection. 

3. From water through pipes to air by 


4. Air to person, convection. 

5. Pipes also radiate heat. 


I. Question class on familiar examples, as heating water 
in a kettle, a room by a fire, and mixing water at different 
temperatures, and make them deduce that heat is transferable. 
What happens when a hot body is put in contact with a cold 
one ? Refer to what we do to get warm, therefore heat is 

II. Heat is not always transmitted in the same way. 
(Examples of poker in fire and bar of metal.) Which part will 
be last to feel hot ? Deduce heat travels in solid in direction 
of decrease of temperature. On blackboard show how 
particle transfers to particle. This is called conduction, 
and is the method of transmission in solids. (Here do 
experiment of silver and wooden spoon in hot water, also 
copper wire over gas.) Deduce that conduction is not same 
in all materials. Give examples of good and bad conductors. 
How discovered .by sense of touch, and reasons. Familiar 
examples, blankets, light woollen materials, spoon in tea 
and hot water, etc. 

We have seen how heat is transmitted in solids. 
What is the other state of matter affected by heat ? Draw 
experiment on blackboard and deduce the difference between 
it and conduction. Particles move from one point of body 

The Propagation of Heat 167 

to another. Examples given and elicited from the class. 
Boiling water, winds, draughts, ventilation. Land and sea 
breezes. Hot-water pipes. 

Deduce third method by example of rays of sun. Do 
not reach us by convection. Why by conduction ? Refer 
to fact that air nearer sun and yet not warmer than earth. 
Therefore heat must pass through without affecting it. 
This method of transmission called radiation. Refer to term 
and word ray. Fire also gives heat this way. Use of fire- 
screen. (Refer to dark rays and light rays, and show that 
in radiated white heat we really speak of light.) (Draw ex- 
periment.) Familiar examples, stoves and hot-water pipes, 
etc. Warming of atmosphere. 

III. Explain working of hot-water pipes. How heat 
passes by conduction, convection and radiation, questioning 
class as to method of transmission in each case. 

Conduction : passage from particle to 

particle solids . 
Summery: Htztis Convection . passage of one partide to 

transferable and anothr , ace jn bod liquid and 

transmitted in 

Radiation : passage from one body to 
another without affecting medium. 

Recapitulation : How can we prove that heat is trans- 
ferable ? In how many ways can heat be transferred ? What 
is conduction ? What are good conductors ? Name some 
bad conductors. What is convection ? In what bodies is 
heat transmitted by convection ? What is radiation ? How 
is heat transferred in this way ? Give some examples. Give 
one example which will include all three. 

1 68 

Notes on Ilcrbartian Method 


Class Average age, 16. Time Forty minutes. Previous Lessons 
i. Nature of heat, its effects ; 2. Transmission of heat ; 3. Thermometer ; 
4. Expansion of solids. Aim To lead the class to deduce the difference 
of conduction in different materials, and apply this fact to familiar 

I. Preparation. 


2. Principles 

II. Presentation. 

(a) Heating of kettle of cold water. 

(b) Use of fire, stoves, etc. 

(c) Mixing of water of different tempera- 


(d) Contact of hot and cold brick. 

(a) Heat is transferable. 

(b) Transmission continues till both 

bodies are of the same temperature. 

/ Transfer from particle to particle through 
i. Conduction. mass of substance in direction of 

decrease of temperature. 

Illustrated by simple examples of transmission of motion. 
Heat is a vibratory motion, hence transmitted by contact of 
particle and particle. 

(a) Bar of metal. 
Examples to be 


-j (b) Spoons in hot liquid. 
I (c) Poker ; hot water in jug. 



2. Familiar 

(a) Wooden and silver spoon in hot water 
(have apparatus for experiment in 

The Conduction of Heat 




Facts Deduced. 

III. Assimilation. 

(b) Copper wire and paper. 

(c) Bars of metal with balls attached 

with wax. 

(d) Spoon in hot tea. 

(e) Spoon in glass to prevent hot water 

breaking it. 
(/) Clouds, snow, ice in test-tube. 

I Metals, marble, stone ; 
and, less good, 
glass, etc. 

[Organic substances, 
\ liquids, gases. 

(a) Good Con- 


(b) Bad Con- 


Application of 
Good and Bad 

1. How things feel to the touch, and why. 

2. Reference to clothing, etc. 

3. Glass pavement; double windows in 

cold countries. 

4. Davy lamp. / Sketch on black- 

5. Norwegian cooking-] board, or show 

box. ' picture of. 

IV. Recapitulation. 
As in procedure. 


I. Question the class briefly on previous knowledge con- 
cerning heat, its nature, etc. We shall confine ourselves 
to one mode of transmission, namely, conduction. 

Mention familiar examples as in matter, and question 
on each so as to deduce the fact that heat is transferable ; 
also that transmission continues until both bodies are of 
the same temperature. 

What do we do when we wish to heat water ? Why 
do we go to some source of heat ? When we mix hot and 
cold water why is the mixture tepid ? In this case does the 
hot water pass on all its heat ? When does the transmission 
cease? (Deduce principles (a) and (b) and let class formu- 
late them.) 

II. i. Refer to simple examples of transmission of 
motion as in railway carriages and shunting engine, croquet 

170 Notes on Herbartian Method 

balls, persons alighting from a train, etc. What have we 
found heat to be ? This motion may also be passed on 
from particle to particle. Here analyse examples of trans- 
mission (a), (b) and (c). 

2. Place a silver spoon, a wooden spoon and a glass 
tube in a jug of hot water, and draw from class, by allow- 
ing them to touch ends of each after a few minutes, that (i) 
conduction is different, (2) silver has highest conductivity of 
the three. In a similar way go through examples (b), (c), 
questioning so as to deduce the different degree of conduc- 
tivity. (Experiment (c) to be sketched on blackboard.) In 
example (d) bring out the point of the air being a bad con- 
ductor, and refer to difficulty of experimenting on gases, and 
why. In (e) point out comparison of silver and glass. In 
(/) the proof of low conductivity of liquid, except mercury. 
Deduce this by reference to lesson on thermometer. Make 
class classify substances mentioned into good or bad 

III. If I touch the carpet, the wall, or a piece of marble, 
what shall I notice about the sensation produced by each ? 
Does this prove they are at different temperatures ? Why 
not ? (Deduce in this way that good conductors feel cold 
because they absorb heat so quickly from the hand that 
they give it a sensation of cold.) In a similar way refer to 
use of loose clothing. Mention glass pavement proposed 
in Lyons, and elicit use as a bad conductor, also double 
windows. Explain by sketch the effect of wire gauze and 
flame in reference to Davy lamp. Explain Norwegian 
cooking-box and sketch it. 

IV. Recapitulation of points of presentation. How 
can you prove that heat is transferable ? What do you 
mean by conduction ? Explain some experiment to prove 
difference of conductivity in metals. Name some good con- 
ductors and bad conductors. Give some application of these. 
Why would glass pavement prevent water freezing on it 
quickly ? Why is it warmer to wear two thin woollen 
garments than one of double thickness ? etc., etc. 

A Mercurial Thermometer 



Class Oxford Senior and Junior. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Aim To teach construction and use of the mercurial thermometer. 

I. Preparation. 

i. Meaning of 


f Thermos = hot. 
1 Metron = measure 


2. Why measure- \ 

mentisneces- I Because heat is a relative sensation, 

II. Presentation. 

(a) Glass tube with bulb. 

Because expands 
easily and uniform- 
ly, and has a high 

/ \ o i r j f i. Fahrenheit. 

(c) Scale of degrees J .. 

\n. Centigrade. 


(b) Mercury. 

5 o^ 

(a) Glass-blown. 

(b) Filling by pressure. 

(c) Boiling to exclude air. 

(d) Sealing. 

(e) Graduating. 

( (a) Effect of heat on liquids and 

(b) Apply to thermometer. 

(c) Mercury expands most, hence 

rises with heat and falls 
with cold. 

III. Association. 

i. Compare 

( Barometer. 
\ Hygrometer. 


172 Notes on Hcrbartian Method 

IV. Application. 

/i. To measure temperature of air. 

2. To measure temperature of water. 
Uses of Thermo-] T y j -i / i- i 1 

-(3. Used in sick-room (clinical thermo- 
.. Used by gardeners. 




V. Recapitulation. 

1. Description of instrument. 

2. Construction. 

3. Action and uses. 


I. Introduce lesson by questions on derivation of name 
"thermometer". Why is it necessary to measure heat? Has 
this measurement become useful in the case of health ? 
How ? Do you know of any other instrument for measuring 
in which mercury is used ? 

A Mercurial Thermometer 173 

II. Show a thermometer (mercurial) and deduce the de- 
scription of what is necessary to make up the complete 

2. Construction. (a) Glass-blown, (b) Tell the fact that 
tube is heated. What will happen to the air in this state 
plunged into mercury ? What will happen to the mercury ? 
Why will it rise ? Why not so much as in a barometer ? What 
is there to prevent it here which is not in the barometer ? 
(Repeated two or three times.) (c) Then mercury heated and 
boiled to exclude air, and, when quite reached the top, (d) 
sealing, etc. What will happen when sealing is over and 
mercury cool again ? What will be formed at top of tube ? 
Would the instrument be of use for measurement as it is ? 
Why not ? The next step is called graduation, and consists 
in marking the boiling-point and freezing-point. Draw 
figures A' and J5', and deduce why one in ice and one in 
steam. Space between is divided into 180 F. and 100 C. 
(Refer to a slight correction being necessary on account of 
glass expansion, but so small as need not take into account 

Now we have our instrument, how does it act ? What 
affects the mercury, and why ? How does mercury behave ? 
Why is it able to rise ? Why is water not better for use ? 
(Show alcohol thermometer, and say why used in garden 

III. Associate with barometer, and find out chief differences 
in construction, use, etc., etc. 

IV. Question as to uses of thermometer. What necessity 
is there for measuring temperature of air, of water ? Use in 
sick-room ? Why an accurate test ? Name given to special 
kind. In outdoor use how does its utility appear in gardens, 
greenhouses, etc. ? 

Recapitulation : Describe the instrument. How is the 
mercury put into the tube ? Why is boiling necessary ? 
When is the tube sealed ? How is the point of freezing 
determined ? The boiling-point ? W T hy is mercury the best 
liquid to use ? Give some occasions when thermometers 
are very usefuk 

174 Notes on Herbartian Method 


Class Average age, n years. Time Half an hour. Aim To 
lead the class to take an interest in natural phenomena. 


I. Preparation. 

Question class as to how we become aware of what goes 
on around us. What does our ear convey to us ? Sound. 

II. Presentation. 

Strike lightly desk, the bell, a glass, etc. Class to deduce 
cause, viz., contact of two bodies. 

Some bodies give a prolonged sound if struck only 
lightly, i.e., sonorous bodies. 

/Strike wineglass with pencil, pupil to 
(a) Experiments to ) put finger on the edge. 

be performed. I Strike tuning-fork, child to take hold of 
it to check vibrations. 

When glass is struck gives out a clear 

Facts to be stated 
by class. 

sound and trembles. When tremb- 
ling ceases, sound ceases ; same 

with tuning-fork. 

Deduction to be made : That the trembling of the body 
produces the sound. 

/Bell rung in a vessel exhausted of air 

bfdoTTo* dl ] gives no sound - Slight noise made 

outside a closed window not heard 
scnbed ' ( in room. 

Deduction to be made : Air transmits vibrations to the ear. 

/People apply ear to ground to catch 

distant sound of carriage wheels, 
stated byj gtc< p eople fishing must be very 

teacher. j figh 

Deduction to be made : Solids and liquids transmit sound 
better than air. 

(d) Facts to be 

Sound 175 

In a thunderstorm we see lightning 
before we hear thunder. When a 
gun is fired we see the flash before 

we hear the report. 
Deduction to be made : Sound does not travel as quickly 
as light. 

III. Association. 

Refer to echoes and their cause* 

An echo is the repetition of a sound once or several times. 
Generally heard in front of a rock or high wall. 
Sound goes forward and strikes the obstacle and is 
reflected back again. 

IV. Application. 

Uses made of the principles of sound : 

1. In the telephone. 

2. Buildings, e.g., churches and lecture halls, etc. 

V. Becapitulation. 

Question on the above matter as in procedure, or similarly. 


I. Introduce lesson by questioning class as to how we 
become aware of what passes around us. By which of our 
senses do we perceive light ? What does our ear convey to 

II. Strike several objects, and let class say what is 
produced in each case. Ask class what has been done to 
make the sound. Then let some one state the cause, i.e., 
contact of two bodies. 

Strike the bell and the desk and let class say what differ- 
ence there is in the sound. Let them point out that some 
bodies give a more prolonged sound than others. Then 
give the term sonorous, and write it on board. Connect it 
with the French word, sonner, to ring. 

Let pupil strike gong, wineglass, tuning-fork, then touch 
them and tell class what he notices. Let class point out 
what happens as soon as the body is touched. Sound 

176 Notes on Herbartian Method 

ceases. What two things cease together ? The sound and 
the trembling. What then is it which produces the sound ? 
The trembling. Ask if any one knows the proper term for 
this trembling. If they do not know, tell them, and write 
word vibration on board. 

Recapitulate here. 

Tell class the experiment of bell swinging in a bell jar 
exhausted of air. Tongue of bell seen to swing violently. 
Let class say what we should expect to hear. Tell them 
that we hear nothing. When air is introduced into the jar 
we hear a sound. Draw from class that the air transmits 
the sound. 

If two bodies are struck lightly outside a closed window 
is the sound heard in the room ? If a loud noise is made is 
it heard ? Tell how sound strikes against the pane of glass 
which vibrates and communicates it to the air by means 
of which it reaches our ear. 

Refer to the Indians who are accustomed to apply their 
ear to the ground to catch sound of approaching steps, or 
put their heads under water to hear if enemy's boats are 
approaching. Ask class if any of them have ever been with 
persons fishing, and what they had to be careful about. If 
they do not know tell them that people who want to catch 
any fish have to be very quiet because the fish hear the least 
sound. Draw from class that solids and liquids transmit 
sound better than air. 

Now let us see how sound travels. Ask class which 
they perceive first during a thunderstorm, the thunder or the 
lightning. Tell them that both are produced at once. Then 
how is it we see the flash before we hear the sound ? Refer 
likewise to firing of a gun and other examples to illustrate 
this, and let class point out that sound does not travel as 
quickly as light. 

III. What do we hear when we speak in a large, empty 
room ? Let class say what an echo is, and draw from them 
its cause, i.e., the reflection of the sound from the object 
struck. Tell class about the echo in Milan which repeats 
thirty-two times, and the whispering gallery in St. Paul's, 

The Pressure of Fluids 177 

IV. Point out uses of the knowledge of principles of 
sound in buildings : churches built in such a way as to 
convey sound well. Ask class if they have ever noticed a 
board placed over the pulpit in churches. Tell them it is 
called a " sounding " board, and point out what is its 

Summary : Sound is produced by the contact of two 
bodies. Some bodies produce a prolonged sound if struck 
only lightly ; these are called sonorous bodies. When the 
body is struck the particles tremble ; this is called vibration. 
In order that vibrations may produce sound, something is 
necessary to convey them. Air is a means, and solids and 
liquids still better ones. Sound travels less rapidly than 
light. An echo is the repetition of a sound, and is generally 
heard in front of a high rock or wall. Sound goes forward 
and strikes against obstacle, from which it is reflected back. 

V. Recapitulation : How is sound produced ? What 
are sonorous bodies ? How is it that we hear the vibrations 
of a body ? Which are the best means for transmitting 
sound ? Why do we see the flash of a gun before we hear 
the noise ? 


Class Oxford Senior ; age, 15 to 17. Time Three-quarters of an 
hour. Aim To prepare pupils for lessons on barometer and kindred 


I. Preparation. 

( Fluid 

Reference to definitions of -j and 

1 Pressure. 

II. Presentation. 

i. At any given point the pressure of a fluid in an 
enclosed vessel is in all directions equal. 

(a) In all directions. Experiments to prove. 

i. Place vessel on balance empty, fill with gas or water ; 
note increased weight of downward pressure. 


1 78 

Notes on Herbartian Method 

ii. Take a tube open at both ends 
as in Fig. i, and close one by a 
card disc, then plunge it beneath the 
water. The string to which it is 
attached must be held till a sufficient 
depth is reached, when it will not 
fall off, but is kept in place by the 
upward pressure of the water. Pour 
in water and the disc will keep its 
place till the level outside and in are 
equal, i.e., till downward inside + 
card weight = upward outside. 

iii. Movement backward of a dis- 
charging vessel, also the fact that it 
will discharge at the side as in Fig. 2. 
(b) Equally. This is proved by immersing 
a ball in fluid and observing that after a 
certain time it obtains equilibrium, or what is 
the same a triangular prism whose sides are of 
vertical section. Proved indirectly by 2. 

2. Fluids transmit any pressure perfectly, 
i.e., without loss or waste through their whole 

(a) Pressure given in one direction is transmitted in all 
on account of i (a). 

Direction giuen 

FIG. i. 

FIG. 2. 

FIG. 4. 

i. Piston with rose at 
end, filled with water 
then discharged as in 

Fig- 3- 

ii. Discharge of wine 
from barrel, etc. 

