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No history of these Dioceses has yet been published, except 
Mr. O. J. Burke's "History of the Catholic Archbishops 
of Tuam," which is limited in accordance with its title. 
These notes are intended to show how they assumed their 
present form, and who worked in them in early days, and 
to be an assistance and foundation for whoever may under- 
take to write their history. In that respect their utility 
is limited, but as far as they go I hope that they will prove 
trustworthy. They are published in their present form 
because they would probably never be published if they 
were held back to be completely recast, and are even so 
better than no history at all. They extend over the three 
Dioceses because the information was collected during the 
study of the early history of the Co. of Mayo, and not with 
the object of writing their history. 

General remarks are made in the section on Tuam 
Diocese, in which is included also the period of St. Patrick 
and his companions. The sections on the other Dioceses 
contain what is peculiar to them. The Monastic Houses 
are taken together according to their orders as they were 
not a part of the ordinary Diocesan organisation, and are 
most conveniently dealt with as a whole. It has been im- 
possible for me to compare all my copies with the original 
documents relating to their possessions, but I have done 
so as far as I could, in order to get the most satisfactory 
reading of place-names. 

Chapters which are but strings of places, and the lists 
of possessions of abbeys, unless indexed elsewhere, are 
omitted from the Index, which they would swell to a great 
size without equivalent advantage. Names of Bishops and 
other items appearing in the Table of Contents are omitted 
unless mentioned elsewhere. 



The notes close when the general reorganisation in the 
reign of James I. ended the old order. 

My thanks are due to his Grace the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury for leave to publish parts of the " Division of Connaught 
and Thomond," a MS. in the Lambeth Library. 

To his Grace the Archbishop of Tuam for leave to use 
extracts from the " Insula Sanctorum et Doctorum." 

To the Librarian of Trinity College Dublin for leave to 
publish MSS. in that Library. 

To the Council of the Royal Irish Academy for leave 
to use extracts from the Proceedings and Transactions. 

To the Council of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of 
Ireland for leave to make extracts from the Journal and 
from the " Annals of Clonmacnoise." 

To the Delegates of the Clarendon Press for leave to use 
extracts from the " Life of St. Mochua," in Dr. Whitley 
Stokes's translation of the " Book of Lismore " in Anecdota 

To the Controller of H.M. Stationery Office for leave to 
use extracts from the Rolls Edition of the " Tripartite Life 
of St. Patrick," and of the " Irish Annals," and from the 
" Calendars of State Papers." 

To the Director of the Pontifical Press for leave to use 
extracts from Theiner's " Vetera Monumenta Hibernorum 
et Scotorum." 

To the Rev. C. H. H. Wright, D.D., for leave to use his 
translation of the " Writings of St. Patrick." 

To Madame Bouillon the proprietress, and to Dr. Whitby 
Stokes, for leave to use extracts from his translation of the 
" Annals of Tigernach " published in the Revue Celtique. 

To Mr. H. Stokes for leave to use extracts from the late 
Miss Stokes's " Early Christian Architecture in Ireland." 

To Messrs. George Bell & Sons for leave to use extracts 
from Bede's " Ecclesiastical History " in Bohn's Antiquarian 

H. T. KNOX. 

Nov. 1904. 


A.C. = Annals of Clonmacnoise. Rev. D. Murphy's 
Edition. Extra volume of R.S.A.I. 

A.U. = Annals of Ulster. Rolls Series. 
C.S. = Chronicon Scotorum. Rolls Series. 

D.I. = Sweetman, Calendar of Documents relating to 
Ireland, 1172-1307, vol. 

D.K. = Annual Report of Deputy Keeper of the Public 
Records, Ireland. 

F.M. = Annals of the Four Masters. O'Donovan's 

H.F. = O'Donovan, Tribes and Customs of Hy Fiachrach. 
H.M. = O'Donovan, Tribes and Customs of Hy Many. 

H. W.C. = Hardiman's Edition of O'Flaherty's West of 

Jl. R.S.A.I. = Journal of Royal Society of Antiquaries of 
Ireland. If vol. is given it is of the Con- 
secutive Series. 

L.C = Annals of Loch Ce. Rolls Series. 

O.S.L.G. = Ordnance Survey Letters, Co. Galway. M = 
Co. Mayo, R = Roscommon. In the Royal 
Irish Academy. 

O.R.B. = O'Rorke, History of Ballysadare and Kilvarnet. 

O.R.S. = O'Rorke, History of Sligo. 

P. R.J. = Calendar of Patent Rolls 1-16 James I. 








Early Work and Conditions before A.D. 432, 12 Remarks on 
Tirechan's Notes, 13 The First Tour in Connaught, 15 
The Second Tour, 25 Other Notes from Book of 
Armagh, 29. 


The First Tour, 33 The Second Tour, 34. 


Churches lost by Armagh, Patrick's Seat, Well of Slan, 42 
Amalgaid's Descendants in Tirawley, Patrick's Dangers, 
43 The Call from Wood of Foclut, The Women Raised 
from the Dead, 45 Places Identified, 46. 






Darerca, Liamain, Lugnad, 50 Benen, 51. 



Organised by St. Patrick, 54 Three Orders of Saints, 55 
Growth of Abbatial System, Christians in Ireland before 
Patrick, 56. 


Historical Notices of the Isles of Aran, and of the Abbots, 
60 larlaithe of Tuam, 63. 


Growth of the Church Organised by the Third Order of 
Saints, Methods of Working, 64 Rules of the Monas- 
teries, 65 Law of Patrick, &c., 66 Danish Wars and 
Decay, 68 Rise of Episcopal Government, 69 Ap- 
pearance of Bishop of Connaught, Beginnings of Dioceses, 
Abandonment of Irish Rules and Adoption of St. Augus- 
tine's, 70 Tuam Ecclesiastics of this period, 71. 



Reform of Church Order, Territorial Dioceses denned by 
Synods, 72 Endeavour to suppress Minor Bishoprics 
only partially successful, Submission of Church of Ireland 
to Church of Rome, 74 Formation of Province of Tuam, 
Mention of Tuam Ecclesiastics in Annals, 75 Building 
of Cathedral, How Abbots may have merged in Bishops, 
How Tuam obtained pre-eminence in Connaught, 77 
How old Deaneries represent Suppressed Bishoprics, 78. 





Distribution of Churches under Abbeys, 79 Survival of 
Abbeys, Parochial Arrangements, 80 Rectors and 
Vicars, Transformation of Monastic Officers and Monks 
into Cathedral Chapters, 81 Amalgamation of Parishes 
and Dioceses, 82 Original Chapter of Tuam, Deaneries of 
Tuam, Athenry, Shrule, Mayo, and Prebends therein, 84 
Chapters of Annaghdown, Killala, and Achonry, and 
their Prebends, 86 Chapters of Tuam and Annaghdown 
and their Emoluments, 88. 

THE DEANERY OF SHRULE . . : . . . .91 

Fechin of Fore Ceannfionnach Flannan MacDara 
Colman and Leo Cong Abbey Inishmaine Abbey 
and Inishrobe. 


Cadhla O'Dubhthaigh, 97 Felix O'Ruadain, 98 The 
Episcopal Fourths, 100 Maelmuire O'Lachtnain, 
Flann MacFloinn, 104 Walter de Salerno, 107 
Tomaltach O'Conor, 108 S. de Fulburn, 109 W. de 
Bermingham, in Maelseachlainn MacAedha, 114 T. 
O'Carroll, J. O'Grady, 115 O. Gregory, G. O'Mochain, 
W. O'Cormacain, M. O'Ceallaigh, 116 J. Babyng, 
J. Batterley or Barlay, J. Wingfield, T. O'Kelly, 
J. de Burgo, D. O'Murcada or O'Murray, 117 
W. Joy, P. Penson, M. O'Fihely, T. O'Mullaly, 119 
C. Bodkin, 121 W. Lally, N. Donelan, W. 
O'Donnell, 126. 


St. Colman, 127 Mayo Abbey, 129 Extent of Diocese, 131 
The Bishops, Gerald, 129 Aedhan, 130 G. O'Mailin, 
C. O'Duffy, 132 W. Prendergast, N. Wogomai, 
O'Higgin, Odo, J. Bell, 133 Balla and St. Mochua, 
134 Turlough, 139 Tochar Phatraic, Umall, 140 
Oughaval, 141. 





St. Brendan, 142 Fursa, 144 Cuanna, 145 Historical 
Notices, 146- Episcopal Period, Extent, 147 Cormac, 
147 H., C. O'Mellaigh, M. O'Flaherty, T. O'Mellaigh, 
Cormac, 148 Thomas, Union with Tuam, 149 
Gilbert, J. O'Kearney, R. Petit, T. O'Mellaigh, 
Thomas, 151 Union with Tuam, 152 John, H. Thril- 
lowe, J. Brit, J. Winne, Mathew, J. Connere, 
Thomas, T. Barrett, 153 Francis, 154 Wardenship 
of Gal way, 155. 


Churches and Cashels, 158 The Church Towers, 164 
Gothic Churches, 167 Anglo-Norman Abbey Churches, 


Holy Wells, Bullauns, 173 Long Stones and Crosses, 
176 High Crosses, Inscribed Crosses, 177 Swearing, 
Cursing, and Praying Stones, 178. 



Inquisition of 1617, 180 Return of 1833, 182. 

THE PARISHES . . .191 

Taxation of 1306, Tuam Diocese, 194 Annaghdown 
Diocese, 198 Notes on Taxation, 200. 






NOTES 214 




Tuam Diocese, 228 Annaghdown Diocese, 240. 


Tuam Diocese, 243 Annaghdown Diocese, 246. 



List of Houses, 251 Particulars regarding each House, 252. 



Life of St. Cormac, 306 Cuimin, Aidan, O'Suanaigh, 
O'Triallaigh, 310 St. Cellach, 311 St. Brendan, 
St. Derbiled, and St. Gedh, 312 Tireragh, 313. 




Seven Bishops of name of O'Maolfagmair, 318. 


Uncertain Muredachs and O'Mullovers, Cellach, O'Mullover, 
O'Mullover, I. O'Ruadan, M. MacMailin, D. O'Becda, 
320 O'Tarpaid, Elya, A. O'Mullover, G. O'Ruaidhin, 
321 Anglo-Norman Conquest, J. O'Laidigh, 322 
J. O'Laidigh, D. O'Flaherty, J. Tankard, J. O'Flaithimh, 
J.Bermingham,323 W. O'Dubhda, Robert, T. Lodowis, 
324 Robert, Disputes with Anti-Pope, 325 T. Orwell, 
326 Thomas, O'Haneki, C. O'Connell, Martin, 327 C. 
O'Connell, D. O'Conor, J. or D. O'Cashin, Thomas, 
Thomas Clerk, M. O'Cluan, R. Barrett, R. O'Gallagher, 
O. O'Gallagher, O. O'Conor, 328 M. Magrath, 329. 


SEE LANDS , , . . 332 

THE PARISHES ......... 336 

In Pope Innocent's Epistle, 336 Taxation of 1306, 342. 


VALOR BENEFICIORUM . . , , . . . . 344 








St. Araght, 353 Aodhan, 354 St. Nathi, and Contempo- 
raries, 355 Columban Churches, Fechin of Fore, 356 
References in Annals, 357. 




M. O'Ruadan, G. O'Ruadan, C. O'Sniadhaigh, C. O'Tarpa, 
G. Ua Cleirigh, T. O'Ruadan, A. O'Clumain, T. 
O'Maicin, 362 D. O'Maicin, B. O'Bragain, David of 
Kilheny, David, N. O'Hedran, W. Andrew, 363 
Simon, O'Hara, T. MacDonogh, B. O'Hara, Manus 
Chradran, L. P. Jacopin, Donatus, R. Belmer, 
O'Hara, N. O'Daly, Thady, J. Blakedon, C. O'Moc- 
hain, 364 R. Wellys, Bernard, J. de Buclamant, R. 
or T. FitzRichard, T. Fort, T. O'Conghalan, O. 
O'Flanagan, Cormac, Owen, T. O'Fihel, C. O'Coyn, 
O. O'Hart, 365 His Character, M. Magrath, 366. 



TAXATION OF 1306 372 











SEVERAL circumstances indicate the existence of Christians 
in Ireland before St. Patrick's time. The common account 
of St. Patrick begins his mission in Ireland with his con- 
secration as bishop in Gaul in A.D. 432 and his arrival in 
Ireland soon after. This is inconsistent with traditions 
not open to objection except on the ground that the events 
occurred before A.D. 432. The chronology of St. Patrick 
and of some of his contemporaries has been upset by the 
erroneous belief that he then came to Ireland for the first 
time as a missionary, and the consequent necessity of 
arranging events to agree with that date. Dr. Whitley 
Stokes has pointed out how his life should run in the Tri- 
partite Life, Introduction, p. cxli. The synchronisms, as 
I understand them, which he has not fully dealt with, and 
the Annals show three occasions of his " Coming to Ire- 
land " after his first return as a missionary priest. 

My examination of impossible and inconsistent entries 
and traditions results in a chronology which shows how 
the impossible dates have been worked out, and how the 
confusion has arisen, and how some probably record exact 
truth. The confusion has arisen from two facts being used 
as standards of time and applied to wrong dates, namely, 
that he worked in Ireland as a missionary for 60 years and 
that he was 60 years of age when he was made a bishop. 
" The Coming of Patrick " gave a wrong measure for 
synchronism when it was supposed to apply to only one 

1 A 


The following facts seem well fixed within a small error. 
Death of Niall King of Ireland about 405 and accession 
of Dathi. Dathi's death about 427 and accession of 
Laegaire. Laegaire's death about 463 and accession of 
Ailill Molt. Ailill's death in the battle of Ucha about 483. 
Battle of Segais and death of Duach Tenguma about 
500. The Annals of Clonmacnoise give the Coming of 
Patrick in the year 425, a unique date, but give also 432 
as the correct date. This date explains the entries of the 
death of Dathi in the years 445 and 446 in the Annals of 
Ulster and of Innisfallen. If the authority on which these 
compilers relied referred the death of Dathi to 20 years 
after the Coming of Patrick, meaning his coming about 
405, then their date 445 would be correct if they supposed 
the reference to be to the coming in 425. Nennius gives 
405 as the date of Patrick's Coming to the Scots. The 
death of Dathi was in truth 22 years or so after that date. 
The Annals of Ulster and Innisfallen refer the arrival of 
St. Patrick to the fourteenth year of King Laegaire which 
is 443, the year fixed by Dr. Todd for his coming to Tara. 
The entries in the Annals of Ulster under 441 and 443 point 
to important events in his mission, which explain the entries 
of the death of King Amalgaid, correctly in 449 by the 
Four Masters, incorrectly in 440 in the Chronicon Scotorum. 
In either case it was a year or two before some important 
event at Tara. In 451 King Laegaire held the Feis of Tara 
according to the Annals of Clonmacnoise. Patrick's visit 
to Tirawley was a consequence of the death of Amalgaid, 
whose sons came to Tara to settle a dispute about their 
inheritance, therefore soon after their father's death. 

Dr. Todd quotes indications that the " Coming of 
Patrick " was in 439 to 442 according to various data. 1 
The relations between St. Patrick and Laegaire were such 
that Patrick may have attended any Feis or ceremony at 
Tara in his reign. 

The sequence and dates of the kings of Connaught can 
be made out with fair certainty. O'Curry quotes a tract 
for their names and length of reign from the coming of 
Patrick as follows 2 Amalgaid 20 years, Oilioll Molt n years, 

1 Life of St. Patrick, pp. 394-6. 

2 MS. Mat. of Anc. Irish Hist., p. 499. 


Duach Galach 20 years, &c. The list is not in order of 
succession. O'Curry quotes O'Duinn's poem in connection 
with this list for the statement that 79 years elapsed from 
the death of Duach Galach to the battle of Segais, which 
at O'Duinn's date 504 places the death of Duach in 425. 
Taking these notes with the entries in the Annals the dates 
are I think fairly established as follows Dathi was King 
of Connaught until he became King of Ireland after NialTs 
death, that is about 406 ; Duach Galach was King of Con- 
naught from about 407 to 427 ; Amalgaid was King of Con- 
naught from about 428 to 449 ; Ailill Molt was King of 
Connaught from about 450 to 463, when he became King 
of Ireland. 

The traditions regarding Patrick and Duach Galach 
throw a good deal of light on the period of Patrick's mission. 
Duach has always been regarded as a Christian and sup- 
porter of Patrick. His death is placed after Patrick's 
coming in 432. The true date of his death and the tradi- 
tions cannot be reconciled with that date of coming, but 
fall in with the first coming about 402 and the second coming 
about 425. 

Hardiman gives one of these traditions. 1 Patrick ap- 
proached Brian's sons. Led by Echean the eldest, all but 
Duach the youngest mounted their horses and rode away 
refusing to countenance him. Duach awaited him and 
received him respectfully. Patrick deprived Echean and 
his brethren of royalty for ever, but blessed Duach saying 
" You and your posterity shall be kings over your brethren." 
Though the fact is not to be taken as proved by the legend, 
the legend has a value as evidence that it was thought that 
St. Patrick made acquaintance with Duach before Duach 
became king. 

O'Donovan quotes another legend. 2 Duach Galach 
being king gave St. Grellan a piece of land for a church, 
after Grellan had baptized Duach's son Eogan Sriab. In 
token of possession Duach and Patrick gave Grellan a 
branch, whence the place is called Craebh Grellain * ever 
since. The account of Sachell in the Book of Armagh shows 
that he must have been put under St. Patrick before 425.* 

1 H. W. C. p. 147. * Tribes and Customs of Hy Many, p. 8. 

3 Crceve near Elphin. * See p. 14. 


Benen Abbot of Armagh in 455 is said to have been given 
over to Patrick when Patrick came to Ireland, being then 
7 years old. He is said to have been 17 years Abbot of 
Drumlease. On the basis of the coming in 432 he must have 
been placed there when only 12 years old and in Armagh 
when only 29. He must have joined Patrick on an earlier 
occasion. As to Drumlease he has been confused with 
Benen son of Lugni. 

When it was believed that Patrick came for the first 
time after Palladius's failure, all events had to fit into the 
subsequent period or be rejected. Nennius took the dates 
relating to Irish church history as he found them, without 
framing theories or harmonising. His date of A.D. 405 for 
the first coming seems correct within a trifle. The con- 
fession of St. Patrick supports this view. His own chron- 
ology runs thus Taken captive when nearly 16 years old. 
Six years in captivity. Again, not many years afterwards, 
taken prisoner but released after 60 days. Again, after a 
few years, he was in Britain with his kinsfolk, who besought 
him that now after his many hardships he should never 
leave them again. There he saw the vision and heard the 
call from the Wood of Foclut. " After very many years 
the Lord granted to them according to their cry." This 
visit to Britain seems to have been that from which he 
returned in 425. Then his friend Duach was King of Con- 
naught, and the heathen Amalgaid was King of Carra and 
Tirawley into which he could not enter to work. Their 
families were rivals for the chief sovereignty of Connaught. 
During Patrick's time the Hy Fiachrach were the more 
powerful, providing the King of Ireland when Duach was 
King of Connaught, and after him providing Amalgaid 
and Ailill Molt. The friendship of Duach would tend to 
keep Patrick out of Carra and Tirawley. The call from 
the Wood of Foclut is not intelligible if Patrick was in Gaul 
and Britain between his escape in 394 and 432, but is 
natural if Patrick had been working among the Hy Briuin, 
Hy Ailello, Ciarraige and Conmaicne and Partraige, and 
knew that he could do good work in those countries also 
if permitted by the ruling family. The acceptance of Chris- 
tianity by so many of Amalgaid's sons as soon as he died 
showed that the country generally was ready to receive 


him. Tirawley was the inheritance of Amalgaid, Carra 
was that of Ailill Molt, and accordingly Patrick did not 
enter Carra at any time. 

It may be more than a coincidence that a few years 
after Dathi's death Patrick was in Gaul when a bishop 
was sent to Ireland. Laegaire's accession made an oppor- 
tunity for organisation of a church under the chief king's 
protection, whether Christian himself or not. The substitu- 
tion of Amalgaid for Duach in Connaught about the same 
time had an opposite effect, and may have given rise to 
the persecution which we infer from the discovery of the 
chalices in a cave in Tirerrill. The persecution must have 
been temporary or local for Patrick certainly worked freely 
in Connaught during Amalgaid's reign, but not in Amalgaid's 
own kingdom. 

Muirchu Maccumactheni's Life notes an important era 
in Patrick's life at his thirtieth year when he visited the 
Apostolic See. This coincides with Tirechan's note that 
he was seven years travelling through Gaul and Italy and 
in the Islands of the Tyrrhene Sea. An obscure period 
follows. Muirchu sends him to Germanus for 30 or 40 years. 
This doubt must be due to uncertainty caused by " comings " 
of 432 and 442. That he worked 60 years in Ireland is 
correct. His ordination as bishop divides his missionary 
life into two equal parts of 30 years each. When the first 
period of work as a priest was forgotten and his ordination as 
bishop taken for the starting point of his work in Ireland the 
true chronology was upset, and it was worked out as follows 

As he worked 60 years in Ireland he must have died 
in 493. As his birth was in 372 and he was 60 years old 
when he was made a bishop, he must have been 30 years 
with Germanus, or somewhere, after the seven years in Gaul 
and Italy which he himself mentioned. 

The 30 years before 432 and the 30 years after 463 are 
devoid of events in the ordinary history. In truth the 
seven years would end about 402 with his ordination as 
a priest and his coming to Ireland. Thus he had time to 
make Duach's acquaintance before Duach became king and 
to raise so many congregations and gain so much support 
among the kings that he could urge the Pope to send a 
bishop to organise the church in 432. 


Tigernach notes Patrick's birth in the time of Muredach 
Tirech, and his captivity in the beginning of Eochy Moy- 
vane's reign. 342 is 60 years before his coming in 402. 
Tigernach and the compiler of the Annals of Clonmacnoise 
used the same materials as Nennius for the date of the 
Coming, or one is based on the other, as Clonmacnoise gives 
the reign of Eochy Moyvane as the date of the captivity. 

Flann's Synchronisms date the battle of Ocha, which 
was in 483, as 43 years after the Coming of Patrick, correctly 
if the coming about 440 is meant. 

Nennius's references to St. Patrick give further evidence 
as they are obviously taken from various tracts. He men- 
tions that Patrick taught the Gospel in foreign nations for 
40 years, pointing to Muirchu's period of 30 or 40 years, 
and says that he was 85 years the Apostle of the Irish. 
Counting from Nennius's A.D. 405 this puts his death in 490. 

For the interval of 30 years after the seven years which 
Patrick mentioned Tirechan had no written authority, only 
Ultan's statement that they were spent in an island called 
Aralanensis. The Irish called monasteries islands, and 
Ultan here perhaps meant only a monastery at Aries. 

The Black Book of the Cathedral of Holy Trinity Dublin 
of about 1290 contains these entries. 1 

" CCCCXXIII. Obiit Augustinus et Celestinus pape et paladius ad 
Scotos mittitur id est ad hyberniam. 

CCCCXXXII. Patricias venit in hiberniam." 

The value of these entries is that they show that there was 
a record of Patrick's arrival 9 years after Palladius's mission. 
That is certainly antedated, but one of the certain facts 
of St. Patrick's life is that he was made bishop in succes- 
sion to Palladius and went to Ireland within a year or so 
of Palladius's departure, unless indeed he was himself 
Palladius as is suggested by some. 

It may be taken as certain that Patrick after his cap- 
tivity returned to Ireland in A.D. 402, 425, 432, 442, or 
within a year or two of each of those dates. 

1 Gilbert, Nat. MSS. of Ireland, Part II. 



As the area open to Patrick followed tribal divisions they 
must be kept in mind ; they are still to some extent repro- 
duced in the boundaries of dioceses. 

The kingdom of Meath covered the counties of Meath, 
West Meath, Louth, Dublin north of the Liffey, Cavan as 
far north and west as Ballyconnell, Longford and the 
southern part of Leitrim, and perhaps a little more to the 
south of West Meath. 

The kingdom of Connaught comprised all west of the 
Shannon except the county of Clare, the county of Sligo and 
the northern part of Leitrim inhabited by the Calry. But 
the barony of Carbury and north Leitrim in St. Patrick's 
time or soon after fell under Ulster. 

Meath was the kingdom of Tuathal Techtmar whose 
descendants according to the Irish genealogists and histo- 
rians acquired the chief sovereignty of Connaught and Ulster 
in the time of Muredach Tirech in the first half of the 4th 
century. Muredach's son Eochy Moyvane was father of 
Brian, Fiachra, Ailill, Niall and Fergus. Niall became 
King of Ireland in 379. Brian was chief King of Connaught. 
A partition or assignment of hereditary estates was now 
made among them. Niall got Meath and Ulster. Con- 
naught was divided among the other sons, except Fergus 
who left no descendants. This partition is fictitious. The 
kings of the two great divisions of Connaught were adopted 
into the Milesian family as sons of Eochy, and the ancient 
Hy Many were turned into Milesian Hy Many by a fictitious 
conquest. As I understand the legends Brian was King 
of the Connachta in the restricted sense of the Conmaicne 
of Mayo and Gal way and their closely allied tribes the 
Ciarraige, just as O'Conor afterwards was especially the 
King of the Silmurray, a group of tribes sprung from Brian's 


descendants in Moy Ai, chiefly from Muredach Mullethan. 
His sons settled in the country between the Ciarraige and 
Conmaicne and the Shannon. Others are said to have 
settled in the barony of Clare and in Umall, but I believe 
that O'Flaherty and O'Malley really descended from the 
ancient Clann Umoir royal families of those parts and were 
worked into the Hy Briuin genealogy in later days. But 
this artificial genealogy in a way fairly represents the tribal 
relations. Hy Briuin or Connachta did spring from the 
Clann Umoir. My views on this subject are expressed in 
detail in an article on the Early Tribes of Connaught 
published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries 
of Ireland, vol. xxx. p. 343. 

The Rath of Cruachan was the possession of the high 
King of Connaught for the time being, and he had another 
on Inishowen or Inishmaine in Lough Mask. 

These Hy Briuin and the Hy Fiachrach of Aidhne were 
of common origin in a remote past. The territory of the 
latter was the diocese of Kilmacduagh. They were of the 
race of the Fiachra from whom Thomond was taken by 
the ancestors of the Dalcais, the O'Briens. By a false 
identification the Fiachra ancestor of the Hy Fiachrach of 
Aidhne has been united with the Fiachra father of King 
Dathi from whom the Hy Fiachrach of the north take their 

These northern Hy Fiachrach came from the very ancient 
Gamanraige and Clann Morna kings of Irrosdomnann 
and had Carra, which went south to the Robe, and Tirawley 
and Erris as their immediate possession. The Calraige of 
Coolcarney and of Murrisk and of Lough Gill and the Dart- 
raige were directly under them. I cannot ascertain any- 
thing about the Corcu Teimne except that they were in the 
north of Carra. These tribes were the ancient Ferdomnann. 

The Hy Ailello had the barony of Tirerrill and the part 
of the barony of Boyle north of Lough Key and perhaps the 
south-east corner of Corran. 

The families called descendants of Eochy Moyvane were 
few in number at this time, only the royal families of their 
territories in which the ancient tribes remained as chiefs 
and landowners more or less closely related to them. 

The Calry known as of Coolcarney or of Innse Nisc had 


the barony of Tireragh as far north as Easkey and the 
parishes of Kilgarvan and Attymas. From Easkey eastwards 
that barony belonged to the Calry of Murrisk. A small tribe, 
probably then very much larger than in later times, was in 
Moyheleog in Tirawley. Other clans of Calry called of 
Lough Gill occupied the barony of Carbury. Rossclogher 
in Lei trim was occupied by Calry called Dartraige. Calry 
" of Three Plains " were in Dromahaire and Calry of 
Aelmagh were to east of them, apparently in the northern 
part of the barony of Dromahaire. Calry were in a subor- 
ordinate position in Moylurg and a small clan was in Corran, 
probably in the part under the Hy Ailello. The Calry must 
have been a very powerful race formerly, but in historical 
times were in decay. 

These and their neighbours the Gregraige seem to have 
been ancient subdivisions of the kingdom of Irrosdomnann. 

The Gregry occupied the rest of Corran, Leyny, Gallen 
except Coolcarney, Coolavin, Costello north of Knock and 
Aghamore except some country about Castlemore and 
Kilcolman held by the Ciarraige of Artech. They are men- 
tioned in connection with St. Patrick at Killaraght and at 
the Strand of Ballysadare. I infer that they were the domi- 
nant clan there, but they were soon after this time super- 
seded by the Luighne and Gaileanga. Then we find the 
Luighne in possession of the barony of Leyny, the 
Gaileanga in possession of North Costello and Gallen except 
Toomore and Kilgarvan and Attymas. 

The Corcofirtri were in Corran. Next south of the Gre- 
graige came the Ciarraige or Kerry who had Artech com- 
prising the parish of Kilnamanagh and the north and west 
of that of Tibohine and those of Kilcolman and Castlemore, 
the parishes of Aghamore, and Knock, and Bekan, and 
Annagh, and the barony of Clanmorris except the parish 
of Balla which was in Cera, and the barony of Castlereagh. 
They were in four great divisions 

1. Ciarraige Airtech, those of Artech. 

2. Ciarraige Muigh Ai, those of the barony of Castlereagh. 

3. Ciarraige Locha na n Airneadh, called from their chief 

residence on Mannin Lake, in the eastern and 
southern parts of Aghamore and in Bekan and 
Annagh parishes. 


4. Ciarraige Uachtar, in the rest of Aghamore, in Knock, 

and in the barony of Clanmorris. 
The Conmaicne were in three divisions 

1. Conmaicne of Cuil Toladh had the barony of Kilmaine 

south of the Robe and the barony of Ross. 

2. Conmaicne Mara had that of Ballynahinch. 

3. Conmaicne Cinel Dubhain or of Dunmore had the 

barony of Dunmore and the parishes of Temple- 
togher and Boyounagh and part of Clonbern and 
the parts of Dunmore and Tuam which are in other 
baronies, and the parish of Belclare. 

Though for convenience sake I have described them 
in their divisions it is not certain that they were yet denned 
thus. The whole of these territories were occupied by the 
Conmaicne, and the inhabitants of the northern part of 
the barony of Clare in which St. Patrick worked may have 
been of the same race, probably were, which was in fact 
the Clann Umoir. 

The Corcamogha, in part of Clonbern and Kilkerrin 
in later days, were allied in race, but very little is known 
about them except that they were once a very great race. 
They and Ciarraige and Conmaicne and Gregraige claimed 
a common descent from Fergus MacRoigh and Queen Meadbh 
but were really descended from the ancient kings of Connaught. 
The Partraige were to later days an important tribe 
under their own kings. They certainly occupied Ballyovey 
and I think the parishes of Ballintubber and Ballyheane ; 
thus I account for St. Patrick's having access to that 
country. They were more nearly related to the Clann 
Umoir than to their Hy Fiachrach neighbours. At this 
time, or earlier, they had the part of Umall from Croagh 
Patrick to Lough Mask and the barony of Ross and the 
part of Kilmaine about Cong. But little is known about 

Umall, consisting of the baronies of Burrishoole and 
Murrisk, was occupied by families of the Clann Umoir. 

The Delbhna of Sid Nenta or Delbhna Nuadat had the 
country between Suck and Shannon from Fairymount, Sid 
Nenta, to the south of the parish of Taghboy. 

The Delbhna of Tir Da Loch and of Cuil Fabhair had 
the barony of Moycullen and most of that of Galway. 


Clann Umoir families were in the barony of Clare. 

The rest of the northern part of Galway was occupied 
by the Sencheneoil or Old Tribes from whom came the 
Sodans and the mysterious Corca, or Corca Mogha, of later 

The rest of the south of Galway, outside Aidhne, and 
of Roscommon was occupied by Corca and descendants of 
ancient Cathraige, and Hy Many. The latter as the ruling 
tribe gave their name to the territories forming their great 

These tribal relationships must be kept in mind because 
the organisation and politics of the Irish were wholly tribal, 
and dioceses were eventually based on them as they stood 
in the I2th century, subject only to slight modifications 
arising from ecclesiastical connection of earlier times. 

St. Patrick's first 30 years of work must be remembered, 
of which at least a considerable part was spent in Con- 
naught, most likely nearly all the seven years, for the 
accounts we have of his episcopal work therein relate to 
tours. A tradition that a church was founded by St. 
Patrick, if it is in a territory which was open to him, should 
not be rejected because the early lives do not mention it. 



AFTER seven years preparation on the continent St. Patrick 
returned to Ireland as a missionary about the year 402 and 
must have made his friendship with Duach and begun his 
work in Connaught in the beginning of the century. To 
this early period must be ascribed the incident of Sachell 
being handed over to him, in order to allow Sachell to be 
30 years with Patrick before he was made one of the bishops 
in Moy Ai. He left Ireland and returned about the year 
425. Soon afterwards his patron Duach died, about the 
same time as King Dathi was killed by lightning at Sliabh 
Alp, which I believe to be the hill of that name in Erris. 
The heathen Amalgaid, hostile to the Christians, became 
chief King of Connaught. The discovery of vessels hidden 
in a cave in the Hill of the Hy Ailello indicates a persecu- 
tion, not unlikely to have been a consequence of the tur- 
bulence attending the succession. Patrick perhaps hid 
them himself. During this early period Patrick worked 
in those parts of Connaught and formed congregations and 
founded churches and formed connections with the chieftains 
where he afterwards came as bishop to organise a proper 
ecclesiastical system. 

In Meath the change was for the better. Laegaire coun- 
tenanced Christianity. Soon after his accession we find 
Patrick in Gaul where he is consecrated as bishop, some- 
what against his will, in succession to Palladius. It seems 
to me most likely that Patrick found circumstances favour- 
able to organisation of the church under the High King's 
protection, and went to Gaul and Rome to urge the appoint- 
ment of a bishop. His account of himself suggests why 
he should prefer not to be the bishop. He was not learned, 
had for years led a rough missionary life, had little inter- 
course with organised churches, and must have felt that 


the most fitting bishop would be one familiar with church 
discipline and working methods. Moreover he was 60 years 
old. He did not accompany Palladius. This seems odd 
but it is easy to understand that it was better for him to 
stand out of Palladius's way. Appeal would have been 
incessant to him against the new system. Palladius's 
failure forced his appointment. His personal influence was 
indispensable to carry out the changes. In time he brought 
to help him many foreign priests and bishops, Franks, Gauls, 
Lombards, Britons, Romans. Here Roman may mean only 
Roman citizens. 

The appointment of a foreigner and stranger as head 
of the church of Ireland failed. The experiment was not 
repeated. Clan feeling was too strong. Until the middle 
of the I2th century and the Anglo-Norman Conquest no 
foreigner was made a bishop of the church of Ireland. The 
bishops of the Danish towns did not belong to that church. 
The Pope had agents in Ireland who exercised influence, 
and not independent authority over the church. 

Some great events of his mission occurred in 441 and 
443. According to the Annals of Clonmacnoise and of 
Ulster the former was an " approval " of his mission by 
Pope Leo. The latter seems to have been a great event 
at Tara. In 439, his nephews Secundinus and Auxilius, 
and Isserninus were sent to help him as bishops. The 
presence of Secundinus at Mucna's Well, and the number 
of bishops in attendance date this part of the Connaught 
tour as after 439 and before 446 when Secundinus died. 

Tirechan's Collections purport to record the remarkable 
events of the fifth year of King Laegaire, but it is evident 
that events of very much later date are included, such as 
the visit to Tirawley. It seems to me that the whole has 
been worked round the record of a tour in Connaught in 
or immediately after 443, with a large train of priests and 
bishops, an organising tour. It looks much as if it was 
based on some itinerary or diary of places visited. Thus 
I account for omission of reference to the foundation of 
Donaghpatrick for Bishop Failart, which seems to be certainly 
a Patrician church. The foundation of Kilbennan is given 
in a detached list, showing that the places mentioned in 
the tour are not exhaustive of his work in Connaught. The 


account of the tour itself shows that churches were there 
already. Professor Bury has shown grounds for taking it 
to be a tour made by Tirechan himself into which he has 
worked the traditions relating to Patrician churches in the 
form of an Itinerary of Patrick. 1 There are grounds for 
either view, and perhaps both apply in parts. 

Tirechan's Collections are the best authority for Con- 
naught. In several instances he says that he has seen 
things in Connaught. His work, written in the middle of 
the yth century, was copied into the Book of Armagh in 
807 or 808. 

That book is of higher authority than the Tripartite 
Life, which is based on the same authorities but is a work 
of the loth or nth century according to Dr. W. Stokes. 
It follows Tirechan with exactness in many parts of the 
Connaught tour, and seems to have been copied from the 
Book of Armagh when that Book was already partly illegible. 
It omits the fragments relating to Medbu, to " the sons of 
En . . . ," and to Senmeda, and sums up those relating 
to the Conmaicne in " Arduiscon, &c." Still it is of great 
authority being founded on such early materials, makes 
parts of the Book of Armagh more intelligible, and gives 
additional information. 

I begin with the Book of Armagh and follow with 
further information from the Tripartite Life, using Stokes' s 
translation of the latter. Tirechan's names written partly 
in Latin as Campus Ai I put in the Irish equivalent if it 
is well known or is in the Tripartite Life. 

The following note is between Muirchu Maccu Mach- 
theni's Life and the Dicta Patricii. 

" Patrick came from the country of Arthicc to Drummut 2 
Cerigi and to Nairniu Toisciurt [and] to Ailich Esrachtae. 3 
And [when] the heathen saw him with eight or nine men 
with tablets in their hands written in the Mosaic fashion, 
they cried out against them that they should kill the saints, 
and said : ' They have swords in their hands to kill men. 
By day they look like wood with them, but we think them 
iron swords for shedding blood.' The great crowd wanted 

1 English Hist. Review, April 1902. 

2 About Kilroddan in Tibohine. 

3 Unknown, but must have been in Aghamore parish. 


to do harm to the saints. But a merciful man was among 
them, Hercaith by name, of the race of Nothi, father of 
Feradach. He believed in the God of Patrick, and Patrick 
baptized him and his son Feradach, and he offered his son 
to Patrick. And he went with Patrick to study for thirty 
years, and [Patrick] ordained him in the city of Rome, and 
gave him a new name Sachell, and wrote for him a book 
of psalms which I have seen, and [Sachell] bore away from 
him a portion of the relics of Peter and Paul, Laurence and 
Stephen which are in Machi. Caetiac and Sachell ordained 
bishops, priests, deacons, clergy without Patrick's advice 
in Mag An'. And Patrick found fault with them and sending 
letters to them Patrick's two willing youths being drawn 
to penitence went to Arddmache to Patrick, and performed 
the penance of monks. And he said to them : ' Your 
churches will not be great.' ' 

Sachell seems to have been a Mayo man. Baslick was 
his church. It was founded for some of Patrick's foreign 
missionaries, hence perhaps the name Basilica, uncommon 
in Ireland. He was bishop of the Ciarraige of Moy Ai. 
Another version of the name is Irish, Bas Leac, Death Stone. 
A stone in the river bed is said to be referred to. 

Tirechan first notes that Patrick landed in Mag Breg 
with a host of bishops and clergy, mentions incidents, gives 
a list of Patrick's bishops priests and deacons and Franks, 
and of churches founded in Mag Breg. Then follow pro- 
ceedings at Teltown. " And Patrick went again to the 
city of Tara to Loiguire son of Niall, because he had made 
an engagement with him that he should not be killed in 
his kingdom." Other churches are founded in the neigh- 
bourhood, and he enters the king's house. The incident 
which leads to Patrick's visit to Tirawley comes in here, 
but the account of the work in Tirawley comes in later. 
I reserve this for its proper place after the tour in Ros- 
common and Mayo. 

Tirechan shortly names churches founded as Patrick 
goes to Ushnagh and round about, whence he goes into 
Teffa and Moy Rein and sends Methbrain to Rath Slecht, 
which should be in Magh Slecht, and comes to the shore 
of the Shannon at Cuil Boidmail, which is not now known. 
Tiiechan observes that all the things written from the be- 


ginning are well known to " you " (the Hy Neill) because 
they were done in your countries except a few matters, 
complains that so much has been withdrawn from the juris- 
diction of Patrick to which it belonged, and says he will 
deal more concisely with the rest, as in fact he does. 

" St. Patrick therefore came by the channel of the river 
Shannon by Two Birds' Ford 1 to Mag Aii. But Mael and 
Caplait, druids of Loiguire son of Niall, two brothers who 
had fostered Loiguire's two daughters Ethne the Fair. Fedelm 
the Ruddy, hearing all that had been done, fearing lest 
they should adopt the practices of the saint, were very 
angry and made darkness like night and thick fogs over 
all Mag Ai, we know not by whose power this was ; but we 
know that the night lasted three days and as many nights. 
And the saint set to fast for three days and three nights, 
besought God the King of Kings with hundreds of prayers 
and constant genuflections, and all the magic weight of 
darkness passed away from Mag Ai, and he said ' Thanks 
be to God.' And they came by the channel of the river 
Shannon, which is called Bandea to Duma Graicl. 2 In 
which plain he ordained St. Ailbe a priest ; whom he in- 
formed of a wonderful stone altar in the Mount of the Hy 
Ailello, because he 3 was among the Hy Ailello. And he 
baptized St. Mane whom Bishop Bron, son of Icne, servant 
of God companion of Patrick ordained. They came to 
Mag Glais, and he placed in it the great church which is 
called thus, Kilmore, 4 and left in it two barbarians 5 Conleng 
and Ercleng, his monks. 

"Thence he came to Assic and Bitte and to the brothers 
Hono and Ith, druids, who were of the race of Corcu-Chon- 
Iviain. The former of them received Patrick and his saints 
with joy, and offered to him his house. And [Patrick] went 
to Imbliuch Hornon. And Patrick said to him : ' Thy 
seed shall be blessed, and of thy seed shall be priests of 
the Lord and worthy princes in my endowment and thy 
inheritance.' And he placed there Assic and Bethe, son of 
Assic's brother, and Cipia, mother of Bishop Bethe. 

1 Snam Da En between Clonmacnoise and Cloonburren. 

2 Unknown, should be in parish of Clooncraff or Kilmore. 

3 Or "it." * Kilmore, in Kilmore parish. 

5 Meaning probably foreigners who were not Roman citizens. 


" Bishop St. Assic was Patrick's coppersmith, and made 
altars and square book cases. Besides he made our saint's 
patens in honor of Bishop Patrick, and of them I have seen 
three square patens, that is a paten in the church of Patrick 
in Ardd-Machae and another in the church of Ale-find * 
and a third in the great church 2 of Saeoli upon the altar of 
Bishop St. Felart." Here follows a story about Assic. 

" Patrick indeed went from the well of Elphin to Dumicha 3 
of the Hy Ailello and founded in that place the church which 
is called thus, Senella Cella Dumiche 4 to this day. In which 
he left the Saints Macet and Cetgen and priest Rodan. 

" And there came with him in his journey a happy daughter 
by name Mathona, sister of Benen successor of Patrick, 
who carried the pall with Patrick and Rodan and was their 
nun. And she went by Sliab maccn Ailello and planted 
a free church in Tamnuch, 5 and was honoured by God and 
by men, and she herself made friendship with the relics of 
St. Rodan, and their successors feasted together. 

" But after this they established bishops, i.e. Cairell [and 
. . . ], by the holy church in Tamnuch, whom Patrick's 
bishops, that is Bron and Biethe, ordained. They did not 
demand anything but friendship from the convent of the 
Dumas, but the convent of Gono 6 demands [something], 
because since the last mortalities 7 they hold many of 
Patrick's places by force." 

Next comes the very curious account of St. Patrick and 
King Laegaire's daughters, in which, in my opinion, several 
stories and traditions are combined, relating to incidents of 
very different dates. The story thus has an air of unreality 
and an appearance of the girls having been suddenly con- 
verted and having then died or been killed and buried. The 
stories relating to them and Mael and Caplit are mixed up. 
They seem to be compounded of a story of Patrick's first 
meeting with them, and of their conversion, which offers an 
opportunity for bringing in a confession of faith and a cate- 

1 Elphin. 2 Donaghpatrick in barony of Clare. 

3 Corradooey in Aghanagh. 

4 Probably the Nunnery in Aghanagh as Dr. O'Rorke suggests ; certainly 
in that country. 

5 A church in Tawnagh parish in Tirerrill. 

6 Clonmacnoise. 7 Probably the plague of A.U. 666. 



chism, an account of their taking the veil, and an account 
of their death and burial and the building of a memorial 
church. The sudden death as the story stands is difficult 
to explain, but if the whole be taken to be an abstract of 
all that Tirechan heard about them, as I suggest, it comes 
only to this, that two sisters died at the same time and were 
buried together. 

St. Patrick and his party went from the Dumas to the 
well called Clebach 1 in the skirts of Crochan to the east, 
which they reached before sunrise, and they were sitting 
there when Ethne and Fedelm came to wash as women's 
custom is. The girls asked who they were and whence 
they came, which introduces the confession of faith and 
the catechism. They are baptized and a white garment 
is put on their heads. They beg to see the face of Christ 
and are told that they must first taste of death and receive 
the sacrifice. They ask to be given the sacrifice. 

" And they received the Eucharist of God and they 
slept in death. And they placed them in a bed covered 
with one mantle, and their friends made a wailing and a 
great lamentation. 

" [And then came] 2 Caplit who had fostered one of them 
and - 2 And Patrick preached to him, and 

he believed and the hairs of his head were removed. 3 And 
his brother M[ael] came and said ' My brother has believed 
in Patrick and it shall not be so, and I will bring him back 
to heathenism,' and he said hard things to Mathonus 4 and 
to Patrick. And Patrick spoke to him and preached and 
turned him to the repentance of God, and the hairs of his 
head were removed, that is the druidical fashion [which] 
was seen on his head, airbacc as it is called giunnae. 5 
Hence the proverb which is best known of all Scottish pro- 
verbs : He is like Calvus against Caplit. And they believed 
in God. 

"And the days of lamentation for the King's daughters 

1 Probably the well to west of Shankill near Elphin. 

2 Text obliterated, only partly legible. 3 Tonsured. 

* Professor Bury's rendering, suggesting Mathonum for Mathoum and 
that Mathonus was a brother of Mathona. Eng. Hist. Review, Ap. 1902. 

9 Dr. Joyce translates Airbacc giunnae as literally "fence of hair." 
Social Hist. Ireland, I. p. 234. 


ended, and they buried them by the Well of Clebach and 
made a round ditch like a ferta, because the Scots and 
Gentiles did so. But among us it is called Relic, that is, 
the Remains and feurt. And it was offered with the bones 
of the holy women to God and to Patrick and to his suc- 
cessors after him for ever. And he made an earthen church l 
in that place. 

" But thence Patrick came to Caire [tha] 

that is into Mag Cairetha, and they founded 

[a church] in Ardlicce, which is called thus, Sendomnach, 2 
and he settled in it St. Coeman a deacon his monk dear 
to Christ Patrick's youth. 

"And Patrick came to Ardd Senlis, 3 and put .... 
. . . . aloca, and obtained a place in Mag Nento. 4 
And they went away with Bishop St. [Ce]thiac to his own 
country, for his father was of the race of Ailill, and his 
mother was of the race of Sai of the countries of the 

Cianachta (by them) deacon St. Jostus 

being only a little boy and he obtained Fidard. 5 And he 
[St. Patrick] gave him books of baptism, and he baptized 
the Hy (Maine), and in his good old age baptized Ciaran 
son of the Carpenter when he was old and full of years. 
But there intervened between the death of Patrick and 
the birth of Ciaran one hundred and forty years 6 as those 
most skilled in numbers calculate, and Ciaran was baptized 
out of Patrick's book, by deacon Justus in view of the 
people. 7 

" But Patrick's Franks left Patrick, 15 brothers and one 
sister. Also I cannot tell the names of the men except 
two, the principal Bernicius and Hernicius and the name 
of Nitria sister of .... bishop. And many places 
were given to them, and I know none, except that one is 
Basilica 8 of the saints, because St. Patrick pointed out 
to them the nature of the place and pointed it out to them 
with his finger from the Mound of Garad, when they came 
to him that he might choose for them out of the places they 

1 Shankill near Elphin. a Kilkeevin. 3 Near Strokestown. 

4 About Fairymount, Sid Nento. " Fuerty. 

8 147 years intervened between the birth of Patrick, A.D. 372, and that 
of Ciaran, A.D. 519. 

7 Dr. Gwynne's reading. 8 Baslick. 


had found. And Cethec founded the church of Brergarad. 1 
A certain lad who came through the river Suck and his feet 
were dry and his boots were of a ditch. 2 

" But Patrick came to Selca 3 in which the (Sons) of Brian 
with a multitude of holy bishops encamped among the 
mounds of Selca, and they made him a bed and a seat be- 
tween the stones on which they wrote with his hand letters 
which we have seen to-day with our own eyes. And with 
him were 

Bron bishop, qui tenuit (eel) 

Sache(ll), lolam Benign 4 (i . . ) 

Bronach priest, anorto a Pat 

Rodan, ricio ac ( ) 

Cassan, Felartus Episcopus (de) 

Brocid, genere (Ailello) 

Lomman his brother, . . sorores, ii. 

Benignus successor of Patrick . . . \ . 
and Benignus brother of Ceth- 

(eci) . 5 . 

of the race of Ailill . . in mar (i Con- 


" It is called thus Croch Cuile. 6 And he planted a church 
above Loch Selca inscae, 7 and baptized the sons of Bron. 

" And he went to the way of the Gregirgi, and founded a 
church in Drummae 8 and dug a well [beside it : it has no 
stream] into or out of it, but is always full. 

" A paten and a chalice are in the Cell 9 of Adrochta 
daughter of Talain, and she received the veil from Patrick's 
hand. And he went to the Sons of Heric, and was in that 

1 Orangarad, now Oran. 

2 " Et aridi (pe)des eius ac ficones erunt saulae." Dr. Stokes reads 
sudae for saulae. The passage seems to be both corrupt and mutilated. 

3 The country about Carnfree, Duma Selca, S.E. of Tulsk. The 
mounds there seem to be designated by Cacumina Selca. Shad Lough a 
little to S. I take to be the Loch Selca mentioned below. See//. R.S.A.L, 
vol. xi. p. 250. 4 Kilbennan. 

8 Dr. Gwynne reads " fuit (in insola) in mari (conmaicne) quae sic vocat 
(ur Qroch." 

6 Perhaps Inchanguill. 7 Some contraction. 

8 Near Killaraght. See post, p. 48. 9 Killaraght. 


place l in which women are by the ford of the Sons of Heric. 
And his horses were stolen, and he cursed them saying : 
' Your seed shall serve the seed of your brothers ; ' which 
has proved to be the case. 

" And he turned back to Mag Airthic, and put the church 
of Senes 2 in that plain, and blessed a place in Taulich 
Lapidum. 3 

" And he went to Drummut 4 Cerrigi, and found two men, 
sons of one man, fighting together after the death of their 
father, who was a coppersmith of the race of Cerrigi ... en 
they wished to divide the inheritance, and the wood of con- 
tention which is called caam among the heathen had been 
placed, and they drew their two edged swords their hands 
raised and feet apart one brother ready to strike the other, 
all which was done in due form on the ground after the 
usage of the duel. But when Patrick had come to them 
seeing them from a distance about the breadth of an acre 
he opened his mouth and said : ' Lord Father, I pray you, 
hold the hands of the brothers that they hurt not each 
other.' And they could not put out or draw back a hand, 
but were standing like wooden statues. And he blessed 
them and taught them and said : ' Make friends, as you 
are brothers, and do what I tell you : sit down.' They 
sat down as Patrick said and offered the land and goods 
of their father to Patrick and to the God of heaven, and he 
founded a church there, and in that place is the artisan 
Coona brother of the bishop of Basilica. 

"He went through the wastes of the Cerrigi 
into the northern plain, that is Nairniu, and found St. 
larnasc under an elm tree 5 with his son Locharnach, and 
wrote elements for him. And he was a week or more with 
him, with 8 or 12 men. And he founded a church 6 and 

1 The Nunnery above Easmaicn Eire, now Assylin, on River Boyle to 
West of Boyle. The Ford should be near the Nunnery, a Snam, or Swimming 
Ford, i.e. Ferry. 

2 Castlemore old church. 

8 Tulach na Cloch, now represented by Tullaghanrock near Edmondstown. 
The tradition perhaps survives in townlands of Banada and Keelbanada, 
Blessing, and Church or Wood of Blessing. 

* This survives in Drummad townland a little west of L. Glynn. 
Kilroddan close by is the church founded there. 

* Or under shade. 6 Annaghernaisc, i.e. Kilcronan in Aghamore Parish- 


made him l abbot. And there was a certain man full of 
the Holy Spirit, from the north, by name Medbu .... 
came with Patrick from Irlochir, and read in Ardd Machae, 
and was ordained in the same place, (and) was (deacon) to 

Patrick of the race of Machi good (man) 

and founded a free church 2 in Imgoe Mair Cerrigi (a monk) 
in Ardd Machae. 

" And Patrick went on to the well 3 which is called 
Mucna, and made the Cella Senes 4 which is so called. And 
Secundinus was apart under a leafy elm. And the sign of 
the cross is in that place even to this day. 5 And he came 
by the wastes of the sons of En ... in which omman 

Turresc 6 . . . . ' * After many days there came 
( )1 Senmeda a daughter of En ( ) son of 

Br( ), 7 and received the veil from Patrick's hand, 

and gave him her ornaments from neck and hands and feet 
and arms, (this) is called aros in Irish. 

"And he went to the country of the Conmaicne in Cuil 

Tolat and put in it foursided churches 

air Uiscon . . . the little middle cell 8 in which (he 
left) the sisters of Faila(rti, bishop, of the race of Ailill) 
another Cell of Fish in which the holy woman 
(The rest of the column is illegible.) 

" And he came into Mag Caeri 9 and they encamped in 
Cuilcore, 9 and he placed a church in that place, and baptized 

" And thence he went to Mag Foimsen 10 and found in 
that place two brothers sons of a man named Ciilaid, that 
is Luchti son of Ciilaid and Derclam, 11 who sent his slave 
to kill Patrick. But Luchti saved him. To whom Patrick 
said : ' Bishops and priests shall be of your race, but your 

I larnasc. 2 Kiltullagh in Roscommon. 

3 Patrick's Well near Ballyhaunis. 

4 Kilmullen in Grallagh Townland, the Old Church. 
6 A cross is at the well. 

6 This refers I think to Kilcommon near Hollymount. 

7 I suggest "from or to Cell Senmeda (Kilshanvy) a daughter of Enna s^n 
ofBrug," who was an ancestor of the Conmaicne of Cuil Tolad. 

8 Kilmainebeg. 

9 The places are unknown but seem to be in the south of Clanmorris. 

10 About Keltamagh. 

II These names are involved. This is Dr. Stokes's rendering. 


brother's race shall be accursed, and they shall soon die 
out.' And he left the priest Conan in that place. 1 

And he went to the Well of Stringill 2 in the Wastes, 
and he was at it two Sundays. And he went to Mag 
Raithin. 3 And he went to the border of Umal of Achud 
Fobuir 4 in which there are bishops. And there came to 
him the holy daughter who bore the pall with Patrick, and 
he ordained Senach the son of her father, and gave him 
a new name, that is Lamb of God, and made him a 
bishop. And he demanded three demands of Patrick : 
that he should not sin while in orders, and that his name 
should not be given to the place, and that what was wanting 
of his age should be added to the age of his son, Oingus by 
name. For whom Patrick wrote an abgitorium, on the day 
on which Senach was ordained. Patrick established a 
church in that place near the daughter by name Mathona, 
and said to them : ' Good bishops shall be here, and 
of their seed shall be blessed men for ever in this see.' 
The same is Ached - Fobuir, and they received Patrick's 

" And Patrick went to Mount Egli 5 to fast in it forty days 
and forty nights, keeping the discipline of Moses and Elias 
and Christ. And his charioteer died in Muirescc Aigli, 6 
that is the plain between the sea and Aigill. 7 And he buried 
that charioteer All Bald, that is Totmael, and piled stones 
as a sepulchre, and said : ' So be it for ever, and it shall 
be visited by me in the last days.' 

" And Patrick went to the heights of the mountain over 
Crochan 8 Aigli, and stayed there 40 days and 40 nights. 
And heavy birds were towards him, and he could not see 
the face of heaven and earth and sea, because God said 
to all the saints of Ireland, past, present, future : ' O Saints, 
Go up on the mountain which overhangs and is higher than 
all the mountains which are to the setting of the sun, to 
bless the peoples of Ireland,' that Patrick might see the 

1 Patrick's Well in Ballinamore Demesne. 2 Well at Ballintubber. 

3 About Ballyheane. 4 Aghagower. 

8 " Hill of Aigill," Croagh pat rick. 6 Country about Murrisk. 

7 Aigill or Aicill is old name of mountain and bog between Clew Bay 
and Killeries. 

8 At or near Oughaval. 


fruit of his labour, because the choir of all the Irish saints 
came to him to visit their father. And he established a 
church i in Mag Humail. 

" And he came to the countries of the Corcu-Temne to the 
Well of Sin, 2 in which he baptized many thousands of men, 
and he founded three churches. 

" And he came to the Well 3 of Findmag, 4 which is called 
Slan, because he was informed that the druids honoured 
the well and made offerings to it as a god. The well indeed 
was square, and a square stone was in the mouth of the 
well, and the water came against the stone, that is through 
the joints like a royal footmark. 5 And the unbelievers 
said that a certain dead prophet made himself a coffin in 
the water under the stone that it might always wash his 
bones, because he feared the burning of fire, because they 
worshipped the well as a god. And Patrick was informed 
of the reason of worship, and he had jealousy for God from 
the living God, and said : ' It is not true what you say 
that the well was the King of Waters,' because they had 
given it the name of ' King of Waters,' And the druids 
and heathen of that country and a very great crowd were 
gathered at the well, and Patrick said to them : ' Raise 
the stone, that we may see what is underneath, whether 
bones or not, for I tell you a man's bones are not under it, 
but I think something of gold and silver through the joint- 
ings of the stones, not at all from your unrighteous offerings.' 
And they could not raise the stone. And Patrick and his 
servants blessed the stone, and Patrick said to the crowd : 
' Draw back a little, that you may see the power of my 
God who dwells in the heavens.' And with outstretched 
hands he raised the stone from the mouth of the well, and 
laid it aside from its place over the edges of the well, and 
it is always (there). And they found nothing but water in 
the well, and they believed in the most High God. And a 
certain man, Caeta or Cata by name, sat apart by the stone 
which a certain man set up, whom Patrick blessed, and 

1 Kilmeena. * At Turlough. 

3 Adam's Well at Manulla. 

4 Country about Manulla, Magfiondealbha. 

5 " Id est per glutinationes quasi vestigium regale." Stokes suggests 
" rigale," intended to mean "like a leaky roof." 


he baptized him and said to him : ' Thy seed shall be blessed 
for ever.' 

" Cellola Tog 1 in the countries of the Corcuteimne was 
Patrick's. Bishop Cainnech, Patrick's monk, founded it. 

" And St. Patrick went through the plains in the countries 
of the Maicc Hercae to Dichuil 2 and Aurchuil." 2 

In Dichuil he raised from the dead the man who was 
buried in a giant's grave 120 feet long, to let his disciples 
see him. The giant gave his name, believed, was baptized, 
confessed, and was put back into his grave. And he came 
into the White Plain in the countries of the Hy Maine, that 
is to Magh Finn, the parish of Taghmaconnell near Athlone. 
Here he finds two new graves. A cross has been put over 
that of a heathen by mistake. St. Patrick corrects the 
mistake and puts the cross over the Christian's grave. 

All this tour from Clonmacnoise through Roscommon 
and Sligo and Mayo up to the departure from Mayo im- 
presses me as founded upon a real record, into which uncon- 
nected incidents have been worked, such as some of the 
dealings with Laegaire's daughters and with Mael and 
Caplait, and some traditions and miracles. Having thus 
brought St. Patrick back nearly to Athlone, Tirechan sud- 
denly takes up the story of the journey to Tirawley as if 
after the journey straight across Ireland. That incident 
occurred really nearly ten years later. I now therefore 
take up Tirechan's story at the point where he entered the 
king's house, p. 15. 

" And they came to the well, Loigles in Irish, with us 
' Calf of Cities.' And when he had opened his book and 
had baptized the man Ere he heard men behind his back 
laughing together in discussing that business, because they 
did not understand what he had done, and he baptized so 
many thousands of men on that day : and he heard among 
the different acts of baptism. For behold two noblemen 
were talking behind his back, and one said to the other : 
' It is true what you said last year that you would come 
thither or hither in these days. Please tell me your name, 
and that of your father, of your land and country, and 
where your house is.' He answered : ' I am Enda son of 

1 The old church probably of Breaghwy. 
8 Not identified, but in Moylurg. 


Amolngid, son of Fechra, son of Echu, from the western 
shores of Mag Domnon and from Fochloth's Wood.' And 
when Patrick had heard the name of Fochloth's Wood, he 
rejoiced much, and said to Enda son of Amolngid : ' I also 
will go with you, if I am alive, because the Lord has told 
me to go.' And Enda said : ' You shall not go with me 
lest we be killed together.' The Saint said also : ' Never- 
theless even you shall never reach your country alive, unless 
I come with you, and you shall not have eternal life : 
because you have come hither on my account, like Joseph 
before the sons of Israel.' But Enda said to Patrick : ' Do 
you give baptism to my son, because he is young. But I 
and my brothers cannot believe you until we reach our own 
people, lest they laugh at us.' But Conall was baptized, and 
Patrick gave him his blessing, and took his hand, and gave 
him to Bishop Cethiac. And Cethiac and Bishop Cethiac's 
brother Mucne, whose relics are in the Great Church 1 of 
Patrick in Fochlith's Wood, brought him up and taught 
him. On this account Cethiac gave his island 2 to Conall, 
and it belongs to his race to the present day. because he 
was a layman after the death of St. Cethiac. 

"But six sons of Amolngid came for judgment before 
the face of Loiguire, and Enda alone and his young son 
against them and Patrick before them, and they investi- 
gated the case of their inheritance. And Loiguire and 
Patrick gave them judgment that they should divide the 
inheritance between them in seven shares. And Enda 
said : ' I offer up to the God of Patrick and to Patrick my 
son and share of the inheritance.' Some say it is on this 
account we are servants of Patrick to the present day. 

" Patrick and the sons of Amolngid with an army of lay- 
men and holy bishops made an engagement by the hands 
of Loiguire son of Niall, and went on their way to Mount 
Egli, and Patrick spent also the price of fifteen souls of men, 
as he says in his writings, that none of the wicked men 
might stay them in their straight road across all Ireland ; 
because it was necessary for them to reach Fochlith's Wood 

1 Donaghmore near Killala. It has disappeared but was in Tawnagh 
or Donaghmore Townland near Killala. Fochluth's Wood was a large 
tract about Foghill near Lacken. 

2 Meaning his monastery was under protection of Conall's clan. 


before the head of the year the second Easter, on account 
of the sons crying with a great cry, [whose] voices he heard 
in their mother's womb saying : ' Come, holy Patrick, 
to save us.' " I now take the story again where it starts 
from Magh Finn apparently 

" He came indeed across the Moy, and behold the druids 
of the sons of Amolngid heard that the saint had come upon 
them in their own countries. A very great crowd of 
druids gathered around the chief druid, Recrad by name, 
who wished to kill St. Patrick. And he came to them with 
nine druids dressed in white clothes with the druidical 
enemy. And Patrick and Enda son of Amolngid and Conall 
son of Enda saw him afar off, when Patrick was baptizing 
a great multitude. And when Enda saw them, he got up 
and seized his weapons to keep off the druids, because the 
druids were about 1000 paces from them across a rill of 
water. But Patrick sent Conall son of Enda to meet the 
druids that he might know him, and not kill any one else, 
and the son stood beside the druid as a mark. And behold 
St. Patrick stood up, and raised his left hand to the God 
of heaven, and cursed the druid. And he fell dead in the 
midst of his druids, and the mob scattered over all Mag 
Domnon, and he was burnt up before the face of all as a 
mark of judgment, when all men saw this miracle. And 
he baptized many on that day and ordained St. Mucne 
brother of Cethach, and gave him seven books of the law 
which he left after him to Mace Cerce son of Mac Dregin. 
And he founded a church x above Fochluth's Wood, in 
which are the holy bones of bishop Mucndi, because God 
told him that he should leave the law and ordain there 
bishops, and priests and deacons in that country. And 
he blessed the son of Amolngid, Fergus brother of Enda, 
because he did a miracle in his land. 

"And behold a certain man by name Mac Dregin came 
to them with seven heathen sons, and begged of Patrick 
the baptism of God. And he blessed him with his sons, and 
chose one son out of them, whose name was Mace Ercae, 
and wrote the elements, and blessed him with a father's 
blessing. And the son's father said : ' I shall be sorry 
if my son go away with you.' And Patrick said : ' It 
1 Donaghmore, on this side of Fochluth's Wood. 


shall not be so, but I will entrust him to Bron son of Icni 
and to Olcan.' He stretched out his hand and pointed 
out to him the place 1 far off in which his bones are, and 
marked the place with the sign of the cross with his finger, 
and put a cross there. And behold two girls came to 
Patrick and received the veil from his hand, and he blessed 
a place 2 for them above Fochlith's Wood. 

" And behold Patrick proceeded to the field which is 
called Foirrgea 3 of the sons of Amolngid for the partition 
between the sons of Amolngid, and made there a four- 
cornered earthen church of mud because a wood was not 
near. And they brought to him a sick pregnant woman, 
and he baptized the son in the mother's womb. The water 
of the son's baptism is the water of the woman's communion. 
And they buried her in the mounds above the church, and 
the seat of the Saint himself is beside the church to the 
present day. And he built a church 4 among a certain family 
in a bay of the sea, that is Ros Mac Caitni. 

"And he turned back to the river Moy out of Vertrige 
into Bertriga, 5 and raised there a stone as a sign of the cross 
of Christ, and said : ' Behold water shall be found here in 
the last days and it shall be inhabited by me.' And he 
founded a church 6 by Rath Rigbairt and came into 
Muirisca to Bron son of Icni, and blessed a son, who is 
bishop Mace Rime, and they wrote elements for him and 
bishop Muirethach, who was over the river Bratho. 7 

" And Patrick and Broon and with them Mac Ercae son 
of Dregin came across Traigh Authuili 8 to the borders of 
Irae, to the plain, that is Ros Dregnige, in which place is 
Broon's little hut. And sitting there Patrick's tooth fell 

1 Kilroe near Killala. 

2 Cill Forclann, whose site is in Killybrone Townland. 

3 Forrach seems to have been name of a large tract about Mullafarry in 
which the Forrach was. Killogunra is likely to be the church founded in it. 

4 Probably the church on the rock in the sea at Downpatrick Head. But 
O'Donovan took it to be the church on Ross Point near Killala. 

5 From Bartragh near Killala to the Bartragh on Sligo shore near 

6 Probably in Coolerra to south of Knocknarea. Rath Rigbairt must have 
been on Knocknarea. Muirisca is the sea marsh in which Killaspugbrone is 
now covered by sand. 

7 Unknown. 8 Strand of Ballysadare. 


out, and he gave the tooth to his Broon as a relic, and said : 
' Behold the sea shall cast us out of this place in the last 
days, and ye shall go to the river of Slicichae l to the wood.' 

" And he went out across the Mount of the sons of Ailill, 
and founded a church there, that is Tamnach 2 and Eche- 
nach a and Cell Angle 2 and Cell Senchuae. 2 And he went 
out to the countries of the Callrigi Tre Maige and made a 
church by Druim Leas 3 and baptized many. And turned 
to the plain of Ailmaige and founded a church there, that 
is, Domnach Ailmaige, 4 because Patrick stayed there three 
days and three nights. 

" And he proceeded to Mag Aine 5 and placed a church 
there. And he turned to Evoi 6 and into Mag Cetni 7 and 
cursed the river which is called Black, because he asked 
[the fishermen for fish] and they gave none of their fish to 
the Saint. But he blessed the Drobhaise, in which great 
fishes live, or the race of fishes is made. The river Drob- 
haise had no fishes before, but ever since it gives fruit to 
fishermen. And he cursed other rivers, that is the river 
Oingae 8 and Saele, 9 because two of Patrick's lads were 
drowned in Saeli, on which account this was done as a 
memorial of an act of power." 

Thence St. Patrick passed away into Ulster and stayed 
in Mag Tochuir, now Inishowen. " In which place also 
there came to him a certain bishop of the race of the 
Corcu-theimne from Cellola Toch in the countries of the 
Temenrigi 10 in Carra towards the setting of the sun, a 
bishop with one sister of Patrick's monk, and their place is 
now under the convent of Clono, 11 and the men of that 
place deplore it." 

" Patrick crossed the Shannon three times and spent 
seven years in the western land." 

In Ardstraw he ordained Mac Erca as bishop. The 
bishop who came to Inishowen seems to be bishop Cainnech, 
founder of Cellola Tog. 

1 Sligo. J Tawnagh. Aghanagh. Not identified. Shancough. 

* Drumlease. * In Cloonclare parish in north of Dromahaire barony. 
5 Perhaps about Killenna near Manorhamilton. 

8 Mag Eabha, about Drumcliff. 7 Between R. Duff and Drowes. 

8 Not identified. Blackwater which joins Boyne. 

10 Means same as Corcutheimne. n Clonmacnoise. 


After Tirechan's Collections the Book of Armagh con- 
tains various notes among which are the following 

" Bishop Colman gave by a votive offering for ever to 
bishop Patrick his church, 1 that is Cluain Cain in Achud 
, and himself entrusted it to saints, that is to priest 
Medb and to priest Sadb. 

" Item, the sons of Fiechra offered to Patrick for ever 
the Plain of the North between Gleoir and Ferni with the 
slaves that served them in it. 

" Item, the seven sons of Doath faithfully offered to 
God and to St. Patrick Cluain Findglais and Imsruth Cul[e] 
Cais and Deruth Mar Cule Cais and Cenn Locho. 

" Item, the sons of Conlaid offered for ever to God and 
to Patrick eight weights of the plain, that is eight cows of 
the plain in their inheritance, that is every indlea from Two 
Cairns to the Mount of a Cairn. 

" All these offerings the Upper Ciarrichi and their kings 
offered for ever to Patrick. 

" St. Patrick, forseeing by the Holy Spirit that his family 
in the country of the Ciarrichi would be everywhere broken 
up, that is bishop Sachell and Brocid and Loarn and priest 
Medb and Ernasc, joined (them) together unanimously 
under his blessing into unity of eternal peace with one rite 
of the faith under the power of one heir of his apostolic See 
of Armagh. 

" Binean, son of Lugni, writer and priest and anchorite, 
was son of the daughter of Lugaith Maicc Netach, to whom 
his mother's race gave an inheritance in which he founded 
a church 2 consecrated to God and dedicated to Patrick. 

" And Patrick marked the place for himself with his 
staff, and himself first offered the body and blood of Christ 
after Binean had received orders from him. And he blessed 
him and left him after him in his place." 

Another note says that St. Patrick left his pupil Benignus, 
Benen, in Drumlease where he was for seventeen years. 
This I take to be the Benen of Kilbennan, but the note above 
designates Benen son of Lugni as the successor of St. 
Patrick ; the son of Sescnen really was the successor at 
Armagh. The confusion therefore is of long standing. 

The note regarding the endowments of the Upper Kerry 
1 Tagheen. 2 Kilbennan. 


is fairly intelligible. The church founded by bishop Colman 
in Cluain Cain must be Tagheen, Teach Caoin, which is 
close to the townland of Cloonkeen, the western part of 
Hollybrook. This Colman is likely to be the Colman of 
Kilcolman in the same district. 

As to the next item, the river Gleoir is known, and there 
is a Ballyfarnagh townland N.W. of Deny Lake which seems 
to embody Ferni. Thus the district would be the northern 
part of the parish of Knock. 

The third item gives five denominations. Derrykin- 
lough is a townland in the east of Killedan parish which 
Cuilgar and Cuiltrasna adjoin on N.E. and N.W. Cluain 
Findglais points to a bright clear rivulet. Imsruth seems 
to be a compound of Sruth with Im and also denotes a 
stream. Im appears in Imlec, Imgo, Imbertrach. Dr. 
Douglas Hyde says it is an intensitive particle. Cenn Locho, 
Head of Lake, also denotes a lake. No lake or stream is at 
Derrykinlough now, but one may have been filled up by 
bog. There is another Cenn Locho in the Lake called 
Derrykinlough in the N.W. of Bekan parish. Deny in 
these names may represent the Deruth. The five denomina- 
tions appear to be close together, being so connected with 
water. Either Derrykinlough would do, but I prefer that 
of Killedan. 

The fourth item seems to be the inheritance of the sons 
of Culaid. Conlaid is the same name with an oblique form 
of Cu. The country therefore is Mag Foimsen, which would 
adjoin the country of the sons of Doath. 

The note on the breaking up of St. Patrick's family 
seems to refer to the influence of the establishments of later 
saints which withdrew much of the country from the juris- 
diction of Armagh. The churches of Sachell, Broccid, 
Loarn, Medb and Ernasc cover all the country of the 
Ciarraige of Moy Ai, and of the Ciarraige of Loch na n Air- 
neadh, Baslick, Emlagh near Castlereagh, Aghamore, Kil- 
tullagh, Kilcronan in Aghamore. 



WHEN St. Patrick was at Ushnagh Enda son of Niall was 
baptized and Enda gave his son born the night before to 
be brought up by St. Patrick and placed his land under 
St. Patrick. 

" Patrick received the son, and gave him to be reared 
unto four of his household, to wit, bishop Domnall, Coimid 
Maccu-Baird, and Da Bonne Maccu-Baird, and another. 

He shall have said Loegaire son of 

Niall, because of Enda his brother, the land that Enda had 
from Loegaire, to wit, fifteen sencleithe of Enda Artech in 
Connaught to the north of Cruachan. These are Patrick's 

" Then they reared the son in the territory of Enda 
Artech, that is to say, bishop Domnall in Ailech Mor, 1 which 
the community of Clonmacnoise took away, bishop Coimid 
in Cluain Senmail, 2 bishop Do-Bonne in Guam na Manach. 3 
..... their pupil on All Saints' day . . 
. veneration for his fosterer (St. Patrick) when 
he should come, a cow from each man to him. That servi- 
tude clave to the churches until Nuada abbot of Armagh 
released them. Cormac Snithene was the son's name." 

Here there is a confusion between NialTs son Enda and 
the Enda of Artech mentioned in another story, p. 40. The 
sons of Niall had no property in Connaught. Cormac may 
have been fostered by the Maccu Bairds who were St. 
Patrick's relations. The two stories seem to be here rolled 
into one. 

The stone altar of which St. Patrick informs Ailbe at 
Duma Graid had four glass chalices at its angles. Ailbe's 
relics were at Shancough. 

1 Castlemore. 2 Clonshanville. 3 Kilnamanagh. 



The earthen church at Clebach or Cliabach was called 
Sen Domnach Maige Ai. The relics are said to have been 
transferred to Armagh, which would account for the dis- 
appearance of the site even. But Dr. O'Donovan with 
good reasons believed Shankill near Elphin to be this 
Church. 1 A well now not holy is near it. 

St. Patrick went into the land of the Hy Many and left 
there Deacon Just, and founded Fidarta, Fuerty. 

" Patrick founded Cell Garad, where are Cethech and 
Cethech's tomb together. There Patrick made the well 
named Uaran Garad, and he loved that water greatly." 

" Thereafter Patrick went to Mag Selce, that is to 
Duma Selce, and biding there were Brian's six sons, namely. 
Bole the Red, Derthacht, Eichen, Cremthann, Coelcharna, 
Echaid. And Patrick wrote three names in that place, on 
three stones, to wit, JESUS, SOTER, SALVATOR. 
Patrick blessed the Hui Briuin from Duma Selce, and 
Patrick's seat is there among the three stones on which he 
inscribed the letters. And the names of the bishops who 
were there along with him, [are] Bron the bishop, Bite of 
Cassel Irre, Sachell of Baslec Mor in Ciarraige, Brochaid 
of Imlech Ech, brother of Lomman of Ath Truim, Bronach 
the Priest, Roddn, Cassan, Benen Patrick's successor, and 
Ben6n brother of Cethech, bishop Felart, and a nun a sister 
of him, and another sister who is in an island in the sea of 
Conmaicne, namely, Croch of Cuil Conmaicne. And he 
founded a church on Loch Selce, namely, Domnach Maige 
Selce, 2 in which he baptized the Hui Briuin." 

" Patrick went into Grecraide of Loch Techet. 3 He 
founded a church there, 4 to wit in Dniimne ; 4 and by it he 
dug a well, and it hath no stream (flowing) into it or out of 
it; but it is full for ever; and this is its name, Bith-ldn 
('ever full'). 

" After that he founded Cell Atrachta 6 in Grecraide, 
and placed in it Talan's daughter, who took the veil from 
Patrick's hand ; and he left a paten and a chalice with her, 
Atracht, daughter of Talan, son of Cathbad, of the Gre- 
graide of Loch Techet, a sister of Coemdn of Airtne Coemain. 

1 O.S.L. Roscommon, ii. p. 64. 

2 Probably in old graveyard between Aghclare and Carnfree. 

8 Lough Gara. * Annagh, see p. 48. Killaraght. 



Patrick sained the veil on her head. Drummana was the 
name of the place in which they were biding. It is (called) 
Machare to-day." 

" Patrick went into Mag Airtig and blessed a place, 
namely Ailech Airtig in Telach na Cloch." 

Bibar and Lochru sons of Tamanchenn are named as the 
brothers who were found fighting at Drummut Ciarraige Artig. 

Bishop Cainnech helped St. Patrick to lift the stone off 
the well Slan. 

Like Tirechan the Tripartite Life takes St. Patrick into 
Tirawley after he has set the crosses right, but differing 
from Tirechan gives an account of what passed at Tara, 
making it a separate journey, but referring particularly 
to the Book of Armagh regarding the sons of Amalgaid 
who came to judgment. 

" Patrick went across the Moy to the Htii Amalgada. 
There came to meet him twelve sons of Amalgaid, son of 
Fiachra, son of Echaid, [namely] Oengus, Fergus, Fedilmid, 
Endae the Bent, Endae Bare-poll, Corbmac, Coirpre, Echaid 
the Spotless, Echaid One-ear, Eogan the Just, Dubchonall, 
Ailill Kettle-face. The sons of Amalgaid were contending 
about the kingship. There were twenty-four tribes (i.e. 
old tribes) in the land. They refused to take over them as 
king a man with a nickname. Then Oengus gave nick- 
names to his brothers. The haughtiest of Amalgaid's sons 
was this Oengus. Loegaire, son of Niall, son of Echaid, 
King of Tara, and his brother Eogan, son of Niall, adjudged 
[the dispute]. 

" The sons of Amalgaid went to Tara in twelve chariots ; 
but in the books of Patrick it is found that only seven 
brothers of them submitted to the judgment. They found 
welcome with the king at Tara. Oengus was a foster-son 
of Loegaire's." Oengus tries to keep Enda's son Conall 
out of the palace, but by Patrick's help the intrigue is de- 
feated. These matters are told in a curious unintelligible 
way and the final decision is not clearly expressed. The 
story goes on 

" They went thence and Patrick with them, and Patrick 
bestowed his chariot on Conall so that it was the thirteenth 
chariot. Then they went their way, and Oengus had no 
affection for them (that is), for Conall his brother's son and 


for Patrick. He left it to his two brothers, namely, Fergus 
and Fedilmid, to kill Patrick and Conall ; and they (Fergus 
and Fedilmid) parted from (?) him (Oengus) and Loegaire, 
that is after he had received his injunction from Loegaire. 
They went northwards to visit their land. The place in 
which Oengus had intended to commit the fratricide was 
in Corann. Fergus simulated sleep. 'True,' saith Oengus, 

' Fergus ' His brothers refuse 

[to do] what they said. 'We will not kill the innocent 
(namely, Patrick) : we will not, moreover, commit fratricide 
on our brother.' Oengus went with two bands against 
them to kill them, and he had two wizards, namely, Reon 
and Recred, of the tribe of Foelan the Warrior. It was 
not more than a mile between the place out of which Patrick 
saw the enemies, the cross to the west of Patrick's cross, 
and Cell Foreland. 1 Reon said that at the place in which 
he should see Patrick the earth would swallow him (Patrick) 
up. That was told to Patrick. ' Truly,' said Patrick, 
' it is I that shall first see him.' As soon as Patrick saw him 
the earth swallowed him down. ' I will believe,' saith he, 
' if I am saved.' The earth flings him up, so that he was 
above the winds and he fell down half alive. He believed 
and was baptized. Then Roechred was lifted (?) up (into 
the air) and was cast down from above so that his head 
brake against the stone ; and fire from heaven burnt (him). 
There stands the wizard's stone. There is a church there. 
Cross Patraic (' Patrick's Cross ') is its name, to the east of 
the wood of Fochlad. Telach inna n Druad (' The Wizards' 
Hill ') is the name of the place wherein was the troop of the 
heathen to the west of Cross Patraic. Glaiss Conaig is be- 
tween them. Oengus said : ' I will believe if my sister is 
brought back to life,' to wit, Fedlem, daughter of Amalgaid, 
who had died long ago. Once a blind man came to meet 
Patrick. Urgently he went, through desire of the cure. 
A man of Patrick's household laughed at him. ' My God's 
doom ! ' saith Patrick, ' it were meet that thou shouldst be 
the blind man.' So the blind became hale and the hale 
became blind. Mignae is the name of him who was blinded 
there. He is one of the two men of Patrick's household 
who remained in the empty Disert Pdtraic, quod est near 

In Killybrone near Mullaghorne. 


the well * at Cross Patraic, and Domnall was the other, 
though their senior was angry with them. It was Rdan, 
son of Gi-cnma, Amalgaid's charioteer, that was healed 
there. Roi Ruain 2 is the name of the place wherein the 
blind man was healed, and it belongs to Patrick afterwards. 

"Two lame men came to him in 6chtar Cderthin. 3 They 
complained to him that they were (virtually) disinherited 
because of their defects, and it was difficult for them to 
travel between their heritages in mountain and level land. 
Why should I say more. They were heard. 

" Then he went to Domnach Mor, ubi est Bishop Mucnae. 
Then he went to Cross Patraic, where there came to him 
Aed the Tall, son of Echaid, son of Oengus, and he healed 
him of lameness at the well to the west of Cross Pdtraic. 
And Aed offered to him two oxgangs (?) of land whereon 
the place was founded. And he left there two of his house- 
hold, namely, Teloc and Nemnall. 

" Enda saw wizards seeking to slay Patrick, and he said 
to his son : ' Go and take care of Patrick, that the wizards 
may not slay him.' Patrick himself perceived them, and 
fire from heaven consumed them, to the number of nine. 

" Patrick founded Cell Alaid, and left therein an aged man 
of his household, namely, Bishop Muredaig. 

" Patrick baptized the women, namely, Crebriu and Lesru, 
the two daughters of Gleru, son of Cummene. It is they 
that called to Patrick out of their mother's womb, when 
he was in the isles of the Tyrrhene Sea. It is they that 
are patronesses of Cell Forgland in Hui Amalgada, west of 
(the river) Moy. 

" He went into Forrach Mace n Amalgodo ; and Amal- 
gaid's seven sons believed in him together with Ende and 
the king. Therein it is that he baptized the pregnant 
woman and her child, and raised another woman to life. 

" Then Patrick and Conall went to the grave wherein 
the dead pregnant woman (namely, Fedilm) was biding, along 
the lower path to Cell Alaid. Oengus, however, went along 
the upper path. They reach the grave. Patrick raised 

1 Patrick's Well is a quarter of a mile W. of Crosspatrick. A small cross 
is at Cross Patrick. O.S.L. Mayo, i. p. 152. 

2 Kuan's Land or Field. Perhaps about Rathrooeen, NW. of Ballina. 

3 Upper Caerthin should be near Caerthanan, now Castlehill. 


the woman to life, and the boy in her womb. And both 
were baptized in the well of Oen-adarc * (' One horn '). From 
the steep little hillock of earth that is near it the well was 
so named. And when she was brought to life she preached 
to the multitudes of the pains of hell and the rewards of 
heaven, and with tears she besought her brother to believe 
in God through Patrick. Quod factum est, and he was bap- 
tized. And in that day twelve thousand were baptized in 
the well of Oen-adarc, ut dicitur : 

" In one day are baptized 
Twice six great thousands, 
Together with Amalgaid's seven sons : 
That was well. 

" Verily twelve thousand believed in Patrick in Hiii- 
Amalgada and from the Wood of Fochlad : and he left 
with them Maucen 2 the Master. 

" He went south to the Ferta of Loch-Daela. 3 The land 
belonged to Oengus. Patrick thought that he would take 
it to himself there. Oengus came to him in drunkenness . . . 
to him, for it was not from the heart that he believed, even 
when he was baptized and confessed (his) belief. ' My 
God's doom ! ' saith Patrick, ' it were right that thy dwell- 
ings and thy children after thee should not be exalted. Thy 
successors will be ale-bibbers, and they will be parricides 
through thee.' 

" Patrick went eastward to Lecc Finn, 4 where he made a 
cross in the stone over Cell Mdr Ochtair Muaide 5 (' the great 
church of the Upper Moy ') to the west ; but Lia na Manach 
(The Monks' stone) is its name to-day, that is, Saint Crumther 
Monach's (or) Cell Olcain : but there was no church there 
at that time. And he baptized Echaid, son of Nathi, son 
of Fiachra, and raised to life his wife Echtra at Ath Echtra 
over the little stream right in front of Cell Mdr. And 
Echtra's grave mound is on the edge of the ford. It is 
a ... of knowledge with them in their country, the 
story which commemorates this miracle. 

" Bishop Olcan went from him to reside in the place 

1 Not identified. Probably Tobair na Craoibe in Foghill Townland. 

2 Mancen. 3 Lough Dalla. 

4 League, in graveyard at Ballina. 5 Kilmoremoy Church. 


wherein Cell M6r stands to-day. Thus he went, axe on 
back. And Patrick said to him that where his axe should 
fall from his back, there should his residence be. Which 
thing came to pass where Cell Mor Uachtair Muaide (now) 

" And he went northwards to Lecc Balbeni, where he 
found the sons of Amalgaid, and blessed them. And he 
went out of the country from Bertlacha * in the west into 
Bertlacha * in the east, in the estuary of the Moy, over against 
the sea. A girl is drowned before him there ; and he blessed 
that port (?) and said that no one should be drowned there 
in sempiternum. Patrick prophesied ^that the eastern 
Bertlacha would belong to him. It stands in one of their 
histories that in the day of war the king of the land shall 
call on Patrick (to protect) that country, and he shall be 

"There at the stream 2 the Grecraige flung stones at 
Patrick and his household. ' My God's doom ! ' saith 
Patrick, ' in every contest in which ye shall be ye shall be 
routed, and ye shall abide under spittles and wisps and 
mockery in every assembly at which ye shall be present.' 

" ' Arise, O Conall ! ' said Patrick : ' thou must take 
the Crozier.' Conall said, ' If it is pleasing to God I will 
do it for thee.' ' That shall not be so,' saith Patrick, ' Thou 
shalt be under arms for sake of thy tribe's heritage, and 
thou shalt be Conall Crozier-shield. Dignity of laymen and 
clerics shall be from thee, and every one of thy descendants 
in whose shield shall be the sign of my crozier, the warriors 
with him shall not be turned (to flight).' Which thing 
Patrick did for him. 

" Patrick went eastward into the territory of the Hiii 
Fiachrach by the sea. 3 A water opposed him, that is, (there 
was) a great unnatural flood therein, and he cursed it. On 
the water is a stead, Buale Patraic 4 (' Patrick's Byre ') 
is its name, to wit, a small mound with a cross thereon. 

1 Bartragh near Killala and the Bartragh opposite at Scurmore. There 
was a ferry here in i8th century. 

2 Probably a stream in Coillte Luighne or the river at Ballysadare. 

3 Probably Tireragh. 

4 Boulyfadrick on high ground over the Moy, east of a Killeen half way 
between Ardnarea and Breaghwy. See Bald's Map of Mayo. 


That detained him a little while. Then the holy bishop 
Bron of Caisel lire came to him, and the holy Mace-Rime 
of Cell Corcu-Roide, 1 and there he wrote an alphabet for 
them. And I have heard from a certain person that in 
that place he gave a tooth out of his mouth to Bishop Bron, 
because he was dear to him. 

" Just as he was coming from the west over the Moy into 
Grecraige, three poison-giving wizards overtook him at Raith 
Rigbard. 2 They could do nothing to him, and he said 
that to that race there would never be wanting a man of 
that magical skill. 

" (As to) Mace Erce, son of Draigen, who is in Cell Roe 
Mdre in the territory of Amalgad ; there were seven sons 
of Draigen, whom Patrick baptized, and of them he chose 
Mace Erce, and he gave him to Bishop Bron to be fostered, 
for it was not easy to take him away to a distance, because 
of his father's affection (for him)." 

" Bishop Rodan, Patrick's herdsman, Patrick left in 
Muiresc Aigle in Cell Epscoip Rodan 3 (' Bishop Rodan's 
Church '). His calves used only to do what was permitted 

" The Callraigi of Cule-Cernad^n were in a secret place 
ahead of Patrick, and they struck spears against shields 
to terrify Patrick with his household. ' My God's doom ! ' 
saith Patrick, ' not good is what they have done. Every 
battle and every conflict that ye and your children after 
you shall deliver, ye shall be routed therein.' Straightway 
all (of them), save five men, knelt to Patrick. Patrick said : 
' Every battle in which ye shall be routed, though all 
Connaught should be after you, there shall fall no greater 
number of you than five men,' as is fulfilled." 

These last two incidents are inserted among events in 
other regions, and the next two are brought in among St. 
Patrick's doings in the north of Ulster, as if inserted as 
soon as omission from the proper place was noticed, or when 
the record came to hand. 

" While Patrick was abiding in Ailech Airtich 4 in Con- 

1 Tribe of barony of Corcaree in Westmeath. 

2 In Coolerra. 

3 Probably Glaspatrick old church, near Murrisk. 

4 At Castlemore Costello. 


naught in Cenel-Endai, Endae came to him. ' Give me this 
place,' saith Patrick. ' As if we had not clerics (already) ! ' 
saith Enda. On the morrow came 6ndae having with him 
his son Echu the One-eyed of Inber. Patrick (was) in an 
assembly apart, his household baptizing and conferring 
orders and sowing the faith. Two sons of Cairthenn were 
there at that time, one of whom is in Clochar * and one in 
Domnach Mor Maige Tdchair. 2 ' Confer ye the rank of a 
bishop on my son ! ' saith Endae. ' Ask it of Patrick,' 
said Patrick's champion, Mace Cairthinn of Clochar. ' This 
is our duty,' saith (the) other. The rank is conferred. 
Patrick perceives it. ' Indeed,' saith he, ' to confer rank 
in my absence on the son of the wolf ! 3 There shall always 
be contention in the church of one of the twain of you. 
There shall be poverty in the dwelling of the other.' Which 
thing is fulfilled. Contention (there is) in Domnach Mor 
Maige Tdchair : poverty in the latter (Clochar). [And 
Patrick further said,] ' The son on whom the rank hath come, 
two after manslaughter shall see him . . . and . . . me 
one hundred and twenty years unto the son who shall be 
born in the southern parts ; and it shall revert to me again,' 
whereof the whole was fulfilled. The first place in which 
Echu's relics were, was a lofty delightful place. He was 
carried past it in a little while (?), and into a very low place. 
The first place in which he was, is waste, and robbers and 
manslayers are wont to dwell there, through Patrick's curse ; 
and his church was granted (?) to Ciaran the Wright's son, 
and it fell to Patrick again. That Echu son of Endae is 
to-day (called) bishop Ecan. 

" Patrick, then, was biding in Tfr Endai Artich in Tulach 
Liacc 4 in Lether. 4 He sets therein (wattles for) a church, 
which afterwards became a bush. Then he ordained the 
three Domnalls in the grade of bishop, namely, Domnall 
son of Cremthann in Ailech Airtig, which thing we have men- 
tioned above, Domnall son of Coilcne in Telach Liacc, (and 
thirdly,) Domnall of Ciiil Conalto. 5 

1 Clogher. a Mag Tochair is now Inishowen. 

8 Son of Cu Allaid. 

4 Tulach Liacc was about Lung Townland. See Petty's Map in Brit. Mus. 
Letter is the country NW. of Castlemore and Ballaghaderreen. 
6 Unknown, means "Corner of Wolf." 


"In 'a little catalogue (?) of Patrick's Miracles ' appears 
' The sailing out of Bertlach into Bertlach of Calrige Cule 

" He crossed the Shannon three times into Connaught and 
spent seven years in that province." 



THOUGH he worked all round it St. Patrick is not said to 
have gone to Croghan. The heathen kings Amalgaid and 
Ailill Molt were in possession during the period covered 
by these tours. 

Several complaints are made that the community of 
Clonmacnoise possesses places which first belonged to Armagh. 
In one case the transfer seems to have been in consequence 
of the plague. I apprehend these transfers to have arisen 
partly from such partial decay of Christianity and relapse 
into heathenism as is likely to have occurred here and there 
until the general triumph of Christianity after the 6th 
century, and consequent abandonment of churches, and 
partly from the establishment by later Saints of churches in 
their neighbourhood which superseded the Patrician churches 
in the favour of the inhabitants. 

The seat of Patrick among the inscribed stones at Duma 
Selce appears to have a special meaning, or to have been 
preserved and venerated, for we find his seat beside the 
church in the Forrach mentioned as still to be seen. 

The Well of Slan is of particular interest because such 
a well exists and is to this day an object of veneration. 
Tobernahalthora in Kilgeever parish is covered by the 
remains of a long dolmen, answering to the description of 
Slan save that the Slan dolmen may have been square. 
Supposing Tobernahalthora to be complete we can see how 
St. Patrick exposed the well to view by removing a top 
slab or a side slab. This altar was built for pagan worship, 
was probably consecrated for Christian worship at a re- 
mote period, and is in use to this day, unaltered save to a 
small extent by ruin of time or perhaps by some deliberate 
mischief. The Well of Slan is not now venerated. It is 
called Adam's Well, and is under a rock near the old church 


of Manulla. I was told that a strong stream flowed from 
it which is now drawn off by the deepening of the small 
river close by. There is no sign of any building or cover- 
ing. The old castle and the neighbouring village account 
for the disappearance of good flat building stones such as 
would be used for a dolmen. 

The Tripartite Life arranges the Tirawley tour better 
in some respects than Tirechan's notes. 

Enda and his brothers who came to Tara were evidently 
ready to become Christians as soon as they could arrange 
for adoption of the faith in their tribal assembly. The 
twenty-four old tribes I take to be clans connected with 
Fiachra and his descendants as the Silmurray with the 

The Tripartite Life names 12 brothers against 7 not all 
named by Tirechan. Seven sons of Amalgaid left descendants 
in Tirawley and Erris ; namely 1 

Enda Crom "I HT u i r v 

\ in Moyheleog, Crossmolma. 
Oengus Finn / 

Conall in Moyheleog. 

Oengus in the Lagan, Kilbride, Doonfeeny, Rathreagh. 

Eochaid in Killarduff. 

Fergus in Caille Conaill, Bac, Glen Nephin, Bredach. 

Fedelmid in Erris. 

The parishes of Ballysakeary and Killala were the estates 
of the descendants of Laegaire son of Eochaid Breac son 
of Dathi. 

Having made his bargain for escort to Tirawley St. Patrick 
set out with his retinue. When his accomplices withdrew 
from the murder plot Oengus went ahead to organise opposi- 
tion. This may be the incident referred to in the confession. 

" I travelled for your sake, amid many perils, and even 
to remote places, where there was no one beyond, and where 
no one else had ever penetrated to baptize or ordain clergy, 
or to confirm the people. The Lord granting it, I diligently 
and most cheerfully, for your salvation, defrayed all things. 
During this time I gave presents to the kings ; besides which 
I gave pay to their sons who escorted me ; and neverthe- 
less they seized me together with my companions, and on 

1 See H. F. 


that day they eagerly desired to kill me ; but the time had 
not yet come. And they seized everything that was with 
us, and they also bound myself with iron. And on the 
fourteenth day the Lord set me free from their power, and 
whatever was ours was restored to us, for God's sake, and 
the attached friends whom we had before provided." l 

Tirechan ignores the conspiracy altogether. He mixes 
up two journeys. The journey to Tirawley was a journey 
there and back to Ulster. It was independent of the 
journey to Mount Egli. The occasion on which he was 
made a prisoner may have been on some other of his many 

The Tirawley transactions are given in a confused 
jumble in both records, which are but notes of records and 
traditions which came piecemeal to the compilers and were 
by them put together almost anyhow. 

There was but one attack by the druids, and that was not 
at St. Patrick's entry into Tirawley. The first business was 
the partition of the estate and the inauguration of Enda as 
chief in the tribal assembly. The attack was made while 
he was in the Forrach and after Christianity had been 

The " Druidical Enemy " seems to be something like the 
mysterious " Erbe Druad " of the battle of Cuildremne. 
Was it a " Cathach " which in the later instances known to 
us was an object of a Christian character ? 2 

The Tripartite omits the church in the Forrach but 
mentions Killala as founded for Muredach. Dr. O'Rorke has 
identified the Muredach of Killala whose day is the 
I2th August as St. Molaise of Inismurray. It was a very 
common name. Bishop Muredach is mentioned by Tirechan 
as over the river Bratho, i.e. his relics are in a church over 
it. If the river could be identified it would help to ascertain 
Muredach, unless as is probable they were different men. 

Though Tirechan mentions but three churches and the 
Tripartite but one as founded by St. Patrick, it is not con- 
clusive that no more were founded by him. 

Mancen the Master, so called from his learning and 

1 Wright, Writings of St. Patrick, p. 69, 3rd. ed. 

a " Erbe Druad " means " Druid's Fence " literally. Joyce, Social History 
of Ancient Ireland, i. pp. 227, 234. 


eminence, became Abbot of Rosnat, St. David's in Wales, 
and was connected with Bangor in Wales, Whitherne in 
Galloway, and Glastonbury in Somersetshire. His real name 
was Nainnid or Ninnid. 1 

He taught Enda of Ara. 

