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NOTES ON THE 



CHURCHES OF DERBYSHIRE. 



NOTES 



ON THE 



(Sf BPrfps of ^wbMm. 



BY 



J. CHARLES COX, 

Member of the British Archaohgical Association^ F.R.H.S.^ etc. 



VOL. IL 

THE HUNDREDS OF THE HIGH PEAK 

AND WIRKSWORTH. 

ILLUSTRATID WITH HELIOTYPES, FROM PHOTOGRAPHS BY R. KEENE, AND 

NUMEROUS OTHER PLATES. 



''could wb but read it right, 

THKRB'S hot a furrow in THBSB TIMS-WORN WALLS 
BUT HAS ITS HISTORY." 



CHESTERFIELD : 
PALMER AND EDMUNDS. 

LONDON: BEMROSE AND SONS, lo, PATERNOSTER 

BUILDINGS; AND DERBY. 



MDCCCLXXVII. 



"HGr 601028 <=<> 



To THE Bight REVKiteND 
.^ BISHOP HOBHOUSE, 



:; 



^ 



o 



xr 






THESE PAGES ARE, BY PERMISSION, DEDICATED, 



y-* IN ACKNOWLEDOaiENT OF THE 

■J 

(3 

^1 KIND AND GENEROUS HELP RECEIVED AT HIS BANDS 



") IN FURTHERANCE OF 

i-- -THE author's attempt TO ELUCIDATE 



THE ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY 



OP DERBYSHIKK. 



INTRODUCTION. 




ILTHOUGH articles on most of the churches in the 
Hundreds of the High Peak and Wirksworth have 
appeared in the Derbyshire Times, it will be found 
that fully two-thirds of these pages are entirely new or 
completely rewritten. 

The work of rejecting that which is superfluous, or of less 
value and originality, has been far more difficult with this 
volume than with its predecessor ; for not only does it contain a 
greater number of churches, and more of first importance, such 
as Ashboum, Bakewell, Tideswell, Wirksworth, and Youlgreave, 
but the scheme of the book has grown upon my hands, as fresh 
sources of information have deen disclosed. 

I should like, therefore, to remind my readers, that, though 
this work will, I fear, be usually known as the "Churches 
of Derbyshire," it was no mock-modesty on my part, but a 
full consciousness of its shortcomings and of the impossibility 
of thoroughly exhaustive treatment, which caused me to give 
it the fuller title of " Notes on the Churches of Derbyshire." 

Though working new veins of material, I have tried to follow 
up those sources of which I availed myself in the last volume 
with equal care, but, as my pages have already not a little 
exceeded the limit originally assigned to them by my publishers, 
I shall not be expected to re-enuinerate those sources in detail. 
Suffice it to say that the Close, Patent, Fine, Pipe, Charter, Quo 
Warranto, and Hundred Rolls, together with the lengthy series 
of Inquisitions have been thoroughly searched, full references 
given to them in the notes, and several of the more important 
ones given in exf'nso in the Appendix. A word of warning 



• • • 



Vlll DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

may not be superfluous to those, who, in these matters, may be 
inclined to rely wholly on the published abstracts of the old 
Record Commission. In many respects they are faulty, and 
frequent blunders occur in the appropriation of charters to 
their respective counties. Thus, for instance, the church of 
Kneveton, in Nottinghamshire, is in several cases entered 
Kniveton, Derbyshire, and nothing but a visit to the Public 
Record Office in Fetter Lane, or the procuring of a full 
transcript, has saved me from numerous pit-falls of this 
description. 

The Taxation Roll of 1291, the Valor Ecclesiasticus, the 
Chantry Rolls, the Inventories of Church Goods, the Parlia- 
mentary Survey of Livings, have all again been laid under 
contribution. The character and present location of these 
different documents were fully described in my first introduc- 
tion, and I have also thought it unnecessary to burden the 
notes with constant references to their whereabouts, which 
would be mere reiteration. At the same time I have every 
reason to hope that the introductions and notes will fulfil the 
object at which I have aimed — viz., the rendering it a com- 
paratively easy task for anyone to follow up more exhaustively 
the treatment of any particular church. 

The Heralds' Visitations, and the various collections of 
manuscripts, such as the WoUey and Mitchell in the British 
Museum, and the Dodsworth and Ashmole in the Bodleian 
Library, have also been again closely searched. 

The new sources of information of which I have availed 
myself are twofold — private collections of MSS., and the 
muniments and registers of Lichfield and Lincoln. The latter, 
especially those of Lichfield, are of great iipportance to tke 
ecclesiologist. The Episcopal registers, commencing in 1297, 
are unusually complete and perfect. 

Vol. i. begins with the episcopate of Walter de Langton, 
and consists, down to f. 84, of institutions to the different 
benefices in the diocese. From £ 92 to the end of the volume, 
are lists of those ordained at the different ordinations from 
1300 to 1358, which were held in various of the principal 
churches. At an ordination held at All Saints*, Derby, in 1301, 
there were 22 Sub-diaconi, 10 Diaconi, 7 Adhuc Diaconi, 17 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

Presbiteri, and 10 Adhuc 'Presbiteri ordained. Other lists 
frequently include the primary grade of the sacerdotal office 
— Acolitiy and AdJiiLc Acoliti, 

VoL ii relates chiefly to institutions during the episcopate 
of Roger de Norbury, 1322 — 1358, interspersed with occasional 
dispensations and longer documents. That portion relating to 
the Archdeaconry of Derby, is from f. 63 to f. 97. 

VoL iii. has been thoroughly analysed by Bishop Hobhouse, 
who most kindly placed his exhaustive abstract at my disposal. 
It is by far the most interesting of the whole series, and 
contains numerous ordinations of vicarages and chantries, 
commissions, citations, dispensations, inspections, etc., etc., 
pertaining to the episcopate of Roger de Norbury, who must 
have been one of the most energetic and hardworking prelates 
that ever held the see of Coventry and Lichfield. 

VoL iv. contains the institutions during the episcopate of 
Robert Stretton, who held the see 1359 to 1385. At the end 
of this volume (fif. 110 — 113) are the returns made by the 
Bishop in 13G6 to the Archbishop of benefices held in plurality, 
with values declared on oath by the holders, who were cited 
under Papal monition before the Diocesan or Commissary. 
Certain of the pluralists offer to resign some of their benefices, 
others plead hard for retention. 

Vol. V. commences with a brief abstract of the various 
episcopal acts of Robert Stretton (ff. 1 — 39), followed by other 
documents at length ; ff. 82 — 131 contain the lists of persons 
ordained from 1360 to 1384. 

VoL vL includes the episcopate of Walter Skirlaw, who only 
held the see for a few months in 1386, and of Richard Scroope, 
1386 — 1398. The institutions to Derbyshire benefices will be 
found at f. 15 to 29, interspersed with a few longer documents 
relating to these livings ; from f 75 to 104 are various episcopal 
acts, including the ordination of chantries at Ashbourn, Dove- 
bridge, Weston-on-Trent, and Dronfield, and several other 
important documents relative to Derbyshire ecclesiastical history. 
The volume concludes with lists of those ordained. 

Vol. vii. and viii. are bound in one, and contain the episcopal 
acts of John Burghill, 1398 — 1414, and of John Catterick, 
1415 to 1420. The institutions to Derbyshire benefices will be 



X DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

found at fiF. 76 to 85 of the first of these volumes, and at ff 9 

to 12 of the second Both of them conclude with lists of 

those ordained. 

Vol. ix. contains the longer episcopate of William Heyworth, 

1420 to 1447. The institutions in the Archdeaconry of Derby 

extend from f. 73 to t 94, and the ordinations occupy flF. 207 
—243. 

Vol. X. covers the period when William Booth was Bishop, 
1447 — 1452, with a few insertions pertaining to his successor. 
The institutions to Derbyshire benefices are at ff. 21 — 23, but 
other episcopal acts relative to the county, such as the endow- 
ment of the vicarages of Aston and Weston will be found 
further on ; the ordinations extend from f 105 to £ 115. 

Vol. xi. gives the first seven folios to the very brief episcopate 
of Nicholas Close, in 1452, and continues with his successor 
Reginald Boulers, 1463 to 1459. The institutions of the 
Derby Archdeaconry are from f 28 to f. 83 ; fud the ordina- 
tions conclude the volume, ff. 97 — 118. 

Vol. xii. contains the episcopate of John Hales, 1459— 1490 i 
the Derbyshire institutions are at ff. 63—80 ; the general epis- 
copal acts, ff. 145—176 ; and the ordinations, 178—291. 

Vol. xiii. commences with the time when the see was vacant, 
1490 — 1493, and when the diocese was in commission to John 
Scharpe, canon of Lichfield, and Robert Schyrbury, treasurer 
of Hereford. The bishopric of William Smith, 1493—1496, 
begins at f 139 ; and the Derbyshire institutions, ff. 152 — 
154. From f 200 to the end of the volume is the episcopate 
of John Arundell, 1496—1502; with Derbyshire institutions, 
ff. 216—222. The ordinations occur at ff. 171—191 and 258— 
297. There is a long account of the foundation of the chantry 
at North Winfield, ff. 250—257. 

Vols. xiii. and xiv. are bound together. The first contains 
the episcopate of Geoffrey Blyth, 1503—1533, with Derby- 
shire institutions, ff. 32 — 43, and will and inventory of John 
Fitzherbert of Norbury, ff. 106—111; and the second isl^rom 
1534—1553, when Rowland Lee and Richard Sampson were 
successively bishops, the Derbyshire institutions being at ff. 
25—30 and 53—56. In neither of these volumes are there 
any lists of persons ordained. 



INTUODUCTION. XI 

Vol. XV. contains the institutions made by Ralph Bayne, 
1554—1559 ; by Thomas Bentham, 1560—1579 ; and by 
William Overton, 1580—1609. 

After this date there is a blank from 1609 to 1618 ; and 
vol. xvi. extends from 1618 to 3631, followed by another 
blank up to 1662. This latter hiatus is. to a considerable 
extent covered by the large number of Commonwealth institu- 
tions preserved at Lambeth Palace, to which I alluded in my 
first introduction. Vol. xvii. commences with the episcopate of 
John Hacket in 1662, and, in addition to the institutions, 
contains important accounts of the consecrations of Foremark 
church, and of St. Alkmund's, Derby, which will find a place 
in my succeeding volumes. 

It will be seen, from this analysis of the early episcopal 
registers at Lichfield, that an almost perfect list of the rectors 
or vicars of the different Derbyshire parishes, from the com- 
mencement of ^the fourteenth century downwards, might be 
formed. At one time I had the intention of attempting it ; 
but as these volumes are entirely unindexed, and as the 
writing is frequently close, crabbed, and contracted, to say 
nothing of numerous places almost illegible from damp, or faded 
ink, I decided that the result aimed at would scarcely justify 
the enormous expenditure of time. I have, however, given 
lists of the rectors of Matlock and Eyam, as specimens of 
what may be done in that way, together with numerous 
occasional entries relative to the. other churches. I hope, also, 
that I have not omitted a single entry of importance in 
connection with the more exceptional episcopal acts, so far as 
they concern the churches treated of in this volume. 

It should not, however^ be overlooked, that institutions to 
the benefices of Bakewell, Chapel-en-le-Frith, Hope, Kniveton, 
or Tideswell are not to be found in these registers, as they 
were within the patronage and peculiar jurisdiction of the 
Dean of Lichfield, and therefore required no episcopal confir- 
mation to make the appointment valid. There must at one 
time have been a register of these appointments in the custody 
of the Dean and Chapter. It does not appear that one now 
exists; but the muniments of the Lichfield Chapter are not 
in such a condition as to facilitate reference to any particular 



Xll DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

portion. When the Record Commissioners, appointed in 1800, 
reported on the documents pertaining to our Cathedrals, they 
said that no original Records, MSS., Statutes, or Charters were 
to be found at Lichfield. Where these learned gentlemen 
searched I know not; and when first I thought of making 
inquiries in that direction, I was semi-officially referred to this 
official report, as giving the true state of the case. But, on 
obtaining access to the Chapter muniment-room, over a south 
chapel of the quire, I found that there were a large number 
of early charters and other documents, with seals attached, 
including the original grant of the Church of Bakewell by 
King John, with several other royal charters of a later date. 
The most interesting volume is an ancient chartulary, beauti- 
fully written in double columns, and called Magnum Regis- 
trum Album. It commences with the chronicles and acts 
of the Church of Rome in England, an account of the liber- 
'tio6 of royal chapels, the form of metropolitan visitations, and 
the form of election of a bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. 
Then follow copies of various early documents and charters 
relative to the endowment of Lichfield Chapter (which have 
been transcribed by Dugdale), and numerous entries relative 
to the Derbyshire benefices within their jurisdiction. Those 
parts relating to Derbyshire are almost aU contained in 
another ancient chartulary, now forming No. 4799 of the 
Harl. MSS. in the British Museum. It is endorsed — "Regist 
Eccle Cathedralia Lichf. ex domo Magistri Qulietmi Whitlock 
in Ecc. Cat Lichfeldensi Prebendai^, Anno Do. 1583. Dec. 
3^." A table at the end is compiled by John Yatton, who 
was Dean, 1492 — 1512. Part of this volume is missing, but 
the leaves will be found in Harl. MSS., 3868. The large 
amount of information from the Lichfield chartularies given in 
the following pages, and in the appendix, is chiefly taken from 
the volume in the British Museum, as being the readier of 
access ; but whenever the notes give references to both autho- 
rities, it has been collated with that at Lichfield. There is an 
analysis of the contents of Harl. MSS., 4799 in Mitchell's 
Collections (Add. MSS., 28, 109, ff. 124 to 142), but not a 
very correct one. 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

In the Cotton MSS. (Vesp. E. 16) there is another frag- 
mentary chartulary, entitled " Gronicon Lichefelden Eccleaie.'* 
It is prefaced by the following statement : — 

" This booke was found in the thatch of an house at Clifton GamTille in the 
demolishicge thereof, And was brought to mee by M'. Darwin. The Gronicon 
agrees perfectly with that within y* church in the wall by the south gate (? the 
present muniment room) in folding leaves of Timber, wh was tome in peeces by 
my L' Brookes his soldiers. But there is another antiquity called Lichfeildensis 
wh was in y* custody of y* Dane & Chapter & suffered an harde fate, for there 
having ben not many yeares since a Sute betwixt Mr. Spret & certain Preben- 
daries touching y* repair of y* church of Stowes Chancel, whereof they were 
parsons, the book went to London on an appeal cause & was never obtained back. 
I was showed another Coppy under that title in Greyes Free Library, Mr. Selden 
had presented, this I saw some 20 years ago." 

Dugdale copied his early Saxon history of the See from this 
MS. With it is bound up a brief chartulary of Lincoln cathe- 
dral of twenty-five folios, but only giving transcripts of well- 
known charters. 

The large number of Derbyshire benefices held by the Dean 
of Lincoln in this county, including the mother churches of 
Ashboum, Chesterfield, and Wirksworth, with all their depen- 
dencies, gives an additional interest to the history of that 
grand old building in the eyes of a Derbyshire ecclesiologist. 
Although all ecclesiastical connection with that ancient city 
has been severed by recent legislation, it is pleasant to reflect, 
when gazing upon the most glorious of all our cathedrals, 

'^Thou, Lincoln, on thy sovereign hill," 

that it was the wealth of Derbyshire mines, and the fertility 
of Derbyshire pastures, which materially helped to raise that 
majestic pile, in all the successive stages of its culminating 
beauty. The muniment-room, over the Galilee porch, is rich 
in ancient chartularies and early royal and other charters of 
unique interest, including a confirmation by Henry II. (1164?) 
of the churches of Ashbourn and Chesterfield. The oldest of 
the chartularies is the Registi^m Antiquiaaimum, which was 
lost for some time, but purchased and restored in 1712 by 
Archbishop Wake, who at that time held the See of Lincoln. 
It is from this that Dugdale copied. The chartulary con- 
taining the most Derbyshire information is one entitled in 
full, ** Carte taTigentea Decanatu Ecclie beate Marie Lincoln.** 
There are a few extracts from this in Pegge's Collections (vol. 



XIV DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

vii., f. 213, etc.), and one or two transcripts amongst the 
WoUey papers (Add MSS., 6666). The early Lincoln documents 
are in admirable order, having been recently arranged by the 
Rev. Canon J. F. Wickenden. 

I may here mention that the references to Dugdale's Manas- 
ticon throughout these pages are to the original edition in three 
volumes, with the two additional volumes by Stevens. I fully 
recognise the superior value of the later and extended edition, 
but I had the former for ready reference in my own library; 
and my readers will not have suffered, as I have not failed 
to consult the original authorities quoted in the modem 
edition. Thus, in connection with Bradboum, the chartulary 
of Dunstable Priory (as well as the Annals) has been searched — 
that of Vale Royal for Castleton, that of Welbeck Abbey for 
Derwent, and what remains of Leicester Abbey chartulary for 
Youlgreave. Full references are given to these documents 
under the respective churches. 

Between the years 1816 and 1843, the late Rev. R. R. 
Rawlins collected in three large folio volumes a series of 
original descriptive notes of all the churches ' of the county, 
illustrated with no less than 258 drawings of the various 
churches and chapels, as well as of the more valuable monu- 
ments they contained. These are oC exceptional worth, as 
not only are many of the monuments therein described con- 
siderably mutilated or destroyed, since the time that he wrote, 
but several of the churches have been altogether swept away 
to make room for their successors. The Rev. R. R. Rawlins 
was perpetual curate of Kneeton-on-the-Hill, Notts, sometime 
curate of Alfreton, and also had sole charge for some years of 
the parish church of Newark. He died within recent years, 
at an advanced age, at Mansfield ; and it is owing to the 
kindness of his niece. Miss Harrison, of Lytham, that I have 
been permitted to thoroughly examine the results of his 
researches. 

About the same period the late Godfrey Meynell, Esq., of 
Meynell Langley, was making similar collections, and also 
most fully illustrating them with his own pen. Though not 
quite so complete as Mr. Rawlins' notes, they are in one sense 
more valuable, as Mr. Meynell was evidently keenly interested 
in heraldry ; not a coat seemed to escape his pen ; so that his 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

MSS. may be almost regarded as a regular heraldic visitation 
of those churches that he described. The courtesy of his 
grandson, the present Godfrey Meynell, Esq., of Meynell Lang- 
ley, enabled me to make free use of those documents, as well 
as of the valuable volume of seventeenth centurj- MS. notes 
relating to all the manors in the county, which Lysons has 
referred to as the work of John Hieron, but which really 
appears, according to Mr. Meynell's own notes, to have been 
written by Mr. Sandars, of Little Eaton. 

Lord Vernon has a ver)'^ fine and extensive collection of family 
documents, pedigrees, and papers at Sudbury Hall, the most 
valuable of which are bound in thirteen folio volumes, entitled 
CoUectanea Vemoniania. I have to oflTer my hearty thanks 
to Lord Vernon for so freely allowing me to make use of 
this collection. My primary object in consulting it was to 
clear up the difficulty about the Vernon tomb in the Bakewell 
chancel, the due Explanation of which is given in the 
Addenda ; but I found there many interesting entries rela- 
tive to Bakewell and Haddon, as well as some valuable ex- 
tracts from the chartulary of Lenton Priory, which perished 
by fire in 173 1. 

I am also specially obliged to T. W. Bateman, Esq., of 
Middleton Hall, by Youlgreave, not only for allowing me to 
consult his invaluable library — which contains the unpublished 
collections of Blore, the continuations of Glover for his county 
gazetteer, a most complete assemblage of county pedigrees, 
representing incalculable research, and the laborious and volu- 
minous collections and correspondence of his father and grand- 
father — but also for lending me several MS. volumes for the 
convenience of more leisurely research. 

It will also be found that I have made a special feature in 
this volume of parish registers and accounts, and have in all 
cases given the dates at which they commence, and any 
serious gaps or imperfections in their continuity. It is to be 
hoped that this may prove of some service to genealogists, in 
the saving of unnecessary journeys or applications for informa- 
tion. Perhaps it is scarcely within my province to here criti- 
cise any other work, but I cannot help giving a note of warning 
with regard to the new edition of the Post Ojfflce DirecUn^ of 
Derbyshire that has just been issued. Its information as a 



XVI DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

directory may be all that is desired, but the brief descriptions 
of the churches are for the most part ludicrously incorrect ; 
whilst in the matter of dedications, and dates of the registers* 
it seems to be more often wrong than right. 

I desire also to tender my obligations to the clergy who 
have so generally assisted me, but more especially to the 
Rev. S. Andrew, vicar of Tideswell, and the Rev. F. Jourdain, 
vicar of Derwent Woodlands, who have given me valued help 
with regard to more than their own churches. The aid 
of Bishop Hobhouse, particularly in matters relative to the 
interpretation of difficult points in glossarial Latin, deserves 
more a<)knowledgment than the mere mention of his name 
in the dedication. I must also thank William Fell, Esq., and 
Charles Gresley, Esq., for access to the Lichfield Episcopal and 
Chapter Registers, and the Dean of Lincoln, Bishop Mackenzie, 
and more particularly the Chancellor of Lincoln, Dr. Benson 
(Bishop-elect of Truro), for their kind attention to my require- 
ments with respect to the Lincoln muniments. I hope it will 
• not be taken as a mere piece of affectation if I here, too, thank 
' my wife for the many hours of labour she has expended in 
correcting for the press. 

My acknowledgments are due to the College of Arms, for 
again permitting me to consult the qpUections of Dr. Pegge, 
Bassano*s Church Notes, and William WoUey's MS. history 
of the county ; and especially to Stephen Tucker, Esq., Rouge 
Croix, for frequent assistance. To Captain A. E. Lawson Lowe, 
a well-known genealogist, I am also indebted for help in the 
elucidation of several knotty points of county pedigree and 
heraldry. 

The Reliquary has been of special service to me, as well as 
sevei-al private communications from its learned Editor ; and I 
must thank him, too, for the loan of two woodcuts, illustrating 
the wall paintings at Haddon Chapel, and a brass at Edensor. 
G. M. Tweddale, Esq., has also most good-naturedly lent me a 
woodcut of Bishop Pursglove, which had been prepared for his 
forthcoming Popular History of Cleveland. The remainder of the 
twenty-five plates are originals ; and I trust the readers of this 
volume will agree with me in thinking Mr. Keone's efforts as a 
photographer (so faithfully reproduced by the Heliotype Com- 
pany) worthy of his high reputation, and in thanking Mr. 



INTRODUCTION. XVII 

Bailey for the studious care and fiuisii that be has bestowed 
upon the drawings, which have been fac-siiniled by Messrs. 
Bemrose*8 Anastatic process. 

To one point I desire very briefly to draw the attention ot 
archaeologists. Since the publication of the manuals of Cutts 
and Boutell, on incised sepulchral stones, a very large number 
of additional specimens have been brought to light, and 
nowhere more than in this county, where stone abounds on 
all sides. A few fresh specimens are drawn, and others 
described, in this volume ; and archueologists will be doing a 
real service by giving all possible publicity to those early 
examples of the sculptors' art that may come to light in 
their own neighbourhood. The history, grouping, and signifi- 
cance, of these stones yet remains to be written. When 
travelling last spring in the south of France, I was startled 
to notice the identical patterns found on the old Bakewell 
and Darley stones, even now in use in numerous French Basque 
churchyards, both on head-stones and flat slabs. And this was 
the more surprising, as even the adjacent parishes outside the 
Basque district, as well as the Spanish Basque churchyards 
over the frontier, were searched in vain for similar memorials. 

I am not aware that this singularity of the Basque grave- 
stones has ever yet been" mentioned. The archaeology of that 
district may be said to be totally unwritten ; and, when it is 
accomplished, it is not improbable that a ray of additional 
light will be thrown on the origin of that mysterious nationality, 
as well as on the real source from which the various continental 
tribes sprang, that peopled this country after the departure of 
the Romans, and whom we are accustomed to comprehend 
in the vaguely generic term of Saxon. 

A word is necessary about the Appendices. Every care has 
been taken to make them literal transcripts, and the false 
concords of grammar and caprices of orthography must be 
laid to the charge of the monkish compilers or the errors of 
original transcribers. It is to be regretted that any Addenda 
were necessary, but it seems as if certain items of information 
could never be gained till the last moment. I have read with 
attention the large number of public and private criticisms 
that were the result of my first volume, and I hope I have 
profited by various suggestions. It has been my endeavour 



XVUl DERBYSUIRE CHURCHES. 

to include as many of the remarkable post-Reformation monu- 
ments as my space would permit ; but to those critics who 
found some fault with my last volume because I had not given 
a life of Chahtrey, under Norton church, and of Jedediah 
Buxton, a calculating phenomenon of last century, under 
Elmton church, I can only reply that the primary aim of 
this work is to be a record of local mediaeval church history, 
not a county gazetteer, and that it is expected to be 
completed in four, not in forty volumes. With the two suc- 
ceeding volumes much progress has been made, and I hope 
another will be issued before the close of the ensuing twelve 
months. 

These pages will afford another incidental but strong proof 
of the energy and life of the middle ages, especially when we 
consider that there were few parts of England more retired, 
and more diflBcult of access, than the Peak of Derbyshire. 
It will probably surprise even educated churchmen to learn 
how large was the church accommodation in those times that 
it is popular to regard as "dark," as is proved by the large 
number of chapels (the very sites of which are now unknown) 
that were then extant, amongst a population far smaller than 
the present. 

The light of Faith might then be in a dim lanthom, and was 
doubtless obscured by not a few superstitions and scandals ; 
but at all events it shone brightly and cheerfully through the 
un encrusted apertures, and it was not till the seventeenth 
century that a traveller in the Peak remarked, in astonishment 
on seeing a church, that he had " thought himself a stage or 
two beyond Christendom." I have now reached the last lines 
of my second volume ; for all the kindly expressions that were 
used with respect to its predecessor, I thank both my known 
and my unknown friends. For myself I can only say that 
I regard this labour as one of personal utility, for I feel the 
literal truth of those lines : — 

** Something in these aspiring days \re need 

To keep our spirits lowly, 

To set within onr hearts sweet thoughts and holy! 
And 'tis for this they stand, 
The old gi'ey churches of our native land." 

J. CHARLES COX. 
Hazelvjood, December, 1876. 



XIX 



CONTENTS. 



pAai 

m 

BAKEWELL ; 6 

ASHFOBD 46 

BASIiOW 68 

BBELEY 63 

BUXTON 72 

CHEIilfOBTON , 78 

HADDON 87 

HABTHILL 96 

LONOSTONB 97 

MONTASH 106 

SHELDON 112 

TADDIN6T0N 114 

CASTLETON 127 

BDALE ... . 186 

CHAPEL-EN-LE FRITH 189 

DAELEY DALE 161 

EDENSOR 177 

EYAM 187 

GLOSSOP 199 

OHABLESWOBTH 206 

HAY7IELD 209 

ICELLOB 218 



XX DERBYSHIRE CtlURCHES. 

PA.OB 

HATHEESAGE 227 

DERWENT 241 

STONY MIDDLETON 246 

PADLE7 AND NORTH LEES 249 

HOPE 259 

FAIRFIELD 269 

PEAK FOREST 277 

TIDESWELL 285 

WORMHILL J 810 

YOULGREAVE 815 

ELTON 846 

WINSTEE 851 

ROWTOR 855 



ASHBOURN 868 

ALSOP 402 

PARWIGH 406 

HULLAND 411 

BONSALL , 417 

BRADBOURN 427 

ALTOW 486 

BALLIDON 439 

BRASSINGTON 442 

TIS8INGT0N 448 

CARSINGTON 457 

FENNY BENTLEY 463 

HARTINGTON 473 

EARL STERNDALE 485 

HOGNASTON 489 



C0NTKNT8. XXI 

PAOB 

KIRK IRETON 495 

KNIVETON 605 

MAPLETON 511 

MATLOCK ^ 617 

THORPE 631 

WIRK8W0RTH 639 

ALPEBWASLEY 666 

CBOHFOBD 671 

ADDENDA 677 

APPENDIX 685 

INDEX OF PERSONS 601 

INDEX OF PLACES 609 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAOB 

BaXEWELL ChTJBOH, S. E FBONTISPIECB 

BaKSWELL BEPULGHBAIi BLABS 82 

Chelmobton, sepulchbal blabs 86 

Haddon Chapel, wall paintings 94 

Sediua of Montash and Tideswell 108 

Dablby Dalb, Bollesley monuments 164 

Dabley Dale, sepulchbal slabs and oxheb details 168 

Edensob, Bbton bbass 182 

Mellob, ancient wooden pulpit 222 

Hathebsaoe Ghubgh, 8. e 226 

Padley Chapel, n >. 252 

Cbossks at Bakewell, Eyam, Hope, and Taddinoton 267 

TfDEswELL Chubch^ 8. 284 

Tideswell, south tbansept 292 

Tideswell, Pursglovb bbass 304 

loULOBEAVE ChUBCH, S. E 814 

YouLOBEAVE Chltich, intebiob 822 

Fonts of Bakbwell, Mellor, Winsteb, and Youlgreave 858 

Ashbourn Church, s 362 

BoN:>ALL ChUBCH, N. E 416 

» 

Hartinoton Chubch, s 472 

Tympana of Hognaston and Parwioh 490 

EiRK IrETON, vestry and VE8TRY DOOR 496 

Wirksworth Church, n. w 639 

Details of Wirksworth, Hartington, and IIatuersage 552 



S|f l|HniiPF!i of j^fF 




XalftoFiL 



2^$forb. ^uffon. ]$ari$iIL 

^asIotD. (Kplmorfon* lumg^p* 

jSfFlbon* @abbraghm. 



jpabFtDFlI. 




jHE first historical mention of Bakewell occurs in the year 
924, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle relates, that '' in 
this year, before Midsummer, King Edward went with 
his force to Nottingham, and commanded the Castle to be built on 
the south side of the river, over against the other, and the bridge 
over the Trent between the two castles : and then he went thence 
into Peakland, to Bakewell, and commanded a castle to be built 
nigh there unto, and garrisoned." 

We may be quite sure that in those warlike times, Bakewell 
would speedily become a place of some little importance, and at 
the time of the Domesday Survey (1086), we find that it was 
possessed of a church and tiw> priests, a distinction that was only 
shared in this county by Bepton, an ancient capital of the Mer- 
cian Kingdom. But this church was shortly afterwards taken down 
and a new one erected about the year 1110. The popular idea 
that the Norman Church was the work of King John cannot be 
sustained, as the style of architecture points unmistakably to the 
commencement of the twelfth century, and it seems probable that 
the founder was William Peverel, the illegitimate son of William 
the Conqueror, who died on the 6th of February, 1113. Bakewell 
was one of the one hundred and sixty- two English manors 
bestowed iipon his favourite son by the Conqueror. The advowson 
of the church appears at this time to have been in the hands of 
the holder of the manor ; but when the vast estates of the Peverels 
were escheated in the reign of Henry II., both manor and church 
reverted to the Crown, and were bestowed by Henry on his second 
son, John, Earl of Mortaigne. Henceforward the manor and the 
church were separated. The fortunes of the former need ]iot now be 
pursued, but the latter was granted by John, in the third year of 
his brother Richard (1192), to the Cathedral Church of Lichfield. 
This was not a simple gift of the advowson, but included, as the 



b DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

charter expressly states, the property belonging to the church, 
as well as that pertainmg to the prebendaries which were then 
attached to the Collegiate Church of Bakewell. It was, however, 
provided that reasonable sustenance was to be found for the three 
prebends serving the church of Bakewell ; and it was further pro- 
vided that the Chapter of Lichfield, in return for this munificence, 
were to find a prebend to say daily mass at Lichfield, for the good 
estate of John during his lifetime, and for his soul for ever after 
his decease. 

Hugo de Novant was at this time Bishop of Coventry and Lich- 
field, and he is described in the charter as '^ the most dear friend" 
of the donor. It was left to his decision, whether the emoluments 
of Bakewell should be appHed to the increase of the episcopal in- 
come, to the support of the prebends of Lichfield, or to the Com- 
mon fund of the church or chapter, from which provision was 
made for the canons. It seems that his decision was in favour of 
appropriating the revenues of the church of Bakewell to the epis- 
copal office ; leaving to the chapter that portion which accrued from 
the prebendaries. There is a deed extant, executed shortly after 
this gift, by which Hugo permitted Matthew, one of the three pre- 
bends of Bakewell, to retain his income for his life, on the payment 
of a yearly pension of one gold angel to the chapter of Lichfield. 

During the episcopacy of Geoffrey de Muschamp, the successor 
of Hugo, John came to the throne, and one of his first acts was 
to confirm the grant of Bakewell to that Bishop, but this arrange- 
ment did not long continue, for WiUiam de ComhiU, who held the 
See of Coventry and Lichfield from 1215 to 1223 made over two- 
thirds of the church of Bakewell to the common use of the chapter, 
and the whole was similarly appropriated a few years later by his 
successor, Alexander de Stavenby.* 

The tithes of the church of Bakewell, as well as the special 
incomes attached to the three prebendaries, being appropriated to 
the chapter of Lichfield, it became necessary to make some provi- 
sion for tbe due celebration of divine service, and the wholly 
insufficient income of twenty marks was set aside as the stipend 
of the vicar.t The stipulated sustenance of the three prebends 
seems to have fallen into abeyance, and out of this income of 

♦Rotuli Chartarum, I John, memb. 26. Dugdale's Afonasticon, vol. iii., pp. 
229, 283, 234. Harl. MSS. 4799, paaaim. Magnum Reytatrum Album, and original 
charters at Lichfield. 

t For particulars relative to the endowment of the Vicarage, see Appendix No. 1. 



lUKEWELL. 7 

twenty marks the vicar was expected to support himself, two pres- 
byters or priests, as well as a deacon and subdeacon. When John 
Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbui7, made his metropolitan visita- 
tion in 1280, he severely rebuked tlie Dean and Chapter of Lich- 
field for their greed. The deacon and subdeacon were found to be 
begging their bread, and the Archbishop, though himself a mendi- 
cant friar, ordered that they should henceforth eat at the Vicar's 
table ; the emoluments of the vicarage being increased by ten marks 
per annum for that purpose. The deacon was also to receive a mark, 
and the sub-deacon ten shillings, for providing themselves with 
clothes. But the sharpest censure of the Archbishop was reserved 
for the conduct of the chapter with respect to the chapelries of Bake- 
well, where the whole burden of maintaining the ministers, pro* 
viding books and ornaments,'^ and repairing the fabric, fell upon the 
parishioners. In defence it was urged that it was only the great 
favour of the Dean and Chapter that had allowed the inhabitants 
to build or maintain these chapels to save them from the trouble 
and danger of attending the mother church in bad seasons. Peck- 
ham came to a compromise in this matter, by which it was agreed 
that the Dean and Chapter should provide fit and proper chaplains, 
finding at least two and a half marks towards the income of each 
of them (five marks being then the usual allowance for a chaplain or 
curate), the remainder being found by the inhabitants, and that 
the body and chancel of the several chapels should be repaired, 
and a chalice and missal provided by the inhabitants, the Dean 
and Chapter providing all other books and ornaments. f The 
arrangements differed in certain cases, but will be treated of under 
the respective chapelries. The chapelries of Bakewell, specified by 
the Archbishop, were seven in number — Baslow, Beeley, Chelmorton, 
Harthill, Longstone, Monyash, and Taddington. We know that 
there were then also chapels at Ashford and Haddon, but there was 

♦ The reqaieites for public worship were at that time so ntimerons and costly, that 
the qiiefitiou of their Bupply was one of uo Hmall importance, and the use of all the 
accessories, even in the most remote country districts, was specially urged by Arch- 
bishop Peckham. Canon xxvii. of the Council of Lambeth, 1281, mentions that it 
was required of the parish to provide the chalice, the principal mass vestment, a 
chasuble, a clean alb, an amice, a maniple, a girdle, two towels, a cross for processions, 
a lesser cross for the dead, a bier, a ceuFer. a lanthom, a bell, a Lent veil, manuals, 
banners, bells, vessels for holy water, salt and bread, an osculatory for the pax, 
Easter taper with candlcRtick, bells in the steeple with ropes, font with lock and key, 
repairing of the body of the church within and without, as well in altars as in images, 
glass windows, with the inclosure of the churchyard. All other particulars and orna^ 
meuts, with the repairing of the chancel within' and without, were to be found by the 
rectors and vicars. Hook's Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, vol. iii., p. 848. 

t Lambeth MSS., Peckham's Retister, f. 25b; Magnum Registrum AlbuWy ff. 
102—104; Add. MSS. 6567, f. 198: Harl. MSS. 4799: Dugdale's Monasiicon, vol, 
iii., pp. 226, 228. 



8 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

probably no dispute with respect to the former, and the latter was 
not only attached to the manor-house, but Nether Haddon itself 
formed an extra-parochial district. Nor is it improbable that there 
was at this time a chapel at Buxton, but it was always regarded 
as a chapel-of-ease to the parochial chapelry of Chelmoi'ton, and 
would therefore naturally escape special mention ; and Sheldon 
stood in a similar relation to Ashford. 

Peckham also gave to the parishioners the privilege of appointing 
the two ** clerici scholastici '* attached to the vicarage, whose chief 
duty consisted in the carrying of holy water to the chapels and to 
all parts of the parish on Sundays and festivals. From this it may 
be assumed that the vicar reserved to himself the lite of the con- 
secration of water, a ceremony usually performed by any priest. 

This compromise did not hold good for many years, for it was 
considerably modified in 1816, when the Dean and Chapter secured 
the more favourable terms to which they afterwards adliered, of 
granting six marks a year to be divided in certain proportions be- 
tween the five chapelries of Baalow, Beeley, Longstone, Monyash, 
and Taddington.* It would be tedious to attempt any exact enu- 
meration of the various disputes that kept constantly occurring 
between the chapter and the vicarage, or between the mother 
church and her chapelries, which continued down to the present 
century, but some of them are incidentally mentioned in the 
accounts of the several chapels. 

According to the Taxation Roll drawn up for Pope Nicholas IV. 
in 1291, the church of Bakewell " cum membris," was worth the 
very large sum of £194, in addition to a further income of X66 
18s. 4d., drawn from the tithes of certain portions of the parish by 
the Prior of Lenton, in accordance with the endowment charter of 
that priory by William Peverel the younger, which t brought abput 
numerous disputes, and to which frequent allusion will be made in 
these pages. 

The VaJor Eccleuasticus (27 Henry VIII.) values the vicarage at 
£20. At that time Richard Gwent was vicar. Amongst the pos- 
sessions of the Chapter of Lichfield in the same survey, the tithes 
of corn, hay, and minerals are estimated at £43 18s. 4d., the site 
of the rectory and glebe lands at £1 10s. 4d., whilst the tithes of 
lambs and wool are given in the aggregate for the three parishes 

• Add. MSS. 6698, etc. 

+ Dugdale's MonaslicoHf vol. i., p. 645. See the account of Chapel-en-le -Frith 



BAKEWELL. 9 

of Bakewell, Hope, and Tideswell at £105, of which by far the 
largest share was doubtless accruing from Bakewell. 

The Parliamentary Survey of Livings, taken in 1660, estimates 
the income of the vicarage, with its seven parochial chapelries and 
two chapels-of-ease, at £5S, The Commissioners say — " the said 
parish of Bakewell being 16 myles, over or thereabout, of very 
large compass and extent is thought fitt to be divided and propor- 
tioned into the parishes hereafter mentioned. Bakewell, to which 
are thought fitt to continue Over Haddon, Neather Haddon, Birchill, 
Great Eowsley, and Holme. Augmentation £50 out of impropria- 
tion. Mr. John Bowlandson, jun.,* is vicar of Bakewell." The 
remaining particulars of this survey are given under the respective 
chapelries. 

There were two chantries in the church of Bakewell. One of 
these — the chantry of our Lady — was founded by the Vernon family 
probably in the fifteenth century, but its precise date is unknown. 
The Valor Eccledasticus mentions that Thomas Eawson was the 
first chantry spriest, but that he was resident at Ton^ in Shrop- 
shire, the other seat of the Yemons, through marriage with the 
heiress of Pembrugge. It was valued at £4 per annum. The Chantry 
Roll which was drawn up ten years later, says — " Chauntrye of or 
Lady founded by the Ancestors of Geo. Vernon, Esq. to celebrate 
masse and other dyvyne service iiij/t. clere vij^t. yj*. jrf. besyds ix«. 

* The Bey. John Bowlandson was not amon^t the ejected on St. Bartholomew's 
Day, 1662, for not only did he conform, but was instrumental in inducing many others 
to foUow his example. There is an incidental allusion to this vicar of Bakewell in 
the common-place Dook of Edward Browne, son of Sir Thomas Browne, afterwards a 
physician of much celebrity. In September, 1662, when he was an undergraduate at 
Cambridge, Edward Browne, in. company with some friends, undertooK a riding 
tour through the Midland Counties. Their experiences are recorded in his common- 

£lace book, which forms No. 1900 of the Sloane Manuscripts, in the British Museum, 
[any of the Derbyshire extracts have been ^ven in the Reliquary ^yo\, xi., pp. 73-78. 
The entertainment that the travellers met with at Bakewell affords a curious illustra- 
tion of the roughness of those times. *^ Wee got to Bakwell a little after it was dark, 
when our entertainment at our inn, as it could not bee expected sumptuous so neither 
was it halfe so bad as we mighte fear, for our host was venr civill and carefuU to give 
us the best accommodation that Barren Country could afford, and therefore after we 
had drunk a gun of their good ale, I cannot say down went the spitt, but to spite it up 
went a string with a piece of mutton and a chicken at the end of it, and wee took no 
further care for ourselves but our poor horses could not fare so well, as there was 

neither litter or oates to be gotten for them As soon as we came in and had 

squashed ourselves down upon our seates, amongst some other townesmen I cou- 
cluded my Darbishire friend, who had now vouchsafed us his company at our luue, 
to be clearly the oracle of that country, and well hee might for hee had been at au 
university, which I perceived was a work of superarrogatiou amongst their divines, 
and that their greatest clarks might have passed in other places for sextons, for they 
never went to any other schoole but to the parish churche ; to him therefore the most 
judicious people did refer themselves, and I was going to say pinu'd them upon his 
sleeve. The day before he had most manfully led up a train of above 20 parsons, and 
though they thought themselves to be great Presbiterians, vet they followed him in 
the subscription at Chesterfield, and kept themselves in their livings in despite of 
their own teeth. For his sake I think we had very good usage here, and were some- 
what merry this night." 



10 DERBYSHIRE CUURCHES. 

i}d. for rente resolute. Thos. Rawson chauntrye Priste. It is 
founded in the parisshe cliurclie of AUhallowes in Bawkewell. 
The incumbent hath a chambre witliin j of his tenements. Stock 
lxv«. xj<i." An old chantry house, close to the churchyard, was 
pulled down about the year 1820. The Rev. R. R. Rawlins tells 
us that there was a stone over the chief window, in the gable of 
this house, on which was inscribed — ** Dominus Thomas Rawson. 
A.D. MGCCCCXV. Canon S. Crucis de Bakewell.*' From this 
inscription it is uncertain to which of the two chantries this house 
belonged, as Thomas Rawson seems to have been connected with 
both of them. It is, of course, possible that Thomas Rawson, Canon 
of the Guild of the Holy Cross, was not identical with Thomas 
Rawson, the chantry priest of Our Lady. One Richard Rawson, as 
will subsequently be noted, was chantry priest at Haddon. 

The other chantry was dedicated to the Holy Cross, and was 
founded by Sir Godfrey Foljambe and Anne his wife, in the reign 
of Edward III. Lysons states that it was founded in 1365, and 
Glover in ^371, but the one has been deceived by an inquisition 
taken on the death of one of the chaplains or trustees of the 
chantry property, and the other by a confirmation deed of the 
Dean and Chapter of Lichfield. It was in reality founded several 
years earlier, for Sir Godfrey obtained the verdict of an Inquisitio 
ad quod damnum in 1344 in order to endow the chantry with cer- 
tain lands and rents in Bake well, Bodenhall (? Bubnell), Chats- 
worth, and Ashford ; and Royal Letters Patent for the appropria- 
tion of the lauds to a religious use, were obtained in the following 
year.* A guild, in connection with this chantry, was formed at 
this time, and it added to its funds by letting out beeves and 
cows.t The following account of this chantry and guild is given 
in a confirmation of the endowment by the Dean and Chapter of 
Lichfield, whose consent as rectors of Bakewell, was necessary to 
their due establishment : 

The ordination is, that Roger de Typshelf be the first Chantrey Priest, and he and 
his successors enjoy the lands in another deed by the King's license settled, — That 
he pray for the healthful estate of Sir Godfrey and Anne his wife, and their children 
while they live, and after their decease for their souls and the souls of their parents, 
and the brotherhood of the Gild of the Holy Cross in Baukwell, and all the faithful 
living and dead, at the altar of the Holy Cross in the nave of the parish church, 
built by the said Cross ; and that the said Boger and his successors be called keepers 

•Inq ad quod damnum, 17 Edw. III., No. 21 ; Rot. Patent, 18 Edw. III., memb. 
40 ; Inq. post Mort., 89 Edw. III., pt. 2, No. 44. From this last Inquisition it appears 
that the chantry owned 34 acres of land in Bakewell alone. 

f Toulraain Smith's English Guilds, p. xxxvi. On the subject of Guilds, see Notes 
on the Churches of Derbi/shire, vol. i., pp. 163-166. 



BAKKWELL. 1 1 

of the said AUar. And that he or they celebrate mass in no other place unless there 
be Jawful impediment. And if the Chaplain, without lawful cause, abbtain from cele- 
brating mass, that another fit chaplain be admitted at the pleasure of the Yicar of 
Baukewell, to receive the stipend for the time he serve. That every Chaplain that 
hath the custody of the Altar shall every Sunday celebrate the Mass of the Holy 
Trinity, unless the greater Double Feasts concur on the second day of the week, the 
office of the dead for the souls of the founders and the Brethren of the Gild, and the 
faithful deceased ; on the Srd the Mass of St. Thomas the Martyr ; on the 4th the 
Mass of tlie Health of the People (Salus Populi); on the 6th that of the Holy Spirit ; 
on the 6th that of the Holy Cross ; on Saturday that of St. Mary aud St. Margaret ; 
and after the Confiteor in each mass, befoi'o the beginning of the office, turning to 
the people he say in his mother tongue, " Pray for the soul of Sir Godfrey Foljambe 
and Anne his wife, and his children, and brothers of the Gild of the Holy Cross, and 
all the faithful deceased." That the said Chaplain have his constaut residence in the 
said Chantry. That he be not three days away without license from the lord of 
Hassop for the time being, if the lord reside there, *' si locum ibidem favere nosca- 
tur," otherwise not without the leave of the Yicar. If the Chaplain, having not ob- 
tained leave, be also away fifteen days, let him be removed and another fit Chaplain 
placed by the lord of Hassop for the time being. And when it shall be vacant, the 
lord of Hassop to present within fifteen days to the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield, 
and they to give institution, and if the lord of Hassop neglect, then* the Vicar of 
Baukewell ; and if he present not within fifteen days, then the Abbot of Derby to 
present; and if he present not, then the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield to present, 
and if they neglect, then the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield to present. In the 
vacancy the goods to be kept by the Vicar and four brethren of the Gild to have the 
custody and give to the successors, and that every Chaplain leave a fourth part of his 
goods to the Chantry.* 

The Volar Ercledasticus describes this chantiy as owning ten 
messuages and two hundred acres of arable and meadow land in 
Bake well, Parwich, Overhaddon, Ashford, and Bircbill, which 
brought in an annual rental of £8 16s. 5d., but after certain 
deductions in favour of Sir Henry Vernon and the Dean of Lich- 
field, its clear value only amounted to £6 Gs. Id. ''Brian Rocliflf 
et ahi ** are entered as its patrons, and William Oldfield was the 
chantry priest. The more accurate Chantry Roll estimates the clear 
value at £9 4s. lid., in addition to Is. 4d. " in rente resolute,*' 
and 378. 7d. as the value of the stock. Brian Rowcliff obtained 
the chief patronage of this chantry through Uneal descent from the 
founder. Alice, sole daughter and heiress of the Srd Sir Godfrey 
Foljambe (grandson of Godfrey, the founder), man*ied Sir Robert 
Plompton. Sir William Plompton, son of Sir Robert, left two 
daughters and co-heiresses, one of whom, Margaret, married Sir 
John Rowcliff. On the death of Sir John Rowcliff, 5 Henry VIII., 
he was succeeded by his son Brian. 

At the inquisition taken at the death of Sir William Plompton, 
in 1481, it appeared that that knight was seized not only of the 
manor of Bake well but of the advowson of the church. The next 
presentation, or possibly the presentation during a term of lives, as 

•Nichol's Collectanea Topographica et Oenealoglcaf vol i., pp. 335-6. 



12 DERBYSHIRK CHUKCHES. 

was occasionally the case, must have been sold to him by the 
Dean and Chapter of Lichfield.* 

On the 20th of January, 4 Edward VI., a lease for three lives, 
at the reserved rent of £37 16s. lOd., was granted to George Ver- 
non by the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield, of the tithes of 
Bakewell, Nether and Upper Haddon, Eowsley, Alport, Monyash, 
Taddington, Priestcliff, Sheldon, Haslebach, and Ashford ; but this 
lease does not seem to have carried with it any right of presen- 
tation.t 

The church, which is dedicated to All Saints, is a large cruciform 
structure, being about 150 feet in length, and 106 feet across the tran- 
septs. It consists of a nave, with side aisles and south porch, north 
and south transepts, and a large chanceL From the intersection of 
the transepts with the nave and chancel, springs an octagonal tower, 
resting upon a square base, and the tower is surmounted by an 
elegant and lofty spire. That there was a church here for several 
centuries before the Norman conquest, is more than probable, but 
no trace of the fabric has been left, though it is fair to conclude 
from the large number and importance of the early sepulchral 
memorials, and other remains, which we shall shortly notice, that 
it was of considerable dimensions. 

The church was rebuilt throughout, about the year 1110; on the 
cruciform scale. It consisted of a nave of the same dimensions as 
the present one, with narrow side aisles (the extent of which can 
still be traced in the masonry at the west end), together with 
transepts and chancel, the south transept and chancel being of 
much shallower proportions than those now standing. The tran- 
septs and chancel probably all terminated in semi-circular apses, so 
that the general design of the Norman church of Bakewell closely 
resembled that of Melbourne. Much of this Norman work has 
been removed during alterations of the present century ; but besides 
a large number of fragments of Norman moulding that can be 
detected in various parts of the masonry, there are still traces of 
the old corbel table on the north side of the chancel, as well as a 
fine richly decorated doorway at the west end of the nave. J There 
is also above this doorway, some Norman arcade work, consisting 

♦ Inq. post morfc., 20 Edw. IV., No. 88. 
fAdd. MSS. 6666, f. 609. 

J There is a good engraving of this Norman doorway at p. 154 of Bray's Tour into 
Derbyshire and Yorkshire. The first illustrated edition of this tour was published in 
1783 ; the doorway, though considerably defaced, does not seem to have much dete- 
riorated during the last century. 



BAKEWELL. 13 

of interlaced arches of chevron moulding, which has originally been 
continued along the whole of the west front, but was pierced to 
admit of a later window. The west walls of the side aisles have 
large semicircular arches in the interior ; but, as there is no ap- 
pearance of these archways having ever been open, it would seem 
that they have simply been intended to strengthen the masonry, so 
as to enable the walls to bear the low western towers which 
doubtless completed the original Norman design at this end of the 
church. 

The first alterations in the old Norman church occurred about 
the year 1250, when the Early Enghsh style was well advanced. 
"When the central tower-piers were taken down in 1841, it was 
found that the Norman work had been cut away in parts, and 
altered by the addition of side shafts, to carry the ribs of pointed 
arches of Early English design. The upper part of the tower and 
the whole of the south transept were taken down at this date, the 
transept being considerably lengthened. This transept came to be 
known by the name Newark (new work), a title which it still 
retains. At this time, too, the north aisle of the nave was widened 
and the south aisle rebuilt on the Norman foundations ; whilst the 
north transept, though much altered, seems to have been suffered 
to retain much of the old masonry. There is a good specimen of 
late Early Enghsh work in the doorway of the north aisle, 
though in a dilapidated condition. The jambs have two pair of 
shafts, with the characteristic tooth moulding between them. 

The chancel was rebuilt and considerably lengthened towards the 
commencement of the Decorated period, about the year 1300 or 
somewhat earlier. It has three two-Hght pointed windows on each 
side, and two of the same design, but of larger construction, at the 
east end. Between these two is a lofty buttress, and this unusual 
arrangement gives a broken and unsatisfactory effect to the east 
end of the church. The tracery of the windows in the side aisles 
of the nave points to their renew^al or completion at the same 
date. 

The Vernon chapel, forming an east aisle to the south transept, 
was built about 1860, at the end of the Decorated period. By its 
undue projection it now blocks up half of one of the south win- 
dows of the chancel. 

The octagonal tower and spire were added to the Early Enghsh 
base in the Perpendicular period, at the end of the fourteenth or 
beginning of the fifteenth century. The clerestory was also then 



14 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

added, the roofs lowered to a nearly flat pitch, the whole of 
the parapets embattled, and the large west window (lately filled 
with Decorated tracery) inserted in the Norman arcade. 

The Norman tower-piers began to give way about 1820, and as 
they threatened to drive out the walls and collapse, it was agreed 
at a vestry meeting held in April, 1825, to take down the spire. 
The contract for this necessary work of demolition was entrusted 
to Mr. PhiUp Wootton for £260, the parish undertaking to find 
him the requisite wood, iron, and lead.* In August, 1828, an 
action was tried at the Derby Assizes, between the chapebry of 
Taddington and the churchwardens of Bakewell, owing to the 
resistance of the former to the mode of assessing the rates for the 
rebuilding of the spire. The contention arose as to the rate being 
determined by the scores of cattle in each township. Parish books 
were produced, from which it appeared that this method of assess- 
ment, at 6d. each beast, had prevailed as far back as 1638.t 
Taddington won this suit, but a rate for this purpose could not have 
been required for some time, as the outward pressure of the tower 
piers still continued, until, in 1830, it became also necessary to 
take down the tower. 

In 1841 extensive repairs of the whole fabric commenced, which 
were not completed until 1852, £8,600 being expended during this 
period. The old piers of the nave were eventually removed to make 
way for lighter pillars ; one only being retained on each side, at the 
west end, as specimens of the Norman work These piers were 
about 6 feet 6 inches wide, and 3 feet thick. They were 12 feet 
high to the impost, and the openings between them varied from 
10 feet 6 inches to 11 feet. The arches were square-edged, and 
the imposts were plain projecting blocks with a chamfered edge, 
resting on corbels, but these imposts had been for the most 
part cut away at a period considerably anterior to 1841. J At this 
time the whole of the tower-piers were taken down, and the tower 
and spire carefully rebuilt after the old design. It was also found 
necessary to take down the whole of the south transept and the 
Vernon chapel, but here also considerable care was taken to repro- 
duce the old features. The south front of the transept, with its 
fine window and elegant doorway divided into two by a stone shaft, 

• Add. MSS. 28,110, f. 12. 

f Glover's Derbyshire^ vol. ii., pt. 1, p. 70. 

t For these details of the piers, as well as for other architectural particulars we are 
indebted to a description of Bakewell church, from the pen of the Rev. F. C. iplump- 
tre, D.D., which appeared in the Arehaological Journaly vol. iv., pp. 87-68 



BAKI^WELL. 15 

is almost an exact reproduction. The design is of the geometrical 
Decorated style, and is of the last quarter of the thirteenth century. 
The west lancet windows are earher in the same century, and 
the date of the late Decorated windows of the Vernon chapel, as 
has heeu already remarked, is ahout 1360. 

The site of the chantry of the Holy Cross was at the east end 
of the south aisle, and Sir Godfrey Foljamhe, the founder, dying in 
1877, at the age of 59, was there huried. A small but interesting 
monument of beautiful finish, to his memory and that of his second 
wife Avena, is now placed against one of the piers, between the 
south aisle and the nave."^ This hardly seems as if it can have 
been its original position, but we know that it has been in a Hke 
situation for more than two hundred years, for Ashmole, who visited 
the church in 1662, gives a rough draft of the memorial, which he 
describes as *'set upon a Pillar betweene the upper end of the 
south Isle and the body of the Church." t Sir Godfrey and his 
wife are represented in half-length figures of alabaster, carved in 
high reUef, beneath a double crocketed canopy. The knight is 
represented in plate armour, and having on his head a conical hel- 
met or bascinet, with a camail of mail attached to its lower edge. 
The lady wears the reticulated head-dress or cauL Over the knight 
are the arms of Foljambe — sa., a bend between six escallops, or — 
the same being represented on his surcoat ; over the lady are the 
arms of Ireland — gu,, six fleurs-de-Us, arg.y 3, 2, 1. The monument 
is complete as it stands without any inscription, but in 1803, Mr. 
Blore, the antiquary, placed here a slab of black marble with the 
following inscription in gilt letters: — 

" Godefridns Foljambe miles et Ayena nx : ej : qiis postea cepit in virom Bicar- 
dnm de Greene mititem Dns Dnaque manerom de Hassop, Okebrooke, Elton, Stan- 
ton, Parley, Over Hadn, et Lockhowe, cantariam banc fundaverunt in honorem 
Sanctis Cracis an*' r. r. Edn tertii zxxix '^ Godefrus ob die jovis pr : post feet : 
Ascens : Bni, an^ regis pdi 1«, obiit qne Avena die Sabbi pr : p : f : nativ : B : Marie 
Virg : a" : r : r : BicII vjo.'* 

which may be translated — 

" Sir Godfrey Foljambe, Enigbt, and Avena his wife (who afterwards married 
Bichard de Green, Enight), Lord and Lady of the Manors of Hassop, Okebroke, 
Elton, Stanton, Barley, Over Haddou,and Lockhowe, fonnded this chantry in honour 
of the Holy Cross, in the 89th year of the reign of Eing Edward III. Godfrey died 
on the first Thursday after the feast of the Ascension, in the 50th year of the afore- 
said Eing, and Avena died on the first Saturday after the feast of the nativity of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, in the 6th year of the reign of Bichard II." 

* This monument has been frequently engraved. The best illustration of it is that 
in Lysons' Derbyshire. 

t Bodleian Library, Ashm. MSS. 854, f. 61. Elias Ashmole visited the church of 
ewell on the 13th of August, 1662. 



16 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Mr. Eawlins states, in his manuscript notes on Bakewell, that 
Mr. Blore obtained this inscription from a document in the British 
Museum, where the original epitaph was quoted ; not only, however, 
have we strong doubts if there ever was an old inscription, but we 
may be quite sure that if there was it did not contain the blunders 
of this supposed transcript As has been already pointed out, this 
chantry was not founded in the d9th, but in the 17th or 18th of 
Edward III., and it was founded by Sir Godfrey in conjunction 
with his first wife Anne, and not with his second wife Avena. 

At the time that Eling John confirmed his grant of the Church 
of Bakewell to Lichfield, he bestowed the manor of Bakewell on 
Ralph Gemon.* The manor remained in that family till 1783, 
when Sir John Gemon died seized of it,t and it passed, through 
one of his daughters and coheiresses, in turn to the faniilies of 
Botetourt, Swinburne, HeHon, Tyrell, and Wentworth, when it 
was at length sold, in the year 1502, to Sir Henry Vernon. J But 
though this was the lineal descent of the manor proper of Bake- 
well, there was no inconsiderable quantity of land severed at one 
time or another from the manor, and these detached portions were 
for the most part held by the Foljambes. Thomas Foljambe, of 
Tideswell, held lands at Bakewell in the reign of Edward I. ; and 
in the 19th year of the reign of Edward UL, Sir John Gemon 
bestowed certain lands on Sir Godfrey Foljambe; and in the d4th 
year of the latter reign. Sir John Gemon granted the whole of his 
manor of Bakewell to Sir Godfrey, but this must have been of the 
nature of a life tenancy. § 

This is the only monument of the Foljambe family now extant 
at Bakewell, but it is supposed that the following members of the 
family were also buried here: — Alice, widow of Thomas Foljambe, 
and mother of the first Sir Godfrey ; Sir Godfrey Foljambe I., with 
his two wives, Anne and Avena ; Alvaredus, his fourth son ; Robert, 
his fifth son ; Sir Godfrey II., his eldest son and heir ; Sir Godfrey 
III., son of Sir Godfrey II. ; and Margaret, wife of the last Sir 
Godfrey. II 

The family from which Anne, the first wife of Sir Godfrey Fol- 
jambe I. came is not known, but his second wife, Avena, 

* Bot. Chart. 1 John, memb. 9. 

t Inq. post mort. 7 Ric. n., No. 29. 

I Inq. post mort. 11 Hen. VI., No. 42; 27 Hen. VI., No. 8, etc., etc. 

§ Nichols' ColUctaneaj vol. i., pp. 95, 96, 883, 334. 

;! Monumenta Foljambeana, Reliquary ^ toI. xiv., p. 238. 



BAKEWELX.. 1 7 

was the daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Ireland, of HartBhorn, 
by Avena, daughter and heiress of Sir Payn de Yilers, of Kinoulton 
and Newboldy Notts. The marriage of Thomas, the second son of 
Sir Godfrey and Avena, with the heiress of the families of Loud- 
ham and Breton, and his settlement at Walton, near Chesterfield, 
has been fully treated of in the first volume of this work. Thomas 
Foljambe was buried at Chesterfield, though his monument is not 
now extant, but he was also commemorated in the ancient stained 
glass of Bakewell Church, which has unfortunately long since 
disappeared. 

At an heraldic visitation of Bakewell, made on the 29th of 
August, 1611, occurs the following; — "These in the windowes of 
the Church : — 

*' 1. Gu,, three hons passant guardant, or, (Plantagenet). 

" 2. /5a., a bend between six escallops, or (Foljambe), impaling 
Qu,, six fleurs-de-Hs, arg.y 8, 2, 1, (Ireland). 

'* 8. Foljambe impaUng arg.j on a bend, a;s., five cross crosslets, 
or. (Loudham). 

"4. Foljambe. 

"This written under the armes: — * .... altare . . . . 
men sis mail anno domini .... aia .... sexto Thome 
Foljambe fil. prdict. Galfridi.'"* 

It is not mentioned in what part of the church this memorial 
glass was placed, but it would most hkely be in the easternmost 
window of the south aisle.f 

The Plantagenet coat mentioned above was probably not in this 
window, but in the east window of the chancel, where it was noted 
by Ashmole fifty years later. Ashmole also says, " Over the east 
window hangs an ancient shield bearing the arms of England and 
France, quarterly imbost upon it.'' This ancient shield of wood now 
rests against the wall in the Vernon chapel, and tradition says 
that it was brought here from Haddon Hall. 

The next most ancient monument in the church is that of Sir 
Thomas Wendesley, which formerly rested on a raised tomb within 
a plainly arched recess in the east wall of the south transept. 

• Harl. MSS., 1098, f. 97; 5809, f. 89. 

f This window has been recently once more filled with beautifnl memorial glass 
to the Foljambes, by Cecil G. Savile Foljambe, Esq. The following is the inscrip- 
tion on the glass at the base of the window : — ** To the glory of God, to the memory 
of his ancestors buried in this chantry chapel, and to that of his beloved wife, Louisa 
Blanche Foljambe, who died 7th October. 1871, and her second son, Frederick 
Compton Savile Foljambe, who died 21st August, 1871, this window is erected, by 
C. G. S. F., 1876." 



18 DEEIBYSHIEE CHURCHES. 

The effigy is now placed upon a new table monument away from 
the wall. On the upper slab rests a well executed effigy, in 
alabaster, of a knight in plate armour, but wearing a camail and 
shirt of chain mail Bound the hips is a bawdric or broad belt 
richly ornamented, and on the head, which rests on a cushion 
supported by angels, is a bascinet having the letters IHC !NAZAEEN 
inscribed on the front. The surcoat bears his arms, and round 
the neck is the collar of SS. This effigy represents Sir Thomas 
Wendesley, of Wendesley, or Wensley, in the adjoining parish of 
Darley, who was killed at the battle of Shrewsbury, 1403, when 
fighting on the side of the house of Lancaster. The following 
modern inscription runs round the margin : — ** Hie jacet Dns 
Thomas de Wendesley, miles in proelio apud Shrewsburye occisus. 
Anno Dni. MCCCCIII.'* In addition to the manor of Wensley, 
he also held those of Gold Eaton and Mappleton. He seems to 
have been of a turbulent disposition, if we are to judge of him by 
a curious petition that appears in the Parliamentary BoUs of 
1403, of which the following is a translation: — 

" To the most wise Lords of the Council of our Lord the King, 
most humbly prays a poor and plain esquire, Godfrey Bowland, 
of the county of Derby, and complains of Sir Thomas Wendesley, 
Knight, and John Deen, Vicar of the church of Hope, for that tlie 
said Thomas and John with John Shawe, Bichard Hunt, Beginald 
WombeweD, John de Sutton, Thomas Swj'nscowe, and John Swyn- 
scowe his son, with many others of their bad associates, armed in 
ii warlike manner, on the Monday next before the Feast of the 
Translation of St. John of Beverley, in the 23rd year of the reign 
of King Bichard, formerly King of England, came feloniously to 
the house of said petitioner at Mikel LongesdoD, and the said house 
with force and arms, broke into, and despoiled, and all his goods 
and chattels there found, as well hving as dead, to the value of 
two hundred marks took and carried away, and the said petitioner 
out of his said house, took and brought with them to the Castle 
of High Peak, and there imprisoned him for six whole days without 
giving bJTTt any meat or drink ; and after the six days they brought 
Viim out of the said castle, and cut of his right hand wrongfully 
and against the peace, and to the perpetual injury and loss of said 
petitioner ; therefore be pleased in your most wise discretion to 
consider the shameful trespasses and the bad example of those, the 
povpi-ty and loss of said petitioner, and to order said petitioner 



BAKEWELL. 1 9 

proper and hasty remedy, according to your wise discretion, for 
God, and as a work of charity." * 

The family of Wendesley are said to have been of Wensley, as 
early as tlie reign of John. They held the manor (though occa- 
sionally held in fee under them for a single life, by the Foljambes 
and others) up to the middle of the sixteenth century, when it 
passed, in default of heirs male, to Balph Blackwall, who had 
married the heir ess. t It seems rather strange to find Sir Thomas 
Wendesley buried in this church instead of that of Darley, but we 
think it not improbable that he may have been a prominent mem- 
ber of the guild of the Holy Cross, which would accoimt for his 
sepulture here. This conjecture seems to be confirmed by his arms 
being cut upon the wood of a *• very oulde pewe," as related in 
the visitation of 1611. The arms of Wendesley — erm.^ on a bend, 
//«., three escallops, or — appear on the front part of the monument. J 

The earliest of the Vernon monuments stands in the centre of 
the chancel. It is a small table-tomb of veined alabaster, hand- 
somely carved, and round the margin of the upper slab runs the 
inscription : — 

" Hie jacet Johis Vernon filius et heres Henrici Vernon qui obiit 
xii die mensis Augusti Anno Dni M^cccclxxvii cuj anime piciet de." 

It would seem that this John Vernon, who died in 1477, was 
the son and heir of Sir Henry Vernon (who died in 1515 and is 
buried at Tong in Shropshire), and that he was father of Sir 
Richard Vernon (who married Margaret, daughter of Sir Robert 
Dymock), of Sir John Vernon who died in 1542, and of various 
other children, who are generally represented as the immediate 
issue of Sir Henry. We offer this as the most likely conjcctui*e, 
though there is some doubt on the subject; most of the 
pedigrees of Vernon omit all mention of a John Vernon who died 
in 1477. Others have supposed that this monument is to a 
younger Vernon out of the direct line of descent. § On this 

* Petitions to the KJjig and Council, H. 305. For this translation of the original 
document we are indebted to the Reliquary ^ vol. zi., p. 171. 

t Add. MSS. 28, 113, f. 1 ; Harl. MSS. 6692, f. 12, &c. See also the account of Dar- 
ley church in this volume. 

J The field of the arms of Wendealey is tricked as aahU in Harl. MSS. 1093, but is 
rightly given as ermine on the pew in Harl. MSS. 6809. 

§In the elaborate accoimt of the Vernon family prefixed to Eayner's Haddon Hally 
it is conjectured (p. 27) that this John Vernon was the son of Sir William Vernon 
by Margaret Swinfen. But this conjecture would clearly never have been hazarded 
if Mr. Bayner had seen a copy of the iuKcriptiou. It is also just possibW that John 
Vernon may have been the eldest son of Sir Henry Vernon, and brotlier of Sir John, 
and Sir Richard, etc., Sir Henry Vernon giving another son the same name after the 



30 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

monument, at the time of the visitation in 1611, the foUowing 
arms were visihle— Vernon— Vernon quartering AveneU, and Dur- 
versal of Bpernor — Pembrugge — Stackpole — Vernon impaling a 
blank shield— and Vernon with a canton ffules. All appearance of 
heraldic blazonry has now vanished from this tomb, but angels 
hold shields at the east and west ends, whilst on each of the 
sides are two seated figures under canopies with a shield between 
them. The upper slab now bears no incised figure nor effigy, 
nor any other mark besides the inscription. We feel, however, 
confident that this was not the case originaUy, but that an effigy 
of John Vernon rested on the tomb, after the style of the monu- 
ment to Thomas Cokayne (1488) at Youlgreave. 

The remainder of the Vernon monuments are in the Vernon 
chapel attached to the south transept. The following paragraph 
descriptive of the interior of this part of the buildmg may be here 
quoted from Dr. Plumptre's account : — 

** The Vernon chapel, as was before stated, was constructed late 
in the Decorated period, c. 1860, upon the walls of the former 
chapel. The Early EngUsh haK pillars at each extremity of the 
arches had been retained, and were very beautiful examples, well 
worthy of imitation, the hoUows of the mouldings, up to a certain 
height, being filled with bold roses ; capitals in a different style 
were afterwards added to suit the Decorated arches. The central 
pillars, with their slender clustered shafts, are of singularly elegant 
design ; the tracery of the windows partakes of the flamboyant 
character." This chapel was most likely originally constructed for 
the Vemons, who had no right of sepulture attached to their 
chapel at Haddon, and not for the Gernons as has been some- 
times conjectured; for the Gernons, though lords of the manor of 
Bakewell for nearly two centuries, never appear to have regarded 
it as their chief seat. 

In the centre of the Vernon chapel is a large table-tomb, bearing 
the recumbent effigies of Sir George Vernon, and his two wives. 
The knight is in plate armour and surcoat, with straight hair and 
a long beard, and has a double chain round his neck, and a 

oy!i^A aLw^*^*"""* '? Hi f^^»^<^y ; ^^t yet, a John Vernon had died as a mere 
^o^TA ^ a monmnent as this would scarcely have been erected to his memory, nor 

in^l tex[te.m« ^^t"" T r^^it^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^« ^^^- On the whole our conjecture 
hWe^ov«r ?Sli^«.^'H^ *®*"i^^* ??®- '^^®^« "^^y^ however, have been some serious 
the BSeweU^lS!^P*'i?''i7^?'' ^^"^ monument was restored. A MS. book among 
sa^ thatlhis^cSfi^S;^*^'^*' ^""V ^?P^f« °' «®^«^»1 °' *^« epitaphs taken in isll, 
blSk i^\m by Mr h' Wat?o?:?* '^^"'^ inscription cut afr^esh W fiUed up witll 



BAKEWELL. 2 1 

sword by his side The wives are dressed precisely alike, in long 
black robes with dose fitting caps. The inscription is as foUows : — 

" Here lyeth Sir George Vernon, Knight, deceased ye daye of ui*' 156-, and 

dame Margaret his wyfFe, daughter of Sir Gilbert Tayleboys, deceased ye daye 

of 156- ; and also dame Mawde his wyffe, dawghf to S' Balphe Langford, 

deceased ye daye of anno 166- whose soUes God pdon." 

The inscription has never been finished, the blanks for the dates 
not having been filled up. On the snrcoat of the knight are nine 
quarterings of the Vernons ; but before we describe them and the 
other arms on this monument, it will be well to give a brief out- 
line pedigree of the family, so that their presence here will be in- 
telligible. It should be premised that not only were all the arms, but 
the effigies themselves, on this and the remainder of the Yemon 
monuments, painted in their proper colours. Much of the colouring 
was carelessly renewed after the restoration of the chapel. 

In the reign of Bichard I., Richard de Yemon married Avicia, 
daughter and co-heiress of William Avenell, of Haddon. 

His great-great-grandson, Bichard de Yernon, who died in 1832, 
married Maud, daughter and co-heiress of Sir William Gamville. 

His grandson, Bichard de Yernon, in the reign of Edward UI., 
married (1) Joan, daughter of Bhees Griffith, and heiress of Bichard 
Stackpole, (2) Juhana, sister and heiress of Sir Fulk de Pembrugge, 
through whom the lordship of Tong, in Shropshire, came to the 
Yemons. 

His great-grandsoQ, Sir William Yemon, married Margaret S win- 
fen, a widow, and daughter and heiress of Sir Bobert Pype, of 
Spemor. He died in 1467, and was buried at Tong.* 

Their son. Sir Henry Yemon, who died in 1515, and was also 
buried at Tong, married Anne, daughter of John Talbot, second 
Earl of Shrewsbury. 

They had issue (as we have already stated that we believe to be 
the case) John, who died in 1477^ and is buried at Bakewell, and 
this John seems to have had, with other issue, a son, Sir 
Bichard Yemon, who died in 1517, and who married Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Bobert Dymook. 

* The marriage or marriages of Sir William Vernon, are not a little puzzling. No 
less than three pedigrees in the Harl. MSS. coincide in making Sir William Vernon 
marry Bleanor, daughter and co-heiress of James Pype, of Spemor ; whilst his 
younger brother Edmund is assigned to Margaret Pype, tne other co-heiress. Bayuer 
suggests that Sir William Vernon marriea twice, firstly, Margaret Swinfen, and 
secondly, the heiress of Pype. But on referring to the monument to Sir W. Vernon 
and his wife at Ton^, and to Eyton's account of the family, etc. (Eyton's Antiquities 
of Shropshire^ vol. li. pp. 191-257), it seems that the single marriage as jriven in the 
text is the correct solution. See also Shaw's Staffordshirsy Pegge s MS a., and Add. 
MSS. 28, 118. 



22 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Their son, Sir George Vernon, whose monument we are now 
considering, and who was usually styled, from his magnificent hos- 
pitality, at Haddon Hall, **the King of the Peak,'* married (1) 
Margaret, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Gilbert Talboys, and (2) 
Maud, daughter of Sir Ralph Longford. He died on the 9th of 
August, 1667. 

On the front of the monument, as well as on the surcoat of 
the knight is a shield of nine quarterings. 

Quarterly 1st and 4th. Arg,, a frett, sah. (Vernon) ; 2jid, arg,, 
six annulets, gu., 3, 2, 1 ; 8rd arg., a fess chequy, or and az., 
between six escallops, sab, (Durversal of Spemor).* 

2. iiz., three lions passant guardant, arg, (Camville). t 

8. Arg.^ a lion rampant, gu,j [ducally gorged, or\, (Stackpole). 

4. Barry of six, or and az, (Pembrugge). 

5. Arg,y fretty, sab,, a canton gn, (Vernon). J 

6. Az,, two pipes between ten cross crosslets, or, (Pj'pe). 

7. Arg,, a bend engrailed, gu. (§Treamton ?). 

8. Az, three piles wavy, gu, (§St. Albone vel Hodnet ?). 

9. Az,, three doves on as many branches, or, (§Spemor?). 

On the north side of the monument are three shields bearing (1) 
the quartered arms of Vernon, Avenell and Durversal, (2) Pem- 
brugge, (8) Stackpole ; on the south side are (1) Camville, Pype, 
and Treamton; whilst the two shields flanking the nine- quartered 
coat at the end of the monument bear the quarterings of Talboys 
and Longford. 

The Talboys coat is quarterly of four, 1st, Arg,^ a saltire, gu,, on 
a chief of the second three escallops of the first (Talboys) ; 2nd, 
Gu.y a chevron between ten cross-crosslets, or (Kyme) ; 3rd, G^u,, a 

• The third quartering of this coat is for Durversal of Spemor. co. Stafford, which 
came to the Vernons through the marriage with Margai'et Swinfen of Spemor, as 
given above. The tinctures of this coat seem to be very capricious or doubuul. They 
differ in the accounts of this monument; given by Ashmole, and in the two copies 
of the visitation of 1611. The tinctures here given are as they are described Harl. 
MSS., 1093, f. 97. On the monument the colours of the field and the escallops are 
reversed. Papworth gives three different renderings of the coat. 

f Ashmole, by mistake, makes these lions table, 

\ This rendering of the Vernon arms with a canton gvlea appears on the seal of 
" Bichard de Vernon miles dns de Harlaston." The same arms were also used by 
Matilda, daughter of William de Vernon, who married Adam de Harthill. This an- 
cient rendering came to be afterwards quartered as if it had been the coat of an inde- 
pendent family, instead of a mere differencing. Harl. MSS., 1093, etc. 

§ The names of these last three coats are given on the authority of a pencil 
sketch. Harl. MSS., 6809, f. 84. Treamton is elsewhere spelt Treaneton audTrentane 
(liincoln); the 9th coat is given in Harl. MSS., 1093, f. 67, as Az.y three martlets, or. 
"We suppose these three coats all came to the Vernons through the marriage with 
Margaret Swinfen. All these coats are carelessly coloured, and differ on the surcoat 
and in the front of the monument; in the latter case the field of No. 7 and the piles 
of No. 8 are painted or ; the colours in the text are from the surcoat. 



BAKEWKLL. 23 

cinquefoil between an orle of eight cross -crosslets, or (Umfreville) ; 
4th, Qu,^ a lion passant guardant, arcj, (Baradon ?).* 

Lucy, daughter of Philip de Kyme, and heiress of her brother, 
married Umfreville, Earl of Angus, in the reign of Edward II. 
Their daughter Elizabeth, heir to her brother Gilbert, married 
Gilbert Baradon (or Bardon). They had issue Elizabeth Baradon, 
Bole daughter and heiress, who married Henry Talboys, from whom 
Sir Gilbert Talboys, father of the first wife of Sir George Manners, 
was lineally descended.t 

The Longford coat is quarterly of four, 1st, Paly of six, or and 
<7tt., over all a bend, arg. (Longford); 2nd, Quarterly, arg,^ and ^7«., 
(SolDey); 3rd, Paly of six, arg, and ^., on a chief, 02;., a fess 
dancetty, trr (Hathersage) ; 4th, Sab,^ a fess dancetty, between ten 
billets, arg,y with a label of five points (Deincourt). The alliances 
of the Longford family with the heiresses of Solney, Hathersage, 
and Deincourt, have been explained in the first volume of this 

work.J 

At the south end of the chapel stands the monument to Dorothy 
Yernon and her husband, Sir John Manners. This lady was one 
of the daughters and co-heiresses of Sir George Vernon of the last 
described monument, by his first wife, Margaret Talboys. It was 
this romantic marriage that brought Haddon Hall and the other 
Derbyshire estates of the Vemons to the Manners family, to whom 
they still belong. The monument is a large and pretentious struc- 
ture of the unfortunate style that then prevailed. Under an arch 
in the centre of the monument are the kneeling figures of Sir John 
and his lady facing each other. The knight is bareheaded and in 
the clumsy plate armour of the period, and the lady in a long 
black robe and a close fitting cap, with a small ruff round the neck. 
Between them is a pedestal bearing the following inscription : — 

"Here lyeth S' John Manners, of Haddon, Knight, second sonne of Thoas, 
Erie of Bntlandi who dyed the 4 of Jane, 1611, and Dorothie his wife, one of the 
danghtera and heires to Sir George Vernon, of Haddon, Knight, who deceased 
the 24 day of Jnne, in the 26 yere of the raigne of Queen Elizabeth, 1584." 

Above the inscription is a large shield bearing sixteen quarter- 
ings of Manners, differenced with a crescent for a younger son, 
impaling twelve quartenngs of Vernon. On the spandrels of the 
arch are two shields, the one bearing Manners quartering Roos, 
Espec, and Belvoir, and the other, Vernon quartering Avenell, Dur- 

• On the authority of Har^. MSS., 6589. 

t Banks' I>W7nant arvd Extinct Peerages, vol. i. p. 416. 

I Churches of Derbyshire, vol. i., passim. See alBO Harl. MSS. 1093, ff. 29 — 81. 



24 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

versal, and Vernon, witli a canton gules. On the cornice are three 
other shields, that in the centre bearing Manners impaling Vernon, 
and the two others Avenell and Roos respectively. On the top of 
the cornice are two obelisk- shaped ornaments having the arms of 
Manners and Vernon, and between them is a large shield bearing 
the sixteen qnarterings of Manners again repeated. Below the 
central figures, in the base of the monument, are the small quaint 
figures of the four children who were the issue of this marriage : — 
(1) Sir George Manners ; (2) Sir Roger Manners, of WhitweU, 
who died unmarried in 1650, and was buried at Whitwell ;* (8) 
John Manners, who died 15th July, 1590, aged 14, and was buried 
at BakeweU ; and (4) Grace, who was married to Sir Francis 
Fortescue, of Salden, Bucks. 

The twelve quarterings of Vernon on this monument are — ^Vernon, 
Avenell, Durversal, Camville, Stackpole, Pembrugge,t Vernon with 
canton, Pype, Talboys, Kyme, Umfreville, and Baradon.J 

The following are the sixteen quarterings of Manners on the 
same shield: — 

1. Ovy two bars, az. ; a chief quarterly of the second and gu.^ on 
the 1st and 4th two fleurs-de-lis of the first, in the 2nd and 3rd 
a lion passant guardant of the same. (Manners). 

2. 6hi., three water bougets, arg. (Roos). 

3. Gu., three Catharine wheels, 2, 1, arg. (Espec). 

4. Az,y a Catharine wheel, or. (Belvoir). 

5. Gu.f a fess between six cross-crosslets, or, (Beauchamp). 

6. Chequy, or and az., a chevron, erm, (Warwick). 

7. 6rtt., a chevron between nine crosses patee, arg, (Berkeley). 

8. Or, a fess between two chevrons, mh, (De Lisle). 

9. Gu,j a lion passant guardant, arg,, crowned, or, (Gerrard). 

10. Gu,, three lions passant guardant, or, within a bordure, arg, 
(Holland). 

11. Arg,, a saltire engrailed, gu, (Tiptoft). 

12. Or, a lion rampant, gu, (Charlton, quartered by Tiptoft). 

13. Arg,, a fess double cotised, gu. (Badlesmere). 

• Ohurchea of Derbyshire, vol, 1, p. 396. 

f Folk de Fembrufge, who died in 1326, and was grandfather of the heiress of 
Pembrugge, married Matilda de Bermingham. The arms of the Bermingham 
family — Az., a bend lozengy, or — were formerly, according to Ashmole, painted on 
the walls of this chapel, and also several of their qoarterings. 

X One of the best printed pedigrees of the Vemons will be found in Rayner's 
Haddon Hall ; p. 37, out there are several knotty points and not a few discrepancies 
in the early genealogy of this family; compare Harl. MSS. 1093, f. 98; 1233, f. 106 ; 
2038, f. 67; and 5809, f. 84. 



BAKEWELL. 25 

14. Chequy, arg. and gu. (Vaux). 

ib, Gu,, an eagle displayed within a bordure, arg, (Todeni). 

16. Or, two chevrons within a bordure, gu, (Albini). 

For the due explanation of these quarterings and of the subse- 
quent monuments, a brief account of the Manners family, and the 
most celebrated of their alliances is here necessary. The most ancient 
of the ancestors of the Dukes of Butland, was Sir Robert Manners, 
of Exhall, in Northumberland. Another Sir Robert Manners, the 
fourth in direct descent from the first Sir Robert, married Philippa, 
daughter of Sir Bartholomew Monboucher.* Their son, Sir Robert, 
married Avice, daughter of Robert Baron de Muschamp, in the 
reign of Henry I. 

The sixth in direct descent from this last alliance was Sir Robert 
Manners, who flourished in the reign of Edward III, and who 
married Alice, daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Strathcr. 

Their son, Sir John Manners, died in 1402, and his great- 
grandson. Sir Robert Manners, Sheriff for Northumberland in the 
reign of Henry VI., Edward IV., and Richard III., married 
Eleanor, eldest sister and co-heir of Edmund Lord Roos, by his 
wife Philippa, eldest daughter of John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester, 
and heiress to her brother Edward, Earl of Worcester. By 
this marriage the estates and power of the Manners were most 
materially augmented, and it is from this alliance, which first 
gave Belvoir to the Manners, that they became entitled to the 
quarterings enumerated above. 

Robert de Todeni, noble Norman, had this estate, which became 
the chief seat of his barony, bestowed on him by William the 
Conqueror. Thence it passed by marriage to the family of Albini, 
and Isabel, daughter and heiress of William, the fourth lord 
Albini of Belvoir, brought it to Robert Lord Roos of Hamlake, in 
the reign of Henry III. Peter de Roos, of Roos in Holdemess, his 
ancestor, had married Adeline, sister and co-heiress of Sir 
Walter Espec. 

This celebrated heiress Eleanor, also brought to her husband 
and their posterity, the baronies of Vaux, Trusbut, and Belvoir, 
of which she was the lineal heir. 

Sir George Manners, their eldest son and heir, married Anne, 
sole daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas St. Leger, by his wife 

* Collins says that Philippa was daughter and heir of her father, hut this is 
donhtful. Coliins' Peeragct vol. i., p. 150. 



26 DERBYSHIRE CIIURCHFS. 

Anne, who had been first married to Henry Holland, Duke of Exeter, 
and was sister to king Edward IV. 

Their eldest son, Sir Thomas Manners, who was a fayourite of 
Henry VIII., and made by him first Earl of Rutland, obtained the 
augmentation to his ancient arms, which is given in the first of 
the quarterings, in consequence of the royal blood brought into 
the family by his mother. Their arms had previously been — or, 
two bars, 02., a chief, gu. The second son of Sir George Manners 
was Sir John Manners, who married Dorothy Vernon; Sir Thomas' 
eldest son, Henry, was the second Earl, and Henry^s sons, Edward 
and John, and his grandsons Roger, Francis, and George, respec- 
tively succeeded to the title. But in default of male issue to the 
elder branch, the title reverted through Sir John Manners and 
Dorothy Vernon, to their grandson John, eldest son of Sir George 
Manners of Haddon, who became eighth Earl of Rutland. His 
son of the same name was created Duke of Rutland, and 
Marquis of Granby.* 

Against the opposite, or north wall of the chapel is a still larger 
and more costly monument after the same style as that to Sir John 
and Dorothy. It is to the memory of Sir George Manners, their 
eldest son, and his wife Grace Pierrepoint, eldest daughter of Sir 
Henry Pierrepoint, and sister to Robert, Earl of Kingston. .In the 
centre of the monument are the figures of the knight and his lady, 
kneeling at a lectern, on the front of which are the words — " Thy 
prayers and thine alms are gone up before thee," and a shield 
with their impaled arms. Behind the figures, on a tablet, is 
the following Latin inscription : — 

" Jastomm in Christo resorrectionem hie expectat Georgin^i Manners de Haddon 
Miles qui duxit uxorem Graciam filiam secundam Henrici Pierrepont Equitis aurati ; 
QvLSB post quam iUi qnatuor filioa et qninque filias peperisset, et cam illo in sacro 
conjugio 30 annos vixisset, hie ilium cum patribus sepeliri fecit. Delude in perpetuam 
fidei conjugalis memoriam, Monumentum hoe suis sumptibus posuit, suique corporis 
figora illius figuree junxit, quia cineres et ossa socianda vovit. Obiit ille Aprilis 23, 
anno Domini 1623 anno aetatis 64. Obiit ilia anno domini anno tetatis ." 

At the top of the monument are the sixteen quarterings of Man- 
ners, the same as on the opposite monument, and below the prin- 
cipal figures are effigies of the children arranged in two rows. In 
the upper row are (1) the eldest son, who died in infancy and is 
represented bound up in swaddling clothes ; (2) the kneeling mailed 
figure of John Manners, the second son, who eventually became 8th 

♦There is a good pedigree of the family of Manners in Glover's Peak Quids; 
see also Nichols' Leiceatershiref vol. ii, pp. 27, 40, 67, etc., and Collins' Peerage, 
vol. i, pp. 150-176. 



BAKEWELTv. 97 

Earl of Rutland, and married Frances, daughter of Edward, Lord 
Montague ; (3) Elizabeth, the wife of Robert Sutton, afterwards 
Lord Lexington ; and (4) Eleanor, the wife of Lewis Watson, Lord 
Rockingham. In the lower row are (1) Henry Manners, who died 
at the age of twelve ; (2) Roger Manners, who died at the age of 
18, and is buried at Lincoln's Inn Chapel; (8) Dorothy, the wife 
of Sir Thomas Lake ; (4) Frances, the wife of Nicholas Saunderson, 
Lord Castleton; and (5) Mary, the wife of Sir SackviUe Crowe. 
On the spandrels of the arches over the children, are the arms 
relating to their respective alHances. Over the upper arcade are 

(1) Manners. 

(2) Manners impaling arg,, three fusils in fess, git., within a bor- 
dure, sah, (Montague). 

(8) Manners. 

(4) Arg,, a canton, sab, (Sutton) impaling Manners; and 
(6) Arg,, on a chevron, az., three crescents or, between as many 
martlets, sab, (Watson) impaling Manners. 
Over the second arcade are 
(1) Manners. 
(2j Manners impaling gules, 

(3) Arg,y a lion rampant, sab., a sem6e of cinquefoils, gu, (Pierre- 
point). 

(4) Sab, a bend between six cross crosslets fitchy, arg. (Lake) 
impaling Manners. 

(5) Paly of six, arg, and az., over aU a bend, sab., three annu- 
lets, or (Saunderson), impaling Manners. 

(6) Watson impaling Maimers. 

The second coat on the lower row was intended to be left blank for 
Roger's marriage, and has been subsequently painted red ; Roger was 
only 14 years of age at his father's death and died unmarried. Mary 
the youngest child, was but eleven years old at her father's death, 
so that her match with Sir SackviUe Crowe, could not have taken 
place at the time of the erection of this monument; the artist, by 
a strange freak, has repeated the arms of her sister Eleanor's mar- 
riage (Watson) from the row above, on the shield that ought to 
have been left vacant for her own impalement. 

It should also be mentioned in connection with this elaborate 
tomb, that over the central figures are the words — " The day of 
man's death is better than his birth,*' and other short passages 
from the Scriptures are over ea<}h of the children. 

Against the east wall of tliis chapel there is also fixed a mural 



28 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

monument to the third son of Sir John and Dorothy, of somewhat 
the same style as those last mentioned, hat on a far smaller scale. 
It appears as though it had at one time had a small effigy in 
the centre, but that part of the monument is now left blank, and 
at the base is the following inscription : — 

" Heare lieth buried John Maimers, gentleman, third son of S' John lianners, 
Knight, who died the xvi day of July, in the yeere of our Lord God 1590, being of the 
age of 14 yeers." 

As a conclusion to the account of the Vernon and Manners 
monuments, it may be well to give an accurate report of the 
uncovering of the remains in this chapel at the time when its 
reconstruction was effected, for so many strange tales and myste- 
rious insinuations are not unfrequently whispered into the ears of 
credulous visitors. We quote from a letter to Captain Under- 
wood by Mr. William Flockton, dated October, 1841. Mr. 
Flockton had received instructions to take accurate drawings of the 
monuments, so that they might be carefully replaced. But soon 
after the contracts for the new buildings were let, it appeared that 
it would become necessary to interfere with any coffins or graves 
that might not be in vaults. "Accordingly I attended at Bakewell 
on Tuesday, 6th October, and during that day made necessary 
preparations. On Wednesday, 6th October, the workmen com- 
menced excavating on the site of the monument of Sir John 
Manners and Dorothy Vernon, which was fixed at the south-east 
comer. I had expected to find all the bodies in lead or stone 
coffins, but I was mistaken. The excavators sunk twelve inches 
and exposed the bones of a young person, with the head towards 
the east, but no kind of coffin ; probably the remains of the son 
of Sir John Manners mentioned on the monument (John). Imme- 
diately adjoining this body (which was reverently laid in a wood 
shell) were the bones of two full-grown persons side by side, which 
had been in wood coffins, but the remains crumbled, leaving some 
parts of iron handles and comer plates which were preserved. 
After taking up one- of the bodies the head was carefully exposed, 
and found partly covered with hair, and from the hair six ordinary 
brass pins were extracted.* This was Dorothy Vemon. The male 
skeleton had the bridge of the nose very long and high. The 
excavation then proceeded down to the rock but no more bones 
or remains were found. 

♦ All reaaonable precautions were taken to prevent pilfering, but an unwholesome 
reUc-hunter actualfy stole one of these pins,Vnd the late Mr? Bate^^Id the b^d 
taste ^o* on\y to include it in his museum, but even to chronicle In his nrinted ca^ 
lo^o (p. 244) the fact that it was rifled from her grave. " « "» ais prrnwa cata- 



BAKEWELL. 29 

" The workmen now proceeded northward, and shortly exposed a 
circular flat stone, which removed, was found to cover an unglazed 
earthem vessel apparently full of lime, which, however, on being 
touched immediately fell down, not filling more than half the 
vessel; the inside of the pot was glazed, and on turning over the 
lime a black substance was found at the bottom. This vessel is 
supposed to have contained the viscera of some member of the 
family who had been disemboweUed by the medical attendant after 
death, and filled up with quick lime to cause rapid decomposition. 
The vessel was removed to the vestry. Immediately afterwards the 
workmen uncovered a small lead coffin, which not being soldered, 
enabled me to see that it contained a skeleton of a very small 
infant, probably stillborn. The hair on the head was perfect, 
although in very minute portions. The next discovery was of two 
lead coffins, fast soldered and not opened, but judged to contain 
children three or four years old. 

"The excavation now reached the tomb of Sir George Vernon 
and his two wives. There were three skeletons under the tomb. The 
magnitude of the head of one (the teeth quite perfect and all sound), 
connected with bones of a large size, led me to suppose that they 
belonged to the last of the Yemons. The remains of several others, 
none in any kind of coffin, were deposited in a separate shell en- 
closed in lead. 

" The workmen then approached the site of Sir George Manners 
and family, directly in front of which was a large coffin. I was 
surprised to find a considerable portion of the top, from the head 
downwards, had been torn away, not cut in the ordinary way as a 
plumber would with a knife, but hacked and torn, as though it 
had been done in great haste with a blunt instrument, probably the 
sexton's spade — a skull of a female was found in it separated from 
the body, which had been laid face downwards. On removing the 
skull, to our surprise, it dropped into two parts, and on examina- 
tion it clearly appeared to have been cut round by a saw. Dr. Eeed 
and Mr. Walters the surgeon were directed to examine it. They 
said that the bones were those of a female, and that the coffin had 
probably been secretly cut open, by the connivance of the sexton, 
with a view to some medical inquiry. The forehead was low and 
receding, and small for the body. The head not opened in the 
manner now done. There were remains of quick lime in the coffin. 
It was surmised that it was the wife or daughter of Sir George 
Manners." * 

♦Add. MSS. 28, 111, f. 111. 



30 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Tlie remains of several other bodies were foand near this tomb, 
as well as the bones of Sir Thomas Wendesley, under his monu- 
ment. A temporary vault was prepared for all these remains 
close to the old north -doorway of the church, and they were 
carefully replaced as far as possible in their former positions when 
the rebuilding of the chapel was completed. 

There are numerous monuments of the 17th and 18th century in 
the south transept, chiefly consisting of small brass plates, now fixed 
into the west walls, to the memory of various retainers of the Manners 
family. One only of these seems to us of sufficient importance for 
reproduction in these pages. In the days of Ashmole, the brass 
plate to Wilham Savile was ^' fixed in a white stone, and raised 
upon six square pillars in the south cross," but is now simply 
fastened to the south-west tower pier. 

" Here lies the body of William Savile of Bakewell in the county of Derby 
Esq: Steward to the right ho^ John Earl of Rutland, & dyed the 16^ day of 
Dec, in the year of our Lord 1658, in the &)^^ year of his age, who married Jane 
Gilbert the daughter of W™ Gilbert, of the same Town & County, gent., by whome 
he had yssue two sonns and three daughters, viz. George, William, Grace, 
Manners, & Susanna, of which are now living George, William, & Susanna. 

No Epitaph nede make the just man fam'de. 
The good are praised when they're only nam'd." 

On another plate above the inscription are the quartered arms 
of the Savile family, surmounted by the crest — an owl. The two 
sons, George and William, are buried in the chancel of Beeley 
church.* 

There are also brass plates on this side of the transept to Latham 
Woodroflfe, who died in 1648, and to Basset Copwood, of Bubnell 
Hall, who died in 1628, with the arms of their respective families. 
Latham Woodroffe was of the ancient family of Woodroflfe, of Hope, 
and Basset Copwood was tlie son of Richard Copwood, by Margaret, 
daughter of Sir WiUiam Basset of Blore. 

On the opposite side of the transept against the wall, near the 
feet of the monument of Sir Thomas Wendesley, is an alabaster 
slab, with an illegible marginal inscription and two figures incised 
thereon. • This slab was formerly on the pavement immediately in 
front of the monument to Sir George Manners, but was placed 
here when the transept was rebuilt. When AsLmole visited the 
church, the names on the slab were not to be read, and he could 
only give this portion of the inscription : — " Orate pro animabus 
. . . . qui obiit nativitatis Dni anno '' On a shield 

♦ See the account of Beeley. The Saviles of Derbyshire were descended from the 
Saviles of Howley, Yorkshire. There is a pedigree of the Derbyshire branch in the 
Reliquary, vol. xiv., p. 102. 



BAKEWELL. 31 

below the figures are the arms of Eyre, {Arg,y on a chevron, «a^., 
three quatrefoils, or) impaling .... a chevron between three 
estoiles .... In more than one account of BakeweU this coat is 
described as Eyre impaling Mordaunt, the arms of Mordaunt being 
arg.y a chevron between three estoiles, sah. But we are not aware 
of any alhance between these famihes. There used to be the same 
impaled coat in one of the windows of Longstone church, but the 
position of the tinctures of the second coat exactly reversed to what 
they are in Mordaunt. Bowland Eyre of Hassop, the eldest son of 
Stephen Eyre, the first who lived on that manor, married Dorothy, 
daughter of Henry Everingham, of Stainborough, Yorkshire, about 
the commencement of the sixteenth century. The arms of Ever- 
ingham are sometimes represented as a fess between three estoiles, 
and sometimes as a chevron, and we have no doubt that this is 
the tomb of Bowland Eyre and Dorothy his wife, whose grandson 
of the same name married a coheiress of Stafford of Eyam."^' 

Against the north wall of the chancel is a brass to ihe memory of 
Bernard Wells, together with his arms — Ermines^ on a canton, or, 
a buck's head cabossed, sab,, and crest — a demi-talbot, ermines. 
These plates, instead of being fixed to the wall, were originally 
placed upon *'a raised monument of free-stone,"' on the north side 
of the chanceLt The following is the inscription : — 

" Here lyeth the body of Bernard Wells of Holme in tlie county of Derbie gent : 
he "wraa sone of Thomas Wells of Asbton Underbill in the county of Gloucester gent. 
and married Barbara, the daughter of Richard Marshall, of Tiddeswall, in the said 
county of Derbie gent, and by her- he had one sonne who dyed without issue & two 
daughters viz., Mary, who maryed Henry Bradshawe of Marple in the county of 
Chester Esquier, and Anne who maryed Robert Byre of Highlow in the said county 
of Derbie, Esqr. Hee dyed at Holme afresaid the thirteenth day of June in the eighty 

sixt yeare of his age, 

" Annoque Domini 1653/' 

Having now concluded the account of the monuments of interest 
that can be identified in this church, it remains for us to give 
some account of the fine series of early gravestones that were 
brought to light during the repairs that lasted from 1841 to 1861, 
and which are without a rival, either in number or variety, through- 
out the churches of the United Kingdom. The monuments that 
we "have been considering were to the memory of Christians who 
thought it not inconsistent to fill the house of God with life-size 
resemblances of what they were in the fiesh, and to hand down 
the story of their earthly greatness in turgid epitaphs or the blazon 

* See the account of Longstone ; also Papworth's Armoriahf and Robson's Armory. 

f Ashm. MSS. 854, f. 43. Other memorials of this family aro mentioned under 
Eyam, Hathersage, and Qope. 



32 DERBYSHIRE CHUKCUES. 

of heraldic pomp. All this is doubtless interesting to the antiquary 
and of value to the genealogist. But it is assuredly easier to be- 
lieve in the genuine faith and humble trust of those whose 
memorials now come before us, and who were contest to occupy 
a nameless grave, sleeping beneath the simple emblem of the Divine 
Founder of their hopes. That these early Christians of the Peak 
died many centuries netirer to the birthday of their faith, before 
luxury and patronage had emasculated it of half its strength, 
might be gathered even by those who are ignorant of all archseo- 
logical taste. In the history of the gravestone or sepulchre, making 
aU due allowance for the progress of art, can be read the vigour 
or the decadence of the religious spirit of successive generations. 

During the pulling down of the different ancient portions of this 
church, commencing with the piers of the tower and ending with 
those of the nave, a marvellous number of early gravestones and 
other remains were disclosed amongst the masonry. Perfect speci- 
mens, or more or less mutilated fragments, of upwards of sixty- 
five different specimens of sepulchral stones are now preserved 
in the porch, and at least fifty-five others were removed to the 
Lomberdale Museum. Moreover, Dr. Plumptre tells us that he was 
assured by the workmen, '*that at least four times as many had 
been used again in building the new walls.'* Though this state- 
ment was probably an exaggeration, there can be no doubt that a 
very considerable number were re-used as mere masonry. It is 
also much to be regretted that no attempt was made to separate 
the specimens according to the different parts of the building from 
which they were taken, as this would in itself have given a con- 
siderable clue to theii' respective age. It is, however, certain that 
none of them are of later date than about 1260, and that a con- 
siderable number are of an earher age than 1100. All the 
specimens that are now exposed at Bakewell are neatly arranged 
within the porch. Drawings of a considerable number of those 
that are in the Lomberdale collection were published by the late 
Mr. Bate man;* and six carefully executed plates of the more 
remarkable of those within the porch were published by Dr. Plumptre 
in the Arcliceological Journal. f To fully describe and illustrate the 

♦ These woodcuts first appeared in the Journal of the Archaeological AtsociaHon, 
(the publication of a different Society to the Archaeological Journal) vol. ii.,pp. 803-6, 
and were afterwards reproduced by Mr. Batemau at p. 186 of his Derbythire 
AntiquiiieSf and at p. 188 of his Cadalogiie. 

t Archceological Joumaly vol. iv. ; many of these were reproduced, together with 
a few fresh specimens, in Cutts' Manual of Sepulchral Crostes, and Boutell's 
Christian AfonumentSf both of which works were published in 1849. 



BAKEWELL. 33 

whole of these sepulchral memorials, and the other remains found 
at the same time, would require a volume to itself; we can only 
offer some general observations, with a description or illustration of 
one or two of a remarkable or representative character. 

These memorials are of two classes : slabs that have been laid 
horizontally on the ground, and stones that have been placed per- 
pendicularly at the head or foot of the grave. The former is far 
the larger class, and may be divided into several heads. Firstly 
come those on which the cross is formed by the simple intersection 
of two incised lines at right angles, of which there are here one 
or two instances, as well as at Darley and elsewhere in the county, 
and which we are inclined for the most part to assign to Anglo- 
Saxon days. Secondly^ those that have a latin or patriarchal cross 
formed of double incised hues (one of those at Bakewell has the 
limbs of the cross repeated three times on the same stem and is 
supposed to be an emblem of the Trinity, Plate IL, fig. 1), which 
are also of early but uncertain date. Thirdly, those that have (a) 
the head of the cross formed of pointed stars, sometimes within 
a circle (Plate U., fig. 8), (6) of radiating members each termina- 
ting in a circle or half-circle (Plate II., fig. 2), (c) of limbs so 
expanding at the extremity as to neirly or quite form a circle 
(Plate III., fig. 8, Plate VII., fig. 4), or {d) that have stars, cinque- 
foils, shears, keys, or other emblems plainly incised by the side of 
the stem of the cross or elsewhere on the slab (Plate II., fig. 4, 
Plate Vn., fig. 5); all these are of the first century after the 
Norman conquest Fourthly, more elaborate specimens of art, 
raised in slight relief, from the surface of the slab, of varying 
design ; there is a specially fine fragment of one at Bakewell, with a 
head as of four fans radiating from a cinquefoii, which is given on 
plate 41 of Outts' work, and another specimen exactly resembles 
one of those in the porch at Chelmorton (Plate lU., fig. 1) ;* these 
are of the conclusion of the Norman style in the twelfth century. 
Fifthly y those that have the head of the cross of a floriated device 
within a circle, the cross being thrown into relief by cutting away 
the remaining part of the stone within the circle to the depth of 
half an inch more or less (Plate IL, fig. 6t), the stem of the cross, 



* There axe also other specimens at Bakewell almost exactly corresponding 
those at Chelmorton and Darley, Plate III., fig. 8, Plate YII., figs. 4 and 5, and 



to 
- w© 

have therefore referred to them in the text. 

t The head of this example is of a pattern that often occurs on these slabs both in 
Derbyshire and elsewhere ; the curvea line for the bow, and the barbed arrow, on the 
sinister side of the stem, are much more unusual, and probably denote the interment 
of a Head Forester, or one holding office in connection with the Forest of the High 
Peak. 

D 



34 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

as in earlier specimeus simply consisting of incised lines ; the date 
of these stones is of the first half of the thirteenth century or the 
close of the twelfth. 

With the later styles of incised stones, we have not now to do, 
though they continued to be used occasionally for several cen- 
turies afterwards, especially in districts where stone abounded 
and could be easily worked. 

Of the various emblems found upon these slabs, such as shears, 
key, sword, axe, bugle, and chahce, and their respective import, 
we have already written at some length in our first volume, and 
as we shall have occasion to return to the subject again, we will 
not now make any further allusion to them.* 

There was for some time a prevalent idea that all incised slabs 
had served the purpose of coffin-lids. This has, no doubt, been the 
case with a large number of instances ; for it was the habit to 
sink the stone cofi&n, so that the hd formed part of the pavement 
of the church, or lay on the surface of the church-yard, the upper 
slab thus servhig both for a coffin-hd and a monument. Nor was 
burial within the church near so exceptional, or so confined to 
only the most prominent ecclesiastics and laymen as is sometimes 
supposed to have been the case. There is abundant proof that in 
the Anglo-Saxon church intra* mural burial was a matter of every- 
day occurrence, though afterwards for sanitary and other reasons, 
it was to a great extent suppressed.f But it is hardly possible to 
suppose that the whole of the slabs found in the masonry at 
Bakewell, had lain within the church, or had covered stone coffins. 
Probably many of them, especially those raised in rehef, or shghtly 
coped, were placed over the bodies of those who had been sim- 
ply committed to the earth in the churchyard, and the finding 
of slabs of this description, apparently in their original position, in 
several cemeteries in this county, without any stone coffins be- 
neath them, confirms this supposition. 

But of all the rehcs brought to light in 1841, that which pos- 
sesses the most exceptional interest is a small coped tomb, three 
feet four inches in length, and about fifteen inches in breadth, 
though it is rather narrower at the foot than the head. Accurate 
drawings of this stone are given on Plate 11. , fig. 7, so that a detailed 
description of the quaintly capricious, half- vegetable, haK-monster, or- 

♦ ChurchM of Derbyshire, vol. i., pp. 263, 816, 373, 427 ; see also the Bubsequent 
accouut of Baslow, and Darley. 

f Spelman's Concilia^ p. 266 ; Lingard's Anglo-Saxon church, vol. ii., p. 47, e c 



BAKEWLLL. 35 

naments would be Huperfluous. We have no hesitation in agreeing 
with Mr. Bateman in ascribing it to Anglo-Saxon times, although 
the cable moulding running round tlie angles of the stone have 
caused it to be not infrequently assigned to Norman workmanship. 
This tomb is in the Lomberdale collection. There can be no doubt 
that it was constructed to stand vrithin the Anglo-Saxon church, 
and probably was on a coflBn of much larger size than itself, after 
the manner of the tomb of William II., at Winchester. 

There are two other coped tombs, both of them of much less 
elevation, the sides of which are ornamented with zigzag and verti- 
cal lines respectively. They were also found in the foundations, 
near the Anglo-Saxon tomb, but are of the style that prevailed for 
about a century after the Conquest. A fourth coped tomb, imper- 
fect at the foot, is to the memory of an ecclesiastic, from the 
chalice incised upon it. The intersection of the ornamental lines 
at the head is worth notice, as the pattern corresponds to one of 
the Norman devices on tlie church of St. Peter, Northampton, and 
may be supposed to fix its date about the commencement of the 
twelfth century. The device is repeated in slightly differing forms 
on some of the headstones, and is of the same character as one at 
Hartington church, figured on Plate XXIU. This is one of those 
designs, alluded to in the introduction, as beiog even now re- 
produced in the graveyards of the French Basque churches. 

There is yet another slightly coped tomb, which generally attracts 
the attention of the visitor, as it is on the floor of the porch, on the 
left-hand side. This tomb was found in the interior of the church 
when opening a vault many years ago, previous to the reconstruction 
that commenced in 1841 ; it was for a long time preserved at the 
Vicarage. It is probably of the thirteenth century, and bears a 
cross fleury, but is remarkable as having an inscription in two 
hues of Lombardic letters, running lengthways of the stone, on 
each side of the stem of the cross. The inscrii)tion is in straggling 
characters and partially effaced ; the upper line we read as follows : — 
*• Qmintula siiit kominum corjyuscula,'* which is a quotation from 
Juvenal, and may be rendered, " How little are the little bodies of 
men ;"* the lower line appears to be " mms. mdli. parens* mms, 
pittatU,^' and of this we can offer no satisfactory solution. 

Two small mutilated specimens of the semi-eflSgial character, 
showing the head and feet, as though through openings in the 

* Satireg, X, 178. The quotation is prefixed by the "words " Mors sola fatetur^" — 
"Death only discovers." It ik applied to Alexander the Great, who, after chafinp for 
new worlds to conquer, had eventually to be content with the narrow limits of a 
Barcophagus. 



36 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

coffin-lid, may also be noticed on the right hand side of the pozxsh ; 
two of the best instances of this style of monument (tliat forms 
the connecting link between incised crosses and full-length effigies), 
are to be met with in this county at Brampton and Hartington. 

There are two or three instances of incised head- stones 
in the porch, which correspond in style with those of the 
larger slabs that we have classified in the second and third divi- 
sions (Plate VII., fig. 6), but one of those that were removed to 
Lomberdale is of much greater antiquity, and we believe we are 
not wrong in assigning it to the ninth, or possibly, to the eighth 
century (Plate III., fig. 6). Another fragment, conjecturally re- 
stored by Cutts, from whom our illustration is taken (Plate 11., 
fig. 5), is not later than circa 1000 ; it has a striking resemblance 
to a stone at Glanmaonoise, Ireland, of the date 1008.* 

There aie also in the porch various fragments of ancient sculp- 
ture and moulding, a few of them, perhaps, of Anglo-Saxon work, 
but several of them undoubtedly Norman. The latter have very 
likely formed part of the old Norman archway into the chancel. 
Several undoubted pieces of Saxon moulding, such as the capital of 
a small shaft, were removed to Lomberdale. One of the largest 
pieces of sculpture consists of about half of what is described as an 
old font, and which must have been octagonal when perfect. It 
is of Early English date. We are more inclined to regard it as a 
pulpit, but it is so built up with other fragments, that it is diffi- 
cult now to come to any conclusion. The evangehstic emblem 
of a winged Hon, with the word "Marcus'* carved below it, can 
plainly be distinguished on one of the faces. 

" Besides these, are the fragments with interlacing bands, or knots 
and scrolls, cut upon them, which resemble the character of the 
devices upon the crosses in the churchyards of Bakewell and Eyam. 
Some are carved on both sides, and there can be no doubt that 
these w^ere parts of upright crosses ; others have been cut away, 
apparently at the time when they were used for building materials, 
so that it cannot be ascertained whether they were parts of the 
shafts of crosses or were used for other purposes. One is obviously 
the upper part of the shaft, with a portion of one member of the 
head of the cross which it supports. One small piece (in red 
sandstone) carved with interlacing bands, the points of which are 
not so angular as in some of the other specimens, seems to 

* Petrie's liound Towers^ etc., p. 327. 



BAKEWELL. 37 

have been the lower member of a cross of small dimensions, which 
may have been either attached to the upper part of a shaft, or 
may have been used as a gable cross upon a building, anterior to 
the Norman church which is supposed to have stood on the site 
of the present church. Another is a square block, carved on two 
sides with sitting figures with wings. This so clearly resembles the 
figures in the four members of the cross at Eyam that no doubt 
can remain of its identity in age if not in use.'** 

The term ''Bunic'* has for some time been generally applied to 
all crosses or other ancient sculpture ornamented with the inter- 
laced knot or braid work. It is, however, a complete misnomer, 
and it would be none the less absurd to call an apple-tree 
mistletoe, because the latter plant not infrequently grows upon it, 
than to style ancient crosses runic simply because runes are 
occasionally found inscribed upon them. A "rune," both in Scan- 
dinavian and Teutonic dialects, is merely an alphabetical character, 
and has no further connection with scroll or braid work than that 
the two are sometimes found upon the same cross. Moreover, runic 
is essentially an unsatisfactory term, for there are two alphabets 
of runes, Anglo-Saxon and Norse, which differ much from each 
other, are the work of two different peoples, and belong to two 
different periods of history. Norse runic is met with in the Isle 
of Man and in the north of Scotland, but in England only Anglo- 
Saxon runic is found. 

The fine cross that still stands in the churchyard of Bakewell, 
near the east wall of the Yemon chapel, is eight feet high exclu- 
sive of the base, and about two feet in width. A small etching 
of it is given on Plate XVII., where it may be compared with 
the crosses of Eyam, Hope, and Taddington.t The east firont, 
which has at the top a mutilated representation of a man riding 
(perhaps Christ's entry into Jerusalem), and the two sides are 
sculptured with an elegant spiral scroll pattern ; the west front has 
a series of sculptures down the whole face, the upper one represen- 
ting the Grucifixionr Besides the four crosses on Plate XYII., there 
is another of early design in Blackwell churchyard in this county, 
as well as fragments of others found at Bradbourn, Hartington, 

* An Account of the Pariah Church of Bakewell^ p. 6. This is a republication 
of Dr. Plmnptre's paper from the Archaological Journal, with a prefatory notice 
containing a few farther particulars, published in a pamphlet form in 1851. 

f Numerous illustrationB have been published of this cross : there is a good en- 
graving of three sides in Bray's Tour, p. 155, an accurate outline sketch of all its 
faces in L^^sons' Derbyshire, and a beautiful steel plate by J. H. le Eeux in the 
Archaological Journal^ vol. zi., p. 281. 



38 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

and Darley. There is nothing unusual in supposing that there 
were several other crosses of the same style (though perhaps that 
now extant was the finest) in the churchyard of Bakewell. Several 
crosses of elaborate early design are not unfrequently found in 
the same churchyards in Ireland, Cornwall, Wales, and Yorkshire, 
and at Ham are two supposed to be connected with St. Bertram, 
circa 800. These crosses were probably to the memory of some 
distinguished Christian or Christians. 

We have taken much trouble to arrive at a sound conclusion on 
the subject of the age of these Derbyshire crosses, but we give oiu: 
opinion with diffidence in the fac& of the divergence of opinion that 
exists among able men. After a careful comparison of the various 
Scotch, Irish, Cornish, Welsh, and North of England crosses, it seemg 
that the cross at Bakewell most nearly resembles, in general ornament 
and several minor parts of detail, the principal one of the three 
Ilkley crosses. Now from the runic inscription on the Collingham 
cross, in the same county, its date is assigned to the middle of the 
seventh century, and competent authorities have considered the 
Ilkley crosses coeval with that at ColUngham. Then again it may 
be compared with those at Aychffe, Durham, that are usually 
attributed to 782, and 789, when synods were held in that parish.* 
It is true, on the other hand, that both scroll and knot work are 
occasionally though rarely found in the ornaments of Norman 
work, but any one who has studied the sculptures themselves, 
as well as engravings and drawings, can at once detect the 
difference of style and finish of the two periods, and would not 
for a moment assign any of the Derbyshire crosses to the later 
period. That they are Anglo-Saxon (except that of Taddington) 
we take to bo undoubted, and we also feel faii'ly assured that the 
Bakewell cross, and several of the fragments, are not later than the 
eighth or possibly the ninth century, but we incline to the eighth. 
The Eyam cross may very likely be a century later, and to the one 
at Taddington, which is of still earher date, we shall again allude 
in the account of that church. 

The demolition and the heedless usft of the sepulchral slabs of 



* It would be tedious to fill up the text with a list of comparisons ; we have 
preferred only to ^ve two, and to refer the reader interested m this subject, to 
the works of Petne, O'Neill, and Brash, on early Irish Architecture, to Blight's 
Cornish Crosses, to the Archseologia Cambrensis, to the splendid series of the 
Spalding Society on the Sculptured Stones of Scotland, to Cumming's Crosses 
of the Ifile of Man, to the Arc^tcBoloffical Journal, iii., 258, iv., 302-313, xi., 281, 
xii., 196, and to the Journal of the ArchcBological Association^ xx., 808--S14, etc., 
etc. 



BAKE WELL. 39 

previous generations, both by the builders of 1110 and 1260, is a 
painful reflection ; but the destruction, which would have been 
purely wanton, of beautiful carved early crosses, standing erect in 
the churchyard, and awkwardly shaped for utilitarian purposes, can 
hardly be attributed to fellow Christians. There would be far more 
excuse for using the flat incised stones, and indeed some show of 
reason, when new buildings were being erected that covered a 
portion of the churchyard area, on which these slabs had been 
laid ; but it is a pleasanter fancy, and one that is withal highly 
probable, to imagine that these early works of art were demolished, 
and the cross which now stands erect mutilated, by the horde of 
pagan Danes, who in 870 destroyed the mouasteries of Croyland 
and Peterborough, and who four years later took up their resi- 
dence amid the ruins of regal Bepton, and from thence ravaged 
the surrounding parts of Mercia. That their special hostihty was 
directed against anything that savoured of Christian worship we 
have abundant evidence.* Such a conjecture would account for 
the mutilated condition of the whole of the early crosses of Derby- 
shire, which in other parts of the kingdom have for the most 
part been regarded with special reverence, and have escaped all 
other injury but that dealt by the corroding hand of time. 

