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Full text of "Notes on the amended English Bible, with special reference to certain texts in the revised version of the Old and New Testaments bearing upon the principles of Unitarian Christianity"

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NOTES 



ON THE 



AMENDED ENGLISH BIBLE 



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CERTAIN TEXTS IN THE 



KEYISED VEKSIOJST 



OF THE 



OLD A1STD NEW TESTAMENTS 



BEARING UPON THE PRINCIPLES OF 



UNITARIAN CHRISTIANITY. 



BY 

HENRY IERSON, M.A. 



BRITISH AND FOREIGN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION, 
ESSEX HALL, ESSEX STREET, STRAND, LONDON. 

1887. 



* * 

* 



The British and Foreign Unitarian Association, in accordance 
with its First Rule, gives publicity to works calculated " to promote 
Unitarian Christianity by the diffusion of Biblical, theological, and 
literary knowledge, on topics connected with it," but does not hold 
itself responsible for every statement, opinion, or expression of the 
writers. 




CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Preface v 

Introduction ...... 

The Scriptures, and the Word of God . 

Orthodoxy and Heresy 

Infidelity and Unbelief ... X 4 

Mystery, Wisdom, Science, Philosophy 16 

The Trinity ....... l8 

The Trinity in the Old Testament. The word God . .21 

The Sole Deity and Unity of God Old Testament . 26 

The Sole Deity and Unity of God New Testament . 

God specifically named the Father . 3 2 

The Father the God of Jesus . -35 

The Holy Spirit, the Spirit of God . 37 

The Deity of Christ ... 5 6 

Worship of Christ .... -75 

Supposed Allusions to Christ in the Old Testament . . 79 

New Testament References to the Old Testament . . 95 

Pre-existence of Christ ... 9^ 

Christ's Resurrection ... io 

Some significant Names given to Jesus Son of Man . .103 

The Term, Son of God 104 



IV CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Christ specially designated the Son of God .... 107 

Christ the Servant of God 109 

Sheol, Hades, Hell in 

The words Damned, Damnable, Damnation . . .126 
Satan, the Devil, the Evil One 130 

Worlds or Ages. The Age to come. Use of the word 

Eternal 133 

Man's Fallen Nature 139 

Redemption, Atonement, Forgiveness 143 

Conversion 150 

Election, Justification, Salvation 153 

The Free Grace of God 157 



PREFACE. 



WE have happily now an amended English Bible. One 
has only to remember how the Scriptures in the Authorized 
Version were commonly talked about not many years ago, to 
appreciate the importance of this fact. The strongest charge 
that used to be made in disparagement of those who protested 
against corrupt texts and incorrect translations of the Bible, 
was that they were tampering with the Word of God. It is 
now admitted that the old Version needed correcting, and 
that the plea urged by Unitarians for a purer Scripture was 
not made without solid, reasonable grounds. There is still 
ample room for further amendment; and when the time for it 
comes, as it certainly must before very long, the work already 
done will render it easier to make a more thorough revision 
upon simple critical and scholarly principles ; but there is 
no good reason in the meanwhile for any hesitation to adopt 
for public use the Version now completed. It is clearly 
upon the whole a great improvement on the older work, so 
far as it goes, and the more it is studied and used, the more 
will it be felt to go a long way towards what is really wanted. 

The intense eagerness with which the publication of the 
New Testament Revision was received arose, no doubt, in 
some degree from curiosity, and it is probable that many 
ordinary readers have not even yet fully realized the immense 
difference it makes, that they have now a new, though it be 



VI PREFACE. 

only a revised Version of the Scriptures placed in their 
hands. But it will be indeed unfortunate if the public are 
not encouraged to make good use of their present advantages. 
The time for finality in such matters is past. Newer light 
will come, and men ought to welcome it as it comes, which 
they will readily do if once they are enabled to perceive 
why the learned study these writings with so much loving 
interest, and that' it is a nation's literature they have to deal 
with in the Bible, and not an anomalous collection of mys- 
terious oracles. Many writers have shown the sterling value 
of numerous corrections in the Revised Version besides those 
bearing upon special doctrines ; but what is really wanted is 
that the people should be trained in the scholarly habit of 
free and conscientious study of Scripture, as they will never 
be so long as the old, erroneous Version is adhered to from 
mere slavish routine. It will be to render an enormous 
service to the growth of Christendom in religious intelligence 
and charity if its scholars and teachers will really help the 
people to appreciate the wealth of improvement now for the 
first time laid open to all, and with commanding authority, 
in the Revised Version of the Bible ; which is indeed, to the 
English-speaking people everywhere, in a really important 
practical sense, almost a new revelation. 

In treating with necessary brevity so large a number of 
texts as are here quoted or referred to, the writer can hardly 
hope that he has always succeeded in making clear to other 
minds the points of remark which, with all the information 
before him, were very clear to his own, or that errors of 
reference may not possibly have escaped attention. It is 
also possible that other amendments may be found in the 



PREFACE. Vll 

Revised Version which might properly have been noticed, 
though it will probably appear that the chief crucial pas- 
sages have been pointed out by opponents, especially by the 
two leading Quarterly reviewers. The author would wish, 
however, to say that he has at least aimed at doing the work 
thoroughly, and with all the care needed to make it useful. 
Undoubtedly studies of this kind, to be perfectly successful, 
require a concentrated devotion of undistracted time and 
interest, which is not at every one's command. And it was 
not at first intended to do more than bring together certain 
well-known passages in which the Revised Version had fol- 
lowed the lines of our older Unitarian critics and expositors. 
But the work has grown under the writer's hands, the num- 
ber of important amended texts having been found much 
greater than was at first supposed. It has been also on this 
account that the method of exhibiting in full the old and the 
new forms of each passage could not be strictly adhered to ; 
but care has been taken to facilitate the study of the various 
texts by the Index at the end of the volume, in which will 
be found not only references to the passages cited, but also 
a general intimation of what they contain. 



ERRATA. 

Page 24, line 19, on Ex. xxii. 28, should read, "changing 'the gods' of 
the Authorized Version to ' God,' " and putting ' or, 
the judge s? in the margin. 

39> 29, instead of 2 Tim. i. 13' read 'i. 14.' 
63, 14, ' John i. 2' read 'i. 3.' 



INTRODUCTION. 



ALL those who value the Scriptures may congratulate them- 
selves on the general results of the work of the British and 
American scholars of various denominations to whom was 
entrusted the grave and arduous duty of amending the English 
Version of the Old and New Testaments. The Revised 
Version of the New Testament which appeared in 1881, 
and that of the Old Testament which was published in 1885, 
have brought ordinary English readers nearer to the true 
sense of the Biblical writers ; an immense boon on many 
accounts, whatever views may be held respecting the Bible 
and its contents. It is of manifest importance that known 
errors should not be perpetuated either in the text or the 
translation of such a volume, and that the people generally 
should be put in possession, so far as was possible, of the 
information on these matters which has too long been the 
sole property of the learned. 

The Bible will not suffer in their estimation of its true 
value from the better understanding of it which is thus 
placed within the reach of every one ; and it will be no 
slight blessing, but something to be very thankful for, if the 
authority of the Bible shall cease to be quoted in defence 
of theological ideas which, though they appear in certain 
Creeds, are in truth neither reasonable nor Scriptural. The 
Scriptures, indeed, may now be searched by English readers 
with the conviction that they have before them a Version not 
indeed in all respects perfect, but much nearer perfection 
than the old Version, and as correct as it was perhaps pos- 
sible to make it under the circumstances, and they can better 

B 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

judge for themselves as to the real force of numerous texts 
which have played a great part in many a grave doctrinal 
controversy. 

It has been asserted that not one of the numerous altera- 
tions which have been made in the Authorized Version 
affected ' one tittle or iota of the Christian faith,' meaning 
by this the sum of Church dogmas. How far this is true 
will be seen from the following pages. We believe that much 
of the ground on which certain Church dogmas have been 
maintained has been cut away by the removal of spurious 
passages and interpolated phrases, and by the correction of 
many serious errors of translation. The reader has only to 
compare the old form with the new, to understand how 
great has been the gain to liberal theology. 

Amongst the number of new versions of the Scriptures 
which have been published by learned men connected with 
the Unitarian body, two will be here specially referred to, 
because they were issued by Unitarian societies, and might 
be understood therefore to represent at least a prevailing 
tendency of opinion at their respective dates: (i) The Im- 
proved Version of the New Testament, which was published 
by the Unitarian Fund Society in 1808. It was based upon 
the revised translation of Archbishop Newcome, Primate of 
Ireland. The Version was severely criticised by some learned 
Unitarians of the time, and it is not now referred to as by any 
means a model translation ; but the extreme injustice with 
which it was treated by the mass of Trinitarian writers will 
be perceived when it is seen how many of the emendations 
now adopted in the Revised Version were anticipated by it. 
(2) The Revised Translation of the Old Testament, which the 
British and Foreign Unitarian Association published in 1862. 
It was the work of three well-known Unitarian ministers, 
Charles Wellbeloved, John Scott Porter, and George Vance 
Smith, afterwards a member of the New Testament Revision 



INTRODUCTION. 



Company. When either of these authors is quoted in the 
following pages, it will generally be with reference to his 
part in this 'Revised Translation' of 1862. 

It would have been easy to show, had space permitted, 
that with regard to most of the emendations suggested by 
these and other learned men of the Unitarian body, they 
were supported by scholars of other denominations. Refer- 
ences of this kind have been of necessity very few. If, 
however, an exception was to be made, all will admit the 
value and force of our quotations from Dean Alford, who, 
though a decided orthodox Churchman, was in every sense 
of the word a genuine scholar, and an earnest and able 
Biblical commentator. 

The studious reader of the Revised Version will readily 
discover that many of its marginal notes are of special impor- 
tance. They often serve as the true key to the meaning of 
the text, and whoever would use the Revision properly will 
carefully observe the variations of the margin. These notes 
are given in full in these pages at the end of each quotation. 
If not always pertinent to the occasion for which the texts 
are cited, they will be found generally instructive, and they 
will also illustrate to some extent the difficulties which are 
necessarily involved in the work of translation from old 
books written in languages no longer living. 

It must be borne in mind by the reader that the object in 
view in this pamphlet is chiefly to point out certain passages 
in the Scriptures in which the Revision offers some amend- 
ment bearing upon particular controverted doctrines. It 
is remarkable that so many of these changes occur in what 
have been considered orthodox proof -texts, the Revisers 
adopting corrections which have long been contended for by 
Unitarian scholars. In a few instances, however, the altera- 
tions tend in the opposite direction. These are not unnoticed 

B 2 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

in the following pages. But in the main the immense advan- 
tage appears on the side of what we have considered the more 
trustworthy readings and the more scholarly translations. 

Justifying their theological views, as the older Unitarians 
did, by appeal to the Scriptures reasonably interpreted, and 
believing, as Unitarians still believe, that the true Scripture 
in its essence and spirit is not out of harmony with the 
practical religious doctrine of Christian Unitarianism, the 
upholders of that doctrine naturally joined with the learned 
men of other bodies in urging the necessity for amending 
acknowledged faults in the Authorized Version. But the 
interest of our study of the Bible has never been limited to 
the object of securing more enlightened views of disputed 
passages. The improvements made in the Eevised Version 
are of various kinds, and many of them most important, 
which it did not lie within the purpose of these 'Notes' to 
refer to. One point, however, of some moment, not alluded 
to in these pages, should not be overlooked. In their Pre- 
face the Revisers of the Old Testament state in a few words 
what should be the aim of every genuine translation, ' to give 
to modern readers a faithful representation of the meaning 
of the original documents/ But, for the headings of chapters 
and pages which they were directed to revise they found of 
course no originals, and both Companies wisely agreed to 
pass over this instruction ' as involving questions which 
belong rather to the province of the commentator than to 
that of the translator.' Considering the marked theological 
bias of the old head-lines, especially in the Psalms and the 
Prophets, we cannot but regard their omission as a substan- 
tial liberal gain. 

It should be observed that no attempt is here made to 
criticise the Revision, or to go behind either its readings or 
its renderings. It is dealt with simply as it will appear to 
the ordinary English reader. Nor is any question raised 
as to whether the New Version might not be still further 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

improved. The ' Notes' assume that the corrections in the 
Revised Version are such as the occasion called for, and 
proceed generally on the supposition that these amendments 
have been rightly made. Little is aimed at, therefore, beyond 
drawing attention to certain of the adopted or suggested 
changes which obviously bear upon well-known theological 
doctrines, and this with the more effect that the four Com- 
panies of Revisers represented in overwhelming numbers the 
churches in which these doctrines are held as more or less 
fundamental beliefs. 

In the numerous controversies of past times in relation 
to these doctrines, it has been a common practice to treat 
Scriptural texts as though they were all of equal authority, 
without consideration of the particular circumstances under 
which they were written, or even of their contexts ; and texts 
were pitted against texts taken with little discrimination from 
writings of different ages, and meanings were attributed to 
them which in many cases could not possibly have been in 
the intention of the authors. It is certainly not in the spirit 
of these 'Notes' to follow in the track of such unhistoric 
treatment of texts and their interpretation. When it is made 
clear what are the original texts, and what they really say, 
the way will be opened for a fair reconsideration of their 
theological value. The grand point is to know in regard to 
Scripture what are the real facts. And if as the result of 
such study the Scriptures are shown to present a very dif- 
ferent view of certain doctrines, and even for some of them 
to furnish no authority whatever, not only will much have 
been gained in point of scholarship, but light is thrown upon 
the true development of religious thought, and the field of 
doctrine itself is cleared for new and better cultivation. It 
is a grand thing that the Scriptures should be more intelli- 
gently read, and that the immense fresh light upon their 
varied teachings may now be expected to produce its natural 
effect upon the religious thinking of the modern time. 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

There are, perhaps, many persons who will question the 
value of any amendments in controverted texts excepting as 
matters of ecclesiastical, or possibly of historic or antiquarian 
interest ; and it may be regretted that the work of revising 
was not taken in hand long since, when the Bible was more 
implicitly and more generally believed in as the one great 
ultimate authority in religion and morals than is the case in 
these later times ; but it is worth consideration whether 
even twenty or ten years earlier the revision could have been 
made as well as it has now been done. The age of textual 
controversy upon the lines just indicated is undoubtedly 
past, but surely not the period of reasonable, scientific study 
of the Scriptures, which, indeed, is a thing quite modern. 

It has not been thought necessary to quote all the passages 
in every case of correction of which examples have been 
given ; and, besides, the limits of space had to be considered, 
so that only a somewhat disjointed selection of texts could 
be made. This was unavoidable, especially if the Old and 
the New Versions were to be placed side by side, as seemed 
almost a necessity if the reader is asked to note certain 
differences between them. 

But there will also be felt a sense of incompleteness and 
want of proportion in the treatment of the various topics ; 
since though, as we have observed, the Revision gives mani- 
fest advantage to the liberal view of Scripture doctrine upon 
perhaps every point of its old contention with orthodoxy, in 
some cases there would naturally be only a small number of 
corrections, in others more, quite independently of the weight 
of subject ; and it was not intended to offer a treatise on the 
whole theology of these questions. That is a work which 
may well be taken up anew by liberal theologians with the 
aid of the now accredited revisions. In these pages may be 
found some helpful material for a work of the kind, and this 
is all that the writer has undertaken to furnish. 



THE SCRIPTURES, AND THE WORD OF GOD. 



THE SCRIPTURES, AND THE WORD OF GOD. 



2 TIM. 

Authorized Version. 
All Scripture is given by in- 
spiration of God, and is profit- 
able for doctrine, for reproof, 
for correction, for instruction in 
righteousness, that the man of 
God may be perfect, throughly 
furnished unto all good works. 



iii. 1 6. 

Revised Version. 
Every scripture inspired of 
God is also profitable for teach- 
ing, for reproof, for correction, 
for instruction* which is in 
righteousness : that the man of 
God may be complete, fur- 
nished completely unto every 
good work. 

[* Or, discipline. 



So, in substance, the Improved Version translated; 'All 
Scripture given by inspiration of God, is profitable,' &c., 
adding in a note, ' Thus it is not denned what Scripture was 
divinely inspired.' And according to the Revised Version 
also, that question is not here determined. Yet this text 
has been constantly quoted in defence of the inspiration and 
consequent infallible authority of every statement, every 
chapter and line, even every word, in the common Bible. 
The preceding context, ' that from a babe thou hast known 
the sacred writings which are able to make thee wise unto 
salvation,' shows that the writer had in his mind the practical 
value of certain inspired teachings, and that he was referring 
to them in this sense of profitableness. 

It will prove a great advantage if the Revised Version 
shall be found to have given to the Bible-reading public a 
more just view than has been commonly held respecting the 
real character of the original Scriptures. They may no longer 
worship the letter of the Bible, but they will more clearly 
understand its spirit. 



8 



THE SCRIPTURES, AND THE WORD OF GOD. 



i PET. iv. ii. 



Authorized Version. 
If any man speak, let him 
speak as the oracles of God; 
if any man minister, let him 
do it as of the ability which 
God giveth. 



Revised Version. 
If any man speaketh, speak- 
ing as it were oracles of God ; 
if any man ministereth, minis- 
tering as of the strength which 
God supplieth. 



The idea of a Bible which is in every page of it an oracular 
declaration of the mind of God, to which all orthodox Chris- 
tian teaching must conform, is not favoured by the new 
Version. The writer is referring here to the present inspira- 
tion of the Spirit, as Dr. Macknight explains. The speaker 
is to utter faithfully ' what hath been revealed to him,' not 
to regulate what he says by reference to some old, authori- 
tative, infallible rule. 



A similar passage occurs in Rom. (xii. 6), in which the 
phrase, 'the proportion (or analogy) of faith,' has been usually 
understood to indicate a certain scheme of doctrines as con- 
stituting a rule or test by which any new prophesying must 
be guided or tried. Such an idea, as Dean Alford pointed 
out, the context does not support. The Revisers, with him, 
as also with the Improved Version, translate in the text, 
' let us prophesy according to the proportion of our faith.' 
The Apostle is not alluding to a settled rule of faith, as 
Calvin and others supposed, but to his previous expression 
in V. 3, 'as God hath dealt to each man a measure of faith.' 



A passage from the Old Testament has been often cited 
to prove that the Scriptures are ' the final appeal in all con- 
troversies of religion, 3 to use the language of the Westminster 
Confession of Faith, in which the words are quoted as a 
proof-text 



THE SCRIPTURES, AND THE WORD OF GOD. 



Is. viii. 20. 



Authorized Version. 
And when they shall say unto 
you, Seek unto them that have 
familiar spirits,and unto wizards 
that peep and mutter : should 
not a people seek unto their 
God ? for the living to the 
dead ? To the law and to the 
testimony : if they speak not 
according to this word, it is 
because there is no light in 
them. 



Revised Version. 
And when they shall say 
unto you, Seek unto them that 
have familiar spirits, and unto 
the wizards that chirp and 
that mutter : should not a peo- 
ple seek unto their God ? on 
behalf of the living should they 
seek unto the dead? To the 
*law and to the testimony ! tif 
they speak not according to 
this word, surely there is no 
morning for them. 

[* Or, teaching. t Or, surely 
according to this -word shall they 
speak for whom there is no morning. 

The passage is a difficult one, and the sense not easy to 
determine, but the Revisers appear to agree with Bishop 
Lowth that the translation, 'there is no light in them,' is 
clearly inadmissible. The final authority of Scripture in 
settlement of doctrinal controversies is manifestly not the 
thing present to the mind of the Prophet. 



' Search the Scriptures,' in the discourse of Jesus, John 
v. 39, has been made the text of many sermons on the divine 
inspiration of every part of the Bible. This admirable coun- 
sel is now, however, placed in the margin, and it is repre- 
sented as at least more probable that Jesus said, ' Ye search/ 
&c., a translation which the context seems clearly to justify. 



MATT. v. 21. 



Ye have heard that it was 
said by them of old time, Thou 
shalt not kill. 



Ye have heard that it was 
said to them of old time, Thou 
shalt not kill. 



This form is repeated and the same correction is made 



10 



THE SCRIPTURES, AND THE WORD OF GOD. 



in v. 33. (In v. 27 the Revisers omit 'by them of old time/ 
as also does the Improved Version.) The correction is im- 
portant because it makes the point clear that Jesus was 
referring to the actual written Mosaic Law, and not merely 
to old Hebrew usage and opinion. Did he then believe 
that 'God spake all these words' (Ex. xx. i), to which he 
was applying so bold an interpretation and enlargement? 
It is usually supposed that in v. 33 he was referring to one 
of ' these words,' commonly called the third commandment. 
But if so, he certainly puts another of his own in place of it, 
viz. ' Swear not at all.' And, in v. 38, he distinctly reverses 
the law (Ex. xxi. 24) which Moses was commanded to set 
before the people as the law of God. He did not hold the 
modern doctrine that everything contained in the Bible must 
be regarded as of divine inspiration. 

Those also who have been taught that every word of at 
least the original writings has been preserved as a word of 
God by the interposition of Divine Providence, will receive 
unexpected enlightenment in discovering the frequent un- 
certainties of the original text, as often implied, and some- 
times plainly indicated, in the marginal notes and variations. 
They will see how difficult it is in many passages to deter- 
mine what the writers really said. The following is a simple 
example, one out of many 

MARK i. 2. 



Authorised Version. 
As it is written in the Pro- 
phets, Behold, I send my mes- 
senger before thy face, which 
shall prepare thy way before 
thee. The voice of one crying 
in the wilderness, Prepare ye 
the way of the Lord, make his 
paths straight. 



Revised Version. 
Even as it is written in Isaiah 
the prophet,* Behold, I send 
my messenger before thy face, 
who shall prepare thy way. The 
voice of one crying in the wil- 
derness, Make ye ready the 
way of the Lord, make his 
paths straight. 

[* Some ancient authorities read, 
in tlie prophets. 



THE SCRIPTURES, AND THE WORD OF GOD. II 

There has been obviously some mistake here ; if this was 
not made by the original writer in attributing to Isaiah a 
passage not to be found in his writings, then it must be sup- 
posed that the passage from Malachi, the first quoted, was 
an interpolation ; or, if the original contained this, then either 
the transcribers in some of the manuscripts inserted the name 
Isaiah, or others, if it was in the original, omitted it, and, 
observing that there were two quotations from different 
authors, inserted 'prophets' instead. There is no historical 
difficulty on either supposition, if these writings are dealt 
with in the ordinary way. Variations of this kind are of 
common occurrence in all ancient writings. But there is 
insuperable difficulty if the writers are believed to have been 
in any sense the mere organs of an oracular inspiration, and 
therefore above the reach of reasonable criticism. 

It should be further observed that the writers of the 
Gospels follow the Septuagint in omitting 'in the desert' 
in the second clause from Isaiah. The Revisers of the Old 
Testament appear to have translated more correctly the 
original text, if we may judge from the Hebrew parallelism, 
and from the general drift of the passage ; but if they are 
right, the quotation in the New Testament can hardly be 
upheld as infallibly accurate 

Is. xl. 3. 

Authorised Version. Raised Version. 

The voice of him that crieth [ The voice of one that crieth,* 

in the wilderness, Prepare ye i Prepare ye in the wilderness 

the way of the LORD, make the way of the LORD, make 

straight in the desert a high- straight t in the desert a high- 



way for our God. 



way for our God. 

[* Or, that crieth in the wilder- 
ness, t Or, level. 



12 ORTHODOXY AND HERESY. 

ORTHODOXY AND HERESY. 

On the important question of salvation by the holding of 
certain opinions or beliefs, the observant reader will find 
much instructive suggestion particularly in the marginal notes 
of the Revised Version. For example, an expression often 
used by bigoted persons, ' sound in the faith,' occurs in Tit. 
i. 13 and ii. 2. The Revisers keep the words in the text, 
but they explain that ' sound' means ' healthy' or ' healthful;' 
and in v. 9 of the first chapter, ' sound doctrine' becomes in 
the margin 'the healthful teaching,' as also in ii. i, and in 
i Tim. i. 10 and 2 Tim. iv. 3. The following passage fairly 
exhibits the variation : 

2 TIM. i. 13. 



Authorized Version. 
Hold fast the form of sound 
words which thou hast heard 
of me. 



Revised Version, 
Hold the pattern of sound* 
words which thou hast heard 
from me. [* Gr. healthful. 



ROM. vi. 17. 



But ye have obeyed from the 
heart that form of doctrine 
which was delivered you. 



Ye became obedient from the 
heart to that form* of teaching 
whereunto ye were delivered. 



[* Or, pattern. 

The metaphor is said to be that of a mould into which 
metal is cast. 

The idea of a particular scheme of doctrine necessary to 
be believed in order to obtain salvation cannot now be sup- 
ported by this passage. So is there no longer the suggestion 
of an orthodoxy of belief in the following allusion to the fact 
that Titus had received the gospel which Paul preached, 
by which, therefore, both could alike be blessed, though the 
one was a Jew, the other a Gentile 

TIT. i. 4. 



To Titus, mine own Son after 
the common faith. 



To Titus, my true child after 
a common faith. 



ORTHODOXY AND HERESY. 13 

A similar expression occurs in Jude, v. 3, ' to write unto 
you of the common salvation' (in the Revised Version 'our 
common salvation'), in connection with which the author 
would urge a contending earnestly ' for the faith which was 
once delivered unto the saints. 5 (See also v. 20). The 
Revisers have given to this faith what looks like a stamp 
of dogmatic finality by translating 'once for all' instead of 
' once,' the usual translation. Compare v. 5, the only other 
place in which the change could have been made. But the 
whole Epistle has rather a practical aim, and is directed 
against an immoral perversion, 'turning the grace of our God 
into lasciviousness,' and so denying Christ in reality under 
the very guise of his name. 



Another passage which has been conceived to imply that 
a certain set of beliefs is necessary to be held in Christian 
profession, is to be found in the Epistle to the Hebrews. 
But faith is not the thing in question in the text so often 
cited to support the idea of a Christian orthodoxy. In the 
Improved Version the word is rendered, not faith, but hope. 



Authorized Version. 
Let us hold fast the profession 
of our faith without wavering. 



HEB. x. 23. 



Revised Version. 



Let us hold fast the confession 
of our hope that it waver not. 



How the terms ' heresy,' ' heretical,' are used in the New 
Testament may be observed in the following passages : 

ACTS xxiv. 14. 



After the way which they call 
heresy, so worship I the God 
of my fathers. 



After the way which they call 
a sect,* so serve I the God of 
our fathers. 



[* Or, heresy. 

Which is the translation of the Improved Version. The 
word is used several times in Acts in the same sense. 



14 INFIDELITY AND 



TIT. iii. io. 



Authorized Version. 
A man that is an heretic after 
the first and second admoni- 
tion, reject. 



Revised Version. 



A man that is heretical* after 
a first and second admonition, 
refuse.t 



[* Or, factious. t Or, avoid. 
The same kind of note in i Cor. xi. 19 brings out the 
practical character of New Testament heresy, that it means 
something factious and tending to division, and has nothing 
to do with sincere differences of opinion. So also Gal. v. 20, 
' The works of the flesh are . . . factions, divisions, heresies ' 
(marg. ' QI, parties'). 

JUDE 22. 



And of some have compas- 
sion, making a difference. 



And* on some have mercy 
whot are in doubt. 



[* The Greek text in this pas- 
sage (And .... fire) is somewhat 
uncertain. t Or, while they 

dispute with you. 

That some correction was here needed the English reader 
will at once perceive from the absolute abandonment of the 
Authorized translation ; but he cannot but observe with 
respect the straightforward indication given in the margin, 
that in some passages at least of the New Testament, as has 
been remarked, there is great uncertainty as to the original 
text. He may the mere readily receive the precept of toler- 
ance which now appears in the Revised text. 



INFIDELITY AND UNBELIEF. 

' Infidel' is one of the misleading terms which now drop 
out of the Bible. In 2 Cor. vi. 15, the Revised text reads, 
* What portion hath a believer with an unbeliever ?' not ' an 
infidel,' as in the Authorized Version; and in i Tim. v. 8, 
he that provides not for his family is said to deny the faith, 
and to be 'worse than/ not 'an infidel,' but 'an unbeliever,' 



UNBELIEF. 15 

the distinction in both cases being between a Christian and 
a non-Christian, implying no question of religious opinions 
at all, but one of religious profession and consistency of 
action therewith, while to ' deny the faith' clearly means to 
be living in opposition to Christian principles. It is apostasy 
of character, not of opinions, that is reprehended. 

In the following passage the context shows that the Re- 
vised Version conveys more accurately the meaning of the 
original. The text simply describes the punishment of a 
servant who had not done his duty. There is no reference 

to belief or unbelief : T T1 , 

LUKE xn. 46. 



Authorized Version. 
And will appoint him his por- 
tion with the unbelievers. 



Revised Version. 
And appoint his portion with 
the unfaithful. 



That saving faith, in the New Testament, is not to be 
identified with creeds or opinions, may be inferred from the 
following correction : JQHN 



He that believeth on the Son 
hath everlasting life ; and he 
that believeth not the Son shall 
not see life. 



He that believeth on the Son 
hath eternal life; but he that 
obeyeth* not the Son shall not 
see life. [* Or, believeth not. 



So in Rom. xv. 31, the Authorized 'them that do not 
believe, in Judea,' now reads in the Revised, with Alford's 
Version, 'them that are disobedient.' In Heb. xi. 31, 'them 
that believed not,' reads, ' them that were disobedient.' See 
also Rom. xi. 31. The following passage exhibits the same 
suggestive amendment : 

HEB. iv. ii. 

That no man fall after the I That no man fall after* the 



same example of unbelief. 



same example of disobedience. 
[* Or, into, Gr. in. 



' Because of your little faith,' Matt. xvii. 20, is an obvious 
improvement on 'because of your unbelief.' But it is a 
different reading, not a corrected translation. 



i6 



USE OF THE TERM MYSTERY. 



USE OF THE TERMS, MYSTERY, WISDOM, 
SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY. 

i COR. ii. i. 



Authorized Version. 
I came not with excellency 
of speech, or of wisdom, de- 
claring unto you the testimony 
of God. 



Revised Version. 
I came not with excellency 
of speech,* or of wisdom, pro- 
claiming to you the mystery t 
of God. 

[* Or, word. + Many ancient 
authorities read, testimony. 

'The testimony of God' is an unusual expression, but 'the 
mystery of God' is a phrase which occurs elsewhere. For 
example, ' Then is finished the mystery of God, according 
to the good tidings which he declared to his servants the 
prophets' (Rev. x. 7, R.V.). We find also the mystery of the 
kingdom of God, the mystery, or secret, hidden in God from 
past ages, but now made known ; the mystery of the gospel, 
of godliness, and of the faith. But the New Testament use 
of the term 'mystery' gives no sanction to the common idea 
that religion involves belief in incomprehensible or contra- 
dictory propositions. The opening of the door of salvation 
to the Gentile world through the death of Christ was in the 
present instance the revelation of that mystery of God to 
which Paul frequently refers. 



i COR. i. 

Hath not God made foolish 
the wisdom of this world ? 

For after that, in the wisdom 
of God, the world by wisdom 
knew not God, it pleased God 
by the foolishness of preaching 
to save them that believe. 



20, 21. 

H^ith not God made foolish 
the wisdom of the world ? 

For seeing that in the wis- 
dom of God the world through 
its wisdom knew not God, it was 
God's good pleasure through 
the foolishness of the* preach- 
ing to save them that believe. 

[* Gr. thing preached. 



WISDOM AND SCIENCE. 17 

It was not by wisdom that the world was misled, but by 
the particular schemes of opinion which it regarded as wis- 
dom ; and it is with this unsound preconception the Apostle 
contrasts the gospel which he taught, the preaching which, 
though the world of that time failed to apprehend it in its 
divine truth and force, justifies itself also to the modern 
mind in proportion as it becomes better understood. Fool- 
ishness of any sort in preaching is the last thing he would 
have commended. 



COL. ii. 8. 



Aiithorized Version. 
Beware lest any man spoil 
you through Philosophy and 
vain deceit. 



Revised Version. 



Take heed lest there shall 
be any one that maketh spoil 
of you through his philosophy 
and vain deceit. 



The Apostle is not to be understood as discrediting philo- 
sophy, but only the ill-grounded assumption of it which was 
so commonly made at the time for purposes of profit. There 
were those who turned the Christian profession to the same 
perverted use, 'supposing that godliness is a way of gain' 
(i Tim. vi. 5). The Revised Version has here a great im- 
provement on the Authorized ' supposing that gain is godli- 
ness.' The Improved Version had the same correction. 

It is gratifying to find that in the Eevised Version the 
text does not appear of which many ignorant persons have 
made a deplorable use, as though Christianity had been set 
by an inspired writer in antagonism with scientific truth. 
Instead of ' oppositions of science, falsely so called,' we now 
read, ' oppositions of the knowledge which is falsely so called' 
(i Tim. vi. 20). This was probably the beginning of the 
fanciful ' Gnosis' that had so much to do with the genesis of 
the Church orthodoxy, a very different thing from the patient 
and sober study of facts, or science properly so called. 

c 



1 8 THE TRINITY. 



THE TRINITY. 



Authorized Version. 

For there are three that bear 

record in heaven, the Father, 



i JOHN v. 7. 



Revised Version. 



[This text is simply dropped 
out of the Bible, without even 



the Word, and the Holy Ghost, a marginal note, and a new 7th 
and these three agree in one. j verse is made out of the end of 

' v. 6 to take its place. 1 ] 

' These celebrated words,' says Mr. Sharpe, 2 ' are omitted 
by all critical editors, because not found in any Greek manu- 
script that was written before the invention of printing. They 
are the only words in the Bible which directly support the 
Athanasian Trinity of Father, Word, and Holy Ghost.' The 
editors of the Improved Version anticipated the Revisers in 
omitting this verse, stating in a note the incontrovertible 
reasons for regarding it as spurious, added by a later hand, 
and not the work of the original author. But it is now 
decided that the passage has never really formed part of 
the Sacred Writings. No educated person can henceforth 
refer to this text as containing Scriptural doctrine in oppo- 
sition to the Unitarian belief. 



MATT, xxviii. 19. 

Go ye therefore, and teach I Go ye therefore, and make 
all nations, baptizing them in j disciples of all the nations, 

1 In some other instances of verses omitted in the Revised Version 
no attempt has been made to disguise the omission, e.g. Matt. xvii. 21, 
' This kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting.' 

2 In a short tract, now out of print, which was compiled on the same 
method that is here adopted. It was entitled, ' Controversial Texts 
Corrected ; or, a Selection of Texts from the New Testament, which 
either through Mistakes in the Translation, or from Faultiness in the 
Greek Manuscript used by the early Translators, have been made to 
give countenance to the Popular Doctrines of the Trinity, the proper 
Deity of Jesus, and the Atonement.' Mr. Sharpe's notes referred to in 
the present publication are mostly contained in this tract. 



THE TRINITY. 



Authorized Version. 
the name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 



Revised Version. 
baptizing them into the name 
of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost. 



' Into the name of was the translation also of the Improved 
Version. The Greek preposition is the same as will be found 
in i Cor. x. 2, where of the Israelites in the wilderness it is 
said in the Authorized Version, they ' were all baptized unto 
Moses in the cloud and in the sea,' which the Eevised Ver- 
sion leaves unaltered, but says in the margin, 'or, into? In 
a similar case in Acts the Revisers translate ' into,' preferring 
this to the Authorized 'unto:' 'And he said (Acts xix. 3), 
Into what then were ye baptized? And they said, Into 
John's baptism.' Then follows verse 5, as transcribed below. 
That this was the formula actually used by the Apostles may 
be seen in corrections of the Revised Version such as the 
following, which were anticipated in each instance in the 
Improved Version. These clearly explain the few other cases 
where the word 'in' is employed. The second passage indi- 
cates clearly the force of the ' into,' the correct translation. 

ACTS xix. 5. 



When they heard this they 
were baptized in the name of 
the Lord Jesus. 



And when they heard this 
they were baptized into the 
name of the Lord Jesus. 



i COR. i. 13, 15. 



Was Paul crucified for you ? 
or were ye baptized in the name 
of Paul ? 15. Lest any should 
say that I had baptized in mine 
own name. 



Was Paul crucified for you ? 
or were ye baptized into the 
name of Paul? 15. Lest any 
man should say that ye were 
baptized into my name. 



The change in these instances appears so slight that the 
effect of the correction, and the decisive alteration of the 
sense and purport of the text produced by it, may be scarcely 
at first apparent. It is, however, clear that baptizing into the 



C 2 



20 THE TRINITY. 

name of Paul could only have meant baptizing into the pro- 
fession of discipleship to Paul. So the nations were to be 
made, with the accompanying sign of baptism, disciples of 
the faith indicated, in God, the One only God the Father, 
in his Son Jesus Christ, and in his Holy Spirit. 

The idea is the same in 2 Cor. xiii. 14, where the Apostle 
desired that the brethren might be blest with the grace of the 
Lord Christ, the love of God, and the communion or equal 
participation and enjoyment of his Holy Spirit. All this is 
extremely unlike the kind of thought suggested in the Autho- 
rized Version of Christ's last injunction to his disciples. The 
phrase is commonly used as a kind of adjuration ; churches 
are dedicated, and associations of various kinds consecrated, 
' in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy 
Ghost,' with mystic reference to a Triune God. The Revisers 
do not alter the term 'Holy Ghost' in the text last men- 
tioned, but they insert the note, ' or, Holy Spirit.' 

These are the three chief proof-texts in the Confession of 
the Westminster Assembly in support of the doctrine of the 
Trinity. The first is gone. It is acknowledged to have 
never been really a part of the Bible. The second has un- 
dergone a marked change in its evident purport. The third 
relates to what Unitarians in common with other Christians 
believe; the love of God, his gift of pitying and helpful grace 
in Christ, and the spiritual power of his inspiring presence 
in the souls of earnest and faithful men, as we read in Heb. 
vi. 4 : ' who were once enlightened, and tasted of the hea- 
venly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost' (' or, 
Holy Spirit,' see note, Heb. ii. 4). The three ideas are 
brought together in another very practical form in Jude 20 : 
' Praying in the Holy Spirit, keep yourselves in the love of 
God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto 
eternal life,' where the previous reference to evil persons 
' having not the Spirit' explains the preference of the Revisers 
for the term Spirit instead of the Authorized ' Ghost' in this 
particular instance. 



THE TRINITY IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 21 

SUPPOSED HINTS OF THE TRINITY IN THE 
OLD TESTAMENT THE WORD GOD. 

If the Trinity has been found in the Old Testament, it has 
not been on account of errors in the original text, or to any 
great extent through mistranslations in the Authorized Ver- 
sion. The discovery has been possible only by means of 
forced applications of passages which to the writers them- 
selves had no such meaning, and by imaginative inferences 
from mere peculiarities of Hebrew idioms and modes of 
thought. It was hardly to be expected, therefore, that a 
Revision of the Old Testament would throw much new light 
upon this subject. 

