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AR DEPARTMENT, - - ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE 

(MILITARY INFORMATION DIVISION.) 



No. XXXVIII. 



Major General HENRY C. CORBIN, 

ADJUTANT GENERAL, U. 3. ARMY. 

Lieut. Colonel W. A. SIMPSON, A. A. G., 

IN CHARGE OF DIVISION. 



\ T 0TES OP MILITARY INTEREST 

FOR 1902. 



COMPILED AND ARRANGED BY 

Major E. A. EDWARDS, 23d Infantry ; 

Captain J. S. HERRON, 2d Cavalry; 

First Lieut. H. B. FERGUSON, Corps op Engineers; 

AND 

First Lieut. R. S. CLARK, 9th Infantry. 



JANUARY, 1903. 



WASHINGTON : 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1903. 



WAR DEPARTMENT, 

Adjutant Gkmkbal's Omci, 

ItaCMMtat Mo. 1M- 

M. I. D. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



P»ge. 

I —Budgets 5 

II —Field Artillery 47 

III.— Small Arms. 95 

IV — Explosives 115 

V —Commissions, Promotions, and Retirements of Officers. 189 

VI.— Miscellaneous Notes 155 

VIL— Maneuvers 293 

Index 467 

(3) 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 



I.-BUDGETS. 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

Military budget for 1903 compared with 1902. 

[Reported by Capt. Floyd W. Harris, Fourth Cavalry, United Stater Military Attach £ at 

Vienna.] 



Branch of the service. 



ORDINARY EXPENDITURES. 



Central administration 

Territorial and local headquarters and < 
in local positions... 



In tendance and auditing department 

Religious service 

Administration of military justice 

Superior headquarters and staffs 

Pay and allowances of troops : 

Infantry 33, 

Rifles 3, 

Cavalry 9, 

Field artillery 

Fortress artillery 1, 

Pioneers 2, 

Radlway and telegraph regi- 



798,644 
630,649 
685,814 
082, 620 
766,940 
148,676 

429,146 
391,835 



Train 1, 

Other expenditures on troops, 
such as schools, transporta- 
tion, recruiting, etc 8, 347, 082 



Crown*.* 
1,044,919 

3,434,924 

2,660,163 

481,360 

797,063 

4,936,614 



Increase. Decrease. 



Military educational institutions 

Military technical board 

Subsistence stores 

Bedding stores J 

Establishments of the clothing administration ._ 

Technical artillery (ordnance department) ] 

Depots of train material 

Depots of pioneer material I 

Bureaus of military construction 

Military geographical institute 

Medical department 

Pensions 

Military prisons _ 



Miscellaneous expenditures 

Subsistence in kind I 

Rationing of troops (all articles of rations cooked 

by the troops themselves) ; 

Clothing and bedding — 

Quarters 

Remounts .. 



Bounties and increased pay for reenlistment of 
noncommissioned officers— __—-_-_ .—— 



Total. 



69,180,306 

3,844,209 

202,436 

1,321,539 

94,910 

382, 424 

9,915,160 

202, 913 

284, 961 

9,392,320 

426,426 

8,747,471 

26,002,646 

204,340 

1,059,429 

39,465,363 

41,757,493 

19,391,737 

90,847,853 

6,704,474 



OOICTM.* 

1,004,919 

3,420,240 

2,560,035 

480,345 

792,894 

4,935,470 



68,016,046 

3,830,380 

202,436 

1,321,539 

94,910 

382,424 

9,551,043 

197, 899 

327,899 

9,366,947 

426,426 

8,742,852 

25,002,646 

204,340 

1,053,429 

38,637,406 

39,701,666 

19,126,423 

30,009,373 

6,495,466 



6,720,000 5,620,000 



Crowu9.* 

•40,000 

14,684 

128 

1,015 

4,169 

144 



6,000 
827,947 

2,066,837 
266,314 
838,480 
209,018 

200,000 



287,402,483 |281,404,433 j 5,998,000 
(5) 



1,164,260 
13,829 


















364,117 




5,014 






42, 948 


25,373 






4,619 













NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 



Military budget far 1903 compared with 1902 — Continued. 



Branch of the service. 


1903. • 


1902. 


Increase. 


Decree hi'. 


EXTBA0BD1NABY EXPKKDtTTBBt. 

Replenishment of war stores 

Buildings, quarters, and drill grounds 

Temporary extraordinary demands . 

Extraordinary expenditures for carrying out 
changes in organization — — — 


7,022,000 
7,648,768 
4,714,496 

439,162 


7,660,060 
7,649,400 
4,666,666 

264,088 




628,060 


99,368 
168,941 

176,064 


Total. _ 


19,824,406 


20,019,103 





194 697 






HEADQUARTERS, TBOOFS, AND ESTABLISHMENTS 
07 THE OCCUPIED TEEEITOBT (BOSNIA AND 
HERZEGOVINA). 

Pay and subsistence of troops, purchase of 
horses, armament, train, engineering and 
construction, equipment, medical serrice, etc.. 


7,894,000 


7,447,000 


447,000 









•One crown equals $0,203. 



Comparative table of the budgetary strength for 1903 and 1902. 



Branch of the serrice. 



Officers. 



Enlisted 



1902. 



Ofncers. 



Enlisted 



Central administration (ministry of war, etc.) 

Territorial and local headquarters and officers in local posi- 
tions 

Intendance and auditing department 

Religious service 

Administration of military justice 

Superior headquarters and staffs 

Infantry : 

1 company bodyguard 

102 regiments of the line 

Rifles, 42 battalions 

Cavalry : 

1 squadron bodyguard 

42 regiments (16 dragoon, 16 hussar, 11 uhlan) 

Artillery : 

66 regiments field artillery, 42 field howitzer batteries, 
16 batteries horse artillery, and 3 batteries mountain 

artillery .. 

6 regiments and 3 battalions of fortress artillery 

Pioneers, 16 battalions 

Railway and telegraph regiment, 3 battalions 

Train, 91 squadrons 

Officers and men permanently detached and not available 

for duty with troops 

One-year volunteer surgeons, and veterinarians 

Firing schools, aeronautic establishments, remount depots, 
etc 



Military educational institutions * 

Military technical board 

Subsistence stores 

Bedding stores 

Establishments of the clothing administration _ 

Technical artillery (ordnance department) 

Depots of train material 

Depots of pioneer material 

Bureaus of military construction— 

Military geographical institute 

Medical department 

Administration of soldiers' homes 

Military prisons 

Miscellaneous (military attaches) 



201 81 

992 I 1,064 

840 

160 



871 



147 
292 
849 



4 I 129 

8,816 161,009 
974 16,491 



4 

1,764 



1,825 I 
398 
480 



372 



44 

141 

18 
399 

15 
110 
292 



172 
1,431 



132 
46,726 



30,198 
7,762 
8,430 
1,487 
3,471 

687 
45 

349 

2,728 

120 

1,007 

88 

495 

1,414 

86 

162 

369 

122 

4,169 

24 

30 



Total active list ' 21,670 , 289,133 



Inmates of soldiers' homes 749 

Pupils of military schools (boys) 6,226 



201 

980 
840 
149 
206 
871 

4 

8,816 

974 

4 

1,764 



480 
86 
426 

372 



44 

138 

18 

399 

16 

110 

288 

9 

14 

399 

172 

1,430 

7 

95 

8 



61 
1,062 



146 
2» 

849 

129 

161,009 

16,491 

132 
46,726 



25,502 
7,762 
8,430 
1,487 
3,390 

687 
46 

349 

2,609 

120 

1,007 

88 

495 

1,396 

86 

170 

345 

122 

4,141 

24 

30 



21,306 



284,168 



749 
♦6,406 



* Includes 260 girls. 



BUDGETS. 
Composition of the general staff. 



General .--.--—.— . _. 

Lieutenant generals 

Major general*..—. 

Colonels 

Lieutenant colonels. . 

Majors 

Captains 

Officers attached to the general staff — 

Officers detailed from the active army and the retired list (2 majors and 30 

captains) 

Accountants and registry officials 

Enlisted men, including 8 anneediener 



1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


33 


33 


60 


50 


63 


63 


164 


164 


157 


157 


32 


32 


2 


2 


643 


643 



Budgetary strength of the general staff for 190S, after deducting the num- 
ber of officers and men provided for under other sections of the budget, 
and actual strength of the general staff, according to the army register 
for 1903. 




Army 
register. 



Lieutenant generals 

Major generals 

Colonels - 

Lieutenant colonels 

Majors 

Captains 

Officers attached to the general staff 

Officers detailed from the active asmy and the retired liat__ 

Accountants and clerks 

Enlisted men, including 8 anneediener 



3 
45 
56 
86 
283 
209 
30 



BELGIUM. 

Military budget. 



Branch of the service. 



ORDINARY BXPEXMTt'RES. 



Central administration 

Pay and allowances 

Hospitals and dispensaries 

Institutions of higher instruction 

Ordnance department 

Engineer material 

Bread, meat, forage, and other allowances. 

Various money allowances and fees 

Pensions and relief 

t'Dforeaeen expenses - 



EXTRAORDINARY EXPENDITURE*. 



Various ftervices . 
Total 



Amounts asked 
! for 1903. 



fYtlHCt* 

692,415.00 

24,840,410.64 

910,335.00 

240,075.00 

2,148,444.05 

1,585,000.00 

18,610,032.35 

427,754.68 

392,000.00 

68,949.00 



5,339,000.00 



Amounts appro- 
priated for 1902. 



55,254,415.72 



Frftne** 

530,600.00 

24,569,380.64 

910,335.00 

214,975.00 

1,889,944.05 

1,685,000.00 

18,602,332.35 

427,754.68 

407,100.00 

67,949.00 



7,067,666.25 



56,273,036.97 



•One franc equals $0,193. 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 



Effective strength. 



Arm of the service. 



Officers. 



,! 



Me* 



General staff 

Staff of provinces and towns 

Intendancy 

Medical officers at hospitals.. 

Infantry (19 regiments) 

Cavalry (8 regiments) . 

, Artillery (8 regiments, 4 special companies) 

.Engineers (1 regiment, 1 battalion, 5 special companies) . 
Administrative battalion 



Total. 



1 39 








1 96 






1,921 




-27. 7*> 


370 




5,7:. 


633 




K, *.*- 


' 152 




i.7»<; 


78 




'.«**.:* 


3,406 




44.1"* 



Composition of the general staff. 

Active section : 

Lieutenant generals '. •. '•' 

Major generals «. •. ' 1" 

liescrve section : 

Lieutenant generals 2 

Major generals s.: 4 

Staff corps : 

Colonels •> 

Lieutenant colonels 5 

Majors 1" 

First captains 1*" 

Second captuiu* It' 

Total.. _ __ _ 7!' 

BRAZIL. 



Military budget for 190.1. 

General administration f4i»,<i7*' 

Supreme military court • 35, fWt' 

General accounting department 59,58* 

Superintendence department 71.SV1 

Military instruction 250, 224 

Arsenals, supply depots, and forts 281,054 

Machine shops.' _ 87, 71* 

Hospital service , 83,77."» 

Pav 3,682,603 

Provisions-ami forage 3,948,763 

Inactive classes 500,342 

Extras 50, ooo 

Military colonies. 24, 477 

Construction - 062,9*? 

Material..-.,. - 2,053,474 

Total _ 11,1(92,359 



BUDGETS. 
Strength of the army on March U, 1902. 



14 reftiments of cavalry and transport corps : 

Nominal strength _. 

Effective strength . . 

6 regiments field artillery: 

Nominal strength 

Effective strength >. 

6 battalions heavy artillery : 

Nominal strength ,__, 

Effective strength 

Artillery, total effective 

6 battalions engineers : 

Nominal strength 

Effective strength 1 

40 battalions infantry : 

Nominal strength 

Effective strength __,_. 



Total nominal strength _ 
Total effective strength. 



Officer*. 



Noncom- 
missioned 
officers . 
and men. 



304 

606 


5,948 
2,866 


150 
J50 


2,412 
1,250 


126 
131 
344 


1,974 
1,247 
2,497 


36 

36 


826 
751 


840 
1,368 


17,000 
h,591 


2,015 
2, 906 


28,160 
14,705 



FRANCE. 

. . MILITARY BUDGET .FOR 1002. 

[Reported by Capt. T. Bextley Mott, Artillery Corps, United States Military Attach & 

at Paris.] 

The law of March 30, 1902, fixed the ordinary expenditures 
at 6437,577,850 francs, as against 632,400,171 francs appro- 
priated in 1901, and the extraordinary expenditures at 
49,122,150 francs,, as against 60,708,150 appropriated in 1901. 
The total amount of both expenditures is therefore 7 16, 700,000 
francs in 1902 as against 693,108,321 francs appropriated in 
1901. The net increase in the amount appropriated in 1902 
over the amount appropriated in 1901 is thus 23,591,679 
francs. 

This apparent increase demands some explanation. The war 
department budget for 1902 is the first to contain provision 
for the support of the "colonial troops," which provision 
amounts to a total of 26,329,000 francs, and more than 
balances the increase shown by the 1902 budget over that of 
1901. Up to 1902 these troops were provided for in the naval 
budget under the title "artillerie de la marine" and "infan- 
terie de la marine." A law passed in July, 1900, transferred 
these organizations to the control of the war department, 
and changed their designation to "colonial infantry" and 
u colonial artillery," but no provision was made for them in 
the war department estimates until 1902. 



10 JNOTKS OW JOUXABT 

These estimates are for the support of only those colonial 
troops stationed in France; their effective is 1,615 officers, 
25,729 men, 1,558 horses, and the amount asked for this sup- 
port in 1902 was 26,329,000 francs. 

Those "colonial" troops properly speaking, as well as any 
other troops that may be stationed in French colonies (except 
Algeria and Tunis), are supported out of appropriations 
carried in the budget for the colonies. 

The budget of the minister of the colonies contains items 
for military purposes amounting to about 100,000,000 francs 
a year, and it supports an army of 1,750 officers and 54,600 
enlisted men. Some of these are colonial troops, strictly 
speaking, and some are local and native regiments. There 
are only 39 native officers in these organizations, but more 
than half the men are natives. 

By far the greater part of the colonial troops are stationed 
in France. The coast batteries are largely manned by the 
"colonial artillery," and the ''colonial infantry" (formerly 
called "marine infantry") is generally stationed near the 
great seaports, though a brigade has recently been sent up to 
Paris. 

Also, the naval budget supports 238 officers and 858 men of 
the colonial artillery detailed to the naval service (actually 
for naval ordnance work). 

In estimating the cost of an army to France, then, the 
rough sum of 100,000,000 francs should be added to the figures 
of the war department budget, since that sum is borne by the 
budgets of the colonies and of the navy as above explained. 

The regular army of France, raised by conscription, is not 
liable in time of peace to service outside of France; the 
colonial troops are recruited by voluntary enlistment and 
are liable to service in any part of the world. 

In the figures which follow, the various expenses of the 
colonial troops stationed in France are included in the items 
under the heading "Home;" the expenses of the troops 
stationed in the colonies, other than Algeria and Tunis, are 
not included in the tables, as they are not a part of the war 
department budget ; as stated above, they amount annually 
to about 100,000,000 francs. 

The effective strength given includes the colonial troops. 



BTJDGKT8. 
Ordinary expenditures. 



11 



Home. 



Algeria. 



Tunis. 



Total. 



Salary of war minister and staff of the army 

Personnel of central administration 

Expenses for material of central administration. 
Printing. 



Geographical service 

General staff (archives, library, and historical 

museum) 

Military telegraphy 

Department of military railroads (material) 

General staff and staff service 

Various departments and special staffs (person- 
nel of controle service, intendance depart- 
ment, and artillery and engineer staffs) 

Military schools (personnel) 

Military schools (material) 

Personnel hors cadre and not classed in troop 

units 

Pay of infantry 

Pay of administrative troops T 

Psy of cavalry 

Pay of artillery 

Pay of engineers 

Pay of train _ 

Departmental gendarmerie 

Republican guard 

Provisions 

Meat (fresh, canned, and salted) 

Forage 

Medical service 

Department of military convoys 

Travel allowance and special journeys 

Clothing and camping equipage 

Military bedding 

Special transportation 

Military operations in the extreme south of 

Algeria 

Recruiting 

Reserve and territorial army 

Military justice and prisons 

Workhouses and military penitentiaries 

General remount service 

Census of horses and mules 

Horse equipment 

Artillery establishments (personnel, general ex- 
penses, transportation) 

Artillery establishments (purchase and manu- 
facture of material and ammunition) 

Government explosive factories 

Engineer establishments 

Fuel and light 

Disabled soldiers 

Unemployed and reduced pay, 

Relief and bounties 

8pecial allowances 

Secret expenditures __ _ ■ 

Pay of general officers and assimilated persona 

of the reserve cadre 

Tunis gendarmerie j 



Franc*. 
775,840 

3,223,040 
310,380 
588,652 

1,260,528 

181,300 

407,915 

125,500 

10,819,494 



14,538,701 
9,330,231 
3,264,420 

8, Me, 603 
114,891,093 

3,441,304 
24 35 
30,^1,1-17 

4,4*8,772 

3 83 
33 46 

4, 7 m. 124 
37 82 
52 VII 49 
67 : 80 

7,K«,538 

1 '50 

11,150,903 

50 79 

10,646,788 

- 50 



395,248 

172,860 

596,746 

413,000 

15,043,230 

88,500 

4,372,923 

10,208,685 

20,636,245 

6,247,040 

14,663,498 

269, *04 

309,575 

1,007,892 

6,602,300 

660, 000 

530, 000 

3,571,516 



158,715 



11,000 

900 

692,581 



1,175,542 



2,684,246 

11,540,240 

810, 720 

4,328,837 
617,467 
291,644 
512,594 



4,129,089 
4,562,264 
5,346,455 
1,319,248 
1,182,500 

967,580 
4,517,652 
1,004,874 

333,200 

3,500,000 

5,412 

5,520 

82,115 

505,595 

1,152,210 

6,000 

311,721 

364,150 



2,264,480 
10,900 



17,162 



2,500 

100 

196,501 



401,101 



620,246 
3,287,369 
120,379 
750,259 
451,583 
97,777 
177, 984 



1,616,661 
1,619,286 
279,467 
303,500 
152,300 
1,474,961 
309,469 
151,000 



1,270 

8,700 

64,065 

292,010 



96,905 



090, 620 
800 



Franc*. 
775,840 

3,223,040 
310,380 
588,652 

1,436,395 

181,300 

421,415 

126,500 

11,708,576 



16,115,344 
9,330,231 
3,264,420 

12,269,094 
129,051,702 

4,373,403 
29,778,431 
32,010,967 

4,936,193 

3,738,261 
33,580,646 

4,743,124 
43,088,893 
58,995,874 
74,833,321 

9,498,253 

3,255,650 
12,279,783 
56,046,892 
11,961,131 

1,215,060 

3,500,000 
400,660 
179,650 
687,660 
982,660 
16,487,450 
93,500 
4,780,549 

10,651,870 

20,636,245 

5,247,640 

17,608,598 

281,504 

309,575 

1,007,892 

6, 602, 360 

660,000 

530,000 

3,571,515 
330,861 



Totals .598,201,617 64,374,461 I 15,001,782 



Extraordinary expenditures. 



Frauc*. 

Siege train ___ 500,000 

Powder magazines 40,000 

Field equipment _ 300,000 

Armament cf garrisons _ 538,000 

Armament tf coasts. __ _ 6,252,360 

Small arms _ 1,589,800 

Ammunition — 800,000 

Experiment* (artillery) 400,000 

Building and machinery (artillery) 1,200,000 

Defense of Cherbourg 700,000 

Barracks _ __ 4,300,000 

Drill and firing grounds, etc 6,000,u< 



u 



NOTES OF MIUTAKY INTEREST FOR 1902. 



Extraordinary expenditures — Continued. 

fVtIlr-«. 

Construction of strategic roads K">. •■» 

Improvements in isolated forts (va'.'"' 

Military telegraphy and ballooning 3>V\ ■.•■• 

Fortifications, land defense 5,tM*."»' 

Fortifications, coast defense i. 8, *■'.•»■ 

Engineers' stores »■►,«■•' 

Reserve engineers So.Om- 

Establishment!! (in tendance) _. 4**>. '»« 

Establishments (medical) _ jW •,•••> 

Reorganisation of the defen«j of Bizerte „ 5, *•«). t«' 

Subsistence 70, i««' 

642. •■■» 

ion. ii» 

3o*».'»« 

1,U&M.<'" 

Geographical service 110. f«« 

Improvements in armament (law of February 17, I'jOI) 9,00t»,iM' 



Clothing __ 
Medical service . 



Improvements in civil hospital* in the departiuents- 
Kailroads. 



49, 122. 1> 



The effective strength which served as a basis for the 
budget for 1002 differs as follows from that of 1901 : 



. 


Active 


army. 


Gendarmerie. 




Officers. 


Men. 


Officers. ' 


Men. 


1901 


28,941 
28,712 


540,771 
n28,991 


711 ' 

712 1 


23.1*56 


lMtt _ „ 


24.011 












1 1 


15 


Decrease 


229 


11,780 








To these must be added for 1902 the colonial troop*, as 
follows 


1,«15 


25, 720 






i 





The following tables show the distribution of staff, mili- 
tary schools, arms of the service, etc. : 

Staff. 



Generals of division 

Generals of brigade 

Officers of the general staff service 

Archivist* 

Officers of the c. nitride service 

Intendance officer* 

Special artillery «taff ...... 

Special engineer stuff (office in, adjoint.*, 
etc.) 



e 

£ 


it 1 

'A 


114 




216 




807 




1«3 




52 




208 




056 


472 


848 


280 ; 



I 

Algeria and Tunis. [ 



Total. 



| 2 i 

si i 



114| 
216 



268 
1,428 ' 



47 

85 i 



1,128 147 



16 ._ 

17 _. 



47 

47 | 132 

71 I 218 



120 
232 
870 
180 
62 
315 
1,041 J 

996 I 



"8 
S 

SE- 
ES 
EE 

8 C 



120 
232 
870 
ISO 
62 
315 
1,560 

1,346 



Reserve cadre. 

Generals of division 151 

Generals of brigade 234 

Cuntruleurs general 13 

Military intendants 40 

Inflecting phytdcinm mid phnr::im\-t- . 18 



BUDGETS. 



13 



Personnel hors cadres or not classed in troop units. 



Braxtoh-oCservice. 



Home. 



Algeria -and Tunis. 



t 

a 
o 

Je- 
ss 

8° 



Je 
ee 



Total. 



•I =' 



P£UONXEL HOBS CADRES. 



Recruiting service 

Penitentiaries and prisons 

Kative affairs 



176 ; 

5 



176 
6 



2 
74 



178 
19 
74 



Total personnel hore cadres _ 



181 



_| 271 



PEMOXML MOT CLASSED IN TROOP 
VSIT8. 

Medical personnel : 

Surgeons 

Pharmacists 

Administrative officers of the medi- 
cal service 



324 ! 

75 



324 

75 



228 



Total medical personnel. 
Administrative personnel — „.. 

Veterinarians 

Military interpreters 



Total personnel not classed in 
troop units 



627 

898 , 



627 

250 1,148 ! 



1,564 250 1,814 



153 

39 

122 

314 

191 i 223 

1 ' 

61 



153 
39 



477 
114 



567 | 223 



314 


941 




941 


414 


1,089 


473 


1,562 


1 


39 




39 


Ul 


62 




62 


790 


2,131 | 


473 


2, 604 



Total of the personnel outside of I i 

the staffs, schools, and troop | 

units 1,745 



250 1,995 I 657 




2, h75 



Military schools. 



Nairn* of school. 



I . 



Noncom- 
missioned 
officers, 
corporals, 
and men. 



I 



Total. 



Prytanee militaire (preparatory school for sons of officers without 

means) 

Polytechnic school 

Special military school (St. Cyr) 

School of application for artillery and engineers 

Superior war school 

School of application for cavalry 

School of application of medicine and military pharmacy 

School of administration 

Normal school of gymnastics 

Normal school of musketry 

Schools of application for infantry fire 

Infantry school 

Artillery and engineer school 

Preparatory schools of infantry 

Preparatory school of cavalry... 

Preparatory school of artilleiy and engineers 

Heriot orphan asylum * 

Medical school — _ 



Total. 



46 

38 

•1,228 

40 

291 

274 

27 

59 

142 

79 

96 

340 

167 

240 

67 

60 

40 

48 



54 
38 
1,285 
193 
390 
333 
42 
59 
142 
79 
96 
340 
167 
240 
67 
60 
40 
48 



3,673 



* This includes students (cadets) , to tho number of 960. 
«* if,TE -~ This table is as it is given in the budget. In cases in which no officers are given, the 
ufltctni *re probably included in regimental strength. 



14 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 



s 

9 



3 




BUDGETS. 



15 







16 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 



GEBHAOTr. 



Military budget far 1903 compared with the amounts appropriated for 190J. 



[Reported by Capt. William 8. Biddlb, Fourteenth Infantry, United Statu 

Attache at Berlin. 



LI E.ITA fc r 



Branch of service. 



Current expenditure* : 

War ministry 

Military cheat* 

Supply department 

Military chaplains 

Administration of military justice 

Imperial military court 

Higher troop commanders 

Governors of fortified places, garrison com- 
manders, and their aids 

Aids-de-camp and officers in special positions- 
General staffs and national surveys 

Engineers and pioneers 

Pay of troops 

Allowances in kind 

Clothing and equipment of troop* 

Garrison administration and commutation-. 

Garrison construction 

Medical service 

Administration of train depots and care of 

field material 

Subsistence of replenishment and reserve 

troops 

Purchase of remounts 

Administration of remount depots 

Traveling allowances and allowances for , 

relay and transportation 

Military education and training 

Military prisons 

Artillery and ordnance 

Technical artillery establishments 

Construction and maintenance of forts 

Extra allowances for quarters 

Reliefs and extra indemnities to active mili- 
tary persons and civilians not provided 

for elsewhere 

Extra allowances to military widows' fund _ 

Miscellaneous expenditures 

Military administration of Bavaria 



IHacrwa^*-. 



Markt* 


1 

Mark** ' 


3,136,738 


3,090,128 


447, 815 


438,455 


3,118,273 


3,035,210 


1,061,728 


1,054,104 


1,537,400 


1,317,635 


544, 928 


622,647 


3,527,493 


3,525,369 


662,047 


659,491 


1,227,326 


1,215,626 


3,549,943 


3, 393, 856 


2,497,330 


2, 447, 917 


132,675,433 


131,643,697 


143,494,863 


144,115,984 1 


32,430,566 


31,221,521 


62,298,311 


60,589,119 


1,887,085 


1,817,484 


10,439,691 


10, 156, 191 


1,748,170 


1,741,626 


3, 459, 998 


3,479,256 i 


12,519,247 


12,415,925 


3, 449, 326 


3,396,410 


9,425,160 


9,280,361 


8,162,066 


7, 942, 239 


845,192 


847,983 


45,747,917 


44,521,975 


1,313,546 


1,268,790 


3,138,988 


3,079,181 


11,281,151 


11, 124, 612 


1,349,364 


1,341,725 ' 


3, 198, 000 


3,134,000 | 


2, 075, 807 


1,909,107 | 


64,082,791 


63,268,647 ' 



80,409,803 



Total 

Extraordinary expenditures 

Total current and extraordinary expendi- 
tures. 656, 198,568 

Expenses occasioned by the expedition to East 
Asia 15, 332, 826 



575,788,765 '568,473,624 



85,253,176 



653,720,800 
33,254,824 



Mark** ; 
46,610 _ 
9,360 L 
83,063 ... 
7,624 L 
219,765 |_ 
22,281 _ 
2,124 L 

2,556 ' 

11,700 

156,087 

49,413 

1,031,736 



1,209,045 

1, 709, 192 

69,601 

283,500 

6,544 



103,322 

52,916 

144,799 . 
219,827 



2, 791 

1,225,942 I 

44,756 

59,807 I 

156,539 | 

7,639 ! 

64,000 ! 

166,700 , 

814,144 '__ __.. 

7,315,141 | 

I 4,8*5,373 

! 

2,471,768 I 



I 



17, 921, 90S 



♦ One mark equals $0,238. 



BUDUEIS. 



17 



Military budget for the colonies for 1903, compared with the amounts 
appropriated for the year 1902. 



1902. 



E&'t African protectorate _ 



Kamerun protectorate 

Toko protectorate . 



Southwest African protectorate . 
Kiauchan protectorate 



Mark$. 
2,437,221 
1,002,960 
104,100 
2,478,493 
2,441,766 



Total. 



8,664,638 



Mark: 
2,389,031 
1,083,076 
104,100 
2,396,674 
2,368,639 



Mark*. 
48,190 
9,893 

81~919 
73,216 



8,341,320 



213,218 



The following are the more important changes for 1902 : 
On October 1, 1902, there were added to the permanent 
organization 7 machine-gun detachments and 6 companies of 
foot artillery ; the fourth engineer and eighth fortress inspec- 
tions have been created; the organization of the fortress 
construction corps has gone forward. Wireless telegraphy, 
system of Professor Braun (Siemens & Halske), was tried 
successfully for limited distances in the fall maneuvers. 

The distribution of the rifle M. 98 has been continued to 
include several corps, and in the coming year will probably 
include the entire army. 

New regulations have been issued for the training of the 
army, of machine-gun detachments, of balloon troops, for 
guard duty and for horse levying. New articles of war have 
been promulgated. 

Much attention has been devoted to the question of adopt- 
ing the system of rapid-firing guns with recoiling barrels. 

The following changes are proposed in the military appro- 
priation bill for 1903 : 

To add 4 companies of foot artillery on October 1, 1903; to 
expend 100,000 marks in promoting the military automobile 
under the direction of the communication troops; to form 
an additional regiment of cavalry from the 5 squadrons 
of mounted rifles (J&ger zu Pferde) at Posen, and to form 
a detachment under a field officer of the 2 squadrons at 
Graudenz. 
To establish a military technical high school at Berlin. 



18 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 





e 




s 




e 




o 




3 




a 




© 


*> 


1 


8 


fi 


*" 


E 


* 


8 


<2» 


§ 


^ 


fc 






"5 

| 

ft 

8 



.2 



| 

e 



« 



• I 



S8SS 



tt 



3SS8 



S s ° 



5 6^1 






n 



12 £~ I 



COX C O 



S5'S 



511 

34 ec 



5|g 

*• 5 io 



S «o« 



ISS 



:SS 



?4 X 



-ct- 



::B 



if 



12 



Hi- 1 1 

sin s 



II 

si 

•r fcc** 



c i 

fl 

.ill 
III 

■fie* o 

sit 

bs a 

I5| 
£ i-| S. 

ales 



a. J. 



111 
ai| 

IP 



BUDGETS. 
Noncombatants. 



19 



Noncombatants. 


Strength 

for 1903 

(proposed). 


Strength 
in 1902. 


Increase. 




2,206 

1,057 

682 

1,012 

94 


2,198 

1,054 

678 

1,011 

93 


8 


Paymasters and various 

Veterinary surgeons 


3 
4 

. 1 


Swldlers ^.^.^ „ .- 


1 






Total noncombatants 


5,061 


6,034 


17 



Recapitulation. 



1903 (pro- 1902 
posed). lW2 ' 



Officers 

Noncommissioned officers and enlisted men 
Noncombatants ' l 

Grand total 



24,358 I 24,269 

676,697 I 576,400 

6,061 5,034 



606,006 606,703 



Composition of the general staff. 

PRUSSIA. 

Chief of the general staff - 1 

Aids 2 

General quartienneister 1 

Otjerqaartiermeisters 3 

Chiefs of section in the great general staff, or chiefs of the genera 1 staffs at general headquar- 
ters and in large fortresses ,. 34 

Captains and field officers 182 

Railway commissioners: 

Field officers with rank and allowances of regimental commanders 3 

Field officers with lesser rank 16 

Captains, first class 3 

Retired (pensionirte) officers, field officers, or captains 6 



SAXONY. 



Chiefs of the central section, or chiefs of the general staff at general headquarters _.. 
Chief of section of land surrey with rank and allowances of regimental commander.. 

Captains and field officers 

Bsilway commissioners ; field officers 



Chief 

Captain and field officers 

Railway commissioner ; field officer.. 



WUKTSMREKO. 



1 

15 
2 



Chief of the general staff of the army 

Chief of section in the general staff 

(■ biefs of the general staffs at general headquarters . 

Officers, captains, and field officers 

Railway commissioners : 

Flsld officers 

Captain ___ 



20 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Abstract of army estimates, 1908-1903. 



Vote 
Not. 



; Net estimate, 



1902-03. 



I.— NUMBER*. 



Number of men on the home and colonial 
establishments of the army, exclusive of 
those serving in India 



Net estimate, Net expendt- 
1901-02. tare, 1900-01. 



460.000 



II. — EFFECTIVE SERVICES. 

Pay, etc., of army (general staff, regiments, 

reserve, and departments) 

Medical establishment: Pay, etc 

Militia: Pay, bounty, etc 

Imperial yeomanry in Great Britain: Pay and 

allowances 

Volunteer corps: Pay and allowances 

Transport and remounts 

Provisions, forage, and other supplies 

Clothing establish men ts and services 

Warlike and other stores: Supply and repair _.. 
Works, buildings and repairs: Cost, including 

staff for engineer services 

Establishments for military education 

Miscellaneous effective services 

War office: Salaries and miscellaneous charges . 



£18,940,400 ' £23,083,600 
1,026,000 | 1,088,600 I 
1,381,000 2,772,000 



686,000 

1,287,000 

11,242,000 

16,086,000 

3,970,000 

8,332,000 

2,190,000 
120,800 
110,800 
332,000 



Total effective services . 65, 682, oft) 



III. — NONEFFECTIVE SERVICES. 

Noneffective charges for officers, etc 

Noneffective charges for men, etc 

Superannuation, compensation, and compas- 
sionate allowances 

Total noneffective services 

Balances irrecoverable and claims abandoned.. 

Total effective and noneffective services... 



376,000 

1,230,000 

17,977,000 

20,266,000 

4,826,000 

13,460,000 

3,281,000 
119,200 
218,200 
306,000 



^88, 970, 600 



1,786,000 
1,747,000 

196,000 



2,271,000 
1,486,000 

188,600 I 



£16,201.3^1 
I, 18,%, 341 
2,16(»,»* 

18TI.9W 
l,78J».*-3 
23,630.3.* 
19, 795, 317 
6, 140,7*4 
13,918,1*5 

3,711,34-2 
106, NV 

•urr, 242 

313,(133 



88,026.713 



1,740.210 
1,382,164 

188,039 



3,944,600 | 3,310,411 



=1= 



I 



7,418 



69,310,000 I 92,916,000 



91,343,644 



• Excess of receipts over expenditures. 
»plem« 



f Including supplementary estimate of £6,000,000. 

The provision for ordinary and war services is as follows : 





1902-03. 


1901-02. 


For war service : 

South Af« p W_^„ t ..... .... 


£39,660,000 
360,000 


•£61,070.000 
2, 160, 000 






40,000,000 
29,310,000 


63,230,000 
29 685 000 








69,310,000 


92,916,000 



•Including supplementary estimate of £6,000,000. 



BUDGETS. 



21 



III 
§§§ 



5i 



I 



= " f 

— = y 
2 = u> 







s lbs 



nlut g J 



3 

|ooS 



•a 

•2:3.8 



M a 2 



► s Si" 

si i!m SI 

e J i fi8 l a I 3 



II 

a 



I 



I 
c 
s 



! 



§ 






J*2S 
a * 

£og 



111 



i! 



! I 



i 8J S 



fill 



|-||| S S J 3 



I 



1 1 
1 I 
1 1 

\ \ 

II 

* ! 


i 

a 


o 


s 


U 


§ 


s= 


£ 


s s 


•o 


1° 


s 

* 


*$ 


§. 


U 


e 



Is? 



mi 



J «j 



s l 



3 

3 



*3 

3 

3 

3 

7 
f 



22 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 



Local military forces of various kinds are maintained by 
almost all the British colonies and protectorates. Usually 
their affairs are managed by the colonial secretary, but the 
protectorates of Central Africa, East Africa, Uganda, * and 
Somaliland are controlled by the foreign office, which is direct- 
ing the military operations against the Mullah in Somaliland 
carried on by the local forces, reenf orced by Indian troops. 
The formal statement was made in the House of Commons, 
October 28, 1902, that the whole cost of the operations will be 
borne by the Somaliland protectorate funds, supplemented by 
an imperial grant in aid. For this year £25,000 has already 
been voted, and an additional sum will probably be necessary ; 
if so, it would be borne by the civil estimates, like the original 
grant. 

Composition of the general staff. 



Numbers. 



Generals.. 



Lieutenant general*.. 

Major generals 

Brigadier generals . 



Colonels on the staff 

Deputy adjutants general 

Assistant adjutant general., 



Deputy assistant adjutants general.. 
Assistant quartermasters general.. 



Deputy assistant quartermasters general 

District Inspectors of musketry . 

Brigade majors or staff captains 

Assistant military secretaries and senior aids-de-camp _ 

Aids-de-camp 

Quartermasters 



Alds-de-camp to the King.. 



Lieutenant of the Tower of London 

Major of the Tower of London 



Becruiting staff: 

Chief recruiting staff officer 

Becruiting staff officers, Class I 

Recruiting staff officers, Class II.. 
Conducting staff sergeants, etc 



3 

7 
27 

9 
32 

3 
32 
67 



13 
34 
5 
42 

5 



1 

1 

10 

31 



The above is exclusive of the headquarters staff at the war 
office, which consists of the commander in chief, 1 private 
secretary, and 5 aids; military secretary, 4 assistants (1 for 
Indian affairs, paid by India), and 1 staff captain; director 
general of mobilization and military intelligence, assistant 
quartermaster general for mobilization, 1 deputy assistant, and 
1 staff captain; adjutant general to the forces, 1 deputy, 5 
assistants, and 4 deputy assistants ; inspector general auxiliary 



BUDGETS. 



23 



forces ; inspector general of recruiting, 1 assistant, and 1 dep- 
uty assistant adjutant general; inspector general of cavalry; 
inspector general of artillery ; director of army schools ; quar- 
termaster general to the forces, 1 deputy, 6 assistants, 8 dep- 
uty assistants, 1 military transport officer, and 8 staff captains ; 
inspector general of remounts; chief paymaster; inspector 
general of fortifications, 2 deputies, and 5 assistants, 1 artillery 
adviser, 3 inspectors, and 7 officers of royal engineers ; director 
general of ordnance, 1 deputy, 2 assistants, 4 deputy assistants, 
1 staff captain ; chaplain general ; director general army medi- 
cal service, 1 deputy, 1 assistant, 2 deputy assistants; a total 
of 96 officers. 

Number of men on the regular establishment, exclusive of India. 



Officers. 



Warrant of- 
ficers, ser- 
geants, and 
other en- 
listed men. 



1902-08. 1901-02. 



Cavalry: 

Household regiments-. 

Line regiments.. 

Artillery: 

Horse artillery batteries.. 

Field artillery batteries- 
Mountain artillery batteries.. 

Garrison artillery companies.. 

Engineers: 

Field units : 

Telegraph divisions __ 

Fortress units \ 

Submarine mining units 

Bailway companies 

Surrey companies 



80^ 
Infantry: 

Foot guards battalions.. 10 

line battalion*.. 112 

Line depots battalions.. 68 

Army service corps 

Royal army medical corps 

Colonial corps 

Departmental corps 



Total regimental establishments . 



STAffT Or AUX1UABY 1TOBCCS. 



Honorable artillery company 

Imperial yeomanry (home) 

MiUtU artillery •:.-. ..... 

Volunteer artillery 

MlHua engineers f 

volunteer engineers 

Militia infant** 

volunteer Infantry 

KlUua medical staff corps 

volunteer medical staff corps 



Total staff of auxiliary forces 

Total regimental and auxiliary forces . 



664 



1,541 



490 
616 
387 
272 



13,717 
38,047 

9,430 

116,826 

6,621 
3,046 
12,460 
2,830 



14,271 
39,688 

10,138 

119,342 

7,111 
3,661 
12,837 
3,102 



201,966 



210,060 



4 

295 

813 

349 

128 

99 

3,525 

1,326 

19 

20 



5 

354 

874 

416 

128 

99 

3,777 

1,664 

19 

24 



6,578 



7,250 



14,270 
39,642 

10,131 

118,943 

7,074 
3,596 
14,435 
2,820 



210,911 



5 

172 

751 

417 

118 

90 

3,776 

1,514 

17 

18 



6,878 



208,643 



217,300 | 217,789 



24 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 



Number of men on the regular establishment, exclusive of India — Cont'd. 



Warrant of- 
ficer!, ser- 
geants, and 
other en- 
listed men. 



All make. 



1902-03. 1901-02. 



GENERAL AND DEPARTMENTAL STAFF. 

General staff (Including headquarter* staff) ... 

Army pay department 

Army veterinary department 



Chaplain's department 

Army medical staff (including 



headquarters staff; . 



436 
236 
110 
104 
99 



170 



606 
236 
118 
104 
99 



117 

86 

96 



Total staff and departments 



986 



178 



1,163 



MISCELLANEOUS ESTABLISHMENTS (EXCLUSIVE OF OFFI- 
CERS AND MEN INCLUDED UNDER " REGIMENT*.") 

Staff of military prisons 

Staff of 'schools for instruction in gunnery 

Staff of school of musketry 

Gymnastic staff 

Royal military academy „ 

Royal military college 

Other colleges and schools 

Army school establishments 

Ordnance factories 

Miscellaneous establishments 



16 


230 


246 


31 


203 


234 


10 


61 


71 


16 


134 


150* 


21 


28 


49 


28 


36 


64 


41 


64 


106 


16 


211 


227 


17 




17 


37 


37 


74 



Total miscellaneous establishments . 
Grand total 



233 



1,004 



1,237 



9,976 



Additional numbers, imperial, colonial, and irregular 
forces, during the war in South Africa, and the ex- 
pedition to China , 



209,725 



219,700 



Number to be voted. 



1,088 



59 

160 
47 
63 



17 
66 



973 



219,600 



230,200 



400,000 



* Including Channel Islands and Colonial militia, 
f Including submarine mining militia for Malta and Bermuda. 
t The 6 officers are in the establishment of royal engineers. 
| The 21 officers are in the establishment of royal engineers. 

Establishment of British regiments serving in India. 



Officers. 



Warrant 

officers, 

sergeants, 

and other 

enlisted 

men. 



All ranks. 



1902-03. 1901-02. 



Cavalry of the line, 9 regiments 

Artillery : 

11 horse batteries 

42 field batteries 

3 howitzer batteries* 

8 mountain batteries 

28 garrison companies 

Engineers 

Infantry, 62 battalions 

Army medical corps 

Inspectors ordnance machinery, armorers, etc.. 

Total _ 



320 

1,608 

332 



6,37,4 



13,710 



3 
52,180 



117 



14,227 



323 

53,688 
332 
123 



6,635 



13,407 



333 

53,688 



2,944 



71,384 74,328 



73,618 



* One of these batteries will not be sent to India until 1903-04. 

Note. — In addition to the British army stationed in India, there is a native army, consisting, 
according to the latest returns at hand, of 2,168 European officers and noncommissioned officers, and 
153,081 native officers and men. The expense of maintenance of these troops is borne by the reve- 
nues of India. It is not included in the British army estimates, unless these troops are used for 
service in the British Empire outside of Iudia. 



BUDGETS. 
Establishment of the militia, 1902-03, 



25 



i of serrice. 



Permanent staff. 



Offi- 
cers. 



Warrant 
officers, ser- 
gcanta, and 

other en- 
listed men 



Militia. 



Officers. 



Ser- 
geants 



other 
enlisted 



All ranks. 



1902-03. 



1901-02. 



Enrolled July 1, 
1901. 



Perma- 
nent 
staff. 



Militia. 



Garrison artillery ._ 

Field artillery 

Engineers 

Infantry 

Medical staff corps 

Channel Islands militia.. 

Malta militia 

Bermuda militia 

Total force. 



243 



671 

118 

113 

3,408 

19 

76 

74 

7 



623 
12 
108 
2,821 
20 
148 
66 
9 



17,376 

297 

2,131 

102,940 

880 

3,040 

2,180 

390 



18,622 

432 

2,362 

109,412 

919 

3,271 

2,324 

407 



18,622 



2,299 
109,801 

817 
3,271 
2,324 

407 



718 

137 

100 

3,398 

76 
64 
6 



14,678 

366 

2,132 

83,908 

228 

2,760 

2,009 

211 



137,739 



137,641 



4,604 106,282 
fiO,786~~ 



• Two adjutants and 2 quartermasters of militia engineers are included in the establishment of 
royal engineers; 2 additional officers of royal engineers are on the permanent staff of the submarine 
mining militia of Malta and Bermuda. 

Imperial yeomanry. 



Permanent staff. 



Officers. 



Ser- 
geants. 



Yeomanry. 



Officers. 



Noncom- 
missioned 

officers 
and men. 



All 
ranks. 



Establishment of yeomanry, 1900-01. 
Establishment of yeomanry, 1901-02.. 

Present at training, 1900 

Present at training, 1901 

Enrolled on January 1, 1902 



148 
296 
123 
144 
231 



702 

1,634 

462 

637 



11,038 
33,276 
8,064 
10,382 
16,288 



11,907 
36,164 
8,667 
11,096 
17,407 



Volunteers. 





Permanent staff. 


Enrolled members. 


All ranks, 

including 

permanent 

staff. 




Adju- 
tants. 


Acting ser- 
geant ma- 
jors, and 
sergeant 
instructors. 


Officers. 


Noncom- 
missioned 
officers and 
men. 


Honorable artillery company 

Artillery 


1 

67 

21 

228 

4 


4 

349 

99 

1,326 

20 


46 

» 2,232 

839 

8,161 

124 


864 

49,366 

18,628 

261,081 

3,330 


904 
62, 014 


Engineers 

Id fan try including Bermuda. T ._ _ 


19,687 
270, 786 


Volunteer medical stall corpe._..____— 


3,478 






Total 


321 


1,798 


11,391 


333,269 


346,769 




2,119 


344,660 





26 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 



Number of officers and men on the regimental establishments of the armp, 
army reserve, ana auxiliary forces. 



Normal establish- 
ments, all ranks. 



1902-08. 



1901-02. 



Effectives, all ranks. 



Numbers 
by latest 
retains. 



Period of 



Regular foroes, regimental, home and colonial 

Native Indian regiments 

Army reserve, first class 

Militia, Including permanent staff and old militia 

reserre „ 

Militia reserre, new 

Militia of Channel Isles 

Militia, Malta and Bermuda 

Yeomanry, including permanent staff . 

Volunteers, including permanent staff 

Total home and colonial establishments 

Regular forces, regimental, on Indian establishment. 

Total 



206,430 
4,820 
80,000 

181,737 
60,000 
3,271 
2,731 
36,164 
346,769 



207,216 
3,696 
90,000 

131,639 
60,000 
3,271 
2,731 
35,000 
375,000 



*322,263 

fl0,461 

2,396 

109,863 



2,826 

2,191 

17,407 

277,396 



869,722 
74,328 



898,462 
73,618 



744,794 
63,598 



Jan. 1, 190S- 
Do. 
Do. 



July 1, 1»L 
Jan. 1,15**. 

Do. 

Do. 



Jan. 1. 19M2. 



934,050 



971,970 



1808,752 



* Including imperial yeomanry, 16,730, and enlisted volunteers, 5,400. 

t Including 6,067 with China expedition. 

X Exclusivo of colonial forces serving in South Africa. 



BUDGETS. 



27 







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10,692 

134 

16,010 


r «< 


1,784 

348 

2,082 

1,741 

1 JU« 


4,668 
4,431 
2,666 






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28 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOB 1902. 

Indian army expenditures and estimate*. 



Accounts 
1900-01. 



BevtMd esti- 
mates 1901-02.! 



Effective services: 

Begimental pay and allowances— 

Supply and transport 

Ordnance 

. Other heads 



Total . 

Noneffective services.. 



7,18,68,266 

3,90,48,972 

71,02,726 

8,26,88,786 



Rmpea* 

7,07,01,000 

8,90,76,000 

96,83,000 

3,20,62,000 



8 v 84,91,Oi 
4,18,30,00 
1,24. 62, »■ 

3,39,02,00. 



16,06,48,739 
91,03,829 



16,04,12,000 
93,24,000 



17, 66, 75, (f» 
92, 06, (XV 



Total India. 



In pounds sterling.. 



16,96,62,668 
£10,643,606 



16,97,36,000 
£11,316,767 



18, 68, 80, <*» 
£ 12,392,00c 



Effective serrices : 

Pay and furlough allowances of British forces in 
India, Indian troop service, stores for India, and 

other heads 

Noneffective serrices : 

Betired pay, pensions, etc., of British forces for serv- 
ices in India ; noneffective and retired officers of 
the Indian service, etc * 



£. 

2,064,376 



2,384,918 



£. 

2,462,600 



2,361,100 



2,871,7<« 



2, 401, OOP 



Total England. 



Total India and England 

Total receipts, India and England . 



4,439,294 



4,813,600 



6,272,700 



16.082,799 
f 817, 274 



16,129,367 
899,200 



17,664,700 
829,2*7 



Net expenditures and estimates... 



14,266,626 



16,230,167 



16,836,433 



*A crore is ten millions, a lakh, one hundred thousand. These terms are used in the notation e* 
sums in rupees. The exchange value of the rupee is fixed by the government at 16d. — fifteen to the 
pound sterling. 

f Receipts are from such sources as discharge purchase money, balances due deserters, sales of 
damaged stores, condemned horses, etc. 

A considerable saving was made in 1900-01, due to the 
absence of the Indian contingents in China and South Africa. 
This permitted special expenditures for six batteries of German 
guns, 20,000 Lee-Enfield guns, 300 artillery horses, an addi- 
tional field howitzer battery, four general hospitals for the 
field army, improvements in rest camps, etc., a total of £425,000. 

New expenditures for 1901-02 were also sanctioned for the 
rearmament of the native army, the reorganization of the 
transport service, purchase of Maxims for the field army, and 
new 10-pounder guns for mountain batteries, increase of two 
howitzer batteries and one garrison artillery company, forma- 
tion of schools for mounted infantry, the addition of one 
British officer to each native Indian regiment, etc. The total 
cost of the measures involving new expenditure exceeds 
£944,000, in addition to £118,000 provided in the military 
works estimate. 

CHANGES IN THE INDIAN ARMY. 

General Sir Edwin Collen, military member of the Indian 
viceroy's council in March, 1901, presented to the council, 



BUDGETS. 29 

v^itb. his memorandum on the Indian military estimates for 
.901-02, a statement of important measures for the improve- 
ment of the army and of the defense of India since 1885. 

In that year many such measures were carried out or com- 
xienced, for example, the military forces were increased as 
follows: 



British troops.. 
Native army 



Cavalry. 



Artillery. Infantry. 



I l 

1,332 1,373 I 7,962 

4,704 | 3,000 11,968 



Total. 



10,667 
19,672 



The improvement of the coast and frontier defense was in- 
augurated in the same year. The defensive works at Aden 
were in progress until 1897. 

COAST AND FRONTIER DEFENSES. 

The expenditures for works and armaments for coast defense 
at Aden, Karachi, Bombay, Hooghley, Burma, and other points 
were 2,69,62,203 rupees, including floating defenses at Bombay, 
consisting of seven first-class torpedo boats, two torpedo gun- 
boats, and two turret ships armed with 8-inch breech-loading 
guns. The floating defenses were, in 1890, placed condition- 
ally under the control of the admiralty. 

The northwest frontier defenses may be divided into three 
main groups, those of the Bolan Pass and Peshin Plateau, 
those for the defense of the Khyber Pass and its debouchure, 
and those for the strengthening of certain strategical points 
in rear, and for the protection of arsenals and supply depots. 
The works have been completed and the armament provided, 
the whole cost, including that for strategic railways, roads 
and bridges, being 15,83,25,647 rupees. 

In 1886 a plan to provide reserves for the native army was 
adopted. The scheme, modified from time to time, in 1899 
furnished from 60 to 280 reservists per regiment. 

A force of military police was raised in 1886-87-88 in Bengal 
and Bombay for service in Burma, making a total of 18,500 
men. Other measures were increases of pay and of pensions 
for wounds for native troops. Two additional native moun- 
tain batteries were raised in 1886 and one in 1898. 

An improved system of recruiting for the native army 
through the agency of special staff officers at recruiting 
centers, in each of which a depot was established, was intro- 
duced into the Bengal army in 1892, in the Bombay command 



30 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

in 1896, and in Madras in 1900. The principal changes sough* 
have been the gradual elimination of inferior castes, ih 
formation of entire regiments on the class system wher-; 
practicable, and the reduction of the number of differer 
class companies in one regiment. 

In the Bombay army in 1891 two regiments were localize! 
as frontier (Baluchistan) regiments, and later these regiment? 
were reorganized, each regiment having four classes, two 
companies in each class. In the Madras army in 1892 tw 
regiments, the thirtieth and thirty-first, were broken up an«i 
reorganized as the fifth and sixth Burma battalions, and :: 
1894 the twenty-ninth Madras infantry was converted int< 
the seventh Burma battalion. These local battalions were 
largely made up from the Burma military police, at that time 
in course of reduction. 

BRITISH TROOPS. 

Among measures affecting British troops may be men- 
tioned the improvement of regimental institutes, the estab- 
lishment of a great many hutted camps in the hills for the 
occupation of troops during the hot season, the improveme£- 
of the water supply, and the adoption of rules for the admin- 
istration of cantonments,, and the application of electricity 
in punkah -pulling and for the lighting of soldiers' barracks. 
The transformation of the barracks into cooler, better lighted, 
and more cheerful quarters will greatly ameliorate the con- 
dition of the British soldier whose health is affected by tie 
discomforts of the extremely trying hot weather in many 
parts of the country. 

During 1893 the British infantry was supplied with the 
Lee-Metford rifle ; by 1899 the British cavalry had the Lee- 
Enfield carbines, and the artillery the converted Martini- 
Enfield artillery carbines. 

In 1889 the horse and field artillery were rearmed with 
12-pounders. Cordite ammunition has since been gradually 
introduced, followed by the spade brake, Grenfell sights, 
tray system of carrying ammunition, and the assimilation of 
all carriages and wagons to one pattern. 

India has been divided into six circles for purposes of 
artillery command. In 1891 the number of men for coast 
and frontier defense was increased by the addition of 25 men 
to each of the 23 garrison artillery companies. 



BUDGETS. 31 

Other recent measures for the improvement of the military 
situation are the extension of the steel factory at Cossipore, so 
as to allow of the manufacture of the steel required for pro- 
jectiles, fuzes, gun carriages, etc., the establishment of fac- 
tories for the manufacture of gun carriages at Jubbelpore; of 
clothing, harness, saddlery, and equipments in southern India ; 
of cordite at Wellington, and for the filling of lyddite shells 
at Kirkee. The establishment of a small-arms factory has 
been decided on with the view of making India independent 
of England in the matter of warlike stores. The South 
African war made such large demands on the manufacturing 
establishments in England that the rearmament of the native 
army and the volunteers with the 0.303-inch rifle has been 
much delayed. 

In 1888 the country was redistricted, the number of gen-' 
erals* commands being reduced from 33 to 30. The districts 
were divided into first-class, commanded by major generals, 
and second-class, commanded by colonels with the temporary 
rank of brigadier generals. The staff was also reorganized, 
the adjutant general's and the quartermaster general's depart- 
ments being consolidated. 

In 1891 the Indian staff corps was formed by the amalga- 
mation of the Bengal, Madras, and Bombay staff corps, and 
in 1895 the presidential army system was finally abolished, 
the Bengal army was subdivided into the Bengal and Punjab 
commands, and the Madras and Bombay armies were formed 
into two commands, the Quetta district going to Bombay 
and Burma to the Madras command. The whole army of 
India, consisting of the Punjab, Bengal, Madras, and Bombay 
commands, each under a lieutenant general, was placed 
directly under the commander in chief in India, controlled 
by the government of India. The staff of each command 
was rearranged and as far as possible assimilated. 

During the period under review there was also a reorgani- 
zation of the military accounts department, of the ordnance 
department, and of the intelligence branch of the quarter- 
master general's department, sections being added thereto for 
the Hyderabad contingent, and for Burma. Changes were 
also effected in the department of military works, employ- 
ment in which is to be the normal duty of royal engineer 
officers, and to be considered as regimental duty. This fol- 
lows the lines of the system in force in the imperial service 



32 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

at home and in the colonies, adapted to suit the reorganiza- 
tion of the army in India into four commands. 

The military authorities are constantly endeavoring to im- 
prove the sanitation, health, and comfort of the army. Some 
of the measures involve large expenditures, such as improve- 
ments in hospitals, water supply, and drainage of canton- 
ments, increasing the number and extending the operations 
of grass and dairy farms. These latter give a greater supply 
of fresh beef, butter, and milk, while, incidentally, cattle 
breeding is improved and fodder production increased so that 
eventually all the fodder required by the mounted branches 
will be supplied from these farms. 

In 1886 a plan of mobilization by army corps was adopted 
for service beyond the frontier, and by divisions or brigades 
of all arms, according to circumstances, for service in India 
or beyond sea. This was changed in 1890 to the system of 
mobilizing by divisions. The basis of the plan is mobiliza- 
tion by stations, i. e., certain stations are designated from 
which the troops are withdrawn to form the field army. 
Funds have been provided from time to time to facilitate 
mobilization arrangements. 

TRANSPORTATION. 

After prolonged consideration of the subject of transport, 
induced by the experience of the Chitral and Tirah expe- 
ditions, a scheme was formulated in 1899 for the maintenance 
of several organized transport units, including those pur- 
chased or hired in time of war, and for an accurate census of 
owners of suitable animals and rates for hire of men and 
animals. 

The complement of transport developed in 1885 was in- 
creased in 1891 by 2,000 mules at a cost of 8 lakhs. A further 
increase of 1,750 mules was sanctioned in 1896 in connection 
with the provision of mobilization equipments for the divisions 
of the field army, and again by 2,000 mules in March, 1900. 
The measures then adopted were an increase of 26 officers to 
the transport service, the organization of permanent cadres 
of mule and camel corps, and pony-cart trains; the creation 
of a permanent registration staff, and the formation of a 
reserve of drivers. 

When complete the established strength will be 54 trans- 
port officers, 92 warrant and noncommissioned officers, 277 



BUDGETS. 33 

native officers, 149 veterinary assistants, 943 artificers, 21,226 
drivers, 21,934 mules, 5,393 camels, 6,600 bullocks, 594 ponies, 
and 7,067 transport carts. 

At the date of General Collen's report the actual strength 
was much below the establishment, a considerable amount of 
transport having been sent to South Africa and to China. 
His successor, General Sir Edmond Elles, in the following 
year states that 12 cadres of pack mules have been organized, 
capable of rapid expansion into full corps of 840 mules each ; 
cadres of camel corps, whose owners serve on the silladar 
system, have been formed which can be expanded quickly 
into complete corps of 1,068 camels each, and 2 cadres of pony 
carts, which, when mobilized, will give two full cart trains of 
1,164 ponies and 580 carts each. This makes a small but 
valuable nucleus of efficient transport, and the system will 
be extended before long to the rest of the standing transport. 



34 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 




BUDGETS. 
ITALY. 



k 



Military budget for the focal year ending June SO, 1903, compared with 
that of the previous year. 



Branch of the service. 



ORDINARY EXPENDITURES. 



1901-02. I 1902-03. 



War ministry 

Pensions 

Staffs and inspection departments _ 
Infantry 

Cavalry . 



Artillery and engineers 

Royal carbineers 

Corps of invalids and veterans 

Medical services 

Cfcflsssijjariat, subsistence companies, and accountants in administra- 
tive (fofSMtments __ _ 

Military school* 

Disciplinary companissjaDd military penal establishments 



Military geographical i 

Personnel of department of milftaty Justice 

Allowances to officers on waiting orders; unattached, etc j 

Allowances for officers' quarters, traveling asnensee of officers and | 

civil employees, maneuvers, etc t 

Clothing and equipment I 

Provisions _ _ „ i 

Forage j 

Barracks _ I 

Care and repair of mobilization stores , 

Remount service ! 

Ordnance department . I 

Engineer stores and works ' j 

Rent of real estate and water mains for military use 

Expenses of department of military justice I 

Expenses for the Savoy and other military orders 

Reimbursements for transfers and other special missions 

Legal expenses 

Periodical bounties to engineer officers depending on the Henry legacy. 

National target practice __ 

Allowances to needy families of men recalled to the colors ___ 



Total. 



EXTRAORDINARY EXPENDITURES. 

Allowances to civilian employees, unattached and supernumerary 

New military institutes and establishments 

Small arms and ammunition 

Repair and transport of mobilization stores 

Fortifications and works of defense 

Rent of government property in use in the service of governmental 
departments 



Lire* 

rt '87,940 

S3, 000 

30, 700 

■.1.i:71,100 

13,000 

■ 54,200 

30,100 

76,600 

14,800 

2,668,800 

2,627,100 

1,006,500 

452,600 

397,000 

702,500 

4,155,000 

18,415,300 

13,676,600 

17,144,000 

3,917,400 

89,000 

4,564,000 

6,706,000 

5,554,600 

1,040,000 

27,000 

110,500 

84,000 

59,000 

1,260 

600,000 

100,000 



258,028,600 



16,000 
200,000 



Total _ _ 

Total ordinary and extraordinary expenditures _„_. 



3, 860, 000 
6,848,532 



10,194,01 



i2A* a 1*ftt T l<1Z 



Lire* 

2,452,440 
36,069,000 

4,037,000 
63, 667, 600 
11,889,700 
23,383,800 
26,388,100 
184,700 

5,552,400 

3,218,400 
2,753,600 
803,700 
444,000 
400,100 
679,000 

4,155,000 

18,370,900 

14,330,800 

17,696,000 

4,189,700 

89,000 

4,374,000 

6,496,000 

6,544,400 

1,040,000 

27,000 

86,500 

86,000 

69,000 

1,260 

600,000 

100,000 



258,069,000 



2, 000, 000 

300,000 

14,623,000 

6,894,763 



&,fl35,7&1 



SKl,MH,7Kt 



• One lira equals $0,193. 



36 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Strength of the army according to the budget for 1902-03. 



Brmoch of the service. 



Officer*. 



War ministry _ C5 

General staff and inspectorate* ■ 535 

Infantry (96 regiments cf the Hue, 12 regiments benaglieri, 7 Alpine regi- 
ments, each of 3 battalions of 4 companies) 7,532 

Cavalry (24 regiments, each of 6 squadrons) 1,013 

Artillery (24 regiments field, each of 8 batteries ; 1 horse, of 6 batteries ; 1 . 

mountain, of 12 batteries; 1 brigade, 4 batteries; 3 regiments of fortress, I 9.390 

3 regiments and 1 brigade coast) _ _ [ ^ 

Engineers (5 regiments, 1 brigade railroad troops) ) 

Carbineers 597 

Corps of invalids and veterans . 11 

Medical service ._ ' 358 

Commissariat. 357 

Military schools. _ 315 

Disciplinary companies arid military penal establish meut* 68 

Military geographical institute 15 

Military Justice _ ., 16 

Unemployed, on leave, otv .... 145 

Total 13,420 




127 
21 


.4"* 
4" 


33. ?-* 


24 


47' 


1, 
I, 
1. 
1, 


43: 
111 
sat 



213,21: 



Composition of the general staff and staff corps, active and unemployed. 



General staff : 

Lieutenant generals 

Major generals 

Staff corps : 

Colonels 

Lieutenant colonels . 



Number. 



1901-02. 1902-03. 



Lieutenant colonels and majors . 



52 
92 



23 

47 






l* 



Majors 






22 

•62| 




Captains 







74 


Total 


296 1 


278 



BUDGETS. 37 

JAPAN. 

Military budget for the fiscal year 1902-43. 

ORDINARY KXFEXDITCKKg. 

F«M.* 

War department 241, 684 

Army: 

Pay 10,630,682 

Office expense* 712, 161 

Maintenance of building* _ 609,363 

Contingent fond 6,881 

Legal expenses . 2,609 

TraTeUng expense* ___ 1,200,466 

Miscellaneous 1,166,099 

Allowance! __ 628,362 

Expenses of officers sent abroad. «. 118,668 

Provisions. 7,466,619 

Clothing _ 4,303,741 

Arms and ammnnition 3,672,618 

Horses 3,493,262 

Maneuvers 1,083,826 

Invalids 393,145 

V in isss ries for troops 882,136 

Allowances for retired officers 70 

Prisoners 47,323 

Military mapping 6,646 

Imperial escort 1,216 

Transportation 672,489 

Secret expenses 121,600 

37,008,649 

Gendarmerie 1,070,604 

Colonial troops 163,620 

Memorial service] 7,560 

Total ordinary expenditure* 38,481,707 

KXTBAORDIXARY EXPENDITURE*. 

Fortifications. _.__ 2,921,772 

Construction of barracks and stores 260,082 

Surreys 248,922 

Improvement of military establishments _ 2,471,688 

Manufacture of ordnance 1,644,52S 

Expenses for temporary construction service 47,674 

Pacification of insurgents in Formosa 1 60,000 

Special corps _ _ _ 247,655 

Post-bellum settlement of Chino-Japanese war 10,370 

Compilation of history of Chino-Japaneee war 50,831 

Special rewards 73,687 

Total extraordinary expenditure* 8,017,119 

•One yen equals $0.60. 

COMPOSITION AND STRENGTH OF THE ARMY ACCORDING TO THE BUDGET OP 

1901-02. 

The composition is as follows : 

Infantry, 52 regiments (156 battalions). 
Cavalry, 17 regiments (51 squadrons). 
Artillery — 

19 regiments field artillery and mountain artillery 

(114 batteries, 6-gun). 
6 regiments and 2 independent battalions fortress 
artillery. 
Engineers, 13 battalions sappers, 1 battalion railroad 

troops. 
Train, 13 battalions. 
Gendarmerie, 13 sections. 



38 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 



The numerical strength is as follows : 
Officers and employees, 8,116. 
Enlisted men, 135,533. 
Horses, 18,880. 
Guns, 456. 

MEXICO. 



Military budget for the fiscal year July 1, 1902, to June SO, 1903, compared 
with the previous year. 

MTIMATM (IN MKXICAN MONEY). 



Branch of the service. 



Office of secretary of war 

General staff, transport service, etc 

Military headquarters of tactical units, military cones, forts, and 

prisons 

Engineers and technical troops 

Artillery and ordnance 

Cavalry 

Infantry , 

Medical department, veterinarians, etc 

Administration of military justice 

Department of rolls, accounts, and special services 

General expenses 

War expenses in Yucatan 

Total 



1901-02. 



$69,336.75 
604,926.21 

189,747.30 

853,939.49 

1,252,731.69 

2,418,172.85 

4,710,617.44 

480,261.63 

469,075.40 

104,080.23 

1,580,000.00 

500,000.00 



13,122,887.79 



68,135.:' 
526, 175.il 

SOI, 510. SO 

927,369.74 
1,270,797.74 
2,427,011.53 
4,668,248.61 

4*2,602.3! 

469, 075.46 

107, 280. 43 
1,560, 000. *> 

600, 000. a » 



IS, 128, 107. 32 



Strength of the army, November, 1902. 



Arm of the service. 



Infantry (28 battalions of 4 companies each, 4 skeleton battalions, 2 regional 

companies) 

Cavalry (14 regiments, 4 skeleton regiments) 

Artillery (2 regiments of field artillery, 1 regiment mountain artillery, 1 regi- 
ment horse artillery, 1 squadron of small-caliber rapid-fire guns, 1 machine- 
gun company, 1 local battery, and 3 local sections) 

Engineers (1 general park, 1 bridge-train company, 1 telegraph section, 1 bat- 
talion of 4 companies of sappers) 

Ordnance department 

Transport service (1 squadron of 2 companies) 

Medical corps 

Veterinary corps . . _. ._ 

Army and general staff, personal staff of president, supreme military tribunal, 
military college, invalid corps, etc.) 



Officers. 



902 

589 



Total. 



47 
76 
11 
139 
17 



3,310 



Koncom- 
sioned offi- 
cers and 
men. 



15, 740 
6,817 



1,5*4 

G6.*. 
306 
41 
298 



COMPOSITION OP THE GENERAL STAFF. 

The personnel of the general staff consists of a general of 
brigade or a " general brigadier ;" the latter is an intermediate 
grade between a general of brigade and a colonel and the title 
is usually shortened to " brigadier." This officer is the chief 
of the corps in the office of the secretary of war. There are 



BUDGETS. 39 

also 6 colonels, 8 lieutenant colonels, 17 majors, and 24 senior 
captains. 

The number of junior captains and lieutenants in the corps, 
either in peace or war, is not fixed, but will depend upon the 
exigencies of the service according to the judgment of the 
war department, depending on the consideration that there 
should always be enough officers to supply the four divisions 
of the Mexican army, over and above the number required in 
the departmental service. 

BUSSIA. 

Military budget for 1903 and 1902. 



Branch of the service. 




Estimate! 
for 1902. 



Central administration 

Local administration 

Technical services and schools 

Medical service and hospitals 

Clothing and equipment 

Rations 

Forage 



Pay. 

Rent and maintenance of buildings 

Building expenses 

Manufacture and improvement of artillery and supplies 

Field and garrison artillery target practice 

Transportation , traveling expenses, couriers, and dispatches. 

Expenses of conscription 

Exercise of reserve troops and militia . 

Expenses of the governorship general of Turkestan ' 

Maintenance of separate corps of gendarmes ' 

Rewards and relief fond j 

Deductions, allowances, and grants toward the formation of pension 

fond - _ ' 

Extraordinary expenses — I 

Expenses of the Kwangtung Peninsula I 

Rearmament | 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Reserve fund 

Expenses on account of the budget for 1904 I 



AaMet.* 

- "32,605 

1M>84,968 

11J16.717 

: 71,306 

33, 806 

16,135 

00,496 

86,424 

85,141 

85,062 

71,636 

3,040,438 

11,892,499 

1,446,146 

2,860,498 

1,398,248 

6,191,066 

4,016,209 

6,633,187 
867,443 
5, 836, 621 
24,688,983 
2,939,790 
4,076,384 
8,596,000 



Total for ministry of war • 329,923,806 



JhiMst.* 

2,969,084 

9, 788,548 

10,190,825 

4,380,077 

20,446,800 

48,688,061 

18,896,819 

71,901,505 

22,135,895 

24, 809, 179 

12,493,872 

2,965,084 

11,367,047 

1,480,895 

2,647,306 

1,404,462 

4,943,878 

4,111,333 

6,391,674 
612,243 
7,088,539 
17,887,610 
2,755,211 
4,707,605 
8,595,000 



322,638,637 



* One ruble equals 90.616. 



40 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Normal peace strength of the army in 1902. 



Arm of the service. 



Infantry : 

6,828 companies, including 6 machine-gun and 21 disciplinary companlea.. 
Cavalry: 

467 squadrons and 823 sotnlas ... 

Artillery: 

479 foot batteries. 



60 hone batteriea . 



30 howitaer batteriea 

20 mountain batteriea 

6 sortie batteriea 

78 flying parka .... 

Engineer*, etc. : 

96 field tapper and 13 fortress aapper companlea 



28 companlea and 1 detachment field telegraph and 7 detachment fortreat 
telegraph troops 



16 pontoon companies . 
36 railroad companies . 



7 field engineer and 2 fortress engineer parks 

• 14 submarine-mining companies (of which 2 are river submarine) . 

8 balloon detachments 

1 instructional balloon park 

Corps military topographers 

Local troops 

Fortress gendarmerie 

Hospitals 

Clergy 

Prisons! 

Military school office 1 

Minister of war 

There are in addition to the normal strength . 

Grand total 

The above is inclusive of the Kwangtung troops of 



24,17« 
6,171 

6,978 



19 
6 



67 I 
115 I 



33,912 



4,**7 

3» 

9,627 

no 
2, ins 

•74,423 



38,412 j 1, 076,453 

318 15, eut 



* Of which about 10,000 are artillery and the remainder Infantry. 

Besides these troops of the active army there are the fol- 
lowing : 

Frontier guards 35] 000 

Manchuria railway guards 16, ODD 

Recruit* drawn for 1902 305,245 

Officers passing from the active army to the reserves . . 625 

Opolchenie or militia : 

Infantry companies.. 1.28P 

Cavalry squadrons.. >*> 

Artillery batteries.. 40 



General staff. 



Generals ... . ..... —.—...«._.._ 53 

Lieutenant generals 107 

Major generals 121 

Colonels 223 

Lieutenant colonels 177 

Captains— ~..—. . . 267 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE ARMY. 
MILITARY DISTRICT, ST. PETERSBURG. 



Guard corps ; headquarters, St. Petersburg. 
First army corps ; headquarters, St. Petersburg. 
Eighteenth army corps ; headquarters, Dorpat. 



BUDGETS. 41 

MILITARY DISTRICT, FINLAND. 

(Headquarters, Helsingfors.) 

Two independent infantry brigades, Russian. 
Fifty-fifth regiment of dragoons, Russian. 

MILITARY DISTRICT, VILNA. 

Second army corps ; headquarters, Grodno. 
Third army corps; headquarters, Vilna. 
Fourth, army corps; headquarters, Minsk. 
Sixteenth army corps; headquarters, Vitebsk. 
Twentieth army corps; headquarters, Riga. 

MILITARY DISTRICT, WARSAW. 

Fifth army corps; headquarters, Warsaw. 
Sixth army corps; headquarters, Warsaw. 
Fourteenth army corps; headquarters, Lublin. 
Fifteenth army corps; headquarters, Warsaw. 
Nineteenth army corps ; headquarters, Brest- Litovsk. 
First cavalry corps; headquarters, Warsaw. 
Second cavalry corps ; headquarters, Warsaw. 

MILITARY DISTRICT, KIEF. 

Ninth army corps; headquarters, Kief. 
Tenth army corps; headquarters, Kharkof. 
Eleventh army corps ; headquarters, Rovno. 
Twelfth army corps; headquarters, Vinnitza. 
Twenty-first army corps; headquarters, Kief. 

MILITARY DISTRICT, ODESSA. 

Seventh army corps; headquarters, Simferopol. 
Eighth army corps; headquarters, Odessa. 

MILITARY DISTRICT, MOSCOW. 

Grenadier corps ; headquarters, Moscow. 
Thirteenth army corps ; headquarters, Smolensk. 
Seventeenth army corps; headquarters, Moscow. 

MILITARY DISTRICT, KAZAN. 

Orenburg Cossacks ; headquarters, Orenburg. 
Ural Cossacks ; headquarters, Uralsk. 
Astrakhan Cossacks ; headquarters, Astrakhan. 



42 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

MIUTABT DISTRICT OF THE DON. 

Don Cossacks; headquarters, Novockerkask. 

MILITARY DISTRICT OF TBR CAUCASUS. 

(Headquarters . Tiflis.) 

First Caucasian army corps; headquarters, Alexandropol. 
Second Caucasian army corps; headquarters, Tiflis. 
Kuban Cossacks; headquarters, Ekaterinodar. 
Terek Cossacks ; headquarters, Vladikavkaz. 

MILITARY DISTRICT, TURKESTAN. 

{Headquarter*, Tashkent.) 

First Turkestan army corps; headquarters, Tashkent. 
Second Turkestan army corps ; headquarters, AskabacL 

MILITARY DISTRICT, SIBERIA. 

(Headquarters, Omsk.) 
Thirteen battalions ; headquarters, Omsk. 

MILITARY DISTRICT OF THE AMUR. 

(Headquarters, Khabarovka.) 

First Siberian army corps; headquarters, Nikolsk-Usurisk. 
Second Siberian army corps ; headquarters, Khabarovka. 
Transbaikal Cossacks; headquarters, Chita. 
Amur Cossacks; headquarters, Blagoveshchensk. 
Usuri Cossacks; headquarters, Vladivostok. 

MILITARY DISTRICT, KWANGTUNO. 

(Headquarters, Port Arthur.) 
Sixteen battalions; headquarters, Talienwan and Port Arthur. 



BUDGETS. 



43 



SPAIN. 



Central administration : 

Personnel 

Material 

Provincial administration : 

Personnel 

Material . 



Military budget for 1902.* 



Pesetas, f 

2,992,048 

333,600 

10,232,575 

364,157 

66,904,504 

100,000 

3,262,180 

1,804,600 

13,351,601 

2,523,096 

123,915 

16,315,710 

2,151,532 

25,000 

2,955,912 

1,031,030 

2,237,484 

5,600,000 

4,809,000 

310,000 

295,210 

5,000,000 

310,288 

21,595,461 

4,654,679 

Total 169,283,552 

lluilget for 1901 148,993,669 



Army proper and auxiliary force* 

Recruiting _ _ 

General officers, including those unassigned, and of the reserve 

Personnel on duty away from their arms or on special services 

Substitute and supernumerary officers, and liquidation commissions of the colonial 

armies 

Military instruction 

Penal establishments 1 

Subsistence 

Quarters, light, and fuel 

Camping „ 

Hospitals 

Transportation 

Horse breeding and remount service 

Artillery material 

engineer stores 

Various and unforeseen expenses 

Military orders with pensions for rewarding special merit 

Bounties for enlistment and reenlistment 

Bent of buildings for military uses _ _j 

Civil guard ._ _ 

Obligations from previous fiscal years _ 



Increase for 1902 20,289,893 

* From Gaceta de Madrid, July 7, 1901. f Peseta equals $0,193. 

Strength of the Spanish Army* 



Army proper : 

General officers 

General staff corps 

Royal corps of halberdiers 

Infantry 

Cavalry 

Artillery 

Engineers .. 

Civil guard 

Carabineros (customhouse guard) _ 

Fortress staff corps 

The train _ 

Corps of veterans 



253 

239 

40 

7,039 

1,678 

1,292 

585 

995 

653 

37 

8 

146 



Enlisted 
men. 



255 
45,725 
12,250 
13, 142 
4,384 
18,554 
14,171 



Total 

Auxiliaries: 

Military justice 

Chaplains 

Administrative service.. 
Sanitary service — 
8urgeons.. 



12,965 



Veterinarians . 

Military equitation corps 

MlliUryoftees. I. 

Brigade of workers and topographer* of the general staff. 

Hospital brigade 

Fortress wardens 



Total 

Urand total . 



105 
335 

980 

612 
137 
205 
76 
340 
14 
88 
112 



2,954 



*rve officers. 



15,919 



386 
881 



2,727 



111,208 



Total. 



253 

239 

295 

62,764 

13,928 

14,434 

4,969 

19,549 

14,824 

37 

8 

146 



121,446 



105 

335 

2,440 

612 
137 
205 
76 
340 
400 
919 
112 



5,681 



127,127 



•Anuario militar de Espana, 1902. 



44 NOTES OF MILITARY INTERE8T FOR 1902. 

COMPOSITION OF THE SPANISH ARMY.* 

Infantry : 

64 regiments, having each 2 four-company battalions; 
armed with Mauser, model 1893, caliber 7 millime- 
ters. Strength of 1 battalion : Peace — 23 officers and 
326 enlisted men; war — 27 officers and 1,000 men. 

57 regiments of reserve. 

20 battalions of rifles. Strength of 1 battalion : Peace — 
. 23 officers and 716 enlisted men; war — 27 officers and 
1,001 men. 
Cavalry : 

28 regiments. Strength of 1 squadron : Peace — 5 officers 
and 100 enlisted men ; war — 5 officers and 150 enlisted 
men. 

14 regiments of reserve. 
Artillery : 

17 regiments of field and mountain artillery, each regi- 
ment consisting of 4 batteries. Strength of 1 battery : 
4 officers, 71-98 enlisted men; 6 guns. 

10 six-company battalions of fortress artillery. Strength 
of 1 company: 4 officers and 88 enlisted men. 

1 regiment of siege artillery. 

4 companies of artillery workers. 

8 depots of reserve artillery. 

Engineer troops : 

4 regiments of sappers. 

1 regiment of pontoniers. 

1 railway battalion. 

1 telegraph battalion. 

1 balloon company. 

1 brigade of topographers. 

1 company of engineer workers. 

8 depots of reserve engineer troops. 

Administrative troops : 
16 companies. 

Hospital corps : 
19 companies. 

Strength and composition of the general staff of the Spanish army on 
January 1, 1902. \ 

Colonel* _ 31 

Lieutenant colonels. -- -- «»3 

Majors 77 

Captains . .. G$ 

Total 239 

* Almatiach tW Gotha, 1902. f Anuario milibir de Kepana, 1A02. 



BUDGETS. 



45 



SWITZERLAND. 
Military budget for the fiscal year 1903 compared unth the previous year. 



Branch of the service. 



I . Admi n i«t ration : 

A. Personnel of administration 

B. Personnel of instruction 

C. Instruction 

P. Clothing 

K. Armament and equipment 

V. Indemnities to officers for equipment 

G. Cavalry horses 

H. Subsidies to volunteer firing; clubs and military societies.-. 

J. War material 

K. Military establishments and fortifications 

L. Fortifications 

M. Topographical serrice 

N. Allowances of pay after death 

0. Commissions and experts - 

P. Printing 

Q. Landsturm 

ft. Cost of administration of the supply of wheat 

S. Allowances for horse depot 

T. Insurance of military persons 

U. Unforeseen expenses 

11. Powder works administration __ 

III. Horse depot 

IV. Construction shops ._ 

V. Military powder factory 

VI. Ammunition factories at Thun and Altorf 

VII. Anus factory 



Franc*. 

1,188,168 

1,383,665 

12,662,778 

3,436,479 

1,884,981 

458,652 

2,627,876 

1,059,200 

1,484,968 

39,300 

986,735 

479,076 

40,000 

15,000 

120,000 

32,000 

35,000 

71,980 

556,000 

2,500 

616,000 

666,980 

358,850 

702,340 

4,620,000 

1,581,600 



Total 37,096,927 34,865,335 



Franc*. 

1,032,695 

1,346,163 

12,583,423 

3,684,752 

1,711,260 

444,210 

2,554,812 

1,041,350 

610,000 

123,000 

949,604 

346,850 

40,000 

16,000 

120,000 

32,000 

36,000 

70,268 

671,000 

2,500 

666,100 

620,268 

462,000 

713,680 

3,813,000 

1,487,400 



Strength of the Swiss army on January 1, 1902. 



[Reported by Maj. G. R. Cecil, United States Military Attache at Bern.] 



Cavalry : 

£lite— 

Guides, 12 companies 

Dragoons, 24 squadrons . 
Maxims, 4 companies 

Reserve (landwehr)— 

Guides, 12 companies 

Dragoons, 24 squadrons . 



Total cavalry . 



Artillery: 
f.Utt— 

Field artillery, 66 batteries 

Fortress artillery, 14 companies 

Position artillery, 10 companies 

Mountain artillery, 4 batteries 

Train troops 

Kesenre— 

Park artillery, 16 companies „ 

Position artillery, 15 companies 

Fortress artillery _ 

Mountain artillery, 4 columns 

Train troops 

Depot park, 8 companies —.. ...... 

Total artillery : 



Noncom- 
missioned 
officers and 
men. 



71 
161 
12 

22 
47 



313 



674 
122 
93 
36 
56 

106 
95 
7 

13 
69 
61 

1,222 



1,439 
3,098 



491 
2,983 



8,200 



10,605 
2,339 
1,956 
928 
1,810 

3,430 
2,778 
113 
368 
3,865 
1,966 

30,148 



46 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Strength of the Sivise army on January 1, 1902— Continue*! . 



Engineer* : 

/.lite— 

Sappers, 18 companies 

Pontoniers, 4 divisions (abtheilungen) . 

Pioneers, 8 companies 

Balloon troops, 1 company 

Reserve- 
Sappers, 16 companies 

Pontoniers, 2 divisions 

Pioneers, 8 companies 

Total engineers 

Infantry : 

£lite, 106 battalions 

Reserve I, 37 battalions — 

Reserve II, 37 battalions ___ 



Total infantry.. 

Sanitary service : 

£lite, 40 ambulances . 



40 ambulances 

3 sanitary trains 

5 transportation columns . 
8 hospital sections 



Total sanitary troops.. 



Administration corps : 

£lite, 8 companies 

Reserve, 8 companies. 