There are also within the porch a few specimens of encaustic 
tiles that were found in different parts of the building during the 
restoration. Some of them, of geometrical design, are of the thir- 
teenth century, but others, with heraldic patterns, of much later 
date. Of the latter, specimens were found bearing the arms of 
Foljambe, and of Breton (a chevron between three escallops). The 
marriage of Thomas Foljambe with the heiress of Loudliam, Loud- 
ham having marrried the heiress of Breton, did not take place 
till the close of the fourteenth century. Probably Thomas Fol- 
jambe repaved the floor of the chantry of the Holy Cross. 
Several examples of indented tiles of twelfth century workmanship, 
in which the pattern is simply pressed in, and not coloured with 
any different pigment, were also discovered, but unfortunately the 
best examples of both descriptions of tiles were removed to the 
Lomberdale Museum or elsewhere, f 

The porch itself, that contains all these interesting relics, is of 

* Anglo-Saxon Chronicle^ 874; Ingnlphas, vol. i., pp. 26, 27. 

t There are some ^ood plates, and a description of several of these tiles in the JotLr- 
nal of the Archceological Association (vol vii. pp. 384-380) from the pen of Mr. Llewel- 
Ijrnn Jewitt. See also Bateman's Catalogue, p. 172. It is supposed that all these tiles 
came from the medisval kiln at Bepton. 



40 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Decorated date, in the first half of the fourteenth century, except 
the battlements, which must have been added at the time when the 
church was so much altered during the prevalence of the Perpen- 
dicular style. Over the entrance is a small trefoiled niche. There 
is also a mural sun-dial bearing the date 1793. 

In the churchyard, to the east of the porch, are to be seen 
several stone coflBns. Two of them, which are perfect, were found 
in the year 1817 ; the rest during the last alterations. In one of 
the two was the skeleton of a female with the hair in good preser- 
vation, in the other was a leaden chalice "^^ that marked it as the 
tomb of a priest Some of these coffins are probably the identical 
ones which were originally covered by certain of the stone slabs 
now in the porch. 

Bassano, who has not much of interest to say of Bakewell, 
noted {circa 1710) the arms of Vernon and Pype cut in stone on 
the battlements of the south side of the church, but of this sculp- 
ture there is now no trace. 

Returning to the interior of the church, the most prominent 
object of interest is the remarkable octagon font that stands at the 
west end of the south aisle. It is of large dimensions, and is 
complete in itself without any base. This font has been several 
times sketched. The earliest drawing of it with which we are 
acquainted is given on a large scale in Gotman*s Ancient Sculpture, 
and there is a rude woodcut in Bateman's Antiquities^ On each of 
the eight faces are full length figures rudely carved under canopies. 
This font was for a long time considered to be about the most 
ancient piece of workmanship connected with the church, and was 
unhesitatingly assigned to Saxon times ; but the character of the 
canopies renders it impossible to assign it to any earlier period than 
the commencement of the Decorated style at the close of the thir- 
teenth century. No inscription appears to be have been visible on this 
font when Cotman's drawing was taken, but Lysons, who visited 
the church about 1812, claims to have read the words ** Sista (?) 
Mater ** on one of the figures.} We conclude that this inscription 
was on the scroll held by one of the figures that faces south. 
Various conjectures have been made in the attempt to identify 
these different figures, some of them amusingly improbable. One 

• Figured in Bateman's Caialogtie, p. 176. 

t Cotman's Ancient Sculpture was published in 1786, but this drawing was taken 
three years previously. Bateman's Antiquilict, p. 187. See also Carter's Specitn&ns 
of Sculpture and Painting^ p. 11. 

♦ Add. MSS. 9463, f. 5. 



BAKEWELL. 4 1 

of the figures facing north (given on our etching, Plate XVL), holding 
a sword in one hand and a hook in the other, seems certainly 
intended for St. Paul ; another, with the keys in one hand, and a 
church in the other, for St. Peter; a third is a crowned figure 
with a hook in the left hand, and a hough or hranched sceptre on 
which rests a hird in the right, possihly meant for Edward the Con- 
fessor (who is sometimes represented with the gospel of St. John and 
a sceptre), or more prohahly for King David with the Psalms in one 
hand, and the dove on the sceptre as the emhlem of the inspira- 
tion of the Holy Spirit; a fourth is a figure seated with hands 
uplifted in the act of adoration and a nimhus round the head, 
probahly St. Augustine;* a fifth holds a long scroll; a sixth, in 
a short robe with legs bare below the knee, pointing with his right 
hand to a kind of medallion that he holds in his left hand (on 
which is perhaps represented the Lamb of God), probably St. John 
the Baptist ; a seventh in a long robe, with arms folded, might be 
intended for various saints; and the eighth is a bishop with mitre 
and crozier, and right hand raised giving the benediction, which 
may very likely be intended for St. Chad, first Bishop of Lichfield.f 
But, whatever may be the particular figures intended, we have little 
doubt that the idea of the sculptor was to make this font typical 
of the dedication of the church, by carving thereon figuresj illustra- 
tive of " All Saints," and this would suggest to the artist the 
selection of saints of different epochs. Having given our own 
solution of these carvings it is only fair to add that of the Bev. 
B. R. Bawlins (who so ingeniously explained the ancient carving 
found at Wirksworth in 1820) whose description has not hitherto 
been published. The order is given as above. 

1. Abraham preparing to offer up the ram. 

2. Si Peter with keys and church. 

8. Perhaps Noah, with volume of generation of mankind from 
Adam to his time, and dove. 

4. St. John preaching in the wilderness, or Si Paul at Athens. 

5. St. Paul shaking off the viper. 

6. David bearing the head of Goliath on a spear. 

7. A personage bound with a cord or chain, intended for either 
Christ before Pontius Pilate, or Paul before Agrippa. 

8. Pope, with triple crown. 

*Tlie reason for Augnstine bein^ nsaally represented sitting will be found on 
referring to Bede's EccXesuuticcd History, b. ii., c. 2. 

t See Calendar of the Prayer Book, and Hnsenbeth's Eviblems of the Saints, 



42 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

We must add that we think that any one who closely examines 
this font will come to the conclusion that Mr. Kawlins was in this 
instance too hasty in his surmises. 

Immediately below the Foljambe-Ireland monument, there is a 
large double almery or locker, for containing the various altar uten- 
sils. It is ornamented round the margin with weU carved four-leaf 
flowers, and seems to be of the same date as the monument. 
Here were, doubtless, kept the sacred vessels pertaining to the 
chantry of the Holy Cross. 

In the south wall at the east end of the chancel, are three 
pointed sediHa with seats of different elevation ; and beyond them, 
on a level with the furthest sedile is a finely worked piscina niche. 
These are of the early period of the Decorated style when the 
chancel was enlarged. There is also a small piscina niche, of i 

Early English work, in the south waU of the Vernon chapel. 
There were formerly two other piscinas with trefoil heads, but 
these were most unfortunately removed to the omnivorous collection 
at Lomberdale, during the alterations. At the same time the base 
of a stone screen of Decorated work, which measured twelve feet 
(exclusive of the doorway), by four feet nine inches high, and 
which separated the chancel from the rest of the church, was also 
removed to the same place. The stone screen, which, doubtless, 
formed the base of the old rood-loft, is mentioned by Mr. Rawlins, 
and also by Rev. A. Suckling, who visited the church in 1823.* 

Against this screen, facing east, used to stand the six stalls, 
three on each side, which are now against the south and north 
walls of the chancel. Those on the south have the ** misereres '* 
complete, and quaintly carved underneath; these stalls are only 
the remnant of a larger number that at one time occupied the 
chancel. There are fragments of others at Lomberdale, and several 
are said to have been moved to a former Vicar's garden at the 
beginning of the century. This woodwork is of Decorated date, 
and co-eval with the chancel. There is also some panelling with 
Perpendicular tracery at the back of other seats in the chancel. 

The finest piece of woodwork in the church, is the screen of 
elegant tracery that divides the Vernon chapel from the remainder 
of the south transept. In this chapel, too, is the old parish chest, 
about seven feet long, with innumerable locks and braces of 
ironwork ; it is certainly of pre-Reformation work. 

♦Add. MSS. 18,470. 



BAKEWELL. 43 

The tie-beam roofs of the nave and side aisles are for the most 
part of the old Perpendicular work of the fifteenth century, 
and have some finely carved bosses at the intersection of the 
beams. On one of the nave beams are the initials and date — 
"F. R. . E. H. . C. W. 1753," which were, doubtless, the initials 
of churchwardens, under whose control certain repairs were made 
in the roof. 

The peal of eight bells that is now in the tower, was cast by 
Thomas Mears, of London, in 1796. In addition to the name of 
the founder and the date, which is on each . bell, they bear the 
following rhyming inscriptions : — 

I. ** When I begin our merry din. 

This band I lead from discord free ; 
And for the fame of human name, 
May every leader copy me." 

II. '* Mankind, like us, too oft are found 

Possessed of nought but empty sound." 

III. " When of departed hours we toll the knell, 

Instruction take and spend the future well." 

IV. ** When men in Hymen's bands unite. 
Our merry peals produce delight; 
But when death goes his dreary rounds, 
We send fortli sad and solemn sounds." 

V. ** Thro' Grandsires and Tripples with pleasure men range, 
TiU death calls the Bob, and brings on the last change." 

VI. " When victo'ry crowns the public weal, 

With glee we give the merry peal." 

VII. " Would men like us join and agree, 

They'd live in tuneful harmony." 

VIII. *' Possess'd of deep sonorous tone 

This Belfry King sits on his throne ; 
And, when the merry bells go round, 
Adds to and mellows ev'ry sound ; 
So in a just and well-poised state, 
Where all degrees possess due weight, 
One greater pow'r, one greater tone 
Is ceded to improve their own. 



44 DKRBTSHIBE CHURCHES. 

Eichard Chapman A.B., Vicar. Matthew Strutt, George Heath- 
cott, Churchwardens." 

The weight of the first bell is 6 cwt. 8 qr. 8 lb., and of the 
eighth 18 cwt. 2 qr. 1 lb., the whole peal weighing 76 cwt. 2 qrs. 
17 lb. '< The inscriptions were composed by Mr. Michael Williams, 
a local poet, then residing in Bakewell." * 

Up to 1796 there had been six bells, the inscriptions on which 
have been preserved. 

I. "Multi numerantur amici, 1719." 

II. " The gift of PhiUp GeU, of Hopton, 1719." 
ITL ** Glory be to God on high, 1616." 

lY. ^' George Crotiat and William Bidiard, Churchwardens, 1616." 
y. '*Trinitate sacra fiat hoec campana beata." 
VI. " All men who hear my mournful sound, 

Bepent before you lye in ground, 1671." 
The parish registers of Bakewell, now extant, do not contain any 
matter of great interest ; the earliest entries are in 1614. They have 
been described at length by the Rev. W. R. Bell, from whose 
account we take the following extracts: — ^t 

** 1614, Dec. 24. Hamletus Charlton, Vicarius de BakeweU, sepultus 
erat. 
1617, Oct. 9. Gulielmus Henshaw, ecclisB de Bakewell clericus 

sepultus. 
1620. The whole number of Communicants at Morning Prayer 
first on Easter Day 282. Eodem die at ye latter Prayer 
187 ; Total 419. 
1687, Nov. 6. Thomas Tomlinson and Dorothy his wyfe of Wake- 
field or thereabouts were taken begging at Bakewell and 
whipped according to ye Law and be sent home," 

* Bobinson's Derbyshire OatheringSf p. 22 ; bat the name of the author is given as 
*• Willdnson" in Bagshaw's Gazeteer of Derbyshire, p. 408. Mr. Bagshaw also giTes 
two remarkable coincidences with respect to these bells. The first peal rung upon 
them was to celebrate the victoiy of Lord Nelson at Abonldr on the Nue. They were 
lowered from the old tower on the 27th, 29th, and 80th of March, 16S0, and when re- 
hung in the new tower, within half-an-hour of their being placed in position, the 
first peal was rung to celebrate the visit of Queen Victoria to BakeweU. 

t Reliquary f vol. iv., pp. 73-79. 



ASHFORD. 45 



"^t (^a^tlv^ of 'M«f)tovti. 




|F the date of the foundation of this chapel nothing positive 
can be determined, but there is no doubt that one existed 
here in the twelfth century.* 
The chapel (or church as we may now term it) of Ashford-in- 
the- Water, is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and consists of nave, 
north aisle, south porch, chancel, and tower at the west end. The 
church has recently undergone an extensive restoration, amounting 
almost to a complete rebuilding, and was opened again for service 
on Trinity Sunday, 1870. Previous to the restoration, there was 
a semi-circular slab of stone built into the south waU, near to the 
entrance to the church, on which were carved the rude represen- 
tations of a wild boar and a wolf, beneath a tree that occupied 
the centre of the stone. Underneath it was a tablet, placed there 
by the late Incumbent, with the text, *' The boar out of the wood 
doth waste it, and the wild beast of the field doth devour it," an 
interpretation of the stone which had probably never occured to the 
mind of the fanciful sculptor. This stone had undoubtedly once 
served as the tympanum or top stone of the semicircular doorway 
of the Norman chapel erected here in the early part of the twelfth 
century, and it has now been happily restored to its proper position. 
There are special characteristics about this stone which serve to 
distinguish it &om the nearly coeval sculptured tympanums of 
Hognaston, Farwich, etc., for it has a classic tinge about the 
foliage and general style of ornament, and may fairly lay claim to 
the usually misapplied term of EomanesgrueA 

The general features of the building, as now restored, partake of 

• In 1872, the chapelriee of Ashford and Sheldon were separated from Bakewell 
and united into one benefice, for ecclefiiastlcal pnrposea only, under the Act 1 and 
8 Vic. cap. 106. 

t There is a good woodcut of this stone in Bateman*a AntiquUieSt p. 1^2. 



4G DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

the Decorated style. The west archway into the tower, as well as 
the three pointed archways, supported on octagon pillars, that 
separate the nave from the north aisle, are of this period. 
The church is now covered with High-pitched roofs. Against 
tlie chancel wall are the stone corbels of the old roof, three on 
each side. Those on the south side are all plain, but one of those 
on the north is carved into a head and hands, and another bears 
a fleur-de-lis. On the north side of the chancel is the vestry, and to 
the right of the entrance to it is a niche in the wall, used as a 
credence table. The chalice that is still in use is a very old one of 
beaten silver. The vestry contains an old chest, and also two old 
chairs, which we suppose to be of seventeenth century work. The 
pulpit is of fine old oak, and is a fair specimen of the style constructed 
about the time of James I. At the west end of the church is the 
old font, which is octagon, and of a chalice-shaped design. The 
alternate panels bear uncharged shields, and below them appear, 
on opposite sides, the head and tail of a dragon, or evil spirit.* 

The tower, which was not interfered with at the time of the 
restoration, is of a style which makes it difficult to ascribe it 
to any particular period. The battlements on its summit are 
clearly a later addition, and are of the Perpendicular era, whilst 
the pinnacles at its angles are of a yet later and more de- 
based style. The basement story of the west side of the tower is 
supported by a central buttress of a plain description, and over it 
is a simple two-hght window, of a double -lancet description, but 
having the two heads of the hghts cut out in a single squared 
stone. The four windows of the bell chamber are of the same 
description, but have rounded tops. These features, taken in con- 
nection with the absence of all buttresses but the one named, incline 
us to give an early date to its erection, probably at the time when 
Wenunwyn held the manor, or at all events in the first days of 
his son and successor Griffin. 

The tower contains three bells, in addition to a Sanctus or ting- 
tang boll which has no ornament or inscription. The three are 
inscribed as follows : — 

I. " Iho, Gloria in excelsis Deo," in Lombardio capital letters. 
The founder's mark has the initials G. H. above a fylfot cross. 

II. '* Richard Bennett, C.W. Thos. Hcdderly, founder.'' 

• Compare the fonts of Youlgreave and Norton. For a drawing and description 
of the latter, see Churches of Derbyshire, vol. i., p. 292, and of the former, Flate 
XVI. of this volume. 



ASHFOKD. 47 

III. " Ihc, Gloria in excelsis Deo. 1612," in Lombardic capital 
letters, and with the same founder's mark as that on the first bell. 

On the south side of the church are the remains of the old 
churchyard cross. The three sets of octagon steps stiLl remain, as 
well as the base stone, about two feet high, showing the socket 
for the reception of the shaft. 

A chantry was founded in this church in the year 1257. It is 
probable that the endowments of this chantry had lapsed or fallen , 
into secular use before the time of Henry VIII., for no mention is 
made of it in the official Chantry Rolls then drawn up. We 
possess however, certain particulars relative to its foundation, in 
early chartularies of the cathedral church of Lichfield.* This 
chantry was founded by Griffin, the son of Wenunwyn, on the 
feast of the purification of the Virgin, 1267, for the spiritual health 
of himself, his wife, and his family, with the consent of the Dean 
and Chapter of Lichfield. Special stipulations were made to 
preserve intact all the rights of the said Dean and Chapter, as 
well as of the mother church of BakeweU. Five years later Griffin 
founded a chantry at the adjacent chapel of Great Longstone. 

We are able, after considerable research, to give a brief account, 
based on the PubHc Records, of the connection of this Welsh 
fam'ily with the manor, and hence with the church of Ashford. 
The manor of Ashford, from the days of Edward the Confessor to 
the time of John, formed part of the royal demesnes. But in the 
first year of John's reign, that king, who experienced much trouble 
from the turbulent Welsh, appears to have bought over a powerful 
chieftain, Wenunwyn, to his side by grants of land in England. 
Amongst other property, he conferred upon Wenunwyn the manor 
of Ashford, with all its appurtenances, in consideration of a sum of 
X30, to be held by him and his heirs by the annual service of a 
sparrow-hawk. The charter making this grant is dated from 
Winchester, on April 6th, 1200.t But within a few years, 
Wenunwyn, described as the son of *'Hoen de Kevelac Wallensis," 
was once more waging war with his compatriots, and an endorsement 
on the back of one of the Patent RoUs of the eleventh year of 
John, mentions his submission to king John at Shrewsbiury, and the 
delivery of hostages on the vigil of St. Dionysius.J This was the 

• Magnum BegUtrum Alburn^ at Lichfield; Harl. MSS. 4799; Add. MSS. 
6666, f. 87. 

tBot. Chart., 1 John, memb. 11. 

\ Calend. Bot. Pat., 11 John, memb. 6. 



48 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

year in which John completely subdued the Welsh for a brief 
season, having marched with a large army right to the foot of 
Snowdon. Matthew Paris records that he took twenty-eight 
hostages as a pledge of their future good behaviour.* Owing to the 
part Wenunwyn took in this outbreak, the royal gift of the Manor 
of Ashford remained for some time in abeyance, and we find that in 
the 16th year of John, when he was in the midst of his contentions 
with the barons, the king allotted this manor and its appurtenances 
to Brian de Insula (or De Lisle), '' for sustaining himself in our 
service as long as it shall please us."f In the meanwhile 
Wenunwyn died, and John's successor, Henry III., instructed the 
Constable of the Peak that his widow Margaret was entitled to a 
third of the manor in right of dower. Nor was there subsequently 
any difficulty in Griffin, the son and heir of Wenunwyn, resuming 
control over the manor which his father had temporarily forfeited. 
About the year 1242 Griffin took to wife Avice, the daughter of 
John de Extraneus, and received the royal permission to settle on 
her, as a dower, the whole of this manor; nine years later Griffin 
obtained the additional favour &om the same monarch of free 
warren over his estates at Ashford. J We know from the founda- 
tion of the chantry that Griffin was living in 1257, but he died 
sometime before the conclusion of the reign of Henry HE. (1272), 
for that king on the death of Griffin, bestowed Asbford on Eleanor, 
the wife of Prince Edward, and subsequently his queen.,} Griffin 
and Avice had issue, two sons, Owen and Griffith, but the loss to 
them of this manor does not seem to have been occasioned by any 
traitorous conduct, for markets, fairs, and many manors were subse- 
quently granted to them in their native land by the king's license. || 
It is scarcely surprising thnt the chantry at Ashford fell into 
desuetude when the family that founded it became so completely 
disassociated from the manor. 

The manor of Ashford, which then embraced the "villata" of 
Ashford, Great Longstone, and Sheldon, thus reverted to the crown 
through Queen Eleanor, but, in 1819, Edward IL bestowed it on 
his brother, Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Kent. His daughter and 
heiress Joan, brought this manor to her second husband, Sir Tho- 

•Matt. Paris Opera (Edit. 1640), p. 230. 

t Bot. Lit. Claus., 7 Henry III., memb. 17 et 19. 

|Bot. Chart., 26 Henry III., pt. 1, memb. 5; 36 Henry ILL, memb. IL 

§ Bot. Hnndredorom, 8 Edward L, 1 memb. 2. 

II Bot. Chart., 10 Edward L, pt. 1, memb. 1 ; Calend. Bot. Pat., 16 Edward HE., 
pt. 2, memb. 23. 



A8HF0RD. 49 

mas Holland, who jointly held it in conjunction with the manor of 
Chesterfield, and the advowson of the hospital of St. Leonard, at 
Chesterfield. For license to hold these manors and advowson of 
Thomas and Joan, Otto de Holland paid fifty-two marks to the 
royal exchequer of Edward III., in the 80th year of his reign. In 
the reign of Edward IL, Ashford was held under the Hollands by 
Godfrey Foljambe ; but it passed in 1408, on the death of Edmund 
Holland, Earl of Kent, to Elizabeth, his sister, and co-heiress, who 
was married to John Lord Neville. Henry Neville, Earl of West- 
moreland, sold it about 1550, to Sir William Cavendish, and it has 
remained with the Cavendishes to the present day.* 

In the year 1826 Mr. Bawlins noticed '* a stone fixed in the wall 
near the great door of Ashford chapel, on which are the arms of 
that family (Neville) nearly obliterated.'' He also tells us that the 
mansion of the Nevilles was in a field on the north side of the 
chapel, and that tradition says that their castle was demolished to 
build the chapel where it now stands. 

We have merely given this brief outline of the subsequent his- 
tory of the manor in order to render the account complete; for it 
does not seem that the lords of the manor subsequent to Griffin, 
were in any way connected with the church or chapel of Ashford, 
which remained united to the mother church of BakeweU, whilst 
the appointment of the priest or minister was vested in the Dean 
and Chapter of Lichfield, and afterwards in the Vicar of Bakewell. 

The Valor Ecclesiaaticus, of Henry VIII., estimated the value of 
this chapelry at £2 Is. 

The Parliamentary Survey of 1650 does not enumerate the sepa- 
rate values of the different parochial chapelries of Bakewell, but the 
Commissioners considered Ashford to be of sufficient importance to 
warrant them in reporting that it was thought " fitt to be made a 
parish." 

Francis Bassano, the heraldic painter, of Derby, visited this 
church about the year 1710, and he then noted in the east window 
of the north aisle, a coat of arms " Verry, Argent, and Gules." 
This shield was borne by several different families, and was one 
of the numerous variations of the Ferrers coat. But it seems pro- 
bable that it may here be attributed to Beauchamp (who were con- 
nected with the Nevilles), and was most likely the only coat then 

• Abbrev. Rot. Orig, 30 Edw. m., rot. 28 ; Inq. post Mort., 26 Edw. m., No. 63; 
35 Edw. ni., No. 104 ; 12 Ric. H., No. 21 ; 20 Ric. II., No. 30 ; 6 Hen. IV., No. 88; 
1 Hen. VI.^ No. 46 ; etc., etc. See also Churches of Derbyshire, vol i., p. 165. 



50 D£RBYSHm£ CHURCHES. 

remaining of several placed in the windows of Ashford chapel by 
the Nevilles when lords of the manor.* 

The early registers of Ashford are apparently missing, for those 
still preserved only commence in the year 1688. The following is 
a list of incumbents of Ashford, compiled from the registers :— 

1688. Samuel Mills, curate. 

1707. Thomas Maddocke „ 

1724. Thos. Grove 



1727. Bichard Fughe 

William Beighton 

1729. Samuel White 

Bobert Lomas 






1780. Wm. Wingfield 
1763. May 7.— "Sep. Bev. Wm. Wingfield, curate, who had 
been minister 88 years.'* 

1768. July 10. Peter Walthall, curate. 
1807. Nov. 13. Thomas Nadauld. 
1812. April 5. fiache Thomehill. 
1818. G. Berkley. 
18U. T. B. Lucas. 
1815. John Browne. 
1887. W. Gully Giles. 

1860. W. F. Boyd. 
1852. James Burrow. 

1861. Charles James Norman. 

— Dec. 17. — John B. Luxmore.f 

There are but few entries in the registers of any special interestj 
but the following extract may be worth insertion. 

'*1116, Nov. 18. Sep. A travailing boy found dead between 
this town and Sheldon." 

An early number of the Rdiquary contains a copy of an interest- 
ing document of the year 1682, showing how the seats were ap- 
propriated in the church of Ashford. It is entitled, 

'' A Perfect order how men are to Sitt in the Ghappell of Ash- 
ford by the Official Mr. Bowlandson and the neighbours of Ashford 
Aprill the 10th, 1632.** From this document, which gives the 
names of the occupants of each pew, it appears that it was then 

♦ Papwoxth 
by Bassano, -^ 
arches apiece 

t Biliqua/ryt vol ii., pp. 166-168. We are mnch indebted to the Bev. J. B. Luxmore, 
the present vicar, for scTcral of the particulars contained in this notice of Ashford. 




ASHFORD. 51 

the custom, for the most part, to separate the sexes. In the body 
of the church, most of the men sat on the south side, and the 
women on the north, but ** under the Pulpitt is for the Ministers 
wife whom soever she is." At the conclusion of this appropriation 
of seats, which is signed by Ealph Heathcote, minister, and nu- 
merous parishioners, are two notes relative to payment pertaining 
to pews. " Ralph White is to pay Ss. per annum to the Minister, 
or if he refuse to pay it Will Milnes and George Johnson are to 
pay it, and take one with them that will pay it.'* ''John Thorpe 
is to pay 5s. per annum to the Minister or else Ralph Attkinson, 
Tho. Thorpe, and John Greaves will pay it and take in one whom 
they please that will give ii" It is also added that ** all those 
that have any new seats in the Church are to leave their ould 
seats to the discretion of the Minister and Churchwarden." From 
which it would appear that the church of Ashford had just been 
refitted, or, perhaps, for the first time, completely provided with 
seats. The custom of seating a church throughout did not prevail 
till the commencement of the seventeenth century. 

The lover of picturesque old customs will ever associate the 
church of Ashford-in-the- Water with funeral garlands. There are 
very few specimens of this once almost universal custom of Eng- 
lish villagers now extant, but from the beams of the north aisle 
hang no less than five of these memorials. The only other Derby- 
shire church, we believe, that now contains one is that of South 
Winfield, where one is still preserved in the chancel. But within 
the lifetime of those now living they were to be seen within the 
walls of the following Derbyshire churches — Alvaston, Ashover, 
Bolsover, Eyam, Fairfield, Glossop, Heanor, Hope, Matlock,* Tis- 
sington, and West Hallam. Fortunately the five garlands at Ash- 
ford were scrupulously preserved at the time of the recent restora- 
tion, and subsequently replaced in the same position that they had 
previously occupied. An admirable and exhaustive article on the 
general subject of Funeral Garlands, accompanied by an engraving 
of those in this church, appeared in the first number of the Reli- 
quary, from the pen of the editor, Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt. It was 
the habit, to carry these garlands before the corpses of maidens in 
the funeral procession, and to subsequently suspend them in the 
church. Those at Ashford are all constructed of ornamental white 
paper cut into flowers and other designs, and fixed to a wooden 

* The garlands that were formerly in the ohnroh of Matlock now hang in the yes- 
try. See the account of that chnrch. 



52 DERBYSHIBE CHURCHES. 

framowork. ''Each garland," says Mr. Jewitty ''contains a single 
gloTe and a kerchief or collar. On the collar or kerchief of each 
has been written a verse of poetry, and the name, age, and date 
of death of the virgin in whose honour they were prepared. Owing 
to age, the decay of the paper, and the fading of the ink, the 
writing on most of them is obHterated. On one, however, the date 
of April 12th, 1747, occurs ; there has also on this one been six 
lines of poetry, now perfectly illegible, and the name of the female 
appears to have been Anne Howard, who died at the age of twenty- 
one. On a garland of another date, we succeeded, with considerable 
difficulty, in decyphering the following lines : — 
"Be always ready, no time delay, 
I in my youth was called away. 
Oreat grief to those that's left behind. 
But I hope I'm great joy to find. 
Ann Swindel, 
Aged 22 years, 
Deo. 9th, 1798.*' 
On the last occasion that we visited this church, our cicerone 
told us that the most modem of these garlands was to a maiden 
of the name of Blackwell, and that an old man, who had died in 
1869 at about the age of 80, had carried it before the coffin. 
William Harris, the founder of the Free Grammar School of Ash- 
ford, by will dated 6th September, 1680, left a sum of 20 nobles 
" to be paid yearly for 20 sermons to be made yearly in the chapel 
of Ashford, or in the chapel of Sheldon, in the parish of BaJkewell, 
which the said trustees should think most expedient, they allowing 
to the preacher for every sermon 6s. 8d." 

Ashford also affords an early instance of concurrent endowment 
in the will of Thomas Boose, of the year 1761, who left " 208. to 
the curate of the chapel of Ashford, as by law established, and his 
successors for ever, and 40s. to the minister of the Presbyterian 
chapel of Ashford, and his successors for ever,"* The Presbyterian 
chapel is now disused, and in a dilapidated condition. 

• Report of CommU$ionerM of Charities, 1827, pp. 21-28. 



lusLOw. 63 



Efie (S:1)a9tlt^ of ISasUitD. 




|ASLOW was one of the numerous chapelries of the ex- 
tensive parish of Bakewell, and it is only of late years 
that it has acquired the position of a distinctive vicarage. 
There can be no doubt that the chapel of Baslow was in exis- 
tence at the time that King John bestowed Bakewell and its 
various chapelries on the Dean and Ohapter of Lichfield. When 
Archbishop Feckham made his stringent visitation throughout the 
province of Canterbury, the differences between the mother church 
of Bakewell and its dependencies were settled, and it was then 
agreed that the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield should contribute 
at least two and a half marks to the salary of the minister of 
Baslow, and a like amount be provided by the parishioners.* 
But this agreement did not long hold good, for we find that 
the Dean and Chapter, in the year 1816, only paid 15s. to the 
minister at Baslow, and declined all responsibility in connection 
with the repair of the fabric.t 

According to the Valor Ecclesiasticm (27 Henry VIII.) i the 
chapelry was of the clear value of £27 6s« 8d., and it paid a 
pension of 2s. per annum to the Lichfield Chapter. 

The Parliamentary Commissioners of 1650 did not specify the 
value of the different chapelries of Bakewell^ but they speak of 
Baslow as '' a parochial chapell thought fitt to be made a parish, 
with Bubnell, Corber, and Caulver. Mr. James Hewett officiates 
.... Toadepoole, Froggat, and Heywood, members of Baslow, 
thought fitt to be united to Stonye Middleton.'* 

In Bassano's manuscript volume of Church Notes, taken about 
1710, we find several notes relating to the chapel of Baslow. 
The **Kinges Armes " were then to be seen in the east window 

•Dugdale's MonasHcony vol. iii., p. 227 ; Harl. MSS., 4799, etc. 

tAdd. MSS., 6698. 



54 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

of the Bouih aisle, and in the same aisle was '* a fair Quire, 
no tradition to whom." '' In east window of north aisle, in 
ye toppe of it Christ coming to judgement, his robes yellow and 
gules. Here is ye Hood loft very perfect with stairs and a door 
into it In one of ye south windowes of chancell Eyres coat 
with a crescent. On ye north side waU is ye Duke of Butlands 
arms and crest painted. In east window is Eyres arm impaled 
with . . . . , and in another part is Bobert Eyre, of Bnbnell." 
*^ Bobt. Eyre de Bubnell Hall, generosus, dec. oct. die Febr. 
sepultus fuit. A.D. 1698." 

William Eyre, second son of Edmund (otherwise Edward) 
Eyre of Brookfield and Beaton, Notts., who was tenth son of 
Bobert Eyre by Joan Padley, purchased the manor of Bubnell 
(a sub-manor of Baslow) in the beginning of the fifteenth cen- 
tuiy. His eldest son, Edmund Eyre of Bubnell, married Margery, 
daughter of Bobert Coyny, by whom he had issue Bobert This 
Bobert of Bubnell, married Dorothy, daughter of George Colum- 
bell of Darley, by whom he had six sons and seven daughter&* 

The mention of the arms of the Duke of Butland in this 
church, induces us to briefly allude to the history of the manor 
of Baslow, in order to show the connection of the Vernon family 
therewith. 

Both Baslow and Bubnell were berewicks of the extensive 
royal manor of Ashford at the time when the Domesday Survey 
was made, but in the next century we find that William de 
Avenell, Lord of Haddon, also held Baslow. On the death of 
WiUiam de Avenell without male issue, towards the close of the 
twelfth century, his property in Derbyshire, Buckinghamshire, and 
Northumberland was divided between his two daughters and co- 
heiresses, Elizabeth and Avice. Elizabeth was married to Sir 
Simon Basset, and Avice to Bichard de Vernon. There appears 
to have been a dispute between the two families as to the due 
division of the Avenell estates, and we find from a roll of 
King John (of uncertain date, but probably of the first year 
of his reign), that this dispute was settled, so far as the manor 
of Baslow was concerned, by its equal division between them.f 
But the Bassets displeased that quarrelsome monarch, and we 
find that in the laBt year of his reign, the land at Baslow which 

• Add. MSS., 28,1 13, f. 72. For an account of the various children of Bobert Eyre 
by Joan Padley, see Hathersage Church. 

t Abbrov. Placit. Fragmenta Recordorum incerli temporis Ret/is Johannis. 



BASLOW. 55 

had been in the hands of the Bassets, was granted to Hugh de 
Neville.'*' In the succeeding reign, however, Eichard Basset oh- 
tained the license of the Free Warren over the manor of Baslow.f 
We then lose sight for some time of the history of this part 
of the manor, but we have little doubt that it was through the 
Nevilles (by the marriage of Gilbert, Lord Talbot, with Maud, 
only daughter of Sir Thomas Neville) that it passed to the 
Earls of Shrewsbury, who were seized of it in the reigns of 
Henry VI. and Edward VI. J 

With respect to the other portion of the manor, which was held 
in conjunction with Haddon by the Vemons, it appears that 
homage was done to William de Ferrers who held it of the King, 
but Henry TTT. changed this service into one by which it was held 
directly from the King.§ Bichard de Vernon had, by his wife 
Avice, an only daughter who conveyed his estates by marriage to 
Gilbert le Frances. Gilbert le Frances died in the reign of Edward 
I., seized, according to the terms of the Inquisitions, of the manor 
of Haddon and the hamlets of '' Baselowe, Bowsley, and Bubben- 
hulL'*|| His son Bichard, on succeeding to the property, assumed 
the name of Vernon, and a roU is extant confirming his grant of 
Baslow, and of two manors in Buckinghamshire, to his son 
Bichard, and Eleanor his wife, daughter of Giles le Frenes.1I We 
will not pursue this manorial history further, as it has only an 
incidental connection with the church; suffice it to say that Baslow, 
together with Haddon, passed, on the death of Sir George Vernon 
in 1567, to Sir John Manners, second son of Thomas Manners, 
Earl of Butlandy and direct ancestor of the present Duke of 
Butland, by his marriage with that celebrated co-heiress — ^Dorothy 
Vernon. 

Bassano gives the following list of the curates of Baslow, with 
the years of their incumbency. 

Robert Tinmouth, 1565. 

Bichard Allsop, 1568. 

* Bot. Lit. Clans, 17 John, memb. 14. This Hngh de NeviUe was one of the justices 
of the Forest of Sherwood. Worktop, the Dukeriea, and Skonoood Foretty p. 198. 

t Calend Bot. Chart., 36 Hen. m., No. 16. 

t Inq. post Mort., 82 Hen. VI^ No. 29 ; 88, 89, Hen. VT., No. 68 ; 18 Edw. IV., No. 
52. These Inquisitions puzzled Lysons in his brief mention of the manor, especially 
as another Inquisition of Edward IV. (7 Edw. IV., No. 22) ascribes Baslow to John 
Vernon ; but tne solution of the difficulty is to be found in the fact that the manor 
remained in medieties, at all events to the close of the fifteenth century. 

§Bot. Lit. Claus., 7 Henry m., memb. 20. 

II Inq. post Mort., 6 Edward I., No. 2; 11 Edward No. 10. 

IFAbbrev. Placit., 19 Edward L, Rot. 82. 



56 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

John Elswigge, 1550. 
Roger Rowley, 1582. 
John Bankes, 1602. 
George Longden, 1606. 
Richard Smyth, 1610. 
John Daken, 1620. 
Robert Mower, 1630. 

— Huet, , . . 

— Barlow, 1658. 

— Prince, (18 months). 

— Raynes, 1662. 
Robert Mathewman, — 
John Cantrell, — 
William Feme, 1668. 
William Walker, 1677. 
Joseph Feme, 1678. 
Joseph Nicols, 1681. 

In Mr. Mitchell's Derbyshire Collections, now at the British 
Museum, are- several notes relative to this church, apparently taken 
from the churchwardens' account. 
** May 4th, 1569. The dispute about repairs of church at Bakewell, 

settled by John Manners, Esq. 
*' 1759. Inhabitants subscribed for a new clock, and hearse, harness, 

etc. 
'* 1759. A new pulpit and two desks erected, and a pulpit cloth and 

cushion of velvet and gold given by William Taylor, of London, 

gent., and Yeoman of the King's Guard."* 

Mr. Mitchell also speaks of *'the confessional still remaining with 
two Gothic niches in the chancel," which strange misnomer we 
suppose he applied to the sedUia. 

In Lysons* volume of Church Notes, taken about 1815, are some 
pencil drawings of these two stalls or sedilia. Though they have 
pointed arches, the intervening shaft seems to be of Norman date.f 
Unfortunately these sedilia were swept away when the chancel 
was rebuilt. 

The appointment of the minister of Baslow remained in the 
hands of the Vicar of Bakewell until the year 1811, when the 
patronage of Baslow as well as Buxton were by Act of Parliament 
vested in the Duke of Devonshire.]: 

•Add. MSS. 28, 111, f. 123. 

t Add. MSS. 9468. 

^51 George III., cap. 69. See the account of Buxton. 



BASLOW. 57 

The Liber Regis is silent as to the dedication of this ancient 
chapel ; certain directories give St. James as the patron saint, but 
others ascribe it to St. Anne. We believe the latter dedication to 
be the correct one, as the village feast takes place in the first 
clear week in August, which is the date of St. Anne's day (old 
ptyle). 

The church, which was restored upwards of 20 years ago, con- 
sists of nave, side aisles, south porch, chancel, and tower, sur- 
mounted by a broached spire, at the west end of the north aisle. 

There are now no details to connect this fabric with the days 
when the Norman style of architecture prevailed. The oldest 
portion of the building appears to be the tower and spire, which 
occupy an unusual position, viz., at the west end of the north aisle, 
instead of at the end of the nave. Probably what is now the north 
aisle served as the nave when this tower was first erected. We 
believe the date of this part of the church to be of the latter half 
of the thu-teenth century, at the close of the Early English period. 
The tower is supported on the west side by two buttresses placed 
diagonally at the angles. In the west wall there is a small double- 
lancet window, with tref oiled heads, and above it is a single-lancet 
light. There are no other windows to the tower, but immediately 
above the broached angles of the octagon spire are four pointed 
openings, the jambs of which are built perpendicular, so that they 
stand out from the spire after the fashion of dormer windows. The 
apex of these dormers is unpierced, but the lower part is divided 
into two lights with trefoiled heads. There are also four similar 
windows, but of a single light each and much smaUer, near the 
top of the spire. The weather moulding stones on the east side 
of the tower, above the present roof of the aisle, show that it formerly 
supported the gable of a high-pitched roof. There is also an Early 
English buttress at the south-west angle of the nave. 

The nave now projects beyond the north-west aisle so as to 
conceal half of the south side of the tower. The three-light west 
window of the nave, with its four quatrefoils in the upper tracery, 
is a good specimen of the geometrical Decorated. This window seems 
to have been a new insertion when the church was restored, but 
there is an abundance of old work of this period about the fabric, 
in fact nearly the whole of it may be attributed to the fourteenth 
century, though varying somewhat in date. To the earlier part of 
the century may be assigned the south entrance within the porch, 
the east and west windows of the south aisle, the windows of the 



58 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

north aisle, and, in the interior, the three arches with their 
supporting pillars, on the side of the nave, which separate it from the 
aisles. To the latest period of the Decorated, or rather to the 
commencement of the Perpendicular (aboat the close of the same 
century), we must attribute the south porch, the hea^y battle- 
ments of the porch, nave, and aisles, together with a square- 
headed two-light window to the right hand of the porch, and 
perhaps the clerestory windows, of which there are four on the 
south side and three on the north. The battlement, much of 
which has been renewed at later dates, is ornamented with 
crocketed pinnacles ; those in the centre of the parapets of both 
nave and aisle are placed diagonally, and terminate at the base in 
small gurgoyle heads. The old stone bell-cote for the sanctus bell, 
now empty, should be noted on the east gable of the nave, though 
it is nearly overshadowed by the new roof of the chancel. 

There is not much of interest in the interior of the church. 
The roofs of both the aisles are slightly gabled, and retain much of 
the old timber. The roof of the nave is a flat one of the Perpen- 
dicular style. 

There is an old octagon font near the south entrance, on an 
octagon base which has Decorated mouldings, but we think that 
the base stone is a modem one. This font was recovered for its 
sacred uses, at the time when the church was restored, from the 
vicarage ceUar. We were told by the present incumbent that it 
had been therein used for the salting of bacon ; but further inquiry 
inclines us to the more charitable surmise that it had been placed 
there with the intention of preserving it. 

The rood-loft screen, the coloured glass, and the memorial to 
Bobert Eyre, which were here a century and-a-half ago, as 
mentioned above, have aU disappeared, and there are no monu- 
ments of any antiquity. 

A small iron plate, in an oak frame, against the north wall of 
the north aisle, bears the following curious inscription : — 

** Underneath here was interred ye Body of Tho. Marple son to John and Elizabeth 
Marple of this town who departed this life Aug. 17th A.D. 1742. 

youth consider and be wise, 
Lest sudden death do you surprise, 
Short was my time as it appears 

1 not exceeding 16 years, 

My friends I desired to cease their tears 
I shall arise 'when Christ appears. 
And near this place lyeth ye body of Helen Marple Grandmother to Tho. 

Charles Cook, schnlsit." 

There are also small mural brasses to the memory of Richard 



BASLOW. 59 

Oddy of Bubuell Gate, smith, who died in 1758, aged 71, and of 
Mary and John Gnindy, of Baslow, who died in 1784 and 1790. 

On the north wall of the chancel there is a monument, which, 
tJiODgh of modem date, is worth transcribing, as it relates to two 
incumbencies of unusual length, under the last of which the church 
was restored: — 

" In memory of the Bev. John Barker, M.A«, for thirty years incumbent of this 
chapelry. He died Jane 6th, 1824, aged 63 years. 

''Also of his eldest son, the Rev. Anthony Auriol Barker, M.Am who sncceeded 
his father, and after an equal period of useful labour, during fhe last years of 
which he was permitted to effect the restoration of this church, he entered into 
his rest Dec. 2l8t, 1865. 

"'I have planted, ApoUos watered, but God gare the increase.' — 1 Cor. 8, 6." 

l*he porch contains a genuine relic of antiquity. In the south 
wall is built in a large monumental slab or coffin lid, discovered 
during the alterations. It bears no inscription, but has a cross 
sculptured in slight relief with floriated limbs. On the sinister side 
of the stem are two keys. The key used to be considered as the 
symbol of the female sex, but this has been abundantly disproved, 
and there can be little doubt that it indicates the duties of the 
person commemorated, such as the steward or comptroller of a 
large household, or a local official or magistrate of some import- 
ance.* The date of this stone we believe to be of the first quarter 
of the thirteenth century. It is not then an improbable conjec- 
ture to imagine that this stone was carved to the memory of some 
High Bailiff of the Peak, or perhaps, still more probably, to the 
steward of the household of Richard de Yemon (who married the 
co-heiress of Basset), and the two keys (which are but rarely met 
with on monumental slabs), might then signify his double steward- 
ship of the manors of Haddon and Baslow. 

There are also several incised sepulchral stones forming the lintels 
of the clerestory windows, which were freed from plaster when the 
church was restored. From what can be seen of these stones, 
three on the north side and two on the south, it appears that they 
are all of one date, probably of the commencement of the twelfth 
century, and have the stems of plainly incised crosses down the 
centre. All of them bear symbols. On one is a staff, shears, and 
key, signifying an official who was a wool merchant; on another, 
only a key; on a third, two keys; on a fourth, a bow for a 
forester; and on a fifth a curiously shaped hammer, perhaps for 
an armourer. A sixth lintel on the south side also bears an 
incised Latin cross formed simply of two lines at right angles. 

*Bouteirs Christian Monuments, p. 91. 



. Ringers, 1839." 



60 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

The tower contains a peal of six bells, bearing the following 
inscriptions : — 

I. ** Thomas Mears, Founder, London. 

Josh. Bromhead I ^, i. Txr j 

5 Church Wardens. 

John Elhott 

John Marples 
John Brightmore 
Geo. Merral 
Wm. Cocker 
Thos. Merral 
Josh. Marples 

II. " Robert Froggatt, Joshua Gregory, Chapel Wardens, 1746. 
Thomas Hedderly, Founder." 

III. This bell bears the monogram Ihc, a fleur-de-Us stamp, 
and a cross fleury. Below the cross fleury is the bell-founder's 
mark, consisting of the Lombardic initials B.H. surmounted by a 
crown. 

IV. " Ihc. Gloria in excelsis Deo. 1620.** Bell-founder*s mark, 
a shield with the initials G. H., above a fylfot cross. 

V. *'Sit nomen Ihc benedictum.,'* The same founder's mark 
as on the third bell. 

VI. "The Duke of Butland*s Gift, 1754, Tho. Hedderly, 
Founder.** 

The donor of this last bell was John Manners, 3rd Duke and 
11th Earl of Rutland, and lord of the manor of Baslow. He 
was bom in 1696, and died in 1779. 

To the south of the churchyard, are the four square steps of 
the old cross, which now support a comparatively modern base 
and shaft about a yard high. On the top of this is a metaUic 
sundial, bearing the date — June 25th, 1789. Bassano's notes 
contain the following reference to this cross, which appears to 
have been then nearly perfect : — ** In ye churchyard is a fair 
cross of five greeces (steps) with a top stone and standard.** 

We have not been able to discover any trace of a chantry 
endowment at Baslow, either in the Chantry Bolls or elsewhere, 
and therefore we merely reproduce the following story from the 
pen of Mr. Peter Fumess, of Eyam, for what it is worth. Mr. 
Furness speaks of it as an anecdote related by Francis, last 
Earl of Newburgh. 

** One of the Eyres of Hassop left by will a yearly sum for 
ever to the officiating priest at Baslow to say mass and pray 



BASLOW. 6 1 

for the repose of himself and wife. It is presumed that at the 
Reformation hoth the praying and paying fell into desuetude, 
but a late incumbent of Baslow having discovered that a bequest 
had been made, at once wrote to Earl Newburgh (descendant 
of the Eyre of Hassop) to claim payment of the stipend. His 
lordship courteously replied to the apphcant, statiug his belief 
that the claim was correct, but took no further notice of the 
matter. Encouraged by the pleasing tenor of the note, the 
clergyman next applied personally for the money to his lordship, 
who in his blandest manner informed him that he did not in 
the least contemplate evading payment, but he must recollect 
that before he did so he should insist on the prayers and 
masses being duly performed according to the directions in the 
will of the donor. It is needless to say that the clergyman went 
away, * shorn of his beams.'"* 

But whether the above tale is apocryphal or not, a somewhat 
sinular instance of the disregard of a pious founder's bequest of 
a much later period occurs in the Charity Commissioners' report 
on Baslow, taken in 1827. One Humphrey Chapman, by will 
of the year 1777, left lands within the manor of Hartington, the 
rents of which were to be appropriated in stipulated quantities 
to the schoolmaster, minister, and poor of Baslow. The bequest 
to the clergyman was — **To the minister of Baslow who should 
preach an anniversary sermon on 5th November, 10s. yearly, as 
his stipend for the preaching thereof." The Conunissioners say 
that the minister was receiving his proportion of the rent, which 
then amoimted to 16s., but '< no such sermon is now preached." 
The observance of this day is best honoured in the breach, and 
we merely draw attention to it as another of the innumerable 
instances in which the express intentions of a benefactor are put 
on one side as inconsistent with the opinions of a subsequent 
generation. 

In the vestry there still remains the weapon of that ancient 
parish functionary, of whom we read in so many churchwardens* 
accounts in almost every county of England — the dog-whipper. It 
was his duty to whip the dogs out of church, and generally to look 
after the orderly behaviour of both bipeds and quadrupeds during 
divine service. The whip in question is a stout lash, some three 
feet in length, fjEkstened to a short ash stick, with leather bound 
round the handle. It is said that there are those yet living in the 

• Reliqwzryf vol. x., page 234. 



62 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

parish, who can remember the whip being used. We belieye it 

to be an unique curiosity, as we cannot hear of another parish in 

which the whip is still extant.* 

A large pewter flagon, nearly two hundred years old, and 

which had been discarded from its sacramental functions when 

silver plate was substituted, has recently been rescued from 

oblivion, rebumished, and appropriated to the purpose of supply* 

ing water for the font It bears on it the following names and 

dates : — 

** Mr. Bichard Froggatt ) Ghappell wardens 
Robert OUver ) 1685. 

" E, M. Wrench, F.R.C.S, \ Churchwardens, 
C. Bcott, j 1875." + 

The Registers of Baslow, which are in a most dilapidated con- 
dition, begin in 1569. They contain numerous interpolations, 
utterly irrelevant to matters ecclesiastical, especiaUy in the 18th 
century. In 1721 a whole page is occupied by directions for 
pruning and manuring nectarine trees. In 1780, after notice of 
a bequest to the poor of the chapelry, is written in another 
hand, 

**Vidi sed vidisse, pudet puduitque videre." 
On 22nd August, 1749, after the entry of a wedding — '*The 
same night was the most terrible for lightning, thunder, and 
rain there was ever known in this age.'' 

* On the subject of whipping dogs out of chnrch, see Notes and Queries, Ist S. ix., 
849, 499 : X.. 188 ; zii., 396 ; 2nd S. i., 283 ; ii., 187 ; iii., 379 ; 5th S. iy., 809, 514; 
T., 87. We nave seen a wonderful instrument of a like nature, in the interesting 
church of Clynnog Fawr, in North Wales. It is a long pair of iron " lazy tongs,'* 
with short spikes at the end for laying hold of the unfortunate dog. 

fin 1222 the Archbishop of Canterbury forbad the use of tin or pewter in the 
holj[ vessels, but pewter was not unfrequently used, at a later date, before the Befor> 
mation, and is still occasionally used on the Continent. By the Canon of 1604, the 
wine was to be brought *' in a clean and sweet standing pot or stoop of pewter, if not 
of purer metaL" 



BEELEY. 63 



Z^t (E^optlvs of ttetleg. 




ITHING more than a casual glance is generally bestowed 
on the small and unpretending church of Beeley, by 
the army of tourists, who yearly pass it by, at the 
entrance to Chatsworth Park. But that which remains of its 
ancient architecture is of no small interest from the very com- 
plexity of its styles, and there are many more interesting frag- 
ments of its early history still extant, than is often the case 
with buildings of much greater magnitude. The church at Beeley 
now consists of a wide modern nave, chancel, south porch, and 
tower at the west end. Within the porch is the earliest portion 
of the building, consisting of a round-headed Norman doorway, 
which is considerably mutilated. The jambs of this doorway have 
originally been ornamented with detached shafts, or small pillars, 
but of these only the capitals now remain. The ' dripstone over 
the doorway has a small head in the centre, and its terminals 
are also two human heads surmounted with a sort of tiara or 
three tiers of curls. This precise pattern is used in a similar 
place in the old south doorway of Edensor church. The style 
of this doorway shows considerable advance in the Norman style, 
and we should date it about 1150 — 1160. The alterations made 
in this church at the commencement of the present century, to 
which we shall again refer, did away with the north aisle, and 
covered the main part of the building with a single roof. But 
we find from the MS. OoUeotions of the Lysons* that the north 
aisle was separated from the nave by what they term *^ Saxon'* 
pillars, having capitals with heads at the comers, and these were 
probably of the same date as the porch. The font, also, is spo- 
ken' of in the same place, as ''large and round," whilst Mr. 
Bawlins (who visited the church some ten years later, about 

•Add. MSS., 9458,1 6. 



64 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES, 

1826) describes it as ** plain and circular." The font appears 
then to have been within the church, but it was shortly after- 
wards cast out, and is described by Mr. T. N. Ince, in 1858, as 
" now 'Used as a rain stoup in the churchyard." * Since then it 
has happily been once again restored to the church. It is with- 
out doubt a plain specimen of Norman work. Mr. Bawlins -also 
gives a brief description of the interior of the church, from 
which it appears that though the pillars between the north aisle 
and nave were Norman, the arches were of a later date and 
pointed. There are also several indications of the extensive re- 
building of this chapel that took place in the Ear]y English 
period, about a century later. The greater portion of the ma- 
sonry of the chancel, which is not supported by buttresses, seems 
to us to belong to this style, though pierced by windows of 
later dates. But on the north side of the chancel, there is a 
small lancet window with a trefoil head that is undoubtedly a 
specimen of Early English work. The lower portion, and per- 
haps most of the masonry of the tower, is also of thirteenth 
century work, as is clearly shown by the two parallel shallow 
buttresses, of a single set-off, against the west wall, where there 
is neither door nor window. There is also a buttress of the 
same date, against the only portion of the masonry of the old 
north aisle which now remains, at the west end. 

The acutely poiated archway into the chancel, as well as the 
similar one iuto the tower, out of the body of the church, are 
also of that century, but probably belong to the early portion of 
the Decorated period, which commenced about the close of the 
thirteenth century. Probably these arches may be about the year 
1280, or rather later, to which date, too, we should assign the 
three-hght east window of the chancel, with the three quatrefoils 
in the upper tracery. To the Decorated period, also, (in which 
there was considerable variety considering that it did not prevail 
for a century), and probably about the same year, belong the pointed 
priest's door on the south of the chancel, and the four single lights 
having an ogee arch, of the. bell chamber of the tower. There is 
another Decorated window on the south side of the chancel, of 
three lights, the mullions intersecting one another in a diamond 
shape pattern in the upper tracery, after a common design that 
chiefly prevailed about 1320. 

* A drawing of this font is given by Mr. Ince in the Tolmne of the Anaistatic Draw- 
ing Society for 1858, plate xzii. 



BEELEY. 65 

Of the succeeding style — the Perpendicular — there is also an 
example in the same wall, in a square-headed window of two lights, 
and the hattlements and pinnacles of the tower were erected during 
that period, viz., iu the fifteenth or heginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. From what we can gather of the general appearance of the 
body of the church, before the barbarous alterations of the preseut 
century, it seems that both roof and windows were characteristic of 
the commencement of the Perpendicular and expiration of the 
Decorated style, circa 1370 — 1380, when, as we shall presently see, 
the church was thoroughly renovated. 

Over the ugly modern porch is a keystone inscribed : — ** John 
Lees, Beeley, Chapl. Ward. 1806 '^ — thus giving the year of its 
erection. A few years later the body of the church became so 
dilapidated, that the inhabitants applied to the Quarter Sessions 
on 19th October, 1819, to obtain a Brief for its repair. The Brief 
states that it was a structure *' greatly decayed, that the foundation, 
walls, and roof of the body were particularly dangerous and neces- 
sary to be taken down (leaving the chancel and the tower stand- 
ing) and the same to be rebuilt upon a scale something larger, 
which is desirable from the inhabitants of Kowsley using Beeley 
church, they not having one of their own." James Ward, of Shef- 
field, '* an experienced architect" estimates the cost at £'1,194 5s. 4d. 

But this Brief did not suffice to obtain the requisite sum, for we 
find that two other biiefs were obtained for a like purpose in 1823 
and 1826.* On the lead of the roof of the nave is the inscription 
'*H. Grainger, C. W.. 1819/' 

Having completed our review of the present general aspect of the 
church, we will now proceed to the consideration of its history as 
it can be gleaned from several ancient documents. Beeley was one 
of the numerous chapels of the large and unwieldy parish of Bake- 
well — a parish that always seems to have been involved in inter- 
minable disputes with its semi-dependent chapeh'ies, even to com- 
paratively modern days. 

The church of Bakewell, with all its appurtenances and chapels, 
was given by John, in the year 1192, to the cathedral of Lichfield, 
and this gift of course included the chapel of Beeley .f The profits 
of the church being thus impropriated, a vicar was appointed with 
a stipend of twenty marks, and other provisions made for his 

* The ori|2^na1 of the first of these briefs in at the British Museum ; the petitions 
to Quarter Sessious, relative to the two subRequent ouen, are amongst the County 
Records. 

t Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. iii., p. 227. 



6U DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

maintenance, as well as for that of the different chapelries. But 
these regulations were so ill-observed, that when the energetic 
Archbishop Peckham made his visitation of the Diocese of Lichfield 
in 1280, he sternly rebuked the Dean and Canons for their gross 
neglect of the spiritual necessities of Bakewell and its dependent 
chapelries. The Archbishop by his decision made a compromise, 
and, so far as respected Beeley, ordained that the chancel should 
be kept in repair by the inhabitants, who were also to find a 
chalice and a missal, but that the rest of the fabric, and books, and 
ornaments were to be supplied by the Dean and Canons. The 
parishioners of Chelmorton were also ordered to pay two-and-a-half 
marks to the chaplain of Beeley, w^hich with one mark received 
from the very small endowment of that chapel, together with 
twenty shiUings to be raised annually from the inhabitants 
(amounting in all to five marks), was to be the yearly stipend of 
the officiating priest of Beeley.* 

In the year 1315, a composition was entered into between the 
Dean and Chapter of Lichfield and the parishioners of the chapels 
of Baslow, Longstone, Taddington, Monyash, and Beeley, by which 
the Chapter, " desiring to be in amity with all and avoid con- 
tention," grants twenty shillings to the chapelry of Beeley, to be 
paid yearly "for the honour of God and augmentation of his 
divyne worshippe," and remission of charges for testaments and' 
administrations. They further permitted that " certayne honest and 
chiefemen of theise parishes aforesaid which shall be meete for the 
bringinge of holye water may be named by the parishioners, and 
may be presented to the vicars or ministers of the places, and of 
them in the name of tlie Dean and Chapter, if they be found 
sufficient, may be therefore admitted." Li consideration of all this, 
and certain other privileges, they are not to require anything for 
the repair or defence of their chapels, or anytliing for any order 
or uses.f 

The Beeley registers are of exceptional interest, and contain many 
references to the arrangements made between the chapelry and the 
mother church of Bakewell. J In several places, and under slightly 
varying forms, occurs a memorandum to the effect that the chapel 
of Beeley was built and finished on or about Thursday, the 17th of 

♦Dugdale'B Moriastieon, vol. iii., p. 229; Add. MSS. 6667, f. 198; etc., etc. 
t Add. MSS. 6698. 

X The Beeley Regislers commence in 1638. A good pappr on the earliest of these 
Begisters was published in the Heliqaary^ vol. v., pp. 143-147. 



BEEI.EY. 67 

July, 1876, and that it was conBecratcd on or about Thursday, the 
10th of March, 1878. From what we have already stated respect- 
ing the architecture of the church, it is quite clear that a chapel 
existed fully two hundred years earher than the first of these dates ; 
and the entries in the register probably refer to a thorough renovation 
of the building, especiaUy of the body or nave, which may have 
been left untouched up to that time from the days when the 
Normans first buOt it, and not have been rebuilt in the Early 
English period as was the case with the chancel and tower. 
These entries are of considerable interest, as helphig to confirm the 
fact that the ceremony of consecration was not unfrcqucntly per- 
formed again, especially when the sacred building had been for any 
time in disuse.* Dr. Pegge tells us that in 1816 this chapel was 
dedicated to St. Mary, and it seems very probable that at this 
time (1378) it was dedicated to St Anne, which has been un- 
doubtedly its dedication for several centuries. The allusion to St. 
Mary in a document of a later date, which we shall now quote, 
does not of necessity imply its then dedication to St. Mary, but 
may merely be an allusion to the supposed influence of the Virgin 
Mary, or possibly to her special altar, which was maintained in 
almost every church or chapel of suflicient size to support a 
second one. 

The document in question is quoted at lengtli by Lysons from 
the original, then in the possession of Mr. Adam Wolley. Lysons 
gives its date as 1473, but Dr. Pegge, evidently referrhig to tlie 
same, speaks of the 10th year of Edward IV. This instrument 
states : — ** That there is a devoute chapel in Beley in Derwent dale 
w^hich is a new begonne thing of our sweet lady St. Mary, and 
hafe nothing but through the pace of God and the almes of good 
men and wymmen, but that won Sir John Eyere chapellyn, movid 
with grace and vertue, hath laboured and done great cobt there, as 
well of his owne proper costs as of his pore neighbours, and hath 
gotten thereto boke, bell, vestment, and chales, and hath a preest 
there sayinge masse daily before our sayde layde for all brethren 
and sisters, and all good doers thereto and purposeth through the 
grace of God and our sayde layde and succoure of good men and 
wymmen to found a preest there for ever, to pray for all the 
benefactors and good doers thereto while he may not utterly 
perform without refreshyng and almesdeds of good men and 

• On the Bubject of the recousecration and redcdication of churches, see Churchts 
of Iferhijnhire, vol. i., pp. 433, 484. 



68 DERBYSlilUE CHUKCHE8. 

wymmen, wherefore if hit please you to shew your blessed ahnes 
thereto, hit is your owne, and our said blessed lady will reward 
you : nnd also we have sent amongst you won Thomas WiUymot, 
which is a very trewe proctour and a special benefactor and good 
doer there. To which present writing, &c., &c." Br. Pegge 
supplies the names of those who signed this instrument, which are 
not given by Lysons. They were— Henry ColumbeU, Esquire; 
John Rollesley, Renald Cockayne, Robert Lee, and Robert Leche, 
gentlemen ; and Sir Richard Johnson, parson, of Darley.* 

A document issued by the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield, as 
Rectors and Patrons of Bakewell, in the year 1494, concerning the 
re-arrangement and increase of the temporalities of iiiat parish, 
orders the Vicars of Bakewell in consideration thereof to pay the 
annual grant of twenty sliilHngs to the chaplain at Beeley, which 
had previously been paid by the Dean and Chapter.t 

According to the Valor Erclesiasiicus (27 Henry Vni.,) this 
chapelry paid a pension of 12d. to the Chapter of Lichfield. 

When the Parliamentary Survey of Livings was taken in 1^0, 
the Commissioners recommended that the parochial chapelry of 
Beeley should be united to Edensor. l^Ir. Richard Slack was then 
minister, whom they report to be " insufficient. *' 

The Registers during the latter paii of the Commonwealth con- 
tain the following compendious autobiography of a peripatetic 
minister, who seems to have finally settled at Beeley. When John 
Cantrell was at Elton in 1650, the Parhamentary Commissioners 
not only reported him as ** scandalous" (which was a term often 
only equivalent to being possessed of royalist proclivities), but, also, 
as ** inefficient," and it was probably the latter failing that caused 
his frequent removals. The entry is as follows : — 

" John Cantrell, Minister and Scholemaster at Darley in the 
ycares of our Lord 1627, 1628, 1629, 1630, 1631, 1632. Schole- 
master at Mr. Raphael Barke's house at Stanton in the yeares 
1683, 16.34, 1635. Minister and Scholemaster againe at Darley in 
the yeares 1636, 1637, 1638, 1630, 1640, 1641, 1642, 1648, 1644. 
Minister and Scholemaster at Ashover in the yeares 1645, 1646. 
Minister and Scholemaster at Hucknall Tokard in the countie of 
Nottingham in the yeares 1647, 1648. Minister and Scholemaster 
at Elton in the yeares 1649, 1650, 1651, 1652. Minister at Pivr- 

669*8^^216 wherf iC dJt« -i/-^ *• ^^^' ^^^^^^ Derhyskire, p. 83; Add. MSS. 
6b98, f. Zlb, where the date is given as 18th March, 13 Edward IV. 

t lieliquaryy vol. iv., p. 254. 



BEKLKY. 69 

wich and Scholemaster at Parwich, Elton, VVinster, and Darley in 
the yeares 1653, 1654, 1655. Minister at Chelmorton and Becleigh 
and Scholemaster there in the yeare 1666. 

'' Sic transit tempus vitse humanse. 

*' Per me Johanem Cantrell ministr* ac Mathemat', dccimo tertis 
die Junii in hoc anno 1656.'' 

There are also in the Registers various entries relative to dis- 
putes between the chapelry and the mother church. One of these 
we give at length : — 

" This is a true relation of all mauer of dues that can be justly 
claymed from ye inhabitants belonging to or reputed to belong 
within ye Chappelry of Beleigh in Darby shire, when that cure is 
void, and the Vicar of Bake well is hired by the more part of y* said 
inhabitants to officiate therein (otlierwise there is no dues at all belong- 
ing to him). And Mr. Cluristopher Lawson, present Vicar of Bake- 
well promised in this court to serve or procure a lawful minister 
to serve monthly at Beleigh free Chapel, and to administer y* 
Sacrament, and to marry, baptize, and burie as often as occa- 
sion require, or he to require no dues there. 

" The customary payments of the inhabitants of Beeley and Har- 
wood Grange to the Vicar of Bake well for Easter dues and mor- 
tuaries, there being no other payments to him, as it was proved 
att a Visitation held at Bakewell in the year 1671, before the 
WorshipfuU Thomas Browne, Archdeacon of this County, and offi- 
cial of the peculiar and jui'isdiction of Bakewell, upon a difference 
there was between Christopher Lawson then Vicar of Bakewell, and 
the said inhabitants of Beeley and Harwood, by John Froggart of 
Froggart, Peter Clay of Birchover, Hugh Wilson of FaUinge, and 
Anthony Holme of Beeley, the youngest of them being then 76 
years old, and which the said Mr. Lawson afterwards received, and 
Mr. Edward Smith his successor, are as foUoweth, viz., — 

D. 

For Christmas 2 

Offerings, when he serves Beeley Church, the Master 

or Mistress or Dame of a family each of them 2 

of aU other sojourners, servants, and children 

above 16 years old, each one - - - - 1 

His dues for the House 1^, Garden 1^., Plough 1^. - 3 

for every Milch Cow 1*., Calf i^. - - - li 

for a Foal - - - - - - - 2 

for Geese, if above 6, 1^., if under 1 5, but if 15,1 i^ 21 



70 DEFiBYSHIRE CHURCHKS. 

Ilis dues for Pigga the like 

for every Hen 2 eggs, 

Geese if not agreed for, to be delivered in Bakewell churchyard on 
or about Midsummer day, and the like for Piggs if they happen.'* 

There does not appear to have been any early right of sepulture 
attached to this chapel, nor need we imagine that any interesting 
memorials of an early date were lost at the demolition of the nave 
in 1819; for Bassano, who carefully enumerated the ancient monu- 
ments in this district about the year 1710, mentions none of an 
earlier date than those to the Savilles, the oldest of which bear the 
years 1676 and 1676 respectively. These are in the chancel, as 
well as two others to the same family of a later date. The 
Savilles purchased the manor of Beeley towards the end of the 
sixteenth century and occupied the residence in this chapelry, 
formerly called the Greaves, but which they re-named Hill Top.* 

There is also a small brass against the north wall of the chancel, 
inscribed — " Here lieth interred, in Hopes of a Blessed Resurrec- 
tion, the body of Jrhn Calvert, late of this Parish, Gent. Who 
departed this Life April the seventh, 1710, aged 95." The repson 
we draw attention to this late memorial is because it affords an 
instance of an effigy in brass of a most unusually late date. The 
brass itself is scarcely a foot square, and the figure below the 
inscription of hlliputian dimensions. The figure is represented in 
what we suppose is intended for an open coffin, and clad in a 
shroud, but with the face exposed, and the hands by the side. 

The tower contains three bells, which, bear the following in- 
scriptions. 

I. "God save his Church." In Lombardic capitals. 

II. There is no inscription on this bell, but round the haunch 
are two fleurs-de-lis, a foHated cross, a Lombardic capital letter S. 
and the founder's mark, consisting of a cross between the initials 
G. H. in chief, and a fylfot cross and the section of a beU in 
base.t 

102* ^George 's^vU^' wSn *^v l^^^lf °/ ?^ ^°P ^^ *^« Heliquary^ vol. xiv., p. 
WilUam Seville wi^^^ without wsne 1676. and his^rotier and heh- 

married Dorothy, daughter and^ WilUam, the younger, 

their two eons George and John WW- i ^^.^^^^^^ .StevenBon of Matlock, and 
estates to their neprw"john°G?lhtf o?^^^^^ ^''^" ^ ^'^^ ^^^^^ "^^^ 



BEELEY. 7 1 

III. " Ste Georgi. 0. P. N." (Sancte Georgi, ora pro nobis). 
The founder's mark the same as on the 2nd bell. 

Besides these three bells, there is also fixed in the east window 
of the bell-chamber a re-cast Sanctus bell of the seventeenth 
century, bearing the mark of George Oldfield. 

In the churchyard there is a fine old yew, or rather the remnants 
of a once massive tree, but carefully preserved. 



72 



DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 



^fft Chapelts of Bttxtoti^ 




HAT the waters of Buxton were well-known to the Ro- 
mans is an ascertained fact, but history is silent with 
■ respect to Buxton for nearly ten or eleven centuries 
after their departure from Britain. Notwithstanding, however, 
this silence, there can be no doubt that the curative properties 
of the waters were never entirely forgotten for any long period, 
or the ancient well of St. Anne, which was surrounded with 
Roman brick and cement, would not have existed in a compara- 
tively intact condition down to the year 1709, when Sir Thomas 
Delves, a gentleman of Cheshire, removed it, and erected a stone 
alcove or arch over the sprmg.* 

Various writers of tlie time of Queen Elizabeth not only testify 
that the waters were tlien m high ropute,t but that they had 
been thus regarded for a very considerable space of time. Dr. 
Jones, writing in 1672, speaks of a register kept by fie warden 

the bath, in which the names, sj-mptoms, etc., of the patients 
were recorded, and this register appears to have been kept for 
a ong period. Ho also speaks of "the vayne invencions about 
L " °^ ^""^ ^ *^' ^""' °' °f *»^« ^'^^^ «et from flood Jor- 

1 will .f. " ^ "''^"'^ "°* *^^°^ ^°'t^y tl^e recitaU ; therefore 

shirt -r A T' ^"^ ^'^^ ""''^^ ''y^««' «"^ dayes being so 
^ >=• + And though we could have wished that the days had 

^« W7"4:^?t""a^A'''°'*'^ ^'"-"^ »-«««•» (1724,, p. 44,- Pe«rson-B Springs of 

l^%^^S''-°''^^^°'^A^^l^^ °V*od%^."'r?; Sh„w«bury. appears to have 
IboutVlS?- ^^■' ?*»' 289. 271. The Hart llfj^^t f/'"*!™'""" "/ Sn^tish HUtory, 
Ha.SJ„il"P*,'}~^' o* 'he Earl of 8aa8/r f a ^^V'?^,*<* *« preaence at Buxton, 
Harnngton, Mr. Thomas Cecil. Mr Eo«e^^„?r^'"«''i ^'' '^^ F"»wimam, Lady 
"j,, „ ^ Manners, and many others of high posi- 

'-th^e^^-nt.-:x-e^';^--^^^^ 



BUXTON. 73 

been long enough for Dr. Jones to give us a few of these his- 
torical or legendary trifles, still enough is said by him and his 
contemporaries to comdnce us that a chapel existed here for 
many centuries before the Reformation. Dr. Short says, **that 
Buxton was of great repute in the darkest distant times is unde- 
niable from the Chapel here dedicated to St. Anne, whose foun- 
dation was likewise discovered and large piece of its wall dug 
up in driving the foresaid level.*'* This was a new level driven 
to the bath by Mr. White of Buxton Hall, in 1698. At the 
same time various Roman remains were also uncovered. 

For our own part we have little doubt that there was a 
Christian chapel here at the time of Archbishop Peckham's Visi- 
tation in 1280 (though as we have already explained under 
Bakewell, it would not claim special mention), even if there was not 
one as early as the time when John bestowed the church of 
Bakewell and all its chapelries on the cathedral church of Lich- 
field. It is not to be expected that any mention of this chapel 
would be found earlier than the sixteenth century, for it had 
no special emoluments or value attached to it. Probably the cha- 
pel of St. Anne of Buxton was merely one of those ** well- chapels" 
of which there are numerous ruinous instances in Wales and Corn- 
wall. Small chapels of this description are now in use by the side 
of the holy springs of the Pyrenees, and elsewhere in Catholic 
countries. These served chiefly for the prayers and thanksgivings 
of the superstitious votaries of the bath, and were only occasion- 
ally and at fitful intervals visited by a mass priest. The chapel 
at Buxton would probably be served from time to time by the 
priest or priests of Chelmoi-ton, as it was situated within the 
confines of that parochial chapelry. 

The first historical allusion to this chapel that we can find 
occurs in the Valor Ecclesiasticiuf (27 Henry VIII.), wherein is the 
following entry, under the parish church of Bakewell : — 

'* Capella de Bukstones in pochia de Bakewell. In oblationibus 
ibidem ad Sanctam Annam coram nobis dictis commissionariis non 
patet." 

It is not to be wondered at that there was a difficulty in 
supplying the Commissioners of Henry VIII. with the value of 
the offerings here made to St. Anne, as they must have fluctuated 
considerably according to the social position of the patients or the 
completeness of the cures. 

♦Short's Mineral Waters, p. 23, 



74 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

A few years later, the superstitious reverence that associated the 
healing properties of the water with St. Anne was rudely crushed 
by one of the agents of Henry VIEE. In his zeal to do his mas- 
ter's bidding, he not only closed the chapel and removed the image, 
but even deprived the sick for a time of all access to the waters. 
The following letter from Sir William Bassett to Lord Cromwell 
will be read with interest : — 

'* Bight Honourable my in especial good Lord, 

** According to my bounden duty, and the tenor of your 
lordship's letters lately to me directed. I have sent your Lordship 
by this bearer, my brother Francis Bassett, the images of St. 
Anne of Buxton, and Saint Andrew of Burton upon Trent^ which 
images I did take from the places where they did stand and 
brought them to my own house, within forty-eight hours after the 
contemplation of your said lordship's letters, in as sober a manner 
as my little and rude wits would serve me. And for that there 
should be no more idolatry and superstition there used, I did not 
only deface the tabernacles and places where they did stand, but 
did also take away crutches, shirts, and shifts, with was offered, be- 
ing things that allure and entice the ignorant to the said offering, 
also giving the keepers of both places orders that no more offerings 
should be made in those places till the king's pleasure and your 
lordship's be further known on their behalf. 

'' My Lord, I have locked up and sealed the baths and wells at 
BuxtoD, that none shall enter to wash there till your lordship's 
pleasure be further known. Whereof I beseech your good lordship 
that I may be ascertained again at your pleasures, and I shall not 
fail to execute your lordship's commandments to the utmost of my 
little wit and power. And my lord, as touching the opinion of the 
people, and the fond trust they did put in those images, and 
the vanity of the things ; this bearer can tell your lordship better 
at large l^n I can write, for he was with me at the doing of all 
» this, and in all places, as knoweth good Jesus, Whom ever have 
your good lordship in bis blessed keeping. 

** Written at Langley with the rude and simple hand of your 
assured and most faithful orator, and as one ever at your com- 
mandment next unto the King's, to the uttermost of his little 
power, 

*' William Bassett, Knight. • 
"To Lord Cromwell.'** 

♦Ward's Guide to the Peak, p. 177. 



BUXTON. 75 

The old chapel of St. Anne stood very near to the well, a little 
to the east, and it seems probable that the building was complete- 
ly demolished, in order to eradicate superstitious notions, shortly 
after Lord Cromwell's receipt of the letter just quoted. It was 
the foundations of this old chapel that were uncovered, as already 
mentioned, in 1698. Wlien Dr. Jones wrote about Buxton in 
1572, it appears that there was not any chapel remaining, and the- 
crutches and other tokens of restored health were suspended to the 
walls of the public rooms, adjoining the baths, that had been erected 
by the Earl of Shrewsbury. When this building was removed and 
a larger one substituted in 1670, by the third Earl of Devonshire, 
the whole of these relics, as well as the bath registers, most unfor- 
tunately disappeared. 

The collapse of the superstitious efficacy attributed to the waters 
seems to have in no wise interfered with their natural repute, and 
visitors of all ranks and conditions * continued to frequent the wells 
and baths. It became requisite that some provision should be made 
for their spiritual necessities, as the visitors overcrowded the adja- 
cent chapel of Fairfield, and accordingly a plain chapel was built 
in 1625, iu the higher or upper town of Buxton, above St. Anne's 
cliff. 

The Parliamentary commissioners of 1650 describe it as a chapel of 
ease to Bakew^cU, and report that "it is thought fitt to be made a 
parish, and to have united to it Cowdell, and Stadon. Mr. John 
Jackson, minister, reputed an honest man." 

This building seems to have sufficed for upwards of a century- 
and-a-half, but in 1798 a petition was presented to quarter sessions, 
signed by the minister, chapel- wardens, and principal inhabitants, 
praying that a Brief might be granted for the obtaining of funds 
for a new edifice. The petition states that the chapel of Buxton 
was a very ancient structure, and greatly decayed in walls and 
roof, and that in consequence of the increase of population it was 
incapable of holding half the parish, " several of which are obliged 
to stay away or go to other places of worship, which is attended 

* It was by no meane onlj the wealthy who had faith in the efficacy of these 
waters during the reign of Ehzabeth. So great was the influx of the very poorest, that 
in an Act of o9 Elizabeth, a special clause was introduced " that none resorting to 
Bath or Buckstone V^ells should beg, but have relief from their parishes, and a pass 
under the hands of two Justices of the Peace, fixing the time of their return." Short's 
Mineral Waterty p. 42. In the same reign the inhabitants of the adjoining township 
of Fairfield, petitioned for a grant towards the maintenance of their minister, stating 
that their poverty arose in part ** by reason of the frequent access of divers poor, sick, 
and impotent persons repairing to the Fountain of Buxton." Robertson's Guide to 
Buxton, p. 26. 



70 DKRBYSniRE CHrRCHKS. 

with great inconvenience," it was therefore urged that it should be 
taken down and re-built ; Mr. Joseph Smith, ** an able and 
experienced architect," having estimated the cost at JS2,41d. The 
Brief was obtained, but its results seem to have been very small, 
for the work was not undertaken, and the pressure of attendance 
was relieved by service being read for the visitors in the large 
•room of the hotel in the Crescent ; the Crescent having been com- 
pleted in 1784. Eventually the Duke of Devonshire, in 1811, 
obtained an Act of Parliament for "building and establishing a 
church or chapel of ease at Buxton in the county of Derby" at his 
own expense. The preamble to this act stated that the population 
of Buxton, situated in the two parishes of BakeweU and Hope, had 
much increased, that the old chapel was at a very inconvenient 
distance and difficult of access from the principal part of the town, 
and that the 'consent of Dean and Chapter of Lichfield, as patrons 
of Bake well and Hope, of Richard Chapman, vicar of BakeweU, and 
of Stephen Hartley, vicar of Hope, had been obtained for the new 
church. The act itself provided that the patronage of the new 
church should be vested in the Duke, as well as that of Baslow 
(another chapelry of BakeweU), and that the Duke should hand over 
to the vicar of BakeweU, in consideration of his giving up the 
advowsons of these two chapelries, the patronage of Tutbury, 
together with land at Tutbury to the annual value of £95, to be 
settled on the vicar of BakeweU.* 

The chapel which was built in upper Buxton in 1626, still 
remains. In order to avert superstition, the new chapel was not 
dedicated to St. Anne, but to St. John.t It is a plain oblong 
building under a single steeply-pitched roof, and has an area of 56 
feet 2 inches, by 20 feet 4 inches. It is Ughted by square-headed 
windows, and over the north door is tlie date 1626. At the west 
end is the font, of an unusual oblong shape. On one side is the 
same date as that over the door, on another is a shield charged 
with a sal tire, on the third the Greek character Q, and on the 
fourth, which appears to have been originaUy fixed against the wall, 
the initials T. Y. 

The roof is open and has five large tie-beams across the walls. On 
the beam at the west end is inscribed—** This church, dedicated to 
St. John the Evangelist, was restored by WiUiam Spencer, Duke of 

•61 Geo. III., cap. 69. 

tPilkinffton, voL ii., p. 426, Bays that the dedication was to St. John the 
Baptist, but in this he is in error. 



BUXTON. i 7 

Devoiihliire, A.B., 1841; Francis Richard Grey, A.M., Incumbent; 
Augubtin Fowler, A.B., Curate ; Samuel Turner, CLurcliwardcn." 
At the east end is a reading desk of handsomely carved oak, 
apparently of 17th century work. This was, we were told, con- 
structed from some old chests obtained at Wormhill, by the late 
incumbent. 

From the time of the opening of the new church in 1812 up to 
1841, this old chapel was but seldom used for worship, and for the 
most part served as a school-room. Since 1871, when the new 
church of St. James the Great was opened, service in the old 
building has been again discontinued. It is surroimded by a grave- 
yard, the inhabitants having obtained the rights of burial and 
baptism here in 1625, and is now used as a mortuary chapel and 
a Sunday School. 

In 1715 a vestry was added at the south-east angle of the 
chapel, and the date carved over the door. On the walls are 
several plain monumental tablets, the earliest being to the memory 
of William Wallace, who died in 1788. 



DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. i 



IS^t (S^aptlts of Ctielmorton. 




jHAT there was a chapel of the extensive parish of Bake- 
well at Chelmorton, with a right of burial attached, very 
soon after the Norman Conquest, there can be no doubt, 
if only from the sepulchral remains that have recently been 
brought to light. In Glover's history of the coimty it 
is said that the church was erected in 1111, the date being 
given on an oak beam of the old roof.* But this cannot 
be accepted as correct, although the date may ai)proximate 
to the true one, for Arabic numerals were not then in use, and 
the whole of the roofs were of late Perpendicular design. The date 
in question, if authentic, should probably have been read 1511, for the 
numeral 5 was at that time represented by only a slight wave or 
inflection from the straight line. Or it may have been a misread- 
ing of the monogram IHS., which was formerly on a boss of tlie 
chancel roof. A third solution was obtained by a visitor to this 
church at the commencement of the restorations, who was told that the 
part of the beam, with the date affixed, was in a well-known local 
museum at the entrance to Poole's Cavern. But on this collection 
being inspected no date could be detected on the piece of wood, 
but merely a car\ing representing "four pillars supporting the 
floor of a chamber, or some object of that description." + 

There must have been a chapel here, when John gave the 
church of Bakewell and its dependencies to the Dean and Chapter 
of Lichfield, but the first specific mention we have found of it is 
in the early chartulary of Lichfield, from which we have before 
quoted, under the year 1256. J 

♦ Glover's Derbyshire j vol. ii., p. 2^7. 

t A paper on this church, chiefly dealing with the eepulchral slabs, was contributed 
by C. S. Greaves, Esq., Q.C., to the Archceological Journal^ vol. xxvi., pp. 268-265. 

\ Harl. MSS., 4799. Add. MSS., 6666, f. 39. We conclude that Henry Foljambe, 
one of the founders of the chantry, was one of the younger sons of John Foljambe, 



CHELMOKTON. 79 

In that 3'ear leave was granted by Roger Molent, Bishop of 
Coventry and Lichfield, to William and Henry Bawkestones (Bux- 
ton), Geoffrey and Nicholas de Kendall, and Henry Foljambe de 
Standon, all residents at Chelmorton, to found a perpetual chantry 
in the chapel of Chelmorton, with rights of sepulture in the ceme- 
tery adjoining. They bound themselves to find at their own charge 
for ever, a proper and fit chaplain, to be presented to the Dean 
and Chapter or to their procurator at BakeweU, who should serve 
the chantry if found to be sufficient for that purpose. The Chap- 
lain was to swear canonical obedience to the Dean and Chapter, 
and to give to them all obventions and mortuaries belonging to 
the mother church. The founders of the chantry also bound them- 
selves on behalf of the inhabitants of Chelmorton, to keep the 
chapel in repair, to find books and ornaments, to pay both the 
great and small tithes to the mother church, and to contribute 
their share towards its repair and towards lamps and candles. If 
the inhabitants failed in this, the chapel, chantry, and cemetery 
would all be taken away. 

But this arrangement, that bore so hardly on the inhabitants of 
Chelmorton, was not maintained for mauy years, for at the metro- 
politan visitation of Archbishop Peckham in 1280, when the short- 
comings of the Dean and Chapter were so severely exposed, it 
was stated that the ecclesiastical revenues of the chapelry amounted 
to sixty marks. Owing to the gift of two-thirds of the tithes of 
his estates to the priory of Lenton by WiUiam Peverel the younger, 
disputes were constantly arising throughout the Peak district be- 
tween the Priory and the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield, as we 
shall subsequently see under Chapelen-le- Frith and Fairfield, but 
in this instance it appears that the right of the Priory of Lenton 
to two-thirds of the tithes was undisputed, so that only one-third 
was appropriated by the Dean and Chapter.* Taking this into 
consideration, tlie Archbishop treated the case of the chapel of Chel- 
morton on different terms to the remainder of the chapclries, aud 
ordained that two-thirds of the expense for providing books and 

who died 1249, and is buried in the chancel at Tideswell. He was brother of the first 
Sir Thomas Foljambe of Tideswell, and was himself bailiff of that town. See Monu- 
menta Foljamheana, Beliquary, vol. xiv., p. 239, and Nichols' Collectanea, vol. i., p. 
99. Sir Thomas Foljambe died seized of certain lands at Stanton (Standon), on which 
his brother Henry was probably sometime resident. The Foljarabes held land for 
several centuries at Chelmorton. See Nichols' Collectanea, vol. i., pp. 887, 389, 341. 

* Two-thirds of the tithes of the demesne pasture lands of Chelmorton, Buxton, 
and Stemdale, and one or two other manors, are specifically mentioned in the foun- 
dation charter of Lenton, and it does not appear that disputes arose about these 
manors, but about others that were supposed to be included in the general gift. 
Dugdale'B Monasticonj vol 1., p. 646 ; Stevens' Continuation, vol. ii., p. 18. 



80 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. • 

ornameutB (except the missal and chalice) should be provided by 
the moiiks and only one-third by the Dean and. Chapter. The 
Chapter, however, was to provide the Minister, and pay him the 
yearly stipend of five marks, as the prior had never held the ap- 
pointment of minister ; and the parishioners, as they were excused 
any share in the payment of the stipend of their own priest, had 
to find two-and-a-half marks towards the salary of the poorer 
chapelry of Beeley.* 

From the VcUor Ecclesiasticas (27 Henry VIIL) it appears that the 
Dean and Chapter of Lichfield were in receipt of a pension of 4s. 
from the chapelry of Chelmorton. The same record shows that the 
Priory of Lenton paid at that time dOs. per annum to the minister 
at Chelmorton. Bichard Dowkyn was then minister. 

The Parliamentary Commissioners of 1650 reported of Chelmorton 
that it was a parochial chapelry, '* thought fitt to be made a 
parish and to have united to it Shj'worth, Topplehead (sic) 
Fiagg, and King Stemdale." Mr. Willmore, who was then in- 
cumbent, is described as insufficient. 

The church of Chelmorton, which is dedicated to St. John the 
Baptist, consists of nave, north and south aisles, south transept, 
south porch, chancel, and tower surmounted by a spire at the 
west end. With the exception of a fragment or two of rude 
mouldings (including a large piece of the dripstone of a circular 
Norman archway, having a rough chevron pattern, now built into 
the porch), and a few of the earliest of the incised sepulchral 
memorials, there is now no trace of the original building of 
Norman design that undoubtedly at one time occupied this site. 
These were brought to light during the recent restoration of the 
church, which extended over several years and was completed in 

1874. 

It seems probable that the original building was either in decay 
or required material extension in the latter half of the thirteenth 
century, and that when Henry Foljambe, and those associated with 
him, obtained leave for the erection of a chantry, they also rebuilt 
the whole of the church or chapel. The character of the plain 
and pointed doorway under the porch, of the two trefoliated lancet 
windows (now renewed after the old design) in the south aisle, 
and of the pointed trefoUated doorway in the north wall (now 
blocked up) are an abundant proof of the extensive nature of the 

* Dugdale's Monatticoni vol. iii., p. 227, etc., etc. 



CHELMORTON. 81 

alterations undertaken at the time when the Early English style 
was declining, viz., 1250 — 1275. Though leave was obtained to 
erect the chantry in 1256 it might very probably not be carried 
out, as was often the case, till some years later; and in the south 
transept, which cannot be much earlier than 1270, we most likely 
have the original building for chantry purposes. This south tran- 
sept is twenty feet long by sixteen wide, that is some seven feet 
wider than the south aisle, from the east end of which it opens. 
Its characteristics are of the commencement of the Decorated 
period. The south window has three principal lights, the points of 
which are carried up to the window arch, leaving plain open spaces 
between them, without any other tracery than the curve of the 
muUions. The east wall has a plain pointed two-light window of 
the same description. The nave is separated from the aisles by 
four arches supported on octagonal pillars on each side. These 
arches are pointed on the north side but circular on the south. 
This difference has given rise to a mistaken estimate of the age of 
the south side of the church. The Rev. J. Hodgson, Vicar of 
Bakewell, writing to Messrs. Lysons in 1816, says, " the church at 
Ghelmorton is very ancient and the pillars on one side Saxon 
(Norman work was generally termed Saxon in those days) and on 
the other Gothic, as at St. Albans."* But whatever may be the 
case with the- arches, the pillars on both sides, as is shown by the 
mouldings of the bases and capitals, are of Decorated work of the 
end of the thirteenth century. As to the round arches on the 
south side, it is just possible that the masonry of the arches of 
the former chapel proving substantial they were re-erected in a 
eemi-circular form over the new pUlars to save expense. It is, 
however, more hkely that it is an alteration of a post-reformation 
date, as is the case with the rounded arches on the north side of 
the nave of Duflfield Church in this county, where all the masonry 
is exposed, and a conclusion can be easily reached. 

The archway into the tower at the west end of the church is 
also of a Decorated date, and probably the greater part of the 
masonry of the basement stage of the tower. At all events the 
last wall of the tower over the archway is as old as that period, 
for the traces of the high-pitched roof which then covered the nave 
are very obvious. There is a blocked-up window in the west wall 
of the tower, as can be seen from the interior, though the 

•Lysons' Correspondence, Add. MSS. 942-t, f. 82. 



82 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

exterior has been rebuilt and supported with iron braces bo as to 
efifectually conceal it. The tower is of two stages, and ia supported 
by buttresses at the angles, which only reach to the top of the 
lower stage. The belfry is lighted by four square-headed two-light 
windows, and these, together with the battlements, conclusively 
show that the tower as it now stands was chiefly the work of the 
fifteenth century, when the Perpendicular style prevailed. The tower 
is ascended by a turret staircase in the north-west angle, and is 
surmounted by an elegant octagon spire hghted by a single tier 
of windows of the usual design. The upper part may possibly 
have had a second smaller tier of openings, but several feet of the 
summit were unfortunately blown down in the last century, and 
the new part is marked by a string-course of square cut stones 
which could not have formed part of its original design. 

The chancel was entirely rebuilt in the late Perpendicular style 
that prevailed in the third quarter of the fifteenth century, and is 
a very good specimen of the style. The south side is Hghted by 
two square-headed two-Hght windows with Perpendicular tracery, 
between which is a pointed priest's door; the east window is 
pointed and has three principal lights, a design that is probably 
after the original one, though previous to the restoration it was 
simply divided by mulHons into three square-headed lights vdthout 
tracery; the north side is lighted by two windows of the same 
style as those on the south. The south porch, with its four- 
centered archway, as well as the old oak roofs of a low pitch, were also 
of the same date. The roof timbers were found to be so much 
decayed, that new ones had to be substituted, and there now only 
remain one or two bosses in the chancel roof to show the style of 
workmanship. At the time when these roofs of the fifteenth 
century were added, the walls above the arcades of the nave 
were raised, so as to form a clerestory above the aisles. Three 
two-ligbt square-headed clerestory windows were then erected on the 
south side, but none in the north wall. 

A striking peculiarity in this church, which arose to a great 
extent from the natural slope of the rocky ground to which the 
architects had adapted theur work, consisted in the great difference 
in the levels ; but this characteristic has been much modified in 
the recent alterations. An account of this church, written just 
prior to the restoration, says :-- The most pecuUar feature is the 
extraordmary variety of the levels of different parts, the chancel 
being five feet, more or less, higher than the entrance to the south 



CHELMOiJTON. 83 

porch, and the original base of the north door beiug nearly four 
feet higher than the same point. These remarkable variations are 
met by a step at the south door, and another at the north aisle, in 
one direction, and by three steps at the chancel arch, and one near 
the altar, in the other; and a general fall of the floor from north 
to south, and east to west. The piers also on the north side reach 
at least a foot higher, and, with the arches, nearly two feet higher 
than the corresponding features on the south side/* * 

Of the various details of interest in the interior of the church, 
we may first note the stoup for holy water in a small niche im 
mediately to the right of the south entrance, within the porch. 
It is apparently coeval with this inner entrance, and is older than 
the fabric of the porch. In the east wall, at the end of the 
south wall, is a plain stone bracket that has served for the figure 
of a saint, and in the south-east angle of the south transept 
is a piscina, that was hidden by the pews before the altera- 
tions. The removal of the plaster from the 'walls at that time 
also disclosed some fresco painting on the wall of the south 
transept. The chief subject was ** The Beatitude" — ''Blessed are 
the pure in heart for they shall see God, Matthew 5 verse 8," 
in black letter on a zigzag scroll. The face of the ribbon was 
white, and the back red with gold stars. It was most effec- 
tively represented as twined round a stem from which sprang 
branches of leaves and red berries. More art was displayed in 
the design of this scroll (a sketch of which is given iu the pam- 
phlet from which we have just quoted), than was usual 
in wall painting of post-Beformation days, but it is absurd to 
suppose that this text in the vulgar tongue was placed here at 
any earUer date. Possibly it may be of the days of Henry VIII. 
or Elizabeth, but it more probably followed on the canonical 
injunctions of the reformed church in the reign of James I., 
which ordered suitable passages of Scriptiure, in addition to the 
Ten Commandments, to be depicted on the walls.t 

Some black-letter inscriptions were also found beneath the plas- 
ter at the east end of the north aisle, as well as paintings of 
figures of various kinds further to the west on the same wall. 
The latter frescoes appear to have been of pre-Beformation date, 
but they were all too much damaged to be accurately described. 

• A Description of the Church of St. John tlie Baptist^ Cfieltnortofi, a Hinail 
pamphlet of S pages, inaccoi'ate in many respects reprinted, from the Buxton 
Advertiser. 

t Canon Ixxxii., 100:1. 



A. 



84 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Beneath the chancel arch is the unusual feature of a stone 
screen, diyiding the chancel from the nave.* It stands about five 
feet six inches high, and is divided in the front into panels of 
tracery, surmounted by an embattled parapet pierced with quatre- 
foils. It is of fourteenth century work. The entrance between the 
two partitions of the screen is not arched over, but it seems pro- 
. bable that this has at one time been the case, when the upper part 
of the screen would be made of wood. An oblong piece of stone, 
pierced with rather smaUer quatrefoils than those on the screen, 
was found under the pavement where the pulpit now stands, and 
is built into the south wall of the porch. We do not think that 
this fragment had any connection with the chancel screen or ancient 
pulpit, but probably formed part of another screen erected at the 
same time to shut off the transept from the rest of the church. 
In the south wall of the chancel are two shallow sedilia, consisting 
of a stone seat or bench projecting from the wall, for -which two 
panels, carved with tracery in low relief, form the back. With that 
strange indifference to monumental remains, which characterised 
other ages than the *^ Churchwardens* era," the scat of the sedilia 
actually consists of an ancient incised sepulchral slab. Beyond the 
sedilia is a small piscina ; a third piscina at the end of the north 
aisle shows that there were at least three, or possibly four altars 
in this church in pre-Keformation days.t In the upper tracery of 
the two side windows at the east end of the chancel are a few 
small fragments of blackened glass, which were found during the 
restoration in the ground below the windows. These fragments 
show traces of acorns and foliage that formed a usual pattern on 
mediaeval quarries. 

The octagon font, now placed at the west end of the church 
near the tower archway, is a remarkable example of late Per- 
pendicular. Its height, including the base, is four feet three inches, 
and its diameter across the top is two feet. It is not, however, 
remarkable for its proportions, but for the inscription or sculpture, 
consisting of separate letters or designs on each of its eight faces. 
This inscription has for a long time puzzled the most astute anti- 
quaries, owing to the sculj^tor having carved a Greek invocation in 
Old English letters. The first of these characters we take to be 

* Stone screeLB in paribh cliurches are of very exceptional occurrence. Parker, in 
his Glossary, only mentions two examples, Brougliton in OxfordKhire, and Ilkeston 
in this county. There were also stone screens at Bakewell, at the old chapel at 
Monk's Dale (Tideswell), and at Darley. 

f There may have })een a fourth altar, at the entrance to the south transept, by the 
stone bracket. 



CHELMORTON. 85 

an initial cross, followed by the letters s, eb, s, e, m, n, o, that is 
<r«/3 atfAvw, or "Reverence the Revered One."* 

Below the tower is a pariah chest in rather a dilapidated 
condition, on which is inscribed '* Ralph Buxton of Flagg gave 
this, 1630." The tower contains a peal of four bells, though the 
framework has been designed to accommodate five. They are 
inscribed as follows: — 

I. "Jesus be our speed, 1621,'* and the bell mark of George 
Oldfield. 

n. "God save his church, 1681." 

IIL " God save the churc, 1621," and the bell mark of George 
Oldfield. 

IV. **I sweetly toling men do call 

To taste on sweets that feeds the soole." 
with the date, 1607, and the bell mark of Henry Oldfield. 

The inscription on the last bell is in Old English letters, but 
those on the three first in Roman capitals. 

The church contains no inscribed monuments of any antiquity. 
When Bassano \isited this church in 1709, he recorded that it 
had been robbed in the year 1696 of a brass plate to Mr. 
Samuel Swan, of Hurdlow, who died in 1688, and of another to 
W. Brereton, of Hurdlow, as well as of a Bible and a surpHce. He 
also noted "upon an old seat end Foljambe arms,'* and that 
" over the west gates into the chapel yard is cut Robert Me- 
verell, Anno Domini, 1668," from which it appears that there 
was then a Lych gate.t But the most interesting of his notes 
records that — " in ye south wall is a Httle raised tomb, and on 
ye covering stone is a Pastorall Staiff.'* Of this tomb there is 
now no trace. The pastoral sta£f points to the burial of an 
abbot or prior, and it is reasonable to conjecture that here 
was interred a former prior of Lenton. From the fact of the 
tomb being in the wall it was probably to the memory of one 
who had given largely to the building or rebuilding of the 
chapel. Lenton Priory drew so large a share of their emolu- 

* For this explanation, now for the first time published, we are indebted to the 
Bey. F. Jourdain. 

t The eldest line of the influential family of Meverell, of Tideswell, became extinot 
in 1626, on the death of Bobert MevereU, who is buried at Ham, in Staffordshire ; his 
daughter and heiress ElizabeUi married Lord Cromwell, but Sampson MevereU, father 
of the above-named Bobert, had a brother Nicholas, also of Tideswell. Nicholas 
Meverell who died in 1628, left two sons, Edward and Bobeit, the latter being the 
Bobert MevereU who gave the Lych gate to Ghelmorton. He also erected a sun- 
dial in Wormhill churchyard, which stilTremains. Pegge's MSS. Collections, vol. vii. 



86 DERBYSlTfRE CHURCHES. 

raents from the Peak district, and especially from this chapelry * 
that we can well understand one of their priors contributing 
extensively if not exclusively to the erection or restoration of Chel- 
morton chapel, and requesting that his bones might on that 
account here find a resting-place. 

The porch contains an interesting series of early sepulchral slabs 
or gravestones. There are about a dozen tolerably perfect speci- 
mens, as well as fragments of several others. Several of these 
stones were discovered, apparently in their original position, about 
the year 1840, when the churchyard near the porch was being 
lowered. An outline sketch of twa of these is given in Bateman's 
Avtiqnities ;i one of these has an axe across the stem of the 
cross, and is by him supposed to denote the grave of the village 
carpenter ; but we have elsewhere given our reasons for considering 
tliis to be one of the symbols of a knight or man at arms; J the 
other one, with a sword on the sinister side, is the same as is 
given on Plate III., Fig. 3. Of the three others that were exposed 
at the Rame time, two are represented on the same plate (Figs. 
I and 2) ; and the remaming one is of the same style, but more 
defaced. § The remainder of this collection was foimd, for the most 
part, in the walls of the church during the recent alterations. One 
or two of them bear obvious traces of having been cut away to 
serve for other purposes, as is the case with Fig. 4 on Plate III- 
This last stone is of the first half of the thirteenth century, and 
belongs to the fifth of the classes into which we divided the Bakewell 
stones. There are also other examples belonging to the several 
divisions of the third of those classes (one almost exactly resembles 
a Parley slab, Plate IV., Fig. 6.) ; and the two beautiful specimens, 
ah-eady mentioned, at the top of the plate, belong to the fourth 
class, and are of the twelfth century. 

Not far from the porch are the base, and portions of the moulded 
shaft of the old churchyard cross. The registers commence in 
1590. There is an interesting entry, dated 80th August, 1607, 
relative to absolution from a sentence of excommunication. 

* An inquisition of the tithes due to Lenton Priory from the Peak district, taken in 
1'27*2, shows that BakeweU paid iJS 3s. 4d., Ashford i:6, Hulme £5 8b., Nether Haddon 
£3 8s. Bd., Monyash iJl lis. 8d., Fairfield £8 68. 8d., various smaller townships £3 
128. 8d.,and Chelmorton (including Stemdale, Cowdale, Flagg, Stadon, and Buxton) 
£27 68. 8d. Lichfield Chartulary, Harl. MSS., 4799, etc. 

t Jiateman's A ntiquities of Derbyshire, p. 197. 

t Churches of Derbijahire,' Yo\. I., p. 263. 

§ There is a pood draN\'ing of these three stones, taken when in a recumbent 
position in the churchyard, in the i860 Volume of the Anastatic Drawing Society^ 
Plate XLI. We still incline to the opinion that these three most probably served 
originally as coffin lids, and not as mere gravestones. See the accoimt of the Bakewell 
slabs. 



HADDON. 87 



^fie <!^apel¥s o^ ?^at(t(on. 




|HE manor of Haddon, usually termed Nether Haddon, to 
distiDguisb it from the adjaoent manor of Over Haddon, 
formed part of the crown estates when the Domesday 
Book was compiled. Shortly afterwards we find that it was held 
on the tenure of knight service, by the ancient family of Avenell. 
On the death of William de Avenell, about the middle of the twelfth 
century, his estates were divided between his two daughters, Eliza- 
beth, who became the wife of Simon Basset, and Avice, who was 
married to Richard Vernon.* The manor of Nether Haddon was 
shared between the two co-heiresses of Avenell, though Vernon ap- 
pears to have become possessed of the more important half, including 
the manor house, wliich was even in this century of great extent 
and fortified in an exceptional manner. t The Bassets retained their 
moiety of Haddon till the close of the reign of Edward III., when 
John Basset was seized of it, but not long afterwards the whole 
became vested in the Vernons thi'ough the purchase of the other 
portion.} 

The only issue of the marriage between Eichard Vernon and 
Avice Avenell was a daughter, who married Gilbert le Francis, and 
their son Richard took tlie name of Vernon on coming into the 
property, and resided at Haddon Hall. He died in the 25th year 



• See the previous account of the manor of Baslow. 

f In the reiffn of Richard I., his brother John (who appeai-s then to have been 
exercising regal functions, probably during Richard's absence in the Holy Land) 
issued a patent to Richard de Vernon to fortify his house at Haddon with a wall, to 
the heignt of twelve feet, but without battlements; and forbidding him to be 
disturb^ in bo doing. The original of this document is in the possession of the Duke 
of Rutland, and was exhibited to the British Archa)ological Association when they 
visited Haddon Hall in 1851. Journal of the Archaological Association, vol. vii., 
p. 296-7. A part of this wall still exists to the east of the chapel. 

{ Inq. post Mort. 32 Edw. I., No. 64; 46 Edw. HI., No. 8. 



88 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

of Edward I.* An outline of the chief points of interest in con- 
nection with the subsequent genealogy of the holders of this manor 
has been already given under Bakewell. 

The chapel of Haddon HaU is situated at the south-west comer 
of the building. It is entered by a doorway in the north side, and 
consists of a nave with north and south aisles, and a chancel. The 
north aisle is now very shallow, but was probably wider before the 
extensive alterations of the fifteenth century. The earliest 
portion of the building is the circular Norman pillar which sup- 
ports the two arches between the nave and the south aisle. The 
mouldings of the base and the capital of this pillar, though the 
latter has been much cut away so as to fit the pointed arches 
subsequently erected, are of the middle of the twelfth century. 
This proves the existence of a chapel in the days of the Avenells 
that possessed at least one side aisle; and the plain circular Nor- 
man font, close to this pillar, also proves that in those days it 
possessed the rights of baptism, a right never granted to a mere 
private household chapeL Nether Haddon was at that time, and 
for a long subsequent period, an extra-parochial district, so far as 
matters ecclesiastical were concerned, and the chapel was probably 
not only open to the Vemons and their retainers, but also to those 
who occupied the half of the " town " of Nether Haddon, that per- 
tained to the Darleys. 

Of the Early English style of the next century, there is abun- 
dant illustration in the four lancet windows of the south aisle, one 
in the east wall, two in the south, and a very small one in the 
west end. At the north angle of the east end of this aisle may 
be noticed the base mouldings of an Early English detached shaft 
or column, rising from a large block of stone that has apparently 
no connection with the surrounding masonry. There are traces in 
the wall above it of a large bracket that has been broken off at 
some subsequent period, and it has been suggested that this shaft 
supported its lower margin. It does not> however, appear to us to 
have had any connection with the bracket, but rather to have been 
a component part of a thirteenth century arcade that does not now 
exist. 

• The descent of the manor of Nether Haddon in the reign of Edward I. is some- 
wnat involved. It has been stated that in the early part of the reign a moiety of 
tne "^ft^or was held by Robert Darley, and again by his son of the same name— see 
>?«^*fi?°^l ¥^- * .?^'^V ^-^ No. 1 ; 6 Edw. I., No. 2; 11 Edw. I., No. 10; 25 Edw. I., 
So;i«t7 v.^?^ 1?°?* M J^^dred and Quo Warranto RoUa it would appear that the 

alwat« «iifi« Ji!" ""^ it® ^"^ °* N^^«' Haddon, a term that was Sy no means 
always synonymous with manor. 



H ADDON. 89 

During the Decorated period of architecture that prevailed at the 
commencement of the fourteenth century, the present north aisle 
(except the doorway), with the octagon pillar supporting the two 
arches, was erected. To this date also belongs the lower window at 
the west end of the nave with its three principal lights, as well as 
the two finely carved fragments of the old rood screen, which are 
still to be seen inside the large chancel pews at their west end. 

The chancel,* which is lighted at the west end by a large five- 
light pointed window, appears to have been thoroughly rebuilt in 
the Perpendicular period ; probably in 1426, when, as we know 
from inscription, the glass of the window was inserted. At this 
time also the pointed arches of the south aisle, supported by the 
Norman pillar, were added; but we think that the square-headed 
north and south windows of the chancel, and the clerestory of the 
nave were of a somewhat later date, probably about the year 1455, 
when the elegant bell turret is supposed to have been erected by 
William Vernon, who married Margaret Pype. This bell turret is 
on the north side of the chapel ; and on the outer wall, facing the 
courtyard, the letter W is carved in bold rehef. The reconstruc- 
tion of the vestibule or ante-chapel (which involved the building 
up of the north window of the aisle), and the wide ogee-arched 
entrance into the chapel itself were most likely effected at the same 
time. 

The roof of the chapel is of a very low pitch. Though some of 
the woodwork had doubtless belonged to an old Perpendicular roof, 
it was probably all reconstructed in the days of Sir George Man- 
ners, the son and heir of Sir John Manners and Dorothy Vernon. 
On one of the beams are the initials and date, ** G. M. 1624." 
This, too (with the exception of the low massive benches in the 
south aisle, which may be a century older) is the date of the high 
balustraded pews of tiie chancel, of the pulpit and desk on the 
north side, of the communion rails, and other woodwork of the 
chancel and north aisle, all of which appears to have been pro- 
fusely gilded at the time of its first construction. 

Of the features of interest within this chapel not already 
enumerated, we may first make mention of the stoup or holy-water 
basin, which is immediately on the right hand side as we enter by 
the north doorway. It is of exceptional size and construction, as 
English stoups were, as a rule, projections from, or recesses in, the 

* The chancel is of nnnsiial size in proportion to the rest of the chapel. The tottU 
length of the chapel is 49 feet, of which tne chancel ahsorbs 28. 



90 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

wall. But this stoup is a detached piece of sculptured, stone, 
though constructed to stand against the wall, and resembles a 
small font, being nearly a foot in diameter across the basin. It is 
of octagon shape, and stands on an octagon base or piUar ; the 
style seems to denote fifteenth century work. 

To the left hand of the entrance, behind the pulpit, is a door, 
now fastened up, leading into the bell turret,* from which a 
doorway opens, high up in the north wall, that formerly led on 
to the top of the rood screen. Over this lower doorway in the 
north aisle is a short flight of narrow wooden stairs, ending in a 
small platform. This we believe to have bee^ for an organ, but 
popular tradition absurdly persists in styling it a confessional I 
Who was first responsible for this legend we know not, but it is 
now repeated to every party of tourists by the cicerones of the 
Hall, and it has even found its way into more than one work 
treating of this ancient buUding. A small loop-hole or opening in 
the wall that commimicates with the turret staircase of the cam- 
panile is pointed out as the orifice through which the sins of the 
penitent were breathed, the priest taking up an uncomfortable 
position on the steps on the other side of tlie waU. If the 
ridiculousness of the position is not sufficient to disprove the tale, 
it will surely be no longer accepted when we point out that the 
wood- work of the stairs and platform inside the chapel is of seven- 
teenth century, and therefore of post-Reformation, date, and 
Protestant Clergymen did not then act as Father Confessors. 

At the west end of the south aisle is a large oak chest of 
remarkable size, which has probably served as a receptacle for the 
vestments and other garniture of the chapel. On the front panels 
are two shields, the one bearing Vernon, and the other a quartered 
coat of Pembrugge, Vernon, and Pype, thus showing the chest to be 
of fifteenth century work. Against the east wall of this aisle 
there is a bracket carved with a grotesque head, which has served 
as a support for the figure of a saint ; and on the floor is the 
ancient altar stone with the hye consecration crosses still plainly 
incised upon it. Its dimensions are five feet six inches by two 
feet six, and the edge of the stone is chamfered. A unique squint 
in connection with this altar was discovered and re-opened in 
1859. It consists of a diagonal opening in the south-west angle 
of the chancel wall, through which the attendant on the top of 

* The bell that formerly hung in this turret is now in nse at the new church of 
Bowslej. 



TTADDON. 9 1 

the rood-loft would be able to obtain a view of the side altar, and 
thus know the coiTect moment for ringing the sacring ^ell when 
mass was being celebrated. This side altar was dedicated to St. 
Nicholas as we learn from the Chantry Roll of Henry VIII. where 
the chantrv is thus described: — 

" Haddon. The service of S. Nicholas in the Chapell att 
Haddon. The incumbent Sir Rychard Bawson was put in by the 
executors of Sir Henry Vernon. Clere vj/t, xvijs, ijo?. It hathe 
a chambre in tlie manor-place of Haddon by the sufferaunce of 
Geo. Vernon, Esq. He occupieth a chales and other necessaries 
of the said George Vernon." 

Sir Henry Vernon here mentioned died in 1516. He was a 
favourite of Henry VIII. who made him High Steward of the 
King's Forest in the Peak, in addition to many other honourable 
posts. He had two sons, George and John, both of them subse- 
quently knighted. From the younger son, who married the co- 
heiress of John Montgomery of Sudbury, descended the family of 
the Lords Vernon. The eldest son. Sir George Vernon, obtained 
the title of **King of the Peak" from his lavish hospitality, but 
he is still more celebrated as the father of Dorothy Vernon. "The 
chambre in the manor-place" appropriated to the chantry priest 
was the second room from the entrance gateway, on the first floor 
of the west side of the lower court. It has been for some time 
divided into two apartments, and is immediately over that part of 
the building where the pewter dishes, jack boots, and other relics 
are kept, and which is now erroneously shown by the guides as 
**the chaplain's room." 

At the east end of the chancel there is also another stone slab 
raised an inch or two above the pavement. This stone is much 
larger than that in the south aisle, being over eight feet in length, 
and of corresponding breadth. There is no doubt that this has 
been the high altar stone, though, owing to the battered condition 
of its surface, only one of the consecration crosses and traces of 
a second can now be discerned. On each side of the east window 
is an image bracket, and in the sloping sill, three steps or level 
places have been cut, which are supposed to have served as rests 
for the crucifix and two principal candlesticks. In the south wall, 
close to the east end is a piscina, with a single drain in an arched 
recess or fenestella; the two projecting stones within the recess 
were used to support a shelf for the elements, i.e.^ as a credence 



92 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

table. The sill of the south window of the chancel is unusually 
low, and was probably used as a sedile. 

The stained glass in the windows of the chancel is well worth 
attention. The glass was teleaded in 1858, and arranged, so far 
as the fragments would permit, after the original design. No new 
glass was introduced, but several old quarries were taken from other 
windows and used in completing the groundwork of the large east 
window. There are fourteen different varieties in the patterns.* In 
the centre hght of the last window is the figure of Christ on the 
Cross; in the next Ught, on His right, the Virgin Mary; and in 
the corresponding hght on the left, St. John. Each of the latter 
figures is mutilated, having lost the head and other accessories; 
whilst the figures of the two outer lights have quite disappeared. 
In the small tracery hghts of the head of this window are the 
figures of various Saints in yeUow stains, except the centre Ught, 
which contains the quartered arms of France and England. Below 
the three central figures already named, are three shields of arms 
supported by angels: — Arg,, a lion rampant, ^«. (Stackpole) ; t a?y., 
fretty, sab., a canton of the first (Vernon), and over it the words, 
*' Bicardus Vernon ; " the bearing on the third shield has been 
lost Below the outer lights are the fragments of a knight kneeling 
at a desk, and of an ecclesiastic in eucharistic vestments. At the 
bottom of the windows is the following black letter inscription on 
the glass: — 

** Orate pro aiabus Ricardi Vernon et Benedicite uxoris efus quifecenmt 
ano dni milesimo ccccxxvii,*' 

This Sir Richard Vernon was bom in 1391, and died in 1451. 
He was Treasurer of Calais, Captain of Eouen, and Speaker of 
the Parliament that met at Leicester in 1426. His wife Benedict, 
was the daughter of Sir John Ludlow, of Hodnet, Shropshire. 

The square -headed north and south windows of the chancel have 
each three principal lights, with six smaller lights in the tracery 
above. All the smaller Ugbts contain figures of different apostles 
or saints. The centre light of the north window contains a figure 
of Saint Anne teaching the infant Virgin to read. On her left is 
a spirited rendering of St. George slaying the dragon, and on her 
right St. Michael trampling on Satan. In the lower part of this 
window are several fragments of armorial bearings, and over the 

* Some of these quarries are etched on the enter title-page of the Ajtcutatic 
Drawing Society's volume for 1860. 

t The alliance of this family with Vernon is explained under Bakewell. 



H ADDON. 93 

centre shield the words, '* Richard Vernon." In the south window 
are the arms of Vernon impaling a missing coat, and those of 
Pype, az,, two pipes in pale and a semee of cross -crosslets, or ; over 
the latter coat is a fragment of the original inscription, ** Mar- 
gareta Pype uxo." Not only was the glass in the chancel of this 
chapel far more perfect till within the last fifty years, but the west 
window and other parts of the chapel were then filled with early 
glass, said to have been of exceptional value and richness. About 
the year 1828 a mysterious midnight raid was made upon this 
valuable glass; that from the west window was wholly abducted, 
but the thieves appear to have been disturbed, as other fragments 
were found laid on the grass ready for removal.* A reward of a 
hundred guineas failed to detect the culprits, and it was supposed 
that the booty was shipped to the Continent and there sold. The 
skill requisite to remove or pack so fragile an article, the great 
difficulty of transit in those days, and the rarity of purchasers of 
a style of art then so little appreciated, unite to make this daring 
robbery as fully inexphcable and strange as the recent theft from 
Bond Street of the celebrated Gainsborough. 

The partial removal of the whitewash from the chapel walls in 
1858 exposed mural decorations of various characters and of much 
interest. The following description we borrow from an excellent 
account that appeared in a recently-pubUshed Guide to Haddon 
Hall.t 

*< The oldest fragments are two running patterns of good design. 
One is on the arches of the north arcade, and of the same date as 
the stonework on which it appears, viz., about 1810. The other, 
which seems to be of the same age, is on one of the jambs of the 
east window of the south aisle, over the altar. In this window 
there are traces of a figure, now almost entirely destroyed. Over 
the arches of the nave there are traces of two different designs, 
one on each wall. Both are much defaced. On the west wall of 
the nave there is a design consisting of a running pattern of rose 
branches and leaves, with red flowers of five petals. The stems 
and leaves are shaded grey and black. Traces of the same design 
have been found on the walls of the south aisle, and on the jambs 



• ThiB robbery is mentioned in Rayner's History of Haddon, p. 42 ; and we have 
also gleaned additional particnlars &om local inquiry. 

t Haddon Hall, by S. C. Hall, F.S.A., and Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A. Buxton: 
J. C. Bates, 1871. This guide book^ and its companion to Chatsworth, are the very 
best books of the description, both in letterpress and illustration, with which we are 
acquainted. 



