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The following paper is based on a series of 481 Michoacan birds 
collected for Field Museum during the summers of 1940 and 1941 
by two Mexican expeditions led by Mr. Harry Hoogstraal of the 
University of Illinois. 

Preliminary faunal surveys undertaken by Mr. Hoogstraal dur- 
ing two previous field trips in northern and eastern Mexico had 
indicated the desirability of making comparative studies, of a more 
detailed nature, in a southwestern state. Michoacan was selected 
because its geographical position and varied topography afforded 
unlimited opportunities for the ecological and faunistic studies 
desired. A representative portion of the state, incorporating most of 
the physical and climatic features of the Mexican plateau and of the 
Pacific lowlands, was found in the region lying between the Rio 
Tepalcatepec and the summit of Cerro de Tancitaro. Several special- 
ists, including a botanist, an ornithologist, a mammalogist, a her- 
petologist and an entomologist, were enlisted to make collections 
in their respective fields as a means of determining the faunal 
affinities and the vertical extent of life zones in this area. The 
present report on the bird life of the Rio Tepalcatepec-Cerro de 
Tancftaro transect, despite limitations of data, is presented as a 
basis for more ambitious investigations in southwestern Mexico. 


Michoacan occupies a region of considerable interest to the 
naturalist because of its relationship to the central plateau, but 
biologically it is today one of the least-known of the Mexican states. 
Its ornithology, particularly, has been neglected and the student 
can, with few exceptions, search the literature in vain for more 
than casual reference to specimens collected within its borders. 
Some indication of the status of Michoacan ornithology is shown by 
the fact that no less than 75 forms, or 52 per cent of the 144 
treated in the present paper, apparently constitute new state records. 
Fifteen of these may be considered definite extensions of range but 
the majority involve common species of general distribution in 
southwestern Mexico. 



The first and perhaps largest representative collection of Michoa- 
can birds ever made was obtained by Edward W. Nelson and Edward 
A. Goldman fifty years ago during the course of their extensive 
Mexican explorations for the Biological Survey. This collection, 

FIG. 39. Map of Mexico, showing location of Rio Tepalcatepec-Cerro de 
Tancitaro transect. 

totaling approximately 500 specimens, has not been worked up as 
a unit but was the source of most of Ridgway's Michoacan records. 
The Mexican itinerary of Nelson and Goldman has not been 
published, but the following details of their travels in Michoacan 
have been assembled at our request from the records of the United 
States Fish and Wildlife Service, by Dr. John W. Aldrich. 

1892. Edward W. Nelson: 

July 14- August 4; October 15-16. Patzcuaro. 
August 4-10. Querendaro. 
October 8-15. Nahuatzin. 


1893. Edward W. Nelson and Edward A. Goldman: 
January 11-25. Zamora. 

January 27-February 5. Cerro Patamban and Tinguindin. 
February 5-19. Los Reyes. 

February 20-March 4. Cerro de Tancltaro and Perivan. 
March 9-24. La Salada and Uruapan. 

March 24-30. Route from La Huacana and Volcan de Jorullo to 
Balsas; also in the vicinity of Ahuacana. 

Scarcely less extensive are the collections made for Field Museum 
by the recent Hoogstraal expeditions. The village of Tancitaro, 
which is located on a plateau adjacent to the southern base of Cerro 
de Tancitaro, served as headquarters for both expeditions. A total 
of 481 specimens representing 140 forms was obtained along a 
transect between the Rio Tepalcatepec and the summit of Cerro 
de Tancitaro by the junior author (1940) and by Dr. Reed W. 
Fautin (1941). The list of localities visited by them is as 

1940. Harold C. Hanson; 232 specimens, 96 species. 

July 14-19. Tancitaro. 

July 20-22. Upper slopes and summit of Cerro de Tancitaro. 

July 23-25. Tancitaro. 

July 26- August 1. Cloud forest of Cerro de Tancitaro. 

August 2-8. Tancftaro. 

August 9-14. Vicinity of Apatzingan. 

August 15-17. Tancitaro. 

1941. Reed W. Fautin; 249 specimens, 112 species, including 44 additions to 

the 1940 collection. 
June 23-28. Tancitaro. 

June 29-July 7. Cloud forest of Cerro de Tancitaro. 
July 8-9. Tancitaro. 

July 10-25. Cloud forest to summit of Cerro de Tancitaro. 
July 26-August 7. Tancitaro. 
August 8-27. Vicinity of Apatzingan and Acahuato. 

Additional Michoacan birds have been collected at random by 
various travelers, but these are widely scattered and details of their 
present disposition are not available. The veteran collector Chester 
C. Lamb has worked more or less extensively in the state and 
certain of his specimens have been preserved in the collection of 
Robert T. Moore. It is evident, however, that far more field work 
must be carried out before a satisfactory list of Michoacan forms 
can be prepared. 


Heterocnus mexicanus fremitus 
Cochlearius cochlearius zeledoni 
Plegadis (falcinellus?) guarauna 
Cairina moschata 
Coragyps atratus 
Cathartes aura aura 
Chondrohierax uncinatus subsp. 
*Accipiter striatus suttoni 
Buteo jaimaicensis costaricensis 
Buteo brachyurus 
Buteo nitidus plagiatus 
Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi 
Micrastur semitorquatus naso 
Polyborus cheriway audubonii 
Fako albigularis albigularis 
Ortalis vetula poliocephala 
Actitis macularia 
Leptotila verreauxi angelica 
Aratinga canicularis eburnirostrum 
*Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha 
Crotophaga sulcirostris sulcirostris 
Tyto alba pratincola 
*Nyctibius griseus mexicanus 
Nyctidromus albicollis yucatanensis 
*Aeronautes saxatalis nigrior 
*Lampornis amethystinus brevirostris 
Megaceryle torquata torquata 
Chloroceryle amazona 
Chloroceryle americana septentrionalis 
*Dryobates arizonae fraterculus 
Attila spadiceus pacificus 
Tyrannus melancholicus occidentalis 
Tyrannus crassirostris crassirostris 
Myiodynastes luteiventris luteiventris 
Pitangus sulphuratus derbianus 
Iridoprocne albilinea albilinea 
Corpus corax sinuatus 
Calocitta formosa formosa 

* Indicates extension of range. 

Cyanocilta stelleri coronata 
Parus sclateri sclateri 
Sitta carolinensis mexicana 
*Certhia familiaris guerrerensis 
Cinclus mexicanus mexicanus 
*Thryothorus pleurostictus nisorius 
*Thryomanes beivickii percnus 
*Turdus migratorius permixtus 
Polioptila plumbea bairdi 
*Regulus regulus clarus 
Ptilogonys cinereus pallescens 
*Vireolanius melitophrys goldmani 
*Vireo bellii medius 
Vireo solitarius repetens _ 
Vireo virescens flavoviridis 
Vireo gilvus subsp. 
Mniotilta varia 

*Compsothlypis pitiayumi pulchra 
Peucedramus olivaceus olivaceus 
Dendroica occidentalis 
Myioborus miniatus miniatus 
Cassiculus melanicterus 
Icterus spurius 
Icterus wagleri wagleri 
Icterus pustulatus pustulatus 
Tanagra musica elegantissima 
Piranga flava hepatica 
Piranga bidentata bidentata 
Passerina versicolor subsp. 
Passerina leclancherii leclancherii 
*Hesperiphona abeillei abeillei 
Volatinia jacarina diluta 
Spinus notatus griscomi 
Loxia curvirostra stricklandi 
Arremonops rufivirgatus sumichrasti 
Aimophila humeralis humeralis 
Aimophila ruficauda acuminata 


The transect chosen for intensive study in Michoacan extends 
approximately thirty-seven miles from the sweltering valley of the 
Rio Tepalcatepec northward to the summit of Cerro de Tancitaro 2 

1 Botanical determinations employed throughout this report were made by 
Paul C. Standley and Julian A. Steyermark, Curator and Assistant Curator of 
the Herbarium in Field Museum, from specimens and field studies prepared by 
William Leavenworth, expedition botanist. Certain physical and botanical data, 
particularly those pertaining to plant associations, have been drawn freely from 
notes prepared by Mr. Hoogstraal. The authors assume full responsibility, 
however, for their arrangement of life zones and for all ornithological data. 

2 This transect lies within one of the most poorly mapped regions of Mexico. 
Maps which have been consulted vary considerably in their estimates of the 
altitudes of Cerro de Tancitaro and other Michoacan localities. Therefore, all 
elevations discussed in this report are based upon aneroid readings obtained, and 
repeatedly checked, by members of the 1941 expedition. 



and embraces an ascent of some eleven thousand feet. Not included 
in the area of investigation, but nevertheless exerting considerable 
influence on its rainfall and plant associations, is a spur of the 
Sierra Madre del Sur of Guerrero, which extends about seventy-five 
miles along the coast of Michoacan south of the Rio Tepalcatepec. 

North of Cerro de Tancitaro, and adjacent to the vast, triangular- 
shaped inland plateau, or mesa central of Mexico, is a rugged area 
of mountain masses. Cerro de Tancitaro is an outlier of the moun- 
tains bordering the plateau, and is at the western end of a short, 
apparently isolated range running east and west for twenty miles 
or more. The mountains of this area are a part of the row of recent 
volcanoes which lie along the nineteenth parallel from Colima to 
the vicinity of Mexico City and which comprise one of the most 
actively volcanic regions on the continent. 

The biotic and climatic characteristics of the transect may be 
outlined as follows: 

I. Arid Tropical Zone (Tierra Caliente). Rio Tepalcatepec to the lower (south- 
ern) slope of the Tancitaro plateau at Acahuato (500-3,000 ft.). 

A. Tropical Deciduous Forest. 

B. Arid and Semi-Arid Thorn Forest (semi-desert scrub). 

C. Open Semi-Desert with scattered trees (1,200-3,000 ft.). 

II. Humid Upper Tropical Zone 1 (6,000-8,500 ft.). 

A. Cloud Forest (locally, in humid ravines). 

1. Transitional or Modified Pine-Alder-Fir Association (6,000- 

7,300 ft.). 

2. Typical Pine-Alder-Fir Association (7,300-8,500 ft.). 

III. Temperate Zone (Tierra Templada). Lower (southern) slope of the Tancitaro 
plateau above Acahuato to the summit (3,000-11,800 ft.). 

A. Open Pine Forest, strongly transitional (3,000-4,500 ft.). 

B. Pine-Oak Forest (4,500-6,000 ft., locally). 

C. Fir Forest (8,500-9,500 ft.). 

D. Open Pine Forest, almost purely temperate (4,500-11,800 ft.). 

1. High Bunch Grass (10,000-11,800 ft., locally). 


The Arid Tropical Zone, known locally as the tierra caliente, 
occupies a wide, arid valley having an average altitude of approxi- 
mately 1,200 feet. There is little seasonal variation in temperature. 
Some rain falls during the summer months but it quickly drains 
and is of little value to agriculture, which depends on irrigation to 
a considerable extent. Leguminous and other thorn-studded bushes 

1 Subtropical Zone or "Mountain Rain Forest" of Chapman. 


and cacti are often present, and there are numerous climbing cacti, 
hanging vines and impenetrable thickets. No humid tropical jungle 
exists in this region but along the river and other permanent sources 
of water there is a well-developed deciduous forest. This becomes 
more arid in general aspect as one leaves the river, its undergrowth 
is less luxuriant, and a tall fig tree (Ficus) often becomes dominant. 
Several distinct plant associations may be recognized in this 
zone. A thorn forest or semi-desert scrub varies, depending on 
aridity, from open plain with scattered thorn trees and few herbs 
to dense stands of thorny trees with a light ground cover of herbs 
and shrubs. These trees, which include such common genera as 
Acacia, Mimosa, and Caesalpinia, range from eight to twenty feet 
in height and tend to grade into the tropical deciduous forest near 
water. Just north of Apatzingan, on the slope leading up to the 
Tancitaro plateau, there is a strip of even greater aridity. It is 
a pronounced semi-desert and supports only widely scattered trees, 
principally of non-leguminous genera. 


Ortalis vetula poliocephala Calocitta formosa formosa 

Amazona finschi finschi Turdus rufo-palliatus rufo-palliatus 

Piaya cayana mexicana Cassiculus melanicterus 

Trogon citreolus Icterus pustulatus pustulatus 

Momotus mexicanus mexicanus Passerina leclancherii leclancherii 

Centurus chrysogenys flavinuchus Arremonops rufiviraatus sumichrasti 

Xiphorhynchus flavigaster mentalis Aimophila humeralis humeralis 

Tyrannus crassirostris crassirostris Aimophila ruficauda acuminate 

Bird life in the Arid Tropical Zone is rather limited in species 
but individuals are often surprisingly abundant locally. Distribu- 
tion depends primarily upon the habitat requirements of the various 
species, altitude being of little or no direct consequence. Approxi- 
mately 43 per cent of the 144 forms collected or identified by sight 
were recorded only below 3,000 feet, which may be regarded as the 
upper limits of this zone. Analysis of these, after eliminating species 
of no faunal significance, indicates a preponderance of forms charac- 
teristic of the West Mexican Arid Tropical Fauna only partially 
suggested by the preceding list. 


Above the Tancitaro plateau certain valleys and protected slopes 
support a generally dense and humid forest which is basically homolo- 
gous to the characteristic subtropical vegetation of mountainous 
regions to the southward. The subtropical or cloud forest is dis- 


tributed locally from 6,000 to 8,500 feet and probably this is its 
northernmost appearance in western Mexico. 

Two divisions of the Humid Upper Tropical Zone may be identi- 
fied botanically. From approximately 6,000 to 7,300 feet there is 
a somewhat open and modified pine-alder-fir association with heavy, 
though not impenetrable undergrowth. A more typical cloud forest, 
characterized by excessive humidity and an extremely heavy growth 
of epiphytic bryophytes, pteridophytes and lichens, extends upward 
to 8,500 feet. It consists of a dense pine-alder-fir forest and numerous 
herbs and shrubs. 

Cloud forests are indicative of the Humid Upper Tropical Zone 
and attain their maximum development in the central and northern 
Andes of South America. They become progressively less extensive 
and luxuriant as one proceeds northward through Central America 
to southern Mexico and there is a parallel decline in distinct faunal 
representatives. Cerro de Tancitaro supports only a meager northern 
outpost of cloud forest and lacks even the characteristic tree ferns 
and large bromeliads. The relative barrenness and insignificance 
of this zone in Michoacan is indicated by the fact that only two birds 
which may be regarded as indicators were found in the transect as 
compared with twenty-one recorded in Guerrero (nine endemic), 
forty in Guatemala, and forty-five in El Salvador. 

Henicorhina leucophrys /estiva Basileuterus belli clarus 


Proximity to the central Mexican plateau, which serves as a 
vast reservoir of Temperate Zone life, is reflected in every aspect of 
the Cerro de Tancitaro area. Plants and animals of temperate or 
even boreal affinities dominate the upper slopes of the mountain. 
Many forms overflow across the Tancitaro plateau to approximately 
3,000 feet altitude where the moderating effects of the Arid Tropical 
Zone are manifested. There is no sharp line of demarcation between 
the two but the lower or southern slope of the Tancitaro plateau 
above Acahuato may be designated arbitrarily as the point at which 
the temperate element finally disappears. 

The climate of the plateau 1 is relatively cool throughout the 
year, being hottest in April and May and coldest in December and 
January, when light snow occasionally falls. During the summer 

1 Refers to the Tancitaro plateau unless otherwise designated. 


months the temperature ranges from 59 to 68 F. during the day- 
time and from 57 to 61 at night. Rain falls almost daily between 
June and October and is particularly heavy at the northern end 
of the plateau in the vicinity of Tancitaro. The upper slopes of 
the mountain receive less rainfall but are considerably colder. 

A pine forest (Pinus ayacahuite and /or P. montezumae) of vary- 
ing density covers the plateau and extends upward on exposed 
ridges to the summit of Cerro de Tancitaro. Herbs and shrubs 
which grow on the fairly steep slope between 3,000 and 4,500 feet 
are markedly transitional in character and include both tropical 
and temperate species. The flora becomes increasingly temperate 
above 4,500 feet, and oaks, willows, lindens, haws, ashes, and alders 
appear locally. Shrubs of the genera Viburnum, Ceanothus, Solanum, 
Tournefortia, Lythrum, Cornus, Lobelia, Salvia, Arctostaphylos, and 
Cassia are common. Herbs are particularly abundant and include 
Piqueria, Drymaria, Cuphea, Borreria, Euphorbia, Ranunculus, 
Thalictrum, Verbena, Physalis, Plantago, Oxalis, Sisyrinchium, 
Hypoxis, Cynoglossum, Phaseolus, and Crotalaria. Close stands of 
fir (Abies religiosa) become locally dominant between 8,500 and 
9,500 feet and the ground cover is more limited. 

The flora is less varied above 10,000 feet and vegetation becomes 
relatively sparse. With the disappearance of alders and firs only 
pines (Pinus montezumae var. rudis) and a few junipers (Juniperus 
mexicanus) remain as arboreal representatives. High, tough bunch 
grasses cover the ground and several herbs, including lupine (Lupinus 
persistens), are common. Only one shrub (ericaceous Pernettia 
ciliata) is found in the open pine forest of the upper slopes. Cerro 
de Tancitaro has no timberline, and hence lacks a true sub-alpine 

The influence of the central Mexican plateau, with its wealth 
of Temperate Zone life, is no less apparent in the avifauna of the 
Cerro de Tancitaro area. Approximately 62 per cent of the species 
which were restricted to that part of the transect characterized by 
predominantly temperate flora are true indicators of that zone. 
None of these were reported below 3,000 feet and it is probable 
that many do not occur even in the area of transition at the southern 
or lower end of the plateau. 


Buteo jaimaicensis costaricensis Otua minutissimum gnoma 

Columba fasciata fasciata ABronautes saxatalis nigrior 

Otus trichopsis trichopsis Hylocharis leucotis leucotis 


Lampornis amethystinus brevirostris 
Trogonurus mexicanus 
Balanosphyra formicivora formicivora 
Dryobates villosus jardinii 
Myiochanes pertinax pertinax 
Empidonax difficilis occidentalis 
Empidonax fulvifrons rubicundus 
Corvus corax sinuatus 
Aphelocpma sordida sieberii 
Cyanocitta stelleri corpnata 
Parus sclateri sclateri 
Sitta pygmaea flavinucha 
Certhia familiaris guerrerensis 
Cinclus mexicanus mexicanus 
Heleodytes megalopterus megalopterus 
Troglodytes brunneicollis colimae 
Turdus migratorius permixtus 
Myadestes obscurus occidentalis 
Catharus occidentalis fulvescens 
Regulus regulus clarus 

Ptilogonys cinereus pallescens 
Vireolanius melitophrys goldmani 
Vireo huttoni mexicanus 
Diglossa baritula baritula 
Vermivora superciliosa palliata 
Peucedramus olivaceus olivaceus 
Myioborus miniatus miniatus 
Ergaticus ruber ruber 
Icterus wagleri wagleri 
Piranga flava hepatica 
Piranga bidentata bidentata 
Hesperiphona abeillei abeillei 
Spinus pinus macropterus 
Spinus notatus griscomi 
Loxia curvirostra stricklandi 
Pipilo ocai nigrescens 
Atlapetes pileatus pileatus 
Atlapetes torquatus virenticeps 
Plagiospiza superciliosa superciliosa 

Distribution of birds in the Temperate Zone is more circumscribed 
than in the Arid Tropical Zone where altitude is a minor factor and 
plant associations are less differentiated. Two species, Sitta pygmaea 
flavinucha and Plagiospiza s. superciliosa, apparently are restricted 
to the pine-bunch grass association near the summit of the mountain. 
Several species other than the two indicators of the Humid Upper 
Tropical Zone already mentioned were recorded only in the cloud 
forest. Among these were Cyanocitta stelleri coronata, Cinclus m. 
mexicanus, Heleodytes m. megalopterus, Catharus occidentalis fulvescens, 
Ergaticus r. ruber, and Atlapetes torquatus virenticeps. 