Total administration troops.. 



Staffs-. 



lAndsturm : 

Armed infantry, 420 companies . 
Armed artillery, 23 companies-.. 



Total armed landsturm 

Nonarmed landsturm (aid troops). 



BECAPITVLATION. 



Cavalry, elite and reserve 

Artillery, elite and reserve 

Engineers, elite and reserve 

Infantry, elite and reserve, I and II 

Sanitary service, eiite and reserve 

Administration corps, elite and reserve. 
Staffs 



Total strength of the army, elite and reserve _ 



Landsturm farmed), infantry and artillery. 
Landsturm (nonarmed), aid troops 





N< 




Office rx. 


n&iflSjtoaH 
officer* an 






bb«-o. 


1 


3,& 


51 




K« 


44 




i, a 


6 




l 


i 45 




*,* 



21 

22 



307 



2,904 

1,056 

676 



4,536 



248 

107 
9 
15 



467 



78 



1,703 
109 



313 
1,222 

307 
4,536 

467 

78 

1,123 



8,046 



1,812 



No changes have been made in the organization or arma- 
ment since January 1, 1902. 



II.-FIELD ARTILLERY. 

[Compiled by First Lieut. H. B. Fkboumm; CIiais or Knqinhu.] 



During the yearSweden and Switzerland, after experiments 
extending tferough several years, have adopted the barrel- 
recoil BTrapp field gun. Denmark has selected the same gun. 
Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, and, of the lesser powers, 
Belgium, Brazil, Holland, Greece, and Turkey, continue to 
experiment. 

The guns adopted in 1900 by Russia and Italy are being 
constructed at the home factories. Some have been issued 
to the troops. Germany retains her gun on rigid carriage. 
France is alone in having her field artillery actually armed 
with rapid-fire barrel-recoil guns with shields. 

The relative merits of the two types of guns — carriage 
recoil and barrel recoil— have been discussed at great length, 
especially in Germany. The question of shields has been 
prominent, the issue being between (1) no shields, (2) 7.5- 
centimeter gun with about 3-millimeter shields, and (3) a 
lighter, 5-centimeter, gun with heavier shields. 

In England the importance of heavy mobile guns even to 
the exclusion of field guns, except for horse artillery, has been 
raised. Austria-Hungary has adopted a 10.4-centimeter field 
howitzer. 

EXPERIMENTAL SHIELDS. 

Krupp. — The Krupp firm displayed at the Dusseldorf 
Exposition three shields for field pieces. These shields, of 
chrome steel 3 millimeters in thickness, had been subjected to 
the fire of shrapnel from a 7.5-centimeter piece. 

A battery of four pieces provided with shields was formed, 
an armored caisson rear carriage being placed at the side of 
them, manikins representing the personnel of the first three 
pieces. The whole was intended to represent a French field 
battery in action. 

Thirty 7.5-centimeter shrapnel of 6 kilograms in weight, 
containing steel balls of 10 grams, with bursting interval 
varying from 30 to 130 meters (an average of 65 meters), were 

(47) 



48 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR IMS. 




c 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 



49 




50 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

fired against this objective with an initial velocity of 500 
meters, and at a distance of 3,500 meters. The shields of the 
carriages received 80 balls; 63 pierced them. Of the 16 
manikins (8 erect and 8 seated) placed at the side of the 
pieces, 13 — that is, 81 per cent — were hit. Of the 76 balls 
which hit the caissons, 13 — that is, 17 per cent, piercing the 
shields — lodged in the wood backing. Nine — that is to say, 
75 per cent of the cannoneers kneeling behind the caissons — 
were hit. 

Eleven shrapnel with steel bullets were fired at carriage 
No. 4, near which no manikins had been placed. The shield 
was struck by 55 balls; 30 — that is, 55 per cent — entirely 
pierced it. 

A series of shrapnel filled with lead balls was fired against 
the battery at a distance of 2,000 meters. None of the lead 
balls penetrated the shield; they made only insignificant 
imprints, showing only the bruise made by the ball, but no 
sensible depression on the surface of the shield. 

In another experiment one piece was exposed to infantry 
and artillery fire. One hundred and sixteen shots from 7.9- 
millimeter infantry guns, at distances of 450 and 350 meters, 
were fired against it, and then 18 shrapnel from rapid-fire 
field guns at a distance of 2,000 meters. The targets repre- 
senting the cannoneers were destroyed three times. The 
shield was hit by various projectiles before their explosion; 
the wheel of the elevating gear was badly bent, but it was 
possible to straighten it out again so that it served its pur- 
pose sufficiently well. The quadrant sight was carried away; 
the tire of the left wheel was hit, but the felly below was 
not smashed; one spoke of the wheel was entirely carried 
away. With the piece thus damaged it was possible to 
recommence fire — not a slow fire, but an effective rapid fire. 

"Ehrhardt. — The Ehrhardt firm exhibited seven hard- 
steel plates, two of 3, two of 4, one of 5, one of 6, and one of 
7 millimeters in thickness, which had been subjected, first, to 
a fire of guns of 7.5 centimeters with shrapnel charged with 
hard-steel balls; second, to a rifle fire of 7.9 and of 6.5 milli- 
meters charged with cartridges with ordinary bullets, with 
steel bullets, and with lead bullets with steel points; third, 
to a fire of the Reichenau 5-centimeter gun. 

"Even at 1,500 meters the shrapnel with hard balls had 
effect against only the shields of 3 millimeters; even against 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 51 

these but a small number of the balls which hit them pierced 
them. Against the shields of 4 millimeters the balls had no 
effect at all. The result is contradictory to that obtained 
in the experiments made by Krupp. Before drawing con- 
clusions it will be well to wait until the exact data concerning 
these two series of experiments are made known. As to the 
special rifle projectiles, those of the 7.5-millimeter piece with 
steel points produced the best effects; they pierced at 300 
meters even the shields of 5 millimeters. This is a serious 
danger for the cannoneers protected by the shields." — Revue 
de VArmee Beige, November, 1902. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

New Organization. — According to the new organization, 
the field artillery will consist of 14 regiments of corps artil- 
lery, same as now; 45 regiments of divisional artillery, now 
42; 4 divisions of mountain batteries, 1 for the Tyrol, as 
to-day, and 3 for Bosnia and Herzegovina, now 11 batteries. 

The artillery regiments of the corps artillery will each be 
formed of 2 divisions of field-gun batteries and of 1 division 
of field howitzers, while the regiments of division artillery 
will each have only 2 divisions of field-gun batteries. 

Each division of field-gun batteries will have 3 batteries of 
6 pieces each, in all 36 pieces, until now 32. The increase per 
division will be 4 pieces, so that for all the corps artillery it 
will be 2 X 14 X 4 = 112, and for the divisional artillery 
2 X 45 X 4 = 360 ; the total increase being 472 field guns. 

The 14 divisions of howitzer batteries will be formed each 
of 3 batteries of 6 howitzers ; that is, in all, of 252 howitzers. 

Of the 45 regiments of divisional artillery, 44 will be at- 
tached to the divisions corresponding to the infantry troops. 
The Forty-fifth regiment will form a school regiment, which 
can also be employed in case of mobilization. 

The Tyrol mountain artillery, now 4 batteries of 4 pieces 
each and 1 reserve cadre, will be 5 batteries of 4 pieces each. 
The Bosnian and Herzegovinian mountain artillery, now 11 
batteries of 4 pieces each, will henceforth comprise 3 divisions 
of mountain batteries, each formed of 4 batteries of 4 pieces 
each, necessitating the organization of a new mountain bat- 
tery of 4 pieces. The grand total of mountain guns will be 68. 

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as in the Tyrol, the 
field batteries for narrow passes are also attached to the 



52 NOTE3 OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

divisions of mountain batteries. — Revue Militaire Suisse, 
August, 1902. 

Field Gun. — The experiments for the choice of a carriage 
continue. For this purpose a half million of crowns has been 
inscribed in the budget of 1902-03. On the other hand, the 
ammunition and the gun have already been adopted. This 
latter, in bronze steel, will be provided, according to the 
Vienna journals, with an eccentric obturator with a screw of 
the Nemetz system. The experiments will be continued 
through the winter to test the new guns under variations of 
weather and temperature, for which tests such an abnormally 
open winter as the last gave no opportunity. On the result 
of these experiments depends whether the question can be 
decided in the spring of 1903 or whether it must be postponed. 

Mountain Gun. — "The new mountain guns of 7.2 centi- 
meters, with which the new batteries of the Tyrol will be 
armed on October 1 next, were recently experimented with on 
the firing grounds of Oerkeny (southeast of Budapest). The 
characteristic of the new piece is a trail spade with a spring, 
which catches in the ground and limits the recoil from the 
time the shot is fired. The spring then brings the piece back 
to its first position. According to the Reichswehr, the range 
of the new mountain gun will be 4,750 meters, and its rapidity 
of fire can be brought to eight rounds per minute." — Bulletin 
de la Presse, etc., June SO, 1902. All the mountain batteries 
will be equipped during the winter. 

Howitzer. — The new howitzers are to be made at the 
Vienna arsenal and of hardened bronze (Uchatius's process). 
Each of the fourteen army corps is to be provided with three 
of these new howitzer batteries. 

An Austrian artillery officer states that the reasons why 
bronze instead of steel is used in the manufacture of the guns 
of the Austro-Hungarian artillery are : First, and most im- 
portant for his Government, bronze is much cheaper than 
nickel steel ; second, the Austrians believe that they under- 
stand the manufacture of bronze better than other people do; 
and finally, the special bronze of which their guns are made 
has given satisfactory results. 

The caliber is 10.4 centimeters. The weight of the howitzer 
is to be 395 kilograms, and that of its carriage 550 kilograms. 
Both shell and shrapnel will be used, the former weighing 
about 14 and the latter about 12 kilograms. The minimum 
charge will weigh 0.125 kilogram, which is to give an initial 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 53 

velocity of 150 meters; the maximum charge will weigh 0.31 
kilogram, which is to give an initial velocity of 300 meters. 
The heavier charge is intended for shrapnel only. The car- 
riages have no shields. 

c ' In the experiments with the new howitzer with the troops, 
several alterations in the carriage suggested themselves ; they 
are not of an essential nature and do not disturb the carriage 
system, but only concern small details. In the equipment of 
the new howitzer batteries, no loss of time has resulted from 
these alterations, for the carriage model is finished and proven, 
and patterns have been made by the private firms who are 
concerned in the furnishing of these carriages. In a short 
time the announcement of the delivery of the same may fol- 
low. It is to be hoped that the construction of the howitzer 
tubes, as well as of the carriages and of the other material 
belonging thereto, will have progressed so far that in the 
spring of 1903 the setting up of the new howitzer may be 
begun." — Neue Milittirische Blatter. 

Construction of Batteries. — Regulations have been is- 
sued in Austria-Hungary for the construction of batteries 
in the field. The training for time of peace is prescribed. 
Chapter I of the regulations gives the fundamental princi- 
ples of battery construction, definitions, and descriptions of 
the various elements, including gun platforms. Chapter II 
concerns the rapid construction and later reenforcement of 
batteries for field and siege guns. Chapter III gives the 
principles of the location, grouping, and construction of bat- 
teries of attack and their accessories. Chapter IV treats of 
temporary batteries in fortified places. The appendix con- 
tains tables giving the various dimensions, materials, tools 
and equipment, personnel, and transportation necessary for 
the above works. Type drawings of the various works are 
also given, but these and the regulations are intended as a 
guide, the actual works to be governed largely by local 
conditions. 

FRANCE. 

Though newspapers have stated that the secrets of the recoil 
8ystem of the French gun had been sold by a French soldier, 
tins report has been denied. The Schiveizerische Zeitschrift 
of November, 1902, prints the following concerning this brake : 

"The recoil energy of the barrel, when a round is fired, is 
taken up by a hydraulic brake. The return of the barrel is 



54 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1908. 

the result of the expansion of the air compressed in recoil, 
hence the name hydropneumatic. 

"Essentially the arrangement of these parts is as follows: 
Beneath the gun barrel are three cylinders (Fig. 3), 1 is the 
cylinder of the hydraulic brake, 2 is the pneumatic recupera- 
tor, while 3 is the air reservoir. The three cylinders remain 
motionless in firing, being firmly fastened to the upper car- 
riage while the piston rod and piston of the hydraulic brake 
and of the pneumatic recuperator, carried back by the barrel 
in firing, are drawn out from the cylinder. In the recupera- 
tor, 2, and air reservoir, 3, the air is under a certain pressure 

-* JSt 



li ,M ' 



=^-^ 

-n e 



i 

Fiff. 3. 

which suffices to hold the barrel in place under all conditions. 
In firing, the air behind the piston of the recuperator and 
hence that of the channel of connection is still further com- 
pressed ; after the shot it expands again and thus forces the 
piston of the recuperator and with it the barrel to its normal 
position. In this position the mark on the right outer side 
of the barrel must coincide with the mark on the upper car- 
riage. In addition there is another mark on the barrel which 
probably indicates the distance which the barrel may remain 
behind the normal position." 

Commenting on some firing trials with this gun, the Revue 
de VArmte Beige states that "in practice, even after the 
first shot has driven in the spade, the derangement of the 
pointing caused by the following shots is not nil, but requires 
correction continually." 

The results obtained with a battery of four guns were that 
in three minutes they swept, without a gap, a breadth of 200 
meters and depth of 450 meters at a range of 2,500 meters. 

The field artillery has been increased by two batteries, 
which, with two mountain batteries and four foot batteries, 
have, by circular of December 6, 1902, been created and form 
the third regiment of colonial artillery, formerly a skeleton 
organization. 

The French have developed and definitely adopted as essen- 
tial elements of their system of rapid-firing field artillery, 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 55 

complete methods for indirect fire and for the supply of 
ammunition to the fighting batteries. 

Officers are still at work on a field howitzer to be lighter 
than the present 12-centimeter field howitzer. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE RESUPPLY OF AMMUNITION IN THE 

FIELD.* 

{Approved Anguat 1, 1902, to replace those of December 9, 1893.) 

Article I. 

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE SUPPLY. 

1. The ammunition of an army is distributed as follows: (1) The am- 
munition of the line of battle ; (2) ammunition of the parks of the army 
corps ; (3) ammunition of the grand artillery park of the army. 

2. The details of the ammunition of the line of battle and of the corps 
park are given in table, page 62. 

3. Army Corps Park. — The normal army corps park is divided into 
three parts called "echelons/' each commanded by a major and all under 
the orders of a colonel or lieutenant colonel. 

The first "echelon" of a normal army corps park comprises: Three 
sections of 7.5-centimeter ammunition; one section of 8-centimeter am- 
munition; two sections of infantry ammunition. The second "echelon" 
comprises three sections of 7.5-centimeter ammunition; three sections of 
infantry ammunition. The third "echelon" comprised two park sections 
and one section for repair. 

The units of the first two "echelons" are interchangeable among them- 
selves. All the ammunition of the ammunition sections is carried in the 
caissons. The park sections carry only the artillery ammunition ; this is 
usually packed in white cases and loaded on the park wagons ;f the sec- 
tions for repair have with them spare 7. 5 centimeter guns with chests filled, 
forges and wagons containing the supplies, and spare parts necessary for 
repairing the artillery and the equipment of the army corps. 

4. The Grand Artillery Park of the Army.— To each army is at- 
tached a grand artillery park for the purpose of assuring the resupply of 
ammunition of the corps parks and to furnish them with the spare pieces 
and caissons of 7. 5 centimeters and with special supplies. It i9 commanded 
by a colonel or lieutenant colonel, who is at the same time in command 
of the artillery along the lines of communication. All the ammunition 
which it carries is in white cases. The whole amount of the ammunition 
°f the grand park, collected for each one of the army corps, is called a 
division of the grand artillery park of the army. 

Bach division of the grand park of the army is divided into four ele- 
ments (first, second, third, and fourth below), among which are distrib- 
uted five equal lots of ammunition. The first two elements are arranged 
for the direct resupply of the army corps: 

First. The artillery park of the line of communication has one-fifth of 
the grand park ammunition, all on transport wagons. 

* Only the part referring to artillery ammunition has been translated. 
fSome now on caissons of 90, altered, to be replaced. 



56 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

Second. Depot for first has one-fifth of ammunition packed ready far 
transportation. This depot may also contain material for repair. 

Third. Railway station reserves, which has one-fifth of ammunition. 

Fourth. The arsenal reserve has two -fifths of ammunition and one sec 
tion of the reserve carries spare material and material for repair, 12 guns. 
12 caissons, and 10 white boxes of 75 centimeter ammunition. 

Article II. 

POSITION OP RESUPPLY UNITS IN MARCHING AND DURING COMBAT. 

1. The line of battle is connected with the corps park by the group of 
"echelons of battery" [battery on war footing minus "fighting battery, :< 
line 15, table A, p. 87] at 500 meters or more from the batteries engaged. 

2. Army Corps Park.— In marching, the first "echelon" usually 
marches at the head of the fighting train (train de combat) of tbe corps. 
The other parts of the park march at the place indicated in the order for 
the march. 

When engaged in action, the artillery commander, after having received 
the instructions of the corps commander, designates to the commander of 
the park the points or zones which would be most convenient to fix upon 
as the most advanced centers of resupply. According to these indications, 
or on his own initiative, in case no orders are received, the commander of 
the park orders the positions of the echelons on the ground and fixes the 
duties of each. 

The ammunition sections will not halt on the way except in cases of 
absolute necessity ; then they will arrange themselves, in file, on the right 
side, avoiding as much as possible the left side. Whenever possible, they 
will form a park in the neighboring terrain, leaving openings in all direc 
tions. The ammunition sections are marked during the day by a yellow 
pennon for the infantry ammunition, blue for the artillery ammunition ; 
during the night by lanterns of the same color as the pennons. Where a 
section leaves the route, a man with a pennon or lantern is stationed. 
The ammunition sections gather up as much as possible the arms, am 
munition, and material of the army abandoned on the field of battle. 

The park sections are indicated by blue and yellow signals together on 
the same wagon. 

3. Grand Artillery Park of the Army.— The artillery park of the 
line of communication is kept, under the command of the director of lines 
of communication, at such a distance from the army corps that its march 
is not hindered and that the resupply of the army, if it becomes necessary, 
may be rapidly effected. 

When the line of communication is organized, the artillery park of the 
line of communication is usually sent to the head of the line of communi- 
cation (end of railroad). 

The depot of the park is placed under the command of the director of 
the lines of communication of the directing station. The railroad trains, 
consisting each of a train stationed in the depot situated in the zone of 
action of the directing commission, supply the army. 

The reserves are organized like the preceding echelons, and the arsenal 
reserve is organized in proportion to the expenditure according to the 
orders of the minister, which should be solicited if necessary. 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 



57 



Article III. 

PRINCIPLES OF RESUPPLY AND THE NECESSARY CONNECTIONS. 

Each resupply unit is strictly charged to keep in touch with the units 
or troops which are in advance, so that no one will have to look back. 
The fighting troops especially should be freed from all preoccupation as 
regards their own resupply. 

On the field of battle promptitude should be valued above regularity. 
When not on the field of battle, both are demanded. 

The personnel given in the following table for the communication 
service should be regarded as a minimum : 



The agent*. 



Communications to be established. 



Cases in which they are 
established. 



1 officer 

1 noncommissioned officer _ 



1 noncommissioned officer | 
and 1 cyclist. 



1 cyclist (corporal or can- 
noneer). 

1 noncommissioned officer 
and cyclist. 

1 mounted cannoneer 



1 noncommissioned officer 
and 1 corporal. 



1 corpora] . 



Between the general commander of artil- 
lery and the commander of the park. 

Between the commander of the park and 
each one of the colonels commanding 
the divisional artillery of the corps. 



Between the commander of the park and 
each one of the echelon commanders 
under his orders. 

Between the second and third echelons 
of the army corps park. 

Between the first and the second and 
third echelons of the army corps park. 

Between the commander of an echelon 
and each section under his orders. I 

Between each section of ammunition of 
artillery and the commander of the 
group of echelons of battery. 

Between each section of infantry ammu- 
nition or each detachment of that sec- i 
tion and the chief artificer of each of 
the regiments to be resupplied. I 



Under all circumstances. 



From the time the com- 
mander of the park re- 
ceives the indication of the 
points or zones of resupply. 

Under all circumstances. 



Under all circumstances. 



Under all circumstances. 



At the beginning of the 
march. 

From the time the section 
has received nn assign- 
ment. 

From the time the section 
has received an assign- 
ment. 



The commanding general of the artillery should also take measures so 
as to be able to announce without delay to the generals commanding the 
divisions that ammunition sections, or parts of ammunition sections, are 
ready to be placed at the disposition of the troops under their orders. 

Article IV. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE SERVICE FOR THE RESUPPLY OF AMMUNITION. 

1. The general commanding the artillery of the army corps is responsi- 
ble for the resupply of the troops with ammunition, and gives instructions 
to the commander of the park. 

He informs the general commanding the corps as to the number of sec- 
tions of ammunition which have been placed at the disposition of the 
troops engaged. This information is supplemented by that which may be 
obtained from the troops in the course of action. 

2. The commander of the park, guided by the instructions wnich he has 
received or requests from the general commanding the artillery, enjoys a 



58 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

great initiative to assure their execution as far as the means at his disposal 
allow. 

In marching, at a distance from the enemy, he usually commands the 
park and the convoys of the army corps when they march together. Near 
the enemy, he usually marches with the first echelon of the park. He 
may before an engagement and at the order of the general commanding 
the artillery, march with that general officer. 

From the time when he receives from him the orders relative to the 
various echelons of the park, or when in case of emergency he has himself 
made choice of the positions, he will then give notice to the commanders 
of the echelons ; then by means of the reconnoissances made by the officers 
under his orders, or by the officers selected by the general staff of the 
echelons, he will have the communications with the line of battle made, 
studying the terrain to the rear of the troops. 

As soon as he has received from the general commanding the artillery, 
after, when there was need, having requested it, the information relative 
to the placing of the first elements of the grand artillery park of the army, 
he informs the commander of the last echelon and, if possible, those of 
the first two. 

8. The commander of an advanced echelon of the corps park, after 
having, according to the order of the commander of the park, conducted 
his echelon to the point of separation which has been assigned to him, 
makes sure according to the instructions which have been given him, of 
the organization of the resupply service of the line of battle, and, in the 
absence of orders supplies them himself, but he remains always in com- 
munication with the commander of the park and renders an account to 
him of the measures he has taken at his own initiative ; he will keep 
him informed, in particular, of modifications he makes in the placing 
of the ammunition sections and as to the number of sections of which he 
makes use. 

The terrain surrounding the position which the section occupies should 
be explained by him and the relation to the neighboring troops, if possi- 
ble, so that measures of safety may be taken in good time. 

He should always have at his disposition at least one artillery ammu- 
nition section and one unbroken half section of infantry ammunition. For 
this purpose he summons, when desired and in succession, the ammunition 
sections of the echelon which follows him. 

After having caused those ammunition sections which were only broken 
to be filled out as much as possible, he sends to the rear the empty ammu- 
nition sections, sending them, according to the orders which he has received, 
either to the third echelon of the corps park of the army or to the advanced 
echelons of the grand artillery park of the army. 

He takes under his command the ammunition sections which come to 
him from the rear. 

4. The commander of an echelon of the second line of the corps park in- 
stalls his section at the point which has been assigned to him as his station, 
sends to the echelon in front the units which are demanded of him and 
receives under his command the ammunition sections which after resup- 
ply ing return from the rear. 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 59 

5. The commander of the last echelon of a corps park installs his echelon 
at the point assigned him as his station, refills the empty artillery ammu- 
nition sections which are sent to him by means of the park sections, or of 
certain of their divisions which he has received the order to make advance ; 
he takes measures to resupply the sections of the park from the most ad- 
vanced parts of the grand artillery park of the army, according to the 
orders which he has received from the commander of the park. If these 
parts are sufficiently near they may be called to resupply directly the 
ammunition sections of the artillery. In any case they resupply directly 
the ammunition sections of the infantry. 

The commander of the last echelon takes for the time being under his 
command the units which have operations to execute at the point where 
his echelon is stationed and then insures their return to point where the 
echelon of the second line is stationed. 

He sends to the point which has been fixed for him the number of can- 
nons which have been demanded from him by the commander of the park. 

6. The director of the grand artillery park of the army is informed at the 
same time as the corps commanders by the director of the line of commu- 
nication, of the points where the various elements of the artillery park of 
the line of communication are connected with the equipment of the army 
corps. He transmits the orders for execution to the commander of the 
artillery park of the line of communication, adding thereto the particular 
instructions and making provision for the personnel which the park of the 
line of communication should detach for the purpose of reloading the 
ammunition. 

When the routes of communication are organized ammunition depots 
are made for the branch of tbe line of communication, the number being 
increased with the length of the route of communication. 

Usually retrograde movements of the wagons of the army corps are 
avoided and the effort is made to make the ammunition resupply by means 
of a continuous movement of the wagons of the park of the line of com- 
munication from the rear toward the front. 

The detachments of the army corps park which come for the purpose of 
resupplying pass for the time being, as far as concerns this service, under 
the orders of the director of the grand park. 

On the other hand the director of the grand park receives from the di- 
rector of the line of communication an indication of the points, days, and 
hours when and where the artillery park of the line of communication 
should present itself for resupply from the railroad trains. 

Under the same conditions as in the case of the artillery park of the 
line of communication, the railroad trains may be called upon to resupply 
directly the parks of the army corps. 

Article V. 

[This article concerns resupply of infantry ammunition.] 

Article VI. 

THE RESUPPLY OF THE 7. 5- CENTIMETER ARTILLERY AMMUNITION. 

&* general the artillery ammunition sections are not divided. 
When the captain commanding an ammunition section has been advised 
*» to the troops he is to resupply, he collects before his departure all the 



60 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

information which concerns the position of the troops. He informs him- 
self as to the position of the groups of echelons of batteries with which 
he is to enter into communication. He reconnoiters the terrain in the 
rear of the troop to be resupplied, and establishes there his section in s 
position favorable to the movement of the wagons, about 1,000 or 1,500 
meters from the groups of echelons of battery. He establishes his com- 
munications with the commanders of these groups, sending them under the 
conduct of a guard the number of caissons required, and, eventually, 
the number of men and horses which he is ordered to furnish ; he follows 
the groups of echelons of battery in their movements, and in that esse 
takes the measures necessary so that the commttnication agents and the 
wagons of the section may be able to find them. 

When a commander of an echelon of battery has sent the caissons which 
were demanded, he advises the commander of the group of echelons of 
battery to which he belongs thereof, and sends back to him a voucher of 
the ammunition on which he will take care to indicate the number of the 
battery. The commander of the group of echelons of battery seeks to 
find the same number on the caissons in the ammunition section with 
which he is connected. 

The commander of the group of echelons of battery distributes among 
them, according to their needs, the caissons which are sent to him from 
the ammunition section ; each chief of an echelon of battery, aided by a 
quartermaster sergeant, superintends the resupply. The caissons arriving 
from the ammunition sections are placed at the side of the empty caissons. 
The ammunition is reloaded. The rear train of caissons should be filled 
first. 

If one of the firing batteries detaches itself from the group, its echelon 
follows it ; it is accompanied by the communication corporal of the am- 
munition section. The resupply of the isolated battery is accomplished 
according to the preceding principles, the chief of the echelon entering in 
direct relations with the ammunition section. 

If the three batteries of the group separate, the commander of the group 
of echelons of battery takes measures to insure direct communication of 
each echelon of battery with the ammunition section. He makes use for 
this purpose of one from the noncommissioned grades of these echelons. 

The effort should not be made, during the combat, to reinstate the 
batteries in their normal effective, but only to furnish them, with the aid 
of the resources of the echelons of battery, with the men and horses neces- 
sary to continue the fire and to take care of all their wagons. 

If the resources of the echelons of battery are not sufficient, the men, 
the horses, and the spare guns are demanded from the general commander 
of the artillery of the corps of the army by the commander of the division 
artillery or of the corps. 

In this case the horses and the men are furnished by the ammunition 
section at the same time that they resupply the groups of echelons of 
battery. The guns are immediately sent directly from the repair section 
upon the order of the commander of the park as has been indicated in 
Article IV. 

When an ammunition section is about to be exhausted, the captain who 
commands it informs the commander of the echekm, who takes measures 



FIELD- ARTILLERY. 61 

to have it replaced; when the caissons are empty, he guides them to a 
separate position and there takes the orders relative to the resupply. 

After being resupplied, he returns to place himself with his section 
under the orders of the commander of the second echelon. 

Article VII. 

RESUPPLY OF AMMUNITION FOR THE 8-CENTIMETER HORSE BATTERIES. 

The resupply of ammunition for the 8 centimeter horse batteries .is 
made according to the same principles as for the 7.5-centimeter batteries. 
There are only the following differences : 

The caissons of the firing battery are entirely replaced, as well as the 
personnel which is thereto attached, by a same number of caissons de- 
manded from the group of echelons of battery. 

The resupply of the echelon of battery is effected by a reloading of 
ammunition. 

The 8-centimeter ammunition section may be divided, each part being 
placed under the command of an officer. It may also be detached from 
the first echelon of the ammunition sections and sent into the zone of the 
field of battle which borders on that where the independent cavalry 
operates. In this case the chief of that section remains alone responsible 
for the resupply of the batteries attached to this cavalry. He resupplies 
his section after the combat by leading the whole or a part back to the 
park sections which have been indicated to him as the position of the 
depots of the grand artillery park from which he shall receive his 
resupply. 

Article VIII. 

RESUPPLY AFTER THE COMBAT. 

After the combat the resupply is continued according to the principles 
given above, at the place if possible, otherwise at the bivouac or canton- 
ment, even during the night. The ammunition supply is filled according 
to the resources at hand, first the batteries and wagons of the company, 
then the ammunition sections, and finally the park sections. The cavalry 
troops of the corps of the army are resupplied with cartridges for portable 
arms by the ammunition sections of the infantry. 

Except under exceptional circumstances and by the special order of the 
commander of the corps of the army, neither the caissons of the battery 
nor the wagons of the company are sent to the rear to be resupplied. 

Article IX. 

GENERAL RULES CONCERNING THE DEIJVERY OF AMMUNITION. 

During action, the commanders of battalions or troops isolated for the 
time being, the chiefs of detachments, the chiefs of groups of wagons of 
the company, the commanders of batteries or of the echelons of batteries 
are qualified to sign demands for ammunition. All demands for ammu- 
nition are honored immediately, no matter in what form made. 

Should a detachment of wagons, or a party, present themselves without 
a written demand for resupply, the commander nevertheless satisfies the 



C2 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 



verbal demand addressed to him. In this case he demands a receipt for 
the amount of ammunition given out, if possible, entered in the, stub 
book, model No. 3. 

When not on the field of battle all of the demands should be counter 
signed by the chief of the corps or detachment, and for the artillery units 
by the commander of the group. 

The demands should never exceed the known necessities, the chiefs of 
the corps having always the right to send supplementary demands, if 
necessary. 

The day after the combat, the first thing in the morning, each corps of 
the infantry troop or the cavalry, each unit of the artillery or of the 
equipment train, make a list for the purpose of obtaining the amount of 
ammunition necessary to reestablish the original supply of men and 
of wagons. These lists, made according to models 1 and 2, are sect 
through the regular channels to the general commander of the corps of 
the army and transmitted without delay to the general commander of 
artillery. 

The general commander of the artillery corps of the army makes a 
summary of these lists ; that is to say. a report indicating the condition of 
the ammunition of the army corps, the material needed, etc. This report 
is sent to the general commanding the army corps. 

If a corps, of which the ammunition is exhausted, is no longer in com- 
munication with the parks and finds itself near a fortified place, the 
governor of this place may not. except upon the special authorization of 
the minister, resupply it except from the ammunition which he has at bis 
disposal beyond the normal defense supply. He must immediately render 
an account to the minister of the ammunition which he has given and 
demand that it should be replaced, if necessary. 

Table indicating the distribution of the supply of ammunition in the 

army corps. 





Infantry — number of carl 
Carried hy — 


ridges. 

Per 

man. 

120.0 

66.6 

(2.6) 

186.6 


Artillery — number of rounds. 


General composition 
of the ammunition 


Carried by — 


Per piece. 


supply. 


Of 7.6 
cm. 
field 
gun. 


Of* cm. 
hon»» 
artil- 
lery. 


Of the line of tattle 


The men 


The batt jry chests _ 


S12.0 


142.0 




The field wagons 

The baggage wagons 

Total 

First echelon (ammuni- 
tion sections). 

Second echelon (ammu- 
nition section*)- 

Third echelon (park sec- 
tions and section for 
repair) . 

Total 

Grand total 














! 




312.0 


ltt.0 








Of the army corps park__ 


66.2 


62.6 
62.6 
64.3 


3»- « 












" 














110.4 


189.6 


365.6 




2U6. 9 


601.5 


497.6 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 63 

GERMANY. 

No reports have been published concerning official experi- 
ments in Germany, other than vague notes that expensive 
experiments are being made by the Krupp and the Erhardt 
firms, and at least part of these experiments are under super- 
vision of the "artillery commission." 

"The Revue Militaire des Armies Etrangdrcs sums up as 
follows the state of opinion in Germany : 

" * There are three parties, each having at its head an emi- 
nent officer. 

" *1. The artillery general, von Hoffbauer, represents the 
party in statu quo. He believes in the present cannon (M. 
1896 with rigid carriage) and that it will be at least twenty 
years before the new ideas are put into a practical form. 

" '2. General Reichenau disapproves of the 7.5-centimeter 
caliber and of the most commended properties of the barrel- 
recoil carriage; then, rejecting shrapnel also, he disapproves 
of the firing method based on the dispersion of a great num- 
ber of shrapnel balls and returns to that method which is 
based on the effectiveness of single shots carefully aimed. 
He sacrifices all to the shield, favoring the use of shell only, 
the reduction of the caliber of the piece to 5 centimeters so as 
to add the weight gained to the armor plate ; he recognizes 
fully the inefficiency of the shields for the material of 7.5 
centimeters. 

'"3. General Rohne, after having long combatted the 
barrel-recoil carriage, is to-day an ardent admirer of the 
French material of 7.5 centimeters. According to him, 
everything is complete in this material, and if certain parts 
are adopted, it would be better to take the entire system 
(batteries with four pieces, wooden caissons, firing regula- 
tions, etc.). He says that an imperfect protection is better 
than no protection at all. 

" c In short, in Germany the material actually in use (M. 
1896) has many partisans, despite the preference which has 
been shown in certain countries for the barrel-recoil system. 
As to the reformers, they do not agree among themselves, 
and the partisans of the French type regard the shields with 
a certain disfavor. Another factor tending to delay decision 
is the state of the finances of the Empire.' 

"After two years of experiments no definite decision has 
Wu reached. But if confidence may be placed in the press, 



64 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

a provisional solution of the problem is to be made. The 
present gun tube will be retained, as well as the projectile* 
which wauld form the most expensive part of a new arma- 
ment. The carriage alone will be modified. It is estimated 
that the cost of this change will not exceed 12,500,000 francs. 
If this is the case, it can not be intended to completely replace 
the carriage, as this would cost at least three or four times as 
much, even if the number of pieces in a battery were reduced 
from six to four. Hence only changes in detail will be made, 
thus obtaining a delay in which the experiments may be con- 
tinued. As to what will be the nature of these modifications, 
opinions are different. Some say that the shields are not 
desired; others affirm, on the contrary, that the adoption of 
the shield is the chief motive determining the change. This 
alone would necessitate the replacing of the entire material, 
tube and projectiles included. However this may be, Ger- 
many will perhaps increase to a small degree the possible 
rapidity of fire, a certain protection will be assured to the 
cannoneers, probably at a sacrifice as regards the increased 
weight; but the piece will only fire a projectile of 6.85 kilo- 
grams with an initial velocity of 465 meters." — Revisia di 
Artileria e Genio, December, 1902. 

The London Times of February 20, 1903, says that "the 
Socialist journal Vorwiirts states that a short time back a 
certain number of 3.5-inch guns were sent to the Krupp works 
for conversion. The expense of the conversion of the whole 
of the German field guns would reach nearly £2,000,000, in- 
cluding the cost of shields, but there still exists great differ- 
ence of opinion as to whether these latter are necessary or 
not." 

The light field howitzer seems to have fallen into great dis- 
credit. Just what will be the result is not known. Some 
rumors suggest it will be turned over to the foot artillery, 
others that it will be modified. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

In December, 1902, the experiments with field guns were 
still being continued. No official announcements have been 
made public. A description of the Ehrhardt gun, modified, 
which gun was reported in various papers to have been 
adopted, is given below. 



FIELD ARTILLERY. G5 

Fainting Guns. — A novel experiment has been made at 
Aldershot, England, whereby guns have been rendered almost 
invisible at a little distance. By an ingenious scheme of 
painting the guns and limbers rainbow fashion with the 
three primary colors — red, blue, and yellow — they have been 
found to harmonize with any sort of ground or background 
so admirably that at a small distance they are difficult to 
locate. Six guns so painted were placed on the Fox Hills, 
and the artillery officers at Aldershot were invited to try and 
locate them at about 3,000 yards with field glasses, and 
although all knew the direction in which they lay, none 
were able to pick them all up. Some horse artillery sent 
forward to engage the guns advanced to within 1,000 yards 
before they located them. At close quarters the gun appears 
all daubs and streaks. The idea is said to have been origi- 
nated by Captain Sykes, of the Yorkshire militia. — Canadian 
Military Gazette. 

Paid Specialists. — A. O. 96, May, 1902, prescribed that 
among the number of noncommissioned officers and men who 
may be paid for special duties there shall be : In each battery 
of horse, field, and mountain artillery, 12 gun layers, of 
ranks below sergeant. The pay is 3s. per day in addition to 
ordinary pay. 

Heavy Artillery. — Earl Roberts is reported assaying: 
"The most important of the many lessons learned in the 
South African war, to my mind, is the necessity for including 
heavy long-range guns as part of the equipment of every 
field army." Under the heading, "Do we need field artil- 
lery ?" an article, by General Murray, K. C. B., R. A., appeared 
in the August and September Proceedings R. A. Institution. 
Among other things, he said: "The demands .of peace are 
always for increased mobility ; the demands of war are always 
for heavier shell power. We have not sufficient fast-moving 
(horse) artillery for our wants, more especially having regard 
to the fact that the importance of mobility is receiving 
increased attention, and that it is probable that in the future 
we shall have a much more largely increased use of mounted 
troops than in the past. We have not a sufficient proportion 
of heavy artillery for our field troops; call this artillery 
heavy field artillery, position artillery, or what not. I mean 
guns possessing the maximum of shell power consistent with 
a sufficient modicum of pace and mobility to keep well up 

829 6 



GG NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

with dismounted troops. Is it necessary to maintain an inter- 
mediate class of artillery, which is too fast for the infantry. 
and too slow to keep pace with the cavalry?" 

THE NEW 15-POUXMSR QUICK-FIRING FIELD ARTILLERY GUN. 

(From "This Kngixker," Loxixjx, May 16, 1902.) 

We give this week a full description, with detail drawings and illustra- 
tions, of the new German quick-firing field artillery gun of 3 inches caliber, 
together with its carriage, which has been adopted for service in .the 
British army, after a series of exhaustive trials at Oakhampton shooting 
ranges, during which its power of range and accuracy, as well as the 
complete success of the arrangements devised for the absorption of the 
shock of recoil on firing, have been most satisfactorily proved. The diffi- 
culties which were encountered at the first onset, as regards the fragile 
character of the wheels and sundry fractures of the axletree beds and 
telescopic carriage trails, have been ascertained to be the result only of 
accidental defects in manufacture or of local weakness in certain features, 
and such difficulties have been easily remedied. 

A technical description of the gun is as follows : The material is nickel 
steel ; total length, 90 inches ; average weight, 737 pounds ; caliber, 3 inches: 
. length of bore, 85.79 inches, or 28.6 calibers; diameter of chamber, front 
3.094 inches, rear 3.153 inches; length of chamber, 8.11 inches; system of 
rifling, polygroove, twist increasing from one turn in 60 calibers at breech 
to one turn in 25 calibers at 5.8 inches from muzzle, remainder uniform, 
one turn in 25 calibers; length of rifling, 77.67 inches; grooves — num- 
ber 23, depth 0.0295 inch, width 0.237 inch; means of rotation, copper 
driving band. 

The gun is without trunnions, and consists of an A tube, over which is 
shrunk a jacket, secured by a steel screwed ring, A (Plate I). Shrunk 
on the gun are also two steel guide rings, B and C, the lower portion of 
the front ring, B, being formed to receive the buffer cylinder, which is 
screwed into it. The portions of the guide rings which bear on the sur- 
face of the cradle are of bronze, and, together with a plane formed on the 
underside of the jacket at the breech, support and guide the gun during 
its travel on the cradle. The chamber is slightly coned to facilitate 
extraction of the cartridge case. 

The breech is closed by an interrupted screw, divided so that one-tenth 
turn locks or unlocks it. The center of the breechblock is recessed 
to receive the firing mechanism, and is formed at its rear end with an 
interrupted rim, having four projections which engage in corresponding 
recesses in the carrier. In the rear face of the block is a groove for 
receiving the head of a securing pin, and in the rim a recess for the lock- 
ing bolt. Secured by screws to the right of the breechblock is a screwed 
toothed segment in which a screwed pinion of the hand lever engages. 

The carrier E, which holds the breechblock, is pivoted to the right side 
of the breech by the hand-lever pin, and contains the firing mechanism. 
The rear portion of the carrier is formed at F to receive a wedge, by 
means of which the gun is fired, and is provided at the end with a screw 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 



67 




i 



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to 



a 
•a 

§ 



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68 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

cover, which also holds in position a bronze bosh, the latter forming a 
stop for the mainspring of the firing mechanism. 

The two hinges of the carrier are provided^ with projections, H, which 
strike against the short arm of the extractor, and actuate the latter. 

On the left of the carrier there is a projection containing a recess for 
the retaining latch of the hand lever and the locking bolt with a spring 
and cover screw. 

Underneath that portion of the carrier which contains the firing mech- 
anism is a safety arrangement by which the striker may be prevented 
from moving. The arrangement consists of a pin and spring, the latter 
being actuated by turning a milled head, J, underneath. The letters 
F (fire) and S (secure) indicate corresponding positions. 

The extractor is pivoted near the carrier hinge by the axis pin ; at the 
end of the extracting arms are studs which engage with the rim of the 
cartridge. 

The firing mechanism consists of the firing pin, with a striker point, 
which is screwed on it, and secured by a set screw ; a striker guide, over 
which the mainspring is fitted, and a buffer or •' rebound" spring at the 
rear. The striker is provided with a recess for a safety catch, and behind 
it another recess for the firing wedge. The hand lever K is pivoted to the 
carrier by the axis pin, the latter being provided with a screw. The 
handle is recessed to receive the small pivoted lever which works the 
retaining latch, a spring being provided to insure the latch engaging when 
the breech is closed. The firing wedge is provided with a lanyard, the 
latter being fitted with a loop— for placing around the neck — and a wood 
toggle. The action of the mechanism is as follows : 

Suppose the gun to have just been fired, on grasping the handle of the 
hand lever with the right hand, the lever is pressed in, and the retaining 
latch is thereby clear of the recess in the carrier, so that the hand lever is 
unlocked. On moving the handle round to the right, the screwed pinion 
causes the breechblock to revolve till the locking bolt moves forward, 
locking the breechblock to the carrier. In this position the threads on 
the breechblock are clear of those in the breech of the gun, so that the 
continued motion of the hand lever causes both to swing round together. 
When the block is clear of the breech the carrier strikes the short arms of 
the extractor, causing the latter to eject the empty cartridge case to the 
rear. A projectile and a cartridge are then inserted by hand, and on 
moving the hand lever round to the left, the breechblock, which is still 
locked to the carrier, enters the breech and forces the projectile and car- 
tridge "home." As soon as the carrier comes against the face of the 
breech the locking bolt is pressed in, releasing the breechblock from the 
carrier, so that the continued motion of the hand lever causes the block 
to revolve by means of the pinion, thus closing it securely in the breech. 
So soon as the hand lever is quite home, the retaining latch, actuated by 
the spring, engages in the recess in the carrier. On inserting the firing 
wedge in the recess, and pulling the lanyard until the wedge is clear, the 
striker is drawn back and the mainspring compressed, and at the moment 
of the wedge leaving the recess the striker is released and the gu n fired. 
By a rebound action the buffer spring brings the striker clear of the point 
of the breechblock. To prevent the gun being fired before the breech is 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 69 

properly closed the striker is secured by a securing pin, which is only 
released when the breech mechanism is properly closed. 

Carriage. — The principal parts of the carriage are: (1) Upper carriage 
-with (a) hydraulic buffer, (6) running-out springs, (c) slights. (2) Inner 
carriage. (3) Elevating and traversing gears. The upper carriage con- 
sists of a steel cradle, U section, supported in the center by a pivot, which 
fits into a socket in the axle of the lower carriage, and at the rear by the 
elevating gear which is attached to the lower carriage. The cylinder of 
the hydraulic buffer is contained in the cradle, being screwed at the front 
into the rear lower portion of the front guide ring of the gun. The cradle 
is closed in front by a steel plate, to which one end of the buffer piston 
rod is attached, L; at the rear it is closed by a steel plate containing a 
guide box for the cylinder. The cylinder contains in front a gland and 
stuffing box to prevent loss of liquid. 

The rear end of the cylinder is closed by a screw, M, having a filling 
hole and a filling screw. There is also a screwed recess, in the center, for 
the reception of a spring spanner. The inside of the cylinder has longi- 
tudinal grooves of decreasing width, so that the space for the flow of the 
liquid varies during recoil, the object of the grooves being to insure uni- 
form pressure during the travel. 

The liquid to be used to fill the buffer cylinder is best pure glycerin, 
specific gravity 1.26, and the correct quantity is 8£ pints, the buffer being 
filled to its capacity. In order to test whether the buffer is filled, the gun is 
depressed and the filling screw removed, when the glycerin should be seen. 

The piston is fixed at the rear end of the piston rod, and in order to 
control the resistance of the passing glycerin the edges of the front por- 
tion are only slightly rounded, while the rear portion is well rounded. 
In the rear end of the piston is screwed a tube closed at the rear end, and 
provided with grooves increasing in width toward the rear end. Over 
this tube comes the cover tube of the cylinder on the rebound, the object 
being to bring the gun gently into firing position after recoil. 

Placed in position around and outside of the cylinder are five sets — of 
four each— of steel wire springs, N, which, after having been compressed 
in recoil by the action of the front guide ring on the gun, return the gun 
into the firing position. The five sets of running-out springs are separated 
from each other by four separating disks. 

In the front lower part of the front guide ring is screwed the pressure 
plate, which, by the forward movement of the gun, moves against an 
india-rubber buffer, O, which also* assists in checking the rebound action. 
The same lettering applies to all three figures, those from P to Y only 
being found in the plan illustrated. 

The top sides of the cradle are projected by two lengths of sheet steel, 
to prevent the entry of either dust or rain, into the open space above the 
springs, shown in the small cross section of the cradle. The two lengths 
of sheet steel are secured by screws to the guide rings, as seen, and to the 
plane underneath the breech end of the gun. They are united at the 
sides, at the breech end of the gun, by a cover plate. 

The cradle is sighted on the left side with fore and hind sights, as shown 
in the illustrations. The foresight consists of a steel pillar, having a 



70 NOTB8 OF MILITARY INTER E8T FOR 1903. 

pointed apex with a flat portion on the rear side. The sight is fitted to a 
bracket on the cradle by means of a taper pin and nut. 

The rear sight consists of a curved sight bar, U section, provided with 
a crosshead, having a notched deflection leaf and traversing screw, giv- 
ing H degrees deflection right and left, and a sight socket which is fitted 
to a bracket on the cradle by means of a taper pin and nut. The sight 
bar is graduated on the rear face with a yard and faze scale, and on the 
side face with a degree scale. The front face of the bar is provided with 
a rack engaging with the pinion in the sight socket. The socket has a 
milled head, and a dram graduated with a yard scale, which is fitted to 
the pinion spindle, and serves as a means of adjusting the sight bar. A 
slot in the outer casing, and an indicator point engraved on the socket, 
are provided to facilitate reading the scale. 

An adjustable level is fitted to the sight bar immediately below the 
crosshead, and is provided with a rack gearing with a pinion and milled 
head on the sight bar. The lever may be used as a clinometer. 

The lower carriage consists principally of an axle mounted on two 
wheels, and a tubular telescopic trail. Two seats, with guard irons, are 
provided for the gun numbers to ride on, and also a seat, P, for the layer. 
In the center of the axle is a socket, R t for the reception of the pivot of 
the upper carriage. The trail is attached to the axle by two arms in such 
a manner as not to prevent turning motion of the axle. Outside the front 
portion is a rib, over which two recesses inside the rear portions are 
guided in closing the trail, the object being to prevent the circular-turn- 
ing motion of the trail. At the front of the trail, under the breast of the 
carriage, is a space, Z, inclosed by a door, which serves for carrying cer- 
tain small stores required for the service of the gun. At the rear end of 
the trail is a traversing lever, S, which works in a slot, and can be folded 
down when not in use. There are also handles for lifting, a trail, T, and 
a spade attachment, U. At the front of the rear portion of the trail there 
is a strengthening ring containing a hole for a securing key, and at the 
front portion of the trail are two holes for securing key corresponding to 
the ' ' long " and ' ' short " positions. 

The traversing gear, for fine adjustment, is on the left side, and admits 
of 3 degrees of traverse either way. It is fixed under the rear of the 
cradle, and is actuated by a hand wheel, the whole being supported by a 
bracket fixed on the head of the elevating screw and by two hollow arms 
with the axle. 

The elevating gear consists of an inner and outer screw, bevel pinion, 
and handwheel, the whole being supported in a case, and works in bear- 
ings attached to the trail. 

Fitted to the trail on each side is an arm, V, at the end of which is fitted 
a steel brake block. To each arm is fitted a steel tube, that on the right 
being screwed, which are connected by a cross arm over the trail in front 
On the right side in front of the seat is a handwheel, W, and another in 
rear, X. On the left side in front of seat are spring disks, F, by means of 
which both brake blocks can be put on together when either of the hand- 
wheels is turned. 



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2 





1 








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FIELD ARTILLERY. 7L 

Dimensions and other particulars. 

Angle of trail when telescoped out B x 4 degroo*. 

Angle of trail when short 12)/o degree*. 

Elevation, maximum, of carriage .. 16 degrees. 

Depression 10 degree*. 

Space required to turn in 26 feet, 4 incite*. 

Weights. 

Cirt. 

Gun with breech mechanism ^ 6 

Carriage without gun 12 

Limber with 32 rounds ammunition ,. 14 

Wagon with 68 rounds ammunition 22 

Approximate weight behind traces, gun, and limber, nmniunitiou 33 

Wagon and Umber, ammunition 36 

Preraure of trail on ground 141 

Weight at eud of pole 30 

Ammtjiotion and Ballistics— Shrapnel Shell— Description of burst- 
ing charge in shell: F. G. powder in chamber and about ten cylinders of 
compressed F. G. powder in central tube. Lead bullets, 260; weight 
about 42 to the pound; diameter about i inch; weight of shell filled and 
fuzed, 14 pounds, & ounces; weight of empty brass cartridge case, 1 pound 
7 ounces ; charge in cartridge case, 15.2 ounces of ballistic in cords ; maxi- 
mum time of burning fuze, about twenty seconds; muzzle velocity, at a 
temperature of 60° F., 1,640 foot-seconds; pressure in the chamber of the 
gun, about 13 tons per square inch. An elevation of 6° 7' gives an approx- 
imate range of 3,600 yards, under the conditions quoted ; while the extreme 
elevation of 16° gives an approximate range of 6,700 yards, or nearly 4 miles. 
These ballistics, if maintained on service, may be regarded as an admirable 
exponent of the value of the gun, and of the forethought of our war depart- 
ment authorities, and of their artillery advisers in securing such a power- 
ful and effective field gun. 

ITALY. 
NEW ORGANIZATION. 

The new organization of the artillery which has been antici- 
pated for a long time took place on the 1st of November. 
The dispositions fixed upon are the following : 

1. Ten commands of field artillery, intrusted with questions 
of interest to the field and mountain artillery (Milan, Alex- 
andrie, Verone, Boulogne, Florence, and Naples). Threo 
commands of coast and garrison artillery (Turin, Plaisance, 
and Rome), having jurisdiction over the coast and garrison 
artillery, the arsenals and the manufactories, the foundries 
and the manufactories of arms, etc. 

2. These regiments of field artillery are composed of three 
groups (brigades) of three batteries each (the 9th battery will 
be formed at the moment of mobilization). 

3. Two independent brigades will be formed, one of moun- 
tain artillery for Conegliano, the other of coast artillery for 
Sardinia in the Magdelen Islands. 



72 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

4. The direction of the manufactory of arms at Turin will 
be abolished. This work will pass under the management of 
the artillery workshop at Turin. 

All this will necessitate the nomination of about 40 new 
lieutenants and of 30 new higher officers. — Revue Milifair* 
Suisse 

THE NEW FIELD GUN. 

The various cnanges made in the old material and some 
data concerning the new material were given in M. I. D. Notes 
XXXII, 1900, and XXXIII, 1001. The following informa- 
tion is taken chiefly from articles by Captain Kenyon, R. A., 
in Proceedings R. A. Institution, July, 1902, and by Captain 
Curey, French artillery, in Revue oVArtitierie for May and 
June, 1902, the principal authorities quoted being the various 
Italian drill and equipment books. 

Amid animated discussion, which is not yet ended, a gun 
with rigid top carriage has finally been adopted. The new 
material has been distributed to several batteries and officers 
have been assembled at Nettuno to receive practical instruc- 
tion with the new pieces. Corriere delta Sera, November 6, 
1902, announces that the new material will be furnished to 
all the units until the present time equipped with brass 
7-centimeter guns ; that is to say, to 42 field batteries and 6 
horse batteries of the first line, to 23 batteries of the "milice 
mobile," to 12 batteries of the reserve, and to 7 batteries of 
Mie "pare." 

Gun. — The caliber is 7.5 centimeters. The gun is known as 
the "7.5 A" (7.5-centimeter acciaio, i. e., steel); it is of steel 
(nickel steel according to one account) ; it is composed of a 
tube, of a jacket with trunnions, and of an exterior hoop 
which is screwed to the jacket and on which is a small lock- 
ing hoop. The powder chamber increases in size toward the 
rear. At the left the sight sheath A (fig. 3, Plate I) is fitted. 
Above this is a directing circle for use in indirect laying. 
The chase is truncated and is reenforced at the muzzle. The 
front sight, which is placed in front of the left trunnion, can 
be closed down; it is held either in a vertical or in a hori- 
zontal position by means of a spring. The grooves, 32 in 
number, are helicoidal and turn from right to left. 

Breech Mechanism. — The closure is with a double-motion 
screw. The screw is truncated, but has a cylindrical rimbase; 




PLATE I. 



liwjSTCii wmt 51*1 ft 

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72 



NOTES OF M: 



4. The direction of tJ 3 ^ 1 
be abolished. This wo :«~*» 
the artillery workshop -^=^^ 

All this will necessifc>-^*'" 
lieutenants and of 30 »^*- e 
Suisse 

the ^^ 

The various cnanges :^ r ~ 
data concerning the new :r:l E 
XXXII, 1900, and XXIT 6 ^ 1 J 
tion is taken chiefly frot.^ ^ - 
in Proceedings R. A. J?r- ~^^ 
Curey, French artillery,, * 
June, 1902, the principal ^** . 
Italian drill and equipm^^ -*^ 

Amid animated discus ^ 4 
with rigid top carriage t*- ^^ 
material has been distrib ~*~ x ^ 
have been assembled at >3^^ 
tion with the new pieces. 
1902, announces that the ^^ 
all the units until the 2-*^. 
7-centimeter guns ; that i^ 
horse batteries of the first 1 % ^ 
mobile," to 12 batteries of ^ 
Mie "pare/" 

Gun.— The caliber is 7.5 c^*~ 
the "7.5 A" (7.5-centimeter ** 
(nickel steel according to oi^^, 
tube, of a jacket with trunx^ 3 
which is screwed to the jack^ 
ing hoop. The powder cham£>* 
rear. At the left the sight sli^" 
Above this is a directing cird< 
The chase is truncated and is ret 
front sight, which is placed in ii 
be closed down; it is held eitJn 
zontal position by means of a £ 
number, are helicoidal and turn i 

Breech Mechanism.— The do* 
screw. The screw is truncated, bt 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 73 

it has two smooth sectors and two threaded sectors. On one 

of the smooth sectors is hollowed out the recess for the 

extractor; in the wall of the rimbase are two canals, one 

placed in front of this recess, the other diametrically opposite. 

The screw is manipulated by means of a lever, which is joined 

to a central nave having a notch and two mortises. In the 

notch is placed the sear, the trunnions of which turn in the 

two mortises. The sear has a nose and a tang upon which is 

placed a ring in which is fixed the lanyard. This latter has 

at its other extremity a wooden knob and a safety key, S, 

which serves to prevent the unscrewing of the breech lock in 

marching. The entire system (core, rimbase, and screw) is 

traversed by a groove in which the striker moves; this has 

at the rear a reenf orce on which the nose of the sear works ; 

it is furnished with two springs, one in front and one in back. 

The extractor has a claw, a tang, two trunnions, and a sheath 

in which slides a gudgeon controlled by a spring. On the 

anterior face of the carrier ring is the cylindrical recess of 

the stop bolt which serves to fasten the breech screw. On 

the posterior face is a helicoidal groove in which the tang of 

the sear revolves. 

Method of Operation. — Let us suppose that the breech 
is closed, the striker down, and the cartridge in the gun. 
The lever is shoved to the left and down until the movement 
is arrested, when it is drawn horizontally to the right, which 
has the effect of opening the cover, making it revolve around 
its hinge bolt. In this rotary movement the tang of the sear 
runs in the helicoidal groove, the sear turns on its trunnions, 
and its nose, grazing the reenforce of the striker, passes 
before the reenforce, which it clasps. When the cover is 
opened, the extractor, the claw of which holds the rim of the 
cartridge, rests at first immovable. Then the trunnions, run- 
ning, in their recesses, will strike against the bottom thereof, 
producing a shock which starts the cartridge case and pre- 
pares it for ejection. At the same moment that the cover is 
opened, the arresting clamp, pushed forward by a spring, 
occupies the space left by the tang of the extractor, and from 
this time on the cover and the screw are fastened to each 
other. When the breech is closed, the extractor touches the 
bottom of the recess of the screw, pressing back with its tang 
the arresting clamp in its recess, thus liberating the screw, 



74 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

which can be then unscrewed. When the lanyard is palled 
the tang of the sear penetrates to the helicoidal groove, but 
it is only when the closure is effected that it can be lowered 
so that the nose of the sear, pushing back the extractor, may 
escape the striker, which impinges against the primer. 

Carriage. — The body of the carriage proper consists of a 
trough of nickel steel, open above. The cheeks are parallel 
at the front but approach each other toward the rear. Though 
the body of the carriage consists of a single piece, the cheeks 
are strengthened by three stays, one of which is placed in 
front and has in the middle a reenf orce pierced by a central 
hole ; the other two form the framework of the trail chest. 

A small carriage — a sort of stanchion of steel with cheeks, 
trunnion bed, and cap-square — supports the gun by its trun- 
nions and turns about a truncated vertical axle which is fixed 
in the hole in the middle of the first stay noted above. The 
small carriage is prevented from being separated from the 
carriage by means of coupling pins. Besides, as we shall see 
further on, the small carriage is bound to the aiming system 
by a lever. The entire system is not without analogy to the 
German gun of 96. 

Pointing Mechanism. — The elevating gear is composed of : 
A crosshead elevating nut supported by two pads of steel 
fixed at the bottom of the trough which forms the body of the 
carriage; a brass cogwheel centered on the crosshead ele- 
vating nut and fastened thereto by a collar, which permits of 
a rotary movement ; a pinion ; a controlling shaft governed 
by a crank and turning in a wrought-iron projection forged 
on the crosshead elevating nut; a double screw (the female 
screw can turn in a crosshead nut, at the same time remain- 
ing in connection with the brass cogwheel ; the male screw has 
at its upper part an axle and an oscillating support on which 
the breech rests; the two screws are threaded inversely); 
two rods fastened at one end to the head of the screw and at 
the other to the inside of the cheeks of the small carriage. 
The trunnions of the piece, the crosshead elevating nut, and 
the oscillating support form the three vertices of an articu- 
lated triangle, of which two sides have a constant length, and 
the third, formed by the double screw, may be varied at will 
as well as the angle opposite. The working of this mech- 
anism, which is analogous to that of the German carriage of 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 75 

96, is easy and is as follows : By moving the crank, the pin- 
ion is moved, then the cogwheel. In turn the latter works 
the double screw. 

For aiming in direction, the left trunnion of the crosshead 
elevating nut has a nut in which is engaged a screw. This 
is governed by a handwheel at the left of the carriage, and 
which is furnished with a tooth which limits its displace- 
ment. By moving the handwheel the trunnions are forced 
longitudinally from their position in their pads; thus the 
elevating gear is forced above and the small carriage is made 
to turn according to the indications given by a level, which 
rests upon the pivot of the same, and which terminates at the 
rear in a fork, which embraces the upper and lower rims of 
the crosshead elevating nut. 

Recoil-checking Device. — In marching, a wheel brake 
is used ; it is worked by means of a crank placed in the front 
of the carriage. In firing, a rope brake, of the Lemoine sort 
is used, and an articulated cross spade which employs the 
force of a spiral spring to return the gun into battery. The 
recoil of the piece, which will be about 1 meter with the 
recoil brake alone, will be reduced to only several centimeters 
when the spade and the brake are employed at the same time. 
The recoil brake is a combination of the road brake with 
two symmetrical rope brakes. On the axle, between the 
wheel and the carriage, is placed a friction apparatus as fol- 
lows: An inside drum is fixed to the axle by means of a 
locking screw, which permits of a certain angular displace- 
ment. An outside drum, with a groove and a hook, is 
placed exactly opposite the inside drum, rubbing on four 
brass friction plates, which are supported by the inside drum 
and held back by springs. The rope of the brake is fastened 
at one end to the hook of the outside drum and at the other 
to the brake bar. To the outside drum is fastened a cylindri- 
cal sleeve extending on the nave, and in which glides a pawl 
pushed down by a spring. This pawl is governed by a lever 
with a spring handle. When the handle is pressed down the 
pawl catches in an indentation in the nave, without other- 
wise hindering the piece from being moved forward, for the 
pawl disengages itself constantly in this movement. On the 
contrary, the moment the recoil is produced, the two drums, 
on account of the pawl and the friction plates, commence to 



76 NOTB8 OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

revolve simultaneously. The recoil continuing, the inside 
drum is almost immediately stopped by the stop screw, -while 
the outside drum is forced to turn against strong friction, 
also drawing more and more the cord which controls the 
shoe brake. It may thus be seen that the brake is brought 
into action, as it were, progressively. 

Limber. — The limber is similar to that of the old mate- 
rial. It is, nevertheless, different in three respects : (1 ) In the 
adoption of a seat with an elastic support for those serving 
the piece; (2) in the form of the axle, which is of wrought 
steel with this cross section, I; (3) in the interior arrange- 
ment of the chest. 

Each chest, divided into three parts, contains sixteen com- 
partments (four in the middle, six on the right, six on the 
left) disposed in two horizontal rows. The cartridge com- 
partments, in aluminum (in the limber of the piece) or in 
iron (in the limber of the caissons), contain each two projec- 
tiles and two cartridges. The four middle compartments are 
equipped with receptacles for the instruments, the tools, etc. 

In exterior outline the rear carriage of the caisson differs 
but little from the model 9 B, 80-98. It has two chests. The 
ammunition compartments dre similar to those of the chests 
of the limber. 

AIMING DEVICES. 

The aiming devices and the bench-marking instruments 
consist of: One spirit-level sight; one level with double 
graduations; one directing circle; one alidade; one tripod 
for the directing circle ; the stakes. 

The Spirit-level Sight.— This instrument (fig. 1, Plate 
II) is of the Corrodi type, the bar is telescopic, the stem, T, 
being the arc of a circle centered on the point of the front 
sight, moves in a sheath, (?, which can itself be moved in a 
case supported by the breech (fig. 3). 

The bar is graduated on its rear face up to 5,600 meters for 
shrapnel and on its left side up to 4,600 meters for high-explo- 
sive shell. The elevations for the two projectiles are not the 
same, e. g., 5,000 meters for shrapnel corresponds approxi- 
mately with 4,300 meters for shell. On the left side of the 
tangent bar are also the figures 1, 2, and 3, marked in bold 
type, representing hundred meters elevation for case shot. 



I 



ffy* 




^ 

I 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 77 

B l and B t move the rear sight by means of pinions and 
ratchets. A small cylinder, C, supports the scale of lateral 
sight allowances (from to 40), and in it glides the sight 
notch. The level -Wean move from to 100 degrees in the 
plane of the rear and front sight, gliding on a cylindrical 
surface, the axle of which is parallel to that of the trunnions. 
The front sight and the level are manipulated by means of 
B t and B A . The drum on the axle B 4 has its surface divided 
into twenty equal parts, so as to permit the twentieth of a 
degree to be given. When the rear sight is driven home, the 
line of sight corresponding to division 20 of the front sight 
and division 5 of the level is parallel to the axle of the piece. 
The object of this disposition is to avoid negative numbers. 

Corrections. — To correct for drift, it is sufficient to recall 
that the number of the lateral divisions of the rear sight is, 
up to 5,500 meters, equal to the number of kilometers of the 
range increased by 20. For a distance of 6,000 meters the 
index is placed at the division 30, and for that of 7,000 meters 
at the division 40. 

To correct the effects of the inclination of the trunnions, 
the sight notch should be displaced one division per kilo- 
meter for a difference of level of 3 centimeters between the 
wheels. 

A deflection allowance of one division displaces the point 
of fall to an extent equal to as many meters as there are kilo- 
meters in the distance. 

Level with Double Graduations. — This instrument 
permits the angle of sight and the angle of elevation to be 
separately given. It is composed (fig. 2) of a stand, B, of a 
movable plate, ilf, and of a level, N. • At the left, the stand 
has a graduation in hundredths, O l ; at the right is a hole 
which receives the axle x (not represented), around which 
the plate M revolves. This is supported on the other side by 
the screw V iy the threads of which engage with £,. The box 
of the level N is arranged in an analogous fashion as regards 
the movable plate M; it revolves around the axle a and is 
controlled by the screw I 7 ,, which, engaging with <*„ forces it 
to move according to the graduations in hundredths, (?,. The 
drums, t x and t t9 supported by the screw V } and F a , permit the 
angles to be given in thousandths. For this purpose they are 
divided, the first in ten parts and the second in forty parts, 



78 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

each turn of the screw V s or the screw F, corresponding 
respectively to an angular displacement of one or four hun- 
dredths. The drum /, has a helicoidal graduation h on 
which moves a slide. The movable plate and the level box 
each support an index (t, and i,). The level Nis adjustable 
by screw r. 

Method of employment — When this instrument is used it 
is placed on the directing plate, on the diameter 0° — 180° or 
90° — 270°. When the piece is horizontal the indexes i x and 
i % should be opposite the divisions 20 and 0. This instrument 
completes the rear sight and takes its place in certain cases; 
by it may be given to the piece the angle of elevation and 
the angle of sight; the angle of sight may be measured and 
the angle of inclination of the trunnions; the level of the rear 
sight may be regulated and verifications may be made that 
this latter has not been displaced. (An allowance is made 
of one one-thousandth for the distances less than 4,000 meters 
and of two one- thousandths for distances above.) 

Direction Plate. — Each piece has a directing plate (fig. 4) 
consisting of a metal disk fastened by four screws to the 
upper part of the breech. The periphery of this disk has 
graduations in degrees; the head of center stud is in the form 
of a mushroom. The line 0° — 180° is parallel to the axis of 
the cannon. An alidade (fig. 5) can be adjusted to the center 
stud where it is held by two spring levers. A pressure screw 
with a head having four branches allows it to be fixed in the 
azimuth indicated by the index. 

Direction Circle. — In order to be able to determine the 
elements of initial aiming the commander of the battery has 
at his disposal a portable directing circle (fig. 6). The con- 
struction of this apparatus is analogous to that of the direct- 
ing plate, but it has besides tables giving the distances 
corresponding to bases of from 25 to 50 meters for the sub- 
tending angles of 30', 1°, 1° 30', and 2°. The alidade of the 
direction plate is simpler than that of the direction circle. It 
is fixed on the circle. The whole apparatus, comprising a 
tripod support with telescopic upright, can be swung in a 
shoulder strap. A disk painted black and red by quadrants 
is fastened above the joints. 

Use of the Aiming and Laying Devices. — Usually 
direct aiming by means of the rear sight is the method which 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 



79 



is employed (in case of necessity, use being made of an auxil- 
iary target), but when it is impossible to follow this course, 
or when a change of target is foreseen, recourse should be 
had to the apparatus which has just been described and which 
permits use to be made of targets situated any place in sight. 
The angle between the target and the reference point is 
called the angle of direction. (The diameter 0° — 180° is always 
turned in a direction following the line joining the apparatus 
and the target; the angles are measured in the direction con- 
trary to the movement of the hands of a watch.) 

To be able to aim in direction it will suffice to determine 
this angle for each piece, to fix the alidade on the directing 
plate at the corresponding division, and to move the piece 
until the plane of collimation cuts the reference point. 

In the determination of the angles of direction, different 
.cases may present themselves: 

1. When a distant signal, S, is distinctly seen, the direction 
circle C is stationed in the neighborhood of the battery, and 
the angle of direction « is measured and taken by all the 
pieces (fig. 12). 




tJ5 




/8© 




Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 



2. The vane of the direction circle C may serve as the aim- 
ing point. The direction circle being placed with the zero 
toward the target (fig. 13), the angles of direction a n are de- 
termined for each of the pieces P n , sighting successively from 
the station C, the rammers held vertically above each one 
of the directing plates. Each piece is then aimed with its 
special angle of direction, as has been indicated above. 



80 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

3. In case some of the pieces can not be seen from the sta- 
tion C, the stake J is placed where it can be seen from all 
the pieces. The direction circle is then taken to J" and oriented 
by back sights on C. The case is then the same as 2, and it 
is sufficient to measure the angles relative to each one of the 



I • 

I l 

; 





v 




Fig. 14. 

pieces. When this operation is completed, the apparatus is 
taken back to C, from which point the modifications which 
it is necessary to make with regard to the angles may he 
determined. 

Note. — In using the angles of direction as they are given 
by the second or third process, the pieces are placed parallel 
to the line of observation CB (figs. 13 and 14). Since the 
pieces are all aimed at the target it is well to make a correc- 
tion for convergence. This correction can be easily calculated 
by keeping in mind that a variation of 30' on the azimuth 
displaces the point of fall to a number of meters equal to the 
number of hectometers in the range. To avoid disorientation 
it is necessary, in aiming with reference marks, to always 
replace the piece in battery in the same place. 

AMMUNITION. 

Shrapnel, 6.? kilograms, is with rear burster; the body is 
steel ; the cgival head is fastened with a screw. The bursting 
charge, separated from the bullet chamber by a diaphragm, 
communicates with the fuze by a brass tube and a capsule 
widened at the upper part. The balls of antimony lead (of 3 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 81 

to 100) are held in place by cast colophony. They are 320 in 
number (180 of 10 grams and 140 of 11 grams). The projec- 
tile has two copper bands, one of which is a forcing ring at 
the rear and a centering ring at the front ; it receives a double- 
acting fuze, model 1900, held by a screw which passes through 
the ogive. 

Case Shot consists of a zinc cylindrical body with a cover 
of the same metal and the bottom in steel. It is furnished 
with two zinc bands, one of which permits of a certain com- 
pression, and a lug of iron wire fixed to the bottom to facili- 
tate transportation. The case shot consists of eight layers of 
hexagonal prisms of lead held in place by colophony. Each 
layer consists of 37 prisms. Each prism weighs 22 grains. 

The Cartridge Case (fig. 11, Plate II) of brass, is slightly 
truncated. The charge consists of two rectangular plates of 
filite rolled in a single package. The explosive substance is 
separated from the metal of the case by means of sack, S> of 
cotton, which forms a hood at one of the extremities, and 
with a band of hygroscopic cotton, h> which surrounds the 
cylindrical part. The case is closed by a plug of tarred 
pasteboard, B, in the form of a cup with a flat bottom, which 
is introduced by compression and which is held in place by 
means of a coat of gum lac. 

Fuze.-— The double-acting fuze, model 1000 (fig. 10), made 
almost entirely of aluminum, is a disk fuze with two rings, 
the one movable, Jf, the other fixed, F, in each of which is 
arranged a circular groove filled with the fuze composition. 
The movable ring M has an exterior spur, e, a graduation in 
hectometers (from to 56), and a cross which corresponds to 
the percussion burst of the fuze. It rests directly on the 
crown K, which has a fixed spur (not represented) and an 
indicating bar. The upper ring F is fixed to the body of the 
fuze by two fixed pegs; it has a cut, e, corresponding to the 
beginning of the fuze composition, and which is masked by 
a diaphragm of tin. The percussion system is near, the time 
system is in front. A cover, C, forms a continuation of the 
ogival head. 

Fuze Regulator. — The movable ring is placed mechanic- 
ally at the desired position by means of a key (fig. 7). A 
drum, T, in hectometers, turns on the cylindrical part, thus 
moving a tooth 4 which engages with the spur e of the 



82 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

movable ring of the fuze. A screw, E y enables the drum to 
be turned and to be fastened so that the index x shall corre- 
spond to the desired division. On the edge of the regulator is 
a corrector, c, each division of which corresponds approxi- 
mately (up to kilometers) to a variation of 50 meters from 
the principal graduation. The index i of this corrector 
is fastened to a movable plate, P, which is manipulated by 
means of B and which can be clamped by d. This plate, P, in 
the interior fits on the fuze and has an arresting tooth (not 
visible on fig. 16) which in the rotation of the regulator on 
the fuze hits against the fixed spur K. 

Adjustment of the fuze is made in the following manner: 
Time-fuze fire : After having placed the proper divisions of 
the drum opposite the indexes x and i, the cannoneer places 
the projectile with the left hand, and, holding the regulator 
with the right hand, he caps the fuze with it, then he makes 
the instrument turn from left to right with the handle II. 
By this movement the tooth engages with the spur of the 
movable ring M until the arresting tooth strikes the spur 
fixed to the ring K. The fuze is then adjusted. If in the 
course of fire a negative value is indicated by the corrector, 
it will be sufficient to turn from right to left, the tooth being 
able to move in both ways. 

Percussion-shell Fire. — In the chests the fuzes are " 
arranged so as to act without preparation as percussion fuzes, 
the cross of the movable ring being placed opposite the spur 
of the crown K (fig. 10). The communication between the 
ignited gas of the percussion and the inflammatory charge of 
the fuze is then intercepted by the solid parts of the two 
rings F and M . 

Case-shot Fire. — The fuze is set at zero; the grooves for 
the passage of the flame of the rings i^and M are thus one 
above the other and communicating with the chambers of 
the striking apparatus and with the inflammatory charge. 
The explosion of the projectile takes place at a distance from 
the piece varying from 40 to 60 meters. 

Note. — It is sought to make shrapnel burst at a height in 
meters equal to a third of the number of hectometers of the 
distance. When the fire is adjusted in range and in height 
the horizontal distance from the target of the point of burst 
is about 90 meters up to range of 1 5 hectometers, 70 meters 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 83 

between 15 and 35 hectometers, 60 meters above 35 hectome- 
ters. The axis of the cone of burst should pass through the 
target which is thus hit in the proportion of one ball per 
square meter of the surface normal to the trajectory. The 
point of burst is lowered when it is desired to obtain a superior 
efficacy. The corrections in height are always made by 
means of the regulator. A modification of one division on 
the corrector changes the point of burst, in range, 50 meters, 
and in elevation an amount equal to double the number of 
kilometers of the distance. A modification of a demihecto- 
meter in the rear sight makes the point of burst vary the 
same amount. 

INFORMATION CONCERNING THE LOADING OP THE WAGONS. 

In a general way the aiming devices and firing devices are 
carried by the limbers. The mechanical apparatus anji spare 
parts are distributed equally to each section. Below are 
some details of the assignments of different objects to each 
wagon. 

Piece. — Outside : Rear-sight level in a case placed over the 

left axle seat ; directing mark with vane. In the chest of the 

trail : The spare parts of the breech, the aiming instruments 

. (alidade, level with double graduations), a regulator for the 

fuze^the tools, rags, etc. 

Limber. — Outside : Pioneer tools, water buckets, picketing 
ropes, collapsible sponge (one per section). The limber of 
the first piece has, also, the tripod for the directing appa- 
ratus (fig. 6) and the two stakes of the commander of the 
battery. Inside: A directing circle (first piece), a Gautier% 
telemeter, and an optical square (second piece); a Goertz 
field glass (third piece); a regulator and an ordinary field 
glass (pieces 2, 4, 6). 

Caisson, Rear Carriage. — Outside, per section: Two 
collapsible poles, one wheel placed under the frame, two spare 
singletrees, one bill hook, two shovels, one saw, two trail 
handspikes, one rear-sight level, one staff with vane, two 
pulling-back cords of 40 meters. Outside, per caisson : One 
lantern with 350 grams of candles, two torches, two hay nets. 
Inside of the fore chest: Spare pieces for the breech (about 
two sets per section), one rammer per section, vaseline, oil, 



84 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

rags, etc. Inside of the rear chest : Firing cord and brake, 
grease box, chains and springs of the spade (two per section), 
and in the tenth caisson only the key of the fuze and the 
primer box. 

RUSSIA. 

After a long delay, Russia has commenced the changes in 
her artillery material. Since 1901 many hundreds of pieces 
have been ordered from the Putilof arsenal. This is a can- 
non of 7.62 centimeters, firing a projectile of about 6.1 kilo- 
grams with an initial velocity of 610 meters. It is provided 
with a hydraulic brake and a caoutchouc recuperator. But 
the model is not definite; the construction goes on very 
slowly, and while the pieces are in the course of construc- 
tion a study is being made of the improvements, particularly 
as concerns the employment of shields. The figures given 
above ahow that the Russian efforts are in the direction of 
great initial velocities, and, by way of compensation, of 
projectiles of light weight. — Revue Militaire des Armees 
Etrangeres. 

Von Lobell states that the maneuvering qualities of the 
guns sent to Manchuria have been exceedingly satisfactory. 

Instructors for the Quick-firing Batteries Des- 
tined for Eastern Asia. — On account of the rearmament of 
the artillery of the Amur district and the Kwangtung (Port 
Arthur) region with the new 3-inch quick-firing guns, model 
1900, officers and men were detailed from all batteries sta- 
tioned there to the Ust-Isjora polygon, near St. Petersburg, 
in order to grow familiar with the material and its use and 
to receive it for transportation to the far east. These 9 
officers and 72 men will serve as instructors in their garrisons 
upon their return to them. 

It seems that the distribution of the light guns on hand is 
being made according to the need in case of war. — Miltfmr* 
Wochenblatt. 

Reorganization of the Field Artillery. — The fieM 
artillery of Russia has until the present time been organized 
in the following manner : In Europe, batteries of eight pieces 
were united by twos or threes in groups, and two or threo 
groups constituted a brigade. In Asia the batteries were 
grouped by brigades. 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 85 

The introduction of rapid-firing pieces will bring about a 
slight reorganization which by an order of April, 1902, will 
"be on the following basis; The battery will still contain 
eight pieces. Several batteries (three or four) will form a 
regiment and two regiments will constitute a brigade. To 
each army corps are attached two brigades. 

The details of the transformation will be regulated by the 
subsequent orders. 

Prikase No. 4, of January 4, 1902, ordered the transforma- 
tion successively of the heavy batteries, which are not intended 
to he armed with rapid-fire guns in the first line, to light 
batteries. The local and movable parks will preserve their 
present organization and strength. The caissons of the 
movable parks are to be given the compartment divisions of 
the light batteries; as to the local parks, the ammunition of 
the heavy batteries will be withdrawn on account of the 
adoption of the rapid-fire guns. 



86 NOTES OF MILITARY INTERE8T FOB 1902. 

Table "A"— Field artillery. 



COUNTRY. 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.* 



M. 76-06 (field). 



M. 76-90 (hone). 



Howitzer M.l»u 

(fcW). 



1 
3 
t 

4 

5 



7 

8 



10 

11 

13 

It 

14 
15 
16 



17 

18 
ID 

30 
31 
33 
38 

34 

35 
30 
37 

38 

30 

80 
81 



83 
88 

84 

85 
85 
87 
88 



Caliber cm.(ln.)._ 

Length of gun m. (in.)-- 

Number of groores 

Twist j 

Maximum eleration— depression ' 

Weight of gun kg.(lbs.)_J 

Weight of carriage do 

Weight of Umber, loaded 1 do | 

Wheels, height of m.(in.)--| 

Width of track do j 

Draft for one hone kg.(lbs.)__| 

Weight of caisson, loaded! do ] 

Number of men seated on piece* j 

Battery on war footing : 

Guns 

Caissons 1 

Other wagons 4 



Ammunition on one limber : 

Shrapnel 

Shell 

Case shot 

Ammunition on one caisson : 

Shrapnel 

Shell 

Case shot 



Shrapnel, number of bullets in 

Shrapnel, total weight kg.(Ibs.)_ 

High explosiTe shell, weight do — 

Common shell, weight do 

Case shot, weight do 

Powder used 



Weight of charge kg. (lbs.) _ 



8.7(3.42) 
2.06(81.1) 
24 

Right 4° 
25°— 10° 
437(1074) 
621(1369) 
824(1817) 
1.37(63.9) 
1.62(60) 
322(710) 
2164(4771) 
6 

8 

8(4)« 
6(1 res., 1 bg M 
Spr.) 

20 
10 
4« 

60 
40 



260 M. 96 A 
6.69(14.75) 
6.83(16.1) 
6.36(14) 
7.5(16.63) 
2 mm. 
Nitroglycerin. 
.44(.97) 
+.08(.18) 



Velocity, muzzle m. (ft.) aec__ 440(1443) T 

Velocity at 4,000 meters do j 229(761 ) 

Maximum range (from fire table): 

Time fuze ni.(y«ls.)__ i,^,^,,,,,, 

w ' 1^3599(3936)* 
Percussion fuze do |l 

Danger zone for target 5.6 ft. high at : I 

1,000 meters do.. 

1,600 meters do.. 

2,000 meters do.. 

3,000 meters do_. 

4,000 meters do_. 



60(72. 2) 
37(40.6) 
24(26.2) 
13(14. 2) 

8(8.7) 



8.7(3.42) 
2.06(81.1) 
24 

Rkfat 4° 
25°— 10° 
415(915) 
640(1111) 
732(1614) 
1.37(63.9) 
1.52(60) 
281(619) 
2196(4841) 
None. 

6 

6(4) 
8(1 res., 1 bg., 
4pr.) 

10 
10 
4« 

60 
40 
4 
260M.96A 
6.69(14.75) 
6.83(15.1) 
6.36(14) 
7.6(16.63) 
M. '93 
Nitroglycerin. 
.44(.97) 
-f.08(.18) 

440(1443)' 

229(751) 



3699(3936)' 

66(72.2) 
37(40.5) 
24(26.2) 
13(14.2) 
8(8.7) 



10.4(4.1. 



396(870.8) 
500(1212.5) 



t .125(.276) 
I to.3l(.68) 
[ 150(492) 
Ito 300(984) 



-"I 



See notes on page 90. 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 



87 



Table "A"— Field artillery— Continued. 



O I 

« \ 

= R.F.M.97(neId). 



VRANCK. 



GERMANY. 



M. 01 (short) 
(field). 



8-cm.( horse). " 



M.96 (horse)." 



M. 96 (field). 



Howitzer M. 98 

(light). 



I 



1 

»! 

3 

4 
9 
• 
T 

» 
10 
11 
13 
13 

14 
15 
16 



7.5(2.95) 
2.74(108) 

Increasing. 

14°-*° 

400(882)* 

760(1676) 

640(1411) 

1.55(61) 

300(661) 
2000(4409) 
3 on Umber. 