One of the passages most relied upon to prove that the 
Trinity was at least implicitly revealed in the Old Testament 
(Is. xlviii. 1 6), will be better dealt with hereafter [see p. 51], 
It will be seen in that instance that the Revision gives little 
countenance to the common view of the text in question. 
The few other texts often quoted to this effect will be found, 
very properly, unaltered in the Revised Version such, for 
example, as Ps. xxxiii, 6, ' By the word of the LORD were the 
heavens made, and all the host of them by the breath of his 
mouth ;' and some persons may still imagine that the terms 
'LORD, word and breath (or, spirit}' indicate a Divine Trinity, 
while others will, with better reason, think that ' the word of 
the LORD' and 'the breath of his mouth' rather mean the 
same thing, according to the rules of parallelism in Hebrew 
poetry. (See a similar passage in Is. xxxiv. 16.) The three- 
fold repetition of the term 'Holy' before the Divine name 
in such passages as Is. vi. 3, and of the name 'Jehovah' in 
the form of blessing in Num. vi. 24 26, which is supposed 
to imply a Trinity, will also be found, and of course without 
change, in the Revised Version. In such cases, there has 
been no question of either readings or renderings. Unitarians 
may still say, as they have always said, that the Trinitarian 



22 



THE TERM GOD AS USED 



inference from these very simple and natural Oriental forms 
of expression is unwarranted and unreasonable. 

But it has been believed that among what Canon Liddon 
calls the ' occult references ' to this doctrine, the ' plural 
form' of the Divine name 'was necessary' to be used by 
Moses with a verb in the singular in the very first verse of 
the Bible, ' in order to hint at the complex mystery of God's 
inner life,' 1 the text reading, ' In the beginning God (literally 
'gods') created (literally 'he created') the heavens and the 
earth.' It will be interesting, therefore, to note the changes 
made or suggested in the Revised Version in certain passages 
in which the word Elohim, the plural name of God, occurs. 

GEN. iii. 5. 



Aiithorized Version. 
Then your eyes shall be 
opened, and ye shall be as 
gods, knowing good and evil. 



Revised Version. 

Then your eyes shall be 
opened, and ye shall be as 
God,* knowing good and evil. 

[* Or, gods. 

So Mr. Wellbeloved translated, ' Ye will be as God,' since 
the first pair could have known only the one God with whom 
they were in communication. 

Ex. xxxii. i, 4. 



Make us gods which shall 
go before us. 

4. And they said, These be 
thy gods, O Israel, which 
brought thee up out of the land 
of Egypt. And when Aaron 
saw it, he built an altar before 
it. 



Make us gods* which shall 
go before us. [* Or, a god. 

4. And they said, These be 
thy gods,* O Israel, which 
brought thee up out of the land 
of Egypt. And when Aaron saw 
this, he built an altar before it. 



[* Or, this is thy god. 

This is also Mr. Wellbeloved' s translation, the calf being 

1 Bampton Lectures, 1866, Lect. II. It should be noted, by the way, 
that the plural word is applied to Moses himself in Ex. vii. i : ' See, I 
have made thee a god (Elohim) to Pharaoh.' The expression is the 
same, and it is used in the same manner, in such passages as Ps. Ixxxvi. 
io: 'Thou art God (Elohim) alone.' 



IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 23 

single, though the Hebrew word is as usual in the plural. So 
the incident is described in Neh. ix. 18, 'This is thy God,' 

viz. the molten calf. 

i SAM. xxviii. 13. 



Authorized Version. 
And the woman said unto 
Saul, I saw gods ascending out 
of the earth ; and he said unto 
her, What form is he of? 



Revised Version. 

And the woman said unto 

Saul, I see a god* coming up 

out of the earth ; and he said 

unto her, What form is he of? 



[* Or, gods. 

Dr. G. Vance Smith translates, with the Revisers, ' a god,' 
since the preternatural figure so denominated was clearly 
one, not many, the figure of the old, departed prophet, 
Samuel. The Revisers might well have left out their mar- 
ginal note, for the usage of the name in the plural for a 
supernatural being was well understood by the Hebrews. 



In one of the Psalms the marginal note enables the ordi- 
nary reader to see how freely the term 'god' or 'gods 5 was 
used by the Hebrew writers 

Ps. xxix. i. 



Give unto the LORD, O ye 
mighty . . . glory and strength. 



Give unto the LORD, O ye 
sons* of the mighty,t . . . glory 
and strength. 

[* Or, sons of God. t Or, 

gods, see Ex. xv. n. 

The Eevisers insert the same notes in the margin at Ps. 
Ixxxix. 6, ' Who among the sons of the mighty is like unto 
the LORD?' 

Since the word which we translate 'God.' -A hen it desig- 
nates the Divine Being, occurs so commonly in the plural 
form, while it must sometimes be translated 'gods,' or 'mighty 
ones,' there is an occasional ambiguity which the context 
does not always give the means of clearing up. Thus in 
Josh. xxii. 22 the Revision reads: 'The Lord the God of 
gods, he knoweth,' but the marginal note is, ' or, God, even 



24 THE TERM GOD AS USED 

God the Lord, Heb. El Elohim, Jehovah? In Ps. 1. i, how- 
ever, the same words are translated differently, and for the 
Authorized ' The mighty God, even the Lord,' the Revision 
reads in the text what is put in the other passage in the 
margin, ' God, even God the Lord.' 

There is no doubt that, as suggested in the text above 
cited, the plural Elohim was sometimes used with a plural 
sense to designate rulers, mighty men, especially the chief 
men of Israel, as well as the gods of the nations. Jesus 
argued (John x. 34) from this familiar usage, in justifica- 
tion of his claim to be a Son of God (so it stands in the 
Greek, as the Revisers indicate by putting the definite article, 
which they adopt, in italics). The passage he referred to 
occurs in Ps. Ixxxii. 6, ' I said, ye are gods, and all of you 
sons of the Most High' (R. V.). In the opening of the 
Psalm the Revisers translate, ' God standeth in the congre- 
gation of God,' where the Authorized Version had, 'the 
congregation of the mighty.' They also say, Ex. xxii. 28, 
'Thou shalt not revile God (putting ' or, the judges] of the 
Authorized Version in the margin), nor curse a ruler of thy 
people.' They make the same change also in several other 
places. In Ex. xxi. 6, where the Authorized Version says, 
'they shall bring him to the judges,' the Revisers say 'to 
God,' putting ' or, the judges] in the margin, and the same in 
xxii. 8, 9. So in i Sam. ii. 25, 'the judge shall judge him,' 
reads now 'God (Elohim),' 'or, the judge] appearing in the 
margin. In i Chron. xxiv. 5, instead of 'governors of the 
house of God,' we now read, 'princes of God.' 

The same kind of change is made in the well-known 
Psalm, which is quoted in Heb. ii. 7, from the Septuagint, 
where Elohim was before translated ' angels '- 

Ps. viii. 5. 



Authorized Version. 
For thou hast made him a 
little lower than the angels. 



Revised Version. 
For thou hast made him but 
little lower than God.* 

[* Or, the angels. 



IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 25 

How the plural word Elohim was used with special refer- 
ence to the One Divine Being may be seen in Deut. xxxii. 
39, 'I am he, and there is no God (Elohim) with me;' also 
in Josh. xxiv. 19, where the Revisers had no improvement 
to suggest. Joshua says to the people, 'Ye cannot serve 
Jehovah, for he is a holy God,' both words, the adjective as 
well as the substantive, being in the plural, 'he is holy 
Gods,' if literally translated. They have, however, rightly 
corrected in several instances, adopting the same rule of 
interpretation : 

Hos. xi. 12. 



Authorized Version. 
But Judah yet ruleth with 
God, and is faithful with the 
saints. 



Revised Version. 
But Judah yet ruleth with 
God, and is faithful with the 
Holy One. 



Which would be, if translated literally, ' the Holy Ones.' In 
the following passages also the same plural form occurs, which 
the Revisers, with Mr. Wellbeloved, understand to mean the 

One All-holy Being. 

PROV. xxx. 3. 



I neither learned wisdom, 
nor have I the knowledge of 
the holy. 



o v 



And I have not learned wis- 
dom, neither have I * the know- 
ledge of the Holy One. 

[* Or, that I should have the 
knowledge of the Holy One. 



PROV. ix. 10. 



The fear of the LORD is the 
beginning of wisdom, and the 
knowledge of the holy is under- 
standing:. 



The fear of the LORD is the 
beginning of wisdom, and the 
knowledge of the Holy One is 
understanding. 



The Revisers are probably right in all these cases, con- 
sidering the parallelism, since the literal translation would 
obviously imply plain polytheism. 



26 THE SOLE DEITY AND 



THE SOLE DEITY AND UNITY OF GOD. 

Though it may be regretted that the Revisers, while 
they explain in the notes that Jehovah is the Hebrew proper 
name which in the Old Testament they render LORD, have 
not introduced it everywhere in the text, yet the force and 
value of their admission should not be unappreciated. At 
the passage where this name first occurs QHVH, Gen. ii. 4), 
they note thus in the margin : ' Heb. Jehovah, as in other 
places where LORD is put in capitals.' The American Re- 
visers urged a bolder and more intelligible course. They 
say, Substitute the Divine name Jehovah, wherever it occurs 
in the Hebrew text, for ' the LORD' and ' God.' 1 The passage 
referred to would then read, ' in the day that Jehovah God 

1 The Revisers have done this in two instances, which show how 
great the improvement would have been if the American suggestion had 
been adopted throughout the Old Testament. 

Ex. vi. 2. 



Authorized Version. 
And God spake unto Moses, and 
said unto him, I am the LORD: 
and I appeared unto Abraham, 
unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the 
name of God Almighty, but by my 
name JEHOVAH was I not known 
to them. 



Revised Version. 
And God spake unto Moses, and 
said unto him, I am JEHOVAH; 
and I appeared unto Abraham, 
unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, as 
God Almighty,* but by t my name 
JEHOVAH I was not known J to 
them. 

[* Heb. El Shaddai. t Or, 
as to. J Or, made known. 

HAB. iii. 19. 
The LORD God is my strength. | Jehovah, the Lord, is my strength. 

It is curious to note in the context of the passage from Exodus the 
incongruity created by the sudden change back to the Authorized 'LORD' 
after the improvement in vv. 7 and 8, where the phrase is repeated, ' I 
am Jehovah.' In v. 10 the Version goes on, 'And the Lord,' &c., alto- 
gether ignoring the preceding express declaration of the Divine Name. 



THE UNITY OF GOD. 



made earth and heaven,' the proper name being given instead 
of 'the LORD' of the Septuagint translators, which, besides 
creating frequent ambiguities in the Old Testament, has 
caused an almost hopeless confusion in many places of the 
New Testament, the quotations in which are mostly made, 
not from the Hebrew, but from their Greek version. There 
may have been some difficulty with regard to the proper 
method of representing in English the vowels of the Hebrew 
name, the form Jehovah being admittedly incorrect, but had 
this familiar word been used instead of the misleading term 
LORD, it would probably have prepared the way for a future 
more correct expression. 

In the following three passages, the Revision brings out 
more clearly the Unity of God as identified with the One 
Personal Name which always represented that doctrine to 
the Jewish people. Comparing them as they stand side by 
side, it will become evident how much the ordinary reader 
would gain in the intelligent reading of the Old Testament by 
substituting the proper name for the vague and ambiguous 
term of the Greek version. It is a clear advantage for him 
to be made aware that this may (the American company 
say should] be done throughout the Old Testament 

ZECH. xiv. 9. 



Authorized Version. 
And the LORD shall be King 
over all the earth : in that day 
shall there be one LORD, and 
his name one. 



Revised Version. 
And the LORD shall be King- 
over all the earth : in that day 
shall the LORD be one, and his 
name one. 



Ps. Ixiii. 1 8. 



That men may know that 
thou, whose name alone is Je- 
hovah, art the Most High over 
all the earth. 



That they may know that 
thou alone,* whose name is 
Jehovah, art the Most High 
over all the earth. 

[* Or, thou whose name alone is. 



28 



THE SOLE DEITY AND 



NEH. ix. 6. 



Authorized Version. 
Thou, even them, art LORD 
alone, thou hast made heaven, 
&c. 



Revised Version. 
Thou art the LORD, even 
thou alone, thou hast made 
heaven, c. 



The Unity of God as set forth in the New Testament. 
ROM. iii. 29, 30. 



Is he the God of the Jews 
only? is he not also of the 
Gentiles ? Yes, of the Gentiles 
also ; seeing it is one God which 
shall justify, &c. 



Or is God the God of Jews 
only ? is he not the God of 
Gentiles also ? Yea, of Gen- 
tiles also ; if so be that God is 
one, and he shall justify, &c. 



The Improved Version also had the correction, ' Is God 
the God of Jews,' &c., keeping clear of the idea of national 
or many gods, which was certainly not the idea in Paul's 
mind ; and the further change from ' it is one,' to ' there is 
one God ;' but that Version had nothing so emphatically 
Unitarian as the Revised, ' if so be that God is one,' which 
is indeed the turning-point of the argument. 



MARK xii. 

And Jesus answered him, 
The first of all the command- 
ments is, Hear, O Israel, the 
Lord our God is one Lord, and 
thou shalt love the Lord thy 
God ... 

v. 32. And the Scribe said 
unto him, Well, Master, thou 
hast said the truth : for there 
is one God, and there is none 
other but he. 



29, 3> 3 2 - 

Jesus answered, The first is, 
Hear, O Israel; the Lord our 
God,* the Lord is one ; and 
thou shalt love the Lord thy 
God. 

v. 32. And the Scribe said 
unto him, Of a truth, Master,t 
thou hast well said that he is 
one ; and there is none other 
but he. 

[* Oi, is our God. f Or, Teacher. 



The Improved Version has here the alternative form given 



THE UNITY OF GOD. 29 

in the margin, ' The Lord is our God, the Lord is one.' In 
Deut. vi. 4, from which the text was quoted, the Revisers 
follow the Common Version, but they place in the margin 
three alternative translations, the one given by the New Tes- 
tament Revisers, that of the Improved Version, and a third, 
which could not be got out of the original words in Mark, 
viz. 'The Lord is our God, the Lord alone.' Mr. Sharpe, 
however, adopts it in the original passage, ' Jehovah is our 
God, Jehovah alone.' In the 32nd verse here the Improved 
Version led the way : ' In truth, Master, thou hast said well 
that he is one, and there is none other but he.' It would 
be difficult to put the Unitarian view of God into a more 
precise statement. On the supposition of three Personali- 
ties of any kind in the Divine Nature, it would have been 
at least more natural to say ' that they are one, and there is 
none other but they.' 

MATT. xix. 17. 



Authorized Version. 
And he said unto him, Why 
callest thou me good ? There 
is none good but one, that z>, 
God. 



Revised Version. 
And he said unto him, Why 
askest thou me concerning that 
which is good?* One there is 



who is good. 

[* Some ancient authorities read, 
Why callest thou me good ? None 
is good save one, even God. See 
Mark x. 18; Luke xviii. 19. 

In this correction there would seem little ground left for 
the orthodox implication that Jesus was here in reality re- 
buking the inquirer for attributing to him a quality belonging 
only to God, while yet he simply looked upon him as a 
human being. The affirmation is the same, however, in the 
three Gospels, that there is but one All-perfect Being, one 
only supremely good. 

In the following passage, the personal Unity of God is 



30 THE SOLE DEITY AND 

well distinguished from his sole Deity, the idea expressed in 
the Authorized Version, which the Revisers have relegated 
to the margin. Here also the Improved Version was before 
them, making the same correction 

JAMES ii. 19. 

Authorized Version. Revised Version. 

Thou believest that there is Thou believest that God is 
one God; thou doest well. ' one;* thou doest well. 

[* Some ancient authorities read, 
there is one God. 



When the New Testament writers wish to speak of the 
sole Deity, of God as God alone, they use different language, 
as in the passages following, in which, moreover, in the 
Revised Version the Deity of the one only God is more 

distinctly indicated : 

i TIM. i. 17. 



Now unto the King eternal, 
immortal, invisible, the only 
wise God, be honour and glory. 



Now unto the King eternal, 
incorruptible, invisible, the only 
God, be honour and glory. 



This was the reading of the Improved Version, adopting 
the text of Griesbach. Happily the phrase, ' the only wise 
God,' no longer admitted here, does not drop out of the New 
Testament. It occurs in a more suitable connection in 
Rom. xvi. zy. 1 In a doxology the writer naturally dwells 

1 In that passage, which reads in the Authorized Version, ' to God 
only wise be glory through Jesus Christ for ever,' the Revision presents 
what may at first seem a radical and orthodox alteration. ' To the only 
wise God, through Jesus Christ, to whom (Marg. some ancient authori- 
ties omit 'to whom') be the glory for ever.' But any mistake as to the 
object of this ascription of praise is one hardly likely to be made by the 
most ordinary reader, or if it were possibly suggested, the remark of 
Dean Alford's gives ample reason for a more rational interpretation : 
'The "to whom" cannot without great harshness be referred to Christ, 
seeing that the words, "to the only wise God," resume the chief subject 



THE UNITY OF GOD. 



upon the majesty of the sole Eternal One. The same cor- 
rection was made also from Griesbach in the Improved Ver- 
sion in the next passage, in which too was the same addition 
as is here introduced. The effect of this addition, ' through 
Jesus Christ our Lord,' is obviously to make it more clear 
that the Father is meant by ' the only God our Saviour,' and 
the Father only 

JUDE 25. 



Atdhorized Version. 
To the only wise God our 
Saviour be glory and majesty, 
dominion and power, now and 
for ever. 



Revised Version. 

To the only God our Saviour, 
through Jesus Christ our Lord, 
be glory, majesty, dominion 
and power, before all time, 
and now, and for evermore.* 

[* Gr. unto all the ages. 



JOHN v. 44. 



How can ye believe which 
receive honour one of another, 
and seek not the honour that 
cometh from God only ? 



How can ye believe which 
receive glory one of another, 
and the glory that cometh from 
the only God ye seek not ? 



The Improved Version renders this, ' from the only God.' 
The Revisers note in the margin that ' some ancient autho- 
rities read, the only One.' The mistranslation of the Greek 
in the Authorized Version was, as Dr. G. Vance Smith ob- 
serves, 1 an extraordinary one. The remarkable fact here is 
that these are words attributed to Jesus himself, and by the 
author of the Proem to this Gospel. 

of the sentence, and to them the relative pronoun must apply.' There 
is a similar construction in Heb. xiii. 21, where as it is a doxology there 
could not possibly be any real ambiguity. See also I Pet. iv. n, where 
the sense is equally beyond question, if only for the same reason. 

1 Texts and Margins of the Revised New Testament affecting Theo- 
logical Doctrine briefly Reviewed, by G. Vance Smith, B.A., &c., p. 22. 



GOD SPECIFICALLY NAMED 



GOD SPECIFICALLY NAMED THE FATHER. 



In the six important passages below, the Revisers follow the 
course of the Improved Version in amending the somewhat 
pointless, not to say ambiguous, phrase of the Common Ver- 
sion, ' God and our Father,' and emphasize the fact that by 
'our God' and 'our Father' the same Divine Personality is 
meant, the Being indeed of whom Jesus often speaks as God 
our ' Heavenly Father' 

JAMES i. 27. 



Authorized Version. 

Pure religion and undefiled 

before God and the Father is 

this, to visit the fatherless, &c. 



Revised Version. 
Pure religion and undefiled 
before our God and Father is 
this, to visit the fatherless, &c. 



PHIL. iv. 20. 



Now unto God and our Fa- 
ther be glory for ever and ever. 



GAL. i 

Grace be to you and peace, 
from God the Father, and from 
our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave 
himself for our sins, that he 
might deliver us from this pre- 
sent evil world, according to the 
will of God and our Father, to 
whom be glory for ever and 
ever. 



Now unto our God and Fa- 
ther be the glory for ever and 
ever. 

3 5- 

Grace to you and peace from 
God the Father,* and our Lord 
Jesus Christ, who gave himself 
for our sins, that he might de- 
liver us out of this present evil 
world,t according to the will of 
our God and Father : to whom 
be the glory for ever and ever. 

[* Some ancient authorities read, 
from God our Father and the Lord 
Jesus Christ. t Or, age. 



THE FATHER. 



33 



i THES. 

Authorized Version. 
We give thanks to God al- 
ways for you all ... remember- 
ing . . . your patience of hope 
in our Lord Jesus Christ, in the 
sight of God and our Father ; 
knowing, brethren beloved, 
your election of God. 



l. 2 4. 

Revised Version. 
We give thanks to God al- 
ways for you all ... remember- 
ing . . . your patience of hope 
in our Lord Jesus Christ, before 
our God and Father ; knowing, 
brethren beloved of God, your 
election. [The Improved Ver- 
sion has this further correction 
also.] 



Now God himself and our 
Father, and our Lord Jesus 
Christ, direct our way unto you. 
And the Lord make you to in- 
crease and abound in love . . . 
to the end he may stablish your 
hearts unblamable in holiness 
before God even our Father, at 
the coming of our Lord Jesus 
Christ with all his saints. 



i THES. iii. n 13. 

Now may our God and Fa- 
ther himself, and our Lord Jesus, 
direct our way unto you ; and 
the Lord make you to increase 
and abound in love ... to the 
end he may stablish your hearts 
unblamable in holiness before 
our God and Father, at the 
coming of our Lord Jesus with 
all his saints. 



COL. iii. 17. 

And whatsoever ye do in And whatsoever ye do in 

word or in deed, do all in the 
name of the Lord Jesus, giving 
thanks to God the Father 
through him. 



word or deed, do all in the 
name of the Lord Jesus, giving 
thanks to God and the Father 
by him. 



It is thus made clear that God, in the New Testament, 
means the Father only, not the first of several persons, as 
theologians use the term. God is the Father, and the Father 
the one God : the words are synonymous. This is expessed 
in another way in Eph. v. 20, 'to God, even the Father,' the 
corresponding text to the one just cited. The Improved 
Version so translates in both instances. The phrase is not 
a new one, nor peculiar to the Revised Version ; the Autho- 

D 



34 



GOD SPECIFICALLY NAMED THE FATHER. 



rized has it in i Cor. xv. 24, ' When he shall have delivered 
up the kingdom to God, even the Father,' or, as we might 
say, ' to God, that is, the Father.' The identity of the two 
terms appears very plainly in the passage next quoted in 
the words of Jesus himself. The Revision brings out the 
sense in the most pointed manner. In the Improved Ver- 
sion it was, ' him hath the Father sealed, even God ' 

JOHN vi. 27. 



Authorized Version. 
That meat which endureth 
unto everlasting life, which the 
Son of Man shall give unto you : 
for him hath God the Father 
sealed. 



Revised Version. 
The meat which abideth unto 
eternal life, which the Son of 
Man shall give unto you : for 
him the Father, even God, hath 
sealed. 



THE FATHER THE GOD OF JESUS. 



35 



THE FATHER THE GOD OF JESUS ALSO. 



2 COR. i. 3 

Authorized Version. 
Blessed be God, even the 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the Father of mercies, and the 
God of all comfort. 



Revised Version. 
Blessed be the God and 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the Father of mercies and God 
of all comfort. 



ROM. xv. 5, 6. 



Now the God of patience 
and consolation grant you to 
be likeminded one towards 
another, according to (marg. 
offer the example of} Christ 
Jesus ; that ye may with one 



Now the God of patience 
and of comfort grant you to 
be of the same mind one with 
another, according to Christ 
Jesus ; that with one accord ye 
may with one mouth glorify the 
God and Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 



mind and one mouth glorify 
God, even the Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

On the former of these passages Mr. Sharpe makes a 
quaint remark which may apply to both : ' King James' 
translators did not like to call the Almighty the God of 
Jesus Christ, although Jesus himself expressly so styles the 
Father in John xx. 17,! ascend unto my Father and your 
Father, and my God and your God ;' and although further, 
he might have added, they in another passage, Eph. i. 1 7, 
did translate, having no alternative, ' That the God of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you a 
spirit of wisdom/ &c. ' Here openly,' says Erasmus, ' the 
Father is called the God of Jesus Christ, which in other texts 
was ambiguous.' In both the texts above given, the Revisers 
were anticipated in the Improved Version, which reads. ' the 
God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.' His own excla- 
mation on the cross will occur to the reader, the opening 
words of the 22nd Psalm, ' My God, my God, why hast thou 
forsaken me?' 



D 2 



THE FATHER THE GOD OF JESUS. 



The Revised Version has one text less in which God is 
named the Father of Christ ; but the advantage gained is 
obvious, in that it is now made clear that the writer intended 
to say that the family is named from the father, a play upon 
the two Greek words, one of which is derived from the other; 
and that he is not here speaking of the headship of the 
Church in Christ, as the Authorized Version might have 
been understood to imply. 'From whom' obviously refers 

to the Father -^ 

EPH. in. 14, 15. 



Authorized Version. 
I bow my knees unto the 
Father of our Lordjesus Christ, 
of whom the whole family in 
heaven and earth is named. 



Revised Version. 

I bow my knees unto the 
Father, from whom every 
family* in heaven and earth 
is named. 

[* &*. fatherhood. 



In the two following passages the Revised Version brings 
out the true relationship between Christ and the Almighty 
still more markedly, after the example, in both cases, of the 
Improved Version : -n - 

For I have found* no works 
of thine fulfilled before my God. 

[* Many ancient authorities read, 
not found thy works. 

REV. i. 6. 

And hath made us Kings And he made us to be a 
and Priests unto God and his kingdom, to be priests unto 
Father. his God and Father. 



For I have not found thy 
works perfect before God. 



How little ground, therefore, could there have been for 
the foolish inference of the Jews, in John v. 18, that Jesus 
made himself equal with God by simply affirming that God 
was his Father. The true point is well brought out by the 
Revised correction, 'his own Father.' He had, in fact, 
realized for himself what to them had been only a pious 
phrase. 



THE HOLY SPIRIT, THE SPIRIT OF GOD. 



37 



THE HOLY SPIRIT, THE SPIRIT OF GOD. 

The term ' Spirit of God' is often equivalent in Scripture 
usage to the Divine Being himself, or to his power and wis- 
dom, but more commonly it is employed to express special 
influence or power imparted by God to men. In the follow- 
ing passage, Paul bases an argument for the inspired truth 
of the spiritual consciousness in the Christian believer upon 
the fact that it comes first-hand from the Spirit of God, com- 
paring this Spirit with the self-conscious Spirit in man ; and 
so he brings the two conceptions together, of the Divine 
Mind in itself, and of its communication to men first of the 
Spirit as God knowing perfectly his own thought and purposes, 
and secondly of the same Spirit imparted as a gift of spiritual 
insight, an intercommunion of the divine with the human 
consciousness. The changes made here in the Revision will 
appear slight, but they help to bring out the sense more 
forcibly 

i COR. ii. 10 13. 



Authorized Version. 
But God hath revealed them 
unto us by his Spirit : for the 
Spirit searcheth all things, yea, 
the deep things of God. For 
what man knoweth the things 
of a man, save the spirit of man 
which is in him? Even so the 
things of God knoweth no man, 
but the spirit of God. Now we 
have received, not the spirit 
of the world, but the spirit 
which is of God, that we might 
know the things that are freely 



Revised Version. 
But unto us God revealed 
them* through the Spirit: for 
the Spirit searcheth all things, 
yea, the deep things of God. 
For who among men knoweth 
the things of a man, save the 
spirit of the man which is in 
him ? even so the things of 
God none knoweth, save the 
Spirit of God. But we received, 
not the spirit of the world, but 
the spirit which is of God; that 
we might know the things that 

[* Or, it (i.e. the wisdom of God 
above referred to. 



THE HOLY SPIRIT 



Authorized Version. 
given to us of God. Which 
things also we speak, not in 
the words which man's wisdom 
teacheth, but which the Holy 
Ghost teacheth. 



Revised Version. 
are freely given to us by God. 
Which things also we speak, 
not in words which man's wis- 
dom teacheth, but which the 
Spirit teacheth. 



In writing to the Romans, Paul represents the matter from 
another point of view, with still the same idea present to his 
thought of the Divine in intercommunion with the human 
spirit. God the Spirit knows what is in his own mind, and 
therefore it is divine truth which the imparted Spirit of God 
reveals. This is what the Apostle says in the text just quoted. 
He now reasons in the reverse direction, that the mind of the 
Spirit as a power of spiritual life in man is known to the 
Giver of that holy influence, which must needs move in har- 
mony with his will, because it is his own Spirit present in 
the souls of the faithful. The passage is the more noteworthy 
as being one of the few in which the Revisers have intro- 
duced an expression as of distinct personality of the Spirit, 
beyond what appears in the Authorized Version. Their 
capitals also are significant in the other texts cited 



Likewise the Spirit also help- 
eth our infirmities : for we know 
not what we should pray for as 
we ought : but the Spirit itself 
maketh intercession for us with 
groanings which cannot be ut- 
tered [alluding to the 23rd 
verse, but ourselves a/so, winch 
have thefirstfruits of the Spirit, 
even we ourselves groan within 
ourselves\ 

And he that searcheth the 
hearts knoweth what is the 



ROM. viii. 26, 27. 

And in like manner the Spirit 
also helpeth our infirmity : for 
we know not how to pray as 
we ought : but the Spirit him- 
self maketh intercession for us 



with groanin s 
be uttered. 



s which cannot 



And he that searcheth the 
hearts knoweth what is the 



THE SPIRIT OF GOD. 



39 



Authorised Version. 
mind of the Spirit, because he 
maketh intercession for the 
saints according to the will of 
God. 



Revised Version. 
mind of the Spirit, because he 
maketh intercession for the 
saints according to the will of 
God. 



The word ' Spirit' being in Greek neuter, there was no gram- 
matical reason for the Authorized l he maketh' in ver. 27, 
neither was there for the Revised ' the Spirit himself in ver. 
26 ; and the same remark applies to a previous verse (16), 
in which 'the Spirit itself is altered, as in the 26th verse, to 
' the Spirit himself.' But it makes little difference whether 
the pronoun be 'he' or 'it,' since it is clear from other pas- 
sages in Paul's writings that his idea was, that God was 
present in the power of his own very Spirit in the Christian 
mind and heart; as, for example, i Cor. iii. 16, 'Know ye 
not that ye are a temple of God, and that the Spirit of God 
dwelleth in you?' See also i Cor. vi. 19, 'Or know ye not 
that your body is a temple (marg. or, sanctuary] of the Holy 
Ghost (marg. or, Holy Spirit} which is in you, which ye have 
from God ?' The same conception appears in the following 
passages, with amendments made or suggested in regard to 
the designation of the Divine presence and power : 

i JOHN iii. 24. 



And he that keepeth his com- 
mandments dwelleth in him, 
and he in him : and hereby we 
know that he abideth in us, by 
the spirit which he hath given 
us. 



And he that keepeth his com- 
mandments abideth in him, and 
he in him. And hereby we 
know that he abideth in us, by 
the Spirit which he hath given 
us. 



2 TIM. i. 13. 



That good thing which was 
committed unto thee, keep, by 
the Holy Ghost which dwelleth 



in us. 



That good thing which was 
committed unto thee guard 
through the Holy Ghost* which 
dwelleth in us. 

[* Or, Holy Spirit. 



40 THE HOLY SPIRIT 

In the margin at John iv. 24 occurs a note that should 
not be overlooked. Instead of ' God is a Spirit,' the Revisers 
intimate may be read, ' God is spirit.' This may prove the 
proper translation if the context is considered. Jesus meant 
to say that God was not a local Divinity, to be honoured in 
one place and not in another; but also that being spirit, not 
material, he must be spiritually worshipped, not in mere 
outward forms. He was not giving a definition of the Divine 
Nature, otherwise it would be obvious to remark that we 
cannot conceive of a Spirit divided into three Personalities. 
Each of three Persons in any Divine Trinity, the first and 
second as well as the third, must of course be a Spirit also. 



The Revisers, especially the Revisers of the Old Testa- 
ment, endeavour by the use of capitals and small letters to 
distinguish between 'the spirit' as indicating the mind or the 
power or other attribute of God, and 'the Spirit' as a term 
of personality. Hence their mode of expression in the fol- 
lowing passage (which, moreover, clearly illustrates the text 
above from i Cor. ii. 10, n, p. 37) 



Authorized Version. 



Is. xl. 13. 



Who hath directed the Spirit 
of the LORD, or being his coun- 
sellor hath taught him ? 



Revised Version. 



Who hath directed* the spirit 
of the LORD, or being his coun- 
sellor hath tauht him ? 



[* Or, meted out. 

Where 'the spirit' is manifestly 'the mind' of the Lord, the 
expression which Paul uses. Dr. Noyes (1865) translates it, 
' Who hath searched out the spirit of Jehovah,' which is pro- 
bably correct, as the Revised margin also suggests, ' meted 
out' being the phrase used just before. Paul quotes the 
passage twice from the Septuagint in this sense (Rom. xi. 34 
and i Cor. ii. 16), 'Who hath known the mind of the Lord?' 



THE SPIRIT OF GOD. 



The use of the word 'spirit' for 'mind' may be noted in 
one of the Revised suggestions of amendment in the margin. 
David is giving his parting directions to Solomon for the 
building of the Temple : 

i CHRON. xxviii. 12. 



Authorized Version. 
And the pattern of all that 
he had by the spirit of the 
courts of the house of the Lord. 



Revised Version. 
And the pattern of all that 
he had by the spirit* for the 
courts of the house of the Lord. 

[* Or, in his spirit. 
Mr. J. Scott Porter and Mr. S. Sharpe say plainly, ' of all 
that he had in his mind.' The dwelling of the Divine Spirit 
in man was not an idea peculiar to the Hebrews, but the 
reason for the following correction from 'Spirit' to 'spirit' is 
obvious, considering who is the speaker : 

GEN. xli. 38. 



And Pharaoh said unto his 
servants, Can we find such a 
one as this z's, a man in whom 
the Spirit of God is f 



And Pharaoh said unto his 
servants, Can we find such a 
one as this, a man in whom 
the spirit of God is ? 



Compare Dan. iv. 8, ' in whom is the spirit of the holy 
gods;' also Ex. xxxi. 3, 'And I have filled him with the 
spirit of God in wisdom . . . and in all manner of workman- 
ship.' The Revisers make the same distinction in cases 
where ' the spirit of God' obviously means the Divine energy 
or wisdom, following generally, but not always, the method 
of the Authorized translators. Compare particularly the two 

following passages : T 

JOB xxxui. 4. 



The Spirit of God hath made 
me, and the breath of the Al- 
mighty hath given me life. 



The spirit of God hath made 
me, and the breath of the Al- 
mighty hath given me life. 



JOB xxvi. 13, 14. 



He divided the sea with his 
power, and by his understand- 
ing he smiteth through the 



He stirreth up* the sea with 
his power, and by his under- 
standing he smiteth through 

[* Or, stilkth. 



4 2 



THE HOLY SPIRIT 



Authorized Version. 
proud. By his spirit he hath 
garnished the heavens ; his 
hand hath formed the crooked 
serpent. 



Revised Version. 
Rahab. By his spirit the hea- 
vens are garnished,t his hand 
hath pierced the swiftl serpent. 

[t Heb. beauty. J Or, fleeing, 
or, gliding. 

GEN. i. 2. 

And the Spirit of God moved 
upon the face of the waters. 



And the spirit of God moved 
upon* the face of the waters. 

[* Or, -was brooding upon. 

Mr. Wellbeloved leaves the Authorized Version here as he 
found it, ' the Spirit of God/ noting that although the He- 
brew word means primarily wind or breath, and the phrase 
would be perfectly well translated ' a mighty wind,' yet the 
verb seems rather to suggest the conception of the Divine 
Energy preparing itself to bring the original chaos into a 
cosmos. Compare, however, with this : 

Is. xl. 7. 



The grass withereth, the 
flower fadeth ; because the 
spirit of the LORD bloweth 
upon it. 



The grass withereth, the 
flower fadeth ; because the 
breath of the LORD bloweth 
upon it. 



Numerous passages occur in the Old Testament in which 
the Spirit of God is said to have been given, or put and 
poured out upon men, in which no distinction is made in 
the Authorized orthography, and in such cases no change is 
made in the Revision. Here, however, are other examples 
which the Revisers correct : 

i SAM. xi. 6. 



And the Spirit of God came 
upon Saul when he heard those 
tidings, and his anger was kin- 
dled greatly. 



And the spirit of God came 
mightily upon Saul when he 
heard those words, and his 
anger was kindled greatly. 



THE SPIRIT OF GOD. 



43 



i SAM. xvi. 13, 14. 



Attthorised Version. 
Then Samuel took the horn 
of oil, and anointed him in the 
midst of his brethren: and the 
Spirit of the LORD came upon 
David from that day forward. 
But the Spirit of the LORD de- 
parted from Saul, and an evil 
spirit from the Lord troubled 
him. 



Revised Version. 
Then Samuel took the horn 
of oil, and anointed him in the 
midst of his brethren : and the 
spirit of the LORD came mightily 
upon David from that day for- 
ward. But the spirit of the 
LORD had departed from Saul, 
and an evil spirit from the Lord 
troubled him. 



See in the Psalm attributed to David (li. 1 1), ' Cast me not 
away from thy presence, and take not thy holy spirit from 
me.' It is remarkable that the two expressions, the presence 
and the spirit of God, are conjoined in the same manner in 
another Psalm (cxxxix. 7), 'Whither shall I go from thy 
spirit ? or whither shall I flee from thy presence ?' 



In about a dozen other places in the Old Testament the 
spirit of God, or of the Lord, is presented in the same form 
as in the texts given above, and in each case the Revisers 
use small letters to indicate that the reference is to some 
power or gift, not to the Divine Personal Agency. The fol- 
lowing is a remarkable illustration of another use of the term : 
' The hand of the LORD was upon me, and he carried me out 
in the spirit of the LORD, and set me down in the midst of 
the valley' (Ezek. xxxvii. i). The New Testament Eevisers 
follow the Authorized Version in using a capital ' S ' in the 
similar passage in Acts viii. 39, 40 : ' When they were come 
up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught away 
Philip . . . but Philip was found at Azotus,' &c. 

Some of the passages in which the Revisers have made 
the change referred to, throw a singular light upon the old 
Hebrew conception of the Spirit 



44 



THE HOLY SPIRIT 



JUDGES xiv. 6. 
Attthorised Version. 
And, behold, a young lion 
roared against him [Samson]. 
And the Spirit of the LORD came 
mightily upon him, and he rent 
him as he would have rent a kid. 



Revised Version. 
And, behold, a young lion 
roared against him. And the 
spirit of the LORD came mightily 
upon him, and he rent him as 
he would have rent a kid. 



JUDGES xiv. 19. 



And the Spirit of the LORD 
came upon him, and he went 
down to Ashkelon, and slew 
thirty men of them. 

i KINGS xxii. 24, also 2 CHRON. xvi'ii. 23. 



And the spirit of the LORD 
came mightily upon him, and 
he went down to Ashkelon, and 
smote thirty men of them. 



Zedekiah . . . went near, and 
smote Micaiah on the cheek, 
and said, Which way went the 
Spirit of the LORD from me to 
speak unto thee ? 



Then Zedekiah .... came 
near, and smote Micaiah on 
the cheek, and said, Which 
way went the spirit of the LORD 
from me to speak unto thee ? 



There is a fine prophetic passage in which the Revisers 
follow the rule above indicated, and which at the same time 
shows how familiar to the Hebrew mind was the idea of the 
holy Spirit of God moving in and inspiring human souls. 

Is. Ixiii. 10 12, 14. 



But they rebelled, and vexed 
his holy Spirit : therefore he 
was turned to be their enemy, 
and he fought against them. 
Then he remembered the days 
of old, Moses and his people, 
saying, Where is he that brought 
them up out of the sea with the 



But they rebelled, and grieved 
his holy spirit : therefore he was 
turned to be their enemy, and 
himself fought against them. 
Then he remembered* the days 
of old, Moses, and his people, 
saying, Where is he that brought 
them up out of the sea with the 

[* Or, then his people remembered 
the ancient days of Moses. 