III. Association. 

Experiments performed. 

The Pressure of Fluids 179 

IV. Application. 

i. Principle of Hydraulic Press. (Pascal's plan.) Fig. 4. 
Amount proportional to the areas. 

If tube A be to tube B as i is to 16, pressure of i Ib. 
at A = 16 Ib. at B. 

Pressure of i kilogramme at A = 16 kilogrammes at B. 

V. Recapitulation. 

Question on points given and on experiments performed. 


I. i. Open lesson by questioning class as to the definition 
of a fluid, and show that for convenience' sake only the ex- 
periments will be formed in a liquid (water). Ask what is 
generally understood by pressure. Draw from pupils that 
solids resist disintegration, therefore that the particles press 
towards each other ; that the only other force exerted is 
weight result of gravitation. If possible, have a balance 
and weigh first an empty, then a full vessel, and show from 
the difference that the particles of the liquid are acted on by 
gravitation. Kind of pressure. Point out that when we 
say one pint of water presses down so many ounces, we mean 
the combined weight of all particles. 

II. Perform the experiment, and by questioning draw 
from the class that: 

When disc keeps its place it is acted on by three 

f air above ^ , 
I own weight \ downward. 
pressures 4 

Pouring in water, show we may leave out air. Why ? 
Stop when space between disc and water-level unequal. 
Question why card does not fall off. When will the same 
amount of water press ? When same level inside and out ? 

Therefore card falls. Why ? Question as to direction 
of pressure. 

Refer to tapping a wine cask. Show a sketch on black- 
board of a vessel with lateral discharge. Draw from class 
that : 

i8o Notes on Herbartian Method 

It would not discharge if there were no lateral pressure. 

Removal on one side (by tap) and no removal on the 
other destroys equilibrium. Question as to result. Give 
other examples. 

Recapitulate and question as to direction of pressure 
discovered, then refer to liquid in a hollow sphere. Must 
press ; how ? 

Equally : We have shown that in a liquid there is 
pressure in every direction, we have now to consider any 
liquid at rest, and discuss the amount in each direction. Let 
us consider the formation of a soap bubble, the fluid inside 
it, and once formed, the shape of bubble, but if more pres- 
sure against one side, what does this teach us ? Again, 
what does our second experiment teach us about the up and 
down pressure at the level of the disc when inside and out- 
side levels are alike ? A soft, inflated ball keeps its shape for 
the same reason. Ask for other examples. Sum up and 
write first point on blackboard, making class read it. 

Show or draw a piston as in i. 

Elicit from class by questions that one direction is 
given to water ; it is transmitted equally in all directions. 
Refer to raising of water from reservoir through pipes. 

Ask for familiar examples, e.g., hole in top of teapot. 
Why ? To admit air ; use, downward pressure transmitted 
sends tea through spout from body. Other examples are 
seen in eddying circles round a stone dropped in water. 
Tidal disturbances in remote channels, i.e., remote from 
great disturbances, e.g., English Channel disturbed from 
Atlantic Ocean. 

All buoyancy of fluids due to this combined with upward 

III. Association. Experiments performed. 

IV. Explain in application of above principles the 
hydraulic press, and show how the force is multiplied. 
Refer to first point of lesson, and show how force given in 
one direction must always be multiplied. Finally, give 
short summary and recapitulate by searching questions. 

Evaporation 1 8 1 


Class Age, 15 to 16 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Aim To teach chief facts connected with process, and so to lead up to 
lessons on rainfall and kindred subjects. 


I. Preparation. 

Water exists in three states ; determining factor as to 
which state heat. 

If little heat (32 F., o C.) solid water. 
If moderate heat (above 32 F., o C.) liquid water. 
If great heat (212 F., 100 C.) gas or vapour of water! 
Application of heat drives molecules apart. 

II. Presentation. 

1. Definition of Process. General name for change from 
liquid to gas is 

Vaporisation, but c Vaporisation at 212 F. = boiling, or 
we distinguish*. ebullition, and 
between ^Vaporisation below 212 = evaporation. 

Therefore Evaporation is the turning of water into 
vapour or gas at any temperature up to 212. It differs 
from ebullition, for there are no bubbles seen and no noise 

2. Some Conditions which affect its rapidity : 

(a) Temperature of Air. The hotter the air the 

greater its capacity for receiving moisture, also 
the greater the rapidity of the process. 

(b) Rapidity with which air in neighbourhood is 

renewed for air can become saturated like a 

(c) Extent of Surface exposed also affects the rate of 

the evaporation, for the vapour is only derived 
from the surface, and this is one of the greatest 
differences between evaporation and ebullition. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

III. Association. 

As in procedure. 



As evaporation goes on weight of A decreases, after 
a while it is stationary, showing evaporation has ceased. It 
now temperature be raised to 80 weight 
of A will diminish again. 

Go through experiment and make class 
give reasons. 

IV. Application. 

Effects of Evaporation : 

1. Produces cold, e.g., water evapo- 

rated from hand cools skin. 

2. In economy of nature with con- 

densation produces circulation 
of the higher and lower waters, 
producing clouds which are later 
condensed into rain. 



A, a capsule of water, 

B, a spring balance. 

Two thermometers exposed same day, and one having 
bulb covered by wet cloth, from which water evaporates and 
lowers reading. 

V. Recapitulation. 

By three or four questions on matter. 




I. Open lesson by a few questions to 
direct attention of class to the effect of 
heat on water states. If possible put a 
lump of ice in vessel over spirit lamp, 
make class note the changes that occur 

Evaporation 183 

in physical condition, and deduce the only agent at work, 
and therefore what must be cause. 

II. i. Refer to a saucer of water left exposed, water in 
flower vases, in shallow ponds, from kettle or other vessel on 
fire, and draw from pupils that general term is that it has 
dried up or evaporated. Make class note word evaporated, 
and lead to vaporisation, which is the technical or scientific 
term for the rapid process, i.e., when the liquid boils ; but 
as already seen not all vaporisation takes place at boiling- 
point ; get familiar examples from class, and state that term 
evaporation is confined to the slower process that is always 
going on even from solids like ice and snow. Make class 
deduce and state the definition. 

2. Question as to what sort of weather most promotes 
evaporation. When drying a damp towel, place near fire. 
Why ? Vessel of water exposed to outside air on hot day on 
cold day difference ? Point out double reason (a) increase 
of heat the active agent of the change, (b) the hotter the air 
the more loosely its particles exist ; more spongy, greater 
capacity. Get class to see this by referring to very hot but 
humid day not a good drying day. The reference to a 
sponge will lead on to the next point if desire to sop up 
water, and filled sponge is exchanged for a dry one, more 
water can be taken up, so when wind changes the layers of 
air resting over water the evaporation can continue. Thirdly, 
show by illustration, as on opposite page, that extent of 
surface affects the rapidity. 

III. Use map of world, and associate regions of greatest 
evaporation, e.g., Indian Ocean, off West Coast of Africa, 
over Central African Lakes, etc., etc., with fact of these 
being also regions of great heat when air hot, and therefore 
capable of taking up moisture. Contrast with Arctic regions ; 
also associate with regions of very salty water, e.g., Red Sea, 
Dead Sea, etc., etc. 

Show also that from wide, shallow lakes much more evapo- 
ration than from deep, narrow rivers or narrow mountain lakes. 
Cf. amount evaporated from Swedish and Swiss or Scottish 
lakes, and get all reasons from class why there is a difference. 

184 Notes on Herbartian Method 

IV. Lead class to apply their knowledge of the process 
to its effects ether or water on hand, the Eastern or South 
African water-bottle, etc., etc. The cooling of vegetation 
after rain or dew drops have been deposited, and so on. 

Finally, apply it to the understanding of the use of the 
wet and dry bulb thermometer. 


Class Age, 13 to 15 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Pre- 
vious Knowledge Matter of lesson on "Pressure of Fluids". Aim To 
teach mode of the working of the barometer and connection between its 
readings and the weather, and so lead pupils to take an intelligent interest 
in meteorology. 


I. Preparation. 

1. Refer to fact that air is a fluid, and like all fluids 
presses at any given point, equally in all directions. 

2. Call attention to the fact that the weight of the air is 
its downward pressure. 

3. Baros = weight ; metron = measure. Therefore lesson 
on the instrument which measures the weight of the air. 

II. Presentation. 
Torricellian Experiment. 

III. Association. 

(a) Relate history (1643), and show im- 
portant parts of a mercurial baro- 

i. Experiments. 

2. Deductions from 

meter, viz., glass tube 36 in. long, 
4 in. diameter, and liquid mercury. 
(b) Perform the experiment. 

(a) Hg is free to fall out, but does not, 

therefore must be supported. 

(b) Only pressure acting is that of air, 

therefore air supports column 33 in. 

(c) Therefore column of Hg 33 in. high = 

column of air, entire height. 

The Barometer 

i8 S 

3. Further Deduc- 

f(a) Only a liquid would transmit pres- 
sure from basin. 

(6) A lighter liquid for barometer needs 
a longer tube. 

(c) Therefore Hg chosen, because a 
liquid which neither freezes nor 
boils easily and because of its den- 

air m- 






IV. Application. 

I (a) If weight of 

creases, Hg rises. 
If weight of air de- 
creases, Hg falls. 

(b) Weight of air increases 

when atmosphere is 
cold or dry, and de- 
creases when hot and 

(c) The last because watery 

vapour is less dense 
than air. 

(d) Heat not allowed to 

make any difference 
because readingalways 
corrected to freezing- 
point of water. 

(e) If moisture in air, rain 


Therefore low baro- 
meter means rain, high 
barometer means fine 
^ weather. 

Long foretold, long last, 
Short foretold, quick past. 

2. How height is measured ; 

Here merely point out scale affixed in inches. 
(27 or 28 rather low, 29, 30 high reading.) 

V. Recapitulation. 

Summary : The barometer is an instrument used to 


1 86 Notes on Herbartian Method 

measure weight of air which varies with temperature and 
quantity of moisture present. In general air is able to sup- 
port 30 inches of mercury. Principle discovered by Torricelli 
in 1643. Indirectly it tells us what sort of weather to 


I. Open lesson by a few questions as to the pressure of 
fluids, lead class to distinguish downward pressure and 
weight. Elicit fact that atmospheric air is a fluid and 
obeys laws of fluids. Ask (or give) derivation of word 
" barometer," and make class see it is to measure the weight 
of the air. 

II. Presentation. As in matter. 

III. Call attention to the fact that till 1643 nothing save 
the hollow spheres of Galileo had shown the air to have 
weight. Lead class to connect date with early years of 
Civil War in Charles I. in history, and so make use of 
association to fix date. Allow class to examine the three 
things needed, viz., Hg, tube, and basin or cistern Tell 
them the experiment to be done is exactly the same as that 
done by Torricelli : hence name. Draw from them that 
Hg is a metal, but in a liquid form, and is very dense and 
heavy in comparison to bulk. Let a few of the class feel 
weight of a small quantity. Dense bodies have particles 
closely packed, hence great cohesion and little adhesion. 
Elicit fact by questions that on this account mercury will not 
wet sides of tube. Show that this does away with friction and 
leaves it free to move. 

When tube is filled and inverted, fix attention of class 
well on preliminaries by questions something as follows : 
How long did we say the tube is ? How much is filled with 
Hg ? Is there any air inside ? Can the air press on the 
top (after inverted) ? If I remove my finger what would 
happen ? Why ? What is pressing on surface of Hg in 
cistern ? What property does Hg possess in regard to this 
pressure ? If I put the open end of the tube under the 
surface and remove my finger the two portions of Hg will 
be in connection, and consequently be one mass of fluid. 

The Mechanical Powers 187 

Now when that happens what pressure will be communicated 
to the Hg in the tube ? Will the pressure over all the sur- 
face be transmitted ? Can it be ? How much will be ? 
(Here refer to pressure of hydraulic press.) Only the 
surface of Hg in tube, therefore if we had a much smaller 
or a much larger cistern it would make no difference. 
About how many inches has the Hg fallen ? Why does not 
the rest fall? Show class that the tube does not touch 
bottom of cistern. If Hg does not fall, what keeps it up ? By 
similar questions draw from class the deductions written in 

IV. Have complete barometer and show scale in inches. 
Tell what is considered low reading and high. 

Draw from class that heat expands air, so part resting 
on Hg is not so heavy, also watery vapour lighter than air, 
so, if present, takes place of air, therefore column not so 
heavy. Elicit behaviour of Hg in tube, and conclude by 
showing how this indirectly tells us the weather to expect. 

V. What is the barometer ? Why is Hg chosen ? What 
would be the effect of using water ? Why is the reading 
low before rain ? What does a sudden fall portend ? 


Class Oxford Seniors ; age, 17 to 18 years. Time Fifty minutes. 
Aim To exercise the reasoning powers of the pupils and lead them to 
have an intelligent and practical knowledge of the three mechanical 
powers applied to ordinary uses. 

I. Preparation. 

((a) Work. That which is done by force. 

(b) Power. Name given to the applied 


(c) Mechanical. Relating to a machine. 

i. Definitions. 

A contrivance by which 
a force applied at one 
(d) Machine. ^ point produces work or 
overcomes resistance 
at another. 

1 88 

Notes on Herbartian Method 

2. Use of Machines. 

3. Mechanical Advantage : 

When the power applied is less than the resistance. 

II. Presentation. 

Mechanical Powers Enumerated and Described : 


^ /Is a rod movable about a fixed 
point, called a fulcrum. 

g j Parts of: Two arms and ful- 


From simple experiment with different weights on a bar 
used as lever deduce Conditions of Equilibrium, i.e., that 
the product of the power into its distance from fulcrum = 
that of weight into distance. 

Examples of : See-saw, common balance, poker, wheel- 
barrow, crowbar. 

2. The Pulley : Small wheel with grooved rim fixed to a block, 
or suspended by a cord; forces acton ends of a cord round it. 
Deduce ; Mechanical advantages in above two illus- 

3. Inclined Plane. 


The Mechanical Powers 


In raising weights, the power is dimi- 
Advantage in I nished according as the slope is 
General Terms.i smaller and the length or distance 


'Train or horse and cart ascending moun- 

Familiar Inclined path, instead of steps, in garden. 

Examples. Wheel barrow along a plank, etc. 

Principle applied to machines : The 

screw, the wedge. 
III. Association. 

Simple examples throughout lesson. Apply principle of 
work done remaining the same. 

FIG. 3. 

IV. Recapitulation 

Of (i) definitions in lesson ; (2) description of three 
mechanical powers. 

190 Notes on Herbartian Method 

V. Application. 

Apply knowledge to lessening the difficulty in the follow- 
ing practical instances : 

1. Opening a nailed-down case. 

2. Raising cargo on board ship. 

3. Ascending Mount Cenis by rail. 


I. Introduce lesson by referring to such expressions as 
" One has not the power to do some work," and again, 
" One does it mechanically ". What do we mean by power 
and mechanical ? Elicit that power is the strength or force 
by which we do some work. Ask definition of work, and 
examples. Show that it often takes the form of resistance, 
e.g., raising a weight. Lastly, ask for examples of machines. 
Lead class to see that such simple contrivances as pair of 
scissors, etc., are machines. Question as to the force applied 
in each case, and the work done, and show that in all of them, 
however complicated or simple as the case may be, there is 
this in common, that the force is applied at one point and work 
done or resistance overcome at another. 

Ask the uses of machines, e.g., (i) a weight drawn up 
an inclined plane instead of raised vertically, (2) a bicycle, 
(3) a poker. Point out the advantage in each case. Con- 
trast the advantage of (2) and (3), the latter merely applying 
the power at a more convenient point while the former pro- 
duces greater motion. Tell class that the principles on which 
all machines are based may be seen in their simplest forms 
in the three mechanical powers, the lever, the pulley, and the 
inclined plane. 

II. i. Lever. Ask class how men sometimes move a 
heavy block, using an iron bar (draw diagram). By a simple 
experiment before the class, first without fulcrum, then with 
one, draw from pupils the necessary parts of a lever. Give 
name (Fulcrum}. Ask what are the forces at work, as 
shown in diagram, and represent them as P, W and F. 
Give examples of the common balance, and ask which is the 

The Mechanical Powers 191 

power, which the weight, and where the fulcrum. Treat the 
see-saw in the same way. Ask what we notice about the 
relative lengths of the arms of the see-saw when children of 
same weight are on and when they are unequal. What 
conclusion is to be drawn ? By supposing different distances 
and weights elicit in general terms the conditions of equili- 
brium. Lastly, consider the wheel-barrow as a lever, and 
show that both arms may be on same side of the fulcrum. 

2. Pulley. Call attention of class to little wheel of window 
cord. Ask descriptions and draw diagram, also ask what 
use it is. Show that, as in Fig. i, the mechanical advan- 
tage is merely in changing the direction and lessening 
friction. Now draw Fig. 2. Ask how the pulleys differ 
here. How are the movable pulleys supported ? To find 
out what mechanical advantage there is here. Suppose 
window equals weight 8 lb., how is it held up ? Then each 
string bears half its weight, i.e., the beam one and the second 
pulley the other. Again, this pulley is supported. How ? 
Therefore, pulley has only quarter of weight to bear and the 
force is quarter the weight. What would be the effect of add- 
ing another pulley ? There is a third case of pulleys, often 
used and to be seen in ship rigging. Draw diagram 3. Treat 
this case as the former to find the mechanical advantage, 
and compare it with Figs, i and 2. In both cases deduce 
that the work done remains the same by showing that 
window is raised only quarter of the distance pulley moves 
in second case and one-fifth in third. 

