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Notes on Abbreviations in 

Greek Manuscripts 





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A SENTENCE that occuTS in the late Charles Graux review 
-^^ of Lehmann s Die tachygraphischen Ahkiirzungen will 
explain the purpose of this pamphlet. He says, *il est absolu- 
ment indispensable que beaucoup d' observations exactes 
soient d abord publi^es avant que, k Texemple du natural- 
iste qui dresse comparativement un tableau de la faune 
ou de la flore des divers regions du globe, les paldographes 
puissent un jour ^tablir T^tat des abr^viations usit^es dans 
le monde byzantin de si^cle en sifecle\' The science of 
Greek Palaeography, or at least that portion of it which 
deals with contractions, has reached a point at which what 
is necessary for its progress is not the production of all- 
inclusive handbooks with an immediate practical aim, where 
conclusions are laid down with all possible definiteness and 
width, but rather a series of observations of the actual 
usage of manuscripts, noted with all available accuracy by 
investigators whose occupations have given them familiarity 
with the ways of scribes and the possibilities of Greek 
writing. Such observations indeed must be classified and 
brought into relations with one another, and hypotheses 
may be suggested to explain the facts observed; but, as 
with any other yet undeveloped science, the first and main 
object must be the collection of fresh evidence. How 
little has been done towards such collection is known to 
anyone who has tried to find definite information upon the 

' Revue Critique, 1880, Notices bibliographiques, etc., p. 168. 



origin and history of any single Greek abbreviation. Com- 
paratively little stress is laid on the subject of compendia in 
Montfaucon's great book, and Bast's well-known Commentatio 
Palaeographicay though stimulating in the highest degree, 
and the work of one whose palaeographical knowledge can 
seldom have been surpassed, has a directly practical inten- 
tion, and moreover hardly recognises the principle of chrono- 
Ijogical development in the history of a compendium. The 
recognition and application of such principles to compendia 
forms the cardinal merit of Lehmann's handbook, a work 
that with all its industry and system is in point of actual 
palaeographical expertness far behind the Commentatio 
Palaeographica ; both Graux and Vitelli have pointed out, 
with indisputable truth, the impossibility of deriving general 
conclusions in palaeography from the compilation of fac- 
similes. Professor Vitelli however has at length given us 
the first instalments of a treatise, that, independent of the 
actual value of its results, is a model in all respects of what 
such a work should be. The Museo Italiano, part I. pp. 
9-15, 32; II. 168-173 contains a great number of his 
observations upon codices in the Laurentian and else- 
where. I shall be more than gratified if this pamphlet, 
which owes so much to the S^cilegio Fiorentino, be thought 
a not unworthy companion to it. 

The bulk of the material presented here is taken from 
manuscripts in the Bodleian and the British Museum ; but 
a tour in France and Italy in the early part of last year 
(1888), undertaken under the Craven Trust, has enabled 
a number of additional examples to be added to those 
already collected. In arranging the compendia in alpha- 
betical order I have thought to consult the convenience 
of those looking for examples of any one in particular; 
at the end are collected some instances of tachygraphy 
which are grouped under the several manuscripts. I have 
endeavoured in discussing the various forms to avoid the 
faults nrged against others ; where hypotheses are ventured, 
it is as hypotheses that they are given, and with the 

A. 3 

knowledge that a little increase in our information may 
overset them ; I shall feel no particular shame if such a fate 
befalls one or two of my * combinations ' : caedimus inque 
vicem praehemus crura sagittis is a line that every palaeo- 
grapher should accept. 

The plates have been produced by a photographic process 
at the University Press, and will, it is hoped, be thought 
more successful than previous reproductions of drawings. 

I have finally the pleasant duty of thanking many 
librarians, at home and abroad, to whose kindness the possi- 
bility of making this collection has been due : to some of 
them my thanks have been already elsewhere given : here 
I gladly record my obligation to the Kev. Gio. BoUig at the 
Vatican, the Rev. Antonio Ceriani at the Ambrosiana, the 
Abate Anziani at the Laurenziana, Conte Soranzo at Venice, 
M. Henri Omont at Paris, Bodley's Librarian and Mr. Madan 
in Oxford, and lastly to the Principal Librarian of the British 
Museum, for constant encouragement and advice. 

A. Alpha J it is well known, is properly represented by 
a horizontal stroke, improperly by a horizontal stroke 
dotted ; the latter sign properly denotes to, and in this sense 
is often found, though probably not so often as the dotted t; 
this abuse of the two dots, most frequent in combination 
with T, still occurs freely with other letters ; lastly, there 
are many mss. which make use of the notation both in the 
original and in the illegitimate sense. I give examples of 
these four cases : (i) the simple horizontal stroke appears 
to be exclusively used in the scholia of the Arethas-mss. ^ ; 

^ By the ' Arethas-mss/ I mean the manuscripts which are known to have 
belonged to Arethas, deacon of Patrae, and afterwards archbishop of Caesarea, 
and which contain large quantities of scholia, apparently in the same hand : 
I here refer to five—the D'Orville Euclid {ZU\ Clarke Plato (896), Lucian 
Harleian 5694 (undated), Aristotle Urbinas 35 (undated), Clement Paris grec 
451 (914); cf. generally the Ohservationes Palaeographicae of E. Maass in the 
'Melanges Graux/ Paris, 1880, p. 749 sq., and Vitelli ColUzione FiorefUina fasc. 
iv. pt. I, where it is shewn that Laur. 60, 3 (Aristides) is in the hand of the 
Clarke Plato. A certain resemblance also, so far as the scholia are con- 
cerned, is to be seen in the mss. Mutin. 126 (Clement Alex.) and Vallicell. F. 10 
(Canones eccl.). 

B 2 


of so large an extent of scholia it is impossible to speak 
certainly, but at least the tachygraphic dots, whether as 
TO or a, are very rare in these mss. : cf. <5X"Ma eujuaOeia from 
Lucian. The dots may be more certainly said not to appear 
in the Gospels BodL Auct. E. 5. 11 (s. X-XI), though the 
total amount of abbreviation here is comparatively small : 
cf. paaiAeiav napa^. (2) mss. in which the dotted stroke occurs 
and is always ra, are Grotta Ferrata B. a. iii. (s. XII) navra 
TO Kara, unooTdoecoc, jLiaTaidrHTa ; Epistles, Bodl. Auct. E. 5. 9. 
(s. X) Kara, dnaropeiiovTa, with pdoKavoc, avTiKaeiarajLievcov : 
Philo, Selden supr. 12 (s. X) Ixovra, TaOra. (3) The most 
frequent case is that in which a manuscript uses at one and 
the same time the dotted stroke and the dotted t to ex- 
press to: such are the Paris Demosthenes* (Z, grec 2934, 
s. X) au)Lin€pd(5)LiaTa, Kara, but npoc ra; Clement Mutin. 126 
(s. X) €V(5Tdc5€ic, TO; Nounus Add. mss. 18231 (a. 972) rd 
eragcv rd ; Vat. 1 982 ^ (s. X) to ogtcI ; Iliad Venetus A Ineira 
(schol.) eujLioAeovTa (text) ; Psalter, Bodl. Auct. T. 4. 19 (s. X) 
IXOVTQ, rd; Aristides Vat. 1298 (s. X-XI)* raura rdeic ; 
Hermogenes Paris grec 1983 (s. XI-XII)* rpajniLiaTa, ra ; 
S. Maximus Angelic. T. i. 8 (s. XI) ndvra, ovia ; S. Maximus 
Mutin. 1 2 (s. XII) voHjLiaTa boEa^ovia, rd nparMOTa ; Palladius 
Aed. Christ. 70 (a. 1104)® neipd^erai, jiicTd. Clarke 12 
(Greg. Naz. s. X) combines the simple stroke for aJ[pAa 
with the dotted t for la, cf. Kara rdSiv, napaeaAaooiov. It is 
in anyone's power to extend this list. (4) The use of the 
double dots in combination with other consonants than t is 
fairly common ; it is most thoroughly carried out perhaps 
in the school of S. Nilo ; cf. AaoO from B. a. xix (a. 965, hand 

^ A rather late instance of the simple stroke is 7roXXai»s from the ms. Turin 
B. I. 22 (a. 1 1 49). Cf. also <t>i\ayddov from Galen H. 45 Arch. S. Petr. (s. 

- See the facsimile, Pal. Soc. 1886, 2nd series, pt. 3; the examples come 
from the scholia. 

^ See the description of this ms. infra p. 34. 

* I am inclined to put this ms. earlier than M. de Nolhac (Fulvio Orsini, 
p. 171). 

' Not X, as Bast. 

* Not 1 107 as the Catalogue. 

Al— AlZ. 5 

of S. Nilo), pdpci (jappdrco, dAAd, napd, diuapTHjiidTajv, 9eapTHv 
from B. a. i (a. 986, hand of Paul), dnoedvei onepjua from 
AngeL B. 3. 11^: the use of the dots for the syllable ap 
(already fully rendered by the compendium) in such words 
as MdpTuc, enieappHoeic from the London Nonnus, is a 
characteristic of the schogl ; the ring in the compendium 
is turned indifferently up or down. Other mss. where 
the dots are thus freely combined with consonants are 
Nonnus Paris suppl. grec 469 A (a. 986) rd beojua; Vat. 
1982 cvrauea, naAaioaviec paOoc; Vat. 1298 napabeirMariKoic ; 
and similarly the Hermogenes Par. grec 1983. 

,AI. The ordinary sign for the diphthong ai hardly needs 
fresh exemplification 2 ; it is constant in the Arethas- 
scholia, and, among other tenth-century mss., in Clarke 1 2 
and Mutin. 126. The tachygraphic form has not met me 
outside the Grotta Ferrata school (q. v.) ^. A curious form 
occurs repeatedly in Barocc. 26 (Canons, &c., s. XI ineunt.) ; 
cf, Igaropd^ovTQi f. 209 r., nopeuovrai f. 346 r., KarexovTai 
f. 347 r. : it is not unlike the sign which Vitelli (p. 12 
n. 8) explains as a prolongation of the tachygraphic 
symbol ; but I think it as likely that it may be merely 
the sign for e used by itacism ; cf. bMnone^tfrom the 
same ms. 

AlZ. Lehmann's remarks upon the comparatively late 
origin of the double apostrophe for aic are just ; the 
Arethas-mss. use no single sign for the syllable, but render 
it by the sign for ai with sigma attached : so dpeaic, tqTc 
from the D*Orv. Euclid. At the same time the sign 
must have been in existence by the beginning of the 

^ Lehmann well illustrates the use from Nonnus, Add. ms. 18231. 

* The separation of the sign from its preceding consonant, which Prof. 
Vitelli (p. 172 n. 3) seems to tl^ink rare, is common in the Arethas-mss. ; cf. 
y€<afiiTpaiSf TrXcvpat D'Orv. Euclid, (jyalverai Plato, ^(patpa Lucian ; also tfvfA(f)ai 
Mutin. 126 (Clement), KaKodaifiovas Vallicell. F. 10. The matter seems to be 
one of indifference. 

* Since this was written I have seen it in Par. grec 990 and 3032 (q. v.). 


tenth century, for the scholia to the Paris Plato, grec 
1807 offer, as Bast was aware, both modes of rendering 
the syllable : c£ eucoxiaic f. 7 r., rale f. 99 r. The double 
apostrophe occurs in the ms. of Gregory Nazianzen s 
poems, Clarke 1 2, which I take to be of the earlier half of 
the tenth century ; cf. aloxpalc^ auraic : the earliest denied 
ms. in which the sign occurs appears to be the interesting 
Nonnus, Paris suppl. grec 469 A of a. d. 986, cf vuxaic i. 
Vat. 1298 (X-XI) again, uses both modes, e.g. raic, vuxaic 2. 
The sign is uniformly absent from the Grotta Ferrata mss., 
which, where they give the syllable abbreviated, use the 
tachygraphic symbol. The single apostrophe, of which 
Vitelli gives some examples, p. 12, occurs in Clarke 12, 
f. 96 V. papeiaic Kai beivalc upp€oiv, f. 201 v. rale napGevoic, 
Laud. gr. 39 (s. XI ineunt.), f 83 v. rale djLiapTiaic, Selden 
supr. 12 ^ f. 10 r. opjLiaic, 146 v. raic aOraTc, 135 v. toTc 
oiK€Taic, f. 129 V. €v raic TeAeioTdraic; and Prof. Vitelli 
will forgive me if I add an instance from the beautiful 
Euclid Laur. 28, 3 (s. XI) buo &h ai op pb buoi raic 
eb bp loai ^. 