THE SPIRIT OF GOD. 



45 



Authorized Version, 
shepherd of his flock ? Where 
is he that put his holy Spirit 
within him? That led them 
by the right hand of Moses 
with his glorious arm, dividing 
the water before them, to make 
himself an everlasting name? 
That led them through the 
deep, as an horse in the wil- 
derness, that they should not 
stumble ? As a beast goeth 
down into the valley, the Spirit 
of the LORD caused him to rest ; 
so didst thou lead thy people, to 
make thyself a glorious name. 



Revised Version. 
shepherds t of his flock? where 
is he that put his holy spirit in 
the midst of them ? that caused 
his glorious arm to go at the 
right hand of Moses ? that di- 
vided the water before them, 
to make himself an everlasting 
name? that led them through 
the depths as an horse in the 
wilderness that they stumbled 
not? As the cattle that go 
down into the valley, the spirit 
of theLORD caused themtorest: 
so didst thou lead thy people, 
to make thyself aglorious name. 



[t Another reading is, shepherd. 

In this stirring appeal and recital of ancient story, the 
correction of a single letter in the Revised Version suggests 
the natural interpretation of 'his holy spirit' as referring to 
God himself, as in a corresponding text in Ps. Ixxviii. 40. 
' How oft did they rebel against him in the wilderness, and 
grieve him in the desert !' while the idea of the imparted 
spirit as a spirit of power and wisdom grows out of this, 
God's own spirit becoming an inspiration given to Moses, 
and through him directing and supporting his people. 

The passage is the more interesting as bearing upon one 
in the New Testament in which the Revisers have introduced 
an idea of personality that does not appear in the Authorized 

Version : 

EPH. iv. 30. 



And grieve not the holy Spirit 
of God, whereby ye are sealed 
unto the day of redemption. 

The correction may be right, though the Greek does not 
require it. The conception of grieving the Divine Being 



And grieve not the Holy Spirit 
of God, in whom ye were sealed 
unto the day of redemption. 



46 THE HOLY SPIRIT 

comes at all events nearer to the sense of the prophetic 
passage which the writer had evidently in his mind. It 
should be added that the further marginal amendments in 
that passage are very much in the line of Dr. G. V. Smith's 
version in the Revised Translation of 1862. Another strik- 
ing illustration of the New Testament view of the fact 
alluded to by the prophet is seen in Stephen's denunciation 
of the Jewish council, ' Ye do always resist the Holy Spirit : 
as your fathers did, so do ye' (Acts vii. 51). 

The following text still further illustrates this resisting of 
the Spirit of God : 

MATT. xii. 31. 



Authorized Version. 
But the blasphemy against 
the holy Ghost shall not be for- 



given unto men. 



32. But whosoever speaketh 
against the holy Ghost, it shall 
not be forgiven him. 



Revised Version. 
But the blasphemy against 
the Spirit shall not be forgiven. 

32. But whosoever shall speak 
against the Holy Spirit, it shall 
not be forgiven him. 



The change from 'Ghost' to 'Spirit' is made also in the 
parallel texts, Mark iii. 29, Luke xii. 10. In the present 
instance, the adjective ' holy' not being in the original, the 
Authorized Version inserted it in italics, since it was clearly 
impossible to translate, ' the blasphemy against the Ghost.' 
The Revisers avoid the difficulty by using the alternative 
word, 'the Spirit.' The difficulty is met in the same manner 
in John vii. 39 and i Cor. ii. 13 (see pp. 54, 49). 

It is instructive to notice the score of passages in which, 
as here, the Revisers change the word ' Ghost' into 'Spirit.' 
In about sixty places it is retained, with both the words, 
' Holy' and ' Ghost,' printed with the first letters in capitals. 
In one text (Rom. xv. 19), where the Authorized Version 
reads, ' by the power of the Spirit of God,' the Revisers have 
introduced instead the other term usually employed by them 
when the word ' Holy' precedes, 'in the power of the Holy 



THE SPIRIT OF GOD. 



47 



Ghost ;' remarking, however, in the margin that ' many ancient 
authorities read the Spirit of God; one reads the Spirit} 

There is no difficulty in discovering in each instance of 
the change from Ghost to Spirit, something in the context 
that facilitated the correction, and in certain cases made it 
almost imperative. It appears that the American Revision 
Company would have preferred that the course should have 
been taken which was adopted in the Improved Version. 
One of their recommendations is, For 'Holy Ghost' adopt 
uniformly the rendering ' Holy Spirit.' The English Revisers 
have generally put the correction in the margin, as an alter- 
native translation, in every book of the New Testament 
where the expression occurs. It is not found in Gala- 
tians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 
i Timothy, Philemon, James, i, 2, and 3 John, and Reve- 
lation ; but only an equivalent form, the Spirit, or the Spirit 
of God, in a few places. The method adopted by the 
Revisers has been, in all cases where the words occur more 
than once or twice in a book, to say in the margin, when ' the 
Holy Ghost' first occurs : 'or, Holy Spirit, and so through- 
out this book.' The following examples may be specially 
noted, if only as showing the free use which has been made 
of the margin by the Revisers, and the importance of keeping 
it constantly in view in the reading of their Version : 

MATT. i. 18, 20. 



Authorized Version. 

She was found with child of 
the Holy Ghost. 

That which is conceived in 
her is of the Holy Ghost. 



Revised Version. 

She was found with child of 
the Holy Ghost.* 

That which is conceived t in 
her is of the Holy Ghost.* 

[* Or, Holy Spirit. t Gr. 

begotten. 



It has been very properly pointed out in these verses, as 
also in Luke i. 35, ' the Holy Ghost shall come upon thee,' 
that besides the correction 'Holy Spirit' in the margin, it is 



THE HOLY SPIRIT 



clearly better that the English definite article should not 
introduce here the idea of a Personality in the Godhead of 
which neither Joseph nor Mary could have had any previous 
knowledge. They would naturally understand the promise 
to be a promise of a divine influence, what Luke designates 
'a power of the Most High.' (There is no article in the Greek.) 
The same kind of reasoning has evidently led to the mar- 
ginal note on Luke ii. n, 'A Saviour which is Christ the 
Lord,' margin ' or, anointed Lord,' there being no articles in 
the original to indicate that this was a proper name. 

ACTS i. 2. 



Authorized Version. 
After that he [Jesus] through 
the Holy Ghost had given com- 
mandments unto the Apostles. 



Revised Version. 

After that he had given com- 
mandment through the Holy 
Ghost* unto the apostles. 

[* Or, Holy Spirit. 

ACTS xi. 1 6. 



Then remembered I the word 
of the Lord, how that he said, 
John indeed baptized with 
water, but ye shall be baptized 
with the Holy Ghost. 



And I remembered the word 
of the Lord, how that he said, 
John indeed baptized with 
water, but ye shall be baptized 
with* the Holy Ghost.t 

[* Or, in. f Or, Holy Spirit. 
See marg. i. 8. 

ACTS V. 32. 



And we are his witnesses of 
these things, and so also is the 
Holy Ghost, whom God hath 
given to them that obey him. 



And we are witnesses of these 
things, and so is the Holy 
Ghost,* whom God hath given 
to them that obey him. 

[* Or, Holy Spirit. See marg. 
i. 2. 

Neither the Authorized translators nor the Revisers appear 
to have observed the strangeness of the thought that God 
could have granted to men a Divine personality as a gift, 
the third subsistence in his own Eternal Being. The pro- 
noun here in the Greek is not masculine, but neuter, as 
agreeing in gender with the word which they translate 'Ghost.' 



THE SPIRIT OF GOD. 



49 



The Improved Version reads, ' and so is the holy spirit also, 
which God hath given to those that obey him.' 

ROM. v. 5. 



Authorized Version. 
And hope maketh not 
ashamed, because the love of 
God is shed abroad in our 
hearts, by the Holy Ghost, 
which is given us. 



Revised Version. 
And hope putteth not to 
shame, because the love of God 
hath been shed abroad in our 
hearts through the Holy Ghost* 
which was given unto us. 

[* Or, Holy Spirit. 



The change from 'by' to 'through' makes it clear that 
the writer had in his mind the idea of a Divine influence. 
This becomes express inspiration in the texts following : 



MARK xiii. 



ii. 



For it is not ye that speak, 
but the Holy Ghost. 



For it is not ye that speak, 
but the Holy Ghost.* 

[* Or, Holy Spirit, see Mark i. 8, 
margin. 



LUKE xii. 12. 



For the Holy Ghost shall 
teach you in the same hour 
what ye ought to say. 



For the Holy Spirit shall 
teach you in that very hour 
what ye ought to say. 



The change is made here in the text probably because the 
Holy Spirit had been just before mentioned. Besides, in 
the corresponding passage in Matt. x. 20, Jesus says, ' It is 
not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father that speaketh 
in you.' 

i COR. ii. 13. 



Not in the words which man's 
wisdom teacheth, but which the 
Holy Ghost teacheth. 



Not in words which man's 
wisdom teacheth, but which the 
Spirit teacheth. 



This was the reading and translation of the Improved 
Version. 

E 



THE HOLY SPIRIT 



JOHN xiv. 26. 



Authorized Version. 
But the Comforter, which is 
the Holy Ghost, whom the 
Father will send in my name, 
he shall teach you all things. 



Revised Version. 
But the Comforter,* even the 
Holy Spirit, whom the Father 
will send in my name, he shall 
teach you all things. 

[* Or, Advocate or Helper. 

The 'Spirit of truth' is said in xiv. 16 to be 'another 
Comforter' to be given to the disciples in answer to the 
prayer of Jesus. Hence the translation here, the ' Holy 
Spirit.' The ' Ghost of truth' would have been of course 
an inadmissible rendering. 



The Spirit, or Spirit of God, and Holy Spirit of God, are 
expressions not new to the New Testament writers, and 
where they occur in the Old Testament the meaning is 
generally very clear, since, excepting in the few cases in 
which the reference is to the personal being or mind of 
God, these terms obviously convey the idea of some divine 
influence, as power, genius, inspiration. It would have 
been impossible, therefore, for the Translators of 1611 to 
use the term 'Ghost' in such cases instead of 'Spirit,' until 
they came to the New Testament. It was assumed, more- 
over, that the separate Personality of the Third Subsistence 
in the Trinity was a special Christian revelation. Never- 
theless, by the use of a capital letter in some of the Old 
Testament instances, as has been observed, this has been, 
perhaps unconsciously, suggested. The peculiar light of the 
New Testament, in which the Holy Spirit sometimes appears 
as if it were a personal Being, was reflected back on certain 
passages in the older books. The Revisers very properly, 
as we have seen, alter the form. The following passage is 
noted here as one which has been supposed to refer specially 
to the Holy Spirit as the third person of the Divine Trinity : 



THE SPIRIT OF GOD. 51 



Is. xlviii. 1 6. 



Authorised Version. 
And now the Lord God and 
his Spirit hath sent me. 



Revised Version. 



And now the Lord God hath 
sent me, and his spirit. 



The Revisers have in this place restored an ambiguity in 
the original which had disappeared in the Authorized Version. 
Bishop Lowth quotes a notice of this ambiguity from Origen 
(contra Gels, i.), with his opinion that the Holy Spirit was 
to be understood here, not as sending along with the Father, 
but as sent by him. The new form is in entire harmony 
with Dr. Noyes' view, who renders 'with his Spirit.' The 
prophet is appealing to the authority of the inspiration with 
which he spoke. Mr. S. Sharpe has the same correction in 
his 'Holy Bible,' 5th ed. of Old Testament, 1883. Those 
who have imagined that Christ was the person here sent, and 
that the text contains therefore a plain reference to the Tri- 
nity, seem hardly to have sufficiently observed the heresy 
involved in the idea of the Third Person joining with the 
First, who by the way is the only one designated by the 
Divine name, in sending the Second. It will now be seen 
that such could not have been the meaning of the passage. 



General Illustrations. 

The following passages illustrate in various ways the im- 
provements of the Revised Version with reference to the 
question of the Spirit or Holy Spirit of God. The changes 
will not seem considerable, but they are all more or less 
important : 

EZEK. xi. 5. 



And the Spirit of the LORD 
fell upon me, and said unto me, 
Speak, Thus saith the LORD. 



And the spirit of the LORD 
fell upon me, and he said unto 
me, Speak, Thus saith the LORD. 



E 2 



THE HOLY SPIRIT 



2 PET. i. 21. 



Authorized Version. 
For the prophecy came not 
in old time by the will of man ; 
but holy men of God spake as 
they were moved by the Holy 
Ghost. 



Revised Version. 
For no prophecy ever came* 
by the will of man ; but men 
spake from God, being moved 
by the Holy Ghost. t 

[* Or, was brought. t Or, 

Holy Spirit. 



2 SAM. xxiii. 2. 



[David said] The Spirit of 
the LORD spake by me, and his 
word was in my tongue. 



The spirit of the LORD spake 
by* me, and his word was upon 
my tongue. [* Or, in. 

Compare with this last passage the reference to one of 
the Psalms (ex. i) in Matt. xxii. 48, ' How then doth David 
in the Spirit call him Lord ?' where the older form, in spirit,' 
though more literal, clearly failed to express the intended 
idea of an inspired utterance. In the parallel text in Mark 
(xii. 36), the Revision very properly corrects ' said by the 
Holy Ghost' to 'said in the Holy Spirit.' 

LUKE ii. 25 27. 



The HolyGhostwasuponhim 
[Simeon]. And it was revealed 
unto him by the Holy Ghost, 
that ... 27. And he came by 
the Spirit into the temple. 



The Holy Spirit was upon 
him. And it had been revealed 
unto him by the Holy Spirit, 
that ... 27. And he came in 
the Spirit into the temple. 



It is clear in this instance that as the Revisers could not 
say, ' he came by the Ghost into the temple,' they preferred 
to put Spirit instead of Ghost in the preceding verses. 

JOHN i. 33. 



Upon whom thou shalt see 
the Spirit descending, and re- 
maining on him, the same is he 
which baptizeth with the Holy 
Ghost. 



Upon whomsoever thou shalt 
see the Spirit descending, and 
abiding upon him, the same is 
he that baptizeth with* the 
Holy Spirit. [* Or, in. 



THE SPIRIT OF GOD. 



53 



Is. Ixi. i. 

Authorised Version. 
The Spirit of the Lord God 
is upon me. 



Revised Version. 
The spirit of the Lord God 
is upon me. 



In the case of the quotation of this passage by Jesus at 
Nazareth (Luke iv. 18), the New Testament Company do not 
follow the rule which the Old Testament Revisers adopt. 
They leave ' the Spirit of the Lord,' as in the Authorized 
Version. See Is. xi. 2, 'The spirit of the LORD shall rest 
upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit 
of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear 
of the LORD.' 

LUKE iv. i. 

And Jesus being full of the And Jesus full of the Holy 
Holy Ghost, returned from Spirit, returned from the Jor- 
Jordan, and was led by the dan, and was led by* the Spirit 



Spirit into the wilderness, being 
forty days tempted of the devil. 



in the wilderness during forty 
days, being tempted of the devil. 

[* Or, in. 



It may be useful to notice here some other passages in 
which the 'Holy Spirit' is substituted for 'Holy Ghost,' to 
the manifest advantage of the sense to English readers : 

ACTS vi. 3. 



Seven men of honest report, 
full of the Holy Ghost and 
wisdom. 



Seven men of good report, 
full of the Spirit and of wis- 
dom. 



The Improved Version bracketed the word 'Holy' as 
doubtful. It is now omitted, and the Revisers naturally say 
Spirit, as the second word in Holy Ghost without the first 
would hardly be considered a reverent term to use. Hence 
the correction immediately after in 



54 



THE HOLY SPIRIT 



ACTS vi. 5. 
Authorized Version. 
They chose Stephen, a man 
full of faith and of the Holy 
Ghost. 



Revised Version. 
And they chose Stephen, a 
man full of faith and of the 
Holy Spirit. 

JOHN vii. 39. 



But this spake he of the Spirit, 
which they that believe on him 
should receive : for the Holy 
Ghost was not yet given, be- 
cause that Jesus was not yet 
glorified. 



But this spake he of the Spirit, 
which they that believed on him 
were to receive : for the Spirit* 
was not yet given; because 
Jesus was not yet glorified. 

[* Some ancient authorities read, 
the Holy Spirit. 

The word ' Holy ' was again marked doubtful in the Im- 
proved Version. The Revisers omit it, but on that account 
they were obliged, according to their invariable method when 
'Spirit' occurs without the adjective, to translate 'Spirit* 

instead of ' Ghost.' 

ACTS ii. 4. 



And they were all filled with 
the Holy Ghost, and began to 
speak with other tongues, as 
the spirit gave them utterance. 



And they were all filled with 
the Holy Spirit, and began to 
speak with other tongues, as 
the Spirit gave them utterance. 



The context here has obviously determined the use of 
'Spirit' instead of 'Ghost.' The Spirit is given, and the 
manifestations of the Spirit in wisdom and in various powers 
are detailed. In the following passage the correction re- 
moves an obvious inconsistency in the use of two different 
terms for the same Spirit. 

i COR. xii. 3. 



That no man speaking by 
the Spirit of God calleth Jesus 
accursed : and that no man can 
say that Jesus is the Lord, but 
by the Holy Ghost. 



That no man speaking in the 
Spirit of God saith, Jesus is 
anathema ; and no man can 
say, Jesus is Lord, but in the 
Holy Spirit. 



THE SPIRIT OF GOD. 



55 



ROM. xv. 30. 



Authorized Version. 
Now I beseech you, brethren, 
for the Lord Jesus Christ's sake, 
and for the love of the Spirit, 
that ye strive together with me 
in your prayers to God for me. 



Revised Version. 
Now I beseech you, brethren, 
by our Lord Jesus Christ, and 
by the love of the Spirit, that 
ye strive together with me in 
your prayers to God for me. 



The Improved Version has here the same correction from 
'for' to 'by.' The Authorized form had suggested the inter- 
pretation of 'the love manifested by the Spirit,' but most 
modern interpreters translate with the Revisers, and under- 
stand the love to be that which the Spirit generates, the 
chief of the ' fruits of the Spirit.' [Gal. v. 22 ; Philemon 9.] 
The text is a remarkably clear example of the manner in 
which Paul distinguished Christ and the Spirit from the God 
to whom prayer should be made for providential mercies. 



There is an obvious improvement in the change in Matt. 
xxvii. 50, where the Revisers say, instead of 'yielded up 
the ghost,' ' yielded up his spirit ;' and in John xix. 30, for 
'gave up the ghost,' 'gave up his spirit.' But they have 
retained the old form, 'gave up the ghost,' in Mark xv. 37, 
and Luke xxiii. 46. In the latter case, the change might 
almost seem to have been more than suggested by the 
quotation of Jesus from Ps. xxxi. 5, which Luke specially 
records, ' Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit.' 



The following passage from the Old Testament offers a 
singular instance of mistranslation. The correction was long 
since anticipated by Bishop Lowth, Dr. G. V. Smith, Dr. 
Noyes, and others : 



When the enemy shall come 
in like a flood, the Spirit of the 
LORD shall lift up a standard 
against him. 



For he shall come as a rush- 
ing stream, which the breath 
of the LORD driveth. 



PROOF-TEXTS ON THE 



ON THE DEITY OF CHRIST. 

Some Passages which have been supposed to teach this Doctrine. 

i JOHN iii. 16. 



Authorized Version. 
Hereby perceive we the love 
of God, because he laid down 
his life for us. 



Revised Version. 
Hereby know we love, be- 
cause he laid down his life for 



us. 



Mr. Samuel Sharpe remarks here, 'King James' trans- 
lators took an unwarrantable liberty' in introducing the word 
' God.' Especially, it might be added, in view of Christ's own 
declaration respecting himself, 'Greater love hath no man 
than this, that a man 'lay down his life' for his friends' 
(John xv. 13). But they probably had in their minds the 
similar expression in chapter iv. 9, in which Christ's coming 
is described as a manifestation of the love of God. This, 
again, is parallel with the text in John iii. 16, 'For God so 
loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son,' &c. 
In the present case, however, the word ' he' does not properly 
represent to the English reader the force of the Greek pro- 
noun, which refers back to the prior antecedent in verse 8, 
viz. the Son of God who was 'manifested that he might 
destroy the works of the devil.' 



ACTS xx. 28. 



To feed the church of God, 
which he hath purchased with 
his own blood. 



To feed the church of God,* 
which he purchased f with his 
own blood. 

[* Many ancient authorities read 
the Lord. f Gr. acqtiired. 



DEITY OF CHRIST. 



57 



Compare with this, ' Even as Christ also loved the church, 
and gave himself up for it ' (Eph. v. 2 5, R. V. ). The churches 
of Christ' occurs once (Rom. xvi. 16), and he says, in Matt. 
xvi. 18, 'Upon this rock I will build my church.' But in 
some five or six other places the phrase is, ' the church (or 
churches) of God.' Nevertheless, the expression ' blood of 
God' appears in no other place in the Bible ; and when the 
phrase came to be employed by ecclesiastical writers, it was 
rejected, it is said, by Athanasius, with horror, as an inven- 
tion of the Arians, who, regarding Christ as a subordinate 
God, could without difficulty employ the words in relation 
to him. The American Revisers urge that the text should 
read, ' the church of the Lord,' with a note simply stating 
that 'some ancient authorities, including the two oldest 
MSS., read, ' God.' ' The state of opinion at the time when 
these copies were made had probably something to do with 
this various reading. 



i TIM. 

Authorised Version. 
And without controversy 
great is the mystery of godli- 
ness : God was manifest in the 
flesh, justified in the Spirit, 
seen of angels, preached unto 
the Gentiles, believed on in the 
world, received up into glory. 



iii. 1 6. 



Revised Version. 



And without controversy 
great is the mystery of godli- 
ness ; He who* was manifested 
in the flesh, justified in the 
Spirit, seen of angels, preached 
among the nations, believed on 
in the world, received up in 
glory. 

[* The word God in place of He 
who rests on no sufficient ancient 
evidence. Some ancient authori- 
ties read, which. 

This was also the reading and the translation of the 
Improved Version. ' The mystery of godliness is great : 
He who was manifested in the flesh was justified by the 



58 PROOF-TEXTS ON THE 

Spirit/ &c. The sense would have been clearer if the tense- 
form, 'was justified,' had been expressed in the Revised 
Version, so completing the sentence as it really stands in 
the original. 1 Mr. Sharpe says, ' This important change in 
meaning depends upon a single letter in the Greek ; and in 
the celebrated manuscript in the British Museum, called the 
Alexandrian Manuscript, some dishonest reader has endea- 
voured to change the ' One who' into ' God,' by altering the 
letter. But fortunately the attempt is betrayed and defeated 
by the difference in colour between the ancient and the 
modern ink.' This was the second of the corruptions (the 
other being the text of the Three Witnesses in i John v. 7, 
now removed from the Bible as spurious) on which Sir Isaac 
Newton wrote in his work on ' Two Notable Corruptions 
of Scripture.' Dean Alford, observing how completely the 
sentence was marred and disjoined by the substitution of 
the word God, so strenuously upheld even to this day by 
some, adds : ' There is hardly a passage in the New Testa- 
ment in which I feel more deep personal thankfulness for 
the restoration of the true and wonderful connection of the 
original.' Yet no text in the Bible has been more often or 
more urgently appealed to in support of the Trinitarian 
dogma of the Deity of Christ. 

In this place may be cited a passage in which the words 
God and Christ stand so closely together in the New Version, 
that some might possibly mistake the meaning of the writer, 
as though he intended to say 'God, that is, Christ.' It 
illustrates also further 'the mystery' of the citation just 
given : 



1 It was so translated by Mr. Edgar Taylor, a Unitarian layman, in 
his ' New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, revised from 
the Authorized Version, with the aid of other Translations, and made 
conformable to the Greek Text of J. J. Griesbach, 1839' 'He who was 
manifested in the flesh, was justified in the Spirit,' c. 



DEITY OF CHRIST. 



59 



COL. ii. 2, 3. 



Authorised Version. 
To the acknowledgment of 
the mystery of God, and of the 
Father, and of Christ, in whom 
are hid all the treasures of 
wisdom and knowledge. 



Revised Version. 
That they may know the mys- 
tery of God, even* Christ, in 
whom are all the treasures of 
wisdom and knowledge hidden. 

[* The ancient authorities vary 
much in the text of this passage. 



Dean Alford's remarks on this passage are most instructive. 
' It is almost impossible to say what was the original reading.' 
' The additions here found in the Received Text, and in other 
authorities, seem to be owing to the common practice in 
the MSS. of annotating in the margin on the Divine name, 
to specify to which Person it belonged. Thus it would seem 
likely that 'of God' having been all that was in the original, 
'the Father' was placed against it by some, 'Christ' or 'the 
Christ' by others; and then these found their way into the 
text in various combinations, some of which from their 
difficulty gave rise again to alterations.' He reads and 
translates, ' the mystery of God, wherein are all the hidden 
treasures of wisdom and knowledge;' adding, nevertheless, 
that the mystery was in fact Christ, as shown in chap. i. 2 7. 



ROM. 

Whose are the fathers, and 
of whom as concerning the 
flesh Chris " came, who is over 
all, God blessed for ever. Amen. 



ix. 5. 

Whose are the fathers, and 
of whom is Christ as concern- 
ing the flesh,* who is over all, 
God blessed for ever. Amen. 

[* Some modern interpreters 
place a full stop after flesh, and 
translate, He who is God over all 
be (is) blessed for ever ; or, He -who 
is over all is God blessed for ever. 
Others punctuate, flesh, who is over 
all. God be (is) blessed for ever. 



6o 



PROOF-TEXTS ON THE 



Although the Revisers adhere to the common punctuation 
and translation of this verse, they indicate in the note how 
completely the sense depends on the punctuation adopted, 
there being no stops in the original MS. The American 
Revisers would have substituted for this marginal note only 
one of these variations, thus : ' Or, flesh : he who is over all, 
God, be blessed for ever.'' In the Improved Version, the 
passage reads, ' God who is over all be blessed for ever.' 
Mr. Samuel Sharpe translated, in his 'Holy Bible,' 'Of 
whom was the Christ according to the flesh. He that is 
God over all [be] blessed for ever;' remarking in a note 
elsewhere that the word ' blessed ' is never in the New 
Testament applied otherwise than to the Almighty.' He 
has also pointed to the following passage as indicating Paul's 
manner of thought and expression on the subject in question : 

2 COR. xi. 31. 



Authorized Version. 
The God and Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, which is 
blessed for evermore, knoweth 
that I lie not. 



Revised Version. 

The God and Father of the 
Lord Jesus, he who is blessed 
for evermore,* knoweth, &c. 

[* Gr. unto the ages. 

The parallel is the more striking, inasmuch as the Greek 
which the Revisers translate here *'He who,' is the same 
which Paul uses in the text above cited. It will be remarked 
that the subjoined 'Amen' in that passage suggests that it 
should be interpreted as a doxology, and not, as in the 
Authorized Version, a bare theological statement. 



REV. i. 10, ii. 



I heard behind me a great 
voice, as of a trumpet, saying, 
I am Alpha and Omega, the 
first and the last, and what 
thou seest write in a book. 



I heard behind me a great 
voice, as of a trumpet, saying, 
What thou seest write in a 
book. 



DEITY OF CHRIST. 6 1 

The excision here of the peculiar title which in i. 8 is 
given expressly to the Lord God the Almighty (as also to 
God, xxi. 6), is noteworthy, although it partly appears in the 
speech of the 'one like unto a Son of Man' (i. 17). 'Fear 
not, I am the first and the last, and the Living One ; and I 
was dead, and behold I am alive for evermore.' In chapter 
xxii. 13, where it again occurs in full, 'I am the Alpha and 
the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end,' 
the utterer of the words is not clearly indicated. In Isaiah 
(xli. 4 and xliv. 6) the idea is introduced, not as a definition 
of the Deity, but as a ground of assurance that his word of 
prophecy should not fail. Mr. Sharpe says, ' The words, ' I 
am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last,' added (in i. 1 1 ), 
without sufficient authority, in the Authorized Version, are 
very important, because in verse 8 they had been spoken by 
God, and here they are put into the speech of Jesus, thus 
making him use a title for himself which seems to belong 
only to the Father.' The Revised Version omits the words 
in this place, as the Improved Version had done, after the 
example of Newcome and with the authority of Griesbach. 
An argument may still be made from their appearance in 
chap, xxii., and from the partial use of them in chap. i. 17, 
but in the present clear case it is decided that they form no 
part of the words attributed to Jesus. 



EPH. iii. 9. 



Authorized Version. 
... In God, who created all 
things by Jesus Christ. 



Revised Version. 
In God, who created all 



things. 



The additional words in the Authorized Version are now 
omitted as an interpolation, perhaps a marginal note copied 
into the text. There is no such idea as that of the creation 
of the physical world by Jesus Christ even suggested in the 
Revised Version. The Revisers allow the spurious addition 



62 



PROOF-TEXTS ON THE 



to drop out of the Bible without any marginal notice, as 
was done also in the case of the notorious text of the Three 
Witnesses. The Improved Version omitted the words, but 
not without giving good reasons for the rejection of this 
interpolation. 

What the Authorized translators supposed to have been 
in the writer's mind appears rather in the corresponding 
Epistle to the Colossians, which does speak of a creation 
through Christ. Calvin, with others, understood the word 
there to describe the moral and spiritual 'renovation in- 
cluded in the benefit of redemption,' the new creation fore- 
told in Isaiah Ixv. 1 7 (' For behold I create new heavens, and 
a new earth'), and further illustrated by Paul almost in the 
very strain of the prophet, ' If any man is in Christ he is a 
new creature,' or, says the Revised margin, ' there is a new 
creation,' 2 Cor. v. 17. 



COL. i. 

Authorized Version. 
Who is the image of the in- 
visible God, the firstborn of 
every creature. 1 For by him 
were all things created that are 
in heaven and that are in earth, 
visible and invisible, whether 
they be thrones or dominions 
or principalities or powers : all 
things were created by him, 
and for him : and he is before 



1518. 

Revised Version. 
Who is the image of the in- 
visible God, the firstborn of all 
creation ; for in him were all 
things created in the heavens 
and upon the earth, things 
visible and things invisible, 
whether thrones or dominions 
or principalities or powers ; 
all things have been created 
through him, and unto him ; 



1 The Revisers make the same correction in Col. i. 23 : ' The gospel 
which ye have heard, and which was preached to every creature which 
is under heaven,' now reads, ' The gospel which ye heard, which was 
preached in all creation under heaven,' that is, to the people of all 
nations, showing that it was the moral, not the physical, universe that 
was in the mind of the writer. 



DEITY OF CHRIST. 



Authorized Version. 
all things, and by him all things 
consist. And he is the head of 
the body, the church : who is 
the beginning, the firstborn 
from the dead, that in all things 
he might have the preeminence. 



Revised Version. 
and he is before all things, and 
in him all things consist.* And 
he is the head of the body, the 
church ; who is the beginning, 
the firstborn from the dead, 
thatf in all things he might 
have the preeminence. 

[* That is, hold together, t Or, 
that ainoii? all he might have. 

o o 

Slight as the changes in this important passage may seem, 
they materially alter the whole tenour of it. Creation in Christ, 
and in him all things being centred or held together, suggest 
ideas very different from those conveyed by the Authorized 
Version. So in John i. 2, where it is said, 'all things were 
made by' the Logos, the margin adds, 'or, through,' and it 
has the same note to v. 10, 'The world was made by ('or, 
through'} him, and the world knew him not.' Compare the 
kindred forms of thought in the late Epistle in which God 
is said to have spoken now by his Son, who'is 



HEB. i. 3. 
the brightness of his 



glory, and the* very image of 
his substance. 1 



glory, and the express image 
of his person. 

[* Or, the impress of his substance. 
And on whose 'preeminence in every respect' the writer 



the effulgence of his 



1 It is remarked by Mr. Gordon that ' as regards the question which 
formed the kernel of the historic controversy between the followers of 
St. Athanasius and the successors of Arius, whether our Lord is ' of the 
same substance' or 'of like substance' with the Father, the Revision 
unexpectedly leans to the Homoiousian, that is, to the Arian side. . . . 
The Revisers allot the first place, giving thus the sign of their deliberate 
approval, as Scriptural, to language which accords neither with the 
Nicaean Creed, nor with the 39 Articles, nor with the Westminster Con- 
fession.' Christian Doctrine in the Light of New Testament Revision, 
by Alexander Gordon, M.A., 1882. 



6 4 



PROOF-TEXTS ON THE 



proceeds to dilate throughout the Epistle. He had just 
contrasted the partial revelations from God by prophets with 
this now given 

HEB. i. 2. 



Authorised Version, 
... by his Son whom he hath 
appointed heir of all things, by 
whom also he made the worlds. 



Revised Version. 
... in his Son* whom he 
appointed heir of all things, 
through whom also he made 
the worlds.t 

[* Gr. a Son. t Gr. ages. 



It appears very plainly in the New Version that the 
writers of these passages had in view the dispensation of the 
fulness of the times (Eph. i. 10), the new constitution of 
things, the new creation in the spiritual world that was now 
accomplished in Christ, but which had been in the mind of 
God from the beginning. So the author of the Epistle to 
the Colossians says, in applying this to the members of the 
body of which Christ is the head, ' Ye have put on the new 
man which is being renewed unto knowledge after the image 
of him that created him' (R.V.); and to the Ephesians 
(iv. 24), 'and put on the new man which after God hath 
been created in righteousness and holiness of truth' (R.V.). 
And again, ' For we are his workmanship, created in Christ 
Jesus for good works, which God afore prepared that we 
should walk in them' (R.V.). 

That the margin gives here the true translation seems 
probable from the fact that the Scriptures, in common with 
other ancient writings, speak of but one material world. 
The plural, ' worlds,' occurs in the Authorized Version in 
only one other place, and that in the present Epistle ; and 
there also, as the Revised margin indicates, the Greek has 
the same term as here (Heb. xi. 3, marg. ' Gr. ages'). In the 
Revised Version appears the expression, 'before the worlds' 



DEITY OF CHRIST. 65 

in i Cor. ii. 7 (marg. 'or, ages'). In the passage in He- 
brews just adverted to, it is not clear why the writer should 
have introduced his long record of the saints who had been 
accepted for their faith in the things ' not seen as yet,' by an 
assertion of the doctrine of material creation out of nothing ; 
and it is by no means certain that he meant the starry worlds, 
to use a modern phrase, and not the framing of the ages or 
dispensations in the sense above explained (see p. 62). 

In the present instance the natural sense of the word, as 
given in the margin, harmonizes with the entire purport of 
the Epistle, which was to show that in Christ the ancient 
promises and foreshadowings were realized. He was the 
appointed heir of all the ages. 

The attribution of very lofty prerogatives to Christ in the 
New Testament, especially in the Pauline writings, has never 
been doubted by Unitarian scholars. They only affirm that 
these are uniformly represented there as the gift of the 
Father to him. Their relative positions are clearly indicated 
in another writing, in a passage which also throws further 
light upon the expressions in Heb. i. 2. At the text in 
Eph. iii. ii, 'According to the eternal purpose, which he 
purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord,' the Revised margin 
says, 'or, purpose of the ages,' a phrase without clear mean- 
ing in itself, but which probably indicates the direction of 
the true sense, if it be remembered that the word preceding 
'the ages' does not primarily mean 'purpose,' but a 'setting 
forth, pre-arranging, or disposing.' The idea would there- 
fore be, 'According to the determining or pre-arrangement 
of the ages in the Divine order.' 

It will be noticed in the Revised context of the passage 
just cited that the wisdom of the Divine purpose was to 
be made known ; through the church,' not ' known by the 
church,' as in the Old Version (Eph. iii. 10) ; a marked 
improvement. 



66 



PROOF-TEXTS ON THE 



HEB. iii. 5, 6. 



Authorized Version. 
And Moses verily was faith- 
ful in all his house as a ser- 
vant .... But Christ as a Son 
over his own house. 



Revised Version. 
And Moses indeed was faith- 
ful in all his* house as a ser- 
vant .... but Christ as a son 
over his* house. 



[* That is, God's house. 
Num. xii. 7. 



See 



The Improved Version translated here, ' in all the house- 
hold of God,' which gave indeed a correct paraphrase, but 
not an accurate rendering, as was in fact acknowledged in 
the subjoined note (Gr. ' in all his household'}. The passage 
referred to in the Eevised margin reads, ' My servant Moses 
is not so, who is faithful in all mine house.' The interpreta- 
tion thus furnished, while enabling the reader to see his way 
through the ambiguities of the possessive pronoun in this 
sentence, gives at the same time a clear reply to the sugges- 
tion that the writer intended to identify the Son over God's 
house with God himself just before referred to. 



PHIL. 

Who, being in the form of 
God, thought it not robbery to 
be equal with God, but made 
himself of no reputation, and 
took upon him the form of a 
servant, and was made in the 
likeness of men. 



ii. 6, 7. 

Who, being* in the form of 
God, counted it not a prize t to 
be on an equality with God, 
but emptied himself, taking the 
form of a servant,$ being made 
in the likeness of men. 

[* Gr. being originally, t Gr. 
a thing to be grasped at. + Gr. 
bondservant. Gr. becoming 

in. 



The Improved Version anticipated the chief correction in 
this passage, thus, ' did not esteem as a prey this resemblance 
to God, but divested himself of it' (note, ' Gr. emptied him- 



DEITY OF CHRIST. 67 

self). The Revisers say in their margin, that instead of ' a 
prize,' the Greek may be translated, ' a thing to be grasped 
at. 1 The American Revision Company urge that this should 
have been the translation in the text. They say, Let the 
text run, 'counted not the being on an equality with God 
a thing to be grasped.' Dean Alford says, 'to grasp at.' 
What the author meant by the being like God, which Jesus 
forbore to claim until the time appointed of the Father, in 
the spirit of benevolent self-abnegation for which his example 
is here commended to the Philippian brethren, may be 
understood from what is said of him in his glorified state in 
other passages of this Epistle; as, for example, in iii. 21, 
where is ascribed to him the ability ' to subject all things 
unto himself.' See i Cor. xv. 25, also Ps. ex. i, the original 
source of these Messianic conceptions. Compare also what 
the writer says here, in verse 9, of the high exaltation to 
which God raised Jesus in reward for his self-sacrificing 
humility, that all should confess that he 'is Lord, to the 
glory of God the Father.' But exaltation surely means 
raising to a higher state of glory. Christ has become what 
he was not before ; so that the ' being originally' in the form 
of God which the margin suggests, gives little help to the 
interpretation and is not necessary, the original word as found 
in other places conveying no such idea. The terms used 
in verse 6 to describe what Jesus really was, and of course 
knew himself to be, must be understood in view of the fact 
of this subsequent exaltation. They cannot mean more than 
is described in verse 9. The Revised Version gives at least 
a view more in harmony with the doctrine of Heb. xii. 2, 
that Jesus, ' for the joy that was set before him endured the 
cross, despising shame, and hath sat down at the right hand 
of the throne of God,' than was presented in the Authorized 
Version in the phrase, ' thought it not robbery to be equal 
with God,' which has been often quoted as implying that he 
was therefore God's equal ; that is to say, himself God. 