94 DEKBVSHIRE CHURCHES. 

of its west window. The date of this pattern is probably about 
1427, when the glass of the east window of the chancel was put 
in. 

** There is a pattern of green and duD red on the east waU of 
the chancel, and on the south wall is a very similar pattern, which 
enclosed four groups of figures, two on each side of the window 
over the sediha bench. There is no border surrounding each group, 
but merely the diaper pattern. They are probably of the same 
date as the glass in the east window. The figures of these groups 
are generally eflfectivoly drawn, though with occasional exaggeration 
and distortion. They are in distemper on the plaster, and are 
black, with the exception of some dresses, which are green. There 
are scrolls to each group, corresponding with the number of the 
figures, but without any name. These groups had been much in- 
jured before they were covered with whitewash, and the injury 
appeai-8 as if partially intentional. The groups form a series of 
subjects, and commence with the upper group on the east side of 
the window. The subject is the presentation of the Virgin in the 
Temple by Joachim and Anna. The three figures remain. Below 
this is a group, much injured, apparently Anna teaching the Virgin 
to read, whilst Joachim stands by. 

"The upper group on the west side is a Holy Family. The 
Virgin holds the infant Jesus in her arms; St. Joseph stands by; 
St. John the Baptist raises his hands and eyes towards the infant 
Saviour. 

** Below this is a group, much injured, with four scrolls, and 
apparently four figures. A female figure, probably the Virgin, 
seems to be carrying a child, whilst a male figure follows behind. 
There seems to be indications of a fourth small figure. The 
subject appears to be the flight into Egypt, with, contrary to 
custom, the figure of St. John introduced." 

There are also remains of colour-wash on the piscina, the altar 
brackets, and in other parts of the chapel. 



HAHTHILL. 95 



m^t effo^tltv of i^artlitU. 




JABTHILL (or Hartle) is a small township within the parish 
of Bakewell, between two and three miles to the south- 
west of that town. 
We cannot say at what date a chapel was first erected here, but 
probably not before the reign of Henry III. The first mention of 
it occurs in the early chartularies of the Lichfield Chapter. From 
an instrument dated the 4th of the Kalends of January, 1259, it 
appeairs that a dispute had arisen between the Dean and Chapter 
and Sir Richard de Harthill, with respect to a chantry that that 
Knight had founded in his chapel at Harthill. The followmg ami- 
cable settlement was mutually agreed upon : — That Sir Bichard de 
Harthill should annually pay to the Chapter one mark of silver, six 
shilliugs, and eight pence at the feast of the Purification, and the 
like amount on the nativity of St. John the Baptist — that the 
Chapter should receive all tithes of grain and hay that accrued 
from the whole town and territory of Harthill, with the principal 
dues and Peter's pence, and all other dues which the mother church 
of Bakewell had been in the habit of receiving up to the comple- 
tion of this instrument — ^that all other dues should remain for the 
sustenance of the chaplain of the said chapel (that would seem to 
give to Harthill the lesser tithes) — that the chaplain should be 
presented to the mother church, and that he should take an oath 
of canonical obedience to the Dean and Chapter — and, finally, that 
if the payment of the mark should ever cease to be paid, in part 
or in whole, by the said Knight or his heirs, the chantry in the 
chapel would cease to exist.* 

The manor of Harthill was held by the family who took their 
name from that place at an early period. In the reign of Edward I., 

♦ Magnum Reffwirum Album, t. 98; Harl. MS8. 4799, f. 10; Add. MSS. 6666, f. 37. 
See Appendix No. II. 



96 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Richard do Harthill, the founder of the chantry, married Joao, 
daughter and co-heiress of Thomas de Edensor by Lucy, co-heiress 
to her brother William Savage. He seems, from the witnesses to 
the above-quoted charter, to have had a brother, Robert de Harthill. 
Their son, Adam de Hai-thill, married the heiress of Deyville, and 
died in 1284. They had issue Richard de Harthill, who married 
Agatha, daughter and co-heiress of William Savage, and died in 
1325 ; whilst their son, another Adam de Harthill, who died in 
1337, was tlie father of Sir Richard de Harthill, who died in 1390, 
seized of the manor of Pooley, and half the manor of Ring's 
Newtou, in Warwickshire. These manors, together with the Derby- 
shire estates, passed, on the death of Sir Richard, to his daughter 
and heiress Ehzabeth, who conveyed them by marriage to Edmund 
Cokayne of Ashboum. * Hai'thUl remained with the Cokaynes till 
1599, when Edward Cokayne sold the manor to John Manners, 
from whom it has descended to the present Duke of Rutland. 

Mention is made of the chapel of Harthill in the metropolitan 
visitation of Archbishop Peckham in 1280. The Archbishop decided 
that, as a suitable sustenance had been provided for the support 
of the priest at Harthill by the Chapter, it was not necessary for 
him to make any other order respecting that chapel, except so far 
as related to the books and ornaments, in which matters the same 
ordinance as that respecting the other chapels of Bakewell would 
hold good. + 

We conclude that either the Harthills or the Cokaynes neglected 
to pay the mark to the Chapter stipulated by the agreement of 
1259, and that thereupon the chantry fell into abeyance. At all 
events this chantry was not in existence when the Chantry Roll 
was drawn up in the 37th year of Henry VIII. The chapel itself 
seems also to have been suffered to fall into decay at an early 
period, and even its site is now unknown. It evidently did not 
exist when the Parliamentary Commissioners of 1650 drew up their 
report of Bakewell parish, wherein they recommend that the town- 
ship of Harthill should be united to Youlgreave. 

* Inq. post Mort., 19 Edw. H., No. 63 ; 11 Edw. III., No. 16 ; 13 Ric. II., No. 28 and 
99 ; 14 Rio. II., No. 27. Cokayne Memoranda , by Andreas Edward Cokayne, printed 
for private circulation, 1878. 

f Dngdale's Monasticon^ vol. iii. p. 227 ; i^ic 



LOXCiSTONK. 97 



^l^t €l^iL9t\xv of Hongstone. 




|ONGSTONE, usually termed Great Longstone, to distinguish 
it from the adjacent manor of Little Longstone, was one 
of the numerous ancient chapelries of Bakewell. The 
time when it was originally founded is not known, hut we believe 
it to have been extant at the time when King John bestowed 
the church of Bakewell, with its chapelries, on the Dean and 
Chapter of Lichfield. When Archbishop Peckham made his 
metropolitan visitation in 1280, it was arranged that the stipend 
of the minister of Longstone should for the future be at least five 
marks, half being paid by the parishioners, and half by the Dean 
and Chapter.-^ But in 1815, a different arrangement was made, 
by which the Dean and Chapter were only to be called upon to 
supply six marks to the five chapelries of Baslow, Longstone, 
Taddiugton, Monyash, and Beeley. Of this sum, fifteen shillings 
was set apart for the minister of Longstone. t 

In our description of the adjacent chapelry of Ashford, we gave 
particulaj-s relative to the establishment of a chantry there by 
GriflSn, son of Wenunwyn, and various details relative to the family 
of the founder, and their position in this county. Five years 
subsequent to the foundation of the Ashford chantry, viz., in 1262, 
Griffin founded a chantry in the chapel of St. Giles of Great 
Longstone, and endowed it with two bovates (or oxgangs) of land 
situate in that township, /or ever. But the same fate that attended 
the chantry at Ashford seems to have befallen this later endow- 
ment, as no mention is made of any chantry property at Longstone 
in the roll compiled in the 87tb year of Henry VIII. J 

It is, however, rather curious to note that land to the same 

* Dagdale's Monasticon, vol. iii. p. 227, etc. 
t Add. MSS. 6698. 

♦ Add. MSS. 66)6, f. 43, Harl. MSS. 4709. 



98 DERBY.SH1KE CIIUKCUKS. 

amouut as Griffin's eudowmeni of the tbirteenth century, was again 
bestowed upon this chapel four centuries later. In the 17th year 
of James I., the Earl of Devonshire gave two oxgangs of land at 
Great Longstone, and the common rights pertaining to the curate 
for the time being of that chapelry. The deed, in order to insure 
the attendance of the minister, provided that the curate, if he 
was absent on the Sabbath day, and neglected to find an efficient 
substitute, should pay five shillings to the cliapel wardens for 
the poor.* 

The Parliamentary Commissioners of 1650, report of Great 
Longstone, that it "Is fitt to be made a parish church, and to have 
united to it Little Longstone, Hassop, Rowland, and MonsaJdale. 
There is granted by the Commissioners of plundered Ministers, an 
Augmentation of £43 12s. 8d. unto minister of Great Longstone, 
Mr. Robert Craven, an able honest man.*'t 

The church, which is dedicated to St. Giles, consists of nave 
with side aisles, south porch, chancel with north vestry, and tower 
at the west end. There is no trace of Norman work in the 
present building, but there is considerable evidence of there having 
been a church, of much the same dimensions as the present one, 
in the middle of the thirteenth century when the Early English 
style prevailed. To this period belong the single-light pointed 
windows in the east and north walls of the north aisle, the base- 
ment of the tower, the buttress with a single set-off to the left 
hand of the porch, and probably the pointed doorway with the 
plain hood-mould within the porch. The church recently under- 
went a complete but most careful restoration, being re-opened in 
1878, and the stonework of the windows of the north aisle is now 
new, but we were given to understand that they exactly follow the 
old design. The church that was erected here in the thirteenth century 
was probably built by Griffin, the founder of the chantry, in 
succession to a smaller one of Norman workmanship. 

But the next century, when the Decorated style prevailed, also 
witnessed a considerable alteration in this church. The six 
narrow-pointed arches on each side of the nave dividing it from 
the side aisles, with their supporting pillars of octagon design, 
belong to the Decora.ted period, as well as the south porch, and the 
priests* door on the south side of the chancel. 

The chancel windows, however, are of the Perpendicular style of 

• Add. MSS. 6667, f. 1. 

t Lambeth MSS. ; Parliamentary Survey of Livings, vol. vi., f. 419. 



LONGSTONE. 99 

the fifleentb century. It is lighted on the south by two two-light 
square-headed windows, and one of the same design on the north 
side. The east window, which was new at the restoration, is of a 
five-light obtusely-pointed design, usually attributed to the reign of 
Henry VII. 

The most striking feature of this church — the fine old roofs of 
chancel, nave, and aisles — must also be attributed to the Perpen- 
dicular period, and were probably erected at the same time when 
the chancel was rebuilt or restored. The roofs of the aisles are of 
the lean-to description, but of moderate slope, and those of the 
nave and cliancel are of so low a pitch as to be nearly flat. 
These roofs have throughout been wrought with extreme care, all 
the purlins and rafters being well moulded, the cornices embattled, 
and the bosses at the intersection of the beams carved with well 
executed designs. The wall-pieces running down from the tie 
beams of the nave and chancel are supported by plain stone 
brackets. Many of the bosses are carved into the usual patterns 
of foliage and flowers, and others have armorial bearings, but 
there are one or two of eccentric design, the n^Dst remarkable of 
which is one towards the west end of the nave. It seems to 
represent a man stripped to the waist, holding up in his left hand a 
round cover, apparently taken from off the top of a tall chum-like 
tub on his right; above is a strange figure, perhaps a devil, that 
looks as if it had escaped from the tub. Does this represent any 
incident in hagiology ? One or two suggestions have been offered to 
us, but we have failed to reconcile them with any known legend. 
The armorial bearings are, in the chancel, a frett, — a plain Greek 
cross, — on a chevron three annulets, — and an/., on a chevron, gu,, 
between three bundles of rushes, vert^ banded, or, a mullet of the 
last (Shakerley, the tinctures supplied) ; in the nave, two chevrons, 
— one chevron, — a frett, — on a chevron three annulets, — and 
org., a fess embattled, counter-embattled, between three leopards' 
faces, sah,, (Levett, the tinctures supplied) ; and in the north aisle, 
a cross patee voided, — a bend, — a saltire, — and a chevron. 

It woHld be idle to attempt to assign most of these coats to any 
particular family, as they are not now coloured, and might belong 
to so many different persons ; but the two coats that we have 
identified, Shakerley and Levett, help us to give the date of these 
roofs with more precision. The history of the descent of the 
manors of both Great and Little Longstone is somewhat involved, 
and it would be out of place to go into that subject at any length 



100 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

in these pages, but we know that Walter Blonnt, Lord Mountjov, 
died seized of the manor of Little Longstone in 1474.* Soon after 
that, probably, immediately on his death, this manor was purchased 
by Bobert Shakerley, of a yomiger branch of the Cheshire family 
of that name. 

Eobert Shakerley married Margaret, daughter and heiress of 
Roger Levett. His son, Robert, married firstly, Anna, daughter 
of Thomas Balguy, and secondly, AUce, daughter of Nicholas 
Bagshaw. By his first wife, he had with other issue, Thomas 
Shakerley, of Little Longstone, who married Jane, daughter of 
Hugh Revel, of Higham; and one of the children by the second 
wife, Grace,t became the wife of Francis, Lord Shrewsbury. On 
the death of Tliomas Shakerley, his eldest son, Leonaxd, sold the 
manor, in the reign of Elizabeth, to the Countess of Shrewsbury. 
The ancient residence of the Shakerleys still exists, though in a 
rapidly decaying condition, to the south-west of the church of 
Great Longstone. 

At the time when these roofs were added, the walls of the aisles 
were raised as (is now shown in the masonry), and also the walls of 
the clerestory ; but the clerestory windows, five of two lights on each 
side, as well as the windows of the south aisle, are of much later 
date, being destitute of all tracery, and may probably be assigned to 
the seventeenth century. The tower, also (though the basement stage, 
with its single-light west window, and possibly other parts of the 
masonry, are of early English date), shows, by the square-headed 
belfry opening, and by the battlements and pinnacles, that it has 
been considerably interfered with in the days of debased architecture. 
The west belfry window is a modern insertion. 

The tower now contains five modem bells, the gift of G. T. 
Wright, Esq. The three which were here before the recent resto- 
ration are thus inscribed: — 

I. *Elliss Dickens, Geo. Flint, Chappell Wardens, 1763. Thomas 
Hedderley, Founder." 

II. **God save His Church, 1G58,*' and the bell mark of George 
Oldfield. 

III. " Al glory bee to God on high," and the bell mark of George 
Oldfield. 

• Inq. post Mort. 14 Edw. IV., No. 24. 

t Harl. MSS. 6809, f. 17. Possibly it was Robert Shakerley the younger who 
bought the manor, but, if so, his father, who married the heiress of Levett, must 
have held it under the Blounts, as he is described in the pedigree as " de Longstou 
parva." 



I 



LONGSTONE. 101 

Of details of iuterest in the interior of tlie church mav be re- 
marked, the small piscina in a pointed niche in the south wall of 
the chancel, an almery on the opposite side, and the remains of 
the upper part of another small piscina niche at the east end of 
the south aisle. The font is of a good octagon design, with four 
uncharged shields on the alternate panels. 

There is no ancient coloured glass left in this church ; but the 
east window, which is now filled with a beautiful modem design to 
the Wright family, formerly served as a memorial window to the 
first of the Eyres who resided at Hassop. According to the Visita- 
tion of 1611 there were two shields of arms in this window — Eyre 
and Eyre impaling Everingham (sab., a chevron between three 
estoiles, org,) — and at the base the following inscription : — ** Orate 
pro bono statu Stephi Eyre et Katherinsa uxoris ejus." * Stephen 
Eyre of Hassop was the eleventh son of Robert Eyre aud Joan 
Padley ; he married Katheriue Dymoke, of Kyme, Lincolnshire, 
and died in 1488. Their eldest son, Rowland, married a daughter 
of Henry Everingham, of Stainborough, Yorks ; and Rowland's 
eldest son, Stephen, married for his second wife the heiress of 
Blackwall of Shirley. Stephen, in his turn, was succeeded by a 
second Rowland, who married Gertrude, daughter and co-heiress of 
Humphrey Stafford, of Eyam.f 

The east end of the south aisle is shut off by an old oak screen 
so as to form a family pew. It has a finely-carved cornice, and 
on the north side has the arms of Eyre impaling Stafford {oKy a 
chevron gu., between three martlets, sab.), and over the door which 
forms the west entrance to the screen is the well-known crest of 
the Eyre family — an armed leg. Within this screen, against the 
wall, is a finely-engraved plate of copper fastened to a slab of black 
marble. On it are represented the figures of a man and woman 
kneeling face to face at desks. Between them there has been a 
large crucifix, but that has been carefully obliterated, though the 
skull and cross-bones at its base remain. The man is represented 
with a pointed moustache and beard, and wears a long robe with 
lace ruffies at the wrists. In his hands, that rest on the desk, is a 
rosary. The woman has a ruff round her neck, and a long falling 
veil from the back of the head ; she also holds a rosary. They 

• Harl. MSS. 1093, f. 72. The same occurs in Harl. MSS. 1486, f. 81— the only dis- 
iinction heing that the Eyre shield bears a crescent for difference— aud in Harl. MSS. 
5809, f. 83. 

t The other co-heiresses of Humphrey Stafford married Savage of Castleton, Brad- 
Khaw, and Morewood. 



102 DEEBYSHIRK CHURCHES. 

are supposed to be kneeling in a cbapel, and there is a pointed 
Gothic window on each side. The intervention of the Renaissance 
style is to be found in the two cherubs floating in clouds over their 
heads, each bearing a crown or chaplet, from the front of which 
rises a cross. Below the figures is a shield with the Eyre crest on 
a helmet, and below this again is a long inscription in Eoman 
capitals. The latter part of the last line of this epitaph has been 
scratched out. There can be no doubt that it contained a prayer 
for the souls of Rowland and Gertrude, and that it wa^ obhterated 
at the same time as the crucifix, through Protestant zeal. The 
Eyres of Hassop, as well as most of the other branches of the 
wide- spreading family of 'Eyre, appear to have always remained 
true to the ancient Oathoho faith. It is rather sin£:ular that a 
monument of so essentially a Cathohc description should have been 
admitted in post-Reformation days. Perhaps the great influence 
of the Eyres as large local landholders secured the requisite i)er- 
mission, and the monument was probably not defaced till the days 
of the Commonwealth. 

The following is the inscription : — 

'' Here lyeth Rowland Eyre of HasBope Esq., and Gartrede his wiffe, one of the 
daughters and coheiresse of Humfrey Stafford of Eyme Esq, by whoe hee had 
twelve children, eight sonnes and fower daughters, whoe hathe given uuto the 
Chappel of Greate Longsdeu for the maintenance of Divine Service there xxs 
yerely, and to the chappel of Baslowe for the maintenance of Divine Service there 
xls yerely, to be paid by equaU portions at the feasts of the Annuntiation of the 
Blessed Virgin S. Marie and St. Michaell ye archangel, and also hath given unto 
the poore of the towne of Greate Longsden xxs yerely, and to poore of Hassope 
and Rowland xxs yerely, and to the poore of Calver xxs yerely to be paied three 
days before Christmas and three days before Easter for ever. All which said 
several sumes are to bee paied by Thomas Eyre, his sonne and heire apparent, 
and his heiress for ever. To whom I have given aU my landes and rents in 
Tadington and Greate Longsdon for ever for ye true payment and parformence of 
ye same, 
Soe leavinge the miseries and troubles of this world with desire that all may cease, 

I desire that all good Christians that read this will pray 

'*Anno Dom., 1624." 

Of the twelve children mentioned on this monument we are able, 
after comparing numerous pedigrees, to give the names of ten ; the 
other two probably died in their infancy. Thomas Eyre, the eldest 
son, married Prudence, daughter of Nicholas Blackwell, of Ridware, 
Staflfordshire ; (2) Gervase, of Horsley Gate, died 1619, s.p., and 
is buried at Dronfield ; (8) Adam, of Bradway, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Barley, died 1684, and is buried at Norton ; 
(4) Robert who died yoimg ; (6) Rowland, who married Hester 
Hackett, of London ; (6) Roger, of Rowtor, who married .... 
Gosling, of Attercliff ; (7) George, of Holdworth, near Brad£eld, 



LONCiSTONE. 103 

who married .... Bright, and had two daughters ; (8) Peter, 
who died young. Of the four daughters we can only ascertain the 
names of two — Jane, who was married to Christopher Pegge, of 
Yeldeisley ; and Frances, who died a spinster.* 

When this church was visited by the Rev. R. E. Rawlins, in 
1827, this copper plate was "in a wooden frame against a pillar 
between the nave and north aisle." Of the interior fittings of the 
church, which have now been removed, he says: — **The pews are 
irregular, of oak, and very old. Against the walls are the achieve- 
ments of Eyre of Hassop, and Wright of Longstone. On the 
pulpit and reading desk, with a large family seat, and on some of 
the pews are ancient carvings." He also gives the following as the 
dimensions of the area of the church : — Chancel, 26 feet by 14 ; 
nave, 56 feet by 1 8 ; north aisle, 56 feet by 6 feet 3 inches ; and 
south aisle, 5C feet by 7. 

Within the porch, against the east wall, is affixed a narrow 
oblong stone, on which is incised — **A. H. 1079." Lest, however, 
this should deceive anyone as to the date of the church, it may 
be remarked that the character of both letters and figures prove 
that the inscription is many centuries later than the date it purports 
to give. It should read 1679, the upper part of the 6 having been 
worn away, and has originally served as a foot-stone to a grave, of 
which there are other similar samples of the same century in the 
churchyard. 

Against the west wall of the vestry, which was added to the 
church at the recent restoration, is built in an effectively carved 
Latin cross, about 30 inches by 24, which is supposed to have 
formerly served as the gable-cross on the chancel. There used also 
to be a cote for a sanctus bell on the east gable of the nave. 

To the south of the chancel is the old churchyard cross. On 
a pediment of three square steps rests a large base stone, from 
which rises the tapering octagonal shaft six feet high. It is per- 
fect with the exception of the head, which probably disappeared at 
the Reformation. 

Mr. Sleigh gave a short account of the registers of Great 
Lougstone in an early volume of the Reliquary.f He describes them 
as being in good prcscrvutiou with the exception of one or two 



• Harl. MSS. 1587. f. 6; 5101, f 84; I486, f.68; Egerton MSS. 996, f. 31 ; and 1>uk- 
dale's Visitation, lt)62-8 ; etc, etc. For further particulars relative to the Eyro 
family, see the acuuiuits of the churches of Hathersage and Hope. 

fBeliquart/f vol. ii., 155.- 



104 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

pages rendered illegible by damp. There are not many entries of 
interest. A memorandum states ** that Griffin Higgs, Doctor of 
Divinity and Deane of the Cathedrall Church of Litchfield, in his 
Primarie and Triennial Visitation, celebrated in the Jurisdiction of 
Bakewell, the xiiii and xv of Oct. 1689, did Injoyne the Church- 
wardens, John Andrew, and Richard White to Repayre the Church 
house, in all and every place where it was one whit ruinated ; And 
it was executed and donne by Thomas Willyamson and Henry 
Mellor, the next Churchwardens, and was certefyed to the Dean 
and Chapter succeeding that it was done, by me Robert Craven, 
Curate, and WiUiam Wiight, Gentleman, and others." 

After this follows a doleful ditty from the pen of an evidently 
Ulused Clerk : — 

" Remember well and Bear in mind 
What you have here to doo : 
By never paying to ye Clerk 
What nnto him was due, 
Your CongBhance it will you pursue 
And trouble much your mind. 
There is a day will -Quickly come 
All hidden things will find, 
Yet you are not still satisfied 
But more you will transgress, 
By wronging of ye widdow, allso ye fatherless. 
The things which I before liave set — 
It is most certain true — 
Before it hath been worse for us 
Hereafter worse for you ! " 

We may find place for the three following entries : — 

" 1651, July 9. Robertus Craven, minist' de Longsdon et Eliza- 
betha Wiuscombe de eadem nupti fuenint. 

** 1656, Feb. 11. Rowland, ye sonne of Thos. Eyre esquire of 
Hassope, was buried in templo.* 

" 1680, Augt. 9. Mr. Richard Spencer, minister of this Towue, 
was buried." 

* Thomas Eyre, mentioned on his father's monument, died in 1637. Rowland, 
his eldest son, obtained great celebrity by raising a regiment of foot for Charles 
I., which he commanded in person and maintained at his own cost. When 
Parliament triumphed this gallant cavalier had to pay the then enormous sum 
of £21,000, as composition for his estates. But this Rowland lost his life at the 
siege of Newark Castle in 1645, and the one whose burial is here recorded was a 
younger brother of the same name. 



MONYASH. 105 



W^t Cliaptlrs of ^onsasli. 




|T the time of the taking of the Domesday Survey, 1086, 
Monyash (Maneis) was one of the eight here wicks into 
which the extensive royal manor of Bakewell was then 
subdivided. About the end of the reign of Richard L, Bobert de 
Salocia, and Matthew de Eston, who appear to have been joint 
lordd of the manor of Monyash, obtained leave from the Dean and 
Chapter of Lichfield, to grant to the mother church of BakeweU, 
one oxgang of land together with a house in the town of Monyash, 
on condition of the said mother church finding a chantry priest to 
serve in the chantry chapel of Monyash three days in tlie week, 
viz., on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. They also ordained, 
with the common consent of the inhabitants of Monyash, that every 
messuage in that town should pay a farthing a year for finding 
lights for their chapel, in addition to the fee that they customarily 
paid to Bakewell for the same purpose. They further undertook, 
on behalf of themselves and the inhabitants, that this chapel should 
not in any way prejudice the various rights of the mother church, 
and that they would attend service at Bakewell at Cliristmas and 
Easter, and on All Saints' Day.* 

From subsequent statements, it appears that the inhabitants, at 
the original foundation of this chapel, bestowed on it twelve acres 
of fruitful land, and probably their assistance caused the building 
to be erected on a larger scale than if it had been a mere chantry 
chapel of the lords of the manor. Very shortly after the grant 
of land to the mother church by Bobert de Salocia and Matthew 
elo Eston, we find that the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield (as 
I "actors of Bakewell) leased a residence and an oxgang of land at 

* Magnum Begistrum Album, ff. 168, 162. Harl. MSS. 4799, f. 26 ; Add. MSS. 6666, 
f. 38. The deed is not dated, but it in witnessed inter alia by Hoger, dean of 
Lincoln; Roger de Rolveston was elected dean in 1198, he died in 1223. See Appen- 
dix No. in. 



106 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Monyash, to one, William Fitz Alan, at a yearly rental of ten 
shillings, making stringent regulation against Lis alienating the 
propei*ty, or letting it to Jews or monks.* There can be no doubt 
but that this was the property granted to Bake well church in con- 
nection with the chantry. 

The church of Bakewell, with all its appurtenances and chapels, 
was given by John, Earl of Morton, shortly before he came to 
the throne, to the Canons of Lichfield, and this gift, of course, 
included the chapel of Monyash. The profits of the church being 
thus impropriated, a vicar was appointed with a sti])end of twenty 
marks, and other provision made for his maintenance, as weU as 
for that of the different chapelries. But these regulations were so 
ill-observed, that when the euergetic Archbishop PecLham made 
his visitation of the diocese of Lichfield in 1280, he sternly rebuked 
the Dean and Canons for their gross neglect of the spiritual 
necessities of Bakewell and its dependent chapelries. Li defence, 
it was urged that it was only by the gresTt favour of the chapter 
that the inhabitants had been allowed to build these chapels, '* to save 
them the trouble and danger in bad seasons of coming to the mother 
church." The Archbishop, by his decision, made a compromise, 
and, so far as respected Monyash^ ordained that the chancel should 
be kept in repair by the inhabitants, who were also to find a 
chalice and a missal, but that the rest of the fabric, and books, and 
ornaments, was to be supplied by the Dean aud Canons. The 
inhabitants of Monyash were also to add one mark, in addition to 
the glebe of twelve acres, to the stipend of their priest, and the 
remainder to be made up by the Dean and Cauons.t 

Li the year 1315 a composition was entered into between the 
Dean and Chapter of Lichfield and the parishioners of the chapels 
of Baslow, Longstone, Taddington, Monyash, and Beeley, by which 
the Chapter, ** desiring to be in amity with all and avoid conten- 
tion," grants fifteen shillings to the chapelry of Monyash to be paid 
yearly "for the honor of God and augmentation of his divyne 
worshippe," and remission of charges for testaments and adminis- 
trations. They further permitted that ** certayne honest and chiefe- 
men of theise parishes aforesaid which shall be meete for the 
briuginge of holye water may be named by the parishioners, and 
may be presented to the vicars or ministers of the places, and of 
them in the name of the Dean and Chapter, if they be found suf- 

♦ Harl. MSS. 4799, f. 27. See Appendix No. IV. 
t Bugdale's Monasticon, vol. ill., p. 227. 



MONYASH. 107 

ficient, may be thereto admitted.*' In consideration of all this, and 
certain other privileges, they are not to require anything for the 
repair or defence of their chapels, or anything for any order or 
uses.* 

The Chantry Roll, drawn up in the reign of Henry VIII., men- 
tions a chantry founded at Monyash by Nicholas and John Congson. 
The following is a verbatim copy: — 

**The Chauntrye of Moniasshe founded by Nich. Congson and 
John his brother and nowe patron of the ryght Hon. Erie of 
Shrewesburye and Humph Stafford, Esq., that a preste shulde day 
lye celebrate masse and other dyvyne service in the Chappell of 
Moniasshe in the Hygh Peke, for their souls etc. and to miuistro 
all sacraments and sacramentalls to the townes and hamletts of 
Monyashe, Flagge, Hordlowe, and Onasshe, which be dystaunto 
from the parisshe churche iiij or v myles, lxvi<. viijV. clere cvijijc?. 
besydes ij*. vjrf. in rente resolute, and for a yerely obite. Mych. 
Bredwell Chaxmtrye priste. It is distaunte from the parisshe 
church iiij. myles so that in winter season and other tempestuous 
wethers the said hamletts cannot be served withowte the sayd 
ChappelL It hath a mancyon howse or cotage prised at iij«. mjd, 
by yere. Stock xxxix«. vijc^." 

Other documents tell us that Nicholas Congson (or Congesdon) 
aud his brotiier founded this chantry in the reign of Edward III., 
and endowed it with lands in Stemdale, Chelmorton, and Monyash, 
producing a rental of five marks.* 

It is recorded in the Valrrr Eccleswsticua (27 Henry VIII.) that 
the chapelry of Monyash paid the Chapter of Lichfield a yearly 
pension of 12d. 

At the time of the Parliamentary suiTey of 1650, the commis- 
sioners reported of Monyash that it was fit to be made an inde- 
pendent parish. One Ralph Boades was then the minister. 

The church of Monyash consists of nave with north aud south 
side aisles, chancel, and tower at the west end surmounted by an octa- 
gonal spire. It is dedicated in honour of St. Leonard, though it 
appears that the feast is regulated by St. Martin's day. Ai fiist 
sight we might fancy that there was none of the original fabric 
remaining that was erected here by Robert de Salocia and Matthew 
de Eston about the year 1200, but if we step into the interior a 

*' Add. MSS. 6698. 

t Ibq. post Mort. 22 Edw. IH., pfc. 2, No. 14 ; Rot. Grig. 22 Edw. IH., rot. 47. See 
Appendix No. V. 



108 DERBYSHIRK CHURCHES. 

casual glance would convince us of our error. Against the south 
wall of the chancel are three stone sediha of different levels, the 
eastern seat heing a step the highest, and the western the lowest. 
Beyond them, further to the east, and of like construction, is a 
fourtli arched canopy over a now mutilated piscina. The whole 
style of these sediha (Plate V.) with the intervening pilasters and 
capitals, and the semi-circular arches, points to the late Norman 
period, or rather to the transition from the Norman to the Early 
EngUsh. The moulding of the arches surmounting these niches is 
carved into the tooth or four-leaved ornament so characteristic of 
the Early English style, but occasionally met with in the later 
Norman work, as is the case in parts of Rochester Cathedral. 
These sediha are further of interest in showing that the original 
chapel here erected was of some considerable size, and not merely 
consisting of a small nave and chancel, as we do not know of a 
single instance in which a threefold sedilia is found in a building 
of small dimensions. A careful inspection gives proof of other 
work pertaining to the commencement of the Early English style. 
In the north wall of the chancel is a single-light window of the 
lancet style, but rounded at the top, now blocked up. The chancel 
on the south is supported by slight diagonally-placed buttresses, of 
a single set-off, which appear to be of the Early English period. 
There have also been buttresses of the same style at the end and 
sides of the south aisle, but only the upper stones are left, as 
they have been interfered with at a subsequent rebuilding during 
the Decorated period of the fourteenth century. A string-course of 
that style runs right through them. The whole of the fabric 
of the church appears to have been strangely x^atched and altered 
at different periods. This is very obvious on the south side both 
of the chancel, side aisle, and tower.* There is a window of two 
chief lights on the south of the chancel, which is of Decorated 
design ; the upper tracery seems old, but it is rounded at^ the top. 
The small priests' door on the same side has a flat top, but may 
be of considerable age. The east windbw of the chancel is of four 
lights, and is square-topped with plain mullions. Almost all the 
remainder of the windows in the chancel and both aisles are some- 
what simUar, and are of the Perpendicular, or later and more 
debased style. 

■f Im ^«rolmhi^'?® /*''' the restoration of this interesting church happUy arrives. 



Plato V, 



MONYASH. 109 

The porch on the south side is in a most dilapidated condition, 
only the side walls being left standing. On the door within the 
porch is cut — "Thomas Batemau gave this, 1783.*' 

Besides the sedilia, which has been already described, the interior 
presents few matters of interest, and it contains no monuments 
with any pretensions to antiquity. The font, however, which is 
placed under the archway leading into the chancel, is an exception, 
as it is of unusual couRtruction. The font itself is of an octagonal 
shape, six of its sides being destitute of ornament, one bears a 
quatrefoil, and the other lias on a shield the following armorial 
bearings: — A fess between three saltires engrailed. It is supported 
on four clustered columns, the capitals of which are sculptured into 
what appear to be intended for the fore and hind quarters of a lion 
and a tiger, though one of the four is broken off. It stands tlu*ce 
feet in height, and is two feet three inches in diameter across the 
top. A coat of arms similar to that upon this font was borne by 
the family of Bovill, which varied much in tinctures, &c., at dif- 
ferent periods. The saltires were not usually represented as 
engrailed, but Sewall de Bovill, Archbishop of York 1266 - 8, bore 
them thus. This might represent the possible date of this font, 
though it may very probably be somewhat later, but we are not 
aware of any connection between the Bovills and Mouyanh. Richard 
Blackwall, of the adjacent chapelry of Taddington, married Griselda, 
daughter and heiress of Bovill of Northampton, in the reign of 
Henry VII., but the font is in our opinion of earlier date than the 
Perpendicular period, nor was Richard Blackwall (a second son) 
resident in this neighbourhood. The font is covered with a flat lid, 
on which is inscribed " W. B. R. N. 1783." 

The roofs of the chancel, aisles, and nave are all flat and plastered, 
which is a sad disfigurement to the church. The flat roof of the 
chancel cuts off a considerable portion of the archway between the 
chancel and the nave. There is a large gallery at the west end of 
the church. In the south aisle there is a sort of transept or 
chantry, marking, probably, tlie site of the chantry founded by 
Nicholas and John Congson. Here is a large stone bracket pro. 
jecting from the wall, two feet two inches in width, and a smaUer 
one carved into two faces. At the end of the north aisle a wide 
stone projects from the wall, about twelve feet from the floor, which 
at one time served as a step into the doorway leading to the top 
of the rood-loft. The outline of the doorway can still be traced. 

The entrance to the tower from the church is in the west wall 



110 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

of the south aisle, which is hollowed into a kind of passage 
There is evidence that the roof of the south aisle was formerly a 
'* lean-to, " but now the nave and both aisles have gable roofs. The 
tower has an embattled parapet, and the spire has two tiers of 
windows. On the south side of the tower is a central buttress, in 
which is a lancet window, four feet six inches by ten inches in 
width. Above it is another lancet window. There are also but- 
tresses in the centre of the west and north walls. There can be 
no doubt that some portions at least of this tower are as old as 
the Early English period. Indeed, it seems probable that the 
original building of Bobert de Selucia and Matthew de Eston 
covered much about the same ground as that occupied by the 
present fabric. 

Monyash must have been a place of no little importance in that 
part of Derbyshire, as not only was a weekly market granted here 
on Tuesdays, in 1840, but a fair for three days at the festival of 
the Holy Trinity.* 

In W. Wyrley*s copy of the Heralds' Visitation of 1669, taken 
in 1592, mention is made of three escutcheons as being then in 
the church of Monyash.f One was the coat, already mentioned, 
on the font, and the other two appear to have been in the windows. 
These two were — Arg,, on a saltire engrailed, «a., nine annulets, 
or; and arg., upon a bend, gu., three escaUops, or. The former 
of these is the coat of Leake, of Sutton. Sir Godfrey Foljambe, 
who married Katharine, daughter of Sir John Leake, held lands 
at Monyash in the sixteenth century, and hence, probably, the 
appearance of the Leake escutcheon in this church. j: The second 
coat may belong to Tankersley, a Cheshire family, or to one or 
two other families, including that of Eobert Kilwarby, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, 1272-8, and the immediate predecessor of Archbishop 
Peckham. If this latter conjecture, and that respecting the coat 

* Bot. Chart. 14 £dw. III., No. 41. This grant was obtained by William de 
Lyuford. Another of the same name (probably his father), had died seized of the 
mineral rights of Monyash and Chelmoiton a few years previonsly. Inq. post Mort. 
11 Edw. III., pt. 2, No. 70. It was to encourage the development of the mineral 
trade that this market was granted. The original holder of the market did not 
possess it for many years, for a charter of 22 Edw. III. (Rot. Chart., No. 27), ascribes, 
not only the manor, but the market and fair of Monyash, to John de Wyne. Subse- 
quently, the manor passed into the hands of the Talbots, Earls of Shrewsbury. The 
miners' courts, that were held at Wirksworth for the Low Peak, were for a long 
period held at Monyash for the High Peak. 

t Harl. MSS. 6592, f. 89. 

I Nichols' Collectanea^ vol. i., p. 342. Thomas Foljambe held certain manorial 
or official rights over the town of Monyash in the reign of Edw. I., of which there are 
some curioui instances recorded in the Hundred BoUs. 



MONYASH. Ill 

on tlie font are correct, it would be curious to find the arms of 
two archbishops in this remote country church. 

When Bassano visited the church, in 1710, he only noted the 
arms on the font, and the last of the two mentioned by Wyrley in 
the windows, 

Mr. Rawlins, who was here in 1827, says, that ** there are a 
few pews built round the pulpit and reading-desk, and also towards 
the chancel, but, generally speaking, the open bench prevails." 

The tower contains a peal of three bells, which are inscribed as 
follows : — 

I. ** J. Melland, W. Bateman, C. W. John Hedderley made me, 
1732/' 

n. ** Sea Maria o.p.n." (Sancta Maiia ora pro nobis ) At 
the commencement of this inscription is the founder's mark in a 
shield. The centre of the shield is charged with a staff issuing from 
a cross pat^ in a' circle, and surmounted by another cross pat6e. 
On the dexter side of the cross is a bell, and on the other side is 
a double streamer attached to the staff. lu chief are the initials 
T. B. 

III. "Glory be to God on high. 1656." The founder's mark 
is the well-known one of George Oldfield. 

The earliest registers now extant at Monyash commence in 1701, 
and contain nothing of special interest. 

Beneath the tower is an old chest of remarkably large dimensions, 
being about ten feet in length by two broad. It is encircled nearly 
every three inches with iron clamps, and must be of considerable 
antiquity. This chest may very possibly be the original receptacle 
provided upwards of six-and-a-half centuries ago, by the founders 
of the chantry for the church plate and vestments. It should be 
compared, so far as size is concerned, with the similar one at 
ScarcHffe in this county.* 

• Churches of Derbyshire, vol. i., p. 825. 






112 DKKBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 



^i)e (!^aptlrp of St)eltrom 




|HE manor of Sheldon was for a long period subordinate to 
that of Ashford, and the chapel seems to have been some- 
times regarded as a chapel of ease to the parochial 
chapelry of Ashford, and sometimes immediately to the mother 
church of Bakewell. We have not been able to ascertain at what 
time the chapel was first erected, and, though it is probably not 
of so early a foundation as the rest of the chapels pertaining to 
Bakewell, we know that one existed here in the fifteenth century. 

The old building was taken down and a new one, on a much 
more pretentious scale, erected in an adjacent field in the year 
1865. The chapel used to stand in the middle of the vilhige 
street, without any enclosing fence or other protection. It was 
able to boast of being the smallest ancient chapel in the county, 
its area being only forty feet by twenty feet eight inches. We 
never saw the old chapel, but an etching by the Rev. R. R. 
liawlins, taken on the 10th of September, 1822, shows that it was 
then a plain oblong building under a single roof with two two- 
hght square-headed windows in the south wall, and another similar 
one at the east end. The south doorway had an ogee pointed arch, 
and there was a plain beU-turret at the west end. Mr. Rawlins 
says of the interior, " it is regularly pewed with deal, and possesses 
no monuments." This chapel, like the present church (in the 
construction of which all the old material was re- used), was dedi- 
cated to All Saints. 

The Parliamentary commissioners of 1650 recommended that 
Sheldon should be united with Ashford and formed into a distinct 
parish ; and this advice has been recently followed more than two 
centuries after the presentation of their report. The Rev. J. R. 
Luxmore, Vicar of Ashford, was also instituted to the Vicara^re of 



SHELDON. 113 

Sheldon in 1871, and the two places now form a single parish so 
far as ecclesiastical purposes are concerned. 

The Sheldon baptismal registers only commence in 1818, and 
the burial registers in 1858, when the present burial ground was 
consecrated. All ecclesiastical duties pertaining to this chapelry 
used, in post-reformation days, to be performed at Bakewell, but 
the following remarkable marriage seems to have been an exception 
to the rule. 

''Last Saturday, at the chapel of Sheldon, in the High Peak of 
Derbyshire, were solemnized the nuptials of a widow gentlewoman 
of that place, of about 80 years of age, to a young lad (by the 
consent of his parents) of about 14. As she was rendered incapa- 
ble of walking, by a complication of disorders, she was carried in 
her chair from her house to the chapel, about 100 yards distant, 
attended by a numerous concourse of people ; where the ceremony 
was performed with becoming seriousness and devotion ; after which 
she was reconducted in the same manner, the music playing, by 
her orders, the Duke of Rutland's hornpipe before her; to which 
(as she was disabled from dancing) she beat time with her hands 
on her petticoats, till she got home, and then called for her 
crutches, commanded her husband to dance, and shuffled as weU 
as she could. The day was spent with the ringing of the bell and 
other demonstrations of joy ; and the populace (mostly miners) were 
soundly drenched with showers of excellent liquor, etc., that were 
plentifully poured upon them.*'* 

• This is taken from a long list of Derby and Derbyshire events that was 
copied in 1 776 by Mr. Keynolds, of Plaistow, from an old parchment roll, lent him 
by Mr. Fallowes, an attorney of Derby — "it seemingly was wrote by Edward 
Brooke, an attorney of the Borough conrt from its beginning to 1680, and residue 
by another hand." Add. MSS. 6700, f. 174. 



114 PF.RBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 



t!ri|f (t^aptlvj^ of t^Tatitiington. 




>DINGTON, including the hamlets of PriestcliflF and 
Blackwall, was one of the numerous chapelries con- 
tained in the very extensive parish of Bakewell, hut 
under the recent Act it now ranks as a vicarage. The church — 
which is of rather unusual size, considering the present and what 
was apparently the par>t population of the district consists of a 
nave, side aisles, chancel, south porch, and tower crowned with a 
spire at the west end. It is dedicated to St. Michael 

There seems no reasonable doubt that a chapel existed here when 
John bestowed tlie mother church on the Dean and Chapter of 
Lichfield ; but the first specific mention of this chapel that we can 
find is at the time of the metropolitan visitation of Archbishop 
Peckham, in 1280, when the arrangement as to church books and 
vestments, that has been recorded under Bakewell, was drawn up, 
and the minister's stipend of five marks a year equally divided 
between the chapter and the inhabitants of Taddington.* But 
the agreement was cancelled in 1815, when the chapter obtained 
more favourable terms, by which they only contributed fifteen 
shillings per annum to the minister of Taddington.f The latter 
arrangement seems to have held good up to the sixteenth century. 

According to the Valor Ecclesiasticus (27 Henry VIII.) the chapelry 
of Taddington paid to the chapter of Lichfield a yearly pension of 
2s. 6d. 

The Parliamentary Commissioners of 1650 reported of Taddington 
that it is *'a parochial chapelry fitt to be made a parish and to 
have united to it Brushfield, Blackwell, Priestcliflfe, and Puttoe (sic) 
hilL Mr. Anthony Mellor J officiates, reputed honest." 

* Dugdale's Monatticon^ vol. iii., p. 227 ; etc. 

t Add. MSS. 6698. See the account of Beeley chapel. 

t Anthony Mellor was buried on January 9th, 1679, and is described in the registers 
as "curate of Taddington." 



TADDINGTON. 115 

No part of the present edifice seems to be of greater age than 
the fourteenth century. It would appear that it was entirely 
rebuilt in the later style of the Decorated period of architecture, 
circa 1850. Probably this was carried out by the Cotterell family, 
who held the manor of Taddington and several adjacent estates 
during this century.* 

The eaat window of the chancel is a good specimen of the style. 
It is of some Uttle width, and has five principal lights. The chancel 
is further lighted by three square -topped windows of the same date, 
two on the south side and one on the north. The archway into 
the nave is supported by two large corbels, each carved with two 
human heads. Four arches separate the nave on each side from 
the side aisles. The supporting octagon -shaped pillars are slender 
and of rather unusual height ; the capitals are plainly moulded. 
The east window of the south aisle is also of the same date, but 
the tracery of the corresponding one in the north aisle shows that 
it was inserted during the prevalence of the Perpendicular style. 
At that time, too, the clerestory windows of the nave must have 
been added. The south doorway affords a nice example of the 
Decorated period. The series of four deeply-cut mouldings are 
continued down from the arch to the base of the jambs. The 
porch over this doorway has an acutely-pitched stone roof, and low 
stone seats on each side. The weather-moulding on the outside, 
and other signs, show that this porch is more modem than the 
doorway, and that the former one had not such a steep-pitched 
roof. The gable-cross of the porch seems to have belonged to its 
predecessor. 

At each side of the east window of the chancel is a substantial 
stone bracket about seven feet from the ground. That on the north 
side may be noticed, as the carving represents three human faces ; 
and that on the south because it still retains, firmly fixed in it, 
part of the iron rod which, doubtless, once secured the image in 
its position. There is also another bracket in the north wall about 
a foot lower. Against this wall, too, is a stone reading-desk or 
slab, projecting nine inches, and three feet from the ground. It 
would serve as a rest for one of the altar books during the service 
of the mass. These reading-slabs are of infrequent occurrence, but 
two others may be seen in the churches of this county — viz., at 
Crich and Spondon. In the south-east comer of the chancel is a 

♦ Inq. poflt Mort. 9 Edward II., No. 8; 19 Ric. II., No. 71. 



116 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

gravestone raibed twelve inches above the floor, but destitute of all 
inscription or ornament Above it is the small-pointed niche of a 
piscina. Against this wall is an ogee- shaped sepulchral arch, the 
stonework of which projects several inches in reHef. It is divided 
into three panels, as though for the purpose of containing mural 
inscriptions. Perhaps this marks the founder's tomb, or it may 
have been merely intended to indicate the spot where the mysteries 
of the Sepulchre were performed, though this was usually on the 
opposite side of the chanceL The chancel is raised so much above 
the outer level, that the priests' door on the south side has four 
steep steps leading up from it. 

At the east end of the south aisle, in the south wall, is a second 
piscina niche, of more ' elaborate e;!Lecution, though of the same 
date as the one in the chancel. Here, too, are memorials of the 
Blackwalls, of Blackwall in this parish, pointing out that this was 
the place where that ancient Derbyshire family was formerly 
interred. On a dark-coloured marble slab, six feet two by 
twenty inches broad, are brasses to the memory of Bichard 
and Agnes Blackwall and their family. This stone is now fixed 
against the wall, but it has formerly been placed in a horizontal 
position on an altar or table tomb. The two principal figures are 
very narrow in their proportions, being about two feet in length 
by six inches in breadth. Bichard Blackwall is represented in 
the ordinary costume of a civilian gentleman at the commencement 
of the sixteenth century. He wears a long gown reaching to the 
feet, which is thrown open in front above the girdle, and also 
slightly below the girdle, exposing to view the lining of fur. The 
sleeves are loose with large cuffs, and trimmed with fur. The 
tight fitting under sleeves are shown, and the doublet is also 
displayed at the neck. From under the right sleeve hangs down 
the gypciere, or pouch, which is attached to the girdle. The head 
is uncovered, and the hair just rests upon the shoulders. From 
his mouth proceeds a scroU, bearing the words, " FUi dei miserere 
met." The costume of the lady is interesting as it represents a 
conventual dress. She wears a close-fitting hood, which falls round 
the shoulders. A plaited barbe or wimple hangs far below the 
chin, and a long mourning mantle is held across the breast by 
tasseled cords, which are crossed under the girdle and hang down 
to about the knee. It seems, at first, rather strange to find 
a married lady in a dress of tliis description, but this brass, as we 
may learn from the omission of the date of her decease, was put 



TADDINGTON. 117 

up when she was a widow. Now it was not uncommon for a 
widow, on the death of her husband, to "take religion," as the 
expression went, and become a vidua pullata, or mourning widow. 
When this vow of perpetual widowhood was taken, a monastic 
dress was therewith assumed. "William, Earl of Pembroke, ui his 
will, made in 1469, left this direction to his Countoss, ** that ye 
remember your promise to me, to take the order of wydowhood, 
as ye may be the better maister of your owne, to perform my wylle, 
and to help my children as I love and ti'ust you."* There is 
another Derbyshire instance of this costume on a brass at Etwall, 
to the memory of Dame Elizabeth Porte, 1516. There is this 
pecuharity about the one at Taddington, viz., that the cuffs of the 
iuner sleeves are of fur, a feature that does not correspond to the 
rest of the dress, and which we have noticed in no other instance. 
From her mouth proceeds a scroll bearing the words, ** Muter dfi 
memento mei.** Below the mother are the diminutive figures of 
five daughters, all clad in close-fitting dresses, cut low at the neck, 
and with tight long sleeves. They have long hair, and wear no 
head-dress. Six boys, in long gowns like their father's, are below 
the effigy of the man. 

There are four coats of arms on this slab. One of those at the 
top bears the arms of Blackwall, of Blackwall in the Peak, vtlr//., 
a greyhound courant, sab.^ collared, chequy or and gu.^ on a chief 
indented, of the second, three bezants.t The second coat at the 
top is much defaced, and has been clumsily repaired with lead, but 
enough remains to enable us to say that it bears the arms of 
Tunsted — Sab., three doves, arg. One of the shields below the 
figures bears the two coats, already described, impaled ; and the 
other has a chevron between three lozenges. This coat might 
belong to a large number of families according to the tinctures. 
The black-letter inscription reads as follows : — ** Orate pro aiabus 
Bici Blackwall de Blackwall et domine Agnetis uxis sue qui quidem 
Bicus obiit viii die March A. dm M CCCCCV et predicta Agnes 
obiit .... die .... A. dm Millimo CCCCO .... quorm aiabus 
ppicietur deus.'' This ancient family was settled at Blackwall from 
an early period. They were on this manor as early as the time 
of Henry II., but the first of the family whom we know by name 
as a holder of the manor was Robert de Black waU, in the 40th 

* Haines' Mommifntal Brawes^ Introduction, p. Ixxxix. 
fLysonH gives the arniH "collared, or" — but this is an error. 



118 DERBYSHIKE CHURCHES. 

year of Henry lU. It is related of his son, Sir John Blackwall, 
that he was smothered at the coronation of Edward U. The sixth 
from him, in direct descent, was Robert Blackwall, who in the 
reign of Henry VII., married Isabell, sister of Sir Robert Litton, 
of Litton. Their son and heir Richard married Agnes, daughter of 
John Tunsted, whose monument we are now considering. Of the 
eleven children depicted on the brass we can only learn the names 
of the four sons who survived their father, Robert, Richard, Thomas, 
and Ralph. Richard, the second of these sons, married Griselda, 
daughter and heiress of Bovill of Northampton, and left an only 
daughter ; Thomas, who resided at Shirley, married Anne, daughter 
of John Blount, of Blount Hall, Staflford, and left two co-heiresses, 
Ellen, who became the wife of Thomas Hurt of Ashboum, and 
Anne, who was the second wife of Stephen Eyre of Hassop ; and 
Ralph married one of the co-heiresses of Humphrey Stafford of 
Eyam. From Robert, the eldest son and heir, was descended 
Ralph Blackwall, who married Anne, daughter and heiress of Richard 
Wendesley, of Wendesley, about the middle of the sixteenth century. 
Shortly after the attainder of Anthony Babington, Dethick Hall 
and manor were purchased by Wendesley Blackwall, the eon of 
Richard. He died in 1634, leaving his estates to his son Sir 
Thomas Blackwall, who, being a zealous royahst, became greatly 
impoverished in the civil wars. In the reign of Charles II., his 
habihties were estimated at the then very large sum of £180,632 Ts. 
lOd., and he consequently lost the manor of Blackwall, together 
with the rest of his property.* 

Close to the monument of Richard and Agnes Blackwall, but 
against the east wall, is an alabaster slab, of which the upper 
portion is missing. On it is rudely incised a figure of a man 
(minus the head) wearing large trunk hose and clocked stockings, 
and with a ridiculously narrow waist. This is the costume in 
vogue about the end of the sixteenth and in the first haK of the 
seventeenth century. The inscription which has once gone round 
the margin is now altogether obliterated with exception of the letters 
..." kwall " in text hand at the right hand lower comer. This, 
however, in connection with its position, is sufficient to warrant us 
in claiming it for one of the Blackwall family, most probably we 
should think for Wendesley Blackwall, the father of Sir Thomas. 

We learn from the registers that the east end of the south aisle 

•Add. MSS. 28, 118, f. 4"; Lysons' Derby ahirey p. cxviii; Glover's Derbyshire, 
\ol. ii., J), 100. 



TADDINGTON. 119 

used to be termed the Blackwall Quire ; and a similar position in 
the opposite aisle seems to have been styled tlie PriestcM Quire. 
Probably, seats were there appropriated to the lords of those two 
manors, and subsequently to other inhabitants of the same hamlets. 
In the year 1764, the registers record the burial of (1) **EUz*^ 
Wright of ye Herdlow, in Blackw Quire, on ye side of ye allabaster 
stone tomb;" of (2) "Ralph Greene, going into Prestcliffe Quire;" 
and of (3) ** Richard Roberts, with his feet lying to Blackwell Quire, 
in ye alley." 

The only other memorial that we noticed within the church was 
a long slab of gritstone, forming part of the pavement in the north* 
west comer of the church, about five feet six long by two broad. 
On it is indsed a large and quite plain Latin cross. It is difficult 
from its very plainness to hazard anything about the date of this 
gravestone, but it certainly seems older than the present church. 

Near the south door stands the font. It is a plain octagon font, 
divided into panels, apparently of the late Perpendicular period. 
Its diameter at the top is two feet, and the depth of the bowl 
eleven inches. Its shape is unusual, resembling rather an hour- 
glass, for both top and base taper to a narrow circumference in 
the middle. The font of the neighbouring church of Chelmorton 
is of a similar shape, probably from the same chisel. And here 
we must note the most singular position and use for a church font 
which it has as yet been our fate to chronicle. We have found one 
Derbyshire font used by a prudent churchwarden as a salting vat 
for beef ; another, in a farmyard as a trough for cattle ; a third, 
used as a wash-hand basin for the viQage school ; and several, 
adorning the flower-beds of parsonage gardens, but Taddiugton can 
put one and all of these instances in the shade. On the right- 
hand side, as we enter the field leading to the churchyard, stands 
a public-house. Fixed to the wall, to the left of the fireplace, and 
supported on a stone with notched edges, is what we suppose to be 
the circular bowl of a former font, of the Norman period. On asking 
what it was, the landlady at once replied that it was an old font; 
and the only doubt that existed in our mind about it was from the 
almost oval shape of the interior, but this may be chiefly owing to 
the wear and tear that it has encountered since it was appropriated 
to secular purposes. The bowl is fourteen inches high, and about 
two feet in diameter. It is fitted with a wooden lid, and is used 
for ordinary culinary purposes. At the time of our visit it contained 
a slight deposit of the nature of pea-soup. A traveller, who was 



120 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

present, told us that be bad frequently seen tbe beer-glasses washed 
out in it when tbe passengers alighted there in tbe old coaching 
days. Surely, this interesting old reUc, perhaps the only remnant 
of the church that existed here in the days of King John, might 
be rescued from its present incongruous position ? 

It is noted by Messrs. Lysons, though not recorded in their 
history of the county, that there was a rood loft across the entrance 
to tbe chanceL This would be about the year 1812.* 

A small gallery disfigures the west end of the church. When 
Mr. Rawlins visited this church, on the 18th of January, 1827, he 
notes that *^ over the singing gallery is rudely painted on the wall, 
David playing on bis harp, and Time standing with his scythe, 
at his feet an hour-glass, crown, globe, and sceptre." This wall 
painting has now disappeared, but we may be sure from the 
character of tbe composition, that it was of post-Eeformation date. 
The tower, surmounted by a broached spire, is in good harmony 
with the body of the church. Some nine or ten years ago it was 
considered unsafe, and taken down, but we were told that the 
same materials were for the most part used, and that it was put 
up in identically the same form as the original one. Owing, we 
suppose, to lack of funds, nothing but the bare walls were in tbe 
first instance re- erected, there not being a single floor or partition 
all the way up from the base of the tower to the summit of the 
spire, only here and there a few cross beams. 

The bells, therefore, as a matter of course, were not re-hung. 
They are three in number ; and when we visited this church, in 
1872, two stood on the pavement of the church at the west end. 
The third was in the porch, slung across the walls by means of a 
scaffolding pole ; to the clapper was attached a piece of cord, and 
this primitive form of ringing was the only way for some years by 
which the parishioners of Taddington were summoned to worship. 
We expressed our fear as to the result of this style of ringing on 
the ears of the performer, but were complacently assured by our 
cicerone that Taddington possessed a deaf and dimib man, and to 
him the office had been unanimously assigned ! 

The bells have, however, been re-hung in the tower dming the 
present year (1876). Tbe one that was in the porch is inscribed, 
** Anthony Meller minister, 1669," and bears tbe founder's mark of 
George Oldfield. The second bell has the following inscription, in 

• Add. MSS, 9463. 



TADDINGTON. 121 

elaborate Lombardic letters of singular beauty : — * ** Custos sanctus 
nostrarum Michael it dux animaruniy* which may be rendered — 
''Michael, the holy guardian of our souls, moves on as our leader." 
The third bell simply bears '' Camp[ana] Sci Michael/' in Old 
English letters. The dedication of two of these bells to St. Michael, 
the patron saint of the church, is very interesting. 

At the end of the south aisle is the table of old charitable 
bequests, which is worthy of being here transcribed, if only on 
account of the quaintness of the spelling : — 

" Given by Mr. Roger Wilkson Minister of Wormhill to the poor 
people of Taddington Chappelry twelve peneyworth of white bread 
to be dealt every Lord's day for ever to such as frequent divine 
service or are aged : paid out of one Close called bothem Close, 
two beast grasses in prestliff Lees and one yard called Rippton 
yard, and by tlie name of Tymin Land.f 

•'Left by Charles Hayward in the year 1778 Five shilUngs to 
the poor of the Liberty of Taddington to be distributed in bread 
on the 4th of January yearly for ever, and to be paid out of the 
Housing now in possession of Dorothy Hayward, a croft and garden, 
on the backsid of the saide house, and a croft in the Hades also 
in her possession." 

The regi^rs of Taddington commence about the year 1640. 
The following is an inventory of the church plate, taken in the 
year 1695 : — 

** An Account of the materialls belonginge to the Communion 
Table at Taddington — 

** One large silver Calice, given by R*| Goodwin, anno 1661. 

" One small silver Bowie, with a silver cover. 

** One large Flaggon of pewter, one pewter Bason, one large 
Leather Bottle. 

** One Table-cloth for the Communion Table. 

" One pewter Dish with an M and an upon the bottom ; one 
table napkin of Holland, with an M at one corner, both given as a 
free gift for the use of the ChappeU of Taddington afs*) by Mary 
the wife of William Oldfield, now minister resident at Taddington 
afs'*." 

• For engrayings of the elaborate lettering on this bell, see the BeHqtiary^ vol. xiv., 
p. 228. The inscription in the text omits the contractions. 

t This beqtiest was made in Mr. Wilkson's wiU, dated 4th April, 1714. He was 
buried at Taddington on the 12th of the same month. By his will he also made 
munificent provision for a school at Taddington. Not much more than a century 
after his death the Charity Cummissioners reported how seriously this endowment 
had been misused.— Charity Commishioners' Reports, vol. xvii., pp. 48-52. 



122 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

In the churchyard, to the south of tlie church, is an ancient 
cross which carries us back to a very early era of Christianity. 
The more elaborate crosses of Eyam and Bakewell have been often 
illustrated and often described ; but that at Taddington, though 
not nearly so perfect or so rich in ornament, is, unless we are much 
mistaken, of greater antiquity, and therefore of greater interest. 
The upper part of the cross is altogether missing. It is fixed in 
a pedestal two feet square, raised two inches above the present 
level of the ground. From it springs a shaft six feet high, 
and eight and a half inches square at the base. The edges are 
bevelled, and it diminishes very slightly in size as it gets higher, 
being seven inches square at the top. On the west side the stone 
is much splintered and defaced, but appears to have been carved 
with foliage. The south side has a series of slightly-marked 
chevrons one above the other, and some idea of the pattern incised 
on the east and north faces can be gathered from our etching 
(Plate XII.) After taking considerable care to avoid forming a 
hasty conclusion, we feel bound to record our opinion that the 
general character and style of this cross point to a British, or, 
more correctly, to a Celtic origin. The patterns have a strong 
resemblance to those often found on Celtic jewellery and pottery, 
and also have a marked similarity — to mention only two instances — 
to those on the undoubtedly British cross at Sancreed in Cornwall, 
and on the ancient sculptured stones at New Grange, Ireland.* 

We do not mean to say that we have here a relic of the ancient 
British Church that certainly existed, in this and other parts of 
Britain, when we were under Roman domination ; f for probably 
every trace of Christian worship was swept away by the hordes of then 
pagan Saxons, who rapidly overran and colonised almost the whole 
of England, including the fastnesses of the Peak, soon after it was 
deserted by the Bomans. But the conversion of the conquering 
Saxons of the north and midlands of England was due to the zeal 
of the Celtic Christians of Ireland, aided by the remnants of the 
ancient British Church, and not, as is popularly supposed, to the 
energy of St. Augustine and his colleagues. J The same year (597) 
that witnessed the landing of St. Augustine on the shores of Kent, 

* Archeeological Journal, vol. iv., pp. 302-318; Brash's EccleaiastiecU Architecture 
of Ireland^ Plate IX. 

t Deputations of British Bishops sat as representatives of their brethren at the 
Councils of Aries (314), of Sardica (347)i and of Bimini (859). 

\ This is not the place to multiply authorities in support of this assertion ; suffice 
it to say, that we believe it is now accepted as a fact by all scholars, whatever may be 
their theological predilections. 



TADDINGTON. 123 

also "witnessed the death of St. Colnmba at lona. Some thirty 
years before that date, Golumba and his companions left Ireland, 
** the Isle of Saints/' for the south of Scotland, where they founded 
the celebrated monastery of lona. It was Aidan, a monk of lona, 
and a band of Irish- Scottish monks who in 635 founded the 
monastery of Lindisfame, on this side the border, and it was from 
Lindisfame that Christianity gradually permeated through the 
northern and midland districts of England. The Mercian kings 
Peada and Wulfhere were converted to Christianity, together with 
the large majority of their subjects, about the middle of the seventh 
century, by the exertions of these Celtic missionaries; and it is 
recorded that in 658 four priests were left in Mercia to instruct 
and baptize the people — Cedd, Adda, Betti, and Diuma. The last 
of these, who came direct from lona, was ordained Bishop of the 
Mercians and Midland Angles, and took up his abode at Eepton, 
in this county, which continued to be the episcopal see for some 
twenty years, when St. Chad removed it to Lichfield. Diuma, the 
first Bishop of the Mercians, died in 659, and his successor, 
Ceollach, also came^ from Scotland. It is recorded of Diuma that 
his preaching during his short episcopacy was specially acceptable, 
and that many, as well of the nobility as of the common sort, 
renouncing the abominations of idolatry, were baptized daily.* 

We would fftin believe — and there are excellent grounds for our 
belief — that this cross at Taddington, adorned by Celtic art, was 
erected by the Celtic missionaries of the seventh century, perhaps 
to the memory of one of the first converts to the truth, or, per- 
haps, to celebrate the spot on which the first Bishop of the 
Mercians first preached the Gospel in the wilds of Derbyshire. 

May this stone long remain a silent witness of the truth to 
generations yet to come ! It is difficult to imagine that any 
Christians of the future will be found whose zeal can take the 
form of demolition of the dearest emblem of their faith. 

"Yet will we not conceal the precious Cross, 
Like men ashamed ; the Sun with his first smile 

Shall greet that symbol 

And the fresh air of incense-breathing mom 
Shall wooingly embrace it; and green moss 
Creep round its arms through centuries unborn." 

* Bede's Eccleaiastieal History ; Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ; Sir Oswald Mosley's 
Ancient British Church; Lingard's Anglo-Saxon Church; Hook's Archbishops of 
Canterbury f vol. i. 



\ 



(EasHFtom 



^balF. 



(^BifUHn. 




|HE Castle of the Peak, as may be gathered from the 
Domesday Survey, was built by William Peverel, the 
illegitimate son of Wilham the Conqueror. This castle, 
which gave its name to the village lying under its shelter, remained 
with the Peverel family, together with the adjacent manor, till the 
reign of Henry EL., when the whole of their vast estates were for- 
feited to the crown in consequence of the poisoning of Ranulph, 
Earl of Chester. Henry II. bestowed the manor and castle on his 
younger son John, who subsequently inherited the crown, and they 
remained part of the royal demesnes until the end of the reign of 
Edward III., when that king bestowed them on John of Gaunt, 
and they thus became absorbed in the Duchy of Lancaster.* 

There is no mention of a church at Castleton in the Domesday 
Survey, but there can be no doubt, from the remains still extant, 
that a church was built here shortly afterwards, either by "William 
Peverel or his son, but probably by the former. Nor can there be 
any doubt that the advowson of the church was held for many 
generations by the owner of the manor, or the custodian of the 
castle for the time being. In fact, so close was this connection, 
that the church went by the name of ** the church of Peak Castle" 
up to the fourteenth century. During the long and tumultuous 
reign of Henry III. the post of governor of this castle was fre- 
quently changed. We know that it was' held in the 36th year of 
this reign by Prince Edward, but it was in the hands of Simon de 
Montfort in the 49th year of the said reign. Probably the king 

* There are very numerous references to Castleton and the Castle of the High 
Peak in the varions Rolls and Charters of the Public Record Office, but I have not 
met therein with anything immediately relating to the church earlier than the time 
when it was giyen to the Abbey of Demhall. Pegge's Sketch of the History of Bol- 
aover and Peak Castles, forming No. xxxii. of the Bibliotheca Topographica Britan- 
nica, published in 1785, contains the most accurate printed information relative to 
Peak Castle, but so much more material is now accessible for its history, that it is a 
pity that no one has yet undertaken another and more extended monograph. 



128' DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

specially conferred the advowson of the church on his son, Prince 
Edward, during the time he was in charge of this castle, and it 
remained his after he no longer held the post of governor, for in 
1269 that Prince gave the church to the Abhey of Demhall, in the 
county of Chester. The foundation charter of Demhall, which 
included the gift of this church, is of unusual interest, and is dated 
from Winchester on the 24th of August. In the preface to this 
charter it is set out that Prince Edward grants **to God and the 
blessed Mary, and to the monastery of that same glorious virgin of 
Dernhall, of the Cistercian order," the various manors and churches 
which he had recently vowed to bestow when in danger on the sea. 
This danger arose on the return of the Prince of Wales from his 
crusading voyage with Louis, king of France, when, as the old 
chronicler expresses it, he had been ** strenuously making war for 
love of the Crucified One for the extermination of the pagans." 
The church is herein described as '^ecclesia de Castro de Pecke.'* 
After Edward had been 27 years on the throne he granted another 
charter by which the Abbey of Demhall was translated to Vale 
Boyal in the same county. In this voluminous charter he recapi- 
tulates and confirms his previous grants. It therein appears that 
the special consent of Pope Honorius IV., and subsequently of 
Pope Nicholas IV., had been obtained for the transference of the 
advowsons of one church in Lancashire, two in Cheshire, and 
Castleton in Derbyshire, to the Abbey of Vale Eoyal, but that some 
difficulty had arisen about the presentation, and the king specially 
enjoins his heirs and successors to leave the appointment of the 
parsons of these four churches peaceably in the hands of the 
Abbot and convent,* 

The Taxation Roll of Nicholas IV. (1291) values this church at 
£12 per annum, and it is there entered as an '* ecclesia,'' and not 
a vicarage. But the rectorial tithes, as well as the advowson, were 
subsequently appropriated to the Abbey, and a vicarage formally 
endowed. 

In 1886 returns of the various possessions of Vale Eoyal were 
made in compliance with a Boyal inquisition, and the church was 
then valued amongst the property of the abbey at the same rate as 



« 



Dagdale's Monasticon^ vol. i., pp. 936-939. There are some transcripts of the 
old chartularies of the Abbey of Vale Royal in the Harl. MSS. No. 2064. ThlR 
volume is endorsed on the outside " the coppy of the Ledger-bookes of Vale RoyaU 
and Standlowe." It was in the possession of Sir Thomas Mainwaring of Peover, 
in 1662. The account of the foundation of the Abbey, given in the 5th vol. of 
the enlarged Dugdale is taken from this manuscript. 



CASTLETON. 129 

I 

in 1291.* In 1829 a dispute arose between the Prior of Lenton 
and the Abbot of Vale Royal. The Prior (in consequence, we 
suppose, of the old gift of Peverel of two-thirds of all his tithes in 
the Peak to the Priory of Lenton f) had been selHng the tithes 
of beasts pasturing in Edale, but the Abbot of Vale Royal, as 
rector of Castleton, supplicated Queen Isabella, then lord of the 
Castle and Honour of the High Peak, that she should instruct her 
Bailiff of the High Peak to liberate to the Abbot the tithes of the 
beasts pastured in Edale, as well as of all domestic animals for 
the church of Castleton. The Queen thereupon instructed her Bailiff, 
Ralph de Spaynynge, to make an Inquisition on oath as to the 
old rights of the Abbot and the church of Castleton, and the 
result was to upset the suddenly preferred claims of the Prior of 
Lenton. :{ 

When the Valor EccUsiasticus was taken (27 Henry VIII.), the 
vicarage of Castleton was valued at £6 Ts. 6d., including 9s. for 
tithes of lead. Edmund Goldesmythe was then vicar. 

After the dissolution of the monasteries, Henry VIII. gave the 
great tithes and the advowson of the vicarage to the Bishop of 
Chester, in whose hands they remained till of late years, when & 
change was effected with the Bishop of Lichfield. 

The commissioners of the Parliament, in 1650, reported that the 
living was worth £40 per annum, and that Mr. Samuel Cryer 
was the present incumbent. It is added that '' the impropriation 
of Castleton formerly belonged to the Bishop of Chester." 

The church of Castleton, which is dedicated to St. Edmund, 
consists of a nave with a south porch, a chancel with small vestry 
on the north side, and a tower at the west end. This church has 
unfortunately undergone so many repairs and restorations during 
the present century, that but little is left of any part of the 
structure, except the tower, which can lay claim to a pre-Reforma- 
tion origin. 

Amongst the interesting manuscript volumes of the Rev. Alfred 
Suckling is one containing notes and sketches of a few Derbyshire 
churches which he visited in the summer of 1828. Mr. Suckling 
visited Castleton in July of that year. He says : — Castleton 
church is a small ancient structure, neatly fitted up. Though the 
spirit of modern improvement so increasingly extends in barbarising 

•Harl. MSS. 2064, f. 242; see also f. 249. 

f See the account of the church of Chapel-en-le- Frith. 

: Harl. MSS. 2064, f. 261. 

K 



130 DERBTSHIRE CHURCHES. 

our sonthem churches, it appears to rage ^th ahnost equal force 
among the bleak and barren hills of Derbyshire. To such beauti- 
fications, as their Gothic projectors term them, this edifice is 
indebted for the removal of her lancet windows, wretchedly sup- 
planted by others of a nondescript architecture.* The expression 
** lancet windows," when used by so careful a writer, inchnes us to 
suppose that the main characteristics of this bmlding previous to 
its '* beautifications" were of the Early EngUsh period of the 
thirteenth century, and this view is confirmed by the sketch of 
the church taken by the Rev. R. R Rawlins in 1827, which shows 
three Early English lancets lighting the south side of the nave. 
The nave, as it now stands, is almost as ugly a piece of church 
architecture as could weU be imagined, whether regarded from the 
interior or exterior, though it has been improved within the last 
year by the removal of the "nondescript** windows, and the inser- 
tion in their place of pointed windows having two principal lights. 
There are four of these windows on each side. It certainly does 
seem monstrous that any one could have been found to plaster the 
exterior of the nave with stucco, in this region aboimding with 
stone. It must, however, be mentioned to the credit of these 
church beautifiers that they did not remove everything bearing traces 
of antiquity, for there is a fine Norman archway between the nave 
and the chancel, ornamented with the chevron moulding. It is 
mentioned, in Glover's History of Derhyshirey that this archway was 
rebuilt (probably only strengthened) in 1827, during the church- 
wardenship of Mr. Elias Needham and Mr. Tym. Glover styles it 
a Saxon arch, but it is not of that era, and may with confidence 
be ascribed to the church here first erected by the Peverels. The 
alterations of this church extended over a considerable period, but 
the, most important work seems to have been done in 1880. An 
inscription in raised letters, on the lead work of the flat roof of 
the nave, records that : — " The old roof was laid on A.D., 1683." — 
*' This church much repaired, the lead recast, new porch and but- 
tresses bmlt A.D., mdcccxxx;" "the Rev. Charles Cecil Bates, M.A., 
vicar ; Joseph Hall, solicitor, and George Sidebottom, churchwardens 
for Castleton and Edall ; '* and " Robert Hall, Tideswell, plumber, 
1830." 

Below the window nearest to the chancel on the south side of 
the nave is a small piscina, blocked up at the bottom, but covered 

* Add. MSS. 2064, f. 251. 



CASTLETON. 131 

by a trefoil-pointed niche. This, of course, points to the existence 
of a side altar at this end of the nave, and also shows that at all 
events a portion of the old walls of the nave still remain. For 
we may be quite sure that the Gastleton churchwardens were not 
sufficiently interested in archsaology to replace a piscina in a modern 
wall. 

When Mr. Suckling was here (July, 1823) he also noted that 
•*many of the old pews were curiously carved, but, as it was then 
again under repair, I fear they may have disappeared. I seized, 
however, the opportunity of drawing some.** The drawings and 
descriptions which follow are chiefly of the names of the occupants 
of the different pews, boldly cut in oak, and of bands of moulding 
of Benaissance design. Happily, Mr. Suckling's expectations con- 
cerning these fine old pews have not been reaUsed, and we find 
now every one of the inscriptions and ornaments which he then 
copied. The following are the principal names and dates : — Samuel 
Cryer* (vicar) 1661, Thomas Hall 1661, Thomas Creswell 1662, 
Robert Hall 1663 (twice), John Hall 1676, Robert Hall 1676, and 
Robert Thomehill (cut away, but still legible). In addition to these 
names in full, are many initials with dates ; but these mark, for 
the most part, pews of a later period and not nearly such good 
workmanship ; they vary from about 1710 to 1720. 

The old font, at the west end of the church, is of an octagon 
design, and resembles in shape an inverted chalice. 

The pointed archway from the nave to the tower is blocked up 
by a west gallery. The tower is of the Perpendicular period, 
dating from about the close of the fifteenth century, and was not 
interfered with by the modern beautifiers, except to make a small 
entrance on the south side up three steps, so that the belfry might 
be gained from the outside. The doorway into the staircase from 
the interior is built up. The tower has no doorway at the west 
end; but the basement is lighted by an obtusely-pointed window of 
three lights. The pointed bell-chamber windows have no tracery. 
The tower is supported at the four angles by diagonally-placed 
buttresses, and the summit is embattled and further ornamented 
with eight crocketed pinnacles. Below the parapet are four large 
gurgoyles at the angles, and four smaller ones projecting from the 
bases of the central pinnacles. 

* Samuel Cryer, as we have already seen, held the vicarage during the Common- 
wealth * but, as we find ho was formally instituted to the Yioarage in 1662, he v as 
probably one of those who was at fir»t ejected, but afterwards conformed. — Lichfield 
Bpiscopal Begiflter, vol. zvii. 



132 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

An old-establislied and interesting custom still prevails in this 
parish on the 29th of May. On that day the ringers and others 
parade the town, headed by a man on horseback bearing a garland 
of large dimensions. When evening approaches, the garland is 
carried below the church tower, and raised to the summit by a 
pulley. It is then placed on the central pinnacle on the south 
side (the other pinnacles having been adorned with oak boughs at 
an early hour in the morning), and there left to wither away till 
the anniversary of its renewal again comes round. There have 
been some curious blunders made in taking notes of this ceremony. 
A writer to Notes and Queries, a few years ago,* gravely assured 
his readers that he had observed something remarkable stuck on 
the top of the church tower, and on making inquiries of one of 
the inhabitants, was told that it was a beeJuve (I), and that one 
was placed in that position every 29th of May." This writer must 
have met with an unusually facetious inhabitant of Castleton ! In 
the churchwardens' accounts for the year 1749 is the following 
item: — **Paid for an iron Rod to hang ye ringers garland in, 8d." 
When Mr. J. B. Robinson sent this item to the "Local Notes and 
Queries'* of the Derby ihire Times, \ the printers perversely ren- 
dered "garments" for "garland," and it thus appeared in the 
whole edition of the paper, to the no small amusement and mysti- 
fication of its readers. 

The tower contains eight bells, none older than the present 
century. The first .and second bells are inscribed ** James Harrison, 
of Barton-upon-Humber, Founder, X812." The third and fifth have 
the same inscription, but the date of 1808. The fourth and sixth 
bells bear ** Isaac Hall and Nicholas Tym, Churchwardens, 1803;" 
and the seventh bell has the following legend : — 

** When of departed hours we toll the knell 
** Instruction take and spend the future weH. 

James Harrison, Founder, 1803." 
The eighth bell has also a rhyming legend : — 

"I to the Church the people call 
And to the grave I summons all. 

James Harrison, of Barton, Founder, 1803." 
Robert How, by will bearing date, 4th June, 1818, gave to the 
Churchwarden and Overseer of the poor of Castleton £40 on trust, 
20s. of the interest to be annually divided amongst the poor on 

* Notes and Queries^ 4th Series, vol. iv., p. 315. 
\ Derbyshire Times, July 13th, 1872. 



CA8TLET0N. 133 

8t Thomas' Day, and the remaining 20s. for the ringers of Castleton 
for ringing a peal on every 19th day of August.* 

The ohancel is now lighted by an east window of Decorated 
design, and by two others of a similar style on the south side. 
Below the east window is a small picture of the Adoration of the 
Magi, which is locally attributed to Vandyke. The window itself 
is of stained glass, and is to the memory of the Bev. C. C. Bates, who 
died in 1858, having been Vicar of Castleton for thirty-five years. 

In the vestry rooms, on the north side of the chancel, is a hbrary 
of some six hundred volumes, and of unusual excellence for a 
country parish. These volumes, with a few later additions, were 
left to the parish by a former vicar, the Rev. Frederick Farran, 
who died in 1819. A large proportion of these volumes are old 
fashioned works of divinity, but there are a fair number of standard 
works on general hterature, such as Clarendon's BebelHon, Johnson's 
Works, and the Spectator. Amongst the rarer topographical works 
we noticed Newcomers History of the Abbey of St. Alban, published 
in 1798. The '*hons" of the hbrary, which are shown to all 
visitors, are two early copies of the EngHsh version of the Bible; 
one of these is of the year 1589, and is that edition commonly 
known as Cranmer's or the Great Bible, and the other is a 
"Breeches Bible," of the year 1611. Breeches Bibles are thus 
termed from the quaint translation of Genesis iii. 7 : ** They sewed 
figge-tree leaves together, and made themselves breeches." There 
is a popular idea that this text was only thus rendered in a single 
edition, but there are various editions containing this translation, 
bearing date 1582, 1599, 1618, &c. On the fly leaf of the one 
at Castleton is written : " This is the most perfect copy of the 
Breeches Bible that I have ever seen. The Psalms in metre by 
Stemhold and Hopkins, with the musical notes annexed to this 
edition, were printed in 1609, and were purchased and bound with 
it, and repaired, for the use of Castleton Library, by G. J. Hamilton," 

In the churchyard is a sundial standing on a shaft and capital, 
about four feet high, rising from three wide circular steps. The 
shaft, which is octagonal, is probably part of the old churchyard 
cross. The metal plate of the dial is thus inscribed : '^Lat. 58.21. 
John Mcquiner fecit. Shefd. Hora Pars Vitae." 

The parish registers only commence in January, 1 688, and contain 
nothing of special interest. 

• Report of the Charity CommiaaionerSf vol. xvii., p. 284. 



134 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHKS. 

The following are the names of four of the fourteenth century 
Vicars of Castleton with the dates of their institution; they were 
all appointed on the presentation of the Ahbot of Yale Boyal. 

1807. W. de Essheton. 

1362. Thomas de la Peke. 

1886. Adam de Barowe. 

1388. W. Dryden.* 

The Rev. R R. Rawlins (writing in 1827), says, ** The parish 
choir is celebrated far and near for great accuracy in chanting 
sacred music ; as well as highly gratifying the numerous visitors 
to the Great Cavern, by singing, if requested, on elevated parts of 
illuminated rocks, within these subterranean recesses, numerous 
glees, catches, and trios, with quartettes and other fugitive pieces 
of modem and popular harmony.'* 

* Lichfield Episcopal Begisters. 



£DAL£. 135 



^t (S^a^tlt^ of HBtiaXt. 




|N the Domesday Survey, Edale is described as a hamlet 
of Hope, but it was not long before it was considered to 
form part of the ecclesiastical parish of Castleton. As 
such, its tithes were due to the Abbey of Yale Boyal, to which the 
living of Castleton had been appropriated, and they were formally 
confirmed to it in the year 1329* (as already stated), in consequence 
of a dispute with the Priory of Lenton. It seems clear that there 
was not at this time any chapel of Edale, nor can we discover any 
trace of one in the Chartulary of Vale Boyal, or elsewhere in pre- 
Beformation days. 

In the year 1688, Edale chapel was built by Bobert Hall and 
Stephen Bright, gentlemen, by Thomas Hall, Bobert Herrington, 
Frances Howe, Henry Hall, George Howe, Gyles Barber, Thomas 
Barber, Balph Creswell, John Hadfield, Boger Hall^ and George 
Lowe, yeomen, and by Anna Shore and Alice Earsington, widows. 
They furnished a parcel of ground in the Calfes Hayes, which was 
set apart by the Bishop for a burial ground ia 1634. The building 
was consecrated by Dr. Wright^ Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 
in the same year on Trinity Sunday, as the chapel of the Holy 
and undivided Trinity, and the nomination of a minister was to be 
vested in the co-founders, their heirs and assigns for ever, and 
they were to pay the minister £10 per annum.* 
. The Bev. Bobert Turie, in 1722, augmented the income of the 
minister with land to the value of £40 per annum, and £200 in 
addition.f 

This chapel could not have been very substantially built, for 
about a hundred-and-fiffcy years after its erection its condition was 

* Add. MSS. 28, 111, ff. 101, 106. See also Hope parish registers for 1684. 
fPegge'B MS. Collections, vol. ▼., f. 5. 



136 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHKS. 

so bad that the inhabitants applied to Quarter Sessions for a Brief 
for its repair. 

A Brief was obtained in 1795, in which it is stated that £dale 
chapel was **a very ancient (?) structure, greatly decayed in every 
part, and much too small to contain the number of persons there 
who profess the doctrines of the Church of England and who 
should attend Divine worship there." The remedy suggested was 
that it should be entirely taken down, enlarged, and rebmlt. Mr. 
John Bishop, *^ an able and experienced architect,'' estimated the 
cost at £1480 18s. 4d. As an excuse for appealing to the general 
pubhc, the Brief further states that the inhabitants of Edale were 
not only chiefly " tenants and labourers burdened with poor," but 
that they were also chargeable with half of all the moneys ex- 
pended over the mother church of Castleton. But the result of 
this Brief was merely to bring in the sum of £134 6s. lid., and in 
1808 another Brief was obtained in which the same prayer was re- 
peated with the addition that the church of Castleton was then 
undergoing repair, which made their position still harder»* We 
do not know the exact sum produced by this second Brief, but within 
a few years after this second appeal the old chapel was taken down 
and the present plain bam-like structure erected. Against the south 
wall, over the door, is this inscription : — " Edale chapel originally 
built A.D. MDCXXXIU. was taken down and replaced by this 
present edifice A.D. MDCCCXII." 

The registers commence with the year of the building of the 
first chapel. 

J 

*The originals of these two Briefs are in the British Mnseiun. Copies of the 
petitions to Quarter Sessions also exist amongst the County Records, the earliest 
Being a printed sheet signed by John Lingard, minister, and John Champion, 
chapelwarden. 



\ 



<giapFl-Fn-lF-fni!i, 



\ 



(IfaiipI-pn-Ip-l'rifi. 




|HE history of the Royal Forest of the Peak in Derbyshire 
yet remains to be written. Both Lysons and Glover pass 
it OTer in a brief paragraph. But this is not the place 
to giye even the shortest outline of that which might form an 
interesting monograph. It is sufficient here to note that Peak Forest 
was held by William Peverel, the illegitimate son of the Conqueror, 
though probably the whole *' Honour of the Peak '* was not con- 
ferred ux>on him till the reign of Henry I. Thence it passed to 
his SOD and grandson of the same nan^e, the former the founder 
of Lenton Abbey; but the estates of the third William Peverel 
were forfeited to the crown in the reign of Stephen, owing to the 
murder of Eanulph, Earl of Chester. His daughter and co-heiress, 
Margaret, had married Robert de Ferrers, and he was permitted to 
hold certain of the lands of his father-in-law. It does not, however, 
appear that the Peak Forest formed any part of his inheritance, 
but that it reverted to the Crown, for Richard I., in the first year 
of his reign, gave the Castle of the Peak and lands pertaining 
thereto to his brother John.* William de Ferrers, grandson of 
Robert de Ferrers, the first Earl of Derby, seems to have taken 
the opportunity of John's wars with the barons to make himself 
heir of all the Peverel estates without due royal warrant 

The foresters and keepers of the deer became so numerous that 
about 1225 they purchased a portion of the crown lands held by 
William de Ferrers, and built themselves a chapel for divine wor- 
ship, which they called the Chapel in the Forest (firth). William 
de Ferrers, after his acquirement of the territory of Peverel, had 
confijrmed his grant to the priory of Lenton ; it therefore followed 
that the priory laid claim to the advowson of this chapel and to 
the tithe of the new parish of cultivated land springing up around 

*Di]gdale'B MonaHicony yol. i., p. 645, etc. ; Dngdale's Baronage, vol. i, p. 61. 



140 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

it ; but the claim was disputed both iTy the King and the Dean 
and Chapter of Lichfield. At the pleas held at Derby in 1241, the 
Prior of Lenton and the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield had to 
show cause why the king should not present to Chapel-en-le-Frith, 
then \acant. The Prior claimed two parts of the greater tithes 
pertaining to the chapel, and all the small tithes, from the grant 
made by William Peverel of the tenths of all his lands to the 
priory of his own foundation at Lenton, of which lands WiUiam 
Ferrers was the inheritor; the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield 
claimed a portion of the tithes as possessing the church of Hope, 
within the limits of which parish they asserted that the new chapel 
was situated ; whilst Adam de Eston, who pleaded for the king, 
contended that William Ferrers had thrust himseK into ihe position 
of heir to William Peverel at the time when war was raging 
between the late king and his barons — that no royal warrant had 
been obtained either by WiUiam Ferrers or the Dean and Chapter 
in connection with the new chapel — and that the lands on which 
it was situated were waste and uncultivated at the time that 
WiUiam Peverel made his grant to Lenton. The roU containing 
these interesting particulars is, unfortunately, incomplete ; but it 
was decided that if either party could produce any charter or con- 
firmation from the king it should not be set aside.'*' 

It is clear, however, that the Prior of Lenton eventually succeeded 
in estabUshing his claim to the lion's share of the profits, but not 
to the advowson, which appears to have remained with the Dean 
and Chapter of Lichfield. 

The Chapter registers of a few years' later date give the value of 
the great tithes of Chapel-en-le-Frith at 20 marks, and the lesser 
tithes at 1 marks ; and they further state that two- thirds of this 
sum was appropriated by Lenton Priory, and the remainder by 
themselves. 

But this appropriation of the tithes does not seem to have been 
acquiesced in without protest by the inhabitants as opportunity 
offered. At an Liquisition held at Fairfield in 1818, the foresters, 
verderers, keepers, and freemen, to the number of upwards of 
forty, affirm upon oath, that the chapel had been buUt by the 
inhabitants on the king's soU in Henry's reign, and had had rights 
of burial and baptism conferred on it by Bishop Alexander, so that 
it is now a parochial church; that the Dean and Chapter of Lich- 

• Abbrev. Placit., 25 Hen. III., rot. 26. 



CHAPKL-KN-LK-FKITH. 141 

field, and Prior and Convent of Lenton, hold the church to their 
own use ; of which advowBon and appropriation, if they have a 
true title, or not, they (the foresters) are ignorant.* 

Alexander de Stavenby was consecrated Bishop of Coventry and 
Lichfield at Borne in the year 1224, and died in 1238. 

We have on several occasions drawn attention to the various 
secular purposes for which parish churches were habitually used in 

* Inq. ad quod damunm, 11 Edw. II., No. 97 ; See Appendix, No. VI. 

It may be as well to here give a few additional particulars relative to the posses- 
Bions of the Priory of Lenton in the Peak district generally, and which caused so 
many dispute, and which are bo often referred to throughout this volume. The 
Chaitulary of Lenton, which would have cleared up so many doubtful points, was, 
unfortunately, amongst those valuable MSB. that were burnt at the fire in the Cotton 
Library in 1731. 

William Peverel, according to the foundation charter, quoted by Dugdale, gave to 
the Priory two-thirds of the tithes of all things that could be tithed in his lordships 
of Dunstan, Newbold, Tideswell, BradweU, fiakewell, Hucklow, Ashford, WormhiU, 
Monyash, and Hulme ; also, two-thirds of the tithes of the pastures pertaining to his 
lordships in the Peak, including those at Shalcross, Fenmee, Buxton, Chelmorton, 
Gowdale, Stemdale, and one or two other places that it is difficult now to identify ; 
also, the whole tithes of cocks and hens wherever he had a stable {haracium) in 
the Peak ; and the whole tithes of lead and of hunting. 

In 1252, an amicable composition was come to between the Priory of Lenton and 
the Chapter of Lichfield, in order to settle certain encroachments made by the 
former, upon the rights which had been granted b^ King John to the Chapter, in the 
bestowal on them of the churches of BaJcewell, Hope, and TidesweU. These rights 
had been held to override in certain particulars the charter of William Peverel, but 
this interpretation had not been acquiesced in by the Priory. The Dean and 
Chapter claimed £60 damages, and 40 marks for expenses, and the quarrel was 
referred to Bome. Pope Innocent IV. appointed Brother Walter, warden of the 
Friars Minor of Leicester, and Adam, Arcndeacon of Chester^ to act as Commis- 
sioners. The case was heard in the Church of St. Mary, at Leicester, when Master 
Walter appeared on behalf of the Chapter, and Master Alan, the Sub-prior, on the 

Eart of Lenton. It was then agreed that the Priory should pay to the Sacristan at 
lichfield 100 marks as a fine; that all the greater and lesser tithes of Tideswell 
belonged to the Dean and Chapter, excepting two-thirds of the tithes of lead on the 
demesnes of William Peverel, of the tithe of the mill of Bichard Daniel, and of the 
tithe of the stables and of hunting: that the Dean and Chapter should pay 14 marks 
out of the tithes of Bakewell and Hope to the Priory of Lenton ; and that two-thirds 
of the great tithes only should go to the Priory in other parts, and of pastures and 
places then cultivated at Bakewell, Nether Haddon, Ashford, and Frith. {Magnum 
MegUtrum A Unitn, f. 119, etc. Harl. MSS. 4799.) 

The Lichfield Chapter Registers also contain other compositions between them- 
selves and the Priory, of a few years later date, that slightly varv in terms, and an 
Inquisition of tithes due to Lenton, taken in 1272, gives the following details : — 
Bakewell, £8 8s. 4d., Ashford, £6, Hulme, £5 8s., Nether Haddon, £8 8s. 8d., 
Monyash, £1 lis. 8d., BlackwelJ, £2 18s. 4d., Chelmorton, etc , i-27 6b. 8d., Bradwell, 
15s. 4d., Hucklow, 48., Fairfield, £3 6s. 8d., Shalcross and Femilee, Us., Tideswell, 
jb'l 6n. 8d., Chapel-en-le-Frith, £20 Os., and other dues in BakeweU, Hope, Tideswell, 
and Greenlow, amounted to £8. 

The Taxation Boll of Pope Nicholas (1291) estimates the annual income of the 
Priory from the parish of BakeweU "cum membris," at £66 18s. 4d., in addition to 
£5 6s. 8d. from the church of Glossop. 

According to an Inquisition of Edward I., the Priory held the '* decima venaciouis " 
of the whole of the Peak district. (Inq. post Mort., 3 Edw. I., No. 37.) A survey of 
Alien Priories, taken 8 Bichard II., may also be consulted ; it only assigns £4 of the 
tithes of the parish of " Capella del Frythe " to Lenton. 

The Valor Ecelesicutictta (27 Henry VIII.) shows that the property of the Priory 
in this county, had materially diminished ; thus, for instance, the tithes accruing to 
it from TidesweU were onlv valued at Us., and those from Ashford at 8s. This did 
not include the tithes of lead ore (separately estimated at £6 18s. 4d.), or we could 
better have understood the fluctuation, but tne decrease probably arose in part from 
leases or grants of tithes made from time to time in a semi -corrupt way, and not 
subsequently recovered 

See also the subsequent account of the churches of Fairfield and Tideswell. 




142 DERBYSHIRE CUURCHES. 

pre-Reformation days,* but similar instances of a post-Reformation 
date are very exceptional This church, however, was thus utilised 
in the days of EHzabeth, as is shown by the following document : — 

** By virtue of Her Majesty's Commission out of her Highnesses 
most honourable Court of Chancery to us and others directed for 
the examination of witnesses touchinge a certain cause in the said 
court dependinge betweene Thomas Wright, plaintiff, and Richard 
Harford and William Redfeame defendants. These shall be to wyll 
and require you and everie of you whose names are wrytten in the 
liste in Her Majesty's name most strayghtly to charge and command 
that you fail not to appear before us and other of our assessors 
in the church of the Chappell in the Frithe in the countie of 
Derbye, upon the Saturday, the 8th day of the instant June, by 
nyne of the clocke in the forenoon, there to speak and declare 
your knowledge touchinge such matters as shall be laid before you. 

Given under our hands and seals 7th day of June, 1691. 

Roger Columbell. 

Henry Bagshawe. 
To Agnes Kirke, Richard Bouden, Thomas Mellor, etc. etc."t 
The ParUamentary Commissioners, in 1660, reported of this place 
that it was *'a parish and donative worth £10 13s. 4d. Mr. Oliver 
present incumbent and disaffected. Brownside, part of Glossop to 
be united to Chapel-en-le-Frith, which part of the Peake Forest 
is not hereinbefore mentioned and not reputed to be in the parish 
of Castleton, wee think fitt to be united to Chapel-en-le-Frith." 

But two years previous to this report being drawn up, the 
church of Chapel-en-le-Frith had been put to a still sfranger use 
than in the days of EHzabeth. In 1648 its walls were used to con- 
fine a vast number of prisoners of the Scottish army, after their 
defeat by the soldiers of the Commonwealth at Preston. The 
record of their sojourn here cannot be better told than in the 
simple but painful words of the old parish registers. We subjoin 
several extracts of interest from these registers relative to the 
church or its ministers, for which we are chiefly indebted to 
papers contributed by Mr. Henry Kirke to the Reliquary.X 
1624. Feb. 20th, Edmund Nickson, B.A., was chosen minister of 
this church by the consent of the most part of the xxvii. free- 
holders of our parish. 

♦ Churches of Derbyshire, vol. i., pp. 172, 468. 
t Beliquaryf vol. 9, p. 20. 

up^to tl'^inf i4i:*'- **' ^- "^^ "8^*''"' *" *^ » P^rf"* ~-^«<»' from 1620 



CHAPEL-EN-LE-FRITH. 1 4 3 

1681. Sept., Barbara Bradshawe, the wife of Francis Bradshawo, 
of Bradshawe, Esq., High Sheriff for this Countie this year, was 
buried in the chancell the xviij day. 

1648. Nov., Noe Minister, noe Churchwardens. 

1648. March xviij., Mr. Wm. OUiver began this year as Minister. 

1648. Sept. 11. There came to this town of Scots army led by 
the Duke of Hambleton, and squandered by Colonell Lord 
Cromwell, sent hither prisoners from Stopford under the conduct 
of Marshall Edward Matthews, said to be 1500 in number, put 
into ye church Sep. 14. They went away Sept. 30 following. 
There were buried of them before the rest went away 44 persons, 
and more buried Oct. 2 who were not able to march, and the 
same yt died by the way before they came to Cheshire 10 and 
more. 

1651. DeQ. 6. Mr. OUiver, Minister, buried in this C'hancell. 

1652. May 7. Mr. Robert Gee, Minister of this church, buried in 
the Chancell. 

1661. Jan. 17th. The coate of armes belonging to Nicholas 
Bowden,* of Bowden in ye Countie of Derby, Esquire, being quar- 
tered with ye two coates of his two wifes, Woodrofe emd Barnby, 
are placed over the seat belonging to Bowden by consent of us, 

Henry Kirke > Church 
John Cooper j Wardena 
1661. May 25th. A seat was erected in our church of Chappell 
joyning to ye font for ye Churchwardens to sit in. 

1661. Feb. 7. Mem. That it was agreed between Randolph 
Brown, of Marsh, and Wm. Barber, of Malcoff, that the sd 
Randolph hath sould one seate or pewe next adjoyning to his 
chief seate or pewe in the Chappell Church, for a valuable con- 
sideration, in the presence of 

James Hulme, Henry KLrke, John Cooper. 

1662. Sept 22. I am contented yt a seat be set upp in ye 
Chappell Church within St. Nicholas* Quyre, in ye place 
adjoynes to Rallph Gee*s seat, and belongs to Briggs farm, 
and that Francis Gee and Dorothy his wife shall enjoy ye same 
duringe theire two Hves paying all church dues which belongs 
for ye seat to pay. Nics. Bowden. 

* The arms of Bowden, of Bowden, are — Qnarterly, tab. and oTj in the firRt 
quarter a lion passant, arg., langued, gu,, Crest, an eagle's head erased. Those of 
Woodroffe, of Hope, are arg, a chevron between three crosses form^e fitchde, gu. 
Those of Barnby, of Barnby, are, or^ a lion rampant, sab; on the lion escallops, 
or, George Bowden, of Bowden and of Barnby, who died in 1680, and who was 
probably son of this Nicholas Bowden, was the last heir male of the family. 
Younger branches settled in Leicestershire. 



„ , Henry Kirke > 

James Hulme, -r i \r^ r 

John Cooper j 



144 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

1662. Feb. Mr. William Higginbottom hired to serve the Cure of 
Chappell for one year. 

1701. The great bell in our steple was taken down to be cast 
upon Friday, 27 June, and as it was coming down the pulleys 
broke, and the bell fell to the ground and brought all before it. 
The man who was above to guide it was one Ezekiel Shuttle- 
worth, a joyner in this town, he seeing the pulleys break could 
noways help himself but came after it, a ladder with himself, 
and a little crow of iron in his hand, and yet by God's great preser- 
vation had little or no harm. The great bell was recast at 
Wigan, 6 Aug. 170. (Another entry relative to the great bell 
says, that Mr. William Scott was the founder, and was Alder- 
man of Wigan, the same year). 

1702. April. Mr. William Bagshaw of the Fford, Nonconformist 
Minister, was buried in the chancell. Styled "the Apostle of 
the Peake."* 

1715. Feb. 1st. On that day there was an extreme wind. It blew 

the weathercock off the steple and brake it in pieces, and a 

great Ash in the Churchyard, with vast great loss to most 

people in their houses. Some being blown down, 

Bassano visited this church in 1710, but only made a brief note 

or two respecting it : — '' In St. Nicholas Quire at east end of north 

lies burying place of Bowden of Bowden — here a low raised ali- 

baster stone for Nicholas Bowden of Bowden." 

More elaborate notes were taken by Mr. Reynolds, of Plaistow, 

fifty years later.t After detailing the hatchment of Bowden already 

* William BagBliaw, the author of De Spiritualibus Pecci, was bom at LittoD, near 
Tideswell, 17 June, 1627. He was educated at Corpus Christ! College, Cambridge, 
and was ordained at Chesterfield on New Year's Day, 1651. Soon afterwards he was 
invited to Glossop, where he remained till St. Bartholomew's Day, 1662. Thence he 
went to Ford, where he preached privately in his own house and elsewhere. At last 
a small chapel was erected at Malcalf, near Ford, which he assiduously served till the 
time of his death. The chapel register says : — " In the begmning of the year 1702 
the Rev. Mr. William Bagshaw of Ford departed this life. His last sermon was on 
March 22nd, 1702, from Bomans viii. 31. On Wednesday, April Ist, he lay in a slum- 
ber ; towards night he called to have a hymn sung, and after a short j^rayer, to which 
he added his Amen, he fell into a slumber and seemed to breathe without difficulty, 
till, on a sudden he gave a gasp or two, and so quietly slept in Jesus. Having lived 
an eminently holy and useful life, he had the favour oi an easy death. He was 
buried at Chapell-le-Frith, and his funeral sermon was preached by Mr. John Ashe, 
from Heb. viii., 7, and afterwards printed with his life and character." Mr. John 
Aaho, who preached the funeral sermon, was nephew to the apostle of the Peak. The 
Rev. W. Bagshaw was of a family of considerable repute and position ; his brother 
John Bagshaw, of Litton and Great Hucklow, was High Sheriff of the county in 1696. 
It was not by his own seeking that William Bagshaw was buried in the chancel. His 
will, dated 15th October, 1701, says — •* And as I hope for the glorifying of my soul 
immediatelv after its leaving my body, I believe that at the last and great day, my 
body {ihe decent interring whereof I desiret tho* it should not he admitted into a 
place styled conseci'atecE) shall by divine power and grace be raised and reunited to my 
soul, that I may be for ever with the Lord." 

fAdd. MSS. 6701. 



CHAPEL- EN-LE- FKITH. 145 

described in the extracts from the registers, he says ; — " Above the 
atchievement is a shield of Armes cast in Alabaster for Bowdon 
only, and over the Armes a crest which I think is a Hawkes or 
Eagles head erased. There is also a chest tomb of marble near 
the same (being towards the N. ^E. corner) upon which is the 
Armes of Bowdon only, and a crest as above, but no inscription, 
neitlier does there seem to have been any, as the said shield of 
Armes is large and covers above half the said Tomb, and the rest 
thereof is quite plain and smooth. This church of Chapel in the 
Fiith is also called Bowden chapel, and in the N. E. corner has 
formerly been a chapel, now commonly called Bowden Quire. 
Bowden Hall is now the estate of one Parson Pegge. 

•* Upon a small brass plate affixed to the N. wall not far from 
the west end is wrote in common round hand — 

* Near this place Heth the body of Anthony Bealott, yeoman, 
who married Susannah, the daughter of Stephen Staly, Gent., by 
whom he had five sons and two daughters. She died Nov. ye 5th, 
1661, aged 42 years, and he died May 20th, 1702, aged 84 years.' 

" And a httle underneath is written — 

* Given by Joseph Bealott, the 8d son, now liviug in Leverpoole.' 
" On ye right hand as you enter the churchyard is a stone coffin 

placed upon the top of the wall (instead of coping) in the bottom 
of which, near the middle, is a round hole about four inches in 
diameter. This coffin is about 6ft. long within. There is another 
stone coffin like this at the signe of the Thorne Tree in the towne 
with a hole in the niiddle hke the above mentioned, which said 
last mentioned coffin serves for a watering trough, being placed 
under the Pump, and has the said Hole occasionally stopped up 
with a Plug. Whence these were is not now known, but they have 
been villainously carried out of the church when the fabrick was 
built some 80 or 40 years ago. . . . 

*' This account of Chapel in lo Frith was taken by me in May 1, 
1760.*' 

Towards the close of the last century the church was rebuilt, 
when all traces of the quire, dedicated to St. Nicholas, were swept 
away. It appears from Dr. Pegge's notes, that the necessary funds 
were collected by a Brief, but we have failed to find any mention 
of one, either in the County Records, or at the British Museum. 
He says : " The church here was only newcased by ye brief, for 
'tis miserably pewed." He also notes that they had in his days 
a ** rush bearmg, which is different from ye Wakes."* 

* Peggo's Collections, voL v., f. 62. ^ 



146 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

The Rev. B. R. Rawlins first visited this church in June, 1823, 
when he made note of some old carved pews with dates cut on 
them, varying from 1621 to 1710 ; hut the church was repewed in 
1828, at a cost of £600, when it was unfortunately considered 
correct to sweep away all the old oak seats. 

The church, which is dedicated to St. Thomas a Becket, consists 
of nave, side aisles, south porch, chancel, and tower at the west 
end. With the exception of the chancel, and a portion of the north 
side of the nave, the whole of the exterior of the building was 
rebuilt at the time when the debased '^Georgian'* style prevailed. 
It would be difficult to imagine a more incongruous and imwhole- 
some mixture. The architect has attempted to engraft a barbarised 
classic style with urn-capped parapets, upon the ground plan and 
general structure of a Gothic edifice. Glover, in his History of 
the County, describes this church as '' a handsome structure," but 
kindly gives his readers a small woodcut of the building, so that 
they can form an opinion for themselves as to the discrimination 
of his judgment ; and Rhodes, notwithstanding his exquisite apprecia- 
tion of picturesque scenery, could actually write of this tower, that 
it "rose with considerable grace and majesty."* 

Of the original chapel that was erected here about 1225, when 
the Early English style was in vogue, nothing now remains, unless 
it is a portion of the masonry on the north side. That side of the 
church was left comparatively untouched during the rebuilding, but 
we were told that several ** lancet windows" were removed from 
the north aisle to give place to square-headed successors early in 
the present century. 

The chancel, which has an embattled parapet and a single gurgoyle 
on the south side, is lighted at the east end by a pointed Decorated 
window (circa 1860) of three principal lights, with interlaced tracery. 
There is also a three-light square-headed window of the Perpendicular 
period on each side of the chancel, the lower part of the one on 
the south side being cut away for a doorway. On the north side 
of the chancel is a protruding vestry of exceptional ugliness. At 
the east end of the north aisle is a three -light pointed window, 
also of the Perpendicular period, but the remainder of the exterior 
of the church is of the Georgian mixture. 

The interior of the church proves that it was almost entirely 
rebuilt in the fourteenth century, during the era of the Decorated 

• Glover's History of Derhyahiret p. 211. Rhodes' Peak Scenery, p. 199. 



CHAPEL-EN-LE-FKITH. 1 47 

style. The nave is separated from the aisles on each side by four 
arches supported by octagon pillars of that period. There is also 
a fine wide arch into the chancel. In the south wall of the chancel 
is a small piscina, and over the communion table is a very inartistic 
representation of the Last Supper, said to be a copy of an old 
master. The altar rails were given by William White, incumbent 
of the parish in 1660. 

The church also contains the old font, which is of plain octagon 
construction, and apparently of the fifteenth century. On one side 
is a shield charged with a quatrefoiL 

The old stone coffin, mentioned by Reynolds, still serves as a 
coping stone on the south wall of the churchyard. 

The tower contains a peal of six bells. It will be seen that the 
great bell that was recast at Wigan in 1701 had not a long life. 
They are inscribed as follows : — 

I. " Peace and good neighbourhood," followed by the initials A. 
B., between which is the figure of a bell. This is the mark of 
Abraham Eudhall. 

n. ** Prosperity to this parish," and mark of Abraham EudhalL 

III. " We were all cast at Gloucester by A. Rudhall, 1733." 

IV. No inscrij)tion. 

V. ** Jasper Frith and John Wainwright, churchwardens 1738," 
and mark of Abraham Hudhall. 

VI. **I to the church the living call, and to the grave do sum- 
mon all, 1733." This bell weighs 11 cwt. 8 qrs. 

The BudhaUs had a celebrated bell foundry at Gloucester from 
the end of the seventeenth century till about the year 1880, when 
the foundry passed from the hands of John Rudhall to Messrs. 
Mears of Loudon.* 

The freeholders of the parish still retain the nomination of the 
Vicar in their own hands. There is an inscription in the church 
recording that the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield x)resented to 
Chapel-en -Ic-Fritli in 1747, but the parishioners resisted, and even- 
tually the advowson was again vested in the freeholders, then 
twenty- seven in number. 

A tablet in the church states that Thomas Marshall, by will, 
August 8th, 1708, gave the sum of £100, the interest to be paid 
yearly, half to the minister, and half to the overseer of Coombs 
Edge for putting out poor children as apprentices. The Charity 

• North'8 Church Belh of Leiceaterahire, p. 91. 



148 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Commissioners (1827) say — ** The sum of £100 appears to have 
been laid out towards building a central gallery at the west end of 
the parish church, the pews in which are let at rents amounting 
to £9 a year/' 

EHzabeth Scholes, by will, October 5th, 1734, left the interest on 
£52 to be laid out in buying *' 12 manchets or loaves weekly, to 
be distributed every Sunday immediately after morning service in 
the church, to such poor housekeepers and poor children as should 
attend that service." 

Samuel Wood, by will, May 12th, 1763, left the interest on £50 
to be spent in wheaten bread, to be distributed every Sunday in 
the parish Church to poor widows and fatherless children.* 

* Charity Commissioners* Beports, vol. ZTii, pp. 210-250. 



IHflPlFD HalF. 



\ 



BorlFg BfllF. 




lABLEY was a royal manor at the time of the taking of 
the Domesday Survey (1086), and it was then possessed 
of a priest and a church. At a very early date the ad- 
vowson of the rectory was conferred upon the Cathedral Church of 
Lincoln, possihly by WiUiam Rufus, but of this we have no imme- 
diate proof. Not only was the presentation to the living in the 
hands of the Dean of Lincoln, but he also received a pension of 
40s. from the endowments of the rectorv. The first mention we 
have found of this pension of 40s. is in the Taxation Boll of Pope 
Nicholas IV., compiled in 1291, wherein the total value of the 
living — '^Ecclesia de Derley in Pecco'* — is estimated at £18. An 
Inventory of the Derbyshire possessions of the Dean of Lincoln, 
taken in 1310, says that the church of Darley was divided into 
three portions, and that from each portion a mark was yearly due, 
t. e.t £2 in all.* A similar statement as to the pension, and as to 
the church or rectory being divided into three portions, is also 
made in like inventories drawn up in 1829, in the reign of Henry 
VLt 

The early episcopal registers at Lichfield afford many instances 
of institution to the three different parts into which this rectory 
was divided, all made on the presentation of the Dean of Lincoln. 
The first instance occurs in January, 1301, when John de Brent- 
ingham was instituted to a third portion of Darley, in the room of 
"Walter de Foderingye, who had accepted the rectory of Matlock, 
which was also in the gift of the Dean of Lincoln. Li 1369 one 

* Pegge'B CoUections, vol. v., f. 196, 198. A diBpnte as to the patronage of Darley 
Church was brought into the courts in Easter term, 1286. The king sued the Dean 
aud Chapter on account of a claim to this ad^owson made by Henry III., but the 
Dean and Chapter successfully resisted the claim by pleading the length of time that 
had elapsed since the claim was made. Abrev. Placit. 13 Edw. I., Rot. 3. 

t Add. MSS., 6666, f. 476. This inventory of the time of Henry VI. (amongst the 
Wolley MSS.) is the original document. 



152 DKRBYSniRE CHURCHES. 

of the three rectors of Darley effected an exchange of benefices with 
a prebend of All Saints', Derby. But in the year 1393 we find 
from the same registers, that the Bishop's consent and that of the 
Dean of Lincoln were obtained to the amalgamation of the three 
portions into two. This was effected when one of the three portions 
was vacant through death, and the other two rectors, Bichard del 
Hay and John Sebyston, pledged themselves to the due payment 
of the whole of the pension.* 

When the Valor Ecdesiastiais was drawn up, in the reign of 
Henry VIII., the rectory of Darley was divided into two medieties ; 
the one was held by Bobert Gamson, and was estimated at 
jeiO 8s. 4d. yearly value, and the other by W. Cretyng, at 
£9 18s. From each income deductions were made of 8s. 4d. to 
the Bishop ** pro indempnitate ecclesie," 20d. to the Dean and 
Chapter of Lichfield, and Ss. 3d. for Archidiaconal fees. The pen- 
sion of 408. to the Chapter of Lincoln is also entered imder the 
possessions of that Cothedral. Two rectors continued to be appointed 
imtil the year 1744, when the medieties were amalgamated into a 
single rectory, + 

The Parhamentary Commissioners of 1650 report of Darley that 
it is in two medieties, and that it "constantly had two parsons to 
oflficiate, each a distinct dwelling. South mediety £70, Mr. Edward 
Payne, a hopeful minister officiates. North mediety £80, Mr. John 
Pott incumbent" 

This rector Payne is mentioned in a dispute that seems to have 
caused much litigation in connection with an unenclosed piece of 
land termed "the walk," attached to the Netherhall manor of Dar- 
ley. The following account, from a contemporary manuscript, is 
worth quoting as an illustration of the customs, etc., that prevailed 
in the Dale in the seventeenth century. John Columbell mentioned 
herein died in 1687. "Edward Pain, rector of the south mediety, 
was marcyed at ye court for sending his servants to bum Braken 
within the walk of Darley Hall, and had a mare taken for distraint. 
Henry Stevenson, yeoman, his servant, burnt brackin upon your 
walk, and he was marcyd for it and had a colt taken for distraint, 
and since yt time H. S. took your walk at £8 a year of John 
Columbell, Esq., and he should have leased it but J. C. would not 
destroy his rapits which did eat his sheep-hay and so he burned it 

♦ Lichfield Episcopal Begisters, voL i., f. 13; vol. iv., f. 40; vol. vi., ff. 82, 83. 

f Lysons' Derhyshira^ p. 99. This, we suppose, was the year in which the two 
medieties were formally amalgamated, hut they had previously been held by one 
rector, e.g.^ Rev, John LdwardK, who died in 1686. 



DARLEY DALE. 153 

up, and after J. C. died, Catherine, wife to J. C, was for walling 
in ye whole bounds of ye walk, and she hired Henry Rows, J. 
Benit, and others for to get stone and wall it. Widow Chapman, 
John .Taylor, Peter Gladwin, and Roger Soresby to lead stone with 
their teames at 4s. a day each team, and Mr, John Statham's son 
of Gamesley, land steward, was to see as ye work was done accord- 
ing to articles and to pay them their wage, and Madame Columbell 
went to live at Darley, and there she fell sick and died before ye 
work was begun. Since yt time J. S. took ye walk of Ld. Windsor, 
who was left in trust to look after Columbell*s children, and Tho. 
Wheeldone should have had half of the walk, and because he held 
tho demean he would pay no rent, and so this J. S. turned it up, 
and soe since it has been kept of with staff and dog. Henry Taylor 
and Henry Tiping bought ye Brakin and burned it for several years, 
some say they gave 60s. and some say £3, but whether I cannot 
positively tell, and several mens goods have been pounded off ye 
walk, and John Columbell took up all Weafs and Streafs within ye 
liberty of ye High Peak in Darly, fellon goods and deadans, and I 
never knew no heriote paid from Columbell nor from any yt pur- 
chast their lands, nor paid no demande to ye Crown for 70 years 
last jmst.'** 

The church, which is dedicated to St. Helen, was thoroughly 
restored in 1864. It consists of nave with side aisles, south porch, 
north and south transepts, chancel with north vestry, and tower 
at the west end. Of the church that probably stood here for several 
centuries in the Saxon era, and which was extant when the Domes- 
day Survey was compiled, there is nothing now left standing. Nor 
is there much remaining of Norman work. There is a blocked up 
doorway of quite plain and late Norman style in the south wall 
of the chancel, with a simple hood-mould or dripstone over it. 
This entrance cannot have been used for the last five centuries, 
as a buttress of the Decorated period hides one of the jambs. It 
also seems, from the masonry within this doorway, as though a 
window with a semi-circular head had been inserted here after the 
entrance had lost its original use, but this also is now filled up. 
A doorway of a hke description, but smaller, opens firom the north 
side of the chancel into the vestry. From the unusual circumstance 
of the dripstone being on the inner side, it seems probable that 
it is now in a reversed position to that in which it was originally 

* Add. MSS., 6668, f. 463. 



l'^4 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

placed, and may have been brought here from some other part of 
the building (f. ^., the tower entrance)^ when the church was being 
rebuilt in the Early English period. For it is evident from the 
small lancet window at the east end of the vestry that this adjunct 
was erected during the prevalence of that style, and there are no 
instances of a north doorway to a chancel unless leading to a 
vestry or sacristy. We were told that there was another built-up 
doorway of this description in the north wall of the north aisle 
previous to its restoration. An old font, that formerly belonged 
to this church, and which now stands in the garden of Mr. Alfred 
Soreby, of the Rookery, Ashford-in-the- Water, was also described 
to us as being of the Norman period. In the masonry of the south 
wall of the chancel may be noticed the reversed capital of a small 
Norman shaft, which probably formed part of the jamb mouldings 
of the chief entrance to the church in the eleventh or twelfth 
century. 