The relics of Crebriu and Lesru were in Cell Foreland, 
but they came from Foclad's Wood. If Cumm6ne the name 
of their grandfather is but an older form of Cuimin it is a 
further connection of Foclad's Wood with the neighbour- 
hood of Foghill. For the Tripartite identifies them as those 
who called to St. Patrick from Foclad's Wood, whose voices 
he heard while he was in the isles of the Tyrrhene Sea. 

This is the miracle made out of St. Patrick's words in 
his confession " And while I was reading aloud the be- 
ginning of the letter, I myself thought indeed in my mind 
that I heard the voice of those who were near the wood of 
Foclut, which is close by the Western Sea : and they cried 
out thus as if with one voice, ' We entreat thee, holy youth, 
that thou come, and henceforth walk among us.' And I 
was deeply moved in heart, and could read no further ; and 
so I awoke. Thanks be to God, that after very many years 
the Lord granted to them according to their cry." 2 

Foghill has been identified as a modern form of Foclut 
or Foclad, or as Fochuil, the uninflected form of the word. 
The position meets all conditions, but the term Foclad's 
Wood was applied to a large tract called later Condi's Wood, 
Caille Conaill, extending from Lacken Bay to Rathfran. The 
expression " Twelve thousand believed in Patrick in Hui 
Amalgada and from the Wood of Fochlad " seems to be in- 
tended to denote the whole of Tirawley in which St. Patrick 

Tirechan tells us that a sick woman was brought to St. 
Patrick, to whom he administered the communion and whose 
child was baptized, and who was buried in the mound above 
the church. The Tripartite develops this and makes two 
stories of it, or confuses two traditions. The whole of the 
part relating to these women is mixed up in a very curious 
way. First Oengus says he will believe if his sister Fedelm, 
who had died long ago, is brought to life. The subject drops 

1 Shearman, Loca Patriciana, p. 62. Jl, R.S.A.I., vol. xiv. 

2 Wright, Writings of St. Patrick, p. 57, 3rd. ed. 


there. After a time we are told that in the Forrach he 
baptized the pregnant woman and her child and raised 
another woman to life. Then it goes on to say how Patrick 
and Conall went by one road and Oengus by another to the 
grave of the dead pregnant woman whom he raised to life. 
They are both baptized in the well called Oen Adarc, in which 
on the same day 12,000 men are baptized. The Tripartite Life 
is a most untrustworthy guide among these traditions, but it 
shows their existence and the development of a miracle from 
an ordinary incident. We may however take it as evidence 
that there was a tradition that the king and his brothers 
were baptized together with a large number of their people 
in a certain well. 

The local tradition says that St. Patrick baptized Awley 
and his sons and goo persons in the well called Tobair na 
Craoibe in Foghill Townland, near which is a standing stone. 1 
In this case I see no reason why the local tradition should 
be disregarded which names this well as the scene of the 
great baptism when Christianity was formally adopted by 
the Chieftain's family. 

Downpatrick Head is another place which is closely 
connected by tradition with St. Patrick, and which re- 
mained a place of unusual veneration. The I5th August is 
the chief day at Downpatrick Head. At several places 
associated with St. Patrick, this day or Crom Duff's, is the 
day of chief celebration. Certain it is that there are churches 
there of great age, one being on the rock in the sea. This, 
which must have been connected then with the mainland, I 
take to be the Ros of Caitni's sons'. It was the site of a fort, 
for the detached rock is called Dunbriste, the Broken Dun. 
And in later times a strong rampart wall was drawn across 
the neck of a peninsula. Several old churches are close 
by. These facts all point to the place having been a great 
chieftain's dwelling, the place near which St. Patrick would 
found a church on his first coming. 

On the whole it may be taken that St. Patrick founded 
a church called Donaghmore, which has disappeared, close 
to Killala in the Tawnagh Townland, another in the Forrach 
district which is probably Killogunra, another at Down- 
patrick Head, and perhaps that of Killala, and that the 
1 O.S.L. Mayo, i. pp. 181, 196. 


Tobernacreeva in Foghill is that in which he baptized the 
king and his brothers. He left in Tirawley a considerable 
body of clergy with a bishop to organise the church which 
spread rapidly. 

Yet Christianity did not win all at once. Though Dathi's 
son Eochaidh was baptized, his brother Fiachra Elgach 
ancestor of the kings of the Hy Fiachrach must have been 
a pagan, as was certainly his son Amalgaid who built 
Carnamalgada, now Mullaghorne near Killala, as an in- 
auguration place for himself and his successors, and was 
buried there, a heathen burial. Ailill Molt and Eogan Bel 
were also pagans. 

St. Patrick seems to have been in danger of drowning 
in passing from Bartragh to the opposite point in Tireragh. 
This seems to be the Scurmore ferry which was in use in 
the i8th century. 1 He had difficulty in crossing the river 
at Ballysadare owing to floods and was there attacked 
by the Gregry. His dangers from floods of the Moy and 
Unshin rivers are told in a confused way and the incidents 
are jumbled and divided. Tirechan summarises them in 
one, but it is clear that three events are referred to, the 
crossing at Bartragh, the crossing of the Unshin near Bally- 
sadare, the crossing of the Moy above Ballina. Buale 
Patraic marks the last, and distinguishes it. It is most 
improbable that there was another place of the same name. 

1 Pocock's Tour in 1752. 



Tamnuch. Mathona's free church in Tawnagh parish might 
be a different church from that which St. Patrick founded, 
which is called Tamnach. But it is more likely that Tirechan 
used two legends relating to these churches. 

Mag Cairetha is indicated by Kilkeevin as the country 
about Castlereagh. Kilkeevin embodies the name of Coeman. 

Ard Sen Lis. Lalloc daughter of Darerca is connected 
with this place in the Tripartite Life, and in the Book of 
Leinster where she is described as of larmbadgna. larm- 
badgna suggests a country near Sliabbadgna. At Strokes- 
town is the townland of Kildallog which belonged to the 
Archbishop of Tuam, marking Kildallog as a reputed Patrician 
church. It answers all the conditions of the place of " aloe." 
The " d " in the name is an obstacle to positive identifica- 
tion, but it is not an impossible coincidence that the place 
where Lalloc was put bears a name like hers all but one 

Crock Cuile. See notes on Kilmaine churches. 

Drummae, Druimne, Drummana. These names are in 
substance the same and denote a tract of country which 
was large enough to be afterwards called Machare, the Plain. 
The Tripartite Life distinguishes clearly, Tirechan less clearly, 
Killaraght from the church in Druimne. On the point of 
Killaraght parish which projects to the SW. into the lake in the 
townland of Annagh are the site of an old church and a 
Patrick's well near it. The well is a hole at the head of; the 
swampy part of a slope. It is not a spring but a dug well 
where water might stand always at much the same level. 
The altar and swearing stones are described hereafter. 

The taxation of 1306 places a rectory of Tuamany and 
Mochrath next Killaraght in the list, and the churches seem 

to be near Killaraght. I do not even guess at Tuamany, 



but Mochrath might be intended to represent Machare. 
This is I think likely to be St. Patrick's church. 

Ford of the Sons of Heric. From this point to the de- 
parture of Patrick from the countries of the Corcu Temne and 
arrival in Maghfinn the reasons for identification of places 
named by Tirechan have been fully set out in a paper pub- 
lished in the Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of 
Ireland for 1901, vol. xxxi, p. 24. But I have some further 
remarks to make regarding the 

Kilmaine Churches. Tir Enna is not the country of the 
Cinel Enna branch of the Conmaicne, but of a section of 
the Ciarraige in the south and south-west of the barony 
of Clanmorris. But this does not affect the view that the 
" sons of En " are the Cinel Enna of the Conmaicne, living 
to south of Tirenna. 

I now think that the entries regarding churches founded 
in Cuil Tolat do not refer to Kilmainemore but to other 
churches in that territory. Kilmainemore however is cer- 
tainly one of Patrick's churches, probably founded before 
this tour. " Air " is the end of a word which may be 
Sruthair or Cellcuair. Sruthair meant not only Shrule but 
the country near, and the church may be that of Shrule or 
in one of the old graveyards near. Kilquire is an old church 
near Kilmaine, spelt in the i6th century Kilchowyre. 
The name would be Cillcuair or something equivalent 
in sound ending in " air." The name St. Patrick's Hill near 
Shrule given in the Rental of Cong Abbey favours Sruthair. 

The fragment " Uiscon " does not suggest anything. 

The little middle cell may be identified as Kilmainebeg 
with certainty. 

As Croch means a Cross the place meant might be Cross 
in east of Cong Parish, where was an important church. 
Cross of Cuil (Toladh) describes its position. 

Mag Foimsen. Regarding Patrick's, Well, see under 

Cellola Tog. Is likely to be the old church of Breaghwy 
as Kilkenny is a townland in that parish a little to the west 
of it, and townland names are liable to drift away from the 
original spot. It might be the old church at Ballynew in 
Aglish parish which is not much farther away. 



His sister Darerca, " Daughter of the Sun," is said to have 
been taken prisoner with him. If so she was free soon 
enough to marry Gollit a Briton, and to be the mother of 
Lomman of Trim, Mel of Ardagh, Broccad of Imleach Each, 
Rioc of Inisbofin in Lough Ree and of Lalloc of Senlis ; but 
they may have been born before her captivity. 

Another sister Liamain or Liamania married Restitutus 
a Lombard, but not of those of Italy who were not yet 
settled there. She was the mother of Sechnall or Secundinus, 
of Auxilius, of Lugnad and of others. 

Lugnad was called Patrick's Navigator or Pilot. He 
was placed at the Ferta of Tir Feic on Lough Mask and 
was given by Duach Tenguma, King of Connaught from 
493 to 499, the country extending from the part of Lough 
Mask called Snamh Tire Feig to Sail Dea for himself and 
his fellows. 1 These points are not known. Snam is a ford 
or passage crossed by swimming, a ferry. If Duach Tenguma 
gave him an endowment it must have been when he was 
a very old man, and probably when Duach was king of his 
own tribe only. The relationship is not quite certain but 
he probably was a relation of St. Patrick. The Ferta of 
Tir Feic is the country on the S.E. shore of Lough Mask. 
It is not unlikely, if this tradition be true, that Killower, 
the old church at Ballinchalla, is his place. It is on the 
land opposite Inishmaine where the Kings of Connaught 
had a fort. Duach Tenguma son of Eogan Sreb said to 
have been baptized by St. Patrick would be a Christian. 

The old church at Tubberloona in the deer-park of Corn- 
field, north of Ballinrobe, and the old church of Loona on 
the shore of Welshpool lake in the parish of Drum are the 
only churches which bear his name in these parts, and they 

1 Book of Lecan, quoted by Sir W. Wilde, Lough Corrib, p. 138. 



are in ancient Cera. They may take their name from another 
Lugna, but it is most likely that they are in some way con- 
nected with him. 

Dr. Petrie believed that the pillar-stone in front of Temple- 
patrick on Inchangoill bore his name in the inscription 
" Stone of Lugnaedon son of Lmenueh." Ferguson and 
Stokes now read it " Lie Luguaedon Macci Menuch," meaning 
" Stone of Lugad son of Menuch." Menuch is a unique 
name. If Menuch is a form of Liamain this may well be a 
memorial of Lugna, but if not it is a memorial of some other 
person. If Lugna used the island as a retreat he may have 
been buried there as well as anywhere else, and have given 
the island its name Inis an Guill Craebhthaich, Island of 
the Devout Foreigner. He was certainly a foreigner. 

Some hold that these were St. Patrick's sisters only in 
religion. The first order of saints admitted the consortia 
and administration of women. Consortia expressed the 
living together of monk and nun at one place, which gave 
rise to scandal and was suppressed. It was a general church 
custom. Children and young men placed under sisters of 
the church for instruction being called their sons it is in- 
ferred that the sons of Patrick's sisters were the pupils of 
his nuns only. On the other hand no solid ground appears 
for rejecting the plain meaning of the words and the names 
of the fathers. St. Patrick may have had sisters like many 
other men, and those sisters may have married and had 
children. There is no reason why Darerca should not marry 
a Briton and Liamain a Lombard or an O'Baird, which is 
apparently a variation of Lombard, or why his sisters and 
nephews should not follow him to Ireland. His was a dis- 
tinctly clerical family. 

According to the Chronicum Scotorum SechnaU's mother's 
name was Culmana which looks like a variation of Liamain, 
and suggests that Menuch is not unlikely to be another Irish 
form of the same British name. He died in 446 in the 
seventy-fifth year of his age, being then about the same 
age as St. Patrick. 

Benen son of Lugni has been confused with the son of 
Sescnen. Both were in attendance on St. Patrick at Duma 
Selca. This Benen was a brother of Cethech, of the Hy 
Ailello. His mother was a daughter of Lugaid son of Neta 


or Niata. Lugaid and his four brothers and their father 
were baptized by St. Patrick and Benen in Dun Lugaid, 
which Lugaid gave up for the church which was there laid 
out by St. Patrick and is now called Kilbennan. It was the 
first mission station among the Conmaicne Cinel Dubain and 
the mother church of Tuam, as St. larlath was educated 
for the priesthood by Benen in the training-school of this place, 
which was for long of great importance and apparently 
greater than Tuam because here and not at Tuam was built 
a Round Tower, which Miss Stokes assigns to the second 
period about A.D. 1000. The Round Towers in these 
countries mark the principal monastery of the territory of 
a sub-king or great chieftain. Tuam rose above it when 
the Kings of Connaught adopted Tuam as their chief resi- 
dence in the nth century. From Kilbennan and from 
Tuam the countries of the Sodhans and of the Hy Briuin 
along L. Corrib were christianised. Missionaries were trained 
and sent out, and some established monasteries of importance. 

Templebenen in Aran is attributed to him. 

Taking into account the confusion between these Benens, 
it is probable that Mathona of Tawnagh was a sister of 
this Benen, who was 17 years abbot of Drumlease before 
he came to Kilbennan. In absence of clear evidence to 
contrary Benen son of Lugni should be credited with work 
in Connaught ascribed to Benen. 

The Book of Fenagh gives descents of the Conmaicne 
which throw some not very clear light on this period. St. 
Patrick's contemporaries may be doubtfully added, as 
groups A and B. 





ech. Findcaem. 

>an. Cairid, who bent the knee to Patrick at Tara. 

C. Cinel Dubain. Niata. Brug. Enna. 
1 1 1 

St. Caillin. 

| | Cinel Enna. 
' Lugaith. Aindliu. Enna. 1 

i i i U 

Daughter. C. Guile Tolad. Daughter. 1 


St. Caillin is quite out of his place which really was three 
or four generations after Benen. 

This is all that is known of St. Patrick's companions 
and relations in these dioceses. There is a gap void of names 
and incidents until the rise of the great saints Enda and 
larlaithe who were trained in their youth under the Patrician 


THE church order and discipline established and intended 
by St. Patrick must have been that of the church in Gaul, 
where he was educated for his mission, whence he drew 
Bishops and Priests who helped him to organise the Irish 
Christians. He was a monk trained in the monasteries of 
Gaul where monasticism had taken strong root, hence the 
Irish church was monastic from the first in the eastern type 
of monasticism. Mr. Stokes has observed that to this day 
monasteries exist in the east in the shape of small separate 
houses for the monks inside an enclosure, in substance on 
the model of the ruined monastery on Inishmurray off the coast 
of Sligo, the best example of the ancient Irish monastery. 
As discipline was maintained by the bishops on the continent 
we may safely infer that they maintained it in Ireland as 
long as St. Patrick and his companions ruled the church. 
The division of the saints into three orders corresponds 
with real periods in the growth of the church until in the 
7th century it attained the full and final organisation which 
lasted, latterly in decay, until the I2th century. 

St. Patrick gave the church a fair start but much work 
was still to be done. The riding families had generally 
accepted Christianity, but in great tracts of country such 
as those of the Gregry and Hy Maine in Connaught they 
still stood out, and all over the country the mass of the 
people had to be taught the new faith and induced to drop 
the most objectionable features of the old, and allow their 
customs to be christianised, or at least to be veneered with 
Christianity. Missionaries had to be trained for the work. 
Because the missionaries already in Ireland did not accept 
reinforcement from abroad, or because the break up of the 
Roman Empire in the close of the 5th century checked the 
former free intercourse between Ireland and the continent, 


or for both reasons, the flow of missionaries from Gaul ceased 
and the church developed upon its own lines. 

According to the classification of the Irish writers the 
first order of saints consisted of 450 bishops of the time of 
Patrick, who were all under one rule and all under Patrick. 
They admitted the services of women. The order ended 
with the reign of Tuathal Maelgarb, A.D. 543. 

The second order came down to the reign of Aedh Mac 
Ainmirech, A.D. 598. They were many priests and few 
bishops, used various rites, and excluded women entirely 
from their monasteries. Of this order were Finan, Enda, 
Colman, Ciaran, Columba, the Brendans, larlaithe of Tuam, 

The third order came to an end with the plague in 666. 
They were a few bishops and many priests, hermits, and 
used various rites and lived under various rules. Of them 
were Bishop Colman, Priests Feichin, Colman, Cronan. 

This classification is not very satisfactory. Such men 
as Enda and larlaithe of Tuam should I think be associated 
rather with the first order, which should be sub-divided 
into the companions and pupils of St. Patrick, and the saints 
who were in their youth brought up under them ; or the 
first order should close in A.D. 500. 

Apart from the fixed dates the distinction between the 
first and second orders is accurate enough. The first order 
should comprise those who carried on the Patrician system of 
church order introduced from abroad. 

The second order practically completed the conversion 
of Ireland and at the same time modified the continental 
or Roman order into the Celtic order. 

The third order is marked by a great growth of ascetic 
feeling in a church which was ascetic and monastic. Its 
work was the final organisation of the country. 

After the death of St. Patrick and his contemporaries 
fully trained by him and his foreigners, who themselves 
had been bred in the centralised system of the Roman 
Empire, the government of the church at the close of the 
5th century came to a generation born usually of Christian 
parents. Celts born and bred in Ireland naturally developed 
the church upon familiar lines when they had the choice of 
proceeding upon the episcopal or upon the monastic lines. 


Free intercourse with the Continent would have modified the 
tribal feeling. Its absence gave Celtic feelings free play which 
brought out an organisation on a monastic tribal basis, a 
thoroughly national church. The abbot and convent of 
monks were the ecclesiastical equivalent of the chief and 
tribe, and the government of the church was in the hands 
of the abbots the successors and heirs of the founders of the 
monasteries. Clan feeling was fully represented in the church 
because it was a rule that the abbot should be chosen from the 
family or tribe of the founder. Thus when the church fell into 
decay one family held the abbacy of Armagh for 200 years 
and some abbots were even laymen. The same thing must 
have occurred in many minor abbeys. 

The abbatial jurisdiction was personal, not local and terri- 
torial. The abbot of the head monastery of each rule had 
a certain authority over the monasteries founded by its 
founder or placed under it wherever situated. Bishops as 
monks were subordinate to their abbots. They alone could 
perform acts reserved to the episcopal order, but as bishops 
they had little or no power. The abbots maintained the 
discipline of the church, but many abbots were also bishops. 
Only in the Columban monasteries it was a rule that the 
abbot should be a priest. In church synods abbots bishops 
and priests assembled together with the laity. Bishops were 
made freely, having often only their own parish churches, 
merely because they deserved the advancement. As the 
bishop had not an office of defined jurisdiction and adminis- 
tration there was no reason for restricting their numbers. 
The bishop was an officer of the larger monasteries ranking 
third, the Ferlegind or Rector of the College being next to 
the abbot. Until the I2th century Episcopal Succession, 
as understood with reference to English and Continental 
Sees, did not exist in Ireland. There were always plenty 
of bishops, but they were not office-bearers in succession 
to each other, except accidentally, if the abbot happened 
to be habitually a bishop. The succession to the founder 
was kept up by the abbot. 

The evidence of existence of a large body of Christians 
in Ireland before St. Patrick's time has been well set out 
by Zimmer in The Celtic Church in Britain and Ireland, 
showing that the Church, as we find it in the 6th century 


was a natural development of the tribal society of Ireland 
and of the monastic Christianity of the 4th and 5th 
centuries, which had spread from Britain. His view is in 
substance that which I have expressed above, that St. 
Patrick was sent as a bishop to organise the church on the 
continental model, but he gives him very little credit for 
work done, denies his pre-episcopal work in Ireland, and 
says that he was rejected by the Irish and effected no change. 
I say that he was accepted by the Irish of northern Ireland, 
and that he effected no permanent change because inter- 
course with the continental church ceased and the conti- 
nental priests and bishops brought in by him were succeeded 
by Irishmen bred in the country. 

That Palladius is Sucat, Good Warrior, Latinised by a 
derivative of Pallas is not improbable. Zimmer does not say 
that Palladius was an uncommon name on the Continent. 
If very uncommon it would give much force to his view that 
Palladius and St. Patrick are the same. In that case 
Palladius did not die soon in Scotland. This controversy 
need never end unless conclusive evidence turns up. That 
Cothrige is the British form of Patricius adopted into Irish 
seems true, but seeing that Patricius had been before St. 
Patrick's time adopted and so corrupted by the Britons I 
doubt that Cothrige was used by the Britons precisely as 
the Romans used the title Patricius, and think it much more 
likely that they used it with a difference. Sovereign may 
mean the King of England or the chief officer of a little town. 
We should not suppose that Sucat showed arrogance in 
calling himself Cothrige and in using its original Patricius 
in Latin. Zimmer's exposition of the two meanings of 
Relic in Irish should have warned him against assuming 
that Cothrige was used by the British precisely as Patricius 
was used by the Romans. 

Whether St. Patrick was narrow-minded or not is a 
matter of opinion. His eccentricity seems to consist of a 
belief that certain dreams were visions sent by God to lead 
him into the right path, and that he could further the 
Christian faith in Ireland. It is certain that he was not 
learned, and that he did not show a fine style in the arrange- 
ment of the matter of his writings. Zimmer seems to think 
that these were the characteristics which procured him his 


mission. We may feel confident that Pope Celestine or the 
bishops in Gaul did not unwisely and weakly, to stop pester- 
ing, send a man who was only arrogant and narrow-minded 
and eccentric and illiterate to impose a new organisation 
upon a country which was already Christian in great part. 
If he was all that, he must have been a great deal more, 
a man of commanding powers in other respects. 

The argument ignores the great mark made by St. 
Patrick in nearly all the north of Ireland. When we con- 
sider the strength of the Irish monastic system based on 
and bound up with the native tribalism, it is impossible to 
believe that the Abbot of Armagh acquired churches and 
lands in Connaught and other remote countries after the 
false legend in glorification of Patrick had taken root amongst 
the clergy, and that the false history sank so deeply amongst 
the illiterate population that his work is stamped every- 
where on the face of the country in which he is said to have 
worked, not because he did work there but because he is 
said to have worked there. That his history has been 
falsified is not to be denied, in early times I should say by 
mistake and confusion, in later times of set purpose. Some- 
thing already existed which was worth falsifying, a very 
great reputation, the authority of a great name that might 
be used to forward the falsifier's views. 

The Irish bishops and priests had no occasion to refer 
to St. Patrick at the conference of Whitby, they were all 
under the successor of Columcille in Hi. It is not to be 
inferred from their silence that Patrick was unknown to 
them. I take it that they knew him for what he was, a 
great missionary and great organiser who introduced no 
novelties in doctrine or rite. Their faith and practices were 
those handed down to them by their forefathers and Colum- 
cille. The idea that Patrick first converted the Irish had 
not yet grown up. Nor did the idea of metropolitan juris- 
diction exist to suggest that the successor of Columcille 
owed obedience to the successor of Patrick. 

Zimmer's views on these points have been thus dis- 
cussed because they bear directly upon Patrick's work in 
these dioceses, and because his book is so informing upon 
the origin and position of the church in these islands, and 
upon the manner in which the real Patrick has been dealt 


with by writers of lives to suit their own purposes in late 
times, though it fails, as I think, to do Patrick full justice 
in some respects. 

The church history of these dioceses cannot be detached 
from that of the rest of the church until territorial dioceses 
were formed. Only events in their territories can be noted 
and an account given of the eminent saints whose lives 
have come down to us who worked in them. 



EINNE was a son of Conall Derg, King of Oriel whom he suc- 
ceeded and was a distinguished warrior. His sister S. 
Fanchea a nun who lived on the shore of Lough Erne near 
Lisgoole turned him to religious life. He studied under 
Manchen the Master at Whitherne in Galloway. After a 
time he got from another sister's husband, Aengus son of 
Natfraich King of Munster, a gift of the Isles of Aran, said 
to be inhabited by infidels from Corcumroe. Aengus is 
said to have died in A.D. 484. Thus he settled on Aranmor, 
as famous for Christian as for pagan antiquities, and is said 
to have been there for 58 years until he died about A.D. 542. 

Here and in many other cases where large gifts of land 
are mentioned I think the meaning is not a gift of property 
in the land but a grant of the right to found churches and 
form an ecclesiastical district. 

His first monastery was at Killeany where he had 150 
religious persons under him. He was the senior of the great 
saints of the second order, and was visited by almost all 
those of note according to Archbishop Healy, who observes 
that the great centres of religion had each its especial advan- 
tage. Clonard was a great college where men qualified for 
orders. Aran under Enda was a great mission and monastic 
school. larlath's school was great in the study of the 
Scriptures. The great saints found something to learn from 
each other, irrespective of their relative ages. 

" Aran, under St. Enda, may be called the novitiate of 
the Irish saints of the Second Order, as Clonard may be con- 
sidered their College." 

" Aran Mor, the largest and most westerly of the three 
Islands of Aran, is called in Irish Aran-na-naomh Aran of 
the Saints, for it is the holiest spot on Irish soil. In days 



past it was the chosen home of the Saints of God where 
they loved to live, and where they longed to die. One hundred 
and twenty-seven saints sleep in the little graveyard around 
Killeany Church." * 

Archbishop Healy gives a full account of the remains 
pagan and Christian. Killeany takes its name from Eine, 
otherwise Enna and Enda. 

Here came the two Finnians, Brendan, and at last 
Columcille, who wrote a hymn to Aran. Ciaran of Clon- 
macnoise was there with him. Here came larlath of Tuam, 
Carthach of Lismore, the two Kevins, and others past 

Benen son of Luighne may have founded Tempull Benain 
in Enda's time. 

Enda's oratory called Telagh Enda and his gravestone 
are still to be seen. 

For holiness and as a place of retreat Aran kept its im- 
portance. A Round Tower was built of the period about 
A.D. 1000. Owing to the character of the establishment 
and its remoteness Aran is mentioned only in connection 
with its abbots in the Annals. It was a part of Thomond 
and was in the diocese of Kilfenora until recent times. The 
islands do not appear in the Taxation of 1306, because no- 
thing could be got from them I suppose. In the Regal 
Visitation of 1615 the bishop of Killaloe, who held Kilfenora 
in commendam, reported that they were worth 5 marks 
rent by valuation, that the prebends of Disarte Breckan 
and Killurley were in them, that during almost ten years 
he had held the See he could never get anything out of 

In the latter half of the i6th century the O'Flaherties 
drove out the Clann Taidhg OBriain, and thus brought 
the islands politically into the Co. Galway. The ecclesiastical 
relation had always been with the Galway coast rather than 
with that of Clare, and so the ecclesiastical connection at 
last came formally into accordance with the natural one. 
But ecclesiastically they were in a position of isolation as 
they were by nature, for missionaries were sent out from 
them who founded churches and abbeys which were in- 
dependent of the Abbot of Aran. 

1 Healy, Insula Sanctorum^ pp. 164-169. 


The Annals mention them thus : 
654. St. Nem Mac Ua Birn, successor of Enne of Ara, 

died on the I4th June. 
755. Gaimdibhla, Abbot of Ara, died. 
916. Egnech, successor of Enda of Ara, bishop and 

anchorite, died. 
1167. Ua Dubhacan, i.e. Gillagori, successor of Enda of 

Ara, died. 

886. Maeltuile, Abbot of Ara-irhir, rested. 
1114. Maelcoluim Ua Cormacain, successor of Eine of 

Ara, died. 

Archdall gives the following notes : 
703. Colman Mac Comain died. 
1010. Flann Hua Donnchadha, comarb of St. Endeus, 

died (C.S. 1009). 
1020. Abbey destroyed by fire. 
1081. Robbed by Danes. 

1334. Arran and Boffin were plundered and burnt and 
hostages taken by Sir John Darcy, Justiciary, who 
surrounded the islands with a fleet of 56 ships. 

This last entry is a mistake. He operated against Arran 
and Bute, Isles of Scotland. 

In Duald Mac Firbis's list of Bishops whose sees no longer 
exist as independent sees is the following curious note : 

" Aelchu, who was named the Pope of Ara, the son of 
Faolchar, son of Edalach ; the said Faolchar was King of 
Ossory. The reason why he was called Pupa (Pope) was 
because he obtained the Abbacy of Rome after Gregory ; 
and he vacated the abbacy, and went in search of his master 
(i.e. Gregory), across to the west of Europe, and to Ara of 
the Saints ; so that the third angelical cemetery of Ara 
is the cemetery of Pupa, son of Faolchar, son of Edalach." * 

Hennessey quotes Colgan's Life of St. Endeus that three 
holy men went from Ireland, that when the Pope died the 
clergy and people wanted to make St. Pupeus, one of them, 
Pope. He refused and Hilary was made Pope. They re- 
turned to Ireland and to Aran. 

1 Royal Irish Academy. Irish MSS. Series, vol. i. Part I. p. 87. 



larlaithe son of Loga was of the Conmaicne amongst 
whom he worked and lived. His mother was Mongfinn 
daughter of Ciarduban of the family of Ceneann a clan of 
the Conmaicne. It is supposed that his father lived near 
Tuam. Benen son of Lugni educated and ordained him. 
Like other great missionary saints he was under Enda for 
a time. His first establishment was at Cloonfush near Tuam, 
where he formed a monastery about A.D. 500. His removal 
to Tuaim Da Gualann is said to have been made by Brendan's 
advice. Exposition of the Scriptures was the strong point 
of his school. He seems to have dealt especially with the 
countries of the Sodans and the Corcamoga which lay close 
to Tuam. Clergy came from all parts to work under him. 
Considering that the great work of Brendan's life was the 
establishment of monasteries at Annaghdown and at Clonfert, 
and that these seem to have been the earliest and were cer- 
tainly the most important ecclesiastical centres in early 
times, it may be said that those parts of the county of Galway 
were evangelised and taught from St. larlath's school. 

He died in his 8ist year, on the 26th December or 
nth February, the year unknown ; Colgan thought it was 
not long before A.D. 540. The 6th June his festival day must 
have been the date of the translation of his relics, when long 
after his death his bones were taken up and enshrined. They 
were kept in the Church of the Shrine at Tuam, adjoining the 
Cathedral Church. It has now disappeared, but in the 
i6th century the Tempull na Scrine was the parish church 
for the eastern part of the present parish of Tuam. The 
western part was the parish of Tuam, having Tempull 
larlaithe as its church. 

The countries of the Conmaicne Cinel Dubain and of the 
Sodhans and of the Corcamogha may be taken as the founda- 
tion of the diocese of Tuam, to which the Deanery of Athenry 
was added in later times, with many other tracts. The 
names of Benen and larlaithe alone stand out in this tract 
of country. Those of their fellow-workers have not sur- 
vived, nor are any events of importance recorded regarding 
the period subsequent to them for a couple of hundred years, 
and then only a few names. 



THE first two orders of saints lived in the period of conflict 
with heathenism. The convention of Drumket in 574 is 
held to mark the formal admission of the Christian Church 
into alliance with the temporal kingdoms, and the recog- 
nition of its political importance. The battle of Moira in 
636 is held to be the last effort and the final defeat of 
heathenism as a political force. 

The third order completed the victory of Christianity 
and organised the church all over Ireland. Mission work 
having come to an end at home, the Irish monasteries became 
training schools of missionaries who converted the barbarian 
conquerors of the Roman Empire in north-east Britain, 
northern France, Germany, Switzerland, and even in Italy. 
The Irish monasteries were the great centres of religious 
and literary life in the west of Europe after the fall of the 
Roman Empire, until the incursions of the Northmen broke 
them up and threw all Ireland into confusion. Hitherto the 
Irish chieftains respected the churches, the Danes did not, 
but were rather most bitter against churches and monks in 
revenge for Charlemagne's persecution of their religion and 
attempts to convert the inhabitants of northern Europe by 
the sword. The wealth of the churches in gold and silver 
ornaments did not make them less attractive objects for 

The abbots of the monasteries now governed the church, 
every cleric being a monk under an abbot's jurisdiction. 
The rules of the Irish monks did not compel the common 
life, and allowed them to serve the parish churches and to 
live in very large and in very small communities. If we 
seek we can find all over the country traces of the small 
conventual buildings in a small enclosure round a small 

church. The improvement in the architecture and increase 



of size of churches was continuous during the whole of the 
purely Celtic period. I find it most convenient to deal 
with this subject separately hereafter. 

The churches acquired a considerable endowment which 
was to a great extent lost in the period of the Danish wars. 
So it is said, but a great deal also survived them. The 
abbots in the period of confusion and decay were often lay- 
men, and they and the Erenaghs, the secular managers or 
trustees of the church lands, are said to have kept much 
of the lands for their own use. The church never had very 
wealthy prelates priests or monasteries. What came from 
the people was spent on the people in education and the 
like purposes. The collections of cabins which formed the 
cells of monks have disappeared, and the ruins of the early 
churches show that the clergy did not aim at magnificence : 
the few surviving clochans show the simplicity and hardship 
of their lives. 

Nothing is known of the modes of discipline in dealing 
with parish priests of churches at a distance from the monas- 
tery. It must be supposed to have been based on the 
monastic rule. 

Abbots bishops priests and laity held synods from 
time to time, but exercised in synod only moral influence. 
The great kingdoms adopted Roman practices in keeping 
Easter and the like only by degrees in the absence of any 
arrangement to enforce common rites and practices. Yet 
in substance the church was one, allowing the use of different 
rites and liturgies but holding one faith. The Church of 
Ireland was not charged by Roman writers with heresies, 
but with irregularities of rites and practices and want of 
metropolitan jurisdiction. It was in fact a counterpart of 
the Irish nation, a collection of independent clans connected 
by common descent but not under common government. 

The Connaught monasteries were mostly under the Rules 
of Brendan of Clonfert, Ciaran of Clonmacnoise, Columcille, 
Coman of Roscommon, Fechin of Fore, and St. Patrick, 
whose successor held many churches. Each chief abbot made 
periodical visitations, recorded in the Annals under the 
title of the " Law of Brendan " &c. 

Dr. Reeves writes that the term " Law " meant that the 
abbot made a visitation or circuit of the monasteries and 



districts particularly under his influence, carrying about the 
relics, and collecting contributions and offerings. The Law 
of Patrick is first quoted by Tigernach under the year 734. 
In 738 it was established all over Ireland at a conference 
held between Aedh Allan King of Ireland and Cathal King 
of Munster. The Annals of Ulster record its establishment 
over Connaught in 782. It is evident that the king's autho- 
rity was needed to make the Laws effective. 

From the beginning of the gih century the Law of 
Patrick by degrees superseded the others. Those of Brendan 
Ciaran and Coman are no longer mentioned. This marks 
the course by which the superior dignity of Armagh became 
a supremacy. 

The following entries are in the Annals. 



740. The Laws and Rules of good life ordained by St. Ciaran 
and St. Brendan were caused to be put in execution 
in Connaught by Fergus, son of Cellach, King of 

765. The Rules of St. Ciaran and St. Aidan were practised 
in the three thirds of Connaught. 

785. The Rules of St. Ciaran were practised in Connaught. 

790. The Rules of St. Coman were practised and put in 
execution in the three parts of Connaught. 

822. Artri, son of Conor, King of Connaught caused to be 
established the Laws of St. Patrick in and through- 
out the thirds of Connaught. 


742. The Law of O'Suanaigh. 

743. The Law of Ciaran son of the Carpenter and the Law 

of Brendan at the same time by Fergus son of Cellach. 
747- The Law of O'Suanaigh over Leth-Chuinn. 
771. The Law of Coman and of Aedan a second time over 

the three divisions of Connaught. 
782. The promulgation of Patrick's Law in Cruachna, by 

Dubhdaleithi and by Tipraiti son of Tadhg. (Dubh- 

daleithi was Abbot of Armagh, Tipraiti King of 




787. The Law of Ciaran over the Connaughtmen. 

792. The Law of Coman by Aildobur and Muirghis over 

the three divisions of Connaught. (Aildobur was 

Abbot of Roscommon, Muirghis King of Connaught). 
798. The Law of Patrick over Connaught, by Gormgal, son 

of Dindatach (Abbot of Armagh). 
805. The Law of Patrick by Aedh son of Niall (Abbot of 


810. Nuadha, Abbot of Ard-Macha, went to Connaught with 

the Law of Patrick and his shrine. 

811. The Law of Dari over Connaught. 

813. The Law of Ciaran was proclaimed over Cruachan by 

817. Artri, superior of Ardmacha, went to Connaught with 

the shrine of Patrick. 

824. The Law of Patrick [was promulgated] to the Connaught- 

men again. 

825. The Law of Dari [proclaimed] to the Connaughtmen 


835. Dermait went to Connaught with the Law and " en- 
signs " of Patrick. 

The Law of Coman and of Aedan is the same. Aedan 
was a saint of Roscommon, Coman's monastery. 

The Law of O'Suanaigh seems to have been but little 
used. There were three O'Suanaighs, of Rahan, Glascarrick 
near Gorey, and Kinsale. Triallach O'Suanaigh was of 
repute in Tirawley and Tireragh, and Aodan in Cloonoghil. 
They are much confused. The Law of O'Suanaigh which 
prevailed in Connaught should be that of one of the Connaught 
saints of that name. But so very little is known about 
them that there is no certainty in this matter. 

The Law of Dari has been taken to be that of Derry, 
which would mean the Law of Columcille. Dr. Hennessey 
points out that it is really " the rule of Darii the Nun, 
viz., not to kill cows," one of the four great " Rules " of 

The Annalists now cease to note the succession of Laws. 
This is more likely to be due to cessation of the Laws owing 
to the Danish wars than to neglect of the Annalists. Turgesius 
now dominated all Ireland and nearly established a Govern- 


merit. Miss Stokes regarded these invasions as the cause 
of building Round Towers ; and wrote that there are " three 
distinct periods to which these towers may be assigned : 
first, from A.D. 890 to 927 ; secondly, from 973 to 1013 ; 
thirdly, from 1170 to 1238 ; and of these three periods the 
first two were marked by a cessation of hostilities with the 
Northmen, while the Irish made energetic efforts to repair 
the mischief caused by the invasion of the heathen." 1 

To the first period Miss Stokes assigns the tower of 
Turlough, but doubts the true character of that tower. 

To the second, those of Aranmor, Kilbennan, Aghagower, 

To the third those of Balla, Killala, Annaghdown. 

They were places of refuge for the clergy, of security 
for the treasures and relics of the churches, and belfries. 

The Abbot of Armagh had an exceptional position in the 
church all over Ireland. Besides dues he had rights arising 
from foundation of churches by St. Patrick, which survived 
many changes. Thus he held nine churches at least in the 
Bishoprics of Tuam and Mayo down to the I3th century. 

The Danish wars broke up church organisation and 
discipline and gave free play to the natural tendency of the 
nation to local independence. Development according to 
the tribal system allowed the head abbots to control monas- 
teries and churches under their rule wherever they might 
be. A further development on the same lines made the 
minor foundations at a distance independent communities, 
just as the minor members of royal clans set up fresh clans 
practically independent, owing slight allegiance to their king 
according to their pleasure but always maintaining a tribal 
connection. The result of all causes from the 8th to the 
I2th century was a dissolution of the old order in the 
nth century. During the early period of greatest vigour 
of the Celtic Church it was materially affected by the Roman 
Church from time to time, and was always coming up into 
line with it in matters of faith and rites, but always late and 
with conflict as to rites. 

The battle of Clontarf in 1014 ended Danish invasions 
and confined the Danes to their cities, where they maintained 
themselves as separate civil societies to the Anglo-Norman 

1 Early Christian Architecture in Ireland, p. 109. 


conquest. The connection between the kingdoms of Dublin 
and Northumbria led to the early establishment of the Roman 
order in the Danish settlements. 

Of the working of the church in the nth century we 
know little, and almost nothing of the parochial system ; 
only occasionally we meet with such a remark as that which 
occurs in Adamnan's Second Vision, which shows that every 
church ought to have two priests attached to it. 1 The old 
constitution and government were in decay. Much en- 
dowment had been seized by laity. Abbots were often 
laymen. In the beginning of the loth century the abbacy 
of Armagh fell into the possession of one family which kept 
it as of right for 200 years. The lands of other abbeys and 
churches were likewise usurped by laymen who employed 
clergy as their deputies to perform ecclesiastical duties. 
This corruption and disorder must have materially aided 
the bishop to assert jurisdiction superior to that of the abbot. 
Relief from outside interference gave the churchmen an 
opportunity of reform which resulted in the establishment 
of diocesan episcopacy in the I2th century. As abbots 
were sometimes bishops the change was not always very 
violent or apparent. The proceedings seem to have been 
directed mainly to reduce the number of bishops, not to 
transfer jurisdiction from abbot to bishop. 

As I read the facts the course of change was somewhat 
as follows. Intercourse with the Roman church inspired 
the reformers and more learned men with Roman ideas as 
the basis of reformation. Hence the bishop rose in importance 
as a governing officer and took up the power which slipped 
from the hands of abbots. Where abbots were bishops the 
two ideas were reconciled. Loss of control by the great 
abbots allowed each tribe to set up a bishop of its own. As 
long as the abbots held the reins the number of bishops was 
immaterial. When jurisdiction was associated with the order 
of bishop it was necessary to settle what bishops should 
exercise it. Every petty tribe and important family would 
want a bishop. Hence from the beginning of the I2th 
century the most striking and important efforts of the Synods 
were directed to the reduction of the number of bishops and 
the regulation of the sees, so as to bring the government of 
1 Revue Celtiqiie, xii. p. 429. 


the Church of Ireland into harmony with that of the Church 
of Rome. 

Accordingly it is in the latter half of the loth century 
that a Bishop of Connaught is first mentioned. By the 
close of the nth century he is called Archbishop of 
Connaught, but the term did not at first denote jurisdiction 
over other bishops. It may by this time have acquired 
the modern meaning as the process of amalgamation of sees 
began early in the I2th century. The Bishop of Tuam 
became the Archbishop of Connaught because the kings of 
Connaught made Tuam their principal residence. 

It is convenient to close the period of abbatial government 
and to begin that of episcopal government with the Synod 
of Rathbresail in 1118. That is the point at which the new 
order was fully recognised and organised, but it had evi- 
dently been in existence for some time. 

The bishops at first had jurisdiction over churches widely 
separated because their jurisdiction depended on the foun- 
dation and dedication of the church and not on locality, 
being personal not territorial. The dispute of 1216 between 
Armagh and Tuam illustrates the course of the change. 

When bishops first acquired power they were not attached 
to particular churches in orderly succession, the chief bishop 
of a tribe being sometimes at one place and sometimes at 
another. Thus the Bishops of Ardcarne and of Roscommon 
seem to have been at different times chief bishops of the Hy 
Briuin families of Roscommon, until the see at last was 
settled in Elphin. The authority seems to have been 
personal at first, but by degrees certain churches, because 
they were at kings' residences or because of the eminence 
of their founder and the importance of the monastery, held 
a continuous pre-eminence. 

Thus established by tribal divisions the bishoprics were 
too small and too poor to meet the views of the Roman 
Church. During the first half of the I2th century the con- 
test was between the tribal distinctions and the reformers. 
The Synod of Kells marks the victory of the latter. 

In the I2th century the old Irish monastic rules of 
Patrick, Brigit, Brendan, Columcille, Ciaran, &c., were by 
common consent abandoned and the Rule of St. Augustine 
was adopted, being in important particulars in harmony 


with the monastic organisation of the churches, as Dr. 
Lanigan says of it " The characteristic feature of the Canons 
Regular, which distinguishes them from monks emphatically 
so called, is, that, although they make vows and are bound 
to observe certain laws similar to those of the monks, they 
are capable of practising the functions which usually belong 
to the secular clergy." The community retained the churches 
under its jurisdiction and the connection between the monas- 
tery and the parochial churches was not of necessity broken. 
The monks who heretofore lived in separate cells near the 
church were now brought into the cenobitic life in one 

This long period is blank as to local ecclesiastical affairs 
save for the following few notes in the Annals of Ulster re- 
garding the church and abbey of Tuam. 


780. Nuada Ua Bolcain, abbot died. 

781. Ferdomnach died on loth Jan. (D. MacFirbis calls 

him son of Caomhan, bishop.) 
881. Cormac, son of Ciaran, vice-abbot of Cluainferta- 

Brenainn, and abbot of Tuaim-da-ghualann, died. 
948. Aedhan of Tuaim-da-Ghualann, died. 
969. Eoghan, son of Clerech, Bishop of Connaught, died. 
1033. Murchad O'Nioc, Comarb of St. larlath, died. 

1085. Aedh O'Hoisin, Archbishop of Connaught, died. 

1086. Erchadh Ua Maelfhoghamair, Archbishop of Con- 

naught, died. 

1092. Connmac Ua Cairill, Archbishop of Connaught, died. 
1117. Cathusach Ua Cnaill, Archbishop of Connaught, died. 
1128. Muirghis Ua Nioic, herenagh of Tuaim-da-ghualann 

for [a long] space, died in Inis-an-Ghaill. 



THE reforming spirit which arose after the Danish wars 
brought about a desire for closer union with the Church of 
Rome and for a like organisation. By the close of the 
nth century this desire was so far satisfied that the 
bishops were the controlling power. From the manner in 
which they are mentioned in the Annals we may infer that 
they were more powerful as well as more conspicuous. But 
they were too many. The next step was to reduce numbers 
and to form territorial dioceses with a bishop occupying a 
certain seat in each. This was the work of the first half of 
the 1 2th century. At the beginning Gilbert Bishop of 
Limerick was the Pope's Legate in Ireland, working with 
the Irish reformers to bring the Church of Ireland under 
the control of that of Rome. 

In mi a synod was held at Fiadh-Mic-Aenghusa by 
authority of Murtough O'Brien King of Munster and King of 
Ireland. Fifty-eight bishops, 317 priests, 160 deacons are 
said to have attended ; authorities differ a little about the 
numbers. According to the Chronicum Scotorum it passed 
regulations not mentioned in detail. Later in the year 
another synod was held at Ushnagh in which Meath was 
divided between the Bishops of Meath and Clonmacnoise. 
Fiadh-Mic-Aenghusa was near Ushnagh, and these synods 
have sometimes been considered to have been the same. 
The second seems to have been held to carry out the local 
division arranged in principle at the first. There is no 
doubt that the main business of these Synods was the regula- 
tion of territorial episcopacy. 

In 1118 the Synod of Rathbresail, which seems to have 
been near Cloonenagh in Westmeath, was held for the 
regulation of the number of bishoprics. It is by some held 
to have been a continuation of that of Fiadh-Mic-Aenghusa ; 


it certainly continued and carried a stage further the framing 
of the new organisation. 

The Danish bishoprics in Dublin, Limerick, and Waterford 
were not affected by these synods ; they were under the 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The synod allowed for Ulster 5 sees, for Meath 2 sees, 
for Connaught 5 sees, besides the Primatial See of Armagh 
over them ; for Leinster and Munster 5 sees each, besides 
the Primatial See of Cashel over them. 

The sees assigned to Connaught were Tuam, Clonfert, 
Cong, Killala, Ardcarne or Ardagh, but only tentatively as 
the synod authorised the clergy of Connaught to alter the 
distribution of the province provided they made no more 
than 5 bishoprics. Keating gives the following boundaries, 
which are only 4 extreme points : 

Clonfert of Brendan from the Shannon to Burren, and 
from Slieve Aughty to the Suck. 

Tuam from the Suck to Ardcarne, and from Ath-an- 
termainn to the Shannon. 

Cong from Amhain O mBroin in the north to Nephin, and 
from Ath-an-termainn to the sea. 

Killala from Nephin to Esruaidh, and from Killardbile 
(properly Kildarvila) to Srath an Ferainn. 

Ard-Carna, which is also called Ard-acadh, from Ard- 
Carna to Sliabh an larainn, and from Keshcorran to Ur- 

These boundaries are so vague that it can only be said 
that Clonfert was intended to include Kilmacduagh, and 
that Killala was intended to cover the traditional kingdom 
of the O'Dowdas. The important kingdoms of the O'Flaherties 
and of the Luighne and Gailenga are not clearly provided 
for, but the former seems to fall under Tuam. 

Amhain O mBroin, the River of the Ui Broin, in the north, 
may be the Blackwater which divides the territory of the 
Ui Briuin from that of the Conmaicne. But Ui Broin and 
Ui Briuin are not the same, and it must remain uncertain 
what river is really meant. Srath an Ferainn is now Shra- 
more in the part of Ballysadare parish which is in Tirerrill 
barony. 1 

Urcoillti is, I think, a name of woods on the slopes of 
1 O'Rorke, Hist. Sfigv, ii. p. 244 


Slieve Daene in Sligo, where is now Lough Arquilta, close 
to the boundary of the parish of Killerry in Kilmore diocese. 
I suppose Ardcarne was intended to comprise the diocese 
of Achonry. I take the kingdom of Brefne to have been 
at this time a sub-kingdom of Meath, so that Kilmore and 
Ardagh would be within the Meath dioceses. Urcoillti is 
said to be a boundary of Clonard in Meath which was 
intended to be the western half of that kingdom, Duleek 
being the title of the eastern half. The arrangement said 
to have been made after the Synod of Fiadh Mic Aenghusa 
was thus set aside, or new names were given to the divisions 
if any effective partition had been made. 

This arrangement involved too much suppression of 
ecclesiastical independence of very powerful tribes and was 
never carried out, nor was a fresh distribution made by the 
provincial clergy. The great tribes kept up their bishoprics, 
but the minor bishoprics seem to have been suppressed by 

It does not appear that there ever was a bishop bearing 
the title of Cong. The land of the Conmaicne of Cuil Tolad 
and Conmaicne Mara formed the Deanery of Struthir in 
1306, from which it is to be inferred that there was a bishop 
of Struthir up to the Synod of Kells in 1152. He was in 
fact the Bishop of Cong. As Umall and Carra are not 
separate deaneries their bishoprics must have been suppressed 
before 1152. But I find no record of bishops of these 

King Torlogh Mor supported the primatial authority of 
the Archbishop of Armagh. Archbishop Gilla MacLiag made 
the first primatial visitation of Connaught in 1140 and the 
second in 1151. The reform went on steadily in the same 
direction. In 1148 a synod was held on Holmpatrick which 
sent Maelmaedhoig Ua Morgair the comarb of Patrick to 
confer with the Pope, but he died on the way. 

The Church of Ireland being now ready to conform com- 
pletely with that of Rome and to submit to the jurisdiction 
of the Pope, he sent Cardinal John Paparo to Ireland with 
4 palls for archbishops, namely, of Armagh, Cashel, Tuam 
and Dublin. The acceptance of the palls by the 4 archbishops 
marks the end of the Church of Ireland, which became a 
portion of the Church of Rome. But the Pope's authority 


thus formally accepted was practically disregarded. The 
Bull of Adrian IV. and the proceedings of the Synod of 
Cashel show that the Irish clergy maintained a disorderly 
independence. There was no central authority in the church 
any more than there was in the nation to render the law 

The province of Tuam was now appointed to consist of 
the sees of Tuam, Clonfert, Kilmacduagh, Mayo, Killala, 
Achonry, Roscommon afterwards Elphin, and Clonmacnoise, 
which in later times after long contention was transferred 
to that of Armagh. In 1209 Mayo was amalgamated with 
Tuam. Annaghdown was not suppressed for centuries, and 
thus kept up the number of sees allotted to the province. 
Kilfenora was transferred to this province in 1660 and held 
in commendam with Tuam until 1742, when it was united 
with Clonfert until 1753, when it was united with Killaloe. 
These dioceses are all well ascertained. 

During this transition period the Annals make more 
mention of the archbishops and comarbs. 

" Donnell O' Duffy, Archbishop of Connaught and Comarb 
of St. Ciaran immediately after celebrating mass by himself 
died and was buried on St. Patrick's day at Clonfert, where 
he died and celebrated the said mass." l He was also comarb 
of St. Coman as appears from the inscription on the Cross 
of Cong, which was made under his supervision to hold a 
piece of the Cross sent from Rome to King Torlogh Mor 
in 1123. It remained in use at Cong until 1839 when 
Professor M'Cullagh bought it and presented it to the Royal 
Irish Academy. 

The Annals of Loch C6 call him Bishop of Elphin. He 
was certainly Bishop of Tuam. In as much as he was Abbot 
of Roscommon he was practically Bishop of Elphin, that is 
bishop of the Silmurray. The Synod of Rathbresail did not 
recognise both Roscommon and Elphin. The date of his 
death is not quite certain, varying according to the Annals. 

Muredach O' Duffy succeeded him at a period of great 
contention owing to King Torlogh's wars and his quarrels 
with his sons. In 1139 Torlogh took his son Ruaidhri 
prisoner in breach of an agreement for which O' Duffy and 
the clergy and laity of Connaught, Tadhg O'Brien, King of 
J Ann. Clon. 1136. 


Thomond, Tigernan O'Rourk, King of Brefne, Murrough 
O'Farrell Chief of the Annaly were securities. In accord- 
ance with ancient custom O'Duffy and the clergy and laity 
fasted against Torlogh at Rathbrenan near Roscommon, but 
Torlogh held out against them. The securities had previ- 
ously effected the release of his son Murrough who had been 
arrested at the same time. 

In 1143 O'Duffy called a synod of 12 bishops and 500 
priests to arrange for Ruaidhri's ransom and procured his 
release the following May. These affairs seem to have been 
one transaction. The family quarrels arose from Torlogh's 
seizure of the kingdom of Meath and his placing his son 
Conor over it. 

Tigernach's continuation gives the following notes at this 
period, to which I annex dates ascertained in other Annals. 

" Peace was made by Mugh's Half with Connaught, at the 
demand of Muiredach Hua Dubthaig, Archbishop of Ireland, 
and of a son of Virginity, a successor of S. larlaithe, to 
wit, Aed Hua h'Oisin." 

" The Cathach of S. larlaithe was desecrated by the 
Dalcassians (and) Thomond was laid waste in the same 
quarter of the year through S. larlaithe's miracles." (L.C. 

" Ruaidri Hua Conchobair and Uada Hua Concennainn 
were taken prisoners by Toirdelbach Hua Conchobair while 
they were under the safeguard of S. larlaithe's successor 
and Hua Dubthaig, and the Yellow Crozier, and Hua Dom- 
nallain. On this day illness attacked Toirdelbach, so that 
he was long in his bed." (L.C. 1136.) 

Two years later " Uada Hua Conchenainn was blinded 
by Toirdelbach Hua Conchobair. For his own misdeeds he 
was blinded." (L.C. 1138.) 

" A great assembly (held) by the clerics of Ireland and 
Connaught, including Muredach Hua Dubthaig 500 priests 
and twelve bishops their complement demanded from his 
father the liberation of Ruaidri, son of Toirdelbach Hua 
Conchobair, who had been illegally taken prisoner by 
Tigernan Hua Ruairc and by Conchobar, his own brother, 
as Toirdelbach's deputies. So Toirdelbach promised that 
he would deliver him at the next beltane." (F.M. 1143.) 

Muredach O'Duffy was a man of high standing and is 


called the Chief Senior of Ireland. In his time Torlogh was 
King of Ireland. He died in his 75th year on the i6th May, 
1150 and was buried at Cong. " A prayer for Muredach 
O'Dubtaig the senior of Erin " is inscribed on the Cross of 

About 1141 Torlogh founded the Priory of St. John at 
Tuam, probably for Augustinian Canons. In his time or in 
that of his predecessor Torlogh built a great cathedral for 
Tuam of which only the chancel arch made into a doorway 
and the east window remain. Dr. Petrie believed the stone 
crosses of Tuam to have been memorials of completion. 
The crosses mark their date as not later than 1150 because 
the name U Ossin abbot appears on one and the name Aed 
u Ossin comarb of larlath on the other. Aed is the same 
as Aedan who succeeded Muredach as bishop. The Annals 
at this period carefully distinguish the bishop from the 
abbot or comarb. 

The case of Donnell O' Duffy shows how episcopal and 
abbatial authority were sometimes combined so as to confer 
very great power. Aedan O h'Oisin combined the abbacy 
and bishopric of Tuam so that it was not necessary to 
separate them again. The comarb of larlaithe is not 
mentioned again. In L.C. 1243 " Finnachta O'Lughadha, 
comarb of Benen, and great dean of Tuaim died." This 
suggests that the ancient offices may have been absorbed 
by the new offices from time to time, not only in bishops 
but in other officials. When the comarb lands were trans- 
ferred to the bishops the monastic offices were useless if 
an abbey did not survive. 

The church of St. larlaithe, now represented by St. 
Mary's Cathedral Church, is the foundation of the diocese, 
which originated with the territory of the Conmaicne Cinel 
Dubain and drew other tracts to itself. Aedh O'Conor King 
of Connaught adopted Tuam as his chief residence in the 
west after he defeated Amalgaid O' Flaherty King of West 
Connaught in 1049. It was a suitable place for watching 
the O' Flaherties. The continued residence of the chief King 
of Connaught at Tuam as his principal fortress added much 
to the importance of the abbot and bishop and at last 
secured for Tuam the archiepiscopal dignity. 

From the existence of a loth century Round Tower at 


Kilbennan it is to be inferred that Kilbennan was then the 
principal monastery of the Conmaicne, and it would naturally 
have provided the bishop. That it did not provide him 
is I think due to the fact that Kilbennan was a Patrician 
foundation and belonged to Armagh down to the I3th century, 
and so was less independent than St. larlaithe's monastery, 
whose successor seems to have had no superior abbot. Thus 
the Bishop of Tuam was by the King's influence raised above 
the other bishops so that he was called the Archbishop of 
Connaught, or Chief Bishop. In the first provisional arrange- 
ment for Connaught dioceses Tuam seems to have been in- 
tended to take in almost all, if not all, the lands of the 
Silmurray of that period. But the Silmurray chieftains would 
not give up their own bishops. 

These new bishoprics were made up of old small bishoprics 
in some cases, in other cases were existing great tribal 
divisions which had been dioceses perhaps from the beginning 
of diocesan episcopacy, such as Achonry and Annaghdown. 
The Synod of Fiadh-Mic-Aenghusa provided for an extensive 
measure of suppression. Suppression was I think then 
carried out as far as tribal independence and power per- 
mitted, but it is not very clearly seen what actually occurred. 
The Synod of Kells effectively suppressed certain sees, and 
directed that they should be made rural deaneries. The 
deaneries mentioned in the Taxation of 1306 do certainly 
define some of the suppressed sees, and I am inclined to 
think that they do so in all cases. It must be remembered 
that diocesan episcopacy was in a transition state from the 
beginning of the I2th century when the principle was 
formally adopted, and the organisation must have been very 
irregular and uncertain from want of a central force able 
to exert a pressure in all parts of the country. Many petty 
bishoprics which naturally came into existence with the 
new idea must have disappeared as naturally with the growth 
of that idea and the desire to form larger dioceses. It seems 
to me that those which disappeared before 1152 left no 
trace in the subsequent distribution of territory, but may 
have left some in the constitution of the capitular bodies 
and their emoluments. 



THE reorganisation is so mixed up with the old frame of 
the church that it is most convenient here to deal with the 
whole subject of the old organisation and the new. The 
new grew out of the old, it was not suddenly and violently 
imposed. The Anglo-Norman conquest made more effective 
the ideas which had been adopted in form, but were hampered 
by conservatism and local independence. 

Information is scanty regarding the distribution of parish 
churches among the great abbeys. Most of those of the 
Conmaicne of Dunmore were under the Abbots of Kilbennan 
and Tuam. Kilbennan was a Patrician church and should 
have been under the Rule of Patrick. It does not appear 
whose Rule was used in the Abbey of Tuam. 

Most of those of Conmaicne Cuile Tolad and Conmaicne 
Mara were under the Abbey of Cong, and therefore under 
the Rule of Fechin, and so would be the Abbey of Ballysadare 
and other churches founded by him in Achonry diocese or 
deriving from his successors. 

St. Brendan's Rule would naturally prevail in Annagh- 
down, but isolated churches, such as Ross on Lough Mask 
and those of Inisglora and others whose names suggest con- 
nection with him, perhaps passed under other Rules in the 
next 100 years or so when great monasteries arose in their 
neighbourhood . 

Inisbofhn, Mayo, Oughaval Abbey, the church in Illan- 
columbkille in Lough Mask, that of Cloghmore in the south 
of Killannin Parish, Emlaghfad, Skreen, are known as 
Columban churches. The church on Inishrobe and those 
bearing St. Columba's name on Inishturk and Inishkea were 
probably also founded by his monks and under his Rule. 
But the churches whose rectories belonged to Mayo Abbey 
are not likely to be foundations under Mayo except a few, 



as that abbey was established so late and was for a long 
time manned by English monks. It is more likely that 
they came under it by degrees as its reputation rose. 

The Abbey of Clonmacnoise certainly held many churches 
in Connaught but I cannot ascertain anything definite about 
them except what appears in the Tract on the Hy Many. 
Tirechan complains that this abbey has seized some of 
Patrick's churches. The name of Kilkeeran most likely 
often represents subjection to his Rule and dedication to 
him. Churches founded by men of less note and not having 
an important abbey of their own order close by would natu- 
rally come by degrees under the local abbot or be superseded 
by his foundations. 

The many Kilbrides mark the extent of St. Bride's 
influence. Most must have been dedicated to her as she is 
known to have had many churches in Connaught but is 
not known to have worked much there. 

Carra churches should have been chiefly under Balla, and 
there is evidence that the abbot had rights in Tireragh (p. 137). 

The Patrician churches remained under Armagh for the 
most part and must have been under the Armagh Rule. 

The Tirawley churches should have been under the Abbots 
of Killala and Errew, but I have no information about them. 
St. Patrick's foundations there lost all connection with 

The organisation of the diocese of Achonry is equally 
obscure in this matter. 

The ancient abbeys which survived were St. Mary's 
Abbey and St. Brendan's College at Annaghdown Cong 
Mayo Aughris Ballysadare. Tuam and Kilbennan seem 
to be carried on by the Archbishop, Dean, Provost and 
Vicars choral of Tuam. 

The Abbey of St. John Baptist of Tuam was founded 
in 1140, all other abbeys after the Synod of Kells. 

Until then Cong was a bishopric, and Mayo was one 
until 1209, and Annaghdown still longer. The Bishopric of 
Cong is the Deanery of Struthir ; Cong is the name of the 
see, Struthir is a name of the most important part of the 
territory. It is I think a fair inference that those old abbeys 
which became bishops' sees retained their rectories. In most 
other cases the abbey was abandoned and the incumbents 


of parish churches became rectors. Though it is to be in- 
ferred from provisions in the Senchus Mor that tithes were 
paid, at least in some cases, in early times, it is also clear 
that they were not paid regularly if at all in and before the 
I2th century, as it is particularly noted that in King Cathal 
Crobderg's time tithes were first legally paid in Ireland (L.C., 
A.U.), and the payment of tithes was dealt with by the Synod 
of Cashel. Without tithes the foreign abbots like the Comarbs 
of Patrick and Columcille would draw but small profit from 
their Connaught churches, except from their endowments in 
lands. It is most probable that there was no practical dis- 
tinction between Rector and Vicar until the Roman discipline 
came in and made the former an office whereby parochial 
incomes were diverted to other purposes. Then the dis- 
tinction was important and the abbeys which held rectories 
would appoint vicars. But I take it that the great Comarbs 
had not been in the habit of drawing their incomes in 
that fashion, and that when the custom arose only the 
existing local and vigorous abbeys were able to take 
advantage of it. It was but a modification of an old, pro- 
bably existing, practice. Adamnan's Second Vision, a tract 
in the Lebar Brec ascribed to the year 1096, informs us 
that it was thought proper for every church to have two 
priests. 1 

When King Torlogh founded the Abbey of St. John at 
Tuam he was able to endow it with the rectories of three 
Patrician Churches, and Cathal Crobderg was able to endow 
Knockmoy and Ballintubber. The endowment of St. John 
must I think be ascribed to Torlogh. It shows that in 1140 
there was a distinction between a rector's and a vicar's 
dues. The lands did not go with the churches. They re- 
mained in the Comarb's hands until later times. 

The Bishop required a Chapter, which in these dioceses 
consisted of a Dean, a Precentor or Provost, an Archdeacon, 
and other officers, and Canons. The earliest particulars 
regarding the constitution of the Chapter, which is mentioned 
in 1201, is in a bull of Pope Nicholas IV. of 1289 which 
mentions John Major and Concors Magoneum, Archdeacons. 
John de Alatro, Praecentor. Nicholas de Hyndeberg, 
Treasurer. Thomas de Watford, Chancellor. Allan de Wells 

1 Revue Celtigue, xii. p. 420, 429. 



and Nicholas de Garcin, Canons. One of the Archdeacons 
may have been of Mayo, or of Annaghdown then held by 
the Archbishop. These names are not exhaustive of the 

In the i6th century the Chapter consisted of Dean, Provost, 
Archdeacon, 5 Vicars Choral, and 8 prebendaries. The pre- 
bendaries seem to represent Officers and Canons whose 
duties had fallen into disuse. 

The ancient monasteries had the Abbot first in rank, 
second the Ferlegind or Rector of the College, third the 
Bishop, and the body of monks. The I2th century Chapter 
seems to be the old staff under new names, the Bishop first 
in rank, the Abbot and Ferlegind transformed into Dean 
and Provost, the monks into Vicars Choral in Tuam and 
Annaghdown, or into Canons, with the new dignities of 
Archdeacon and Chancellor and other offices added. 

The distribution of the rectories in each of the territories 
comprising the dioceses shows fairly the extent to which 
ancient monasteries survived to the middle of the I2th 
century, and the manner in which the new Chapters were 
formed and provided with emoluments. I have drawn up 
a statement showing these points for which the authori- 
ties are the Taxation of 1306, Bodkin's Visitation, the 
Valor Beneficiorum of 1585-6, the Regal Visitation of 
1615, helped by grants of possessions of suppressed monas- 
teries and by the Report of the Commission on Benefices 
in 1833-4. 

The parishes which have come down from 1306 are 
almost all composite, formed of aggregations of small parishes. 
It is most convenient to use the parishes marked on the 
Ordnance Survey Map as the components cannot be 
marked off. 

Before the Synod of Kells the diocese of Tuam consisted 
of 4 contiguous territories and one detached, called the 
Deanery of Tuam later. I. Conmaicne of Dunmore. 2. Cor- 
camogha. 3. Sodhan. 4. Ciarraige Uachtar and of Lough 
Narney. 5. Clancarnan, detached. 

That Synod added I, the Deanery of Athenry; 2, that of 

In 1209 the diocese of Mayo was added as the Deanery of 


Annaghdown diocese was finally united with Tuam at 
the close of the I5th century. 

There is no evidence to show how Clancarnan came under 
Tuam. The tenure of rectories by St. Peter's Abbey in 
Athlone and by the Dean of Clonfert point to some original 
connection with Clonfert diocese. The Archbishop sold his 
lands in the Faes to the king in I285, 1 which must have been 
the Comarb lands of Moore and Drum. Clonmacnoise was 
once in the province of Tuam. These parishes may possibly 
once have been under it and have been transferred to 
Tuam when Clonmacnoise was confined to the kingdom 
of Meath. 

The parishes of the Conmaicne of Dunmore are the 
nucleus of the diocese to which it must be assumed that 
the new organisation was first applied, and the division of 
their rectories is evidence that it was so in fact. The Dean 
and Provost shared all the rectories except Dunmore in 
which they held but a small part, and Kilbennan and 
Kilconla which were held by the Vicars Choral with a small 
part of Tuam. Thus the Dean and Provost seem to take 
the place of Abbot and Ferlegind of Tuam and the Vicars 
to take that of the monks of Kilbennan. The Dean had 
also the rectory of Belclare. The Archdeacon was a new 
officer ; he has no part in the churches of the Conmaicne. 
His emolument was the rectory of Knock, which appears to 
have been his when King Torlogh endowed St. John's Abbey 
with those of Aghamore, Bekan and Annagh. Kiltullagh is 
the fifth church in the land of the Ciarraige. It was a 
Patrician church like the others given to St. John's, but 
the parish was the property of the O'Flynns, a strong tribe 
of the Silmurray. It seems that the chiefs kept the advowson 
of the church of their chief residence, as we find rectories 
at Dunmore, Athenry., Roba, Burrishoole, which we know 
or have reason to believe to have been near residences of 
important lords. It is to be noted that there is but one 
prebendal church in the Deanery of Tuam, that of Kilmoylan 
in the country of the Sodhans. With that exception all the 
rectories of the Sodhans were held by incumbents until 
Abbey Knockmoy was founded. Though Cummer was 
originally in Sodhan country it was in the i^th century 
1 z>./., iii. p. 67. 


occupied by the Hy Briuin, and so came into the hands of 
Walter de Ridelesford who assigned the rectory. 

Thus we may take the earliest Chapter of Tuam to have 
been composed of Dean, Provost, Archdeacon, 5 Vicars 
Choral or Rectors, and the officer who held the prebend of 
Kilmoylan, and some other officers and canons. 

It is not certain what tribe occupied the Deanery of 
Athenry, but I believe it to have been a division of the 
Sodhans. The Sodhans were under O'Mannin a Sub- King 
under O' Kelly. If Athenry had been occupied by Hy Maine 
tribes it would have been under Clonfert, whose Deaneries 
show exactly the four great divisions of the Hy Maine. Who- 
ever they were they must have kept their bishop up to 1152. 
The Deanery consisted of the parishes of Athenry and 
Taghsaxon and Kilmien in 1306. Taghsaxon seems to be 
Monivea or Abbert. Kilmien is Kilmeen, a detached parish. 
Taghsaxon alias Templegaile is a Prebend, and so is Kilmeen. 
Thus the tithes of this small territory are distributed between 
one rectory and two prebends. 

In the Deanery of Shrule all rectories except those which 
formed emoluments of Prebendaries were held by the Abbey 
of Cong. The Rectory of Kilmaine was one Prebend. The 
Prebendary called of Maynkylle in Bodkin's Visitation, of 
Kealebegg in the Valor Beneficiorum, later of Moynechilly 
and of Magherakelly, and finally called of Killabegs, held 
parcels of tithe in the parishes of Ballinchalla and Cong. 
In Ballinchalla he had two- thirds of the tithe of the town- 
land of Killimor. It is not now known that there ever was 
a church in Killimor, but I think that we may rely on this 
fact and on the name for the existence of a church in early 
times. He had a share of the tithes of certain townlands in 
Cong. Some of these are in Cong and close by, where there 
were of old several churches which have disappeared. Other 
townlands are those in which were the ancient churches of 
Killarsa and Gortacurra and Kilfrauchan. The rest of the 
townlands are in the neighbourhood of these churches. 
Moreover a considerable number of these townlands were 
the property of the Archbishop, which must have come into 
his hands at the general transfer of Comarb lands. This 
prebend therefore was made up of small churches all but 
one in the parish of Cong, and would have been called the 


Prebend of Cong if it had come into view before the diocese 
of Mayo was absorbed. 

Thus we find that the Synod of Kells effected an addition 
of 4 officers to the Chapter, two in respect of each new Deanery 
or diocese. 

Killabegs, Small Churches, is a good name for a prebend 
made of tithes from n parishes, representing more than n 
ancient parish churches and 4 prebends. 

The earlier name is Maigin Caoile or Machaire Caoile, 
taken from the Carra portion of the prebend consisting of 
two-thirds of the tithes of the lands of the See of Tuam in 
the parish of Ballyovey which lay, except a little, in a 
compact block about the old parish churches of Ballyovey 
and the old church of Kilkeeran. An old church called 
Tempul an Machaire is on the shore of Lough Mask and 
close to Tobair Caoile. The well is in the parish of 
Ballyovey but the church is in that part of Ballinrobe 
which was by ancient tribal connection a part of the 
country called Odba Cera. Machaire applied particularly to 
the western part and Maigin to the eastern part, or they 
were equivalents, meaning Caoile's country, where she was 

The diocese of Mayo absorbed in that of Tuam in 1209 
added 6 prebends, whereof three were merged in those of 
existing officers. It was composed of three distinct terri- 
tories i. The lands of the Ciarraige called Tir Nechtain 
and Tir Enda in the barony of Clanmorris. 2. Cera. 
3. Umall. Each affords evidence of having been an in- 
dependent diocese. 

Mayo Abbey stands in its country as the Abbey of Cong 
in the Deanery of Struthir the bishop has disappeared and 
two prebends are left, called by Bodkin of Balenigarray 
and of Cloonmore, the old church of Kilcurnan and that of 
Cloonmore in the parish of Crossboyne. The former has 
been annexed to the Deanery and the latter to the prebend 
of Killabegs or Moynekilly. 

Carra had the prebend of Moynekilly and the prebend 
of Balla. Balla was the only abbey of great repute therein. 
Turlough was important but was under Armagh. 

Umall had three prebends, the Archdeacon's and Killa- 
begs and Faldown. The Archdeacon and the Prebendary 


of Killabegs shared tithes in Aghagower, Oughaval, and Kil- 
geever. The Prebendaries of Killabegs and Faldown shared 
others in Burrishoole, Kilmeena, and Kilmaclasser. The 
arrangement in Kilmeena was peculiar. The Prebend- 
aries had a fixed charge on certain townlands payable by 
the incumbent who took surplus and made good deficiency, 
and a proportion of other tithes. Faldown probably was in 
Kilmeena where that Prebendary had so much the larger 
interest, 31 to 8, in the specified townlands. Those town- 
lands included Kilmeena itself and Innisdaff in which there 
is an old church. An old church is reported to have been 
on Clynish. Faldown should be Kilmeena or Innisdaff. 
Even in Bodkin's time the Umall part of the Killabegs pre- 
bend was merged in that of Moynekilly. The proper name 
seems to be lost beyond recovery. 

There must be some reason why two prebends are usually 
found in each territory. As in each case there was an 
ancient abbey, I am inclined to see in them the Dean and 
Provost, transformed from Abbot and Ferlegind, of an 
inchoate suppressed Chapter. The Bishop of Mayo became 
the bishop with an income derived from the Episcopal 
fourths. The Dean and Provost would remain in possession 
of their churches, and those churches would afterwards be 
the emoluments of new officials or canons, or be annexed 
to emoluments of existing members of the absorbing chapter. 
At Aghagower alone a third prebend is found. Aghagower, 
" in which there are bishops," is likely to have been early 
organised on the episcopal system, and the third prebend 
most likely was its original Archdeacon's prebend and pro- 
vided for an Archdeacon of Mayo. These early imperfectly 
organised bishoprics naturally have left but slight traces as 
they existed but a short time in the transition period before 
the new arrangements were stereotyped. A similar in- 
ference may be drawn from Annaghdown Chapter consisting 
of Dean, Archdeacon, 4 Vicars and the Prebendary of 
Lackagh, who may be taken almost with certainty to have 
been the Provost. 

Except in the cases noted the prebendal parcels of tithes 
taken from various parishes cannot be assigned to particular 
townlands ; Prebendaries and Incumbents divided the tithe 
in bulk in fixed proportions according to immemorial custom. 


This was the case universally in Killala and Achonry. All 
the information that has survived is in the Tithe Applot- 
ment Books. 

In Killala and Achonry the Chapters were very much 
decayed but still give some facts for consideration. At the 
election of a Bishop of Killala in 1344, 14 canons are said 
to have voted for 2 candidates who were canons, and who 
may not have voted for themselves, so that there may have 
been 16 canons. The Chapter comprised Dean, Provost, 
Archdeacon and 9 prebendaries when details first appear in 
the I7th century. But in fact only 5 prebendaries were 
acknowledged, and of these Killanley was a bare name. 
Dean or Provost or Archdeacon had tithes or land in all 
the parishes of Erris and Tirawley excepting Ballynahaglish 
and Kilbelfad, which I infer to have arisen from assignment 
of mensal churches, which are identified in all their parishes 
except in Kilmoremoy and Rathreagh, for which three 
mensal churches are available. The term " Bishop's table " 
in Pope Innocent's Epistle must denote that the churches 
belonged to the Chapter, for whom I suppose the Bishop 
provided in theory up to that time as the Abbot did before. 
The Bishop had no separate interest in those churches, and 
had not yet acquired the Comarb lands. The Chapter must 
have taken them over as the churches of the Abbot and 
Convent of Killala. Mensal churches are most numerous 
round Killala and in Erris, fewest in the south about Lough 
Con where the great abbey of Errew may be supposed to 
have been most influential, that is in O'Lachtna's great 

Of the early prebends Drinaghan and Kilroe were mensal 
churches. Rosserkbeg is not known as a church and the 
prebend was rent of land. It may have been the old church 
at Ballysakeery as Rosserk is in that parish. The Lackan 
prebend also was only land. The Tireragh prebends were 
bare names. 

The Achonry Chapter is mentioned in the Valor Bene- 
ficiorum as Dean, Provost, Archdeacon and 5 Prebendaries. 
In 1615, 13 prebends are mentioned of which 5 are noted 
as reputed to belong to the Cathedral Church. This suggests 
that there were Vicars as at Tuam and Annaghdown. The 
other 8 were held by the bishop, these by Edward Crofton. 


So that they had all been diverted from their proper uses. 
In the Visitation of 1633 Kilbeagh is omitted and Killaraght 
and Kilfree and Kinaff are added, making 15 in all. These 
lists illustrate the very great uncertainty and confusion of 
affairs in these dioceses. Achonry in particular had been 
for years deserted by the bishops. From the state of their 
prebends it may be inferred that the only members of the 
Chapter who kept up an independent existence were those 
who held benefices without cure or who held an office and 
did some duties. In other cases the prebendary was the 
incumbent and the empty title lapsed. 

These two Deans held the rectories of their Cathedral 
parish, as did the Prebendary of Balla whose parish was the 
ancient Termon of Balla. Thus more particularly they seem 
all to be successors of the abbots. 

Prebends I suppose to be the remains of the other officers 
and canons of the cathedrals. When the Pope by his Pro- 
visions deprived the Chapters of the right of election and 
the frame of the church was corrupt and decayed in the 
I5th and i6th centuries the canons dropped out of use but 
the benefices remained. When the Reformation transferred 
the appointment of bishops to the King there was no occa- 
sion to revive them. 

The surrender of the Comarb lands to the bishops in 
1210 abolished the Abbatial system of church government. 


It is first mentioned in 1201 but must have been formed 
when the church was reorganised in the Roman fashion. 
The Archdeacons of Tuam and of Mayo are mentioned in 
the time of Felix O'Ruadain. 

" Finnachta O'Lughadha, comarb of Benen, and great 
dean of Tuaim, died about the festival of Martin" in 1243 
according to the Annals of Loch Ce. It is the first mention 
of the Dean by name. The little that is known about the 
Chapter is given in the remarks on the old and the new 
organisation. I now give a list of the Chapter as it survived 
to the i6th century with a note of the parishes from which 
the members drew their emoluments. 


The Dean. The Rectory of Belclare. Parts of the rectorial tithes 
of the parishes of Tuam, Clonbern, Templetogher, Boyounagh, 
Dunmore, Addergoole, Liskeevy, Belclare, Crossboyne. Some 
lands in Tuam and Dunmore parishes. Half the profits of 
certain other lands held with the Provost. No cure. 

The Archdeacon. Parts of tithes of Aghagower, Oughaval, Kilgeever. 
Rectory of Knock. 

The Provost. Parts of tithes of Tuam, Clonbern, Templetogher, 
Boyounagh, Dunmore, Addergoole, Liskeevy. Half profits of 
lands held with the Dean. No cure. 

The Vicars Choral. The tithes of Kilbennan and Kilconla. Some 

Prebendary of Kilmoylan. Rectory and Vicarage of Kilmoylan. 
No cure. 

Prebendary of Taghsaxon. Tithes of that Townland in parish of 

Prebendary of Kilmeen. Rectory and Vicarage of Kilmeen. Part 
of rectory of Fahy in Clonfert diocese. With cure. 

Prebendary of Lackagh. Rectory of Lackagh. Part of rectory of 
Killoscobe. No cure. 

Prebendary of Kilmainemore. Rectory of Kilmainemore. Cure. 

Prebendary of B alia. Rectory of Balla. Cure. 

Prebendary of Faldown. Parts of rectories of Burrishoole, Kilmac- 
lasser, Kilmeena. No cure. 

Prebendary of Killabegs. Parts of rectories of Aghagower, Oughaval, 
Kilgeever, Kilmeena, Kilmaclasser, Burrishoole, Ballyovey, 
Crossboyne, Kilmainebeg, Cong, Ballinchalla. No cure. 

In 1835 the revenues of Kilmeen were transferred to the 
ecclesiastical commissioners. In 1839 those of Faldown were 
annexed to the Vicarage of Achill. 

The 5 Vicars Choral were called in the i6th century 
" Rectors and Vicars of the Cathedral Church of Tuam." 

In 1662 two places were sequestrated for Cathedral repairs. 

In 1719 two were consolidated into one place. 

In 1770 two more were consolidated into one. 

In 1840 the revenues of one were transferred to the 
ecclesiastical commissioners. 

The only corporate estate of the chapter was the Economy 
Fund consisting of the tithes of Dubh Dawla, Ballyglass and 
Ardacong, which seem to have been the original estate. 
They had also certain plots in Tuam and tithes in Claddagh 
and Clonbern held from the Archbishop immemorially, for 
which they paid a rent of 10, 133. 3d. 



Even less is known of this Chapter than of that of Tuam. 
It is known to have comprised Dean, Archdeacon, Canons 
and Official or Chancellor ; 4 Vicars Choral are found in the 
1 6th century. The Dean held the rectory of Annaghdown 
and the Archdeacon that of Cargin. 

The Vicars Choral were the monks of the Abbey or 
College of St. Brendan. As their emoluments were the 
estate of the abbey they ceased to exist when their true 
character was understood in 1585. 



As the Deanery of Shrule has now merged into the diocese 
of Tuam its earlier history is most conveniently taken up 
here. As already observed it was once a bishopric and 
seems to be the diocese called Cong, which was intended 
to comprise that of Mayo. Struthair is a territorial name 
I think as well as a place name. It may well be that the 
episcopal jurisdiction over the Conmaicne Cuile Toladh and 
Conmaicne Mara was exercised by a bishop of the very 
large and important church of Shrule, who may have been 
really the bishop of Cong Abbey, who left the Abbey to 
take up a more independent position. No name of bishop 
of Cong or of Shrule has come down to us. 

St. Patrick founded churches among the people of the 
plain, but St. Fechin of Fore was the great evangelist of 
those of the mountains, and I suppose the great restorer 
of the faith and reformer of the rest. Cong was his great 
foundation here, the crowning of his work, which held a 
very high place among the institutions of Connaught, and 
was a resort of the Kings of Connaught who had a house 
in the neighbourhood. 


Fechin was born at Bile near Ballysadare. If he was 
educated by St. Nathi of Achonry, as is said, it must have 
been in early youth. His education was finished under 
St. Fintan Maeldubh who was Abbot of Clonenagh from 
603 to 626. It is most probable that he was educated in 
Nathi's school under Nathi's successor. He returned to 
his native country and did some mission work, but soon 
went to a more dangerous field of labour, settling in Omey 
to convert the last pagans left in Ireland. This is not quite 


the case. Connemara may have been the last considerable 
pagan tract, but pagans were far from extinct elsewhere, 
and were still powerful. On Omey and on the neighbouring 
Ardilaun he founded monasteries. The latter had a con- 
siderable reputation and provided Colgan with a life of St. 
Fechin in the seventeenth century. These monasteries were 
small mission stations for the mainland like MacDara's. 

He had to endure hostility at first but worked over and 
brought within the faith the country of the Conmaicne Mara 
and the western part of the barony of Ross, which abound 
in memorials of him. He procured the foundation of Cong 
Abbey, which from him was called Cunga Feichin, by Donnell 
MacAedh MacAinmirech four years before he became King 
of Ireland. This dates the foundation in 623. Donnell can 
have given only money and help as he had no connection 
with the country. Feichin soon afterwards left these parts 
and founded his greatest monastery at Fore about 630. He 
died of the plague in 664. 

I find but two entries in the Annals regarding his islands 

A.U. 1018. Gormghal of Ard-oilen, chief soul friend of Ireland, 

1316. The Vicar of Imaidh, namely, O'Fearghusa, died. 

" Soul friend " is properly anchorite according to 
Hennessey's note C.S. 1016. Here we have clochans in 
use in the nth century. 


He is patron of Ballinakill. Hardiman records a tradition 
that he was one of the earliest preachers, and that a pagan 
chief beheaded him on a spot marked by a heap of stones 
at the east end of Cleggan village. The ancient parish 
church called after him is 2 miles north of Cleggan. Tempull 
Ceannanach on the Middle Isle of Aran bears his name. 
Ceannfionnach means White-headed. His real name is 
supposed to have been Gregory, by which he is known. 


He is patron of Ballindoon parish. His church in Irrus- 
lannan is said to have been formerly the parish church. He 


must have worked with and in succession to Feichin, for he 
was consecrated by the Pope in 640 as first bishop of Killaloe. 
These men earned their reputation by hard mission work, 
and retired to organise monasteries in which they trained 
young men. 


His real name was Sinnach, " Fox." He is patron of 
Moyrus parish. His ruined stone-roofed oratory on the island 
Cruach of MacDara is of very early date. The remains 
about it show an important settlement, probably MacDara's 
chief Mission Station, whence he and his companions 
christianised the people of the mainland. He is supposed 
to have lived in the sixth century and is commemorated 
on the 1 6th July. His wooden image was kept in the church 
until the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Tuam Malachy 
O'Queely buried it. 

To MacDara, Kennanach, Flannan and Feichin the 
Conmaicne Mara owed their Christianity. The adjoining 
country between L. Corrib and the sea must have been con- 
verted from Aran and Annaghdown, but I cannot find any 
particular events connected with it. 


Inisbofin and Inishark belonged to the Conmaicne in early 
times. Colman settled on Inisbofin, but he belongs properly 
to Mayo diocese. 

St. Leo was on Inishark. His bell was extant at the 
close of the seventeenth century. Nothing is known about 

The references to Inisbofin are few, and probably relate 
to the place of that name in Lough Ree. 

F.M. 711. Baetan, Bishop of Inisbofin, died. 
A.J. 742. Maelficraich, Abbot of Inisbofin, died. 
F.M. 898. Caencomhrac, of the caves of Inisbofin, died. 
916. Feradhach, Abbot of Inisbofin, died. 

The remains of the early monastery are considerable. 



St. Molagga alias St. Loichen, Abbot of Cong, is in the 
Martyrology of Donegal on the iyth April. There were 
13 Molaggas Loichen is a diminutive of Lagga or Lacca. 
The Martyrology of Gorman mentions Abbot Ermedach 
on the 8th June. 

The Annals of Clonmacnoise mention the death of 
Lambert of Killmayne in 936. He may have been a cleric 
of Kilmainemore or Cong. 

From the Rental of Cong (see Cong Abbey) I infer that 
the ancient Abbey was rebuilt by Cathal Crobhderg in the 
first year of his reign, which would be 1189. It is however 
possible that the monks may have dated Cathal's reign from 
the death of Ruaidhri O'Conor in 1198. In that case the 
reconstruction began in 1199 or so, and the removal of 
Ruaidhri's body may have been due to the rebuilding of 
the church in 1207. For the rebuilding can have only begun 
in 1199. The architecture suits this date. 

The family of O'Duffy was closely connected with Cong. 
They were the Roscommon family whose name is in Lissonuff y, 
Lios Ua nDubhthaigh. They are said to have come from 

The Cross of Cong was made under the superintendence 
of Bishop Donnell O'Duffy, and claims a prayer for Mure- 
dach O'Duffy the Senior of Erin. The names of Abbots 
Nicol and Gilbert O'Duffy are on the base of the great stone 
cross of Cong. This inscription in black letters is attributed 
by Dr. Petrie to the I4th century. 

1168. Flanagan O'Duffy Bishop [of Elphin] and chief 
doctor of the Irish in literature history and poetry, and 
of every kind of science known to man in his time died in 
the bed of Muredach O'Duffy at Cong. (F.M.) 

In 1174 Abbot Gregory witnessed a charter to the Abbey 
of St. Finbarr of Cork. ' 

1223. Dubhthach O'Dubhthaigh, Abbot of Cunga, [qui- 
evit] in hoc anno. (L.C.) 

1224. Maurice the Canon, son of Roderick O'Conor, the 
most illustrious of the Irish for learning psalm-singing and 
poetical compositions died and was buried at Cong. (F.M.) 


1226. Nuala, daughter of Roderick O'Conor, and Queen 
of Ulidia, died at Cong, and was buried in the church of the 
Canons at Cong (P.M.). She was wife of MacDonslevy. 

Donnsleibhe O'Sochlachan, Airchinnech of Cunga, a 
professor of singing, and of harp - making who made, 
besides, an instrument for himself, the like of which had 
never been made before, and who was distinguished in every 
art, both in poetry and engraving, and writing, and every 
science that a man could exercise died in this year. (L.C.) 

1245. Donnell O'Flanagan, Abbot of Cong, died. (L.C.) 

Oengus, or ^Eneas, MacDonnell was Abbot at the Suppres- 
sion and surrendered large possessions. 

It was the chief Abbey of Mayo and the north of Gal way. 
Its importance must have been largely due to the fact that 
much of the land near it was in the hands of the Kings 
of Connaught and afterwards of the MacWilliams. Each 
dynasty had a dwelling near it. 

It had a great collection of literature known as the Book 
of the Shred, which most likely was destroyed among other 
manuscripts of the Revd. Mr. Prendergast, the last who 
held the title of Abbot of Cong, which were cut up by a 
tailor during his absence in the beginning of the 


The abbey church is of the same age as that of Cong. 
The first church is supposed to have been founded on the site 
of Eogan Bel's Dun in accordance with St. Cormac's prophecy. 
The building called the Penitentiary is as likely to have 
been connected with the royal dwelling as with the monas- 
tery. It is close to what was the water's edge in former 
times. In neither case can any guess even be made as to 
its use. 

Maelisa, son of Torlogh O'Conor, Prior of Inishmaine, 
died in 1223. At some later date this institution became a 
cell of the convent of nuns of Kilcreevanty, to whom it 
belonged at the dissolution. Inishmaine was a parish church 
in 1306. 

The ruined church of Ballinchalla on the mainland 


whose name seems to have been Killower, is of older date, 
altered, and shows tine work in the windows. 

On Inishrobe are traces of an early small monastery 
about the ruined church which was of early date. It seems 
from the local name to have been a Columban community. 
The old church in Cuslough replaced it. Inishrobe was a 
parish in the I4th century. 



AEDAN OnOisiN (Hession) received the Pall as Archbishop 
of Tuam in the Synod of Kells in 1152, the first Archbishop 
under the Roman Church. He held a synod at Roscommon. 
In 1158 he set out with the bishops of Connaught to attend 
the synod of Bri Mic Taidg near Trim. At the wooden 
or wicker bridge on the Shannon near Clonmacnoise called 
Corr Cluana they were met by the rebel Carpreach the Swift 
and his kerne, who killed the laymen and robbed the clergy 
and did not let them go nearer the synod. (Ann. Cl.) He 
was an O'Melaghlin quarrelling with his family about the 
chieftainship. Aedan died about 1161 and was buried in 
his own cathedral. 


called Catholicus O' Duffy in Latin, a learned man, suc- 
ceeded. He attended a council called by King Ruaidhri 
O' Conor at Athboy in 1168 to acknowledge Ruaidhri as King 
of Ireland, and to prepare to resist the invasion then being 
organised on behalf of Dermot MacMurrough. Ruaidhri 
held an assembly in 1171 at Tuam, where O'Duffy conse- 
crated three churches. 1 

In 1172 he and his suffragans attended the Synod of 
Cashel held under the Papal Legate when the church sub- 
mitted to the claims of King Henry II. It was henceforth 
truly Anglo-Norman for the most part. As the King and 
the Pope got control the policy of concentration of endow- 
ments in a few prelates and in monasteries was rapidly 
carried out. 

1 Camb. Ev. ii. 75. 

97 G 


O' Duffy and C. Abbot of Clonfert and Master Lawrence 
Chancellor of the King of Connaught went to England and 
made on behalf of Ruaidhri O' Conor the treaty of Windsor 
of 1175, whereby Ruaidhri held his kingdom under Henry 
upon conditions. St. Lawrence O'Toole Archbishop of Dublin 
was a witness. 

In 1179 he attended the Lateran Council. 

In 1184 " The great church of Tuaim-da-ghualann fell 
in one day, both roof and stone." (L.C.) It is probable that 
it was not rebuilt ; and that Wolfe's statement that it had 
been used as a fortress for 300 years until Bodkin took 
possession of it is correct. The chancel survived to the 
igth century when it was rebuilt. 

In 1201 a synod of the clergy and nobility of Connaught 
was convened at Tuam under a Roman cardinal. The 
Archbishop then retired to the Abbey of Cong, where he 
died in the summer. 


a Cistercian monk, succeeded him in 1201. This family gave 
many ecclesiastics of high rank to Connaught. He is said 
to have been an uncle of King Ruaidhri, but this is not 
possible as Felix lived to 1238 and Torlogh Mor's mother 
cannot have had a son who lived so long. But he may 
have been uncle of a Ruaidhri who was confused with 
Torlogh's son. His seal is extant, attached to the record 
of the testimony of Felix and his suffragans made in 
1214 as to the arrangements formerly made for uniting 
the see of Glendalough with that of Dublin, showing a 
bishop standing, his right hand raised, giving benedic- 
tion, and the inscription " SIG FAEL ORUADAN ARCHIEP 

In 1202 John, Cardinal Priest and Legate, held a synod 
for all Ireland in Dublin, and a fortnight later one for 
Connaught at Athlone. 

In 1209 on the death of Bishop Cele O' Duffy Felix 
obtained a union of the diocese of Mayo with that of Tuam, 
and the reduction of the church of Mayo to the rank of a 
parish church. Objection was made that the Pope's order 


was obtained by deceit, and litigation was pending in I2I7, 1 
but the union was permanent. Though the Pope appointed 
Bishops of Mayo again it does not appear that any ever 
had possession and jurisdiction. 

The ancient monastic system of Ireland now came to an 
end by the transfer to the bishops of the endowments of 
the abbots and monks of the ancient establishment. The 
bishops got first the jurisdiction and then the property. 
In 1210 " There was a great convocation of the clergie of 
Connaught before the bushopp of Twayme, to make con- 
stitutions, for the taking away the Termine lands or Cowarb 
lands, and annexing them to the bushopricks of the diocess 
where they lay, where the cowarb of St. Patrick, the cowarb 
of St. Brandon, the cowarb of St. Queran, and the cowarb 
of St. Fechine with many others appeared." (A. Cl.) The 
change of course gave rise to disputes. The Archbishop 
of Tuam seems to have claimed more than his due. He 
complained that the Archbishop of Armagh had despoiled 
him of the bishoprics of Ardagh and Kilmore (Kevan or 
Cavan), and of the churches of Kilmaine, Kilbennan, Kil- 
tullagh, Kilcronan in Aghamore, Kilmeena, Oughaval, 
Aghagower, Ballyheane and Turlough, built and consecrated 
by his predecessors. It was found that Tuam had not 
been despoiled of the bishoprics, and as to the churches 
it was declared that the Archbishop of Tuam had only 
episcopal rights in them and must not usurp any others. 
The synods had placed the two bishoprics in the province 
of Armagh. The Tuam claim seems to have been based 
on the extent of the ancient kingdom of Connaught. Ardagh 
was transferred to Tuam after I2i8. 2 Disputes dragged 
on. In 1241 " Peace was made by the Comarb of Patrick 
with the Archbishop of Connacht, and with the other bishops 
likewise, on account of Patrick's land in Connacht." (L.C.) 
The difficulties were not yet over. In 1351 arrangements 
were made for an exchange of lands whereby the rival claims 
were satisfied and the contest ceased. 

The Pope authorised the Archbishop of Armagh to ex- 

1 Theiner, Vetera Monumenta, Ep., 27 Nov. 1217. 

2 Ibid., Ep. Honorii III., II Aug. 1216, p. 2. Bliss, Calendar of 
Papal Registers, Papal Letters, vol. i. p. 40. Jl. Royal Soc. of Antiq. of 
Ireland, 1901, vol. xxxi. p. 24, for identification of churches. 


change for other lands more useful to him 2 carucates in 
Armagh, i carucate called le Nerny, the lands of Lenobyr, 
Lek and Kyllmor, the lands of Ynesken with those adjacent, 
the lands of Turlacha, Slanpatrick, Kilmuduny, Killibenoyn, 
Kellakyr, Kellegaweyl, Enghbride, Killibyr, rents at Truyn 
and in Westmeath, in the dioceses of Armagh, Clogher, 
Tuam, Elphin, Annaghdown and Clonfert. The items from 
Turlacha downwards concern Connaught. Kellakyr may 
be meant for Cill Leabair, Killower, in Annaghdown. 
Kellegaweyl and Killibyr and Truyn I do not identify. 
Killibyr appears as Killibyn in Theiner. Enaghbride is a 
church in Kilmeen Parish. 

Having settled with the Archbishop of Armagh the 
Archbishop of Tuam came into litigation with his new 
tenants of Slanpatrick, Kilbennan, Kilmeena, Odeyn and 

Nevertheless the Archbishop of Armagh revived his 
claim in the i6th century when it is alleged that he gave 
Henry Tumor a lease of the Manor of Turlough and the 
Territory of Tuath Truimm. Nevertheless Walter Bourke 
of Turlough was holding them in 1635 as his inheritance. 1 
The Archbishop of Tuam to whom the Archbishop of 
Armagh's rights had passed had by the close of the i6th 
century parted with all his rights in Turlough. 

The levy of tithe rendered possible the great transfer 
of lands to the bishops. It seems to have been part of the 
reorganisation which brought Ireland into line with the 
rest of Europe. From his time we must date the Episcopal 
Fourths as a part of a bishop's income in these dioceses. 