3. Inclined Plane. Refer to the descent to the electric 
railway. Why is it so made ? Ask examples from class 
of where the inclined plane is used to raise weights im- 
possible otherwise. Deduce from their own experience the 
advantage of it, and how it is increased according to the 
incline. Ask if principle of work being the same applies 
here, and why ? Show a screw and ask which of the three 
mechanical powers acts in it. Recapitulate the matter briefly, 
and ask pupils how they would apply their knowledge prac- 
tically to the instances mentioned in application. 

Notes on Herbartian MetJiod 


Class Age, 15 to 17. Time Forty minutes. Previous Knowledge 
Laws of pressure of fluids. Aim To exercise the reasoning powers 
of the pupils in teaching them the principle and leading them to deduce 
its application to floating bodies. 


I. Preparation. 

Story of Archimedes and Hiero of Syracuse very briefly 

II. Presentation. 

(a) Weigh two cylinders 
out of water. 

(b) Immerse solid in water 

and weigh the two 

(c) Lastly, fill hollow cylin- 
-^y " \ der with water. 


1. After (b) found lighter. 

2. After (c) weight same as before. 
Conclusions : 

Apparent loss of weight after (b). 

c _ we ight of equal volume of water to solid. 
This loss | = we i g ht O f water displaced. 

Principle stated : A solid immersed in a fluid loses as much 
of its weight as is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. 
Proof of the Principle : 

N N ABCD = body in equilibrium. 

Therefore all pressures are 

But side pressures are equal 
to opposite, therefore counter- 

Downward pressure = column 
of water AN N B + weight of body . 

Results noticed. 

The Principle of Archimedes 193 

Upward pressure = column of water CNND. 

Therefore ANNB + weight = column of water CNND. 

Take away column ANNB from each and weight = 
column of water CABD. 

Take away column ANNB from each and weight = 
column of water equal to weight of water displaced. 

III. Association. 

1. Draw from class how Archimedes tested the gold 
crown of Hiero, or how purity of any substance could be 

2. Why some bodies float and others sink. 

IV. Recapitulation 

Of the principle and how it is demonstrated. 

V. Application. 

" A ship is said to draw more water in a river than at 
sea." What is the reason ? 


I. Introduce lesson by briefly telling class the story of 
Archimedes. Who he was. One of the most renowned of 
Ancient mathematicians, who lived in Syracuse (ask where it 
is, and what now Called) under the tyrant Hiero, about the 
beginning of third century B.C. What Hiero asked him to 
do. To test purity of gold crown without injuring it. His 
perplexity. How and when he got the clue to his work. 
Leave Archimedes and return to the question of the crown 
at the end of lesson, when class will be able to follow up 
his clue to solving the difficulty. 

II. Now perform the experiment i as described in matter. 
Weigh an object out of water and then in water. Ask what 
difference is noticed. Again do the same with some object of 
same weight but differing in bulk. Compare results, and 
deduce that when the bulk is greater the difference of the 
weight in and out of water is greater, finally perform ex- 
periment with balance. Elicit results and draw the con- 
clusions from class and state them in form of principle. 


194 Notes on Herbartian Method 

Let class apply knowledge of the pressure of fluids to 
account for this fact and prove the principle. Suppose a 
cylinder ABCD is immersed in water and is in equilibrium, 
what do we know of the pressures on all sides ? Consider 
them separately. What pressure acts on sides, and how ? 
equal and opposite. What is the downward pressure of 
the water ? Is there any other downward pressure besides ? 
(Weight of body.) What counterbalances this down- 
ward pressure ? What is the upward pressure due to ? 
Take away the column ANND common to both. What 
pressure is equal to the weight ? Call attention to fact that 
this is only true when body is in equilibrium or at rest. 
Return to experiment, and apply the above and explain that 
the amount, as body is lightened in water, depends on its 

III. Also refer to floating bodies, and ask class to account 
for it. 

IV. Recapitulate the principle and show how it is demon- 
strated. Conclude lesson by returning to Archimedes and 
the crown, and elicit from class how he discovered the fraud. 
And lastly, give the question in application, and let class 
discover the explanation and tell it later. 


Class Age, 14 to 16 years. Time Half an hour. Aim To exercise 
reasoning power of class in leading them to apply their previous knowledge 
of Geometry to solve the problem, thus to strengthen their powers of 

I. Preparation. 

1. Problem : Something is to be done. 

2. Enunciation : To construct a parallelogram equal to a 
given triangle having one angle equal to a given angle. 

3. Definitions : Triangle and parallelogram. 

4. Two kinds of Equality : Identical and in area. 

5. Relation between parallelogram and triangle. 

A Problem in Geometry 


II. Presentation. 

1. Given : A triangle ABC and an angle D. 
Required : To construct a parallelogram equal to a 

triangle ABC having one angle equal to angle D. 

2. Construction. 

F G 

(a) Bisect BC at E. 

(b) At E make angle CEF equal to 

angle D. 
Points. J(c) Through A draw AFG parallel to 


(d) Through C draw CG parallel to 

Then shall EFGC be required parallelogram. Join AE. 

III. Association. 

Proof: Triangle ABE = triangle AEC, therefore triangle 
ABC = double triangle AEC. But parallelogram EFGC = 
double triangle AEC. Therefore parallelogram EFGC = 
triangle ABC, and it has angle FEC = angle D (Construc- 
tion). (Q.E.F,) 

IV. Recapitulation. 

What is required in this problem ? What are the three 
points in construction ? Go through the whole construction 
and proof again with assistance of class. 

V. Application. 

Erase work on board and require class to write out the 
proposition with different letters and a triangle and angle of 
different shape. 

BLACKBOARD SKETCH : As in Presentation and Asso- 

196 Notes on Herbartian Method 


1. Introduce lesson by asking distinction between Problem 
and Theorem. Read enunciation. To which class of pro- 
position does it belong ? Why ? What are we asked to 
do ? What is a triangle ? What is a parallelogram ? In 
how many ways may triangles and parallelograms be equal ? 
Which propositions treat of parallelograms equal in area ? 
What theorem do you know which connects areas of triangles 
with those of parallelograms on same base ? 

II. i. Read enunciation again, and get class to put it in 
form of given and required, and write this on blackboard. 

2. Construction. You have just said that the parallelo- 
gram is double the triangle. Now in this proposition we 
want the parallelogram to be equal to the triangle. How 
much of it will it then be double of? (half). How then 
can we find half the triangle ABC ? If I bisect base BC at 
E and join EA, what do we know of the two triangles ? 
Why ? Now on what conditions will a parallelogram be 
double of triangle AEC ? (On same base and between same 
parallels.) Can any one suggest how to fulfil these con- 
ditions ? Suppose we draw parallel to BC a line through A 
and one through E parallel to AE. Have we fulfilled the 
conditions for having a triangle equal to a parallelogram ? 
(Yes.) But have we done all that was asked ? (No.) What 
is not done ? (Angle = angle D.) Clearly then we must 
try again. How do we make an angle equal to a given 
angle ? Now our parallelogram is going to be on EC. 
Where then must the given angle be ? (At E or C.) Now 
try the construction again. Draw from class points i, 2 
and 3, and ask again if parallelogram EFGC answers all 

III. What is noticeable about proofs of problems ? 
Generally easy and apparent. We want to prove parallelo- 
gram = triangle ABC. What is equal to triangle AEC ? 
How do you know ? Is any other figure connected with it ? 
(Parallelogram double.) What proposition proves this ? 

Pythagoras' Theorem 197 

But you have said that triangle ABC = double triangle 
AEC, and parallelogram is also double of triangle AEC. 
What is the conclusion ? And what about angle = to D ? 
Then we may write Q.E.F. 

IV Recapitulation, j Ag . 

V. Application. j 


Class Oxford Junior Division. Time Half an hour. Aim To 
exercise judgment and reason of the class in deducing proof of Pro- 

I. Preparation. 

i. Enunciation. In a right-angled triangle the square 
described on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the 
squares described on the other two sides. 
((a) Right angle. 
(b) Triangle. 

(c) Right-angled triangle. 
be stated. 

2. Definitions to 


II. Presentation. 

1. Analysis of Enunciation. 

f Right-angled triangle. 
Given -j Square described on hypotenuse. 

I Squares described on sides. 

Required to be C Square on hypo- J sum of square on other 
proved. \ tenuse = (^ sides. 

2. Construction. 

On BC describe square BDEC, and on BA, AC describe 
the squares BAGF, ACKH. 

Through A draw AL parallel to BD or CE. Join AD, 

1 98 

Notes on Herbartian Method 


(a) Because each of angles BAG and BAG is a right 
angle, therefore CA, AG are in same straight line. 
H Now angle CBD = angle 

FBA, for each of them 
is a right angle. Add 
to each angle ABC, 
then angle ABD = angle 

(b) Then in triangles ABD 
and FBC, because AB 
= FB, BD = BC, and 
angle ABD = angle FBC, 
therefore triangle ABD 
= triangle FBC. 

(c) Now parallelogram BL is double of triangle ABD, 

because they are on same base, BD, and between 
same parallels, BD and AL. And square GB is 
double of triangle FBC, for they are on same base 
FB and between same parallels FB and CG. But 
doubles of equals are equal (Axiom 6). Therefore 
parallelogram BL = square GB. 

(d) In a similar way by joining AE, BK, it can be 

shown that parallelogram CL is equal to square CH, 
therefore whole square BE == sum of squares GB, 
HC that is, square on hypotenuse BC = sum of 
squares described on two sides BA, AC. (Q.E.D.) 

ILL Association. 

Propositions, etc., used in proof. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

1. Repetition of proof by class. 

2. Each step analysed. 

V. Application. 

1. Deduce principle. 

2. Prove in numbers. 

3. Value in finding areas and distances 

Pythagoras* Theorem 1 99 


I. Write enunciation on blackboard. Make the class 
read it. Pick out terms and question as to definition of 
right angle, triangle, right-angled triangle, square and hypo- 
tenuse. What points have been already proved with regard 
to a single triangle ? But this is the first mention of a 
right-angled triangle. 

II. Read enunciation again, and ask what is given. 
Right-angled triangle (therefore important to remember 
the right angle). Squares described on lines by what pro- 
position ? What is a square ? But what other class of 
figures may a square come under ? Why is it a parallelo- 
gram also ? Make class notice that these squares may be 
called parallelograms too. What is required to be proved ? 
Is this a problem or a theorem ? Why ? In mensuration 
what name is given to " square on side " ? Area of square ? 
And it is the sum of areas which is to equal square on 

Now as lesson deals with squares we must make them. 
Where? Now draw line AL. What is it parallel to? 
(Question the class as to the figures into which the square 
BCED is now divided by AL.) Call attention to joining 
lines, and deduce what figures they make (triangles), and 
with what lines. Notice results obtained. 

Point out division of square BCED, and probable 
reason of this division. Have we learnt any way of finding 
out an equality in area between triangles and parallelograms 
already ? So if I could get one of the triangles equal to a 
square, and then equal to part of the big square BCED, it 
would be easy to prove. Look at the two triangles again 
and see if we cannot make them equal in all respects. W T hat 
is necessary for this equality ? (See which of the conditions 
for equality are most nearly fulfilled.) We have two sides 
equal to two sides. Now let us examine the angles. What is 
angle FBC made up of, and angle ABD ? Therefore we can 
say angle FBC equals angle ABD ; therefore our two triangles 

2OO Notes on Herbartian Method 

are equal. Now notice the position of these triangles 
as regards parallelograms. But am I sure that GAC is 
parallel to FB ? What part of it am I certain of? GA, 
What part must I prove ? AC. What proposition proves 
that two lines are in one and same straight lines, or what 
conditions are necessary to bring this about ? But what do I 
know about the angles at A ? Therefore GA and AC are 
in one and same straight line. 

Now we have proved our triangles on equal bases and 
between same parallels as two parallelograms. What follows ? 
By what proposition ? Therefore doubles of equal are equal 
by what axiom ? But how much have we proved so far ? 
How much is there still to prove ? Could this be done 
easily ? How ? When a similar proof is possible is it 
necessary to work it out ? Why not ? Therefore, what may 
we say to finish proof ? 

III. Association. As in matter. 

IV. Recapitulate construction and proof in correct order, 
asking references and making class account for them. 

V. Refer to area of squares, and ask how to find length 
of side. Show in numbers that principle is true. 4, 3, 5, etc. 
Show by questioning the class how this may become useful 
in arithmetic, finding areas and distances, etc., etc. 


Class Age 13 to 15 years. Time Half an hour. Aim Exercise 
of reasoning to lead class to discover proof of this theorem. 


I. Preparation. 

i. Enunciation: "If a side of a triangle be produced 
then the exterior angle, is equal to the sum of the interior 
and opposite angles, and the three interior angles are 
together equal to two right angles." 


Definitions to 
be stated. 

Angle, exterior angle. 
Interior opposite angle. 
Right angle. 

A Theorem in Geometry 20 1 

II. Presentation. 

Given : Triangle and produced side. 

l (a) Exterior angle = sum 

1. Analysis of ) Required to 1 of interior and opposite 

Enunciation. \ angles. 

\(b) Three interior angles 
V = two right angles. 

2. Construction. 

Through C draw CE parallel to BA. 

((a) Because BA and CE are parallel and AC meets 

them, therefore angle ACE = alternate angle CAB 

Again, because BA and CE 

are parallel and BD meets 

them, therefore exterior angle 

ECD = opposite interior 
. angle ABC ; therefore whole 

exterior angle ACD = sum 

of interior opposite angle g^ ~ _ 

CAB and angle ABC. 
(b) Since angle ACD = angle CAB + angle ABC proved, 

to each add angle BCA, then angle BCA + angle 

ACD = angle BCA + angle CAB + angle ABC. 

But adjacent angles BCA and ACD are together 

equal to two right angles. Therefore also angle 

BCA + angle CAB + angle ABC = two right angles. 

III. Association. 

Definitions, axioms, references. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

Repetition of proof by class orally,. 
Each step analysed. 

V. Application. 

1. Deduce from proposition : 

" In any right-angled triangle the two acute angles are 

2. Proposition written out by class. 

2O2 Notes on Herbartian Method 


I. Read enunciation off blackboard. Ask definitions of 
triangle, angle, exterior angle. What other proposition 
has to do with exterior angle ? What is meant by interior 
opposite angle ? Define a right angle. By what proposition 
do we draw a line at right angles to another line ? Is this 
proposition a problem or theorem ? Why is it a theorem ? 
What other propositions deal with right angles ? With angles 
in a triangle ? 

Make the class read enunciation and point out what 
is given. What is meaning of produced side ? (Write given 
on blackboard.) Now what is required ? Two things. 
Exterior angle equal sum of opposite interior angles. What 
else is required to be proved ? What do we know already 
about two interior angles of a triangle ? 

II. Draw construction on blackboard. Draw CE parallel 
to AB. What is our next step ? Proof. What have I 
added to our given to help us in the proof? CE parallel to 
BA. What proposition has parallel lines given in it ? 
What is proved from them ? Exterior angle equal to 
opposite interior angle ; also alternate angles equal ; also 
two interior angles equal to two right angles. 

What line meets parallel lines here ? Which are alter- 
nate angles then ? From this we see that a part of angle 
ACD is equal to angle BAG ; now what have we to 
prove still to complete the matter required ? Angle ECD 
equals angle ABC. Have these angles any connection ? 
Why ? By what proposition are they equal ? (Write two 
statements on blackboard.) What can we conclude from 
these two statements ? (Write final statement on black- 

What is the second thing we have to prove ? What 
proposition deals with two right angles ? What line in this 
figure makes angles with DB equal to two right angles ? 

A Rider in Geometry 203 

What are these angles made up of? Angle BCD + angle 
EGA + angle ACB. But what do we already know about 
angle BCD and angle ECA ? They are equal to angle CAB 
+ angle ABC ; therefore if I add ACB to each, why will 
results be equal ? Therefore if angle BCD + angle ECA 
+ angle ACB equal two right angles, what else must 
equal two right angles ? (Write statements on blackboard.) 

III. Association. As in matter. 

IV. Efface statements on blackboard and construct figure 
again, using different letters. Let class give steps this time. 
After each, ask why do we take this particular angle, etc. 
Make the class state enunciation of any proposition re- 
ferred to. 

V. Draw a right-angled triangle on blackboard, and 
ask class how many right angles are contained by interior 
angles of this triangle. If one is a right angle, what do we 
know about the other two ? They must together equal a right 
angle. What do we say two angles are to one another when 
together they make two right angles ? 

Then from this theorem we can make one deduction. 
State it. (Write on blackboard.) 
Make class write out the theorem. 


Class Average age, 15. Time Half an hour. Aim To exercise 
the reasoning powers of the pupils and train them to accuracy of judg- 
ment by leading them to deduce the solution of the following rider. 