4 

12(6) 



s> « 



19 



31 f «■• 

33 

11 256 
U 7.03(16.5) 
25 6.99(16.4) 
26 



IT 

3* Nitrocellulose. 



30 



.58(1.28) 



I 



30 > 500(1640) 

31 ' 267(876) 



33 5500(6015) 
33 9000(9843) 



12(4.72) 
1.7(66.93) 
36 
8° 
44°— 12° 
690(1621) 
925(2039)" 
890(1962) 
1.55(61) 
1.49(57.5) 
394(869) 
2360(6203) 
4 or 5 

6 

9(3) 
3(1 res. f l fo., 
13.) 

16 



8(3. 15) 
2.28(89.76) 



415(902) 

500(1102) 

634(1397) 

1.42(56) 

1.42(56) 



2040(4498) 
None. 

6 

9(8) 

3 



30 



7.7(3.03) 
2.78(109.1) 
32 
Right tncreas'g. 
16°— 12° 
390(859. 8)" 
454(1000) - 
796(1752. 7)« 
1.36(53.54) 
1.52(60.2) 
278(613) 
1765(3891) 



6 

6(3) 
4(2 res., 1 pr., 
lfo.) 



7.7(3.03) 
2.78(109.1) 
32 
Right increas'g. 
16°— 12° 
390(859. 8 )" 
504(1111.1) 
795(1752.7)" 
1.36(53.54) 
1.52(60.2) 
287(633) 
1780(3924) 
5 

6 

6(3) 
4(2 res M 1 pr., 
lfo. 



10.5(4.13) 
1.25(49.21) 

! » 

Right tncreas'ir* 
40°— 10° 
490(1080) 
580(1279)" 
860(1896) 
1. 23(48. 43)" 

1.62(60.2) 
325(716.5) 
2050(4519) 
5 

6 
6(3) 

4 



48 or 0i* 
0or48" 

627 
20.35(44.86) 
20.35(44.86) 



88 



120 
8.46(14.25) 



Nitrocellulose. 

.55(1.21) 
f.02(.034)blk» 
285(928)1* 



Nitrocellulose. 



.56(1.23) 



300 
6.85(15.1) 
6.85(15.1) 



Nitrocellulose. 



300 
6.85(16.1) 
6.85(15.1) 



Nitrocellulose. 



.57(126) faddit'l charge 
of . 01 (. 022) sm.-anu pwdr. 



26» 
32 

500 
13(28. 7)» 
16(35.3)* 



470(1542) 465(1525) 

(at 4000yds. 810 257(843. 2) 
yds.) 



4700(5140)" 
6700(6234)" 



34 
15 

SO. 
$1 

s* . 



05(7'.. 1) 



. 5000(5468) 
-| 8000(8749)* 

56(61.2) 
31(33.9) 
21(23) 
11(12) 
7(7.7) 



465(1525) 
257(843.2) 



5000(5468) 
8000(8749)* 

56(61.2) 
31(33.9) 
21(23) 
11(12) 
7(7.7) 



Nitroglycerin. 



300(984.26) 



5600(6124) 
7000(7655)» 



See notes on page 90. 



88 



NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 



Table "A m — Field artillery— Continued. 



COUNTRY. 



GERMANY— 
Continued. 



GREAT BRITAIN a 



Howitzer 

I (heavy). 



1 16-pr. M. 84-96 12-pr M. «-&- 
(field). I (horce>. 



1 
2 

S 

:i 
•i 
io . 



IS 

14 
15 
10 



18 
19 

20 
21 
22, 
21 

24 

20 ' 
27 
28 



Caliber ciu.(in.)_.; 14.97(5.9) 

Length of gun n>.(in.).J 1.646(64.8) 

Number of grooves .. 

Twist _ __.i 4° to 12° 

Maximum elevation— depression 66° 

Weight of gun kg.(lbs.)_-j 1075(2370) 

Weight of carriage __ __do___. 1114(2458) | 

Weight of limber, loaded do 1 1 

Wheels, height of ni. (in).. _ 

Width of track do__._ 1.52(60.2) I 

Draft for one horse kg. (lbs.) 1 

Weight of caisson, loaded t __.do ' 2776(6118) 

Number of men seated on piece 2 ' ! 

Battery on war footing : | | 

Guns 

Caissons 8 

Other wagons 4 . 



Ammunition on one limber: 

Shrapnel 

Shell _ __ 

Case shot 

Ammunition on one caisson : 

Shrapnel ._ 

Shell 

Case shot 

Shrapnel, number of bullets in 

Shrapnel, total weight. kg. (lbs.)_ 

High explosive shell, weight do___ 

Common shell, weight do 

Case shot, weight do___ 

Powder used 



6 

6(12) 
6(1 ra., 1 fo., 
1 ob., 1 ff., 
Ibg.) 



7.62(3) 
2.346(92.36) 
18 
Right0° to 6° 
15.50—8.5° 
355(784) 
675(1485) 
915(2016) 
1.52(60) 
1.57(62) 
324(714) 
2002(4413) 
4 

r. 

6(6) 
5(1 fo., 1st., 2 
bg., 1 ni.c.) 

48 

4 

110 



7 621 3) 
1.6B&(tK.75> 
18 
Rt. 1.7° to 6. 4= 
l«o_go 

324(715) 

487(1073) 

765( 16*6 ) 
1.52(60) 
1.57(62. 

263(579) 
1585(3494) 



6 
6 
5(2bg.,lll.,l 
St., 1 m.c.t 



46 
4 



I 
21) i Weight of charge _ 



39(85. 98) 



2 
200 
6.35(14) 



2 
156 
5.67(12.5) 



._kg.(Ibs.)_. 



I 6.01(13.25)! 5.85(12.88} 

Nitroglycerin, j Cordite (nitro- ' Cordite (nitro- 
glycerin). I glycerin). 
.85(1.87) I .447(.984)Ng. .355(.777)Ng. 



SO 
81 ! 

12 
SS 

S4 

SB 
S0 
37. 
ZS 



I 
Velocity, muzzle m. (ft.) sec. J 276(905) 

Velocity at 4,000 meters do I 



I 



L 



M 



Maximum range (from fire table): 

Time fuze m. (yds.).. , 

Percussion fuze do I J 

Hanger zone for target 6.6 ft. high at : 

1,000 meters do. 

1,500 meters do_ 

2,000 meters do_ 

3,000 meters _.do. 

4,000 meters do. 



r'37 



I 



See notes on page 90. 



+.007(.0l6)Nc. 


+ .014(.32)Nc. 


480(1174) 


464(1523) 


226(741) 


211(692) 


3750(4100) 


3380(3700) 


5030(5500) 


4765(5200) 


67(62.8) 


55(60) | 


29(31.7) 


27(29.6) 


19(20.8) 


19(20.8) 


10(11) 


9(9.8) J 


6(6.6) 


6(6.5) 







FIELD ARTILLERY. 



89 



Table "A"— Field artillery— Continued. 



I GREAT BRITAIN 
— Continued. 




RUSSIA.* 



1 

tl 

3 
4 
ft 
6 
7 
S 
» 
10 

11 
12 
13 



28 
24 
25 
2ft 
27 
28 

29 

SO 
SI 

S2 

ss 

S4 
S& 
Sft 

Si 
SS 



Howitzer M. 96 
(field). 



M. 93-95 (horse). ' Mortar (field). 



12.7(5) 

1.245(49) 
20 
Right 6.4° 

45°— 5° 
4*9(1077) 
734(1619) 
1143(2520) 
1 52(60) 
1.57(62) 
294(869) 
2353(5188) 
2 



8.69(3.42) 
1.7(66.93) 
24 
Kt. 0.5° to 7. 15° 
l»o_ 10 o 

335(740) 
572(1261) 
815(1797 >-M.79 
1.394(54.8) 
1.56(61.37) 
240(602) 
1640(3616) 



14 


6 


IS 


9 


10 


6(lbg.,lff M l 




pr., 1 st. f 1 




m.c.) 


17 




**, 


21 


1» . 




20 




21 


45 


22 





22.67(50) 



22.67(50) 



Cordite (nitro- 
glycerin). 
.324(.715)» 



239(782) 
177(58«) 

3109(3400; 
4480(4900) 

17(18.6) 

10(11) 

7(7.66) 

3(3.28) 

2(2.19) 



6 

12(6) 
11(1 res. car. 



15.24(6) 
1.276(50.23) 
18 
Rt.4.5° to 11.82° 
47° 

460(1014) 
820(1808) 
820(1808) 
1.37(53.9) 
1.56(61.37) 
355(783) 
1870(4123) 

6(on limber) 



6 
18 
12(6 res. c, 1 
res., I bg.,4 bg.' res. car., 2 bg. 
c.,2m.c.,l fo.) 3 pr.-|-fo.) 



I 



10 
7 
3 

25 
27 

3 
210 

8.011(17.7) 



10 



I 



683 

31.15(68.56) 
26.8(59) 

6.41(14.31)! 

6. 81(15. 11)' 

Pyrocollodion Pyrocollodion 

(nitrocellulose), i (nitrocellulose). 

.78(1.72) I 4,2,orly.23(.5) 



| 700O(7666)» 



412(1362) 

207(679) 

. ; 3400(3718) 
/ | 6400(7000) 

37(40.6) 

20(21.9) 

15(16.4) 

8(8.75) 



+ .017(.037) 
232(761)» 



3400(3718)31 



See notes on page 90. 



90 NOTES OF MILITARY INTB&E8T FOR 1908. 

NOTES. 

1 Caisson* of gun batteries as well as pieces are drawn by 6 bones each in ail countries. 

* Load of limber above does not include these men. 

* figures in parentheses In this line give the number of caissous which with the number of guns ia 
Hue above form a " fighting battery.** 

* In this line, res.= reserve; bg.=baggage: pr. = provision ; fo.= forage; ff.=ft>W forage; rt. - 
store ; ob. —observation wagons ; m. = medical ; c. =cart ; car. ^carriage. 

* Austria-Hungary is experimenting with new artillery material. See page 51. 

* The case shot has been replaced by shrapnel M. '96-96A with fuse cut to burst at muzzle. 

' Velocity and other data given are for shrapnel M. *96-96A. Initial velocity for shell M. 15 i* 44* 
(1470), for steel shell M. *75, 602 (1647). 

* For shell M. f 75 maximum range is 4600 (4920); for steel shell M. '75 it is 1125 <12S0). 

* Approximate. 

"The 38 four-gun batteries with the corps artillery have the new 7.6-cni. guns, the 14 six-gun 
batteries with the independent cavalry have the old 8-cm. guns. 

" With cradle and recoil brake. 

|v 5 caissons carry 48 shrapnel each, the other 4 carry 48 shells each. 

"Reduced charges are .33 (.73) Nc (nitrocellulose) +.01 (.022) blk. (black) and .22 (.48) Xc~.01 
(.022) blk. 

u Approximate. Fire tables not yet published. 

*■ Horse artillery same model as field, differing only in absence of gunner's seat. 

i« With cradle, without equipment. 

" Without gun cradle. 

»• Without equipment. 

>• Height given is for carriage wheels, for those of limber and caisson it Is 1.36 (53.5). 

90 26 shrapnel are in the first reserve wagon. 

« The English are experimenting with new artillery material. For data on Khrhardt gun see p. 61. 

t> Reduced charges are .252 (.555) Ng. (nitroglycerin powder), .179 (.395) Ng., and .107 (.236) Xs. 

** Lines 1 to 6 apply also to hone artillery, on which further data has not been published. 

** For old field gun and horse artillery gun, which form part of the present armament, see M. I. P. 
Notes, 1901. 

» Without load. 

•■The load of 10th caisson is shell (number not known, the Patria says 96) and case shot (6 in 
limber). 

** The data given on this gun is from the Schweizeri$cke ZeU»ckrifl % which notes that the weight* 
(lines 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11) are probably too low. 

"One limber carries 12 shells and 18 cartridges. 

s* Twelve of the four-horse ammunition wagons carry each 10 shells and 16 shrapnel, 6 carry each 
10 shells and 18 shrapnel. Each section has a two-horse cart for bringing ammunition from wagoos 
to mortars; this cart holds 8 rounds. 

*• This number is for torpedo shell with full charge. For shrapnel it Is 220 (722) with full chare. 
170 (558) with half charge, 138 (453) with quarter charge. 

n Thls number is for shrapnel with full charge. For half charge it is 2160 (2351), for quarto- 
charge 1200 (1859). 

BELGIUM. 

Though the first commission recommended the Cockerill- 
Nordenfelt rigid-carriage field gun, much discussion has 
resulted and the question is not yet settled. Recently a com- 
mission of general and staff officers of various arms has been 
appointed to consider from a tactical point of view the 
increase of the number of field batteries and the adoption of 
a new field gun. — Revista di Artiglieria e Genio, October, 
1902. 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 91 

BRAZIL. 

In Brazil it was decided in 1902 to purchase a Krupp 
battery; but the minister has annulled this decision. He 
has decided that the experiments were insufficient and has 
required that they be resumed in April next with various 
types of rapid-fire guns, Krupp, Ehrhardt, Schneider, etc. 

DENMARK. 

Denmark has given an order for 128 field guns, 7.5-centi- 
meter, with barrel recoil, and 192 caissons, together with 
the ammunition and harness, to be furnished by April 1, 
1904. The competitors were Ehrhardt, Schneider et Cie, and 
Vickers. The Krupp system was unanimously chosen by 
the commission. (The ammunition is to be manufactured at 
home, according to one account.) The experiments in 1901 
extended to three systems with barrel recoil — Krupp, 
Schneider-Creusot, and Ehrhardt ; and to three with carriage 
recoil — Krupp with a spring trail spade, Cockerill-Nordenf elt 
with the well-known recoil-check construction with spring 
shoe drag, and the unaltered 8.7-centimeter field gun, L. 24 
M. 76. In 1902 attention has been given to field guns with 
barrel recoil exclusively. — Revue MMtaire Suisse. 

SWEDEN. 

After the completion of the comparative experiments be- 
tween the spring spade and the simplified barrel-recoil guns 
manufactured by Krupp, they decided in favor of the barrel 
recoil for the artillery proper and gave the order for 72 guns 
and 66 ammunition wagons. The entire order to be given to 
Krupp will be 120 guns and 120 ammunition wagons with 
ammunition. Further constructions will follow in Sweden, 
as was agreed upon in the summer of 1901. 

This gun is not the so-called type C, but a type D improved 
in several particulars with deviations in the cradle construc- 
tion. 

La Gazette de Cologne states that credit has been asked for 
the creation of a group of field howitzers and a battery of 
heavy howitzers. 

SWITZERLAND. 

Various periodicals announce that the Swiss committee 
has finally decided in favor of the Krupp gun, model 1902, 



92 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

with barrel recoil and shields. The data concerning this gun 
differs but little from that of the model 1901 given in M. I.D. 
Notes, 1901 : Weight of gun, 376 kilograms; weight of carriage 
with shield, 616 kilograms; without shield, 565 kilograms; 
velocity at muzzle, 485 in. sec. ; at 3,000 meters, 276 m. sec.: 
range at 15° elevation, 5,610 meters. The tests showed that 
the gun was entirely immobile during firing. The endurance 
and maneuvering qualities over rough roads also proved satis- 
factory. The French system of sighting and laying was 
considered too complicated. A system proposed by Schneider 
& Co. was also rejected. 

The rear sight tested with model 1902 is much more simple. 
Being fixed to the cradle, it does not move in the recoil. 
The aiming cannoneer can make the corrections in aim while 
the gun is returning into position. The apparatus is com- 
posed of a graduated curved rear sight regulated by a gear- 
ing. Inside of this rear sight is a second one, also controlled 
by a gearing, and to which is attached the spirit level and the 
sight head with lateral allowance and sight notch. On this 
rear sight are the graduations of the vertical angle. The 
algebraic sum of the vertical angles and the corrections due 
to the variability of the time of combustion of the fuzes are 
marked automatically. — Revue MMtaire Suisse. 

Notwithstanding the satisfactory results of the tests of the 
Krupp gun, several papers state that the 5-cehtimeter Reich- 
enau gun is to be tested by Switzerland. 

The Krupp mountain guns with barrel recoil were tested 
during the year. One alteration made consists in fastening 
the shaft to the fore carriage instead of, as formerly, to the 
rear carriage. The latter during journeys is always trans- 
ported, and only when preparations are made for firing is it 
connected with the fore carriage. The distribution of the 
loads, as well as the manner of loading on the pack saddles, 
has been somewhat altered. The gun was received at the 
Sittin storehouse on May 19, and on the same day was begun 
the instruction of the six recruits who were designated to act 
as cannoneers. From the following day on, the new gun took 
part in all the marching exercises, firing, and practicing to 
which the two batteries of the recruit school were subjected. 
On four days of May 'firing instruction was held. In June 
the practice in other places began. At four places field firing 
was held. In marching the gun was usually placed between 



FIELD ARTILLERY. 93 

tlie otlier batteries and its workings were just as satisfactory 
as that of the other guns. When it was being dragged over 
the ground, one single part of the carriage was injured by 
striking against a stone and had to be replaced. In firing 
the gunners were under less strain owing to the recoil car- 
riage, the ability to hit the mark seemed to be superior to 
that of the ordnance guns. — Jahrbucher, etc. 

TURKEY. 

The turkish field artillery consists of 248 batteries, of which 
18 are field, 178 horse, 46 mountain, and 6 howitzer batteries. 
It is said that 9 more batteries are in course of formation. 
In 1900 there was an intention to purchase 96 quick-firing 
field guns from Krupp, but the plan was abandoned so that 
the question of barrel-recoil guns might first be made clear. 
Now the commission for making experiments has decided in 
favor of the newest system of the Krupp barrel-recoil field 
guns. The closing of a contract for the delivery of 200 guns 
is awaited. 



III.-SMALL ARMS. 

[Extracts from Von LGbrll's Annual for 1902.] 



GENERAL. 



In the Annual for 1901 we were able to cite a number of 
opinions, based on war experience, against a reduction of the 
present rifle caliber; now many voices are being raised in 
advocacy of the adoption of automatic rifles. Especially in- 
teresting is the utterance of an Englishmen on this subject 
in Arms and Explosives, which we quote as follows : 

"The dawn of the day when automatic rifles shall be the 
practical armament of every civilized military power seems 
almost at hand. Hitherto the application of automatic action 
to shoulder arms has appeared to present exceptional difficul- 
ties, due in large measure to the length and weight of barrel 
and shape of ammunition, more or less common to all such 
weapons, as well as to the necessity for keeping the recoil- 
operated mechanism within reasonable limitations of space 
and weight for handling and balance. For several years 
past, however, numerous inventors have been at work on the 
problems involved, and at the present time it would be hard 
to name any first-class power, except, perhaps, our own, which 
is not engaged in considering and testing one or more pat- 
terns of automatic rifle. Thus Germany is experimenting 
with a rifle invented by one of the employees of the small- 
arm factory at Spandau, while Austria looks, and probably 
not in vain, to Herr von Mannlicher for a self-loading arm 
that shall stand well abreast of all rivals. It is rumored that 
the delay in providing an up-to-date successor of the Lebel 
rifle is due to trials now being conducted with an automatic 
rifle by the troops in Algeria. At the same time the inven- 
tion of the Mexican military attachd is undergoing secret 
tests in Paris. Italy has at least two different types of self- 
operating shoulder arms under observation." 

Automatic pistols, on the other hand, have already been 
adopted in several countries. 

Under the title of " Notes on foreign rifles in comparison 
with the Austro-Hungarian 8-millimeter model '88-'D0 rifle," 

(95) 



9G NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Capt. Erwin Preuss, instructor in the landwehr cadet school 
at Vienna, has published a pamphlet which gives a succine* 
view of the modern military rifles of the large European coun- 
tries. The author not only describes the rifles, which differ 
from the Austro-Hungarian 8-millimeter model '88— *90 rifle, 
but also institutes comparisons with regard to trajectory, ac- 
curacy of fire, and weight, and pronounces the following 
judgment on the rifles mentioned below as compared with the 
aforementioned Austro-Hungarian model : 

Germany. — The 7.9-miUimeter model '98 rifle, JLfausfr 
system. — "The advantages cited show this rifle to be one of 
the most perfect as regards construction." 

Russia. — The three-line (7. 62-millimeter) rifle, Afossin- 
Nagant sy stern. — " The breech mechanism is too complicated. 
Clogging in the repeating mechanism is not very rare. The 
rifle is lighter than the Austrian model '88-90, and has, 
generally speaking, the advantages of all loading-clip sys- 
tems." • 

France. — The 8-millimeter repeating rifle, model y S6—UJ, 
Lebel system. — "This rifle is an improvised repeater, which 
can be regarded only as a single loader with a reserve of am- 
munition for rapid single fire." 

Italy. — The 6. 5 -millimeter repeating rifle, model '91, Car- 
cano-Mannlicher system. — "The closing mechanism, includ- 
ing the peculiar safety device, is exceedingly simple. The 
rifle is perfect from a tactical standpoint and may be consid- 
ered as a first-class weapon." 

Great Britain. — The 7.7-millimeter repeating rifle, model 
90, Mark II, system Lee- Metf or d- Speed. — "This is an im- 
provised repeater and is merely a single loader with an ammu- 
nition reserve of ten cartridges for important moments in 
battle. The locking of the rifle presents disadvantages and 
the magazine is said to catch in loading. The cordite causes 
erosion in the barrel after long firing." 

The pamphlet, which also gives brief data on the rifles of 
other countries, contains a table on the trajectories of the 
foregoing rifles, from which it is seen that the French Daude- 
teau rifle, now under experiment, has the flattest trajectory 
at GOO paces. 

Concerning the 7-millimeter Mauser rifle, which was the 
weapon carried by the Boers in the war of 1899-1902, the 



SMALL ARMS. 97 

well-known Boer general, Ben Viljoen, expresses himself as 
follows in his remarks on the South African war : 

4 'As a result of my experience I am constrained to declare 
that the Mauser rifle is the best both for war purposes and 
target practice. Taken as a whole, the Mauser rifle is very 
carefully constructed. In battle more shots can be fired with 
it than with the British Lee-M^tford, for during au engage- 
ment one no longer has time to refill the emptied magazine of 
the Lee-Metford with ten cartridges, but must be content to 
insert the cartridges into the barrel and fire them one after 
the other. It is true that the Mauser magazine is arranged only 
for five cartridges, but as soon as it is empty it can be quickly 
refilled." 

According to Ben Viljoen's statement the Mauser revolver 
(probably a self-loader), which he used during the whole 
campaign, is equaled by no other, not even the Webley. 

Firing tests against knapsacks, packed as in war, were 
carried out in Austria, in 1902, by this army firing school. 
The results of these tests go to show that a knapsack laid in 
front of the marksman, although it be packed exactly as in 
war, does not protect the marksman from the effects of the 
hostile infantry fire, and that even at medium ranges it is 
absolutely necessary to lay three knapsacks in front of each 
other in order to attain this purpose. However, it was shown 
by the experiments, at 500 and 800 paces, that a knapsack laid 
before the marksman as a protection has the advantage of 
rendering him a less conspicuous target to the enemy. By 
this means the number of hits is diminished. Furthermore, 
the moral effect of such cover is likely to bo very favorable, 
especially in the case of troops required to hold out long in a 
position exposed to hostile fire. In this manner the number 
of hits made by the troops thus protected may at any rate 
be increased. The army school commission, in charge of 
these experiments, therefore holds the view that the knap- 
sack can, on many occasions, be used to advantage in battle 
for sheltering lines, notably in cases when it is possible to 
throw up a layer of earth in front of the knapsacks. 

In order to prevent the mischievous discharge of ball car- 
tridges at peace maneuvers, and also to keep accidents from 
occurring during fire with maneuver cartridges, Mr. Kuss- 
mann has patented a very simple and practical device which 
has the great advantage over many others of enabling the 

829 7 



98 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

ammunition on hand to be utilized, and of being capable of 
use as a cover for the muzzle and as a protection for the front 
sight. Further information in relation thereto can be found 
in a pamphlet published by H. L. Geek, Essen (Ruhr). 

The military world was set into transient commotion during 
the past year by the appearance of three pamphlets, written 
in nervous haste by Lieutenant General von Reichenau, con- 
cerning the "influence of shields on the development of field- 
artillery material" and "steel projectiles and protective 
shields." Just as, however, most of Reichenau's bold sugges- 
tions regarding artillery material were unable to stand tu 
test of sober criticism, so will his proposition to furnish tL 
infantry either with solid steel or steel-bodied bullets also V 
unlikely to meet with favor from authoritative quarters. Fur 
if solid steel bullets are unable to penetrate the present shield* 
of about 5 millimeters' thickness at long ranges, they kavt 
failed, and the possibility of making these bullets heavy and 
effective enough to accomplish this purpose is precluded h\i 
number of other factors. A solid steel bullet of the same 
length as the steel-jacketed bullet of like caliber is about 
25 per cent lighter than the latter and refuses to piem 
5-millimeter shields of the best hardened steel even at 500 
meters' range. The ballistic qualities of the solid steel bulled 
must, moreover, be considerably less favorable than tho>eof 
the jacketed bullets. 

ARMAMENT IX THE VARIOUS COUNTRIES. 
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

The infantry is armed with the model-'95 repeating ride; 
the technical troops, the field and foot artillery, and the en- 
listed personnel of the subsistence branches carry the model- 
'95 repeating carbine (Repetier-Stutzen) ; the cavalry has the 
model-'95 repeating carbine (Repetier-Karabiner) ; caliber, 
8 millimeters ; system, Mannlicher. 

In the Hungarian house of representatives a law was passed 
to arm the landsturm with 8-millimeter repeating rifles. 

A rearmament has taken place in the pioneers, the enlisted 
men belonging to the fire brigade receiving the "Repetier- 
Stutzen," the drivers the "Repetier-Karabiner," and the offi- 
cers, cadets, and sergeants revolvers. The pioneers are in 
this manner to be rendered independent and capable of 



SMALL ARMS. 99 

defending themselves. According to Kriegstechnische Zeits- 
chrift the present thrusting bayonet is to be replaced by a 
new model (cutting bayonet). 

The adoption of an automatic pistol for the mounted troops 
instead of the model-1874 revolver is to be expected in the 
near future. 

Three systems are under test among the troops, namely, the 
Roth, Mannlicher, and Luger-Borchardt. 

A so-called universal sight has been invented by Captain 
Kokotovic, consisting of an ingeniously arranged plate from 
which the front sight projects only 2 millimeters. Its chief 
purpose is to prevent overfiring. 

The Danzer's Armee-Zeitung makes the following state- 
ment regarding a notice printed in Le Temps to the effect that 
the Austro-Hungarian war minstry had appointed a committee 
to test various models of 5 and 6 millimeter automatic rifles : 

%< Some newspapers have erroneously concluded from this 
report that an early rearmament of the infantry is imminent. 
We can authoritatively state, however, that the rifle ques- 
tion is, in the first place, not under discussion at present, 
and, secondly, that any change would be in a different direc- 
tion than the above-mentioned report would lead to infer. 
A 5-millimeter caliber is still considered infeasible; there 
exists, however, a hope of obtaining the ballistic advantages 
of such a caliber and the advantages of the lighter weight of 
ammunition (enabling a greater number of rounds to be 
carried) by a different means, namely, by experimenting with 
the Roth-Krnka longitudinal-groove bullets. The above- 
mentioned notice furthermore intimates that the automatic 
rifle and the caliber question are being considered conjointly, 
but there has been no talk thus far of a test with an auto- 
matic rifle. The question of automatic pistols must be settled 
first." 

BELGIUM. 

The infantry, technical troops, cavalry, and civil guards 
are armed with the 7.6-millimeter, model-'89, Mauser rifle. 

The noncommissioned officers and trumpeters of the 
mounted arms and the drivers of the field artillery have the 
Nagant revolver. 

The officers of the whole army and the noncommissioned 
officers, "brigadiers," and enlisted men of the gendarmerie 
carry the Browning automatic pistol. 



100 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

During target practice with the Marga system of target 
ammunition several defects became noticeable in the course 
of time, the rifle barrels becoming very dirty inside and the 
bullets frequently sticking in the barrel and causing it to 
bulge. The cause of the trouble was thought first to be due 
to the deterioration of the powder paper (poudre papier), 
which was supposed to be very hygroscopic and to absorb a 
great deal of moisture in spite of the air-tight packing. 
However, a firing test with powder paper which had been 
dipped in water and then allowed to dry proved the fallacy of 
this theory. Captain Marga now states that although the 
cartridges will stand a few full-charge shots, they are not 
adapted for use as target ammunition. It is said to have 
been demonstrated in a firing test that the cases of the shells 
undergo a deformation after a few shots with target ammu- 
nition, so that the firing pin no longer strikes the cap with 
sufficient force, the result being that the charge burns more 
slowly. As a consequence Captain .Marga suggested that the 
cartridges for target practice be reenf orced inside. With ten 
cartridges thus reenforced 1,000 rounds were fired from one 
rifle without the accuracy of the weapon being affected. 

BULGAHIA. 

The infantry and cavalry are armed with the 8-millimeter 
model-'88 Mannlicher rifle and carbine, respectively, and with 
the 10-millimeter Smith & Wesson revolver. 

DENMARK. 

The troops are armed with the 8-millimeter niodel-'SO 
repeating rifle of the Krag-Jorgensen system. During the 
course of 1901 the Copenhagen militia was armed with 
8-millimeter model-'89 rifles, having hitherto had the model- 
9 67-9(j breech-loading rifles. 

The Armee et Marine describes a machine gun invented by 
a Danish lieutenant and adopted in the Danish army and 
navy. As this weapon can also be used as a rifle, the follow- 
ing data may be of interest : 

It has a caliber of G.5 millimeters and a weight of 6 kilo- 
grams; the initial velocity is 720 meters. The rapidity of 
fire is attained by means of a loading frame holding 30 car- 
tridges, which can be fired in two seconds. The rate of fire is 



SMALL ARMS. 101 

thus 300 rounds per minute, including the time required to 
substitute full loading frames for the empty ones. 

Accprding to the statements of Danish officers who have 
tested the new weapon, its advantages over other arms are as 
follows : 

1. Its weight, which is reduced to 6 kilograms, and its form 
enable it to be used in cases where it is impossible to employ 
the heavier machine guns. 

2. Inasmuch as the rate of fire depends entirely upon the 
frequency with which the trigger is pulled, it can be regulated 
at will, whereas in other machine guns it can not. As a 
consequence the rapidity of fire can be diminished after the 
range has been found, while with other similar weapons there 
is a danger of exhausting the ammunition supply. 

3. As this machine gun can be used like an ordinary rifle, 
it is specially adapted for fire at moving targets, whose move- 
ments it can easily follow. 

4. As the cartridge belts with which ordinary machine guns 
are fed are replaced by loading frames, the gun works easily 
and rapidly. 

5. It costs less than any other machine gun. 

FBANCE. 

Nothing has been announced concerning a rearmament of 
the French infantry, which has been so much discussed in the 
newspapers for the past two years. It must therefore be as- 
sumed that the troops are still armed with the 8-millimeter 
model-^- 93 rifle and carbine. 

It does not even appear likely that a rearmament will soon 
occur, since a number of improvements are being made on 
the present weapon, concerning which the following has be- 
come known : 

The piston of the magazine of the model-1886 rifle is to be 
replaced by a new one, to be designated as "model-1898 maga- 
zine piston." The instructions concerning it are printed in 
the Bulletin Officiel. 

In April, 1902, the enlisted men of the forty-seventh infantry 
regiment in St. Malo were given a new Lebel rifle said to have 
a range of 6,000 meters. The sight is considerably different 
from the previous ones. The old rifles will be turned over 
chiefly to the territorial army. 



102 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

At the normal firing school of the fortified camp of Chalons- 
sur-Marne experiments were made in the summer of 1902 for 
the purpose of improving the firearms of the infantry. The 
object was to do away with the exceedingly sensitive repeat- 
ing mechanism and to substitute for it a loader which, without 
impairing the rapidity of fire, would preclude any possibility 
of the weapons being rendered unserviceable. The latest in- 
vention, which is said to have attained good results, is a new 
projectile called "bullet D." Very satisfactory experiments 
were carried out with this bullet under the direction of Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Souchier, commander of the normal firing 
school. With this bullet it is possible to fire at a range of 
800 meters without raising the leaf of the rear sight. 

La France Militaire reports that preparations are being made 
for the manufacture of 30,000 carbines of a new model for the 
colonial army. It is intended to substitute this new weapon 
for the model-188G-'93 rifle and the model-1892 carbine in the 
colonial infantry and artillery. The rifle has proved too 
heavy and cumbersome for the difficult and fatiguing service 
which these troops have to perform on their extensive expe- 
ditions. The old carbine has not shown itself equal to 
requirements. Not to mention its heavy recoil, in certain 
cases it does not produce sufficient intensity of fire and 
therefore does not inflict as heavy losses on the enemy as are 
necessary. It has, therefore, been decided to adopt a mixed 
model in which the ballistic qualities of the Lebel rifle and 
the present cartridge are retained but a different repeating 
mechanism is used. The magazine, situated underneath the 
breech mechanism, contains more cartridges than the model- 
'92 carbine, and the loading frame of sheet metal, fitted into 
the weapon, is replaced by a loading clip. 

The experiments with automatic rifles are being continued 
uninterruptedly in France. In the spring of 1902 experiments 
were made with the Mondragon automatic rifle and carbine 
on the firing grounds of Hotchkiss & Co., at St. Denis, con- 
cerning which the Armee et Marine reports as follows: 

The experiments, which took place in the presence of foreign 
military attaches, gave complete satisfaction and proved the 
superiority of the weapon over all others tested theretofore. 

However much opinions may differ regarding the military 
utility of automatic rifles, there is certainly a manifest tend- 
ency toward increasing the rapidity of fire of small arms to 



SMALL ARMS. 103 

correspond with the improvements that have recently been 
made in rapid-fire cannon. 

The first repeating rifle, although opposed at first by ex- 
perts, was finally adapted everywhere, and the time has now 
arrived for it to be superseded by the automatic rifle. 

Just as the repeating rifle to a certain extent corresponded 
to the breech-loading field gun with rigid carriage, so does the 
automatic rifle today correspond to the modern rapid-fire gun. 

Concerning the weapons themselves, the author then con- 
tinues as follows : 

"Both of the weapons (rifle and carbine) invented by the 
Mexican Colonel Mondragon have a caliber of 7 millimeters 
and fire the Mauser cartridge (Spanish model). They have 
four rifling grooves and a muzzle velocity of 680 meters. 
The maximum gas pressure is 3,000 kilograms per square 
centimeter. 

"The mechanism consists of two parts entirely independent 
of each other. One — the repeating mechanism — permits the 
use of the weapon as an ordinary rifle, while the other — the 
automatic device — enables the weapon to be used at will as 
an automatic rifle. 

"The closing mechanism is unusually strong and its form 
absolutely original; at least it does not resemble any thus far 
known. 

"The rifle, when used automatically, works very simply 
and in the following manner : 

"A loading clip containing six cartridges arranged in two 
rows is inserted in the magazine ; the rifle is closed by press- 
ing the closing mechanism forward with the hand, and is 
then ready for firing. The gases escape from the inside of 
the barrel through a vent situated near the muzzle, and enter 
a cylinder underneath the barrel, in which operates a piston; 
this piston opens the breech, ejects the empty shell, and pre- 
pares the rifle for another shot by closing the breech mechan- 
ism. The marksman has nothing to do but press the trigger. 

"The rate of fire attained in this manner without detrimei:t 
to the accuracy is about GO rounds per minute. 

"In order to instantly convert the automatic rifle into an 
ordinary repeater it is merely necessary to push a lever situ- 
ated near the muzzle. 

"The repeating mechanism itself enables from 20 to 25 
rounds to be fired per minute. 



104 NOTES OP MILITARY INTKBB8T FOR 1902. 

"The exterior form of this new weapon is almost the same 
as that of the present rifles. Its weight is 4.10 kilograms, 
but is to be reduced to 3.90 kilograms by shortening the 
closing mechanism. The length is the same as that of the 
Lebel rifle, and the position of the center of gravity is very 
favorable to a good balance." 

Aside from the danger of wasting ammunition, which is 
incident to the use of all automatic weapons, there are but 
two objections to be made to this rifle in the opinion of the 
author, namely: 

"Firstly, in spite of the simplicity of the mechanism the 
clogging which occurs in all repeating systems is to be fearal, 
and this produces the worst possible results in war. 

"Secondly, and especially when automatic fre is used, the 
firing detachment will be subjected to such a hail of empty 
shells that the accuracy of the fire can not help suffering 
thereby." 

The author concludes with the following words : "In all 
other respects, however, such as construction, rapidity 
and accuracy of fire, and endurance, the weapon is really 
wonderful, and reflects great credit on its inventor." 

La Patrie adds the following remarks to its discussion of 
these firing tests, from which it appears that Colonel Mon- 
dragon exhibited his invention himself to the foreign military 
attaches : 

"The automatic rifle is obviously the weapon of the future. 
Germany and Italy already have a model which, according 
to a military attach^, is by no means inferior to the Mon- 
dragon rifle as a military weapon. These models, however, 
are being carefully preserved in arm depots. The authorities 
are ready to begin their manufacture and to arm the troops 
with them as soon as France has set the example. 

"All foreign officers have unanimously acknowledged the 
superiority of the automatic rifle, but its adoption is being 
indefinitely deferred because it would entail an enormous 
burden on the military budgets of the European countries." 

The above exceedingly favorable results do not coincide 
with those attained in Mexico, so that the conclusion must 
be drawn that the Mondragon rifle tested in France must be 
an improved pattern. 



SMALL ARMS. 105 

GERMANY. 

The following were armed with the model-'98 rifle at the 
close of this year's report : 

The marine infantry, the infantry regiments of the East 
Asiatic brigade of occupation, the guard corps, and parts of 
the first to seventh, ninth, eleventh, twelfth, fourteenth, and 
eighteenth army corps, and of the noncommissioned officers' 
schools. 

The issue of the model-'98 carbine has been begun. A new 
weapon (a sort of carbine) will be purchased for the foot 
artillery as fast as the available means permit, after the 
re-armament of the infantry is completed. 

All the remaining organizations of the German army now 
carry the model-'88 rifle or carbine. 

The model-'98 rifles and carbines are being manufactured 
without haste iu the government factories and in the Mauser 
works at Oberndorf . The model-'98 rifles and carbines neces- 
sary for Bavaria are to be manufactured exclusively in the 
royal Bavarian small-arm factory at Amberg. 

In the competitive firing with army rifles at 300 meters' 
range in the presence of the emperor of Austria at Vienna 
in the fall of 1902 the Germans fired with the model-'98 rifle 
and original ammunition, winning with a score of 3,755 points 
against 3,713. 

During the target practice with automatic pistols on the 
experiment grounds at Halensee the following maximum 
scores were obtained with the several pistols mentioned : 

Parabellum pistol in 51 seconds 21 hits = 49.4 points. 

Browning pistol in 70 seconds 19 hits = 82.0 points. 

Mannlicher pistol, M. 1901, in 52 seconds ...14 hits = 32.5 points. 

Manser pistol in 77 seconds 19 hits = 29.6 points. 

Borchardt pistol in 120 seconds 20 hits = 20.0 points. 

The Parabellum also surpassed the other types in the 
average scores by a number of points. 

The small-arms and ammunition factory of Adolpli Loescho 
at Magdeburg has placed a target rifle on the market which 
is said to be in use in several infantry regiments with the 
greatest success. Three kinds of cartridges are made fur this 
rifle, as follows: 

Cartridge No. 1 corresponds to the cartridge of the target 
rifle adopted in the German army; it gives excellent results 
at ranges up to 30 meters when fired from the Loesche 



106 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

target rifle. Cartridge No. 2 fires well up to 100 meters and 
No. 3 to 150 meters, these two numbers being also furnished 
with smokeless powder. Nos. 2 and 3, which are of special 
importance for the German infantry, cost 1.50 and 2.50 marks 
per 100, respectively. 

In the Kriegstechnische Zettschrift, No. 10 of 1902, Captain 
von Neubauer, an instructor at the war school, makes a note- 
worthy suggestion relative to an improvement in the rifle 
sight under the designation of a "combat sight." We also 
find a tendency in other countries toward improving the 
sights of small arms in order to avoid too great longitudinal 
dispersions in battle (see Austria-Hungary). 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

The European and the greater part of the Indian native 
troops carry the 7.7-millimeter Lee-Metford rifle, model- 
'SO-'Ol, and the model-'95 Lee- Enfield rifle; the' remainder of 
the Indian native troops are still armed with various old 
models, among which are the Martini-Henry and Snider 
rifles, while certain select corps and the military police on 
the northwest frontier carry Mauser rifles captured in South 
Africa. 

The unmounted officers of the foot troops carry the Lee- 
Enfield carbine, while the other officers are armed with the 
. revolver. 

The contemplated improvements in the Lee-Enfield rifle 
shown to be necessary in the South African war appear to be 
essentially as follows: The barrel will be shortened by 127 
millimeters and will thus be the shortest barrel possessed by 
any rifle yet adopted. In order to compensate for the decreased 
stability of the projectile caused by this shortening of the 
barrel, the seven rifling grooves are to be given a somewhat 
higher pitch, so that the trajectory will remain similar to the 
previous one. The Mauser breech-closing mechanism has been 
adopted, with some improvements enabling it to be taken apart 
without the use of a screw-driver. It will be fed by means of 
a loading clip containing five cartridges. The sight has been 
improved and provides for an allowance for wind and temper- 
ature. A triangular dagger bayonet 35 centimeters long and 
slightly heavier than the present one has been adopted. I" 
order to lighten the weapon holes are bored longitudinally 
through the handguard and transversely through the stock, 



SMALL ARMS. 107 

the butt plate being of aluminum. The total reduction of 
weight amounts to 0.530 kilogram, leaving the weight of the 
rifle 4.120 kilograms. 

According to The Army and Navy Gazette, only a few of the 
new rifles have been issued to certain infantry regiments for 
experimental purposes. Concerning the results of the experi- 
ments, nothing is yet known. The National Rifle Associa- 
tion, which wished to participate in the tests during its shoot 
at Bisley, was refused on the ground that the new model was 
still in an incipient stage of development and that other 
changes besides those already made were to be expected, so 
that it is unlikely that the rifle will be issued very soon to 
the troops in great numbers. 

The experiments with the Ross straight-pull breech closure, 
the Harris magazine, and the Hylard rifle do not appear to 
have resulted favorably. Canada has, however, decided to 
adopt the Ross rifle, and both rifle and ammunition are to be 
manufactured in a government factory at Quebec, the num- 
ber of rifles to be turned out yearly being from 12,000 to 
15,000. 

The length of the Ross rifle without bayonet is 1.22 meters, 
and with bayonet 1.44 meters; the weight without bayonet is 
3.43 kilograms; with bayonet, 3.74 kilograms. This weapon 
seems to bear a resemblance to the rifle mentioned in the. 
Annual for 1901 as being under consideration along with 
others in England for adoption as a substitute for the Lee- 
Enfield rifle. It has, like that one, the Ross straight-pull 
breech mechanism and a simplified Harris magazine. A 
noteworthy feature is the provision of a loading frame for 
use in filling the magazine singly by hand, during which act 
it formerly frequently occurred that single cartridges would 
fall out ; the cartridges are now pressed from above out of 
the loading frame into the magazine. The rate of fire of the 
rifle is about 20 rounds per minute. The weapon is claimed 
to be very handy. 

The Australian colonies appear also to contemplate the 
adoption of the Ross rifle. 

Major Woodgate, of the British army, is reported to have 
invented a new system of automatic rifle. The system is 
alleged to be very simple and capable of adjustment to rifles 
already in service, including the Lee-Enfield. The chamber 
of the Woodgate rifle is said to have a capacity for 20 car- 
tridges (10 being the normal number), so that the number of 



108 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

rounds per minute can be brought up to 200. The English 
war office, it is said, has already begun experiments with this 
model. 

Concerning experiments with automatic pistols, nothing 
has yet been made public. According to the British press, 
the manufacturers are guided in their attitude in this matter 
by the prospects of eventual purchase on the part of the 
public. Inasmuch, however, as the models already known 
tend rather to comply with military requirements and there- 
fore have too great a range and penetration for private use, 
the public and the manufacturers refuse to take interest in 
them and cling to the revolver, which answers their purpose. 
It is not known what attitude the military authorities take 
toward this tendency, whether they have begun to experi- 
ment with foreign models, or whether there is any prospect 
of their adopting the Mars pistol mentioned in the Anuual 
for 1901. 

Some excitement is being aroused in Great Britain by an 
instrument styled "hyposcope" by its inventor, which is said 
to enable the foreground to be observed from behind cover 
and fire to be delivered without the necessity of raising the 
head above the cover. The instrument is L-shaped, and in 
firing the horizontal limb is fastened to the rifle back of the 
sight so that the long limb hangs down. By means of suit- 
ably arranged mirrors it is rendered possible for the marks- 
man to aim through an aperture at the lower extremity of the 
vertical limb, so that his eye is 23 centimeters lower than if he 
had to aim directly over the sight. The hyposcope can, of 
course, also be used for observing the foreground without 
being attached to the rifle. The instrument is said to have 
frequently been used with success in the South- African war, 
and the further experiments at Bisley are also claimed to have 
proven its practical utility. Special stress is laid on the fact 
that the hyposcope is not sensitive; that it can be adjusted to 
and removed from the weapon more quickly than the bayo- 
net, although it sits perfectly solid ; that it does not interfere 
with the marksman in firing, permits as accurate an aim to 
be taken as in direct aiming, and finally, that it can be con- 
veniently carried in a leather sack fastened to the belt. 
Whether this report actually voices the sentiments of the 
experiment committee or whether it is merely a statement 
for advertising purposes can not be told yet from articles 
that have appeared in the press. 



SMALL ARMS. 109 

GREECE. 

The infantry is armed with the 11 -millimeter model-'71 
Gras rifle. 

No decision has apparently yet been made concerning a 
re-armament with a small-caliber rifle . 

ITALY. 

All the infantry of the line and the mobile militia are 
armed with the model-1891 rifle, the cavalry with the model- 
1891 carbine, and the special arms with the model-1891 carbine 
(Stntzen), all of 6.5-millimeter caliber. The territorial militia 
carries the modified Vetterli rifle, caliber 10.4 millimeters. 

According to L'ltalia militare e marina of March 6 and 7, 
1902, a new pistol is about to be adopted for the officers of 
the army in place of the 10.35-millimeter model-'89 revolver 
now in use. This pistol was tested by a small-arms committee 
at Parma, and embodies all the latest improvements. It has 
an automatic mechanism, is of small caliber, and fires smoke- 
less powder. The loading is done in the same manner as in 
the model-'91 rifle. 

A law was passed authorizing the war minister to dispose 
of all the model-1870-87 rifles, together with bayonets and 
ammunition, as fast as they are replaced by new ones. 
According to a government report this would affect 600,000 
rifles, moclel-1 870-87, and 48,000,000 cartridges. 

JAPAN. 

All the infantry is armed with the 6.5-millimeter 30 Meiji 
rifle, and the cavalry with the 30 Meiji carbine. 

The weight of projectile of the new rifle is 10.3 grams, and 
the velocity of the bullet at 25 meters from the muzzle is 
706 meters. 

LATIN AMERICA. 

ARGENTINA. 

The infantry and engineers carry the 7.65-millimeter model- 
'91 Mauser rifle, the officers, cavalry, and artillery being 
armed with revolvers. 

BOLIVIA, BRAZIL, CHILE, COLOMBIA, URUGUAY. 

These countries have the 7-millimeter model-'93 Mauser 
rifle. 



110 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

According to the La Plata Post, Uruguay has purchased a 
considerable number of Mauser rifles and carbines, with 
ammunition, from German arm-factories. 

MEXICO. 

The infantry is armed with the 7-millimeter model-'W 
Mauser rifle, and the cavalry with the 7-millimeter Mauser 
carbine. There are, moreover, probably about 10,000 modi- 
fied Remington rifles (arranged for Mauser ammunition) an-. 
15,000 Remington rifles of larger caliber on hand. 

This Annual has frequently announced of late years tLa: 
Mexico is likely to proceed to a re-armament with new rinV 
of the Mondragon system. Exhaustive experiments have, in 
fact, been made with this end in view, and French newspapers 
have even announced with assurance that the introduction <>f 
the 5-millimeter Mondragon rifle had been decided on. Th>- 
final decision, however, was against the Mondragon rifle. 
According to recent information it is doubtful whether thr 
rifle, which was first manufactured in the French rifle-factory 
at St. Etienne, really possesses the qualities attributed to it by 
the French press, namely, absolute reliability, accuracy, ami 
a rate of fire of GO rounds per minute when used automatically. 
According to trustworthy reports a rate of fire of 13 to P 
shots per minute was attained during experiments made in 
Mexico with the Mondragon rifle used as a repeater in aim* •! 
fire; infilling the magazine the marksman has to place th*- 
rifle against his thigh, probably in order to overcome a strong' 
resistance of the lock mechanism. When used as an auto- 
matic arm a rate of 31 shots per minute was attained only 
once, which resulted in injuring the breech mechanism. Th»- 
latter is said to get out of order very easily, and, moreover, 
the muzzle jumps at every shot, so that the accuracy can not 
be very great during automatic rapid fire. 

In the competiti ve trials participated in by the Mondragon 
and Lebel rifles as well as other systems, the Mauser model 
was victorious. It is said that this Mauser rifle closely 
resembles the German model-'08 rifle in its design. The 
Mexican government is said to have placed a preliminary 
order for 40,000 rifles and 10,000 carbines of this model in 
Germany. 



SMALL ARMS. Ill 

MONTENEGRO. 

This principality has 30,000 Russian three-line repeating 
rifles and 80,000 rifles of various other systems, principally 
Berdan and Werndl rifles. 

The enlisted men of the first seniority class are armed in 
peace with one new and one old rifle each. 

NETHERLANDS. 

The troops are armed with the 6.5-niillimeter model-'£>5 
Mannlicher rifle and the 9.4-millimeter model-'73 revolver, 
Chamelot-Delvigne system. 

According to recent information the 6.5-millimeter rifle fires 
a bullet weighing 10.15 grams with an initial velocity of 
723 meters. 

NORWAY. 

The infantry is armed with the 6.5-millimeter model-'94 
Krag-Jorgensen rifle, which fires the model-^ cartridge. 

PORTUGAL. 

The infantry of the active army and of the first reserve is 
armed with the 6.5-millimeter Mannlicher rifle; the infantry 
of the second reserve is armed with the 8-millimeter inodel- 
'86 Kropatschek rifle ; the colonial infantry and artillery and 
the cavalry carry the 6.5-millimeter Mannlicher carbine. 

RUSSIA. 

The active and reserve troops are all armed with the " three- 
line rifle (7.62-millimeter) model-'Ol," and the cavalry with 
the 7.62-millimeter "model-'96 Cossack carbine." Whether 
the old 11-millimeter Berdan rifles have begun to be replaced 
in the militia by the three-line rifle is not known. 

According to Razviedchik the commander of the machine- 
gun companies recommended that the enlisted men discard 
the rifles still carried by them, claiming that the rifles hindered 
tliem in their duties and in the movement of the machine guns, 
and as a result were detrimental to rapidity of fire. 

The reply of the war minister was that the question of 
armament of the enlisted machine-gun personnel had not yet 
lx?en submitted to sufficiently exhaustive trials and that the 
matter would not be definitely decided until after the maneu- 
vers of 1902. 



112 NOTES OF MILITARY INTERE8T FOR 1902. 

According to a pamphlet entitled "the 7.62-millimeter 
Nagant patent 6-shooter non-gas-leaking revolver," this 
weapon has been officially adopted by the Russian govern- 
ment. It is manufactured in the Belgian arm-factory by 
Ldon Nagant at Luttich. 

SERVIA. 

The infantry carries the 7-millimeter model-'99 Mauser rifle. 
It was decided to purchase 45,000,000 rounds of ammunition 
for this rifle. 

SPAIN. 

The Spanish army is armed with the 7-millimeter Mauser 
rifle. 

SWEDEN. 

The infantry is armed with the 6.5-millimeter model -'96 
rifle and the cavalry with the model-'96 carbine, both of the 
Mauser system. In order to replenish the supply, 350,000 
rifles and 50,000 carbines of the above-mentioned models are 
to be purchased for the Swedish army. 

SWITZERLAND. 

The troops are armed as follows : 

The infantry has the 7.5-millimeter model-'89-'9ti Schmidt- 
Rubin rifle; the cavalry carries the 7.5-millimeter model-'&3 
rifle, with Mannlicher breech closure; the position artillery, 
fortress troops, telegraph companies, balloon company, and 
cyclist detachment are armed with the 7.5-millimeter model- 
'89-1900 short rifle; the cadets have the 7.5-millimeter model- 
'97 cadet rifle; the officers carry the 7. 65-millimeter model-1900 
pistol; the noncommissioned officers and buglers of the £lite 
cavalry and artillery are provided with model-1882 revolvers; 
the remainder have the model-1878 revolvers. 

The experiments for the purpose of devising a blank car- 
tridge which should prevent the introduction of ball cartridges 
into loaders designed for blank ammunition and thus hinder 
the wanton or malicious manipulation of the ammunition 
were carried out with three different patterns of cartridge 
with the following results : Cartridges with doubly fastened 
wooden bullet are well adapted for machine guns ; cartridges 
without a wooden bullet cause trouble in the magazine rifles, 
although they work all right in single loaders and have already 



SMALL ARMS. 113 

been adopted for cadet rifles ; the cartridges with shortened 
doubly fastened wooden bullet appear to be the best adapted 
for rifles and carbines. It is impossible to insert ball car- 
tridges into the loaders designed for this class of ammunition. 
The experiments are being continued. 

The weapons adopted in the service have been subjected to 
considerable adverse criticism during the past year. 

In a pamphlet awarded a prize by the Swiss officers' society, 
Captain Schibler maintains that the Schmidt-Rubin rifle has 
too complicated a mechanism. 

A spirited controversy has also arisen in regard to the 
qualities of the recently adopted model-1900 automatic pistol 
(Parabellum). The arguments advanced are specially worthy 
of interest as affording an idea of how the Parabellum pistol 
behaves in actual service, Switzerland and Belgium being the 
only countries that have thus far adopted an automatic pistol 
to any great extent. The general impression gained is that 
in changing from a revolver to a pistol the troops did not 
perhaps receive adequate instructions as to the management 
of the latter, so that a number of accidents occurred which 
were rather due to the ignorance of the possessors regarding 
the weapon than to any inherent defect in the weapon itself. 
From a circular issued by the chief of artillery forbidding 
the making of any changes in the pistol by private armorers 
it appears probable that the accidents which have occurred 
are attributed to such changes. 

TURKEY. 

The cadres of the European army corps (first, second, and 
third) are armed with the 7.65-millimeter Mauser rifle, the 
fourth corps (Asia Minor) has the 9.5-millimeter Mauser 
magazine rifle, and the troops of the other corps carry the 
11.4-millimeter Martini-Henry and Peabody rifle. 

It appears that the manufacture of the 7.G5-millimeter 
Mauser rifles in Turkish shops has encountered difficulties, 
for, according to authentic reports, 200,000 rifles were ordered 
in Germany at the end of 1902 



IV.-EXPLOSIVES. 

[Compiled by First Lieut. H. B. Ferguson; Corps op Engineers.] 



During the year there have been no reports of any cnange 
or special improvements made in the service smokeless pow- 
ders of the various powers. One innovation has been Krupp's 
substitution of a powder cloth and thread for the materials 
formerly used in the manufacture of cartridge bags. " Nor- 
mal" powder, made in Sweden, though not new, has received 
exceptional notice from the French experts. Experiments in 
France with Lucciani's comb powder and special bullet have 
given some noteworthy results. Nothing very definite has 
been published as to the success of "cordite M. D.," substi- 
tuted for cordite by Great Britain over a year ago; hgwever, 
intimations have appeared that the navy is not satified with 
the new powder. 

As none of the bursting charges for shells, including the 
British lyddite and the French melinite, have proven entirely 
satisfactory in warfare or in peace experiments, investiga- 
tions in this line have been continued. Most promising 
results have been obtained with "ammonal" in Austria; with 
wet gun cotton, using a special detonator, in England, and 
with "schneiderite" in France. The "schneiderite" experi- 
ments began in 1900, the results were published in 1002. 

POWDER CLOTH FOB CARTRIDGE BAGS (krupp). 

[Kepohtkd by Cait. W. S. Biiwu.k, Jr., Koirtkenth Infantry, l*. S. Military Attach (: at 

Br r li n.J 

In place of silk or other material, this powder cloth forms 
the entire cartridge bag and is sewed together and tied with 
the sewing thread and cord. 

The advantage of this cloth appears at once in that, being 
woven of the spun threads of smokeless powder, it is entirely 
consumed in the discharge of the piece and can leave no 
burning residue. 

The cloth but increases the quantity of useful gases, and it 
results of course that the total weight of powder and bag is 
appreciably reduced. 

Krupp says in this connection : 

' * Regarding the mechanical durability of the cloth, it equals 
entirely that of the silk cloth and can therefore be worked 

(115) 



116 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

into bags for all calibers that are to be considered and will 
stand all the strains of transportation in every respect. As 
to its chemical qualities, it meets all requirements exacted of 
the smokeless powder and therefore can be packed, shipped, 
and stored under the same conditions as the latter. The 
absolute reliability of the powder cloth has been proved by 
extensive trials as to durability, shooting, keeping in hot 
storage, and by chemical analysis. In order to avoid every 
possibility of residue being left in the gun barrel, twist or 
cord made out of powder threads is used for sewing and tying 
the cartridge bags. 

"Five grades of this material are manufactured. No. 1 is 
light powder cloth which is used for manufacturing cartridge 
bags for field guns, field howitzers, and field mortars. No. '2 
is medium powder cloth and can also be used for the guns, 
etc., mentioned above, and can be worked into cartridge bags 
for guns, howitzers, and mortars up to a caliber of about 12 
centimeters. No. 3 is strong powder cloth and can be used 
for manufacturing cartridge bags from 15-centimeter caliber 
up. No. 4 is powder sewing thread and serves for sewing all 
cartridge bags. No. 5 is powder cord, braided or twisted, and 
serves for tying cartridge bags and for bundling up charges 
of long-tube powder." 

"NORMAL" POWDER (swedbm). 

Referring to Memorial de Poudres et Saltpetres for 190*2, 
Arms and Explosives comments as follows: 

" 'Normal' rifle and artillery powders receive by far the 
longest notice ; and if the report may be taken as fair, then it 
is difficult to understand why these powders have not been 
adopted by other countries as well as Sweden, Finland, Nor- 
way, and Switzerland. From the results quoted, normal 
powder, which does not contain nitroglycerin, has little or 
no erosive action. In field artillery, 800 rounds may be fired 
without injury to the efficiency of the piece, whereas with 
nitroglycerin products 100 rounds are said to ruin a similar 
gun. In small arms, as many as 30,000 rounds have been 
fired from one rifle without injury to its accuracy; but 1,0W 
rounds are given as the life of the same rifle firing a nitro- 
glycerin compound. Immediately below these statements, 
as if to give a reason for them, it is stated that 100 rounds of 
ballistite fired under certain conditions raise the temperature 



EXPLOSIVES. 117 

of the rifle 432° F., and under the same conditions 100 rounds 
of normal cause the temperature to rise only 252° F. It is 
also set forth that very large quantities of this powder have 
been stored in magazines for four years without deterioration 
in ballistics or the injury in any way of the metal cartridge 
case. 

"The above and more to the same effect make it impossible 
to understand why one or other of the greater powers has 
failed to discover the merits of this product." 

"Nitro Explosives" by P. G. Sanford, gives the following 
data concerning this powder : 

The Swedish powder known as "normal" smokeless pow- 
der, and manufactured by the Swedish Powder Manufacturing 
Company of Landskrona, Sweden, and used for some years 
past in the Swiss army, is made in four forms. For field guns 
of 8.4-caliber it is ased in the form of cylindrical grains of a 
yellow color, of a diameter 0.8 to 0.9 millimeter and density 
3f 0.790; about 840 grains of it go to one gun. For rifles it 
is used in the form of gray squares, density 0.750, and 1 gram 
equals about 1,014 grains. One hundred rounds of this pow- 
der, fired in eighteen minutes, raised the temperature of the 
gun barrel 284° F. A nitroglycerin powder, fired under the 
same conditions, gave a temperature of 464° F. 

This powder is said to keep well — a sample kept three and 
one-half years gave as good results as when first made — is 
easy to make, very stable, ignites easily, not very sensitive 
to shock or friction, is very light, etc. Eight hundred rounds 
fired from a heavy gun produced no injury to the interior of 
the weapon. Samples kept for eleven months in the moist 
atmosphere of a cellar, when fired gave a muzzle velocity of 
1,450 feet per second and pressure of 1,312 atmospheres, and 
the moisture was found to have risen from 1.2 to 1.6 per 
cent. After twenty-three months in the damp it contained 
2 per cent moisture, gave a muzzle velocity of 1,478 feet per 
second, and pressure of 1,356 atmospheres. In a 7.5-milli- 
ineter rifle, 13.8-gram bullet, and charge of 2 grams, it gives 
a muzzle velocity of 2,035 feet per second, and a pressure of 
2,200 atmospheres. In the 8.4-centimeter field gun, with 
charge of 600 grams and projectile of 6.7 kilograms, muzzle 
velocity was equal to 1,640 feet per second, and pressure 1,750. 
A sample of the powder for use in the 0.303-meter rifle, 
analyzed by Mr. P. Gerald Sanford, F. I. C, F„C. S., gave 



118 NOTE8 OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

the following result: Gun cotton, 96.21 per cent; soluble 
cotton, 1.80 per cent; nonnitrated cotton, trace; resin and 
other matters, 1.99 per cent. 

A NEW GUNPOWDER (france). 

[From Thr Engines*, Novrmbrr 21, 1902.] 

A correspondent informs us that the French military 
authorities are engaged in carrying out experiments on sev- 
eral artillery firing grounds with a new kind of gunpowder. 
The greatest secrecy is being observed with regard to this 
new powder, but an expert who has been present at several 
experiments with it has published the following important 
details : The new powder is distinguished from that now in 
use by the fact that it can increase, as desired, the initial 
velocity of the projectiles without thereby increasing the 
pressure in the barrel of the rifle or big gun. The properties 
claimed for this powder are so astounding that it was said to 
be proved during its trials that the velocity of a projectile 
could be increased from 25 to 40 per cent without the pres- 
sure in the gun barrels being increased. Repeated experi- 
ments made With the rifles now in use in the different 
European armies gave the following results : The Mannlicher 
rifle, which has an initial velocity of 525 meters with Rus- 
sian powder, and 585 meters with the German powder, 
attained at' the same pressure with the new powder a velocity 
of 710 meters per second. The English rifle, Lee-Metford, 
which has a velocity of 560 meters with cordite, attains a 
velocity of 725 meters with the new powder, and under the 
same pressure. Similar results were obtained with other 
rifles, notably with the French weapon, Lebel. Although 
the results with the Lebel rifle can not be divulged, yet it may 
be taken for granted that the general excellence of the new- 
invention, even when used with cartridges prepared accord- 
ing to the new method, is confirmed. The increase of the 
velocity, and, consequently of the rifle's range, thus becomes 
immense. But this is not all. By adapting the principles 
of this new form of ammunition to the infantry rifles, such 
accuracy of aim has been obtained that it is claimed that, 
without any exaggeration, every bullet fired can hit a 1-franc 
piece at a distance of 68 yards. The main point which dis- 
tinguishes this powder from that now in use is the physical 
condition of the former, which undergoes a change at the 



a 






/WWVWWW\ a 




EXPLOSIVES. 119 

very moment of firing the shot. This powder resembles 
rolled leaves cut into small pieces, which produce just as 
many results as there are pieces without one atom of the 
chemical composition being affected thereby. Thus, by using 
this new powder, it is possible by a simple contrivance to 
regulate and to alter the pressure at will, while, by the same 
means, the ignition can be either retarded or accelerated. In 
this way the moment of ignition and the pressure can be reg- 
ulated like a watch, and the initial velocity can be increased 
with mathematical precision, while the pressure in the gun 
barrel is lessened, and thus the recoil of the rifle reduced 
almost to nothing. 

LUOOIANI'S OOMB POWDER (IN FRANCE). 

[Reported bv Capt. T. Bektley Mott, Artillery Corp*, I'. 8. Military Attache at Parik.] 

Lucciani's invention bears on two things, the shape of the 
bullet and the form of the powder charge, and that the some- 
what extraordinary results he obtains are solely due to these* 
factors is proved by his using any given rifle with the powder 
and bullet designed for it but modified in form only, accord- 
ing to his theories. At the test before me the Lebel rifle was 
used, firing Lebel bullet and a powder of approximately the 
same ballistic qualities as the regulation French small-arms 
powder but more malleable and cut into "Lucciani's comb." 

Before going into the theory it seems best to examine the 
powder and the ball. The samples sent show (A) the powder 
in sheets as rolled out and ready to be cut up into charges 
[see sketch], (B) a powder of the same chemical composition 
and same form in every particular as "A" except the thick- 
ness of the sheet; (C) the cartridge as Lucciani prepares it for 
the regulation shell; this sample has the same chemical com- 
position as the others, the same thickness of sheet as "B," 
but the teeth of the comb are longer and narrower than the 
other samples. 

To prepare a cartridge using "C" Mr. Lucciani makes a 
roll (as it stands), wraps it in a cigarette paper, inserts it in 
the empty Lebel shell, base down, rams in a wad and then 
the bullet; the cartridge is then ready for firing. 

The crudity of this method is due to two causes ; first, Mr. 
Lucciani has up to a few months ago worked by himself and 
with very little money, as he explained to me; second, the 
fact that all rifles as now constructed are chambered. The 



120 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

result of the latter is that his cartridge must be the size of 
the cartridge-case neck and ideal conditions of loading are 
impossible, the density of loading is necessarily irregular, 
and these rough methods are only small irregularities in the 
midst of great ones. 

Mr. Lucciani desires to construct a rifle without chamber 
as presenting ideal conditions for developing the full effect 
of his theory; the cartridge would then be practically cylin- 
. drical aod the charge of comb powder would be carefully and. 
evenly rolled by machinery and would fill the cartridge case 
exactly, the rubber bands, of course, being omitted, but the 
paper wrapping being retained. 

Such a rifle has not yet beau constructed, due to lack of 
money and also because Mr. Lucciani believes that a convinc- 
ing demonstration of the value of his invention can be made 
with any rifle and the comparison of the results will be more 
striking than with a special rifle. 

The modifications made in the shape of the bullet is shown 
m ' * D " and ' £ E. " ' * D " is a Lebel bullet whose exterior form 
has been altered by cutting the cylindrical channel shown. 
"E" is an ideal bullet made for experimental purposes and 
showing Mr. Lucciani's idea of what a bullet should be; the 
central stem is of steel to give stiffness to the projectile, the 
body is of lead for density, the copper ends are to give a bear- 
ing surface that will best grip the lands and not foul the bore. 
In practice this copper would be replaced by a nonpoisoning 
substance such as the nickel alloy of which jackets are usu- 
ally made. The copper has been used simply because of ease 
of manipulation in making a small number of bullets by 
hand. 

The theory on which Mr. Lucciani works is this : Reduce 
the friction in the bore by giving the bullet the form seen in 
"D" and "E;" that is, cause the bullet to grip only at its 
base and near the ogive, the rest of the surface running flush 
with the lands. Give the powder the comb form in order to 
produce progressive burning, slow at first and quick later. 

The comb form is used as furnishing a ready mechanical 
means of changing the rate of burning according to formula. 
This rate is changed for a given powder in three ways : (1) 
By changing the thickness of the comb; (2) by changing the 
length of the teeth ; (3) by changing the width of the teeth. 
"A" and "B" samples have what he calls normal-size teeth, 



EXPLOSIVES. 121 

but the comb is of different thickness in the two samples; 
,C C" has teeth one- third the size of "A" and "B" and longer. 
Another point made by Mr. Lucciani is that in his bullets 
the center of gravity coincides with the center of volume, 
thereby increasing the accuracy of flight. In the bullets of 
any system which he modifies, he accomplishes this coinci- 
dence by the form and location given to the part he cuts 
away. 

He has constructed empirical formulas for velocity and 
pressure in terms of length, breadth, and thickness of the 
comb teeth, length and weight of bearing surface of the bullet. 
He did not give me these formulas and I can not say what 
terms enter them, but he is able to take exactly the same 
"comb" and bullet and by changing the teeth change the 
velocity to a predicted amount while the pressure is unaltered ; 
again, with the same comb having the same teeth, by altering 
the amount cut away on the bullet, he can change pressure 
while the velocity is unaltered; by combining the two he 
produces variations in pressure and velocity, one or both, 
within limits, at will, the weight of powder and of bullet 
remaining the same. 

These variations are calculated beforehand and predicted 
with considerable accuracy. 

During the firing I was permitted to examine and verify 
everything that was done; the comb powder was prepared 
before me by Mr. Lucciani, the teeth being altered for the 
various cases with a pair of scissors. I watched him load 
the empty cartridge cases and saw inserted the common Lebel 
bullet or the Lebel bullet modified by Mr. Lucciani, as the 
case demanded. I read the chronograph and pressure gauge, 
and I believe the test was a perfectly fair one. The results 
can be seen in the table below. The variation in pressure 
and velocity for given elements of loading do not seem to be 
great in view of the crudeness of the methods employed in 
preparing the cartridges, and especially in view of the fact 
that the rolled-up charge was inserted in a bottle-shaped 
cartridge case, and anything like constant density of loading 
^as out of the question. 

The facts established are interesting and seem to bear out 
Mr. Lucciani's contention that he can, with his methods, get 
a much higher velocity without a corresponding increase of 
pressure. 



122 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 



Table showing the firing of December 5 



Rifle, Lebel. 

Powder, Lucciani comb. 



Weather, fine. 

BulleU, regulation transformed. 



9 

«6 


h 


^ 










g8 


5£ 

c j: 

£* 

® 3 
5 8 


•a 

I 

s 


u 

3 


S 

B 
o 


§ 

1 

8 

*S 
*% 


be 

i 


45 


25 


30 


6 


4 ! 55 


2.20 


45 


25 


30 


6 


4 ! 55 


2.20 


46 


25 


30 


6 


4 55 


2.20 


45 


25 


30 


6 


4 55 


2.20 


46 


25 


30 


fi 


4 


55 


2.20 


45 


25 


30 


6 


4 


55 


2.20 


45 


25 


SO 


6 4 


55 


2.20 


55 


25 


30 


6 1 4 


55 


3.25 


55 


25 


30 


4 55 


3.25 


55 


25 


30 


6 4 ' 55 


3.25 


55 


18 


37 


6 


4 


55 


3.25 



Teeth, entire 

do 

Teeth in fourths . 
do 

do 

II"do I™™"! 
Teeth, entire ___. 

.do . 

Teeth in halves.. 
Teeth in thirds .. 



8.17 
8.17 
8.17 



8.17 
8.17 



8.17 
8.17 
8.17 



8.17 
8.17 



R.T. 
R.T. 
R.T. 



R.T. 
R.T. 



2192 
2192 
2203 
2214 
2203 
2203 
2214 
2337 
2371 
2428 
324* 



572 
610 



7« 

m 



Mr. Lucciani had rifles of all the different countries of 
Europe and he has experimented with each to determine the 
best form of powder and bullet to give the highest ballistic 
results. He did not have a Krag rifle. 

Mr. Lucciani believes his invention is even more useful in 
cannon than in small arms, especially as the reduction of 
pressure for a given velocity would make possible field guns 
of much less weight and suddenness of recoil. I have it on 
pretty good authority that the French Government has taken 
up his invention as applied to cannon, and one proof of this 
is that he makes no offer to sell his rights as concerns cannon. 
The French law prohibits such sale except by its consent and 
so long as it is experimenting with a view to adopting any 
invention. 

Lucciani's process has been patented all over Europe and in 
the United States. ^ 

The chrome-steel plate sent herewith was fired at in my 
presence with the Lebel rifle, using first the regulation Lebel 
cartridge and then the Lucciani cartridge (comb powder and 
modified Lebel bullet.) 

SMOKELESS POWDER AND BURSTING CHARGE IN ITALY. 

Captain Anton Cascino, Italian artillery, instructor in the 
military school at Modena, is the author of a book called 
"II tiro, gli explosiri e le armi" which is intended as a text- 
book for the above school, but which gives some information 
as regards explosives used in Italy. 



EXPLOSIVES. 123 

SOLBNITE (SMOKELESS POWDER). 

Soon after the introduction of ballistite (see M. I. D. Notes, 
1901) several imperfections were discovered, the most impor- 
tant of which were a too great explosive tendency, a too great 
tendency to corrode the weapon, and the lack of stability 
owing to the exuding of the nitroglycerin. It was attempted 
to prevent the exuding of the nitroglycerin by means of an 
additional ingredient, and from this resulted Amid ballistite, 
which, however, did not give satisfaction and the fabrication 
of which was abandoned. 

Later the English cordite powder (in the form of threads, 
with hollow grains and cylinders) was tested in comparison 
with ballistite. From cordite there was less pressure (about 
600 atmospheres less) but greater corrosive effect and it was 
abandoned. 

On the 14th of September, 1894, Colonel Bazzichelli, of the 
artillery, who was director of the powder manufactory at 
Fontana Liri, took out a patent upon the invention of solenite. 
In order to lessen the temperature of explosion he lessened 
the nitroglycerin to 33 per cent, increased the collodium to 
about 66 per cent, added 1.1 per cent of vaseline, and gelati- 
nized the substance by means of acetone, which was after- 
wards liberated. The compression produced by a rolling 
process was done in the cold by a machine similar to that by 
which macaroni is made. The granules were in the form of 
hollow cylinders of 2 millimeters diameter on the outside and 
0.7 millimeters diameter on the inside, a height of 2 milli- 
meters being given; each gram of solenite contains 120 to 140 
granules. 

In a long series of comparative experiments solenite showed 
itself always the superior, presenting the following advan- 
tages: 

1. With a like charge there is less pressure, about GOO 
atmospheres. 

2. Less corrosive action, on account of which the tube can 
he used longer. 

3. It completely fills the shell model '91, whereby over- 
loading is made impossible. 

4. It possesses more stability, is more easily preserved, and 
can be more safely handled. 

5. More safety in the manufacture, because the compression 
being made in the cold, no nitrose vapor is generated and it 
is not necessary tp use aniline. 



124 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Solenite is harder than Jmllistite and has a darker color 
owing to the absence of aniline. It has the disadvantage of 
soiling the barrel more than ballistite, without, however, 
giving out more smoke; the cleaning of the rifle after us^ 
becomes harder. The flame of solenite is more visible than 
that of ballistite. On account of the good results obtained 
from solenite it was resolved to adopt it in the month of Feb- 
ruary, 1896, for the 6.5-millimeter cartridges, model '91 (the 
charge as compared with ballistite being 2.28 grams against 
1.95 grams). 

The effort is now being made to introduce solenite instead 
of ballistite for cannon. 

PERTITE (BURSTING CHARGE). 

The picric acid introduced in Italy for bursting shell has 
received the name of pertite. Pertite is precipitated when 
concentrated nitrosulphuric acid acts on phenol (C t H t OH). 

C.H 6 0H+3(H0N0,)=C.H,(N0 1 ) t 0H-f-3H,O; 
the water which is set free is absorbed t>y the sulphuric acid. 

Characteristics. — Pertite crystallizes in needles of a 
bright yellow, and has a very bitter taste. It is soluble in 
cold water in the proportion of 1 : 160; it is even more solu- 
ble in warm water, but most soluble in ether and benzine; 
it attacks metal, forming picrates ; melts at a temperature of 
122.5°, which is one of the special proofs of its purity; at an 
ordinary temperature it emits some vapors, which increase 
with the temperature. A small quantity can, with the great- 
est precaution, be brought to 200° without danger, the pertite 
being slightly decomposed and becoming black; brought 
suddenly to a temperature of 300° degrees it explodes violently. 
It is but slightly poisonous ; the vapor or dust excites sneez- 
ing, and if breathed for a length of time might be injurious 
to the health. 

The physical state (crystalline) is favorable for its stability; 
it is not effected by great alterations in temperature. 

Pertite absorbs but a small amount of water, and even 
though immersed in water does not lose its explosive quality, 
but simply becomes a doughy mass. 

Pertite has an explosive force at least equal to a charge of 
equal weight of gun cotton, but when the great density of 
the charge which may be obtained with it is taken into con- 
sideration, it is easy to comprehend how much greater effect 



EXPLOSIVES. 125 

a load of equal volume may have. The density of melted 
pertite is 1.70, while that of gun cotton in cakes is 1.10 to 1.15. 
The equation according to which the decomposition of 
picric acid occurs is not yet known. The following is 
accepted : 

2(C 6 H,(NO t ) 8 HO)=3CO,+8CO + C+6H+6N; 
thus the result is obtained that, according to the thermody- 
namic laws, from 1 kilogram of pertite is obtained 750 calo- 
ries, whereby a gas volume is evolved, which reduced to 0° 
and 1 atmosphere of pressure equals 829.1, with a theoretical 
pressure of about 11,000 atmospheres. This data must be 
verified, however, by experiments. 

Pertite exploding produces white smoke. The explosion is 
incomplete if a dense yellow vapor is evolved. 

In order to determine the safety of a pertite charge against 
blows, the following experiment was made: Four charges 
were made fast to a table and were fired into from a distance 
of 25 meters with a 6.5-millimeter repeating rifle, model '91. 
Four shots went through and shattered the charges without 
causing any explosion or igniting the material. Other experi- 
ments demonstrated that of all known explosives, black pow- 
der included, pertite is the least susceptible. 

Pertite ignited in the open air burns quietly, without ex- 
ploding, if not more than from 8 to 10 kilograms is set on fire; 
in larger quantities the great heat and the effect of the gases 
cause explosion. A charge of pertite without fuze maybe 
regarded as an almost inactive substance. 

In a hollow projectile with the walls made to resist shock, 
pertite explodes under the simple influence of a strong im- 
pulse ; it has, however, been found more satisfactory to use a 
2-gram explosive cap, which is a detonating charge of picric 
acid in a steel case. 

Use. — Pertite may be used either in a state of agglomera- 
tion obtained by fusion and molding, or as a compressed 
powder. In these two cases the density varies from 1.70 for 
the fuzed pertite to 1.3 or 1.5 for the pressed, on account of 
which the first explodes less rapidly than the second ; but, on 
the other hand, the effect of the latter seems to be limited 
to the place where the explosion occurs. These peculiarities 
of picric acid are made use of by the Italians in the following 
manner: The pulverized pertite is inserted as a detonator 
between the fuzed mass and the 2-gram fuze cap, where the 



126 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

use of a weaker detonator is made possible. In high-explosive 
shell either fuzed pertite or compressed powder is used, the 
former more commonly. 

"AMMONAL." (AUSTRIA-HUNGARY). 

[Kkpohtep bv C'apt. Floyd W. Hahbii, Foubth Cavalry, U. 8. Miljtaet Attach k at Yir^vi/ 

"Ammonal " is the name of a new high explosive, claimed 
to be powerful in its effect and safe in its use. This explosive 
contains no nitrified substance, but is a mechanical mixture 
of aluminum, nitrate of ammonia, saltpeter, and charcoal 
It is less liable to absorb moisture than are other powders of 
its class and it keeps well when properly packed. 

The explosive is not only a blasting compound for indus- 
trial and mining purposes, but also a military high explosive 
of rare excellence. When used either in mines or in ordnance, 
both safety and enormous power are obtained. So far as its 
industrial use is concerned, the most striking feature of the 
explosive is the total absence of noxious gases, for which 
reason it is most fit for blasting in pits and quarries. 

Picric acid and wet gun cotton, explosives most commonly 
used in shells and torpedoes, require a strong detonator (about 
2 grams of fulminate) for thorough detonation. It is claimed 
that "ammonal" is the only high explosive that can I* 
brought to complete detonation by a simple black-powder 
priming, producing the same effect as if a fulminate cap were 
used. But, when a fulminate detonator is considered prefer- 
able to a black-powder priming, as, for example, in torpedo 
charges or submarine mines, one gram of fulminate is all that 
is required to detonate the charge. 

During the course of the year a series of experiments was 
made before officers of the Austrian navy and before a for- 
eign officer (Captain Tulloch of the royal artillery, England), 
in order to demonstrate the high efficiency of "ammonal'' 
for military purposes. From 100 to 500 fragments were 
obtained by bursting a 12-centimeter steel service shell (Yl\ 
kilograms) with a bursting charge of 1,300 grams of "ammo- 
nal." It must, however, be borne in mind that the absolute 
number of fragments obtained signifies nothing, if the ratio 
of the weight of the charge to the weight of the projectile 
as well as the nature of the steel are unknown. Experiments 
made with 10.4 centimeter howitzer shells (11.2 kilograms) 
on the proving grounds of the Austrian ordnance board 



EXPLOSIVES. 127 

^within the last two months, in order to ascertain the fragmen- 
tation in sand and the effect of the firing against earth cover, 
showed that " ammonal" is undoubtedly much stronger than 
the Austrian "ecrasite," a picric-acid compound. 

Steel shells were also fired from a 4.7-centimeter Skoda 
rapid-fire gun against a 30-millimeter steel plate, with a 
60-gram charge of "ammonal" and a small black-powder 
priming. Perfect explosion was obtained behind the plate. 
There was no fuze in the shell, the black powder being 
exploded by the shock against the plate, the fire transmitted 
to the "ammonal" and retarded. 

Advantages (claimed by manufacturers) of the new explo- 
sive "ammonal," which will result in its superseding picric 
acid and wet gun cotton for military use and dynamite for 
industrial purposes, are: 

"Ammonal " is the strongest among the existing explosives 
that are of practical use. The calorimetric calculation of its 
power, according to the formula of the "Annales des Mines 
de Belgique, 1896, Tome I," gives the following results: 

Maximum of work done by — 

1 kilogram of ' ' ammonal " 698, 000 meter kilograms 

1 kilogram pure nitroglycerin 570,000 meter kilograms 

1 kilogram dynamite No. 1 450,000 meter kilograms. 

"Ammonal" is perfectly safe in manufacture, transporta- 
tion, storage, and handling. It is not liable to freezing, even 
at the lowest temperatures. It absorbs less moisture than do 
the other explosives of the nitrate of ammonia class, and can 
be stored, if properly packed, without the least deterioration. 

I have just witnessed some tests of this explosive and the 
following are the results of my observation: 

The expansion of the lead mortar by— 

20 grams of • ' ammonal " was 300 cubic centimeters. 

20 grams of dynamite No. 1 was 100 cubic centimeters. 

In the crushing test, the height of the lead cylinder was reduced by — 

100 grams of "ammonal" 20 millimeters. 

100 grams of dynamite No. 1 13 millimeters. 

Charges of "ammonal" in steel service shells of 12 centi- 
meters were detonated by means of a black-powder priming 
and with a fulminate cap. In the first case the shell was well 
fragmented and in the second case perfectly fragmented. 

Two perfectly similar bombproofs had been constructed, 
and I was asked to select one for a test of an "ammonal" 



128 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

shell and one for a test of an "ecrasite" shell, 
nal" shell completely destroyed the bombproof in -which ft 
was exploded, and anyone who might have sought protection 
under this bombproof would have been crushed to death. 
The ceiling of the other bombproof remained intact, and 
anyone who might have been sheltered under it would have 
suffered no injury and probably no discomfort beyond the 
concussion caused by the explosion. 

It was next demonstrated that this explosive is perfectly 
saf e in handling ; that it can not be detonated by shock or 
friction; that it burns in the fire without exploding, and that 
when exploded it produces no noxious gases. It is claimed 
that it is perfectly smokeless. On account of the large 
amount of dust accompanying each test witnessed, I was not 
able to verify this claim absolutely, but it was evident that 
the explosive is at least practically, and possibly -entirely, 
smokeless. 