In early times offerings taken in churches were divided into 
four parts one for the bishop, one for the priest, one for the 
poor, one for the buildings. Sometimes the division was into 
three parts one for the bishop and the poor, one for the 
priest, one for the buildings. In course of time another distri- 
bution was made. The bishop got one fourth, a rector got 
the two fourths for the poor and for the buildings, and the 

1 Cal. St. P. Ireland, 1633-1647, p. 109. 


priest's fourth, unless he was an absentee, when his substitute 
called a vicar got the priest's fourth. 

This was in practice a device for taking money out of 
the parish. Rectories were suitable endowments for monas- 
teries because all monks were " poor," and so kept for them- 
selves one fourth, and it did not matter to the parish who 
repaired the buildings. The next step was to arrange that 
the rector should repair the chancel only and the parishioners 
the rest. 

Tithes naturally followed this distribution. If paid at 
all generally in early times, which does not appear, though 
there is a reference to tithes, the practice ceased, and they 
were imposed regularly upon Connaught in the time of King 
Cathal Crobderg. The division into fourths was not at 
first universal in Ireland. 

In 1257 the Pope confirmed to the Bishop of Aghadoc 
one fourth of the tithes of his diocese according to the 
custom in the province of Tuam. The general policy of 
the church had been to take the fourth from the bishop 
and give it to the incumbent when the bishop had suffi- 
cient endowment without it. The Irish bishops usually 
had not such an endowment as a bishop ought to have 
according to the views then held. Hence the bishops got 
the fourth. 

It is said that the Church of Ireland lost much of its 
early endowments in the disorders arising from the Danish 
wars. It was poor as the people generally were poor owing 
to the incessant plundering, which rendered the land a poor 
source of income as it could not be turned to good account 
without a fair degree of peace and order. To the Norman 
and other foreign clergy who came in the I2th and I3th 
centuries it must have seemed very poor. Yet a considera- 
tion of the quantity and distribution of the see lands, which 
are found in possession of the bishops in the iQth century 
and may be supposed to have been taken over, except a 
little, from the comarbs, leads to the conclusion that the 
parishes had a fair endowment. 

The Connaught bishops must have had much the same 
sources of income as Bishop Reeves describes in reference 
to the diocese of Deny. The chief items were i. Rectory 
of the mother church. 2. Episcopal third or fourth. 


3. Erenagh rents. 4. Refections. The lands were let at 
very low rents. The Erenaghs, originally hereditary managers 
and tenants of church lands, came in time to be called 
comarbs. Though the rent was but a trifle the bishop like 
the lay chieftain had unlimited right of supply and service. 
The clergy had to support him in his visitation. Refection 
and coshering were his main support. 

The endowments were now carried away from the parishes 
and given to the bishops, whose income must have been 
rising during the period when the power of the English 
settlers was rising and compelling the Irish lords to keep 
the peace during about 150 years. Then the ruin of the 
country by wars impoverished the bishops again and the 
fourth remained in the bishops' hands. 

When Strafford recovered in 1636 much of the improperly 
alienated lands, the Archbishop and Bishops of Tuam, Elphin, 
Killala and Clonfert petitioned for inquiry and pleaded that 
for the fourths proposed to be given to the parochial clergy 
they should have an equivalent in church lands recovered, 
and a grant from the King to make up any deficiency. A 
commission was issued which recovered much property. The 
Bishops of Killala and Elphin resigned their fourths. The 
Archbishop did so, but the resignation was lost in trans- 
mission to Dublin owing to the breaking out of the rebellion. 
The Bishop of Clonfert did not resign his fourths, and held 
them until they passed to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
under the Act of 1833. 

In 1678 the clergy of Tuam by petition to the Lord- 
Deputy and Council called attention to the fact that they 
paid the fourth in spite of the resignation and of the receipt 
of more than the equivalent by the Archbishop, and in spite 
of the Act of Settlement confirming Strafford's dispositions. 
Archbishop Vesey called a meeting of the clergy and in- 
duced them to recall their agent and drop the petition, upon 
terms that he should procure the Wardenship of Galway in 
commendam on death of the Warden who was very old, 
and should then resign the fourths. He got the Wardenship 
and persuaded the clergy to agree that he should keep the 
fourths for life. 

In 1230 the Archbishop had another quarrel with Armagh 
whose Archbishop corruptly intruded a priest into the 


vacant bishopric of Ardagh, then under Tuam, in spite of 
a lawful election and consecration. Though his appoint- 
ment was annulled the Archbishop of Armagh forced 
his nominee Joseph in again. Joseph died, and the Arch- 
bishop of Tuam secured possession for his man Jocelyn in 
1232 or 1233. 

In 1216 " the Archbishop O'Ruanadha was cruelly and 
violently taken prisoner by the Connachtmen and Maelisa 
O'Conchobhair, and put in chains ; a thing we never heard 
of before, viz. : an archbishop being manacled." (L.C.) 

About 1216 King Cathal Crobhderg began to build the 
great abbey of Ballintubber, said to have been finished in 
three years, roofed and shingled with oak, by the abbot 
whose death is recorded in 1225. (L.C.) 

Can this abbey have been a penance and compensation 
for the arrest of the Archbishop ? 

In 1216 the death of Patricius Bishop of Knockmoy is 
recorded. (L.C.) It does not appear who he was or how 
he came to be a bishop. 

Owing to weakness and age O'Ruadain resigned his see 
in 1235 and retired on a pension to the Cistertian Abbey of 
St. Mary at Dublin, where he died in 1238. In 1718 a body 
in pontificals was dug up and reburied, which is supposed 
to have been Felix. 

He reigned in the period when the reorganisation of 
the Church on the new scheme was completed. At his ac- 
cession he saw the invasions of Connaught by William de 
Burgo which procured for William his Irish title of the Con- 
queror. When he resigned William's son Richard had com- 
pleted the conquest and was lord of two-thirds of Connaught, 
and the King of Connaught held but a part of the remainder 
under the King of England. 

The transfer of the Termon lands accounts for the fact 
that the bishops of these dioceses owned so many of the 
townlands in which the parish churches stand and so many 
other townlands which include or adjoin ancient churches. 
The lands of such great abbeys as Cong and Mayo and Errew 
passed thus ; the lands they held at the suppression were 
later acquisitions. The possessions of the see of Tuam in 
the diocese of Elphin must be explained by the transactions 
with the Archbishop of Armagh. The disputes and these 


possessions taken together suggest that the Archbishop of 
Armagh held an exceptional position in this matter and did 
not at once transfer his Connaught lands. The churches 
of Aghanagh and Shankill and Oran are known to be 
Patrician foundations. Kilmore in Moyglass was founded 
by him. He founded churches in the country about Strokes- 
town which Kildalloge adjoins. The Taghmaconnell lands 
of the Archbishop may have been acquired in this trans- 
action. One of the unidentified names of churches may be 
the proper name of Taghmaconnell. Considering that 
Taghmaconnell adjoins Clancarnan it is not impossible that 
they came as part of that transaction. 


in Latin Marianus, Dean of Tuam, succeeded and held his 
first synod in 1237. Next year he went to the Holy Land. 
This pilgrimage was probably political, to keep him out of 
the way of the Anglo-Norman barons who were now settling 
down in the country, that he might not be entangled in 
the turmoil of the great change. In 1241 he and the other 
Connaught bishops made an arrangement with the Arch- 
bishop of Armagh regarding his lands. 

In 1244 " Tuam da Ghualann was burned, including 
four churches, and the houses of the whole town along with 
them. The Archdeacon of Tuaim was drowned in Glaislinn- 
Chluana." (L.C.) 

O'Lachtnain died at Athlone before Christmas of 1249. 


in Latin Florentius, Chancellor of Tuam and Subdeacon of 
the Pope, was consecrated on Christmas day of 1251. Friar 
Cormac was consecrated as Bishop of Annaghdown at or 
about the same time. But Flann seized that bishopric and 
kept it by means of an arrangement with the King. The 
King and the Pope had worked together to obtain complete 
control of the Church of Ireland, and were now in a position 
to quarrel with each other. 

In 1255 the Archbishop in a joint petition with the Bishop 
of Killala complained to the King for himself and for his 


suffragans and for all the clergy of Ireland of certain 

Their complaint that the King's officials held private 
inquisitions against and seized ecclesiastical persons and 
cast them into prison was settled by an agreement with the 
Pope that no ecclesiastical censures should issue against 
John FitzGeoffrey the Justiciary, Sir Richard de la Rochelle 
the Seneschal of Edward the King's son who was then lord 
of Ireland, or Sir John called Cumyn, and that they should 
not be prejudiced thereby. The complaint that the officials 
entertained ecclesiastical causes in their courts was settled 
by an agreement that censures should not be extended to 
them in regard to their office. These seem to be matters 
in which the clergy had grounds of complaint for which they 
got satisfaction in some way in the general settlement. 

They further complained that the King's officers and 
barons prevented legacies to pious uses and prevented 
Crusaders from going to the Holy Land. The same agree- 
ment was made. The barons objected because if they 
allowed their tenants to alienate to the Church, the clergy 
claimed to hold the land free of the services and occasional 
revenues which came to the lord from the lands of laymen. 

On certain other points connected with the administra- 
tion of justice they got such satisfaction as could fairly be 
given without allowing them the exemption from the law 
which they seem to have aimed at. These were matters 
not affecting the church only, but all persons who came 
under the jurisdiction of the courts. 

" Petition of the Archbishop of Tuam, his suffragans 
and their tenants, regarding certain grievances ; with replies 
thereto. They say that they are aggrieved by being dragged 
from their province and counties to remote places for pur- 
poses of litigaton ; 

" Respecting this it is provided that all pleas shall com- 
mence in their counties, and that all things belonging to 
justice shall be therein pleaded and determined according 
to law in the eyre ; excepting causes which from their nature 
cannot be sent thereto, such as assizes of dareign present- 
ment," &c. ... " These pleas, though commenced with- 
out the county, shall be remitted to the justices when they 
come thither : 


" They likewise say that they are aggrieved because the 
K.'s servants issue attachments and summonses in their 
lands ; obliging their tenants to go out and labour until they 
heavily ransom that labour ; 

" This is altogether forbidden ; if henceforth [the K.'s 
servants] do this, or presume maliciously to aggrieve persons 
by these summonses without order of their superiors, or 
without just cause, and are thereof convicted by inquisition, 
they shall be removed from their bailiwicks and heavily 

" They also say that they are aggrieved because when 
they are amerced in the K.'s court, they do not dare, 
through fear of further heavy amerciament, to prosecute 
their rights and those of their churches ; 

" Respecting this it is provided, that if persons bond fide 
prosecuting their rights become subject to an amerciament, 
they shall be more lightly dealt with than legal rigour would 
demand, and this according to the extent of their offence, 
their substance, and their tenure : 

" They further say that they are aggrieved in this, that 
if any one of their tenants be indicted for an offence, and 
wish to put himself thereupon on the country, this is denied, 
and certain proofs are improperly admitted against him ; 

" As to this it is provided that when persons against whom 
an offence is charged, wish to put themselves on the country, 
it shall not be denied to them to do so, unless in a case where 
it is not possible : 

" They likewise say that they are aggrieved because they 
are impleaded respecting lands which they and their ancestors 
have peaceably held in the time of the Lord Henry, the 
K.'s grandfather, from the conquest by the English, and 
even before the arrival of the latter in Ireland ; 

" Regarding this, it is ordained that if petitioners declare 
regarding the seisin of their predecessors before the time of 
Henry, the K.'s grandfather, and before the conquest of the 
English, and do not declare of the time of the K.'s grand- 
father, nor after the time of the said conquest, they shall 
lose their right ; and if a tenant puts himself on a great 
assize averring that time, and if the assize find that the 
petitioner or his ancestors never had seisin within the time 
of the K.'s grandfather, nor after the conquest, then the 


petitioner shall lose his cause ; and the tenant shall be freed 
from the demand ; 

" The writ called Utrum shall be granted to archbishops, 
bishops, abbots, priors, and chapters holding parish churches 
appropriate, touching the sanctuary of the churches, which 
is not granted touching other fees ; 

" If a bailiff or other person be proved to have taken, 
in order to render aid or favour, the whole or part of lands 
impleaded, he shall be removed from office, and be subject to 
heavy ransom." l 

After the conquest the visitations of the Archbishops 
were brought into conformity with the English practice 
and were regulated by Bulls. Disputes arose with Armagh. 
The Primatial Visitation of Armagh in the Tuam province 
was septennial for an unlimited period. The litigation re- 
garding it was settled by Pope Alexander IV. in a Bull 2 
which was published in 1262, deciding that the Archbishops 
of Armagh may call themselves Primates of the Province 
of Tuam, and may cause the cross to be carried before them 
through that province, and may hold visitations in it from 
five years to five years, and continue 27 days therein each 

Flann is said to have been a man of learning and of 
knowledge of law. He died at Bristol in 1256. 

The chapter elected James O'Lachtnain, a Franciscan, 
in 1256. The King confirmed the election without waiting 
for the Pope's approval. The Pope set the election aside 
and appointed 


Dean of St. Paul's, London, whom he consecrated. 8 The 
King at first refused to acknowledge the appointment. On 
the 2nd September he made an order refusing to put Walter 
in possession of the temporalities until he should come in 
person and render fealty according to custom, but in con- 
sideration that he was an Englishman and might be useful 
in regard to the King's affairs, the King allowed the Arch- 

1 D.I., ii. p. 82. 

2 Theiner, Ep. Alex. IV. No. 180, 14 Oct. 1255. 
8 Ibid., Ep. 198, 29 May 1257. 


bishop's bailiffs to use his house and deal with his lands, 
keeping the profits until the Archbishop comes and renders 
fealty when the King will of his grace restore the temporalities 
or keep them, as may be his pleasure. In November the 
King having taken Walter into favour ordered the tempo- 
ralities to be given to him from the former date. Walter 
died in April 1258 in England on his way from London to 
Tuam, so never had actual possession. He was the first 
Archbishop not of Irish family. 


otherwise Thomas O'Conor, was elected in January 1259. 
He had been Dean of Achonry until 1254, an< ^ was Bishop 
of Elphin. In April 1259 tne Pope authorised him and 
the Dean and Chapter to raise a loan of 2400 marks for 
necessary expenditure. 1 A letter of 1263 shows that Thomas 
had engaged to pay 1000 marks advanced to the Pope by 
certain merchants. 

In 1265 " A conference was held by Tomaltach O'Conchob- 
hair, Archbishop of Connacht, with David Prendergast and 
the MacMurchadhas ; and a great number of the Archbishop's 
people were slain by them on that day at Cill-Medhoin." (L.C.) 
The conference seems to have been what is otherwise called 
a fight, or became one. We are not told the subject of con- 
ference. At this time the war of the De Burgos and 
Geraldines gave Aedh O'Conor the King of Connaught an 
opportunity of plundering in the De Burgo country. Mac- 
Murchadhas is probably a mistake for MacMaurices, Irish 
tribe name of the Prendergasts of Mayo, who held not 
directly from De Burgo but from FitzGerald of Offaley. So 
probably they met to discuss the triangular war. He died 
in June 1279. " Tomaltach, son of Toirdhelbach, son of 
Maelsechlainn O'Conchobhair, archbishop of Tuam, the most 
eminent man in all Erinn for wisdom and knowledge, for 
hospitality and nobility, for munificence, and for distributing 
jewels and valuables to all in general, died after the triumph 
of penitence." His grandfather perhaps was a son of King 
Torlogh Mor. 

1 Theiner, Ep, No. 209. 



Disputed elections and appointments caused a long 
vacancy. Some canons elected Malachi, a Franciscan of 
Limerick, some elected Nicholas de Machin. The King 
assented to Malachi's election in April 1280. Neither ever 
held the see. In October 1283 Edward I. wrote thus to 
the Pope : " During a late vacancy in the Church of Tuam, 
Ireland, a criminal and illegitimate clerk, named Nicholas 
Mayglyn, who draws his origin from the race of traitors 
against the K., has adhered to rebels, and raised disturbances 
in that country, has been it is said elected to rule that church, 
and has obtained from the Pope an auditor in the matter of 
his election. By ancient and approved custom license to elect, 
and on election made, the royal assent ought to have been 
asked for, but this has not been done in prejudice and con- 
tempt of the K.'s dignity and honour. Wherefore the 
K. prays his Holiness to expel this man as unworthy, 
and to provide a worthy man who is faithful to the K., 
loves peace and knows how to govern the church of Tuam, 
both spiritually and temporally." 1 

Malachi left Rome without the Pope's permission and 
Nicholas resigned his claim. Nicholas's surname seems to 
have been MacFloinn or MagFhloinn. On the I2th July 1286 
the Pope appointed Stephen de Fulburn, Bishop of Waterford, 
brother of Walter de Fulburn Chancellor of Ireland. He 
had been Justiciary in 1279, was removed in 1280, reap- 
pointed after Sir Robert de Ufford in 1282. 


was given possession of the sees of Tuam and Annaghdown 
on the I5th September. He was a minister of the King and 
probably had very little to do with Tuam. When he died 
in 1288 all his property was seized for his debts to the 
King. His public correspondence and accounts were sealed 
up as found in Athlone Castle. On examination in Dublin 
many documents were missing whereby the King lost 
many debts due to him. The following is the inventory 

1 D. /., ii. 


of what was taken at Tuam and Athlone soon after the 
3rd July : 

' TUAM. In the wardrobe. 

" i silver ewer of the weight of 4 /., i silver-gilt cup, with 
a cover of the weight of 40$., 3 cloths of gold, 12 striped 
cloths for Esquires, i cloth for men of trade, i cloth for 
grooms, 33 furs with lambskins, 4 score and 9 ells of linen 
for table-cloths, 10 towels, n pairs of silken shoes, 5 score 
pounds of almonds, 30 Ibs. of rice, i frail of figs, 10 Ibs. of 
dates, 2 pieces de cindone, 4 ells de carde ; in a chest 2 cups of 
silver, i white coverlet, 2 capes, i large bible ; in another chest 
100 /. of silver, black cloth for the use of the archbishop ; 
and 4 entire black cloths for knights and clerks, with fur. 

" Pantry or buttery i silver salt-cellar, 3 gold spoons, 

12 large silver spoons and 12 smaller ones, 5 silver plates, 

1 silver dish for alms, 2 large silver ewers, 9 silver pots with 
covers, i gold plate with a gold cover, 3 gilt silver cups with 
feet : 2 smaller silver ewers. 

" Kitchen 2 large silver dishes and 3 smaller ones, 

13 smaller silver dishes, and 18 silver salt-cellars. 

" Armour 6 halberds and 2 coats of mail, 3 pairs of iron 
cuirasses, 3 pairs of new trappings (trappes), and 2 pairs 
of old. 

" Stables i large white palfrey, and another called 
Hackney ; horses called Lyvet, Jordan, Feraunt of Trim, 
Banean, Blaunchard of London, and 2 large horses called 
Constable and Bendur ; 2 sumpter horses for the wardrobe ; 
horses called Scampane, Black Obin, Feraunt and Dunnyng. 

" ATHLONE. In the chapel. 

" i Principal vestment, i chasuble with a cross of pearls, 

2 mitres and a crozier, i chalice of silver-gilt, embroidered 
copes, a vestment for holydays, i silk frontal for the altar, 
I silk cope, 4 tuallie, i missal, i noted breviary (porteors 
notatus), i noted gradual, i book of the dedication of churches, 
and another book of blessings, i small bible, i silver censer, 
i silver vase to put myrrh in, i silver vase to put holy water 
in, with a silver sprinkler, 2 silver ewers, i portable altar, 
6 choir copes of Baudekin, and 3 of silk, 3 tunicles with a red 
chasuble, and 3 surplices." 

He had 50 horses elsewhere. 

1 D. /., iii. 


In August 1289 out of respect to the church the King 
wishing the church of Tuam to be decorated with the orna- 
ments of the Archbishop's chapel orders then- delivery to 
the Dean and Chapter. These articles appear to be the 
Archbishop's travelling furniture for his chapel. The re- 
mainder appears to be his private personal property. 


succeeded him and went to Rome for confirmation which 
was given on the 2nd May 1289. Being in subdeacon's 
orders he was at once made a deacon, and was empowered 
to receive priest's orders on the 26th May and to be con- 
secrated on the same day. He was allowed to keep his 
benefices for three years ; and during those three years to 
receive one year's revenue of every benefice vacated, he 
making provision for the cure of souls. These grants were 
necessary to provide the fees payable to the Pope and his 
officials upon appointment. As part of this arrangement 
the Pope confirmed to William rector of Tyrnachtin in the 
diocese of Tuam a dispensation to hold the church of Knock- 
raffan in Cashel given him in his eleventh year, that of Moy- 
drisce in Killaloe, which he received before he was 23, and 
after the Council of Lyons, those of Athnetyg and Castle- 
conor and Tyrnachtin in the dioceses of Tuam and Killala, 
all with cure of souls, and held by him for many years, except 
the last which he held only n months, without papal dis- 
pensation although he was not ordained priest ; and he 
was to be promoted to episcopal dignity, all irregularity 
incurred by him in respect of the above being removed. 

Tyrnachtin is the parish of Kilcolman. Athnetyg is 
probably a scribal error for Athneryg, Athnariogh ; he was 
certainly rector of Athenry l He was second son of Meiler 
de Bermingham lord of Carbury in Kildare and of Dunmore 
and Athenry where he founded the Dominican Friary in 
1241, and of other great territories. From Meiler came 
the de Berminghams of Connaught. 

After the death of Archbishop O'Conor the Dean and 
Chapter of Annaghdown had elected a bishop who was 

1 Bliss, CaL of Papal Registers, Papal Letters, vol. i. p. 498. Theiner, 
Vet. Men., Ep. No. 319. 


confirmed by the King but not by the Pope. Stephen dc 
Fulburn had possession of both sees. At his death they 
prepared to restore the independence of their church by 
placing the insignia in charge of the Friars of Clare Galway. 
William sent his Archdeacon Philip Le Blound, or Blunt, 
who by force entered the monastery and carried them away. 
Philip was indicted. The result is not known. 

In 1291 the King was trying to raise money from the 
clergy, but in vain, as appears from the following letter of 
the Archbishop, 1 in abstract " W[illiam] Archbishop of 
Tuam to the K. Had received the K.'s letters praying 
him to convoke the suffragans and clergy of his province 
and induce them to grant to the K. a tenth of their spiritu- 
alities, to exonerate the debts for necessary expenses con- 
tracted by the K. while he tarried in parts beyond the sea 
touching the liberation of Charles King of Sicily. The arch- 
bishop replies that he had convoked the suffragans and 
clergy of his province accordingly, and fervently prayed 
them not to refuse the K.'s petition. The clergy having 
deliberated unanimously answered for their part that on 
account of war and poverty, and in order to preserve the 
liberties of their Church unimpaired, they could by no means 
grant that petition ; and the suffragans, alleging that on 
account of those reasons and an appeal made to the Apostolic 
See by the clergy they could not differ from that answer, 
and so decided with the clergy in the negative. The Arch- 
bishop convoked the remainder of his clergy and urgently 
prayed them not to refuse the K.'s petition, intimating 
to them as to the suffragans and their clergy that though 
they might feel somewhat aggrieved by granting the petition 
yet that they might thereby gain the goodwill of the K.'s 
ministers, and that the K. himself might be induced to 
abolish the grievances inflicted on the Church of Ireland and 
on ecclesiastical persons, and perhaps restore that Church 
to its state of former liberty. They answered that their 
benefices were so small and they themselves so impoverished 
by Irish vassals and war that their whole year's supplies 
did not suffice for 6 months ; being therefore totally unable 
to comply with the petition they recommended that the 
Apostolic See should be applied to ; special license from 
1 D. /., iii. No. 899. 


it was according to canonical statutes necessary to obtain 
such a grant. . . . Athenry." [The latter portion is 

The King did apply and got a grant of the tenth which 
was the cause of the Ecclesiastical Taxation which has come 
down to us, which was actually drawn up for the years 1306 
and 1307. De Bermingham was always engaged in a quarrel 
with some one. In 1303 the Dean of Annaghdown was in 
Rome making complaints of his conduct. One was that 
William for a bribe appointed Malachy (O'Dondobuir) to 
be Bishop of Elphin in spite of the Pope's decision that 
Marianus had been elected, and, when Marianus died before 
taking possession, let Malachi take possession forcibly. 

In 1306 Gilbert was elected Bishop of Annaghdown and 
got possession in 1308, when the see became for a time in- 
dependent. It does not appear how the separation came 

William went to Rome in 1309. In that year his litiga- 
tion with the Dominican Friary of Athenry ended. The 
monks claimed exemption from the Archbishop's visitation. 
He sent Archdeacon Philip Blunt to hold a visitation at 
Athenry. They attended and protested in such fashion that 
the Archbishop excommunicated them. The Friars replied 
in February 1298 by an application to the Chancellor who 
ordered the Archbishop to withdraw his proclamations 
instantly. The Archbishop's action must have been illegal, 
as he undertook to withdraw and annul everything done 
against them. The Archdeacon did not defend a suit which 
they brought against him for 1000. But it does not follow 
that they got much out of Philip. 

William died on ist January 1312 and was buried near 
his father in the Dominican church of Athenry. 

The Chapter desired to elect Philip the Dean, who refused 
election. Thereupon they appointed Philip and Archdeacon 
Peter and Canon Nicholas Flammini (Fleming ?) and Canon 
Laurence de Tuanna (Tuam ?) and Canon William de 
Dummo (Dunmor ?) to choose, who chose Maelseachlainn 
MacAedha, Bishop of Elphin, whom the Chapter elected. 
He neither accepted nor refused but referred the election 
to the Holy See. 1 

1 Theiner, Vet. Mon., p. 185. 




or Malachi, was translated by the Pope on the igth December 
1212. He began by an attack on Bishop Gilbert of Annagh- 
down, which caused Edward II. to complain to the Pope 
of his misrepresentations and of the annoyance which he 
caused to Gilbert. This attack failed. 

When Edmund de Burgo became Provost in 1313 the 
emoluments were said to be worth 5 marks sterling. 1 

Flann MacFloinn with consent of his Chapter exempted 
the nunnery of Casta Silva, Kilcreevanty, from his juris- 
diction as ordinary, save for the right of holding a triennial 
visitation in company with the Abbot of Cong and receiving 
a certain procuration. Laxity having arisen in the convent 
the Pope restored to the Archbishop the right of visitation as 
ordinary. 2 

Acting upon a secret order of the Pope MacAedha seized 
the bishopric of Annaghdown when Bishop O'Mellaidh died 
in 1328, and held it against a Thomas who was elected. The 
wars in Connaught and the King's abandonment of authority 
there probably caused the matter to drop. The details 
appear under Annaghdown. 

MacAedha, or Magee, was as violent and unscrupulous 
in his dealings with Annaghdown as any layman could have 
been. He seems in character and conduct to have been like 
his predecessor. 

After Earl Richard de Burgo's death in 1324 he was made 
one of the Governors of Connaught during Earl William's 
minority. After Earl William's murder in 1333 he was again 
Governor or Justice of the Peace jointly with Sir Edmond 
de Burgo, son of Earl Richard, who had a lease of the infant 
countess's demesne lands. When Sir Edmond was seized 
at Ballinrobe in April 1338 and carried to the Earl's Island 
in the Keel Lough of Glentraigue by his cousin Sir Edmond 
Albanagh, the Archbishop came to make terms between 
the Edmonds. Peace was almost made when the Stauntons 
who guarded the prisoner murdered him. 3 From this time 
the King's authority ended and by degrees English Law 

1 Theiner, p. 188. z Ibid., 20 Feb. 1321. 

3 Hardiman's Ed. of 'Flaherty 's West of Connaught, p. 47. 


disappeared save in the towns of Galway and Athenry, whose 
inhabitants kept apart from the country people. 

MacAedha died of the plague in 1348. 

The following entries appear in this period in Annals of 
Loch Ce". 1328. " Maurice O'Gibillan, high master of Erinn 
in new laws and old laws, in Canon and Lex ; a philo- 
sopher in wisdom and true knowledge ; an eminent pro- 
fessor of poetry, and of Ogham writing, and many other 
arts ; a canon chorister in Tuaim-da-ghualann, and in 
Oilfinn, and in Achadh-Conaire, and in Cill-Alaidh, and 
in Enach-duin, and in Cluainferta-Brenainn, and the offi- 
cial and general judge of all the Archbishopric, in Christo 

Under 1287 was recorded the death of "Florence O'Gibellan, 
Archdeacon of Oilfinn, a philosopher in wisdom, learning, 
intellect and clerkship." The family seems to have been 
learned and clerical. 

The Church had fallen so low by the corruption of pre- 
lates, and the concentration of endowments in the hands 
of a few, and the general misapplication of revenues, that 
the Archbishop of Cashel had to complain in 1344 of the 
lack of parsons in Ireland and to obtain permission to ordain 
illegitimate persons as others could not be got. The dis- 
pensations for illegitimacy show that his complaint was just. 


succeeded him. The Dean and Chapter elected their chan- 
cellor Robert de Bermingham. The Pope appointed Thomas, 
Archdeacon of Cashel, whom he translated to that Arch- 
bishopric in 1358. In his time lands were exchanged with 
the Archbishop of Armagh to quiet disputes. 


Archdeacon of Cashel, was elected and consecrated in the 
same year. He is the clerk of Killaloe diocese, a bachelor 
in civil law, who got dispensation of a bar to priests' orders 
on account of illegitimacy, and in whose favour the Pope 
made a declaration in 1358 that he might even hold episcopal 
office, upon petition by the Archbishop and some Bishops 


of Cashel province on the ground of lack of literate men in 
those parts. He died in 1371. 

Bishop of Elphin, was elected to Tuam. He was fined 100 
for not attending a Parliament at Castledermot to which 
he was summoned. It does not appear that he paid the 

While he was Provost of Killala he was consecrated 
Bishop of Down by order of the Pope upon a report which 
reached Avignon that Bishop Rodolph died. But Rodolph 
soon afterwards appeared. When Gregory died in 1384 
the King attempted to take possession of the temporalities. 
The escheator reported that the lands were worthless because 
no rents could be collected. 


was now appointed by the Anti-Pope Clement VII. The 
other Pope Urban VI. ordered his removal which Richard II. 
undertook to enforce. As Urban was recognised in England 
and Ireland Gregory had to retire. He is the Archbishop 
who with the Bishops of Clonfert, Kilmacduagh and Achonry 
is noted in the Anti-Pope's order of suspension of the Bishop 
of Killala as having accepted his authority. 


was appointed by the Pope in 1386. In 1394, for some reason 
which does not appear, the Pope degraded him to the bishopric 
of Clonfert which he did not take up. 


or Maurice O'Kelly, Bishop of Clonfert was translated to 
Tuam in exchange with O'Cormacain. In the same year 
the Pope made Henry Turlton, or Twellow, Bishop of Annagh- 
down, severing that see from Tuam. O'Kelly died at Tuam 
in 1407. 

Some doubt arises as to the succession here. According 
to Wadding (vol. ix. p. 348), the Pope removed Brother John 
Baberla, or Baterley, because he took possession of the see, 
without further authority than a nomination by Pope Alex- 


ander V., and did not expedite his letters of promotion, and 
appointed Brother Cornelius on the I4th October 1411. These 
appointments seem to have been practically inoperative. 


a Dominican, is said to have been appointed in 1410, and 
certainly was appointed about that time. Nothing is known 
about him. He died about 1427. 


a Dominican, who seems to be the man who had been ap- 
pointed and removed, was appointed in 1427. He is said 
to have been learned and eloquent. He died in 1437 and 
was buried in the Dominican Friary of Athenry. He must 
have resigned in or before 1430. 


was appointed on the 8th July 1430. No more is known. 

a Dominican, was appointed in 1438 and died in 1441. 


son of the Parson, son of MacSeonin, succeeded and died at 
Galway in 1450. 

Redmond Bermingham, son of William, is said to have 
been appointed by the Pope and to have died before he took 


otherwise Donatus O' Murray, a Canon Regular of St. 
Augustine, became Archbishop of Tuam and Bishop of 
Annaghdown under a contract to pay the Pope 333 gold 
florins within six months from the 25th April 1451. Perhaps 
he did not pay in full, for in 1458 Thomas Barrett was made 
Bishop of Annaghdown on payment of 133 gold florins, which 
were worth about 2s. 10^. 


The fees to the Pope on appointment at this time 

For the Archbishopric of Canterbury 1 0,000 gold florins. 

Dublin 2,000 

Armagh 1,500 

Cashel 400 

Tuam 200 

For the Bishopric of Clonfert 300 

,, Annaghdown 133 

Elphin 66 

Kilmacduagh 50 

Killala 40 

Achonry 33 

Mayo 33 

The payments had been fixed in 1392 at half the revenue of 
the see for the first year. 

The valuation of Connaught dioceses appears to follow 
the degree in which they have been occupied by English 
colonists. Clonfert which was nearly all thickly colonised 
is by far the richest. Annaghdown comes after Tuam, the 
part east of Lough Corrib being well settled and having the 
town of Galway within it. The great diocese of Elphin 
containing great tracts of fine land is worth only half as 

In 1484 Donogh formed the Wardenship of Galway. 
Thomas Barrett, the absentee Bishop of Annaghdown who 
was Richard III.'s agent in Ireland in 1484, perhaps arranged 
this as it was carved out of his diocese. A similar arrange- 
ment for Athenry came to nothing. On the 5th February 
1485 Innocent VIII. confirmed the order of the Archbishop 
of Tuam constituting the Rectory and Vicarage of Athenry 
to be a Collegiate Church under a Warden or keeper and eight 
priests as members to be called Vicars, the Warden to be 
appointed annually by the corporation of the town and the 
members to be presented by it ; at the request of Thomas 
Berymesayn the patron and of John de Burgo the existing 
Rector and Vicar. 1 The patron is no doubt Thomas Berming- 
ham, Lord Athenry. 

Donogh died on iyth January 1485. 

1 Theiner, p. 493. 


was appointed on the ijih May 1485 and was consecrated 

in 1487. He confirmed the acts forming the Wardenship 
of Galway and extended it. 

As Joy and the Bishops of Ossory and Clogher alone 
among the Irish bishops did not recognise Lambert Simnel, 
Henry VII. gave them a commission to pardon Lambert's 
supporters on their acknowledging error and taking the 
oath of allegiance. 

In 1496 the Pope appointed Francis a monk to ba 
Bishop of Annaghdown. It does not appear that he ever 
had possession and Annaghdown never appears again as a 
separate diocese. 

In 1501 the Pope ordered him to excommunicate the 
sons of iniquity who secreted the property of the Wardenship 
and defrauded and plundered it. 

Joy died on the 28th December 1501. 


an English Franciscan friar, suffragan of the Cardinal Bishop 
of Hereford, was appointed on the 2nd December 1503, being 
then at Rome, but died of the plague within a week. 


a Franciscan friar, born at Baltimore, was appointed in 
1506, but did not go to Ireland until after attending the 
Lateran Council in 1512. Having got as far as Galway he 
died and was buried in the Franciscan Friary. He was 
educated at Pisa, a learned man and a writer, much interested 
in the new art of printing. 


a Franciscan, of the family of O'Mullaly of Tullanodaly 
near Dunmore, succeeded in 1513. The educational in- 
stitutions of Connaught did not bear a high reputation in 
those days. A synod of the province of Dublin directed 
that candidates for orders from the Tuam province should 
be specially examined. In 1523 he held a synod at Galway. 
He died on 28th April 1536 and was buried in the tomb of 
Maurice O' Finely. 


During the period which now closed bishops were 
absentees, and even such a see as Tuam was vacant for 
years. We have no information as to the conduct of episcopal 
business in those cases. We may suppose that the absentee 
bishops let their endowments and fees to farmers as they 
must have got some money out of their dioceses. They 
would not have paid the fees on appointment for bare titles. 

At the beginning of his episcopate the power of the Church 
of Rome in these countries was unshaken. Before it closed 
King Henry VIII. had broken with the Pope and the in- 
dependent churches of England and Ireland were restored. 

The state of the church in Ireland is described as follows 
in a review of the State of Ireland which is undated but was 
written about the year I5I5- 1 

" Some sayeth, that the prelates of the Churche, and 
clergye, is muche cause of all the mysse order of the land ; 
for ther is no archebysshop, ne bysshop, abbot, ne prior, 
parson, ne vycar, ne any other person of the Churche, high 
or lowe, greate or smalle, Englyshe or Iryshe, that useyth 
to preache the worde of Godde, saveing the poore fryers 
beggers ; and ther wodde of Godde do cesse, ther canne 
be no grace, and wythoute the specyall [grace] of Godde, 
this lande maye never be reformyd ; and by preacheing 
and techeing of prelates of the Churche, and by prayer and 
oryson of the devoute persons of the same, Godde useyth 
alwaye to graunte his aboundante grace, ergo, the Churche, 
not useing the premysseis, is muche cause of all the said mysse 
ordre of this lande. 

" Also, the Churche of this lande use not to lerne any other 
scyence, but the Lawe of Canon, for covetyse of lucre 
traunsytory ; all other scyence, whereof growe none suche 
lucre, the parsons of the churche doth despyce. They cowde 
more by the ploughe rustycall, then by lucre of the ploughe 
celestyall, to whiche they hathe streccheyd ther handes, 
and loke alwayes backwarde. They tende muche more to 
lucre of that ploughe, wherof groweth sclaunder and rebuke, 
then to lucre of the sowles, that is the ploughe of Cryste. 
And to the traunsytorye lucre of that rustycall ploughe they 
tendre so muche, that lytill or nought ther chargeyth to 

1 Record Commn. State Papers Henry VIII. Correspondence relating to 
Ireland, vol. ii. p. 15. 


lucre to Cryste, the sowles of ther subgetes, of whom they 
here the cure, by preacheing and teacheing of the worde of 
Godde, and by ther good insample gyveing ; which is the 
ploughe of worshipp, and of honour, and the ploughe of grace 
of that ever shall indure." 

The appointment of his successor may be taken as the 
beginning of the new movement and order in this province. 


was appointed by the King on the I5th February 1537, 
being then Bishop of Kilmacduagh which he continued to 
hold. On the yth October the Pope appointed Arthur 
O'Frizil, Canon of Raphoe, who never got possession of the 
see. Bodkin belonged to the Gal way family of Bodkin. 
Immediately after his appointment the monasteries were 
dissolved and the estates were let on lease or granted to 
laymen, in the county of Galway chiefly to the Earl of 
Clanricard, from time to time. By favour of the grantees 
the monks often continued to live in the buildings. Though 
at this time the King had no real power in Connaught outside 
the towns of Galway and Athenry and the castle garrisoned 
by his forces at Athlone, the dissolution was effective. No 
resistance was made. It could not have been done so easily 
if the Church had not lost its hold on the people. The great 
lords through whom everything was done had no regard 
for the monks, nor had their people whose feelings were 
reflected in the actions of their tribal chieftains. They took 
the lands but left the monks the use of the houses which were 
not defensible for lay lords' occupation. 

In the beginning of the i6th century the Church had 
fallen to its greatest degradation. Apart from the direct 
evidence as to the state of cathedral and parish churches, 
even in Meath, decay might be inferred from the fact that 
bishops were absent from their sees for years, and from 
the policy since the I2th century of aggrandising bishops 
and monasteries at the expense of the parochial organisation. 
Buildings were in ruins, priests as ignorant as the laity and 
exceedingly poor. Of parochial incomes the bishop had a 
quarter or a third, the rector a half or a third, the vicar a 
quarter or a third. The rectory was almost always held by 


an absentee dignitary or by a convent. Even the vicarage 
was alienated in some cases. Bodkin's account shows how 
laymen had seized endowments by force, apparently without 
a shadow of right. Though he evidently treats the benefices 
which had been the property of abbeys and which were in 
lay hands as usurped, yet there are benefices, such as the 
prebends and vicarages, which were not monastic property 
at any time, which were held so. 

Preaching had now been abandoned to the mendicant 
orders, who were outside the parochial system. Though 
parish churches belonged to convents under the old Irish 
organisation, no evil followed therefrom because their rules 
allowed the monks to serve as parish priests and the revenues 
were not withdrawn for the benefit of the central abbey, 
so far as we can judge. Hence we find ruins of small 
churches all over the country, every village almost or group 
of families having its church. Many of the parish churches 
of the I2th and early I3th century were large and fine 
buildings. These were let fall into decay and the parish 
churches of subsequent dates were relatively small buildings, 
But monastic churches were commonly magnificent in com- 
parison. And then the desire for reform arose among the 
laity and the spiritually minded clergy in England and on 
the Continent, but not among the Irish. Thus the Reforma- 
tion came on Ireland generally from without and not from 
within. And so the monasteries disappeared easily and 
the new clergy were appointed by the King without diffi- 
culty, until political feelings became associated with religion. 

It is not to be supposed that the monasteries were useless. 
In their way they did good, but their activity was limited 
and they ruined the parochial and educational system of 
old times, leaving the people without religious or secular 

In 1541 Bodkin was put on a commission to settle dis- 
putes in Connaught. In 1543 at a provincial synod at 
Galway he confirmed the grants to the Wardenship. About 
40 houses in the dioceses of Tuam and Annaghdown were 
suppressed. The Augustinian convent of Dunmore was 
spared upon Lord Athenry's application, because it had no 
lands, was in a wild country, and was founded by his 


Bodkin was evidently trusted by the Government as 
long as he lived. He had been educated at Oxford, which 
accounts for the fact that so many of his incumbents were 
studying there when he drew up his account of the diocese 
after the death of Queen Mary. 

When that Queen restored Papal authority in 1555 
Cardinal Pole held an inquiry at Lambeth to ascertain who 
was Archbishop of Tuam. O'Frizil did not appear. The 
Archdeacon of Kilmacduagh deposed that the Cathedral 
Church of Tuam was properly furnished, but its belfry was 
in ruins ; that it had a dean, an archdeacon, a provost and 
ten or twelve canons ; that the town of Tuam was in ruins 
and almost deserted ; that Bodkin had taken possession 
of the see after the death of Archbishop O'Mullaly ; that 
he was a defender of orthodoxy and more through fear than 
depravity of intention contracted the sin of schism. Thus 
he delicately explained that Bodkin could conform to the 
requirements of King or Pope as might be necessary for the 
retention of his office. It is not known if a formal decision 
was pronounced. Bodkin was certainly recognised by the 
Pope. It was said that by agreement O'Frizil resigned 
and Bodkin was appointed. It is certain that Bodkin always 
was Archbishop and it is quite certain that his appointment 
was by the King. In Queen Mary's time he was firmly 
established in his place. It is by no means certain that 
Queen Mary could have ejected him, seeing that she had 
no real authority over the Connaught lords and that he 
evidently was cordially supported by them. 

In the same year it was reported that the Cathedral at 
Annaghdown was abandoned, that only one mass was offered 
on festivals, that it had one chalice and vestment, that the 
dean, archdeacon and some canons attached to it did not 

Bodkin took the oath of allegiance to Queen Elizabeth 
and held the same position under her. The account or 
visitation of his dioceses appears to have been drawn up 
at her accession, and shows the disorderly condition of the 
church at this time. 

In 1561 David Wolfe the Pope's Legate in Ireland re- 
ported that Bodkin had great influence with the gentry ; 
that he had forcibly and at personal risk taken possession 


of the Cathedral of Tuam which was for 300 years used as 
a fortress where no divine service was held, that Mass was 
celebrated and that he himself was usually in the choir every 
day ; that there were not more than 20 or 30 houses in 
Tuam ; that he had submitted to the Queen and held his 
see (as did the bishop of Clonfert) by force of arms (as against 
the Pope), but that he pleaded a composition made by 
Cardinal Pole between him and O'Frizil who had resigned 
with the Pope's sanction ; that he further alleged that 
Mayo which he also held had been long united with Tuam. 
This last sentence may refer to the matter of Duald 
MacFirbis's entry that William Burke the Blind Abbot 
expelled Mac An Brehon Bishop of Mayo, whom Ussher 
calls last Bishop of Mayo. Mac An Brehon was most likely 
in the same position as O'Frizil, appointed by the Pope 
in opposition to Bodkin. William Burke appears in Bodkin's 
account as holding by force benefices in the diocese of 

The Mass was not prohibited until 1559. It continued 
in Connaught unaffected by prohibition until Queen Elizabeth 
sent governors to enforce the law strictly in the last quarter 
of the century, when monks and priests were agents of the 
Pope and the King of Spain. 

Bodkin seems to have been a man of great abilities and 
religious feeling, who bore a very high character and who 
conformed to the small demands of the Kings and Queens 
on the western clergy in the matter of doctrine and practice. 
When he was appointed by the King he accepted the Royal 
Supremacy and in all other respects followed the Church of 
Rome. The one point on which he seems to have been firm 
as against the Pope was that he was Archbishop of Tuam, 
and so he remained to the end of his days. The Reformation 
had not yet spread far into Ireland. But he no doubt had 
acquired in Oxford views of the Reformers as to conduct of the 
clergy which made him a very good Archbishop. Reforma- 
tion had begun now in the Church of Rome also in respect 
of conduct. The clergy were beginning to be a different class 
from those of the early years of the century. In Bodkin's 
time no attempt was made to interfere with Roman doctrines 
and practices in Connaught. The Connaught lords were now 
suffering so much from incessant warfare that those of Anglo- 


Norman descent at least were ready to accept royal authority 
to put an end to the fighting and enable them to enjoy their 
own in peace. But they had not yet learnt that royal 
authority meant that they too must obey the law, that even 
their own subjects would have rights against them. So 
they had no feeling against the King and no feeling for or 
against reform in the Church. It seems to have been a matter 
of indifference to them so long as they were not interfered 
with. When the Queen's governors and soldiers came among 
them and they felt the pressure of government, the priests 
and monks of the Church of Rome became political agents 
offering them help from the King of Spain in their rebellions. 
This did not come about in his time which may be said to 
cover the period when Henry VIII. and his successors were 
preparing to assert authority in Connaught. That began with 
Bodkin's appointment and the suppression of monasteries. 
Then followed the period of interference with the great lords 
by obtaining their submissions and by granting peerages, 
and securing the succession to the chieftainship for the 
peers or the chieftain in favour. It was after Bodkin's 
time that governors were appointed for Connaught and 
sheriffs sent into the new counties. He was in Connaught 
the first of the new order of bishops who tried earnestly 
to restore religion. Under his predecessors decay had 
been continuous for 300 years. His immediate successors 
could do nothing owing to the incessant wars of the next 
30 years. 

He died in 1572 and was buried in the tomb of O'Fihely 
and O'Mullaly. From his death begins the double suc- 
cession of Archbishops of the Church of Ireland and of the 
Church of Rome. 

Henry VIII. does not appear to have meddled in the 
minor appointments. In Queen Elizabeth's time I find 
that William Lally had in 1560 her confirmation of the 
deanery of Tuam, of the rectories of Bolomy or Ballony, 
perhaps Ballyovey, and Ahascragh and Kilosolan, and of 
the prebend of Lackagh, which he had obtained by Papal 
provision. Hilary O'Dounlay was appointed to the rectory 
of Dunmore in 1562. l 

1 II D.K. App. Fiant, No. 287. Morrin, Cal. Pat. and Close Rolls, 
i. pp. 444, 474. 



or Mullaly, the Dean was appointed on the I4th April 1573. 
He held the see in the trying period of the establishment 
of the Queen's authority in Connaught, when the Church 
and Churchmen played but a small part. The contest 
between the Queen and the Burkes and O'Neills and 
O'Donnells kept all Connaught in a turmoil which ended 
only with the defeat of all the Queen's enemies and their 
submission after the battle of Kinsale. Before he died 
in 1595 he became too old for work and was relieved by 
the appointment as coadjutor of his successor. 


was appointed on the zyth August 1595, resigned in 1609, 
and soon died and was buried at Tuam. He had taken 
great pains before his appointment in translating and putting 
to press the New Testament and the Book of Common 
Prayer in Irish. 


or Daniel, Treasurer of St. Patrick's Dublin was consecrated 
in August 1609 and was made a Privy Councillor in that year. 
He had been employed as Commissioner with the Lord 
Chancellor in visiting the dioceses of Cashel, Emly, Waterford 
and Lismore, and had been sole Commissioner afterwards 
to reform their abuses. He was a learned man and knew 
Hebrew. He finished the translation of the New Testa- 
ment and of the Book of Common Prayer into Irish. The 
former was printed in 1602, the latter in 1608. 

He succeeded as the country was being reorganised after 
the incessant wars which ended the Celtic system for ever. 
His predecessor was appointed as one system was ending 
and lived until the other began. In his time the early period 
of church history may be considered as closed. Everything 
was in ruins, both churches and clergy, scarcely organised 
fragments, from which the new order of the Church of Ireland 
was evolved side by side with the new order of the State. 



MISSIONARIES from Columcille's monastery on lona con- 
verted the English from the north southwards and estab- 
lished the Bishopric for Northumbria on Lindisfarne under 
Aidan in 635. Meanwhile the Roman mission under St. 
Augustine converted the Saxons in the south. In the middle 
of the yth century Celtic and Roman churches met in the 
Midlands, and the Paschal controversy arose in Northumbria. 
Colman, third bishop of Lindisfarne, who succeeded Finan 
in 660, was head of the Celtic Church, and Agilbert, bishop 
of the West Saxons, was head of the Roman Church with 
St. Wilfrid as spokesman, who had been educated at Lindis- 
farne for some time after he was 14 years old, at the Council 
of Whitby held in 664 under Oswy King of Northumbria, 
who decided for the Roman practice. St. Colman kept to 
his own practice, resigned the bishopric and left the kingdom. 
Venerable Bede writes thus of him : 

" The place which he governed showed how frugal he 
and his predecessors were, for there were very few houses 
besides the church found at their departure ; indeed, no 
more than were barely sufficient for their daily residence ; 
they had also no money, but cattle ; for if they received 
any money from rich persons, they immediately gave it 
to the poor ; there being no need to gather money, or pro- 
vide houses for the entertainment of the great men of the 
world ; for such never resorted to the church, except to 
pray or hear the word of God. The King himself, when 
opportunity offered, came only with 5 or 6 servants, and 
having performed his devotions in the church, departed. 
But if they happened to take a repast there, they were 
satisfied with only the plain and daily food of the brethren, 
and required no more ; for the whole care of these teachers 


was to serve God, not the world to feed the soul and not 
the belly." 

After some remarks on the veneration and respect in 
which the people held the clergy and the attention paid 
to their preaching, he adds " and they were so free from 
worldly avarice, that none of them received lands and posses- 
sions for building monasteries, unless they were compelled 
to do so by the temporal authorities ; which custom was 
for some time after observed in all the churches of the 
Northumbrians." Such was the opinion of the Saxons re- 
garding the Columban monks. Bede says further " In 
the meantime, Colman, the Scottish bishop, departing from 
Britain, took along with him all the Scots he had assembled 
in the isle of Lindisfarne, and also about 30 of the English 
nation, who had been all instructed in the monastic life ; 
and leaving some brothers in his church, he repaired first 
to the isle of Hii, whence he had been sent to preach the 
word of God to the English nation. Afterwards he retired 
to a small island, which is to the west of Ireland, and at 
some distance from its coast, called in the language of the 
Scots, Inisbofinde, the Island of the White Heifer. 

" Arriving there he built a monastery, and placed in it the 
monks he had brought of both nations ; who, not agreeing 
among themselves, by reason that the Scots, in the summer 
season, when the harvest was to be brought in, leaving the 
monastery, wandered about through places with which 
they were acquainted ; but returned again the next winter, 
and would have what the English had provided to be in 
common ; Colman sought to put an end to this dissension, 
and travelling about far and near, he found a place in the 
island of Ireland fit to build a monastery, which, in the 
language of the Scots, is called Mageo, and bought a small 
part of it of the Earl to whom it belonged, to build his 
monastery thereon ; upon condition, that the monks residing 
there should pray to our Lord for him who let them have the 
place. Then building a monastery with the assistance of 
the Earl and all the neighbours, he placed the English there, 
leaving the Scots in the aforesaid island. This monastery 
is to this day possessed by English inhabitants ; being the 
same that, grown up from a small beginning to be very large, 
is generally called Mageo ; and as all things have long since 


been brought under a better method, it contains an ex- 
emplary society of monks, who are gathered there from 
the province of the English, and live by the labour of their 
hands, after the example of the venerable fathers, under a 
rule and a canonical abbot, in much continency and single- 
ness of life." 1 

As Bede places Colman's departure to Ireland in 665 the 
foundation of Mayo was probably in 668, the date assigned 
by Tigernach. 

Colman died on the 8th August 674. Very little is known 
of him. Lanigan says that he seems to have been living in 
Ireland when made bishop of Lindisfarne. 2 Colgan thought 
he was a Connaughtman, and that fact may have caused his 
choice of Inisbofin. This Boffin monastery is never heard 
of again. The Inisbofin of the Annals is the island in Lough 
Ree. The ruins are slight. Similar small ruins are on 
Inishark, Inisturk and Caher Island. A St. Leo lived on 
Inishark, where his bell was extant in the I7th century. 
O' Flaherty says that Inisbofin and Inishark belonged to 
Connemara until the I4th century when the men of Umall 
acquired them. 

The next reference to Mayo is in the death of Gerald 
Bishop of Mayo of the Saxons in 732. Nothing is known 
about him except that to him is attributed the church called 
Tempull Garailt and Gill na n Alither or Pilgrim's Church, 
perhaps because founded by the Pilgrim or Stranger Monks, 
which became the parish church, and which has quite dis- 
appeared. It is the " Daimhliag " or stone church, to be 
distinguished from the great Abbey Church. He is said 
to have founded a nunnery for his sister Segretia, but nothing 
is known of her or of it. He cannot have been the first 
abbot or even Colman's immediate successor. It is certain 
that he was not a Bishop of Winchester as has sometimes 
been alleged. 

Ussher quotes from the Book of Ballymote a statement 
that 100 Saxon monks were at Mayo at the end of the 
7th century. 

It certainly was an important abbey. The oldest ruin 
there is a piece of the cashel wall to S.E. of the church in 

1 Bede, Ecclesiastical History in Bohn's Antiquarian Library. 
* Eccles. Hist. Ireland, ii. p. 59. 



the fields. To this early period may be assigned the origin 
of the name Tagh Saxon, when English Columban monks 
came to Ireland and scattered themselves over the country 
to live under the form of church government in which they 
were brought up. Balan is given as the name of the leader 
of the Tagh Saxon party. The Litany of Oengus invokes 
the 50 saints of Leyny who are buried at Mayo. 

Mayo attained great eminence as a school but is rarely 
mentioned in history. Oswald and Alfred of Northumbria 
are said to have studied here, according to the custom of 
Englishmen of rank to send their sons to Irish Schools. 
Alfred became King of Northumbria in 685. 

Aedhan Bishop of Mayo died in 768. (A.U.) 

Conna of Mayo is named in the Martyrology on the 
2yth March. 

Mayo and Armagh were burnt by lightning on the night 
of Saturday, 2nd August 783. " That night was terrible 
with thunder lightning and windstorms." (F.M. 783.) 
Other places were damaged by this storm which seems to 
have passed over the northern half of Ireland. 

It suffered from the Danes. Dr. Lynch writes " We 
read that Turgesius . . . destroyed by fire the temple of 
the church of Mayo which was roofed with sheets of lead." 1 
This must have been between 831 and 845. 

In 905 the Deartheach was burnt. Dr. Petrie says that 
these buildings were originally of wood as their name " oak- 
house " expresses, in later times of stone, but even down 
to the I2th century sometimes of wood. They were very 
small, about 15 x 10 feet inside, having a single door- 
way in the west wall and a single window in the east wall, 
and sometimes had a loft as a dwelling, being built ex- 
clusively for the private devotions of the founder. 

Regarding a Duleek Dr. Petrie quotes a MS. as follows 
" The Saxons of Mayo granted the tythes of their city to 
God and St. Michael, and they made a damhliag in it for 
the pilgrims of God for ever. And the family of Mailfin- 
neoin proceeded to destroy it, and that damliag fell on the 
people and killed men and cattle. After this came the 
senior, i.e. Cathasach, and he renewed that tempul in the 
reign of Ruaidhri and his son, i.e. Toirdelbhach, and it was 

1 Camb. Ev., ii. p. 191. 


reconfirmed from that out for pilgrims for ever ; and the 
guarantee of the Bishop O'Dunan, and of the family of 
Killaloe, and of the senior, i.e. Cathasach, and of Toirdelbhach, 
King of Connaught, and of the Bishop O'Cnaill, and of the 
Bishop O'Dubhthaigh, was given for its possession for ever." 1 
Cathasach and O'Cnaill may be different persons as appears 
here, but seem to be the Bishop of Tuam Cathasach O'Cnaill. 
O'Dunan was Bishop of Cashel. O' Duffy seems to be the 
Bishop of Tuam who died in 1136, but then he was Abbot 
of Tuam, unless some other bishop is meant. The names 
fix the date as between 1097 and 1117. I cannot make out 
who are the family of Mailfinneoin. They cannot be the 
Muinter Mailfinnain of Hy Many. 

The Kerry had been everywhere Christianised in St. 
Patrick's time. By the I2th century this great tribe had 
been in a great part overpowered by Silmurray clanns, and 
the rest seems to have been broken up into independent 
sections. The tracts called of Upper Kerry and of Lower 
Kerry or Kerry of Lochnarney passed into the diocese of 
Tuam. The countries called Tir Nechtain and Tir Enna 
seem to have been held by families of the Upper Kerry but 
I have not been able to ascertain their relations accurately. 
These two territories I take to have formed the diocese of 
the Bishop of Mayo when territorial episcopacy first came in. 

Cera and Clann Cuain were probably one diocese under 
a Bishop of Balla, and Umall must have been another under 
Aghagower. As they are not broken up into deaneries in 
the Taxation of 1306 it is to be inferred that their bishoprics 
were suppressed at Rath Bresail. 

The whole diocese is thus distributed in modern parishes 

Tir Nechtain and Tir Enna. Mayo, Kilcolman, Kilvine, 
Crossboyne, Tagheen. 

Cera. Balla, Manulla, Roslee, Robeen, Ballinrobe north 
of River Robe, Touaghty, Burriscarra, Drum, Ballyheane, 
Ballintubber, Ballyovey. 

Clann Cuain. Aglish, Islandeady, Turlough, Kildacom- 
moge, Breaghwy. 

Umall. Aghagower, Oughaval, Kilgeever, Kilmeena, Kil- 
maclasser, Burrishoole, Achill. 

The men of Cera and Clann Cuain were branches of the 

1 Transactions R.I.A.X.X*, p. 143. 


Hy Fiachrach who had for their chief King a descendant 
of Dathi who was King of Ireland from 406 to 428, known as 
O'Dowda in later times. The men of Cera had a sub-king 
taken from the families of O' Murray, OTierney, MacNeill, 
and O'Gormley in later days, but he was never of much 
importance. Clann Cuain's chief was O'Cuinn, who quarrelled 
with O'Dowda in the first half of the I2th century and 
transferred his allegiance to MacDermot of Moylurg. These 
two tribes had been so long separated that O'Dowda had 
little power over them, and the King of Connaught a good 
deal, as only a large united tribe could hold its own against 
the Silmurray. 

The records show no mention of bishops in these territories. 

The Round Towers of Balla and Turlough mark the 
ecclesiastical centres. Miss Stokes assigns that of Turlough 
to the very earliest period about A.D. 900, and that of Balla 
to the early part of the last period, 1170 to 1238. 

Umall was the kingdom of the Clann Maille, under 
O'Maille as King, descended from Conall Orbsen son of 
Brian King of Connaught according to the genealogies. 
Aghagower was their ecclesiastical centre. It is said that 
there were bishops in Aghagower and it is likely that Agha- 
gower was always under a bishop as St. Patrick is said to 
have left one there. But Aghagower does not come into 
the Annals. The Hy Briuin of Umall must have had their 
own bishop as soon as diocesan episcopacy came in. Miss 
Stokes assigns the Round Tower to the period about 1000 A.D. 

These countries being under petty kings without the 
cohesion of the Hy Fiachrach Muaide and Hy Amalgada 
or of the Luighne and Gailenga were easily distributed at 
the formation of dioceses, and the whole bishopric at last 
was suppressed. 

The Bishopric is rarely mentioned in history. 

A.D. 1169. Mayo with its church was burnt. 
1184. Gilla Isu O'Mailin Bishop of Mayo died. (A.U.) 
1209. Cele O'Duffy bishop died. The see was then 
suppressed and merged in that of Tuam. 

In 1240 Master Christin, proctor of the church of Mayo, 
revived a former controversy in which it had been decided 
that Mayo was a parish church. It was so decided again. 
I suppose the question now was whether the see had been 


united with that of Tuam or had been wholly suppressed 
and abolished. In 1303 it was part of the Dean of Annagh- 
down's complaint against the Archbishop that he had seized 
this bishopric with all its goods. This is not intelligible 
in face of the undoubted suppression for nearly 100 years, 
but may have been based on a dispute regarding ecclesiastical 
property which the Archbishop seized as see property. 

In 1231 Stephen O'Braoin Erenagh of Mayo died. The 
family were chiefs of Loch Gealgosa supposed to have been 
Urlare lake by O' Donovan. But it is more likely to have 
been some lake within this territory of the Ciarraige as an 
O'Braoin was Erenagh. 

The Pope seems to have revived the bishopric in the I5th 
century as the following appointments are noted by Ware 

William Prendergast, a Franciscan Friar, on i6th July 
1428. He was deprived in 1430 for not expediting his pro- 
visional letters. This revival seems to have followed Arch- 
bishop Babyng's death. 

Nicholas Wogomai (?) a Franciscan in 1430. 

O'Higgin died in 1478. (F.M.) 

Odo or Hugh (Aed) died in 1493. 

John Bell a Franciscan was appointed in 1493. He was 
a suffragan of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The bishopric 
seems to have been conferred as a source of income. At 
this period bishops of Achonry and Annaghdown are found 
to have been absentees doing work in England. They 
account for the Legate Wolfe's remark that the churches 
of Achonry and Tuam had been in lay hands and that the 
former was still waste. The bishops must have let the see 
estates to laymen. In these wild parts of Ireland the monks 
were getting possession of the churches and the bishops were 
becoming of small account as in former times, with the 
difference that the monks were collected in fine buildings and 
the country churches and people neglected. The Reforma- 
tion altered this and brought in a new class of Roman 
Catholic clergy. 

The bishopric seems to have been annexed to Tuam after 
Bell's time. 

In 1547 Thomas O'Fihel abbot of the Augustinian convent 
of Mayo was appointed by the Pope to be Bishop of Achonry 
with permission to retain the abbacy. 


MacFirbis's list of bishops has the following entry 
" Mac An Brehon, Bishop of Magh-Eo ; Mac William Burke, 
i.e. the Blind Abbot, expelled him. 

" Patrick O'Helidhe, Bishop of Magh-Eo, who was put 
to death in Cill-Mochellog, 1579, for the Catholic faith." 
O'Healey was hanged for taking part in the rebellion in 
Munster. These two bishops were not acknowledged by 
the Government and had no real possession. I suspect 
that since 1209 the bishops had no connection with Mayo 
beyond their title and an income drawn from it in some cases. 
This note is all that is known of Mac An Brehon' s expulsion. 
The Blind Abbot is recorded in Bodkin's Visitation to have 
been in possession of much church endowment. This I 
suspect to mean that William held much of the parochial 
endowments which had belonged to the suppressed abbeys 
and that he refused to surrender them. He was a son of 
David Burke who had been Mac William Eighter, of the Carra 
branch of the Bourkes. 

The abbey does not appear in the mediaeval records 
except for one mention in a Papal Letter dated 23rd April 
1462. * 

From the Pope to the abbots of the monastery of the 
Holy Trinity and of St. John the Evangelist of Tuam and 
to Dermot Macassarlay Canon of Tuam. Appoint John 
Ornurchu, priest of Tuam diocese, to be abbot of the 
Monastery of St. Michael of Mayo of Order of St. Augustine, 
its abbot Malachias Ovinlanaill being expelled for his 

For Ornurchu and Ovinlanaill read O'Murrough and 


Next to nothing is known of the progress of Christianity 
in Carra from St. Patrick's time to the yth century. It 
had been accepted then by the Partry in the south and west 
and by the Corcutemne in the north. A St. Finan had 
founded a church on Church Island in L. Carra, and St. 
Cormac wanted to work in Carra in the time of King 
Eogan Bel. 

1 Theiner, Vet. Man., p. 454. 


It appears again when St. Mochua effected the final 
organisation of the church. His proper name was Cronan. 

Another Cronan of Balla died in A.D. 694 of whom no 
more is recorded. But his doings are mixed up with those of 
his more eminent predecessor in the Life of St. Mochua in 
the Book of Lismore translated in the Anecdola Oxoniensia. 
Mochua could not have met Cellach King of Connaught at 
his first arrival in Connaught, but Cronan of Balla might 
have met him as Cellach died soon after A.D. 700. Though 
the Life is full of miracles which do not increase its credit 
it seems to contain facts in his life mixed with those of the 
other Cronan's. His name was Cronan, his father was Becan 
of the Ui Luigdech, his mother Cuimne of the Dal Biiain, 
Ulster tribes. St. Comgall took him, a little lame boy, 
from his father's house and educated him at Bangor. He 
quarrelled with Comgall and left Ulster. The quarrel 
seems unlikely as he would have been but 21 years old when 
St. Comgall died in 602, and does not seem to have been 
long in Gael and Telle. He went under his foster-brother or 
co-disciple, Bishop Gavrin from Britain, in Gael, a monastery 
among the Feara Rois of Louth and Monaghan. Thence 
he went to Fore and to Telle near Durrow. In 616 he went 
to Connaught, passed through Hy Many and spent the forty 
days of Easter in Sodhan, where a Queen named Ballgel 
received him with honour. Thence he went to Loch Cime, 
now Lough Hacket, and met Cellach son of Raghallach 
King of Connaught out hunting. Thence he went through 
Odba into Carra where he settled at a place called Ross 
Dairbrech " Oak Wood." The Life here gives an old poem 

" Ross Dairbrech, Mochua's monastery, 
Which is called ever-new Balla, 
Dear the bush (?) angelic, pure, 
Ross Dairbrech of the holy yew trees. 

Balla with sainted men to-day 

(Is) the common name with loveable renown ; 

' Ross Dairbrech,' this was its name 

In the time of Tuathal Rough-foot 

From the district of Bangor of the cold fords, 
To the plain of Cera of the fair hosts, 
Into the land of Fir Domnann of the bushes, 
Comgall sent (Mochua) to fair Ross." 


" He stays a night in that place. Now on the morrow, 
when the comrades looked up, they did not see the fountain. 
Mochua told them to seek it. Then said a farmer to them : 
' The fountain Ball-aluinn is below.' ' From that place 
let it be named,' said Mochua. As he himself said : 

' Let Balla be the name of the place, 
For it hath come under my heed : 
Let this be its name from henceforward 
Till the last age shall come.' 

He entreated God to manifest to him the place of his church. 
Five-and-thirty years, then, Mochua had completed at that 
time, and one-and-twenty years was he serving God at that 
place when he went to heaven. 

' One-and-twenty years without exception 
Was Mochua in the province of Connaught. 
A wall of mould marking out his side 
Was the hardship of his slender-skinned devotion.' 

Then came Eochaid Minncach, prince of the clans of Fiach- 
rach, to gainsay the cleric. Now angels were manifested to 
him over the wood wherein Mochua dwelt, and when he saw 
the cleric he humbled himself to him at once. Now thus 
was Mochua at that time, in a prison of stone. Eochaid 
came to the cleric, having along with him a hundred of the 
nobles of his family, to wit, Maine with his seven sons, and 
Domnall and Feradach and Maelcethaig and Ronan and 
Suibne and Finntan the Fair and the nobles of Clann-Fiach- 
rach. And though they attempted to kill the cleric, they 
did his will, for the spiritual radiancies and the divine service 
shone out of his countenance. Then they offered him the 
stead, with its district and land, Cellach, son of Ragallach, 
consenting. Wherefore of founding that the historian sang 
the staves : 

' From Clad Cuirre of hard Calgach 
To Mon, to the north of Adrad ; 
From Mag Moethla, with its bog, 
To great staked Crot Cualachta. 

Thus they gave their land, 
The clans of Ross, with great virtue, 
Without tempest in their minds, 
With vast service. 


With a circuit every third strong year, 
Both man and woman and boy, 
To Mochua, of the narrow prison, 
At prayer, at waiting. 

A cow for every landholder, 

Both king and nobleman ; 

To my Chua the hundreded in his company 

A garment for every ollave. 

A great pig for every house in the north, 
From the strand of Eothuile to Muad ; 
A scruple for every fire without thirst 
To the chapel of the province of Connaught. 

This Mochua had without sorrow 
From Odba of the loyal throngs ; 
Strong was his flood 
To the stormy strand of Eothuile.' 

Thus he founded his church and his monastery, and he gave 
three bishops to consecrate his graveyards and his great 
churches, and to allot the land to his monks." . . . 

" It was one of Mochua's miracles, to wit, the Sil Muredaig 
was suffering from the Yellow Plague, and the clerics of 
the Province of Connaught sought to banish it from them, 
and they succeeded not. So they came to the place where 
Mochua was dwelling, and he healed them, and put the 
colour which was on them upon his crozier, and then they 
gave their service to him. . . ." 

" Another time Mochua sent his servant to commune 
with Faelan. When he came to Alt in Cleib [Cliff of the 
Basket] there came to him two female warriors, who dwelt 
in the land, namely, Bee, daughter of Conchorach, and 
Lithben, daughter of Aithrebthach. And this is the un- 
reasonable game they used to play. Whoever passed by 
them, they would put him into a basket with two ropes 
out of it, and swing him over the awful precipice. It was 
revealed to Mochua that his gillie was put into the basket. 
Mochua went till he reached the place. Lithben, daughter 
of Aitrebthach, obeyed him at once ; but Bee would not let 
the gillie go until the cleric gave her his cowl. It blazed up 
in her hands and then she obeyed the cleric. And the girls 
communed with both their fathers, and brought them to 


Mochua, and Mochua afterwards baptized them." This 
curious story seems to be made out of a tale of some fort 
on a detached rock. 

Mochua died on the 3oth March 637. 

Dates show that Comgall did not send Mochua into 
Connaught. According to Colgan's Life, quoted by Petrie, 
Mochua was an architect and built the mill at Fore, and 
surrounded the well at Balla with a wall, whence the place 
was called Balla, a wall in Irish, because the well had never 
before been walled in. This Life adopts the old name Ball 
Aluinn, Beautiful Place. The little chapel over the well 
may be the successor of Mochua's enclosure. 

For Mochua's glorification the Life shows that Eochy 
was miraculously turned from an intention of killing Mochua, 
but it seems to me that Mochua really came with the support 
of the King and nobles of Hy Fiachrach to reorganise the 
church. I cannot identify this Eochy. Owing to the im- 
perfection of the O'Dowda pedigree about this period there 
is room for him there, or he may have been a King of the race 
of AiliU Molt. 

The places named in the first stanza may possibly be the 
bounds of the territory attached to Balla known afterwards 
as the Termon. But I cannot identify any of them unless 
Ara to north of Balla be a corruption of Adrad. The places 
named in the last stanza show that the jurisdiction of Mochua's 
successor extended over all Carra and Coolcarney and Tireragh. 
The endowment seems to be a statement of the dues claimed 
by the abbot when the church was in its best condition. It 
is a very old poem inserted in a more recent prose Life. 

As usual the author does not explain the appointment 
of three bishops by Mochua. It is an allusion to some facts 
about three subordinate bishops in Mochua's successor's 
territory, the meaning of which is now lost, apparently to 
explain why they came to exist in that country. 

The miracle accounting for the name of the Yellow Crozier 
is an anachronism. There were no Silmurray until long after 
Mochua's time. 

From the scanty information of the Life and the existing 
information relating to Tireragh I infer that Mochua organised 
and established the church in its final form. The claims of 
the Abbot of Balla on Coolcarney and Tireragh would last 


long because O'Caomain, descended from Caoman elder 
brother of Dubhda from whom O'Dubhda came, had the 
country of Rosslee and Touaghty parishes in Carra and the 
country from Toomour on the Moy to the Leaffony as his 
Lordship. Carra and Clann Cuain were the inheritance of 
the descendants of Ere, except what O'Caomain held and 
Odba held by the Partry. Coolcarney and Tireragh were 
that of the descendants of Fiachrach Elgach son of King 
Dathi. When Carra and Clann Cuain set up sub-kings of 
their own, and Tireragh and Tirawley remained directly 
under O'Dubhda, ecclesiastical authority naturally took a 
like course and Tireragh passed under the Bishop of Killala. 
This should have come about formally in the I2th century 
reformation and is indicated as somewhat late by the differ- 
ences pointed out in the Bull of Pope Innocent. 

Ecclesiastically very little is known of Balla. 

It was burnt in 779 and on many other occasions. But 
it seems to me that the memoranda of burning of Balla and 
such places do not usually mean that the church and the 
monks' houses were burnt, but only that the town which 
grew up near the abbey was burnt, except in the cases where 
the burning of the church is expressly noted. 

In 1246 " The son of the Successor of Mochua took [pos- 
session of] the bishopric of Sil-Muireadhaigh and not [even] 
a little of his time was left him to govern [it]." (A.U.) This 
was John O hUghroin the Archdeacon of Elphin who had 
been elected Bishop of Elphin in 1244. It is most likely 
that he was son of an Erenagh who was called Comarb because 
he was in possession of old abbey lands. The old endow- 
ments of Balla seem to have passed in early times into lay 
hands as the Archbishop seems to have taken up no lands 
about Balla, and very little in the barony of Carra, and 
there is no reason to suppose a monastery and convent of 
monks survived into the thirteenth century. 


Turlough whose ancient importance is shown by its Round 
Tower makes no show in ecclesiastical history, but the con- 
nection with Armagh lasted from St. Patrick's time well 
into the Anglo-Norman period. 



is a very ancient road which seems to be the ancient pilgrims' 
road from the east to Croagh Patrick. It can be very well 
traced from Croagh Patrick back to Drum ; it passed from 
church to church, thus, Balla to Loona Church, where it is 
well marked, and thence by Gweeshadan Church to Drum 
Church, where it is well marked. Thence it is well ascertained 
to Ballintubber and from thence to Aghagower, passing in the 
way a small church marked on the map as Temple Shane - 
nagawna near Bellaburke. From Aghagower it went by 
Lankill and Cloghpatrick to Patrick's Chair and so up the hill. 
I have not been able to trace the course east of Balla, 
but feel sure it must have passed by Kiltamagh and Cloon- 
patrick and Patrick's Well to Balla. The latter Well, a 
Bullaun in the earth, was once a place of some importance, 
where stations were held at an old fort called Lis na Grus 
close to it. The heap of stones about it seems to be the 
remnant of such a cairn and alcove as is about the Bullaun 
called Patrick's Well at Tully in the parish of Kilcorkey in 
Co. Roscommon. 


Of Aghagower I find but one mention 

" Donncahy, Erenagh of Aughagower, settler of every 
dispute and covenant, a man of esteem and honour, died on 
the I5th December." (1231 F.M.) 

It must have been the bishopric of the O'Malleys but 
did not survive the synod of Rathbresail. 

The large ruined church near the Tower was certainly 
the old abbey church originally. The Tempul na Bhfiacal, 
of which but a bit of wall remains, is said to, and no doubt 
does, represent St. Patrick's church. The Archbishop of 
Tuam had very large possessions in Umall mainly round 
Aghagower. It does not appear whether he got them by 
transfer from an independent Abbot of Aghagower or from 
the Abbot of Armagh or Archbishop. Nor is there any 
record of the order of the monks of Aghagower. 



" O'Malley was slain by the son of Donnell O'Dowda in 
the stone church of Nuachongbhail. His own spear killed him, 
through the miracle of Columcille, in the same quarter (of 
the year)." (1131 F.M.) This is the only mention of the 
abbey which was a Columban foundation, but was not founded 
by himself. It is to be distinguished from Cloonpatrick 
across the road, in which was the parish church founded by 
St. Patrick. 



BRENANN was son of Finloga of the Hy Alta or Altraige 
family of Minister and is supposed to have been born at 
Barra on the Bay of Tralee. As a child he was put in charge 
of St. Ita of Killeely in the Co. Limerick, and later under 
bishop Ere who lived near Ardfert. In accordance with the 
practice of the time he went to study in the great schools 
when grown up, and so came under larlaithe of Tuam and 
afterwards under Enda of Aran. It is said that by his advice 
larlaithe moved his school from Cloonfush to Tuam. From 
Tuam he returned to bishop Ere to be ordained, therefore 
before 512 or 513 when Ere died. After some time he made 
his great voyage in the Atlantic Ocean in search of the Blessed 
Islands with St. Enda's approval. Some believe that he made 
a great voyage of discovery and may have reached North 
America. It is also suggested that the " Voyage " origi- 
nated in a real voyage in which he was blown out of his 
course, visited various islands and reached the Faroe Islands 
and Iceland where he saw Mount Hecla. This much solid 
fact we know, that he devoted himself to mission work 
among the islands of the west coast of Scotland where he 
has left his name, and among those of Mayo where he founded 
a monastery on Inishglora. He visited Gildas in Wales. 

In the middle of the century he worked in the barony of 
Clare where he founded a nunnery at Annaghdown under 
his sister Briga on land given by Aedh son of Eochaidh 
Tirmcharna who was King of Connaught from 557 to 574. 
A church at Annaghdown founded by or dedicated to him 
became the cathedral church of the diocese. He built a church 
on Inchiquin, probably as a retreat for himself after the 


custom of the early saints. Archbishop Healy thinks that 
it was founded about 550 or 552. 

The church of Ross on the shore of Lough Mask is attri- 
buted to him. 

His greatest foundation was the monastery and school 
of Clonfert, called from him Cluain Ferta Brenainn, which 
became one of the greatest colleges of Ireland. He is said 
to have had under him 3000 monks, which must be an ex- 
geration or mean that he educated so many in course of 
time, as he cannot have had so many working under him 
at one time. It was founded in 556 or 557. He placed over 
it his nephew Bishop Moenenn who came to Inchiquin with 
him and helped to build his church and cell. The Abbots 
of Clonfert were called Successors of Brendan. From the 
abbey came the Bishop of Clonfert. 

Brendan's jurisdiction from this period seems to have been 
over the territories of the Hy Many and the Hy Briuin of 
Galway for the most part, but of course was no more ex- 
clusive of other orders of monks in those countries than 
was the jurisdiction of other great abbots in the countries 
where they were principal abbots. 

His church on Inchiquin became a monastery of which 
St. Meldan O'Cuinn was abbot in 580, teacher of St. Fursa 
who carried his relics to Peronne. From him the island takes 
its name Inis Ui Chuinn, or as formerly Inis Maic Ui Chuinn. 

He founded churches and monasteries in his native land 
also and on the opposite side of the Shannon on Coney Island. 

Brendan went with St. Ruadhan of Lorrha to curse King 
Diarmaid MacCerbaill and Tara in 563, or thereabouts. 
Diarmaid had taken forcibly from Ruadhan's protection 
Ruadhan's nephew Aedh Guaire of Hy Many. Diarmaid 
was killed next year and Tara was deserted for ever by the 
Kings of Ireland. Brendan died on the i6th May 577 at 
his sister's nunnery at Annaghdown. 

The last record of building a Round Tower is by the 
Four Masters who note that a Bellhouse was built at Annagh- 
down in 1238. There is no trace of a Round Tower at 
Annaghdown, but there is a butt of a late Round Tower at 
Kilcoona. It has been suggested that this is what was meant. 
It seems to me unlikely that so peculiarly Irish work should 
be undertaken in the turmoil of the conquest of Connaught 


by Richard de Burgh, when the Norman barons were settling 
themselves in this country from which O' Flaherty had just 
been expelled. It seems to me more likely that an early 
square church tower, such as is still to be seen attached to 
the churches of Kinlough and Illaunnaglashy, is meant by 
this expression. The name Tempul Clogas is applied to a 
church on Iniscloran with such a square tower. 1 Such a 
tower might well have been built or repaired at Annagh- 
down at that time. 


Fursa was a son of Fintan son of Finloga. Fintan was 
a nephew of Brendan of Clonfert, but whether on the father's 
or on the mother's side is uncertain. He is described as 
son of a King of West Munster who went to North Connaught 
to serve with Brendan son of Fergna, ancestor of O'Rourks 
and O'Reillys, whose nephew Aedh gave Brendan the site 
at Annaghdown. 

Fintan married Gelgeis daughter of Aedh Finn son of 
Fergna secretly and against her father's wishes. This Aedh 
Finn has been identified with another person, but from the 
course of the story it appears that Aedh Finn of Brefne is 
meant. So Fintan had to leave Brefne and went to his 
uncle Brendan at Inchiquin where Fursa was born. Fintan 
was a pagan but became a Christian when he married Gelgeis. 
He settled in that country, at Ardfintan near Headford 
where Ultan and Foilan were born. While Brendan lived 
Fursa was educated under him, afterwards under Meldan. 
When he grew up he became a priest and built churches 
at Killarsa in Ballymacgibbon and afterwards at Killursa 
near Headford. Killarsa is a modern form of Killursa (Cill 
Fursa). He founded a monastery in Rathmagh near Lough 
Corrib which is the land about Killursa. The name Rathmagh 
is now obsolete but it appears in the I3th century as Radmoy, 
one of the townlands of Walter de Ridelesford's manor of Ad- 
mekin or Headford. Here he made a reputation as a teacher 
but felt drawn to mission life. With his brothers Ultan 
and Foilan and eleven missionaries he went first to Burgh 

1 //. R.S.A.I., 1900, vol. xxx. p. 81. 


in Suffolk where he settled and worked for a time, and earned 
great respect. Some of his party went to North-Eastern 
France whither he followed them. They worked there and 
in Flanders. He founded the great churches of Peronne 
and Lagny. He died in 650. Foilan was murdered in 654. 
Ultan died about 680. If Ultan was older than Fursa, 
Fursa cannot have been educated under Brendan, in any 
case he cannot have been under him for more than a short 
time in his infancy. 

Fursa was one of the great Irish missionaries who con- 
verted continental heathen and was evidently a man of 
very remarkable abilities. Miss Stokes's " Three Months in 
the Forests of France " gives all that is known about him 
and his celebrated Vision, from which she deduces by de- 
scent Dante's Divina Commedia. 


Cuanna was born on the shore of Lough Corrib. His 
mother Findmaith was mother of St. Carthach who was 
born at Tralee. She seems to have married Fintan after- 
wards as according to tradition St. Fursa and St. Einne 
were brothers of Cuanna. Killeaney in that case owes its 
name to this Einne and not to Einne of Aran. He was a 
relation of St. Brendan, as his father was of the same Kerry 
family. These early saints are much confused in traditions, 
but this is likely to be true in substance that Cuanna and 
his brothers worked in this corner of Lough Corrib. 
St. Brendan's relations naturally followed him. 

About 590 Cuanna went to Carthach 's school and worked 
under him for many years. He came to Connaught and 
founded Kilcoona after 620. His place in the church was so 
high that 1746 saints and monks are said to have assembled 
in conference with him, most likely a great assembly of the 
clergy of Connaught. The Round Tower shows that his 
monastery was of lasting importance. 

St. Carthach died soon after the Meathmen expelled 
him from Rahan in 635. Cuanna was called to succeed as 
abbot of his new and afterwards so famous monastery of 
Lismore. It is not certain that he was abbot, but he was 
for a time at Lismore. He is thought to have been author 



of the Book of Cuanu, the first book of Annals, or at least 
a very early one, quoted in the Annals of Ulster. He died 
in 650. 

The Annals seldom refer to ecclesiastical matters in this 
country before the I2th century. It had no abbeys of the 
first rank. 

778 A.U. " Forbasach, son of Maeltola, Abbot of Ros-caimm, 

807 c.s. " Burning of Inis-Muiredhaigh by Gentiles, and 
devastation of Ros-cam." 

835 A.U. " The battle of Drang among the Connaughtmen 
themselves, in whch were slain Cellach, son of 
Forbasach, Abbot of Ros-cam, and Adomnan, 
son of Aldaileth ; and Conmhach Mor was 
victor." This Conmhach Mor was King of 
Hy Briuin Seola. 

Mac Firbis mentions " Cill-Cuana " among the ancient 
bishops' sees in connection with Fethmech, Bishop of Cill- 
cuana, who was Bishop of Cill-Tuama. It is not certain that 
this Cill-cuana is meant. 

Annaghdown was burnt in 1141. 

The Round Tower of Roscam marks the site of an im- 
portant monastery at the time it was built about the year 
1000, to which period Miss Stokes assigns it. It was therefore 
the religious capital of Clanfergaile, the tribe of which 
O'Halloran was chief, who occupied the southern country 
about Gal way. They claimed descent from a son of Brian. 

Down to the period of diocesan episcopacy the abbots 
of Annaghdown and Roscam should have been the principal 
ecclesiastics of this diocese. 

The following extracts from an Irish Tract give some 
information regarding landowners and their relations with 
the church at the close of the nth century. 1 

" Mac Ginnain is the comharba of Kilcoona . . . 
O'Cleircin of Rathbuidh, 2 O'Laebacain and O'Maoilin are 
the erenachs of Cill-cillbile. 3 . . . Mac Beolan of Killower 
is the keeper of the black bell of St. Patrick, with his bally. 
O'Doigins and O'Dubhains are the erenachs of Killursa with 

1 Hardiman, 'Flaherty's West of Connaught, p. 368. 

2 Rafwee in Killeaney. 8 Kilkilvery. 


their bally (and St. Fursa cursed O'Dubhain). . . . O'Leath- 
cargais is the erenach of Rathhindile, and he has the tithes 
of O'Flaherty." The bell afterwards came into possession 
of the family of Mageraghty in Mayo, and is now in possession 
of the Royal Irish Academy, in the National Museum. 

The only ancient Irish monasteries which survived were 
those at Annaghdown. 


Annaghdown was probably a bishop's see from the first 
establishment of territorial dioceses, comprising the whole 
kingdom of O'Flaherty, which included the land of the 
Delbhna Tire da Loch, the barony of Moycullen. Roderick 
O'Flaherty in 1684 considered Ballynahinch to have been 
part of the O'Flaherty lordship and therefore in Annagh- 
down. This view was I think based on the O'Flahertys' pos- 
session of Ballynahinch since they were driven west of the 
lake and on the fact that the parishes were in the Wardenship 
of Galway. The tribal relationship was with the Conmaicne 
of Cuil Toladh and the ecclesiastical relationship was really 
the same, the convent of Cong holding the rectories of all 
the parishes in that barony. The diocese comprised the 
following parishes 

Annaghdown, Cargin, Killursa, Kilkilvery, Killeaney, 
Donaghpatrick, Killower, Kilcoona, Lackagh, Claregalway, 
Galway, Oranmore, Ballynacourty, Rahoon, Moycullen, 
Killannin, Kilcummin. 

The synods of Rathbresail and Kells arranged that 
Annaghdown should be merged in Tuam diocese, but the 
O'Flahertys were too powerful and such arrangements 
could not be carried out over their heads. So the see con- 
tinued and was not absorbed by Tuam for a long time, and 
may be said to have been only united with Tuam as the 
Dean and Archdeacon and a small cathedral staff survived. 

Tuathal O'Connachtaigh Bishop of Tirbriuin who died in 
1179 is sometimes taken as a bishop of the Hy Briuin Seola, 
but Tirbriuin at that period meant the country of the Hy 
Briuin Brefne, the diocese of Kilmore. 

Cormac, in Latin Concors, Bishop of Annaghdown was 
present in 1189 at the coronation of King Richard I. 


H. Bishop of Annaghdown is witness to a grant by 
O'Flaherty of the rectory of Lismacuan, the parish in which 
Galway is, to the abbey of Knockmoy. The name of C. Arch- 
bishop of Tuam shows it was before 1201. 

Conor O'Mellaigh died in 1201 and therefore must have 
come after H. 

In 1241 Muircheartach O'Flaherty died. He must have 
been succeeded before 1247 by Thomas O'Mellaigh who died 
in 1250, regarding whom the following letter from Pope 
Innocent IV. to the Archbishop of Tuam dated 28th May 
1247, makes certain orders which seem to have resulted in no 
action against Thomas, if he is the same as the Thomas 
who died in 1250. I have abstracted it a little 

" Id. Dean, R. Archdeacon, A. Chancellor and the Chapter 
of the church of Enechdun reported that some time ago 
when the church was vacant, Thomas, formerly Abbot of 
the Little Cell of the Premonstratensian order, got himself 
intruded as pastor against their will, not without the vice 
of simony, by bringing forward false letters to the effect 
that he might be advanced to the episcopate in spite of his 
disqualification by birth, and set himself to waste the goods 
of the church. Being brought before you he confessed in 
your presence the defect of birth and falsity and simony, 
binding himself to you to go within a certain time to the 
Holy See to procure a dispensation if he could. Though 
he has appeared he has brought forward only the defect 
of birth. As it is a grave offence before God and an abomina- 
tion before men that so notorious a man should be set up in 
an office of such dignity, we refer the cause to you to carry 
into effect what you decree canonically by our authority." l 

On the 8th May 1251 the King assented to the election 
of Concors, i.e. Cormac, Canon of Annaghdown, as bishop. 
The election was confirmed by the Pope on the I2th January 
and the Archbishop was ordered to institute him. 2 Cormac 
was consecrated but the Pope seems to have had some doubt 
whether the Archbishop would obey or not, for in February 
he authorised the Archbishop of Cashel and the Bishops of 
Cork and Kilfenora to institute him if the Archbishop of 
Tuam should fail to do so within two months from the date 

1 Theiner, Vet. Man. Hid. et. Scot., p. 47, Ep. cxxiii. 
a Ibid., Ep. No. 130. 


of the prior letter. 1 The doubt was justified. Archbishop 
Flann immediately seized the bishopric of Annaghdown. 
Cormac appealed to the King. Flann pleaded that Annagh- 
down had been a parish church under Tuam, that the King 
had made it a bishopric by presenting two bishops, and 
that he had a bull from the Pope to reduce it to a parish 
church. Henry III. allowed the reduction on condition that 
the Archbishop should give him in exchange for land of 
equal value elsewhere a piece of land in the town whereon 
to build a castle. The Archbishop gave the King the vill 
of Annaghdown in 1253, and Cormac lost his bishopric. 
Neither King nor Archbishop cared much for the Pope's 
orders except to take their own profit from them. It may 
be that their arrangement eventually broke down. I cannot 
make out that any castle was built, and the King issued a 
license to elect on the death of Thomas Bishop of Annagh- 
down in 1263. It does not appear who this Thomas was 
but he must have been bishop after 1253. On the other 
hand it does not appear that any election was held, and the 
sees remained thus united until the death of Archbishop 
Tomaltach O'Conor in 1279. 

The Dean and Chapter then elected the Archdeacon 
John de Ufford, brother of Sir Robert de Ufford the Justiciary. 
The King assented to the election in March 1282-3. The 
Pope did not confirm it. Stephen de Fulburn the new Arch- 
bishop prevailed as John could not produce the Pope's bull. 
Owing to disputes the archbishopric was vacant until Stephen 
was appointed in July 1286, and was put in possession of 
the temporalities of both sees on the I5th September. 

At Stephen's death the Dean and Chapter prepared to 
assert their independence anew by placing the bishop's in- 
signia in charge of the Franciscan friars of Clare Galway. Arch- 
bishop William de Bermingham sent his Archdeacon Philip 
le Blound, or Blunt, who made a forcible entry and carried 
them off. Philip was indicted but the result does not appear. 

In 1303 the Dean of Annaghdown was in Rome com- 
plaining of the Archbishop's conduct. The following abstract 
of a letter from Pope Boniface VIII. dated 20th July 1303, 
shows the grounds of complaint. 9 " Appoints as judges the 
Bishops of Limerick, Emly (' Lacimensi ') and Kilfenora. 

1 Theiner, Ep. No. 131. * Ibid., Vet. Afon., p. 171, No. 373. 


Dionysius Dean of Annaghdown has complained that Arch- 
bishop William, in spite of the confirmation of the election 
of John de Ufford Archdeacon of Annaghdown, seized the 
bishopric by force and detains it and endeavours by every 
means to prevent the filling of the church ; he conferred 
on the Elect the Archdeaconry of Tuam to induce him to 
withdraw from prosecution of his claim and the Elect with- 
drew ; he made the officers and canons of Annaghdown to 
resign their offices and benefices into his hands, and robbed 
the said Dean who is also a Canon, of his Deanery, Canonry 
and Prebend, converting their income to his own use. He 
joined the Archdeaconry of Annaghdown with that of Tuam 
in fact, as he could not do it lawfully. He forcibly seized 
the insignia of the church deposited with the Friars of Clare, 
and broke some and burnt others. He has seized and retains 
the Bishopric of Mayo. He simoniacally forced Malachias, 
then Abbot of Boyle into the Bishopric of Elphin, when he 
had refused to confirm the election of Marianus who appealed 
to the Holy See. He associates with slayers of clergy and 
men under the greater excommunication. He oppresses 
his own subjects. Because a regular canon of a certain 
Priory would not allow the Archbishop's horse to be sent 
into the Priory's sacristy where the Eucharist and priestly 
ornaments were kept, he seized and imprisoned the canon, 
tortured him and made him swear to keep the fact secret. 
Judges to enquire and report their proceedings." Because 
these complaints or some of them were true, or as the only 
way to stop the quarrelling, the Pope agreed to separate 
the sees. In 1306 Gilbert, a Franciscan, was elected bishop ; 
who was given possession of the temporalities in 1308 after 
paying the King 300, equal to more than 6000 now, for 
himself and for the Dean and Chapter, because he had been 
elected without the King's license and had not procured 
the King's subsequent assent. The Dean and Chapter had 
to give security that they would not again hold an election 
without license, and would after election procure assent. 
The King confirmed the election on these conditions on the 
I5th July 1308. Gilbert had been consecrated by the Arch- 
bishop of Armagh as primate, the election having been 
brought into his court by appeal. Gilbert after election 
served in England as a suffragan for some time. On election 


he got protection for two years while remaining in England. 
This seems to have been until the election was finally approved 
and he was given possession. 

Archbishop Magee nevertheless attacked Gilbert. 
Edward II. wrote to the Pope on the 26th September 1321 
that Annaghdown always was and is a cathedral, that the 
Dean and Chapter elected Gilbert the present bishop on a 
vacancy. The Archbishop refused to confirm the election 
upon the pretence that the church was parochial and not 
cathedral and was annexed as mensal to his archbishopric, 
and was brought in appeal to the court of the primate who 
confirmed the election as canonically made and consecrated 
Gilbert. " We restored to him the temporalities and he 
subsequently went there and has been working there for 
several years. But the present Archbishop Malachy, of 
whom a certain predecessor usurped it is said that cathedral 
for a certain time without lawful authority out of avarice, 
succeeding obtained, by concealing truth and suggesting 
falsehood, apostolic letters to certain judges of his relations 
or friends, who are working to worry the bishop, alter the 
status of the church, and apply its goods to the Archbishop's 
use by erroneous and unjust processes." He calls upon 
the Pope to see that nothing be done to injury of the rights 
of King, Bishop, or Church by surreptitious processes. 

Gilbert died while prosecuting his cause before the Pope 
as recited in the appointment of Robert Petit. 1 

James O'Kearney succeeded Gilbert by the Pope's pro- 
vision ; the date is uncertain. He was translated to Connor 
in 1324. 

Robert Petit, a Franciscan, who had lately been de- 
prived of the see of Clonfert, succeeded. License to elect 
on his death was issued on Qth June 1328. 

Thomas O'Mellaigh, or O'Mellaidh, succeeded but died 
in 1328 at the Pope's court at Avignon. The O'Mellaidhs 
were a family who lived at Kilnamanagh in Donaghpatrick 
parish, mentioned often as churchmen. 

The Archbishop seized the bishopric but one Thomas 

was elected. In 1330 Edward III. refers to Thomas Bishop 

of Annaghdown as in danger of having to beg his bread 

owing to the Archbishop's action under colour of a surreptitious 

1 Theiner, Vet. Man., p. 231. 


order of the Pope for the union of Annaghdown with Tuam. 
The King's complaint was just. 

In 1324 the King sent Philip of Slane, Bishop of Cork, 
to confer with the Pope on the state of the church. The 
Pope sent him back with a commission to himself and the 
Archbishops of Armagh and Dublin for reformation of the 
church. They held a kind of council and passed resolu- 

1. That it is necessary to annex to the larger sees the 
small sees of 20 to 60 a year, " which are ruled by pure 
Irishmen who are known by themselves or by their relations 
to have sown contention and discord in the land." 

2. That the Irish Abbots and Priors should admit English- 
men to their monasteries as lay brethren as the English 
admitted the Irish. 

The King expressed his approval of these proposals on 
the 28th May 1328. But in spite of this arrangement, in 
hope of carrying out by secret intrigue what could not be 
done openly, the Pope made a secret order that Annagh- 
down and Kilmacduagh and Achonry should be annexed to 
Tuam at the next vacancy. Achonry was the only one 
which came under the terms of the agreement. This order 
was made in 1327 and purported to be made with the King's 
consent, though in fact he knew nothing about it until it 
was produced. 1 

The King objected to the union on the ground that 
Annaghdown was in a purely English district and Tuam 
in a purely Irish district. The whole of Annaghdown 
diocese east of the lake was occupied by English lords and 
largely colonised, whereas the country about Tuam to south 
and east had been left in the hands of Irish chieftains, and 
the barony of Dunmore only was actually inhabited by an 
English lord. The King's objection probably prevailed, but 
no more is heard of it. In a Papal letter of 22nd March 1359 2 
it is recited that on the death of Bishop Thomas while in 
attendance at the Holy See the Chapter, not knowing that 
the provision to Annaghdown was reserved, elected Dionysius 
Abbot of Boyle, praying that if provision had been reserved 

1 Theiner, Vet. Man., p. 239, and Cal. Papal Register. Papal Letters, 
vol. i. 

2 Ibid., p. 315. 


he might be appointed. Archbishop Thomas objected that 
Annaghdown was united with his see. The Pope now refers 
the case for report. This Bishop Thomas seems to be the 
man referred to in the King's letter. The King's authority 
was gone in Connaught and was not worth much elsewhere, 
so the Archbishop and the Pope now had their own way, and 
the see was united with Tuam until the translation of Arch- 
bishop O'Cormacain in 1394. 