Birds that occupied a considerable vertical range in the transect 
were more or less closely associated with the coniferous forests. A 
few of these also occurred in deciduous forests and areas of mixed 
growth but it is notable that only Empidonax difficilis occidentalis 
was equally at home in the cloud forest. The following species have 
an extensive vertical distribution in the Temperate Zone: Hylocharis 
I. leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus brevirostris, Colaptes cafer mexi- 
canus, Balanosphyra f. formicivora, Dryobates villosus jardinii, Em- 
pidonax difficilis occidentalis, Aphelocoma sordida sieberii, Parus s. 
sclateri, Certhia familiaris guerrerensis, Troglodytes brunneicollis 
colimae, Sialia mexicana australis, Peucedramus o. olivaceus, Junco 
phaeonotus australis. Two species, Cathartes a. aura and Rhynchop- 
sitta pachyrhyncha, occur at all altitudes from the tierra caliente to 
the upper slopes of the mountain. 

An indication of the composition and relative importance of the 
three life zones included in the Rio Tepalcatepec-Cerro de Tancitaro 
transect may be found in the following numerical analysis of their 
respective bird populations. 


Indicator Species 

No. of % of %~o7 %of 

species toUl no. No. in total no. total no. 
in zone in transect zone in zone in transect 

Arid Tropical Zone 63 43.8 16 25 11.0 

Humid Upper Tropical Zone 8 5.5 2 25 1.3 

Temperate Zone 73 50.7 45 62 32.0 

Total number in transect. . . . 144 

Comparison with the ornithology of adjacent areas is essential 
in any local study of birds. Griscom's (1934) pioneering work in 
Guerrero constitutes the only modern and reasonably complete 
Mexican state list available and hence is of inestimable value to the 
student of bird life in southwestern Mexico. 

The limited scope of the present report prohibits extensive or 
precise comparisons between the avifaunas of Michoacan and 
Guerrero. However, there are sufficient data to indicate basic 
differences between the two. No less than sixty-four species and 
subspecies recorded in this transect, i.e., 44 per cent of the total, 
are unknown in Guerrero. These sixty-four forms, representing 
fifty-nine genera, include twenty-seven genera and twenty species 
absent in Guerrero (other genera and species being represented in 
that state by different species or subspecies). Additional field work 
in Guerrero can be expected to reduce this apparent discrepancy 

Analysis of the Michoacan faunal and life zone indicators which 
are unrecorded in Guerrero is no less interesting. Twenty-four 
birds, including eighteen species and ten genera, which are charac- 
teristic of the Temperate Zone in Michoacan, are not known from 
Guerrero. The valley of the Rio Balsas undoubtedly excludes many 
temperate species from that state but evidently a much closer affinity 
exists between Michoacan and the central Mexican plateau. On 
the other hand, the West Mexican Arid Tropical Fauna is almost 
continuous in Michoacan and Guerrero. Only three characteristic 
birds, including two species, which occur in the former state are 
lacking in the latter. Attention has been called previously to the 
poverty of the Humid Upper Tropical Zone on Cerro de Tancitaro, 
which lacks a single endemic bird as compared with nine found in 
the cloud forests of Guerrero. 

The authors are indebted to several individuals and institutions 
for assistance and co-operation in the preparation of this report. 
Much credit is due Mr. Harry Hoogstraal for his capable leadership 
of the expeditions which collected all the specimens listed. We are 


particularly grateful to him for so generously making his extensive 
field notes available to us. Numerous species were added to the 
Michoacan list through the diligence of Dr. Reed W. Fautin, orni- 
thologist of the 1941 expedition, and certain field observations made 
by him have been most useful in corroborating or supplementing 
those of the junior author. Valuable assistance in the field was 
also given by Dr. Kenneth Knight and Mr. Jerome Van Gorkom 
in 1940 and by Mr. Ralph Haag in 1941. 

For the loan of comparative material we are indebted to Dr. 
John W. Aldrich, of the Fish and Wildlife Service; Dr. Herbert 
Friedmann, of the United States National Museum; Mr. Robert T. 
Moore, of Pasadena, California; Mr. James L. Peters, of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology; and Mr. John T. Zimmer, of the American 
Museum -of Natural History. Dr. Aldrich and his assistant, Mr. 
Allen J. Duvall, have been most helpful in working out the Michoacan 
itinerary of Nelson and Goldman, and in making a survey of their 
bird collections. We are indebted also to Mr. Rudyerd Boulton, 
of Field Museum, for much valuable advice and assistance. 


Heterocnus mexicanus fremitus van Rossem and Hachisuka 
Apatzingan: 2 females, August 19 and 24. 

Cochlearius cochlearius zeledoni Ridgway 

El Capiere, Rio Tepalcatepec: 1 male, August 2. 

Plegadis (f alcinellus ?) guarauna Linnaeus 

A number of glossy ibis were observed along the Rio Tepalcatepec 
in August, 1940, by Kenneth Knight. None were collected. 

Cairina moschata Linnaeus 

Apatzingan: 1 female, August 10. 

Muscovy ducks were found only in the tierra caliente. They 
were most numerous in ponds and along streams in the tropical 
deciduous forest. A family of flightless birds was observed by Fautin 
on August 18. 

Coragyps atratus Bechstein 

Black vultures were limited to the tierra caliente and were fre- 
quently seen soaring over the arid slopes leading to the plateau 
where the ascending currents of hot air facilitated flight. They 

Field M us, urn of Natural History 

Zoology, Vol. XXII, Plate XVII 


Fig. 1. Tropical deciduous forest. Fig. 2. Semi-desert scrub with column 
Fig. 3. View toward Cerro de Tancftaro from the valley. 

Field Museum of Natural Histon 

Zoology, Vol. XXII, Plate XVIII 


Fig. 1. Pine-oak association; altitude about 5,000 feet. 

Fig. 2. Cultivated land near village of Tancitaro. 


were most abundant in the Apatzingan area in which they exceeded 
turkey vultures to a considerable extent. 

Cathartes aura aura Linnaeus 

Apatzingan: 1 male, August 8. 

Cerro de Tancitaro, 1 male, July 18. 

The western turkey vulture, Cathartes aura teter, ranges 
southward over the Mexican plateau to Michoacan but is replaced 
by the nominate race on Cerro de Tancitaro and in the adjacent 
lowlands. Measurements of the Apatzingan and Cerro de Tancitaro 
specimens: wing 500 and 487, tail 254 and 240, as compared with the 
extremes of 480-528 (wing) and 252-282 (tail) designated for teter. 

Turkey vultures occurred in the lowlands south and west of 
Cerro de Tancitaro in company with the ubiquitous black vulture 
but were far more numerous on the plateau. Although none were 
seen on the upper slopes of the mountain, it is probable that these 
vultures occur at random wherever food is available, for there is 
no evidence that altitude acts as a limiting factor in their vertical 

Chondrohierax uncinatus subsp. 

Apatzingan: 1 male, August 15. 

The complicated plumages of the hook-billed kites, involving 
varieties within phases, have been discussed in detail by Friedmann 
(1934), who recognizes two races in Mexico. Michoacan lies between 
the known ranges of these forms. The present specimen, with badly 
worn primaries and rectrices, constitutes the first specific record of 
the occurrence of uncinatus in that state. As might be expected, 
the characters of aquilonis and of the nominate race are so combined 
in this bird that it could be regarded as an individual variant of either. 
In darkness of plumage it resembles the former, but the white ventral 
bars are even narrower than are those of South American specimens 
of uncinatus which we have examined. The measurements are 
wing 302, tail 215, culmen from cere 33. 

Accipiter striatus suttoni van Rossem 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 male, August 13. 

This specimen, in immature plumage, is readily separable from 
typical velox of comparable age both on the basis of size (wing 179, 
tail 142) and of color. The under parts are somewhat paler and in 
general much redder than in velox, and broad linear stripes obscure 


the pectoral area. The immaculate chestnut or reddish thighs and 
lower flanks which characterize suttoni are particularly well marked 
in the Cerro de Tancitaro specimen. 

Buteo jaimaicensis costaricensis Ridgway 

Between Patzcuaro and Comanje: 1 male, July 10. 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 female, 2(?), July 20-August 3. 

Two of the four resident red-tailed hawks collected in the vicinity 
of Cerro de Tancitaro are melanistic and have their sub-terminal 
tail bands more pronounced than in any other specimens of costari- 
censis examined. The other two agree with typical specimens from 
Honduras and El Salvador in being uniformly dark above, sparsely 
marked below, and in having their abdomens and thighs washed with 
immaculate reddish ochraceous. 

The stomach of one hawk contained the remains of a small 
unidentified bird and a partially formed hair pellet of a rodent. 

Buteo brachyurus Vieillot 

Cerro de Tancitaro: !(?), July. 

A single immature short-tailed hawk collected by Ralph Haag 
on the plateau exhibits a striking degree of erythrism. The natural 
color of the head and dorsal parts is considerably intensified and 
flushed with reddish brown. The flanks, thighs and under wing coverts 
are so thoroughly washed with reddish chestnut as to obscure the 
normal streaks and spots of the under parts. 

Buteo nitidus plagiatus Schlegel 

Apatzingan: 3 females, August 12-21. 

This form is included in the genus Buteo for reasons which have 
been advanced by van Rossem (1934, p. 429). 

Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi Audubon 
Apatzingan: 1 male, August 22. 

Micrastur semitorquatus naso Lesson 
Apatzingan: 1 female, August 24. 

Polyborus cheriway audubonii Cassin 
Apatzingan: 1 male, August 24. 

Falco albigularis albigularis Daudin 

Ten miles south of Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 female, August 8. 


There seem to be insufficient grounds for resurrecting the northern 
race petoensis Chubb. 

Yellow breast feathers of a small bird, possibly Atlapetes pileatus 
virenticeps, were found in the stomach of this falcon. 

Ortalis vetula poliocephala Wagler 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 female, August 17. 

This specimen was a captive bird taken by the natives at San 
Juan, a village near Tancitaro. 

Philortyx fasciatus Gould 

Apatzingan: 2 males, 3 females, August 8-22. 

Two coveys of 12 to 15 birds each were seen by the junior author 
in an old field of dense herbaceous cover and brush islands near 
Apatzingan. The testes of the males were still slightly enlarged in 
August and the oviduct of one female contained a hard-shelled egg. 

Two stomachs were examined. Both contained a few small 
seeds and the remains of many leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae). One 
bird had also fed upon lepidopterous larvae. 

Cyrtonyx montezumae montezumae Vigors 
Tancitaro: 1 male, July 4. 

Jacana spinosa spinosa Linnaeus 
Apatzingan: 1 male, August 10. 

Actitis macularia Linnaeus 

Apatzingan: 1 male, August 20. 

Columba fasciata fasciata Say 

Tancitaro: 6 males, 2 females, July 21-August 4. 

Band-tailed pigeons were fairly abundant in the tierra templada 
but were concentrated principally in the pine and oak forests between 
4,500 and 6,000 feet altitude. Several small flocks, totaling approxi- 
mately twenty-five individuals, frequented a grove of tall trees near 
a watercourse two miles south of the village. 

These pigeons fed on acorns and to a considerable extent on wild 
grapes (Vitis Berlandieri). Thirty-four of the latter were found in 
the crop and gizzard of a single bird. Fully developed eggs were 
found in specimens collected by Fautin late in July. 

Scardafella squamata inca Lesson 

Apatzingan: 1 male, 1 female, August 9 and 23. 


Cerro de Tancitaro: 3 males, 1 female, July 5-30. 

Inca doves abounded in the Apatzingan area but were most 
numerous in the semi-arid thorn forest. On the plateau they were 
restricted principally to livestock corrals, where they fed on the 
seeds in cow manure. 

Columbigallina passerina pallescens Baird 

Apatzingan: 1 male, August 13. 

This species was the least common of the three small doves found 
in the tierra caliente. 

Columbigallina talpacoti eluta Bangs 
Apatzingan: 3 males, July 31-August 14. 

Leptotila verreauxi angelica Bangs and Penard 
Apatzingan: 1 female, August 8. 

Ara militaris mexicana Ridgway 

Apatzingan: 1 male, 1 female, August 10. 

Aratinga canicularis eburnirostrum Lesson 

Apatzingan: 2 males, August 8. 

This paroquet and macaws were more numerous than the other 
parrots of the lowland forests near Apatzingan. 

All species fed principally upon wild figs during August when 
observations were made. 

Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha Swainson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 3 males, July 4-22. 

Thick-billed parrots occurred at random in the Cerro de Tancitaro 
area from the lowlands to the highest reaches of the mountain. They 
were moderately abundant in the tropical deciduous forest. Observa- 
tions by both expeditions indicate that daily flights are made to 
the pine forests of the higher slopes for pifion nuts each morning and 
evening. The occurrence of thick-billed parrots in the Cerro de 
Tancitaro area constitutes, as far as we are aware, the first record 
for Michoacan and represents a considerable southwestern extension 
of range. 

In addition to pifion nuts, the fruit of a local cherry tree (Prunus 
Capuli) was eaten, and one specimen contained seeds of an unde- 
termined leguminous plant. 


Amazona finschi finschi Sclater 

Apatzingan: 2 females, August 9 and 13. 

Finsch's parrots congregated in large flocks in the deciduous 
forest near Apatzingan but were not seen elsewhere. 

Piaya cayana mexicana Swainson 

Apatzingan: 3 females, 1 male, August 7-20. 

Squirrel cuckoos were restricted to lowland forested areas, where 
their skulking habits permitted only occasional observation. 

A stomach which was examined contained four small lepidop- 
terous larvae, the chitinous remains of a beetle, and fleshy parts of 
a small fruit. 

Crotophaga sulcirostris sulcirostris Swainson 
Apatzingan: 1 male, August 9. 

Geococcyx velox melanchima Moore 

Acahuato: 1 female, August 17. 

A specimen collected in the chaparral between Acahuato and 
Apatzingan, at an altitude of 2,000 feet, agrees in all salient characters 
with two birds from Tuxpan, Jalisco. The affinities of roadrunners 
from the highlands of Michoacan are not known with certainty, but 
they may be expected to show some degree of intergradation with 
velox of east-central Mexico. 

Suitable plant associations rather than altitude apparently con- 
trol the local distribution of this species. Members of the 1940 
expedition saw an immature captive bird which had been taken on 
the northern side of the mountain in an area of open, mixed forest. 
In July of the following year Robert Traub observed a roadrunner 
at 8,000 feet altitude on Cerro de Tancitaro at the edge of a corn field 
and the upper limits of the cloud forest. 

Tyto alba pratincola Bonaparte 
Apatzingan: 1 male, August 5. 

Otus trichopsis trichopsis Wagler 

Tancitaro: 1 female, August 14. 

A single specimen of spotted screech owl, representing an extreme 
rufous phase, was taken on the plateau at an altitude of approxi- 
mately 6,500 feet. Specimens in comparable plumage are uncommon 
in collections and those available exhibit a marked diversity of 


pattern. Two Jalisco birds examined (Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nos. 
105339, 105340) are more streaked above, lighter below and more 
barred generally than the Tancitaro specimen. The latter is more 
intensely rufous below with heavier black streaks totally lacking in 
crossbars. The measurements are wing 142, tail 67. 

Spotted owls are nocturnal and largely insectivorous. The re- 
mains of four beetles (Scarabaeidae), a roach (Blattidae) and two 
indeterminate insect larvae constituted the stomach contents of the 
Tancitaro specimen. 

Bubo virginianus mayensis Nelson 
Tancitaro: 1 male, July 8. 

Glaucidium minutissimum 1 gnoma Wagler 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 2 males, 3 females, June 28-August 3. 

Two specimens of the intermediate phase and three of the gray 
phase collected on Cerro de Tancitaro are in immature plumage. 
The grayish-brown pileum of each is more or less spotted with whitish 
on the forehead and contrasts sharply with the uniformly brown 
back. An interesting progression of plumage is discernible in this 
small series. Two specimens collected in June are almost devoid of 
forehead spotting but have their sides and breasts so heavily washed 
with rich, unmarked brown as to encroach upon the streaked under 
parts. July specimens exhibit increased spotting of the pileum 
coincident with a vague spotting on the sides of the breast. A single 
specimen collected August 3 approaches adult plumage in having 
the pileum and sides of the breast more strongly spotted than in 
those birds taken earlier and the pileum is less sharply defined 
from the unmarked back. All five specimens have either six or seven 

Pygmy owls apparently occur only at the higher elevations on 
Cerro de Tancitaro, the present series being collected between 6,200 
and 10,800 feet altitude. 

Two stomachs were examined, one containing small portions 
of undetermined beetles and the other the remains of a small skink 

Ciccaba virgata squamulata Bonaparte 
Apatzingan: 1 female, August 10. 

1 The apparent conspecificity of gnoma and minutissimum has been clarified 
by Griscom (1931), whose nomenclature we adopt. 


Nyctibius griseus mexicanus Nelson 

A specimen collected by natives near Tancitaro was examined by 
Joel Canby, mammalogist of the 1940 expedition, but unfortunately 
was not preserved. 

Nyctidromus albicollis yucatanensis Nelson 
Apatzingan: 1 female, 1 male, August 2 and 14. 

Aeronautes saxatalis nigrior Dickey and van Rossem 
Cerro de Tancitaro: 4 males, 2(?), July 29-August 13. 
White-throated swifts from Cerro de Tancitaro are readily sepa- 
rable from specimens of the northern race on the basis of characters 
designated by Dickey and van Rossem in their description of the 
present form. No evidence of intergradation with A. s. saxatalis 
is apparent in our series although the two races are said to merge 
in central Mexico. 

A flock of about thirty swifts inhabited the ruins of an old Spanish 
cathedral at the edge of Tancitaro and young birds were captured 
by natives late in June and during the early part of July. Small 
flocks of adult swifts were frequently observed in flight above the 
plateau and upward to the summit of the mountain. None were 
reported below 4,000 feet altitude. 

Saucerottia beryllina viola Miller 

Tancitaro: 4 males, 4 females, !(?), June 25-July 30. 

This was the most abundant humming bird on the plateau. The 
orange blossoms of an epiphyte (Psittacanthus calyculatus) were its 
primary source of food during the period of observation, and trees 
which bore this growth were almost invariably frequented by several 

Cynanthus latirostris propinquus Moore 

Apatzingan: 1 male, August 12. 

The single specimen available from the Cerro de Tancitaro area 
indicates some degree of intergradation with magicus but must be 
referred to propinquus on the basis of its much bluer posterior 
under parts, darker and less golden green upper parts and absence 
of any conspicuous break in coloration between the throat and 
jugulum. Its relationship to propinquus apparently is similar to 
that of the three specimens from Lake Cuitzeo, Michoacan, discussed 
by Moore (1939a, pp. 57-58). Three males from Guaracha, a locality 


between Zamora and Lake Chapala, which we have examined, are 
similarly intermediate. 

Hylocharis leucotis leucotis Vieillot 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 4 males, 3 females, June 23-July 30. 