AN. The examples that I give of this commonest of com- 
pendiums are meant to illustrate the freedom with which 
it can be written on the line or attached to a preceding 
letter; IbcoKav orav from the Paris Plato, gr. 1807, edv, 
ouK dv7€oxev from Vat. 1982, ouoav from Selden supr. 12, 
navTi oTQv from Roe 16 (Epistles, s. X exeunt.), nav ouk 
civ, Kdv from BodL Misc. 251 (Epictetus, s. XII)*. Vitelli 
has noticed (p. 171) that this sign sometimes stands for the 
syllable aju. I subjoin one or two instances of its use in 
this sense and also as representing ar, viz. Aajupav6M€vai, 
D'Orv. Euclid, dvaAajLipdvei, Harl. Lucian, unoAajupdvco Vat. 

^ Philo, saec. xi Coxe, but the ms. may as probably belong to the century 
before , it is in bold minuscule above the line. F. 96 r., a late hand has 
expanded the symbol in question into -aif. 

^ Another example is cV ratj mn^iv eirapxiais from Vallicell. F. 47 (s. X). 

' The same ms., a collation of part of which by Mr. Bywater will be found 
in HermeS; 1871, p. 362 sqq. 

AN— AP. 7 

1298 (Aristid.), dvarKoTov D'Orv. Euclid, dvdrKHc Clarke 


ATTO. A correct account is given in Lehmann of this pre- 
position, though his examples may be greatly multiplied. 
The Arethas-mss., as is their general wont with pre- 
positions S reject the symbol altogether, and abbreviate by 
superimposing n; the same is the rule with the Paris 
Plato. The Grotta Ferrata mss., including the London 
Nonnus, vary between this mode of abbreviation and 
a very decided type of the compendium, that may be 
taken as the purest form of it existing in minuscule : 
cf. dno, from Nonnus, dno thc, dnoAorHadjLievoc, from Isidore 
(B. a. i), dnoGdvei, dno eaAdooHC from Angel. B. 3. 11. 
Precisely the same form is offered by Vat. 1982, dno raiv, 
dnoAei\|/€(3GaL Forms more or less departing from this 
type are of very common occurrence : I give from the 
Paris Demosthenes 2934 (Z) f. 235 r., dnopHaeiai, 229 r. 
dno THC, 2 1 7 r. dnoAofiac ; from the Bologna Euclid, Archi- 
ginnasio A. i. 18, 19 (s. XI), dno, dnoTOjuiH; from Bodl. 
Misc. 251 dno&6i£ai2. Forms a step further removed are 
anebeigev, ano&ueaOai from Clarke 12, ano tou ano thc from 
Laur. 28, 3, dno from Barocc. 235 (Caten. in Psalm, s. 
X--XI), dnofovoi from Laud. gr. i (Psalter, s. XI) ^ ; in the 
last example the scribe was unaware of the proper force 
of the symbol, cf. the similar case quoted ap. Lehmann, 
p. 84. For the same sign in the sense of uno, v. s. v. 

AP. Since Prof. Vitelli has thought it worth while to collect 
evidence for the use of this compendium, some further 
instances may not be out of place. The form however 
cannot be called r^re: the article in Lehmann is quite 
inadequate. The Arethag-mss. use the symbol very seldom ; 
of those in England I have found it only in the Clarke 
Plato, f. 370 V. enixdpMou ; of the Paris Clement andUrbina^ 

' So with cTTt, TTpos and vno. 

^ So also dTrojSAcVo)!' Par. 3032. 

^ Cf. also dnb arreprjais [sic] Par. 990, airb Vat. 1316 (s. XIII). 


35 I would not be so positive ^ The Grotta Ferrata school 
on the other hand have the sign passim, with and without 
the superfluous dots, (v. under A), with the ring above 
or below, the stroke horizontal or slanting, in the middle 
or at the end of words : c£ pdppapov, napeAAHoiv from 
Nonnus, 9dpMaKov 9eapTHv from Isidore, HjuiapTHKooi 9peap 
from Angel. B. 3. 11, d9GapT6v from G. F. B. a. iii (s. XII) ; 
the simple form occurs also in Vat. 1982, ajuapTiav, auTapKcac, 
that with the dots in Mutin. 1 2 (s. XII) oapKoc, Kaeape^vxec. 
Other examples are ovap, eg dprouc from Mutia 126 (s. X), 
dvdgapxoc', Hnap from Clarke 12, nape^vou from Bodl. Auct. 
E. 5. II (s. X), djuiapToAouc KQpnov from Laud. gr. i 
(s. XI-XII), 6 jLidpKoc from Vallicell. E. 40 (Oaten, s. XI), 
avajuiapTHTouc from Epictetus Bodl. Misc. 251 (s. XII), b^Aeap, 
undpxeiv from Neap. II. A a. 22 (s. XI-XII). 

APA. Vitelli's remark that this compendium, though possibly 
rare on the whole, is frequent in mss. of a particular class, 
is illustrated by the examples that I have here to give. In 
the D'Orville Euclid it is naturally frequent, without accent 
as a rule in the text, whose scribe Stephanu^ very largely 
omits both accents and breathings ; with accent and breath- 
ing in the scholia : cf. nos. i, 2 ; it is found a^lso in the 
scholia of the other Arethas-mss., e.g, no. 3 from the Clarke 
Plato, no. 4 from Urbinas 35 : among m£|,thematical mss. it 
occurs in the mathematical scholia to the Anthology 
(Paris suppl. grec 384, f. 639, &c., cf. no. 5), in Euclid 
Laur. 28, 3 (no. 6), both round and angular forms in Euclid 
Bologn. Archigin. A. i. 18 (nos. 7, 8). The form is frequent 
in Bodl. Misc. 251, and in the sense of dpa, cf. no. 9. As 
a part of napd, both shapes are found in the Paris Plato, 
grec 1807, e,g. if. 7 r., 20 r. (nos. 10, 11). Vat. 191 (varia 
math., s. XV) has the sign occasionally, nos. 12, 13. I have 

not seen it in mss. of the Grotta Ferrata schooP. 


^ 'Afiafyriop Vallicell. F. lo. 

* I may notice here that the Alpha with crossed downstroke which Belger, • 
Hermes XVI. p. 278 (Frag. math. Bobiense f. 114. 1. 30) imagines to be dpa is 

APA— rAP. 9 

AZ. I give a few examples of this compendium used other- 
wise than at the end of words: dnapouoiddTcoc Clarke Plato, 
XpHoaoeai Clarke 12, xapdooovjec Nonnus Add. 18231, daOc- 
voOvTec daeeveiac e<paoK€v Vat. 1982, bi&doKei HvarKaoMevoc 

Bodl. Auct. T. 4. 19, raoTpijuaprouc Koe 16 (s. X). 

AY. Of this diphthong I can only produce instances from 
a few mss. more or less tachygraphical in character : viz. 
Vat. 1982 evTQuea (bis) rauTa and passim, Grott. Ferr. B. a. 
iii. (s. XII) TcxuTHc, toiqCth iquTov, and very often. The sign 
occurs most abundantly in the London Nonnua, but ap- 
parently only in the strictly tachygraphical portion ^. 

AYTOZ. A ligature for this pronoun worth recording occurs 
in some of the Grotta F^rata mss. ; it consists of the a and 
u run together with the case-ending added : cf. auToc 
auTOic auTHV eauroiv cooquTCoc from Gr. Ferr. B. a. i. and Angel. 
B. 3. 1 1. A similar combination of a and u occurs in auroO 
from Aed. Christ. 70 (a, 1 104), and the ligature is probably 

TAP. I give a selection of more noticeable forms assumed 
by rdp. Nos. i and 2 are from the D'Orville Euclid and 
Harleian Lucian respectively, and this uncial form is usual 
in the Arethas-scholia : no. 3 is from the text of the D'Orv. 
Euclid. Forms with the uncial Gamma are 4 from Genuens. 
72 (a. 1057), 5 fr^^ Barocc. 196 (a. 1042), 6 from Mutin. 
230 (a. 1051), 7 from Aed. Christ. 70 (a. 1 104), 8 from Bodl. 
Auct. T. 4. 19 (s. X) : of minuscule forms, 9 is from Laur. 
32, 15 (Iliad D 8. X), 10 from Vat. 1982 (s. XI), 11 from 
Grott. Ferr. B. a. i (a. 986), 12 from Angel. B. 3. 11, 13 
from the Paris Demosthenes Z (from the text), 1 4, 1 5 from 
Vat. 1298 (Aristides, s. X-XI), \6 from VallicelL E. 40 
(s. XI), 17 from Bodl. Koe 16, 18 from Bodl. Auct. E. 5. 9 

in reality lorai. I hope to call attention elsewhere to the mis-deciphering of 
this ms. 
^ Examples from Par. grec 990 will be found in the account of that, ms., 

p. 37. 
^ Biblioteca della Congregazione di san Carlo. 


(s. X), 19, 20 from Laud. 89 (s. XI), 21 from Boe i (s. XI- 
XII) \ 22 from Tnrin B. i. 22 (a. 1149). The abbreviation 
for rpa, which seems one of the peculiarities of the Grotta 
Ferrata school, may be illustrated by rpd9eiv from Isidore (a. 
986), eeia rpa9H from Angel. B. 3. 11. It may be doubted 
whether sufficiently precise evidence as yet exists to prove 
Lehmann's conclusions (p. 92), as to the origin and relation 
of the £wo modes of representing the syllables ap and ep. 

riNETAI. The simple contraction for rfverai acquires some 
interest from the varying forms under which it appears. 
It is most common perhaps in mathematical mss. C£ i, 2 
from the D'Orville Euclid (text), 3 from mathematical 
scholia to the Paris Anthology, 4 from the Paris Demos- 
thenes 2, 5, 6, 7 from Laur. 5, 3 (Clem. Alex. s. X). 

AE. The ordinary usage for the particle be probably needs 
no illustration ; I may however add one or two examples to 
that given by Prof. Vitelli (p. 1 69) of the syllable be at the 
beginning or in the middle of a word ; viz. ei&eac from the 
British Museum Nonnus, bexcxai &€&a>Ka>c beKa from Vat, 
1982. Rather unusual ligatures are nos. i, 2 from Roe 16. 

E. Lehmann's article on e is thorough and practically 
suflBcient. The waved line which in minuscule represents 
both ai and e is universal in the verbal endings -juievoc 
and -juieGa, and in other combinations of the syllable jue 
(e. g. juievei from the London Nonnus). But the abbreviation 
of € attached to other consonants is comparatively rare, 
and I can only cite examples from Laud. 37 (s. XII) : 
xeAeiv TcAey'v K€9aAH oejuieAHv. The spelling of the ms. is 
itacistic (cf. oHMaivcavrec^ s. ec), and this particular usage 
may possibly be so explained 2. 

^ This form perhaps is analogous to those examples of ep given from Lanr. 
72, 5 by Vitelli, p. 15. 

* The same sign in Laud. 37 represents 1; ; v. K€^6ki\ above, o-iowrj brjfirfrpas. 
Cf. also ipepyrio-aa-av TifAapijOrjoroprat from a ms. of New College, Oxford (No. 59, 
8. xii), rriv from Vat. 587 (Cyril, s. XII) d* ^/icijSero Laur. 32, 15 (man. 2, s. 
XII-XIII). It may be doubted whether this mode of abbreviation is found 

• • • • t- » 


EIN, HN, IN. The proposition that the three syllables hv, 
€iv, and IV had originally a common sign, and that at a 
later period they were diflferentiated by the doubling of 
the sign, for eiv, the adding of diacritic points, for iv, the 
original sign being appropriated to hv, is correctly stated 
by Lehmann, p. 55. At what time and xmder what cir- 
cumstances these steps took place cannot at present be 
determined ; the statistics here presented may advance the 
question somewhat ^. Manuscripts in which hv, eiv, iv are 
represented by the single sign are : the five Arethas-mss.^ 
Euclid (a. 888), Plato (896), Lucian, Aristotle Urbin. 35, 
Clement (914); Clarke 12, Bodl. Auct. T. 4. 19, Laur. 
28, 3, Angelica B. i. 7 (Caten. in Matth. s. X), Vat. 1298, 
Vallicell. C. 41 (Caten. in lob. s. X), Grott. Ferr. B. a. iii. . 
(s. XII). The following two diflferentiate eiv, but have a 
common sign for hv and iv: Angel. B. i. 5 (Caten. in Evang. 
s. XI); Angel. C. 4. 14 (Liban. epp., s. X-XI); the 
following four have a common sign for hv and iv, whUe eiv 
is ajpparently always written in full ; Iliad Ven. A, Bodl. 
Canon, no (s. X ineunt.), Grott. Ferr. B. a. i (986), ib. B. 
a. iv (992) 2. A late example of the use of the original sign 
for eiv is Bodl. Auct. E. 2. 4 (i 106), 9epeiv. On the other side, 
the earliest dated ms. that I know of where the duplicated 
sign is used for eiv is the Nonnus Paris suppl. grec 469 A 
(a. 986)^; cf. dnooxd^eiv niveiv; another ms., xmdated but 

before the twelfth century. A very remarkable usage occurs on a page of 
tenth-century minuscule bound up with the ms. Vallicell. F. 10. It is illus- 
trated in the words nepi afiafynffiarmv icai KkrjpiK»v, and consists in the ordinary 
tachygraphical sign for rj, I do not know an exact parallel. 