The church appears to have undergone a thorough renovation 
when the Early English style was in vogue, about the end of the 
twelfth century. There are two lancet windows of this date in 
the east wall of the south transept, one of them built up ; there is 
another of the same style in the south wall of the chancel, and 
a fourth, already mentioned, in the east end of the vestry. It 
also iippears as if the east wall of the porch was built against 
another small window of this description, and the doorway to the 
church, under the porch, is of Early English style, and though 
entirely renewed in 1854, is of the same design as that which 
was here previous to the restoration. 

To the Decorated period of the fourteenth century, belong the 
arches that separate the nave from the side aisles. Those on the 
north side are supported by circular pillars of an earlier date than 
those on the south, which are of octagon construction. The two 
narrow-pointed archways at the west end next to the tower are 
older than the rest. They spring from corbels, which are ornamented 
with the nail-head moulding, and seem to belong to the Early English 
style. The large north and south windows of the transepts are 
good examples of flowing decorated tracery, circa 1380. The south 
aisle is lighted by two pointed Decorated windows in close juxta- 
position ; one of these is the old window from the west end of that 
aisle, and the other is a new one after the same model. The 
archway into the chancel is also of this period, as well as the 
external buttresses and general features of that part of the church. 



BARLEY DALE. 155 

The east window of the chancel is now filled with Perpendicular 
tracery, and there is a south doorway, with a window over it, of 
the same character. The north aisle, too, is lighted with windows 
of the fifteenth century style, hut these were inserted at the res- 
toration in 1854. It had previously heen Ughted with square-headed 
windows of a debased style and destitute of tracery. There are two 
clerestory windows ahove the aisles on each side of the nave, of 
Perpendicular work ; and the tower, though rather eccentric in some 
of its details,' is also of the fifteenth century. The buttresses are 
unusually shallow for the style. The archway into the tower is 
now opened and shows the large west window. Below this window 
was the wide west entrance, but about the year 1820, under the 
direction of the Rev. S. C. Saxton, this doorway was converted 
into a window and glazed. It is hid from view in the interior 
of the church by the organ. The apex of the arch of this doorway 
is quaintly carved into an animal shape, and a monster of 
superlative ugliness (Plate VI.) serves as the corbel in the inner 
north-east angle of the tower, upon which the projection of the 
turret staircase rests. The summit of the tower is embattled, and 
adorned with crocketed pinnacles at the angles. 

The roof of the nave is a fair specimen of the style of roof that 
prevailed towards the close of the Perpendicular period. It is not 
the same roof, or at all events not at the same elevation, as that 
which covered the nave when the tower was first erected (as may 
he seen from the weather mouldings on the west front of the 
tower), and it cuts off a small portion of the apex of the tower 
archway. The roof is of a low pitch, formed hy the curving of the. 
large tie-beams, five in number. The tie-beams have well-carved 
bosses in the centre, and all the timbers are moulded, whilst the 
wall plate is embattled. The braces, also, that spring from corhel 
stones to give additional support to the tie-beams, are handsomely 
carved. These stone corbels are plainly moulded, except those at 
the west end, which take the form of a male and female head. 
The chancel roof was renewed in 1854 and is now of a high-pitch, 
but the supporting corbel stones are the old ones, those on the 
south heing female heads with square head-dresses, and those on the 
north, men's heads with curled hair and hoard. 

The vestry is a narrow oblong building, Hghted, as we before 
remarked, at the east end by a small Early English window. 
There are now two other windows in the north wall, and from the 
west end is a communication through the wall into the pulpit. But 



156 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

these are alterations of modem date. The old vestry, we were 
told, used to be of much larger size and was of two stories, the 
lower part being used as a school-room for the boys, and the upper 
room for the girls. We beheve this use was contmued till about 
1820. 

The tower has a peal of five bells, bearing the following inscrip- 
tions : — 

I. " God save this church. J. Hyden, A. Vickers, Ch. War- 
dens, 1704." 

n. ** God save the church, 1618." Bellmark of Henry Oldfield. 

III. " God save the church, 1628." 

IV. This bell has an ornamented border and various stamps of 
fleur-de-lis, etc. It also bears the initials R B. and M. P.^ and 
the date, 1628. 

V. " Sacra clango, gaudia pango, funera plango. 1710." 

The second bell is cracked, and at the time of our last visit to 
the church (1876) it was just about being removed from the tower, 
its successor, with the inscription, " James Barwell, Founder, Bir- 
mingham, 1876," having arrived in the parish. A sixth bell, in- 
scribed, ** Mears and Stainbank, London, 1876,'^ has now been 
added to the peaL 

Before we proceed to the consideration of the interesting monu- 
ments contained in this church, it will be well to give a brief 
outline sketch of the early history of the manor of Darley. Darley, 
at the time of the Domesday Survey, formed part of the royal 
demesne. But at an early period it was held under the crown 
by a family, styled after the manor, de Darley. The first member 
of this family of whom we have found record was "Andreas de 
Darley," who died seized of this manor in 1249.* On his death, 
the manor was divided into two parts, held, as we suppose, by 
two of his sons, for at the commencement of Edward I. reign, 
half of Darley was held by Thomas de Darley, and half by Henry 
de Darley. Both of them are described as holding under the 
crown, on the service of an annual payment of 13s. 4d., towards 
the maintenance of Peak Castle.f But within a year or two of 
this time, Robert de Darley, who we think was the son of Thomas, 
died seized of a part of the manor ; and it seems that this moiety 
passed to the family of Kendall. William de Kendall died seized 

* Inq. post Mort. 33 Hen. III., No. 61. 
t Quo Warranto Bolls. 



• 

I 



DARLEY DALE. l57 

of it in 1309.* William Kendall left a daughter and heir married 
to Lawrence Cotterell. The history of this moiety here becomes 
Bomewhat confused. John de Darley, and his wife Matilda, paid a 
fine to the King, in 1310, of two marks for holding a mediety of 
the manor of Darley, which they had acquired of William Cotterell 
without royal hcense t This was probably the mediety inherited 
by Lawrence Cotterell, passed on to his son WLliiam, and held 
for his lifetime by John de Darley. But Cotterell died without 
issue, and the property reverted to the heirs of the "wddow of 
Lawrence Cotterell, who had married Herberjour ; for it appears, 
that in 1391, WiUiam Roper conveyed this moiety to Nicholas atte 
Weld, one of the Rectors of Darley, which had been the inheritance 
of Margaret his mother, daughter and co-heir of Sir William de 
Herberjour, of Chaddesden, by Alice, daughter and heir of William 
Kendall. :( This conveyance to Nicholas atte Weld seems to have 
been merely as a trustee, for the same person also had convoyed 
to him the manor of Ockbrook. But the real purchaser of both 
these manors was Sir Godfrey Foljambe, who settled them on his 
wife Avena, and on the heirs of his son Godfrey. The Inquisition 
taken at his death says, that the moiety of Darley was held by 
him of John Duke of Lancaster, as of his Honour of the Castle of 
High Peak, by Knight service. § Sir Godfrey's son Godfrey had 
died before him, but his grandson, of the same name, inherited, 
being then nine years old. This would probably necessitate a 
renewal of the trust deeds of this manor on his coming of age ; for, 
according to the Inquisition, the manor was previously held (in trust) 
by WiUiam atte Weld, and would thus account for the deed between 
WiUiam Roper and Nicholas atte Weld, in 1391. Sir Godfrey 
Foljambe the third, left a daughter and sole heiress, AHce, who was 
married to Sir Robert Plompton, of Yorkshire, who died in 1421. !| 
The son and heir of Robert and Alice was Sir WiUiam Plompton, 
who also died served of this moiety of Darley in 1480.11 His son 

• Inq. post Mort. 4 Edw. I., No. 1 ; 3 Edw. II., No. 44. 

t Abbrev. Rot. Orig., 4 Edw. II., Rot. 18. 

J Vincent's Derbyshire, College of Arms ; quoted by Lysons, p. 97. Lysons it* 

grobably right in thinking Nicholas atte Weld merely a trustee of the property, but 
e is quite at sea with respect to the Foljambe connection with Darley. 
§ In<^. post Mort., 60 Edw. III., No. 24. Abbrev. Rot. Grig., 50 Edw. III., Rot. 47. 
This Sir Godfrey Foljambe also obtained a grant of free warren over the manor of 
Darley. Calend. Rot. Chart., 44 Edw. III., No. 15. 

|i Sir Robert Plompton was Steward of Knaresborough, and was possessed of 
extensive property in his native county. An epitaph to his memorj', and that of his 
wife Alice, is still extant in Spofforth church. Nichols' Collectanea, vol. i., p. 341. 

^ Inq. post Mort., 20 Edw. IV., No. fe8. See Appendix, No. XIV. There is a 
fairly accurate pedi^ee of Foljambe, Plompton, Sothul, and Rocliff, of the moiety of 
Darley, in Glover's Derbyshire. 



158 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

William left the Darley property to his co-heiress, who married 
Sothill and Bocliff. The former moiety, after changing hands 
several times, came to the Duke of Rutland, whilst that inherited 
by Rocliflf was purchased in 1507 by Roger Columbell. 

This moiety of the manor of Darley, whose history we have jubt 
traced, was distinguished by the title of the Old Hall Manor. The 
Old Hall stood a little to the north of the church. 

In one of the note books of Mr. Reynolds, of Flaistow, that came 
into the hands of Mr. Wolley, is the following entry: — "9th 
July, 1771. As I was going to Bakewell, I saw several workmen 
pulhng down the ruins of Darleigh Old Hall (commonly called 
through mistake Darley Abbey), and others erecting within the area 
(for it had been moated round) a new Building with the Materials. 
Mr. Miles, gardener at Haddon, told me the said ruins and close 
they stand in fell by allotment to the Duke of Rutland, and that 
by his Grace's order was pulling the same down, and building a 
barn for the tenant's use with the materials, so that now we may 
justly say — Etiam ipsae periere ruinae." * 

It now remains to follow up the history of the other manor, 
termed Nether Hall, or Whitehall. About 1302, a second Robert 
de Darley, son of Henry, died seized of this moiety,t and it then 
seems to have passed for his lifetime, to John de Darley, whom we 
suppose to have been brother to Robert, for he also is described as 
a son of Henry. We know that he held this half of the manor 
(in addition to that half for which he had to pay a fine of 2 marks 
as already related, from an Inquisition of Edward 11., J by which 
it appears that he also then held the important command of the Castle 
of the Peak. The date of his death is not known, but Reynolds* 
notes on Darley church say that he was living in 1321, and we 
also believe him to be the same John de Darley, who was solemnly 
denounced (with other ecclesiastical offenders against certain rights 
of the rector of Whittington), and suspended from entrance to the 
church, by order of the Bishop, Roger de Norbury, in August, 
1322.§ But this ban must have been removed before his death, or 
he would not have obtained sepulture within consecrated walls. 
John seems to have left no heirs, and that part of the manor we 
now considering reverted to the family of Robert. The foUowing 

♦ Add. MSB. 6707, f. 41. 

tinq. post Mort. 80 Edward I., No. 48. 

t Inq. ad quod Damnum, 3 Edward n., No. 9. 

§ Lichfield Episcopal Registers, vol. iii., f. 4. 



arc 



DARLEY DALE. 159 

account of the succesBion of the manor is taken from a private 
manuscript pedigree written about 1650, which is entitled " A true 
coppie of pedigree of Darley as it hath been in antient writings 
recorded/* (1) ** Kobert Darley de Darley, Esq. had issue, (2) Sir 
Henery Darley married to Sir John Vernon's daughter and had 
issue, (8) Sir Nicholas Darley married to Thomas Harthills daughter 
of Harthill, Esq. and had issue, (4) Sir Eobert Darley married to 
Sir John Fitzherbert's daughter and had issue, (5) Sir Ralph 
Darley in ye green close Esq. marryed Frechvile Baron of Crytches 
daughter and had issue a daughter a sole heyre and marryed to 
Tho. Columbell of Darley Esq." * This is an error, for Agnes, the 
wife of Thomas Columbell was ttister and heir to Sir Ealph Darley ,t 
Sir Ralph Darley died in 1870. J The family of Columbell was 
previously of Sandiacre, but does not seem to have been of much 
importance prior to the marriage with Darley. The pedigree 
from which we have just quoted gives four generations previous to 
Thomas, and adds ''but before these was Thomas Columbell who 
had lands in Codner and deeds without date.*' The manor of 
Netherhall remained with the Columbells for eleven generations in 
direct descent, when Roger Columbell, dying without issue, left the 
estate to his only sister Katherine, who was msirried to William 
Marbury, of Marbury, Cheshire. Dying without issue, in 1687, she 
bequeathed Nether Hall to Gilbert Thacker, who had married her 
late husband's sister. After passing through several hands (Green- 
smiths, Beards, etc.), it was purchased by Mr. Richard Arkwright 
in 1790, and the very ancient manor house of Nether Hall was 
pulled down some six years later, and the materials used in building 
a house a httle lower down the hill. It had not been inhabited 
for several years and was incapable of repair. § 

* The book containing this pedigree was kindly lent to us by the parish clerk, Mr. 
Anthony Feam. 

f Abbre. Rot., Grig. 44 Edward III., Rot. 7. It appears from this document that 
the old serrice of ISs. 4d., to the crown was continued by Thomas and Agnes 
Columbell. 

X Inq. post Mort, 44 Edward III., No. 22. 

§ Add. MSS. 6667, f. 646. Mr. Wolley copied "prickings " or outline sketches of 
the two Halls of Darley from an old survey ol the parish, made in 1677. From tbese 
outlines, if they are to be relied on, it woiiJd appear that the Old HaU was the more 
imposing building, having a frontage of three towers with an archway under the 
'centre one. Nether Hall is represented as a square, with buildings on three sides, 
and an embattled wall in front. This manor house was originally built in 1^21. An 
agreement, 14 Edward II., is still extant among the Wolley MSS. between John de 
Derlegh and William de Kelstedis, mason (cemeutarius), for the removal and rebuild- 
in|^ of the hall and chamber of the said John in a place called *' Robardyerd." 
With respect to the survey map of 1677 Mr. Wolley further remarks : — " It appears 
that the north parsonage and south parsonage stood very near together, the latter 
standing where the present (1792) parsonage house stands, and the former a little dis- 
tance to the north, part of which is still standing, as it should seem from a window in 
an old building behind it." 



160 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

The oldest monument within the church is that which tradition 
assigns to John de Darley. This tradition was current more than 
a hundred years ago, when Mr. Eeynolds visited the church (1772), 
and we see no reason to doubt its accuracy, although the monu- 
ment is uninscribed; for it exactly corresponds in style with the 
era in which John de Darley flourished, and there was no one at 
this period in the history of the Dale of greater eminence than this 
knight — Castellan of the Peak Castle and lord of the whole manor 
— ^whose effigy we should expect to meet with in the church of 
Darley. Even in the absence of all tradition, we should have 
ascribed it to Sir John de Darley. The effigy of Sir John now hes 
in a hollow, which has been cut out for its reception, immediately 
below the south window of the south transept This is, of course, 
not its original position, but it has been there for a long period, 
probably from the date when pews were first placed in the church. 
Previous to the restoration of the church, it was difficult to obtain 
a view of this monument, as it was concealed behind the back of 
a high pew, and could only be seen by looking down upon it from 
the gallery that then occupied the south transept.* The knight is 
represented clad in a surcoat over the suit of mail, with his legs 
crossed below the knee, a sword before him on the left thigh, and 
holding a heart between his hands, which are elevated on his 
breast. The sword is broken and the figure otherwise mutilated, 
especially about the head. The head is imcovered, and has long 
curled hair and a short beard. The feet rest on a cushion. 

Mr. Eeynolds, in describing the monuments at Darley ,t speaks 
of this transept as being " commonly called Columbell's Quire,'* 
and there is no doubt that this was the part of the chm*ch appro- 
priated to the manor of Netherhall, and therefore first in the hands 
of the Dai-leys and then of the Columbells. A large alabaster in- 
cised slab pertaining to the Columbell family formerly stood in this 
quire. It was removed during the restoration to the churchyard, 
where it unfortunately remained exposed to the weather for some 
time, but it has now found a resting-place against the wall at the 
west end of the south aisle. It is to the memory of Thomas 
Columbell and Agnes his wife. The man is represented in a long 
gown Uned with fur, and the head, which is uncovered, has short 
hair. The woman wears a dress tightly girded at the waist. The 

♦ This gaUery was reached by an exterior staircase, which is shown in a spirited 
etching of this church, drawn by the Eev. Alfred Suckling in 1825. Add. MSS., 
18,479, f . 71. 

t Add. MSS., 6701. 



DAHLET DALE. 161 

figures are very indistinct, and quite worn away in places. There 
is an appearance of cliildren having been depicted below the prin- 
cipal figures. Some parts of the marginal inscription are now gone, 
and others illegible, But we are able to give it in its complete form 
from the notes taken by Bassano in 1710. ** Hie jacent corpora 
Thome Columbell et Agnetis uxoris ejus, qui quidem Thomas obiit 
xi die mensis Octobis MCCGCCXXXX., quorum animabus propicie- 
tur Deus." It does not seem that this Thomas Columbell was one 
in direct descent, but was the third son of Eoger, who died in 
1636, by the heiress of Sacheverell. Agnes, his wife, according to 
the parish registers, was buried at Darley on the 24th of June, 
1640. 

BeynoldSy after describing this monument, says, <' following are 
painted on a pillsir in a lozenge, mblcy three doves, argent (Colum- 
bell), impaling a cross between four pheons. Crest, on a chapeau, 
a blackamore's head couped at the shoulders." The arms that he 
fails to identify are those of Marbmy of Cheshire, granted in the 
time of Edward II. — Sa., a cross cngraUed between four pheons, 
arg. The arms of Columbell in full are — Sa,, three doves, arg,^ 
with ears of wheat in their beaks, proper. The marriage that this 
coat commemorated has been described in the accoimt of the 
manor. 

' Of the early holders of the other moiety of the chief manor of 
Darley, there are no monuments extant, nor is it likely that any 
of the Plomptons have been here interred, as their chief seat was 
in Yorkshire. There are memorials to the Greensmiths and Beards, 
but of too late a date to warrant our finding space for a descrip- 
tion of them in these pages. But that part of the church which 
was specially appropriated to the Old Hall manor is easily distin- 
guishable, as it is still enclosed by a stone open-work screen of 
Perpendicular tracery, which seems to be of fifteenth century style. 
It most probably was erected here by the Plompton family when 
they succeeded to the estate. This screen shuts off the east portion 
of the south aisle between the south transept and the main entrance 
to the church. It was set back a foot or two, to give more room 
in the aisle in 1864, but otherwise remains as it was before the 
restoration. 

Besides the manor in chief, there were several other manors 
within the parish of Darley. One of these was the manor of 
Wendesley, or Wensley, which was a hamlet of the royal manor 
of Matlock at the time of the Domesday Survey : but in less than 

M 



162 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

a century it seems to have been included in Darley parish. It was 
held directly under the crown for about two centuries, but formed 
part of the estates of Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, in 
the reign of Edward L* Before the reign of King John, the 
tenants of the crown who held this manor, were known by the 
title of the manor — '■' De Wendesley, or De Wensley," and it remained 
with that ancient family till the time of Queen Elizabeth, when the 
heu'ess, Anne Wendesley, married Balph Blackwall of Blackwall. 
The Visitation pedigrees give four generations previous to Anne 
Wendesley. Her father, Richard Wendesley (who was living in 
1569), married Lettice, daughter of Otwell Needham, of Snitterton. 
Anne was buried at Darley, 81st August, 1567.t A few years later, 
this manor was divided into four moieties, and became, by purchase, 
the property of as many families, one of them being the Columbells. 
In the nave of the church there was an incised alabaster slab, noted 
by Mr. Suckling in 1825, on which he read the words, "Bichard 
Wendesley.*' This stone is now fixed against the west wall of 
the south aisle, by the Columbell monument. Both inscription 
and effigy are almpst completely erased, but there are traces of a 
central female figure, with three children below, two boys and one 
girl. The marginal inscription is in Boman characters, and but 
little more than ** Daughter to Bichard Wendesley of Wendesley, 
Esq.," can now be read. The date, 1603, can also be just made out. 
According to the register, George Columbell married Cicely Wendesley 
in 1550. She is not mentioned in any of the pedigrees we have 
seen; but it seems that she was another daughter of Bichard 
Wendesley, and therefore co-heiress with Anne. This is the more 
probable as it is stated in one pedigree, that Anne only brought 
half of Wendesley manor to her husband. It is clear that this 
tomb must either be to the memory of Cicely or Anne, and as we 
learn from Mitchell's pedigree of Wendesley that Anne was buried 
at Darley on the 81st of August, 1667, it may safely be assigned 
to Cicely, the wife of George Columbell. That the manor of 
Wendesley was of some importance, appears from the fact that 
the Wendesleys supported a chaplain of their own at an early 
date, who probably officiated in a private chapel attached to the 
manor house. In a charter of Edward II., mention is made of 



* Inq. post Mort., 26 Edw. I., No. 51. 

t Harl. MSS., 1093, f. 41; 1158, f. 107; 6692, f. 12; Add. MSS., 28, 118, f. 1. For 
more information respecting this family see the accounts of the Churches of Bakewell 
and Taddington. 



DARLEY DALE. 163 

William de Bruggeton, who was chaplain to Roger de Weudesley 
on his manor of "Wendesley.* 

Another ancient manor in this parish was that of Little Rowsley. 
It is said to have belonged to the ancient family of RoUesley or 
Rowsley, who took their name from this place, as early as the 
reign of Richard I. The north transept of Darley Church was 
considered the ** Rollesley Qxure," and was the burial-place of the 
family. Against the west waU of this transept there stiU remain 
two monument slabs of the RoUesleys, that have formerly served 
as the upper stones of altar tombs. They are both of considerable 
interest, and more liighly finished, and in better preservation than 
is usual with incised stones of that date. The Imes are filled in 
with pitch, which renders the designs very distinct. They are 
faithfully illustrated on Plate VI. 

The largest of these has the full length effigies of a man and 
woman, and below them eight sons and four daughters. The man 
is clad in a long fur-lined robe, which reaches down to the feet, 
and a douole-hnked chain round the neck. The woman wears 
the diamond-shaped hood or headdress with long falling lappets, 
and a close-fitting gown with long embroidered girdle. The 
heads of both [rest upon cushions, and are surmounted by 
Gothic canopies of the same style as appear over window effigies 
of this date. The inscription round tlie margin, which is a curious 
admixture of Latin and English, is to the following effect: — ^^ Hie 
jacet corptLS Johis JRollislei armiyi, Ehaheith uxor ejus, the tlierde 
dei of Junif the yere of oiore Lorde a thousand v c and thritten 
(1513)." t Between the heads of the effigies is an impaled coat of 
arms, Rollesley and Cheney, which has originally been filled up 
with pigments of the right tincture. John Rollesley, here commemo- 
rated, married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of John Cheney. J 
The arms of Rollesley w^ere — gu, a fesse and bordm^e, erm. ; and 
the arms of Cheney — Chequy, or and wz,, a fesse, gu,, fretted, arg. 
The other slab is only about half the size of that already des- 
cribed. It also has a man and woman engraved on the surface 
with ten sons and two daughters at their feet. The boys are 
crowded together, only the outline of the heads of those in the 
background is discernible. The man is clad in a gown or robe 

* Abbrev. Rot. Orig., 18 Bdw. IE., Rot. 26. 

tBateman makes a aing^lar blunder in his transcript of this epitaph by printing 
"CaroluB" for "Corpora;" Antiquitiet of Derbyshire, p. 202. 

JAdd. MSS., 28,118, f. 2. 



164 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

with wide sleeves, which only reaches just below the knees. The 
legs are clad in hose, and on the feet are low wide-toed shoes 
fastened with straps. The gown is slightly open in front and 
shows the gypciere or pouch-bag attached to the girdle of the 
doublet. The dress of the woman is similar to that on the other 
slab, but the gown is square cut at the breast, and the skirt is 
gathered up in folds in front by two short clasps or fasteners 
attached to each side of the girdle at a little distance irom the 
centre buckle. The following is the marginal inscription: — ** Hie 
jacei corpora Johis Rousley et Agnet war, ejvsy hie qui quidem Joh€9 
ohiit xxvi die ap7*ilis an dni MCCCGCXXXV, et predicti Agnes obiit — 
die — an7io dni MCCCCC — quorum animahus propieietur Bens, Amen." 
A few words of this inscription are now lacking, but we have 
supplied them from Keynolds' copy, taken in 1758. The blanks left 
for the date of the death of Agnes prove that the monument was 
erected during her lifetime, and were subsequently omitted to be 
filled up. The John Kollesley of this monument was the eldest 
son and heir of the one previously mentioned. He married Agnes, 
daughter of — Hybalt, of Ipsley, Warwickshire. Between their heads 
is a shield of Kollesley quartering Cheney, and at their feet on 
another shield, two lions rampant,* impaling Hybald. The arms 
of Hybald were, sa., three leopards' heads, jessant-de-lis, arj. 

The heir of John and Agnes was John Kollesley, who was buried 
16th February, 1567. He had issue, by Elizabeth, daughter of 
Edward Eyre, of Holme, a son of the same name, who married 
Margaret, daughter of Robert Shakerley of Longstone, and was 
buried 18th November, 1562. John and Margaret had one son, 
who died in his infancy, a few days before his father. On the 
death of father and son, the only daughter, Matilda, inherited the 
manor of Little Kowsley, which she brought by marriage to Sir 
William Kniveton, of Mercaston. Their son, Sir Gilbert Kniveton, 
who was baptized at Darley, 8th February, 1582, sold the manor 
to Sir John Manners .t 

Against the north wall of the chancel, is a monument of a later 
date than those we generally notice, but it is sufficiently remarkable 
and costly of its style to warrant a brief description. Two figures 
in marble are represented in the centre of the stone, kneeling 

* The only explanation we can give of this bearing is that it was possibly an older 
coat of BcUesley, occasionally used by them. 

i These dates are taken from the parish registers. From the same sonrce we learn 
that Walter Tomlinson married Agnes 2nd July, 1557 ; she was probably one of the 
two daughters of John Bollesley by Agnes Hybalt. 





Elate 71. 


DASJ-Ey 


3>Ahf. 




•rgow 




^^^ 




v^i'inw'^. 




i^w.^ii^ 




(l^k^djK! 




JWp'<^'«»nr 




^Sy^**" 




»oti!iwl:[.eiiuEV">;Jisi!ES. 


Jf^R Sil^EdLBY If KUflJUtBrlL. 





DARLEY DALE. 165 

Opposite to each other, with an escutcheon between them. Below 
them, in bas-relief, are representations of eight daughters of 
different sizes, opposite to three sons. Three of the daughters, and 
one of the sons, are represented as holding skulls in their hands, 
indicating, we suppose, their decease at the time the monument 
was erected. At the foot of, the monument are two tablets, one of 
them being blank, and the other bearing the following inscription : — 
•* To the pious memory of Anne Millward, daughter of James 
Whitehalgh, of Whitehalgh, in the county of Stafford, gent., and 
wife of John Millward of Snitterton Esq., who had issue by her 
three sons and eight daughters. She departed this life the 20 
of June, in the yeare of our Lord 1658. The 49 year of her age." 

The arms on the monument are: — Erm.y on a fesse, gu., three 
plates (Milward), impaling arg. a fesse chequy, gu, and *a., between 
three helmets, proper, (Whitehalgh.) 

The manor of Snitterton, in this parish, was originally held by 
a family of that name, whose heiress was married to William 
Sacheverell, of Ible, in the time of Henry VI. The Sacheverells 
held it for several generations, but it passed in the sixteenth century 
to a younger branch of the Milwards, of Eaton Dovedale, six gene- 
rations of whom are mentioned in the Visitation of 1611.* John 
Milward died without any surviving male issue, in 1670, and his eldest 
co-heiress, Felicia, brought a moiety of the manor of Snitterton, in- 
cluding the ancient manor house, to her husbajid, Charles Alderley, 
who sold it to Henry Feme. 

There was formerly a chapel at Snitterton, but all traces of it 
are now lost, and whether it was attached to the manor house or 
an mdependent building it is not possible now to say. In the year 
1397, Roger de Wormhill had the Bishop's Hcence to celebrate 
divine service in his oratory at Snitterton. t 

In the 3rd year of Queen Ehzabeth, Sir Edward Warner sold the 
chantry lands in Snitterton, Matlock, and Bonsall, that had 
formerly pertained to the Chantry of Snitterton, to Richard Wen- 
desley, of Wendesley, Esq., and to Ralph Brown, gent.J We cannot 
trace any ancient connection of the Warners with that manor, and 
probably these lands had been conferred on Sir Edward Warner by 
the crown a short time previously, on the confiscation of the chantry 
property. 

* See the account of Thorpe Church, 
t Ly sons' Derby thire, p. lOO. 
X Add. MSS., 6669, f. 28. 



166 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Near to the Milward monument is a qnaint little brass, about 
six inches by nine, let into a stone with an ornamental border, upon 
which is the following inscription, "Maria uxor John: Potts, theol : 
cujus piam memoriam maritus et liberi celebrare junxunt. Obiit 
Jan : 12, 1654. F.P. filius natu maxi : pie consecravit." John 
Potts, as has been already noticed, was Rector of the north mediety 
of Darley. 

A much less durable style of memorial may be noticed in the 
splay of the Early English lancet window on the opposite side of 
the chancel, where is painted in black on the whitewash, with a 
deep funereal border, **John Edwards, Rector, 1685/* 

The only remnant of old wood carving in the church is an oak 
"poppy-head," or stall finial, that now forms the end of a bench 
in the south aisle. It was brought to light in 1854. Another 
poppy-head from this church is in the Lomberdale Museum, probably 
the corresponding one. 

Within the porch, against the south wall of the church, is the lower 
half of an alabaster monumental slab of sixteenth century work, 
showing the drapery of a female, and six girls and three boys 
below ; but only a small portion of the marginal inscription 
now remains. The following can be deciphered, **...is Edwardi 

qui qdam Elisabeith obiit xxvij die Septembris." The 

valuable aid of the early parish registers has enabled us to identify 
this fragmentary monument, for they contain an entry to the effect 
that Elizabeth Needham was buried on the 27th of September, 
1540. 

The Needhams were an ancient family of some repute in North 
Derbyshire. Lysons makes a mistake in saying that they were an 
ofifshoot of the Cheshire family of the same name. The earhest in 
the pedigree is Jolm Needham, of Needham, co. Derby, temp. Ed- 
ward III. His eldest grandson, Thomas, married Maud, daughter 
of Roger Mellor, of Thorn sett, and his younger grandson, William, 
settled in Cheshire. Otwell Needham, of Thornsett, of the sixth 
generation in direct descent fi'om Thomas, married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter and heiress of Nicholas Cadman, of Cowley. She brought the 
manor of Cowley, in Darley parish, as well as certain lands in 
Snitterton, to her husband. WiUiam Needham, the eldest son of 
this marriage, took to wife the heiress of Garlick of W^hitfield, and 
increased his property in this parish by the purchase of a moiety 
of Dailey (Old Hall) manor. William had no less than eleven 
brothers and six sisters, the deaths of several of whom are recorded 



DABLEY DALE. 167 

in the parish registers. The name of one of these younger brothers 
was Edward, who was buried 25th August, 1562, and we have no 
doubt that the mutilated slab in the porch is to the memory of his 
wife.* The Darley estates of the Needhams were sold at the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century to the Seniors of Bridgetown. 

Under the shelter of the porch are a large number of interesting 
specimens of ancient sepulchral slabs and crosses. This number 
would have been considerably larger, if a good many of those dis- 
covered in restoring the church in 1854, had not been removed to 
the local museum of the late Mr. Bateman.f They are only second 
in interest to those found at Bakewell, and afford an evident proof 
of the importance of the church of Darley both in the Saxon and 
Norman days. Probably the oldest of these relics is the fragment 
of an upright cross, carved with interlaced knot-work. The fragment 
is only nineteen inches high, but enough remains to show that it 
is part of a very large cross of an early type, the medium breadth 
of the shaft being fifteen inches, and its thickness eleven. This may 
possibly be as old as the ninth or even the eighth century.J This 
relic is in the Bateman collection, and so also is a piece of a slab 
with a diaper pattern, and one or two incised stones that may bo 
as old as the cross, together with the lower part of a coped tomb 
of the twelfth century, and upwards of a dozen other sepulchral 
slabs, none more modem than the thirteenth century. In the porch 
there are either portions or complete specimens of about twelve 
more slabs. One of the most perfect of these crosses has a flori- 
ated head, with a sword on the sinister side of the stem, and a 
bugle horn at the base ; it has been engraved in Lysons' Derbyshire 
and copied in several other works. This slab, which is of thirteenth 
century work, probably commemorated the sepulture of a ranger or 
other official of the great Forest of the Peak. One of those in the 
porch, which is simply marked with two incised straight lines 
forming a plain cross, is probably of Saxon date ; the remainder 
vary from the eleventh to the thirteenth century. The cross with 
the bugle was here before the restoration, and one small specimen, 
and a fragment having a quaint quadruped in high relief, have 
recently been found when digging graves in the churchyard. With 

• Flower's Visitation, 1669, Queen's ColL, Oxon, MSS. ; Egerton MSS. 996, f. 72; 
Harl. MSS., 1093, 1637, etc., etc. 

f Bateman's Catalogue of Antiquities, p. 187, where it is stated that the numerous 
slabs from Darley Church were *' presented by Mr. Joseph Hallows." Mr. Batemau 
also wrote a short account of those in his possession for the first volume of the Beli- 
quary, accompanied by numerous engravings of different specimens. 

t See the account of Bakewell cross, etc., pp. 37, 38. 



ICS DEEBTPHIEE CHTBCHES. 

tL'-e c::c."*:'r.= th-v w-re aH bro^izLt to lizbt in lSo4. On FUie 
ViL v.; i.<.'.vr ;riv»ii fir cf iLe ii.:iit chAracteriitic specimens tfigs. 
1, ':/, 4, ai-'i 5/ ; ih'^ir approximate d^te, etc., m«T be g&lhered 
from the r<^.ri* .rks ve Lave alreaiv male in connection with the 

In a M>.i'':j to tLo-e in the porch, there sre portions of mt least 
h'.x Ui'fTfi of tJiO-*:; eirlv sepulchral stonea built into the masonry of 
ihfi cli'jrclj ill cli:T--nrit parts of the exterior. On one, at the east 
ei.d of tlio chanc'l, can be noted a chalice, the symbol of the 
ijjtrrrnoiit of a pne«t. In the slabs, too, that form the lintels of 
tlio bc'll-cljamV^r windows of the tower, are three more specimens, 
otic of til em bf-ing of tbat simple early description noted in the 
porch, and another can be seen in the steps of the winding 
htaimav. 

At the west end of the tower, to the left-hand of the old 
entrance, is a square stone on which are quaintly carved two 
uondeBcript animals, described by Mr. Snckling in terms almost as 
quaint as the sculpture, as a wolf attacked by a ^' peliran or some 
Buch bird of prey." This carving (Plate VIL fig. 2), is probably 
of Norman date, and may have formed part of the tympanum over 
the Norman doorway. It was probably thought sufficiently reiiiark- 
able to be preserved and built in here when the tower was recon- 
structed in the Perpendicular era. When the paving stones round 
the ancient yew-tree were recently removed, the lower side of one 
of tliem was found to be carved after the same fashion, and showed 
the hind qtiarters, and intricately folded tail of another nondescript 
animal. This stone, which possibly formed part of the same 
sculpture as that by the west doorway, is now preserved in the 
porch. 

Near tho south chancel entrance are two stone coffins, each 
fonn(Kl of a single block of stone, with hollowed insertions for the 
head. Tho smallest of these, which measures (inside) five feet 
ton and a half inches by one foot six inches at tlie shoulders, and 
uhu) incJioH at tho feet, used to stand near the entrance of the 
old north doorway to catch the rainwater from the roof. It was 
removed many years ago from the south transept, and used to be 
known by tradition as " John o* Dorlcy's coffin,*' and may possibly 
at ()!io time have been covered by the stone effigy that now rests 
in tho recoHH under the fourth window of the same transept. The 
otlior one, which is of the unusual length of six feet eight inches 



BWJW P»B 



•. ^^i!i( SiBlfhiui. D-* 



DARLEY DALE. 169 

inside, was found in 1854 in the south aisle just in front of the 
transept chapel. 

Against the projecting buttress to the left of the chancel doorway, 
is fastened a circular stone, four feet in diameter, but only three 
inches thick. This stone was found about two feet six inches 
below the surface, on the south side of the churchyard, when pre- 
paring a grave in the year 1863. There were two stones of similar 
size about six feet apart, but the other one broke into fragments 
when attempted to be moved. On the top of each stone was a 
considerable amount of charcoal ashes, and the earth was much 
burnt for some distance around and below. One of the incised 
slabs now in the porch was discovered at the same time, but nearer 
the surface. We believe that these circular stones were used by 
the Bomans, to cover up the burnt remains of several bodies that 
had been placed beneath them in a hollow of the ground. It was 
not always their custom to place the ashes of the funeral pyre in 
an urn, and an interment of the nature described, frequently took 
place when numerous bodies had to be burnt after a skirmish or battle. 
This cremation probably took place at a not later date than the 
fifth century. Certain remains of an artifically constructed floor 
of limestone rubble, found in several places in the south-west corner 
of the churchyard in 1858, at a depth of six feet, are possibly of a 
still earUer date. Owing to it being a burial ground, further re- 
search was rendered impossible, but we think it likely that this 
was the flooring of some Romano- British dwelling or temple,* 
though it has been conjectured that it may have been connected 
with the Saxon church that formerly stood somewhere about this 
site. 

Some fragments of this paving may be seen in the cottage garden 
of Mr. Anthony Feam,+ the parish clerk, as well as pieces of 
ancient querns or hand-mills, also found in the churchyard, and 
which confirm our supposition of there having been a British dwelling 
or dwellings on this spot. Here, too, is a most elegant fragment 
of fourteenth century sculpture, which has, no doubt, formed part 
of a low stone screen or septune, that at one time separated the 
chancel from the nave after the fashion of the one now existing 
in the church of Chelmorton. 

Over the south window of the south transept is a mural «im-dial, 

* See Bateman's Vestiges qf Antiquities^ and Ten Years' Diggings, pasBim. 

f Mr. Fearn is himself no mean antiquary, and has been most aesiduouB in ^yiug 
ui all information relatiTe to the pariah chnroh. 



170 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

bearing the date of 1782. In the chorchyard, very near the walls 
of this transept, are several table tombs of the first half of the 
seventeenth century, which are worthy of notice for the exceptional 
vigour and originality of the sculptures on their sides. The most 
remarkable of these is to the memory of a weaver, and the sides 
are carved with a representation of the old hand-loom, shuttles, etc., 
of those days. 

The churchyard is celebrated for what may be justly termed 
its magnificent yew tree, said to be the largest in girth and the 
finest specimen in the kingdom. Bhodes says that the trunk, for 
about four yards &om the ground, measures upwards of thirty-four 
feet, and that it then assumes the appearance of two separate trees, 
which rise ^perpendicularly from the parent trunk, and throw out 
their ramifications over an area of between seventy and eighty 
yards in circumference ; but since the time when Bhodes penned 
his account (1817) the tree has been shorn of many of its limbs.* 
Others have variously estimated its girth firom thirty-three to thirty- 
five feet, the former estimate being mostly in favour. A measure- 
ment, however, that we recently took, failed to make the circum- 
ference thirty-two feet by a few inches, and this in the widest 
part, which is about four feet from the ground. Mr. Feam tells 
us that there is a cavity in the tree, about half-way up one of the 
trunks, that will hold seven or eight ordinary sized men standing 
upright therein. 

From enquiries that we have made, through Notes and Queries ^\ 
and by private correspondence, we have satisfied ourselves that 
Darley Dale is well within the limits of precise truth, in claiming 
this tree not only as by far the finest specimen extant in England, 
but even in the United Kingdom. The Fortingal yew, Perthshire, 
which used to measure fifty- six feet in circumference, is now a 
mere wreck, and existed only in fragments so long ago as 1888 ; and 
other specimens of even greater reputed girth, such as that at 
Hensor, Bucks, have disappeared altogether or in part. True it 
is, that there is still extant in the churchyard of Tisbury, Wilts, 
a yew tree with a girth of thirty-seven feet, but it is not to be 
compared with that of Darley in luxuriance or stretch of limbs. 

There have been considerable differences of opinion as to the 
probable age of this venerable tree. Dr. Pegge was inclined to 
ascribe it to Saxon times. X Mr. Suckling, who gives some interesting 

• Rhodes' Penh Scenery^ pt. iii., p. 95. 

t Notes and Queries, 5th S. v., pp. 308, 876, 476. 

} Pegge'B MS. Collections, vol. Tii. 



DARLEY DALE. 171 

notes relative to the yew, thinks it must be as old as the twelfth 
century, and compares it with the well-known trees of the same 
species above Fountains Abbey, under which the. monks resided 
until they built the monastery in 1133. The largest of those trees, 
in 1776, only measured twenty-six feet in circumference. But 
surely, if those trees were largo enough to afford shelter for the 
monks in the twelfth century, they must have already attained to 
a considerable age ? We are convinced that Mr. Suckling's estimate 
errs considerably on the safe side, but we do not possess sufficient 
confidence in Mr. Bowman's tbeories as to the age of trees to 
adopt, without reserve, his conclusion (published in 1837), that 
its age then amounted to the sum of two thousand and six years. "^ 
But, whatever may be its precise age, there can be little doubt that 
this grand old tree has given shelter to the early Britons when 
planning the construction of the dwellings that they erected not 
many yards to the west of its trunk ; to the Romans who built 
up the funeral pyre for their slain comrades just clear of its branches ; 
to the Saxons, converted, perchance, to the true faith by the 
preaching of Bishop Diuma t beneath its pleasant shade ; to the 
Norman masons chiselling their quaint sculptures to form the first 
stone House of Prayer erected in its vicinity; and to the host of 
Christian worshippers, who, from that day to this, have been borne 
under its hoary limbs, in women's arms to the baptismal font, and 
then on men's shoulders to their last sleeping- place in the soil 
that gave it birth. It would be strange indeed, if a tree, that is 
thus indissolubly linked with an almost unlimited train of sacred 
and historic recollections, had escaped the offerings of the poet's 
muse. Pages might be filled with extracts culled from the local 
rhymsters, who have become inspired beneath its branches, but 
our readers shall be spared, for most of it is but sorry stuff. As 
a fair sample of much that has found its way into print, concerning 
the yew-tree of Darley Dale, the two opening lines of a **poem" 
of twenty stanzas will be sufficient to quote : — 

" Sure all do feel beneath this tree, 
How very ancient you must be." 

But the muse has been more successfully invoked by others, and 

* Magaeine of Natural History , vol. i., p. 28. Mr. Bowman's theories, as to the 
longevity of the yew, adopted from the French naturalist, DocandoUe, were based on 
actual sections taken from the trunks of di£fe rent trees; and we believe that it was 
his irreverent saw that made the small hole in the tree that is such a disfigurement 
to it on the north side. Mr. J. K. Jackson, of the Museum, Kew, considers the age 
of this tree to be correctly stated at about 2000 years. 

t See the account of TaddingtoA cross. 



172 DERBTSHIBE CHURCHES. 

the conclnding half of a Bonnet from the pen of the late John 
Hulland is worthy of the subject: — 

" SnrpasBing all, in bole of mighty girth, 

In amplitude of thick nmbrageons head, 
The Darley Yew o'er consecrated earth , 

Antiquity's strange shadow seems to spread ; 
And 'mid the pilgrim 's startled pause gives birth 
To thoughts that mingle with some touch of dread." * 

We conclude this notice with the following extract from a letter 
that appeared in the Times, September 13th, 1863, signed "An 
Old Yew Tree," and which shows the perils to which this grand 
old tree has been exposed, though it is only fair to add that the 
guardianship exercised over it of late years appears to be all that 
could be desired, and that it has been enclosed within neat iron 
railings during the present summer (1876). 

'* I am a helpless and most iU-used individual, and my friends have advised me to 
make my grievances known to you, as the most able and likely source to supply 
redress. To make my tale short, I belong to that class of national property which 
guide books call "objects of interest," of which this old historic country possesses 
so large a share ; but I am not an old abbey, nor an old tower, nor even an old cairn ; 
I am simply an old tree. My residence is in a churchyard, in a very lovely valley in 
Derbyshire, called Darley Dale. From the reverence which has been paid to me for 
more generations than I care to name, and from the admiration which pilgrims from 
all parts of the world who come to see me bestow upon me, I conceive that I am no 
common tree. My trunk alone girths 33 feet, but from within the memory of man I 
have stretched my arms across one entire side of the churchyard, and forty years ago 
the young urchins of the parish used to climb from the outer wall into my branches, 
and from my branches on to the church leads. My age is fabulous, and learned 
naturalists now calculate that I must have been bom 300 years before the gospel was 
planted in this country; in which case I was probably associated with an old pagan 
building, the foundations of which are still discovered in digging graves in my imme- 
diate neighbourhood. If my memory did not fail me of course I could tell all about 
this better than the naturalists ; but age has made me somewhat hazy in this respect, 
so I must leave my origin to the genealogists to settle. Well, sir, with all these 
claims to reverence, is it not shameful tbat in this year of grace 1863, men should cut, 
break, and mutilate my poor old person in all conceivable ways ? Until tourists began 
to multiply and excursion trains to run, I had scarcely a single scar, older than time 
and tempest had left, on my body ; but now the Snookeses, and Tomkinses, and 
Jones, have begun to immortalize themselves (as is the fashion of that race) by 
cutting their names all over my bark, and on Thursday last two fellows of this tribe 
commenced a still more cruel process. While one of them smoked his pipe and 
watched, the other drew out a saw, and actually set to work to cut out a great slice of 
my very flesh, which, but for the lucky intervention of the clerk, he would soon have 
accomplished. You may believe me, sir, when I tell you that I quite dread the sight 
of an excursion train : and from all that I hear, I am not alone in these apprehensions. 
My fellow " objects of interest " are crying out on every side of me and all over the 
land that the Goths are coming again. Oh, sir, can you not repel these barbarians. 
The foe of all abuses, will you not make yoar potent voice heard to put an end to this 
abuse." 

The parish registers of Darley begin with the burials of 1539, 
the marriages of 1641, and the baptisms of 1569. At the end of 

• We have taken the liberty of changing " both" to " all " in the first line; the 
previous part of the sonnet compared this Yew with those of Norton and Beeley, but, 
as we have already said, it may fairly be compared with those of ^e whole kingdom. 



DAELEY DALE. 173 

the baptisms in this first volume of the registers (the last one beiag 
dated April, 1603) is this entry — ** Written by mee John Cantrel 
Sehoolemaster at Darley Anno Domini 1630." It therefore, appears, 
that the whole of this first book is but a transcript made from the 
original volume by that peripatetic pliilosopher, whose condensed 
autobigraphy we have quoted in bur account of Beeley chapel. In 
the maniages for 1561 is written — " The sweate was this yeare," 
and on referring to the deaths for the same year we find it recorded 
that " nine persons were buried from the 6th of Julye till the 10th 
which dyed of ye sweatinge sickness." The year 1661 was the fifth 
occasion on which "the sweating sickness" (nearly akin to the 
plague) visited London and the country in general. 

In 1657, Darley was visited by the plague, two deaths occurring 
in March of that year. Six more deaths &om the same cause are 
recorded in the spring of the following year. Amongst other casu- 
alties contained in the parish registers, are the following : — 

1616. John the sonne of John Ward was buried the 15th day of December. Per- 
ished with cold on ye moore. 

1638. Frances the wife of Kobert Haslowe was buryed the eight and twentith daye 
of October, perished with colde on ye moore. 

1648. Elizabeth a maide child of Robt. Gregory's of Frogatt drowned was buried 
the 13th of September broughte down the River in the flood. 

1669. William Hogkinson and Robert Sidwell were both buried the thirtith day of 
July, both dampt in a grove.* 

1673. Denis Hodgkinson was dampt in a groove.* Buried the eight day of July. 

With the volume of burials from August, 1678, to March, 1778, is 
bound up a black-letter copy of the Act of 1678 directing burial in 
woollen for the sake of encouraging the home trade in wool. There 
is also an unusually long and perfect list of early Briefs, or official 
mandates for collecting from church congregations, commenciug 
with a collection for the "Distressed Irish'* in 1689, and going 
down to the year 1730. Under date 7th of October, 1764, is the 
following entry : — " It having been customary for several years not 
to make any collection upon Briefs in the Church, but for the 
Churchwardens to give 1/6 and charge it to the Parish upon each 
Brief — a Brief being received this day no collection was made, 
but 2/- having been privately given since, the sum for the Church 
of Kirk Andrews in Cumberland is 8/6." 

On a fly leaf is written : — " A great frost, which began at 
Martinmas 1676 and continued till January 8 , 1677. Ye Der- 
went was actually frozen and att ye dissolving of the frost was 

♦The last two entries refer to death by choke damp ; " grove" or " groove " wag 
an old term for a shaft or pit sunk to a vein of lead ore. 



174 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

a great flood, and incredible quantities of ice was brought out of 
the water banks into tollerable inclosed grounds and up to the 
churchyard steps. Thomas Mossley, Eector/* 

The following entries relative to the old Hearth-money or Chimney 
tax,* and to the ancient Hariot or Heriot * custom, seem also to 
be worth transcribing: — 

Memorandum, That in y* year 1685. An officer employed for y* collecting of 
Hearth mony demanded mony for a hearth in y« Burley field honse which had 
been for many years used for a bame only, and had not been payd for as haveing 
no hearth remaining ; of which a Certificate was made to exempt it from payment 
for y* future, Subscribed by John Edwards, Reotor. 

Richard Adams, Churchwarden. 
George Wagstaff, Constable. 
Which Certificate (in behalfe of James Ward then occupant of y* said house) was 
allowed by y* Justices at y* Sessions at Bakewell, July 14, 16^, and subscribed by 

Francis Barker \ Justices of 
Robert Ashton ) y« peace. 

An account of what Herriotts have become due and have been paid -to me Henry 
Aldrich Rector of Darley by reason of the death of y* Church tenants or any 
alienation of the Church lands in Toadhole by the Tenants thereof taken the 2^ 
day of April Anno D" 1706. 

Upon an Alienation of two Tenements lately in y* Tenure of John Stevenson ; 
one belonging to the Mediety australe, y* other to y* north Mediety of the 
Rectory of Darley, I marked two Cows, which I afterwards, being Hairiotts sold 
for four pounds to Henry Feme in Toadhole. 

Upon the death of Widow Wheatcroft mother of George Wheatcroft and late 
Tenant to the North Mediety of the Rectory of Darley I received an Heifer beast 
for an Harriott. 

Upon the death of Dame Catherine Marbury Tenant to y* two Medietys of y* 
Rectory of Darley in two Tenements sometimes inferiorly occupied by one Rowse 
and Jackson I received for two Harriotts the sum of two pounds. 

Upon an Alienation of the last mentioned Tenements made by Gilbert Thacker 
Esq Executor of the s^ Dame Catherine Marbury I received for two Harriotts y* 
sum of two pounds. 

Upon an Alienation of part of one of the said Tenements being land lying in 
Whamey head and that Close of the two belonging there to Henry Wheldon that 
lies south east made by Greensmiths I received tenn shiUings. 

Upon the death of Nicholas Davy and his wife in a short time afterwards as may 
appear by the Register of Burialls tenants successively to one moiety of a Church 
tenement I challenged or demanded one Cupboard and one Table, which Henry Davie 
y succeeding tenant bought at the price of thirtie shillings. 

Upon an alienation of one tenement lately in the posession of George Wheatcroft 
made by him he paid to me for his best good or chattell as an Harriott the sum of 
thirtie shillings. 

♦ The Hearth tax was imposed hj Charles II., in 1662, when itlproduced JE200,' 00. 
It was abolished in 1689, but agam imposed and again abolished. Hariot was an 
ancient custom by which the best cattle (or other property) which a Tenant hath at 
the hour of his death was due to the Lord. See Cowelrs Interpreter, 



EtipnsQp. 



^bFnsor* 




[LTHOUGH the Domesday Survey is silent as to a church 
on the manor of Edensor, we know that one was here 
erected not long afterwards, whilst the Norman style of 
architecture prevailed. The manor formed part of the vast estates 
given by the Conqueror to Henry de Ferrers, and **the mesne 
seignory,'* as Lysons says, "was for several generations, at a 
remote period, vested in the ancestors of the Shirley family." * The 
Domesday Book relates that Seswalo (or Sewall) held the manors 
of Etwall, Hatton, and Hoon, in this county, as well as at Eatington, 
in Warwickshire, and others in Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire ; 
but there is no direct proof of Sewall or his immediate descendants, 
holding lands at Edensor until the times of his great-grandson, Henry 
Fulcher, in the reign of John.t But we have earlier information 
than this with respect to the church of Edensor. Sewall had two 
sons, Henry and Fulcher, the former dying without issue ; and it 
seems probable that Fulcher built the church of Edensor, as it is 
not otherwise easy to understand how he or his sons obtained the 
advowson. Fulcher left four sons, Henry, Sewall, Fulcher, and 
Jordan. There is a very curious deed extant by which Henry, the 
first-bom, sells his birthright to his brotlier Sewall. Amongst other 
property which he sold mention is made of the church of Edensor. 
This deed is undated, but it was made in the time of William, 
Earl of Derby, who lived in the reign of Henry 11.1 There is an- 

•Lysona' Derbyshire , p. 146. 

t Rot. Lit. Caaiis., 7 John, Memb 18. " Henry, eldest son of Sewalbs do Scyrle 
attended William Earl Ferrers in the Kind's army when he sailed into Poictou, which 
was, as I take it in the 4th of John ; and in the 7th of John, by virtue of the King's 
precept, had livery made to him of the mannour of Eduesowre in Derbyshire, whereof 
he had been disseized during his absence in that voyafje, as it seems." Dugdale's 
Wanvictshire. The manor certainly remained with the Shirleys till the time of the 
great grandson of the above Henry, Ralph de Shirley, who was seized of it in the 
reign of Edward I. Inq. post Mort., 25 Edward T., No 51. 

tDugdale MSS. in Mus. Ashm. Oxon. H. 19(5-Ex vetusta membrana penes 
Samuelem Roper ar , anno 1653." Stemmata Shirleiana^ Appendix, p. 7. 

N 



178 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES, 

other deed relating to this subject, of the year 1192, between the 
same Sewall and his nephew Fulcher, the son and heir of Henry, 
who was then dead. This deed narrates the agreement that was 
arrived at between these two relatives at the conrt of William, Earl 
Ferrers, held at Tutbury, in the presence of the EarL It chiefly 
consists of a confirmation of the previous deed, and an admission 
by Fulcher that he holds under Sewall, the only difference being 
with respect to the advowson of the church of Edensor, which it 
seems that Sewall had given back to his brother Henry after the 
original deed of disinheritance had been drawn up. The clause, 
being translated, runs thus: — ''But when the Church of Edensor 
shall be vacant, and anyone shall desire to resist the presentation 
of Fulcher to the same church, the aforesaid Sewall or bis heirs 
f^hall re>certify to Fulcher and his heirs the gift which the said 
Sewall had often made to Henry, father of the aforesaid Fulcher."^ 

From this Fulcher (the third of that name) descended the 
Iretons of Ireton, but the advowson of Edensor did not continue 
in his family, as we And it in the hands of another of his uncles, 
Fulcher II., within a very few years of the date of this second 
deed. Fulcher II., the son of Fulcher L, by undated charter gave 
the church to the monastery of Rocester in Staffordshire. t The 
witnesses to the charter, however, prove that it could not have 
been later than the reign of John (1199 — 1216), and probably just 
at the commencement of his reign. This charter states that 
Fulcher, the son of Fulcher, gives, concedes, etc^ to God and to 
St. Mary and to St. Michael the Archangel, and to the Abbott of 
Rocester, and the Canons of Leyes obeying and serving God in the 
church of the aforesaid Rocester, for the soul of his brother Jordan, 
and for the souls of his father and mother, and for the soul of his 
wife Margaret, and for himself and his wife and his sons and his 
brothers, the church of St. Peter of Edensor, with all that pertain 
to it, in perpetual alms. 

It does not, however, appear that this charter was interpreted 
for many years to mean anything more than that the emoluments 
of the living were to be held by the person presented by the Abbot 
and Canons of Rocester ; for, nearly a century afterwards, the Taxa- 
tion RoU of Pope Nicholas IV., taken in 1291, describes Edensor 

• Dogdale MSS. in Mas. Ashm. Oxon. H. 196 — Ex ipso autographico penes 
Samaclem Iloper ar. anno 1653." In neither this nor the previous deed is any mention 
made of the manor of Edensor, so it would appear that this was one of the exceptional 
cases in which the manor was held by one family, and the chnrch by another, bat 
both of them vassals of the same lord. 

t Dugdale's Monasticon, yol. ii., p. 268. 



EDEN80R. 179 

as an ^'ecclesia*' worth £10 per aunum, and not as a vicarage. 
But the tithes were subsequently appropriated, and a vicarage 
formally endowed, and thus it remained till the dissolution of 
monasteries. 

Ralph Higdon was vicar at the time when the Valor Ecclmasticua 
(27 Henry VIII.) was drawn up, and the vicarage is there estimated 
at seven marks per annum. The Abbey of Rocester held the tithes 
of grain and hay, which were then reckoned at the annual value 
of £11. 

The Parliamentary Commissioners of 1660, report the Hving of 
Edensor to be worth JB40 "given by Earl of Devonshire, who 
is wholly impropriator. Pillsley Lees and Calton fitt to be united. 
Mr. Richard Archer incumbent, who hath formerly beene in Prince 
Rupert's Armye and disaffected.'* It was also recommended that 
the parochial chapelry of Beeley should be united to this parish. 

The old church of Edensor was taken down a few years ago, and 
a strikingly handsome structure erected in its place by Sir Gilbert 
Scott. It was completed in 1867. The old church consisted of a 
nave, side aisles, chancel, south porch, and square embattled tower 
at the west end. The exterior was chiefly characteristic of the 
Perpendicular period, but the east window of the chancel, together 
with one at the east end of the south aisle, and another near the 
priest's door on the south side of the chancel, were of Decorated 
date. In the interior there was much greater antiquity, for the 
nave was divided from the side aisles by Norman pillars, probably 
those that were originally erected here by Fulcher. 

The new church consists of nave, side aisles, south porch, 
chancel, and the Cavendish Chapel on the south side of the 
chancel. The west end terminates in a fine tower surmounted by 
a lofty broached spire. The whole is of Decorated design. It is 
not our purpose in these pages to criticise or describe modern 
churches, but whilst admiring the general effect as well as the 
careful details of this building, we cannot help remarking, at the 
risk of being thought presumptuous, that the coup d^ ceil is marred, 
and the typical character of the east end of the church destroyed, 
by the rivalry of the south chapel, which is carried out parallel 
with the chancel, and of equally imposing dimensions. 

It is almost needless to state, that as many of the remnants of 
the old church as could possibly be utilised, were preserved in the 
new building, for this is a point that never escapes the attention 
of Sir Gilbert Scott. The nave is separated from the aisles by 



180 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

four pointed archways on each side^ Four of these arches , viz. : 
tlie two at the east end and the two at the west end, are those 
that occupied a similar place in the old church. Several also of 
the old pillars, of Norman date, are again used. The designs 
of the Norman capitals of the half-pillar or respond at the west 
end of the north aisle, and of the third pillar from the west on 
the same side, are worthy of attention. A small single-light window, 
about two feet by nine inches in dimension, at the west end of 
this aisle is also from the old building, and probably coeval with 
the pillars. Under the south porch is the ancient entrance to the 
church, consistiQg of a round-headed doorway, ornamented with a 
threefold chevron or zigzag moulding, faintly incised. The hood- 
mould, which has been restored, terminates in two corbel heads 
having triple crowns or rows of curls. A similar design to this 
may be noticed in the ancient doorway of the adjacent church of 
Beeley. 

The three-light Decorated window, which now lights the east end 
of the south chapel, is of the same design as that which w^as formerly 
the east window of the chancel, about haK of the tracery beiug 
of the old material. The design of the former Perpendicular 
windows can also be gathered from the two-light window in the 
north wall of the chancel, just clear of the vestry, where the old 
Perpendicular tracery has been preserved. Another feature of 
interest from the old building is the beU-oote of the sanctus bell, 
which still occupies its proper position on the east gable of the 
nave. 

The south porch, with its embattled parapet, is the same as 
formed part of the old edifice. The pointed doorway has been 
restored, but several of the old moulded stones remain, including 
the base on the right-hand side. It has a steep-pitched stone roof, 
supported in the centre by an arch of the same material resting 
on corbels. It is of the Decorated period. On the west side of 
the porch is an ugly gurgoyle with a flattened human face, and 
on the east side is an interesting corbel stone, consisting of an angel, 
delicately carved, holding on a shield the arms of Leche {Erm., 
on a chief dancett^e, gu.j three ducal coronets, or). The family 
of Leche was of Chatsworth, as early as the reign of Edward III., 
when John Leche was surgeon to the King. The branch of the 
family that held the manor of Chatsworth became extinct in the 
reign of Edward VI., by the death of Francis Leche, but he had 



EDENSOR, 181 

previously sold the manor to the Agards.* An ancient sepulchral 
slab has been built into the east wall of the porch for preservation. 
It wants about a third of its length at the base, and consists of 
a cross fleury in slight relief, with a sword on the sinister side of 
the stem. There is also a fragment of another cross on the same 
side, and in the west wall is a stone which appears to have been 
the capital of a Norman shaft. 

There are two ancient details in the interior of the church, con- 
sisting of the upper part of the niches of the piscinas ; one in the 
south wall at the west end of the south aisle, and the other in the 
south wall of the chancel, beyond the beautiful modem sedilia. 
Those, too, who admire modern art, cannot fail to be struck with 
the splendid font, and also with the pulpit, both of which are 
constructed of different tinted marbles from the Duke's estates. 

With the exception of tlie early nameless slab in the porch, there 
are no monuments of pre-Reformation sepulture now in this church, 
but there are two which must not be passed by unnoticed. The 
first of these is a singular but very fine monument of its style, 
which now occupies the west side of the Cavendish Chapel. In the 
former church it sei-ved, very inappropriately, as a reredos to the 
chancel. The centre figure of this monument is a representation 
of Fame blowing a trumpet and holding two tablets, on which are 
inscribed long Latin epitaphs to the two sons of Sir WilHam 
Cavendish, by his wife, who afterwards became the celebrated 
Countess of Shrewsbury. Henry, the eldest son, died in 1616, and 
William, the first Earl of Devonshire, in 1625. In a niche to the 
right are sculptured the suit of armour, helmet, gauntlets, etc., — 
hung in the natural form, but without the body — of Henry Caven- 
dish. A niche on the other side contains in hke manner the Earl's 
coronet and robes of WilHam Cavendish. From the centre projects 
an open altar tomb, under which are two figures, one a skeleton, 
and the other in a winding-sheet, but with head exposed. The 
whole is flanked by two life-sized mythological statues on pedestals, 
and is surmounted by the Cavendish arms and supporters. This 
monument may be regarded as a good specimen of the costly but 
heathenish art that adorned the sepulchres of England's great men, 
when the purer taste of mediaeval days had been driven out by 
the Benaissance. 

Against the north wall of the chancel is affixed a brass plate of 

* For pedij^ee of Lcche of ChatHWorth, seo TopograyJirr^ vol. iii., p. 317. 



182 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

conBiderable interest. This plate, which is about thirty-three 
inches in height by twenty-four in breadth, occupied the same 
position in the old church, but was then surrounded by a stone 
frame with a bold moulding. The inscription in the original Latin 
can be read on Plafce VIH.,* but it may be thus rendered in 
English: — 

" To God the best and greatest and to posterity Sacred ; to John 
Beton, of Scotland, son of that illustrious and very excellent man, 
John Beton of Authmuty, grandson of David Beton, the celebrated 
Cardinal of the Holy Roman Empire ; great grandson of the most 
Reverend James Beton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, and most 
worthy Chancellor of the kingdom of Scotland ; educated from an 
eariy age by the best of preceptors, both liberally and nobly in 
polite literature and philosophy, so that he might the more easily 
enter upon the study of Roman Law (in which he was highly 
skilled) ; he endeared himself to all by the gentleness of his manners, 
by his integrity, by his prudence, and by his constancy, for which 
he was appointed by the Most Serene Princess Mary, Queen of the 
Scots and French, first to the office of Taster, afterwards to that 
of Comptroller to the Household. In conjunction with others he 
bravely liberated the most Serene Queen from the chains of a most 
truculent tyrant at the castle of Loch Leven. Having been sent 
on an embassy to Charles IX., the most Christian King of France, 
and to Elizabeth, the most serene Queen of England, which he 
successfully performed with the greatest credit to himself, the fates 
hurrying on, he was -unfortunately removed from the number of the 
living, in the flower of his age, by the cruel disease of dysentery. 
The most Reverend James, Archbishop of Glasgow, and Andrew 
Beton, the former ambassador of the same most serene Queen to 
the most Christian King, and the latter Comptroller of the House- 
hold, his most sorrowful brothers, erected this in perpetual remem- 
brance of the event, at the wish and command of the most serene 
Queen, his most kind mistress. He died in the year of Salvation, 
1570, aged 32 years 7 months, and awaits the day of the Lord at 

Chatsworth, in England. 

Epitaph, 

The Fates, oh Beton, envious of thy worth. 

Have snatched thee prematurely from the earth, 

"With thee have gone bright genius, judgment sound, 

And we, thy friends, are left in grief profoimd." 

T * ^^^^S^^i?^^ °* *^^ engraving vtq are indebted to the kindness of Mr. Llewellynn 
Jewitt, the Editor of the Reliquary, in which magazine it originally appeared. 



l!,l-0>' I (/J 



^v 



Platb VIII. 



C^^l 



^ 



.-/r 



ik*i 



^y> 









DEO OPT MAX ET POSTERITATI SACRVM. 
(oanni Betoniu Scoto, nobilis & 0[)timi vin loannis Betonii ab 
Anthmwthy filio, Dauidis Betonii IlIuftfifT. S. R. £. Cardinalis 
nepoti, Iacol)i Betonii ReuerendifT S-Antlnee Archiepifcopi et Regni 
Scotiae Cancellarit digniflf pronepott ab ineunte setate in huma- 
nioribus difciplinis, & philofophia, quo facilior ad ius Romanu (cuius 
ipfe ConfultifT fuit) aditus pateret ab optimis quibufqz preceptorib' 
& liberaliter & ingenue, educato: omnilms monim facilitate, fide pru- 
dentia, & conQantia charo : vnde a SerenilT Principe Maria Scotoni, 
Gallorumqz Regina in pneguftatoris primu, mox Oeconomi munus 
fuflftfcto, eiufdemqz SerenifT. Reginae, vna cum aliis, evinculis trucu 
lentiflT. Tiranni, apud leuini lacus caftrum liberator! fortilT qusm 
pod varias legaliones, & ad Carolum .9. Galliarum Regem Chrifli- 
iniir & ad Elizabctham Sereniflf Anglorum Reginam fotliciter & 
non fine laude fufceptas : fatis properantibus, in fuse setatis flore, 
fors afpera immani dy-fenterias morbo, e numero viuentiu exemit 
Facobus ReuerendifT. Glafquenfis Archiepifcopus, & Andreas 
Betonii eiufdem ferenifl*. R^inae ille apud Regem Chririianinf 
Legatus hie vero Oeconomus in ppetuam rei memoria, exvolutate 
& pro imperio ferenifl* Reginae herae clemetifl' f'* moefliiT pofuerut 
Obiit annofalutis 1570 Vixit annos 32 menfes 7. & 
dum lini expeeUU apud Chathworth in Anglia, 
EPITAPHIVM 

IMMATVKA TIBl LEGERVNT FILA SORORES. 
BkTONI, VT SVMMVM INGENIVM SVMMVMQZ PERIRET 
IVDICIVM, ET NOBIS IVCVNDVM NIL FORET VLTRA. -• 



rOR IS •a^^^pc^ 



^.^N^>^S\ 



DIIUIIlUKUULmtll 



Wi w iimi'iin w/i 



EDENSOR. 183 

Above the inscription are the arms of Beton, az., a fess between 
three mascles, or, quartering those of Balfour, arg,, on a chevron, sa., 
an otter's head erased, of the field ; the whole surmounted by the 
crest of a talbot's head. The BaKour quartering was adopted by 
the Betons in the reign of King Robert IL of Scotland (1370—90), 
when Bobert Beton married the heiress of that family. At the 
bottom of the plate, surmounted by the words, **Domi et Foris,'* 
is a small engraving of an effigy, in plate armour, lying on an 
altar tomb. The angles and sides of the plate are filled up with 
groups of flowers and fruits, and other ornaments characteristic of 
the Elizabethan period. The inscription is signed with the initials 
A. B., which seem to point to Andrew Beton as the author. 

There is also another small brass plate to the south side of the 
chancel arch. It is to the memory of " Mr. John Phipps, sometime 
House-keeper at Chatsworth," who died in 1785, aged 78, having 
been for sixty years in the service of the Dukes of Devonshire. 

According to a Visitation of this church, made August 27th, 
1611,* there was then a memorial extant to George Leche, bearing 
the following inscription, "Orate pro animabus (? anima) Georgii 
Leeche, armigeri, qui quidem Georgius obiit decimo die mensis 
Martii Anno Domini 1506. Cujus anime propicietur Deus. Amen." 
There was also the impaled coat of Leche and Babington. George 
Leche, of Ghatsworth, married Anne, daughter of Thomas Babington, 
of Dethick, by his wife Editha. Anne survived her husband for 
many years, and married, for her second husband, Boger Green- 
haugh, of Teversall, Notts., who was also lord of the manor of 
Bowthorn, in the parish of Hault Hucknall. She died in 1538, 
and was buried at Teversall. f 

The old tower contained a peal of four bells, cast by Thomas 
Hedderley in 1766. They were removed in 1867. Three of them 
were broken up for recasting, and the fourth appropriated to secular 
uses over the Chatsworth stables. This bell bears, round the 
haunch, the following inscription, ''For Church and King we 
always ring, 1669." 

The present peal, six in number, all have the simple inscription 
of, "J. Taylor & Co., bell founder, Loughborough, 1867.'* 

On the south side of the churchyard is a sundial, fixed upon 
a portion of the shaft of the old cross surrounded by four steps. 

• Harl. MSS., 1098, f. 96; and 5809, f. 30. 
t Churches of Derhyshirt, vol. i., p. 29, 83. 



184 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

The dial plate now lacks the gnomon^ and has no date, but is 

inscribed, *'Robt. Meller, fecit'* 

* 

Ghatsworth was an extra parochial hamlet,"^ but had at an early 
date a chapel of its own, which was probably attached to the 
manor. It was, however, at one period considered as pertaining 
to the vicarage of Edensor, for Dr. Pegge quotes a document in 
which the church of Edensor is spoken of "cum capella Chats- 
worth ;"t and it is also thus described in Bacon's Liber Regis, 
Shortly after the purchase of the manor by Sir William Caven- 
dish from the Agards, he pulled down the old hall of the 
Leches ; and in the first Chatsworth House, as well as in its 
successor, a chapel was included within the walls. 

* Pilkington erroneously describeB it as within Bakewell parish. View of Derhy- 
shiref vol. li., p. 31. 

t Pegge'B CollectionB, vol. v., f. 7. 



fgam. 



^Bflin* 




[HE Domesday Survey of 1086 contams no reference to a 
churoh at Eyam, and the earliest historical mention of 
a church that we have fomid is in the Taxation Eoll of 
Pope Nicholas IV., which was taken in 1291, when the rectory 
of Eyam was valued at £18 6s. 8d. per annum. But the fabric 
itself gives plain proof that there was a church at Eyam many 
years before the latter date, and one was probably erected here in 
the reign of Henry I. (1100 — 1185), when that King bestowed this 
heretofore royal manor upon William Peverel. The family of 
Morteynes, whose chief manor in this county was that of Eisley, 
held the manor of Eyam under Peverel, and subsequently direct 
irom the Grown. There seems to have been a temporary aliena- 
tion of their Eyam estates in the reign of John, on the death of 
Eustace Morteyne, but with that exception the property remained 
with that family until the beginning of the 14th century.* The 
Quo Warranto Kolls of Edward I., taken 1275-6, show that Eyam 
was then held by William Morteyne. 

It may not be amiss to give another item from these returns. 
The object of these rolls was not only to satisfy the King as to 
the respective rights of the Crown and other landed proprietors, 
but more especially to obtain a full return of the grievances and 
exactions under which his subjects had fallen, during the latter 
years of the turbulent reign of Henry III. The jury for the 
Wapentake of the High Peak reported, under the head of exactions, 
that a certain contention had arisen between Balph de Calvore and 
Nicholas de Padley and his two sons at Eyam, fmd that the 
younger son of Nicholas struck Ealph on the head with an axe. 
Whereupon Nicholas de Padley and his two sons were apprehended 
by William Hally, the bailiff of the lord Roger Extraneus, and 

* Bot. Lit. Clans., 17 John, Memb. 14. 



188 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Henry the priest of the said Roger, but were dismissed in peace on 
paying them one mark. This was done when there were hopes of 
the hfe of Ralph de Calvore ; but Ralph dying on the fifth day, 
the baihff and the priest again seized Nicholas and his elder son, 
and took from them ten marks. Meanwhile the younger son had 
fled privately out of the county.* It is possible that the priest 
Henry, who utilised tliis afiEray at Eyam for his own and his lord's 
aggrandisement, was rector of the parish; but this does not of 
necessity follow, as we find instances of his exactions in other 
parts of the High Peak, and it also appears that he himself at one 
time held the office of bailiff of the county of Derby. 

William Morteyne, mentioned in the Quo Warranto Rolls, died in 
1284, and the Inquisition at his death specially mentions that he 
was seized not only of the manor of Eyam, but also of the 
advowson or patronage of the church. There can be little doubt 
that the presentation to the church had been held by the lord of 
the manor since its first erection, t 

William was succeeded in the possession of the church and 
manor of Eyam by Roger Morteyne, who sold them about the year 
1807 to Thomas de Purnival, the third of that name. J 

Thomas de Fumival, the first Baron, was twice married — his 
second wife being Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Peter do Montford, 
and widow of William Montacute. He died in 1382, but he had 
bestowed the manors of Eyam, Stoney Middleton, Bamford, Hather- 
sage, BradweU, and Brassiugton, on his widow as her dowry, and 
they accordingly remained hers until her death in 1854. § She 
was buried at Christ Church, Oxford, where her tomb remains. 

Thomas de Fumival, the second Baron Furnival, who was 40 
years of age at the death of his father in 1882, died at Sheffield 
in 1839, and was buried in Beauchief Abbey. His son Thomas de 
Fumival, the grandson of the purchaser of this estate, dying with- 
out issue in 1866, Eyam passed to his brother William, the fourth 
and last Baron Fumival of this house. William died on the 12th 
of April, 1388, leaving by his wife Thomasia, one daughter, Joan. 
The inquisition at his death also makes specific mention of the 
advowson of the church of Eyam.|| Joan brought this church and 

• Rotuli Hundredorum, 3 Edw. I., memb. 2, xv. ; 4 Edw. I., No. 8, memb. 25. The 
word rendered axe is in one place "ache," and in the other " hacia." 
t Inq. post Mort., 12 Edw. I., No. 26. 

X Inq. ad quod Damnum, 1 Edw. II., No. 42 ; Inq. post Mort., 36 Edw. I., No. 62. 
§ Inq. post Mort., 28 Edw., No. 89. 

li Inq. post. Mort., 6 Richard H., No 41. We give this important Inquisition in full 
m the appendix. No. VII. ^ ^ 



EYAM. 189 

manor, together with her other large estates, to her husband, Sir 
Thomas Nevill, who was summoned to Parliament as Lord Fumi- 
val in right of his wife. Of Joan we have already made mention, 
when writing of Barlborough Church, where her monument now lies.* 
Maud, the sole issue and heiress of this marriage, married John 
Talbot, first Earl of Shrewsbury. This celebrated warrior, styled 
by Shakespeare **the Scourge of Prance,'* thus became lord of the 
manor of Eyam. He fell at the siege of Chatillon in 1458, and 
his son John, the second Earl, also fell in battle, at Northampton, 
a few years later, t When manors or advowsons are in the hands 
of illustrious families, such as those who held Eyam, there is no 
dijQBculty in tracing their history generation by generation in the 
different inquisitions and other documents, but it would be foreign 
to our purpose to carry this out in detail, beyond the death of 
these two earls. 

On the death of Gilbert, the seventh Earl of Shrewsbury, without 
male issue, the church of Eyam passed with the manor to his 
sister the Countess of Pembroke, and thence to her great nephew 
Sir George Saville, who was afterwards created Marquis of Halifax. 
His son William, the second Marquis, died in 1700, leaving no 
son, and, on the division of his estates between his three daughters 
and co-heiresses, the manor of Eyam fell to the lot of the Countess 
of Burlington, but the mineral rights of the manor, together with 
the presentation to the Rectory, were to be held in common 
between the three. This tripartite division of the rectory still 
continues, and the descendants of the three daughters — the Dukes 
of Buckingham, the Dukes of Devonshire, and the Tuftons of 
Kent — present in turn as the living falls vacant. 

The following list of Rectors of Eyam, with the names of the 
patrons, and the date of institution, which we have extracted from 
the original Episcopal Registers at Lichfield, does not profess to be 
complete, but we believe there are very few omissions. 
1817. WiUiam Dauntre (Daventry) — Thomas de Fumival I. lu 

1320 he obtained dispensation for a yearns leave of absence. 
1824. Another institution — Thomas de Furnival I. 

1861. Robert de Lamborne — Thomas de Furnival III 

1862. 3 Kalends of June, John do Connayes — Thomas de Fur- 
nival III. 



• Churche.8 of Derbyshire, toI. i., pp. 67, 58. 

flnq. post. Mort., 32 Henry VI., No. 29 ; 89 Henry III. No. 68. 



190 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

ft 

1862. 4 Nones of May, Thomas de Satton, on resignation of J. 
de C. — Thomas de Furnival III. 

1868. 6 Nones of March, John de Gonnayes (or Cunneys), on resig- 
nation of T. de S. — Thomas de Furnival III. 

1364. Boger Moysco, on resignation of J. de G. — Thomas de 
Furnival DX 

1864. Another institution — Joan de Furnival. 

1482. John Sudbury. This rector was instituted by the Prior 
of Stowe, Vicar-General, who was then acting for the Bishop — 
John Talbot. 

1489. Thomas More, "in decretis Bacallariis," on the death of 
J. S. He was instituted in the person of John Inkyrsell^ 
who acted as his proxy on the occasion — John Talbot. 

1441. Another institution by the same patron. 

1474. Thomas Thorley, on death of William Thome — Bobert 
Eyre, Thomas Everyngham, and John Wormhill Knight, feoffees 
of the lordship of Eyam, for John, Earl of Shrewsbury. (John 
Talbot, third Earl of Shrewsbury, died at Goventry, 1473.) 

1512. William Webbe — George Talbot, fourth Earl of Shrews- 
bury. 

1516. Another institution by the same patron. 

1555. WiUiam Barrett, on resignation of John Morton — Elizabeth^ 
Countess of Shrewsbury. 

1558. John Moreton, on resignation of William Barrett (probably 
there had been some arrangement for the temporary rehef of 
John Morton from his duties). — Elizabeth, Gountess of Shrews- 
bury. 

1569. WilHam Marchinton, on death of Thomas Moreton — George, 
sixth Earl of Shrewsbury. 

1680. Shorelanders (Sherland) Adams,* on death of Bobert Talbot 
— PhiHp, Count Pembroke and Montgomery, 

• The Rev. Sherland Adams was Bector of Evam, and also of Treeton in Yorkshire. 
His numerous- and vexatious suits at law with the parishioners of Eyam rendered 
him extremely hated ; and his conduct at Treeton, where he chiefly resided, was no 
less disreputable. When the war broke out between King Charles and the Parlia- 
ment, his intolerance and party spirit became ungovernable, and his furious loyaltv 
assumed such an aspect, that he was regarded with disgust. The measures he took 
in favour of the royal cause excited the notice of the partizans of the Parliament, and 
he was seized, deprived of his livings, and cast into prison. The charges preferred 
against him are embodied in a pamphlet, written by one Nicholas Axdron, of Treeton^ 
the only copy of which now known is in the British Museum. 

One of the accusations is as follows : Further it is charged against him, that he is 
a man much given to much trouble and suits at law, as is well known at Eyam in 
Derbyshire, where he was Hector, where they tasted this his turbulent spirit ; that he 
gave tythe of lead ore to the King against the Parliament, deliverea a man and 
musket against them, and sent a rat ox to the Earl of Newcastle as a free gift to 
maintain the war against the Parliament. He was amongst the number of gentle- 
men who compounded for their estates. For a smaU estate of Woodlathes, near 



ETAM. 191 

(1644. Thomas Stanley.* Ejected for nonconformity, 1662.) 
1664. 10th August. Guliehnus Mompesson, M.A. — Sir George 
Saville. 

The names of the subsequent rectors will be found in Wood's 
History of Eyam, According to Bacon's Liber Regis, Essex, Doro- 
thea, and Maria Saville presented to Eyam rectory in 1717; Lord 
Bruce in 1788 ; and the Earl of Burlington and Lady in 1789. 

The value of the living in 1291 has been already given. The 
Valor EcclesiasHcus, drawn up 1586, estimates its yearly value at 
£18 15s. 5d. ; **Patricius Chen*" was then rector, and George, 
Earl of Shrewsbury, is entered as patron. The Parliamentary 
Commissioners of 1650 report that the Hving was worth £100 per 
annum. Thomas Stanley, whose heroic exertions at the time of 
the plague ought to be equally memorable with those of Mompes- 
son, was then the incumbent, and it is pleasant to find that the 
Conmiissioners speak of him as '*an honest man.*' About fifty 
years later this hving increased most remarkably in value, owing 
to the discovery of the very rich vein of lead ore in Eyam Edge. 
The local historian of Eyam says : — *• The Hving, on account of 
the mines, varies in its annual amount. One penny for every dish 
of ore is due to the Bector, and twopence farthing for every load 
of hillock stuff. During some part of the last century the living 
was worth near £1600 a year ; and of late its value has greatly 
increased in consequence of successful mining operations. Should 
the speculations now (1859) in progress to liberate the mines from 

Coniflbro', he paid £198, where he resided until the restoration, when he was rein- 
stated in his livings again. 

That this cler^mnan was a disgrace to his order, may be satisfactorily seen from 
the foUowin^ eviaence. When the Bey. — Fowler, Sheffield, gave np his living for 
Nonconformity, Adams said that Fowler was a fool, for, before he would have lost 
his on that account, he would have sworn a black crow was white. How striking the 
contrast between this compromising hyprocrite and the virtuous Nonconformist, 
Stanley. Adams died, April 11, 1664, and was buried in the chancel of the church 
at Treeton, where a Latin epitaph commemorates his loyalty, virtues, and sufferings. 
Wood's History of Eyam (3a. edit.), pp. 147-8. We believe that a subsequent Bector 
of Treeton, Bev. Michael Adams, who died in 1680, and whose quaint epitaph is 
recorded under our account of Brassington Church, was the son of Sherlaud 
Adams. 

* Thomas Stanley first commenced his labours as a minister at Dore in this county. 
See OhurcJies of Derbythire, vol. i, p. 218. Sherlaud Adams was restored to the Bectory 
of Eyam in 1660, but from that time to St Bartholomew's Day, 1662, Stanley 
continued to officiate as his curate. After that day he still lived at Eyam until his 
death in 1670. He seems to have worked harmoniously with Mompesson in their 
heroic efforts to stay the spread of the plague which raged in this village in 1666-6, 
until more than 250 had perished. It is difficult to decide to whom the greater 
credit is due. We purposely abstain from all other reference to the "memorable 
woe " of Eyam, and to the sublime and unparalleled conduct of the inhabitants. To 
cut down this tearful episode — the proudest page in the annals of the county — ^to a 
dry sentence or two of statistics, would be a sorry task; and the tale has been 
already told in powerful prose by William Wood, and simg in tuneful verse by 
William and Mary Howitt. 



192 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

water, be carried into effect, this benefice may become as yalnable 
again, or even more so. It is now worth about £400 per annum." * 

The church of Eyam, dedicated to St. Helen, consists of nave, 
north and south aisles, chancel, and tower at the western end. 
The church underwent a partial restoration in 1868-9, at which 
time the north aisle was doubled in width, and the chancel to a 
great extent rebuilt, but the south side of the church has remained 
imtouched. There is nothing ' of the Norman period about the 
building, unless it be the ancient font at the west end of the south 
aisle, which is of a plain circular design. The south side of the 
chancel is hghted by four lancet windows of the Early Enghsh 
period, and there is a three-light window of the same style at the 
east end, but the latter was inserted when the church was restored. 
There are also two lancet windows at the west end of the north 
aisle, but one of these was added at the same time. From the 
remarks of Mr. Croston, t who visited the church a year or two 
before the late restoration, it seems that the characteristics of the 
north aisle were then chiefly of the twelfth century. Probably the 
whole of this church was rebuilt in the style then in vogue, about 
the close of that century, of which some remnants in the chancel 
and north aisle alone remain. There are now four two-Ught south 
windows to this aisle of Decorated design of the fourteenth 
century, after the pattern of one old one. The pointed arches 
also, and the capitals that support them, on each side of the nave, 
are of the Decorated period, as well as the archway into the tower^ 
the small west doorway, and the bell-chamber windows of the 
tower. The four clerestory windows over the north aisle are fitted 
with Perpendicular tracery ; but the corresponding ones on the 
south side, together with the windows of the south aisle itself, are 
square-headed, ugly specimens of debased work of the seventeenth 
or later centuries, and are glazed with square panes. 

The tower has a battlemented parapet, with crocketed pinnacles 
at the angles, and projecting gurgoyles below it. Above the west 
window is a stone upon which are cut a large number of initials, 
and also a date, which we believe to be 1615. The initials 0. W. 
are at the head of the inscription, and we have Uttle doubt that 
the remainder are the initials of the churchwardens, and perhaps 
of the builder, at the time when certain alterations were made. On 
our last visit to Eyam we were assured by one cicerone that the 

• Wood's History of Eyam (3rd edition) p. 162. 
t On Foot through the Peai\ p. 94. 



EYAM. 193 

tower was nearly a thousand years old, and that the date of the 
** Saxon** inscription was 916!* 

There is a tradition current in the village that a maiden lady of 
the name of Stafford rehuilt this tower and other parts of the 
church, and also presented a peal of bells. A branch of the ancient 
family of Stafford held an estate at Eyam, independent of the manor, 
as early as the reign of Henry III. Humphrey Stafford, the last 
male representative of this family, died in the reign of Henry VIII., 
leaving four daughters. The eldest, Ann, married Francis Brad- 
shaw, of Bradshaw, near Chapel-en-le-Frith, conveying to her hus- 
band the Eyam estate, and her sisters were married to Morewood, 
Eyre, and Savage. It is very possible that one or more of the 
daughters of Humphrey Stafford may have been benefactors to the 
church before their marriage. Bhodes asserts that the. estate was 
conferred on the family by the crown in recognition of certain 
military services, and that it was held on condition " that a lamp 
should be kept perpetually burning before the altar of St. Helen 
in the parish church of Eyam." We have taken considerable 
trouble to try and test the truth of this statement, and all that 
we can say is that we have hitherto met with no corroboration. 
This tradition, whether bom of truth or not, was worked up by Mr. 
Wood into a pleasant, romantic tale, entitled ** Madame Stafford ; 
or, the Lamp of St. Helen," though, in order to carry out the 
idea, he has had to accredit Humphrey with a fffth unmarried 
daughter, whom he names Margaret.t So cleverly is fact interwoven 
with fiction, that not only is the pretty legend generally accepted 
as striking truth in the neighbourhood of Eyam, but it has 
been actually quoted as historical in descriptive guide-books. 

There is but little of interest in the interior of the church, and 
what there was appears to have been materially lessened at the 
late restoration* There was formerly a piscina at the east end of 
the north aisle, and also an obHque opening in the pillar at that 
angle, forming a *' squint " for obtaining a view of the high altar 
in the chancel, but these have both disappeared during the enlarge- 
ment of this aisle. A good many wall-frescoes were brought to 
light during the alterations, but they were not of a nature to with- 
stand exposure. The roof of the nave still retains its old tile 
beams and bosses, but the roof of the chancel is now of a high 
pitch, in accordance with what it must have originally been in the 

* There is a fac-simlle of this inscription in the British Magaeii^e for 1832. 
t TaXet and Traditions of Ou Peak, by V^illiam Wood, pp. 1—88. 

O 



194 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Early English period. On one of the cross-beams of the former 
chancel roof, a talbot or honnd was carved. The talbot was the 
crest of the Earls of Shrewsbury, who, as we have abready seen, 
were patrons of the chorch. 

We do not intend to imply that the restoration of this church 
did not achieve great and necessary improvements, such as the 
removal of the different galleries, etc., but that it is nnfortmiate 
that more of the ancient details were not preserved. 

There are now no ancient monuments in this church; but men- 
tion may be made of two, in consequence of remarkable incidents 
connected with them. In the chancel is an inscription to the 
memory of Balph Kigby, curate of Eyam twenty-two years, who 
was buried on Apnl 22nd, 1740. Three clergymen from Yorkshire 
who had attended his funeral were lost on Eastmoor in the snow, 
whilst returning home the same evening. A shepherd found one of 
them on the following morning, when animation was with difficulty 
restored; but his two companions perished. A stone in the comer 
of the vestry, at the end of the north aisle, records the death of 
Joseph Hunt, rector of Eyam, who was buried December 16th, 
1709, and of his wife Ann, who died dx years previously. His 
wife, according to Mr. Wood, waa the daughter of a village pub- 
lican, whom he had been obliged by the bishop to marry, in 
consequence of his having gone through a mock ceremony with 
her in a drunken freak. This caused an action for breach of 
promise of marriage by a Derby lady, to whom he was previously 
engaged. '* Some years passed in litigation, which drained hia 
purse and estranged his friends; and eventually he had to take 
shelter in the vestry (which some say was bmlt for that purpose), 
where he resided the remainder of his life, to keep the law-hounda 
at bay. He died in this humble appendage to the churchy where 
his bones and those of his wife lie buiied." 

We find from the notes of the late Mr. Mitchell, of Sheffield,'^ 
that the pews were all repaired in July, 1822, by the surplus 
money of the enclosed land that was set out in 1809. He also 
tells us that in the ''Stafford or Bradshaw quire,'' Mr. Thomas 
Birds had put in a painted glass window, which was blown out by 
a storm on the 5th of December, 1822. On the pew, where this 
quire or enclosure formerly stood, there was the inscription '* J.6., 
1595, F.B. ; " the letters being the initials of John Bradshaw, and 
Francis Bradshaw. Francis Bradshaw, who married Ann Stafford, 

• MitcheU'B CoUections, Add. MSS. 28, 111, f . 98. 



ETAM. 195 

was the head of his family and subsequently High Sheriff of the 
county. Perhaps the '* J.B." may be for John Bradshaw, his great 
grandfather, and the first of the family mentioned in the visitation 
pedigree. 

There is a brass plate in the chancel to the memory of Bernard, 
son of Bernard Wells, who died March 16th, 1648. We have 
noticed the brass to his father in our account of Bake well Church. 

The tower contains a peal of four bells. They are thus in- 
scribed : — 

1. Jesus bee our speed, 1659. 

2. God save his Church, 1668. 
8. Jesus bee our speed, 1658. 
4. Jesus be our spede, 1628. 

The first three bells have the foufider's mark of George Oldfield, 
but the fourth has no ornament or mark whatever. 

Over the south entrance to the church is an elaborate mural 
sundial, on which the parallel of the sun*s declination for every 
month in the year, the scale of the sun's meridian altitude, the 
' azumithal scale, the points of the compass, and a number of meri- 
dians, are all delineated. 

The churchyard is singularly rich in interesting and truly poetical 
epitaphs, but the chief attraction is the old Saxon cross close to 
the tomb of Catharine Mompesson, which is one of the finest in 
the kingdom (Plate XII). We believe it to be of the ninth or 
tenth century, but we need not here repeat the conmients that we 
made on the date of these early crosses' when treating of the one 
at Bakewell. The following extract relative to this interesting cross 
is taken from Bhodes* Peak Scenery, first pubhshed in 1818. 

" The churchyard of Eyam was the next object that attracted our attention. 
The trayeUer fond of antiquarian research will dweU with rapture on the rare 
relique it contains. Near the entrance into the chancel of the church stands an 
old stone cross, which, according to village tradition, was found on some of the 
neighbouring hills. It is curiously ornamented and embossed with a variety of 
figures and designs characterised by diiSerent symbolic devices, and its sides are 
liberally adorned with Bunio and Scandinavian knots. 

" Were the value of this antique specimen of the workmanship of former timea 
more accurately appreciated, it might easily be made a more engaging object; aa 
it now appears, the earth covers a portion of its shaft; no part of which should 
be BO obscured; lifted from its present bed, a distinction which it eminently 
deserves, it would not only be a valuable fragment, rich with the uncouth uculp- 
ture of former times, but an ornament to the churchyard and village of Eyam. 
This cross has suffered dilapidation from the culpable neglect of those who ought 
to have felt an interest in its preservation. About two feet of the top of the shaft 
is wanting, as may be seen by referring to the engraved sketch which was taken 
in the year 1815. The present sexton of the church, who is an old man, well 



196 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

recollects the part now mjfising being thrown carelessly about the churchyard as s 
thing of no value, until it was broken up by some of tiie inhabitants, and knocked 
to pieces for domestic purposes. 

" The cross at Eyam is probably indebted for its present appeanmoe to the cir- 
cumstances of its having, about SO years ago, attracted the attention of a man 
who had spent the ripest years of his existence in mitigating the horrors of a 
prison, and ameliorating the condition of a forsaken and friendless class of his 
fellow-creatures. When the benevolent Howard visited the village of Eyam he 
particularly noticed the cross, even though at that time the finest part of this 
vestige of antiquity was laid prostrate in a comer of the churchyard, and 
nearly overgrown with docks and thistles. The value this hitherto xmregarded 
relique had in the estimation of Howard, made it dearer to the people of Eyam ; 
they brought the top part of the cross from its hiding place, where it had long 
lain in utter neglect, and placed it on the still dilapidated shaft, where it has ever 
since remained. Condemning, as I most cordially do, the little attention which 
has been paid to the cross at Eyam ; it is, nevertheless, some gratification to know 
that its owes it present state of preservation to the intervention of no less a man 
than Howard."* 

Since Bbodes' visit the cross has been firmly established on a 
low base stone or pedestal, and now stands aboat eight feet high. 
The east side of the shaft is ornamented with elegant scrolls like 
those at BakeweU, and on the arms of the cross are figures of four 
angels holding crosses and blowing long trumpets. On the west 
side of the shaft, above some interlaced knot-work, is a seated 
figure holding a bugle-horn, and above it the Virgin and Child, 
whilst on the arms of the cross are four more angels holding crosses. 
The other sides of the shaft are closely covered with knot-work. 

The registers begin in the year 1636. Under date December 
80th, 1668, is the following entry of reputed longevity: — "Buried 
Anna the traveller, who, according to her own account, was 186 
years of age," 

•Rhodes' Peak Scenery, Part i., p. 57. 



(|l0S20p. 



<}]iarIp|fDQrf$* 



(Jlossop. 




Cistercian Abbey of Basingwerk,* in ^the county of 
Flint and diocese of St. Asaph, was founded in the year 
1181. In 1157, King Henry IL gave to this Abbey the 
manor and church of Glossop, with all its appurtenances.f Olossop 
was part of the royal demesne, being a parcel of the lordship of 
Longdendale at the time of the Domesday Survey. It was subse- 
quently granted to William Peverel by the Conqueror, but on the 
attainder of his grandson it reverted to the crown. 

There had been no endowment of a vicarage when the Taxation 
Boll of Pope Nicholas IV. was drawn up in 1291. At that date 
the ^^ecolesia" or rectory of Olossop was valued at £84 Ids. 4d. 

The ordination of a vicarage probably took place not many years 
subsequently, but there seems to have been some doubt as to the 
right of impropriation possessed by the Abbey. During the ener- 
getic episcopate of Boger de Norbury (1822 — 68), Bishop of Coventry 
and Lichfield, the Abbot of Basingwerk was cited to show title to 
the impropriation of the rectory of Glossop; and the title was 
exhibited to the satisfaction of the Commissioners and of the Dean 
"de Alto Pecco,*' in the church of Glossop, on the 5th of the 
Ides of October, 1825. J 

Bishop Stretton instituted Bobert de Bossyndale to this vicarage, 
on the presentation of the Abbot, in April, 1862.§ 

* The Ghartolary of Baain^erk that used to be with the Cottonian MSS. was nn- 
fortunately destroyed in the nre that burnt so much of that valuable library in 1781. 

t Bugdale's Monasticon, toL i., p. 720. The actual words of the charter are — " In 
liberam et perpetttam elemosinani decern libratas terrcBf in LongedensdaXey scilicet Olos- 
eope cum eccteaia qum ihi eat, cum omnibus terris et rebus ad eam pertinentibus sicut 
WilUehnus Feverell eamplenius haJbuit tsmpore regis Henrici ati mei." Mention is 
alBO made of this " z li. terr' ** in Longdendaie, witn the Church of Glossop and its ap- 
purtenances, as being the property of the Abbot of Basingwerk, in a charter of the 
reign of Henry III. Galena. Bot. Chart., 80 Hen. in., memb. 12. 

I Lichfield Episcopal Begisters, No. iii., f. 17^. 

§ Lichfield Episcopal Begisters, No. iv., f. 84 \ 



200 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

In 1494, John Talbot, A.B., was instituted to the vicarage, on 
the death of William Waynwright The patrons for this turn were 
*'Dns John Pole et Dns Geoff. Talbot milites," by leave of the 
Abbot and Convent of Basingwerk.* 

The Valor Ecclesidsticus (27 Henry VIII) gives the clear value of 
the vicarage at £12 ISs. 8d. ; Thomas Poynton was then vicar. 

At the time of the dissolution of the monasteries, JEenry VIII. 
gave this manor, with the rectorial tithes and advowson of the 
vicarage, to Francis Talbot, fifth Earl of Shrewsbury. In 1651, Kalph 
Bower, on the death of his predecessor, Thomas Poynton, was ap- 
pointed vicar, on the presentation of Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury.t 
It thence passed into the Howard family, through one of the 
co-heiresses of Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury, who died in 1616. 
When the Parliamentary Commission visited Glossop in 1650, they 
reported that the vicarage was worth £80, but it had an augmen- 
tation of £50. The Countess of Arundel was the impropriator of 
the whole parish, but was under sequestration. The impropriate 
property was thought to be worth £850. There was then " noe 
minister for the present.'' 

On 27th January, 1668, John Sandiforth, M.A., was instituted to 
Glossop Vicarage, on the presentation of Honourable H. Howard 
and Arthur Onslow. On 25th February, 1673, William Wagstaffe, 
B.A., was instituted to Glossop, the appointment having fallen to 
the Bishop through lapse of time.j: 

There are but very few traces left of the old Church of All 
Saints, at Glossop. From what we can learn, the church consisted 
of nave and side aisles, chancel, with chapel on the north side 
communicating with the north aisle, and tower surmounted by a 
spire at the west end.- 

Apphcation was made to Quarter Sessions on the 5th of August, 
1828, for sanction to obtain a Brief for this churches repair. The 
petition states that "the parish church is a very ancient structure, 
and is, by natural decay and length of time, so very ruinous, and 
in so great danger of falling down, as to render it very unsafe for 
the parishioners to assemble therein for the worship of Almighty 
God, and, notwithstanding your petitioners have expended large 
sums of money yearly in supporting the church,' it has become 
necessary to take down the whole of the roof and walls, and rebuild 

* Lichfield Episcopal Begistera, No. xii., f. 153. 
t Lichfield Episcopal Begisters, No. xiv., f. 56. 
X Lichfield Episcopal Begistera, No. xvii. 



GL08S0P. 201 

the Bame/' The estimated expense was put down at £700, but 
they say that in addition to the above sum, it was necessary '' to 
new pew the church, or repair the old pews where that can be 
done, and also to erect new galleries in order to make sittings for 
the poor, and for the accommodation of the increased population 
of the parish.** The Brief was obtained, but it only brought in 
a fraction of the estimated sum, so that it was not until 1881, as 
we learn from a stone over the porch, that this "necessary" work 
was accomplished. 

This rebuilding of the body of the church was carried out in the 
unfortunate pseudo-Gothic that then prevailed. A single wide-ceiled 
roof now covers the whole span of the church, formerly occupied 
by nave and side aisles, whilst wide galleries run round three sides. 
All that we have been able to gather of the appearance of the old 
church, beyond what is stated in the Brief, is from the notes of 
Mr. Rawlins, who visited it in 1826, when the nave was being 
rebuilt. He says — "This edifice is recorded to have been very 
humble in its appearance." In 1885, Mr. Bawlins took a south 
sketch of the exterior, which shows the present nave ; a tower sur- 
mounted by a broached spire, with two tiers of windows, like those 
of Baslow and Hope in this county ; and a chancel with a pointed 
priests' door between two three-light pointed windows of Decorated 
tracery. He also makes mention of a small chapel, called St. 
Catharine's Chapel, at the end of the north aisle, having an area 
of seventeen feet five inches by twelve feet five, "from which you 
depart through another pointed arch into the chancel, where, against 
its sustaining wall, is fixed a tablet — Hcnrious Bray, Ludi-magister, 
1795." The Hague monument, the story of which we give under 
Hayfield Chapelry, was then against the north wall of the chancel. 

The chancel was rebuilt some years later by the Duke of Norfolk, 
the lay impropriator of the tithes. 

The only part of the old fabric now standing is the pointed 
archway into the chancel with its quaint bracket heads at the 
capitals of the jambs, and the archway, supported by corbel heads 
at the east end of what was the north aisle, leading into St. 
Catharine's chapel, now occupied by the organ. These arches are 
of the Decorated period of the fourteenth century. 

There are also a few of the central bosses of the old oak roof 
of the nave in the centre of the present ceiling, but cut into two 
parts to accommodate themselves to their new position. 

Against the west wall of the church, in the gallery, are six 



202 DEBBTSHIRE CHURCHES. 

tablets of bene&ctions to the parish which were formerly in the 
old church, and in the vestry is the parish chest with the date 
1758 and the initials W.G. LD. marked on it in brass-headed 
nails. 

On the north side of the exterior of the church may be noted 
two old corbel heads worked into the new corbel-table just below 
the roof. 

In the churchyard, on the south side are two pillar sun-dials, 
but both now lack their plates. One of these stands on the two 
octagon steps that have doubtless formed part of the old churchyard 
cross. The other pillar, about four feet high, is near the chancel 
doorway, and has on it " 1758. G. W. fecit E. W., B, B. C. W. 
(churchwardens)." 

The old tower and spire were taken down in 1853, and a new 
one erected by the late Duke of Norfolk. In the spandrels of the 
west doorway of the tower are the arms of Howard, carved in the 
stone: — 6^., on a bend between six cross-crosslets fitchy, arg., an 
escutcheon, or; therein a demi-lion rampant, pierced through the 
mouth with an arrow, within a tressure, flory coimter-fiory, gu. 

The tower formerly held a peal of six bells, but there are now 
eight, the two smallest having been added when the new tower was 
built. The first and second bell are inscribed " C. and G. Hears. 
Founders. 1858 ; " the third '' James Harrison, of Barton-upon- 
Humber, Founder, 1815 ; *' the fourth '' James Harrison, of Barton, 
Founder, 1816;*' the fifth, sixth, and seventh, *' James Harrison, 
of Barton-upon-Humber, Founder, 1816;'* and the eighth, "Bev. 
Christopher Howe, Yicar. John Enott and Samuel Bray, Church- 
wardens, 1815.** The eighth or tenor bell weighs 15 owi* 

In the belfry is a tablet, of the date 13th March, 1858, telling 
of the successful ringing of a peal of Kent Treble Bob Majors, of 
7040 changes in four hours five minutes. Also another tablet com- 
memorating the Lord Mayor of London, Alderman Cubit, Chairman 
of the Cotton Famine Committee. He died 7th November, 1868, 
and a peal of Kent Treble Bob Majors of 5280 changes, was rung 
to his memory in three hours nine minutes. 

Rhodes gives us a pleasing account of the now almost extinct 
custom of Rush-bearing, as it formerly prevailed in this parish. 

" We visited the village church, a plain and lowly structure, and as littie orna- 
mented in the interior as it is without Here we observed the remains of some 
garlands hung up near the entrance into the chancel. They were the mementos of a 

* The eight bells at Castleton were also supplied from the same foundry. 



QLOSSOP. 203 

custom of rather a mngnlar nature, that lingera aboat this part of Derbyshire, after 
having been lost in nearly every other. It is denominated * Bnsh bearing ; ' and the 
ceremonies of this truly mral fdte take place anntiaUy, on one of the days appointed 
to the wake or Tillage festival. A car or waggon is on this occasion decorated with' 
rushes. A pyramid of rashes, ornamented with wreathes of flowers, and snrmoonted 
with a garland, occupies the centre of the car, which is usually bestrewed with the 
choicest flowers that the meadows of Glossop Dale can produce, and liberally fur- 
nished with flags and streamers. Thus prepared, it is drawn through the different 
parts of the village, preceded by groups of dancers and a band of music. All the 
ribbons in the place may be said to be in requisition on this festive day; and he who 
is the greatest favourite among the lasses is generally the gayest personage in the 
cavalcade. After parading the village, the car stops at the church gates, where it 
is dismantled of its honours. The rushes and flowers are then taken into the 
church, and strewed amongst the pews and along the floors, and the garlands are 
hung up near the entrance into the chancel in remembrance of the day. The cere- 
mony ended, the various parties who made up the procession retire, amidst music 
and dancing, to the village inn, where they spend the remainder of the day in joyous 
festivity."* 

That part of Rhodes* Peak Scenery y Gontaining the above extract, was 
originally published in 1822, so that he must have visited Olossop 
Ghnrch a few years after the visit paid to it by Lysons, when compil- 
ing his volome on Derbyshire. When Lysons was here in 1810, he 
noted two of these garlands hung up in the church, one from Olossop 
proper, and another from a different township in the parish, which 
had been carried during the preceding summer in front of the rush- 
bearing carts. Of one of these he gives a pencil sketch in his manu- 
script notes.f It was chiefly formed of gilt and coloured papers, 
with glass balls sparkling here and there, and a bird crowning the 
top. It seems to have been the custom to leave these garlands in the 
church until the next rush-bearing came round, when the new ones 
took their place. 

In order to avoid again referring to this interesting old custom of 
rush-bearing, once so prevalent in Derbyshire, we will here quote from 
Farcy's Survey of Derbyshire, pubUshed in 1815. 

" An ancient custom still prevails in Chapel-en-le-Frith, Glossop, Hayfield, Mellor, 
Peak Forest, and other places in the north of the county, I believe, of keeping the 
floor of the church and pews therein, constantly stiewed or littered with dried 
rushes ; the process of renewing which annually is called the RtuMteaHng^ and is 
usually accompanied by much ceremony. The Bush-bearing in Peak Forest is held 
on Midsummer Eve in each year. In Chapel-en-le-Frith, I was informed, that their 
Bush-bearing usually takes place in the latter end of August, on public notice from 
the Churchwardens, of the rushes being mown and properly dried, in some marshy 
part of the parish, where the young people assemble, and having loaded the rushes 
on carte, decorate the same with flowers and ribbons, and attend them in procession 
to the church ; many of them huzzaing and cracking whips by the side of the rush 
carts on their way thither; and where everyone present lends a hand in carrying 

* Bhodes' Peak Seenery, Ft. III., p. 88. 
t Add. MSS. 9468. 



204 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

and spreading the mshes. In WhitweU, instead of rashes, the hay of a piece of 
grass land, called the Chnrch-close, is annually, on Midsnmmer Eve, carted to and 
spread in the church.** * 

This custom no doubt arose in former days, when the floors of the 
churches were rarely, if ever, paved, and its general prevalence 
throughout the kingdom is testified to by the entries in numerous 
Churchwardens' accounts.! It was usually the habit to use straw in 
the winter months and rushes for the summer. An instance of straw 
being annually provided for the church of Scarcliffe in the winter 
months has been already pubhshed.j: The custom still obtains in a 
few villages of Cheshire, Lancashire, and Westmoreland, notably at 
Grasmere, in the Lake District. 



♦ Farcy's Survey of Derbyahire, vol. iii., p. 626. 

f See the Churchwardens* accounts for the chapelry of Hayfield. 

I Churches of Dei'hy shire, vol. i. p. 474. For particulars and full details respecting 
this custom, see Brand's Popular Antiquities, vol. i. p. 437; Hone*s Fear Book, 
pp. 652-6 ; Chambers' Book of Days, vol. i. pp. 605-6. Nor was it only in churches, 
out also in houses that the practice prevailed. The nobles vied with one another in 
the number of times that they replenished their carpeting of rushes. In the Festy- 
val, (1528), f. 77, when describmg the extravagance of Thomas 6 Becket, occurs the 
following passage : " He was also man full m his household, for his Hall was every 
daye in somer season strewed with green rushes, and in wynter with clone hey, for to 
save the Knyghtes clothes that sate on the flore for defaute of place to syt on." It 
would have been well if Englishmen had been generaUy thus particular in renewing 




removed, but so imperfectly that the bottom laver is left undisturbed, sometimes for 
twenty years, harbouring expectorations, vomitings, the leakage of dogs and men, 

ale-droppings, scraj^s of fish, and other aoominations not fit to be mentioned 

I am confident the island would be much better if the use of rushes were abandoned." 
—-Brewer's Letters and Papers, vol ii., p. 200. 



CHARLESWORTH. 



205 



^t d^aptlv^ of C|iarU0t»ortti. 




jHAELES WORTH formed part of the Crown Lands when 
the Domesday Survey was compiled. In 1294 Peter de 
Gharlesworth died seized of certain lands in this township, 
and elsewhere in the parish of Glossop, which he held for the 
Ahbot of Basingwerk* In 1808, Robert de Gharlesworth gave to 
the said Abbot eighty acres of arable land in Gharlesworth, in ad- 
dition to smaller endowments in Simondley and Chunall.f This 
gift caused the monks of Basingwerk to establish a farm or grange, 
managed by those of their own order, on their newly-acquired 
possessions, and a chapel was erected, dedicated to St. Mary Mag- 
dalen.:^ The Abbot of Basingwerk, in 1829, in order to increase 
the value of his property, obtained royal permission for the estab* 
lishment of a market at Gharlesworth on Wednesdays, and a yearly 
fair to be held on the festival of the patron saint of the chapel. § 

In the early part of the reign of Henry VIII., WiUiam Wolley, 
of Riber, in the parish of Matlock, left certain lands in Ghesterfield, 
Newbold, Tapton, and Dronfield (which lands had been given to 
him by Ralph Heathcote, bell-founder of Ghesterfield), to provide a 
priest to say mass for his soul, and for the souls of his benefactors in 

* Inq. post Mort., 22 Edw. I., No. 114. 

t Inq. ad quod damnum, 1 Edw. II., No. 69; 2 Edw. II., No. 82; Abbrey. Rot. 
Orig., 2 Edw. n., No. 10. 

{ " A chapel was built at Gharlesworth, it is said, by a native of Ireland, who when 
travelling from Manchester to London, became fatigued on the side of the hill. 
Unable to proceed, he lay down, and made a vow to the Virgin Mary that, if she 



would help him on his journey, he would build a church to her honour on the spot 

' ' in he rested. A shepherd passing by opportunely assisted him^ and he was 

spared to perform^ his vow, and dedicated the edifice to Saint Mar^. It is still called 



by her name.'' — Church Management, by Eev. G. Purcell, p. vii. But this is a 
legend, the foundation of which it would be difficult to discover. The tale is quite 
wrong, for there is no doubt whatever that the original chapel was dedicated to Mary 



Magdalen (Pegge's CoUections, vol. v., f . 8) ; and we suspect that it has been unwittingly 
" " " " " " " " the 

book for the natives of Gharlesworth. 



transferred by Mr. PurceU from another place, in the same way as the well-known 

■ St V . ^ . . . y .... 



story of the Stafifordshire Pottery manners is made to do duty at p. 11 of the same 
>ok for the natives of Gharlesworth 

§ Ghart. Bot., 2 Edw. ni.. No. 00. 



206 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

the chapel of Charlesworth. The land was of the clear annual 
value of £8 ISs. Od., and was left by William Wolley to Otwell 
Needham, of Thomsetfc, and to Thomas Poynton,* vicar of Glossop, 
as trustees of the chantry. 

Perhaps, owing to the lateness of this endowment the chantry 
escaped entry in the Chantry Roll prepared by order of Henry VIII., 
in the 87th year of his reign, with a view to the confiscation of 
their property ; but in the 2nd year of Queen Elizabeth this land 
was taken from Charlesworth chapel, and conferred inter alia upon 
Sir George Howard.! Sir George Howard, knighted in Scotland 
by the Duke of Somerset in the reign of Edward VL, was the 
second son of Lord Edmund Howard. } Dying without issue this 
property reverted to the elder branch of the Howards, who, as we 
have already stated, had inherited the rectorial manor and other 
property in Glossop through the Earl of Shrewsbury. 

It seems probable that no trouble was taken, but rather the 
contrary, to keep up the structure of the chapel of St. Mary Magdalen, 
or to supply it with services in the first century after the Reforma- 
tion. This was often the fate of the smaller chapelries that had 
fallen into the hands of landowners who still adhered to the 
ancient faith. The people in those cases still clung for the most 
part to the rites that were then forbidden under pain of cruel 
penalties; they went in stealth to hear mass in the impromptu 
chapels of the great houses that were served by the disguised 
Jesuits, and suffered the ancient building, where these ceremonies 
could no longer be performed, to fall into decay. 

When the ParUamentary Commissioners of 1650 visited Charles- 
worth, they reported that the chapel was fit to be disused and the 
place united to Glossop. We gather from the expression "fit to 
be disused ** that the building was then occasionally used for 
service, which would of course be after the Presbyterian form at 
that time in our national history. And this seems the more likely 
as the Commissioners mention that there was an Augmentation of 
£50 to this chapelry, paid out of the impropriate tithes of the 
Howards, which were at that time sequestered to the State. § 

• Thomas Poynton died in 1651, Lichfield Episcopal Begisters, No. xiv., t 68. 

t Add. MSa, 6667, f. 307. 

X Collins' Peerage, voL i., p. 11. 

S The whole of these sequestered tithes of the old rectory of Glossop were 
devoted to the angmentinff of i>oor liyings in the connty. " The Honourable Com- 
mwBioners for Plundered Ministers " granted therefrom, by a decree of the 3rd of 
5SfeniW, 1648, 1660 to Charlesworth, ^640 to Mellor, £40 to Stony Middleton, 
*f"*o Chesterfield, ^£30 to Ockbrook, and to three of the Derby churches. All Saints*, 
Bt. Peter's, and St. Werburgh's, £70 collectively.— Bateman's MS. Collections. 



CHARLESWORTH. 207 

Not long after the Restoration of the monarchy we find that the 
chapel was allowed hy the Howard family to remain in the hands 
of the Presbyterians, and it seems probable that a license for a 
Presb3rterian minister to preach in this chapel, was obtained at the 
time when the ''Indulgence** was granted to the Nonconformists 
in 1672. Many of the old Presbyterian congregations became 
gradually blended with the Independents soon after the ejection of 
1662, and before the close of the century we believe that this 
building was in the hands of the Independents. 

When the official list of non-parochial registers was gathered 
together about 1840, the return of the '* Denomination and Date 
of Foundation *' of this chapel is entered as — ** Independent, time 
out of mind.*' The register of births and baptisms, then placed in 
the custody of the Registrar-General, extended from 1786 to 1837.* 

According to the Charity Commissioners for 1827, John Bennitt, 
by wiU dated 8th February, 1716, left, amongst other legacies to 
the different townships of Glossop, £20 for the use of Charles- 
worth chapel, the interest thereof to go to the ipinister that 
preached there ; and directed that if at any time there should be no 
dissenting minister preaching there, the said £20 should go to the 
poor, t Similar legacies with a like stipulation were also left by 
Lawrence Rowbotham and by Damaris Hibbert to the dissenting 
minister of Charlesworth, which are recorded on a benefaction 
board at the east end of the chapel. 

The Rev. M. Olorenshaw, minister of Mellor, writing to Mr. 
Lysons (when he was preparing his Derbyshire volume of the 
Magna Britannia) under date 16th September, 1816, says of the 
Independent chapel at Charlesworth that it ''was a very ancient 
chapel in the form of a church, which ye Dissenters were allowed 
by ye Norfolk family to possess. Of late it has been rebuilt much 
in ye dissenting form." j: 

A stone let into the west front of the chapel is inscribed — '' C. C. 
1797.** This appears to be the date at which it was so thoroughly 
rebuilt that no trace of the ancient chapel of St. Mary Magdalen 
now remains. The chapel occupies a commanding position on the 
side of the hill above the village. It is surrounded by an extensive 
burial-^ground, where at one time all the village folk appear to have 
been buried. The oldest tombstones that we noticed go back about 
a hundred years. 

* LUt of Non-ParoohuU RegUtera and Reoorda, p. 14. 

t Charity Commiasionen' Report, toI. xvii., p. 256. 

X Add. MSS., 9425, f . 1 ; see ^o Add. MSS., 9448, f . 248. 