A thorough and practical test of "ammonal" and of dyna- 
mite was then made in a quarry for the purpose of comparing 
the strength of these two explosives in blasting. It was 
clearly proven that in this application of explosives "ammo- 
nal" is considerably stronger than dynamite. When, in 
addition to the greater strength of the former, its quality of 
producing no noxious gazes or offensive odors is considered, 
its advantages for use in tunnels, mines, or other confined 
spaces are obvious. 

It is not practicable to test the other qualities claimed for 
this explosive, but on account of the reputation of its propri- 
etor, I am inclined to believe that they are all founded on 
fact. The proprietor is G. Roth, esq., of Vienna, one of the 
most important manufacturers of cartridges and explosives 
in Europe. He is said to employ 26,000 persons. 

It is reported that " ammonal" has been adopted by Austria- 
Hungary, in place of "ecrasite," and by Germany, and that 
it is undergoing study and trial in England and in France. 
Mr. Roth's agent informs me that a long series of experi- 
ments with this explosive used as a charge for torpedoes and 
submarine mines has been made by the Austro- Hungarian 
navy at Pola, and that the most satisfactory results have 
been obtained ; and that, after having been kept in water for 
nine months, it was found that the explosive had not deterio- 
rated. 



EXPLOSIVES. 129 

WET OTJN COTTON AS THE BUBSTINO CHARGE FOB SHELLS 

(GREAT BRITAIN). 

[RiroarKD by Capt. K. B. Camatt, Thirteenth Cavalby, U. S. Military Attache at London.] 

Naval and military authorities have for years past, and are 

still, seriously occupied with the question of high explosives 

as the bursting charge for shell. Wet gun cotton is known 

to be, in its wet state, a perfectly safe, uninflammable, and 

inert explosive in the absence of a detonating force. It may 

consequently be stored aboard ship, or conveyed and used 

with land forces, without any special precautions and without 

the slightest risk from any cause whatsoever. It is absolutely 

under control. It will keep in any climate unimpaired for 

an indefinite period. Wet gun cotton is not so locally violent 

as lyddite; its disruptive effect and ensuing damage are 

therefore much greater. Lyddite, too, is not employed in 

shell of a smaller caliber than the 4.7-inch gun, owing to the 

uncertainty of its detonation in smaller bodies. Wet gun 

cotton, on the other hand, may be detonated in small as well 

as large quantities with perfect certainty. The only obstacle 

to its general use for shell purposes hitherto has been the 

circumstance that to insure complete detonation a primer of 

dry gun cotton and a fulminate of mercury detonator have 

been required, and both of these agents are too sensitive to 

premature ignition by friction heat or concussion to permit 

their employment under the conditions of shell firing at the 

present day, owing to the high pressures and great velocities 

attained with modern artillery. The combination, however, 

is still the most useful and successful form for torpedo work 

and constitutes the latest practice method of charging and 

exploding these submarine "shells" by all navies. 

The means, therefore, of adapting the wet gun cotton suc- 
cessfully for general shell work has long been sought, and, 
after many years of experiment and research, the New 
Explosives Company, Ltd., of London, have at last been able 
to place before the war authorities a new safety exploder, the 
composition of which contains neither dry gun cotton nor 
fulminate of mercury, but which will detonate wet gun cotton 
with certainty under the safest conditions. The composition 
itself will not detonate under a temperature of 3G0° C, and 
can not be ignited by friction or shock, but at the same time 
is brought instantaneously into action with an ordinary deto- 
nating pellet such as is commonly employed in all percussion 

829 9 



130 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

or time fuzes of general service to-day. The force then exerted 
will detonate in its turn any charge of wet gun cotton 'with- 
out leaving any traces of unburnt explosive or residue. The 
composition is very stable and stands an excellent heat test, 
and it is not affected by any climatic changes, and in cost of 
manufacture it is less than gun cotton. 

On Tuesday, the 8th instant, some extensive official trials 
were carried out by the New Explosives Company, Ltd., at 
the Ridsdale Range of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whit worth & Co., 
Ltd., in the presence of several war office officials and foreign 
attaches. 

The main bursting charges were made by the company's 
new method of forming and compressing wet gun cotton, 
whereby it is now possible to produce charges of compressed 
gun cotton in one whole solid block of any dimensions 
mechanically true and of theoretical and uniform density 
throughout. 

With the old method of work certain practical difficulties 
have prevented the direct formation of "shaped" blocks such 
as are required to form the bursting charges for shell and for 
torpedoes, and it has hitherto been the practice to build up 
such a charge from a number of disks and to reduce them to 
the required shape and size in a lathe. By the new process 
such charges can be formed in a single block without any 
subsequent turning or other shaping being necessary. 

There is no space wasted as is the case with built-up charges 
through slightly imperfect contact between the individual 
blocks, and thus, either a heavier charge (i. e., about 15 per 
cent more gun cotton) can be got into the same space, or less 
space will be occupied by a charge of given weight. 

The first experiment consisted of firing 10 rounds from a 
G-pounder quick-fire gun. The total weight of each shell as 
fired was 5 pounds 10£ ounces, the weight of the wet gun-cot- 
ton bursting charge being 100 grams and that of the explosive 
in the safety exploder 9 grams. 

The shell was fitted with the ordinary Hotchkiss fuze, Mark 
IV. The target was a J-inch steel plate at a range of about 
150 feet. In the rear of this were two heavy steel coils form- 
ing a cell 7 feet long backed by a 12-inch plate to confine the 
fragments, which were afterwards collected, counted, and 
weighed. The propellant employed was ordinary govern- 
ment cordite, service charge 7$ ounces. The following table 



EXPLOSIVES. 



131 



gives the fragmentation of the shell and the chamber pres- 
sures and muzzle velocities for each round : 



Chamber 
pressure. 



Maule 
Telocity. 



Recovered of 
shell. 



Recovered of 
brass. 



Recovered of 
gas check. 



Largest 
piece re- 
covered 



Total 
weight of 
shell re- 
covered. 



1 

« 

3— 
4__. 

f>._ 
6__ 

* - — 

<» 

10__ 



Ton*. 

Not taken. 

. Not taken. 

11.28 
I 12.26 

12.39 
Not taken. 
Not taken. 
Not taken. 
Not taken. 
Not taken. 



Foot-tecondM. 

Not taken. 

Not taken. 
1,800 
1,827 
1,838 

Not taken. 

Not taken. 

Not taken. 

Not taken. 

Not taken. 



Piece: 

102 
143 

67 
104 
154 
135 

84 
222 
306 



Lb». Ox. Piece*, 



4 4 

3 15 ' 

3 9 I 

\ ?i 

4 3^ 
8 6 



7 

14 
14 

6 
10 



31 



None. 

None. 

6 | \ 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 




The second experiment was the bursting of a 6-inch shell 
at rest. This was done in a closed cell of wrought iron 7£ 
inches thick by 3 feet 6 inches in diameter by 5 feet deep, 
weight 6£ tons, from which none of the fragments could 
escape. The main object in this instance was to demonstrate 
that the wet gun-cotton charge and safety exploder would act 
equally satisfactorily without the assistance of the shock of 
impact at a short range, and detonate as instantaneously and 
energetically (1) as if fired from a gun, and (2) in large as 
well as in small quantities. The results here obtained were 
also very much appreciated by all present. The force of 
the explosion burst the coil open. There were no traces of 
unconsumed explosive; the fragments recovered numbered 
2,122 pieces, the largest weighing 10 \ ounces arid the total 
C5i pounds. 

The shell was an ordinary cast-steel one, weighing fully 
loaded as fired 119£ pounds. 

The wet gun-cotton charge weighed 6 pounds 9 ounces and 
the explosive composition in the safety exploder 300 grams. 
The fuze employed was of the ordinary service direct-acting 
pattern, and was fired electrically. 

Before the trials commenced it was convincingly proved 
that the gun-cotton charges contained the usual amount of 
moisture, viz, about 18 per cent of water, and that there was 
no dry gun cotton or fulminate of mercury employed in the 
composition of the safety exploder, and in view of the very 
excellent results obtained, it seems highly probable that gun- 
cotton shell charges will become more generally employed, 



**- .ILL. 



uTZ 



*»;* :J*t 



x — y>»* f _ ^ ^r lien exerted 

r«i. £ "W^l rr'* «*v»TOn Wltn* 

^rr.tt:~r^ -r reside- The 

Lilzr LO. -rXJ>rZ~L: heat t€St, 

-d in cost of 



f»-Hif 






x^- ^ rrsr - r -j. of: rial trials 
—^ Ci-zliazt. Ltd., at 



- JL — r»^r 



.— c r Tj;rr-?r:h A Co.. 
,— .-Vj. sr<i foreign 



*r-,?rs t--t£t* tlj*;- :t :Le company* 
i,i ; - rn -i^-^^r- £ V eT gr^n cotton. 

- ~ Tr ih- \k---^ of compressed 

- s..V.i "jl.k :: *ry dimensions 
: "_itr- r-o:uI j^i Tiii:::»rm density 






i^ i_-- 






rr*-rt:.:^l difficulties 
Ili>=*f- blocks such 
r^f.r shell and for 
rr*L-rIceto buildup 
i-l » reduce them to 
By the new process 
r bkek without any 



" " ;« is. n: :1~ 
^:_: ~_ re ^ri- 
>-.*..-* ^ill t •;■•. 
T„r irs: ex:*r 
•;-:-;-u-i-er %:ii/k- 
drv; was. -5 ;-;ui 
ton ~-;:rs:ir:i: chars 
in the safety expi 
The shell was : i 
IT. The targ-t wa 
1.30 feet. In the r*. 
iiiiT a cell 7 feet loi - 
fragments, which were 
weighed. The propel]* 
ment cordite, service obi 




gives the fragmenu*^ n_ c 
sures and muzzle ve.-:'cr.£a 



-u— —ana: 



Chamber 
pressure. 



I 



1— 
2... 
3— 
4— 

5... 
6 

S.'.Z 

9 

10 



Ton*. 
_. Sot taken. 
... Sot taken. 

11.28 

_J 12.26 

12.39 

' Sot taken 

__ ; Sot taken. 

^ , Sot taken. 

' ^ i Sot taken. 

) 29 ot taken. 







1.. ... 



Th^ second experiment was the bur^ 

at rest- This was done in a ° loSed ^ J 
inches *& ick b y 3 feet 6 incheS ** ^" 
weight ^^ tons ' from which BC,IJ 1'" ^ 
escape. ^ he main ^J 601 m ^ '^^ 
that the ^ et gun-cotton cu«* hi/- *. - 
equally satisfactorily ra:c: -^ *-_ _ 
impact at » short range, an: - -*/- T 
energ-et icaJ A>* ^ 
well as in s- ^ 
also 
the 






. r- 
of 
ed 

- 

I in* 
:es 

r- it 

,oy- 

the 

i»»tis 

jcpli - 

It |H is- 
Ltnr Tin? 



-ION < HAM 

uiitaijiing L13 

lltlieSt'hueMer- 

on :i - • i i [j]at(j 30 null i- 

; i n lt I < * irons fixed 1" aa 



132 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

especially in armor and deck piercing projectiles, for which 
purposes it appears to possess advantages which can not be 
claimed for any other high explosives. With a delay-action 
fuze wet gun cotton with this new safety exploder can be 
fired through the thickest armor plate that the shell itself 
will penetrate without exploding until it has passed through; 
this can not be accomplished with lyddite or any other known 
high explosives. 

« SCHNEIDERITE » (FRANCE ) . 

[FROM ItKVl'K MllJTAIKK Sl'IASK.] 

"Schneiderite" is the exclusive property of MM. Schneider 
et Cie., and is a powder, light yellow in color, quite oily to 
the .touch, and forming lumps readily when pressure is 
applied. 

Considered alone, "schneiderite" is a wholly inert sub- 
stance, of perfect stability and containing in itself no explosive 
substance whatever. The elements of which it is composed 
only combine to form an explosive at the very moment of the 
explosion under the influence of a detonating primer. 

When the detonator is not used "schneiderite" maybe 
submitted to the most violent shocks with impunity. It is 
not influenced by fire. Thrust into a fire, it burns with diffi- 
culty, and when it is withdrawn the flame dies out. It is also 
uninfluenced by the most extreme cold. It is sensitive to but 
one single alteration, which, instead of rendering it more dan- 
gerous, diminishes its explosive qualities. This is the altera- 
tion which may result under bad conditions of preservation 
from its hygroscopicity. To avoid the absorption of moisture, 
it is necessary to make sure of the imperviousness of the cases 
or of the projectiles in which the " schneiderite" is contained. 
It is easy to restore all its properties by drying it in a stove or 
simply in the sun. 

The handling or the transportation of projectiles charged 
with " schneiderite" and not furnished with their detonators, 
or of "schneiderite" in cases, is not dangerous under any cir- 
cumstances or under any conditions of preservation. 

In France the commission on explosive substances has ob- 
tained as results of experiments in closed vessels made with 



EXPLOSIVES. 



133 



gun cotton, picric acid, dynamite, and "schneiderite," the 
following figures : 





Pressures with den- 
sity of loading of— 




0.2. 


0.3. 


Picric acid _ 


Kilogram*. 
1.744 


Kilogram*. 
3,604 


Dynamite No. 1 . 




3,279 


Gon cotton 


2,030 


3,2j>7 


•• Schneiderite " 


2,051 


3.628 






A firing experiment made by the same commission, in a 
proof mortar, gave the results below : 



6 grains of dynamite No. 1 

5 grains of gun cotton 

6 grains of schneiderite 



Range in meters with 
a shot of 14 kilo- 
grams. 



75.00 
92.00 
95.00 




The investigations of MM. Schneider et Cie. for the pur- 
pose of determining the best means for the adaptation of 
" schneiderite " in the loading of projectiles, have necessitated 
a long series of experiments. The cause of the difficulties 
encountered is precisely the great stability of "schneiderite," 
and that the purpose of the investigations was to insure the 
complete detonation at the point where the projectile strikes 
the ground, and not as with the other explosives, to hinder it 
at the point of departure. 

These investigations have resulted in the invention of a 
special detonator, system Schneider-Canet, and in the employ- 
ment of an appropriate method of loading, which insure the 
complete explosion of the projectile under all the conditions 
actually existing as regards shell charged with high explo- 
sives. A special arrangement of the detonator makes it pos- 
sible, if desired, to postpone the explosion until after the 
obstacle has been penetrated. 

Certain results of the experiments are given below. 

I.— EXPERIMENTS OF EXPLOSIONS AT REST IN AN EXPLOSION CHAMBER. 

February 24. — Shell of 12 centimeters containing 1.13 
kilograms of "schneiderite" and furnished with the Schneider- 
Canet detonator. The shell is lying on a steel plate 30 milli- 
meters in thickness, supported on two angle irons fixed to an 



134 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEEE8T FOR 1902. 

armor plate. The walls of the explosion chamber are pro- 
tected by armor plates. The firing is done by means of the 
Bickford lanyard. The explosion is of the first degree and 
produces considerable effect. The 30-millimeter plate is 
broken into small pieces without bend. The angle irons 
which support it are wrenched and twisted. Two armor 
plates superposed vertically before the projectile are struck 
by the fuze plug of the . latter. The first is broken in three 
pieces, the second is split with three radiating fissures in the 
center, and with a strong imprint of the plug. One of the 
splinters of the projectile struck an armor plate of 60 milli- 
meters thickness placed parallel to the axis and at a distance 
of 1.05 meters with such force that this plate was split. The 
projectile is in small pieces. 

December 4, 1901. — High -capacity shell for 10.5-centimeter 
field howitzer containing 1.84 kilograms of "schneiderite" 
and furnished with the Schneider-Canet detonator. The shell 
is placed upright on a plate of 30 millimeters thickness; this 
plate rests on two supports 300 millimeters apart. The firing 
is done with the Bickford lanyard. The explosion produces 
all the effects which characterize a complete explosion of the 
first degree. The projectile is reduced to minute pieces; 156 
of the fragments found weigh together 4.570 kilograms, an 
average weight of at least 28 grams for each fragment found. 
The plate of 30 millimeters is broken into 16 pieces, with 
cracks radiating toward the center of the bottom of the pro- 
jectile. The bottom is itself reduced to pieces. The place 
where the projectile was placed on the plate is hollowed out, 
forming a spherical depression. 

II.— EXPERIMENTS AT REST IN A COMPACT CLAYEY SOIL. 

August 23, 1900. — High-capacity shells for a 15-centimeter 
field mortar containing 3.40 kilograms "schneiderite" and 
furnished with a Schneider-Canet detonator. The shell is 
placed horizontally at a depth of 1.50 meters in a compact 
clayey soil. The explosion produced a funnel-like path 2.80 
meters in diameter and 1.25 meters in depth. The bottom of 
this funnel is formed of earth thrown up, which makes an 
explosion chamber of 1 meter in diameter. 

December 4, 1901.— High-capacity shell for 105-millimeter 
field howitzer containing 1.74 kilograms " schneiderite" and 
furnished with the Schneider Canet detonator. The shell is 



EXPLOSIVES. 136 

placed vertically at a depth of 1.50 meters. The explosion 
produces an excavation in the ground, an excavation in an 
amphoral form of which the superficial diameter is*2.6 meters 
and the depth 1.80 meters. The maximum diameter is 3.20 
meters. 

III.— FIRING EXPERIMENTS. 

For the purpose of testing by practice the value of the 
contrivance decided upon for the latest methods of loading 
and as regards the detonator, a practice fire was held on the 
firing grounds of MM. Schneider et Cie., at Harfleur (near 
Havre), in August, 1900, of 300 rounds of shell of high 
capacity, of which — 

100 rounds were with a 15-centimeter field mortar. 
100 rounds with a 12-centimeter field howitzer. 
100 rounds with a 12-ceiitimeter siege gun. 
The high-capacity shell of the 15-centimeter field mortar 
weighed 32 kilos. It contained 3.400 kilograms of "schnei- 
derite" and was thrown with an initial velocity of 200 meters. 
That of the 12-centimeter field howitzer weighed 16.400 kilo- 
grams, of which 1.600 kilograms was of "schneiderite." 
The initial velocity was 315 meters. 

Finally, the explosive shell of the 12-centimeter siege gun 
was of weight of 18 kilograms and contained 2 kilograms of 
"schneiderite." It was thrown at an initial velocity of 575 
meters. 

On the other hand, 15 shells of high capacity in the 15- 
centimeter field mortar and 15 of the 12-centimeter field how- 
itzer were fired at a reduced velocity, the first at a velocity 
of 120 meters, the second at a velocity of 150 meters. 

A great number of other tests with "schneiderite" shell 
have been made. The result of one of these precision practice 
fires executed with this type of projectile was to demonstrate 
their holding to their trajectory. The test was made with 
the rapid-fire 105-millimeter field howitzer, of which the high- 
capacity shell had a weight of 16 kilograms, with 1.840 kilo- 
grams of "schneiderite." The weight of 1G kilograms, which 
is considerable for a caliber of 105 millimeters, renders neces- 
sary the extreme length of the "schneiderite" shell, which is 
4.6 caliber. It is thus particularly interesting to verify the 
precision in like projectiles in howitzers when fired with a 
reduced velocity. 



13G NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1908. 

The test was made with an initial velocity of 215 meters 
and at a distance of 2,500 meters. The results are as follows : 

Maximum range, 2,481 meters; minimum range, 2,431 
meters; maximum deviation in range, 50 meters; probable 
deviation in range, 14.50 meters; maximum deviation in 
direction, 4 meters; probable deviation in direction, O.Su 
meter. 

To conclude, the results of the experiments noted above 
show that the safety in employment and the power of 
"schneiderite" make it a war explosive of the first class; and, 
besides, that the loading contrivances and the sort of detonator 
adopted by MM. Schneider et Cie. entirely assure the proper 
action of the "schneiderite" projectiles under all the circum- 
stances actually presented in the employment of high explo- 
sive shells. 

TORPEDO EXPERIMENTS (PRANCE). 

UeberaU states that the results of the experiments on the 
caisson representing a section of the coast-defense ship 
Henri IV have only recently been made public. The 
caisson was anchored and a torpedo charge was attached to 
its side, about 10 feet below the surface of the water, the 
depth at which a torpedo is calculated to strike a vessel. The 
discharge was made by means of an electric current worked 
from a barge at some distance away. The result exceeded all 
expectations, as a hole of 21i square yards in extent was 
made in the side of the caisson, which immediately sank. 
Internally the damage extended to three longitudinal parti- 
tions which were in the position of the coal bunkers in war 
ships. The hole in the first partition covered nearly 11 
square yards, the second partition was shattered, and the 
third, which has no corresponding partition in the Henri IV, 
had two oval holes in it, one 5 by 2| feet and the other 2f by 
1^ feet. The torpedo charge was the ordinary one of from 
176 to 220 pounds.— London Times, July, 1902. 

Melinite vs. Gun Cotton. — Experiments with torpedoes 
designed for defending harbors have just taken place off 
Lorient, France, before a board of naval and engineer officers. 

The purpose of the experiments was to make some com- 
parative explosions of electric torpedoes anchored in 20 
meters of water in the open sea, part of the torpedoes being 
charged with melinite and the remainder with gun cotton. 



EXPLOSIVES. 137 

Strict secrecy is maintained regarding the results. How- 
ever, we were enabled to ascertain that the explosions of the 
torpedoes charged with gun cotton were the more beautiful 
and more terrible. A sheath of water, or, rather, a water- 
spout, rose at least 80 meters above the surface of the sea at 
each, gun-cotton-charged-torpedo explosion. The sheath of 
water rising at the melinite explosions was only about 40 
meters high. — La Pabrie, September £, 1902. 



V'.— COMMISSIONS, PROMOTIONS, AND RE- 
TIREMENTS OF OFFICERS. 

[Com filed by First Li but. R. 8. ('lark, Ninth Infantry.] 



AUSTBIA-HXJKGABT. 

I From Keport or Caw. P. W. Harris, 4th Cavalrt, U. 8. Military Attach 6 at Vienna; 
•' Organisation db l'Armm Austro-Hongroise," bt Major Desaikes, or thb French Army ; 

** L.*ETAT MlLITAIRR PES FR1NCIPALE8 PUISSANCES £tRANQERE8," BT MAJOR LaUTH, OP THE 

Frkkch Army, and Various Notes from thr Military Periodicals.] 

COMMISSIONS. 

Commissions as second lieutenants are given as follows: 
(a) To graduates of the military schools (the Maria Theresa 
school for the cavalry and infantry and the technical school 
for the artillery and engineers) ; (b) to officer aspirants (grad- 
uates of one of the cadet schools) who have served one year 
satisfactorily in the ranks; (c) to one-year volunteers who 
have successfully passed the examination required at the end 
of a year's service in order to become officers of the reserve, 
and after entering the reserve having applied for transfer to 
the active army, have successfully passed the additional ex- 
amination required for a commission in the active army. 

It is difficult to state what proportion of the officers of the 
army comes from each of these sources, but it is pretty safe to 
assume that twice as many officers come from the officer- 
aspirant class as do from the military schools, and there are 
a great many that come from the reserve. 

No commissions are given to enlisted men or civilians. 

PROMOTIONS. 

Promotion is based upon seniority in the arm of the service 
through the grade of lieutenant colonel; by seniority in the 
army for the grades of colonel, general of brigade (major 
general), and general of division (lieutenant general) ; by 
selection for the grade of general "commanding an army 
corps," and field marshal. 

Generals "commanding army corps" are all selected from 
among all the general officers of the army without regard to 
seniority. The office of field marshal exists, but since the 

(189) 



140 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1&U2. 

death of the Archduke Albert it has been allowed to remain 
vacant, and it will probably not be filled during the lifetime 
of the present emperor. 

The emperor, however, has the right to promote officers of 
any grade out of their turn. He avails himself of this pre- 
rogative to the extent of about 20 per cent of the vacancies. 
Officers promoted out of their turn must have shown special 
ability and have been recommended by the commanders of 
their respective corps, and must have been adjudged likely 
to become exceptionally efficient colonels and generals. Com- 
pany officers to be so promoted must be able to speak another 
language besides German. In promotion by selection, officers 
who have graduated from one of the military schools are 
preferred. Promotions in time of peace are made twice each 
year, namely, on the first of May and the first of November. 

There is one incident connected with promotion by selec- 
tion that may be of interest. For the purpose of illustration, 
let it be supposed that in the present month of November 
there are thirty vacancies in the grade of major in the infan- 
try. Under the existing ruling of the minister of war, who 
seems to have unrestricted authority in this matter, twenty- 
four of these vacancies would be filled by promotion accord- 
ing to seniority, and the remaining six, or 20 per cent of the 
total number, by promotion by selection. The lineal rank of 
the six majors who have been promoted out of their turn 
would generally be determined by their former rank as cap- 
tains; but, if the junior of the six can pass the examination 
required for admission to the general staff, he immediately 
becomes the senior of the six majors in question. Suppose 
the fifth in lineal rank successfully passes the examination 
required for the promotion of a captain of artillery, he im- 
mediately becomes second in lineal rank of these six majors. 

RETIREMENTS. 

There is no fixed age for compulsory retirement, but an 
officer may be retired at any age if he be found physically or 
mentally incapacitated for active service. The customary 
method of procedure is to intimate to the officer that his 
application for retirement is desired. If he declines to sub- 
mit his application he is ordered before a retiring board, 
which is unrestricted in its recommendations for the retire- 
ment of undesirable as well as incapacitated officers. 



COMMISSIONS, PROMOTIONS, AND RETIREMENTS. 141 

Officers incapacitated in the line of duty in time of war 
may retire with a pension, and in time of peace after ten 
gears' service with a pension. 

Officers 60 years old, or who have served forty years, are 
allowed to retire on application. 

Officers of the active army may retire at any time passing 
into the reserve, provided that they have served the time 
required by law and that they engage to answer any call to 
the colors up to the age of 60. 

As long as an officer remains fit for active service he is 
allowed to serve with the active army. The average age of 
the present chief of the general staff and of the three inspec- 
tors general of the army is about 72 years. 

RANK. 

Generally speaking, there is no other kind of rank in the 
active army but substantive. Each regiment, however, has 
its honorary colonel, who is usually one of the royal families 
of Europe or some distinguished general, but this rank con- 
fers no material advantages. Brevet rank may be conferred 
on an officer upon his retirement from active service, but this 
confers no advantages in pay or allowances. Brevet rank is 
never given to an officer while in the active army. 

NOTE. 

Attention is invited to the meaning of the following titles 
employed in the Austro-Hungarian army : 

"Feldzeugmeister," means a general appointed from any 

arm of the service other than the cavalry. 
"General der Kavallerie," means a general appointed 

from the cavalry. • 

" Feldmarschall- Lieutenant," means lieutenant general. 

The first two correspond to the meaning of our word general. 

The grade of brigadier general does not exist. Brigades 

are commanded by major generals, divisions by lieutenant 

generals, and army corps by generals. 

FRANCE. 

l<tatDHMD mox a Report ok Capt. T. Bextley Mott, United States Military Attache at 

Paris.] 

COMMISSIONS. 

Second lieutenants come from the cadets of the military 
colleges St. Cyr (cavalry and infantry) and the Polytechnic 



142 NOTE8 OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

(artillery and engineers), or from noncommissioned officers 
who have served two years and then passed through (oil* 
year) St. Maixent, Saumur, Vincennes, or Versailles- TLr 
ratio of officers from both these sources is about the same. 

PROMOTIONS. 

Promotion of all officers is by the arm of the service, and 
not regimentally. 
Promotion in the various grades is made as follows : 
To first lieutenant by seniority. All second lieutenair.? 

are promoted after two years' service. 
To captain, two-thirds by seniority and one-third by 

selection. 
To major, half by seniority and half by selection. 
To lieutenant oolonel and all higher grades by selection. 
In time of peace all officers must have served in the various 
grades before promotion to the next higher, as follows : 
Second lieutenant, two years. 
Lieutenant, two years. 
Captain, four years. 
Major, three years. 
Lieutenant colonel, two years. 
Colonel, three years. 
General of brigade, three years. 
In war the time limit is only half what it is in peace. 
The time provision for promotion may be waived in the 
case of an " action d'dclat." 

Although the second lieutenants come equally froni th*- 
ranks and the military colleges, promotion to the grade of 
captain and higher is preferably given to the graduates of 
the military colleges. Promotion to the grade of lieutenant 
colonel and to superior grades is almost wholly given to the 
graduates of the military colleges. 

PROMOTION LIST. 

In January of each year the promotion list for that year is 
published. This list, in its final form, is established by the 
minister of war, who has authority to place a name upon it 
at any time. For each arm of the service there is, however, 
a "classifying commission" composed entirely of general offi- 
cers, which draws up the list for its arm, decides what names 
shall be proposed for promotion by selection, and submits the 



COMMISSIONS, PROMOTIONS, AND RETIREMENTS. 143 

list to the minister of war. He makes such alterations as he 
sees fit and gives the list its final form. Of course, for the 
liiglier grades, the minister alone prepares the list. The names 
of tlie officers composing the "classifying commissions" are 
kept secret until the list is published. 

In the list for 1902 the officers selected for promotion to tho 
various grades were between the following ages: 

Infantry — 

For promotion to the rank of — 

Captain, 27 to 39. 

Major, 36 to 50. 

Lieutenant colonel, 39 to 54. 

Colonel, 45 to 56. 
Cavalry — 

For promotion to the rank of — 

Captain, 29 to 41. 

Major, 38 to 50. 

Lieutenant colonel, 44 to 55. 

Colonel, 46 to 56. 
Artillery — 

For promotion to the rank of — 

Captain, 30 to 38. 

Major, 37 to 51. 

Lieutenant colonel, 43 to 53. 

Colonel, 50 to 57. 
Engineers — 

For promotion to the rank of — 

Captain, 26 to 31. 

Major 41 to 50. 

Lieutenant colonel, 48 to 55. 

Colonel, 44 to 56. 

RETIREMENT 

Officers are compulsorily retired at the following ages : 
Lieutenants, at 52. 
Captains, at 53. 
Majors, at 56. 
Lieutenant colonels, at 58. 
Colonels, at 60. 
Generals of brigade, at 62. 
Generals of division, at 65. 



144 NOTE8 OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

GEBMANT. 

[Compiled from "L'£tat Militaibe dcs principals* Pcissamces £tkai«gekes ** »t M jj i 
J. Lautii, or the French army, and "Die Heme cni> Flottkh," nrYos Zepeus] 

COMMISSIONS. 

Noncommissioned officers can never become officers except 
as a reward for distinguished service in the field, and it i=? 
the exception when this reward is given. 

Officers are recruited from two classes, namely, the * * £ aim- 
en juncker" and "cadets." 

The "fahnenjuncker" are such young men, between the 
ages of 17 and 21, as possess a high-school diploma and have 
passed the examination before the ensign commission at 
Berlin. 

The "cadets" are such young men as have been educated 
at military high schools. 

The candidates from both the above classes present them- 
selves to the colonel of the regiment in which they wish to 
serve, and are either accepted or rejected by him. If ac- 
cepted, they serve in the ranks as privates for five months, 
at the end of which time they receive the title 'of "honorary 
ensign." They next receive the title of "titulary ensign," 
and finally that of "ensign." Having received the title of 
ensign, they are required to pass through the imperial war 
school, a course of thirty-five weeks, at the end of which time 
they receive their commissions as second lieutenants. 

PROMOTIONS. 

Promotion is according to seniority in the arm of the serv- 
ice from the grade of second lieutenant to that of first lieuten- 
ant ; by regimental seniority from the grade of first lieutenant 
to that of captain ; by seniority in the arm of the service from 
captain to major, and by seniority in the army for all higher 
grades. However, an officer who is not considered capable of 
rendering good service in the next higher grade is mercilessly 
passed by. Officers about to be passed are warned unofficially 
to that effect, and they usually ask to be retired before an ofli- 
cer is promoted over them. Their retirement is made more 
easy by being presented with a decoration, by an honorary 
promotion, by being placed in some sedentary employment, 
or by being allowed to wear the uniform of their old regiment. 

The emperor has the right to promote to any grade by 



COMMISSIONS, PROMOTIONS, AND RETIREMENTS. 145 

selection, but he rarely avails himself of this prerogative, 
except in the case of members of the royal family. 

RETIREMENTS. 

There is no law of compulsory retirement in the army. 
GREAT BRITAIN. 

[COMPILKD FROM RoTAL WARRAXT AND VARIOUS OTHER 80URCK8.] 

Commissions in the regular army are given on the recom- 
mendation of the commander in chief to persons qualified 
nnder the regulations approved by the secretary of state for 
war. 

A commission as second lieutenant in the cavalry or 
infantry may be given to a cadet from the royal military col- 
lege at Sandhurst ; to a cadet from the royal military college 
at Kingston, Canada; to an officer of the militia, yeomanry, 
or volunteers; to an officer of the local forces of the colonies, 
or to a second lieutenant or lieutenant of the royal Malta 
artillery; to a duly qualified candidate from a university; 
to a warrant or noncommissioned officer. 

A commission as second lieutenant in the royal artillery 
(except on the list of district officers) or in the royal engineers 
(except in the coast battalion) may be given to a cadet from 
the royal military academy at Woolwich, or to a cadet 
from the royal military college at Kingston, Canada. 

A commission as second lieutenant in the royal artillery 
(except on the list of district officers) may also be given to 
an officer of the militia artillery. 

A commission as second lieutenant in the army service 
corps may be given to a qualified officer of the regular army, 
or the royal marines with not less than one year's commis- 
sioned service ; to a cadet from tho royal military college at 
Sandhurst; to a cadet from tho royal military college at 
Kingston, Canada; to an officer of the militia or a duly quali- 
fied candidate from a university by open competition ; to a 
warrant or noncommissioned officer. 

Before final appointment to the army service corps, all 
candidates must pass a probationary period of one year. 

A commission as second lieutenant on the unattached list 
of the Indian staff corps may be given to a cadet from tho 
royal military college at Sandhurst. 



146 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOB 1902. 

A commission as second lieutenant in the army maybe 
given to a bandmaster of specially meritorious service. 

A commission as lieutenant in the cavalry or infantry may 
be given to a quartermaster or riding master not over 32 
years of age. 

A commission as lieutenant on the list of district officers of 
the royal artillery, or in the coast battalion of the royal engi- 
neers, may be given to a quartermaster or riding master, war- 
rant or noncommissioned officer of the royal artillery or royal 
engineers, not over 40 years of age. This limit may be ex- 
tended in case of promotion for distinguished service in the 
field. 

A commission as quartermaster or riding master may be 
given to an officer, warrant or noncommissioned officer not 
over 40 years of age. 

A commission as inspector of army schools may be given 
to an army schoolmaster not over 45 years of age. 

A commission as subadar or jemadar may be given to na- 
tives in the Hongkong regiment, Hongkong-Singapore, and 
Ceylon-Mauritius battalions of the royal artillery, or in the 
Hongkong, Singapore, Ceylon, or Mauritius companies of 
the royal engineers. 

Officers of the regular army may be appointed to the Indian 
staff corps under such regulations as may be laid down from 
time to time by the secretary of state for India in council. 

Vacancies among the European officers of the Hongkong 
regiment in the subaltern ranks are filled from the British 
line regiments or the Indian staff corps. Candidates must 
have passed the higher standard of Hindustani. Their ap- 
pointments are for a term of five years. They then revert 
to their former regiments, or if recommended they are given 
the option of renewing their service for a further term not 
exceeding five years. 

Officers appointed to the West Indian regiment are per- 
manently gazetted to that regiment, the same as the British 
line regiments. 

SECONDED OFFICERS. 

Officers (other than officers of the royal engineers) below 
the rank of major are seconded on the strength of their regi- 
ment or corps when serving in a staff appointment, in a civil 
appointment, or in the Hongkong regiment. All these ap- 
pointments are for a term of five years, at the end of which 



COMMISSIONS, PROMOTIONS, AND RETIREMENTS. 147 

an officer reverts to duty with his regiment or corps. Under 
very special circumstances this period may be extended by 
the secretary of state for war to ten years. 

Officers of the royal engineers under like circumstances are 
kept on the establishment of their corps, and officers of the 
army service corps are seconded only within such limits as 
may be prescribed by the secretary of state for war. 

If a major holds an appointment in which he would have 
been seconded had he been below the rank of major, his regi- 
ment is entitled to an additional captain. 

On reverting from the seconded list an officer rejoins his 
regiment as a supernumerary, retaining his regimental rank 
and position. In the case of a major, referred to above, the 
additional captain becomes supernumerary, and is absorbed 
in the first available vacancy. 

SUPERNUMERARY OFFICERS. 

An officer is supernumerary on the strength of his regiment 
or corps, while awaiting a vacancy or in case of the reduction 
of the establishment of his regiment or corps, when his re- 
tention is authorized by the secretary of state for war. 

PROMOTIONS. 

Every promotion is made upon the recommendation of the 
commander-in-chief, with the approval of the secretary of 
. state for war. 

Promotion up to and including the grade of major (in the 
cavalry and infantry) is by seniority in the regiment; in the 
artillery, engineers, and staff corps by seniority in the corps. 

A vacancy in any rank above that of second lieutenant in 
a regiment or corps is filled by the absorption of a super- 
numerary officer, if there is such, otherwise by the selection 
of a *qualified officer. 

A supernumerary or seconded officer, or an officer on the 
reserve list of the royal engineers, provided he keeps himself 
efficient for duty, is eligible for selection for promotion, pre- 
cisely as if he had remained on the establishment of his regi- 
ment or corps. 

An officer below the rank of major is promoted to the grade 
next above his own to fill a vacancy on the establishment of 

* A qualified officer means one who has qualified mentally and physically 
for the grade for which he is a candidate. 



146 NOTE8 OF HIUTABT INTERE8T FOB 1902. 

a regiment or corps, provided that a captain is not so pro- 
moted unless he has had at least nine years' service. 

A lieutenant, the senior of his grade in his regiment or corps, 
who holds the appointment of adjutant, may be promoted in 
the absence of a vacancy, provided that he has had nine years* 
service. 

A second lieutenant of the royal artillery, royal Malta artil- 
lery, royal engineers, or army service corps is eligible for 
promotion to the grade of lieutenant, in the absence of a 
vacancy, on completing three years' service. 

A lieutenant of the royal engineers or army service corps is 
eligible for promotion to the rank of captain, in the absence 
of a vacancy, on completing eleven years' service. 

A captain of the royal engineers is eligible for promotion 
to the grade of major, in the absence of a vacancy, on com- 
pleting twenty years' service. 

The service of an officer counts from the date of his first 
permanent commission. Only full-pay service counts. 

The service of an officer commissioned from warrant rank 
includes not only his full-pay service as an officer, but also 
his service as a warrant officer, and half of any time he has 
served in any lower rank. 

An officer below the rank of lieutenant colonel must have 
passed such professional examination as may be laid down 
from time to time, before he can be recommended for promo- 
tion to a substantive rank. 

Promotion to the grade of lieutenant colonel to fill a vacancy 
on the establishment of a regiment or corps, or an appoint- 
ment carrying the rank of lieutenant colonel, is conferred by 
selection. Such are arbitrarily selected by the commander in 
chief. In principle they must have served as major in the 
appointment called " second in command." 

Brevet rank is conferred for distinguished service in the 
field, or for distinguished service other than in the field. 
Brevet rank is not regimental rank, but is called army rank; 
for example, a major in aregiment, even though only command- 
ing a company, may be given the brevet rank of lieutenant col- 
onel, but this means nothing while he is serving in the regiment 
and while the regiment is serving alone ; if, however, the 
regiment be temporarily or permanently brigaded with other 
regiments, this brevet lieutenant colonel with substantive 
rank of major assumes his army rank of lieutenant colonel, 



COMMISSIONS, PROMOTIONS, AND RETIREMENTS. 149 

and if his brevet lieutenant colonelcy antedates the lieutenant 
colonelcy of the officer commanding the regiment, the brevet 
lieutenant colonel assumes command, and in the same way if 
his brevet lieutenant colonelcy antedates the substantive 
lieutenant colonelcies of all the officers commanding regiments 
in the brigade, the brevet lieutenant colonel assumes com- 
mand of the brigade. 

An officer is promoted to the rank of field marshal at the 
will of the sovereign, without regard to seniority. Retired 
officers are eligible for promotion to the grade of field marshal. 
If a general officer on the active list is promoted to the grade 
of field marshal on the paid establishment, such promotion 
creates a vacancy on the establishment of generals. The 
number of field marshals on pay as such will not exceed ten, 
including two in the Indian army. 

Promotions to the grade of major general or lieutenant gen- 
eral are made by selection to fill an appointment, or as a 
reward for distinguished service in the field. Promotion to 
the rank of general is by seniority (except in the appoint- 
ment of the commander in chief or commander in chief in 
India, who, if below the rank of general, receives that rank 
on appointment). Promotion may be conferred, under special 
circumstances, on a colonel, major general, or lieutenant 
general for distinguished service in the field, or for distin- 
guished service other than the field, without regard to vacan- 
cies on the establishment. An officer so promoted is held as 
a supernumerary, pending a selection to fill an appointment. 
Temporary or local rank as major general, lieutenant gen- 
eral, or general, for the convenience of the service, may be 
conferred on an officer of the next lower rank (whether he 
holds such rank permanently or temporarily) without regard 
to seniority. The rank of brigadier general is temporary or 
local only. 

The appointment of a colonel of a regiment or colonel com- 
mandant of the royal artillery, of the royal engineers, of the 
king's royal rifle corps, or of the rifle brigade, is filled by 
selection from the field marshals, from the establishment of 
general officers on the active list, or from retired general 
officers of the same branch of the army in which the vacancy 
occurs. Such selections are made upon the recommendation 
of the commander in chief, with the approval of the secretary 
of state for war, and are purely honorary. 



150 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

An army or brevet colonel, or a lieutenant colonel having 
three years' service with that rank, if selected for the com- 
mand of a regimental district, or of a regiment of the foot 
guards, for appointment as principal ordnance officer, or for 
an appointment approved by the secretary of state for war as 
carrying the rank of colonel, may be granted such rank. 

RETIREMENT. 

Voluntary. — Officers may retire at the following ages: 
Second lieutenant, lieutenant, or captain — After fifteen 
years' service, or twelve years' service in the West 
Indian regiment. 
Major (having substantive rank as such), with three 
years' service in his substantive rank — After fifteen 
years' service, or twelve years' service in the West 
Indian regiment. 
Lieutenant colonel (having substantive rank as such, or, 
in the case of an officer of the foot guards, regimental 
rank, not below that of lieutenant colonel), with three 
years' service in his substantive rank — After fifteen 
years' service. 
Compulsory. — Officers are compulsorily retired at the 
following ages : 

If holding the rank of- ^ Ag.. ■ "JJJ^ST 



Becond lieutenant, lieutenant, or captain 

If of the royal garrison regiment 

Major ___ ; . 

If of the royal garriwm regiment 

Lieutenant colonel 

Colonel 

Major general 

Lieutenant general or general 



I 
45 i Five yean. 
50 ! 
48 Five yean. 



Five yean. 
Five yean. 
Three yean. 



OFFICERS OF THE INDIAN STAFF CORPS. 
ADMISSION.* 

A candidate for the Indian staff corps, before arriving in 
India, is gazetted as second lieutenant on the unattached list 

♦Previous to being gazetted to commissions, cadets of the royal mili- 
tary college, who have secured appointment to the Indian staff corps, are 
called upon to state officially, through their parents or guardians, what 
claims (if any) they have on any particular command in India through 
the service of near relatives in that command, and to what command 
they would prefer to be posted. The services of near relatives in the 
Indian service entitle them to consideration. 



COMMISSIONS, PROMOTIONS, AND RETIREMENTS. 151 

of the British army, and after arrival in India is attached to 
a British regiment serving there. 

At the expiration of one year's duty he is admitted to the 
Indian staff corps with the rank of second lieutenant and 
appointed to a native regiment. 

At the expiration of two years and three months from the 
date of his first commission he is promoted to the grade of 
lieutenant, provided he has passed the lower standard of 
Urdu. 

Within three years from the date of his admission to the 
Indian staff corps he must have passed the higher standard 
examination of Urdu and the professional examination re- 
quired under the Indian regulations. Should he fail to pass 
these examinations, he is removed from the Indian staff corps 
and provided with his passage to Europe. 

Officers who are required to supplement the direct supply 
from Sandhurst are drawn from the infantry, cavalry, and 
artillery of the British line serving in India. They must 
have completed one year's regimental duty in India, be under 
25 years of age, and have passed Urdu by the lower standard 
at the date of application. Officers of less than two years 
and three months' service are appointed to the Indian stuff 
corps as second lieutenants, and of more than two years mid 
three months' service as lieutenants. They must have pasted 
the higher standard of Urdu within three years of admission 
to the corps. 

Officers once appointed to the Indian staff corps can not 
revert to the British line except by transfer, and then only 
when they are below the grade of major. 

PROMOTION. 

Officers after nine years' service become captains; after 
eighteen years' service, majors ; after twenty-six years' serv- 
ice, lieutenant colonels. 

No officer can be promoted while on the half-pay list, but 
service on half pay not exceeding one year is allowed to 
reckon as service toward promotion. 

After three years' service in his grade a lieutenant colonel 
is eligible for promotion (by selection) to the rank of colonel. 

Promotion to the grade of major general, lieutenant general, 
or general is made by selection or as a reward for distin- 
guished service. 



152 NOTB8 OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Officers in civil employment, after ten years' absence from 
military duty, are removed from the effective list of the 
army and are placed on a supernumerary list, rising thereon, 
under the regulations in force, to the grade of lieutenant 
colonel, but no higher. This does not apply to general offi- 
cers, or officers taken for temporary civil or political duties 
in the field or in newly acquired territories. 

BREVET PROMOTION. 

Officers above the grade of lieutenant are eligible for brevet 
promotion as a reward for distinguished service in the field. 

A lieutenant colonel becomes eligible for promotion by 
brevet to the rank of colonel after four years' service in com- 
mand of a regiment or battalion. 

TEMPORARY OR LOCAL PROMOTION. 

Temporary or local promotion may be made to the grade of 
general officer. A major, substantive or brevet, may be 
granted the temporary rank of lieutenant colonel, and a cap- 
tain the temporary rank of major, if holding the permanent 
appointment of commandant of a native regiment. 

RETIREMENT. 

Officers may retire voluntarily at the following ages: 

In any grade at 60 years of age; 

Lieutenant general or general at 65 years of age. 
Officers are compulsorily retired at the following ages: 

Any grade at 62 years of age; 

Lieutenant general and general at 67 years of age. 

RUSSIA. 

{From " Recrutemknt kt Avancement des Officiers," by Major Ducarne of tbe Belgian ami; 
" L'F/tat Miutaire des principals* Pi I88AXCKS £trano£res en 1002," by Major Laith of 
the French Army ; "Die Organisation der Russischkn Armkb," by Captain von Diygalai 
of the German army; and "Die IIeere unp Flotten, Rutland," by Major General V(l * 
Zepelin or the German Army.] 

Officers are recruited in four ways : (a) From the college of 
the corps of pages of the czar; (b) from the military colleges; 
(c) from the " junker" schools; (d) directly from the non- 
commissioned officers. 

Officers of the guard come exclusively from the first two 
categories, as well as the greater part of the officers of the 
artillery and engineers. 



COMMISSIONS, PROMOTIONS, AND RETIREMENTS. 153 

Officers of the cavalry and infantry of the line come chiefly 
from the "junker" schools. 

According to the order in which they graduate, cadets of 
tlie college of the corps of pages of the czar are assigned in 
tlie four following categories : (1) As second lieutenant in the 
g^nard (officers of the guard rank with officers of the next 
higher grade in the line); (2) as second lieutenants in the 
line with their commissions antedated one year; (3) as second 
lieutenants in the line with their commissions bearing the 
date of graduation; (4) as noncommissioned officers, but they 
may be made second lieutenants after six months' service. 

Cadets of the military colleges, on graduation, are assigned 
to categories (2), (3), and (4). A few, however, who show 
exceptional ability, are gazetted to the guard. 

On graduating from the "junker" schools, the graduates 
are assigned to categories (2), (3), and (4), with the exception 
that in class (4) the graduates must serve one year as non- 
commissioned officers before they can be made second 
lieutenants. 

Noncommissioned officers who have rendered faithful serv- 
ice for five years or who have distinguished themselves in the 
field are sometimes made officers, but they are usually assigned 
to garrison troops in remote stations. 

PROMOTIONS. 

The lower grades of officers are promoted to the next higher 
grade after fixed periods of service, which periods are as fol- 
lows: 

For promotion to lieutenant, four years' service. 
For promotion to second captain, eight years' service. 
For promotion to captain,* twelve years' service. 
In the cavalry and infantry of the line, in promotions from 
the grade of captain to that of lieutenant colonel,! half are 
made by seniority and half by selection. To the grade of 
colonel all promotions are made by selection. 

In the guard, artillery, and engineers all promotions are 
made by seniority in the arm. 

*A second captain is brevetted captain after twelve years' service, but 
he can not be commissioned until a vacancy exists in his regiment (in the 
field artillery, horse artillery, and engineers seniority in the arm), when 
his commission is antedated to the date on which he had served twelve 
years. 

fin the Russian army the grade of major does not exist. 



154 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The grade of lieutenant colonel does not exist in the guard, 
so promotions are made direct from captain to colonel. 

Promotion to the grade of general officer is by selection. 
To be eligible for promotion to the grade of major general a 
colonel must, as a rule, have served eight years in his grade; 
a major general for lieutenant general, eight years in his grade: 
a lieutenant general for general, twelve years in his grade. In 
making general officers preference is shown for officers of the 
general staff. 

There are, however, numerous exceptions to the general 
rules governing promotions. Officers of the general staff 
have a great advantage, and promotions out of the usual order 
are made for distinguished services. 

RETIREMENTS. 

Officers are compulsorily retired at the following ages in 
the lower grades : 

Sabalterns, 53 years. 
Captains, 53* years. 
Lieutenant colonels, 58 years. 

* Under special circumstances captains are allowed to remain until 55. 



VI.-MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



The following notes on military matters are collected from 
various sources: 

OEKEBJLL. 

DURATION OF MILITARY SERVICE IN THE PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES. 

With the exception of England all countries have recog- 
nized the necessity of reducing, more or less, the time passed 
with the colors. 

It is evident that modern armies should he able to satisfy 
the following requirements : In time of war to place in line 
as large a numher of men as possible; in time of peace to 
give instruction to as many citizens as the financial conditions 
of the country will allow, so that in the event of mobiliza- 
tion the units of combat may consist exclusively of trained 
soldiers. But since the financial resources of the richest 
states are limited, it is a matter of necessity to keep each 
class with the colors only for the time recognized as indis- 
pensable to make a soldier, so that another class may be sum- 
moned for training immediately afterwards. 

In Germany the question has been solved by placing it in 
two lights. Since the German government could not enroll 
in the army even half of the conscripts at its disposal without 
exceeding the limits of its budget, it prefers to keep the men 
a shorter time with the colors, admitting each year a larger 
number. With a population of 57,000,000, Germany fur- 
nishes an annual contingent of 540,000 men, which is reduced 
to 413,000 after the withdrawal of those whe are exempt from 
service for one reason or another. 

It goes without saying that Germany could not hope to 
enroll the whole 413,000 men, a number too large even 
though the revisory commission were very severe in elim- 
inating all those who showed the least physical or moral 
defect ; a very considerable part of these 413,000 men is, there- 
fore, attached immediately either to the landsturm or to the 

(155) 



156 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

recruiting reserves, so that the number of men actually en- 
rolled annually in the active army is only 220,000. This 
number is sufficient to maintain the ^present effective of 
495,000 men. Officers, surgeons, military officials, noncom- 
missioned officers, and volunteers are not included in the 
latter number. 

Besides, the men are not kept with the colors longer than 
is absolutely necessary to give them the requisite training. 
Hence the duration of active service is : Two years for infantry 
troops, one year in the train troops, and three years in the 
cavalry and horse artillery. The Prussian war ministry is of 
the opinion that if, in 1904, the service of two years, which at 
present is only on trial, is definitely adopted, the number of 
reenlistments in the infantry would be augmented and credits 
demanded in consequence. 

In Russia, where military service has been obligatory for 
thirty years, men are obliged to serve five years in the 
active army, thirteen years in the reserve, and five years in 
the opoltchenie, which corresponds to the reserve of our 
territorial army. With its population of 132,000,000, Russia 
furnishes annually 980,000 conscripts, of whom about 860,000 
are fit for service. It is plain to be seen that under such 
conditions the government may display great generosity in 
granting exemption from service. The number of men who 
are exempted from service is, in fact, 400,000, of whom one- 
half are completely exempt, and the other half conditionally. 

In reality, even the latter number is never enrolled. The 
number of men really enrolled each year averages about 
290,000. This number reached 308,000 in 1900, and about 
318,000 in 1902. 

We have said that the duration of active service is five 
years, but with the exception of the men of Turkestan and 
Siberia, who actually serve that term, the others are usually 
liberated at the end of four years. 

We may add that young men having followed the course 
of certain schools have the benefit of a reduction of service, 
which is: One year for those coming from the elementary 
schools, two years for those who have gone through the 
intermediary schools, finally, three years for those young 
men who have finished their studies in the superior schools. 

To recapitulate, the larger part of the Russian recruits 
have four years of active service, a large number three 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 157 

yeurs, a certain number two years, finally, a few one year 
only. 

In Austria-Hungary exemption from obligatory military 
service may be attained in many ways. The annual contin- 
gent, which consists of 470,000 conscripts, falls to 417,000 on 
account of the exemptions from service. The contingent is 
divided into three categories, the first, which contains 103,000 
men, is incorporated in the active army for three years, but 
it is generally liberated during the course of the third year; 
the second, 24,000 men, is enrolled for two years in the land- 
wehr of the provinces of Cisleithania and Transleithania and 
of the Tyrol, which form the permanent nucleus of an army 
of tlie second line. The third category, which is the most 
important, as it contains 290,000 men, serves only eight 
weeks. It may be seen that actually the duration of active 
service does not exceed two and one-half years. 

In Italy, of an annual contingent of 315,000 conscripts, 
205,000 are declared fit for service. The number of recruits 
enrolled in the active army varies from 95,000 to 105,000 
men yearly. The duration of active service is legally three 
years, but, with the exception of the cavalry, where the men 
are retained with the colors for that period, the other 
branches of the service are held for only two and one-half 
years. The recruits are taken into the service on the 1st of 
March, instead of on the 1st of December, and they are lib- 
erated during the course of the third year. 

It is seen that with the exception of Russia, the principal 
governments do not generally keep their men in the active 
army longer than two and one-half years. 
The cavalry generally serves three years. 
In his work on the Russian army, Von Drygalski gives cer- 
tain interesting figures upon the exemption from military 
service. According to him the percentage of individuals 
exempt from military service for one cause or another (phys- 
ical unfitness, domestic situation, etc.) are, in the following 
countries: Austria-Hungary, 50 per cent; Germany, 37 per 
cent; Italy, 27 per cent; France, 21 per cent; Russia, 19 per 
cent. 

The percentage of men released from military obligations 
for family reasons are: France, 0; Germany, 2 per cent; 
Austria, 3 per cent ; Italy, 37 per cent ; Russia, 48 per cent. 



158 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Those actually enrolled are: In France, 78 per cent; in 
Germany, 51 per cent; in Austria-Hungary, 40 per cent; k 
Italy, 33 per cent; in Russia, 29 per cent. 

Those exempted on account of unfitness for service : France, 
21 per cent; Germany, 37 per cent; Austria, 50 per cent; 
Italy, 27 per cent; Russia, 19 per cent. 

Those forced to service: France, 78 per cent; Germany. 
51 per cent; Russia, 29 per cent. 

Of every 1,000 individuals who are of age to gain their liveli- 
hood, from 21 to 60 years of age, there are in service: I:. 
France, 58.4; in Germany, 48; in Russia, 43; in Austria, :M: 
in Italy, 30. Of 1,000 men of the same age available in tin- 
of * war there are: In Germany, 139; in Austria, 96; ir 
France, 171; in Italy, 107; in Russia, 81. 

These figures show that military service is most onerous :\ 
France and least so in Russia. — Revue du Cercle Militair*. 
September 6, 1903. 

PROGRESS IN AERONAUTICS. 

A brief description of the general dimensions and construc- 
tion of the Santos-Dumont No. 6, with which the successf :. 
trial was made, may be given here. The balloon itself va* 
a cylinder of 6 meters in diameter, terminating in two cont^ 
the total length being 33 meters, and the displacement beii:; 
C22 cubic meters. This is equivalent to 800 kilograms of air. 
against which there was to be charged the weight of the bal- 
loon, 120 kilograms; of the motor, 98 kilograms; of tip 
hydrogen itself, 120 kilograms; of the aeronaut, 50 kilo- 
grams; and of various accessories; there being left an unop- 
posed buoyancy of 150 kilograms. The balloon was made of 
the finest white Japanese silk, this being very close mes'.i. 
and rendered impermeable by means of five coatings of lin- 
seed oil. Within this main gas reservoir there was placed a 
secondary balloon of 60 cubic meters capacity, this being 
capable of distension or contraction by the admission or dis- 
charge of air, thus maintaining the outer main balloon in its 
proper shape. 

The motive power and propelling machinery were carried 
on a trussed girder, which was attached to the balloon by a 
system of piano wires. The rudder, which was of triangular 
form, was attached to the rear, behind the propeller, and 
braced and stayed to the frameworks and the balloon by 
wires. One of the novelties of the apparatus consisted of the 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 159 

use of two reservoirs of very thin brass, containing about 100 
pounds of water, which might be discharged at will, forming 
a more controllable ballast than the usual sand bags. 

The motor, upon which the principal success of the appara- 
tus depends, was constructed by M. Buchet, and contains no 
special features differing from the well-known machines of 
Daimler, de Dion, Panhard, Mors, and others, for automobile 
service. 

Although steam engines have been greatly reduced in 
weight in the endeavor to secure power and speed in torpedo 
boats, they are as yet unavailable for use in flying machines. 
M. Serpollet has designed a motor, using his instantaneous 
system of steam generation, which, for 30 horsepower, weighs 
but 191 kilograms, or 6.4 kilograms per horsepower. It is, 
however, necessary to carry 22 pounds of water per horse- 
power, which adds too much to the load for aero-nautical 
purposes. The principal method by which the weight of a 
steam motor may be reduced is by increasing its speed, and 
in this respect the steam turbine offers- possibilities. 

MM. Renaud and Krebs used a battery and motor of 9 horse- 
power, with a weight of 55 pounds per horsepower, and this 
was a great alvance over the 68 kilograms per horsepower of 
M. Tissandier, or the weight of the eight men (400 kilograms) 
employed by M. Dupuy de Lome. 

In order the better to show the reduction in weight per 
horsepower which has been attained in the more recent inter- 
nal combustion motors, M. Armengaud gives a diagram in 
which the curves show the results of various makers. With- 
out going into details, it may suffice to state that for motors of 
50 horsepower the weight has been reduced to 5 kilograms 
per horsepower, while for motors as large as 100 horsepower 
this may be reduced to 3 kilograms per horsepower. 

Referring to the points to be observed in the construction 
of future dirigible balloons, it will be interesting to note the 
rules laid down as long ago as 1880 by Colonel Renard, as a 
result of his practical experience. In order to obtain success- 
ful results it is desirable to — 

1. Give the balloon an elongated form, similar to that of a 
boat. 

2. To maintain the form of the balloon by the use of an 
internal vessel, permitting the replacement of the gas by 
atmospheric air. 



1G0 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

3. To maintain the longitudinal stability by connecting tie 
car to the balloon by a rigidly braced framework. 

4. To use a propeller of suitable dimensions, actuated by ;. 
motor of great power, and relatively light weight as possible. 

5. To place the rudder in the rear, in a manner similar t«< 
that employed in steering boats. 

To these rules M. Armengaud adds some of his own, based 
upon the most recent experience : 

1. Employ an internal-combustion motor having at least 
four cylinders, in order to permit the best degree of balancing, 
and to use electric ignition, in order to avoid interruptions ia 
the action of the cylinders. 

2. Bring the propeller shaft as close as possible to the longi- 
tudinal axis of the balloon, that is, to the line passing through 
the center of pressure. 

3. Provide sufficient distance between the center of pressure 
and the center of gravity of the system to maintain operative 
stability. 

4. Provide in the case of small aerostats an auxiliary couple 
for stability by the use of a guide rope or a movable weight. 

5. Provide an easily regulated motor in order to enable the 
sudden variations in resistance to be met promptly. 

6. In the case of large machines provide two propellers, 
one in front and the other in the rear, each propeller being 
actuated by an independent motor. — The Engineer Magazine. 
April, 1902 

AFGHANISTAN. 

ARMY STRENGTH. 

The Afghan army was created by the Emir Shir-Ali, wli«> 
in 189? formed 48 battalions, 27 squadrons, and 17 batlerie 
of artillery and laid the first foundation for the military 
organization of the country. 

Emir Abdurrahman, who died last year, continued the 
work of Shir-Ali, and at his death left an army of 67,0<X) 
infantry, 12,000 cavalry, and 300 guns. 

Troops on the Russian frontier are stationed as follows: 
At Maimantf, 2,000 infantry, 5 platoons of cavalry, and 12 
guns ; at Ankhoa, 800 infantry, 2 platoons of cavalry, and 8 
guns; at Blak and Musar-i-Sherif, 15,700 infantry, 13 platoons 
of cavalry and 56 guns; at Kunduz, 4,300 infantry, 12 pla- 
toons of cavalry, and 24 guns; and at Rustak, 1,360 infantry, 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 161 

7 platoons of cavalry, and 8 guns; a total of 24,160 infantry, 
39 platoons of cavalry, and 103 guns. 

A great military activity roigns, especially at Kabul, where 
from 8,000 to 10,000 men are garrisoned. 

The horses have no stables, but at all the stations they are 
kept in the open, assembled in long files of 100 head and tied 
so as to have only the necessary liberty to seek food. 

There are no uniforms for the army, except the guard of 
the Emir, consisting of 500 men. The remainder wear tho 
national dress, a ' c burnous " as head wear and a kind of sandal 
as foot gear. 

The infautry is armed with Martini-Henry rifles and the 
cavalry with lances. Both branches, though not trained in 
the European sense of the word, are noted for good marching 
and fighting. The artillery possesses 100 Krupp guns, for 
the transportation of which there are 100 elephants. This 
branch enjoyed the greatest care of Emir Abdurrahman, and 
is the object of the highest solicitude of the present ruler. 

There is an arsenal at Kabul in which 300 workmen are 
employed under the direction of an Englishman, Frank 
Martin, and a German engineer, Schneider. The present 
Emir is often present at the artillery firing exercises, as ho 
wants to learn how the guns are manipulated. Thirteen 
new guns have been recently brought from Peshavur to 
Kabul, to be sent to Herat, and 12 more have been ordered 
from the Indian government. 

It seems that the present Emir, Habid-Ullah, has turned his 
attention toward the construction of fortified works, which 
the preceding ones have overlooked. 

It seems that the erection of these works is being actively 
carried on, not only at Herat, but also on the whole Amu- 
Daria line, in the vicinity of which fortified camps will bo 
constructed at Akhtchi, Chibirkhan, and Mainland. Earth- 
works are being erected at Erdewana and Kuschk-Robat, 
evidently for the purpose of opposing a first resistance to 
Russian troops crossing the frontier. The road Kabul-Herat 
is likewise to be defended by forts of a modern type, with" 
the construction of which the English engineer, Frank Martin, 
will be intrusted. — Revista Militare Italiana, March 16, 1002. 

829 — n 



162 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

ARGENTINA. 

PERMANENT ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC. 

The composition of the Argentine army for 1902, according 
to the organization approved by the congress and modified by 
the president, is as follows: 

Officers _ _ — 1,597 

Enlisted men : 

8 companies of engineers 900 

2 battalions of chasseurs _- 800 

2 battalions of mounted infantry 680 

14 battalions of infantry of the line 5, 520 

2 regiments of gendarmerie _ 700 

10 regiments of cavalry 3,300 

5 regiments of field artillery 1,950 

3 regiments of mountain artillery 1,050 

2 train companies ._ 200 

Total 16,697 

Among the 15,100 enlisted men there are to be 2,448 volun- 
teers, 9,453 conscripts, 3,199 sergeants and corporals. 

The effective strength, according to the report of the min- 
ister of war, is 18,839 men, including officers and privates. 
The general total is divided as follows: 

Conscripts 12,785 

Volunteers... _ — 4,629 

Reserves 92 

General officers _.- 81 

Officers T _ 671 

Detailed to various corps (officers and privates) 631 

Total 18,839 

This effective strength is distributed among 44 tactical 
units, and these can be recruited up to a strength of 35,000 
combatants. 

In April 11,000 conscripts will be mustered out, leaving 
7,000 men in the cadres, the effective strength in winter. 

In July 8,000 men of the class of 1881 are to be called to 
the colors, from which a little over 1,000 will be detailed to 
the navy, the remainder being distributed among the cadres 
of the army. 

The rest of the class of 1881 are to be called to the colors in 
October, making an effective strength of 22,000 men with 
the colors. These will remain in quarters and in maneuver 
camps until the autumn of 1903. — Revisfa Militar (Brazil), 
Ajiril, 1902. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 163 

ATTSTRIA-HUNOABY. 

ABTILLEBY PRACTICE IN FIRING AT A CAPTIVE BALLOON. 
[Reported by Capt. Floyd W. Harris, Fourth Cavalry, U. 8. Miutar* Attach fc at Vienna.] 

Some exercises in estimating distances and elevations of 
balloons, and in artillery fire with blank ammunition against 
captive balloons, were required in the autumn maneuvers of 
1902. As no projectiles were employed, of course no material 
results could be accomplished. To ascertain the accuracy 
and effect of artillery fire against such objectives, some prac- 
tical exercises, with service shells, were carried out some 
time ago on the Steinfeld, an artillery proving ground near 
Wiener-Neustadt. A captive balloon, 3 meters in diameter, 
was sent up, and its distance from the firing point and its 
elevation were not given to the artillerymen charged with 
the firing. Twenty-two shots were fired without hitting the 
balloon. All were too low. 

The gunners were then given the horizontal distance of the 
balloon from the firing point, which was 4,000 paces, and the 
elevation of the balloon, which was 2,500 meters. The firing 
was now resumed, but 64 shots were fired before the balloon 
was touched. After the sixty-fourth shot, the balloon began 
slowly to sink. A straw man had been placed in the balloon 
t:> ascertain whether or not such a figure would be set on fire 
when the balloon was hit. When the balloon reached the 
ground, it was found that the bundle of straw had not been 
ignited. 

The firing was executed by a detachment of the school of 
fire of the fortress artillery. 

BOLIVIA. 

GENERAL ARMED STRENGTH. 

The military rolls of the republic show that there are 
80,500 men liable to military service, among them 22,000 men 
between 18 and 25 years of age, 26,500 between 25 and 30 
years of age, and 32,200 between 30 and 40 years of age. The 
first group furnishes the troops of the first line, and are 
trained, uniformed, and equipped in cadres in the provinces 
of Cochbamba and Oruro. A similar skeleton organization 
in the remaining provinces has been proposed and the plan 
is soon to be carried out. There is a testing ground at La 



164 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1KB. 

Paz, as well as four large firing grounds. Great interest in 
target practice has lately manifested itself among all classes 
of the population. In addition to the international firing 
club, there are in Oruro alone six rifle associations which have 
their own firing grounds. The army on peace footing amounts 
in rounds numbers to 3,000 men — infantry, artillery, and 
cavalry. The armament on hand is the following: Seventy- 
six guns — machine guns and mortars; 27,000 modern rifles; 
26,000 old Mauser rifles; 69,000 Remingtons. The military 
school located at La Paz has a staff of German teachers.— 
Mtiitdr- Wochenblati, September 20, 1902. 

GERMAN OFFICERS AS INSTRUCTORS. 

It may be seen from the president's message that Bolivia 
has again enrolled German officers for her war academy, 
special arms, and the technical section of the general staff. 
The German major, Plotho, has served a long time already 
as instructor of the Bolivian troops. The Bolivian Govern- 
ment appointed in 1900 several Argentine officers, including 
Colonel Enrique Rostagno, as instructors for the array. They 
were replaced, however, within one year by German officer*, 
for whose pay 80,000 marks were voted. The German cap- 
tain, Gutmann, who was until then in Chile, was appoint^ 
in place of Colonel Enrique Rostagno and was afterwards 
succeeded by Major Plotho. — UeberaUfiir Armee und Marin'. 
No. 5, 1902. 

CHINA. 

THE TROOPS OP PECHILI. 

Yuan Shi-kai, the commander in chief of the Chinese troop* 
in Pechili, has presented to the emperor the following recom- 
mendations with regard to the organization of the army: 

1. Soldiers are recruited for the purpose of defending the country ami 
protecting its subjects. A soldier's resi>onsibility is great and important. 
None but good men are to be allowed to wear the uniform. In recruiting 
for the army, which I am to organize according to the decree of t> 
government, I deem it is best to adopt the principles in practice in foreign 
armies. Orders have been issued to all the prefects and chiefs of district- 
in the province of Pechili to make a census of the settlements and inhab- 
itants in their districts. They are directed to require officials of the 
settlements to submit lists of certain numbers of men for recruits for the 
army. All men proposed by the officials must have good characters ami 
possess relatives. In case an official submits the name of a man of bad 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 165 

character, or that of a dishonorably discharged soldier, he shall suffer 
severe punishment. 

2. All men proposed are to remain in the place of their residence and 
await the recruiting officers. 

8. The local authorities most post proclamations at each recruitment of 
a new draft of men. All such proclamations must contain the military 
orders, so that the people may understand their contents. The dates on 
which officials are required to submit names of recruits must likewise be 
posted beforehand. The local authorities must render it impossible for 
officials to accept presents under any pretext whatever. 

4. When the number of recruits obtained is sufficient for the formation 
of a" shao" (i battalion), each recruit will receive 100 " cash " (20 cents) 
per day for rations, and will then be quartered at a designated place until 
the date of the formation of a battalion, from which time the regular 
military service begins, and the soldier then receives 160 "cash" ($0.30, 
Mexican) per day. as subsistence money. 

5. As soon as a battalion has been attached to a regiment, each non- 
commissioned officer receives a monthly pay of 5 taels ($7 Mexican, 
$3. 50 gold) and each private a pay of 4.50 taels ($6.30 Mexican, $3. 15 gold) 
as an addition to the above-mentioned subsistence money. The general 
will give the family or the nearest relatives of the recruit a certificate for 
the following purpose: Beginning with the fourth service month of each 
soldier, the general makes a monthly deduction of 1.50 taels ($2.80 Mexi- 
can) from the pay of a noncommissioned officer and 1 tael ($1.40 Mexican) 
from that of a private. This money is placed in the intendancy and is 
sent every six months to the local magistrate of the district to which the 
soldier belongs, who pays it to the nearest relative of the soldier upon 
presentation of the above-mentioned certificate. The amount and date of 
the payment are entered on the certificate. In case such a certificate is 
lost, the local authorities shall be informed of the fact two days before 
payment is made ; a new certificate is made out and the invalidity of the 
old one noted. In case the intendantor the magistrate commit a fraud in 
the payment of the money, the family must inform the soldier of the fact 
and he will bring it to the knowledge of the commander of his battalion. 
The guilty will be severely punished. 

6. It is expected of every soldier in the army that he give his entire 
time and attention to his military duties. This is possible only when he 
is free from family cares. For this reason the family and relatives of the 
soldier will be protected from evil influences of the locality, and in all 
judiciary matters the same privileges will be given them as to scholars 
of the first grade, so that they may be able to present any petition to the 
court on the day of the hearing of the case. This privilege does not 
extend to discharged soldiers, who are to be treated as civilians. 

7. A soldier after three months' service is exempt from the tax imposed 
upon the population of the province of Pechili by the government. If it 
be ascertained that he abuses this exemption by helping others to avoid 
taxes, he will be severely punished. 

8. The commander of each battalion will report at the end of each 
month to the commander in chief the number of soldiers furloughed, dis- 
charged, or absent without leave, during that period. The general shall 



166 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

from time to time furnish the local authorities the names of dishonorably 
discharged soldiers to prevent these being reenlisted. 

9. When a soldier deserts and returns to his home, the chief of police 
of that place will be notified for the purpose of causing the arrest of him 
and his relatives. Should the officials conceal him, or refuse to deliver 
him up, they will be severely punished. In case the place of abode of the 
deserter is not found out after a month's search, the mandarin of the 
locality will institute proceedings against his relatives. 

10. If the mandarin of the locality is careless in his search for the 
deserter, he will be punished according to law. 

11. When a soldier is promoted to the grade of officer, the local man- 
darin will be informed of the fact for the purpose of putting him on the 
officers' roll. 

12. The following qualifications are required of a recruit: 

(a) He must not be under 20 and not over 25 years of age. 

(b) He must be strong enough to be able to lift a weight of 100 pounds 
to the height of his chest. 

(c) He must be at least 4 feet 8 inches tall. 

(d) He must be capable of covering on foot the distance of 20 li (13,090 
yards) in one hour. 

(e) He must have a good character and not have undergone imprison- 
ment. 

(/) He must have no physical defect. 

— Internationale Revue, August, 1902. 

CUBA. 

LAW FOR INCREASING AND REORGANIZING THE RURAL GUARD 

OF CUBA. 

[Reported by Lieut. M. E. Hanna, U. 8. Military Attach* at Havana, Cuba.] 

The law providing for the increase and reorganization of 
the rural guard of Cuba is as follows : 

General Dispositions. 

Article 1.— The rural guard is a corps with a military organization, 
the character and nature of which shall be civil, and has for its object 
care and preservation of public order, principally in the country districts, 
for which it shall be distributed in posts and detachments. 

Art. 2. — The corps shall consist of a total number of 8,008 individuals, 
organized in the following manner : A headquarters and three regiments; 
each regiment shall consist of eight squadrons of cavalry and two com- 
panies of infantry, distributed according to the necessities of the service. 

Art. 3. — The headquarters shall consist of a brigadier general, chief of 
the guard ; a lieutenant colonel, quartermaster ; a major, adjutant general : 
a captain, auditor; a captain, aid-de-camp; and three second lieutenants, 
attached to headquarters. 

Art. 4.— The headquarters' staff of each regiment shall consist of a 
colonel ; a lieutenant colonel ; a major, quartermaster ; a captain, adju- 
tant ; a captain, surgeon ; a lieutenant, paymaster ; a lieutenant, veterinary; 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 167 

a second lieutenant, aid; two sergeants, clerks; a corporal, orderly 
trumpeter; a corporal, armorer. 

Art. 5. — Each squadron of cavalry shall consist of a captain; two 
lieutenants; a second lieutenant, quartermaster; four sergeants; eight 
corporals; two buglers; 80 privates. 

Art. 7. — The armament, supplies, implements, and forage for the 
mounts of the corps, as well as the equipment, clothing, and amount for 
purchasing rations for the noncommissioned officers and privates, will be 
supplied by the state in the manner prescribed in the regulations. 

Art. 8.— The lieutenant colonel, quartermaster general, will receive from 
the state the allotments for the provisioning and supplying of the corps, 
in accordance with the regulations, and shall render accounts to the auditor 
general or the revising auditor that may fill his place, and shall be responsi- 
ble for the property of the republic in the hands of the corps. 

Art. 9.— The quartermasters and paymasters shall give sufficient bond 
to the state. The paymasters shall be elected by the officers of the 
respective regiments. 

Art. 10. — The chiefs and officers of the rural guard shall be mounted, 
and shall furnish, at their own expense, their horses, uniforms, and equip- 
ments. 

Art. 11.— The mounts shall be the property of the individuals, but the 
state shall supply them at enlistment, in the manner established in this 
law and in the regulations. 

CHAPTER II.— SALARIES AND ALLOWANCES. 

Art. 12. — The individuals of the corps shall receive the following sala- 
ries, payable in monthly installments: Brigadier general, $4,000 annually ; 
colonel, $8,800 annually ; lieutenant colonel, $2,700 annually ; major, $2, 100 
annually; captain, $1,500 annually; lieutenant, $1,200 annually; second 
lieutenant, $1,080 annually; sergeants employed as clerks, $840 annually ; 
cavalry sergeants, $884 annually ; farriers, $240 annually ; trumpeters, $240 
annually; privates of cavalry, $240 annually; sergeants of infantry, $360 
annually; corporals of infantry, $288 annually; buglers, $216 annually; 
privates of infantry, $216 annually. 

Art. 18. — For each noncommissioned officer or private of cavalry the 
following allowances are provided: For daily subsistence, 25 cents; for 
four complete uniforms, $26 per year ; for a rain coat, $10 per year ; for two 
pairs of leggins, $4 per year; for three pairs of shoes, $6 per year; for 
two hats, $8 per year; for grain and forage for his horse, $60 per year; 
for horseshoes, brush, and currycomb, $1.50 per year. 

Art. 14. — For each noncommissioned officer or private of infantry the 
following allowances are provided: For daily subsistence, 25 cents; for 
four complete uniforms, $25 per year ; for a cape, $6 per year ; for two hats, 
$8 per year; for two pairs of leggins, $4 per year; for four pairs of shoes, 
18 per year. 

Art. 15.— For rent and light, $18,000 per year; for office material and 
printing, $10,000 per year; for traveling expenses when necessary for the 
public service, $5,000 per year ; for sanitation of barracks, $6,000 per year ; 
for incidentals, $8,500 per year; for forage for each horse of chiefs or offi- 
cers, $60 per year; for forage for each mule, $60 per year; for horseshoes, 



168 NOTES OF MILITARY INTBBE8T FOR 1908. 



l) i \iAim ,mi&amxijCBaim-6ar adink or fcoroe of chiefs or officers, $1.50 
per year. 

Chapter III.— Rbimburskmsnt fob Moron. 

Art. 16. — The state shall be reimbursed the purchase price of the 
mounts in the following manner: (a) Two dollars shall be deducted 
monthly from the pay of each noncommissioned officer and private, until 
the cost of his mount has been covered ; $5 from each officer and $10 
from each chief, (6) The state loses the horses that become useless in 
the service, but those that become useless through carelessness or other 
cause dependent on the will of the owner will be charged to his 
account, (c) The state reserves the right to keep the horse on the 
completion of the term of enlistment, subject to the conditions fixed in 
the regulations. 

Chapter IV.— Enlistments. 

Art. 17.— The enlistment of noncommissioned officers and privates shall 
be binding for four years, and to enlist the following qualifications are 
required: (1) To be a Cuban; (2) to know how to read and write the 
Spanish language; (3) to have good habits and good antecedents; (4) to 
be more than 21 and less than 45 years of age ; (5) to weigh as a minimum 
120 pounds, and as a maximum 170 pounds; (6) to be at least 5 feet 4 
inches high ; (7) never to have received a criminal sentence, and never to 
have been separated with a bad record from any civil or military office. 

Art. IS. — There shall be established in each provincial capital a com- 
mission for the enlistment of the personnel that corresponds to that 
province. 

Art. IV).— Vacancies in the positions of officers shall be filled hy 
examination. 

Art. 20.— The appointments of chiefs and officers shall be made by the 
president of the republic, and those of officers in accordance with the 
marks received at the examination. 

Art. 21.— One hundred points shall be taken as a maximum in the 
marking, with 50 per cent for fitness for the service and the other 50 per 
cent for general information. 

Art. 22.— No individual of the rural guard shall be discharged from the 
corps without a trial by a competent court in the manner prescribed in 
the regulations. 

Art. 23.— Individuals that have belonged to the liberating army shall, 
in equal conditions, be preferred for enlistment in the corps. 

Transitory Arrangements. 

1. The following amounts are appropriated for expenses of installation, 
purchase of arms, equipment, implements, horses, and mules: For each 
cavalry equipment for a noncommissioned officer or private, $22; for each 
bad and bedding f or the same, $5; for each horse of a noncommissioned 
officer or private, $70; for each horse of an officer or chief, $100: for each 
machete with its scabbard, $3.50; for each cartridge belt, $075; for 
each cavalry carbine with magazine, modern system, $15; for each infen 
try nriewitn magazine, modern system, with its bayonet. $16; for each 
thousand cartridges, $30; for furniture. $3,000; for seventy mules, at $70 
eacn ; tor seventy pack 8ad(Ueg ftnd equipments for tUe mnles ftt S20 each. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 169 

2. The rank of the officers of the present rural guard will be recog- 
nized, provided they submit to the examination provided for herein and 
are approved. 

3. The horses of the present rural guard that fill the conditions required 
by the regulations shall be utilized, and from the surplus allotted for the 
purchase of animals the executive is authorized to arrange for the pur- 
chase of a number of horses, equivalent to 2 per cent of the total number 
of mounts of the corps, which shall be used for remounts and shall be 
under the care of the respective regiments. 

DENMARK. 

STRENGTH AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE DANISH ARMY. 

The peace strength of the Danish army is 10,000 men. In 
the infantry a majority serve only six months on active duty. 
One hundred and fifty men of each regiment of infantry are 
retained on active duty eight months longer in order to be 
trained as noncommissioned officers. A term of service is 
thirteen to nineteen months in the cavalry, thirteen to four- 
teen months in the field artillery, and five to eighteen months 
in the pioneers, according to the various categories. The 
employment of the first line of the army in war will be con- 
fined to the defense of the fortified camp of Copenhagen. The 
remainder of the army will be for the defense of the rest of 
the country. There will be no offensive operations outside 
the country. The army has established a reputation for skill 
in firing, coolness, and stubbornness. — Allgemeine Schwei- 
zerische Militarzeitung, March 22, 1902. 

EaXTADOB. 

ARMY NOTES. 

A new military law was accepted by the legislature of this 
republic and entered into force on January 15, 1902. 

According to the new regulations the minister of war, who 
is at the same time minister of the navy, is intrusted with the 
publication of the laws, orders, regulations, etc., accepted 
and sanctioned by the congress. He is responsible for the dis- 
cipline and the uniformity of training of all arms, the promo- 
tion of officers of the standing army, the national guard, and 
the navy, the mapping and surveying of the separate prov- 
inces, and projects plans of fortified places, fortresses, and 
forts. He supervises the instruction in the war college and 
the naval school. 



170 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

The standing army consists of the active troops and the 
reserve. The men serve three years in the active army and 
five in the reserve. The reserve service is with the militia 
of their respective localities. 

The chief of the respective corps of the national guard must 
present monthly rolls to the minister of war, giving the names 
of the national guard men, their grades, age, occupation, 
corps, etc. 

The units are called "battalions" in the infantry, "regi- 
ments" in the cavalry, "brigades" in the artillery. 

Each infantry battalion is formed of three companies. The 
headquarters consists of 1 colonel or lieutenant colonel as com- 
mander, 1 lieutenant colonel, 1 major, 1 captain, 1 lieutenant 
(adjutant), 1 ensign (color bearer), 1 surgeon of the second or 
third class, 1 drum major, and 1 noncommissioned officer 
(bugler). Each company consists of 1 captain, 3 lieutenants, 
3 ensigns, 1 sergeant major, 19 noncommissioned officers, 9 
corporals, 3 musicians, and 100 men. 

Each cavalry regiment has the same organization as an 
infantry battalion, except that there is a bugler and a farrier 
added to each squadron. To the noncommissioned officers 
are added for each squadron 1 staff bugler and 1 farrier. 

The artillery brigade consists of three batteries and a staff— 
1 colonel or lieutenant colonel as commander, 1 lieutenant 
colonel, 1 major, 1 captain (adjutant), 1 lieutenant (adjutant), 
1 noncommissioned officer as color bearer, 1 surgeon, 1 band- 
master, and 2 sergeants. The battery consists of 1 captain, 
3 lieutenants, 3 sublieutenants, 1 sergeant major, 18 noncom- 
missioned officers, 9 corporals, 3 buglers, and 100 men. 

In case of mobilization the national guard occupies the gar- 
risons of the active troops ; the units of the latter are brought 
to double their peace footing by calling the reserves to the 
colors. The same is applied to the active battalions and the 
national brigades of Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca. 

Horses and mules are either requisitioned or voluntarily 
given by landowners. At the end of a war the animals are 
given back and the missing ones replaced by others. 

Each battalion has one reserve company composed of 
recruits, convalescents, etc. The battalions of the active 
national guard are brought to their full quota from districts 
other than their own. 