* Prof. Vitelli thinks (p. 10, n. 3) that Lehmann*s observations upon the mode 
of forming the compendium for eip at different periods — whether the strokes were 
drawn up or drawn down— need modification. I have not paid attention to 
the point. I may here say once and for all, that Lehmann's statements of, 

* and a fortiari inferences from, the usage of Nonnus, Brit. Mus. Add. mss. 
1 823 1, whether in regard of tachygraphyorthe ordinary system of abbreviation, 
are entirely erroneous. A correct account of the ms. is given on p. 33 sq. 

* The two Grotta Perrata mss., where they abbreviate uv, use the proper 
tachygraphical symbol ; for iv they use both modes of abbreviation. 

' The abbreviations of this ms. are strictly limited in number, but those that 
are used recur constantly. I did not find instances of iv^ (l9, is. 


certainly not late in the tenth century, Bodl. Auct. E. 5. 9, 
has the later usage throughout for the syllables civ, iv, eic ; 
cf. &ia9ep6iv, lAeoioiv, ujuelc. Later dated examples are 
Mutin. 230^ (a. 105 1), pHOeioiv; Genuens. 7 (1057), Koojutelv 
eoTiv; Genuens. 2 (1075), drevi^eiv; Aed. Christ. 70 (1104), 
oneubeiv. From these instances it is plain that no more 
particular conclusion can be drawn than that the old 
system lasted long, and the new system began early ; but 
perhaps it may be said (i) that the abbreviation of iv was, 
relatively to hv and eiv, rare (a similar remark is made 
by Lehmann, p. 67), and (2) that the diiFerentiation of eiv 
from HV began earlier than that of iv from hv. 

ElZ, HZ, IZ. Vitelli's observation (p. 169, n. 2) that the 
double sigma in the sense of eic was in use in the first 
half of the tenth century is more than confirmed by the 
Clarke Plato, where in the scholia that come from the hand 
of Arethas the word evordaeic occurs with the final syllable 
thus represented ; in the rest of the ms. however the single 
sigma seems always to be found. Manuscripts in which 
9 stands for all three syllables are the Clarke Plato, Clarke 
1 2, and Clement Mutin. 126: it stands for hc and ic in 
the D'Orv. Euclid, Harl. Lucian, Vat. 1982, Iliad Yen. A, 
and doubtless in many other tenth-century mss. ; the last 
four mss. appear to write the syllable eic in full 2, and 
I think Lehmann's remark (p. 57) well-founded, that the 
abbreviation is, in early mss., comparatively rare ; neither 
€ic nor ic is abbreviated (as it would seem) in Nonnus Par. 
suppl. grec 469 A (986). The Grotta Ferrata school use 
as a rule the proper tachygraphic sign for eic, but the single 
sigma occurs occasionally, e.g. eKepeyeic fi:om Nonnus; 
the syllable ic in these mss. is usually written in full. 
Early examples of the ordinary double sigma are 9cok^ic 
Demosth. Par. Z, Hjutelc Euclid Laur. 28, 3 (s. X-XI) ; two 
dated instances are buvdjucic from Mutin. 230 (a. 1051), 
navHfupeic from Bodl. Auct. T. ii. 2 (a. 1066). Lastly, the 

' My notes do not give an instance from this ms. of eip abbreviated. 

'^ I now find an example in Vat. 1982 of s for tis : f. 218 v. 6ri(ravpi{us o-eaur^. 

ElZ. 13 

syllable is often enough abbreviated in the middle of a word ; 
of. KeKAeiojuievai KivelaOai from Clarke 12. Prof. Vitelli (12 
n. I, 172 n. 2) challenges the explanation of a ligature 
for eic, of which he gives examples ; I have found the form 
in Clarke 12, etc yd, Laud. gr. i, elc xov, etc touc, etc thv, 
Mutin. 12 (s. XII) Miooc eic xov, Bodl. Misc. 251 (s. XII) 
€ic t6v (bis), D'Orv. x. i. i, 2 (Etym. Magn. s. XIV) elc 
rd, and it is evidently the sign found by Ludwich in the 
Hamburg ms. of Odyssey-scholia (Aristarchs Horn. Teod- 
JcritiJc, ii. 698) ^ In one instance, Clarke 12 f. 189 r. eioiv 
(no. I ), the ligature occurs not in combination with the article, 
and with the sigma expressed ; and this I think gives some 
ground for explaining the form itself as the ordinary 
ligature for ei plus a cross-stroke to denote abbreviation ; 
so the scribe who used it for eioiv would have been conscious 
that the sigma was strictly speaking unrepresented in 
the compendium. To turn to ic, the later sign with the 
diacritic dots occurs in Mutin. 230 (a. 1051) auveAeuoic, 
Bodl. Auct. T. ii. 2 (a. 1066) Kpioic, Genuens. 2. (a. 1075) 
avdrvcooic; but it already appears in a far earlier ms., 
Bodl. Auct. E. 5. 9, certainly of the tenth century, e.g. 
TIC, Mop9^oic. The syllable, as observed above, is in the 
Grotta Ferrata mss. mostly written in full, and where con- 
tracted represented by the strict tachygraphic symbol. An 
itacistic usage of the double " for ic, of the sort noticed 
by Vitelli, p. 11 n. i, occurs in Laud. gr. i Aoriojuoi, though 
that this is an exception is shown by panTiajutaxoc from 
the same ms. The sign occurs freely in the middle of 
words ; cf. Kpariare from Clarke 1 2, KaeconAioro Iliad Ven. 
A (scholia). The ordinary sign for hc hardly needs con- 
firmation. The itacistic " occurs in Laud. gr. i already 
adduced; cf. em rnc, and othc, and a marginal gloss where 
both usages occur together, KaAunxouoHc 9paTTOtioHc 2. The 

' Cf. also €is rovs cuenpasy Vat. 1982, cij- t[ovs alSiPas] Vat. 2 (s. XI), elg rovro 
Vat. 1456 (s. XI), ds TTiv Grott. Ferr. Z. a. xxv. (schol. min. in Iliad, s. XI). The 
form is in fact fairly common. 

^ Cf. Martin, Les scolies du manuscrif d'AHstophane d Barenney p. xvii. 


use of the compendium in the middle of a word is illus- 
trated by evHOKouoi from Clarke 12. 

EINAI. To the various forms of the sign for cTvai given by 
Lehmann and Vitelli I add the following : nos. i, 2 from 
Plato Paris 1807, which are apparently a near approach 
to the original form^ 3 a similar form from Vat. 1298 
(Aristides, X-XI) ; the shape the sign assumes in the 
Arethas-mss. is shewn by 4 from Euclid, 5 from Plato, 
6, 7 from Lucian; Demosthenes Z and the Anthol. Pal. 
(Paris portion) offer 8 and 9, without accent or breathing. 
Vat. 1982 no. 10 ; here and in 1 1 from the London Nonnus, 
occurs the stroke for abbreviation. The horizontal type 
occurs in Clarke 12, no. 12 passim^ Laur. 28, 3 no. 13, 
Grott. Ferr. B. a. iv. (a. 992) no. 14, Angelica T. i. 8 
(s. XI) no. 15, Vat. 1298 no. 16, Hermog. Paris grec 
1983 (s. XI-XII) no. 17, Bodl. Misc. 251 no. \% passim. 

EN. The form which this syllable takes in the Arethas-mss. 
is illustrated by juevioi, loiKev, eioieajuiev from the Harl. 
Lucian, ev from Plato f. 395 v. For other tenth-century 
mss., cf. pouAneevra Clarke 12, neve^pac Auct. E. 5, 11, ev 
Iveev Nonnus Add. 18231 ; cf. also €v IvtoAqc from Barocc. 
235 (s. XII), and the odd ligature oubev Mutin. 230 (a. 
1051). It will be observed that these forms are either 
right angles or slight departures therefrom. The varia- 
tion in which the downstroke is prolonged occurs, in 
Vat. 1982 ev, lAerev (VitelU, p. 9 n. 2). The strictly 
tachygraphical sign is by no means rare, and is found in 
mss. that are not otherwise particularly tachygraphic : cf. 
e. g. ocb^ojutev Auct. E. 5. 11 (s. X-XI) ocoeHeijuiev [sic], Mev, 
oeev Poe 16; further juev (bis) ev (bis) unojuivHcjoMev Nonnus 
Add. 1 823 1, oMiAoOjuiev Grott. Ferr. B. a. iv. (992), yxkv 
Aerojuiev KaTexojuevoi Vat. 1 982 ^. 

* In explaining the genesis of the original form it is difficult to accept either 
Lehmann's view that the two dots come by false analogy from the sign for 
€OTi, or that of Graux (Rev. Grit. 1878, Notices Bibliographiques, etc. p. 66) 
by which they are due to the desire for symmetry. 

^ And ux^Vy Angel. B. 3. 11, second hand. 

EINAI— EZ. 15 

EP. Of both the methods of representing cp there are 
abundant examples in older minuscule. The more common 
perhaps is that consisting of a stroke, inclined to the left, but 
above or below the line, with a ring attached ; this is to be 
found in the scholia of the D'Orv. Euclid (onep i, finep), 
the Clarke Plato (onep 2), Plato Paris 1807 (unep bis), Laur. 
28, 3 (onep 3), Clarke 12 (uneppoAHv), Mutin. 126 (unep 3, 
onep 4), Vat. 1298 (unep 4), Mutin. 193, Lucian s. XI-XII. 
(einep), Mutin. 12, s. XII. (cLonep, anep), and throughout 
in the Grotta Ferrata school, e. g. ouveproi Nonnus, onepjuia 
G. F. B. a. i., bepjuanVouc Angel. B. 3. 11, unep 9U01V G. F. B. 
a. iv., 8nep a>onep ib. B. a. iii. The second mode, the simple 
cross-stroke, of whatever origin, may be seen in the text 
of the D'Orv. Euclid (anep), often in the scholia to the 
Clarke Plato (wonep onep unep), in those to Demosthenes 
Z (oxjnep 2, onep 2), and it occurred in the now lost ' codex 
Vallae' of Archimedes \ I have suggested under rap a 
parallel to the form quoted by Vitelli, p. 15. 

EZ. The normal use of the sign for ec (e. g. as in vikcovt^c 
from the Harl. Lucian) is well established ; it is less com- 
mon to find it either in the middle of a word or upon the 
line. Of the former case reveoeai dpeoKeiv from Clarke 12, 
eSeonv from Auct. E. 5. 11 are examples; for the latter 
one may compare jmafiavxec Plato Par. 1807, Aeovxec Mutin. 
126, beonoxai Angel. B. 3. 11, ouveipavxec G. F. B. a. i., 
evi'^ovxec ib, B. a. iv., eoxiv ib. B. a. iii., 9edoavxec dnoAeiyeoeai 
Vat. 1982. The itacism by which the double apostrophe, 
ordinary representative of aic, is employed for ec, of which 
ViteUi gives some instances, p. 1 2, is more widely spread 
than is commonly supposed, and occurs in mss. of a good 
age and often otherwise carefully written; such are the 
well-known Laur. D of the Iliad (32, 15) Mevovrec, Angel. 
C. 4^ 14 (Liban, epp. s. X-XI) boKoOvxec dvaAcooavxec, Bodl. 

^ As we are told by the writer of the Angelica C. 2. 6, who gives a table 
of the abbreviations used in his archetype : I take thence irtp and the explana- 
tion. Cf. Heiberg, Philologus 42, p. 421 sq., and my own notes on the Biblio- 
teca Angelica, forthcoming in the Classical Review. 


Auct. T. 4. 19 (s. X exeunt.) bebcoKoxec passim. Laud. gr. 
I baijuiovec ndvrec, Laud. gr. 37 (s. XII) oHjiiaivcovTCC kqAoOvtcc, 
Laud. gr. 89 (s. XI) finavrec, Barocc. 235 (s. XI) ibovrec, 
Bibl. Corsini 41 G. 16 (Evang. s. XII) pAenovrec baijuiovaivTec, 
Vallicell. E. 29 (s. X) eKTeTHKorec. 