The Pope then appointed Henry Turlton or Thrillowe to 
Annaghdown. He is called Henry Thrillowe in the letter of 
Pope Boniface IX. appointing him, dated 25th October I394, 1 
and it is recited that the present Pope reserved the provision 
of the see in the lifetime of Bishop John. Boniface became 
Pope in 1389. It seems therefore that a John had been 
made bishop, of whom there is no other record. Wadding 
gives Henry Trillouve in succession to John deceased, 2 and 
John Brit in succession to H. Trillowe deceased. A John 
T willow is also named as a successor of Henry Thrillowe. 
Henry's surname is also written Turlton. There is some 
confusion here. These bishops were absentees, suffragans of 
the Bishop of Exeter. Henry died in 1402. The following 
names now occur. The date is that of appointment, if 
known. 1402 John Brit. 1408 John Winne. Mathew. 
1421 John Connere, Franciscan. Thomas. 

Bishops Turlton, Connere, and Thomas mentioned in 
1450 and 1458, were suffragans of the Bishop of Exeter. 
In 1450 Donogh O' Murray was made Archbishop of Tuam 
and Bishop of Annaghdown. It is likely that he failed to 
pay his 133 gold florins for Annaghdown, as Thomas Barrett 
was appointed in 1458 on payment thereof. He seems to 
have had nothing to do with his see for many years. As 
he paid so much he must have expected some profit. 

In 1484 Richard III. sent Bishop Thomas, called a clerk 
of Somersetshire, to Ireland as his confidential agent to deal 
with Lord Kildare and other great lords for the recovery 
of Ulster for the King, and to bring the great Anglo-Irish 
lords to submission and loyalty. He had letters to the 
greater lords individually, to Lords, Staunton, D' Exeter, 
Nangle, Bermingham, and Barrett in Connaught. In 

1 Cat. Pap. Reg. Pap. Letters, iv. p. 479. 
8 Annales Afinorum, ix. p. 125. 


pursuance of the endeavour to keep the English from being 
further Celticised, he gave the town of Galway a new 
charter, relieving it altogether from dependence on Mac 
William of Clanricard and forbidding that lord to interfere 
in any way. The burgesses also procured the formation of 
the Wardenship of Galway, which must have been formed 
with the Bishop's consent and probably by his advice. The 
College of Athenry, which did not thrive, was a measure in 
the same direction. 

In 1496 Francis, a monk, is made bishop on payment 
of 133 gold florins. The diocese is never mentioned again 
as an independent see, except that John Moore, Bishop of 
Annaghdown, was presented to the prebend and vicarage 
of Lackagh in I55I, 1 and that he is called suffragan Bishop 
of Annaghdown in a Letter Patent of Queen Mary, 
26th November 1553. 

The Wardenship of Galway by degrees represented it to 
a certain extent and became the nucleus of the Roman 
Catholic diocese of Galway. 


On the 28th February 1484 the Archbishop of Tuam 
issued letters constituting St. Nicholas's parish church of 
Galway a collegiate church under a Warden and eight Vicars 
to be elected annually by the Mayor Bailiffs and Council 
of the town. A Papal bull of 8th February 1485 embodied 
and confirmed these letters. 

To this was annexed the half quarter which the convent 
of Knockmoy used to give to the Vicar of Galway ; and the 
church of St. James of Clare Galway to the extent of six 
marks yearly, the patronage being vested in the Mayor and 
Bailiffs who were to present to the Warden. The Warden 
exercised all jurisdiction, except as to what regards the order 
of bishops. 

The citizens of Galway retained English habits and re- 
fused to intermarry with the Irish : thus they kept up their 
civilisation and wealth while the Burkes and other colonists 
who adopted Irish customs were fighting and plundering 
and restoring the barbarism in which they found the country. 

1 Eighth Rept. of D. K. of the P. R. Ireland, Append. Fiant, No. 808. 


The towns had little in common with their neighbours and 
the breach widened every day. Ecclesiastical government 
by a bishop whose diocese save in Galway and Athenry was 
purely Irish in custom and who was at this time generally Irish 
by birth or habit was not likely to be satisfactory to them. 

William Joy, O' Murray's successor, confirmed this dis- 
position in 1486, and in 1485 added the rectory and vicarage 
of Oranmore and the vicarage of Meary or Ballynacourty, 
and in 1488 the rectory of Rahoon. 

On the 8th June 1489 Theobald de Burgo, chief of his 
nation, with the papal sanction, added his rights of patronage 
of those rectories for ever, provided prayers were said for 
him. He was Mac William Eighter, then the senior Mac 
William, but Mac William Oughter had to be conciliated. 
In 1488 he agreed with the Mayor of Galway not to impede 
but to further the union of Oranmore and Meary with the 
college, on condition that the Mayor procured for his son 
Richard the canonry of Tuam and prebend of Kilmoylan 
and the rectory and vicarage of Athenry, or for his son 
Theobald in the event of Richard's death. 

The college acquired also 

In 1487 the rectory of Gnobeg, or Moycullen parish. 

In 1488 the vicarages of Moycullen, Kilcummin and 

In 1492 the vicarages of Skreen and of Moycullen, to- 
gether worth not more than 14 marks. This Skreen is appa- 
rently some ancient church in Moycullen, not the Skreen 
at Tuam. The vicarage of Moycullen here means most likely 
the vicarage of some church in Moycullen. Kilrowan is a 
church near Oughterard. They had also the old church of 
Ross near it. Thus they had the whole barony of Moy- 
cullen, and in course of time acquired all the vicarages of 
Ballynahinch except that of Inishboffin. 

In 1501 the vicarages of Shrule and Kinlough were added. 

The Wardenship was thus endowed at the expense of 
the parishes. Not only rectory but vicarage is carried off. 
The superior clergy are enriched and the people's religious 
interests sufficiently cared for by a cheap curate. 

Litigation arose between the college and existing rectors 
and vicars. 

The Reformation soon came. The Mayor and corporation 


prepared a petition to Henry VIII., which owing to his 
death was addressed to Edward VI., surrendering the pos- 
sessions of the college and asking for a fresh grant, and for 
a grant of the rectory of St. Nicholas, which was claimed 
by the abbey of Knockmoy, whereby much dispute arose. 
The abbey held, under a grant by O'Flaherty with consent 
of Cathal Crobhderg King of Connaught, the rectory of 
Lismacuan in Clann Fergaile in which the town of Galway was. 

They got a new charter. At their request the title of 
the College was changed in 1551 to " The Royal College 
of Galway." 

Edward's charter effected a material change. The Mayor 
and Burgesses were to control the College which was exempt 
from ecclesiastical control. There had been, and were in 
future, constant disputes between the College and the Arch- 

In 1551 the Warden and Vicars admitted that they had 
no right to complain to Archbishop or Bishop as they had 
done, and engaged in future to complain only to the Mayor 
and Council who alone had jurisdiction over them. 

The College was not otherwise affected by the Reforma- 
tion until Queen Elizabeth's time when the members were 
Protestants. In 1578 she gave them the dissolved monas- 
teries of Annaghdown and Ballintubber in Mayo for a time. 

Hereafter the Roman Catholics maintained, when necessary 
secretly, a duplicate College under the old constitution, by 
meeting in secret to elect Mayor and Council who appointed 
Warden and Vicars. It was thus kept up until 1831 when 
the last Roman Catholic Warden Dr. French died, and 
the Roman Catholic diocese of Galway was formed under 
Dr. Brown as Bishop. It represents the Wardenship in 
extent comprising the Roman Catholic parishes of St. 
Nicholas, Castlegar, Claregalway, Oranmore and Ballyna- 
courty, Rahoon, Killannin, Moycullen, Kilcummin, Spiddal, 
Rusmuck and Lettermore, Shrule in Mayo. 

Hardiman gives a jury's finding of 1607 of the rights 
of the College in Galway, showing that they had dues from 
trades, artisans, manufactures, customs, tonnage dues, and 
rights to labour for repair of the church. 

At the Regal Visitation of 1615 it was found that im- 
provident leases had reduced the revenues from 80 a year 


to 40 a year. As the College could not lease for more than 
one year, the commissioners recovered at once and placed 
the revenues in charge of trustworthy men. 

In 1643 the Roman Catholics took possession of the 
church and held it until the town surrendered to the Parlia- 
mentary army. 

At the Restoration Dr. James Vaughan was made Warden 
for life by letters patent overriding the charter. After his 
death in 1684 Archbishop Vesey got letters patent uniting 
the Wardenship for ever with the Archbishopric. The Vicars 
were given their parishes with the episcopal fourths. In 
King James II. 's time the Roman Catholic Corporation was 
allowed to appoint the Warden and Vicars. Dr. Vesey pro- 
tested. The church was given up to them but the surrender 
to Ginkell restored it. 

The Wardenship was separated from the Archbishopric 
in 1734 and Samuel Simcox was elected. The benefice was 
worth 500 a year. 

The last Warden was James Daly elected in 1820. Two 
resident Vicars were elected annually under charter, with 
75 a year each, ranking as King's Chaplains. 

The Revenues of the College were 

I. Tithes and emoluments of the parish of St. Nicholas. 

II. Three-fourths of the tithes of Ballynacourty, Clare- 
galway, Oranmore, Rahoon, Moycullen, Kilcummin, Shrule. 

III. Lands worth about 254 a year. 

IV. The College House. In all about 1000 yearly. 

In 1834 the privileges of the corporation and Wardenship 
were abolished, and St. Nicholas became an ordinary parish 
church. Thus the Wardenship ended on both sides at about 
the same time. 




IN these dioceses are ruins of almost every style of ecclesi- 
astical architecture except that of the Gallerus oratory, 
which may be called a development of the clochan, of which 
there are specimens in the Western Isles. The purely Irish 
churches are classified thus by Miss M. Stokes : 

1st Type. Oratories in dry stone, showing no cement 
or cut stones, of 5th to yth centuries. 

2nd Type. Small churches built in cement and showing 
cut and picked stones. They date from the yth and 
8th centuries, after heathenism had disappeared as a 
political force. The true radiating arch dates from 
the gth and loth centuries. To some of these chancels 
were added in later times. 

3rd Type. The Irish Romanesque, an Enriched Round 
Arch Style, the Decorated Romanesque, introduced 
in the loth century. The capitals of columns in the 
doorways are always cushion or bell-shaped and a 
single entablature unites all. They are not true 
separate capitals. The Irish period closes about the 
year 1168 with the erection of the Nun's church at 
Clonmacnoise by Queen Dervorgilla. 

To these must be added 

4th Type. The Gothic Style introduced in the I2th century 
marked by the Pointed Arch. 

Of the ist Type is St. Brendan's Oratory in Inisglora, 
12' x 8' 6" inside, which was probably built in his time if 

not by him, and MacDara's Church on Cruagh MacDara, 



which is apparently of very much later date, being very 
finely built. These had roofs of overlapping stones. 

Remains of the 2nd Type are not scarce but are fast 
disappearing. The finest specimens are on Aranmore ; 
Tempul Benen, which lies from N. to S. having its door in 
the N. wall and its E. window close to the S. wall, measuring 
10' 9" x 7' ; Kill Cananach, 13' x 8' 6* ; Kill Enda 19' 6* x 9' 8". 
Glaspatrick near Murrisk of which but little is left is of this 
class, 17' 6" x 9' 10". These very small churches are con- 
sidered to have been oratories for the use of the priest, or 
for the monks of a monastery only. A much larger class 
of church must I think have been intended for congregational 
use. Such are Kilfrauchan 18' x 14' at one end, 13' at the 
other end. Killaraa 24' x 16' 6". Kilmainebeg 29' 6" x 9' 6". 
Church Island in Lough Carra 28' x 13' 6". Inishrobe 28' 6" x 
10' 2". All are inside measurements. Kilfrauchan has gone 
to ruin since Sir W. Wilde described it. 1 It had a loft sup- 
ported on beams. 

From the small churches an advance was made to the 
larger churches and to the use of the true arch. 

The early church was often surrounded by a cashel, a 
high dry-stone wall enclosing the monastic buildings, differing 
from the cashel fortress by a generally weaker construction 
and by irregulai ty of shape being designed to enclose build- 
ings. Moreover, it was commonly larger than the fortress 
cashel would be, which was intended to be held against an 
enemy. The cashel may be taken as evidence of a monastic 
community about the church. The best existing example 
is that of Inismurray off the coast of Sligo in the parish of 
Ahamlish. In these dioceses traces of cashels are not un- 
common, but as might be expected they are best seen in 
the Western Islands. 

The Isles of Aran are full of ecclesiastical remains. 

On Ard Illaun is St. Fechin's church ii/ IO* x 10', with 
two clochans and others ruined, and four crosses, in a cashel. 
Part of the cashel remains on Inisglora. The churches and 
various remains of the early monasteries are on Cruagh 
Mac Dara, Omey Island, Inishturk, Inishark, Inisboffin, 

Caher Island shows a singularly interesting group of 
1 Lough. Corrib, p. 155. 


ruins, of which Mr. R. Cochrane writes that its history may 
be described thus 

" (i) A pagan or pre-Christian religious settlement, which re- 
mained until long after the introduction of Chris- 
tianity in the mainland, perhaps, for several centuries. 
" (2) A primitive monastic settlement for several centuries. 
" (3) A sort of revival after the introduction of the ' new ' 
monastery, or religious foundation, on Clare Island, 
at which period Caher Island and the new church 
were dedicated to St. Patrick. 

" (4) The reconstruction later of the present church, and 
the erection of a two-roomed clergyhouse beside it, 
the latter now in ruins, and the foundations alone 
are visible." x 

The church is 17' x 14'. The east window is flat-headed. 
The west door has a very rude pointed arch outside and a 
flat lintel inside. About it are crosses and other remains 
of antiquity in a cashel. 

On the mainland are to be seen part of the cashel about 
Kilmainebeg and a large extent of foundations of buildings, 
showing that the cashel was at least in part a large well- 
built wall, such as the cashels of Moyne and Ross, and that 
there was a large establishment about the church. The 
enclosure seems to have been enlarged to take in more 

Illancolumbkille and Inishrobe in Lough Mask show 
traces of a wall making a large enclosure about the church 
and buildings. K; ^ 

These cashels were all of irregular shape, and the walls, 
except what appears to have been the original part of that 
of Kilmainebeg, were small walls. 

The cashel of Moyne in the parish of Shrule is a very 
fine specimen of a different kind of cashel. It was 8 feet 
thick and is in good condition round nearly all the circuit, 
and can be traced clearly in the rest. It is very large about 
380' E. to W. and 330' N. to S. in diameter, and seems to 
be symmetrically oval. A part of the cashel of Ross on 
Lough Mask remains near an iron gate on the hill above the 
church, and almost all can be traced in the existing fence, 
showing it to have resembled in area and style that of Moyne. 

,* R.S.A.I., 1900, xxx. p. 363. 


The cashel of Drum in Carra was nearly rectangular. 
The Tochar Phatraic passed straight across it. Cashels 
large and small no doubt were in many more places but have 
been cleared away except where the stones were not wanted. 
A similar cashel can be traced around the old church of 
Loona, and the Tochar Phatraic passing diagonally through it. 

Some of these may have been originally fortresses of 
kings, but I should say that they were built for the monas- 
tery, as such very large enclosures would require a very 
large force of men for an effective defence, being much larger 
than any of the surviving military cashels. Whether origin- 
ally military or monastic, it is to be remembered that they 
were only fences for the monks' own quarters. According 
to the importance of the monastery or wealth of the founder 
they were large or small. Inishrobe and Illancolumbkille 
were enclosed by what seem from their foundations to have 
been ordinary good walls. Moyne and Ross and Drum had 
walls that involved a great deal of labour and that must 
have been somewhat imposing in their way. Such a great 
cashel was about the abbey at Mayo. 

This Moyne is most likely to be the place named in the 
Martyrologies which mention Muicin and Eodusa of Maigen. 
At an early period chancels were added to some churches of 
this class, or naves were added and the old church taken as 
a chancel. They have sometimes been very much altered 
by enlargement, so that the original plan cannot be ascer- 
tained. Thus Kildarvila is now a Romanesque period church 
measuring 42' x 17' 6", but it seems to have been converted 
from a church of this period by lengthening to the E. 

Kilmaclasser is now 66' 6" x 13'. At the W. end is a 
piece of walling apparently of this period with part of the 
N.E. angle showing in the N. wall. Farther to the E. 
is another N.E. angle embedded in the wall. These have 
sandstone quoins. The church has been lengthened again 
and now has limestone quoins at the N.E. and S.E. angles. 
For want of door and window frames it is not possible to 
assign certain dates, but it may be inferred that the original 
church was of this period, that it was enlarged in the 
Romanesque revival, and finally enlarged in the Anglo- 
Norman period when the cut limestone was used. The 
church of Ross on Lough Mask seems to have been similarly 



enlarged with original width of 15' 3" to a length of 62' 6" 

The church of Kilcummin in Tirawley is a well-preserved 
example of the first adoption of the true arch. The W. 
door is a very primitive-looking form of the radiating round 
arch, and the two windows in E. and S. walls are quite of 
this period. 1 

Two ancient churches are anomalous. In a field 200 
yards N.E. of Ballyovey old parish church is the S. wall, 
forming part of a field wall, of what was probably the parish 
church before Ballyovey Church was built. It was about 
48' x 16', and shows a remarkable projection to the S. at 
the W. end. C D is of much larger stones irregularly laid 
than A B, and is of the style of the fragment at Kilkeeran 
and of Killarsa. A B is of much smaller stones in courses. 
A kind of plinth carries the line of C D towards A B. The 
door had inclined jambs. 




About half a mile to the S. at Kilkeeran on the shore of 
Lough Carra is a church of similar curious plan, of which 
only a part of the S. wall of very large stones remains, and 
the foundations of the others. These seem to have been 
of 2nd Type altered to 3rd Type, and may be the churches 
of Liba. -^nd Fortchern of Odba Cera who met St. Columba 
at Ballysadare. Exact measurements are given by Mr. G. 
Kinahan. 2 

With the adoption of the true arch an advance was made 
to larger churches and to churches with a high pitched stone 
roof over a barrel vault making a chamber over the church. 
This form is clearly to be traced in Kilmainemore and in the 
old church at Ballyheane, and I think that it can be seen 
in the fragment of Kilkelly. Kilmainemore is remarkable 
because it was originally a church 18 feet wide lying N. 

1 //. JR.S.A.L, 1898, xxviii. p. 297. 

3 y/. of Hist, and Arch* Assn. of Ireland ',"1869, p. 139. 


and S. with barrel vault and a chamber above. The 
northern part and the W. wall were removed, and it was 
made into an E. and W. church 52' 6" x 21' 3". The 
change was made in the early Gothic period and there was 
another change in the later Gothic period. 

The roof of Mayo Abbey Church was of lead sheets in 
the beginning of the gth century. 1 This may have been a 
peculiarity due to the connection of Mayo with England. 

In the latter half of the loth century a further advance 
was made to the 3rd Type, the Irish Romanesque, which 
lasted to the close of the I2th century, when the larger style 
introduced for the Cistercian abbeys superseded it. These 
churches were much larger and seem to have been often 
roofed with thatch or shingles. 

At Mayo and Killedan are seen small stone-roofed chambers 
near the church, which seem to have been chapels for family 
vaults or family burials. 

Very few examples of this type remain in an unaltered 
condition. Such are the Saints' Church on Inchangoill, with 
a nave 21' 10" x 12' g" inside, and a chancel IT/ 6" outside, 
and Inishmaine which is probably about the last of the 
type as Norman mouldings are found about the E. window. 
Inishmaine and Ballysadare, which is of this class, were 
both abbey churches and are much the same size, 62' x 21' 6" 
inside including the chancel and 70' x 33' outside respectively. 
Inishmaine is nearly the prescribed size of a Daimliag or 
Tempul Mor, 60' x 24' inside. 2 Ballysadare is peculiar, but 
resembles the Aghanagh Church and Killaspugbrone. Mr. 
Wakeman says that they show an original doorway with 
flat lintel and inclined jambs high in the western gable, for 
which the doorways in the S. and N. walls were substituted. 
He looks upon the arrangement as defensive. But it seems 
to me most likely that the N. and S. doors were also original 
and that the high doorway gave access to the loft from the 
outside instead of from the inside as usually is the case. 
This high doorway is no longer apparent at Aghanagh. 

Cong Abbey Church may be said to be chiefly of this 
period in which it was built, but it shows plainly the transi- 
tion to the Gothic. The Abbey Church of Annaghdown 

1 See p. 130. 

*Jt. J?.S.A,/.i vol. xvi. p. 75. 


is to be referred to this type on account of its E. window 
and door jambs. The nave was 9i / x2i / and the chancel 
17" x 14'. But it was the church of an important abbey and 
was a cathedral. .Being evidently from its size built for 
an abbey on the new pattern it must have been built in 
the I2th century. 

Tuam Cathedral built by Torlogh Mor in the middle of 
the I2th century must have been a beautiful example of 
the type, judging from the chancel arch and the E. window 
which are all that remain of it. 

Certain churches seem to have been altered very slightly 
from this type, as Donaghpatrick where very little change 
has been made except by putting a curious door in the eastern 
end of the N. wall, and Ballinchalla where I am inclined 
to think that new Gothic window frames have been put 
to the old splays ; but in absence of the whole E. wall 
of Donaghpatrick and of the door of Ballinchalla it is not 
safe to be positive. 

Kildarvila is an earlier church altered to this type. 


The Round Towers or Detached Belfries have been 
mentioned. There is another type to be dealt with, that 
of the rectangular towers attached to churches. 

A room or loft over the church supposed to have been 
used as a dwelling for the priest was a common feature. 
In larger churches such as Donaghpatrick the loft is confined 
to the western part of the church and the space below was 
also part of the dwelling, sometimes cut off by a wall. This 
arrangement is seen in very good condition in the church on 
Church Island in Lough Gill, but in these dioceses I have seen 
it only in fragments. 

It developed in one direction into the plan of the church 
at Attyrickard, in which the western part of the church is 
a small castle of three stories. The belfry of the priory of 
Aughris, which was described as like a castle, was probably 
such a tower. In another direction it obtained security by 
adding a square tower to the western gable. The Atty- 
rickard tower has a door leading from the church, and access 
to the upper stories by holes in the floors. The Illaunnaglashy 



tower has a door leading from the upper room of the church 
to the upper room of the tower, and access to its lower room 
must have been by a hole in the floor as there is no opening 
in the ground floor of the tower save a very small narrow 
pointed window in its N. wall. The Kinlough tower has 
doors communicating with the church rooms in ground floor 
and upper floor. 

The Tempul Clogas or Belfry Church on Iniscloran has 
the same arrangement. It is a Romanesque church much 
altered and the tower is considered to be an addition, and 
to be not earlier than the I2th century or even to be post- 
Norman. 1 In the three Mayo churches I take the tower 
to be a part of the original plan. They all show Gothic 
work and I take Attyrickard to be the earliest, and Kinlough 
to be probably later than Illaunnaglashy. The ground 
plans of the western parts of these two differ 



Illaunnaglashy presents the very unusual feature of two 
very small narrow windows in S. wall, one similar window 
in the W. wall, one similar window in the N. wall near 
the W. wall, and a ruinous opening, of either a door or a 
window in the N. wall of the ground floor room, which 
was cut off from the church by a cross wall which reduced 
the length of the church to the E. to 29' 6". But I am not 
quite sure that this cross wall is original. The church walls 
to E. of it are only about 3 ft. high and covered with 

1 R. S.A.I., 1900, xxx. pp. 81, 168, 257. 


rubbish. Nor am I sure that the gap in the N. wall is a 
doorway and not a broken-down window. 

Above the joist holes in the S. wall are the openings 
of two windows, of which the western is over the western 
window of the ground floor and the eastern more to the 
E. than the eastern ground floor window. The heads of 
those windows are gone, but what remains assures me that 
they were lancet windows, and certainly much wider and 
higher than the lower windows which were flat headed 26" x 4". 
The western window in the upper room is arched and is not 
over that of the lower room but more to the N. 



In the absence of the eastern part of the walls it is im- 
possible to make out the arrangements with certainty but 
the church is remarkably narrow for its length, suggesting 
that a very early church has been lengthened to the W. 
The upper windows are very large for such an upper room, 
and their distance apart suggests that the cross wall did not 
run up so high ; the whole appearance suggests that they 
were church windows. Yet the only thing to explain such 
an arrangement is the very early St. Columcille's House at 
Kells. 1 It measures 19' x 15' 5" inside, and had three stories. 
The first floor was a chapel to which there was access by a 
door 8 feet from the ground. It had a barrel vault and 
a loft above under a pointed stone roof. Under the chapel 
was a crypt, without door or window, accessible by a hole 
in the chapel floor. 

This does look as if the upper room might have been 
the church with a crypt under it. 

The Ullard church had a crypt under the chancel, lighted 
by a narrow slit. 2 

These three churches measured inside 

Attyrickard, 40' x 19' church, 16' x 19' tower. 

Illaunnaglashy, 58' 6" x 14' 6". 

Kinlough, 65' x 22' 4". 

1 Dunraven, Notes on Irish Architecture, ii. p. 50. 
3 Ibid., ii. pp. 86, 87. 


These churches certainly belong to the Gothic period, 
but are treated here on account of their towers. 

A small square tower is sometimes attached to the side 
of the church as in Cormac's Chapel at Cashel and at Mungret, 
which seem to have grown out of the round tower springing 
from a square base. 1 

The church of Inishmaine has a square building on each 
side. The larger on the N. side has good windows and 
is plainly intended for ceremonial or domestic uses. That 
of the S. side at junction of nave and chancel has no 
opening on the ground floor. It seems to be the butt cf a 

The churches of the 4th Type, the Gothic, are divided 
sharply into the abbey and the parish churches. 

The former are on a quite different scale, and after the 
death of Cathal Crobderg and the conquest of Connaught 
lost all distinctive Romanesque characteristics, preserving 
only reminiscence of the past in the mason's methods of 
making small windows and the like, but developing certain 
peculiarities of their own. Sometimes a very archaic little 
window has been utilised as in the Errew Abbey. 

Some of the large parish churches may be classed rather 
with the abbey churches, but on the whole it may be said 
I think that the parish churches of the I3th and I4th cen- 
turies are on the plan of Romanesque churches with door 
and window frames of the new fashion, which was materially 
modified from the English style. This modification was very 
much in the direction of using very narrow slits as windows, 
I suppose to keep out rain and wind in the absence of glass, 
and very few windows indeed. 

The Abbey Church of Errew is not dated but I class it 
as probably the earliest. It may I think be taken as certain 
that it is earlier than the year 1210 when the comarb lands 
were transferred to the bishops in this province. At the 
suppression it owned only the land given it by Robert Barrett 
in 1413. The extensive see lands about it I take to have 
been its endowment transferred to the bishop. The archi- 
tecture is very coarse and rough. Though the windows 
generally are pointed the}' are very few and very small for 
a church of this class. In the N. wall close to E. end is 

1 Stokes, Early Christian Archi. in Ireland, pp. 62, 63, 71. 


a small window with a round top hollowed out of a stone, 
looking very early, as if it might have been taken from an 
earlier church. A similar narrow slit is opposite in the 
S. wall but with a pointed top. The cloisters were very 
low and very dark, lighted only by a few narrow slits, and 
might more properly be called vaults. I suppose it to have 
been built by the O'Dowdas or O'Lachtnas sometime in 
the i2th century for the old abbot and convent transformed 
into canons of St. Augustine with a house suited for the new 
practices and ideas, built by Irish architects not yet familiar 
with the style. 

Knockmoy Abbey founded in 1189 is entirely Gothic, but 
at that time Gothic architects were abundant and it was 
a Cistercian house. 

Ballintubber Abbey founded in 1216 is somewhat 
composite. The windows of the E. end have a decidedly 
Norman aspect, but all the rest of the church is Gothic. 
Norman influence appears also in the conventual buildings. 

I know of no other abbey in these dioceses that can be 
dated earlier than the Anglo-Norman occupation in 1237. 
They are all distinctively Gothic, are unmistakable, and 
are dated within at least a few years. 

What may be called the great parish churches are a 
small group, only three known to me, which from identity of 
plan and size seem to have been built at the same time. 
They are 

Shrule, 91' io"x24' 4". Burriscarra, 9i'x23' 10". 
Holyrood at Ballinrobe, the ancient Roba in Carra, 102' 6" 
x 24' 6", which has certainly been lengthened towards 
the W., and seems to have been the same as the other two. 
Allowing for my measurements taken with a tape being not 
absolutely exact I think it may be taken that they were laid 
out to be identical in area. They have two or three lofty 
narrow pointed windows in the east end, a few similar 
windows in the side walls, two doors opposite each other 
in the N. and S. walls near the W. end, and at Shrule 
and Holyrood a small door in the S. wall near the E. 
end, probably for the use of the clergy. 

Annaghdown Abbey nave is the same length. 

They are certainly of about the same date as Kinlough, 
but this last has a Romanesque connection in the western 


dwelling ; the others seem to have been intended for some- 
thing more than the ordinary parish uses, and made pro- 
vision for priests' dwellings elsewhere. It is I think safe to 
take them to be the earliest of the Gothic parish churches 
and to assign them to the I3th century, and to attribute 
them to the Irish lords of the time of Cathal Crobderg 
rather than to the first Anglo-Norman lords, who set up 
monasteries and used parish church rectories to aggrandise 

The rest of the parish churches usually show the later 
ogival ornament and mouldings where any are left. But on 
the other hand they show rather the proportions and the 
arrangements of the Romanesque churches, as if there was 
a reversion to Celtic uses and requirements in parish church 
practices concurrently with the adoption of Irish social 
customs and laws. I infer that as the Anglo-Norman families 
threw out branches those branches rebuilt or reconstructed 
ancient parish churches. Of course the plan would remain 
the same when the " restoration " consisted of insertion 
of more fashionable door and window frames in existing 
walls, which is a very common case. But there are 
instances where the new church was built on a new site, 
and the architect was free to design what was thought 
best. A very good example of this is Tempul na Lecca 
at Cuslough. The old parish church is in ruins on Inish- 
robe. The new one showing ogival ornament is on the 

This church needs only to be stripped of ivy and shrubs, 
to be roofed, and to be plastered all over to restore it to its 
original condition. It is in plan typical of most of the parish 
churches of its period, whether restored Romanesque or 
original. They differ a little in proportion of length and 
breadth but the arrangements of door and windows are 
in substance the same. There is an E. window generally 
very narrow, but sometimes larger and even double as in 
Islandeady. In the S. wall is another narrow splayed 
window close to the E. wall in order to light the altar. 
In Tempul na Lecca it is so close to the E. wall that there 
is but 4" of splay on that side. This is sometimes larger, 
as in Kilmolara where there is a mullion. A door is in the 
S. wall near the W. end. If the church is long a small 



slit may be found between the door and the W. wall, or 
even two, as in Islandeady. The E. window and the 
window in S. wall near the E. wall are sometimes mere slits, 
as in Easky. 

The following list shows the general run of dimensions 

52' 2" x 20' 9" 
42' 3" x 17' 

A B Moyne .. 

AC Ballinchalla 

AC Aghagower 

ABC Kilmainemore 52' 6" x 21' 3" 
Killedan . . . 48'x2o' 
Kilkinure . . 53'6"xi8' 

C Tempul na Lecca . 41' x 18' 6" 
C Tempul an Machaire 37' x 17' 6" 
C Kilmolara . . 57'4"xi8'6" 
C Islandeady . . . 52'xi8'6" 
Ballyovey . . . 45' x 19' 

A denotes Romanesque original altered to B or C. B early 
Gothic. C Later Gothic showing ogival forms. 

Tempul Som at Knockatample in Kildacommoge parish is 
an exceptional church. It measures 26' 6" x 14' and had a 
western loft. The walls are remarkably high for the size, in 
order to allow such a loft. None of the openings have been 
left in their original state, but the church seems to be early 
Romanesque, or even earlier, judging from these indications. 
Into these walls an E. window has been fitted consisting of 
a wide rectangular limestone frame with a mullion ; a similarly 
wide rectangular window in the W. gable over the pointed 
door ; another in the S. wall near the W. wall. It seems 
to be the latest mediaeval restoration of all, applied to the 
earliest existing altered structure. 


They are in two divisions. The first shows a long rect- 
angle with a chapel at the W. end opening into the nave 
N. or S. wall, and conventual buildings on the opposite 
side, such as Ballinrobe, Burriscarra, Ballyhaunis, Urlare. 
This may be called the I3th century type. 

The second comprises churches which are divided into 
choir and nave by two arches supporting a nearly square 
central tower, with sometimes transept and aisle. The 
tower is less than the full width of the church and is there- 
fore elegant and slender in appearance. In one case, Bur- 
rishoole, the tower is the full width of the church. The 


choir is sometimes less than the full width of the nave. Such 
are Claregalway, Rosserrilly, Rosserk, Court Abbey. 

The date of foundation is known or the style indicates 
the period of most of the abbey churches. But that of 
Kilnamanagh is exceptionally difficult to date. It is men- 
tioned in an ancient tract on the Muintir Murcada. 1 It is 
the church of the parish of Struthir in Muntercuda (Muintir 
[Mur]cada) of the Taxation. The parish merged in that 
of Donaghpatrick and the rectory of the whole belonged to 
this monastery at the suppression. The Four Masters record 
the death of the Abbot of Kilnamanagh in 1438, who seems 
to have been a Connaught abbot. A Franciscan house has 
no abbot, but I suppose the term was used laxly. It may 
be assumed that this small house was not founded before 
the great house of Claregalway, reputed to be the first Fran- 
ciscan house in Connaught. The Rackets were then in 
possession of this country, and were probably the founders. 
It measures 94' 10" x 19' 9'. Part of E. wall and a great part 
of S. wall are gone. The E. wall stands save a part of the 
S.E. angle. A small flat-headed splayed window is not in the 
middle of it but nearer the N. waU, the middle of the window 
being only 6' 8" from it. A small window in the N. wall 

about 30 ft. from E. end has an uneven splay / I 

nearly straight on the E. side. Elsewhere I have seen an 
uneven splay only when a window in a S. wall is so close 
to the E. wall as not to allow a splay. A part of the N. wall 
to E. of this window is gone, so that it cannot be said that 
there was or was not another window there. The S. wall 
is down except at the W. end. 

At the W. end are joist holes and a small flat-headed 
window just above them in the S. wall, which I guess to 
measure in the opening about 15" *6". In the S.W. angle 

is a small window N on ground floor. 

Near the middle of the N. wall is a bit of much better 
masonry like the W. jamb of a door, apparent inside. Out- 
side, about opposite, seems to be a joint as if the church 
had been lengthened, and some appearance as if part of the 

1 ff. W.C. t p. 368. 


E. side of a doorway was carried on to the W. Mounds 
adjoining in the graveyard to the S. seem to be ruins of 
buildings in connection with the church. 

It seems that a Romanesque church with a loft has been 
lengthened to the E. to fit it for a monastic church. The 
work is done in a very rough way. I class it on the whole 
as a late reconstruction. 

Killeenbrenan or Murgagagh Abbey also presents the 
feature of a mediaeval monastic church constructed on the 
site of an earlier Irish church. In the E. wall is a small 
piece of very fine walling of pick-dressed stones with very 
fine joints, which seems to be a fragment of the E. end of 
a very much older church. Unfortunately the upper part 
of the E. wall is gone. The character of the rest of the build- 
ing agrees with the date of foundation, 1428, given in Arch- 
dall's Monasticon. The S. wall began to fall out and was 
reinforced by a thickening outside which went so high as 
to block a considerable amount of the square windows 
high up in the wall. A huge buttress supports this wall at 
the eastern end. 

Murgagach is Irish for cracked, having a crack or chink, 
and is a descriptive name. But it might have been applied 
to the far older church close by, called the Killeen, as in 
that case the chancel was built simply against the E. wall 
of an older church. It is impossible to fix its date, but the 
dimensions 61' x 19' whereof 19' 6" is length of chancel marks 
it as a comparatively late reconstruction. It suggests to 
me that this Killeenbrenan is the old parish church, and 
that the abbey was formed on another disused ancient church. 
The Killeen is in Moorgagagh Townland, .the abbey in that 
of Kill. The Killeen was once a very important establish- 
ment ; the land N. and W. and S. of it is covered with 
foundations of walls and buildings marking a large settle- 


CLOSELY associated with the ancient churches are Holy 
Wells. Bullauns, and Long Stones. 

Wells were objects of worship by the Irish and by the 
other nations of western Europe. But how they were 
worshipped and for what reason is now obscure. People 
went to them to pray for what they wanted and to leave 
offerings as they do to this day. Of the views held about 
them we have an indication in one direction in Tirechan's 
account of St. Patrick's proceedings at the well called Slan, 
from which we learn that the well was honoured and that 
offerings were made to it as a god, and that the people be- 
lieved that a dead prophet had been placed in a coffin in 
the well under the stone cover. This suggests a belief that 
burial in such a holy place would give a good start in the 
next life. The well worship was made tolerable in Irish 
Christianity by dedication of the well to a saint because 
it could not be eradicated, but it seems to have gained no 
more than toleration and so has retained its pagan features. 
In only a few cases have chapels been built at or over wells. 
Such a chapel is seen at the Holy Well near the Round 
Tower and old church of Balla. 

The mysterious bullauns are intimately connected with 
the holy wells, and in some instances are themselves used 
as holy wells. The bullauns seem to be a pagan survival. 
They are found not only as wells or bowls for water but on 
upright and sloping stones where they could not hold water. 
Those which are used as wells are on a stone sunk in the 
ground. In the parish of Killedan there are three. One 
called Gloonpatrick is at Oxford by the side of a stream 
where a large bullaun is in a stone sunk in the earth with 



a few stones built round to keep out rubbish. One called 
Patrick's Well is in the demesne of Ballinamore which is a 
similar bullaun in a stone sunk in a low mound of stones 
and grass, by the side of which are the foundations of a 
small rectangular building. The third is a little east of 
Ballinamore House, and is but a small hollow which may 
be natural, but it is accepted as a bullaun. Local tradition 
says that St. Patrick knelt in prayer at these three places, 
the hollows being worn by his knees, and there is an old 
saying that the part between these three stones will always 
be safe from wars and destruction. The first two are under 
old ash trees. 

Patrick's Well is most likely the place in Mag Foimsen 
where St. Patrick left Conan. The church has disappeared 
but in the circumstances it is I think fairly certain that 
there once was a church in Lisnacrus, or at least a chapel 
at the well. The mound and the foundations show clearly 
such an arrangement as exists at Patrick's Well in Kilcorkey 
parish of Co. Roscommon. This well is not a spring but 
a large stone with a large and small bullaun sunk in the 
ground. A sort of alcove has been built over it, and the 
alcove is approached by a narrow passage about 9 ft. long, 
sloping downwards so that at the opening of the alcove 
it is below the level of the bullauns. The passage is open 
above. Stones are piled all round so that the alcove is 
in the middle of a small cairn about 3 ft. high. 

Adjoining the cairn on the north are remains of a small 
rectangular building, of which enough of the west end 
remains to show that it was built with very large stones. 
It is like the cell or house sometimes seen in similar close 
relation with a holy well. Stations are still made here. 

The high road separates the cairn from the foundations 
of a small church. 1 

A little to the south of the Ballinamore Patrick's Well 
are the remains of a rath, and the country people say that 
stations used to be held, marked by little wooden crosses, 
starting from the well and round the rath back to the well. 
It is still called Lisnacrus. 

These may be taken to represent a class of artificial 
wells. Bullauns are commonly found in large stones and 
1 JL R,S.A.L, xxxii. p. 189. 


rocks near churches in conditions which afford no ground 
for supposing that they had been built over like those two 
wells. But they are very frequently used as holy wells. 1 
In some cases a holy well which is a natural spring is 
found near the church as well as a bullaun stone. It cannot 
be said that the bullaun was a substitute for a natural well, 
but it is evident that it was such in some cases, and that it 
was used in some religious fashion in other cases. The 
connection of bullauns with churches and holy wells needs 
careful investigation. 

The ash and the thorn tree are intimately connected with 
the holy wells and bullaun wells. One or other is almost 
always beside a holy well. The Sacred Trees of antiquity 
were called Bile. 

Lough Keeraun is a small bog lake, now nearly filled 
with water-weeds and the growth of bog, about 400 yards 
west of Temple Som or Temple na Lickeen and north of 
the road from Bohola to Bellavari in the detached part 
of the parish of Kildacommoge, and is remarkable as an 
object of unusual reverence like a holy well. Even now 
a great concourse of people make stations about it on 
Garland Sunday. Its reputation was still greater formerly. 
There is some doubt as to the meaning of the name which 
might be either Ciaran's Lake or Mountain Ash Lake. It 
is probably the former as these objects of pagan worship 
were usually Christianised by affixing a Saint's name. It is 
the Loughharrow of Wood-Martin's " Traces of the Elder 
Faiths of Ireland," ii. 99, with which he mentions a small 
tarn in the Co. Cork which is similarly reverenced, which 
seems to be also the Loughadrine of pp. 89 and 112. 

At a lake called Loch Cill Eascrach half a mile S.W. of 
Moylough, there was on Garland Sunday a great assemblage 
of people who used to swim horses in the lake to keep disease 
from them. 1 

Garland Sunday is Crom Duff's Day, and where we find 
these patterns at laJces and wells on that day we may safely 
assume that the annual ceremony has been taken over from 
the worship of Crom Duff. Garland Sunday is so commonly 

1 See also Jf. S.A.I., xiil p. 466, xxxii. p. 190. Ulster Jl. of Archaology, 
iv. p. 272, and Wilde's Lough Corrib, p. 294, for a few more instances. 
3 O.S.L.G., i. p. 232. 


the festival day of wells and churches associated with St. 
Patrick in these countries that I am inclined to suspect 
that he may have often been given for churches the places 
where Crom Duff was worshipped. It may be said that 
the temples of Crom Duff were given him for churches, 
for these objects of reverence were open air objects of nature 
and would no more need buildings than the festivals held 
at them to-day. By building a church at such a place he 
would divert the worship to Christian lines without too 
great a break in the associations of the common people 
and half-hearted converts. 


The Long Stone is often found at churches and then 
usually bears an inscribed cross. They seem to have been 
a pre-Christian form of monument in Ireland and elsewhere, 
and it is not unlikely that the church was put near the stone 
in some cases because it was a place where the people were 
already used to worship as at the wells. In the Doonfeeny 
churchyard is a very long and slender stone 21 ft. high, the 
longest in Ireland, bearing ancient inscribed crosses. 

Groups of three long stones are found in several places 
in Ireland. Two only are known to me in these dioceses. 
South of the old castle of Moneycrower are two very large 
long stones, one north and one south of the high road. Near 
the latter lies a third which seems to have been quarried 
but not set up. A short way to the east are the remains 
of a small ancient church and enclosure called Killeen- 

Killocrau a little west of Ballinrobe has some 200 yards 
west of it three small pillar stones. St. Patrick's seat at 
Duma Selce was among the three inscribed stones. They 
are likely to have had some religious significance. 

Ogham stones are found in these dioceses at Breastagh 
near Rathfran, at Bracklaghboy and at Tullaghan near 
Ballyhaunis, and at Ross on Lough Mask where remain but a 
few scores. Though the writing cannot be fixed as pre- 
Christian they are certainly a very early form of monument 
and have in some cases been Christianised by the addition 
of a cross. 



We have of ancient High Crosses only that of Tuam and 
the remains of that of Cong. These appear to have been 
put up as memorials and not over graves. The practice of 
putting up a memorial cross survived into the I7th century. 
By the roadside near Donamona Castle is the pedestal of a 
small high cross bearing this inscription " This cross was 
made in anno 1633 by David Kelly and Gate Bourke his wife 
for the soule of his [father?] Moyler Kelly who died 8 October 
1627. F r whom let all men pray " and other Latin in- 
scriptions and the instruments of the passion. The stones 
fell some years ago and some have been reset upside down. 
A family of O'Kellys occupied Donamona Castle. 


Small crosses are incised in various forms on standing 
stones and slabs and are to be found in very many places, 
so common as to need no particular notice. But a singular 
combination of crosses and other ornament incised on a 
stone in the old burying ground called the Killeen in Knap- 
paghmanagh near Westport calls for description. The 
graveyard is within a cashel or round enclosure of which 
part remains and most can be traced. On a roughly tri- 
angular slab of local greenish grey rock have been incised 
two concentric circles and a cross within the inner circle. 
The ends of the cross expand slightly. A very small round 
hollow is within each quarter of the cross. Above the outer 
circle is a full face the chin just touching the circle. On each 
side at about the level of the junction of the chin and circle 
is a much larger round hollow. These hollows are about 
12 in. apart. From below the circle three lines extend to 
the edge of the stone. In the lower left-hand corner are 
two crosses in a rectangle, like a union jack. 

The stone is 2 ft. 6 in. by i ft. 6 in. The outer circle 
is 9 in. wide and the inner circle 7 in. The head is 5 in. 
by 4! in. 

No particular piece of ornament is in itself very remark- 
able. The combination is so. The cross in a circle is 



common, as are hollows in the arms. The large outer hollows 
are unusual. The face is a common ornament of Irish 
architecture in the loth, nth, and I2th centuries. The face 
represented by incised lines, and the combination with the 
circle are new to me. The three lines from the circle to 
the edge of the stone are on stones in the churchyards of 
Rathmichael and Killegar near Dublin. 1 As in the latter 
case these lines radiate a little. The union jack cross is 
inscribed on the " altar table " at Toomour. 

This stone may have been a gravestone. It would suit 
as well as the slab so used in the Toomour churchyard, where 
Dr. O'Rorke has identified the tomb of the chieftains who 
fell in the battle of Kesh in 971. The remains are such as 
would be left by one of the old family tombs or chapels in 
Mayo Abbey graveyard. The " altar table " stone rests 
on a little altar in this enclosure. At its foot is a slab marked 
with two hollows and six small crosses, under which bones 
were found. A third hollow is ignored by Dr. O'Rorke and 
looks natural. 2 


These curious relics whose use has come down from pagan 
days are common in Ireland, and are known to be in several 
places in these dioceses. The commonest are smooth, 
round, or egg-shaped, or oval and flat-sided, such stones 
as may be picked up on any shingle beach of the sea or large 
lake. Differing in size and shape they are alike in being 
smooth and more or less rounded. Some are adorned with 
crosses, as on an altar in Inismurray. They are used to 
keep count of prayers or curses and are taken in the hand 
or turned round. Turning seems to be an essential part of 
the formula in most cases in which stones are used. Some 
sanctity or power inheres as no one thrives who takes one 
away. A set lying on the waU of the tomb of the chieftains 
round the altar at Toomour, and another set lying on the 
wall round St. Araght's Well near Coolavin have been figured 
by Dr. O'Rorke." 

1 R.S.A.I., xxxi. pp. 136-146. 
2 Hht. SKgo, ii. p. 212. md. , p p . 212, 382. 


In the burial ground of the old church of Annaghvick- 
anara 1 is a small altar on which is a slab about 3 ft. 6 in. 
long, raised about 18 in. above the ground. On the slab 
and about it are several such stones. In one, larger and 
thicker than the rest, a deep round hollow or bullaun has 
been worked. A natural channel runs out of the bullaun. 
It may be taken as part of the design because a bullaun could 
have been made as easily in a stone free from defect. The 
water which collects in the bullaun is reputed to be holy. 

St. Feichin's Stone, called also Casey's Sword, 2 formerly 
kept at his holy well near Castlekirke on Lough Corrib, was 
an oval flat stone used for swearing and cursing, of very 
great reputation. 

On the shore of Lough Cahasy near Louisburgh is a place 
where a few stones are piled together. Some are dumb-bell 
shape, two rounded stones joined by another kind of stone, 
a piece of conglomerate. The dumb-bell form is found in 
other places. Here people pray for recovery of sick friends 
and animals and sometimes bring sick beasts. Some fifty years 
ago a number of stones " like swords with handles " were 
piled on the heap. When a person had a spite against some 
one he used to turn these stones and say a prayer, and there 
came from this practice murders and bad storms. A parish 
priest threw them into the lake. According to an account 
given to Mr. Kelly these were bronze swords. 3 A standing 
stone with an incised cross is in the sandhills close by. 

It is remarkable that these things which were like swords 
lay on the shore of Lough Cahasy, and that Feichin's stone, 
used for the same purpose, bore the name of Cahasy's Sword. 
It suggests that Christian Feichin took over the business 
of Heathen Cathasach. 

1 See p. 48. 2 Otway, Tour in Connaught, p. 247. 

8 R. S.A.I., xxxi. p. 1 86. 



THE earliest list I find of See Lands is in an Inquisition 
taken regarding the ownership of lands in the county of 
Mayo on the 4th January I6I7, 1 in which the Archbishop 
appears as holding the following lands 

Lickin, i qr 1 About Temple na Lickin in 

Knocktample, i qr f Kildacommoge Parish. 

Carrownecroissa, qr. . . . J 

Dowaghmore, 3 qrs Doomore(inTallavbaunTl.)in 

Kilgeever P. included 4 qrs. 
whereof i qr. was in Inis- 
turk and Iniscaher, accord- 
ing to Strafford's Survey. 

Febrione, qr Fahburren Tl. in Aghagower P. 

Trianankile, of qr. . . . Lackakeely Tl. ? in Kilgeever 


Killinancoff y, f of qr. . . . Killeencoff in Oughaval. 

Kilgeyovare, qr Kilgeever. 

Bellanclare, qr Belclare. 

Knockstivan, \ qr. 

Oghevale, qr Oughaval. 

Ballivirrowe, 4 qrs. 

Balledrom , 4 qrs. 

Ballyowen, 4 qrs. 

Carrowb ney, qr. 

Lecarrowvalleononlowe, qr. . Ballydonnellan = Baile O 


Aghgower, qr Aghagower. 

Kiell, qr. 

Loughnagrohy, qr. 

Cornecarte, qr. 

Gortconessayn, \ qr. ... Gortacussane ; old name of 

land adjoining Ballydon- 

1 Dublin Pub. Rec. Off. Rolls Inqn. 
1 80 



Lackan in Aghagower. 

Moyhastin in Aghagower. 
Cross in Kilmeena. 
Moyour in Kilmeena. 

Island in Kilmeena. 

Knockprechare, qr. 
Dromgouloyne, qr. 
Tawnagh cartron. 

Leckan, % qr '. 

Ardogomane, qr 

Knockvallanmory, qr. 
Gorten Anny cartron. 
Killin, % qr. 
Deriragh, qr. 

Mohastan, qr 

Crosse cartron 

Moygowerbeg, moiety of qr. 

Knockbalcan, qr. 

Inishduff, qr. ... 

Dromaghgarve, qr. 

Kilmaclassy and .... 

Portinlane, qr. 

Coilshane, qr. 

Cagally, qr. 

Kilmaine, 2 qrs. 

Levally partry, 2 qrs. . . . Probably the Partry estate at 


Killellinan, 2 qrs Killernan in Kilmaine. 

Kilcower, 2 qrs Kilquire in Kilmaine. 

Cashelgergedan, 4 qrs. 

Doray, 2 qrs Doorath in Kilmainemore. 

Kilkeeran, 2 qrs Kilkeeran in Kilmainebeg. 

Killemaddere, 2 qrs Houndswood in Cong. 


Kilpraghan Kilfrauchan, i.e. near Dowagh 

in Cong. 

Cahirduff Cahirduff in Cong. 

Killin, 4 qrs Lecarrow Killeen, i.e. near 

Neale church. 
Dromkelly, 2 qrs. 

Nealle, 2 qrs . Neale, land near it. 

Kilvolarra, qr Kilmolara. 

Carownay, qr. 

Carrowogergedan, qr. ... Ballyargadaun Tl. 

Killosheine, 2 qrs Killosheheen in Ballinrobe. 

Coolmin, 2 qrs Coolmeen in Mayo P. in Curry 


Moorgagagh, \ qr Moorgagagh. 

Knock I Doroughy, qr. . . . Knockadoraghy in Mayo P. 

Cloghileyn, qr In Mayo P. 

Ballimagellan, qr. 


Carrowmaddoge, qr. 

Carrowkilbridy, qr Kilbride in Mayo. 

Ballimallavulla na crossy, qr. . Ballymullavil ? in Mayo. 

Ballimallavulla na siganagh, qr. Shinganagh in Mayo. 
Ballinageran, \ qr. 

Lehanagh, \ qr Lehanagh in Mayo. 

Ballinester, qr Ballinaster in Mayo. 

Crosbohin, qr Crossboyne. 

The names are sometimes illegible, obscure, or doubtful. 
Latitude is allowed in identifying. The present denomina- 
tions are not always the same in extent as the old ones and are 
usually applied to only a part. The names in these lists are 
to be read rather as names of estates or farms than as names 
of parcels of land. Because a name appears in this list 
it does not follow that the Archbishop ever owned a town- 
land which now goes by that name. The old name shows 
only that he had land in a tract known generally by that 
name. In some cases where land is good and denomina- 
tions were small the old and modern names may mean pre- 
cisely the same. The term quarter is used as a measure 
of value not of extent, meaning that the lands comprised 
in the denomination were equal in value to so many quarters 
of good land. 

To identify all or nearly all the lands of this list and 
the next would be a very laborious task, taking more time 
in search than I can give. 

These were held before the Archbishop received land 
in compensation for the Episcopal Fourths, which I have 
not been able to trace. 

The following table is a list of denominations of lands 
owned by the Archbishop of Tuam taken from the Schedules 
to the First Report of the Royal Commission on Ecclesi- 
astical Revenues and Patronage, 1833. The return is of 
the tenants of See Lands and their holdings arranged ac- 
cording to tenure and not according to locality, giving the 
names of at least the principal denominations in each hold- 
ing. Many names vary from those of the Ordnance Survey 
which came some years later, but enough agree to show the 
distribution of the lands with regard to old churches and 



Various Town Plots 
Gortnacraney, &c . . 
Killaloonty .... 
Garrinaclune .... 

Carragh Skreene . . 


Rabbit Island or Car- 

rancoony Clonburn . 
Tobbereila .... 
Tobbereala .... 
Gorane Cluane . 
Lisadyragh .... 
Strawmore .... 
Blackacre .... 


Tobbererla, pt. . . . 
Gorteraud, being part 

of old demesne and 

mensal lands . 











Close to Tuam on W. 
Garracloon ? adjoins Blackacre 

on W. of Demesne. 
Curraghcreen, close to Tuam 


Garracloon ? next Blackacre. 

Adjoins Demesne on W. 
Oranmore ? 

Cagallah alias Ardrum- "* 

kelly .... 
Stramore .... 
Cowpark .... 


Adjoins Killower Tl. on W. 



Kilbannan .... ^1 /"Probably Pollacorragune in which 

V 2024 4 is Kilbennan, and some more. 
Cloonfush J [Cloonfush in Tuam. 


Cloonashcragh . . . ~\ f Clonascragh in Tuam. 

Boyounagh . . . . / ^934 | Boyounagh in Boyounagh. This 

probably includes Cashel Tl. in 
which is Boyounagh Ch. 




Belclare Tuam 1 fClaretuam Tl. about Belclare P.C. 

Glanafosha . . . . >- I 566 -j Next S. of Claretuam. 

Toogony and Kilkerrin J [Kilkerrin Tl. in which is Kilkerrin. 


Knockroe, Brackloon, ^ fKnockroe, Brackloon, and Gor- 

Gortagarrane . . . / \ tagarraun Tl. Cloghmakeeran 

Ch. is in Brackloon. 

4 qrs. of Knockref aghy 
called Finane, Car- 
rowbeg, Aultore 2 

- 1898 


West of Kilmacnelly . 369 
East of Kilmacnelly . 448 
Carrowthomas . . . 207 

Cloonsheen . . . . 588 Gortnabishaun C. is in it 

Kilmeen 673 

. . . 30 Kilfelligy Ch. is in it. 



158 Tl. a little S. of Annaghdown. 


Kiltullagh and Atty- 


h and Atty- ) 



Kiltullagh Ch. 




Killothenoiscre . 
Errislannen . 
Keerane . . . 
Deralighter . 



fKilflannan is in Kill Tl. which 
adjoins Keerhaun Tl. They 
579 -j are in the Peninsula of Irrus- 

^Derry Eighter ? 

Moyrus . . 
Ennispigot . 


fMoyrus Tl. contains Moyrus 
1004 < Ch. 

Russina . 


122 Rusheen Tls. are next to S. 

of Rosshill. 
288 Moorgagagh Tl. 


Kiltramadra . . . ^ /"Hounds wood in Cong P. 

Moorgoger . / \Moorgagagh Tl. in which is 

Killeenbrenan . 

Cong . . . . 
Terreneve . . 
Tullyhane . . 
Cahirdaff . . . 
Ballymagibbon . 

Killing . . . 
Gensduff . . . 
Gortnahiske . 
Killopneshane . 
Drimilly . 

r Cong Tl. 

Caherduff Tl. 

Ballymacgibbon Tl. lying about 

- 622 
255 Next to N.E. of Dowagh. 




Cahernicole . . 
Leganaganky . 



'Cahernicole and Loughana- 
ganky in Ballinchalla P. 
which adjoin and include an 
old church in Cahernicole. 

In Cong. It includes the Neale 
Ch., where is a fragment of 
an ancient church. 

Surrounds Kilmolara Ch. 


Ballynai . . 


- 679 - 

Tl. in Ballinchalla, next E. of 
old Glebe house of Neale. 

Killosheheen Tl. including old 
church near Ballinrobe. 


Castleardigan . . . ^ f 

Kilgowre I Kilgowre seems to be Kilquire 

V 1364 -I about Kilquire Ch. 

Killelinane Dowry, Killelinane is Killernan in 

called Knock Dowry J [ which is Killernan B.G. 

Duoroy \ f Dowry and Duoroy seem to be 

Doorath a TL adjoining Kil- 
627 I lernan to the E. 
Kilmaine, with the 
fairs and markets . 



304 Tl. about Kilmainebeg. 


Kilcommon, other- ^ 
wise Gortglass and l 
Church Quarter . . J 

Tl. about the church. 




3 houses and gardens \ 
in Mayo Town . 
Knockderaghy . 


Lyaneagh .... 

Ballymacgourine . 
Knockecassine . 
Ballinlavit .... 


Ballynaster .... 
De Cross 


Knockobeg .... 
Coolimeen .... 
Ballymurry . . . ./ 


Loonamore . 

Old Village . . 
New Village . 
Knockananean . 

Mayo Parks and Knockauna- 
brona Tl. are Mayo Town. 

Knockadoraghy TL, a little W. 
of Mayo Town. 

Shinganagh Tl. next E. of 
Mayo Parks and Portagh. 

Lehanagh Tl. adjoins Mayo 

Ballymullavil ? close to E. of 

Shingan Tl. 

S.E. of Knockadoraghy. 
Old name Ballymullavil de 

Cloonbaul Tl., a little E. of 

Mayo Parks. 

Curry Tl. 


92 Tl. in which church is. 



'Loonamore and beg lie on E. 
and S.E. of Walshpool and in- 
clude old parish ch. of Loona. 


Drumbrick .... 
Knockatampal . 


1359 \ In Knockatemple Tl. is Tempul 
Som or Tempul na Lickecn. 
In Ara are two old churches. 








/In Kilkeeran Tl. is old church. 
In Portroyal Tl. are old P.C. 
and an older church. These de- 
nominations comprise a large 
tract round about these old 
churches of Ballyovey divided 
into smaller denominations in 
the tithe applotment books as 
follows, which are represented 
in modern townlands except 
those in italics. Kilkeeran, 
Clydagh, Demesne (Portroyal), 
Cliff Park, Limekiln Park, 
Gallagh, Kilcloon, Windmill, 
row Upper, Clooncah, Anagh- 
ardree, Cloonee, Derrue, 
Sraigh, Furnace, Townevode, 
Derrassa. A few of these are 
detached, as Derrassa. 


Ballendonellan (Bally- 
donnellan) .... 
Sunagh (Shanagh) . . 
Gortacassane . . 
Garue (Garrow) . 
Crowbill (Crowbill) . . 
Lahertane (Lahardane) 
Carrakeel (Carrowkeel) 
Aghagower (Aghagower) 


All these except Gortacas- 
sane are identified as round 
about Aghagower and Mount 
Browne Demesne. Gortacus- 
sane adjoins Ballydonnellan 
on S., but name is disused. 


Belclare . . 
Mermihill . 
Innisduff . 
Innisturk , 

f Church field in which is Ougha- 

4 val Ch. 

[Close W. of Oughaval. 

("These two adjoin and include 

\ Glaspatrick Ch. 

Lackan in Aghagower. 

Kilmeena Ch. is in it. 

j-Islands of Kilmeena P. 


Mayour . . 
Mayourbeg . 
Leganillaga . 
Roigh . . . 




> Mayour in Kilmeena P. 


Drenard . . . 
Cross Shralieve . 

Falduff . 
Ballyhip . 


Raigh in Burrishoole, a little 
S.E. of St. Brendan's Well 
and E.G. 

/Drumard and Cross adjoin 

\ Kilmeena. 



^These 3 are about Kilgeever P.C. 

Next S. of Foorgill in Oughaval, 
in which is Milla B.C. 


Drumacphilbin 1 f I do not make out these names, 

Kilforan . . . . unless the last two are Temple 

Gortnaclog .... -12,570-; Doomore in Tallavbaun Tl. 
Doughmore .... and Lackakeely Tl. in Kil- 

Keely _, [ geever P. 

The composition for the barony of Costello or BaUyhaunis 
in 1587 notes that the Archbishop of Tuam owns 

Kilmolmney does not appear in 
the names of places in the 
Tuam part of Costello barony. 
None of these lands were in 
possession of the see in the 
i pth century. 

Stratford's Survey gives in Barony of Costello Clownegawnagh 
and Kilbragan, two small quarters. In Aghamore P. See 
List of Churches and Graveyards. 

The Archbishop owned also the following lands in the 
dioceses of Elphin and Clonfert 


Aghanagh .... 1876 Aghanagh includes the old P.C. 

but more townlands are in 
eluded in this denomination. 

In Kilmolmney, i qr. 
In Annagh, qr. . 
In the Knock, i qr. 




/'All except Kiltinneel are town- 

c . ock , lands. I have not identified 

Itmneel . . . . | Kiltinneel. The others form 

Ballycummin . . . }- 487 


Rushport .... 

a contiguous group a little 
to the south of Kilmore old 
church and townland. 

Shankill 366 About Shankill. 


Kildalloge .... 202 An old church is in the adjoining 

Vesnoy Tl. in Strokestown 


Taghmaconnell . . . "\ ,_ f With the tithes. The old church 
Cloonoghil . . . . / \ of Taghmaconnell is included. 

In the 1 6th century the Arch- 
bishop owned the four quarters 
of Oran. 

In 1285 he sold to the King his 
lands in the Faes of Athlone 
for 20.* These must have 
been lands in the parishes of 
Drum and Moore. 

1 Z>./., iii. No. 169. 



THE parish is the unit of ecclesiastical organisation from 
which the deaneries and dioceses have been built up, and 
is the tract of country which is served by a church and the 
priest or priests attached thereto. It must have existed 
in a fashion since the first church was built, and as churches 
increased in numbers and the whole population became 
Christian, exact boundaries must have been fixed. The 
territorial area of the parish is naturally the extent of the 
lands of the family or set of families who made use of the 
church. In" early times families set up churches as they 
pleased. We can infer this from the multiplicity of small 
churches often close together. A family gave a monk a piece 
of land for his church and cell. While organisation was still 
loose and shifting, one church or another would get the 
mastery when they were too close together, and would be 
improved and enlarged while the others decayed. In later 
times the parishes came to be grouped to form larger bodies 
at the will of the clergy, though the grouping was much 
affected by the influence of the richer families. The forma- 
tion of larger dioceses and of larger parishes went together. 
We have the evidence of this amalgamation of parishes 
in the ruined churches all over the country. We have 
direct evidence that the great amalgamation took place 
in the I2th century or early I3th, in the Epistle of Pope 
Innocent III. which is given under the diocese of Killala. 
The prebends tell the same tale. Almost every graveyard 
or Killeen was about an old church. Sometimes the church's 
foundations can be traced, sometimes the name of the place 
shows there was a Kill. This is so commonly the case that 
I doubt if many really pagan cemeteries still exist. I sus- 
pect that a church was put to make a pagan cemetery 



Christian and avoid a breach of custom to which the people 
would not willingly submit. 

The transfer of the comarb lands to the bishops rendered 
considerable amalgamation necessary as a church which 
supported a priest with its endowment land might not do 
so without it. Thus churches would fall naturally into 
groups served by one man, and as naturally the outlying 
churches would fah 1 to ruin. The regular levy of tithe 
made the transfer of the comarb lands possible, but the 
tithe was by no means the equivalent of the ownership 
and enjoyment of the land on which the priest could 

O' Donovan gives an interesting instance of survival 
among the people of the parish of Lackagh in Annaghdown 
diocese of the memory of the ancient parishes, which had 
been amalgamated before the year 1306. They told him 
that it was once five parishes i. Lackagh. 2. Kiltroge 
(St. Tr6g's). 3. Grange dedicated to St. Suibhne whose 
holy well is near it. 4. Kilsgeach. 5. Derrymaclaughney. 1 

The earliest list of parishes of the dioceses of Tuam and 
Annaghdown is in the Ecclesiastical Taxation of 1306. In 
Reeves' s " Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, Connor and 
Dromore " it is described as originally a tax of one tenth of 
movables and annual income of all men in aid of the crusades, 
which soon became a tax on the clergy only, without much 
pretence of crusading. It was granted by the Pope to the 
King or levied by the Pope for himself. Pope and King 
naturally quarrelled over it. It had been repeatedly granted 
and levied in Ireland. In 1306 King Edward I. got from Pope 
Clement V. a grant for two years, afterwards extended to 
seven years, of the Ecclesiastical Tenths of his dominions, 
for which was made a new valuation which we have here. 
The only exemptions were in favour of Cardinals, and the 
Templars and the Hospitallers. 

Being a revenue survey and not an ecclesiastical survey of 
churches and houses it is in some respects defective. The 
barony of Moycullen is wholly omitted from the Taxation of 
Annaghdown. This may be because the churches therein were 
so poor as to have no taxable income ; though the churches 
close to Galway should have been fairly prosperous at this time ; 
1 O.S.L. Galway, i. p. 288. 


if each parish was very small the income might be so cut 
up as to be not worth assessing in any case. 

So too Clare Island and the other Western Isles are 
omitted unless included in Kilgeever. 

The Isles of Aran were in the diocese of Kilfenora, but 
were not taxed as nothing could be got from them. For 
the same reason the parish churches of Ardagh and Kilmore 
dioceses are omitted. These were purely Irish countries 
and the ecclesiastical collectors could not have got any- 
thing out of them, and the clergy must have been miserably 
poor there. In the diocese of Elphin certain churches are 
marked as waste or worth nothing on account of war. 

The assessment was made by two sub-collectors, who 
got returns for each deanery from the rural deans, who 
had the assessments made by jurors on oath. Being made 
for taxation it may be taken to be well within the average 
income. Many monasteries having no taxable income do 
not appear. The mendicant orders are in that condition. 

The ancient monasteries had lost their lands, so do not 
appear unless they had acquired lands later or had other 
property. Their income from rectories was taxed under 
the parish church. 

The country was so much impoverished by Brace's war 
that a new taxation was ordered at the close of Edward II. 's 
reign, and benefices not exceeding 6 marks in value were 
exempted unless the holders were beneficed elsewhere. The 
order was repeated in the first year of Edward III., and 
again in 1330 when he had a grant of the tenth for four years. 

These lists are taken from Sweetman's " Calendar of Docu- 
ments Relating to Ireland," vol. v. The reading of the names 
is sometimes guesswork, but they can almost always be 
made out somehow with certainty as a corruption of some 
known Irish name. It will be noticed how these parishes 
have for the most part subsisted as separate parishes from 
1306 until the Ordnance Survey came 500 years later. I 
have altered the spelling of the Irish names when necessary 
after collation with the originals. Sweetman seems to 
have sometimes put what he supposed was intended. In 
assessing a parish church the formula is the church of 
is assessed at so much for the Rector who had half the income, 
so much for the Vicar who had one fourth, so much for the 




Archbishop or Bishop who had one fourth. For conciseness' 
sake I ignore this distribution and give only the whole assess- 
ment, except in cases in which it is not distributed in the 
usual way. The name of the church or beneficiary and the 
assessment are taken from the Taxation. The other columns 
are my additions. In the column of identifications C. means 
that it is that church, P. that it is a church in that parish. 
The assessment is made in and s. and d., and in marks and 
subdivisions of marks, the mark being 135. 4^. or i6od., very 
convenient for subdivision. I reduce all to terms of s. d. 




1 Taxation of all the goods, as 
well Temporal as Spiritual, 
of the Lord Archbishop of 
Tuam, except the fourths of 
churches, one fourth of which 
he received as below, made 
by jurors worthy of credit . 

2 Rents and revenues, both 
temporal and spiritual, of the 
Chapter of Tuam, excepting 
eight churches belonging to 
the Dean and Chapter, in 
which they have three parts 
and the vicars the fourth 
part, the names of which are 
contained below 

3 Goods of the Monastery de 
Colle Victorice, in the first 
year when the church of 
Anagdun was united to the 
see, in which church the 
abbot and convent of the 
monastery aforesaid had the 
rectory and vicarage of Gal- 
way, and the chapel of 
Foranbeg, excepting these, 
and also excepting the rectory 
of Erdermada, in the diocese 
of Tuam ; taxed by jurors 
worthy of credit .... 


115 6 ii 

I 17 2 

42 13 6 


Knockmoy Abbey. 




4 Goods of the house of St. 

John, in the suburbs of 
Tuam, excepting their 
churches as appears below. 

5 Goods of the house of St. 

Mary of Cunga, excepting 
17 churches, of which they 
are rectors 

6 Goods of the house of the 

fountain of St. Patrick, ex- 
cepting their churches . . 

7 Goods of the community of 

St. Michael of Magio, ex- 
cepting their churches . 

8 Goods of the monastery of 

Casta Silva, excepting the 
Chapel of Killegil . . . 

9 Goods of the monastery de 

Portu Patrum of Anagdon, 
excepting the churches of 
Adchudrignigi and others of 
which they are rectors . 

10 Goods of the abbot and con- 

vent of the little cell of 
Anagdun, excepting their 

11 Parish church of Tuam, for 

portion of the dean and 

chapter, who have 3 parts . 

Portion of the vicar in the 


12 Church of Kilbenon . 

13 Church of Kilconlagh with 

the chapel of Kelsenbota . 

14 Bukdennach 

15 Bukeran 

1 6 Eadargull . 

1 7 Kelmachamlyd . . . . 

1 8 Talfeto 

19 Auner', for the portion of 

the Rector who has three 




s. d. 

2 O 

5 18 8 

9 10 5 

I O O 

13 18 4 


10 o 

i 13 4 


13 4 


o o 
o o 
o o 


2 O O 


Cong Abbey. 


Mayo Abbey. 


Kilgill in Annagh- 

down P. 

St. Mary's Abbey 
at Annaghdown. 
See Annaghdown 

Kilbennan C.P. 
Kilconla C.P. 
Kilshanvy C. 
Boyounagh C.P. 
CloghmakeeranC ? 

in Clonbern P. 
Addergoole C.P. 

Dunmore P. 




s. d. 



I 3 




I 3 







Kilmacrigan (Hospital) . . 




Dubloch, Rector .... 



Vicar .... 




Kilstoich, for the rector who 

has four portions . . . 




Dissertbebar, for the rector 

who has three portions . 


Vicar .... 



Enagharuck, Rector . 


Vicar .... 








Keldara, Rector .... 



Vicar .... 























O J 












j j 

Sum of Taxation of Deanery 

of Tuam 




The Tenth . . . 





Kilkerrin C. 
Northern parts of 

Kilkerrin P. 
Kilmoylan C.P. 
Cummer C.P. 
Killererin P. 

Killoscobe C.P. 
In Aghamore P. 
The rector really 

has only % 
Kilcronan C. in 

Aghamore P. 
Aghamore C. 
Kildara C. in 

Annagh P. 
Bekan C. or in 

Bekan P. 
Drumcalry i.e. 

Knock C.P. 

Annagh C. in 

Annagh P. 
Kiltullagh C.P. 
Moore P. and 

Drum P. 


The church o 
the chapel 

Kilmeyn . 

f Athenry with 








Sum of the Taxation .. . 
The Tenth . . .' 






Taghsaxon C. i.e. 

Abbert or Mon- 

ivea P. 
Kilmeen C.P. in 

Leitrim barony. 




i Struthir 

s. d. 

Shrule C 

\t. A 

Kinlough C 

I O O 

Moyne C 

4 Killyngmylrorynd .... 
5 Cunga 

I O O 
2 O O 

Neale Old C. Cong 
Cong P C un- 

6 Inismedon 

2 O O 

Inishmaine C 

7 Rodba 

i 6 8 

Ballinrobe C. 

8 Kilmorosegir 

I O O 

Killosheheen C 

9 Kellnygiglara 

2 O O 

Kilmolara C. 

10 Ros' 

i 6 8 

Ross C. 

1 1 St. Patrick of Kilmedon . 
1 2 The Apostles of Kilmedon . 
i 3 Kilcolman 


Kilmainemore C. 
Kilmainebeg C. 
Attyrickard C in 

1 4 Loghmescan .... 


Cong P. 
Ballinchalla C 

1 5 Inysredba 

i 6 8 

Templenalecka in 

1 6 Margos 

I O O 

Ballinrobe P. 
Moorefaeach C.P. 

17 Kelkemantuyn .... 
1 8 Rossclaran 

i 6 8 

1 3 4. 

Kilcommon C.P. 
Moyrus C. ? 

19 Innidsclin 

16 o 

Omeyfeheen C. 

Taxation of Deanery . 
The Tenth . 

3i 9 4 
3 2 nj 

i St. Gerald 


*. d. 

Mayo P. 


Balla C.P. 

4. O O 

Kilcolman C.P. 

2 O O 

Crossboyne C.P. 

5 Theachuyny, Rector . 
Vicar . . . 
6 Rodbini with the Vicarage . 
7 Rodbad in Kera .... 

8 Enagh 


16 4 


i 6 8 

Tagheen C.P. 

Robeen C. 
Holyrood, Ballin- 
Annagh C. in 

9 Kilfyna, Rector .... 

10 Thauaghta 

6 8 
i 6 8 

Robeen P. 
Kilvine C.P. 

Touaghty C.P. 



11 Nova Villa of Kera 

12 Odeyn 

13 Fayte 

14 Drum 

15 Cagal 

1 6 Rosselowe 

17 Luyne, Rector 


1 8 Berethnagh [or Berechnagh] 

19 Sclanpatrick 

20 Tirlagh 

21 Turaunt . . 

22 Clancuan 

23 Clanedre (re is doubtful) 

24 Achedaver .... 

25 Noucongal, Rector . . 

Vicar . 

26 Kilgovir 

27 Kilmayn 

28 Latharis . 

29 Kilmalasser 

Taxation of Deanery of Mayo 
Diocese of Tuam 
The Tenth 


5. d. 

2 O O 

2 O O 

2 O O 

1 13 4 

2 13 4 

IS o 

5 o 

13 4 

13 4 



I O O 

6 8 

1 O O 

2 13 4 

13 4 

56 16 4 
360 6 5 
36 o 7| 


Burriscarra C.P. 
Ballyheane C.P. 
Ballyovey C.P. ? 
Drum C. 
Cagala C. i.e. Bal- 

lintubber P. 
Rosslee C.P. 
Loona C. in Drum 


Breaghwy C.P. 
Manulla C.P. 
Turlough C.P. 


Aglish P. 
Islandeady C.P. 

at Aghagower. 
Cloonpatrick C. 

Oughaval P. 

Kilgeever C.P. 
Kilmeena C.P. 
Burrishoole C.P. 
with Achill P. 
Kilmaclasser C.P. 


Taxation of benefices, rents, and revenues of this Diocese 
made by jurors worthy of credit, in the second year of the 
tenth being current, after the final separation of this diocese 
from that of Tuam. 


s. d. 

i Goods, rents and revenues 
of the Bishop of Enagdun, 
saving fourths of churches, 
which he received as below . 28 




2 Goods of the Monastery de 

Portu Patrum of Anagdun, 
excepting the churchof Ath- 
dreny and other churches in 
which they have rectories . 

3 Goods of the Abbot and con- 

vent of the Little Cell of 
Anagdun of the Premon- 
stratensian order, excepting 
their churches 

4 Mecheri 


5 Foranmore ...... 

6 Foranbeg (not distributed to 

Rector, Vicar, or Bishop) . 

7 Roscam, Rector ..... 

Vicar ..... 

Bishop ..... 

Galway, the Rector and Vicar 
Bishop ...... 

9 Clardun duwl hospital i . 
10 Audreny (not distributed) . 
i i Anaghdun ...... 

1 2 Chapel of Delgill, Rector and 
Vicar ....... , 

Bishop ...... 

13 Kellthomas or Kellthama 

(hospital) for the portion-of 

the rector in the sanctuary 

Portion of the same in lay fee 

Bishop ...... 

14 Leatragh ....... 

1 5 Killeny (hospital) .... 

1 6 Kellfynfyt, for the rector in 

the sanctuary (hospital) . 

Portion of the same in lay fee 

Vicar ....... 

Bishop ...... 

17 Donnaghpatrick for portion 
of the rector in the sanc- 
tuary (hospital) 
Portion of the rector in lay fee 

s. d. 

8 o 


6 13 4 

I O O 





1 13 4 

14 4 

2 13 4 



2 O 

8 o 

5 o 

i 6 8 

13 4 

3 o 

12 O 

7 6 

7 6 

3 4 





Oranmore C. 
Oranbeg, church 

site not found. 
Roscam C. 

St. Nicholas C.P. 
Claregalway C.P. 

Cathedral ? P. 

Kilgill C. in An- 
naghdown P. 

Kilcoona C. 

Lackagh C.P. 
Killeany C.P. 
Killursa C.P. 

Donaghpatrick C. 

Hospital " is in left-hand margin in original. 




1 8 Killawyr in the sanctuary 

s. d. 

2 O 

Killower C.P. 

Portion of the rector in lay fee 

8 o 
$ o 


<; o 

19. Rathmyalid, Rector and 
Vicar . 

I O O 

Cargin C.P. 


6 8 

20 Struthir in Muntircuda 
Rector and Vicar . 


I O O 

Abbey C. 

2 r Kilkelwyll 

I O O 

Kilkilvery C.P. 

Taxation of the diocese of 

72 19 8 

The Tenth . . . 

7 5 "i 

besides hospitals. 

And be it known that procurations and perquisites of the 
visitation and chapters of the Archdeaconry of Annadown 
are not taxed because they appear above at the end of the 
taxation of the diocese of Tuam. 

Note. They are not given there. 


1 Temple larlaithe a little N.E. of the cathedral was the 

parish church, said to have been the church of Tuam 
proper, the western part of the parish. The church of 
the Shrine, also close to the cathedral was looked upon 
as the parish church of the eastern part. 

2 The Archbishop had no fourth in the churches of the Dean 

and Chapter, Nos. 1 1 to 1 8 inclusive. 

3 The Abbey of Knockmoy must have been taxed for the 

parish church, or else the parish is concealed under some 
other name. The parish church was called in the i6th 
century the church of the Great Door, in Irish Teampoll- 
andorusmoir. 1 

5 From later lists the 17 churches seem to be all in this list 
except Kilmainemore which was a prebend and Roba 
which was a rectory. 

1 Bodkin's Visitation and Regal Visitation o 


1 5 Bukeran. Probably Both Ciarain in the graveyard at Clogh- 
makeeran. It is the parish of Clonbern. 

17 Kelmachamlyd. \ Templetogher and Liskeevy and Bel- 

18 Talfeto. / clare are not accounted for. Belclare is 

likely to have been taxed as part of Tuam parish as 
the rectory was part of the Deanery, or under the Chapter 
rents and revenues. So these should represent the others. 
But I cannot make out what the words are meant for. 
The former looks like such a word as Kilmachanely. 
Cill MachAinlighe. 

19 Auner' is the parish of Dunmore, the only parish of the 

Conmaicne of Dunmore which was held by a rector. It 
may be a contraction for Aunery, for Athnariogh, but 
no such name is in use. 

20 Kilkerrin parish would be the southern part of the parish 

of that name. 

21 Edermoda is the northern part of Kilkerrin. The church 

should be Kiltullagh, where O'Concennain, chief of Ui 
Diarmada lived. 

24 Probably Killererin parish. 

25 Kilstoich. This must be meant for Killpscoba. 

26 to 35 * Abbeyknockmoy and Moylough and Ballynakill 

Aghiart cannot be identified in this list. The Abbey of 
Knockmoy held the rectory and vicarage of that parish 
and the rectories of Moylough and of Kilfelligy in Killos- 
cobe, and it is possible that the abbey was taxed for those 
churches, departing from the usual practice. It is to be 
observed that the only items said to be excepted from their 
taxation are their rectories in Annaghdown diocese and 
that of Edermoda. 

Ballynakill Aghyart is noted in the Regal Visitation of 1615 
to have been parcel of the rectory of Killererin. It may 
have been so held and taxed at this time. 


4 Killyngmylrorynd (Cillin Maelroraind). The Townland of 
Lecarrowkilleen includes the site of the ancient church of 
the Neale. It belonged to the Archbishop. I suspect 
the ancient church to be this Killeen which owing to its 
position in the list is likely to have been near Cong. 

7 From Petty's map I gather that the present church is on 
the site of the old church. 

1 For reasons for identification see R.S.A.I., xxxi. p. 27. 


S Kilmorosegir (Cill mor O'Segin). Segin is a man's name. 
Killosheheen is in a townland of that name which be- 
longed to the Archbishop, close to Ballinrobe. 1 

9 Kellnygiglara. This is Kilmolara which would mean church 
of My Lara or Labhra, but no such name is known. 2 I 
do not know what " gig " represents, but the old and 
modern names seem to be variations of one idea, church 
of Lara or of Lara's . 

13 Kilcolman cannot be identified with certainty but is most 

likely to be the church of Attyrickard near Cross. The re- 
mains show it to have been an important church and the 
taxation also marks importance. 

14 Loghmescan. The old church at Ballinchalla. We may 

infer its proper name to be Killower from the adjoining 

17 Kilkemantuyn. I take this to be Kilcommon which is 

not otherwise noticed. 3 

18 Rossclaran. ) These two must cover the barony of Bally- 
Innidsclin. J nahinch. The former should be the name from 

which we take Moyrus and the latter a corruption of Imad 
Fhechin, Fechin's Isle. The barony is not likely to have 
been omitted as Cong Abbey held all its rectories. The 
Deanery has 19 churches named in this list. Roba and 
Kilmainemore rectories did not belong to the abbey. As 
it is most unlikely that any of the 17 churches escaped 
taxation I think that these two covered Ballynahinch 
barony, Conmaicnemara. 


i St. Gerald. Templegerald has disappeared. We may take 

it to have been close to Mayo Abbey. 
3 Tyrnehathyn = Tirnechtain. Kilcolman is probably the 

church meant. In i3th century William de Bermingham 

held this rectory before he became Archbishop. In the 

1 6th century Mayo Abbey owned it. 
5 Theachuyny = Teachcaoin. It might be read Teachnyny, 

but the modern form Tagheen points to the former reading. 
7 Rodbad in Kera. The parish is the part of Ballinrobe parish 

which lies north of the river Robe. 
10 Thauaghta. The parish church was where Towerhill House 


1 See Cong Abbey, p. 256. 2 O' Donovan, O.S.L.M., ii. p. 219. 
3 See R.S.A.I., xxxi. p. 30. 


13 Fayte. This may be the Irish Faithche, Fahy, a lawn. 
It must be Ballyovey parish, and probably that old church 
whose ruins show its importance. 

1 8 Berethnagh or Berechnagh. This is Breaghvvy church and 
parish. The name may be Brecmagh from which comes 
Breaghwy, but it is more likely to be Brethnach, the Irish 
for Welsh. A family named Brethnach, now Walsh, was, 
and still is, in that neighbourhood and has given its name 
to Walshpool in Drum parish. Breaghwy was included 
in the territory of Clanncuain which belonged first to the 
De Barrys and next to the De Cogans, both Welsh families. 

22 Clancuan. The church was probably in the old graveyard 

at Castlebar. In later times the parish is called Aglish- 
cowane and Dromrany. 

23 Clanedre. A mistake for Olanedin = Oilen Eidin. Eidin is 

said to be the name of the founder of Islandeady Church 
who was buried in it. 1 

28 Latharis. I take this to be Leath Fhearghuis, Fergus's 
Half or Share. O' Fergus was name of one of the three 
chief families of Umall. The old parish church of Burrishoole 
is close to the Abbey. 2 


2 Athdreny. \ These and Adchudrignigi (p. 195), seem to be 
10 Audreny. / the Irish Achadh Draighneach or Thornfield. 
It should be some church in Lackagh or Annaghdown. 

4 Mecheri. A form of Medhraighe or Meary. 

9 Clardun du wl. This seems to be meant for Clar an 
Diabhail, the Devil's Plank, the name used in the i6th 
century for Claregalway, taken from a plank bridge there. 
13 Kellthomas or Kellthama. This may be certainly taken 
for Kilcoona because it belonged to the Hospital of St. 
John at Castledermot, as did Kilcoona. Taking it so 
all the parishes belonging to that house are accounted for. 

1 6 Kellfynfyt. I take this curious name to be a copyist's 

corruption of Cell Fursa, Killursa. 

17 Donnaghpatrick. This church seems to have been given 

up by the Hospital in return for Kilkilvery, which belonged 
to the Hospital in the i6th century, when Donaghpatrick 
belonged to Kilnamanagh Abbey. 

1 O.S.L.M., ii. p. 480. 

2 For particulars regarding Patrician churches, see Journal of R.S.A.I., 
1901, pp. 26-39, and p. 432. 


19 Rathmyalid. Probably the church of Cargin which is in 

an old Rath, and which was the corps of the Archdeaconry. 

20 Struthir in Muntircuda. This should be in full Struthir 

in Muntir Murcada, which exactly describes the country 
about the old church of Kilnamanagh, which was in the 
part of Struthir (Shrule) which was under O'Flaherty. 
This parish church was afterwards made an abbey church. 
See notes on Architecture. 

21 Kilkelwyll (Cill Cilbile). Kilkilvery was on the site of 

Ross Lodge, i 

1 O'Donovan, O.S.L. Galway, i. p. 201. 


THE next list of parishes is contained in Bodkin's " Visitation," 
which was made at the close of 1558 or early in 1559, or 
thereabouts. Lally was dean and Richard Bourke of the 
Kilmaine family was MacWilliam Eighter who succeeded 
David of Carra who died at the close of 1558. The names 
are very difficult to make out owing to contractions. It is 
in the usual contracted Latin with marginal notes. I give 
a translation. The MS. is in the Library of T.C.D. marked 
Class E., Table 3, No. 13, Primate Hampton's Collection. 
Marked No. 582 in the new Catalogue of Manuscripts. 

These are the names of the Dignities of the Church of 
the Blessed Mary in the city of Tuam and of its prelates 


Master William Lolay has the Deanery of Tuam and the pluralist 
Rectory of Athnary and the prebends of Lecach. And his J^rlsc! 
farmers are troubled contrary to the letters of the Lord time of ( 
Deputy and the Council often addressed to him by John 
de Burgo the Sheriff in the Deanery, and Dumb Thomas de 
Burgo in the Rectory and in the prebends of Lecach. 

John Eque is Provost of Tuam and Rector of Balenaley, John E< 
but Thadeus O'Mallay detains part of the Provostship and Pj^f 
Thomas de Burgo son of John of the Termon the whole of Mary 

The Archdeaconry is vacant, but the fruits are usurped Vacant, 
by Blind William de Burgo as follows below. 

Five Vicars of the Church of the Blessed Mary of Tuam, Admitte 
viz. Thomas O'Donayll who is troubled by Lord Bermingham, Ordinar 
John Cosgray who is troubled by John de Burgo the Sheriff, 


Collative, i.e. 
as I think. 


Voide by 
reason it is 



p enim petora 
tempe Ma. 





John Duyn is at Dublin, Conla O'Kennay is at Oxford, 
Thomas Magleyn is at Dublin, students. 

John son of William Vicar of Scryn but Sheriff John de 
Burgo holds part of the profits, and because he cannot live 
in his country on account of want of living he has gone away 
to Dublin. 

Names of prebendaries and prebends of the Cathedral 
Church of Tuam. 

John M'Seonath possesses the prebend of Kyllmyn and 
studies in Dublin. 

Robert O'Keayllay has the prebend of Kyllmeayn mor 
but Remund M'Coonyn detains half. 

William son of John de Burgo forcibly usurps the pre- 
bend of Maynkylle. 

Blind William de Burgo forcibly usurps the prebend of 
Balla and the prebend of Falduyn. 

John Pindrogos usurps the prebend of Balenigarray and 
the prebend of Cluynmor. 

And William O'Mulvihil the prebend of Templegalle and 

Malachy son of William holds the Rectory of Kyllcaryn 
and Swarthy Donatus and Thadeus O'Kellay by usurpation 
detain half the profits. 

Thomas O'Kernay Vicar of Kyllconla. 

John Bermingham Vicar of Lyskyvay Kyllbenean and 
Kyllclune and is troubled by Walter son of John de Burgo 
in regard to the profits. 

Cornelius O'Hyfernayn Rector and Vicar of Dunmor, 
but is troubled in regard to the profits by Sheriff John 
de Burgo. 

Remund M'Coste Vicar of Adruguyll and James Ber- 
mingham holds half the profits. 

Donald M'Cagayn Vicar of Templetocayr and M'Davy 
holds half the profits. 

Donatus M'Gryvay Vicar of Kylltulach but the Rectory 
is by usurpation detained by O'Conwyrdunn. 

Ruricus M'Gryvay Vicar of Kyllmeyn. 

Ruricus M'Crystech Rector of Maio and Vicar of 
Crosboyyn and John M'Murys usurps the profits of the 

William Piemen Vicar of Tecayn. 


Odo Omurchun Vicar of Maio and Walter M'Murys usurps 
the profits. 

Vicarage of Kylldacomog 
Vicarage of Corrayn 

Vicarage of Torlach 
Vicarage of Oleaynedayn 

These are voide 
by reason of 


Rectory and Vicarage of Clacny 
are vacant and deserted 

Thomas O'Hubayn in Burgeskora and Belahen and if Coiia. 
there were anything in Belahen it is usurped by Myler M'Mi. Plurahst - 

Taltoc Vicar of Baleove but if there were anything it Coil, 
is usurped by Cryna M'Myle. 

These are benefices possessed by Blind William de Burgo Coll. 
a lay man (?) by usurpation, though certain persons have 
been given title in them. 

Archdeaconry of Tuam -\ All these livings are 

Rectory of Moyinalam 
Vicarage and prebend of Balla 
Vicarage of Kyllmyna 
Vicarage of Burges Wyll 
Prebend of Faldown 

usurped by Wyllyam 
Keighe and although 
there are others unto 
whome the same are 

Rectory of Vuallymalle is possessed by Captain O'Malle Coil, 
and by the sons of Thomas Ymalle. 

Vicarage of Innysbofyne is usurped by Red Thadeus Ail those are 

O'Mallp usurped with- 

u mane. out tille or 

Vicarage of V nayll is usurped by the sons of Thomas right. 

Vicarage of Acagovayr is usurped by Risterd de Burgo. 

Vicarage of Kyllgayvayr is usurped by Eugenius O'Malle. 

John O'Donayll Vicar of Kyllm'clacer studies at Oxford Coil 
and Ranald M'Conoyll usurps the profits of the Vicarage. 

Rectory of Roba is usurped by Lord M'William Burcke. Coll. 

Vicarage of Anay is usurped by the same. 

Vicarage of Lech is usurped by Thomas de Burgo, and Coil, 
the Archiepiscopal fourth of that Vicarage and of the Vicarage 
of Nahany are usurped by the same. 

Vicarage of Robyn is usurped by Blind Thomas de Burgo. <-'oii. 
Its Rectory belongs to monastery of Maio. 

John O'Kayllay Vicar of Roba and Baynkalay but the Coil, 
profits are usurped by Lord M'William Burcke and 

his brother David. 




The personage 
of these Vicar- 
adge belongs 
to the Abbey 
of Conge. 


The person- 

adge hereof 

perteyneth to 

the Abbey of 



This personage 

perteyneth to 



The person- 
adge hereof 
dot he perteyne 
to Conge. 


The Rectorie 
hereof per- 
teyneth to the 
Abbey of 


Rectorie per- 
teyneth to the 
Abbey of 

Rectorie hereof 
perteyneth to 


Reel, per- 
teyneth to 


Rectory pre- 

Vacant because they 
are deserted. 

Conla O'Kennayn Vicar of Kyllcomayn studies at Oxford 
and the profits of the whole Vicarage are usurped by the 
sons of Risterd and William de Burgo. 

Rectory of it belongs to the monastery of Conga. 

Vicarage of Humoheyn 

Vicarage of Balenakylle 

Vicarage of Balencony 

Vicarage of Moyrus 

But the Rectories belong to the 
Monastery of Conga. 

Kervall (Cerball) O'Kayllay Vicar of Kyllmolara. 

Richard M'Mylere usurps half of the profits. 

Rectory of the same Vicarage belongs to the Monastery 
of Conga. 

Do (Odo ?) Onell Vicar of Conga. Edmund de Burgo 
usurps the whole profits. Its Rectory belongs to the 
Monastery of Conga. 

Robert O'Kayllay Vicar of Kyllmeaynmor and Pre- 
bendary. Half of the Vicarage is usurped by Walter son 
of John de Burgo. Half of the prebend is usurped by 
Reimund M'Ceonyn (Mac Seonin ?). The Rectory belongs to 
Monastery of Conga. 

Cairbre O'Kennayn Vicar of Kyllmeayn, student at 
Oxford, and the profits of the Vicarage are wholly usurped 
by Edmund de Burgo and Risterd Guerre of Duray. The 
Rectory belongs to the Monastery of Conga. 

John O'Konayll Vicar of Kyllynbrenayn. The Rectory 
belongs to the Monastery of Conga. 

Dermot O'Ruain (?) Vicar of Scruyr. The profits are 
usurped by William son of John de Burgo. Rectory is of 
Conga Monastery. 

John Og O'Dorcay Vicar of Kynlacha. The profits are 
usurped by William son of John de Burgo. Rectory is of 
Monastery of Conga. 

Myler O'Hugyn Vicar of Belclayr but the profits are 
usurped by Myler de Burgo. 

Cornelius Og O'Metay (O'Melay ?) has the Rectory of 
Kylleryran, and Malachy O'Kellay and Thadeus O'Kellay 
divide between themselves. Also that Cornelius has the 



Vicarage of Great Gate, and Malachy O'Kellay has the Coil. 
profits, and the Vicarage of Kyllostoba troubled by Swarthy 

Donatus O'Kellay. perteyns to the 

Abbey of 
T^I s^t-rr IT- r -. i Knockmov. 

Thomas O Kennayn Vicar of Mylacha but the profits coil. 
are divided between Thadeus son of William Y Kellay and The 
Swarthy Donatus O' Kellay and Thadeus son of William. The 
Rectory belongs to the Monastery of the Hill of Victory. Knockmoy. 

The Rectory of Galway belongs to the Monastery oi 

Thomas O'Huryn Vicar of Kylleryeran and half the coil. 
profits are detained by usurpation by Thadeus O'Kellay 
and Swarthy Donatus O'Kellay. 

Thomas O'Hyryle Vicar of Kylcaryn and half of the profits coll. 
are detained by usurpation by Malachy O'Kellay. And also 
that Thomas has the Vicarage of Cluynbernd. Odo Og son 
of Odo son of Edmund holds by usurpation half of the profits. 

David O'Cosgray Vicar of Kyllvicriayn. Coll. 

Stephen Kyrrnayn Archdeacon of Enachdun and Rector Coil. 
of Kyllvicriayn studies continuously at Oxford. 

Four Vicars of the Church of Enachdun. Coiia. 

Keeper for two of them Clement Skeret. 

The other two are Thadeus and John M'Nile (or Uile or 
Vile) but they are troubled by Sheriff John de Burgo and 
his brother William and Dumb Thomas de Burgo. 

Patrick Black Dean of Enachdun. Waste. Coll. 

The Warden and Vicars of Galvia. 

Vicarage of Kyllcomyn. 

Vicarage and Rectory Of Mycollen. 

These are the 
livings united 
to the Col- 

Vicarage of Ranuch (Rahoon ?). 

Vicarage of Clar. 

Rectory and Vicarage of Uranmor. 

Vicarage of Balena rthe 

(Ballynacourty ) . 

Vicarage of Kyllkyllvyre is vacant. Coll. Voide. 

John son of Jonatus Prebendary of Kyllmyna who studies 
at Dublin about to go to Oxford. And Edmund de Burgo 
brother of the Earl of Clanricard usurps the profits of the 
prebend contrary to the Archbishop's collation and the royal 

Lodovicus O'Grada Vicar of Kyllmyna. Coil. 



Coll. Clement Skeret Prebendary of Kyllmylayn and Sheriff 

John de Burgo holds half the profits. 

Coll. Myach M'Myltoly Rector and Vicar of Mycarnayn. 

Coil. Maurice Onuyn (?) Vicar of Kyllmylayn. Sheriff John 

de Burgo holds half the profits. 

Coil. Clement Skeret Vicar of Lecach and Dumb Thomas de 

Burgo holds half. 

Coll. Dermot M'Cray Vicar of Balenakylle Achiard and Cor- 

nelius Og retains a part of the profits. 

The above is rather a list of clergy than of parishes and 
so numbers of parishes are not mentioned. Thus Aghamore 
and Knock and Bekan and Annagh are ignored, but I suppose 
that they were all held by one incumbent, the Archdeacon, 
who had the parish of Knock as corps. Thus several 
parishes round Headford are also ignored. Also Monivea 
or Abbert. 