208 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

The history of this ancient chapel is of peculiar interest, for we 
do not beheve that there is another instance in the kingdom in 
which a parochial chapel or church has remained in Nonconformist 
hands for upwards of two centuries. ♦ 

* Though we cannot prove it as an absolute fact, it seems almost certain that the 
Episcopalian form of worship was never heard within the old parochial chapel from 
the days when the Commonwealth was established. Indeed it seems very probable 
that the Established Church service was never read within its walls, as it is not un- 
likely that it stood empty from the time of the Reformation until the temporary 
establishment of Presbyterianism. It is only fair to state that the Rev. G. Purcell, 
the vicar of the new church built here in 1849, writes to us — '' thirty years ago I met a 
man named William Cooper, who, a little more than seventy years before then heard 
the church service in the chapel." But it is difficult to avoid coming to the conclusion 
that Mr. Cooper's memory had played him false, for the benefactions to the dissenting 
minister which have been uninterruptedly his since 1716, would then have been 
forfeited to the poor. Very possibly some portions of the church service may have 
been read by a Nonconformist. 



HAYFIELD. 209 



^t Ci^o^tlvs of ^a^UtlO, 




lTFIELD was one of the chapelries of the far-reaching 
parish of Glossop, and as a component part of that 
church, its tithes were appropriated by the Abbey of 
Basingwerky in Flintshire. It is said that the chapel was built in 
the year 1886, and there was formerly a tradition, which has not 
yet died out, that the chapel was at that date removed here from 
the neighbouring township of Kinder, where it occupied a site still 
known as the Eirksteads. Information has reached us from seyeral 
sources that the date MGCCLXXXYI. was on the walls of the old 
chapel, and it is possible that the building was commenced in that 
year, but discontinued in the troublous times which prevailed in the 
latter part of the reign of Bichard II. That the building was in 
progress in the 6th year of the reign of Henry IV. we know from 
the registers of the Duchy of Lancaster, where we learn that the 
king in that year issued orders to the custodian of his royal forest 
of Whitlewoode, to deliver to Sir Roger Leche,* and other of his 
lieges of the parish of Glossop, six oaks suitable for building pur- 
poses, to be used in the erection of a chapel at Hayfield-in-the-Peak. 
A similar order for a like number of trees was served on the custodian 
of the forest of Thomsedbank. t 

In " Philipp Kynders booke " it is stated in notes to the Kinder 
pedigree, that — "A.D. 1420. Eobt, of Kynder built ye church of 
Heyfield att his owne charges upon his owne ground, & his father*s 
before him. As may appeare by a record out of the Registraie of 
Leichfeild." This rather vague note leaves it doubtful whether it was 

* Sir Roger Leche was of the ancient family of Leche of Chatsworth. He had 
large possessions in the Peak, but his chief seat ^as at Belper. He was Lord High 
Treasurer of England in the .reign of Henry V. 

t Regist. Ducat. Lane., 6 Hen. IV,, pt. 2, f. 4. Thomsett and Whittle are now the 
names of two hamlets in the adjacent chapelry of Mellor. 



210 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Robert Kinder '* or his fathers before him " that built the church, 
but a subsequent note makes it rather clearer — " A-D. 1428. Robert 
of Kynder gave ye ground so yt our Ladies chappeU at Heyfield was 
built on, wch was approved to be his father's land, and after by in- 
heritance his, for ever away." * This Robert Kinder was the son of 
John Kinder, and flourished in the reigns of Richard 11., Henry V., 
and Henry VI. 

As a chapelry of Glossop, the appointment of the minister at Hay- 
field would be vested in the Vicar of Glossop, subject to the approval 
of the Abbot of Basingwerk, up to the time of the Reformation ; but 
after that date the appointment came into the hands of the resident 
freeholders, with whom it still remains. 

Hayfield is described by the Parhamentary Commissioners of 1650, 
as '* a parochial chapel, fitt to be made a parish with these hamlets — 
Great Hamell, Kinder Hamell, Far Side Hamell, and part of Thome- 
sett Hamell, £8 10s. There belongeth to the minister of Heafield five 
pounds per annum, being an antient customage payd from the inha- 
bitants. Also there is five pounds per annum being a guiffc given to 
the minister of Heafield. Augmentation, JS50. Noe minister for the 
present.'* 

The Commissioners also reported of Beard, ''a township within 
this chapelry, that it was fitt to have a church built for it, which the 
inhabitants are willing to att their own charge ; " but this recommen- 
dation was not carried out. 

In the year 1814, the inhabitants obtained a Brief for the restora- 
tion of the chapel. In this document, the original of which we have 
consulted, it is stated that the chapel is *' a very antient structure, 
erected in or about 1886, now ruinous, and on that account as well as 
the roof being very low it has been necessary to take down the roof 
and part of the walls, and to rebuild and raise the same higher, erect- 
ing new galleries to provide for those now without sittings.'' The 
Brief further states that " Thomas Bradbury and John Rangeley," 
able and experienced workmen, have estimated the necessary outlay 
at £762 2s. 

The funds obtained by this Brief were eventually used towards the 
complete rebuilding of the edifice, which was finally accomplished, as 
stated on a stone at the east end of the church, in the year 1818. 
The building now consists of nave with side aisles, chancel, and tower 

* Bodleian Library, Ashm. MSS., 788, f. 163b. This Tolume— Phillipp Kyndera 
booke — contains misceUanies de omnibus rebus, astrology, Milesian fables, " a theo- 
logical disconrse written at the age of 19," the Kinder pedigree, and '' The Historie 
of Derbyshire." 



HAYFIELD. 211 

at the west end, carried out with the general lack of taste that pre- 
vailed at the time in question. It has wide galleries on the south, 
north, and west. 

The ancient chapel, then dismantled, appears to have possessed 
several interesting features. Lysons tells us that the rood-loft, be- 
tween the nave and chancel, remained entire, though the upper part 
had been modernised. On the front of it was the picture of the cru- 
cifixion, with St. Peter and St. John, which bore the date of 1775. * 

Bassano, who was here about 1710, describes *^ above chancel gules^ 
cut on wood, and nailed thereto — A griffin in bend with wings ex- 
panded, and bushe tailed."' There was also an escutcheon carved on 
the inside of a pew, between the church and chancel, bearing — " Arg, 
Three pine apples, with long shanks in a shield, supported with two 
sea monsters." 

We have little or no doubt that the first of these coats was intended 
for the remarkable arms of Ashenhurst, who bore — Or, a cockatrice, 
the tail nowed, with a serpent's head, sab., the comb, wattles, and 
head, gv.; in his beak a trefoil proper. 

The manor of Beard, in this chapelry, belonged to the Beards, 
of Beard Hall, from an early date. About the end of the sixteenth 
century Beard Hall was transferred to Ashenhurst by marriage 
with the eldest of ^three co-heiresses. 

If the second coat described by Bassano is rightly given, it be- 
longs to Appleton, but we are not aware of any connection of that 
family with Derbyshire. In all probability Bassano mistook three 
heads of garlick (the arms of Garlick) for pine apples, for, though 
so contrary in nature, the rude art of the heraldic carver gives 
them a similar appearance, f The Garlicks possessed landed pro- 
perty on the adjacent manor of Whitfield in the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries. The heiress of Garlick married William Needham, 
of Cowley and Thornsett. 

At the east end of the south aisle of the present edifice, over a 
large pew in the gallery, is a mural monument bearing the 
following inscription : — 

* Lysons' Derbyshire, p. 167; but in Lysons' MS. Church Notes (Add. MSS. 9,463) 
which we may be sure are correct, as they exist in the pencil form in which they 
were taken on the spot, it is said — " At the hack of the gallery facing the nave is a 
painting of the Crucifixion with St. John and St. Peter. This is said to hare been 
painted 1775, but probabl;^ from an ancient one which had remained undisturbed at 
the time of the Reformation." But query, does he mean by gallery, the gallery on 
the top of the rood-loft? 

f We were led to this conclusion by the curious incident of a friend, by no means 
unversed in heraldry, reading the quartered coat of Garlick, as tricked by Flowers 
in the Visitation of 1669, "three pineapples," thus committing the identical mistake 
made by Bassano. 



212 DEKBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

** Sacred to the Memory 
of Joseph Hague Esq., whose virtues as a man were as distinguished 
as his character as a merchant. Favoured with the blessings of 
Providence he enjoy'd the fruits of his industry at an early period, 
and by the most indefatigable pursuits and extensive connections 
in trade acquired an immense fortune, which he distributed amongst 
his relatives with such liberality as to give affluence to all in his 
own lifetime. He was bom at Chun all in this parish in the year 
1693, and in 1717 settled in London, where he married Jane, the only 
daughter of Edmund Blagge, of Macclesfield in Cheshire, by whom 
he had 10 sons and 2 daughters who all died in their minority. 
He built and endowed the Charity School at Whitfield in the year 
1778, and died at Park Hall in this parish on the 12th day of 
March 1786, aged 90 years, leaving the annual interest on £1000 to 
be laid out in clothing 12 poor .men and 12 poor women out 
of the eight townships of Glossop Dale for ever; besides other 
charities bequeathed to Glossop and the ohapelry of Heafield." 

The monument is a handsome one of its style, and is surmounted 
by a most admirable bust of Joseph Hague, executed in white 
marble, by the sculptor Bacon. It is said to have cost £420. 
But we should not have noticed in these " Notes " a monument of 
so late a date had not a remarkable history attached to it. It 
will be noted that the inscription speaks of ** this parish, " when 
Hayfield was then only a chapelry, but this apparent error is 
accounted for by the fact that the monument was originally erected 
in the parish church of Glossop. When the chancel of that church 
was being rebuilt, the various monuments were, of course, removed 
to what were considered places of safety. Alarmed, perhaps, lest 
so valuable a monument as that to Joseph Hague should be 
stolen, the good folk of Glossop confined it in the lock-up ! But on 
the completion of the church the monument still remained in durance 
vile ; neither its intrinsic merits, nor the memory of a munificent 
benefactor being apparently appreciated by those in charge. One 
night its occupancy of the lock-up was shared by a drunken man, 
who, out of very wantonness, attacked and disfigured his silent 
companion. This discreditable assault getting bruited abroad, reached 
the ears of Captain White, of Park Hall, near Hayfield, who was 
heir to a considerable share of the Hague property. He promptly 
rescued the monument from its ignominious position, and caused 
it to be erected in the chapel at Hayfield, refusing to restore it 
to the church that had allowed it to be treated with so much 



HATFIELD. 213 

contempt. The memorial still bears not a few traces of the assault 
it suffered when in the loek-up. But the strangest part of the 
story yet remains to be told, and is a singular instanoe of the 
power of conscience. It was recently related to us by the parish 
clerk of Hay£eld. About two years ago, an elderly stranger sought 
admittance to the church, and immediately on entering asked for 
the Hague monument, at which he gazed long and earnestly, ex> 
pressing his satisfaction at seeing it well cared for. The clerk, 
thinking he might be a connection of the family, began to tell 
him the above narrative, but the stranger interrupted him by 
saying — "Nobody knows that better than myself. I was the 
drunken man who knocked it about in Glossop lock-up. I have 
since been abroad for many years, and have only just returned to 
England. The damage I did to that monument has often troubled 
my conscience, and I determined that as soon as I set foot in 
England again, I would at once journey to Derbyshire to see what 
had become of it; and now I am satisfied." 

The conduct of those who were in charge at Glossop, towards 
this pious foxmder, is the more discreditable, as he left by his will 
the balance of a certain sum of money as an annual payment 
for keeping his vault and monument in decent order. When the 
Charity Commissioners visited this district in 1826, 15s. 6d. was 
being paid for this purpose. What has now become of this 
money ? If any one has a claim to it, surely it is the parish clerk 
of Hayfield. 

We have often had occasion to comment in these pages on the 
various secular uses to which churches were put, both before and after 
the Reformation, and Hayfield affords a remarkable instance at the 
commencement of the seventeenth century. John Hyde, of London, 
by his will, bearing date 8th September, 1604, left certain trust 
property, out of which £10 yearly was to be paid '* to the minister 
of the Gospel, of Hayfield, in Derbyshire, keeping a Grammar 
School mthin the chapel,'* and the Grammar School appears to have 
been thus kept within the church or chapel for more than a century 
after John Hyde's death, when subsequent donations rendered it 
possible to hold it in a separate building.* 

Mention is made of this gift on a quaintly-worded tablet relative to 
the various endowments of the minister. It was removed from the old 
building, and is now fixed, with several others, against the wall of 
the staircase leading up to the galleries. 

♦ Charity CommisBionora' Reports, to), xvii., p. 261. 



214 DEEBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

" Imprimis, there is £10, left for ever by one Mr. John Hyde, 
one of the worshipful Merchant-Taylor's-HaU, London, to a reading 
minister keeping a Grammar School in the Chapel of Hayfield ; 
also the use of £60 left for ever to a Ucensed schoohnaster, by 
John Hadfield, of Ludworth, deceased, teaching pettyes {i.e. petty 
things, or as we should now say, ** elementary education''), as well 
as others more proficient, at our Chapel of Hayfield ; also we have 
undertakers, who were agents and instruments in erecting and 
building of our chancel at our Chapel, who had assigned to them 
each a place or seat m the chancel, according to their degrees, 
paying to the minister or curate, each of them, one old hoop 
of oats or 2 sh. in money; also there is annually due and 
payable, on March 26th, to the curate, firom those persons, church 
wages, according to their estates and seats in the Chapel, of which 
some pay 8 sh. other 2 sh., some less, according to the plot-form 
which gives a particular account of every place within the 
Chapelry." The sum is £4 14s. 4d. The surpHce fees are 6d. 
every burial, and 6d, for the thanksgiving of women after child- 
birth. (Dated) July 10th, 1774." 

The "plot-form'* of the old chapel is given on two other large 
tablets, one of which gives the ground plan, and is dated 1735, and 
the other the plan of the south and west galleries, and is dated 
1741. From the ground plan, it appears that the Communion table 
and chancel rails only occupied the north side of the chancel; the 
south side, right up to the east wall, being appropriated as ** Mr. 
Ashenhurst's pew." The names, acreage, and annual payment 
of the occupant are marked in each pew, an explanatory note 
saying : — «* It is to be noted yt the sumes of money sett down in 
each man's seate in numerall letters do shew what money they 
usually have paid towards hiering a Curate, and ye figures do shew 
what acres yey hould, and after ye same rate do pay their usuall 
payments towards ye upholding and maintenance of ye Chapell of 
HeyfielcL" On the gallery plan it is stated that "every person on 
the south side paid sixpence, and every singer upon ye organ loft 
4d. a year." The first plan is signed by John Hadfield and 
Thomas Beard, Chapelwardens ; and the second by John Badily, 
Minister. The Rev. John Badley, as his name is spelt on a stone 
at the west end of the north aisle, died in 1764, aged 68. 

On entering the basement of the tower by the west doorway, for 
there is no . communication with the church itself, it is evident that 
the old pointed archway that formerly opened from the tower into 



HATFIELD. 215 

the nave was not taken down at the rebuilding in 1818, but 
simply built up. This is the only part of the old church of 1386 
that is now standing above ground, as the tower itself, with the 
exception of this part of the west wall, was built afresh at the same 
tame as the body of the church. 

The tower contains a peal of six bells. The following are their 
inscriptions : — 

I. " Peace and good neighbourhood. 1798." 
n. " These bells were cast by Jno. Rudhall. 1798." 
in. ** Thomas Drinkwater and Jno. Collier, Chapel wardens. 
1798." 

IV. *' Fear God, Honour the King. 1798." 

V. " Prosperity to this parish. 1798." 

VI. " I to the church the living call 

And to the grave summon alL 1798."* 
We were nearly leaving this church under the impression that 
we had seen all that was left of the old building in the tower 
archway, when our attention was directed to a low doorway on the 
north side of the church, over which is cut the year ** 1886," as a 
memento of the date of the original building. Entering this, we 
found ourselves in a low crypt or cellar extending under the whole 
of the church— body, chancel, and tower. This "crypt " is popu- 
larly supposed to have been the burial-place beneath the old 
church ; and we were assured that it was the fashion in those 
days to let the coffins through the flooring of the different pews of 
the church above, into this receptacle; in the dim Hght, the possi- 
bility of this place — which is only some four or five feet high — 
having been a crypt, was for a moment entertained, but on a light 
being procured, its true nature was at once apparent. The roof of 
this cellar was quite flat ; the wooden floor of the church above, 
resting on long timber joists, being supported on short octagon 
stone pillars, with bases and capitals of early Perpendicular work, 
corresponding with the date at which the old building is said to 
have been erected. The fact is, that this is the ground floor of 
the old church ; the new one having been raised on the same 
foundations, but on a level several feet higher. The pillars that 
supported the arches, three on each side, dividing the nave from 
the side aisles, were shortened to serve as props for the timbers of 

♦ The Rudhalls were celebrated bell-founders of Gloucester, from the end of the 
seyenteenth century till about the year 1830. There are several of Abraham lindhairs 
bells in the belfries of North Derbyshire, but we have not noted any of John Kud- 
hall's (the last of the firm) elsewhere in the county. 



216 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

th© new floor, the old capitals being re-imposed to give them 
greater width. The basement of the tower archway that remains 
in the wall above is here open to view, and the extension that was 
made to the chancel during last century (between 1785 and 1775, 
as is shown by the old tablets already quoted) can also be traced. 
Almost the whole of the flooring consists of gravestones ; but none 
of them appear to be of any considerable age, being chiefly of last 
century. 

A reason for thus raising the level of the church is to be found 
in the fact that two mountain streams meet immediately to the 
west of the tower, and the old building had on several occasions 
been subjected to floods. 

The church is dedicated to Si Matthew. The registers com- 
mence in 1662. 

In the Library at Lomberdale House there is a volume of the 
Hayfield Churchwardens' Accounts, from 1768 — 1794,* endorsed on 
the back, *' John Allen and Joseph Hadfleld, Churchwardens, 1768.'* 
Bev. George Boe was then the Minister. From it we take the 

following extracts : — 

£ 0. d. 

1766. Paid for two men's Dinners and ale 8 Sacrament Days 8 

Upon the account of the Bash Cartf 6 

For cleaning Snow ont of the Chapel 2 

Paid for cleaning the Chapel at the Wakes 10 

1767. Be it remembered that the Churchwardens of Hayfield did give, 

by the consent of the Freeholders the sum of £2 5s. being the 
fuU cost and charge of making a Front Seat on the old Loft for 

the sole use of those singers that join in Chorus and those only 2 6 

1768. At a Vestry about the Bonehouse, and spent with G. Leech 3 

Spent when the Bones were buried out of Bonehouse 8 

Gaye Ashton singers 8 

1769. For flagging Chancell and AUeye 6 6 

1771. Paid to GloBsop churchwarden 18 8 

Besoms, Wiskets, and Mellor Singers 17 

1772. Spent with Singers when new Bazoon came 2 6 

Spent when Vicar (of Glossop) came to preach 10 

For two Tankards Chainging 7 8 

Charges when the Bassoune came 3 6 

For rushes for chtzrchf 2 6 

1773. To the ringers when Mr. Bains (new minister) Licence came ... 2 
At Smiths when Mr. Bain was voted in 7 6 

1776. A horse for the Minister from Chesterfield 10 

1777. Candles for the Fifth of Nov^ 7 

1779. For repairing the Bassoon 16 

1780. For four Branches of Candlesticks 6 6 

1781. Whitewashing and painting the Pillars 16 1 

• Mr. T. W. Bateman has kindly given us permission to publish these extracts. 

t There are entries relative to the Rush Cart under ahnost every year to the end 
of the volume. On the subject of Bush-bearing, see the account of the mother- 
cnurcn of Glossop. 



HATFIELD. 217 

1782. To the Bingen when the peace was signed 2 

Warrants and Charges belonging the Quaker (for not paying 

Church rate) 16 6i 

178S. Bzpences concerning the Qnaker 14 3 

For reeds for the Bassoon 8 

1784. Exchanging the silver Cup 12 

1788. For the Thanksgiving of the King's Becovery 4 

1790. To repairing the. little Bell 4 6 

1793. (This year the tower seems to have been rebuilt. There are a 
large number of entries for carting stone and sand, and other 
incidental expenses). 

Architect's expenses when drawing the plan of the Steeple 8 

Expenses attending taking down the old Bells and weighing 5 

Saml. Hyde's expenses for delivering the Bells at the Old Quay... 2 

Spent at laying the first stone 2 

Spent at Bearing the steeple 6 

Pud John Line for a Hautboy 110 



218 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 



^fit d^a^tltyi of ^eUor. 




I HE Chapelry of Mellor formed part of the extensive parish 
of Glossop. It is said that a chapel was first erected 
here in the reign of Stephen (1186 — 1164), but very 
little can be gleaned of its early history as it was subservient to 
the vicarage of Glossop, and its tithes went to swell the income 
of the Abbey of Basingwerk, in Flintshire, whose Chartulary does 
not now exist. 

Of the old fabric of the chapel of St. Thomas, nothing now 
remains but the tower. The chief features of the tower are un- 
doubtedly of the Perpendicular style that prevailed in the fifteenth 
century, though possibly some of the masonry is of a far earlier 
date. 

When Bassano, the heraldic painter of Derby,* visited this 
church in 1710, there was the following quartered coat, in 
stained glass, in the north window of the chancel. "1st 
Arg, 2 bendlets, ragule, gules; a lambeaux of 4 points, gules. 
— 2nd Arg. 2 martlets, 2, 1, sab. — 3rd vert, a broad arrow. — 
4th as ye 1st. Crest, upon a Torce, a bull's head eraz'd, collared 
and lingued, gules, horned, or." The first of these coats, together 
with the crest, is that of Badcliflfe, of Mellor, more usually 
expressed— ^r^., two bends engrailed, <a., a label of three points, 
and a crescent, gu. Crest:— A bull's head erased, sab, armed, or, 
ducally gorged and charged with a pheon, arg. 

The second coat is that of Mellor, more correctly written — Arg., 
three blackbirds. Proper. 

The third coat we have not been able to identify, but there is 
no doubt that it was an ancient aUiance of Mellor, for it is also 



MELLOR. 219 

quartered by Needham, of Needham, who married Maud, heiress of 
Roger de MeUor, of Thornsett, in the reign of Edward III.* 

The Mellors were descended from a younger son of Simon de 
Staveley, who settled at Mellor in the reign of Henry III., where 
they held a subordinate manor. The co-heiresses of the elder 
branch of Mellor married Eadcliffe, Stafford, and Ainsworth, 
about the middle of the fourteenth century. A younger branch of 
this family was of Idridgehay as early as the time of Henry VII. 
Bobert Eadcliffe, who married the eldest co-heiress of Mellor, was 
a younger son of the Badcliffes, of Ordeshall, Lancashire. Ten 
generations of the Badcliffes of Mellor, are given in the Visitation 
of 1611.t The heiress of Peter BadclifFe, mentioned in this Visi- 
tation, married Horsfall, and the ancient seat of the family was 
purchased in 1686 by James Cheetham. 

The appointment of the minister seems to have pertained to the 
holders of the Mellor Hall estate from the time of the Beformation, 
but the Gheethams sold it about 1787, and the estate a few years 
later. The purchaser of the appointment was Mr. Thornton, of 
Glapham. Over a pew on the north side of the present chapel is 
a board inscribed as follows: — "In 1809, this pew was purchased 
by S. Thornton, Esq., M.D,, together with the right of burying 
within the Communion rails, to be from thenceforth for the use 
of the Minister of Mellor for the time being." 

The ParHamentary Commissioners reported in 1660 of Mellor, 
that it was a parochial chapelry of Glossop, <' thought fitt to be 
made a parish church with hamlets of WhiteU, Hamell, part of 
Thornsett, Ludworth, and Chisworth," and worth £12 10s. Od., 
X8 of which was customary from the inhabitants to the minister, 
together with an augmentation of £40 from the sequestered rectory 
of Glossop. 

The Bev. M. Olorenshaw, who was then the minister at Mellor, 
writing to Mr. Lysons, under date 5th October, 1816, says : — ** Less 
than 100 years ago the perpetual Curate of Mellor had no endowment 
except £7 paid for ye antient seats, and Burial and Baptism dues. 
About 60 or 70 years ago this was somewhat augmented by ye 
erection of a gallery, and 82 years ago by additional galleries, all 
of which are the property of the minister." J We can gather 
from this letter how disfigured the old church must have been. 

• Flower's Vuitation of 1669, MSS. of Queen's Coll., Oxon. ; Add. MSS., 28, 113, 
f. 44; Egerton MSS. 996, f. 72. 

i Harl. MSS., 5809, f. 39. 

t Add. MSS., 9425, f. 1. 



220 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

At the Quarter SeBsions held 4th April, 1815, the Churchwardens 
and principal inhabitants of Glossop petitioned in due form to 
obtain a Brief for the general collection of subscriptions towards 
the repair of Mellor chapel. It is therein set forth that the 
" church or chapel of Mellor is a very ancient structure, and now 
in a very ruinous decayed state, although in the year 1783 and 
since £300 has been expended,* that the walls and foundations are 
bulged out and supported by temporary props of wood and there- 
fore unsafe." The petition went on to say that it was necessary 
that the greater part of the church should be taken down and 
rebuilt, and the floor, seats, and pews renewed. Immanuel Wils 
and Abraham Olorenshaw, "able and experienced workmen," had 
prepared an estimate at £676 16s. 4d. 

But Briefs, from their frequency, were beginning to fail as a 
means of procuring funds, and only £96 18s. lid. was the result 
of this appeal. The inhabitants again had tecourse to Quarter 
Sessions, and obtained another Brief in the year 1820, stating that 
the front (south) wall had been taken down and rebuilt ; but the 
chancel yet remained to be done, and various other parts, for 
which £580 was required. This second Brief only brought in 
another £90, and in the fourth year of George IV. they obtained 
a third Brief, with which, we suppose, they had to be satisfied. 
To the prayer to Quarter Sessions for this last Brief a communi- 
cation received from Archdeacon Butler was attached, in which the 
chapel-wardens are ordered to immediately take down and rebuild 
the chancel, and finish the other work specified. It is also stated 
in this last petition that the mother church of Glossop was at that 
time being repaired, and that the share which the inhabitants of 
Mellor were obhged to pay amounted to £200. f 

The money thus collected was expended in gradually adding to 
the Gothic tower a building as thoroughly inharmonious — ^with ita 
wide nave and chancel — as can well be conceived. 



* On ft blank leaf of one of the registers is the foUowing entry - — *' The chnrch 
of MeUor was in part rebuilt, and the south and east galleries erected in the year 
1783, -at the expense of £200 or upwards, which sum was contributed by Thos. 
Chetham, Esq., Patron, the Bevd. M. Olorenshaw, Minister, the inhabitants of the 
chapelry, and others." It is also stated thab new pulpit and desks, (doubtless those 
now in use) were made and put up in the same year. The church was seated 
throughout in 17S5. For these and other particulars, we are indebted to the Bev. 
M. Freeman, the present incumbent, and owner, by purchase from the Thorntons, 
of the advowson. 

t The three original Briefs, as granted by the Lord Chancellor, are now in the 
British Museum ; and the petitions to Quarter Sessions, together with the injunction 
of the Archdeacon of Derby, are with the County Becords. 



M£LLOR. 221 

Over the entrance to the south porch (which has a room above 
it, through which there is access to the galleries) is a stone 
inscribed — **E. Ferns, G. Cooper, churchwardens, 1815/* A stone 
let into the north wall bears — " Matw. Freenaan, minister ; Thomas 
Stanney, Benjamin Batcliffe, James Yates, churchwardens, A.D. 
1829,'' in which year, we suppose, the rebuilding was at last com- 
pleted. 

The interior arrangements of this church are probably as remark- 
able and unecclesiastical as any in the kingdom. Against the north 
wall, about the centre, is placed a lofty " three-decker " pulpit, 
readuig-desk, and clerk's pew ; whilst round the remaining three 
sides of the church extend wide galleries. It thus comes to pass 
that the east gallery extends over the whole of the chancel, 
and is used as the organ loft. There are, however, two very 
interesting relics of the early church. The oldest of these is the 
font at the west end of the church, which stands three feet nine 
inches high, but the actual font is only two feet two in depth, and 
two feet three in diameter. The font is circular, and is ornamented 
with three quaintly-incised figures of strange proportions. The one 
in front represents a man riding on a bridled horse. (Plate XVL) 
Mr. Bateman has suggested that this was designed to represent 
the entrance of Christ into Jerusalem. But this notion must be 
erroneous, as the figure wears a helmet. It is not likely that 
these figures represent anything more than the caprice of the 
artist, whose eccentricities in the Norman period were specially 
expended on fonts, and on the two jambs of doorways. This font 
should be compared with the one at Tissington. Its date must be 
coeval with the original erection of a church here in the days of 
Stephen. 

The other rehc is outside the communion rails on the north side 
of the chancel, and is of exceptional interest, as it is probably a 
unique example of an ancient pulpit cut out of a solid block of 
oak. It is four feet eight and a half inches high, and two feet 
eight inches in diameter at the top. It is of hexagonal shape, 
with one side cut out to form a narrow entrance. One of the five 
panels is plain and smooth, showing where it stood against the 
wall, but the other four are ornamented with tracery, the style of 
which assigns it to about the middle of the fourteenth century.* 

* Contrary to the usuaI opinion, the earliest pulpits were of wood. They were 
generally movable, and kept in comers until requiredTfor use, like that stiU preserved 
at Hereford. This, no doubt, is the caiise of their present rarity. Palpits, as distinct 
from choir desks or lecterns, were first introduced into France by the mendicant friars 



222 DEBBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

The Rev. R. R. Rawlins, who visited this church in 1836 men- 
tions this old pulpit as being then in the belfry. In fact, both the 
pulpit and font had been treated as mere lumber, until the incum- 
bency of the Rev. M. Freeman, when he replaced the font at the west 
end of the church, and the pulpit by the communion rails. 

Mr. Bateman, who has several notes respecting this church in his 
Antiquities of Derbyshire, * says that when the north wall of the 
church was taken down, several holes hewn in the rock were dis- 
covered, which had evidently been the foundations for the pillars of 
a more ancient building. In a hole in the wall, stopped up with 
plaster, a rosary was found, cut out of hard thorn wood. One of 
the beads was worm-eaten and the string decayed, but with these 
exceptions the rosary was in good condition. 

The tower is evidently of the work of the fifteenth century, when 
the Perpendicular style was flouiishing, but the tracery of the west 
window has been renewed at rather a later date, probably in the 
next century. It is supported at the west angle by diagonally 
placed buttresses of three set-offs, which reach up to the first stage, 
and the parapet is divided into battlements, and ornamented with 
eight low crocketed pinnacles. 

Entrance to the tower is gained by a west doorway, the archway 
through into the church being blocked up, and in the bell chamber 
are three bells. 

I. ** Jesus be our spede, 1639," in Lombardic capital letters. 

The bell founder's mark is a shield divided into four ; in the upper 
quarters are the initials P.H., and in the lower, sprigs of foliage. 

n. " Jhesus be our spede." 

IIL ** Jhesus bee our speed, 1615.** From the style of lettering 
(Lombardic capitals) on these two last bells, as well as from the 
peculiar cross- stamp after the inscriptions, we have no doubt that 
they were cast by the Oldfields of Nottingham. 

In the bell chamber there is also a small '* ting-taug *' bell, called 
the Par8on*s bell, which is rung immediately before the commence- 



in the thirteenth century, and this was prohably also their origin in E ngland. Parker, 
commenting on ancient wooden polpits, says, *' few if any of these are older than the 
Perpendictmir style." Mackenzie Vvalcott instances sixteenth century wooden pulpits 
at Sudbury, Southwold, Hereford, and Winchester, and states that the oldest one is at 
Fulboume (Cambs), circa 1350 ; and Jules Corblet, Viollet-le-Duc, and other continen- 
tal archflQologists can tell us of none older than the sixteenth century. We consider 
the date of the Mellor pulpit to be not later than 1330-40, and therefore claim for it 
the high position of being tlie oldest wooden pulpit in England, if not in Christendom. 
Parker's Qlossaryy p. 299 ; Walcott's Sacred Archeaology, pp. 484-8 ; Manuel <f ArcfU- 
ologie Nationale, par L' Abb5 Jules Corblet, p. 286, etc., etc. 

*Bateman's Vestiges of the Antiquities of Derbyshire, pp. 215-6. 



Wooden Bulpib.Mdlor 



MELLOR. 223 

ment of divine service. It is thirteen inches in diameter at the 
month, and has no mark or inscription. 

There is another curious matter with respect to this church, or 
rather churchyard, which is worth noting. Within two or three 
yards of the south-east comer of the church, and within the limits 
of the churchyard, a free grammar school was erected in accordance 
with the will of Thomas Walklate, who died in 1639. The school 
was rehuilt in 1806 (which date is over the door), but on the same 
foundations. It will shortly be pulled down, and re-erected outside 
the churchyard. 

On the north of the church is a stone pedestal, supposed to be 
the remains of an old cross, now surmounted by a sundial. A 
gravestone in this churchyard records the burial of a man and his 
five wives, the first one being only sixteen at the time of her 
death I 

The church Is dedicated to St. Thomas. The registers date from 
the year 1624. In one of them is a list of churchwardens from 
1623 to 1759, with a hiatus from 1642 to 1649. There is also a 
list of seventeenth and eighteenth century ministers in the auto- 
graph of Rev. M. Olorenshaw. 



Mamnw- 






fuhUu flni PorfQ Epps. 



I 



• 




|HE manor of Hathersage was held by Ralph Fitzhubert at 
the time of the Domesday Survey, but the earhest men- 
tion of a church occurs towards the close of the reign 
of Henry L About the year 1130, Richard Basset, in conjunction 
with his wife Maud, founded the Priory of Launde, in Leicester- 
shire, and endowed it with the advowsons of no less than seven- 
teen churches, one of which was Hathersage.* Maud, the wife of 
Richard Basset, was the daughter and heiress of Sir Geoffrey Ridel, 
and brought him the manor of Drayton, in Staffordshire, as well 
as other large estates. It seems probable that certain lands at 
Hathersage, if not the manor itself, may have been held by Sir 
Geoffrey Ridel, for we know that he possessed a considerable share 
of the lands in Derbyshire, that pertained to the Honour of 
Peverel; and Sir Geoffrey may himself have been the original 
founder of this church, which his son-in-law subsequently bestowed 
upon the Priory of Launde. Thurstan Basset came over with the 
Conqueror, and his son Ralph Basset was Justice of England. 
Richard Basset, the third of Ralph's four sons, from whom de- 
scended the divergent branches of the great family of Basset, also 
held the important post of Justice of England in the reigns of 
both Henry I. and Stephen. f 

But if the manor of Hathersage was ever held by the Bassets, 
it did not long remain with them, for in the reign of Henry III. 
the lords of that manor were termed '* De Hathersage," and the 
co-heiresses of Hathersage towards the end of that reign married 

♦ Dxigdale*B Monastieony toI. ii., pp. 90, 91. It appears from the Charter of Confir- 
mation granted by Henry I. that the Priory was founded with special re^rd to the 
soul of his father, William the Conqueror. Dagdale also gives a second Confirma- 
tion by Henry II., in both of which the chorch of Hathersage is mentioned. 

t Rot. Lit. Clans. 9 John, Memb. 9; Dodsworth's MSS., vol. 96, p. 40 ; Wyrley'^ 
True Use of Armorie, p. 16. 



228 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Goushill and Longford. From that date the manor was held in 
moieties. The moiety of Longford remained in the same family for 
more than two centuries.* There seems, however, to have been 
considerable change with respect to the Goushill moiety; it was 
probably that part of the manor of which Elizabeth, wife of 
William Montacute, and, secondly, of Thomas Fumival, died seized, 
in ld55.t Lysons also thinks that it was this moiety that be- 
longed to the family of Thorp in the reign of Henry VL, with 
remainder to Bobert Eyre and his heirs^ 

The church of Hathersage was valued in 1291 (Pope Nicholas* 
Taxation Boll) at £16 Gs. 8d. per annum. It was then still a 
rectory, the advowson being held by the Priory of Launde, to- 
gether with a pension of £2 a-year, but the great tithes were sub- 
sequently appropriated to that establishment, and the hving con- 
verted into a vicarage. 

The Chartulary of the Monastery of Launde, by which we might 
discover what were the original endowments of the Vicarage of 
Hathersage, is unfortunately not extant, but the Valor EecUtiasticuM^ 
compiled 27 Henry YIIL, shows that the vicarage was of the clear 
annual value of £7 Os. 5d. (including £4 3s. 4d. as tithes of lead), 
whilst the appropriate rectory of '* Athorsey, alias Hathersedge/' 
was only valued at £11 6s. 8d. 

The Episcopal Begisters, however, enable us to state this living 
did not become a vicarage until the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. Institutions made to this church in 1828, 1860, 1861, 
1881, and 1882, all specify the incumbent as rector. In 1391, 
Bishop Scrope collated to this benefice (that is, appointed without 
the intervention or presentation of a patron) through lapse of 
time. The Prior of Launde resisted this action, and in 1398, a 
Commission was appointed on the question, who finally insti- 
tuted Bichard Skelton to the rectory, on 7th September, 1894, on 
the resignation of William Selby. In the following year 8kelt(»i 
retired in favour of John Beresford. In 1422, we find that one 
John Bolf was vicar of Hathersage ; he effected an exchange with 
John Masson, vicar of Wirksworth. § 

• Inq. post Mort., 47 Edw. HI., No. 22 ; 3 Hen. IV., No. 82 ; 21 Edw. IV., No. 62. 
In Dodflworth's time there was " in le window " of this charch — " Paly, arg. and gu. 
on a chief, clz., a fosse dancettie, or, (Hathersage.)" Add. MSS., 28, ill, f. 109. 

t Inq. post Mort., 28 Edw. III., No. 39. 

X Lysons' Derbyshire ^ p. 177. 

§ Lichfield Episcopal Register, passim. 



HATHERSAOE. 229 

The Parliamentary Commissioners of 1668, report that **Hatbor- 
sitch " is a vicarage aud a parish of large extent. The Commissioners 
suggested that the hamlet of *' Bamford, Outtsetts, Bancks, Boothe, 
and Over Padley " should continue to be part of the parish. The 
vicarial tythes amounted to £10, and an augmentation was granted 
of £30. Mr. Robert Clarke was then the incumbent. 

The church of Hathersage, dedicated to St. Michael, is not 
only one of the most picturesquely situated churches of Derby- 
shire, but is also one of the best examples of ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture that the county possesses. It consists of a nave with 
side aisles, chancel with north aisle or chapel, south porch, and 
an embattled tower surmounted by a lofty spire. In 1861-2 the 
church underwent a thorough restoration, when a considerable 
portion of the external masonry was renewed, but we believe that 
every care was taken to interfere as httle as possible with the 
original character of the building. Its general design, and most 
of its features, connect the present church with the first half 
of the fourteenth centuiy, when the Decorated style prevailed. 

The roof of the chancel is now of a high pitch, but the 
parapets of the nave and side aisles are embattled, and ornamented 
at intervals with crocketed pinnacles. The buttresses that support 
the exterior of the buUding are throughout of Decorated design, 
and to the same period belong the windows throughout the build- 
ing, with the exception of the east window of the south aisle, those 
of the north chancel chapel, and the west window of the tower, 
which are later insertions of the Perpendicular style. 

Below the battlements of the porch, over the entrance, are 
four shields carved in stone, and a four-leaved rose. The first of 
these shields (commencing on the left) bears a bend, the second is 
nearly illegible, the third on a chevron three quatrefoils (Eyre), and 
the fourth a chevron between four trefoils slipped.* There are 
various quaint and well-defined giirgoyles both on the south and 
north of this church ; on the south side may be noticed a muzzled 
bear, and the face of a tiger, and on the north a Turk's head. 

The nave is separated from the side aisles on each side by 
four pointed arches, supported by octagon columns, having clearly 

* Accordicg to ARhmole'a notes, taken in 1662, the first of these shields was quar 
terly over all a beud, aud the second bore six billets in an orle. Tlie fourth coat, 
which also appears on the font, has puzzled various gentlemen well skilled in heraldry 
and genealogy, who have kindly endeavoured to assist us in the matter. On the whole 
we are inclined to think that this was the old coat of Padley, who for the inost part 
adopted the coat of Bernake, as the more honourable of the two, after the marria^i* 
with the heiress of that family. 



230 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES, 

cut capitals of varying design. The archway into the tower is 
worthy of notice, as the capitals of the jamhs are of an unasnal 
character, and have by some been attributed to the Early English 
period, though we believe them to be of the commencement of 
the Decorated style. 

There are two doorways of plain Decorated design — ^now blocked 
up — one on the north side opposite the porch entrance, and the 
other on the south side of the chancel. 

Of the interior of this church it is not very long since it was 
remarked that it was " in the most despicable order, the * Com- 
mandments * are broken, the pavement is damp and dislocated, the 
monuments are ill kept, and the very whitewash appears of the 
earUcst ' Gothic * application/' But all this was completely changed 
at its restoration in 1851,* under the auspices of the Bev. H. 
Cottingham, the then vicar, and the exact contrary would now be 
nearest the truth, for it would be difficult to meet with a church 
in better order throughout. There are several objects of interest 
within its walls. At the east end of the south aisle is a small 
niche which has formerly, we conclude, served for a piscina ; and 
the presence of a former altar here is placed beyond doubt, by the 
two corbel brackets for images which, project from each end of the 
base of the east window. 

One of the corbels that supports the obtusely-pointed arch opening 
from the chancel into the north chapel is exactly similar to these 
brackets, thereby indicating that various repairs were done to the 
church, such as the insertion of the east window of the south aisle, 
at the time when that chapel was built. 

In the upper tracery of one of the windows of the north aisle 
are some remains of old stained glass, chiefly of a yellow colour. 
Amongst the fragments may be noted an ape seated, an owl, a 
griffin, and an eagle's head and wings. These fragments came 
from Dale Abbey in this county, and were given to the Rev. H. 
Cottingham by the late Miss Wright, of Brookfleld. 

At the west end of the church is a fine octagon font of the 
Perpendicular period, of a chalice- shaped design, f The font has 
three shields, and other designs, on the eight sides of the upper 

* The church was re-opened for Divine Service on the 16th April, 1852. 

t There is an engraving given of what poiports to be Hathersage font in Bateman's 
AntiquiiieSj p. 211 ; but it is in reality a sketch of the font of Stony Middleton, as is shown 
by the grass growing at its base. The font at Stony Middleton closely resembled the 
one at tne mother church of Hathersage. It unfortunately no longer exists. It was 
doubtless carved by the same hand, and presented by the same donor as the one at 
Hathersage. 



HATH£RSAG£. 231 

portions. Two of these shields bear the arms of Eyre and Padley 
respectively, and betoken that it was the gift of Bobert Eyre, the 
third son of Nicholas Eyre, of Hope, who married Joan, daughter 
and heiress of Bobert Padley. * It is generally supposed that he 
had much to do with the repair of this structure, and the probable 
date of the Perpendicular portions of the church would bear out 
this supposition ; but the rumour, which connects him with the 
building of the church as it now stands, is clearly at fault, for it 
is at least a century earlier. This marriage brought to the Eyres 
the manor of Upper Padley in this parish, and as a moiety of the 
manor proper of Hathersage came to the Eyres in the reign of 
Henry YI., the family at once assumed a leading position in the 
district. The third shield on the font bears the same arms that 
are on the fourth shield on the porch. 

On the south side of the chancel are three elegant sedilia of 
equal height, with carved stone canopies; beyond them is a small 
piscina of good design (Plate XXIII). 

On the north side of the chancel is an altar-tomb under an 
elaborate stone canopy. On the top are the effigies, in brass, 
of Bobert Eyre and his wife Joan aforementioned, and their 
fourteen children, Bobert, Nicholas, Boger, Bichard, Banff, Hugh, 
Philip, Henry, Edmund, Stephen, Jane, Elizabeth, Joan, and 
Margaret, t The man is represented bareheaded, with his hair 
cropped close, in plate armour, having a gorget of chain mail 
covering the throat, armed with a long sword suspended diagonally 
in front of the body, and a dagger, and having a lion under his 
feet.]: The lady wears a double-peaked head dress with falling 
lappets, and a close-fitting gown trimmed with fur at the neck and 
wrists. Below them is the following inscription : — 

'* ffic jacet Robertus Eyr armiger, qui obiit xx die mensisy Marcii 
anno miUimo CCCCLIX, et Johna uxor ejtLs que obiit ix die mensis 



* The chief pedigree of the Eyres at the College of Arms (Vincent, 146, f. 168) 
makes this Bobert the grandson of Nicholas Eyre, another Bobert intervenini? ; bat 
this is an error, as is proved by comparing it with the Eyre pedigree given under the 
Beresbys of Yorkshire (Vincent, 110, f. 189), and with Harl. MSS., 1093, f. 70: 
Egerton MSS., 996, f. 32 ; and Add. MSS., 28, 113, f. 68. For further particulars of 
the Eyre family, see the account of the churches of Hope, Longtoue, Baslow, etc. 
The Eyres were originally of Hope, where we know that they were possessed of 
considerable landed property as early as the reign of Henry III. 

t There is a brads to the memorv of Philip Eyre in the church of Ashover. See 
ChurehM of Derbyahiref vol. 1., p. 23. There was another Bobert of this family, the 
eldest son, but he died in his infancy, making fifteen children in all. 

I For the various characteristics of the armour of this effigy, peculiar to this par- 
ticular period, see Haines' Afonumental Brasses^ vol. 1, p. 193-4. 



232 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Marcii anno dni millimo CCCOZXIII, ac pueii earundem qu<n'* 
anhnabiLs ppicietur Deus, Amen J* 

There is now only a single shield, that of Padley, on the top of 
the tomb, and it is placed above the heads of the effigies. The 
two other shields, as we find from the Visitation of 1662, were 
Eyre, and Eyre impaling Padley. 

Bassano, describing this tomb, says ''here are two coats stolen, 
but on one in sinister comer is 3 barnacles " (Padley). The whole 
monument was restored by the late Earl of Newbnrgh, a lineal 
descendant of Bobert Eyre and Joan his wife. A small brass plate 
let into the east end of the tomb records this restoration. 

'* Annorum serie dirutum, Uirpia non iminemor avitce tnonumentum 
hoc Franc. Oom. de Newhurgh restituit. Ao, Dni, MDCCCLII" 

On a shield carved in the stone on the south side of the monu- 
ment are the quartered arms of Eyre and Padley. 

Balph Eyre, of Offerton in the parish of Hope, the sixth son of 
Eobert Eyre and Joan Padley, married Elizabeth, daughter and co- 
heiress of Oxspring, of Oxspring Hall, Yorks. There are two 

brass effigies to their memory, formerly on an altar tomb in the 
north chapel, but now let into a slab of black marble and fixed in 
a high position against the south wall of the chanceL The man 
is in plate armour, bareheaded, and with the sword girt diagonally 
in front, affcer the fashion of his father^s brass ; the woman's head- 
dress has falling lappets, but fits close to the head, whilst the long 
cuffs of the gown are turned down over the hands. Above them 
is a brass plate, with the following inscription, which is not coeval 
with the figures, but of much later workmanship : — 

" Orate pro animahm venerahilis viri magistri Radulphi Eyr, quondam 
de Oferton in com, Derby generosi, et Ulisab, uxoris ejtts^ qui quidem 
Radulphus obiit Anno Dni. 1493." 

The original inscription is given by Ashmolo, and corresponds 
with the present one, except that it has the day of the month 
(31 st January), and concludes with the usual formulary invoking 
God's mercy. This plate also bears an impaled coat, the dexter 
side bearing the arms of Eyre, but the sinister left blank. The 
sinister side formerly bore the arms of Oxspring — Arg.y on a fess 
between three church-beUs, gu,^ as many cross crosslets of the 
field. The altar tomb of gritstone, from which these figures were 
removed, was standing in the centre of the chapel as late as 1823, 
when the church was visited by Mr. Bawlins. 

Bobert Eyre, of Padley, the eldest surviving son of Bobert and 



HATHERSAGE. 233 

Joan, married £lizabeth, daughter of Thomas Fitzwilliam of Mable- 
thorpe, Lincohi. BraBses to their memory were formerly against 
the wall in the north chapel, between the two north windows. 
They are now affixed to marble under the canopy at the back of the 
altar tomb to Robert and Joan. Both figures are kneeling, the 
man in plate- armour, with long hair, and on his surtout the 
quartered arms of Eyre and Padley; the woman with a pointed 
bead-dress with falling lappets, and on the sinister side of her 
mantle the arms of her husband, with her paternal coat just 
showing on the dexter side. The arms of Fitzwilliam of Mablethorpe 
are — ^Lozengy, arg,^ and ^u., in fesse a fleur-de-Us of the second, 
within a bordure, m^., bezantee. 

From the man's hps proceeds a scroll, bearing — " Sancta Trinitas 
unhu Deu8 miserere nobis ; " from the woman's — " Pater de celis Dens 
miserere nobis,'* Behind the man are four boys kneeling, respec- 
tively inscribed, John, Enstoner,* John, and Thomas. There were 
seven sons to this Eobert Eyre, and probably there were effigies 
of all of them when this monument was complete. The other sons 
were — Eobert, who married Cicely, daughter of Nicholas Wortley, 
of Derby ; a second Robert, and a second Thomas, who probably 
died in their infancy (as well as the second John). John, who 
lived at Throwley, in 8ta£Ebrdshire, died without legitimate issue ; 
and Thomas married Catherine, daughter of John Ap-guilliam, by 
whom he had numerous issue. There were also two daughters, 
Jane, who married a Meverell, and Elizabeth, who married a 
Draycott, but their effigies do not appear behind their mother. 
"We know that at one time they occupied their proper position, and 
they are mentioned in Haines' work on Brasses. But at the time 
when the church was restored they were not forthcoming, and 
their place is unfortunately occupied by another brass plate to 
which we shall shortly allude. Two small kneeling female figures, 
which are probably the missing ones, are now fixed against the 
south chancel wall, in the centre niche of the sedilia. They were 
brought back to the church by Lord Newburgh, after a sojourn of 
some years at Hassop. 

Of the remaining sons of Bobert Eyre and Joan Padley, in 
addition to the two Boberts and Ralph, already mentioned, we 
have gathered the following brief particulars : — 

Nicholas, the 8rd son, was of Nether Hurst, near Hathersage ; 

* The pedigrees are ananimous in styling this son Christopher y but Ensto7ier, as 
given in the text, is oertainly the reading on the brass. 



234 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

he married Elizabeth, daughter of Peter de St Andrew, of Gotham, 
Notts. 

Boger, the 4th son, of Hohne, married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Bobert Whittington, and cousin and heiress of Henry Bakewell. 

Eichard, Hugh, and Henry, the 5th, 7th, and 9th sons, died 
without issue. 

Philip, the 8th son, was rector of Ashover. 

Edmund, the 10th son, of Brookfield, married Agnes, daughter 
and heiress of Edmund Ashurst, of Beaton, Notts. 

Stephen, the 11th son, of Hassop, married Katharine Dymoke, 
of Eyme, Lincoln. 

On the south side of the chancel, above the sedilia, are the 
brass effigies of a knight and his lady, kneeling at desks, on 
which books are lying. The knight is in plate armour, bare- 
headed, and has the quartered coats of Eyre and Padley; the lady 
is in a close-fitting pointed cap, and on her mantle, in addition to 
her husband's arms, are the arms of Plompton, of Yorkshire — 
Az,^ five fasils in fess, or, each charged with an escallop, gtu* 
From the mouth of the knight proceeds a scroll, bearing ^^ Sea 
Trinitas uni Detts,'* the sentence being concluded on the scroll 
of the lady, ^* miserere nobis.'* These brasses represent Sir Arthur 
Eyre, of Padley (grandson of Bobert Eyre and Elizabeth Fitz- 
William), and his first wife. The following lengthy inscription is 
below the figures, and is remarkable, for the sculptor not having 
calculated the space with accuracy, has necessitated the addition 
of the last two words on a separate little strip of metal : — 

"Thys S' Arthure Eyre was Bone of Kobort, Bone of Bobert, sone of Bobert 
(otherwyse called Bobenet), who maryed Johan Padley, which S' Arthure had three 
wyves, Margarett ye daughter of S' Bobert Plompton of Plompton in Yorkshire 
knight was his first wyffe, Alyce daughter of Thomas Coffyn of Devonshire Esq' 
the 2 wyfte, and Dorothe daughter of Homfrey Okover of Okover in the countye 
of Staffordshyre was his 3 wyffe. By Margaret he had yssewe three sones Bobert 
Harrye and Edmond and iiii. daughters Katheryn Margarett Anne and Johan, and 
by Alyce one sone namyed George, whych sones and daughters dyed yu there 
tender age, all but Anne whych after was maryed as daughter and sole heyre of 
Arthure to S' Thomas Fitzherbert knyghte, sone and heyre of Anthony Fitzherbert 
knyghte, one of ye Kings Justices of hys cheif benche." 

Behind Elizabeth Fitzwilliam, at the back of the altar tomb on 
the north side of the chancel, where her two daughters ought to 
be, is a small brass plate bearing an inscription and a quartered 
coat of arms. The inscription is as follows: — 

* These are the correct tinctures of the coat of Plompton, of Plompton. The 
Plomptons, of Darley (see the account of Darley church), bore the same arms, but 
differently coloured. 



HATHERSAQE. 235 

*^ Bepoaitum Robti Eyi't, Filii primog, Rohti Eyre de Eighlow Armig., 
obiit in colUgio Trinit. Cantab, ^ vicstsimo Sexto die Junii, Ao, Dni. 
1656, ceiatis autem suoe vicenmo.'* 

This Bobert Eyre was sixth in direct descent from Thomas Eyre, 
of Highlow, by Katherine Ap-guilliam (mentioned above), who was 
himself the grandson of Bobert Eyre and Joan Padley. The father 
of this yonng Bobert Eyre, who died a bachelor, was Robert Eyre, 
of Highlow, High tihenff of the county in 1658; and his mother 
was Anne, daughter and co-heiress of Bernard Wells, of Holme 
Hall, Bake well.* Above the inscription is the quartered coat — 
1st and 4th Eyre, 2nd Padley, 3rd erm., on a canton, sab., a 
buck's head cabossed, or (Wells) ; over all a label of three points. 

The chancel contains yet one more monument to the highly 
interesting and wide-spread family of the Eyres, though it is in a 
place where it might easily escape attention. Under the communion 
table, on a dark coloured slab, is the following inscription in Boman 
capitals : — 

'* Hie jacet Bob' JUitis primogenit* Gulielmi et Katarinas Eyre de 
Highlow in agro Derbienei, jmei" egregia forma et indole, parentum 
amor et delida, Vixit 3 annos mense uno decemque diebus, Placide Deo 
animua (J animam) reddidit uL Junii, An, Dam, 1676. ON ^lAEI 

GEOS AnOGNHSKEI NE02." 

William Eyre, of Highlow, was brother of Bobert Eyre who died 
at Trinity, Cambridge. 

There are no other monuments of age or special interest in the 
church, but one may be noticed in the churchyard, on the south 
side, near a small weeping ash-tree, as it was formerly within the 
sacred waUs. This stone — which is to the memory of Mary Clarke, 
who died in 1628, the daughter of Bobert Clarke, a former vicar 
of Hathersage — ^was found in the north aisle of the church at the 
time of its recent restoration. 

At the same time several fragments of ancient sepulchral slabs 
were found in the clerestory walls, having portions of crosses 
incised on them, but they were too much injured to be worth any 
attempt at preservation. One fragment, which was found under 
the flooring of the church where the old pulpit stood, has been 
preserved, and is now flxed in the ground against the east wall of 
the churchyard, near the entrance gates. It consists of the upper 
half of a wide sepulchral slab, having double marginal lines incised 

* See the account of Bakewell; there is a brass to the memory of Bernard Wells 
in the ohancel of that church. 



236 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

round it, and the bead of a floriated cross with fleur-de-lis termi- 
nations ; there are also small shields in each of the upper angles. 
The stem of the cross passes between the Roman initials *'L. J." 
These initials are of much later date than the cross, which we 
consider to be of early fourteenth century work, and show that the 
stone has at some time in its history been appropriated to comme- 
morate a second interment. Popular ideas, ever ready to fasten on 
the smallest detail to corroborate a favourite tradition, were eager 
to associate this stone, at the time of its disclosement, with Little 
John, and pointed with triumph to the initials of his nickname 1 

There is a legend, flrmly believed in by the good folk of Hather- 
sage, that this village was the birthplace of Bobin Hood's most 
celebrated companion, and that in this graveyard he found his last 
resting-place. No inquiry or research has been spared by us in 
endeavouring to test the truth of this tradition, but we have ascer- 
tained little more than that this tradition was generally accepted 
more than two hundred years ago. Yet there certainly appear to be 
better reasons for its acceptance, than for its dismissal to the realms 
of fiction. Dr. Spencer Hall, in his Peak and the Plain, has well 
summed up the arguments bearing on Little John's history. When 
he visited Hathepsage, about thirty years ago, the small cottage 
near the church, that went by the name of " Little John's house," 
was still standing. The cottage was then occupied by one Jenny 
Sherd, 70 years of age. Her father had died, at the age of 
92, twenty years previously, and he had received assurance of 
Little John having died in that cottage and been buried in the 
churchyard, when he entered on his tenancy. He also recollected 
that his predecessors had received a similar assurance sixty years 
previously, and thus from mouth to mouth had the tradition 
descended. 

The grave of Little John is to the south-west of the church, 
and is distinguished by two small upright stones about ten feet 
apart. These stones were yet further apart some years ago, but 
it is said that their position has been more than once tampered 
with by mischievous youths. 

"Jenny weU remembered, she said, when Little John's grave was opened by 
Captain James Shuttleworth, and a great thigh-bone brought from it into the 
cottage and measured upon her father's tailoring board, when it was found to be 
thirty-two inches in length ; and though decayed a little at the ends, it was thick 
throughout in proportion to that length. Two shovels had been broken in digging 
the grave, and the bone had been broken near the middle by the third shovel 
striking it ; but she declared that the parts corresponded with each other exactly, 
and that there was no artifice or deception in fitting them together. The name 
of the sexton who opened the grave was Philip Heaton, and the great bone was 



HATHERSAGE. 237 

taken by Captain James Shuttleworth to the HaU ; but his brother, Captain John, 
was so offended at him for haying it exhumed, and he met with so many severe 
accidents — ^two of them in the ohnrchyard — while it was in his possession, that at 
the end of a fortnight he had it replaced. Some years after, however, being with his 
regiment in garrison, at Montrose, in Scotland, he sent to her father, promising 
him a guinea if he would take it up again and send it to him in a box; but her 
father would not comply with the request. When she was about twenty years ^old, 
a party of 'great folk' from Yorkshire had it re-exhxmied, and took it with them 
to Cannon Hall, near Bamsley. Up to that time Little John's cap was kept 
hanging by a chain in the church, (as it is said his bow had done till within the 
last century), but even this the tasteless and foolish party in question also took 
with them. Jenny said she remembered all this very well ; and, with every other 
old person in the village, had a particularly distinct recollection of the green cap 
that hung in the church, and which ' everybody knew ' to be Little John's." * 

Nor was Little John's cap the only relic of Bobin Hood*s com- 
panion formerly kept in this church. A memorandum, taken by Mr. 
Elias Ashmole, states that this hero's bow was suspended in the 
church in 1652. t A contributor to a Derbyshire journal recently 
gave some further information relative to the subsequent history of 
this bow: — "It may not be generally known that the identical bow 
of Little John, the companion of Bobin Hood, now hangs up in 
Gannon Hall, near Bamsley, where it has been more than a 
century. Previous to that time it was in Hathersage Church, 
Derbyshire, when it was removed by Mr. John Spencer, of Cannon 
Hall and Hathersage, whose mother. Miss Ashton, was heiress oi 
that property, which descended to the present Mr. Ashton Shuttle- 
worth through his grandmother, Miss Spencer, the eldest co-heiress 
of that family."! It thus appears that both bow and cap found 
the same resting-place. 

There are various extraordinary instances of the property of the 
soil in preserving dead bodies in the north of Derbyshire, and this 
property appears to be shared to some extent by the graveyard of 
Hathersage. The corpse of Mr. Benjamin Ashton, who had been 
buried fifty-six years before, was exhumed on the 81st of May, 
1781, when digging a fresh grave, and was found to be congealed 
as hard as flint. Jenny Sherd, mentioned above, *' saw it reared 
upright in the church, whilst the grave was preparing for its 
re-interment. It fell, however, along the aisle, when its head broke 
off. Her father tried to cut a piece out of its back with a saw, to 
preserve as a relic ; but the saw would not make the sUghtest 
invasion." § 

♦ The Peak and the Plains pp. 80—86. 

t Pilkington's Derbyshire, vol. ii., p. 387. 

\ Local Notes and Queries, Derhythire Times, Sept. 2Sth, 1872. 

§ The Peak and the Plain, p. 293. See also Gough's Camden, and the JReliquary, 
vol. v., p. 120. 



238 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

The latest contribution to the history of Little John*s Bow, as 
well as to the peculiar qualities of the churchyard soil, was 
recently published in a note to the new edition of Hunter's RaUam- 
shire, by the late Bev. Charles Spencer Stanhope, and dated 5th 
October, 1865. It is as follows : — 

" There is a bow at Caxrnon Hall said to have been the bow of Little John, bearing 
on it the name of Col. Naylor, 1715, who, tradition said, was the last man who 
bent it and shot a deer with it. There was also a coirass of chain mail and an 
arrow or two which were said to have belonged to Little John, bat these 
were lost in repairs of the honse about 1780 ; but I have heard my father say that 
the cuirass had been much reduced by people stealing rings from it for memory. 
Hathersage in Derbyshire was an estate formerly belonging to the Spencer family, 
and was left by the last Spencer to the son of his eldest daughter, John Ashton 
Shuttleworth, Esq. In this churchyard was the head and foot stone of the grave 
of Little John, and his bow, arrows, and cuirass, according to Ashmole, as I am 
told, used to hang up in the chancel of Hathersage Church. From thence they 
have long disappeared, and a bow, etc., are found at Cannon Hall, a seat of the 
Spencers, who were also owners of Hathersage, and this bow was always known 
by the name of Little John's bow. It is of spliced yew, great size, and about six 
feet long, though the ends where the horns were attached are broken off. The late 
James Shuttleworth, who died about 1826, had the g^rave opened, I fancy about 
1780, and the only bone which was found beyond what instantly crumbled to dust 
was a thigh bone of the extraordinary length of twenty>eight-and-a-half inches. 
I remember in the year 1820 when Sir Francis, father of Sir Charles Wood, Bart., 
of Hickleton (now Lord Halifax), was at Cannon Hall, on my recounting this 
anecdote, sending up for the old woodman, Henchliffe, who told it me, and he 
took a two-foot rule out of his pocket and extending the little slide, showed the 
exact length. He mentioned besides that he was the gravedigger's son, and was 
present at the disinterring of the said bone, and another anecdote which it is of 
no importance to relate. After a discussion about making a grave for one of the 
family, the Major said, 'Break up the grave of my uncle Benjamin Ashton, he 
has been dead above 60 years.' This was done, but the body was found entire 
and sound, as he said, as heart of oak. He was an immensely fat man, and no part 
had disappeared but the feet and hands, for he had died of gout; so antiseptic, it 
appears, is the soil of this churchyard."* 

It will be seen that this account clashes in some particulars 
with that given by Dr. Spencer Hall, but as it is the more likely 
to be correct, coming from one of the family, we have thought it 
best to give it at length. It wiU be noticed that the Bev. C. S. 
Stanhope makes no allusion to Little John's cap. If this ^'Gap'* 
had been stiU extant, it would have been of much value in test- 
ing the question of the position held by its owner, and of more 
worth than the bow as to comparative antiquity; but a letter ad- 
dressed to us by Walter Spencer Stanhope, Esq., M.P., the present 

* Hunter's Hallamahire, Dr. Gatty's edition^ page 3. It has been suggested that 
this bow probably belonged to one of the warriors of the E^e family, and had no 
connection with a mere marauding forester ; and this suggestion is favoured by the 
statement that the bow, with the other relics, formerly hung over the altar-tomb of 
the first Robert Eyre, of Padley. Nicholas Eyre, of Hope, the father of Bobert, took 
part in the battle of Agincourt, and it has been further conjectured that this was the 
weapon he there used. But though this mav have been the case with the cuirass (an 
unliKely accoutrement for a forester), surely the bow was not then used by any but 
the rank and file, and did not come within the category of knightly weapons. 



HATHERSAGE. 239 

owner of Cannon Hall, dated 2nd June, 1876, says : — " I never 
heard of any cap having been part of the relics of Little John 
which were brought to Gannon Hall, neither is there any such 
article now preserved here." Our own inquiries, made at different 
times at Hathersage, convince us that a green cap did formerly 
hang in the church, and the tradition respecting the cap seems 
even more vivid than that of the bow, as is only likely to be the 
case, owing to its later removal. On the whole, the evidence 
warrants us in assuming that a portion of the weapons and ac- 
coutrements pecuhar to a forester were hung up in this church, 
that the said forester (both from the bow and grave) was of ex- 
ceptional stature, that both weapons and grave were popularly 
assigned to Little John more than two centuries ago, and that the 
said weapons, etc., must have belonged to a man of extraordinary 
fame, or they would not have found such a resting place. 

This being the case, the opponents of the accuracy of the tradi- 
tion seem to us to have far more difficulties with which to contend 
than those who accept it. 

On the south side of the church is the wide base of the old 
churchyard cross, with about four feet of the ancient shaft. On 
the top is fixed a metal sundial inscribed — ** Daniel Bose, Darwent, 
1811." 

The tower, surmounted by a lofty octagon spire, enriched at the 
angles with crocket work, contains a peal of six beUs. They are 
thus inscribed:— 

1. '* E mero motu hie habitantium," in Eoman capitals. 

n. ** Ex dono Tho : Bagshaw * Arm : Cujus insignia," followed 
by the family crest, an arm couped at the elbow, and erect, holding 
a bugle horn. 

m. " Gloria in exselsis Deo, 1669 ; " crest of Eyre, a human leg 
armed couped at the thigh spurred, between the initials B. E. ; 

followed by the ornate initials j A 

IV. " Nos ab ruina salvet Virgo Katerina," in old English letters, 
with ornate Lombardic initials. 

V. **Tuo nomine dulcidina vocis cantabo, C. W. .G. E. 1657." 

W 
Below the date are the initials j g and on each side are the 

initials R E. below the Eyre crest. 

* Joan, daughter and heireRS of Nicholas Eyre, of Nether Hnrst, 3rd son of Robert 
Eyre and Joan Padley, married Henry BagshawOi of Bidge. Hence the connection 
of the Bagshawes with Hathersage. 



240 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

VI. ** Ihc. Gloria in excelsis Deo, 1617/' followed by the founder's 
initials — P. H. 

There is also a very interesting Sanctns bell of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, inscribed with a prayer for Robert Eyre and Joan Padley — 
"Orate pro animabus Robert Eyr Johanne uxoris ejus." Over 
the word "animabus" are the arms of Eyre, and over "Johanne" 
those of Padley.* 

Several feet of the top of this beautiful spire have, been lately 
renewed, as it suffered much in the gale of December, 1872. 

It should also be mentioned that a small piece of carved oak 
tracery, part oif a former screen of Perpendicular style, and a 
piece of Purbeck marble, well carved with quatrefoils from Hather- 
sage church, are preserved at the museum at Lomberdale House.t 

The earliest registers commence in 1627, but they contain no 
entries of special interest. 

♦The foUowing ringers' rhymes, circa 1660, which were formerly on the south wall 
of the belfry at Bathersage, are taken from Mr. Rawlins' MSS., vol. i, p. 179 :~ 

" Yon gentlemen that here wish to ring. 
See that these laws yon keep in every thing ; 
Or else be anre yon mnst without delay. 
The penalty thereof to the ringers pay. 
First, when you do into the beUhouse come, 
Look if the ringers have convenient room. 
For if you do be an hindrance unto them, 
Fourpenee you forfeit unto these gentlemen. 
Next if you do here intend to ring, 
With hat or spur do not touch a string ; 
For if you do, your forfeit is for that, 
Just fourpenee down to pay, or lose your hat. 
If you a bell turn over, without delay 
Fourpenee unto the ringers you must pay ; 
Or if you strike, misscaJLl, or do abuse, 
You must pay fourpenee for the ringers' use. 
For every oath here sworn, ere you go hence. 
Unto the poor then you must pay twelve pence ; 
And if that you desire to be enroUed 
A ringer here, these orders keejp and hold. 
But whoso doth these orders disobey. 
Unto the stocks we will take him straightway : 
There to remain until he be willing 
To pay his forfeit, and the clerk a shilling." 

t Bateman's Catalogs of Antiquities, pp. 187, 269. 



DERWENT. 241 



^t Cl^jqpelrs ^f ^tvfotnt 




|BOUT the close of the twelfth centtiry, John, Earl of 
Mortaigne, in the reign of his brother Richard, bestowed a 
large tract of land in this part of the parish of Hather- 
sage, on the Premonstratensian Abbey of "Welbeck. It is described 
in the charter as the pasture of Crookhill, the woods of Ashop up i 
to Lockerbrook, and from Lockerbrook up the valley of the Derwent, 
even to Derwent-head. This grant was confirmed by King John 
in the 16th year of his reign, and again by Henry ni.* 

A family, who took their name from the majior, held, as we have 
seen, the manor of Hathersage, and its appurtenances seem to have 
stretched up the valley as far as Berwent. On the death of 
Matthew Hathersage, towards the end of the reign of Henry III., 
these estates were divided between two co-heiresses. Oliver, son of 
Nigell de Longford, whose mother was Cecilia, co-heiress of Matthew 
de Hathersage, gave to the Abbey of Welbeck the remaining lands 
at Derwent, on which the Grange itself was erected, and which is 
now known by the name of " the Abbey," or Abbey Farm. A 
Taxation Boll that was taken of the possessions of the Abbey of St. 
James, of Welbeck, in 1299, gives the value of their estates at 
Crookhill at £7 17s. 4d.t ■ 

The same Chartulary tells us, that in the reign of Edward III., 
the Grange "in pecco/* conmaonly called "Cruchill," in Hope 
parish, obtained an exemption, by the authority of the Pope, from 
the payment of tithes of the newly-tilled lands which they had 

* For several partionlars in this acconnt of Derwent Chapelry, we are in- 
debted to papers contributed to the Beliquary <yol. X.) by Mr. Benjamin Bagshawe, 
and the Kev. F. Jourdain. The latter gentleman — ^Vicar of Derwent- Woomands — 
has also most kindly given us much information with respect to his own and adjacent 
parishes, which has not hitherto been published. The Ohartulary of Welbeck Abbey 
IS amongst the Harl. MS3., No. 8,640. The grants relative to Crookhill occur at 
n. 218, 219. 

t Harl. MSS., 8,640, f. 64. 



242 DEEBYSHIEE CHURCHES. 

planted with vegetables with their own hands, of the increase of the 
animals, of the gardens, and of the orchards. It is also specially 
mentioned in this place that the Grange was not subject to the 
jurisdiction of the Bean of Lichfield.* 

It appears that there were at one time no less than four chapels 
on this extensive monastic estate, all doubtless served by the monks 
of Welbeck. It is not necessary, however, to suppose that regular 
daily service was carried on in all of them, any more than is 
now the case with the multitude of small chapels in certain 
districts of Eoman Catholic countries, where only occasional 
masses are said. According to the change of the season, 
labour would be most in demand now in one part, and now in 
another of their domains ; and probably the monks were anxious 
to have a chapel for the devotions of themselves and their dependents 
near to the immediate site of those practical good works of fertilis- 
ing the ground, to which the Premonstratensians were specially 
addicted. But be this as it may, the four chapels were thus 
situated : — 

I. At Derwent, near the site of the present church ; this was 
probably the most important, as it was by the old water-mill, near 
to which a small colony would be sure to be in permanent residence. 

II. At the Abbey Grange, some three miles higher up the stream 
on the same side of the water ; a portion of this ancient grange is 
stiQ standing, and inhabited as a farm-house, whilst the founda- 
tions of the more extensive establishment can be readily traced. 
The chapel seems to have stood immediately to the south of the 
present building. 

ITT. On the opposite side of the river, communicating with the 
Grange by a bridge, the semi-artificial piers of which can still be 
seen on each side of the bank ; this chapel, in the township of 
Woodland, was near the present farm buildings, between Birchin 
Lee and Marebottom, that are now approached by a road called 
Chapel Lane. 

IV. In the Woodlands, by the side of the old Roman road, near 
where the present " Pillar "f stands, which was in aU probability 
an ancient wayside cross ; a wood near Ashopton is still kown by 
the name of Friars' Walk. 

At the dissolution of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIU., 

• Harl. MSB., 8,640, f. 271. 

^ Up to a very recent date it was customary to affix all notices relative to the town- 
ship 01 Woodlands to this pillar, though at some distance from any habitation. 



DERWENT. 243 

all these chapels would naturally suffer from neglect and desuetude. 
Probably the first to perish would be the one on the high ground 
by the Pillar, and, secondly, the chapel that formed part of the 
Grange, whose new owners would only care to preserve such of the 
old buildings as would suffice for farm purposes. We know that 
the chapel on the other side of the water, opposite the Grange, 
lasted longer, for it is marked on Saxton's Map of Derbyshire 
(1567), on Speede*s (1610), on Marden*s (c. 1710), on Bowen's (c. 
1750), and on EUis' (1777), under the title *' New Chappel/' This 
name would seem to imply that it was built subsequently to the one 
attached to the Grange, and hence its cognomen, which would cling 
to it even when it had itself become venerablen with age.* The chapel 
at Derwent itself, which was dedicated to St. James, remained, and 
was probably served from time to time by a curate, who was sup- 
plied by the purchaser of the monastic estates. In an account of 
lands sold in the reign of Queen Mary, the property at Derwent is 
mentioned, and '' the leade, bells, and advowsons," are excepted from 
the sale.f The Parliamentary Commissioners of 1650, describe 
"Darwenf as a parochial chapelry in the parish of Hathersage, 
with an income of £8. They recommend that it should be made a 
parish church.J One Mr. Burdyes was then the incumbent. 

In 1688 we find the Earl of Devonshire paying through his 
agent, Mr. Greaves, of Rowlee, £5 as a gratuity to the Rev. Mr. 
Nicholls, •* for his services at Derwent Chapel." In the month of 
February, 1707, there is an entry in the parish registers of Hope, 
among the list of SepuUi, of " Dom. PhiL Hutton. Curatus de Dar- 
went." From a board of bequests in Hope Church, we learn that 
Henry Balguy, who died in 1685, and whose monumental brass is 
described in our account of that church, left the sum of £20 to '^ an 
orthodox and conformable Minister of Darwent Chapel." The 
Bev. Robert Turie, curate of Eccleshall, and assistant-minister of 
the parish church of Sheffield, bought back the alienated Abbey 
Farm, and it was eventually added to the living of Derwent in 
1722.§ 

* On seyeral mopB, at the oommencement of the present century, the same site 
is termed " Old Chapel." 

t Harl. MSS., 608, f. lb. From the word "adyowsons" it would seem as if the 
presentation to more than one chapel was implied. 

t From this recommendation, when we compare it with similar suggestions of the 
Commissioners, it seems fair to assume that it was a building of some little magni- 
tude, at all events of superior proportions to that which was built in 1757. 

§ Bev. Robert Turie appears to have become interested in this district through 
his intimacy with the Baiguys. He was a Scotchman by birth. He also improved 
the livings of Edale and l>ore, and by his will, dated 19th February, 1720, left edu- 
cational endowments to Derwent, £dale, Dore, Stony Middleton, Bamford, and 
other places. 



244 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

The ancient family of Balguy, who, np to the middle of the 
seventeenth century, appear to have chiefly resided at Bowlee, built 
Derwent HaU in 1672, and in the same year gave the font to the 
adjacent chapel, and probably other benefactions. The font, which 
is of a simple but good octagon design, bears the date 1670, 
the Balguy arms, and the name ** Henery Bauegey," phonetically 
spelt. It now stands in the new church, but up to a recent date 
it served as a geranium-pot in the Hall gardens. 

In 17-57, the pre-Eeformation chapel having become dilapidated, 
it was pulled down, and another one built upon a small scale. 
From a south-east view of this chapel, which was taken by the 
Bev. B. B. Bawlins in 1824, and from a north-west view given in 
the Reliquary to illustrate the Bev. F. Jourdain's paper, we can 
gather a good idea of this ugly Httle building, with its round- 
headed windows and square bell-turret at the west end. Its area 
was only thirty-five feet ten inches by twenty-three feet four. In 
1867 this mean edifice, which had neither antiquity nor beauty to 
recommend it, was happily removed, and a church of admirable 
proportions (to which a handsome tower and spire were added in 
1873) erected in its place. It would be foreign to our purpose to 
describe the new building, but it may be mentioned that the old 
foundation-stone, bearing the date •* 1757," which was then found 
face downwards, is built into the east wall of the chancel ; and 
that numerous plainly-moulded stones of fourteenth century work 
that were found in the walls of the smaller edifice were again 
used in the masonry. The sundial that was on the walls of 
the 1757 building still stands in the churchyard, near the south 
entrance, affixed to the remains of a fourteenth century beam of 
the old chapel. On the dial is the motto, "Mors de die aocelerat." 
This was the work of Daniel Bose, a native of Wales, who lived 
for many years in the dales of Woodland and Derwent. He was 
clerk of Derwent chapel, and manufactured sundials whilst teaching 
in the old school at that place. The dials at Hathersage, Hope, 
and other churches and halls in the county, are of his workmanship. 
His mother, who died in 1819, lived to the age of 105. 

There is a tradition current in the neighbourhood, according to 
which certain Scotch rebels were imprisoned and starved to death 
within the walls of the old chapel. This tradition has been con- 
nected with the expedition of the Young Pretender into Derbyshire 
in 1745 ; but it seems mudi more likely that it should refer to the 



DERWENT. 245 

transit of the Scotch army through the county in 1648, when they 
were being conducted as prisoners to London. We know that 1500 
of them were imprisoned for sixteen days in the church of Chapel- 
en-le-Frith, during which time no less than forty-four perished from 
one cause or another ; * and it is very hkely that other sections of 
the prisoners were temporarily quartered, with probably an insuffi- 
ciency of food, in adjacent churches. 

Nor should we omit to notice that this church possesses a very 
fine silver-gilt chalice, beautifully engraved with figures emblematic 
of the elementa The hall-mark proves it to be of the year 1584-5. 
The church plate also includes a silver paten of the date 1763-4, 
on which is inscribed " Chapel of Darwent, firom Dr. Denman." The 
patronage of the chapel had been sold by Mr. Balguy to Joseph 
Denman, M.D., about this date. He was the father of the first Lord 
Denman. The advowson subsequently passed into the hands of the 
Newdigates, and now rests with the Duke of Devonshire. 

* See the account of Chapel-en-le-Frith church. 



246 DERBYSHIEE CHUBCHES. 



^t Cj^a^elrs ^^ £tons i^drirleton. 




|HERE is but little left of the old Chapel of Stony Middle- 
ton, nor can we glean much of a satisfactory nature in 
connection with its early history. We may take it as 
proved, that the Eomans had a bath here in connection with the 
mineral waters, and it is highly probable that the waters did not 
fall into disrepute, but were held in esteem both in early Christian 
and mediaeval days. These healing springs * were dedicated to St. 
Martin, and, doubtless, a well-chapel, under the patronage of the 
same saint, would be erected near the margin of the waters, after 
the same fashion as the ancient chapel of St. Anne, at Buxton. 
Probably, too, such a chapel stood on the very site of the present 
church, which now bears the name of St. Martin ; f for the 
bath is very near to the church, and Dr. Short describes in 
1734, ** three perpetual bubbling warm springs, close by the west 
side of the churchyard.** 

At what time this well-chapel first gave way to one on a larger 
scale, and more suited for the general body of worshippers, we know 
not, but from the present tower, and other incidental particulars, 
it may be safely concluded that a fair-sized chapel was certainly 
erected here in the fifteenth century. 

The ParHamentary Commissioners of 1650 describe Stony Middle- 
ton as *' a parochial chapel thought fitt to be made a parish church. 

• For a full account of the nature of these springs, see Short's Mineral Waters 
(1734), pp. 94—101; also Pilkington's Derbyshire, vol. i., p. 232. 

t Pegge's MS. Colleeiions^ vol . i., f . 8. Dr. Pegge gives the dedication of the church, 
and no other particulars relative to it, but we may perhaps be excused re-producing 
the follo"wing anecdote relative to the extreme steepness of the street where are all 
the old houses of Stony Middleton : " The hill in this town is so steep, that it is 
said when Mr. Ash ton was Sheriff in 1664, he had no coach, the Judge asked him 
why he did not bring one, he replied — ' There was no such thing as having a coach 
where he lived, for ye town stood on one end.' " 



STONY MIDDLErrON. 247 

.... Mr. Thorpe present incumbent scandalous for drincking." 
They estimated the income at £45 per annum.* 

The present Vicar, the Eev. Urban Smith, writes to us — **When 
I entered upon this living in 1834, I found this inscription on a 
board in the church, under the Eoyal Arms, * Restored 1759. John 
Hallam, Saml. White, Churchwardens.' There is no tradition about 
the shape of the old church nor of its date, but diggings in the 
churchyard seem to indicate that it was of the usual shape, with 
oblong nave and small chancel." The architect of 1769 adopted 
a singular octagon design for the body of the church, and the elBfect 
of uniting this building to a low square tower of Perpendicular 
style is most incongruous. It is said that the same architect also 
designed the stables at the back of the Crescent at Buxton, the 
stables at Chats worth, the rectory at Eyam, and Stoke Hall. We 
cannot help wishing that he had confined his attention exclusively 
to secular work. 

The timber used in the re-building of the church in 1759, was 
taken from the old edifice. It gradually became so rotten that a 
new roof was put up in 1861. At the same time a new west door- 
way and windows were inserted in the tower, but they are, 
imfortunately, after an earlier pattern than the tower itself, which 
is certainly not prior to the 15th century. 

When Mr. Rhodes visited Middleton, some sixty years ago, he 
remarked **an old stone font, of a very elegant form, and carved 
in a good Gothic style. It stands in a comer of the churchyard, 
overshadowed by some light trees. It is difficult to conjecture why 
so graceful a piece of workmanship should be cast, like useless 
lumber, into an obscure corner, rapidly to moulder away, when, 
by being removed into the interior of the church, it might be long 
preserved, an ornament to the building that gave it shelter." t 
This ancient font was unhappily destroyed at the time of the 
alterations in 1861, but from an accurate drawing of it, taken a 
few years previously, we gather that it was of octagon shape and of 
excellent design, very closely resembling the one at the mother 
church of Hathersage.J From the notes of Bassano, taken in 1710, 
we learn that it bore the arms of Eyre, as is also the case with 

* £40 of this sum was an angmentation from the sequestered rectorial tithes of 
Glossop. See the account of Charlesworth chapebry. 

t Rhodes' Peai Scenery, pt. i., p.. 31. 

J Anastatic Drawing Society^ s vol. for 1868, plate xxii. The woodcut of a font 
given in Bateman's AntiqvitieSfy. 211, and there attributed to Hathersage, is also in 
reality that of Stony Middleton. 



248 DEEBYSHIRE CHUECHES, 

the one at Hathersage. There can be no doubt that this fine old 
font was given to the church by Robert Eyre, who married the 
heiress, Joan Padley. The Padleys inherited property in this town- 
ship, through marriage with the Bemakes, and it is very possible 
that Robert Eyre, on his alliance with Padley, not only gave the 
font to the church, but built the present tower, as well as the body 
of the church that was swept away in 1759. Robert Eyre (as 
we have already stated under Hathersage), died in 1459, and his 
wife in 1463. 

There are no monuments in the church of an earlier date than 
the eighteenth century. The registers only commence with the 
year. 1715. 

The following are the inscriptions on the three bells in the tower : 

I. *• Daniel Hedderly cast us all in 1720.*' 

II. «* Tho. Froggat, Rob. Sheppard, C:W. " 

III. " Benjamin Ashton, Esq., Jonathan Rose, curate.*' 



PADLET AND NORTH LEES. 249 



^e ISomestic Cf^a^dtCrs of ^aHIev antr 




[HE manor of Upper Padley, in the parish of Hathersage, 
came to the Eyres in the first half of the fifteenth 
century, hy the marriage of Kobert Eyre with the heiress, 
Joan Padley. In this beautiful situation the Eyres built a large 
mansion, which was the most considerable in this part of Derby- 
shire. A son and a grandson of the same name (Bobert) resided 
here in succession, and then Sir Arthur Eyre, whose brass recording 
his three marriages has been fully described under Hathersage. By 
his first wife, Sir Arthur had a daughter and heiress, Anne, the 
only survivor of all his issue. She married Sir Thomas Fitzherbert 
of Norbury, eldest son and heir of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, the 
celebrated judge, and he seems to have resided during his wife*s life- 
time at Padley, preferring it to the mansion on his paternal estate. 
The Fitzherberts, like the Eyres, remained true to the ancient faith 
in the days of EHzabeth, and suffered much persecution. 

In George Talbot, sixth Earl of Shrewsbury, who was at that 
time Lord-Lieutenant of Derbyshire, the Protestants seem to have 
found an apt instrument of oppression. We have elsewhere given 
instances of his harsh treatment of Catholic Becusants,t and he 
appears to have been specially severe with the household at Padley 
Hall. In the year 1587 John Manners and Boger Columbell inform 
the Earl that on Candlemas Day, early in the morning, Mr. 

* There are farther particulara to be gleaned relative to these two domestic chapels 
from yariouB sources, in addition to those given in these pages ; bat it would scarcely 
accord with the design of a work on parish churches to enter into any fuller details 
respecting them. I hope, however, that the Rev. F. Jourdain, vicar of Derwent 
Woodlands, in conjunction with myself, wiU shortly be able to publish a small 
monograph on the interesting remains of the chapels of Padley and North Lees, 
together with an account of other Jesuit missions of which there are some traces 
in the parish of Hathersage. 

t Ohurchet of DerbyihirCf vol. i., p. 186. 



250 DEBBYSHIBE CHURCHES. 

Columbell went himself with sixteen or twenty men to Padley, 
** where he found Thomas Fitzharberfs wife,* Anthony Fitzharbert, 
two of his sisters, and about twenty persons besides, seeming to be 
of their household ; and made diligent search for Mr. John Fitzhar- 
bert, but could not find him." It is further stated in the same letter 
that "Padlaye maye be doubted much to be a house of evil resort 
and therefore, my Lord, there will be no good redresse there, in 
our simple opinyons, in those matters, unless that some may be 
resyant there that will be conformable, and some preacher placed 
amongst us, here in the Peake, to teache the people better/' In 
the following year Padley Hall was again suddenly searched by 
the Earl in person, and two Roman Catholic priests, Nicholas Gar- 
lick and Bobert Ludlam, were discovered in concealment Sir 
Thomas Fitzherbert, writing in May, 1589, to the Earl of Shrews- 
bury about the grievous burdens that he had to bear in conse- 
quence of his recusancy, says that the presence of the "two semy- 
naries was there all unknowne unto my brother, as was confessed 
at their deathe, and is well approved since by good testimony." t 

Nicholas GarUck, who was of a good family in the parish of 
Glossop, had acted as schoolmaster at Tideswell for seven years. 
He was ordained priest at the English College at Rheims in 1582, 
appointed as an EngUsh missionary in January, 1583, imprisoned, 
and then banished in 1585, but returned in the same year. 

Robert Ludlam was born near Sheffield. He was ordained priest 
at Rheims, and came to England in 1582. They were appre- 
hended between the Lent and Summer Assizes, and consequently 
confined for some time in Derby jail. There they found a third 
priest, Richard Sympson, who had been committed at the Lent 
Assizes ; , but his life had been spared, as he was supposed to be 
converted to Protestantism. But the influence of Ludlam and 
Garhck was sufficient to cause him again to recant and to brave mar- 
tyrdom. The three were hung, drawn, and quartered at Derby ou 
the 25th of July, 1588. An eye-witness says that they met death 
** with much constancy and Christian magnanimity, without the 
least sign of fear or dismay." They were drawn on hurdles to the 

• 

* This could not be Anne, wife of Sir Thomas Fitzherbert, for she died in 1576 
(Harl. MSS., 1093, f. 70). It may either have been the wife of an uncle or a nephew 
of Sir Thomas, the owner of Padley. as he had both then living of the name of 
Thomas. Anthony Fitzherbert may oe either his brother or nephew ; and Mr. John 
Fitzherbert, for whom special search was made, was the next brother and heir of Sir 
Thomas, for he had no children. See the Topographer, vol. ii.*, p. 225. 

t This correspondence is taken from the Talbot papers, as quoted by Lodge in his 
Jlluitratume of British History , vol. ii. 



PADLEY AND NORTH LEES. 261 

place of execntion. Garliok, noticing that Sympson, who first 
approached the ladder, seemed frightened, stepped forward, kissed 
it, went up before him, and so "with remarkable joy and alacrity 
finished his course." When Eobert Ludlam was on the ladder and 
just ready to be cast off, "looking up towards heaven with smiling 
countenance, as if he had seen some heavenly vision of angels, he 
uttered these last words, as speaking to saints or angels appearing 
to him — * Venite benedicti Dei * (* Come, you blessed of God ') j and 
with these words he was fiung off the ladder, and so went to enjoy 
their happy company." The heads and quarters of the three martyrs 
were set upon poles in different places in and about the town of 
Derby; and "the penner of this their martyrdom (who was also 
present at their death), with two other resolute Catholic gentlemen, 
going in the night diverse miles well armed, took down one of the 
heads from the top of a house standing on the bridge, and a quarter 
from the end of the body ; the watchman of the town seeing them 
(as was afterwards confessed) and making no resistance. These 
they buried with as great decency and reverence as they could. 
Soon after the rest of the heads and quarters were taken away 
secretly by others.'** 

The following are some stanzas from a local ballad, descriptive of 
the death of- the three priests : — 

"When GarUck did the ladder kiss, 
And Sympson alter hie, 
Methought that then St. Andrew was 
Desirous for to die. 

When Ludlam looked smilingly, 

And joyful did remain, 
It seemed St. Steven was standing by, 

For to be stoned again. 

^ 9|C 9fC 3|C 

And what if Sympson seemed to yield 

For doubt and dread to die, 
He rose again and won the field, 

And died most constantly. 

His watching, fainting, shirt of hair, 

His speech, his death, and all, 
Do record give, do witness bear, 

He wailed his former fall." 

The old chapel, with the offices below it, is the only part of 
Padley Hall now standing, with the exception of certain barns and 
outbuildings. It seems that the principal part of the Old Hall, or 
Manor House, consisted of an enclosed quadrangle, the south side 

* Challoner's Missionary Priests, pt. i, pp. 111-114. 



252 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

of which was formed by the chapel. Access to this court or quad- 
rangle was gained by an arched passage through the lower storey 
or ground floor of the building containing the chapel. Plate XI. 
shows the north or inner side of the chapel, with the arched 
entrance to the court-yard built up. It should also be remarked 
that the ground on this side has been raised several feet above its 
former level, by the accretion of the ruins of the remainder of the 
halL The chapel occupies the upper part of the building, the floor 
level being indicated on the plate by the base of the two narrow 
doorways closely adjoining each other, just over the arch-way. 
Access to these doorways must have been gained by stairways 
(perhaps of wood), that have now been removed. We see from the 
interior of the chapel, that a substantial screen divided the building 
between these two doorways, and it seems probable that the one 
nearest the east end was the entrance for the family, and the 
other for the household, retainers, or neighbours. There was a 
third entrance (scarcely shown on the plate) at the extreme east 
of this north side, into that part of the Hall which there adjoined 
it, and there can be no doubt that this was the private door for 
the priest, communicating directly with his chamber. There was 
also an external entrance to this angle of the chapel on the east 
side, now hidden by a modern lean-to, which would enable the 
priest to quit the Hall or chapel without going through any other 
part of the building. On the south side there is no entrance to 
the chapel, but the full size of the arched passage to the court can 
there be seen, and the two large buttresses, one on each side, 
which were ingeniously contrived by the architect to serve as 
chimneys. The offices on the ground floor are now used as cow- 
houses and stables, and the upper storey or chapel as a bam for 
hay and other farm produce. The whole is much dilapidated. 
The main timbers of the roof are in fair preservation. There are 
four flnely-carved hammer beams, with wall pieces rising from 
stone corbels ; the two at the west end bear simple shields, but those 
towards the east end have well-designed shield-bearing angels, one 
of which, is given on Plate XI. When looking at these ** carvM 
angels, ever eager-eyed," we received from our cicerone a curious 
piece of information as to their identity. ** They do say," said he, 
*'that one of *em be a Cherubim and the other a Seraphim." We 
are unable to say which it is that our artist has drawn ! 

The chimneys of this building are pointed out as the lurking 
places of poor Robert Ludlam and Nicholas Garlick, but we are 



Plabe XI. 



PADLEY AND NORTH LEES. 253 

inclined to think that some other part of the manor-house would 
probahly offer a less obvious place of concealment. 



NoBTH Lees, about a mile from Hathersage, was another of the 
residences of the wide-spreading family of Eyre. Nicholas Eyre, of 
Hope, (the father of Robert, who married Joan Padley,) had four 
sons. His second son, William, was the first of the family who 
lived at North Lees. It would not accord with our intentions to give 
any description of the interesting old Hall, which is still in a fair 
state of preservation ; but a little distance below the house, partly 
concealed in a small plantation, are the ruins of a small chapel, 
dedicated to the Holy Trinity. The Eyre family obtained permission 
to build this chapel in the first year of the reign of James II. 
(1685), for the purposes of Roman Cathohc worship, but it was only 
used for two or three years, for at the time of the Revolution in 
1688, *' it was demolished by the neighbouring Protestants, who 
assembled for that purpose of their own accord."* It is a small 
building, having an area of about thirty feet by fifteen. The west 
wall is still standing, with its round-headed doorway, and the arch 
of the east window is also erect, but the stones of the latter were 
picked out of the ruins and re-erected only some five- and- twenty 
years ago, for the sake of the picturesque effect 

* Pegffe'B MS. GoUections, vol. v., f. 187. At the same time another Protestant 
mob sacked the ancient Boman GathoUo Chapel at Newbold, near Chesterfield ; see 
Churches of Derbyshire, yoL i., p. 179. 



Mm. 



Fatrftrlb. 



J 



^opp. 




|HE royal manor of Hope was of considerable extent at 
the time of the Domesday Survey (1086), and had 
seven hamlets or borewicks within its limits, including 
that of Tideswell. There was at that time a priest, and a church, 
to which pertained one carucate of land, and there can bo Httle 
doubt that this Saxon church occupied the same site as the 
present one. 

On the death of Henry JL, much of the royal demesnes and 
royal patronage passed to the hands of John, and whilst he was 
yet Earl Mortaigne, viz., in 1192, he bestowed the church of Hope, 
with its chapel of Tideswell, on Hugo de Novant, Bishop of Coventry 
and Lichfield, and his successors. After John had come to the 
throne he confirmed this grant, in 1207, to Hugo's successor, 
Godfrey de Muschamp, who held the bishopric from 1199 to 1208.* 
The next Bishop, William de Comliill, who died in 1223, made 
over the whole of his episcopal rights in various churches, viz., two 
parts of that of Bakewell, and twenty marks out of the income of the 
church of Hope, to the common use of the Cathedral church of 
St. Mary and St. Chad at Lichfield, that is to say to the Dean 
and Chapter. By a subsequent charter, he conferred on the Dean 
and Chapter the whole of the church of Hope; a grant that was 
confirmed by his successor, Alexander de Savensby, and it has 
remained in their patronage to the present day.f 

It was during the episcopate of Alexander de Savensby (122-1 — 
1238) that the vicarage of Hope seems to have been formally 

♦ Calend. Rot. Chart, 7 John, memb. 8 dora. Vide Appendix No. VIII. 

f Magnum Registrom Album, and yarious original charters at Lichfield; Harl. 
MSS., 4799; Dugdale's Monaaticon, vol. iii., pp. 229, 233, 234. King John, when 
confirming this grant of the church of Hope, affixed his gold ring with a turq^uoine 
stone in it to the silk string that fastened the seal to the charter, with this ex- 
pression, "Non solum sigilli mei impressione sod proprii annuli appositione 
roboravi." — Dugdale's Wartoichahire. 

S 



258 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

ordained. We find from an early Chartiilary of the Lichfield 
Chapter that the vicar held the Easter dues, the greater and less 
oblations, the mortuary, marriage, and purification fees, the dominical 
pence {denarii dominici), and certain lesser tithes, such as those 
on pigs, poultry, and calves, giving him a total income of 
£9 10s. Od.* 

It is a curious fact that there is no mention whatever of Hope 
or Tideswell in the Taxation Roll of Pope Nicholas IV. (1291), 
from which it seems fair to conclude that these churches had 
obtained some special exemption from passing over the tithe of 
their incomes to the Bishop of Rome. 

The Valor EccUsiasticas (27 Henry VIII.), gives the value of the 
vicarage of Hope at £13 13s. 4d. Nicholas Heys was then vicar. 

It further appears from this Valor that there was a chantry in 
the church of Hope, but no mention is made of it in the Chantry 
Rolls. t The following is the entry relative to it : — 
**Hoope Cantar.* 

Dns Thurstan Townend cantarista, non comparuit et valet 
cantar' ut apparet in hbris episcopi £4." 

The inventory of the possessions of the Dean and Chapter of 
Lichfield, taken at the same date, gives the value of the rectorial 
tithes of com, hay, and minerals at Hope as £21 4s. 6d. ; the 
tithes of wool and lambs of Bakewell, Hope, and Tideswell are 
given in the aggregate sum of £105 ; and the site of the rectory 
at Hope, with glebe and lands, at £5 Os. lOd. 

The rectory manor of Hope was granted by the Dean and 
Chapter, in the reign of Edward VI., to Ralph GeU, of Hopton.J 

The Parliamentary Commissioners of 1650 proposed to make a 
thorough re-arrangement of the hamlets of the extensive parish of 
Hope. The following are their suggestions : — 

"Hamlets to be continued to it (Hope), Bradwell, SmaJedale, 
Hasselbadge, part of Pindall End, Abneye and Abneye Grange, 
Little Ashop, Cockbridge, Thorn ehill, Ashton, Brough, and the 
two Shattones. Vicarial tythes from these places £20. Thomas 
Becking present incumbent formerly in Armes against the Parha- 
ment and reputed scandalous. 

** Fairefeild, parochial chapelry of Hope, fitt to be made a parish 

♦ Harl. MSS., 4799; Add. MSS., 6666, f. 43. 

t This chantry was probably dedicated to St. Nicholas; Edward Eyre, by his will, 
dated 1669, directs his body to be buried " in the parish church of Hope in Sainfce 
Nicholas Quere." 

X Lysons* Derbyshire^ ]). 188. 



HOPE. 259 

church and these hamlets following (bemg members of Hope) to be 
included. Pigtor, Cowlow, Foolow, Baylie Flatt, and LowfaU. 
Vicarial tythes £\0. Thomas Nicholson, minister, reputed an honest 
man. 

** Rest of hamlets of Hope, Woodland, Darwent, and Shawcross 
to Chappell in the Fryth. 

"Hyelow, East side of Grindleford Bridge, Neather Padley, and 
Callow fitt to be united to Hatliersitch. 

" Stoake, and Colecliffe to Stony Middleton,'* 

" Windmilne Home, two Hurdlows, and Greenelow, and part of 
the forest extending to a place usually called Wormhill Peeke, to 
Tideswell. 

" Wardlowe to Great Longstone. 

" Gorsyehead and Brownehill to Buxton.'* 

The church, which is dedicated to St. Peter, consists of nave, 
north and south aisles, south porch, chancel, and tower surmounted 
by a spire at the west end. 

The chief characteristics of the exterior of the church are of the 
Perpendicular style of the fifteenth century. To this style belong 
the whole of the windows of the north and south aisles, 
and the chancel, as well as the eight clerestory windows. 
The embattled parapets relieved by crocketed pinnacles are also of 
this date, with the exception of those on the chancel, which are of 
a debased design. The exact date of the latter alterations can be 
learnt from an inscription cut on a stone in raised letters on the 
east wall of the chancel, near the apex of the east window. The 
inscription runs — "Repaired by the D. & C. of L. 1620," and on 
another stone the initials, **W. L." The Dean and Chapter of 
Lichfield, as impropriators of the rectorial tithes, were, of course, 
responsible for the good condition of the chancel. The initials, 
**W. L.," are probably tliose of one of the churchwardens. They 
do not belong to the then Dean of Lichfield, as has been generally 
supposed, for William Tooker then occupied that office. 

The small priest's door on the south side of the chancel (now 
disused), and the south porch, are also of the Perpendicular period. 
Over the entrance to the porch is a smaU canopied niche that 
formerly sheltered a figure of St. Peter,* and on each side of it 

• Within the memory of man the fox has been hunted in this district, and the 
body hung up as a troi)hy in the niche formerly occupied by St. Peter, circa 1820- 
80. The foxes of this neighbourhood seem to have been specially destructive. In 
the winter they were so numerous and hard set that they seized lambs from the fold. 
At Twothornfield and Crookhill, during one season, fires were kept blazing round the 
folds aU night, but Reynard even rushed through the flames to his prey. This being 



260 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

is a small single-light window, which gave light (in addition to a 
window on the west side) to a room over the porch. This room, 
termed a "Parvise," contains a fire-place. It was probably occu- 
pied by the sacristan or custodian of the church in pre-Beformation 
times, and in later times possibly by the schoolmaster. The steps 
in this turret have also been continued on to the roof of the aisle; 
but the top of the turret has at some time been injured and not 
restored, and it now remains level with the parapet. 

There are several uncouth gurgoyle heads round the building; 
but there are two serving as rain- spouts to the south aisle, which 
are specially large and hideous, projecting fully three feet from 
below the parapet. One of them, of a really revolting design, 
has been not unhappily mutilated of late years, and the other 
one reminds us of the mediaeval designs of devils in illuminated 
manuscripts, possessed of heads or faces in impossible parts 
of the body. So far as we are acquainted with gurgoyles — and our 
acquaintance is an extensive one — these two at Hope easily bear 
the palm for general monstrosity and ugliness ; but perhaps this is 
in part owing to their comparative nearness to the spectator, instead 
of being placed at the top of a tower, as is usually the case. 

It can plainly be seen on the west side of the porch, that that 
part of the building has been added to the older waU of the south 
aisle, probably taking the place of an earlier porch. This 
strengthens our supposition that a good deal of the masonry of 
the outer walls is of an earlier date than the Perpendicular period, 
although they have been subsequently pierced with windows of that 
style. The mouldings of the south doorway into the church, under 
the porch, show that it is of the Decorated style of the early part 
of the fourteenth century. To that date, too, belong the arches 
(four on each side) that separate the nave from the aisles, sup- 
ported on lofty octagon columns with plainly-moulded octagon 
cajpitals. The three sedilia, and the single piscina in a trefoil- 
pointed niche, on the south side of the chancel, are also of the 
Decorated period. The sedilia do not, however, display any richness 
of design, but are simply separated from each other, and arched 
over with a single bold rounded moulding. The seats are of 
unequal height, graduating, as is usual, from west to east. In fact 

the case, we need not be snrprised to find the numerous entries in chnrchwardenB' 
accounts of sums paid for the carcaseB of foxes (see the account of Youlgreave). The 
churchwardens of Hope probably placed the body in this conspicuous position as a 
visible proof to the parishioners of the righteous use that they were making of the 
parish moneys. For this information, as well as for several other particulars relative 
to Hope, we are indebted to the Bev. F. Jourdain. 



HOPE. 26 1 

the whole of this church, including the tower and spire, appears 
to have been entirely rebuilt about the commencement of the four- 
teenth century ; the only remnant of an older building, being the 
piscina in the south wall of the south aisle, the niche of which is 
ornamented with the tooth moulding, and may probably be attri- 
buted to the Early English work of the previous century. 

The archway into the tower from the west end of the church is 
now blocked up with galleries. The basement is used as a vestry 
and a low pointed modem window has been opened in the south 
wall. There is no doorway in the west wall of the tower, but 
there is a narrow pointed window, with two principal lights, of 
excellent design. The bell-chamber is lighted by four pointed win- 
dows of two lights, but having the apex of the arch unpierced. 
There is a course of four similar windows standing out from the 
spire, and above them another course of a single light each. There 
is no parapet to the tower, the spire rising straight from its wall 
with angles bevelled ofF, after the fashion that is termed ''broached." 
The spire loses all dignity from a lack of height; in short, the in- 
elegant term ** squat " is the best that can be applied to it. 

The weather-moulding stones of the high-pitched roof that for- 
merly covered the nave in the Decorated period can be seen on 
the east wall of the tower, both within and without the church. 
The present nearly flat roofs of the Perpendicular style, both in 
the chancel and body of the church, are entirely concealed in the 
interior (except the ends of the beams resting on the corbel stones), 
by plastered and white-washed ceilings. This barbarity, described 
by a euphemism as ** beautifying," was probably accomplished in 
1780, and they who did the deed, have handed their names down 
to posterity, on a tablet fixed to the south wall of the chancel : — 
** This chancel was beautifyd in 1780. The Revd. Mr. Thos. Hayes, 
vicr. The Revd. Mr. Thomas Wormald, curate, since vicar. Robert 
French, Matthew Chapman, Hugh Bradwell, Churchwaordens. Elis 
Woodroofe, clarke." When the day comes, as it surely must, for 
removing this incongruous plaster ceiling, we should not be surprised 
if it were found that the '^ beautiflers " had therewith concealed 
much handsomely carved timber. 

The font, under the west gallery, is of a massive octagon shape 
with octagon base, and is probably of fourteenth century work 

In the north wall of the chancel is an oblong recess that has 
served as an almery, and which has at a later date been divided 
by wooden partitions into a double cupboard, but the doors are now 



262 DEKBYSillBE CHURCHES. 

wanting. Within the commonion rails are three old fashioned oak 
chairs, all apparently of the 17th century. The largest has the 
date 1664, and the following Latin aphori>m : — "jEx torto ligno 
non fit MercuriuSy^ — i,e, " An Apollo cannot be made out of a gnarled 
log." It is said that this used to be the chair of the schoolmaster 
of the Endowed Free School of Hope,* and the motto perhaps bore 
comfort to the heart of the village usher when incUned to wax im- 
patient with the density of his material. The pulpit on the south 
side of the chancel arch is of well carved oak, and it is inscribed : — 
** Thos. Bocking, teacher, the Churchwardens this year Michael 
Woodhead, Jarvis Hallam, John Have, 1652.'* "We may gather from 
this inscription that Mr. Bocking was not removed owing to the 
unfavourable report of the Parhamentary Commission, and we may 
also infer, from his acceptance of the title of "teacher," that he 
was inclined to faU in with the ways of the new regime. 

Though there are no monuments in the church of any antiquity, 
the remains of heraldic glass in the windows, and of heraldic carving 
on the old seats, are of much interest and worthy of a detailed 
description. We have not found any notice of the heraldic bearings 
in Hope Church in the Visitations of the 17th century, but there are 
some notes respecting them in Bassano's MSS.t taken about 1710, 
in the Eev. A. Suckling's MSS.J compiled in the summer of 1823, 
and in Mr. Mitchell's Collection8,§ who visited the church a few years 
later. From these various entries, we find that several coats have 
disappeared from the windows of late years. The arms of Eyre 
quartering Padley used to be in the east window of the chancel ; 
these are not there now, but in the east window of the south aisle 

is the quartered coat — 1st and 4th Eyre, 2nd Padley, 3rd . 

This blank quartering was Wells {erm., on a canton, «a6., a buck's 
head cabossed, or), as we learn from Mr. Suckling's notes. The 
marriage of Robert Eyre, of Highlow, in this parish, (descended from 
Thomas, one of the sons of Robert Eyre and Joan Padley) with 
Anne, daughter and co-heiress to Bernard Wells, of Holme, in the 
parish of Bakewell, has been already mentioned under Hathersage, 
in which church there is a small brass to their eldesk son, who died 
in his youth. Robert Eyre, the husband of Anne Wells, died on 
the 14th August, 1662, aged 44. 

* The Free School of Hope was endowed by Thomas Stevenson, 7 Chas. II. See 
Charity CommissionerB' Reports, vol. xviii., p. 79. 

t Baesano's Church Note», at the College of Arms. Bassano describes the rood- 
loft as existing at Hope at the time of his visit. 

X Add. MSS., 18, 478, f. 87. 

§ Add. MSS., 28,111, 1 101. 



HOPE. 263 

In the same window, and immediately above this coat, is a round- 
let of glass, containing — per pale, sab., and or, a talbot, arg. — but 
we cannot ^Ye any satisfactory explanation of its presence. The 
crest of Wells was a demi- talbot, ermines. There used also to be 
in the windows of this aisle, a single coat of Eyre, and another of 
Padley. 

The north wall of the chancel is now panelled with various 
fragments of carved oak of different design and date, which formerly 
formed parts of old pews in the chancel, or in the body of the church. 
Here may be noticed the Eyre and Padley quartered coat, the 
same impaling Reresby {gu,, on a bend, arg., three cross crosslets 
fitchee, sah.), and an elaborate shield of Reresby quarterings — Dein- 
court, Normanvile, Gotham, etc. These quarterings of the Reresby 
family have been already described in our account of the churches 
of Ashover and Chesterfield.* 

The words "Eyre and Padley," **R. Ayr," " Ayre and Reresby," 
and the dates " 1581 " and ** 1652," are also carved on different 
parts of the woodwork. 

The connection of the Eyres and Reresbys may be thus ex- 
plained. Christopher Eyre, of Highlow (grandson of Robert Eyre, 
of Padley), had by his first wife, Alice Sanderson, four sons and 
three daughters. The eldest of these sons, Thomas, who died in 
the hfetime of his father, married Anna, daughter of Lionel Reresby, 
of Thribergh. The third son, Robert, married Jane, sister of the 
said Lionel Reresby. t 

The second son of Christopher Eyre, and heir of his brother 
Thomas, was George Eyre, of Highlow. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Balguy, of Aston, Hope. The Balguys were 
an ancient Derbyshire family, and held large landed property both 
in Hope and in Hathersage. Their chief seat was at Aston Hall, 
and subsequently at Hope Hall, and Rowlee, all in the old parish 
of Hope. In the seventeenth century they purchased Derwent Hall, 
in the parish of Hathersage. Against the north wall of the 
chancel is a small brass, about nine inches by fifteen, quaintly 
engraved with a full-length figure in pointed hat, doublet, and 
breeches, having a pen in the right hand and a book in the left. 

* Churches of Derbyshire, vol. i., pp. 36, 159. 

t There had been a previous iukerinarriage between the Beresbys and another 
branch of the Eyres. Edward iByre, of Holme, Ohesterfield (grandson of Roger 
Eyre, 4th son of Kobert Eyre, of Padley), married for his first wife, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Ralph Reresby, of Thribergh, and widow of John Bosvile, of Newhall. From 
this marriage were aescended the Eyres, of Newbold. 




264 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

In the centre is the following ciirions inscription , with the arms 
of Balgny — or, three lozenges, az, two and one— on a shield 
above : — 
<* A mnndo ablactans ocnlos tamen ipse reflecto 

Sperno flens yitiis lene sopore cado. 

Wained from the world, npon it yet I peepe, 

Disdaine it, weepe for sinne, and sweetly sleepe. 

'* EUc jacet Henricus Balgay qni obiit decimo septimo die Martii 
Anno Domini 1685. 

'* Anno aetatls sasB septnagesimo septimo. Cujas peccata per 
Christum condonantnr. Amen." 

On the panelling on the same side of the church is carved 
** Henry Balgay, A.D. 1632." On the other side of the chancel; 
is a hatchment of the Balguy family, on which are represented 
the arms of Balguy quartering Brailsford {or, a cinquefoil, sab.) ; 
Leigh (Barry of four, arg, and «a5., a bend, ^m.) ; and Leche (cttw., 
on a chief dancettee, //m., three ducal coronets, or).* 

There are various other names and dates on the panelling 
of the chancel, which have formerly been on the pews of the 

1 fiTTQO 
respective owners — mvr — 1679 — Balphe Bocking 1658 — Edmund 

Poynton. 

Against the north wall of the chancel, painted plainly in black 
on the whitewash, are the arms of Woodrojffe — arg,, a chevron between 
three crosses formee fitchee, gu.), with the crest (a woodpecker 
russet) above, and the motto — Quod transtulif retidi — below it. 
The Woodroflfes, of Hope, were a family of considerable antiquity. 
Their pedigree can be traced back with precision to the reign of 
Edward IV. In 1634 Ellis Woodrofife, the last heir male of the 
eldest branch, died leaving five daughters as co-heiresses, one of 
whom married Peter Foljambe.f This coat was probably painted 
here in the time of this Ellis Woodrofife. 

* Two of the alliances claimed by these qnarterings occurred us early as the twelfth 
century. Robert, a grandson of Thomas Balguy, of Aston, who died in 1104, mar- 
ried Anne, daughter and heiress of Sir John Brailsford, of Norton. His great-grand- 
son, Sir Jobun Balguy, married Anne, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Thomas Leigh, 
of Cheshire. The pedigree of Balguy, is given in fall, Add. MSS., 2S, 118, f. 41, but 
the early part of it is condemned as "very suspicious and made up" by such 
eminent genealogists as Mr. Wolley, and Mr. T. N. Ince. There is, however, no 
doubt of the great antiquity of the family in this part of the Peak ; and probably 
neither Mr. Wollej nor Mr. Ince were aware that the same quarterings as are now in 
the church, were m Hope Hall two centuries ago (Bassano MSS.), at a time when 
imposture in heraldry was rather at a discount. The alliance with an heiress of a 
younger branch of Leche is of a later date, and can be satisfactorily proved. 

i" Add. MSS., 28, 113, f. 4b. The marriage between Peter Foljambe and Jane, 
eldest daughter of Ellis Woodrofife, was solemnized on the 19th of September, 1642 ; 
Hope Begisters. 



HOPE. 265 

In the upper tracery of the east window of the south aisle is 
a small shield, on which are the arms of Gell, of flopton — Per 
bend, az. and or, three mullets of six points in bend, pierced and 
counter-changed. This coat of arms was doubtless placed here in 
the time of Edward VI., when lialph Gell obtained the lease of 
the rectorial manor of Hope. Ealph Gell, grandfather of Sir John 
Gell, of Parliamentary fame, died on the 7th of June, 1564. 

No notice of the interior of this church would be complete with- 
out an allusion — ^but it shall only be an allusion — to the four full- 
length portraits that adorn its wall. In the chancel are Moses 
and Aaron ; in the north aisle are allegorical figures of Time and 
Death, the latter a grinning skeleton. These works of art appear 
to be rather more than a century old, and probably are a componeut 
part of the ** beautifying " of 1780. 

There are six bells in the tower of this church, bearing the 
following inscriptions : — 

I. '* N. W. Clark. Daniel Hedderly made us aU in 1783." 

II. "Jarvis Bawgey great benefactor, 1783." 

ni. *' Soli deo gloria in excelsis, 1783. W. Hattersly, C.W." 

IV. " Tho. Wormald Vic : E : B. W : H. N : C. Churchwardens, 
1738." 

V. ** Daniel Heddely, Founder, 1788." 

VI. *'Our sounding is to each a call 

To serve the Lord both great and small. 1788." 
On the waist of this bell are th6 arms of the Duke of Devonshire, 
three stags' heads, cabossed. 

From articles of agreement between Daniel Hedderly, of Baltry, 
in the coimty of York, bell founder, and John Hawksworth, of 
Stunyserlow, in the same county, lead merchant, of the one part, 
and Robert Bocking, William Hattersley, and Nicholas Chapman, 
churchwardens of the parish of Hope of the other part, drawn up in 
the year 1738, it appears that the four old bells being ** very much 
decayed and out of tune," it was agreed for a new bell to be added, 
and the old peal recast, the total weight of the five bells to be 
between forty- five and forty-seven hundredweight, and the payment 
to be at the rate of 20s. per cwt.* These bells were paid for by 
the parish, and it would seem probable from the arms on the sixth 
bell, that the last of the peal was given by the Duke of Devon- 
shire, and therefore is not named in the agreement. 

• Reliquary y Vol. XIV., pp. 83—35. 



266 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

The churchwardens' accounts for 1784 contain various entries 
relative to these bells and the contingent expenses. 

£ B. d. 

Pd. W. Haws worth for je bells due from us 45 19 5J 

Pd. Will Butcher for making ye frame 26 

Pd. for ye Bell Clapers at Bawtrey 4 6 6 

Pd. for waying ye old Bells in money and ale 7 9 

Pd. Mr. Eddearly for coming to sine ye last article 110 

My charges four days and what I paid for Mr. Parsons and both horses 

when we went to way ye new Bells and tune them at Bawtrey ... 18 2 

Gave to Mr. Ederly to help to load ye Bella and ye workmen 3 10 

For four days my horse and myself going to Bawtrey 8 

Spent in taking down ye old Bells and helping up ye new Bells and all 

charges about em 4 18 10 

Pd. George White for carriage of ye bells ilnd going to his house 7 1 

In front of the porch is a small stone mural sundial, about a 
foot square. It seems to be about two centuries old, and many of 
the figures are illegible. Not far from the porch is the range of 
six octagonal steps that have formerly supported the churchyard 
cross. On the summit there is now a short column with an 
horizontal metal sundial, inscribed — ** Daniel Rose, Darwent, 1805." 

The antiseptic qualities of the soil in certain parts of North 
Derbyshire have been already noticed when writing of Hathersage, 
and a remarkable instance that was detailed in the Philosophical 
Transactions J and has since been copied into various guide books, 
occurred on the moors of Hope parish. It seems that in 1674, 
a grazier of the name of Barber and his maid-servant were lost 
in the snow, and remained covered with it from January to May. 
When discovered, the bodies were so offensive that the Coroner 
ordered them to be buried on the spot. Twenty-nine years after- 
wards some countrymen, aware of this incident, and of the extra- 
ordinary property of the soil, had the curiosity to open the ground, 
and found the bodies in no way altered, " the colour of the skin 
being fair and natural, and their flesh as soft as that of persons 
newly dead.*' They were exposed for sight at frequent intervals, to 
gratify an unwholesome curiosity, for upwards of twenty years, 
when the unseemly exhibition was put a stop to, and the bodies 
removed to Hope churchyard, chiefly through the intervention of 
the man's grandson, Mr. Barber, of Botherham. We are able to 
give the original description of this strange occurrence, contained 
in a letter from Mr. Wormald (curate and subsequently vicar of 
Hope), to the well-known antiquary, Dr. Pegge, which has not 
hitherto been published. 