EZTAI. One of the most interesting of Greek compendia, 
and that may almost be said to have been discovered 
since the appearance of Lehmann's handbook, is the sign 
that represents loxai — almost technical in geometrical mss., 
but occurring with a certain frequency in mss. of other 
subjects. The sign was originally found by Bast in the 
ms. S. Germ. 249 (Comm. Pal., p. 810), and this is the 
only instance that Lehmann has before him ; Prof. Vitelli 
(p. 168) has found it in the Laur. Aeschylus, the Aristotle 
Paris grec 1853, and the Euclid Laur. 28. 3. The oldest 
instance that I am able to give of it is the Fragmentum 
mathematicum Bobiense, £ 114 v. 30 in Belgers copy, 
Hermes XVI, where Belger misreads it apa ^ Next it is 
used in most of the Arethas-mss. ; the Bologna Euclid 
Archiginnasio A. i. 18 ^ has it, and doubtless most other 
mathematical mss. before the twelfth century ; lastly, it is 
one of the many compendia used by the scribe of the 
Bodleian Epictetus Misc. 251 (s. XII). Hence we get 
the following chain: i Frag. Bobiense, 2-4 D'Orv. Euclid 
(text), 5 ib. (scholia), 6 Plato, 7 Lucian, 8 Urbin. Aristotle, 
9-12 forms from Laur. 28, 3 rather different to the one 
given by Vitelli, 13-^16 from the Bologna Euclid, 17-20 
from the Bodl. Epictetus. I enclose in brackets Prof. 
Vitelli's no. 53 for greater completeness. On comparing 
these forms with those given by Bast and Vitelli, it 
appears (i) that the dots signifying t are absent and 
present indifferently in mss. of the same age ; (2) that, 
with this qualification, the original form is best represented 
by the type given by the Bobbio fragment and the text 

^ I have to defer the proof of this statement, but its truth will be evident 
to anyone who tries to read the passage grammatically. 
^ Heiberg's b, saec. xi. 

EZTAI— K. 17 

.of the D'Orville Euclid, and that the letters contained in 
the sign are therefore (t) + a + the tachygraphic i either 
attached to or crossing the downstroke of a ^. (3) The 
late forms 17-20 are direct descendants of no. i ; the 
transition from one type to the other will be plain if we 
imagine such a form as Vitelli's no. 53 written with the 
curve open instead of closed. His no. 39 I should be 
inclined to explain as due to carelessness on the part of the 
scribe, but in any case it does not disturb the general result *. 

I. The curious expedient of representing, in late manu- 
scripts, iota by two dots on a level with each other, is 
well known, but not so universal that it may not be 
worth while illustrating from four dated mss. ; viz. kojui- 
jLiaTiKov from Coll. Nov. 258 (a. 1298 written by Demetrius 
Triclinius) where the usage is frequent, jmvHaeHTi from a note 
in Roe i that bears the date 141 7, recoprico from Mutinensis 
118 (a. I4?8)^ and KovjeAeovn from Vat. Ottobon, 58 

(a. 1538). 

INA. A simple contraction for iva, consisting of an iota with 
a mark of abbreviation beneath it, occurs in three mss. of 
my observation : Angel. T. i . 8 (s. XI), Vallicell. E. 40 
(s. XI), and the Bodleian Epictetus, Misc. 251 (s. XII). 
The form is practically the same in all three *. 

K. The article in Lehmann shows well how the waved line, 
descendant of the original tachygraphic k, represents final 

^ Leiimann's analysis (p. 104) comes near to this, though in the single form 
given by Bast it was impossible to perceive the direct presence of the a, (Since 
the article on lorat was written, I have found instances of both the plain and 
the dotted form in the Aristotle Ven. 201 of a.d. 955. In either case the form 
was opetif and the example is important as an indication of the age at which 
this tendency manifested itself.) 

* To Lehmann's account of <oTt little exception is to be taken ; I doubt how- 
ever his statement (p. 102) that the horizontal line over ./. in Vat. 1809 denotes 
p — surely it is the general sign of omission. Curious representations of the 
word are no. i from G. F. B. a. iii, no. 2 from Laud. gr. i (s. XII). 

' On the date I must refer to my notes on the Estense in the Classical 
Review for February, 1889. 

^ It is to be seen also in Yallicell. E. 63 (s. XII), a ms. in a hand not unlike 
that of the Bodleian Epictetus, and is probably common. 



syllables beginning with k, chiefly but not exclusively ter- 
minations in -Koc, etc. The usage is very constant in mss. 
that I have seen : cf. tarpiKH, dpiOjuHTiKH, InieujuHxiKto Plato 
Clarke 39, lajmpiKoc Clarke 12, hoAitikov Auct. E. 5. 9, 
eccopHTiKoO Nonnus Add. 1823 1. Nonnus however usually 
exhibits the case-tennination, e.g. cKKAHaiaoriKHc, dneAaaTiKHv, 
ouK cnibeiKTiKcbc ; so also jucpiKHv Auct. E. 5. 9^ Instances 
of terminations other than -koc are rdAaKToc Clarke Plato, 
MiKpov Auct. E. 5. 9, efpHKcv, IfivcooKov, KOKci Laud. gr. i, juta* 
Kpov Laur. 32. 15 (Iliad D), cp&ojuiHKovTdKic Demosth. Paris Z2, 

KATA. Neither Lehmann nor Prof. Vitelli (p. 15) has given 
much illustration of the modes of representing Kara. One 
may distinguish (i) partial abbreviation, where (a) the k is 
tachy graphically rendered ; so Kara i Karaxpcaoac often in 
the London Nonnus, Kara 2 KarcKdei {sic) Clarke 12, Kara 3 
and 4 Laur. 28, 3, Kara 5 Vat. 1 298 ^ or (6) the abbreviation 
is confined to the other letters. A few examples will suffice 
to illustrate this ; cf. Kara 9 KarabicoKciv Bodl. Auct. E. 5. 9, 
KQTd I o Demosthenes Z, Kara 11, 12 Vat. 1298, KaxoTHv Angel. 
T. I. 8 (s. XI), where the pair of dots appear to do double 
duty. (2) Complete abbreviation, the proper tachygraphical 
sign; e.g. KarabuojuievH Clarke 12, KaTa9e€ip6i Vat. 1982. 
The sign is universal in the more tachygraphical parts of 
Nonnus, but does not occur in as much of the ms. as is 
written in minuscule *. 

A. Lehmann's account of the origin and usage of the con- 
traction^ for syllables beginning with Lambda is de- 
servedly commended by Graux, Eev. Grit. 1880, Notices 
Bibliographiques, etc., p. 165. His examples however admit 

^ Rather individual forms of the k with case -termination are dfrooToXiic^ff, 
€yK\T)iJMTiKSf iirKTKontdv from Vallicell. F. 47 (s. X). 

* Prof. Vitelli (p. 172) considers the waved line in the sense of the syllahie 
Kai a rarity. I have found it in at least four mss. ; Roe 16 diicatoo-vyi;, Auct. 
£.5*11 KMcrapciaf Laud gr. 39 Katp6v, Kataapos, viKaia. 

3 Kara 6 Vat. 587 (s. XII), Kara 7 and 8 Vat. 1316 (s. XIII). 

* Cf. also Kordkafifidvo Par. 990. How uncertain the use of the symbol is 
appears from KareXafiev from the same ms. 

* I. e. a superimposed Lambda that afterwards assumes various shapes. 


largely of multiplication. The use occurs, though rarely, in 
the Arethas-ms., e.g. okqAhvov, icjooKeXec Plato, noAic Lucian ; 
other tenth-century examples are naOAoc, noAic, oumPoaov 
Clarke 12, Ke9dAaiov djumeAov Demosth. Z, G)^oh\i\^, pacsiAeiov 
Nonnus Paris suppL grec 469 A, napapoAHv Iliad Ven. A ; 
in all of these instances it will be noticed how the right 
stroke of the A is prolonged. Freer examples from the same 
century are chiotoAhv Auct. E, 5. 9 (but 6 dn6<JToAoc ib.) tcAoc, 
nauAoc, pacjiAciic Auct. E. 5. II. The Grotta Ferrata school 
use the contraction not unfrequently : so kukAoc, ^nioxoAflc, 
KcovoravTivonoAecoc Nonnus, dnocsroAoi G. F. B. a. i. Lastly, 
a few eleventh-century mss. may be cited: Laud. gr. 39, 
Selden supr. 11, Laud. gr. i (the eccentric form toG 
biapoAou). I add a somewhat more interesting example, 
eeoAorou, from Phot. Bibl. Ven. 450 (s. X)^ 

MEN. The Bodleian ms. of the poems of Gregory Nazianzen, 
Clarke 12 saec. X^ so often , already cited, has not un- 
frequently the tachygraphical symbol for juev, whether the 
particle or a syllable in a word ; so ju^v f. 1 57 v., juevoijv ib. et 
Baep,^ eeHpdoajuev 176 v.^ For other tachygraphical usages 
of this ms. V. under Kord and re *, 

OMOY. One of the most curious signs that still remain for 
the palaeographer to analyse is that occurring in some 
manuscripts for omoO. Lehmann s. v. has collected the 
quotations of it by earlier enquirers and Gitlbauer (Vat. 
1809). Vitelli does not notice it. The form occurs in mss. 
by no means tachygraphic, and even where the percentage 

* It may be wortli noticing that the simple contraction for \6yos and its 
compounds is freely used in the Arethas-mss. I give as types 6 \6yoSf \6yopf 
\6yovSf Skoyov, tiSkoyos, Kaivokoyosy from the Harl. Lucian. Further cf. \6yos 2, 
\6yov 2, oKiyas from Grott. Ferr. B. a, i. 

* Both Graux, Bevue Critique 1878, p. 124, and Vitelli, I.e. p. 161, n. 2 have 
demanded information upon the stichometry of this ms. It may be well 
therefore to say here briefly, that the number of (rrixoi is in this case precisely 
the number of verses in the poems. 

' See also infra under Par. grec 990, p. 38 (for the syllable /ac), 

* A contraction for fiera^v which I cannot satisfactorily explain occurs in the 
Clarke Pl3,to f. 377 v., Harl. Lucian f. 73 v. ; cf. the instance in the table, 
otherwise (Frag. Bobiense, D'Orv. Euclid) /icra^v is represented by M. 

C 2 



of ' ordinaiy ' abbreviation is not great ; it is most common 
perhaps in mathematical mss., but it occurs in others also 
where it is necessary to add up a total. It consists of two 
parallel strokes crossed by a single one, and may either 
-_ have the rough breathing and circumflex or be without 
either; and in late mss. the accent and breathing are run* 
together into a single waved line (so Lehmann rightly 
analyses it). In Vat. 1 809 the single stroke is vertical, and 
the two crossing it horizontal ^ but later the form is that 
given in the table: viz. no. i Bologn. Archigin. A. i. 18 
(Euclid, s. XI), z Mutin, 71 (Syqaxarium, s. XI-XII), 
3 Vat. 191 (circ. 1404, var. mathemat.), 4 Mutin. 55 
(SynesiTis, etc. s. XV). A curious form, distortion or 
misapprehension, is no. 5 from Laud. gr. 39 (s. XI ineunt.) 


ON. Two additions may be made to the otherwise very full 
, article of Lehmann s upon ov. (i) The illegitimate use of 
the douhle stroke in the sense of the single (Lehm. p. 73) 
occurs as early as Laud. gr. i ^ e. g. 9uAdTTovTac, juovov, 
apxovTec. (2) The single stroke is not so seldom met with 
in the middle of words as Lehmann's examples suggest ; it 
is common in the Arethas-mss. : cf. drarovrec from Euclid, 
nai^ovTcc Plato, €Kovt€c Lucian \ 

OZ. .To the examples given by Prof. Vitelli (p. 11, n. 4) of 
the tachy graphical sign for oc in ordinary mss. I add some 
instances from Barocc. 26 (s. XI ineunt.), a ms, that offers 
some other peculiarities of contraction^ ; viz. dnooxoAoc f. 
249 r., €V€proCvToc 338 v., npoc 198 v., 6 auxoc toivuv Aofoc 182 r.* 

^ An identical form appears to be presented in the Frag. Bobiense, f. 1 14 v. 
26, ap. Belger Hermes XVI, but it must be admitted that certainty as to its 
meaning is difficult. Other instances of the compendium are no. 6 from Par. 
990, no. 7 from Vat. 904 (s. XIII), no. 8 from Vat. 1319 (s. XV). 

* 6fioia>Sj from Laur. 28, 3 is to be compared with the sign given by Vitelli 
for ofiOLov (p. 172, n. I, plate no. 73). 

^ * Saec. XI ineuntis/ Coxe ; but it may be as much as a century later. 

* More remarkable examples are Svrms Par. 990, \4yovTcs Par. 3032 ; cf. also 
^iXiTTTrov, t6v from the latter ms. 

" * V. s. ai, ovs. 

* Another instance isTrXrjOos from Par. 3032. V. also s. toc. 