The chief interest is the view of the state of the church 
some 20 years before the Government was able to exercise 
real power in Connaught, showing great decay and corrup- 
tion and the new growth of a national spirit of purification 
and improvement. As yet the Reformation had not ex- 
tended appreciably into Connaught as an external influence. 
Abbeys had been suppressed but they were still occupied 
by the monks in these dioceses except a very few. Henry VIII . 
had appointed Bodkin to be Archbishop, and he held posses- 
sion but was not acceptable to the Pope. Laymen are found 
to have seized the endowments of the church to a very great 
extent and without any show of right. For many rectories 
vicarages and prebends are recorded as held wholly or in 
part by force. This must mean that they collected or kept 
for themselves the tithes. These laymen are the great men 
of the country, the Sheriff of Galway, William Bourke, 
brother of Richard an larainn, commonly called the Blind 
Abbot, MacWilliam and his brothers Thomas and David, 
and O'Malleys and O'Kellys and others. On the other hand 
the spirit of improvement is shown by the notes that certain 
incumbents are studying in Dublin and Oxford. This spirit 
no doubt was fostered by Bodkin, but he was himself a man 
of education and the desire for improvement must have been 



Notes on Places and Names in Bodkin's List 

The reading of names is somewhat uncertain owing to con- 
tractions and want of distinction between some letters and 
illegibility. Thus Kyrrnayn may be Kyrruayn and may mean 
Kirwan. The Irish Christian names have been Latinised. I 
now give them together : 

Carbricus = Cairbre. Cornelius = Conor. 

Donatus = Donnchadh. Eugenius = Eoghan. 

Malachias = Maelseachlainn. Jonatus = Johnock. 

Ruricus = Ruaidhri. Odo = Aedh. 

Thadeus = Tadhg. Seonath = Johnock. 

Johnock is a form of John used in Ireland, like Robuc and 
Daboc and Willeog from Robert, David, William. 

Descriptive Nicknames 

Cecus = Caoch = Blind. 

Fuscus = Riabhach = Swarthy or Striped. 

Guerre = 

Juvenis = Og = Young, or Junior. 

Mutus = Balbh = Dumb, or Stammering. 

Rufus = Ruadh = Red. 

Dumb Thomas. A Thomas Balbh was uncle of the Earl of 
Clanricard, but this may be another man. 

Eque. This name is read Egne in the Blake Family Records, 
p. 10. 

Balenaleg. This should be in the barony of Kilmaine as 
it is held by Thomas, son of John of the Termon. Perhaps 
it is Ballymally. See Cong Abbey, p. 256. 

O'Keayllay. This is probably the name O'Caeillaide which 
was, I believe, an old Irish name about Kilmaine. 

M'Coonyn = MacSeonin ? 

Pindrogos = Prendergast. 

Kyllcaryn Kilkerrin. 

Kyttclune = Kilcloony, in Liskeevy P. 

M'Cagayn = MacEgan = MacAedhagain ? 

Kyllmeyn = Kilvine = Cill Mhidheain. 

M'Crystech. This family held land in Clanmorris. 

Piemen = Fleming. 

Tecayn = Tagheen. 


Corrayn. The northern part of Kildacommoge parish, 
taking its name from Corran MacStephen where dwelt Mac- 
Stephen de Exeter, whose clan held a large tract around Bell- 
avary. Temple na Lickin or Temple Som seems to have been 
the church in use for this part of the parish. 

Oleaynedayn = Oilen Eidin = Islandeady. 

Clacny. This must be a name for Ballintubber parish which 
is omitted by Bodkin and by the list in the Division of Connaught, 
in which Clakny appears. The list of 1591 names Villa Fontis, 
i.e. Ballintubber, and omits Clacny. I do not know what 
Clacny represents. 

Taltoc. May be meant for Tomaltach, abbreviated and 

Moyinalam. The last letter might be w possibly. Manulla 
is the name. 

Vually matte = Umhall ui Mhaille = parish of Oughaval. 
V nayll represents the same. 

M'ConoylL A form of MacDomhnaill. A clan of Mac- 
Donnells lived in the parish. 

A nay. Annagh, the part of Robeen parish next L. Carra. 

Lech. Temple na Lecka in Cuslough demesne, the old 
parish of Inishrobe in the Taxation. 

Nahany. The parish of Touaghty. 

Baynkalay. This is the Beankellee of the Division of 
Connaught. The first part I suspect to be meant for Baighin, 
a waggon, or for Beann, a peak. The whole would be Cellach's 
Waggon or Cellach's Peak. Beann means a bone or the arms 
of a cross. 1 This would connect it in meaning with Holyrood. 
Rathkelly is an old stone fort in Rathkelly Townland adjoining 
Templemore, or Holyrood, on the South. It is the old parish 
of Roba in Carra. 

Humoheyn = Ima.dh Fheichin = Feichin's Isle, Omey. 

Balencony. Ballynconay in the Division of Connaught. 
It is Ballindoon parish but I do not understand this name. 

M'Mylere. The MacMeylers were an important family 
owning a good deal of land thereabouts, freeholders descended 
from Philip, brother of Sir William Liath de Burgo. 

Richard Gtterre. The family of Duray were MacSeonins. 

Scruyr = Shrule. 

Great Gate. Tempul an Dorusmoir in Irish. The name 
of the parish in which is Abbey of Knockmoy. It does not 
appear what Great Gate gave the name. 

Kyllostoba. Killoscoba, which appears in the Taxation as 
Kilstoich. c and t were written much alike and so were 

1 Supplement to O'Reilly's Dictionary. 


liable to confusion. In this case c or t has been again written 

Mylacha. Moylough is now called Mount Bellew Parish. 

Kyllvicviayn. Cill mhic Riagain. Cummer Church. 

Kyllkylvyre. Kilkilvery here seems to include the sur- 
rounding parishes of Muinter Murchadha. 

Kyllmyna. This is Kilmeen, Cill mBian or Cill Mian. 1 

1 H. M., p. 78. 



THIS paper was drawn up in 1574 to show the division of 
those countries into counties and baronies. The part re- 
lating to Galway has been published in the Journal of the 
Galway Archceological and Historical Society, vol. i. p. 109. 
The parish churches are shown as they lie within the baronies 
of the county of Galway, but as the county of Mayo had 
not yet been divided into ploughlands the churches and 
benefices were given in one list in a very irregular fashion. 
The parishes in the Dioceses of Killala and Achonry are 
ignored. Of the county of Sligo it is noted that the parishes 
are unknown. The Archbishopric of Tuam is not named 
among those of the county of Galway, but Mr. Lally is named 
as Bishop of Annaghdown. The Archbishopric of Tuam 
and the Bishoprics of Mayo and Killala are said to be in 
the county Mayo. Lists of the Abbeys show how they were 
held, whereof I give so many as lie in these dioceses. These 
lists differ from Bodkin's List in that they are lists of 
separate benefices. They are defective. The county Galway 
parishes are all called Vicarages. 


Donkellyn .... Owranmore, Ballenecourte. 
Mwikullen .... Rahone, Killanen, Galway, 

Mwikullen, Kylcomayne, Kellinkelogh. 

Beallamoe .... Cloynebirne, Boyonaghe, Templetogher. 
Donmore .... Donmore, Kilclone, Kilconnla, 

Kilcrevonagh, Liskevay, Adrugill, 

Clare Clare, Kilmillayn, Lekagh, 

Kilmicrian, Bealclarhome. 



Kyllihane .... Killihane, Ballenekille. 

Kingestowne . . . Athenry. 

Teagwyn .... Moyllagh, Apbert, Clurkone ? 

Kilgosna ? Kilererin ? Killoscobe, 


Note. Some of these names are not identified and I mark 
them thus ( ?) for they may be misspelt and may not be of 
Tuam diocese. Kilererin here is a repetition. 


Thabbay of Athenry. 

Thabbay of Galway possessed by the Commons of the 

The Hill Abbaye by Galway by the Commons of the same. 
Thabbay of Clare by Therle. [The Earl of Clanricard.] 


Rosriell by the gray freers. 

Anaghcoyne by Therle. 


Monaster leve. [Monaster Liath, Abbey grey ?] 
The Celle of Holyroode. 

The Abbaye of Knockmoy by Nicholas fitz Symons of 

The Celle of Crewan [Crevaghbane]. 

Thabbaye of Kilmore ne toher. [Monaster Liath, Abbey grey ?] 
St. Johns in Toam. 

,, Monester ne Skryne. 

The Trynitie Abbaye. 

Thabbaye of Dunmore by John Burke fitz Thomas. 
The Nonnerey of Kilcrewnaght by Therle. 
Thabbaye of Eney. 
The Abbaye of St. Mary by West Galwaye by the towne. 

Note. This list is by no means complete. Monaster leve 
or Monaster lene I take to be Monaster Liath, Abbey Grey, or 
Abbey of Sleushancough. If that is so Kilmore ne togher is 
different, or it may be a repetition, the compiler of the list 
not knowing that they were alternative names of the same 




[Note. P. = Prebend. R. = Rector. V.= Vicar. R. or V. 
after a name means that the Rector or Vicar is mentioned else- 
where in the list.] 

Deane of Toame. 

Archdeacon of Toame. 

P. Maynkill. 

P. Cluynmore. 

V. Lyskyway. 

V. Crosbyhyn. 

V. Corayn. 

R. Clackny. 

V. Bellahen. 

V. Balla. 

R. Owle Imale. 

V. Acagovyre. 

R. BaUynrobba V. 

V. Robyne R. 

V. Kilmolare. 

V. Kihnellayn. 

V. Kilcomayn R. 

V. Killinbrenan R. 

P. Killmellayn. 

P. Lekagh V. 

V. Skryn. 

P. Falduyn. 

P. Templegale. 

R. KiltuUagh. 

V. Mayo. 

V. Turlagh. 

V. Clakny. 

V. BaUeove. 

V. Kylmyna. 

V. Inysboffyn. 

V. Kylgavyr. 

V. Lechee. 

V. Beankellee. 

V. Kilmeynanmore. 

V. Ranugh. 

V. Ballenekille. 

R. Sruer V. 

R. Mycarnan V. 
R. BaUycaUy. 
P. Kilmeamore. 
P. Ballynghary. 
P. Teaghsaxon. 
R. Mayo. 
V. Kildacamagh. 
V. Oellandedde. 
V. Burescara. 
R. Moynallau. 
V. Buresowle. 
V. Vocavayll. 
V. Kilmaclacer. 
V. Anay. 
V. Homoheny. 
V. Sruer R. 
P. Kylmenayn. 
R. Mayms V. 
V. Portimaghie. 
V. Nahany. 
V. Ballinroba R. 
R. Kilcomayn V. 
V. Ballinconay. 
V. Kilmoclare. 
R. Conge V. 
V. Kilmedibeg. 
R. KilHnbreanen V. 
V. Kynlagha R. 
V. Kilcaryn. 
V. Kilmenayn. 
V. Mycarnayn R. 
V. Leakeagh P. 
V. Mayrus R. 
R. Kynlagee V. 
R. Robyne V. 
V. Conge R. 
V. Ballenecarte. 


All this Abbayes are pos- 
sessed eyther by Freeres 
or Rebells so as Her 
Majestic hath no com- 
moditie by the same. 

Summa of Thabbayes with- 
in this county of Mayo 


Thabbay of Rahrany 


Cong by Domynicke French for Capten Collyer 


,, Ballinrobba 


,, Moyriske 

,, Clyera 

,, Inishturke 

,, Buresowle 

,, Crosmolyne 

,, Moyne 




., Teaghboyhyn 

,, Stradin BaLlahane 

,, the Owrelare 



Note. Ballaghmeaske is Inishmaine. Inishturke seems to 
have come into the list by its ancient reputation. It does not 
appear that any monastic house was there in the i6th century. 
Teaghboyhyn may perhaps be a name of Ballinsmalla Abbey, 
which ought not to be omitted. Bowfinan and Errew in 
Tirawley are certainly omitted, and Annagh unless it is the 
Eney of the Co. Galway list, which is not likely. The officers 
of the Government had difficulty in getting accurate informa- 
tion. On the other hand Tibohine may mean Clonshanville 
which is not entered under Roscommon, but here erroneously 
like Banada. 

Notes on Names in these Lists 

Kellinkelogh is the church of Inismacaw in the country called 

Kilclone, Kilcloony, should be the eastern part of Liskeevy. 

Kilcrevonagh, Kilcreevanty, seems to be an alternative 
name for the parish of Kilbennan. 

Apbert, Abbert, is Monivea Parish, an old church. 



., 7,64- 


The churches and parishes of the north of the barony ol 
Clare are omitted except Belclarhome, Belclare of Tuam, 
which may be taken to represent all. But the list is so 
irregular and imperfect that they may have been accidentally 


The Dean and Archdeacon are brought into this list which 
contains much more than the Co. Mayo churches, including 
several of the county Galway. Liskeevy is repeated in it and 
so is Abbey Knockmoy, if Porti Maghie is meant for Porta 
Magna as I suppose. The Provost of Tuam and the Dean 
and Archdeacon of Annaghdown are ignored, but that may 
be because their emoluments came from parish churches. 

orayn. \ g 

Clackny. j 

Balla. The Prebend or Rectory is ignored. 

Owle Imale. The Vicarage appears as Vocavayll, Oughaval. 

Skryn. This may be meant for Tuam P. 

Lechee. See Bodkin's List, Lech, p. 212. 

Beankellee. This is the Baynkalay of Bodkin's List. See 
p. 212. 


Ballenekille. Ballynakill in Ballynahinch barony probably. 

Ballycally. Ballinchalla. 

Homoheny. Imaidh Fheichin, Feichin's Island, Omey. 

Kylmenayn. These must be Kilmeen which is Kyllmyna in 
Bodkin's List. 

Portimaghie. I take this to be meant for Porta Magna, and 
so to be a repetition of Abbey Knockmoy P. already named 
in Galway. 

Kilmoclare. This seems to be properly Kilmoelare and to 
be the same as Kilmolara. In that case one should be a rectory. 
If not I do not make this out. 

Kilmedibeg. Kilmainebeg. 

Kilcaryn. Kilkerrin in Galway. 

Ballenecavte. This may be an alias of some place, probably 
of Drum P. in which is Ballycarra or Ballycar, in the i6th 
century Ballenecare. 

As in Bodkin's List the parishes of Aghamore Knock 
Bekan and Annagh are ignored. So are the important 


parishes of Kilcolman in Clanmorris barony and of Ross in 
Ross barony. These may have been treated as parts of 
Mayo and Cong in both cases. There are several names 
above which I have not been able to assign definitely which 
may cover some apparent omissions. 


The Vicarages of Dromalgagh and Moore in barony of 


THIS is a taxation of Benefices for the First Fruits made 
in 1584-5. It was made in Irish money and in sterling 
which I give. The First Fruits were the 20th part. 


Archbishopric of Tuam .... 

s. d. 
50 o o 





Prebend of Lecagh 
Killmeanmore . 
,, Kealebegg .... 
,, Taxsaxen alias 
Templegaille . . 
Killveylane .... 
Killweyne .... 
Fayledoone .... 

13 4 
13 4 

I O O 


2 13 4 
I O O 


Five Stipendiaries under the church 


Vicars Choral. 

Rectory of Athenry 
Vicarage of Athenry ..... 
Rectory of Dunmore 
Vicarage of Dunmore 



213 A 


Killescoba .... 
Ballakilly .... 

Killareyrane . . . 
Kilweylane .... 
,, Lackagh 

I O O 
I O 

2 O O 

i 6 8 
i 6 8 



Kilmareane .... 
Belletlare .... 
Killowre . 

I O O 

10 o 






Four Stipendiaries of Annacoyne 
Rest of the same College .... 
Deanery of Annacoyne .... 

s. d, 
2 13 4 


Vicars Choral. 

Vicarage of Ballintogher . . . 
Kiltullagh .... 
Rectory of Kiltullagh .... 
Vicarage of Kilbrenan .... 

it Kildarra 

I O O 

15 o 


5 o 


Clonbern. See 
Abbeys. No. 39. 


Probably Agha- 


more, Annagh- 
Bekan ? 


1 3 4 


Crossboyne .... 
Taghekynny . . 


6 8 


Vicarage of ,, 

I O O 

Killemeamore . . 
Killmeanbegg . . 
Kilcohnan .... 

I O O 

13 4 


c o 

Ballenecalla . . 
Rectory of Ballinrobe .... 
Vicarage of . . . 
,, Inghbofin .... 

,, Knockevale .... 

5 o 

I O O 

6 8 



Inishboffin Kil- 
geever ? 


Rectory of Aghboyer part in 
Archd. of Tuam 

2 O O 


Vicarage of Aghgoyer ..... 
Borrishowle .... 

Rectory of Clancuane .... 
Vicarage of ,, . . . -. 
Rectory of Toytruem .... 

Vicarage of Coran 


2 O 
I O O 


Probably this 
should be Rec- 
tory, and Rec- 
tory of Owle 
below should be 

Turlough and 
Breaghwy Ps. 
Kildacommoge P. 




Vicarage of Bellagheyne . . . . 
Borowskera .... 

s. d. 



Ballynegarry . . . 
Kelleyreyran ... 
Corkemore .... 
Ballencalla .... 
Vicarage of Kilkeryne .... 
Rectory of Cryfortyer .... 

i 6 8 

I O O 
I O O 

i 6 8 
6 8 

Ballyovey P. 



6 8 
6 8 

Imghyn, Imaidh 

, Merriske .... 

6 8 

Feichin, Omey. 

Rectory of Owle 

I O O 

164 i 8 8 

The College of Galway is ignored altogether. As the 
valuation is not found in the Record Office it may be 
taken to have been lost. In comparing this valuation with 
that of 1306 it is to be noted that this is drawn up by 
benefices, and that the vicarages named herein may include 
one or more other parishes. 

No amount is entered against some items. This may 
be that they were included in some benefice or be acci- 

Toytruem. Tuath Truim is the territorial name of these 

Cor an. See Bodkin's List, p. 212. 

Ballynegarry. Ballygarry is a townland of Ballyovey 
on the shore of Lough Mask opposite Illancolumbkille on 
which was an ancient monastery. I take it to be a name 
used for the whole parish for some reason. The church of 
Ballyovey itself seems to have been prebendal. 

Corkemore. I cannot guess at this, unless that it might be 
meant for Portamore, intended for Porta Magna but corrupted 
by copyists and half translation of original. 

Cryfortyer. For identification see Journal R.S.A.I., 1902, 
p. 404- 



THE full parochial organisation is best shown in an undated 
list of Incumbents of the diocese of Tuam and Annaghdown, 
which is bound up with other documents regarding ecclesi- 
astical affairs in a volume numbered 566 in the Catalogue 
of MSS. in the Library of T.C.D. It is in Latin, very clearly 
written. Similar lists of other dioceses are dated 1591, 
and this may be taken to be of the same date. No lists 
exist for Killala and Achonry. As in Bodkin's time the 
parochial clergy bear Irish surnames for the most part. 
This is the most complete list because since the appoint- 
ment of Sir Richard Bingham as Governor of Connaught 
in 1585 the Queen's Government had been made effective 
everywhere in spite of occasional rebellions. Nevertheless 
these men were nearly all Roman Catholics. 


Dean of Tuam : 
Mayo : 

Archdeacon of Tuam : 

Anachdun : 

Provost of Tuam : 

Rectory of Gallvey : 
Athenry : 
Dunmor : 
,, Kilicrean : 
Moillagh : 
,, Moicharnain : 
Killoscoba : 
,, Kilirierin : 
Balynacourty : 
,, Roscam : 
Owranmore : 
Kilchirin : 

Edward Brown. 
The same Edward. 
Conhur O'Konovan. 

Donatus O'Hourain. 
Rector, The Queen. 

Edward Brown. 

Cornelius Hiffernan. 

,, The Queen. 

',', Kead'y (?) Tully. 

The Queen. 

Thomas Boorke. 

(i) The Queen. 

The College of GalL 

The same College. 

Marcus Dudley. 



Rectory of Kiltully Silmarun : Rector, Thateus O' Vagrio ( ?). 

Kildara : The Queen. 

Anach : ,, 

,, Roba, viz. Tempi- 
main : ,, 

Holy Cross of Roba : 

Kilmeainmor and beg : 

Sruhir : 

Killinabrianin : 

Conga : 

Kinlach : 

,, Kilcomayn : 

Balinchalla : 

Kilvolara : 

Anny : 

Robin : 

Ross : 

,, Kilcomyn : 

Moculin : 

Moyrus : 

Ballindun : 

Inishmean : ( 2 ) belongs to the Archdeaconry. 

Ballinikilly : Rector, The Queen. 

Inishbuffin : ,, ,, 

Kilgevur : belongs to the Rectory of Owll. 

Owll Yvaly : ( 3 ) Rector, Christopher Garvey. 
The same. 

Thomas Nolain. 
The Queen. 
The College of Gall. 
The Queen. 

Conley O'Kearavain. 
The Queen. 

The College of Gallvey. 
The Queen. 

Vuochivale : 
Buriesowle : 
Kilmyn : 
Kilviclassir : 
Aglisclinicuain : 
Elan Edin : 
Turlach : 
Belahen : 
Villafontis : 
Moinulla : 
Ballingarry : ( 4 ) 

Hubert Og. 
The Queen. 
Thomas O'Hubain. 
Hubert Og. 
The same Hubert. 
The Queen. 

Thomas Ballach. 
Thomas O'Hogirty. 


Prebendary of Small Churches :( 4 ) John Linch. 

Kilmeanmor : Robert O'Keally. 

Teachsaxon and 

Templgall : Thomas Nolain. 

,. Kilmelain : Maurice O'Nune. 


Prebendary of Kilmyn : 
Faldun : 
Crossbuhin : 
Kilcornain : 
Cluoinmor : 
Lacach : 

Richard Fwer. 
William O'Mulavle. 
John son of William. 
David son of Maurice. 

The Dean of Tuam. 

Moynchilly : ( 4 ) John Linch. 


Vicarage of Gallvey : 

Athenry : 

Skrin at Tuam : 

Dunmor : 

Kilcheliny : ( 5 ) 

,, Kilicreain : 

,, Belclar : 

,, Moillach : 

,, Kilchuna : 

,, Balinchlar : 

Moycharnain : 

Kiloscoba : 

., Ballinikilly Achiart : 

Owranmor : 

Killovir : 

,, Kilconly : 

Kilirierin : 

Kilbenan : 

Kilcluony : 

Lisskievu : 

Adurguill Vicosti : (*) 

Teampltochir : 

Cluonbirn : 

Kiltullach : 

,, Kildara : 

Anach : 

,, Becan : 

Achivor : 

,, Breach vy : ( 7 ) 

Lune : ( 7 ) 

Burieskearha : 

Balove : ( 4 ) 

Kilmein : 

Crossbuihin : 

Vicar, The College. 

Mathew Ward. 

The College of GaUvey. 

Hilary O'Donolain. 

Thomas O'Fieghain, 

John O'Cosgove. 

John O'Tevnain. 

Thomas O'Keanavain. 

,, Eugene O'Tevnain. 

The College of Gall. 

Eugene M'Ea. 

,, Hugo son of Maurice. 

Hugo son of Cornelius. 

The CoUege of GalL 

Thateus M'Shane. 

Miler O'Higin. 

William son of Maurice. 

John Bremigham. 

Fallius (?) O'Donolain. 
Fainulus (?) Niger Vaglyn. 
Donatus Vacegain. 
Bernard Vagiwir. 
John M'Brien. 

Walter M'Ygilliduff. 
John M'Henry. 


Eneas O'Higin. 
John son of William. 
Eugene O'Hilily. 
John O'Henichain. 



Vicarage of Teachin : 

Tyrenaghtin : 

Kilcornain : 

Roba : 

,, Kilmolara : 

Kilmeanmor : 

Kilmeanbeg : 

Sruhir : 

Kinlach : 

Killinabrianin : 

Conga : 

Ballinchalla : 

Kilmyn in Clanri- 

card : 

Anay : 

Ross : 

Kilcomyn : 

Moculin : 

Kilanyn : 

Moirus : 

Balindun : 

Umofehin : 

Ballinikilly : 

Inishbuffin : 

Kilgevur : 

Vuochival : 

Buriesowll : 

Kylvina : 

Kylviclassy : 

Turlach : 

Kilachamog : 


,, Kilursa : 

Eselanpadrig : ( 9 ) 

Elan Edin : 

Church of Clancuain : 

,, Curranstievny : 

Belahen : 

Dromenichain : 

Breach vy : 

Lune : 

Mayo : 

Anachduyn : 

Lacach : 

Kilmellain : 


Vicar, William Fleming. 

,, The Queen. 

Maurice O'Ceally. 

John Og O'Ceally. 

Kervall O'CeaUy. 

Robert O'CeaUy. 

,, Cairbre O'Keanavain. 

,, The College of Gall. 

j> > 

,, Dermot O'Myn. 
Thateus O'Donill. 
Kervall O'Ceally. 

Lawrence O'Grady. 
Thateus Ruffus. 
Thomas O'Ceally. 
The College of Gall. 

Donald M'Obichin. 
David Ochunyffe. 
David Oghunyffe. 
Thomas O'Monighun. 
Donald M'Obbichin. 
Thomas O'Monighun. 
WilHam O'Mulavile. 
Richard Ballach. 
David O'Hubain. 
Donatus O'Hubain. 
Thateus O'Hubain. 
Thomas O'Higin. 

Thomas O'Fiechain. 
Robert O'Ceally. 
John O'Hubain. 
Richard O'Hubain. 
John O'Hary. 
Thomas O'Hubain. 
Roger O'Donill. 

Thomas Ballach. 

William O'Calmain. 
Maurice O'Nune. 
William Fleming. 


(*) Ballinacourty. The vicarage is not specified, though the 
rectory is impropriate. The vicarage was held by the College 
of Galway together with the rectory. The assignment to the 
Queen seems erroneous. Similar omissions of what might be 
expected will be found in this list. Such parishes as Donagh- 
patrick and Killeany are omitted. In all these cases we must 
assume they were held with another parish and treated as 
part of it. 

( 2 ) This seems to have been a temporary arrangement. 

(3) Owll Yvaly. O'Malley's Umhall usually means Oughaval, 
but here a part of Oughaval, or Aghagower, for which no vicarage 
is entered. 

( 4 ) Ballingarry is used for the rectory of the greater part 
of Ballyovey, the rest being the Prebend of Moynkilly which 
is held by John Linch with that of Small Churches. The 
Vicar of Balove may possibly have been vicar for the prebendary 
only, and incumbent of the old church at Ballyovey. Temple 
OMohery would then be the parish church of Ballingarry. 
These are the only two churches of i4th to i6th century 
date in the parish. 

( 5 ) Kilcheliny is perhaps Kilkilvery, being held by the same 
person as Kilursa. 

( 6 ) Adurgnill Vicosti = Addergool of MacHosty, a family of 
some standing in that locality. 

( 7 ) Breachvy and Lune are repeated. 

( 8 ) Kylvy. The name is unknown to me. It may be in 
Touaghty parish, which is otherwise ignored. 

( 9 ) Eselanpadrig (Slanpatrick). The name now survives in 
the Vicarage and the rectory has taken the territorial name. 



THE following table is compiled from the Ordnance Survey 
Maps, supplemented in a few cases by evidence in the 
Ordnance Survey Letters and other sources. When Kill 
or Killeen appears as part of the Townland name it may 
be taken as almost certain that a church was in the graveyard. 
The only cause for doubt is that Kill sometimes represents 
Coill, a wood, in place names. 

The abbreviations are O.S. = Ordnance Survey Map, 6 
inches to a mile. P. = Parish. C. = Church. G. = Graveyard. 



29 Various churches in Tuam . Tuam Town. 
Temple larlath .... Cloonfush. 

G. near it Cloonfush. 

G. at Gardenfield . . . Gardenfield. 

G. at Carnaun .... Carnaun. 

Lissavally C. G Lissavally. In large fort. 

Killeen W. of Queensfort . Killeen. 

G Lenamore. In fort. 

Killeedaun ...... Killeedaun. 

30 G Ryehill. 

G. at Esker Ginnaun. 

43 G. Cloonmore Cloonmore. In a fort. 

G., N.E. of Rinkippeen . Ballymoat. 

Nunnery Rusheens S. 

Ahgloragh C Ahgloragh. 


42 Kilteesk Carheens. 

43 Claretuam C Claretuam. 

Templenambraher . . . Carrowntemple. 





29 Kilbennan . . . ... Pollacorragune. 

Kilcreevanty Kilcreevanty. 

IS G Lissananny. 


15 Kilconla . . ..... Beagh. On edge next the follow- 

G Ballynagittagh. In a fort close 

to and N.W. of Kilconla. 

28 Kilshanvy Kilshanvy. 

Gortnabishaun C. G. . . Cloonsheen. 
Lisheen near Derryglashell Cloonteen. 
Lisgauran G Cloonnaglasha. 

1 5 Knockaunpastia G. . . . Rathbaun or Urracly. 


4 Lisdowlagh G Curraghaderry, but on edge ad- 
joining KiUerneen. 

1 6 Liskeevy C Liskeevy. Kilgevrin adjoins on 


Kilcloony Kilcloony. 

G. near it to S Kilphrasoge. 

1 5 G Bellmount. In large fort. 


4 Addergoole C. and G. . . Kinnakinelly. 

1 6 Abbey. Stone Cross. G. . Carrowntomush, adjoining Ard- 



4 C. G Clondergan. 

5 C. G., St. Patrick's Stone . Carrownaseer. Next S. of Shrule 


Kiltivna Kiltivna. 

G Castle. Near Lackavaleahaubar 


17 Dunmore C Abbeylands. 

G., W. of Carrowntryla . Carrowpadeen. In a fort. 

G. more to W Not marked in TL sheet, but 

in Index. 

30 G Bermingham Demesne. 




i C. G., near Moneenally . Moneenally. 
G., E. of Loughnamucka . Kilbeg. 

6 Kildaree Kildaree. 

Castletogher C Straide. 


6 Boyounagh C Cashel, next W. of Boyounagh- 

1 8 G. near Glenamaddy , . Scotland. 


17 Cloghmakeeran C. . . . Brackloon. 

Kilmurry Kilmurry. Killavoher next to E. 

1 8 G., W. of Polleighter . . Cloonacat. 
31 Clonbern Ch Clonbern. 


1 8 Kiltullagh Kiltullagh. 

19 G., S. of Timacat . . . Cuilsallagh. 
31 Kilkerrin Kilkenin. 

Kilcornan Kilcornan. Next S. of Kilkerrin. 

G Curraghmore. 


46 Ballynakill C }~ 

A , J , ~ yCarrownagannive. 

Aghyart G J 

Ch. G Castlegar. 

2 G Mount Bellew Demesne. 


45 Esker Stephen G. . . . Templemoyle. 

G Brierfield. 

Moylough C Moylough. Shankill is XI. S.W. 

of Mt. Bellew Demesne, but 
no church in it. 
59 G., S.E. of Abbert Bridge . Skeagh. 

Curraghaun G Windfield Demesne. 

T2 G., E. of Killaclogher 

Bridge ....'.. Doonaun. 



59 Killoscobe Killoscobe. 

Kilfelligy Kilfelligy. 

G., N.W. of Vermount . . Menlough Eighter. 


44 G. near Gobban Saer's 

House Shantallow. 

Grange C Grange. 

Creevaghbaun C Creevaghbaun, between Grange 

and Kilmore Tls. 

Killererin Carrowmanagh. 

G Hillsbrook Demesne. 

45 G Brierfield. 


43 Cummer C Glebe, between Cummer and 

Clogh N. 

Ballinderry G Ballinderry. 

Rathnagall C. G. ... Kilcurrivard. 


57 Kilmoylan Annagh. 


58 G., E. of Brook Lodge . . Ballynakilla. 

G. near Farm Hill . . . Lindsay's Farm. 

G., S.W. of Farm Hill . . Liss. 

Abbey, G., N. of River . Abbey. 

Abbey, S. of River . . . Culliagh N. 

G Parklaur. N.E. corner of parish. 

7 1 G Carrowreagh E. 


58 Abbert C Abbert. 

71 Killaclogher Killaclogher. 

G. near Ardagheena . . Glenaboy or Knockatober. 

Templevally On boundary between Tisaxon 

N. and W. and Templemoyle 
S. and E. 

84 Templemoyle Templemoyle. 

Graigue Abbey .... Graigue. 



70 Derrymaclaghtna C. . . Derrymaclaghtna. 

Grange at Tober Suivne . Coolaran. 

83 Moor Abbey Moor. 

84 Athenry C. and Abbeys . Athenry Town. 
C Ballydavid. 

95 Templegal Derrydonnellmore. In a large 


96 Templekilmona .... Castle Turvin. 


54 Moore C Moore. 

54 Kilbegley Kilbegley. 

56 Drumalagagh C Drumalagagh. 

56 G., N.W. of Cloonburren 

Moat Cloonburren. 


54 Thomastown C Thomastown Demesne. 

51 Drum C Curryroe, adjoining Drum. 


26 C., N.E. of Cashlieve House Church quarter. 

32 C., N.E. of Moanbane Fort Milltown. 

C. by R.C. Chapel . . . Garraunlahaunmore. 

Kiltullagh Kiltullagh. 


8 1 Aghamore C Aghamore. 

G., E. of Loughnaspadda . Tawnagh. 

82 G., E. of Aghamore, Cal- 

dragh Boleyboy. 

Kilvrogan or Kilbragan . Cloongawnagh. 

92 Kilcronan Cartron or Carrownedin. 

G. at Tobereenaun . . . Coogue S. 


92 Knock C Churchfield. Drum on N. 

Tobercaolain (G. ?) . . . Caldragh. 



92 Bekan C Bekan. 

Kilmannin Kilmannin. 


102 Kildara, alias Tulrohaun C. Kildara. 

103 Annagh C Church Park. 

Kilmullan Grallagh. 

C. at Toberarneeve . . Coolnafarna. 


Inishbofin Map 1 14 of Co. Mayo. 



9 Rinvyle C. or Church of 

the Seven Daughters . Cashleen. 

Ch. on Crump Island . Crump Island. 

10 Salrock C Foher. Salrock Tl. adjoins 

across river on W. 

11 G., E. of Bunowen River. 

22 Ballynakill C Cartron. 

G., W. of it Ballynew. 

23 G., S. of Kylemore Lake . Mweelin. Tobermweelin close by. 

24 Cannaclossaun G. . . . Kylemore. 


21 Omey C Omey Island. 

High Island, Ardilaun C. . High Island. 

22 Templederg Streamstown alias Barratrough. 

Ch. by shore Kill. 

G Clifden Castle Demesne. 


35 Kilflannan and G. . . . Kill. 

48 St. Caillin's C Duck Island. 

49 Doon C Bunowenmore 

G. on shore Ballyconneely. 



35 G. near Ardbear . . . Ardbear. Near Toberbeggan. 

36 Killeen at Killeen Lake . Killeen. 

37 G Ballinafad. 

50 St. Brendan's and St. 

Mathias's C Inishnee. 

51 Toberconnell G. . . . CasheL 

63 G Enisbeg W., between Gurteen 

and Dog's Bay. 

Moyrus C Moyrus. 

76 Caelann's C Croaghnakeela. 

MacDara's C MacDara's Island. 

C. On Mason Island. 

C. On Mweenish Island. 

77 G. on Finish Island. 

Kilkieran KilMeran. 


12 Ultabeg G Calliaghbeg. 

13 Kilmore Kilmore. Next E. of Finney. 

Kilbride Kilbride. 

25 G., N. of Cur .... Breenaun. 
BillewG Cammanagh. 

26 Knockaunnabasty G. . . Cloghbrack Middle. 

27 Ross C Rosshill. 


26 Gortnakilla G Dooghta. 

38 Derreenabreena G. . . Teernakill N. 
40 Churches on Inchagoil . Inchagoil. 


1 20 Cong Churches and Abbey Cong. 

121 Killarsa Ballymacgibbon N. 

Kilfrauchan DowaghE. 

Cross or Attyrickard C. . Cross. 

Neale C Lecarrowkilleen. 

Gortacurra Gortacurra. 

123 BillyparkC Carheens. 


121 Killeenbrenan .... Moorgagagh. 

Abbey (and old church) . Kill. 



1 1 8 Ballinrobe C Glebe in Cornaroya. 

Abbey and St. John's 

House Friar's Quarter W. and E. 

Killosheheen Killosheheen. 

Kilkeeran Kilkeeran (O.S.L.M., ii. 203). 

117 Inishrobe C Cuslough Demesne. 

Temple na Lacka ... 

3 Temple OMohery . . . Churchfield, Co. Galway, W. of 



in Kilrush Kilrush (O.S.L.M.. ii. 218). 

Kilcommon Kilcommon. 

119 Kilglassan Kilglassan. 

Killeenrevagh .... Killeenrevagh(O.S.L.M.,ii.2i8). 


1 1 8 Kilmolara ..... Carrownakilly. 


117 Ballinchalla C Ballinchalla. Killower adjoins 

to S.E. 
Inishmaine C Inishmaine. 

1 1 8 C Cahernicole W. 

1 20 Killimor Killimor (Church to be inferred 

from Prebend and name). 


118 Killeennaskeagh . . . Carrowreagh. 

Kilquire On boundary of Kilquire N. and 


119 G Oultauns. 

121 Kilmainemore .... Kilmaine. 

122 Killernan Killernan. 

G. of Ballymally . . . Frenchbrook. Close to Turlough- 



121 Kilmainebeg .... Kilkeeran. 
Kilmacduagh .... Kilmacduagh. 



122 Shrule C Shrule. 

Abbey, " Clogvanaha " . Church Park. 

G., N. of Dalgin House . Carrowmore. 

123 Moyne C Moyne. 

KinloughC Kinlough. 


42 Templecolman .... Slievemore. 

65 Kildavnet Carrickkildavnet. 


67 G. and St. Brendans Well Roskeenmore. 
Burrishoole C. and Abbey Aghadooey Glebe. 
St. Birroge's Bed and 

Killeen ,, 

St. Dominic's Well . . Kiltarnaght. 

68 Kilbride Kilbride. 

76 Templemarcan .... Rosclave. 


76 Inishdafl C. 

Clynish C (O.S.L.Af., i. 488.) 

77 Kilmeena Kilmeena. 


77 Kilmaclasser Rushbrook. 

Killeen at Tobercoyne . Gortnaclasach (O.S.L.M. i. 493). 


88 Aghagower, C. and R. T. . ^ A h 
Tempulnabhfiacal . . ./ 

97 Killeen at Patrick's Chair Boheh. 

G., SSE. of Moher Lake Carrowreagh. 

98 Cloghpatrick G. ... Lanmore. 
Toberbrendan, C. G. and 

Well Lankill. 

Killeennimhe .... Cordarragh. 

G Knappaghmanagh. 




87 Cloonpatrick and Ougha- 

val Abbey Churchfield. 

Lisheenaneeve .... Killadangan. 

Glaspatrick C Glaspatrick. 

96 Milla G. Cloonpatrick . . Foorgill. 

97 Killeen, Kilvickrane . . Oughty. 


85 Kilbride Askillaun. 

86 Kilgeever Kilgeever. 

94 Clare Island "1 

Inisturk j- All containing churches. 

Caher Island J 

95 G., N.E. of Aillemore . Cloonlaur. 
Killadoon Killadoon. 

105 Templedoomore . . . . Tallavbaun. 


78 Islandeady C Islandeady. 

C. on Castlebar Lake . . Annagh. 


78 G. near Jail in Castlebar . Castlebar Town. 
C. at Ballynew .... Ballynew. 

70 Turlough C. Round Tower Turlough. 


70 G. and C. near Corraun . Corraun. 
Tempul Som or Tempul 

na Leicin Knockatemple. 

79 Kildacommoge .... Moyhenna. 
2 Churches Ara. 

79 Breaghwy C Breaghwy Demesne. 



79 Tempul a Scinneen, i.e. 

Manulla Rinnahulty. 

G. C Criaghanboy. 


88 Kilbride Kilbree Upper. 

89 Temple Shane na Glasha Bellabourke. 

Cagaula C Cagaula. 

Tubberpatrick C. Abbey . Ballintubber. 

98 Kilfinan, on Church Island Cam. 


99 Ballyovey Ch \Portroyal. 

C. near it . . . . . J 

109 Kilkeeran Kilkeeran. 

Illauncolumbkille C. . . Adjoins Ballygarry in which is 

Aghinish C Aghinish. 


89 Ballyheane C Cunaker. 

Buncam C. G C. in Lugaphuill. G. in Buncam 

E. Killeenbihan ? 


90 Drum C Drumknockatemple. 

Ballycarra C Elmhall. 

Loona C Loonamore. 

Gweeshadan C., Kilbrenan Gweeshadan. 
G. and Tobermacduagh . Killeen. 


100 Burriscarra C. . . . . Burriscarra. 
Kiltoom Ballycally. 


St. Patrick's Parish Church Tower Hill Demesne. Tower 
of Touaghty .... Hill House is on its site. 




90 Rosslee C., Kilcadain . . Rathnacreeva. 

Chapel .... Peenoge, at junction with Rath- 


90 Balla ....... Balla. 


100 Annagh C. Abbey . . . Annies. 

Carrowkilleen C. G. . . Carrowkillen (O.S.L.M., ii. 211). 

Kiltagharaun .... Kiltagharaun 

1 10 Toberloona C Cornfield. 

Robeen C Robeen. 


1 10 C. at Rocksborough . . Rocksborough S. 
118 Holyrood, or Templemore Glebe in Cairo wnalecka. 
Killeenacrava .... Rathkelly. 


91 Mayo Abbey Mayo Parks. 

Kilbride Kilbride. 


91 Kilcolman Kilcolman. 

92 G. near Rockfield House . Rockfield. 

1 02 Sruffakilleen Garryredmond. 

in Tagheen C Tagheen. 

112 Kilvine Kilvine. 



101 Knocknacaltragh G. . . ~j 

Killeenfelim VCaltragh (O.S.L.M., ii. 452). 

Killeenishel J 

in Crossboyne Crossboyne. 

G., S.E. of Crossboyne . Esker N. 
112 Kilcurnan Garrydufi. 

Cloonmore C Cloonmore. 


29 Killower Killower. 

42 G Ballintleva. 


28 Killeen Tonacooleen. 

42 Donaghpatrick .... Donaghpatrick. 

G., W. of Castlehacket . Caherlustraun. Kildrum Tl. is 

divided from G. only by the 
Killamanagh .... Killamanagh. 


42 Kilkilvery Kilkilvery. 

G., W. of Rectory . . . Pollacullaire. 

G., N. of ... Bunnaconeen. 

G., E. of Dalysfort . . Gortarica. 


41 InchiquinC Inchiquin. 

Lynagh G. near Doonaun . Carrownakib. 

C, E. of it on border . . Carrownacroagh. 

Killursa Ower. 

Kildaree Kildaree. 

55 Kilcronan Annaghkeen. 

55 Cargin C Cargin. 



Caheradane G Mount Ross. 

56 Milla Fort G Keekill. 

Killeany Cloghanower. 

Lisheenlee Keernaun. 

56 Kilcoona Kilcoona. 


56 Killiam Grange. 

2 Gs., S. of Cahermorris . Glenrevagh. 
G Aucloggeen. 

57 Kilcahill Kilcahill. 

70 Kilgill Slievefin, adjoining Kilgill. 

69 Annaghdown Abbey Cs. . Annaghdown. 

70 G Barravilla. 


71 Lackagh C Lackaghmore. 

Kilskeagh Rathfee. Kilskeagh Tl. ad- 
joins in Athenry parish. 


70 G. at Waterdale House . Waterdale. 

Claregalway C Claregalway. 

An Abbey Cahergower or Summerfield. 

Kiltroge Kiltroge. 


82 G. Menlough .... Menlough. 
G. Carrowbrowne (Kil- 

roghter ?) Carrowbrowne. 

94 Roscam C Roscam. 

95 OranmoreC Oranmore. No church is marked 

in Oranbeg which was the 
name of an old parish. 


95 Kilcaimin Kilcaimin. 

G. near Cahergal . . . Ballynamanagh E. 
103 Ballynacourty C. . . . Ballynacourry. 




82 G. near Castlegar . . . Castlegar. 

94 G. near Ballybrit . . . Ballybrit. 

C. near Belmount . . . Rinmore. 

Galway Church .... Gal way Town. 


81 G Corcullen. 

82 St. James's Chapel . . . Newcastle. (H.W.C., p. 56.) 
93 Rahoon C Rahoon. 


39 G. near Coppermines . . Curraghduff. 

40 Faughnakilla .... Curraghrevagh. 

54 Kilcummin Lemonfield Demesne. 

55 G. Tobercoonagh . . . Callownamuck. 
65 Killower Turlough. 

Kilbrickan Kilbrickan. 

89 St. Duiggal's G Lettermullen. 


55 Killaroon Laghtgannon. 

67 Killageemoge . . ' . . Killaguile. 

68 Killannin ~| -.,, 


Templebegnaneeve . . ) 

Templebrecan .... Rosscahill E. 

Lisheencaltragh G. . . Coolagh. 

91 St. Columbkille's C. . . Cloghmore. 

90 Temple Inishmacaw . . Barraderry. 


68 Kilcallin Dovepark. 

Lisheennabasty G. . . . Kilcloggaun. 

8 1 Moycullen C Moycullen. Killarainy is next 


Templebeg Clooniff. 

Temple Eany .... Killagoola. 

St. Enna's C. at Spiddal . Spiddal. 



ASCERTAINED from Bodkin's Visitation and Regal Visita- 
tion of 1615, Valor Beneficiorum, Grants of Possessions of 
Suppressed Monasteries and other sources. 




Dean, Provost, Vicars Choral. 
Vicars Choral. 


Dean, Provost. 

Rector, Dean, Provost. 


Dean, Provost. 




Hospital of St. John, Castle 

Abbey of Knockmoy. 


1 Belclare was in later times in country of Hy Briuin, but must in very 
early times have been under the Conmaicne. 


f Tuam 


Kilbennan . . 
Kilconla . . . . 

*o - 


Liskeevy . 
Addergoole . . . 
Boyounagh . . . 
Templetogher . . . 
Dunmore . . . . 


Belclare 1 . . . . 
. Clonbern Pt. . . . 


r Clonbern Pt. . . . 
L Kilkerrin .... 

r Kilmoylan . . . . 
Killererin . . . . 


Cummer . . . . 

Killoscobe . . . . 

Moylough .... 
Ballynakill Aghiart . 


DEANERY OF TUAM continued 


Knock Archdeacon. 

Aghamore .... Monast. St. John Baptist, Tuam. 

Bekan ,, ,, 

Annagh .... 

Kiltullagh (but lat- 
terly occupied by 
Sil Maelruain) . . Rector. 

Part held by Kilcreevanty Nun- 
Part held by Dean of Clonfert. 

Athenry . . . 
Abbert or Monivea 
Tagh Saxon alias 


.... Rector. 








Ballinrobe .... Rector. Includes Roba in Carra. 

Kihnaineniore . . Prebendary. 

Shrule Cong Abbey. 

Kilcommon ... ,, 
Kilmainebeg ... 

Cong Cong Abbey and Preb. Killabegs. 

Ballinchalla ... ,, 

Kilmolara .... Cong Abbey. 
Moorgagagh ... 
Ross . 

g / Ballynakill . 

,5 J Omey . . 

g j Ballindoon . 

( Moyrus . . 

Cong Abbey. 



Mayo or Templegerald Rector. 

Kilvine ..... ,, 

Crossboyne . . . Rector. Prebendary of Ballin- 

.*? garry. Prebendary of Clon- 


Tagheen .... Mayo Abbey. 

Kilcolman .... ,, 
Kilticollo in Mayo 

Parish .... 

Touaghty .... ,, ,, 

Kilcadayn, or Rosslee ,, 

Rosslee Chapel . . ,, ,, 

Robeen ,, ,, 

Balla Prebendary. 

Manulla .... Rector. 

Aglish ,, 

Islandeady . . . 

08 ( Turlough .... Franciscan House at Buttevant 
O Breaghwy .... 

Kildacommoge . . ,, ,, ,, 

Ballyovey .... Rector and Prebendary of Kil- 

Ballintubber . . . Ballintubber Abbey. 

Bally heane ... ,, ,, 

Drum ,, 

\ Burriscarra ... 

Aghagower . . . Archdeacon, Prebendary of Kil- 

Oughaval .... 

Kilgeever, including 

Inishbofin ... 

Burrishoole . . . Rector, Prebendaries of Killabegs 
and Faldown. 

Kilmaclasser ... ,, ,, 

Kilmeena .... Prebendaries of Killabegs and 




Annaghdown . . . Dean. 

Cargin Archdeacon. 

Lackagh .... Prebendary. 

Killeany .... Hospital of St. John, Castle- 


Killursa .... 

Kilkilvery . , ,, ,, 

Killower .... 

Kilcoona .... 

Donaghpatrick . . KiJnamanagh Abbey. 

Galway Knockmoy Abbey. 



Ballynacourty . . Annaghdown Abbey. 

Roscam Galway College. 

Oranmore .... 

Claregalway ... ,, 

Rahun ,, 

Moycullen .... ,, 

Kilcummin . . . Galway College and Annagh- 
down Abbey. 
Killannin .... Annaghdown Abbey. 

Note. In many of these parishes portions of rectorial tithes 
were held by monastic houses and in other ways. 



WHEN the monastic system of Ireland attained its greatest 
development on national lines it was a reproduction of the 
tribal system, the greater and lesser abbots and their con- 
vents were the kings and sub-kings and their tribes with a 
difference. Constant fighting and dissension and absence 
of administration broke tribes into fragments under separate 
chiefs. The bond of the Christian Church kept the lesser 
monasteries in distant tribes under the control of their head 
monastery to some extent. Tribalism tended to separation, 
Christian monasticism to union. 

Some abbey in each tribe naturally acquired a greater 
reputation and greater favour from the ruling tribe than 
the others, and got greater endowments and had more 
parish churches in connection with it. However great it 
became as an ecclesiastical centre and college and school 
it was but a collection of huts, in which the monks lived 
separately round a church of no great size however well 
built and decorated, and all these were surrounded by a 
high strong wall, the cashel which remains now only in 
lesser abbeys, but seems to have been general. After all 
the changes of centuries a fragment of the cashel wall is 
to be seen near Mayo Abbey. The students and laymen 
in connection with a great establishment must have lived 
outside this enclosure. 

They collected about them considerable endowments 
in land, which may be recognised now in the possessions 
of the Sees of Tuam and Killala and Achonry close around 
Tuam and Cong and Mayo and Aghagower and Killala and 
Errew and Achonry and Ballysadare. The great monastery 
sent out monks to the parish churches under its rule and 
these churches seem to have had also their separate endow- 
ments in land usually surrounding or adjoining. The frag- 


ments remaining in episcopal possessions show that such 
endowments were general. The lands and altarages and 
casual offerings must have made a good provision for the 
parish priests. In 1210 all these comarb or termon lands 
were swept into the hands of the bishops, and the parochial 
clergy were left dependent on altarages and the newly im- 
posed tithes. In only a few cases do we find glebe lands 
held by clergy in these dioceses, which seem to have been 
excepted from the general transfer for some reason, such 
as the glebe lands adjoining the old church of Roba at 
Ballinrobe and the old church of Roba in Carra. The parochial 
clergy might have got on well enough if they had been left 
to enjoy their own, but that was not to be. 

The decay of the Irish system in the nth century under 
the influence of the Roman ideas, the introduction of Roman 
monastic orders, and the adoption by the surviving ancient 
monasteries of the Augustinian Rule substituted a wholly 
different church order in effects as well as in organisation. 
The ancient Irish system seems to have been a natural 
growth from the period of missionary effort, when the 
monastery was a mission centre which formed congregations 
and regulated the dependent mission stations. It covered 
the country with parish churches, and after a long and flourish- 
ing existence fell into decay as regards its peculiar monastic 
features, and adopted the prevailing Roman system and 
ideals of church organisation. 

As regards the secular clergy the new ideal was a powerful 
bishop at their head who should wield in addition to 
spiritual authority temporal possessions enough to main- 
tain the dignity of a governor of the church among the 
lords of the land. Another ideal of the I2th and I3th centuries 
was that of working upon the world by communities of 
monks and friars, who were an additional agency beside 
the parochial clergy and diocesan system. With these 
ideas came the desire for magnificent churches and buildings 
worthy of the purposes to which they were dedicated. These 
views in practice worked to the neglect and depression of 
the parochial clergy. 

The bishop took a quarter of the tithes. Rectories 
were given to monasteries which took half the tithe and 
a share of the altarages. The vicar was left with a quarter 


of the tithe and the fees and altarages. Even vicarages 
were occasionally taken away. If land was given to a 
monastery the tithe went with it. The new orders were 
allowed the valuable privileges of hearing confessions and 
serving masses. Thus the parochial clergy were depressed 
and endowments and fees intended for their support were 
by degrees diverted to the new organisations. Moreover, 
the popularity and reputation of the new orders in their 
early days secured to them all endowments for pious uses 
which laymen made, and practically nothing was dedicated 
to parochial and diocesan purposes. The patronage of 
the rectories was generally in the hands of the lay lords, 
who assigned them to the abbeys which they or their an- 
cestors had founded or desired to help. 

The Archbishop of Cashel applied to the Pope in the 
middle of the I5th century for permission to ordain men of 
illegitimate birth because of the lack of parsons. There 
was no difficulty in filling monasteries. 

The Houses of Regular Canons of St. Augustine, in these 
dioceses, excepting those of Tuam and Ballintubber, seem 
to be all surviving ancient foundations of importance which 
were not transformed into cathedral chapters. Minor 
abbeys disappeared when their lands were taken away even 
if they survived in form. In some cases the lands seem 
to have passed away from them even before the I2th century, 
as in the cases of Balla and Meelick and Roscam. We 
know that an important abbey existed at Balla, and we 
may infer such an abbey from the towers at Meelick and 
Roscam, but no ecclesiastical or abbeyland can be traced 
about them commensurate with their importance. They 
must have fallen into lay hands. 

The Cistercian order was introduced by the establish- 
ment of Mellifont in the early part of the I2th century. 
After the Anglo-Norman conquest other orders followed. 
In Connaught this period of new foundations began after 
the de Burgo partition in 1237. 

The new houses did not neglect education, but their 
means in this respect were limited. The old establishments 
were ruined before the new were set up and endowed. With 
the I4th century a period of general lawlessness and violence 
again set in over nearly all Ireland. The new monastic 


orders were better fitted for a fairly orderly region. The 
old Irish orders which grew up in the midst of tribal war 
and disorder contrived to carry on their work under the 
conditions of their origin. They were but slightly organised 
as a whole, but they held together and did their work well. 

Of the abbeys in the following list some houses were 
but huts which have disappeared and left no trace behind. 
There is much uncertainty as to endowments at the sup- 
pression. In some cases the abbot made a complete sur- 
render, in others the lands remained partly in possession 
of monks or friars, partly in lay hands, and became the 
subject of inquisitions as they were discovered. Many 
inquisitions have been lost. 

My identifications of old denominations show position, 
not extent. The ascertainment of areas would require a 
lengthy examination which could only be carried out by 
the owners whose title-deeds and old leases may afford 




(1) Regular Canons. I. Aran, p. 252 ; 2. Errew, p. 252; 3. Annaghdown, 

p. 252 ; 4. Aughros, alias Kilmalton Priory, p. 255 ; 5. Ballysadare, 
or Easdara, p. 255 ; 6. Cong, p. 256 ; 7. Mayo, p. 263 ; 8. Inishmaine, 
p. 263 ; 9. Tuam, p. 264 ; 10. Ballintubber, p. 265 ; n. Cross, p. 272 ; 
12. Annagh, p. 272. Canonesses of St. Augustine. 13. Killaraght, 
p. 273 ; 14. Killecrau or Killeenacrava, p. 273. 

(2) Arroasian Canonesses, a reformation of the Regular Canonesses. 

15. Annaghdown, p. 273. 

(3) Premonstre Canons, or Premonstratensians. 16. Tuam, p. 274 ; 17. 

Annaghdown, p: 274 ; 18. Killetrynode or Killeennatrinody, p. 274 ; 
19. Killeen, p. 274. 

(4) Eremites of St. Augustine, called Austin Friars. 20. Ballinrobe, p. 275 ; 

21. Burriscarra, p. 275 ; 22. Ballyhaunis, p. 275; 23. Banada, p. 276; 
24. Ardnarea, p. 276 ; 25. Dunmore, p. 276 ; 26. Murrisk, p. 276 ; 
27. Galway, p. 276. Notes on names of lands of Ballintubber, p. 276. 


(1) Benedictine Nunneries. 28. Kilcreevanty, p. 280. 

(2) Cistercians or Bernardines, a Reformation of Benedictines. 29. Knock - 

moy, p. 285 ; 30. Clare Island, p. 289. Possessions of Boyle Abbey, 
p. 289. Notes on names of lands of Kilcreevanty, p. 291. 

III. THE DOMINICANS (the Order of Preachers, called the Black Friars, 
the first of the Mendicant Orders). 

31. Athenry, p. 292 ; 32. Strade, p. 294 ; 33. Rathfran, p. 295 ; 34. Knock- 
more, p. 295 ; 35. Toombeola, p. 295 ; 36. Urlare, p. 295 ; 37. Bur- 
rishoole, p. 296 ; 38. Cloonimeaghan, p. 296 ; 39. Kilmurry, alias 
Kilbrenan, p. 296. 

IV. THE FRANCISCANS (the Friars Minors, called Grey Friars). 

(1) Conventuals. 40. Claregalway, or Ballenclare, p. 297 ; 41. Galway, p. 

297 ; 4ia. Athenry, p. 297 ; 42. Bofeenaun, alias Boghmoynan, p. 297 ; 
43. Kilnamanagh, p. 298. 

(2) Observantins, or of the Strict Observance. 44. Rosserilly, p. 298 ; 

45. Moyne, p. 298 ; 46. Cloonyvornoge, or Cowlevernoge, p. 298. 


(3) The Third Order of St. Francis. 47. Crossmolina, p. 299 ; 48. Ros- 
serk, p. 299 ; 49. Killeenbrenan, alias Kilbrenan, p. 299 ; 50. Temple- 
moyle, p. 299 ; 51. Templegaile, alias Taghsaxon, p. 299 ; 52. Beagh, 
p. 299 ; 53. Kiltullagh, p. 300 ; 54. Court, p. 300 ; 55. Ballymote, 
p. 300. 

V. THE CARMELITES (called White Friars). 

56. Ballinsmala, p. 300; 57. Creevaghbane, p. 300 ; 58. Ballynahinch, 
P- 301- 

VI. KNIGHTS OF THE TEMPLE (Succeeded by the Knights of the 
Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem). 

59. Taghtemple, p. 301 ; 60. Ballinrobe, St. John's House, p. 301. 

Killedan, p. 301 ; Kylkeny, p. 302 ; Ballentully, p. 302. 


1. Aran. St. Enda's Monastery founded in the 5th century 
disappeared unless it survived in possessions which belonged 
to the Abbey of Annaghdown in the i6th century. 

2. Errew. Abbey of St. Tigernan founded in the beginning 
of the 6th century. At the suppression it held only i qr. 
of land, the Barrett endowment of 1413. For particulars 
see " Church Architecture " p. 167. According to the Straff ord 
Survey (in R.I. A.) it owned 2 qrs. of Kilmurry and 
Ballynemraher. Temple na galliaghdoo close to it looks 
like an old church replaced by the great abbey church, but 
the name points to its having been a nunnery. It may 
have become one in later days. 

3. Annaghdown. The College of St. Brendan. This seems 
to be the establishment called the Abbey of Annaghdown. 
Its property consisted of the lands and tithes hereafter 
described and some indefinite property in the Isles of Arran. 
The College seems to have been considered as part of the 
cathedral establishment, and to have provided the four vicars 
who are referred to in Bodkin's List and who were assessed 
in the Valor Beneficiorum in 1584. In 1585 the Govern- 
ment seems to have become aware that the College was a 
monastery, not really a part of the cathedral establishment, 


and an inquisition was held to ascertain their property. 
From the names of Clement Skerrett and Thadeus M'Inylly 
which appear in Bodkin's List and in the inquisition, and 
from the fact that after this date the abbey disappears and 
the vicars are not mentioned in the Regal Visitation of 1615, 
it is to be inferred that the vicars of the church were the 
monks of the abbey. 

The inquisition was taken on the ist February 1585 
at Galway and found that four priests or vicars as they 
called them were maintained in the College of St. Brandan, 
which had been concealed and had remained in the occupa- 
tion of Clement Skyrret and Thadeus M'Inylly, by what 
title the jurors knew not, that it owned a ruinous church with 
a small graveyard, half an acre of land in which are cottages 
with their curtilages and gardens now waste and unin- 
habited, all of which on account of the devastation of the 
country are worth nothing, a wet pasture containing 20 
acres in which the College tenants grazed their cattle with 
the other inhabitants of the town, the following 23 quarters 
of tithes 

In Anaghcoyn, 2 qrs. . . . Annaghdown. 

, Cahirmorish, 4 qrs. . . . Cahirmorris. 

, Ballyrobug, 4 qrs. . . . Balrobug. 

, Kylcayle, 4 qrs. 

, Ballyne Owley, i qr. 

, Dromgriss, 4 qrs Drumgriffin. 

, Clonlowe, 4 qrs. 

which were worth 3, i6s. Irish money yearly. 

A lease of 1594 to John Rawson and Henry Deane * shows 
that the abbey held also Seven quarters of stony land 
called Cairo welewchell, Knockincahiloge and Inishbarkan, 
Carrowekillaneleirhie, Carroweternia in Garrinnae, Carrow- 
letermoyn Edirtrahannae, Lettermackoe and Muckenaghe 
Edardauhalie, and Carrowe Naganannaghe in Killinkelly in 
the barony of Moycullen. 

Of these names some survive. Laughil and Teeranea 
are the southern and northern parts of Gorumna. Letter- 
muckoo and Muckanaghederdauhaulia are townlands of 
Kilcummin parish on the S.E. coast of Camus Bay. Killin- 
kelly is an old name for the western part of Kilcummin, 

1 16 D.K., Nos. 5865, 6016. 


taken from the Killin or old church of Inismacaw l which 
gave the name of Killin to the land between Cashla Bay and 
Greatman's Bay. Kilbrickan is found near these townlands. 

From a grant to Lord Clanricard of 19 July, 8 James I., 2 
the following additional items are taken 

In Shanghill and Muckeris, 12 acres arable, 19 a. pasture. 

A ruinous chapel in the isle of Aren with 12 a. of pasture 
there, and 6s. 8d. rent out of Laspidell. 

The churches, rectories, or chapels, tithes, presentations, 
&c., of Ballenecourt in Clanricard, Kilcomen in O'Flahertie's 
country, Kargin in Moyntermurchoe, and Lisdich otherwise 

The town and lands of Lisduffe in Gnomore, containing 
2 cottages, 40 a. arable, 24 a. pasture, 12 a. wood. 

Kilclonloght otherwise Kilclyonlogh, | qr. 

The following rents all in English money, 

Out of Keilroa 33. 4d. 

Carrownagananagh in Killin . . 33. 4d. 

Lettermuckerooe 33. 40!. 

Lecarrowe 33. 4d. 

Three quarters of the tithes of Trienconaght, and the 
moiety of the tithes of Killroa, Carrownaganagh and Letter- 
muckrooe. Rent 6, us. ^d. 

The names Spiddle and Killroe, in Killannin to west 
of Spiddle, are still in use. Lisduff is some church in Kil- 
cummin parish. 

Annaghdown diocese is singular in that no see lands are 
found therein except a trifle in Killower and in Annagh- 
down. The comarb lands in the country east of L. Corrib 
must have been generally lost, as in the case of Balla, 
before the great transfer from the comarbs to the 
bishops. The abbey held more lands to the west of the 
lake. Lisduff and its lands appear to be the old lands around 
that church, comarb lands. Those of Gorumna seem to 
be in connection with an old church. More lands should be 
identified to justify positive assertion, but the evidence 
points to the view that the comarb lands which were in 
possession of this abbey were not transferred to the Bishop, 
and that this monastery was not transformed into a cathedral 

1 Island of MacAdhaimh, H. W. C. 7, 64. 
2 Cal. Pat. Rolls, Chancery Ireland, \-\6James /., p. 2173, No. ii. 


chapter, but survived in close connection with the cathedral 
church, its own abbey church, for which it provided four priests. 

The nunnery of St. Mary Annaghdown also held a small 
portion of ancient endowment which was absorbed with it 
eventually in Kilcreevanty. Both of these houses seem 
to have been remodelled on the Roman System in time to 
save the remnant of their property. 

As far as I can make out there were at Annaghdown the 
following houses 

(1) The Abbey or College of St. Brendan, dealt with above, 
whose church was used as the Cathedral Church. 

(2) St. Mary's Abbey called de Portu Patrum, Briga's 
Nunnery, which passed under Kilcreevanty Nunnery. 

(3) The Little Cell of Premonstratensian Canons. 
Mention is made of a Franciscan House but I cannot 

find evidence that one ever existed there. 

4. Aughros, alias Kilmalton Priory. Founded by St. 
Molaise in the 6th century. It is described in the i6th 
century as having a steeple like a castle, but the whole has 
now disappeared. Of its history I know nothing. At the 
suppression it owned one quarter of land adjoining, the 
vicarages of Dromard and Corkagh and Kilmacshalgan 
in Tireragh and the vicarage of Ahamlish in Carbury, with 
one quarter of land as the vicar's glebe, and Inishmurray 
which were worth 155. yearly beyond the curate's pay, and 
the 4 quarters of Benan in Carbury, and the Grange of 
Magherakilterny in the barony of Lorg in the Co. Fermanagh. 
The vicarage of Kilmacshalgan was worth 35. 6d. beyond 
the curate's pay. 

5. Ballysadare or Easdara. Founded by St. Feichin 
in the beginning of the 7th century. Templemore was the 
old abbey church which became the parish church when 
the monks moved into the I4th or I5th century building 
of which a little remains. It owned the rectory and vicarage 
of Templemore being 3 parts of the tithes in the Termon 
lands, worth 135. 4^. beyond the curate's pay, the vicarages 
of Enagh in Tirerrill, now part of Ballysadare parish, of 
Drumrat in Corran and of Kilgarvan in Gallen, which were 
worth nothing beyond the curate's pay ; a little land near 
the abbey ; 3 small quarters in the townland of Asdara 
estimated at 40 acres of arable and 60 acres of mountain 


land, and another parcel of land containing 30 acres of arable 
and pasture called Trinebally. 

The Pope made the following order regarding its abbot 
on the 3oth July 1463 1 

"Seeing that Thomas Obeathuachan, Prior of the Monastery 
of B. Maria de Insula Macnere of order of St. Augustine 
of Diocese of Elphin, which is ruled by a Prior, resigned ; 
that William Marscarrayd abbot of the monastery of the 
same B. Maria de Casdara of diocese of Achonry of said 
order is reported to be a public fornicator and to have divided 
the revenues of the monastery of Casdara with Cornelius 
formerly abbot of the monastery by a simoniacal pact ; 
you are to try him upon these charges made by Maurice 
Macdomichayd, Canon of the Monastery of B. Maria de 
Insula Macnere. If guilty he is to be deprived and Maurice 
is to be made Abbot of Casdara and Prior of Insula Macnere 
said to be worth 24 marks sterling yearly, with cure of souls. 

" To the Dean and Provost and to Canon Thomas Maca- 
brechan of church of Achonry." 

Considering this case with those of the abbeys of St. 
John the Baptist of Tuam and of Ballintubber it appears 
that the Papal practice at this time was to entrust prosecu- 
tions to intended successors. We do not know what happened 
in any of these cases. 

6. Cong (Abbey of the B.V.M.). Founded by St. Fechin 
in 623. Its possessions were very great in early times, if, 
as is most probable, a large portion of the lands attached 
to the See of Tuam were comarb lands of churches belonging 
to this abbey. 

The earliest account of the possessions of the abbey 
is the following, which purports to be an extract from an 
old manuscript of the abbey. It is in the British Museum, 
Additional MSS. No. 4787, f. I. I translate it, but it is 
mutilated in parts and in one or two places is not quite in- 
telligible, as if the copyist had omitted something or failed 
to decipher correctly, in some places blanks show that the 
original was torn or illegible. 

" In the name of God Amen Let all men know by the 
present [letters] that these are the true undoubted and 
authentic Rentals of Cong in fees [i.e. lands] tithes and 

1 Theiner, Vet. Alon., p. 450. 


other commodities and emoluments from the first day of 
dedication of the church up to this day, vizt. 

" The First and most illustrious Man the King of Hibernia 
alias lernia Donnell son of Aedh 1 McAinmyreach being 
very devout and obedient to almighty God dedicated and 
gave to God and to the said church the piece of land which 
is called Inys nastryndroma and all other pieces of 
land near the lake 2 and Dubras. The same land 

and soil in which the monastery itself has been founded in 
the first year of his Reign and the Monastery itself dedicated 
and had rebuilt . . . cccc and Duvhach O'Duvhay was 
the first Lord Abbot of the monastery. 3 

" Item. The said [ torn ] gave the town of Crois with 
its appurtenances [ torn ] to the said monastery. 

" Item. The said Dermot M'Fergusa King of Ireland 
gave the town of Creevagh 4 with its appurtenances to the 
said monastery. 

" Item. Torlogh Mor O'Conor gave the town of Oylnim 5 
with its appurtenances to the aforesaid monastery. 

" Item. Edmund of the Scots son of William de Burgo 
knight gave to the said monastery the quarter of land which 
is called Ardnagross and the half town of Lioslachane. 6 

" Item. Thomas de Burgo son of the above-named gave 
the half town of Dromsilmoir and the half quarter of Drom- 
silbeg to the aforesaid monastery. 

" Item. Ristard Equi 7 son of Fiesucoba leader of the 
horse of the Lord de Burgo gave the half quarter of ... ay 
to the aforesaid monastery. 

1 Hugo in original. I give the Irish form when a Latin equivalent is 

2 Something has been obliterated, of which " Dich*"" with dots under- 
neath for obliteration is legible. Dubrus seems to be the Doorus mentioned 
in the composition as in Kilmaine barony. 

3 This paragraph is corrupt. 

4 De Croibhis in original. The only Dermot Mac Fergusa who was 
King of Ireland reigned in the 6th century. This must be some local king 
or chief. 

5 Oylnim seems to be the full name of the Neale. The ablxjy had 
property near it. 

8 Probably Lisloughrey, Liosluachra. 

7 This must be Richard O'Cuairsci son of Edmond na Fiesoge, unless 
there is a mistake in the father's name. "Of a Horse," and "Leader of 
the Horse " are terms not elsewhere applied to him. 



" Item. The Clansmen de Burgo gave Segerin l of 

the Canons in the town of Robbo to the aforesaid monastery. 

" Item. The aforesaid Clansmen gave of the 

Canons by Rathmoling 2 in the town of Sruthair to the 
aforesaid monastery. 

" And thus belongs to the aforesaid monastery Temple 
Colmain 3 in the aforesaid town and the Wall of the same, 
and Killin Coemain 3 on the opposite side of the river, and 
the half quarter of land of the Hill 3 which is called St. 
Patrick's there. 

" Item. Gibbun son of the Rector gave the half quarter 
of Tamhnachliahain 4 to the said monastery. 

" Item. Donnell, son of Aedh 5 who is called Great, 
O'Flaghertach gave the piece of land which is called Oiler, 
da Chruinne 6 in the sea of Conomara to the said [monastery], 

" Item. Thomas Sh [ torn ] 7 who is called Red gave 
the quarter of land which is called Cearhonangruigineach and 
the half quarter which is called Seanmhaegharraightain 8 and 
the quarter of Killindubhachta 9 to the aforesaid monastery. 

" Item. Torlogh Mor O' Conor gave the [town] of Lioson- 
duibh 10 on the Mount of Sliabhban in his territory to the 
aforesaid monastery. 

" Item. Ruaidhri King of Ireland son of the above-named 
gave the town and land of Cell moir Muaidhe to the said 

1 Segerin suggests a connection with Kilmorosegir of the Taxation. 
That reading may be correct. In any case that church is the present Killo- 
sheheen. Mr. Blake points out to me that Seges is used in No. 79 of the 
Blake Family records as equivalent of the Irish word Gort. Segerin is pro- 
bably a copyist's mistake for Segetem. 

2 The name remains in Ramolin Tl. adjoining Shrule church. 

3 Templecolmain is probably what is marked on the map as " Abbey," 
close to Shrule church. Killeen Coemain being on the other side of the 
river is perhaps the Killeen of Killeen Fort, a little east of Shrule. I do not 
know St. Patrick's Hill. Cong Abbey does not appear in the i6th 
century grants and surveys as having any property in Donaghpatrick Parish 
or in barony of Clare. 

4 Tonaleeaun Tl. in Cong P. 

8 Aedh Mor O'Flaherty's son Donnell died in 1410. 

6 Crump Island off Rinvyle. 

7 Thomas Ruadh Joy lived in the 1 3th century according to Joyce 

8 Shanafaraghaun Tl. in Ross P. 

9 Dooghta Tl. in Cong P. 

10 Lissonuffy in Co. Roscommon. 


monastery, and the tithe of fishes of the whole river Muaidhe 
aforesaid, and a bell rope from every ship touching at the 
said port for the purpose of fishing and trading, to the afore- 
said monastery. 

" Item. Cormac M'Carty, Lord of his nation gave for ever 
a piece of the land of Birra 1 which is called Inisconge to 
the above-mentioned monastery, and a bell rope when ships 
touch at the port of Dimboith. 1 

" Item. Walter [son] of William de Burgo gave the half 
quarter of land which is called Killinratha to the aforesaid 

" All these above mentioned and named are the fees of 
the aforesaid monastery. The farm and parsonage and 
mixed tithes are now to be dealt with. 

"Of the Tithes. 

" The church of the V. Mary of Conge, a half town in the 
half town of Acheleathard, 2 a half town in the town of 
Athcuirce 3 &c. 

" Item. Church of Ruan 4 in the town of Robo &c. : a half 
town in the town of Ballinrobo &c. 

" The church of Comman has 28 quarters, viz., the half 
town of Scethelochain 5 &c. 

" Item. That no layman can raise anything in the 

city of Co . . . . gie 6 except by leave of the ordinary and 
of the Lord Abbot of Conga. And on the day on which 
he is appointed and made the Abbot of Cork is bound to 
render to the Abbot of Conga sixteen .... ccetas or half 
marks of gold for gilding the chalices of the monastery of 
Conga. And he is bound to render to the treasury of Conga 
all the vestments of the new Abbot of Cork on that day. But 
the above-mentioned Cormac M'Carty gave to the monastery 
of Conga a bell rope from every ship touching at the port 
of Cork. 

1 Beara and Dunboy in Co. Cork. 

2 Aghalahard near Cong. 

3 Castletown Tl. in Cong P. takes its name from the Castle of Ath- 
cuirce. The tithes probably are those of the old church at Billy park in 
Carheens Tl. 

4 Probably the old P.C. of Ballinrobe where the present church stands. 
8 Skealoghan Tl. in Kilcommon P. 

6 Corcaigie, i.e., Cork. 


" Thus are happily finished in the name of the Most High 
the Rentals of Conga both in fees and in tithes and by me 
Tadhg O'Duffy are written down and arranged et * relin- 
quens p'quam in Curia verbatim Romana the Reverend father 
in Christ William Boy O'Duffy Abbot of Conga left [them] 
in the form of a Register with Joseph Pull on the loth 
March in the year of Christ 1501," 

It is unfortunate that this record is corrupt and un- 
intelligible at the most interesting part. The paragraph 
relating to Donnell MacAedh MacAinmirech deals with 
the site and, if not corrupt down to Dubrus, with a small 
neighbouring endowment. Then we find words which 
recount the rebuilding upon the original site by some one 
in the first year of his reign, and a note that Duffagh O'Duffy 
was the first Lord Abbot. The Annals of Loch Ce record 
the death of an Abbot Duffagh O'Duffy in 1223. If he is 
meant, the rebuilding may be ascribed with fair probability 
to King Cathal Crobderg. The Architecture suits the date. 
The next item records a donation by " the said " person, 
and the next after that mentions " the said Dermot 
MacFergusa " who has not been mentioned. A good deal 
has been omitted here. 

Cormac MacCarty King of Munster who died in 1138 
invaded Connaught with O'Brien in 1133. The Archbishop 
of Tuam, Dr. Healy, suggests that Cong's endowments 
and rights in Munster were given by way of reparation for 
or in connection with this invasion. They had been com- 
promised or lost before the dissolution. Some other items 
of this list had also been lost or sold, or were successfully 
concealed when surveys were made in Queen Elizabeth's 

Except the site and perhaps Dubrus there is not an 
item of earlier date than the time of Torlogh Mor O'Conor. 
We may infer that in the arrangements of 1210 a distinction 
was made between the endowments given in early times 
to the Comarb of Fechin and those which were given to 
the Abbot and Convent of Augustinian Canons. 

The best list of possessions is in a grant to John Bingley 
and John King, iyth June, 6 James I. (P.R.J., p. 125, No. LI.) 
The names are reduced to modern spelling when known 

1 This paragraph is corrupt here. 


The site &c. of the abbey. The town liberties and lands 
of Cong ; one ruinous house or castle called the Old Court 
in Cong, belonging to the Archbishop of Tuam, excepted. 

In Drumsheelmore, 2 qrs. ; Drumsheelbeg, qr. ; Lis- 
loughry, 2 qrs. ; Creevagh, 4 qrs. ; Tonaleeaun, \ qr. ; 
Clonin, 1 qr. ; Kilgoin, 2 4 qrs. ; Cross, 2 qrs. ; Killogaragh, 3 
2 qrs. ; Clogher, i qr. ; Nunnery, 4 2 qrs. With all the tithes 
great and small of the premises. 

The islands of Dowresse 5 and Inchaguill, and all the 
smaller islands adjoining. 

The 4 qrs. of the town of Kilmore, with all the tithes 
great and small thereof, and of 6 other quarters in the 
baronies of Tireragh and Tirawly within the parish of 

All rivers and streams passing near the town and Abbey 
of Cong, with all fishweirs and mills. 

One moiety of the tithes great and small of the rectories, 
churches, chapels or parishes of Kilmainemore, Kilmolara, 
Shrale, Kinlough, Kilnebrenin, Templeroan, 6 St. Mary's 
of Cong, 7 Ballinchalla, Ross, Kilmainebeg, and Kilcommon. 

The vicarages of St. Mary in Cong and Kilmainebeg, 
with all the tithes and profits thereof. 

Ardnagross, 8 i qr. ; Killickra 9 near Ballyloughmask, qr. 

The church, chapel or rectory, tithes, &c., of Temple- 
colman in the town of Shrule. A small parcel of land called 
Ramelin in Shrule. 

1 Clooneen and Knockekerrine appear as $ in the Strafford Survey 
No. 137 of Kilmaine among the other Cong abbeylands. 

2 Kilgoin appears in the same list as Kilguyne, 4 qrs. 

3 Killogaragh is in the same list as Killogorrvy, 2 qrs. May be another 
form of Kiltogorra, Tl. near the Neale. 

4 The Nunnery's 2 quarters may be those which are described in the 
composition as belonging to the nunnery of Inishmaine and Ballinchalla, 
which belonged to Kilcreevanty. But probably they are different. The 
Clanricard grant of Kilcreevanty shows 2 qrs. in Cong and an eelweir on 
the Cong River. These lands are likely to be near Ballinchalla and to take 
their name from it. 

8 Dowresse seems to be the Dubrus of O' Duffy's List and to be the 
Doorus in Kilmaine barony. 

6 The old parish church of Ballinrobe. 

7 This should be the old parish church of Cong. 

8 Ardnagross. Not identified. 

9 Killickra Killochrau or Killeennacrava. 


In Ross Barony. 

The Island called Dooros and Inishdoorus. Carrowne- 
groginagh, 1 I qr. ; Shanafaraghaun, J qr. ; Killindought, 2 
i qr. The town and lands of Kilmoremoy. 3 All the 
tithes whatever, great and small, of all the said premises 
in Mayo Co. 

In Tirawley Barony. 

The tithes of fishing of the whole river, bay, or creek 
called Moy. 

A certain custom of one bell rope from and out of every 
ship entering either to fish or to trade within the said 
river Moy. 

In Kilmaine Barony. 
The rectory, tithes, &c., of Ballymally. 4 Any, 5 i qr. 

In Roscommon Co. 

The town and lands of Lisduff in Sleighbane, containing 
4 qrs., with the tithes thereof. The tithes of 12 qrs. in 

In Sligo Co. 

The moiety of all the tithes, great and small, belonging 
to the rectory or parish of Carrowreogh. 6 

In Galway Co. (Ballynahinch Barony). 

The rectory of Conomarra with all the tithes great and 
small of all the lands, &c., of Upper and Lower Conomarra. 

1 Carrownegroginagh is now called Griggins, between Maam and 

2 Dooghta TL, Cong P., in Ross B. 

3 Kilmoremoy here is a mistake for Kilmoronny, the form which appears 
in another document which I understand to be Kilmore of Finney which 
is close to the Finney River in Ross P. It is the Kilmore of O' Flaherty's 

4 Ballymally is an old name for land lying N.E. of Turloughagurkall, 
now included in Ballymartin Tl. An old burying ground is close to it, 
within the border of Frenchbrook Tl. Therefore this church was once a 
parish in the S.W. corner of Kilmainemore. 

8 Any. Not identified. 

* Carrowreogh. Not identified, but in barony of Tireragh. 


A lease of I5th September 1578 (13 D.K. 3463) mentions 
the lands of Creevagh, Cross, Kilmoghoine, 1 with their tithes ; 
the rectories of " Ballekhalle, Templeloran, 2 Kilmore in 
Tyreawle, Kilmore in the country of O'Flaerty." 

7. Mayo (Abbey of St. Michael). Founded by St. Colman 
A.D. 668. It became the cathedral church. Templegerald 
the parish church has disappeared and the site is unknown. 
The present ruins are part of the conventual buildings. 
The high road seems to pass over the site of the church. 
Pieces of carved mullions and mouldings lying about the 
graveyard show it was a fine building. A bit of the cashel 
wall stands near the high road to the south-east. 

The Archbishop's possessions in its neighbourhood show 
that it was well endowed in early times. It held the rectories 
of Mayo, Kilvine, Tagheen, Kilcolman, Rosslee, Touaghty, 

The possessions held in the i6th century appear thus in 
Straff ord's Survey of Co. Mayo (MS. in R.I. A.). 2 qrs. 
in Killecolla ; 2 qrs. in Ardcorkey ; i qr. in Portagh ; I qr. 
in Freeheen ; 2 qrs. in Garrynabba ; \ qr. in Cloonshanbo ; 
| qr. and \ cartron in Gowel. The acres of Mayo; i qr. 
comprising certain denominations which include Gortna- 
gusetaul ; i cartron of Kiltrony or Kiltoony. Killecolla 
is now better known as Brownehall. All the other names 
are those of townlands in Mayo P. excepting Garrynabba 
in Kilcolman P. and Kiltrony, which I cannot identify unless 
it be Kiltrone in Robeen. Gortnagusetaul is associated with 
Gortegarry and Gortenure as containing one quarter in 
Kellynan alias Rahinecrugh. 

8. Inishmaine. The architecture points to the church 
having been built in the I2th century. It seems to have 
been then a monastery under the new Rules. If not it would 
have lost the lands about its site which would be early en- 
dowments. Some time in the I3th century it must have 
been transferred to Kilcreevanty, when it became a nunnery 
and cell of that abbey. For early history see under Shrule. 

The property is thus described in a lease of 1588 (16 D.K. 
No. 5255)." The site of the house of nuns of Innishmean . . . 

1 Kilmoghoine. Possibly Moyne church or the lands of Ballymally, and 
in that case may be meant for Kilmaine. 

2 Templeloran. Not identified. 


and 4! quarters of land with their tithes in Joyes country 
on the west side of the water of Lough Meske, viz : 

(In a later Inqn. Chief Rememb.) 

Dromselling, i qr Dromselyny. 

Ferneighe, i cartron . . . Farnigh. 

Downrice, i cartron .... Downeryse. 

In Grogill, i cartron . . . Crogill. 

Saneneharron, i cartron . . Savoneharran. 

Tonemsony, \ qr Tonemsony. 

Letterlageighe, qr. . . . Letterlagygh. 

Bean, % qr Beean. 

Dristan, qr Drystan. 

Ballenebo [ ], \ qr. . . . Ballinboy. 

A later Inquisition relating to Kilcreevanty shows that 
2 qrs. called Ballinechallae lying near the island on the east 
side belonged to the abbey. These must have been part 
of the original estate. 

An Inquisition of 1609 l shows that Lord Clanricard held, 
in right of the nunnery of Kilcreevanty, i qr. of Inish- 
mayne, Inishowe, and Inishoane, and i qr. of Derryclown- 
dauff, Shraghnelong, and Owen Barraglanne. Shranalong, 
still in use, shows the position of these lands. I cannot 
, identify the rest of the names. See also Kilcreevanty, p. 280. 

9. Tuam (Abbey of St. John the Baptist). Founded by 
King Torlogh Mor O'Conor about 1140. It is called of 
St. John the Evangelist in the Pope's Letter of 26th September 
1461 * to the Archbishop of Tuam and John de Burgo and 
Thomas Oconualta, Canons of Tuam. " William, Abbot of 
the monastery of St. John the Evangelist at Tuam, has 
represented that Malachias Odurruhia, representing himself 
to be Vicar of the Parish Church of the Strin [Serin] or of 
the Relics of St. ledalhey [larlaithe] at Tuam, wastes the 
revenue of the church and lives with a concubine by whom 
he has children. That the revenues of his Abbey being only 
20 marks sterling a year are insufficient to support his dignity 
and that his canons live in great poverty, and that they 
will live more comfortably if the Vicarage be annexed to 
the Abbey. Therefore you are to summon Malachy and 

1 Pub. Rec. Off. Rolls Inq. 4 Ap. 1609, Mayo. 

2 Theiner, Vet. Manual., p. 431. 


deprive him if the facts be proved. In case of vacancy by 
his deprivation or by other cause, the Vicarage, worth 6 
marks sterling a year, is annexed for ever to the Abbey." 

From the grant to Lord Clanricard in 1570 * it appears 
that the abbey owned its site and some land and tithes in 
Tuam, and los. chief rent out of Eagan in MacCostello's 
country, and the vicarages of Kylleare, Began, and Annagh. 
Here vicarage means rectory as appears from the Regal 
Visitation of 1615 which notes that these rectories belonged 
to the abbey. Kylleare is the first part of Keallaricrauyd 
of the Taxation and is the present parish of Annagh. Annagh 
is Annaghernaisc and means Aghamore parish. 

It owned also the tithes of 9^ qrs. following Leghbally- 
magherymore, 2 qrs. ; Kilscoughe, i qr. ; Killynereoghe, I qr. ; 
Siffin, i qr. ; Ballyhanken, I qr. ; Barryse [or Barrine], 
qr. ; Cranaghe, 2 qrs. : Skehan, i qr. ; which Lord Clan- 
ricard held according to a survey of 1562 ? 

The names Kilscohagh, Killeenrevagh, Seefin, Ballyhankin, 
Carrownskehaun are still in use for townlands, which form 
a group to the west of Ballindine in Crossboyne Parish. 
Barryse is perhaps Burris, a townland close to Crossboyne. 
These tithes seem to be the tithes of the parish of an old 
church in the burial ground in Esker Townland. 

10. Ballintubber or Tubber Patrick (Abbey of the Holy 
Trinity). Founded by King Cathal Crobhderg in 1216. 
It is said that in three years it was built, roofed, and shingled 
with oak by the abbot whose death is recorded in 1225 by 
the Four Masters " Maelbrigde O'Maigin Abbot of Tober- 
patrick a son of chastity and wisdom died. By him the 
church of Toberpatrick together with its sanctuary and 
crosses had been with great exertions begun and finished 
in honour of St. Patrick, the Blessed Virgin Mary, St. John 
and the Apostles." 

A thorn-bush on a small mound near the N.W. corner of 
the nave is said to be on the site of the ancient church. 

In 1265 it was burnt (L.C.). 

1416. Thomas O'Ronain was abbot, Owen O'Donnell 
was prior. 

On the igth June 1462 the Pope sent the following order s 

1 II D. K. 1581. * Rolls. Inqn., 4 Ap. 1609, Mayo. 

3 Theiner, Vet. Man., p. 440. 


" To the Abbot of the Monastery of St. John the Evangelist 
of Tuam and to Canons Roricus O'Conreth and Odo Ornih 
of the church of Tuam John de Stan ton a cleric of Tuam 
diocese reported that Thomas Oronayn, abbot of the 
Monastery of Villafontis s. Patricii, has wasted its goods 
and turned them to bad use, and has been guilty of simony. 
John Stanton desires to be a canon of the Monastery. He 
is to be professed there. Thomas is to be tried on his 
accusation and if found guilty is to be removed. Thereafter 
John is to be made abbot. John is described as of noble 
birth on both sides, and a dispensation is granted in respect 
of relationship between his parents." According to tradition 
only men of noble birth were admissible as Canons. 

Henricus Niccolinus and Cornelius Miccadagayn are 
mentioned as former abbots. Walter Stanton, alias MacEvilly, 
was abbot at the suppression. 

F.M. 1505. " John the son of Richard Burke, the choice 
of the English youths of Ireland, was treacherously slain by 
the sons of Ulick Burke, in the monastery of Toberpatrick." 
Richard was a son of Sir Thomas. It cannot be ascertained 
who the Ulick was as several Ulicks or Williams lived about 
that time. The tradition of this murder seems to survive, 
as only a few years ago an old man at the abbey told me 
how Tibbot na Long was murdered near the abbey as he 
was coming there from Castlebourke. John has been long 
forgotten so the well-known Tibbot has been substituted. 


It is very difficult to make out all the lands and places 
named. I therefore give the various lists as they supple- 
ment each other and help in identifications. The earliest 
Inquisition is given in full as a specimen of the form of an 
Inquisition relating to an abbey. 

The earliest statement of its possessions is found in a 
MS. in the British Museum, Additional MSS. No. 4787 f. 82, 
described as an extract from a Codex of Ballintubber Abbey. 
It purports to have been written by the notary O'Riogain 
by order of Abbot O'Ronain from an old but still legible 
record. It is evident that it gives a very imperfect account 
of the abbey's possessions. Mr. M. J. Blake dates it as between 


1450 and 1462 or thereabouts in view of the names of the 
abbot and archbishop. 

It mentions that the Abbot of Ballintubber founded 
the Priory of Cross and reserved a rent. The following are 
named as benefactors " Baelaigh : Brennaith : Seoigheigh : 
Clan Ed. : Butleragh : Baiedaigh : Merwickeigh : Clan 
David." Of these Brennaith or Walsh, Seoigheigh or Joy, 
Butler and Merwick, if it be the same as Merrick, are known 
as Mayo settlers. 

On the application of Abbot Lawrence O'Maykin the 
Parishes of the Well, Drummonechain and Tobarta were 
united with the abbey. Archbishop John gave the episcopal 
fourths of those churches which his successor D. O' Murray 
confirmed. Tobarta means Well Place, and is still in use as 
the name of the townland on which Tower Hill House stands, 
formerly called Touaghty. The well is very deep and never 
runs dry. 

A. An Inquisition in the Public Record Office. 

" Inquisition taken at the town of Clonecashell 
in the county of Mayo on the I4th April 1595 before 
Richard Boyle, Gentleman, deputy of Nicholas Kennedy, 
Esquire, general Escheator and Feodary of the said Lady 
the Queen in her realm of Ireland both within and without 
the liberties by virtue of his office by the oaths of trust- 
worthy and lawful men of the county of Mayo aforesaid 
whose names follow. Renald Fryer of Ellescron, Gent. 
Dermot Moran of Tought, Yeoman. Richard Foyll of 
Newcastell, Yeoman. Richard M'Edmondboy of Cregmore, 
Gent. Richard Oge M'Johnyn of Cam, Gent. Dough 
M'Hugan of Ballemartin, Gent. John Og M'William Crone 
of Newtown, Gent. Ulick Bowrk of Lowarton, Gent. Der- 
mot M'Cormick of Enesmain, Yeoman. John M'Morris 
of Kils . . ., Gent. Tumultagh oge of Ballintaff. Hubert 
Cane of Killellenan, Gent. Phines Collenan of Clogh, Yeoman. 
Moyllre M'Edmondduff of Balleloghmask, Gent. 

" Who having been sworn say upon their oath that the 
Abbot and Convent of the late dissolved Monastery or Priory 
of Canons of Ballentobber in the aforesaid County of Mayo 
before and at the time of dissolution or surrender of the 


same late Monastery or Priory of Canons were seised in their 
demesne as in fee in right of the monastery or priory of 
Canons of and in the town of Gagall with four small quarters 
of land. And of and in all the tithes of corn and of and 
in all other tithes whatsoever issuing from returning from 
or belonging to the aforesaid four quarters of land in the 
Town and Fields of Gagall aforesaid in the county aforesaid 
which are worth yearly beyond reprises 275. 8d. current 
money of Ireland. The before named jurors also say upon 
their oath that the aforesaid late Abbot and Convent of 
the said Monastery or priory of Canons of Ballentobber 
aforesaid were seised in their demesne as in fee in right of 
the said Monastery or priory before and at the time of dis- 
solution suppression or surrender of the same late Monastery 
or priory of Canons of Ballentobber aforesaid Also of 
and in six other quarters of land with and appurte- 

nances in the Barony of Owles in the County of Mayo afore- 
said whose names follow viz. one quarter of land with 
appurtenances called Kellewallye, one quarter of land with 
appurtenances called le Grange, one quarter of land with 
appurtenances called le Mothe, a half quarter of land called 
Ballebarde, a half quarter of land called Perrymore, a half 
quarter of land called Kynwrye, a half quarter of land called 
Dromyn, And two quarters of land called Kylvryn, And of 
and in all the tithes of corn and of and in all other tithes 
whatsoever or belonging beyond it to the afore- 

said six quarters of land to Which all 

and singular lands tenements and tithes aforesaid with all 
their appurtenances belong and appertain to our Lady the 
Queen to her heirs and successors in right of the Crown of 
this Kingdom of Ireland aforesaid by reason and virtue of 
divers statutes and acts of Parliament made published and 
confirmed within this Kingdom of Ireland, and that each of 
the aforesaid six quarters of land with and appur- 

tenances is worth yearly beyond reprises 5 of current money 
of Ireland aforesaid. In witness of all and singular the 
premisses the said deputy Escheator and the before named 
jurors have affixed their seals in turn to the presents given 
on the day year and place above written. 

" This Inquisition was taken at the instance of Robert 
Napper of the Exchequer of the Lady the Queen of her King- 


dom of Ireland and upon the application of Anthony 
Sentleger Knight made to me the before mentioned Deputy 
Escheator before the taking of this Inquisition." 

A few words here are not deciphered. 

The six quarters are really seven, and are put as seven in 
other places. The valuation of 5 each ought to be 55. each. 

B. From a Grant dated 17 June, 6 James I. 1 

" The site &c. of Ballintubber Abbey the town and 
lands of Ballintubber 4 qrs. of land in or near the Abbey 
the town or village and lands of Cagall, 4 qrs. Dromgawe, 

1 qr. Towagh, i qr. six quarters near Belaboorke, lying 
betwixt the countries called Owles and Carra a certain 
parcel called Kilpeslan, containing 2 acres a moiety of 
Farrengalegort a small parcel in Gortnemanagh Clonark, 

2 qrs. 

" In Irris Barony Kilteynie otherwise Kiltayne, 2 qrs., 
with the fishing of salmon in the bay, creek, or river of 
Kilteynie, lately held with the said quarter. Kilwire, 2 qrs. 
in the Owles ; with all the tithes of all the premises the 
the island of Clynishe a moiety of all the tithes, great and 
small, belonging to the rectories of Ballyhene and Burrish- 
carra all the tithes, great and small, of the towns of Bally- 
hemicke, Ballyni-Inry, Ballintawishe, Ballycreevie, Ballile- 
hartane, Ballibohan, Ballindum, and Ballykilmonan." 

The grantees were charged with payment of the Vicars' 

C. A Grant dated 27 Jan, 13 James I., 1 is a re-grant of the 
same with the following variations 

" Near Belaboorke, 6 qrs. Near the same, 6 qrs. more, 
between the countries called Owles and Carra." 
The fishery of Kilteynie is omitted. 
Kilwire is given the alias " Killiory." 
Ballyhemick is given the alias " Ballyhemin." 
" Ballybogh " instead of Ballibohan. 

1 Cal. Pat. Kolls. Chancery, Ireland, I- 1 6 James I. 
8 Ibid., p. 287. 



A summary of an Inquisition is preserved in the National 
Library in Harris and King's Collectanea de Rebus Hiber- 
nicis, vol. xiii. p. 196. The original was mutilated or partly 
illegible when this summary was made. The original is not 
found in the Public Record Office. It is the most detailed 
statement of the property, but owing to its condition the 
meaning is not always clear. 

" Ballintobber in Co. Mayo, i Sept 1614. The Abbot 
of the Monastery of Ballintobber in C. Mayo was seised 
of the site and 4 quarters adjoining the same monas- 
tery, and of and in the towns of Downinagh Clowyard 
Shythanagh Keilerchoyly Coureagthgrath Carnoghteragh 
. . . alias Brerene in which the shrine of St. Finen is 

revered . . . Dromianigheo alias Clon- 

killagh Killenleath Lisnemoyre . . . Gortenfort and a 
quarter of land called Kiltarsaghtlane Dromynerall Kylty- 
faile inclusive .... Gortnekilly .... Killiagh 
Lowghertan owghter Lowghertan Litragh Dowannagh 
Tavnaaghtertagart Tavnagherlassy Shanilowghhowter . . . 
Derrenetory banny Derrenecoraghac . . . Goranhielulochy 
Gortana . . . i. quarter of land called Carrowandavderge 
Clownyarde Corryanvayre .... 

" And also of 4 quarters of land of ... Dromynmore 
Dromynbeg Lurga and Sagharde, J quarter of Knocker- 
raghir and of Kilwonyn, i quarter of land called Carrow 
. . . and of 7 quarters of land of Gransaghliab . . . 
which of the said Abbacy both in temporals and in spirituals 
,- . . and of the town of Liskally . . . Ruattybeggy 
4 quarters of Kilterry Carrorynaduose Rathskiltane Acline- 
slobine and of the half [Sedis in original] quarter called 
Cloyntes and of the half [Sedis in original] Island called 
Illane Arde ei . . . quarter called Towaght where the 
church of St. Patrick has been dedicated still existing in the 
Cell or Chapel or Parish Church belonging to the same 
Monastery of Ballintubber . . . Dromhavan .... 
in the territory of Urlagh with the rivulet fishery and water 
course with appurtenances 


" And of the Islands called Ilanmassy and Ilanedachinny 
and of a moiety of the half quarter of Farrenegolgort in the 
Parish of Borriscarra with their appurtenances . . . 
called Kilcowny and a parcel of land of Kilpeshine by 
Castlebarre with the Rivulet and fishery of the same and 
of Gortnemanagh and of another parcel of land near the 
Church of Towight a parcel of land of Gortnehelinsy near 
the Church of Drome a parcel of land of Killindromenroe. 