*' With regard to the dead people found upon ye moss I know 



JiOjpj;. fiAhWtiaeo)!. 



PAfflswOt!:,. Yfm- 



HOPK. 267 

that when I lived at Darwent, in the year 1724 or 5 I am not 
certain whether, they were taken up and brought to Hope to be 
buried, and I (at the request of Mr. Hayes, who was then Vicar) 
buried them. I also was a spectator when they were taken up and 
put into their coffins, and I do affirm those parts of ye body that 
had never been exposed to ye air were as entire and firm as when 
they were lay'd in, the other part of ye body that was exposed to 
ye air by opening so often were putrified and gone, only the bones 
and joynts hung together. They had lain there in the moss 28 
years, it was said, before they were ever looked at, and after yt 
time they were exposed to ye view of people who came every 
summer out of curiosity to see them for the space of 20 years 
longer, which makes in ye whole 48 years. Therefore they were 
layed in ye moss 23 years at least before I was bom, and yet I 
buried them. This is a matter of fact and you may rely on it as 
such from 

** Your faithful friend and very humble servant, 

** S. WORMALD." 

Dr. Pegge adds to this letter the foUowing memorandum : — " Mr. 
W., when he wrote this, was 68, and told me by word of mouth 
that the joynts were pliable, and ye hands and nails perfect."* 

In the Vicarage grounds at Hope tliere is the lofty stem of an 
ancient cross. This cross, which has a strong resemblance to those 
of Eyam and Bakewell, is profusely carved with interlaced knot 
work and foliage, and bears upon one side two draped figures 
holding a staff between them. It was, doubtless, standing at Hope 
at the time when it was visited by the Domesday Survey Com- 
missioners, and may possibly be a century or two older. We 
imagine that this cross, when perfect, was finished at the top 
after the fashion of that at Bakewell, rather than that at Eyam. 
On taking down the old school buildings at Hope, about the year 
1858, the lower part of this cross was discovered forming a lintel 
over a door ; the upper part was afterwards found built into one of 
the walls. It is of red sand-stone and now stands about seven 
feet high, f 

The parish registers commence in the year 1559. The following 
entries are perhaps worth reproducing : — 

1630. John Manners, of Haddon, Esquire, grants liberty to install a seat, in the 

*Pegge*s Collections, vol. v., f. 163. 

f There is a sketch of this cross in the volume of the Anastatic Drawing Society 
for 1860, plate Ixii. ; there in also another sketch in the second volume of the Fac- 
timiU Society^ plate xix. 



268 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

place belonging to the house at Hazlebadge, in Hope Church, dnzing 
pleasure of Thomas Eyxe at Sonthwinefield, gent. 
1686. Began the great death of many children and others by a contagious disease 
called the children pock and purple pock. 

A considerable trade in body-snatching was carried on between 
Hope and Manchester some fifty or sixty years ago. One of the 
entries of Burial has this additional note — ''Body removed same 
night/' 



There was formerly a chapel on the manor of Grindlow in this 
parish. Almost all that is known of it is contained in the roll of 
church goods drawn up in the first year of Edward VL, wherein 
is the following entry : — " Holoppe. Chapell of Grenelow, j chalyce 
with a patten of sylver and parcell gylt-^a vestment of a albe — a 
lyttyl bell — j corporas — a cope of black velvet — ^ij aulter clothes.** 
In all probability this chapel was attached to the Grange that here 
pertained to the Augustine monks of Lillcshall. Matthew de Stokes, 
in the last half of the twelfth century, bestowed the manor of " Grene- 
lawe in Peco '' on the monastery of Lilleshall, in Shropshire, and 
King John confirmed this grant in the first year of his reign.* 

In the year 1250, an agreement was made between the Dean 
and Chapter of Lichfield, and the Abbot and Convent of Lilies- 
hall, concerning the greater and lesser tithes of this Grange. It 
was arranged that the Abbey should pay to Lichfield twenty shil- 
lings a year, and should then be free of greater and lesser tithes, 
as well as of the tithes of all animals feeding in the three parishes 
of Tideswell, Bakewell, and Hope, or that were stalled on the 
aforesaid Grange according to immemorial custom.t Edward VL 
granted it, in 1562, by the name of Greenlow Grange, to Sir 
WiUiam Cavendish. 



* RotuU Chartarom, 1 John, memb. 16. Lysons makes the mistake of ascribing 
the gift to John, who, however, merely confirmed it. The chartnlary of Lilleshall, 
from which additional particulars might have been gleaned, is either non-extant or in 
private hands. 

t Magnum Begistrum Albums f. 99. 



FAIRFIFXD. 2C9 



Ef)t (S^SLptlvji of jfaivfitlJi. 




HEN Messrs. Lysons were compiling their volume of the 
Magna Britannia relating to Derbyshire, a Fairfield cor- 
respondent wrote : — " It seems that a chapel and chantry 
was fomided at Fairfield soon after the discovery of the warm 
springs at Buxton by the Bomans." But such an improbable and 
unauthenticated supposition did not, as we might expect, find a 
place in the volume in question. 

So far from having any claim to so venerable an age, it docs 
not even seem as if Fairfield possessed a chapel in 1206, when 
King John gave the church of Hope, with its chapel of Tideswell, 
to the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield.* Fairfield was then within 
the parochial limits of Hope, and if a chapel had been then extant 
it would probably have been mentioned in this charter, which, 
however, expressly limits Hope to its single chapel of Tideswell. 

But between this date and 1255, Fairfield chapel appears to have 
been erected, for in the deed of confirmation of the Lichfield 
Cathedral property, granted in the latter year by Archbishop Boni- 
face, mention is made of ** Hope cum ejus capellis." Tideswellf is 
named separately having then become a distinct parish, and we 
conceive that the chapels alluded to were those of Fairfield and 
Grindlow. 

Though we can only fix the date of the foundation of this 
chapel within a year or two, we are able to give the precise year 
when a chantry was here established, together with the name of 
the founder of both. An early Lichfield Chartulary tells us that 
in the year 1260 the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield gave leave to 
William Gretton, Lord of Fairfield, to found a chantry, dedicated 
to the Virgin, in the chapel there erected by the said William, as 

* Charter Bolls, 7 John, memb. 8 dors, 
t Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. iii., p. 224. 



270 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

the inhabitants couJdJnot well go to Hope Church, to be served by 
a priest at the expense of the inhabitants.* 

It is rather surprising to find anyone termed **Lord" of Fairfield, 
for there were no manorial rights or manor of Fairfield, over which 
to be lord in the usual acceptance of the term. Fairfield formed 
part of the royal Forest of the Peak, and there are numerous docu- 
ments extant, relative to the pasture lands of Fairfield, in the 'reigns 
of Henry III., and Edwai-d I.f These pasture lands seem to have 
been of some celebrity in the neighbourhood, and to have been 
common to all the rangers, foresters, and freeholders of the ad- 
jacent townships, upon payment of certain royalties to the King. 
The King had also power to grant rights of pasturage, etc., at 
Fairfield, to others than the residents, and we find Henry III., in 
the seventh year of his reign, granting pasturage for three hundred 
sheep and twenty-four other animals to the prioress and nuns of 
St. Mary's Convent at Derby, from April to Michaelmas day ; and 
still more extended grants on several occasions to the Abbey of 
Merivale in Warwickshire. WiUiam Gretton had probably some 
especial privilege conceded him over these royal pastures, but one 
that seems to be unrecorded in any extant document. 

In the year 1328 one of those frequent disputes between the 
Priory ^of Lenton and the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield, that have 
been fully explained in our account of Chapel- en -le-Frith, occurred 
in connection with the tithes of Fairfield, two-thirds of which were 
being claimed by Lenton. The matter was finally referred to the 
decision of Pope John XXII. The Pope appointed the Prior of 
Charley (acting for the Abbot of Gerendon) to hear the case as his 
Commissioner. Several interesting documents connected with this 
dispute have been preserved. The first is a citation to the Prior 
of Lenton to appear before the Prior of Charley, in the church of 
St. Margaret, at Leicester, " on the fourth legal day next after the 
day of St. Kenelim next ensuing.'* This document is dated July, 
1824. On the 10th of the following month the Prior gives his 
decision in favour of Lichfield, and in September of the same year 
the Archdeacon of Stafford issues a mandate to the Vicars of 
Bakewell, Hope, and Tideswell, informing them of the decision and 
ordering them to see to its due observance.^ 

♦Harl. MSS., 4799; Magnum Registnim Album, f. 158; Add. MSS., 6666, f. 88. 

t Botuli Litterarum ClauBamm, 7 Henry III., memb. 2, 5, 13 ; 8 Homy III., memb. 
8: 10 Henry III., memb. 28; Inq post Mort., 13 Edward I., No. 114; 30 Edward I., 
No. 125, etc., etc. 

I See Appendices Nos. IX., X., and XI. 



FAIRFIELD. 271 

When the Valor Ecdesiasticus was drawn up (27 Henry VIII), 
the chapelry of Fairfield was considered to be of the clear value of 
^10 lOs. Od. per annum. The Parliamentary Commissioners of 
1650 valued its •* vicarial tythes " at £10. They reported in 
favour of its being made a separate parish in unison with several 
of the adjacent hamlets. Thomas Nicholson was then the minister, 
"reputed an honest man." Mr. William Naden, who succeeded 
him, was ejected for Non-conformity on St. Bartliolomew's Day, 
1662. 

At the Derbyshire Quarter Sessions, on I7th October, 1815, it 
was represented by the humble petition of the minister and chapel- 
wardens and inhabitants of Fairfield, thut ** the chapel is a very 
ancient structure, and so greatly decayed in every part that the 
whole fabric is in very great danger of fulling, notwithstanding 
the expenditure of considerable sums ; and also much too small, 
there being no gallery, and no vestry, which renders it very incon- 
venient to the officiating minister." It was, therefore, considered 
expedient to take the whole down and have it rebuilt, and Mr. 
John Worrall, " an able and experienced architect," estimated the 
cost at £2,432 5s. 2^d. The result of this petition was that 
a Brief was obtained for the rebuilding of the chapel iu 1817 ; 
but the funds thus raised appear to have been wholly insufficient, 
and it was not until 1638 that the old building was finally taken 
down. A south view of it, drawn by Mr. Rawlins in September, 
1885, shows that it had a square tower at the west end, a plain 
pointed porch, a nave, and chancel. Its general appearance seems 
to point to the late Perpendicular period, so that the tradition 
that the old church was rebuilt in the time of Queen Elizabeth 
may be correct. A small pointed window, however,- to the left 
of the priests* door in the chancel, if correctly drawn, appears 
to be of the Early EngHsh period, so that part of the church or 
chapel originally built here by William Gretton, seems to have 
remained until the rebuilding of the present centuiy. Both the 
roofs are represented in the drawing as high-pitched, but the 
nave is slated, and the chancel covered with lead. Mr. Eawlins 
gives the dimensions of the nave as forty-seven feet by seventeen 
feet ten inches, and of the chancel as twenty-four feet five inches 
by thirteen. 

The present church is a plain oblong building, with a tower 
at the west end. It has a flat plaster ceiling. Over the south 
door (the only entrance) is the date 1839. It contains various 



272 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

moral monuments ; the oldest, which is under the west gallery, 
being to the memory of Leonard Troughear, of Aspatria, Cumber- 
land, who died in 1721. On the north wall is a monument to 
Edward Dakin, 1809, on which it is stated that his ** forefathers for 
very many centuries were interred in the chancel of the old church 
standing on this site." A large monument to his grandson, WiUiam 
Dakin, merchant, of London, who died in 1848, is against the east 
wall; below the inscription is the singular motto of this ancient 
family* — ** Strike Dakin, the Devil's in the Hemp." 

There is a large plain octagon font under the gallery, which 
probably came from the old church. On a rocky mound to the 
west of the church, is a pedestal of a sundial, about four feet high, 
the plate of which is now wanting. This pedestal has formerly 
served as the stem of the old churchyard cross. 

The following is an extract from, an interesting letter, written by 
Mr. Mounsey to Mr. Lysons in 1816, relative to the endowments 
of this church : — 

*' As the inhabitants of Fairfield were not permitted to assemble 
in the church for public worship, nor suffered to bury their dead 
in the churchyard during the reign of Queen Mary, Thomas Dakin, 
who was a great and successful opponent of that furious Biggot 
(sic) protected the inhabitants in the performance of their religious 
rites and ceremonies, near to his house at Bailey Flatts, where 
they also buried their dead. It is probable that the church has 
been stript of its possessions and left without any privileges, as 
Thomas Dakin, who enjoyed a considerable share of royal favour 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, obtained Letters Patent to incor- 
porate the Alms Houses and Church, and from that time the Alms 
Houses ceased and the endowment thereof became the endowment 
of the church and so continues. '*t Mr. Mounsey adds that this 
information was obtained from Mr. William Dakin. Mr. Dakin was 
one of the six resident governors in whom the appointment of the 
minister rested pursuant to the Letters Patent of 37 EUzabeth. 
He was a lineal descendant of Thomas Dakin who founded the 
Almshouses in the reign of Henry IV. 

The tower contains six modern bells, having the following in- 
scriptions : — 

L and II. ** Taylor and Co., Bell Founders, Loughboro." 

* There is a good account and pedigree of the family of Dakin or Dakeyne in 
Glover's Derbyshire, under Darley Dale. 

t Add. MSS., 9,424, f. 293. 



FAIRFIELD. 273 

in. " Prosperity to our benefactors. Taylor & Co., Bell Founders, 
Loughboro." 

IV. ** William Barker, Churchwarden. Taylor & Co., Bell Founders, 
Loughboro." 

V. "Charles Smith, Incumbent, 1867. Taylor & Co., Bell 
Founders, Loughboro." 

VI. " This peal of bells was procured chiefly by the exertions of 
Matilda Wainwright and Miss Jane Flint. Taylor & Co., Bell 
Founders, Loughboro." 

The church is dedicated to St. Peter. The registers only com- 
mence with the year 1738. 



fnl f oPFs! 



]PFa6 ForpsK 




[N the centre of the Peak district, about half-way between 
Tideswell and Chapel-en-le-Frith, lies the extra-parochial 
chapelry of Peak Forest. Here a chapel was erected in 
the seventeenth century. Bassano, writing in 1710, says : — ** This 
chappell is dedicated to Charles the Boyal Marter, *tis a chappell 
donative and built by Elizabeth Lady Shrewsbury." But Bassano 
is here in error, for the celebrated Countess of Shrewsbury died in 
1607. The following entry in one of the early registers gives the 
real date of its erection, that part in brackets being in a later 
hand: — 

"Mem*'. That the Chapel of St. Charles Einge and Martyr,* 
was erected in the year of our Lord God one thousand six hundred 
and fifty seven, [and the porch in 1666 that is to say 9 years 
after]." 

For our own part we have no doubt that this chapel was built 
by Christian, Countess of Devonshire. She was the only daughter 
of Edward Lord Bruce, and connected with the royal Stuart 
dynasty. Shortly after the accession of James I., she became the 
wife of William, second Earl of Devonshire, but was left; a widow 
in 1628. The Countess ever showed the greatest and most constant 
devotion to the cause of the monarchy, and lost her second and 
favourite son, Charles Cavendish, at the hands of the Parliamenta- 
rians in 1643. But even the Dowager Countess of Devonshire, 
notwithstanding the great influence of her family in these parts, 
would not have been daring enough to dedicate a chapel to Charles, 
King and Martyr, in 1657 ; and it seems probable that the building 
was not completed, and certainly not dedicated^ until after the 

* We only know of one other similar dedication — viz., the chapel of Newton, 
in the parish of Wem, Shropshire. 



278 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Restoration. She died in 1674, and left by her wiD, according to 
an inscription in Haolt Hacknall Chorch, a bequest to the poor of 
Peak Forest* 

This chapelry was not only extra-parochial, but also extra- 
episcopal, and was, in fact, subject to no external jurisdiction 
whatever. The technical title of the minister appears from the 
registers to have been — "Principal Official and Judge in Spirituali- 
ties in the Peculiar Court of Peak Forest." Amongst other privi- 
leges, the minister was his own surrogate, and had the right of 
granting marriage licences without any let or hindrance. For this, 
amongst other purposes, the chapel was furnished with a seal. This 
seal is remarkable both for the rudeness of the design and the 
obscurity of the legend. It is a small piece of hard wood, round 
at one end, and oval at the other. The engraving on the round 
end has been carelessly cut, so that it can be read straightway 
from the seal itself, and this has, of course, the effect of reversing 
the lettering of the impression. The legend is — ** + PECV : iVliS : 
APVD PEAKE FORREST. CAP : ADMC." That the first port of 
this implies, " The PecuKar Jurisdiction of the Chapel in the Peak 
Forest '* is obvious ; and the best explanation that we can give of the 
last four letters is that they stand for *' Anno Domini," and that 
the engraver had not left himself space to put in more than the 
first two letters of the correct date intended to be expressed in 
Roman numerals. The centre of the seal is occupied by a quar- 
tered shield, most rudely cut, apparently bearing in the first quarter 
a plain cross ; in the second, a cross pattee ; in the third, two 
nondescript animals (? pigs seeking pannage in the forest) ; and in 
the fourth, on a bend two mullets. 

The oval end of the shield, which is equally rudely carved, bears 
in the centre the same two animals, impaling a square diagonally 
intersected and three roundlets in base.f Below this is the date 
" 1665 " in Arabic numerals. The legend, which is in parts indis- 
tinct, seems to be as follows :— -" SIGIL. IVR. STL CA. MARAD : 
i?AMIAZFRP.'* Here again the first part is quite clear as being 
** The Seal of the Jurisdiction of St. Charles the Martyr," but the 

* For an account of Christian, Countess of Devonshire, see Grove's Lives of the 
Earls and Dukes of Devoiiakire (1764), pp. 9 — 16. 

t Several conjectures ml^htbe offered as to the meaning of these devices, but they 
-would all be so vague that it is scarcely worth while to produce them. On the whole, 
aiter submitting them to several gentlemen well skilled in heraldic lore, one of 
whom is an official in the College of Arms, we are inclined to think that they 
merely represent the caprice of a clumsy artist, or else that he has so misinterpreted 
that whion he had to copy as to render it nonsensical. 



PE.VK FOREST. 279 

rest is a puzzle, attributable, we can only suppose, to the ignorance 
of the provincial carver. The stop : seems to have been placed 
after instead of before ** A.D.," and several of the remaining charac- 
ters are not quite clear, especially the two given in italics. The 
most liJvely suggestion that occurs to us (but we readily admit that 
abetter may be found) is, that it should read in full after "MAR'' 
— Ad (or apud) Caineram in Foresta Regia Feed — i.e., at the Chamber 
(camera) of the Royal Forest of the Peak This explanation 
involves the idea that the engraver omitted -the first half of the 
word cameramy instead of the lasfc, as is usual in contractions. 
This particular spot was long known as the Chamber of the Peak, 
and is thus marked in sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
century maps of the county. It was here that the king or his 
representative held a court in connection with his royal forest, and 
we have met with the expression camera, etc., in several early 
Latin charters. 

Several attempts seem to have been made by the Dean and 
Chapter of Lichfield — who were the rectors of all the adjacent 
parishes, with the exception of Castleton — to interfere with the 
peculiar jurisdiction of this chapel, but all to no purpose. The 
following spirited rejoinder that was made to their pretensions 
by the Rev. Mr. Oldfield,* who wa» minister at the close of the 
seventeenth and commencement of the eighteenth centuries, is to 
be found on the fly-leaf of one of the registers : — 

Mr. Oldfield Answer to y* Dane and Chapters OfflciaUe as to their pretensions to y« 

Peak Forest. 
Sir, 

I haTe a due veneration for y« Dane and Chapter as y* Dignitaries of ye 
Chnrch. But y* reason why I cannot comply w*^ them as to their Invasion on yt 
Liberties & Immunities of y* Peak Forest are as FoUoweth (vi2.) 

When first I came to y« place it was given me to observe by Mr. BuUock and Mr. 
Wheeldon Senior the late Dukes chief Agents, y^ y« place was extra parochiaU & had 
no dependency on Litchfield for it was a Church donative, & founded on y« Crown 
Land -neither must I pay any appearance at their visitations, & so it was acknow- 
ledged by y* Famous & Learned Bishop Hacket at his Primary Visitation in open 
Court at Chesterfield, immediately after y* King's Bestauration. 

Secondly, 'tis well known y* y« Dane & Chapter have a peculiarity in y« High Peak, 
& as well known y* that peculiarity is made up of four Parishes (viz.) Bakewell, 
Tideswell, Hope, Chapel en le Frith, & a small place towards Ashbum caUed Eniv- 
ington & never more known by any man now living— But they not content w'*> their 
antient Devidend as their Predicessors formerly have been to enlarge their jurisdic- 
tion, w* fain push y« forest, w*» was always extra parochiall into some of y« fore 
named Parishes w<* to any rational, & un biased man w* seem a prodigious push. 

Sly It is weU known y' never any of my Predecessors in y* place ever since y* 

* Bassano mentions a gravestone against the north wall of the chapel, to Maria 
Oldfield* the wife of this ininiHtor. 8he died in 1699. 



280 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Church was founded & huilt did pay any common appearancoi or took ont any 
Lycence for y* place at their Court, neither have they any President for their 
proceedings. 

4Iy As to Probates of Wills etc. If they can destroy a Register of above three 
score years standing vi^ would seem very strange, I presume there is a Court cals 
itself Prerogative to yo" perhaps may take cognizance of those things. 

51y As to yo' further proceedings against me you cannot justly chaige your Signi- 
ficavit w*^* any notorious Heresie, Schism, Symony, Perjury, Usury, Incest, Adultery, 
or any other gross immoralities, & if so then it must be pro contumibcia only, & in 
y* there will be found a case de meo et tuo so must be further inspected, for he y^ is 
chancellor in his own cause y* world would think it a wonder if he does not 
carry it. 

61y It is well known y^ never any of my Predecessors paid any appearance at their 
Visitations nor took out any Licentia procurato for y« place. 

These are some of y* reasons why I cannot comply w^ the Deane & Chapter in 
their Invasion upon the Liberties & Immunities of y* Peak Forest, especially since 
it hath been so carefully & nobly defended by his Graces Noble Progenitors from 
all former invasions ever since it flow<* from y« Crown to y* Noble Family. 
Though now the invaders write it y* Peak Forest intra nostram jurisdictionem 
w^ as much confidence as ever Jezabel gave Ahab Nabotiis Vineyard w^ was 
none of her own to give. Whareas it hath always appertained to his Grace & 
Noble Progenitors to put in a qualified man there to Preach and to visit. 

Ab the knowledge of the peculiar powers possessed by the 
minister of this out-of-the-way chapel spread, it gradually became 
the resort of runaway conples and those desirous of contracting 
hasty marriages, from all parts of the kingdom. There are nu- 
merous proofs of this in the earliest registers, which commence 
in 1665, though in a very fragmentary condition. In the year 
1728, so much had this practice extended, that a separate book 
for their entry was provided, which is endorsed "Foreign Mar- 
riages.^' It contains simply the names of the contracting parties, 
without any other particulars. We struck an average from a large 
number of years at the commencement of this volume, and found 
that it exceeded sixty per annum. At the commencement of the 
volume is written : — " Register book bought for use of the pecuHar 
of St. Charles in ye Peake Forrest. 1728. Jonathan Rose, Minis- 
ter." This book ends in 1754. The traffic in these marriages was 
materially interfered with by an Act passed in 1768, the imme- 
diate object of which was to put a stop. to the scandalous Fleet 
Street marriages. But it continued in a modified form to a much 
later date. Another entry says — ** Here endeth the Hst of persons 
who came from different parishes in England & were married at 
Peak Forest. This was a great priviledge for the minister, but 
being productive probably of bad consequences was put a stop to 
by an Act of Parhament. Hugh Wolstenholm. July, 1804." The 
minister stated at the time these marriages were checked, that he 
lost thereby £100 per annum. 



PEAK FOREST. 281 

In a review in the GentlemarCs Magazine, for 1833, of Bum's 
Fleet Eegister, occurs the following paragraph : — ^* If it were pos- 
sible to obtain similar accounts of obscure chapels in the country 
at which clandestine marriages were wont to be celebrated, such 
for instance as the Chapel of St Charles the Martyr in the Forest 
of the Peak in Derbyshire, he would add to the obhgations/' 
etc., etc.* 

We are able to give a copy of the form of certificate given to 
his patrons by Bev. J. Bose, from the original in our possession. 

"These are to certify e whom it may concern that William 
OUerenshaw of y* parish of Glossop, and Mary Greenham of y* 
parish of Yolegrave Com: Derb: were Canonically married in the 
Church of St. Charles in y* Peak Forrest upon Sunday the 26th 
of August 1739. by " Jon : Bose." 

The certificate is on a piece of paper about six inches by nine, 
and bears two sixpenny Government stamps embossed on it, but 
there is no impression of the seaL 

That the faculty of issuing marriage licenses to those living 
within the radius of the jurisdiction of Peak Forest stiU remains 
to the minister there cannot be the slightest doubt. Such a right 
was repeatedly exercised by the late incumbent, Bev. A. T. Field, 
and the licenses he issued were stamped with the seal of the Pecu- 
liar. We understand that some scruple has arisen as to the exer- 
cise of this right at the present time, but it would be much to be 
regretted, as well as detrimental to succeeding holders of the living, 
if an interesting historical right of this description (which must 
be now wholly innocuous to all, excepting the gatherer of Diocesan 
fees), should be allowed to lapse by desuetude. 

The chapel is a plain oblong building, with a bell turret at the 
west end. It is of the debased style that we might expect from 
ihe time in which it was built, and does not call for any special 
remark. Over the porch is the date 1666, between the initials 
B. I. and B. B. It also bears a sundial, dated Dec. 22, 1807, and 
having the motto — Cursum peregi. There is an older dial on the 
south of the bell turret. The chapel was lengthened at the east 
end, as is stated on a board, by Mary Bower, in 1780. She was 
the daughter of Robert and Harriet Needham, of Perreyfoot, and 
died in the following year. There is a large monument to her 
memory against the south wall ; and we learn from a table of be- 

• Gentleman* 8 Magazine, 1838, pt. 2, pp. 480—432. 



282 DERBYSHIEE CHURCHES. 

quests, that she left her harpsichord to the chapel, with an endow- 
ment for the player.* At the west end, under the gallery, is an 
octagon font of good but plain design. 

Against the south wall we noticed a wreath of many-coloured 
everlasting-flowers suspended, and attached to it the funeral card 
of ** Jonathan Rogers, 6 May, 1872, aged 29.'* We make mention 
of this as it seems to be a relic of the now extinct custom of 
funeral garlands. His tomb is in the churchyard. 

A new church, of far finer proportions, is now rising immediately 
to the west of the present building, which is to be taken down as 
soon as its successor is completed. 

* This endowment has been mistakenly transferred in Glover's Derbyshire to 
Chapel-en-le-Frith. 



StbpsfDfIL 



Mom^iU. 



@t&F8dlFlL 




|0B the brief mention of Tideswell as a Chapel of Hope, 
when the latter church was given by John to the Bishop 
of Coventry and Lichfield, and. when it was handed over, 
together with Hope, a few years subsequently to the Dean and 
Chapter of Lichfield, we must refer the reader to the account of 
the then mother church. 

It appears that it was not until the episcopate of Boger de 
Weseham (1245 — 1256) that Tideswell was constituted as a separate 
parish and an independent vicarage. From an old chartulary of the 
Lichfield Chapter, we gather that the specific endowments of the 
vicar of Tideswell were ordained in July, 1264.* To the vicar be- 
longed the lesser tithes (except the tithes of wool and lambs) with 
the oblations of the altar, that is the tithes of milk of the whole 
parish, the tithes of two mills, the tithes of swineherds and goose- 
herds, of flax, hemp, vegetables, honey, and gardens, and also St. 
Peter's pence, and the plough-fees annually given by custom through 
the whole parish, viz., one half -penny for each plough, and the tithes 
of hay for the townships of Litton and Wheston. The Vicar was 
also to hold a certain mansion, or vicarage- house, in Tideswell, and, 
in return for the various emoluments, he was to officiate in person 
in the church, and to maintain, at his own cost, a priest and sub- 
deacon to assist him. The Vicar was also responsible for main- 
taining a lamp burning in the church ; but the repairs of the 
chancel, and the providing of books and vestments, were part of 



* Magnum Begistmm Album ; Harl. MSS., 4,799, f. 42b ; Add. MSS., 6,666, f. 41 - 
See Appendix No. XTT. The composition arriyed at in 1252, between the Dean and 
Chapter of Lichfield and the Prior of Lenton abont the tithes of TidesweU and other 

gariflhes (to which reference is made at the end of the Ordination of the Vicarage) 
as been ahready detailed in onr aoconnt of Chapel-en-le- Frith, p. 141. 



286 DERBYSHIKE CllUKCliES. 

the duties of the Dean and Chapter. Alau de Liiceby was then 
Vicar of Tides well.* 

There is no mention of cither Tideswell or Hope in the taxation 
roll of Pope Nicholas IV. (1291), which seems to imply some 
special exemption of these parishes from the papal impost 

The Valor Ecclesiasticus (27 Henry VIII.) gives the clear value of 
the vicarage at £7 Os. 6d.t Edmund Eyre, the vicar, was non- 
resident and hving at Gryn' (?Grindon), in Stafifordshire. The 
same Commission valued the rectorial tithes of corn, hay, and 
minerals, belonging to the Chapter of Lichfield, at iB43 18s. 4d., 
and the site of the rectory, with glebe and lands, at £2 16s. Id. 
The tithes of wool and lambs of the three parishes of Bakewell, 
Hope, and Tideswell, are only given in the aggregate sum of 
£105 Os. Od. 

The ParHamentary Commissioners of 1650 valued the vicarage 
at £20, with an augmentation of £30. The impropriate tithes, 
which were then farmed to several persons, were estimated at 
£800 per annum. Mr. Ralph Heath was the incumbent. 

A chantry was founded in this church in the reign of Edwai'd 
III. by John Foljambe.J John Foljambe was the eldest son of 
Thomas Foljambe, by his second wife, Ahce, daughter and heiress 
of Darley, of Darley. The following is the entry in the Chantry 
Roll (37 Hen. Vin.) :— 

"Tyddeswell. — The Chauntry founded by John PuUjambe by Ucense of K. 
Edw. m. and confirmed by K. Bch. n. for ij prysts to say Masse at or Ladye 
alter there and to mayntayne God's Service, and to pray for the sowl of K. Bich. 
n., the founders sowles and aU Crystyan sowles ixZ. ixs. iiijc^., besyds rent resolate 
of wh is employed uppori in almesse xij«. Christ. Lytton and Christ. Synderby© 
chauntrye prysts. It hath a maucyon prysed att iiij* by yere. Stock liii«. xjrf." 

The eldest son of the above-mentioned John Foljambe was Roger : 
and Roger Foljambe, by his wife Eleanor, had issue James. § 
James Foljambe, in conjunction with other inhabitants of Tides- 
well, obtained leave from Richard 11., in the seventh year of his 

* Dns. Alan, Vicar of Tideswell, was witness to a deed of abont this date, by which 
John Daniel of Tideswell gave to Thomas, son of Roger Foljambe of Wonnmll, half 
the mill of Fairfield,— Nichols* Collectanea, vol. i.,p. 98. 

t For particulars see Appendix No. XIII. 

J Inq. post Mort., 88 Edward HI., 2nd pt. No. 1. ; from which it appears that John 
Foljambe left 200 acres in Tideswell, Wormhill, and Litton, for two chaplains. 

§ There is some little confusion in the Foljambe pedigree of this date, and it is not 
quite clear whether there were not two John Foljambes, father and son; but the 
statement m the text commends itself the most to Cecil G. S. Foljambe, Esq.. whom 
we have consulted on the point. The wife of John Foljambe. the founder of the 
chantry, seems to have been named Margaret. The John Foljambe who married 
Joanna FrecheviUe, was of Elton, and nephew of John Foljambe, of TidesweU.— 
Nichols ColUctanea, vol. i., p. 107. There is a mistake on this point in the 
pedigree, given m vol. xiv. of the Reliquary, by Mr. Foljambe. 



TIDESWELL. 287 

reign, to refound this chantry of his grandfather, and to endow it, 
together with a guild, with large landed property.* The following 
is a fall translation of the charter relative to this chantry and 
guild, which was finally drawn up in 16 Bichard 11. : — 

"To all the sons of holy mother Church who shall see or hear 
these presents, Nicholas Stafford, Knight, James Foljaumbe, Kobert 
Joweson, of Tunstedes, Henry Alisaundre, Chaplain, Kobert Sharp» 
Chaplain, Robert Machon, of Tideswell, and Henry Townsend, of 
Litton, send greeting in the Saviour of all men. Among other 
offices of piety it is not doubted, but that is one of the chief 
that holy mother church by an ever new Increase of Ministers 
diligently attending upon her and labouring in the Lord's Vineyard, 
should be rendered fruitful to the end, that under the authority 
and guidance of God, she may, from- the manifold seed of her 
Ministers, see Fruit produced in her Members an hundred Fold. 
We, therefore, desiring according to the ability given us from on 
high, and by the mediation of the Author of all good things that 
divine Worship may increase and flourish more abundantly in the 
parish Church of Tideswell, in the diocese of Coventry and Lich- 
field, by the License of the most illustrious Prince and Lord our 
Lord Bichard, by the Grace of God, King of England, first had, 
who of his special grace, hath by his Letters Patent, granted us 
power to give and assign Three Messuages, Sixty and two acres 
and one Bood of Land, with the appurtenances in Wormhill, and 
also seven Messuages, ninety and eight acres of Land, with the 
appurtenances in Tideswell, and also one Messuage, ' thirty and five 
acres of Land, with the appurtenances in Litton, to two Chaplains 
to perform divine services for the soul of Edward, late King of 
England, for the soul of King Bichard himselfe, and for souls of 
John Foljaumbe, of John, the son of Henry de Monyash, and of 
John Alisaimdre, and for the souls of all faithful people, deceased 
at the Altar of blessed Mary, in the Church of St. John the Bap- 
tist, of Tiddeswell, aforesaid, and for the healthy state of the same 
King Bichard and ours, and of the others while we shall Hve, and 
for the souls of them the same King Bichard and ours when we 
shall depart this life, and for the souls of all faithful people de- 
ceased at the Altar aforesaid, in the aforesaid Church, according to 
our Ordinance hereafter to be made. To have and to hold to 

* Patent BoUs, 7 Rich, n, pt. 1, memb. 8. There are copies of this and two later 
oharters of the same reign in WoUey's Collections— Add. MSS., 6,667, nff. 88^—^96. 
For the extended translation of one of these, given in the text, we are indebted to a 
Supplement to the Tideswell Parish Magazine^ for May, 1868. 



288 DEEBYSmRE CHURCHES. 

the same Chaplftins and their successors, to performe divine service 
every day for the state and souls aforesaid, at the foresaid Altar in 
the foresaid Church, as according to our Ordinance, leave is 
given for ever, the Statute that religious men, or others, may not 
enter upon another's Fee without License of the King, and of 
the capital Lord of whom that thing is immediately held not- 
withstanding. 

" Enow ye that we are under Pretext of the Premises, and of the 
License of the capital Lords who are interested in this respect, 
have given, granted, and by this our present Charter, have 
assigned to John Smyth and John Bedymon, secular Chaplains for 
the endowing and sustaining of the same. To have and to hold 
all the aforesaid Lands and Tenements with the appurtenances to 
the aforesaid John Smyth and John Bedymon, secular Chaplains, 
and their successors who shall celebrate divine service at the fore- 
said Altar in the foresaid Church, for the state and souls aforesaid, 
and for the healthy state of Anne, Queen of England, of John, 
Duke of Aquitain and Lancaster, and of his noble Consort, of 
William de Aston, Chancellor of the same Duke, of Elizabeth, 
the wife of the foresaid Nicholas de Stafford, of Roger Foljaumbe, 
Knight, of John de Stafford the elder, of Thurstan o' Boure, and 
Margaret his wife, and Margaret, mother of the same Thurstan, 
and of all the Brethren and Sisters of the Gild of the Blessed 
Mary, of Tideswell, and of all the benefactors of the foresaid Oild 
who are or who for the time shall be, while they shall live, and 
for their souls when they shall depart, and of all faithful people 
deceased for ever, and for all those by which or whom the foresaid 
Gild may be supported, or in anything assisted. And for the soul 
of Margaret Foljaumbe, and for the souls of the parents of the 
said Elizabeth, and of all the forementioned, and for the soul of 
Maud, wife of the said John Alisaundre, to be held of the Capital 
Lords of that Fee by the services due therefrom, and of right 
accustomed according to our Ordinance which we have thought 
proper to be made in manner and form following. 

''First we will and ordain that the Gift and Endowment be 
called the Chantry of the Blessed Mary of Tideswell, and that the 
Chaplains aforesaid, and their successors, be **secidar** and not 
"religious'' * Chaplains, nor Chaplains of Honour, who shall possess 
the Chantry aforesaid in form hereafter following, and that the said 

* Parish priests were called "seonlars;" those living in monasteries were called 
"religious," or regulars. 



TIDESWELL. 289 

Chaplains have the Custody of the said Altar, and of the books, 
chalice, and other ornaments for the said Altar appointed by 
Indenttire tripartite, to be thereof made between the Yicar of the 
foresaid Church, two Aldermen of the foresaid Gild, and the 
Chaplains of the same Chantry, of which we will that one part' 
remain in the power of the Vicar, another in the power of the 
said Aldermen, the third in the power of the Chaplains aforesaid, 
which for the time shall be. Also we will and ordain that the 
foresaid Chaplains, and their successors, say one Mass with the 
Note of St. Mary at the Altar aforesaid, once in the week — viz. 
Wednesday, except when full service of the same is performed in the 
Quire the foresaid day, and except also double festivals, infirmities, 
and other reasonable causes. Also we will and ordain that the foresaid 
Chaplains and their successors be in the Quire in their Surplices and 
black Copes as the Yicar of Lichfield, namely, at Mattins, at 
Mass, and at other Hours of the day when the Vicar or his 
parochial Chaplain are in the Quire, and say divine services with 
the note reasonable causes excepted. And if it happens that either 
of them omit through neghgence the foresaid service, he shall give 
a penny for Alms for the souls of all the foresaid persons. Also 
we will and ordain, that the foresaid Chaplains and their successors 
say once in the year Placebo, and Dirige, solenmly with the Note 
with the Mass de requiem on the morrow, in the same form at the 
foresaid Altar, namely, on the day and morrow of All Souls, and 
after the second mass aforesaid, the foresaid Chaplains shall pay 
forty pence to be distributed among the Poor for the souls of all 
faithful people deceased. Also we will and ordain, that if it happen 
that the foresaid Chaplains live dishonestly contrary to the order of 
Priests and the state of holy Church, the Vicar of the Church 
aforesaid, . for the time being, with the consent of the Aldermen of 
the foresaid Gild, and their successors, may then well remove the 
foresaid chaplains from the Chantry aforesaid, and substitute and 
put other fit secular Chaplains in the place of them or of him so 
behaving ill. 

"Moreover, we will and ordain that the Chaplains aforesaid who 
for the time shall be, be fit, and that they shall be put into the 
Chantry aforesaid by Nicholas Stafford, and EUzabeth his wife, and 
by two Aldermen of the aforesaid Gild, or by their attorney, with- 
out making any presentation to any Ordinary during the Ufe of the 
foresaid Nicholas and Elizabeth, the foresaid Chaplains are to be 
chosen to the said Chantry when it shall happen to be vacant by 

u 



290 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

the Vicar of the Church aforesaid, for the time being, and by the 
foresaid Aldermen shall be peaceably placed in the same Chantry 
without any sort of presentation and Institution. And if it happen 
that the said Chantry be vacant and the foresaid Nicholis and 
Elizabeth, and Aldermen shall for more than forty days from 
the time of the same vacancy defer to appoint one fit Chaplain, 
then after that the appointment and provision of Chaplains of this 
sort be devolved to the Vicar of the foresaid Church, and to the 
Aldermen of the foresaid Gild for the time being for that time 
and turn. And if those same Vicar and Aldermen for the time 
being shall for forty days from the time of the same devolution, for 
that turn so devolved to the foresaid Vicar and Aldermen, defer to 
appoint fit Chaplains to the said Chantry from that time, that the 
appointmen and provision of Chaplain of this sort be for that 
time and turn devolved to the Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral 
Church of Lichfield. 

"Also we will and ordain, that the providing and ordering of a 
Chaplain of this sort to the said Chantrey when it shall happen to 
be vacant after the decease of the foresaid Nicholas and EHzabeth, 
remain to the Vicar of the foresaid Church, and to the Aldermen 
of the foresaid Gild, and their Successors for the time being for 
ever. So that if it happen that the said Chantry, after the deceSrse 
of the said Nicholas and EUzabeth be vacant, and they the said 
Vicar and Aldermen for the time being, shall for forty days from 
the time of that same vacancy, defer and be negligent to appoint 
the said fit Chaplains to the said Chantry, then after that the 
ordering and providing of Chaplains of this sort be for that Turn 
devolved to the Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral Church above- 
said. Yet so that if it should happen that they the foresaid Dean and 
Chapter shall for forty days from the time of such devolution of 
the Chantry for that time devolved to the aforesaid Dean, defer to 
appoint the said fit Chaplains to be chosen to the said Chantry, 
from and after that time the ordering and providing of Chaplains of 
this sort be for that time devolved to the said Vicar and Aldermen, 
and so alternately for ever, saving always for the time to come 
the Rights and Powers of the patronage itself of the foresaid 
Chantry to the foresaid patrons, in the foresaid form of ordering 
and providing things when the case shall demand and require. Also 
wo will and ordain, that if the same Chaplains and their Succes- 
sors, both or either of them receive other ecclesiastical Benefice, 
with cure or without, or other annual or perpetual oflices, or any 



TIDES WELL. 291 

Annual Stipend, and they or he shall possess them or it for the 
Half of one year, from that time the foresaid Chantry be in very 
deed said to be void of that Chaplain or those Chaplains, and that 
the said Chaplains or Chaplain be removed from the same, and 
other fit Chaplains or fit Chaplain be put in his or their place, in 
manner and form abovesaid. Also we will and ordain, that every 
Chaplain to be chosen to the said Chantry, before he shall obtain 
the corporal possession shall take a corporal oath, laying his hand 
on the Holy Gospels in the presence of the Vicar and Alderman 
abovesaid which for the time shall be, that he will well and faith- 
fully observe and fulfil all and every the ordinances, and that he 
will make his corporal and continual residence in the foresaid 
Chantry in form abovesaid, and if he shall absent himself without 
licence of the Vicar and Aldermen for the time then being, or 
without reasonable cause, for a week, then upon that very thing 
that the foresaid Chaplain be removed from thence, and other fit 
one shall be put therein in his place. Also we will and ordain 
that the foresaid Ordinances be once in the year, namely, on Good 
Friday, pubhcly read in the parish church aforesaid. 

*' In Witness whereof we have put our seals to these presents, 
dated at Tideswell on the Lord's day next before the feast of St. 
Michael the Archangel, in the 16th year of the reign of Richard the 
Second, after the Conquest, and in the year of our Lord One 
thousand three hundred and ninety-two." 

.There is not a little perplexity about the exact descent of the 
manor of Tideswell, but at this time there is no doubt that it was 
held by Sir Nicholas Stafford and Elizabeth, his wife.* The altar 
of this chantry was in the north transept of the nave. 

We have also found the record of another small endowment of 
this chantry altar. Bobert de Beyley gave various lands at Litton 
to UKeton de Litton, and his heirs, on condition of payment of two 
shillings annually to the altar of the Blessed Mary, in the church 
of St. John the Baptist, in Tideswell. Ralph de Sempringham 
(described as rector of Tideswell), Robert Clericus de Wormhill, 
William Daniel, and John Foljambe, are among the witnesses to 
this deed.t 

The present grandly proportioned church of Tideswell is almost 

• Rot. Pat., 8 Hen. IV., pt. 1, memb. 6. The King confirms to Elizabeth Stafford, 
widow of Nicholas Staffora, the manor of Tideswell, and divers other mills, lands, 
and tenements, conceded to Thomas Anniger by charters of 9 John, and 11 Henry III., 
and confirmed to Kichard Daniel by 33 Edw. I., and confirmed to Nicholas and Eliza- 
beth Stafford by 1 Bich. 11., on an annual payment of £7. 

t HarL MSS., 4799, 1 37. 



292 DERBYSHIEE CHUECHES. 

exclusively of the Decorated, or later Decorated style, that prevafled 
in the first half of the fourteenth century. We may be sure ^at 
the erection of so large a building, in a comparatively poor district 
like that of the Peak, was extended over many years, and, tiiough 
it may have been commenced about 1320-80, it was probably not 
finished till 1360-80. The tower would naturally be left to the 
last, so that we need not be surprised to find it partakmg of the 
characteristics of the next period, and with a large west wmdow of 
undoubted Perpendicular design. _ 

This fine church consists of a nave eighty-two feet six mchea 
in length, having a width, including the side aisles, of fifty-six 
feet three inches ; of north and south transepts projeotmg sixteen 
feet beyond the aisles ; of a south porch twelve feet two mches 
square, with a parvise or upper chamber over it ; of a handsome 
west tower, having a ground plan of sixteen feet eight mch^ by 
sixteen feet ; and of a chancel of unusuaUy large dimensions, hemg 
sixty-two feet six inches in length and an average of twenty-six feet 

in breadth. * -m, > j.i. 

We must trust to the heUotypes, (Plates XHP. and XIIP.) rather 
than to any poor words of our own, to give some idea of the deh- 
cacy yet boldness of the mouldings, of the effective character of the 
buttresses, of the grace of the tracery (especially of the transept 
windows), of the finish of the parapets, and of the proportion of 
the component parts, that all combine in the production of a 
building of singular beauty, mi one which it would be no easy 
task to equal by any of Uke size in the kingdom. But it has suf- 
fered, with exceptional severity, both firom sluggish neglect, and 
firom the barbarising hand of the churchwarden "beautifier." 

Writing in 1781, Dr. Pegge speaks of Tideswell Church as a 
beautiful building that will speedily be in a ruinous condition if not 
repaired.t A striking account of the neglected appearance of the 
interior of this church was given by Mary Stemdale, in a small 
work published in 18244 It is there stated that— " Tideswell 
Church possessed a noble organ, the large pipes of which were 
removed to Lichfield ; and so lightiy does the mother church regard 
this her beautiful offspring, that report, I trust misrepresentation, 
has asserted it has been in contemplation to apply its valuable roof 

* These dimensions we take from a ground plan of the chnrch drawn by the Rey. 
Samnel Andrew, vicar of Tideswell, to whom also we are indebted for other partiea- 
lars relative to the chnrch. 

t TPegge's MS. Collections, vol. vii. 

} Vigntttet of Derbythire, pp. 69-78. 



TIDESWELL. 293 

of lead to the funds of Lichfield Cathedral, and Bnbstitute one of 
slate m its place. . . . The tabernacle work, that is broken and 
strewed around in the neglected transepts, evince how richly the 
stalls, chapels, and screens were once ornamented. In a comer of 
the transept is an ancient font ; it is now regularly used by the 
workpeople to mix their colours in, when they heauiify the church 
with blue and mahogany paint. . . . Indifference and insensi- 
bility have suffered the decorations and designations of this fine 
edifice to fall into decay — a species of destruction fatal in its 
ultimate effects as the ravages of the Goths and Vandals ; the 
building of such churches was a matchless proof of high devotion 
that is now waxed cold ; and their neglect of them is a reproach 
upon posterity, that ought most sacredly to be avoided.'* Happily, 
this reproach is now being rapidly removed under the direction 
of the present Vicar. 

As we enter the south door of the church, which is dedicated to 
St. John the Baptist, the consecration crosses should not escape 
notice! These crosses, marked on the walls at the time of conse- 
cration, have been clearly and distinctly cut on the moulded shafts 
in the jambs of the doorway, and are some six inches in length, 
the ends being bi-furcated. It is most exceptional to find consecra- 
tion crosses extant at the present time, or, at all events, so clearly 
marked as at Tides well.* 

There is nluch of interest in the interior of the church. When 
this church was in its pristine condition, it must have contained 
four other altars, in addition to the high altar in the chancel. 
The innermost bay of the south transept was "the De Bower 
chapel/' as it is now called. In the south wall, to the east of the 
beautiful south window, is a high canopied niche, below which is a 
piscina ornamented with crocketed work and a finiaL This chapel, 
like its fellows in this and the opposite transept, was formerly se- 
parated from the nave and the rest of the church by a wooden 
parclose or screen. Much of the material of these beautiful screens 
remained in the church within the memory of man, and it is said 
that ** cartloads'* of fine wood tracery were removed. The parclose 
of the De Bower chapel has recently been restored, in exactly the 

• " Antiently, when a Clinrch was built, it would not be omitted to have a cross, 
or the fi^re of a cross, placed near or on the front, or over the entrance into the 
Church.*' — Staveley's History of Churches. The Bishop himself marked or cut the 
crosses at the entrance, and on other parts of the fabric of the church, but the Con- 
secr^tor merely marked them with holy oil, or incised them slightly with a knife 
f {cultro), and, if it was desired to make them permanent, they were subsequently 
coloured, or carved to a greater depth. — Vide 2}urandiUf and the Pontificals 
Romanum, 



I 
294 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

> 

same position that it previously occupied. The adjoining chapel, 
that forms, as it were, a continuation of the south aisle, belonged 
to the manor of Litton, and to the celebrated family who took their 
name from that manor. Here, in the east wall, is another piscina, 
which, though mutilated at the lower part, and shorn of the hood- 
mould which formerly encompassed it, is a good example of De- 
corated work. On the south side of the respond adjoining this 
chapel, there is a very small plainly pointed niche ; it has been 
conjectured that this was the place for keeping the chrism or holy 
oil. , 

That portion of the opposite transept which corresponds with 
the Litton chapel has no piscina or immediate trace of an altar 
now remaining, but there is little doubt that this was a chapel 
appropriated to the manor of Wheston, for it is in this part of 
the church that seats pertaining to that hamlet are now claimed. 
The north transept proper, however, was the Lady Chapel, for it 
was here that the altar of St. Mary stood, that is mentioned in 
the account of the chantry and guild already quoted. Li the 
east wall is a piscina of plain description, and there are also 
traces in the masonry of the exact height of the ancient altar. 
This altar-stone was found some few years ago below the boarded 
floor of the transept, where it still remains. It is not perfect, but 
there are two, if not three, of the consecration crosses remaining. 

Vignettes of Derbyshire (1824), from which we have already 
quoted, says — " A curious stone pulpit, on the north side of the 
nave, is an immoveable testimony of having been a part of the 
original structure ; but as if in determination to degrade the 
beauty of the longitudinal view, a most impertinent gallery, of 
modem erection is made to rest upon it.'* But alterations, that 
were commenced in the very year in which this was published, 
made light of this ** immoveable*' pulpit, and all that now re- 
mains of it are some fragments under the flooring, used in sup- 
porting the joists. This ancient pulpit stood in the nave, imme- 
diately against the north base of the chancel arch, and from the 
description just quoted, it is clear that it served as one of the 
supports for a small gallery (termed **the Hucklow loft," as it was 
used by people from that hamlet) that was erected over the chancel 
screen, at an early period in the eighteenth century. This loft 
disappeared at the same time as the pulpit, though happily the 
original chancel screen, except a portion of the top, mutilated 
when the Hucklow loft was erected, yet remains. 



TIDESWELL. 295 

We find from the Churchwardens' accounts, that at a vestry 
meeting, held on February 22nd, 1824, it was resolved to pull 
down the gallery (west) and make a new one, to re-pew the 
church, and ''to underdraw with lath, plaster, and other requisite 
materials, the roof of the church." The former part of this 
resolution was carried out, and to it is owing the present large 
gallery that blocks up the west end of the church; but most for- 
tunately the determination to lath and plaster the roof fell through, 
probably from lack of funds. The high-pitched roof of the nave 
is the original one, and the timbers are in a fair state of preservation. 
It forms a good specimen of the vigorous roof designs of the 
Decorated period, but few of which are still extant. The roofs of 
the side aisles, though of a plain lean-to description, have some 
well-moulded timbera Both of them appear to have been rebuilt 
during the 8tuart period. On one of the beams of the north 
aisle is the date 1685, with the initials of the churchwardens. 
Many repairs seem to have been done to the interior of the church 
about that period. On the woodwork at the west end, imder the 
gallery, is the date 1632. 

As soon as we enter the chancel, we are struck with its large, 
dmost conventual^ proportions, most unusual in an ordinary parish 
church. The establishment of the Guild of St. Mary, which was of 
the nature of a small collegiate establishment, probably led to the con- 
struction of the chancel on this striking scale. We do not beheve that 
the present chancel was part of the original design of the building; 
and the weather-moulding of the steep pitched roof of the former 
quire seems to be indicated on the east wall of the nave, as seen 
from within the chancel* Perhaps the chancel of the original de- 
sign, which would surely be smaller and more in keeping with the 
rest of the building, was never actually completed, or, if it was, 
could not have remained standing for many years; for the whole 
character of the mouldings of the present chancel, as well as its 
noble windows, point to the end of the Decorated period, in the 
third quarter of the fourteenth century. This would just coincide 

♦ The Vicar (Rev. S. Andrew) writea to us on this point :— "I think the great archi- 
tects would diner with you as to the present chancel not being part of the original 
design. It is considered that the marks on the eastern side of the chancel arch, 
showinff Che existence of a former chancel, were purposely put there to provide a 
small cnancel during the progress of the large choir, and the large choir or chancel 
built over this smaller chancel so as not to interrupt too long the services of the 
church. The plan of so large a chancel harmonizes entirelv with the rest of the 
church, and was not uncommon at that particular period. Heckington, Nantwich^ 
Cobham, and some others might be named." 



296 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

with the time when John Foljambe (88 Edw. III.) left the large 
landed endowment to the chantry and guild. It is our opinion 
that the foundation of this chantry, at a time when the parish 
church was being constructed, or had already been in the main 
completed, led to a remodelling of the chancel on its present grand 
scale. 

In the south wall .of the chancel, near the east end, are three 
stone sedilia of most handsome design (Plate V.). Immediately be- 
yond this is the piscina, the niche of which is ornamented with 
crockets in a similar manner to the one in the De Bower chapel. 
Opposite to the sedilia, in the north wall of the chancel, are two 
slightly projecting low arches. They afford little or no recess be- 
neath them, for they scarcely project further than an ordinary 
string-course or moulding. One of these arches probably served, 
from its position, as the SepiUchre, beneath which at Easter- tide a 
representation of our Saviour's entombment was placed.* The 
second arch seems to have been constructed to mark the place of 
the founder's tomb. Close to it is the monument of John Foljambe, 
which we shall shortly notice. 

The great peculiarity of this chancel is its stone reredoSf or screen 
for the back of the altar. This extends across the whole width of 
the east end, and has a door on the north side leading into the 
Sacristy, or vestry. It is placed nearly six feet from the east window, 
and is adorned on each side with a large tabernacle, or niche for 
a saint, which are enriched with elaborate canopies, surmounted 
by crocketed pinnacles, similar to those on the exterior of the 
church. With the exception of being embattled on the top, the 
reredos is not otherwise ornamented, and would probably be covered 
with rich tapestries or hangings at the time of celebration. It is 
just of sufficient height to aUow of a clear view of the east win- 
dow, which also possesses on each side two equally large niches. 
Nor must we omit to notice the small bracket at the back of the 
reredos, placed exactly in the centre, a few inches below the top, 
on which would be placed the crucifix. It has been supposed that 
this reredos was an after-thought, in order to provide a vestry, but 
we scarcely see the necessity < of this supposition, for the string- 

* Occasionally an actual effigy of our Lord was constractedf but the nsiial conzBe 
was to remove the crucifix over the high altar on Good Friday, placing it under the 
Sepulchre, where it was constantly watched till Easter mom. It was then replaced 
upon the altar with great ceremony. In our smaller churches the Sepulchre was 
usually a wooden erection, hut in larger ones we often find them of stone, and most 
elaborately decorated. 



TIDESWELL. 297 

course, or moulding on the wall, terminates in front on each side 
about three inches from the screen.* 

The roof of the chancel has recently been renewed in a most 
effective manner, stained glass of a graceful design now fills the 
fine tracery of the large east window, several of the monuments 
have been restored, and stalls introduced of handsomely-carved 
oak. To make room for the latter, the remains of the old stalls, 
five on each side, of a plain but massive description, have been 
removed to the nave. It is intended to place them eventually in 
the Lady chapel. 

At the west end of the church is the ancient font, which Mary 
Sterndale noted as standing in the north transept for the mixing of 
colours. The alterations that immediately followed her visit, removed 
the font to a heap of rubbish in the churchyard, from which igno- 
minious position it was rescued by the present vicar, and restored 
to the church. It is of octagon shape, and has various devices, 
including a chalice and an open book, incised on its different faces. 

The tower, which is crowned with a remarkable combination of 
turrets and pinnacles, possesses a ^ne peal of six bells. The fol- 
lowing are their respective inscriptions: — 

I. "Cantate Domino canticum novum. 1705." Beneath the 
inscription is the mark (" S. 8. Ebor*' in a shield) of Samuel 
Smith, bellfounder, of York. 

II. "God save his church. 1659.*' Mark of George Oldfield. 
m. "All glory bee to God on High. 1659." Mark of George 

Oldfield. 

IV. "Missi de cells habeo nomen GabrieUs." The lettering on 
this bell is in old EngHsh with Lombardic capitals. It is one of 
the most interesting bells in the county, and we have httle or no 
doubt that it is coeval with the erection of the church. As the 
church is dedicated to St. John the Baptist, the inscription on this 
bell — ^which is but a paraphrase of Gabriel's announcement of him- 
self to the parents of St. John — is specially appropriate. 

V. "Tho. Midleton, Geo. Bouer, Tho. Redfeame, Wardens. 1659." 

VI. " Soli Deo gloria in excelsis. 1741. Daniel Hedderly, founder.*' 
On the waist are the initials of the churchwardens — " B. N. . B. L. . 
T.N." 

^^ stone screens were not so nnnsnal in buildings of this date, thongh they have 
been subsequentlY moTed in almost aU instances. At Amndel, in Sussex, one still 
exists seven feet from the waU, and there is also a passage behind the altar at Brilley 
(Hereford), and at Michaelchurch (Badnor). The wiU oi King Henry Vn., as to the 
chapel at Eton, directs that there shall be a space behind the altar of eight feet. — See 
Parker's Oloaeary, vol. i , p. 805, and Walcott's Sacred Archaologyy p. 499. 



2^8 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

There is also a small Sanctos bell, about eighteen inches in dia- 
meter, without any inscription, in the belfry. Its former position 
waSy doubtless, in the small bell-cote that used to be on the gable 
at the east end of the nave, where they not unfrequently remained 
fixed long after the Eeformation. This plain bell-cote, apparently 
of seventeenth century construction, was removed at the time when 
the chancel roof was restored, and has given place to a large and 
pretentious successor, which we think is somewhat out of propor- 
tion with the rest of the building. Nor do we like the gurgojles 
that project from the gable of the new bell turret. Surely gur- 
goyles should always carry out, at all events, the semblance of 
water-shoots ; but it would be impossible for that to be their 
object in this situation. 

Against the north wall of the belfry are a set of rhymed bell- 
ringing laws ; but as they do not greatly vary from those quoted 
under Hathersage, we will not reproduce them. 

It now only remains to describe the monuments contained in this 
church, taking them in the order of their antiquity. The earliest 
are two stone effigies now in the north transept, where they have 
recently been removed from the south transept. They are both 
female figures, and are boldly carved without much detail, so that 
it is impossible to assign them with certainty to any definite date. 
The largest of them is evidently the oldest, and seems to have had 
one side built-in against a wall. It may possibly be of as late a 
date as the very commencement of the fourteenth century, but 
more probably, we think, of the latter half of the thirteenth, 
and is, therefore, older than any part of the present fabric. The 
second figure, wearing a veil and wimple, with her feet resting on 
a dog, is probably circa 1875. It would be idle to waste words in 
conjecturing the names of the ladies that might possibly be memo- 
rialised by these effigies, as nothing is even known of their original 
position in the church, and tradition is silent. 

In an interesting account of the various memorials of the Fol- 
jambe family, recently written by Cecil G, Savile Foljambe, Esq., 
the following particulars are given of the interment of members of 
this celebrated family at Tideswell: — 

"The chancel of this church was probably the burial-place of 
the Foljambe family from the time of their first settlement in the 
parish, soon after the Conquest (for John Foljambe, who died in 
1249, desires to be buried in the chancel of the church at Tides- 



TIDES WELL. 299 

well,* mth his forefaiher8)f and it was used as such by them until 
the extinction of the male line of the elder branch by the death 
of Roger Foljambe in 1448. There is not much left at the pre- 
sent time of their memorials ; but there are said to have been 
three brasses existing in the early part of the seventeenth century, 
which have since disappeared — one to Sir Thomas Foljambe^ who 
died in 1283, and Margaret (Gemon) his wife ; one to Sir Thomas 
Foljambe, who died in 1298, and Catherine (Eyre) his wife; and a 
third to his son and successor, another Thomas Foljambe, who 
died in 1328, and Alice (Fumival) his wife. The only memorial 
now remaining is a slab on the north side of the chancel, which 
has had a brass let into it, but this has long been despoiled, and 
the only record as to whom it commemorated is a piece of brass, 
which was placed here by one of the family some two hundred 
years ago, and which is fixed where the breast of the former brass 
figure had been, with this inscription upon it, beneath a shield 
with the arms of Foljambe (sab., a bend between six escallops, 
or) : — 

TiunnlnR Johanis filii Domini Thomn Foljam'be qtii obiit quarto die Angasti Ano 
Domini Millesimo trecentesimo quinqucgeaimo octavo, qui multa bona fecit circa 
fabricationem hujus ecclesisB. 

The brass has evidently been the figure of a man in armour, with 
pointed helmet, and his feet on a Hon ; a riband with an inscrip- 
tion above his head, and an inscription around the edge of the 
slab."t 

Since writing the above, Mr. Foljambe has caused the brass 
effigy of his ancestor to be restored. The inscription round the 
margin is simply a more classical rendering of that given above, with 
the addition of the date (1875) of its restoration. The old inscrip- 
tion is now on another stone at the head of the brass. The fine 
east window is also due to Mr. Foljambe's munificence. 

In the south transept are the effigies of Sir Thurstan de Bower, 
and Margaret his wife. The same writer, from whom we have 
abeady quoted, says (1824) — *'In the extreme comer of the same 
transept, hid by the sides of a dilapidated pew, and covered with 
dust, cobwebs, and the splashings of the whitewasher, are two re- 
cumbent figures, in alabaster, whose names as handed down by 
traditional evidence, are * Sir Thirlstone a Bower and his lady : ' 

* This would, of course, refer to the chancel of a church prior to that now 
existing. 

t Reliquary f vol. xiv., p. 237. 



800 DERBYSHIBE CHURCHES. 

though mutilated by ill-ueage and neglect, their remains are worth 
the notice and preservation of the antiquary.*** Shortly after this 
was written, these figures were removed to the south-west angle of 
the chancel, and there boxed up in the Vicar's pew. But on the 
advent of the present Vicar, they were replaced in their original 
position, and in 1878 the tomb, as well as the whole of the tran- 
sept, were worthily restored by a descendant of the knight and his 
lady. The monument consists of a large slab of stone sup- 
ported on handsomely carved blocks of alabaster, the majority 
of which have had to be renewed. On the top, rest the delicately 
chiselled, but much mutilated effigies. They are clad in the ar- 
mour and costume that distinguished the close of the fourteenth 
and the commencement of the fifteenth centuries. The knight 
wears the collar of SS. Bound the margin is the following in- 
scription : — 

This xnonnment of Sir Thurstan de Bower and the Lady Margaret his vrife, and 
this Bonthem chapel in the south transept of Tideswell Church, where this monu- 
ment was in the early part of the fifteenth century erected, were restored in honour 
of their memory, hy their kinsman J. Bower Brown, Esq., J.P., of Woodthorpe Hall, 
near Sheffield, in the year of our Lord MDCCCLXXTTI. The ahoTe-named Sir 
Thurstan was living in 7 Ric. 11., MCCCXCII, ' 

It does not seem possible to learn much concerning this family. 
They do not appear to have had any immediate connection with 
the manor or parish of Tideswell, unless it was of a temporary 
nature. From the special mention of Margaret, the mother of Sir 
Thurstan, in the account of the Guild of St. Mary, it is not un- 
likely that his connection with Tideswell arose from his mother 
(or perhaps his wife) being a Foljambe or a Stafford. Probably he 
was related to flobtus de Boure, who died, seized of landed pro- 
perty in the adjacent parish of Glossop, towards the end of the 
reign of Edward Ill.f The same family were also landowners hi 
Staffordshire at this period. 

The history of the descent of the manor of Tideswell yet remains 
to be written, but it may here be simply remarked, that it was 
given by King John to Thomas Armiger,J from whom it passed 
by female descent to the Bamptons, thence to the Daniels, and 
thence by three co-heiresses to Meverell, Marchinton, and Turvill. 
Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Meverell, died seized of a moiety in the 

• Vignettes of Derbyshire, p. 70. 

t Inq. post Mort., 46 Edw. m., No. 8. The Vicar has a MS. note, about eighty 
years old, which states that Sir Thurston de Bower was lord of the manor of Littl« 
Longstone. 

X Bot. Chart., 9 John, naemh. S. 



TIDESWELL. 301 

reign of Edward HI.* A market was granted at Tideswell, to- 
gether with a fair, in 1260, to Paulinus Bampton, confirmed to 
Richard Stafford about 1891, and to Sampson Meverell in 1432.t 

In the centre of the chancel is a large altar tomb to the memory 
of Sir Sampson Meverell. The top is formed of a slab of Purbeck 
marble, having various brass plates let into it. That in the centre, 
is a symbolical representation of the Trinity, consisting of the First 
Person of the Trinity, seated beneath a canopy, holding a crucifix 
in &ont of Him, on which rests a dove. - At the comers are the 
symbols of the four evangeUsts, bearing scrolls with the following 
legends : — 

St. Matthew. *^Ego mm Alpha et Omega primus et novimmm,'' 

St. Mark. '* Qui haptizatus fuerit salvus erit.*' 

St. Luke. *^Qui perseveraverit usque in Jinem salvus erit," 

St. John. " Quos Beus conjunxit nemo eeparet.'* 
There are also four shields in brass, one of which is blank, and on 
the others the separate coats of Meverell — Arg,, a griffin segreant, 
sab,, beaked and legged, gu, ; Daniel — Az,, a bend between six 
escallops, or; and Brampton, Az., a lion rampant, or, A fifth 
shield has the same quartered. Another plate records how these 
brasses, having been sacreligiously stolen, were restored at the 
expense of John Statham, of the same family. But it appears 
that a portion of them are original. The evangelistic legends are 
obviously part of the restored work, firom their singular inappro- 
priateness. Bound the symbol of the Trinity is the same inscrip- 
tion as on St Matthew's scroll. The margin of the stone bears 
a brass riband, with the following lengthy inscription : — 

"Under thys stone lyeth Sampson Meyerell, whych was borne in Stone in the 
leaste of St. MichaeU the AxchangeU, and there christened by the Pryor of the 
same hous, and Sampson of Clifton, Esq., and Margaret, the daughter of Phillip 

Stapley, in the yeare of our Lord Mocoiuiyni ^^^ ^^ liyed under the service of 
Nicholl Lord Andley and Dame Elizabeth his wife, the space of zviii years and 
more; and after, by the assent of John Meyerell, his father, he was wedded in 
Belsor (Bolsoyer), the King's manor, to Isabel, the daughter of the worshipful 
Knight, Sir Boger Leche, the xvil day of Pasche, and after he came to the ser- 
yice of the noble Lord John Montegu, Earl of ^alsbury, the which ordeyned the 
said Sampson to be a capityne of diyerse worshipful places in France; and after 
the death of the said Earl, he came to the service of John Due of Bedford, and 
Boe being in his service, he was at xi great Battayles in France within the space 
of two years, and at St. Luce the said Due gave him the order of knighthood ; 
after that the said Due made him Knt. Gonsfcable, and by his commaundement he 
kept the Constable Court of this land till the death of the said Due; and after 
that he abode under the service of John Stafford, Archbyshop of Canterbury, and 

• Inq. post Mort., It Edw. m., No. 21. 

t £ot Chart., 85 Hen. m., memb. 11 ; 15—17 Eic. 11., memb. 18 ; Bot. Pat., 11 
Hen. Vl., pt. 1, memb. 16. 



302 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Boe endoring in great worship, departed from all worldly service, nnto the mercy 
of our Lord Jesn Christ, the which divided his soul from his body in the feast 
of Mar ... in the yeare of our Lord mcccclxii, and soe his worde may be 
prouved, that grace pasetb cunning. Amen. Devoutly of your charity say a 
paternoster with an ave for all Christian soules, and especially for the soule whose 
bons reste under this stone." 

There is a mistake in this inscription in saying John Montague. 
It should be Thomas. Perhaps the mistake arose when the brass 
was restored. John Montague, Earl of Salisbury, though he was 
engaged in wars in France, died in 1899 ; but it was his son 
Thomas who was the distinguished general. Thomas, Earl of 
hiahsbury, was shot in the year 1427, at the commencement of the 
siege of Orleans. It is said of him ''he was the greatest hero of 
his age, and by many noble acts and great achievements became 
the darling of his country. In the reign of King Henry VI. his 
name was terrible to the French ; and had he lived it is more 
than probable, by the progress he made, that he would have 
entirely subdued the kingdom." * The two yeajs, when Sir Sampson 
Meverell was engaged in eleven battles, would be the years 1429-31, 
when so many engagements took place in the neighbourhood of 
Orleans, under the instigation of the celebrated Joan of Arc. The 
Duke of Bedford was uncle to the young King Henry VL, and 
Eegent of France. He died in 1485. John Stafford was Primate 
from 1443 to 1452. 

Thomas Meverell, of Throwley, Staffordshire, married (temp. 
Edw. II.) Ehzabeth, daughter and heiress of Sir William Daniel, 
of Tideswell. An earher generation of Daniel had married the 
heiress of Brampton, and hence, we beheve, the lion rampant on 
the tomb. Sampson Meverell, was the great grandson of Thomas, 
and Ehzabeth Meverell.f 

The sides of this altar tomb have for a long time consisted 
simply of wooden bars; but these have recently been exchanged 
for some boldly-carved tracery in alabaster, in the spirit of the 
original design. Through the openings is to be seen the eflBgy of 
an emaciated . corpse, wrapped in a winding-sheet, carved in stone. 
The head is supported by two angels. 

We have advisedly spoken of this tomb as an altar tomb ; for 
though this term is often erroneously used when "high tomb" or 
** table tomb " would be more appropriate, the five crosses, roughly 
chiselled in the marble, at once prove that this tomb has been 

* Collins' Peerage, vol. i., p. 183. 
t Add. MS3. 28, 113, t 26. 



TIDESWELL. 303 

used, at all events occasionally, as an altar — ^probably for masses 
for the repose of the soul of its occupant. This being the case, 
it is a singular circumstance that the tomb should be placed 
lengthways in the chancel, that is, pabrallel with its side walls, and 
there is no appearance of it having been moved from the place 
where it was originally erected. 

The northern part of the south transept formed the chapel, as 
has been already stated, attached to the manor of Litton. The 
ancient family of Litton or Lytton, held that manor as early as 
the reign of Henry IIL On the floor of the aisle of this chapel 
is a well-preserved brass to the memory of Sir Robert Lytton, and 
his wife Isabella. Bobert Lytton is dressed in a long robe faced 
with ermine, and from his mouth proceeds the legend — Filim Dei 
miserere mei. The dress of his wife also has cuffs of ermine, and 
the legend from her mouth is — Mater Dei miserere mei. There 
have formerly been two shields above the figures, but the matrices 
only are now left ; the following inscription is at their feet : — 

Orate pro animabuB Bobti Lytton de Lytton et Isabella nxoris, hie quiqnidem 
Bobertus obiit sexto die mensis May anno dni millimo CCCCLXXXHI. et pre- 
dicta Isabella obiit xv die Octobris anno dni millimo CCCGLYin, et pro aiabus 
omn fideliiim defonctormn, qaoram animabns propicietor Dens. 

Recent excavations showed that the lead coffins of Sir Robert 
and his wife are immediately below the brass. Sir Robert Lytton 
was Under-Treasurer of England in the reign of Henry VI. He 
purchased the manor of Kneb worth, Hertfordshire, which became 
the principal seat of the family. Litton Hall, however, remained 
in the family till 1697, when it was sold by Rowland Lytton to 
John Alsop. 

On the pavement immediately west of the Foljambe tomb in the 
chancel, is a fine brass to the memory of Bishop Pursglove. During 
the recent restoration of the chancel, it was placed level with the rest 
of the pavement, though when we first saw it, it was raised about a 
foot from the ground. £ut we then noted, from the appearance of 
the edges of the slab, that it had been originally designed for tiie 
position it now occupies. In the centre of the stone is a full-length 
well-engraved effigy of the Bishop, and his vestments are somewhat 
remarkable, when we consider the date of his interment. He is 
represented in Eucharistic vestments, mitre, amice, albe, dalmatic, 
chasuble, stole, jewelled gloves and sandals, but without the ma- 
niple, and with the pastoral staff over his left shoulder. (Plate 



304 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

XIY.)* At the foot of the figure is the following inscription on 
an oblong plate : — 

"Under this stone, as here doth ly, a corps stimtime of fame, 
In Tiddeswall bred and bom tmely, Robert Pursglove by name ; 
And there brought up by parents care, at schole and learning trad. 
Till afterwards, by ancle dear, to London he was had. 
Who, William Bradshaw hight by name, in Paul's which did him place, 
And y'r at schole did him maintain full thrice 3 whole years space; 
And then unto the Abberye was placed as I wish. 
In Southwark call'd, where it doth ly, St. Mary Overis. 
To Oxford then, who did him send, into that colledge right, 
And there 14 years did him find, wh Corpus Christus hight. 
From thence at length away he went, a clerke of learning great, 
To Gisbum Abbey streight was sent, and placed in Prior's seat. 
Bishop of Hull he was also, Archdeacon of Nottingham, 
ProTost of Rotheram colledge too, of York eak suffragan. 
Two gramer schools he did ordain with land for to endure; 
One hospital for to maintain twelve impotent and poor. 
O Gisbume, then with Tiddeswall town, lement and mourn yon may, 
For this said clerk of great renoun lyeth here compast in clay. 
Though cruel death hath now down brought this body wo here doth ly. 
Yet trump of fame stay can he nought to sound his praise on high. 

Qui legis huno versum crebro reliquum memomeiis, 

Vile cadaver sum, tuque cadaver eris." 

This doggrel epitaph is of later date, as is betokened both by 
the style of verse and by the colour of the brass, than the rest of 
the monument. It was probably put in subsequently, to replace 
one that had been removed or defaced &om a too great leaning to 
the unreformed faith. 

The comers of the slab are inlaid with the symbols of the four 
Evangehsts, somewhat similar to those on the Meverell tomb, 
whilst round the margin is this further inscription : — 

*^ Crist is to me, as life on earth, and death to me is gaine. 
Because I trust through him alone, salvation to obtain. 
So brittle is the state of man, so soon doth it decay, 
So aU the glory of this world must pass and fade away."t 

" This Robert Pursglove, Bomet3rme Bishoppe of Hull, deceassed the 2 day of 
Mali in the yeare of our Lord God 1579." 

There is not much to add to this biographical epitaph. Purs- 
glove was consecrated Suffragan Bishop of Hull in 1552, and 
Archdeacon of Nottingham in 1558, but on the oath of supremacy 
to Elizabeth being offered to him, he refused to take it, and was 

* For this woodcut we are indebted to Mr. Q-eoree Markham Tweddell, who had it 
prepared for his Popular History of Cleveland, There is a good engraving of the 
whole of this interesting plate in the GentlemarVs Magazine for 1794 (pt. ii., p. 1100); 
also on a larger scale in the Tidefwell Parish Magasine for 1869 ; and in Cambridge 
Camden Society's JHustrations, I. p. 19. 

t These four lines appear to have been favourites. They are also found on brasses 
at Egham, Surrey (1576) ; at St. Laurence's, Reading (1584) ; at Wilton, Wilts (1585) ; 
at mrmley, Herts (1698) ; and at Orford, Suffolk (1605). 



TIDESWELL. 305 

deprived of his archdeaconry and other spiritualities. He then retired 
to the neighbourhood of Tideswell, where he remained till his death. 
Though consecrated as a Protestant Bishop, under Edward VI., he 
seems to have been a vehement Papist under Mary, and was ap- 
pointed, in 1557, one of a commission to inquire after heretics, etc. 
This Commission is regarded by Burnet and other writers as a 
mere preliminary to establish the Inquisition in England. Letters 
Patent were granted to him in the 2nd and 8rd of Elizabeth, to 
found the Grammar Schools of Tideswell, and of Gisburne, in the 
North Riding of Yorkshire. The pension awarded to Robert Purs- 
glove on the suppression of the Priory of Gisburne (alias Guis- 
borough), in 1540, was £166 18s. 4d. It is said, in a contemporary 
MS., that **the pryor hved in the most sumptuous style, being 
served at table by gentlemen only." He was seventh and last Provost 
of Rotherham College, which was dissolved about 1550.* 

Against the south wall of the south transept is a monument to 
the memory of Thomas Statham, and two escutcheons of that 
family. The monument is thus inscribed. 

Thomas Stathau, son and heir of the loyal geniJeman Statham, of Edenstall 
and Tansley, captain of a troop of horse, which he raised at his own charge, for the 
royal King Charles I., and was afterwards a patient sufferer of the tyrannies and 
sequestrations of those impious regecides ; lineally descended from the ancient and 
loyal family of Statham, lords of Morley in this county, and of Statham and Barton 
in Cheshire. Three of his ancestors. Sir John, Sir Nicholas, and Sir Bobert, were 
^dges. He married three wives: 1 Barbara, daughter and heir of Cromwell 
MevereU, of Tideswell, near kinsman of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Ardglass, lineally 
descended from Francis MevereU, of Throwsley, by Anne, daughter and co-heir of 
Sir John Denham, who had by the said Barbara three sons — Sir John Statham, his 
heir, Thomas, a captain, and Charles, a merchant ; and one daughter Barbara. His 
second wife was Mary, relict of Nicholas Shirtcliffe M.D., by whom he had one son, 
William and three daughters, Mary, Elizabeth, and Frances. 

Thomas Statham, son of Capijain John Statham, claims by this 
monument to be descended from the Stathams of Morley, but this 
descent has not been satisfactorily proved.f His eldest son. Sir 
John Statham, married Bridget, a co-heiress of Wigley, of Wigwell, 
near Wirksworth, where he resided. Sir John's two sons, Wigley 
and John, both died without issue. 

Francis MevereU, mentioned on the monument, was the fourth 
in direct descent from Sir Sampson MevereU, whose tomb is ' in the 
chancel. Francis' eldest son, Sampson, held the manor of Tides- 
weU, but that branch of the famUy became extinct in the heiress, 

• See Wood's Atlienm Oxoniensea, and Brett's Suffragan BishopSf p. 61. 

+ Sir John Statham's pedigree (Add. MSS. 28, 118, f. 27.). drawn up in 1767. only 

foes back to Hearv Statham, grandfather of Thomas, but he is stated to be of 
idenstaU and Mortty. 



306 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Elizabeth, who married Thomas, Lord Cromwell. Her consin, 
Cromwell Meverell (grandson of Nicholas, who was a yomiger son 
of Francis Meverell), had three children, Obadiah, Barbara, and 
Bachel. Obadiah and Eachel died without issue, and Barbara, who 
married Thomas Statham, became sole heiress. Thomas died in 
1702, and his wife in 1682. * 

Immediately below the monument is the vault in which many of 
the Statham family were buried. Mr. Rawlins relates that Thomas 
Statham was buried in a " tinned coffin, the which he had by him 
for many years. It had thirty-six locks upon it, all locked with one 
key, which, accordingly to his request, was cast away after his inter- 
ment." Mr. Rhodes, writing about sixty years ago, says — "A 
chapel and dormitory, on the south side of the church, still retain 
the name of this family (Statham)/' We do not think it at all 
likely that there ever could have been a separate chapel standing in 
the churchyard or close at hand, to which Mr. Rhodes could be 
referring, but we rather suppose that he alluded to the chapel in 
the south transept of the church, and possibly by the ** dormitory ** 
to the room over the south porch, f 

The earliest register book commences in 1636, and ends with 
1674. The next volume extends from 1676 to 1746. The first of 
these volumes is much damaged, and a considerable portion quite 
illegible. At the end of the year 1639 the name of the vicar, 
Ralph Heathcott, is subscribed, followed by the names of the three 
churchwardens — Robbert Heywood, William Cleaton, and Robert 
Bagshaw. To the signatures of these three officials the vicar has 
added — " But from aU such officers God deliver every Church ! " 
There are not many interpolations or entries of interest in these 
registers, but the following may be copied as affording proof of 
the large area covered by confirmations at that sluggish period in 
the Church's history :—*' 1693. The fourth day of July, the 
Reverend Father in God, William Floyd, Lord Bishop of Lichfield 

• Add. MSS. 28, 113, f. 26. 

t The WoUey Collections contain many particulars relative to Sir John Statham 
and others of the family (Add. MSS., 6667. etc). Amongst other details are the bill of 
fees paid to the Queen's servants when he was knighted, amounting to £85 lis. 6d., 
and the following proposed epitaph to himself in his own hand-writing :— 

" Under this stone there lies a knight, 

With cares and sorrows kUl'd outright. 

His thred of life was not quite run, 

He died by a graceless son. 

Parents beware ! and take his word, 

That grief e will kill without a sword." 
Sir John died in 1759. The graceless son alluded to was his second son John, who 
was his heir; for Wigley, the eldest son, died in 1736, the year after he was High Sheriff 
of the county. 



TIDESWELL. 307 

and •Coventry, came to Tiddswell about 11 o'clock and preached, 
and after Sermon did confirm four hundred ninety and five persons." 

About the year 1812 an ancient chapel, that had stood for many 
centuries in Tideswell, was unfortunately demolished. It has been 
supposed by Rhodes, and others, that it was the old church or 
chapel of Tideswell (at the time when Tideswell was a chapelry of 
Hope), which was given by John to the Chapter of Lichfield. But 
the description of the architecture shows that it was later than the 
Norman or even Early English styles, and it is most probable that 
the older church or parochial chapel of Tideswell stood on the 
same site that is occupied by the present fabric. We know, too, 
from the wiU of John Foljambe (1249) already quoted, that the old 
church had a chancel, and it is tolerably clear that the building 
destroyed in 1812 was not of a size to possess any part that could 
be termed a chanceL Our own opinion is, that it was a building 
erected at the end of the fourteenth century, in connection with the 
Guild of St. Mary. We have not been able to glean any further 
particulars respecting it, beyond what has been already printed in 
the two following accounts (published respectively in 1818, and 
1824) :— 

** The most interesting specimen of antiquity which Tideswell 
possessed was a stone chapel, or oratory, which stood on the left 
of the road, on the entrance into the town from Middleton. This 
structure was apparently much older than the church, and it was 
probably erected before the reign of King John ; but its antiquity 
could not preserve it from being taken down, and sold to the best 
bidder. When it was unfloored, and dug up, at the time of its 
demohtion, many human bones were found within it. Two large 
Gothic windows, of two compartments each, occupied the ends of 
this building, one of which looked upon the road, and the other 
faced the eminence called the Cliff. These windows were formed 
by three equal pilasters, which were surmounted with heads — one 
male and two female — that were sculptured in stone ; and a pointed 
Gothic arch, rising from slightly-ornamented buttresses, composed 
the porch or entrance into this old structure. Such a place in 
such a country, must necessarily have something supernatural 
attached to it ; it was accordingly peopled, by village superstition, 
with the visionary beings of another world. From this place so 
long as it existed, unseen choristers were sometimes distinctly 
heard hymning the sweetest strains, as they seemed to pass in slow 
procession along the vaulted passages of the chapel to the chancel 



308 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

of the church, where the sounds gradually died away. This tjere- 
mony, whenever it happened, indicated the approaching death of 
some of the most important personages in the place ; and 
no Gospel truth was ever more religiously helieved, than was the 
occasional occurrence of these supernatural sounds. Persons whose 
veracity on other occasions could not be doubted, have solemnly 
averred this pretended fact. This place, of which no trace now 
remains, was probably 'the chapel which King John gave to the 
Canons of Lichfield for their common provision of bread and 
beer.' " ♦ 

** On the south side of the churchyard imder the high cliff below 
Litton, an old oratory, or chapel, was standing some very few years 
ago of more early erection than the church. It was a very curious 
relic of ancient architecture, and full of the quaint devices of early 
times ; its walls were a yard thick, of limestone, supported by but- 
tresses that would have kept their station, if unmolested, as long 
as the rocks from whence they were taken. But I will give the 
relation I have received from one who resided within its ancient 
walls, as best suited to the subject. * It was said to have been 
built in King John's days, who made this town a market by 
his charter, dated the first of his reign, and granted it to Meveril, 
who was lord of the fee ; it afterwards belonged to the Foljambes, 
and then to the Aliens, and lastly to the Middletons, who sold the 
same to Colonel Gisbourne. My sister Middleton, who lived in the 
house, says, when the kitchen was new paved, many human bones 
were found ; and that a very curious stone basin, supposed to be 
for the holy water, was broken up for sand by a servant-maid ; 
tliat an arched passage went through the house, with a door at 
each end, and that against the death of any of the family there 
were always heard voices singing psalms in the ancient tongue ; 
that the voices passed through the archway, and continued singing 
very sweetly till they reached the church porch, when the sounds 
died away ; affirming she herself heard them a few days before her 
husband's death, Mr. Allen Middleton, who died in 1746 ; also that 
a picture of one of the Aliens always slided from its frame previous 
to the death of any one of the family.' " f 



Within this parish, on the TidesweU side of the valley that is 

* Hhodes' Peak Scenery^ pt. i., p. 103. 
t Vignettes of Derbyahirey pp. 74 — 76. 



TIDESWELL. 309 

still, known as Monk's Dale, it seems that the monks of Lenton 
had an establishment, where they probably gathered together that 
portion of the tithes of this district to which they were entitled by 
the gift of William Peverel. The outline of the foundations of the 
chapel attached to this Grange can still be seen when the herbage 
is scant in dry weather. All that remains of it above ground are 
the beautifully-carved stones of the low septum, or stone screen, 
that divided the chancel from the nave. They are of fourteenth 
century work, and exactly correspond to those that still occupy a 
similar position in the church of Chelmorton. 



310 DERBTSHIEE CHUECHES. 



n^e C^aprltp of Wlnw^iXL 




the jear 1273, BaJph de Sempringfaflm,* Desn of Lich- 
field, gave leare, as rector of Tideswell, to the inhabitantB 
of Wormhill to erect a chapeL and to find at their own 

exj>ens6 a chaplain, under the same conditions as hare heen already 

given in dot ail nnder Chelmorton. The inhabitants were also 

eiijoined to repair to the mother church at all the great festivals. 

John Danic-rs name is given as a witness to this deedf The 

cbax^el was dedicated to St. Margaret. 

The following curious document, without date, hut assigned by 

the editor of the lidiquary to the fifteenth century, relates to this 

chapel : — 

" The entente, can^e, and effect, of y* present dede is j*. Whereas, hyt is soe j* 
Bobt. Harrison, of Tydd: and Thomas son and heyr nnfco the sayd Bobt. haff 
r**'»^}'ved of WyUim Gretrakea and Wyllim Palfrejman, fefees of ye chapell of Worm- 
byil, xxj as for a stoke, and the s^ Bobt. or Thomas, y** heyrs, or y* assignee, bo 
a(^rf'u)/tjll and content to pey nnto the 6** fefees, or eyr being for the tyme, on Ston 
Wijll (one btone of wool) every yer, snch as is aboil wull and Chapmans ware, at the 

F<-«i>t of the TranBlfltion of Saynt Thomas of or within xl dayes after at the 

uttermf^t. and to uphold the stoke of xx«. Provyded allwey that the sd Bobt. and 
TbornaH are itli their Liberty and choice when they wyll pay in the s^ stoke of xxs., 
so that hyt l>e payd before the feast of the purification of oar Lady in that year that 
they be advyned to pay it in, and to the performance and pajrment of the yearly rent 
with the KU>ke, the said Kobt. Harrison and Thomas his son, haff given and delivered 
pos*eHhion and seisin in and of an acre of Land where hyt lyse, nnto certaine Feoffnits, 
whose names be within this Dede, annyxed nnto this present wrytying, made 

betwixt and freewyll. And it is so agreed, that if the s' Bobt., or 

Thomas, cr their heyrs do not wyll, consent, and pey, every year on Stan Wall at such 
times as is before specified ; Then hyt is so covenanted, that Bobt. Harrison, and 
Thomas his son, or their heires.or their assygns, caused to be payd of fefees being for 

the time xiij«. ni\d. to the of the stoke, for to make the fall payment o' 

zxiijs. iiij/i. for the and the 2*^ fefees for to stond in fall possession and 

estate for evermore. To the behoof e of the Chappell of St. Margaret of Wormhyll " I 

• Balph de Bempringham held the Deanery from 1264 to 1280. 

t Add. MSS., 6666, f. 40; l>eing an extract from Harl. MSS. 4799. This agreement 
also anpcars in the Magnum liegittrum Album at Lichfield, and there are several 
early deeds, relative to the cemetery attached to the chapel of Wormhill, etc , amongst 
the Chapter moniments. 

I ReUquary, voL iii., p 51. 



WORMHILL. 311 

The Parliamentary Commissioners of 1650 describe Wormhill as 
a parochial chapelry, but recommend that it should be made a 
separate parish, ** with hamletts of HiQ, Horgate, Wall, Tansted, 
Over Oreatrix and Neather Greatrix Meadow, and Fairbancke. 
Smaldale to same." It was not, however, till 1859 that Wormhill 
was constituted an ecclesiastical parish. 

The church was restored, or rather rebuilt, in 1864, and though 
it is a picturesque building as it now stands, the work was unfor- 
tunately carried out in such a way as to obliterate almost every 
trace of the ancient chapel. From a south view of this church, 
taken by Mr. Eawlins in 1835, we gather that the old building 
had a high-pitched roof to both iiave and chancel ; a south porch ; 
a debased square window to the nave ; a priests' door to the 
chancel (Decorated period), with a small pointed window on one 
side, and a square-headed one of two hghts on the other. Mr. 
Eawlins gives the dimensions of the nave as thirty-two feet four 
inches, by twenty-one feet three inches ; and the chancel twenty-seven 
feet seven inches by sixteen feet six inches. He also says — " The 
pews are regular and bmlt with oak," and they bore dates varying 
from 1682 to 1717. Over the door of the porch was inscribed — 
**P. H. . .0. W. 1746." The font he describes as ** plain and cir- 
cular," but it also seems to have disappeared at the restoration (?) 
in 1864, for there is now a small modem octagon font in the 
church. 

There is a small tower at the west end of the nave, which is 
probably the same that was erected here in 1278. It is repre- 
sented with a gabled top in Mr. Rawlins' drawing, but it was 
raised in 1868 (as is stated on a stone over the west belfry win- 
dow), and each of the four walls are now gabled, terminating in a 
steep-pitched spire-like roof. This is said to be copied from the 
weU-known Saxon tower at Sompting, Sussex, and, though pic- 
turesque, is highly incongruous. 

Until 1863 there was only one bell in this tower, but it now 
contains a peal of six. '< These six bells are the largest of a peal 
of eight cast by Taylor and Son on speculation, with the intention 
of hanging them at their foundry, for the purpose of illustrating 
church bell-work. They are believed to be, in point of size and 
weight, by far the smallest peal of church bells in existence."* 

• Beliquary, rol. xir., p. 104. 



312 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Each bell is inscribed " J. Taylor k Co., Longhboro, 1868," except 
the sixth, which bears the date 1864, for it was recast in that 
year, being found defective. 

To the south of the church are the remains of the old church- 
yard cross, consisting of two sets of square steps, a large base 
stone, and a portion of the shaft about three feet high. On it is 
fixed a dial-plate, inscribed — " The Gift of Bobert Meverell,* Gent. 
G. R. fecit 1670." 

The registers commence in 1670. They do not contain much 
of general interest, but the following entry is perhaps worth re- 
cording: — ''1674, Nicholas Bagshawe, derke and schoolmaster, for 
want of a better." 



* This same Bobert Meverell also ffave a Lych Gate to Chelmorton cliarchyard. 
For his connection -with the TidesweU MevereUs, see tiie account of Chelmorton. 



Soolgppaiip. 



^Ifon. 



MintUt. 



jBlobfor. 



Igoulgppatip. 




|NE of the two Saxon owners of the manor of Yonlgreave 
in the time of Edward the Confessor was, according to 
the Domesday Survey, named CoUe. The church of 
Youlgreave, with its chapels, lands, tithes, and all things pertain- 
ing, was given by Robert, the son of Robert, the son of CoUe, to 
the Abbey of St. Mary of Leicester, in or before the reign of 
Henry 11. (1154-1189). This gift is mentioned in a charter of 
Henry 11., confirming the various donations to the Abbey, the date 
of which seems, from the names of the witnesses, to be about the 
commencement of his reign.* The Abbey of Leicester was founded 
in 1143. 

The confirmation charter of Henry 11. does not make mention 
of the chapels of Youlgreave church by name, but, from several 
entries in the old chartulary of Leicester Abbey, we find that they 
were five in number, Gratton, Middleton, Stanton, Elton, and Win- 
ster, of which only the two last remain .f 

The church of Youlgreave was worth thirty marks (X20) per 
annum, according to a valuation taken of the property of thd 
Abbey in 1220, and a similar return was made in the Taxation 
Roll of Pope Nicholas IV. (1291) ; but this estimate did not include 
a deduction of ten marks that was made every year in favour of 



• Dngdale's Monoiticon, vol. iii., p. 315; Nichols' Leiceiterahiref vol. i., p. 281. 
The various gifts to the Abbey, inofnding Youlgreave church and chapelries, were 
also confirmed by Pope Innocent IV., circa 1250. 

t Cottonian MSS., Vitell. F. xvii., fl. 22, 86, etc. This is a voluminous ancient 
chartulary, but a considerable part of it was destroyed or rendered illegihle, by the 
fire that consumed so much of the Cotton Library, in 1781. There is also a smaller 
chartulary of the same Abbey in the Bodleian Library (Laud. MSS., H. 72); this 
latter has, for the most part, been printed in Nichols' Leieesierahire. 



316 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

the Sacristry of Lichfield Cathedral, bo that the real income of the 
rectory was thirty marks.* 

The formal ordination of the vicarage of Youlgreave took place 
in 1224, in the first year of the episcopacy of Alexander Stavenby. 
The Bishop appropriated to the Abbey the church with its chapels, 
and all the tithes, lands, and appurtenances of the same, with the 
following exceptions as an endowment for the vicarage. The vicar 
was to have all the oblations and altar dues (-except the tithes of 
lambs, wool, and minerals) ; all the tithes of com and hay in 
Gratton; and two- thirds of the tithes of com and hay in the town- 
ship of Smerril. In consideration of this income, the vicar was to 
defiray all the customary expenses of. the church, and farther to 
associate with himself, at his own cost, two chaplains and one 
deacon.f 

According to the Valor EcclesiaMicus (27 Henry VIII.), Youlgreave 
vicarage was worth ^69 4s. 6d. per annum. Hugo HeapeJ was then 
vicar. The same return gives the total annusJ value of the pos- 
sessions of the Abbey of Leicester in this parish at £68, but far 
the largest portion of this is from lands at Meadow Place, etc., 
which were absolutely the Abbey's by an independent gift, and to 
which allusion will subsequently be made. The rectorial tithes of 
Winster are estimated at £1 13s. 4d., and those of Middleton at 
£4. 

The Parhamentary Commissioners of 1650 valued the vicarage 
at forty marks per annum. There was "noe minister." It is 
added that " (Stanton) Lees is a member of Yolgrave, but by reason 
of distance thought fitt to be united to Derbye (? Darley)." 

We have gleaned a few particulars relative to former vicars of 
Youlgreave from the Episcopal Registers. In 1812, William de 
Billesdon was vicar, and he was succeeded by Hugo de Lekebome. 
In 1456, Boger Capellanus was instituted vicar, on the free resig- 
nation of John Rosyngton, rector of one half of Darley. In 1646, 
John Wilson, A.M., succeeded to Hugo Heyre as vicar, on the 
presentation of Andrew Lowe, Anthony Lowe, and John Gathewell, 
for that turn patrons, by leave of the Abbey of Leicester. This is 
curious, as the Abbeys were suppressed in 1689, and it is still more 

• We do not know when this gift waa originaUy made to the Lichfield Chapter, 
r«S.Ly^°™i, ^?® first mention we can find of it is in a confirmatory^ charter of 
Archbishop Boniface, 1266. Dugdale's MonMticon, vol. iii., p. 225. 

t Harl. MSS. 4,799, f. 44; Add. MSB. 6,666, f. 42. See Appendix No. XlVa. 

Iliriati^^'^r spelt in the published copy of the Valor, bnt from the Episcopal 
registers it seems that Heape is a misreading of Heare, or Heyre, i.e. Eyre. 



YOULGREAVE. 817 

80 to find the institution of Richard Enyveton to the vicarage, on 
the resignation of John Wilson, five years later {i.e., in the reign 
of Edward VI.), entered as presented by the same Abbey.* Perhaps 
the last Abbot of Leicester continued to present until other arrange- 
ments had been made respecting the advowson. 

In the following year, by indenture dated 15th June, 1652, 
Edward VI., granted the rectory, together with the advowson of the 
vicarage, of Youlgreave, for certain considerations, to Sir Wilham 
Cavendish and his heirs, and it is to the present time vested in the 
Duke of Devonshire. 

The following is a list of subsequent vicars : — Hugh Mann, 1681; 
Thomas Swetnam, 1606; Stephen Moore, 1624; Edward Pole, 1647; 
Samuel Coates, 1660 ; John Gilbert, 1666 ; William Bromsgrove, 
curate 1661, vicar 1663 ; Thomas Palfreyman, 1666 ; Thomas Wil- 
son, 1666 ; John Jacques, 1676 ; John Edwards, 1684 ; Jonathan 
White, 1685; Edward Moore, 1701.t 

About the close of the fifteenth century, Thomas Vernon, John 
Vernon, and others, founded a chantry in this church at the altar 
of the Blessed Virgin. Thomas Vernon was the second son, and 
John Vernon the fourth son (according to the pedigree) of Sir 
Henry Vernon, of Hadddn, by his wife, Anne Talbot. In the Valor 
Eccledasiicus (27 Henry VIII.), this chantry is valued at JB5 per 
annum; it is there described as **ex dono Hen. Vernon,*' and "Dns 
Edmundus Boweman " entered as chantry priest. In the Chantry 
Eoll, drawn up ten years later, preparatory to the confiscation of 
that kind of property, it is thus described : — 

" Yolgryffe -To fynde a secnllar preste att o' Ladye's alter by feoffment of 
Thos. Varnon, John Varnon, & other. C«. clere. vjZi. vj«. ij(i. with Ca. imployed 
upon Bychard Machyn prist, & the residewe uppon purposes thought good by the 
reves at Yolgryffe. It hath a mancyon prised at iiijs. by yere. Stock iiijZi. vj». 
iiijd/' 

The church of Youlgreave, dedicated to All Saints, consists of 
chancel, nave, north and south aisles, south porch, and large em- 
battled tower at the west end. Although it presents a bold and 
uniform appearance on a general view, it will be found upon closer 
examination, especially of the interior, that this church as it now 



* Lichfield Episcopal Registers, passim. Besides the institutions not^'d in the text, 
•which will be found under the respective years, we have also noted institutions to 
Youlgreave, in No. ii., f. 78, and No. iv., f. 41. 

t This list is compiled partly from the parish register, and partly from the 
Bateman MSS. 



318 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

stands is composed of a most interesting complexity of styles, 
varying from the Norman work of the twelfth century, down to the 
debased alterations of the seventeenth century. 

No mention is made of a church at Youlgreave at the time of 
the Domesday Survey, and, judging from the style of the Norman 
work now remaining, it was originally erected here by Eobert 
Colle between the years 1130 — 50. It is evident that this church 
was of some size, as is shown by ' the circular Norman pillars 
supporting the arches that separate the nave from the side aisles. 
Probably the original plan of the church only included one side 
aisle, viz., that on the south side, as the style of the pillars and 
the carving of the capitals is of rather earher date than the cor- 
responding ones on the north side. But both aisles, when iirst 
completed, were of less width than tliey are at present. The older 
Norman masonry can still be plainly traced at the east end of the 
south aisle, thus clearly showing its former width. The arches, 
springing from the pillars on the south side, are circular and of 
Norman workmanship, but those on the north side have given way 
to pointed ones of a later date. 

The south aisle seems to have been widened in the third quarter 
of the thirteenth century (1250 — 1275), when the Early EngHsh 
style was beginning to give way to the Decorated. It is lighted 
on the south side by three characteristic pointed windows of good 
design, respectively of one, three, and two lights. The south en- 
trance to the chm*ch, under tlie porch, as well as the smaller north 
doorway in the north aisle, are also of the same date. Probably 
the north aisle was similarly widened and rebuilt throughout at a 
like period, but it has imdergone more extensive alterations than 
its fellow, at subsequent dates. 

The wide pointed chancel arch is of simple character, but, judg- 
ing from the style of mouldings on the imposts, it may safely be 
assigned to the Decorated period, circa 1800 — 1820. Up to that 
date the original Norman chancel had probably sufficed. At the 
same time that this arch was inserted it seems that the Norman 
arches, on the north side of the nave, were removed to make way 
for their pointed successors. 

In the fifteenth century considerable alterations were made in the 
fabric, after the Perpendicular style, as it is usually termed. The 
chancel appears to have been then rebuilt throughout, various 
windows inserted in other parts of the building, the whole of the 
church re-roofed, the nave consideraby lengthened at the west, and 



TOULGREAVE. 319 

the grand tower with which it terminates erected.* The gronnd 
plan of the church as it now stands is the same as it was in the 
fifteenth century. The area of the chancel is ahout thirty-seven 
feet hy twenty-three. The aisles vary not only in width, hut 
slightly in length. The south aisle is forty-four feet nine inches, 
hy eleven feet seven inches, and the north aisle forty-three feet one 
inch, by fourteen feet eight inches. Up to the fifteenth century, we 
believe that the chancel was of less length, and that the nave was 
of no greater length than the side aisles. But at that time an 
unususJ feature was added to the west end, by extending the nave 
(but not the side aisles) some twenty-seven feet in that direction, 
and then building the west tower, which has an area of seventeen 
feet by, sixteen. This gives a grand total of over one hundred and 
twenty-five feet from the tower entrance to the east end of the 
chancel, t 

Though, doubtless, clerestory windows were inserted when the 
Perpendicular roof was placed on the nave (if they had not existed 
previously), the character of those that now remain* are of a later 
debased date, and were probably inserted about the commencement 
of the seventeenth century. These windows, of which there are six 
on each side, are square headed, and are all of the same pattern, 
having three circular-headed lights. Two on each side light the 
upper portion of the extended nave. This part of the church is 
also lighted on the south side by a three-light Perpendicular win- 
dow, square -headed, but with pointed tracery at the top. 

In 1746, we find from the churchwardens' accounts that ** a loft 
for singers " was erected at the west end, access to which was gained 
by a stone staircase within the building. This had the effect of 
blocking out the light from the large west window, and, to remedy 
the defect, two openings were cut in the side walls of this part of 
the nave. 

In 1869 — 70, this church was most admirably and carefully re- 
stored by B. Norman Shaw, Esq., A.B.A.| It is almost needless 

* It is absurdly stated in the Journal of the ArcJuxological Aasociatiotif toI. vli., 
p. 828. that this tower was rebuilt as it now stands in 1614. We believe that this 
error originated with Mr. Stephen Glover, who had no great knowledge of eccle- 
siology, though a most praiseworthy and indefatip^able worker in various paths of 
antiquarian research. In his unpublished portion of the History of Derbyshire 
(amongst the Bateman MSS.), there is a statement to this effect, and it was the late 
Mr. Bateman who drew up the account of this church for the Archnological Asso- 
ciation, when they visited this county in 1851. 

t All the measurements are of the interior dimensions of the church, exclusive of 
the walls. 

I We omitted to mention, when describing Longstone, that this also was the work 
of Mr. Norman Shaw. The genuine spirit of conservative restoration has been duly 



320 DERBTSHIBE CHURCHES. 

to state that the smging loft; was speedily cleared away, and the 
modem windows built up. The restoration involved a new east 
window to the chancel, the old one being of a debased style, and 
in bad repair (described by Mr. Shaw as *' decidedly the poorest 
part of the whole building"), two new windows in the north wall 
of the north aisle, and also new windows at the west end of both 
the aisles. This was the chief structural alteration, but the resto- 
ration involved new flooring, new seats, repairs of roof, heating 
apparatus, etc., etc., until from first to last, to the credit of the 
parish, no less a sum than £4650 were spent on the substantial 
repair and permanent benefit of this fine old fabric. 

The tower is a particidarly fine and massive specimen of early 
fifteenth century work. It is supported at the angles by well-pro- 
portioned buttresses of eight stages, and its summit is embattled 
and crested with eight crocketed pinnacles. Its general features, 
such as the west window and the bold pointed belfry windows, two 
on each side, remind us of the tower of North Winfield, in this 
county, which was probably the work of the same architect, or at 
all events at just the same period.* But the tower at Youlgreave 
is of finer proportions, and possesses the additional interesting 
feature of a projecting stair-turret at the south-east angle, which 
runs up to the first two stages of the tower, and terminates in battle- 
ments of its own. With the exception of All Saints, Derby, which 
is a celebrated example of ornate Perpendicular of a later period 
and on a far larger scale, Youlgreave can boast of the best tower 
in the county. 

This tower formerly possessed five bells, which were thus in- 
scribed : — 

I. ** John Bowman, John Lowe, Churchwardens 1762. 
Thomas Hedderly founder." 
II. *'God save His Church, 1685." " 

III. ** Jesus be our Spede. 1623." 

IV. ** I sweetly toling men do call 

To taste on meats that feeds the sole. 1623." 

V. This bell simply bore the monogram I.H.C., and the founder's 
mark of P. H. 

We do not know what the inscriptions were on the predecessors 

observed in both these churches. Youlgreave and Longstone have been more care- 
fully and artistically treated than any other churches in the county, and are models 
of what restoration should be. 

♦ See plate of North Winfield Church, Churchaa of Derhyshire, vol. i., p. 415. 



YOULGREAVE. 321 

of these bells, but various particulars about the first bell, which 
was recast at the Heathcotes' foundry, at Chesterfield, in 1614, and 
about the second and third, which were recast by the Oldfields at 
Nottingham, in 1628, are given in the subsequently quoted Church- 
wardens' Accounts. That part of the accounts relating to 1685 is 
missing. There is a Sanctus bell- cote over the east gable of the 
nave, but the bell which was in the tower at the time of the res- 
toration, has not been yet replaced, as it is somewhat defective. It 
bears no inscription, but does not appear to be earlier than the 
seventeenth century, when it was probably recast. These bells, as 
we have elsewhere remarked, were not unfrequently used as ** ser- 
mon bells" in post-Reformation days, and the parish accounts of 
Youlgreave, from the various entries of new ropes, etc., that were 
provided for it, prove that it did not remain idle. In the year 1617 
is an entry — "Iron chain for little bell hanging over chancel." 

At Easter, 1870, the present new peal of beUs, eight in number, 
the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Thomhill, of Stanton Hall, were hung. 
As Mr. Jewitt truly remarks— "They are remarkably musical and 
tuneable, and are among the best in the county." The weight of 
the tenor is one ton six cwt. The whole of the metal of the old 
bells was re-used in the casting. The fii'st six bells have similar 
inscriptions : — 

** Mears & Stainbank, Founders, London. Easter, 1870." 
The seventh — 

" Mears & Stainbank, Founders, Loudon. William Malam, M.A., 
Vicar. John Archer, Thomas Kenworthy, Wardens, Easter, 
1870." 
The eighth— 

•* Mears & Stainbank, Founders, London. 
I call the living, mourn the dead, 
I tell when days & years are fled. 
For grief & joy, for prayer & praise. 
To heaven my tuneful voice I raise. 
This peal of 8 bells given by William Pole & Isabella ThornhUl 
of Stanton -in-Peak, Easter, 1870." 

The condition of the interior fittings of the church previous to 
the restoration can be best described by quoting from the original 
report of Mr. Norman Shaw, dated 28rd of February, 1869 : — 
'* The whole of the church has been fitted up with cumbrous and 
ill-arranged pews — ^partly made up of what has been some fine 
old oak seating— partly of more modem work in oak, but the 



322 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

great bulk in mean deal of little or no value." His advice 
with respect to the new wood-work, which has been followed 
with most happy effect, is so conclusively put, and is so much 
needed in these days, when it is the fashion to reseat even our 
oldest churches with cheap pine, which is sticky and glossy to be- 
gin with, and dull and dirty in a year or two's time, that we make 
no apology for quoting it. Let us keep the French-polisher and 
veneerer as far as possible from the House of God, and, however 
simple the work, let it be genuine and the best of its sort. Mr. 
Shaw says — *' The whole of the church requires re- seating ; some 
old ends remain, and these should be used as a guide for the 
general design, and must be re-fitfced as fiar as they vnll go. There 
are also several old hnen-fold panels of good design, and these, 
with whatever remains of the old backs and rails, should be worked 
up in the new framing. The whole of the seating ought decidedly 
to be of oak ; with such a fine spacious church, with oak roofs 
throughout, it would be a great piiy to have recourse to common 
deal varnished seats. It is not that rich, handsome, carved seats 
are wanted — on the contrary, it matters Httle how plain they are, 
provided the material is good — but there is something very mean- 
looking about the varnished deal that is so often to be seen now- 
a-days, and which could not fail to strike any one as being very 
inferior to the excellence of the rest of the church." 

The roofs throughout the church have been carefully restored. 
They are good examples of tlie low-pitched roofs of the Perpen- 
dicular period. The roof of the nave has some remarkably well 
carved bosses at the intersections of the principal timbers. On the 
boss at the east end is carved a frett, no doubt intended for the 
arms of Vernon. At the west end of the roof of the south aisle 
are the newly carved arms of the Duke of Eutland. Up to the 
time of the recent restoration, this aisle was considered as appro- 
priated to the tenants of the Duke of Eutland, and the pews bore 
his name. To commemorate this the arms were carved on the 
roof. This south aisle was no doubt the Lady chapel, where the 
chantry altar to St. Mary stood, founded by the Vemons. About 
the close of last century the fine old screen or parclose, erected 
round the east end of tliis aisle, was removed, the monument of 
Thomas Cokayne, as well as the mural one to the Gilberts 
(both of which were at that time at the end of the south aisle) 
boxed up in wooden cages, with sliding lids that were occasionally 
removed to expose them to the gaze of the curious, and this part 



YOULGEEAVE. 323 

of the church appropriated to the use of the children. To com- 
pensate the Duke of Eutland, who had previously had pews or seats 
within the old screen, the pews further down in the same aisle 
were set apart for his tenantry. At a later period (we heheve 
ahout 1835), a fresh arrangement was made, by which the east end 
of this aisle was used as a vestry ; the Cokayne tomb removed 
into the chancel on the south side; and the Gilbert monument 
built into the north wall of the same part of the church. 

There is now no screen across the chancel arch, though it is in 
conteniplation to replace one modelled on the mutilated remains of 
the lower part of the old one of Perpendicular design, which were 
removed at the time of the restoration, but have been carefully 
preserved. It will be seen, from the Churchwardens* accounts, 
subsequently quoted, how rudely this screen or partition was ti*eated 
in 1604, and those entries are of more than ordinary interest, as 
they serve to disprove the prevalent notion that chancel screens 
were always regarded with abhorrence in the early days after the 
Eeformation. Though the good folk of Youlgreave sadly disfigured 
the old screen at the commencement of the seventeenth century, 
they were evidently determined to do their best to maintain it as 
an efficient ** partition." 

There were, doubtless, at one time, three altars in the church of 
Youlgreave, the two side altars at the east ends of the aisles, and 
ihe high altar in the chancel. In the east wall of the north aisle 
are the mutilated remains of a piscina, and in the south wall of 
the south aisle is a square-headed piscina, the drain stone of which 
is sculptured with tlie rude representation of a female face. This 
latter was removed from the chancel in 1869. Though there is no 
trace of the original piscina belonging to the Lady altar, there is 
in the north-east angle of this aisle, behind the pier of the chancel 
arch, a large-sized hagioscope or squint, for obtaining a view of tlie 
high altar. It is now closed up at the chancel end, as the open- 
ing would interfere with the now stall work, though the original 
idea of Mr. Norman Shaw, as expressed in his report, was to 
leave it open for the organist, who would have been able to utilise 
it for the direction of his choir. 

In the north waU of the nave, close to the most western pier, 
is a niche containing a small figure of a female carved in the stem*, 
in long drapery, and holding a staff. It has been suggested that 
it represents a pilgi-im, but we tliink it more likely to be intended 
for some ancient saint, and has probably at one time occupied a 



324 DERBYSHIRK CHURCHES. 

position over a former porch, or in some other part of the older 
building, as it seems to us to be of greater antiquity than that 
part of the masonry where it is now built in, which is only of the 
fifteenth century. 

We now come to the most interesting feature of this interesting 
church. The font, which now stands by the most western pier of 
the south side of the nave, is of remarkable character. It is 
sculptured in porous red sandstone, having a smaller stoup cut 
from the same block on one side, which is held, as it were, in the 
mouth of a dragon, carved in relief upon the larger vessel There 
is an accurate etching of it on Plate XVL It is there represented 
as it now appears, with the four small shafts restored. Previous 
to 1869 only the upper part of these shafts remained, projecting a 
few inches from the bowl. This font has been more than once 
described as ** undoubtedly Saxon," but there is nothing distinc- 
tively Saxon about it, and we have little hesitation in giving its 
date as circa 1150 — 1200. The stoup, which is attached to it, and 
formed out of the same block of stone, has given rise to several 
theories to account for its position. The chief of these theories 
(putting aside one or two of an absurdly improbable character) are 
three in number — (1) for the reception of the chrismatory, or vessel 
containing the holy oil or chrism with which persons were 
anointed after the ancient rite of baptism ; (2) for affusion during 
the ceremony; and (8) for a holy water steup, as the font itself 
would be conveniently placed near the entrance door. The first of 
these theories has hitherto received the most support, and has been 
adopted by authorities such as Eev. Edmund Tew, and Mr. E. B. 
Ferrey.* Against this theory, which seems to us the most im- 
probable, it may be urged that the vessel holding the chrism was 
usually a narrow tall cruet of glass or metal, such as we have fire- 
quently seen in use, or in the sacristies of Roman Gatholio 
countries; and, whatever may have been the shape of the ancient 
vessel in use at Youlgreave, it is almost impossible to imagine one 
of the shape or size that could find a convenient resting-place in 
the stoup attached to the font. There is more reason in the sug- 
gestion that it was used when the water was spriuked on the head 
of the infant; but in the fonts on the Continent, where an ap- 
pendage of this description is attached to the font itself, it will be 
found (as at Chirens, Is^re) that the subsidiary font also possesses 

* Notes and Queries^ 6th series, vol. iv., pp. 169, 211, 2S6, 260. 



YOULGREAVE. 325 

a hole commnnicatijQg with the soil, so that the sprinkled water 
may at once find its way into the ground. Though of unusual 
occurrence, we have ourselves noted several instances of early fonts 
in Brittany, to which a stoup is attached that does not commu- 
nicate with the ground; but in each case, so far as we recollect, it 
is not now used for any purpose whatever.* On the whole it 
seems to us fairly conclusive (and this is the view taken by the 
present Vicar) that the stoup on the font now at Youlgreave, was 
constructed and used for holy water, at a time when the font was 
close to the entrance. We believe it to be an absolutely unique 
example, so far as English fonts are concerned ; a few others, such 
as Pitsford, Northamptonshire, have small projecting brackets or 
ledges, but these are not hollowed, and are supposed to have been 
used as supports for a crucifix, or as a place to which to attach a 
book stand.t 

The possession of this remarkable font has lately become a bone 
of contention between the church of Youlgreave, and its former 
chapelry at Elton. It is said that this font was discarded from 
the church at Elton, when that church was rebuilt at the begin- 
ning of the present century ; that it then remained in Elton 
churchyard for some years ; that in 1888 it was brought thence to 
adorn the Youlgreave parsonage groimds by Vicar Pidcook; and 
that in 1888, it was placed within the walls of Youlgreave church 
by Vicar Wilmot. At thatjime, the old font of Youlgreave was 
placed behind the "William IV." in the village, but was afterwards 
allowed to be taken away to Warslow Church, Staflfordshire, whose 
incumbent was Mr. Pidcock, a son of the formef* Vicar. A few years 
ago, a great effort was made by the good folk of Elton to recover 
their once despised font; but we confess we are not sorry that they 
failed to remove it from the harbour which it had found within 
the walls of the mother church, at a time when irreverence and 
carelessness with res|)ect to the most hallowed or most ancient 



* 'In one of thoBe ohnrches, near Auray, vfe saw the rite of baptism celebrated. 
The stoup attached to the font was certainly not used to hold the chrismatory, which 
was taken by the server out of a locker in the wall at some distance from the font, 
handed to the priest, and immediately returned to the same receptacle. The font 
was not in its original position, and there were large benitierSf of a renaissance date, 
at the entrance. 

t See Markland's Bemarks on English Churches^ p. 92, where there is an engrav- 
ing of this font; Paley's i^onif« (Introduction), p. 29; Archceological Joumalf voL 
vii., p. 328 ; Bateman's Antiquities of Verbyahire, p. 241. See also Corblet's Mantial 
d' ArcMologie^ p. 282, and VioUet-le-Duc's Glossary. The dragon or Salamander on 
this font (which is considered by Paley as a symbol of baptism) is of unusual oc- 
currence, but there are two other examples in Derbyshire — Ashford and Norton; 
there is an engraving of the latter in Churches of Derbyshire , vol. i., p. 292. 