The territorial depot troops, in case of war, form battalions 
of from two to eight companies. The corps of the national 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 171 

gnard are commanded during mobilization by retired army- 
officers. Each division has a reserve ammunition park and a 
reserve train column. The sanitary corps in the field consists 
of a chief surgeon, surgeons, priests, employees, litter bearers, 
and servants. The chief surgeon is detailed to the headquarters 
of the army. 

According to some sources the total strength of the active 
army is 5,500 men, distributed among three artillery brigades, 
ten infantry battalions, etc. The national guard is said to 
consist of eighty-eight infantry battalions, eight artillery bri- 
gades, and nine cavalry regiments. The total armed strength 

is said to be 80,000 men. — Militar-Wochenblatt, September 17, 
1902. 

FRANCE. 

CHANGES IN THE FRENCH ARMY IN THE TEAR lOO*. 

[Bepoktkd by Caft. T. Bentley Mott, Artxllxbt Cokps, U. 8. Military Attach 6 at Parts.] 

There have been no changes of great importance during the 
year as regards the strength, organization, or administration 
of the army. 

The activity as regards colonial defense continues, the 
colonial party in the chamber urging constant attention to 
it. It is fully realized that in the event of war the French 
colonies would form an object of attack. The colonial party 
continue to urge more submarine boats for colonial harbors, 
and on these great reliance is placed to meet the attack of a 
foreign fleet. 

In April three new native companies were formed for the 
occupation and defense of the oases of Gourara, le Touat, and 
le Tidikett. These are called the companies of the Saharan 
Oases. Each comprises, besides infantry, a squad of cavalry 
and a squad of camelry, a section of artillery, and a transport 
outfit. They are under the control of the general commanding 
the nineteenth corps in Algeria. The French contingent for 
the companies is recruited from troops stationed in Algeria, the 
natives from local sources. 

The effectives of these three companies are as follows : 
.French, 20 officers, 110 men. 
Natives, no officers, 900 men. 
Horses, 133; riding camels, 15C; camels, 300; mules, 18. 

The policy of stationing zouaves in France has been re- 
newed ; they will be relieved every two years. 



172 NOTB8 OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR IMS. 

AUTOMOBILES. 

The minister of war intimates each year the use which will 
be made of automobiles during maneuvers and during "staff 
journeys." 

In principle the automobiles and their drivers are recruited 
in the region of the corps d'armde which is called upon to 
use them. 

The description of the automobiles acceptable for this service 
is set down in the circular ; automobile owners and drivers 
desirous of having their services accepted with or without 
their machines, make their applications through military 
channels which are decided upon by the generals commanding 
corps. 

The compensation given to proprietors of machines for the 
time in which they are used, including journey to and from 
headquarters, is as follows : 

Motorcycles : Compensation, 86 centimes per horsepower 

per day and 0.048 centime per kilometer per horsepower. 

Carriages of six places are offered a compensation of Sb 

centimes per horsepower per day and 0.026 centime per 

kilometer per horsepower. 

Heavy transports, 1.72 francs per horsepower per day 

and 0.0162 centime per kilometer per horsepower. 
The drivers are entitled to their rations and the allow- 
ances given to men on detached service." 

SWIMMING RIVERS. 

In April a circular was issued on this subject, and the fol- 
lowing observations are extracted therefrom: 

On account of the difficulty which horses have when sad- 
dled and swimming any distance, only those which are par- 
ticularly good swimmers should be permitted to attempt it 
when saddled. The employment of trestles should not be 
encouraged. The cavalry have no time to construct them. 
Cavalry should not try to construct bridges for horses and 
wagons. They should limit themselves to light foot-bridges 
exclusively for men, the horses swimming alongside. Horses 
should not be let loose in herds. Such a proceeding does not 
accustom them to the calm which is indispensable alongside 
foot bridges. A herd of horses should not be attached to a 
rope and made to swim together, as they do not swim at equal 
paces. Men who can not swim should not be allowed to cross 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 173 

rivers by means of buoys. All cavalrymen should, as far as 
possible, be taught to swim. 

The following precautions should be taken in all swimming 
exercises for cavalry: A lookout should be established for 
watching the waterways and signaling men and horses in 
danger. On each bank and in boats near dangerous points 
men who are good swimmers should be stationed with life 
buoys. A number of men crossing simultaneously by means 
of rafts should not exceed the number held in readiness in 
case of upset.- A doctor should always be present to render 
assistance in case of need. 

COLONIAL ARMY. 

In June an agreement was come to between the ministers 
of 'war, marine, and the colonies as to their respective shares 
in the expenses of the colonial and home troops. 

All charges connected with troops, colonial or otherwise, 
outside of France, Algeria, and Tunis, which are employed 
in the colonies or protectorates, or placed at the disposal of 
the minister of marine for coast defense or other purposes, 
shall be covered in the budgets of the ministers of colonies 
and marine, respectively. These expenses commence with 
the embarkment for their destination and continue until their 
return to a post under the control of the minister of war. 

In May two new mounted batteries of colonial artillery 
were created for Madagascar. This carries the colonial artil- 
lery to the following effective : 
Three groups — 

First group — Three foot-batteries at Diego Suarez. 
Second group — Three mountain-batteries at Emyrne ; 

one company of conductors. 
Third group — Two mounted batteries at Diego Suarez. 
In June a corps of native infantry was created for the 
occupation of Cambodge under the designation of "tirailleurs 
Cambodgians." This force starts with one company on the 
lines of colonial troops. New companies will be created 
according to the requirements of the service. Men will be 
recruited by voluntary engagement in Cochin-China and 
Cambodge. A similar force of troops was created for Indo- 
China in June, under the title of "bataillons des tirailleurs 
Chinois." The battalion starts with two companies only, to 



174 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

be increased according to the needs of the service. The men 
are expected to be recruited from among Chinese horn in 
Indo-China. 

Until Angnst last the squadron of spahis stationed in 
Senegal belonged to the first regiment of Algerian spahis. 
The designation is now changed to first squadron of Senegal 
spahis, whose effective is given below. 

The squadron of Soudanese spahis stationed in French 
West Africa takes the name of second squadron of Senegal 
spahis. It forms a distinct corps from the first squadron. 
These troops are quartered, in theory, in French West Africa, 
but they may be sent anywhere outside. 

First squadron: 8 officers, 10 noncommissioned officers 
(French); 10 noncommissioned officers (natives); 11' 
privates (natives). 
Second squadron: 8 officers (French); 12 noncommis- 
sioned officers (French); 12 noncommissioned officers 
(natives); 1G9 privates (natives). 

In October, for the first time, a brigade of colonial infantry 
was sent to Paris, forming part of the first colonial infantry 
division. 

In October a decree abolished "compagnies disciplinaires" 
in the colonies. The " disciplinaires " of these companies 
were distributed according to origin among the "compag- 
nies de discipline" of home troops and African troops. The 
disciplinary companies in Senegal, Martinique, etc., were 
abolished under this decree also. 

In October a decree placed the strength of the French in 
the Kongo as follows : A regiment of native cavalry of two 
battalions, a mixed mountain battery with a detachment of 
artisans, a squadron of native cavalry, men of the ordnance, 
commissariat, and medical services. 

Of the three battalions of Senegal tirailleurs, four compa- 
nies each, one is on the Ivory coast, one in the territory of 
Zindoo, and the third at Diego Suarez. 

In November a decree fixed the strength of the "garde 
r^publicaine" at four squadrons of cavalry and three bat- 
talions of infantry of four companies each. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 175 

In December a circular reorganized the colonial infantry 
and artillery, as follows : 
Infantry : 

First division, colonial infantry — headquarters, Paris. 
Third brigade — headquarters, Rochefort. 
Third regiment — Rochefort. 
Seventh regiment — Rochefort. 
Fifth brigade — headquarters, Paris. 
Twenty-first regiment — Paris. 
Twenty-third regiment — Paris. 
Second division, colonial infantry — headquarters, 
Toulon. 
Fourth brigade — headquarters, Toulon. 
Fourth regiment — Toulon. 
Eighth regiment — Toulon. 
Sixth brigade (new formation) — headquarters, 
Toulon. 
Twenty-second regiment — Toulon. 
Twenty-fourth regiment (newly formed), 
staff, first and second battalions — Toulon. 
Third battalion — Cette. 

The staff of the twenty-fourth regiment 
and the first and second battalions will be 
transferred to Perpignan early in 1903. 
Third division — headquarters, Brest. 

First brigade — headquarters, Cherbourg. 
First regiment — Cherbourg. 
Fifth regiment — Cherbourg. 
Second brigade — Headquarters, Brest. 
Second regiment — Brest. 
Sixth regiment — Brest. 

The fourth battalions of the third and 
seventh regiments are suppressed. 

The fourth battalion of the fourth regi- 
ment becomes the third battalion of the 
twenty-fourth regiment. 
Colonial Artillery — headquarters, Paris : 
First regiment — Lorient, 9 batteries. 
Three mounted batteries — Lorient. 
Three mountain-batteries — Lorient. 
Two foot-batteries— Lorient. 
Two foot-batteries — Rochefort. 



176 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Colonial Artillery — headquarters, Paris — Continued. 
Second regiment — Cherbourg, 15 batteries. 

Three mounted batteries — Cherbourg. 

Two mountain-batteries — Cherbourg. 

Four foot-batteries — Cherbourg. 

Six foot-batteries — Brest. 
Third regiment (newly formed) — 8 batteries. 

Two mounted batteries (newly formed). 

Two mountain-batteries — Toulon. 

Pour foot-batteries — Toulon. 

The staff will be quartered at Toulon. 

Two mounted batteries provisionally at Nimes. 

DECREE CONCERNING ORGANIZATION OP TELEGRAPH SERVICE IN TWE Of 
PEACE AND WAR (JUNE, 1902). 

Article 1. — The battalion of telegraphists created by the 
law of July 24, 1900, is recruited partly from the personnel 
of the administration of posts and telegraphs compelled te- 
rn ili tar y service by the law of recruitment. 

Art. 2. — Inasmuch as the effective of this battalion in non- 
commissioned officers, corporals and men can not be brought 
up to the war strength by the reservists of the battalion or 
from other arms and at the latest until January 1, 1910, the 
administration of posts and telegraphs will place at the dis- 
posal of the minister of war the necessary complement from 
the personnel. 

This will be composed of men of the youngest clafeS ot 
recruits engaged in the service of posts and telegraph? 
accomplishing an active military service. 

Art. 3. — The minister of war will substitute progressively 
military telegraphists for civilians in fortified places. Thtf 
transformation will be completed before January 1, 1M'< 
except as regards officers and functionaries. 
1 Art. 4. — Inasmuch as the minister of war will not be able 
to find officers of the active army or reserve in sufficient num- 
bers to form the cadre of the telegraphists in the first ln ie 
and fortified places in war time, the administration of yosl^ 
and telegraphs will place a sufficient number at his disposal- 
They will be taken from volunteers or from men compelW 
by their age to the obligations under military law. Those 
who will be incorporated in this battalion will be chosen # 
much as possible in the reserve of the active army. They 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 177 

will be treated as reserve officers. The functionaries. called 
upon to serve in the telegraph troops are appointed reserve 
officers. 

Art. 5. — The administration of posts and telegraphs fur- 
nishes the necessary personnel for the formation of the second 
line, besides the regulation number of effectives it holds at 
the disposition of the minister of war for the formations 
mentioned above. 

NEW ORGANIZATION FOB THE CAVALRY. 

The last of the year brought a decree reorganizing the 
larger units of the cavalry. It was at one time a question of 
placing all the cavalry in divisions, but this was abandoned 
upon the representations of the corps commanders, who all 
wished to preserve under their orders the brigade of corps 
cavalry belonging to each of them. 

Some of the army corps have three divisions of infantry 
instead of two, and the principle has been adopted of giving 
to the brigade of corps cavalry as many regiments as the 
corps has cavalry divisions. Thus, the sixth and seventh 
brigades of cavalry attached respectively to the sixth and 
seventh corps have each three regiments. 

There are eight so-called independent divisions of cavalry 
formed, some of cuirassiers and dragoons, others of light 
cavalry and dragoons. Two divisions have six regiments, 
four of cuirassiers and two of dragoons; three divisions have 
five regiments. One of these has three regiments of cuiras- 
siers and two of dragoons, the other two have three regiments 
of light cavalry and two of dragoons. 

Three divisions have four regiments; one of these has two 
regiments of cuirassiers and two of dragoons ; the other two 
have a brigade of dragoons and a brigade of light cavalry. 

In June last a decree was published announcing the fol- 
lowing places in the colonies as "points d'appui" for the fleet 
and classifying them as fortified "places:" 

Saigon and Cape St. James, in Cochin-China. 

Diego Suarez, in Madagascar. 

Dakar, in Senegal. 

Fort de France, in Martinique. 

Noumea, in New Caledonia. 

Hongey, at Tonkin. 

829 12 



178 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The general designated in time of peace to command one of 
these "points d'appui " is responsible for the organization of 
the works he will command in war and is designated "com- 
mander of the defense." He has under his command the 
whole of the military forces and auxiliaries in his zone. 

At each " point d'appui " of the fleet there is also stationed 
a naval officer having immediate authority over the personnel 
and material belonging to the navy. He is designated "com- 
mander of the marine." 

In all that concerns the technical part of his work — pro- 
visioning the fleet, arsenal work, etc. — lie is exclusively under 
the navy department; but in matters relating to the defense 
of the place he is held to cooperate, but in the capacity of a 
subordinate, with the "commander of the defense." 

In the absence of the latter he may succeed him or not. 
according to his rank as compared with the other officers. 

All his correspondence relating to the colony or the defense 
of the "point d'appui " passes through the commander of the 
defense. 

At all times the commander of the defense owes an attitude 
of large consideration to commanders of naval forces or iso- 
lated vessels calling at the station ; nevertheless a distinction 
is established by the minister of marine between those means 
of naval defense which can in no case leave the area of action 
of the "point d'appui" and those liable to orders for distant 
service under naval commanders ; the former are under the 
direct control of the general commanding the place, the latter 
are not. 

THE FRENCH GENERAL, STAFF. 

[Kki'obted by ('apt. T. Bkxtley Mott, Artillery Corps, United 8tates Military Attach fc at 

Paris.] 

The words "staff," "staff departments," "officer of the 
general staff," have recently grown in use in the United 
States, and they seem to lack that sharpness of definition 
which in other services they possess. It may therefore be 
interesting to define these terms as used in the French army 
before outlining the duties of the staff, general staff, general 
in chief, and war board. 

Command of any military unit implies certain prerogatives 
and certain duties. As the command increases in importance, 
the chief can no longer personally exercise all the preroga- 
tives nor fill all the duties. Thus, according to the size of 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 17$ 

the unit commanded, there are assigned to the chief a num- 
ber of other officers to direct, under general instructions from 
liim, the special services which insure the discipline, supply, 
instruction, and well-being of the troops. These officers do 
not belong to the general staff, nor to the staff, nor to a staff 
department; they belong to what is known as "les services," 
and they are called "officers of the medical service, officers of 
the engineer service, of the intendance (quartermaster and 
commissary) service, of the artillery (ordnance) service, of 
the veterinary service, of the signal service, of the pay serv- 
ice," etc. They are never spoken of individually as staff 
officers nor said to belong to the staff ; they belong to the 
"services." 

This organization of aids to the commanding officer is not 
sufficient; there is lacking a most important element, the one 
which coordinates all that relates to the work of the troops 
and all that relates to the work of the various "services;" 
this element is furnished by a number of officers selected and 
trained for the purpose, known as the "dtat-niajor" or staff. 
In large units the commander is given several officers of the 
staff and one is named as chief of staff. The members of 
the staff have a function shared by no "chief of service" — 
the power to order in the name of the general. 

An " officer of the staff " is therefore officially defined as an 
"agent of command," which distinguishes him from an offi- 
cer of the administration, supply, or auxiliary services, who 
has no command of combatant troops and whose sole func- 
tions consist in furnishing troops with the means of marching 
and fighting. These latter are not of the staff. 

However, the totality of all the assistants of the command- 
ing officer of any organization, including the commander 
himself, is called the staff of that organization. Thus the 
staff of a regiment consists of the colonel, the lieutenant 
colonel, the regimental adjutant, the surgeons, the veterinary, 
the paymaster, the bandmaster, etc., the noncommissioned 
staff of the drum major, an engineer corporal, some engineer 
soldiers, and the band. In speaking of one of these officers, 
the colonel might say "he belongs to my staff;" he would 
not say "he is an officer of the staff, or an officer of a staff 
department." 

Except officers of artillery and engineers detached from 
their regiments to assure the "service" of the artillery and 



180 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

engineers of a corps, division, etc., who retain their line 
titles, the officers of the services are not addressed officially 
or otherwise as captain, colonel, etc. ; they have all the privi- 
leges and obligations of "officers of the army," which they 
are, but they are addressed as "monsieur" or " monsieur le 
directeur," "monsieur 1* intendant," "monsieur le payeur," 
etc. Their titles indicate their functions, but they are not 
the titles given to officers who command combatant troops. 
They have an assimilation or a correspondence of grade for 
purposes of pay and which entitles them to precedence imme- 
diately following the combatant grade to which assimilated. 
This assimilation of grade goes from second lieutenant t" 
major general. An "intendant" addressed as "monsieur Y 
intendant" has the assimilated grade of brigadier general; 
an "intendant gdn6ral"that of major general. Comptrol- 
leurs, really inspectors of accounts, have not the title of 
officers. They are high functionaries of the war depart- 
ment holding permanent appointments, but they remain 
civilians. 

GREAT GENERAL STAFF, GENERAL STAFF, STAFF. 

These terms have been conveniently adopted in English 
from the German gross-generalstab, generalstab, stab, but in 
France, the nomenclature is not so simple. However, it is 
ideas and not terms that interest, though it seems useful to 
clear up a few confusing words. 

In France the word "<5tat-inajor-g6n6ral" is loosely used 
to mean either the great general staff of an army or to 
mean the whole body of general officers. Strictly speaking. 
"1' dtat-major-gdn£ral" means the staff of an army, auJ 
"dtat-major-gendral de V armde" means the 330 major ami 
brigadier generals of the line. In time of war only, a "grand 
dtat-major" or "grand dtat-major-gdn«5ral " is created, which 
is simply the staff of the general in chief of all the armies. 

To resume the French organization. There is no such 
thing as a permanent staff in the French army. Each year 
about 80 officers of various arms are admitted to the high 
war school ; upon successful graduation, at the end of two 
years, they are given the staff brevet (brevet de l'ltat major). 
Then they serve two years in some staff, and then either are 
continued on staff duty or returned to their regiments, whence 
they may be afterwards taken and retaken to serve on the 
staff of a general officer or at the ministry of war. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 181 

There is no other kind of staff in the French army, except 
th.e special staffs of the artillery and of the engineers, con- 
sisting of officers of those arms detached from their regiments 
for technical ordnance, artillery, and engineer work. 

From the body of officers having the staff brevet there are 
detailed the following staffs: Those of brigades, divisions, 
corps, and fortresses; those of the president and minister of 
war (general officers are also included in these last two) ; the 
general staff of the army. 

This latter is nothing more than the body of detailed officers 
cliarged with certain functions at the war department, chief 
of which is the study of plans for national defense and the 
preparation of the army for war. Its chief duties may be 
thus grouped : 

Mobilization of the army in case of war. 
Employment of railways, military telegraph, etc. 
Organization of the services in rear of the army in war. 
Organization and instruction of the army; maneuvers. 
Study of foreign armies and theaters of war. 
Collection of statistical and historical documents. 
Missions abroad. 

Preparation and coordination of the work of the high 
war board and of the members having special missions. * 
A general officer is appointed chief of the general staff, 
whose work he directs, as he does the selection and instruction 
of the officers of the staff. 

It is thus seen that the staff has nothing to do with the 
routine work of administration, stich as falls to our adjutants 
general who alone have functions resembling those of the 
staff of France. At least this is the theory, but in practice 
(and much complaint is made of it) officers who should be 
occupied chiefly with questions looking to preparations for 
war are kept busy with details of administration which 
properly belong to the "officiers d'administration" and 
" archivistes," who are really chief clerks and have all routine 
at their fingers' ends. 

At the war department in Paris the administrative work is 
taken care of by nine "directions", namely, (1) Auditing; (2) 
Law; (3) Infantry; (4) Cavalry; (5) Artillery; (6) Engineers; 
(7) Supplies; (8) Powder works; (9) Health. 

Routine matters of personnel and material are settled in the 
"direction" concerned, with or without reference to the chief 



182 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1908. 

of the general staff or the minister, according to their nature 
and importance. 

For example, in the intendance or supply direction there 
are 28 officers occupied with the central administration of all 
that concerns the pay, clothing, transportation, food, forage, 
fuel, and furniture. 

In the artillery direction there are 52 officers to administer 
the personnel and instruction of the artillery, and to supply 
ordnance material and ammunition to all arms. 

The infantry direction comprises 22 officers. 

The schools of each arm come under the "direction'' of 
that arm for various purposes. 

Also at the war department there sit the technical boards 
of artillery, of infantry, of' cavalry, of engineers, of intend- 
ance, of the staff, each composed of nine members, all general 
officers. Their functions are all advisory. 

The conseil supdrieur de guerre, or war board, is composed 
of no more than ten members, usually generals of the highest 
rank and reputation. The minister of war is the president 
of the board, and the chief of the general staff is of right a 
member ; the other members are appointed by decree. 

This board is the highest consultative authority in France, 
and any action recommended by it is considered to have the 
sanction of the best military talent. It is charged with 
examining all large questions relating to preparation for war 
and the national defense. 

The law requires that the minister of war shall consult this 
board on matters affecting : 

Plans of mobilization and concentration, establishment of 
new strategic communications, general organization of the 
army, general methods of instruction, adoption of new engines 
of war, the creation or suppression of fortified places, coast 
defense. 

The board meets when necessary, and at least once a month. 
It gives its advice to the minister on all subjects laid before 
it, but he is not bound to act accordingly. 

The minister of war appoints from the members of the 
conseil supdrieur de guerre a vice president, and of late 
years this position has come to be of great importance and 
has provoked considerable discussion. This office is not 
recognized by law as having any special prerogative, but by 
fact or perhaps from some secret letter of service, the holder 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 183 

is the general named in advance to take command of the prin- 
cipal army in the field upon the outbreak of war. His work 
is to fit himself for this responsibility, and the minister is ex- 
pected, to provide him with the means. He prepares (with 
tlie aid of the war board and the chief of the general staff) 
the annual maneuvers, supervises and attends the minor ones, 
and takes active command of the maneuvers of one or more 
armies. He is popularly called the generalissimo. The chief 
of the general staff acts as his chief of staff at the maneuvers. 
With regard to this arrangement there are varying opinions; 
some maintain that the chief of the general staff in time of 
war as of peace should remain in Paris, where his knowledge 
and experience would aid the minister of war and keep the 
fighting armies up to a high state of efficiency from the rear. 
Some think that such a designation in advance is imprac- 
ticable ; others that it is wise, but that the officer selected 
should be given more power in time of peace than the mere 
inspection of the corps on the northeastern frontier and the 
vague attributes of vice-president of the war board ; that he 
should inspect and virtually command the whole army, though 
he need not administer it. 

r£sum£. 

The minister of war, acting for the president, actively 
commands the whole army. 

The high war board, presided over by the minister, is the 
source of authoritative military opinion on all great ques- 
tions of army policy. 

The vice-president of this board is the officer selected 
beforehand to corrihiand the principal army, or group of 
armies, upon the declaration of war. He does not command 
the army in time of peace, except that part of it assembled 
for maneuvers. 

The chief of the staff of the army directs the work of the 
central or general staff at the war department and the staff 
duties in general of those officers holding the staff brevet, 
whether employed on a staff or with their regiments. When 
the army is mobilized he becomes the "major g6n6ral," that 
is, chief of staff of the principal army or group of armies in 
the field. 

The departments which feed, clothe, pay, and doctor the 
troops are not part of the staff of the army; they constitute 
the services of supply. The chiefs of these services in Paris 



184 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

deal directly with the minister or with the chief of the staff 
of the army, according to the nature of the case; the subordi- 
nate officers of these services are strictly subject to the gen- 
eral officer to whose headquarters they are assigned. 

Ordnance stores for the whole army are furnished by the 
artillery service; medical stores by the medical service; for- 
tifications, barracks, and telegraph supplies by the engineer 
corps ; the audit department is separate and its members are 
not army officers, but functionaries. Practically all other 
supplies, including pay, clothing, rations, transportation, 
etc., are furnished by the intendance department. 

Officers of this department have a correspondence of grade 
with line officers from second lieutenant to major general, 
but have not the same military titles. Once appointed, an 
officer remains and is promoted in this department. The 
position offers certain advantages, but it is not sought for 
any superiority of pay, rank, or promotion which it offers, 
as these are probably inferior to those enjoyed by most line 
officers of similar length of service. 

THE RECRUITMENT OF THE ARMY. 

The ministry of war has just published the recruiting sta- 
tistics of the army for 1901. It is of great interest to examine 
the results at the time when the project of law on the two- 
year service is being so earnestly discussed. 

There were only 309,332 young men having reached 20 years 
of age to draw lots. 

Here are the figures beginning with 1893 : 

1893 ._ ! 848,651 

1894 880,188 

1895 337,109 

1896 331,638 

1897 838,327 

1898 331,179 

1899. .- 324,538 

1900 - 314,384 

1901 - 309,882 

The number of young men drawing lots continually dimin- 
ishes, as may be seen. It is the consequence of the insuffi- 
ciency of births. 

Among the recruits 25,526 young men were exempted as 
unfit for service. It is about the usual number, which has 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 185 

varied between 25,000 and 30,000 for the last 20 years. It is 
very similar to that of Germany. 

There were 44,337 postponements for reasons of health. It 
is likewise the usual number, which varies between 40,000 and 
50,000. In Germany the authorities are more liberal and do 
not hesitate to postpone as many as 170,000 men whose health 
is doubtful or who are not sufficiently developed physically. 
This army thus avoids hospital expenditure and especially 
compulsory retirements. 

Germany may be less severe because the number of births 
continually increases in great proportions (40 per 1,000, while 
they have fallen to 20 per 1,000 in France). In spite of this 
the Germans call the classes one year earlier than the French 
and incorporate recruits at the age of 20, which allows them 
to grant many postponements. 

The number of men exempted was 46,044 according to 
article 21 (supports of families), 3,625 according to article 23 
(liberal professions), and 593 according to article 50 (French- 
men residing abroad). Total, 50,262 men exempted from 
service. 

If the number of recruits diminishes it is not so with that 
of those liberated from service, as may be seen by the follow- 
ing figures : 

1892 _ 36,890 

1898 _. . 43,997 

1894 47,237 

1895 47,445 

1896 51,370 

1897 52,818 

1898 _ 55,696 

1899 50,858 

The infantry received a large number of the men with 
exemptions; the results are that in 1901 there were 59,227 
one-year men and 93,027 two and three year service men. 

More than half of the infantrymen serve only one year and 
under, the remainder serves only two years. The artillery 
received 8,670 men serving only one year and 18,820 men 
serving two or three years, constituting almost one-half. 

The land army has incorporated a total of 72,482 men serv- 
ing one year and 141,616 men serving from two to three years. 
More than one -half of the contingent serves only one year. 

Moreover, 18,627 young men have been appointed to 
auxiliary services and have thus escaped all military service. 



186 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The number has varied from 20,000 to 27,000 in the last ten 
years. 

In 1901, 7,222 noncommissioned officers have reenlisted, 
that is, 449 more than in 1900. Only 657 reenlistments of cor- 
porals and privates have been made in spite of the privileges 
granted by the law of July 9, 1901. There were 506 in 1900.— 
Echo de Paris, January and August, 1902. 

STATISTICS OF DISEASES IN THE ARMY. 

The medical report of the preceding year shows consider- 
able increase in cases of sickness. There were no less than 
332,322 men treated in hospitals and lazarets, that is, 612 per 
1,000, while for all former years the number never passed 
580 per 1,000. Each man passed an average of 1 0.2 days in the 
hospital or lazaret, while formerly the average number of days 
was 9.5. Every sick man was ill during an average of 17.2 
days, while during the former years the average number of 
days was 17.5. The statistics show that among officers there 
were 48 per 1,000 sick, while in the preceding years there 
were only 43 per 1,000; among the noncommissioned officers 
for 207 per 1,000 of the preceding years there were 214 per 
1,000 sick in 1901 ; among soldiers serving over one year ther* 
were, in 1901, 494 sick ones per 1,000, while there were only 
406 and 491 during the preceding years; among those serv- 
ing less than one year there were 650 sick per 1,000, while in 
the preceding years there were 615. The small number of 
officers treated is accounted for by the fact that-the greatest 
part of them did not go to the lazarets, but remained in their 
homes. The arms and units vary greatly in the number of 
the sick. Foot artillery had 494 sick per 1,000, while the 
infantry of the line had 577, the mounted artillery 675, the 
cavalry 741 sick men per 1,000, while the African troops 
which are not native ones counted 818 to 967 sick men j»er 
1,000. Among the native troops the Turcos have 518, the 
spahis 538 sick men per 1,000. The number of deaths was 
likewise increased. They averaged 5.43 per 1,000, while in 
preceding years the .average was 4.98 and 5.23 per 1,000. 
Among these there were 158 suicides. The number of deaths 
varies likewise greatly as to arm and unit. Thus the first 
corps, stationed in the north of France, counted only 2. "35 
deaths per 1,000. The Oran division, on the contrary, num- 
bered 11.62. The troops stationed in Paris count 6.97 per 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 187 

1,000. According to arms, the foot troops have the least 
cases of deaths, that is, only 3.29 per 1,000; the foreign regi- 
ments count the greatest number, 14.56. While the number 
of sick men has increased, the number of deaths has decreased, 
thus, in central France, from 1872 to 1899, the cases have 
decreased from 8.97 to 4.72, in Algeria and Tunis from 11.98 
to 9.78 per 1,000. The greatest number of deaths occur dur- 
ing the month of March — 319, and the least in November — 
90 per 1,000. The total number is 3,288. The decrease in 
the number of deaths comes from the progress of medical 
science and the good care taken of the sick by the surgeons 
and the administration, the improvement of hospital installa- 
tions, while the increase of diseases in the army comes from 
the lesser resistance of the recruits — lesser fitness on account 
of less rigid physical standard at the time of enlistment. — 
Ueberallfiir Armee und Marine, 1902, No. ^7. 

THE SAHARAN SPAHIS. 

The squadron of Saharan spahis, legally instituted on De- 
cember 8, 1894, consists at present of three troops of 45 men 
each mounted on camels. At the beginning of 1901 the whole 
squadron was stationed at Fort MacMahon, and only some 
20 men had been left in the desert to garrison Fort Miribel 
and Hassi-Inifel. In September Hassi-Inifel was evacuated 
and Fort MacMahon counted only 24 men commanded by one 
officer, and the rest of the squadron retired to El Golda as 
there were located the two pastures for their animals. At the 
present time the whole squadron is at In-Salah and recon- 
noitering the Tidikelt. 

The cadres of the squadron are French, and consist of men 
of all the arms of the service physically fit to bear the extraor- 
dinary fatigues of serving in the Sahara. The men are 
naturally taken from troops who have already been stationed 
in the Sahara. The cadres consist of 2 captains, 3 lieutenants, 
9 noncommissioned officers, 6 corporals, 6 lance corporals, and 
3 buglers ; a veterinary surgeon belongs likewise to the squad- 
ron, while the sanitary service is intrusted to a surgeon 
^longing to the nearest Saharan rifle battalion. The native 
camel riders are never promoted; however, for extraordi- 
nary good service, some are intrusted with the supervision 
of one of several squads. These leaders of squads wear as 
niarks of distinction corporal's galloons on their sleeves. 



188 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The French soldiers serving in the Saharan squadron receive 
increased pay, and according to a late decree the noncom- 
missioned officers have the right of transfer as quartermasters 
to a cavalry regiment of the line after having served six 
years in the Sahara and having been two years on the promo- 
tion roll. The campaigns count double. The privates are 
mostly recruited from the warliko tribe of Chaambas, who 
have waged a continuous war against the Tuaregs and conse- 
quently are best acquainted with their mode of living and 
fighting. The enlistments are generally made for four years, 
but the commander of the squadron has the right to discharge 
an enlisted man for bad conduct. There are also a few negroes 
in the squadron, but they are discharged whenever it is feasi- 
ble, as experience has proved that these negroes are escaped 
slaves and possess no military qualities, and least of all 
personal courage. The Chaamba resembles but little the 
Arabian inhabitant of coasts. He is courageous and proud. 
The pure-blood Chaamba is tall and extraordinarily strong. 
His skin has been made so brown by the sun and the dust 
that it equals bronze in color. Though indolent by nature, 
he is generous and will divide his property readily and even 
give to the needy all he has. Among his excellent qualities 
not the least praiseworthy is his abstinence ; with some sweet 
coffee and a handful of dates he can live through long days, 
and only the richest owners of cattle allow themselves to eat 
meat from time to time. Very enduring, indefatigable even 
when necessary, he can do on foot what he does mounted on 
the camel, yet on foot he knows no other gait than the walk; 
it is not possible to induce him to run. 

The clothing of the Saharan spahis is white and consists of 
the same garments as those of the Arabian nomadic tribes, 
that is, a shirt, a wide tunic, and sandals made of camePs- 
hair. These sandals are excellent for walking in the Sahara. 
He wears on his head a kind of turban of white material kept 
together by a camel's-hair cord and which protects the head 
very efficiently against heat and wounds. The uniform of 
the noncommissioned officers of the Saharan spahis is similar 
to that of the Algerian spahis, with the difference that the 
burnous is black and the helmet, carrying a large star, is 
white. 

The natives are paid 100 francs a month ($19.30) and the 
leader of squads 180 francs ($34.74). All the men receive a 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 189 

premium at enlistment, the amount of which is fixed each 
year. They get, likewise, money for clothing and equip- 
ment, but they are under obligation to bring along two camels 
and to provide their own food and dress. The state gives 
them only their arms and small articles of equipment. It 
has already been mentioned that the French soldiers of this 
organization have some increased pay ; among others, they 
receive a higher premium and a considerably larger allowance 
for provisions; the officers receive a daily allowance of 50 
francs ($9.65) and 63 francs ($12.16) per month indemnity 
for provisions. They are paid, moreover, 600 francs ($115) 
at the beginning of each campaign' and 200 francs ($38.60) 
allowance for equipment upon entering the camel corps. 
Each French Meharist must have two camels, the officers 
and noncommissioned officers three. The second camel is 
•used for the transportation of the baggage and provisions. 

The camel was employed for warlike purposes even in an- 
tiquity, as has been stated by Xenophon, Titus Livius, and 
Tacitus. It was recognized even then that this was the only 
animal that could be used as pack and transportation animal 
in regions so poor in water. The Mehari is an ordinary 
camel and is the same in that race as a thoroughbred is among 
horses. It is the best of its kind. It possesses only one hump. 
The Mehari differs from the other camels only by its stature, 
the fineness of its limbs, its slender neck, and the color of its 
coat, which is specially light. While the pack camel goes 
very slowly, the Mehari trots quite rapidly for hours. It is 
probably for this reason that quite fabulous things are said 
about it. Many believe that a good Mehari can cover dis- 
tances in one day which a caravan makes in six to eight days. 
This is not true, and only a few excellent Meharis can make 
100 kilometers without stopping, yet it is a fact that they can 
perform such marches for many days. They grow very thin 
in such cases, especially during great heat, and need after- 
wards much rest and good feed in pastures. This is one 
reason why the spahis must always keep two camels each. 

The camel can make at a walk 5£ kilometers per hour and 
during the night even 6 if the ground is good. If the sand 
is very deep the camel can not make over 4 kilometers per 
hour. The camel walks easily over stony and rocky ground. 
He remains erect while his feet find naturally trails and paths 
without stones. Its fleshy foot is very sensitive and bleeds 



190 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

easily, so that it is often necessary to protect the feet by 
leather shoes. The foot, on account of its size, sinks very 
little in sandy ground, and on declines the hooked nails pre- 
vent it from sliding. The Mehari covers less ground at gal- 
lop than at trot, yet the fleetest and most enduring camel will 
never equal a horse in speed. The gait of the camel is not 
disagreeable to the rider, yet he receives bad jolts when gal- 
loping and even the trot is rather hard, especially when the 
saddle is not well padded. The consequences of these extraor- 
dinarily painful movements often result in hernia, although 
special bandages belong to the military equipment of camel 
riders. The best quality of the camel is its endurance. In 
this it is far superior to the horse, for it can live several days 
in summer without feed and in winter it can stay weeks 
without water. When a Mehari must be kept running for 
several days in summer, it must be watered every three or 
four days, while only a few hard plants and roots are suffi- 
cient to feed it, and of these there is an abundance in the 
Sahara. Like all ruminants, the camel has four stomach*, 
the first of which is divided into two pouchy partitions, one 
of which is surrounded by a number of cells filled with water; 
this comes from a never-stopping interior segregation of 
water and thus forms a filled reservoir. 

The breeding and training of camels is given by the Tuaregs 
the greatest attention. The same may be said of the Chaambas, 
who pass their days caring for the Meharis, which they hooor 
so highly that they declare them as "shaher," that is, clean 
domestic animals, and maintain that they do not dirty the 
house. 

Great prudence must be used with young animals while 
training them for military purposes. The training must he 
gradual and based on certain principles, and punishments 
and rewards must be distributed very justly. The "break- 
ing in" of the animals is begun very early by piercing their 
right nostril with an iron ring which is worn through life. 
They are then taught to kneel and rise, and turning to 
the right and left is imparted to them by means of the bridle 
and a riding whip. The camel is taught to trot by a loud 
outcry, and after the animal has learned all this with the 
man on foot, it is gradually made to get used to its rider. 
Great importance is given to the prompt kneeling, and i 
pressure of the feet against the neck of the animals musi 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 191 

suffice to make the camel trot. In order to urge the camel 
to its fullest speed, the Chaambas use an iron hook with 
which they tickle the animal under the belt. The riding 
camel gets quickly used to the saddle, as well as to the 
employment of arms. It does not fret in close formation, is 
very willing, does not shy, and never bites. 

The saddle used by the Mehari riders is very peculiar. It 
consists of a hollow seat, which has the shape of a champagne 
glass and has a button in front of the shape of an artistically 
made cross. In the back there is a high pad ending in a 
point. The saddlecloth is of red leather, on which several 
l)lack crosses are burnt with a hot iron for ornamentation. 
The reins consist of a kind of strap and cord which is fastened 
to a ring in the nose of the camel; the cord and the strap are 
crossed on the neck of the animal, and are then taken in the 
rider's hand, who uses them as those of a horse. On the fore 
part of the bridlo is a kind of metallic spur, partly for the 
holding of the strap, partly as a signaling instrument, for 
which purpose it is provided with small bells or rings. 

The armament consists of sabers and cavalry carbines. As 
to the tactics of the Mehari riders, they are, as has already 
been mentioned, in conformity with the fighting mode of the 
Tuaregs, which consists in ambuscades and sudden attacks. 
Hence it comes that rapidity and mobility are the principal 
features, and that excellent reconnoiter in g and security serv- 
ice are likewise necessary. The fighting of the camel riders 
takes place on foot, for no Mehari rider, however skillful, 
could oppose a man with a lance. On the other hand, as 
has already been mentioned, the essential enemies in the 
Sahara are only rebellious tribes and hordes of robbers 
against whom a good firearm is the best weapon. This is 
often used by the Mehari riders by forcing their camels to 
kneel and then by firing over their backs. — Internationale 
Revue, Beiheft No. 28, April, 1902 

THE SAHARAX OASIS TROOPS. 

In the 1902 budget the chambers laid down a new organi- 
zation for the Saharan troops in the oases of Gurara. Tuat, and 
Tidikelt. This provides for the formation of three native 
companies, called "des Oasis Sahariennes." 

The object of this formation is to replace by natives re- 
cruited from the Sahara the present Saharan troops, which 



192 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1908. 

will be disbanded in six months. These will be able to live 
on the resources of the country, and will largely obviate the 
necessity for the transport of supplies, which at present have 
to be kept up by frequent convoys. The three companies, con- 
sisting of infantry, cavalry, and mountain guns, will be sub- 
stituted for all the European troops now occupying this 
region, and will keep only such a proportion of Frenchmen 
as are absolutely indispensable for the cadres. The natives 
will be enrolled by voluntary enlistment and by reengage- 
ments for periods of two years each. They will continue to 
live in accordance with their usual habits, r.amely, grouped 
with their families around the chief centers, and will be 
allowed, at the same time that they give their military 
services, to occupy themselves with agricultural pursuits. 

The French cadres will receive a special rate of pay and 
bounty, exclusive of all issues in kind. The officers will be 
intrusted with the duties both of commanding the troops and 
with the administration of the country. Thus in ordinary 
times all distribution of food, forage, harness, and clothing 
may bo dispensed with. Finally, each company will be 
given camel transport, by means of which they will be able 
to transport supplies when they have to travel over the coun- 
try or to move rapidly to some threatened point. The com- 
panies will be administered by the general commanding the 
nineteenth army corps, under the supervision of the gov- 
ernor general of Algeria. They are not liable for service 
outside the region of the Saharan oasis, except in very excep- 
tional cases, which must be decided upon by the governor 
general with the concurrence of the home government. Each 
company will be commanded by a captain in the colonial 
service, responsible for the administration of the correspond- 
ing oasis group ; the lieutenant will be taken from the same 
service. The French rank and file will be recruited from the 
Algerian corps of all arms. The companies will be placed 
under the immediate orders of a field officer, with the rank 
of " chef de battalion." With regard to the French soldiers, 
every year passed in the Sahara district will be reckoned as 
a double campaign ; nothing is changed with regard to the 
general conditions for admission to pension. As regards 
natives, these conditions will be similar to those at present 
in force for the Algerian tirailleurs ; each year's service will 
count as one campaign only. In the first formation the rank 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 193 

and file, French and natives, will be drawn from the present 
"battalion of Saharan tirailleurs and from the Saharan spahis 
squadron about to be disbanded. 

The tables attached to the decree show that each company 
will consist of 1 captain, 4 lieutenants, 1 surgeon, 12 French 
and 6 native noncommissioned officers, 12 French and 14 
native corporals or lance corporals, 4 French gunners, 9 
French workmen and clerks, 8 native buglers and trumpet- 
ers, and, finally, 232 infantry, 20 cavalry, and 20 dromedary 
corps, all natives. The company possesses also 43 horses, 52 
dromedaries, 100 draft camels, 9 mules, and 2 mountain guns. 
The three companies, including the staff, make up a total of 
20 officers with 37 horses, 100 French soldiers, and 900 na- 
tives, 96 troop horses, 156 dromedaries, 300 camels, 18 mules, 
and 6 guns. — Journal Royal United Service Institution, 
May 15, 1902. 

CHAR] COLONY. 

The region of Chari, this newest acquisition of France, is 
divided into three districts by the commanding officer, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Destenave. They are the Upper Chari, com- 
posed of the Krebedje (Fort Possel) and the Gribingui (Fort 
Crampel) sections; Central Chari, composed of tlio Thunia 
(Fort Archambault) and Bousso (Fort Bretonnet) sections; 
and Lower Chari, composed of the Koussouri (Fort Laniy) 
and Goulfei (Fort de Cointet) sections. The names of the 
forts are those of men who have met death in the field. The 
garrison of the colony is composed of a battalion of Singalese 
rifles, a company of yacomas, a squadron of spahis, and one 
battery. The captains represent France before the native 
rulers Gaourang and Senoussi. Great difficulties arise in the 
supply of the troops with provisions from the enormous 
distances between the posts and the sources of supply. The 
Chari falls into Lake Chad, but is navigable only between 
December and April, and so far only one steamer and five 
chalanoes (native flat-bottomed boats) are there for this pur- 
pose From Lake Chad to Bangui, where the Ubangui ceases 
tc be navigable, there are 1,500 kilometers to be made by 
land — MUitdr-Wochenblatt, February 1, 1902. 

CHEVALLIER ELECTRIC TARGET. 

Capt Charles Chevallier, of the French army, collaborat- 
ing with M. Eugene Cadet, has invented a most ingenious 

829 — 13 



194 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

target, which is so constructed that the hits are registered by 
an annunciator. By means of this device the marksman, 
simply by referring to the annunciator, can ascertain at a 
glance what his success has been without walking several 
hundred yards to the target. 

The target itself consists of two sets of metal panels of seg- 
mental form, arranged in different vertical planes. One 
series of segments overlaps to a certain extent the next series 
of segments, in order that an entirely full surface may be 
presented to the marksman. Behind each series of segments 
lies a fixed disk, serving as a guide and support for rods 
secured to the segments. Coiled springs are placed between 
the segments and the disk, in order to return the segments 
after they have been driven in by a projectile. 

Opposite each rod, secured to the segments, an electric- 
contact device is placed, which consists of a screw mutilated 
for about T V of an inch. In its normal position, an insulated 
plate having threads of a corresponding pitch to those of the 
screw lies opposite the neck thus formed in the screw, and is 
therefore out of contact with the screw. The mutilated 
screw turns in a fixed nut or support. The upper part of the 
mutilated screw is fitted with a cross piece provided with 
counterweights at its ends so as to form a balance member. 
The plate constitutes one terminal of the circuit, the wires 
being secured to the other terminal. The wires are equal in 
number to the segments of the target, and are assembled 
together in a cable leading to an annunciator of ordinary 
construction, placed near the marksman. 

When a projectile strikes one of the segments, one or more 
of the springs coiled about the rods are compressed, and 
the corresponding rod or rods are driven in through the per- 
forations of the disk and strike the counterweights of the 
balance member. The impulse thus given to the balance 
member causes the mutilated screw to turn and rise. The 
lower threaded part of the screw is then engaged in the screw 
threads of the plate and the circuit is completed. When the 
circuit is completed the annunciator near the marksman 
indicates the exact spot of the target which has been struck. 

Instead of disks, portions representing the human figure 
can be used. — Scientific American, June 28, 1902. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 195 

GERMANY. 
THE ABMT, A RETROSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE TEAR 10O8. 

T&AN:*LAT10X OF AN ARTICLE APPEARINO IN " USBERALL," 1902, NO. 14, BT CaFT. W. 8. BlDDUS, 
FOURTEENTH INFANTRY, U. 8. MILITARY ATTACHE AT BERLIN.] 

The year 1902 brought no great changes in organization, 
such as that of the field artillery in its time. The new 
organization of the third principal arm, cavalry, is still im- 
pending, after the infantry and artillery have completed 
theirs. Only the establishment of seven new machine-gun 
detachments on October 1 and of six companies of foot artil- 
lery is to be noticed in the nature of an increase. 

With the adoption of machine guns a new arm of the service 
has been created which, occupying an intermediate status 
between infantry and artillery, appears destined to become 
highly effective in certain cases. At present it has found its 
principal employment with the cavalry, to which it is attached; 
it seems, however, that it is certain to play otherwise an im- 
portant part. It is yet so new that its use has been brought 
under no fixed rules. With its final adoption an increase of 
its strength is to be expected. 

The increase of the strength of foot artillery has long been 
recognized as necessary in view of the ever-increasing impor- 
tance of heavy guns for the siege of fortresses and outer forts. 
• We regret to say the reichstag, in place of the required 
ten companies with the necessary staffs, allowed only six com- 
panies without these, so that the remainder is likely to be 
Tequired again soon. 

By the increases now, on October 1, the German army has 
reached a strength of 495,000 men under the statute of March 
25, 1899. To these are to be added in round numbers 29,000 
officers and officials, 81,000 noncommissioned officers, and 
&,000 one-year volunteers. 

There exist at present the following tactical units : 625 bat- 
talions, 482 squadrons (including 17 squadrons of mounted 
orderlies), 583 field batteries, 39 battalions of foot artillery 
with 163 companies, 13 machine-gun detachments, 29 bat- 
talions of pioneers, 11 battalions of verkehrstruppen (railroad, 
balloon, and telegraph troops), and 23 battalions of train. 

Regarding the establishment of the higher commands (koin- 
mando-behorden) is to be mentioned the creation of a new 
fourth engineer inspection and a new eighth fortress inspec- 
tion. Further has begun the changing of the former f estungs- 
bau-personal into the festungsbau-offizierkorps, with rank of 



196 NOTB8 OF MILITARY INTERK8T FOB 1902. 

the old zeug and f euerwerks officers corps and with its suit- 
able uniform. This change will be gradual, according to the 
means at disposal. 

The intended creation of a military technical institute for 
educating a staff of officers for the institutes has been refused 
by the reichstag. By the increased development of all tech- 
nical requirements of war the preparation of officers in this 
department has become more and more difficult; a makeshift 
is in detailing to the artillery and engineer school for a longer 
time and consequent longer attendance at the technisch- 
hochschule. A greater uniformity in this department hfc 
been obtained by the formation of a closed officers corps of 
the technical institutes with uniform of their own. 

In improvement of arms or technical innovations the Ia*t 
year has opened no new paths nor brought further develop- 
ment. The fight for the coming new field gun has been con- 
fined to the limits of military literature. After the adoption 
of the German field gun, 1896, was answered by France with 
the introduction of a barrel-recoil gun with armor shields, at 
active movement for such guns set in in Germany; for the 
present, it is true only in military literature. The larger 
German gun factory for a long time resisted the new princi- 
ple, as many weak points for field service seemed to be asso- 
ciated with it, and as in the spring-spade (federsporn) gun, an 
excellent arm was created. Many countries after extensive 
tests had already decided in favor of the latter, when by con- 
tinual efforts the Krupp factory succeeded in bringing the 
barrel-recoil gun into a really serviceable form for war, n- 
now the countries which were arming with the spring-sp*^ 
gun, such as Switzerland and Italy, have none the less adopts 
the barrel recoil. Even little Denmark recently ordered her 
entire equipment of field guns in Krupp barrel-recoil g» llS - 
In Germany the fight therefor has been confined to iniliW 
literature, as nothing is published about the tests which, of 
course, are extensively made by the artillery -testing comifl^" 
sion (artillerie-prufungs-koinmission). 

The fight for and against protective shields has been nofl*' 
the less severe, and even the recent Krupp trials on the pene- 
tration of armor shields by steel balls, instead of leaden baifc 
contained within the shrapnel, were not able to remove the 
decided advantages of shields, as such change in projectile 
would entail other disadvantages. The trials made by another 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 197 

factory, the Ehrhardt works, to carry the fight against armor 
shields in a different manner, namely, by adopting a light 
field gun firing only shells, met with a stout resistance, as its 
adversaries quite correctly objected that the engagement of 
the hostile artillery is by no means the main task of artillery, 
and, further, that artillery has in shrapnel its most effective 
weapon against infantry. It is, therefore, uncertain whether 
the movement will be decided in favor of the barrel-recoil gun 
with armor shield. In South Africa the experiences were 
under peculiar conditions and only partial advantage can be 
taken. 

Aside of this question of a new principle for field guns, 
which sooner or later will become a burning one with us also, 
other technical questions receded into the background, as, 
for example, the use of mechanical draft for army vehicles. 
The favorable experiences of the English in the Transvaal 
war with road locomotives has in England already resulted 
in a special department in the war ministry. 

In Germany, also, the trials with automobiles and road 
locomotives have been diligently continued, and especially 
noteworthy must be the competition permitted by the ministry 
of war for making road locomobiles with alcohol burners 
(spiritusheizung) suitable to army needs. 

Wireless telegraphy has made further progress in its use 
for land war, and it seems here the system of Professor Braun, 
as arranged by Siemens and Halske, will have a great future. 
A wagon, constructed after this system, took part in the 
kaiser maneuvers, and succeeded in sending long orders from 
headquarters to the cavalry divisions distant three to four 
German miles, and these in turn could forward reports in this 
manner. 

The distribution of the rifle, M.-'98, with which the expedi- 
tionary corps to China was equipped, and which then was 
given only to the guard corps, has been extended to a number 
of other army corps, so that perhaps this year the entire 
German army will be furnished therewith. 

For the training of the army a number of new regulations 
and orders have been issued, as also for the machine-gun 
detachments and balloon troops. New garrison-service regu- 
lations have brought important changes of garrison service, 
especially of guard duty. New regulations for the adminis- 
tration of troop kitchens give proof of the solicitude of the 
administration for the bodily welfare of the soldiers. 



198 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

Horse-levying regulations control this important business 
and they are made much simpler for the horse owners require; 
to appear by the newly created positions of commissaries o: 
prior horse inspection (pferdevormusterungs-kommissare). 

As highly important may be considered the issuance of the 
new articles of war, as they have been materially simplified, 
conformed to the understanding of soldiers, and better fitt«-': 
than the old to show them their high duties. 

The new naming of a large number of regiments, whu-t 
the emperor decreed on his birthday, is associated happily 
with the old traditions of the army, and not only brings the 
old Prussian provinces, as formerly, into close connection 
with the regiments coming therefrom, but also gives pleasant 
expression to the incorporation of these ancient German 
countries to their mother country and its army by attaching 
the designations of " Lorrainese " and "Upper and Lower 
Alsacian" to the troops there stationed. Thus, also, many 
places, which by degrees fell to Prussia, for instance, the 
countries of Berg and Mansfeld and others, have come to 
existence in the army. 

On the morale of the army for a short time the court-martial 
case in Gumbinnen, last year concluded, seemed to cast a 
shadow ; foreign countries, especially France, believing with 
a certain malignity that it paralleled the notorious Dreyfus 
case. But the proceedings, held in fullest publicity and with 
great impartiality, have shown that it was but an individual 
act of revenge, the authors of which, to the present, have 
eluded the arm of justice, and that in no manner any typical 
conditions existed. Also English papers now believed that 
they could take revenge for the criticisms which the English 
conduct of the war in South Africa received in many ways 
in the German press, and they attacked the German disci- 
pline ; this brought forth the most spirited defense. Abovo 
all, the case at Gumbinnen had furnished the first great test 
of the new court-martial procedure, and this test it has 
splendidly withstood. The perfect administration, especially 
in the last instance, has been acknowledged by high civiliau 
jurists and such parties as are otherwise not friendly to the 
new statute. 

The training of the army during the last year was affected 
by the "Boer attack." This occupied the widest space in 
military literature. A new method of attack was tried also 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 1D9 

on the exercise grounds, then the public press took hold of 
the question; its elucidation was not thereby helped. 

The mere name of Boer attack led to a misunderstanding, 
as most people thought it was a question of how the Boers 
attacked the English. Rather it is to be remembered that the 
Boers, excepting their numerous surprises, seldom attacked, 
and then observed no fixed rule. It would be nearer the fact 
if one designated thereby the manner in which the positions 
of the Boers were attacked by the English ; but also this is 
not yet correct unless one said "the manner in which these 
positions should have been attacked." When the first news 
of the repelled English attacks came, it was regarded as 
a necessary result of the new arms ; it was said to have caused 
enormous losses, and that special means must be found to 
oppose the new arms successfully with smaller losses. This 
was to be obtained by taking advantage of ground cover and 
by advancing gradually with thin skirmish lines. The 
detailed reports, however, showed that the English losses had 
not been so considerable, and failed to reach the German 
losses in their great successful assaults in 1870; that partly 
improper formations had been used, and that in the main 
a disconnected system of attack and lack of energy of leader- 
ship were the principal causes of failure. Soon, therefore, 
a certain reaction came up against the tendency to lighten 
the skirmish lines, and it was recognized that the influence 
of the leaders was rendered thereby more and more difficult. 
The question became not so much "how do I get my skir- 
mishers to the enemy with fewer losses?" but rather "how do 
I get my skirmishers to the enemy in any event?" 

Thus the last kaiser maneuvers, as a matter of fact, almost 
nowhere showed any trace of the much-mentioned Boer 
attack; the dispatches of the press reporters that "the Boers' 
tactics had here proven excellent" was an empty phrase to 
play upon popular credulity. 

In the development of the other arms nothing new has 
appeared. The great cavalry maneuvers led by the emperor 
himself, near Alten Graben, as well as the cavalry attacks 
during the kaiser maneuvers, proved that the German cavalry 
in closed masses, if put to the task of rushing a shaken enemy, 
will be able to ride in a manner worthy of its old fame of 
Mars la Tour. In spite of quick-fire guns and magazine rifles, 
this may occur again. 



200 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The present practice of attaching only three squadrons as 
divisional cavalry will, however, in war probably prove 
insufficient. With the artillery the change of subordination 
which placed it under the superior commanders (kommando- 
behorden) in consequence of its new organization has given 
rise to different ideas about the manner of its employment 
which awaits settlement. 

The intellectual side of the army has been encouraged by 
military literature also during the last year. The general staff 
has led with its numerous war historical and tactical publica- 
tions. It would pass the scope of this retrospective review 
to even approximately mention the abundance of the most 
important publications. 

Finally, as regards our troops in the far Asia, it is to be 
reported that the East- Asiatic garrison brigade twice in the 
last year has been decreased, and at present numbers only 
two regiments of infantry of two three-company battalions, 
one squadron, one battery, and one company of pioneers. 

THE TRANSPORT OF THE EAST- ASIAN EXPEDITIONARY CORPS. 

On July 7, 1900, the emperor gave orders for the forma- 
tion of an expeditionary corps to consist of volunteers from 
the army to be composed of eight battalions of infantry, three 
squadrons of cavalry, four battalions of field artillery with 
the necessary complement of ammunition columns, trans- 
port, etc. 

On July 19, the staff were able to report to the commander 
of the expeditionary corps that the formation of the various 
units was completed, and between July 27 and August 4 the 
expeditionary corps was constituted as follows: 500 officers 
and officials, 10,894 noncommissioned officers and men, 559 
guns and vehicles, 21,294 cubic yards of stores, embarked 
on ten steamers. 

On August 12, 1900, a reenforcement, consisting of 2G9 
officers and officials, 7,430 noncommissioned officers and men, 
303 guns and vehicles, 18,241 cubic yards of stores, was 
formed, and embarked on eight steamers between August 31 
and September 7. 

The transport by sea of such a large body of troops was 
quite a new experience for Germany. Everything had to be 
improvised, as there were no previous preparations nor prece- 
dents to work on. It is true that as an experimental measure 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 201 

it was intended during the imperial maneuvers in 1900 to 
transport a mixed brigade consisting of four battalions, one 
squadron and one battery, from Dantzig to Swimmund, and 
with this idea in view, regulations for the movement of troops 
by sea were about to be framed. However, the sudden turn 
of events in China, and fhe unforeseen necessity of quickly 
dispatching a strong force to that quarter, put an end to all 
experimental measures and necessitated hasty action. 

The arrangements for carrying out the transport were in- 
trusted to both the military and naval authorities and no 
exact data were laid down with regard to their respective 
duties, as it was impossible to distinguish between the two 
interests. 

In order to quickly transport a large force across the sea 
the most important factor is the possession of a good mercan- 
tile marine, and in this respect Germany was fortunate in 
having at its disposal the two largest steamship companies 
in the world, namely, the North German Lloyd and the 
Hamburg- America Packet Company. 

The military and naval authorities, in conjunction with 
representatives from the two companies, made the necessary 
arrangements for the combined transport, and after personal 
inspection agreed to the following conditions. 

The following were the requirements demanded in each 
transport : 

1. The companies had to provide the following accommo- 
dation : 

(a) All field officers and those above that rank and officials 
of corresponding rank, with a completely furnished cabin, 
which was to contain a commodious chest of drawers, pro- 
vided with locks and writing table. 

(b) All other passengers in the first saloon, as far as pos- 
sible, with a completely furnished cabin (eventually three and 
four people had to. share one cabin). 

(c) For second saloon passengers a cabin for every two or 
four and a common mess room. 

(d) The passengers between decks with bunks in a separate 
place between decks, with sufficient portholes and good 
ventilation. 

2. The cabins contained the following : A strong bunk for 
each individual, and, as far as possible, a washstand and camp 
chair for each passenger. The bedding consisted of a horsehair 



202 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1002. 

mattress, a horsehair pillow, two woolen blankets, with linen 
or cotton sheets, a counterpane, and a pillowcase. 

3. For the disposal of valuables, uniforms, etc., each saloon 
passenger was to be provided, as far as possible, with a chest 
and lock ; valuables could be handed over to the paymaster 
for safe custody, on the understanding that the company 
would be responsible for any damage and loss. 

4. All the cabins, etc., in the saloons and between decks 
were to be provided with hot-water pipes. 

5. The men's bunks were to be numbered consecutively. 
For every two bunks two to three hooks were to be provided 
for hanging clothes. 

6. All the bunks not actually required for the accommoda- 
tion of the men were to be removed and tables and forms put 
in their place. In addition, the companies had to provide a 
number of tables and benches for use on deck. All the tables 
between decks were to be numbered consecutively, showing 
also the ship's numbers of the men for whom they were 
intended, for example : 



No. I Mess. 
Nos. 1-12. 



No. II Mess. 
Nos. 13-24. 



The electric lights between decks were to be provided with 
screens to keep the glare from the bunks. 

7. To provide against accidents, broad gangways were to be 
made leading from below to the deck. 

8. Each porthole was to be provided with a scuttle, and at 
each hatchway windsails in the following proportions : 

(a) In the lower troop deck : One windsail for every 200 
cubic meters of space occupied by men; for every 200 to 400 
cubic meters, two windsails ; for every 400 cubic meters, three 
windsails. 

(6) In the upper troop deck: For space up to 300 cubic 
meters occupied by men, one windsail; over 300 cubic meters, 
two windsails. 

9. Arm racks were to be provided in places not occupied by 
the troops and were to be numbered consecutively, and on the 
wall above each rack the contents of each was to be shown, 
as, for example, Nos. 40-57. 

10. Special cabins were to be set apart for the storing of 
•officers' and men's kits. Each officer and man was to be al- 
lowed 3 cubic meters and 1 cubic meter of space, respectively, 
which was to be accessible during the voyage. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 203 

Special spaces were to be set apart as saddle and harness 
rooms, which were also to be accessible during the voyage. 

11. Shelves on the walls over the mess tables for the stor- 
ing of eating utensils, as well as plates, knives, books, etc., 
were to be provided by the companies. 

12. The companies were to provide utensils for the purpose 
of cleaning cooking pots, etc., as well as soap, dishcloths, etc. 

13. There were to be from one to two cabins set apart on 
each steamer for use as offices ; these cabins were to be pro- 
vided with locks. 

14. There was to be a hospital on each ship capable of 
accommodating 2$ per cent, of the troops on board ; a bath- 
room and latrine was to be attached to the hospital. The 
hospitals were to be supplied with heating apparatus, and 
were to be airy and well lighted. There was to be, as far as 
possible, sitting accommodation for non-lying-down patients, 
and also a table in each hospital. 

On the doctor's requisition, all the hospital washing was to 
be done gratis by the ship. 

15. Every precautionary measure was to be taken by the 
companies for the extinction of fire. A sufficient number of 
boats, life buoys (including a night life buoy), and material 
for the construction of rafts was to be provided. Life belts 
were to be supplied for the troops. 

16. The companies were to arrange for one steam launch 
per transport ; the Rhein was to have two. 

17. The upper decks were to be sheltered by awnings, and 
were to be kept free of all baggage or stores. 

18. Clotheslines were to be provided for the purpose of 
drying the men's washing. 

19. Latrines were to be provided in proportion to the 
strength of the troops, and arrangements made to have them 
disinfected and cleaned daily. 

20. Each ship was to be provided with one or two post 
boxes. 

21. Each ship was to have three places specially set apart 
to serve as military prisons. 

In addition to the terms of the contract, there were laid 
down clearly all the details with regard to the interior economy 
of the ship, including the prices of stores, the care of the sick, 
the length of stay at the port of disembarkation, etc. It will 
thus be seen that the troops were to be considered by the 



204 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

ship's authorities solely in the light of passengers. The offi- 
cer commanding the expeditionary corps was also empowered 
to detain any ship, after the troops and stores had been dis- 
embarked, for any such period as he might consider neces- 
sary with regard to the military situation. Every ship was 
to be provisioned for 150 days, and at the end of the voyage 
any surplus provisions were to be at the disposal of the com- 
missariat department. The embarking of stores and materials 
at the port of embarkation had to be arranged for by the com- 
panies, while at the port of disembarkation they were only 
required to provide their steam launches to assist in the 
disembarkation . 

On July 13, 1900, the ministry of war issued the necessary 
detailed orders for the dispatch of the East- Asian expedition- 
ary corps, among which wfc may mention the following : 

1. As it was considered expedient that all the transports 
should sail from one German port, so as to admit of greater 
unity of action in the embarkation arrangements, Bremer- 
haven was selected as the port of embarkation. In coming to 
this decision, as a matter of course, only Bremerhaven and 
Hamburg were taken into consideration, as these were the 
headquarters of the two steamship companies which had to 
make all the necessary arrangements for the fitting up and 
loading of the transports. Of these two ports Bremerhaven 
appeared more suitable than Hamburg, with its enormous 
trade and its extensive docks, not only on account of its more 
compact harbor admitting easier supervision and simplifica- 
tion of the necessary arrangements, but also on account of its 
more complete railway communications, which facilitated the 
transport of troops and stores to any selected wharf or quay, 
and there would also be a lesser crowd of sightseers to inter- 
fere with the progress of work. 

One objection to the selection of Bremerhaven as the one 
port of embarkation was that the resources of the Hamburg- 
American lino as regards dock hands, labor, etc., could not 
be fully utilized ; however the Lloyd Company undertook to 
load the Hamburg steamers by means of its own personnel. 

2.' With regard to the actual embarkation the following 
orders were issued : 

(a) The staff troops, etc., carts, ammunition, as well as all 
the baggage which the troops would require in their imme- 
diate possession, such as officers' kits and men's kits, were to 
go by rail to Bremerhaven. 

(b) All other stores, etc., were to be sent to the Bremer 
Weser railway station and be there shipped onto lighters and 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 205 

sent alongside the transports at Bremerhaven. This impor- 
tant arrangement was at the express wish of the Lloyd Com- 
pany so as to admit of the simultaneous loading of the 
transports from the wharves and from the lighters in the 
short time at their disposal. By this means the ordinary 
traffic was not greatly interfered with ; all possible advantage 
was taken of Bremen's resources as regards labor and store 
sheds, which are lacking in Bremerhaven ; it was also possible 
to make simultaneous use of the cranes on the ships and on 
the wharves. 

With regard to the loading of the transports, from a mili- 
tary point of view, two main principles were laid down: 
Firstly, the complete field equipment of every unit, that is, 
arms, ammunition, uniform, transport, etc., was to be car- 
ried on the same ship as the unit itself, and in addition a 
sufficient supply of stores, etc., to last for some time after 
disembarkation, so that in the event of only one ship being 
unloaded at a time, the unit would be in every way com- 
plete. Secondly, all stores, etc., were to be stowed on each 
ship in the order that they would be required — all reserve 
stores at the bottom of the hold and those that would be first 
required at the top; also all the component parts of dif- 
ferent stores were to be stowed together, and all stores stowed 
together according to the respective units to which they 
belonged. 

This latter principle proved difficult, almost impossible, to 
carry out, owing to the extreme difficulty of separating re- 
serve stores, etc., from other stores before embarkation; 
therefore the military authorities decided to send all the 
heavy baggage not apportioned to any particular unit, such 
as reserve provisions, etc., to Bremen. 

The authorities came to this decision because it was found 
impossible in the short time available to stow everything 
systematically and in the order that it would be required, 
and without also sacrificing a great amount of space. The 
stores, etc., would also, in any case, require to be sorted at 
the port of disembarkation, and therefore the advantages 
gained by shipping them in lighters to Bremen appeared 
dubious. 

However, in order to insure the troops having their mpst 
important necessaries immediately at hand, both, during the 
voyage and on disembarkation, it was decided that the officers' 
baggage and men's kits were to accompany the troops to 



206 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Bremerhaven, and that all other stores, such as ammunition, 
medicine chests, and hospital carts, were to be stowed on 
board immediately, and where every access would be had to 
them. 

3. In order to facilitate the loading and unloading of the 
transports, all stores were to denote what ship and what corps 
they were destined for, and also the contents of all packed 
stores were to be noted on the outside. 

4. Depots were formed at Bremen and Bremerhaven, each 
under the command of a railway commandant, with a staff of 
officers, officials, and men, where all the stores, baggage, etc., 
arriving by train were stacked and arranged. 

The Bremen depot included the railway-station staff, a col- 
lecting station, a clothing depot and goods depot, and in 
addition a depot where all gifts intended for the troops were 
collected. 

The Bremerhaven depot included the railway-station staff, 
an ammunition and a goods depot. These depots had the 
same duties in connection with them as they would have on 
mobilization. 

An embarking staff was formed at Bremerhaven, the senior 
officer of which had charge of the embarkation of troops. 

The regulations with regard to the distribution of the 
troops were embodied in the "plan for the embarkation of 
the East- Asian expeditionary corps," which was made use of, 
in slightly altered form, for the second dispatch of troops. 
The number of first, second, and third class passengers that 
each transport had to carry was fixed beforehand. Owing to 
the long voyage through the tropics, the hardships of which 
our troops were unaccustomed to, and the necessity of dis- 
embarking the expeditionary corps in the best possible health, 
the troop decks were only to accommodate 75 per cent of 
their normal complement, which proved a very wise precau- 
tion. The distribution of the troops presented many diffi- 
culties, as the different units and their equipment stores had 
to be together absolutely, and the steamers were not con- 
structed to meet this contingency. It thus happened that 
some ships had plenty of accommodation for the men hut 
very few cabins and others had plenty-of cabins but very 
little space between decks, while some were cargo ships and 
had comparatively small accommodation for passengers. 

It is not intended to imply that the companies supplied 
inferior or unsuitable ships as transports ; on the contrary, 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 207 

tlie ships were excellent, perhaps better than ever provided 
for this purpose before, but owing to the suddenness of the 
demand and the large number required, it was impossible to 
have a large choice, and those ships had to be taken which 
happened to be in port. As a consequence, extensive altera- 
tions and fittings had to be made, such as the construction of 
cold stores for fresh provisions, gangways, the laying down 
of electric light and hot-water pipes, etc. By means of such 
alterations it was proved that any good ship can be con- 
verted into an efficient transport. 

Three fast ships were selected to sail first and left on the 
27th of July with the following troops, etc., on board: 
Staff of first infantry brigade. 
First infantry regiment. 

Staff and two squadrons of cavalry (as the horses were 
being dispatched direct to China from America and 
Australia and would arrive there before the troops, it 
was especially desirable that the latter should arrive 
as early as possible). 
Second section of the field artillery regiment — a battery 
of heavy field howitzers (whose early arrival enabled 
it to take part in the storming of the Peitang forts). 
Detachment of the telegraph corps. 
Field hospitals 1-4. 
The officer to command on the lines of communications and 
all the "technical" troops went by the first ship in order to be 
able to assist in the disembarkation arrangements. An 
advance party consisting of 21 officers, officials, etc., and 120 
men, had left Genoa on the 24th of July in order to make the 
primary arrangements. 

The commander of the expeditionary corps, whose early 
arrival on the scene of operations was very desirable, could 
not leave for very important reasons until the 2d of August, 
but the Rhein, which steams 13 knots and on which he trav- 
eled, did the journey in the shortest possible time by avoiding 
all unnecessary delays at the intermediate ports. 

The embarking officers and their staffs started on their work 
in Bremen on the J2th of July. Their duties consisted in 
sorting all the baggage and seeing that it was properly 
packed and labeled ; badly packed things had to be repacked 
and those incorrectly labeled had to be put right. All the 
baggage had then to be shipped ontp the different lighters 



208 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1908. 

and dispatched in good time to their respective ships in 
Bremerhaven. Some idea of the extent of the work that was 
done may be judged from the fact that between the 12th and 
30th of July 7,270 tons of stores, etc., arrived at the Weser 
railway station in 1,419 trucks. 

The railway-station staff at Bremerhaven had similarly u> 
transport all the carts, ammunition, etc., alongside the quay. 
The arrangements for loading were rendered all the more 
difficult on account of the fact that all available space Tiad to 
be utilized in order to stow away all the stores, etc. As much 
heavy baggage as possible was to be stowed away in the 
hold, and at the same time sufficient space was to be left for 
the transport, tents, stores, etc., which were to accompany 
the several units, and the space required for these latter could 
only be approximately estimated. 

As far as possible all stores, etc., were brought alongside 
the steamers in the order that they would be stowed on board, 
but this measure was only partly a success, as in many cases 
there was not room for them and they had to go on the next 
steamer. 

The difficulty of loading was very much increased by rainy 
weather, and also by the late arrival of a number of the ships. 
Originally the 1st of August had been fixed as the first day of 
sailing, and the companies had made their arrangements ac- 
cordingly, and when all the dates of sailing were altered to five 
days earlier it was in many cases too late to alter the original 
plans. In some cases ships had only two days in which t<> 
unload their original cargo, make the necessary fittings for 
the transport of troops, and to load up. The embarkation or* 
the troops was carried out under the direction of officers of the 
headquarters staff. As soon as each train drew up on the 
platform in front of the ship all the companies were formal 
up and each man was given a number showing the number of 
his bunk and his armrack. The men were then marched on 
board and the packs stowed in their bunks and the rifles in 
the armracks. In the meantime a party of marines unloaded 
the train, and all the remaining officers' and men's kits were 
laid out on the quay. Each man then searched for his own 
kit bag and took it on board and stowed it away. The em- 
barkation of a battalion took on an average from an hour to 
an hour and a half. 

On the whole, it may be said that the transport arrange- 
ments for the expedition were satisfactory. The health of 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 209 

the troops during the forty-eight days' voyage through the 
tropics in the hottest time of the year was excellent. There 
were only seven deaths en route, namely : 

Two from sunstroke. 

One from peritoneal inflammation. 

One from apoplexy. 

One from fracture of the skull. 

Two from alcoholism. 
—Journal United Service Institution of India, April, 1902. 

ARMAMENT, EQUIPMENT, AND CLOTHING OF THE GERMAN 
EXPEDITIONARY CORPS. 

Lieut. Col. Bernhard von Haine published lately in the 
Berliner Kreuz-Zeitung his remarks on the German troops in 
China. The expeditionary corps was armed with the newest 
models of rifles, guns, carbines, and lances. Colonel von 
Haine observes that the length of the bayonet of the infantry 
rifle was not always proportionate to the solidity and dura- 
bility of the fixing device. He states that in case of a hand- 
to-hand fight the men seem disposed to use the butt to a great 
extent, and that the stock is not strong enough for this. In 
many instances the small-caliber bullets, though hitting vital 
parts of the body, did not place the wounded immediately 
hors de combat. The lance was feared most by the enemy. 
Since the small flags attached to the lances may be seen in the 
field from afar it would be advisable to take them off before 
combat. 

The greatest need was felt in cooking apparatus on wheels in 
which the food could be cooked while on the march, especially 
as the water was not drinkable when not boiled. Part of tho 
Russian troops were furnished with such cooking vehicles, in 
which the food of a company was being prepared on the march 
and which could also supply the troops with fresh boiled 
water. The advantages of this system are apparent and it is 
worthy of imitation. The men get warm food immediately 
upon arriving into bivouac. The food by this method is bet- 
ter prepared than that which each individual soldier prepares 
for himself and consequently more wholesome. Much time is 
thus gained for the rest of the individual soldier, which influ- 
ences favorably the efficiency of the whole. The distribution 
of provisions and condiments among the individuals is thus 
dispensed with. 



210 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The expeditionary corps was equipped with helmet, field 
cap, cloth uniform, coat, high boots, and laced shoes. Each man 
was, moreover, equipped for the sojourn in the hot zone with a 
yellowish-green drill uniform and a straw hat. After the fir*t 
laundering this yellowish-green became a color which was any- 
thing but attractive, and the straw hat did not give any protec- 
tion against the rays of the sun nor the rain, not to mention that 
this head wear gave the troops not only a far less attractive 
but even a nonmilitary aspect, it did not fulfill its purpose in 
any way. The bine color of the cloth uniform was also un- 
practical. Dust, grease, and dirt soon made this uniform look 
very shabby, too. The gray-green color of the mounted troops' 
uniform is far more practical. The shoes of the men are lib- 
wise not to the purpose. The uppers are far too short to pro- 
tect the feet from dust and dirt. When this boot has been 
wet through it is very hard to put on. When the blacking 
or polish is not at hand, the shoes soon take a most offensive 
aspect. The most practical foot gear is a strong shoe of 
natural yellow color fastened at the ankle by buckles. The 
leg is best protected by puttees of flannel which are easily 
cleaned and dried. All leather ought likewise to be of natural 
yellow color. Taken all in all, the uniform, which renders 
the German army so conspicuous in Europe and distinguishes 
it among all other armies and which is so essential a means 
in the training of the individual man, was not only the least 
attractive, but also the least practical of all. — Die Uniform, 
May, 1002. 

MACIT1XK-GUN DETACHMENT. 

On October 1 a machine-gun detachment was assigned to the 
first Bavarian army corps. Before that time the " abtheilung" 
had been assembled on the great exercise ground of LechfeM 
and taken a preliminary course of training. It takes station 
at Augsburg and is composed of men taken from the infantry, 
cavalry, and field artillery in the strength of 1 captain, 1 first 
lieutenant, 2 second lieutenants, and 1 2 noncommissioned offi- 
cers, 65 men and 54 horses with G machine guns, 83 (sic) 
ammunition wagons, and 4 administration wagons. 

They wear the Jager uniform with Roman figure, on the 
epaulets and shoulder straps. The detachment does not at 
present receive its own recruits, but will be attached for train- 
ing to the third battalion of the third infantry regiment.— 
Ueberal, Xo. 4- 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 211 

MOBILIZATION FROM A FINANCIAL STANDPOINT. 

THE MILITARY PRINCIPLES — ARMED FORCES IX WAR. 

The military principles of mobilization rest first upon the 
numerical determination of the forces for war, that is, upon 
the war strength of land and naval forces. This war strength 
is developed by the constitution of the army. 

The strength and distribution of the active army and fleet, 
which form the frame for war formations, and the reserve of 
the land and naval forces are important for these. The latter 
eomx>rises in a larger sense military service in the active army 
and fleet and of the men on furlough, and in a narrower sense 
the recruiting of the land and naval forces by themselves. 

Regulations with regard to the armed strength and the 
composition of the German army and fleet are determined by 
the following laws : 

The law of November 9, 1867 (law of military service) ; of 
May 2, 1874 (imperial military law) ; February 15, 1875 (law 
of control); May 6, 1880 (additions and modifications of the 
latter), March 31, 1885 (modifications as in the former) ; Feb- 
ruary 11, 1888 (changes in military service); January 27, 1890 
(modifications of the imperial military law); July 15, 1890 
(effective strength on peace footing) ; May 26, 1893 (distribu- 
tion of reserves), August 3, 1893 (effective strength on peace 
footing) ; March 25, 1899 (effective strength on peace footing) ; 
orders for the fleet of April 10, 1898, and June 14, 1900. 

The armed strength consists of the army, the navy, and the 
landsturm. 

The army is divided into (1) the standing army, (2) the 
landwehr ; the navy into (1) the fleet and (2) the naval reserve. 
Each German capable of carrying arms is, as a rule, from 
the time he completes his twentieth year until March 31 of the 
year on which he completes his thirty-ninth year, underobli- 
tration to serve in the army or navy. For men obligated to 
*'rve in the army who have entered it before they are 20 years 
of age, the obligation expires on March 31 of the year in 
which he completes six years' service in the second ban of the 
landwehr. 

The obligatory service in the army (or navy) is subdivided 
as follows : 

(a) Active Army and (6) Reserve.— Service in the active 
army (or fleet), seven years. The active service — service with 



212 N0TE8 OF MILITARY INTKRE8T FOB 1908. 

the colors — lasts, according to the law of August 3, 1893, in 
the standing army, for cavalry and mounted artillery, three 
years, for all the remaining privates, two years. 

(c) Landwehr (or Naval Reserve). — First ban, five 
years ; second ban, 7 years ; in all, twelve years. The privates 
of foot troops, horse artillery and train, the volunteers, the 
privates of cavalry and mounted artillery who have served 
three years in the standing army, serve in the first ban of the 
landwehr only three years. 

(d) "Ersatz " Reserve. — Twelve years. The " ersatz" re- 
serve serves for the recruitment of the army (or navy) in time 
of mobilization and for the formation of "ersatz" troop units. 
It is composed of persons who have drawn high numbers or 
who are physically unfit to be incorporated into the standing 
army, but who may be fit for service in the future. After the 
expiration of twelve years' service in the "ersatz," those who 
have been trained enter the second ban of the landwehr and 
the remainder the first ban of the landsturm. 

The obligation of taking part in exercises lasts during serv- 
ice in the reserve, the landwehr of the first ban, and the 
"ersatz" reserve. 

(e) Service in the Landsturm. — The landsturm consists 
of all men under military obligation, beginning with seven- 
teen years completed and ending with the forty-fifth year 
completed, and who do not belong either to the army or 
navy ; it is divided into two bans. The men belong to the 
first ban until March 31 of the year in which they complete 
their thirty-ninth year, and to tho second ban from the above- 
mentioned period until the end of landsturm service. 

The landsturm is under obligation, according to Article II. 
section 23, of the law of February 11, 1888, to take part in tV 
defense of the country in case of war. In extraordinary 
cases it may be called to complete the army and navy. 

(/) One-year Volunteers. — According to article 11 ■»? 
the law on military service, educated young men, who fur- 
nish their own clothing, equipment, and subsistence, ami 
who have given proof of knowledge obtained according t* 
regulations, may be entered into the reserve after one year's 
service. They may, according to capacities and qualifica- 
tions, be proposed for posts of reserve and landwehr officers. 
The officers of the reserve may, throughout the duration of 
their service in the reserve, be called to four to eight weeks' 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 213 

exercises three times. The officers of the landwehr are called 
only to the line exercises of their troops and to exercises nec- 
essary for promotion examinations. In time of war officers 
of the landwehr may be appointed to the regular army in 
ease of need. 

"With regard to the effective peace strength of the German 
army, it has developed gradually, so that from October 1, 
1899, the effective strength of the enlisted' men (with the 
exception of the one-year volunteers) will gradually be in- 
creased so as to reach 495,500 men in 1903, and this number 
will be kept up until March 31, 1904. According to statistical 
reports for 1900, the effective strength for that year is the 
following : 

Effective strength of the German army. 

Officers i 28,850 

Noncommissioned officers 80, 556 

Enlisted men 491,186 

Surgeons and officials ' 4,974 

One-year volunteers 10,000 

Total 610,516 

Horses 102,929 

Guns drawn by horses 2,822 

Ammunition wagons drawn by horses 71 

Effective strength of the German navy. 

Officers, surgeons, and paymasters 1,458 

Aspirants to naval officers 425 

Warrant officers, noncommissioned officers, sailors, 

cabin boys, etc 26, 443 

Total 28,326 

Warships 97 

The combined strength of the army and navy for 1900 
amounts to 638,842 men, about 1*14 per cent of the whole 
population of 56,000,000. 

It must be remarked that all mobilization affairs are kept, 
in Germany, in the strictest secrecy. The information given 
by authors must consequently be accepted with great dis- 
crimination. 

Information is given in the reports of the war administra- 
tion with regard to the effective strength of the neighboring 



214 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

states. Thus in the report of 1892-93 on the project of a lav, 
the effective strength of France and Russia is calculated by 
means of multiplying the annual number of recruits hy the 
number of the service years and by deducting therefrom 
25 per cent for various losses during the year. The quota vi 
recruits for Prance was given at 230,000 men for 1890. Thus 
the number of trained men according to twenty-five years, 
that is, the number of service years according to law of Ju'.r 
15, 1889, amounted for the end of 1914 to 4,053,000 men. 
This is an effective strength which does not yet exist. How- 
ever, a sharp-sighted administration must take account of such 
circumstances because the time of its reaching that point is 
relatively not so far away. 

Moreover, this calculation has been made without taking 
into consideration the increase of the men capable of carrying 
arms as based upon the increase of the population. 

(This, however, if things remain as they are, could not refer 
to France.) 

The above-mentioned method of calculation may also be 
applied to Germany. According to statistical data for 190».», 
page 175, table 5, of "Die Herkunft und Schulbildung der 
im Ersatz jahr 1898 eingestellten Rekruten," their number 
amounts to 252,464. 

Adding to these 252,464 men the 8,000 one-year volunteers 
of the North-German land army, we get a yearly contingent 
of 260,500 men. 