White-eared humming birds occurred on the plateau but, like 
the following species, were more abundant in the yellow pine-bunch 
grass association above 10,000 feet altitude, where the flowering 
lupine (Lupinus persistens) was a common source of food. At lower 
elevations both species resorted to the orange blossoms of an epiphyte 
(Psittacanthus calyculatus). 

Cyanolaemus clemenciae clemenciae Lesson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 3 males, 4 females, June 29-July 24. 

Lampornis amethystinus brevirostris Ridgway 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 male, 1 female, July 11 and August 1. 

Trogonurus mexicanus Swainson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 4 males, 1 female, July 2-19. 

Mexican trogons were observed with about equal frequency in 
a dense pine forest at 6,500 feet altitude and in the damp, epiphyte- 
festooned cloud forest. They are distinctly birds of the forest crown, 
seldom being seen less than thirty or forty feet above the ground. 
During the early morning hours the males, particularly, often seek 
exposed perches well above the forest crown. 

Trogons are largely insectivorous but one stomach which was 
examined contained the remnants of a small fruit in addition to a 
large lepidopterous larva and the elytra of a beetle. 

Trogon citreolus Gould 

Apatzingan: 3 males, 2 females, August 6-22. 

Megaceryle torquata torquata Linnaeus 
Apatzingan: 1 male, August 14. 

Chloroceryle amazona Latham 
Apatzingan: 1 female, August 12. 

Chloroceryle americana septentrionalis Sharpe 
Apatzingan: 2 males, 1 female, August 7-21. 


Momotus mexicanus mexicanus Swainson 

Apatzingan: 1 male, 2 females, August 7-18. 

The three birds collected at Apatzingan are indistinguishable 
from Jalisco specimens which we have examined and may be matched 
equally well by a series from Guerrero and Oaxaca. Continued 
recognition of a supposedly larger and deeper-colored race (saturatus) 
of Michoacan, Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Chiapas is insupportable in 
the absence of constant and geographically correlated characters. 

Colaptes cafer mexicanus Swainson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 male, 4 females, July 17-22. 
This well-marked race of red-shafted flicker shows little prefer- 
ence in its altitudinal range. It avoids the lowlands but individuals 
were collected or seen from the plateau upward to 11,000 feet on 
Cerro de Tancitaro. 

Ants constitute a considerable portion of this flicker's diet but 
miscellaneous larvae and the chitinous remains of beetles were also 
found in three of the four stomachs examined. 

Centurus chrysogenys flavinuchus Ridgway 
Apatzingan: 4 males, 1 female, August 8-13. 

Balanosphyra formicivora formicivora Swainson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 3 males, 3 females, July 20-August 5. 
Ant-eating woodpeckers were among the most conspicuous ele- 
ments in the bird life of Cerro de Tancitaro. They were particularly 
abundant on the plateau, but also ranged upward in the pine forest 
to an elevation of about 9,000 feet. In the latter habitat their 
activities were generally confined to the upper portions of the large 

Grit was conspicuous in all five stomachs examined, twenty- two 
pieces being counted in a single specimen. On the plateau these 
woodpeckers were seen feeding on a large variety of choke-cherry 
(Prunus Capuli), but miscellaneous insects were also included in 
the stomach contents. 

Phloeoceastes guatemalensis nelsoni Ridgway 
Apatzingan: 2 males, August 1 and 16. 

Dryobates villosus jardinii Malherbe 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 5 males, 1 female, June 25-August 6. 


Hairy woodpeckers occurred at random from the plateau upward 
to 11,300 feet on Cerro de Tancitaro, but were most numerous in 
areas of deciduous forest. 

Insect larvae apparently constitute the principal food of this 
species, for a single pupa was the only exception found in the three 
stomachs examined. 

Dryobates scalaris azelus Oberholser 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 male, 2 females, August 5 and 6. 

Dryobates arizonae fraterculus Ridgway 
Tancitaro: 1 female, July 26. 

Xiphorhynchus flavigaster mentalis Lawrence 
Apatzingan: 1 male, August 14. 

Lepidocolaptes leucogaster leucogaster Swainson 
Tancitaro: 2 males, 3 females, 2(?), June 27-August 5. 
White-striped woodhewers apparently were restricted to the 
plateau where they occurred with equal abundance in the unmixed 
stands of pine forest and in the pine-oak association near Tancitaro. 
The specialized feeding habits of this woodhewer limit its activities 
to the lower portions of tree trunks, which are seldom ascended 
above twenty-five feet. 

Miscellaneous insects and chitinous parts of small beetles com- 
posed the bulk of the four stomach contents examined. 

Attila spadiceus pacificus Hellmayr 
Apatzingan: 1 female, August 15. 
Tancitaro: 1 male, July 26. 

Tyrannus vociferans vociferans Swainson 

Tancitaro: 1 male, August 15. 

The reduced measurements (wing 116, tail 80, culmen 16) and 
immature plumage of this specimen suggest that Cassin's kingbird 
breeds in Michoacan. 

Tyrannus melancholicus occidentalis Hartert and Goodson 
Apatzingan: 1 male, August 11. 

Tyrannus crassirostris crassirostris Swainson 
Apatzingan: 1 female, 1 male, August 13 and 15. 


Myiodynastes luteiventris luteiventris Sclater 
Apatzingan: 1 male, 1 female, August 10 and 15. 

Pitangus sulphuratus derbianus Kaup 

Apatzingan: 2 males, July 12 and August 18. 

Myiarchus tuberculifer querulus Nelson 

Apatzingan: 2 females, August 13 and 15. 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 male, 2 females, June 27-July 23. 

Birds from the Cerro de Tancitaro area are indistinguishable 
from four specimens of querulus collected at Tuxpan, Jalisco, and 
Iguala, Guerrero. 

Querulous flycatchers have been recorded in the mountains as 
well as lowlands of Michoacan (Los Reyes, Ahuacana, Patzcuaro, 
Apatzingan, and Cerro de Tancitaro) and may be regarded as the 
resident race. 

Myiochanes pertinax pertinax Cabanis and Heine 

Acahuato: 1 male, August 20. 

Apatzingan: 1 female, August 7. 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 3 males, 1 female, July 28-August 5. 

This pewee occasionally occurs in the lowlands but throughout 
its range it is primarily a bird of the mountains. It was usually 
associated with the open pine groves of the plateau. 

Empidonax minimus Baird 

Apatzingan: 1 female, August 12. 

Empidonax difficilis occidentalis Nelson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 3 males, 2 females, 2(1), July 6-25. 

Two unsexed specimens collected on the plateau and at 10,200 

feet altitude July 20 and July 25 respectively are in immature 

plumage and probably came from nests in the vicinity. On the basis 

of data now available we agree with Moore (1940, p. 28) that the 

breeding birds of southern Mexico should be referred to this race. 

Our field records for this flycatcher include elevations from 6,000 

to 10,600 feet. There is no evidence that it discriminates between 

plant associations, for specimens were collected in such widely 

divergent habitats as the cloud forest and the pine-oak association. 

Empidonax fulvifrons rubicundus Cabanis and Heine 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 2 males, 1 female, June 27 and August 5. 


Ruddy flycatchers were most frequently seen in open, grassy 
areas on the plateau where they perched on low shrubs and weed 
stems a foot or two above the ground. 

One specimen had eaten a small orthopteron, two beetles, a 
weevil and a hymenopteron. A second stomach examined contained 
an unidentified dipteron and considerable chitinous debris. 

Mitrephanes phaeocercus phaeocercus Sclater 
Cerro de Tancitaro: 3 males, 2(?), June 26-August 5. 
Michoacan and Morelos constitute an area of intergradation 

between phaeocercus and tenuirostris Brewster, but birds from the 

Cerro de Tancitaro area are unquestionably more closely related 

to the former. 

Unlike the last species, this flycatcher usually selects exposed 

perches on the treetops from which to dart out on short flights for 


Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 2 males, July 19 and 24. 

Although the available evidence is not conclusive, it is probable 
that additional observations will definitely establish the barn swallow 
as a breeding species in Michoacan. Both specimens listed above 
have the short tail and somewhat dull plumage of birds of the year, 
but admittedly were capable of strong flight. 

Iridoprocne albilinea albilinea Lawrence 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 female, June 27. 

The occurrence of a single immature specimen of this typically 
coastal species far inland is most surprising. The Rio Tepalcatepec 
could have served as a natural route of migration from the lowlands. 

Corvus corax sinuatus Wagler 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 male, August 15. 

Ravens were fairly abundant up to 6,000 feet but were most 
numerous below in arid areas of sparse vegetation. 

A well-packed stomach which was examined contained Scarabae- 
idae (75 per cent), fifty- three seeds of a grape (Vitis) and a few 
kernels of corn. 

Calocitta formosa formosa Swainson 
Apatzingan: 1 male, !(?), August 3 and 9. 


Magpie-jays were observed only in the semi-desert scrub associa- 
tion near Apatzingan. A stomach which was examined contained 
80 per cent vegetable matter in the form of small seeded fruits 
and 20 per cent miscellaneous insect bits. 

Aphelocoma sordida sieberii Wagler 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 4 males, 2 females, July 14-28. 
The local distribution of Sieber's jay, unlike that of the following 
species, coincides with the distribution of pine forests to which it 
is restricted. A bold and raucous bird wherever found, this jay 
ranged from the plateau up to approximately 11,000 feet. 

An unidentified nut was the predominant food in four of the 
stomachs examined. One bird had also eaten a nestling of uncertain 
identification. A fifth stomach contained only the remnants of 
miscellaneous insects. 

Cyanocitta stelleri coronata Swainson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 2 males, 4 females, July 6-26. 
Two races of the present species undoubtedly intergrade in 
Michoacan. Ridgway has called attention to specimens from 
Patzcuaro which indicate, in slightly reduced size and increased 
blueness of the crest, a definite trend towards C. s. coronata. Cerro 
de Tancitaro birds show a progression of this tendency and may be 
considered to occupy a position practically intermediate between 
that race and C. s. azteca. No clear picture can be gained from the 
measurements of our small series but a closer affinity with C. s. 
coronata is indicated by an evaluation of other characters. A strik- 
ing feature of the Cerro de Tancitaro specimens, which we have not 
found in birds from other localities, is the considerable reduction 
of the white patch over the eye and absence of a white spot on the 
lower eyelid. 

Blue-crested jays were restricted almost exclusively to the cloud 
forest, although one specimen was collected in the upper pine-oak 

Parus sclateri sclateri Kleinschmidt 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 5 males, 2 females, July 2-31. 

Mexican chickadees were abundant in the pine forests at all 
altitudes above 3,000 feet. It is remarkable that this active species 
has not been reported in Michoacan before. 


Psaltiparus minimus melanotis Hartlaub 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 female, August 6. 

A band of approximately twenty-five black-eared bush-tits ranged 
over an area of scattered bushes and small deciduous trees on the 

Sitta carolinensis mexicana Nelson and Palmer 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 2 males, 2 females, August 5 and 16. 
Additional specimens of carolinensis are needed from Michoacan 
to determine accurately the status of Cerro de Tancitaro birds. In 
size, as well as geographically, the specimens listed above lie between 
kinneari and umbrosa, recently described by van Rossem. All 
measurements equal or exceed the maximum of the former but only 
partially satisfy the minimum requirements of the latter. Cerro de 
Tancitaro specimens are very slightly lighter above than umbrosa 
and in this respect resemble mexicana. It is probable that an 
adequate series of birds from this area will indicate the presence of 
an intermediate population linking the latter races, but not suffi- 
ciently differentiated for subspecific designation. 

White-breasted nuthatches were restricted to the plateau where 
they were fairly abundant in the pine-oak forest. Nesting apparently 
ended early in July, for family groups were observed by the middle 
of the month. 

Sitta pygmaea flavinucha van Rossem 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 4 males, 4 females, July 17-21. 

Unlike the last species, pygmy nuthatches were strictly limited 

to the pine forests of the upper slopes. One specimen was collected 

at 9,000 feet, but seven others were taken above 11,000 feet in the 

pine-bunch grass association. 

Certhia familiaris guerrerensis van Rossem 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 2 males, 3 females, July 19- August 5. 
We have not had an opportunity to examine creepers from Jalisco 
but no significant difference can be found between our small series 
and four specimens from the Sierra Madre del Sur, Guerrero. Hell- 
mayr includes Michoacan in the range of alticola but Cerro de 
Tancitaro specimens are readily separable on the basis of their 
smaller size (males: wing 60-63, tail 59-60, culmen 13-16) and much 
darker under parts. 


Creepers occurred at all elevations, from the plateau to approxi- 
mately 11,000 feet. They were fairly abundant in most zonal 
associations but none were found in the cloud forest. 

Cinclus mexicanus mexicanus Swainson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 2 females, !(?), July 3 and 7. 
An examination of a large series of Mexican dippers collected over 
a period of years reveals a degree of plumage-fading not sufficiently 
emphasized heretofore. In very old skins the plain sepia of the head 
and neck becomes a dull brown wash which extends over and 
practically replaces the original clear slate color of the back. Con- 
sequently, no line of color demarcation between the neck and back 
remains. Some fading is to be expected under the best conditions 
of storage, but few birds deteriorate as rapidly in this respect as 
dippers. Among relatively fresh skins it is possible, on the basis of 
fading, to separate those collected at intervals of only two years. 
Therefore, consideration of probable new races of mexicanus should 
always be made on the basis of comparison with specimens of com- 
parable age. 

Dippers were restricted to the fast-flowing canyon streams of 
the cloud forest. 

Heleodytes megalopterus megalopterus Lafresnaye 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 4 males, 5 females, !(?), June 28-July 26. 
This cactus wren was seen only in the cloud forest. A band of 
nine individuals, probably constituting a single family, was fre- 
quently observed during the last week of July near a camp main- 
tained at 8,500 feet. Their feeding activities extended from the 
forest floor to the mid-portions of the higher trees, but epiphytic 
plants were explored with particular energy. During the post- 
breeding season this wren becomes relatively furtive and silent but 
occasionally startles one with its characteristic rattling din. 

Heleodytes gularis Sclater 

Tancitaro: 3 males, August 7 and 16. 

Some recent authors prefer to regard gularis and jocosus as con- 
specific on the basis of the relatively minor differences which are 
observable in the adults. This view is untenable, however, if one 
properly evaluates the genetic implications suggested by the strik- 
ingly dissimilar immature birds. These are no less important than 
adults in indicating relationships, and the origins of respective popu- 


lations. In the light of modern genetics certain basic differences, 
including the presence of ventral spotting in jocosus, and its absence 
in immature specimens of gularis, indicate the introduction (or loss) 
of genetic characters so distinct as to belie the fortuitous resemblance 
of the adults. We do not hesitate to grant gularis specific rank. 

Thryothorus pleurostictus nisorius Sclater 
Apatzingan: 4 males, 1 female, August 10-23. 

Thryomanes bewickii percnus Oberholser 

Tancitaro: 1 male, 2 females, July 18-31. 

The large size (male: wing 62, tail 61, culmen 15) and dark 
coloration of Tancitaro specimens readily distinguish them from 
murinus of south-central Mexico. Jalisco wrens have not been 
recorded from Michoacan before, but a straggler was collected at 
Puente Colorado, Puebla, on August 3, 1868, by Professor Sumichrast. 

Troglodytes brunneicollis colimae van Rossem 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 6 males, 4 females, June 30-July 28. 
Our series of fresh breeding specimens agrees in all intrinsic char- 
acters with a December male from the type locality. This well- 
defined race apparently is a bird of the higher mountains. A single 
specimen was observed on the plateau but these wrens were most 
abundant in the pine-bunch grass association above 10,000 feet 

Henicorhina leucophrys festiva Nelson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 male, July 31. 

Wood wrens are among the best indicators of the Humid Upper 
Tropical Zone. They occurred only in the cloud forest on Cerro 
de Tancitaro and were excessively difficult to observe in the low 
shrubs and ground cover which constituted their principal habitat. 
The song of this species compares favorably in strength and clarity 
of tone with that of any other wren and frequently was the first 
or only indication of its presence. 

Catherpes mexicanus mexicanus Swainson 

Canyon wrens inhabited the ridges of volcanic rock and old 
stone fences on the plateau, but unfortunately none were collected 
by either expedition. 

Toxostoma curvirostre curvirostre Swainson 

Tancitaro: 3 males, 1 female, 2(?), June 24-August 3. 




Field Museum of Natural History 

Zoology, Vol. XXII, Plate XX 


Fig. 1. Open pine, with high bunch grass; altitude 10,000 feet. Fig. 2. Fir-alder forest, upper limit 
of cloud forest. Fig. 3. Open pine forest, TancJtaro plateau; altitude about 4,500 feet. 


The roadside thickets of agave, thorny bushes, and small trees 
on the plateau were the favorite habitat of the curve-billed thrasher. 

Two stomachs which were examined contained several curculionid 
beetles, a cricket, undetermined larvae, and numerous fine seeds. 

Melanotis caerulescens effuticus Bangs and Penard 
Tancitaro: 1 male, 4 females, July 30-August 5. 
Griscom refers specimens from Chilpancingo, Guerrero, to the 
present race but states (1934, p. 396) that they are slightly gradient 
toward caerulescens of eastern and south-central Mexico. Our birds 
show no divergence from typical effuticus, however, and are indis- 
tinguishable from a series of ten Jalisco and Nayarit specimens 
with which they have been compared. 

The habitat of the blue mockingbird is similar to that of the 
curve-billed thrasher. It is a shy and elusive bird and apparently 
is restricted to the plateau, where trailside thickets and drainage 
ditches are particularly favored. Singing perches are usually selected 
in the upper parts of densely foliated trees so that detailed observa- 
tion is impossible. This species is a versatile songster and has a 
repertoire somewhat reminiscent of the catbird. 

A quantity of small berries, wild grapes, a lepidopterous larva, a 
small wasp, and a beetle were found in the three stomachs examined. 

Turdus migratorius permixtus Griscom 

Acahuato: 1 female, August 17. 

Tancitaro: 3 males, 1 female, June 30-August 5. 

Breeding specimens of migratorius from the Cerro de Tancftaro 
area agree in small size and dark coloration with the birds of Guerrero. 
The known range of permixtus is thus extended northwestward by 
more than two hundred miles. 

Turdus rufo-palliatus rufo-palliatus Lafresnaye 
Apatzingan: 1 female, 1 male, August 12 and 15. 

Turdus assimilis renominatus Miller and Griscom 
Apatzingan: 1 male, August 15. 
Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 male, July 6. 

Myadestes obscurus occidentalis Stejneger 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 2 males, 3 females, July 15-August 16. 


Pine-forested ridges and underbrush of the higher mountain slopes 
are the usual habitat of this remarkable songster. Solitaires were 
not observed above 8,000 feet but they were fairly numerous in 
suitable situations at lower elevations. 

Catharus occidentalis fulvescens Nelson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 4 males, 2 females, July 2-27. 
Members of this genus are among the wariest of tropical birds. 
The present species finds optimum conditions in the decaying 
vegetation, rank undergrowth, and other ground cover of the cloud 
forest and thus occupies a niche filled by the following species on the 

Catharus aurantiirostris clarus Jouy 

Tancitaro: 2 males, 3 females, June 27-August 5. 

Sialia mexicana australis Nelson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 4 males, 3 females, July 20-August 16. 

Nelson's bluebirds were most abundant in the pine-oak associa- 
tion on the plateau but three specimens were collected in the open 
pine forest above 11,000 feet altitude. A specimen taken on 
July 20 had left its nest not more than ten days before. 