F 2 



68 



PROOF-TEXTS ON THE 



PHIL. ii. 

Authorized Version. 
Wherefore God also hath 
highly exalted him, and given 
him a name which is above 
every name : that at the name 
of Jesus every knee should bow, 
of things in heaven, and things 
in earth, and things under the 
earth, and that every tongue 
shouldconfess that Jesus Christ 
is Lord, to the glory of God the 
Father. 



9 ii. 

Revised Version. 
Wherefore also God highly 
exalted him, and gave unto him 
the name which is above every 
name ; that in the name of 
Jesus every knee should bow, 
of things in heaven, and things 
on earth, and things under the 
earth,* and that every tongue 
shouldconfess that Jesus Christ 
is Lord, to the glory of God the 
Father. 



[* Or, things of the -world below. 

So the Improved Version, 'in the name of Jesus.' Mr. S. 
Sharpe says of this more correct translation, ' The meaning 
is that every man should worship the Almighty as a Christian, 
owning himself a disciple of Jesus, which is worshipping in 
his name.' ' From the mistranslation of this passage,' he 
adds, ' has arisen the reverent but unauthorized custom of 
bowing in church whenever the word 'Jesus' is mentioned.' 1 



MATT, xxviii. 18. 



All power is given unto me 
in heaven and in earth. 



All authority hath been given 
unto me in heaven and on earth. 



JOHN xvii. 2. 



As thou hast given him power 
over all flesh. 



him 



Even as thou gavest 
authority over all flesh. 

In both these passages the Revisers have gone beyond 
the Improved Version, which retained the Authorized 'power.' 
In Matt. x. i, where the Authorized Version says that Jesus 
gave his disciples ' power against unclean spirits,' they correct 

1 This practice, which was first adopted at the recitation of the 
'Credo,' is not uncommonly now followed, as Mr. Sharpe says, when- 
ever in the course of the prayers the name of Jesus occurs. 



DEITY OF CHRIST. 69 

to ' authority over,' the original word being the same as in 
the two texts just given. But this word is used also in 
Matt. ix. 6, 8, which should therefore have been, ' that the 
Son of Man hath authority on earth to forgive sins,' and the 
multitude 'glorified God, which had given such authority 
unto men.' 1 They say, however, in the margin against the 
word power, ' or, authority.' The like correction in the 
passage following is important, and in this instance the 
Improved Version has the same : not ' the power,' but ' the 
authority': 

REV. xii. 10. 



Authorized Version. 
And I heard a loud voice 
saying in heaven, Now is come 
salvation, and strength, and the 
kingdom of our God, and the 
power of his Christ. 



Revised Version. 
And I heard a great voice in 
heaven, saying, Now* is come 
the salvation, and the power, 
and the kingdom of our God, 
and the authority of his Christ. 

[* Or, now is the salvation, &"c., 
become our God's, and the authority 
is become his Christ's. 



ROM. xiv. 10. 



We shall all stand before the 
judgment-seat of Christ. 



For we shall all stand before 
the judgment-seat of God. 



This correction in the reading is specially noteworthy 
from the quotation which immediately follows : ' For it is 
written, As I live, saith the Lord, to me every knee shall 
bow, and every tongue shall confess to God' (Is. xlv. 23); 
on which Paul adds, ' so then each one of us shall give 
account of himself to God.' It is true that elsewhere (2 Cor. 
v. 10) the same writer affirms that 'We must all be made 

1 This is one of the amendments which was urged without effect by 
the American Company of Revisers, and which they considered of suffi- 
cient importance to be placed on record. They say, 'Matt. ix. 6, 8, 
Mark ii. 10, and Luke v. 24, for 'power' to forgive sins, read 'autho- 
rity,' as is now indicated in the margin, and as the word is elsewhere 
translated.' 



jO PROOF-TEXTS ON THE 

manifest before the judgment-seat of Christ,' having just 
before said, ' We make it our aim to be well-pleasing unto 
him.' But in the verses following the Authorized text above, 
which is now amended, there was an obvious identification 
of Christ with the Jehovah of the prophet. 

As to the meaning of the passage in 2 Cor. v. 10, it is 
sufficient to remark that it corresponds with Paul's repre- 
sentation in Rom. ii. 16, ' In the day when God shall judge 
the secrets of men, according to my gospel, by Jesus Christ.' 
The same idea is presented in his reported speech at Athens 
(Acts xvii. 31), ' Inasmuch as he hath appointed a day in the 
which he will judge the world in righteousness by (marg. ' or, 
in') the man (marg. 'or, a man'} whom he hath ordained ;' 
this highest function being thus attributed to a human being, 
one who could be properly called a man, with no hint of his 
being at the same time anything else, which was indeed the 
point of the Apostle's statement. 

The almost omniscience, however, which this grand func- 
tion would seem to attribute to Christ, is not attested, as has 
been supposed, by the statement in John ii. 24, 25, where 
the Revised margin suggests the following : ' He needed not 
that any one should bear witness concerning a man, for he 
himself knew what was in the man.' 



JOHN x. 14, 15. 



Authorized Version. 
I am the good shepherd, and 
know my sheep, and am known 
of mine. As the Father know- 
eth me, even so know I the 
Father. 



Revised Version. 
I am the good shepherd ; and 
I know mine own, and mine 
own know me, even as the 
Father knoweth me, and I know 
the Father. 



An amendment partially anticipated in the Improved 
Version, and altogether in the latter portion, which had 
been supposed to indicate some mystic communion of 
mutual intimacy between the Father and the Son. 



DEITY OF CHRIST. 



There are two passages in which the Revisers have alto- 
gether changed the sense of the Authorized Version in 
favour of the orthodox belief that Christ is God. 



2 PET. 

Authorized Version. 
To them that have obtained 
like precious faith with us 
through the righteousness of 
God, and our Saviour Jesus 
Christ, grace and peace be 
multiplied unto you through 
the knowledge of God and of 
Jesus our Lord. 



1. I, 2. 

Revised Version. 
To them that have obtained 
a like precious faith with us in 
the righteousness of our God* 
and Saviour Jesus Christ : grace 
to you and peace be multiplied 
in the knowledge of God and 
of Jesus our Lord. 

[* Or, our God, and the Saviour. 



TIT. ii. 13. 



Looking for that blessed hope 
and the glorious appearing of 
the great God, and our Saviour 
Jesus Christ. 



Looking for the blessed hope 
and appearing of the glory of 
our great God* and Saviour 
Jesus Christ. 

[* Or, of the great God, and our 
Saviottr. 

In both cases, it is a simple matter of translation ; there is 
no question about the text. It is acknowledged in the notes 
that two distinct beings may be referred to, and the imme- 
diate context, in at least the first instance, shows that two 
beings were intended, since the knowledge 'of Jesus our 
Lord' is plainly distinguished from 'the knowledge of God.' 

With regard to the second passage, Dean Alford comes 
to the same conclusion, after carefully considering the other 
instances in the Pastoral Epistles in which God and Christ 
are named together in such a manner as to preclude the 
possibility of identifying them as one. The Authorized ren- 
dering is, he says, ' both structurally and contextually more 
probable, and more agreeable to the Apostle's way of writ- 
ing.' 1 The American Revisers also adopt this view. They 

1 ' The New Testament for English Readers,' by Henry Alford, D.D., 
Dean of Canterbury, 1865. 



72 PROOF-TEXTS ON THE 

say with reference to both passages, ' Let the text and margin 
exchange places.' They do not agree with the English New 
Testament Company that the alteration in the text in these 
two passages is an improvement, or believe that the writers 
certainly meant to say that Jesus was our God, or our great 
God. 

In the second text the revision offers one marked improve- 
ment. It is no longer ' the appearing of God,' which is not 
a Scriptural phrase or idea, but of 'the glory' of God, which 
is. See Matt. xvi. 27, and Mark viii. 38. In the Authorized 
Version, the last clause appears ambiguous from the omission, 
as in the other text, of the word ' of.' The same ambiguity 
is found in another passage which the Revisers have not 
altered, ' According to the grace of our God, and the Lord 
Jesus Christ' (2 Thes. i. 12). 

In this passage the Greek construction is exactly the same 
as in the two cases quoted above, as has been remarked by 
Dr. G. Vance Smith, 1 who, however, thinks that the Revised 
rendering may possibly be the correct one, at least in the 
passage from 2 Peter, that Epistle having been one of the 
latest writings of the New Testament, and belonging to a 
period when Christ was spoken of personally as God. But 
the distinction is clearly marked in other parts of the Epistle 
to Titus between God our Saviour and Christ our Saviour, 
as it is also in Jude 25, 'To the only God our Saviour, 
through Jesus Christ our Lord' (R.V.). 



A few other changes may be suitably mentioned here, in 
which the Revision might seem at first glance to incline in 
the same direction as the revisions just cited. But they are 
readings, not renderings, and they present no real difficulty 
to Unitarian scholars. For example, in Acts xvi. 7 : ' But 
the Spirit suffered them not' occurs in the Authorized Ver- 
sion after the statement that Paul and Silas ' were forbidden 

1 'Texts and Margins,' p. 42. 



DEITY OF CHRIST. 73 

of the Holy Ghost to preach the word in Asia.' The Revised 
Version reads, ' the Spirit of Jesus suffered them not,' accord- 
ing to all the three oldest MSS., so clearly identifying the 
Holy Spirit with the Spirit of Jesus. There is nothing in 
this expression contrary to Unitarian views, whether as to 
the Supreme God, or the powers conferred by him upon 
Christ, however difficult it may be to harmonize such a 
statement with the orthodox standards. 



PHIL. iv. 13. 



Authorised Version. 
I can do all things through 
Christ that strengtheneth me. 



Revised Version. 



I can do all things in him 
that strengtheneth me. 



Meaning, probably, Christ (see i Tim. i. 1 2 ; 2 Cor. xii. 9), 
but the word is omitted as a gloss, not being found, says 
Alford, in the oldest MSS. The Improved Version made 
the same omission. On the other hand, it anticipated the 
Revised change in Philemon 20, refresh my heart ' in Christ' 
from 'in the Lord' of the Authorized; and also the correc- 
tion now made in 

EPH. v. 29. 

Even as the Lord the church. 1 Even as Christ also the church. 



In a few other passages the Revisers exchange 'God' or 
'the Lord' for Christ, but without detriment to Unitarian 
interpretation. For example, in Rom. x. 17, ' and hearing 
by the word of God,' now reads, ' and hearing by the word 
of Christ.' (See p. 97.) 

COL. iii. 15. 



And let the peace of God 
rule in your hearts. 



And let the peace of Christ 
rule* in your hearts. 



[* Gr. arbitrate. 
This is the reading of the Improved Version. 



74 PROOF-TEXTS ON THE 

i PET. iii. 15. 



Authorized Version. 
But sanctify the Lord God in 



your hearts. 



Revised Version. 
But sanctify in your hearts 
Christ as Lord. 



ROM. xiv. 4. 



For God is able to make him 
stand. 



For the Lord hath power to 
make him stand. 



Judging from the context, this may be the true reading, 
and by 'the Lord' the Apostle may have meant the glorified 
Son of God. 'God hath power' would read almost like a 
truism. There is, however, a passage from another writer in 
which the Eevision changes 'God' to 'Lord,' and obviously 
without altering the sense. In James iii. 9, instead of ' there- 
with bless we God, even the Father,' we now read, ' the Lord 
and Father.' 

It is proper to remark in this connection that on the text, 
' The only begotten Son which is in the bosom of the Father,' 
John i. 18, occurs the note, 'Many ancient authorities read, 
God only begotten'' a kind of expression quite familiar with 
Arius and his followers. Strictly speaking, it should be, 
' an only-begotten God,' and, having no definite article, the 
phrase would correspond with the use of the word ' God' in 
its secondary sense in the last clause of John i. i. 



JUDE 4. 



Denying the only Lord God, 
and our Lord Jesus Christ. 



Denying our only Master* 
and Lord Jesus Christ. 



[ *Or, the only Master, and our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

The Revisers have followed Griesbach in omitting ' God,' 
and it may be supposed that it was a gloss which found its 
way afterwards into the text. Perhaps the strongest point 
in favour of this reading is that the same word is used in 
the corresponding passage in 2 Pet. ii. i, 'denying even the 
Master that bought them,' as the New Version translates. 



DEITY OF CHRIST. 7$ 



The Worship of Christ. 

Among the arguments in favour of the Deity of Christ, 
one of the most popular is the fact that he is said to have 
been 'worshipped' by various persons in his lifetime on 
earth. This worship is conceived to have begun with the 
homage paid to him in his infancy by the wise men (marg. 
' Gr. Magi'} from the East (Matt. ii. 2, n, see also verse 8). 
But at this very chapter the American Revisers recommend 
the addition of a very important note, to the effect that ' the 
Greek word denotes an act of reverence, whether paid to 
man, see Matt, xviii. 26 ('The servant therefore fell down 
and worshipped him,' viz. ' a certain king '), or to God, 
Matt. iv. 10 ('Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God').' 

In the passages (about a dozen) in the Gospels in which 
it is said that persons came to Jesus and worshipped him, 
the contexts sufficiently show that the word must be under- 
stood in the sense of 'paying homage,' not of religious 
adoration, the same sense in which Cornelius is stated to 
have worshipped Peter (Acts x. 25). Only in one place do 
the circumstances appear to favour the other use of the word 
in reference to Christ, viz. in Luke xxiv. 52 : 'And it came 
to pass while he blessed them, he was parted from them, 
and carried up into heaven. And they worshipped him, and 
returned to Jerusalem with great joy, and were continually 
in the temple, blessing God ' in the Authorized Version, 
'praising and blessing God.' The distinction is thus observed 
between the two kinds of reverence, but also the notes in 
the margin should be remarked : (i) ' Some ancient authori- 
ties omit was carried up into heaven? (2) 'Some ancient 
authorities omit worshipped him, and? 



The Revisers have changed the word 'worship' used in 
Luke xiv. 10, in the Authorized Version, in the old English 
sense of respect paid to any one, which obtains in most of 



76 WORSHIP OF CHRIST. 

the passages above referred to, into ' glory,' which the Greek 
word in this instance properly means. 



Authorized Version. 
And he said unto Jesus, Lord, 
remember me when thoucomest 
into thy kingdom. 



LUKE xxiii. 42. 



Revised Version. 



And he said, Jesus, remem- 
ber me when thou comest in 
thy kingdom.* 

[* Some ancient authorities read, 
into thy kingdom. 

This has been often described as an act of worship, an 
idea not necessarily suggested even in the Authorized Version. 
In the Revised form the act appears quite simple and natural, 
especially if the speaker believed, with the early disciples 
generally, that Jesus was to come again ' in his kingdom.' 
' Coming into thy kingdom' conveys a different idea. 



ACTS vii. 59. 
And they stoned Stephen, And they stoned Stephen, 



calling upon God, and saying, 
Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. 



calling upon the Lord, and 
saying, Lord Jesus, receive my 



spirit. 

In the Improved Version the phrase is 'invoking and 
saying,' which is substantially all that the original justifies. 
Perhaps a more familiar modern term would be, ' appealing 
for help and saying.' In any case the word used does not 
necessarily mean praying to God; and that the Revision 
inserts the right person, if any need be named, may be argued 
from the fact that the martyr saw Jesus in a vision, standing, 
as he said, 'on the right hand of God,' distinguishing there- 
fore plainly between them, and in effect appealing, not to 
God who was invisible, but to him whom he saw thus stand- 
ing in the place of honour near him. ' At the right hand 
of God' could only mean in a state of highest exaltation. 



WORSHIP OF CHRIST. 



77 



COL. iii. 1 6. 

Authorized Version. 
Let the word of Christ dwell 
in you richly in all wisdom, 
teaching and admonishing one 
another in psalms and hymns 
and spiritual songs, singing 
with grace in your hearts to 
the Lord. 



Revised Version. 
Let the word of Christ* dwell 
in you richly in all wisdom ; 
teaching and admonishing one 
another t with psalms and 
hymns and spiritual songs, 
singing with grace in your 
hearts unto God. 



[* Some ancient authorities read, 
the Lord, others God. t Or, 

yourselves. 

The Improved Version had the important correction in 
this place, which shows God to be the single Object of wor- 
ship, so bringing the text into harmony with the following 
verse. Dean Alford admits this, observing that it has the 
authority of ; all our oldest MSS.' 



JOHN xvi. 

And in that day ye shall 
ask me nothing : Verily, verily, 
I say unto you, whatsoever ye 
shall ask the Father in my 
Name, he will give it you. Hi- 
therto have ye asked nothing 
in my Name : ask, and ye shall 
receive. 

26. At that day, ye shall ask 
in my Name :. and I say not 
unto you that I will pray the 
Father for you ; for the Father 
himself loveth you. 



23, 24, 26. 

And in that day ye shall 
ask* me nothing. Verily, verily, 
I say unto you, If ye shall ask 
anything of the Father, he will 
give it you in my name. Hi- 
therto have ye asked nothing 
in my name : ask, and ye shall 
receive. 

26. In that day ye shall ask 
in my name : and I say not 
unto you, that I will prayt the 
Father for you ; for the Father 
himself loveth you. 

[* Or, ask me no questions, t Gr. 
make request of. 

The sanction for the practice of praying through, or in 
the name of, Jesus Christ, is usually found in these texts. 



78 WORSHIP OF CHRIST. 

It should be noted, therefore, (i) that in v. 23, where the 
expression occurs of asking in Christ's name, we now have 
also gifts from God in his name, gifts of the kind which may 
perhaps be sufficiently understood from the prayer of the 
Apostles in Acts iv. 30, 'that signs and wonders may be 
done through the name of thy holy Servant Jesus' (R.V.), 
and Acts iii. 6, (2) that asking in Christ's name may thus be 
understood to mean on behalf of Christ's cause. There is 
nothing here to show that prayer, in order to be effectual, 
must be offered in the name of Christ. 

In this view of the meaning of the phrase may perhaps 
be explained an addition made in John xiv. 14, which now 
reads, 'If ye shall ask me anything in my name.' It is, indeed, 
noted in the margin that ' many ancient authorities omit me,' 
but the reading is admitted in the text, and the question will 
naturally suggest itself, what can be meant by asking Christ 
in his own name, unless it be for help in the carrying on of 
his work. 1 

1 This interpretation of the phrase is confirmed by reference to the 
preceding context of this passage (vv. 12, 13), which Campbell translates, 
' He who believeth on me shall himself do such works as I do; nay, even 
greater than these shall he do; because I go to my Father, and will do 
whatsoever ye shall ask in my name.' See, for example, Acts iii. 6 : ' In 
the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, walk' (R.V.). 



ALLUSIONS TO CHRIST IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 79 



SUPPOSED ALLUSIONS TO CHRIST IN THE 
OLD TESTAMENT. 

For lessons of specifically Christian doctrine, we naturally 
look to the New Testament : the amendments in the Revised 
Version which bear upon points of evangelical theology will 
be found there in abundance. 

But the Church teaches that at least the rudiments of the 
gospel may be discovered in the Old Testament also, and 
thus that the light of Christian times is thrown back upon 
the earlier revelations of Divine truth. 

It is especially insisted upon that, though only in some 
confused way, the Christ of the New Testament was the 
Jehovah of the Old, and it materially favours this identifica- 
tion that the term ' LORD' is employed in the Old Testament 
to stand for the proper name Jehovah, while the same word 
is used with some ambiguity by the New Testament writers. 

It is also believed by orthodox theologians that the older 
Scriptures foretold everything of importance in relation to 
the life and work, the death and resurrection of Christ, both 
as to the facts and their interpretation. The Jewish people 
held the doctrine of Messianic prophecy, and it was from 
them that the Christians learned it, and applied it in their 
own way to their Master. 

Now in both cases the orthodox views depend on infer- 
ence, and a large amount of believing ingenuity is required 
to make out clearly the relation between type and antitype, 
prediction and fulfilment. The question has little to do 
with correct renderings of Old Testament passages. It is a 
matter of preconception, not of logical proof. 



8o SUPPOSED ALLUSIONS TO CHRIST 

But even upon these points some fresh light is thrown by 
the Revision in certain of what have been called proof-texts 
for New Testament doctrine implied or foreshadowed, and 
in a few cases, as is supposed, plainly set forth in the Old. 
The following are the passages chiefly relied upon 

GEN. iii. 15. 
Authorized Version. Revised Version. 



And I will put enmity be- 
tween thee and the woman, 
and between thy seed and her 
seed ; it shall bruise thy head, 
and thou shalt bruise his heel. 



And I will put enmity be- 
tween thee and the woman, 
and between thy seed and her 
seed; it shall bruise* thy head, 
and thou shalt bruise* his heel. 



[* Or, lie in wait for. 

The Revisers' alternative translation for ' bruise,' ' or, lie 
in wait for,' corresponds with Mr. Wellbeloved's note, ' or, 
watch to hurt,' expressions which show more clearly that 
the thing indicated was the mutual repulsion and hostility 
between the serpent tribe and mankind. They leave, how- 
ever, ' his heel,' probably by inadvertence. It should be ' its,' 
to correspond with the ' it' just before. The Authorized word 
' his,' which formerly had this meaning, has certainly appeared 
to modern readers to favour the common view, that this was 
the first prediction of the Saviour's temporary defeat on Cal- 
vary and subsequent conquest over the devil. The Quarterly 
Reviewer 1 says, it is well known that " this verse is the earliest 
foreshadowing of the hope of the Gospel. . . . but according to 
the Revisers, the sinful, sorrowing pair (Adam and Eve) were 
to be comforted by the thought that a mutual ' lying in wait' 
should always be going on between the human race and the 
serpent species." But there is no idea of comforting in the 
story, and not a word said to imply that the spirit of Evil 
was in the serpent. The account reads quite naturally as it 
stands, especially with the marginal explanation. 

1 'Quarterly Review,' October, 1885. 



IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 



8l 



GEN. 

Authorized Version. 
The sceptre shall not depart 
from Judah, nor a lawgiver from 
between his feet, until Shiloh 
come, and unto him shall the 
gathering of the people be. 



xlix. 10. 

Revised Version. 
The sceptre shall not depart 
from Judah, nor the ruler's 
staff* from between his feet, 
until Shiloh come,t and unto 
him shall the obedience of the 
peoples be. 

f* Or, a lawgiver. + Or, till 
he come to Shiloh, having the obedi- 
ence of the peoples ; or, as read by 
the Septuagint, until that ivhich is 
his shall come. Another ancient 
rendering is, till he come whose it 
is, &c. 

In this difficult passage Mr. Sharpe translates, 'until he 
come to Shiloh,' which the Revisers allow as an alternative 
rendering, and both he and Mr. Wellbeloved anticipated the 
two other improvements admitted in the New Version ; 
the latter remarking in a note, that the New Testament does 
not speak of Christ under the name of Shiloh, and that it 
would be difficult to show that the position of Judah was 
in any sense like that here described at the time of Christ's 
coming. That 'Judah maintained its corporate existence 
as a tribe until the coming of the Prince of Peace,' which is 
the explanation of the Quarterly Reviewer, will probably 
appear to ordinary readers a poor fulfilment of so imperial 
a prediction, even if the facts were not against it. 



NUM. xxiv. 17 19. 



I shall see him, but not now : 
I shall behold him, but not 
nigh : there shall come a Star 
out of Jacob, and a Sceptre 
shall rise out of Israel, and 



I see him, but not now : I 
behold him, but not nigh : there 
shall come forth a star out of 
Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise 
out of Israel, and shall smite 



82 



SUPPOSED ALLUSIONS TO CHRIST 



Authorised Version. 
shall smite the corners of Moab, 
and destroy all the children of 
Sheth. And Edom shall be a 
possession, Seir also shall be 
a possession for his enemies ; 
and Israel shall do valiantly. 
Out of Jacob shall come he 
that shall have dominion, and 
shall destroy him that remain- 
eth of the city. 



Revised Version. 
through the corners of Moab, 
and break down all the sons of 
tumult.* And Edom shall be 
a possession, Seir also shall be 
a possession, 'which were his 
enemies ; while Israel doeth 
valiantly. And out of Jacob 
shall one have dominion, and 
shall destroy the remnant from 
the city. 



[* Or, Sheth. 

It has been noticed in the Review article above quoted, 
that the Authorized Version recognized the Messianic charac- 
ter of this prophecy by spelling the words Star and Sceptre 
with capitals, and the writer complains that a portion of the 
Revisers (i.e. two-thirds of them at least : see their rules) 
wished to minimize the Messianic prophecies in the text of 
the Old Testament. The translation here given is singularly 
like that of Mr. Wellbeloved. He held that the reference 
was to David's victories over Moab (2 Sam. viii. 2, 14). 



Ex. iii. 

And God said unto Moses, I 
AM THAT I AM : and he 
said, Thus shalt thou say unto 
the children of Israel, I AM 
hath sent me unto you. And 
God said moreover unto Moses, 
Thus shalt thou say unto the 
children of Israel, The LORD 
God of your fathers . . . 



And God said unto Moses, I 
AM THAT I AM:* and he 
said, Thus shalt thou say unto 
the children of Israel, I AMt 
hath sent me unto you. And 
God said moreover unto Moses, 
Thus shalt thou say unto the 
children of Israel, The LoRD,J 
the God of your fathers . . . 

[* Or, I am becatise I am; or, / 
am who am ; or, / will be that I 
will be. f Or, I will be, Heb. 
Ehyeh. + \\eb.Jehovah, from 
the same root as Ehyeh. 



IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 83 

Mr. Wellbeloved translated, ' I WILL BE WHAT i WILL be,' 
and so later, ' I WILL BE hath sent me,' and (v. 15), ' HE WHO 
WILL BE, the God of your fathers.' The Revisers allow that 
this at least may be the proper rendering, and thus that the 
name was not given as a definition of the Divine Essence, 
but as a token of God's faithfulness to his promises ; or, as 
in v. 12, a renewal of his assurance of protection, 'Certainly 
I will be with thee.' 

When, therefore, in John viii. 58, Jesus says, 'Before 
Abraham was I am,' a phrase which occurs repeatedly in 
this Gospel for 'I am he,' i.e. the Messiah of Divine appoint- 
ment, 1 it is hardly to be supposed that he refers to the text 
in Ex. iii. 14 above quoted, where the verb is in the future, 
not in the present tense. In Mark xiii. 6, where the Autho- 
rized Version reads, ' many shall come in my name, saying, 
I am Christ? the Revisers use the more natural expression 
suggested by the original, and put, ' saying, I am he' 



Ps. ii. 12. 

Authorized Version. Revised Version. 



Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, 
and ye perish from the way, 
when his wrath is kindled but 
a little. 



Kiss the son,* lest he be 
angry, and ye perish in the 
way, for his wrath willt soon 
be kindled. 

[* Some ancient versions render, 
Lay hold of (or receive) instruction ; 
others, Worship in purity, t Or, 
may. 

The Edinburgh Reviewer 2 objects to the Revisers printing 
'the son' with a small s, as they have also done just before 
in v. 7, ' Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee,' 
so obscuring the Messianic intention, and leaving the passage 

1 It is so translated in this very chapter, -vv. 24, 28, ' except ye believe 
that I am /if,' 'then shall ye know that I am he.'' The Improved Ver- 
sion has the translation suggested here in the margin, ' Before Abraham 
was born. ' 

2 ' Edinburgh Review,' October, 1885. 

G 2 



84 SUPPOSED ALLUSIONS TO CHRIST 

to be applied only to the Hebrew monarch, to whom, as 
all agree, the psalm primarily refers. Mr. Wellbeloved 
translated, ' Reverence,' or ' Do homage sincerely,' remarking 
that in pure Hebrew the word which he renders 'sincerely' 
never means ' son,' though even if it had that meaning in 
this place, the son could only have been the anointed king 
(v. 2) to whom Jehovah had plainly given this exalted title 
(y. 7). This text is cited here chiefly on account of the note 
suggesting a revision more in harmony with the context. 
Perhaps the true sense corresponds with the previous ' Be 
instructed' of v. 10. In any case, there would seem to be no 
reference in v. 12 to 'the Son.' It is the wrath of the LORD 
(see v. n) with which the revolting nations are threatened; 
and every reader may observe that the LORD is the proper 
subject of both the nth and i2th verses. 



' Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever,' Ps. xlv. 6. On 
this text there is a note in the Revised margin, ' or, thy 
throne is the throne of GodJ &c. This is of great importance 
as throwing light upon the quotation of the passage in Heb. 
i. 8, in application to the Son, where the same ambiguity 
is found in the Greek, and of course the same alternative 
translation must be understood to be admissible. 

Two other points deserve notice in regard to this quotation 
in the Epistle. In the text the Revisers properly correct 
' Unto the Son he saith,' to ' Of the Son,' and they insert at 
'the sceptre of thy kingdom' the note that 'The two oldest 
Greek manuscripts read ' his.' This variation may be, 
probably is, wrong, but the reader may judge from it how 
the transcribers understood the passage, and will observe 
that the Quarterly Reviewer has not sufficient ground for 
characterizing the marginal note to Ps. xlv. 6, as a contra- 
diction of an inspired interpretation of the verse. 

The correction 'of instead of 'to the Son' covers also 
the subsequent quotation (Heb. i. 10 12), 'And, Thou LORD 
in the beginning,' &c., from another Psalm (cii. 25 27). 



IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 85 

Whatever the idea was in the mind of the writer, he does 
not affirm that this Psalm was addressed to the Son. And 
if with the margin of the Old Testament Revisers we read in 
the preceding passage, ' Thy throne is the throne of God for 
ever,' the connection of thought in the second quotation 
becomes clear : the throne of the Son shall be as enduring 
as God's eternity. See the last verse of Ps. cii., which draws 
a similar inference from this Divine attribute. 

Supposing, however, that the expression, ' O God,' is 
applied to the Son, it should be rernembered that the Hebrew 
word is Elohim, the plural name which has been supposed 
to imply the Trinity when used in the Old Testament. But 
Elohim can hardly mean three persons, and, at the same 
time, be used for only one of the three. 



In a preceding verse of the Psalm (xlv. 3), the Revisers 
make a correction that deserves notice, since the addition of 
the adverb ' most,' which appears in the Authorized Version 
in italics, to show that it was an addition, has been under- 
stood to favour the Messianic application of the whole Psalm. 
Instead of ' Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty, 
with thy glory and thy majesty,' we now read, ' Gird thy sword 
upon thy thigh, O mighty one, thy glory and thy majesty.' 

PROV. viii. 22. 



Authorized Version. 
The LORD possessed me in 
the beginning of his way, before 
his works of old. 



Revised Version* 
The LORD possessed* me 
int the beginning of his way, 
before^ his works of old. 



[* Ox, formed. t Or, as. 

: Or, the first of. 

The passage may therefore be read, ' The Lord formed 
me as the beginning of his way, the first of his works of 
old,' which, if it be understood of a person, is obviously 
very far from supporting the doctrine of certain orthodox 
Church authorities. Upon the verb 'formed,' the Arians 
of the fourth century much relied, as distinctly asserting 



86 



SUPPOSED ALLUSIONS TO CHRIST 



that Christ was a created being, and therefore not co-eternal 
and consubstantial with the Father. The Quarterly Reviewer 
complains that the Revisers have suggested this Arian inter- 
pretation, and he refers on the contrary to ' the judgment 
of Catholic antiquity' to show that the true rendering 'con- 
veys the sublime doctrine of the eternal generation of the 
Second Person in the Trinity.' This is probably one of the 
marginal notes in which he says the Revisers ' seem to start 
with a prejudice against the Christian faith,' meaning, of 
course, the Reviewer's own ideas of what constitutes the 
Christian faith. 



MlC. V. 2. 

Authorized Version. 
Out of thee shall he come 
forth unto me that is to be ruler 
in Israel; whose goings forth 
have been from of old, from 
everlasting. 



Revised Version. 
Out of thee shall one come 
forth unto me that is to be ruler 
in Israel ; whose goings forth 
are from of old, from everlast- 
ing.* 



[* Or, from ancient days. 
Mr. S. Sharpe translates, ' from former times, from days 
of old,' and Mr. Wellbeloved, ' whose origin is of old, from 
ancient times,' either as being of the family of David, or as 
foretold in ancient prophecy. The margin certainly gives 
little support to the well-known inference from this passage 
as to the Son's eternal generation. 



Is. liii. 8. 



He was taken from prison 
and from judgment ; and who 
shall declare his generation? 
for he was cut off out of the 
land of the living. 



By* oppression and judg- 
ment he was taken away ; and 
as for his generation, f who 
among them considered that 
he was cut off out of the land 
of the living ? 

[* Or, From. + Or, and his 
life luho shall recount ? for he was 
cut off, &c. 



IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 87 

The text of the New Version in this passage gives no 
countenance to the idea that the prophet was referring to 
the mysterious, eternal generation of the Second Person of 
the Trinity. The translation is substantially the same as 
that of Dr. G. R. Noyes, as also of Dr. G. Vance Smith, 
'Who of his generation considereth that,' &c. Bishop 
Lowth translates, 'His manner of life who would declare?' 
which corresponds with the Revisers' margin. 

In the second verse of this chapter may be observed a 
correction which makes the whole description of the Servant 
of God more consistently historical. Instead of ' he shall 
grow up,' the text now reads, 'he grew up;' and 'when we 
see him' is put in place of 'when we shall see him;' the 
margin giving the variation, ' or, that we should look upon 
him.' 



DAN. vii. 13. 



Authorized Version. 
Behold, one like the Son of 
man came with the clouds of 
heaven, and came to the An- 
cient of days. 



Revised Version. 
Behold there came with the 
clouds of heaven one like unto 
a son of man, and he came even 
to the ancient of days. 



Referring to v. 9, in the New Version, we read, ' I beheld till 
thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did 
sit,' where the Old Version has, ' and the Ancient of days.' 
The symbol of a son of man, set in contrast with the great 
beasts or kingdoms of the prophecy, is interpreted in the 
context as representing the Jewish people, the saints of the 
Most High, to whom was to be given an everlasting kingdom. 
A new turn is given to the expression in Matt. xxiv. 30, and 
xxvi. 64, but the Revisers have not thought proper to antici- 
pate this application of the text, as was done in the Autho- 
rized Version, by the usual capital letter which marks a 
proper name. 



SUPPOSED ALLUSIONS TO CHRIST 



Authorized Version. 



HAG. ii. 7. 



And the desire of all nations 
shall come. 



Revised Version. 



And the desirable things* of 
all nations shall come. 

[* Or. the things desired (Heb. 
desire] of all nations shall come. 

This is word for word the rendering of Mr. \Vellbeloved. 
Dr. Noyes says, 'the precious things.' The context shows 
that the meaning is ' the treasures of all nations ' (to use 
Mr. Sharpe's expression), which should be gathered in the 
temple then building in Jerusalem. The Quarterly Reviewer 
suspects that this variation also proceeds from a prejudice 
'against all Messianic prophecy.' 1 But the Revisers have 
simply made an honest translation. There is clearly no 
reference to a person. 

Is. lix. 20. 



And the Redeemer shall 
come to Zion, and unto them 
that turn from transgression in 
Jacob. 



And a redeemer shall come 
to Zion, and unto them that 
turn from transgression in 
Jacob. 



In the Authorized Version, the Redeemer (so printed) 
appeared to point clearly to him of whom Paul seems to 
have been thinking when (Rom. xi. 26) he quoted this 
passage ('There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer; 2 he 
shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob'), but from the 
Septuagint, not the Hebrew text. The Old Greek Version 
materially altered the sense in the latter clause. The Revisers 
have kept faithfully to the Hebrew, and translate it literally. 
Thus the context is allowed weight, which shows that the 

1 A recent writer, who says of the older version, ' We would fain 
retain it if we could,' adds that 'almost every scholar of repute admits 
that it is simply an impossible rendering of the original.' ' Old Testa- 
ment Revision,' by Alex. Roberts, D.D., 1883, p. 88. 

2 It is worth while remarking that in Acts vii. 35, where Stephen 
says of Moses, ' The same did God send to be both a ruler and a deli- 
verer,' the margin states that the original word means 'a redeemer.' 



IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 



8 9 



prophet was speaking of the nearer deliverance of which the 
whole of the latter portion of Isaiah is full. 



Is. vii. 14. 



Authorized Version. 
Behold a virgin shall con- 
ceive, and bear a son, and shall 
call his name Immanuel. 



Revised Version. 
Behold a* virgint shall con- 
ceive and heart a son, and shall 
call his name Immanuel. 

[* Or, the. t Or, maiden. 

J Or, is ivith child and beareth. 
That is, God is ivith its. 

The marginal notes here are very instructive, though the 
old Version is retained in the text. If in the second note is 
given not merely another term synonymous with the word 
in the text, then the definite article supplied in the first pro- 
bably suggests the true sense, pointing to a particular person, 
a certain young woman, as has been maintained. 1 This is 
favoured by the introduction of the definite article in the 
Revision of Matt. i. 23, 'Behold the virgin.' But in this 
indicated variation the Quarterly Reviewer suspects some- 
thing anti-Messianic, and opposed to the Deity of the Saviour. 
What it is he does not explain. 

The third note is specially important. Dr. G. V. Smith 
renders to the same effect ' hath conceived and shall bear,' 
and Bp. Lowth 'conceiveth and beareth/ See Gen. xvi. n, 
where a similar expression occurs. 

It should be further remarked that the Revisers give the 
correct translation of the name Immanuel, after the example 
of similar names compounded with the word God. This 
interpretation is given by Mr. S. Sharpe in the quotation 
from the prophet in Matt. i. 23, as it is here by the Old 

1 For example, by Dr. S. Davidson, who says of the Hebrew word 
rendered maiden that 'a virgin proper is not its primary meaning.' 'On 
a Fresh Revision of the English Old Testament,' 1873. 



SUPPOSED ALLUSIONS TO CHRIST 



Testament Revisers, though the New Testament Revisers 
omit it. Similar appellations occur, for example, in Ezek. 
xlviii. 35, 'And the name of the city from that day shall be, 
'The LORD is there," and Ex. xvii. 15, 'The LORD hath 
sworn.' 

In the following passage the Revisers have inserted in 
the text the proper rendering of such names, relegating to 
the margin the Authorized form : 

JER. xxiii. 6. 



Authorized Version. 
And this is his name where- 
by he shall be called, THE 
LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. 



Revised Version. 
And this is his name where- 
by he shall be called, The LORD 
is our righteousness. 



In Jer. xxxiii. 16, where this name is repeated, it is given 
to Jerusalem. The Revisers refer to this text, which makes 
the same general prediction in a different form, in justifica- 
tion of their correction. Here is the passage : 

JER. xxxiii. 16. 



And Jerusalem shall dwell 
safely, and this is the name 
wherewith she shall be called, 
The LORD our righteousness. 



And Jerusalem shall dwell 
safely, and this is the name 
whereby she shall be called, 
The LORD is our righteousness. 



DAN. ix. 26. 



And after threescore and two 
weeks shall Messiah be cut off, 
but not for himself. 



And after the threescore and 
two weeks shall the anointed 
one be cut off, and shall have 
nothing.* 

[* Or, there shall be none belong- 
ing to him. 

So, as in this margin, Mr. J. Scott Porter rendered the 
last clause as meaning that he should have no successors, 
'and none shall be left unto him.' Mr. Sharpe says, 'and 
nothing shall remain to him.' The popular idea of one who 
should be called Messiah dying as a substitute for others. 



IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 91 

was not in the original, and it appears no longer in the 
Revised version of this passage. It is worthy of note that 
the translation now adopted in the text, ' shall have nothing,' 
appears in the old Authorized margin. 