326 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

objects connected with religious observances, were so generally pre- 
valent. At the same time we are bound to admit that the alle- 
gations of the Elton folk as to their original possession of it 
appear to be fully sustained; and we have met with a striking 
corroboration of their view, in the notes of Mr. Bawlins, who 
visited Youlgreave church in 1827, and commented on the then 
font as ** plain and circular," expressions which it would have been 
impossible for him to have employed with respect to the one that 
is now in the nave. Mr. Thornhill generously soothed the sud- 
denly aroused jealousies of Elton, by presenting them with a fac- 
simile of the ancient font, very carefully modelled. 

Low down in the south wall of the nave, a few feet above the 
ground, is a built up rounded archway, that has evidently been 
inserted after the wall had been originally constructed. It is said 
that it was necessary to insert this strengthening arch, owing to 
the following up of a vein of lead ore beneath the church. 

Over the south door of the chancel is the head of an incised 
cross fleury, with a design similar to the circular one at Harting- 
ton, figured on Plate XXIII. This is a portion of a coffin lid, said 
to have been found in situ over a coffin in the churchyard some years 
ago ; it was intended to have placed it in the flooring of the re- 
stored chancel, but a fall of one of the roof beams accidentally broke 
it, and the mutilated fragment was built into its present position, 
in order to preserve it. In the masonry on the east side of the 
porch, is the floriated head of another incised cross, and also a 
portion of the stem.* 

The oldest monument, in the interior of the church, is the stone 
effigy of a cross-legged knight, holding a heart in his clasped 
hands, wearing the quilted gambason of the period, and with a 
cross-hilted sword on his left thigh, f It now rests on a substantial 
stone base against the north wall of the chancel ; but it has 
hitherto been a wanderer within the sacred precincts. In 1710 it 
was at the east end of the south aisle, subsequently it occupied 
another position in the chancel, and when we first saw it, it was 
beneath the tower. Tradition says that the effigy represents Sir 
John Rossington, and we see no reason to doubt its accuracy. 
The Rossingtons were of some importance in this neighbourhood 

* For the probable age, etc., of these stones, we must refer the reader to the ac- 
count of the slabs at BakeweU. 

+ There is an enmving of this effigy in the Jowmal of the Arclueological Asso- 
ciation vcA. vii., plate XXIX. On the subject of cross-legged effigies, see Churches 
of Derbyshire, vol. i., p. 431. 



YOULGREAVE. 327 

at an early date. They appear to have originally come from Ros- 
sington, near Doncaster. The elder branch became absorbed into 
the Cokayne family by their marriage with the heiress, and at a 
later period Gilbert, ali<is Kniveton, married the heiress of a 
younger branch of Rossington. The date of this monument is 
usually assigned to the twelfth century, but we beUeve it to be of 
the commencement of the thirteenth. 

The gem of the church, so far as monuments are concerned, is 
the small altar tomb of alabaster, three-and-a-half feet in length, 
on which is a man in armour, beautifully sculptured Vith great 
fidelity and skill. His head rests upon a helmet, surmounted by a 
cock, the crest of the Cokaynes, round the neck is the Yorkist 
collar of suns and roses, with the white lion of March appendant, 
and the feet rest on a lion. The body is clad in the plate armour 
of the period, with gorget and skirt of chain mail It was con- 
siderably mutilated, especially about the legs, but it was faithfully 
restored, by present representatives of the family, in 1878. The 
sides and ends are composed of slabs of alabaster, with shield- 
bearing angels carved in relief. When Bassano visited this church, 
about 1710, he took the following notes of this monument : — 

" In y* east end of y' south ile is a large faire Quire called 
Gilberts Quire — ^in y* north of which between 2 pillors is a raised 
Tombe of alibaster, & upon y* covering stone is y* proportion of a 
man in armour a cap a pe, with his hands elevated as in praying 
posture with Gauntlets on y™. On y* side has been 2 shields of 
armes painted — on one is a quartered coat !■* 8 cocks g, for 
Cokayne. 2** 2 barrs vert, — y® 8^ as y* second — y* 4*^ as y* first — 
impaling a frett, or frette, «».'* 

Since that date all traces of these arms had disappeared, but 
the proper coats are now (November, 1876) happily restored 
to this tomb, so that its history can be again read, by G. E. 
Cokayne, Esq., Lancaster Herald, in the following order: — At the 
west end, (1) Cokayne and Harthill, quarterly, differenced by a label, 
impaUng Barley; on the south side, (2) Harthill impahng Astley; (8) 
Cokayne impaling Harthill; at the east end, (4) a shield of seven 
quarterings, Cokayne, Harthill, Deyville,- Savage, Rossington, 
E denser, and arg.^ three stags, sab, ; and on the north side, (5) 
Cokayne and Harthill, quarterly, impaling Shirley, and (6) Cokayne 
and Harthill, quarterly impahng Vernon.* 

♦ These arms are, Cokayne, arg.^ three cocks, gu.\ Harthill, arg., two bars, vert) 
Barley, arg.^ three bars wavy, aa6., a chief per pale, erm., and gu.\ Astley, az.^ a 



328 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

The monument is to the memory of Thomas Gokayne, who 
died in 1488.* The arms we have just detailed on the tomb 
give ' the immediate pedigree. The first is the arms of himself 
and wife, Agnes, daughter of Robert Barley, of Barlow. The 
second the arms of his great-great-grandparents, Sir Richard de 
Harthill (died 1889), and his wife Ahce, daughter of Giles Astley. 
The third, the arms of his great-grandparents, Edmund Gokajne 
(slain at Shrewsbury, 1404), of Ashbourn, and his wife Ehzabcth, 
daughter and heiress of Sir Richard de Harthill. The fifth, his 
grandparents, Sir John Cokayne, of Ashbourn and Pooley (died in 
1447), and his second wife Isabel, daughter of Sir Hugh Shirley. 
The sixth, his parents, John Cokayne, of Ashbourn (died in 1505), 
and his wife Agnes, daughter of Sir Richard Vernon, of Haddon. 
The seventh shield represents the early quarterings of the family 
that came through the heiress of Harthill, and which will be de- 
scribed under Ashbourn, where the same coat appears. 

This Thomas Cokayne had three children, Thomas, his heir, who 
married Barbara, daughter of John Fitzherbert,* of EtwaU ; Henry, 
who married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Meverell, of Throwley ; 
and Margaret, who became the wife of Humphrey Lowe, of 
Denby. 

Thomas Cokayne, on his marriage with Agnes Barlow, probably 
had Harthill Hall assigned to him for a residence; both Ashbourn 
and Pooley Halls being usually reserved for the head of the 
family. ** At Pooley, doubtless, Thomas was visiting his parents 
when he met with his untimely death. The Cokaynes were 
intimately connected by friendship with the Bm*detts, who had 
a seat near Pooley (Bramcote Hall)— indeed Thomas Cokayne *8 
granddaughter Elizabeth married into the family, becoming the 
wife of Robert Burdett. Thomas Burdett was probably visiting 
at Pooley, when, as it is recorded, he and Thomas Cokayne 
quarrelled and fought on their way to Polesworth church — at all 
events the quan-el occurred in Pooley Park, and Thomas Cokayne 
fell (by an accident, owing to the inequality of the ground, it is 

cinqnefoil, erm.; Dey^'iUe, or, on a fess between four fleur-de-lis, d^., two fleurs- 
de-lis of the field; Savage, arg.^ six lions rampant, three, two, and one, aab,, lan- 
pied, gu. ; Rossington, arg., a feese between three crescents, gu.; Edensor, arg.^ a 
clievron between three horse shoes, aab. ; Shirley, paly of six, or and oxr., a canton, 
firm.; Vernon^ arg., fetty, sab., a canton, gu. 

* The ArcheBoJogicnl Journal made the blunder of ascribing this tomb to Sir 
John Cokayne, who died in 1505. This mistake was detected and a true account 
given by Mr. Andreas E. Cokayne, in his privately printed Cokayne Memoranda, 
p. 199. It is to his kindness that we are indebted for a fall account of the shields 
now on this tomb. 



YOULGRRAVE. 329 

said) mortally wounded."* He was taken to Youlgreave for burial, 
and this beautiful tomb erected over him. 

Against the east end of the north aisle is a remarkable monu- 
ment, which previous to the restoration was in the chancel; at an 
earlier date it was against the south wall of the south aisle, as 
described by Bassano ; but it was originally designed (as we beUeve) 
to form a memorial reredos at the back of the chantry altar of the 
Lady Chapel in the latter aisle. This mural monument has twenty- 
one small figures carved in relief in alabaster. In the centre is the 
Blessed Virgin crowned, with the Child in her arms. To her right 
kneels a man with his seven sons behind him, to her left kneels 
the wife with their ten daughters behind her. Round the margin 
is the following inscription in rather illegible black letter : — 

"Hie jacet snb lapide corp* Robert! Gylbert de Yolgreff generosi, et Johe 
coBortis sue, que Joha obiit, ii® die Novembris AP dni MCCCCLXXXXII, qui 
quid' Robert clausura hujus capeUe fieri iecit in A** [superadict], et idem Robert' 
obitt." 

The word in brackets is now missing, a piece of the marble having 
been cut out, but we iiave supplied it from the copy of the inscrip- 
tion taken bv Bassano. The date of the death of Robert was never, 
recorded. The meaning of the latter part of the inscription is, 
that Robert Gilbert erected in 1492, a screen, or parclose, round 
the east end of the south aisle, so as to form a chapel. Below 
the figures are three shields, (1) Statham (fju., a pale fusilly, arq., 
with a crescent for difference) ; (2) Statham impaling Rossington 
(crrj/., a fesse between three crescents, gu.) ; and (8) Rossington. 

The first of the Gilberts, of Youlgreave, mentioned in the 
Visitation pedigrees, is Robert Kniveton, alias Gilbert, who married 
EUzabeth, daughter of Thomas Maple, of Mapleton. His son, 
Nicholas Gilbert, married Margaret, daughter and co-heiress of Sir 
John Rossington (a descendant of the Sir John Rossington whoso 
effigy we have described). Their eldest son and heir was Robert 
Gilbert, who, by his wife Alice, daughter of Nicholas Cooper, had 
issue Robert, commemorated by this monument. This Robert 
Gilbert married Joan, daughter of John Statham, of Horsley. 
The Gilberts, of Youlgreave, whose own arms were — gu,y a bend 
vaire, arg. and sab,, seem to have for the most part adopted the 
arms of Rossington, as the more honourable family, after their 

• Cokay 7ie Memoranda. Polesworth, in which parish is Pooley Hall, is a Tillage 
of Warwick Bhire, about four miles from Tamwortn. The Cokayneb obtained that 
property through the alliance with the heiress of Harthill. 



330 DERBTSHERE CHUECHES. 

alliance mth that heiress. It should also be noted that a careless 
blunder of the original sculptor has reversed the arms on toe 
monument, and has made Statham impale Rossington (t.e. Gilbert), 
instead of vie versa. Of the various chUdren here depicted, we are 
only able to give the name of the eldest son and heir-E^bert 
Gilbert, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Henry ColumbeU, of 

On the floor of the south aisle is a smaU brass effigy of a ladyin 
the costume of the commencement of the seventeenth century The 
hair is brushed back high from the temples ; the skirts of the long 
sleeved gown, which is cut very low in front, project abruptly 
from the hips, and are left open in front to show the arabesque 
pattern on the petticoat. Below the figure are the foUowmg 

XU16S * 

"Fridswide Gilbert to the grave 

Hath resignd her earthly part, 

Her Bovle to God, that first it gave, 

On angels wings went with her hart 

A vertvovs maide she livd and died, 

Hvrtful to none but good to all, 

Religious, modest, hating pride, 

These vertves crowne her funerall. 

John Gilbert, marchant taylor of Londo7 brother to her." 

No date is given on this inscription, but, on looking in the re- 
gisters, we find this entry— " Fridesweda Gilbert, y* daughter of 
Francis GUbert, spinster, buried 8 Augt 1604/' Sir Frajicis 
Gilbert, her father, was great-great-grandson of Eobert Gilbert 
commemorated by the mural monument. He married Joan, daugh- 
ter of WilUam Longford, of Longford. They had a large family, 
of whom Fridswide seems to have been the third daughter, and 
John, the London merchant, the thh-d son. The elder sons, 
Nicholas and Francis, continued to reside at Youlgreave. 

Against the north wall of the north aisle is a characteristic 
monument to Eoger Rowe and his wife, of Alport in this parish, 
that has been richly coloured. The centre of the monument is 
occupied by figures of the husband and wife kneeling beneath an 
arched recess, with this inscription between them : — 

• For pedigree of Gilbert, alia3 Kniveton, see Egerton MSS., 996, f. 28; Harl. 
MSS., 1637, f. 76; and Add. MSS., 28, 113. The Gilbert who married the heiress of 
Rosfiingtou is named Nicholas in the Harl. MSS., 1637^592, 2134, 886, and elsewhere, 
but he is named Richard in Egerton and Add. MSS. We suppose that the Knivetons 
of Youlgreave, originally sprang from the ancient family of Knivetons, of Kniveton, 
and changed their name to Gilbert through alliance with an heiress of that family- 
But younger branches of the Knivetons, of Youlgreave, retained their patronymic. 
The Youlgreave registers contain various entries of Kniveton, both in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. 



YOULGREAVE. 331 

"Hio jacet Bogems Hooe de Alport, Anniger, qtd obiit 80 Aprilis, An. Dm. 
1618." 

The desk between them also bears this coat — Gu,y on a bend 
between three garbs, or, as many crosses patee fitch^e of the field 
(Rowe), impaling, arg,, a frett, az., on a canton, «a6., a lion ram- 
pant, or (Cotes). 

The man is dressed in the late plate armour of the period, but 
wearing an incongruous ruff, and bareheaded; his wife also wears 
a ruff, and on her head is a quaint high hat. Below them are 
the small effigies of six boys and two girls, all wearing ruffs. 

Eoger Rowe was the eldest son and heir of John Rowe, by Mary, 
daughter of George Beresford, of Bentley. He married Katharine, 
daughter of John Cotes, of Eslton, co. Leicester. The pedigree 
gives the names of four of the sons, and of the two daughters — 
John, Roger, George, Francis, Grace, and Agnes. The eldest son, 
John, was only twelve years old at his father's death.* 

Under the tower, against the north wall, is a stone (which was 
formerly in the chancel) thus inscribed: — 

"Hie jacet Raphaelis Bradbury de ToulgreaTe, qtd obiit vicesimo primo die 
Aprilis, Anno Dni. 1686." 

Above the inscription are the arms of Bradbury — Sah,, a chevron, 
cT'm.y between three round buckles, arg. This family seems to have 
originally been of Youlgreave (so far as their settlement in this 
county is concerned), but a younger branch, who bore the same 
arms with a crescent for difference, were of Ollerset, as early as 
the reign of Henry VI. We find from the registers that Raphael, 
the son of Francis Bradbury, was baptized 22nd of February, 1602. 

There is now no ancient stained glass in this church, but when 
Bassano was here, about 1710, he noted, in the head of the three- 
light south window of the south aisle, the arms of Clare, Earl of 
Gloucester (or, three chevrons, guJ), and in the three main lights, 
Rossington, Harthill, and Erdeswick {arg., upon a chevron, gu., five 
bezants). 

We do not as a rule notice in these pages any modern monu- 
ments or modem work, but we are sure that we are amply justi- 
fied in making an exception in favour of the east chancel window 
of Youlgreave. This window has just been filled (1876) with a 
genuine work of art by Messrs. Morris & Co., after designs by Mr. 
Bume Jones. The centre hght is occupied by a figure of the 

• Harl. MSS., 1637, f. 44. 



332 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Saviour, who is represented as holding the orb of the world in His 
left hand, and blessing it with the uplifted fingers of the right. 
The anxious care and exquisite pathos of the features, directing 
their loving gaze upon the world, the scene of His Passion, which 
is still held in the hollow of His hand, are simply inimitable, 
and the high spiritual symbolism of the design is beyond all praise. 
The four evangelists are represented in the subsidiary lights. They 
are all characterised by the masterly expression of the countenances, 
by the bold lines of the drapery, and by the natural but vigorous 
attitude of the whole body. Admirable as they all are, perhaps the 
most successful is St. Matthew. The base of the window is of the 
richest crimson, whilst a green tint predominates in the upper tra- 
cery. The colouring of the central figures is sober and dignified, 
and the result is that the eye returns again and again with renewed 
pleasure, to rest upon the general design, and is attracted, as it 
were unconsciously, to linger with growing love upon the Divine 
humanity of the chief figure, and not startled into a momentary 
recognition, as is so often the case, by the gHtter of the nimbus, or 
the gaud of the apparel. If it is ever possible to rise from the con- 
templation of a picture with purer and more ennobling feelings, it 
certainly seems to us to be the case with the east window of 
Youlgreave. 

The praise bestowed upon this window may possibly seem 
to some excessive. The strict adherent to medieval traditions 
may regret the absence of the canopies and other accessories, and 
that stiffness of outline and formalism of features, which it is 
customary to associate with the stained glass of the Perpendicular 
period; but it should be remembered that this window is in eveiy 
way new, that it does not pretend to be a reproduction or restora- 
tion of past tastes, that even the ecclesiastical artist of the middle 
ages scorned to abstain from altering the style and improving the 
design of his pictures on glass when art advanced with the growth 
of the centuries, that slavish imitation is baneful to true . culture, 
and that ''the arts cannot be called liberal in the hands of those who 
want spirit to think for themselves." We have confidence that no 
real lover of art, who may be induced by our words to see this 
window for himself, will have any cause to regret our eulogy of one 
of the finest examples of modern art in the county. 

To the south of the church, near the porch, are the steps of the 
old churchyard cross, and a large basement stone of unusual pat- 



YOULGEEAVE. 333 

tern. It now supports the metal plate of a sundial, on which is 
engraved "Mr. Joseph Smedley, Churchwarden, 1767. Sam. Ashton, 
TidesweU." 

The registers and parish books of All Saints', Youlgreave, are the 
most complete and interesting in the county. The registers begin 
in 1558, and are for the most part in excellent preservation, and 
legible. The churchwardens' accounts are exceptionally perfect 
for a long period. They commence in 1604, and are continued in 
two volumes (interspersed from 1702 downwards with the constables* 
accounts) to 1755. From that date, these accounts were kept for 
a considerable time on separate sheets of paper, but we have 
recovered those between 1772 to 1786 from a store of waste paper 
in a chest beneath the tower. The constables' accounts, subse- 
quent to the date when they were kept in the same book with 
those of the churchwardens, are in a separate volume, and extend 
from 1769 to 1829. Another volume contains the accounts of the 
overseers of the poor from 1718 to 1754. All these volumes have 
been most carefully bound, and preserved from further destruction 
by the present vicar, the Rev. R. C. Roy. A large number of 
orders of settlement, and indentures of parish apprentices, with the 
names and seals of the Justices, together with various other papers 
of local interest, chiefly of last century, have also been classified, 
and put in order. 

The future historian of this parish will find a vast stock of 
material ready to hand, and if such a work was ever accomphshed 
it would once more be seen how the history of even a remote 
village is but the history of the nation in Httle ; how national vic- 
tories were announced on the church bells, and national disasters 
by the proclamation of a form of prayer; how local self-govern- 
ment became gradually developed in the office of justice, constable, 
and overseer of the poor ; how the press gang worked its cruel way 
to man the ships and fiU the regiments of the Georges; how the 
good folk of Youlgreave sent forth a spy to watch the movements 
of Charles Edward in 1746; and how they prepared to defend 
themselves by giving their constable a new bill-head, and repairing 
his old one ; how unmerciful was the treatment of lunatics ; and 
bow free was the consumption of ale, on the smallest possible pro- 
vocation, at the parish's expense ; — these, and a thousand other 
minutias, all of them possessing some point of interest, can be 
gleaned from these annals of a parish, to say nothing of the perfect 



334 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

genealogy of every family, together with an account of their vary- 
ing circumstances, that might be constructed by their aid. 

The following are some of the entries of interest that we have 
extracted from the registers : — 

1601. Uppon the 8th day of this moneth of Februarii being SeptuAgessims was the 
couspiracy by the Earles of Essex, Rutland, and Southampton with their con- 
federateH in London. 

Uppon the 19th day being thnrsday, Essex and Southampton were arraigned 
at Westminster and found guilty by the peiares of this land for high treason. 
The 2.5th day of the said moneth of Feb. being the first day of Lent, was 
Robert earle of Essex executed within the tower of London. 

1602. March 23. Our most gracious soyeraigne Lady Elizabeth queue of Englande, 
France, and Ireland, departed this lyffe uppon Wednesday, after bhe had 
reigned most peacablye 44 yeares, 4 moneths, 11 daies. 

1602. March 29. James King of Scotland was proclaimed Kinge of England, 
France and Ireland at Baunkewell uppon Monday. Whom the Lord preserve. 
And a gallant King and Queen 
Was they and happey in their Keigns. 
1614. A Latin entry, entitled " Hyems Nivosa" is in the Begistera, and the following 
extended translation in the Churchwardens' accounts — 

A MBMORIALL OF THE GREAT SNOW. 

SMinninse This year 1614'5 Jan. 16 began the greatest snow snow (sic) which 

ever fell uppon the earth, within man's memorye. It covered the earth 

An doe de«p 'j^® quarters deep upon the playne. And for heaps or drifts of snow, 

nppon tb« they were very deep ; so that passengers both horse and foot, passed 

over gates, hedges and walles. It fell at 10 severall tymes and the last 

was the greatest, to the greate admiration and feare of all the land, for 

l^rth* SoQtk. ^* came from the fowre p** of the world, so that all entryes were full, 

Jluoh iS. yea the South p^ as well as these mountaynes. It continued by daily 

encreasing until the 12th day of March (without the sight of any earthi 

eyther uppon hilles or valleyes) uppon w^ day (being the Lorde's Dave) 

Babbotb. j^ began to decreasse ; and so by little and little consumed and wasted 

away, till the eight and twentyth day of May for then all the heapes or 

End 18 Malt, drifts of snow were consumed, except one uppon Einder's Scowt, w** 

lay till Witson week and after. 

HTNDERANCES AND LOSSES IN THIS PEAKB CUTRY BY THE SNOWB 

ABOVESAYD. 

1. It hyndered the seed tyme. A very oold spring. 

2. It consumed much fodder (multitude of sheep, cause, continuance of cold wether). 

3. And many wanted fewell ; otherwyse few were smothered in the fall or drownded 

in the passage ; in regard the floods of water were not great though n^ny. 

*' The Name of our Lord be Praysed." 
*' The spring was so cold and so late that much cattell was in very great daxmger 
and some dyed. 

'* There fell also ten lesse snowes in Aprill, some a foote deep, some lesse, but 
none continued long. Uppon May day, in the morning, instead of fetching fflowera^ 
the youthes brought in flakes of snow, w^ lay above a foot deep uppon the 
moores and mountaynes. All these aforesayd snows vanished away and thoed with 
little or no rayne." 

" 1615—A DRY SUMMER. 

There was no rayne fell nppon the earth from the 25th day of March until the 2nd 
day of May, and there then was but one shower ; after which there fell none tyll the 
18th day of June, an then there fell another ; after y' there fell none at all tyll the 
4th day of August, after which tyme there was sufficient rayne uppon the earth ; so 



YOULGREAVE. 335 

that the greattest p^ of this land, specially the south p^ were burnt upp, both come 
and hay. An ordinary Sumer load of hay was at 2li. and little or none to be got for 
money. 
" This p^ of the peake was very sore bamt npp, only Lankishyre and Cheshyre had 

rayne ynongh all the Sumer ; and both come and hay sufficient. 
" There was very little rayne fell the last winter, but snowe onely." 

The churchwardens' accounts are also interspersed with occasional 
interpellations, of wliich the subjoined are specimens. On pages 
218, 219 of the first volume, are lists of persons excommunicated 
between 1677 and 1693 for such offences as clandestine marriages, 
having bastard children, and non-payment of Easter dues ; it is 
added in another hand — ** all remitted after the death of Queen 
Mary, Anno 1696." There is also a list of briefs, with the amount 
collected for each, extending from 1609 to 1719. 

1614. July 8. M<*. That Thomas Swetnam, Vicar de Yolgrave, hath cawsed a seat 
to be made ex impensis suis within the chancell of the sayd psh. church on 
the north syde thereof, by the hand of Thomas Stone and Bichard Halley, 
of Gratton, in the sayd psh., husbandmen, to and for the use and uses here- 
after foUowing, namely, for the use and behoofe of his wyfe now being during 
his naturall lyfe, and after his decease, to descend for the use of the wyfe 
of the next incumbent, and so to continue successively, ex dat the eight day 
July, A.D. 1614. (Signed by the Vicar, the two workmen, and the three 
churchwardens, as witnesses). 

1708. Mem<i. That it is agreed at this meeting that the stocks and pinfold for ye 
future by every respective Hamlett be repaired, and not charged in the town- 
ship's accoimts. 

1731. May 14. There was given two salvers for bread and two stoops for the wine, 
all made of pure silver, and weighing by averdupois five pounds and half an 
ounce altogether, by Mrs. Mary Hill of Woodhouse, during her life-time to 
the Parish of Youlgreave, with her name engraved thereon only to prevent 
its being imbeziled away : In testimony of woh I have hereunto set my 
hand. 

Dan^ Hardinge, cur* of Youlgreave.* 

1746. April 80. Whereas several Bobberies have been committed within the Lib- 
erty or Hamlet of Youlgreave, and the people Bob'd have been &om their 
poverty unable to prosecute the offenders, it is agreed at this general meet- 
ing of the Inhabitants that for the future when any such poor Person shall 
be robbd, the Overseer of the Poor shall defray the expense of prosecuting, 
etc. Signed {inter alia), Bache Thomhill. 

(Inventory from the first page of the volume containing the accounts.) 

A Memoiiall of all ye Bookes belonging to ye Parish Church of Yolgrave, 

ut infra: — 

One Byble of the largest volume. 

One Communion booke. 

Paraphrasis Erasmi. 

Cannons and Constitutions. 

An old register booke in parchment. 

A new register booke in parchment. 

A defence of the right of Kings made by King James I. 

A booke of Homilies (in folio) 1687. 

Another in quarto. 

* There is a similar entry, in a slightly varying phraseology, under the same date 
in the Baptismal Begisters. 



336 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

A table of Affinity and Consangninitie. 

This booke containing all acoompte. 

Jewels worke. 

A discovery of ye new-fonnde land, written by Captaine Richard Wliitboame. 

Mason de Minesterio Anglicano. 

IMPLEMENTS. 

One Commonion cup of silver, with a cover of silver. One carpet for the table. 
A linen cloth for the same. One surples. One qiiishen for the pulpit. Six loo»e 
and two great formes. Three co£fer8. One hack, one spade, one beere. A decree 
or definitive sentence betwixt the psh church and the two chappells, Elton and 
Winster. A rate or lay for the buylding of the steeple. An agreement indented 
betwixt the psh church and the chappell of Elton, all which are in the custodie 
of Nicholas Gilbert, gent. A frame to cast lead in. A little instrument of yron 
to shoot belropes withall. Three formes made of ye old Communion table. One 
flaggon given to the church by Mr. Christopher Fullwood, Esq., of Myddleton.* 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS. 

£ 

1604. Item to the ringers on the Coronation day (James I.) 

„ for mending the Bels agaynst that day 

„ to the maymed Bouldiers f 

„ for the boke of canons 

„ given to Robert Walton for whipping dogs^ 

„ to the workmen when the chancel gates were boarded over 

„ for f atchinge the great bell yoke at Stanton hall 

„ for f atchinge boords and timber at Stanton hall which are 

over the chancell gates 

„ boords & timber which made windowes for the steeple 

,1 to Nicholas Hybert for making the partition betwixt the 

church and the chancell§ 

1605. Item for payntinge the church 2 11 

„ for amending a lock and making a key 

„ for a rope for a little bell 

„ for a prayer booke II • 

„ to the plumber for amending the leads 

1606. „ at a court holden at Yolgreave 

„ at a Visitation holden at Yolgreave 

* The two last items of this inventory are in a later hand. 

t Similar entries occur annually throughout the greater part of the volume. It 
seems that this payment for wounded soldiers was of the nature of a regularly col- 
lected rate or tax. We have met with it in various Churchwardens' accounts of this 
county and elsewhere. 

t The salary of the dog whipper is specified nearly every year down to the present 
century. In some years his duties are described more fully — e.g.f *' for whipping y* 
dogges forth of y* churche in tyme of divyne service." 

§ The above items for 1604 are taken from the accounts of George Byrde, one of the 

three Churchwardens. Each of his co-churchwardens, Francis Hallowes, and Francis 

Garrett, also enter their separate expenses, from which it appears that it wa« the 

I custom to divide the parisn proper of Youlgreave into three parts, or lays, a portion 

i being allotted to each churcnwarden. For certain expenses they all collected like 

. amounts ; thus, the total collection for the ** maymed souldiers " in 1604 came to ISs., 

but other expenditure was divided on a different principle, Francis Hallowes pay- 
t ing 12s. towards the partition between the nave and chancel, and Francis Garrett 

I only 8s. 2d. It is noted at the time that these accounts were passed, that the inha- 

bitants of Callinge, Lowe, Elton, and Winster, did not contribute to that year's rates. 
The total expenses for the year ending April, 1605, amounted to £7 Os. 8d. For 
this year, and throughout the volume, entries are made of the names chosen as Over- 
seers of the Highways, two each being appointed for Youlgreave, Stanton, Birch- 
over, Gretton, and Middleton.. 

II This would be for the fast-day for the plague, which raged this year both in 
England and Ireland. 

i 
t 



B. 


d. 


2 


5 


1 





4 


4 





8 


1 


4 


1 








6 


1 


6 


1 


8 


10 





11 


9 





4 





5 





6 


6 


8 





8 


3 


6 



YOULGUEAVE. US? 

£ 8. d. 

Item for 6 Dinners at the Bayd Visitation 16 

„ to the BingerB the 5th day of August when thanks was 
given to God for the delyveriug of King James from the 

conspiracye of the Lord Gowrye 6 

„ for wryting forth the Begister for the last yeare and bending 

it to Lichfield; 10 

1609. „ to the prisoners at the Kings bench 6 6 

„ for y« Vicar his dinnar at y« Visitation 8 

„ for Wyne at A Communion on Whitfionday 8 quarts 2 

1610. „ for amending the belles and clocke 4 2 

1611. „ for clensing a trough in the churchyard 6 

„ for a boke called Jewells Works 16 

„ to a strange pracher 2 

1613. „ a stirropp for the fyrst bell wheele 8 

I, spe^it at Bakewell about recusants 4 

1614. „ for whitlether and neyles 19 

„ for the maymed Bouldiers and the Maruhalsea 2 10 

„ for the belief ouder his dinnar and his souues with other 

chargs at the same tyme 10 

„ at the second coming of the sayd bellfonder 9 

at the taking downe of the bell 6 

for castyng the fyrst bell* 4 

for the surplus mettall which wee bought of the bell founder 

becawse the new bell waeghed more than y* old* 8 15 10 

to the bell-founders men -. 4 

for the carryage of our old bell to Chesterfield 3 

for carying the great bell clapper to Chesterfield 4 

for carying the new bell from Chesterfield 2 8 

„ to Nicholas Hybert for hanging the said bell Oil 

„ spent at Gybs house at the belfounders In bt coming 3 

„ for amending the great bell clapper 10 

ft to Nicholas Hibbcrt the younger for amending the great 

bell yoke and wheele 6 

„ to y* Vicar for wryting and kepying my accompts this yeare 

and setting hit downe in this booke 10 

1615.' „ to Bob. Cawlton for fetching one Finlinson agayne and 
carrying him before a Justice for getting a Dwarfe with 

chylde 3 

1614. 28 May. The charges of the casting of 26 'sheets of lead (weight 
41 cwt. 1 stone) £5 9s. 4d. 
The charge of laying both now and old sheets uppon the 

body of the church and for amending the yles £2 
Our charges in foder Ss. 9d, 
Summa totalis payd to the plumber and his servant 7 18 1 

1616. Item, an heame for 3^ church hack 1 

1617. M <ui yron chayne for the little bell which hangeth over the 
chancell 1 10 

1619. „ emest money for a newe byble » 14 

(total cost £2 4s. Od.) 

1621. „ three quarters of yellow serg for the pulpit quishen 2 6 

two brazile skinnes 2 4 

Seven y cards of fringe and fyfteen skeynes of silke for the 

sayde quishen 3 11 

,, for making the B^ quishen 5 

• These two totals are obtained by adding together the respective accounts of the 
three Churchwardens. The other incidental items relative to the bell are only taken 
from the account of the first Church wjirden. On another leaf (p. 62) the weight of 
the old bell is given at 6 cwt. 2 st. 10 lb., and of the new one at 7 cwt. 46 lb. The 
total cost (£7 16s. lOd.) there given agrees with the two entries above. 



»» 
»» 
}l 



It 



ft 



338 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

£ 8. d. 

Item fyre li. of flocke to staff the B* quishen 2 

1623. „ the casting of two bells and the overplna metall (in all) .... 8 6 8 
„ the carriage of the s"^ belles to and from Nottingham (in all) 18 

The old least bell waighed 7 cwt. except 19^ lb. 

The second old bell waighed 10 cwt. except 12 lb. 

The least new bell waighed 8 cwt. 12 lb. 

The second new bell waighed 9 cwt. 11 lb. 

to the ringar at the return of Prince Charles from Spayne... 6 

to a pore boy which had his legg cut of 10 

1624. „ for ringing Nov. 23 at his M"*« contract with the Lady of 
France 6 

„ for prayer books set forth in the sickness tyme* 7 

„ to a GroDtian having a letter patent 10 

„ at Chapel le frith about y« recusants 4 

1625. „ for changing y* old Communion cupp and cover for y* new 
ChaUc(inaU) 1 19 9 

1626. „ for Mr. Masous booke de Ministerio Anglica 7 6 

(this year the church porch repaired; much lead stolen 

from the roofs.) 

1627. „ halfe a fodder of lead, four stones overweight, and y* car- 
riage of it 4 19 4 

„ boardes and nailes for y* north door 3 3 

1631. „ layd down toward y* new bell and y« caraying of it 6 10 

„ for carying a letter to y* bell-founder of Chesterfield 4 

1632. „ Spent at Chesterfield when we went to entertain y* new 
Bishop 3 

„ Spent when we went to pay the gathering for Paul's church 16 

1634. „ for timber for y« Bell frames (in all) 5 10 

„ for making y« Bell frames (in all) 8 

(Various other expences connected with the new frames, such 
as " drawing them up into the steeple,** etc.) 
„ to y* Bingers upon the Kings Holy-day 2 6 

1636. „ for sweeping y* snow out of y* church windows 2 

„ given to an old minister 10 

to the Apparitor for bringing the Byshopps orders concern- 
ing the seates in the church 6 

for glazing the south side of the church 6 8 

„ for Rails envrioning the Communion rails (in all) 2 11 6 

1637. „ for a Hoode for y« minister 10 

(This year the tower roof was new leaded). 

1639. „ for killing of foxest 2 8 

(Here a gap, during the Civil Wars, until 1653.) 

1653. „ P*^ for a warrant against the Inhabitants of Elton and 

Winster for refusing to pay their levies 10 

1654. „ Paid to Mr. Angell, minister, for preeching 2 Lord's dayes ... 1 

1655. „ 5 Nov. Paide for beUes (and) to make a bonfire at Stanton... 16 

(Several leaves cut out, a gap to 1661). 

• Upwards of 35,000 persons perished of plague in London only in the year 1624-5. 

t This is the first entry for killing foxes ; the first entry for kilHng ravens is in 
1666; and the first for hedgehogs in 1687. At a meeting held in June, 1712, it was 
a^preed that ** no money be allowed in futurity for hedgehogs, Ravens, or Urchins 
within y* respective hamletts belonging to the church of Yolgreave by reason y* 

Sarish hath been grossly abiis'd and impos'd upon in y* respect." But this agreement 
id not hold good for long, like payments were again made within a few years by the 
churchwardens, and occasionally by the constables and overseers of the poor. The 
amount of vermin thus killed was very considerable. Between the ^ears 1724 and 
1734, 16 foxes, 65 hedgehogs, and 80 ravens, were paid for by the parish. The price 
paid for a single fox varies nrom Is. 6d. to 6s. 8d. On the subject of damage done by 
foxes in the Peak "nicfTnVt. bp*i th** ttrrmi'nt of Hone church. 



n 



tf 



If 



YOULGREAVE. 389 

£ s. d. 

1661. Item. BiDgiug ou the Coronation day 8 

f, Edward Statham for 3 hinges for y* Chancoll gatet), and for 

amending the great bell 2 

(Varioas other repairs to church, including battlements 

and pinnacles.) 

1666. „ for Killing of two Ravens 8 

„ for two Houre Glasses 2 8 

1668. „ P* to y« Painter for Coulering y« pulpit 11 6 

P* to y* Joyners for Altering J"* pulpit 1 12 

Bestowed in glew for y* canopyo of ye pulpit 4 

1674. „ By consent it cost mee of Mr. Jaques y« first Lords day y* 

he preached at Yolgreave 13 

28. from y* right honourable John Earl of Rutland for 3 
seats in Yolgreave Chui'ch belonging to Hartle Hall. 

1687. „ P"* for 85 Hedgehogs 5 10 

„ Pd to Ralph Mather for mending the clock and a cord for 

the watch 5 

1688. „ P<> for a Booke of prayers for the prince of wales 2 6 

„ Given to the Ringers for the (seven) Bishops delivery forth 

of Tower 8 

„ P** to the Clarke for Ringing Eight a Clocke Bell half y« 
yeare, 4 a Clocke Bell in Lent, and looking to the Clocke 

and Watch and dressing the leads 15 4 

1703. ,, Spent upon the parson of Edensor when he preached here 16 

,, Spent upon the curate of Elton when he preached 10 

„ P^ for a Book and a proclamation of a general fast* 16 

„ For a Prayer Book for y* eighth of March 10 

„ To the Ringers on the s* day of Thanksgiving 4 

For writing y^ 10 Commandments, Sentences, and other 

Ornaments in y« church 2 16 

Ale to y* Vicarage aft^r evening service upon palm Sunday 9 
1706. ti Given to the ringers upon y« newes of y Victory at 

Ramillies 2 6 

„ To the ringers upon y« Thanksgiving Day for the Victory at 

Ramillies 10 

„ To John Smith for a new Church Gate and Stoops, and 

Railes for y« Ewe Tree » 10 

1708. „ To Francis Swindal for a Churching Seat 7 

1709. „ making a rail about y« Yew Tree '. 8 9 

1711. „ To y« ringers upon y® news of y* victory over y® Spaniards 2 6 

1716. „ To Robert Strutt for his advice about the clock 2 6 

„ Spent upon y« Company at y« same time 9 6 

(On page 291 is an agreement by which B. S. Whitesmith, of 
BaJkewell, binds himself to keep the Clock in efiicient 
repair for 4s. per annum). 

„ To Robert Strutt for mending the Clock 5 

1719. „ To William Carson for pruening y« Yew Tree 10 

y, Spent upon the parsons when Mr. Moore was ill. Upon Mr. 
MortclifF 2b., Mr. Munk, Is., Mr. Lomas, Is., Mr. Alld- 

ridge, 28., Mr. Cooper, 2a. 6d., Mr. Nichols, Is 9 6 

1721. „ Spent at Mr. Ward's at y" subscribing for y« (Ju: Bounty 1 15 

• The object of this fast was — *' For the Imploring of a BlesRing from Almighty 
God uz>on her Majesty and her Allies, Engaged in the present War, as also for the 
Humbling of ourselves before Him in a deep Sense of Hia heavy Displeasure, shew'd 
forth in the late Dreadful Storm and TempcKt : and in order to the Obtaining the 
Pardon of our Crying Sins, the Averting of His Judgments, and the Continuance of 
His Mercies and, in most especial manner, that of the Protestant Religion, to us and 
to our Posterity." From an original form of this Prayer (44 pages 4to.) in our 
possession. 



71 



)» 






340 DEUBYSUIKK CHURCHES. 

jE 8. d. 

Item. P"* for a book on y« ace* of the Plague 2 

1736. „ to Francis Staley for a fodder of Morring Lead 15 

„ to 6 days work to get up y« lead to cover y« South Isle 10 14 51 

,', to William Castle a year's wages and dressing y* Yew tree... 2 11 

1729. „ to John Wilde for setting up a pillar at y« church 4 

1730. „ to Will. Batcliffe for mending y® Church walls and setting 
up y« Balls on y« Stoops several times 16 

for wood, stoops, nails, and workmanship about y« yew tree 3 

a Piggin and two Potts to wash y* church 6 

„ Washing and plaistering y« church 5 7 6 

,. to Barthia Neivman for mending surplice and setting a neck 

1 

on V w * 

to Tho. Sheldon for carrying earth to Level at Back and 

ChanceU doors 18 

1731. „ a new Bible for y« Church 5 10 

„ to Richard Dale for ye Communion Rails H 17 O 

1732. „ In exchange between an old Silver Cup and Salver for a 
Silver Plate ^ o a 

1739. „ for doing the Weather Cock 2 

1740. „ to Mr. Vincent for Writeing the Creed and Lord's Prayer on 
two tables in y« Chancel 3 15 

1741. „ to Mr. Vincent for drawing the King's Arms 8 8 

„ for fitting ye bench about y* Elm tree (in the Churchyard)... 6 

1746. „ to the Ringers by order on the Thanksgiving Day for sup- 
pressing the late Rebellion 6 

,, for Building a Loft for the Singers 3 11 

1749 for an Act of Parliament relating to y« Distemper in Hom*d 

Cattle 2 

1761. ,1 gave Ben. Jones to buy Reeds for y« Basoon* 8 

1762. „ Mr. Ashton for a Sundial -• 2 

„ In Ale to the people who assisted in unloading the Faunt 

and setting it up 3 

„ Mr. Castle, clerk, for his care of the Yew Tree 10 

CONSTABLE'S ACCOUNTS. 

1702. Spent in going to Chapel le frith to pay in Palphrey moneyf 1 6 

1703. Spent at Tideswell and sending out a Hue and Cry 1 10 

1706. For a warrant to raise souldjers 6 

1707. For a new pair of Stocks 14 

1708. Spent in raising Carriages for ye souldiers that marched thro 
Winster 6 

1710. Spent in search for Soldiers 16 

* From a loose sheet of paper that we found in an old chest in the church, it appears 
that in 1785, a '* Base Voile was acquired by the parish, and it was decided at a ves- 
try meeting that it should be appropriated solely to the use of the church, ^' and not 
be handled about to Wakes or any other places of profaneness and Diversion," except- 
ing the club feasts of Tonlgreave, Elton, and Winster. The basoon was a favoiinte 
instrument of church music in the eighteenth century ; it is not unfrequently now 
used on the continent, in the place of an organ to lead the responses on Good Friday, 
and other days of mournful service. 

f The Constable's accounts for 1719 include "a Catalogue of Palfrey Silver Due and 
Payable within the Hamlet of Youlgreave, with the Names of the Persons that pay 
it, etc." The total is 5s. 5d., and the highest amounts are "Mr. Whittaker's bouse, 
8d., Mr. Franc Staley's, 6d., Youlgreave Hall, 6d." This palfrey money seems to have 
been of the nature of a small house duty on the principal residences. The name 
originated with a customary fee payable on certain estates to the lord of the manor 
for shoeing his horses (palfreys). It is also mentioned in the accounts of Darley 
Dale. ^ 



YOULGREAVE. 341 

4J B. d. 
Given to Valentine Greaves who received a wound by Jer. 

Gregory when he was about seizing him for a soldier 6 

Ditto ditto ditto 6 6 

Spent in seizing James Ward, Sam. Nuttall, ueu, Sam. Nnttall, 

jnn', and making search for others 19 6 

Spent in searching all Yonlgreave for Bradshaw, Gregory, and 

Adama 4 2 

Spent in going through ye township to give ale keepers notice to 

takelicenses - 16 

1712. Spent ab* Thomas Holland when he oocasion'd a distorbance in 

y« nig^t time 14 

1718. To the man for Whipping David Wright 8 

1711. Spent at a Meeting at Bakewell about papists and nonjurors 
(when the names were given in to the Commissioners of for- 
feited estates after the RebeUion of 1716) 4 6 

1722. Spent at Mrti. Wards with y* persons I took with me to search for 

fire arms at John Goulds pursuant to Mr. Boothbeys warrant 18 
My charges to Ashboum with to case of pistols and a sword taken 

from John Gould and carried to Mr. Boothbey 10 

1739. Charges about y« two deserted soldiers for taking them up 1 1 

For a Gaurd over them three nights 3 

pd to a man to guard ym betwixt Nottingham and Derby 2 G 

P* for puting y* men into y* Gazet and piinting a hundred papers 5 

1786. To a maymed Souldier with a pass 4 

To Strutt for a Staff for the Constables Use 12 6 

1740. At Winster when X put the Kings Proclamation on the Cross 10 

For two Watch bills 7 6 

1744. Spent with pressing 3 men for liis Majesties Service 1 4 

P^ two men for attending them one day 14 

P** three men for attending them that night 2 

F* the High Constable for the Press Warrant 10 

Spent at several times going thro y* Township to press men 2 6 

1745. 18 Dec. P^ to G. Toft when he went to Enquire about the Bebells 6 

Gave to a Soulder y* was siok y* came from Carlile 6 

Gave a Soulders wife comeing from Scotland \ 6 

Gave two poor Seamen taken by the Turks 6 

For a new Watch Bill and repairing the old one 4 6 

1748. Giving notice for a meeting of the Commissioners about the 

Hom'd Cattle 6 

To the Inspectors charges 8 

For inspecting the market by the Commissioners orders 2 

(Numerous other heavy charges in connection with the Inspec- 
tion of Homed CatUe ordered by the Commissioners'^ ow^ing to 
the plague.) 

1756. Spent with serching for Sealors at y® Ale Houses 2 

1759. Spent on giving notice to the Hcadborough of a Warrant to im- 

press Seafareing Men 6 

1760. Spent with seizing W. Tomson a Stroler for abuse 10 

P«* Jtrmy Grayham for meat and drink for the s*^ W. Tomson and 

guards 10 6 

1767. Gave a Malitia man and wife and son with a pass, who staid all 

night, the son being ill 10 

1772. P* to seven men we took to offer themselves at the meeting to 

serve in the Militier 1 11 

1773. My expenses to Cromford to attend the Justices on the account 

of some Miners quareling about their wages 4 

1775. Spent with the Headboroughs of Winster and Birchover with 
numbering the Publick Houses to be laid before the Jus- 

ticeses , 10 

1779. At y*' inquist of Bette Gregore, expenses of y« Jure 8 



342 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

£ 8. cL 

For Caredge of y« Corpes onto Stanton More* 2 6 

To ale and bread and chees to ye men that went with y^ corps ... 2 
Paid to Stanton Officer for y* grave making and sum ale and 

eating 2 

Spent with giving ye Hcadborons Notis to bring in thear Balited 

men to be Bworden before y* Jufltieea 6 

1780. Paid for a new pair of Stocks and painting 8 6 

1793. Paid last Sessions order at 8 shillings a Trained Soldier 2 8 

1794. Paid the High Constable for Trained Soldiers 21 6 

Paid the Train Soldiers Money 6 13 

1799. P<^ postage of a Double letter from Mr. Leaper Distribntor of 

Stamps respecting y* Licences to wear Hair powder 10 

OVERSEER OF THE POOR'S ACCOUNTS. 

1713. Payd two womin for wakeing one night and tenting Ellin Leey 

two days 2 4 

Paid for fiUicking to Bind her arms 3 

Payd for a Cord to Bind her Down in Bed 14 

Payd for a Stable (staple) to Locke her two, 1 

1717. Given to John Wards daughter while she was Learning to Spin... 2 
Given to Mary Wiird, while her daughter learned to Spin soft 

Jarseyf- ■ 2 | 

To Thomas Shelldon this winter season too load of Coals 2 4 i 

1726. Spent about Hellen Ley being Lunatick^ on y* men that assisted I 

George Clark to break y* door being fast bolted on y* inside 

supposeing she had been dead 16 

For ale and meat for her y* night 6 

For ale to make her a Caudle when she fainted 3 

To Dr. Wooley for bleeding Hellen Ley 6 

1729. P* to William Roberts for Htmting y» fox by y« c<»isent of y* 

Gentlemen 8 6 71 

1733. P"* for repairing the Pinfold and Sheepwash 3 

P<* to John Smith for repairing The Town's Stocks 4 1 

1740. T^ Doctor Morrise for Curing Anthony Chappell 6 10 O 

1741. P<* for seeds and plants for the poorhouse gardin 16 

P* Jacob Clark for fetching the Wheeles from Tidswell to the 

Poor House 2 

Bought 22 pounds of Beef at 1^ per pound for poor house 2 8 

1742. P<^ for a straight Bodyed Coate, and a Quilt, three Caps, 2 pair of 

Stockings for Mary Bagshaw 6 O 

1744. P* Anth. Hancock for Wintering Mary Dale's Cow 12 

1746. Recv<* of George Wall, Constable, for the use of George Guys 

Children, he being prest for a souldier 1 19 O 

1746. Goods in y» Workhouse. 

One iron pot, 1 water kit, 4 stools and pot hooks. 
Parlor— a pair of Bedstocks, a new (spinning) wheel, ten pounds 
and I of linnen yarn. 

* Probably a case of suicide, Juried at cross roads on the Moor. 

t One Peter Clowes, of Wirksworth, " a jarsay spinner," removed about this time 
to Yonlgreave. Articles of agreement, dated February, 1716, are extant between him 
and the parish of Youlgreave, by which he undertakes to teach those chargeable on 
the parisli spinning, to provide wheels at live shillings a piece, »nd to pay the spin- 
ners at the rate of eightpence to two shillings per pound, according to the coarseness 
or fineness of the jersey. 

\ There are several other entries relative to the rough treatment of lunatics, or 
"melancholy" persons as they are usually termed. 



YOULGREAVE. 343 

£ s. d. 
Chamber over y« house— one pair of Bedstocks, a chaff bed, 2 

boTilsters, one Blanket, a coverlid, one wool wheel, and two 

boards. 
Kitchen — One Doccan, a Backsprittle,* one tnb, 2 barrels, a Ladle, 

one chest, and one old tub. 
Wheels belonging to the Town— Two at Mary Taylors, 3 at Mary 

Beards, one at Martha Smiths, one at Eliz: Pickerings. 

For 2 lb. of wool for y use of y Poor 10 

For spinning 164 lbs. of wool 6 

1747. For y« Window Act, and fetching it from Chesterfield Old 

1751. September 24. Thos. Worrel died possest of One Cnbbord, one 

seat, on Iron pot, one old Form, one old box, a pair of 
Blankets and Do Sheets, and his wearing apparell : now in 
Custody of Margert Saxmt and to be disposed of as the Town 
shall think meet. 

1752. Given to Eich* Swindell that day he had his finger cut of 2 

1758. Paid Mary Hollingworth for Ingredients and trouble used about 

Staton's eyes 2 



Of the five Chapels of Youlgreave, that were possessed by that 
church, when it was bestowed in Henry II. reign on the Abbey of 
Leicester, only two — ^Elton and Winster — remain. Of two others — 
Oratton and Stanton — it seems iinpossible now to even determine 
the site. Nor can we say more than a word or two of the fifth, 
which was situated at Middleton. Bobert CoUe not only gave 
the tithes of Youlgreave and its chapelries to the Abbey, but also 
a large tract of land at Middleton, which remained in its possession 
until the dissolution of the Monasteries.f In the Valor ^celestas- 
Hcus (27 Henry VIIL) the tithes of Middleton are valued at £4, 
and the lands at ** Middleton More " at £28 per annum. The 
manor of Middleton was held by the Harthills in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries; thence it passed, with the heiress, to 
the Cokaynes in the reign of Henry VL, and it was purchased 
from them by Francis Full wood about the year 1602. From the 
Fullwoods it came into- the hands of the Batemans, the present 
owners. It is said that the masonry of the old tower of Youl- 
greave, taken down in 1614, was used by Mr. Bobert Bateman in 
building Middleton Hall in 1626 ; and that tliis discovery was 
made when taking down the Old Hall in 1828. It is further added 
that much of this old material was used in building the New 



* Doccan and Backsprittle were at one time literally '* household words " in Derby- 
shire, though it is very exceptional now to meet with those who understand them, 
nor can we find the terms in tne provincial dictionaries of Halliwell and others ; the 
former word is the small wooden implement by which the oatcakes are turned, and 
the latter is the heated iron plate on which they are baked. 

t See the remains of the Abbey Chartulary passim. 



344 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Hall almost on tlie Pame site, the foundation stone of which was 
laid on Easter Monday, 1824.* The museum of the late Mr. 
Bateman contains—" A crowned female corhel head of good work, 
from Middleton,** and "a few architectural fragments, such as 
heads of narrow lancet windows, etc., from Middleton ; prohaMy 
(with the last article) from Youlgreave church."t There is also in 
the collection a small cross in the form of a quatrefoil, with a rose 
in the centre, cut from a thick piece of sandstone, which was 
found in a waU at Middleton, in 1828. The tale ahout the re- 
huilding of the tower of Youlgreave in 1614, has, as we have 
akeady stated, no foundation, heyond the fact that some slight re- 
pairs were done to the church in that year. We have no doubt 
that these various details, instead of coming from Youlgreave 
church, were parts of the old chapel of Middleton. Foundations 
of extensive buHdings, as well as a vaulted passage, have quite 
recently been disclosed in the grounds of Middleton HaJl. They 
have probably aU belonged to the large ^monastic Grange which 
formerly stood there, with which the chapel would be connected. 



There was yet another chapel in this parish which is not men- 
tioned in the gift of Eobert Colle, as it formed part of an inde- 
pendent donation to the Abbey of Leicester. At the time when 
William Peverel endowed the Priory of Lenton with two-thirds of 
the tithes of diverse lordships in the Peak, Haddon, Monyash, and 
Meadow Place, were held under him by W^illiam Avenel (ancestor 
of the Vernons), and were specially included in the charter. J 
But though this share of the tithes of Meadow Place (amounting 
to 3s., temp. Henry VIII.) belonged to Lenton, the land itself, 
in conjunction with the adjacent hamlet of Conksbery and its 
water-mill, together with twenty acres of land in Over Haddon, 
were given by William Avenel to the Abbey of Leicester.§ This 
gift formed a valuable addition to the property of the abbey, and 
we find that Meadow Place (Meadow-pleck) is valued in the Valor 
Erclesiasticm at £22 13s. 4d. per annum. Edward VI., in 1562, 
granted the manor of Meadow Place to Sir William Cavendish, 

* Bateman MSS. 

t Bateman'fl Catalogue of Antiquities, p. 186. 

, Dugdalo's Monasticon, vol. i., p. 646. 

al.l ^^feth%^^'Tn' ^""l '1' ' *• ^^^ ' ^^^ Leicester Abbey Chartalary . Avenel 
^ tne lirange of Oneash to fioche Abbey, Yorkshire, fiugdale, volf i., p. 8»9. 



YOULGUKAVE. M5 

from "whom it has doKC ended to the Duke of Devonshire. • There 
is a tradition that there was a clause in the gift of WiUiam 
Avenel, by which the holders of the Meadow Place estate were 
bound to maintain all the poor in the parish of Youlgreave; but 
very possibly this tradition is merely founded on the hospitality 
and care of the poor, that were practised by the monks of Leices- 
ter at this their principal Grange.* Attached to the Grange was 
an ancient chapel, which was most unfortunately demolished in 
October, 1856, though it had long been merely used for farm pur- 
poses. The only views that are extant of this old building, are 
two careful sketches that were taken for the late Mr. Bateman, just 
before it \vas pulled down. From these we gather that the chapel 
had on the south side (in addition to some modern openings) a 
round-headed Norman doorway, and two small lancet windows of 
unequal size ; the east end had a wider pointed window, all of 
which had been built up except a square opening ; and there 
was also a doorway at the west end, with a lancet window on 
each side. 

* Meadow Place conBists of 781 acres. 



«346 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 



^e C^oprlrs of lElton. 




|LTON was one of the chapels of Youlgreave, which were 
given, together with the mother church (as ahready 
stated), to the Ahbey of Leicester, in the reign of 
Henry II. by Robert Colle. 

The manor of Elton, at the time of the Domesday Survey, be- 
longed to Henry de Ferrers. In^ the reign of Edward I. it was 
hold by the Foljambes, and remained with that family till the 
reign of Elizabeth.* 

In the year 1858, Godfrey Foljambe and William de Sapnrtone 
obtained the royal license to assign two oxgangs and a half of 
laud, in Gratton, to the warden of the altar of the Blessed Mar- 
garet in tlie chapel of the Blessed Margaret of Elton, for the cele- 
bration of daily mass for the healthful state of the said Godfrey 
and William whilst they lived, and for their souls when they had 
departed this life. The jury declared this land to be of the 
annual value of 19sl+ This Godfrey Foljambe was the son of Sir 
GvKlfroy Foljambe and Avice Ireland, whose monument is described 
in the account of Bakewoll Church. 

Bi^sidos this chantry at the principal altar of the chapel of 
Vlltan. there was also another chantry at the altar of the Yrrgin 
Marv. We do not know exactlv when it was founded, but it was 



• Tr^v l^"^*' MvMt>, 11 F.ltr, I.. XvV SS» *tc-, M**. Tb* Fc^ljamlws on^maST held it 
«tt«Ur the TiWlv^ik *£^ (Ords p«r»n:ount« by the $«nrice cl a piiir of giirspazs. 

♦ Inq >vv^l Moit., >^ Ka\r. III., pt~ i, Xo. 56L V:l« JLppeaiiz. Xol XTV*. 



Fx"* **v.5v MS^S ,Nioh»>V> t\ J *;:-.A*. TvC i., re S3S eiTv^se«x25lT pat the date of this 



\\*V.o^^ .>f Vvr.>N» ^x^^ T., ( ^v": , l.v^.^r? iV^?","^*, -*, f . A^ P'^** tbe date xi^v bnt 
*•;:/,.;:«* l>.o iift lx> Ovv;:\^fT Mer::? "I ir.<:«.iiO. , : iT.«.ifr«T Fvl;\aibe- Tber* is 
do..V: s' A! Su >t*rpnx't i* ;!:? tT\:<' viei:.-^::.-:: c^f liiis c*ap*I. si:>:;|A Dr. Feejpe 

be |«4krdo«:ed foe i^<-;t i 



% «« « ^ « 



ELTON. 347 

evidently also connected with the Foljambe family, for Sir William 
Plompton died in 1480, seized of the nomination of a chantry 
priest to serve this altar. • His father, Sir Robert, had married 
Alice, heiress of the third Godfrey Foljambe. 

The following is the entry in the Chantry Roll (37 Henry VIII. > 
relative to this second chantry, at which time the endowment of 
the chantry at the altar of St. Margaret seems to have lapsed, or 
become amalgamated with the other one, as no mention is made 
of it : — 

Sidpendarie of Walton founded by 8er Godfrey Fuljambe Knt for a preste to 
aaye masse at the Chappell of Elton durynge his naturall lyfe, clere Ixviij*., with 
Ixiiij* out of lands in Elton et Gretton to Thos. Borowes Stypendarye. It is a 
Chappell dystaunte from Tolgryffe ij mylles, to the w<* resorte iiij" howselynge 
people and there is mynystred all Sacraments. It hath a mancyon prised at iiijs. 
No chalys and other ornaments otherwise than [is borowed from the towne of 
Elton. 

In the Inventory of Church Goods, taken in the reign of Ed- 
ward VL — ** Elton chapell in Yolgrave parishe. Rich. Ruyston 
vichar," was credited with ** iij bells — j sanctus belle — j sacryng 
bell — j handbell — j sute of vestments of Sey and lynen clothes." 

In the time of Henry VIII. the clear value of Elton was £3 
per annum, and when the Parliamentary Commissioners of 1650 
drew up their report, they found the value of the small tithes of 
Elton to be only £1 68. 8d. Mr. Cantrell was then minister, and 
the Commissioners credit him with being *' scandalous and in- 
efficient." 

After the Reformation, there appears to have been much diffi- 
culty in keeping the cure supplied, owing to the smallness of the 
income. At the close of the seventeenth century, the freeholders 
complained to the Bishop, that "whereas there were eighty families 
poor farmers and miners, who had an antient chapel, two miles 
distant from the Parish church, of three aisles, three beUs, and a 
right to bury and administer sacrament, but now by poverty (there 
being but only the chapel yard farmed at 68. 8d. per acre, be- 
longing to it) become destitute of Divine Service, and whereas 
the cottage rents, heretofore dormant and not claimed by the lord 
of the soil but sent to benefit of said chapel, are now claimed by 
the lord, so that they had not got a minister to officiate, therefore 
they pray the Bishop's assistance, setting forth that there was a 
vein of ore found in their town street and is all or great part 
enjoyed by persons that lived in London, and does appear by its 

• Inq. post Mort., 20 Edw. IV., No. 88. See Appendix No. XIV«. 



348 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

position to go through the north side of ye chapel yard, it being 
also contrary to custom of the myne here for the owners thereof 
to pursue or work said vein of lead oar in the chapel yard, there- 
fore they pray his lordship to admit and impower their chapel- 
wardens to delve in the chapel yard to seek for said vein for 
benefit of chapel." This document is signed by Richard Lomas 
and Richard Shipman, chapelwardens, and several other free- 
holders, amongst whom may be named — Thomas Eyre, of Rowtor, 
Robert SetliflTe, Vicar of Bradbourne, and Jacob Cresswell, Curate 
of Brassington. To this request the Bishop replied on the 20th 
of June, 1695, giving leave to three of the inhabitants to dig for 
ore, and taking a bond for £400, pledging them to apply all the 
proceeds to the chapel. It is supposed that the lead mining thus 
sanctioned injured the foundations of the old buildings. Lead is 
even now being worked below the church, but at a considerable 
depth.* 

The Vicar of Youlgreave was patron of this chapelry up to the 
year 1726, when the appointment was vested in the hands of the 
freeholders, in consequence of the subscription of j£200 got up by 
Mr. R. Marpley, and others.f The hving was further augmented 
by c£20u Parhamentary grant, and ^6200 from Queen Anne's 
bounty; an Act was passed in 1809 for enclosing lands in Elton 
and Winster, when fifty acres were allotted to the Incumbent of 
Elton in lieu of tithes.J 

In 1805, application was made to Quarter Sessions to obtain 
their sanction for a Brief to procure subscriptions for the rebuild- 
ing of the church. The petition states that it is "a very antient 
structure greatly decayed ; that the steeple thereof, which for a 
long time has been held together by cramps, gave way on the 
28th of February last and fell to the ground, that in consequence 
of this accident the body of the church (the walls and pillars of 
which wore before several inches out of the perpendicular) was so 
materially damaged, as that it cannot by repairing be made safe 
to assemble in." The petition further states that it is altogether 
so ruinous that no other course but taking it down and rebuilding 
it remains, and that an estimate for the same has been obtained 
at £1,100 12s. lOd. The petition is signed by " B. Pidcock. 
Minister; Henry Watts and Joseph Clayton, Chapelwardens/' 

* Pegge's Collections^ vol. v., f. 202. 
f Pegge's Collections, vol. v., f. 8. 
J Bateman'B MSS. 



ELTON. 349 

The Brief was obtained, but it only brought in £158 18s. Qjd., and 
a second application was made in 1808. A third application was 
made in 1816, from which we learn that the church was taken 
down and rebuilt in 1812, and since completed at a cost of 
£1,227 148. 6id., but that £882 Is. 7d. of that sum still remained 
due and unpaid.* 

The old church consisted of nave and side aisles, south porch, 
chancel, and tower with a low broached spire at the west end. Its 
successor is a plain parallelogranr with an equally plain western 
tower. This building, with its round-headed windows, was pos- 
sessed of all the worst characteristics of the time in which it was 
built, but in 1869 the flat ceiling of the roof was removed, a 
pointed east window inserted, and the windows on the south side 
** Gothicised.'*' There is no porch, but on the key-stone of the 
south entrance is the date 1808. When the east window was in- 
serted, several fragments of the old chapel were found built into 
the wall. Some of these are now in the Vicarage garden, where 
we noticed stones that have formed part of the jambs of two door- 
ways. One of these stones shows the clearly cut capital of an 
Early English shaft of the thu-teenth century ; whilst another frag- 
ment of a shaft with a flllet running up it was of the Decorated 
period of the next century. In the same place is the fine base 
stone or pedestal of a large cross, with the angles chamfered off, 
which was recently found in a wall on the other side of the street. 
It appears to be too large for a churchyard cross, and has probably 
at one time stood in the centre of the village. This gard^i also 
contains the small modem font, which the execrable taste of the 
past generation thought preferable to that unique relic which was 
in the old chapel, and which has now found shelter at Youlgreave. 
At the time when this church was lately improved, a strong effort 
was made to induce the authorities of Youlgreave to restore the 
old font. But the effort was vain, and the lord of the manor, the 
late Mr. Thomhill, caused an exact facsimile of the ancient font 
to be sculptured, which now stands in the church of Elton. 

The tower contains three bells, bearing the following inscrip- 
tions : — 

I. " God save the Church, 1688." In Eoman capitals. 

II. "God save the Church, 1603." In Eoman capitals. 

• County Recorde. 




350 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

in. " Jesus be our Spede," and the initial letters H. D. Tliis 
inscription is in ornate Lombardic letters.* 

From the appearance of some broken-off corbel-stones in the 
north wall of the tower, a little above the level of the floor of the 
belfrey, we are led to believe that this is a. portion of the wall 
of the old tower, though there is no appearance of age on the 
exterior. 

In the churchyard, leaning against the north wall of the church, 
is a curious hollowed stone, which is said to have been unearthed 
when the old building was taken down. It is about five feet long, 
by three feet wide, in the centre, but tapers considerably to each 
end. It is hollowed to a depth of six inches, having an internal 
measurement of three feet nine by two in breadth at the widest 
part. These dimensions seem to preclude all possibiUty of its be- 
ing a stone coffin, but popular tradition accounts for its shape by 
saying that it was used for the interment of twin children I An- 
other hypothesis is that it once served as a font for immersion; 
but, though in other countries we do occasionally meet with early 
Christian fonts shaped like a parallelogram and other unusual de- 
signs, yet its shallowness, and the very rough and uneven condi- 
tion of its underside are quite sufficient to disprove both theories. 
We believe it to be a stone that has been roughly hollowed out 
for some domestic or agricultural service, and, having served its 
original purpose, has been subsequently utilised as a foundation 
stone. 

In the interior of the present building, there may also be noted 
a royal hatchment, at the west end of the church, of the reign 
of George III., bearing th^ name of "J. Clayton, Chapelwarden,*' 
and an oak chair within the Communion rails, inscribed " Joseph 
Conaway, 1637." 

The registers commence in the year 1690. 

* The initial letters H. D. are speciaUy fine and ornate. Within the H. is a lion's 
fifLn' w? "^thin the p. are the smaller letters M. H. There is an engraving of 
these letters in the Reliquary, vol. xiii., Plate 11. «**,«• "X8 



WINSTER. 351 



^t Ci^oyelrs of Wlimttv. 




|INSTER was one bf the five chapels given, with the 
mother church of Youlgreave, to the Ahhey of Leicester, 
by Robert CoUe, in the reign of Henry 11. There are 
occasional brief references to it, in the mutilated chartulary of the 
Abbey, which has been mentioned in our account of Youlgreave. 

At the dissolution of the monasteries, it appears that Winster 
chapel, with much more of the confiscated ecclesiastical property of 
Derbyshire (including the chantry lands of Snitterton), was granted 
to the Warner family. A deed of the 23rd October, 3 EUzabeth, 
is extant, by which Sir Edward Warner conveys to Richard Wen- 
desley, of Wendesley, Esq., and to Ralph Brown, gent., "all my 
chapel and scite and chapel -yard called Winster chapeL" Subse% 
quently the appointment of the minister of Winster became vested 
in the resident freeholders, in whose gift the living still remains.* 

The Parliamentary Commissioners of 1650, recommended the 
uniting of the two chapelries of Elton and Winster in a single 
parish. They report the small tithes of Winster as being worth 
£5 per annum; "noe minister at Winster." 

Mrs. Ann Phenney and Mr. Henry Fenshaw, in 1702, gave the 
fourth of the tithes of hay and com in this township to the min- 
ister, and the living was shortly afterwards augmented £200 by 
Queen Anne's Bounty, £400 by subscriptions from the inhabitants, 
and £800 by a Parliamentary grant. At the inclosure, in 1809, 
87a. Ir. 27p. were allotted to the incumbent.f 

Vain human nature has always desired to leave mementoes of 
itself to succeeding generations, and when the law of the land, and 
the change of the national religion, forbad the endowments of 

♦ Add. MSB., 6669, f. 28, 
t Bateman's MSS. 



352 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

chantries, various expedients were resorted to for this purpose. 
The charities of Winster give evidence of this desire to live before 
posterity. Robert Gates, by will dated 7th May, 1717, left to the min- 
ister of Winster, ten shillings per annum for a sermon to be preached 
on the day of his burial, twenty-four wheat loaves to be distributed 
to a like number of poor persons present at the said sermon, and 
two shilUngs to the ringers for a funeral peal. Elizabeth Buxton, 
by will dated 11th July, 1720, left ten shillings per annum to the 
minister for a sermon on the anniversary of her burial, twenty 
shillings to be given to forty poor inhabitants, and five shillings to 
the ringers for ringing on the like occasion. She also made pre- 
cisely similar threefold bequests for the anniversary days of the 
death of her aimt and of her mother. These four memorial 
sermons were preached, and the four peals duly nmg on the 
appointed days, when the Charity Commissioners reported of this 
district in 1827, and, for aught we know, they are still continued.* 

The church, which is dedicated to St. John the Baptist, was 
entirely rebuilt, and considerably enlarged, so as to provide 294 
additional sittings, in the year 1842. The tower only remained 
standing, and that is but a century and a half old, as we find 
from a stone on the western face which is inscribed : — ** Christo- 
pher Bagshaw and Robert Staley Ch. W. 1711." 

Fortunately we can give a few particulars relative to the old 
building. A south east drawing of this church was taken by Mr. 
Rawlins, in 1825. From it we gather that there were, on the 
south side, two dormer windows in the roof, which were probably 
later insertions to light galleries, and three square-headed plain 
windows of a debased style, one of three lights, and the others of 
two each. The priest's door was Norman, with a projecting drip- 
stone.t The south porch had a high pitched roof with a niche 
over the entrance; the doorway being evidently Early English, with 
a triple row of jamb shafts. Near the priest's door, was the shaft 
of an ancient cross, some five or six feet high. Mr. Rawlins gives 
the dimensions of the nave as sixty-five feet six inches, by sixteen 
feet one inch; and the north aisle as forty .-throe feet, by sixteen 
feet five inches. The north aisle was separated from the nave 
by three pointed arches, resting on circular columns. H« adds 
— "as there is ^o chancel, the Communion table is placed at the 
end of the nave." 

• Charity Commissioners' Reports, vol. xviii., p, 93. 

+ In Lysons' Church Notes (Add. MSS., 9463) is a smaU pencil sketch of this richly 
ornamented hood mould. 



Plate XVI, 



Wltt^s^. 



Yovu^H,<ftV<. 



S!<!:/f/-op^. sjiKL^^I'- 



WIN8TER. 363 

The interior was choked up with galleries. When Rhodes visited 
this place about 1815, the church seems only to have caught his 
attention from its smallness. He says: — *' Whilst at Winster we 
visited the church, a small structure which appeared to us not of 
sufficient capacity for the place and the neighbourhood around. The 
churchyard too is a contracted spot, and the graves seem crowded 
together in a manner very unusual in a small country town; two 
sides of it are bounded with a plantation of spreading limes, and 
several fine yews grow near them." Mr. Rhodes also comments on 
the musical tastes of the inhabitants, alleging that a wealthy gen- 
tleman of the neighbourhood had given them the choice of an 
abundant water supply, conveyed from a well a mile distant, or of 
an organ for the church, and that they preferred the latter. 

There is one object of considerable interest within the church, 
viz., the old font. (Plate XVI.) The font itself is circular, but it 
rests on an octagonal base, that reminds us of one in the Rectory 
garden at Matlock. Both font and base are rudely sculptured, but 
with much vigour, and the whole is in good preservation. The 
former has a cable moulding running round the margin, and the 
circumference is divided into six sculptures. The one facing east, is 
of two children holding a book, two of the others have the monogram 
"Ihc,** and another the more unusual but older monogram of the 
two first letters of the Greek rendering of Christ. Three sides of 
the octagon base are plain, two have a lily springing from a pot 
(one of the emblems of the Virgin), another the Virgin and 
child, another a head out of folds of drapery, and another, a half- 
length nude figure in a font. The characteristics of this font are 
contradictory as to age, but on the whole we think the balance 
of opinion is in favour of its being of late Norman or Transition 
design, circa 1200. 

There are five bells in the tower, bearing the following in- 
scriptions : — 

I. "Jesus be our speed, 1761. Thomas Hedderley, Founder." 

n. **R. Bagshaw, C. Staley, C:W:1711.^* 

III. No inscription or mark. 

IV. "Daniel Hedderley, Founder." 

V. ** Devonshire and Rutland Benefactors. Joseph Heathcote 
and John Sellers, Churchwardens 1860. Recast by Jolin Warner 
and Sons London." On the waist are the Royal Arms. 

'J'he old Curfew custom is still kept up at W^inster. The 4Ui 

2a 



354 



DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 



bell is rung throughout November, December, January, and Febru- 
ary, at eight o'clock every work-day evening, except on Saturdays, 
when the hour is seven. A six o'clock morning bell is also rung 
daily from 25th March to 25th September. 
The registers commence with the year 1661. 



ROWTOR. 355 



€|e (iDlapelrs of litotDtor^ 




|HE Chapel at Rowtor, in the township of Birchover, was 
built by Thomas Eyre, Esq., who died in 1717. It is 
not quite clear when the Eyres became possessed of the 
Rowtor estate. One pedigree describes Stephen Eyre, of Hassop, 
who married the heiress of Blackwall, as being also of Rowtor ; 
but there is no doubt that his grandson Roger, one of the younger 
sons of Rowland Eyre, by the co-heiress of Stafford, owned the 
estate and resided at Rowtor. Roger Eyre, by his wife Elizabeth 
Gosling, had two sons, Adam and Thomas.* Adam dying without 
issue (being killed by a fall from his horse) the property passed to 
Thomas, who was a barrister of Gray's Inn. 

Thomas Eyre died on the 30th of November, 1717. By his will, 
dated 2nd of September, of the same year, he leaves his body 
to be buried "in my chappell lately by me erected near my man- 
sion house of Rowtor. "t He made bis kinsman Henry Eyre, second 
son of Gervase Eyre, of Rampton,j: his heir, on condition of con- 
stantly residing at Rowtor Hall (which had just been rebuilt) where 
he was to maintain '* a good house of sober hospit^ity.'* He also 
left an endowment of £20 a-year to be paid to "an orthodox 
minister, as a chaplain residing there or thereunto, for y* con- 
tinual service of my said chapell, who shall read and use y* 
service of Common Prayer by law established in y* Church of 
England in my said chapell twice every day, and administer the 
Sacrament every Sunday or Lord's Day in y* year.'' 

♦ Harl. MSS., 6,104, f. 82 ; Dugdale's Visitation, 1662—3, CoUege of Arms. 

t Add. MSS., 6,669, f. 96. 

} The Byres, of Bampton, were descended from Boger Eyre, of Hobne, fourth 
son of Boberi Eyre and Joan Padley ; the Eyres, of Rowtor, were dsBceuded from 
Stephen Eyre of Haseop, eleventh son of Robert Eyre and Joan Padley. 



356 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

In the chancel at Youlgreave is a plain brass to the memory 
of Catherine, daughter of Gervase Eyre, of Rampton, who died 
in 1728, aged 30, and of her sister Dorothy, who died in 1719, 
aged 19 years. From their interment in this parish, it would 
seem that they had come to reside with their brother Henry, at 
Rowtor Hall.* The estate of Rowtor was sold by the Eyre family 
to John Bradley, of Birchover, who left it to his illegitimate son, 
Joseph Hodgkinson.f Eventually it came into the hands of the 
late Mr. Thomhill, when both chapel and hall, which had been 
desolate for some years, were rebuilt. 

Amongst the Wolley papers is a letter from Mr. John Fletcher, 
on behalf of the Bishop, dated 16th of January, 1769, remonstrat- 
ing with the Rev. Mr. Mason, of Winster, for baptising in the 
** private domestic chapel of Rowter in the parish of Youlgreave," 
as the said chapel had only been consecrated for the convenience 
and ease of the Rowtor family.J 

The endowment of the minister by the will of Thomas Eyre, 
was charged upon an estate at Great Rocks, Wormhill. In 1882, 
there were some further episcopal enquiries respecting this chapel, 
and Mr. W. Bateman, as the owner of the estate, answered them 
on behalf of the Churchwardens of Youlgreave. He stated that 
one marriage had been solemnised, and three interments taken 
place within its walls, but he could not hear of any baptisms. 
He also expressed his confidence in it having been consecrated, a 
fact which is proved by the previous letter of 1769.§ 

Mr. Rawlins took a drawing of this chapel in 1828. The en- 
trance was then on the south side, between two square-headed 
windows of two Ughts each, and there was no chancel. He con- 
siders its dedication to be All Bauits. Its area was thirty feet by 
eighteen. About 1869 a chancel was added to the east end, the 
doorway inserted in the west wall, a pointed window inserted in the 
place of the south door, and the upper part of the two square- 
headed windows altered to harmonize with it. It is rather curious 
that there should be no memorial within its walls to Thomas Eyre, 

♦ Henry Eyre, of Rowtor, was high sheriff of Derbyshire in 1723. He married 
firstly, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Hickman Willoughby ; and secondly, a daughter of 
Rowland Cotton. By his last marriage he had no issue; and by his first, only one 
daughter, Elizabeth, who became the wife of Clotworthy Skeffiugton, Earl of Mae- 
sareene His eldest brother, Anthony, of Hampton, had a large family. Henry Eyre, 
Esq., of Bampton Manor, is his lineal descendant, and to him we desire to express 
our obligations for the use of his certified family pedigree. 

t Bateman MSS. 

♦ Add. MSS., 6,668, f. 933. 
§ Bateman MSS. 



ROWTOR. 367 

but the only two tjiat we could find was one to *'Rev. John Gresley, 
late minister of this chapel, and Rector of Aller, Somerset," who 
died in February, 1795; and another to **John Bradley, gent., 
late of Rowtor, Patron of this chapel," who died in April of the 
same year. 



About a mile from this chapel, at the base of the Cratcliffe 
Rocks, is a hermitage, consisting of a shallow recess or cave, the 
entrance protected by a low wall, and partially concealed by a 
well-grown yew tree. To the right hand, as you enter, is a large 
crucifix, boldly carved in the solid rock, about four feet high, and, 
with the exception of the face, in a fair state of preservation. 
From the stem and arms of the cross are small crockets of budding 
foliage, which incline us to attribute this laborious work to the 
thirteenth century. By the side of the crucifix is a small niche, 
probably intended for a lamp, and near it is a seat, also hewn out 
of the rock. Major Rooke gave a drawing and description of this 
anchorite*s cell in the ArchcBologia for 1780. 



8fF lltiniiPF!) of 



MspoHPn* 



SSIsop. 



jPapiDirl. 



^ 



SSsliioupn. 




HE Domesday Survey records that Ashboum possessed a 
priest and a church. WiUiam Bufus gave the churches 
of Ashboum and Chesterfield, together with^ those of 
Mansfield and Ossington, in Nottinghamshire, to the Cathedral 
Church of St. Mary, of Lincoln, and to Bobert Bloett, Bishop of 
that See, by a charter that is undated, but which recites that it 
was signed on the day after Archbishop Anselm did his homage. ''^ 
This enables us to give the precise date as December 5th, 1098. 
The charter also secures to the Cathedral the chapels in all the 
here wicks pertaining to these manors, and all the tithes, lands, etc., 
which they possessed in the days of Edward the Confessor. 

About the year 1200 Boger,t Dean of Lincoln^ on the resignation 
of GeofiErey, Yicar of Ashboum, granted the Vicarage to Nicholas de 
Essebum, to possess it with all its revenues and those of its 
chapels, on payment of 100s. yearly as a pension.:^ 

At that time, it seeihs that the Dean was in the habit of striking 
as good a bargain as he could with each successive Vicar; but in 
January, 1240, Hugh Pateshull, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, 
with the consent of the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln, ordained 
with respect to the church of Ashbourn and its chapelries, that 
the Dean should for the future receive an annual sum of fifty 
marks as a pension from the Vicar ; that the Dean should present 

* Dogdale's Monasticofit vol. i., p. 260. The original of this deed does not appear 
to be extant, but it is recited in several of the early Chartnlaries of the Chapter mu- 
niments of Lincoln. Amongst the same archives, is the original Boyal Charter of 
Henry II., of the year 1164, confirming the grant of these fonr charters. 

t Boger de Bolveston was Dean from 1195 to 1228. 

t This, and several of the f oUowing pandctdars are taken from an ancient Char- 
tulary at Lincoln, entitled — Carte tangentea Deca/natu Ecclie Beate Marie Lincoln. 
It is a volume relating chiefly to Derbyshire. The folios pertaining to Ashbonm 
and its chapelries extend from 18 to 87. 



364 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

suitable persons to the Bishop for institution to the six. chapelries 
of Kniveton, Mapleton, Thorp, Bentley, Bradley, and Edlaston, 
(reserving the customary pensions due to the Dean from the 
chapelries), as they fall vacant, as well as to the vicarage of Ash- 
bourn ; that the Vicar should have all the emoluments, both greater 
and lesser tithes, oblations, rents, and other dues pertaining to the 
church of Ashboum and the chapelries of Parwich and Alsop (ex- 
cept the fifty marks due to the Dean ; that the Vicar should dis- 
charge all the expenses of the church and of three chapels of 
Parwich, Alsop, and Hognaston, and that he should serve per- 
sonally in the church of Ashboum with two chaplains, a deacon, 
and a sub-deacon, and appoint men duly qualified for the discharge 
of hospitality, and the celebration of Divine worship at the said 
chapels.* 

Hugh PateshuU was consecrated Bishop on July 1st, 1240, at 
Guildford, and died on December 8th, 1241.t It is rather remark- 
able that he should be styled Bishop in the document just quoted, 
which was drawn up some six months before his consecration. EEis 
predecessor, Alexander Stavenby, had died in December, 1238, and 
Hugh Pateshull appears to have been chosen by the Chapter some- 
time before his consecration. 

Bishop Pateshull was again called upon to interfere in the 
internal administration of the parish of Ashboum in October, 1241. 
A dispute had arisen between John de Brecham and Walter de 
Eeyiam, priests, who had been presented at different times to the 
vicarage of Ashboum, and after the altercation had lasted a long 
time, it was referred, by the consent of the Dean of Lincoln, to 
the arbitrament of the Bishop. He ordered that John should have 
the cure of souls at Ashboum on the payment of the annual pen- 
sion to the Dean of fifty marks, and that Walter, having resigned 
the vicarage, should receive an annual sum of thirty marks for life 
at the hands of the vicar of Ashbourn for the time being, the due 
payment of the same being secured by a fine of three marks for 
delay.:^ 

From an incidental entry in the Annals of Dunstaple, we learn 
that the value of the living of Ashboum at this time was two 
hundred and fifty marks, and that the vicar had the whole of this 
income, witli the exception of the annual pension to the Dean. 

* See Appendix, No. xv. 

t Dngdale's Monasticoni vol. iiL, p. 218; Begittrum Sacrum Anglicanum, p. 41. 

} See Appendix, No. xyi. 



ASHBOURN. 365 

On the death of John de Brecham, in 1260, Henry UI., who was 
not troubled with many Bcrnples as to the legality of his acts, 
claimed that advowson, and appointed one, Peter de Wintonia, to 
the vicarage. The Dean and Chapter, becoming alarmed at the 
seizure of this valuable benefice, offered, in accordance with the 
spirit of the times, a thousand marks to the king to forego his 
claim, and a pension of a hundred marks to the clerk that he had 
presented. It seems, however, that the king carried his point, 
notwithstanding the existence of several charters, granted by his 
immediate ancestors, confirming the gift to Lincoln.* 

In 1269, Henry's son. Prince Edward, on his return firom the 
crusades, gave varioas manors and churches to the Abbey of 
Dermhall (subsequently termed Vale Royal), including the church 
of Castleton, in accordance with a vow made when in peril from 
ihe sea.t Ashboum just at this time again fell vacant, and 
Henry III. completed his injustice to the Lincoln chapter, by 
bestowing the benefice on Vale Royal Abbey, by charter dated 
February, 1270. Edward I. restored this benefice to Lincoln in 
the sixth year of his reign,}: and we also know that it was again 
in their hands during the time that Philip WiUoughby held the 
Deanery (1288-1306), for the original deed of confirmation of the 
restitution to that Dean and his Chapter of the patronage of 
Ashboum, by the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield, is still extant 
amongst the Lincoln muniments, though in a damaged and im- 
perfect condition. The restitution appears to have been thorough, 
for it is described in the deed as " reddiium et re^tauratum omnin^, 
cum omnibus suis appendiciis ei pertinenciis" 

From that date, until legislation of the present reign gave it to 
the Bishop of the Diocese, the patronage of Ashboum vicarage 
remained with the Lincoln Chapter, and in the year 1290, Roger 
Longesp^e, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, gave his consent to 
an ordination of the vicarage, that still regulates the income of the 
vicar, by which, to the great detriment of Ashboum, a very con- 
siderable share of the emoluments was made over to the holder of 
the patronage. It w^as thereby decided, that Robert, who was then 
vicar, and his successors, should have a site for a vicarage house 
at a place, bounded on the one side by the road leading from the 

• Annales Prioratus de Donstaple. The living was recovered to the crown under 
a quasi legal procesB termed an aasize of Darrein Presentment. 

t Supra, p. 128. 

♦ RoLuli Chartarurn, 6 Kdw. L, Nos. 10 and 14; Add. MSS., 6071, f. 569. 



366 DERBTSHIfiE CHURCHES. 

churchyard to the bridge, and extending on the other side from 
the wall of the churchyard and the rector's fishpond up to the 
conduit of the '* Scolbrooke ; " that the necessary buildings should 
be erected at the expense of the rector; that the vicar should 
have all mortuaries (except horses), the tithes of flax and hemp 
(if there be any), the tithes of pigs, geese, fruits, gardens, colts, 
and calves, and also all Lent dues and offerings, whether in money 
or kind, the tithes of the mills of the whole parish, the tithes of 
com and hay of Little and Great Clifton ; the tithes of hay of 
Methley, Longdoles, and the EarFs Meadow, and half the tithe of 
com of Methley ; and that the Bector should receive all the re- 
maining tithes throughout the parish and its hamlets, in return for 
which he was to pay all the archidiaconal charges, and other bur- 
dens of the vicarage. The Bishop reserved to himself and suc- 
cessors, the power of adding to or altering this ordination in 
accordance with the change of times, or for other legitimate 
causes.* 

There are also documents extant, of nearly the same date as 
this ordination, by which fresh arrangements were come to with 
respect to the chapelries of Mapleton and Eniveton. Further allu- 
sion will be made to these in our subsequent account of these 
churches, but it may here be remarked, that Mapleton was consti- 
tuted a rectory in 1290, and that the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln 
seem shortly afterwards to have attached it to the Vicarage of 
Ashboum, as some compensation for the large share of the tithes 
of Ashboum, which they were now, for the first time appro* 
priating. 

The Taxation Roll of Pope Nicholas IV. (1291) gives the income 
of the rectory of Ashboum at £66 Ids. 4d., and of the vicarage 
(exclusive of Mapleton) at only £5 per annum. A valuation of the 
possessions of Lincoln Chapter, taken id 1310, estimates their total 
income from the tithes, manors, a^d pensions of Ashboum and its 
chapelries at £108 lis. 4d. Another one, drawn up by the order 
of Dean Anthony Bek, some twenty years later, shows an increase 
of £15 2s. lld.t There is also a further slight increase shown in 

• This Ordination of the Vicarage is given in the Wolley GoUections (Add. MSS., 
6,671. f. 673), and it is there stated that it was copied in 1805 from an old transcript 
of the date of Elizabeth or James I., lent to Mr. Wolley by Rev. W. "Webb, Vicar of 
Ashboum. Mr. Wolley conjectures that it was copied from a Lichfield Chartulary 
now lost. He adds that there were still some pieces of land called the Methleys, 
half-way between Ashboum and Hanging Bridge. 

t Pegge's CoUecttonSf vol. v., f. 198. 



ASHBOUEN. 367 

a fourth valaatioii of the same property, taken in the reign of 
Henry VI.* 

The Valor EcclesioMicw (27 Henry Viil.) enters the annual 
collective value of the rectories of Ashboum and Wirksworth at 
£78. The vicarage of Ashbourn was then valued at £5 18s. 8d., 
the income of Lawrence Horobyn, who was then Vicar, being de- 
rived from the following items : — a house with two acres of glebe ; 
Easter dues; tithes of hemp, flax, pigs, and geese; certain obla- 
tions made on four yearly occasions, termed " Offering Dayes ; " 
tithes of grain at Mapleton ; and tithes of wool and lambs .f 

On the 20th of March, 1560, Sir Thomas Gokayne obtained, at 
the hands of Francis Mallet, Dean of Lincoln, a lease for eighty 
years of the rectories of Ashboum and Wirksworth (excepting the 
advowsons of the vicarages), at a rental of £71 6s. Sd.j: This lease 
must have been renewed to his descendants, for his great-grand- 
son, Sir Aston Gokayne, is described, in the Boyalist Composition 
Papers, under date 25th of December, 1646, as " interested in the 
remainder of a term for thirty- one years, if he should so long live, 
after the death of Anne Gokayne," of certain tithes belonging to 
Ashboum Bectory, valued at £30, and in other closes and tithes 
belonging to the same rectory, at Parwich and elsewhere, valued 
at £95 13s. 4d.§ 

At an Liquisition held at Ashbourn, on June 10th, 1650, by the 
Parliamentary Gommissioners, it was stated that Ashboum — 

<*Is a viccaridge of large extent a market towne and populous 
and hath these seuerall Ghurches and Ghapells of the seueraU 
valves and fitt to be generally disposed of as follows (vizt) 

*< Glifton Gompton, Stackhous ffenton, Mappleton, Offcoate, and 
Underwood are fltt to continue still as members of Ashburne and 
are really worth thirtye pounds per annum the church att Mapple- 
ton fitt to be disused. 

** Item Bradlye Ash an appertenanse to Ashburne fitt to be 
vnited to Thorpe the vicarall duetyes tenn shillings per annum 
also that parte of Thorpe that is now apperteyning to Ashburne 
is fitt to be vnited to Thorpe the profitts about tenn shillings per 
annum. 

♦ Add. MSS. 6,666, f. 475. 

+ See Appendix, No. XVII. 

J Add. MSS., 6,669, f. 473. 

§ Royalist Composition Papers^ Qnd series, vol. 41, f, 819. 



368 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

*'Item Newton Grange lyes remoute from Ashbume and may 
conveniently be vnited to Tyssington the YicaraU tyi^es being 
about six shillings eight pence per annnm. 

** Item Parwich is a parochiall chappell flfoure myles distant 
from Ashburne the flfarmers of the Rectoryes of Ashbume and 
Wirksworth vnder the Deane of Lincolne have vsually procured 
the cure supplyed the salarye payed hath beene six pounds thir- 
teene shillings and ffoure pence per annum, the place voyde. 

"Item Alsop in the Dale is a chappeU of ease fifoure myles 
distant fitt to be disused and that parte of it that apperteynes to 
Ashbume to be vnited to Parwich and the chappell att Parwich 
made a parish church. 

" Item Yeldesley and Halland two hambletts members of the 
same butt remote thense may conveniently be vnited to Bradlye 
in the hundred of Appletree. 

**Item Painters lane and Ladyes hole members of the same tuo 
myles distant wee conceave fitt to be vnited to Osmastone in the 
hundred of Appletree. 

**The impropriacon of Ashburne is ffarmed by S'. Aston 
Cokayne of the late Deanes of Lincolne and about thirtye yeares 
yett in being three score and eleaveh pounds six shillings and 
eight pence reserued to the Deane. Mr. William Wayne is viccar 
att Ashbourne."* 

A Survey of the rectory of Ashboum was taken in October, 
1698, wherein it is described as " late belonging to the Cathedral 
Church of St. Mary, Lincoln.'' The tithes of com and hay ** pay- 
able to the lessee out of the parish and townships " are valued 
at the annual rate of £83. " Memoraudum-r-The vicarage of 
Ashbome hath no endowed vicarage within tlie manor of Ashbome, 
but small and petty tythes, with the Easter-book, worth communibus 
annis £16. There is also annexed to the said vicarage, a gift of 
an advowson of Mapleton hamlet, worth communibus annis £30. 
Tythe of Fruit, questionable whether due to the Parson or to the 
Vicar; paid to neither. "f 

In the same year the following terrier of the glebe lands of the 
vicarage was taken : — 

" Imprimis — A little croft of about one acre and half of ground, 
or two acres, butting east upon the church-lane towards a little 
croft, commonly called Shefton's croft, and west upon the Vicar's 

* Parliamentary Survey of Livings (Lambeth Palace MSS.), vol. vi. 
t Add. MSS., 6,675, £, 36. 



ASHBOURN- 



369 



close, and north upon the Churchyard, and south upon the School- 
hrook, towards the Keeper's meadow, upon which stands the 
Vicarage-house, consisting of three hayes of building, and one by 
the barn of about two bays of building near the School-brook, and 
another barn and stable about the same bigness adjoining to the 
churchyard pales, with two Httle gardens taken out of the said 
croft, the one about the middle of the croft, and the other going 
along by the church-lane beforementioned. Item — Clifton Chapel- 
yard, ten shillings per annum, given to the Vicar by Anthony 
Etrick, Esq., tenant to the Dean of Lincoln." 

The singular desire for exchange of benefice, which seems to 
have attached in a remarkable way to the holders of the Lincoln 
Chapter livings, and on which we have commented in the Intro- 
ductum, made the vicars of Ashboum for a long period httle more 
than birds of passage. Especially was this the case in the four- 
teenth centuiy. Taking one period, we find that the vicarage 
changed hands in 1361, 1862, 1363, 1864, 1371, 1373 1879, and 
1380.* 

There were two chantries in the chui'ch of Ashbourn, one 
founded in the reign of Richard II., and the other about one 
hundred years later, in the reign of Richard II. 

The first of these was founded by Henry Kuivoton, rector of the 
neighbouring parish of Nor bury, in the year 1392. He endowed 
it with a messuage and a house, two-and-a-half acres of arable and 
two acres of meadow land, situated in Ashbourn, Offcote, and 
Norbury, and subsequently with one hundred shiUiugs rental from 
five tenements at Coventry.f For the royal Hcenso to bestow these 
lands on the daily chantry at the altar of St. Mary, he had to 
pay no less a sum than forty marks. { The Valor Erclesiaslxcm (27 
Henry VIII.) describes this chantry as founded by Nicholas Knive- 
ton, and possessed of lands and gardens to the annual value of 
£4. Thomas Russel was the chaplain. The foUowhig is taken 
from the Chantry Roll, compiled some ten years later : — 

The Chantrye of Nyoholas Knyrton founded by Nycholas Knyrton Esq. to synge 
masse at the alter of the Holy Cross and to distribute at an obite ts. amongst the 
prysts of the Church and the Pore, the fouudacon dated in Festo Nat. B. Marie xvi> 
Begis Bic. IX. Clere value i\i\li. ix<2. besyds t«. Tiij^. rente resolute. Tbos. Bub- 
sells Chaimtre pryst. At Ashe bone iB viij<> howselyng people. § Stock cj«. vijti. 

• Lichfield Episcopal Begisters, No. IV. 

t Inq. post Mort., 15 Bic. II., Nob. 89 and 149. 

t Patent Bolls, 15 Bic. II., pt. ii., memb. 2. 

§ That is, eight hundred '* liowselyng people.'* This was a term used to 8if,'ijify 
those of a fit age to communicate, or above fourteen years ; from housele, on old 
word for the Eucharist or Host. 

2b 



370 DERBYSHIKE CHURCHES. 

It seems from the Chautry Boll that this chantry was trans- 
ferred from the altar of St. Mary to that of the Holy Cross. We 
helieve that the altar of St. Mary, or the Lady Chapel, was in the 
north transept, and that of the Holy Cross in the nave. The 
apparent contradiction in the name of the founder of this chantry 
probably arose from the fact of Nicholas, the elder brother of 
Henry Eniveton (or Nicholas his nephew), having assisted him in 
founding it, or perhaps having bestowed some separate endowment 
on it, but of which we have no record. The earUest member of this 
ancient family, of whom we have satisfactory evidence, is Matthew 
de Eniveton, who held the manor of Bradley, in the reign of Ed- 
ward L He had issue, two sons, Henry and Matthew. Matthew 
(2) had also two sons, Thomas and William (of Ashbourne); the 
latter of whom had, by his wife Margery, six sons — Nicholas, 
WiUiam, Thomas, Henry (rector of Norbury), John, and Bobert 
(vicar of Dovebridge).* 

The second chantry is described in the Valor IScclenaslicus as 
founded by " John Bradbome de Hogh and Anne his wife," and 
possessed of four tenements, respectively situated at Longnor, 
Over Haddon, Birchover, and Kirke Ireton, an inclosure at Boyles- 
ton, and a garden at Bakewell, giving a total income of J^5 4s. lOd* 
From this total deductions were made of 8d. annual rent to the 
King, and Ss. 4d. as a gift to the poor on the Wednesday next 
after the feast of St. Luke, that they might pray for the souls of 
the founders. Bobert Hasilhurst was the chaplain. The following 
is the entry in the Chantry Boll : — 

The chauntre of Asshebome founded by John and Anne Bradbome to the honor 
of God and S. Oswalde, to mayntayn Godd's Service and praye for the fonnderg 
souls G8.; clere ciiijs. xd. for the keping of an obitt iij«. iiijcL To the parish 
church belongeth M houselinge people. Stocke Ixxvs. jd. 

The precise date of the foundation of this chantry, as given in 
another roll, is J488» John Bradbome, the founder, was the son of 
Henry Bradbome, who was grandson of Boger the first of the old 
family of Bradbome, of Bradboum, who took up his residence at 
Hough, alias HuUand, in the parish of Ashboum. Anne, the wife 
of John Bradbome, was the daughter of Sir Bichard Vernon.t 
John and Anne Bradbome also founded a chantry at Hough, to 
which we shall subsequently refer. 

• CoUinB* Baronetage^ vol. i., p. 218, etc., etc. " 
t Harl. MSB., 1,687, f. 4. 



ASHBOURN. 371 

The Inventory of Church Goods, which was drawn up in the first 
year of Edward VI., contains the following full and interesting par. 
ticulars relative to Ashboum : — 

AshebtLme. Sept. 80. Ser Lanr. Horobyn vicar, j vestment of blew welwet 
with ij tunicles of aU thyngs belonging— iij copes of blew welvet — ij old copes of 
Sarsenet— j cope of wyte damaske— j holde cote for the roode — j vestment of wite 
damaske with ij tunicles and aU thyngs belongeyng - j vestment of blew velvet 
with appurtenaances — j of blewe russett with the a^jpurtenances — ij hold vestments 
with albes — ^j vestment of yelew saten with appurtenaunces — ij vestments of blake 
russett — vij old vestementes — iij old tunicles — j hangjnge afore the alter of saten 
of Bruges — j of the same to hange over the aultor — a vestment of redde damaske 
with that belongeth thereto— j hold vestment of dornex — ^j hold herseclothe of 
Saten of Bruges — ^j canabe clothe of dornex with fryngs of crule — x aulter clothes 
of l3men — iij of dyaper— iij chalices of sylver — iij belles in the steple— j clocke 
uppon j of them — j broken bell — ^j lyttle bell called a sanctus bell — ^ij handbeUes 
— ij holy water stopes of bras — ij sacyng beUes hangyng before the aulter of grene — 
vij corporesses — iij corpores cases — ^j holde albe stoUen forth of a cofer in the 
churche the locke being pyked, and ij holde frocks of no Talewe beyng lent to 
disguyso persons at the bryngyne in of a Maii game. 

The church is built in the form of a cross, and consists of a 
chancel, north and south transepts, and nave with a south sida 
aisle, or, as it is sometimes expressed, a double nave. From the 
centre piers rises a bold tower, sm'mountod by a spire, which 
attains to an elevation of two hundred and ten feet. Some idea 
of the general proportions of this fine church may be gathered 
from a statement of its principal dimensions. The chancel is 
sixty-five feet, by twenty- five feet ; the total length of the church, 
one hundred and eighty feet ; the transepts, which are double, 
being divided by piers and arches, are eighty-five feet, by forty 
feet ; and the height of the nave is fifty-five feet. 

There are no remains of the Norman church which was given 
to Lincoln cathedral, by William Rufus. The edifice seems to have 
been rebuilt throughout in the first half of the thirteenth century. 
It is but seldom that ecclesiologists are able to give the date of a 
particular building with so much precision as is the case with 
Ashboum. Against the south-east pier of the tower is a small 
brass plate, framed in marble, having the following inscription in 
Lombardic characters, from which it appears that the church was 
dedicated to St. Oswald, in 1241 : — 

"Anno ah incarnacione Domini MCGXLI^ viii IcL Maii dedicata 
est hec ecelesia et hoc altare consecratum in honore aancii Oswaldi 
regis et martiris a venerahili patre domino Hugone de Fatishul 
Goventrensi episcopo,'* 

Some doubt was at one time cast upon the genuineness and 
antiquity of this inscription, but we cannot discover the slightest 



372 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

reason for Buspecting its authenticity. In the seventeenth century, 
this plate was at Ashbourn Hall, where it had doubtless been 
taken from the church at the time of some repairs or alterations.* 
About, however, the commencement of the eighteenth century, it 
was restored to the church, as we learn from the following entry 
at the commencement of the register book, 1702-1739, written 
above a transcript of the brass : — 

** A copy of an antient inscription on a gilded brass plate, 
fastened with ten silver pins in a small black frame of wood, 
to which is fastened an iron handle w*** an hole in it, by which it 
hangs upon the side of one of y* pillars of the steeple within the 
Church, directly over against the Reading Desk, and it relates to 
y* Consecration and Dedication of the Church at Ashbum." 

Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, whom Bede styles "the 
most Christian of kings,'' was slain in battle by Penda, the heathen 
king of the Mercians, in the year 642. The site of this battle is 
generally supposed to have been at Oswestry. The place where his 
body fell is said to have been discovered a few years subsequently 
by a traveller whose horse was suddenly taken ill. The beast, 
after rolling about in extreme agony, happened to come to tha 
very spot where the aforesaid king perished, and immediately 
recovered. The traveller, convinced of the singular sanctity of the 
ground, remounted and sought his inn. Here he found his land- 
lord's niece ill of the palsy, under which she had long languished. 
By the guest's advice she was carried to the spot where his horse 
had recovered, and, it is needless to add, was instantly cured! 
From that time Oswald was held in peculiar esteem, and was 
judged to be of the rank of saints. This truly pious king, who 
died with a prayer of forgiveness of his enemies on his lips, has 
been specially unfortunate in the number of absurd legends with 
which his memory has been encrusted. The Acta Sanctorum give 
twenty closely-printed folio pages of these tales, but those we have 
already quoted will suffice. His rehos were distributed in various 



* Harl. MSS., 1486, f. 49. It Ib there described as ^'\rrittezi in old Saxon characters 
in brasse in Mr. Cokayne's hoase." Copies of this brass were given in the Qentlem^n*s 
Magazine (1772), vol. idii., p. 416, and in the Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica 
(1790), vol. vi., p. 32, and in Doth occurs the mistake of giving the letters BE instead 
of KL. The latter account is by Dr. Pegge, the Derbyshire antiquary. It is carious 
that he should have fallen into this error, as eighteen years before he had corrected 
the mistake in the Gentleman's Magazine (vol. uii., p. 573), under his usual signature 
of " T. Row." This pseudonjrm was obtained bv using the initials of one of the livings 
which he held and wnere he chiefly resided — Whittington, i.d., The i^ector Of WhiXr- 
tington. It is most amusing to find ^fr. Mosse, in his work on Ashbourn church, 
scolding Dr. Pegge for not availing himself of the erudition displayed by " T. Row 1" 



ASHBOURN. 373 

churches, and several times translated, bufc the greater portion of 
them eventually found a resting place at Gloucester.* 

It is singular that Hugh Pateshull should be styled on this plate 
simply ** Bishop of Coventry." When the diocese of Lichfield was 
originally founded, it was called the Bishopric of Mercia. It was 
subsequently changed to that of Lichfield, and so remained till 
1088, when Robert de Linsey removed it to Coventry. It thus 
continued for exactly a century, when, after much opposition, it 
was brought back to Lichfield. The title of the See on each new 
accession formed a bone of contention, and many prelates to avoid 
it styled themselves Bishops of Chester, which did not become a 
separate diocese till 1541. In the prelacy, however, of Alexander de 
Stavenby, 1224 to 1238, the difficulty was arranged at a meeting 
of the two Chapters, whereat it was decided that the style should 
henceforth be ** Coventry and Lichfield." It is therefore surprising 
to find that one of his immediate successors should be called simply 
** Coventry." Perhaps an explanation of this may be found in the 
great jealousy that existed in this part of Derbyshire between the 
Chapters of Lincoln and Lichfield, owuig to the large share of 
valuable benefices owned by the former in the diocese of the latter. 
Probably the dedication plate was engraved from a copy suppHed 
by the Dean of Lincoln, as rector of Ashbourn. Hugh Pateshull, 
who was a Canon of London, and son of Simon Pateshull, Chief 
Justice of England, was elected Bishop quite unexpectedly, as a 
compromise, in order to avoid the disputes that were arising be- 
tween the nominees of Lichfield and Coventry.t 

The date 1241, when this church had been sufficiently built to 
warrant the Bishop in consecrating it, was about the time when 
the Early English period of ecclesiastical architecture had reached 
its perfection. Parker, in his invaluable Glossary of Oothic Archi- 
tecture, assumes that the rebuilding of this church was commenced 
in 1285.J The presbytery of Ely Cathedral, the west front of 
Peterboro' Cathedral, the church of St. Neots, in Huntingdonshire, 
and the choir of the Temple Church, London, were all erected 
within the margin of these dates, and though the church of Ash- 



• Bede's Ecclesiastical History, vol. iii., c. 12; Acta Sanctorumj die 6th Auffustii, 
p. 91 ; Butler's Lives of the Saints, vol. viii., p. 100. St. Oswald is twenty-fifth on 
the list of Saints, in whose honour the greatest number of ancient English churches 
were dedicated ; there are forty-three dedications in his name. 

f Wharton's Anglia Sacra, vol i., p. 489. 

1 Parker's (?/o««ar^, vol. iii., p. 85; where there is an accurate fac-simile of the 
dedioation plate. 



374 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

bourn may not possess the elaboration of design which distinguishes 
these master-pieces of the art, still enough remains to convince us 
of the elegance of its harmonious outline when Hugh Pateshull, 
with all the pomp and ceremony of our ancient church, dedicated 
it to the glory of God, and the memory of St. Oswald. 

It seems probable that most of the external walls, with the ex- 
ception of the nave and south aisle, are the identical ones that 
were erected in the Early Enghsh period, though now in many 
parts pierced with windows of a later date. On each side of the 
chancel are six lancet windows, whilst some of a similar design at 
the west side of the south transept are partially blocked up by 
the south side aisle, which is of an obviously later date. Two 
beautiful windows of this style, the triple-lancet, are to be found 
in the north transept, and one in the north side of the nave. 
Besides these indications of the original structure, there is a fine 
doorway, ornamented with the characteristic tooth ornament be- 
tween the side shafts of the jambs, which gives admittance to the 
south transept, and also another one of smaller size on the same side 
of the chancel. When, in addition to these features, we have men- 
tioned the font,* which, though possessing a circular top, is clearly 
from its base and general character of Early English date, we have 
come to the end of those portions of the church that can positively 
be said to correspond with the date of the brass tablet on its walls. 
The peculiar grace and beauty of the old portions of this church 
have frequently excited the admiration of those well qualified to 
express an opinion, and they obtained an appreciative notice, that 
is well worth reading, when the British Arch<jeological Association 
visited Derbyshire in 1851.t 

Of the next period — the Decorated — there is abundant evidence 
in this building. We would venture to offer as a conjecture that 
at the time when this church was consecrated by Hugh PateshuU, 
neither tower nor spire were built. This is often the case with 
our modem churches, where the least necessary part of the build- 
ing is rightly left to be completed till ample fimds flow in. We 
may still further conjecture, that when it became possible to com- 
plete the structure, viz., about 1800 to 1880, (or, to put it in 

* This font, which is three feet four inches high, and two feet eleven inches across 
the top, is engraved in Paley's IHtutrations of Baptismal Fonts. It is a good speci- 
men of the style, and should he compared with that in the adjacent church of 
Bradley. 

t Journal of the Arehmological Associatinn, vol. vii., pp. 339-343. There are 
illn8trations of the sedilia in the chancel, and of one of the triple-lancete in the 
nortli transept. 



ASHBOURN. 375 

round numbers, about one hundred years after its consecration) it 
was not only deemed expedient to complete the erection of the 
tower and spire, but also to add the south side aisle of the nave, 
and to re-pierce the walls in many places with the expansive 
windows of the Decorated period, which gave such a far greater 
scope for the display of the beauties of the coloured designs on 
the windows, which were then attaining so great a success through- 
out the ecclesiastical edifices of Christendom. It would be at this 
time, that the elegant arches which separate the nave from the 
south aisle, and those that divide the transepts, were erected ; it 
would be at this time, also, that the two Decorated windows at the 
western end of the chancel were inserted, as well as the north 
windows of the nave, and the west one of the south aisle, which 
are of similar design. The four windows on the south of the 
south aisle are also of this period, and of a good design ; one of 
them, however, is a modern imitation, and supplies the place of 
the porch which was pulled down during the alterations in 1840. 
Above the doorway in the south transept, already mentioned, is an 
admirably devised window of this elaborate style, of seven lights, 
but rather wanting in length, owing to its position. Much of 
the tracery of this window has been recently renewed, after 
the old design. The north transept also possesses two large 
Decorated windows on its northern side, of a somewhat different 
date. 

Of this period, too, as we have already remarked, are the tower 
and spire. The tower, with its fine belfry windows, rises of itself 
to some considerable elevation above the building. It is ascended 
by a turret staircase in the south-eastern angle, which is sur- 
mounted by an elaborately crocketed pinnacle. The parapet of the 
tower is handsomely and effectively pierced with a trefoil pattern. 
From these battlements springs the octagonal spire, which attains 
the elevation of 212 feet, and has been justly described as the 
** Pride of the Peak." It is of extremely elegant proportions, and 
is rendered remarkably light and graceful by being pierced with 
twenty windows, in five tiers of four each ; the angles are all 
ribbed by strings of the ball-flower ornament 

This beautiful spire — 

"Like Wisdom's finger pointdiig up to Heaven'*— 

has often suffered from its exposed position. It was severely 



376 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

damaged by a gale of wind in February, 1698.* In 1878, it was 
re-pointed, and otherwise carefully repaired. 

During the Perpendicular period much was done to disfigure this 
church. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the old high-pitched 
roofs (the former outines of which are plainly shown by the weather- 
mouldings on each side of the tower) were most unfortunately re- 
moved, the walls raised several feet on all sides, ranges of incon- 
gruous windows inserted above the older ones in the north transept 
and in the clerestory of the nave, and the whole church supphed 
with almost flat roofs of the Perpendicular style. At the earUer 
part of this period, a large east window, of seven principal hghts, 
was inserted in the east end of the chancel, and though it is not 
a bad specimen of the style, it is so thoroughly inharmonious, that 
it is much to be regretted that it should ever have been allowed 
to take the place of the triple-lancet, surmounted by a small cir- 
cular light, which, doubtless, formed part of the original design. 
Of nearly, if not precisely, the same date, is the large Perpen- 
dicular window of the south transept, which is also of seven hghts. 
Probably it was inserted by the Bradbornes over their quire, at the 
time of the foundation of iheir chantry in 1483. The west vnndow 
of the nave is of a specially stiff and poor design, being crossed by 
horizontal transoms. It could not have been placed here, judging 
from its style, earlier than the first half of the sixteenth century. 
Duribg the alterations of 1840, a west doorwayt of Decorated date 
was taken away, and this window was rendered still more un- 
happy-looking by being elongated. The north transept doorway 
is modem. 

Considerable repaii-s were done to the church at the beginning 
of the eighteenth century. We have copied the following from the 
registers : — 

** Mem*". In this month (September, 1706) was finished the 
Church Roof in the middle Isle, having all been made new both 
Timber and Lead from the Steeple to y* great western window, the 
lead by William Pidcock of Ashburn, the woodwork by Francis 
Butcher carpenter in Scarsdale. Churchwardens — Mr. Alexd Taylor 
and Mr. Charles Cliancey." 

During the years 1839-40, very considerable alterations and im- 

• Pegge's Collections, vol. v., f. 41. 

t This doorway was not precisely below the window, but rather to the sonth. It 
is plainly shown in a west view of thib church that appeared in the European 
Magazine^ for 1792. 



A8HB0URN. 377 

provements were made in the fabric and interior arrangements of 
the building. Tliis was chiefly owing to the energy of the Eev. E. 
Tenison Mosse, at that time curate of the parish. It was re-opened 
on the 5th of June, 1840, after an expenditure of about £4,000. 
So much that was bad in taste, and poor in conception, was 
put into practice by the architect, who then had control over the 
" restoration," and so much damage and capricious removal of 
monuments occurred (some even of considerable value disappearing 
altogether), that we are apt to forget, that, after all, the alterations 
of 1840 were, on the whole, a considerable improvement on the 
former state of affairs. It is only fair to Mr. Mosse to let him 
speak for himself, from the preface to his work on Ashboum 
Church,* which was published very shortly after this restoration 
was completed. He says : — 

** I became curate of this parish in 1838. The church was then 
cold, and damp, and decayed, and deformed. The two elegant 
Early English windows to the east of the monumental chapel, and 
all the lancet windows on the north side of the chancel, were 
closed up with masonry. Many of the pillars supporting the various 
arches were mutilated to receive tablets, and their bases broken in 
hewing out sepulchres for the dead. The chancel was completely 
cut off from the nave and aisles, by a coarse screen of lath and 
plaster encompassing the organ ; and eleven different flights of steps 
led to as many cumbrous lofts, one of which on the north side of 
the nave, the late learned Bishop Ryder called * the sixpenny gal- 
lery.* The approach to this was extremely grotesque; a viaduct of 
brickwork was constructed on the outside, and those who came to 
worship entered through the upper part of a handsome window, 
the muUions forming the casement of the door." 

No one, after reading this, can deny that the condition of the 
church was genuinely improved by Mr. Mosse's efforts, though we 
may deplore the lack of taste at that time dis2>layed, and may 
be inclined to cordially agree with a WTiter in the Archceological 
Journal for 1852, who points out how the ponderous projecting 
galleries of the nave cut every window in two, and adds, that ** a 

* Archaological and Graphic Illustrations of Ashboum ChiircJi, Derbyshire. This 
is a work in elephant folio, illustrated with Beven lithographs from drawings by S. 
Bayner. The letterpress chieily consists of transcripts of the inscribed monuments. 
There are two plates of Ashboiirn church in Ashboum and the Valley of the Dove^ 
which was published just before the alterations of 1840 were commenced. One of 
them gives a south view of the church, showing the porch that was then pulled down, 
and the other gives an interior view of the chancel. A largo number of small engra- 
vings and woodcuts have been taken at different times, to illustrate magazines, etc., 
but none of them caU for special mention. 



378 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

real barbarism has been committed in the western gallery, which 
has been brought out so far as to intersect entirely the western- 
most pier and a portion of the arch/' 

At our last visit to this church (October, 1876), we found the 
chancel in process of restoration. This restoration is being accom- 
plished at the expense of G. H. Errington, Esq., the present holder 
of the great tithes.* As the architect is Sir Gilbert Scott, it is quite 
superfluous to say a word as to the scrupulous care with which the 
work is being carried out. At the same time it is, in our humble 
opinion, much to be regretted that Sir Gilbert Scott could not see 
his way to adopt the almost unanimous wish of the parish 
with respect to raising the roof of the chancel to its original pitch, 
even if it should have been thought desirable to retain the present 
east window.t There is scarcely a church in the kingdom that 
suffers so much in general effect from the removal of the high- 
pitched roof, as is the case with Ashboum. Notwithstanding all 
its beauties, there is a general air of incompleteness, and lack of 
harmony of outline, that can never be obviated whilst the roofs 
remain at their present level. The grace and effect of the tower 
and spire, considerable as they may now be, would be immeasurably 
increased if the ancient roof-level from which they originally sprung 
was faithfully restored. This decision with respect to the chancel 
is specially unfortunate, as repairs to the nave^ and transepts will 
before long become a necessity, and it will then be most difficult 
and unsightly to avoid following the example set in the restoration 
of the chanceL The high blank walls that kill the grace of the 
lancet windows on the north and south sides of the chancel seem 
now, alas, doomed to remain, and a golden opportunity, for initia- 
ting a general return to the original outlines of this flne old build- 
ing, has passed away beyond recall.§ 

♦ The Post Office Directory for the ctirrent year Bays, that the vicarage of A&hbonm, 
with the consolidated rectory of Maple ton, is of the gross annual yalue of £340, and 
that the rectorial tithes, held by Mr. Errington, as lessee under the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, are of the yearly value of £1,425. 

+ Might not this window be with advantage removed to the west end of the nave, 
and the original lancets re-inserted in the chancel ? 

X The nave of the church leans many inches out of the perpendicular towards the 
north. The cracks in the apex of the west window uid elsewhere show the serious 
extent of the subsidence. But it is said not to have gM any worse during the last two 
or three years. 