Polioptila plumbea bairdi Ridgway 

Apatzingan: 2 males, August 18 and 24. 

Regulus regulus clarus Dearborn 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 female, June 29. 

The single immature specimen collected in the cloud forest 
apparently constitutes the first specific record of a kinglet in 
Michoacan. In the absence of breeding adults from this area we 
assign this bird to clarus with reservations. 

Ptilogonys cinereus pallescens Griscom 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 3 males, 1 female, July 22-August 17. 

Our small series, in molting and worn plumage, differs from 
specimens of cinereus collected in Vera Cruz and Mexico and may 
be regarded as intermediates. They appear to be nearer pallescens 
of Guerrero but an adequate series from Cerro de Tancitaro is needed 
to determine the actual relationship. 


There seems to be no previous record of silky flycatchers in 
Michoacan. They occurred on the plateau in wandering bands of 
five or six individuals. 

Vireolanius melitophrys melitophrys Du Bus 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 female, June 30. 

The occurrence of a shrike-vireo in Michoacan, almost two 
hundred miles distant from the nearest previous record, is most 
unexpected. Subspecific determination has been made arbitrarily 
in the absence of satisfactory comparative material. 

Vireo button! mexicanus Ridgway 
Tancitaro: 2 females, July 16 and 17. 

Vireo belli! medius Oberholser 

Apatzingan: 1 female, August 13. 

Bell's vireo winters over the greater part of Mexico but there is 
no previous record of the occurrence of medius, an excellently 
differentiated race, south of Guanajuato. 

Vireo solitarius repetens van Rossem 

Tancitaro: 1 female, August 7. 

The proportions (wing 82, tail 57) of our Michoacan specimen 
agree with those of Guerrero birds. It is further distinguished from 
a series of Arizona specimens (plumbeus) by its much greener flanks, 
back, and rump and hence may be regarded as a typical example 
of the long-winged, short-tailed race (repetens) reported heretofore 
only from Jalisco, Guerrero, and Oaxaca. 

Vireo virescens flavoviridis Cassin 

Apatzingan: 2 females, August 13 and 14. 

Vireo gilvus subsp. 

Tancitaro: 1 female, July 26. 

The worn plumage and unsatisfactory condition of this specimen 
preclude accurate subspecific determination. Its measurements 
(wing 74, tail 52, culmen 11) conform with those of brewsteri and of 
the nominate race but the clear brown pileum and upper back are 
unlike any examples of the species which we have seen. Early 
migrants could reach Michoacan late in July but it is more likely 
that a large, brownish resident race exists there. 


Diglossa baritula baritula Wagler 

Tancitaro: 2 males, 1 female, June 23 and August 7. 

Mniotilta varia Linnaeus 

Tancitaro: 1 male, August 7. 

Vermivora superciliosa palliata van Rossem 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 4 males, !(?), July 3-29. 

The grayer (less greenish) flanks and generally paler coloration 
distinguish Cerro de Tancitaro specimens from a series of mexicana 
at our disposal. The extent of the yellow abdominal area, considered 
important by van Rossem, is so complicated by the "make" of 
individual skins that we find it useless as a diagnostic character. 

All races of this species are birds of the highlands. On Cerro 
de Tancitaro it was most abundant in the open pine forest and pine- 
alder association above 8,000 feet altitude. 

Compsothlypis pitiayumi pulchra Brewster 

Apatzingan: 1 male, August 19. 

Our single Michoacan specimen, in worn plumage, is somewhat 
darker (duller) above than typical examples from Sonora, but other- 
wise agrees with pulchra in all diagnostic characters. There is no 
previous record of this well-marked race south of Jalisco (Barranca 
Ibarra), so its status in Michoacan is uncertain. 

Peucedramus olivaceus olivaceus Giraud 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 5 males, 1 female, 2(?), July 17-August 7. 

The variability of this species has been demonstrated by Miller 
and Griscom (1925, pp. 8-11) but their recognition of a supposedly 
small western race, jaliscensis, seems unjustified in the absence of 
a reasonably stable character. Specimens from Jalisco are said to 
differ from typical olivaceus only in size, being (male) wing 72-76, 
tail 51.1-53, culmen 10-10.6. However, the wings of ten males 
(olivaceus) from Cofre de Perote, Vera Cruz, measured by Hellmayr, 
varied from 74-78 mm. Theoretically, Michoacan lies well within 
the range of jaliscensis, but the measurements of our five males 
(wing 76-77, tail 51-54, culmen 10-11) undermine still further the 
concept of a distinct western race. 

Olive warblers occurred in open pine forests from the plateau to 
the summit of Cerro de Tancitaro. They were most abundant at 
higher altitudes in the yellow pine-bunch grass association. 


Dendroica occidentalis Townsend 

Tancitaro: 1 male, 1 female, August 16. 

Myioborus miniatus miniatus Swainson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 4 males, June 28-July 30. 

All races of miniatus are excellent indicators of the Humid Upper 
Tropical Zone. The shrubs and undergrowth within pine forests 
of the plateau generally harbored this species and a few individuals 
were noted as high as 8,200 feet altitude, near the upper limits of 
the pine-alder-fir association. 

Ergaticus ruber ruber Swainson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 4 males, 3 females, !(?), July 6-25. 

Red warblers are resident in the coniferous forests between 8,000 
and 9,600 feet altitude. 

Basil eu tor us belli clarus Ridgway 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 male, 4 females, June 28-July 31. 

No conclusive evidence that Cerro de Tancitaro birds differ 
intrinsically from typical belli can be found in the limited compara- 
tive material at our disposal. However, Wetm ore's review of the 
species (1941, pp. 572-573) indicates the necessity of correlating 
individual color range with seasonal variation in evaluating racial 
distinctions, so we have accepted his determination of Michoacan 

This active warbler was restricted to the cloud forest, where it 
seldom ventured from the dense vegetation of the forest floor. 

Cassiculus melanicterus Bonaparte 

Apatzingan: 3 males, 1 female, August 11-18. 

Mexican caciques were concentrated in the tropical deciduous 
forest and among the large trees in the irrigated country south of 

Cassidix mexicanus mexicanus Gmelin 

Apatzingan: 1 female, August 13. 

Tancitaro: 1 female, August 17. 

A distinctly smaller form (obscurus) inhabits the coast district of 
western Mexico from Nayarit and Colima south to Guerrero. It 
has not been recorded in Michoacan specifically but undoubtedly 
supersedes the present race southwest of the Cerro de Tancitaro 


area. The demarcation between the ranges of obscurus and mexicanus 
is not known in detail but certainly altitude is not an isolating 
factor. The former occurs on the coast and also at Chilpancingo, 
Guerrero, approximately 4,000 feet above sea level, and the latter 
has a vertical distribution no less extensive. 

Icterus spurius Linnaeus 

Apatzingan: 2 males, 1 female, August 12 and 23. 

Icterus wagleri wagleri Sclater 
Acahuato: 1 male, August 17. 

Icterus pustulatus pustulatus Wagler 

Apatzingan: 5 males, 4 females, August 9-21. 

Scarlet-headed orioles from Apatzingan agree with an excellent 
series of Guerrero birds in Field Museum and give no indication of 
gradation toward microstictus as might be expected. 

Tanagra musica elegantissima Bonaparte 
Tancitaro: 1 male, June 23. 

Piranga flava hepatica Swainson 

Tancitaro: 4 males, July 22-August 6. 

Piranga bidentata bidentata Swainson 

Tancitaro: 2 males, 1 female, July 17-August 6. 

Swainson's tanager is a subtropical form which, like the preceding 

species, was noted only in the open pine groves and pine-oak forests 

on the plateau. 

Hedymeles melanocephalus maculatus Audubon 
Tancitaro: 3 males, 2 females, June 24-August 6. 

Passerina versicolor subsp. 

Apatzingan: 2 males, August 12 and 13. 

Our specimens from the semi-desert scrub area near Apatzingan 
agree in size (wing 64, tail 50-53) with purpurascens of Guerrero, 
Morelos, and Guatemala but are in such worn plumage that sub- 
specific determination is impractical. There are no data on the 
breeding population, but Michoacan lies within the migration range 
of the nominate race, and adjoins that of dickeyae and purpurascens, 
so exceptional care should be exercised in identifying all specimens 
from that state. 


Passerina leclancherii leclancherii Lafresnaye 
Apatzingan: 2 males, August 10 and 24. 

Hesperiphona abeillei abeillei Lesson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 male, July 8. 

Abeille's grosbeak is a bird of the highlands, known heretofore 
only from the states of Mexico (?), Vera Cruz, Puebla, and Oaxaca. 
The Michoacan specimen is in immature plumage and represents 
an unexpected westward range extension of more than two hundred 

Carpodacus mexicanus coccineus Moore 

Tancitaro: 7 males, 3 females, June 23-August 7. 
The taxonomy and relationships of house finches in Mexico have 
been clarified in several recent papers by Moore, who regards 
Patzcuaro (Michoacan) specimens as intergrades between the present 
race and centralis of Guanajuato. It follows that Tancitaro birds 
are similarly intermediate. Five adult males from the plateau are 
indistinguishable in appearance from a series from Tuxpan, Jalisco, 
but approach centralis in size; wing 81-82, tail 61-63. 

Volatinia jacarina diluta van Rossem 

Apatzingan: 3 males, August 11 and 20. 

The characters which are said to separate diluta from atronitens 
of eastern Mexico and Central America are evident only in females, 
young males, and adult males in winter plumage. We have not seen 
sufficient Mexican specimens in these critical plumages to form an 
independent opinion on the advisability of recognizing a western 
race, but regard it with suspicion. The relationship between the 
grassquits of Mexico, Central America, and northern South America 
is not yet clear; in fact, interesting data presented by Hellmayr 
(1938, pp. 254-255) indicates so great a degree of individual variation 
and instability among these birds as to cast doubt on their subspecific 

Spinus pinus macropterus Bonaparte 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 male, 1 female, July 21 and 24. 

Pine siskins were restricted to the higher reaches of Cerro de Tan- 
citaro, being most numerous in open pine forest above 10,000 feet. 

Spinus notatus griscomi van Rossem 
Tancitaro: 1 male, June 27. 


Loxia curvirostra Strickland! Ridgway 

Tancftaro: 2 males, 3 females, !(?), June 25-August 5. 

Mexican crossbills were observed only on the plateau in the pine- 
oak forest (4,500-6,000 ft. alt.) and in the vicinity of the village. 
Several specimens were collected near the cathedral. The absence 
hitherto of this species from the known fauna of Michoacan is further 
indication of the limited field work done in that state. 

Atlapetes pileatus pileatus Wagler 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 5 males, 2 females, !(?), June 23-July 28. 

This finch was abundant on the plateau and ranged upward at 
least to 8,600 feet. 

Atlapetes torquatus virenticeps Bonaparte 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 1 male, 3 females, !(?), July 1-30. 

Arremonops rufivirgatus sumichrasti Sharpe 
Apatzingan: 1 male, 1 female, August 20. 

Pipilo ocai 1 nigrescens Salvin and Godman 

Tancitaro: 5 males, 2 females, 2(?), June 22-August 6. 
The presence in Michoacan of a breeding population of towhees 
combining characters of Pipilo ocai and of P. macronyx has caused 
confusion for many years. Michoacan birds were first recognized 
as a distinct entity in 1889 by Salvin and Godman, who described 
Chamaeospiza nigrescens on the basis of a pair of specimens collected 
at Patzcuaro. Ridgway (1901, p. 408) accepted the specificity of 
nigrescens but advanced the opinion that it might prove to be merely 
the result of hybridization between the Pipilo torquatus (=ocai) 
and P. macronyx groups. In support of this view, subsequently 
adopted by most authors, Hellmayr (1938, p. 454) states that "eight 
specimens (from Michoacan, Vera Cruz, and Puebla) form an almost 
unbroken chain between macronyx and torquatus, and clearly indicate 

The close relationship between these species is evident. Some 
degree of hybridization between them undoubtedly occurs, but 
analysis of their present distribution refutes the concept that in- 
dividual Michoacan specimens are fortuitous hybrids. No race of 
macronyx or of ocai other than nigrescens occurs in that state, nor 

1 Priority of ocai over torquatus has been established by van Rossem (1940, 
pp. 173-174). 


have birds of the nigrescens type been found elsewhere. The latter 
are composite in appearance, and exhibit considerable individual 
variation of certain characters, but there is not the slightest difficulty 
in separating Michoacan specimens from all others. 

In order to determine the affinities of this interesting form the au- 
thors assembled all available specimens from Michoacan (thirty-three) 
for direct comparison with eighty specimens representing all known 
races of macronyx and ocai. Michoacan birds (nigrescens) resemble 
the latter in general pattern but may be distinguished by the vestigial 
nature of their white gular patch and by the absence of a superciliary 
line. Of the thirty-three Michoacan specimens examined, three 
show no trace of white on the throat and only one adult, collected 
at Patamban in January, 1903 (No. 185076, coll. of the Fish and 
Wildlife Service), lacks the typical chestnut crown-patch of the ocai 
group. Obscure black dorsal streaks and a slightly cinnamomeous 
tinge on the under parts (flanks and under tail coverts) of certain 
Michoacan specimens may be regarded as further indication of their 
link with the macronyx group but in no case are these characters 
well developed, nor do Michoacan birds have spotted tails. 

The composite appearance of Michoacan birds is due to multiple 
gene factors possibly acquired at a time when the ranges of ocai 
and macronyx overlapped in this area. Whatever the origin of 
nigrescens, it constitutes an isolated breeding population in Michoacan 
(Cerro de Tancitaro, Nahuatzin, Patamban, and Patzcuaro), 
separable in 100 per cent of the specimens examined, and hence 
must be regarded as subspecifically distinct. The distribution and 
composite appearance of nigrescens indicate a relationship between 
P. ocai and P. macronyx so close as to suggest that they are races 
of the same species. Complete revision of these forms is beyond the 
scope of the present report. 

Pipilo fuscus fuscus Swainson 

Tancitaro: 3 males, 4 females, 2(?), June 23-August 3. 

Our series from Cerro de Tancitaro, which lies in an area generally 
conceded to be occupied by the nominate race, agrees in size and color 
with seven adult specimens collected in May at Tuxpan, Jalisco, 
only eleven miles south of Zapotlan, type locality of the recently 
described race tenebrosus. We have not seen Zapotlan specimens 
but it is evident that Mexican races of this species require careful 
revision before additional forms are described. 


Brown towhees are among the most abundant birds on the 
plateau, being especially numerous in the village of Tancitaro and 
in the roadside thickets of the surrounding country. They probably 
have two broods during the season, as parents feeding full-grown 
young were frequently observed and on July 20 natives brought in 
a nest containing three half-grown fledglings. 

Plagiospiza superciliosa superciliosa Swainson 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 3 males, 4 females, !(?), July 17-22. 
Striped sparrows and pygmy nuthatches are the only birds which 

seem to be limited to the highest slopes of the mountain. All our 

specimens of the former were collected in the pine-bunch grass 

association above 10,200 feet. 

Two stomachs which were examined contained leguminous seeds 

(probably Lupinus) and miscellaneous plant and insect debris. 

Aimophila humeralis humeralis Cabanis 

Apatzingan: 1 female, August 9. 

This specimen agrees perfectly with a series from Iguala, Guerrero, 
and shows no tendency to intergrade with asticta of Colima. 

Aimophila ruficauda acuminata Salvin and Godman 
Apatzingan: 2 males, 1 female, August 11-19. 

Junco phaeonotus australis van Rossem 

Cerro de Tancitaro: 3 males, 2 females, !(?), July 15-August 1. 

These specimens are intergrades between colimae of Jalisco and 
australis of Guerrero but apparently are more closely related to the 
latter. They differ from a series of summer adults from Nuevo Leon 
(typical phaeonotus} in having somewhat browner flanks, darker 
upper parts and decidedly more extensive red on the tertials and 
lower back. Measurements of three males agree with those of 
australis: wing 76-78, tail 68-69. 

Mexican juncos were found at all elevations from the plateau to 
near the summit of Cerro de Tancitaro wherever there were open 
fields or areas with herbaceous cover. 

Spizella passerina mexicana Nelson 
Tancitaro: 1 male, June 23. 


1933. Critical Notes on American Vultures. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 46, 
pp. 187-190. 

1934. The Hawks of the Genus Chondrohierax. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 24, 
pp. 310-318. 


1931. Notes on Rare and Little Known Neotropical Pygmy Owls. Proc. New 
Engl. Zool. Cl., 12, pp. 37-43. 

1932. The Distribution of Bird-life in Guatemala. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 64, pp. 1-425. 

1934. Ornithology of Guerrero, Mexico. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, pp. 367- 

1937. A Collection of Birds from Omilteme, Guerrero. Auk, 54, pp. 192-199. 


1938. Catalogue of Birds of the Americas. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
13, pt. 11, pp. 1-662. 


1925. Notes on Central American Birds, with Descriptions of New Forms. 
Amer. Mus. Nov., 183, pp. 1-14. 


1934. A Review of the Races of Geococcyx velox. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. 
Hist., 7, pp. 455-466. 

1939. A Review of the House Finches of the Subgenus Burrica. Condor, 41, 
pp. 177-205. 

1939a. A New Race of Cynanthus latirostris from Guanajuato. Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 52, pp. 57-60. 

1940. New Races of Empidonax from Middle America. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
53, pp. 23-29. 

- and PETERS, J. L. 
1939. The Genus Otm of Mexico and Central America. Auk, 56, pp. 38-56. 


1901. Birds of North and Middle America. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, pp. 


1934. Critical Notes on Middle American Birds. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, 
pp. 387-490. 

1938. Descriptions of Twenty-one New Races of Fringillidae and Icteridae 
from Mexico and Guatemala. Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 58, pp. 124-138. 

1938a. Notes on Some Mexican and Central American Wrens of the Genera 
Heleodytes, Troglodytes, and Nannorchilus; and Four New Races. Bull. Brit. 
Orn. Cl., 59, pp. 10-15. 

1939. Four New Races of Sittidae and Certhiidae from Mexico. Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 52, pp. 3-6. 