DAN. ix. 25. 



Authorized Version. 
Unto the Messiah, the Prince. 



Revised Version. 



Unto the anointed one,* the 
prince. 

[* Or, Messiah, the prince; or, 
an anointed one, a prince. 

With this correction, the ' Messiah' as a proper name, 
indeed the term itself in any sense, disappears from the text, 
greatly to the annoyance of the Quarterly Reviewer, in the 
only Old Testament passage where it occurred, being rele- 
gated to the margin, which reads, ' or, Messiah the prince ; 
or, an anointed one, a prince? Mr. J. Scott Porter, in the 
Revised Translation of 1862, gave the same sense, 'until a 
prince shall be anointed,' and Mr. Sharpe 'an anointed 
ruler.' To whom the expression points becomes thus a ques- 
tion of history, not theology. ' Obviously,' says the Quarterly 
Reviewer here, ' the Revisers reject any Messianic reference 
whatever, as they do not even spell anointed one or prince 
with capital letters.' 

In the preceding verse (Dan. ix. 24) an important change 
of the kind just adverted to is made in the Revised Version. 
Instead of ' the most Holy,' which has been usually under- 
stood to mean Christ, we observe the different form, ' the 
most holy.' The marginal notes should be specially consi- 
dered. ' Seventy weeks are decreed upon thy people and 
upon thy holy city, to finish (marg. or, to restrain} transgres- 
sion (or, the transgression], and to make (another reading is, 
to seal up) an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for (or, 
purge away} iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteous- 
ness, and to seal up vision and prophecy (Heb. prophet), 



92 SUPPOSED ALLUSIONS TO CHRIST 

and to anoint the most holy (or, a most holy place}.' Mr. J. 
Scott Porter so translated this final clause, ' to anoint the 
most holy place.' 



DAN. iii. 25. 



Authorized Version. 
And the form of the fourth 
is like the Son of God. 



Revised Version. 
And the aspect of the fourth 
is like a son of the gods. 

This was the only passage in the Authorized Old Testa- 
ment Version in which the title 'the Son of God' occurred. 
Mr. J. Scott Porter did not venture so far as the Revisers 
have done: he rendered the phrase, 'a Son of God.' In 
v. 28, the king speaks of this fourth being as an angel 
sent by the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego to 
deliver them. The centurion, in Matt, xxvii. 54, uses the 
phrase, as Thomas AVintle observes, in the same manner, 
with reference to Christ. The Revised Version translates 
that passage with the Authorized, ' Truly this was the Son 
of God.' But there is no article in the Greek, and in the 
marginal note we read, ' or, a Son of God.' 



MAL. iii. i. 



Behold I will send my mes- 
senger, and he shall prepare 
the way before me, and the 
Lord whom ye seek shall sud- 
denly come to his temple, even 
the messenger of the covenant 
whom ye delight in ; behold, he 
shall come, saith the LORD of 
hosts. 



Behold I send my messenger, 
and he shall prepare the way 
before me, and the Lord whom 
ye seek shall suddenly come to 
his temple, and* the messen- 
gert of the covenant whom ye 
delight in ; behold, he cometh, 
saith the LORD of hosts. 



[* Or, even. t Or, angel. 

' Even the messenger' is thus placed in the margin, and 
for 'the messenger' the alternative rendering is suggested 
of 'the angel.' Mr. Wellbeloved also has 'and,' marking 
this as the beginning of a separate clause. But if ' the Angel 



IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 93 

of the covenant' be, according to either version, the same as 
' the Lord whom ye seek,' the reader may be reminded of a 
similar usage in Gen. xlviii. 16, where 'the God which fed 
me' is clearly further designated ' the Angel which redeemed 
me from all evil.' In neither case is there even an 'adum- 
bration' of a personality distinct from, and yet the same as, 
the LORD of hosts, the speaker in the present text ; while of 
course a messenger, if that be the right translation, must be 
distinguished from the LORD who was to send him. 



ZECH. xii. 10. 



Revised Version. 



And theyshall look upon me* 
whom they have pierced, and 
they shall mourn for him, &c. 



Authorized Version. 
And they shall look upon me 
whom they have pierced, and 
they shall mourn for him, &c. 

[* According to some MSS. him. 

This text has been assumed to identify the Saviour who 
was pierced, with Jehovah, who here speaks. Archbishop 
Newcome, Mr. Wellbeloved, and Mr. Sharpe, followed the 
different reading, ' him whom they pierced,' and the Revisers 
enable the reader to infer that this was not without good 
critical grounds. The author of John (xix. 37) certainly 
understood the passage thus. His quotation reads, ' They 
shall look on him whom they pierced.' 

Ps. xxii. 1 6. 



They pierced my hands and 
my feet. 



They* pierced my hands and 
my feet. 

[* So the Sept., Vulg. and Syr. 
According to other ancient versions, 
77iey bound. The Heb. text, as 
pointed, reads, like a lion. 

"This passage speaks," says the Quarterly Reviewer, "of 
the crucifixion of the Saviour. The Revisers suffer the 
received translation to stand, but they entirely evacuate its 
meaning by their marginal note." The verse is one, he adds, 
"of vast importance." 



94 



SUPPOSED ALLUSIONS TO CHRIST 



Is. xxvi. 19. 



Authorized Version. 
Thy dead men shall live, to- 
gether with my dead body shall 
they arise. Awake and sing, ye 
that dwell in dust : for thy dew 
is as the dew of herbs, and the 
earth shall cast forth her dead. 



Revised Version. 
Thy dead shall live, my dead 
bodies shall arise. Awake and 
sing, ye that dwell in the dust ; 
for thy dew is as the dew of 
herbs, and the earth shall cast 
forth the dead.* 



[* Or, the shades, Heb. Rephaim. 

This has been understood to anticipate the New Testa- 
ment view of the saints rising from the dead ' together with ' 
Christ. It is now left to be interpreted by its own context 
as a figurative description of the fulfilment on earth and in 
time of the grand promises to the Jewish nation. 



JOB xix. 25. 



For I know that my re- 
deemer liveth, and that he 
shall stand at the latter day 
upon the earth : and though 
after my skin worms destroy 
this body, yet in my flesh shall 
I see God. 



But I know that my re- 
deemer* liveth, and that he 
shall stand up at the last upon 
the earth : f andj after my skin 
hath been thus destroyed, yet 
from my flesh shall I see God, 
whom I shall see for my self,) | 
and mine eyes shall behold, 
and not another. IT 

[* Or, vindicator, Heb. goel. 
t Heb. dust. % Or, and after 

my skin hath been destroyed, this 
shall be, even from, &c. ; or, and 
though after my skin this body be 
destroyed, yet from, &c. Or, 

without. || Or, on my side. If Or, 
as a stranger. 

Though ' redeemer ' is retained here, the reader is in- 
structed in the margin that the Hebrew word means a ' vin- 
dicator.' Mr. Wellbeloved says, 'avenger,' as the term is 
rendered in other places, e.g. ' avenger of blood ' (Deut. 



IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 95 

xix. 6). In neither sense is it applicable to Christ. Had 
the Revisers thought otherwise, they would have printed 
the word with a capital, their usual practice in such cases. 
In the margin will be found Mr. Wellbeloved's rendering of 
the following verse, though it is not given in the text. Instead 
of ' whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, 
and not another,' he points the moral of the whole passage 
by translating the verse, ' whom I shall behold on my side, 
and mine eyes shall see, but not estranged from me.' The 
notion of a resurrection of the body at the call of the Re- 
deemer, which this text has long been thought to support, is 
thus no longer perceptible there ; but, on the other hand, 
the essentially Jewish belief that Job would assuredly be 
justified in God's good time, notwithstanding all he might 
yet be called to suffer. 



References to the Old Testament in the New. 

The following passages taken from the New Testament 
make specific reference to the Old, and may therefore be 
considered here. The proper name 'Joshua' is given in 
Acts vii. 45 and Heb. iv. 8, where the Authorized Version 
had 'Jesus.' The amendment, though slight, was worth 
making, to avoid possible misconception. 



JOHN xii. 41. 



Authorised Version. 
These things said Esaias, 
when he saw his glory, and 
spake of him. 



Revised Version. 



These things said Isaiah, be- 
cause he saw his glory ; and he 
spake of him. 



Griesbach's text reads here 'because,' not 'when.' John 
is quoting two passages from the book of Isaiah, one in 
chapter liii. and the other in chapter vi. The latter forms 
a kind of introduction of the prophet to his office, and it 
opens with the statement that he saw Jehovah sitting upon 
a throne. It has been therefore inferred that Jesus was 



g6 NEW TESTAMENT REFERENCES 

Jehovah, and the translation of the Authorized Version 
favoured the idea by connecting the prophecies quoted with 
the opening of the prophet's commission. Esaias said these 
things at the time of his seeing ' when he saw.' ' Because he 
saw' is a better reading, and gives a sense not pointing to the 
one quotation only, that of chapter vi. It corresponds, in 
fact, with the similar foreseeing attributed to the father of the 
faithful in John viii. 56, 'Your father Abraham rejoiced to 
see my day; and he saw it and was glad,' where the Revisers 
suggest in their margin the probably true interpretation : 
they say, ' or, rejoiced that he should see.' Compare Heb. 
xi. 13, 'not having received the promises, but having seen 
and greeted them from afar' (R.V.). 



Authorized Version. 

Now this I say, that the 

Covenant that was confirmed 

before of God in Christ, the 



GAL. iii. 17. 



Revised Version. 



Now this I say: A covenant 
confirmed beforehand by God, 
the law . . . doth not disannul. 



law . . . cannot disannul. 

'In Christ' or 'unto Christ' would seem to have been a 
gloss, and it is now omitted as having no MS. authority. It 
is one example out of many of expressions which, so intro- 
duced, have given a certain mystic character to these allusions 
to the Old Testament beyond what the New Testament 
writers intended. 

i COR. x. 9. 



Neither let us tempt Christ, 
as some of them also tempted, 
and were destroyed of serpents. 



Neither let us tempt the 
Lord,*assome of them tempted, 
and perished by the serpents. 

[* Some ancient authorities read, 
Christ. 

This is the precise expression in Ex. xvii. 2, ' Wherefore 
do ye tempt the LORD?' See also Deut. vi. 16. With the 
marginal note should be compared a similar note on the 
text in Jude (v. 5), 'how that the Lord, having saved the 



TO THE OLD TESTAMENT. 97 

people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed them 
that believed not.' The note is, ' Many very ancient autho- 
rities read, Jesus. 1 The second and third centuries, says 
Dr. Scrivener, did more to corrupt the text than all the 
centuries succeeding. This was in fact the period when the 
doctrine of the Deity of Christ was gathering strength, and 
becoming more distinctly formed. 

In another case, in Rom. x. 1 7, the two oldest authorities 
agree in the reading which is given in the Revised Version, 
' So belief cometh of hearing, and hearing by the word of 
Christ,' where the Authorized Version has 'the word of 
God.' Dean Alford says here, ' ' God' has probably been a 
rationalizing correction, to suit better the sense of the pro- 
phecy.' But it is quite as likely that Christ was put instead 
of God to suit the maturing orthodoxy of the time. There is 
no doctrinal difficulty in the text either way, but it is more in 
Paul's manner to speak of 'the word of God' in so referring 
to the ancient Scriptures. Compare, however, with this a 
similar change, which may be noted here, though not pro- 
perly belonging to this chapter. In Eph. v. 21, where the 
Authorized Version reads, ' subjecting yourselves one to 
another in the fear of God,' the Revised Version has, ' in 
the fear of Christ.' Dean Alford calls this 'an uncommon 
phrase,' which, however, he inserts in his text in deference 
to ' all our oldest MSS.' 



Authorized Version. 

Choosing rather to suffer af- 
fliction with the people of God, 
than to enjoy the pleasures of 
sin for a season : 

26. Esteeming the reproach 
of Christ* greater riches than 
the treasures in Egypt. 

[* Or, for Christ. 



HEB. xi. 25. 



Revised Version. 



Choosing rather to be evil 
entreated with the people of 
God, than to enjoy the plea- 
sures of sin for a season : 

26. Accounting the reproach 
of Christ* greater riches than 
the treasures of Egypt. 



[* Or, the Christ. 



H 



98 PROOF-TEXTS ON THE 

The margin suggests what is probably the true sense. It 
is the reproach of the people of God. The people of Israel 
are spoken of by the prophet who was sent to Eli as ' mine 
anointed' (i Sam. ii. 35), where the Septuagint uses this word, 
'my Christ.' So Ps. cv. 15, the Revisers read, 'Touch not 
mine anointed ones,' speaking of Abraham and his seed, the 
children of Jacob, 'his chosen ones' (v. 6). Here also the 
.Sept. reads, 'myChrists.' Compare the following, which, 
again, the Sept. translates, ' thy Christ.' 



HABAK. iii. 13. 



Authorised Version. 
Thou wentest forth for the 
salvation of thy people, even for 
salvation with thine anointed. 



Revised Version. 



Thou wentest* forth for the 
salvation of thy people, for the 
salvation off thine anointed. 

[* Or, art come. t Or, for 

salvation (or, -victory) with. 

So Mr. Wellbeloved translated, 'For the deliverance of 
thine anointed.' 



Supposed Proofs of Christ's Pre-existenee. 
JOHN i. 15. 



He that cometh after me is 
preferred before me, for he was 
before me. 



He that cometh after me is 
become before me : for he was 
before me.* 



[* Or, first in regard of me. 

That is, ' my Superior,' or, ' Principal,' to use Mr. Cappe's 
expression, which was adopted in the Improved Version ; 
as the other Gospels say, 'is mightier than I.' The note 
gives in fact the key to the only consistent interpretation 
of the phrase. Having received a higher commission, Jesus 
would naturally be expected by John to take the higher 
place. 



PRE-EXISTENCE OF CHRIST 99 

JOHN vi. 33. 



Authorized Version. 
For the bread of God is he 
which cometh down from 
heaven, and giveth life unto 
the world. 



Revised Version. 
For the bread of God is that 
which cometh down out of 
heaven, and giveth life unto 
the world. 



So reads the Improved Version a grammatical improve- 
ment, making, however, little doctrinal difference, since else- 
where, as in verse 38, Jesus is represented as saying, ' I am 
come down from heaven' (R.V.), and the Jews are reported 
(v. 41) to have understood him to affirm that he was 'the 
bread which came down out of heaven' (R.V.). 

Of more importance is the marginal note to John iii. 13, 
because the being spoken of there is clearly ' the man Christ 
Jesus ;' and whether in Christ there were two natures or not, 
the Divine Nature is never called 'the Son of Man.' At 
this passage, which reads, ' Even the Son of Man which is 
in heaven,' the Revisers inform us that 'many ancient autho- 
rities omit, which is in heaven.' A note in the Improved 
Version intimated that this clause was wanting ' in some of 
the best copies.' See John i. 18, where the same form is 
used, not ' who is,' but the participial form which approaches 
nearly to our ' he,' or ' who being ' in the bosom of the 
Father, that is, in intimate sympathy and communion with 
him, according to a well-understood Jewish figure. 



i COR. xv. 47. 



The first man is of the earth, 
earthy. The second man is the 
Lord from heaven. 



The first man is of the earth, 
earthy; the second man is of 
heaven. 



The preposition is the same in both clauses. The con- 
trast in the Apostle's mind between the natural and the 
spiritual, or the earthly and the heavenly, is now brought 
out in accordance with his previous argument. The expres- 
sion, 'the Lord from heaven,' if understood to imply Christ's 

H 2 



100 CHRIST'S RESURRECTION'. 

pre- existence in a divine or superhuman nature, would 
scarcely harmonize with Paul's conception of his having 
been ' determined to be the Son of God by the resurrection 
of the dead' (Rom. i. 4, R.V. note on 'declared to be,' Gr. 
determined]. The same view is attributed to the Apostle in 
Acts xiii. 33 : 'the promise made unto the Fathers . . . God 
hath fulfilled ... in that he raised up Jesus, as also it is 
written in the second Psalm, Thou art my Son, this day have 
I begotten thee.' 

HEB. ii. 16. 

Authorized Version. Revised Version. 



For verily he took not on him 
the nature of angels, but he took 



For verily not of angels doth 
he take hold, but he taketh hold 



on him the seed of Abraham. of the seed of Abraham. 

That is, ' to help,' ' to take by the hand.' The insertion 
of the words in italics, ' the nature,' is the more remarkable 
in the Version of 1611, as its margin gives substantially the 
new rendering, the specific sense of which is indicated also 
in v. 1 8, 'he is able to succour them that are tempted.' 1 The 
improvement in the translation is not only of importance in 
itself, but it clears away what Bishop C. H. Terrot declared 
to have been ' one of the greatest errors in our Authorized 
Version.' 

Chris fs Resurrection. 

In about two dozen places in the Acts and Epistles it is 
affirmed that Jesus was raised, not by any inherent power of 
his own, but by the act of God. Amendments like the fol- 
lowing are not therefore without importance. The expres- 

1 The Improved Version presents a similar view of this passage, but 
refers in a note to an ingenious exposition in the Theological Repository 
(Vol. V. p. 164), according to which it was the fear of death to which, 
not angels, but men only were subject, and the translation would then 
be, not 'he,' but 'it.' 



CHRIST S RESURRECTION. 



101 



sion still occurs very naturally in a few passages, that Jesus 
'rose' from the dead, but obviously in the same sense in 
which it is said of the dead in Christ (i Thess. iv. 16) that 



they ' shall rise first.' 



2 COR. iv. 14. 



Authorized Version. 
Knowing thathe which raised 
up the Lord Jesus shall raise 
up us also by Jesus, and shall 
present us with you. 



Revised Version. 
Knowing that he which raised 
up the Lord Jesus* shall raise 
up us also with Jesus, and shall 
present us with you. 

[* Some ancient authorities omit 
the Lord. 

The manner of the raising up is thus argued to be the 
same for all. We are raised with Jesus, not by Jesus. (See 
i Thess. iv. 14, 'will God bring with him.') It is in each 
case the direct act of God. 

MATT. xx. 19. 



And the third day he shall 
rise a^ain. 



And the third day he shall 
be raised up. 

Using the same language, Jesus says, 'But after I am 
raised up (not 'am risen again'), I will go before you into 
Galilee' (Matt. xxvi. 32, R.Y.). Paul writes in the same 

manner 

ROM. vui. 34. 



It is Christ that died, yea 
rather, that is risen again. 



It is* Christ Jesus that died, 
yea rather, that was raised from 
the dead. 

[* Or, shall Christ Jesus, &c. 
I COR. XV'. 4. 

And that he rose again the And that he hath been raised 
third day. on the third day. 

i COR. xv. 20. 

But now is Christ risen from | But now hath Christ been 
the dead, and become the first- raised from the dead, the first- 



fruits of them that slept. 



fruits of them that are asleep. 



And so throughout the chapter. These passages throw 
light upon the remaining texts in this section 



102 



CHRIST S RESURRECTION. 



JOHN x. 1 8. 

Authorised Version. Revised Version. 

I have power to lay it [my life] I have power* to lay it down, 
down, and I have power to take and I have power* to take it 
it again. This commandment again. This commandment re- 
have I received of my Father. ceived I from my Father. 

[* Or, right. 

The word so rendered 'power' or 'right, 1 is translated 
' authority' in other places, as it is in this text in the Improved 
Version. Jesus makes no claim even here to any right or 
power but what the Father had given him. And if he could 
say of the temple of his body, as the Evangelist explains, 
' Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up ' 
(John ii. 19), it is to be observed that the expression the 
writer then uses in further speaking of this is not, as in the 
Authorized Version, ' when therefore he was risen from the 
dead,' but 'when he was raised' (v. 22, R.V.). 

The correction in the following passage is not only one 
of considerable theological interest, but it relieves a Biblical 
difficulty, while implying a view of the objects of Christ's 
death which was very familiar to the older Unitarians. They 
looked upon the resuscitation of Christ as the Divine method 
of bringing ' life and immortality to light,' God having be- 
gotten us again ' unto a living hope by the resurrection of 
Jesus Christ from the dead' (i Pet. i. 3, R.V.). 

ACTS xxvi. 23. 



That he first by the resur- 
rection of the dead should pro- 
claim light both to the people 
and to the Gentiles. 



That he should be the first 
that should rise from the dead, 
and should show light unto the 
people, and to the Gentiles. 

The following correction also deserves notice : it was 
anticipated in the Improved Version 

ROM. xiv. 9. 



To this end Christ both died, 
and rose, and revived, that he 
might be Lord both of the 
dead and living. 



To this end Christ died and 
lived again, that he might be 
Lord of both the dead and the 
living. 



NAMES OF JESUS CHRIST. 



103 



SOME SIGNIFICANT NAMES GIVEN TO JESUS. 



LUKE ii. 43. 
Authorized Version. 

The child Jesus tarried be- 
hind in Jerusalem, and Joseph 
and his mother knew not of it. 



Revised Version. 
The boy Jesus tarried behind 
in Jerusalem, and his parents 
knew it not. 



LUKE ii. 33. 



And Joseph and his mother 
marvelled at those things which 
were spoken of him. 



Andhisfatherandhismother 1 
were marvelling at the things 
which were spoken concerning 
him. 



The Improved Version also makes the latter of these two 
corrections. Mr. Sharpe supposed that a later transcriber 
had noticed the inconsistency here with the account of the 
parentage of Jesus in Matthew, and endeavoured to remove 
it by not speaking of Joseph as his father ; but the same 
difficulty occurs in the third Gospel, in which also the story 
of the nativity is related in a way that does not harmonize 
with the texts just given. The accounts came probably from 
different sources. Yet observe how naturally the narrative 
in Luke ii. 48 records the words of Mary, ' Thy father and I 
sought thee sorrowing.' 



The Son, the Son of Man. 
MATT. xxiv. 36. 



But of that day and hour 
knoweth no man, no, not the 
Angels of heaven, but my Fa- 
ther only. 



But of that day and hour 
knoweth no one, not even the 
angels of heaven, neither the 
Son,* but the Father only. 

[* Many authorities, some an- 
cient, omit neither the Son. 



1 In I Tim. ii. 15, 'she shall be saved in childbearing,' is altered by 
the Revisers to ' through the childbearing,' which has been supposed to 
allude to the Incarnation of the Godhead in the birth of Christ. But 
they note in the margin, ' or, her childbearing? which may be understood 
more naturally to recall the text in Gen. iii. 16. 



104 THE TERM SON OF GOD. 

That the corresponding passage in Mark (xiii. 32) had 
this emphatic declaration of the imperfect knowledge of the 
Son of Man has been considered an argument in favour of 
its priority to the first Gospel, but the momentous state- 
ment now appears in both Gospels. The Improved Version 
noted at this place in Matthew that the words were found 
in some MSS. and Versions of good repute. Certainly they 
were more likely to be omitted from a MS. than inserted 
afresh even from another Gospel. It is the more noteworthy 
that the Revisers place them here in the text. Some of the 
Fathers were much perplexed at the statement that the Son's 
knowledge was limited, but they created their own difficulty 
by assuming that Christ was speaking of himself as God the 
Son. On the other hand, even the common Scriptural phrase, 
the ' Son of God,' does not occur in the chapter, while ' Son 
of Man' does appear in the immediate context. But whether 
as Son of God or Son of Man, Jesus clearly affirmed that 
he had not been granted the knowledge in question. 



The Term Son of God. 

In Matt. xiv. 33, the simple translation would be, ' Of a 
truth thou art a son of God.' The Revisers follow the 
Authorized Version, ' thou art the Son of God,' giving no 
indication that the noun has no article in the Greek. Com- 
pare with this, Mark xv. 39, ' Truly this man was the Son of 
God,' and the parallel text in Matt, xxvii. 54, with the mar- 
ginal note, ' or, a son of God,' the Greek being the same in 
each case (see p. 92). In these texts, considering who were 
the speakers, the more simple meaning of the term is surely 
the more natural one, but even in a passage like the following 
the original reads, 'a son of God.' The angel says 



SONS OF GOD. 



105 



LUKE i. 35. 



Authorized Version. 
Therefore also that holy thing 
which shall be born of thee 
shall be called the Son of God. 



Revised Version. 

Wherefore also that which is 
to be born shall be called holy, 
the Son of God. 



Although in various passages the name ' Son of God' is 
applied in the New Testament in a special sense to Jesus 
Christ, it should be remarked that it is employed very 
freely in various parts of the Bible in other applications. 
For example, in Hos. i. 10, the phrase is applied to God's 
people, ' Ye are the sons of the living God.' The same use 
of the expression in the New Testament is well brought out 
by the Revisers in the correction of the following passages. 
Note also the punctuation in the third text, which shows 
the true sense to be, ' sons of God in Christ Jesus, through 
faith.' The first text is a quotation of the passage in Hosea 

ROM. ix. 26. 



There shall they be called 
the children of the living God. 



There shall they be called 
sons of the living God. 



EPH. i. 5. 



Having predestinated us unto 
the adoption of children by 
Jesus Christ to himself. 



Having foreordained us unto 
adoption as sons through Jesus 
Christ unto himself. 



GAL. iii. 26. 

For ye are all the children of For ye are all sons of God, 
God by faith in Christ Jesus. through faith, in Christ Jesus. 

The following is an example of the New Testament use 
of the term after the manner of the prophetic text above 
quoted : 



io6 



SONS OF GOD. 



LUKE xx. 36. 



Authorised Version. 
Neither can they die any 
more ; for they are equal unto 
the angels, and are the children 
of God, being the children of 
the resurrection. 



Revised Version. 
For neither can they die any 
more : for they are equal unto 
the angels, and are sons of 
God, being sons of the resur- 
rection. 



There are two remarkable passages in the Sermon on the 
Mount in which Christ applies the name given to himself in 
a peculiar sense in the fourth Gospel and in Paul's Epistles, 
to those who desired to be 'imitators of God as beloved 
children' (Eph. v. i, R.V.). In these passages also the 
Revisers very properly translate ' sons' in place of ' children.' 

MATT. v. 9. 



Blessed are the peacemakers; 
for they shall be called the chil- 
dren of God. 



Blessed are the peacemakers; 
for they shall be called sons of 
God. 



MATT. v. 44, 45. 



Love your enemies . . . that 
ye maybe the children of your 
Father which is in heaven. 



Love your enemies . . . that 
ye may be sons of your Father 
which is in heaven. 



LUKE vi. 35 (the parallel text). 



But love ye your enemies . . . 
and ye shall be the_children of 
the Highest. 



But love your enemies . . . 
and ye shall be sons of the 
Most High. 

This is the designation given to Jesus by the angel at the 
annunciation to his mother (Luke i. 32), 'He shall be great, 
and shall be called the Son of the Most High,' the Greek 
being the same, without the article ' the,' as is the case also 
in Matt. iv. 3, ' If thou art the Son of God,' literally ' a son.' 
Thus it will be seen that the title given to Jesus, as Mr. 
Sharpe remarks, ' is exactly the same as that given to all 
good men,' and in these instances by Jesus himself. 



THE SON OF GOD. 



107 



Christ specially designated the Son of God. 



Revised Version. 
Concerning his Son, 



who 



was born of the seed of David 
according to the flesh. 



ROM. 

Authorized Version. 
Concerning his Son, Jesus 
Christ our Lord, which was 
made of the seed of David 
according to the flesh. 

The same correction is made by the Revisers in Gal. iv. 4, 
where, instead of ' God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, 
made under the law,' they translate, ' born of a woman, born 
under the law.' There has been much transcendental dis- 
cussion on the employment in these cases of the term 
' made,' as though it implied some mystic peculiarity in 
Christ's manner of birth. The expression in the text just 
cited, ' born of a woman,' corresponds of course in meaning 
with the phrase Christ uses, Matt. xi. n, 'Among them that 
are born of women;' and Bildad, Job xxv. 4, 'How can he 
be clean that is born of a woman ?' 

The following alteration also is worthy of notice, in view 
of the supposed reference to Christ's superhuman nature : 



HEB. i. 4. 



Being made so much better 
than the angels. 



Having become by so much 



better than the angels. 



HEB. 

God who at sundry times, 
and in divers manners, spake 
in time past unto the Fathers 
by the Prophets, hath in these 
last days spoken unto us by 
his Son. 



l. i 



, 2. 

God, having of old time 
spoken unto the fathers in the 
prophets by divers portions and 
in divers manners, hath at the 
end of these days spoken unto 
us in his Son.* 

[* Gr. a Son. 

These corrections were anticipated in substance in the 
Improved Version, where also the contrast is made clear 
between the partial and varied revelations formerly given, 



io8 



THE SON OF GOD. 



and the complete and unique revealing in Christ. It is 
plain that the writer of the Epistle did not imagine that 
it was really the Second Person of the Trinity who had so 
often been described as having appeared already to the 
fathers in what have been called the 'theophanies' of the 
Old Testament. He had evidently no conception of God's 
having communicated with the Fathers in person, and the 
margin further suggests that he was intending to emphasize 
the fact of God's speaking now through a Son, not as formerly 
through inferior messengers. So far, indeed, was he from 
supposing any previous appearance of the Son upon earth, 
that he proceeds to describe the process of suffering by which 
as a Son he became himself perfected, having been heard by 
the Father in his prayers on account of 'his godly fear' 

HEB. v. 7 9. 



Authorized Version. 
Who in the days of his flesh, 
when he had offered up prayers 
and supplications, with strong 
crying and tears, unto him that 
was able to save him from 
death, and was heard, in that 
he feared.* Though he were a 
Son, yet learned he obedience 
by the things which he suffered: 
and being made perfect, he 
became the author of eternal 
salvation unto all them that 
obey him. 

[* Or, for his piety. 



Revised Version. 
Who in the days of his flesh, 
having offered up prayers and 
supplications, with strong cry- 
ing and tears, unto him that 
was able to save him from* 
death, and having been heard 
for his godly fear, though he 
was a Son, yet learned obedi- 
ence by the things which he suf- 
fered ; and having been made 
perfect, he became unto all 
them that obey him the author t 
of eternal salvation. 

[* Or, out of. f Gr. cause. 



JOHN i. 14. 



And we beheld his glory, the 
glory as of the only begotten of 
the Father. 



And we beheld his glory, 
glory as of the* only begotten 
from the Father. 

[* Or, an only begotten from a 
Father. 



THE SERVANT OF GOD. 



log 



The alternative translation given in the note is the more 
important, that this title is given to Christ by no other writer 
of the New Testament, and it is one that he has nowhere him- 
self claimed. It is doubtful whether the passage in John iii. 
1 6 21 should be considered as John's report of what Christ 
said, or his own comment. In either case, the expression, 
' God . . . gave his only begotten Son/ clearly grounds upon 
the present text. In Heb. i. 6 'the first-begotten' of the 
Authorized Version now reads ' the firstborn.' 

But with whatever special meaning the title ' begotten of 
God' is applied to Christ, it should be noted that the expres- 
sion is used also of his disciples. In i John v. i, the Revisers 
translate, ' Whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Christ is 
begotten of God,' and i John ii. 29, 'Every one also that 
doeth righteousness is begotten of him.' 



Christ the Servant of God. 



ACTS iv. 25 
Authorized Version. 
Who by the mouth of thy 
servant David hast said .... 
and the rulers were gathered 
together against the Lord, and 
against his Christ. For of a 
truth against thy holy child 
J esus, whom thou hast anointed, 
both Herod, &c. . . . and grant 
unto thy servants . . . that signs 
and wonders may be done by 
the name of thy holy child 
Jesus. 



27 



29, 30. 

Revised Version. 
Who* by the Holy Ghost by 
the mouth of our father David 
thy servant didst say .... and 
the rulers were gathered toge- 
ther against the Lord, and 
against his Anointed.t For of 
a truth in this city against thy 
holy servant Jesus, whom thou 
didst anoint, both Herod, &c. 
.... and grant unto thy ser- 
vants \ . . . and that signs and 
wonders may be done through 
the name of thy holy Servant 
Jesus. 

[* The Greek text in this clause 
is somewhat uncertain, 
t Gr. Christ. J Gr. bondservants. 



no 



CHRIST THE TEACHER. 



So the Improved Version translated, 'against his anointed,' 
as the expression appears in the Psalm (ii. 2) here quoted, 
and ' through the name,' not ' by.' It has also ' thy holy 
servant Jesus,' justifying this rendering by pointing out the 
fact that the original word is the same as the term used just 
before of David. The same expression occurs in the speech 
of Peter (Acts iii. 13), ' The God of our fathers hath glorified 
his servant Jesus,' where the Revisers, while adding in the 
margin, ' or, child] refer in explanation to the quotation from 
Isaiah in Matthew (xii. 18), 'Behold my servant whom I 
have chosen.' The remaining passage in which the word 
occurs has the same important variation, which will be found 
also in the Improved Version. Mr. Sharpe remarks that 
"the Greek word which originally meant 'child,' as son or 
daughter, is in the New Testament always used, like our 
'boy' or 'lad,' to mean a servant, as at all times titles of 
youth have been used for persons of inferior rank." 

ACTS iii. 26. 



Authorized Version. 
Unto you first, God, having 
raised up his Son Jesus, sent 
him to bless you. 



Revised Version. 
Unto you first, God, having 
raised up his Servant, sent him 
to bless you. 



The usual term of address to Jesus, ' Teacher,' the Revisers 
have put in the margin, leaving the old and less fitting word 
' Master' in the text. This occurs even in John i. 38, where 
the better word is plainly suggested. But they have made 
an important correction in passages like the following 

ACTS v. 42. 



And daily in the temple and 
in every house, they ceased 
not to teach and preach Jesus 
Christ. 



And every day in the temple 
and at home, they ceased not 
to teach and to preach Jesus 
as the Christ. 



SHEOL, HADES, HELL. Ill 



SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 

The American Company of Revisers of the Old Testament 
put on record upon the subject of this section some impor- 
tant corrections recommended by them, but which have not 
been made in the Revised Version. 

For example, at Gen. xxxvii. 35, ' I will go down into the 
grave,' the marginal note explains, ' Heb. Sheol, the name of 
the abode of the dead, answering to the Greek Hades, Acts 
ii. 27.' But the New Version varies in its usage, sometimes 
translating the word, sometimes not. The Americans say, 
' Substitute Sheol, wherever it occurs in the Hebrew text, for 
the renderings ' the grave,' ' the pit,' and ' hell.' 

The word 'hell' is employed in the Authorized Version 
five times in three passages in Ezekiel and Isaiah, and is 
retained by the Revisers, with the addition of a sixth of their 
own, though in each case with the marginal notice that the 
Hebrew word is ' Sheol.' The passages are very striking 
ones. They relate to kingdoms and princes, predicting the 
ruin of their greatness, and the forms of imagery adopted 
throw considerable light upon the ideas of the Jewish people 
concerning the s,tate of the dead. Speaking of the Assyrian 
power, the prophet Ezekiel (xxxi. 15) uses the expression, 
' In the day when he went down to the grave,' which in the 
New Version reads, ' In the day when he went down to hell' 
(marg. ' Heb. Sheol'\ an expression probably introduced with 
the view of bringing the text into accordance with the verse 
following : ' I made the nations to shake at the sound of his 
fall, when I cast him down to hell (marg. ' Heb. Sheol') with 
them that descend into the pit : and all the trees of Eden, 
the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water [the 
princes whom he had subdued], were comforted in the nether 
parts of the earth. They also went down into hell (marg. 
' Heb. Sheol'} with him unto them that be slain by the sword; 



112 SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 

yea, they that were his arm, &c.' Mr. J. Scott Porter has in 
each case ' the grave,' following the example of Archbishop 
Newcome ; Dr. Noyes also translates 'the grave.' Dr. Cox 1 
would have preferred the uniform use of the term ' Hades' in 
the Old as well as in the New Testament. But the Hebrew 
word might as readily become naturalized if always given in 
its proper place. 

In the following prophecy against Pharaoh (Ezek. xxxii. 18), 
the several powers that had passed away are described as 
lying in their places as in an Egyptian tomb, ready to hail 
his fall to their own condition (v. 21) : 'The strong among 
the mighty 2 shall speak to him out of the midst of hell (marg. 
' Heb. Sheet'} with them that help him.' So v. 27, 'And they 
shall not lie with the mighty that are fallen of the uncircum- 
cised, which are gone down to hell (marg. ' Heb. Sheol'} with 
their weapons of war, and have laid their swords under their 
heads.' The expression in v. 30 is, ' with them that go down 
to the pit,' which is the word used by Mr. J. Scott Porter. 

But the finest of these passages of prophetic imagery is in 
Isaiah (chap, xiv.), the earliest in point of time. It is here 
the prince of Babylon that is addressed in v. 9 : ' Hell (marg. 
' Heb. SheoF} from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee 
at thy coming : it stirreth up the dead for thee' (marg. 'or, 
the shades'}. So v. n : 'Thy pomp is brought down to the 
grave;' in the new Version, 'to hell' (marg. 'Heb. SheoP}. 
Again (vv. 14, 15): 'Thou hast said, I will ascend above 
the heights of the clouds ; I will be like the Most High. 
Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the 
pit ;' in the new Version, ' to the uttermost parts of the pit,' 

1 'Expositions,' Second Series, 1886, p. in. 

2 It may be remarked here by the way, that the Hebrew words so 
translated in this instance are almost exactly the same which occur in 
Is. ix. 6. and which are there translated, ' The Mighty God,' the supposed 
application being to Christ. The Revisers give no hint in that place 
that the words are elsewhere translated differently. 



SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 113 

or, as in v. 19, 'that go down to the stones of the pit,' where 
those lie that have not received honourable burial. The 
Revised margin gives notice here also that the Hebrew word 
translated ' hell,' as in the old Version, is ' Sheol.' In the 
opening verse, Dr. Lowth translates, ' Hades from beneath,' 
which is the word employed by the New Testament Revisers 
to denote the underworld, the state of the dead. 

False confidence in presence of threatening dangers is 
forcibly expressed in a passage in Is. xxviii. 15. The Revisers 
do not change the word ' hell,' but only indicate in the 
margin that the original term is ' Sheol.' ' Because ye have 
said, We have made a covenant with death, and with hell 
are we at agreement ; when the overflowing scourge shall 
pass through, it shall not come unto us.' Mr. Wellbeloved 
has, ' and with the grave made a league,' and Dr. Noyes, ' with 
the underworld.' The Revisers say also in v. 18, 'Your 
covenant with death shall be disannulled, and your agreement 
with hell shall not stand' (marg. ' Heb. Shear}. Though the 
word 'hell' is retained, the margin shows that the use which 
has sometimes been made of these verses, as though they 
applied to defenders of wickedness and wrong as being in 
league with Satan, is not in harmony with the sense in which 
the prophet was speaking. 

In another passage of simply local significance, the Revisers 
retain the word ' hell,' while noting that the Hebrew word 
is 'Sheol.' The prophet is reproaching the people with 
courting foreign alliances instead of serving and trusting the 
God of Israel. ' And didst send thine ambassadors far off, 
and didst debase thyself even unto hell' (Is. Ivii. 9). 



In the three following instances, the Revisers make the cor- 
rection which the American Company would have introduced 
without the exceptions above noted. In all these cases the 
common idea of hell as a place of punishment was clearly 

i 



SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 



not in the mind of the writers. In many such passages the 
word formerly translated 'hell' is used as a mere term of 

comparison 

PROV. xv. n. 



Authorized Version. 
Hell and destruction are be- 
fore the LORD, how much more 
then the hearts of the children 
of men. 