ON— OYZ. 21 

Another mode of expressing oc, little noticed hitherto, is by 
an uncial sigma, cf. from Laud. gr. 39 iKaoroc, npoc, nepi toG 
napareeevTOC and oxiojuiaTiKciv ; further Aoroc KaracpaTiKcc 
Nonnus add, 18231, npoc uvoc Grott. Ferr. B. a. iv. (a. 992), 
TKTepoc Bodl. Auct. T. I. 2 (s. XI ineunt.). These examples 
may go some way toward resolving Lehmann's doubt 
(p. 75) about the meaning of the sigma in the two words 
that he quotes from Sabas ^ 

OYN. Illustration of this common compendium, whether as^ 
the particle or the syllable, is hardly needful. I take almost 
at random KqAoOvrai, oncoc oOv from the D*Orv. Euclid, ouv 
I from the Clarke Plato, oiJv 2 from Par. grec suppl. 469 A, 
and the unusual ligature pcpaioOvroc, oijv from Barocc, 21 
(s. XII) ♦ Of the genesis of the symbol I do not remember 
to have met with any account; Lehmann (p. 76) leaves 
the question open. If however wa compare this ordinary 
sign for ouv with the tachygraphic symbol for ev (v. supra), 
it is plain that they have one part in common, namely 
the crooked stroke that concludes either compendium : this 
stroke therefore, in either case, may be taken to repre- 
sent V, and while the open curve in €v will stand for c, 
that which is closed in ouv may similarly be inferred to 
represent q ^ 

OYZ. Of the ordinary form of the compendium for this 
syllable illustration is needless ; somewhat remarkable forms 
however are dAAouc Par. suppl. grec 469 A (Nonnus a. 986), 
Touc Tonouc Vallicell. C, 41 (s. X); a combination frequent 
in Grott. Ferr. B. a. iv. (a. 992) is perhaps worth recording, 
nveyjuiaTiKouc. The double waved line (ViteUi pp. 9, n. 2, 
169) occurs in Roe 16 (s. X) toutouc touc niciTeuovrac, Laud, 
gr. 39 TOUC xpovooc, Theophrastus Urbinas 61 (s. X) toic 

* I give a few examples of the sign for on; no. i, from Clarke 12 f. 180 v., 
resembles the primitive form as given in Vat. 1809, no. 2, from the Paris Greek 
Anthology, is an instance of the omission of the dots ; cf. also nos. 3, 4 from 
Par. 3032, no. 5 from Vallicell. C. 61 (s. XV). 

* Compare ow as represented in Vat. 1809, e.g. auvcarwrof, f. 195 r, B. v. 22. 


Tonouc^; the single waved line (the proper tachygraphic 
sign) in Barocc. 26, eAcueepoujmcvouc, aurouc xpicsriavouc 2. 

OYTOZ, etc. To Vitelli's examples (p. 11, n. 3) of outoc, oOtcoc, 
etc., I may add a few others. The abbreviation is almost a 
feature of the Arethas-mss., cf. i outco Euclid (text), 2 outcoc 
ib. (scholia), 3, 4, 5 oijtoc, outoi, outcoc Lucian ; further 6 
OUTCOC Vat. 1982, 7 OUTCOC Vat. 1298, 8 OUTCOC Mutin. 193 
(Lucian, s. XI-XII). 

riAPA. The word napd may be compendiously expressed (i) 
by n + the sign for apa, (2) n with the topstroke crossed by a 
slanting line. ( i) The former is by far the more common, and 
may be thought not to need exemplification ; I give however 
some instances from mss. that are for any reason noticeable : 
napci I, 2 from Plato Paris 1807, napcKAHoiv napa9uAaKH 
Clarke 12, napaAmcov Demosth. Z, napd 3 Nonnus Par. 
suppl. grec A 469, napd 4 Iliad Ven. A, napd tov Auct. E. 
5. 9, napd 5 napabogcov Laur. 28, 3, napdcx^vTOi from so 
tachygraphic a ms. as Vat. 1982 (2) The other method 
in its nature, as Lehmann rightly observes, tachygraphic, is 
frequent in the Arethas-scholia ; cf. napd 6 napapAneiJ 
D'Orv. Euclid, napajuueHodjucvoc Plato, napd 7 Lucian, napd 
Toic Urbin. 35^. At the same time the Plato-scholia use the 
contrary system as well, e. g. napabeirjmaTa, napd tov. The 
cross-stroke is the usual method followed by the Grotta 
Ferrata school; in addition to Vat. 1809, cf. napabebojuevov 
from Nonnus, napabpajmcbv Isidore, napdpaoiv AngeL B. 3. 11. 
The twelfth-century ms. however, G. F. B. a. iii, has the 
more usual system : so napd 10. (3) A certain number of 
mss. offer instances of both forms at once. Beside the Clarke 
Plato quoted above, cf. napaKaAoi napd 1 1 from Bodl. Auct. 
T. 4. 19, napd jueTpcov napapoAflc Mutin. 12. (4) I have 

* Par. 3032 X(5yovff, Angel. B. 3. 11 (man. sec.) avrow, Turin B. vii. 30 (s. 
X-XI) ^Xovff. 

^ The form of the sign for ov, in which it is not round but angular, occurs in 
Bodl. Auct. T. 4. 19 (s. X exeunt.) oXta^atVovo-ty, rov \aov^ Par. 990 o-vi^cX^ovai/s ; 
see further under Tachygraphy, 

3 Cf. also irapa 8 Vallicell. F. lo (s. X), irapa 9 Vallicell. F. 47 (s. X). 

OYTOZ— T. 23 

noticed some variations in the more usual form which 
cannot be explained as coalescence of accent (Lehmann p. 
91). The difference consists in a hook at the top of the 
upstroke, cf. napaoKeuHv, napabeirMariKoic, napd 1 2 from Vat. 
1298 ; it is curious that these forms, if the semi-circle were 
wanting, would be almost exactly like those given by Prof. 
Vitelli (p. 14) from Laur. 32, 9 and Laur. 59, 9 {plate nos. 
7, 24, 25). An exaggeration of this variation appears to 
be the form napd 13 which I take from Angel. C. 4. 15 
(Liturgiae, a. 1165). Lastly, the singular form napd 14 
Angel. T.*i. 8 (s. XI) must apparently be explained as an 
individual error of the scribes, who had (v. s, T) some 
acquaintance with tachygraphy. 

nPOZ. I have not seen the sign for npoc in the Arelhas- 
scholia, and it will probably be found not to occur ; its place 
is taken by nf. It is constant however in the text of the 
D'Orville Euclid (Stephanus) — a large and characteristic 
form: cf. nos. 1-4. A few instances of its occurrence 
elsewhere are npocconov, npoc rd Demosth. S, npoc 5 Anth. 
Pal. (scholia to the Paris portion) npocirdjai npoc 6 Vat. 
1298, npooKAcoM^voc, npoc 7, 8 Epictetus Bodl. misc. 251. A 
degraded form is npoc 9 from Barocc. 235 (Caten. in Psalm. 
B. XI) \ 

T. The representation of t by two dots placed over or 
across the following vowel or syllable is one of the most 
characteristic and consistently carried out practices of Greek 
tachygraphy, and is found in mss. otherwise of the ordinary 
type of writing far more often than is usually supposed. 
It is in fact often the only trace of tachygraphy that a ms. 
will show. The scanty account in Lehmann has been 
greatly added to by Prof. Vitelli (la, p. 11, 170, rac 11, 32, 

^ It is extraordinary that a doubt can exist as to the origin of this sign. The 
slightest reflection upon the forms given above leads us back to the type that is 
in use in Vat. 1809, and of which not a bad example will be found under the 
xiith century ms., Grotta Ferrata, B. a. iii, p. 34. Each of the four letters is 
represented. The speculations in Lehmann (p. 87) must be read to be believed. 


T€ ib., 173, Toic II, Tou ib., Tcp 32, Tciv 170, Tcoc 1 1 ), and I am 
able to offer here some further collection of instances. The 
first example of each syllable, by way of type, is taken from 
the British Museum Nonnus; cases where the example 
comes from the strictly tachygraphic part of that ms. are 
.enclosed in brackets. The notation appears entirely absent 
from the Arethas-scholia. 

T^l^: juejuivHTai Nonn., 9opoOvTai Par. 990, eorai Par. 3032. 

T^IC : I from Nonn., 2 Laur, 28, 3, 

T^N : OTQv I Nonn., orav 2 Par. 3032. • 

Tdy.C : ndvTQc Nonn., Ix^vrac Demosth. Z, rdc Vat. 1982, 
cauTcic Angel. T. I. 8, dnejunoAouvTac Vallicell. E, 40, 
noAcjuoOvTac Barocc. 138 (s. XII), tqc Bodl. Misc. 251, 
KaTa9opouvTac Par. 990, Tona^ovrac Turin B. i. 22 
(a. 1 149). 

T^Y; TauTQic Nonn., evraOea Vat. 198:?, tquthc Grott. 
Ferr. B. a. iii, TaOra Par, 990. 

76: (Sore Nonn., totc nore Clarke 12, cure (i, 2) wore 
Vat. 1298, 0UT6 3 Bologn. Archigin. A. i. 18, wore 
3 Thucydid. Brit. Mus. Add. 11,727 (s. XI), nore 2, 
ouTc 4, fevioie (Sots 4 Hermog. Par. grec 1983, oure 5, 
TunouT€ Bodl. Auct. E, 5. 9, a)CT€ 5, Vat. 191 (circ. 
1404), TeKvoic, Hjuerepoic Par. 990, nore tot€ wotc mhtc 

Neap. II. A a, 22, 

lec : 9coTi(5e6VTec Nonn,, A^ovrec Mutin, 126 (Clement), 
dvapdvrec Clarke 12, ovrec fex^vrec Laur. 28, 3, evi^ovTCc 
Grott. Ferr. B. a. iv (992), ndvrec Iliad Ven. A, 
9edoavT6c naAaicavTCC Vat. 1982, ndvjec dnoAauoovrec 
Angel. T. I. 8, KaipooKonoOvrec Mutin. 12 (s. XII), 
nepiAapovrec Hermog. Par. grec 1983, MooxonoiHoavrec 
Barocc. 138, bpdoavrcc Angel. B. 3. 11 (man. 2)2. 

* For TO V. s. A. 

' I have not concerned myself, here or under es , with the illegitimate use of 
the two dots in the sense of €f. It is worth recording however that the use 
occurs passim in the Ravenna Aristophanes, and is most remarkable in a ms. of 

T— YHEP. 25 

THN : I Nonn,, 2 Grott. Ferr. B. a. iv, 3 Laud. gr. i 
passim, 4 Vallicell, D. 43, 

Tl : napeoTi Vat. 1982. 

TIN : ecTiv Grott. Ferr. B. a. iii. 

TO : eKTCTO Nonn., npcoroKdee&poi Par. 990, touto Par. 

TOIC : TouToic Nonn., toic Vat. 1982, toic biKcioic Par. 990. 

TON : auTov Nonn,, eaurov kifewjov Vat. 1982, tov, cpGapTov 
Par. 990. 

TOC '. auToc Noun., owjuaTOc outoc Vat, 1982, bia navroc Par. 


TOY : auToO Nonn., toG xpiorou' Par. 990, tou 91A0CJ090U 
Arch. S. Petr. H. 45 (Galen, s. XII-XIII). 

TOYC: Touc Nonn., aurouc roue Vat. 1982. 

TCi) : ouTco Nonn,, afircj) laurco outco Vat. 1982, djuuHjco Par. 

TCON : ndvTCov joiv v4(jov Vat. 1982, roiv ovtcov Angel. T. 
I, 8, T&v Mutin. 12, ndvTOiv D'Orvill. X. i. j, 2 
(Etym. magn. s. XIV), 9oiTcovTa3v Par. 990. 

TCOC : ouTCoc Nonn., cIkotcoc outcdc Vat, 1982, ndvicoc 
dbiaoTdroic Angel. T, I, 8, AeAneoTcoc Bodl. misc. 251, 
OUTCOC Par. 990. 

YTTEP. The tachygraphic abbreviation for unep cannot be 
said to occur frequently outside of the Grotta Ferrata 
school; I have not found it in the Arethas-scholia. Cf. 
however unep roiv unep 9<oKe<ov from Demosth. Z, un^p i from 
Grott. Ferr. B. a. xix (a. 965), un^p 2 unep ooO Nonnus, unep 
Aorov Gr. Ferr. B. a. i, unep 3 uneppdc Angel. B. 3. 11. For 
the partial-abbreviation, which is frequent, v. s. EP. 

tliat age and style. Cf. buKjr€p&PT€s (text), rtxyrj^vres (scholia, man. pi.). This 
coincidence between the text and the first hand of the scholia may serve as 
another proof of the identity of the hands, in addition to those already brought 
together by M. Albert Martin in his admirable study upon this ms. 