I. Preparation. 


Given an isosceles triangle ABC. 

.'Required to draw a straight line DE 
Enunciation ana-J parallel to BC, meeting the equal 
lysed. I sides at D and E, so that the lines 

I DE, DB and EC are all equal. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

II. Presentation. 

i. Make DE as 
required and 
work back- 
wards to arrive 
at steps of 

2. Construction. 

Proof: (a) To 
prove DB = 

DB then triangle DBE is 
isosceles, therefore angle 
DBE = angle DEB. But 
because it is parallel to BC 
and BE meets them, there- 
fore angle DEB = angle 
EEC. Therefore angle DBE 
= angle EEC. 

: Bisect angle DBC by BE meeting AC 
at E. Through E draw ED parallel 
to BC. Then shall DE = DB and 

^Because DE is parallel to BC and BE 
meets them, angle DEB = angle 
EBC. But angle DBE = angle 
EEC (Construction), therefore angle 
DEB = angle DBE; therefore tri- 
angle BDE is isosceles and DB = 

(b) To prove EC 
= DB. 

( Because DE is parallel to BC and lines 
AB and AC meet them, angle ADE 
= angle ABC, and angle AED = 
angle ACB. 

But because triangle ABC is isosceles, 
angle ABC = angle ACB ; therefore 
angle ADE = angle AED ; there- 
fore AD = AE. 

III. Association. 

Properties of parallel lines and isosceles triangles. De- 
finitions, isosceles and parallels. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

Question briefly as to the steps in construction and proof, 
and because AB = AC and AD = AE, therefore DB = 

A Rider in Geometry 205 

Thus it has been proved that BD, DE and EC are equal, 
and DE was drawn parallel to BC. (Q.E.F.) 


I. Question as to what sides and angles are equal in 

By what proposition do we draw a line parallel to BC ? 

II. Only difficulty is to find the point E, such that the 
lines required shall be equal. We can arrive at this by 
supposing the line DE drawn as required and see what 
follows, thus obtaining a clue to how to find E. Join EB. 
In triangle DBE what two lines are equal ? 

What angles are equal in consequence ? 

What do you know about angles made by parallel lines ? 

Apply this to BC and DE, because EB meets them. 

Therefore what relation exists between angle DBE and 
angle EEC ? 

This gives us clue required to find point E. 

What must be done to the angle DBC ? 

What then shall our construction be ? 

What previous propositions are used in it? 

What remains now to be proved ? 

(3) (a) To prove DB = DE we need only use what we 
already discovered in seeking the construction. Go through 
steps as in (a), reversing the order. 

(6) What still remains to be proved ? 

What do we know of triangle ABC ? 

If we can prove triangle ADE also isosceles, what follows 
as to DB and EC ? 

To do this what must be proved equal ? 

Prove angles equal to those at B and C. What follows 
with regard to each other ? Why ? What is our last step 
then to prove DB = EC ? 

How do we know that it is equal also to DE ? What 
were we asked to prove ? Is it done ? 

III. Association. C 

IV. Recapitulation. { As in matter ' 


Notes on Herbartian Method 


Class Age, 14 to 16. Time Half an hour. Aim To exercise the 
reasoning powers of the class, and lead them by analysis and synthesis. 

I. Preparation. 


T. Problem. From X, a point in the base BC of an 
isosceles triangle ABC, a straight line is drawn at right 
angles to the base, cutting AB in Y, and CA produced in 
Z ; show that the triangle AYZ is isosceles. 
/-Point. Triangle. 
q J I Isosceles triangle. 
^ "! I Straight line. 
^ALine produced "at right angles ". 

II. Presentation. 

1. Construction of figure. 

2. Analysis of enunciation. 



(b) Required 
to prove. 

G" (AC = AB and angle ACB 
I) ABC. 

5 1 Angle ZXB and angle ZXC are 
J^v right angles. 

{AY = AZ. 
Angle AZY = angle 

[Triangle AZY 
| is isosceles, 

3. If triangle AYZ is isosceles, then 
JAZ = AY. 
\Angle AZY = angle AYZ. 

4. Proof. 

In triangles YXB and XZC. 

Because angle ZXC = angle YXB, and angle ZCX = 
angle YBX by construction. 

Therefore remaining angle XYB = angle XZC. 

But angle XYB = angle ZYA. 

Therefore angle XZC = angle ZYA. 

That is, angle YZA = angle ZYA. 

A Rider in Geometry 207 

Therefore ZA = YA. 

Therefore triangle AZY is isosceles. (Q.E.D.) 

III. Association. 
Propositions, etc., of proof. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

Repeat proof with different letters. 
Each step to be accounted for. 

V. Application. 

Rider written out by the class without any help from 


I. Read enunciation and ask definitions of point, triangle 
and isosceles triangle. What proposition have we dealing 
with isosceles triangles ? Define a straight line. Line 
produced at right angles. What does produce a line mean ? 
And at right angles ? Is this a problem or a theorem ? Why 
a theorem ? 

II. Make class help in construction of the figure. Read 
enunciation again and ask what is given. An isosceles 
triangle. What can we know from this ? That angle ACB 
= angle ABC, and that AC = AB. Are any other angles 
that are given equal ? Angle ZXB = angle ZXC. 

What is required ? To prove that AZY is an isosceles 
triangle. Assuming that AZY is isosceles, what conditions 
must be present ? 

AY must = AZ, and angle AZY = angle AYZ. 

What must I aim at in my proof? To prove either of 
these conditions. 

We shall try first if we can prove AZ = AY. Can we 
see any other lines equal to either of these ? Are there 
triangles anywhere in figure that may be equal in all 
respects ? So we cannot succeed by thinking of the lines 
first. What other condition can we aim at proving ? Angle 

How many triangles can you discover in the figure ? 

208 Notes on Herbartian Method 

Name any two that have one angle alike in each. Triangle 
CZX and triangle YBX have angle YBX = angle ZCX, 
because ABC is isosceles. What sort of angles have we 
at X ? Two right angles. So now we have discovered that 
the triangles ZXC and YBX have two angles in each equal 
to one another. (Write down this statement.) What do 
we know about the sum of the three angles of a triangle ? 
What can we conclude from this ? That remaining angles 
must be equal. Name the remaining angles. Angle XZC 
and angle BYX. Is it necessary that the sides of triangles 
should be equal to have angles equal ? Why not ? Now 
we have proved one of our angles, angle AZY, equal to 
something ; what have we still to make it equal to ? Can 
you find any other angle equal to angle BYX ? Very near it. 
Angle ZYA. Why ? Because it is vertically opposite. By 
what proposition ? (Write statement on blackboard.) What 
can we deduce now ? Angle XZC = angle ZYA, and from 
that what kind of triangle must AZY be ? Why ? And by 
what proposition ? 

III. Association. As in matter. 

IV. Repeat same sides with different letters and let 
pupils give steps and reasons for each. How many pro- 
positions have we used to prove the rider ? How many 
and what axioms ? What definitions are included in its 
enunciation ? 


Class Oxford Junior. Time Half an hour. Aim To exercise the 
reason and judgment of the class in recognising the principle of profit 
and loss. 

I. Preparation. 

Profit = gain on cost price. 
Loss loss on cost price. 

i. Terms. 

Therefore selling price at a gain = cost 

price + profit. 
.Selling price at a loss = cost price - loss. 

Profit and Loss 209 

i(a] If cost price is 12 and selling price "15 IDS. 
2. asy j^j if cos t price is 12 and selling price 9 IDS. 

" \(c) If gain is 3 and selling price is 18 IDS. 
P ' \(d) If loss is 2 and selling price is 10. 

II. Presentation. 

1. Gain or loss is always reckoned by per cent. 

2. Seventeen per cent, gain means that if cost price 
= 100, then selling price = 100 + 17. 

3. Seventeen per cent, loss means that if cost price = 100. 
then selling price = 100 - 17. 

Therefore cost price may always be represented by 100. 
/i. If I buy for "100 and sell for 120, 

what is gain per cent. ? 
2. If I buy for 100 and sell for 75, 
. , what is loss per cent. ? 

' 3. What is gain per cent, if I sell for 105 

what I bought for 100 ? 
4. What is loss per cent, if I sell for 92 
what I bought for 100 ? 

III. Association. 
Questions in procedure. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

1. Terms and their meaning 

2. Representative price. 

V. Application. 

i. Goods bought for i are sold for i 2s., what is the 
gain per cent. ? 

Gain = selling price cost price 
= J 2S - - i 

= 2S. 

Therefore gain on i or 2os. = 2s. 
Given : Gain on 2os. = 2s. 
Required : Gain on 100 = ? 

2os. : iocs. : : 2s. 
100 x 2 

= 10 per cent. Ans. 


. Same problem, but reverse prices to make loss. 

2io Notes on Herbartian Method 


i. Terms. 

Profit = gain on cost price. 
Loss = loss on cost price. Therefore 
selling price at gain = cost price + 

Selling price at loss = cost price - loss. 

2. Cost price always represented by 100. 

3. Problem worked out as in matter. 


I. Question the class as to name given to gain on any 
selling transaction. And loss. What is the gain always 
counted upon ? And the loss ? To discover the gain or 
loss what must be considered first ? Now if I sell at a gain 
what is my selling price made up of? If I sell at a loss 
what is my selling price made up of? (Here give some 
easy oral examples, such as to test whether the class under- 
stand the meaning of terms and the parts of a selling price 
in cases of gain and loss.) 

II. Now as in the brokerage of stocks, and in all cases of 
commission, etc., gain or loss is always reckoned by per 
cent. What is the meaning of per cent. ? Now when I 
apply per cent, to gain, and say, for instance, that the gain 
in a certain transaction is 17 per cent., I mean that in 
every 100 I have gained 17, that is, that what I 
bought for 100 I sell for "117. Which is cost price here 
and which selling price? What is selling price 117 made 
up of? 

In the same way, if I say that a sale has been made 
at a loss of 17 per cent. I mean that what I bought for 100 
I sold at 100 less 17. We must notice here a very im- 
portant point, that the cost price in both cases is 100 and 
may always be represented by 100, and the gain or loss is 
either more or less than the 100, but never represented by 
the 100 itself. (Here give examples to find out loss and 
gain per cent.) 

Clocks and Time 21 1 

III. Recapitulate terms and their meaning, also the point 
that representative of cost price is always 100. 

IV. Write problem on the blackboard and question as 
to how to find gain (apart from per cent.) by subtraction of 
cost price from selling price. What is the gain on ? And 
is this selling price or cost price ? What are we asked to 
find ? Now what is given and what required in this 
problem ? State by proportion and put in fractional form. 

(Same problem reversed to show loss per cent.) Make 
the class work on blackboard, and state steps, giving reasons 
and analysis of each point in the course of the working. 


Class Oxford Junior. Time Half an hour. Previous Knowledge 
Ratio and double rule of three. Illustration Clock. Aim To exer- 
cise the reason and judgment of the class in discovering the principle 
of relative motion as applied to clocks. 

I. Preparation. 

Minute hand : 60 minute divisions in 

i hour. 
Hour hand: 5 minute divisions in i 

Action of hands of 
a clock. 

Relative motion : Minute hand moves 60 

minute divisions while hour hand 
moves 5 ; therefore gains 55 minute 
divisions in 60 minutes' time. 
II. Presentation. 

Write problem on board to give point to what follows : 
i. When hour hand goes i minute 
division, then minute hand goes 12. 

Principle Deduced. 

2. Therefore gain of minute hand = n 

minute divisions in 12 minutes' 

Relative motion of minute hand *= n minute divisions in 
12 minutes' time. 

212 Notes on Herbartidn Method 

III. Association. 

1. Compare speed of two bodies moving in same direction. 

2. Relative rate is difference between actual rates. 

3. Trains, races, walking. 

4. If no difference then no relative movement. 

IV. Application. 

Problem : At what time between 4 and 5 o'clock will the 
hands of a watch be (i) together, (2) opposite each other, 
(3) at right angles. 

{(a) Position at 4 o'clock. 
(b) Number of minute divisions to be 
gained = 20. 

Given : n minute divisions gained in 12 minutes. 
Required : 20 minute divisions gained in ? minutes. 
1 1 min. div. : 20 min. div. : : 12 min. : ? 

20 x 12 

- - 2I TT minutes past 4. Ans. 

2 Opposite I ( a ) Position at 4 o'clock. 

i j.1 \ (b} Number of minute divisions to be 
each other. v ' 

I gained = 50. 

Given: n minute divisions gained in 12 minutes. 
Required : 50 minute divisions gained in ? minutes. 
ii min. div. : 50 min. div. : : 12 min. : ? 

= 54^- min. past 4, or 5^ min. to 5. Ans. 

3. At right f( fl ) Position at 4 o'clock. 

7 < (b) Number of minute divisions to be 

angles. ) v ' 

V gained = 5 or 25. 

Given : 11 minute divisions gained in 12 minutes. 
Required : 5 minute divisions gained in ? minutes. 
ii min. div. : 5 min. div. : : 12 min. : ? 

5 x 12 

5^- minutes past 4. Ans. 

. Similar problem given as exercise to pupils. 

Clocks and Time 


1. i. Train 60 

miles an hour 

2. Train 60 miles 

an hour 

1. Train 60 miles 

an hour 

2. Train 40 miles 

an hour 


On parallel lines. 

On parallel lines. 

No relative motion. 

Relative rate of 20 
miles. Why ? 

What is relative movement, relative rate, actual rate ? 

II. Examine clock face ; work done in an hour by minute 
hand, 60 "minute divisions"; by hour hand, 5 "minute 
divisions ". What is relative motion, work or space covered 
by minute hand ? 55 minute divisions. In what time ? i 
hour, or 60 minutes. 55 minute divisions in 60 minutes ; 
therefore n minute divisions in 12 minutes. Therefore 
relative motion of minute hand = n minute divisions in 
12 minutes of time. 

III. How do we find relative movement ? What is it 
the difference between ? How many things must be moving 
in same direction to have relative movement ? Why ? If 
there is no difference in the rates is there any relative move- 
ment ? Why not ? (Here give some examples of trains, 
races, walking.) 

IV. What is the position of hands at four o'clock ? How 
far has the minute hand to go before it overtakes the hour 
hand ? What is relative movement of minute hand ? How 
much does it gain in one hour on hour hand ? In one-third 
of that time what does it gain ? Gain of hour hand equals 
n minute divisions in 12 minutes. What do we know then 
in this problem ? What is required to be stated ? State- 
ment by ratio and fractions and answer. (Make the class 
work on blackboard.) 

(2) What is the position of hands at four o'clock ? What 
will be the position when opposite each other ? How many 
minute divisions has minute hand to gain ? How much 

214 Notes on Herbartian Method 

did we find out it gained in 12 minutes? What is given 
therefore ? What required ? (Work sum by ratio and 

What is the meaning of " at right angles " ? What 
will position of hands be then ? How much has minute 
hand to gain on hour hand ? What is relative movement of 
minute hand? Why do I not say 12 minute divisions in 
12 minutes ? What must I say ? Why ? What is given ? 
Required ? (Work out sum.) Give a problem to be done 
in exercise books. 


Class Oxford Junior Division. Time Half an hour. Previous 
Knowledge Buying and selling of stocks. Aim To exercise the reason 
and judgment in the treatment of brokerage in problems in stocks and 


I. Preparation. 

1. Refer to buying and selling of stocks. 

2. Refer to terms, money, stock, price of stock, etc. 

/i. Buy a book and pay postage and 
carriage. Real cost = price of book 
+ postage. 

2. Commercial traveller and commis- 
com mis sion, \ 


i 3. Income-tax subtracted before income 

{ given, etc. 

II. Presentation. 

, ( = one who does business of buying and 

i. Broker 1 

^ selling. 

'(a) Payment made for business done. 

(b) Always reckoned per cent, and gener- 
a. Brokerage. al , y j pgr ^ Qn evry IQO 

I stock. 

(a) Buying stock. Real price = nominal 

price + brokerage. 

3. Two Cases. . , j 

(b) Selling stock. Price received = 

nominal price - brokerage. 

Brokerage 215 

r(a) What is real price of stock at 98! 
I when brokerage is fc per cent. ? 

4. Easy Examples. \ (b) What is real price received for stock 
at 98! when brokerage is & per 
cent. ? 

III. Recapitulation 

Of familiar examples : terms and two cases. 

IV. Application. 


i. What sum will buy 10,000 stock at 75!, brokerage 
being & per cent. ? 

Real price of stock = 75! + J. 

= 75* 

Given : 100 stock costs 75 i. 
Required : ^10,000 stock costs ? 
100 : 10,000 : : 75* : ? 

10000 151 r 

x = 7,550. Ans. 

100 2 

2. What sum will I receive for the sale of 12,000 stock at 
96!, brokerage being I per cent. ? 

Real price received for 100 stock = 96! - 4. 


Therefore given : 100 stock will receive 96^. 
Required : 12,000 stock will receive ? 
100: 12,000:: 96^: ? 

12000 385 . 

- x - = 11,550. Ans. 
100 4 * 

Note. Similar problems given as exercise to the pupils. 

Broker. One who does the business. 
Brokerage. Payment made for business done. 