Revised Version. 
Sheol* and Abaddon t are 
before the LORD, how much 
more then the hearts of the 
children of men. 



[* Or, the grave, 
strudion. 



t Or, De- 



The alternative 'the grave' was adopted by Mr. Wellbe- 
loved, as also in the similar passage that follows ; Dr. Noyes 
has in both, 'the underworld': 

JOB xxvi. 6. 



Hell is naked before him, 
and destruction hath no cover- 
ing. 



Sheol* is naked before him, 
and Abaddon t hath no cover- 
ing. 

[* Or, the grave. t Or, De- 
struction. 



PROV. xxvii. 20. 



Hell and destruction are 
never full ; so the eyes of man 
are never satisfied. 



Sheol and Abaddon are never 
satisfied ; and the eyes of man 
are never satisfied. 



This allusion to the grave as ' swallowing up' all life with- 
out pause or satiety, is again made, in Habak. ii. 5, a term 
of comparison in reference to a man of grasping ambition, 
' who enlargeth his desire as hell, and is as death, and can- 
not be satisfied.' The Revisers mention that the Hebrew 
word is 'Sheol,' but do not say why the term 'hell' is there 
left in the text. Mr. Wellbeloved translates the passage, 
' who enlargeth his desire as the grave, and as death, and 
is not satisfied.' 

In Is. v. 14 also the Revisers make no change, though 
they put in the margin, ' or, the grave, Heb. Sheol.' The 



SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 115 

prevailing idea of death is the same as in the passages just 
given. ' Therefore hell hath enlarged her desire, and opened 
her mouth without measure, and their glory and their mul- 
titude and their pomp, and he that rejoiceth among them, 
descend into it.' 

In three passages which the Revisers have corrected, the 
term Sheol is employed to indicate an immeasurable extreme. 

DEUT. xxxii. 22. 



Authorised Version. 
For a fire is kindled in mine 
anger, and shall burn unto the 
lowest hell. 



Revised Version. 
For a fire is kindled in mine 
anger, and burneth unto the 
lowest pit. 



* Or,' says the margin, ' in the Heb. Skeol' Still better per- 
haps was Mr. Wellbeloved's translation, ' shall burn to the 
lowest depths,' that is to say of the earth, where the abode 
of departed souls was believed to be. 

In the following passage is set forth the unsearchable 
mystery of the Divine Nature, and the comparison is with 
the largest measures then conceivable : 'It is longer than 
the earth and broader than the sea' 

JOB xi. 8. 



It is as high as heaven, what 
canst thou do ? deeper than 
hell, what canst thou know ? 



*It is high as heaven, what 
canst thou do ? deeper than 
Sheol, t what canst thou know? 

[* Heb. The heights of heaven, 
t Or, the grave. 

A kindred train of conception occurs in a well-known 
Psalm, in which Mr. Wellbeloved translates the word ' Sheol' 
'the lower world :' 

Ps. cxxxix. 8. 



If I ascend up into heaven, 
thou art there: if I make my 
bed in hell, behold thou art 
there. 



If I ascend up into heaven, 
thou art there : if I make my 
bed in Sheol, behold thou art 
there. 



I 2 



Il6 SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 

The same contrast appears in Amos ix. 2, where, however, 
the Revisers have left the 'hell' of the Authorized Version, 
stating in the margin that the Hebrew word is ' Sheol.' 
' There shall not one of them escape. Though they dig 
into hell, thence shall my hand take them ; and though they 
climb up to heaven, thence will I bring them down.' Mr. 
Wellbeloved's translation reads, ' Though they dig down to 
the lowermost world.' 



The following amendment helps to make more clear what 
was the Hebrew conception of the underworld. It will 
be observed how the use of the word ' grave' takes the point 
out of the passage : 

JOB xiv. 13. 



Authorized Version. 
O that thou wouldest hide 
me in the grave, that thou 
wouldest keep me in secret, 
until thy wrath be past. 



Revised Version. 
Oh that thou wouldest hide 
me in Sheol,* that thou would- 
est keep me secret, until thy 
wrath be past. 

[* Or, the grave. 



In the nine passages following, the Revisers have very 
properly changed the word ' hell' of the Authorized Version : 

Ps. ix. 17. 



The wicked shall be turned 
into hell, and all the nations 
that forget God. 



The wicked shall return to 
Sheol, even all the nations that 
forget God. 



Mr. Wellbeloved translates this, 'The wicked shall be 
turned into the lowermost world, all the nations that forget 
God.' Compare with this the Revised Version of Ps. xxxi. 
17, ' Let the wicked be ashamed, let them be silent in Sheol.' 
The following is a passage of similar purport 



SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 

Ps. Iv. 15. 



117 



Authorized Version. 
Let death seize upon them, 
and let them go down quick 
into hell. 



Revised Version. 
Let* death come suddenly 
upon them, let them go down 
alive into the pit.t 

[* Or, as otherwise read, Desola- 
tions be upon them ! t Heb. Sheol. 



PROV. v. 5. 



Her feet go down to death, 
her steps take hold on hell. 



Her feet go down to death, 
her steps take hold on Sheol.* 

[* Or, the grave. 
PROV. vii. 27. 



Her house is the way to hell, 
going down to the chambers of 
death. 



Her house is the way to 
Sheol,* going down to the 
chambers of death. 

[* Or, the grave. 

PROV. ix. 1 8. 



But he knoweth not that the 
dead are there ; and that her 
guests are in the depths of 
hell. 



But he knoweth not that the 
dead * are there ; that her 
guests are in the depths of 
Sheol. 



[* Or, the shades, Heb. Rephaim. 
PROV. xv. 24. 



The way of life is above to 
the wise, that he may depart 
from hell beneath. 



To the wise the way of life 
goeth upward, that he may de- 
part from Sheol* beneath. 

[* Or, the grave. 
PROV. xxiii. 14. 



Thou shalt beat him with the 
rod, and shalt deliver his soul 
from hell. 



Thou shalt beat him with the 
rod, and shalt deliver his soul 
from Sheol.* 



[* Or, the grave. 

Mr. Wellbeloved translates here, ' the grave.' Either alter- 
native word shows that the meaning is to deliver, not from 



Il8 SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 

punishment in the after life, but from an untimely end of 
this life. The same would appear to be the use and force 
of the word in the four preceding passages also. 



Afflictions so extreme as to bring the sufferers to the point 
of death are frequently described in the Hebrew writings, but 
certainly with no idea of penal torments to follow. 
2 SAM. xxii. 6, and Ps. xviii. 5. 



Authorized Version, 
The sorrows of hell com- 
passed me about, the snares 
of death prevented me. 



Revised Version. 
The cords of Sheol* were 
round about me, the snares of 
death came upon me. 

[* See Gen. xxxvii. 35 (where 
the use of the word is explained). 

Dr. G. V. Smith translates, ' The toils of the grave sur- 
rounded me, the snares of death surprised me ;' and Mr. 
Wellbeloved has, in the second clause of the text in the 
Psalm, ' were spread before me.' 

The same ideas occur in another Psalm, in which Mr. 
Wellbeloved renders, 'The toils of death surrounded me, 
and the distresses of the grave had found me.' 

Ps. cxvi. 3. 

The cords of death com- 



The sorrows of death com- 
passed me, and the pains of 
hell gat hold upon me.* 

[* Heb. found me. 



passed me, and the pains of 
Sheol* gat hold upon me. 
[* Or, the grave. 



The allusion to the story of Jonah in Matt. xii. 40, which 
at least exhibits the popular idea of the time as to the under- 
world, though not probably the real interpretation of Christ's 
'sign of Jonah the prophet' (for which see Luke xi. 30, 32), 
is made clearer by reference to the psalm of deliverance, 
which, coming before the loth verse of chapter ii. of the 



SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 119 

book, is obviously misplaced. In Jon. ii. 2 the Revisers 
make no change : ' Out of the belly of hell cried I ;' but they 
indicate in the margin that 'hell' is in the Hebrew ' Sheol.' 



Ps. xvi. 9, 10. 



Authorized Version. 
My flesh also shall rest in 
hope. For thou wilt not leave 
my soul in hell, neither wilt 
thou suffer thine Holy One to 
see corruption. 



Revised Version. 



My flesh also shall dwell in 
safety.* For thou wilt not 
leave my soul to Sheol, neither 
wilt thou suffer thine holy onet 
to see corruption. \ 

[* Or, confidently* + Or, godly; 
or, beloved. J Or, the pit. 

Mr. Wellbeloved has, ' For thou wilt not abandon my soul 
to the lowermost world, nor suffer thy pious one to see cor- 
ruption.' See this quoted in Peter's discourse at Pentecost 
(Acts ii. 27), which the Revised Version translates, 'Because 
thou wilt not leave my soul in Hades, neither wilt thou give 
thy Holy One to see corruption.' The Improved Version 
also had, 'Thou wilt not leave me in the grave.' The 
Apostle clearly understood the Psalm in this sense, but the 
Old Testament Revisers have kept nearer to the original in 
translating ' to,' not ' in.' The true sense, moreover, of the 
word translated corruption is not ' putrefaction,' as in Peter's 
argument. It is 'the pit,' as given here in the margin. See 
also, again, further on : 

ACTS ii. 31. 



Spake of the resurrection of 
Christ, that his soul was not 
left in hell, neither his flesh did 
see corruption. 



Spake of the resurrection of 
the Christ, that neither was he 
left in Hades, nor did his flesh 
see corruption. 



The singular assertion in the Apostles' Creed, 'He de- 
scended into hell,' which was added, says Bishop Pearson, 
some time in the fourth century A.D., was chiefly grounded 
on this text. But it is a remarkable fact that in the psalm 



120 SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 

the writer is expressing the trust that his mortal life will be 
prolonged, not that his soul shall be restored to life after 
death. There are many passages in the Psalms to the same 
purport. 

All the passages in the Old Testament (15) in which the 
word ' hell' is retained in the New Version having been 
noticed, and some of the other texts (38) in which a useful 
and interesting change has been made, it remains to observe 
the treatment of the word adopted by the Revisers of the 
New Testament, taking first the places (13) where the term 
is still to be found, and which reflect for the most part the 
doctrine of the sect of Pharisees (see Jos. Antiq. xviii. i, 3) 
respecting the state of the dead 

MATT, xxiii. 15. 



Authorized Version. 
Ye make him twofold more 
the child of hell than your- 
selves. 



Revised Version. 
Ye make him twofold more 
a son of hell* than yourselves. 



[* Gr. Gehenna. 

' A son of hell' has the same meaning as ' the son of per- 
dition' in John xvii. 12, not one predestinated to this end, but 
of a character deserving it; a base, worthless person ; in Old 
Testament phrase ' a son of Belial.' See i Sam. xxv. 1 7 (R. V. 
margin). See also i Sam. xx. 31 and 2 Sam. xii. 5. In the 
first of these passages, although the New Version translates, 
with the Authorized, 'he shall surely die,' the note is sub- 
joined, 'or, is worthy to die, Heb. is a son of death.'' In the 
second, the new translation is given in the text, with the note, 
' Heb. a son of death.' 

MATT. v. 22. 1 



Shall be in danger of hell 



fire. 



Shall be in danger of* the 
hell of fire.t 

[* Gr. unto or into. ) Gr. 

Gehenna of fire. 



1 Dr. G. Vance Smith remarks here ('Texts "and Margins,' p. u) 
that Gehenna means etymologically 'Valley of Hinnom,' and he refers 



SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 



121 



MATT. v. 29. 



Authorised Version. 
And not that thy whole body 
should be cast into hell. (So 
v. 30.) 



Revised Version. 
And not thy whole body be 
cast into hell ;* (and v. 30, ' go 
into hell.*) 

[* Gr. Gehenna. 
MATT, xviii. 9. 



Rather than having two eyes 
to be cast into hell fire. 



Rather than having two eyes 
to be cast into the hell of fire.* 



[* Gr. Gehenna of fire. 

MARK ix. 43. 



Than having two hands, to 
go into hell, into the fire that 
never shall be quenched. 



Than having thy two hands 
to go into hell,* into the un- 
quenchable fire. 

[* Gr. Gehenna. 

This is repeated in v. 45, 'having two feet,' and v. 47, 
'having two eyes.' Verses 44 and 46, which repeat the ex- 
pression in v. 48, ' where their worm dieth not, and the fire 
is not quenched,' ' are omitted,' says the margin, ' by the best 
ancient authorities.' These two verses are therefore dropped 

out of the Bible. 

MATT. x. 28. 



But rather fear him which is 
able to destroy both soul and 
body in hell. 



But rather fear him which is 
able to destroy both soul and 
body in hell.* 

[* Gr. Gehenna. 



to 2 Kings xxiii. 10, in explanation of the later use of the place for the 
burning of the refuse of Jerusalem. He rightly pleads that the word 
should have been inserted as a proper name in the text, and at the same 
time suggests that 'of fire' was probably a Hebraism for 'fiery' or 
' burning.' 'The hell of fire' is perhaps an improvement on 'hell fire,' 
but the term Gehenna does not mean hell, although it was understood 
symbolically by the Jewish people to represent what is called in Matt. 
xxv. 41, 'the eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels' 
(R.V.). 



122 



SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 



LUKE xii. 5. 



Authorized Version. 
Fear him, which after he 
hath killed, hath power to cast 
into hell. 



Revised Version. 

Fear him, which after he 
hath killed, hath power* 
cast into hell.t 

[* Or, authority, t Gr. Gehenna 



to 



JAMES iii. 6. 



The tongue is a fire .... it 
defileth the whole body, and 
setteth on fire the course of 
nature, and it is set on fire of 
hell. 



The tongue is a fire .... 
which defileth the whole body, 
and setteth on fire the wheel 
of nature,* and is set on fire 
by hell. 

[* Or, birth. 



The Greek is ' Gehenna,' as in the other passages cited, 
though this note is not appended here, obviously through an 

oversight. 

2 PET. ii. 4. 



For if God spared not the 
angels that sinned, but cast 
them down to hell, and deli- 
vered them into chains of dark- 
ness, to be reserved unto judg- 
ment. 



For if God spared not angels 
when they sinned, but cast* 
them down to hell,t and com- 
mitted them to pits | of dark- 
ness, to be reserved unto judg- 
ment. 

[* Or, cast them into dungeons. 
t Gr. Tartarus. J Some ancient 
authorities read, chains. 



In the following passages the Authorized word 'hell' was 
used to translate quite a different term. The Revisers very 
properly indicate the distinction by giving the original word 

in the text 

LUKE xvi. 23. 



And in hell he lift up his 
eyes, being in torments/ 



And in Hades he lifted up 
his eyes, being in torments. 



SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 



123 



The Improved Version had here ' the Unseen State.' This 
is not to be confounded with Gehenna. The Greek idea of 
Hades, which from this parable it may be inferred that the 
Jewish people of Christ's time also entertained, distinguished 
between the two states in Hades, of Elysium and Tartarus, 
both in the same abode of Shades, but separated by a great 
gulf from each other. The expression, 'into Abraham's 
bosom,' used before of Lazarus, may remind the reader of 
the similar phrase in Matt. viii. n, 'shall sit down with 
Abraham in the kingdom of God.' 



MATT. xvi. 18. 



Authorised Version. 
Upon this rock I will build 
my Church : and the gates of 
hell shall not prevail against 
it. 



Revised Version. 
Upon this rock I will build 
my church ; and the gates of 
Hades shall not prevail against 
it. 



The Improved Version translates here ' the gates of death.' 
It is no doubt a periphrasis for death, the idea intended to 
be conveyed being that the church should endure for gene- 
rations to come. The expression may be found in Old Tes- 
tament form in Is. xxxviii. 10, 'I shall go into the gates of 
the grave' (Heb. Shcol, KV.). 

MATT. xi. 23. 



And thou, Capernaum, which 
art exalted unto heaven, shalt 
be brought down to hell. 



And thou, Capernaum, shalt 
thou be exalted unto heaven ? 
thou shalt go down* unto 
Hades. 

[* Many ancient authorities read, 
be brought down. 



In Luke x. 15, the corresponding passage, the reading of 
this note is adopted, instead of the Authorized ' be thrust 
down.' The contrast is obviously between the highest and 
the lowest points conceivable to the mind of the time, that 



I2 4 



SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 



is to say, the heavens above and the Sheol of the Old 
Testament below. The reader may be reminded of the 
text before cited from Ps. ix. (see p. 1 1 6). 



In the two following passages, Hades is clearly the tem- 
porary place of departed spirits : 

REV. i. 1 8. 



Authorised Version. 

And have the keys of hell 
and of death. 

REV. xx. 

And death and hell* deli- 
vered up the dead which were 
in them, and they were judged 
every man according to their 
works. And death and hell 
were cast into the lake of fire : 
this is the second death. 

[* Or, grave. 



Revised Version. 
And I have the keys of death 
and of Hades. 



And death and Hades gave 
up the dead which were in 
them, and they were judged 
every man according to their 
works. And death and Hades 
were cast into the lake of fire. 
This is the second death, even 
the lake of fire. 



The bottomless pit has been commonly supposed to be 
hell : the following passages will show the use of the word 
in the New Testament. 

REV. ix. i. 



The key of the bottomless 
pit. 



The key of the pit of the 

abyss. 



But the term f abyss/ which the Authorized Version trans- 
lated here ' bottomless pit,' is employed on two other occa- 
sions, one in Luke viii. 31, 'And they (the demons) intreated 
him that he would not command them to depart into the 
abyss' (A.V. 'into the deep'). The other text is 



SHEOL, HADES, HELL. 



125 



ROM. x. 7. 



Revised Version. 
Who shall descend into the 
abyss ? (that is, to bring Christ 
up from the dead). 



Authorized Version. 
Who shall descend into the 
deep ? (that is, to bring up 
Christ again from the dead). 

Abyss means bottomless, but there was no reason for 
translating the term ' bottomless pit' in either of these pas- 
sages excepting the first, the one in which the Revised Ver- 
sion gives the more precise expression. 

REV. xvii. 8. 



The beast that thou sawest 
was, andis not, and shall ascend 
out of the bottomless pit, and 
go into perdition. 



REV. xx. 

And I saw an angel come 
down from heaven, having the 
key of the bottomless pit, and 
a great chain in his hand. And 
he laid hold on the dragon, that 
old serpent, which is the devil 
and Satan, and bound him a 
thousand years, and cast him 
into the bottomless pit, and 
shut him up, and set a seal 
upon him. 



The beast that thou sawest 
was, and is not, and is about 
to come up out of the abyss, 
and to go* into perdition. 

[* Some ancient authorities read, 
and he goeth. 

3- 

And I saw an angel coming 
down out of heaven, having the 
key of the abyss, and a great 
chain in* his hand. And he 
laid hold on the dragon, the 
old serpent, which is the Devil 
and Satan, and bound him for 
a thousand years, and cast him 
into the abyss, and shut it, and 
sealed it over him. 

[* Gr. upon. 



126 DAMNED, DAMNABLE, DAMNATION. 

THE WORDS DAMNED, DAMNABLE, 
DAMNATION. 

The Revisers follow the Improved Version in 2 Pet. ii. i, 
where, instead of ' damnable heresies,' they translate ' de- 
structive heresies.' This was the only place in which the 
word ' damnable' occurred in the Old Version. The context 
shows how altogether unconnected these heresies were with 
mere differences of opinion, and how entirely their con- 
demnation was justified upon moral, not intellectual, consi- 
derations. In the 3rd verse the Improved Version translated 
the term as it now appears in the Revised Version 

2 PET. ii. 3. 



Authorized Version. 
Whose judgment now of a 
long time lingereth not, and 
their damnation slumbereth 



Revised Version. 
Whose sentence now from 
of old lingereth not, and their 
destruction slumbereth not. 



not. 

Several passages may be classed together which bear upon 
the question of future retribution. One of the strongest is 
the rebuke addressed to the Scribes for their hypocrisy, in 
Matt, xxiii. 33, which now reads, ' How shall ye escape the 
judgment of hell' (marg. 'Gr. Gehenna'}^ instead of the 
' damnation of hell.' So reads also the Improved Version, 
* the judgment of hell.' 

Kindred with this is the denunciation against them, earlier 
in the same discourse (v. 14), in that they made long prayers 
to disguise wrongs done to widows. It is true that there is 
now no 1 4th verse in the chapter. It is inserted instead in 
the margin. But it appears in the text in the parallel places 
in Mark (xii. 40) and Luke (xx. 47), 'These shall receive 
greater condemnation,' the word used also in the Improved 
Version, instead of the old word ' damnation.' 

In Mark iii. 29, the Improved Version translated, instead 
of the Authorized ' is in danger of eternal damnation,' ' is 



DAMNED, DAMNABLE, DAMNATION. 127 

liable to everlasting punishment ;' but the Revised Version 
reads, more literally, 'is guilty of an eternal sin.' The 
Improved Version has in the following text, ' condemnation ;' 
the Revised translation is a still greater improvement : 

JOHN v. 29. 



Authorized Version. 
They that have done evil 
unto the resurrection of damna- 
tion. 



Revised Version. 
They that have done* ill 
unto the resurrection of judg- 



ment. 



[* Or, practised. 



In the following passages the contexts show that the writers 
were not thinking of the eternal future which common usage 
connects so closely with the words 'damned,' 'damnation :' 

i TIM. v. 12. 



Having damnation, because 
they have cast off their first 
faith. 



Having condemnation, be- 
cause they have rejected their 
first faith. 



Or ' being blamable,' as the Improved Version perhaps too 
interpretatively rendered. It notes in the margin that Arch- 
bishop Newcome translated, 'having condemnation.' The 
passage refers to the proper treatment of young widows by 
the church, to save them from temptation. 

In a text from Rom. xiii., political reformers were long sup- 
posed to be threatened with eternal perdition, as those who, 
in resisting the powers that be, resisted the ordinance of 
God. The Improved Version here anticipated the Revisers' 
correction: RQM< 

And they that resist shall 
receive to themselves damna- 
tion. 



And they that withstand 
shall receive to themselves 
judgment. 



It will be impossible for the fell associations which have 
long been connected with the terms 'damnation,' being 



128 DAMNED, DAMNABLE, DAMNATION. 

' damned,' ' damnable,' to survive the absolute disappearance 
of such words from the New Testament in the Revised Ver- 
sion. They were not to be found in the Old Testament, so 
that no change has there been needed ; but the new terms 
in the New Testament throw a discriminating light on the pas- 
sages in which they occur, and of which it may be truly said, 
in several marked instances, that they now no longer exhibit 
the almost vindictive aspect of the older Version. It is 
perhaps needless to add that the Revisers have followed, in 
nearly every case of these required corrections, in the track 
of the Improved Version. The following passage is one 
most commonly quoted, though it occurs in the closing 
section of the Gospel which the Revisers mark off as doubtful, 
not being found, as they state in the margin, in ' the two 
oldest Greek manuscripts and some other ancient autho- 
rities.' The correction will be useful nevertheless 

MARK xvi. 16. 



Authorized Version. 
He that believeth and is bap- 
tized shall be saved, but he that 
believeth not shall be damned. 



Revised Version. 
He that believeth and is bap- 
tized shall be saved ; but he 
that disbelieveth shall be con- 
demned. 

The following is a kindred passage in which the Improved 
Version translated ' condemned ' 

2 THES. ii. n, 12. 



And for this cause God shall 
send them strong delusion, 
that they should believe a lie : 
that they all might be damned 
who believed not the truth, but 
had pleasure in unrighteous- 
ness. 

In the three following instances the Improved Version and 
the Revised Version agree in the very proper use of the 
words 'condemn,' 'condemnation,' 'judgment' 



And for this cause God send- 
eth them a working of error, 
that they should believe a lie ; 
that they all might be judged 
who believed not the truth, but 
had pleasure in unrighteous- 
ness. 



DAMNED, DAMNABLE, DAMNATION. 129 



ROM. iii. 8. 



Authorized Version. 
As some affirm that we say, 
Let us do evil, that good may 
come whose damnation is 
just. 



Revised Version. 



As some affirm that we say, 
Let us do evil, that good may 
come whose condemnation is 
just. 



Evidently meaning, as Dean Alford says (who also translates 
'condemnation'), that any such teaching would justly meet 
with ' the common detestation of all men.' 

ROM. xiv. 23. 

Happy is he that condemn- I Happy is he that judgeth 
eth not himself in that thing | not himself in that which he 
which he alloweth. And he i approveth.* But he that doubt- 
that doubteth is damned if he t eth is condemned if he eat, be- 
eat, because he eateth not of 



faith. 



cause he eateth not of faith. 
[* Or, putteth to the test. 



That a man is self-condemned if he acts in any doubtful 
matter without the full approval of his own conscience, is 
a statement worthy of the high Christian moralist, and the 
same principle practically applies in the case of those who 
would partake of sacred rites without their hearts' sympathy 
with the purport of them, and even in some cases with no 
due reflection upon their object. Such persons condemn 
their thoughtless action in the very act itself. 

i COR. xi. 28, 29. 

But let a man examine him- But let a man prove himself, 
self, and so let him eat of that and so let him eat of the bread, 
bread, and drink of that cup. j and drink of the cup. For he 
For he that eateth and drinketh j that eateth and drinketh, eateth 



unworthily, eateth and drinketh 
damnation to himself, not dis- 
cerning the Lord's body. 



and drinketh judgment unto 
himself, if he discern* not the 
body. [* Gr. discriminate. 



The Improved Version agreed with the note, ' not distin- 
guishing the Lord's body.' The word ' unworthily,' which 
is now omitted as an interpolation, has long proved a terrible 
stumbling-block to many devout but timid believers. 

K 



130 SATAN, DEVIL, EVIL ONE. 



SATAN, DEVIL, EVIL ONE. 

The personality and power of an evil spirit called the 
Devil is so prominent an article of the common orthodox 
belief, that it is of importance to note any corrections which 
have been made in the Revised Version bearing upon this 
subject. 

One marked improvement which the American Revisers 
suggested has unfortunately not been made in the Revised 
text, though it is everywhere indicated in the margin. They 
say, 'Substitute for 'devil' ('devils') the word 'demon' 
('demons') wherever the latter word is given in the margin 
(or represents the Greek words Sai'pwi', Saipoviov) ; and, for 
'possessed with a devil' (or ' devils'), substitute either 'de- 
moniac' or 'possessed with a demon' (or 'demons').' 

Our Revisers leave the reader to find the true translation 
in their notes. The large majority of the cases where this 
correction is to be made relates to what we call demoniacs, 
and it is well to notice that there is no such idea in the 
New Testament as that of casting out ' devils :' it is always 
' demons.' So in John x. 20, the Jews say of Jesus, ' He 
hath a demon, and is mad ;' and in Matt. xi. 18, they said 
of John the Baptist, ' He hath a demon.' In i Cor. x. 20, it 
should be, as the margin indicates, ' they sacrifice to demons,' 
a quotation from Deut. xxxii. 17, this being the word used 
in the Septuagint (the Old Testament Revisers say 'demons' 
in that passage, not 'devils'); and Rev. ix. 20, 'worship 
demons.' In i Tim. iv. i, the writer refers to doctrines not 
'of devils,' but 'of demons;' and in James ii. 19, it is not 
said, ' the devils also believe and tremble,' but ' the demons.' 
In Acts xvii. 18, the Athenians do not say of Paul that he 



SATAN, DEVIL, EVIL ONE. 131 

was a setter forth of strange gods, but of ' strange demons,' 
using the term in the Greek sense of supernatural beings. 

The Old Testament Revisers have made this correction in 
another passage (Ps. cvi. 37) besides the one from Deut. 
xxxii. 1 7 above referred to. In two other places, Lev. xvii. 7 
and 2 Chron. xi. 15, the 'devils' become 'he-goats,' or, as 
the margin notes, ' satyrs,' the same as are mentioned in Is. 
xiii. 21 ; probably objects of idolatrous worship. 



With regard to the Devil, or Satan, the Prince of evil 
spirits, there is little in the Old Testament to suggest the 
existence of such a being. The word Satan is used in a few 
passages where the Old and the New Versions simply trans- 
late ' Adversary,' but it occurs as a proper name, with the 
article, only four times. The passages are here noted. 

' Now there was a day when the sons of God came to 
present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also 
among them' (Job i. 6). The margin explains the word 
Satan, ' that is, the Adversary. 1 It is explained in the same 
manner also in i Chron. xxi. i, ' And Satan stood up against 
Israel, and moved David to number Israel.' In 2 Sam. 
xxiv. i, this incident is described in a different way : 'The 
anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, and he moved 
David against them to say, Go, number Israel and Judah.' 

The same explanation is given also in Zech. iii. i, where 
the Authorized Version reads, ' and Satan standing at his 
right hand to resist him,' the Eevisers say, ' to be his adver- 
sary,' and note that the name means ' the Adversary.' The 
Septuagint translated the word by ' Diabolos,' an accuser or 
slanderer, as it did also in the following passage, one of the 
very few in the Old Testament in which the Spirit of Evil 
has been supposed to be referred to as a distinct personality : 

K 2 



I 3 2 



SATAN, DEVIL, EVIL ONE. 

Ps. cix. 6. 



Authorized Version. 
Set thou a wicked man over 
him ; and let Satan stand at 
his right hand. 



Revised Version. 
Set thou a wicked man over 
him ; and let an adversary* 
stand at his right hand. 

[* Or, Satan ; or, an acctiser. 



In the New Testament the common belief of the time in 
a Wicked Spirit, variously called Satan, the Devil, the Evil 
One, is clearly indicated in a considerable number of pas- 
sages. In one of these, however, the Revisers have made 
an interesting correction, which is not without importance 
in view of the almost omnipotent agency commonly attri- 
buted to the Devil 

2 TIM. ii. 26. 

And that they may recover 
themselves out of the snare of 
the devil, who are taken captive 



by him at his will. 



And they may recover them- 
selves* out of the snare of the 
devil, having been taken cap- 
tive t by the Lord's servant 
unto the will of God.J 

[* Gr. return to soberness, t Gr. 
taken alive. J Or, by the devil 

ttnto the will of God ; Gr. by him, 
unto the will of him. In the Greek, 
the two pronouns are different. 



Whether the Revisers have really amended the Lord's 
Prayer (Matt. vi. 13) by changing 'deliver us from evil' into 
' deliver us from the evil one] is a point open to question. 
Mr. Gordon thinks 1 that by ' the evil one' the Devil was not 
necessarily intended, and observes that the titular capitals 
are not used. But we learn from Dr. G. Vance Smith (Texts 



i < 



Christian Doctrine in the Light of New Testament Revision,' p. 42. 



THE AGES. 133 

and Margins, p. 12) that the fact that the Greek Fathers 
took the word in the personal sense was the great reason for 
the revised rendering; and it should be noticed that the 
same change is made in the other prayer of Jesus, in John 
xvii. 15, which now reads, 'I pray not that thou shouldest 
take them from the world, but that thou shouldest keep 
them from the evil one.' So Matt. v. 37, 'Whatsoever is 
more than these is of the evil one? where, however, the 
Eevisers refer to another text of manifestly different import, 
which they translate, 'Resist not him that is evil.' But in 
all these passages they insert ' or, evil' in the margin, the 
Greek word being ambiguous, i. e. either masculine as de- 
noting a person, or neuter as indicating evil in the abstract. 



WORLDS OR AGES. THE AGE TO COME. USE 
OF THE WORD ETERNAL. 

In the New Testament the Authorized Version often has 
the term 'world' where the Revisers translate 'age,' either 
in their text or in the margin ; the latter in about twenty 
places, the literal and probably more correct word thus 
appearing in the notes, not in the text. In only a few cases 
has the translation in the text been altered. One of these 
occurs in Hebrews (ix. 26). Instead of 'Once in the end of 
the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice 
of himself,' we now read, 'at the end (marg. 'or, consumma- 
tion'} of the ages hath he been manifested.' This was an 
obvious correction to make, since the world is now in its 
nineteenth Christian century, and the end is clearly not 
even yet. Probably for the same reason we now read, in 
i Cor. x. ii, 'they were written for our admonition, upon 
whom the ends of the ages are come,' not ' the ends of the 
world.' 

In Heb. vi. 5, in place of ' have tasted the good word of 



'34 



THE AGE TO COME. 



God and the powers of the world to come,' the Revisers 
introduce the exact translation into the text, ' the powers of 
the age to come/ as they have done also in Eph. iii. 9, 
where, instead of ' from the beginning of the world,' we now 
read, ' from all ages,' evidently with the object of assimilating 
the translation to that of Col. i. 26, where the original words 
are the same. 

So in Eph. i. 21, Christ is exalted, after being raised from 
the dead, ' above every name that is named, not only in this 
world (marg. ' or, age), but also in that which is to come.' 

In one case the difference is important, as bearing on 
the authority and compass of what has been designated the 
mediatorial reign of Christ : 

MATT, xxviii. 20. 



Authorized Version. 
And lo, I am with you alway, 
even unto the end of the world. 



Revised Version. 
And lo, I am with you alway,* 
even unto the endt of the world. 

[* Gr. all the days. f Or, the 
consummation of the age. 



In relation to another important question, the same alter- 
native rendering is given, viz. in Matt. xii. 32, where of a 
man speaking against the Holy Spirit, Christ says, ' It shall 
not be forgiven him, neither in this world (marg. ' or, age'), 
nor in that which is to come.' 

It was probably to this age that should succeed to the 
Mosaic dispensation, what the Jews denominated the Age of 
the Messiah, that several passages like the following alluded : 

LUKE xx. 34, 35. 



The children of this world 
marry, and are given in mar- 
riage ; but they which shall be 
accounted worthy to obtain that 
world, and the resurrection from 
the dead. 



The sons of this world* 
marry, and are given in mar- 
riage ; but they that are ac- 
counted worthy to attain to that 
world,* and the resurrection 
from the dead. 

[* Or, age. 



THE AGE TO COME. 135 

Whatever theories may commend themselves to scientific 
speculation as to the ultimate destination of the material 
world, and whatever similar speculations may have been 
indulged or perhaps believed in by the Jewish people of the 
time of Christ, it is not certain, as may be learned from the 
Eevisers' notes, that the end of the world as referred to in 
certain texts according to the Authorized translation should 
be understood in the material sense which that translation 
conveys. In three other passages, besides the one in Hebrews 
before referred to, though they retain the old version, the 
Revisers say in their notes, ' or, consummation of the age' 
Thus where Christ says in the common version, ' The harvest 
is the end of the world' (Matt. xiii. 39, and so 40 and 49), 
this alternative is given in the margin ; and in Matt. xxiv. 3 
appears the same variation, so that the question of the disci- 
ples may have been, ' What shall be the sign of thy coming, 
and of the consummation of the age?' not 'the end of the 
world.' 

In Mark x. 30, Jesus promises to the faithful disciple, in 
exchange for his loss of earthly relationships and advantages, 
compensations in this time, and in the world to come eternal 
life. The margin says, 'or, in the age to come.' This is again 
presented in the parallel passage in the third Gospel, with 
another correction which is also of importance 

LUKE xviii. 30. 



Authorized Version. 
Who shall not receive mani- 
fold more in this present time, 
and in the world to come life 
everlasting. 



Revised Version. 
Who shall not receive mani- 
fold more in this time, and in 
the world* to come eternal life. 

[* Or, age. 



This change from ' everlasting ' to ' eternal ' is, and is 
obviously understood to be, of grave critical and moral impor- 
tance. The Revisers carefully translate 'everlasting,' the 



i 3 6 



USE OF THE WORD ETERNAL. 



Greek word which has that proper meaning, even in a case 
like that of Rom. i. 20, where ' his everlasting power and 
divinity' certainly does not match in dignity of expression 
with the Authorized Version. But the other term derived 
from the word for 'age,' they prefer to render by another 
English word not necessarily implying endless duration, since 
it is often used in the Scriptures in connection with things 
naturally terminable and perishable, and in some cases only 
to contrast with temporary or temporal. Here are some 
examples of this correction, being about one-sixth of the 
whole in the New Testament. The first will remind the 
reader of the text from Luke just cited. It was a point in 
the Jewish doctrine of the coming age of the Messiah that 
there would then be a resurrection of the just, so that the 
pious of earlier times should not be left with this great 
'promise of reward' unfulfilled. In the first passage Paul 
and Barnabas say, in addressing certain Jews who rejected 
the gospel they preached : 

ACTS xiii. 46. 



Authorized Version. 
But seeing ye put it from you, 
and judge yourselves unworthy 
of everlasting life, lo, we turn 
to the Gentiles. 

2 PET. 

For so an entrance shall be 
ministered unto you abundantly 
into the everlasting kingdom of 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ. 

JOHN 

He that heareth my word, 
and believeth on him that sent 
me, hath everlasting life, and 
shall not come into condemna- 
tion, but is passed from death 
unto life. 



Revised Version. 
Seeing ye thrust it from you, 
and judge yourselves unworthy 
of eternal life, lo, we turn to the 
Gentiles. 

i. ii. 

For thus shall be richly sup- 
plied unto you the entrance into 
the eternal kingdom of our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

v. 24. 

He that heareth my word, 
and believeth him that sent me, 
hath eternal life, and cometh 
not into judgment, but hath 
passed out of death into life. 



USE OF THE WORD ETERNAL. 137 

JOHN vi. 27. 



Authorized Version. 
Labour not for the meat 
which perisheth, but for that 
meat which endureth unto ever- 



Revised Version. 
Work not for the meat which 
perisheth, but for the meat 
which abideth unto eternal life. 



lasting life. 

So in Rev. xiv. 6, we now read of an angel ' having an 
eternal gospel to proclaim,' instead of ' the everlasting gospel ;' 
in Heb. xiii. 20, ' the blood of the eternal covenant,' not 
'everlasting;' in 2 Thes. ii. 16, 'gave us eternal comfort and 
good hope through grace,' instead of 'everlasting comfort;' 
and in John xii. 50, ' I know that his commandment is life 
eternal.' 

But the chief interest of this amendment in the Eevised 
Version attaches naturally to the question of its bearing on 
the subject of retribution in the life to come. It is of special 
moment, therefore, to remark that the term 'everlasting' is 
no longer associated with the punishment of wicked men, 
whatever be otherwise the interpretation given to passages 
like those in Matt. xxv. 41, 'Depart from me, ye cursed 
(marg. 'or, under a curse'}, into the eternal fire which is 
prepared for the devil and his angels;' and (v. 46) 'These 
shall go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into 
eternal life.' There was no sufficient ground for the Autho- 
rized Version translating in this instance ' everlasting punish- 
ment,' the adjective in both clauses being the same. 

It should be noticed here in connection with this descrip- 
tion in Matthew of the coming of the Son of Man in glory 
and sitting on his throne of judgment, that in the next chapter 
the reader will find a statement which has been thought to 
justify the interpretation of this imagery in connection with 
the great events which shortly afterwards transpired in Pales- 
tine. It could hardly refer to a final judgment in some far 
distant future if Christ really said before the high-priest at 



138 tTSE OF THE WORD ETERNAL. 

his trial, not. as the Authorized Version represented, ' Here- 
after,' but, as the Revised Version says, ' Henceforth ye shall 
see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of power, and 
coming on the clouds of heaven' (Matt. xxvi. 64). The 
same indication of a present date is given with perhaps even 
more marked emphasis in Luke xxii. 69, where the Revisers 
translate, ' From henceforth shall the Son of Man be seated 
at the right hand of the power of God.' It has been remarked 
as in keeping with the transcendental character of the Fourth 
Gospel that in a similar passage (John i. 51) the Revision 
shows that Jesus did not say, 'Hereafter ye shall see the 
heaven opened,' &c. The word 'hereafter' is now struck 
out 

In one instance where the Authorized Version has ' eternal 
life,' the Revision offers a striking and instructive change. 
The whole paragraph may be studied with advantage in its 
new form. 

i TIM. vi. 19. 