YTTO. A tachygraphical contraction for uno occurs more 
frequently than for unep but without being itself common. 
There appear to be two distinct symbols in use : ( i ) one, 
already known from tachygraphy, and frequent in the 
Grotta Ferrata mss. : so *n6 i G. F. B. d. xix, uno 2 uno thc 
unovQiaic Nonnus, uno^Oriov Angel. B. 3. 11, uno 3 Par. 990 ^ 
(2) Another sign, quite unlike the former, already quoted by 
Bast (p. 794) from 8. Germ. 249, is identical in shape with the 
symbol for ano (q. v.) so largely used by the Grotta Ferrata 
school, and only distinguished from it by the breathing, or in 
fact, where the breathing is ambiguous or incorrect, by the 
context. Certain instances are unobfiiKvuovja, 6n6 kqkoO, uno 4 
from the Bodl. Epictetus, Misc. 251 ; the same form is 
probably given by Vat. 1982 in unobeeeioa (sine spir.), and 
further by a late mathematical ms., Vat. 191 circ. 1404, uno 
5 (stc). The fact of one compendium standing for both dno 
and uno at once suggests that the letters actually denoted 
by the sign must be those common to both words, viz. n + o ; 
and though I do not hold this conjecture proved, especially 
as regards the 0, it may at all events strengthen tiie con- 
clusion arrived at by Lehman^ (p. 84) from consideration 
of dno alone. 

QN. Under this head I have to notice the tachygraphic 
sign, rightly described by Lehmann at the beginning of his 
article as a waved line ; it is in fact not unlike an open 
omega inverted. In this form it is used by an ancient hand 

* The argumentation between Gitlbauer and Lehmann (Lehm. p. %Z) upon 
the origin and relation of the signs for vTrcp and {m6^ does not perhaps admit 
of proof or disproof; but it may be allowable to suggest another hypothesis 
that appears at least as probable. Lehmann justly doubts Gitlbauer's half- 
revolution of the sign for {mkp as a preliminary to explaining it ; but his own 
analysis of it, and especially his theory of the original identity of the two 
signs, appear to me no less arbitrary. A simple comparison of the common 
letters in wr^p, vtto, with the common strokes in the two compendia suggests 
that (i) the left-hand stroke in vi^k^ is p, while the left-hand stroke in \m6 
is o (the tachygraphic o is a line bent into two curves) ; (2) that the right* 
hand cross-stroke in either case is a mere mark of abbreviation, to erect the 
letters p and o into substantive symbols for uvrcp and vn-o. For an analogy I 
may refer to my own analysis of the strange sign for en (p. 12). 

YnO— QZ. 27 

among the Plato Arethas-scholia, e.g. rciv ovtcov, dpxoiv, 
nAdrcDv (as a rule the Arethas-mse. use the ordinary form, 
and that as often within the word as at the end). Cf. also 
T&v vfecov Vat. 1982, Tciv eeoipHjudTCov, Toiv dricov Mutin. 12^, 
Early dated examples of the coalescence of the circumflex 
accent with the ordinary sign (Vitelli p. 10, n. 2) are Tciv 
Genuens. 2 (a. 1075), V^X^v Angel. C. 4. 15 (a. 1 165). 

flP. A few instances of the compendium for this syllable, to 
be added to those given by Vitelli (pp. 15, 32, 171) ate : 
^HTcop Clarke Plato, recopriKoiv Harl. Lucian (both in the 
scholia), cKTcop Iliad Laur. 32, 15 (text), MHTponoiTcop Laur. 5, 
3 (not cited, I think, by Prof. Vitelli), avTiAHnrcop Laud. gr. 
I, libcop Mutm. 193 (Lucian, s. XI-XIT, text), 6 pHTcop Bodl. 

.Misc. 251, TTavTOKpdTcop VallicelL E, 29 (s. X), reobprioc Neap. 
IL A a. 22. 

ili. The examples that I give of cbc are meant to illustrate 
. its form and its portion with regard to the line, (i) The 
slight variation by which the last curve of the sign takes a 
turn upwards, is, as Bast notices, a peculiarity of the 
strongly-marked writing of the Plato Paris grec 1807 (cf. 
(be I, ouTcoc, dTTiKoic), but it is found also in the text of the 
D^OrviUe Euclid f. 1 20 v. aurcoc, and it existed in the ' codex 
Vallae ' of Archimedes from which Angel. C. 2. 6 was 
copied; cf. the passage in the plate from f. 222 v. explaining 
coc and ncoc^ (2) The syllable is found written on the 
line most constantly in mss. more or less connected 
with tachygraphy, e. g. outcoc Nonnus, wore Angel. B. 3. 11, 
9UO6COC Grott. Ferr. B. a. iv, wcirep ib. B. a, iii, oIjtcoc Kapecoc 
Vat. 1982, but not unfrequently elsewhere^ so oiare oxsncp 
often in the Arethas-scholia, a>c 2 Laur. 28, 3 ^. 

* A few more examples are rouf i VallicelL F. 10, r&v 2 Vat. 1456 (s. XI), 
nXarap Par. 3032, wavrav Par. 990, tS>v alptriK&v Ven. 450 (Phot. Bibl. s. X). 

* I make bold to explain in this way the sign given by Prof. Vitelli, plate II. 
no. 40, p. 172, n. 2 ; it is as + €p, i.e. &<nr€p, which, as Prof. Vitelli says, is 
demanded by the context. Another instance of this form of as is ^<k>ff Vat. 2 
(s. XI). 

' The beginner may with profit contemplate the fourth example of «r in 


QZITEP. I do not remember to have seen or read of a mngle 
sign for &onep ; the separate abbreviation of either syllable 
is of course frequent enough. A ligature, consisting of the 
tachygraphical signs for both syllables interlaced, is given 
by the ms. Etym. Magn. D'Orville x. i. i, 2 s. XIV, of which 
a facsimile is prefixed to Gaisford's edition of the E. M. ; cl. 
no. I from f 289 v., no. 2 from 288 r. ; both are at the end 
of the line. The context of the first is, ict^ov be on wonep 
Aererai KpoGjua koi Kpouojma, outco Aererai xp'mo kqi xpi<5juia. The 
formation of the symbol is clear if we compare wonep, oncp 
from the tachygraphic part of Nonnus \ 

Taohygraphy. It has been often pointed out that in 
Greek minuscule and late uncial writing there are two 
systems of abbreviation in lise at once : one, of rare oc- 
currence and of obviously tachygraphic origin, the other, 
far commoner, and though ' also ultimately tachygraphic in 
source, so familiar as to be known by contrast as the 
* ordinary' system. Facts as to the coincidences and di- 
vergencies of the two systems aro well given by Lehmann 
in his introductory chaptere, and a masterly sketch of the 
subject, with illustrations, will be found in Graux' review 
of Gardthausen, Journal des Savants 1881, p. 312 sq. The 
extent to which the ^ tachygraphic ' system entered into the 
writing of ordinary books is one of the questions in palaeo- 
graphy which most stand in need of additional evidence. 
That the system was far more widely spread and more 
generally used in books than was commonly supposed, there 

Lehmann, § 47. He will not get light from Gardthausen, p. 258, nor even from 
Diels' explanation of the Fragmentum Bobiense, Hermes 1877, p. 421 sq. 

* I have in this tract hardly touched the laiige and interesting province of 
mathematical signs. I may however here mention one that is quoted by 
Hultsch ap, Gardthausen from Vat. 211, but that has not hitherto foimd an 
explanation. It represents x'^P'-^^t ^^^ ^^ found with or without case- ending. 
Examples i and 2 are x^P^^^f 3 x^P^^^^y 4 X^P^^' ^^^ these come from Euclid 
Laur. 28, 3. The usage occurs also in the D'Orv. Euclid, but at the moment of 
writing I am without examples. It consists of x ^^^^ P rendered tachygraphi- 
cally, upon the same system as that employed in Vat. 1809; cf. any page of 
Gitlbauer's facsimile. The second cross- stroke is doubtless a mark of abbrevia- 


can be no doubt ; but whether any principle governed its 
employment, and whether any place, persons or style of 
author can be connected with it, must for the present 
remain an open question. One of the few facts known for 
certain is that the later tachygraphical system was practised 
by monks of the order of S. Basil, and in especial by the 
Basilian school of Grotta Ferrata near Kome. Of the 
eleven manuscripts whose usage I proceed to summarise, 
seven were certainly written at Grotta Ferrata, one may 
have been, and another, though written elsewhere, was 
the work of a Basilian ^ 

(i) An account of the history of the school of S. Nilo at 
Grotta Ferrata, the monastery and village between Frascati 
and Marino on the lower slopes of the Alban Hills, is to be 
looked for in the Prolegomena that are to complete the 
catalogue not long since published by the learned librarian 
of the Abbey, P. Antonio Eocchi 2. In the mean time it 
may be convenient to say that San Nilo, the founder of the 
monastery at the close of the tenth century, established 
therewith a school and style of writing. The school may 
be said to continue, at least in the person of the Biblio- 
thecarius, to the present day ; the distinctive characteristics 
of the handwriting of S. Nilo ^ may be traced, in mss. 
written by his disciples, for more than a generation. 
Manuscripts with which I am acquainted that exhibit this 
type of writing are, beside the three books in the hand of 
S. Nilo himself (B. a. xix, xx, xxi), two mss. still in the 
monastery, B. a. i and B. a. iv, one in the Biblioteca 
Angelica at Kome, B. 3. 11, the London Nonnus*, and 

^ For examples of tachygraphy published since the appearance of Lehmann'0 
book cf. Vitelli, Spicilegio FiorentinOy Desrousseaux, Mdlanges de V JEcole Franfaise 
de Rontej 1886, p. 544 sq., Gitlbauer, Philologiache Streifzuge, 1886, p. 387 sq. 

* Codices Cryptenses, Tusculani, 1883. 

^ Cf. the extract from the Vita Nili Rom, 1624, p. 28, quoted by Rocchi under 
B. a. xix: literarum forma utens densa et minuta. Facsimiles of the three 
Grotta Ferrata mss., and the one from the Angelica are shortly to be published 
by the Palaeographical Society. 

* When I was at Rome the celebrated Vat. 1809 was temporarily inacces- 


the fragment Vallicell. D. 43. The type loses its chief 
characteristics in the twelfth century, but still exists 
as a particularly neat and close minuscule; authentic 
examples are B. a. iii, and the latter part of Angelica 
B. 3. II. I have imagined resemblances in Mutinensis 12 
,and Bodl. Bawl. 156. It has always been well known 
that S. Nile's disciples were tachygraphers, and the 
two great examples of their production in this direction, 
Vat. 1809 ^^d Brit. Mus. add. 18,231 have been more 
or less carefully examined; but for our knowledge of 
the codices that still remain in the Abbey we still depend 
practically upon Montfaucon and Piacentini. A stay of five 
days at Grotta Ferrata in May of last year (1888) gave me 
opportunity to inspect the library with tliis purpose. I 
have to thank Padre Kocchi's benevolence not only for 
access to the manuscripts that he knows so well, but for the 
arrangements that he was good enough to undertake for 
my entertainment in the village. May he accept an im- 
perfect acknowledgment of one of the pleasantest weeks 
that have fallen to the writer's experience. 

The three mss. in the hand of S. Nile (a. 965) are un- 
abbreviated. On the last four pages however of B. a. xix 
occur a considerable number of compendia ; most noticeable 
tachygraphically are unep (unep toO AaoO), utto, and ic in h qhAh 
rvaicic. The last sign is one of the rarest of those in use 
by the school, and will probably hardly exist elsewhere than 
in the purely tachy graphical parts of Vat. 1809 and Nonnus 
and, in ordinary writing, in Vallicell. D. 43. The other mss. 
appear to give the syllable always in full. Vat. 1982 
gives the common sign, v. s. ElZ (racic). 