According to this, within twenty-five years (seven years in 
the standing army, twelve years in the landwehr, and six 
years in the landsturm), that is, toward the end of 1922, the 
number of trained men for Germany will amount to — 

25 X 260,500 = 6,512,500 
— 25 per cent for losses = 1,628,125 

There remain, in round numbers, 4,884,000 men. 

To this enormous mass of trained German fighters must k 
added new masses of " ersatz" reserves and persons who hav«» 
been assigned to the first ban of the landsturm (less fit). 
There must be counted, moreover, three years of the land- 
sturm (17, 18, and 19 year old men), as the landsturm cou- 
sists of all men capable of carrying arms, beginning with !• 
years and ending with 45 years of age, and who belong neither 
to the army nor the fleet. Taking as a basis the figures ^ 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 215 

the year 1898, without calculating the increase of the popula- 
tion, ^we obtain, according to the above-mentioned report for 
10OO: 

(a) "Ersatz" Reserves (Fit for Service in the Fu- 
ture). — In 1898 there were in the "ersatz" reserve 87,700 
men. 

After twelve years' service in the "ersatz" reserve, those 
who are trained are incorporated in the second ban of the 
landwehr and the remainder into the first ban of the land- 
sturm. Their total duration of service ends as that of the 
other men with their completed forty-fifth year of age, and 
lasts, consequently, twenty-five years. 
In these twenty-five years are comprised : 

25X87,700 = 2,192,500 

— 25 per cent for losses = 548, 125 

There remain, in round numbers, 1, 644, 000 

(6) First Ban of the Landsturm (Less Fit).— According 
to the statistics for 1898 the number for this year amounts to 
110,000 men. 

With obligatory service of twenty-five years, there will be 

at the end of that period : 

25X110,000 = 2,750,000 

— 25 per cent for losses = 687, 500 

There remain, in round numbers, 2, 002, 000 

(c) Landsturm Men of the First Three Years. — Their 
number can be given only approximately and indirectly. 

According to the Statistical Annual for the German empire 
for 1900, page 3, the male population was fixed on December 
1,1890, at: 

Between the ages of 18 and 20 870,869 

Between the ages of 20 and 21 _ 450,034 

Total .' 1,320,903 

The total population of Germany amounted to 49,000,000 
in 1890, and has increased to 54,000,000 in 1898, that is, 10 
per cent. It is, consequently, permissible to increase the 
above-mentioned number of 1,320,903 by 10 per cent, and wo 
obtain for the year 1898: 1,320,903 + 130,090 = 1,450,993. 

Their increase ( an not be calculated from 1898 to 1920 by 
years, as for the "ersatz" reserves and those forming the first 
ban of the landsturm. They fall under the law of the general 
increase of the population. Since the population of Germany 



210 NOTE8 OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1908. 

amounted in 1900 to 66,000,000, the increase lately, if further 
development is not impaired some way or other, shows that 
the population increases in ten years by 9,000,000, and Ger- 
many would have thus in 1922 a population of 76,000,000. 
This would show between the years 1898 and 1922 an increase 
of from 76,000,000— 54,000,000 = 22,000,000, or 41 percent. 
Consequently the men liable to military service in the land- 
sturm for the three first years will be subject likewise to an 
increase of 41 per cent, and in twenty-five years, that is, in 

1922, amount to: 

1,452,998 + 595,780 = 2,048,728 
To be deducted: 

Undiscovered ones, such as have remained 
away without excuse, such as have been 
excluded, and those mustered out, 16 per 

cent in round numbers 827,795 

Those who have voluntarily entered the 
army before reaching the regulation age 
(number of the one-and more year volun- 
teers almost doubled since 1898) 66, 000 

Total to be deducted 898,795 

Total remaining 1,655,000 

The three posts of (a), (6), and (c) give: (a) 1,644,000, 
{b) 2,062,000, (c) 1,G55,000, a total of 5,361,000 of partly 
trained, for tho greater part entirely untrained, but mostly 
very fit men who form a powerful source of supply for the 
defense of the country. 

Adding to these the completely trained contingents, there 
will be 4,8S4,000 completely trained, and 5,361,000 for the 
greater part untrained men, a total of 10,245,000 men availa- 
ble for Germany at the end .of 1922 in case of war. This 
amount makes up 13.5 per cent of the total population calcu- 
lated for 1922 of 76,000,000, and 27 per cent of the 38,000,000 
of male population approximately calculated for that year. 
For the population of 1900 of 56,000,000 in round numbers, 
among them 27,500,000 of male population, this would make 
18 per cent and 37 per cent. 

With regard to the officers, their need will be quite extraor- 
dinary at the time of mobilization. 

According to Von LobelPs Reports, XXIV Year, Part lst^ 
Berlin, 1899, page 41, the extra number of officers was calcu- 
lated for 1874 at 12,000, and this number has greatly 
increased since. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. ' 217 

Only a comparatively small number may be covered by 
oalling to active service officers at the disposal of the govern- 
ment (zur disposition) and of those on the retired list. The 
remaining posts are filled by officers on furlough (beurlaubten- 
stand) — reserve and landwehr officers. These officers are 
mostly taken from the one-year volunteers and other men 
^vho leave active service with qualifications of reserve officers 
and enter the furloughed class (beurlaubtenstand). 

In order to get an idea of the number of officers, health 
officers, and officials necessary, the following may be taken 
into consideration. 

The number of officers, surgeons, and officials on peace 
footing for 1900 amounted to : 

Land army 28,824 

Marine 1,883 

Total 80,707 

The budgetary strength for enlisted men on peace footing 
(including the one-year volunteers) was in 1900: 

Land army 581,692 

Navy 26,443 

Total 608,185 

Thus, in round numbers, there are 20 men falling to each 
officer, surgeon, etc. 

According to the publication of the military historical 
division of the great general staff, Berlin, 1874, Appendix 197, 
page 865, "The German-French war, 1870-71," the combined 
strength of the German officers, surgeons, and officials 
amounted to : 

(a) Snch as had passed the French frontier 88,101 

(o) Such as belonged to the army and remained at 

home 9,819 

Total 42,420 

Thus, in round numbers, there were 35 men falling to each 
officer, surgeon, etc. 

Should this number likewise be adopted for the future 
wars, there would be necessary : (a) For the trained enlisted 
men, 4,884,000 -4- 35 — in round numbers 139,000 officers, sur- 
geons, etc. ; (6) for the whole possible contingent, 10,245,000 ■+■ 
35 = in round numbers 293,000 officers, surgeons, etc. 



218 XOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

According to the latest rolls the number of officers, sur- 
geons, etc., in the German reserve and landwehr, in round 
numbers, amounts to 37,400 (army and nary). 

Adding to these the above-mentioned number of officers 
on active duty of 30,707 we get, in round numbers, 68,000 
officers, surgeons, and officials. 

FUNDAMENTAL FIGURES AND COMPUTATION OF THE COST OF A FUTURE WAR 
PER DAT, PER MONTH, AND PER TEAR. 

The following elements are to be considered for a future 
war: 

(a) The effective strength of the armed forces. 
(6) The first cost of mobilization. 

(c) The means for actual warfare. 

(d) The payment of war damages and military operations. 

(e) The assistauce of families of men who have entered 

the service. 

The ordinary cost of war, as computed according to data of 
the Franco-Prussian war, amounts to 6,330,000 marks per 
day, or 5 marks per man per day. 

Further figures of 2,700,000,000 marks = 11,000,000 marks 
daily in round numbers and of 8.80 marks per man include all 
cost of warfare. 

All these figures are taken from the Franco-Prussian war. 

For the computation of the prospective cost of a future war 
the figures of ordinary war expenditure seem too small and 
those of the total expenditure too high. 

At the breaking out of war the law of June 13, 1873, and 
that of February 28, 1S88, with regard to the aid of families 
of the men entering the service, come into force. 

To the ordinary war expenditure of Germany during the 
Franco-Prussian war should be added the numbers given by 
Wagner for reserve and landwehr, the payment of war 
damages and military operations, as far as these are not- 
included in the military expenditure proper, thus obtaining 
14,800,000 thalers in round numbers, or 44,400,000 marks. 

To this should be added natural requisitions in France until 
the conclusion of peace to the amount of 150,000,000 mark?. 
as it can not be calculated if, and how, the German troops will 
be able to live on the enemy in a future war. All other 
elements can not be determined in advance and are not 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 219 

available at the breaking out of war. It should be considered 
according to this : 

Marks. 

Ordinary war expenditure 1,551,000,000 

Additional expenditure - 44,400,000 

War requisitions in the hostile country 150, 000, 000 

Total 1,745,400,000 

According to this the total expenditure per day amounts to 
7,120,000 marks or 5.70 marks per man per day. 

Adding to this for unforeseen expenditure 0.30 mark per 
day, a daily expenditure of 375,000 marks, the daily expend- 
iture per man will amount to 6 marks. 

As the above-mentioned figures, prove the German empire 
can assemble with the colors (in 1922) in case of a future war: 

Completely trained men 4,884,000 

Mostly untraine men 5,361,000 

Total 10,245,000 

there arises the question if Germany will ever have to mobilize 
these important figures. 

Will it be possible to train these masses for war, to provide 
them with commanders, to systematically divide them among 
the units, to transport, to lead them, and to furnish them 
with the necessary means of subsistence, etc.? 

These are questions which can be only partly answered and 
determined. 

One thing is certain, and that is, that the Germans have to 
be prepared to wage war against two opposite fronts and that 
they will have to count upon their own forces only. Should 
this happen it would be necessary that all those who can carry 
arms should hasten to the colors ; for as it is quite improb- 
able that the whole force should be at once required, yet the 
empire ought, as soon as possible, to create as large a source 
of supply as could be formed, for new formations as well as 
for the completion of those drawn in the beginning and which 
will have suffered losses. 

It must not be forgotten that several weeks at least will be 
needed for a most superficial training. 

During this relatively short period, as shown by the ex- 
periences of the campaign of 1870-71, large operations will 
be already in full swing. 

At any rate it will not be possible to avoid a simultaneous 
call to arms of all available masses. Financial considerations 



220 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

would have to be immediately considered. Thus, in a future 
war, there would arise for Germany the necessity of disbursing: 

6 X 10,245,000 = 01,500,000 marks per day. 
80 X 61,500,000= 1,845,000,000 marks per month. 
12 X 1,845,000,000 = 22,000,000,000 marks per year. 

~i is not possible to foresee how long the need of such ex- 
penditure will last. 

The general opinion is that continental European wars can 
not be of long duration. It is supposed that the modern civi- 
lized nations will not be able to bear for a long period the cost 
of modern war operations. — Die finanzieUe MobUmachung 
der deutschen Wehrkraft. By CoL Joseph van Renauld. 
Leipzig 1901. 

NEW FORMATIONS IN THE ARMY. 

There will be created in Prussia for October 1, 1902: 

1. Seven sections of machine guns: One guard, attached to 
the rifles' battalion (Schiitzen) ; two in the first corps, attached 
to the forty-fourth and one hundred and forty-sixth infantry 
regiments ; one in the third corps, attached to the third bat- 
talion of chasseurs ; two in the fourteenth corps, attached to 
the fourteenth and eighth battalions of chasseurs. The twelve 
sections belonging to the Prussian army will be distributed 
as follows : Two to the guard, three to the first corps, one to 
the third, one to the sixth, two to the fourteenth, two to the 
fifteenth, and one to the seventeenth. The personnel of the 
five sections which existed formerly has been increased and 
brought to the same strength as that of the newly created 
sections: 1 captain, 3 lieutenants or second lieutenants, 12 
noncommissioned officers, 1 a farrier and 1 an armorer, 1 
bugler, and 63 privates, including 1 workman, 1 noncommis- 
sioned officer or reenlisted man of the sanitary corps, 54 
horses, including 18 saddle horses, 3 of which are for the 
lieutenants or second lieutenants. Each section comprises 6 
machine guns, 2 caissons, 1 baggage wagon, drawn by 4 horses 
each. 

2. Six companies of foot artillery grouped by twos under 
the orders of a field officer and attached to the foot artillery 
regiments Nos. 1, 11, and 8. These groups will be garrisoned 
at Feste, Boyen, Marienburg, and Thionville, and the company 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 221 

of foot artillery of the eighth regiment, stationed in the latter, 
will go to Metz. 

In Saxony : 

One squadron of mounted chasseurs (meldereiters), attached 
to the nineteenth corps; the number of such squadrons for 
Germany has been increased to 17. 

The law, March 25, 1899, completed its execution by the 
creation of this squadron. 

In Bavaria: 

A section of machine guns, almost of the same composition 
as that of the Prussian, attached to the first battalion of infan- 
try. It is projected to create two new sections in 1903 for the 
purpose of attaching one to each of the three Bavarian army 
corps. — Bulletin de la Presse et de la Bibliographic Militaire, 
September SO, 1002. 

THE MAUSER AUTOMATIC PISTOL. 

Professors Cranz and Koch, of the technical high school at 
Stuttgart, have recently been making exhaustive experiments, 
by the aid of photography, into the behavior of the Mauser 
automatic pistol during the action of firing. No fewer than 
fourteen separate photographs were taken in the time elaps- 
ing between the fall of the hammer and the arrival of the 
projectile at a point 78 inches in advance of the muzzle, and 
from these photographs the learned professors have obtained 
data which may prove of some assistance to designers of auto- 
matic arms. It was discovered that at the moment when the 
base of the bullet was clear of the muzzle there was an escape 
of powder gas at the rear end of the barrel. This could not 
arise from the opening of the breechblock, since at that 
moment the recoil of barrel and breech backwards was only 
0.033 inch, whereas the unlocking of barrel and breechblock 
does not take place until they have recoiled about 0.1875 
inch. It would, in fact, be due to incomplete obturation, 
and would not necessarily be dangerous or practically detri- 
mental to the ballistics of the weapon. The muzzle velocity 
of the Mauser is 1,400 f. s., and these photographs demon- 
strated that the backward motion of the breechblock in 
recoil is about 19.7 f. s., the entire distance traveled being 
about 2± inches, of which all but the first T \ inch is made 



222 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

after the separation of barrel and breech. The return move- 
ment is at the rate of 7.5 f. s. until the breechblock encoun- 
ters the new cartridge, when it, of course, diminishes in rapid 
gradation. It was found that the actual time elapsing from 
the beginning of the recoil until the breechblock was at rest 
again, ready for the second shot, was only from 0.4G toO.09 
of a second, altogether beyond the utmost capabilities of a 
marksman to respond with a triggerpull. In addition to 
showing the behavior of the pistol, these photographs re- 
vealed some phenomemrwhich took place after the bullet left 
the muzzle. Among others, there was an escape of powder 
tfases past the bullet before it filled the grooves of the rifling, 
and the photographs further showed that after leaving the 
pistol the ballet was overtaken and surrounded by the powder 
gases until it had traveled 15 inches. This phenomenon is 
already well known, and was reported on several years ago. 
Other data with regard to the ejecta, in the shape of uncon- 
sumed powder, were also to be gleaned from the experiments, 
which seem to have been of a most painstaking and interest- 
ing nature. — Arms and Explosives, October, 1902. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 
REORGANIZATION OF THE BRITISH ARMY. 

[t'oMIMI KU K\ M.\.l. K. A. Kt»WAKI>S, Tw KNT\ -Til I Kl) INKAXTIO.] 

Activity and progress in every branch of the British mili- 
tary service has been the rule during the year 1902, in carrying 
out plans for army reform outlined by Mr. Brodrick in 1901. 

ARMY CORPS. 

An elaborate special order issued March 4, 1902, designed 
to give effect to the army corps scheme, deals with the area 
of commands, the distribution of the troops, numbers and 
duties of staff and departmental officers, and the relations 
between army headquarters and general officers exercising 
command. A revision of the order relating to methods of 
administration, defining more clearly the duties of all con- 
cerned, was approved by the secretary" of state for war in 
October, 1902. 

The order fulfills the promise of reform made by Mr. Brod- 
rick in 1901, in the matter of decentralization, by givinir a 



-MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 223 

larger measure of authority to the corps commanders on 
points connected with military discipline and financial ex- 
penditures in their respective commands. 

The army corps system is now firmly established and is 
regarded as the bed rock of the army scheme. Barracks are 
being built and training grounds obtained in every district. 
They have also the commanders, the troops, including the 
various proportions of the auxiliary forces, stores, transporta- 
tion, etc., for each district. 

The commanders of the first, second, and third corps have 
been designated and a system of staff administration arranged. 
The first three corps will each have two colonels on the staff, 
a director of supplies„and a director of transport, respectively, 
while in the fourth, fifth, and sixth corjis one colonel on the 
staff, called the director of supply and transport, will super- 
vise the duties of both branches. These officers will be 
stationed at the headquarters of the corps, will take instruc- 
tions from the chief of staff in each corps, will be the advisers 
of the commanding general, and the medium of communica- 
tion on matters relating to supply, transport, and barrack 
service, within the army corps area. 

The active administration of the duties of supply, transport, 
and barrack services in the different districts of the army 
corps territory will be carried on by the officer commanding 
the army service corps, who will be responsible that the 
regulations are strictly complied with. In local matters he 
will be the adviser of the commanding general, the medium 
of communication on matters relating to his department, and 
will also command the personnel of the army service corps 
within the district. Senior officers of the army service corps 
have been selected to perform these duties in the different 
corps. 

The first army corps, which is intended to be composed of 
troops mobilized for immediate service, with headquarters at 
Aklershot, consists of three infantry divisions, a brigade of 
cavalry and certain corps troops. The divisions are made up 
of two brigades of infantry, each of four battalions of eight 
companies, and the following divisional troops: a squadron 
of cavalry, two brigade divisions of artillery, an ammunition 
column, a field company of engineers, a company of the 
army service corps, and a field hospital. 



224 NOTES OF MILITARY INTKRK8T FOR 1902. 

The cavalry brigade will be composed of three cavalry 
regiments, a battery of horse artillery, an ammunition column, 
a field troop of engineers, a company of army service corps, 
a bearer company, and a field hospital. 

The corps troops will be a regiment of cavalry, a brigade 
division each of horse and field artillery, a field company of 
engineers, field park, telegraph, pontoon, balloon and railway 
units, a battalion of foot guards, army service corps supply 
column, field bakery, etc., and a field hospital. 

The second army corps, with headquarters at Salisbury 
Plain, has had assigned to it for duty the various general 
staff officers, aids, and officers of the supply and transport 
departments, and a corps order recently issued shows the 
artillery, engineer, and army service corps units duly posted 
to brigades, divisions, etc. 

In the. southern (Salisbury) command, consisting of the 
second army corps and the second cavalry brigade, are 
included the fortresses of Portsmouth, Plymouth, Portland, 
Milford Haven, and Dover, and the defended ports of Fal- 
mouth, the Scilly Isles, Newhaven, Bristol, Cardiff, and 
Swansea. 

The third army corps, with headquarters at Dublin, con- 
sists of the troops stationed in Ireland. The only fort is at 
Cork — Berehaven, Lough S willy, Belfast, and Dublin being 
defended ports. 

The formation of the fourth, fifth, and sixth army corps 
under the new organization will be commenced on January 1, 
1903. 

To the eastern command, the fourth army corps and the 
household cavalry brigade are allotted. The Thames and 
Medway approaches are classed as fortresses. The defenses 
of London have recently been strengthened by the mounting 
of several new batteries on elevated positions commanding the 
principal roads between London and the south coast, and au 
expenditure of £5,000 has been authorized for the construc- 
tion of a mobilization center at Woldingham, Surrey, as a 
part of the scheme of defense. 

The headquarters of the fourth army corps, originally fixed 
at Colchester, has been changed to London, as being more 
central, and the London Times of December 2S, 1901, states 
that it will consist of 1,500 officers, 35,304 noncommissioned 
officers and men, 11,S63 horses, and 90 guns. These will be 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 225 

made up approximately of the following: Staff and depart- 
ments of all ranks, 4,296 men and 2,462 horses; 21 battalions 
of infantry, 23,037 of all ranks, 1,218 horses; 6 regiments of 
cavalry, 3,918 men and 3,690 horses ; artillery, 3,992 men, with 
3,651 horses and 90 guns; engineers, including pontoon train 
and telegraph troops, 1,262 men, 582 horses; four troops of 
military police, 300 men, 260 horses. The headquarters will 
"be at the new barracks to be erected near the houses of parlia- 
ment, to be called St. Stephen's barracks. 

At first it was intended to station 7,000 of the above-men- 
tioned troops at Woolwich, but later, on the advice of Lord 
Roberts, it was decided to continue Woolwich as a separate 
military command on account of its exceptional facilities and 
accommodations. 

The northern command consists of the fifth army corps and 
the fourth cavalry brigade, with the Mersey, Tyne, Sunder- 
land, Tee and Hartlepool, and the Humber as defended ports. 

The sixth army corps makes up the Scottish command with 
the Forth, Tay, Aberdeen, and the Clyde as defended ports. 

TRAINING. 

The government has recently acquired a tract of country 
in Teviotdale, Roxburyshire, in Scotland, which will make, 
with proposed additions, a total of 25,000 acres, to be used as 
a military training ground like those at Aldershot, Salisbury 
Plain, and the Curragh in Ireland. 

The importance of musketry instruction has been most 
strongly insisted on by the military authorities. The com- 
mander in chief in September, 1902, published a long special 
order on the subject giving the course of instruction to be 
followed. He dwells therein upon the importance of officers 
becoming experts in the use of the rifle, enjoins upon all the 
most painstaking and conscientious effort in the instruction 
of the troops, and states that general officers commanding 
' will be held personally responsible for the exercise of every 
endeavor to stimulate the interest of officers in the attain- 
ment of a standard of the highest efficiency by the troops. 

At the Hy the school of musketry a special course of instruc- 
tion, lasting from November 26 to December 23, 1902, was 
established for the benefit of officers and noncommissioned 
officers of the regular forces lately returned from South 
Africa. 

829 16 



226 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

A ne wdrill book — Infantry Training, 1 902 — hasbeen adopted, 
and in a note to the preface it is ordered that no books or pam- 
phlets in explanation or amplification of the new regulations 
are to be used. Drills and field training were sedulously pur- 
sued during the year whenever practicable, the prescribed 
object in the field training being mainly to develop initiative 
and resource in the junior ranks of officers, and among non- 
commissioned officers and men, to call into play the personal 
interest of the private soldier in his own fighting efficiency, 
so that in emergencies he may be accustomed to use his wits 
and act upon his own judgment, and be able, on necessity, to 
cope with troops trained to rely on collective discipline and 
individual intelligence. 

Cyclists are trained in cavalry, artillery, and infantry units 
for duty as orderlies in peace times at home and abroad, and 
machines are furnished by the government for their use. The 
question of training British soldiers for railway duty in India, 
engine drivers, firemen, etc., has been considered by a com- 
mittee, which recommends the formation of such corps in the 
British army in India. 

TERM OF SERVICE AND RATE OP PAY. 

The reduction of the term of service with the colors is de- 
clared by Mr. Brodrick to be the greatest change that has 
taken place since the days of Mr. Cardwell. Prior to April 
1, 1902, enlistments in the line of the English army were gen- 
erally for twelve years, seven with the colors and five in the 
reserve. In practice, however, any deserving soldier might, 
if circumstances permitted, pass into the reserve after five 
years' service, and there were many other provisions modify- 
ing the length of service with the colors and with the reserve. 

In March of 1902 a royal warrant issued and was promul- 
gated in a special order providing that from April 1, 1902, 
enlistments for cavalry, artillery, and infantry of the line, 
and for other specified branches of the service, should be for 
a period of three years with the colors and nine years in the 
reserve, with the option for noncommissioned officers and men 
of good character of extending their color service to eight 
years. The inducement to extend their color service consists 
of an increase in pay of Gd. a day after April 1, 1904, for all 
noncommissioned officers and soldiers of good character en- 
listed for more than three years' color service, or who have 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 227 

been permitted to extend their service, who have served for 
two years with the colors, and are efficient in the duties of 
their arm of service, including in the infantry such standard 
of musketry instruction as may be prescribed. These men 
are of Class I. Other men who are permitted to extend their 
color service but are not up to the required standard of effi- 
ciency are of Class II and receive 4d. a day increase. A man 
of Class I who fails to maintain his efficiency is relegated to 
Class II until he regains the required standard. The failure 
to reach the prescribed standard in musketry in any year will 
entail a reduction for twelve months. In both classes, after 
five years' service, an additional Id. a day is given to those 
having good-conduct badges. This is stopped or restored as 
men lose or regain their good-conduct rating. After April 
1, 1904, the increase for good-conduct rating will be discon- 
tinued, but a reduction of Id. a day will be made if it be lost. 
An immediate increase of 2d. a day is allowed from April 
1, 1902, to all men who have passed the recruiting drill and 
are certified to be 19 years of age. This is intended to make 
good the average stoppages for maintenance of kit, washing, 
haircutting, etc., and to give them 1 shilling a day clear. 

MEDICAL CORPS. 

The medical department of the British army has been re- 
organized and given such increase of rank and pay that, as 
stated by Mr. Brodrick, instead of as heretofore having but 
one candidate for two vacancies, there are now two or three 
candidates for one vacancy. 

Instructions published in March, 1902, provide that medical 
officers duly qualified shall be eligible for promotion to cap- 
tain after three and one-half years' service, and to the rank 
of major after twelve years' service. Promotion to the rank 
of lieutenant colonel is by selection from officers who have 
served at least twenty years, but this time may be reduced in 
the case of an officer who passed his examination for promo- 
tion to a majority with distinction. Promotion to colonel, 
and to surgeon general with the rank of major general, is by 
selection from the next lower grade. The surgeon general 
holding the appointment of director general at army head- 
quarters ranks as lieutenant general and has an annual salary 
of £2,000. 

About the same time the army nursing service was reor- 
ganized as the "Queen Alexandra's imperial military nursing 



228 NOTBS OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

service." Appointments therein of duly qualified persons 
are made by the secretary of state for war. It comprises for 
1902-03 a matron in chief, 2 principal matrons, 27 matrons, 
50 sisters, and 150 nurses. 

VARIOUS. 

In the debates in parliament on army reform, stress was 
laid on the necessity for the improvement of the service con- 
ditions of the enlisted force, in order to attract a better class 
of recruits to the army. 

Among measures to this end may be mentioned that the 
quarters of married men in barracks will be plainly but com- 
fortably furnished at public expense, so as to minimize the 
inconvenience incident to changes of station. The Inkerman 
barracks at Woking, in Surrey, have been altered and arranged 
on the cubicle system, which system will be generally adopted 
if found to be satisfactory, and reported on favprably by the 
regiment occupying the barracks. 

An army order dated September 1, 1902, abolishes all roll 
calls, except at reveille, and when specially ordered for 
recruits, boys, defaulters, etc. Men will be warned for all 
duties by daily orders posted in a suitable place in the quar- 
ters of each unit, the men being held responsible that they 
make themselves acquainted with all orders affecting them. 
Kit inspections for trained men and recruits will be held only 
when commanding officers consider them necessary. Inspec- 
tions of barracks, stables, etc., will not, except in case of 
necessity, be held on Sunday, and parades will as far as pos- 
sible be avoided on that day. 

Guard duty is the hardest duty a soldier is required to per- 
form in time of peace, and is especially trying for young 
soldiers of from 18 to 20, of which the British army at home 
has a large number. The order above referred to directs that 
a system of police shall, wherever possible, replace garrison 
and regimental guards, which will be mounted only when 
specially ordered by the commanding officer of the station or 
camp. It also permits men to smoke in the streets when not 
on duty. 

A recent memorandum from the commander in chief calls 
attention to the necessity of officers using the power given 
them in the king's regulations to keep the ranks free from 
worthless characters who deter respectable young men from 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 229 

joining, bring disrepute on the service, and cause a waste of 
public money. 

AUXILIARY FORCES. 

The volunteer infantry has been rebrigaded, so as to make 
the brigades of more uniform strength, and as a rule to be 
formed from troops of the same regimental district. About 
216 battalions are formed into 46 brigades. The volunteers' 
regulations have been revised with a view to securing greater 
efficiency as soldiers of enrolled members. Efficiency is 
measured by attendance at prescribed camps, inspections, 
parades and drills, by which a capitation allowance from the 
state is earned. This constitutes a fund from which the 
expenses of maintenance are paid. 

As a spur to the gaining and maintenance of efficiency, the 
whole or any part of the capitation allowance may be with- 
held in the discretion of the secretary of state for war when 
any organization has been insufficiently trained in any year. 
Instruction and training is the same as for the army and 
is prescribed by the military authorities, the standard of 
musketry instruction not being as high as for the regular 
forces. In field training, the new volunteer regulations, to 
determine efficiency, lay the greatest stress on the attendance 
of organized units at camps and battalion drills, and on that 
of individuals at the annual inspections. 

A special-service section is composed of men who engage 
to serve in case of emergency when called on by the secretary 
of war, in such fortress or district as may be specified, for a 
period not exceeding one month. Additional grants are made 
for such service partly to the corps and partly to the man, 
who receives, while on special service, the pay and allowances 
of the corresponding rank in the regular army, besides a sub- 
stantial gratuity on reporting for duty. 

Designations and titles in militia and volunteers have, in 
many cases, been assimilated to those of the army ; thus the 
militia field artillery is to be known as the royal field artil- 
lery (militia), militia artillery and volunteer artillery as royal 
garrison artillery (militia), and royal garrison artillery (vol- 
unteers), respectively. The militia and volunteer medical 
staff corps are now designated as royal army medical corps, 
militia, or volunteers. 

In the war office the division of military intelligence has 
teen greatly strengthened. The chief is now in the inner 



230 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

circle of the office and practically discharges many of the 
duties performed by the chief of staff in foreign armies. 

Instruction and training in the auxiliary services of mili- 
tia, volunteers, and yeomanry are carefully arranged for 
by the military authorities. About 27,000 volunteers were 
encamped at Aldershot during the summer of 1902, that being 
only one of a number of training grounds. Each year militia 
officers are encouraged to serve with line regiments to get 
the benefit of the training and to give additional officers to 
the line regiments at these periods. 

Mr. Brodrick is authority for the statement that the aver- 
age annual cost of a private in the army (presumably at home) 
is approximately as follows : Infantry of line, £52 6s. 4d. ; 
cavalry of line, £58 16s. 9d. ; militia (infantry), £18 12s. 6d.; 
imperial yeomany, £19 13s. 6d. ; volunteers, £6. The cost of 
infantry and cavalry, respectively, after April 1, 1904, when 
the increased pay takes effect, will be £59 6s. Id. and £65 
16s. 6d. 

DEMOBILIZATION OF THE ARMY. 

A special army order was issued from the British war 
office on June 25, 1902, directing the demobilization as soon 
as practicable after June 30, 1902, of all soldiers serving at 
home who had completed their first period of service with the 
colors, except reservists or time-expired men of cavalry and 
drivers of the army service corps. Soldiers not entitled to 
furlough to be at once transferred to the reserve, those 
entitled to furlough, or to a furlough gratuity, to be passed 
to the reserve on the expiration of their furloughs, or of the 
periods covered by the gratuity. 

All soldiers serving at home, on original enlistments or as 
mobilized reservists, in their thirteenth year of service (seven- 
teenth year in case of men mobilized from Section D), who 
have not reengaged, will be discharged as soon as practicable 
after June 30, 1902. Reengaged men in twenty-second year 
of service who have not given notice to continue in service 
will be similarly treated. 

Men already on furlough will be notified to report at the 
nearest military station for medical examination and prepa- 
ration of the necessary papers for their transfer or retransfer 
to the reserve. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 231 

The same action will be taken in the cases of soldiers not 
now in the foregoing categories as soon as they fulfill the 
above conditions. 

Soldiers serving abroad, who fulfill the conditions above 
noted, will be similarly disposed of on their return to England, 
subject to the provisions of the regulations for demobilization. 

The following table from the Montreal Gazette of October 
2, 1902, shows the forces in or sent to South Africa, from 
August, 1899, when war began to threaten, till May 31, 1902, 
when peace was signed : 

Garrison on August 1, 1899 9,940 

Sent from United Kingdom : == 

Regulars — 228,171 

Militia 46,566 

Yeomanry _. 35,520 

Scottish horse _ - 883 

Volunteers 19,85ft 

South African Constabulary _ 7,28T 

Total from United Kingdom- 887,183 

From India: 

Regulars 18,229 

Volunteers 803 

Total from India 18,584 

From the colonies: 

Contingents 29,090 

South African Constabulary, Canada 1, 238 

Total from colonies _ 80,328 

Raised in South Africa _ _ _ 62,414 

Grand total 448.899 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE ARMY IX SOUTH AFRICA. 

Lieutenant General the Hon. Sir Neville Lyttelton, com- 
manding in South Africa, has sent home particulars of the 
distribution of # the forces which have been told off to form 
the garrison of the four colonies, as decided upon for present 
requirements. 

It is proposed that Ladysmith should be abandoned as a 
large military station for Natal, and Newcastle substituted. 
Under the scheme drawn up by the local authorities the 
principal military centers will be Bloemfontein, Pretoria, 
Potchef stroom, Standerton, and Newcastle. At each of these 



232 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

places a regiment of cavalry, units of royal artillery, and a 
brigade of infantry will be stationed until further orders. 

Another important post is Middleburg, Transvaal, held by 
1 regiment of cavalry, 1 battery of field artillery, and 2 bat- 
talions of infantry. The other places in the Transvaal chosen 
for military posts, with their garrisons, are : 

Krugersdorp (held by 1 regiment of cavalry, 1 battery 

of horse artillery, and 1 battalion of infantry). 
Lydenburg (l battalion of infantry). 
Machadodorp (1 battalion of infantry). 
Barberton (1 battalion of infantry). 
Pietersburg (1 battalion of infantry). 
Johannesburg (I battalion of infantry). 
Garrisons of Orange River Colony and Natal : 

Kroonstad (1 regiment of cavalry, and 2 battalions of 

infantry). 
Harrismith (1 regiment of cavalry, 1 battery of field 

artillery, and 2 battalions of infantry). 
Ladybrand (I battalion of infantry). 
Middleburg (1 regiment of cavalry, 3 batteries of field 

artillery, and 1 battalion of infantry). 
Stellenbosch (1 regiment of cavalry and 1 battery of 

field artillerj 7 ). 
Naauwpoort (2 battalions of infantry). 
Burgersdorp (1 battalion of infantry). 
Wynberg (1 battalion of infantry). 
Maf eking (1 battalion of infantry). 
Maritzburg (1 battalion of infantry). 
Modder River (1 battery of field artillery and 1 bat- 
talion of infantry). 
It is hoped eventually to do away with many of the smaller 
stations, but there is no immediate prospect of any consider- 
able reduction of the forces now at Sir Neville LyttelWs 
disposal. — United Service Gazette, December 27, 1902. 

TARGET PRACTICE. 

The following is an extract from a special army order by 
Lord Roberts, dated war office, September 19, 1902: 

MUSKETRY TRAINING. 

Considerable as has been the improvement in the shooting of the army 
during the last few years, our experience in South Africa has brought 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

lome to lis the fact that oar soldiers can not as yet take the fullest 
advantage of the admirable weapon which has been placed in their hands, 
>r use it -with that skill and precision which are so essential to success in 
wrar. 

While I deeply regret that this should be the case, I am not surprised, 
tor I know from many years' anxious watching over the progress of rifle 
shooting in our army how comparatively few officers take any real interest 
in this — by far the most important part of the soldiers' training, particu- 
larly to those who belong to the cavalry and infantry branches of the 
service. Too frequently the musketry course is still looked upon as a 
somewhat irksome business which has to be got through as quickly as 
possible, and sufficient consideration is seldom given as to whether the 
results achieved are satisfactory or not. 

Success or failure in rifle shooting depends entirely upon the officers, 
and I now most earnestly desire to impress upon them the imperative 
necessity for their becoming experts in the use of the rifle themselves, 
ind for assisting me in carrying out a far more complete and finished sys- 
tem of instruction than exists at present. 

As a first step in this direction it is essential that young soldiers should 
ta more carefully prepared to profit by the lessons of the rifle range, and 
that they may be able so to profit they must be taught everything which 
concerns the rifle, and how to handle it with case and confidence before 
they are introduced to the ranges. 

As an aid to musketry training, the following points should be carefully 
considered and given effect to: 

1. Instruction. — The value of the instruction imparted to the men is 
entirely dependent on the ability of the officers to teach, and on the zeal 
with which they enter on a task which demands careful preparation, 
patience, and energy. 

I expect, therefore, that all officers will do their best to become compe 
tent instructors, and that commanding officers will assure themselves of 
the fitness of their officers to teach, by watching them when at work with 
their noncommissioned officers and men, and will impress on them that 
keenness in musketry, and good results, will be the first claim for advance- 
ment. 

In the same way subordinate officers will be held responsible that the 
noncommissioned officers under their command are capable instructors, 
and will not recommend any for promotion whom they do not consider as 
such. It is to be borne in mind that, after the first broad principles of 
instruction have been communicated, nothing but constant practice in 
teaching can make the perfect instructor; all noncommissioned officers 
should therefore be frequently practiced as instructors, and the plan of 
depending upon a few of the most capable, which is detrimental to the 
rest of the noncommissioned officers of the battalion, should be discon- 
tinued. 

2. Elementary Training of Recruits. — I consider it essential to every 
man's efficiency as a* soldier that his elementary education as a recruit 
should be conducted with the greatest patience, sympathy, and judgment, 
*nd that it should be of the most thorough and finished description. I 
regard the present short period of recruit training in musketry as insuffi- 
cient, and I direct that a system of training be established which will 



234 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

insure that no recruit is pronounced qualified until he has acquired a 
thorough knowledge of musketry, and can handle his rifle with skill and 
confidence under all conditions and in all positions. 

The recruit's training in musketry should commence 14 days after his 
arrival at the depot, and should be continued daily until he leaves to join 
his corps. During this time the instruction will be limited to care of 
arms, aiming, and the firing exercises. 

When recruits join their corps daily instruction will be at once resumed. 

The following will be the course: 

(a) Care of arms. 

(b) Instruction in aiming. 

(c) The firing exercises, both in drill order and field-service order- 

one exercise at least to be performed daily. 

(d) Instruction and practice in judging distance. A short exercise 

daily. 

(e) Instruction in firing from behind cover and in snap shooting. 

(/) Instruction in the theory, powers, and mechanism of the rifle and 

its ammunition. 
(g) A course of lectures and examinations on the whole of the above 
subjects. 
N. B. — Squads are not to consist of more than ten men, but eight would 
be better. 

8. Elementary Instruction of Trained Soldiers.— When a proper 
system of recruit training is established, the soldier may be expected to 
be so expert with his rifle that repetition of elementary lessons will seldom 
be necessary. As yet this has not been achieved, and until it has been, all 
soldiers now in the ranks must be exercised as frequently as possible in 
the same course as that laid down for the recruit. 

4. Range Practices. — The sole object of the range practices is to pro- 
duce good marksmen, and this can not be arrived at hurriedly, or without 
due deliberation. The aim should not be to expend a certain quantity of 
ammunition, but to make every shot fired a practical lesson ; this can only 
be done by careful marking of each shot, and explaining to the men the 
causes of failure. In cases, therefore, where time has to be considered, it 
will be better to do a part of the course thoroughly, than to try and get 
through the whole in a hurried and perfunctory manner. In such cases 
general officers commanding will sanction the omission of shooting at 
the longer ranges when they consider that the whole course can not be 
advantageously carried out. 

Exercise with blank ammunition, miniature cartridges, or merely 
"snapping," on the lines of the rapid magazine and snap-shooting prac- 
tices of the regulation course, should be frequently practiced in quarters 
throughout the year. It is by snap shooting at short ranges that battles 
in the future will probably be decided, and the few rounds which can be 
fired on the rifle range are not sufficient to enable a soldier to attain that 
high standard of shooting which will henceforth be needed. 

5. Auxiliary Forces. — These instructions apply to the auxiliary forces 
so far as it may be possible to carry them out under the different condi- 
tions of service. Officers commanding regimental districts must at once 
take up the question as to how they can be applied. They must in the 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 235 

irst instance especially concern themselves with the training of the per- 
manent staff, and must satisfy themselves that they are kept up to a high 
standard of instructional ability under the direction of adjutants of 
auxiliary forces, of whose qualifications they must make themselves cog- 
nizant It is only by district commanders' personal interest and inspec- 
tion of corps while at musketry training that the desired end can be 
gained 

Officers commanding regimental districts must also give their special 
attention to the musketry training of militia recruits, including that of 
officers This is at present most unsatisfactory. 

6. Course of Musketry Practice for 1908.— The official instructions 
for the musketry practice for 1908 will embody, as far as possible, the 
principle that skill at short ranges is of the utmost importance, and that 
it is useless to allow a man to shoot at the longer ranges, or in advanced 
practice until he has become a reliable shot at the shorter distances. 

Commanding officers are hereby empowered to keep back such men as 
they consider require further instruction, in order that they may expend 
their ammunition at the shorter ranges. 

7. I am convinced that straight shooting, which is the result of careful 
training is at least as important on the modern battlefield as tactical com- 
binations, to the practice of which so much time and trouble are now 
devoted. It will be well for all to recollect that the best tactics may fail 
if, when the climax of the struggle is reached, a superiority of fire can not 
be established. 

I can not, therefore, too strongly impress on every general officer com- 
manding that it is his most important duty to attain and maintain a high 
standard of efficiency in musketry throughout all ranks in his command, 
and, being convinced that this can only be attained by the exercise of con- 
stant personal interest and supervision on the part of the senior officers, I 
shall hold every general officer commanding personally responsible that 
he, by whatever means he may consider best, will endeavor to attain a 
standard which can only be considered satisfactory when it has attained 
the highest efficiency. With this view he should satisfy himself by fre- 
quent and close observation, that a well-ordered and progressive system 
of elementary instruction in musketry is established in all corps in his 
command on the lines here indicated, and should specially endeavor to 
stimulate the interest of officers in their men's shooting and in recruit 
training. He should endeavor to overcome any difficulties which may 
arise in complying with the spirit of this order, and in regard to such as 
he maybe unable to cope with, he should at once bring them to the notice 
of the adjutant general. 

The " Provisional Course of Musketry for the year 1902 " 
for the British army, a synopsis of which appeared in 
" Target Practice and Remount Systems Abroad," published 
last year, was supplemented in September, 1902, by instruc- 
tions contained in a special army order signed by Lord 
Roberts prescribing the steps in the course of instruction for 
recruits and trained men both in the regular and auxiliary 



236 



NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 



forces, urging and requiring the most active personal interest 
of all officers in this important branch of the soldier's train- 
ing, and directing general officers commanding to report on 
the system of training adopted, and the progress made up to 
date. Also to make suggestions for useful changes, to report 
on the action of subordinate officers, and on the general effect 
of Lord Roberts's order. 

A revised edition (provisional) of the musketry regulations 
for the regular and auxiliary forces has been approved and 
will be issued in February, 1903. 

The following is the latest table giving annual allowances 
of small-arms ammunition for instruction purposes and for 
funerals : 





Round*. 


Corp*. 


Trained 
soldiers. 


Trained soldiers, 
rank add file only. 


Recruits (officer or man). 




Ball. 


Blank. 


Aiming 
tube, sab- 
caliber. 


Ball. 


'Cartridges, 
Blank.! aiming 
J tat*. 


Cavalry 

Artillery : 

Garrison _. 

Horse, field, and mountain 


200 

20 
10 

100 
100 
300 
f50 


90 

20 
10 

40 
80 
40 


•26 
25 

•26 
•26 
•26 


200 

20 
20 

150 
150 
200 


20 *25 

i 

20 , 

20 i_ 


Kngiueera armed with : 

Rifle 


20 1 *35 


Carbine 


20 ' *« 




20 •as 


lufantrv reservist* > . 








1 



• 10 rounds per recruit may be drawn at depots, or the allowance may be exchanged for Mil 
ammunition of equal value. 

fin case of failure to reach the prescribed standard, 50 rounds additional may be drawn for pur- 
poses of repetition. 

Allowances are also made to men of ordnance, army service, 
and medical corps. 

Every soldier in his first year of service may fire the am- 
munition allowed for a recruit, together with that allowed 
for the trained soldier. If a recruit of infantry or cavalry 
is put back for further training the number of rounds 
already expended by him will not be deducted from the 
allowance, but will be in addition thereto. 

Ball ammunition may be drawn at the following rates for 
squadron and company officers of units specified below : 
Cavalry, 110 rounds per officer. 
Engineers, 90 rounds per officer. 
Infantry, 150 rounds per officer. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 237 

Tlie following addition may be made to the above- 
mentioned proportions of ball ammunition : 

For field inspections, on the order of the general officer 
commanding a station or district — 
Cavalry, regiment of, 1,000 rounds. 
Infantry, battalion of, 4,000 rounds. 
and tlie following to the proportion of blank ammunition : 
For use at district rifle meetings — 

Three rounds ball, 0.303-inch, per officer and man 
(regulars and militia) on the effective strength of 
districts at home on June 1 of each year, and at 
stations abroad on January 1 of each year. 
For training remounts — 

Horse and field artillery, 10 rounds per remount, to 

be drawn by batteries when required. 
Engineers, 400 rounds, to be drawn by the field 

depots. 
Army service corps, 1,780 rounds, to be drawn by 
station staff as follows: Aldershot, 540 rounds; 
Devonport, 480 rounds; Woolwich, 480 rounds; 
Curragh, 140 rounds; Dublin, 140 rounds. 

Annual allowance of pistol ammunition for officers, warrant and noncom- 
missioned officers, and men armed with the pistol in time of war. 

Ball. 
i Blank, 

COt| *- ' Subse- I «™7 

Flrstyear. quent , )ettr * 
I years. 

Artillery (horse, field, and mountain) 

Infantry and engineers 

Army service corps 

Military mounted police 

If on hand for the purpose, officers may purchase for their 
own use 36 rounds additional per annum, and for noncom- 
missioned officers and men may be drawn annually additional 
ammunition, not exceeding 72 rounds for infantry and 36 
rounds for cavalry, horse and field artillery, for each author- 
ized pistol. 

General officers commanding may authorize the purchase 
of ammunition for competitions, not exceeding 130 rounds 
per annum for each competitor. 



238 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOB 1902. 

Units joining the army rifle association may purchase 0.303 
ammunition at half rates, not exceeding 7 rounds per rifle or 
carbine. 

Aiming tube (subcaliber) cartridges, for private practice, 
may be purchased from the army ordnance department. 

Annual allowance of machine-gun ammunition for practice and exercise*. 

1 Cartridge, m*-&h~ 
1 gw»- 



Ball. 



For each unit of cavalry, mounted infantry, and infantry having machine guns 
actually in possession, not forming part of the armament of a station: 

Cavalry and mounted infantry 1,100 \ , ltl - 

Infantry 1.700 f ^ 

For stations: For each gun actually in possession, forming part of armament __. 966 ->-• 



THE FORBES RANGE FTNT>ER. 

The folding range finder consists of two parts : the base and 
the binocular. 

1. The base is a tube of rectangular section 1 by 1± inches, 
and is 6 feet 3 inches long. It consists of two half bases 3 
feet and 3 feet 3 inches long, respectively, hinged together at 
the middle of the whole base ; the hinge is at the top when 
opened out. On the left half base at the hinge there is a 
vertical slot facing the range taker to receive the tongue of 
the binocular. On the two halves of the hinge, facing the 
range taker, are the middle openings (| inch square), closed 
and opened by the middle shutters, which expose to view the 
glass faces of the middle prisms, which are mounted in the 
tubular base. 

At the two outer ends of the base are two cylindrical shut- 
ters called the outer shutters, which are opened or closed by 
rotating them about the axis of the base, and expose the glass 
faces of the two outer prisms, mounted in the tubular base. 
The distance between the centers of the outer prisms is 72 
inches. These outer prisms face the target. The middle 
prisms face the range taker. A rubber ring is attached to 
the longer half base. When the base is folded, this rubber 
ring is passed also over the end of the shorter half base to 
keep the two together. Each half base has a wooden leg 
hinged to it and kept in place when out of use by a rubber 
ring. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 239 

No adjustments of the base of any kind whatever need ever 
be made after leaving the maker's hands. 

The "base when folded is carried in a sling case, with a fold- 
ing flap at the lower or hinged end and a strap to fasten it. 

2. The binocular consists of two telescopes, having two 
black ebonite eye caps. The distance between these can be 
varied to suit different people by opening or closing the 
binocular hinge between the telescopes. Between the eye 
cajjs is a horizontal rod attached to the left telescope, sliding 
in a horizontal tube attached to the right telescope. On the 
rod there is a distance of eyes scale, graduated from 2i to 2| 
inches, showing the distance between centers of eye caps. 
The binocular hinge is gripped by a support with 6 boltheads, 
and this support ends in a flat tongue, pointing downward, 
to slip into the slot on the base hinge. 

On looking through either telescope at the sky, a balloon 
is seen with tail rope hanging down. The bottom of the tail 
rope is at the middle of the field of view. There are really 
two balloons seen as one, by the two eyes; that one seen with 
the left eye has the letter L on its left side, and the one seen 
with the right eye has the letter R on its right side. Each 
eye cap can be revolved to focus the telescope to suit each eye, 
and the left focal scale and right focal scale are marked for 
the focus of each eye, from +10 to —10 divisions. Behind 
the tongue is a clamp for securing the two telescopes at the 
right distance apart, called the binocular-hinge clamp. 
Above the left eye cap there is a square pin, worked by a 
key, to raise or lower one balloon relatively to the other. 
On the right side of the binocular there is a drumhead carry- 
ing a dial on the right side, with a flat spiral distance scale 
registering the number of 100 yards, from 500 yards upward. 
The scale is turned by the milled head, 1 inch diameter. The 
scale is read by the pointer, which moves along the spiral 
radially, to read successive revolutions. It is attached to the 
cover inclosing the drumhead. There is also a pointer clamp 
for fixing the pointer in any position. On the left side of the 
dial is a divided circle divided into 100 parts, with a fixed 
pointer. On the distance scale, beyond the 10,000-yard mark, 
there is a mark oo for practically infinitely distant objects 
when the angle to be measured is zero. The reading on the 
divided circle, when the pointer is at this mark, is called zero, 
or the infinity reading. 



240 



NOTES OF MIUTART INTEREST FOR 1902. 



Fig. 1 shows the shape of the prisms and the path of the 
two beams of light from the target entering the two outer 
prisms, suffering a double reflection at each prism, passing 
along the tubular base, passing through the middle prisms, 
and entering the binocular, parallel to their original direction. 

These two beams of light pass through the object glasses 
GG' of the binocular, and form two images of the target at 



leffkaif. 



base 



* 



Plate IV. 
fiftt-hoifbate. 



7r\ 



t 



a+ — 




<r' 



cp-^ 



1 



Z'-i 






Fig. I.— Diagram showing path of light rays from target. 




2" and J', on the line of the beam of light passing through the 
center of the object glass. These images are examined by 
eyepieces E. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 241 

In fig. 2, if I 7 be the target, A A the base, then IT are the 
images of the target. Draw Oi parallel to G'T, then the moon 
or any other very distant object, if its left image were at 7', 
would have its right image at i, where I'i= OG\ the dis- 
tance between the centers of the object glasses. Here the 
two eyes look in parallel directions. But for the target T, 
which is nearer, the eyes must converge to look in directions 
ft?, I'G'. The muscles of the eye tell us of the comparative 
effort required to converge the eyes when two objects at dif- 
ferent distances are seen at the same time. If two balloons, 
photographed on glass, be placed at /' and i, or at the dis- 
tance I'i apart, the balloons are seen as one balloon at the 
same distance as the moon. But if we are looking at the 
target the balloon i must be moved to J, to make the two 
balloons look like one balloon at the distance of the target. 
We measure this distance Ii by the drumhead, which works 
a micrometer screw. 

TSow AT=QLxAA' 
It 

or distance of target= -=r X length of base 
It 

=-rX2yardB. 
It 

In my binocular — -= - 



Ii number of revolutions of drumhead. 



So, for any distance of target D, we have to mark that dis- 
tance on the spiral scale when it and the micrometer screw 
have turned through a 

810 
number of revolutions =-— x2 yards 

1,620 , 
=- L =- yards. 

Por 1,000 yards it is 1.620 revolutions. For 2,000 yards it 
is 0.810 revolution, and so on. 

In this way the graduations for different distances have 
been calculated. 

METHOD OF CARRYING THE EQUIPMENT. 

1. By a Mounted Man. — A mounted man attaches the 
strap of the sling case of the base to two D's on the near side 
of the saddle. He has another strap fixed to the D at the back 

629 16 



242 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

of the saddle. He passes this around the upper part of the 
sling case and buckles to keep it steady when trotting or 
galloping. He places the binocular in the left of the two 
wallets in front of the saddle. 

On the order being given to take a range, the binocular is 
removed from the wallet. The man dismounts and drops the 
reins on the ground. He then takes out the base, puts the 
binocular tongue through the- base slot, straightens out 
the 6-foot base quietly, not to injure the hinge, opens the 
four shutters, sits down facing the target, with the legs of 
the base gripped between the knees, and takes the distauce 
of the target. 

2. By a Foot Soldier. — A foot soldier uses the same sling 
for the base as the mounted man. He passes the strap over 
the right shoulder and under the left arm, with the flap and 
also the hinge of the base downward. The binocular is car- 
ried in a leather binocular case with the strap passing over 
the left shoulder and under the right arm. 

To take a range he goes through the same operations as the 
mounted man, except as regards the horse. 

TO DETERMINE THE RANGB-TAKER'S OPTICAL CONSTANTS. 

Every man in the army has his optical constants deter- 
mined and these are given to him on a card, thus : 




This means that the left focal scale should, in this man's case, 
be at — 1 ; the right focal scale at 0, and the distance of eyes 
scale at 66 divisions. 

1. To Find D.— The binocular hinge clamp is loosened. 
The base is not used. The man grasps each telescope body 
with one hand. He points it to the sky and sees a balloon. 
He alternately opens out and closes in the telescopes by 
working the binocular hinge until he sees an R on the right 
side and an L on the left side of the balloon. He moves the 
hinge until he sees them most distinctly, when there should 
be an increased brightness of the picture. The binocular 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. * 243 

hinge clamp is then made tight and the distance D read off 
on the distance of eyes scale. 

2. To Find L. — The observer again looks at the sky and 
sees the balloon. Revolving the left eye cap to right or left, 
the letter L becomes more or less distinct. When most sharp, 
L is read off on the left focal scale. 

3. To Find R. — The same operation is performed, except 
that the right eye cap is revolved until R is quite sharp. 
Then R is read off on the right focal scale. 

TO TAKE A RANGE. 

Directing the binocular and base toward the target" and 
looking through the binocular, a man is virtually seeing the 
target by means of eyes placed at the two ends of the base, 
6 feet apart. He can then judge the relative distances of 
objects. He also sees a balloon at some distance. He lays 
the tail rope of the balloon just above the target, and not, on 
any account, on it. He notes that he sees both R and L on 
the balloon, else he is using only one eye and can not work. 
Then, by twisting the milled head one way or the other, he 
moves the balloon away from him or brings it nearer to him. 
He should begin with the balloon nearer than the target (by 
setting the distance scale at 500 yards) and watch the balloon 
going away as he turns the milled head, always keeping the 
tail rope above, and never on, the target. He stops turning 
when the balloon is over the target, and then he reads the 
distance on the scale in hundreds of yards. 

TO SET THE ZERO. 

When a range taker starts using a binocular which he has 
not been the last to use, he must first set the zero. 

1. He sets the focal scales and the distance of eyes scale to 
the numbers on his card. If he has lost his card and can not 
remember the numbers, he must reset them by trial, as ex* 
plained already. 

2. He then slips the tongue of the binocular into the slot of 
the base and looks to see if the object glasses are both at the 
same height as the middle prisms.. If he finds it necessary 
to twist the binocular about its hinge, the six boltheads may 
be loosened to enable him to do this. 



244 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

3. Next, taking the binocular off the base, he observes any 
distinct object of unknown distance somewhere between 500 
and 1,000 yards. He sets the balloon over the target and 
reads off on the divided circle. He does this five times and 
takes the mean and sets the divided circle to this mean. 

4. The pointer clamp is then loosened, and the drumhead 
cover is turned until the pointer on the distance scale reads <x. 
The pointer clamp is then tightened. 

5. The binocular and base are now used on the same object 
and five readings taken on the divided circle, and the circle 
is set to the mean reading. The distance on the scale is now 
read and one-thirtieth subtracted to give the true distance. 
The pointer clamp is loosened and the pointer turned to point 
to the true distance. The pointer clamp is tightened, and 
the scale reading will now be correct for all distances. 

SUGGESTED REGULATIONS FOR INFANTRY. 

1. Every man in the army should at least once a year have 
a course with the range finder lasting one day. 

2. The present course of distance judging to be abolished. 

3. Every section of every company of infantry, whether 
mounted or on foot, to be supplied with a range finder. 

4. Ten men in each company to be selected to act as range 
takers for the day or to replace range takers who are disabled. 

These suggestions are thrown out with all modesty, the 
result of discussions in South Africa, merely as a preliminary 
basis for discussion. 

PRACTICAL TRIALS OF THE RANGE FINDER IN SOUTH AFRICA. 

I arrived in South Africa on January 28, 1902. The first 
trials were made during ten days at the royal observatory, 
Cape Town. The distances had been surveyed by one of the 
astronomers. During this period I found that in all condi- 
tions of the weather I generally could obtain 2 per cent accu- 
racy at 3,000 yards, often much closer. This was not new to 
me, as I had thoroughly tested for accuracy at home. 

One day, February 5, my observations happened to be wit- 
nessed by Maj. Gen. Sir John Ardagh» Lieutenant Colonel 
Edmonds, K E., and Sir David Gill, K. C. B., F. R. S., who 
drew up and signed a certificate. The binocular had been 
dismantled the day before and the zero hastily determined, 
and Sir David Gill pointed out that the correction for zero 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



245 



could "be made, 
follows : 



When this was done the results were as 



i __ 

3__ 
4__ 



I Distance in ■ Observed by 
I yards. [range finder. 



1,869 
3,036 
852 
1,432 
1,711 



1,830 
3,039 
867 
1,422 
1,717 



Error. 



+ 29 

- 3 

- 5 

MO 



February C, 1902. Range-finder tests. Range finder observed by Prof. George Forbes, F. R. 8. 
K&nfre finder read off by Mr. Levinger, astronomer. Certified by Sir David Gill, K. C. B., F. R. 8., 
H. M. astronomer. 



Range find- I Range find- 
er, observed.; er, mean. 



Survey. Krror. 



Yards. | 
1,860 
1,885 
1,825 
1,430 !') 
1,410 , 
1,405 
1,716 
1,735 
1,705 

861 

858 

850 

701 

702 

711 

751 |'i 

744 

733 
1,910»'\ 
1,950 , 
2,060 I 
1,350 r 
1,395 
1,380 , 



Yard*. 

i,a r >7 

1,415 

1,718 

856 

705 

743 

2,000 

1,376 



Yard*. 

1,859 

1,432 

1,711 

862 

686 

749 

1,994 

1,388 



Ynrdt. 

- 2 

-17 

+ T 
+ 4 
+ 19 

- 6 
+ 6 
-13 



* A violent gust of wind interfered with this observation. 

SUMMARY OP RESULTS ARRIVED AT BY MY VISIT TO SOUTH AFRICA IN 
1902, TO TEST THE RANGE FINDER FOR USE WITH RIFLES. 

1. Distance judging is known to be very difficult, but the 
range finder enabled me to find out what few people know, 
that the most experienced and trusted of our officers who have 
been serving throughout the war will sometimes give a dis- 
tance as 2,800 yards when it is under 700 yards, and at other 
times will give a distance as 500 yards when it is over 1,200 
yards. 

2. There is no service range finder ever used with infantry 
or cavalry in the field, and if the mekometer be ever used with 
artillery our officers seldom rely upon it. The time taken is 
excessive ; the exposure of the men is objectionable ; the errors 



246 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOB 1900. 

introduced by two men dependent on each other are fatal, and 
the ground often does not admit of a mekometer being used. 
The new range finder is not to replace the mekometer. It 
will replace nothing, because there is nothing to replace. 

3. Our officers and our men in the field are unanimous in 
the opinion that the universally recognized want, which has 
often nullified the strategy of our leaders and the endurance 
of our men and made us often helpless for offense before the 
enemy, was the want of a quick, handy, reliable, one-man 
range finder. The want has in every action reduced the 
casualties we inflicted to a fraction of what it should have 
been. 

4. I have tested the range finder for accuracy against the 
mekometer and against surveyed distances under most com- 
petent generals and others. Every one agreed that its accuracy 
was all that could be desired. 

5. As to speed, I could always give the range long before 
the two men occupied with the mekometer had concluded 
their preliminary consultation as to the exact point to be 
observed. 

6. I have trekked with a column 300 miles in eleven days, 
the ranger finder being always slung to my saddle. Each day 
I was at different times called on for distances. It never took 
one minute to dismount, set up the range finder, and give the 
first range, subsequent ranges being given in a few seconds. 

7. I was in action two days and gave the ranges quickly and 
accurately and undoubtedly improved the shooting. 

8. No amount of jolting in long gallops ever put the range 
finder out of order. It never needed adjustment of the prisms, 
though no more care was taken of it than of a rifle, and once 
my horse rolled on it. 

9. Every officer who has seen the range finder in use or in 
action has told me that, so far as he can judge from what he 
has seen, it is the very thing the army needs. 

10. These officers have described their experiences in scores 
of battles in which disaster would have been converted into 
victory, or a partial success into complete surrender of the 
enemy if my range finders had been freely used as they saw 
me use one in action. 

11. Even among the troopers of our column the range finder 
was an object of keen interest, and when they saw its per- 
formance they agreed that it was just what they had been 
longing for. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 247 

12. I have instructed scores of officers, noncommissioned 
officers, and men in the use of this range finder. I have not 
had a single failure. Many became better in its use in five 
minutes than I am. A day or two would suffice to make an 
accomplished range taker of almost any man in our army. — 
Extract from lecture by Professor G*. Forbes, F. R. S., M. A., 
etc., taken from the Journal Royal United Service Institution* 
November 15, 1902. 

MACHINE GUNS DETAILED TO INFANTRY REGIMENTS IN INDIA. 

All infantry regiments of the Indian field army will soon 
be supplied with Maxim machine guns. The officers and men 
of the Maxim detachments will be selected with the utmost 
care and will receive technical instruction so that they will 
be able to repair the ordinary defects in the functioning of 
the machine guns. 

These Maxims will be carried on pack mules. 

The personnel of each gun will consist of one noncom- 
missioned officer and three privates, with an equal number 
of reserve trained men capable of taking their places in case 
of need. Each group of machine guns will be commanded 
by an officer. To each gun will be allotted for firing exer- 
cises 1,000 blank cartridges and 2,200 ball cartridges. In the 
field and at maneuvers the Maxim guns will march with 
their respective units unless the brigade commander orders 
them to assemble in a body. The officer in command will 
give the chief of the machine gun group a general idea of the 
part which these shall take in action, leaving him full lib- 
erty in the execution of the .orders received. — Revue du Cercle 
militaire, August 16, 1902. 

MILITARY MECHANICAL. TRANSPORT. 

A special army order contains the following royal warrant 
and instructions for the establishment of mechanical trans- 
port companies in the army service corps : 

1. The following shall be inserted among the daily rates of 
pay laid down for our army service corps in article 787 : 

8. d. 

Sergeant, mechanical transport companies 3 3 

Corporal, mechanical transport companies 2 6 

Second corporal, mechanical transport companies 2 2 

Private, appointed paid lance corporal, mechanical trans- 
port companies 1 6 



248 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOB 1902. 

2. The following shall be substituted for the rates of corps 
pay laid down for our army service corps in article 788 : 

& d. 

First rate (mechanical transport companies only) 1 8 

Second rate ( mechanical transport companies only) 1 4 

Third rate _ _ l 2 

Fourth rate (mechanical transport companies only) 1 

Fifth rate _ 11 

Sixth rate _ 8 

Seventh rate 6 

Eighthrate 3 

SELF-PROPELLED WAR CAR. 

The accompanying illustration represents the latest depart- 
ure in automobilism, and, as will be seen, consists of the 
combination of offensive weapons with an armored motor 
wagon, the whole forming a novel appliance, the scope and 
utility of which may prove of far-reaching character. The 
machine is the invention of Mr. F. R. Simms, and has been 
built to the order of Vickers' Sons & Maxim, Limited. Its 
principal object is to act on the defensive on the coast roads 
of this country, but if successful in this departure there are 
many other obvious uses in warfare to which the car can be 
applied. For instance, it is suggested that for quelling 
street mobs it might be adopted. It weighs complete about 
5£ tons, and the 6-millimeter Vickers' steel armor completely 
encircles the car frame. The wheels are wood with iron tires. 
The armor is of crinoline shape, flattened longitudinally and 
having a ram fore and aft. The extreme length is 28 feet, 
the beam 8 feet, and the height 10 feet. One of the chief 
difficulties which was encountered in the armor plating was 
the method of securing it to the frame of the car, as it was 
found that the constant vibration due to running over ordi- 
nary road surfaces loosened the riveting. This has, however, 
been remedied by attaching the armor to the frame by means 
of semielliptical springs, onto which it is hung by means of 
brackets. The four semielliptical springs are mounted on 
steel trestles, suitably braced and stayed to the main frame. 
By this it will be seen that the armor is not rigidly fixed to 
the frame. It is claimed, moreover, that this system of 
mounting increases the impenetrability of the armor by 
allowing a certain amount of lateral movement when hit by 
projectiles. This movement is limited by distance links. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



249 




3 

2 
o 






250 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The armament on the car shown at the crystal palace last 
Friday includes two automatic quick-firing Maxim guns and 
a pompom, with their turret mountings. The ammunition 
is carried in boxed-in stores situated at the extreme ends of 
the armor. 

The frame of the vehicle is rectangular, and is built up of 
heavy steel channels of U section — tied, stayed, and braced 
so as to be perfectly rigid. The motive power is supplied by 
a 16-horsepower four-cylinder hydrocarbon engine of the 
Daimler type, with Simms-Bosch magneto-electric ignition. 
The cylinders are 90 millimeters diameter and 130 milli- 
meters stroke. The transmission of power is effected by 
friction cone direct through a short length of shafting to the 
speed- changing gear, the male part being movable, and 
operated by means of a foot lever throwing the engine in and 
out of gear. The speed gear is on the Cannstall principle, 
and has four definite speeds, i. e., 1£, 3, 5, 9 miles per hour. 
With the accelerator, however, the speed of the car may be 
increased by 25 per cent. By means of the speed gear, which 
is controlled by two levers, each commanding two speeds, the 
frictiofl clutch is automatically released before the change of 
speed is effected. The third lever controls the forward or 
backward movement, the gear being so arranged as to give 
all four speeds either forward or backward, which is attained 
by means of a shifting double-bevel pinion. The transmis- 
sion of power to the driving wheels is by means of a counter- 
shaft, on which is fitted the differential gear; at either end 
of this shaft is fixed a sprocket wheel, and these sprocket 
wheels drive, by means of chains, the road wheels. 

The steering gear is designed on the well-known Acker- 
mann principle, and is controlled by handwheel and worm 
gearing, which renders the maneuvering easy and safe for 
heavy vehicles of this type. Ample brake power is provided. 
There is one foot-brake, throwing the friction cone out of 
gear simultaneously with acting on a powerful double-acting 
brake clutch, mounted on the first gear-wheel shaft. Tin re 
is also a very powerful handwheel brake putting into action, 
first, two powerful hand brakes on the hubs of the two driv- 
ing wheels, and, if turned still further, engaging two power- 
ful circumferential brakes on the driving wheels. 

Four persons are said to be sufficient to man the machine, 
but there is ample platform area for a further number of 
riflemen. — The Engineer, April 11, 19'02. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 251 

ALLOWANCE OF MOUNTS, OUTFITS, FURNITURE, AND REGU- 
LATIONS TO OFFICERS. 

Army orders dated war office, December 22, 1902, provide 
allowances to officers as follows : Two horses are supplied to 
each line cavalry officer or royal horse artillery officer (except 
quartermasters) and one horse to every other mounted officer 
in the army, including quartermasters, except those officers 
serving with the staff, schools, household cavalry, medical 
service, or the departments. Subject to certain conditions, 
an allowance of about $500 is paid to an officer promoted 
from the ranks to aid him in purchasing his first outfit. 

At home stations the quarters of all unmarried regimental 
officers, except commanding officers, riding masters, and 
quartermasters are furnished. All officers' messes are fur- 
nished with furniture, china, glass, and cooking utensils. 
The only payment required is to cover ordinary depreciation 
and is as follows: 

Officers' quarters, 2 cents per day. 

Field officers' quarters, 4 cents per day. 

Officers' messes (each member) 2 cents per day. 

Every officer also receives copies of each of the books of 
army regulations. 

HORSES SHIPPED TO SOUTH AFRICA. 

[CoNFILED reOH THE EVIDENCE SUBMITTED TO THE COURT OF INQUIRY ON THE ADMINISTRATION 

or the Army Remount Department, the Reports op Various Officers, and Other 
Sources by First Lieut. R. 8. Clark, Ninth Infantry.] 

During the South- African war, between October 22, 1899, 
and May 30, 1902, the total number of horses shipped from 
the various countries, including the British empire, was 
331,456, and the total number which arrived in South Africa 
was 316,072. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

From October 22, 1899, to May 3, 1902, 81,401 horses were 
shipped (23,178 with units and 58,223 remounts), and, of the 
total, 73,888 arrived in South Africa. The losses en route 
were 9. 23 per cent. Ail were shipped under admiralty arrange- 
ments at the average cost of freight of £ 18 1 4s. 3d. The aver- 
age cost of horses in Great Britain was, for cavalry and 
artillery, £45, and for cobs £30. 



252 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

UNITED STATES. 

From March 17, 1900, to May 19, 1902, 100,986 horses were 
shipped (66,911 under admiralty arrangements and 34,075 
under arrangements of the inspector general of remounts 
with Messrs. Houlder Brothers), and of the total 9?,ST1 
arrived in South Africa. The losses en route were 2. IT per 
cent, admiralty, and 4.88 per cent, Messrs. Houlder Brothers, 
the average cost of freight being £17 17s. 2d., admiralty, and 
£21 8s. 7d., Messrs. Houlder Brothers. The average cost of 
horses was, for cavalry, £25 10s., and for cobs £15. 

CANADA. 

From May 29, 1900, to April 12, 1902, 13,612 horses were 
shipped (9,874 under admiralty arrangements and 3,738 under 
arrangements by the inspector general of remounts with 
Messrs. Houlder Brothers), and of the total, 12,999 arrived in 
South Africa. The losses en route were 4.18 per cent, admi- 
ralty, and 5.34 per cent, Messrs. Houlder Brothers, the aver- 
age cost of freight being £17 12s. 9d., admiralty, and £22 8s., 
Messrs. Houlder Brothers. The average cost of the horses 
was, for cavalry, £28; for artillery, £30; for cobs, £25. 

AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND. 

From October 30, 1899, to May 23, 1902, 25,000 horses were 
shipped, partly under admiralty arrangements and partly 
under arrangements by the inspector general of remounts 
with Messrs. Houlder Brothers, and of the total, 23,797 arrived 
in South Africa. The losses en route were 4.81 per cent. 
The average cost of freight was £17 15s., admiralty, and £15 
4s. 5d., Messrs. Houlder Brothers. The average cost of horses 
was, for cavalry, £15; for artillery, £20; for cobs, £12. 

AUSTRIA -HUNGARY. 

From May 1G, 1900, to May 30, 1902, 58,141 horses were 
shipped (42,802 under admiralty arrangements, 11,534 under 
arrangements by the inspector general of remounts with 
Messrs. Houlder Brothers, and 3,805 under imperial yeomanry 
arrangements), and of the total, 56,051 arrived in South Africa. 
The losses en route were 1.60 per cent, admiralty; 9.91 per 
cent, Messrs. Houlder Brothers; 6.89 per cent, imperial yeo- 
manry. The average cost of freight was £15 Is. 4d., 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 253 

a<lmiralty; £21 Is. 5d., Messrs. Houlder Brothers; imperial 
yeomanry not given. The average qost of the horses was, 
for cavalry, £30; for artillery, £35; for cobs (Austrian) £20, 
(Russian) £26 10s. 

ARGENTINA. 

From November 14, 1899, to October 2, 1900, 25,872 horses 
were shipped under arrangements by the inspector general of 
remounts with Messrs. Houlder Brothers, and of these 25,701 
arrived in South Africa. The losses en route were 0.62 per 
cent; the average cost of freight being £14 9s. 8d. The aver- 
age cost of horses was, for cobs, £8. 

INDIA. 

From October 17, 1899, to December 23, 1901, 8,539 horses 
were shipped under admiralty arrangements (3,124 remounts 
and 5,415 with units), and of these 8,431 arrived in South 
Africa. The losses en route were 1.77 per cent remounts, and 
0. 999 per cent with units. Neither the cost of the animals nor 
the freight is obtainable. 

COLONIAL CONTINGENTS. 

(Presumably from Canada and Australia. The information 
at hand does not state.) 

From October 20, 1899, to April 5, 1901, 17,905 horses were 
shipped (7,200 under admiralty arrangements and 10,705 under 
colonial government arrangements), and of these 17,334 ar- 
rived in South Africa. The losses en route were 2.43 per 
cent, admiralty, and 3.7 per cent, colonial governments. 
Neither the cost of the animals nor the freight is at hand. 

According to the evidence given by the quartermaster gen- 
eral on March 1, 1902, there were then on the ration list in 
South Africa 243,000 horses and mules; that of these 20,000 
were on the sick list, and that of these no less than 1,000 a 
week were being destroyed as incurable, irrespective of the 
numbers which were lost in action or died of disease. This 
came from the extremely hard work which had to be done on 
insufficient rations, due to the conditions prevailing in a 
sparsely settled country and a very active enemy. The fol- 
lowing figures show some instances in which there was a 



254 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

very great wastage, and may be taken to illustrate extreme 

cases : * 

1901. | 

Strength of unit 48 

Subsequently drawn (in five months) 556 

Total _ 1,048 

At the end of five months: 

Handed in 391 

Condition of those handed in- 
Fit 1 13 

Fit in ten days 80 

Unfit 84 

In hospital, chiefly sore backs and African 

mange _ 208 

Destroyed _ 106 

Total 891 

One column 2,900 strong lost 960 horses in one month. 

1900. 

Column B (original strength) 8,681 

Sent back in six days - 369 

Died or destroyed _ 679 

Missing 202 

Sent to sick -horse farm — 884 

Present sick or wounded 544 

Total unfit in one month 2,178 

STAMP OF HORSES PREFERRED. 

The consensus of opinion was that horses from 14 hands 2 
inches to 15 hands, of a cobby stamp, were the best suited to 
the country. Of the larger horses, the English and Amer- 
ican horses were preferred, and the Hungarian, Argentine, 
Canadian, and Australian horses were generally condemned. 
After the Basuto ponies the American cobs were preferred. 
The English, Irish, Canadian, and Australian cobs and the 
few Arabs used were considered good. Except the survival 
of the fittest, the Argentine and Hungarian cobs and Indian 
country breeds were condemned. 

MULES. 

During the South- African war, between October 22, 1899, 
and May 30, 1902, the total number of mules shipped from 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 255 

the various countries, including the British empire, was 
104,071, and the total number which arrived in South Africa 
was 101,265. 

UNITED KINGDOM. 

From October 22, 1899, to May 3, 1902, 248 mules were 
shipped under admiralty arrangements, and of the total, 245 
arrived in South Africa. The losses en route were 1.29 per 
cent. The cost of freight is not given. 

UNITED STATES. 

From May 17, 1900, to May 19, 1902, 77,158 mules were 
shipped under admiralty arrangements, and of the total, 
75,015 arrived in South Africa. The losses en route were 
2.79 per cent, and the cost of freight was £14 16s. 7d. 

CANADA. 

From May 29, 1900, to April 12, 1902, 3,197 mules were 
shipped under admiralty arrangements, and of the total, 3,116 
arrived in South Africa. The losses en route were 2.52 per 
cent. The cost of freight is not given. 

INDIA. 

From October 17, 1899, to December 23, 1901, 1,107 mules 
were shipped under admiralty arrangements, and of the total, 
1,104 arrived in South Africa. The losses en route were 0.25 
per cent. The cost of freight is not given. 

ITALY. 

From October 11, 1899, to November 30, 1899, 7,004 mules 
were shipped under admiralty arrangements, and of the total, 
6,984 arrived in South Africa. The losses en route were 0.28 
per cent, and the cost of freight was £18 10s. 

SPAIN. 

From October 15, 1899, to July 19, 1900, 15,229 mules were 
shipped under admiralty arrangements, and of the total, 
14,673 arrived in South Africa. The losses en route were 3.65 
per cent, and the cost of freight was £15 15s. 5d. 

CYPRUS. 

One shipload of mules, 128 in number, was shipped March 
17, 1900, and arrived in South Africa without any losses en 
route. The cost of freight is not given. 



256 . NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

As will be seen by the above, almost all the mules came 
from the United States. This came f rum the mules not only 
being cheaper, but from their being of a much better quality 
than elsewhere and from the large quantities that the mar- 
kets of the United States were capable of supplying. Gen. 
Sir R. Stewart and Lieut. Col. E. Holland, R. A., reporting 
on the remount operations in the United States, say: "We 
are of the opinion that they (mules) are first-class. In our 
experience nothing approaches them except the gun mules in 
the mountain batteries in India, and we see no fault to find 
with them as a class." The mules purchased for the South- 
African war in the United States were as a rule somewhat 
smaller than those purchased for use in the United States 
army. Their height varied from 13 hands 3f inches to 15 
hands 2 inches, and the price from $75 to $100. 

CONDITIONS OF SERVICE OF TROOPS STATIONED IN AFRICA, 
NOT UNDER DIRECT CONTROL OF THE WAR OFFICE. 

[Compiled from Official Regulations bt First Likvt. R. S. Clark, Nixth Ikfaxtit.] 

(1) The protectorates under the control of the foreign office 
in which troops are stationed are as follows : 
The British Central- African Protectorate. 
The East- African Protectorate. 
Uganda. 

The Somaliland Protectorate. 
The troops are : 
First and second battalion, Central- African regiment. 
Third battalion, East- African rifles. 
Fourth battalion, Ugandan regiment. 
Fifth battalion (Indian), Ugandan regiment. 
Sixth (Somaliland) battalion. 
These 6 battalions are known as "The King's African 
rifles." 

Officers applying for service must address their applica- 
tions to the war office. When selected they are posted to the 
battalion in which there are vacancies at the time, but any 
wish they may have expressed for any particular battalion 
is respected so far as the exigencies of the service permit. 
Officers, while serving, are liable to be transferred from one 
battalion to another. 

Officers are seconded for three years, with the option of 
extension to five years, in the event of its being considered 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 257 

desirable to retain their services, the first year being "on 
probation." Officers are liable to removal from the King's 
African rifles on the completion of one year's service, or 
earlier, if considered unfitted for employment with native 
African troops. 

Appointments are to the post of subaltern (and in occasional 
exceptional cases to that of company commander), with con- 
solidated pay at the rate of £400 per annum and no allow- 
ances. 

Officers rank in their battalion, and in the King's African 
rifles, according to the date of their appointment to or pro- 
motion in the King's African rifles. If two or more officers 
are appointed on the same date, their seniority is governed 
by their respective army rank. 

Promotion to the command of companies, pay £500 per 
annum, will be by seniority, provided the officer has earned 
thoroughly satisfactory reports. 

Promotions to commandant and second in command, pay 
£900 and £700 respectively, is by selection. 
Leave is granted under special rules. 

Passage to and from stations in Africa is granted subject 
to the regulations in force in the various protectorates. 

(2) "The West African frontier force" is administered by 
the colonial office, and comprises the military forces of the 
colonies of Gambia, Sierra Leone, the Gold Coast, and Lagos, 
and the protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria. 
There are included in it not only the force raised on the Niger 
in 1897-98 under the name of the West- African frontier force, 
but also the local forces formerly known as the Gold Coast 
and Lagos constabularies (Hausa forces), the royal Niger 
constabulary, the Sierra Leone frontier police, the Niger- 
Coast Protectorate force. 
The force consists of the following units: 



Name of unit. 



Number of Euro- 
peans. 

Xoncom- 
Offlcers. ruiHrtioned 
officers. 



Northern Nigerian regiment (2 infantry battalions, '2 batteries of artillery, and 

1 eugineer company). 
Southern Nigerian regiment (1 infantry battalion, and 2 batteries of artillery). 

r >ol<l-Coast regiment (2 infantry battalions und 2 batteries of artillery) 

W<w battalion 

Sierra Leone battalion (including 1 company stationed in the Gambia) 



45 2* 
01 13 
15 I 

19 I 2 



258 



NOTES OF MILJTAKY INTEREST FOR 1902. 



The Northern-Nigerian regiment represents the first and 
second battalions of the original West- African frontier 
force, and is stationed in Northern Nigeria. Its headquar- 
ters are at present at Jebba. The greater part of the royal 
Niger constabulary was incorporated into this regiment. 

The southern Nigerian regiment represents the former Niger- 
Coast Protectorate force and the remainder of the royal Niger 
constabulary, and is at present stationed in Southern Nigeria, 
with headquarters at Old Calabar. 

The Gold-Coast regiment represents the former Gold-Coast 
constabulary, or, as it was termed locally, the Gold-Coast 
Hausas. One battalion is stationed in the Gold-Coast colony 
and Ashanti, with headquarters at Coomassie, and the other 
in the northern territories of the Gold Coast, with headquar- 
ters at Gambaga. 

The Lagos battalion represents the former Lagos constabu- 
lary or, as it was termed locally, the Hausa force, and is 
stationed in the Lagos Colony and Protectorate, with head- 
quarters at the town of Lagos. 

The Sierra Leone battalion represents the former Sierra 
Leone frontier police and, with the exception of one company 
stationed on the Gambia, is quartered in the Sierra Leone 
Protectorate. The headquarters are at present in Freetown. 

N. B. — The West- African regiment, which is quartered in 
Sierra Leone, is not part of the West- African frontier force, 
but is under the officer commanding the troops in Sierra 
Leone, and is administered by the war office. 

Establishment of officers. 



Rank. 



Lieutenant colonels 

Majors 

Adjutant** 

Captains 

Lieutenant* 

Pay ami quartermasters t - 
Orquarterinasters 



Northern Southern t Gold- . 

I Nigerian Nigerian I Court JJSJL 
regiment. ' regiment, regiment. Daw " uon - 



8ierr» 

Leonf 

lwttalK-o 



2 I 

2 __. 
14 
40 . 

1 ,_. 



I 



* In the Sierra Leone and Lagos battalions one of the captains or lieutenants Is selected to acta* 
adjutant, and while so acting draws the duty pay attached to the performance of the duties of the 

JMWt. 

t In the Sierra Leone aud Lagos battalions one of the captains or lieutenants is selected to act * 8 
pay and quartermaster, and while no acting draws the duty pay attached to the performance of the 
dutic* of the post. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 259 

Tor the Northern-Nigerian regiment there is, in addition to 
t:lie officers already mentioned, a headquarters staff, consist- 
ing of: 

1 colonel commandant. 

1 lieutenant colonel, second in command. 

1 brigade major. 

3 brigade transport officers. 

N. B. — The authorized establishment of officers in the dif- 
ferent units of the force is liable to alteration from time to 
time. It may be found, together with the lists of the officers 
actually employed, in the monthly "Army List." 

INSPECTOR GENERAL. 

There is also an inspector general for the whole force, with 
the local rank of brigadier general, and he has a staff officer, 
with, the local rank of major, attached to him. The inspector 
general, whose headquarters are at the colonial office, visits 
West Africa periodically for the purpose of inspecting the 
several divisions of the force, and, when in England, acts 
as military adviser to the colonial office on all questions con- 
nected with the force. In the case of an expedition in which 
the expeditionary force is composed of portions of the West- 
African frontier force drawn from more than one colony or 
protectorate, the inspector general will, as a general rule, be 
employed to take command ; but in ordinary circumstances 
he does not, when in West Africa, take command of the force 
or of any portion of it. Among his chief functions are the 
following; to assist in maintaining a satisfactory and uniform 
standard of efficiency and training, to ascertain the compara- 
tive merits of the various officers, and to advise the governors 
and high commissioners and the secretary of state on questions 
concerning training, discipline, equipment, etc., and the pro- 
motion of officers from one portion of the force to another. 