I Buy ing. Real price = price + broker- 
;/ age ' i 
Selling. Price received = price - broker- 
Write out two problems in full as in the matter, 

2i6 Notes on Herbartian Method 


I. Question the class on problems already worked on 
buying and selling of stock. When I buy stock what must 
I take into consideration ? When I sell what must I remem- 
ber? What is the real value of each 100 share of stock? 
When is stock said to be at par ? At a discount ? Now in 
all matters of buying and selling the actual cost of a thing 
is the price + extra expenses a book and postage, a rail- 
way journey and porter, a postal order and the penny. The 
same way in profit or gain when selling. Cost price and 
cost of packing, or perhaps postage, has to be deducted before 
I can count clear gain. 

II. Now in the stock buying and selling the actual work 
is not done by each individual, but through the hands of men 
who are called stockbrokers, and who earn their living and 
income by doing business for other people. This is not 
done for nothing, and each share that is bought or sold by 
a stockbroker has to be paid for to the broker in return for 
his services. The amount paid on each share is called 
brokerage, and the man who performs the business the broker. 
This payment is always reckoned \ of per cent, on each 

Now, what are the two things it is the broker's business 
to do first ? We shall take each separately : first the case of 
buying. Supposing I want one share only, what have I 
to give the broker ? And what besides ? Therefore what has 
the one share really cost me altogether ? Price + brokerage. 
Therefore in buying I must add the brokerage to the price. 
(Give familiar examples.) Now, in the case of selling. If 
he sells a share for me, what does he receive for it ? But will 
he give me the whole price ? Therefore the money I receive 
will be price - brokerage. Therefore in cases of selling, the 
price received is price - brokerage. (Write sums on black- 

III. Recapitulate by questions on broker, brokerage, and 
when I must add and when I must subtract. Ask examples 

The Extraction of Square Root 217 

IV. Here give problems bringing in the two cases. Make 
the class work out each step, and give reasons for their 
answers, and finally mark some sums in exercise books. 


Class Age, 15 to 17. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Previous 
Knowledge Involution and elementary mathematics. Aim To exercise 
the reason and judgment in the explanation of the process of evolution. 

I Preparation. 

/NT 1 (Square. 

(a) Involution. \ -> 

, v ' (Power. 

11 J /JA c i * (Root and meaning of,/. 

(b) Evolution, io i N 


10 x 10 = io 2 6 x 6 = 6 2 8 x 8 = 8 2 

- 100 = 36 =64 

N/IOO = \/36 = 6 v /6~4 = 8 

Perfect square = 256, because ^256 = 16. 
Surd = 18, because \/i8 cannot be obtained. 

II. Presentation. 

(a) (io + 6) 2 = io 2 + 120 + 36 = 256. 

(b) If a number consists of two parts, 

the second power of the number 
consists of the second power of the 

i. Principle. 

first part, together with second 
power of second part and twice pro- 
duct of second and first parts. 
(c) Algebraical formula 

(a + by = a* + 2ab + 6 2 . 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

2. Rule. 

(a) Point off every second figure begin- 

ning with units. 

(b) Find nearest square of first number. 

(c) Take this square from whole number. 

f(i.) Square of second 

(d) The remainder 
must contain 

(ii.) Twice the pro- 
duct of the two 


Work in a similar way. 


I2O = 2 X TO X 6 

v/62 5 



Rule stated. 

1. Point off alternate numbers from unit and divide 
number into periods. 

2. Find nearest square root of first period and subtract 
its square. 

3. Set down remainder and bring down next period. 

4. Double the first figure, set it down and use it as a 
trial divisor for the first two figures. 

5. Place the quotient thus found to its right and then 
divide as usual. 

III. Association. 

1. Compare process of evolution with the algebraic 
method Ja 2 + lab + b 2 . 

2. v/a 2 + 2ab + b\a + b 3. ^324(18 
_o2 i 

*a + b~ 

+ 2ab + 
+ zab + 



The Extraction of Square Roof 


IV. Recapitulation. 


V. Application. 

i. Easy Problems. 

1. Terms. 

2. Principle. 

3. Rule stated. 

I (a) What is the length of the side of a 
square field whose area is 5 acres 
2 roods 20 poles ? 

i. Reduce to poles : 5 ac. 2 rd. 20 pi. 


900 pis. 
ii. Extract sq. root : ^900(30 pis. 



5 ac. 2 rd. 20 pis. 1 

^Length of side, 30 pis. j 


Test Paper at the end of a Week. 

1. What do you mean by involution, evolution, root 
square ? What is the square of 9, 27, 52, and the square 
root of 36, 144, 256 ? 

(To examine elementary principles.) 

2. Give the algebraical square of (a + b). Find the 
square of 8 + 10 and 40 + 5 by the same method. Find 
the square root of 625, explaining your working. 

(To examine application of principle.) 

3- Work out the following : ^649636, ^5774409, 

(To test accuracy.) 

4. Give the rule for pointing off when the square con- 
tains some decimal places. Work out the following : 
^000289, ^3831 -6 1, >/42*25. 

(To test knowledge of decimal point.) 

22O Notes on Herbartian Method 

5. (a) A room is 45 ft. long and 60 ft. wide and 10 ft. 
high, what is the distance between a lower corner and the 
opposite upper corner ? 

(b) What is the distance between the tops of two towers 
12 yds. apart, and which are 92 ft. and 140 ft. high respec- 
tively ? 
(To test knowledge of connection with Pythagoras' theorem.) 


I. Introduce lesson by referring to decimals where the 
denominator is a power of ten. What is the meaning of 
power ? What is the second power called ? What is the 
difference between long measure and square measure ? Why 
called square measure? The process of finding the power 
of a number or its square is called what? We shall learn 
the opposite process, and find the number which, when 
multiplied by itself, forms a square. This is called the root, 
and the sign to represent the word is J, which is supposed to 
be a corruption of the letter r. This process is called Evolu- 
tion. (Write on blackboard, and give examples of square, 
power, root, with easy numbers.) Let class find out that 
root cannot be expressed of every number. Give term Surd, 
and write on blackboard. 

II. Refer to algebraic method of square (a + b). Supply 
numbers and see what the result is. Ask class to find 
square of different numbers by dividing them into two parts 
and following this principle. 

Ask the principle from the class. (Write on blackboard.) 

Ask for algebraical formula. Try with several easy ex- 

Take the example already used, 16 x 16 = 256. 

State the rule about pointing off numbers and follow the 
rule according to matter. What is the first number in this 
case ? 200. Nearest root of 200 ? 10. What is io 2 ? = 100. 
Take this i oo away from 256 and what remains? 156. Accord- 
ing to the principle stated above, what have we done so far ? 
What is still to be found ? Square of other number and 

The Extraction of Square Root 221 

twice the product of both numbers. This, then, must be 
contained in 156. We know one number is 10 and 
2x10 = 20, .'. 20 must be contained in 156 a certain number 
of times, + the square of that number. Try 6, 6 x 20 = 120, 
and 156 - 120 = 36, which is square of 6, .'. 6 is the second 
number. The whole root comes to 10 + 6 = 16. Then go 
through same sum in shorter method (2) and deduce the 
rule. What did we do first ? What does the first period 
really stand for tens or units ? Why is it subtracted from 
the whole number ? Why is the first figure doubled ? 
Why used as a trial divisor only? What else must be 
contained in the remainder ? 

Repeat the operation with several numbers, as 144, 625, 
289 and 724, asking the method of involution of each 
number before beginning the opposite process. 

III. Compare method with algebra. Make class work 
out sums in algebra, then compare method and find out 
slight difference. No pointing off. Why? Form of answer in 
two terms, in numbers in one whole number. Why ? Go over 
sums already worked and analyse working by questions. 
How do we get this quotient ? What does the I stand for ? 
Why do we subtract ? How do we obtain 28 ? Why do 
we double first quotient ? etc. 

What do you mean by power ? Square ? Root ? 
Surd ? Involution ? Evolution ? What does the product 
of the sum of two numbers contain ? What is the 
algebraical formula for this ? State the rule for the 
extraction of square root? Name the points in it. Give 
reasons for each. 

IV. Write problem on blackboard, and ask why it refers 
to square root. Question on square measure and long 
measure. Why must we reduce to poles ? If the area had 
been acres only, should we still reduce ? Why ? Why 
does the square root give the length of a side ? (Use the 
same problem and ask the distance round the field.) Why 
multiply by 4 ? Give a few problems on the model of this 
one for class-work. (In second lesson other cases involving 
square root may be introduced.) 

222 Notes on Herbartian Method 


Class Average age, 12. Time Forty minutes. Aim To exercise 
the reasoning powers of the pupils and lead them to a knowledge of how 
to represent problems symbolically. 


I. Preparation. 

1. Meaning of. 

2. Why difficult to beginners. 

3. How to overcome the difficulty. 

II. Presentation. 

i. First ExamphsJM ** how much does * exceed '7 ? 
{(b) By how much does 17 exceed x ? 

i. Suppose x 20, then it exceeds 17 by (20 - 17), i.e., 3. 
Therefore x exceeds 17 by (x - 17). Deduce 2 in same way. 

{i. What must be added to x to make y 1 
2. What is the excess iof 90 over ,? 
3. If ioo be the sum of two numbers, and 
c be one, what is the other ? 
4. What is defect of 2c from $d. 
((a) If a be one factor of 20, what is the 
other ? 
(6) How far can a man walk in a hours 
at the rate of 4 miles an hour ? 


i. Suppose a = 5, then -- = 4 the other factor ; therefore 


- = the required factor. 

ii. In i hour he goes 4 miles, therefore in a hours a 
times as much, i.e., 40 miles. 

i. How far can I walk in x hours at rate 
of y miles an hour ? 

Exercise in like 


2. A train goes x miles an hour ; how 

long will it take to go 120 miles ? 
If ioo contains x 5 times, what is the 
value of x ? 

First Lesson on Symbolic Expressions 223 

Third Class of fW What is the velocit ? in feet P er 
Examples in- second of a train S oin S 3O miles in 

x hours ? 

volving reduc- 

(b) If I spend x shillings out of 20, 

how many shillings will be left ? 
! " 25? -. rate of miles per hour. 


= rate of miles per second. 



= No. of feet per sec. = H feet per sec. 

x x py) x 

ii. 20 x 20 = number of shillings. 

400 - x = number of shillings left. 

'i. A man has a crowns and b florins, 

Other Examples If h w ^ 8hillin *?., ? 1 . 

f ( 2. It I give away c shillings out ot a 

purse with a sovereign, and b florins 
in it, how many shillings are left ? 

III. Association. 

Explanation by the help of concrete numerical examples. 

IV. Application. 

Further exercise on the same kinds of problems. 


I. Write name on blackboard. Ask meaning of term 
symbol in general and in algebra, also examples of each. What 
do we mean by " expressing ourselves in figurative or symbolic 
language " ? and again by expressing a sum in symbolic form ? 
Why are symbols so difficult to beginners ? The best way 
to get accustomed to these abstract expressions at first is to 
suppose some number in each case and examine how we 
treat it. 

II. i. Write first example on blackboard. If we cannot 
tell answer without knowing value of x, suppose x 20. 
What then ? How did we arrive at the answer 3 ? 20 - 
17 = 3 (x - ij) Ans. Work second example in same way. 

224 Notes on Herbartian Method 

Then let class express the other examples without the inter- 
mediate steps. 

2. Second Examples. Treat these in the same way, 
supplying numbers for symbols first, then leading class to 
obtain the desired expression. Then give the other 

3. Third Examples. If it goes 30 miles in say 10 hours, 
how many in one hour ? f J = 3 miles. But when x is 

number of hours, what is the velocity ? ^- miles per hour. 


Next, how shall we find the number of miles per second ? 
Bring x hours to seconds. Lastly, if it goes ^ miles, 


how many feet will it go per second ? Will it be more or 
less ? What is the multiplier ? (1760 x 3.) 

III. Work other examples in the same way. 

IV. The class will by this time be prepared to work easy 
examples by themselves ; let them continue the exercise out 
of their text-books for home-work. 


Class Oxford Junior Grade. Time Forty minutes. Previous 
Knowledge To find mentally the square of a binomial, the product of 
its sum and difference, and the product of any two binomials. Aim 
To exercise the reasoning powers of class in leading them to deduce for 
themselves the solution of factors. 


I. Preparation. 

1. Meaning of terms Factors and Resolution. 

2. Oral exercises in forming products of Binomials. 

(1) (a + by. 

(2) (a - by. 

(3) ( + 2)( + 3). 

(4) (a - 2)(a - 3). 

Call special attention to the signs and howeach is obtained. 

First Lesson on Factors 22$ 

II. Presentation. 

i. Analyse the square of a binomial. 

The sq. of first + sq. of second + or - twice product of 

E.g., (a + b)^ = a* + 6 2 + 2ab\ ^ 

(a - by = a* + b*- 2a& | Note wh ? S1 ^ ns dlffer ' 

Therefore being given the second part of example, the 
first can be deduced. 

Examples to | w 2 - 2mn + n 2 . 
orise. la 2 4- ^a + 4. 
U 2 - 6a + q. 




2. Draw attention to formation of product of two 

5) = & + 8* + 15 

(* - 3)(^ - 5) = ** ~ ** + i 

I First term * 2 = product of x and .r. 
Thirdterm + i 5 = ( + 3)(+5)or(-3) 
\ +S / * 

Middle or second term = cross multi- 
plication and addition. 

{( + x)( + 3)} + {( + x)( + 5)} in first example. 
{( + x)( - 3)} + {(+ x)( - 5)} in second example. 
Conclusions drawn 

{Last sign + shows both are alike. 
First sign + shows both are + 
First sign - shows both are - 
{Last term shows product of two num- 
Second term shows sum 01 two numbers 
as coefficient of first term. 

Analysis of some examples. 

1. x 2 -f nx + 24 = (x + S)(x + 3). 

(Find factors such that product =-+24 and sum= + n. 

2. x 2 - TX + 12 = (x - 4)(# - 3). 


226 Notes on Herbartian Method 

3. a 2 + $ab + 6b 2 = (a + 2b)(a + 36). 
(Product = + 6b 2 , e.g., 2b x 36; sum = 56.) 

4. a 2 - 38*7 + 361 = (a - ig)(a - 19) or (a - ig) 2 . 
(Product = 361 ; sum = - 38a.) 

III. Association. 

1. Connect the building up of a product in each case 
with the factors, and also the rule of signs for multiplication. 

2. In connection with the square of (a - b) contrast 
a 2 - b 2 and teach its factors. 

IV. Recapitulation 

Of factors of: 

a 2 + lab + b 2 . 
a 2 - 2ab + b 2 . 
a 2 - b 2 . 

V. Application. 

Work examples out of text-book. 


I. Begin by asking the meaning of " Factors ". Why they 
are so called : from Latin facere, to make. How they are 
combined to form another expression. What this expression 
is called product. Being given this expression, what is the 
process of breaking it up into factors called ? resolution. 
The one process is merely the converse of the other. There- 
fore to do the latter we must have a knowledge of the 
former, so we shall have a little exercise in it first. 

II. What is the square of (a + b) ? etc., etc. (As in 
matter). How obtained. Show 


\a + b) 



First Lesson on Factors 227 

(a) Process of cross multiplication. Square of (a b). Work 
in same way. Ask the result in each case. What is the 
only difference? Next take square of (0 + 3) and of (^-3) 
and compare the results in a similar way. Deduce general 
rule ; square of first + square of second + or - twice product 
of first and second. Now consider the converse. Being given 
the square, how find the root ? What is the root of a z and 
6 2 ? What signs connect them? Give other examples of 
the same, and question pupils in each case as to how each 
of the terms in the example was formed. Call attention to 
the sign before the second square. Why is it always + ? 
Why and how does the middle sign vary ? 

(b) Now let us consider the case where the binomials 
differ in number but not in signs, e.g., (^ + 3), (* +5). What 
is the product of the first terms? 

Of the last terms ? How do we obtain the middle term ? 
On what does the last sign depend ? On what the first ? 
Change sign in factors, and what results? Work another 
example in same way. 

a + 3 

Work backwards to find factors. What are the only 
factors of 6? What are the factors of 12 ? (6 x 2), (4 x 3), 
(12 x i). How decide which of these to take, By middle 
term. How is it obtained? Therefore 7 represents the sum 
of two numbers. Analyse a few examples as in matter, 
questioning as to the reason in each case, and then exercise 
class in quickness by several expressions to be resolved orally 
without aid. 

(c) Lastly, let class find product of (a - b) (a + b) 
by cross multiplication, and contrast it with square 
of (a - b) as to signs and terms, noticing why middle 
term is = o. Ask what are the factors then when we 


Notes on Herbarttan Method 

are given the difference of two squares (the sum of two 
terms x their difference). Give a few examples of forming 
their product and resolving it when formed, and then some 
examples for class to work the latter step without previous 


IV. Recapitulate the cases treated of in lesson, placing 
one simple example of each on blackboard, by which the 
whole may be recalled. 

Mark exercise in text-book to be done for home-work. 


Class Oxford Junior. Time Forty minutes. Aim To exercise 
judgment and reason of the class in the solution of a quadratic equation. 