Authorized Version. Revised Version. 

That they may lay hold on That they may lay hold on 
eternal life. the life which is life indeed. 

The Improved Version translated here ' the true life,' as 
also did Dean Alford. The Revisers' Version is at least 
more impressive, and seems to come nearer to the meaning 
of the original. 



MAN S FALLEN NATURE. 



139 



PASSAGES BEARING ON THE QUESTION OF 
MAN'S FALLEN NATURE. 

GEN. viii. 21. 



Authorized Version. 
I will not again curse the 
ground any more for man's 
sake ; for the imagination of 
man's heart is evil from his 
youth. 



Revised Version. 
I will not again curse the 
ground any more for man's 
sake, for* that the imagination 
of man's heart is evil from his 
youth. 

[* Or, sake; for the. 

The Old Version of this passage, which is now put in the 
margin, appeared to give a curious reason for the determina- 
tion of the Almighty not again to curse the ground on account 
of human wickedness. The point of the statement there 
presented could only have been that the case was so hopeless 
that it was useless to try again the drastic remedy of which 
experiment had just been made. But how could this apply to 
Noah and his family, who were the only persons of the human 
race left, according to the story ? The New Version makes 
the expression a simple reference to the reason for destroy- 
ing the race which had been mentioned in Gen. vi. 5, imply- 
ing that although Jehovah had punished men for this reason 
once, he would not again do so. The text may of course 
still be cited in proof of man's innate depravity, but the New 
Version clearly limits the application to the period before 
the Flood. 



Is. Ixiv. 6. 



But we are all as an unclean 
thing, and all our righteous- 
nesses are as filthy rags. 



For we are all become as one 
that is unclean, and all our 
righteousnesses are as a pol- 
luted garment. 



140 MANS FALLEN NATURE. 

The context shows that the prophet is describing a state 
of things brought about by transgression, not one of inherent 
depravity. The difference is well indicated in the correction, 
' We are all become.' 

In the context of the following passage also, it is shown 
that the writer is describing a state of national feeling in 
Israel at the particular period, and not the condition of 
mankind universally. 

JER. xvii. 9. 



Authorized Version. 
The heart is deceitful above 
all things, and desperately 
wicked : who can know it ? 



Revised Version. 
The heart is deceitful above 
all things, and it is desperately 
sick: who can know it? 



EPH. ii. i. 



And you hath he quickened 
who were dead in trespasses 
and sins. 



And you did he quicken when 
ye were dead through your tres- 
passes and sins. 



The spiritual deadness had grown from deeds of wicked- 
ness, not from any hopeless depravity of nature. It is true 
that immediately afterwards we find the statement, ' Ye were 
by nature children of wrath even as the rest' (R.V.), the ex- 
pression corresponding with the phrase in verse 2, 'sons of 
disobedience;' but this phrase explains the other 'Being 
disobedient, ye were obnoxious to the penalty of wrong- 
doing.' Compare Gal. ii. 15, 'We being Jews by nature, and 
not sinners of the Gentiles,' where the contrast does not bear 
upon moral qualities, but upon the Jewish national assump- 
tion that the Gentile world was unclean, while they alone 
were the consecrated people of God. A claim of the same 
kind, probably following the line of this suggestion, was 
made on behalf of the Christian community in i John v. 19, 
' We know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth in 
the evil one' (R.V.). 



MAN S FALLEN NATURE. 



141 



In a passage which will be again referred to, 2 Cor. v. 14 
(p. 148), Paul speaks of all as dying in another sense, sug- 
gested by the peculiar view which he held of the effects of 
Christ's death as the second Adam, the representative of the 
race. If Christ died for all in this capacity, then in his death 
all died. (See the same important correction elsewhere, e.g. 
'died with Christ,' not 'be dead with,' Rom. vi. 8.) This 
reads in the Authorized Version, ' then were all dead,' as 
though it had been thus demonstrated that mankind was 
universally under a curse and dead to everything pure and 
good dead in sin, to use a theological phrase. The Apos- 
tle's argument is somewhat subtile, and not much after the 
mode of modern thinking, but the particular inference in 
question is not one of depreciation of man's nature, while it 
does most clearly justify the largest hope for humanity in 
regard to its final destiny. 



GAL. v. 17. 



Authorized Version. 
For the flesh lusteth against 
the Spirit, and the Spiritagainst 
the flesh : and these are con- 
trary the one to the other : so 
that ye cannot do the things 
that ye would. 

So Dean Alford corrects. 



Revised Version. 
For the flesh lusteth against 
the Spirit, and the Spirit against 
the flesh : for these are contrary 
the one to the other : that ye 
may not do the things that ye 
would. 

There is no hint of invincible 



moral impotence, as in the Authorized Version. 



PHIL. iii. 20, 21. 



For our conversation is in 
heaven, from whence also we 
look for the Saviour, the Lord 



For our citizenship* is in 
heaven ; from whence also we 
wait for a Saviour, the Lord 

[* Or, commonwealth. 



142 



MAN'S FALLEN NATURE. 



Authorized Version. 

Jesus Christ : who shall change 
our vile body, that it may be 
fashioned like unto his glorious 
body. 



Revised Version. 
Jesus Christ : who shall fashion 
anew the body of our humilia- 
tion, that it may be conformed 
to the body of his glory. 



The writer had evidently in his mind the contrast which 
he had before remarked (Phil. ii. 7, 8, 9) between the prior 
lowly estate and the after glory of Christ. The same con- 
trast was to be observed in the experience and hope of his 
followers, who are, says the Apostle, 'joint-heirs with Christ; 
if so be that we suffer with him that we may be also glorified 
with him' (Rom. viii. 17, R.V.). The idea is a very familiar 
one with Paul. The expression, ' our vile body,' has com- 
monly been associated by preachers with the doctrine of 
man being under a curse in the very elements of his material 
and mortal constitution. The amendment is in this view a 
very striking one. 



REDEMPTION, ATONEMENT, FORGIVENESS. 143 

REDEMPTION, ATONEMENT, FORGIVENESS. 

In i Cor. i. 23 occurs a declaration which has been often 
made the text of sermons on the popular doctrine of the 
Atonement, showing its supreme importance in the explana- 
tion of the redeeming work of Christ. But when the Apostle 
says, ' We preach Christ crucified,' the context proves that 
he was not at the moment thinking of the legal or moral 
effect of Christ's death, but of the objections raised by Jews 
and Greeks to the fact itself that he had died, and as they 
thought died in infamy. The Revised margin suggests the 
real point of their difficulty. It would read, ' We preach a 
Messiah crucified.' This was what they found it hard to 
believe in, with their preconceptions respecting the Messiah- 
ship, or as to the means of elevating and redeeming mankind. 



KOM. v. ii. 



Authorized Version. 
Our Lord Jesus Christ, by 
whom we have now received 
the atonement. 



Revised Version, 



Our Lord Jesus Christ, 
through whom we have now 
received the reconciliation. 



The Improved Version translated in the same way. ' Very 
probably,' says Dr. G. Vance Smith (Texts and Margins, 
p. 30), ' the word Atonement was used by the translators of 
1611 in the older sense of reconciliation.' It has now alto- 
gether disappeared in the Revised Version. Dr. Smith 
notices that the Revisers have not been true to the doctrine 
of salvation proceeding from the love of God, in the addition 
they make at verse 9, where the Authorized Version reads, 
' We shall be saved from wrath.' They make this out to be 
the wrath of God. But the Apostle gives no idea of God 
being reconciled from a previous state of anger, though he 
might possibly have had in his mind 'the wrath to come' 
elsewhere referred to. There was no need for any addition 
to be made to 'the wrath' of the original. 

Was this addition possibly suggested by the Authorized 



144 



REDEMPTION, ATONEMENT, FORGIVENESS. 



text in Ps. vii. n, which reads, 'God judgeth the righteous, 
and God is angry with the wicked every day/ but which the 
Old Testament Revisers translate, ' God is a righteous judge, 
yea a God that hath indignation every day,' simply empha- 
sizing the stern element of justice, but not marking out this 
or that class of men as obnoxious to it ? 



EPH. iv. 32. 



Authorized Version. 
Forgiving one another, even 
as God for Christ's sake hath 
forgiven you. 



Revised Version. 
Forgiving each other, even 
as God also in Christ forgave 
you.* 

[* Many ancient authorities read, 
us. 

The idea of men being forgiven for Christ's sake, or through 
the merits of Christ, appears nowhere in the Revised Version. 
The Improved Version translated the passage, ' As God also 
through Christ hath forgiven you.' 

COL. iii. 13. 



Even as Christ forgave you, 
so also do ye. 



Even as the Lord* forgave 
you, so also do ye. 

[* Many ancient authorities read, 
Christ. 

'So most of our oldest MSS.,' says Dean Alford, who, 
however, understands that the Lord means Christ, referring 
to the text above cited to explain that there ' the forgiveness 
is traced to its source God in Christ.' In either case it is God 
who forgives ; and Christ could only forgive in God's name. 



HEB. ix. 22. 



And almost all things are by 
the law purged with blood : and 
without shedding of blood is no 
remission. 



And according to the law, I 
may almost say, all things are 
cleansed with blood, and apart 
from shedding of blood there 



is no remission. 



The New Version brings out the fact more clearly that in 
the last clause the writer was not stating an abstract truth 



REDEMPTION, ATONEMENT, FORGIVENESS. 



145 



or principle in, regard to the pardon of sin, as has been com- 
monly supposed, but was rather indicating, and reasoning 
from, a well-known characteristic feature of the Jewish cere- 
monial law. The Improved Version also gave the correct 
sense, though not in so marked a manner. 



EOM. iii. 25. 



Authorized Version. 

Jesus Christ, whom God hath 
set forth* to be a propitiation, 
through faith in his blood. 

[* Or, foreordained. 



Revised Version. 

Christ Jesus, whom God set 
forth* to be a propitiation, t 
through faith, by his blood. \ 

[* Or, purposed. t Or, to be 
propitiatory. J Qi, faith in his 
blood. 

So that faith in the blood of Christ is another of the 
popular phrases for which it is seen there is no sufficient 
warrant in the New Testament. The phrase appears in no 
other passage, and here it is placed in the margin. Dean 
Alford remarks that ' such an expression as faith in the blood 
of Christ would be unexampled . . . besides, the clause ought 
to be, ' by his blood,' and so it now reads.' 



KEV. i. 5. 



Unto him that loved us, and 
washed us from our sins in his 
own blood. 



Unto him that loveth us, and 
loosed* us from our sins byt 
his blood. 



[* Many authorities, some an- 
cient, read, washed. + Gr. in. 

Compare with this the following 

i COR. vi. n. 



And such were some of you; 
but ye are washed, but ye are 
sanctified, but ye are justified 
in the Name of the Lord Jesus, 
and by the Spirit of our God. 



And such were some of you: 
but ye were washed,* but ye 
were sanctified, but ye were 
justified in the name of the 
Lord Jesus, and in the Spirit 
of our God. 

[* .Gr. ivashed yourselves. 



146 



REDEMPTION, ATONEMENT, FORGIVENESS. 



COL. i. 14. 

Authorized Version. 
In whom we have redemp- 
tion through his blood, even 
the forgiveness of sins. 

In the corresponding passage in Ephesians (i. 7), the ex- 
pression appears, which is now omitted here, ' In whom we 
have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of 
our trespasses' (R.V.). 



Revised Version. 
In whom we have our re- 
demption, the forgiveness of 

our sins. 



i PET. iv. i. 



Forasmuch, then, as Christ 
suffered for us in the flesh. 



Forasmuch, then, as Christ 
suffered in the flesh. 



The object of Christ's suffering is described elsewhere in 
the New Testament, but not here. A similar omission may 
be noted in two of the following passages, though the third 
does express the idea that Christ's was a self-sacrifice : 

i COR. v. 7. 



For even Christ, our Pass- 
over, is sacrificed for us. 



For our Passover also hath 
been sacrificed, even Christ. 



HEB. i. 3. 



When he had by himself 
purged our sins. 

HEB. ix. 26. 



When he had made purifica- 
tion of sins. 



But now once in the end of 
the world hath he appeared to 
put away sin by the sacrifice of 
himself. 



But now once at the end* of 
the ages hath he been mani- 
fested to put away sin by the 
sacrifice of himself.t 

[* Or, consummation. t Or, 
by his sacrifice. 

Compare with these two passages one from Paul which may 
have suggested them. He says (Gal. i. 4), ' who gave him- 



REDEMPTION, ATONEMENT, FORGIVENESS. 147 

self for our sins, that he might deliver us out of this present 
evil world' (marg. 'or, age') ; that is, to bring in the purified 
state which would come with the age of the Messiah. 

It is right to notice here that in Rom. viii. 3, where the 
Authorized Version reads, ' God sending his own Son in the 
likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the 
flesh/ the Revisers have inserted in the text, 'and as an 
offering for sin,' putting ' or, for sin,' in the margin. The 
American Revision Company object to this. They say, ' let 
the margin (' and for sin''] and the text exchange places.' 
The Improved Version has ' on account of sin,' which is 
Dean Alford's explanation of the phrase. 



The conviction that the martyr sufferings of a saintly man, 
or of an elect body of men such as constituted the true 
Israel of the Prophets, and whom Isaiah in particular desig- 
nates the ' Servant of God,' might be understood to expiate 
the transgressions of their nation, was familiar to the Jewish 
people, as appears, for example, in Is. liii. 8 : ' For the trans- 
gression of my people was he stricken ;' where the margin 
reads, 'or to whom the stroke was due ;' the completion of 
the sentence thus depending on the preceding verb, ' he was 
cut off.' The fourth verse throws further light on this view : 
' Surely he hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows ' 
(marg. ' Heb. sicknesses'). From this marginal variation may 
be understood the quotation of the verse in Matt. viii. 17, 
' Himself took our infirmities, and bare our diseases' (R.V.), 
applied with reference to Christ's miracles of healing. But 
this quotation, though it illustrates the free manner in which 
the New Testament writers made use of the older writings, 
hardly bears upon the main idea of the chapter in Isaiah, 
the key to which may perhaps be found in verse n, where 
the slight change from ' for' to 'and' is significant. Instead 
of 'by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify 

L 2 



148 



REDEMPTION, ATONEMENT, FORGIVENESS. 



many, for he shall bear their iniquities,' we now read, ' and 
he shall bear,' &c. The margin also should be noted. In 
place of ' shall justify many,' the alternative is given, ' or, 
shall make many righteous.'' 



2 COR. v. 14, 15. 



Authorized Version. 

For the love of Christ con- 
straineth us, because we thus 
judge: that if one died for all, 



Revised Version. 
For the love of Christ con- 
straineth us ; because we thus 
judge, that one died for all, 



therefore all died; and he died 
for all, that they which live 
should no . longer live unto 
themselves, but unto him who 
for their sakes died and rose 



then were all dead : and that 
he died for all, that they which 
live should not henceforth live 
unto themselves, but unto him 
which died for them, and rose 
again. again. 

That Christ is represented in the New Testament, and 
especially in the Epistles, to have died in the interest of the 
whole family of man, has never been questioned by Unita- 
rians. The New Version makes this point very distinct. But 
of a penal death in substitution for the punishment of the 
race there is here no trace. Christ died, not as a substitute 
for sinful men, but for their sakes, on their behalf. The 
Revisers might have corrected the same ambiguity in the 
English in Rom. xiv. 15, ' Destroy not with thy meat him for 
whom Christ died,' since the Greek preposition is the same 
as the one here used, and with the same case, the proper 
meaning of which, as Unitarians have always insisted, is the 
meaning given here in the Revised Version. Compare with 
this the following, where the Authorized Version is evidently 
amended for uniformity of rendering 

PHIL. i. 29. 



For unto you it is given in 
the behalf of Christ, not only 
to believe on him, but also to 
suffer for his sake. 



Because to you it hath been 
granted in the behalf of Christ, 
not only to believe on him, but 
also to surfer in his behalf. 



REDEMPTION, ATONEMENT, FORGIVENESS. 



149 



The following correction also deserves notice, because the 
Greek expresses the same view, ' in the interest of,' or ' on 
account of,' by the use of another preposition, but with no 
idea of a substitution having been made : 

i COR. viii. n. 

Authorized Version. Revised Version. 

And through thy knowledge For through* thy knowledge 
shall the weak brother perish, he that is weak perisheth, the 
for whom Christ died. brother for whose sake Christ 

died. 

[* Gr. in. 



. The idea of self-sacrifice for another's welfare has nothing 
in it of the substitutionary character implied in certain ren- 
derings of the Old Version. This is fairly brought out in 
the following passages, by the expression, ' giving oneself up 
for.' On the former of the two, Dean Alford explains 'gave 
himself up to death.' The Improved Version reads, ' deli- 
vered himself up.' In the second text it has the same 
expression as the Revisers employ 

GAL. ii. 20. 



The life which I now live in 
the flesh, I live by the faith of 
the Son of God, who loved me, 
and gave himself for me. 



That life which I now live in 
the flesh I live in faith, the faith 
which is in the Son of God, 
who loved me and gave himself 
up for me. 



EPH. v. 25, 26. 



Even as Christ also loved 
the Church, and gave himself 
for it ; that he might sanctify 
and cleanse it with the washing 
of water by the word. 



Even as Christ also loved 
the Church, and gave himself 
up for it ; that he might sanc- 
tify it, having cleansed it by 
the washing* of water with the 
word. 

[* Gr. laver. 



15 CONVERSION. 



CONVERSION. 



Authorized Version. 
The law of the Lord is per- 
fect, converting* the soul. 



Ps. xix. 7. 



Revised Version. 



The law of the Lord is per- 
fect, restoring the soul. 



[* Or, restoring. 

Mr. Wellbeloved translated 'refreshing the soul,' and Dr. 
Noyes ' reviving/ but Mr. S. Sharpe followed the old margin 
' restoring,' which is adopted in the Revised text. There is 
nothing of ' conversion,' in the modern orthodox sense, in 
the passage as now read. Nor is it to be found in the 
following text, nor the accompanying conception of periods 
of ' Revival ' when mystical conversions have been often 
supposed to occur in great numbers 

ACTS iii. 19. 



Repent ye, therefore, and be 
converted, that your sins may 
be blotted out, when the times 
of refreshing shall come from 
the presence of the LORD. 



Repent ye, therefore, and 
turn again, that your sins may 
be blotted out, that so there 
may come seasons of refreshing 
from the presence of the LORD. 



In Ps. li. 13, the expression is used, 'sinners shall be con- 
verted unto thee,' but with the marginal explanation, 'or, 
return? Mr. Wellbeloved translates, ' shall turn themselves.' 
In Is. Ix. 5 the correction is made in the text of the New 
Version, not the margin. Instead of ' the abundance of the 
sea shall be converted unto thee, the forces of the Gentiles 
shall come unto thee,' we now read, ' shall be turned unto 
thee, the wealth of the nations shall come unto thee.' 

The term 'convert' occurs in one passage of the Old 
Testament, and it is retained in the Revised Version, ' Zion 
shall be redeemed with judgment, and her converts with 
righteousness' (Is. i. 27), where the old margin read, 'or, 
they that return of her] which the Revisers also insert in the 
new margin. Mr. S. Sharpe translates, ' those that are 



CONVERSION. 



brought back to her.' There is no allusion to converts in 
the ordinary theological sense. 

The only other passage besides these in which the term is 
found in the Authorized Version of the Old Testament, is 
remarkable as having been four times quoted in the New 
Testament. In each case the word is so changed as to 
remove altogether the idea of the mystical process commonly 
associated with the term, as a term of hortatory theology 

Is. vi. 10. 

Authorized Version. Revised Version. 

Make the heart of this people Make the heart of this people 
fat ... lest they . . . understand fat ... lest they . . . understand* 
with their heart, and convert, with their heart, and turn again, 



and be healed. 



and be healed. 

[* Or, their heart should under- 
stand. 



MATT. xiii. 15. 



Lest at any time they should 
. . . understand with their heart, 
and should be converted, and 
I should heal them. 



Lest haply they should . . . 
understand with their heart, 
and should turn again, and I 
should heal them. 



At the parallel place in Mark the same correction is made : 

MARK iv. 12. 



Lest haply they should turn 
again, and it should be forgiven 
them. 



Lest at any time they should 
be converted, and their sins 
should be forgiven them. 

Luke introduces the reference into Christ's explanation of 
the parable (Luke viii. 12), 'Then cometh the devil and 
taketh away the word from their heart, that they may not 
believe and be saved' (R.V.). There are two other cases in 
which the prophecy is quoted 

JOHN xii. 40. 



That they should not see with 
their eyes, nor understand with 
their heart, and be converted, 
and I should heal them. 



Lest they should see with 
their eyes, and perceive with 
their heart, and should turn, 
and I should heal them. 



152 .CONVERSION. 

In the similar instance in Acts xxviii. 27, 'and should be 
converted' now reads, 'and should turn again.' 

The 'conversion of the Gentiles' (Acts xv. 3) is naturally 
and properly retained, as it was also in the Improved Ver- 
sion. In James v. 19, the idea of one person inducing 
another to turn back 'from the error of his way' is present 
in the Old Version, which probably led the Revisers to think 
the change needless, so we still read, if ' one convert him,' 
' he which converteth a sinner.' But in Luke the remarkable 
case is described of one who, having grievously ' erred from 
the truth' by denying Christ, did afterwards 'turn again,' or 
become ' converted.' Here the Eevisers introduce the cor- 
rection in the warning and exhortation to Peter : 

LUKE xxii. 32. 



Authorized Version. 
And when thou art con verted, 
strengthen thy brethren. 



Revised Version. 
And do thou, when once thou 
hast turned again, stablish thy 
brethren. 



This is an improvement upon the Improved Version, 
4 when thou hast returned,' though that phrase also was pro- 
bably intended to express the same idea. 

But the amendment which most strikingly exhibits the 
altered aspect of Scriptural expression in relation to the 
common doctrine and teaching of conversion, is made in 
the well-known and often-used text of Christ's lesson of 
humility to the disciples. This exhausts the collection of 
passages in which the word is employed : 

MATT, xviii. 3. 
Except ye be converted, and | Except ye turn, and become 



become as little children, ye 
shall not enter into the king- 
dom of heaven. 



as little children, ye shall in no 
wise enter into the kingdom of 
heaven. 



ELECTION, JUSTIFICATION, SALVATION. 



153 



ELECTION, JUSTIFICATION, SALVATION. 

ACTS ii. 47. 



Authorized Version. 
And the Lord added to the 
church daily such as should be 
saved. 



Revised Version. 
And the Lord added* to them 
day by day those that were 
being saved. 

[* Gr. together. 

The idea of personal election is therefore no longer implied. 
The American Eevisers would put 'those that were being 
saved' in the margin, and in the text, ' those that were saved,' 
which is the translation of the Improved Version. 

They do not, however, hold to the change in the Eevised 
Version of 'them that perish,' and 'us which are saved' 
(i Cor. i. 1 8), to 'them that are perishing,' and 'us which 
are being saved.' See also 2 Cor. ii. 15. 



In the following passage the phrase, ' made us accepted 
in,' loses its character of exceptional favour, in the general 
grace bestowed upon men in Christ : 



EPH. 

Having predestinated us un- 
to the adoption of children by 
Jesus Christ to himself, accord- 
ing to the good pleasure of his 
will : to the praise of the glory 
of his grace, wherein he hath 
made us accepted in the be- 
loved. 



i. 5, 6. 

Having fore-ordained us un- 
to adoption as sons through 
Jesus Christ unto himself, ac- 
cording to the good pleasure 
of his will, to the praise of the 
glory of his grace, which* he 
freely bestowed on us in the 
Beloved. 

[* Or, wherewith he endiied us. 



In Mai. iii. 17 the Authorized Version, 'And they shall be 
mine, saith the LORD of hosts, in that day when I make up 
my jewels,' has been thought to refer to the gathering in of 
the elect. The Revised Version reads, 'they shall be mine 



154 



ELECTION, JUSTIFICATION, SALVATION. 



in the day that I do make, even a peculiar treasure.' Dr. 
Noyes makes the sense much more clear, 'And they shall 
be to me in the day which I appoint, as my own possession.' 
All agree in what follows, 'And I will spare them as a man 
spareth his own son that serveth him.' 



EOM. v. 1 8. 

Authorised Version. 
Therefore as by the offence 
of one judgment came upon all 
men to condemnation, even so 
by the righteousness of one the 
free gift came upon all men 
unto justification of life. 

So Dean Alford translates, ' through one trespass,' and 
' one righteous act,' but instead of the words supplied which 
are put in italics he would read, ' the issue was,' in both 
cases. The Improved Version notes here the terms of uni- 
versality employed, showing that the whole race, and not a 
chosen few, ' derived greater benefits from the mission of 
Christ than they suffered injury from the fall of Adam.' 



Revised Version. 
So then as through one tres- 
pass the judgment came unto 
all men to condemnation ; even 
so through one act of righteous- 
ness the free gift came unto all 
men to justification of life. 



In the next passage, peace with God does not now follow 
from the justification by faith, but rather the duty of seeking 
that peace is imposed with greater force, in consideration of 
the higher ground of privilege and hope which it is granted 
to believers to occupy : 

EOM. v. i, 2. 



Therefore being justified by 
faith, we have peace with God, 
through our Lord Jesus Christ. 
By whom also we have access 
by faith into this grace wherein 
we stand, and rejoice in hope 
of the glory of God. 



Being therefore justified by 
faith, let us have peace with 
God through our Lord Jesus 
Christ ; through whom also we 
have had our access by faith 
into this grace wherein we 
stand ; and let us rejoice in 
hope of the glory of God. 



ELECTION, JUSTIFICATION, SALVATION. 155 

Perhaps the best comment on this text may be found in 
the supreme value attributed to faith in the grace and truth 
of Christ : ' But as many as received him, to them gave he 
the right' (a suggestive change from the Authorized ' power') 
' to become children of God, even to them that believe on 
his name' (John i. 12 ; see also p. 105). Men have learned 
in Christ and through Christian teaching their true relation 
to his and their Father. 



HEB. x. 38. 



Authorized Version. 



Now the just shall live by 
faith : but if any man draw 
back, my soul shall have no 
pleasure in him. 



Revised Version. 



But my righteous one* shall 
live by faith : and if he shrink 
back, my soul hath no pleasure 
in him. 

[* Some ancient authorities read, 
the righteous one. 

This is quoted from Habak. ii. 4, which reads, 'the just shall 
live by his faith,' ' or,' adds the Revised margin, '/;/ his faith- 
fulness] which is in entire keeping with the evident purport 
of the passage here, that the great end of salvation is only 
to be secured by steadfast faithfulness to the true way of sal- 
vation. The possibility of any of the elect saints falling from 
grace was inconceivable to the old translators. The final 
perseverance of the saints, the Calvinistic doctrine, was the 
common Protestant belief of the time. 

It is to be noticed on this point that the Eevised Version 
has in Gal. v. 4, ' Ye are fallen away from grace,' instead 
of 'fallen from ;' and in Heb. vi. 6, instead of 'if they shall 
fall away,' ' and then fell away.' Macknight says that Beza 
introduced the ' if,' that the text might not appear to contra- 
dict the doctrine of the perseverance of the saints. 



ELECTION, JUSTIFICATION, SALVATION. 



Authorised Version. 
What doth it profit, my bre- 
thren, though a man say he hath 
faith, and have not works? Can 
faith save him ? 



JAMES ii. 14. 



Revised Versson. 



What doth it profit, my bre- 
thren, if a man say he hath faith, 
but have not works ? Can that 
faith save him ? 



It is interesting to observe in an early Christian writing a 
similar practical view of what constituted the state of salva- 
tion as understood by the first Christians. It is given to 
the bride of the Lamb (Rev. xix. 8) to array herself in fine 
linen, clean and white, which is then explained to mean the 
righteousness of saints. The New Version reads, ' in fine 
linen bright and pure; for the fine linen is the righteous 
acts of the saints.' 



THE FREE GRACE OF GOD.' 1 57 



THE FREE GRACE OF GOD. 
2 COR. v. ii. 



Authorized Version. 
Knowing therefore the terror 
of the Lord, we persuade men. 



Revised Version. 
Knowing therefore the fear 
of the Lord, we persuade men. 



That is, says Dean Alford, being God-fearing men, we are 
striving to convince men of our honesty of purpose ; not, as 
the Authorized Version seemed to say, that the Apostle was 
moved by the terribleness of God to urge men to repentance. 
Indeed, the Jewish people had not the terror of the Lord 
which forms so conspicuous an element in the Calvinistic 
theology. Their sense of his merciful kindness appears 
everywhere in the ancient books. Even in the giving of the 
law of the Ten Commandments he is represented as con- 
trasting his treatment of the disobedient and of the good, 
visiting the iniquities of the one to a few generations, but 
showing mercy to the other to the thousandth generation. 
The Revised Version of Ex. xx. 6 repeats the translation of 
the Authorized, ' showing mercy unto thousands of them 
that love me,' but exhibits the better sense in the margin 
('or, a thousand generations'}. As the Revisers refer for this 
to Deut. vii. 9, where the idea is very clearly expressed, it 
seems a pity that it was not inserted in the text. 

A similar contrast of the great goodness of God with his 
acts of necessary judgment would seem indicated in Rom. 
vi. 23, 'the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is 
eternal life,' which the Revision emphasizes by translating, 
' the free gift of God.' 



158 THE FREE GRACE OF GOD. 



Authorized Version. 
Let the people praise thee, 
O God ; let all the people praise 
thee. 



Ps. Ixvii. 5. 



Revised Version. 



Let the peoples praise thee, 
O God; let all the peoples praise 
thee. 



The amendment here will be found also in Mr. Wellbe- 
loved's Version. It accords with the whole tenour of the 
Psalm, which shows that the writer's thought embraced other 
nations besides his own. So in Is. Iv. 4, the context indi- 
cates the accession of foreign nations to the worship of the 
God of Israel, where the prophet says of the expected leader, 
or prince, ' Behold, I have given him for a witness to the 
peoples, a leader and commander to the peoples' (R.V). 
Something of the same enlargement of view appears in Is. 
Ivi. 7, ' Mine house shall be called a house of prayer for all 
peoples,' which is quoted in Mark xi. 1 7 with a correction 
restoring the text to the original form, reading, instead of 
4 called of all nations the house of prayer,' ' called a house 
of prayer for all the nations.' 

A noticeable improvement is made by the similar correc- 
tion in Mic. iv. i, 3, 5 : 'And peoples shall flow unto it' 
'And he shall judge between many peoples, and shall reprove 
strong nations afar off . . .' 

It should, however, be noted that in Deut. xxxiii. 3 we 
find, instead of ' Yea, he loved the people,' ' Yea, he loveth 
the peoples' (M. ' or, tribes'], where only Israel can have been 
intended ; as also, perhaps, in Gen. xlix. ic. 1 But see 
Deut. xxxiii. 19, where possibly a wider extension of the 
term may be implied, as it certainly is in many other places. 



The truly catholic conception of the Christian Church 
attributed to Jesus in the Fourth Gospel (x. 16) is admirably 

1 " ' Peoples ' for ' people,' here and often ; a small but important 
change," says Dr. Driver. Expositor, third series, Vol. II. p. 7. 1885. 



THE FREE GRACE OF GOD. 



159 



brought out in the Revised Version by the correction of a 
single word. Instead of ' there shall be one fold and one 
shepherd,' we now read, ' and they shall become one flock, 
one shepherd.' 



JOHN i. 9. 



Authorized Version. 
That was the true Light, 
which lighteth every man that 
cometh into the world. 



Revised Version. 
There* was the true light, 
even the light which lighteth 
every t man, coming into the 
world. 

[* Or, the true light -which light- 
eth every man was coming, t Or, 
every man as he cometh. 



TIT. ii. n. 



For the grace of God that 
bringeth salvation hath ap- 
peared to all men. 



For the grace of God hath 
appeared,* bringing salvation 
to all men. 

[* Or, hath appeared to all men, 
bringing salvation. 



With this amendment the Improved Version agrees. So 
also Dean Alford translates, but explains it to mean that 
God is willing that all men shall be saved (i Tim. ii. 4), and 
has provided a salvation open to all. But the Eevised Ver- 
sion reads there, ' who willeth that all men should be saved,' 
quite as strong an expression of Universalism as that above 
cited. So, in i Tim. iv. 10, where even the Old Version 
reads, ' We trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of 
all men,' the Revision certainly favours 'the larger hope' in 
the more genial strength and cogency of its expression, ' To 
this end we labour and strive, because we have our hope set 
on the living God, who is the Saviour of all men.' 



INDEX. 



In this Index will be found reference to all the passages which are 
commented upon in the Work, not to such as are only alluded to. 

The citations are made from the Revised Version, and M. means the 
margin of that Version ; while the Authorized Version is indicated by 
the letters A.V. 



GENESIS PAGE 

i. I. God (Elohim, pi.) created (sing.) 22 

i. 2. the spirit of God moved upon [A.V. the Spirit ... 42 

ii. 4. the LORD [M. special note on the word Jehovah 26 

iii. 5. ye shall be as God [M. or (as A..V.),gods 22 

iii. 15. thou shalt bruise his heel [M. or, lie in wait for 80 

viii. 21. for (that) the imagination of man's heart is evil 

[M. ov, for the imagination 139 

xxxvii. 35. to the grave [M. special note on Heb. Sheol in 

xli. 38. in whom the spirit of God is [A.V. the Spirit 41 

xlix. to. till Shiloh come [M. various renderings 81 

xlix. 10. the obedience of the peoples [A.V. the gathering 

of the people 158 

EXODUS 

iii. 14, 15. I am that I am [M. various renderings 82 

vi. 2, 7, 8, IO. I am Jehovah [A.V. I am the LORD 26 

vii. i. I have made thee a god (Elohim) to Pharaoh ... 22 

xx. 6. showing mercy unto thousands [M. or, a thousand 

generations 157 

xxi. 6. unto God [M. or (as A.V.), to the judges 24 

xxi. 24. the law, 'an eye for an eye,' set aside by Christ... 10 

xxii. 8, 9. before God [M. or (as A.V.), thejtidges 24 

xxii, 28. not revile God [M. or, the judges ; A.V. the gods 24 

xxxi. 3. filled him with the spirit of God in wisdom 41 

xxxii. i, 4. make us gods [M. or, a god 22 

LEVITICUS 

xvii. 7. sacrifices unto the he-goats [M. or, satyrs (A.V. 

devils) 131 



INDEX. 



161 



NUMBERS 

xxiv. 17. 



PAGE 



shall come forth a star out of Jacob [A.V. a Star 81 



DEUTERON. 

vi. 4. is one LORD [M. various renderings 29 

xxxii. 17. they sacrificed unto demons [A.V. unto devils ... 130 

xxxii. 22. to the lowest pit [M. Heb. Sheol (A.V. hell) 115 

xxxii. 39. there is no god (Elohim) with me 25 

xxxiii. 3. he loveth the peoples [A.V. he loved the people... 158 

xxxiii. 19. they shall call the peoples [A.V. the people 158 

JOSHUA 
xxii. 22. the LORD the God of gods [M. or, God even God 

the LORD 23 

xxiv. 19. he is a holy God [plural forms in Heb 25 

JUDGES 
xiv. 6, 19. the spirit of the LORD came upon [A.V. the Spirit 44 

1 SAMUEL 

ii. 25. God shall judge him [M. or (as A.V.), the judge.,, 24 

ii. 35. mine anointed [Sept. my christ 98 

xi. 6. the spirit of God came upon [A.V. the Spirit ... 42 

xvi. 13, 14. the spirit of the LORD came upon . . . had departed 

from [A.V. the Spirit 43 

xx. 31. shall surely die [M. Heb. is a sou of death 120 

xxviii. 13. I see a god [M. or (as A.V.), gods 23 

2 SAMUEL 

xii. 5. is worthy to die [M. Heb. is a son of death 120 

xxii. 6. the cords of Sheol [A.V. of hell 118 

xxiii. 2. the spirit of the LORD spake by me [A.V. the 

Spirit 52 

i KINGS 
xxii. 24. which way went the spirit of the LORD [A.V. the 

Spirit (also 2 Chron. xviii. 23) 44 

1 CHRON. 

xxi. i. Satan [M. or, an adversary 131 

xxiv. 5. princes of God [A.V. governors of the house of God 24 
xxviii. 1 2. by the spirit [M. or, in his spirit 41 

2 CHRON. 

xi. 15. priests for ... the he-goats [M. or, satyrs; A.V. 

devils 131 

M 



162 



INDEX. 



NEHEMIAH 
ix. 6. 

ix. 1 8. 

JOB 
i. 6. 
xi. 8. 
xiv. 13. 
xix. 25. 
xxvi. 6. 

xxvi. 14. 
xxxiii. 4. 

PSALMS 
ii. 12. 
vii. ii. 

vii. ii. 

viii. 5. 
ix. 17. 

xvi. 10. 
xviii. 5. 
xix. 7. 
xxii. 16. 

xxix. I. 

xxxi. 17. 
xxxiii. 6. 
xlv. 3. 
xlv. 6. 

I. I. 

Ii. ii. 

Ii. 13- 
lv. 15. 

Ixvii. 5. 
Ixxxii. I. 



PAGE 
Thou art the LORD, even them alone [A.V. Thou, 

even thou art LORD alone 28 

this is thy God [see Ex. xxxii. 4 23 

Satan [M. that is, the Adversary 131 

deeper than Sheol [M. or, the grave; A.V. hell... 115 

hide me in Sheol [M. or (as A.V.) the grave 116 

that my redeemer liveth [M. or, vindicator 94 

Sheol is naked before him [M. or, the grave ; A.V. 

hell 114 

by his spirit the heavens are garnished 42 

the spirit of God hath made me [A.V. the Spirit 41 

kiss the son [M. other renderings given ; A.V. Son 83 
God is a righteous judge [A.V. God judgeth the 

righteous 144 

a God that hath indignation [A.V. is angry with 

the wicked 144 

but little lower than God [M. or (as A.V.) the angels 24 
the wicked shall return to Sheol [A.V. be turned 

into hell 116 

thou wilt not leave my soul to Sheol [A.V. in hell 119 

the cords of Sheol [A.V. of hell 118 

restoring the soul [A.V. converting the soul 150 

they pierced my hands [M. other versions, they 

bound, &c 93 

ye sons of the mighty [M. or, sons of God ; or, gods 23 
let them be silent in Sheol [A.V. in the grave ... Il6 
the word of the LORD . . . the breath of his mouth 21 

O mighty one [A.V. O most mighty 85 

thy throne, O God [M. or, thy throne is tJie throne 

of God 84 

God, even God, the LORD [M. or, the God of gods 24 

take not thy holy spirit from me 43 

shall be converted unto thee [M. or, return 150 

let them go down alive into the pit [Heb. Sheol ; 

A.V. quick into hell 117 

let the peoples praise thee [A.V. the people 158 

in the congregation of God [A.V. of the mighty... 24 



INDEX. 