(2) The ms. of the British Museum, add. mss. 18,231, 

sible ; but to judge from Gitlbauer's facsimile of tlie tachygraphical part, the 
style of S. Nilo is to be recognised there also: it is of course well known, 
independently of the hand, that the ms. came from Grotta Ferrata. Lastly, 
from the description given by Graux {A7'ck» des Mission^j etc. 3®. s^r. V. p. 123) 
of the ms. 0. 74 of the Biblioteca Nacional at Madrid it would seem that it 
also belonged to the * Seuola di san Nilo.' 


containing works by Gregory Nazianzen with the com- 
ment of Nonnns, has for some years past been known 
to offer extensive examples of tachygraphy; I need not 
refer to the passages in the handbooks where it is noticed, 
nor to the facsimiles of pages in the various collections. 
It may be said to exhibit three styles of writing : (a) min- 
uscule : the text, only rarely abbreviated, and various 
introductions, indices, eta (ff. 4 V., 12, 13, 14 v., 1 5 r., 3 18 r - 
330 V.) which on the contrary are very closely contracted; 
{h) scholia in large semi-uncial, which, beginning almost 
without contractions, gradually increase the percentage of 
signs till they almost reach pure tachygraphy ; (c) purely 
tachygraphical marginal remarks, glosses and corrections. 
In this article I deal with tachygraphy only in so far as it 
is introduced into ordinary writing, and therefore it is only 
the first of these three classes that I here notice. It is to 
be hoped indeed that the whole tachygraphical contents of 
• the ms. may some day be made public, but I offer here 
. nothing beyond a collection of the tachygraphical signs 
that are found in the minuscule part of it. The ms. was 
written, it is well known, in 972, but the writer has not 
"^ given his name. Lehmann (p. 53) has rightly concluded, 
from a comparison of facsimiles, that it belongs to the 
Grotta Ferrata school, and the resemblance is obvious to 
anyone who has been both at London and Grotta Ferrata ; 
but he is certainly wrong in identifying the scribe with 
Paul who wrote the Isidore. The editors of the Palaeogra- 
phical Society, who in their forthcoming fasciculus publish 
several facsimiles of Grotta Ferrata mss., decide that the 
hand of Nonnus is the same as that of the Angelica 
Theodoretus, to be noticed below ; and there is a clear 
difference of writing between these mss. and the Isidore. 
A graver fault, however, with regard to this ms. has 
been committed by Lehmann, than the wrong identi- 
fication of its hand. Eelying upon the evidence of the 
facsimile of a single page, he has in various places of his 
book made general statements of the usage of the entire 


njs. — which are wrong ; and based upon them theories as to 
the history of Tachygraphy, which are necessarily even 
further from the truth. It is suflBcient to warn anyone who 
uses the book that the statements in pp. 21, 22, 53, 54, 57, 
67, as to the representations in the Nonnus of the syllables 
€iv, IV, eic, are incorrect. The matter is the most serious 
blot in a meritorious handbook, and a conspicuous example 
of the results of ' Palaeography from Facsimiles.' 

The manuscript then, in this part of it, exhibits specifically 
tachygraphical signs for the following syllables : ai, aic, 
dno, ap, €iv, ev, Ini, iv, ou, napa, ra, thv, -t' ccti, tcoc, unep, 
lino. Cf. the words 9aibp6TaTe, euxaic, dno, undpxeiv, oujumpdi- 
T6IV, KaiHverKev, eniKaeioac, Ireoiv, ou&eic, loubaToc, thv t€, 
tout' loTi, ouTcoc, uHcp, unovoiQic. Here the frequent use 
of ai, QIC, €iv, IV and especially ou, is noticeable ; the last 
compendium occurs in * ordinary writing/ only in the mss. 
Vallicell. D. 43 and Par. 990, The curiously consistent 
contraction for tout coti also deserves notice ; in the semi- 
uncial scholia the words are still farther abbreviated. 
Otherwise the use of the symbol for Tau is singularly 
limited. The other signs are more or less characteristic 
of the school. For instances of to v. ante s. A ; the usage of' 
the manuscript for ap, elvai, '€p, KOTd, napd has also been 
previously illustrated. Lehmann s statement that ic in 
this ms. is always written in full, is true to the extent 
that the tachygraphical sign does not occur in this part of 
the ms. ; in the scholia and the piire tachygraphic glosses 
it is common, and in the minuscule part itself the ordinary 
sign sometimes represents the syllable : v. ante s. €IC. The 
sign for ic, as I have already noticed, is very rare in all the 
Grotta Ferrata school. 

(3) The Biblioteca Angelica at Kome possesses one ms. of 
the school of Grotta Ferrata, Theodoretus B. 3. 11. The 
book consists of two parts, of which the first is of the 
tenth century, the second of the eleventh or twelfth. A 
description of it will be found in my notes on the Angelica 


shortly to appear in the Classical Review, and in the 
current fasciculus of the Palaeographical Society, where 
a facsimile of a page from the first part is given. This 
earlier hand is the same, Mr. Maunde Thompson tells me, 
as that of the London Nonnus of a.d. 972 ; it is very con- 
siderably abbreviated. The second hand, though later, is 
not without traces of tachygraphy, v. ante s. EN. The 
tachygraphical signs used by the first hand are as follows : 
ai (oHjuiaivei), aic (riMcopiaic), dno {ante)y ap (id,), €iv (ruxeiv), 
€ic (hmcic, oubeic), €ni (eniKaA^otovjai), €p {ante), iv (uaKivGivov), 
napd {ante), unep {id.), 6no {id.). 

(4) The well-known Isidore, B. a. i, written in 986 by Paul, 
second Abbot of Grotta Ferrata, offers the following dis- 
tinctively tachygraphical signs : ai (cjKoAiai), aic (SiaeHKaic) 
ap, and combinations of a with other letters {ante), dno 
{ante), ei (Sajuid^ci) ', civ (i&9aiv6iv), Ini (cTTieujuiiaic), ep {ante), 
IV (dcjKHfliv), trapd {ante), unip (utrep Aorou). It is curious that 
neither here nor in Angel. B. 3. 11 is there any employment 
of the double dots for t which are so frequent in most mss. 
that are at all tachygraphic. The scribe uses the ordinary 
system of abbreviation freely, and the total proportion of 
contracted words is large. 

(5) It was my good fortune to have brought to me in the 
Biblioteca Vallicelliana at Eome, one day in February of 
this year, a Latin ms. numbered D. 43, of the Dialogues of 
S. Gregorius Magnus, saec XI, at the end of which were 
bound up two leaves of a Greek ms. in the writing of 
Grotta Ferrata. A photograph of one leaf was sent to 
Pre. Kocchi at the Monastery, and he was afterwards good 
enough to examine the ms. itself. His conclusion as to the 
hand is, I am happy to say, a confirmation of what sug- 
gested itself to me at first sight : that the writer is Paul, 
monk of Grotta Ferrata, the scribe of the Isidore B. a. i. 

' An unusual way of rendering €t. The diacritic point is appended to the sign 
for at. In Vat. 1809, as one sees in Gitlbauer's facsimile, it is iota and the dia- 
critic point that together give e*. 



The subject-matter is harder to determine ; the leaves con- 
tain, as a librarian's note on the first of them and at the 
beginning of the ms. says, *fragmentum indicis codicis 
antiqui/ but the work to which the index was prefixed 
Pre. Kocchi was unable to discover ; it was probably, in 
his opinion, a commentary on part of the New Testament, 
possibly S. Pauls Epistles. 

The interest however of the fragment is palaeographical. 
The leaves, numbered 88 and 89, measure lof x 8 in., are 
in double columns with 44 lines in each; they. together 
form one sheet of vellum, and, the text being continuous, 
must therefore have been the middle leaves of a quire ; the 
flesh-side of the vellum is outward, the rulings are on the 
hair-side. The writing is above the line. The abbrevia- 
tions are extraordinarily numerous; both in this respect 
and for the rarity of some of the symbols used, no other 
piece of * ordinary writing ' at present known to have come 
from Grotta Ferrata can compare with these two pages. 
The following list gives the tachygraphical signs that I 
have found : a, ai, aic, ava, ano, ap, eic, €k, em, €p, eon, €iai, 
€ivai, IV, ic, ou, napa, toOJtIoti, thv, unep, uno: cf. the words 
Kae'oTi, 9aiv6Tai, vecp^Aaic, dvarevva>vTai, anobHjuei, dnapxH, 
009610, eKbHjuei eKToc, 6ni9aiv6iuevou, MeTepxojuevouc, eon, eioi, 
cTvai, aiToOoiv, eeVic, ouk, voouMevoc, napa, TOuieoTi, napapdjHv, 
unep, uno^uriov. Of these signs four are of great rarity, dva, 
€K, ic, ou : of dva I do not know another instance in ordinary 
bookhand ; Nonnus has it, but in the tachygraphical por- 
tion : €K occurs also in Vat. 1982 and Par. grec 990 : ic, as 
I have already observed, is found elsewhere only in G. P. 
B. I. xix, and ou only in Nonnus and Par. grec 990. It is 
instructive to compare the amount of abbreviation used by 
the same scribe in these two mss., G. F. B. a. i and Vallicell. 
D. 43. 

(6) The ms. of S. Maximus, Grott. Ferr.' B. a. iv written in 
992 by Neophytus, is far less widely contracted than the 
Isidore, while on the other hand it offers some examples of 


signs which that ms. does not use. Cf. ai (on vai), €k (a>c 
6K ToO), 6v (ojunAoOjuev), IV (e^AHoiv), T€c (aw^fi), THv (id.) : a small 
piece of more continuous tachygraphy occurs on the margin 

off. 390; pHTOiV MUOTHpiCOV. 

(7) Again ms. B. a. iii (s. XII according to Rocchi), in a good 
calligraphic hand, has, with an abundance of compendia of 
the ordinary sort (cf. s. A, AP, €IN, €P, etc.), the peculiarity 
of the tachygraphic sign for au, unknown elsewhere in the 
ordinary writing of the school, but very frequent here, 
whether as au or lau : cf. s. AY and the examples tquthc, 
TQUTHv, eauTov, auTHv : I take a longer piece of tachy- 
graphy from f. 67 V. GeoGai b^ juiovco loi rrpoc dAneoiav [1] 

(8) Montfaucon Pal. Graec, p. 283 gives a facsimile of a 
manuscript in the house of the Basilian order at Rome. 
The entire collection once belonging to this order is well 
known to be now in the Vatican, where it is incorporated 
\mder the ' Vaticani graeci,' beginning at 1962. The par- 
ticular ms, intended by Montfaucon is, as I have found out, 
Vat. 1982 or Basil. 21. Its description is as follows: 
membr. 8 x 5^ in., ff. 223 ; ff. 1-189 are in ordinary script, 
36 lines on a page, in a rather small good eleventh-century 
hand below the line, only slightly contracted; ff. 190 r., 

190 v., 191 r., being blank leaves of the same book, are 
filled with contemporary semi-tachygraphic writing, con- 
taining on 1 90 r. and v. various medical receipts, on 1 90 v. 

191 r. an extract from Chrysostom (inc. rd rdp nAeTora toSv 
djutapTHjudTcov), 191 v. is blank. Ff. 192-223 are apparently 
a different book, in a much smaller but contemporary hand, 
much abbreviated, 29 lines to the page, containing S. Basil's 
Aoroi on various portions of scripture, the first being that on 
Psalm VII which Montfaucon facsimiled ; it is defective at 
the end. The book may have come from Grotta Ferrata, 
but was certainly not written there, for on a modem fly-leaf 
at the beginning is the inscription JSa? ZiftWa MB. Monasterii 

D 2 


8- Helie Carhonensis ^ Nullius Dioecesis, Anglonen. Ordinis 
8. Basilii Magni, and the hand bears not the slightest re- 
semblance to that of the famous Isidore of Grotta Ferrata ; 
it is in fact hard to see what can have suggested their 
identity to Montfaucon ^. 

The ms. appears to use the following tachygraphical signs : 
QIC (napoijuiaic), au (evraOea), dno (dno Toiv), be {ante)^ eK 
(no. i), €v (a7ite)y eni (enieujuiae), Ka (both with a dot, as 
KaT€x6jLi€voi, and without, as KaAAicpcjoviac), Kap (Kapbia), Kara 
(Karacpeeipei), fia (onepjua), Map (djuapTHjudTOOv), oa (pmioeeloa), 
Ta, Tac, T€C, TOic, Tov, Toc, Tou, Touc, Tco, Tcov, Tcoc {a7ite), uno 
(uTTobeeelcsa), cov (ante); see also under A, A€, €INAI, €IC, 
TTAPA. The most noticeable points are the use of some quite 
rare forms, such as €k, ko, Kap, }ia, iiap, oa (jua and oa 
very frequently), the series of T-syllables, and the absence 
of signs ^ for ai, eiv, iv, eic, ic, unep, uno (in the more usual 
form, cf. ante), syllables which are so common in the Grotta 
Ferrata school. I add a phrase that I cannot at present 
decipher, from £ 190 r; the words immediately preceding 
are rauTa Ae£ac 6 ocoTi4p. 

(9) A manuscript in the Estense at Modena, ii, A. 12, 
S. Maximus de caritate, shows some tachygraphical in- 
fluence : it is of the eleventh to twelfth century, membr. 
5^X4in., ff, 135, in two hands, of which it is the former 
(ff. 1-56) that is partly tachygraphical. The non-tachy- 
graphic abbreviations are uniformly of the later type : e. g, 
those for eic, ic, eiv, iv (q. v. ante). Tachygraphic signs 
occur for ap (oapKoc), iv (rvcooiv, ttoicjooiv), napa (ante), Ta, t€c, 
Tcov (ante), cov (ootccoy) ; the most noticeable of these is that 
for IV, which is very frequent. This hand is upright and 
well-formed, and bears some resemblance to the twelfth- 

^ MSS. from this Library are now to be found at Grotta Ferrata, e.g. A. 
a. xiii s^. 

2 Montfaucon*8 mistake had already been perceived, from a comparison of 
facsimiles, by Lehmann, p. 54. 

. ^ That is, tachygraphic signs. 


century type of Grotta Ferrata hand, as shown in B. a. iii. 
The second hand is quite dissimilar. 