260 NOTES OF MILITARY IKTBBE8T FOR 1902. 

PAY OP OFFXCEBS. 

The following are the rates of pay per annum for officers: 

Inspector general - £1,200 

Staff officer 650 

Lieutenan t colonel, commanding regiment 800 

Lieutenant colonel, commanding battalion 700 

Major, second in command of regiment 600 

Other majors 500 

Captain ". 400 

Adjutant 400 

Lieutenant of six years' service in the force* 350 

Lieutenant of three years' service in the force* 825 

Lieutenant of less than three years' service in the 

force*.... 800 

Pay and quartermaster or quartermaster 850 

The rates of pay peculiar to the Northern-Nigerian regi- 
ment are as follows : 

Commandant £1,000 

Second in command _. 800 

Brigade major 500 

Captain, engineer company m . 450 

Captain, artillery 450 

Brigade transport officer: 

First 450 

Second and third 400 

Lieutenant, engineer company 400 

Lieutenant, artillery, of six years' service in the 

force* 860 

Lieutenant, artillery, of three years' service in the 

force* ..._ 886 

Lieutenant, artillery, of less than three years' service 

in the force* - 312 

On first appointment, half pay will, in accordance with the 
colonial regulations, be allowed from the date of embarkation 
from England, and full pay from the date of arrival in the 
colony or protectorate in which the unit is stationed to which 
the officer has been appointed. 

♦Previous commissioned service in the regular army counts toward 
service in the force for purposes of pay, but previous service in the militia 
does not. Thus, an officer of the regular army with three years' service 
at the date of appointment as a lieutenant in the West-African frontier 
force draws £325 per annum from the date of appointment, and one vnU 
six years' service, £350 ; and, similarly, on completing three or six years' 
combined service in the regular army and the West- African frontier fort* 
an officer becomes entitled to the appropriate increment. A captain of 
the regular army, serving as a lieutenant, draws £350 per annum. 



MISCEELANEOUS NOTES. 261 

In the event of an officer being selected for employment in 
the West- African frontier force while serving abroad, he will 
be allowed half West- African pay from the date of his depart- 
ure from his foreign station to the date of his arrival in the 
colony or protectorate in which the unit is stationed to which 
he has been appointed; provided that he does not stay in 
England longer than is necessary for the purpose of provid- 
ing himself with uniform and equipment. Any leave which 
may be granted on the ground of private affairs will be with- 
out pay. 

DUTY PAY. 

Duty pay at the following rates is given to the officer 
actually performing the duties of the post or command to 
which he is attached : 

Per annum. 

Commander of regiment £156 

Battalion commander, Northern Nigeria 144 

Battalion commander, Sierra Leone and Lagos battalions 96 
Second in command of battalion, Northern Nigeria, and 
second in command of Southern-Nigerian and Gold- 
Coast regiments 96 

Adjutant (according to locality) 96 or 48 

Company commander 48 

Pay and quartermaster or quartermaster (according to 
locality) 60 or 48 

Rates of duty pay peculiar to the Northern-Nigerian regi- 
ment : 

Per annum. 

Commandant £192 

Second in command... 156 

Brigade major 182 

Commander, engineer company 100 

Battery commander __ 96 

Brigade transport officer 60 

Lieutenant, engineer company _ 48 

N. B. — The officers of the engineer company receive also 
corps pay at the rate of £50 per annum. 

Duty pay is payable only to the officer actually performing 
the duty ; but, if in any case it is necessary in the interests of 
the public service that the holder of a post to which duty pay 
is attached should be detailed for special service requiring 
exceptional qualifications, a special allowance equivalent to 
the duty pay which he loses may be granted to him at the 
discretion of the governor or high commissioner for the period 
during which he is employed on such service. 



262 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 190S. 

ALLOWANCES. 

(1) A field allowance at the rate of 5s. a day is paid to offi- 
cers when detached from their stations on duty. 

At present all officers in Northern Nigeria and the northern 
territories of the Gold Coast are treated as if they were in the 
field and draw this allowance, but when permanent quarters 
have been built it will be paid to officers only when detached 
from their stations on duty. It does not become payable 
until an officer takes up his duties with the force, and stops 
when the officer is admitted into hospital. 

Field allowance is not payable during leave of absence, or 
sick leave, or for the period of the voyages to and from the 
colony or protectorate. 

(2) An outfit allowance of £30, as a contribution toward 
the cost of providing uniform, etc., is given to each officer 
on first appointment. 

(3) An officer serving in Accra, the northern territories of 
the Gold Coast, Lagos, the Gambia, and Northern Nigeria, 
may be required to provide himself with a horse, and to main- 
tain a horse throughout his period of service. In that event, 
he will receive a forage allowance of 2s. 6d. a day for each 
day for which a horse is kept. 

(4) In places other than Accra, the northern territories of 
the Gold Coast, Lagos, and Northern Nigeria, the grant of 
hammock allowance or other allowance for personal convey- 
ance while on duty is subject to local regulations. 

(5) The inspector general draws a consolidated allowance 
of £3 3s. a day while in West Africa, and his staff officer a 
consolidated allowance of £1 Is. a day. They are supplied 
with transport and hammock or other conveyance. 

(6) No other allowances, whether in the shape of free 
rations, ration allowance, or traveling allowance, are given 
to officers of the West- African frontier force. 

TRAVELING EXPENSES. 

Free passages are provided for officers from England to 
West Africa and back (subject to the exception specified in 
Section XI of these conditions), but every officer is required 
on first appointment to sign an agreement with the crown 
agents for the colonies binding him to repay the cost of his 
first passage out in the event of his relinquishing his appoint- 
ment within one year of the date of his arrival in the colony 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 263 

or protectorate for any other reason than mental or physical 
infirmity. 

Traveling expenses in the United Kingdom are not paid by 
tlie government; 

QUALIFICATIONS OF OFFICERS. 

A. candidate for first appointment as a lieutenant in the 
West- African frontier force — 

(1) Must be an officer of the regular army, militia, imperial 
yeomanry, or reserve of officers. 

(2) Must, at the date of appointment, be more than iH and 
leas than 35 years of age. 

(3) Must be unmarried on first taking up his appointment. 

(4) Must, at the time of application, have completed two 
years of actual regimental duty at home or abroad, or, if a 
militia officer, three trainings with his own battalion. 

(5) Must, if a militia officer, hold the following certificates : 
(a) An officer's certificate in musketry, including machine 

guns, from the school of musketry at Hythe, or its equivalent,. 
and 

(6) A certificate on Army Form E 516 (promotion to the 
rank of captain), or a P. S. certificate, Army Form E 527. 

Except in special circumstances, officers serving abroad 
will not be accepted for service in the West- African frontier 
force. 

APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS. 

Officers are selected for appointment by the secretary of 
state for war subject to the concurrence of the secretary of 
state for the colonies. The list of applicants for employment 
in the West- African frontier force is kept by the military 
secretary at the war office, and applications should be 
addressed to that department. 

When the appointment of an officer has been sanctioned by 
the secretary of state for the colonies, he will receive instruc- 
tions from the colonial office as to the date on which he should 
proceed to West Africa. Appointments date, as a general 
rule, from the day on which the officer embarks in this coun- 
try ; but officers appointed while serving abroad date their 
appointment from the day on which they leave their foreign 
stations to take up their duties in the West- African frontier 
force. 



264 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOB 1902. 

RANK AND PRXCZDKNCB OF OFFICERS. 

(1) Officers of the West- African frontier force rank accord- 
ing to the date of their army commissions, or of their local 
rank (if any) in the army under the king's regulations, para- 
graphs 3 (i) and 9 (i). 

(2) Second lieutenants in the army and lieutenants or sec- 
ond lieutenants in the militia appointed as lieutenants in the 
force are given the local rank of lieutenant in the army from 
the date of appointment to the force while serving as lieu- 
tenants in the force. 

(3) Militia captains appointed as captains in the force are 
given the local rank of captain in the army from the date of 
appointment to the force while serving as captains in the 
force. 

(4) Militia or army officers appointed to a higher grade in 
the force than their own militia or army rank are given the 
local rank of the higher grade. 

(5) Militia captains appointed to the force as lieutenants 
take rank on their militia commissions, viz, as junior to 
all the captains of the force but senior to the lieutenants; 
such seniority does not, however, carry any claim to advance- 
ment in the force. Militia lieutenants promoted to the rank 
of captain in the militia while serving as lieutenants in the 
force take rank similarly. 

PROMOTION AND TEMPORARY APPOINTMENTS. 

Promotion is made by selection, and seniority alone con- 
fers no right to it. 

The officer commanding each unit of the force is empowered, 
subject to the approval of the governor or high commissioner, 
to select officers for temporary commands and appointments. 
Such temporary commands and appointments carry with 
them no increase of pay other than the allowance or com- 
mand pay which may be attached to the command or appoint- 
ment, and will not be regarded as substantive promotion 
unless, and until, confirmed by the secretary of state for the 
colonies. 

When the promotion of an officer is confirmed by the sec- 
retary of state, the pppointment will date, and the officer will 
be entitled to the pay of the higher rank, from the day on 
which the officer whom he succeeds ceased to draw the full or 
half pay of that rank, and from no earlier day. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 265 

PERIOD OF SERVICE AND TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT. 

The period for which officers must engage to serve in the 
first instance is one tour of service, which consists, subject 
to the exigencies of the service, of twelve months' residential 
service in West Africa. Officers are required to report to the 
under secretary of state for the colonies in writing within 
one month of their arrival in England at the end of their tour 
of service whether they wish to reengage for further service, 
and in the absence of any such report they will be treated in 
respect of leave and reabsorption in their British regiments 
as if they did not wish to return to West Africa. When an 
officer signifies his wish to return, the secretary of state for 
war will be asked to approve of his being seconded in his 
regiment for a further period of service with the force. 

During the first tour of service an officer is regarded as on 
probation, and during the period of probation it is open to 
the officer commanding the unit of the force in which he is 
employed to represent to the governor or high commissioner 
that he thinks the officer, either from temperament or other 
cause, is unsuited for employment with the force; in which 
case the governor or high commissioner, if satisfied with the 
reasons, will cause the officer to embark for England, with 
instructions to report himself to the secretary of state for the 
colonies, who will arrange with the secretary of state for war 
as to his return to his regiment. 

No officer will be allowed to resign his appointment in the 
force before the expiration of the period for which he has 
been seconded in his regiment, except on sufficient grounds 
to be approved by the governor or high commissioner, the 
secretary of state for the colonies, and the secretary of state 
for war. 

An officer who is ordered to return to England on the ground 
that he is unsuited for employment with the force will be 
granted a free passage home, but will not be entitled to any 
pay after leaving the colony or protectorate. He may, how- 
ever, at the discretion of the secretary of state for the colonies, 
be granted half West- African pay from the date of leaving the 
colony or protectorate until the date of arrival in England or 
such other date as may be fixed. 

An officer who is permitted to resign his appointment before 
the completion of a tour of service entitling him to leave of 



266 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

absence will not be entitled to a free passage home or to any 
pay after the date of leaving the colony or protectorate. 

LEAVE OF ABSENCE. 

Leave of absence is granted in accordance with the regula- 
tions in force for civil officers in the West- African colonies 
and protectorates, copies of which may be obtained from the 
colonial office. A brief summary of these regulations is given 
here for convenience. 

The ordinary tour of residential service is one year, fol- 
lowed by leave with full pay during the voyages to and from 
England, and for four or two months clear in England, ac- 
cording as the officer is returning for further service in West 
Africa or not. If an officer is detained beyond the year, 
additional leave is given with full pay for ten or five days in 
respect of each completed month beyond twelve, according as 
he is returning or not. If he is invalided before the end of the 
year, the leave with full pay is for the voyages and for ten or 
five days in respect of each completed month, according as he 
is returning or not. Leave granted on the understanding that 
an officer will return is known as " return leave," and any pay 
drawn in respect of such leave is liable to be refunded if he 
does not return. 

Leave may be extended for a limited period with half or 
no pay on the ground of ill health, or without pay on other 
grounds. 

PENSIONS. 

Officers of the regular army seconded for service in the 
West-African frontier force are not eligible for any pension 
from colonial funds in respect of such service. Militia officers 
seconded for service in the West- African frontier force are 
eligible for pension from colonial funds under the same regu- 
lations as civil officers in the West- African colonial service. 

Copies of these regulations may be obtained from the colonial 
office. 

UNIFORM. 

Officers are required to provide themselves with the uniform 
laid down in " Equipment and Dress Regulations of the West- 
African Frontier Force," copies of which may be obtained 
from the colonial office. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 267 

LANGUAGE REWARDS. 

Special rewards will be given to European officers for pass- 
ing standard examinations in native languages. 

CANADA. 
ROSS RIFLE— CONTRACT CLOSED WITH GOVERNMENT FOR A SUPPLY. 

Sir Charles Ross has closed a contract with the govern- 
ment to supply 12,000 stand of the* Ross rifle. Under the 
contract the government adopts the Ross rifle as the arm for 
the Canadian army, stipulating that it shall be manufactured 
in Canada. The factory is to be in Quebec, and will com- 
mence with some two or three hundred hands, though it is 
calculated that in a very short time the number employed 
will average a thousand. There is also a contract between 
the government and Sir Charles Ross in which the govern- 
ment binds itself to purchase all its rifles from him, per- 
sonally giving him a preliminary contract for 12,000 rifles. 
Sir Charles Ross binds himself to supply the government 
with arms, and if at any time the minister of militia and 
defense shall decide to change the weapon, then he is to give 
Sir Charles twelve months' notice to that effect, and at the 
expiration of that time he is to be in a position to supply 
the needed weapon. Should any difference arise between 
the minister and Sir Charles as to the price, then the matter 
is to he settled by arbitration, the point to be decided by the 
arbitrators on the basis of the price at which the government 
could have purchased the arm in open market in Great 
Britain. 

The work of building and equipping the factory will be 
begun at once. The only thing at present uncertain being 
the exact location in Quebec of the factory. — Montreal 
Gazette, May 1, 1902. 

ITALY. 

REGULATIONS GOVERNING MILITARY TRANSPORTATION. 

The newly published regulations governing military trans- 
portation are of the greatest importance. They regulate 
according to modern and practical principles the execution 
of important strategic transports and the movements in the 
rear of mobile armies as far as they are to be made by rail. 
What exists has been used and developed. The peace prepa- 
ration is now in the hands of a military technical central 



268 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

committee for military railway transportation, permanently 
attached to the general staff command. The quartermaster 
general is at the head of this committee and is detailed as 
assistant to the chief of the general staff. The members are 
the chief of the section of transportation, the military com- 
mittee officials, the presidents of the railway sections with 
their railway engineers, the inspectors general of traffic, 
construction, and concession of railways, and the directors 
general of the large railways. Their work consists in the 
study of the most practical employment of means of trans- 
portation during war and the proposition of corresponding 
plans. Railway service comes with the beginning of mobil- 
ization and during the whole of the war into the custody of 
military command. As soon as mobilization is begun a gen- 
eral direction of transports and a transportation direction for 
each army separately are formed. The members of the 
general direction are the director general, a general, and 
several detailed officers. The two Mediterranean railway 
sections and the general direction of the Adriatic network 
are increased in personnel of the line commissions. A line 
commission is established in Sicily. The general direction 
notifies the line commissions with regard to transportation 
and movement of trains. To these line commissions and sub- 
commissions are subordinate a certain number of station 
commands according to principles already established during 
peace time, the strength varying according to the importance 
of the station. Mobile station commands are established on 
the railway lines of the etappe zone, the number, seat, and 
composition being determined by the general direction, and 
whose purpose is the same as those of station commands at 
the time of mobilization and strategic advance march. If 
necessary, the general direction has the power of creating 
military technical railway sections which are either inde- 
pendent or are combined by twos, threes, or fours into railway 
companies. They are destined (1) for the exploitation of such 
lines where it seems necessary that it should be done by 
soldiers, and (2) to reestablish interrupted lines, and, if 
necessary, to build branches and narrow-gauge lines. As 
has already been done in 1901 and 1902, volunteers may he 
trained as firemen, brakemen, etc., in the railway brigade or 
with private railway companies. — AUgemeine Schweizerisch 
Milittirzeitung, August 16, 1902. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 269 

REORGANIZATION OF THE ARTILLERY. 

Tlie adoption of the new field artillery material will entail 
tlie reorganization of that branch of the service. At present 
the Italian artillery consists of : Four inspecting staffs, 1 com- 
mittee for experiments, 8 artillery commands, 14 territorial 
subdivisions, 24 field artillery regiments (consisting of 186 
batteries divided into 48 brigade divisions, 36 transport com- 
panies, and 24 depots) ; 1 horse-artillery regiment with 6 bat- 
teries, divided into 3 brigade divisions, plus one group of 4 
transport companies and a depot; one mountain-artillery regi- 
ment with 15 batteries, divided into 5 brigade divisions and a 
depot; 22 coast and fortress artillery brigades (11 of each), 
having in all* 78 companies and 2 administration bureaus; 5 
companies of artificers. 

The present law regarding the cadre of officers fixes that of 
the artillery at 1,684, who are thus distributed by ranks: 
Forty -two colonels, 62 lieutenant colonels, 116 majors, 528 
captains, 926 subaltern officers. 

The characteristic of the new organization, which is about 
to be submitted to parliament, is the reconstitution of coast 
and fortress artillery regiments, which were done away with 
in 1895, and the conversion of the brigade divisions into field 
artillery. At the present time, of the 48 brigade divisions of 
which the field artillery regiment consists, 42 are made of 4, 
while 6 have only 3 batteries. According to the new organ- 
ization each field artillery regiment will consist of 3 brigade 
divisions (2 to 3 and 1 to 2 batteries). Later on the brigade 
divisions will be made up to 2 batteries each, by joining to 
them a howitzer battery, should the experiments now being 
carried out demonstrate the utility of these guns, on which 
opinion is still divided. It is not known if the ministerial 
scheme provides for the reconstitution of the 6 field batteries 
which were transformed in 1895. 

The new organization of the Italian artillery will be as fol- 
lows : One general inspection staff ; 3 inspection staffs ; 9 artil- 
lery commands; 13 territorial subdivisions; 24 field artillery 
regiments, forming 72 brigade divisions, 36 transport compa- 
nies, and 24 depots; 1 horse-artillery regiment with 3 brigrade 
divisions (in all 6 batteries); 1 group of 4 transport com- 
panies and 1 depot; 1 mountain-artillery regiment with 5 
brigade divisions (in all 15 batteries), and 1 depot; 6 coast 
and fortress artillery regiments with 24 brigade divisions (in 



270 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

all 72 companies) and 6 depots; 1 coast-artillery brigade divi- 
sion of 3 companies for Sardinia; 6 companies of artificers. 

The new artillery organization demands a cadre consisting 
of 1,738 officers, thus made up, viz: Forty-five colonels, 69 
lieutenant colonels, 132 majors, 539 captains, and 953 subal- 
tern officers. — Journal Royal United Service Institution, 
April 15, 1902. 

AUTOMOBILE BAKING OVEN FOR THE ARMY. 

The periodical VIngegneria e V Industrie, of May 30, 1902, 
gives the description of an automobile baking oven which can 
follow the troops on the march and which possesses the ad- 
vantage of transforming the grain immediately into flour and 
bread. 

This carriage, invented by Schweitzer, is composed of two 
parts : The first contains the motor and a series of mills with 
sieves and mechanical kneeding troughs, put in motion by 
the same motor which propels the carriage; the second part 
consists of a small oven with constant temperature. 

The grain poured into the mill hopper is rapidly transformed 
into flour, which is afterwards mixed with slightly salted 
water and, after fermentation, is worked and introduced into 
the oven. 

The Schweitzer automobile oven gives 100 kilograms of 
bread per hour ; the apparatus is very simple and does not 
exact the employment of a special personnel ; the bread ob- 
tained is of the best quality and more nutritious than that 
baked in ordinary ovens. — Rivista di Artigleria e Oenio, 
July-August, 1902. 

TROOPS IN ERITREA. 

Financial considerations and peace in the colony of Eritrea 
allow a decrease in the numerical strength of the troops. The 
Italian corps of chasseurs is decreased from 600 to 300 men 
distributed among three companies; the native troops are re- 
duced to four battalions, of which two are constituted of six 
companies each and two of four each. Only one of the two 
mountain batteries will remain in the colony ; the coast guards 
will be reduced from 400 men to 4 officers and 300 natives; 
the squadron of cavalry will count only 60 horses, and only 
three independent sections of engineer troops will be left in 
the colony. The training, on the other hand, will be far more 
strictly looked into and the selection of the natives will not 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 271 

~L>e as wide. In case of disorders the mobile militia of the 
oolony will be resorted to. It has been decided to construct 
«. narrow-gauge railway from Massaua to Asmara, where the 
seat of the government will be transferred for the greater part 
of the year. This line, some 125 kilometers long, is estimated 
to cost 25 millions and to be completed within three years. — 
Jalirbilcher fiir die deutsche Armee und Marine, May, 1902. 

JAPAN. 

THE ARMY AND NAVY OF JAPAN. 

The reorganization of the army, according to an imperial 
decree, must be conducted so as to be completed by 1903; the 
A.rmeeblatt, however, states that this will take place sooner. 
Since 1896 the average annual contingent has increased to 
50,000 recruits. 

At the present time the Japanese forces comprise : Three 
armies of 13 divisions, 52 infantry regiments (156 battalions), 
13 cavalry regiments (65 squadrons), 13 field artillery and 
mountain artillery regiments (117 batteries), 7 battalions and 
8 half-battalions of engineers, 26 train companies, and 1 rail- 
way battalion. For war outside its frontiers, Japan could 
easily mobilize 7 divisions comprising 140,000 men and 370 
guns, while leaving a similar force for home defense. — Revue 
de V Armee Beige, March-April, 1901. 

IMPORTANT MODIFICATIONS IN THE JAPANESE ARMY. 

The following important changes are contemplated for the 
fiscal year of 1902-03 (from April 1, 1902, to March 31, 1903): 

1. Clothing and shoes will no longer be manufactured in 
the army, but only repaired; there will consequently be a 
reduction in the number of the regimental tailors and shoe- 
makers. 

2. Diminution of the central supply depot, in consequence 
of which there will be a smaller number of the personnel. 

3. Each division has heretofore had a prison. There will 
remain only the following : One in Tokyo for the guard and first 
division; Asaka, fourth division; Kokura, twelfth division; 
Taipei, Formosa; and Asahikawa (Hokkeido), seventh di- 
vision. The other divisions, the second (Sendai), third 
(Nagoya), fifth (Hiroshima), sixth (Kumamoto), eighth 
(Hirosaki), ninth (Kanazawa), tenth (Hinseji), and eleventh 



272 NOTE8 OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

(Marugame) will have only a small place of detention for 
prisoners. 

4. The division intendancy and the intendancy of Formosa 
will be abolished, and instead of them each division and 
Formosa will have a small commissary bureau. 

5. Reduction of the supply depot for Formosa. Until now 
all necessaries for the troops were sent from Japan; bat now 
this is not indispensable as order has been established on this 
island and the greater part of supplies can be obtained on the 
spot. 

6. The strength of the companies in Formosa (three infantry 
brigades are stationed there) is reduced, that is, the companies 
numbering 200 men will now consist of only 150. A reduc- 
tion will likewise be made in the mess allowance for the 
military personnel stationed in Formosa and Korea. 

An economy of 1,043,000 yen will be realized by the changes 
contemplated. 

On the other hand, greater expenditure will be necessitated 
by the following innovations : 

1. Increase of the number of cavalry and artillery horses 
in peace time, as experience has shown that it is very difficult 
to obtain good mounts in time of war in a country as poor in 
horseflesh as Japan. 

2. New organization of the siege artillery. So far there 
was only coast artillery. Henceforth fortress artillery will 
be divided into two parts — coast and siege artillery. For 
this purpose a course for siege artillery will be established at 
the fortress-artillery firing school. 

3. Formation of a telegraph battalion at Tokyo. 

4. New organization of a central intendancy division and 
increase of the scope of the intendancy school, as the division 
intendancies are abolished and only small commissary bureaus 
will be established in each division. All paymasters (there 
are 620 in all) will be dismissed and their functions will fall 
upon intendancy officials. For this purpose the intendancy 
school will be increased so as to supply the necessary number 
of intendants. It is thought that it will be possible to trans- 
act the business with 200 intendants instead of 620 pay- 
masters. 

5. Establishment of penal section at Tokyo for men who 
have been punished five or six times without reforming. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 273 

6. Increase of pay to majors — until the present day they 
received 96 yen ($94.93 Mexican) per month— by 10 yen ($9.95 
Mexican), of the quarters allowance for officer's aspirants, and 
the pay of the second-class privates — until the present day 90 
sen ($0.90 Mexican) a month — by 30 sen ($0.30 Mexican). 

There are first and second class privates in the Japanese 
army. 

7. The supply of trained horses to the mounted troops in 
Formosa. — Internationale Revue, April, 1902. 

MOROCCO. 

ARMED STRENGTH. 

There are five Maghzens tribes which do not pay any taxes 
and are, consequently, at the disposition of the government. 
Every man not with the colors pays about 0.80 franc per 
month. 

All the other tribes are considered as auxiliary. 

The Maghzens tribes supply the personal guard of the sul- 
tan, his couriers, the garrisons of certain kasbas, especially 
those on the boundary between Fez and Morocco. 

All the Maghzens tribes furnish tabors ; the nouai'bs (aux- 
iliary troops) do the same. The tabor is the only unit known 
in Morocco. If the chief is popular the tabor is large ; if not, 
there is not a man in it. There are tabors of 4,000 men each, 
and others of as few as 17 each. Every time that mention is 
made of a tabor its name must be given. It is that of the 
tribe which furnishes it. 

When necessity arises the tribes furnish auxiliary contin- 
gents, the men on foot increasing the tabors and those on 
horseback forming the cavalry, which must have degenerated 
since the celebrated bulletin of Isly, for it is anything but 
redoubtable. 

There exists no systematic rule for recruiting. As soon as 
a tribe grows wealthy and numerous, the sultan sends there 
a column. One or more tabors of 1,000 men each are raised 
on the spot. These men must all be young and robust. The 
families follow these conscripts, who are taken away in 
chains, and the tribe is sufficiently weakened by this proceed- 
ing to calm all the fears of the sultan. 

Each tabor is commanded by a caid aga. It is divided into 
mia (100), each commanded by a caid mia. Each mia counts 



274 NOTB8 OF HHJTAKY INTEREST FOB 1902. 

a certain number of mokhadems, which correspond to non- 
commissioned officers. All these belong to the tribe which 
furnishes the tabor. 

These three grades represent the whole hierarchy. They 
do not demand any technical knowledge or give any right to 
command. They signify only that those who have them are 
sufficiently rich to pay their posts, where the economy realized 
upon the pay of their subordinates constitutes their only 
prerogative. 

There exists an allef (paymaster), whom the Europeans 
call minister of war. He is intrusted with the pay of the 
army, but in reality commands the army. At the present 
time this post is occupied by El-Mahadi-El-Menebhi, favorite 
of the sultan and a creature of MacLeane. 

The menebhi, who is not a Maghzen, but a Berber, has two 
khalifas under him for the purpose of administering and 
commanding the army; also a number of allefs, who have 
the same title as he, and who are placed each over one or 
several tabors. 

The soldier gets his pay and must feed himself. The 
Maghzen furnishes tents and two complete costumes per year. 
The armament is distributed by mias ; normally it is in the 
hands of the caid mias, who distribute it only at the time of 
exercises. This armament is variable. It consists of Martini- 
Henry and Gras rifles for the men with the colors, but the 
nouai'bs, who form the nucleus of the army, are armed with 
stone moukhalas. 

The pay varies from 1 grich (0.25 franc) for the private to 
2 pesetas per day for the caid aga who feeds his horses. This 
is paid very irregularly. Normally, the war minister keeps 
one day's pay per week, the caid aga one more, but in realitr 
the five remaining days are not generally paid. All the men 
have n trade. They are not obliged to be present at exercises; 
they may even go home. The idea of desertion is unknown. 

It is thus that a reenforcement of 800 men, which started 
in 1886 from Mogador to Sous, arrived there reduced to 50, 
although pains had been taken to chain them. But if a tabor 
is to be raised for the purpose of weakening a tribe, certain 
numbers are called and taken. 

From time to time the war minister or his khalifa count 
the men with the colors. If the caid aga gives a suitable 
present, the effective strength is reported complete, otherwise 
his post is given to another man. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 27$ 

jLt the present time the sultan pays 40,000 men for 200,000 
said to be under arms. 

There exists but one mode of punishment — blows with a 
rope on the small of the back. Every man has the right of 
appeal to the war minister. " 

Infantry. — The infantry neither shoots nor marches. As 
a principle there are three exercises a week. An exercise 
consists of a march lasting from one hour to one hour and a 
half. 

The Harraba battalion (instructors) is directed by the 
Englishman MacLeane, formerly of the garrison of Gibraltar. 
He has obtained a baronetcy and calls himself general of the 
sheriffs army. MacLeane has contrived to lay his hand on 
all the infantry tabors, with the exception of two, those of 
the Ouda'ia and Cherarda, who are instructed by Algerian 
noncommissioned officer^. 

At the present time MacLeane commands at Rabat the 
Harrabas and a machine-gun section with five pieces, and a 
tabor of 4,000 men is being organized for him at Caouia. 
Six British noncommissioned officers have arrived at Rabat 
for this purpose. 

There is also a tabor of 500 men, recently created at Tanger, 
commanded in English by pupils of MacLeane. 

The tabors of Rabat (75 men), Sal6 (25 men), and Sasa- 
hlanca (abandoned a few years ago) have been instructed by 
the French mission (a captain of infantry, an adjutant of 
zouaves, two noncommissioned officers of the Algerian rifles). 

The strength of the tabors being in close relation to the 
favor enjoyed by their chiefs, it may be easily seen what is 
the situation of the French mission as compared to the British. 

Artillery. — The artillery consists of four tabors. 

The weakest is that of the renegades. It counts 17 men, 
including 5 Frenchmen, 1 " joyeux," and 1 spahi (deserters). 

The strongest is that of the Boukharis, which counts 800 
men. 

There are neither horses nor mules. For the maneuvers or 
exercises the necessary animals are taken from the sultan's 
stables, and sometimes it happens that their service is needed 
for the harem, and then the artillery has to remain without. 
Moreover, this artillery is exercised only for ceremonies. 

The material consists of one old French 4-pounder moun- 
tain gun, two Italian Krupp guns, and some Canet guns. 



876 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

These latter are not appreciated on account of their being too 
complicated. 

Engineers. — This scientific arm is represented by 70toft» 
mohendicins (engineers), who possess a few very elementary 
notions on geometry. Among them there are some renegades 
who form the dlite. The tolba mohendicin are subordinate 
to French artillery instructors. 

Cavalry. — The cavalry is constituted solely of contingents 
of tribes grouped around their caids. The caids are, as the 
mediaeval governors of provinces, small sovereigns, possessing 
all the powers of their grade. 

The armament is furnished by the sultan, the horses Ij 
the tribes, who are invited to make a present of them to the 
cidna. — Armke et Marine, February 28, 1902. 

PERSIA. 

FORMATION OF NEW BRIGADE. 

According to the Viestnik inostrannoy voennoi litercdury, 
the Persian journals Iran and Ittila announce the formation 
of a brigade, consisting of three regiments of cavalry and a 
6-gun battery of horse artillery, which are being instructed in 
Cossack tactics by Russian officers. This news is not sur- 
prising when the Russian tendency to spread down toward 
the south is taken into consideration, and in view of the fact 
that a Russian general is head of the Persian cavalry. The 
men of the new brigade are recruited, for the most part, in 
the province of Aderbdidj&n, which borders on the Caucasus. 
The inhabitants of this province are of Turco-Tartar origin, 
and are regarded as an especially brave and strong race. 
Each soldier brings his horse and complete equipment with 
him, with the exception of his carbine, which is presented hy 
the state. The uniform consists of a black tunic, buttoning 
down the side ; an astrakhan cap, high black boots, etc. The 
training is good; the batteries, however, are not as efficient 
as they might be, as the horses and wagons are in frequent 
use by the shah's court officials. — United Service Magazine 
May, 1902. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. ' 277 

PEBU. 

NEW ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 

According to the law authorizing the executive to increase 
tlie army to 4,000 men, the president decreed that it should 
be organized as follows : 

.A. detachment of the general staff with 20 privates. 

One regiment of mountain artillery with 665 privates dis- 
tributed as follows : Two battalions of 7 batteries and one 
section of sappers. 

Seven battalions of infantry with 310 privates each. 

One squadron of cavalry, escort of the president of the 
republic, with 135 privates. 

Six squadrons of cavalry with 135 men each. 

Two garrison companies of Loreto with 50 men each. 

One garrison company of 50 men in the mountains of Puno. 

One garrison company of 50 men in the mountains of 
Cuzco. — Revista Militar (Brazil), September, 1902. 

ORGANIZATION OP THE ARMY. 

According to the law promulgated in June, 1899, all citi- 
zens are liable to military service between the ages of 19 
and 50. 

The army is divided into five classes : 

1. The regular army. 

2. Supernumeraries. 

3. The first reserve. 

4. The second reserve. 

5. The national guard. 

The regular army is subdivided into three groups : 

(a) The volunteers : These are men between 19 and 30 years 
of age who enlist without waiting to be enrolled and those 
between 23 and 30 years of age who have served the obliga- 
tory term and desire to continue the service. 

(6) The conscripts: These are young men between 19 and 
23 years of age who have drawn lots for service and are on 
the municipal rolls. 

(c) The enlisted men: These are such as have been en- 
rolled in the army for crimes committed. 

The three above-mentioned groups are sufficient to keep 
the regular army on the footing required by law. When, 
circumstances so warrant, the supernumeraries are called to 



278 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

arms. These are the conscripts included on the municipal 
rolls and who await their turn to enter the service. When 
these are not sufficient the reserves are called in. 

The first reserve comprises : 

(a) Men between 23 and 30 years of age who have served 
their term. 

(6) Men between 19 and 23 years of age who have married 
before entering the service. 

(c) Students of technical schools and universities between 
19 and 30 years of age. 

The second reserve comprises : 

(a) Men between 30 and 35 years of age. 

(6) Professors of schools, universities, etc. 

The national guard comprises : 

(a) Men between 35 and 50 years of age. 

(b) Physicians and surgeons of hospitals. 

(c) Permanent judges. 

(d) Only sons of poor parents who are over 60 years of age. 

(e) The sons of widows. 

(/) The employees of the post and telegraph services. 
(g) Chiefs of bureaus, municipal functionaries (alcaldes 
municipales), etc. — Mexico MUitar, October 15, 1902, 

PORTUGAL. 
REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 

The Portuguese army, reorganized by the law of July 13, 
1899, which brought about remarkable changes in the re- 
cruiting system then in force, has again been the object of 
measures of the greatest importance, by the division of the 
kingdom into three great commands. 

The continental territory of Portugal had been distributed 
among four division districts, the headquarters of which 
were Lisbon, Vizeu, Oporto, and Evora. Each division was 
subdivided into six regimental subdivisions or bureaus of 
recruiting and reserve, and the Portuguese army, the consti- 
tution of which was based on the principle of regional 
recruiting, was composed in the following manner: 

ACTIVE ARMY. 

1 . Four divisions, each comprising 1 company of engineers 
(sappers-miners); 1 regiment of mounted artillery with 8 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES.' 279 

"batteries; 1 regiment of cavalry of 5 squadrons, 1 in the 
depot; 1 regiment of chasseurs on foot with 3 battalions of 
-4 companies each, and 2 brigades of infantry of the line with 
2 battalions of 4 companies each. 

2. Nondi visional troops : Six companies of engineers (1 of 
drivers, 2 of pontoniers, 1 of telegraphers, one of railway 
workmen, and 1 of depot) ; 2 batteries of horse artillery ; 2 
"batteries of mountain artillery; 2 regiments of garrison 
artillery of 2 battalions of 8 companies each, and 2 brigades 
of cavalry of 2 regiments with 5 squadrons each, 1 a depot 
squadron. 

3. Troops of the Azores and of Madeira : Three companies 
of garrison artillery, and 3 regiments of infantry of the lino 
of 2 battalions with 4 companies each. 

Deducting the horse artillery and garrison artillery, the 
Portuguese active army comprised: One regiment (10 com- 
panies) of engineers, 4 regiments (32 batteries) of mounted 
artillery, 8 regiments (40 squadrons) of cavalry, 4 regiments 
(12 battalions) of foot chasseurs, and 27 regiments (54 bat- 
talions) of infantry of the line.* 

RESERVES. 

When the three classes of the active units had been placed 
on a war footing by the call to colors of the five classes of 
the first reserve, the seven remaining classes, constituting 
the second reserve, were to form : 

1. In Portugal proper 5 companies of engineers (sappers- 
miners, pontoniers, telegraphers, and railway workmen), 4 
groups of mounted artillery, each of 4 batteries; 2 battalions 
of garrison artillery ; 8 groups of cavalry, each of 2 squad- 
rons, and 24 regiments of infantry of the line of 2 battalions 
each. 

2. In the adjacent islands, 3 companies of garrison artil- 
lery, and 3 regiments of infantry of 2 battalions each. 

According to the terms of the decree of December 7, 1901, 
the continental territory of Portugal is to be divided into 
three large military districts, the northern, the central, and 
the southern. The territory of the adjacent islands will con- 
tinue as heretofore to form two military districts of the 
Azores and of Madeira. 

* The arms of service follow the order of precedence in the Portuguese 
army. 



280 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Each of the large military districts of the continent will 
comprise divisional circumscriptions, or territorial military 
divisions, each of these subdivided into two brigade circum- 
scriptions, and each brigade circumscription into two regi- 
mental circumscriptions or recruiting and reserve districts. 

The military district of the Azores will comprise two 
recruiting and reserve districts; that of Madeira shall form 
only one. 

Two divisions of the active army shall be recruited and 
permanently garrisoned on the territory of each great com- 
mand. The composition of each division shall be the fol- 
lowing: One company of sappers-miners, 1 regiment of 
mounted artillery of 6 batteries, 1 regiment of cavalry of 4 
squadrons, 2 brigades of infantry of the line of 2 regiments 
of 3 battalions each. 

The headquarters of the territorial military divisions shall 
be : For the great northern military district, Oporto and Villa 
Real; for the central, Vizeu and Coimbra; for the southern, 
Lisbon and Evora. The command of the territorial military 
divisions, the seat of which will be at Lisbon, Oporto, and 
Vizeu, shall be intrusted to a general of division ; that of the 
other divisions may be intrusted to a general of division or 
a brigadier general. The cavalry and infantry brigades shall 
be commanded by brigadier generals of the same arm, or 
colonels of recognized aptitude. The recruiting and reserve 
districts shall be commanded by infantry field officers. 

These dispositions have been completed by a second decree 
of December 24, 1901, fixing the future composition of the 
Portuguese army as follows : 

Engineers. — The active troops of this arm shall forma regi- 
ment of 10 companies — 6 of sappers-miners, numbered from 
1 to 6 ; 2 of pontoniers, numbered from 1 to 2 ; 1 of field teleg- 
raphers, and 1 railway company. A section of drivers shall 
be detailed to each company of pontoniers, telegraphers, and 
railway troops. The effective strength on a peace footing 
shall be 47 officers and 1,022 men, with quite a large number 
of horses and mules. On a war footing the number of officers 
shall be increased to 05, and of the men to 2,822. There shall 
be also 3 independent companies — 1 of fortress sappers, 1 of 
torpedoists, and 1 of fortress telegraphers. 

Artillery. — There shall be 6 regiments of mounted artil- 
lery, numbered 1 to 6, of 6 batteries each; 1 group of 2 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 281 

liorse-batteries; 1 group of 2 mountain batteries; 6 groups of 
garrison artillery, numbered 1 to 6, of 3 batteries each; 4 inde- 
pendent batteries of garrison artillery, numbered 1 to 4. On a 
peace footing the battery shall consist of 4 guns and 2 cais- 
sons for mounted artillery, and 4 caissons for horse artillery. 
On a war footing each battery shall have 6 guns with 9 cais- 
sons, 3 battery carts, and 1 forge for mounted artillery; 6 
caissons, 3 battery carts, 1 forge, and 1 wagon of supplies and 
forage for horse artillery; 1 reserve limber, 2 echelons of 
ammunition with 60 boxes and 1 forge for mountain artillery. 
The batteries which, on a peace footing, have 3 officers and 
78 men, 4 officers and 85 men, and 3 officers and 74 men, 
respectively, shall each have on a war footing 5 officers and, 
respectively, 159, 187, and 222 men, with the necessary horses 
and mules. 

In time of peace the sixth battery of each regiment of 
mounted artillery shall be armed with howitzers, and the 6 
batteries of 1 regiment shall form 2 groups of 3 batteries each, 
numbered from 1 to 3. 

Cavalry. — There shall be 10 active regiments of cavalry, 
numbered 1 to 10, and each regiment shall be composed of 4 
squadrons, numbered 1 to 4. The number of sabers per regi- 
ment on a peace footing shall be 519, and on a war footing 
shall be increased to 759. 

Infantry. — The active infantry troops shall form 6 battal- 
ions of chasseurs, numbered 1 to 6, of 6 companies each on a 
peace footing, and reduced to 4 at the moment of their pass- 
ing to a war footing; 24 regiments of infantry of the line, 
numbered 1 to 24, with 3 battalions of 3 companies each ; 3 
regiments of infantry of the line, numbered 25 to 27, of 2 
battalions of 3 companies each. 

The battalions of chasseurs shall each have a platoon of 
sappers and a platoon of cyclists distributed among the com- 
panies for their administration; moreover, each company 
shall be provided with a machine-gun section. The effective 
strength of the battalion of 27 officers and 498 men on a peace 
footing shall have double this number of officers and men on 
the war footing. 

The infantry of the line is the arm which will receive pro- 
portionally the greatest number of reservists. The effective 
strength provided in time of peace for a 3-battalion regiment 
is 38 officers and 567 men; that of a 2-battalion regiment, 28 



282 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

officers and 438 men; in time of war there would be per regi- 
ment 62 officers and 3,012 men in the 3-battalion regiments, 
and 43 officers and 2,008 men in the 2-battalion regiments. 
All new creations will be made gradually, beginning July 1, 
1902, according to the resources of the budget. 

Another decree of the same date, following upon the one 
mentioned above, relates to the reserves. Portuguese citi- 
zens, who were to serve only during fifteen years, three years 
in the active army, five in the first reserve, and seven in the 
second, are now liable to military service for ten years more, 
from 35 to 45 years of age, in a third territorial reserve. The 
decree says as follows : 

The first and second reserves of the army are designed — 

(a) To complete the effective strength of army units when 
passing from a peace to a war footing. 

(b) To supply in the same units the losses which take place 
in the field. 

(c) To form position troops specially designated to occupy 
fortified strategic points. 

(d) To form field units which circumstances might demand 
as troops of the second line. 

The men of the third territorial reserve are intended for 
local defense ; they shall be incorporated in centers of resist- 
ance which shall be formed in the close vicinity of their 
homes. 

As yet nothing has been changed in the existing forma- 
tions of the second line, but it is evident that they will soon 
be the object of new measures. The decree in question allows 
this supposition, as it indicates that special instructions will 
intervene to regulate the utilization of the reserves. 

With regard to the active army an "Ordem do exercito" 
of January 8, 1902, indicates how the provisions of the new 
decrees are to be carried into effect, the scheme being as 
follows : 

Engineers. — Of the present companies the fourth sapper- 
miners shall be numbered 2, the fifth and sixth shall be the 
first and second pontoniers, the seventh shall be the field 
telegraphers, and the eighth the railway company. The 
company of drivers (second) and the depot company shall be 
dissolved. There shall be formed three new companies of 
sapper-miners, which shall take numbers 4, 5, and 6, and 1 
company of fortress telegraphers. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 283 

Artillery. — The four artillery regiments shall each be 
reduced from 8 to 6 batteries. The extra batteries and others 
newly made shall serve to form regiments Nos. 5 and 6. The 
fifth regiment is about to be organized; the sixth will be 
organized later. The batteries which shall form part of it, 
the Nos. 4 and 5 of the first regiment where they were num- 
bered 7 and 8, will continue to temporarily belong to their 
original unit; Nos. 1, 2, and 3, at present 5 and 6 of regiment 
No. 3, shall form an independent group. 

Cavalry. — The two new regiments Nos. 9, and 10, will be 
organized partly by active squadrons from other regiments, 
where they will be replaced by newly formed or depot squad- 
rons, and partly by depot squadrons of the same origin. It 
is unnecessary to observe that this increase of the cavalry 
refers only to the regiments; that of the squadrons does not 
change. 

Infantry. — The chasseur companies which will enter into 
the new formations, where they will be numbered 5 and 6, 
will be furnished by the abolished battalions. Two compa- 
nies of regiment No. 4 exceeding the regulation number shall 
be dissolved; the ten remaining companies (battalions Nos. 3 
and 9 in full) will pass to the infantry of the line. In this 
branch battalion No. 3 shall be constituted for 19 regiments 
by the fourth companies of the present battalions and by one 
company newly created; for five other regiments the reor- 
ganization will take place by the passing of the companies or 
even whole battalions from regiment to regiment, namely, by 
the complete breaking up of regiment No. 15, which will be 
reorganized by the chasseur battalions Nos. 3 and 9, and by 
the organization of a few new companies. 

Regiments Nos. 25 and 26, garrisoned in the Azores, and 
No. 27, stationed at Madeira, will remain, as has been said ; 
two battalion regiments and their fourth companies will be 
dissolved. 

Such is the outline of the new organization of the Portu- 
guese army. It shows great progress over the past and on 
this account merits notice. Its principal effect will be the 
increase of infantry battalions from C6 to 88, making easier 
the incorporation of men of the first reserve, and at the same 
insuring a better defense of the kingdom. 

It seems that budgetary resources had to be considered 
when three companies only were given to the battalions. The 



284, NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

state of the finances did not allow Portugal to increase the 
expenses of the army, but it is almost certain that the lack- 
ing fourth companies will be provided for, to be created at 
the time of mobilization. The organization of the chasseurs 
is entirely new. It may be noted, contrary to what will take 
place in the infantry of the line, that the number of com- 
panies is decreased at the moment of passing to a war footing. 
Two reasons have imposed this measure. The recruiting of 
the chasseurs being from the whole territory of the kingdom, 
it would be difficult, at the moment of mobilization, to assem- 
ble in the necessary time a sufficient number of reservists to 
complete the effective strength of the six companies. More- 
over, the special instruction received by these companies did 
not allow giving them as many reservists as to the infantry 
of the line proper. It seemed, therefore, preferable to reen- 
force the effective strength of four companies by the distri- 
bution of men from the other two, so as to take as few as 
possible from the first reserve. 

When the new decrees have received their full application, 
that is, in a very short time, the army of the first line will num- 
ber about 95,000 men. Adding to it the special formations 
of the second reserve (65,000 men) and the formations of the 
territorial reserve (70,000 men approximately), a strength of 
230,000 men is reached, showing the maximum of the military 
strength of the kingdom. If the whole strength is not of the 
same value, the care taken for the instruction, which is 
limited to two periods of thirty days each for the men of the 
first reserve, and two periods of twenty days for the 
second reserves proves at least that Portugal, the military 
organization of which is at present at least somewhat similar 
to that adopted by the great European powers, is making 
serious efforts to render her army as powerful as the resources 
of the population allow. — Revue du Cercle MUiiaire, March 
22, 1902. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 285 

NUMBER OF OFFICERS SERVING IN EAST AFRICA. 

According to order No. 12 of December 31, 1901, the num- 
ber of officers serving in East Africa on that date was the 
f olio wing : 

Officers of regular army 

Colonel 1 

Majors _ 2 

Captains 13 

Captain, surgeon __ 1 

Captain, riding master _ 1 

Lieutenants - 25 

Ensigns - - -_- 14 

Total — 57 

Officers in garrison in the province : 

Colonel _. 1 

Lieutenant colonels 2 

Major _ _ 1 

Captains - 17 

Lieutenants - 26 

Ensigns... - 11 

Total 58 

Royal navy: 

Captain _ _ 1 

Lieutenant captain 1 

First lieutenant __ 1 

Second lieutenants -\__ 3 

Aspirant of naval administration 1 

Machinists - 4 

Total 11 

Grand total 126 

— Re vista do Exercito e da Armada, March, 1902 

RUSSIA. 

KITCHEN ON WHEELS. 

The Revue du Cercle Militaire gives the following descrip- 
tion of the rolling kitchen used by the Russian troops in the 
Chinese expedition : 

A large iron kettle is placed on the axle of a light carriage 
attached like a gun to a kind of limber, the body of which 
can carry a few provisions and combustible material. The 
kettle is closed by a cover with double turning joint and is 



286 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

provided with a safety valve. An iron fire box is located 
under the kettle and is supplied with a chimney about 1 meter 
in height. The men in charge of the rolling kitchen put 
water, vegetables, and meat into the kettle before the starting 
of the troops. Fire is made some two hours before the final 
halt or the cantoning. One such rolling kitchen is detached 
per company, squadron-, or battery. There does not exist as 
yet any regulation model, but the one described is in general 
i^.se. — Bulletin de la Presse et cle la Bibliographie Militoires, 
May <il, 1002. 

KITCHEN OF A RAILROAD TRAIN. 

The Revue du Cercle Militaire contains a description of a 
kitchen connected with a railroad train designed for the 
transportation of troops by rail, and which has just been 
experimented with on the line between St. Petersburg and 
Sebastopol. This car kitchen contains two great iron pots 
sufficiently large to prepare in them a hot meal for 700 men 
in one and a half hours, a large boiling kettle, which can con- 
tain 430 liters, for the purpose of making tea, a reservoir of 
1,230 liters of water, a tank in which to wash the meat, an ice 
chest, some tables, and some scales. — Bulletin de Presse et de h 
Bibliographie Militaires, November 30, 1902. 

SWEDEN. 

REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 

The reforms sanctioned by the new law on the military serv- 
ice and organization of the Swedish army began to come into 
operation during the autumn of last year. Although, as is 
known, this law will not come into full effect until 1914, it 
may be as well to give now a sketch of the most important 
innovations introduced by it. Among the latter figures the 
new organization of the staff service. In order to be appointed 
lieutenant on the staff every officer must fulfill the following 
conditions : 

1. He must have taken part for three years in all the exer- 
cises of the branch of the service to which he belongs. 

2. He must have undergone a course at the academy or at 
the artillery or engineers schools. 

3. He must have served a term of probationary duty in each 
branch of the service other than his own. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 287 

4. He must have served as a probationer on the staff for 2£ 
years, and during that period must have gone through two 
summer maneuvers on topographical duty, have clone duty 
-with the chief section of the general staff and with that of 
state defense, and, finally, have taken part in staff rides. 

5. He must be a good rider. 

Should the officer have already taken part in some of the 
exercises and works mentioned in paragraph 4, the term of 
this probationary service on the staff may be reduced. 

The organization of the army corps staff has also been 
changed, This staff consists now of the chief of the staff, a 
staff captain, two orderly officers (one a captain and the other 
a lieutenant), the principal medical officer of the army corps, 
engineer officers, and commissariat officials. The staff of an 
army corps is divided into two sections : the first, under su- 
pervision of the chief staff officer, has to elaborate questions 
regarding preparations for war and the mobilization of the 
army corps; the second, under the orderly officers, is charged 
with matters regarding the personnel. 

This year the war budget was fixed at 61,839,835 francs. 
This sum is thus divided: Ordinary expenditure, 45,089,857 
francs; extraordinary expenditure, 16,749,984 francs. The 
budget shows this year an increase of 13,350,000 francs over 
that of last year; this was necessitated by the new effectives 
of the cadres. Among the extraordinary expenditures may 
be mentioned: 

Francs. 

Purchase of new rifles and carbines 1,900,000 

Purchase of new field guns _. 2,700,000 

Construction of fortified works _•__. 2,600,000 

Construction of barracks _ 5,000,000 

Subsidies to shooting societies 500,000 

Reservefunds _ 800,000 

It may be remarked that the total number of rifles and car- 
bines to be bought by the state amount to 350,000 of the for- 
mer and 50,000 of the latter. The credits voted this year allow 
for the purchase of about 150,000 rifles and 20,000 carbines. 
The carbines should be available the first in order to arm the 
units of the newly organized engineer, transport, and fortress 
troops. About 25,000 rifles can be manufactured a year. 

As regards the field artillery, a contract was effected by which 
the Krupp foundries engage to supply Sweden with all the ma- 
terial. The Swedish government, however, reserves to itself 
the right to manufacture 120 caissons and 23,000 projectiles 



288 NOTB8 OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

in the national works on condition that the Krupp works 
receive an order of 120 guns with gxm carriages and limbers. 
Experiments with field artillery gun carriages are still being 
carried out at the present time. In spite of that, in June, 
1901, the king of Sweden decided to give out a portion of the 
order mentioned above, which would tend to show that the 
definite adoption of the Krupp gun is no longer a matter for 
doubt. 

Experiments have been made in Sweden, as among other 
powers, as to the best color for uniform, and as a result a 
neutral tint, a sort of cinnamon grey, has been finally selected. 
The number of horses for the state has been fixed this year at 
9,396, namely : Cavalry, C,000; artillery, 2,929 ; engineers, 143; 
transport, 324. 

In conclusion it may be of interest to give some details of 
the peace effective of the Swedish army when the new law 
comes into full effect. The personnel of the staff and admin- 
istration will consist of 374 officers or clerks. The other 
effectives will be as follows : 

Infantry. — 1,293 officers, 1,041 sergeants, 3,998 corporals, 
326 cadets, 4,117 volunteers, and 16,800 recruits. 

Cavalry. — 270 officers, 150 sergeants, 910 corporals, 00 
cadets, 2,010 volunteers, and 1,500 recruits. 

Artillery. — 451 officers, 390 sergeants, 1,505 corporals, 
144 cadets, 1,192 volunteers, and 3,396 recruits. 

Engineers. — 128 officers, 108 sergeants, 253 corporals, 15 
cadets, 317 volunteers, and 500 recruits. 

Transport. — 90 officers, 108 sergeants, 282 corporals, 12 
cadets, 156 volunteers, and 156 recruits. 

By adding these figures together it will be found that on a 
peace footing the Swedish army consists of 2,606 officers or 
clerks, 1,797 sergeants, 6,947 corporals, 557 cadets, 7,792 volun- 
teers, and 22,352 recruits, or altogether 42,031 officers, non- 
commissioned officers, and men. It may be added that 60,000 
men are called out for training each year. — Journal Royal 
United Service Institution, November 15, 1902. 

SWITZERLAND. 

WAR IDENTIFICATION TAOS— DECREE OP THE FEDERAL COUNCIL, 
JANUARY 81, 1902. 

In order to be able to recognize soldiers fallen upon the 
battlefield, the federal council has decided to adopt, in 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 289 

times of peace, tags for identification, for the picked men of 
the regiment (61ite), for the landwehr of the first ban, also 
for the recruits; and to insert a credit in the budget for 1003 
to be applied for their acquisition. The model submitted 
consists of a rectangular tag made of celluloid which can be 
attached to a cord and worn around the neck. The inscrip- 
tions are written with a special kind of ink. On the face are 
inscribed the personal descriptions, such as surname and given 
name, place and year of birth, and on the reverse side, the 
military branch of service (rank and unit). The changes 
which may occur as the result of promotions, transferals, etc., 
may be easily noted. — Feuille Militaire Federate, February 
25, 1902. 

TURKEY. 

THE BAGDAD RAILWAY. 

The sultan has authorized the construction of a railway 
which will traverse Asia Minor from west to east and will 
join the Meditei*ranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. 

This railway will be the shortest route from Europe to 
India and the extreme Orient. 

The railway line will start at Koniah, the present terminus 
of the Anatolian railway. Crossing the high plateaus of 
Caramania and the broken mountain chain of the Taurus, it 
runs into the fertile valleys of northern Cilicia and will join 
at Adana the already constructed line coming from the port 
of Mersina. 

Its direction from Adana will be east. It will reach the 
Euphrates at a distance of a few kilometers from Biredjick; 
crossing the river, it will pass through the northern part of 
Mesopotamia and reach the valley of the Tigris in the vicinity 
of Diarbekir ; here it will turn to the southeast, stopping at 
Mardin and the populous and wealthy city of Mossoul; it 
will then follow the left bank of the Tigris, which it will cross 
at Bagdad; thence it will run to Moussedjik, Kerbela, and 
Nedjeb, and end at Bassorah, or perhaps at Koveit, on the 
Persian Gulf. 

Another plan detaches a line from Deli- Abbas, reaching 
the Tigris at the city of Amarah, crossing the Persian frontier 
and ending at Fao, on the Persian Gulf. 

The plan, including branch lines, provides for 2,500 kilo- 
meters of road from Koniah to the sea. 

H29 10 



290 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The railway will be a standard gauge single-track road, 
but appropriations have been made in view of having tvo 
tracks in the future. 

Rapid trains will run between Constantinople and Bagdad, 
so that the journey from the capital to the headquarters of an 
important army unit will not exceed fifty-five hours. 

The concession of this railway in Asia Minor was not looked 
upon with favorable eyes by Russia. The Russian minister 
of finance advised Russian capital against the enterprise, as 
immense sacrifices have been made for the construction of 
the Trans-Siberian and the continuation of the line Orenburg- 
Tashkent to the Indian frontier. 

This is why Russia is keeping aloof, allowing French, Ger- 
man, and Belgian capital to take part in the construction of 
the railway between Constantinople and Bagdad.— A rmee ei 
Marine, May 11, 1902. 

PERSIAN GULP DEFENSES. 

The correspondent of the Morning Post, telegraphing from 
Berlin on the 15th, says: The commission appointed two 
years ago to draw up plans for the fortification of the Bagdad 
railway terminus in the Persian Gulf has presented a com- 
prehensive report to the Turkish government. 

The commission was assisted in its labors by two German 
officers. 

Its recommendations are : The two Turkish forts at Fao to 
be reconstructed and provided with modern batteries, and 
their garrisons to be increased from 65 men to three com- 
panies of infantry, together with the requisite number of 
artillerists; the island of Bubian to be fortified by the estab- 
lishment of at least two field batteries, each with two heavy 
pieces of ordnance, on the eastern shore; a similar battery to 
be established at the promontory Ras Sobnja immediately 
opposite the southern point of the island of Bubian ; on the 
Arabian coast the promontories of Ras Asheiridz (west of 
Koweit) and Ras-el-Arifi (east of Koweit) to be fortified; the 
last-named points to be occupied by garrisons appointed by 
the Sheik of Koweit; the guns to be supplied by Turkey.— 
Morning Post, May 15, 1902. 

ARTILLERY. 

The Turkish artillery, says La France Militaire, consists 
of 248 batteries, of which 18 are horse, 178 field, 46 mountain, 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 291 

and 6 howitzer. The Porte is attempting to rearm her artil- 
lery with quick-firing guns, and has approached German firms 
with, that object. On account, however, of her financial 
embarrassments, she has not, hitherto, been able to push for- 
ward the work of transformation. In March, 1902, her bat- 
teries were distributed as follows among the army corps : First 
army corps — 3 horse, 33 field, and 6 mountain, total 42 bat- 
teries ; second army corps — 3 horse, 33 field, and 8 mountain, 
total 44 batteries; third army corps — 3 horse, 50 field, 12 
mountain, and 6 howitzer, total 71 batteries; fourth army 
corps — 3 horse, 30 field, and 10 mountain, total 43 batteries; 
fifth army corps— 3 horse, 18 field, and 3 mountain, total 24 
batteries ; sixth army corps — 3 horse, 9 field, and 3 mountain, 
total 15 batteries. 

The nine other batteries are divided between the Tripoli 
and Hedjaz divisions, as follows: At Tripoli, 4 field and 2 
mountain batteries; at Hedjaz, 1 field and 2 mountain bat- 
teries. As soon as the quick-firing guns are delivered, new 
batteries will be formed, which will be given to those army 
corps which are least well provided with artillery. — United 
Service Magazine, June, 1902. 



1 

i 



VII.-MANEUVERS. 



THE AU6TBO-HTJNGABIAN MANEUVERS OF 1902. 

[Reported by Capt. F. W. Harris, Fourth Cavalbt, United States Military Attache at 

Vienna.] 

These maneuvers took place from the 12th to the 16th of 
September, inclusive, in the district of Sasvar, in Western 
Hungary, and were the culmination of continuous exercises, 
"beginning with brigade maneuvers in the month of August. 
The brigade maneuvers were succeeded in turn by division 
and corps maneuvers, the corps being grouped into armies, 
on the days above mentioned, for the grand maneuvers. 

While this report will be restricted to the grand maneuvers 
of the Austro-Hungarian army, in which the three divisions 
of the second corps and the two divisions of the fifth corps, 
one division of the first corps and two divisions of cavalry of 
the regular army, besides two divisions and one brigade of 
landwehr infantry, participated, it is important to call atten- 
tion to the fact that the entire army, except the fourteenth 
corps, was exercised during the months of August and Sep- 
tember in brigade, division, and corps maneuvers. The exer- 
cises in the excepted corps did not extend beyond those of the 
division. The accompanying table, marked A and entitled : 
"tJbersicht der Waffemibungen des k. und k. Heeres im 
Jahre 1902 " (Table of the Military Exercises of the Imperial 
and Royal Army in the Year 1902) shows the dates, localities, 
and extent of these practical military exercises. When, after 
a study of this table, it is borne in mind that the exercises 
therein represented follow immediately upon constant drill 
in the schools of the soldier, company, battalion, and regi- 
ment during the entire preceding year, some adequate idea 
may be obtained of the earnest and zealous effort made in 
this country to maintain one of the best trained and most 
efficient armies in the world. 



294 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The following is a translation of the instructions in detail 
for the grand maneuvers of this year : 

INSTRUCTIONS IN DETAIL FOR THE GRAND MANEUVERS IN 
WESTERN HUNGARY, 1908. 

I. — Directions. 

By command of His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, the chief 
of the general staff will have charge of the direction of the grand maneu- 
vers in Western Hungary, which will take place from the 12th to the 16th 
of September, inclusive, this year. 

II. — Hypothesis, organization of the troops, and situation at the beginning 

of the maneuvers. 

(Will be published by the chief of the general staff. ) 

III. — Composition of headquarters and stafj s ; umpires, assistant umpires, 

and reporters. 

1. The composition of the headquarters of the maneuver direction, 
which will be established in Sasvar from the 9th to the 17th of Septem- 
ber, inclusive, may be seen in Appendix 1 ; the list of umpires and assist- 
ant umpires, in Appendix 2 ; the list of reporters, in Appendix 3. 

The official newspaper reporting will be performed by one representa- 
tive of the Austrian press and by one representative of the Hungarian 
press. The intermediary of communication for the newspaper reporters 
will be Major Aurel von le Beau of the general staff, attached to the 
detail division of the maneuver direction, under whose orders both gentle- 
men will be directly placed under all circumstances. 

For the mounting of certain officers of His Majesty's suite and of the 
military attaches attending the maneuvers, hussar regiment No. 16 
will detail a cavalry detachment, consisting of 1 officer with 2 horses, 1 
mounted noncommissioned officer, 20 mounted hussars, and 20 led horses. 
All horses must be well broken and perfectly accustomed to troops. The 
march of the cavalry detachment will be so directed by the commander 
of the fourth corps that it will reach Sasvar on the 10th of September. 
During the maneuvers these horses will be saddled with infantry officers' 
saddles, furnished by the life-guard squadron ; but the regulation bridles 
will be retained. The men will receive, through the commander of the 
life-guard squadron, during the time they are attached to that squadron, 
an increase of pay most graciously granted by His Majesty, and the horses 
will receive an extra supply of forage. 

2. The composition of the headquarters of the higher commands may be 
seen in Appendices 4, 5, and 6. 

Their completion follows in Appendices Ila and 116, which are personal * 
and which will be distributed separately. 

To each army, corps, division, and independent brigade, an officer of 
the general staff will be assigned as reporter (Appendix 8). Special 
instructions will be published concerning their duties. 

For the direction of the service of the telephone detachments, which are 
formed conformably to Orders, Bureau 5, No. 1078, 1902 (supplement No. 



MANEUVERS. 295 

17), the officers of the railway and telegraph regiment designated as com- 
manders of the corps telegraph detachments in case of mobilization are to 
report to the corps commanders. The above-named regiment will be 
notified by the corps commanders where and when these officers are to 
report. 

The field gendarmes will report to the corps commanders on the 8th of 
September. 

The corps commanders will notify directly the imperial royal ministry 
for national defense and the royal Hungarian ministry for national 
defense where the field gendarmes are to report. 

The corps commanders will provide beforehand for the special equip- 
ment as well as for the proper mounting of the field gendarmes, in accord- 
ance with the "Organic Regulations and Service Instructions for the 
Field Gendarmerie of the Imperial and Royal Army " (Dienstbuch A — I, tt, 
Appendix B, sec. 18). 

The field gendarmes assigned to the maneuver direction will be equipped 
by the fourth corps. The maneuver direction will provide their mounts. 
(Appendix 1). 

The organization of the field post offices is given in Appendices 4, 5, 6, and 
8. The corps commanders notify directly those post and telegraph offices 
that furnish the civil personnel where and when it is to report. At the 
same time instructions as to the routes to be followed by the civil personnel 
are forwarded to the post and telegraph offices concerned. For the duties 
of clerks and orderlies, those noncommissioned officers and privates desig- 
nated for this service in case of mobilization will be employed so far as 
possible ; those of the reserve so designated will be employed for this duty 
only when they have completed their military duties. The civil personnel 
will carry with it the necessary office requisites. The field postmen will 
be provided with the prescribed apparatus and equipment. 

The field post offices begin operations on the day of their establishment 
and they will be discontinued on the 17th of September. They will for- 
ward and receive ordinary and registered letters and will cash postal 
money orders. No other mail matter will be handled by the field post 
offices, nor will they issue postal money orders. Private letters will not 
be forwarded free of postage. 

In other matters, reference is made to the "Organic Regulations and 
Service Instructions for the Field Post Offices of the Army in Campaign" 
(Dienstbuch A — I, uu), especially to section 6 (addressing of letters), sec- 
tion 80 (transfer of authority), and section 31 of the service instructions. 

The civil commissioners will report on the 11th of September at the 
places in which the corps headquarters are located. These places will be 
made known directly and in due time to these officials. 

The distribution of the staff troops will conform to Orders, Bureau 5, 
No. 700, March 28, 1902, and Bureau 3, No. 647, March 22, 1902 (supple- 
ment No. II). 

For the establishment of the field offices of the higher commanders, the 
corps commanders will be supplied with funds, in compliance with Ap- 
pendices Ila and lib. 

TV. — Uniform. 

1. All troops and employees will appear during the maneuvers in cam- 
paign uniform ; officers and officer candidates will not carry revolvers or 



.296 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

holsters. Cavalry troops will carry with them their for coats (winter 
"attilas " and fur " uhlanken"). 

Reservists, as well as the other troops, will be uniformed and equipped 
in a faultless manner. The required articles of uniform and equipment 
will be forwarded to the reservists in the theater of the maneuvers at the 
expense of the appropriation for military exercises. 

The officers and men of the Austrian field gendarmerie will wear their 
helmets, and those of the Hungarian gendarmerie will wear their hats. 

2. The staff troops, the personnel of the telephone detachments, servants 
and grooms in civilians' clothing, sutlers, and civilian teamsters will be 
provided with the prescribed brassard. 

The official newspaper reporters attached to the maneuver direction 
will be distinguished by a white band, with the word "Reporter," on the 
left arm. 

The umpires, assistant umpires, and reporters, as well as the orderlies 
assigned to them, will wear a white band, 10 centimeters wide, on the left 
arm. The same will be worn by the personnel of the branch subsistence 
depot in Sasvar that is assigned to the maneuver direction (Article XII, 
par. 4a). 

V, — Equipment. 

1. Each infantry and rifle battalion will equip four pioneers. 

The pioneer sections of the cavalry regiments will take with them the 
pioneer tools only ; the tools for the destruction of railways, as well as 
explosives and fuzes, will be left behind. 

The equipment for pioneer work is not taken along by the squadrons. 

Besides the equipment transported in wagons (Appendix 8), each pioneer 
company will also take with it the portable field equipment. Explosives 
and fuzes will be left behind. 

2. A cavalry telegraph patrol of 8 troopers will be formed and com- 
pletely equipped (Orders, Prasidial, No. 6051, December 24, 1898) in each 
cavalry regiment. For this purpose, reservists who have not completed 
their military duties and "furloughed " horses may be called in, if neces- 
sary, for twenty days' service. 

Instead of the batteries of the war equipment, the telegraph patrols 
will use the elements of exercise batteries in the battery cases. Each 
cavalry regiment will be allowed $2 for the purchase of filling material, 
candles, etc. 

The cavalry telegraph wire, M. 1896, employed by the telegraph patrols 
in establishing telegraphic connections will not be left in position, when 
the connections are no longer necessary, but will be taken up by those 
expressly designated for this duty, and will be taken along in the pre- 
scribed form of coils for further use. 

An infantry telegraph patrol (six telegraph operators and nine order- 
lies) is attached to each infantry division. Special instructions will be 
issued for their detail, equipment, and employment. 

A telephone detachment, with apparatus for four stations and 60 kilo- 
meters of line material, is attached to each corps, conformably to Orders, 
Bureau 5, No. 1078, 1902 (supplement No. 17). The men required for this 
service are detailed in accordance with 'Service Regulations and Instruc- 
tions for the Telephone Detachments of the Imperial and Royal Army" 



MANEUVERS. 4 297 

(Dienstbuch E — 35 e). Vacancies in the telephone detachments will be 
filled by suitably instructed infantry soldiers. 

The complete exercise batteries of the telephone detachments will be 
utilized. The filling and other necessary material for the batteries will 
be paid for from the appropriation for the army. 

The material of the telephone detachments will in no case be supplied 
to the cavalry telegraph patrols. 

With regard to the regulations for the use of State telegraph lines, 
attention is invited to Orders, Bureau 5, No. 3222, October 29, 1891; 
Bureau 5, No. 1297, June 22, 1898, and Bureau 5, No. 427, March 19, 1900. 

After the close of the maneuvers, all material is to be placed in good 
condition ; the expenses incurred for this purpose, including those of the 
train divisions for filling and other material for the batteries, will be 
reported to the ministry of war for payment. 

During the maneuvers of recent years, the cable lines of the corps tele- 
phone detachments were destroyed in different places and rendered wholly 
useless by the opposing cavalry, thus subjecting the funds for military 
purposes to considerable loss. In order to avoid similar destruction in the 
future, the troops are implicitly directed to spare the cables in question. 

3. Field balloon detachments Nos. 1 and 2 of the military aeronautical 
establishment will be made ready for service. The effective of each field 
balloon detachment will be as follows : 

Six officers, 81 men. 6 officers' servants, 6 saddle and 84 draft horses, 
train according to Appendix 8, a complete dragon balloon, the reserve 
equipment for a field station with 120 filled gas receptacles, and a complete 
spherical balloon with anchoring equipment. 

These field balloon detachments will report on the 8th of September at 
the places named in Appendices Ha and lib. 

4. Each infantry and rifle battalion and each artillery regiment will 
have four litter-bearers ; each cavalry regiment and each corps artillery 
regiment, two assistant surgeons; each organization will supply the 
dressing carriers with the old exercise equipment. The dressing carriers 
will be provided with the required medicines and dressings from the 
current supplies of the troops. 

For the improvement of bad drinking water, the troops will be supplied 
by the military medical depots with citric acid (one gram per man per 

5. With reference to the use of field glasses and Zeiss army telescopes, 
see Orders, Bureau 5, No. 8126, November 19, 1901. 

The distribution of these instruments among the higher commands may 
be learned from Appendices Ha and 116. 

VI.— Maps. 

The maneuver maps will be furnished the second and fifth corps head- 
quarters by the Military Geographical Institute not later than August 
15 and will be distributed according to Appendix 7. The landwehr 
troops attached to the infantry divisions of the regular army will receive 
the necessary maps from the corps commanders concerned ; the troops 
and auxiliary services of the regular army attached to the landwehr 
infantry divisions will receive their maps from the commanders of these 
divisions. 



298 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The umpires, assistant umpires, and reporters will receive the necessary 
maps from the maneuver direction. 

VII. — Ammunition. 

1. The following number of blank cartridges, with smokeless powder, 
will be issued. 

For each repeating rifle, 50; for each repeating cavalry carbine. 20; for 
each repeating pioneer short rifle, 30. For eacn gun 100 rounds of blank 
ammunition will be issued with smokeless powder, and the corresponding 
number of friction primers. The artillery ammunition will be carried in 
the limber chests and in the country wagons that are allotted, as is 
indicated in Appendix 8. 

In addition, each regular and each landwehr infantry division will be 
supplied with six battalion ammunition wagons, each wagon carrying 
25, 650 8-millimeter blank cartridges. These ammunition wagons form the 
division ammunition park. 

The supply of this extra ammunition will conform to Orders, Bureau 7. 
No. 4516, 1902. 

2. The amount of ammunition actually fired by the different organiza- 
tions will be reported to the ministry of war by the corps commanders 
before the end of October. 

3. The unused small -arms ammunition will be added to the annual allow- 
ance of exercise ammunition of the troops ; the unused artillery ammuni- 
tion will be turned in to the ordnance depot in Wollersdorf . 

4. Of the small-arms ammunition, 40 per cent of shells and 60 per cent 
of the powder charges will be issued gratuitously; requests for extra 
supplies of parts of the ammunition will not be submitted. 

VIIL— Hospitals. 

Each division and each independent brigade will be furnished with one 
hospital, which will consist of the wagons mentioned in Appendix 8, and 
of the prescribed equipment. An officer, for whom a public horse will be 
furnished, or an officer candidate will be assigned to each hospital, and 
four men of the hospital corps will be assigned to each ambulance. The 
required medicines and dressings will be drawn from the current supplies 
of the garrison hospitals concerned. The quantity of refreshing food (tea, 
sugar) will be fixed by the surgeon general and supplied by the garrison 
hospitals concerned in the maneuvers. 

Each hospital will be furnished with a Berkefeld pump filter, which will 
be used, when necessary, for the supply of drinking water for the troops. 

IX.— Train. 

1. During the maneuvers, the maneuver direction will be furnished by 
the fifth corps with seven carriages (four of these to be four-seated) and 
six wagons. 

The supply officer of the maneuver direction takes over these vehicles. 

2. The commanders and troops will be provided with the train specified 
in Appendices 8 and 9, on the evening of September 11. 

The wagons designated for the transportation of baggage will be attached 
to the fighting train. 



MANEUVERS. 299 

3. The draft horses for the division ammunition parks will be furnished 
by the respective division artillery regiments ; those for the tool wagons of 
the pioneer troops, by the respective pioneer battalions ; finally, those for 
the field balloon detachments, by the military aeronautic establishment. 
Horses for the other government wagons mentioned in Appendix 8, includ- 
ing those for the landwehr, will be furnished by the train divisions desig- 
nated for this purpose in the organization of the army. 

Draft horses will be used in the squadron wagons of the cavalry (Ap- 
pendix 8). 

With regard to the calling in of " furloughed " horses, instructions have 
already been published in Orders, Bureau 5, No. 1273, 1902. 

4. The "furloughed" horses will be sent for by the organizations to 
which they are assigned and will be broken in for two or three days. 

The forwarding of the "furloughed" horses from the cavalry reserve 
cadre stations to the stations of the train, thence to the theater of maneu- 
vers, will be effected, within distances of 100 kilometers, by marching; 
beyond this distance, by railway transportation. 

5. The calling in of the teamsters for the division ammunition parks 
and for the tool wagons of the pioneer troops has already been provided 
for in Orders, Bureau 2, No. 1087, 1902 (supplement No. 7). 

Any lack of teamsters for the train troops will be made up by the calling 
in of lance corporals and privates who are still subject to military duty. 
The date for calling in these men will be so fixed that they may be em- 
ployed, if necessary, in bringing in and returning the ' ' furloughed " horses. 

6. Civilian teams will be hired for the time only that is absolutely nec- 
essary and at the cheapest possible daily wages. 

7. The presence of sutlers within the number authorized by the "In- 
structions for the Subsistence of the Army, Second Part, Section 98," will 
be permitted. 

After the close of the maneuvers the public wagon transportation will 
be carefully inspected and placed in a perfectly serviceable condition be- 
fore it is turned in to the depots. 

The repair of this transportation will be made on the account of the ap- 
propriation for war material. For all wagons, harness, and riding equip- 
ment taken to the maneuvers from the depots of extra supplies, there will 
be granted an extra money allowance to the amount of the allowance for 
one month for material in actual use (Table of Allowances for the Im- 
perial and Royal Army, First Part, Sections 111 and 112) ; for the field 
postal wagons, a money allowance for two months ; for each bridge equi- 
page taking part in the maneuvers, an extra money allowance for material 
to the amount of about §40, on the account of Title VII, Item 49, of the 
ordinary appropriation for 1902. These allowances must suffice absolutely 
for the purposes mentioned. For the additional equipment of wagons, 
horses, etc., employed during the maneuvers, no extra money allowance 
will be requested. 

The "furloughed " horses employed as draft horses will be given a rest 
of one or two days by the cavalry reserve cadres before delivering them 
to the troops that are to use them. 

Musicians' horses and sutlers with their teams may be forwarded by rail, 
at the expense of the appropriation for the army, with those troops that 
. are returned to their stations by this kind of transportation. 



300 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

X.— Field Damages. 

1. The estimate of field damages and the compensation therefor most 
conform to the instructions on this subject (Dienstbuch E— 28 a), and 
the executive regulations supplementary to section 56 of the law for quar- 
tering soldiers. 

2. For the settlement of all claims that can not be satisfied in an ami- 
cable manner by the troops themselves or by military representatives ap- 
pointed for this purpose, the commanders of the second and fifth corps 
will create, after the end of the maneuvers, as many field-damage com- 
missions as may appear to be necessary for the completion of the field- 
damage estimates within a period not exceeding two weeks. These will 
enter into a mutual understanding and will establish accurately the limits 
of their operations. 

8. In order to prevent the duplication of claims each reimbursement for 
damages will be reported to the corps commander, at the latest, on the 
day following the payment, with an accurate statement concerning the 
receiver and the days and places of the damages. The corps commander 
will furnish the respective field-damage commissions with a compilation 
of these data. 

XL — Allowances. 

1. Up to September 11, inclusive, the general orders for military exer- 
cises in the year 1902 (Appendix I to Orders, Bureau 5, No. 700, 1902), will 
govern in the matter of allowances. 

2. From the 12th to the 16th of September, inclusive, there will be' paid 
to all officers, military employees, and officer candidates taking part in the 
maneuvers in western Hungary, an "exercise" increase of pay equal to 
twice the "march " increase of pay ; to cadets, the same increase of pay as 
to officer candidates, and to the men an "exercise" increase of pay equal 
to the "march" increase of pay. 

In addition, the civilian employees and the men, including the one-year 
volunteers paying their own expenses, and the civilian servants of officers 
will be entitled to the march rations, namely, three field and two reserve 
rations, and to a daily increase of subsistence pay of 4 cents. For those 
days on which the reserve rations are issued, an allowance of 200 grams 
of meat per ration will be granted, in addition to the increase of subsistence 

pay. 

The beef component of the field ration will be 800 grams. Tobacco can 
not be supplied. The reserve ration will be composed of field conserves 
(400 grams of zwieback, 200 grams of compressed meat and vegetable 
cake, 2o grams of salt, and one coffee conserve, consisting of 28 grams of 
coffee and sugar). The breakfast soup and the black coffee will be sup- 
plied throughout the maneuvers in the form of conserves. 

The commutation of bread and of the cooked components of the ration 
will not be permitted. If, in special cases, commutation must be resorted 
to, the following commutation prices will govern : 

Grata. 

For one ration of bread at 700 grama 2 

For one ration of flour soup 5 

For one ration of beef at 3fX) grams 8 

For one ration of vegetables, with sensoning 1.2 

For one ration of coffee .... , . i.g 



MANEUVERS. 301 

The zwieback and the other articles of the reserve ration will not, under 
any circumstances, be commuted. 

Three field and two reserve rations will be issued for each horse from 
the 12th to the 16th of September, inclusive ; in addition, ono field ration 
of oats will be allowed for each day on which the reserve ration is issued. 

For the supply of firewood for cooking and for camp fires, money allow- 
ances will be granted. During the grand maneuvers in western Hungary, 
these allowances have been fixed as follows : 

For the headquarters of the maneuver direction $16.00 

For the headquarters of an army 8.00 

For the headquarters of a corps '. 4.00 

For the headquarters of a division 4. 00 

For the headquarters of an independent brigade 2. 00 

For the headquarters of au Infantry regiment 2.00 

For the headquarters of a cavalry regiment 2. 00 

For a subdivision (balloon detachment) 4.00 

The allowance for the headquarters of a division includes that for the 
headquarters of its brigades and for its hospital ; the allowance for the 
headquarters of an independent brigade includes that for its hospital. 

The staffs not included in the above table participate in the allowances 
of their subdivisions; the ammunition parks participate in the allow- 
ances of the corresponding artillery regiments. 

8. Beginning with the 17th of September and during the return march, 
the troops and commands will receive the normal march allowances. 

In those cases in which the troops cook their own rations (that is, when 
the march rations are not delivered by the Supply Department, or when 
the railway dinner is not furnished), the troops are entitled to their sub- 
sistence money, together with an extra allowance of about 1 cent per man 
per day for the improvement of their rations. 

In addition there will be issued gratuitously, on the 17th of September, 
to each man of all troops, one meat, one soup, and one coffee conserve, and 
to each horse one reserve ration of oats. 

4. The civil commissioners and the employees, drivers, and office servants 
of the field post office are entitled equally with the military employees to 
temporary quarters ; however, any extra charges for these quarters must 
be paid by these persons from their own funds, according to the regulation 
tariff of the law for quartering troops. If a civil commissioner or a postal 
official be accompanied by a servant, the latter will be entitled to the 
quarters and allowances of an officer's servant, on the account of the 
appropriation for the army. 

The noncommissioned officers and privates attached to the field post 
offices receive the same allowances as do those on duty with their organ- 
izations. 

5. The teamsters and horses of the civilian transportation receive no 
rations. However, these teamsters will be permitted to purchase bread 
and the other articles of the ration at the average cost price of the same. 
The same rule holds good with regard to forage for the horses of the 
civilian transportation. 



302 NOTK8 OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

XIL— Rations. 

1. Rations will be issued to the commands and troops on the evening 
of September 11 as follows: 

To each man, one field and two reserve rations, together with one 
ration of zwieback, and one meat, one soup, and one coffee conserve : t*-» 
each horse, three reserve rations of oats. 

The daily field ration per man and one field ration of oats per horse. 
The latter will be carried in the supply wagons or by the troops. 

On each of three days, meat in the quantity of the field ration of 3U0 
grams per man, and on each of two days in the quantity of 200 grams per 
man, will be issued (on the 12th of September, butchered, and on the 
other days on the hoof). 

To the infantry, cavalry, and brigade subsistence columns, one field 
ration per man and three field rations of oats per horse. 

These rations will be used as follows: 

Three field rations of food and of oats and two reserve rations of foou 
and of oats from the 12th of September to the 16th of September, inclu- 
sive; one field ration of oats as an extra allowance on those days on 
which the reserve rations of oats are used ; finally, one ration of zwieback 
and one meat, one soup, and one coffee conserve, and one reserve ration of 
oats on the 17th of September (see Article XI, par. 8). 

2. With regard to the supply of subsistence stores, the following regu- 
lations will govern: 

(a) The corps commanders will provide independently for the feeding 
of their troops up to the 11th of September, inclusive. 