" And there is also a certain Cell Church Chapel or Monas- 
tery or Religious House of Crosse or of the Holy Cross in the 
territory of with its appurtenances belonging to the 

Monastery of Ballintubber. And the Prior of Ballintubber 
used to appoint a sub-prior out of his Convent to the Monastery 
of the Holy Cross who rendered to the Prior out of the 
profits of the Monastery of the Holy Cross the Sum of 40 
oures of Silver which amount to the Sum of 335. 4^. sterling. 
And also the Sum of 3 oures of Silver, i.e. 55. sterling to 
the Prior and the Convent for the name of Chiefry and the 
remaining part of the profits of the Monastery Church of the 
Holy Cross the sub-prior for the time being used to spend 
for his own support and that of his Fellows or brothers 
serving God in the said Cell or Church or Monastery 
of Crosse or of the Holy Cross and for the repair of the 

" Ballintobber of St. Patrick. And all the tithes Greater 
and Lesser of the above named lands belonging to the 
Monastery of Ballintubber. 

" And the land &c. of Clownarke in the Barony of Kil- 
mayne in the territory of Robuine with all fisheries mills 
and watercourses in Clownard belonging. And 4 quarters 
of land of Ballihemon in both spiritualities and tem- 

" And of all the Tithes of the Parish of Ballintobber and 
of the lands of Kilwoonin Corriagh Luhurtane Koheragh 
B. Boghe Ballendromy B. cagaly the Mountain quarter of 
B. beaghane Gortbane Cro . . . Gortenbrabastowne 
Shrahynlogha from the Bounds and Metes of Detriffe to the 
land of Gransali inclusive. 

" And of all the Tithes &c. of the following lands, viz : 
Ballenynge, Tormane, Lisituvanie, Ballentavysie, B. cryvy, 
Ballendromyn, Gisseden, Clownedowane, Clownyduff. And 


of Six quarters beyond the rivulet of Cassellreyes and Moyn- 
kane, the town of Dromneneachane, Levallyclohytwodagh, 
Ballyblichane, Belabourky, and Cloweyn. 

" And all the Tithes &c. of the Rectory or Chapel of Bela- 
hane and Burneyscarra are parcel, &c. 

" And the Abbot and Convent, &c., have free power to 
cut and carry away trees and timber from the woods of 
Kiltarseyghtane for building and rebuilding the Monastery 

11. Cross. Priory of the Holy Cross under Ballintubber. 
It is on the west coast of the Mullet and seems to be a 
development for the old church of Crosrechig mentioned in 
Pope Innocent's Epistle, or at least to have taken its name 
therefrom. See under Ballintubber for its estates and its 
subjection to that abbey. 

According to O'Riogain's Memorandum it must have 
been founded in the I4th century or in beginning of I5th. 

12. Annagh. This small house was founded by Mac 
William Eighter, Walter, son of Sir Thomas Bourke, who 
died in it in 1440, as a cell of Cong, on condition of main- 
taining any woman of his descendants who should make a 
vow of chastity. It owned at the suppression two half 
quarters of land called the Annagh and Cloondaver 
(Leghkearrow Inany and Leighkearrow Clondowre.) l It 
is called a cell of the order of St. Francis in the i6th 
century. It is situated in the parish of Robeen on the 
shore of L. Carra, close to the ancient parish church of 
Annagh. The church was 51 ft. by 21 ft. inside. The east 
gable remains, of well-dressed and squared stones. Clondaver 
Tl. lies next S. of Annies in which the old church called 
Labbananeave and the abbey lie. 

The only way of reconciling the tradition of foundation 
with the Inquisition is to suppose that it was given up by 
Cong and became an independent Franciscan House. The 
Cong records show no connection with it. There is however 
a connection between the old parish church of Annagh 
and the Nunnery of Kilcreevanty. It is ignored in the 
O'Duffy Rental of Cong made in 1501 in which the other de 
Burgo benefactions are mentioned. The quarter of Any named 
in the Clanricard grant is probably some other Annagh. 
1 16 D.K, No. 5255. 



13. Killaraght. This house was founded by Athracht in 
the 5th century in St. Patrick's time. For particulars see 
diocese of Achonry. It owned 6 quarters of land at the 
suppression. Of them " 3 quarters of land by the water 
called Lorgbella, viz., two carucates beyond the water towards 
the north, and another quarter on this side the water towards 
the west." * 

14. Killecrau or Killeenacrava. The name seems to be 
" Church of the Devout." It is a west gable inside the gate 
of Creagh demesne and close to the river Robe near Ballin- 
robe. The church was 12' 6" wide inside, and seems to 
have had a loft. I should say it was of nth or I2th century. 
In the I4th century it was called Cillin na mBuidhean, 
Little Church of the Companies. 2 It owned at suppression 
\ a quarter of land and its tithes valued at 6s. yearly. 


15. Annaghdown. The Abbey of the B.V.M. called de 
Portu Patrum. This seems to be the nunnery founded by 
St. Brendan for his sister Briga. It came before 1195 under 
the Nunnery of Clonard as the Pope's confirmation of the 
possessions of that Abbey dated 26 Feb. 1196 includes " the 
church of St. Mary of Enachdun with the townland of Kilgel." 3 
It is assessed at 2, 8s. in the Taxation and is said to 
have owned Adchudrignigi and other churches, taxed other- 
wise. I cannot make out that it was in existence at the 
suppression. I suspect that it was abandoned and absorbed 
in the Nunnery of Kilcreevanty, which had lands in Annagh- 

On the other hand Florence Lord Abbot de Portu Patrum 
was witness to Documents Nos. 133, 137, 138 in the Blake 
Family Records, dated in 1559, 1562, 1563. At that time 
ecclesiastical offices which had in fact ceased to exist were 
sometimes revived by the Pope as Titles. So this again is 
not conclusive. 

Again it is possible that the Abbey de Portu Patrum is 

1 1 6 D.K. 5826. 2 Hy Fiachrach, p. 59 and p. 203. 

1 Archdall, p. 527, quoting Monast. Angl., ii. p. 1043. 



the same as the College of St. Brendan, but I think that 
the ruins show that there was a monastery attached to the 
cathedral church, another monastery of some importance, 
and a nunnery. 


16. Tuam. Abbey of the Holy Trinity. Said to have 
been founded by a de Burgo in the reign of King John or 
in the beginning of that of Henry III., if so probably by 
Richard de Burgo. It owned \ an acre of land and a moiety 
of 2 qrs. containing 80 acres of arable and 20 of pasture. 1 

It founded as a Premonstratensian Nunnery the Chapel 
of St. Mary of the Hill on the west side of the river at 
Galway. The nuns abandoned it and it fell into the hands 
of seculars. The Convent of Tuam made it over to the 
Dominicans of Athenry in 1488, and they transferred it to 
the Conventual Franciscans of Galway in 1494. 

17. Annaghdown. The Little Cell. It was assessed at 
IDS. in the Taxation. Date of foundation is unknown. In 
1391 the Pope ordered its Abbot to appoint Matthew Ohynneri 
to the vacant church of Fuaranmor. 2 The taxation excepts 
its churches. I cannot find mention of any. As it does not 
appear to have been in existence at the suppression I suppose 
it was abandoned by the monks and the possessions trans- 
ferred to another house. Annaghdown does not show any 
ruins attributed to it. 

18. Killetrynode or Killeennatrinody. A cell founded by 
and belonging to the Canons of the Holy Trinity in L. 
Key. It is the church called Temple na calliaghdoo in 
Killeen Tl. in Kilbride P. in Tirawley. It owned a small 
quarter of land adjoining. 3 

19. Killeen. This was also a cell of the Trinity of L. Key. 
It is, or took its name from, the Killeen graveyard in Glen- 
daduff Tl. in Attymas P. It owned the rectory of Attymas, 
the townland of Carrownecargy now called Carrick, and 
Drumscowlog which is not identified. 

1 P.R.J., 5 Dec. 8 James I. 

2 Cal. Pap. Registers, Letters, vol. iv. 414. 

3 i6D.A'. 5877. 



20. Ballinrobe. This Abbey is mentioned in the Register 
of the Dominican House of Athenry as in existence in 1337. 
Sir Edmund Albanagh and his brother Reymond took their 
cousin Sir Edmund de Burgo prisoner in this house in 1338. 
This is the first mention of it. It was a very large and hand- 
some church. It may be assigned with most probability to 
Maurice FitzGerald of Offaley, who by grant from Richard 
de Burgo and by purchase from other grantees held the whole 
territory of the Conmaicne Guile Toladh. The style of archi- 
tecture suits that date. It owned according to an Inquisi- 
tion of the 27th Q. Elizabeth, 1584, one quarter of land and 
its tithes worth 135. 4^. a year, and a piece of land called 
St. John's in Ballinrobe containing 2 acres, with a mill 
and watercourse, worth is. 6d. yearly. The land is now 
called Friars Quarter. According to a power of attorney of 
1529 this house of St. John belonged to the Priory of Kil- 
mainham. It may have been transferred after that date. 
It is called Murone in Strafford's Survey. 

21. Burriscarra. It was founded for Carmelites and was 
transferred to this order in 1412 by order of Pope John XXIII. 
The date of foundation is not recorded. It is in the same 
style as Ballinrobe Abbey and may safely be given about the 
same date. The Staunton Lord of Carra must have been 
the founder. 

It owned one quarter of land. 

It was called Burgo Flore, by way of translation of Burris- 
carra. Flower is one of the meanings of Cera. 

22. Ballyhaunis. Abbey of B.V.M. Tradition alive in 
1685 said that it was founded by the Sliocht Jordan Duff 
MacCostello. As Jordan Duff was killed in 1367 (F.M.) the 
foundation cannot have been earlier than the close of the 
I4th century. The architecture suits such a date. 1 

The community of monks never ceased to exist. When 
they left the conventual buildings a few friars always lived 
in houses close by. The church is still used by them, but the 
side chapel is roofless. It owned 12 acres of land, and half 

1 Downing, Description of Co. Mayo, MS. T.C.D. 


a quarter, 1 but I cannot find any account of their denomina- 

23. Banada. Founded in 1423 by a friar named 
Charles. It was a fine house and church. It owned only 
half the quarter of Knockglas. 

The ancestor of Mac William " constructed the seven 
towers in Benn-fhada of Leyny, where the Gaeidhel made a 
monastery of those towers." 2 No traces of the towers remain 
and only a fragment of the abbey. The site is over the river 
Moy and is suitable for a castle. 

24. Ardnarea. Founded before 1402 when an O'Dowda 
is recorded to have been buried in Ardnariadh (L.C.). The 
ruins show that it was a considerable establishment. It 
owned | a quarter adjoining and one quarter in Scurmore. 

25. Dunmore. Founded in 1425 by Walter, Lord Athenry. 
In 1541 it was exempted from dissolution at Lord Athenry's 
request, but the prior and 4 friars were to adopt secular dress. 
In 1570 it was let for a rent of 315. 8d. and maintaining one 
horseman, 3 so it appears to have held some property. The 
chancel was made a parish church. 

26. Murrisk. Said to have been founded in I4th century 
by O'Malley. Only chancel of church and part of central 
tower is left. It was a considerable building. 

It owned only one quarter of land. 

27. Galway. An abbey was founded in 1508 by Stephen 
and his wife Margaret. It must have been very small, and 
has entirely disappeared. 

Notes on the Names of Lands and Places. 

Gagall = Cagaula Tl. Kellewallye = Killavally Tl. 

The Grange Gransaghliab and Gransali in D. The town 
of Bellabourke has an alias Liaboge in Strafiord's Survey. This 
is in full the Grange of Liaboge. 

The Mothe = M.oa.t Tl. next Bellabourke Tl. and including 

Bollibarde Perhaps an error for Bellabourke. The Abbey 

1 \$D.K. iSJuly 1578. 

2 Hist. et. Gen. Fam. de Burgo, MS. in T.C.D. 

3 12 D.K. 1630. 


owned half the town of Bellabourke, and certain MacPhilbins 
owned the other half. But this may be some minor denomina- 

Perrymore or Ferrymore = Fearaghmore in Drummin Tl. 
next north of Hazelrock. 

Kynwrye = Kinnewry Tl. lying on parish boundary to West 
of Loughnacorralea. 

Dromyn = Drummin Tl. lying N. and W. of Moat Tl. 
The Northern part includes Fearaghmore. 

Kylwryn This should be read Kylwryu. It is meant for 
Kilbree, Cill Bruigh, the detached part of Ballintubber parish. 
Also appears as Kilwire alias Killiory in C. Killyvirre alias 
Killvry in Strafford's Survey. 

The 6 quarters of Kellewallye are really 7 quarters. The 
mistake is repeated in B and C showing that they were 
copied from A. They formed a fairly compact block running 
north from Kinnewry along the parish boundary, and the 
detached farms of Kilbree. In Bellabourke Tl. is an old church 
called Templeshanenaglasha, which in Strafford's Survey is 
called Killyndiryh. That church and its lands seem to have 
been the nucleus of the Grange estate. An old church is in 



Towagh The land about Tower Hill house. 

Kilpeslan Kilpeshine in D. The former seems to be the 
correct form. As a church with a river and a fishery near 
Castlebar it may be the old church at Ballynew. 

Farrengalegovt = Gallgort Tl. close to Burriscarra. 


Clonark = Cloonark Tl. lying along the river Robe near Cloona- 
gashell Castle. 

Kilteynie = Kilteany, Church and Tl. in Kilcommon Erris. 

Kilwire = See above, Kilwryn. 

Clynishe = Clynish, an island of Kilmeena P. in which was 
a church. 

Ballyhemicke Alias Bally hemin in C. See Ballyhemon in D. 

Ballyni-Inry Ballyniny and Ballenynge in C. and D. Bally - 
niny is probably the correct form. 

Ballintawishe Ballentavysie in D. The composition notes 
the 8 quarters of Levallynetavese. 

Ballycreevie An alias of Ballintubber (H.F. 155) which 
survives in Creevagh Tl. close to the Abbey. 

Ballilehurtane = Luffertaun. 


Battibohan = Bohaun Tl. 
Ballindum = Ballinduin ? 
Ballykilmonan See Kilwoonin in D. 


Ballybogh appears instead of Ballybohan in B. There is 
a Bollyboghe in D. as well as a Ballybeaghan. Pelty's map 
gives a Ballibogh on E. of Bellabourke. 


Downinagh This might be read Drominagh I think. 

Clowyard Perhaps Clownyard. 

Shythanagh = Skehanagh Tl. adjoining Ballintubber and 
Cams Tls. 


Coureagthgrath.YThese are Cam Eighteragh and Cam Oughter- 

Carnoghteragh. / agh = Cams Tl., in which is Church Island, 
ancient Shrine Island, in which is St. Finan's Church. 

Dromianigheo to Gortenfort. Drommoneguagh had the aliases 
of Ballygavage or Ballygavock, and Lageneighduff. Strafford's 
Survey shows that the cartron of Killeenh'ath was included in 
the quarter of Dromenegoath. This was an estate belonging to 
O'Kellys of Donamona. The townland of Killeen includes an 
old graveyard which gave the name. This was an estate lying 
south of Donamona Castle. Fortlawn seems to translate 

Kiltarsaghtlane = Kiltarsaghaun. 


Kyltyfaile, Fal was the northern boundary of Partry 
(H.F. 153), and survives in Kilfaul Tl. This word seems to 
be a variation of Kilfaul, Coilltefail, meaning Woods of Fence ; 
the lands seem to lie between Kiltarsaghaun and the Partry 

Gortnekitty to Gortana. Of these names the Luffertauns 
survive as a Townland name. 

Carrowandavderge. j D errindaffderg Townland indicates the 

Clownyarde. situation. 

Corryanvayre. } 

Dromynmore and Beg, Lurga and Sagharde. These Dromyns 
are two of the quarters of Cagaula. For Sagharde read Gagharde. 
Lurgan and Guffard are S.W. and S.E. of Cagaula church. 

I cannot make out any of the following denominations until 
Towaght. The House of Towerhill is said to have been built 
on an old graveyard which must be the site of this church- 


Ilanmassy and Ilanedachinny being described with Farrene- 
golgart as in Burriscarra P., must be islands in L. Carra. 

Kilcowny. Sir Theobald Bourke's grant names " Killcony 
otherwise Orlare." Carrownurlare in Breaghwy P. seems to 
represent it. 

Killindromenroe. This was probably a small field near 
Drumminroe in Ballintubber P. All the small fields have been 
brought together in one place. 

The Priory of the Cross is then dealt with. According to 
the first computation the aures were worth lod. each, but 2od. 
each according to the second, i.e. ounces, one-twelfth of a pound. 
According to the composition its estate comprised 3 quarters 
called the Cross and i quarter in Termon Kilmore. 

Bally hemon was in the South of Touaghty Parish and comprised 
the Townlands of Kilskeagh and Cloonnagoppoge and others. 

The tithes of other lands not owned by the Abbey are next 
set out. The words " all the tithes of the Parish of Ballintubber " 
were not considered enough to cover them, but the names of 
lands were given ; the same remark applies to Drum. But it 
is sufficient for Burriscarra and Ballyheane. Those parishes had 
been long consolidated, and there could be no doubt. But in 
Ballintubber and Drum the churches of Cagaula and Loona 
were still well known as parish churches, and such others as 
those of Belcarra and Gweeshadan and Bellabourke may have 
survived in monastic record and local tradition. It is clear 
that the Abbey held all the tithes of these four parishes of 
Ballintubber, Ballyheane, Burriscarra and Drum. In Touaghty 
it held only the tithes of its lands. 

The following names of lands are identified 

B. Boghe lay to east of Bellabourke. 

Gortenbrabastowne is a part of town of Bellabourke. 

Gortbane is now a Tl. next Bellabourke. Gortbanebeg was 
a cartron in the quarter of Killyndiryh in town of Bellabourke. 

Shrahynlogha lay to west of Kinnewry. 

Detriffe seems to be Diotruibh which gave the name of 
Bealach an Diothruibhe to the Togherpatrick (P.M. 1589 note), 
and should be some place through which the Togher passes. 
The name Derrew occurs on the north boundary of Ballyovey 
parish. This seems to be a form which Diothruibh might take. 
If so this Diothruibh would suit better than any Diothruibh on 
the line of the Togherpatrick unless there was one on the 
eastern border of the parish. Diotruib or Diothreamh means 
desert or wilderness, a term applicable to many parts of Ballin- 
tubber and Ballyovey parishes in old times. StringilTs Well 
was in the Wastes (See p. 23). Gransali seems to be a part 


of Gransaliabog. These points would cover the whole parish 
as this list seems to intend. 

The next paragraph comprises the tithes of Drum parish. 
Belabourky may be a name for some place therein and not the 
Belabourke of Ballintubber. Many of these names are not 

Tormane = Lisrobert Tl. in extreme south of Drum. 

Gisseden = Gweeshadan Tl. 

Clownedowrane. I think this should be Clownedowane. A 
tract of that name lay to west of Belcarra on the parish boundary. 

Clownyduff may be the Cloonaghduff Tl. 

Cassellreyes and Moynkane. This is most likely the Manulla 
river, and the lands meant those attached to the old church of 
Loona as part of its parish. Cashell, or Castle, Reis, was part 
of the estate of the Brannaghs or Walshes of Rosslahan. But 
I do not know the site of this Cashell. 

The Abbey estate seems to have comprised 35 quarters, a 
very large property. In time of peace the tithes must have 
been a valuable addition. 


28. Kilcreevanty. Cill Craebhnata. Called de Casta 
Silva. Founded about A.D. 1200 by King Cathal Crobhderg. 
The name shows that it took the place of an old church, or 
was perhaps a revived and enlarged ancient Nunnery. For 
Craebhnat is a woman's name. The endowment was made 
of considerable transfers of small Connaught houses which 
had been held by the Abbey of Nuns of Clonard and by 
absorption of other small houses which decayed. Very little 
of the house or church remains. 

On 26 Feb. 1196 Pope Celestine III. confirmed to Clonard 
" The Church of St. Mary of Clonmacnoise to the east, with 
the townland of Kellogainechain, the church of St. Mary to 
the west, with the townland of Drumalgach, and the church 
of St. Mary of Enachdun, with the townland of Kilgel." l It 
held also Inishmaine in Mayo, Ardcarne and Termonkeelan 
in Roscommon, and what apparently was once a small nunnery 
at Drumcliff in Sligo, and many rectories and a large extent 
1 Archdall, Afonast. Hib., 527. 


of land scattered widely over Connaught, when the Abbess 
Dervaile ny Conor surrendered its possessions on the 
loth April 34 Henry VIII. 

The details of this surrender are taken from Archdall, 
showing the valuation of lands and tithes between 1540 and 
1550, but the grant to Lord Clanricard gives the best and 
most detailed account. The known names are reduced to 
modern spelling. The old spelling is used in unknown names 
and the Parish is inserted in square brackets, with other 

The Abbey containing a church and belfry, dormitory, 
hall, 3 chambers, a kitchen, garden, and other 
closes, containing 2 acres of land within the pre- 
cincts, and 12 messuages, 120 acres arable, 4 

meadow, 20 pasture, with their appurtenances s. d. 

in Kilcreevanty 168 

30 acres arable in Tenmoyle [Tuam P.] 68 

30 Lehid [Kilbennan P 68 

60 10 pasture in Ardower [Kilconla P.]. 13 4 

60 10 Urracly . 13 4 

30 in Airgloony [Tuam P.] 34 

60 30 pasture in Congan 10 o 

40 12 Kilgill [Annaghdown P.] 6 8 
60 20 Drumsullyn .... 13 4 
20 in Sede Enatuanen [in See of Annagh- 
down] 5 o 

60 20 pasture in Listagartbeg and Lista- 

gartmore 68 

60 ,, 20 pasture in Anaghe of the Nuns . 10 o 

30 ,, in Abbeytown . . 68 

60 20 pasture in Drumalagagh [Moore P.] 13 4 

All within the Co. of Galway. 

The following rectories Ballyncossen [Ballycusheen Tl. 
in Kilmainemore P.], Glune, Kiltullagh, Monivea, Galbooly 
[in Killimordaly P.], Killaan, Gleangeadan, Creagh [P. in 
Moycarn barony]. Beagh [Tl. in Creagh P., or Parish in 
Kiltartan, probably former] Culary, the chapel of St. Patrick 
in Bullaan, the Chapel in , the Chapel in Oghil 

Beg [in Clonfert P.], together with the tithes of Airgloony, 
Congan, Ballymacgibbon, Ballynekellayne [Town of Killaan] 
and Kilgill, worth yearly, 10, 75. 


The rectories of Coliscorne, Ardcarne, Mohym, Drumala- 
gagh, the Chapel in Clonmacnoise, Drumcliff, Benivollen, 
and the Abbeytown ; also the tithes of Kilcreevanty, Ten- 
moyle, Lehid, Ardower, Urracly, Listagartmore, and Anaghe 
of the Nuns, worth yearly, 16, us. ^d. 

The whole estate therefore was taken at 34 yearly. As 
usual in these early lists we cannot tell how much is meant 
by the names. For instance Drumsullyn seems to mean the 
Inishmaine Abbey estate. Rectory seems in some cases, as 
in Ballycusheen townland, to mean only the rectorial tithe. 

A grant to Lord Clanricard in 1570 is even vaguer, but 
gives to some items different names. 1 

The description of this estate in Lord Clanricard's grant 
of all his possessions dated 19 July, 8 James 1. 2 is as 
follows, omitting alternative spellings, using modern spelling 
generally, and rearranging items so as to bring those of each 
county together : 

In Co. Galway. 

The Monastery with site, church, churchyard, 6 cottages 
and 4 quarters, containing by estimation 100 acres arable 
and 40 acres pasture, wood and moor in Kilcrevanta. 

2 quarters, containing 60 acres arable, 24 acres pasture 
and moor, a watermill and watercourse in Ardower. 2 
quarters containing 60 acres arable, 20 acres pasture in 

Lehid lands containing 24 acres arable, 40 acres mountain 

In Tenmoyle, 12 acres arable, 8 acres pasture and moor. 
Airgloony, 20 acres arable, 18 acres pasture. 

Kilgill in Maghireogh, 24 acres arable, 30 acres mountain 

In Bannabagh in Omany, 30 acres arable, 8 acres pasture 
wood and bog (Ballynabanaba Tl. in Fohanagh Parish ?). 

A messuage and I quarter of land, containing 30 acres 
arable, 24 acres pasture in Oghilbeg in Shillannighy [Sil 

1 ii D.K. 1581. 2 P.R.J., 173, ii. 


The following chief rents, all in English money 

5. d. 

Out of Lehpannaghs [Lehanaghs, Tl.'s in Moyrus ?] 1 1 

Killing near Ballynahinch [Killeen XL] . . i 10 

Umgoyth [Ungwee Tl. Ballynakill P.] , . i 10 

Doorus and Inishdoorus [Cong P.] ,. , . n 

Farnaght and Glenlusk [in Cong P.] ... 1 1 

Bearnaylly [Barnahallia Tl. in Omey P. ?] . . 1 1 

Knockanaganvyne and Islandmore [Big Island 
in L. Mask] with an old stone house near 

Ballynonagh [Petersburgh in Ross P.] . . . n 
Kilmeelickin [in Ross P.] 
Seanowharragany [Shanafaraghaun Tl.] being 

part of Kilbride I 10 

,, Slievepartry, called Owenvarraglena . . . . i 10 
the Derry [Deny in Ballinchalla P. Ross 

Barony] n 

Shrahnalong [in Ballinchalla P. Ross Barony] 1 1 

All the tithes of the half quarter of Seanowhurragany. 

In Cos. Galway, Sligo, Roscommon, and Westmeath. 

The rectories advowsons tithes &c., of Kilcreevanty, 
Creagh, Taghmaconnell, Killaan, Killeomer in Omanie 
[Killimordaly], Kiltullagh in Clanrickard, Drumcliff in 
Co. Sligo, Ardcarna Co. Roscommon, and Clonmacnoise in 
O'Melaghlin's country. 

In Co. Mayo. 

In Cowlesturnie in MacWilliam Eightery's country, 
2 quarters containing 60 acres arable, 20 acres pasture and 

In Cong 2 quarters, and an eel weir on the river Cong. 

In the Island of Inishdorus, \ quarter. 

Gortenehaglish, 2 acres. 

A ruinous church in Ballinchalla. 

The waste castle chapel and quarter of land called Annie, 
with the tithes thereof and of Renenyell [the old castle on 
Hag Island in L. Carra and the church and Tl. of Annagh 
on shore of L. Carra and Rinnaneel Tl. close by]. 


The ruinous chapel or house called Teaghfin near the 
Abbey of Cong, and a garden near Cong Castle on the north. 

The tithes of the 2 quarters of Ballenecowshnagh [Bally- 
cusheen TL] in Kilmaine Barony. 

The Island of Inishmaine, with all the lands and islands 
in Loughmask. 

In Inishmaine, Inishdowe [Inishcoog ?] and Inishowen, 
i quarter. 

In Derryclowndan, Shrahnalong, and Oenberreglenna, 
i quarter. 

The town and lands of Ballinchalla on the western 
[eastern really] part of the island, containing 2 quarters with 
the tithes. 

A castle and bawn in the said island. 

In Co. Roscommon. 

In Termonkeelan 2 quarters, containing 40 acres arable, 
16 acres pasture and moor. 

In Drumalagagh, 2 quarters containing 60 acres arable, 
24 acres pasture wood and bog. 

The 2 rectories or churches of Temple-Efarson [Ros- 
common Church] and Kilkeevin, with half the tithes of the 
36 quarters of land within the said parishes. 

Ballibokie, 4 quarters. 

All the tithes of 4 quarters of land in O'Conor Don's 

The 2 quarters of the cell of Termonkeelan in the same. 

The moiety of the tithes of the following lands, viz. 

In Cloonkoose, 2 quarters. In Cloondacara, 2 quarters. 
In Arm, i quarter. In Clansallagh, i quarter. In Longford- 
magherie, i quarter. In Carrowmore, i quarter. In Cloona- 
vindin, i quarter. In Beagh, i quarter. In Emlagh, 
i quarter. In Lisboy, i quarter being parcels of Termon- 
keelan rectory. 

Three parcels called Boeltisier commonly called Glane- 
nawf, Ballebrickney, and Bollecolman, containing 5 acres 
and belonging to the Cell of Ardcarne. 

The late cell of Nuns of Ardcarne, with i quarter of 
land and divers gardens in Ardcarne and Eastersnow, thereto 


The rectory and tithes of Ardcarne, except in the 3 towns 
of Loughport, extended to 3 couples yearly. 

In Co. Sligo. 

Ballynagalliagh, ij quarter. 

A small piece of land in Drumcliff in Carbury Barony. 
The church and a house thereto adjoining on the west, late 
belonging to the rectory of Drumcliff. 

The said rectory and a vaulted stone house called Tagh 
Iconneile, late belonging to the said rectory. 

Dowchorne, 6 quarters. 

Dromentample, I quarter. 

Bellanafenogie [Ballyara Tl.], | quarter. Kilmalovir, 
i quarter. Killegallagh otherwise Killnegallagh, i quarter. 
Sessie M'Ellarhie, i quarter. Monynecranghie, 2 quarters. 
The rents reserved were 36, los. 8d. Irish. 


29. Knockmoy, called de Colle Victoriae, of the Hill of 
Victory, a translation of the Irish Cnoc Muaidhe, but incorrect. 
Muaidh is a woman's name. Her Hill has been treated as 
if the name was Cnoc mBuaidh. It was built in 1189 or 
1190 by King Cathal Crobhderg, who was buried therein. 
The name having been translated Hill of Victory, a victory 
of King Cathal over Almeric St. Lawrence and a force of 
English was imagined to account for the name. There is 
no evidence of any such battle. 

It was dedicated to the B.V.M. and was a daughter of 
Boyle which was a daughter of Mellifont. The ruins are of 
interest. A very full amount of the history is given in the 
//. of the Galway Arch, and Hist. Society, i. p. 68. 

In 1542 Abbot Hugh O' Kelly, who appears to have been 
a layman holding the abbey in commendam, surrendered it 
and its possessions and renounced the supremacy of the Pope. 
He received the abbey back for life, to furnish for the King's 
service 60 horse, a battle of gallowglasses (80 men each 
having an armour-bearer and a boy to carry provisions), and 
60 kerne when the Lord Deputy comes into Connaught, and 
for service out of Connaught 12 horse and 24 kerne. 

2 86 


Clare Island Abbey was under it at the Suppression. 
The possessions were let in 1566 to Andrew Brereton for 
21 years at 49, los. 1 In 1584 they were valued at 78 a 

The lands were chiefly in the parishes of Abbey Knockmoy 
and Killererin and Kilmoylan and Athenry. 

An Inquisition of I April 27 Eliz. i.e. 1584 gives a list of 
some of their possessions : 

12 quarters in town of Knockmoy, 

the demesne. 

2 of Knocknemanaghe. 
2 Dulysse .... 

Uraniebegge . . 
Aghrem alias 

Grange Maghery 

Reogh .... 
Corbally .... 
Tawnagh. . . . 
Grange Cowlreagh 


Close to Galway Town in Mur- 

rough Tl. 

Oranbeg in Oranmore P. 
About Castlelambert ? Galway 

A.H.S., i. 40. 
Grange Tl. Annaghdown P. 

or Lackagh P. 
In Kilmoylan P. ? 
Tawnagh in Kilmoylan P. 
Grange and Coolrevagh Tl.'s 

Killererin P. 

. . Cooloorta Tl. Abbey knock - 
moy P. 

All in the barony of Tiaquin. 
I Dryssaghan. 

With their tithes, Coolortin and Dryssaghan excepted. These 
in fact are not all in Tiaquin barony. An Inquisition of 
i Sept. in same year gives " town and castle of Tawnagh." 

The tithes of the rectories of Killoscobe and Moylough and 
three half quarters of the tithes, glebe, fisheries, altarages, 
oblations, &c., of the rectory of the town of Galway, both 
within the town and without ; and in the towns of 

Clogh- Lynch . 
Tyrellia . 
Ballenebritt, and 
Corgaddere : < 

Terryland and Ballybrit are close to Gal- 
way. These seem to be the lands called 

The Dulysse estate near Galway and the rectory of Galway 
appear to be what passed by the grant of Lismacuan. 

1 1 1 D.K. 969. 


The abbey owned the rectory of Hy Diarmada, the 
northern part of Kilkerrin P. 

Archdall gives also a list of the possessions of this abbey 
as held by Valentine Blake on 22 March 1620, which expresses 
them in more detail and adds much. 

Within the site were the monastic buildings and 3 houses 
or cottages, and 12 tofts and 12 gardens. And attached to 
the Abbey were 12 quarters of land which were the demesne, 
viz. : 

Carrownemanestragh .... The Monastery Quarter, now 

Abbey Tl. 
Town and village of Coulagh and 

the 4 qrs. of Coulagh . . . Culliagh Tl. 
2 qrs. of Fewenemannagh . . . Feagh Tl. 
Quarter of Moyne Moyne Tl. 

,, Belacheren. 

Kilgarrowe .... Kilgarve. 

And a watermill at the abbey. 

The names identified are all in Abbeyknockmoy P. 

The rectory of Killoscobe the tithes, altarages, &c., 
due out of the 4 quarters of tithes in Killaskarla and Ballina- 

grossin, the tithes, &c., of Drumnadda and 

Ballinesowragh ; 4 quarters of tithes, &c., out of the 
4 quarters of land of Menlough Crossoughter. 

Of these denominations Killaskarla seems to be a mistake 
for Killoscoba, and of the other names Ballaghnagrosheen 
and Ballynesooragh and Menlough and Cross Oughter are still 
used as names of townlands in Killoscobe. 

The rectory of Moylagh and half the tithes of the town 
and lands of Moylagh. 

\ the tithes in Trosnagh and Trasternagh Tl. in Moylough P. 

Annaghmore Annaghmore 

the quarter of the tithes in 

Cooloue Cooloo 

\ the tithes of the town and 

lands in Mullaghmore . . . Mullaghmore 

Cargarue and 

Boveyneon .... Bovinion 


the tithes of the town and 

lands in Clonoran and . . . Cloonoran in Moylough P. 

Cloncalgy Clooncallaga ,, 

Tonleghy and .... Windfield ? 

Ballyrouane .... Ballinrooaun ,, 


Clonerrurin Clooncurreen ,, 

Caldragh and .... Skeagh ? ,, 

Cilkagh Gilkagh ,, 

The tithes of Coolereogh . . . Coolrevagh Tl. in Killererin P. 

Togher and Togher ,, 

the Grange .... Grange 

the tithes of Coolewortagh and 


the tithes, &c., of Tacenagh . Tawnagh in Kilmoylan P. 

Corbally Corbally 

of the tithes of Corbally 

Curanbegg .... 
Grange with the lands 
of Agherim 

These seem to be an estate 
held with Aughrim or Castle- 
lambert in Athenry P. Cur- 
anbeg is perhaps Caraun. 

J and fa of all tithes in Ardnes- Seems to be part of above 
hadda, with the altarages, &c., group, 
out of the lands of Grange, 
Curanbegg, Aghenan and 

All in the county of Galway, worth in all 25, los. Irish 

To be certain of the identity of existing townland names 
with these ancient denominations it would be necessary to 
trace the title of present holders. But so many recur that 
they may be taken to represent fairly the localities. They 
are so often repeated in different parishes that uncertainty 
arises again in that way. Grange of Maghery Reagh may 
be Grange in Annaghdown P. which certainly was in Machaire 
Riabhach, but Lackagh P. was I think also in that dis- 
trict, and in this case Grange in Lackagh is probably meant. 
There seems to be some mistake in the last list in which the 
lands paying tithes seem to be repeated. As I have not 
been able to collate Archdall's rendering with the original 
I can only suggest that some important words have been 

There is an Inquisition 29 Jan., 27 Eliz., finding that 
John de Burgh held the Castle of Carnan and the 2 quarters 


of Knocknemanagh for life, worth 2os. Irish yearly, belonging 
to the abbey. There was a Castle called Carnan in the 
barony of Clare according to the Division of Connaught and 
Thomond in 1574. That castle is not identified. The 
baronies were afterwards somewhat altered. So this may 
be a castle at Castle Ellen in Athenry P., which is not far 
from a townland called Carnan. But Carnan is a common 

In other counties the Abbey held 

s. d. 

Co. of Mayo. In Clare Island, i qr. worth . 134 
The Grange of Tirawley, i small qr. ... 2 1 3 4 
Ballymurry, 4 small qrs 2134 

These are Grange Tl. and probably land near 
Kilmurry Tl. in Crossmolina P. 

Alternan Chapel and i qr. in Tireragh ... 134 

This is Alternan Park in Easky P. in which is an old 
graveyard and St. Ernan's Well. 

In the Co. Roscommon it held according to the composi- 
tion 2 qrs. in Knockneshie in barony of Ballintubber ; 
i qr. in Clanartie in barony of Roscommon. 

The Lismacuan grant is earlier than 1201, and was given 
by Conor O' Flaherty. 

Archbishop O'Lachtnan gave it the rectory of Kilfelligy 
alias Killoscobe. 

Archbishop O' Conor gave it the rectory of Hy Diarmada 
in 1275. 

Owing to the absence of a complete list of possessions it 
is not clear how much the abbey really held. After the 
dissolution much monastic land was held quietly by the 
occupants. It comes into the Inquisitions and grants ac- 
cording as it was discovered. Enough is known to mark it 
as the richest abbey of the diocese. 

30. Clare Island. House of the B.V.M. said to have been 
founded in 1224 for Carmelites. It was a cell of Knockmoy 
at the suppression. The O'Malleys must have founded it. 
It was a very small house. It owned one quarter of land. 

The great Cistercian Abbey of Boyle owned a good estate 



in these dioceses. An Inquisition of 1569 i gives the extent 
of profitable land thus 

9 cottages, 60 acres arable, 120 pasture and moor with 
their tithes in the Grange of Moenmoy, which is probably 
Grange P. in Loughrea Barony ; 6 cottages no acres arable, 
40 acres pasture wood and moor and a piece of land 
called Carrevenalta in Grangemanagh and Templenamanagh 
in Corran ; 6 cottages, 60 acres arable, 160 pasture and 
moor in the Great and Little Granges in Tireragh. 

The denominations are given in more detail in the grant 
to John Binglie and John Kinge, 17 June 6 James I. 2 

In Corran " Four quarters of land adjoining to the 
chapel of Templeavany, viz. Carrowreagh, Carrowentreyly, 
Carrowvickrowrie, and Carrowentemple. The town of the 
Grange containing four quarters, viz. Logeviny, Lognescary, 
Gargah, and the Graunge, lying near Ballymote. Clone- 
mannagh, i quarter. Trinemore, i quarter." 

In Tireragh " The grange of Graungemore, containing 
4 quarters. The Grange of Graungebeg containing 4 quarters." 
All the tithes great and small of the above. 

Of the Templevanny portion the names Carrowreagh and 
Carrowicrorie are still attached to townlands, adjoining each 
other and lying close by Templevanny. Carrowentemple is 
Templevanny Tl. 

For the Ballymote Grange the composition gives two 
names still used for townlands, Portinch 3 quarters and 
Emlaghnaghtan i quarter. Cloonamanagh is still applied to 
a townland. These are all in Emlaghf ad P. Treanmore is 
a Tl. in Toomour. The name of the land is in full the 
Trian of Cloncagh, or Battlefield. It is so close to Temple- 
vanny that it must be part of that estate. 

The Great and Little Granges are still represented by 
Tls. in Templeboy P. In Grangemore are the ruins of a 
good church with a small tower only a few yards from its 
west end. The church originally had the usual door in the 
south wall. That was closed and a new door was put in 
the west end, opposite the door of the tower. 

It owned also the i quarter of Alternan according to the 
composition, but this appears to be a mistake, as that 
belonged to Knockmoy. 

1 Chief Rememb. 13 Nov. 1569. 2 P.RJ., p. 125 li. 


Notes on the Names of Lands and Places. 

Congan. Probably a mistake for Conga.. 

Drumsullyn. May represent the whole estate of Inishmaine 
Abbey in the part of Ballinchalla P. which lies to the west of 
L. Mask. 

In Sede Enatuanen. This seems to mean " in the See of 
Annaghdown " and should refer to the site of St. Mary's Abbey 
and lands near it. 


Anagh of Nuns. The name suits the chapel and land of 
Annagh on L. Carra, which are mentioned in the Clanricard 

The A bbeytown. See Bannabagh below. 

Ballyncossen. I take this to be Ballycusheen Tl. because 
the abbey held in Kilmaine barony the tithes of 2 quarters called 
Ballenecowshnagh, which seems to be but a variation of Bally- 




Coliscorne. Also as Cowllsturny and Cowlesturnie in the 
Clanricard grants, probably the true form. But the name does 
not occur again and there is no indication of position. 



The 1570 grant gives some other names of rectories, Taghma- 
connell, Kylleomer in Omany instead of Galbuell, Dromlagh in 
the country of O'Conor Sligo, identified by Dr. O'Rorke as the 
Tl. of Ballynagalliagh in Drumcliff. This rectory means only 
the nuns' chapel and the tithes of their lands. " Ardekerane 
and Clonmaknoye " Ardekerane may be meant for the tithes 
of Kellogainechain mentioned in Pope Celestine's letter. Tagh- 
maconnell does not appear by that name in the other documents 
and must be an alternative name of some item. 

Bannabagh is in both Clanricard grants but not in the sur- 
render, in which it might be the Abbeytown, the only item con- 
taining 30 acres arable. Ballynabanaba Tls. in extreme south 
of Fohanagh P. may be the place. 



Oenberraglena. The association of this land with Deny and 
Shrahnalong marks its position as about the river of Shrahnalong 
or perhaps on the Owenbrinn. 


Clnonkoose to Lisboy. These names are in use except Clan- 


sallagh, and are the lands about Kilkeevin and Emlaghbroc. 
Kilkeevin is in Arm Tl. 

Ardcarne and Easter snow lands. I cannot identify any of 
these names. 

Tagh Iconneile is likely to be at Ballyconnell to west of Drum- 
cliff where there is an old graveyard. The four items seem to 
be the estate of the old house of Nuns of Dromcliff. 

The remaining items are in the barony of Leyny, and may be 
described as the Doughorne and Ballyara estates. 

Dowchorne. This is the name of an ancient prebend, whose 
church was probably in the graveyard at Chimney Parks in 
Moylough Tl. south-east of Tobercurry. These lands seem 
to be the comarb lands of that old church. 


Bellanafenogie, now Balliara, where is an old church. 

Killegallagh, or Killnegallagh. 

Sessie M'Ellarhie = Sessuegilroy Tl. ? 

Mony ne cranghie = Bunnacranagh Tl. Original initial M 
in such names is often changed to B. It adjoins Montiagh Tl. 
in which is an old church, and is perhaps the endowment of that 

In these lists the quarter is used as a name, and not as a 
measure of value. 


31. Athenry. The House of St. Peter and St. Paul was 
founded by Meyler de Bermingham, first Anglo-Norman Lord 
of Athenry in 1241. It was well supported and became a 
very great house. A copy of the Register in the British 
Museum x gives very complete information regarding the 
foundation and endowments of the house and the principal 
benefactors and their donations. These have been given by 
De Burgo in the Hibernia Dominicana and by Archdall in 
the Monasticon Hibernicum, and lately by Mr. Blake in the 
Journal of the Galway Archceological and Historical Society, 
vol. ii. p. 65. The founder's family is followed as to its 
heads but not as to the minor branches. It may be that 
not many were buried there besides the heads of the family. 
Mr. Blake's article gives all that is of much interest in the 

1 Sloane and Add. MSS. No. 4784. 


Register. The endowments in land were not large, estimated 
by O'Heyne at about 1500 acres in his work lately edited by 
the Rev. A. Coleman, O.P., with a translation, " O'Heyne's 
Irish Dominicans." The Dominicans did not accumulate 
great endowments. They were " Begging Friars," and lived 
by casual offerings and gifts and fees for services. But they 
were very well maintained in these ways. The establish- 
ment consisted of about 30 friars. 

The Register tells how the monastery was founded and 
how other great men helped by building parts and how 
additions were made. In such cooperative fashion we may 
suppose that many other monasteries were built regarding 
which we have but a founder's name. 

Meyler de Bermingham bought the site for 160 marks 
from a knight named Robert Branagh, or Welsh, and we 
may suppose that he built at least the greater part of the 

King Felim O'Conor built the Refectory ; Archbishop 
Flann O'Flynn built the Scholar House ; Owen O' Heine 
built the Dormitory ; Cornelius O' Kelly (Conor) the Chapter 
House ; Dermot O'Treasy and his wife Margaret O'Lorchan 
the great Guest Chamber ; and Art Macgallyly the Infirmary. 

Sir William Liath and his wife gave one hundred marks 
for building the front and for glass, and enlarged the choir 
by 20 feet. This enlargement can be seen clearly in the 
ruins, and seems to have been made with a view to the 
adoption of the church as a family burying place so as not 
to interfere with the founder's rights of De Bermingham. 

Mac a Wallayd de Bermingham began the chapel of the 
B.V.M. which was completed by William Wallys who built 
part of the belfry. I cannot make out who this " Mac a 
Wallayd " was. Walter Huskard and his wife Joan built 
the cloisters. Others built altars and various minor works 
and made contributions in money and in small pieces of 
land, and so that great establishment was finished. 

The convent held various cottages and plots of land 
in and about the town. Their larger holdings of land 

\ qr. of Ballyglass in Tulubane which adjoined I qr. of 


i cartron called An Muir and Tempul Tulubane. 

i caxtron called Lisoylalayn and Gortorahiky and Gortna- 


i qr. in Carnan. 
\ qr. of Tempul an Brahir. 
\ townland called Cathayr mic Grayneoid. 
The Cell of Kilcorban and a good farm. 

At the dissolution the Earl of Clanricard saved it from 
suppression on condition that the monks wore secular dress. 
It was suppressed in 1574 when it was given to the town of 

The Register gives a list of dates of deaths of eminent 
persons, which differ, by omission of some particulars, in 
the lists published in Hibernia Dominicana and in the copy 
in the British Museum, and mentions many persons buried 
in the abbey. Part of this is a note describing the exact 
position in which were buried Sir William de Burgo and some 
of his sons and their descendants, and members of certain 
other families, with such indications that the places could 
be made out even now with fair accuracy. In face of this 
Register it must be taken as certain that Sir William was 
buried here and not in the Franciscan House at Galway. 
The tomb shown there has been made up from a tomb of 
one of the Bourkes of Mayo mistaken for Sir William, 
probably Ulick, son of Edmond son of Richard O'Cuairsci, 
who died in 1534, MacWilliam Eighter. 

32. Strade. The House of the Holy Cross, founded by 
Jordan de Exeter for Franciscans but made over to this 
order in 1252 or 1253 at the instance of his wife Basilia, a 
daughter of Meyler de Bermingham, according to the Register 
of the Dominican House of Athenry. It was burnt in 1254. 
It was burnt again or became ruinous by 1434, when the 
Pope gave indulgences for repair and for rebuilding. The 
ruins show it to have been a very fine church and a con- 
siderable establishment. To this period is to be ascribed 
the I5th century work which it shows. It was the only 
large monastery in the De Exeter lordship of Gallen. The 
Irish called it Athlethan Abbey, after the Castle of Athlethan, 
the stronghold of the De Exeters about two miles away over- 
looking the Broad Ford of the Moy. 


The Annals called " of Multifarnham " were probably 
written by brother Stephen de Exeter of this house. 
It owned 4 quarters of land. 

33. Rathfran. House of the Holy Cross. Founded by a 
De Exeter, probably Sir Richard, in 1274. A family of 
De Exeters was living at Rathfran in the i6th century. 
Edmond Bourke MacWilliam was murdered here by his 
brother Walter's sons in 1513. 

It owned 2 quarters of land Clonboy, Cloynemoyler 
alias Clonemoylen, Acknoyke alias Naglanye alias Nanglanty, 
and Mora alias Nahalcorae. Of these Clonboy survives as 
a townland name. Naglanye had the alias Rathfran. 

34. Knockmore. In parish of Kilfree, founded by O'Gara 
in the I4th century. It had only a trifle of land. It is in 
Mount Irvine townland. 

35. Toombeola. This house is said to have been founded 
in 1427, by an O'Flaherty. It had 8 monks, but from the 
beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth was abandoned 
and has since disappeared. 

36. Urlare. House of St. Thomas. Founded by Mac 
Costello in 1434 under brother William de Angulo. The 
friars had been for 2 years at a place in the diocese of Tuam ; 
according to Ware, quoted by Stevens, this abbey was called 
Vivariensis, but I cannot find any such statement by Ware. 
The convent had not received papal sanction at that time. 
I suspect it to have been called Vivariensis before it was 
placed at Urlare, and to have taken that name from the 
Disertbibar of the Taxation. The church and a good deal 
of conventual buildings remain. Novices were sent here 
because it was so lonely. It owned the rectories of Kil- 
colman, Templemore, Templemurry, Kilbeagh, Kilmovee, 
Meelick, Bohola, Killedan. 1 

It owned one quarter of land in 1585. 

It is not easy to understand how this MacCostello founda- 
tion of I5th century came to be endowed with so many 
rectories in Gallen, Mac Jordan's country. I cannot but 
suspect that it absorbed some pre-existing ancient abbey of 
the O'Garas of which no note has survived, possibly an old 
convent of monks of Meelick who may have continued to 

1 Inqn. 28 Sept. I Ch, /., quoted in O.S.L. Mayo, ii. 373. 


exist in obscurity, or the monastery of Killedan which is 
known by only one reference. 

37. Burrishoole. House of B.V.M. Founded by Richard 
Bourke Mac William, in 1469 at a place called " Carta 
Gracilis " in Latin. He retired to it until his death. The 
monks under Ruriacus Ymearan (Ruaidri O'Moran ?) accepted 
it with the Archbishop's approval but without papal sanction 
and settled down in a wooden house. It was probably 
founded in a hurry to accommodate Mac William. After 
Ruriacus's death brother Donnell Ymearan got the Pope's 
Bull for foundation in 1486, from which it dates officially. 

The church remains. The tower is peculiar among abbey 
churches of this period in being the full width of the church, 
but dividing nave and choir as usual. 

It owned a half-quarter of land called Rosnabraher and 
one quarter called Carrowkeel, and the royalty of the fishery 
of Burrishoole. 1 

38. Cloonimeaghan in Cloonoghil P. Founded in 1488 by 
brother Bernard MacDonogh on land given by Owen 
MacDonogh. In course of tune the friars left it, and it 
came under the management of the Abbey of Sligo. 

It owned one quarter of land called Rinnaroge. 

39. Kilmurry, alias Kilbrenan, at Kilmurry in Clonbern P. 
was a house of Mendicant Friars under a Warden. It owned 
a cemetery adjoining containing \ acre, 2 cottages and 
gardens in Kilmurry, 20 acres in Kilmurry, 4 acres arable 
and 3 acres pasture and bog in Lisronbeg. 2 It is in Tuath 
Mac Walter and may be taken to have been founded by that 
family of Burkes. 

Kilbrenan and Kilmurry are mentioned in 1574 and 
1589 3 as owning 6 cottages in the first case and as owning 
land in Kilmurry in the other case. It is possible however 
that Kilbrenan in that case may be an alias of Killeenbrenan. 

In the Valor Beneficiorum the Vicarage of Kilbrenan is 
mentioned, but no Clonbern. It may be taken that 
Kilbrenan is the proper name of the parish church of 

1 Chief Remcmb. Inqn. James /., Co. Mayo, No. 28, and P.I?./., 
p. 263, iv. 

2 P.R.J., p. 259, x. 

3 12 D.K. 2374. 1 6 D.K. 5306. 




40. Claregalway, Founded about 1290 by John de Cogan, 
lord of the surrounding country. The church and buildings 
are still in good order. In 1368 Thomas Lord Athenry gave 
it a piece of land close by called Cloonmoylan. At the 
suppression it owned 6 cottages and gardens, 24 acres arable, 
common of pasture for 24 cows on the commons yearly, and 
a watermill. 1 

41. Galway. Founded by Sir William de Burgo about 
1296 on St. Mary's Isle. In 1494 the Dominicans of Galway 
made over to it the small Premonstratensian Nunnery which 
the convent of the Holy Trinity of Tuam had given to them. 
This house seems to have been adopted by the Clann William 
Burke of Mayo as a burying place for their chieftains. But 
the matter is very obscure, some indications exist pointing 
that way, but not much. 

It owned 12 gardens containing 3 acres of ground, f of a 
watermill upon the river of Galway near St. Francis's Abbey, 
the ninth part of the tithes of 2 acres called Gortkellie near 
Galway the customary fish following, viz. a salmon every 
Wednesday out of the great river, a salmon every Saturday 
out of the high weir, a salmon every Friday out of the haul 
net, and as many eels as should be taken in one day every 
week out of 20 eelweirs on the river, at the discretion of 
the corporation of Galway. 2 It seems to have taken over 
from the Dominicans the quarter of the Jurdane near Galway 
and its tithes, 6 acres. A Friday salmon out of Rice's place 
near Galway bridge, and the tithes of that fishery. 3 

4ia. Athenry. Thomas Earl of Kildare founded it in 
1464, dedicated to St. Michael. The ruins are large. The 
choir is now a parish church. 

42. Bofeenaun, alias Boghmoynan, in Addergoole P. in 
Tirawley. The church is not large. The east window is of 
late date. It owned 4 quarters of land. I cannot ascertain 
anything more about it. 

1 P.K.J., p. 173, ii. J Ibid., p. 4, xviii. 3 Ibid., p. 259, x. 


43. Kilnamanagh. A Franciscan House. The order is 
uncertain. It was formed out of the old Parish Church of 
Shrule in Muintir Murcada. It was probably founded by 
the Hackets, as it was within their estate. The death of its 
abbot is recorded in 1438 (F.M.). Its possessions as granted 
to Lord Clanricard were 46 acres arable, 22 acres pasture in 
Kilnamanagh, with common of pasture and 60 acres of 
pasture near Kilnamanagh, and the rectory of Kilnamanagh, 
i.e. Donaghpatrick P. A rent of 155. 2d. was reserved for 
the land, and of 3, los. for the rectory, from which were 
excepted the altarages and two couples of corn for the 
curate's stipend. 1 

The name " Church of the Monks " found in a tract 
supposed to have been compiled in the nth century 2 points 
to its having been the seat of an early monastery which 
dissolved itself. 


44. Rosserilly. Founded in 1351, probably by Sir Rey- 
mond de Burgo who seems to have acquired the Manor of 
Admekin, now called Headford, where his descendants were 
settled in the i6th century in large numbers, whereof but 
few now remain. The Friars occupied this house for a very 
long time after the suppression. The buildings are still in 
very good condition. Wadding says that it was reformed 
in 1470. 

It owned the quarter of Cordarragh and a watermill. 3 

45. M oyne. Founded by Thomas Og, Mac William Eighter, 
only two years before his death in 1360. He was called also 
Thomas of Moyne. It had only an orchard and four acres 
of land. 

It was a very important house, having usually a staff of 
about 50 religious. The friars were left in it for many years 
after the suppression. 

The ruins are in good condition and are very fine 

46. Cloonyvornoge or Cowlevernoge. Founded about 1441, 
for this order, or for the 3rd order. It owned \ a quarter of 

1 P.R.J., p. 173, ii. 2 H.W.C., p. 368. 

3 P.R.J., p. 80, viii., and p. 173, ii. 


land and is described as a cell or chapel. I take it to have 
been but a small house or cabin in the townland of Cloonna- 
varnoge in Kilkilvery parish, near Lissacromlech. 


47. Crossmolina. This house was in existence in 1306 
when John son of William de Rathcogan, Walter de Usser, 
and Walter de Cogan, were indicted for robbing the Abbot 
of the B.V.M. near Crossmolina. Rathcogan is a name of 
Charleville, which was in the Cogan estate in the Co. of 
Cork. There was a Rathcogyn in Tirawley also. There is 
reason to suspect that De Barry owned land about Cross- 
molina which passed to De Cogans as did the De Barry 
estate about Castlebar, for we find that the Augustinian 
House at Ballybeg near Buttevant, founded by a De Barry, 
owned the rectory of Crossmolina. So this house is likely 
to have been founded by a De Barry or De Cogan. 

Its estate was 4 quarters of land. The quarter of 
Towrenymore, Ballaghomuck and Behagh was part of its 
possessions (Strafford's Survey). Ballaghamuck and Behy 
and Tooreen are existing townlands. The latter may be the 
places meant. 

48. Rosserk. This fine house is said to have been founded 
by a Joy in 1400. Its property was very small, 2 quarters 
of arable land containing 120 acres. 1 

49. Killeenbrenan, alias Kilbrenan. Founded in 1428. For 
a description see p. 171. It owned, besides the site, 6 
cottages, an orchard adjoining, 30 acres arable, 15 acres 
pasture. 2 

50. Templemoyle is said to have been founded by a Burke 
about 1441. It is in the south of the parish of Monivea 
and is just south of Taghsaxon, which is named Temple vally 
in the map. It owned two parcels of land called Farren- 
bridden and Gortnagiresagarde. 3 

51. Templegaile, alias Taghsaxon, is said to have been 
founded in Henry VII. 's time by a Burke. It owned an 
acre of site and 6 acres arable near it. 

52. Beagh. Founded after 1441. An Inquisition of 1585 
calls it the ruined cell or chapel of Beagh in the barony of 

1 P.R.J., p. 291, xviii. Ibid., p. 183, lx. 3 16 D.X. No. 5935. 


Clare, having ^ a quarter of land. I do not know what 
Beagh is meant. 

53. Kiltullagh in Roscommon was founded after 1441, 
probably by an O'Flynn. I cannot make out anything 
about it. 

54. Court. In 1454 John O'Hara, Lord of Luighne, gave 
Andrew O'Cluman, a priest of this order, two quarters of 
land and a place called Cuirt Willeag on which to build a 
house of his order. The quarters were called Carrowanar- 
dower and Cairo wantawny. The ruins are considerable still. 

55. Ballymote. Probably founded by a MacDonogh in 
the I5th century. A good deal of the church remains with 
a curious head of a Pope with a very high triple crown over 
the west door. It owned some gardens, orchards, and build- 
ings and Carrownesagard, i quarter ; and Leighcarrow-Igaly 
or Ichaly, \ quarter, with their tithes. 1 Carrowcauly alias 
Earlsfield is close to the abbey. 

Annaghdown. A Franciscan House here is said to have 
been head of a custody including the monasteries of Con- 
naught and Ulster. There is some mistake in my opinion. 
I cannot find any evidence of existence of such a house, and 
there are no ruins at Annaghdown which could be attributed 
to it. 


56. Ballinsmala. House of St. Mary. The date of founda- 
tion is unknown and the ruins afford no definite indication. 
It is likely to have been founded by the Prendergasts, who 
were in possession of the barony of Clanmorris immediately 
after the conquest, and soon after they settled there. It 
owned I quarter of land in Ballinsmala called Lisardkisken (?) 
with a mill. 

The quarter is also called Carrowdromin. 

57. Creevaghbane, in parish of Killererin, is said to have 
been founded by a Burke in the I4th century. It was but 
a small place and had but a trifle of land, I qr. and 16 acres 
arable, and 12 pasture in townlands of Creevaghbane. 

1 P.K.J., p. 109, xxiii. 


58. Ballinahinch. O'Flaherty founded a small house here 
in 1356. I cannot ascertain any particulars. 


59. Taghtemple or Templehouse in Co. Sligo. The Priory 
of St. John of Randown held 16 quarters of land here and 
the rectory and tithes of Taghtemple, which was Kil in Kil- 
varnet P., the Killecath of the Taxation. 

Though it does not appear that a community was estab- 
lished, it may be inferred from mention of a castle of Tech 
Templa in 1270 in the Annals of Loch Ce that the Priory of 
Randown had built at least a fortified house or castle to hold 
their property. Three names are recorded of 3 towns of 
4 quarters each, Ballymorrey, Ballyhannagh, and Ballina- 
carra. Annagh, Ballymurray and Ballynacarrow survive 
as names of townlands forming a group to the north of 

60. St. John's House at Ballinrobe. It is treated as a 
possession of the Priory of Kilmainham in 1529, 1 owning one 
carucate or quarter and a mill. After the suppression it was 
treated as part of the possessions of the Austin Friar's House. 
It was a little outside the town in the fields to the south of 
the road to Claremorris. If the Friars' Quarter belonged 
originally to this house those Friars had no property beyond 
their monastery. 


Killedan. In Harris and King's Collectanea, vol. xiii. 
p. 136, this house is described as by the Gweestion River 
which identifies it as the Killedan in Gallen Barony, and as 
having 4 quarters of land. There is no sign of any other 
church near that Killedan, which was an old parish church. 
The description as by the river is a result of identification by 
name only. I am of opinion that this is an alternative name 
of some house, and that its existence depends only on a vague 
Inquisition such as that which relates to Kylkeny. It is 
called a Franciscan House. 

1 Blake Family Records, No. 8. 


Kylkeny. The only authority for the existence of this 
house is an Inquisition dated n Sept. 27 Queen Elizabeth, 
taken at Donamona in Co. Mayo, which finds only that Clare 
Island contained one quarter of land belonging to the Abbey 
of Knockmoy ; that the House of Friars of Errew contains 
i quarter of land ; that the Monastery of Crossmolina owns 
4 quarters ; that the House of Friars of Kylkeny contains 
i quarter ; that the Monastery of Ballentully contains 
8 quarters. 

Kilkenny occurs as name of a townland near Fisherhill in 
Breaghwy P. and may be the proper name of the old church 
of Breaghwy. But there is no ground for supposing that any 
monastery was ever there. It is most likely that this is an 
alias of some house. But it is possible that there may have 
been a cabin with a couple of friars living there, as at Beagh 
and Cloonnavarnoge in the Barony of Clare. 

Ballentully. There is no evidence of the existence of this 
house beyond the Inquisition of n Sept. 27 Queen Elizabeth. 
I think the name should be Ballintubber, and that the 
8 quarters of land are those which belonged to Ballintubber 
in the Barony of Carra according to the composition. This 
Inquisition was taken at a time when the government had 
very little information about the estates of the abbeys. 



ST. PATRICK left Tirawley in charge of an organised clergy 
working from several mission stations under one or more 
bishops. We do not know who was the Alad who left his 
name to Killala. Nothing is known of the Bishop Muredach 
who was left there beyond the fact that he was an old man 
of Patrick's household. He is not the Muredach of the 
Martyrologies who descended from King Laegaire MacNeill. 
No name or fact connected with the diocese comes to light 
for the space of more than 50 years. 

Tigernan of Errew was the most eminent of the local 
saints. We have no particulars of his life. His paten be- 
came the chief relic of his monastery, known as the " Mias 
Tigernain." Mr. Knox of Rappa Castle bought it from an 
O'Flynn, whose family formerly held the erenaghship of the 
abbey, being the chief landowners near Crossmolina. The 
original paten was a small round copper dish. He is com- 
memorated on the 6th of August. His monastery became 
the principal establishment of the Ui Amalgada and was of 
great importance in the I2th century, as its extensive ruins 
show. From his pedigree it can be taken that he lived during 
the first half of the 6th century. He may be called the saint 
of Ui Amalgada as distinguished from the Ui Eachach of the 
Moy, among whom was the establishment for which was 
built the Round Tower, which developed the Bishop and 
Chapter of Killala. 

In the townland of Breastagh near Rathfran stands the 

Breastagh Ogham stone. Until the discovery in 1898 of the 



Bracklaghboy stone near Ballyhaunis it was the only known 
Ogham inscription in the Co. Mayo. The writing on one 
edge is damaged and illegible. That of the other edge has 
been read as " maqcorrbrimaqammllo(ngi)tt," meaning 
" [Stone] of Corrbri son of Ammllongitt." It may apply to 
one of two or three Cairbres who were sons of Amalgaids and 
relations of Tigernan. 

It is not recorded that Dathi's son Amalgaid had a son 
Cairbre. Such a man is not likely to have been in Tirawley 
because that Amalgaid's descendants settled in east Meath. 
It is almost certainly the monument of Tigernan' s father or 
uncle, or Fiachra Elgach's great-grandson. Rathfran was 
one of the King's forts. 

Errew is the only very ancient monastery in Tirawley 
which survived as a monastery to recent times, and the only 
one which acquired much reputation. Killala must have 
been an important abbey, but appears only as a bishop and 
chapter. Errew is only once mentioned, and that after it 
had lost its endowments and greatness ; in 1413 " Henry 
Barrett was taken prisoner in the church of Airech Locha 
Con by MacWattin (i.e. Robert) who carried him away by 
force, after profaning the place. MacWattin passed not a 
night in which the saint of the place (Tighearnan of Airech) 
did not appear to him in a vision, demanding the prisoner, 
until he obtained his request at last ; and MacWattin granted 
a quarter of land to Tighearnan Airich for ever, as an eric 
for having violated him." (FM) 

Sere, daughter of Cairbre, so most likely an aunt or cousin 
of Tigernan, left her name to Rosserk. D. MacFirbis wrote 
in the iyth century as if her church and duirtech existed in 
his time. 

A Cormac worked in Tirawley in the early part of the 
6th century. His date is not definitely fixed, but may be 
inferred from the places in the family genealogy of those 
persons whom he met according to these traditions, to 
whom definite dates can sometimes be affixed. He is 
taken to be St. Cormac O'Liathain, but I am inclined 
to think that he may be two men rolled into one. The 
following is a translation of Colgan's Life taken from the 
Book of Lecan. But I have omitted parts and abbreviated 







1" 31^ 

o w * 

c 3 

J3 '3 

O 3 

S oo 

- * 

Dari. For Lugaid's Pedigree see O.S.L.M., i. p. 273. 
Eochaidh Breac to Guaire. See Galway Ar. and Hist. Soc., ii. p. 3 
O Suanaigh and O Triallaigh probably should come in as brothers o 

lid, 449. Dathi 

a s> 2^> 

4> <; 
(j rt 


jj 1 2 

1 c3 5 


a-S -a a 

^ rt ^> > 

.2-3 g r ? 
UH U <j< O 

g -1 1 != 

-S ^ -2 
w j c3 

a 4 

U3 '2 ^ 




c3 g p 1 

i ^ i 

5 o '3 
fe U U 



Cormac and his five brothers were sons of Eogan of the 
race of Ailill Olum. The eldest St. Dermot left Munster and 
went to North Connaught, where he built the church of 
Rosredheadh 1 in Carbury, called Kill-macn-Eoguin from him 
and his brothers who lived with him for a time. It was 
endowed with farms by a dynast of the Hy Fiachrach called 
Flann Dubh or Dubh Fhlann, son of Muredach son of 
Lugaid son of Aengus, who gave the whole tract of land 
which lies between Droichedmartra 2 and Brugh-cinnslebhe 3 to 
the west, and from Murbhach 4 of Ros-birn to Aill-choidhin. 5 

Cormac also set out for the north and was followed by 
the fifth brother Boedan. 

Cormac came first to the palace of Eogan Bel called from 
him Dun Eogain on Inis-Medhoin in Loch-Mesga. The 
saint was not received with due honour and kindness. He 
prophesied that the fortress should not be the seat of kings 
in future, but an abode of monks. 

Proceeding thence he crossed the Rodhba and came to 
a place called Fertlothair where he met Ailill Inbandha and 
Aedh called Flaithemdha, sons of Eogan Bel. Being well 
received by them and by twelve other magnates of the 
country, he blessed them and the people of Cera. He made 
up his mind to stay there and preach ; but another saint, 
Finan abbot of Rathen, who had already established a 
monastery in that country, disliked the saint's intrusion, 
fearing the bounds of his church would be narrowed by so 
near a neighbour. The saint becoming aware of this gave 
up and went away, but knowing what was to come first 
said to St. Finan : " That church of yours, about which you 
are troubled in your jealous and narrow mind how to keep 
up its bounds, shall be deserted hereafter and shall be in- 
habited by no servant of Christ." The event has proved 
the truth. For that church called Kill-Finain, 6 in Cera, was 

1 Ros na Reidh, now Knocknarea. 2 Ballydrehid Bridge. 

3 Seafield. 4 Marsh of Kellystown. 

6 Mearing stone at Barnasrahy. These bounds make the parish of 
Kilmacowen (O.X.S., i. 432). 

6 On Church Island in L. Carra. Inis Scrine to which St. Patrick banished 

nine goblins (O'Grady, Stlva Gadelica, ii., p. 247, and Irische Texte, iv. i, 
P- 253). 


never after a dwelling of Christ's servants but is seen to be 
always waste. 

Thence he went on to the country afterwards called Mag- 
gawnach where he met Daire, a Virgin devoted to God, and the 
mother of that monastery, 1 who was a daughter of Cathaeir 
of the race of Lugaid, a prince of that country. She received 
him well and he blessed the Holy Virgin and her place. 

Thence he went to the mouth of the Moy where he met 
the 16 sons of Amalgaid in their public assembly. 

Here follows a detailed account of the discussion between 
Amalgaid's sons regarding the saint's application for a site 
for a church. The sons named are the sons of the Amalgaid 
of St. Patrick's time. The Life goes on 

He was given a site and chose a very pleasant place on 
the bank of the Moy where it falls into the sea. It was well 
endowed, as the places inhabited by the sons of Drogin and 
Bishop Muredach were given to Cormac. 

Dermot son of Finnbarr, King of Luigne and Galenga 
and Corco-thid, received him well, as did his brother Niall 
from whom came St. Nathi son of Niall's son Conamal. Of 
this family were also St. Luathrenn daughter of Failbe, St. 
Fechin, St. Mobi son of Huanflinna daughter of Finnbarr (or 

St. Aidan son of Colman who was over a monastery in 
adjoining territory hearing in what honour Cormac was held 
in Luighne feared that he intended to acquire property to 
the detriment of his own church, and remonstrated against 
his intrusion into another man's field of work to acquire 
property. Dermot to appease the controversy promised 
to satisfy both. Cormac blessed him and turning to Aidan 
said to him that by the decree of the divine judgment it 
would turn out that the church for which he so contended 
would be a place of contention and a habitation of robbers 
and loose women. 

The saint returned to his beloved sons of Amalgaid, and 
desiring to join them and the race of Cian in a bond of per- 
petual concord and friendship, brought them together in one 
place thereafter called Tulacha-chadaich, that is Hill of 
Friendship or Brotherhood, where the matter was arranged 
1 Was in graveyard of old Parish Church of Moygawnagh, (H.F., p. 231). 


by St. Cormac and St. Froech the Abbot, and St. Attracta 
the Abbess. The same pact was renewed by Moel Conaill 
between the same parties in the same place, in which three 
celebrated meetings of saints are said to have been held. 

For his piety he gave a special blessing to Daius son of 
Enda Ardchenn from whom came many bishops and abbots, 
namely from Moelfogmair and Aengus sons of Conall son of 
Finan son of Daius. 

The grandees and people held S. Cormac in the highest 
respect and reverence. But one of the native clergy jealous 
of his position went complaining among the sons of Laegaire, 
urging that it was intolerable that such power and influence 
should be given to a stranger in contempt of their own 
people. They took up the idea and sent Lonius son of Conall 
son of Fergus to tell the saint to leave that country and go 
to his own or elsewhere. The unhappy young man returning 
in the evening lay down to sleep in Sliab-botha 1 near Ros- 
airgid, where wolves devoured him. He left no descendants 
and there was no memorial of him but a heap of stones which 
was built over his bones and remained an indelible memorial 
of his sacrilege. 

Cathusach was then sent by the sons of Laegaire, but he 
begged the saint's pardon as he acted only under compulsion. 
So he was pardoned and his family lived in Killarduff . 

Dericus son of Armedach, sent against his will, also pro- 
cured a blessing. 

S. Cormac stayed in spite of jealousy and opposition, and 
in spite of the defection of Armedach's son Donennach, one 
of his first supporters. 

He cured Aengus son of Conall son of Finan son of Conall. 

Aengus' s wife Saba brought her son Muredach to be 
cured of disease caused by a pestilential exhalation from 
the hill called Sith-badha. Hence his descendants believe 
that if any of them bathes in Cormac's consecrated font 
called Dabhach Corbmaic he will not die a violent death, 
and that if a virgin bathe in it before her marriage it will 
be a happy one and she will not die in childbirth. 

Thus far went the fragment in the Book of Lecan. 
Fertlothair was one of the King of Carra's forts. It has 
1 Knockboha in Lacken Parish ? 


not been identified. There is but one place-name embody- 
ing " Fert " in the barony of Carra, the townland of Clonfert 
in the parish of Ballyheane, but there is no reason for con- 
necting it with Fertlothair besides the name. Ailill and Aedh 
were according to other and more trustworthy accounts the 
brothers of Eogan Bel. The Finan of Rathen who had 
already established a monastery in Carra has been identified 
with the Abbot of Rahan in Tirconnell, but there seems to 
me to be no real ground for this identification. Finan is 
not an exceptional name, and it is certain that the country 
about Ballyheane was called the Plain of Raithin. We may 
therefore take Finan to have been a local man. 

That Cormac met the sons of Amalgaid who met St. 
Patrick is not to be credited. The original tradition was no 
doubt that he met the sons of Amalgaid son of Fiachra. On 
this has been developed a kind of parliamentary report with 
names and speeches. If it was the sons of Amalgaid son 
of Fiachra Ealgach whom he met, they would match in 
point of time for Cormac. Kilcormac near Killala is the 
place near the Moy. From the statement that Killala and 
Kilroe were given to Cormac we may infer that Killala had 
lost connection with Armagh in a very remote period before 
this Life was compiled. 

Aidan son of Colman must, I think, be St. Aidan to whom 
are attributed the churches of Cloonoghil in Corran and 
Monasteredan in Kilcolman in the barony of Costello. He 
seems to have succeeded in keeping St. Cormac out of his 

From the subsequent matters it appears that the sons of 
Laegaire, in whose territory his churches were, turned against 
him, but failed to get rid of him and that the quarrel was 
ecclesiastical, not between Christians and Pagans. 

The Life unfortunately is but a fragment, and leaves off 
in the middle of the saint's achievements. Kilcormac and 
Killeencormac in Kilbelfad parish on the shore of L. Con 
may bear his name and have been founded by him, but there 
is no evidence to connect him with them. He seems to have 
been a saint of North Tirawley and to have had no connection 
with South Tirawley. Enda Ardchenn was most probably a 
son of Laegaire as the O'Maolfaghmhairs and their descend- 
ants the MacCeles were Erenaghs of Killala and often abbots 


and bishops. Hence we may suspect that St. Cormac 
was the founder of the Monastery of Killala, distinguished 
from the parish church founded by St. Patrick, and that the 
abbots were Comarbs of Cormac. But it is only a suspicion. 

Though the intrigue against Cormac arose among the 
sons of Laegaire the messengers sent by them seem to have 
been descendants of Amalgaid and not of Dathi. Cathusach, 
ancestor of the Ui Cathusaigh of Killarduff or of Cill Achaidh 
Duibh (which O' Donovan says is Killarduff, but there was a 
Cill Achaidh in parish of Lackan which is probably the place 
meant). 1 The Ui Derg, a branch of the Ui Airmeadaigh of 
the same neighbourhood, seem to be the descendants of 

The Ui Muireadhaigh of the Lagan descended from Mure- 
dach son of Aongus son of that Amalgaid are the objects of 
a peculiar blessing of St. Cormac, and are connected with a 
Sith Budha. 2 Sith Budha is perhaps only a variation of 
Sliab Botha. The Life seems to embody the current tradi- 
tions regarding a set of families of the Ui Amalgada who 
occupied the country north-west of Killala. The Cam in 
Sliab Botha may be the Cam of the townland of Cam in 
the parish of Lacken, in which are two old graveyards, and 
a small stone cross near the Cam which is in one of the 
graveyards. Carnekilly-haghy was an alias of this townland. 3 


If MacFirbis gives his pedigree correctly, and there is no 
reason to doubt it, the Cuimin who founded Kilcummin was 
Tigernan's second cousin. If he was called Long Cuimin he 
certainly was not St. Cuimin Fada of the 7th century. Con- 
temporary with them were Aidan of Cloonoghil and O'Suan- 
aigh and O'Triallaigh who are described as three brothers, 
who were also their third cousins, if I am right in identify- 
ing Aidan son of Colman with Aidan of Cloonoghil, which is 
I think fairly apparent. They are described as sons of 
Fearamhla and are made brothers of the three O'Suanaighs 
who lived in the 8th century (A.U. 756, 762). The latter are 
given a pedigree which suits their period. Cuimin, son of 

1 H.F., pp. 9, 222, 223. 2 Ibid., pp. 7, 9. 

3 O.S.L.M., i. p. 265. 


Dioma ancestor of the O'Cuimins, could not have been 
buried at the feet of an O'Suanaigh who died in the 8th 
century. O'Suanaigh and OTriallaigh seem to have been 
used of these Tirawley men as names and not as surnames, 
but it is possible that all three had different fathers, as only 
the mother's name is mentioned. There is much uncertainty 
about them, but on the whole the tradition may be accepted 
which represents them as brothers or half-brothers and as 
descendants of Eochaidh Breac. O'Suanaigh left his name 
to the churches of Ardagh and Corkagh, and O'Triallaigh 
left his to those called the Uluid of O'Triallaigh and BaUe 
Scrine of O'Triallaigh. 1 These cannot be identified with any 
old churches or graveyards and may have been only family 
chapels or small churches at Kilcummin kept up by separate 
endowments. This may be the Uluidh Mor where Cuimin 
was buried at the feet of O'Suanaigh, who therefore was also 
buried there. 


He belongs to the middle of the 6th century. The 
legend of his murder has been dealt with at length in the 
Journal of the Galway Arch, and Hist. Society, ii. p. 34. Very 
little of fact can be made out of it, only the following sketch. 
Cellach and his cousins were students under Ciaran, Cellach 
intending to be a priest. Even this is not certain as regards 
Ciaran who did not set up his monastery before 537, but 
the battle of Sligo may have been later than that. Cellach 
took up the chieftainship after Eogan Bel's death, but was 
driven out of it by Guaire and became a priest, and his 
younger brother Muredach became head of Eogan Bel's clan. 
Cellach was politically active and hostile to Guaire. Mac 
Deoraid supported by Guaire murdered Cellach and drove 
Muredach out of the country, and assumed the chieftain- 
ship of at least the lands of the Calry of Murrisk, but was 
resisted by his subjects. Muredach returned and killed 
MacDeoraid and his friends and assumed the chieftainship, 
but he was at war with Guaire for the possession of Durlas 
Guaire near Ardnarea and the lands of Tireragh along the 
Moy. In this war Muredach desolated the churches though 

1 See Pope Innocent's Epistle, p. 336. 


he was placable towards Guaire's people. From this I infer 
that the war took also a religious aspect. Eochaidh Breac 
was baptized by St. Patrick, and we may take his grandson 
Guaire to have been a Christian like other descendants of 
Eochaidh Breac. There is no evidence that Ailill Molt was 
a Christian, and the mode of Eogan Bel's burial denotes 
paganism, though he was willing that his son Cellach should 
be a Christian, not a surprising circumstance at that transi- 
tion period. 

Cellach is said to have fled from Kilmoremoy to Oilen 
Etgair, now Illaunnaglashy, in Lough Con, where his mur- 
derers caught him. We may conclude that he was a bishop 
and that he lived at Kilmoremoy. 

The contest ended by a treacherous murder of Muredach 
by Guaire, whereby the race of Eogan Bel became extinct. 
This is all that we can infer from this curiously worked up 


St. Brendan of Clonfert entered upon mission work in 
Erris about the same time as the saints of Tirawley were at 
work in that country. He founded on Inisglora a monastery 
which presents an example of the very early monastic cashel 
and the rudest buildings. Remote and wild as it is the ruins 
show it to have been of ecclesiastical importance. Here a 
band of missionaries had a convenient and safe refuge in 
connection with their work on the mainland. Brendan's 
Church is of the earliest type, 12' x 8' with 3' walls of thin 
stones without mortar. It must be ascribed to the first half 
of the 6th century. Two other churches of early but later 
date are cemented. Three clochans remain. 


These two nuns must have come after St. Brendan as 
they are said to have met St. Columba at Ballysadare, and 
probably did. Derbiled's pedigree suits such a date. She 
founded Kildarvila, now called Falmore Church, on the 
extreme south-west of the Mullet. The church is in part 
of much later date, but a part may have been built for her. 
Of St. Gegh no more is known. Her name is supposed to 


remain in Inishkea. Her church should be on South Inishkea 
as the church on North Inishkea is called Columcille's church. 

This is all that is known of the establishment of Chris- 
tianity in Erris. We can infer that the Columban monks, 
most likely starting from and in connection with their 
monastery at Oughaval, worked over this country where we 
find the names of Columcille, and of Adamnan in Temple 
Eunan in Ballycroy. But this would be many years later. 

In the middle of the 6th century the church in Tirawley 
was under the management generally of a group of men 
of high rank belonging to the ruling family, the Ui Fiachrach, 
with some help from outside. We may take it to have been 
in practice governed by the ruling family. 


The Calry of Murrisk and of Coolcarney held all Tireragh 
and Coolcarney in St. Patrick's time. They and the Gregry 
and Luighne refused to receive him. These lands of the 
Calry ultimately became the proper inheritance of the de- 
scendants of Fiachra Ealgach from whom the barony takes 
its name. As may be inferred from what has been noted 
regarding St. Cellach it remained under pagan kings until 
nearly the middle of the 6th century. Then Christianity 
was planted in it too under Muredach of Inismurray, Far- 
annan, Cuanu, Garbhan, Grellan. Muredach seems to have 
been the senior and to have left the greatest mark. 

Dr. O'Rorke has satisfactorily identified Muredach of 
Killala, Muredach of Inismurray, and Molaise of Inismurray 
as the same person. 1 Having two names like other great 
saints, he has been confused with others and divided. He 
was a son of Eochaidh son of Ailill son of Lugaid, son of 
Laegaire, son of Niall of Nine Hostages. Farannan, Cuanu 
and Garvan also descended from King Niall. The Tireragh 
Mission therefore was a family party. We can understand 
that the family of Fiachra Elgach would prefer not to increase 
the influence of the branches of the Ui Fiachrach who were 
settled in Tirawley by drawing missionaries from those 
families to start their church. 

Muredach appears to have first founded the monastery at 
1 O.R.S., ii. p. 45- 


Aughros, which survived to later times, and was then known 
also as Kilmalton. From this station he founded that of 
Inismurray, where are the remains of the cashel monastery 
the most perfect of the kind in Ireland. Thence he or his 
successors seem to have worked in Carbury as the parish 
church of Ahamlish was a vicarage of Aughros. From 
Aughros he converted the neighbouring country in Tireragh, 
Templeboy, Kilglass, Kilmacshalgan, Dromard. Molaise of 
Inismurray is said to have advised St. Columba to leave 
Ireland after the battle of Cuildremne in 561. This tradition 
points to his having been older than St. Columba though a 
generation lower in the genealogy, for Columba was son of 
Fedlim son of Fergus son of Conall Gulban son of Niall 
of Nine Hostages. 

Cuanu was honoured in the parish of Skreen, Farannan 
in that of Easky. 

Baithin, Cuanu, Garvan, Farannan, and Colman were 
sent to invite Columba to the convention of Druimcetta. 
That this very local band should be sent is not likely. The 
fact probably is that they were sent to Druimcetta to ask 
him to come on to Ballysadare. As Muredach is mentioned 
in these affairs he must have died after 574. 

From Druimcetta St. Columba came to Ballysadare, where 
he met a great assembly of the clergy of Connaught. Among 
them were Muredach of Killala, Liban and Fortchern of Odba 
Ceara, Grellan of Creeve, Gede of Inishkea, Deirbiled of Erris. 
Of Liban and Fortchern only their names are known. The 
Grellan of the list cannot have been he of Creeve who met St. 
Patrick, he must have been the Tireragh Grellan. MacFirbis 
mentions in his list of extinct bishops' sees that there are two 
Cill Greallains in Tireragh. The list given to us of this 
assembly is quite untrustworthy, but we may be sure that 
nearly all the clergy then working in Connaught were present. 

It was no doubt held for purposes connected with the 
organisation of the Connaught churches which must have 
given rise to many questions. St. Columba was then by 
far the greatest figure in the Irish church, and could do much 
to settle matters by his influence with the chieftains and 
clergy. Tipraide chief of the Ui Fiachrach, is said to have 
given him land about Cnoc na Maoile, now the Red Hill of 
Skreen, on which is the cairn of Ruadha, wife of King Dathi, 


and at Altfarannain, now Alternan, in the parish of Easky, 
where it adjoins Templeboy. Skreen was most likely founded 
on this Cnoc na Maoile grant, and may be taken to be the 
church which Cuanu is said to have founded on it. 

Adamnan, Abbot of lona, who died in 704, lodged in it 
a great collection of relics whence it took the name Serin 
Adamnain, Adamnan's Shrine. L)r. Reeves gives a list of 
them in the " Life of St. Columba." They were " 26 articles 
consisting of Manuscripts of Gospels, hymns and poems, 
articles of apparel belonging to the Saints of Ireland ; and 
a few relics of St. Paul and the Virgin Mary ; the aggregate 
of which must have filled a large box, and been rather a 
heavy load to carry about." St. Adamnan was a good deal 
in Connaught, and is said to have spent a winter at the Abbey 
of Mayo. His own relics were afterwards also in a shrine 
in this church, or in a church built for them. 

Skreen is mentioned several times in the Annals. 

C.S. 976. Serin of Adamnan was plundered by Domnall 

F.M. 1022. Mailcobha Ua Gallchubhair, comharba of 

Serin Adhamnain died. 
F.M. 1030. Donnchadh, lord of Cairbre, was killed by the 

Ui Fiachrach Muirisc, in the doorway of 

the house of Serin Adhamhnain. 
F.M. 1395. O'Flannelly, Vicar of Skreen Adamnan, died. 

Certain families of the neighbourhood were called the 
Pillars of Skreen. They were in the I2th and I3th centuries, 
according to the Tract on the Hy Fiachrach, MacConcathrach, 
O hOilmec, MagRodan, O'Sneadharna, O'Rabhartaigh, as 
given in one place, and O'Rabhartaigh, O'Flannghaile, Mac- 
Carraoin, O'Tarpaigh, as given in another. In the first half 
of the lyth century D. MacFirbis found MacCarraoin and 
MacGiolla na n-Each and a remnant of the O'Rabhartaighs 
at Skreen. 

Mac Firbis's List of Bishops whose sees were not acknow- 
ledged contains 

Tobar-Birin, in Tir-Fiachrach of the Moy, behind laskagh. 
Birin, bishop, December 3. 


Cill-Greallain. Greallan, bishop (there are two Cill- 
Greallains in Tir-Fiachrach of the Moy), Sept. 7. 

Cill-Insi. Ailtin, bishop, and the virgin (or the young 
maiden) of Cill-Insi, Nov. i. 

Note. Ailltin's church is in Inis-Sgreobhuinn, in Tir- 
Fiachrach of the Moy. The walls of that church are still in 

There is reason to suppose that St. Mochua was the final 
organiser of the church in this country in the 7th century, 
and acquired considerable influence in Tireragh. Iniscoe is 
said to take its name from him. 

Of the period between the 6th century and the establish- 
ment of territorial episcopacy we have no record of events 
in this diocese. The Bishop of Killala was probably always 
a chief ecclesiastical authority in Tirawley, and natural!} 7 
extended his jurisdiction over Tireragh and the rest of 
O'Dowda's kingdom. 



KEATING gives the boundaries settled by the Synod of Rath- 
breasail From Neimthin to Es-ruadh, and from Killardbili 
to Srath an Ferainn. The first three points are Nephin and 
Ballyshannon and Kildarvila in Erris. Dr. O'Rorke has 
identified Srath an Ferainn with Shramore, close to Ballysa- 
dare in that part of Ballysadare parish which was the old 
Enagh in Tirerrill. 1 These are the bounds claimed by 
O'Dowda to the east. I cannot make out that he ever had 
a supremacy over Carbury in historical times. Carbury and 
Tireragh churches may at this time have been somewhat 
closely connected ecclesiastically, as the early saints of 
Tireragh were connected so much with the Cinel Conaill, and 
the arrangement may have appeared convenient ecclesiasti- 
cally, though it was upset by the occupation of Carbury by 
King Turlogh Mor and his sons, which brought that country 
into the diocese of Elphin. 

The Hy Fiachrach under O'Caomain occupied the parishes 
of Toomore Attymas, and Kilgarvan over the heads of the 
Calrv, who must have been Christianised and organised by 
the saints of the Luighne, as these parishes are in the diocese 
of Achonry. 

Excepting those three parishes the diocese comprised 
exactly the kingdom which was directly under O'Dowda, 
consisting from the first of the following parishes : 


Killala, Ballysakeery, Kilmoremoy west of the Moy, Bally- 
nahaglish, Kilbelfad, Ardagh, Crossmolina, Addergoole, Moy- 

1 O.R.S., ii. p. 245. 



gawnagh, Kilfian, Rathreagh, Templemurry, Kilcummin, 
Lackan, Kilbride, Doonfeeny. 

Kilcommon, Kilmore. 


Kilmoremoy east of the Moy (formerly Cellnagarvan or 
Ardnarea), Castleconor, Kil glass, Easky, Kilmacshalgan, 
Terapleboy, Skreen, Dromard. 

That Killala's bishop got supremacy over Errew seems to 
be due to the situation of Killala near O'Dowda's Fort at 
Rathfran, and the tribal meeting place and inauguration 
place, the centre of the kingdom, and in the territory of 
descendants of Dathi O'Dowda's ancestor. Errew was 
among the Hy Amalgada families. The Round Tower 
assigned by Miss Stokes to the period 1170 to 1238 marks 
its importance in the I2th century. It is the only evidence 
of importance apart from the large amount of See lands near 
Killala. The Hy Eachach of the Moy, who were the land- 
owners of Killala and Ballysakeery parishes, descended from 
Eochaidh Breac, who was a brother of Fiachra Elgach, 
O'Dowda's ancestor. Their chief was O'Maolfagmair or 
O'Mullover, anglicised Milford. His family held the Erenagh- 
ship of the Abbey and supplied comarbs and many bishops. 
Their descendants took the name of MacCele, 1 which is sup- 
posed to be now represented by MacHale. D. MacFirbis 
gives a list of 7 bishops of Killala of this name. i. MoCele 
from whom came MacCele. 2. Muiredach. 3. Aongus, died 
1234 (F.M.). 4. Aodh. 5. Maolan. 6. Ainmtheach. 7. Flann 
the Lecturer. 

One of the name died in 1151. Two are mentioned later. 
The other four must have lived earlier, unless as is possible 
their names have not been recorded. The succession is very 
uncertain even after the I2th century. As the family does 
not appear after the middle of the I3th century it may be 

1 O'Donovan, O.S.L.M., i. p. 36. 


taken that they lost all importance in the Anglo-Norman 
Conquest and that the bishops were of the earlier period. 
After the De Burgo rebellion revived Irish customs the 
O'Dowda family frequently provided the bishop, they being 
the only Irish family of importance in the diocese, holding 
nearly all Tireragh. The other Irish bishops were of families 
of no great importance politically. 


OUT of the bishops up to the I2th century but 3 names sur- 
vive. Two Muredachs who have usually been rolled into one, 
viz. Muredach of St. Patrick's time ; Muredach of the 6th 

Cellach of Kilmoremoy is recognised, but it does not 
appear that he had anything to do with Killala. 

Four O'Mullovers probably preceded at intervals. 

1. O'Mullover who died in 1151. 

2. O'Moylefomer is named in the Ann. Cl. as a bishop 
who attended the Synod at Clonfert in 1170, and may be 
taken to have been of Killala. 

3. Imar O'Ruadan died in 1177. This family of the 
Luighne gave the church many bishops. 

4. Mailisa MacMailin is named in the Book of Lecan as 
a contemporary of Taichleach Mor O'Dowda who was killed 
in 1197. 

5. Donat, or Donncad, O'Becda, died in 1206 (L.C.). 
Pope Innocent III. on 30 March 1198 confirmed to him and 
to his successors the parishes constituting the diocese. The 
transaction seems to have been like that of a royal grant in 
the i6th century to a landowner or chieftain who surrendered 
his Irish estate and received it again from the King. Thus 
the Bishop derived his title and diocese from the Pope and 
had a jurisdiction to be recognised by the Papal lawyers. 

In the list of churches embodied in this epistle a marked 
difference appears between the parishes of Tirawley and 
Erris and those of Tireragh. The parishes of Tirawley and 
Erris are 47 reduced to 20 in the Taxation, but Erris, which 
is there treated as one parish appears later as two parishes. 
Tireragh has the same parishes as appear in the Taxation, 

but some bear other names. For this there must be a 



reason as Tireragh has some other ancient churches, exclu- 
sive of monastic granges, and if organised in the same way 
should have more than 8 parishes. It may be suspected that 
Tireragh came under the Bishop of Killala after the old 
organisation connecting its churches with Balla, and perhaps 
Carbury, had decayed, and that there was consequently no 
difficulty in carrying out an amalgamation of parishes to 
make better livings. The bishops being generally Tirawley 
men themselves were not so much inclined to upset existing 
arrangements and were more hampered by the surviving 
links of the old system. When the comarb lands were 
passed over to the bishops the amalgamation of parishes and 
abandonment of some churches became a necessity. From 
this list we may judge fairly of the parochial arrangements 
of other dioceses in the middle of the I2th century. 

6. Cormac O'Tarpaid died in 1226 according to Ware. 
As a Connmac O'Tarpa, bishop of Luighne, died in the same 
year according to the Annals of Ulster, Ware may have been 
mistaken and these may be the same. But of course they 
may have been different and have died the same year. 

" Maelisa, son of the Bishop O'Mulfover, parson of Hy 
Fiachrach and Hy Awley, and (materies) of a bishop for his 
wisdom, was killed by the son of Donough O'Dowda, a deed 
strange in him, for none of the O'Dowdas had ever before 
killed an ecclesiastic " (F.M. 1224). 

7. " Elya, Aladensi Episcopi " appears among the wit- 
nesses of a grant made by Aedh King of Connaught, son of 
Ruaidhri, between 1226 and 1233. He must have been next 

8. Aongus O'Mullover who died in 1234 (L.C.). In the 
following year Isaac O'Mullover the Erenagh of Killala 
died (L.C.). 

9. Gillaceallaigh O'Ruaidhin died in 1253 (L.C.). If he 
was O'Mullover's immediate successor, the conquest of Con- 
naught and the partition by Richard de Burgo occurred in 
his time. Then Tirawley was broken up into various tenures. 
The principal tenants were two families of Barretts whose 
estates were in the south and seem to have comprised Bac 
and Glennephin and the parish of Kilmoremoy. A Cusack 
is said to have got Meelick. His descendants and some 
Carews survived into the I7th century in possession of 



small estates in the parishes of Ballysakeery and Killala. 
The Lynotts are reputed to have been once of importance 
and their names occur in the Calendars of State Papers in 
the I3th century. In the iyth century they are found in 
the parish of Kilfian. The country seems to have been well 
occupied by settlers all over Tirawley at the first. But in 
the end of the I5th century a family of Burkes of the line 
of MacWilliam Eighter settled in Tirawley and acquired a 
complete ascendancy throughout the barony. 

Erris was left in possession of the Clann MurtoughMweenagh 
O'Conor. Soon after 1270 they were turned out of it on 
account of their turbulence and rebellion and passed into 
Roscommon and Leitrim. Erris seems then to have been 
given to one of the Barretts. William Mor of Kilcommon 
seems to have been the grantee. 

The eastern part of Tireragh was held by the De Berming- 
hams, who held also some of the neighbouring territory of 
Leyny under the FitzGeralds of Offaley, who had the great 
manor of Sligo. It was not effectively colonised and fell 
into the hands of the O'Dowdas after 1338. The Bourkes 
held the part of Tireragh lying along the Moy from Ennis- 
crone southwards for a very long time, and always occupied 
Ardnarea, except for a year when O'Dowda captured it. 
O'Dowda paid MacWilliam Eighter a small rent for pro- 

For 100 years from 1238 to 1338 elections of bishops were 
made by the King's licence with his subsequent approval. 
Afterwards the Pope made the appointments as he pleased, 
when the King's power had disappeared. 

10. John O'Laidigh, a Dominican, was elected in 1253. 
Pope Urban IV. gave him leave to resign on the ground of 
disqualification for illegitimacy for which he had not received 
a dispensation. John did not resign. The Pope ordered the 
bishops of Elphin and Clonfert and the Archdeacon of Clon- 
fert to warn and induce him to do so, and if he did not, to 
cite him before the Pope. 1 John held on and died in 1275 
(L.C. A.U.). He joined in Archbishop MacFlynn's complaint 
to the King in 1255. 

Maelpatraic Mac hEli Erenagh of Killala was killed in 
1257 (L.C.). 

i Cat. Papal Registers, Letters, vol. i. p. 395. 


n. Another John O'Laidigh, a Dominican, succeeded him, 
and died in 1280 (L.C. A.U.). 

12. Donnchadh O'Flaithbheartaigh succeeded him in 1281 
and died in 1305 on his way to Dublin, and was buried in 
the Abbey of the Canons of the B.V.M. at Mullingar. " The 
most chaste and devout bishop of his time " (L.C.). He 
had been Dean of Killala. 

13. At an election held on the I3th June 1306 the dean 
and some of the chapter elected John Tankard or Tanguard, 
and some elected John Heyne a canon. John Heyne 
appealed to the Pope that John Tankard was wrongfully 
elected. The Archbishop confirmed Tankard. Tankard was 
cited to answer before the Pope. The result does not appear. 