(10) I have next to mention a ms. that has long been 
famous \TX the history of Greek tachygraphy — that of 
Hermogenes at Paris, which is now numbered grec 3032. 
From this book Montfaucon took his *notae rhetoricae et 
oratoriae omnium lectu difficillimae,' which for more than 
a century were the only pubUshed examples of Greek 
shorthand; they reappeared, as is well known, with an 
improved interpretation in Kopp's 'Palaeographia Critica,' 
in 181 7. It is not however with- this venerable material 
that I have to concern myself. The book falls into two 
parts, the text and the marginal annotations, and it is the 
latter that Mojitfaucon published and Kopp revised. Of 
the te^ct, on the other hand, »o account hitherto has been 
taken; it oflfers nevertheless considerable palaeographical 

The ms. is a small vellum book, pp. 152, of no doubt 
the tenth century, in quaternions, written, mostly below 
the line, in a small upright ornamental minuscule, con- 
^iderably ligatured; in the margin, not very constantly, 
are annotations in pure tachygraphy in the same hand as 
that of the text, and in characters quite as large. We 
have therefore an instance of what may be called the 
normal case for the introduction of tachygraphy into book- 
hand ; the case namely where a scribe accustomed to prac- 
tise the tachygraphical system sets himself to write a book 
for the purposes of an ordinary reading public. For much 
the greater proportion of his text, abbreviation of any sort 
is excluded ; but at times, ^vA especially at the ends of 
lines, it is legitimate, and it is inevitable that here, a scribe 
who is cognisant of tachygraphy will borrow signs from it 
as well as from the system of abbreviation ordinarily in 
use, Mss. of the sort are the London Nonnus, where the 
text is as a rule written out in full, not however without a 
diligent inspection of ends of lines yielding a fair return of 


tachygraphical symbols, and the second part of Angel. B. 
3. II, where the tradition of the school manifests itself in 
the same manner in a twelfth-century hand. 

This is precisely what has happened in the ms. in 
question. Par. grec 3032. The text is on the whole little 
contracted, but frequently at the ends of lines, and occa- 
sionally in the body of the paragraph, the scribe allows 
himself to shorten a word, adopting the same system as 
that in which he afterwards wrote his marginal comments. 
A considerable number therefore of signs usually considered 
tachygraphical may be taken from the text of this ms. 
I enumerate those that I have found, adding that as my 
study both of thi^ and the following ms. was short, the list 
must not be considered exhaustive. Syllables represented 
are : at (buvajuQi), ano (dnopAencov), apa (apa), vou (aioxivou), 
01 (bouAoi), ov (tov, (piAmnov), oc (nAfteoc), on (fc^V), (napabetf- 
juajoc), Tai (loTcii), tqv (oxav), to (toOto), oov (nAcxTo^v). V. 
also s. OYC . 

(11) Another tachygraphical Paris ms., grec 990, has been 
indicated and in part described by Oh, Graux, in the bril- 
liant sketch of Greek Tachygraphy to which I have already 
referred. Journal des Savants^ i88j, pp, 316, 317. I learn 
from M. Omont that there is no hkelihood of the complete 
study of the ms., which is there promised, being published, 
and I therefore take the opportunity of giving here such 
further particulars as I was able to gather during a short 

, inspection of the ms. I lament that my account is not 
fuller, and does not better take the place of the authori- 
tative study that was to have been expected of the re- 
gretted French palaeographer; but, as tachygraphy now 
stands, the addition of even a handful of new forms is 
worth making, especially when, as in the present instance, 
there are at hand the means for reproduction. 

The ms. is dated 1030, and is of the ordinary minuscule 
of that period ; there is nothing in the character of the 
hand to suggest the tachygraphical knowledge of the 


scribe. The ordinary compendia that are used, e. g. for 
QIC, 6iv, exhibit the later stage of the forms. The ms. con- 
tains the poems of S. Gregory Nazianzen with a prose 
paraphrase, in parallel columns ; it is in the paraphrase, 
according to the necessities of space, as Graux clearly 
describes, that the abbreviations occur. I have obsei-ved 
the following, to which must be added the forms already 
quoted by Graux, the most interesting of which are no and 
boc : 

ai (jucopaivovTCc), aic (dvoiaic), aX (69eaA)Liouc), dno (dno 
GTCpHoic), au (naucjCTQi), €A (pcATioTOv), €ni (no. l), ep (napep- 
)(€Tai), 6u (nveO^a), iv (KOAoOaiv), Ka (KaxeAapev), kqi (no. 2), 
Kara (KajaAajuipdvoo), jue (no. 3 M^jd), 01 (dvejuoi), ojuoC (no. 4), ov 
(ovTCOc, Tov), ou (ouv€Aeouc5Hc), nav (ndvTOOc), pau (no. 5 Kcpauvoc), 
TO (ndvra, Taura, unepeibcojuiaTa), rai (9opouvTai), rac (KaTa90- 
poOvTOc), Tou (v. TQUTa above), re (xeKvoic, Hjutej^poic), thc 
(thc eaAaooHc), to (npoojOKdeebpoi), toic (toIc biKaioic), tov 
(9eapT6v, tov), toc (KAanevTOc), tou (tou xp'^^ou), too (djuuHTCo), 
Tcov (90iTCOvTaiv), Tooc (ouTCOc), uno (und thTiv), cov (a>ea!)v). 

A remark or two upon some of .these forms may be in 
place ; to discuss the ms. as a whole will need more complete 
examination. The syllables aA, eA, jme, pau are of very great 
rarity. I do not know if parallels can be quoted from any 
ms. but Vat. 1809 and Add. mss. 18231. The form 01 is 
illustrated by Graux 1. c, and by Vitelli Sj^ic. Fiorent. pp. 
13, 168 : it must still be called rare. The form eu has been 
found by Martin in the scholia to the Ravenna Aristophanes ; 
the tachygraphical n, as in ndvTcoc, is very uncommon in 
ordinary bookhand ; the sign for ov is not generally found 
on the line ; Kai represented by three dots occurs elsewhere 
in Vat. 1809, Add. mss. 18231, in some Laurentian mss. 
quoted by Vitelh, pp. 15, 32, and in the late ms. Vat. Pal. 
73 discussed by M. Desrousseaux (v. p. 28, n. i). With 
regard to the series of Tau-abbreviations, there is to be 
noticed the freedom with which the dots are superimposed 
instead (their more usual position), of being arranged one on 
either side of a stroke of the sign for the following syllable ; 


the Tcov of this ms. compared with the sam6 syllable in Vat. 
1982 will illustrate the differencei It is obviously a mere 
convenience of the scribe's, and not a distinct usage. A 
somewhat erroneous idea of the origin of these two dots is 
given by Gardthausen Griech. Paldogr, p. 199. 

In conclusion it is convenient to notice here some mss. 
which offer one or two tachygraphical signs only. One such 
is a ms. of Galen, H. 45 in the Capitular Library of S. Peter's 
at Kome, of the xii-xiiith century, written on palimpsest 
vellum ; the text offers no peculiarities, but at the end is 
written in red the sentence toC 9iAoa69ou Kupou 9iAar(Seou, in 
the manner represented in the plate. Not only the tou, but 
the plain strokes for the alpha in a ms. of this age, and the 
purely tachygraphical form of the 9, are very noticeable. 
A single tachygraphical form, oac, is given in the word 
e^obcooac (the context is fie Kai tov nal&a e^cooooac) by Vallicell. 
E. 55 of the xith century. Other mss. of this sort that have 
already been described are Clarke 12 (v. s. m^v, tc), Angelica 
T. I. 8 (tq, t€c, tcov, tcoc), Roe 16 (ev), Laud. gr. i (thv), 
Neapol. II. A a. 22 (re, tcoc). 

Plate I. 

L -r 


I rCju^Tpjc TrXtvpj ^sAft- c^sf^ /^r^fs KK-<»>kiyjo^ 

? »^ 

^^ 5 e^ i^B Ttrxxi iN r ^^vT en^fX»^'C 

eviattoMS m Greek MSS, Claremhn Press, 


Plate II. 

AN "eAWK, oT| »/ ru!-TP^ ^"^ ""^"^ 

«./_ i >% •» ♦^ . A 

^^ ^^'^ ovKf ^y A Sii.^o^juL€A/^ \^/\>i'F^\^/tl 

^^"z?^ ^^SV ' "■ ' 

t~fs/ l<, \\l J*. 

ADO <y l|^ i^U/^V'^)^* M/^pei 



AP^ ^ ^ i 'e;:^ J-^ .^ iii ^ ^^ 

fL 13 ^ 

/\C iTTA.f'c'V^ iYT"""^ OC?^'^'^ iy-^Sif^^T? 

^r tv^^frf-H.^- tv-^ ib'-^ "^'^'"^ '^^■^ 

vioHoHS in Greek MSS, 

J .V o J 4 

^ClareHtUn Press. 


^ « 

Plate III, 


I "Z. 

e,H VM' TJyt^- l^^T |^,J,afj cr^^/ 

WtaHons in Gretk AfSS, 

Clarendon Press. 


^^'^P t^^ ^TTW C^ 

11/- J *« ^ '" //A>'V'^<~,»' l_^«" I 

,2. 3 4 s- 6 7 ^ S !f 1 

61NM- -^ Tv \ ^- > ^- '^- ^ \ ^- \ 


, Of "^ S 

^nrV oTr|( V717 ^^ «> ^ ^"^ (TUfjyOl 

bL '^»*^"' Un-^ A/f*^ €^ T 'T^^IK'v-t; \feow>- 

^6h KOT d\PL4y-0IJ ITT <^/^^yT Kxxp^T 

"^rtviatiom in Gretk MSS. 

Plate IV. 

CUrmdon Press. 

Plate V, 

lA^^rroyr^ JV^m 

_ •^ » 



•i i tt. 

7 8 


GOT I 7/v- ec/- 

^ ^ 4 


1 Us f^^ufj^-n^ /^^ ^ 








.t' 3 


'f /■ v^ "V 'M^ V Y^' 

^^hreviatums in Greek MSS, 

Clarettdw, Pr»«, 

•a- / ^ ^/ 

M6N "^ '^ 6fiUp?Z 


twV^c '\ Ttx)c i£ys^ f^y^"**^ T\ 

•^t^wrlicAy, ^c ^^cOT^^- 1*^ -t/f" VKT6P 



LL6 u-cM ornrr Toc 


OTC «^"J -ry -nsTTij niVJKY tow x tdJotAjojj^ 

y5(P<^N T TD /yr ^^uvp ^^V 


•vjuL^u <5tv7 p^li7li<M^o'ur 

^^hreviations in Greek MSS. Clarendon Press. 

Plate VII. 


OT 6\t^rHAt^c ^Xb^ <rvLd 











^ -s m 


, . 7 -^ 8 \ 9 

7tVA(A.X(3 tt T2)\uc%^^ tKgoXhc^ 'rrH<<utD 





i- 1 


T^l \M6/\A/VH'\^] 

I 2. 

* I 

T^C In-c/J 






•^ b^ '^-?^7<7ro'Xo<V' 

re [^r] 

T^V" "Wo 

a . 




y^AiA' h^yf 

^ ^' S'>< A-^>. 

-^^^reviatnms in Greek MSS. 

ClarttidoH Press, 

Plate VIII, 

^^^? xa / W 

THN yi^ / / / 

TIN ?/■ 

TOlC[f/'] -i. -^ YkV^ 

TOC [•\i7j 't'/^'^ "^ ^c^Q 

TOT It 1 t -^ ii'fAo^'^o 


X6/^ih»4 '^'^^ 

-^^ireznaHoHs in Greek AfSS, 

Clarenelon Press, 

Plate IX. 

.o wv "^ i-\ .r 

•Yno ^' ^ }^ V^ ^^vV j>^ 


cop pHT* i^HK ^r A^7o-n\T*^ V^T(X/f-a:|^ 


COG ^Xj y-rw. ^-r-r| >^ OLA/r" LC. co^ o?0V^ 

c^^^nep ^ ^ ^'.^ ,.^ 


/O -OIC 

viations in Greek JffSS, 

C/at'««M6on Pvt», 


Plate X. 

C^) X'^f^y ^ U JfenyiAl 7^-0/ 


'u^TVtpGyu? yUf-^ 


i^ \^^ \i^' /i^ f/ 




CHAol^wei T^M^fi ^ "'^OO "^Pjf- ovdV. 

) <rko/iC :^-fri;ii3' hjt^^ rC^Vjj^ 

} ^^.■^ ^p^ pt^4'^ y^yv-H m/^h 




Cvii; ^ 

i cv 

•■1 * 



-^<n^ 7 

'-e; -^ 



iddrevtatz'oHs in Greek MSS, 

ClarendoH Press. 

Plate XI. 

«^/>; -?^>T [inj^D ^^Jtf: 

ov^ 5<;t eb-f- 

^-^ 00 CD <i/ 

reviatums in Gr($k MSS, 

Clarendon Press.