^ The letter addressed to Mr. Errington, begging him to reconsider his determina- 
tion about the pitch of the chancel roof, was signed by the vicar, churchwardens, 
and upwards of a hundred of the principal inhabitants of the town. Sir Gilbert 
Scott, in refusing to follow their wishes, characteristicaUy observes that ** my expe- 
rience gives me a right to speak, and gives my opinion a right to be considered, 
rather than that of a promiscuous number of those who have not thought much upon 
the subject, or whose thoughts are rendered of little value by their want of training 
on the subject." But the whole tenor of the statement of the petitioners showed 
that they had given the most careful attention to the subject, and that they (or at all 
events those who drew the petition) were evidently possessed of sufficient know- 



ASHBOURN, 379 

In the south wall of the chancel, are three sedilia with pointed 
arches, supported by slender clustered pillars, that are clearly co- 
eval with its erection in the first half of the thirteenth century. 
Four feet below them, is a label moulding corresponding with 
the width of the arcade. Their present height from the 
ground precludes the possibility of their being used as seats, and 
they are about to be lowered to what was their original level. 
Beyond these, low down in the wall, is a small piscina, with a 
plain trefoil niche over it. An interesting discovery had just been 
made, when we were 'last at Ashbourn, in the north wall of the 
chancel, below the centre one of the three pair of lancet windows 
with which that side is pierced; and it the more deserves a brief 
note, as it will probably have been buUt up, at all events on the 
exterior, by the time these words are in print. In renewing cer- 
tain portions of the masonry, a small doorway was found here, the 
splay of which slopes outwards instead of inwards, thus clearly 
indicating that it could not have been used as an outer doorway, 
but was probably designed for communicating with some small 
building on that side of the church. Anyone who has studied ec- 
clesiology, need not be told how very exceptional are doors in the 
north of a chancel. We found that popular fancy had already 
determined that it was **a leper's doorway," by which those in- 
fected with that loathsome complaint might find a separate entrance 
when they went to mass; but all notions of that description seem 
to be at once disproved by the very construction of the doorway, 
which, as we have already pointed out, could never have been used 

ledge and taste to justify a respectful consideration of their views. We extract from 
the memorial the foUowinff summary of their objections to the erection of a new 
low-level roof, objections which appear to us unanswerable, and which at all events 
have not yet been answered : — 

"(1). That a flat roof is not in character with the Early English windows. 

"(2). That the original wall plate is plainly visible about eight feet below the 
pr (Sent ]^apet of the side walls. 

' (3). That the stone weather mouldings on the tower, which exactly correspond 
in position with the old wall plate, plainly show that the original roof was pitched. 

*'(4). That the high blank walls above the old wall plate are evidently of a very 
much later date than the rest of the building, being of a different kind of stone, 
and a different colour, and entirely out of character and proportion with the original 
design. 

"(5). That there could not have been a flat roof on the old wall plate, as the east 
window rises much higher, and must have been in the centre of the high gable of a 
pitched roof. 

*' (6). That although the side waUs have been so much raised, in order to carry the 
present flat roof, the beams obstruct the interior view of the upper part of the east 
window, and spoil the effect of the pointed arch of the window ; as the timbers of the 
flat roots of the two transepts also do as regards the upper portions of the two flne 
windows over the north and south doors." 

The decision of Sir Gilbert is all the more singular, as he was responsible for raising 
the flat roof of the nave of Wirksworth church to a pitch even higher than it had ever 
been before; and we could point out to him scores of instances throughout the country 
where he has done away with a Perpendicular roof, substituting one of high pitch. Yet 
the demand for a high roof on the score of architectural propriety, at Wirksworth* and 
elsewhere where he has thus acted, was not half so strong and just as at Ashbourn. 



380 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES, 

as a means of communication with the outer world. It does not 
appear from the outer walls or foundations as if any building of 
the nature of an excrescence, even of the smallest size, had ever 
occupied this site; nor is the doorway of an earUer date than the 
present chancel. The most likely supposition that occurs to us is, 
that the doorway was inserted with a view of comnmuicating with 
a small vestry or sacristy for the altar furniture, but that this idea 
was subsequently abandoned. 

Sundry fragments of old paving tiles, both encaustic and in- 
cised, have been found during the alterations. Some of the latter 
form parts of a most effective pattern, which was, doubtless, the 
original flooring of the Early Enghsh ChanceL 

In the south wall of the south transept, where the vestry now 
is, are the piscina and almery which were used in connection with 
the Bradboum chantry. At the east end of the nave, against the 
pier which separates it from the south aisle, is a tall canopied 
niche. This niche must formerly have been occupied by the figure 
of a saint, and points out, as we conceive, the site of the altar of 
the Holy Cross. 

In the north wall of the north transept, is a cmiously-carved 
stone bracket of Early English date, with a face and frontlet of an 
Egyptian character. On this bracket used to stand an image of 
St Modwin. Sir Thomas Cokayne, in his wiU dated 4th of April, 
1687, leaves — ** my Soul to God and the Lady Marye and all the 
company of heaven, and my body to be buried in the church of 
Hasshebum in my Lady's choir before the image of St Modwin.* 

It is in the eastern half of this north transept that the fine 
series of Cokayne monuments are found, enclosed by a handsome 
screen or parclose of Decorated design. In describing these monu- 
ments we have ventured to borrow very largely from the pri- 
vately printed second series of the Cokayne Memoranda, wherein is 
a most careful account of tliese tombs, written subsequent to their 
recent restoration and to the repainting of the heraldry f 

* St. Modwin was an Irish nun, the daughter of a King of Connaught. King 
Egbert hearing that she healed aU diseased persons repairing to her. sent his son 
Ariiuljph, w^ho was a leper. The holy woman nealed him, and was invited by Egbert 
out of gratitude to England, and established at a Nunnery at Polesworth, Warwick- 
shire, the first Abbess of which was his daughter Edith.— Dugdale's Warwickshire, 
p. 797. Pooley Hall, the other seat of the Cokaynes, being in the parish of Poles- 
worth, would account for the veneration of that family for St. Modwin, as it would 
be through their instrumentality that an image of this little-known saint found ita 
way to Ashboum. 

t We should not have borrowed so largely from the work of another, had we not 
had the express and courteous permission, nay, we might say, the request of the 
author, to thus use his diligent labours. Mr. Andreas £. Cokayne has conclusively 



ASHBOURN. 381 

The ancient family of Cokayne were settled at Ashboum about 
the middle of the twelfth century, where they resided and flourished 
without intermission till towards the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, possessing large estates elsewhere in the county of Derby, in 
addition to other considerable property brought into the family by 
their various marriages. The earliest ancestor of the family, who 
can be traced with certainty, is John Cokayne of Ashbourn, c. 
1150. His son, Andreas Cokayne, 1154 to 1189, was father of 
William Cokayne, whose wife's name was Sarah ; their son William 
married Alice de Dalbury, and had issue Boger, who was father, 
inter aliay of William Cokayne, of Ashboum, 1299 to 1323 ; his 
eldest son, John, 1805 to 1382, married a daughter of Sir WiUiam 
Kniveton, of Bradley, by whom he had issue, John Cokayne, of 
Ashboum, 1357, M.P. for the County of Derby; the son and heir 
of the aforesaid John, was Sir John Cokayne, also M.P. for the 
county several times. This brings us to the earliest of the Cokayne 
monuments now extant. He married Cecilia, who afterwards be- 
came the wife of Bobert Ireton, of Ireton, and died in 1872. 
Their eldest son was Edmund, and from their younger son John 
descended the Cokaynes, of Cokayne -Hatley, Bedfordshire. 

The first monument in point of date, an altar- tomb of excellent 
character, is that of John and Edmund Cokayne, whose effigies are 
recumbent thereon. The tomb itself is of freestone, the effigies of 
alabaster. John Cokayne, the elder of the two, is represented as 
an old man, in the costume of the fourteenth century; the tight- 
fitting timic, buttoned down the front, and girt about the loins 
with the high hip-belt, from which hangs the ornamental gypciere, 
or purse ; the long chausses or hose, show beneath the short tunic ; 
and the mantle, fastened on the right shoulder, falls loosely over 
the left in graceful folds, and reaches down to the feet, which rest 
on a lion. 

His son, Edmund Cokayne, by his side, is represented in the 
knightly dress of the same period — the pointed bascinet, far more 
admirable than its stunted successors in the next century, the 
tippet of mail (or camail), which bears thereon a plain shield, re- 
markably if not uniquely placed, and the tabard displaying the 
three cocks, the arms of the family. Edmund Cokayne was en- 
cleared up mauy doubtful points in connection with these monuments, which had 
nreviously received very insufficient treatment at the hands of Lysons, Glover, and 
Mosse, and others who have pretended to correct them. We have collated the whole 
of Mr. Cokayne's account with the monuments themselves. 



382 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

gaged on the King's side in the battle of Shrewsbury in 1404, 
where he fell, and his body (tradition says) was brought to Ash- 
bourn for burial. 

Bound this tomb are decorated mouldings and quatrefoil panels, 
alternately enclosing stone shields. All these quatrefoils were 
originally painted,* as appeared from the faint traces of emblazon- 
ment lately discernible, and it is satisfactory to find that wher- 
ever such remained they accorded with the description and j)rder 
as taken by the Herald in his Visitation made over two centuries 
ago. The shields on this tomb are thirteen in number : (1) Erdes- 
wick — arg,y on a chevron gu,, five bezants. (2) Vernon — arg,, 
fretty, sab,, a canton, gu. (3) Shirley, paly of six, or and az., a 
canton, eimive, (4) Astley — az., a cinquefoil, ermine, (5) Pembruge 
— barry of six, arg, and az. (6) Pype — az., a fesse, or, between six 
crosses crosslet, arg. (7) Cokayne and Harthill quarterly. (8) 
Stafford — or, a chevron, gu. (9) Ferrers — ^Vaire gu. and or, (10) 
Basset — or, three piles, gu.y a canton, vaire, (11) Longford — paly, 
or and gu., a bend, arg, (12) Cotton, alicu Bidware— az, an eagle 
displayed, arg,, armed, gu, (18) Poleswell or Hartington — arg., a 
stag's head caboshed, gu,, between the horns a fleur-de-lys. 

The second tomb clearly marks a later era in the style of monu- 
mental sculpture. It is entirely of alabaster, and is enriched with 
plain shields and recumbent effigies of Sir John Cokayne (eldest son 
of Edmund of the'^first monument), who died in 1447, and of his 
first wife Jane, who was a daughter of Sir John Dabridgecourt, of 
Strathfieldsaye, in Hampshire.t His second wife, the mother of his 

* The term "originally painted," as applied to these arms in the text, wants 
qaalifying, for it is obvious that several of tne coats relate to alliances that occurred 
after the erection of the tomb, and they must have been painted thereon with much 
lack of judgment, after these alliances took place. But we know that they now ap- 
pear precisely as they did in 1611. The connection of Erdeswlck, of Staffordshire, 
(1), with Cokayne, cannot be explained; from its appearance with Harthill, etc., in 
an ancient window at Youlgreave, it is probable that it came to them with that alli- 
ance. Cokayne and Harthill quarterly (2) represent the marriage of Edmund Cokayne 
with the heiress of Sir Richard Harthill, by which alliance they became entitled, to 
various ancient quarterings, such as Astley (4). The remaining coats refer to the 
marriages of Edmund's son with the daughter of Sir Hugh Shirley, ancestor of the 
Earls Ferrers, and of his grandson with the daughter of Sir Richard Vernon, of 
Haddon. All heraldic canons have been strangely set at nought by these emblazon- 
ments. There is a plate of the two effigies on this tomb, as well as of those on the 
second tomb, in vol. vii. of the Journal of tlie Archtsological Association. 

t We place great reliance on Mr. Cokayne's judgment in assigning this tomb to Sir 
John Cojcayne and his wife Jane, but it is only fair to state that it has been by others 
attributed to his uncle, Sir John Cokayne, of Cokayne-Hatley, Bedfordshire, Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer, who died in 1429, and his wife Ida, daughter of Reginald, 
Lord Grey, of Ruthin. MT.UossefAshbourn Church, p. 22) says— '* The following 
inscription in brass letters, ran round the edge of the tomb till within a few 
years Skgo—JoJiannes Cokain primo capitalis Baronis de Saccario, deinde uniu^ Jus- 
ticiarum de Commi Banco sub rege Henrico IIII. — accurata effigies. Certainly 



ASHBOURN. 383 

eldest son and heir, was Isabel, daughter of Sir Hugh Shirley ; she 
survived him, and was eventually buried in her native county, 
namely in the church of Polesworth, in Warwickshire, where there 
is a fine altar tomb, with her effigy thereon. Sir John affords us 
a good specimen of the armour of the reign of Henry V. and VI. 
There is no tabard or surcoat, and round the neck is the collar 
of SS. His wife has all the characteristic costume of the first half 
of the fifteenth century — the sideless surcoat, with its full skirt 
surrounding the tightly fitting kirtle, girdled over the hips — the 
mantle with its lace and tassels — and the homed or pointed head- 
dress, with its reticulated covering for the hair. 

In the drawing given in the Archceological Journal^ there appears 
near the feet of the lady, a shield resembling that of HarthilL 
Some antiquaries have attributed considerable importance to this, 
and have inferred therefrom that the female effigy was that of 
Elizabeth Harthill, wife of Edmund Cokayne (he of the former 
tomb), and who would, being an heiress, be entitled to use those 
arms after her marriage. Mr. Planch^, in his paper read before 
the British Archceological Association, in 1861, refers to this. But 
it is a mistake ; and it is curious how such a mistake could have 
been made, from the simple fact that no such shield exists^ nor does 
there appear any probability of its ever having been on the tomb 
at all. Mr. Errington is certain that it has never been there in 
his time, and it is equally certain that there is no place where it 
could hare been, as shown in the drawing. This is the more re- 
markable, as the plates are in other respects accurate. 

The next monument in order of date, is an inscribed slab of 
alabaster, to the memory of the grandson of Edmund Cokayne, 
once doubtless **a thing of beauty," but now mutilated. In 1872 
it was in the floor of the chapel between two of the Boothby 
monuments, to make room for the base of one of which the in- 
scription round this slab has been cut away ; the intruding monu- 
ment just destroyed half the letters all round the slab, thus 
rendering the whole illegible, with the exception of a few letters at 
one comer. But here our invaluable friend Heraldry steps in and 
tells us for whose memory the slab was erected. On it stiU re- 
main two shield^, bearing the quartered arms of Cokayne and 
Harthill impaling those of Vemon. We, therefore, know that it is to 

the last two words of this inscription read as if it had been an after-thought, and we 
have not been able to learn whence Mr. Mosse got his information. But Chief Baron 
Cokayne is said to have been buried in the nave of Polesworth Church, Warwick- 
shire. — Lyaona* Bedfordthire, p. 92. 



384 DERBYliHIRE CHURCHES. 

be attributed to Sir John Cokayne (the eldest son of John Coka3me, 
to whom the last-mentioned tomb is dedicated), who married 
Agnes, daughter of Sir Richard Vernon, of Haddon Hall, and who 
died an old man in 1505. This slab, being in the centre of the 
floor of the chapel, has been much walked upon, and the shields 
were rapidly being worn away; it has, therefore, been taken up, 
and one-half of it being quite blank — quite worn bare, it has been 
(in deference to the wish of Mr. Errington) dimidiated, and that 
portion on which the shields remain has been fixed into the 
eastern wall of the chapel, and thus preserved. 

The eldest son of John Cokayne, and his wife Agnes, was 
Thomas Cokayne, who was buried at Youlgreave. His tomb has 
been already described in the account of that church. 

The memory of his eldest son, one of the most celebrated of 
his family, is perpetuated by an altar tomb of Purbeck marble in 
the comer, a stone nearly resembling granite, but of a less durable 
nature. In scroll hues, on its alabaster slab, are drawn the effigies 
of Sir Thomas and Dame Barbara Cokayne. This " worthy 
knight" received knighthood from King Henry VIIL 'on the field 
of battle, namely, at the siege of Toumay, in France, 'and he 
was, hkewise, one of the attendants of the same monarch at 
that splendid display of chivalry, "The Field of the Cloth of 
Gold.*' He was author of a curious book, now extremely rare, 
" A Treatise on Hunting," a copy of which is in the British 
Museum. Sir Thomas is represented in a suit of complete plate 
armour; the sword hangs by his side, attached to a belt which 
passes over the taces below the breast-plate. The lady's long robe 
falls to her feet; the pedimental head-dress, peculiar to the earlier 
part- of the sixteenth century, with its long pendent lappets, 
adorns her head. She was one of the Fitzherbert family. On 
the slab is this inscription : — 



(I 



Here lieth Sir Thomas Cokayne 

Made knight at Turney and Turwyne 

Who builded here fayre houses Twayne 

With many profettes that remayne 

And three fayre parkes impaled he 

For hia successors here to be 

And did hia house and name restore 

Whiche others had decayed before 

And was a knight bo worshipfull 

So vertuouB wyse and pitiful! 

His deeds deserve that his good name 

Lyve here in everlasting fame 

Who had issue iii sonues iii daughters." 



ASHBOUBN. 385 

In addition to this, it is recorded that formerly *'on a tablet hung 
up against the wall, over this tomb, are the following verses:" — 

** Here chested in this Tombe, and closed in this clay 
Doth lye S' Thomas Cokain Knt, and must till jud^^ement day. 
This martiaU man so bold and eke This worthy wight 
At Turwyn and at Turney seige was dub'd a worthy knight. 
Two goodly houses he did build to his g^eat praise and fame 
With profitte greate and manifold belonging to the same. 
Three Parkes empaled eke wherein to chace his deere, 
Aloft the Lodge within this Parke he also builded heere. 
He did his house and name renew and eke his land restore. 
Which others had by negligence decay'd in tyme before. 
This marshall knight had yssue male 3 sons of manly port, 
And eke three daughters verteous, aU married in this sort. 
The eldest unto husband had a knight of worthy fame, 
Sir William Basset, Lord of Blore, and so was called by name. 
To Vincent Loe, of Denby Squire, the second married was, 
The third to liobert Burdet Squire, all this he brought to pass. 
This knight he was so witifull, so verteous, and so pittifull, 
His deeds deserve his noble fame may live in everlasting name."* 

A brass plate, inscribed with these Unes, has therefore been 
replaced where it is beheved formerly to have been fixed, namely, 
against the north wall over against the tomb. 

Built against two outer walls, this tomb has suffered much from 
damp. Four brass escutcheons, engraved with the following arms, 
have been replaced round the side and end of the tomb: viz., (that 
in the centre) quarterly — ^in the first quarter, Cokayne quartering 
Harthill; 2nd quarter, Rossington ; 3rd, Edensor; 4th, three stags; 
the whole impaling Fitzherbert arg.^ a chief vaire, or^ and gu., over 
all a bend, sab,, a crescent for difference, being the arms of Sir 
Thomas Cokayne and his wife, Barbara Fitzherbert. On dexter side 
Cokayne, quartered as above, impaling Barlow (harry wavy of six, 
arg. and sab,, a chief per pale, ermine and gu.) being the arms of 
Sir Thomas Cokayne's parents; on sinister side Fitzherbert impal- 
ing Babington (arg.y ten torteaux, four, three, two, and one, in 
chief a label of three points, az,), being those of the parents of 
Lady Cokayne. At foot of tomb: Cokayne quarterly of seven, 
viz., 1st quarter, Cokayne; 2nd, Harthill; 3rd, Deyville ; 4th, 
Savage ; 5th, Rossington ; 6th, Edensor ; 7th, three stags. 

The will of Sir Thomas Cokayne, dated 4th April, 1537, orders — 
**a tomb to bo raised over me according to the discretion and 
advice of my wife and executors; the sum of £S to be expended 
on the same, so that it be all of marble, and if that sum be not 
sufficient then I will that more be expended thereon." 

• We have given in the text the version of Elias Ashmole, 1662 (Bodleian Library), 
which differs only in orthography from that of Dagdale, 1666. 

2c 



386 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

The eldest son of 8ir Thomas Gokayne was Francis, who only 
snrviTed his father hy a single year. 

The handsome altar tomb of Francis and Dorothy Gokayne, 
under the north window, was, until lately, in bad condition. 
Being, like that of his father, Sir Thomas, of Porbeck marble, and 
against an outer wall, it had yielded in a great degree to decay, to 
say nothing of the hard usage it had experienced from sacrilegious 
hands in Puritan times. The brasses which adorned it, the efi&gies, 
the canopy, the shields, the inscriptions, were all partially destroy- 
ed ; the shields entirely. These, however, have all been renewed, 
as in the case of the monument of latest date, at the expense of a 
descendant of Lord Gullen. The ten stone shields about the tomb 
are as follows: (1) Gokayne, (2) HarthiU, (3) Rossington, (4) Eden- 
sor, (5) three stags, (6) Gokayne and HarthiD quarterly, in the 
first quarter, quartering firstly Rossington, secondly Edensor, and 
thirdly three stags, aiid the whole impaling Marrowe quartered 
with Brome, Eiche, and Anmdell. (7) Gokayne and Harthill 
quarterly, quartering Rossington, Edensor, and three stags; (8) 
Marrowe quartering Riche, (9) Marrowe impaling Brome, (10) Riche 
impaling Arundell. 

The inscription in brass round the slab is: — 

"Here lyeth the Bodie of Frauncis Gokayne Esquire and Dorothy his w ife 
which Franncis deceased ye v day of Aogost Anno Domini MCCCCCXXiVllJ. 

Francis Gokayne married Dorothy Marrowe, daughter and heiress 
of Thomas Marrowe, serjeant-at-law, and died in 1588. His 
effigy is drawn in armour, with tabard or surcoat decorated 
with the arms of Gokayne, his bare head resting on a helm with 
its mantling, etc., surmounted by his crest The lady appears in 
a long graceful robe, with jewelled girdle, frilled sleeves, etc. ; her 
head, adorned with the pedimental head dress, resting on a cushion. 
Above their heads is an ornamental canopy, supported by twisted 
shafts. On the slab are also, in brass, two escutcheons, the one 
engraved with the arms of Gokayne and Harthill quarterly, quar- 
tering Rossington, Edensor, and three stags, the other with the 
same quartered coat, imj^aling Marrowe quartering Brome, Riche» 
and ArundelL 

The latest of these monuments is that recording the memory of 
Sir Thomas Gokayne, son of the last named Francis, and his wife 
and children, a stately mural monument of marble, in the Renais- 
sance style. In 1810, it was moved from what is believed to be 
its original position against the eastern wall of the chapel, and 
placed outside, under the north window, between the oak screen 



ASHBOURN. 387 

and the north door, when certain alterations were made in the 
church. Regardless of its heauty, and heedless of its preservation 
in moving — so little was the respect shown to it — ^it was half 
buried, its base being placed two or three feet below the floor of 
the chnrch, thus rendering it liable to decay, and damp — silent 
relentless enemies that steadily did their work. However, thanks 
to the liberality of a member of- the family, it is now lifted from 
its degradation ; the decayed panels restored, the destroyed pin- 
nacles replaced, the inscriptions recut, and the arms repainted. 

There is a shield of eleven quarterings in the centre of the 
monument, of the following coats — Cokayne, Harthill, Deyville, 
Savage, Rossington, Edensor, three stags, Marrowe, Brome, Biche, 
and Arnndell. Besides this there are about the monument eight 
other shields : viz., Cokayne, Marrowe, Ferrers (gu,, seven mascles 
conjoined, three, three, and one, or), Freville,* of Tamworth {or, 
a cross fleury, gu.), Marmion, of Tamworth (vaire, a fess, gu,, 
fretty, arg.) Botetourt f (or, a saltire engrailed, sab.), Harthill, and 
Rossington {arg., a fess between three crescents, gu.) ; of which 
Freville, Marmion, and Botetourt are quarterings of Ferrers. 

Dorothy, the wife of Sir Thomas, was daughter of Sir Humphrey 
Ferrers, of Tamworth. 

The arms of the knight and his lady appear respectively over 

their effigies, which are in kneeUng attitude towards a reading 

stand, on the front panel of which is this inscription : — 

" Hie jacent Sepvlta Corpora Thomie Cokaini Militia et Dom. Dorothea Uxoris 
Bins. Christi Mors Nobis Vita." 

There are effigies, too, of their sons and daughters, on each 
side a panel, inscribed thus: — 

"Nomina Liberomm Thomas Cokaini Mil. Et Dom Dorothea Uxoris Eivs — 
FranciscTS Thomas Edwardvs Florentia Dorothea Tabitha Johanna Johanna Jana 
Maud." 

This inscription, also, is said to have been upon this tomb : — 

"Thomas Cokaine, Miles, Filius et Hares Franoisci Cokayne Armigeri, et 
Dorothea Uxoris Ejus Filia et Haredis Thoma Marrowe, Servientis-ad-Legem 
De Berkswell In Com Varricensi Qui Thomas fait Creatos Miles per Comitem 
Hertfordia Tempore Captionis Edyngboroogh In Sootia 2 do Die Mali 1644 Anno 
86 Hen. 8-"t 

With this monument ends the fine series of Cokayne monuments. 
There are few families that can boast of so uninterrupted a series of 
memorials. The memorial of each successive head of the family 

* One of the Freyilles married a co-heir of the last Lord Botetourt ; another co-heir 
married a Berkeley, from whom Narbourne Berkeley, Lord Botetourt, who died in 
1764, descended, and from his sister and heir, the Duchess of Beaufort, the present 
Duke of Beaufort (who is Lord Botetourt) descends. 

t Harl. MSS., 6809, f. 28. 



388 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

(including Thomas Cokayne, 1488, at Youlgreave), from John Cok- 
ayne, 1372, to Thomas Cokayne, 1592, are all extant. 

Sir Aston Cokayne, the great-grandson of Sir Thomas and 
Dorothy, hecame impoverished from his devotion to the cause of 
Royalty, and sold the Ashboum and other Derbyshire estates in 
1671. 

In the south transept was the burial place of the Bradbome 
family. At the restoration of the church in 1840, the Bradbome 
tombs were most wantonly treated. Up to that date, there were 
three altar tombs within the Bradborne quire, which was separated 
by a screen from the rest of the transept. The most perfect of 
these has been carried across the church to the opposite transept, 
being much injured in the process. The remaining two were abso- 
lutely knocked into one ! Lest it should be thought that we are 
libelling these church restorers, we will quote from Mr. Mosse's 
own account : — 

" Proceeding from the chancel to the south transept, we enter 
Bradburne choir, within which, on the left hand, was an old altar- 
shaped tomb of alabaster, enriched on the sides with Gothic tracery, 
and figures of angels holding shields ; on it lay the mutilated 
effigies of a man in armour, with straight hair, and his lady in a 
close gown and mantle, and a rich head-dress and necklace of 
pendants. This monument had no inscription, but is supposed to 
belong to some of the Bradbumes, as being within their cemetery. 
Close to the last monument was another aJtar-tomb, without any 
ornament except the Bradburne arms on a lozenge at the head ; it 
was covered with a plain slab, on which are the words *Jane 
Sacheveral,* and the arms Sacheverell impaling Bradbuma To 
obtain room during the recent alterations, these two monuments iccre 
removed to the south of the transept, and now appear as one tomb. 
The plain slab supports the two recumbent figures ; one side, with 
the Gothic tracery and figures of angels, has been made good with 
the assistance of the other, which was similar, and lies close to 
the wall ; and the Bradburne arms are preserved at the head.*'* 

Godard de Bradbome, who was living on his manor of Brad- 
borne, or Bradboum, in the reign of Henry III., is the first 
of this ancient family mentioned in the pedigrees. His great- 
great grandson Roger, became connected with the parish of 
Ashboum by purchasing an estate at Hough, or HuUand. His 

♦ Mosse's History of Ashboum Churchy p. 83. 



ASHBOURN. 889 

great grandson, John, seems to have made Hough the chief 
residence of the family, where he rebuilt the manor house, 
and founded a chapel. This John (as we have already men- 
tioned), in conjunction with his wife Anne, daughter of Sir 
Richard Vernon, founded a chantry in the parish church of 
Ashboum, and the graceful though mutilated effigies in the 
south transept are probably to their memory. Their eldest 
son was Humphrey Bradbome,* who by his wife, Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Nicholas Longford, had issue John Bradborne, 
who married Isabella, daughter and co-heu*ess of Richard Cotton, 
of Ridware, StaflFordshire.f Sir Humphrey Bradborne, the eldest 
son of this marriage, took to wife Elizabeth, daughter of Su- 
WilHam Turville, of Nowhall, and it is their elaborate monu- 
ment which was removed to the north transept, where it now 
stands, just outside the parclose of the Cokayne chapel. On the 
top are the effigies of . Sir Humphrey and his lady, with their 
hands clasped on their breasts, holding missals, in the attitude of 
prayer. Sir Humphrey is in plate armour, with the incongruous 
addition of wide ruffs round his neck and wrists ; he wears a sword 
on his left side, and a dagger on his right ; his feet rest on a lion, 
and by the side of his right foot are his gauntlets ; he w^ears a 
pointed beard and moustache, and has a double chain round his 
neck. The lady is clad in a long robe, with a short mantle, and 
a ruff round her neck ; on her head she wears a close-fitting 
diamond-shaped cap, with the curious falling lappet of the French 
hood at the back4 

At the west end of the tomb is a shield of the six quarterings 
of Bradborne impaling the four quarterings of Turville, surrounded 
by a garter bearing the same motto, repeated in old French and 
Enghsh — **In Dieu his poier — In God is my trust." This shield 
is flanked by single shields of the same quarterings. These, and 
the other arms on the tomb have all been emblazoned, though the 
colours in some instances are now worn off. 

The quarterings of Bradborne are : — 

(1) Ar(/., on a bend, gu,, three mullets pierced, or (Bradbome). 



* Humphrey Bradbome, was buried at the church of Bradbome, though there is 
now no remains of his tomb. 

t Harl. MSS., 1,537, f. 4. 

\ The lappet of tlie French hood, that preyailed from Henry VIII. to James I. 
was intended to be worn at the back of the head, or turned back ovor the top bo hb 
to form a shade for the eyes, according to the taste or inclination of the wearer. The 
adjacent tomb of Dame Dorothy Cokayne, represents it after the latter fashion. 



390 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

(2) Az., an eagle displayed, arg. (Ridware). 

(3) Gu., three swords erect, arg. (Waldeshef). 

(4) Arg,, three falcons, gu, (Falconer). 
(6) Az., two bars, arg, (Venables). 

(6) Arg,, a bend, Bah,, between three pellets (Cotton). 

All these quarterings came to Sir Humphrey through his mother, 
a co-heiress of Cotton of Ridware. The second coat was adopted 
by Cotton as their own, after the marriage of William Cotton with 
Agnes, daughter and heiress of Walter de Ridware, in the time of 
Edward IIL; the sixth coat was the ancient bearing of the 
Cottons. 

The quarterings of Turville, as here given, are : — 

(1) Gu,, three chevronels, vaire (Turville). 

(2) Ovy fretty, sab, (Champaine). 

(8) Or^ on a fesse, gu., three water bougets, arg, (Bouge). 

(4) Arg,, a maunch, at, (Flaville). 

Richard Turville, of the second generation recorded in the Yisi- 
tation pedigree, married the daughter and heiress of 8ir William 
Flaville, of Aston. Richard Turville, the third in descent from last 
named Richard, married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Bald- 
win Bouge, who himself quartered Champaine. Their eldest son, 
William, was the father of Elizabeth, the wife of Sir Humphrey 
Bradborne.* 

On the north side of the tomb are representations of the four 
eldest sons, clad like their father, and holding shields with a blank 
impalement for the arms of their wives. Beyond them, on the 
same side, are two small figures in long black gowns and ruffo, 
and beyond them again, are three children swathed in thdr 
chryaomes^f to signify their death in infancy. The six sons, whose 
names are given in the pedigree, are William, Francis, John, 
Hugh, Nicholas, and Anthony. 

On the south side are the four eldest daughters, with the res- 
pective quarterings of their husbands impaling the Bradborne 
quarterings. The eldest daughter, Anne, married Humphrey, son 
and heir of John Ferrers, of Tamworth ; the second, Elizabeth, 
married Sir John Cotton, of Landwade, Cambridgeshire ; the third, 
Jane, married Henry SachevereU, of Morley ; and the fourth was 

* Harl. MSS., 6,692, f. 7; HiU'a flw/ory of Oartree Hundred, p. 57. 

wW J«inf>?^^t??^^*r ^^'^^ ^®^® incorrectly painted red. The chrysome waa a 
Twid d «^ Wn^^?" "^*^*' ^T ?^?«*ed immediately after their bajSm. Ifthe 
child died before it was a month old, its chrysome served as its shroud. 



ASHBOURN. 391 

Martha, who married Christopher Duckett, hut not until after the 
erection of this tomh, so that the dexter side of her shield is left 
hlank. Beyond them are two younger daughters, whosfe names are 
not known, and who probably died in childhood. 

Bound the mietrgin of the tomb is the following inscription : — 

Here lyeth the bodyes of Sir Humphrey Bradbume, Knight, which deceassed the 
zvij of April in the year of our Lorde God 1581, and Dame Elizabetha his wyffe, 
daughter of Sir William Turvyle of New hall in the Countye of Leicester, Knight, 
whodeoeaaed the day of in the yeare of our Lorde God 

Over the composite altar tomb, which still remains in the south 
transept, is a stone bearing this inscription : — 

Here lieth the body of Jane Sacheverell, Widow, daughter of Sir Humphrey 
Bradbame, Kn^ and Dame Elizabeth his Wife, and late Wife of Henrio Sache- 
verell, of Morley, Esq. She had issue by her said Husband 4 Sons, viz., Jacinth, 
Jonathan, Victorin, and Oswawld, and 4 daught. Elizabeth, Abigail, wife of 
Humphrey Pakington, of Harrington in y" County of Worcester, Esq., Jane, and 
Omphela. The said Jane Sachev. died y« 14 of March, 1624, ^tatis busb 67. The 
said Abigail her daught. and Thomas Milwarde* her Kinsman and Executor cavsed 
this Monument to be erected. 

In the north wall of the chancel, opposite the sedilia, is a se- 
pulchre tomb, with a richly ornamented arch and crocketed pin- 
nacles. Mr. Mosse says that, up to a few years before the restora- 
tion of 1840, there was an inscription on the slab covering the 
tomb, but he was unable to give any particulars of it. It is said 
to be the tomb of Robert Kniveton, of Underwood Grange, son of 
John Eniveton, who held the manor of Bradley, and descendant of 
Nicholas, the elder brother of Henry Kniveton, the founder of the 
already-mentioned chantry. He died in the year 1471. A hand- 
some monument, of graceful design, was erected, just beyond this 
sepulchre-tomb, a few years ago, to the memory of Christopher 
and Mary Harland, by their surviving children. Cliristopher was, 
through his mother, the last representative of the ancient family 
of Eniveton. 

In the south transept, with the Cokayne monuments, are many 
memorials of the family of Boothby, who purchased Ashboum Hall 
of the Cokaynes in the reign of Charles II. The earhest of these is 
to the memory of Francis, eldest son of Sir William Boothby, who 
died in 1684, but it would not accord with our purpose to give 
any detailed account of these comparatively modem inonuments. 

ft 

Exception, however, must be made with regard to the monument of 
Penelope, the only daughter of Sir Brooke Boothby. The sculptor 
was T. Banks, B.A., and it derives an additional interest from the 
fact that Sir Francis Chantrey designed his world-renowned group 



392 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

of the two sleeping childreu, of Lichfield Cathedral, in an Ash- 
bourn inn, after a visit to the monument of Penelope Boothby. 
This exquisite work of art has been often described, but by no one 
more successfully than by the Rev. D. P. Davies, in 1811, and we 
prefer to use his language to any of our own. He says — 

" Nobody ought ever to overlook this tomb, as it is, perhaps, the 
most interesting and pathetic object in England. Simplicity and 
elegance appear in the workmanship ; tenderness and innocence in 
the image. On a marble pedestal and slab, like a low table, is a 
mattress, with a child lying on it, both being cut out of white 
marble. Her cheek, expressive of suffering mildness, reclines on 
a pillow ; and her little fevered hands gently rest on each other, 
near to her head. The plain and only drapery is a frock, the 
skirt flowing easily out before, and a ribbon sash, the knot twisted 
forward, as it were, by the restlessness of pain, and the two ends 
spread out in the same direction as the frock. The deUcate naked 
feet are carelessly folded over each other, and the whole appear- 
ance is, as if she had just turned, in the tossings of her illness, 
to seek a cooler or easier place of rest. The man whom this does 
not affect, wants one of the finest sources of genuine sensibiHty; 
his heart cannot be formed to reUsh the beauties, either of nature 
or art."* The inscriptions round the monument are in English, 
Latin, French, and Itahan. The English has : — 

I was not in safety, neither had I rest, & the trouble came. 

To Penelope 

Only child of Sir Brooke Boothby, and Dame Susannah Boothbjr. 

Bom April 11th, 1785, died March 13th, 1791. 

She was, in form and inteUect, most exquisite. 

The unfortunate Parents ventured their all on this frail Bark, 

and the wreck was total. 

There was formerly a great deal of heraldic glass in the church 
windows of Ashboum. Elias Ashmole gives the following list of 
the coats that were noticeable here in 1662: — 

" England. . 

Lancaster. 

Zouch. Gules iv Besants a canton ermine. 

Montgomery, Or, an eagle displayed ar. 

Longford, Per pale or & Gu. a Bend ar. 

* Davies' Derhyshirey p. 424. To alleviate his grief, Sir Brooke Boothby composed 
various sonnets on the loss he had sustained. These he published in 1796, under the 
title —-Sorrow* Sacred to the Memory of Penelope— b, volume illustrated with an 
engraving of the sculptured tomb, with a symbolical frontispiece by Fuseli, with 
welt-flnisned vignettes of Ashboum Church and Hall, and with an exquisite engrav- 
ing of Penelope, done by Kirk, from a painting of Sir Joshua Beynolds, which is a 
most perfect picture of childish grace and beauty. 



A8HB0URN. 393 

Ferrars, Varry or & Gules. 

Shandos, Arg. a pile Gules a dove of the first. 

Greisly. Yfsjnrj ar and Gules. 

Dethick, Arg. a fesse varry or & Gu. betwixt 3 Water Budgets G. 

Annedey. Per pale arg. & az. a bend gules. 

Bradhum, Arg. ^ on a bend gules 3 Mullets or. 

Lathhary. Arg. 2 Barrs or on a canton of the same a faulcon or. 

Mackworth. Per pale indented Arg <fe Sa. a clieveron Buttony g. & o. 

Pole, Arg. a cheveron betwixt 8 Cressants gules. 

Blunt Undee or & Sa. 

Francis. Arg: a Cheveron betwixt 3 eagles displayed Gules. 

Vtmxm. Sable Frete arg. a Canton gules. 

Brailesford. Or. a Cinqz fayle Sable. 

Ireton. Ermin. 2 Bends Gules. 

Fiiidern, Ar. cheveron betw. 3 crosses fitche Sab. 

Curson, Arg. on a bend Sable 3 popingeys or. 

Twy/ord, Arg. 2 Barrs sa. on a Canton of the 2d a Cinque fayle or. 

Okeover. Ermyn on a Cheife gu. 3 Besants. 

Cockjield, Gu. 6 flours de luces 3. 2. & 1. arg. 

Audeley, Gu. Fretty or Canton Ermyn. 

Kriiveton, Gu. a fesse varry arg, & sa. 

SacheverelL Arg, on a Saltier az. 6 Water-Budgetts or. 

Louell. Unde or and gules. 

Cockain. Argent 8 cocks gules. 

Leech, Ermyn on a cheife gu. 3 crownes or. 

Freshvill, Ar. a Bend betw. 6 Escalops or. 

FoIJame. Sa. a bend betw. 6 Escalops or. 

Sliirly, Per pale or and ar. a canton ermyn. 

Leake, Arg. on a Saltier sable. 5 aimulets or. 

**In the lower window of the South Isle towards the west end — 
Paly over all a bend. 

- ** In the greate West window of the said church a man in armes 
kneeling, having these coats quartered upon his Surcoat : — * 

" Cokayne and Harthill quarterly, Bossington, Edensor, and the 
Three Stags." 

In the east window of the chancel there are still many coats re- 
maining, eighteen, we believe, in number. England, Lancaster, 
Annesley, Lathbury, Ferrers, Cotton, Pole, Blount, Francis, Blun- 

* Ashmolean MSS., 854 (Bodleian Library). Some of the coats are given some- 
what -incorrectly, and we are not quite confident that the identification of all of 
them is correct, but we thought it best to reproduce the description just as it is 
given. 



394 DEKBTSUIRE CHURCHES. 

dell. Grey of Codnor, Findem, Fitzwarren, Basset of Colston, 
Eniveton, Champagne of Duffield, Darley, and Okeover.* 

In the large Perpendicular window of the south transept are two 
coats. One of them — chequy, or and az,, on a canton, gu., a lion 
rampant, arg. — Earl Warren, has been reversed by the ignorance of 
the glazier ; the other is Longford impaling Bradbume. In the 
upper part of the same window are some fragments of old yellow- 
stain glass, including a small crucifix, with the legend Insi over 
the head. 

The upper windows of the north transept, in addition to some 
more modem glass, have an impaled coat of Cokayne and Fitz- 
herbert. 

The tower is mounted by a staircase in the south eastern pier, 
which is entered by a curious and original door, formed of a solid 
block of oak. Immediately over the arches of the tower is an 
ambulatory or passage, running round the four sides in the thick- 
ness of the walls, and commimicating with the centre of the tower 
by twelve low arches, three on each side. On the old peal of six 
bells, that were removed in 1815, were the following inscriptions: — 

L "Amici multi numerantur, 1705." 

II. "Sweetly to sing men do call 

To feed on meats that feed the soul." 

III. **God save our Queene. 1590." 

IV. *'Ecce Ancilla Domini." (No date). 

V. **God save the Churche, 1632." 

VL " Ut tuba sic sonitu Domini convoco cohortes. 1692." 

The first bell weighed 8 cwt. 14 lbs., and the tenor 17 cwt. 17 Ibs.f 

The new peal are eight in number, though they are said not 

to be so sweet in tone as their predecessors.^ These are their 

legends : — 

* Some of these coats are damaged. We have given in the text that which we, 
deemed to he the most likely identifications, though two or three of them are home 
hy more than one family. We saw them also to disadvantage, for at the time we took 
onr notes, the window was much blocked up with scaffolding. 

f Mosse's History of Ashboum Churchy p. 40. 

X Yet it was when listening to the melody of the newly hung peal, that the poet 
Moore wrote the weU-known strains — 

" Those evening bells 1 Those evening bells I " 
The last stanza says — 

" And so 'twill be when I am ^one ; 
That tuneful peal will still nng on, 
While other hards shaU walk these dells. 
And sing your praise, sweet evening bells I " 
But, BO far as we know, no other poet has as yet been moved to song by their mufiic 
unless we except a passing reference by Edwards, in his Tour of the Dove (stansa 
xvii.), published in 1821. 



ASHBOURN. 395 

I. " Give no offence to the church." 

II. *' William Dobson, Founder, Downham, Norfolk. 1815." 
m. ** William Dobson fecit, Downham, Norfolk. 1816.'* ^ 

IV. "Peace and good neighbourhood.'* 

V. " Prosperity to the town of Ashbum. 1816.** 

VI. "The order for this peal was given in May, 1816, by 

Sam* Carrington and J»* Tunnicliffe C** W**.** 

VII. " Cast in the year 1816, in which the great battle of 

Waterloo was fought." 
Vin. " These bells were completed in August, 1816. John 

Hobson and Tho« Hartwell C** WardenR." 
Above the bell-chamber, beneath the spire, and exposed to the 
inclemency of the weather through its unglazed windows, is the 
"Sanctus" bell, by the ringing of which, the elevation of the Host, 
at the time of the celebration of the mass, was announced to the 
worshippers ; its proper place was immediately over the eastern end 
of the nave, and, as the tower of this church is in the centre, we 
here find it in its ancient and correct situation; it is about 
eighteen inches or more in diameter, and bears upon it no other 
inscription than the letter " S," followed by an equal limbed cross, 
three times repeated. The foimder's mark, containing the initials 
"T. N.," may also be deciphered. It is certainly of greater age 
than any of the peal that were removed in 1816. 

The earUest of the Ashboum registers is endorsed 1647 — 1622, 
but it really commences with the year 1638 (the first year in which 
parochial registers were ordered to be kept), though the commence- 
ment of the book is in a fragmentary condition. This volume is, 
however, all in one hand, and has evidently been copied from the 
original. The oldest original portion is from 1604 — 1615. Another 
volume extends from 1629 to 1640, and another from 1665 to 1679. 
This latter one contains numerous entries of marriages during the 
Commonwealth, which are rarely met with in parochial registers, 
as they had to be celebrated in the presence of the civil magistrate. 
The names of the attesting Justices that most frequently occur 
are — ^Edward Manlove and Edward Pegge. In the volume that 
extends from 1702 to 1789, there are numerous interpolations by 
the hand of Nathaniel Boothouse, M.A., of Emanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, who was instituted to the Vicarage of Ashbourn (from the 
Kectory of Carsington) on May 6, 1706, The following are speci- 
mens of his Chronicles of a Parish: — 



396 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

" 16 August 1707. Mr. Charles Chaucey, Physician and Apothecary, and one of 
the Church Wardens of this parish. A man of good knowledije learning and 
experience in Physick, Pharmacy, and Chyrurgery; of a lepid and satyricaU. kind 
of conversation, but of great Integrity and good nature, and so helpful! and use- 
full to all sorts, that his loss was universally deplored, and his Corps was mett 
some miles from the Town, for he died at Darby in his return from visiting a 
Patient in Leicester, the Gout (with which he was much troubled) striking up to 
his stomach, and that occasioned (as was supposed) by eating cowcumbers and 
ffruit. He was sorrowfully (yet voluntarily and without invitation) attended to 
his grave by multitudes of the whole neighbourhood. 

" 8 April 1708. Nathaniel, son of Nathaniel Boothouse and Hannah his wife, 
vicar of this parish, who was bom at Carsington (where his father was then 
rector) June 22, 1704, and died here at Ashbume on Easter Tuesday the 6"* of 
this instant month. A child he was of exceeding sweetness and prettiness both 
in person and temper, and of wonderfull quickness of apprehension and parts, far 
beyond his years. His death drew tears from many more eyes than those of his 
own Parents. He lies buried in the east end of the churchyard, his father 
esteeming Churches and Chancels to be too good to lay dead bodies in. 

"The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away, blessed be the name of the 

Lord. 

" He was a flow'r of Sweetness, might have grown 

In age and kindred to perfection. 

But Grod's resistless Hand, by Death's surprise, 

Transferred him to th' Heavenly Paradise. 

"Verba haBO (Lectores) massto indulgete Parenti. 

"7 April, 1710. Buried old George Wood aged about eighty years, a person of 
good health and activity for his years and one that frequented the Prayers and 
Sacraments at Church continually. On Wednesday the 6*^ of this month having 
eaten his dinner well he came down to Evening prayers, and entered the Church 
with a lively fresh colour in his face, and went into the seat y* is just opposite 
to y« Reading Desk, laid down his staff e and gloves on y« bench, and stood up 
leaning his arms on the side of the seat, when the sentences of Scripture and 
the Exhortation were read, but just as that was ended, and before y« Confession 
began, he fell down on the floor of the seat, and in two minutes time was taken 
up dead and carried home on a pillow upon the Bier. Matt. 24^ 42-46. 

" 10 May, 1710. Henry Valentine of Leicester first brought hither the great 
Organ, and some days after began to work at it towards fitting it up. 

**The great Organ being sett up and almost compleated on Sunday the 6*** of 
this month (August, 1710) Thomas Cook of Trusley Esq and his servant and M' 
Richard Bassano came in the afternoon, and after evening prayers and sermon 
ended they first plaid a grave Sonata as Voluntary, then M' Bassano before the 
Church fuU of people sang the 121 Psalm — ' I will lift up mine eyes ' — as an 
Anthem.* 

'' September, 1710. The great Organ in the Church being now compleated and 
put in tune, and y« iron standard Rods and curtains of the Organ loft being sett 
up it was opened and dedicated in the manner following. On Sunday (16^) the 
Vicar preached from Psalm 92—1, 2, 3 (here follows an abstract of the sermon, 
and an account of the part taken by the organ in the services). But in the 
afternoon M«" Matthew Haines, one of the singing men of the Quire at Lichfield, 
gave a fine long anthem just after the Italian manner. The anthem has much 
variety of musick in it, and is contrived with intermixture of frequent Sym- 
phonies or Returnalles, which Retumalles were touched and plaid upon two 

♦ Mr. Richard Bassano was for some time of the Quire at Lichfield Cathedral. He 
^^l^ ?P*n ®^ °* Francis Bassano, the heraldic painter, of whose Church Notes, now 
at the College of Arms, we have so often availed ourselves in these pages. The 
liassanos were a musical family by inheritance. Anthony, a native of Italy, the first 
ol this familjr who settled in England, was of the Royal Band of Music of Henrv 
nviiiu^v l^JJs successors; his sons, Arthur, Andrew, and Mark Anthony, were of 
B^^t!?^* f?°®*^l-^*^^' ^^ ^^ grandson, Anthony, grandfather of Richard, the 
singer oi tlie anthem at Ashboum, was organist to James I. and Charles I. 



ASHBOURN. 397 

Violins by two gentlemen who Btood behind the curtain in the Organ loft. 
This performance was very fine as well as grave and solemn. 

" (But the grand performance was on the following Wednesday, when there were 
many voices and instruments, of which a full list is given, and an audience of 
five thousand people.) Mr Rathbone of Nottingham played the Organ, and M' 
Henry Valentine, who made the Organ, stood by him with a trumpet. At night 
in the great parlour of the Blackmore's Head they made a fine consert both of 
Instrumental and Vocal Musick, and so concluded the musick of the day. 

" 11 May, 1712. James Dawson and Susannah Osbaston both of Derby. This 
was a fraudulent and wicked marriage. Dawson came to Ashbourn fair May 10**» 
and applied himself e to old M' Hardistee the Surrogate for License, who having 
examined him upon oath (as the Canon requires) the perjured wretch swore y* there 
was no pre contract or other legall impediment against his marriage, so he obtained 
a license and was married next morning being Sunday May 11*^ But before noon 
I discovered that his first wife was living at Southampton. 

The Mapleton registers from 1704, are also kept at Ashbourn. 

Several portions of the early Ashbourn registers, that contained 
entries of special interest, have been stolen within recent years. 
The parts that were stolen included an entry, in August, 1646, 
of Charles I. having visited the church, *' and talked with Mr. 
Peacock," the vicar, and a most painful entry, April 20th, 1650, 
relative to a case of premature interment. It is also said that 
Charles I. wrote his autograph in the registers. 



About the year 1631, an endowment fund for a lecturer at 
Ashbourn, independent of the vicarage, was raised by private 
subscription. The appointment of lecturer has given rise at dif- 
ferent times to much dispute and litigation ; recently it seems to 
have been held, as is most appropriate at the present time, by the 
vicar, but during the last few years, as we are informed, the 
trustees have thought fit to withhold the endowment, and the lec- 
tureship is in abeyance. Under these circumstances, which are 
attracting a good deal of attention in the parish, we think it well 
to give some account of its foundation and of tlie early litigation 
connected with it; more especially as the particulars we have been 
able to glean, contain several interesting details relative to the 
state of society and religion in the seventeenth century. Our 
chief source of information is from the Brief of the Attorney- 
General, who was retained on behalf of Thomas Goodread,* vicar 
of Ashbourn, and WiUiam Hand, who had been licensed to the 
lectureship, in a suit against the trustees, Sir Philip Gell and 
others, and their nominee, Henry Aldrich.f From this document 
we take the following abstracts. 

• Thomas Goodread was instituted to the vicarage on Slst December, 1639, on the 
resignation of Thomas Browne. — Lichfield Episcopal liegisters, vol. xvii. 
t Add. MSS., 6,602, f. 23-38. 



398 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

The informatioii sets out that the vicar of Ashbomn being only 
endowed with Easter reckonings and BuipUce fees, not exceeding 
£15 per annum clear, that that cure, till about 1634, was but 
meanly served, few persons of learning being ready to accept so 
small a preferment, so that though the parish was large and 
populous, yet was there no preaching there. 

That several gentlemen of the town and neighbourhood of 
Ashboum, in conjunction with several citizens of London who had 
estates or relations thereabouts, taking notice thereof about 1681 
or 1632, did by voluntary contributions, raise £400, to purchase 
an annuity of £40, to be settled on six citizens of London and 
five inhabitants of Ashboum, as trustees, '* to the Litent that there 
might for ever bee mainetained an able pious painfull learned and 
orthodox preacher of the sacred word of God, who should preach 
two sermons or Divinity Lectures every weeke in the said Towne 
of Ashbome, or, in case of interrupcon there, then att some con- 
venient Towne in the county of Derby not above five miles from 
Ashbome, and if any interrupcion or disturbance shall happen soe 
as the same shall bee discontinued or prohibitted, then the Annuity 
dureing such discontinuance should bee imployed towards the releife 
of the poor of the parish of Ashbome or to that effect." 

That the trastees originally purchased a rent-charge of £40 
out of the impropriate Rectory of Bagby, Yorks., which was sub- 
sequently exchanged for a similar annuity on certain lands and 
tenements at Walton-on-Trent. 

That up to 1689, a lecturer was maintained at Ashbourn and 
paid the annuity, and the vicar and patron of the church allowed 
him to preach every Sunday, the vicar usually preaching or using 
Divine service at Mapleton, and the lecturer reading service and 
preaching twice at Ashbourn. 

That on the death of Mr. Leeke* (the lecturer), m June, 1689, 
all the original contributors to the charity being dead, and not 
having appointed any new trustees, the lectureship was vacant for 
three months ; whereupon the parishioners requested WiUiam Hand 
to take upon him the office. 

That after Hand had been settled in the place, the defendants, 
Sir Philip Gell, John Moorewood, Hugh Bateman, and others, 

* Samuel Leeke, B. A., was licensed by the Bishop to this lectureship, 20th October, 
1671, on the nomination of Sir William Bateman, of Castlebar, Miadlesex, and of 
John Hieron, of Loscbe, Derbyshire, clerk. — LichfUld Episcopal Begisters, yoL xviL 



ASHBOURN. 899 

acting as new trustees, none of them of Ashboum, " combined to 
disturb Hand in the execution of the place and sett up the other 
defendant Aldrich in his place." 

That the matter was debated and laid before the Bishop of 
Lichfield and Coventry, who duly licensed Hand, but that Aldrich 
procured a provincial license and preached out of the parish, and 
that the defendants refused to pay Hand the annuity, '^ arrogating 
to themselves the election of the Lecturer whereas itt belongs either 
to the parishioners of Ashbome for whose benefitt the Lectures 
were designed or else by Law is devolved upon their Majesties." 

Sir Philip Gell, and the other defendants, then explained how 
by heirship they had become trustees and had the right of appoint- 
ment, but their chief point appeared to be to attack the character 
of Hand. They believe that he does not preach there to the good 
likeing of one half of the parishioners of Ashbourn, that his license 
was gained of the Bishop by surprise, and not heard with the 
solemnity it required, and that Sir Philip Gell had heard Hand 
declare in the reign of the late king James that he had been at 
mass and would read mass if the king demanded it of him. They 
also stated that they appointed Aldrich to the lectureship, and on 
the refusal of the Vicar of Ashbouru* to allow him to lecture 
there, he had preached at the parish church of Eniveton, two miles 
from Ashboum. 

The evidence was very voluminous and every whit as conflicting 
as in modem suits ; a great deal of weight was evidently attached 
to the inclination or otherwise of Hand towards Popery. The 
parish clerk of Hognaston, where Mr. Hand had been sometime 
minister, testified that he was a learned, orthodox, right well-prin- 
cipled divine, and not in the least **inclineable to Popery," and 
that he declined to read King James' declaration for Liberty of 
Conscience. Godfrey Meynell deposed, that Hand had told him 
that he had been out of curiosity to the late King's chapel, 
but "did ridicule the Popish religion and service and termed itt 
a profitt play." Rowland Okeover deposed that his father, Sir 
Rowland Okeover, presented Hand to the Hving of Atlow, which 

* Thomas Goodread, one of the defendants in this action, was Vicar of Ashboum 
thirty-three years, and died in 1702, as is recorded on a wooden mural monument to 
his memory in the church. The inscription concludes with the verse — " The memory 
of the just is blessed." Dr. Pegge states (Collectiona, vol. v., f. 198) that Goodread 
was suspended on the 14th of Jiuy, 1696, on articles presented by the churchwardens 
and parishioners ; but that on tne 29th of the same month, at the request of Sir 
WiUiam Boothby and others, and on a bond of Goodread's to repair his houses, and 
on his promise not to be seen in any public house at Ashboum or Mapleton, his sus- 
pension was removed. 



400 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

he would not have done if he had been Popishly incUned. John 
Marriott deposed, that he had known Hand for twenty years, that 
about the latter end of Charles II.'s reign, he found him **in his 
own house with a case of pistols in his hands, who then asked him 
what he intended to doe, and hee answered he believed he should 
have occasion to use them against the papists, and that there 
would be occasion both for the deponent and himselfe to goe 
against them, and the said Mr. Hand did not read the late King 
James* declaration, but is a very good and charitable person." 

On the other hand, the defendants brought witnesses to support 
Sir Philip G-ell's statement George Milward deposed that, in July, 
1687, he had heard Hand say, at Sir Philip Gell's table, that he 
had been at mass at the King's chapel, in London, and '* had 
kneeled there untill his knees were soare, and that if there were 
any life in Christianity t'was in the Bomish Beligion, or it seemed 
to bee among the Papists, and if the King commanded him to read 
mass he should not scruple to doe itt, and unsultingly de- 
clared he believed the King would in a short time bring others 
to a like compliance.*' This statement was supported by several 
witnesses. Elizabeth Jackson heard Hand say in an alehouse in 
Hognaston, words to the like effect, adding that ** if *t was possible 
for him to gett a horse to carry him to London once a day he 
would goe to mass every day, and if the King should command 
him he would read mass in Hognaston church where he was then 
Minister." He was also accused of specific instances of drunken- 
ness and debauchery. 

The names of the holders of the lectureship, previous to this 
dispute, were as follows, being given in the order of their appoint- 
ment — Messrs. Hieron, Loundes, Machion, Tomhnson, Kelsall, Mer- 
cer, and Leeke. 



There was anciently a private chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, 
attached to Ashboum Hall. Sir John Cokayne, who died in 1477, 
charged his manor of Budsley Endsor, Warwickshire, with seven 
marks a year to be paid annually to a priest at this chapel, for 
singing masses for his soul and for the souls of his family.* Th is 
chapel stood near the Hall gates. It had long been secularised, 
and for many years used as a malthouse, but was finally taken 
down by Sir Brooke Boothby about the year 1785. 

• Dugdale'B WartpicJahiref p. 809. 



ASHBOURN. 401 

At the village of Clifton, about a mile-and-a-half to the south- 
west of Ashboum, there was a chapel, also dedicated to St. Mary. 
It seems to have fallen into disuse after the Reformation. The 
chapel-yard, valued at ten shillings per annimi, was given, as we 
have already seen, to the Vicar of Ashboum in the seventeenth 
century. In 1760, the chapel was pulled down, and much of the 
material used in the repair of the chancel of the mother church. 
The present church of Clifton, built in 1845, was erected on the 
site of the ancient chapel. 



In 1240, as has been already stated, there were six chapelries 
of Ashbourn — Kniveton, Mappleton, Thorpe, Bentley, Bradley, and 
Edlaston, in addition to three which were of more dependent nature, 
and might be termed chapels-of-ease — Parwich, Alsop, and Hognas- 
ton. All of these, except Alsop and Parwich, speedily attained to 
a greater or less degree of independence, and will be treated of 
under their own heads. Bradley and Edlaston, not being in 
Wirksworth Hundred, will be described in our next volimie. It 
remains then, under the head of Ashboum, to give a brief account 
of Alsop, Parwich, and the domestic chapelry of Hulland. 



2d 



402 DEBBYSHIBE CHUBCHES. 



^t Ci^apelYs of &lnop^in^1^t^Sait. 




|T the time of the Domesday Survey, Elleshope suid Eitu» 
(AlBop and Cold Eaton), were berewicks to the manor of 
Parwich. Alsop, as part of the crown demesnes, was 
granted to William do Ferrers, Earl of Derby, who, in the reign 
of John, granted the manor to Gweno, son of Gamel de Alsop. 
This family held it for seventeen generations, when it was sold by 
Anthony Alsop, in 1688, to Sir Phihp GelL The Beresfords af[;er> 
wards held the manor, and thence it passed by marriage to the 
Milwards. The subsequent changes of ownership have been very 
frequeni 

John Alsop, lord of this manor, great-grandfather of Anthony, 
the last owner, has obtained some celebrity for giving hospitality 
to Becon, the Eeformcr, when he was secldng obscurity in the days 
of Queen Mary. 

Thomas Becon, who was bom about the year 1511, was ordained 
in 1688, and shortly after obtained preferment in Kent. But his 
outspoken writings soon brought him into trouble, and he was 
deprived of his benefice. He then thought it prudent to travel, 
and try to obtain pupils amongst the provincial gentry, and, in the 
course of his wanderings, hghted on Alsop-in-the-Dale, where he 
tarried about a year. Many incidents of his life are detailed in 
Tha Jewel of Joy, a lengthy reUgious dialogue, dedicated to the 
Princess (afterwards Queen) Elizabeth. The dramatis personce of 
this treatise are Philemon, Eusebius, Theophile, and Christopher ; 
Philemon being the pseudonym under which his own personality 
was veiled: — 

'* Ohria. : You have not declared to nn in what counties ye have been here in 
England, since yonr departure from hence. 

" Phil. : After I departed from you, and had taken my leave of my most Bwoet 
mother, and of my other dear friends, I travelled into Derbyshire, and from thaaoe 
into the Peak, whither I appointed my books and my clothes to be brought 



ALSOP-IN-THE-DALE* 403 

**Bu$, : Into the Peak? Lord God, ^ehat made yea there? That is a mar- 
veUooB and a barren county, and^ as it is thought, such a country that neither 
hath learning, nor yet no spark of godliness. 

^ Phil. : Mine intent was, by exercising the office of a schoolmaster, to engraft 
Christ and the knowledge of Him in the breasts of those scholars whom God 
should appoint unto me for to be taught. 

*' Theo» : I think you found there very peakish people. 

'' PhiL : Not so ; I confess to you that I found there very good wits, and apt 
onto learning. 

" Chris, : But how favour they Christian religion in those parts ? 

" P?Ul. : I will toll you. Coming into a little village, called Alsop-in-the-Bale, 
I chanced upon a certain gentleman called Alsop, lord of the village, a man not 
only ancient in years, but also ripe in the knowledge of Christ's doctrine. After 
we had saluted one another, and taken a sufficient repast for that present, he 
shewed me certain books which he called his jewels and principal treasures. 

" Eu8. : I pray you, what books were they? 

" Phil. : To rehearse them all by name I am not able ; but of this am I sure 
(hat, among all other, there was the new testament, after the translation of the 
godly learned man Myles Coverdale, which seemed to be as well worn by the 
diligent reading thereof as ever was any portass or mass-book among the papists. 

** ChrU. : A rare thing and almost a miracle to find an old man, namely in 
those parts, where Christ, I think, as yet was never truly preached, to be so well 
affectod toward the reading of the sacred scriptures 

**Phil. : 1 remember right well that he had many other godly books, as, 'The 
Obedience of a Christian Man,' 'The Parable of the Wicked Mammon,' 'The 
Revelation of Anti-christ,! * The Sum of Holy Scripture,' * The Book of John 
Frith against Purgatory," all the books published in the name of Thomas Becon, 
with divers other learned men's works. In these godly treatises this ancient 
gentleman among the mountains and rocks occupied himself both diligently and 
virtuously. 

" Chris, : I would not lightly have believed that such a man could have been 
found in so barbarous and rude a country, nor that so fruitful works had been 
placed in so unlearned a region. . , 

" Eu8. : Truth it is ; but to return unto the Peak, of what sort, I pray you, 
are the people concerning Christian religion? 

'^Phil. : When I was there, all their religion consisted in hearing matins and 
mass, in superstitious worshipping of saints, in hiring soul-carriers to sing tren- 
tals; in pattering upon beads, and in such other popish pedlary .... While 
I was in the Peak, I learned that B. Wisdom was in Staffordshire. Desiring 
greatly to see hiim I bade my friends in the Peak farewell, and mfibde haste 
toward him. • . . . . 

'* Eua. : How savoured the people Christ and 'His doctrine in those parts (Staf- 
fordshire), when you were there? 

** Phil. : Not altogether unlike the people of the Peak, but that they were not 
in all points so commonly superstitious ; they savoured somewhat more of pure 
religion. This, I think, came to pass through certain English books that were 
among them, and through travellers to and from Loudon."* 

The chapel of Alsop-in-the-Dale, from tlie date of its first foun- 
dation in the twelfth century, down to comparatively recent times, 
was a dependency of the mother church of Ashboum. It is men- 
tioned in the Charters of 1240 and 1290, by which the endowment 
of the Vicarage of Ashboum was settled, and the Vicar was bound 

• Becon's Works, Parker's Society Publications. We are not aware that these 
extracts have ever yet appeared in any book of Derbyshire topography ; and as 
they relate to the religious feelings of the inhabitants at a most interesting epoch in 
our history, we may, perhaps, be excused for introducing them into a work on the 
Churches of the coimty. 



404 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

to find a fit chaplain to serve it. In post-Beformation days it at- 
tained to the dignity of a parochial chapelry, and the appointment 
of the minister became vested in the freeholders in consequence of 
their augmenting the stipend. 

The inventory of church goods, taken in the reign of Edward 
VI., gives the following brief list of the goods at Alsop : — ** All- 
Boppe in LedaUc, Asheboume parishe. Laur. Howrobyn Vicar, j 
chalice with a paten — iij vestments — ^j albe — j amyse — ij bells — 
j hanbell — ^j sacrying bell — ^j awlter clothe — ^j surples — j censer — j 
corporas.'* 

The Parliamentary Commissioners of 1650, as we have already 
seen, recommended the disuse of this chapel, and its being united 
to Pai-wich. 

This little chapel, dedicated to St. Iklichael, is another instance 
of an early Norman foundation. Mr. Eawlins gives its dimensions 
as — nave, tliii-ty-two feet one inch, by fifteen feet ten inches ; and 
the chancel as twenty feet four inches, by the same width as the 
nave. The frequency of chapels and churches, all showing traces 
of twelfth or, j)crhaps, of late eleventh century work, in this particu- 
lar part of Derbyshire is remarkable, and points to the compara- 
tively large population that once inhabited it, at a time when* its 
mineral resources were being first developed. It is a small build- 
ing, consisting Tjimply of a nave and chancel, and a bell- turret at 
the west end. The most interesting feature is the Norman doorway 
on the south side. The jambs are not ornamented in any way, but 
round the head of the doorway is an effective and xmusual mould- 
ing, consisting as it were, of two rows of the chevron or zigzag 
moulding, placed face to face, and producmg an effect like that of 
the dog-tooth pattern of a later style. The windows, like those of 
Parwich, are for the most part mere square-headed openings of the 
debased or ** Churchwarden " era, but in the south wall by the 
pulpit is a small Norman window, and the remains of another on 
the same side at the west end. The archway into the chancel is 
pointed, but the jambs appear to be of plain Norman construction. 
To the same x)eriod belongs the font, which is circular in shape, 
tapering slightly towards the base, and two feet four inches in dia- 
meter across the top. In the chancel wall is a small piscina, in a 
pointed niche fourteen inches high, but the niche is arched in such 
a rude manner that this detail, also, may be part of the original 
structure. The chapel has now a fiat plaster ceiling, but the old 
stone corbels of the first roof show below in the nave. The walls 



ALSOP-IN-THE-DALE. 405 

are very massive for the size of the building, being about three feet 
thick throughout, and are probably in much the same condition as 
when first erected, except where they have been cut away to admit 
of the insertion of later windows. On the north side are two of 
these late windows, one above the other, and on the slab that sup- 
ports the masonry above the lower one, may be noted the x^arallel 
lines of the stem of an incised cross ; so that here, as well as at 
Parwich, and in many other Derbyshire churches which we have 
described, the architect of a more recent date has not hesitated to 
avail himself of the conveniently-shaped sepulchral stones of the 
earlier population. The pews on ihe north side of the church are 
marked with a monogram of the initials C. P., and the date 1703. 

There are several small mural monuments, but none of an earher 
date than last century. 

The solitary bell in the turret has no inscription or bell-founder's 
mark. 

The registers only date from the year 1701. 



406 DEBBT8HIBE CHUBCHES. 



^t Cliapeli;^ of ^axfDie^. 




ARWICH (the Pevrewic of the Domesday Survey) was ori- 
ginally a Chapelry of Ashboum. The manor, which 
formed a portion of the ancient crown lands, passed with 
Ashboum to the Earls of Derby, and to Edward, Earl of Lan- 
caster. It was conveyed to the Cokaynes in the reign of Edward 
III., with whom it remained till the commencement of the seven- 
teenth century, when it was conveyed to Thomas Levinge, from 
whose family it was purchased in 1814 by Thomas Evans, of 
Allestree.* 

In the post-Beformation days, the appointment of the minister 
seems generally to have rested with the lord of the manor, but in 
early times it was undoubtedly in the hands of the Vicar of Ash- 
boum. The first definite mention that we have found of the 
chapel of Parwich occurs in the Endowment Charter of the Vicarage 
of Ashbourn, made in 1240, wherein it is stipulated that the vicar 
is to supply a fit chaplain for Parwich.t There are numerous 
early charters still extant at Lincoln, relative to lands and tithes 
at Parwich, which formed part of the possessions of the Dean and 
Chapter of that city in connection with the rectorial manor of 

Ashboum.J 

When the inventory of Church goods was taken in the reign of 
Edward VL, Parwich was visited on the 19th September, and the 



• Inq. post Mort., 26 Edw. I., No. 61 ; 16 Hen. VI., No. 40, etc., etc. Certam lands 
vere also lield in Parwich by the families of Sutton, Segrave, and Foljambe. See 
Inq. post Mort., 16 Edw. I., No. 8 ; 33 Edw. I., No. 66 ; 19 Edw. n., No. 91 ; Rot. 
Orig., 18 Edw. III., No. 38. 

t Add. MSS., 6,671, ff. 566 to 576. 

t These are to be found in an ancient Lincoln Chartulary relating to the chapter 
estates, flf. 62—70. 



PARWICH. 407 

following report drawn up : — " Parwyche. Thomas Underwood, 
curat. A chalis wyth ye paten — ^ij vestments, j ys grene silke, ye 
odur broken sylke — ij albs with their amyssis — j corporas — ^ij towells 
ij bells — ^j payx of tyn — j coupe of yelow sylke — j surples — j hand 
bell — iij banner clothes — ^j cruyt — j crosse of wood and plate — j 
holly water pott of bras.** 

At the diocesan registry at Lichfield is preserved the will of 
Thomas Levinge of Parwich, dated 15th January, 1689. He directs 
that he is " to be buried in the chancell att Parwich as neere unto 
my late deere wife as convenient may be.'* It is a lengthy and 
curious document ; and the following extract relative to an increase 
in the very insufficient salary of the minister may be of interest : — 
** And whereas I am lawfully possessed of all the Tythes and Tenths 
of Parwich, Cold Eaton, and Alsop-in-the-Dale, together with some 
glebe, and Easter Dole, oblacions, abvencions, and convencions 
(except wool and lambe) for diverse years yet to come and unex- 
pired, if Edward and William, the sonns of Michael Jesson de- 
ceased, or either of them shall live, yeilding unto them £18 yearly, 
and towards the maintenance of a minister at Parwich £6 186. 4d., 
which is neere the full valew of the same — ^yet in respect that it is 
a very small maintenance for a minister, and I have often laboured 
with my neighbours that they should have joined mee in the aug- 
mentation of the same, which they have refused to do, and whereas 
there is yearly paid 14s. 2d. for tyth hay which I conceive to be 
onely for the Antient Math meadows, and my neighbovrs and I 
having made many several incomes of the Common fields for 
which no tyth hay is paid neither are they willing to pay any for 
the same, whereas I consieve wee do wrong, I do therefore give 
and bestow toward the better maintaining of a minister there in 
lieu of such tyth hay as I ought to pay the said 14s. 2d. yearly, 
and all such Tyth hay as is or shall be dew unto mee in Parwich 
during all such tearme as I have therein, humbly praying the 
Rt. Revd. Father in God, the Lord Bishop of this Diocese that 
now is, and his Chancellor, and their successyrs, that they will be 
pleased to take the same into their due consideration, and from 
time to time place there an honest discreet preacher, that there 
may be dehvered the word of God amongst them who have great 
aeed thereof, and also to take such order for the maintenance of a 
minister from time to time as they shall think fitt — Provided 
always that when my neighbours of Parwich shall be constrained 



408 DERBYSHIBE CHURCHES. 

to allow and shall yearly pay 2s. for every oxgange towards the 
maintenance of a minister there, that so long my gift of Tyth hay 
shall only cease/* * 

At the time that the Inquisition into the state of the benefices 
was undertaken by Parliament in 1650, the following report was 
made by the Commissioners sitting at Ashbome on 10th June of 
that year : — ** Parwich is a parochiall chapell fouro myles distant 
from Ashbume, the farmers of the Rectoryes of Ashbume and 
Wirksworth under the Deane of Lincolne have usually procured 
the cure supplycd, the salarye payed hath becne six pounds thirteene 
shillings and foure pence per annum, the place wyde." The Com- 
missioners recommended that Alsop should be united to Parwich, 
the latter being made a parish church. 

Bassano visited this church in 1707, but found no heraldic dis- 
play or ancient monuments to chronicle. He contents himseK with 
mentioning, at the east end of the north aisle, a monument to 
WiUiam Beresford, 1699, in ** Buckley's Quire,'' and that "the 
present Dean of Lincoln is charitably inclyned to ye curate of Par- 
wich to ye sume of £G 6s. 8d. per annum out of ye tythes." 

William Beresford left certain lands in Parwich, the rents of 
which were to be used " for the performance of Divine Service and 
preaching one or more sermons in the church of Parwich, accord- 
ing to the Protestant religion, with certain stipulations as to how 
the x^roceeds should be appHed if any other religion, other than 
the Protestant religion, should be established or exercised in the 
Parish Chtu'ch.t 

The old church of Parwich, much of which had stood the wear 
and tear of more than seven centuries, was pulled down in 1872 
to make way for a more commodious structure erected on the same 
site. Fortunately, we had taken some rough notes of this building 
in the previous year, which enable us to give a brief description 
of the church as it formerly existed. The church, which was of 

* Add. MSS., 6G71, f. 261, wherie there is a fnU transcript of this vriH. The 
document abounds in curious particulars; e.g. **Two poor women to occupy two 
little houses in Linchiffe croft and to receive on Ist of every mouth one gallon of 
oatmeole by the measure now used in Ashbome." Amongst tiie numerous bequests, 
he leaves to his son his armour, " tlio armour to remain in my house as heire loomes 
unlesse it shall please God that there shaU be occasion to use any of it in the defence 
of the Kingdome;" to Mrs. Ajin Cokayne, widow, " a watch wliich was my old Lady 
Cokaynes, and to her worthy sonne Mr. Aston Cokayne a Scarlett nightcapp laced 
down with gold lace;" and to his nephew, Simon Feckc, parson of Grindon, ne left 
'* f ortie shillings in gold and a paire of whito lonpr gloves faced with changeable Taf- 
fata, and I do desire him to preach at my buriall at Parwich, and at his convenient 
leasure after at Ashbome ana All Hallowes in Derbie." 

t Oharity OommUsionera* Beports, vol. xix., p. 75. 



PAEWICH. 409 

very limited size, was dedicated to St Peter, and consisted of a 
nave with a north aisle, a south porch, chancel, and low tower at 
the west end. Its dimensions, as given by Mr. Bawlins, were as 
follows : — ^Nave, thirty-six feet eight inches by nineteen feet ten 
inches ; north aisle, thirty- seven feet by eight feet ; and chancel, 
seventeen feet eight inches by fifteen feet four inches. The edifice 
was thickly shrouded in ivy, or, otherwise, the late square windows 
and generally debased style of the exterior, would not havo 
redeemed it from the charge of ugliness. Entrance was gained 
through a clumsy south porch of last century design, surmounted 
by a square mural sundial ; but the porch covered a good Norman 
doorway of effective design. The archway into the chancel was 
also Norman, ornamented with the chevron or zigzag mouldings, 
the jamb shafts having their capitals carved in the cable pattern. 
The two rounded arches that separated the north aisle from, the 
chancel, were also of this period. The only sign of antiquity on 
the exterior, was the row of small, quaintly-carved corbel heads 
under the eaves of the chancel, ten on each side, though those on 
the north sido were nearly hidden by the ivy. All the windows 
were of the debased style that succeeded to the Perpendicular, and 
need no comment ; and the south side of the church was rendered 
still more uncouth by an exterior staircase biiilt against the wall, 
which led by a doorway into the gallery. The tower, too, had 
been similarly spoiled at a comparatively modem date, and the 
summit was crowned with a plain parapet and four equally plain 
pinnacles. 

Of the objects of interest inside the church we noticed two 
pointed niches in the north wall of the chancel, utihscd as cup- 
boards; and a sepulchral incised slab, that had been built in at 
the top of the west window of the north aisle, ornamented with a 
cross fleury and a sword.* The font, too, is somewhat remarkable, 
being a Norman one of a very unusual shape. The stone itself is 
two feet six inches in depth, and two feet three inches in diameter 
across the top, where it is quite circular ; but, after some twelve 
inches of this dimension, it tapers down and is divided into sixteen 
sides or surfaces. The stone is not pierced through the centre of 
the base according to the usual practice, but a spout comes out 
at the side, just where it begins to taper. On the font is the date 

* This slab was engraved in Lysons' Magna Britianica, and also on a smaUer scale 
in Bateman's AnHquitie$. 



410 DEBBTSmBE CHUBCHES. 

1662, which was probably carved on it to commemorate its restora- 
tion to the church, from which it had doubtless been ejected durmg 
the Commonwealth. 

Besides the large incised slab just mentioned, two smaller ones 
of a similar description, about two feet six inches by one foot, 
were found in the masonry when the church was pulled down, and 
fitigments of several others. A piece of a churchyard head-stone, 
with a cross incised, was also found at the same time, and is of 
interest, as crosses of that description are so rarely met with. It 
closely resembles one in the Bakewdl collection. These various 
incised slabs point to an extensive sepulture here at an early date, 
and are all of them at least coeval with the oldest portions of the 
late structure, in the first half of the twelfth century. But the 
most interesting discovery was in connection with the tympanum, 
or semi-circular stone, that filled up the upper half of the north 
doorway (Plate XIX.) This had been so coated with plaster and 
whitewash that it presented a plain surface, but, upon being 
cleansed, was foupd to be covered with rudely incised grotesque 
figures, after the fashion of these on stones in a similar position 
at Hault-Hucknall, Hognaston, and other churches of the county, 
or like those on the font at the adjacent church of Tissington. 
The centre figure is intended for a stag with branching horns; to 
the left a horse with a cross having a circular head in front of it ; 
to the right a wolf with a strangely foliating tail; in the upper por- 
tion a boar, and a bird with a long beak; and at the base two 
serpents with intertwined heads. 

It should be mentioned that the old north doorway and chancel 
arch have been happily preserved in the tower of the new building. 

There is one bell, inscribed ** Smith and Co., Chesterfield, 1804," 
and on the sound bow the initials B. T. rudely scratched. 

The first legible entry in the Parwich registers is under the 
year 1640, 



HULLAND. 411 



^t ^omtMit Cliapeirs ^' ?^unanti. 




|EE ancient family of BradborneB, of Bxadboum or Brad- 
borne, held lands at Hulland, a small township four 
miles to the east of Ashboum, for upwards of three 
centuries. In 1296, when Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, died seized 
of this manor of Hulland, the Bradbornes were one of three famihes 
who held freehold estates there under him.* 

About the year 1468 (some years before the founding of their 
Ashbourn chantry), John and Anne Bradbome obtained leave from 
Edward lY. to found a chantry at the chapel attached to the 
manor house of Hough or Hulland. It has usually been assumed 
that this was the first foundation of a chapel at Hulland, but we 
are able to prove from ancient documents at Lincoln, that a chapel 
existed more than two centuries before that date. In the reign 
of Henry III., Sir Eobert de Esseburn (Ashbourn) obtained leave 
from Eoger, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, and from Henry, 
Dean of Lincoln (as Eector of Ashbourn), to establish a chantry 
**{n manerio meo de ffolendo"f The precise way in which Sir 
Bobert de Esseburn held this manor, we have not been able to 
ascertain, but from other documents at Lincoln, we learn that he 
also held the manors of Kniveton and Newbiggin, and probably 
that of Ashbourn itself under the Earl of Lancaster. On the 
granting of a charter to the town of Uttoxeter, 86 Henry III., 
Eobert de Esseburn was a principal witness, and either this same 
Eobert, or an immediate descendant of the same name, represented 
the county of Derby in three several Parhaments of Edward I.J 

• Inq. post Mort., 25 Edw. I., No. 61. 

t Cliart. Decani, f. 20. This is the Chartnlary of Lincoln Cha;pfcer that relates to 
the possessions of that body in Derbyshire. The date of this particular deed is not 

S'ven, but it can be put down approximately at 1250; for Henry de Lexington was 
ean from 1245 to 1253, and Boger Wexham was Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield 
from 1245 to 1258. 

I Aakboum and the ValUy of Dove, p. 88. For further partioolars relative to 
Booert de Stssebom, see the Handred BoUs, temp. Edw. I. 



412 DEBBTSHIEE CHURCHES. 

The Valor Ecclenasticua (27 Henry VIII.), gives the name of the 
chaplain at Hnlland as Thomas Parker, and describes the chantry 
as possessed of lands and tenements to the yearly value of 100 
shillings. 

The following are the particulars relative to this chantry as 
given in the Chantry Roll, which was drawn up some ten years 
after the Valor : — 

Chantre of Howghe. Founded by Jo. Bradbome and Anne; for a pi3rste to 
saye Masse and Godd's service within the manor place of Howgh distannte iij 
myles from the parisshe church, f oundacon dated A^. iii Regis Bicardi III ; Clere 
Talue dxs. xi<2. whereof iij«. iiij^. for a yerely obit. Sir Thos. Parker Chauntry 
Pryste. It is iij mills from the Parisshe churche and there comyth to yt Ix 
howselynge peoi^le. There is a maucyon howse and lyttell croft of the yerely 
rente of y«. There is no chales nor other omamente otherwisse than Sir Humfrey 
Bradbome dothe lend unto the incumbent sayeing service in his house. 

The following indenture, dated 1st of April, 1480; that is seven- 
teen years after the foundation of the Bradborne chantry at 
Hulland, contains so many particulars relative to it, that we make 
no excuse for reproducing it in extemo: — 

Indenture between John Bradburue of Hoghe, Co. Derby, Esq. and Ann, his 
wife of the one part, and Sir Nicholas Longford, Knt., Henry Vernon, Esq., 
Nicholas Montgomery, Esq., John Cokayn, Esq., Bichard Enyyeton, Esq., John 
Fitzherbert, son and heir apparent of Bauil Fitz Herbert of Norbury, Baufl Oke- 
over, son and heir apparent of Philip Okcover, John Eniveton of IJnderwoode« 
Humphrey Okeover, son and heir apparent of the said Banff Okeover, Bobert 
Bradshawe of Wyndeley, Sir Henry Prynce, parson of the Church of Norbury, and 
John Northamx)tou, vicar of the Church of .Asshebume, feoffees in certain landa 
&o. to the use of said John and Anne*— Wituesseth that John and Anne at the 
desire &c. of Anne have caused Sir Nicholas &c. to be enfeoffed of a messuaga 
and 8 oxgangs of land in Lytteel Bradbume and of aU other lands &c, which 
were some time_of John de Pole of Hertynton, in the town &c. of Lytteel Brad- 
bume and of anr messe and 2 oxgangs of laud in Lytteel Bradbume and of cer- 
tain lands in Kirk Iretou Newbigging and Boylston, Co. Derb. and of a tenement 
and close in Bigging and of a messe and a croft there, And had surrendered to 
the feoffees in the King's Courts of Duffield and Wirksworth Copyhold estates in 
Eirk Ireton and Bel|)er to the uses after mentioned said John and Anne charge 
the feoffees that conable preest be kept and had to say divine service in the 
Chapel of our lady edi&ed in the Manor of Hoghe in Co. Derb. abovesaid to pray 
for the good estate of said John and Anne while living, and for their souls when 
dead, and also for the souls of Henry Bradbume and Margery his wife,* father 
and mother of said John, And also for the souls of Sir Bichard Vemon, Knt. and 
Dame Bennet his wife, father and mother of s' Anne, and for the soul of Boger 
Vemon, brother of said Ann to whom 'she was executrix, and by whose gooda 
part of said lands were purchased. And for the good estate of Humphrey Brad- 
bume, son and h' of said John and Anne, and of Margaret, wife of said Hum- 
phrey daughter to Sir Nicholas Longford and sister to Sir Nicholas Longford, 
Knt. that now is and for their souls when dead, and for the good estate of Banff 
Okeover, son and heir apparent of Philip Okeover, and of Ann wife of said Banff 
eldest daughter of said John Bradbume and Anne, and of IsabeU Bradbume 
second daughter of said John and Anne, and for her husband as God wiU pro- 

* Margery was the daughter of Sir John Baggott, of Blithefleld, Staffordsiure. 



HOLLAND. 413 

vidoi* and of John Fitzherbert son and heir apparent of Baafl Fitzherbert of 
Norbnry, and of Bennet his wife 8rd daughter of said John Bradbnme and Ann, 
and for their sonls when dead, and for the sonls of all the children of said John 
Bradbome and Sir Bichard Vcmon^and for all the souls of the feoffees when dead 
and for their good estate while living. And the said John Bradbum and Ann 
willed that the priest should have all the profits of said lands, and the priest was 
not to be otherwise attendant on the inheritor of the Hoghe for the time being, 
but only in divine service, and that he be resident as a Vicar in his vicarage in a 
tenement in Holland, late in the holduig of Henry Harper, and after of Tho. Key, 
and he was to perform daily service according to the ordinale so that he say his 
ma6s_ in said chapel at Hoghe, and to say on every week pladbo dirge et 
connendacion of Jieqem, and on the friday mass of Hiu and sometime of the 
Cross, Aud daily at his mass, or (ere) he go to his lavatory after the gospel, to 
say in open voice for the souls of John Bradbume aud Anne his wife founders of 
the mass and all Xten souls De profundis with the Collect Incline t£c, ut dnima$ 
famulor' tuor' fundator'; and the Chapel was to be repaired at the charge of the 
heirs of the inheritance of Hoghe, and the prieste was to do no injury to the 
parish church of Asshebume in Offerings or otherwise. And after the decease of 
John and Anne the Leir of the house of Hoghe and the Vicar of Asshebume to- 
gether should have the nomination of the Chaplain, but if they disagreed the 
Abbat of Darley was to have the appointment and the priest was to make an 
Obit at his own Co&t in the church of Ashbnme on the day of the death of said 
John B. the said obit to be done by the Vicar of Ashbume, the said priest and 
the priests and clerks of Ashbume, &c.\ 

Li 1594, the Bradbornes sold their estate and residence (includ- 
ing the chapel) to Sir Humphrey Ferrers, and it subsequently 
passed to the family of Borrow. 

There are now no remains of the chapel. It seems that it was 
not destroyed at the Beformation, but used occasionally, even as 
late as last century^ as a chapel-of-ease to the mother church of 
Ashboum. 

La Wolley*s MS. History of Derbyshire, written about 1712, it is 
stated, that there is at Hulland ''a piece of ground moated about 
in Mr, Burrows grounds, which was said to be y* scite of a house 
of Sir Humphrey Bradboume. It now mostly belongs to Isaac 
Burrow Esq. of Derby, whose father John Burrow bought it, . . . 
Here is a chappel of ease, but little used."| 

The precise time at which this chapel was demohshed is not 
known, but it is beheved to have taken place prior to 1750. A 
new district church, dedicated to Christ, was erected here in 1887. 

• Isabel, the second daughter, subsequently married Hugh Willoughby, of Risley. 
Some pedigrees make out that another aaughtor, variously termed Isabel and Agnes, 
married John Okeover ; if so he must have been a brother of Ralph Okeover, but 
we believe that it is a confusion with the match of the eldest daughter, Anne. There 
was, undoubtedly, a fourth daughter, Beatrice, not mentioned in this document, who 
married Henry Columbell, of Darley. See Harl. MSS., 1,687, f . 4 ; Add. MSS., 28,118 ; 
Pegge's CoUectionSy vol. vi., f. 114, etc. 

t Add. MSS., 6,671, f. 63. 

I From the original copy at the College of Arms. 



' 



lonsall 



J 



^onsalK 




ONSALL (Buntesbale) was not a distinctive manor at the 
time of the Domesday Survey, being a hamlet of the 
royal manor of Mestesforde. There is no mention of a 
chnrch either here or at Matlock, and it seems probable that at 
that time the minster for the whole of this district was the ancient 
church of Wirksworth. Shorly after the incursion of the Normans, 
as the lead trade developed, and this neighbourhood became more 
populous, various other churches were built, Bonsall probably being 
amongst the number. But the first distinctive mention that we 
have met with of the church of Bonsall is in the Taxation Boll 
taken by order of Pope Nicholas IV., of the year 1291, when the 
rectory of Bonsall (Bondeshale) is described as being worth £10 per 
annum. We have also found this church mentioned in a manu- 
script account of the possession of the Deanery of Lincoln, taken 
a few years later. The rectory of Wirksworth had been given to 
the church of Lincoln by Henry L, and the advowsons of the 
adjacent churches, which were to a certain extent tributary to 
Wirksworth, appear to have passed into the same hands. Li 1810 
the patronage of the church of Bonsall (Bondesdale) was in the 
hands of the Dean of Lincoln, as rector of Wirksworth, to whom 
also it paid a pension of five shillings a year. A similar sum is 
also mentioned as being paid in the year 1326, when Anthony 
Beck, who had just been appointed to the Deanery, caused an in- 
ventory of his official property to be taken. * The patronage 
remained in the hands of the Dean of Lincoln until recent legis- 
lation transferred it to the Bishop of Lichfield. 

* Pegge's Collectionfi, yoI. v., ff. 196, 198. There is also an original document 
amongst the WoUej MSS., of the reign of Henry VI., giving an acoonnt of the 
Derbyshire possessions of the Dean oi Lincoln, in which the pension of 68. from 
Bonsall is also mentioned; Add. MSS., 6666, f. 476. 

t Lichfield Episcopal Registers, vol. iv., f . 34. 

2e 



418 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

But it seems that the Dean and Chapter of Lincobi occasionally 
made merchandise of this living, even as early as the fourteenth 
century; for» in 1861, Nicholas Bassett was instituted to the rectory 
of Bonsall on the presentation of John de Strelley, who had 
probably purchased the presentation for that turn. 

That this benefice shared in the peculiarity attaching to the 
Derbyshire livings in the patronage of Lincoln — rapid changes in 
incumbents — is evident from the institutions to Bonsall recorded in 
the episcopal registers. Thus in 1876, the living of Bonsall was 
exchanged with that of Blontsham (Lincoln), in 1378, for Grants- 
den (Ely), in 1879, for Woodham Water (Essex), and in 1881, for 
Buddesden (Rochester).* Changes were also very frequent in the 
fifteenth century. 

According to the Valor Ecclesiastums (27 Henry VIII.), the rec- 
tory of BonsaU was worth iBlO 8s. 8d. per annum. The rector at 
that time was Thomas Lylliton. An annual pension of 7s. 7d. was 
due to the Dean of Lincoln. Lylliton was a pluralist, for, accord- 
ing to the same return, he also held the rectory of Matlock. Plu- 
ralities were rather the rule than the exception in those days. In 
1658, William Inskip, who held the distant rectory of Clown in 
this county from 1628 to 1582, was instituted to the rectory of 
Bon8all.t 

The inventory of Church goods, taken in the first year of 
Edward VI., has the following entry relative to Bonsall: — "Boun- 
tisall — Sept. 80, j chalez with ye paten — ^j albis with iiij copes per- 
teynying to hyt — ij towells — ij auter cloths — iij small bells — ^j sanctus 
bell — iij bells in stepull — ye holy water tunicle — j crosse of brasse 
overgyld — ij vestements, on for a deykun, and anoder for subdecon, 
all be in ye kepying of on Jhon Nauton — ij candelsticks with a 
sylver spone — j candylstycke of yrne afore ye sepulchre. The same 
Jhon Nauton dyd come on Sunday last and dyd take from ye 
tabull ij corporas with the case violent in so much as yesterday ye 
persons dyd not minister for lacke of them, the Comunion boke 
was takyn away yyolenter by Henre Bowne.** 

The Parliamentary Survey of Livings, made in 1660, says of 
Bonsall: — *'It is a parsonage really worth ffoure score pounds per 
annum, noe chappell apperteyning. Mr. Edward Pole is Incumbent, 
a man able and of good conversason.'* 

* Lichfield Episcopal Registers, vol. iv.. £f. 43, 44, 44b, 45. 

t Lichfield Episcoj^al Begisters, vol. xv. There is an aocoont of William Inskip's 
monnment at Clown m Churches of Derbyshire, vol. i., p. 196. 



BONSALL. 419 

The church, which is dedicated to St. James, consists of chancel, 
nave with north and south aisles, south porch, and tower sur- 
mounted by a spire at the west end. The building is now in good 
repair and admirable condition throughout, having been restored 
about thirteen years ago from a grievous state of decay. Over the 
doorway within the porch is a stone upon which are incised the " 
following particulars : — 

" This church was re-opened for divine service by the Right Revd. the Lord 
Bishop of the Diocese, August 4th, 1863, having been restored and enlarged by 
pnbUo subscription for the sum of iB1627 18s. 7d. At the same time the chancel 
was restored by the rector at a cost of JL'S40 18s. 6d. inclusive of allowance for 
dilapidation ; total cost, £1968 12s. Id. The pulpit was given by Robert Clay, 
Esq., the reading desk and Communion table by the Revd. Samuel Prince, the 
chairs by the Revd. G. Bagot, M.A., the Clock by Mrs. Elizabeth Ashworth. 

"Evan Christian, Esq., Architect. 
«* William Francis I ^ 
"Solomon Fox j Contractors. 

"Rev. Isaac Bickerstaff, B.D. Rector. 

** J. Broxup Coates, Esq. i ^, , 

- R. Clay, Esq. j Churchwardens." 

It appears that every care was taken during this restoration to 
preserve as much as possible of the old fabric, and the general 
features of the church are the same as they have been for upwards 
of five centuries. The enlargement was carried out by lengthening 
the aisles at the west end, so that they are now continued almost 
square with the west wall of the tower. We have been favoured 
with a sight of a sketch of the church previous to the alterations, 
in the possession of Mr. Coates, which gives a good idea of certain 
of the debased modern windows that then disfigured the building, 
such as those at the east end of the south aisle. This sketch also 
shows that there was foiTierlv an exterior staircase on the south 
side to reach one of the galleries which blocked up the interior. 

If a church was erected here during the years when the Norman 
style prevailed, there are now no traces of it, though illustrations 
may be found of all the subsequent styles. There was undoubtedly 
a church here in the Early English period, during the first half of 
the thirteenth century, as is shown by the pillars which separate 
the south aisle from the nave. These pillars are formed, as it were, 
of four columns grouped together, and the capitals are ornamented 
with cable moulding. The bases are peculiar, and raised consider- 
ably above the level of the present floor. The lower part of the 
base has evidently been inserted under the older pillars, in the next 
century, when the floor of the nave was lowered, the chancel being 
now gained by six steps, an unusual number for a church of thcBe 



420 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

dimensions. The floor of the tower has apparently been at one 
time lower than its present level, as the base stones of the tower 
arohway are partly concealed by the paving. The fabric itself is 
built on the slope of the hill, the gronnd at the east end being 
considerably the highest, and it seems probable from the step-like 
courses of the outer phnth, that the tower, nave, and chancel were 
intended to be paved in ascending stages, at the time when the 
church was reconstructed in the fourteenth century. The upper 
part of a plain pointed niche of a piscina, which still remains in 
the south aisle, may be of the Early English period, but the only 
other portion of the building that can with certainty be assigned 
to that style, is the double lancet window in the north waU of the 
chancel. These traces of early Gothic do not bdong to the com- 
mencement of the style, but may probably be assigned to about 
the middle of the reign of Henry III (1216—1272). 

The small but elegant piscina in the south wall of the chancel 
appears to be of the reign of Edward I. at the commencement of 
the Decorated period, and perhaps one or two other minor details; 
but almost the whole of the remainder of the structure was obvi- 
ously rebuilt later on in the same period, during the reign of 
Edward III., probably between the years 1830 — 50. The octagon 
pillars, with plainly moulded capitals, which separate the nave 
from the north aisle, as well as the archways leading from the 
nave into the chancel and tower respectively, are of this date. On 
the bevelled angle at the base of one of these piUars, is a quaintly 
carved nondescript animal of the unicorn type. Several of the 
windows previous to the restoration were of the most debased post- 
reformation style, and many others were and are of Perpendicular 
design, but one or two still show the original tracery of the time 
of Edward III. The tracery in the east window of the chancel 
was inserted at the restoration ; but a considerable portion of the 
archway and base of the window is as it was originally con- 
structed. The three-light window at the east end of the north 
aisle contains the old tracery of this date. This window is worthy 
of note, as it presents the unusual feature of an acutely pointed 
hood-mould over it in tho interior. The south doorway into the 
nave is of this date, and so also is the one which opens into the 
west end of the north aisle; the former is protected by a hood 
mould, which almost looks as if a porch had not been contem- 
plated when it was constructed, but yet enough remains of the old 



BONSALL. 421 

porch to show that it also may be attributed to the Decorated 
period. 

The most characteristic featiire of this style is however to be 
foimd in the tower, together with .the spire, which have happily 
not been interfered with to any material extent in later times. 
The tower is supported by diagonally placed buttresses, which reach 
nearly to the parapet, of the same design as the buttresses at the 
angles of the chancel and aisles. There is a pointed doorway in 
the west wall, and over it a two-light window, of good late Deco- 
rated design, giving light to the base of the tower. The belfry is 
lighted by four windows of like construction, and the hood-mould 
over them is continued horizontally round the tower as a string 
coursa The tower is surrounded by an embattled parapet, which 
has crocketed pinnacles at the four angles, except at the north- 
west, where the summit of the stairway intervener Below the 
parapet are some large and far-projecting gurgoyles in a fair state 
of preservation. From the summit of the tower springs a spire of 
unusal but beautifal design, and far more richly ornamented than 
is generally the case with those pertaining to small village 
churches. The spire is of octagon shape, and is gorged (to use an 
heraldic expression) with three crowns or encircling bands of 
ornament, which stand out from the slope of the rest of the 
masonry. The lowest of these is pierced with a continuous row 
of quatrefoU openings, and crowned with a battlement of fleurs-de- 
lis. The middle one is similar, but immediately above it, in a 
hollow moulding surmounted by a series of uncharged shields, is 
a row of the flat four-leafed flower peculiar to the latter half of the 
Decorated period. The topmost crown, only a few feet from the 
summit, consists simply of the shields and four-leafed flowers 
repeated It appears that the spire was formerly of a rather 
greater altitude than it now attains. 

During the close of the Perpendicular period, the walls of this 
church appear to have been for the most part pierced with windows 
of that style. There is a good example of the style of Henry 
VIL, (1486-1607) in the obtusely-pointed window on the south 
side of the chancel ; and the old tracery of the same date, in the 
square-headed window of the south aisle nearest the porch, still 
remains. It is after this pattern, that the new windows, inserted 
in the north and south aisles at the restoration, were designed. 
It would seem, too, that during this reign the present clerestory 
walls, and perhaps the battlements of the church, were added. 



422 DEKBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

There are now three clerestory windows on each side ; one of three 
lights on the south side is of the date of Henry VIL, and the 
remainder are later insertions. 

Of the objects of interest within the church, in addition to the 
two piscinas already mentioned, special attention should be drawn 
to the very small window, richly ornamented, over the tower 
archway, which gives a view of the interior of the church from 
the belfry, and which probably served as a squint, whereby the 
attendant would know the right moment, during the celebration of 
the mass, at which to ring the sanctus bell. The font, which 
stands under the tower archway, is of octagon shape, and has a 
chahce-like appearance in its general design, for the base-stone 
expands almost equally with the font itself. It is about three feet 
throe inches high, and is of Perpendicular workmanship. Of 
monuments in the interior of the church, there are but few, and 
hardly any of those of suflBicient antiquity to come within the 
scope of these notes. At the end of the north aisle, on the top of 
the wooden framework that forms a double door to the entrance 
at that part of the church, is a large iron helmet surmounted by 
a crest From what we could gather, this helmet appears to have 
been suspended over the monument to Henry Feme, previous to 
the restoration of the church, and we hope that it may eventually 
be replaced in a position to which it is justly entitled. 

The Femes held property at Parwich in the fifteenth century, 
and Bassauo's Church notes describe in the chancel at Wirksworth 
the tomb of John Feme and his wife Agnes, daughter of Thomas 
Boresford of Fenny Bentley, who died in 1609. But this elder 
branch appears to have become extinct, and a separate grant of 
arms was made to Kobert Feme of Bonsall, in the seventeenth 
century, both arms and crests differing shghtly from those of 
Feme of Parwich. Lysons implies that this was the first settle- 
ment of the Femes at Bonsall, but this is clearly an error, for a 
Henry Feme, of Bonsall, compounded with the King's Commis- 
sioners for the confirmation of his customary estate in 1620, and 
the grant of arms to Robert was probably only a confirmation. 
The crest granted to Robert Feme (a mount of fern, proper, 
thereon a garb [whoatsheaf], or, banded, gu,), appeai-s coustnicted 
in wood, on the spike of the helmet of which we have spoken, and 
we are much mistaken if the helmet is not of greater age than 
the grant of arms, viz. of the latter half of the sixteenth 
century. Henry, the son of Robert Feme, was Receiver Oeneral 



f 

I 



I 



BONSALL. 423 

of the Customs in the reigns of William IIL, Anne, and 
George I., and died in 1703. His chief seat was at Snitter- 
ton. He had one son who died without issue, and three 
daughters, Elizabeth, Isabella, and Frances. Elizabeth died in 
1768, and her daughter, in accordance with her mother's will, 
erected the white marble monument which is now affixed to the 
north wall of the north aisle. The presence of this helmet in the 
church points to an earlier sepulture of the Femes at Bonsall, of 
which, however, there is now no trace. Henry Feme*s wife was 
Elizabeth, co-heiress of Nicholas Dayrel, of Southampton, and their 
arms were formerly emblazoned at the foot of the mural monument. 
The painting has now disappeared from the marble, so it may be 
as well to mention that it formerly bore — Quarterly, 1st and 4th, 
per bend indented, arg, and gu,, two lions heads erased, counter 
changed, crowned, or (Feme) ; 2nd and 3rd, 02., a lion rampant, 
oTj crowned, arg, (Dayrel). 

Against the south wall of the chancel is a brass plate in a 
wooden frame bearing this inscription: — 

"In memoriam Henrici Hopkinson, generosi quondam Hospitii Lincolniensis, 
Jurisperiti, qui ex uxore sua Dorothea (filia Anthonii AUsopp, de AUsopp in le 
Dale Armigeri) tres filios suscepit, Anthoniam, Qalielmum, et Johannom, et obii 
qnarto die DecembriB anno Domini 16S4. 

A Barrester, a Bachelor of Arte, 
A practiBcr that chose the better parte; 
That pleaded more for just defence than gain, 
That for the poore and common good took pain, 
That counceUed peace, for hee did plainly see 
Too mnch decrease by Buites that trivial bee ; 
That knewe the lawe, yet Boe lov'd neighborhoode, 
Noe man did know him sue, or to be sued; 
He's harried here, his Bonle iti heaven doth rest. 
Without aU feare; for peacemakers are blest. 

Amici Amantes debentes, et dolentes amoris hoc monomentnm possaenmt." 

The Hopkinsons, of Bonsall, were at one time a family of some 
substance. They held a considerable estate, both freehold and 
copyhold, in the parish as early as .the reign of Henry Y. Doro- 
thy, the wife of Henry Hopkinson, was one of the nine children of 
Anthony Allsopp by his wife Jane, daughter of Bichard Smith, of 
Combebridge, Stafford. 

At the time of the restoration of the church, certain very inte- 
resting memorials of early sepulture were discovered amongst the 
masonry, and though they are in a place of perfect safety, in the 
garden now attached to the fine old manor house, the residence of 
Mr. Coates, who was churchwarden at the time of the alterations, 
still we feel sure that that gentleman will agree with us in think- 



424 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

ing that the most stiitable place for these mementos of the dead is 
as near as possible to the place where their remains were depo- 
sited. Although our ancestors of the fourteenth century showed 
but little reverence for their predecessors, by utilising their memo- 
rials as building materials, it becomes us to show a different spirit, 
by not only treating these stones, now that they have again come 
to light, with a respect then denied them, but by retaining them at 
all events within that consecrated ground where they were first 
deposited. One of these memorials is an incised slab that has 
doubtless served as a cofi^ lid, and is now broken in two pieces. 
It bears an incised cross with an elegant floriated head, and has 
on the dexter side a sword, and on the sinister side what we take 
to be a warrior's mace, or martel de fer, a design that we have not 
before met with on the large number of incised slabs that we have 
seen in this county and elsewhere. Its date is of the thirteenth 
century. Of the same century, though of different design, and pro- 
bably of a slightly different period, is the floriated head of another 
cross. In this instance the design appears within a circle, and is 
thrown into relief, by cutting away the remaining part of the stone 
within the border to the depth of about half an inch. The third 
memorial is of still greater interest, on account of its rarity, though 
it may belong to the next century. This is a small headstone 
cross, so few of which now remain. The stone is rounded at the 
top, and has a cross pat^ cut upon each side of it. Instances of 
headstone crosses of pre-Beformation date are of very unfrequent 
occurrence, and still more so when the design appears on both 
sides. In the same garden are one or two of the beams of the old 
roof of the church, on the boss of one of which we noticed an 
estoile or wavy star, which had probably some heraldic significance, 
as a badge or otherwise. There are also several fragments of the 
old Perpendicular tracery, and some carved stone corbels which 
have formerly served as supports for the roof. 

The tower contains a peal of six bells. No records remain of 
the inscriptions upon the old bells, recast by Mears in 1841. The 
first, second, and fourth bells bear simply — "Thomas Mears, 
Founder, London, 1841." The third— "God save his Church, 
1656,** and the founder's mark of George Oldfield. The fifth — 
" Laus Domini nostra mobilitate viget, 1781." The sixth—" Iho. 
Gloria in Excelsis, Deo, 1609," and the founder's mark of a fylfot 
cross below the initials G.H. 

The registers, now extant, only commence in the year 1719. 



r 



liPBbboHPn. 



1 



SSflotfl. 



jSallibon* 



^rasstngfoii* 
Stssingfon* 



i 



^pflbbourn. 




IHE manor of Bradbourn, at the time of the Domesday 
Survey, formed part of the lands of Henry de Ferrers, 
and even at thafc early date was possessed of a priest and 
a church. It was soon afterwards held, under the Ferrers, by the 
family of Caus or de Cauceis. In the reign of King John, the 
manor of Bradbourn was conveyed to Godard de Bradbourn by Sir 
Geoffrey de Cauceis,* and it was held by that family till the end 
of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when it was bought by Sir 
Humphrey Ferrers, who had married Jane Bradbourn. f Sir Geoffrey 
de Cauceis did not, however, allow the church to go with the 
manor, but presented the advowson in 1205 to the celebrated priory 
of Dunstable, in Bedfordshire, and the gift was confirmed by 
William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, as the chief lord of the fee. 
But though the presentation to the living of Bradbourn was then 
given to the priory of Dunstable, it was not until 1278 that the 
rectory — i. «,, the greater tithes — were appropriated to that estab- 
Hshment.j: This appropriation of the rectory and its four chapelries 
was confirmed by the Bishop in 1294.§ A vicarage was specially 
endowed here about the year 1880. At the time when the church 
was given to the priory, it had a rector and two vicars. Shortly 
after the Eeformation, these rectorial tithes, which had been granted 
to Rogers and Fethersfcon, were purchased by the several land- 
owners of the parish, and the rectory-house and glebe lands were 

* We find from the Patent Rolls (16 John Memb. 17) that Sir Geoffrev was a priest. 
Probably he held his own living of Bradbourn, and was rector as well as lord of the 
manor. 

f The Bradbonrns also held the manor under the Ferrers, for it is mentioned 4n the 
reign of Henry III., as forming part of the dower of Margaret de Ferrers, Countess 
of Derby ; Inq. post mort., 39 Henry III., No. 31. 

I Chartulary of Dunstable, Cott. MSS. Tiberius, A. x, a volume of 190 folios, but 
very much damaged by fire. 

§ Harl. MSS., 4799; Add. MSS., 6ti66, f. 87. 



428 DERBYSHIRE CHURCHES. 

purohased by George Buxton, of the ancient family of Buxton, of 
Buxton. This family subsequently reverted to the older spelling of 
"Buckston." 

The old parish of Bradbourn was of considerable extent, and 
embraced within its limits the four chapelries of Atlow, Ballidon, 
Brassington, and Tissington, as well as the township of Aldwark. 
From Pegge's Collections, and from the Annals of Dunstable, we 
make the following extracts relative to Bradbourn, giving them in 
chronological order.* It was the custom of the priory, before the 
vicarage was formally endowed, to send one or more of their canons 
(usually two) to reside at Bradbourn. They were styled custodes or 
wardens, and it was their duty to account to the prior for the 
profits, and to provide for the cure of the church and its chapels. 

1214. The prior had a suit in the court at Home with the 
rector and vicars, with a view, as is supposed, of displacing them. 
It was alleged that Bobert, the rector, was a son of Godfrey, the 
former rector; that Henry, one of the vicars, was son of John, 
his predecessor, in one mediety of the vicarage ; and that William, 
the other vicar, kept a concubine publicly, and went a hunting, 
forsaking his tonsure and clerical duties. 

1223. The prior received the first crop from ''Balidena*' and 
** Tiscintuna," two chapels of Bradbourn. 

1248. In this year no less than eight hundred sheep died at 
Bradbourn, of the flock belonging to Dunstable Priory. 

1278. Eoger, Bishop of Coventry, confirmed to the Priory 
''ecclesia de Bradboume cum omnibus capellis suis;" and for this 
episcopal act the Priory granted, as fee to the Bishop*s almory, 
two hundred marks, raised from the chapelries of Atlow and Bras- 
sington. 

1282. Badulphus de Harewold died at Bradbourn, and was there 
buried. Probably he was one of the custodes, or wardens. 

1284. In this year the Priory possessed a flock of sheep at 
Bradbourn numbering twelve hundred, "by the great himdred." 

1287. The prior was here on a visit. 

1291. The rectory was valued at sixty marks. 

1295. The Priory, in consequence of the poverty of Bradbourn, 
granted to their brothers, the canons resident, their wool and all 

* Pegge's MS. CoUectionB, vol. i. The Annala of Dunat<ible were first published by 
Thomas Heame in 1788 ; they have since been republished in the Master of the HoUa' 
Series. 



BRADBOUBN. 429 

other profits except the tithes of Brassington for that year, for 
which the priory was to receive seventeen marks to be appropriated 
to the clothing of the convent. 

In 1805 the Prior complained that Boger Bradboum, lord of the 
manor, and five others, had mined for lead, and taken away ore to 
the value of one hundred shillings. Boger contended that this 
was according to the invariable custom of the Peak ; but the Prior 
replied that GeofiErey de Oauceis had not only given to Dunstable 
the church of Bradboum and its chapels, but also all Ituids and 
liberties pertaining thereto. Tha court decided in favour of the 
prior, and Boger Bradboum and his heirs were forbidden from 
ever again disturbing the soil, or mining for lead, on the church 
lands of the Prior.* 

About the year 1880 the Priory of Dunstable petitioned Boger 
de Norbury, who held the See of Coventry and Lichfield from 1822 
to 1868, to present one secular vicar to serve the church of Brad- 
boum, instead of keeping two of their monks or canons on the 
spot. When this petition was granted, it was arranged that the 
vicar should have for immediate habitation the close of land 
belonging to the Priory at Tissington, with the house upon it, 
together with two bovates of land at Tissington tithe free. The 
Priory also undertook to cause a hall and other new buildings to 
be erected for the vicar, in a close belonging to them on the south 
side of the church of Bradbourn. The further endowment of the 
vicar was eventuaUy settled by his taking the tithes of corn, and 
hay, and lambs, at Tissington, of the mills throughout the parish, 
and all the small tithes, mortuaries, and altar dues throughout the 
parish and chapehies In return for this income, the Vicar was to 
undertake the due administration of divine service at his own 
expense at all the chapels, as well as at the mother church.t 

We gather from the institutions to this vicarage, recorded in the 
episcopal registers at Lichfield, that the Priory usually presented 
one of their own canons to this benefice. The following vicars of 
Bradbourn are all entered as canons of Dunstable : — GafGridus de 
Merston (1297), Willielmus de Holum (1316), Thomas Lewes (1865), 
Johannes Aston (1898). 

The Valor EcclesiaMicus (27 Henry VIII.) estimated the annual 
value of this vicarage at £8 8b. 4d., which sum included a pension 

* Flacitoram Abbreviatio, 83 Edw. I., rot. 80. 

f Lichfield Episcopal Begisters, vol. iii., ff. 78, 126; Add. MSS. 6671, f. 521. See 
also Episo. Begisters, vol. v., f. 46, for an arrangement made in the year 1862. 



430 DERBYSHIRE CFTUHCHES. 

from the abbot of Dale of 68. 8d., and a farther sum of £4, being 
an annual payment from the prior of Dunstable. The altar dues 
and oblations then averaged 208. ''Dns. Johes Barret" held the 
vicarage. The same return estimates the annual value of the rec- 
torial manor, held by the Priory, at £24 lOs. Od. 

When the inventory of " Church Goods '* was being taken by the 
Commissioners of Edward VI., with a view to the sale or appiro- 
priation of those connected with superstitious uses, Bradboum was 
visited on the 80th of September, 1554, with the following result : — 

"iij yestments with all things— iij aolter clothes — ^ij towells — j coope — ^ij snr- 
pleses — ^ij cruetts pewter — ^J senser off bras — ^j crosse off wodd— j backet of bras* 
j candelstyke off iron — j pyxe of bras — j cannabe (canopy) covering — ^j corperas 
casef — iij bells — ^j sanctus bell — ij hand bells — ij sakeryng bells — j chalice with a 
paten parcell gilte. 

"Thos. Swetnam, Coratt." 

After the dissolution of the monasteries, the advowson of this 
vicarage came into the hands of the Cavendishes, and the rectorial 
tithes were dispersed into various hands. 

In the reign of Charles I. there was a suit in Chancery about 
the liabihty of Atlow to contribute to the repair of the mother 
church, which affords some interesting particulars relative to Brad- 
boum and Atlow. On the 10th of February, 1629, Thomas Buxton 
and Vincent Sexton, Churchwardens of Bradboum, complained 
against Wilham Cokayne, Valentine Jackson, and four others living 
at Atlow, declaring it an ancient custom for all parishioners to pay 
for the repair of the parish church, and that, whereas Bradboum 
church was from April to September, 1627, ** in greate decay in 
the roofe, tymber, lead, windowes, and bells thereof soe as the 
same could not be in any reasonable sorte repaired with a lesse 
charge or some of money than sixe and fortie pounds,** defendants 
dechned. to contribute, stating that the inhabitants of Atlow had only 
for time immemorial been bound to repair ^' one peece or parte of 
the churchyard wall of Bradbourne which peece or parte of the 
churchyarde was one and twentie yards or thereabouts and was 
commonly called by the name of Atlowe parte ; " also that ** there 
neither was nor ever had been anie place in the said church of 
Bradbourne alloted or apointed for the inhabitants of Atlowe and 
the waies were very foule and in a could countrie soe as they the 

* This " backet of brass '* may probably have served as a vessel for the conveyance 
of holy water to the different cbiapelrieB : see the account of Bakeweli church. 

t Corporas cases were vessels of precious metal suspended by a chain under a 
canopy, and used for the reservation of the Sacrament lor the sick. 



BRADBOURN. 431 

Defendants thought there was great reason to discharge ye inha- 
bitants of Atlowe of any tax or contribution to Bradboume." 
They further alleged that ** Atlowe was a very ancient chappell 
and tyme out of minde of man had used to have Divine Service 
^ there and Christening of their children and churchwardens of their 
own and that they did bury their dead with their own minister 
sometimes at Hognaston, at Enyvton, at Ashborne, at Bradley, at 
Mugginton, and sometyme at Bradbourne untill such tyme as their 
own church yard was consecrated, and since at their own church." 
The Court decided, in the following year, that the inhabitants of 
Atlow were to pay 58. 6d. to oxgang to Bradboum church for re- 
pairs, but not to be charged with any of the levies in arrear. 
They were also to contribute in future to the repairs of the mother 
church, and to keep up the wall of the churchyard between the 
churchyard gate and a pasture called Newe Close.* 

The Parliamentary Commissioners of 1650, reported that Brad- 
bourn "is a viccarage endowed, really worth fortye pounds per 
annum. Mr. Thomas Miles is viccar, a man of good repute.'* 

Mr. Miles was one of those ejected for Nonconformity at the 
Restoration. The Lichfield registers describe the institution of 
Samuel Trickett, his successor, as made ''per cessionem sive dis- 
missionem ThomsB Myles." William, Earl of Devonshire, was then 
patron of the vicarage. To Samuel Trickett succeeded Richard 
Ensor in 1667, and John Hopkinson in 1669.t 

The church, which is dedicated to All Saints, consists of nave, 
with south aisle and porch, chancel, and tower at the west end. 
Though of considerable antiquity, there is no part of this church 
of sufficient age for us to suppose it to be the same building 
which was standing here when the Domesday Survey was taken in 
1086. The ancient Sa