I. Preparation. 

i. Definitions, 


3* + i = 7. 

(a) One unknown quantity. 

(b) Method of solution. 

(a) Contains square of unknown. 
c;;r 2 = 20. Pure quadratic. 

(b) Contains square and first 
power of unknown. 2x 2 - $.v 
= 3. Adfected quadratic. 

II. Presentation. 

1. Analysis of the Square of a Binomial. 
( x + 3)2 = x* + 6^ + 9. 

(a) First term = x x x. Third term = 3 x j. 
Middle term = 2 x 3 x x. 

(b) Connection between last term and middle. 

2. Solution of 

(a) Pure quadratic. 

(b) Adfected quadratic. 

Quadratic Equations 229 

(a) Pure Quadratic. 

9 = 5_ clear of fractions. 

x* 27 x* - 1 1 
Therefore g* 2 - 99 = 25.T 2 - 675 
Therefore i6* 2 = 576 
* 2 = 36 
* = 6. 
) Adfected Quadratic. 

x* - 6x = 16 

* - 3 = 2 5 
= 5 
Therefore x = 8 or - 2. 

III. Association. 
Questions in procedure. 

IV. Recapitulation. 
Analysis of above solution. 

V. Application. 

Solve x 2 + 8x = 30, and several similar examples. 


I. Question the class as to the meaning of Simple 
Equation. Write example on blackboard. What is to be 
found out in this example ? How do we proceed in the 
solution ? Why do we change signs in changing sides ? etc, 

(i.) What do you notice as different in this equation ? 
Can we solve it as a simple equation? Why not? 
(This is called a quadratic because x is squared, but it is a 
pure quadratic?) How did we solve it ? 

(ii.) What do you notice about this equation ? Can I 
say it is pure? Why not? Is it a quadratic? Why? 
(This is called an adfected quadratic because the square of x 
and first power are involved.) 

II. Make the class square the binomial (x + 3). Write it 
on blackboard. Of what is our first term composed ? Last 
term ? Middle term ? What connection is there between 

230 Notes on Herbartian Method 

the last term and the middle term ? (Give other examples 
to bring out the connection.) 

Pure Quadratic : State it and ask the class which 
kind it is. And why. Let them solve it. What sort 
of equation is this ? What may I do to an equation without 
altering it as an equation ? (Here go back to square of 
binomial and refer to the three terms.) What is wanting on 
the left side of the equation to make it a square ? What 
connection have we found between two and three terms of 
a square? Can I supply anything to make this a perfect 
square ? If I add to one side, what about the other ? 
What will be the factors of the left side ? Of right ? What 
sort of an equation have I now ? jr 3 = 5. How can I 
find value of x now ? Can I find any other value of x ? If so, 
why ? 

III. Association : By reference to known facts in pro- 

IV. Recapitulation : What have I added to each side of 
the equation ? Why does this make it a perfect square ? 
What did I do to the opposite side ? Why ? How do I 
get result x - 3 ? How many roots do I get ? 

V. Give equation to be solved by pupils first on black- 
board, and then one or two to be done by pupils themselves 




Class Age, 15 to 17 years. Time Forty minutes. Aim To 
exercise reasoning powers of the class and lead them to knowledge of 
how to extract square root in algebra. 

1. Preparation. 

i. Meaning of terms root and square. 

2. Oral exercises in simple expressions 

/3 6 

IV s 

3. ( a + b) >2 = a 2 + 2ab + 6 2 . 

The Extraction of Square Root 231 

II. Presentation. 

To find method of extracting the square root of a com- 
pound expression, analyse 3 as follows : 

We know the square of (a + b) is square of a + square 
of b -f twice product ab. 
From a 2 + 2ab + b 2 take away the square of first part of root. 


+ 2ab + b 2 or b(za + b). This remainder con- 
tains the square of second root + twice the product. To 
obtain the quotient b as the second term of root, we must 
divide the remainder by (za + b), which consists of two 
terms : 

1. The double of first term (which when multiplied by b) 
makes twice the product. 

2. Second term b (which when multiplied by b) makes 
the square of second term of root. 

Rearrange above thus : 
a 2 + 2ab + b 2 \ a + b 
a 2 

+ 2ab + b 2 

Go over the same with : 

gd 2 +i2db + ^b 2 I 3 = root of ist term + 26 2nd term. 

ga 2 

6a + 2b +i2ab + 4.b 2 (Contains 2 x product + square 

+ i2db + 4-b 2 of second term.) Therefore 

divide 2 x 3^ to find second 

term. 26 is thus found, add it to divisor and 

proceed with division. 

Deduce from the above the following rule and extend it 
to multinomial expressions : 

1. Subtract square of first term, set root in quotient. 

2. Bring down next two terms. 

3. Use double root already found as trial divisor for 
second part of root. 

. 4. Add second root to this divisor ; place root thus found 
in quotient and proceed as in ordinary division. 

232 Notes on Hcrbartian Method 

Further Application : 

5. If there are more terms bring down next two. 

6. Double root already found for trial divisor and proceed 
as above. 

III. Application. 

Find square root of: 

2 a 2 - 12x0,* + 40* \q.x 2 

- 24*% + 2$x 2 a 2 

*t-6 + tti . _ 

IV. Recapitulation. 
Of rule. 
Of reasons for it. 


I. What is meant by squaring a number, e.g., 4? What 
is a root ? What is meant by *J 16 ? How is it represented 
simply ? Give oral exercises in finding root of simple ex- 
pressions, e.g., V ga 2 = 3 a >' */ 8ifr 6 c 4 = gb s c 2 . Deduce rule 
from these. 

II. Now we shall consider how to find the root of a 
compound expression. What is (a + b) 2 1 Analyse it with 
class. The square of first + square of second + twice pro- 
duct. From the square of the whole take the square of a. 
What remains ? What is it equal to ? Factorise remainder. 
b(2a + b). By what must we divide (2ab + b 2 ) to get quotient 
b ? (2a + b). Examine the divisor (twice the first quotient 
+ second quotient). Work out this division and com- 
pare results with starting point. Question on steps in 
above, to call attention of class to points noticed in matter. 
Then impress the same by working another example. 

ij ga 2 + i2ab + 4b 2 . This is the square of a binominal 
expression. What is first term the square of? (Put it in 
quotient and subtract.) What does the remainder contain ? 

The Spider 233 

Compare with first example to find next divisor. (Twice 
the root already found as trial divisor 4- second part of 
root.) Continue working with this divisor. What is the 
quotient ? What is the whole root ? 

Next question in the different steps and the reason for 
each, and deduce from them the rule as in matter. 

III. We shall now further apply these steps to obtain 
the root of a multinomial. Write sum on blackboard and 
work it as before, continuing the process by doubling the 
root already obtained in each step, as trial divisor, and 
adding the final quotient to this divisor before proceeding 
to multiply and subtract. 

IV. Recapitulate by another example. Conclude lesson 
by giving a simple example to be worked out by each pupil 


Class Age, 9 to n years. Time Half an hour. Aim To interest 
pupils in Natural History. 


I. Preparation. 

Show picture of spider and its web. Ask class when 
and where they have seen such. Meaning of name, " a 

II. Presentation. 

Let pupils describe from observation as far as possible, 
i. Structure of 

(a) Head and chest in one. Head provided with two 
claws or mandibles containing poison, in sheaths when not 

(b) Eyes : Eight. Two on top, two on each side, and 
two in front. Why necessary ? Immovable. 

(c) Legs : Eight. Can grow again if lost. One or more 
of feet has a comb-like arrangement for twisting and carding 
the silk tissues. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

(d) Spinning Machine ; In a depression under the hinder 
part of the body are four small tube-shaped bodies, with a 


1. Radiating lines. 

2. Spiral lines. 

3. Foundation lines. 


great number of extremely fine openings or pores (1,000 on 
each). Through each the spider draws a fine thread, twists 


SPINNERETS (much enlarged). 

4,000 together to make one thread of web (1,000 of such one 

The Spider 


2. Habits. Do not undergo metamorphoses like insects. 
Live on insects. Ferocious by 
nature. How they make their 
webs. Repeatedly change their 
coats. Why ? Lay eggs in a 
cocoon before they die. 

3. Kinds. 

(a) Geometrical 


(6) Water spider. 
(c) Building spider. 



III. Association. 

1. Contrast structure with butterfly and other insects. 
Eight not six legs ; no wings or antennae ; no metamorphoses ; 
eight single eyes, not compound like flies. 

2. Connect structure 
with habits ; adapta- 
bility for obtaining its 
food ; catches fly with 
web ; clutches it with 
mandibles ; poisons it 
with a prick from them ; 
and bites it with its long 

3. Proof of its clever- 
ness. Formation of its 
perfect web in about 40 
minutes. Careful and 
prompt examination and 
repair of it daily. The 
wonderful structure of 

the spring door to the " mason spider's " house. 

4. The formation of the feet adapted to walk on water, 
ceilings, glass, etc. 



Notes on Herbartian Method 

IV. Application. 

Uses of: (i) To catch flies and other insects. (2) 
Produce a material from which silk is manufactured. Diffi- 
culties : (i) their fero- 
cious nature hinders 
their being reared to- 
gether in numbers. 
(2) 12 spiders = i silk- 


worm 27,000 to 
make i Ib. of silk. 
(3) Difficult to feed 
such a number. Used 
in medicine, i.e., web, 
rolled as a pill, for ague and fever. 

V. Recapitulation : By questioning on chief parts of 



The Horse 237 


Class Form I.; age, 9 to n years. Time Half an hour. Aim 
To exercise the power of observation of pupils. 


I. Preparation. 

Show a picture of a horse and ask when and where 
class have seen such animals. 

II. Presentation. 

/'Largest domestic English 
' e animal ; thick skin. 

Different colours - 
black, white, grey, 
bay, dun, dappled. 
fTo be elicited 

from class. 

Body : Long, muscular, 
strong shoulders, curved back. 

Head : Long, rather pointed towards the muzzle. 
Neck : Long and graceful, flowing mane. 
Ears : Short, pointed, movable (separately). 
Eyes : Large, 
bright, see both 
sides and in front. 
Nostrils : Large, 
breathes through, 
keen to smell. 

Lips; Large and 

Teeth : (Place 
fo the bit^ ^ HORSE'S MOUTH. A HOKSE'S MOUTH. 

U ** I 

55 g J 


Legs ; Long and thin. 

Hoofs : One piece. Toe covered by a horny case. 

Tail : Long flowing hair. 

Skin : Thick, sleek, soft, covered with soft hair. 

238 Notes on Herbartian Method 

III. Association 

Let class mention other domestic animals, and contrast 
their uses. Note oxen as beasts of burden ; also dogs. 

A HORSE'S HOOF (Unshod). A HORSE'S HOOF (Shod). 

Connect the different parts of the horse with its suit- 
ableness for use, and compare with other animals. 

Body : Curved back, hence carries weights ; strong 
shoulders, etc. 

Ears : Movable, hence quick to hear. Contrast human 

Eyes : Shies easily, blinkers necessary. 

Lips : Used to pick up food and gather grass. 

Legs : Runs quickly ; fights by kicking with hind legs. 

Hoofs : Cf. nails. Contrast cloven-footed animals two 

( Racers. 1 ^ 

Kinds of Horses. Carriage Horses. L Parts , ada P ted for 
[Dray Horses. 

IV. Application. 

Alive. Chief beast of burden in temperate climates. 

{Skin : Leather. 
Hair : Cloths and stuff cushions. 
Hoof: Glue. 
Bones : Handles of knives, etc. 

V. Recapitulation. 
Question on matter. 

The Butterfly 



Class Average age, n years. Time Half an hour. Illustrations. 
Specimens of three stages of a butterfly. Aim To train the pupils' 
power of observation by leading them to examine the butterfly, and take 
an interest in Nature. 

I. Preparation. 

Life History of a Butterfly. 

i. As a grub; living on leaves; eating 

General Remarks : 
Two Lives. 

much. (Transition stage as a 
A beautiful winged insect flying from 

flower to flower. 
II. Presentation, 
i. Life as a Caterpillar. 
f Body : Long, soft and 
ringed ; worm, snake, 

Head : Small, black, 
shiny, strong jaws. 
Eyes : Very small, at top 

of head. 

Feet : Three pairs, long 
and pointed, behind 
the head. (Corres- 
pond to legs of but- 
terfly.) Four pair 
stumpy ones and two 
more at tail, used for 
Hairs : Tufts all along 

back (use). 

Breathing holes behind THE FOUR STAGES OF THE LARGE 
, each ring (no lungs). WHITE BUTTERFLY. 

/ \ TT i , T- j a, larva ; b. pupa ; c, imago ; d. egg. 

(b) Habits : Food, eats 

fresh leaves greedily (pest of gardens). 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

(c) Change of Skin : Cf. moulting of birds, reason for, 
manner of. 

/When full size is reached, new eyes, 
legs and wings and mouth begin to 
form under the skin. After the next 
cast of old skin a chrysalis emerges. 
Contrast it with caterpillar as to 
skin, food, movement. 

Really a hard shell covering the new 
and delicate young organs of the 
butterfly. Hangs head down from 
a leaf or spins a web around itself. 

Parts of butterfly inside the chrysalis. 
How skin is hardened (gum). After 
a few days or weeks the butterfly 
bursts through its prison walls. 

(a) Four large beautifully coloured wings. 

(b) Six long legs. 

Stage : Chry- 

3. Description 


(c) Eyes large and projecting. Why ? 

(d) Two long antennae or feelers (use). 

(e) Sucking trunk (suited for flowers). 
(/) Body smaller and lighter. 

III. Association. 

Contrasts and comparisons with other forms of life as 
shown throughout method. 

IV. Recapitulation 

Of the characteristics of the butterfly in all its stages. 

V. Application. 

Point out how carefully nature provides everything neces- 
sary and suitable for the least of its creatures. 


I. Begin lesson by showing blackboard illustrations of a 
butterfly in all its stages, and asking class what they see, 
and where they would find each. Ask how many kinds of 
life has a butterfly. Compare with the frog in number, but 
contrast kinds. 

The Butterfly 241 

II. Draw pupils' attention to the caterpillar, and ask all 
they notice about its body . What other creatures it resembles ? 
How it differs from the snake ? How different caterpillars 
differ in appearance, e.g., woolly bear ? What colour 
generally, and why Providence so arranges it ? What kind 
of head ? Why such strong jaws ? How many feet ? Do 
you notice any difference in them ? Contrast with the 
butterfly as to number and position, and lead class to see 
that the four back pairs are necessary to support the long body, 
but unnecessary to the butterfly. Call attention to hind ones 
at tail, and show they grasp. Point to the hairs and ask 
their use, and if all are provided with them. Ask how it 
breathes. Show breathing holes. Contrast with higher 
animals and with fishes. What does it live on ? Contrast 
with butterfly as to quality and quantity of its food. Refer 
to the frog. Ask what happens to it every six months or so, 
and what provision is made for its increasing in size ? Do 
pupils know of any reptile that casts its skin also ? Do they 
think the caterpillar does, and why? After doing so several 
times a change comes over it. Describe the transition 
stage. Let class contrast the chrysalis with the caterpillar 
as to appearance, food, movement. Show enlarged dia- 
gram and elicit from class, by pointing to the markings, 
that it is really more of a butterfly than caterpillar. Ask 
what is going on during the chrysalis stage. How the 
butterfly escapes from its prison ? Let class describe it from 
diagram, and question as to the use of each part, and con- 
trast with first stage. What are its habits now ? Draw 
from class some more striking varieties. Now draw dis- 
tinction between the butterfly and the moth. One loves the 
light, the other the dark. Tell them that they lay eggs 
before they die. Ask where likely to do so. Call attention 
to Providence's guiding here again, since they lay them near 
or on leaves suited to the grub and not the butterfly. Show 
from this one of the reasons for the latter having wings. 

III. Recapitulate the matter, and ask class in conclusion 
what little lesson about God we have learnt from examining 
the life of a butterfly. 



Notes on Herbartian Method 



Class, Preparatory Age, 9 to n years. Time Half an hour. 
-To exercise the powers of observation of pupils. 



I. Preparation. 

Draw from class what they already know about the 

II. Presentation. 

Show picture and elicit following :- 

/'Quadruped about six feet high ; brown 
ashy colour, covered with long 
shaggy hair. One or two humps. 
(a) Long neck, 
i. Description. \ (b) Overhanging eyelids. 

(c) Broad feet. 

(d) Cushions on feet, knees and chest. 

(e) Humps (mass of fat), vary in size. 
.(/) Internal reservoir. 

The Camel 


2. Habits, Char- 
acter and 

(a) Gentle, patient and docile, but stub- 

born when beaten. 

(b) Lives on herbage and foliage, also 

dates and barley. It chews the cud. 

(c) Can go for 25 days without water 

in spring when foliage is full of sap. 



III. Associa- 

i. Reference 
to its use in 
Scripture (it is 
classed among 
the riches of 
Abraham, Job, 
Jacob, etc. ; St. 
John Baptist). 
Also " camel 
through the eye 
of a needle". 

2. Connect 
structure with 

(a) Long neck : Can reach 
tree foliage, also see far across 
desert and discover trees. 