1940. Du Bus' Type of the Collared Towhee, Pipilo torquatus. Wilson Bull., 
52, pp. 173-174. 


1941. Notes on Birds of the Guatemalan Highlands. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
89, pp. 523-581. 



DEC 1 1942 


Current names in roman type, synonyms and secondary references in italic 
type, new names in bold-faced type. 

abeillei, Hesperiphona, 547 
aberae, Ptychadena, 91-92 
Ablepharus wahlbergii, 72 
Abraeus exiguus, 438-439 
abyssinicus, Lamprophis, 22 
Acanthicus canensis, 240 
Acanthodactylus asper, 61 

mucronatus, 62 

pardalis, 61 

scutellatus, 61 

Accra coeruleopunctata, 324-326 
Accipiter suttpni, 525-526 
Acontias punctatus, 19-20 
acoposternus, Phelister, 461 
acndoides, Phrynobatrachus, 98 

Staurois, 98 
Acritus exiguus, 438-439 

ignobilis, 441 

punctisternus, 440-441 

rugulpsus, 442 

simpliculus, 442 

ttiberculatus, 439-440 
Actitis macularia, 527 
aculeata, Agama, 52 
acuminata, Aimophila, 550 
acuminatus, Coluber, 506 

Oxybelis, 506 
acutum, Kinosternon, 488 
acutus, Crocodilus, 489 

Crocodylus, 489 
Adelphicos, visoninus, 503 
adenopleura, Rana, 140 
adspersus, Breviceps, 110-111 
Aeluroglena cucullata, 28 
Aelurophryne mammata, 124 
Aequidens coeruleopunctatus, 324-326 
aequiplicata, Rana, 91 
Aeronautes nigrior, 531 
affinis, Chamaeleon, 78 

Creagrutus, 271-272 

Pseudocheirodon, 251-252 
afra, Nectophryne, 86 
Agalychnis callidryas, 487 

moreletii, 487 
Agama aculeata, 52 

agama, 53-55 

atra, 53 

atricollis, 56-57 

brachyura, 52 

caudospinosa, 56 

colonorum, 53-55 

cristata, 494 

cyanogaster, 57-58 

flavimaculata, 52 

leucostigma, 52 

lionotus, 55 

montana, 53 

mutabilis, 52 

pallida, 52 

planiceps, 56 

usambarae, 55-56 
agama, Agama, 53-55 

Lacerta, 53-55 
Ageneiosus, 236 

caucanus, 236 
Agkistrodon bilineatus, 508 
Agonostomus, 322 

macracanthus, 323-324 

monticola, 322-323 
Ahaetulla occidentalis, 501 
Aimophila acuminata, 550 

humeralis, 550 
akeleyi, Lyogsoma, 73 
albeolus, Astyanax, 263-264 
albigularis, Falco, 526-527 

Varanus, 59 

albilinea, Iridoprocne, 526 
albolabris, Rana, 96 
Alfaro, 313 

cultratus, 313 
Algiroides boulengeri, 60 
alienus, Elaps, 507-508 

Micrurus, 507-508 
allisoni, Anolis, 493 
Allogambusia, 303 

tridentiger, 303-305 
Alopecion fasciatum, 24 
altifrons, Cichlasoma, 328-329 

Heros, 328-329 
altipinnis, Loricaria, 242-243 
amazona, Chloroceryle, 532 
Amazona finschi, 529 
amblops, Felichthys, 235-236 

Trachycorystes, 235-236 
Ameiva festiva, 495-496 

undulata, 495 

Amphibia (gall bladder), 163-164, 179 
Amplorhinus nototaenia, 36 
amurensis, Rana, 134 
Anacyrtus guatemalensis, 272-273 
anchietae, Aporosaura, 63 

Pachyrhynchus, 63 
Ancistrodon bilineatus, 508 
Ancistrus chagresi, 239 

planiceps, 240 

spinosus, 239 

andersonii, Rana, 140-141 
andrewsi, Bufo, 128 
angelica, Leptotila, 528 
angolensis, Rana, 90-91 

Varanus, 59 
Anguilla rostrata, 294 



Anguis bipes, 74 
angustatus, Claudius, 488 
angusticeps, Dendraspis, 42-43 

Naja, 42-43 
annectans, Hyla, 131 

Phrynomantis, 111 

Phrynomerus, 111 
annularis, Gecko, 51 

Tarentola, 51 
annulatus, Enicognathus, 497 

Sibynophis, 497 
Anolis allisoni, 493 

aureolus, 490 

beckeri, 491 

biporcatus, 491 

bourgaei, 491 

capito, 491-492 

ruthveni, 492 

sagrei, 492 

sericeus, 492 

tropidonotus, 493 

ustus, 493 

Anseriformes (gall bladder), 182-183 
ansorgii, Rana, 95 
Apareiodon compressus, 248-249 

dariensis, 248 
Aphelocoma sieberii, 537 
Apterygiformes (gall bladder), 182 
Apoda (gall bladder), 179 
Aporosaura anchietae, 63 
Ara mexicana, 528 
Aratinga eburnirostrum, 528 
areolata, Emys, 489 

Geoemyda, 489 
argenteus, Brycon, 285-286 
argentovittis, Hyperolius, 106 
Arges longifilis, 245 
arietans, Bitis, 45 

Vipera, 45 

Aristelliger georgeensis, 490 
Arremonops sumichrasti, 548 
Arthroleptis dendrobates, 97-98 

graueri, 97 

minutus, 99 

ogoensis, 99 

poecilonotus, 99 

rouxi, 99-100 

variabilis, 98 
Artiodactyla (biliary tract), 421-422 

gall bladder, 195-197 
Ascalabotes sthenodactylus, 48 
asper, Acanthodactylus, 61 

Lacerta, 61 

Aspidelaps lichtensteinii, 44 
assatum, Leiolopisma, 496 
assatus, Lampropholis, 496 
assimilis, Phelister, 467-469 
Astroblepus, 244 

longifilis, 245 
Astyanax, 256-257 

albeolus, 263-264 

emperador, 264-265 

fasciatus, 257-258 

kompi, 260-263 

nicaraguensis, 263 

ruberrimus, 258-260 
Astylosternus diadematus, 87-88 

gabonicus, 86-87 

oxyrhynchus, 86-87 
ater, Bothrolycus, 22 
Athens nitschei, 46-47 

squamiger, 46 

squamigera, 46 
Atlapetes pileatus, 548 

virenticeps, 548 
atra, Agama, 53 
Atractaspis bibronii, 47 

microlepidota, 47 
atratus, Coragyps, 524-525 
atricaudata, Gephyrocharax, 253 
atricollis, Agama, 56-57 
Atropos nummifer, 509 
atrox, Coluber, 508 

Trimeresurus, 508 
Attila pacificus, 534 
aubryi, Hyla, 101 

Hylambates, 101 

Leptopelis, 101 
audubonii, Polyborus, 526 
Aulophallus retropinna, 309-310 
aura, Cathartes, 525 
aureolus, Anolis, 490 
austeni, Pachydactylus, 51-52 
australis, Junco, 550 

Sialia, 542 
Awapus, 356 

taiasica, 356 

transandeanus, 356-357 
azelus, Dryobates, 534 

babcocki, Testudo, 18 
Bacanius hamatus, 436 

ignobilis, 441 

subcarinatus, 436-438 

scalptus, 436 
bairdi, Polioptila, 542 
Balanosphyra formicivora, 533 
bankorensis, Bufo, 127 
baritula, Diglossa, 544 
Basileuterus clarus, 545 
basiliscus, Chamaeleo, 75 

Chamaeleon, 75 
Basiliscus vittatus, 493 
batesii, Gampsosteonyx, 87-88 

Mabuia, 71 

Typhlops, 20 
baudinii, Hyla, 486 
beam, Belonocharax, 289 

Ctenolucius, 289 

Luciocharax, 289 
beckeri, Anolis, 491 
behreae, Brycon, 278-281 
belliana, Cinixys, 19 

Kinixys, 19 



Belonocharax beani, 289 
berlandieri, Rana, 487 
bibronii, Atractaspis, 47 
bidentata, Hololepta, 434 

Piranga, 546 
bifasciatus, Brachymerus, 111 

Phrynomerus, 111 
biinterrupta, Carcinops, 443-445 
Biliary tract (Artiodactyla), 421-422 

Edentata, 418 

Carnivora, 419-420 

Cetacea, 420 

Hyracoidea, 420-421 

Mammals, 415-430 

Marsupialia, 417 

Perissodactyla, 421-422 

Primates, 418 

Rodentia, 418-419 

Sirenia, 421 
bilineatus, Agkistrodon, 508 

Ancistrodon, 508 
bipes, Anguis, 74 

Scelotes, 74 
biporcata, Dactyloa, 491 

Anolis, 491 

bipunctata, Coronella, 504 
bipunctatus, Coniophanes, 504 
Birds (gall bladder), 164, 182-187 
biseriatus, Psammophis, 39 
bitaeniatus, Chamaeleo, 76-77 

Chamaeleon, 76-77 
Bitis arietans, 45 

caudalis, 46 

cornuta, 45 

gabonica, 45 

nasicornis, 45 

Blake, Emmet R., and Hanson, Harold 
C., Notes on a Collection of Birds 
from Michoacan, Mexico, 513-551 
blandingii, Mabuya, 66-67 

Euprepres, 66-67 
blanfordii, Bufo, 85 
Boaedon guttatus, 22 

lemniscatum, 22 

lineatus, 22-23 

olivaceus, 23 
Boa imperator, 496-497 
bocagei, Hylambales, 100 
bocagii, Cystignathus, 100 

Hylambates, 100 

Leptopelis, 100 
boettgeri, Megophrys, 125 
bogotana, Hololepta, 434 
Boiga pulverulenta, 35 
Bolitoglossa mexicana, 481 
Bombina maxima, 123-124 

orientalis, 122-123 
Boodon guttatus, 22 

lemniscatus, 22 

lineatus, 22-23 

olivaceus, 23 
borealis, Kaloula, 149 

Bostrichus probosddeus, 436 
Bothrolycus ater, 22 
bottegi, Chalcides, 73-74 
boulengeri, Algiroides, 60 
bourgaei, Anolis, 491 
Brachymerus bifasciatus, 111 
Brachyrhaphis, 298 

cascajalensis, 299-300 

episcopi, 298-299 

terrabensis, 301 
brachyura, Agama, 52 
brachyurus, Buteo, 526 
brasiliense, Epierus, 337 

Plagiogramma, 447 
bravana, Rana, 95-96 
bravanus, Limnodytes, 95-96 
brenneri, Eremias, 62 
breve, Homalocranium, 506 
Breviceps adspersus, 110-111 
breviceps, Emoia, 71 

Euprepis, 71 

Lygosoma, 71 
brevicollis, Euprepes, 67-68 

Mabuia, 67-68 

Mabuya, 67-68 
brevifacies, Sibynomorphus, 503 

Tropidodipsas, 503-504 
brevirostris, Hylambates, 101 

Hypopomus, 291-292 

Lampornis, 532 

Leptopelis, 101 

Rhamphichthys, 291-292 
brevis, Tantilla, 506 
brookii, Hemidactylus, 49 

Hemidactylus, 50 
brunneus, Rivulus, 315 
Brycon, 274-275 
Bryconamericus, 264 

cascajalensis, 268 

emperador, 264-265 

ricae, 268-269 

zeteki, 265-268 
Brycon argenteus, 285-286 

behreae, 278-281 

chagrensis, 276-278 

guatemalensis, 281-282 

obscurus, 283-285 

petrosus, 282-283 

striatulus, 278-281 

striatulus, 276 
Bubo mayensis, 530 
Bucephalus typus, 40 
Bufo andrewsi, 128 

bankorensis, 127 

blanfordii, 85 

camerunensis, 83-84 

carens, 85 

funereus, 84 

gargarizans, 126-127 

gariepensis, 85 

garmani, 80-83 

japonicus, 125-126 


Bufo kisoloensis, 83 

lemairii, 83 

maculatus, 81 

marinus, 481-482 

melanostictus, 129-130 

minshanicus, 127-128 

osgoodi, 85-86 

polycerus, 84 

raddei, 128-129 

regularis, 80-83 

somalacus, 85 

spinosus, 82 

superciliaris, 85 

tuberculosus, 82 

tuberosus, 84 

valliceps, 482 

bunyoniensis, Xenopus, 80 
Buteo brachyurus, 526 

costaricensis, 526 

plagiatus, 526 
butleri, Microhyla, 150 

Simocephalus, 24-27 

Cairina moschata, 524 
Calamaria degenhardtii, 506-507 
callichromus, Hyperolius, 106 
callidryas, Agalychnis, 487 

Hyla, 487 

calobrense, Cichlasoma, 330 
Calocitta formosa, 536-537 
camerunensis, Bufo, 83-84 

Scotobleps, 86 
cana, Pseudaspis, 27 
canensis, Acanthicus, 240 

Leptoancistrus, 240 
canus, Coluber, 27 
capense, Lycophidium, 23-24 
capensis, Lycodon, 23-24 
capetensis, Loricaria, 241 
capito, Anolis, 491-492 
Caprimulgiformes (gall bladder), 185 
carapo, Gymnotus, 291 
Carcinops biinterrupta, 443-445 

carinata, 442-443 

misella, 445 

miserula, 445 

miserulus, 445 

tantilla, 445 
carens, Bufo, 85 
carinata, Carcinops, 442-443 

Latastia, 60 

Pseudoboa, 46 
carinatus, Chlorophis, 28-29 

Echis, 46 
Carnivora (biliary tract), 419-420 

gall bladder, 192-194 
Carpodacus coccineus, 547 
carthagenus, Trypanaeus, 436 
cascajalensis, Brachyrhapis, 299-300 

Bryconamericus, 268 

Gambusia, 299-300 
Cassiculus melanicterus, 545 

Cassidix mexicanus, 545-546 
Cassina obscura, 109-110 

senegalensis, 110 
castaneus, Hister, 457 
Casuariiformes (gall bladder), 182 
Cathartes aura, 525 
Catharus clarus, 542 

fulvescens, 542 
Catherpes mexicanus, 540 
caucana, Girardinus, 312 

Mollienisia, 312 
caucanus, Ageneiosus, 236 
caudalis, Bitis, 46 

Vipera, 46 

Caudata (gall bladder), 179 
caudicinctus, Hemitheconyx, 47-48 

Psilodactylus, 47-48 

Stenodactylus, 47-48 
caudospinosa, Agama, 56 
Causus lichtensteinii, 44 

resimus, 44 

rhombeatus, 44 
Celestus steindachneri, 495 
cenchoa, Coluber, 505 

Imantodes, 505 
Centurus flavinuchus, 533 
Cerates mexicanus, 500 
Certhia guerrerensis, 538-539 
Cetacea (biliary tract), 420 

gall bladder, 198-199 
Chaemaeleon affinis, 78 
Chaetostomus fischeri, 238-239 
chagrensis, Brycon, 276-278 

Chalcinopsis, 276-278 
chagresi, Ancistrus, 239 

Pimelodella, 235 

Pimelodus, 235 
Chalceus fasciatus, 257-258 
Chalcides bottegi, 73-74 

delislii, 74 

ocellatus, 73 

pulchellus, 73-74 

sepoides, 74 

thierryi, 74 

tiligugu, 73 
Chalcinopsis chagrensis, 276-278 

striatulus, 276 
Chamaeleo basiliscus, 75 

bitaeniatus, 76-77 

cristatus, 78 

dilepis, 76 

gracilis, 76 

namaquensis, 78 
Chamaeleon basiliscus, 75 

bitaeniatus, 76-77 

chamaeleon, 75 

cristatus, 78 

dilepis, 76 

ellioti, 77 

gracilis, 76 

hoehneli, 77-78 

hohnelii, 77-78 



Chamaeleon jacksoni, 78-79 

johnstoni, 79 

laevigatus, 75 

namaquensis, 78 

pumilus, 78 

roperi, 76 

rudis, 77 

senegalensis, 75 

vauerescecae, 78-79 

vulgaris, 75 
chamaeleon, Chamaeleon, 75 

Lacerta, 75 

Chamaeleopsis hernandesii, 494 
Cfiamaeleo pumilus, 78 

senegalensis, 75 

spectrum, 79 
chanleri, Mehelya, 24-27 

Simocephalus, 24-27 
chapadae, Phelister, 469 
Characidium, 249 

marshi, 249 

Charadriiformes (gallbladder), 183-184 
Cheirodon gorgonae, 250-251 
chensinensis, Rana, 134-135 
chinensis, Hyla, 130 
Chiromantis rufescens, 100 
Chiroptera (gall bladder), 189-190 
Chloroceryle amazona, 532 

septentrionalis, 532 
Chlorophis carinatus, 28-29 

cyaneus, 29-30 
ilaris, 30-32 

juini, 29-30 

schubotzi, 30-32 
Chondrohierax uncinatus, 525 
Chlorophis heterodermus, 29-30 
chrysostictus, Sceloporus, 494 
chucunaque, Rivulus, 315-316 
chunganensis, Rana, 141 
Ciccaba squamulata, 530 
Cichlasoma, 327 

altifrons, 328-329 

calobrense, 330 

guttulatum, 334 

lethrinus, 333-334 

maculicauda, 332-333 

motaguense, 329-330 

nigrofasciatum, 335 

sieboldii, 335-337 

spilurum, 331 

tuyrense, 331 

umbriferum, 330 
Ciconiiformes (gall bladder), 182 
Cinclus mexicanus, 539 
cinctiventris, Rappia, 107 
Cinixys belliana, 19 
cinnamomeiventris, Rappia, 108-109 
cinnamome-ventris, Hyperolius, 108- 

Cinosternum cruentatum, 488 

leucoslomum, 488 

citreolus, Trogon, 532 
citurensis, Oxyloricaria, 243 

Sturisoma, 243 

clarki, Euleptoeleotris, 352-355 
clarus, Basileuterus, 545 

Catharus, 542 

Regulus, 542 
Claudius angustatus, 488 
clavatus, Coniophanes, 504-505 

Dromicus, 504-505 
Clelia clelia, 506 

cloelia, 506 
clelia, Clelia, 506 

Coluber, 506 

clemenciae, Cyanolaemus, 532 
cloelia, Clelia, 506 
Cnemaspis dickersoni, 49 
Cnemidophorus festivus, 495-496 
cobanensis, Hololepta, 434-435 
coccineus, Carpodacus, 547 
Cochlearius zeledoni, 524 
Coelopeltis monspessulanus, 36 
coeruleopunctata, Accra, 324-326 
coeruleopunctatus, Aequidens, 324-326 
Colaptes mexicanus, 533 
Coleonyx elegans, 489 
colimae, Troglodytes, 540 
colonorum, Agama, 53-55 
Coluber acuminatus, 506 

atrox, 508 

canus, 27 

cenchoa, 505 

clelia, 506 

crucifer, 39 

cucullatus, 39 

flavirufus, 501 

florulentulus, 27 

fulgidus, 506 

hippocrepis, 27 

irregularis, 30-32 

lacteus, 42 

monspessulanus, 36 

nasicornis, 45 

rhodorachis, 27 

scaber, 34 

sebae, 20-21 

sibilans, 38 

triaspis, 500 

viperina, 21-22 
Columba fasciata, 527 
Columbiformes (gall bladder), 184 
Columbigallina eluta, 528 

pallescens, 528 

compressus, Apareiodon, 248-249 
Compsothlypis pulchra, 544 
Compsura, 250 

gorgonae, 250-251 
concolor, Hyperolius, 104 

Ixalus, 104 

Rappia, 104 
confusa, Hololepta, 436 

Leionota, 436 


Coniophanes bipunctatus, 504 

clavatus, 504-505 

fissidens, 504 

Constrictor imperator, 496-497 
cooperi, Rana, 91 
Coptotrophis proboscideus, 436 
Coraciiformes (gall bladder), 185 
Coragyps atratus, 524-525 
cordylus, Lacerta, 58-59 

Zonurus, 58-59 
cornuta, Bitis, 45 

Vipera, 45 

coronata, Cyanocitta, 537 
Coronella bipunctata, 504 

fissidens, 504 

fuliginoides, 21 

hotamboeia, 35 

nototaenia, 36 

olivacea, 21 

semiornata, 33 
Corvus sinuatus, 536 
Corythophanes cristatus, 494 

hernandesii, 494 
costaricensis, Buteo, 526 
crassilabris, Geophagus, 326-327 
crassipes, Rana, 89 
crassirostris, Tyrannus, 534 
Creagrutus affinis, 271-272 

notropoides, 271 

simus, 271-272 
cristata, Agama, 494 
cristatus, Chamaeleo, 78 

Corythophanes, 494 
Crocodilia (gall bladder), 181 
Crocodilus acutus, 489 

moreletii, 389 
Crocodylus acutus, 489 

moreletii, 489 

Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia, 35 
Crotophaga sulcirostris, 529 
crucifer, Coluber, 39 