In 1308 Pope Clement V. appointed William de Indeberge 
to the Archdeaconry of Killala, valued at 6, and a canonry 
and prebend of Killala, void by the death of William Maci, 
with a dispensation to hold another canonry and prebend 
of the same church, and the rectories of Moylach and Cul- 
cuana in the dioceses of Meath and Killala, value 9, on his 
resigning the second canonry and prebend in Killala. Cul- 
cuana is most likely Kilcuana, and should be the church of 

No more is heard of the see or its bishops until 

14. John O'Flaithimh (O'Lahiff) died in 1343 (L.C.). 

15. James Bermingham, canon and priest, was elected by 
part of the chapter. William O'Dowda, canon and acolyte, 
was elected by the others. James accepted the election and 
was consecrated by the archbishop. William neither accepted 
nor refused but appealed to the Pope. While both were in 
attendance on the Pope, James died in 1346, so was actually 
bishop for about 2 years. The following appears regarding 
this subject in the Calendar of the Papal Registers, Letters, 
vol. iii. 

" 1345, 10 Kal. Feb. Clement VII. Mandate to Bishops 
of Kilmacduagh and Clonfert and Dean of Elphin to cite 
Malachi Archbishop of Tuam to appear by proctor, and 
James Bishop of Killala to appear in person before the Pope 
by ist October to answer concerning James's appointment. 
On John's death the Scrutators, Canons Luke Oraoran, 
Stephen Leryed, and Robert Linort, appointed for that pur- 
pose, declared that Canon William Idubda was postulated 


by twelve of the canons, and that two other canons, the 
said Robert and William Obresseam, who was also proxy 
for Robert Bremegham, Peter Lahtruth, and John de Lecto, 
elected James de Bretochem. William appealed to the Pope, 
but the election of James was confirmed by the Archbishop, 
and William, on his way to the Apostolic See, was, at the 
instance of James, seized by the king's men, despoiled of 
his goods, and imprisoned for many days." 

When James died, William, who had been ordained a 
deacon, resigned and was appointed by the Pope on the 
26 July I346. 1 The vicarage of Skreen, voided by his con- 
secration, worth 10 marks, was given to Dermot O'Tarpa 
in 1348. 

16. William O'Dubhda, son of Donnchadh Mor son of 
Taichleach, died in 1350 (L.C.). The F.M. call him " a 
founder of churches and sanctuaries, a man eminent for his 
piety, almsgiving, and humanity." 

His son Cosnamhach was killed in battle in 1367 on the 
strand of Ballysadare (L.C.). 

17. Robert, a native of Waterford, was appointed by the 
Pope in June 1351. He was fined 100 marks for not attend- 
ing a parliament at Castledermot to which he was summoned 
in 1377, but I have seen no record of his having paid the 
fine. He had been elected and confirmed and consecrated 
as Bishop of Waterford and had acted as bishop for a year. 
He was then removed by the Pope, who appointed Bishop 
Roger on the ground that the Pope had previously reserved 
the provision to him, which was not known to the chapter 
and the Archbishop of Cashel. 2 

18. Thomas Lodowis, a Dominican, was appointed by the 
Pope on Qth Aug. 1381. The bull recited that the Pope had 
reserved the provision to the see during Robert's lifetime. 
It set aside an election of Brian son of Donogh O'Dowda 
made in 1380. He must have died or been removed very 
soon, as a Robert was bishop in 1383. There is much con- 
fusion at this time. Thomas Lodowis is said to have died 
in 1388. The following extracts from the Papal Registers 
show that a Robert was bishop in 1383, and that he 
supported Urban VI., as did the Bishop of Elphin. The 
archbishop referred to as supporting Clement VII. is the 

1 Theiner, Vet. Man., p. 285. 2 Ibid., p. 296. 


Gregory O'Mochain who was appointed by Clement VII. and 
held the see for a time. There is nothing to show who this 
Robert was. The quarrel of the Popes was taken up in 
Connaught at this period, but we have few details regarding 
it, and Clement did not gain any firm footing in Ireland. 

On the 31 Dec. 1381 Clement VII. wrote to the bishops of 
Raphoe and Killala and the Archdeacon of Elphin directing 
them to support Macharius in possession of the Premon- 
stratensian Abbey of Loch Ce, to which he had been ap- 
pointed when Abbot of the Holy Trinity at Tuam, because 
Macharius doubted whether the adherents of Bartholomew 
(Urban VI.) will not hinder the same. 

19. Robert is found to be Bishop of Killala in 1383 accord- 
ing to the following extract J : 

" Suspension from the administration of his diocese in 
spiritualities and temporalities of Robert bishop of Killala, 
in the following circumstances : The pestiferous man Bar- 
tholomev.', formerly archbishop of Bari, having been by 
violence intruded into the apostolic see, and a number of 
prelates and other ecclesiastical persons of the parts of Ire- 
land having adhered to him, the pope sent Thomas, prior 
of St. Coman's, Roscommon, in the diocese of Elphin, with 
letters containing the truth of the said intrusion and of his 
own election, and the processes against Bartholomew and 
his adherents, with power to convoke the clergy and people 
of the said parts to see the letters published ; the pope, 
moreover, ordered the archbishop of Tuam and his suffragans 
to publish them in their cities and dioceses. Afterwards, 
when the prior summoned to Roscommon the archbishop 
and the bishops of Kilmacduagh and Clonfert, and Robert 
bishop of Killala, his suffragans, to see and hear the publica- 
tion, the said Robert sent John Macoyreachtayg, archdeacon 
of Killala, to oppose and disobey the same, and to assert 
Bartholomew to be the true pope. Upon the prior publish- 
ing the letters in the presence of the archbishop, the bishops 
of Kilmacduagh, Clonfert, and Achonry, and other prelates, 
and a multitude of seculars, regulars, and lay persons, who 
professed themselves ready to obey, the said John, in the 
name of Robert, made opposition (Robert afterwards ratify 

* Calendar of Papal Registers^ Papal Letters, vol. iv. 16 Kal. Feb. 1383. 
Clement VII. Antipope. 


ing the same), asserting that Bartholomew was the true pope, 
naming him Urban VI. and endeavouring to bring the clergy 
and people of the same cities and dioceses to his obedience. 
When the archbishop admonished Robert, and ordered him 
to desist from his rebellion against the pope and the Roman 
church, to return to the unity of the catholic church, and to 
publish in his diocese the aforesaid processes, he persevered 
in his rebellion, and the archbishop declared that he was to 
be deposed from the episcopal dignity. Robert, by certain 
letters of the said Bartholomew, publicly declared the arch- 
bishop excommunicate, tried to induce his subjects not to 
obey him, and caused sums of money due to the papal 
camera to be assigned to Hugh bishop of Clonmacnoise for 
the said Bartholomew. The prior then cited Robert to 
appear before Peter cardinal priest of St. Mark's, at Avignon, 
to whom, and to Nicholas cardinal priest of St. Mary's in 
Trastevere, the pope gave a verbal commission to examine 
the case against Robert, and to report to the pope. The 
cardinals, inasmuch as Robert had not answered to his cita- 
tion, cited him again, and on his again not appearing, pro- 
ceeded to the inquisition of the case. On their report, and 
after diligent deliberation with them, the pope suspends the 

On the same date the Pope committed the administration 
of his diocese to Cornelius Oconeyl, canon of Tuam. 

" Suspension, in like manner as above, of Thomas bishop 
of Elphin, who acknowledged (as above) Bartholomew as 
the true pope, and, on pretext of his letters, admitted 
Malachi Ochynnerigi to the deanery, refused to obey the 
monitions and mandates of the archbishop of Tuam (as 
above), declared him excommunicate (as above) in the church 
of Kingstown (Villa Regum) in the diocese of Tuam, and 
caused sums of money to be assigned (as above). Having 
been twice cited to appear (as above), he remains con- 

Administration of his diocese was committed to John 
Omochan, canon of Elphin. 

These orders must have been wholly inoperative as 
Clement had no effective support. 

20. Thomas Orwell or Horewelle, a Franciscan, was 
appointed by the Pope on 31 Jan. 1389, in succession to 


Robert, 1 and was translated in 1400. In 1396 he is men- 
tioned as suffragan of the Bishop of Norwich. The adherents 
of Clement VII. seem to have been made to suffer from 
time to time when it was convenient to bring their misdeeds 
up against them as appears from the following : 

" 4 Kal. Jan. 1391. Boniface IX. To Dean of Killala. 
To summon John Oceandunan, some time rector of 
Cayslanconcubir, said to have been in time of Urban VI. an 
adherent of the Antipope Clement VII. and therefore ipso 
jure deprived. If fact be so to declare him deprived and to 
remove him." 

21. Thomas Archdeacon of Killala was appointed by the 
Pope. On 14 March 1400 King Henry IV. issued a writ to 
Sir Thomas Bourke, his Justice or Governor in Connaught, 
to restore to him the temporalities. Sir Thomas was then 
Mac William Eighter and the Senior of the two Mac Williams. 
He had made a formal submission to Richard II. in 1394, 
and so was made Justice, and was a faithful subject of the 
King who had no power to meddle with him. Thomas must 
have died or been removed soon as Muircheartach Clerech 
O'Dowda bishop elect of Killala died in 1403 (L.C.). The 
succession now becomes more uncertain, some names appear- 
ing in the records, but not enough to make out a succession. 

22. O'Haneki, dean of Killala, became bishop in 1416. 

23. Conor O'Connell died in 1423. 

24. Martin died in 1431. 

Manus O'Dowda the Archdeacon died in 1436. Thady 
MacCreagh had been appointed by the Pope, and was par- 
doned by the King for accepting the appointment, but it is 
not clear that he was bishop, and he is not acknowledged in 
the succession. 

On the 3rd May 1460 Pope Pius II. directed the Bishop 
of Killala to allow brothers Nehemiah and Richard of the 
Order of Friars Minor of the Observance four places of the 
Conventuals in the province of Ireland, in which they should 
carry out the Rules of the Observantines. 2 At this time 
Nehemiah procured the foundation of Moyne by MacWilliam 
Eighter. A later letter of the Pope shows that some 
of the Conventuals opposed the reformation as might be 

1 Wadding, Ann. Mtn., p. 97. ! Theiner, Vet. MOM., p. 425. 


25. Conor O'Connell was slain in 1461 by Manus O'Dowda's 

26. Donogh O'Conor, a Dominican, was appointed in 

27. John, or Donogh, O'Cashin resigned in 1490. 

28. Thomas attended a provincial synod at Tuam, and 
died in 1497. 

29. Thomas Clerk, or Cleragh, Archdeacon of Sodor, was 
appointed by the Pope in June 1498 and resigned in 1505. 
He was rector of Chedsey in Somersetshire until he died in 

30. Malachi O'Cluan appointed by the Pope in Feb. 1505 
was consecrated in 1508. 

31. Richard Barrett's proctor attended a provincial council 
at Galway in 1523. He was alive in 1536, or another Barrett 
was bishop, as we read in the Annals of L. Ce that O'Conor 
Sligo and O'Dowda's sons " went against the descendants 
of Richard Burk at the instigation of the Bishop Barrett. 
And the herds of the country went before them to the termon 
of Oiremh ; and the bishop followed upon the termon, and 
brought the herds to the army ; and restitution was not given 
by them in honour of saint or sanctuary." O'Donnell now 
came down on O'Conor Sligo and plundered all Tireragh, 
where he halted for 8 or 9 days and sent a detachment of 
horsemen over the Moy to help the Burks against Bishop 
Barrett. It came over in pursuit of some of O'Dowda's 
herds which it captured, and did much damage about the 
monastery of Moyne. The Burks and the Barretts then 
made peace. 

32. Redmond O' Gallagher was bishop in 1549. 

33. Owen O' Gallagher was bishop by the Pope's bull in 
1574. Up to his time the government had made no attempt 
to interfere in these appointments. Killala was beyond their 
influence. After Owen O' Gallagher's death begins the double 
succession of bishops of the Church of Ireland and of the 
Church of Rome. 

34. Owen O'Conor, brother of Sir Donnell O'Conor Sligo, 
was elected about 1583. He had been a Queen's Exhibitioner 
at Oxford. As bishop elect he was a party to the Indenture 
of Composition in 1585. He had before been dean of Achonry. 
Like his brother, he adhered to the Queen. In Dec. 1591 


she confirmed his election as a reward for his good conduct. 
At his death this bishopric was reported to be worth 20 
a year, and Achonry to be of the same value. Owen held 
two parsonages worth 20 more. He died in 1607. 

35. Miler Magrath Bishop of Achonry was appointed in 
1607 and continued to hold Achonry, which has been held 
with Killala by the bishops of the Church of Ireland ever 
since. He took up his residence at Killala where there was 
a castle, which was partly embodied in the Palace which is 
now the Poor House. The cathedral churches of Killala and 
Achonry were now and had long been in ruins. His appoint- 
ment marks the close of the Celtic Period, and the general 
and effective introduction of English Law. 



THE Dean is mentioned only thrice down to the appointment 
of William Flanagan in 1613, namely, Donogh O'Flaherty 
who became bishop in 1281, and O'Haneki who became 
bishop in 1416, and the son of William Barrett who died in 
1442 (F.M.). 

The Provost is first mentioned in 1356 when Gregory was 
made Bishop of Elphin, who was afterwards Archbishop of 
Tuam. In the I7th century the title of Precentor was used 
instead of Provost. In 1842 the office was suspended, and 
the emoluments were transferred to the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners. In 1845 Samuel Stock was elected to the dignity 
without the emoluments. 

Pope Clement's letter of 1345 names 10 canons and says 
that the canons were divided 12 for O'Dowda and 2 for Ber- 
mingham. As the candidates were canons there were 16 in 
all. The dean, provost and archdeacon are not mentioned, 
but must be taken to be included among the canons. 

In the Visitation of 1633 the following prebends are 
named I Killanley ; 2 Errew ; 3 Ardagh ; 4 Lackan ; 
5 Rosserkbeg ; 6 Kilroe ; 7 Killabeg alias Drinahan ; 8 Far- 
rinharpie ; 9 Skreen. Afterwards only the first five were 

Drinahan appears in Pope Innocent's epistle as a mensal 
church and is a name of Kilfian parish or of one of the 
churches in it. 

Farrinharpie is the name of the townland Farranyharpy, 
in the parish of Skreen. The prebend appears also under 
the names of Killuchanpy and Kilneharpy. These names 
are in Irish Fearann Ui Tharpaigh and Cill Ui Tharpaigh, 
meaning O'Tarpy's Land and O'Tarpy's Church. From the 

latter form it may be inferred that there was once a church 



in Farranyharpy or close to it, other than that of Skreen, in 
accordance with the local tradition. 

Killanley is the old church near Castleconor. This pre- 
bend was but a name, having neither cure nor emolument. 






Prebend of Killanley . 
Errew . 
Ardagh . . 
Lackan . . 


Rectory and Vicarage of Killala. Parts 
of the Rectories of Templemurry, 
Kilcummin, Kilbride, Lacken, Doon- 
feeny, Bally sakeery. Rent of a 
small quantity of land near Killala. 

Rectorial Tithes on townland of Ardna- 
guire in parishes of Ballysakeery and 
Rathreagh. 2, 10$. 

Parts of Rectories of Addergoole, 
Ardagh, Moygawnagh, Kilfian, 
Templemurry, Kilcummin, Kilbride, 
Doonfeeny, Kilmoremoy. Rectories 
of Kilcommon and Kilmore Erris. 
The townland of Kilgobban in 
parish of Killala. ^417. 


18. Part of Rectory of Crossmolina. 

16. Part of Rectory of Ardagh. 

4. from land in Lackan. 

^3, 25. from 7 acres of land. 

No cure was attached to the Archdeaconry or Precentor- 
ship or Prebends. I have not been able to ascertain the 
names of the prebendal lands of Lackan and Rosserkbeg. 

The parishes of Templemurry and Kilcummin and Lackan 
with cure were united with the Prebend of Lackan in later 
times, and those of Ballysakeery and Rathreagh with that 
of Rosserkbeg. 



THE Bishop owned the following Glebes which were let to 
Incumbents : 


Ballysakeary ... 32 .... 

Crossmolina .... 58 .... 

Lackan 32 .... 

Doonfeeny .... 32 .... 

Kilmore Erris ... 64 .... 

Kilmoremoy .... 35 .... 

Skreen 34 .... 

Dromard 24 .... 

Kilglass 27 .... 

Killanley 37 .... 

(Italics show that it is a townland name in use). 

Plots in and near Killala. In and about the town, houses 

or fields 

Knockbullogh ... 48 Between Rathowen and Killy- 

brone Tls. 

Rathlagh 45 .... 

Croghan, \ qr. . . . 152 Includes Mullaghorne. 

Crosspatrick, % qr. . . 147 About the church. 

Rathcash, qr 292 

Rathowen, E. and W. . 458 .... 

Donaghmore alias Next S. of Killala Town, in- 

Taunaghmore, 2 qr. . 113 eluding old church. 

Lower, do., and Burns 250 .... 

Killogurry, \ qr. . . 96 Killogunra includes Church. 




Belleok, \ qr 

Kilmore, cart 

Loghlevana, cart. 
Culleans, Mills and 


Cloonslane, qr., alias 





A \ About the church. 


\ In Tireragh barony. 


Ranageara, ^ qr. . . 
Ranane, \ qr. ... 
Cultore, qr. being the 

\ qr. of Ardagh . 
Knockaniel .... 
Cranagh 153 

195 About church. 


W. of the church in Gortatogher 

and next Clooneagh. 
62 Near Ardagh Ch. on N.W. 


Errew, 2 qr 497 Whole peninsula. 

Cabragh, 2 qr. . . . 246 Between Errew and Inishcoe 

adjoining Errew. 

Killenebragh, 2 qr. . . 305 Killeen Tl. next them to W. 
Shraylow 102 

Moygawnagh, 5 qr. 

Drinaghan, \ qr. 



About Moygawnagh old church. 


92 Close to E. of Belladowan Bridge 
and Village. 


195 Next Farmhill House Tl. in 
which is old graveyard. 





Parts of Kilcummin 1 , f These are about the old church 

and of Ballygarry 

Killogarry, 3^ qr. 
Kilmoglass and 

Kilbride, 2 qrs. 

Doonfeeny, 2 qrs. 

ain \ .... ( 

[660 ] 
* J I 

of Kilcummin. 


174 Killogeary old Ch. therein. 

368 Alias Conaghrea which it ad- 
joins. These are near Killo- 

802 Church therein. 


588 About the church. 

Ganubra 2090 Conaghra Tl. ? and more. 

Killer duff 172 Church therein. 

Tarmoncarra . 


653 Church therein. 


Kilcommon, % qr. . . 2,397 About the church. 

Knocks, qr. . . . 11,897 

Tarmon, West, \ qr. . 1,645 

Duncarton, qr. . . 835 N. of Kilcommon Ch. 

Killanley, pt. of qr. . About Killanly Ch. 

Kilglass, i qr. . . . 278 About Kilglass Ch. 

Dromard, qr. . . . About Dromard Ch. 



Farraniharpy adjoins Skreen- 
more Tl. These seem to be 
together near Skreen Church. 



Farranyharpy, J of \ qr. 

Baug, pt. of i qr. . . . 

Carrowmacarine, pt. 

Carrowlush .... 371 .... 

Masreagh, pt \ f Adjoins Skreenmore and beg. 

Dunmoran / l I \ On sea-shore E. of Corkagh. 

Strafford's Survey gives the possessions thus for the 
baronies of Erris and Killala 

In Erris. Knockmoyntermoyler alias Knockbenecas- 
lane, i qr. ; Glasse, i cartron ; Kilmore, i cartron ; Kilbeg, 

1 cartron ; Cloneconnellane, i cartron. 

In Tirawley. Killalla, 4 qrs. ; Killroe alias Carron- 
cashell, and Knockane alias the Hill, 2 qrs. ; Melick, i qr. ; 
Crosspatrick, | qr. ; Bennans, qr. ; Killagowrie, \ qr. ; 
Donnoghmore, i qr. ; Rathone, 2 qrs. ; Racash, i qr. ; 
Ballyharpie, i qr. ; Dunneeny, 2 qrs. ; Killerduffe, i qr. ; 
Kilbridy, i qr. ; Killgorilackan, i qr. ; Killmoglasse, \ qr. ; 
Ballyleane and Ballingarre, 2 qrs. ; Kilcomyn, i qr. ; Bally- 
beg, i qr. ; Drennaghan, \ qr. ; Dromangle, i qr. ; Carrin, 
qr. ; Arlick, qr. ; Gortroan, qr. ; Lissney, qr. ; Clon- 
torrow, | qr. ; Maddy, i qr. ; Furrew, qr. ; Cloney, Gortin- 
eden and Cranagh, 3 half -quarters ; Gortogher, 3 half- 
quarters ; Gortroan, \ qr. ; Killmonemoy, i cartron ; Far- 
ranow, i cartron; Laghtavannagh, I cartron; Ardnarea, 

2 qrs. ; Derramanine, i cartron. 

From the Escheator's account in the Pipe Roll of n Ed I. 
it appears that he had receipts from the island called Oleyhan 
M'Classy, i.e. Illaunnaglashy, as part of the temporalities 
of the See of Killala after the death of Bishop John who 
died in A.D. 1280. This property seems to have been lost 
by the I7th century. 



THE earliest list of churches is in the epistle of Pope Inno- 
cent III. confirming the diocese to the Bishop of Killala, 
Donnchadh O'Becda, which I now give exactly as it has 
been printed by Baluzius. 1 

" Donate Aladen. Episcopo, ej usque successoribus 
canonice substituendis in perpetuum. 

" In eminenti apostolicae sedis specula, licet immeriti, dis- 
ponente Deo, constituti, &c., usque ad verbum vocabulis. 
Locum ipsum in quo praefata Aladen. Ecclesia sita est, 
cum omnibus pertinentiis suis. Insulam Gedig. Corbali, 
Cellarloch, Senhcui, cum insula Don, Glenngallrigi, Glenech, 
Cellardub. Achad, Gunnig, Drognechan, Carnamalgaid, 
Raith, Coeman, Cassel, Bernach cum suis pertinentiis : 
Dumaaiss, Imbertrach, Cillialid, Munirvadoig, Rathneogid et 
Rathcerna quae omnia ad mensam episcopalem pertinent. 
Drumart, Scrinadanmani, cum pertinentiis suis. Cellbroc- 
cada, Cellcorechach, Lassariani cum Vsvavio cum pertinentiis 
suis. Cellmagsalgam, Ceslglassi, Cellanli, and Cellnagarvan, 
cum pertinentiis suis. Reseric. cum pertinentiis suis. Arrd- 
achad Vsvanig cum pertinentiis suis. Innislaig, Dorimen- 
niainni cum suis pert. Olenaclassi, Orvidlachacon cum 
pertinentiis suis. & Dargavillachon cum pertinentiis suis. 
Maggamnach cum pertinentiis suis. Drumnanagel cum suis 
pert. Cellerannan, cum pertinentiis suis. Keldariuled. cum 
suis pert. Crosrechig. cum suis pert. Innisgluaribrandam 
cum pertinentiis suis. Cathir cum pert. Cellchoman cum 
pertinentiis suis. Dunfini cum pertinentiis suis. Cellbrigdi, 
cum pertinentiis suis. Lecu cum suis pertinentiis. Olechut- 
rialacha cum pertinentiis suis. Balischriniutrialacha, Balis- 
schrini, Magneglan, Cellcumin cum pertinentiis suis. Cell- 

1 Miscellanea, vol. i. p. 342, Mansi's Edition. 




goban cum pertinentiis suis. Cellalad cum pertinentiis suis. 
Cellcormich cum pertinentiis suis. Cellro cum pertinentiis 
suis. Crospatrai cum pertinentiis suis & Domnachinor. 
Prohibemus insuper ne interdictos &c. Libertates praeterea 
&c. Decernimus ergo &c. Salva in omnibus apostolicae 
sedis auctoritate, & Tuamen. Archiepiscopi debita reverentia. 
Si qua igitur &c." Later an III. Kal. Ap. MCXCVIII. 

The names have been but little altered by copying and 
deciphering from the original Irish forms. The churches are 
distributed among the modern parishes in the following list, 
so far as they are identified. The names are taken as I 
suppose that they should run, ignoring Baluzius's commas, 
and grouping the strokes of m, n, u, v, i, as seems best. 

List of the churches named in Pope Innocent's Letter 
distributed according to the modern parishes ; m. stands for 
mensal. Those not identified are by themselves at the end 


Killala . 

Kilmore Erris 



Killala Cathedral, m. 
Carnamalgaid ( x ) m. 

Imbertrach ( 2 ) m. . 
Cellalad, m. . . . 
Cellgoban . . . 

Cellcormich ( 8 ) . . 


Crospatrai . . . 
Domnachmor . . 

Insula Gedig ( 4 ) m. 
Corbali ( 5 ) m. . . 
Cellarloch ( 6 ) m. . 

Keldarviled . . . 
Crosrechig ( 6 ) . . 

Cathir( 7 ) . . . 
Senhcui ( 8 ) cum 

Insula Dori, m. 
Cellchoman . . . 


The Cathedral Church. 
Killforcland in Killy- 

brone Tl. 

Rinnaun C. in Ross TL 
Killala, the parish church. 
Kilgobban in Kilgobban 


Kilcormick near Killala. 
Kilroe near Killala. 
Crosspatrick near Killala. 
In Tawnaghmore Tl. 

Ch. on Inishkea. 

Kilmore ? 

Ch. in G. to E. of Cross 

Lake ? in Cross Tl. 
Kildarvila in Fallmore Tl. 
Cross Abbey. 
St. Brandan's on Inis- 

Kilbeg in Termon. 

Glencoe, S.E. 


part of 



Doonfeeny . 

Kilbride . . 
Kilfian . . 

Lackan . . 

Kilcummin . 

Ardagh . . 

Crossmolina . - 

Addergoole . 

Kilbelf ad . . - 



Glenngallrigi, m. . . G. in Glencalry Tl. 
Glenech, m Glenagh Tl. next Glen- 
Cellardub, m. . . . Killarduff. 

Dunfini Doonfeeny Ch. 

. . G. at Ballycastle. 

Cassel ( 9 ) m. 
Bernach ( 9 ) m. . 
Cellbrigdi . . , 
Drognechan ( 10 ) m. 

Ch. on Doonbristia, or on 

Downpatrick Head. 

Drinaghan Kilfian 

Lisheen in Cairo wcuil- 

leen TL 
G. in -Cam Tl. Cilia - 

Lecu Killogeary. 

Dumaaiss ( n ) m. . 
Achad Gunig ( 12 ) m. 

Cellcumin .... Kilcummin. 
Olechutrialacha ( 13 ) 
Balischriniutrialacha ( ls ) 

Magneglan ( 14 ) . 

. Templemurry in Rath- 
fran TL 

Reseric Rosserk Ch. near Abbey. 

Arrdachad Usuanig . Ardagh Ch. 

Rathneogid ( 15 ) m. 
Oruidlachachon ( 16 ) 


Dargavillachon ( 17 ) 
CiUialid ( 18 ) m. . . 

Innislaig ( 19 ) . . . 
Olenaclassi . 

Northern part of Cross- 
molina, Ballybrinoge Tl. 

Errew old Ch. near the 

Moygawnagh C. . . 
Killeennashask, adjoining 
Drumnanagel TL 

Addergoole Ch. 

Cloghans Ch. i.e. Kil- 


Ch. on Inishlee. 
Illaunnaglashy Ch. 







Muniruadoig ( 20 ) m. 
Dorimeumainin ( 21 ) 

Not identified ( 22 ) 

Raith Coeman, m. 
Rathcerna, m. 


Ballynahaglish Ch. 

G. in Toneybaun TL 

S. of Mount Falcon 


In Tireragh ( 23 ) 

Drumart . . 

. . Dromard Ch. 

Scrinadamnani . 

. Skreen Ch. 


. . Easky Ch. 

Cellcorechach . 
Lassariani cum . 

)Kilcorkagh in 
i_ i* 

Usuanio . . . 

boy P. 

Cellmagsalgam . 

. . Kilmacshalgan. 

Ceslglassi . . 

. . Kilglass. 

Cellanli . 



. . Ardnarea Ch. 



( J ) Carnamalgaid. The ancient church in Killybrone Town- 
land is near to Carnamalgaid, now called Mullaghorne, and 
therefore may be taken to be the place meant. It is the Cill 
Foreland. 1 

( 2 ) Imbertrach. Im is an intensitive particle, 2 and as applied 
here to Bertrach, a low sandy island or oyster bed, describes 
the situation of Rinnaun Church which is now in the sands of 
the shore. 

( 3 ) Cellcormich. It was at Tobair Cormaic, a well mile 
from Killala on road to Crosspatrick. 8 

( 4 ) Insula Gedig. There are old churches on both North and 
South Inishkea. 

1 O'Donovan, O.S.L.M., i. p. 40. H.F., p. 464. O'Conor, O.S.L.M., 
i. 237. 

2 Douglas Hyde, Irish Texts Society, vol. i. Glossary. 

3 O'Conor, O.S.L.M., ii. p. 227. 


( 5 ) Corbali. It is probably the country about Corclogh which 
is near Kilmore. But there are graveyards of Termoncarragh and 
another close by. We may take Corbali for the northern part, 
Cathir and Cross and Cellarloch as the middle, and Kildarvila 
as the south of the mullet. 

( 6 ) Cellarloch, Crosrechig. Cellarloch meaning Church on 
Lake should be a church in the graveyard near Cross Abbey 
and Lake, and Crossrechig should be Cross Abbey. But Cellar- 
loch might be meant for Cellairlech, meaning Church of Slaughter, 
and as such take its name from Leacht Air lorruis, mile S.W. 
of Binghamstown, in the same situation. 

( 7 ) Cathir. A little hill S. of Bingham's Castle is called Caher. 1 
As a territorial name it would include Kilbeg in Termon XL 

( 8 ) Senhcui. Cell sen Chuaich. Sheneghy was in use in 
1 6th century. Glencoaghe of i6th century is still used as Glenco, 
the S.E. part of Kilcommon parish. Insula Dori seems to be 
also a place name. It may be Kilteany, Cill Teine, an old 
church named Killeany in the maps a little west of Bangor. 2 
So these territories would be the middle of Kilcommon 

( 9 ) Cassel, Bernach. I take Cassel to be the graveyard at 
Baile an Caisil, and Bernach to be the " Gapped " church on 
Downpatrick Head. But it may be that we should read Caisil 
Bernach or Gapped Cashel, which would apply to the old church 
on the rock at Downpatrick Head when the sea began to en- 
croach on it. The church of this parish of Bernach at this 
time was probably the old church on the headland. 

( 10 ) Drognechan, Draighneachan. The name remains in 
Drinaghan Tl. This means the parish of Kilfian in which are 
two old churches. Kilfian is in Sheeaghanbaun Tl. It is 
Cill Fhiadhain, pronounced as is Cill Aodhain. 3 O'Donovan 
spells it Cill Phian. Cill Aodhain is a denomination of land. 4 
I take it that there were two old churches, one Kilfian, the 
other Killedan which is the name given to this parish in the 
Taxation of 1306. 

( n ) Dumaaiss, Duma easa. The position in the list suggests 
a church near Cassel, Bernach, and Imbertrach, which suits a 
church in the Lisheen near Carrickanass, Carraiganeasa. Duma 
easa would be Mound of the Waterfall. 

( 12 ) Achad Gunig. I take these two words together. If 
Gunig is a separate church I cannot guess at it. Cill Achaidh 
is an ancient territorial name 5 and may be taken as one 
of the churches of the old burying grounds in Carn TL, 

1 O.S.L.M., i. p. 251. 2 Ibid., i. p. 161. 

* O'Conor, O.S.L.M., i. p. 275. 

* H.F., pp. 456, 486. 5 H.F., p. 456. 


called " Carnekilly-haghy " in Straff ord's Survey. 1 Or it is 
Cill Achaidh Duibh as suggested before, and " Gunig " is 
another church ; in that case the graveyard in Rathoonagh Tl. 
in Kilbride P. may be the place, and Gunig may be the latter 
part of Rathoonagh, but this is not very likely. 

( 13 ) Olechutrialacha, Balischriniutrialacha. I omit the Bali- 
schrini of the list supposing it to be an accidental repetition. 
For Olech read Oled. I then read these as Uluid of OTriallacha 
and Shrine of OTriallacha (see p. 311). The Uluid was a tomb. 
There is an old graveyard in the detached part of Kilcummin 
parish which includes Rathlacken, but there is no reason for 
identifying it with either of these. 

( 14 ) Magneglan. " Acknoyke, alias Nanglanye, alias Nae- 
glantymore," was a parcel of land belonging to and apparently 
near Rathfran Abbey. Mag na gleann, Plain of the Glens, 
would be Templemurry parish. 2 

( 15 ) Rathneogid. I find a quarter of land called formerly 
Baile an Bhruithneoguigh in the i6th century. 3 Allowing for 
corruption by aspiration which renders silent final g equivalent 
to d it comes near this curious looking word. Ballybrinoge in 
Crossmolina parish seems to be the modern form. 

( 16 ) Oruidlachachon. If the above is not correct this may 
represent the whole parish of Crossmolina. 

( 17 ) Dargavillachon, Eadargabhlachon. Between Forks of 
Cu. Possibly it should have been Dargavillachachon, Adder- 
goole of Lough Con. 

( 18 ) Cillialid. Kilbelfad appears in Irish as Cillbeilfhada, 
Cillbelad, Cillealad (H.F.). 

( 19 ) Innislaig. This shows the name to have been Inislaogh. 
There was formerly a burying ground on it. 4 

( 20 ) Muniruadoig. Muine Ruadhoig, or Ruadhog's Shrubbery. 
The Church of Baile na hEaglais is Eaglais Ruac. 6 Colgan 
called it Ecclasroog in his " Life of St. Fechin of Fore." This is 
what Ruadog or Ruadoc would come to by aspiration of the d. 

( 21 ) Dorimeumainin. Druim Ua Mainin, Ridge of the 
O'Mainins. The name of Mainin remains in Lough Derry- 
mannin. I take the first part as Droma because the Taxation 
gives Keldroma as the name of this parish. This church and 
Muniruadoig would be the southern and northern parts of Bally- 
nahaglish. In the Taxation it gives the parish a name. 

( 22 ) I cannot make out anything for these churches. The 

1 O.S.L.M., i. 265. 

8 Morrin, Cal. Pat. and Close Rolls, Ireland, ii. p. 364. 

H.F., p. 457- 

4 O.S.L.M., i. 27. 

5 H.F. and O.S.L.M., i. 20. 


first two are called after forts. The third might be a corruption 
of Cill Adamnain, and in that case might be the Temple Eunan 
in Ballycroy, but there is no reason for taking it so except that 
it comes next before Crosrechig. Glen Nephin and Glenhest 
may come under Addergoole as at present. 

No church has been identified in the parishes of Kilmoremoy 
and Rathreagh ; so probably Raith Coeman and Rathcerna 
should be found in them. 

( 23 ) The Tireragh parishes are those of the Taxation except 
that two names are different. There can be no doubt about 
the identity of the churches. 


In this diocese no distinction is made between the shares 
of bishop, rector, and vicar. It is not stated whether the 
bishop's fourth is included in his taxation or not. I omit 
the tenth. The assessment is in Marks, unless noted as in 

Diocese of Killala 

Taxation of all the churches of the city and diocese of 
Killala made by jurors on Saturday next after the feast 
of St. Bartholomew, 1306 [i.e. 27 Aug.]. 



Ballysakeery C. 
Rosserk C. 
Kilmoremoy C.P. 
Rathfran C. Temple- 

murry P. 
Kilcummin C.P. 
Lackan P. 
Doonfeeny C.P. 
Erris barony. 
Crossmolina C.P. 
Moygawnagh C.P. 
Rathreagh C.P. 
Ardagh C.P. 




i Taxation of Spirituali- 

ties of the bishop . 


2 Communia of the same 


3 Vicarage of the same 



4 Church of Esker . . 


5 Rosserc . . 


6 Kilmormoy . 


7 Rathberun . 


8 Kilcomyn 


9 Lecor . . 


[Q Dunfine . . 


ti Uirus . . 


2 ,, Crosmolyne . 


13 Mougauenath 


14 Rathreth 


15 Arddach 







1 6 Church of Kildeleth . 


17 Killethan 


1 8 Keldroma . 


19 Crith . . . 


20 Adyrgowil . 


21 Bothmoryn "\ 

22 , and Glyn / 


23 Drumard 


24 ^, Skrine . . 


25 Corkachand^j 


26 Kilmacshal- V 

4* | 

gan . . J 


27 Imelachiskel 


28 Killoglass . 


29 ,, Castroconhor 


30 Ardnereth . 


Sum of the Taxation . 

96 o o 

The Tenth .... 

9 12 o 


Kilbelfad C.P. 
Killedan C. Kilfian P. 
Toneybaun C. ? Bally- 

nahaglish P. 
Crott. Kilbride P. 
Addergoole C. 

Glen Nephin. 

Dromard C.P. 

Skreen C.P. 

Kilcorkagh C. Temple- 
boy P. 

Kilmacshalgan C.P. 

Easky C.P. 

Kilglass C.P. 

Killanley C. Castle- 
conor P. 

Ardnarea C.P. 

The Dean, Archdeacon, and Provost are ignored. So 
far as their revenues were a share of income of churches 
they are taxed under the churches. It is not clear what 
is covered by the bishop's communia. The churches or 
parishes are generally identified with certainty. But in 
some cases it is not certain what church in a parish is meant, 
as in the case of Lackan, which is probably Killogeary. 

18. Keldroma is likely to be the survival of the name 
of the parish, as the other church at Ballynahaglish appears 
to have been the principal. 

19. The name of the townland Crott seems to have been 
used for the whole parish, but Kilbride is probably the 
church meant. 

21, 22. Bothmoryn and Glyn. Glyn is surely Glen 
Nephin, and a church where Bofeenaun Abbey is would do 
for it. Bothmoryn might be the graveyard called Annagh- 
boggan near L. Beltra where the river of Newport runs out 
of the lake. It must have been a church in use in the 
I3th century, as Hosty Merrick was buried there according 
to tradition. He was killed in 1272 (L.C.). 



THIS was made at Michaelmas of the 28th year of Queen 
Elizabeth, 1585, for levying the First Fruits 


*. d. 


Bishopric of Killala . . 

23 6 8 

Deanery of Killala . . . 


Archdeaconry of Killala . 

i 13 4 

Provostship of Killala . . 


Rectory of Skryne . . . 


Vicarage of Skryne . . . 


Rectory of Castleconner . 


Vicarage of Castleconner 

Bellasegrye . 

16 8 

Bellanaglys . 

13 4 


13 4 

Ardagh . . 

6 8 


13 4 

Killyan . . 

10 o 


Karogh . . 

6 8 


Ardreguyle . 


Dunyne . . 

6 8 


Kilbryde . . 


Lekan . 

13 4 


13 4 

Rathfran or 





Imlaghishell . 

13 4 

Easky P. 


I O O 

Dromard . . 

6 8 

KiU m'Sal- 

3 4 

laghan . . 

Cortagh . . 

3 4 

Corkagh, i.e. 


boy P. 

Rectory of Tyrawley . . 



and Ard- 





The following are added from an Inquisition of 2Qth Oct. 

Prebend of Kilneharpy . 

Killanley . . 

Vicarage of Castleconner . 

Easkagh . . 

s. d. 




This is probably really 
the rectory as the 
Vicarage was taxed as 

Addergoole's Taxation is omitted in original like the 
Vicarage of Castleconor. 





9 Kilmore Tonamace. 

G. close to S. of it . Ardowan. 

Termoncarragh C. . . Termoncarragh. 

10 G. near Moyrahan . . . Moyrahan ? not marked in 

6 in. map. 

1 6 Inishglora Churches . . . Inishglora. 

Cross Abbey and G. . . . Cross. 

G., E. of Cross Abbey . . Cross. 

23 St. ColumbkiUe's C. . . . North Inishkea. 

24 Kilbeg, north of Termon . Termon. 
33 Kildarvila Falmore. 

Ch. on S. Inishkea . . . South Inishkea, near St. Dar- 

vila's Well. 
Killeen in Devillaun . . . Devillaun. In it a stone with 

Greek Cross and Crucifixion. 


4 Kilgalligan Kilgalligan. 

10 G. on shore W. of Knock- 

nalower Inver. 

1 1 Kilcommon Kilcommon. 

17 G. children, Claggan 

Island Shrah. 

G. Glencastle, or Dundon- 

nell Glencastle. 

C. on Corraun Point . . . Bunawillin. 

26 Kilteany Kilteany. 

C. G Cloontakilla, 

34 Doona C Fahy. 

Temple Eunna .... Bunmore. 




44 G. on Island. Kildun . . Kildun. Flag with Cross at it. 

Kilfintan Kildun. In peninsula N. of 

Teach Fiontainne. 
St. Fintan's House, G., 

Well Claggan. 


6 Doonfeeny C Doonfeeny. 

7 G. close to N.E. of Bally- 

castle Carrownisky. 

2 Killerduff Killerdufi. 

G Glencalry. 


7 Kilbride Kilbride. 

Doonbristia C Knockan. 

Patrick's C. and Well . . Knockan. 

Templenagalliaghdoo . . Killeen. 

Lisheen, S. of Kilbride . . Carrowmore. 

4 G., W. of Heathfield House Rathoonagh. 


7 G. at Rathlackan .... Rathlackan. 

8 Kilcummin . . . . . Ballinlena. Kilcummin TL in- 

cludes village and Kilcummin 


14 Killogeary Killogeary. 

Lisheen, W. of Billoos . . Carrowcuillien. 

2 Gs Cam. A cross in one. 


1 5 Templemurry .... Rathfran. 


15 Rinnaun C Ross. 

Killybrone Killybrone. 

Kilgobban Kilgobban 



21 Killogunra Killogunra. 

22 Killala and Round Tower . Killala Town. 

Kilroe Kilroe. 

Kilcormick Killala. 

Crosspatrick Crosspatrick. 

Donaghmore Tawnaghmore alias Donough- 



2 1 Rathreagh C Rathreagh. 

G. at Farmhill House Farmhill House. 


14 Kilkeerglen Keerglen. 

21 Kilfian Sheeaghanbaun. 

Drynaghan Church . . . Raheskin. 


21 Killeennashask .... Killeennashask. 
29 Moygawnagh Knockaculleen. 


22 Ballysakeery C Ballysakeery. 

RosserkC Rosserk. 


29 Crossmolina C Crossmolina. 

38 Kildavaroge, at Inishcoe . Kildavaroge. 

Kilmurry, at Rakestreet . Kilmurrymore. 

ErrewC Errew. 

C. at Tober Tigernan . . Killeen. 

46 G Keenagh. 


Ardagh C Ardagh. 

C. near Cranagh .... Gortatogher. 




jcTKilmoremoy Kilmoremoy. 

League C Kilmoremoy. 

29 (Sligo Co.) Ardnarea C. . . Ardnarea. 


39 Bally nahaglish C. . . . Bally nahaglish. 
G., S. of Mount Falcon . . Tonybaun. 


39 Kilbelfad, Temple an 

i Cloghan Glebe. 

48 Kilcormack Carrowgarve. 

Killeencormack .... Rinnakilleen. 

Illaunaglashy C Illaunaglashy. 


47 AddergooleC Knockmaria. 

Bowfinan Abbey .... Bowfinan. 
68 Annaghboggan G. . . . Ballyteige. 


22 G., N. of Castletown . . Castletown. 
Killanley Killanley. 


1 6 Kilglass Kilglass. 

EnniscroneC Carrowhubbock. 


ii Easky C Shannon Park. 

G. and St. Ernan's Well . . Alternan Park. 
Black Graveyard .... Killeenduff. 




12 Kilmacshalgan .... Dromore. 


12 Templeboy Corcoran's Acres, next Corkagh- 


1 8 Grangemore C Ardgawna, next Grangemore. 


19 Skreen C Skreenmore. 

19 Dromard C. .... Dromard. 



THE earliest Visitation is that of 1615. I have not been 
able to get information regarding holding of rectories by 
abbeys, except so far as is noted, and the prebendal portions. 
This list shows that in such parishes as are marked as held 
by laymen as rectors some church at least was held by an 
abbey. I omit the prebendal tenures giving only the list 
from the Visitation, in which I do not follow the order of 
the list, but take first the parishes of Tirawley and Erris 

Ballysakeery Sir Theo. Dillon. 

Ballynahaglish Capt. William Maie. 



Crossmolina Capt. William Maie (abbey of 

Ballybeg near Buttevant). 

Addergoole . . . . . . . Capt. William Maie. 

Rathreagh ....... 

Kilfian Precentor. 

Kilbride Sir T. Dillon. 

Doonfeeny ....... 

Lacken ........ 



Tirawley (Kilmoremoy) . . Cong Abbey. 

Skreen Henry Peirse. 



Kilglass > 

Dromard Henry Peirse (Vicarage by abbey 

of Aughros). 

Kilmacshalgan Erowen M'Swinde. 

Corkagh alias Templeboy . . 



This Visitation omits Killala held by the Dean, Kil- 
common and Kilmore Erris held by the Precentor, and 
Moygawnagh held partly by the Precentor. Ardnarea is 
included in Tirawley. Skreen and Castleconor from other 
sources appear to have been held unlawfully. 




ST. PATRICK certainly founded a church at Drummae when 
he went by the way of the Gregry, which I take to be the 
church on the shore of Lough Gara on a peninsula in the 
townland of Annagh with Patrick's Well beside it. The 
way of the Gregry seems to be the road from Assylin to 
Ballaghaderreen which passes through the small piece of 
territory of the Gregry which is east of Lough Gara. Kil- 
laraght is by the side of the road. Araght received the 
veil from Patrick and we may therefore take her church 
to have been founded in his time. Certainly she was 
one of his missionaries. The families of the Gregry in that 
country would naturally be somewhat influenced by their 
neighbours the sons of Ere, with whom they must have 
had more intercourse socially than with the families across 
the lake and river. 

Though there is no evidence that Christianity spread 
much from this centre, Araght is the first of all the saints 
of the diocese in point of time. 

Her parentage is uncertain. It is commonly supposed 
that she was of the Ulster race of Ir. As the Gregry in 
later times claimed a descent from Fergus MacRoigh we 
may suppose in absence of evidence to the contrary that 
she was of the local branch. Dr. O'Rorke has given reasons 
for connecting her with Tireragh ; but he has not noticed 
that the Gregry extended to Ballysadare in St. Patrick's 
time. Araght has acquired great fame in Coolavin and 
Leyny and North Costello, yet very little is known about 

353 Z 


her. The late and uncertain accounts of her are not to be 
preferred to the statement in Tirechan's Notes that she 
was St. Patrick's contemporary. Probably she was much 
younger and met him during his last tour in this country. 
It is said that she wished to settle near her brother Conall 
who had a church at Drum south of Boyle, and that he 
persuaded her to go elsewhere, and so she settled at Kil- 
laraght where St. Patrick founded her church. Tirechan 
does not say that he founded it, but the fact is not im- 
probable. A paten and a chalice were in Killaraght in 
Tirechan's time which should have been hers ; perhaps, as 
is said in the Tripartite Life, St. Patrick gave them. She 
founded a hospital for travellers which survived until the 
dissolution of the monasteries. The Cross of Attracta 
formerly had great fame as a relic. The O'Mochains, de- 
scendants of King Dathi, were its hereditary keepers. The 
extensive foundations of buildings and enclosures show 
that a great establishment or village grew up near the church 
which has quite disappeared. 

Araght must have been a woman of unusual force of 
character to make so great an impression in such times. 

St. Patrick founded churches about Castlemore and Letter 
which at this time were possessed by the Ciarraige Airtech, 
but none of the clergy of those churches acquired any very 
great reputation. 

From this time till the 6th century nothing is known 
of the history of the diocese. Then St. Cormac's Life which 
has been given under Killala shows that the families called 
Clann Cein were in the ascendant and that the Gregry had 
become insignificant, at least in history. It seems from the 
terms used in the Life that Dermot King of the Luighne 
brought in Cormac to start the church among his people, 
and that St. Aodhan who was working in a neighbouring 
territory in the kingdom had sufficient influence to procure 
Cormac's withdrawal. Cormac left no mark in Leyny, but 
his Life shows us that Aodhan was working before his arrival. 
It is not clear where Cormac wanted to settle, but we may 
take it to have been in the barony of Leyny. Cloonoghil 
in Corran and Monasteredan in Kilcolman parish may safely 
be attributed to this Aodhan. 

Aodhan MacColmain O'Fiachrach therefore was working 


here in the first half of the 6th century, as his death is 
recorded in 562 by Tigernach and the Annals of Clonmacnoise. 
Contemporary with him was Bishop Lugaid, under whom 
St. Kevin studied and by whom he was ordained about the 
year 560. Dr. O'Rorke has identified the Church of Toomour 
as Cill Easpuig Luidhigh. 1 


It is said that St. Finan of Clonard established him as 
a priest in a new church in a place called Acad Caoin and 
Acad Conaire, now Achonry. St. Finan died in 549. Nathi 
therefore flourished in the latter half of the 6th century if 
this be the fact. Such a period agrees with his pedigree. 
It is said that St. Fechin of Fore studied under him. This 
is not impossible if Nathi lived to great age and if Fechin 
did so too, but it is more probable that Fechin was educated 
in Nathi's school under Nathi's successor. He left a great 
reputation for holiness, and founded a school of considerable 
standing which survived him. His monastery developed the 
Bishop of the Luighne or Bishop of Achonry. The con- 
siderable possessions of land of the see near Achonry may 
be assumed to have been mainly the endowment of the abbey. 

He is commonly called Cruimther Nathi, Priest Nathi. 
Nathi is the same name as Dathi. 

He is the first of whom it can be said with certainty 
that he worked among the Luighne and founded a church. 
Yet it is likely on the whole that St. Aodhan educated him 
and started the work in that part of the country after 
Cormac's retirement, as it is evident that King Dermot and 
his family then accepted Christianity. Of that time we 
know no more. 

His cousin St. Mobi should be of much the same period. 
He certainly is not the Mobi of Glasnevin who died in 545, 
who is much too early. This may be the Mobi who left his 
name to Kilmovee. 

Luathrenn daughter of Failbe is said to be of the same 
race, that of Dermot and Niall. She has left her name to 
Killoran, and that is all that is known of her. 

Taking all the traditions together we may believe that a 
1 Hist. Sligo, ii. pp. 209, 210. 


small body of clergy of the race of Finnbarr organised the 
churches round about Achonry, those of the barony of 

St. Columba visited Connaught before he went to Scot- 
land. To this period I think should be assigned the founda- 
tion of certain churches attributed to him. It is significant 
that the churches ascribed to him and to his known con- 
temporaries who were older or of at least equal age with 
him in this neighbourhood are all in countries on the borders 
of the kingdom of the Luighne or just within the borders. He 
placed Dachonna at Assylin, Finnbarr at Drumcolumb in 
Tirenill, Enna son of Nuadan at Emlaghfad on the western 
side of Tulachsegra. It is quite possible that Emlaghfad 
and Toomour were at this time under the Ui Ailello, or under 
the Calry of Corran. 

The above churches and Kilmore in Ballintubber North 
and Drumcliff and the church of Cloghmore in Killannin 
parish are the only churches in Connaught that owe their 
origin to St. Columba, according to Dr. Reeves. But many 
more were founded by Columban monks. 

None of the saints of the Luighne and Gailenga are in 
the list of those who met St. Columba at Ballysadare after 
the Convention of Drumcetta. But the list is a very late 
and quite inaccurate compilation including men who lived 
and died before it, and long after it. 

Regarding the part of the diocese which lies in the baronies 
of Costello and Gallen we have no further information for 
this period. 


He was born at Bile, called after him Bile Fechin. The 
exact spot is said to be the Leaba Fechin in the townland 
of Billa near Ballysadare ; it is a large stone bearing marks 
as of hands, with another large stone near it ; a church 
once stood over them of which only foundations remain. 1 

He was of the race of the Luighne of Connaught or of 
Meath according to his pedigrees. From the place of his 
birth and from his original field of work it may be taken 
that he certainly was of the Connaught Luighne. 

1 O'Rorke, Ballysadare and Kilvarnet, p. 427. 


If he was educated under St. Nathi it was in early youth. 
His education was finished under St. Fintan Maeldubh who 
was Abbot of Cloonenagh from 603 to 626. After he was 
ordained a priest he returned to his native place and worked 
for some time in the kingdom of the Luighne. The Abbey 
of Ballysadare was certainly founded by him and became a 
place of very great importance, and survived as an abbey 
when St. Nathi's Abbey at Achonry was transformed into 
a Bishop and Chapter. Of his work but little is known in 
detail. The churches of Billa, Kilnemanagh near Billa, 
Drumrat, Kilgarvan and Ecclasroog are attributed to him. 
The Church of Billa is evidently a memorial of a later period 
when his fame was established and his memory was revered. 
The other churches may well have been founded by him. 
Kilgarvan is called Kilnagarvan in the Taxation, which 
would mean the O'Garvans' Church. Locally its foundation 
is attributed to Ruan, 1 but this would mean that Ruan was 
the first priest in charge. 

He seems to have been but a short time in Luighne. 
The field was already fairly well occupied by workers and 
he required more room for his energy. So he settled in 
Omey Island, and thence converted the people of Ballyna- 
hinch, and in course of time rose to great eminence. 

From this time, the early part of the 7th century, until 
the establishment of diocesan episcopacy, there are but few 
references to church affairs. The whole country must have 
been Christianised, though we have no accounts of the mis- 
sionaries of the south and south-west parts. 

I find the following references in the Annals. 
A.U. 799. Flaithgel, son of Taichlech, abbot of Drumratha, 


1017. Cormac Ua Mailmidhe, Erenagh of Drumratha, died. 
C.S. 930. The Crozier of Ciaran was drowned in Loch Teched, 
and twelve men along with it ; but it was 
found immediately. 

1006. (Properly 1008). Muiredhach, a sage bishop, 
brother's son of Ainmire Bocht, was suffo- 
cated in a cave, in Gailenga of Corann, by 
Ua Ruairc. 

1 O.S.L.M., i. p. 108. 


C.S. 1083. The battle of Conachail, i.e. in Corann, was fought 
by Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair ; and Cormac Ua 
Cillin, chief vice-abbot of the Sil-Muiredhaigh, 
having the staff of Ciaran in his hand, stood in 
front of the battle, whilst it was fought between 
the Connachtmen and the Conmaicne ; and 
the Conmaicne were defeated ; . . . Ruaidhri 
Ua Conchobhair was the victor. 

The Conmaicne were those of Moyrein and Annaly under 
Ua Ruairc. Dr. O'Rorke identifies this place with Cunghill 
near Templehouse on the way to Tubbercurry. Cormac Ua 
Cillin was comarb of Ciaran and of Coman. 



THE diocese comprises almost exactly the country which was 
in the I2th century under the Clann Cein, who were in two 
branches, Luighne and Gailenga ; the former were the O' Haras 
and their relatives, the latter the O'Garas and their relatives. 
The small parish of Annagh which was in Elphin diocese and 
is in the barony of Tirerrill has been added to the parish of 
Ballysadare. The parishes of Toomore, Attymas, and Kil- 
garvan, which seem to have been always ecclesiastically 
connected with the churches of the Luighne and Gailenga, 
were then in the kingdom of O'Dowda, but when territorial 
episcopacy came in followed their ecclesiastical and not their 
political relationship. It is not quite clear where the boun- 
dary between the Gailenga and Cera ran, but I think that 
the detached part of Kildacommoge about Temple na Lickin 
was in Gailenga. Except for a small extension in the S.E. 
over Toomour, and over Castlemore and Kilcolman, the limits 
of the territory appear to have suffered no change since the 
5th century, for the three parishes of Toomore, Attymas, and 
Kilgarvan were occupied by the Calry. 

In the first half of the I2th century the O'Garas were the 
chief kings, having for their proper inheritance the sub- 
kingdom of Sliabh Lugha or Gaileanga, comprising the 
barony of Costello north of the parishes of Aghamore and 
Knock, and the barony of Gallen and the barony of Coolavin, 
then called Gregry. The O' Haras had the baronies of Leyny 
and Corran as their proper inheritance. They became chief 
kings after the O'Garas in the middle of the I2th, century, 
and maintained their supremacy until the conquest and 
partition of Connaught by Richard de Burgo in 1338. 

Then Richard gave the barony of Leyny in fee to Maurice 
Fitzgerald of Offaly, who got Carbury from Hugh de Lacy, 
Earl of Ulster, who had a grant from Richard. It was then 



in the possession of the descendants of Torlough Mor O'Conor 
called Clann Andrias. Maurice acquired Corran from Richard 
de Burgo's grantee. Maurice built castles at Sligo and 
Banada. According to the Historia et Genealogia Familia de 
Burgo the Abbey of Banada was built on the seven towers of 
that castle. Though a town grew up about Sligo Castle and 
it became a port of trade there was no colonisation of Carbury, 
which remained in the possession of the Clann Andrias from 
whom came O'Conor Sligo. Nor was Leyny colonised ; the 
O'Haras were left in possession, kept under some control by 
the castle of Banada. Corran was in the same position. 
Sir Walter de Burgh built a castle at Ath Angaile, a site not 
now known, and his son Richard built the great castle of 
Ballymote when the manor of Sligo was transferred to him 
by John FitzThomas FitzGerald, but there was no colonisa- 

Jordan de Exeter got the barony of Gallen, and Miles 
MacCostello the territory of Sliabh Lugha, which they 
colonised and settled in. 

Gregry seems to have been held by a Richard Cuisin 
under Leyny or Sliabh Lugha, probably under the former, 
but the O'Garas were settled in it. The Castle of Moygara 
was probably built by Richard de Burgo at the conquest as 
a border fortress. 

De Exeter and MacCostello built great castles at Ath- 
lethan, now Ballylahan, and at Castlemore and at Kilcolman. 
Though only the two latter were colonising lords the territory 
was sufficiently occupied by castles to keep the Irish lords 
who were not driven out generally in a state of peace. 

At the break up of the De Burgo lordship in 1338 the actual 
resident Norman lords held their lands in Gallen and Costello, 
but where the land was not colonised and the Irish lords were 
left in immediate possession those chieftains became inde- 
pendent, O'Conor in Carbury, O'Hara in Leyny, O'Gara in 
Coolavin. Corran appears in possession of the MacDonoghs, 
a branch of the MacDermots of Moylurg. 

The diocese consists of the following modern parishes 

In Leyny 5 parishes Achonry, Ballysadare (part in 
Tirerrill), Killoran, Kilvarnet, Kilmacteige. 

In Corran 7 parishes Emlaghfad, Drumrat, Kilmorgan, 
Cloonoghil, Kilshalvy, Toomour, Kilturra (part in Costello). 


In Costello 4 parishes Kilmovee, Kilbeagh, Castlemore 
(part in Frenchpark), Kilcolman (parts in Frenchpark and 

In Coolavin 2 parishes Killaraght, Kilfry. 

In Gallen 9 parishes Kilgarvan, Attymas, Toomore, 
Killasser, Templemore, Bohola, Killedan, Kilconduff, Meelick. 



THE succession is very uncertain. 

1. Maelruan O'Ruadan attended the Synod of Kells and 
died in 1170, of reputation for wisdom and piety. 

2. Gilla na Naomh O'Ruadan died in 1214. (L.C.) 

3. Clement died in 1219. He is called Clement O'Sniad- 
haigh, and is described as a bishop in an entry of 1208. He 
could not have been bishop of Achonry then. (L.C. A.U.) 

4. Cormac O'Tarpa died on I5th Jan. 1226 in the abbey 
and was buried there. He had been abbot of Mellifont. 

5. Gilla Isu Ua Cleirigh died 1230. (A.U.) 
Gilla-in-coimdedh Ua Duillennain, successor of Fechin, 

and abbot of the monastery of Esdara, died in 1230. (A.U). 

6. Thomas O'Ruadain died in 1237 an( i was buried in his 
cathedral. (A.U.) 

7. Aongus O'Clumain was appointed in 1238 and resigned 
about 1249 owing to age and infirmity, being allowed a pension. 
He died in 1263 in the Abbey of Boyle where he became a 

8. Thomas O'Maicin (O'Meehan) was elected in 1251 and 
died in 1265 (A.U.). His election was in some way irregular, 
apparently from want of the King's license for an election, 
but seems to have been set right. Pope Alexander IV. con- 
firmed to him the fourth part of the tithes of his diocese 
according to the custom of other bishops of the province. 1 

In 1256, in course of very complicated fighting among 
O' Conors O'Rourks and O'Reillys, Sir Walter de Burgh 
brought a great army to Achonry and Keshcorran and plun- 
dered the churches around. Plundering churches seems to 
have meant taking out the corn and the like which the people 
stored there when they went fighting. He seems to have 
come against O' Conor and O'Rourk and their allies. It is 

1 Theiner, Vet. Man. Ep. No. 195, 15 March 1257. 


impossible to make out the sequence of events, but a great 
defeat was inflicted on the O'Reillys by the O'Conor and 
O'Rourk party on the I4th Sept. as they were coming by 
Lough Allen to meet Sir Walter's army. Then comes this 
entry : " The Foreigners returned home after this, and the 
Bishop O'Maicin was ' drowning their candles ' about nones, 
when it was equally dark in field and wood." (L.C.) 

In 1261 " MacFheorais profaned the great church of 
Feichin in Es-dara, where he killed five of the Luighne, 
together with Cathal O'hEghra. A depredation was com- 
mitted by Domhnall O'hEghra on Clann Fheorais in re- 
taliation for this, when he killed Seefin MacFheorais, and 
what he had on his head when he was killed was the bell- 
cover which he had taken from the church of Es-dara." (L.C.) 

De Bermingham, or some of his family, held Coillte Luighne 
about Es-dara under Fitzgerald and a part of Tireragh under 
De Burgo. 

9. Denis O'Maicin was elected in 1266 and died in 
Nov. 1285, and was buried in his own cathedral. At the 
time of his election the Bishopric was reported to be worth 
only 20 marks yearly. 

10. Benedict O'Bragain elected in 1286 died in 1312. (L.C.) 

11. David of Kilheny or Kilkeny elected in 1312 died 
about 1344. Murcad MacMaelmuaid O'hEghra, Abbot of 
Boyle, was elected but died within the year 1344. (L.C.) 

12. David died in 1348. In his time the question of 
union with Tuam seems to have been agitated again, and an 
order for union to have been made. In August 1346 the 
Pope ordered the bishops of Ardagh and Elphin and Clonfert 
to decide touching the union with Tuam of Achonry, whose 
chapter prayed to have it dissolved, since the distance between 
the two churches, and the ungovernable character of the 
Irish, make it impossible to share in the election of the arch- 
bishop. The Archbishop and Chapter of Tuam agreed to 
the dissolution. In 1351 the Pope called for a report again. 
The Pope's orders do not appear but it is quite certain that 
the union never was carried into effect. 

13. Nicholas O'Hedran or O'Hedram or O'Hedian, perhaps 
really O'hEidin, Abbot of Assaroe was appointed by papal 
provision in 1348 and died in 1373. 

14. William Andrew, English Dominican, appointed by 


the Pope in 1374 was translated to Meath in 1380. He was 
reputed to be most learned and wise. 

The succession now becomes uncertain for a long time. 

15. Simon, a monk, appears as suffragan of the Bishop 
of Ely in 1387. 

16. Bishop O'Hara died in 1396. This bold bishop joined 
the forces of Mac William Eighter who intervened in one of 
the O'Conor Sligo wars. His horse was killed and he was 
mortally wounded by John O'Hara's son. 

17. Thomas, son of Maurice MacDonogh, died in 1398. 
He is the first who is called " Bishop of Achonry " in the 
Annals. Hitherto the title was " Bishop of Luighne." 

18. Brian O'Hara died in 1409. 

19. Manus, a canon of Achonry, was appointed by the 
Pope on the I4th April 1410. He is called Magon Chradran, 
which may be the same as O'Hedran. 

20. Lawrence Peter Jacopin or Jacopini, a Dominican, 
was appointed by the Pope on 6th July 1414. He must have 
resigned, as his death is noted in Hibernia Dominicana in 

21. Donatus, or Donnchadh, died about 1424. 

22. Richard Belmer, a Dominican, was appointed by the 
Pope on I2th April 1424. He appeared on the 2gth May 
and paid his 33! gold florins on appointment. 

23. Red O'Hara died in 1435. 

24. Nicholas O'Daly, a Dominican, was appointed by the 
Pope in 1436. 

25. Thady (? Abbot of Boyle) died at Rome. 

26. James Blakedon, a Dominican, was appointed by the 
Pope on I3th Oct. 1442 ; was translated to Bangor in 1452, 
but must have resigned sooner, because his successor was 
appointed on loth Oct. 1448. He was an absentee, suffragan 
of the Bishop of Bath and Wells. 

27. Cornelius O'Mochain Abbot of Boyle died in 1472. 
In July 1463 Pope Pius II. absolves Bernard O'Hara Dean 
of Achonry from guilt incurred in warfare though he did 
not kill any one himself. Bernard had a lease of a castle 
built by the bishop on church land. John O'Hara, then 
chief of his tribe, forcibly took it from the bishop and Bernard 
and his brothers. Bernard, in order to recover it, assembled 
armed men to capture Ruericus, son of the chief, strictly 


charging them not to kill or wound him or any of his people. 
Peace was made after his capture in which two laymen were 
killed. Fresh wars broke out owing to R.'s endeavour to 
retake the castle, and more bloodshed. 1 

28. Robert Wellys or Wellyl, a Franciscan, was appointed 
by the Pope in 1473. 

29. Bernard died in 1488 or 1489. 

30. John de Buclamant or Bustemant, a Spaniard, Pre- 
ceptor of the Convent of St. Catherine at Toledo, of the 
Order of the B.V. for the Redemption of Captives, succeeded 
him by the Pope's appointment. 

31. Richard or Thomas FitzRichard is said to have suc- 
ceeded him about 1490, and to have died in 1492. 

32. Thomas Fort, an Augustinian Canon of the Abbey 
of St. Mary and St. Petroc at Bodmin, succeeded by Papal 
provision on I3th Oct. 1492. He was prior of Huntingdon 
in 1496, so it may be taken as certain that he was an 

33. Thomas O'Conghalan succeeded him and died in 1508. 

34. Owen, or Eugene, O' Flanagan, a Dominican, was 
appointed by the Pope on the 2ist Jan. 1509. 

35. Cormac was bishop in 1523 when he witnessed a will 
in Galway. He died about 1529. 

36. Owen or Eugene was appointed by the Pope in 1530, 
and died in 1546. He seems to have been an O'Flanagan. 

In 1546 the king made an order appointing Con O'Siagall, 
O'Donnell's chaplain, to be Bishop of Elphin. He was Abbot 
of Esdara and Prior of Aughros. 

37. Thomas O'Fihel or Field, Abbot of Mayo and Rector 
of Delgany in the diocese of Dublin, was appointed by the 
Pope on I5th Jan. 1547 with permission to retain those offices. 
In 1555 he was translated to Leighlin. 

38. Cormac O'Coyn, a Franciscan, was appointed in 1556 
and died in 1562. 

39. Owen O'Hart who succeeded him is called his nephew. 
He was of the family of O'Hart of Carbury, the greatest in 
that barony after the O'Conors. He was appointed while 
in attendance at the Council of Trent, where he was sent 
as representative of his province, being then Prior of the 

1 Theiner, Vet. Man. , p. 449. 


Convent of Sligo. Father Wolfe, the Pope's Legate in Ire- 
land, commends him thus 

" The Church of Accad is held by force, and is in the 
hands of the laity, and not one trace of religion is left there, 
but, by the influence of Eugenius and the power of his 
friends, the church might be recovered as Christopher re- 
covered Tuam." 

He was appointed before Queen Elizabeth was in a posi- 
tion to interfere in his diocese and satisfied her as long as 
he lived. He may be compared with Bodkin of Tuam as 
regards his views, and was able to satisfy the small require- 
ments of the Queen in the very troubled period of his epis- 
copate, which began when MacWilliam Eighter and O'Conor 
Sligo were the two great and practically independent lords 
of his diocese, and ended when the King's power was fully 
established over Ireland. 

He died in 1603 aged 100 years and was buried on the 
gospel side of the high altar in the church of Achonry. He 
is the last bishop acknowledged by the Church of Ireland 
and Church of Rome. 

Owen O'Conor, brother of Sir Donnell O'Conor Sligo, was 
appointed Dean by Queen Elizabeth on the 24th Aug. 1582, 
and was given at the same time the rectories of Skreen and 
Castleconor in Killala, of Minevoriske alias " Between the 
Two Bridges of Drumcliff," and the perpetual vicarage of 
Killinicullen in Elphin (Kilmacallan ?). He was soon after 
elected Bishop of Killala. 

40. Miler Magrath was appointed in Feb. 1603, and to 
Killala in 1607. He also attained the age of 100 years. 
This See has ever since been annexed to Killala, which 
became the residence of the bishop. 

From the Composition for the Co. of Sligo, 1585, it seems 
that the bishop had a castle or house at Achonry. 

The assignment to the Bishop of Achonry of the house 
and 4 qrs. free at Skreen must be a mistake of name of 
Achonry for Killala. 



THE Dean is mentioned in 1246 and 1442 and 1582 when 
the succession is known. The Archdeacon is mentioned in 
1266 when O'Mochain became Bishop. The Provost or Pre- 
centor is first mentioned in 1613. 

The Regal Visitation of 1615 gives the following list of 

Prebend of Kilmoroghoc ~\ These prebends belonged, as is 

Imlafaghda alleged, to the Cathedral 

Clonoghill I Church of Achonry, and are 

Killoshalwey held by Edward Crofton. 


Kilwarnad ^ TT , 

and Killorin ) Held ^ the Blsh P- 
,, Kilm c tege 

Kilveagh "I 

and Killedan / " 

,, Kilmovee ,. 

,, Doghcarne ~\ 

and Moymelagh / 

This Visitation omits the prebends of Ballysadare and 
Killaraght as prebends. The parish of Ballysadare is alto- 
gether omitted, but was probably held together with some 
other church. 

From the grouping of the first five prebends as belonging 
to the cathedral church it may be inferred that the cathedral 
had 5 vicars choral annexed to it as at Tuam and Annagh- 

It is evident that the whole organisation of the chapter 
was decayed and fragmentary. 

The following list of ancient prebends is taken from the 

Visitation of 1633 which includes a valuation 








Robert White. 

Killoran . . 

J. Fargie. 




Clowneoghill . 



Imlaghfadda . 


Kilmurrogh . 





Kilmovie . . 


Campbell, seques- 


Moymelagh . 



Kinave . . . 


Killidan . . 


Kilfri . . . 


Kilvarrett . 


Kilturrogh . . 


Kilmacteige . 



Probably in Graveyard 
near Moylough, S. of 

alias Kilmorgan. 

Probably Killasser in 
N. of Kilvarnet P. 
but taking name 
from Moymlough in 
Killoran P. 


The prebends recognised in the I7th century were Bally- 
sadare and Killaraght and Kilmovee. 

The Chapter may be taken to have been Dean and Arch- 
deacon and Provost with 5 vicars choral and other officers 
and canons. 


The Deanery. The Rectories and Vicarages of Achonry and 
Cloonoghil were the Corps. The Rectories of Kil- 
loran and Kilvarnet without cure. 920. 

The Archdeaconry. Rent of land in Kilturra. No cure. 

The Precentor ship. The townland of Carnyara in Achonry 

P. No cure. 92. 
Prebend of Ballysadare. Vicarage of Ballysadare as Corps. 

Prebend of Killaraght. Rectorial Tithe in Killaraght. 31. 

No cure. 
Prebend of Kilmovee. No emolument or cure. 



THE bishop owned the following glebes, which were let to the 
incumbents : 


Achonry 35 .... 

Kilvarnet 32 .... 

Ballysadare 32 .... 

Emlaghfad 52 .... 

Kilmacteige 64 .... 

Kilmovee 32 .... 

The bishop's lands are given in groups which cannot be easily 
sorted into parishes as a considerable number of the denomina- 
tions are no longer in use as townland names. I put them 
as they appear grouped in the return. 


Cloonoghil, 3 qrs. . . . 1 546 These are all the townlands in 

which these old parish 
churches stand. 

Emlaghfad, 2 qrs. ... 588 .... 

Killaraght, 4 qrs. . . . 973 

Kilmacteige, 2 qrs. ... 728 .... 

Kilmorgan, J of qr. . . . 188 .... 

Kilshalvey, i qr 505 

Achonry 811 

Italics show that it is a townland name in use. 

Corhownagh 333 Next Kilboglashy and Abbey- 
town. Ballysadare P. 

Leclounagh 90 .... 

Ruinbane 453 Rinbaun next Templehouse 

Demesne and Lake. 
Achonry P. 
369 2 A 



Carrowregle 263 Cairo wreilly, next N.E. 

Tullyhugh, Achonry P. 
Kilvarnet 229 About the church. 



Dooclonagh, qr. . 
Carrowreagh, qr. 

Mahery, qr. 

Knockconor, qr. . 
Levany, qr. . . 
Drumrat, alias 

Knockbreagh, qr. 
Toneycar, qr. 

Daghloonagh, Drumrat P. 

Adjoins Knockoconor, which 
is next Fallougher, contain- 
ing Kesh Graveyard. 

Maghera, near Ballymote. 
Emlaghfad P. 

Toomour P. 

About Drumrat Ch. 


Tauney William, qr. 
Kilmoslug, \ qr. . . 

Coney, \ qr. . . 
Kilmaunagh, 3 qrs. 

Ardcotton, 4 qr. 


Ardcotton, pt. . 
Tullyhugh, qr. 


' Knoxpark. Ballysadare P. 

Kilboglashy Tl. (O'Rorke, 
Ballysad. and Kilv.) Bally- 
sadare P. 

Next West of Corhawnagh, 
Ballysadare P. 

Kilnamanagh, adjoins Ard- 
cotton on W. Ballysa- 
dare P. 

Next Collooney Town. Bally- 
sadare P. 

Ballysadare P. 

and large bog. Next N. of 
Achonry, adjoins Carrow- 
reilly. Achonry P. 

The following are entered in the return for Killala diocese 
but really belong to Achonry 


Kinaff, 4 qrs. . . 
Kilmovee, 2 qrs. . 


447 About that church. Kilconduff P. 
1508 About that church. 


The following are in the Killala List, as " in the Barony 
of Costello " 


Russens, i qr 49 Rusheen Townlands are next 

Kilmovee. This and Skray 

Skray 874 and Kilmovee are called the 

i qr. of Kilmovee in the 
Composition for Costello or 
Ballyhaunis in 1587. 

Strafford's Survey gives as possessions of Bishop of Killala 
in barony of Gallen 2 qrs. of Killedan, 2 qrs. of Killnaw 
(Kinaff ?), i qr. of Farrencortagh. In barony of Costello 
Killmovy, 4 qrs. 





1 The temporalities 

and spirituali- 
ties of the 
Bishop of 
Achonry are 
taxed in the 
year at . . 

2 The temporalities 

and spirituali- 
ties of the 
Abbot and 
Convent of 
Monks of Boyle 

3 The temporalities 

and spirituali- 
ties of the 
Abbot and 
Convent of 
Canons of Est- 
dara .... 

4 Achagonny . . 
The commu- 
nity of the 
Chapter in the 
Sanctuary . . 

Vicarage of the 
same .... 

5 Kilmactarg . . 
The same church 

in the Sanctu- 
ary . . . . 
Vicarage of the 
same .... 


25 mks. 


amks. 4o 


133. 4d. 
53. in rure. 

133. 4 


Abbey of Ballysadare. 
Achonry C. 







6 Kilcoachcrunyn 

in rure . . . 


and in the 



Vicarage of the 

same . . . 


7 Estdara . . . 


Vicarage of the 

same . . . 


8 Athlechan . . 


9 Clonbanna . . 


10 Milio .... 


1 1 Keltesgnean . . 


12 Kellenalasscan . 

I OS. 

13 Authigynmessick 

73. 6d. 

14 Kelnangarvan . 

73. 6d. 

15 Ratholvyn . . 

2S. 6d. 

i 6 Ardnach . . . 

is. 6d. 

17 Bothcomla . . 


1 8 Thuamore . . 


19 Kelcomdilk . . 

43. 6d. 

20 Kendoyn . . . 

I OS. 

21 Kelnalydan . . 

23. 6d. 

22 Clonochulli . . 

33. 6d. 

23 Kekellorn . . 


24 Kellosenyg . . 

2S. 6d. 

25 Imelachfada . . 


26 Drumrathi . . 

2S. 4d. 

27 Rectory of the 

churches of 

Mochrath and 

Tuamany . . 


Vicarage of the 

same . . . 


28 Killethratha . . 


29 Culovyn . . . 


30 Kelnafriych . . 


31 Kellcalman . . 

73. 6d. 

Keshcorran C. i.e. Toomour. 

Ballysadare C. The vicarage 
when exactly will be 
omitted in future and added 
to the rectory. 

Athlethan. Templemore C. 


Kilshesnan in Killasser P. 

Attymas C. 


C. near Carrowcastle in Bo- 

hola P. 
Templerowuck in Carrowgallda 

TL Templemore P. 
Bohola C. 
Toomore C. 

Kinaff C. Kilconduff P. 
Cloonoghil C. 

Emlaghfad C 

Drumrat C. This is the 

rectory only. The value of 

vicarage is omitted. 


Coolavin C. in Kilcolman P. 







32 De Castro Magno 
33 Kelmoby . . . 
34 Cluamnore . . 
35 Vicarage of Kel- 
lecath, whose 

75. 6d. 
73. 6d. 
43. 6d. 

rectors are 

Templars . . 
36 Kelmorchun . . 

Sum of the 

2S. 6d. 


The Tenth . 

35, 6s. 9d. 
3, i os. 8d. 

Castlemore C. 
Clonmore C. in Kilbeagh P. 

Kil C. in Kilvarnet P. 

Notes thereon. 

6. Kilcoachcrunyn. This must be a corruption of Cill Ceis 
Corainn, church of Keshcorran, which describes Toomour old 

9. Clonbanna. There is nothing to indicate what church is 
meant except that as it is in the List between Templemore and 
Meelick it is likely to be in that country. 

12. Kellenalasscan. Perhaps the Killeen in Glendaduff Tl. 
in Attymas P. which afterwards became a small monastery. Or 
it may be some form for Killasser such as Cill mo Laisrach. 

13. Authigynmessick. This is Aittighe an Messaig, House 
site of the Calendar. 

15. Ratholvyn^ Bald's map places Rahelvin Tl. N. of Carrow- 

16. Ardnach / castle and S. of Ardacarha Tl. An Inquisi- 
tion of 14 July 1607 mentions the Castle of Rathhalvyn. Rahelvin 
seems to be the present Carrowcastle Tl. Ardacarha is now the 
townland next it to the N. Templerowuck is to N. again but 
in Carrowgallda Tl. I take Ardnach to be part of the name 
Ardnacairthe, and that Ardacarha formerly covered Carrow- 
gallda as appears from Bald's map. 

20. Kendoyn. Cenndaimh, Ox's Head. 

21. Kellnalydan. Cill Liadain according to O'Donovan (H.F.) 
which is the equivalent of Killedan. The older form in the 
Taxation would be Cell na Liadain, Church of the Liadans or 

23. Kekellorn. I take the first Ke to be an accidental duplica- 
tion of Kell. 

24. Kellosenyg. This should be Cell O'Senaig, Senach's 
Church. No such church is known. It may be the proper name 


of Kilturra, in which " turra " means " yew." It is not likely 
to be a mistake for Cell Selbaigh, Kilshalvey. But it might 
be Killavil in Kilshalvey or Toomour in Kilturra. 1 

27. Mochrath and Tuamany. These churches should be near 
Killaraght. I suspect Mochrath to be the Machare of the Tripar- 
tite Life (see p. 48). Tuamany might be another church in 

1 O'Rorke, Hist. Sligo, ii. 194, 195, for meaning of names. 




Bishopric of Achonry . 

Deanery of Achonry 

Provostship of Achonry 

Archdeaconry of Achonry 

with Vicarage of Kill- 


Vicarage of Kilvardnaha 


KiUm c tage . 

,, Killessy . 

Attenvas . . 

Strade . . . 

Killedan . . 

,, Killconnowe . 

Killveigh . . 

Moycoula . . 


Kilcohnan . 

Killaraght . 

Killosalvan . 

Imuleaddy . 

,, Tuymore . . 



Rectory of Cowlaven . 

Vicarage of Cowlaven . 
Rectory of Slewloa . . 
Rectory of Bowcouley 

s. d. 

I O O 


4 o o 

10 o 

12 o 

4 o 

5 o 

4 o 

5 o 

2 o 

3 8 

i 8 

8 o 

6 8 

3 4 
10 o 

2 8 



Probably one of the churches 
in Kilturra = Cill Rorain. 


Alias of Templemore. 


Boycoula (?) Bohola. 
Old C. in Ballintemple Tl. 
MeelickP. (?) 




Coolavin C. is in Kilcolman P., 
but I think here includes 
parish of Kilfry as that pre- 
bend is nominal. 

Sliabh Lugha, i.e. Castlemore. 
Bohola. See Vic. of Moycoula. 




Rectory called Inter 

Duos Amnes . . . 

Rectory of Killowran . 

Prebend of Killaraght . 

,. Killoran 



leigh . . 

Killfry . . 

Vicarage of Killm c Teige 

*. d. 

3 4 

13 4 

10 8 

i o 

i o 



o o 



Moymlough, or Killasser, in 
Kilvarnet P. 

This is taken from a paper of the 5th year of Charles I. 
which gives the above as an extract from the Inquisition 
taken before Daniel Bishop of Kildare in the 28th year of 
Queen Elizabeth. It differs a little from the copy of the 
same original given in Col. Wood Martin's History of Sligo, 
Appendix, p. 398, in spelling of the names, and the Provost- 
ship and Archdeaconry are assessed each at 45. instead of 
6s. 8d. and 4, respectively, as above. It ignores the Prebends 
and the entry of Vicarage of Kilmacteige below them. It is 
a general valuation of the Diocese of Achonry and of the parts 
of that of Elphin which lie within the Co. of Sligo. I prefer 
this list as the spelling seems to be better. The entry of the 
Vicarage of Killm c Teige seems to be an addition to correct 
the omission of value in the original, based on present value. 
The Prebends of Killoran and Moymlough seem to be the 
same. The Parishes of Toomore and Kilgarvan are omitted, 
but may have been included in others. So also Ballysadare 
and Drumrat and Kilmovee. 

What we learn best from these lists and valuations is the 
extreme waste and decay of the church organisation. The 
prebends were for the most part mere names. 





20 Ballysadare C Kilboglashy. 

BaJlysadare Abbey . . Abbeytown. 

Collooney C Collooney. 

Kildalog Streamstown. 


32 Achonry C Achonry. 

Court Abbey .... Lavagh. 

31 Kilcummin Kilcummin. 

37 Ballyara C Ballyara or Falduff. 

38 G. near Moylough . . . Moylough. 

32 G. west of Curry . . . Montiagh. 


31 Kilvarnet Kilvarnet. 

Killasser Annaghbeg. 


32 Killoran Killoran. 


32 Cloonogbil C Churchfield. 

33 C. at Ballynaclogh . . Bally naclogh. 

39 Cloonameehan Abbey . . Rinnaroge. 


33 Emlaghfad C Emlaghfad. 





34 Kilmorgan Kilmorgan. 


36 Kilmacteige Kilmacteige. 

G., W. of Parkmore . . Letterbrone (not in 6 in. Map). 

37 Banada Abbey . . . Banada. 


38 Kilturra Kilturra. 

52 [Mayo] Toomour G. . . Doocastle or Ballindoo. 


39 Kilshalvy Kilshalvy. 

Killavil KiUavil. 


39 Drumrat C Knockbrack. 


40 Toomour C. .... Toomour. 
C., SSE. of Kesh . . . Fallougher. 
Templevanny .... Templevanny. 


44 Knockmore Abbey . . Mountirvine. 

" Abbey " S. of it . . . Carrowntemple. 
Kilfree Kilfree. 


45 C. on shore N. of Boyle 

River Cuppanagh. 

47 Killaraght Killaraght. 

C. on Lake shore . . . Armagh (vickanara). 




46 Monasteredan .... Monasteredan. 


74 Kilcolman Ballyoughtra near Kilcolman Tl. 

G. near Edmondstown . Cregan. 
64 G., N.W. of Ballagha- 

dereen Hawksford. 


74 Castlemore C. . . . . Glebe. 

Kilvanloon Kilvanloon. 


63 Cloonmore G Tonnagh. In a fort. 

G., N. of Loughacurry . Temple. 

G Killeen. 

G., S. of Cloonmore . . Cashelduff. 

G Cloonfane. 


72 Kilmovee Rusheens. 

G. due S. of Kilmovee . Magheraboy. Killaclare adjoins 

on N. 
Kilkelly Kilkelly, adjoining Kilmore. 


62 Kilconduff Rathscanlan. 

71 Kinaff Kinaff. 

72 G. at Midfield .... Treanlaur. 


6 1 C., N.E. of Newcastle . . Ballintemple. 
71 Meelick C, and Round 

Tower , Meelick. 




71 Bohola C Bohola. 

Carrowcastle C. ... Carrowcastle, formerly Rahelvin. 


71 Killedan Killedan. 

80 Kilkevna Cartron. 

Kilkinure Oxford. 


70 Templemore .... Knockgarran. 

Strade Abbey .... Strade. 
6 1 Templerowuck .... Carrowgallda. 

6 1 ToomoreC Toomore. 


49 Killasser Knockmullin. 

Kilsheshnan Graffy. 

Templemoyle .... Coollagagh. 


48 Attymas C Bunnafinglass. 

40 Kilgellia Killgellia. In a large fort. 

49 Killeen Glendaduff. 

40 Kildermot Kildermot. 


40 Kilgarvan Kilgarvan. 

31 Kilbride Carrowleagh. 



THIS information is from various sources : 


Achonry . . . 

Killoran . . . 

Kilvarnet . . 

Kilturra . . . 

Killaraght . . 

Ballysadare . . 

Kilmovee . . 

Kilmacteige . . 

Killasser . . . 
Toomore . . 

Attymas . . . 

Kilgarvan. , . 
Enagh in Bally- 
sadare . . . 
Templemore . . 
Killedan . . . 
Kilconduff . . 
Kilbeagh . . . 
Bohola .... 
Templemoory . 
Kilcolman . . 
Killoshalvy . . 
Emlaghfad . . 
Toomour . . . 
Kilmorgan . . 
Drumrat . . . 
Coolavin . . . 
Castlemore . . 
Meelick . . . 
Kilfree . 



Trinity Abbey 1 in L. 


Trinity Abbey and Preb. 
Urlare Abbey. 

Killeen, under Trinity of 
L. Key. 

Trinity of L. Key. 
Urlare Abbey. 

Trinity of L. Key. 

Trinity of L. Key. 

Urlare Abbey. 

1 According to Dr. O'Rorke. 


Abbey, Prebend. 

Ballysadare Abbey. 


Pp. 20, 49. Crock Cuile.See also //. R.S.A.I,, xxxi. p. 33. 
This appears as the name of a church, or place, mentioned in 
the last fragment of the list above, wherein, as I judge from 
the published decipherments, the letters " in mar " are clear. 
I incline to think that these letters are part of a name which 
now survives in the townland called Illaunmore in Kilmaine- 
beg parish, which lies next west of that of Kilkeeran in which 
is Kilmainebeg, and near the townlands of Cong parish called 
Cross, in which is the Church of Cross or Attyrickard. Mar 
is a spelling of Mor which is used elsewhere in the Book of 
Armagh, as in Imgoe Mair Cerrigi and Deruth Mar Cule Cais 
on pp. 22 and 30 above. I suggest that Oilen Mar Conmaicne 
has been translated Insula Mar Conmaicne and taken to mean 
an Island in the sea of the Conmaicne, whereas it meant the 
Great Island, or Great Crannoge, of the Conmaicne. I suggest 
that the Crannoge gave a name to a large estate held with it, 
that Tirechan described some one as having been at or in some 
church in the Great Island of the Conmaicne, which church is 
now called Croch Cuile. Illaunmore includes swampy land 
very suitable for a crannoge before the drainage. 

P. 73. Athantermainn (Caelainne) is some ford on the river 
in or near Castlereagh in Co. Roscommon. The church of 
Caelainn was a little to N. of Castlereagh. 

P. 80. Pipe Roll entries show that in 1280 the Bishop of 
Clonmacnoise held lands in Ouelytrach and in Tyrnene and in 
Clonmaicne of Dunmore (36 D.K., 60). Lower Umhall would 
be Burrishoole parish and perhaps Kilmeena and Kilmaclasser. 
Tyrnene is the southern part of Clanmorris barony. 

P. 82. For the tribes and parishes comprised in the Deaneries 
of Tuam and Athenry, see chap. xxvi. p. 243. 

P. 84, lines 17-19. This is not correctly stated. Read 
" Taghsaxon parish includes the small prebend of Templegaile. 
The tithes are distributed between two rectories and two 

P. 107. The references to " Theiner " are in all cases to 
Augustin Theiner's " Vetera Monumenta Hibernorum et Scot- 
orum," &c. 



P. 114. For Flann Mac Floinn read "Felix O'Ruadain." 
See p. 386, Kilcreevanty. 

P. 117. John Babyng was appointed in succession to M. 
O' Kelly by Pope Alexander V., but, in consequence of that 
Pope's death before his letters were made out, he assumed office 
by virtue of an appointment made on 24th May 1410. 

P. 134, line i. For quotation from Mac Firbis see R.I. A., 
Irish MSS. Series, vol, i. p. 123. 

P- I S3' John Brit. Called John Brylle, a Friar Minor in 
his appointment in succession to Henry Tyrlaw deceased. He 
was given leave to live and to exercise episcopal functions out- 
side his diocese, and was living in England in 1403 (Cal. Pap. 
Reg. Letters, v. pp. 500, 503, 520, 532). 

P. 178. Knappaghmanagh and Toomour Stones. Mr. Coffey 
gives photographs and sketches of the ornament on the 
Mullaghmast stone in the Proc. R.I. A., vol. xxxiv. Sect. C. 
Plate XXII. and p. 264, showing a panel divided by one vertical 
and two diagonal lines. Mr. Coffey dates the stone as " towards 
the end of the pre-Christian period in Ireland, or in the overlap 
of the Pagan and Christian periods." It seems to me possible 
that this very ancient pattern may have been adapted to 
Christian use by the addition of one horizontal line, making 
a panel of two crosses. 

P. 189. "The composition" means the Indenture of Com- 
position for the county of Mayo, made in 1585, preserved in 
the Public Record Office. 

Pp. 196, 265. Keallaricravyd. I incline to take this name 
and Kylleare to denote a church which stood in the grave- 
yard near Toberarneeve, which seems to embody the " ari " 
or " eare " of those names. The terminations also bear resem- 
blance, being apparently " crabhaidh " and " naomh," religion 
and holy. 

P. 198. Turlough. The full name is Turlach O'Maicin, with 
the aliases of Crioch Fir Thire and Fir Siuire (Cal. Pap. Reg. 
Letters, vi. pp. 120, 425, and H.F. 161). 

P. 20 1. Kelmachamlyd. This may be meant for Cill meic 
Cindfaeladh, church of Mackineely. A vicarage of Meycind- 
filead in Tuam Diocese is mentioned in 1407, but I cannot 
identify it (Cal. Pap. Reg. Letters, vi. p. 1 19). 

Pp. 216, 218. Portimaghie may be meant for Portmaine. I 
find a reference to the rectory of Ynis Meain alias Portmien 
(Cal. Pap. Reg. Letters, vi. p. 477). 

Pp. 255, 273. References to the Augustinian Abbot of this 
house show that I was in error in supposing it to have been 
absorbed (Cal. Pap. Reg. Letters, vi. pp. 144, 429). 

P. 263. Mayo Abbey. Additional information is furnished 


in the " Calendar of Papal Registers, Papal Letters," vol. vi. pp. 
274, 277, 290. 

After suppression of the Bishopric the abbey church was 
in the i4th century a Secular Collegiate Church with an abbot 
and five or six canons. Archbishop John [O'Grady] converted 
them into a monastery of Regular Canons. On the 8th Nov. 
1411 the Pope confirmed this order, and on the i7th Dec. he 
granted an indulgence for completion of the newly-built church 
and monastery. The ruins which we see may therefore be 
ascribed to the i4th or early I5th century. 

On the 9th Dec. 1411 the Pope made the order which is 
abstracted as follows in the calendar: 

" To the Augustinian Abbot and convent of St. Michael's, 
Mayo, in the diocese of Tuam. Taking under protection of 
St. Peter and the Pope them and their monastery, the place 
where it is situated and their possessions, present and future, 
with mention of the parish churches of Robyn, Kyllynayn, 
Luany ; the rectories of Tyrnechtayn and Techayn, Garbalach 
and Cluaynbaub, and of the ecclesiastical lands of Anachbrytlend, 
Druymbrit, Kyllbudayn, Druymony and Cluaynunderg ; the 
perpetual vicarages of Roslaeg and Kyllcholmayn ; the rights 
and tithes formerly assigned to the monastery by the late Charles, 
Lord of Connaught ; the great court (atrio magno) [of] Clochur- 
log ; possessions in Stamey, Caylcolla (Kilcolla), Ardcortay 
(Ardcorkey), Fraychyn (Freeheen), Gortygary, Kyllbudan, Tulach- 
mor, Gortinybayr, Lochbargayn, Triacra, Raythnasendrumund, 
Gortnaginscala (Gortnagusetaul), Gabulmore (Gowel) and Kell- 
brach de Kyllgabuyl ; the ecclesiastical fees of Robyn and 
Kyllchelmayn, each with a mill, Kyllcholmayn and Kyllgabuyl, 
in the said diocese ; with confirmation of all papal liberties 
and immunities, and all liberties and exemptions granted by 
kings, princes, and other faithful from secular exactions." 

Kyllynayn. As Gortnagusetaul lies next west of Knockauna- 
broona, a small townland which includes most of Mayo village, 
the lands of Gortnagusetaul, Gortygarry and Gortinure 
(Gortinybayr = Gortin lubhair) may be taken to have been 
part of the parish of an ancient church at Mayo called 

Luany. Probably the old church at Toberloona, giving an 
alternative name of Annagh parish. 

5 A nachbrytlend. Probably represents the full name of 
Annagh parish, Annach Drithlend, whereof the second part 
survives in Realin peninsula in L. Carra (H.F., pp. 159, 201, 205. 
O'Grady, Silva Gadelica, ii. pp. 375~377). 

Gabulmore, &c, Gowel Tl. is the extreme south point of 
Mayo parish. 



The Lord Charles must be King Cathal Crobderg, the last 
king who could have dealt with tithes in this country. 

So far as the denominations are identified they show that 
the Abbey acquired little endowment after the year 1400. 
From comparison with the list of see lands round Mayo Abbey 
we may infer that in this case, as in that of Cong Abbey, the 
endowments of the Comarb of Colman, or of Gerald, we do 
not know his title, passed to the Bishop, and that the Augustinian 
Abbot and convent acquired a new endowment. 

P. 274. The Little Cell. In 1400 a relaxation was given for 
repair of St. Mary's Chapel, Killinamanach, dependent on the 
Monastery of St. John Baptist, Cella Parva (Cal. Pap. Reg. 
Letters, v. p. 268). 

P. 275. Burriscarra. An order of confirmation, dated 
Jan. 1413, recites that the house had been founded for Carmelites, 
that Matthew Omaan friar of order of Hermits of St. Augustine 
with a number of friars, at instance of Edraundus Stauriton 
and Richard Stauriton (Edmund and R. Staunton), with consent 
of Archbishop Maurice and of Henry, rector of the parish 
church of St. Mary and Holy Cross, entered and inhabited the 
house, which Edmund and his predecessors and kinsmen had 
founded for Carmelites, which for more than thirty years no 
Carmelite had inhabited, which he and Richard desired to be 
possessed by Augustinians in future (Cal. Pap. Reg. Letters, 
vi. p. 387). 

P. 280. Kilcreevanty. The following facts are taken from 
a letter dated i Ap. 1400, in which the Pope, upon a petition 
from the convent, confirms to the Augustinian convent the 
conditional privileges and grants made by F., sometime Arch- 
bishop of Tuam. 

By an undated letter Pope Honorius III. ordained the 
perpetual observance as then of the Rule of St. Augustine and 
the Arroasian institution, confirmed their possessions as detailed 
in a list, granted privileges and confirmed liberties. 

Thereafter the convent obtained another bull from Honorius 
containing, with other things, leave to take up the Cistercian 
order and rule. 

Thereafter controversy arose between the convent and the 
Archbishop, which was settled by a peace made in the church 
of Tuam on the 2oth June 1223, by authority and counsel of 
D., Bishop of Killaloe, judge delegate by the Pope, the Arch- 
deacon of Limerick, sub-delegate, and others. 

The Archbishop exempted the Abbess and nuns from all 
jurisdiction of the Archbishops except a personal triennial 
visitation of the Archbishop and the Abbot of Cong, on account 
of which the Archbishops may take, as procuration, three capons 


and a sextarius of wine. He shall not interdict the monastery 
nor suspend and excommunicate the nuns without special man- 
date of a superior. 

The nuns renounced the privilege of exemption contained 
in Honorius's bull, and agreed to remain in the Augustinian rule. 

The dating of the instrument of Pope Honorius is uncertain, 
as some references seem to be inaccurate as regards persons, 
but it may be taken that the seventh year of Honorius is right. 

The list of possessions names the following churches 

St. Mary, Clonmacnoise. St. Mary, Roscommon. 

St. Mary, Doryn. St. Mary, Ardcarne. 

St. Mary, Cloonoghil. St. Mary, Annaghdown. 

- St. Mary, Clonfert. St. Mary, Kyllin. 

St. Mary, Drumcliff. St. Mary, Achonry. 

Doryn, or Derrane, was a parish of Elphin in the Taxation, 
now included in Kilbride, and is near Roscommon. The 
Augustinian Priory of Blachinat alias St. Mary Dorean is described 
in 1410 as dependent on no monastery or regular place (Col. 
Pap. Reg. Letters, vi. p. 163). 

Cloonoghil should be an alias of Taghmaconnell, a rectory 
of this abbey, as Cloonoghil is a townland in that parish owned 
by the Archbishops of Tuam. 

St. Mary of Achonry should be a church in one of the con- 
vent's estates in the barony of Leyny. 