(b) Eyelids : Protect eye 
from scorching rays of sun. 

(c) Feet : Suited for walking 
on sand. 

(d) Cushions: Support 
weight when eating and in 
kneeling position. 

(e) Hump : Substitute for 
food, varies in size accordingly. 

(/) Carries a supply of water to last journey through 

3. Kinds and where found. 



Notes on Herbartian Method 


IV. Application. 

1. Beast of burden, "The Ship of the 


2. Milk refreshing and nourishing. 

3. Flesh eaten by the Arabs. 

4. Water supply used at last resource. 

5. Hair, cloth and brushes. 

V. Recapitulation. 

Contrast the structure and suitability as beast of burden 
of the camel with those of the horse and the elephant. In 
what are they alike ? In what do they differ ? 


Class Age, 9 to n years. Time Half an hour. Aim To exercise 
the faculty of imagination by leading pupils to picture an animal which is 
not familiar to them. To increase knowledge of distant lands. 


I. Preparation. 

Relate briefly some story showing the sagacity of an 

II. Presentation. 

Show picture and let class describe animal. The largest 
and strongest quadruped. Size, 10 to 15 ft. high. 

1. Structure : Large head, small eyes, large ears. Few 
teeth, but two large ivory tusks (about 6 ft. long). These 
continue to grow with the animal. Trunk, or proboscis, 
long (8 ft.), thick, flexible (moves in any direction) ; raises 
weights, small or large. Tip very sensitive, used as fingers ; 
raises food and drink ; can kill a man with it ; breathes 
through it. Legs : Very short and thick ; three or five toes 
(not separate) covered with horn round feet. Skin : Hard, 
knotty ; few hairs ; tail short. 

2. Habits : Sagacious, tractable, gentle and docile. 
Obeys a look of its guide. Lives in herds. Kneels to be 

The Elephant 245 

mounted. Plays with children. Lives 200 years wild, 180 
tame. Revengeful of injuries. Bathes in mud. 

3. Food : Vegetables, herbs, grain, fruit ; loves sugar- 
cane, wine and spirits. Eats 100 Ib. of food daily. 



III. Association. 

Connect its structure with its habits and uses. 

Large Ears : Hearing acute, also protects eyes from 

Tusks : Compare and contrast with our teeth as to use, 
wear, etc. ; used in defence, also to force way through forests, 
etc., hindrance to eating. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

Trunk : Adaptability to various uses, sensitiveness of 
fingers, strength, kangaroo's tail, flexibility, arms, etc., etc. 
Skin : No hair, hence worried by flies ; remedy, mud 

Legs : Strength char- 
acteristic, suited to body ; 
cf. horse ; resemble bark of 
tree in appearance. 

Short neck, heavy head 
to support. 

( i . Poisoned sugar-canes. 
Hunted and decoyed 

by tame ones. 
Shot with iron or 
tin bullets (why 
not lead ?) 

Tell class a story which will illustrate the above, or 
which may aid them in locating the elephant in Indian life. 

IV. Application. 

1. Beast of burden (equal to six horses 

in strength). 

2. African elephant used in war formerly. 
I 3. Flesh food dried by Abyssinians. 
^4. Tusks and teeth ivory. 

(i) Indian (easily tamed) ; (2) African (larger 



Two kinds 
and wilder). 



Class Average age, 10 years. Time Half an hour. Aim To 
exercise observing powers of class. 

Herbartian Steps. 
I. Preparation. 

Show picture. Ask what it is, whether bird or beast, or 
both, or neither. 

The Bat 


Like a mouse in general sh'ape and covering ; like a bird 
because it flies. 

II. Presentation, 

i. Description. 

2. Food and 


'Head ; Large ears, small eyes, folds of 
skin on nose. 

Legs, 4. The forearms long ; 4 fingers 
and thumb with large nail ; fingers 
very much lengthened, no nails, 
joined with skin, and soft, delicate 
membrane which is also attached 
to the hind leg and reaches the tail 
in some. Body covered with yellow- 
ish grey fur. 

(a) Food varies. Some live on insects, 

some live on fruit, others on raw 
meat. (Vampire sucks blood.) 

(b) Dormant during the day, lively at 

night. Torpid in winter, hangs 
head downwards covered by its 

(c) Shuffles along awkwardly with wings 

folded back. 

(d) Found in roofs of houses, hollow 

trees, etc. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

((a) Destfoys insects. 

Uses. -| (6) Food for the Indians (flavour of 



III. Association. 

Contrast throughout with a bird to show that it has no 
essential relations to it. Large ears (bird's not visible), very 

Folds of skin on 
nose render the smell 
more acute. 

Apparent wings, 
really a peculiar for- 
mation of forearms. 

No nails on fin- 
gers except on thumb, 
which is used as a 
hook to hang from. 
Contrast the struc- 
ture of finger-bones 
with the bones and feathers of a bird's wing. 

Connect the tail with that of a mouse and contrast a 
bird's tail. 



The Seed 249 

Body covered with fur, not feathers. Its bones have no 
air cavities, and it does not lay eggs. 

Connect fact of its torpidity in winter with the scarcity of 
insects. Describe how it obtains its food, also how it hangs 
in day-time, and how it walks. 

It is commonly considered a bird of ill-omen because it 
avoids the light of day. 

IV. Application. 

Point out how everything has its part and work in 
creation. The earth would be scarcely habitable because of 
the pest of insects but for the obscure and ill-famed bat. 

V. Recapitulation. 
Questions on matter. 


Class Age, 12 to 14 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Previous Knowledge The parts of a flower. Illustrations Specimens 
of flower and fruit of broad-bean. Some beans, acorns, sycamore seeds 
and wheat. Aim In teaching the structure of a seed to cultivate the 
power of observation and an interest in Nature. 

I. Preparation. 

Show connection between flower and seed. 

Ovary contain! ng^^jgjjL l^st Calyx 



II. Presentation. 

i. Parts of a seed (as seen in a bean). 
: outer skin. 


; mner skin ' 

(or covering). *""" ; mner sn ' 

\Micropyle : hole in spermoderm. 


Notes on Herbartian Method 

, (Radicle : seed-root. 
(b) Embryo (or 

v J f 1 \ i Plumule : seed-stem, 

future plant). ] 

Cotyledons : seed-leaves. 

Hilum or Seal 

Testa , Teg men 



2. Kinds of 

(a) Monocoty -(Albuminous : having besides the embryo 
ledon,i.e.,onel a food substance called albumen. 
cotyledon. \Exalbuminous : without albumen. 

Radicle coming 
through Micropyle 
Micropyle \ Hilum 







(b) Dicotyledon,) _ y . 

v ' . J \ Thick and fleshy , e.g., bean and acorn. 

\Thin and leafy, cress, sycamore, etc. 





The Seed 251 

III. Assimilation. 

Give specimens of seeds to examine, e.g., chestnut, oat, 
almond, maize, etc. ; say to what class they belong and 
describe parts of each. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

What is the seed ? Distinguish between monocotyledonous 
and dicotyledonous seeds, and mention examples of each. 
What is the micropyle and what are its uses ? What is 
albumen ? Name some seeds containing it. 

V. Application. 

ii. The minute perfection of God's work. 

Thoughts sug- 2. From small beginnings great things 

gested by the] spring. 

study of a\3- Application of St. Matthew's words : 

seed. " Unless the grain die and sink into 

\ the ground itself remaineth alone". 


I. Introduce lesson by questioning class on parts of a 
flower before them. Call special attention to the ovary. 
Ask what it contains. What it is called when ripened ? 
Show a pod open it. Ask what is inside. Seeds. What 
were they called before ripening ? Ovules. Therefore what is 
a seed ? Show a bean. What do they notice at (a) ? What 
caused it? Tell name. Hilum. 

II. i. Give each pupil a bean to dissect and examine. 
Ask what they notice about the exterior. Draw attention 
to the small hole below the hilum ; tell its function, and 
write name on blackboard. Then cut the bean lengthways ; 
separate skin. Ask its use. Give name. Spermodenn. 
Tell class to scrape its inner side with penknife (thus 
separate the two coats). Show that it is provided with two 
skins, and write their names as in diagram. We now come 
to the essential part of the seed, the future plant, called 
the Embryo. Let pupils distinguish the parts, while giving 
name and function of each, 

252 Notes on Herbartian Method 

2. Next pass round class grains of wheat or barley. Tell 
them to open them and see if they can distinguish two cotyle- 
dons. Show that all seeds are not alike. Some have only one, 
others two, and a few have more, e.g., pine. This gives rise 
to two great classes of plants, which derive their name from 
having one or two cotyledons. Elicit names mono- and di- 
cotyledon by analogy with one tone (mono-tone) in music, 
Greek monos, and dialogue (discourse between two). Now 
examine the grain of wheat minutely. Call attention to 
only one cotyledon, greater part of grain consisting of 
soft, mealy substance called albumen. Ask its use (i) to 
the seed, (2) to man. We shall now find a great difference 
between the dicotyledons of the bean or acorn and the 
sycamore. Draw from class, after their examination of both, 
that the former has thick, fleshy cotyledons, while the latter 
has only thin, leafy ones. Ask if they ever noticed an acorn 
germinating, and what happens to the cotyledons during 
the process, likewise those of the sycamore. Draw diagrams 
to show how the former remains underground supplying 
the young plant with food ; the latter rise above ground 
carrying spermoderm, which is carried off by the wind. 

III. Assimilation. 

IV. Recapitulation 

V. During the last few minutes ask what lessons we 
may learn from studying the seed, and elicit those in matter 
or other suggested by class. 


Class Age, 9 to n years. Time Half an hour. Aim To give 
class an interest in flowers and to teach them the parts. 


I. Preparation. 

Supply each member of the class with a common flower 
for examination. 

n ' L As in matter. 
ion. ) 

The Flower 


II. Presentation. 

/(a) Stalk called in botanical language 

(b) Calyx composed of sepals, two, four or 

five ; generally green, sometimes 
coloured as in the fuchsia. 

(c) Corolla composed of petals, brightly 

i. Parts of a / (d) Stamens com- f i. Filament. 

flower. 1 posed of twoj ii. Anther, contain- 

parts. ing pollen. 

(e) Pistil, of which the chief part. is the 
ovary or seed-box, containing the 
ovules or future seeds. 

(/) The two outer whorls are protective 
organs, non-essential ; the two 
inner, essential organs. 

.Flowers which possess all four whorls 
_. are called complete. Those which 

plete flowers, j possess the two inner, with or with- 

l out the outer, are called perfect. 

3. Function of the | Se , tQ ect the bud from co]d? etc< 
different parts. J 

1. The bright-coloured petals attract 

bees, which gather honey secreted 
Corolla. { in the flower. 

2. They charm the eye and give pleasure 

to man. 

[The anther contains the pollen, whose 
Stamens. -{ office it is to fertilise the ovules or 

young seeds. 

(The ovary contains the ovules, which are 
Pistil. ripened by the pollen, and whose 

office it is to reproduce the plant. 

III. Recapitulation. 

Question on the above. 

254 Notes on Herbarttan Method 

IV. Application. 

Give class a second flower, which they are to examine for 
themselves and be able to describe verbally at beginning of 
next lesson ; or each pupil might with profit choose their 
own flower. 


I. Introduce lesson by distributing a flower (some well- 
known one by preference) to every pupil. 

II. Tell class to examine carefully, and mention what 
different parts they notice. Give botanical name for stalk. 
Give them name calyx ; cf. chalice a cup. Note in French 
the same word for both calice. Tell them to think of other 
flowers, and ask them the usual colour of the calyx (green). 
Let them think, if they can, of some flowers that have 
coloured calices ; if not, tell them the fuchsia. Tell them to 
count the number of divisions, and give them the term sepals. 
The next whorl, the corolla. Let class count the number of 
divisions, and give the name (petals). Note that they are 
generally bright coloured. Let them name some flowers 
that they know, and say what colour the corolla is. Let 
them say what they notice in the interior of the flower. 
Ask them how many parts these stamens have. Give terms 
filament and anther. Ask them if there is anything inside 
the anther. Give term pollen. Remind them of the large 
white lilies in which it is so abundant. Tell them it is not 
always yellow, sometimes black, e.g., poppy, sometimes 
blue, mullein, sometimes red, Turk's cap lily. The inner- 
most whorl is the pistil, of which the chief part is the ovary 
or seed vessel. Let class say what is the office of the outer 
whorls. Give the terms essential and non-essential. Let 
class say what a flower is called which possesses all four 
whorls. Then tell them a flower which possesses the two 
inner is called perfect. Note how incomplete flowers may 
be perfect, but imperfect cannot be complete. Let class say 
the use of the calyx. Tell them how some calices drop off 
as soon as the flower opens, e.g., poppy. Ask what part the 
corolla plays. What is it that makes the flower so pleasing ? 

The Apple 255 

Let class say what is foun<i in the heart of the flower. How 
are the bees attracted to it ? Tell the incident of Linnaeus 
and the gorse field. Ask class if they have ever known 
people to pull off anthers of plants which they want to keep 
some time. If not, tell them that this is to prevent the 
seeds ripening. Tell how the pollen lights on the stigma 
and passes down the style till it reaches the ovary where it 
enters and fertilises the ovules, which, when ripe, are called 
seeds. Let them say, if they know, what happens to the 
ovary when the seeds are ripe. Examples : primrose, poppy, 
violet and pansy. 

Last whorl is the pistil, of which the chief part is the 
ovary, which contains the future seeds, therefore the duty of 
the stamens and pistil is to reproduce the plant. Question on 
the above. 

III. Name the four whorls of a flower. What are the 
divisions of the calyx called ? The corolla ? What are the 
stamens ? Pollen ? Ovary ? What is a perfect flower ? 
A complete flower ? Which are the essential organs ? 
What is the office of the corolla ? The pollen ? The 
ovary ? 


Class Form I. ; age, 9 to n years. Time Half an hour. Aim- 
To exercise the powers of observation. 


I. Preparation. 

Show an apple and ask what class know about it. 

II. Presentation. 

i(a) Round. 
(b) Smooth. 
(c) Eatable. 
(d) Green and rosy colour. 

2 5 6 

Notes on Herbartian Method 

2. Parts. 

-(a) Skin (inseparable). 

(6) Pulp (soft, juicy). 

(c) Core (five horny cells) containing 

.(V/) Pips (seeds of the plant). 

The central part of the apple blossom 
much increased in size after the 
flower has faded. The pollen or 
yellow dust of the flower fertilises 
the ovary or seed-box, making it 
into the core. 



III. Association. 

1. Compare and contrast with other fruits as to : 

(a) Shape. Pear, plum, peach. 

(b) Orange and peach. 

(c) Potato, service berries, rose-fruit (hips). 

(d) Grape, gooseberry, pear, greengage, etc. 

2. Compare and contrast with orange, separable 
thick skin. Like pear, unlike gooseberry, grape and 

Contrast cross section of peach and grape with apple. 



3. Show rose-hips and compare history. 
Contrast potato. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

In what does an apple resemble a pear, and how do they 
differ? What part is most useful? Which is the most 
important for the plant? Compare it with the parts of a 
peach or an orange. 

V. Application. 

Let class draw the two illustrations of an apple and write 
out what they know about each. 


Class, Preparatory. Time Half an hour. Aim To exercise the 
powers of observation. 


I. Preparation. 

Give round some soft white 
sugar. Let class examine 
without tasting it. Deduce 
that it might be either salt or 
sugar from appearance. Let 
them taste it to decide. 

II. Presentation. 

(a) White (sometimes 

(b) Small grains or crys- 


* < (c) Sweet to taste. 
(rf) Soluble. 

(e) Melts with great heat 

(/) Burns (combustible). 


f Soft brown (common). 
2. Kinds. -{ Soft white (refined). 

[Loaf, white (baked hard). 

258 Notes on Herbartian Method 

3. Formation : (a) It is the pith or soft central part of the 
stem of (i) Sugar-cane (describe the long reed) ; (2) Maple 
tree; or (3) from the root of the beet (description to be elicited). 

(b) Canes cut in lengths ; pressed between heavy rollers ; 
juice refined by various processes ; beet-root ground and 
juice expressed. 

III. Association. 

Contrast with other substances as to qualities, e.g., 
appearance, salt ; soluble, mud, sand, etc. ; fusible, glue, gum, 
glass ; combustible, cf. wood, contrast stone. 
r i. Sweetening food. 
2. Preserving fruits, meats, etc. 


3. Unripe cane as fodder for cattle. 

4. Rum extracted from the molasses ; 
also treacle. 

Where obtained. Dwell in this lesson chiefly on the 
sugar-cane, grown largely in India and West Indies. 

Description. Show sketch of plant, cf. pampas grass. 
Describe sugar plantation, canes sown horizontally. Why ? 
How gathered? (Cf. cotton.) Describe the process of ex- 
tracting the sugar crushed. Boiled in lime water. Why ? 
Cooled in pans, placed in wooden perforated boxes (drain 
off molasses). Further purified, dissolved, poured into 
conical moulds. Three parts: base, white; middle, yellow, 
top, brown. 