Psammophis, 39 
cruentatum, Cinosternum, 488 

Kinosternon, 488 
Cryptoblepharus wahlbergii, 72 
ctenodactyla, Lacerta, 63 
ctenodactyla, Scapteira, 63 

Scaptira, 63 
Ctenolucius, 288 

beani, 289 

Ctenosaura similis, 494 
Cuculiformes (gall bladder), 184 
cucullata, Aeluroglena, 28 
cucullatus, Coluber, 39 

Macroprotodon, 39 
cultratum, Petalosa, 313 
cultratus, Alfaro, 313 
cumanensis, Phelister, 469 
cuneata, Mollienisia, 312 

Poecilia, 312 
Curimatus, 247 

magdalenae, 247-248 

currori, Feylinia, 74 
curvirostre, Toxostoma, 540-541 
cyaneus, Chlorophis, 29-30 
Cyanocitta coronata, 537 
cyanogaster, Agama, 57-58 

Stellio, 57-58 

Cyanolaemus clemenciae, 532 
Cyclostomata (gall bladder), 163 
Cynanthus propinquus, 531-532 
Cyrtonyx montezumae, 527 
Cystignathus bocagii, 100 

melanonotus, 482 

senegalensis, 110 

Dactyloa biporcata, 491 
damaranus, Euprepes, 69-70 

Mabuya, 69-70 
Darienichthys, 305 

dariensis, 305-306 
dariensis, Apareiodon, 248 

Darienichthys, 305-306 

Gambusia, 305-306 

Hemibrycon, 269 

Parodon, 248 

Priapichthys, 305-306 

Sternopygus, 291 
Dasypeltis scaber, 34 

scabra, 34 

Davis, D. Dwight, Notes on the Anat- 
omy of the Babirusa, 363-411 
deborrei, Laemanctus, 494 
decoratus, Hyperolius, 106 
degenhardtii, Calamaria, 506-507 

Stenorhina, 506-507 
delalandii, Pyxicephalus, 89-90 

Rana, 89-90 
delandi, Rana, 89-90 
delislii, Chalcides, 74 
Dendraspis angusticeps, 42-43 

kaimosae, 42 
dendrobates, Arthroleptis, 97-98 

Phrynobatrachus, 97-98 
Dendroica occidentalis, 545 
Dendrophis semivariegatus, 32-33 

smaragdina, 33 
dennysi, Polypedates, 146 
derbianus, Pitangus, 535 
Dermatemys mawii, 487 
Dermoptera (gall bladder), 189 
devia, Hololepta, 434 

Leionota, 434 

diadematus, Astylosternus, 87-88 
dickersoni, Cnemaspis, 49 

Gonatodes, 49 

Paragonatodes, 49 
Diglossa baritula, 544 
dilepis, Chamaeleo, 76 

Chamaeleon, 76 
diluta, Volatinia, 547 
Diploglossus steindachneri, 495 
Dipsadoboa unicolor, 35 
Dipsadomorphus pulverulentus, 35 



Dipsas pulverulenta, 35 
Dispholidus typus, 40 
dives, Phelister, 457 
doriae, Philautus, 148 
Dormitator, 341 

latifrons, 343-344 

maculatus, 341-343 
dormitor, Gobiomorus, 339-340 

Philypnus, 339-340 
dorsalis, Hyperolius, 102-103 

Megalixalus, 102-103 
Dromicus clavatus, 504-505 
Dromophis lineatus, 38 
Dryadophis melanolomus, 499 
Drymarchon melanurus, 500 
Drymobius margaritiferus, 499 
Dryobates azelus, 534 
Dryobates fraterculus, 534 

jardinii, 533-534 
Dryophylax lineatus, 38 
Duberria shiranum, 34 

ebraccata, Hyla, 486 
eburnirostrum, Aratinga, 528 
Echidna gabonica, 45 
Echis carinatus, 46 

squamigera, 46 
Edentata (biliary tract), 418 
egenus, Phelister, 469 
Eigenmannia virescens, 292 
Elapechis guentheri, 41 
Elaphe flavirufa, 501 

triaspis, 500 

Elapomorphus gabonensis, 40 
Elapops modestus, 40 
Elaps alienus, 507-518 

lacteus, 42 

Elapsoidea giintherii, 41 
elegans, Coleonyx, 489 

Rivulus, 319-322 
elegantissima, Tanagra, 546 
Eleotris, 344 

guavina, 349 

isthmensis, 348-349 

latifasciatus, 355 

latifrons, 343-344 

picta, 344-347 

pisonis, 347-348 
Eleutherodactylus ranoides, 482-483 

rhodopis, 483 

sandersoni, 485-486 

stantoni, 483-485 
ellioti, Chamaeleon, 77 
elongata, Poecilia, 307-309 
elongatus, Oedipus, 481 

Poeciliopsis, 307-309 
eluta, Columbigallina, 528 
emperador, Astyanax, 264-265 

Bryconamericus, 264-265 
Empidonax minimus, 535 

occidentalis, 535 

rubicundus, 535-536 

Emoia breviceps, 71 
Emys areolata, 489 

ornata, 488 

Engystoma marmoratum, 100 
Enicognathus annulatus, 497 
Epierus brasiliense, 447 

schmidti, 446-447 
episcopi, Brachyrhaphis, 298-299 

Gambusia, 298-299 
Eremias brenneri, 62 

guttulata, 62 

Rneo-ocellata, 62 

mucronata, 62 

revoili, 60 

rubropunctata, 62 

spekii, 61 

Ergaticus ruber, 545 
erythrogaster, Hirundo, 536 
Esox malabaricus, 290-291 
Euchnemis fornasinii, 102 
Euleptoeleotris, 351 

clarki, 352-355 

shropshirei, 353-355 
Eumeces schwartzei, 496 

sumichrasti, 496 

sundevallii, 71 

blandingii, 66-67 

brevicollis, 67-68 

damaranus, 69-70 

frenatus, 66-67 

megalura, 68 

varius, 69 
Euprepis breviceps, 71 

maculilabris, 65-66 

raddoni, 66-67 
Eutaenia praeocularis, 498 

rutiloris, 498 
Eutidium oblitum, 434 
exiguus, Abraeus, 438-439 

Acritus, 438-439 

Falco albigularis, 526-527 
Falconiformes (gall bladder), 183 
fasciata, Columba, 527 
fasciatum, Alopecion, 24 

Lycophidion, 24 

Lycophidium, 24 
fasciatus, Astyanax, 257-258 

Chalceus, 257-258 

Hemidactylus, 49-50 

Philortyx, 527 
Felichthys amblops, 235-236 
fernandi, Lygosoma, 71 

Riopa, 71 

Tiliqua, 71 

fernequei, Rappia, 107 
festae, Piabucma, 288 
festiva, Ameiva, 495-496 

Henicorhina, 540 
festivus, Cnemidophorus, 495-496 
Feylinia currori, 74 
fiechteri, Rana, 95-96 


fimbriata, Loricaria, 241-242 
finschi, Amazona, 529 
fischeri, Chaetostomus, 238-239 
Fishes (gall bladder), 163 
fissidens, Coniophanes, 504 

Coronella, 504 

flavigularis, Gerrhosaurus, 64 
flavimaculata, Agama, 52 

Trapelus, 52 

flavimaculatum, Lepidophyma, 495 
flavinucha, Sitta, 538 
flavinuchus, Centurus, 533 
flavirufa, Elaphe, 501 
flavirufas, Coluber, 501 
flavoviridis, Vireo, 543 
flectohumerale, Phelister, 465-467 
florulentulus, Coluber, 27 

Zamenis, 27 

fluviatilis, Leptophilypnus, 349-351 
formicivora, Balanosphyra, 533 
formosa, Calocitta, 536-537 

Limia, 312-313 

Mollienisia, 312-313 
fornasinii, Euchnemis, 102 

Megalixalus, 102 
foveipygus, Hister, 456-457 
fraterculus, Dryobates, 534 
fremitus, Heterocnus, 524 
frenatus, Euprepes, 66-67 
fukienensis, Rana, 138-139 
fulgidus, Coluber, 506 

Oxybelis, 506 
fuliginoides, Coronella, 21 

Natrix, 21 

Tropidonotus, 21 
fulvescens, Catharus, 542 
funereus, Bufo, 84 

fungicolus, Phelisteroides, 452-454 
furcatus, Psammophis, 38-39 
fuscus, Pipilo, 549-550 

gabonensis, Elapomorphus, 40 

Miodon, 40 
gabonica, Bitis, 45 

Echidna, 45 
gabonicus, Astylosternus, 86-87 

Scotobleps, 86-87 
galeata, Pelomedusa, 19 

Testudo, 19 
Gall bladder (Amphibia), 163-164, 179 

Anseriformes, 182-183 

Apoda, 179 

Apterygiformes, 182 

Artiodactyla, 195-197 

Birds, 164, 182-187 

Caprimulgiformes, 185 

Carnivora, 192-194 

Casuariiformes, 182 

Caudata, 179 

Cetacea, 198-199 

Charadriiformes, 183-184 

Chiroptera, 189-190 

Ciconiiformes, 182 

Columbiformes, 184 

Coraciiformes, 185 

Crocodilia, 181 

Cuculiformes, 184 

Cyclostomata, 163 

Dermoptera, 189 

Falconiformes, 183 

Fishes, 163 

Galliformes, 183 

Gruiformes, 183 

Hyracoidea, 197 

Insectivora, 188-189 

Mammals, 164-176 

Marsupialia, 187-188 

Micropodiformes, 185 

Monotremata, 187 

Passeriformes, 186 

Pelecaniformes, 182 

Perissodactyla, 198 

Pholidota, 194 

Piciformes, 185 

Primates, 190-192 

Proboscidea, 198 

Procellariiformes, 182 

Psittaciformes, 184 

Reptiles, 164, 179-181 

Rheiformes, 182 

Rhynchocephalia, 181 

Rodentia, 199-201 

Salientia, 179 

Sauria, 179-180 

Serpentia, 180-181 

Sirenia, 197 

Sphenisciformes, 182 

Strigiformes, 185 

Struthioniformes, 182 

Testudinata, 181 

Trogoniformes, 185 

Tubulidentata, 195 

Xenarthra, 194 

Galliformes (gall bladder), 183 
Gambusia, 295-296 

cascajalensis, 299-300 

dariensis, 305-306 

episcopi, 298-299 

nicaraguensis, 296-298 

terrabensis, 301 

tridentiger, 303-305 
Gampsosteonyx batesii, 87-88 
gargarizans, Bufo, 126-127 
gariepensis, Bufo, 85 
garmani, Bufo, 80-83 
gascae, Pseudoboodon, 22 
Gasteropelecus maculatus, 270-271 
Gastropyxis smaragdina, 33 
Gecko annularis, 51 

mabouia, 49 

Geococcyx melanchima, 529 
Geoemyda areolata, 489 
Geophagus crassilabris, 326-327 



georgeensis, Aristelliger, 490 

Idiodactylus, 490 
Gephyrocharax, 252 

atricaudata, 253 

intermedius, 253-254 

whaleri, 254-256 
Gerrhosaurus flavigularis, 64 

major, 64 

nigrolineatus, 65 

nigro-lineatus, 65 

zechi, 64 

gilvus, Vireo, 543 
Girardinus caucana, 312 
Glaucidium gnoma, 530 
glaucus, Sphaerodactylus, 489 
gnoma, Glaucidium, 530 
Gobiomorus, 339 

dormitor, 339-340 

maculatus, 340-341 
Gobius pisonis, 347-348 

taiasica, 356 

transandeanus, 356-357 
godmani, Pimelodus, 233 

Rhamdia, 233 
goldii, Naia, 42 

Naja, 42 

goliath, Rana, 88-89 
Gonatodes dickersoni, 49 
gorgonae, Cheirodon, 250-251 

Compsura, 250-251 

Gorham, Frank N., General Function 
of the Gall Bladder from the 
Evolutionary Standpoint, 159-213 
gracilis, Chamaeleon, 76 

Chamaeleo, 76 
grahami, Rana, 141 
graminea, Rana, 141-142 
granulata, Rappia, 109 
graueri, oleptis, 97 

Hyperolius, 106 

Lygosoma, 71-72 

Phrynobatrachus, 97 

Siaphos, 71-72 
Grayia ornata, 34 

tholloni, 33-34 
griscomi, Spinus, 547 
Gruiformes (gall bladder), 183 
guarauna, Plegadis, 524 
guatemalensis, Anacyrtus, 272-273 

Brycon, 281-282 

Roeboides, 272-273 
Guavina guavina, 349 
guavina, Eleotris, 349 

Guavina, 349 
guentheri, Elapechia, 41 

Holaspis, 63 

Rana, 142 

guerrerensis, Certhia, 538-539 
gularis, Heleodytes, 539-540 
giintherii, Elapsoidea, 41 
guttulata, Eremias, 62 

Lacerta, 62 

gultalatus, Heros, 334 
guttatus, Boaedon, 22 

Boodon, 22 

Lycodon, 22 

Stenodactylus, 48 
guttulatum, Cichlasoma, 334 
gutturalis, Hemidactylus, 51 

Lygodactylus, 51 

Gymnodactylus trachyblepharus, 48 
Gymnotus carapo, 291 

haie, Naia, 41 

hailensis, Phrynobatrachus, 91-92 
hamatus, Bacanius, 436 
Hapsidophrys lineata, 33 

lineatus, 33 
hardeggeri, Latastia, 60 

Philochortus, 60 
harrisi, Parabuteo, 526 
Hedymeles maculatus, 546 
Heleodytes gularis, 539-540 

megalopterus, 539 
helleri, Siaphos, 72 
Hemibrycon dariensis, 269 
Hemidactylus brookii, 49 

brookii, 50 

fasciatus, 49-50 

gutturalis, 51 

ituriensis, 50 

mabouia, 49 

picturatus, 50 

sinaitus, 50 

Hemieleotris latifasciatus, 355 
Hemisus marmorata, 100 

marmoratum, 100 
Hemitheconyx caudicinctus, 47-48 
Henicorhina festiva, 540 
hepatica, Piranga, 546 
hernandesii, Chamaeleopsis, 494 

Corythophanes, 494 
Heros altifrons, 328-329 

guttulatus, 334 

multispinosa, 338 

nigrofasciatus, 335 

sieboldii, 335-337 

spilurus, 331 
Herotilapia, 338 

multispinosa, 338 
Herpetoaryas margaritiferus, 499 
Hesperiphona abeillei, 547 
Heterocnus fremitus, 524 
heterodermus, Chlorophis, 29-30 
Heterophis resimus, 44 
heymonsi, Microhyla, 151 
hieroglyphica, Rana, 89-90 
hildebrandi, Rivulus, 318-319 
Hildebrand, Samuel F., A New Cata- 
logue of the Fresh-water Fishes of 
Panama, 217-359 
hindii, Vipera, 44-45 
hippocrepis, Coluber, 27 

Zamenis, 27 


Hirundo erythrogaster, 536 
Hister castaneus, 457 

foveipygus, 456-457 

parvulus, 461 

hoehneli, Chamaeleon, 77-78 
hohnelii, Chamaeleon, 77-78 
Holaspis guentheri, 63 
Hololepta bidentata, 434 

bogotana, 434 

cobanensis, 434-435 

confusa, 436 

devia, 434 

Holuropholis olivaceus, 23 
Homalocranium breve, 506 
Homalosoma shiranum, 34 
Homorelaps lacteus, 42 
Hoplias, 289 

malabaricus, 290-291 ' 

microlepis, 290 
Hoplophryne marmorata, 111 
Hoplosternum punctatum, 243-244 
hotamboeia, Coronella, 35 

Crotaphopeltis, 35 

Leptodira, 35 

humeralis, Aimophila, 550 
Hyla annectans, 131 

aubryi, 101 

baudinii, 486 

callidryas, 487 

chinensis, 130 

ebraccata, 486 

immaculata, 130 

loquax, 486 

moreletii, 487 

sanchiangensis, 131 

simplex, 131 

staufferi, 486-487 
Hylambates aubryi, 101 

brevirostris, 101 

bocagei, 100 

boeagii, 100 

ocellatus, 101 

palmatus, 101 
Hylocharis leucotis, 532 
Hyperolius, 103 

argentovittis, 106 

callichromus, 106 

cinnamome-ventris, 108-109 

concolor, 104 

decoratus, 106 

dorsalis, 102-103 

graueri, 106 

kivuensis, 105 

leptosomus, 103 

multicolor, 105-106 

nasutus, 109 

ocellatus, 104 

picturatus, 105 

pleurotaenius, 104-105 

plicatus, 98 

punctulatus, 107 

simus, 108 

steindachnerii, 103-104 

striolatus, 107 

undulatus, 108 
Hyphessobrycon, 269 

panamensis, 269-270 
Hypopomus brevirostris, 291-292 
Hyracoidea (biliary tract), 420-421 

gall bladder, 197 

Icterus pustulatus, 546 

spurius, 546 

wagleri, 546 

Idiodactylus georgeensis, 490 
ignobilis, Acritus, 441 

Bacanius, 441 
Iguana rhinolopha, 494 

similis, 494 

Imantodes cenchoa, 505 
immaculata, Hyla, 130 
imperator, Boa, 496-497 

Constrictor, 496-497 
inca, Scardafella, 527-528 
Insectivora (gall bladder), 188-189 
intermedius, Gephyrocharax, 253-254 
Iridoprocne albilinea, 536 
irregularis, Chlorophis, 30-32 

Coluber, 30-32 
isthemensis, Eleotris, 348-349 

Poeciliopsis, 309 

Rivulus, 316-318 
ituriensis, Hemidactylus, 50 
Ixalus concolor, 104 

Jacana spinosa, 527 
jacksoni, Chamaeleon, 78-79 

Lacerta, 59-60 
japonica, Rana, 135 
japonicus, Bufo, 125-126 
jardinii, Dryobates, 533-534 
johnstoni, Chamaeleon, 79 
Joturus pichardi, 324 
Junco australis, 550 

kaimosae, Dendraspis, 42 
Kaloula borealis, 149 

rugifera, 150 

verrucosa, 150 

Kalophrynus pleurostigma, 149 
karissimbensis, Leptopelis, 101-102 
Kassina senegalensis, 110 
Kinixys belliana, 19 
Kinosternon acutum, 488 

cruentatum, 488 

leucostpmum, 488 

scorpioides, 488 
kirtlandii, Leptophis, 39-40 

Thelotornis, 39-40 
kisoloensis, Bufo, 83 
kivuensis, Hyperolius, 105 
kompi, Astyanax, 260-263 
kounihensis, Rothschildea, 109-110 



kuatunensis, Megophrys, 125 
kuhlii, Rana, 142-143 

Lacerta agama, 53-55 

asper, 61 

chamaeleon, 75 

cordylus, 58-59 

ctenodactyla, 63 

guttulata, 62 

jacksoni, 59-60 

longicaudata, 60 

mauritanica, 51 

nilotica, 59 

ocellata, 73 

pardalis, 61 

rttbropunctata, 62 

scutellata, 61 

sh'ncus, 72-73 

tiligugu, 73 

Lacertus mabouya, 496 
lacteus, Coluber, 42 

Elaps, 42 

Homorelaps, 42 
Laemanctus deborrei, 494 
laevigatus, Chamaeleon, 75 
Lampornis brevirostris, 532 
Lampropeltis polyzona, 503 
Lamprophis abyssinicus, 22 
Lampropholis assatus, 496 
lanei, Pnyllodactylus, 490 
Lasiancistrus planiceps, 240 
Latastia carinata, 60 

hardeggeri, 60 

longicaudata, 60 

revoili, 60 
latifasciatus, Eleotris, 355 

Hemieleotris, 355 
latifrons, Dormitator, 343-344 

Eleotris, 343-344 
latiura, Loricaria, 240-241 
latouchii, Rana, 143 
latus, Phelister, 459-460 
leclancherii, Passerina, 547 
leightoni, Psammophis, 38-39 
Leiolopisma assatum, 496 
Leionota confusa, 436 

detria, 434 
lemairii, Bufo, 83 
Lembus maculatus, 340-341 
lemniscatum, Boaedon, 22 
lemni&catus, Boodon, 22 
lemniscatus, Pseudoboodon, 22 
Lepidocolaptes leucogaster, 534 
Lepidophyma flavimaculatum, 495 
Leptoancistrus canensis, 240 
Leptodactylus melanonotus, 482 
Leptodeira malleisi, 505-506 

polysticta, 505 
Leptodira hotamboeia, 35 

polysticta, 505 
Leptopelis aubryi, 101 

bocagii, 100 

brevirostris, 101 

karissimbensis, 101-102 

ocellatus, 101 

palmatus, 101 

rufus, 101 

Leptopelis rugegensis, 102 
Leptophilypnus, 349 

fluviatilis, 349-351 

panamensis, 351-352 
Leptophis kirtlandii, 39-40 

mexicanus, 501 

occidentalis, 501 
leptosomus, Hyperolius, 103 

Megalixalus, 103 
Leptotila angelica, 528 
lethrinus, Cichlasoma, 333-334 
leucogaster, Lepidocolaptes, 534 
leucomystax, Polypedates, 147 
leucostigma, Agama, 52 
leucostomum, Cinosternum, 488 