The list of lands does not add to information so far as they 
are identified, except that Druym Sulynd was already in its 
possession. No other item of the Inishmaine estate is recog- 

Things seem to have remained so until Archbishop Mac 
Aedha obtained restoration of his right of visitation as ordinary. 
The letter given by Theiner mentions Florentius as having 
given the exemption. Flann Mac Flynn may have confirmed 
it. It is more likely that in drafting the letter the Archbishop's 
initial F. was wrongly expanded as Florentius. 

Some controversy seems to have arisen again which re- 
sulted in an arrangement dated loth July 1399, which seems 
to have been a restoration of the peace of 1223, which was 
confirmed by this letter (Cal. Pap. Reg. Letters, v. p. 335). 

P. 3 30. Dean. Several Deans are mentioned before O'Haneki. 

Skreen Prebend. It was a rectory of ecclesiastical lands 
(Cal. Pap. Reg. Letters, vi. p. 232). 

Pp. 336, 342, 372. Episcopal Mensa. Communia of Bishop of 
Killala. Community of the Chapter of Achonry. In 1414 the 
church of Clogher had a fixed number of canons but no separa- 

tion of prebends. One of the canons was assigned a yearly 
pension of one mark from the episcopal mensa in place of a 
prebend (Col. Pap. Reg. Letters, vi. p. 428). Such an arrange- 
ment may have existed in Killala in 1198. The Bishop of 
Killala in course of time lost these churches, perhaps by assign- 
ment as separate prebends. The case of the Vicars Choral of 
Achonry and Annaghdown may have been originally the same, 
but they kept hold of their revenues as a monastic college. 

P. 354. St. Araght's Cross and Cup. In 1413 complaint was 
made by the Vicar of Killaraght that they were taken from 
the church, in accordance with an ancient custom, by clerks 
and laymen and carried about for their own gain, without con- 
sent of the vicar and without giving him a share of the profits. 
The Bishop was directed to enquire and, if such an abuse 
existed, to order that it be stopped, and to decree that the 
Cross and Cup be kept only in the church (Cal. Pap. Reg. Letters, 
vi. p. 451). 

P. 364. Richard Belmer. He had a dispensation to hold any 
benefice because, being an Englishman, he cannot reside in 
his church, and because he can get nothing from it owing to 
the fact that the goods of the church are dissipated and 


The following subjects are not indexed : Lists of See Lands. 
Taxation of 1306. Valor Beneficiorum. Bodkin's Visitation. 
Division of Connaught and Thomond. Benefices and In- 
cumbents in 1591. Pope Innocent's Epistle. Possessions of 

The abbreviations used, AB. = Archbishop. Ab. = Abbot. 
AD. = Archdeacon. B. = Bishop. Bar. = Barony. C. = Church. 
D. = Dean. Di. = Diocese. K.C. = King of Connaught. K.I. = 
King of Ireland. P. = Parish. Preb. = Prebend. R. = Rectory. 
Tl. = Townland. V. = Vicarage. C.P. = Church and Parish. 


AIRBACC Giunnae, 18 
Altar of stone, 16, 31 
Anart, Anorto, 20 
Annals of Multifarnham, 295 
Aros, 22 

Augustinian Canons and Rule, 70, 71, 
168, 327 

BATTLES Clontarf, 68 ; Conachail, 
358 ; Cuildremne, 44, 314 ; Drung, 
146; Kesh, 178; Kinsale, 126; 
Moira, 64 ; Ocha, Ucha, 2, 6 ; 
Segais, 2, 3 ; Sligo, 311 

Bells, Leo's, 129; Patrick's, 146, 147 

Bellcover, 363 

Bishop's Income, 101 

Table, 87, 336, 337, 387, 388 

Bodkin's Visitation, 82, 84, 85, 123, 

Book of Cuanu, 140 

of Shred, of Cong, 95 

Boundaries of Dioceses, 73 
Bullauns, 140 

CAAM, 21 

Casey's Sword, 179 

Cashel Monasteries, 159 

Cathach of larlaithe, 76 

Chalice in Killaraght, 20, 33, 354. 3 88 

Cistercians, 168 

Clochans, 92 

Clonmacnoise seizes Churches, 17, 39, 

Comarb Lands, 81, 83, 84, 87, 88, 09, 

248, 254, 256, 260 
Composition for Mayo and Sligo, 189, 

257, 261, 277, 290, 328, 366 
Connaught, extent, 7; Succession of 

Kings, 2 
Consortia, 51 
Convention of Ballysadare, 312. 314, 


of Drumket, 64, 314, 356 

Convocation of Connaught in 1210, 

Councils Athboy, 97; Lateran, 98, 

119; Lyons, HI; Trent, 365; 

Whitby, 58, 127 
Crom Duff, 46, 175, 176 
Crosses, St. Araght's, 354, 388; of 

Cong, 75< 94 

of Stone at Carn, 310; Cong, 

94, 177; Crosspatrick, 36; Dona- 
mona, 177 ; Mucna's Well, aa ; 
Tuam, 177 

inscribed on stone at Knappagh- 

managh, 177, 384; Toomour, 178, 

Croziers, Ciaran's, 357; The Yellow 

Crozier, 76; The Yellow Crorier of 

Balla. 137, 138 
Cuanu's Book, 146 




Daimhliag, Duleek, 130, 163 
Danish Bishoprics, 73 

Towns, 13, 69 

Wars, 64, 65, 67, 68, 101 

Deaneries, Rural, 63, 74, 78, 80 
Deartheach, 130 

Division of Connaught and Thomond, 


Dolmen over Well, 24, 42, 43 
Druidical Enemy, 44 

Tonsure, 18 

Druids, 16, 24, 27, 44 

ENDOWMENTS of Abbeys andChurches, 

99, 102, 167 
Episcopal Fourths, 86, 157, 248, 


Mensa, 87, 336, 337, 387, 388 

Erbe Druad, 44 

FEES to Pope, 108, 153, 154 
Feichin's Stone, 179 
Feis of Tara, a 
Ferlegind, 56, 82, 83 
Ferta, Feurt, 19 

GARLAND Sunday, 175 


Island or Monastery, 6, 26 

called Aralanensis, 6 

LAWS of Aidan, Brendan, &c., 65- 

Lead roof of Church, 130 

Mi AS Tigernain, 303 
OGHAM Stones, 176 

PALLS sent to Archbishops, 74 

Paschal Controversy, 127 

Patens, Assic's, 17; Araght's, 20, 33, 

354; Tigernan's, 303 
Patrick's Churches taken by others, 

16, 17, 29, 31, 32, 40, 42, 80 
Plague, 137 
Pope Innocent's Epistle, 139, 330 

RELIC, 19, 57 

Relics, 15, 19, 26-29, 3 2 . 45- 3*5 
Reformation, 124, 133, 155, 156, 210 
Rental of Cong, 256, 272 
Roman Empire, 54, 55, 64 
Rules of St. Augustine, Brendan, &c., 
65. 70, 74. 79- 80, 248 

SEAT of Patrick, 20, 28, 33, 42, 176 
See Lands, Tuam, 84, 85, 101 ; Killala, 

167, 318 
Shrines, Adamnan's, 315 ; larlaithe's, 

63 ; Patrick's, 67 
Staff of Ciaran, 358 
State of Ireland in 1515, 120, 133 
Stone of Lugad in Inchangoill, 51 
Stones, Long, 46 ; Praying or Swearing, 


Suppression of Monasteries, 121 
Synods Athlone, 98 ; Bri Mic Taidhg, 
97; Cashel, 75, 81, 97; Clonfert, 
320 ; Dublin, 98 ; Fiadh Mic Aeng- 
husa, 72, 74, 78 ; Galway, 119, 122, 
328; Holmpatrick, 74; Kells, 70, 
74, 78, 80, 82, 85, 97, 147, 362; 
Rathbreasail, 70, 72, 131, 140, 147, 
317; Roscommon, 97; Tuam, 98, 
328; Ushnagh, 72 

TAXATION of 1306, 61, 74, 78, So, 82, 

113, 131, 171, 320 
Termon Lands, 99, 103, 248 
Three Orders of Saints, 51, 54, 55 
Tithes, 81, 86, 100, 147, 248, 362 
Treaty of Windsor, 98 

VALOR Beneficiorum, 82, 84, 87, 252 
Visitations of AB. Armagh, 107 ; 
AB. Bodkin, 82, 84, 85, 123, 134, 
253; AB. Tuam, 113, 114; Regal, 
of 1615 and 1633, 82, 88, 156, 253 

WAR DENSHIP of Galway, 102, 118, 119, 

122, 147 

Wattles for a church, 40 
Writing of Patrick at Duma Selca, 20 

ZIMMER'S View of St. Patrick's Mission, 


ACHONRY, B. of, 87, Il6, 133, 325, 329, 

Chapter of, 87, 88, 363, 388 

D. of, 88, 108, 328 

Provost, 256 

Adamnan, 313, 315 
Adomnan son of Aldaileth, 146 
Adracht, Adrochta. See Araght. 
Aedh Allan, K.I. ,66 

son of Ainmirech, K.I., 55 

Aedh, son of Eochaid Tirmcharna, 
K.C., 142 

Finn, son of Fergna, 144 

Flaithemdha, 306, 309 

Guaire, 143 

son of Niall, Ab. Armagh, 67 

the Tall, son of Eochaid son of 

Oengus, 36 
Aedhan, B. Mayo, 13 

of Tuam, 71 



Aelchu, Pope of Ara, 62 
Aenghus, son of Natfraich, 60 
Aghadoe, B. , 101 
Agilbert, B. West Saxons, 127 
Aidan, B. Northumbria, 127 

son of Colman, 307, 309, 310 

Ailbe, 16, 32 

Aildobur, Ab. Roscommon, 67 
Ailill, Oilioll, son of Eochy Moyvane, 

Inbandha, 306, 309 

Kettleface, 34 

Molt, K.C., K.I., 2-5, 42, 47, 


Race of. See Hy Ailello, 19 

Ailtin, B., 316 

Alad of Killala, 303 
Alatro, J. de, Precentor, 81 
Alfred, K. Northumbria, 130 
All Bald, Totmael, 23 
Amalgaid, Amolngid, K.C. , 2-5, 12, 
42, 43. 46 

his sons, 26-28, 34, 36-38, 46, 


son of Fiachra Elgach, 47, 309 

Angulo, W. de, 295 
Annaghdown, AD., 86, 147, 148 

B. , 113, 114, 116, 117, 133, 150 

Chancellor, 148 

Chapter, 86, 112, 123, 148, 151 

D., 86, ii2, 113, 133, I47-I5 1 

Vicars, 86, 87, 367, 388 

Aodhan MacColmain O'Fiachrach, 

354- 355 

Araght, St., 20, 33, 273, 308 
Ara, Aran, Abs. , 61, 62 

Pope of, 62 

Ardagh, B., 363 
Ardcarne, B., 70 

Artri, Ab. Armagh, 58, 67 


Armagh, Ab., 4, 66-69, 140 

AB., 74, 99, loo, 102-4, 107, 115, 

140, 150, 152 

Arran. See Ara 

Assaroe, Ab., 363 

Assic, 16, 17 

Athenry, Lord, 122, 276, 297 

Athracht. See Araght 

Augustine, St., 127 

Auxilius, 13, 50 

BABYNG, AB. Tuam, 133, 384 
Baetan, 93 
Baithin, 314 
Balan, 130 
Ballgell, Queen, 135 
Barretts, The, 321, 328 
Barrett, Bishop, 328 

H., 304 

Lord, 153 

R., 167, 304 

T., B. Annaghdown, 117 

Barrett, William Mor, 322 

Barry s, 299 

Bebar, Bibar, 34 

Bee, dau. of Conchorach, 137 

Bell, J., B. Mayo, 133 

Belmer, R., B. Achonry, 388 

Benen, Benignus, Binean, son of 

Lugni, 4, 20, 30, 33, 51, 52, 61, 

son of Sescnen, 4, 17, 20, 30, 33, 

S 1 , 53 
Bermingham, Basilia, 294 

Lord, 153 

Meiler, in, 292 

Redmond, 117 

Robert , Canon Killala, 324 

Robert, Chancellor Tuam, 115 

T., Lord Athenry, 118 

Berminghams of Tireragh and Leyny, 

322, 363. See also Mac Fheorais 
Bernicius, 19 

Bethe, Biethe, Bite, Bitte, 16, 17, 33 
Bibar, Bebar, 34 
Bite. See Bethe. 
Blound, Blunt, P., AD. Tnam, 112, 

"3- 149 

Bodkin, C., AB. Tuam, 98, 366 

Boedan, 306 

Bole the Red, 33 

Bourke , Burke. See de Burgo and Mac- 

Boyle, Ab. , 364 

Brendan, son of Fergna, 144 

of Clonfert, 55, 61, 63, 144, 145. 


of Birra, 55, 61 

Brian, K.C., 7 

- his sons, 20, 33 
Bride, St., or Brigit, 80 
Briga, 142, 273 

Brit, J. , B. Annaghdown, 384 
Britons, 13, 50, 51, 57 
Broccad, B.ochaid, Brocad, 20, 30, 31, 

33. 50 
Bron, Broon, son of Icne, 16, 17, 20, 28, 

29. 33. 39 

Bron, sons of, 20. See Hy Broin 

Bronach, 20, 33 

Brown, B. Galway, 156 

Brug, Brugad, 22 

Burgo, de, Bourke, Burke, and Mac- 
William, 108, 126, 154. 322, 363 

Edmond Albanagh, 114, 257. 


Edmond, son of Earl Richard, 114, 


Edmond, Provost Tuam, 114 

John, Canon Tuam, 264 

John, son of Richard, 266 

Reymund, 275, 298 

Richard, ist Lord of Connaught, 

103, 144. 274. 3 21 . 359. 36o 

Richard. Earl of Ulster, 114 



Burgo, de, Richard, O'Cuairsci, 257; 
his clann , 326 

Theobald, Mac William Eighter, 


Ulick's sons, 266 

Ulick, Mac William Eighter, 294 

Walter, Earl of Ulster, 360, 362, 


Walter of Turlough, 100 

Walter, son of William, 259 

William, the Blind Abbot, 124, 


William the Conqueror, 103 

William, Earl of Ulster, 114 

William Liath, 293, 294, 297 


Caeta, Cata, 24 

Caethiach, Caetiac. See Cethach 

Caillin, 52, 53 

Cainnech, 25, 29, 34 

Cairbre, son of Amalgaid, 304 

Cairell, 17 

Cairthenn, Cairthinn's son, 40 

Calraige, Calrigi, Calry, 7-9, 29, 39, 

41, 311, 313, 317, 356, 359 
Calvus, Mael, 18 
Canterbury, AB., 73, 133 
Caplait, Caplit, 16, 17, 18, 25 
Carews, 321 
Carpreach the Swift, 97 
Carthach, 61, 145 
Cashel, AB. , 74, 115, 131, 148, 324 

AD., 115 

Cassan, 20, 33 
Cata, Caeta, 24 

Cathal Crobderg, K.C. See O'Conor 
Cathasach of Tuam, 130, 131 
Cathraige, Cathry, n 
Cathusach of Killarduff , 308, 310 
Cellach, Ab. Roscam, 146 

of Kilmoremoy, 312, 320 

K.C., I35 

Cenel Endai, 40 
Cerrigi. See Ciarraide 
Cetgen, 17 

Cethach, Cethech, Cethiach, 15, 19, 20, 

26, 33, 51 

Chancellor of Ireland, 113 
Charlemagne, 64 
Christin, 132 
Cianachta, 19 
Ciaran, 19, 40, 55, 61, 311 
Ciarraide, Ciarraige, Ciarrichi, Cerrichi, 

Kerry, 4, 7-10, 15, 30, 31, 33, 49, 82, 

83, 85, 131. 133- 354 

of Munster, 145 

Cinel Conaill, 317 
Cinel Enna, 49, 53 
Cipia, 16 

Clanfergaile, 146, 156 
Clancarnan, 82, 83 
Clann Andrias, 360 

Clann Cein, 307, 354, 359 

Cuain, 131, 132, 139 

Fheorais, 363 

Fiachrach, 136 

Maille, 132 

Morna, 8 

Murtough Mweenagh, 322 

Taidhg O'Briain, 62 

Umoir, 8, 10, n 

William Bourke, 297 

Clanricard, Earl of, 121, 254, 264, 265, 

281, 282, 294 
Ctogher, B. , 119 
Clonfert, Ab., 98, 143 

AD. , 322 

B. , 102, 116, 124, 143, 322, 323, 

325. 363 

D., 83 

Clonmacnoise, B., 72, 326, 383 
Coelcharna, 33 

Coeman of Airtne Coeman, 33 

Deacon, 19, 48 

Cogan, J. de, 297 

W. de, 299 

Coimid Maccu Baird, 32 
Coirpre, son of Amalgaid, 34 
Colman, B. , 30, 55 

B. Northumbria, 55, 127-129 

MacComain, 62 

Priest, 55 

of Tireragh, 314 

Columba, Columcille, 55, 58, 62, 162, 

312, 314, 356 
Comarb of Benen, 88 ; Brendan, 99, 

143 ; Ciaran, 75, 99 ; Columcille, 

58, 81 ; Coman, 75 ; Cuana, 146 ; 

Feichin, 99, 260; larlaithe, 76; 

Mochua, 139 ; Patrick, 58, 81, 99 
Comarbs, 81, 101 
Comgall, 135, 138 
Conall, son of Amalgaid, 43 

brother of Araght, 334 

Crozier shield, 38 

Derg, 60 

son of Enda, 26, 27, 34-36, 46 

Orbsen, 132 

Conan, 23, 174 

Concors, B. Annaghdown, 147 

Cong, B., 91 ; Ab., 386 

Conlaid or Culaid's sons, 22, 30, 31 

Conleng, 16 

Conmac Mor, K. Hy Briuin Seola, 

Conmaicne, 4, 7, 8, 10, 33, 49, 52, 63, 

73. 74- 77-79. 82, 83, 91-93. 147, 358, 


Table of Descents, 52 

of Moyrein, 358 

Conna of Mayo, 130 

Connachta, Connaughtmen, 7, 8, 146, 

Connaught, A B., B., 70, 71, 99, 108 

K., 52, 70, 78, 91, 95. 98, 103, 132 



Coona, 21 

Corbmac, son of Amalgaid , 34 

Corca, ii 

Moga, 10, ii, 63, 82 

Corco Firtri, 9 

Thid, 307 

Corcu Chonluain, 16 

Teimne, Temne, Theimne, alias 

Temenry, 8, 24, 25, 29, 49, 134 

Corcumroe, 60 

Cormac, son of Ciaran, Ab. Tuam, 
Vice Ab. Clonfert, 71 

Snithene, 32 

St., 95, 134, 304, 306, 354 

elected B. Annaghdown, 108 

Cork, B., 148 

Cornelius, B. Annaghdown, 117 
Cothrige, Patrick, 57 
Crebriu, 36, 45 
Cremthann, son of Brian, 33 
Croft on, E. , 87 
Cronan of Balla, 135 

alias Mochua of Balla, 55, 135 

Cruimther Monach, 37 

Cuanu, 313, 314, 315 

Cuimine, 45 

Cuimin, Cummene, 310, 311 

Fada, 310 

Cuisin, R. , 360 
Culaid. See Conlaid 
Culmana. See Liamain 
Cumascrach, 52 
Cummene. See Cuimin 
Cumyn, Sir J., 105 
Cusack, 321 

DAIRE of Moygawnagh, 307 

Daius, son of Enda Ardchenn, 308 

Da Bonne, Do Bonne, Maccu Baird, 32 

Dachonna of Assylin , 356 

Dalcais, Dalcassians, 8, 76 

Daloc, 48 

Daly, J. , Warden of Galway, 157 

Danes, 62, 64, 130, 146 

Darcy, Sir J. , 62 

Darerca, 48, 50, 51 

Dari the Nun, 67 

Dartraige, 8, 9 

Dathi, K.C., K.I., 2, 3, 5, 12, 131 

Delbna, 10, 147 

Derbiled, 314 

Derclam, 22 

Dericus, 308 

Dermait, Ab. Armagh, 67 

Dermot Mac Fergusa, K.I., 257 

K. Luighne, 307, 354, 355 

of Rosredheadh, 306 

Derthacht, 33 

Diarmaid Mac Cerbaill, K.I., 143 
Dionysius, Ab. Boyle, B. Annaghdown, 

IS 2 

D. Annaghdown, 150 

Death's Sons, 30, 31 

Do Bonne. See Da Bonne 

Domnall, B., 32 

son of Coilcne, 40 

son of Cremthann, 40 

of Cuil Conalto, 40 

of Disert Patraic, 36 

of the Hy Fiachrach, 136 

Donennach, 308 

Donncathy, Erenagh of Aghagower, 140 
Donnchadh, Lord of Carbury, 315 
Donnell, K.I., 92, 257, 260 
Down, R., B. of, 116 
Draigen, Drogin's Sons, 39, 307 
Duach Galach, K.C., 3-5, 12 

Tenguma, K.C., 2, 50 

Dubchonall, son of Amalgaid, 34 
Dubhdaleithe, Ab. Armagh, 616 
Dublin, AB. , 74, 98, 152 
Dummo, (Dunmore?) W. de, Canon 
Tuam, 113 

EASDARA, Ab., 256, 362, 365 
Echaid, son of Brian, 33 

son of Nathi, 37 

One Ear, son of Amalgaid, 34 

Spotless, son of Amalgaid, 34 

Echan , or Echu, One Eyed, 40 
Echean, Eichen, 3, 33 

Echtra, 37 

Echu, One Eyed, of Inver, 40 

Edward I., 109 

II, 114, 151 

IV. 156 

Egnech, Ab. Aran, 62 
Eichen, Echean, 33 
Einne. See Enda of Ara 

son of Fintan, 145 

Elphin, AD., 115, 325 

B., 75, 102, 108, 113, 116, 139. 

150, 151, 322-324, 326, 363 

D., 139, 325, 326 

Emly, B. , 149 

Enda of Ara, 45, 53, 55, 63, 142, 145 

of Artech, 32, 40 

Ende, son of Amalgaid, 25-27, 

34. 36- 43- 44 

Ardchenn, 309 

Barepoll, 34 

son of Niall, 32 

Enna, son of Nuadan, 356 

En .... son of Br . . ,'s daughter, 22 
English, The, 127, 128 
Eochaid, son of Amalgaid, 43 

One Ear, son of Amalgaid, 34 

Breac, 47, 312 

Minncach, 136, 138 

Muigmedoin, or Moyvane, 6-8 

Eochu, Eochy Moyvane, 6-8 
Eodusa of Moyne, 161 

Eogan Bel, K.C., 46, 95. 134. 306. 
309, 311, 312 

son of Clerech, B. Connaught, 71 

the Just, son of Amalgaid, 34 



Eogan, son of Niall, 34 

Sreb or Sriab, 3, 50 

Ere, 25 

B., 141 

ancestor of Men of Carra, 139 

or Heric's Sons, 19, 20, 25, 353 

Ercleng, 16 

Erenaghs, 65, 71, 95, 102, 133, 140, 

146, 147, 309, 318, 321, 322 
Ermedach, Ab. Cong, 94 
Ernasc, larnasc, 30, 31 
Ethne the Fair, 16, 18 
Exeter, Jordan de, 294, 360 

Lord de, 153 

Sir Richard, 295 

Stephen, 295 

FAELAN , 137 

Failart, Felart, B., 13, 17, 33 

Failart's Sisters, 22, 33 

Fanchea, 60 

Faolchar, K. Ossory, 62 

Farannan, 313, 314 

Fearamla's Sons, 310 

Feara Rois, 135 

Fechin, 55, 91, 93, 255, 256, 307 

Fechra. See Fiachra 

Fedelm the Ruddy, 16, 18 

Fedelmid, son of Amalgaid, 34, 35, 43 

Fedilm, Fedlem, dau. of Amalgaid, 35, 

3 6 .45 

Feichin. See Fechin 
Felart. See Failart 
Feradach or Sachell, 15 

Ab. Inisbofin, 93 

of the Hy Fiachrach, 136 

Ferdomnach of Tuam, 71 
Ferdomnann, 8, 135 

Fergus, son of Amalgaid, 27, 34, 35, 43 
son of Cellach, K.C., 66 

son of Eochy Moyvane, 7 

MacRoigh, 10, 353 

Fethmech of Cill Tuama, B. Cill 

Cuana, 146 
Fiachra Elgach, 47, 139, 313 

son of Eochy Moyvane, 7, 8 

son of Eochy Moyvane's descend- 
ants, 43 

of Thomond, 8 

Fiachra's Sons of Upper Kerry, 29 
Finan of Clonard, 55, 61, 355 

of Moville, 61 

of Rathen in Carra, 134, 306, 309 

B. Northumbria, 127 

Findmaith, 145 

Finnbarr of Drumcolumb, 356 
Fintan the Fair, 136 

son of Finloga, 144, 145 

Maeldubh, 91, 357 

FitzGeoffrey, J., Justiciary, 105 
FitzGeralds or Geraldines, 108 
FitzGerald of Offaley, 108, 275, 322, 

358, 359. 363 

FitzGerald, John FitzThomas, 360 

Maurice, 359, 360 

Flaithgel, Ab. Drumratha, 357 

Flammini, N. , Canon Tuam, 113 

Flanagan, W. , D. Killala, 330 

Flan nan, 93 

Flann Dubh, 306 

Foelan the Warrior's Race, 35 

Foilan, son of Fintan, 144, 145 

Forbasach, Ab. Roscam, 146 

Fortchern, 162, 314 

Francis, B. Annaghdown, 119 

Franks, 13, 19 

French, Dr. , B. Galway, 156 

Froech, Ab., 308 

Fulburn, S. de, AB. Tuam, 149 

W. de, 109 

Fursa, 143-5. J 47 

GAIMDIBLA, Ab. Ara, 62 

Gailenga, 9, 73, 132, 307, 356, 359 

Gamanraige, 8 

Garbhan, Garvan, 313, 314 

Garcin, N. de, 82 

Gauls, 13 

Gavrin, B., 135 

Gelgeis, 144 

Germanus, 5 

Gilbert, B. Limerick, Legate, 72 

Gildas, 141 

Gilla MacLiag, AB. Armagh, 74 

Ginkle, 157 

Gollit, 50 

Gormgal, Ab. Armagh, 67 

of Ardilaun, 92 

Grecraide, Grecraige, Gregirgi, Gre- 
graide, Gregraige, Gregry, 9, 10, 20, 

33, 38, 39, 47- 54. 3*3. 353. 354, 359. 

Gregory, alias Kennanach, 92 

Ab. Cong, 94 

O., Provost Killala, AB. Tuam, 116 

Grellan of Creeve, 3, 314 

of Tireragh, 314, 316 

Guaire, son of Aedh, 311, 312 

RACKETS, 171, 298 
Henry II., 98, 106 

III., 103, 106, 108, 149 

IV., 327 

VII., 119 

VIII, III, I2O, 125, 156 

Hercaith, 15 

Hereford, Cardinal B., 119 

Heric. See Ere 

Hernicius, 19 

Heyne, J., Canon Killala, 323 

Hono, Ono, 16 

Hua Concennain, U., 76 

Conchobhair. See O'Conor 

Domnallain, 76 

Donncadha, Ab. Ara, 62 

Dubthaig. See O'Duffy 



Hua hOisin, Comarb of larlaithe, 76, 

Ruairc. See O'Rourk 

Hui, Hy, and Ui. See Hy 

Hy Ailello, 4, 8, 9, 12, 16, 19 356 

Airmedaigh, 310 

Amalgada, 34, 36, 37, 45, 132, 303, 

307, 310, 318 

Briuin, 4, 8, 33, 70, 73 

Briuin Seola, 52, 84, 143, 147 

Broin, 73 

Cathusaigh, 310 

Derg, 310 

Eachach of Moy, 132, 303, 318 

Fiachrach, 4, 8, to, 38, 47, 131, 

138, 36. 313. 317 

Fiachrach, Aidhne, 8 

Fiachrach, Muiresc, 315 

Maine, Many, 7, n, 19, 25, 33, 

54, 84, 131, 135, 143 

Muireadhaigh, 310 

Neill, 16 

Hyndeberg, N. de, 81 

IARLAITHE, larlath, 52, 53, 55, 60, 61, 

76. 142 

larnasc, Ernasc, 21 

Imaidh, Vicar of, 92 

Indeberge, W. de, AD. Killala, 323 

Inisbofin, Ab. , B. , 93 

Innocent IV. , 148 

Isserninus, 13 

Ita, 142 

Ith, 16 

JAMES II., 157 

Jocelyn, 103 

Joseph, 103 

John, Legate, 98 

Jostus. See Just 

Joy, 299 

Joy, W., AB. Tuam, 155 

Just, Justus, 19, 33 

KELLY, Gate, David, Moyler, 177 

Kennanach, Ceannfionnach, 93 

Kerry. See Ciarraide 

Kildare, Earl of, 153, 297 

Kilfenora, B., 61, 148, 149 

Killala, Ab., B., 87, 102, 104, 116, 139, 


AD., 323, 325, 327, 366 

Chapter, 87, 330, 331, 388 

D., 323-327, 330, 331, 387 

Provost, 116, 330, 331 

Killaloe, B., 61, 386 

Family, 131 

Kilmacduagh, B., 116, 121, 323, 325 

AD. , 123 

King of England, 83, 88, 97, 102, 103, 
104-6, 112, 116, 121-3, I 5 I S 2 .. I S3i 


of Spain, 124 

LACY, H. de, 359 

Laegaire, Locgaire, Loiguire, son of 

Niall, K.I., 2, 5, 12, 15-17, 25, 26, 32. 

34. 35- 303 
son of Eochaidh Breac, son of 

Dathi, 43, 308, 310 
Lahtruth, P., Canon Killala, 324 
Lalloc, Laloca, 48, 50 
Lally, W., Ab. Tuam, 125 
Lambert of Killmayne, 94 

Simnel, 119 

Lasre, 55 

Lawrence, Chancellor of K.C., 98 

Lecto, J. de, Canon Killala, 324 

Legate of Pope, 97, 98 

Leo of Inishark, 129 

Leryed, S., Canon Killala, 323 

Lesru, 36, 45 

Leyny, Saints of, 130 

Liamain, Liamania, 50, 51 

Liban, 162, 314 

Limerick, B., 72, 149 ; AD., 386 

Lindisfarne, B. , 129 

Linort, R., Canon Killala, 323. 


Lithben, 137 

Loarn, Locharnacb, 21, 30, 31 
Lochru, 34 

Loegaire. See Laegaire 
Loichen, 94 

Loiguire. See Laegaire 
Lombards, 13, 50, 51 
Lomman, 20, 33, 50, 51 
Lonius, 308 
Luathrenn, 307, 355 
Luchti, 22 
Lugaid, B. , 355 

MacNetach, 52 

Lugaith MacNetach's daughter, 30, 


Lugnad, 50, 51 
Luighne, Luighni, 9, 73, 132, 307, 313, 

37. 355. 35 6 - 357. 359. 3$3 

B., 364 

Lynots, 322 

MACAEDHA, B. Elphin, 113. AB. 

Tuam, 387 

MacAn Brehon, B. Mayo, 124, 134 
Macassarlay, D., Canon Tuam, 134 
MacBeolan, 146 
MacCairthinn, 40 
MacCarraoin, 315 
MacCarthy, K.M., 259, 260 
MacCele, MacHale, 309, 318 
MaccErcae, MaccErce. Set MacErca 
MacConcathrach , 315 
MacCostello, 275, 295 

Miles, 360 

MacCreagh, appointed B. Killala, 

3 2 7 

MaccRime, MacRime, 28, 39 
Maccu Baird, Coimid, 32 



Maccu Baird, Da Bonne, 32 
M'Cullagh, Professor, 75 
MacDara, 92 
MacDeoraid, 311 
MacDermot, 132, 360 
MacDonnell, A., Ab. Cong, 95 
MacDonoghs, 296, 300, 360 
MacDonslevy, 95 
MacDregin, 27 
MacErca, 27-29, 39 
Macet, 17 
MacFheorais, 363 

Seefin, 363 

MacFloinn, F., AB. Tuam, 114, 322, 

384. 387 

MacGilla na nEach, 315 
MacGinnain, Comarb of Coona, 146 
Macharius, Ab. Loch Ce, 325 
Mac hEli, Erenagh of Killala, 322 
Machi . . . , Race of, 22 
Machin. See Mayglyn 
Maci, W., Canon Killala, 323 
Maclnylly, C. , 253 
Macjordan, 295 
MacMaurices, 108 
MacMurchadhas, 108 
MacMurchadha, MacMurrough, Der- 

mot, 97 
MacNeill, 132 

Macoyreachtayg, J. , AD. Killala, 325 
MacRime, 28, 39 
MacWattin, R. , 304 
MacWilliam Eighter, 95, 155, 276, 322, 

327, 364, 366 

David, 134 

Edmund, 295 

Richard, 296 

Theobald, 155 

Thomas, 327 

Thomas Oge, 298 

Walter, 292 

Oughter, 154, 155 

Oughter's sons Richard and 

Theobald, 155 

Mael, 16-18, 25 

Maelcethaigh, 136 

Maelficraich, Ab. Inisbofin, 93 

Maeltuile, Ab. Ara-irhir, 62 

Mageraghty, 147 

Magoneus, C. , 81 

MagRodan, 315 

MaiccHercae. See Ere, Sons of 

Mailfinneoin Family, 130, 131 

Maine, 136 

Major, J., 81 

Malachi, elected AB. Tuam, 109 

Malachias, Ab. Boyle, 150 

Mancen the Master, 37, 44, 60 

Mane, 16 

Marianus, B. Elphin, 133 

Marscarrayd, W., Ab. Asdara, 256 

Mathona, 17, 18, 23, 48, 52 

Mathonus, Mathous, 18 

Maucen. See Mancen 

Mayglyn, N. , elected AB. , 109 

Mayo, Ab., AD., B., Chapter, 82, 86, 

88, 131.365-385 
Meadhbh, Meav, 10 
Meath, B. , 72 
Meav, 10 

Medb, Medbu, 14, 22, 30, 31 
Mel, 50 

Meldan O'Cuinn, 143, 144 
Methbrain, 15 

Miccadagayn, Ab. Ballintubber, 266 
Mignae, 35 
Mobi, of Glasnevin, 355 

son of Huanflinna, 307, 355 

Mochua of Balla, 316 
Moelconaill, 308 
Moelfagmair, 308 

Moenenn, Ab., B. , Clonfert, 143 

Molagga, Ab. Cong, 94 

Molaise of Inismurray, 44, 255, 313, 

314. 320 
Mongfinn, 63 

Moore, J., B. Annaghdown, 154 
Mucnae, Mucne, Mucno, Mucnoi, 26, 

27, 36 
Muicin, 161 
Muintercuda, 171 
Muinter Murcada, 171 
Muiredach, B., 357 
Muirethach, B., 28 
Muirghis, K.C., 67 
Muredach, B. (Gailenga), 357 

Muredaig, of Killala, 36, 44, 320 

of Inismurray, 313, 320 

of Killala, 44, 303, 307, 313, 314 

Mullethan, 8 

Tirech, 6, 7 

son of Eogan Bel, 311, 312 

son of Oengus, 308 

Muredaig, B. See Muredach 

NANGLE, Lord, 153 

Nainnid, Ninnid, 45 

Nathi, St, 91, 307, 357 

Nem Mac Ua Birn, Ab. Ara, 62 

Nemnall, 36 

Niall, K.I.,2, 3, 7 

son of Finnbarr, 307 

Niccolinus, H., (Miccolinus?), Ab. 

Ballintubber, 266 
Ninnid. See Nainnid 
Nitria, 19 
Northmen, 64 
Norwich, B., 327. 
Nothi, 15 

Nuada, Ab. Armagh, 32, 67 
Nuala, Queen of Ulidia, 95 

O'BAIRD, 51 

O'Beathuachan, T., 256 

O'Braoin, S., Erenagh of Mayo, 133 



O'Bresseam, W., Canon Killala, 324 
O'Brien, 8, 260 

Murtough, K.I., 72 

Tadhg, K. Thomond, 75 

O'Caomain, 139, 317 
O'Cellaigh. See O'Kelly 
O'Ceandunan, J., 327 
Ochynnerigi, M., D. Elphin. 326 
O'Cleircin, 146 

O'Clumain, A., 300 

O'Cnaill, C., 131 

O'Coneyl, C., Canon Tuam, 326 

O'Connachtaigh, T., B. Tirbriuin, 147 

O'Conors, 362, 363 

O'Conor, Aedh, 7, 43 

Aedh, K.C.,77 

Aedh, son of Felim, K.C., 108 

Aedh, son of Ruaidhri, K.I., 321 

Cathal Crobhderg, K.C., 81, 94, 

101, 103, 156, 167, 169,260, 265, 280, 
285, 385, 386 

Conor, son of Torlogh Mor, 76 

Maelisa, son of Torlogh Mor, 95 

Maelisa, 103 

Maurice the Canon, son of 

Ruaidhri, 94 

Murrough, son of Torlogh Mor, 


Owen, D. Achonry, 366 

Ruaidhri, son of Aedh, K.C., 

13. 358 

Ruaidhri, K.I., 75, 76, 94, 97, 


Toirdelbach Mor, Torlogh Mor, 

K.I., 74-77, 81, 83, 108, 130, 131, 
164, 257, 258, 260, 264, 317 

Tomaltach, AB. Tuam, 108, 289 

Sligo, 328, 360, 364-366 

O'Conreth, R,, 256 
O'Conualta, T., 264 
O'Cormacain, W., AB. Tuam, B. 

Clonfert, 153 
O'Cuimins, 311 

O'Doigin, Erenagh of Killursa, 146 
O'Dondobuir, appointed B. Elphin, 146 
O'Donelan, Nehemiah, 327 
O'Donnell, 328 

O. , Prior Ballintubber, 265 

O'Dounlay, H., 125 

O'Dowda, O'Dubhda, 73, 132, 138, 

139, 168, 276, 316, 317, 319, 321, 322, 

sons of, 328 

Brian, elected B. Killala, 324 

Cosnamhach, 324 

Donnell's son, 141 

Donogh's son, 321 

M., elected B. Killala, 327 

Manus, AD. Killala, 327, 328 

Taichleach, 320 

W., Canon Killala, 323, 324 

O'Dubhain, Erenagh Killursa, 146, 

O'Dubhthaigh. See O'Duffy 
O'Duffy Family, 94 

Ab., AB. Tuam. 131 

Cele, B. Mayo, 98, 132 

Donnell, AB. Connaught, Tuam, 

75. 77. 94 

Dubhthach, Ab. Cong, 94, 257. 


Flanagan, B. Elphin, 94 

Gilbert, Ab. Cong, 94 

Muredach, AB. Ireland, Tuam, 

75-77. 94 

Nicol, Ab. Cong, 94 

Wm. Boy, Ab. Cong, 260 

O'Dunan, B. Cashel, 131 
Odurruchia, M. , 264 

Oengus, son of Amalgaid, 34-37, 43, 

son of Conall, 308 

Finn, 43 

son of Natfraich, 60 

O'Farrell, M., chief of Annaly, 76 
OTearghusa, V. of Imaidh, 92 
OTihel, T., Ab. Mayo, 133 
O'Fihely, AB. Tuam, 125 
O'Flaherty, 8, 61, 73, 144, 147, 148, 
156, 295, 301 

Amalgaid, 77 

Donnell, 258 

- D., D. Killala, 330 
O'Flanagan, D., Ab. Cong, 95 

W., D. Killala. 330 

O'Flannelly, O'Flannghaile, 315 
O'Flynn, of the Silraurray, 83, 300 

F., AB. Tuam, 293 

Erenagh of Errew, 303 

O'Frizell, A., D. Raphoe, 121-124 
O'Gara, 295, 359. 360 
O'Gibellan, F., AD. Elphin, 115 

M., Canon, &c., 115 

O'Gormley, 132 

O'Grady, J., AB. Tuam, 385 

O'Halloran, 146 

O'Haneld, D. Killala, 330 

O*Hara, O hEghra, 300, 359, 360 

Bernard, D. Achonry, 364 

Cathal, 363 

Donnell, 363 

John, 364 

John's sons, 364 

M., Ab. Boyle, 363 

Ruericus, 364, 365 

O'Hart, 364 

O'Healey, B. Mavo, 134 
O hEghra. See O*Hara 
O'Helidhe, B, Mayo, 134 
O hOilmec, 315 

O'Hoisin, AB. Connaught, 71 
O hUghroin, AD., B. Elphin, 139 
Oilioll. See Ailil 1 
Oingus, son of Senach, 23 
O'Kelly. 84 

H., Ab. Knockmoy, 285 



O'Kelly, M., AB. Tuam, 384, 386 
O'Lachtna, 87, 168 

O'Lachtnan, j., elected AB. Tuam, 

M., AB. Tuam, 289 

Olcan, 28, 37 

O'Leabacain, Erenagh of Gill Cillbile, 

O'Leathcargais, Erenagh of Rath- 

hindile, 147 
O'Lugadha, F. , Comarb Benen, D. 

Tuam, 77, 88 
O'Maan. M., 386 

O'Maigin, M., Ab. Ballintubber , 265 
O'Maille, O'Malley, 8, 132, 140, 141, 

276, 289 
O'Mannin, 84 
O'Maoilin, Erenagh of Gill Cillbile, 

O'Maolfaghmhair.O'Mullover, 309, 318, 


I., Erenagh of Killala, 321 

O'Maykin, L., Ab. Ballintubber, 267 

O'Melaghlin, C., 97 

O'Mellaidh, O'Mellaigh, Family, 151 

T. , B. Annaghdown, 114 

O'Mochain, G., AB. Tuam, 325 

Keeper of Cross of Araght, 354 

J., Canon of Elphin, 326 

O'Moran, Ymearan, D. and R., 296 
O'Mullaly Family, 119 

W., AB. Tuam, 123 

O'Mullavil, Ab. Mayo, 134 
O'Murray, of Carra, 132 

D., AB. Tuam, 153 

O'Murrough, Ab. Mayo, 134 
O'Neill, 126 

D-. 3iS 

O'Nioc, M. , Comarb larlath, 71 

M. , Erenagh Tuam, 71 

O'Queely, M., AB. Tuam, 93 
O'Rabhartaigh, 315 
Oraoran, L., Canon Killala, 323 
O'Reilly, 144, 362, 363 

Ornih, O., 266 
Ornurchu. See O'Murrough 
O'Ronain, T., Ab. Ballintubber, 265 
O'Rourk, 144, 357, 358, 362, 363 

Tigernan, K. Brefne, 76 

O'Ruadain, F., AB. Tuam, 384, 386, 


O'Sneadharna, 315 
O'Sochlachan, Erenagh Cong, 95 
Ossory, B., 119 
O'Suanaigh, 67, 310, 311 

Aodhan, 67, 310, 311 

Triallach, 67, 310, 311 

Oswald, K. Northumbria, 130 
Oswy, K. Northumbria, 127 
O'Tarpa, D., 324 
O'Tarpaigh, 315 

O'Toole, St. Lawrence, 98 
O'Triallaigh. See O'Suanaigh 

PALLADIUS, 4, 6, 12, 13, 57 
Paparo, Cardinal, 74 
Partraige, Partry, 4, 10 
Patricius, B. Knockmoy, 103 

a title, 57 

Patrick, St., 1-7, 9-12, 14-58, 68, 91, 

131, 132, 134, 141, 173, 174, 303, 

306, 313, 353, 354 
Philip, D. Tuam, 113 
Pillars of Skreen, 315 
Pole, Cardinal, 123, 124 
Pope of Ara, 62 
Pope, The, 74, 104, 105, 109, 111-117, 

119, 120-123, 124, 133, 139, 148-153, 

256, 264, 265, 323 

Adrian IV. , 75 

Alexander IV., 107, 362 

Alexander V., 116, 384 

Augustinus, 6 

Boniface VIII., 149 

Boniface IX, 153, 327 

Celestine, 6, 58 

Celestine III., 280 

Clement V., 323 

Clement VII., 116, 324, 325, 326, 


Gregory, 62 

Honorius III., 386, 387 

Innocent III., 87, 139, 320 

Innocent VIII., 118 


Leo, 13 

Pius II., 327 

Urban IV., 116 

Urban VI., 324-7 

Prendergast, D., 108 

Revd., Ab. Cong., 95 

Prendergasts, 300 

Pupa, Pupeus, 62 

QUEEN, Ballgell, 135 

Gelgeis, 144 

Nuala, 95 

Elizabeth, 123, 124-126, 156, 366 

Mary, 123, 154 

RAPHOE, B., 325 

Rathcogan, W. de, 299 

Rechrad, Rechred, Roechred, 27, 35 

Reeves, B. , 101 

Reon, 35 

Resti tutus, 50 

Richard I., 147 

II., 116, 327 

III., 118, 152 

Ridelesford, W. de, 84, 144 
Rioc, 50 

Rochelle, R. de la, 105 
Rodan, B., 39 

Priest, 17, 20, 33 

Roechred. See Rechrad 
Romans, 13, 57 



Ronan, 136 
Roscam, Ab. , 146 
Roscommon, B., 70 

Prior of, 325 

Ross, Clans of, 136 
Ruadhan of Lorrha, 143 
Ruan, son of Cucnama, 34 

of Kilgarvan, 357 

SABA, wife of Oengus, 308 

Sachell, Feradach, 3, 12, 15, 30, 31, 


Sadb, 30 
Sai, Race of, 19 
Saxons, 127, 129, 130 
Scots, 6, 128 

Sechnall, Secundinus, 13, 50, 51 
Segretia, 129 
Senach, 23 
Sencheneoil, n 
Senmed, 14, 22 
Sere, 304 
Sescnen, 51 

Silmurray, Silmuredaig, 7, 78, 83, 131, 
132, 137, 138, 

B., 75, 139 

Simcox, S. , Warden of Galway, 157 
Sisters of B. Felart, 22, 33 
Skerrett, C., 253 
Slane, P. de, B. Cork, 152 
Sodans, n, 52, 63, 82-84, 135 
Sons of En .... 14, 49 
Spain. See King of 
Staunton, Lord, 153, 275 

John, 266 ; E. and R. , 386 

Stauntons, 114 
Strafford, Lord, 102 
Sucat, St. Patrick, 57 
Suibne, 136 


Teloc, 36 

Temenrigi, 29 

Thomas, Ab. Little Cell, 148 

AD. Killala, 327 

B. Annaghdown, 114 

Prior of St. Coman, 325 

Tigernan of Errew, 303, 304 

Tipraide, Tipraiti, K.C., 66, 314 

Toirdelbach, Torlogh. See O'Conor 

Totmael, All Bald, 23 

Tuam, Ab. , 71, 83, 142 

AB., 48, 70, 71, 80, 83, 93, 102, 

133, 140, 148-157, 264, 325, 326, 

363. 386, 387 

AD., 81, 85, 88, 89, 104, 112, 

113, 149, 150 

B., 70, 71, 131 

D., 89, 104, 108, 113 

Tuam, Provost or Precentor, 8r, 89 

Vicars Choral, 80. 89, 367 

Other officers and Canons, 81. 

104, 113, 115 

Chapter, 84, 85, 87, 89, 108. in. 

115, 123, 363 

Ab. Holy Trinity, 325 

Tuanna(TuamaP), L. de, Canon Tuam 

Tuathal Maelgarb, K.I., 55 

Roughfoot, 135 

Techtmar, 7 

Turgesius, 67, 130 

Turlton or Twellow, H., B. Annagh- 
down, 1 1 6, 384 
Turner, H., too 
Tyrlaw, H., B. Annaghdown, 384 

UA. See also O in surnames 

Ua Bolcain, N., Ab. Tuam, 71 

Ua Cairill, AB. Connaught, 71 

Ua Cillin, C. , Vice Abbot of Silmurray. 


Ua Cnaill, AB. Connaught, 71 
Ua Cormacain, Ab. Ara, 62 
Ua Dubhacan, Ab. Ara, 62 
Ua Duillennain, G. , Ab. Esdara, 362 
Ua Gallchubhair, O'Gallagher, M., 

Comarb of Skreen, 315 
Ua Maelfhaghamair, AB. Connaught. 


Ua Mailmidhe, C., 357 
Ua Morgair, M., Ab. Armagh, 74 
Ua Ruairc. 5O'Rourk 
Ui Amalgada, &c. See Hy A., &c. 
Ultan, B.,6 

son of Fintan, 144, 145 

U Ossin. See O hOisin 

Ufford, J. de, AD. Annaghdown and 
Tuam, 147, 150 

Sir R. de, Justiciary, 109, 149 

Usser, W. de, 299 

VAUGHAN, J., Warden of Galway, 


Vesey, AB. Tuam, 102, 157 
Vicars Choral, Achonry, 367 

Annaghdown, 82 

Tuam, 80, 89 

WATERFORD, B. of, 324 

Watford, T. de, 81 

Wells, A. de, 81 

Wilfrid, St., 127 

Wolfe, D., Legate, 98. 123, 366 

YMEARAN, D.. R., 296 




ABBERT, Monivea P., C.P., 299 
Abbeyknockmoy, Abbey C.P. See 

Acad Caoin, Acad Conaire. See 


Achadabair. See Aghagower 
Achadmor. See Aghamore 
Ached Fobuir. See Aghagower 
Achill Island, P., 89, 131 
Achonry, Di. , 74, 75, 78-80, 87, 88, 115, 

133, 152, 256 

Cathedral, 87, 88, 115, 133, 247, 

317, 355- 356 

C.P. , Abbey, 357, 360, 362, 366, 


Achud Fobuir. See Aghagower 

Adam's Well, 42 

Addergoole, Dunmore Bar., C.P. , 89 

Tirawley Bar., C.P. , 297, 317, 331 

Admekin, 144, 298 

Adrad, Ara, 136, 138 
Aelmagh, Ailmaige, 9, 29 
Aghagower, Abbey C. P., 23, 86, 89, 

99, 131, 132, 140, 170, 247 
Aghamore, C.P. , 9, 10, 21, 31, 82, 99, 


Aghanagh, C.P., 17, 29, 104, 163 
Aghclare, C. , 33 
Aglish, C.P. , 49, 131 
Ahamlish, P., 159, 255, 314 
Ahascragh, C.P. , 125 
Aidhne, 11 
Aigill, Aigleum, 23 
Ailech Airtech, Airtig, 34, 39, 40 

Mor, 32 

Ailich Esrachtae, 14 
Aillchoidhin, 306 
Ailmaige. See Aelmagh 

Air Uiscon . . ., Arduiscon, 14, 22, 49 
Airech. See Errew 
Airtech. See Artech 
Airtne Coeman, 33 
Alofind. See Elphin 
Alternan, Altfarannain, 315 
Alt in Cleib, 137 
America, 143 
Amhain O mBroin, 73 
Annagh, Carra Bar., Abbey, C.P. , 272, 

Costello Bar., C.P., 9, 82 

Enagh in Tirerrill Bar., C.P., 317, 


Ernaisc, C.P., 21, 265 

in Killaraght P. , C. , 33, 48, 179, 353 

Annaghdown, Di. , 75, 78, 83, 100, 109, 

122, 147, 149, 254 

Abbey, or College of St. Brendan, 

Cathedral, 63, 79, 80, 90, 93, 115, 

123, 142, 144, 147, 163, 168, 274 

Annaghdown, Abbey of St. Mary, 80, 
147, 156, 273, 280, 291, 384 

Abbey of the Little Cell, 386 

Bellhouse, 143 

Nunnery, 142, 143, 147 

P.C., 147, 254, 288 

Annaly, 76 

Ara, Adrad, 136, 138 

Ara, Aran, Isles, 92, 93, 159 

Aralanensis, Island, 6 

Ardachadh, Ardagh, 73 

Ardacong, 89 

Ardagh, Di., 73, 74, 99, 103, 311 

Tirawley, C.P., Preb. , 317, 330, 


Ardcarne, Di. , 70, 73, 74, 280, 282-5, 202 
Ardd Machae, Ardd Machi, Armagh, 

15, 17, 22 

Ardd Senlis, C., 19, 48 
Ardfert, 142 
Ardfintan, 144 
Ardilaun, 92, 159 
Ardlicce, C., 19 
Ardnaguire, Tl., 331 
Ardnarea, C.P., Castle, 38, 311, 318, 

322. 331 
Ardstraw, 29 

Arduiscon, Air Uiscon, 14, 22, 49 
Aries, 6 
Armagh, Abbey, Di., 15, 17, 22, 30, 31, 

33, 42, 56, 70, 73, 74, 75, 78, 80, 85, 

loo, 130, 139, 309 
Arran, Scotland, 62 
Artech, Arthicc, 9, 14 
Assylin, C.P., 21, 353, 356 
Athangaile Castle, 360 
Athan Termainn, 73, 383 
Ath Echtra, 37 
Ath Ein, C.P., Odeyn, Odun. See 

Athenry, C.P., Town, 83, 84, 89, in, 

121, 326 

College, 117, 154 

Deanery, 62, 82, 84, 383 

Dominican Friary, 112, 113, 115, 

"7, 155 

Athlethan, Ballylahan, 294, 360 
Athlone, 25, 104, 109, no, 121 
Athnetyg, (Athenry?), in 
Ath Truim, 33 

Attymas, C.P., 9, 317, 359, 361 
Attyrickard, C. , 164-166, 383 
Aughros, Abbey, C., 78, 164, 314, 365 
Auner', C. P. , 25 
Aurchuil, 25 
Avignon, 116, 154, 326 

BAC, 43, 321 

Baile Scrine O'Triallaigh, C., 311 



Balenigarray, Preb. , 85 

Balla, Abbey C.P. Preb., Round 

Tower, Well, 9, 80, 85, 88, 89, 131, 

136, 138, 140, 173, 249, 254, 321 
Ballaghaderreen, 40, 353 
Ball Aluinn. See Balla 
Ballina, 36, 37, 47 

Ballinakill, C.P., Ballynahinch Bar., 92 
Ballinamore Demesne, House, 23, 174 
Ballinchalla, C.P. Nunnery, 50, 84, 89, 

95, 164, 170, 261, 263, 264 
Ballindoon, C.P., 92 
Ballinrobe, Abbey C.P. , 50, 83, 85, HI, 

131, 168, 170, 176, 248, 259-261, 273 
Ballintubber, Abbey C.P., 10, 23, 81, 

103, 131, 140, 156, 168, 249, 256, 265, 

266, 272 

Ballybeg Abbey, 299 
Ballyconnell, 7 
Bally croy, 313 
Ballydrehid, 306 
Bally farnagh, 31 
Bally glass, 89 
Ballyhaunis, Abbey, Town, 22, 170, 

176, 304 
Ballyheane, C.P., 10, 23, 99, 131, 162, 


Ballylahan, Abbey, Castle, 294, 360 
Ballymacgibbon, 144, 281 
Ballymote, Abbey, Castle, 360 
Ballynacourty, C.P., 147, 155-157, 254 
Ballynahaglish, C.P. , 87, 317 
Ballynahinch, C.P., Bar., 10, 147, 155 
Ballynew, C. , 49 
Ballyovey, C.P., 10, 35, 89, 125, 131, 


Ballysadare, Easdara, Esdara, Abbey 
C.P. Preb. Strand, 28, 38, 47, 73, 
79, 80, 91, 137, 162, 163, 312, 314, 
317, 324, 353, 356, 357, 359, 360, 362, 
363, 367, 368 
Ballysakeery, C.P., 43, 87, 317, 318, 

322. 33i 

Ballyshannon, Esruaidh, 73 

Banada, Abbey, Castle, 360 

Tl., Kilcolman P., 21 

Bandea, 16 

Bangor, Co. Antrim, 135 

Wales, 45 

Barnasrahy, 306 

Barra, 142 

Bartragh, 28, 38, 41, 47 

Basilica, Baslec Mor, Baslick, Bassilica, 
C.P., 15, 19, 21, 31, 33 

Beacon, Began, Bekan, C.P., 9, 31, 
83, 265 

Belclare Galway. See Clare Galway 

Belclare Tuam, C.P., 10, 83, 89 

Bellabourke, 140 

Bella vary, 173 

Berechnagh.Berethnagh. SwBreaghwy 

Bertlach, Bertriga, Vertrige. See Bar- 

Bile Feichin. Billa, C.. 91, 356. 3<?7 
Bishop Rodan's Church. See Glas- 


Bithlan Well, 33 
Black River, the Duff. 29 
Blackwater, Galway and Mayo, 73 

Meath, 29 

Boffin. See Inisboffin 
Bohola, C.P., 175, 295, 361 
Bolomy (Ballyovey?), g.. 125 
Boyle, Abbey, Bar., Nunnery. River. 8. 

21, 285, 289, 362 
Boyounagh, C.P. , 10, 89 
Boulyfadrick, 38, 47 
Bracklaghboy Ogham, 176, 304 
Bratho River, 28 
Breaghwy, Carra, Berechnagh, Bcreth- 

nagh, C.P. , 25, 49, 131, 302 

Tireragh, 38 

Breastagh Ogham, 176, 303 

Bredagh, 43 

Brefne, 74, 76, 144 

Brendan's Church, Inisglora, 158 

Brergarad, Oran, 20 

Bristol, 107 

Britain, 4, 57, 64, 128, 135 

Brughcinnslebhe, Seafield, 306 

Buale Patraic. See Boulyfadrick 

Burgh in Suffolk, 144 

Burren, 73 

Burriscarra, Abbey, C.P., 131. 168. 

170, 271, 272, 386 
Burrishoole, Abbey, C.P., Bar.. 10, 83. 

86, 89, 131, 170, 271, 383 
Bute, 6a 

CAERTHANAN, Caerthin, 36 
Caher Island, 129, 159, 160 
Caille Conaill or C. Foclaid, 43, 45 
Caisel Irre, Cassel lire, Coolerra. 28. 


Calgach, 136 

Carbury, 7, 9, 306, 314, 317, 359 
Cargin, C.P., 90, 147, 254 
Carn, Tl. in Lacken P., 310 

of Ruadh, 314 

Carnekillaghy, 310 
Carnfree, 20, 33 
Carnyara, Tl. , 368 
Carnamalgada, Mullaghorne, 47 
Carra, Ceara, Cera. 4, 5, 8, 9. 29. 51. 

74, 80, 85, 131. 132, 134, 135. 138. 

139. 3 06 - 39. 359 
Cashel, Di., 73, 74, m. 115. *6 
Cashels of churches traced 
Caher Island, 159 
Drum in Carra, 161 
Illancolumbkill, 160, 161 
Inisglora, 159 
Inismurray, 159, 314 
| Inishrobe, 160, 161 
Kilmainebeg, 160 
Loona, 161 

2 C 



Cashels of churches traced (cont.) 

Mayo, 161, 247 

Moyne, Kilmaine, 160, 161 

Ross, 160, 161 

Cassel Irre. See Caisel Irre 
Casta Silva. See Kilcreevanty 
Castlebar, 271, 299 
Castleconor, C.P., 21, in, 318, 327, 

331- 366 

Castledermot, Parliament, 116, 324 
Castlegar, P., 156 
Castlehill, 36 
Castlekirke, 179 
Castlemore, Castle, C.P., 9, 40, 354, 

359, 360- 36i 
Castlereagh, 9, 48, 383 
Cavan, Co., Di., 7, 99 
Cayslanconcubir. See Castleconor 
Cell Adrochta, Atrachta, Killaraght, 33 

Alaid, 36 

Angle, 29 

Cella Senes, 22 
Cell Corcu-Roide, 39 

Cuair, Kilquire, 49 

Epscoip Rodan, Glaspatrick, 39 

of Fish, 22 

Foreland, Forgland, 35, 36, 45 

Gar ad, 33 

Medoin. See Kilmaine 

Mor Ochtair Muaide, 37, 38 

Olcain, 37 

Roe More, 38 

Senchuae, 29 

Senmeda, 22 

Cellola Media, 22 

Toch, Tog, 25, 29, 49 

Cenn Locho, 30, 31 

Cera. See Carra 

Charleville, or Rathcogan, 299 

Church Island, L. Carra, C., 134, 159, 

270, 278, 306 

L. Gill, C. 164 

Church of Shrine, L. Carra. See 

Church Island 

Tuam, 63, 264 

Cill Achaidh Duibh, 310 

Cillbile. See Kilkilvery 

Cuana, 146 

Da Camog. See Kildacommoge 

Easpuig Luidhigh, 355 

Forclaron, 28 

Greallain, 314, 316 

Innsi, Enniscrone, 316, 322 

Medhoin. See Kilmainemore 

Miodhna. See Kilmeena 

Mochellog, Kilmallock, 134 

na nAlither, Mayo, 129 

Tuama, 146 

Clad Cuirre, 136 
Claddagh, 89 
Clancarnan, P., 108 

Clancuan, C.P. Territory, 131, 132, 139 
Clanedin, Clanedre. See Islandeady 

Clanmorris, Bar., 9, 10, 22, 49, 85, 300, 

Clare, Bar., 10, u, 61 

Co., 7, 8, 142 

Claregalway, Abbey, C.P. , 112, 147, 

150, 154, 156, 157, 170, 171 
Clare Island, 160, 286 
Clebach, Cliabach, 18, 19, 33 
Cleggan, 92 
Clew Bay, 23 
Cliabach. See Clebach 
Clochar, Clogher, C., Di., 40, 100, 387 
Cloghmore, C. , 79 
Cloghpatrick, 140 
Clonard Abbey, College, Di. , 60, 74, 

273, 280 

Clonbern, C.P., 10, 89, 296 
Clonfert, Abbey, Di., 63, 71, 73, 75, 83, 

84, 89, ico, 115, 117, 143 

11. , Ballyheane P., 309 

Clonmacnoise, Clono, Abbey, Di. , 16, 

17, 25, 29, 32, 42, 75, 80, 82, 97, 158 
Clonshanville, Abbey C. , 31 
Cloonburren, 16 
Cloonclare, P., 29 
Clooncraff, P., 16 
Cloonenagh Abbey, 72, 91 
Cloonfush, C., 63, 142 
Cloonkeen, 31 
Cloonmore, C. Preb. , 85 
Cloonoghill, C.P. Preb., 309, 354, 360, 

367, 368 

Cloonpatrick, C., 140 
Clowneoghil. See Cloonoghill 
Cluain Cain in Achud . . ., 30, 31 

Ferta Brenainn. See Clonfert 


Findglais, 30, 32 

Cluain na Manach. See Kilnamanagh, 
Co. Roscommon 

Senmail. See Clonshanville 

Clynish, C., 86 

Cnoc na Maoile, 314, 315 

Cnokdromachalry. See Knock 

Coillte Luighne, 38, 363 

College of St. Brendan. See Annagh- 

Columcille's House, Kells, 166 

Conachail, Cunghill, 358 

Coney Island, 143 

Cong, Abbey, C. Di. P., 10, 49, 73-75, 
77, 79, 80, 84, 85, 91, 92, 98, 103, 
114, 147, 163, 247, 272, 283, 383, 386 

Connacht, Connaught, Kingdom, Pro- 
vince, 5, 7, 8, 12-14, 32, 39, 41, 52, 
54, 58, 66, 67, 73, 74, 76, 80, 91, 99, 
ico, 101, 103, 104, 114, 118, 119, 
121, 124-126, 135-139, 143-145. I S3. 
167, 171, 306, 325, 327, 359 

Connemara, 92, 129 

Coolavin, Bar. , 9, 353, 359, 360, 361 

Coolcarney, 8, 9, 39, 138, 139, 313 

Coolerra. See Caisel Irre 



Corann, Corran, 35 

Corcai ee, Bar. , 39 

Corcumroe, 60 

Cork, Abbey, City, 259, 260 

Corkagh, C., 255, 311 

Cormac's Chapel, 166 

Cornfield, 50 

Corradooey, 17 

Corran, Bar., 8, 359, 360 

Corrchluana, 97 

Costello, Bar., 9, 353, 356, 359, 360, 


Court Abbey, 176 
Craebh Grellain, Creeve, C.P., 3 
Croaghpatrick, 10, 23, 140 
Crochan. See Cruachan 
Croch Cuile, 20, 33, 48, 49, 383 
Croghan, 42 
Crosrechig, 272 

Cross, in Cong P., 49, 257, 263, 383 
Crossboyne, C.P. , 85, 89,131, 265 
Crossmolina, Abbey C.P. , 43, 303, 

317. 33i 
Cross Patraic, Crosspatrick, 35, 36 

Priory, 267, 271, 273 

Crot Cualachta, 136 

Cruachan of Ai, Croghan, 8, 18, 32, 66, 

Aigli, 23 

Cruach MacDara, Cruagh MacDara, 

93. 158, 159 

Crumther Monach's Church, 37 
Cuil Boidmail, 15 

Conalto, 40 

Conmaicne, 33 

Core, 22 

Dremne, Cooldrumman, 44 

Fabair, 10 

Gar, 31 

Toladh, Tolaidh, Tolat, 10, 22, 49 

Trasna, 31 

Culcuana, C., 323 

Cul Cernadan, Coolcarney, 39 
Cummer, C.P., 83 
Cunga Feichin. See Cong 
Cunghill, Conachail, 358 
Cuslough, C., 96, 169 

DKRRY, Di., 101 
Derrykinlough, 31 
Derry Lake, 31 
Derrymaclaghtna, C., 192 
Deruth Mar Cule Cais, 30, 383 
Dichuil, 25 

Disarte Breckan, Preb., 61 
Disertbebar, 295 
Disert Patraic, 35 
Doghcarne. See Doughorne 
Domnach Ailmaige, 29 

Mor Maige Tochair, 40 

Mor, Killala, 26, 36 

[Mor] Maige Selca, 33 

Mor Seola. See Donaghpatrick 

Donaghmore, Tawnaghmore, Killala. 

26, 27. 36, 46 
Donaghpatrick, 13, 17, 147, 151, 164. 

171, 298 

Donamona Castle, 177 
Doonfeeny, C.P., 43, 318, 331 

Longstone, 176 

Doughorne, Doghcarne, Preb., 285, 

292, 367, 368 

Downpatrick Head, C. , 28, 46 
Drinaghan, C. Preb., 87. 330 
Drobhaise, Drowse, 29 
Droiched Martra, Ballydrehid, 306 
Dromahaire, Bar. C., 9 
Dromard, C.P., 255, 314, 318 
Dromcallry. See Knock 
Drowse, 29 

Druggulragi, Dromcallry. See Knock 
Druimcetta, Drumket, 64, 314, 356 
Druim Lias, Drumlease, 29, 30 
Druimne. See Drummae 
Drum, C. , near Boyle, 354 

C.P., Co. Mayo, 50, 131, 140, 

161, 266 

C.P., Co. Roscommon, 83 

Drumat Ciarraigi Artig. See Drummad 
Drumcliff, C.P., 280, 282, 283, 285. 

291, 356 

Drumcolumb, 356 
Drumket. See Druimcetta 
Drumlease, Druim Lias, 4, 29, 30, 52 
Drummad, 14, 21, 34 
Drummae, Drummana, Druimne, 20, 

33- 34. 48. 35.3 

Drummut Cerrigi. See Drummad 
Drumnenaghan. See Drum, Co. Mayo 
Drumrat, C.P., 255, 357, 360 
Drynaghan, Drinaghan, C. Preb., 330 
Dubhdawla, Tl. , 89 
Dublin, Co., Di., Kingdom, 7, 69, 73. 

98, 109 

Duff River, 29 
Duleek, Di., 74 
Duma Graid, 16, 32 
Dumas, 17, 18 
Duma Selca, 20, 33, 42, 176 
Dumiche, 17 
Dunbriste, 46 
Dun Eogain, 306 
Dun Lugaid, 52 
Dunmore, Abbey, Bar., C.P.. 10, 83. 

89, no, 122, 125, 152 
Durlas Guaire, 311 
Durrow Abbey, 135 

EABHA, Evoi, 29 
Earl's Island, 114 
Easdara. See Ballysadare 
Easky, C.P., 9. 169, 314, ^315. 3* 8 
Easmaicn Eire, Assylin, C., 21 
Ecclasroog, C., Ballynahaglish. 357 
Ecclesia MagnaSaeoli. Donaghpatrick, 



Echenach. See Aghanagh 
Edermoda, Hy Diarmada, C.P. See 

Edmondstown, 21 
Elphin, C. Di. P., 17, 33, 70, 75, 100, 

103, 105, 117, 317, 359 
Emlagh, near Castlereagb, 31 
Emlaghfad, C.P. Preb., 79, 356, 360, 

367, 368 
Emly, Di., 126 

Enagh, C. Tirerrill. See Annagh 
Enaghbride, 100 
Enechdun. See Annaghdown 
England, 116, 120-122, 133, 163 
Enniscrone, 316, 322 
Eothuile, Strand of, 137. See Ballysa- 

Errew, Abbey, C., Preb., 87, 103, 167, 

247- 33. 34. 3i8, 330, 331 
Erris, 8, 12, 43, 80, 87, 312, 313, 320, 


Esdara. See Ballysadare 
Esruaidh, Ballyshannon, 73, 317 
Evoi, Eabha, 29 

FAES, 83 

Fahy, 89 

Fairymount, Sid Nento, 10, 19 

Faldown, Preb., 85, 86, 89 

Falmore C. See Kildarvila 

Faroe Islands, 142 

Farranyharpy, Farrinharpie, Preb., 330 

Feichin's Church, Ardilaun, 159 

Ferni, 30, 31 

Ferta of Loch Da Ela, 37 

of Tir Feic, 50 

Fertlothair, 306, 308, 309 
Fidard, Fidarta, Fuerty, 19, 33 
Findmag, Manulla, 24 

Ui Maine, 25 

Fisherhill, 302 
Flanders, 145 

Fochlad, Fochlith, Fochlithi, Fochloth, 
Fochluth, Foclad, Foclut, Wood of, 
Fochuill, Foghill, 4, 26, 27, 35, 37, 

Fochuill, Foghill, 26, 37, 45, 46 

Foimsen, Plain of, 22, 31, 49, 174 

Foirrgea, 28 

Ford of Sons of Heric, 21, 49 

of Two Birds, Snam Da En, 16 

Fore, Abbey, 92, 135 

Forrach Mace n Amalgodo, Farragh, 

28, 36, 42, 44-46 
France, 64, 145 
Frenchpark, Bar., 361 
Fuerty, Fidard, 19, 33 

GAEL Abbey, 135 

Gailenga, Gallon, Bar., 9, 294, 295, 

3i. 3S 6 > 357. 359. 36o. 361 
Gallerus C., 158 

Galloway, 60 

Galway, Abbeys, 119, 274, 294; Bar., 10 

Co., ii, 61, 63, 95, 143 

Corporation, 154-157 

Di. , 154, 156 

St. Nicholas, C.P., 147, 154-156 

Town, 115, 117, 119, 121, 146, 

148, 154 

Garad's Rampart. See Oran 
Gaul, i, 4, 5, 12, 54, 58 
Germany, 64 
Glaiss Conaig, 35 
Glaisslinn Chluana, 108 
Glascarrick, 67 
Glaspatrick, 39, 158 
Glastonbury, 45 
Glendalough Di. , 98 
Glen Nephin, 43, 321 
Glentraigue, Keel Lough of, 114 
Gleoir River, 30, 31 
Gloonpatrick, Bullaun, 173 
Gnobeg, or Moycullen P., 155 
Gorey, 67 
Gortacurra, C. , 84 
Grallagh, Tl., 22 
Grange C., Lackagh P., 192 
Gweeshadan, C., 140 
Gweestion River, 301 


Hecla, 142 

Hi. See lona 

Hill of Achill, or Aigill, 23 

of the Hy Ailello, 12 

Hollybrook, 31 
Hollymount, 22 
Hybernia, 6 


laskagh. See Easky 
Iceland, 142 
Illaunmore, 383 
Illauncolumbkille, 79 
Illaunnaglashy, 144, 164-166, 312 
Imbliuch Hornon, 16 
Imgoe Mair Cerrigi, 22, 383 
Imlafaghda. See Emlaghfad 
Imlech Ech, Emlagh Broc, 33, 50 
Imsruth Cule Cais, 30, 31 
Inchanguill, C., 20, 51, 71, 163, 261 
Inchiquin, 142-144 

Inis Bo Finde, in Atlantic, 93, 128, 129 
Inis Bo Finde, in L. Ree, 50, 93, 129 
Inisboffin, Inis Bo Find, 62, 79, 93, 

155. !59 

Iniscloran, 144, 165 
Inisglora, 79, 142, 158, 312 
Inishark, 93, 129, 159 
Inishdaff, 86 
Inishkea, 79, 159, 313 
Inishmaine, 8, 50, 280, 282, 284, 306, 

Inishowen, L. Mask, 8, 264 

Ulster, 29, 40 



Inishrobe, 79, 159, 169 

Inishturk, 79, 129, 159 

Inis Mic Neirin, L. Key, 256 

Inis Medoin, Inishmaine, 163, 167, 305 

Inis Muiredhaigh, Inismurray, 44, 54, 

146, 159, 178, 255, 314 
Inis Scrine, 306 

Inis Sgreobhuinn, Enniscrone, 316 
Innse Nisc, 8 
lona, 58, 127, 128 
Irae. See Caisel Irre 
Ireland, i, 3, 12, 51, 57, 58, 105, 120, 

122, 130, 249 

Irlochir, 22 

Irrosdomnann, Irrusdomnann, 8, 9 

Irruslannan, 92 

Islandeady, C.P. , 131, 169, 170 

Italy, 5, 50 

KEALEBEG, Preb. , 84 

Keallaricravyd, C.P., 265, 384 

Keelbanada, 21 

Kellakyr, 100 

Kellegaweyl , 100 

Kellmedoin. See Kilmaine 

Kellmidoni. See Kilmeena 

Kelmachamlyd, 384 

Keshcorran, 36, 73, 178 

Kevan Di. , Kilmore Di, , 99 

Kilanley. See Killanley 

Kilbeagh, C.P. Preb., 88, 295, 361, 367 

Kilbelfad, C.P. , 87, 309, 317 

Kilbennan, Abbey, C.P., RoundTower, 

!3, 3. S 2 . 78-80, 83, 89, 99, 100 
Kilbrenan, Clonbern P., 296 
Kilbride, C.P., 43, 318, 331 
Kilchowyre, Kilquire, C., 49 
Kilcolman, Clanmorris Bar., C.P., 31, 

ill, 131, 263 

Costello Bar., Castle C. P. , 9, 295, 

309. 359. 360- 3 6 i 
Kilcommon Erris, C.P., 318, 331 

Kilmaine Bar., 22, 258, 261 

Kilconduff, C.P., 361 
Kilconla, C.P., 83, 89 

Kilcoona, C.P., Round Tower, 143, 


Kilcorkey, 140, 174 
Kilcormac, C., Kilbelfad P., 309 

Killala P., 309 

Kilcreevanty Nunnery, 95, 114, 255, 

261, 263, 264, 272, 384, 386 
Kilcronan, 21, 31, 99 
Kilcummin, C.P., Moycullen Bar. , 147, 

155-157. 253- 2 54 
C.P., Tirawley Bar., 162, 310, 311, 

318, 331 

Kilcurnan, C. Preb., 85 
Kildacommoge, C.P., 131, 170, 175, 


Kildallog, C., 48, 104 
Kildarvila, C., 73, 161, 164, 312 
KilfenoraDi., 61, 75 

Kilfian, C.P. ,318, 322, 331 

Kilfrauchan, C!., 84, 159 

Kilfree, Kilfri, C.P. Preb., 88. 6i, 

Kilgarvan, in Gatlen Bar., C.P., 9, 255. 

317. 357. 359. 36* 

or Ardnarea, C., 318 

Kilgeevcr, C.P., 42, 89, 131 
Kilglass, C.P., 314, 318 
Kilgobban, 331 

Kilkeeran, Ballyovey, C., 85, 162 

Kilmainebeg, P., 383 

Kilkeevin, C.P., 19, 48, 284 
Kilkelly, C., 162 
Kilkenny, Tl. , 49, 302 
Kilkerrin,C.P., 10 
Kilkilvery, C.P., 146, 147, 299 
Kilkinure, C., 170 

Kill, Tl. See Killeenbrenan 
Killabeg, Preb. Killala, 330 

Preb. Tuam, 84-86, 89 

Killala, Abbey, Cathedral, Di., 73, 75, 
80, in, 115, 247, 310, 317, 318, 329 

C.P., 36, 43, 44. 46, 47, 303, 304. 

39. 318- 321. 322, 331 

Killaloe, Di., 75, in, 115 
Killanley, C.P. Preb., 87, 330, 331 
Killannin, C. P. , 79, 147, 156, 254 
Killaraght, C.P. Preb., 9, 20, 33, 48, 

82. 353- 354. 3 6 i. 367. 368. 388 
Killardbile, Kildamla, C., 73, 317 
Killarduff, C., 43, 308. 310 
Killarsa, C., 84, 144, 159, 162 
Killaspugbrone, C., 28, 163 
Killasser, C.P.,36i 

C. Preb., in Kilvarnet P., 368 

Killcananach, 159 
Killeany, C.P., 145, 147 

C. in Aran Isles, 60, 61 

Killecath, P.. 301 

Killedan, C.P. Preb. ,31, 163, 170, 173, 

295, 296, 301, 361, 367, 368 
Killeely, 142 

Killeen, near Ardnarea, 38 
in Knappaghmanagh, Tl., 177 

in Moorgagagh, TL, 172 

Killeenbrenan Abbey C.P., 172, 261 
Killeencormac, C., 309 
Killeennacrava, Killocrau.C., 176, 261, 


Killeennaskeagh , C., 176 
Killegar, C. . 178 
Killenda, C. . 159 
Killenna, C., 29 
Killererin, C.P., 301 
Killeries, 23 
Killerry, P.. 74 
Kill Finain, C., 270. 278, 306 
Killibenoyn, Kilbennan, C., 100 
Killibyn. Killibyr. 100 
Killimor, 84 
Killinamanach, 386 
Killocrau, Killeennacrava, 176, 261, 073 



Killogunra, C., 28, 46 

Killoran, C.P. Preb., 360, 367, 368 

Killosalvie. See Kilshalvy 

Killoscobe, C.P., 89 

Killosolan, R., 125 

Killower, C.P. , ICXD, 146, 147, 254 

Ballinchalla P., 50, 96 

Killuchanpie, Kilneharpie, Preb. See 


Killurley, in Arran, Preb., 61 
Killursa, C.P., 144, 146, 147 
Killybrone, C., 28, 35 
Kilmacallan, C., 366 
Kilmacduagh Di. , 8, 73, 75, 152 
Kilmaclasser, C.P., 86, 89, 131, 161, 

Kilmacn Eoguin, Kilmacowen, C.P., 


Kilmacshalgan , C.P., 255, 314, 318 
Kilmacteige, C.P., 360, 367, 368 
Kilmaine, Bar., 10 
Kilmainebeg, C.P., 22, 49, 89, 159, 

261, 383 
Kilmainemore, C.P. Preb., 49, 84, 89, 

94, 99, 108, 162, 170, 261, 262 
Kilmainham Priory, 275, 301 
Kilmalton Priory. See Aughros 
Kilmedon. .See Kilmainemore 
Kilmeen, C.P. Preb., 84, 89, 99 
Kilmeena, C.P., 24, 86, 89, 99, 100, 

131. 383 

Kilmien. See Kilmeen 
Kilmolara, C.P. , 169, 170, 261 
Kilmore, in Erris, C.P. , 318, 331 
Kilmoremoy, C.P., 37, 87, 258, 261- 

263, 312, 317, 318, 321, 331 

in Ross, P., 262 

C., Co. Roscommon, 16, 104, 356 

Di., 74, 99, 147 

Kilmorgan, Kilmoroghoe, Kilmur- 
rough, C.P. Preb., 360, 367 

Kilmovee, C.P. Preb., 295, 355, 361, 
367, 368 

Kilmoylan, C.P. Preb., 83, 84, 89, 155 

Kilmuduny. See Kilmeena 

Kilmullen, C., 22 

Kilnamanagh, Abbey C., 151, 170, 

Co. Roscommon, C.P. , 9, 32 

Co. Sligo, 357 

Kilquire, C., 49 
Kilroddan, C., 14, 21 

Kilroe, C. Preb., 28, 87, 309, 330 

Kilrowan, C., 155 

Kilshalvy, C.P. Preb., 360, 367, 368 

Kilshanvy, C., 22 

Kiltamagh, 22, 140 

Kiltorowe. See Kilturra 

Kiltullagh, Co. Roscommon, C.P., 22, 

3i- 83, 99 

Kilturra, C.P. Preb., 360, 367 
Kilvarnet, C.P. Preb., 301, 360, 367, 


Kilveane. See Kilmaine 

Kilvine, C.P., 131 

Kinaff, C. Preb., 88, 368 

Kingstown, Athenry, 326 

Kinlougb, C., Castle, 144, 155, 165, 

166, 168, 261 
Kinsale, 67 

Knappaghmanagh, C., Tl., 177, 384 
Knock, C.P. , 9, 10, 31, 83, 89, 359 
Knockatemple, 170 
Knockboha, 308 
Knockgraffon , R. , in 
Knockmoy, Abbey C.P., 81, 83, 148, 

154, 156, 168 
Knocknarea, 28, 306 
Kylleare, C., 265, 384 
Kyllmor, 100 

LACKAGH, C.P. Preb., 86, 89, 125, 147, 

154, 288 
Lacken Bay, C.P. Preb. , 26, 45, 87, 310, 

318, 330, 331 
Lagan, 43, 310 
Lagny, France, 145 
Lankill, C., Longstone, 140 
Leaba Feichin, 356 
League Graveyard, Ballina, 37 
Leaffony River, 139 
Lecc Balbeni, 38 
Lecc Finn, 37 
Leinster, 73, 94 
Leitrim Co., 7, 9, 322 
Lek, loo 
Le Nerny, 100 
Lenobyr, Nobber, ico 
Leth Chuinn, 66 
Lether, 40 

Letter MacPhilip, 40, 354 
Leyny, 9, 322, 354, 356, 359, 360 
Lia na Manach. See League 
Liffey, 7 

Limerick, Di. , 73 
Lindisfarne, 127-129 
Lisgoole, 60 
Liskeevy, C. P. , 89 
Lismacuan, C., 148, 156 
Lismore, Di. , Abbey, 126, 145 
Lisnacrus, Lis na Grus, 140, 174 
Lissonuffy, 94, 258 

Little Middle Cell. See Kilmainebeg 
Loch Cill Escrach, 175 

Cime, L. Hacket, 135 

Da Ela, L. Dalla, 37 

Gealgosa, 133 

na nAirneadh, L. Mannin, 9 

Selca, Selce, Shad Lough, 20, 33 

Techet, L. Gara, 33, 357 

Loigles, 25 

Longford Co., 7 
Loona, C., 140 
Loughadrine, 175 
Lough Allen, 363 

Arquilta, 74 



Lough Cahasy, 179 

Carra, 159, 162 

Con, 87, 135, 309, 312 

Corrib, 52, 93, 144, 145, 179, 


Dalla, 37 

Erne, 60 

Gara, 33, 353, 357 

Gill, 164 

Glynn, 21 

Hacket, 135 

Harrow, 175 

Keeraun, 175 

Key, 8 

Mannin, 9 

Mask, 8, 10, 50, 85, 143, 160, 254 

Narney, 9 

Ree, 50 

Shad, 20, 33 

Urlare, 133 

Louisburgh, 179 
Louth, 7 

Lung, River, Tl. , 40 
Luyne. See Loona 


Machaire Riabhach, 288 

Machaire Caoile, Magherakilly, Preb., 


Machare, 34, 48, 49 
Machi, 15 
Mag Ai, Aii. 15, 16 

Aine, 29 

Airthic, Airtig, 21, 34 

Breg, 15 

Caeri, 22 

Cairetha, 19, 48 

Cetni, 29 

Domnon, 26, 27 

Eabha, 29 

Eo, Mayo, 28 

Finn, 25, 27, 49 

Fiondalba, 24 

Foimsen, 22, 31, 49, 174 

Gamnach, 307 

Glais, 16 

Humail, 24 

Moethla, 136 

Nento, 19 

Raithin, 23 

Rein, 15 

Selce, 33 

Slecht, 15 

Tochuir, 29, 40 

Magherakilly, Machaire Caoile, Maigin 

Caoile, Maynkylle, Moynechilly, 

Preb., 84, 85, 86 
Maigen. See Moyne 
Maigen Caoile. See Magherakilly. 
Manorhamilton, 39 
Manulla. C.P., 24, 44, 131 
Marsh of Kellystown. See Murbhach 
Maynkylle. See Magherakilly 

Mayo, Abbey, C.P., 79, 80, 85, 103, 
129-134. 163. 178. 247. 3IS . 384, 385 

Co., 15. 25, 95. 108, 142, 147, 304 

Daimhhag, 129, 130 

Deanery, 82 

Deartheach, 130 

Di., 68, 75, 85, 91, 93. 98, 124, 

131, 151 

Meary, Medraige, 155 

Meath, Co., Di., Kingdom, 7, 12, 72, 

74. 76, 83, 122, 304, 323 
Meelick, C.P., RT., 249, 295, 321, 361 
Mellifont, 249, 285, 362 
Meycindfilead, 384 
Minevoriske, C., 366 
Mochrath, C., 48, 49 
Mon, 136 

Monasteredan, 309, 354 
Moneycrower, 176 
Monivea, Abbert, P., 299 
Moore, C. P., 83 
Mound of Garad, 19 
Mount of Cairn, 30 

Egli, 23, 26, 44 

of Hy Ailello, 16. 29 

Moy River, 27, 28. 34, 36. 38, 39, 47, 
J 37. J 39. 250, 262, 276, 307, 311, 
322, 328 

Moy Ai, Magh Ai, 8, 12 

Moycullen, Bar., C.P., 10, 147, 155-157 

Moydrisce, R., in 

Moygara Castle, 360 

Moygawnagh , M agGamnach , C. P. , 

37, 317- 33i 
Moyheleog, 9, 43 
Moylach, R., 323 
Moylough, C.P., 175 
Moylurg, 9, 25 
Moymelagh, Preb., 367, 368 
Moyne, Abbey, 327, 328 

C. , 161, 170 

Moynekilly. See Magherakilly 
Moy Rein, 15 

Moyrus, C. P. , 93 
Muad. See Moy 
Mucna's Well, 13, aa 
Muiresc Aigli, 23, 39 
Muirisca, Bar. Tireragh, 8, 28 

Bar. Carbury, 28 

Mullafarry, 28 
Mullaghorne, 35, 47 
Mullet, 312 
Mullingar Abbey, 323 
Mungret, C., 166 
Munster, 73, 134, 142, 306 
Murbhach of Rosbirn, 306 
Murgagagh, alias Kilbrenan, Killeen- 

brenan, Abbey, C.P., Tl., 172 
Murrisk, Abbey, Bar., 10, 22, 23, 39 

Bar. Tireragh, 8. 28 

NAIRNIU, 14, az 
Neimthin, Nephin, 73, 317 



Northumbria, Di., Kingdom, 69, 127 
Nuacongbail. See Oughaval 
Nunnery in Aghanagh P. , 17 

on Boyle River, 21 


Odba Ceara, Ballyovey, 85, 135, 137, 

139, 162 

Odeyn, Odun, Ballyheane, C.P. , 100 
Oen Adarc, 37, 46 
Oilen Etgair. See Illaunnaglashy 
Oingae River, 29 
Oiremh, Errew, 328 
Omey Island, 91, 92, 159, 357 
Oran, Orangarad, C. P., 20, 102 
Oranmore, C.P. , 147, 155, 157 
Ouelytrach. See Umall 
Oughaval, Abbey, C.P., 23, 79, 89, 99, 


Oughterard, 155 
Oxford, near Keltimagh, 173 

University, 123, 124 

PARTRY, 134, 139 
Patrick's Byre, 38 

Chair, 140 

Cross, 35, 36 

Hill, 49, 258 

Well, Annagh P. (Mucna's), 22 

Well, Crosspatrick, 36 

Well, Killaraght P., 20, 48, 


Well, Killedan P., 22, 23, 49, 140, 


Well, Tully, 174 

Penitentiary of Inishmaine, 95 

Peronne, 143, 145 

Pisa, 119 

Priory of St. John, Tuam, 77, 80, 81, 

83, 264-266 

RADMOY, Rathmagh, 144 
Rafwee, 146 
Rahan, 67, 145 
Rahopn, C.P., 155-157 
Raithin, Plain, 23, 306 
Raith Righbard, 28, 39 
Randown, Priory, 301 
Rathbuidh, Rafwee, 146 
Rathbrenan, 76 
Rathcogan, or Charleville, 299 

in Tirawley, 299 

Rath of Croghan, 8 
Rathen, Raithin, 23, 306 

Rathfran, Abbey, C.P. (Templemurry 

P.), 45, 176, 303, 304, 318 
Rathhindile, 147 
Rathmagh, Radmoy, 144 
Rathmichael, C. , 178 
Rathreagh, C.P., 43, 87, 318, 331 
Rath Rigbairt, 28, 39 
Rathrooeen, 36 
Rath Slecht, 15 

Red Hill of Skreen, 314 

Roba, C.P. See Ballinrobe 

Roba in Cera, C.P. , Ballinrobe, 168, 


Robe River, 8, 10, 131, 306 
Robeen, C.P., 131, 263, 271 
Rodhba. See Ballinrobe and Robe 


Roi Ruain, 36 
Rome, 12, 15, 109, in, 113, 119, 120, 


Ros Airgid , 308 
Rosbirn, 306 
Roscam, Roscaimm, C.P. , RT. , 146, 

Roscommon, Abbey, Co., Di. n, 15, 

25. 67- 75, 94, 322, 325, 383 
Ros Dairbrech, Balla, 135 

Dregnige, 28 

Mac Caitni, 28, 46 

Roslee, C.P. , 131, 139 
Rosnat Abbey, 45 
Rosredheadh, C., 306 

Ross, Bar., C.P., Ogham Stone, 10, 79. 
92, 143, 161, 176, 261 

C., Bar. Moycullen, 155 

Rossclogher, 9 

Rosserk, Abbey, C., 87, 170, 304 

Rosserkbeg, Preb. , 87, 330, 331 

Rosserrilly Abbey, 170 

Rossmuck and Lettermore, P., 156 

Ross Point, C., 28 

Round Towers. Annaghdown, 68, 


Aranmor, 61, 68 

Aghagower, 68, 140 

Balla, 68, 132, 174 

Kilbennan, 52, 68, 78 

Kilcoona, 145 

Killala, 68, 303, 318 

Meelick, 68 

Turlough, 68, 132, 139 

SAELE River, 29 

Saeoli, Great Church of. See Donagh- 

Sail Dea, 50 

Saints' C., Inchanguill, 163 
Scotland, 142 

Serin Adamnain. See Skreen 
Scurmore, 28, 38, 47 
Seafield, 306 
Selca, 20 

Sendomnach Maige Ai, 33 
Senella Cella Dumiche, 17 
Senes, Church, 21 
Sen Lis, 50 
Shad Lough, 20 
Shancough, C.P., 29, 32 
Shankill, C.P., 19, 33, 104 
Shannon, 7, 8, 10, 15, 16, 29, 41, 73, 

97. 143 
Shramore, 73, 317 



Shrule, C.P., Deanery, 49. 74, 80, 84, 
85, 91, 155-157. 160, 168, 171, 258, 
261, 263 

Sidhbadha, Sithbudha, 308, 310 

Sid Nenta, 10, 19 

Sin's Well, 24 

Sithbudha, Sidhbadha, 308, 310 

Skreen, C., Bar. Moycullen, 155 

C.P., Preb., Bar. Tireragh, 79, 

314, 315, 318, 323, 324, 330, 366, 


C., Tuam, 63, 264 

Slan Well, 24, 34, 42 
Slanpatrick, C.P. , 100 
Sliabh Alp, 12 

an larainn, 73 

Badhghna, 48, 258, 262 

Botha, 308, 310 

Lugha, 359, 360 

Maccn Ailello, 17 

Slicichae River, Sligo, 29 
Slieve Aughty, 73 

Baune, 48, 258, 262 

Carna, 30 

Daene, 74 

Sligo, Abbey, Castle, Co., Manor, 

Town, 7, 25, 29, 74, 296, 322, 360 
Snam Da En, 16 

Tire Feic, 50 

Spiddal, P., 156 

Srath an Ferainn, 73, 317 

Sruthair. See Shrule 

St. David's, 45 

St. John Baptist's Abbey, Tnam, 63 

St. John Evangelist's Abbey, Tuam, 


St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, 103 
St. Nicholas, C.P., 156, 157 
St. Peter's Abbey, Athlone, 83 
Strand of Ballysadare, 9, *8 
Stringill's Well, 23, 279 
Strokestown, 19, 104 
Struthir. See Shrule 
Suck River, 10, 20, 73 
Switzerland, 64 

TAGHBOY, P., 10 
Tagheen, C.P., 30, 31, 131 
Taghmaconnell, P., 25, 104 
Taghsaxon, C.P. Preb., 84, 89, 130, 

299, 383 

Taghtemple, Templehouse, 301 
Tamnach, Tamnuch. See Tawnagh 
Tara, 2, 13, 15, 34, 43. 44. *43 
Taulich Lapidum, 21 
Tawnagh, C.P., 17, 29, 48, 52 

TL, KillalaP., 46 

Teach Caoin. See Tagheen 
Techtemple, Templehouse Castle, 301 
Teffa, 5 
Telach inna nDruad, 35 

Liac, 40 

na Cloch, 34 

Telagh Enda, C.,6i 

Telle Abbey, 135 

Teltown, 15 

Temple Benen, 52, 159 

Templeboy, C.P., 290, 314. 315. 318 

Temple Eunan, 313 

Temple Gaile, C. Preb., 84, 383 

Templehouse, Castle, 301 

Templemore, Ballysadare, 255 

Strade, 295, 361 

Templemurry, Meelick P. (?), 295 

Rathfran P., C.P., 318, 331 

Temple na galliaghdoo, Errew, 258 
Kilbride P., 274 

Temple na Lickin, 170, 175, 359 
Templepatrick, 51 
Templeroaa. See Ballinrobe 
Temple Shane na Gawna, 140 

Som, or Temple na Lickin, 170, 


Templetogher, P. , 10, 89 
Templevally, 299 
Tempul an Machaire, 85, 170 

Benain, 52, 61, 159 

Ceannanach, 92 

Clogas, 144, 165 

Gerailt, 129 

larlaithe, 63 

na bhfiacal, 140 

na Lecca, 169, 170 

na Leicin, 170, 175 

na Scrine, Tuam, 63, 264 

Som, 170, 175 

Termon of Balla, 138 
Termonkeelan, 280, 284 
Thomond, 61, 76 
Tibohine, C.P., 9, 14 

Tirawley, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 13. 15, 25, 34, 
44, 47, 67, 80, 87, 139, 261, 262, 303, 

34. 39 3*3. 3i6 3. 3=i. y** 
Trrbriuin, 147 
Tir da Locha, 10 
Tir Endai Artech, 40 

Enna, 49, 85, 131 

Tireragh, 9, 38, 39, 47, 67, 80, 87, 138, 
139, 261, 311, 313, 314, 316, 317. 
319, 320, 322, 328, 363 

Tirerrill, 5, 8, 17, 73 

Tir Nechtain, C.P., 85, in, 13* 

Tobair Caoile, 85 

na Craoibe, 47 

Toberarneeve, 384 

Tober Birin, 315 

Tobernacreeva, 47 

Tober keelagh, 85 

Toberloona, C., Well, 50 

Tober na halthora, 42 

Togher Patrick, 161, 279 

Toomore, C.P., 9, 317, 339, 3$ 

Toomour, C.P., 139, 290, 355, 356, 

359- 36o, 384 

Touagbty, C. P., 131, 139, 266, 270, 

a D 



Traigh Authuile, 28. See Ballysadare 

Tralee, 145 
Truyn, 100 
Tuaim Da Gualann, Tuam 

Abbeys, 63, 71, 77, 79, 80, 81, 83, 

134, 249, 256, 264, 266, 297 
Cathedral, 63, 77, 98, 104, HI, 

123, 124, 133, 164, 386 
C.P., 52, 63, 89, 97-104 
Deanery, 82, 83, 89, 125, 383 
Di., 68, 70, 71, 73, 77, 78, 99, 100, 
ill, 115, 117, 122, 124, 131, 147, 

152, 157. 363. 384 
Province, 73, 75, 78, 83, 99, 101, 

103, 107, 109 
Town or Place, 104, no, 123, 124, 


Tuamany, C., 48 
Tuath Mac Walter, 296 

Truimm, 100 

Tubbercurry, 368 
Tulacha Chadaich, 307 
Tulach Liacc, 40 

na Cloch, 21 

Segra, 356 

Tullaghan Ogham, 176 

Tullaghanrock, 21 

Tulsk, 20 

Turlacha, Turlough, C.P., 24, 85, 99, 

zoo, 131, 139, 384 
Two Birds' Ford, 16 
Two Cairns, 30 
Tyrnachtin. See Tir Nechtain 
Tyrnene, 383 
Tyrrhene Sea, 5, 36, 45 

UARAN Garad, 33 
Ucha, Ocha, 2, 6 
Ullard, C. , 166 

Ulster, 7, 29, 39, 44, 152 

Uluidh, 311 

Umall, 8, 10, 23, 74, 85, 86, 129, 131, 


Unshin River, 47 
Urcoillte, 73, 74 
Urlare Abbey, 170 
Ushnagh, 15, 32 

VERTRIGE. See Bartragh 
Vivariensis, 295 

WALES, 43, 45, 142 
Waterford, Di., 73, 126 
Wells, Adam's. See Slan 

Balla, 136, 138 

Bithlan, 33 

Calf of Cities, or Loigles, 25 

Clebach, 18 

Cross Patrick, 36 

Elphin, 17 

Findmag, 24 

Mucna, 13, 22 

Oen Adarc, 37 

Patrick's. See Patrick's Wells 

Shankill, Clebach, 18, 19 

Sin's, 24 

Slan, 24, 173 

St. Araght's, 178 

Stringill's, 23, 279 

Welshpool, 50 

West Meath, 7, 39, 72, 100 

Whitby, 58 

White Plain of Hy Maine, 25 

Whitherne, 60 

Wizard's Hill, 35 

Wood of Fochlad. See Fochlad 

Ynis Meain, 384 


Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & Co. 
Edinburgh 6* London 





iern P.C. T 
dan House. 
The ancient 

be marked 



Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 


OCT 26 1965 

Form L9-Series 444