63 



PSALMS PAGE 

Ixxxii. 6. all of you sons of the Most High [A.V. children 24 

Ixxxiii. 18. thou alone whose name is Jehovah [M. or, thou 

whose name alone is Jehovah 27 

Ixxxvi. 10. thou art God (Elohim) alone 22 

Ixxxix. 6. the sons of the mighty [M. or, sons of God; or, gods 23 

cii. 25 27. of old hast thou laid the foundations of the earth, 

&c. [quoted Heb. i. 10 84 

cv. 15. touch not mine anointed ones [Sept. my christs... 98 

cvi. 37. sacrificed their sons unto demons [A. V. devils ... 131 

cix- 6. an adversary [M. or, (as A.V.), Satan; or, an 

accuser 132 

cxvi. 3. the pains of Sheol [M. or, the grave; A.V. of hell 118 

cxxxix. 7. whither shall I go from thy spirit ? 43 

cxxxix. 8. if I make my bed in Sheol [A.V. in hell 115 

PROVERBS 
v. 5- her steps take hold on Sheol [M. or, the grave; 

A. V. hell 117 

vii- 27. is the way to Sheol [M. or, the grave; A.V. hell 117 

viii. 22. the LORD possessed me in the beginning of his 

way [M. important alternative renderings 85 

lx - Io - the knowledge of the Holy One [A.V. of the holy 25 

lx - J 8. her guests are in the depths of Sheol [A.V. of hell 117 

xv - Ir - Sheol and Abaddon are before the LORD [M. or, 

the grave ; A.V. hell and destruction 114 

xv - 2 4- that he may depart from Sheol beneath [M. or, 

the grave; A.V. from hell 117 

xxiii. 14. anc i s halt deliver his soul from Sheol [M. or, the 

grave ; A.V. from hell 117 

xxvn. 20. Sheol and Abaddon never satisfied [A.V. hell and 114 

xxx - 3- the knowledge of the Holy One [A.V. of the holy 25 

ISAIAH 

1.27. her converts [M. or, they that return of her 150 

v. 14. hell hath enlarged her desire [M. or, the grave ; 

Heb. Sheol 114, 115 

vi. 10. turn again and be healed [A.V. and be converted 151 
vii. 14. a virgin shall conceive and bear a son [M. impor- 
tant alternative renderings 89 

vii. 14. Immanuel [M. that is, God is with us 89 

viii. 20. to the law and to the testimony [M. or, the teaching 9 

M 2 



164 



INDEX. 



ISAIAH PAGE 

ix. 6. mighty God translated in Ezek. xxxii. 21, 'the 

strong among the mighty' 112 

xiv. 9, II, 15- hell is moved . . . brought down to hell [M. Ileb. 

Sheol 112 

xxvi. 19. my dead bodies shall arise [A.V. together with my 

dead body shall they arise 94 

xxviii. I5> 1 8. with hell are we at agreement [M. Heb. Sheol ... 113 

xxxviii. 10. into the gates of the grave [M. Heb. Sheol 123 

xl. 3- crieth, Prepare ye in the wilderness [M. or, that 

crieth in the wilderness II 

xl. 7. the breath of the LORD bloweth upon it [A.V. the 

spirit of the LORD 42 

xl. 13. directed the spirit of the LORD [A.V. the Spirit... 40 

xli. 4. I, the LORD, the first, and with the last, I am he 61 

xlviii. 1 6. the LORD God hath sent me, and his spirit [A.V. 

the LORD God and his S pint hath sent me ... 5 1 
liii. 2. he grew up before him [A.V. he shall grow up ... 87 

I 111 - 4- borne our griefs [M. Heb. sicknesses 147 

* 111- - as for his generation who among them considered, 

&c. [M. or, his life who shall recount 86 

liii. 8. for the transgression of my people was he stricken 

[M. or, to whom the stroke was due 147 

liii. 1 1. justify many, and he shall bear [M. or, make many 

righteous ; A.V. for he shall bear 147 

lv. 4. a witness to the peoples [A.V. the people 158 

Ivi. 7. a house of prayer for all peoples [A.V. all people 158 

Ivii. 9. debase thyself even unto hell [M. Heb. Sheol 113 

lix. 19. a stream which the breath of the LORD driveth 

[A.V. shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of 

the LORD shall lift up a standard, &c 55 

lix. 20. a redeemer shall come [A.V. the Redeemer 88 

Ix. 5. the abundance of the sea shall be turned unto 

thee [A. V. converted unto thee 150 

Ixi. I. the spirit of the LORD God is upon me [A.V. Spirit 53 

Ixiii. 10, 14. grieved his holy spirit ... the spirit of the LORD 

[A.V. vexed his holy Spirit ... the Spirit of 

the LORD 44> 45 

Ixiv. 6. W e are all become as one that is unclean [A.V. 

we are all as an unclean thing 139 



INDEX. 



i6 S 



JEREMIAH PAGE 

xvii. 9. the heart ... is desperately sick [A.V. wicked... 140 

xxiii. 6. he shall be called the LORD is our righteousness 

[A.V. THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS ...... 90 

xxxiii. 16. the name whereby she (Jerusalem) shall be called, 
the LORD is our righteousness [A.V. the LORD 
our righteousness 90 

EZEKIEL 

xi. 5. the spirit of the LORD fell upon me [A.V. the Spirit 51 

xxxi. 15, 1 6, 17. wnen he went down to hell [M. Heb. Sheol; A.V. 

to the grave Ill 

xxxii. 21, 27. out of the midst of ... gone down to, hell [Heb. 

Sheol 112 

xxxvii. I. carried me out in the spirit of the LORD 43 

DANIEL 

iii. 25. like a son of the gods [A.V. the Son of God 92 

vii. 13. one like unto a son of man [A.V. like the Son of 

Man 87 

ix. 24. to anoint the most holy [M. or, a most holy place; 

A.V. the most Holy 9 T > 9 2 

ix. 25. the anointed one, the prince [M. or (as A.V.), 

Messiah , the prince ; or, an anointed one, a prince 9 1 
ix. 25. shall the anointed one be cut off [A.V. Messiah 

becutoff 9 

ix. 26. and shall have nothing [M. or, there shall be none 

belonging to him ; A.V. but not for himself. 90 

HOSEA 

i. 10. ye are the sons of the living God 105 

xi. 12. is faithful with the Holy One [A.V. with the saints 25 



AMOS 
ix. 2. 

JONAH 
ii. 2. 

MlCAH 

iv. i, 3, 5- 

V. 2. 



though they dig into hell [M. Heb. Sheol 116 

out of the belly of hell cried I [M. Heb. Sheol ... "9 

Peoples shall flow unto it ... many peoples . . . 
all the peoples [A.V. people shall, &c 158 

whose goings forth are from of old, from everlast- 
ing [M. or, from ancient days 86 



i66 



INDEX. 



PAGE 



HABAKKUK 

ii. 4. the just shall live by his faith [M. or, in his faith- 
fulness ice 

ii. 5. enlargeth his desire as hell [M. Heb. Sheol 114 

iii. 13. for the salvation of thine anointed [M. or, for sal- 

vation with thine anointed ; Sept. thy christ ... 98 

iii. 19. Jehovah, the Lord, is my strength [A.V. the LORD 

God is my strength 26 

HAGGAI 
ii. 7. the desirable things of all nations shall come [M. 

or, the things desired, Heb. desire of all 88 

ZECHARIAH 

iii. I. Satan [M. that is, the Adversary 131 

xii. 10. me whom they have pierced [M. him in some MSS. 93 

xiv. 9. shall the LORD be one, and his name one [A.V. 

shall there be one LORD, and, &c 27 

MALACHI 
iii. I. and the messenger of the covenant [M. or, even 

or, the angel 92 

iii. 17. they shall be mine in the day that I do make, even 
a peculiar treasure [A.V. when I make up my 
jewels 153 

MATTHEW 

i. 1 8, 20. with child of the Holy Ghost [M. or, Holy Spirit 47 

1.23. Immanuel [see note on Is. vii. 14 89 

ii. 2, 8, II. are come to worship him [see note of American 

revisers 75 

iv. 3. if thou art the Son of God [lit. a son 106 

v. 9. called sons of God [A. V. the children of God ... 106 

v. 21, 33, 38. it was said to them of old time [A.V. by them ... 9, 10 

v. 22. in clanger of the hell of fire [M. Gr. Gehenna of fire 120 

v. 29. be cast into hell, go into hell [M. Gr. Gehenna... 121 

v. 37. is of the evil one [M. or, evil; A.V. cometh of 

evil 133 

v. 45. may be sons of your Father [A.V. the children of 106 

vi. 13. from the evil one [M. or, evil; A.V. from evil ... 132 

viii. 17. bare our diseases [A.V. our sicknesses 147 

ix. 6, 8. power to forgive . . . such power unto men [M. 

or, authority 69 

x.l. authority over unclean spirits [A.V. power against 68 

x. 28. destroy both soul and body in hell [M. Gr. Gehenna 121 



INDEX. 



I6 7 



MATTHEW PAGE 

xi. 18. he hath a devil [M. Gr. demon 130 

xi. 23. go down unto Hades [A.V. to hell 123 

xii. 31. blasphemy against the Spirit [A.V. against the 

Holy Ghost 6f> 

xii. 32. in this world [M. or, age 134 

xiii. 15. should turn again [A.V. be converted 151 

xiii. 39, 40, 49. the end of the world [M. or, the consummation of 

the age 135 

xiv. 33. the Son of God [literally, a Son 104 

xvi. 18. the gates of Hades [A. V. of hell 123 

xvii. 20. because of your little faith [A.V. your unbelief ... 15 

xvii. 21. goeth not out but by prayer and fasting [verse 

omitted in R.V 18 

xviii. 3. except ye turn [A.V. be converted .. 152 

xviii. 9. the hell of fire [M. Gr. Gehenna of fire ; A.V. 

hell-fire 121 

xix. 17. one there is who is good [A.V. there is none good 

but one, that is, God 29 

xx. 19. he shall be raised up [A.V. shall rise again IOI 

xxii. 48. David in the spirit [A.V. in spirit 52 

xxiii. 14, 33. verse 14 omitted; verse 33, the judgment of hell 

[M. Gr. Gehenna; A.V. damnation of hell ... 126 
xxiii. 15. a son of hell [M. Gr. Gehenna; A.V. the child of 

hell 120 

xxiv. 3. and of the end of the world [M. or, the consum- 
mation of the age 135 

xxiv. 36. neither the Son [some (as A.V. ) omit this 103 

xxv. 41. into the eternal fire [A.V. into everlasting fire ... 137 

xxv. 46. eternal punishment [A.V. everlasting 137 

xxvi. 32. after I am raised up [A.V. am risen again 101 

xxvi. 64. henceforth ye shall see the Son of Man [A.V. 

hereafter ye shall see 137 

xxvii. 50. yielded up his spirit [A.V. yielded up the ghost... 55 

xxvii. 54. this was the Son of God [M. or, a son of God... 92, 104 

xxviii. 1 8. all authority hath been given unto me [A.V. all 

power 68 

xxviii. 19. baptizing them into the name of [A.V. in the 

name of r 19 

xxviii. 2O. unto the end of the world [M. or, the consumma- 
tion of the age 134 



i68 



INDEX. 



MARK PAGE 

i. 2. in Isaiah the prophet [M. some read (as A.V.), in 

t fie prophets 10 

ii. 10. power to forgive sins [M. or, authority 69 

iii. 29. blaspheme against the Holy Spirit [A.V. the Holy 

Ghost 46 

iii. 29. guilty of an eternal sin [A.V. in danger of eternal 

damnation 127 

iv. 12. they should turn again [A.V. be converted 151 

ix. 43> 45) 47- go into hell, be cast into hell [M. Gr. Gehenna ... 121 

ix. 44, 46. verses 44 and 46 omitted 121 

x. 3- in the world to come [M. or, age 135 

xi. 17. called a house of prayer for all the nations [A.V. 

called of all nations the house of prayer 1 58 

xii 29. the Lord our God, the Lord is one [M. or, the 

Lord is our God; A. V. is one Lord 28 

xii. 32. thou hast well said, that He is one [A.V. said the 

truth, for there is one God 28, 29 

xii. 36. David said in the Holy Spirit [A.V. by the Holy 

Ghost 52 

xii. 40. receive greater condemnation [A.V. damnation... 126 

xiii. 6. saying, I am he [A.V. I am Christ 83 

xiii. ii. it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Ghost [M. 

or, Holy Spirit ... 49 

xv. 39. this man was the Son of God [M. or, a son of God 104 

xvi. 1 6. shall be condemned [A.V. shall be damned 128 

LUKE 

i. 32. shall be called the Son of the Most High , 106 

i. 35. the Holy Ghost shall come upon thee [M. or, 

Holy Spirit 47 

i. 35. shall be called holy, the Son of God 105 

ii. ii. Christ the Lord [ M. or, anointed Lord 48 

ii. 25. the Holy Spirit was upon him [A.V. the Holy 

Ghost was upon him 5 2 

ii. 26. it had been revealed unto him by the Holy Spirit 

[A. V. by the Holy Ghost 52 

ii. 33. his father and his mother [A.V. Joseph and his 

mother 103 

ii. 43. his parents [A.V. Joseph and his mother 103 

iv. i. Jesus full of the Holy Spirit [A.V. Holy Ghost... 53 

iv. 18. the Spirit of the LORD is upon me 53 



INDEX. 



169 



LUKE PAGE 

v. 24. power to forgive sins [M. or, authority 69 

vi. 35. ye shall be sons of the Most High [A.V. the chil- 
dren of the Highest 106 

viii. 12. that they may not believe and be saved 151 

viii. 31. into the abyss [A.V. the deep 124 

x. 15. thou shalt be brought down unto Hades [A.V. 

thrust down to hell 123 

xii. 5. to cast into hell [M. Gr. Gehenna 122 

xii. IO. unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Spirit 

[A. V. the Holy Ghost 46 

xii. 12. the Holy Spirit shall teach you [A.V. the Holy 

Ghost shall teach you 49 

xii. 46. his portion with the unfaithful [A. V. the unbelievers 15 

xiv. 10. then shalt thou have glory [A.V. have worship ... 75 

xvi. 23. in Hades he lifted up his eyes [A.V. in hell 122 

xviii. 30. and in the world to come eternal life [M. or, age; 

A. V. everlasting life 135 

xx. 34, 35. the sons of this world marry . . . worthy to attain 

to that world [M. or, age 134 

xx. 36. and are sons of God [A.V. the children of God ... 1 06 

xx. 47. receive greater condemnation [A.V. damnation... 126 

xxii. 32. when once thou hast turned again [A.V. when 

thou art converted IS 2 

xxii. 69. from henceforth shall [A.V. hereafter shall 138 

xxiii. 42. Jesus, remember me [A.V. Lord, remember me.;. 76 

xxiii. 42. comest in thy kingdom [M. some read (as A.V.), 

into thy kingdom 7^ 

xxiv. 52. they worshipped him [M. some omit this 75 

JOHN 
i. 3, 10. all things were made ... the world was made, by 

him [M. or, through 63 

i. g. there was the true light . . . coming [M. or (as 

A.V.), -which lighteth every man that cometh, 

o\, as he cometh *59 

j. I2 . to them gave he the right to become children of 

God [A.V. power to become the sons 155 

i. 14. the only begotten from the Father [M. or, an only 

begotten from a father 108 

i. 15. he was before me [M. Gr. first in regard of me ... 98 



170 



INDEX. 



JOHN 
i. 1 8. 

i-33- 

i. 38- 
i. 51. 

ii. 22. 
ii. 24, 25. 
iii. 13. 

iii. 36. 
iv. 24. 
v. 1 8. 

v. 24. 
v. 29. 
v. 39- 

v. 44. 
vi. 27. 

vi. 27. 
vi. 33- 

vii. 39. 

viii. 56. 
viii. 58. 
x. 14, 15. 

x. 1 6. 

x. 1 8. 
x. 20. 

x. 34, 3k 
xii. 40. 
xii. 41. 
xii. 50. 



PAGE 

the only begotten Son [M. many read, God only 

begotten (literally ' an only-begotten god ') 74 

the same is he that baptizeth with the Holy Spirit 

[A. V. with the Holy Ghost 52 

Rabbi, which is to say, Master [M. or, Teacher... no 
ye shall see the heaven opened [A.V. hereafter ye 

shall see the heaven open 1 38 

when he was raised from the dead [A.V. was risen 102 

he knew what was in the man [A.V. in man 70 

the Son of Man which is in heaven [M. many omit 

which is in heaven 99 

he that obeyeth not [M. or (as A.V.), believeth not 15 

God is a Spirit [M. or, God is spirit 40 

but also called God his own Father [A.V. said 

also that God was his Father 36 

hath eternal life [A.V. everlasting life 136 

the resurrection of judgment [A.V. damnation ... 127 
ye search the Scriptures, because ye think [A.V. 

Search the Scriptures, for in them ye think ... 9 
the glory that cometh from the only God [M. some 

read, the only one ; A.V. from God only 31 

the meat which abideth unto eternal life [M. en- 

dureth unto everlasting life 137 

the Father, even God [A.V. God the Father 34 

the bread of God is that which cometh down 

[A.V. is he which cometh down 99 

the Spirit was not yet given [M. some read, the 

Holy Spirit; A.V. the Holy Ghost 46, 54 

rejoiced to see my day [M. or, that he should see 96 

before Abraham was, I am [M. or, was born, I am 83 
mine own know me, even as the Father knoweth 

me 7 

and they shall become one flock [A.V. there shall 

be one fold 159 

I have power to lay it down [M. or, right 102 

he hath a devil, and is mad [M. Gr. demon 130 

I said ye are gods . . . the Son of God [A.V. the Son 24 

and should turn [A.V. be converted 151 

because he saw his glory [A.V. when he saw 95 

his commandment is life eternal [A.V. everlasting 137 



INDEX. 



171 



JOHN 
xiv. 14. 

xiv. 1 6. 

xiv. 26. 
xvi. 23. 
xvii. 2. 
xvii. 15. 

xix. 30. 
xix. 37. 

ACTS 
i. 2. 
ii. 4. 

ii. 27, 31. 
ii. 47. 
iii. 13, 26. 
iii. 19. 
iv. 27, 30. 
v. 32. 

v. 42. 
vi. 3. 
vi. 5. 
vii. 35. 

vii. 45. 
vii. 51. 

vii. 59. 
viii. 39. 
xi. 1 6. 

xiii. 46. 
xvi. 7. 



PAGE 

if ye shall ask me anything in my name [M. some 

(as A. V.) omit me 78 

another Comforter the Spirit of truth [M. or, 

Advocate ; or, Helper 50 

the Comforter, the Holy Spirit [A.V. Holy Ghost 50 

shall ask me nothing [M. or, ask me no question 77 

authority over all flesh [A.V. power over 68 

keep them from the evil one [M. Gr. out of; M. 

or, evil; A.V. from the evil 133 

gave up his spiritJA.V. gave up the ghost 55 

they shall look on him whom they pierced [so 

quoted from Zech. xii. 10 93 

through the Holy Ghost [M. or, Holy Spirit 48 

filled with the Holy Spirit [A.V. Holy Ghost ... 54 

wilt not leave my soul in Hades [A. V. in hell ... 119 

those that were being saved [A.V. such as should be 153 

his Servant Jesus [A.V. his Son Jesus no 

repent and turn again [A.V. be converted 150 

thy holy Servant Jesus [A.V. thy holy child Jesus 109 
the Holy Ghost, whom God hath given to them 

that obey him [M. or, Holy Spirit 48 

they ceased not to preach Jesus as the Christ 

[A.V. to preach Jesus Christ no 

men of good report, full of the Spirit, and of wis- 
dom [A.V. the Holy Ghost 53 

Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit 

[A.V. Holy Ghost 54 

Moses, God sent to be ... a deliverer [M. Gr. 

redeemer 88 

brought in with Joshua [M. Gr. Jesus 95 

ye do always resist the Holy Ghost [M. or, Holy 

Spirit. See Acts i. 2, note 46 

Stephen, calling upon the Lord '[A.V '. upon God... 76 

the Spirit of the LORD caught away Philip 43 

ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost [M. or, 

in the Holy Spirit ... 48 

unworthy of eternal life [A.V. everlasting life ... 136 
and the Spirit of Jesus suffered them not [A.V. 

but the Spirit suffered them not 72 



172 



INDEX. 



ACTS PAGE 

xvii. 18. a setter forth of strange gods [M. Gr. demons ... 130 
xvii. 31. he will judge the world ... by the man [M. Gr. 

in . . a man 70 

into John's baptism [A.V. unto 19 

X1X> 5- they were baptized into the name of the Lord 

Jesus [A. V. in the name of 19 

the church of God [M. many read, the Lord 56 

xxiv. 14. t h e way which they call a sect |- M< or ^ as A>v> ^ 

heresy js 

xxvi. 23. t h at he first by the resurrection of the dead should 

proclaim light [A.V. should be the first that 

should rise, &c., and should show light 102 

should turn again [A.V. should be converted 152 

ROMANS 

his Son, who was born of the seed of David [A.V. 

which was made of the seed of David 107 

declared to be the Son of God [M. Gr. determined 100 
his everlasting power [A. V. his eternal power ... 136 

whose condemnation is just [A.V. damnation 129 

U1> 2 5- a propitiation, through faith, by his blood [M. or 

(as AN.), faith in his blood 145 

if so be that God is one, and he shall justify, &c. 

[A.V. seeing it is one God which shall 28 

being justified by faith, let us have peace with 

God [M. some read (as A.V.), we have peace ... 154 
v> 5- through the Holy Ghost which was given unto us 

[M. or, Holy Spirit , 49 

saved from the wrath of God [A.V. from wrath ... 143 
v> IIf through whom we have now received the recon- 
ciliation [A.V. the atonement 143 

v * even so through one act of righteousness [A.V. by 

the righteousness of one 154 

v )' 8 ' if we died with Christ [A.V. be dead with Christ 141 

V1> J 7 p that form of teaching [M. or, pattern; A.V. that 

form of doctrine 12 

vi - 2 3- the free gift of God is eternal life [A.V. the gift... 157 

vn 'i- 3- and for a sin-offering [A.V. and for sin 147 

viii. 1 6, 26. the Spirit himself [A.V. the Spirit itself 38, 39 

viii. 34. that was raised from the dead [A.V. is risen again 101 



INDEX. 



173 



ROMANS 
ix. 5. 

ix. 26. 

x. 7. 
x. 17. 

xi. 26. 
xi. 31, 32. 

xi. 34. 
xii. 3. 
xii. 6. 
xiii. 2. 

xiv. 4. 
xiv. 9. 

xiv. IO. 
xiv. 15. 
xiv. 23. 
xv. 6. 

xv. 19. 

xv. 30. 
xv. 31. 

xvi. 27. 



i COR. 

i. 13- 
i. 18. 
i. 21. 
i. 23. 
ii. I. 

ii. 7. 



PAGE 
who is over all, God blessed for ever [M. various 

important alternative renderings 59 

sons of the living God [A.V. the children quoted 

from Hos. i. 10 105 

who shall descend into the abyss [A.V. the deep 125 
and hearing by the word of Christ [A.V. by the 

word of God 73, 97 

the Deliverer quotation from Is. lix. 20 88 

for God hath shut up all unto disobedience [A.V. 

hath concluded them all in unbelief 15 

who hath known the mind of the Lord 4 

to each man a measure of faith [A.V. the measure 8 

the proportion of our faith [A.V. of faith 8 

they that withstand shall receive to themselves 

judgment [A.V. damnation 127 

the Lord hath power to [A.V. God is able to ... 74 
Christ died and lived again [A.V. died and rose 

and revived IO2 

before the judgment-seat of God [A.V. of Christ 69 
him for whom Christ died [Gr. for whose sake ... 148 

is condemned if he eat [A.V. is damned 129 

the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ [A.V. 

God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ 35 
in the power of the Holy Ghost [M. many read 

(as A.V.), the Spirit of God 46 

by the love of the Spirit [A.V. for the love 55 

them that are disobedient [A.V. that do not 

believe 1 5 

to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, to 
whom be glory [some omit (as A.V.) to -whom... 30 



baptized into the name of Paul [A.V. in the name 19 

us which are being saved [A.V. are saved 153 

the foolishness of the preaching [A.V. of preaching 16 

we preach Christ crucified [M. or, a Messiah 143 

proclaiming to you the mystery of God [M. many 

read (as A. V. ), testimo ny 16 

which God fore-ordained before the worlds [M. 

or, ages; A. V. before the world 64 



174 



INDEX. 



1 COR. 
ii. 10. 

". 13- 
ii. 16. 
v. 7. 
vi. II. 
vi. 19. 

viii. ii. 
x. 2. 
x. 9. 

x. n. 

X. 20. 

xi. 19. 
xi. 29. 
xii. 3. 

xv. 4, 14. 
xv. 24. 
xv. 47. 

2 COR. 
i- 3- 

ii. 15. 
iv. 14. 
v. II. 
v. 14. 
v. 15. 
v. 17. 
vi. 15. 
xi. 31. 

GALATIANS 
i. 4. 
i. 4. 



PAGE 

but unto us God revealed them through the Spirit 

[A.V. by his Spirit 37 

which the Spirit teacheth [A.V. the Holy Ghost 46, 49 

who hath known the mind of the Lord 40 

our Passover also hath been sacrificed [A.V. for us 146 

ye were washed [M. Gr. washed yourselves 145 

your body is a temple of the Holy Ghost which is 

in you [M. or, Holy Spirit 39 

for whose sake Christ died [A.V. for whom 149 

were all baptized unto Moses [M. Gr. into 19 

neither let us tempt the LORD [M. some read (as 

A.V.), Christ 96 

upon whom the ends of the ages are come [A.V. 

the ends of the world 133 

they sacrifice to devils [M. Gr. dtmons 130 

heresies [M. or, factions 14 

drinketh judgment unto himself [A.V. damnation 129 
can say, Jesus is Lord, but in the Holy Spirit [A.V. 

is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost 54 

he hath been raised ... if Christ hath not been 

raised [A.V. rose again ... be not risen IOI 

shall deliver up the kingdom to God, even the 

Father [M. Gr. the God and Father 34 

the second man is of heaven [A.V. is the Lord 

from heaven 99 

the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ 

[A.V. God, even the Father of 35 

them that are being saved [A.V. are saved 153 

shall raise up us also with Jesus [A.V. by Jesus... 101 

knowing the fear of the Lord [A.V. the terror ... 157 

therefore all died [A.V. then were all dead... 141, 148 

who for their sakes died [A.V. which died for them 148 

he is a new creature [M. or, there is a new creation 62 

with an unbeliever [A.V. with an infidel 14 

He who is blessed for evermore [A.V. which is... 60 



our God and Father [A.V. God and our Father... 32 
deliver us from this present evil world [M. or, age 146 



INDEX. 



GALATIANS PAGE 

ii. 20. who gave himself up for me [A. V. gave himself for 149 

iii. lj. a covenant confirmed beforehand by God [A.V. 

confirmed before of God in Christ 96 

iii. 26. sons of God, through faith, in Christ [A.V. the 

children of God by faith in Christ 105 

iv. 4. his Son, born of a woman [A.V. made of a woman 107 

v. 4. fallen away from grace [A.V. fallen from grace ... 155 

v. 17. that ye may not do the things ye would [A.V. so 

that ye cannot do 141 

v. 20. heresies [M. or, parties 14 

EPHESIANS 
j. 5. unto adoption as sons [A.V. unto the adoption of 

children 105 

i. 6. his grace, which he bestowed on us in the Beloved 

[A.V. wherein he hath made us accepted in ... 153 

i. 21. not only in this world [M. or, age 134 

ii. i. dead through your trespasses and sins [A.V. dead 

in trespasses and sins 140 

ii. 2. the sons of disobedience [A.Y. the children of ... 140 

iii. g. God who created all things [A.V. created all 

things by Jesus Christ 61 

iii. 9. from all ages [A. V. from the beginning of the world 134 

iii. 10. might be made known through the church [A.V. 

be known by the church 65 

iii. II. the eternal purpose [M. or, purpose of the ages ... 65 

iii. 14, 15. the Father, from whom every family is named 

[A.V. the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, of 

whom the whole family is named 36 

iv. 30. grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, in whom ye 

were sealed [A.V. whereby ye are sealed 45 

iv. 32. as God also in Christ forgave you [A.V. for Christ's 

sake 144 

v. i. imitators of God as beloved children [A.V. fol- 
lowers of God as dear children 106 

v. 20. to God, even the Father [M. Gr. the God and 

Father 33 

v. 21. in the fear of Christ [A.V. the fear of God 97 

v. 25. and gave himself up for it [A.V. gave himself for 149 

v. 29. even as Christ also the church [A.V. as the Lord 

the church 73 



INDEX. 



PHILIPPIANS 
i. 29. 
ii. 6. 



11. 10. 
iii. 21. 
iv. 13. 

iv. 20. 
COLOSSIANS 

i. 14. 



i. 15. 
i. 16. 
i. 17. 

i. 23. 
ii. 2. 

ii. 8. 
iii. 13. 

iii. 15. 
iii. 1 6. 
iii. 17. 

1 THESS. 

i- 3- 
iii. II. 

iii. 13. 
iv. 14. 

2 THESS. 
ii. 12. 

ii. 1 6. 

i TIMOTHY 
i. 10. 



PAGE 

to suffer in his (Christ's) behalf [A.V. for his sake 148 
counted it not a prize to be on an equality with 
God [M. Gr. a thing to be grasped; A.V. thought 

it not robbery to be equal with God 66 

that in the name of Jesus [A.V. at the name ...... 68 

the body of our humiliation [A.V. our vile body 142 
I can do all things in him that strengthened me 

[A.V. through Christ that strengthened me ... 73 

our God and Father [A.V. God and our Father... 32 

in whom we have our redemption, the forgiveness 
[A.V. redemption, through his blood, even the 

forgiveness 1 46 

the first-born of all creation [A.V. of every creature 62 
in him were all things created [A.V. by him were 62 
in him all things consist [M. i.e. hold together ; 

A.V. by him all things 63 

preached in all creation [A.V. to every creature .. 62 
the mystery of God, even Christ [A.V. of God, and 

of the Father, and of Christ 59 

maketh spoil of you through his philosophy [A.V. 

spoil you through Philosophy 17 

even as the Lord forgave you [M. many read (as 

A.V.), Christ 144 

let the peace of Christ rule [A.V. the peace of God 73 

singing unto God [A.V. singing to the LORD 77 

to God the Father [A.V. God and the Father ... 33 

our God and Father [A.V. God and our Father... 33 
our God and Father himself [A.V. God himself 

and our Father 33 

our God and Father [A.V. God, even our Father 33 
them also that are fallen asleep in Jesus will God 

bring with him [A.V. them that sleep in Jesus 101 

that they all might be judged [A.V. damned 128 

eternal comfort [A.V. everlasting consolation ... 137 

the sound [M. Gr. healthful] doctrine [M. or, 
teaching , 12 



INDEX. 



177 



1 TIMOTHY PAGE 

i. 17. the only God [A.V. the only wise God 30 

ii. 4. who willeth that all men should be saved [A.V. 

who will have all men to be saved 159 

ii. 15. be saved through the childbearing [M. or, her 

childbearing ; A.V. saved in 103 

iii. 16. He who was manifested [M. some read, which; 

A. V. God was manifest 57 

iv. I. doctrines of devils [M. Gr. demons 130 

iv. 10. God, who is the Saviour of all men 159 

v. 8. worse than an unbeliever [A.V. an infidel 14 

v. 12. having condemnation [A.V. damnation 127 

vi. 5. supposing that godliness is a way of gain [A.V. 

that gain is godliness 17 

vi. 19. the life which is life indeed [A.V. eternal life 138 

vi. 20. the knowledge which is falsely so called [A.V. 

science falsely so called 17 

2 TIMOTHY 

1.13. the pattern of sound words [M. Gr. healthful ... 12 

i. 14. the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us [M. or, 

Holy Spirit 39 

ii. 26. of the devil, having been taken captive by the 

Lord's servant [A.V. of the devil, who are taken 

captive by him 132 

iii. 16. every scripture inspired of God is also profitable 

[M. or, is inspired; A.V. all Scripture is given 

by inspiration of God, and is profitable 7 

iv. 3. sound [M. Gr. healthful'} doctrine [M. or, teaching 12 

TITUS 

i. 4, after a common faith [A.V. the common faith ... 12 

1.9,13. sound doctrine... sound in the faith [M. Gr. healthy 12 

i. 9. to exhort in the sound doctrine [M. or, teaching... 12 

ii. I. sound [M. Gr. healthful} doctrine [M. or, teaching 12 

ii. 2. sound in faith [M. Gr. healthy 12 

ii. ii. grace of God hath appeared, bringing salvation to 

all [M. or, hath appeared to all men, bringing... 159 
ii. 13. the glory of our great God and Saviour Jesus 

Christ [M. or (as A.V.), of the great God and 

our Saviour 7 1 

iii. IO. heretical [M. or, factious 14 

PHILEMON 

20 refresh my heart in Christ [A.V. in the Lord 73 

N 



i 7 8 



INDEX. 



HEBREWS 
i. 2. 
i. 2. 

i- 3- 
i- 3- 

i. 4. 

i. 6. 

i. 8. 
ii. 4. 
ii. 7. 

ii. 16. 
iii. 6. 

iv. 8. 
iv. II. 
v. 7. 
v. 9. 

vi. 4. 
vi. 5. 

vi. 6. 
ix. 22. 

ix. 26. 

ix. 26. 

x. 23. 

x. 38. 

xi. 3- 
xi. 26. 
xi. 31. 

xiii. 20. 



PAGE 

in his Son [M. Gr. a son; A.V. by 7w Son... 64, 107 
through whom also he made the worlds [M. Gr. 

ages; A. V. by whom 64 

the very image of his substance [M. or, the impress 

of; A. V. the express image of his person 63 

when he had made purification of sins [A.V. had 

by himself purged our sins 146 

having become by so much better than the angels 

[A.V. being made so much better 107 

the first-born [A.V. the first-begotten 109 

thy throne, O God, is [see note on Ps. xlv. 6 ... 84 

gifts of the Holy Ghost [M. or, Holy Spirit 20 

a little lower than the angels [M. or, for a little 

while loiuer 24 

not of angels cloth he take hold [A.V. he took not 

on him the nature of angels IOO 

Christ as a son, over his house [M. i.e. God's 

house; A.V. over his own house 66 

Joshua [M. G*. Jesus ; A.V.Jesus 95 

the same example of disobedience [A.V. of unbelief 15 

was heard for his godly fear [A.V. in that he feared 108 

the author of eternal salvation [M. Gr. the cause... 108 

partakers of the Holy Ghost [M. or, Holy Spirit 20 
and the powers of the age to come [A.V. of the 

world to come 133 

and then fall away [A.V. if they shall fall away... 155 
all things, I may almost say, are cleansed with 

blood [A.V. almost all things are purged with 144 
at the end of the ages [M. or, consummation ; 

A.V. in the end of the world 133 

by the sacrifice of himself [M. or, by his sacrifice 146 
hold fast the confession of our hope [A.V. the pro- 
fession of our faith 13 

my righteous one shall live by faith [M. some read, 

the righteous one; A.V. the just shall live 155 

the worlds have been framed [M. Gr. ages 64 

the reproach of Christ [M. or, the Christ 97 

them that were disobedient [A.V. that believed not 1 5 

the blood of the eternal covenant [A.V. everlasting 137 



INDEX. 



179 



JAMES 
i. 27. 
ii. 14. 
ii. 19. 

ii. 19. 
iii. 6. 
iii. 9. 
v. 20. 

i PETER 

i-3- 
iii. 15. 

iv. i. 
iv. ii. 



2 PETER 
i. I. 

i. II. 

i. 21. 



11. I. 

ii. i. 
ii. 3- 

ii. 4. 

i JOHN 
ii. 29. 
iii. 1 6. 

iii. 24- 

v. i. 
v. 7. 



v. 19. 



PAGE 

our God and Father [A.V. God and the Father... 32 

can that faith save him [A.V. can faith save him 156 
thou believest that God is one [M. some read (as 

A.V. ), that there is one God 30 

the devils also believe [M. Gr. demons 130 

set on fire by hell [Gr. Gehenna, note omitted in M. 122 

the Lord and Father [A.V. God, even the Father 74 

converteth a sinner from the error of his way 152 

begotten us unto a living hope [A.V. a lively hope 102 
sanctify in your hearts Christ as Lord [A.V. sanc- 
tify the Lord God in your hearts 74 

Christ suffered in the flesh [A.V. suffered for us in 146 
speaking, as it were, oracles of God [A.V. let him 
speak as the oracles of God 8 

our God and Saviour Jesus Christ [M. or, our God 
and the Saviour ; A.V. God and our Saviour... 71 

into the eternal kingdom of our Lord [A.V. the 
everlasting kingdom 136 

men spake from God, being moved by the Holy 
Ghost [M. or, Holy Spirit; A.V. spake as they 
were moved by the Holy Ghost 52 

destructive heresies [A.V. damnable 126 

the Master that bought them [A.V. the Lord that 74 

and their destruction slumbereth not [A.V. their 
damnation 126 

cast them down to hell [Gr. Tartarus 122 

is begotten of him [A.V. is born of him 109 

hereby know we love, because he laid down his 

life for us [A.V. the love of God because he ... 56 
we know that he abideth in us, by the Spirit which 

he hath given us [A.V. the spirit 39 

is begotten of God [A.V. is born of God 109 

verse 7 omitted as spurious [A.V. three that bear 

record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and 

the Holy Ghost, and these three agree in one 18, 58 
world lieth in the evil one [A.V. in wickedness... 140 



i So 



INDEX. 



JUDE PAGE 

3 the faith which was once for all delivered unto 

the saints [A.V. which was once delivered 13 

4 our only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ [M. or, 

the only Master and our Lord ; A.V. the only 
Lord God, and our Lord 74 

5 the Lord having saved a people out of the land of 

Egypt [M. many read, Jesus 96 

20 praying in the Holy Spirit [A.V. in the Holy Ghost 20 

22 who are in doubt [M. or, -while they dispute with 

yoti; A.V. making a difference 14 

25 to the only God our Saviour, through Jesus Christ 

our Lord, be glory [A.V. to the only wise God 

our Saviour be glory . 31,72 

REVELATION 

i. 5- loosed us from our sins by his blood [M. many 

read (as A.V.), washed; A.V. in his blood 145 

i. 6. unto his God and Father [A.V. God and his Father 36 
i. II. a great voice . . . saying, What thou seest write 
[A.V. saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first 

and the last, and what thou seest write 60 

i. 17- I am the first and the last 61 

i. 1 8. and I have the keys of death and of Hades [A.V. 

of hell and of death 124 

iii. 2. before my God [A.V. before God 36 

ix. i. the pit of the abyss [A.V. the bottomless pit 124 

ix. 20. that they should not worship devils [M. Gr. demons 130 

x. 7- then is finished the mystery of God 16 

xii. 10. the authority of his Christ [A.V. the power of ... 69 

xiv. 6. an eternal gospel [A.V. the everlasting gospel .. 137 

xvii. 8. out of the abyss [A.V. the bottomless pit 125 

xix. 8. the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints 

[A.V. is the righteousness of saints 156 

xx. I, 3. the abyss [A. V. the bottomless pit 125 

xx. 14. and death and Hades were cast into the lake of 

fire [A. V. death and hell 124 

xxii. 13. I am the Alpha and the Omega 61 



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