V. Recapitulation. 

Question on the qualities in connection with its uses. 
Ask class to contrast salt and sugar as to uses, qualities and 


Class Average age, 12. Time Half an hour. Aim To exercise 
the pupils' power of observation in eliciting the qualities and uses of 

I. Preparation. 

i. Give round specimens to class and allow time to 

examine them. 



2, State what lesson is to be about, and ask questions 
as to what things they have seen made of cork. 

II. Presentation. 

(a) Light brown. 
(6) Soft. 

i. Qualities (to be 

(c) Light. 

(d) Elastic. 

(e) Floats in water. 
.(/) (Dry) waterproof. 

III. Application. 

,(a) Lifebelts and lifeboats. 

2. Uses deduced | (6) Stopping bottles. 

from qualities. ~| (c) Socks for shoes. 

((d) Cork helmets (lined). 

3. Cork is the bark of a tree (show virgin bark and picture 

of cork tree kind of oak). 

((a) Spain, Italy, South France. 

(b) Takes place of oak in forests. 

(c) Bark stripped when fifteen years old. 

(d) Every seven years for ten or twelve 


. (e) Method of cutting. 
f Soaked in water. 
j Flattened with weights. 
(Exported in bales. 


4. Where grown. 

5. Prepared. 

I. Specimens given to pupils. Question as to what they 
are. Where they have seen them before, etc. We are 
going to find out all we can about cork. Who has seen 
anything made of cork ? How do we see it used oftenest ? 

II. Tell the class to examine pieces well ; first without 
touching, and from use of sight elicit colour. Then allow 
class to touch specimens, and ask what has been dis- 
covered by three or four of them. Elicit soft. Then compare 
with stone, metal, wood, etc., and give pieces to feel for 

260 Notes on Herbartian Method 

Let a piece of stone, metal and cork all drop into a 
jar of water, and from result seen by class elicit that 
the cork floats. What happened to the stone ? The metal ? 
The cork ? Why did the stone sink ? Why did the cork 
not sink ? What then does cork do in water ? So if I have 
a piece of cork in one hand and a stone in the other, which 
will be the heavier ? So what other quality can we give 
cork ? Here take the piece that has been in the water 
and cut it, and let the class see the cross section, and 
deduce that it is dry, therefore the water did not soak 
through the cork. What would have been the case with 
a piece of wood ? From use of waterproof as name of 
garment, elicit the word waterproof as a quality of cork. 
Now, tell me why we use corks to stop bottles and not 
pieces of wood ? There is still another reason. Refer to 
cork being larger when out of bottle than in (champagne 
bottles). How does cork fit in if it is larger ? Compare 
wood or stone, if larger would never squeeze in, and elicit 
the soft and yielding nature of cork. Cf. indiarubber and 
elastic : hence name of quality elastic. Now give me two 
reasons why cork is useful to stop bottles. What two 
qualities make it useful in this way ? What did we no- 
tice when cork was dropped into water ? When do people 
want very much to be kept afloat in the sea ? For in- 
stance, refer to wreck, and elicit, if possible, lifebelts used. 
Why not made of metal, stone, or even wood ? Why 
cork ? What quality of cork makes it useful in this way ? 
Lifeboats also lined with it. What did we find when we 
cut the cork that had been in the water some time ? 
What quality did this experiment prove it to have ? 
Now when we go out in the wet, what is it we try to 
keep from the damp ? Why do we put on heavier shoes ? 
Now we found that cork does not let the water pass 
through it. How does it come in useful in this case ? 
What quality caused the cork to float in water? This is 
useful in making things that we wish to be light ; so 
inside of men's hats we sometimes find cork helmets 
worn in India and hot countries. 

Form (Elementary Euclid] 261 

III. Recapitulation : What qualities have we dis- 
covered about cork ? Name three. What are the other 
qualities ? How did we find out that cork was light, 
soft, waterproof, elastic ? What quality of cork makes 
it useful as bottle stoppers, as lifebelts, as soles of 
shoes, lining of helmets ? 

(Here show specimen of cork as bark.) Ask the class 
what it looks like. What part of a tree ? Tell that cork 
is the bark of a tree, but not of any tree in this country. 
The cork tree grows in Spain, and the bark is stripped 
off every seven years, and this is the material from which 
we obtain corks, soles, lifebelts, etc. ; sometimes used for 
ornament in conservatories, etc. 


Class Form I. ; age, 9 to 10 years. Time Half an hour. Aim 
To exercise judgment and discrimination in discovering the essential 
properties of figures taught. 


I. Preparation. 

1. " A line is length without breadth." 

2. "A straight line is the shortest distance between two 

II. Presentation. 

Figures contained by straight lines. 

i. Two straight lines cannot enclose a space. 

(a) A triangle is a figure contained by three lines. 

(b) A quadrilateral, a figure contained by four lines. 

i. A square has four equal sides and four equal angles, 
ii. A rhombus has four equal sides and opposite 

angles equal, 
iii. A rectangle has four unequal sides and four equal 


iv. A rhomboid has opposite sides equal and opposite 
angles equal. 

262 Notes on Herbartian Method 

III. Recapitulation. 

What is a line ? What is a straight line ? Why is a 
line said to be straight ? Can I make a figure with two 
straight lines ? What is a triangle ? A quadrilateral ? What 
is a square ? A rectangle ? What is the difference between a 
rhombus and a square ? A rhomboid ? What is the difference 
between a square and a rectangle ? What name do we give 
to all these figures ? 

IV. Application. 

Make pupils look round class-room and determine and 
name the form of things like maps, windows, blackboard, 
a book, panes of glass in windows, etc. 

Lead them to find instances of the true line, e.g., between 
two bands of colour, or two liquids (of varying density) in 
same glass, etc. 


I. Draw lines of different lengths on blackboard, and 
ask pupils how they would measure such lines. Then 
draw a shaded rectangle, and ask how they would measure 
it. Deduce in one case only length, in other length and breadth. 
Give examples of measurement of a room of a wall. Show 
by illustration the line between two bands of cplour. So 
when we speak of a line, what must we take into account 
only? What may we say a line is then ? 

II. Draw several lines on blackboard, and ask them to 
point out which are straight and which not. (Clear up idea 
of straight not necessary in vertical position, by showing 
that a ruler is straight no matter how it is placed or held.) 
Then from two points draw a straight line and a curved line, 
and draw from class which is shortest distance. Give familiar 
examples, always coming back to point that a straight line 
is shortest distance between two points. Refer again to ruler 
and show that it is straight for the same reason. Repeat 
definition together. 

Now that we know what a straight line is, we shall see 
what figures we can make with these lines. Draw from 

Form (Elementary Euclid) 263 

class that no figure can be enclosed by two straight lines. 
What is the least number of straight lines which can be 
used to form a figure and enclose a space ? Give example of 
wall round a garden, field, etc., to illustrate meaning. 

III. (a) Make a pupil come forward and draw a figure 
with three straight lines. Ask what such is called. Triangle 
(write on blackboard). Now let us examine these figures 
(after drawing several irregular triangles). What have 
they all got the same ? And something else ? Three corners. 
Now the grand name for corner is angle, the corner made by 
two lines meeting one another at a point. Now what can 
we say a triangle is ? (Here question till full definition is 

(b) Now we shall make a figure with four sides (make an 
irregular quadrilateral). This we call a four-sided figure, or, 
in a grand word, quadrilateral (write on blackboard). How 
many sides have these figures ? Four sides and four angles. 
Make several on blackboard, including rectangle and square. 
Now could we call any of these figures by another name ? 
Square. Now we shall examine this figure. How many 
sides has it ? How many angles ? What do we notice 
about sides ? About the angles ? So when we speak of a 
square, what sort of a figure do we mean.? How many things 
are necessary in the figure to make it a square ? Now 
what is definition of a square from the above (push square 
sideways to make rhombus). Draw from class difference 
between this figure and square. What do we notice about 
sides ? About angles ? What is therefore chief difference 
between this figure and square? Now what is a 
rhombus then ? What is a square ? Then draw a quadri- 
lateral in same way. Deduce that it is a four-sided figure, 
but differs from square in that four sides are not equal. 
Same way for a rhomboid. Then draw the four figures on 
blackboard, and name beside each, and ask definition of 

2 6 4 

Notes on Herbiirtian Method 


Class Age, 13 to 15 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. 
Previous Knowledge Growth and development of Parliament. Aim 
To lead the class to understand the value of a representative Government 
and interest them in the workings of " the House ". 

I. Preparation. 

i. Refer to origin and development of Parliament. 

((a) Right to share in framing laws. 

(Edward II., 1307.) 
(b) 1309. Petitions added to Bills as 

condition of supplies, 
(t-) Bill substituted for Petition differ- 
ence of Bills and Petitions. 

2. Origin of Bill. 

II. Presentation. 

i. Two Kinds. 

j Public : Laws, supplies, taxation, etc. 
(Private : Not affecting public good. 
Note. -May originate in either " House," but supplies 
and taxes in Commons only. (Henry IV.) 
2. How passed. 

i. Never opposed. 

Spaces left for amendment, 
ime given to get printed for infor- 

() First Read- 

r i. Ne> 

fi. Spa 

I iii. Tin 


(b} Second Read- 

v '. 


mation of M.P.'s. 

Passed by division, "aye" or "no". 
Opposition made. 
Passed by division, and then 

(a) Select, consisting of 
fifteen members, or 

. Great lati- 
tude in de- 

(b) Whole ii. Motions 
House. neednotbe 

. Unlimited 


Method of Passing a Bill in Parliament 265 

(c) Third Reading : Passed by division. 
Similar method through House of Lords : 

1. Three Lords make a " House ". 

2. " Content " and " Non-content ". 

(d) Signature of Sovereign, and Bill becomes law. 

III. Association. 

Contrast use of Parliament made by the Tudor Sovereigns, 
especially Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, also Stuarts. 

IV. Recapitulation. 

Chief points to be recalled by questions, and a scheme 
with these to be written on blackboard by the teacher. 

V. Application. 

Apply knowledge to the work of Parliament in past years : 
Bills referring to war, supplies, taxation ; others, such as 
Educational Bill, etc. 


I. Introduce lesson by questions on Parliament, its 
origin, history, and first work having to do with supplies 
only. In whose reign were petitions added as conditions of 
supply, and why ? When did Parliament get the right of 
framing laws ? Name some Act passed in reign of Edward 
II. Here refer to Petitions substituted by Bills, and point 
out chief difference. When a law has to be made now who 
has to do it ? It is presented to the Parliament in the form 
of a Bill. 

II. These Bills are of two kinds, public and private. 
Name some Acts passed in history which concerned 
the public. (Catholic Emancipation, Disestablishment of 
Irish Church, Gladstone's Home Rule Bill, etc.) A private 
Bill, as the name implies, has to do with private affairs, 
companies, constructions, etc. All these Bills may originate 
either in the Lords or Commons, except one kind of Bill. 
What regulations as to Parliament were made in the reign 
of Henry IV. ? Since that time where must Bills having to 
do with money or supplies originate ? Bills having to do 
with taxation, who are most affected by them ? The people. 
Why then is it more just that such Bills should originate in 

266 Notes on Herbartian Method 

the Commons rather than the Lords ? Suppose a Bill 
regarding taxation (refer to those for Transvaal War) is 
to be brought into the House. Explain that it must go 
through three readings before becoming law. First reading : 
No opposition, to give chance of amendment, time to be 
printed. Division : Explain method, as an eye-witness. Show 
picture of House of Commons. " The Ayes have it," or 
" The Noes have it ". Second reading followed by opposition. 
Why ? Here the politics of different parties in the House are 
seen. Difficult stage to get through. Why ? Division as 
before, and then the separate clauses of the Bill are discussed 
in Committee (meaning of word). Select for private Bills. 
Whole House for public Bills. Privileges lead to i, 2 and 3, 
and result is sometimes made use ofjbr political purposes 
(Irish members in 1877 and 1887). Explain separately 
meaning of each of the privileges of the committee. When 
changes have been made and all finally discussed, then the 
Bill is reported with amendment. Who are represented by 
all these members in committee ? When the Bill has 
passed who really has brought it through ? What sort of 
government do we call this, and why ? 

The third reading is the final stage, and the exciting 
part for the nation if the question is a momentous one (e.g., 
Catholic Emancipation, 1829, and Home Rule, 1886, lost by 
small majority). Same method of passing occurs in House 
of Lords; can be thrown out by Lords. Forty members make 
a "House" in Commons, and three in Lords. Method of 
division different, "content" and "non-content". Signature 
of Sovereign makes Bill law by Act of Parliament. No 
Sovereign has refused since Anne, 1707. What did she 
refuse ? Why not advisable for Sovereign to refuse ? 
Whose power is limited by this sort of government ? 

III. Contrast use of Parliament made by the Tudor 
Sovereigns, especially Henry VIII. and Elizabeth. 

IV. How many kinds of Bills may be brought into Parlia- 
ment ? What is a private Bill ? A public Bill ? What is 
necessary to make a Bill law ? What happens at the first 
reading ? Second ? Third ? What does it mean when 

The Invention of Printing 


" House goes into committee " ? How does it pass House 
of Lords ? When does it become law ? 

V. Question on present work of Parliament so as to lead 
pupils to understand present stages of different Bills which 
are under discussion. 


Class Age, 14 to 16 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Aim 
To exercise the imagination and judgment of the class by the history 
and results of this invention. 

I. Preparation. 

Earliest forms. 




2. Greece 



II. Presentation. 

Fifteenth Century, 


Bricks, stone, 
pyramids and 

(b) Plaster, clay, 


(c) Bark off E.g., 
trees, -j signet 

(d) Papyrus. [ ring. 
['() Wax tablets. 

(b) Stamped char- 
.Tenth century, 

China. J P* d l , rom 
wooden blocks. 

VNo movable type. 

Gutenberg (movable type). 
Fust (pecuniary aid). 
Three towns f Strasburg. 

claim its-; Maintz. 
invention. ^Haarlem. 
Holland. Bruges. Colard Mansion, 

England. f Caxto "' '474- " Game and 
Play of Chesse." 

268 Notes on Herbartian Method 

III. Association. 

Effects on Period. - 

IV. Application. 


V. Recapitulation 

i. Church. 

2. Literature. 

3. Education. 

((a)' Took livelihood of 

I (b) Helped to spread 
doctrines of Refor- 

I mation. 

! (c) Religious works the 

^ first printed. 

r(a) 'Chronicles and his- 
tory of countries. 

j (b) Poetry and prose of 
nations preserved. 

(a) Increased number of 

books and therefore 
of scholars. 

(b) Helped the revival 

of letters. 
j (c) Preserved the Greek 

! (d) Reading became 

more common. 

f i. Preservation of good literature and art. 
[ 2. Influence exercised by press to good 

or evil, 
-j 3. Advancement of learning. 

4. Intercourse between nations. 

5. Spread of ancient and modern lan- 


1. Origin and invention. 

2. Effects and uses. 


I. Introduce lesson by questions on the earliest forms of 
books. How made. Refer to other remains of writing or 
carving on stone and wood. What formerly was used 

The Invention of Printing 269 

instead of paper? What sort of remains do we find in 
Egypt? (cf. Cleopatra's Needle). Give example of stamp 
of a signet ring. In Greece and Rome how was writing 
done? With sticks on wax tablets. Refer to use of 
reversed stamped characters, which we use now for marking 
names on notepaper, etc. Tell the class of near approach 
to printing in China in tenth century, but the difficulty on 
account of new blocks being required for every page. What 
change was wanted to make their printing easier? (Explain 
matter of type.) 

II. Show how all the early forms led up to the invention. 
State date and give history of Gutenberg and Fust (or 
Faust). Refer to origin of idea by seeing the mark of a 
horse's hoof in the sand. Show three towns on map, and 
explain why each claims right of invention. Show how 
Holland learnt from Germany and England from Holland. 
Tell the story of Caxton and his press at Westminster, his 
life at Bruges, and the result of his efforts. Question on 
period at which he lived. Why was printing important 

III. Taking into consideration the period of invention, 
what effect would it have on the Church ? Who produced 
books formerly? (Describe scriptorium and refer to copies 
extant.) What religious movement occurred about this 
time ? How would this be effected ? What effect for good 
would printing have on the Church ? 

How do we know the account of our history? Even 
this invention itself? How then did printing affect litera- 
ture? Give and ask examples of literature that have been 
preserved from these times. 

Why should printing affect education ? What was 
the result of the increase in number of books? Refer to 
Renaissance and Greek Classics. How affected by this inven- 
tion ? Increase of readers : hence reading taught. Compare 
present generality of readers in a nation with times before 
printing. What has caused the change ? 

IV. What would we lose without printing? Draw 
from class uses at present day for good, for evil. The 

2/O Notes on Plerbartian Method 

effect of reading on nation's character. Where do we get 
matter for reading? Literature, science, newspapers, 
studies, etc. Refer to preservation of art by printing pictures. 
Intercourse between nations. How exercised ? How does 
printing increase it? Learning of foreign languages. How 
helped ? Refer to difficulties of missionaries in learning 
languages when there is no written record or literature. 

V. Recapitulation : Give some examples of earliest 
forms of printing in China, Egypt and Rome. What was 
printing of China in tenth century? Give an account of 
invention. How did it reach England? What effects on 
Church? Education? Literature? Give some of its uses 
at present day for good, for evil. 



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