Kinosternon, 488 
leucotis, Hylocharis, 532 
lichtensteinii, Aspidelaps, 44 

Causus, 44 

lima, Ooeidozyga, 131-132 
Limia formosa, 312-313 
limnocharis, Rana, 143-144 
Limnodytes bravanus, 95-96 
lineata, Hapsidophrys, 33 
lineatus, Boaedon, 22-23 

Boodon, 22-23 

Dromophis, 38 

Dryophylax, 38 

Hapsidophrys, 33 
lineolata, Scincus, 72-73 
lineolatus, Sphaerodactylus, 489 
lineo-ocellata, Eremias, 62 
lionotus, Agama, 55 
Lithodytes ranoides, 482-483 

rhodopis, 483 

Liu, Ch'eng-Chao, Secondary Sex Char- 
acters of Chinese Frogs and Toads, 
longicaudata, Lacerta, 60 

Latastia, 60 
longifilis, Arges, 245 

Astroblepus, 246 
longiloba, Mabuya, 69-70 
loquax, Hyla, 486 
Loricaria altipinnis, 242-243 

capetensis, 241 

fimbriata, 241-242 

latiura, 240-241 

panamensis, 243 

uracantha, 240 

variegata, 241 

Loveridge, Arthur, African Reptiles and 
Amphibians in Field Museum of 
Natural History, 5-111 
Loxia stricklandi, 548 
Luciocharax beani, 289 
lundelli, Sceloporus, 495 


luteiventris, Myiodynastes, 535 
Lycodon capensis, 23-24 

guttatus, 22 
Lycophidion capense, 23-24 

fasciatum, 24 
Lycophidium capense, 23-24 

fasciatum, 24 
Lygodactylus gutturalis, 51 

picturatus, 50 
Lygosoma akeleyi, 73 

breviceps, 71 

fernandi, 71 

graueri, 71-72 

sundevallii, 71 

mabouia, Gecko, 49 

Hemidactylus, 49 
mabouya, Lacertus, 496 

Mabuya, 496 
Mabuia batesii, 71 

brevicollis, 67-68 

maculilabris, 65-66 

megalura, 68 

obsti, 68769 

polytropis, 66 

quinquetaeniata, 68 

raddonii, 66-67 

seriate, 70 

paria, 69-70 
Mabuya blandingii, 66-67 

brevicollis, 67-68 

damaranus, 69-70 

longiloba, 69-70 

mabouya, 496 

maculilabris, 65-66 

megalura, 68 

obsti, 68-69 

polytropis, 66 

quinquetaeniata, 68 

raddoni, 66-67 

striata, 70 

varia, 69 

macracanthus, Agonostomus, 323-324 
macrodactyla, Rana, 144 
Macrodon microlepis, 290 
macrolepis, Phanagoniates, 249-250 

Roeboides, 249-250 
Macrophis ornatus, 34 
macropholis, Zonurus, 58 
Macroprotodon cucullatus, 39 
macropterus, Spinus, 547 
macularia, Actitis, 527 
maculatus, Bufo, 81 

Dormitator, 341-343 

Gasteropelecus, 270-271 

Gobiomorus, 340-341 

Hedymeles, 546 

Lembus, 340-341 

Sciaena, 341-343 

Thoracocharax, 270-271 
maculicauda, Cichlasoma, 332-333 

maculilabris, Euprepis, 65-66 

Mabuia, 65-66 
Mabuya, 65-66 

magdalenae, Curimatus, 247-248 
magretti, Rana, 95-96 
major, Gerrhosaurus, 64 
malabaricus, Esox, 290-291 

Hoplias, 290-291 
malleisi, Leptodeira, 505-506 
Malpolon monspessulanus, 36 
Mammals (biliary tract), 415-430 

gall bladder, 164-176, 187-201 
mammata, Aelurophryne, 124 
mandera, Rhampholeon, 79 
manni, Poneralister, 470-471 
margaritiferus, Drymobius, 499 

Herpetodryas, 499 
marina, Rana, 481-482 
marinus, Bufo, 481-482 
mariquensis, Pachydactylus, 51 
marmorata, Hemisus, 100 

Hoplophryne, 111 

Rappia, 107 
marmoratum, Engystoma, 100 

Hemisus, 100 

marmoratus, Synbranchus, 292-293 
marshi, Characidium, 249 
Marsupialia (biliary tract), 417 

gall bladder, 187-188 
martensi, Ooeidozyga, 132 
mascareniensis, Rana, 92-93 

Rana, 92 

Masticophis melanolomus, 499 
mauritanica, Lacerta, 51 

Tarentola, 51 
mawii, Dermatemys, 487 
maxima, Bombina, 123-124 
mayensis, Bubo, 530 
medius, Vireo, 543 
megacephalus, Polypedates, 147 
Megaceryle torquata, 532 
Megalixalus dorsalis, 102-103 

fornasinii, 102 

leptosomus, 103 
Megalonema punctatum, 234 
megalopterus, Heleodytes, 539 
megalura, Euprepes, 68 

Mabuia, 68 

Mabuya, 68 
Megophrys boettgeri, 125 

kuatunensis, 125 

pelodytoides, 125 
Mehelya chanleri, 24-27 

somaliensis, 24-27 
melanchima, Geococcyx, 529 
melanicterus, Cassiculus, 545 
melanoleuca, Naia, 41 

Naja, 41 
melanolomus, Dryadophis, 499 

Masticophis, 499 
melanonotus, Cystignathus, 482 

Leptodactylus, 482 



melanostictus, Bufo, 129-130 
Melanotis effuticus, 541 
melanotis, Psaltiparus, 538 
melanurus, Drymarchon, 500 

Spilotes, 500 

melitophrys, Vireolanius, 543 
mentalis, Xiphorhynchus, 534 
Mesopeltis sanniolus, 503-504 
mexicana, Ara, 528 

Bolitoglossa, 481 

Piaya, 529 

Sitta, 538 

Spizella, 550 
mexicanus, Cassidix, 545-546 

Catherpes, 540 

Cerates, 500 

Cinclus, 539 

Colaptes, 533 

Leptophis, 501 

Momotus, 533 

Nyctibius, 531 

Oedipus, 481 

Spilotes, 500 

Trogonurus, 532 

Vireo, 543 

Xenodon, 501 
meyeri, Typhlosaurus, 75 
Micrastur naso, 526 
Microeleotris mindii, 349-351 

panamensis, 351-352 
Microhyla butleri, 150 

heymonsi, 151 

ornata, 151 

pulchra, 151 

microlepidota, Atractaspis, 47 
microlepis, Hoplias, 290 

Macrodon, 290 

Micro podiformes (gall bladder), 185 
Micrurus alienus, 507-508 

stantoni, 507-508 

miladae, Phelisteroides, 448-450 
mindii, Microeleotris, 349-351 
miniatus, Myioborus, 545 
minimus, Empidonax, 535 
minshanicus, Bufo, 127-128 
minutus, Archroleptis, 99 
Miodon gabonensis, 40 
mirabilis, Pseudister, 454-456 
misella, Carcinops, 445 
miserula, Carcinops, 445 
miserulus, Carcinops, 445 
Mitrephanes phaeocercus, 536 
Mizodon variegatus, 21 
Mniotilta yaria, 544 
Mocquardia obscura, 109-110 
modestus, Elapops, 40 
Mollienisia, 310 

caucana, 312 

cuneata, 312 

formosa, 312-313 

sphenops, 310-311 
Momotus mexicanus, 533 

mongolia, Rana, 133 
Monotremata (gall bladder), 187 
monspessulanus, Coelopeltis, 36 

Coluber, 36 

Malpolon, 36 
montana, Agama, 53 
montezumae, Cyrtonyx, 527 
monticola, Agonostomus, 322-323 

Mugil, 322-323 
montium, Rivulus, 319-322 
montivaga, Rana, 144-145 
moreletii, Agalychnis, 487 

Crocodilus, 489 

Crocodylus, 489 

Hyla, 487 

moschata, Cairina, 524 
motaguense, Cichlasoma, 329-330 
mucronata, Eremias, 62 
mucronatus, Acanthodactylus, 62 
Mugil monticola, 322-323 
multicolor, Hyperolius, 105-106 
multispinosa, Heros, 338 

Herotilapia, 338 

multisquamis, Trimerorhinus, 36-37 
Muraena rostrata, 294 
mutabilis, Agama, 52 
Myadestes occidentalis, 541-542 
Myiarchus querulus, 535 
Myioborus miniatus, 545 
Myiochanes pertinax, 535 
Myiodynastes luteiventris, 535 

Naia goldii, 42 

haie, 41 

melanoleuca, 41 

nigricollis, 41 
Naja angusticeps, 42-43 

goldii, 42 

melanoleuca, 41 

nigricollis, 41 
namaquensis, Chamaeleo, 78 

Chamaeleon, 78 
nasicornis, Coluber, 45 
naso, Micrastur, 526 
nasuta, Phrynomantis, 111 

Rappia, 109 

nasutus, Hyperolius, 109 
natalensis, Phrynobatrachus, 96-97 

Stenorhynchus, 96-97 
Natrix fuliginoides, 21 

olivacea, 21 

viperina, 21-22 
Nectophryne afra, 86 
Neetroplus panamensis, 337-338 
neglectus, Chlorophis, 30 

Philothamnus, 30 
nelsoni, Phloeoceastes, 533 
newtonii, Petropedetes, 96 

Tympanoceroa, 96 
newtoni, Petropedetes, 96 
nicaraguensis, Astyanax, 263 

Gambusia, 296-298 


nigrescens, Pipilo, 548-549 
nigricollis, Naia, 41 

Naja, 41 

nigrior, Aeronautes, 531 
nigrofasciatum, Cichlasoma, 335 
nigrofasciatus, Heros, 335 
nigrolineatus, Gerrhosaurus, 65 
nigro-lineatus, Gerrhosaurus, 65 
nigroluteus, Tretanorhinus, 499 
nigromaculata, Rana, 132-133 
nUotica, Lacerta, 59 
niloticus, Varanus, 59 
Ninia sebae, 497-498 
nisorius, Thryothorus, 540 
nitschei, Athens, 46-47 
nototaenia, Amplorhinus, 36 

Coronella, 36 

notropoides, Creagrutus, 271 
nummifer, Atropos, 509 

Trimeresurus, 509 
nutti, Rana, 90-91 
Nyctibius mexicanus, 530 
Nyctidromus yucatanensis, 531 

oblitum, Eutidium, 434 

Phylloma, 434 
obscura, Cassinia, 109-110 

Mocquardia, 109-110 

Rothschildia, 109-110 
obscurus, Brycon, 283-285 
obsti, Mabuia, 68-69 

Mabuya, 68-69 
ocellata, Lacerta, 73 
ocellatus, Chalcides, 73 

Uromastix, 58 
occidentalis, Ahaetulla, 501 

Dendroica, 545 

Empidonax, 535 

Leptophis, 501 

Myadestes, 541-542 

Roeboides, 273-274 

Tyrannus, 534 
occipitalis, Rana, 89 
ocellata, Rappia, 104 
ocellatus, Hylambates, 101 

Hyperolius, 104 

Leptopelis, 101 

Varanus, 59 
Oedipus elongatus, 481 

mexicanus, 481 
officinalis, Scincus, 72-73 
ogoensis, Arthroleptis, 99 
olivacea, Coronella, 21 

Matrix, 21 

olivaceus, Tropidonotus, 21 
olivaceus, Boaedon, 23 

Boodon, 23 

Holuropholis, 23 

Peucedramus, 544 
omeimontis, Polypedates, 147 
Ooeidozyga lima, 131-132 

martensi, 132 

orientalis, Bombina, 122-123 
ornata, Emys, 488 

Grayia, 34 

Microhyla, 151 

Pseudemys, 488 
ornatus, Macrophis, 34 
Ortalis poliocephala, 527 
osgoodi, Bufo, 85-86 
Otus trichopsis, 529-530 
Oxybelis acuminatus, 506 

fulgidus, 506 

oxycephalus, Polypedates, 148 
Oxyloricaria citurensis, 243 

panamensis, 243 
oxyrhynchus, Astylosternus, 86-87 

Rana, 91-92 

Rkamphiophis, 37 

Pachydactylus austeni, 51-52 

mariquensis, 51 

pachyrhyncha, Rhynchopsitta, 528 
Pachyrhynchus anchietae, 63 
pacificus, Attila, 534 
pallescens, Columbigallina, 528 

Ptilogonys, 542-543 
palliata, Vermivora, 544 
pallida, Agama, 52 
Palmatogecko rangei, 48 
palmatus, Hylambates, 101 

Leptopelis, 101 
palmipes, Rana, 487 
panamensis, Hyphessobrycon, 269-270 

Leptophilypnus, 351-352 

Loricaria, 243 

Microeleotris, 351-352 

Neetroplus, 337-338 

Oxyloricaria, 243 

Panamichthys, 306 

Phelisteroides, 450-452 

Plecostomus, 237-238 

Piabucina, 287-288 

Priapichthys, 306 

Sturisoma, 243 

Panamichthys, 306 

panamensis, 306 
Parabuteo harrisi, 526 
Paragonatodes dickersoni, 49 
pardalis, Acanthodactylus, 61 

Lacerta, 61 

Testudo, 18 

Parodon dariensis, 248 
Parus sclateri, 537 
parvulus, Hister, 461 

Phelister, 461 

Passeriformes (gall bladder), 186 
Passerina leclancherii, 547 

versicolor, 546 

Pelecaniformes (gall bladder), 182 
pelodytoides, Megophrys, 125 
Pelomedusa galeata, 19 
Pelusios sinuatus, 19 
percnus, Thryomanes, 540 



Perissodactyla (biliary tract), 421-422 

gall bladder, 198 
permixtus, Turdus, 541 
pertinax, Myiochanes, 535 
Petalosa cultratum, 313 
Petropedetes newtoni, 96 

newtonii, 96 

petropedetoides, Phrynobatrachus, 97-98 
petrosus, Brycon, 282-283 
Peucedramus olivaceus, 544 
Phanagoniates macrolepis, 249-250 
Phelister acoposternus, 461 

assimilis, 467-469 

chapadae, 469 

cumanensis, 469 

dives, 457 

egenus, 469 

flectohumerale, 465-467 

latus, 459-460 

purgamenticolus, 462-463 

pusio, 469 

quadripunctulus, 469 

qulsquilicolus, 461-462 

recrementicolus, 463 

striatinotum, 463-465 

williamsi, 458-459 
Phelisteroides, 448 

fungicolus, 452-454 

miladae, 448-450 

panamensis, 450-452 
Philautus doriae, 148 

vittatus, 148-149 
Philochortus hardeggeri, 60 
Philortyx fasciatus, 527 
Philothamnus neglectus, 30 
Philothamnus semivariegatus, 32-33 

semivariegatus, 32-33 
Philypnus dormitor, 339-340 
Phloeoceastes nelsoni, 533 
Pholidota (gall bladder), 194 
Phrynobatrachus graueri, 97 

hailensis, 91-92 

natalensis, 96-97 
Phyllodactylus lanei, 490 
Phrynobatrachus acridoides, 98 

dendrobates, 97-98 

petropedetoides, 97-98 

plicatus, 98 

versicolor, 97-98 
phrynoides, Rana, 136-137 
Phrynomantis annectens, 111 

nasuta, 111 
Phrynomerus annectens, 111 

bifasciatus, 111 
Phylloma oblitum, 434 
Piabucina, 286 

festae, 288 

panamensis, 287-288 
Piaya mexicana, 529 
pichardi, Joturus, 324 
Piciformes (gall bladder), 185 
picta, Eleotris, 344-347 

picturatus, Hemidactylus, 50 

Hyperolius, 105 

Lygodactylus, 50 
pileatus, Atlapetes, 548 
Pimelodella, 234-235 

chagresi, 235 
Pimelodus, 234 

chagresi, 235 

godmani, 233 

punctatus, 234 

rogersi, 234 

wagneri, 232-233 
Pipilo fuscus, 549-550 

nigrescens, 548-549 
Piranga bidentata, 546 

hepatica, 546 
pisonis, Eleotris, 347-348 

Gobius, 347-348 
Pitangus derbianus, 535 
pittieri, Poccilia, 309 

Poeciliopsis, 309 

Sicydium, 357 
plagiatus, Buteo, 526 
Plagiogramma brasiliense, 447 
Plagiospiza superciliosa, 550 
plancyi, Rana, 138 
planiceps, Agama, 56 

Ancistrus, 240 

Lasiancistrus, 240 
Plecostomus panamensis, 237-238 
Plegadis guarauna, 524 
pleuraden, Rana, 139-140 
pleurostigma, Kalophrynus, 149 
pleurotaenia, Rappia, 104-105 
pleurotaenius, Hyperolius, 104-105 
plicatus, Hyperolius, 98 

Phrynobatrachus, 98 
Plioccrcus semicinctus, 502-503 
Plistodon sumichrasti, 496 
pobeguini, Chlorophis, 29-30 
Poecilia cuneata, 312 

elongata, 307-309 

pittieri, 309 

retropinna, 309-310 

sphenops, 310-311 
Poeciliopsis, 307 

elongatus, 307-309 

isthmensis, 309 

pittieri, 309 

retropinna, 309-310 
poecilonotus, Arthroleptis, 99 

Pseustes, 499-500 

Spilotus, 499-500 
poliocephala, Ortalis, 527 
Polioptila bairdi, 542 
Polyborus audubonii, 526 
polycerus, Bufo, 84 
Polypedates dennysi, 146 

leucomystax, 147 

megacephalus, 147-148 

omeimontis, 147-148 


Polypedates oxycephalus, 148 

rufescens, 100 
polysticta, Leptodeira, 505 

Leptodira, 505 
polytropis, Mabuia, 66 

Mabuya, 66 

polyzona, Lampropeltis, 503 
Poneralister manni, 470-471 
praeocularis, Eutaenia, 498 

Thamnophis, 498 
pratincola, Tyto, 529 
Priapichthys dariensis, 305-306 

panamensis, 306 

tridentiger, 303-305 
Primates (biliary tract), 418 

gall bladder, 190-192 
Proboscidea (gall bladder), 198 
proboscideus, Bostrichus, 436 

Coptotrophis, 436 

Trypanaeus, 436 

Procellariiformes (gall bladder), 182 
propinquus, Cynanthus, 531-532 
Psaltiparus melanotis, 538 
Psammophis biseriatus, 39 

crucifer, 39 

furcatus, 38-39 

leightoni, 38-39 

sibilans, 38 

subtaeniatus, 38 
Pseudemys ornata, 488 
Pseudaspis cana, 27 
Pseudister mirabilis, 454-456 
Pseudoboa carinata, 46 
Pseudoboodon gascae, 22 

lemniscatus, 22 

Pseudocheirodon affinis, 251-252 
Pseustes poecilonotus, 499-500 
Psilodactylus caudicinctus, 47-48 
Psittaciformes (gall bladder), 184 
Ptilogonys pallescens, 542-543 
Ptychadena aberae, 91-92 
pukhellus, Chalcides, 73-74 
pulchra, Compsothlypis, 544 

Microhyla, 151 
pulverulenta, Bioga, 35 

Dipsadomorphus, 35 

Dipsas, 35 
pumilus, Chamaeleo, 78 

Chamaeleon, 78 
punctatum, Hoplosternum, 243-244 

Megalonema, 234 
punctatus, Acontias, 19-20 

Pimelodus, 234 

Typhlops, 19-20 

punctifer, Trigonophallus, 302-303 
punctisternus, Acritus, 440-441 
punctulata, Rappia, 107 
punctulatus, Hyperolius, 107 
purgamenticolus, Phelister, 462-463 
pusio, Phelister, 469 
pustulatus, Icterus, 546 

Pygidium septentrionale, 245-246 

striatum, 246 
Python sebae, 20-21 
Pyxicephalus delalandii, 89-90 

quadripunctulus, Phelister, 469 
querulus, Myiarchus, 535 
quinquetaeniata, Mabuia, 68 

Mabuya, 68 

Scincus, 68 
quisquilicolus, Phelister, 461-462 

raddei, Bufo, 128-129 
raddoni, Euprepis, 66-67 

Mabuia, 66-67 

Mabuya, 66-67 
Rana adenopleura, 140 

aequiplicata, 91 

albolabris, 96 

amurensis, 134 

andersonii, 140-141 

angolensis, 90-91 

ansorgii, 95 

berlandieri, 487 

bravana, 95-96 

chensinensis, 134-135 

chunganensis, 141 

cooperi, 91 

crassipes, 89 

delandi, 89-90 

delalandii, 89-90 

fiechteri, 95-96 

fukienensis, 138-139 

goliath, 88-89 

grahami, 141 

graminea, 141-142 

guentheri, 142 

hieroglyphica, 89-90 

japonica, 135 

kuhlii, 142-143 

latouchii, 143 

limnocharis, 143-144 

macrodactyla, 144 

magretti, 95-96 

marina, 481-482 

mascariensis, 92 

mascareniensis, 92-93 

mongolia, 133 

montivaga, 144-145 

nigromaculata, 132-133 

nutti, 90-91 

occipitalis, 89 

oxyrhynchus, 91-92 

palmipes, 487 

phrynoides, 136-137 

plancyi, 138 

pleuraden, 139-140 

reinhardtii, 133-134 

regulosa, 145 

somalica, 95-96 

spinosa, 135-136 

spinulosa, 145 



subsigillata, 89 

taipehensis, 145-146 

tibetana, 137-138 

uzungwensis, 93 

venusta, 94-95 
rangei, Palmatogecko, 48 
ranoides, Eleutherodactylus, 482-483 

Lithodytes, 382-483 
Rappia cinctiventris, 107 

cinnamomeiventris, 108-109 

concolor, 104 

ferniquei, 107 

granulata, 109 

marmorata, 107 

nasuta, 109 

ocellata, 104 

pleurotaenia, 104-105 

punctulata, 107 

steindachneri, 103-104 

symetrica, 108 

undulata, 108 

recrementicolus, Phelister, 463 
regularis, Bufo, 80-83 
Regulus clarus, 542 
reinhardtii, Rana, 133-134 
renominatus, Turdus, 541 
repentens, Vireo, 543 
Reptiles (gall bladder), 164, 179-181 
resimus, Causus, 44 

Helerophis, 44 
reticulata, Scapteira, 63 

Scaptira, 63 
retropinna, Aulophallus, 309-310 

Poecilia, 309-310 

Ppeciliopsis, 309-310 
revoili, Eremias, 60 

Latastia, 60 

rhodopis, Eleutherodactylus, 483 
Rhamdia godmani, 233 

rogersi, 234 

underwoodi, 233 

wagneri, 232-233 

Rhamphichthys brevirostris, 291-292 
Rhamphiophis oxyrhynchus, 37 

rostratus, 37 
Rhampholeon mandera, 79 

robecchii, 79 

spectrum, 79 
Rhegnops visoninus, 503 
Rheiformes (gall bladder), 182 
rhinolopha, Iguana, 494 
rhodopis, Lithodytes, 483 
rhodorachis, Coluber, 27 

Zamenis, 27 
rhombeatus, Causus, 44 

Sepeden, 44 

Rhynchocephalia (gall bladder), 181 
Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha, 528 
ricae, Bryconamericus, 268-269 
ricketti, Staurois, 146 
Riopa fernandi, 71 

sundevallii, 71 

Rivulus brunneus, 315 

chucunaque, 315-316 

elegans, 319-322 

hildebrandi, 318-319 

isthmensis, 316-318 

montium, 319-322 

volcanus, 316-318 
robecchii, Rhampholeon, 79 
robustus, Trichobatrachus, 87 
Rodentia (biliary tract), 418-419 

gall bladder, 199-201 
Roeboides, 272 

guatemalensis, 272-273 

macrolepis, 249-250 

occidental, 273-274 
rogersi, Pimelodus, 234 

Rhamdia, 234 
roperi, Chamaeleon, 76 
rostrata, Anguilla, 294 

Muraena, 294 
rostratus, Rhamphiophis, 37 

Sternarchus, 292 
Rothschildia kounihensis, 109-110 

obscura, 109-110 
rouxi, Arthroleptis, 99-100 
ruber, Ergaticus, 545 
ruberrimus, Astyanax, 258-260 
rubicundus, Empidonax, 536-536 
rubropunctata, Eremias, 62 

Lacerta, 62 

rudis, Chamaeleon, 77 
rufescens, Chiromantis, 100 

Polypedates, 100 
rufo-palliatus, Turdus, 541 
rufus, Leplopelis, 101 
rugifera, Kaloula, 150 
rugulosa, Rana, 145 
rugulosus, Acritus, 442 
ruthveni, Anolis, 492 
rutiloris, Eutaenia, 498 

Thamnophis, 498 

sagrei, Anolis, 492 

Salientia (gall bladder), 179 

salvini, Sicydium, 357 

sanchiangensis, Hyla, 131 

sandcrson i, Eleutherodactylus, 485- 

sanniolw, Mesopeltis, 503-504 

Sibynomorphus, 503-504 
Saucerottia viola, 531 
Sauna (gall bladder), 179-180 
scaber, Coluber, 34 

Dasypeltis, 34 
scabra, Dasypeltis, 34 
scalptus, Bacanius, 436 
Scapteira ctenodactyla, 63 

reticulata, 63 

reticulata, 63 
Scaptira ctenodactyla, 63 

reticulata, 63 
Scardafella inca, 527-528 


Sceloporus chrysostictus, 494 

lundelli, 495 

teapensis, 495 
Scelotes bipes, 74 
schlegelii, Trigonocephalus, 509 

Trimeresurus, 509 
schmidti, Epierus, 446-447 
Schmidt, Karl P., The Amphibians and 
Reptiles of British Honduras, 475- 

schubotzi, Chlorophis, 30-32 
schwartzei, Eumeces, 396 
Sciaena maculatus, 341-343 
Scincus lineolata, 72-73 

officinalis, 72-73 

quinquetaeniata, 68 

scincus, 72-73 

sepoides, 74 
scincus, Scincus, 72-73 
sclateri, Parus, 537 
scorpioides, Kinosternon, 488 
Scotobleps camerunensis, 86 

gabonicus, 86-87 
scutellata, Lacerta, 61 
scutellatus, Acanthodactylus, 61 
sebae, Coluber, 20-21 

Ninia, 497-498 

Python, 20-21 

Streptophorus, 497-498 
semicinctus, Pliocercus, 502-503 
semiornata, Coronella, 33 
semivariegatus, Dendrophis, 32-33 

Philothammus, 32-33 

Philothamnus, 32-33 
senegalensis, Cassina, 110 

Chamaeleo, 75 

Chamaeleon, 75 

Cystignathus, 110 

Kassina, 110 
Sepedon rhombeatus, 44 
sepoides, Chalcides, 74 

Scincus, 74 

septentrionale, Pygidium, 245-246 
septentrionalis, Chloroceryle, 532 
sericeus, Anolis, 492 
Serpentia (gall bladder), 180-181 
shiranum, Duberria, 34 

Homalosoma, 34 
Shropshire!, Euleptoeleotris, 353- 


Sialia australis, 542 
Siaphos graueri, 71-72 

helleri, 72 
sibilans, Coluber, 38 

Psammophis, 38 

Psammophis, 38 
Sibynomorphus brevifacies, 503 

sanniolus, 503-504 
Sibynophis annulatus, 497 
Sicydium pittieri, 357 

salvini, 357 
sieberii, Aphelocoma, 537 

sieboldii, Cichlasoma, 335-337 

Heros, 335-337 
similis, Ctenosaura, 494 

Iguana, 494 
Simocephalus butleri, 24-27 

chanleri, 24-27 

unicolor, 24-27 
simplex, Hyla, 131 
simpliculus, Acritus, 442 
simus, Creagrutus, 271-272 

Hyperolius, 108 
sinaitus, Hemidactylus, 50 
sinuatus, Corvus, 536 

Pelusios, 19 

Sternothaerus, 19 
Sirenia (biliary tract), 421 

gall bladder, 197 
Sitta flavinucha, 538 

mexicana, 538 
smaragdina, Dendrophis, 33 

Gastropyxis, 33 
somalacus, Bufo, 85 
somalica, Rana, 95-96 
somaliensis, Mehelya, 24-27 
spectrum, Chamaeleo, 79 

Rhampholeon, 79 
spekii, Eremias, 61 
Sphaeriodactylus lineolatus, 489 

glaucus, 489 

lineolatus, 484 

Sphenisciformes (gall bladder), 182 
sphenops, Mollienisia, 310-311 

Poecilia, 310-311 
Spilotes melanurus, 500 

mexicanus, 500 
Spilotus poecilonotus, 499-511 
spilurum, Cichlasoma, 331 
spinosa, Rana, 135-136 
spinosus, Ancistrus, 239 

Bufo, 82 

spinulosa, Rana, 145 
Spinus griscomi, 547 

macropterus, 547 
spirulus, Heros, 331 
Spizella mexicana, 550 
spurius, Icterus, 546 
squamiger, Atheris, 46 
squamigera, Atheris, 46 

Echis, 46 

squamulata, Ciccaba, 530 
stantoni, Eleutherodactylus, 483- 

Micrurus, 507-508 
staufferi, Hyla, 486-487 
Staurois acridoides, 98 

ricketti, 146 

Staurotypus triporcatus, 488 
steindachneri, Celestus, 495 

Diploglossus, 49 

Rappia, 103-104 

steindachnerii, Hyperolius, 103-104 
steinhausi, Typhlops, 20 



Stellio cynogaster, 57-58 
Stenodactylus caudicinctus, 47-48 

guttatus, 48 

sthenodactylus, 48 
Stenorhina degenhardtii, 506-507 
Stenorhynchus natalensis, 96-97 
Stenarchus rostratus, 292 

virescens, 292 

Sternopygus dariensis, 291 
Sternothaerus sinuatus, 19 
sthenodactylus, Ascalabotes, 48 

Stenodactylus, 48 
stincus, Lacerta, 72-73 
Streptophorus sebae, 497-498 
striata, Mabuia, 70 

Mabuya, 70 

striatinotum, Phelister, 463-465 
striatulus, Brycon, 276 

Brycon, 278-281 

Chalcinopsis, 276 
striatum, Pygidium, 246 

Tropidolepisma, 70 
stricklandi, Loxia, 548 
Strigiformes (gall bladder), 185 
striolatus, Hyperolius, 107 
Struthioniformes (gall bladder), 182 
Sturisoma, 243 

citurensis, 243 

panamensis, 243 

subcarinatus, Bacanius, 436-438 
subsigillata, Rana, 89 
subtaeniatus, Psammophis, 38 
sulcirostris, Crotophaga, 529 
sumichrasti, Arremonops, 548 

Eumeces, 496 

Plistodon, 496 
sunderallii, Eumeces, 71 
sundevallii, Lygosoma, 71 

Riopa, 71 

superciliaris, Bufo, 85 
superciliosa, Plagiospiza, 550 
suttoni, Accipiter, 525-526 
symetrica, Rappia, 108 
Synbranchus marmoratus, 292-293 

taiasica, Awaous, 356 

Gobius, 356 

taipehensis, Rana, 145-146 
Tanagra elegantissima, 546 
Tantilla brevis, 506 
tantilla, Carcinops, 445 
Tarentola annularis, 51 

mauritanica, 51 
teapensis, Sceloporus, 495 
terrabenais, Brachyrhaphis, 301 

Gambusia, 301 
Terrapene triporcata, 488 
Testudinata (gall bladder), 181 
Testudo babcocki, 18 

galeata, 19 

pardalis, 18 

tornieri, 19 

Thamnophis praeocularis, 498 

rutiloris, 498 

Thelotornis kirtlandii, 39-40 
thierryi, Chalcides, 74 
tholloni, Grayia, 33-34 
Thomson, Stewart Craig, Studies of the 
Anatomy of the Extrahepatic Bili- 
ary Tract in Mammals, 415-430 
Thoracocharax, 270 

maculatus, 270-271 
Thryomanes percnus, 540 
Thryothorus nisorius, 540 
tibetana, Rana, 137-138 
tiligugu, Chalcides, 73 

Lacerta, 73 
Tiliqua fernandi, 71 
tornieri, Testudo, 19 
torquata, Megaceryle, 632 
Toxostoma curvirostre, 540-541 
trachyblepharus, Gymnodactylus, 48 
Trachycorystes amblops, 235-236 
transandeanus, Awaous, 356-357 

Gobiua, 356-357 
Trapelus flavimaculata, 52 
Tretanorhinus nigroluteus, 499 
triaspis, Elaphe, 500 
Trichobatrachus robustus, 87 
trichopsis, Otus, 529-530 
tridentiger, Allogambusia, 303-305 

Gambusia, 303-305 

Priapichthys, 303-305 
Trigonocephalus schlegelii, 509 
Trigonophallus, 301 

punctifer, 302-303 
Trimeresurus atrox, 508 

nummifer, 509 

schlegelii, 509 

yucatanicus, 509 
Trimerorhinus multisquamis, 36-37 

tritaeniatus, 36-37 
triporcata, Terrapene, 488 
triporcatus, Staurotypus, 388 
tritaeniatus, Trimerorhinus, 36-37 
Troglodytes colima, 540 
Trogon citreolus, 532 
Trogoniformes (gall bladder), 185 
Trogonurus mexicanus, 532 
Tropidodipsas brevifacies, 503-504 
Tropidolepisma striatum, 70 
tropidonotus, Anolis, 493 
Tropidonotus fuliginoides, 21 

olivaceus, 21 

viperinus, 21-22 
Trypanaeus carthagenus, 436 

proboscideus, 436 
tuberculatus, Acritus, 439-440 
tuberculosus, Bufo, 82 
tuberosus, Bufo, 84 
Tubulidentata (gall bladder), 195 
Turdus permixtus, 541 

renominatus, 541 

rufo-palliatus, 541 


tuyrense, Cichlasoma, 331 
Tympanocerus newtonii, 96 
Tyrannus crassirostris, 534 

occidentalis, 534 

vociferans, 534 
Typhlops batesii, 20 

punctatus, 19-20 

steinhausi, 20 
Typhlosaurus meyeri, 75 

vermis, 75 
typus, Bucephalus, 40 

Dispholidus, 40 
Tyto pratincola, 529 

umbriferum, Cichlasoma, 330 
uncinatus, Chondrohierax, 525 
underwoodi, Rhamdia, 233 
undulata, Ameiva, 495 

Rappia, 108 

undulatus, Hyperolius, 108 
unicolor, Dipsadoboa, 35 

Simocephalus, 24-27 
uracantha, Loricaria, 240 
Uromastix ocellatus, 58 
usambarae, Agama, 55-56 
ustus, Anolis, 493 
uzungwensis, Rana, 93 

valliceps, Bufo, 482 
Varanus albigularis, 59 

angolensis, 59 

niloticus, 59 

ocellatus, 59 

variabilis, Arthroleptis, 98 
varia, Mabuia, 69 

Mabuya, 69 

Mniotilta, 544 
variegata, Loricaria, 241 
variegatus, Mizodon, 21 
varius, Euprepes, 69 
vauerescecae, Chamaeleon, 78-79 
venusta, Rana, 94-95 
vermis, Typhlosaurus, 75 
Vermivora palliata, 544 
verrucosa, Kaloula, 150 
versicolor, Passerina, 546 

Phrynobatrachus, 97-98 
victorianus, Xenopus, 79-80 
viola, Saucerottia, 531 
Vipera arietans, 45 

caudalis, 46 

cornuta, 45 

hindii, 44-45 

viperina, Coluber, 21-22 

Natrix, 21-22 

viperinus, Tropidonotus, 21-22 
virenticeps, Atlapetes, 548 
Vireo flavoviridis, 543 

gilvus, 543 

medius, 543 

mexicanus, 543 

repetens, 543 

Vireolanius melitophrys, 543 
virescens, Eigenmannia, 292 

Sternarchus, 292 
visoninus, Adelphicos, 503 

Rhegnops, 503 
vittatus, Basiliscus, 493 

Philautus, 148-149 
vociferans, Tyrannus, 534 
Volatinia diluta, 547 
volcanus, Rivulus, 316-318 
vulgaris, Chamaeleon, 75 

wagleri, Icterus, 546 

wagneri, Pimelodus, 232-233 
Rhamdia, 232-233 

wahlbergii, Ablepharus, 72 
Cryptoblepharus, 72 

Wenzel, Rupert L. and Dybas, Henry 
S., New and Little Known Neo- 
tropical Histeridae (Coleoptera), 

whaleri, Gephyrocharax, 254-256 

williamsi, Phelister, 458-459 

Xenarthra (gall bladder), 194 
Xenodon mexicanus, 501 
Xenopus bunyoniensis, 80 

victorianus, 79-80 
Xiphorhynchus mentalis, 534 

yucatanensis, Nyctidromus, 531 
yucatanicus, Trimeresurus, 509 

Zamenis florulentulus, 27 

hippocrepis, 27 

rhodorachis, 27 

rhodorhachus, 27 
zechi, Gerrhosaurus, 64 
zeledoni, Cochlearius, 524 
zeteki, Bryconamericus, 265-268 
Zonurus cordylus, 58-59 

macropholis, 58