(b) As the more restricted situation at the beginning of warlike condi- 
tions will be made known only shortly before the beginning of the maneu- 
vers, the supplies in zwieback, conserves, and oats, and the camp equipage 
required for the time from the 12th to the 17th of September, inclusive, 
and which will be provided by the corps intendants, will be collected and 
held ready in the places named in Appendices Ha and 116, so that they 
may be drawn without delay, on the orders of the corps commanders, 
after the publication of the situation at the beginning of warlike con- 
ditions. 

The bread required from the 12th to the 16th of September will be 
baked in double-ration loaves, with 700 grams to the ration, of wheat and 
rye flour in the ratio of one-third of the former to two-thirds of the latter. 
The supply of the necessary wheat flour (class No. 5 of the Budapest 
steam mills) will be obtained by purchase. 

The zwieback and oats will be drawn from the depots of war supplies 
and the meat conserves from the subsistence stores provided for the year 
1902. The other conserves will be specially supplied. 

All the other articles and the beef cattle will be purchased and their 
supply will be effected, so far as practicable, by the troops. Hay and the 
straw allowed for rubbing down the horses, wood for cooking, and, if 
necessary, for heating, will be secured by the troops as these articles are 
needed. 

For the return march, the following orders will be observed: 

(a ) The corps commanders will issue independently the necessary orders 
for the return of those troops that rejoin their stations by marching. In 



MANEUVERS. 303 

this connection, they will receive further instructions at the beginning 
of September. 

(6) For those troops returning by railway, commutation of the break- 
fast and of the travel ration will be authorized on tho day of the journey. 
If bread can not be supplied in kind its commutation will be authorized. 

Bread, meat conserves, and oats will be placed in readiness for the feed- 
ing of the troops and horses transported by railway. The quantity of 
these supplies and the dates and places of their collection will be made 
known later. 

The field railway transportation direction will forward these supplies 
to the loading stations, where they will be received by the troops in 
quantities depending upon the length of the journey to be made. 

Furthermore, an effort will be made to furnish the railway midday 
meal to those troops traveling by railway that remain for a longer time 
on the journey. This will be provided for in the marching orders. The 
troops will not pay, but will receipt, for the railway midday meal. If 
rations be furnished in kind, commutation of the traveling rations will 
not be paid. Any hay that may be required during the railway journey 
will be purchased by the troops before entraining. 

On the return march, unbroken packages of meat conserve will be paid 
for at the rate of 4 cents each. 

3. In those cases in which their rations can not be delivered in the way 
prescribed for the troops, reconnoitering patrols and detachments and the 
men of the field telegraph detachments may purchase the authorized 
quantity of the articles of the ration, or may request them from the local 
authorities on receipt and subsequent payment. 

4. The subsistence depots will.be established as follows: 

For the maneuver direction, the commander of the fifth corps will 
establish in Sasvar, on the 4th of September, a branch subsistence depot 
with supplies, cooked and uncooked, for ten days for the men and horses 
of the maneuver direction, the umpires, and the assistant umpires. 

For the army corps, the corps commanders will establish, at their own 
discretion, the absolutely necessary branch subsistence depots. 

As'a rule the establishment of subsistence depots beyond the limits of 
the territory in which the army corps find themselves at the beginning of 
warlike conditions will not be permitted. 

On account of the necessity of maintaining tarpaulins in good condition 
their use will be avoided as much as possible. 

One official and 20 pupils of the school in Vienna for candidates for the 
subsistence department and for one-year volunteers will be attached to 
the headquarters of the second corps ; one official and 20 pupils of the 
corresponding school in Budapest will be attached to the headquarters of 
the fifth corps. They will be ready for duty from the 1st of September. 
The corps intendants will apply for them directly to the subsistence 
depots in Vienna and Budapest, respectively. The pupils will be employed 
sufficiently for instruction in the duties of noncommissioned officers. 

5. In order that the least possible quantity of bread and other articles 
of the ration may remain on hand after the close of the maneuvers, the 
probable requirements for the return march will be ascertained as accu- 
rately as possible. Should, however, supplies remain over, they will be 
charged on the money allowance for subsistence, and to this end will be 



304 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

turned in by the corps commanders to the nearest garrisoned post In 
this case, the following commutation will be paid : For the ration of meat 
and Tegetable conserve, the value of the ration of fresh vegetables; for 
the ration of soup conserve, { of a cent ; for the ration of coffee conserve, 
| of a cent. 

XIII. — Return from the maneuvers. 

1. The troops will be returned from the theater of the maneuvers as 
follows: 

(a) By marching: The mounted Austrian landwehr troops; the foot 
troops of the garrisons of Ungarisch Hradisch, Tyrnau, Trentschin; all 
the cavalry and artillery troops, the squadron wagons accompanying the 
cavalry ; all public wagons. 

(5) By rail: The Austrian and Hungarian landwehr foot troops; the 
higher commanders ; all other troops, with their sutler wagons ; the public 
wagons left without teams after sending away the "furloughed" horses 
(par. 4) ; the field post office wagons and teams. 

2. The men of the eighth, forty-ninth, seventy-sixth, eighty-third, and 
eighty-fourth infantry regiments, of the infantry battalions 2-54 and 4-54, 
and of the eleventh, seventeenth, and twenty -first rifle battalions that 
will be entitled to their furlough will be sent directly from the theater of 
the maneuvers to the stations of their respective reserve cadres. 

The furloughed men of the other troops will generally be returned with 
their organizations. 

In order that the necessary number of cars may be available in dne 
time for sending away the furloughed men and the reservists from the 
garrisons, commanding officers will report, to the respective railway station 
masters, as soon as possible after the return from the theater of the 
maneuvers, the probable amount of transportation required. 

3. The reservists will be returned directly to the depots, those of the 
seventy -first regiment by marching, all the others by rail. 

4. The "furloughed" horses used in the cavalry staff detachments, for 
the mounting of military persons, and for draft purposes, will be returned 
to the stations of the cavalry reserve cadres. If the distance is within 100 
kilometers, the return will be made by marching; if the distance exceeds 
100 kilometers, the return will be made by railway transportation. If. 
however, in returning these "furloughed" horses by marching, the pre- 
scribed limit of time for their military use can not be observed, the order 
on which they were taken from their civilian keepers must be presented, 
in order to obtain transportation for them by railway. 

The "furloughed" horses will not be sent away until the wagons to 
which those used for draft purposes belong have been delivered at the 
stations at which these wagons are to be loaded. 

5. The officers, veterinarians, and noncommissioned officers of the train 
troops, as well as the aids, supply and medical officers, officers of the 
pioneer troops, field gendarmes, etc. . who will be on duty with the higher 
commands and foot troops, and who will be mounted on public horses, 
together with the men on duty under these officers, and the cavalry staff 
troops will, without exception, report on the 17th of September to their 
organizations, or to their cavalry staff detachments, respectively, and will 
return with the latter to their stations. 



MANEUVERS. 305 

6. The return of the troops by marching will be ordered by the corps com- 
manders, among whom there will be, when necessary for this purpose, 
a mutual understanding. The return of the staff cavalry of the maneuver 
direction and of the cavalry detachments attached thereto will be ordered 
by the commander of the fifth corps. 

The field railway transportation direction attached to the maneuver 
direction will be charged with the return of troops by railway trans- 
portation. 

7. All commands, troops, and detachments taking part in the maneuvers 
that are to be returned, wholly or in part, by railway, will immediately 
prepare the lists required for this transportation (supplement to section 
26 of the "Instructions for Military Railway Transportation"). In these 
lists, the number of men remaining present in the organizations, of those 
entitled to furlough, and of the reservists, will be separately noted ; the 
places of destination (for Vienna, the railway station also) of the different 
organizations to be transported, as well as those of the sjitler wagons, 
will be accurately specified; however, those traveling individually will 
not be mentioned. The strength will be stated by battalion. The column 
headed "Daily Requirements" must absolutely be filled in, and the 
number of rations of bread of 700 grams each must be stated ; if, how- 
ever, no bread or forage is required, this fact will be mentioned under the 
heading "Remarks." 

Until the 1st of August these lists will be sent directly to the ministry 
of war. 

XIV. — Accounts and vouchers. 

1. The accounts of the supply officers attached to the various head- 
quarters will be submitted to the respective commanders ; except those of 
the supply officer attached to the headquarters of the maneuver direction, 
which will be forwarded to the chief intendant of the fifth corps. 

The instructions concerning the accounts of the troops (companies and 
supply officers) will be published as supplements to the Official Gazette, 
conformably to the existing regulations for mobilization. 

So far as is possible, the supply depots that are to be established will 
be administered independently. The returns will conform to the 
"Instructions for the Subsistence of the Imperial and Royal Army, 
II Volume, Third Part." The accountability of these depots, which will 
include the tuming-in of the utensils and material that may be used in 
the issue of rations to the troops, will devolve upon the permanent supply 
depot charged with the establishment of the depots utilized during the 
maneuvers. 

2. In those cases in which retail purchases are made, during the ma- 
neuvers, at farms and small hamlets where stamps are not obtainable, the 
stamp dues will be charged to the account of the appropriation for the 
army in such a way that the vouchers (bills, receipts, retail purchase 
journals, etc.) relating to the returns may be stamped by the accounting 
officer subsequently and in regulation manner. 

3. All the other extra expenditures that arise from the grand maneu- 
vers in western Hungary will be accounted for under Article VII, Item 
49, of the ordinary appropriation for the army for 1902, and will be 
reported to the ministry of war before December 15. 



30C NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The increased cost of the active service of the balloon detachments for 
hydrogen, auxiliary, and construction material will be charged under 
Item 40 of Article VII. Separate vouchers for these expenditures will 
therefore be submitted. 

4. The rations issued to the landwehr troops and ail the necessary 
expenditures for these troops will be reported before the 15th of Decem- 
ber, through the proper corps supply department of the expert accounting 
bureau of the ministry of war, with a view to taking the necessary steps 
for reimbursement. All the articles of the ration, with their original 
cost, will be included in these accounts. 

Appendix 1.— Headquarters of the maneuver direction. 

General Baron Von Beck, chief of the general staff. 
Attached: One captain of the general staff. 

OPERATIONS DIVISION. 

One colonel, one lieutenant colonel, and four captains of the general 
staff ; one first lieutenant of infantry, and two noncommissioned officers, 
the latter detailed from the office of the general staff. 

DETAIL DIVISION. 

One colonel, one major, and one captain of the general staff, the major 
being charged with the duties of press superintendent ; one noncommis- 
sioned officer from the direction bureau of the general staff; one noncom- 
missioned officer of infantry, assistant to the subsistence officer. 

ORDERLY OFFICERS. 

Two officers from the war college ; two officers from the military riding 
institute. 

BICYCLISTS. 

Four officers and four noncommissioned officers from the military 
fencing and gymnastic school. 

FIELD GENDARMES. 

Four mounted and four dismounted field gendarmes of the royal Hun- 
garian gendarmerie. They will report at Sasvar on the evening of 
September 8. 

FIELD PRESS DIVISION. 

Four presses and the personnel required therefor will be assigned to the 
military geographical institute. The presses and personnel will arrive at 
Sasvar on the 8th of September. 

POST COMMANDER AND BILLETING OFFICER. 

A captain of infantry. 

COMMISSARY OFFICER. 

A first lieutenant of infantry. 

SURGEON. 

A staff surgeon, for whom a mounted dressing-carrier will be detailed 
from the staff cavalry detachment. The carrier will be provided with 



MANEUVKKS. 307 

an exercise equipment. The required medical supplies will be taken 
from the current stores. 

STAFF TROOPS. 

Infantry: Half a company, to be designated by the commander of the 
second corps, and consisting of two officers and fifty-two men, including 
two musicians, four infantry pioneers, one cook for officers, and one cook 
for enlisted men. This 'detachment will reach Sasvar on the morning of 
September 4, and will be provided with an officers' field oven. 

Cavalry : Half a squadron from a regiment of hussars of the fourth 
corps, consisting of one officer, five noncommissioned officers, one trum- 
peter, two cooks, one veterinarian, one dressing carrier, and sixty-one 
troopers. This detachment will reach Sasvar on September 8. 

The staff troops will be forwarded by the respective corps commanders, 
the infantry by rail, and the cavalry by marching. 

In those cases in which the time and place of reporting are not specially 
fixed for the above-named persons, the necessary orders will be issued 
directly by the chief of the general staff. 

The officers of the general staff will take with them their private horses. 
The orderly officers will each take two horses ; if they do not possess pri- 
vate horses they will be mounted on public horses by the war college or 
the military riding institute. The mounted gendarmes will be provided 
with public horses by the staff cavalry. 

FIELD RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION DIRECTION. 

One major of the general staff ; one major and seven captains of the 
railway bureau of the general staff, to be detailed by the chief of the 
general staff ; the railway -line commandants of the first, second, and fifth 
corps ; one military intendant, and one noncommissioned officer of the 
railway bureau of the general staff; representatives of the railways 
concerned; two soldiers as orderlies, to be detailed by the commander of 
the second corps. 

The field railway transportation direction will be established in Lunden- 
burg on the 14th of September. 

omenta assigned to dutt with the maneuver direction. 

General von Kropatscheck, inspector general of artillery, with one 
colonel. 

Lieutenant General Count Paar, inspector general of cavalry, with one 
major. 

Mounted officers will notify the railway bureau of the general staff, 
before the 1st of August, of the number of horses, grooms, and servants 
that they intend to take with them. 

Appendix 2, — Umpires and assistant umpires. 

Lieutenant General Baron Von Albori, with his aid-de-camp; eight 
other lieutenant generals, eleven major generals, four colonels of infantry, 
seven colonels, one lieutenant colonel, four majors, and twenty-three 
captains of the general staff. 

1. A number of umpires and assistant umpires will be attached per- 
manently to the higher commanders, who will provide quarters and sub- 
sistence for such umpires and who will detail the orderlies required for 



308 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

their messenger service. Some of these umpires and assistant umpires 
will report at Sasvar on the afternoon of September 13. 

2. The other umpires and assistant umpires will be quartered and sub- 
sisted, throughout the maneuvers, at the station of the maneuver direction 
in Sasvar. 

8. The umpires will arrive on the 10th of September at the places to be 
designated later by the chief of the general staff. The officers referred to 
in the preceding paragraph will report at 5 o'clock p. m. on September 10 
to the chief of the general staff. 

4 The umpires and assistant umpires will take with them their private 
horses. The number of horses, grooms, and servants that are to be taken 
along will be reported to the railway bureau of the general sUff before 
the 1st of August. 

5. Further orders for the umpires and assistant umpires will be issued 
directly by the chief of the general staff. 

The railway bureau of the general staff will transport to the theater of 
the maneuvers the horses of those officers proceeding there from Vienna 
and from the theater of the maneuvers to their respective stations, also 
the horses of all the umpires and assistant umpires. 

Appendix 3. — Reporters. 

Two colonels, one lieutenant colonel, two majors, and ten captains of 
the general staff and ono first lieutenant attached to the general staff. 

1. The reporters are assigned directly to the various organizations by 
the special orders of the chief of the general staff. 

2. On each day of combat there will be detailed by the higher com- 
manders concerned, for each reporter attached to the headquarters of an 
army or of a corps, three troopers as permanent orderlies ; for each re- 
porter attached to the headquarters of a division or of a brigade, there 
will be detailed two such orderlies. In addition, the military fencing and 
gymnastic school will detail ten noncommissioned officers as bicyclists, 
who will be assigned to the reporters by the chief of the general staff. 

3. The reporters will take with them their private horses. The number 
of horses, grooms, and servants to be taken along will be reported to the 
railway bureau of the general staff before August 1. 

The railway bureau of the general staff will transport to the theater of 
the maneuvers the horses of those officers proceeding there from Vienna, 
and from the theater of the maneuvers to their respective stations the 
horses of all reporters. 

Appendix 4. — Headquarters of an army. 

Army commander. 
Chief of staff. 

OPERATIONS DIVISION. 

One officer of the general staff as chief and detailed by order of the chief 
of the general staff ; a number of superior officers of the general staff as 
assistants and also detailed by order of the chief of the general staff. 

One official of the supply department, provided with a public horse. 

One superior officer as superintendent of office work. 

Two noncommissioned officers as clerks. 



MANEUVERS. 309 

DETAIL DIVISION. 

One field officer of the general staff as chief and detailed by order of the 
chief of the general staff ; a number of officers of the general staff as 
assistants, also detailed by order of the chief of the general staff. 

One superior officer as superintendent of office work. 

Two noncommissioned officers as clerks. 

Four printers. 

ATTACHED TO THE DETAIL DIVISION. 

One aid-de-camp and six orderly officers of the army commander, to be 
mounted, if necessary, on public horses. 

One officer and four enlisted men as bicyclists. 

Five field gendarmes mounted on public horses and three dismounted 
field gendarmes of the imperial royal or of the royal Hungarian gen- 
darmerie. 

Field post office: Two officials, one driver, and one servant from the 
imperial royal or the royal Hungarian post office department, one non- 
commissioned officer as clerk, one private as orderly. 

One subaltern of the train as train commandant of army headquarters. 

The commander of the staff infantry as post commandant. 

One commissary officer, mounted on a public horse. 

The commander of the staff cavalry as billeting officer. 

One surgeon, mounted on a public horse. 

TRAIN. 

One veterinarian. 

One mounted sergeant as staff wagon master 



STAFF TROOPS. 



Infantry: One officer, 25 men. 
Cavalry: One officer, 80 men. 



Appendix 5. —Headquarter 8 of a corps. 



Corps commander. 
Chief of staff. 



Officers of the general staff and superior officers attached thereto, to be 
detailed by order of the chief of the general staff. 
One captain of engineers. 
One officer as superintendent of office work. 
Two noncommissioned officers as clerks. 
Two printers. 

ATTACHED TO THE STAFF. 

One aid-de-camp and three orderly officers of the corps commander, the 
latter to be mounted, if necessary, on public horses. 

One officer and four enlisted men as bicyclists. 

One officer of the railway and telegraph regiment, mounted on a public 
horse, in charge of the telephone detachment. 

Gendarme detachment : One captain and six field gendarmes, mounted 
on public horses, and four dismounted gendarmes of the imperial royal or 
of the royal Hungarian gendarmerie. 



310 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Field poet office : Two officials, one driver, and one servant of the imperial 
royal or of the royal Hungarian post office department; one noncommis- 
sioned officer as clerk and one private as orderly. 

One subaltern of the train as commandant of the train of corps head- 
quarters. 

The commander of the staff infantry as post commandant. 

One commissary officer, mounted on a public horse. 

The commander of the staff cavalry as billeting officer. 

One chief quartermaster, mounted on a public horse. 

Two officials of the quartermaster's department, mounted on public 
horses. 

Two noncommissioned officers as clerks and one civil commissioner for 
the office of the chief quartermaster. 

ASSISTANTS. 

For artillery affairs: One artillery brigadier, with his adjutant general. 

For pioneer affairs: The commandant of the pioneer detachment 
attached to the corps, with his adjutant. 

For train affairs : The field officer or captain of the train troops as corps 
train commandant, with his adjutant. 

For medical affairs: One corps chief surgeon, mounted on a public 
horse. 

TRAIN. 

One veterinarian. 

One mounted sergeant as staff wagon master 

STAFF TBOOPS. 

Infantry: One officer and 25 men. 

Cavalry: See Article 111, next to last paragraph. 

Appendix 6. — Headquarters of a division, including the headquarters of 

its two brigade*. 
Division commander. 
Two brigade commanders. 

STAFF. 

One chief of staff. 

One captain of the general staff and the officers attached to the staff, to 
be detailed by order of the chief of the general staff. 
Four noncommissioned officers as clerks, including one for each brigade. 
Two printers. 

ATTACHED TO THE STAFF. 

Four orderly officers, including one for each brigade commander, to be 
mounted, if necessary, on public horses. 

Five enlisted men (noncommissioned officers or privates), including one 
for each brigade, as bicyclists. 

Gendarme detachment: Three field gendarmes, mounted on pnblic 
horses, and three dismounted field gendarmes of the imperial royal or of 
the royal Hungarian gendarmerie. 



MANEUVERS. 311 

Field post offices: Two officials, one driver, and one servant, of the 
imperial royal or of the royal Hungarian post office department ; one non- 
commissioned officer as clerk and one private as orderly. 

One subaltern of the train as commandant of the train of division head- 
quarters, eventually of the combined fighting train. 

One division commissary, mounted on a public horse. 

One mounted sergeant as staff wagon master. 

The commander of the staff infantry as post commandant. 

One commissary, mounted on public horse, for headquarters. 

The commandant of the staff cavalry as billeting officer. 

Quartermaster's department: One chief quartermaster, mounted on a 
public horse ; one assistant quartermaster, mounted on a public horse ; one 
noncommissioned officer as clerk. 

One captain of the train as division train commandant. 

One division chief surgeon, mounted on a public horse. 

STAFF TROOPS. 

Infantry : One officer, 15 men. 

Cavalry : See Article III, next to last paragraph. 

(The composition of the headquarters of a cavalry division is the same 
as that of the headquarters of an infantry division, except that the former 
has six instead of four orderly officers ; one officer in charge of the cavalry 
telegraph service; one officer in charge of the technical service; three 
noncommissioned officers as trumpeters, including one for each brigade 
commander; four instead of three mounted, and two instead of three dis- 
mounted field gendarmes ; and one instead of two civilian officials of the 
post office department. ) 

Appendix 7. — Distribution of maps. 

To each army and corps headquarters, four maps of the scale of 1 : 750, (XX) ; 
fifty of the scale of 1 : 200, 000, and fifty-five of the scale of 1 : 75, 000. 

To each division headquarters, three maps of the scale of 1:750,000, 
thirty of the scale of 1 -.200,000, and four of the scale of 1 : 75,000. 

To each brigade headquarters, one map of the scale of 1 : 750,000 and four 
of the scale of 1 : 200,000. 

To each infantry, cavalry, and artillery regimental commandant, to each 
telephone detachment, two maps of the scale of 1 : 200,000. 

To each cavalry squadron, five maps of the scale of 1 : 200,000. 

To each battalion, group of three squadrons (called a division), com- 
pany, battery, cavalry pioneer platoon, cavalry telegraph patrol, war 
bridge equipage, division ammunition park, division hospital, brigade 
hospital, field post office, transportable field-bakery section, each infantry 
and cavalry brigade subsistence column, one map of the scale of 1 : 200,000. 
The balloon detachments and the infantry telegraph patrols will be fur- 
nished with the necessary maps by the army and infantry division com- 
manders, respectively. 

Appendix 8. — Train. 

The commanders, troops, and establishments will be provided with the 
following transportation, beginning with the evening of September 11. 

Army headquarters: One four-horse office wagon and one two-horse 
passenger wagon for the field post office ; three passenger, five baggage, 
and five commissary two-horse country wagons ; one automobile. 



312 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

Corps headquarters : One f onr-horse postal wagon, one automobile, and 
the same number and kind of country wagons as for an army headquarters. 

Division headquarters: The same number and kind of postal wagons as 
for an army headquarters ; one passenger, three baggage, and three com- 
missary two-horse country wagons, and, for a cavalry division, one 
automobile. 

Independent brigade headquarters: One passenger, one baggage, and 
one commissary two-horse country wagons; one four-horse and one two- 
horse postal wagons. 

Infantry regiment of four (or three) battalions: One passenger, nine 
(or seven) baggage, and nine (or seven) commissary two-horse country 
wagons. 

Independent battalion : One passenger two baggage, and two commis- 
sary two-horse country wagons. 

Cavalry regiment: Six two-horse squadron baggage wagons; one 
baggage and fourteen commissary two-horse country wagons. 

Artillery regiment of sixteen (or thirty-two) guns: Nine baggage and 
four (or eight) commissary two-horse country wagons. 

Horse-battery division (two batteries) : Four baggage and four commis- 
sary two-horse country wagons. The batteries of artillery may use old- 
model rack wagons instead of country wagons in the ratio of one of the 
former to two of the latter. 

Pioneer company: Two four-horse wagons for material and one four- 
horse wagon for company baggage; one baggage and one commissary 
two-horse country wagons. 

Pontoon train: Thirty -two four-horse and twelve six-horse bridge- 
equipage wagons. 

Each division and brigade hospital : Two four-horse ambulances. Of 
the two wagons of a field hospital, one will be used for medical supplies 
and the other as an ambulance. 

Division ammunition park : Six four-horse battalion ammunition wagons, 
to be taken from the extra stores of the artillery. 

Corps telephone detachment: Four passenger, four material, and four 
station two-horse country wagons. 

Field balloon detachment: Six gas, one balloon, and one cable four- 
horse completely equipped wagons, the horses for which will be furnished 
by the military aeronautical establishment ; one baggage and one commis- 
sary two-horse country wagons. For the necessary transportation of the 
reserve material from the railway station, fourteen country wagons will 
be employed. 

Movable field-bakery section: Six four-horse field ovens, drawn by 
country horses; one passenger two-horse country wagon and three freight 
automobiles. 

Each brigade subsistence column : One passenger and one baggage two- 
horse country wagons. 

The country passenger wagons assigned to dismounted troops, subsist- 
ence columns, and field-bakery sections are intended for such surgeons, 
accountants, and commissary employees as are not mounted. 

One of the three passenger wagons assigned to each army and to each 
corps headquarters is intended for the civil personnel of the field post office. 



MANEUVERS. 313 

Appendix 9. — Subsistence train. 

This train will be formed on the evening of September 11, as follows: 
Army headquarters: Two wagons in echelon No. 1 and three in echelon 
No. 2. 

Corps headquarters: Two wagons in echelon No. 1 and two in echelon 
No. 2. 

Division headquarters, including its two brigade-headquarters: One 
wagon in echelon No. 1 and two in echelon No. 2. 
Independent brigade headquarters: One wagon in echelon No. 1. 
Infantry regiment of four (or three) battalions: Six (or four) wagons 
in echelon No. 1, one wagon in echelon No. 2. 
Independent battalion: Two wagons in echelon No. 1. 
Staff of a cavalry regiment, including its two divisions, pioneer platoon 
and telegraph patrol: One wagon in echelon No. 1, one wagon in echelon 
No. 2. 

Cavalry squadron: Two wagons in echelon No, 1, three wagons in 
echelon No. 2. 

Artillery regiment of sixteen (or thirty-two) guns: Four (or six) 
wagons in echelon No. 1, five (or nine) in echelon No. 2. 

Horse battery division (two batteries) : Four wagons in echelon No. 1, 
six wagons in echelon No. 2. 

Pioneer company : One wagon in each echelon. 

Half of a light bridge equipage : One wagon in each echelon. 

Bridge equipage: One wagon in echelon No. 1, two wagons in echelon 
No. 2. 

Movable field bakery: One wagon in echelon No. 1. 

Infantry and cavalry brigade subsistence columns : The wagons that 
belong to their respective commands and organizations. 

All the wagons enumerated above are two-horse country wagons. 

Echelon No. 1 carries one field ration of food and of oats per man and 
horse, respectively ; echelon No. 2 carries two field rations of oats per 
horse. 

The wagons of echelon No. 1, for independent brigade and battalions 
and for the field -bakery sections, will carry, besides one field ration of 
food and oats per man and horse, respectively, two field rations of oats per 
horse. 

The country wagon transportation of the army and the corps head- 
quarters will be attached to an infantry subsistence column. 

The field rations of food and of oats of the division and brigade hospitals, 
division ammunition parks, telephone detachments, and field balloon de- 
tachments will be carried, respectively, by the country wagon transporta- 
tion of the division and brigade headquarters, artillery regiments, corps 
headquarters, and army headquarters. 

So far as practicable, officers or cadets of the train troops will be assigned 
to the echelons as train commandants. 

The teams of the echelons will be discharged immediately after deliver- 
ing the supplies they carry to the troops. This condition must be under- 
stood when civilian transportation is engaged. 



314 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Appendix 10.— Distribution of the instructions in detail for the grand 
maneuvers in western Hungary in 1902. 

To the first corps, 40 copies. 

To the second corps, 110 copies. 

To the third corps, 10 copies. 

To the fourth corps, 10 copies. 

To the fifth corps, 80 copies. 

To the sixth, seventh, eighth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, and fifteenth 
corps, 8 copies each. 

To the ninth, tenth, and fourteenth corps, and the military command 
of Zara, 5 copies each. 

To the Austrian and Hungarian ministries of national defense, 40 copies 
each. 

To each army, corps, and division commander taking part in the 
maneuvers, 8 copies ; to each brigade commander, 1 copy ; to each inde- 
pendent detachment, 2 copies. The remainder will be delivered to the 
corps commanders as a reserve. 

While many of the details in the preceding instructions are 
of no interest to us, their full translation has been made with 
a view to demonstrating the painstaking care with which the 
preparations for the grand maneuvers are made by the gen- 
eral staff. They may also be of interest in the way of reference 
and comparison when considering the orders for maneuvers 
in our own country. While it may be objected that it would 
not be practicable or wise in time of war for a general staff to 
concern itself with details that should be left to the com- 
manders of troops and to the chiefs of the auxiliary services, 
yet it must be remembered that the maneuvers of this year, 
in which about 100,000 combatants and noncombatants par- 
ticipated, were carried out without a hitch on account of all 
these apparently insignificant details having been previously • 
provided for by the general staff. The army is accustomed 
to their repetition in the autumn maueuvers, year after year. 
The general staff is efficient and sufficiently large for the 
mobilization of the army. It should not, therefore, be hastily 
concluded that such orders would not be practicable for the 
army of this country in case of war. 

The following is a translation of the general orders for the 
maneuvers of this year : 

GENERAL ORDERS OF THE MANEUVER DIRECTION FOR THE 
GRAND MANEUVERS IN WESTERN HUNGARY, 1902. 

1. Division of time. 

September 10 : Troops take their positions for the beginning of hostile 
relations. 
September 11 : Rest. 



MANEUVERS. 315 

September 12: Reconnoissance and advance under warlike conditions. 

September 13: Maneuvers. 

September 14: Rest. 

September 15: Maneuvers. 

September 16: Maneuvers. 

September 17: Discussion. 

2. Execution of the maneuvers. 

The hostile relations of the armies will begin at noon on September 11, 
and continue until the end of the maneuvers. At this hour the informa- 
tion detachments and patrols will set out. 

Movements and changes of position of troops on days of rest will not 
take place. 

The service of information and security will be continued unbroken 
throughout the maneuvers. 

The announcement by the maneuver direction or by the umpires of the 
establishment of lines limiting the operations of the armies will be 
equivalent to an order for the cessation of the combat conformably to 
warlike conditions. 

These limiting lines are those along which the outposts may be placed ; 
however, commanders will be at liberty to select lines for their outposts 
farther to the rear. 

With the exception of the reconnoitering detachments and patrols, no 
one, without the approval of the maneuver direction, will be permitted to 
cross the limiting lines toward the enemy before the morning following 
the day on which they are fixed. 

Special attention is invited to the sparing of the numerous plantations 
of young pines south of the Miava and between the March and the large 
forests, and also of those near Bur Szt. Miklos and Bur Szt. Peter and 
extending as far as Laksar Ujfalu. On account of the furrows freshly 
made for the setting out of the pines and of these young plantations often 
having the appearance of badly cultivated sandy fields, it is sometimes 
difficult to recognize such plantations. 

The close of the maneuvers for this year will be indicated at the termi- 
nation of the exercises on the last maneuver day by a trumpet call sounded 
by order of the emperor. 

Sasvar may be occupied by troops in so far as such occupation will not 
interfere with the quartering of the maneuver direction. 

Special instructions will be published by the maneuver direction for the 
night dispositions of the troops on September 16, as well as for the 
marches on September 17 to the entraining stations. 

J. Communication. 

Unavoidable communication with an enemy will be sent under a flag of 
truce. No other kind of communication between the armies will be per- 
mitted. This also applies to communication with the maneuver direction, 
in case the latter happens to be in the territory of the opposing force. 

The officers of the maneuver direction, the umpires and the assistant 
umpires, the reporters, and the orderlies of ail these officers may move at 
any time and in any direction unhindered. 



316 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The state and railway telegraph lines in the theater of the maneuvers 
maybe used at all times for reports to the maneuver direction. For other 
official purposes, however, the two armies may use those sections only of 
the lines that lie in rear of the outposts of their respective forces. With 
these exceptions all telegraph lines will be considered destroyed. 

4. Reports, notes, etc., to the maneuver direction. 

The maneuver direction will exercise superior authority over both armies. 

Its headquarters will be established in Sasvar. 

The distribution of orders by the maneuver direction will take place 
daily at 6 o'clock p. m., beginning with September 12. An officer from 
each army headquarters will report at this time for orders ( * * Service Regn- 
lations, Part 2," par. 4), provided these headquarters be located at a dis- 
tance not greater than 12 kilometers from Sasvar. Besides these officers, 
one officer from each corps, independent infantry division, and independent 
brigade will report for orders on the 15th of September, whatever the 
distance may be. 

Copies of the orders in the form prescribed for the field will be made in 
duplicate, one copy being intended for his imperial and royal apostolic 
majesty, and will be sent in by the army commanders, and, on the 11th 
and 12th of September, by the cavalry commanders also, as follows: 

For the 11th and 12th of September, by noon, September 10; 

For the 13th and 16th of September, by 6 o'clock p. m. on the day pre- 
ceding each of these dates ; 

For the 15th of September, by 10 o'clock a. m., September 14. 

For the purposes of the discussion at the close of the maneuvers, the 
commanders of corps and of divisions, as well as the commanders of the 
larger independent groups, will send directly to the maneuver direction 
daily and at the earliest possible hour,- beginning with September 11, one 
copy of their orders in the form prescribed for the field. 

Furthermore, the army commanders will report, immediately after the 
cessation of the battle on. the 15th of September, the objects they will 
endeavor to accomplish on the following day. 

Any changes in the orders sent in will be reported immediately, if neces- 
sary, by telegraph. 

Sketches of the night dispositions from the 10th to the 11th of September 
will be sent in by the army, corps, independent division, and independent 
brigade commanders by noon on September 10; on other days, immediately 
after the issue of the night orders. These sketches must clearly show the 
position of the outposts, the localities in which the troops are quartered 
and camped, the location of the corps and division headquarters, and, when 
possible, the situation of the detachments advanced on the service of 
information. 

Beginning with the 10th of September, morning reports will be prepared 
and will be delivered to the maneuver direction at the earliest practicable 
hour. Those for September 10 will reach the maneuver direction by noon 
on that day. 

Under the heading "Special remarks" will be mentioned whether or 
not the rations were delivered promptly, whether any individual organi- 
zations were very late with their cooking, and, if so, why, and the condition 
of the trains. 



MANEUVERS. 317 

The morning reports will show the actual strength on the day for which 
they are prepared and, therefore, will not be handed in, as a rule, before 
the afternoon or night of the preceding day. 

Should events requiring immediate attention, or events of urgent inter- 
est to the maneuver direction, be mentioned under the heading "Special 
remarks, " they should be copied from the morning reports and reported 
by telegraph to the maneuver direction. 

Reports and sketches of positions and brief notes of the battle will be 
made as required by the instructions of the " Service Regulations, Part 2,'' 
pars. 349 and 889. The brief notes of the battle will be submitted by 
6 o'clock p. m. 

The battle reports of the army commanders, with detailed sketches of 
the night dispositions, sketches of the situation of the corps from hour to 
hour on the march and in battle, the reports of the different organizations 
of each corps, the reports in detail of the troops and balloon detachments 
on the engagements, and all reports, etc., concerning the enemy will be 
arranged according to date and forwarded to the chief of the general staff 
by the 1st of November, this year. 

In case countersigns are issued, they will be reported to the maneuver 
direction. 

5. Notes of the umpires and of the assistant umpires. 

Special instructions will be published with regard to the sending in of 
the notes and sketches of the umpires and of the assistant umpires. 

6. Reporters. 

Reporters will be assigned to the armies, corps, divisions, and indepen- 
dent brigades. 

The "Instructions" relating to this subject contain the particulars con- 
cerning their duties. 

The orders contained in the preceding Articles 4 and 5 are not hereby 
amended. 

7. Discussion. 

The army, corps, division, and brigade commanders, with their chiefs of 
staff and the chiefs of the operations divisions of their respective head- 
quarters, the umpires, the assistant umpires, and the reporters will attend 
the discussion. 

In order that all action coming into question in the discussion may be 
clearly explained, all important notes, orders, reports, etc., will be brought 
along, so far as it is practicable to do so, by those attending the discussion. 

8. Conventional signs, time. 

In all graphic representations, the troops of the Western army will be 
indicated in blue, and those of the Eastern army in red. 
Watches will be regulated by Central European time. 

The troops participating in the maneuvers were divided 
into two groups, one being designated the "Western army 
group," and the other the "Eastern army group," which, for 



318 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

brevity, will be referred to, respectively, as the Western army 
and the Eastern army. The first is designated a group, 
because, as will be seen from the hypothesis, it was composed 
of the corps forming the left wing of the main army to which 
it was supposed to belong; the second was so designated 
because it was composed of a number of divisions on the 
march to join the main army to which they were supposed to 
belong. 

HYPOTHESIS FOR THE WESTERN ARMY. 

(See any general map of Austria-Hungary.) 

The main army to which the Western army belongs is 
advancing from Moravia against the enemy's main force 
occupying the left bank of the Danube at Vienna and Tulln. 

Several of the enemy's divisions of infantry, with advanced 
cavalry, on the march from Upper Hungary to join their 
main army on the Danube, are to reach the line Ungarisch 
Brod-Waag Neustadt on the 9th of September. 

The Western army, formed from the corps of the left wing 
of its own army, receives orders to attack these divisions, 
which form the Eastern army, and to drive them back into 
Waag Thai. 

HYPOTHESIS FOR THE EASTERN ARMY. 

(See any general map of Austria-Hungary. ) 
The enemy is advancing from Moravia toward the Danube 
and the left wing of his main force is to reach the district of 
Mistelbach and Nikolsburg on the 9th of September. The 
main army, to which the Eastern army belongs, is posted on 
the left bank of the Danube at Vienna and Tulln and will 
oppose the enemy's advance. 

The Eastern army, advancing from Upper Hungary, receives 
orders to attack the left wing of the enemy's main army and 
to draw upon itself the greatest possible force. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE WESTERN ARMY. 

Commander: His Imperial and Eoyal Highness General 
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria- 
Hungary. 

Chief of staff : A major general of the general staff. 



MANEUVERS. 319 

SECOND CORPS. 

Commander: General Count Uxhull-Gyllenband. 

Chief of staff : A colonel of the general staff. 

Artillery brigade commander : A major general. 

Twenty-fifth infantry division : Commander, His Imperial 
and Royal Highness Lieutenant General Archduke Leopold 
Salvator; 16 battalions of infantry, 2£ squadrons, 1G guns 

Forty-ninth infantry brigade : 9 battalions of infantry. 

Fiftieth infantry brigade : 7 battalions of infantry. 

Forty-seventh infantry division : Commander, Lieutenant 
General Fischer-Colbrie : 13 battalions, 2 squadrons, 16 guns. 

Nineteenth infantry brigade: 7 battalions. 

Ninety-fourth infantry brigade : 6 battalions. 

The second corps therefore consisted of 29 battalions of 
infantry, 4J squadrons of cavalry, and 32 guns in its two 
divisions. Its total strength was 29 battalions, 4± squadrons, 
48 guns, 2 pioneer companies, 1 light bridge equipage, and 1 
telephone detachment. 

COMBINED CORPS. 

Commander : Lieutenant General Schonaich. 

Chief of Staff : A colonel of the general staff. 

Artillery brigade commander: A major general. 

Fourth infantry division (in the regular organization of the 
army, this division belongs to the second corps, which is 
stationed in Vienna, and which is the only one of the fifteen 
corps that has three divisions of infantry): Commander, 
Lieutenant General Von Vivenot; 16 battalions, 2 squadrons, 
16 guns. 

Seventh infantry brigade : 8 battalions. 

Eighth infantry brigade : 8 battalions. 

Thirteenth Austrian landwehr infantry division: Com- 
mander, Lieutenant General Von Steinitz; 12 battalions, 2 
squadrons, 16 guns. 

Twenty-fifth Austrian landwehr infantry brigade : 6 bat- 
talions. 

Twenty-sixth Austrian landwehr infantry brigade : 6 bat- 
talions. 

The total strength of the combined corps was 28 battalions, 
4 squadrons, 48 guns, 2 pioneer companies, 4 bridge equi- 
pages, and 1 telephone detachment. 



320 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

THIRD CAVALRY DIVISION. 

Commander : His Imperial and Royal Highness Lieutenant 
General Archduke Otto. 

Chief of staff : A lieutenant colonel of the general staflf. 

Eighth cavalry brigade: 12£ squadrons. 

Tenth cavalry brigade: 11£ squadrons. 

Total strength of the division : 24 squadrons, 12 guns (horse 
artillery). 

Total strength of the Western army: 57 battalions of 
infantry, 32£ squadrons of cavalry, 108 guns, 4 pioneer com- 
panies, 5 bridge equipages, 2 telephone detachments, and 
1 balloon detachment. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE EASTERN ARMY. 

Commander: His Imperial and Royal Highness General 
Archduke Friedrich. 
Chief of staff : A major general. 

FIFTH CORPS. 

Commander : Lieutenant General Von Pitreich. 

Chief of staff : A colonel of the general staff. 

Artillery brigade commander: A major general. 

Fourteenth infantry division : Commander, Lieutenant 
General Baron Von Kraus ; 12battalions, 3 squadrons, 16 guns. 

Twenty-seventh infantry brigade : 4 battalions. 

Twenty-eighth infantry brigade : 8 battalions. 

Thirty-third infantry division: Commander, Lieutenant 
General Nitlos; 14 battalions, 3± squadrons, 16 guns. 

Sixty-fifth infantry brigade : 8 battalions. 

Sixty-sixth infantry brigade : 6 battalions. 

Total strength of the fifth corps : 26 battalions, 6i squadrons, 
48 guns, 2 pioneer companies, half of alight bridge equipage, 
and 1 telephone detachment. 

In addition to the fifth corps, the Eastern army contained 
two separate infantry divisions, not organized as a corps, and 
a cavalry division. 

FIFTH INFANTRY DIVISION. 

(In the regular organization of the army, this division 
belongs to the first corps.) 

Commander: Lieutenant General Baron Von Mertens; 16 
battalions, 4± squadrons, 32 guns. 

Ninth infantry brigade : 8 battalions. 

Tenth infantry brigade : 8 battalions. 



MANEUVERS. 321 

THIRTY-SEVENTH HUNGARIAN LANDWEHR INFANTRY DIVISION. 

Commander: Lieutenant General de Felso Eor; 13 battal- 
ions, 3 squadrons, 16 guns. 

Seventy-third Hungarian landwehr infantry brigade: 7 
battalions. 

Seventy-fourth Hungarian landwehr infantry brigade: 6 
battalions. 

SECOND CAVALRY DIVISION. 

Commanaer: Lieutenant General Count Attems; 24 squad- 
rons, 12 guns (horse artillery). 

Sixteenth cavalry brigade: ll£ squadrons. 

Seventeenth cavalry brigade: 12£ squadrons. 

Total strength of the Eastern army: 55 battalions of 
infantry, 37£ squadrons of cavalry, 92 guns, 2 pioneer com- 
panies, half of a bridge equipage, 1 telephone detachment, 
and 1 balloon detachment. 

On the 14th of September, the ninety-second Austrian land- 
wehr infantry brigade was ordered from Gaya to reenforce 
the Western army. This brigade consisted of 6 battalions. 

There were, therefore, altogether 118 battalions of infantry, 
69£ squadrons of cavalry, 200 guns, 6 pioneer companies, 5i 
bridge equipages, 3 telephone detachments, and 2 balloon 
detachments, besides the regulation supply and medical serv- 
ices participating in, the maneuvers of this year. 

Each cavalry regiment has a pioneer platoon, which is equal 
in strength to one-fourth of a squadron. This accounts for 
the fractions in the above number of squadrons 

The military attaches were invited to attend the grand 
maneuvers, but not the preliminary exercises or the discus- 
sion at the close of the maneuvers. 

The following-named countries were represented at the 
maneuvers by military attaches or by officers specially 
appointed for this purpose, the rank of the foreign officers 
being indicated after the names of their respective countries : 

Egypt : One major. 

France : One major of artillery, military attach^. 

Germany : The Crown Prince of Germany, with one colonel 
and one first lieutenant; one major of the general staff, mili- 
tary attach*?. 

Great Britain : One lieutenant colonel of artillery, military 
attach^. 

829 21 



322 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Italy : One lieutenant colonel of the general staff, military 
attach^. 

Japan : One major of infantry, military attache. 

Norway : One captain. 

Roumania: One lieutenant colonel of engineers; one major 
of artillery, military attach^. 

Eussia: One colonel of the general staff, military attache; 
one lieutenant colonel of the general staff, assistant military 
attach^. 

Servia: One colonel. 

Switzerland : One lieutenant colonel of artillery and one 
lieutenant colonel of infantry. 

Turkey: One general, military attach^; one lieutenant 
colonel of the general staff, assistant military attach^. 

United States of America : One captain of cavalry, military 
attach^. 

All these officers arrived at Sasvar on the evening of Septem- 
ber 1 1 . They were transported from Vienna in a special train 
furnished by the government. As is customary in all Euro- 
pean States, they were quartered, mounted, and provided with 
orderlies at the expense of the state and had all their meals 
at the emperor's table. 

THEATER OF OPERATIONS. 

The part of the theater of operations with which this ' 
report is concerned is bounded on the north by a line drawn 
through Gaya and Ungarisch Brod; on the east by the Waag 
river; on the south by a line passing through Tyrnau, Rohr- 
bach, andDiirnkrut ; on the west by the line Mistelbach, Nikols- 
burg. All fighting of any great importance took place in the 
space bounded on the north by the Chvojnica Eiver; on the 
east by the Miava River; on the south by the Miava River 
as far west as Sasvar, then by the forest extending south and 
west and that town to the March River; on the west, by the 
March River. 

In the eastern part of the theater of operations are found 
the Weisse Karpaten Mountains to the north and the Kleine 
Karpaten Mountains to the south, with a number of high- 
ways and numerous narrow wagon roads and trails leading 
through and between them. The highest point of these 
mountains, within the theater as limited above, is about 3,000 
feet above the level of the sea, while their average height is 



MANEUVERS. 323 

about 1,200 feet. The country descends from these moun- 
tains in a succession of hills and valleys to the March. 

After the March was crossed by the Western army there 
were no obstacles of any great difficulty between the oppos- 
ing forces. The means of lateral communication between the 
wings of each army were favorable. The location of the 
highways and the configuration of the country, as well as 
the object to be accomplished, favored the concentration of 
the Eastern army toward Szobotist and Szenicz, on the Malina 
River. The district immediately west of the line joining 
these two points became the scene of all the important 
engagements of the maneuvers. 

This field was an ideal one for tactical exercises on a large 
scale. It is an unfenced, hilly, and generally open country, 
the highest point being about 900 feet above the level of the 
sea, and the slopes of the hills being sufficiently easy for the 
movement of all arms in any direction. It abounds in favor- 
able points for extensive views and in excellent artillery posi- 
tions. The soil is of such a character that artificial cover 
could be hastily constructed for foot troops and guns. The 
valleys and depressions generally enabled commanders to 
hold their reserves where they were screened from the view 
and fire of the enemy. 

Of the numerous villages and hamlets in the theater of 
operations, the most important of the former are Bur Szt. 
Miklos, Sasvar, Egbell, Holies, Verbocz, Szobotist, and 
Szenicz. To the north are the towns of Goding, Skalitz, and 
Strassnitz; to the east, Miava; to the southeast, Tyrnau; to 
the west, Lundenburg. Sasvar, where the emperor and his 
staff, the maneuver direction, the military attaches, etc., were 
quartered, has a population of 2,500. 

SITUATION OF THE TWO ARMIES AT THE BEGINNING OF WAR- 
LIKE CONDITIONS. 

All troops were to reach, on the evening of September 10, 
the positions that they were to occupy at the beginning of 
hostile relations between the two armies. 

WESTERN ARMY. 

At the time above mentioned, the second corps was located 
at Prinzendorf ; the combined corps at Nikolsburg; the third 
cavalry division at Hohenau, with a part of its line of outposts 
beyond the March. 



324 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

EASTERN ARMY. 

At this time, the fifth corps was located at Miava; the 
fifth infantry division at Strassnitz ; the thirty-seventh land- 
wehr infantry division at Pistyan; the second cavalry divi- 
sion at Szenicz, with its outline of outposts pushed forward to 
Stepano and Bur Szt. Peter. 

The 11th of September was a day of rest for all troops until 

, noon. At that hour the service of information began in both 

armies. The main bodjr of each army rested the entire day. 

EXTRACT FROM THE ORDERS FOR RECONNOISSANCE OK THE 
11TH ANI> 1STH OF SEPTEMBER. 

WESTERN ARMY. 

For the reconnoissance of the territory between the March, 
on the west ; the line Strassnitz, Ungarisch Brod, on the north ; 
the Waag, on the east, and the line Diirnkrut, Tyrnau, on 
the. south, the third cavalry division will send forward, at 
noon on the 11th of September, reconnoitering detachments, 
which will reach on that day the line Egbell, Sasvar, Laksar 
Ujf alu, Bohrbach ; and on the 12th, the line Strassnitz, Miava, 
Nadras. 

The following information is to be obtained : 

(a) The strength and distribution of the columns advancing 
between the Kleinen and Weissen Karpaten. 

(b) The strength and direction of march of the hostile 
force advancing from Ung. Brod. It is very important to 
learn as soon as possible whether this force is endeavoring to 
form a junction with the main body by way of Welka and 
Verbocz, or to reach Holies by way of Strassnitz. 

The main body of the third cavalry division will cross the 
March on the morning of the 12th and will advance into the 
district Dojcs, Stepano, Bur Szt. Miklos. 

The second corps will reconnoiter north as far as Egbell, 
Unin, Holy Vrch; south, as far as Hohenau, Morva Szt. 
* Janos, Blasenstein St. Peter. 

The combined corps will reconnoiter north as far as Holies 
and Verbocz. 

The third cavalry division will send out at noon on the 11th 
of September the following reconnoitering patrols : 

No. 1 (i squadron of the fifth dragoons) : From Drossing 
by Malaczka to Rohrbach; on the 12th, by Blasenstein St.. 
Peter to Nadas. 



MANKUVERS. 325 

No. 2 (1 squadron of the eighth uhlans): By Morva Szt. 
Janos, Tomek M. to Laksar Ujfalu ; on the 12th, by Jablonicz 
to Brezova, from which point it will reconnoiter toward 
Verbo and Miava. 

No. 3 (1 squadron of the eleventh dragoons) : By Morva Szt. 
Janos to Sasvar ; on the 12th, by Szenicz to Szobotist, from 
which point it will reconnoiter toward Verbocz and Miava. 

No. 4 (1 squadron of the fifteenth dragoons) : By Kuklo to 
Petersdorf ; on the 12th, by Holies to Strassnitz; at daybreak 
on the 12th it will send a platoon from Petersdorf by Unin to 
Holy Vrch as a post of observation. 

Independent officers' reconnoitering patrols on the 11th of 
September : 

No. 1 (from the fifth dragoons): By Morva Szt. Janos, 
Laksar Ujfalu to Brezova; on the 12th, to observe the roads 
in the vicinity of Brezova. 

No. 2 (from the eleventh dragoons) : By Morva Szt. Janos, 
Sasvar, Szenicz, Szobotist; on the 12th, to observe the roads 
toward Miava and Verbocz. 

No. 3 (from the fifteenth dragoons) : By Morva Szt. Janos, 
Petersdorf, Holies, Skalitz to Strassnitz; on the 12th, to 
observe the road from Strassnitz to Holies. 

All of these three patrols will note the night positions of 
the enemy and will personally report upon them on the 12th. 

EASTERN ARMY. 

The second cavalry division will reconnoiter the district 
between theThaya River and the highway Durnkrut, Schrick, 
Mistelbach. Its reconnoitering detachments will proceed on 
the 11th as far as the March River; on the 12th, as far as the 
locality of the §nemy, or the road Nikolsburg, Schrick. The 
main body will advance on the 12th by Hohenau toward Mis- 
telbach and will hold the crossings over the March southeast 
of Land shut, east of Hohenau, and east of Drosing. In 
opposing the crossing of the March by the enemy the passage 
of his main body over the river must be prevented or at least 
delayed. In case of irresistible pressure by the enemy, the 
division will retire toward Sasvar. 

The fifth infantry division will reconnoiter both banks of 
the March and the country to the west as far as Gaya and 
Nikolsburg. The most advanced reconnoitering patrols will 
endeavor to reach, on the 11th, the railway Nikolsburg, 
Lundenburg, Broczko. 



326 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

The thirty-seventh landwehr infantry division will com- 
plete the reconnoissance of the second cavalry division as far 
as Miava, toward the north; as far as Durnkrut and Ma- 
laczka, toward the south; on the 11th, if possible, as far as 
Blasenstein St. Peter. 

The fifth corps will reconnoiter on both sides of its line of 
march, will establish communication with the second cavalry 
division, and may, if necessary, consolidate the divisional 
cavalry. 

The eleventh rifle battalion will proceed by Szenicz to Sas- 
var, which point it will reach by noon on the 12th and where 
it will be placed at the disposition of the commander of the 
second cavalry division. 

The commander of the second cavalry division will send for- 
ward on the 11th the following reconnoitering detachments: 

No. 1 (1 squadron of the sixth dragoons): From Dojcs by 
Unin and Radimo towards Kopcsan; if possible, as far as 
Teinitz; to continue on the 12th through Lundenburg toward 
Feldsberg, leaving a strong post in Kopcsan. 

Xo. 2 (t squadron of the sixth dragoons): To Broczko; on 
the 12th, by Bernhardsthal to the cross roads west of Muhl- 
borg (218). 

No. 3 (1 squadron of the fourth hussars): To Szekelyfalu; 
on the 12th, by Hohenau and Prinzendorf toward Mistelbach. 
Should it not succeed in crossing the March, the bridge and 
causeway at Hohenau will be constantly observed on the 12th 
and during the forenoon of the 13th. 

No. 4 ( L squadron of the eleventh hussars) : To Kis Levard; 
on the 12th, by Jedenspeigen, or, if necessary, by Durnkrut 
and Zistersdorf, toward Prinzendorf. 

On the 12th, all detachments will set out at 5 o'clock a. m. 

For the service of intercommunication there will be estab- 
lished on the 11th of September: 

(a) One squadron of the ninth hussars, as a strong orderly 
post, on the highway at the western entrance to Sasvar. None 
of the enemy's horsemen will be allowed to pass this point. 

(h) One-fourth squadron of the fourth hussars, as a strong 
orderly post, toward Tomek Major, southwest of Sasvar. 
There was also an orderly post of ten men at Rudolfshof, north 
of KKbell. 



MANEUVERS. 327 

EXTRACT FROM THE ORDERS FOR THE 13TH OF SEPTEMBER. 

(See map.) 

WESTERN ARMY. 

Object: From its initial position on the other side of the 
March, the army is to assemble on a line approximately coin- 
cident with that joining Sasvar and Holies and is then to 
advance against the enemy in the general direction of Miava 
and Brezova. 

The army will advance from its initial position as follows : 
(a ) The third cavalry division, on general reconnoitering 
service, according to special orders. 

(6) The second corps by Hohenau into the district Sasvar, 
Szmolinszko, Csari, and Bur Szt. Gyorgy, in such a way that 
the march may be continued on the next day with one divi- 
sion directed towards Petersdorf . The advance will begin in 
time for the point of the advance guard to reach the bridge 
of Hohenau at 8 o'clock a. m. 

(c) The combined corps into the district Landshut, Kostitz, 
and Lundenburg. The corps artillery to Lundenberg. 

The second corps will send one battalion, at noon on the 
11th of September, to occupy Morva Szt. Janos and Szekel- 
f alu, for the purpose of covering the crossing of the cavalry 
division and as a support for the reconnoitering detachments. 
The ferry at Drosing will be held until the evening of the 
12th by half a company. 

The combined corps will prepare to cross the March, on a 
broad front, early on the morning of the 13th, by means of 
bridges or by fording, at the above Broczko. The railway 
bridge will be utilized, so far as it is practicable to do so, in 
the crossing. Two battalions of this corps will be sent for- 
ward to Lundenburg at noon on the 11th of September. 

Army headquarters, until 5 o'clock a. m. on the 12th, at 
Mistelbach ; then by Zistersdorf to Morva Szt. Janos. 

The third cavalry division will be assembled, on the 12th 
of September, on the highway at the western entrance to 
Morva Szt. Janos, with the fifteenth dragoons as advanced 
guard and with the main body 1,000 paces in rear of the 
latter. The advance of the division will begin at a quarter 
past 7 o'clock a. m. 



328 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

EASTERN ARMY. 

Object: To continue offensive operations toward Mistel- 
bach. 

Points to be reached on the 12th : 

By the fifth infantry division : Holies and Kapcsan. This 
division will seize the crossings in the vicinity of Goding and 
Kapcsan and will send a detachment to Broczko. 

By the fifth corps: Szenicz and vicinity, one division; 
Szobotist and the villages immediately west of that town, one 
division. 

By the thirty-seventh landwehr infantry division : Jablo- 
nicz and Hradischt. 

Army headquarters will leave Miava at 7 o'clock a. m., and 
will march to Szenicz. 

The second cavalry division will be assembled, on the 12th, 
at Bozek, with the fifth dragoons as advance guard and with 
the head of the main body 1,000 paces west of that town. 
The advance of the division will begin at half past 6 o'clock 
a. m. 

DETAILS OF THE OPERATIONS ON SEPTEMBER 18, CAVALRY 
BATTALION OF KUKLO. 

The third cavalry division passed the night from Septem- 
ber 11 to September 12 in the vicinity of Hohenau, and the 
second cavalry division in the vicinity of Szenicz. 

The eleventh rifle battalion, attached to the second cavalry 
division, reached Szenicz on the morning of the 12th, after a 
night march, from which point it was hurried to the front, 
in wagons, and was placed between the support and the 
reserve of the advance guard. 

The third cavalry division reached Bur Szt. Gyorgy before 
8 o'clock a. m. on the 12th, and the division commander, 
the Archduke Otto, there made the following dispositions for 
the attack of the enemy, now known to be advancing on the 
road from Sasvar toward Hohenau. 

The advanced guard, consisting of the fifteenth dragoons, 
with two guns, to proceed north of the above-named road and 
toward Kuklo, with the object of deceiving the enemy as to 
the direction of the main attack. As an offensive right flank, 
the eleventh dragoons, with the rest of the artillery, was sent 
out on the road leading to the southeast from Bur Szt. 
Gyorgy, with the elevation 184 as its point of direction. The 



MANEUVERS. 329 

. main attack was to be delivered by the eighth uhlans and the 
fifth dragoons, formed in one line and advancing between the 
highway and the wood southeast of Knklo. 

The second cavalry division reached Sasvar about half past 
7 o'clock a. m. on the 12th, and, after proceeding some dis- 
tance beyond that town, on the road leading toward Hohenau, 
the commander, Lieutenant General Count Attems, learned 
that the enemy was approaching north and south of the road 
from Bur Szt. Gyorgy to Kuklo. He decided to attack, and 
accordingly issued the following orders : 

One brigade (the fifth and eleventh hussars), in one line, 
to deliver the main attack, its point of direction being the 
church tower of Bur Szt. Gyorgy; the fourth hussars in 
the second line, to the left ; the sixth dragoons in the third 
line, to the right and in prolongation of the line occupied by 
the horse batteries, which were posted on a low ridge at the 
edge of the wood about 1,000 paces southeast of Kuklo. 

The artillery of the third cavalry division was the first to 
get into position, and, from the higher ground at the northern 
edge of the wood directly south of Kuklo (elevation 171), 
opened a most destructive fire against the attacking brigade 
of the second cavalry division. At ^bout the same time that 
this brigade met the principal shock of the enemy in front, it 
was attacked on its left flank by the eleventh dragoons and 
was defeated. The fourth hussars, forming the second line 
to the left rear of the attacking brigade of the second cavalry 
division, apparently accomplished nothing. The sixth dra- 
goons, forming the third line to the right rear of this brigade, 
charged and defeated the fifteenth dragoons of the third cav- 
alry division. The latter regiment, it will be remembered, 
had been sent forward on the northern side of the highway 
from Bur Szt. Gyorgy to Kuklo. 

In consequence of the defeat of the main body of the second 
cavalry division, the retreat was ordered for the entire 
division, which fell back through Sasvar to Morvaor. Its 
retreat was covered by one company of riflemen, which had 
advanced as far as Kuklo, and by its artillery. This com- 
pany fell back to the edge of the wood west of Sasvar, where 
the other three companies of the battalion of rifles attached 
to the second cavalry division had been posted. This bat- 
talion, with the assistance of the artillery, checked the pur- 
suit by the third cavalry division, and the maneuvers for 
that day were soon afterward te* urinated. 



332 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

EASTERN ARMY. 

The army will attack and drive back the enemy's forces 
that have crossed the March. 

The fifth corps will move forward, in the space between the 
Miava on the one side and the road Csasztko, Unin, Lettnicz 
on the other, toward Morvaor and Szmolinszko. 

The second cavalry division will proceed to the vicinity of 
Petersdorf, will maintain communication between the fifth 
corps and the fifth infantry division, and will operate in 
conjunction with the latter. 

The fifth infantry division will march toward Petersdorl 
and Egbell. In conjunction with the second cavalry division, 
it will delay the advance of the enemy's forces by Broczko 
toward the east. The principal object, however, will be to 
support the fifth corps in battle by attacking with the. largest 
force practicable. The advance will begin in time to cross 
the line of outposts at 7 o'clock a. m. 

The thirty-seventh landwehr infantry division will march 
by Csacso and Szenicz and will reach N. Kovallo at 9 o'clock 
a. m. It will send a detachment by Rothes Kreuz and Bur 
Szt. Miklos in time to reach Sasvar by 12 o'clock m. 

The field balloon will begin observations at N. Kovallo at 
half past 5 o'clock a. m. 

The headquarters of the army will march from Szenicz by 
N. Kovallo to the elevation 258, where it will arrive at 8 
o'clock a. m. 

DETAILS OF THE OPERATIONS ON SEPTEMBER 13. 

In compliance with the above orders, the second corps, 
consisting of the twenty-fifth and forty-seventh infantry 
divisions, took up the following positions : 

One brigade of the twenty-fifth division, with the corps 
artillery regiment, 16 guns, occupied the height of Barbaiki, 
facing east; one brigade of the forty-seventh division, with 
the division artillery regiment, 16 guns, was posted on the 
heights south of Petersdorf and Lettnicz, facing north; the 
second brigade of the forty-seventh division was placed in 
echelon to the left and rear of the first as corps reserve. A 
battalion of infantry and a regiment of cavalry were left in 
Sasvar to oppose any attempt of the enemy's cavalry to pass 
through that place toward the March. The second brigade 
of the twenty-fifth division covered the right flank of the 



MANEUVERS. 333 

second corps on the height Vrch (272) and in the wood south 
of Barbaiki. 

The attack of the Eastern army was opened by the fifth 
infantry division at Petersdorf and Lettnicz, about 8 o'clock 
a. m., against the brigade of the forty-seventh infantry divi- 
sion, in position on the heights south of those villages. The 
fifth corps advanced with its thirty- third division on the 
right, directed toward Lettnicz, and its fourteenth division on 
the left, directed toward Barbaiki (305) and Vrch (272). 
The fourteenth division was the first to come under the fire 
of the enemy's artillery occupying the height of Barbaiki. 
From this time until the deployment of the Eastern army, 
the action was confined almost exclusively to the artillery. 
The divisions of this army having reached their respective 
positions in the line of battle about half past 9 o'clock a. m., 
the army commander ordered a general attack, hoping to de- 
feat the second corps, notwithstaniding its strong position, 
before the arrival of the combined corps on the field of action. 

The second corps was at this time wholly dependent upon 
itself. Being held in its position on Barbaiki by the four- 
teenth division attacking in front, with the thirty-seventh 
landwehr division threatening its right flank and with the 
fifth and thirty- third divisions and the second cavalry division 
attacking its left wing in front and on the flank, the result 
-was inevitable. Although the brigade of the forty-seventh 
division, holding the heights south of Petersdorf and Lettnicz, 
had been reenforced by the corps reserve, the entire left wing 
of the second corps was forced to abandon its position and 
fall back to the height of Brezi (240) north of Szmolinszko. 
The right wing of the second corps held tenaciously to the 
height of Barbaiki, the commander of the Western army 
evidently hoping each moment to see the head of the combined 
corps appear in the open space about Egbell. So far as I 
could observe or learn, no part of this corps reached the field 
of battle before the close of the maneuvers for the day. About 
12 o'clock in., the right wing (twenty-fifth division) of the 
second corps was driven out of its position on Barbaiki and 
in the adjacent wood to the southwest, and ordered to retire 
to the height of Vinohradki, north of Morvaor. The victory 
of the Eastern army was now complete and the lines of de- 
marcation between the opposing forces were established by 
the maneuver direction. 



334 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

COMMENTS. 

Through some mistake in transmitting orders, the combined 
corps did not begin the crossing of the March before 8 o'clock 
on the morning of September T3. In actual warfare this 
would have been a fatal blunder, as the second corps was 
overwhelmed by the attack on converging lines of the entire 
Eastern army before the combined corps reached a position 
from which it could fire a single shot at the enemy. If such 
a mistake is possible in maneuvers, one may well ask if sim- 
ilar or even greater ones, under the vastly more difficult 
circumstances of actual war, might not be committed. It 
would seem that, under the general orders above given, a 
zealous and enterprising corps commander, separated by a 
practically unfordable river from the other half of his own 
army, the latter being in presence of an enemy twice its 
strength, would not wait from the afternoon of one day until 
8 o'clock on the morning of the next to begin the crossing of 
that river to support the other half of the army in its 
perilous situation. 

Besides the railway bridge immediately in front of the com- 
bined corps, the corps commander had at his disposition four 
complete bridge equipages. With these facilities at hand for 
crossing, with roads from J. H. Kadubek and Adamhof lead- 
ing through the forest west of Egbell and converging toward 
that point, it is still unaccountable that, even if the crossing 
did not begin before 8 o'clock a. m., the head of the corps at 
least was not able to engage the enemy in the vicinity of 
Egbell by noon, the hour at which the maneuvers for the day 
terminated. Egbell is only about 6 miles from the point at 
which the corps crossed the March. 

This was the great blunder of the maneuvers of this year. 
Since the two corps of the Western army were assigned to 
different sections of the March for crossing, the original mis- 
take was made by the general staff in ordering the second 
corps forward to Morvaor, on the left bank of the river, on 
the 12th of September, and in leaving the combined corps at 
Landshut, on the right bank, with orders to cross early on 
the morning of the 13th. Such orders in actual war would 
most likely result in disaster. 

During the night, from the 12th to the 13th of September, 
the fifth infantry division was cantoned at Holies, about 10 
miles only from the points at which the combined corps crossed 



MANEUVERS. 335 

the March. By making a night march this division could 
Iiave reached a position on the river from which it could have 
prevented the crossing of the combined corps early on the 
morning of the 13th of September, or at least delayed this 
crossing until the second corps was defeated by the Eastern 
army. The latter would still have had three divisions of 
infantry, after detaching the fifth division, with which to 
attack the two divisions of the second corps. 

CANTONMENTS OF THE TWO ARMIES DURING THE NIGHT 
FROM SEPTEMBER 18 TO SEPTEMBER 11. 

WESTERN ARMY. 

Third cavalry division : At and in the vicinity of Holies. 

Combined corps: At and in the vicinity of Egbell and 
Szmolinszko. 

Second corps : At and in the vicinity of Csari, Kuklo, and 
Bur Szt. Gyorgy. 

EASTERN ARMY. 

Fifth infantry division : At and in the vicinity of Radosocz. 

Thirty-third infantry division (fifth corps): At Unin, 
Petersdorf, and Lettnicz. 

Fourteenth infantry division (fifth corps) : At and in the 
vicinity of Szmrdak and Kovallo. 

Thirty-seventh landwehr infantry division: At Stepano 
aind Dojcs. 

Second cavalry division : At and in the vicinity of Bur Szt. 
Peter and Bur Szt. Miklos. 

These localities were occupied, practically without change, 
until the morning of September 15. 

Sunday, September 14, was a day of rest. In addition to 
the fighting of the 12th and 13th, the troops had been occupied 
almost continuously for about three weeks in hard marches 
and severe exercises preliminary to the grand maneuvers. A 
day of rest on the 14th was essential, in order not to cause 
unnecessary and unreasonable fatigue. 

EXTRACT FROM THE ORDERS FOR THE 15TH OF SEPTEMBER. 

WESTERN ARMY. 

The army, reenforced by the ninety-second landwehr in- 
fantry brigade, which has arrived at Holies, will resume the 
advance against the line of Szobotist and Szenicz. 



336 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The troops will move forward as follows : 

The second corps, in the space between Sasvar and Szenicz, 
on the south, and Lettnicz and Holy V., on the north. 

The combined corps north of this space. 

The ninety-second landwehr infantry brigade, with one 
squadron of the third cavalry division, provisionally as far 
as Radimo, where it will receive orders from the army com- 
mander. 

The third cavalry division, between the Chvojnica River 
and the Unin woods, and will cover the left flank of the 
army. 

In case of an engagement, the direction of the interior 
wings of the two corps will be Holy V. 

The line of the outposts will be crossed by the heads of 
columns at 7 o'clock a. m. 

Army headquarters will be on the height Vinohrad, south 
of Egbell, by 7 o'clock a. m., and will then march with the 
combined corps. 

EASTERN ARMY. 

The army will continue the offensive on the 15th, and, with 
this object in view, will advance as follows, the right wing 
being placed in the first line : 

The fifth corps, in the space between the road Unin, Peters- 
dorf, and Egbell, on the north, and the line of the height 286 
(south of Lettnicz) and M. H. (northeast of Szmolinszko), 
on the south, toward Broczko ; the main body by Petersdorf . 
The advanced guard will cross the line of outposts at 7 o'clock 
a. m. One brigade of this corps will constitute the army 
reserve, which will pass the west end of Unin at 7 o'clock 
a. m., and will march by Petersdorf to Egbell. 

The fifth infantry division will follow the fifth corps in 
echelon to the right rear, and will cross the line of outposts 
at Radimo at 7 o'clock a. m. The direction will be approxi- 
mately that of Rudolfshof, north of Egbell. 

The thirty-seventh landwehr infantry division will assem- 
ble, ready for battle, on the heights of Barbaiki and Vrch, 
and will move forward to Szmolinszko, in the direction of 
Csari, regulating its march by the progress of the fifth corps. 

The second cavalry division, upon Kuklo. It will cover 
the left flank and will send a detachment to destroy the 
bridge over the March at Hohenau. 



MANEUVERS. 337 

The field balloon will begin observations on the height 286, 
south of Lettnicz, at half past 5 o'clock a. m. 

Army headquarters will be on the height 286 at 7 o'clock 
a. in. 

I>ETAILS OF THE OPERATIONS ON THE 15TH OF SEPTEMBER, 
BATTLE OF EOBELL. 

The ninety-second landwehr infantry brigade arrived by 
rail at Gaya on September 13 and on the morning of the 14th 
was placed under the orders of the commander of the West- 
ern army, who ordered it to proceed at once by marching to 
Holies. This brigade had been held in readiness to reenforce 
one or the other of the two armies, according to circum- 
stances, in the course of the maneuvers. The time of this 
reenforcement and the selection of the army that was to 
receive it were determined by tbe general staff. 

As the lines of outposts of the two armies had been not 
more than about two miles distant from each other since 
September 13, the battle of the 15th began from these lines 
at about 7 o'clock in the morning. Each army commander 
knew, and would doubtless have known in actual war, the 
location and approximate composition and strength of his 
adversary's forces. 

The fifth corps of the Eastern army and the combined 
corps of the Western army first came into collision. The 
former was formed in three columns, each of one brigade 
and one artillery regiment, the fourth brigade acting as army 
reserve. The right brigade occupied the height 248, west of 
Petersdorf; the center brigade, the height 262, south of 
Petersdorf ; the left brigade, the height 266, extending the 
line south in the direction of the height of Barbaiki (305). 

The combined corps was deployed on a line extending 
north and south through Egbell, the fourth division to the 
north, and the thirteenth landwehr division on the height of 
Vinohrad (261), to the south of that town. One brigade of 
the forty-seventh division (second corps), with the division 
artillery regiment, continued toward the south the line occu- 
pied by the thirteenth landwehr division. These two posi- 
tions of the opposing forces were separated by an open, 
shallow valley inclosed between gently sloping hills. 

On account of the strong position held at Egbell by the 
Western army, the commander of the fifth corps could gain 

829 22 



338 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

no ground toward the front and was forced to suspend any 
further attempt at a forward movement until the fifth 
division should come into action on his right flank. Pending 
the arrival of this division, the action on both sides was con- 
fined almost entirely to the artillery. 

The fifth division marched from Kadosocz and Vlcskovan 
to Radimo, where it learned that the fourth division (com- 
bined corps) was advancing in the direction of Breszti (255), 
north of Petersdorf . The former was now obliged to change 
its direction toward Breszti, thereby leaving a considerable 
gap between itself and the fifth corps. On reaching Breszti 
the fifth division was attacked in front and on its left flank 
by the fourth division, and on its right flank by the ninety- 
second landwehr brigade, which was marching from Holies 
to Radimo. To relieve this critical situation of the fifth 
division the commander of the Eastern army now threw his 
reserve into the gap between the fifth division and the fifth 
corps and ordered a general advance, the principal attack 
being directed against the height of Vinohrad, south of 
Egbell. But the fourteenth division, forming the left wing 
of the fifth corps, met with such strong resistance that it 
could make no progress toward the enemy's position, which 
had been strengthened by bringing the army reserve into the 
fighting line. The fifth division could no longer hold on to 
its position at Breszti. 

It was now about 9 o'clock a. m. and the Eastern army, 
after two hours of hard fighting, had not succeeded in any 
of its attacks. About this time the commander of the West- 
ern army ordered a counter attack by his combined corps 
and the ninety-second landwehr brigade in the direction of 
Unin. This resulted in the defeat of the center and right of 
the Eastern army. 

During all this time, the thirty-seventh landwehr division, 
forming the left wing of the Eastern army, had been able not 
only to hold its own on the heights of Barbaiki (305) and 
Vrch (272), but to gain some successes against the opposing 
twenty-fifth division (second corps). This was the only part 
of the battle of which I could see nothing from the high 
ground about Petersdorf and Lettnicz. It is reported that 
the second cavalry division, operating by way of Sasvar and 
Morvaor, captured the enemy's corps artillery posted on the 
height of Vinohradki (256), south of Szmolinszko. 



MANEUVERS. 339 

With the defeat of the enemy's center and right, the com- 
mander of the Western army was able to direct the entire 
second corps against the thirty-seventh landwehr division. 
In consequence of this attack and of the uncovering of its 
right flank by the defeat of the center and right of the Eastern 
army, the thirty-seventh landwehr division was compelled to 
abandon its position and join in the retreat of the rest of the 
army. The retreat became general for the Eastern army 
about 10 o'clock a. m. The Western army pursued in the 
general direction of Szenicz until half past 12 o'clock p. m. 

comment. 

The maneuvers on this day consisted almost entirely of 
exercises in grand tactics. Although the line of battle was 
about nine miles in extent, the commanders were able, by 
moving comparatively short distances, to observe most of the 
course of the battle from certain commanding points. With 
the knowledge possessed by each army commander of the 
disposition of his adversary's forces, the excellent maps in 
use and the generally open field, there could be few surprises* 
The retreat and pursuit were carried out in a faultless man- 
ner, the artillery playing a most important role in both. 

CANTONMENTS OF THE TWO ARMIES DURING THE NIGHT 
FROM THE 15TH TO THE 16TH OF SEPTEMBER. 

WESTERN ARMY. 

Ninety-second landwehr brigade : At Radimo. 

Combined corps : At and in the vicinity of Egbell, Lett- 
nicz, Petersdorf, and Rudolfshof. 

Second corps : At and in the vicinity of Sasvar, Morvaor, 
Bozek, and Stepano. 

Third cavalry division : At and in the vicinity of Csari, 
Kuklo, and Bur Szt. Gyorgy. 

EASTERN ARMY. 

Fifth corps: At and in the vicinity of Szobotist. 

Fifth infantry division : At Roho, Rovenszko, and Ribek. 

Thirty-seventh landwehr infantry division : At and in the 
vicinity of Szenicz. 

Second cavalry division : At and in the vicinity of Hluboka, 
Csacso, and Kuno. 



340 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

EXTRACT FROM THE ORDERS FOR THE 16TH OF SEPTEMBER. 

WESTERN ARMY. 

The enemy has been driven back beyond the line Radimo, 
Unin, Dojcs. 

Object : To pursue with the full strength of the left wing 
and, if an opportunity presents itself, to renew the attack and 
to force the enemy back into the mountains. 

The array will advance as follows : 

The second corps, with one division and a half, in the space 
between the line of Sasvar and Hluboka, on the south, and 
the line of N. Kovallo, Ribek, and Rovenszko, on the north. 

The combined corps, with the ninety-second landwehr 
infantry brigade attached, north of the last-named line. 

The third cavalry division, in the direction of Szenicz. It 
will cover the right flank of the army. 

One brigade of the second corps will constitute the army 
reserve. It will follow the combined corps in the direction 
of Unin and Holy Vrch. 

All columns will cross the line of outposts at 7 o'clock a. m. 
The army reserve will set out at the same hour from the 
southern extremity of Unin. 

Army headquarters will be on the elevation south of Unin 
at 7 o'clock a. m. 

EASTERN ARMY. 

Object: To hold the prepared position on the ridge east of 
Rovenszko against the enemy. 

Dispositions for the defense : 

The thirty-seventh landwehr infantry division will occupy 
that part of the ridge extending from the road from Rovenszko 
to Kraty M. south to a point on the highway west of Kuno. 

The fifth infantry division, with corps artillery regiment 
No. 5, will occupy that part of the ridge from the road 
Rovenszko-Kraty M. to the highway Szobotist-Csasztko. 

Both divisions will be ready for battle at a quarter before 
7 o'clock a. m. 

The fifth corps will constitute the army reserve, and will 
occupy the hills 430 and 424, 3 kilometers northwest from 
Szobotist. It will be ready for a counter attack in the direc- 
tion of Csasztko, and will take the necessary measures for 
securing its right flank on the height 541 and for the proper 
screening of its position. For this purpose, three squadrons 



MANEUVERS. 341 

from the fifth infantry division will be placed at its dispo- 
sition. 

The second cavalry division will cover the left flank of the 
army and will operate against the right flank of the enemy. 
It will cross the line of outposts at 7 o'clock a. m. 

The position of the fifth and the thirty-seventh landwehr 
infantry division will be fortified. 

Army headquarters will be on the height 324, west of 
Szobotist, at" 7 o'clock a. m. 

DETAILS OF THE OPERATIONS ON THE 16TH OF SEPTEMBER. 

The thirty -seventh landwehr infantry division, forming the 
left wing of the Eastern army, had an advanced post of two 
battalions at Csacso. The divisional artillery (thirteenth 
regiment) was posted on the high ground 296, northwest of 
Kuno. The fifth infantry division continued toward the 
north, the line of defense occupied by the thirty-seventh 
landwehr infantry division. The artillery of the fifth 
division (second regiment) and that of the fifth corps (fifth 
regiment) were posted on the high ground 324, southwest of 
Szobotist. North of the fifth infantry division came the fifth 
corps, with its fourteenth division on the left and its thirty- 
third division on the right. It was concealed behind the 
ridge running northwest from Szobotist to Kavran from 
the view of the enemy. The height of Kavran (541), on the 
extreme right flank, was occupied by a battalion of infantry, 
and the height of Barkovec (443) was held by three battalions 
of infantry and one battery of artillery. With the three 
squadrons of the fifth division that had been attached to the 
fifth corps, the latter had nine squadrons available for screen- 
ing its position. 

The advance of the second corps of the Western army was 
over gently rolling country and was executed without any 
important incident, except the driving in of the outpost at 
Csasco and the occupation of Szenicz. The attack of this 
corps was directed mainly against the front of the thirty- 
seventh landwehr infantry division, but, when the signal was 
sounded terminating the maneuvers for the day and for this 
year, it had not been able to gain any ground beyond the 
ridge running north from Szenicz and Szottina toward Roho. 
The second cavalry division was forced by the second corps 
to withdraw to a point southeast of Szenicz. 



342 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The combined corps had much more difficult ground over 
which to march and fight. By 10 o'clock a. m. its right 
wing (the fourth division) had reached the high ground east 
of Roho; but the extreme left of the left wing (thirteenth 
landwehr infantry division) had not yet been able to capture 
the height of Barkovec (443), and the entire line of battle of 
the Western army was stopped by the heavy fire from the 
enemy's exceptionally strong position. 

About this time the Archduke Frederick, commanding the 
Eastern army, ordered a counter attack by the fifth corps, to 
meet which the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, commanding 
the Western army, ordered his reserve into the fighting line. 
Before any decisive result could be accomplished, so far as I 
could observe or learn, the emperor's signal, closing the 
maneuvers, was sounded. 

COMMENT. 

The marches, deployments, and attacks, from a tactical 
point of view and without reference to the objects to be 
accomplished, were faultless; but it seemed to me that a 
frontal attack by the Western army against such a position 
as that held by the Eastern army would have resulted, in 
actual war, in certain defeat with heavy losses. This posi- 
tion was not only strong naturally, but the men and guns 
were well protected behind artificial cover ; the field of fire 
was excellent, and the reserves could be moved to any part 
of the line without being seen by the enemy. Instead of 
attacking with equal strength along the entire front, the 
Western army might have succeeded by employing a contain- 
ing force against the front of the enemy's line and by attempt- 
ing to turn his left flank, which was the only weak point in 
the defensive position. 

If it had been possible to continue the maneuvers long 
enough for a decision to be reached, the counter attack of the 
fifth corps would probably have succeeded. But in actual 
warfare the battle would most likely have resolved itself into 
a trial of endurance and, without a change in the position of 
one or the other of the armies, might have lasted several days. 
As it was, the men of the fifth corps .were perfectly fresh, 
while the opposing troops had marched that morning more 
than 10 miles, had marched and fought for about three hours, 
and many of them had been on their feet continuously for 
about eight hours. 



MANEUVERS. MS 

The action of the two cavalry divisions seems to have been 
confined to their artillery. One of the umpires, a major 
general, who was with the second cavalry division, remarked 
in my hearing that the right flank of a column of the second 
corps was exposed to the fire of the horse batteries of this 
division, at a distance of 2,000 paces, long enough to have 
enabled these batteries to fire 2,000 rounds. 

On the whole, the maneuvers were executed in a manner that 
demonstrated the highest degree of training and efficiency. 
At best, maneuvers can be only a simulation of war, and there 
never has been a battle fought that was wholly free from 
mistakes and it is more than probable that such a battle never 
will be fought. Many mistakes in detail in maneuvers would 
soon be corrected in war. For instance, unnecessary expo- 
sure of a command, by failing to take advantage of available^ 
cover, while advancing against an enemy firing blank car- 
tridges, would in time disappear if the ball cartridges of war 
were substituted for the blank cartridges of maneuvers. 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Organization, Armament, and Equipment. — I- think 
that the information already on file on these subjects is up to, 
date and that there is therefore nothing new to report. 

Efficiency. — The Austro-Hungarian army is the best 
trained army that I have ever seen, and I believe that it is 
one of the most efficient armies in Europe. It may well be 
compared, like the army of a neighboring state, to a perfect 
machine. One reason why this army is so machine-like is 
that it is trained and maneuvered as a machine with all its 
parts assembled and properly adjusted. 

To give some idea of the physical condition of the men and 
of their powers of endurance, I may mention that during the 
maneuvers they sometimes marched 25 miles a day and many 
of them were up by 2 o'clock in the morning and did not 
reach their cantonments until late at night; yet I did not see 
one straggler, one man fall out of ranks, one man on a litter 
or in an ambulance. It is reported that none went to the 
hospital. 

Discipline. — During the course of the maneuvers, I did 
not observe a disorderly act on the part of any soldier. I 
did not see a single soldier in the slightest degree under the 
influence of intoxicants. Sunday, September 14, was a day 



344 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

of rest, and therefore afforded an excellent opportunity to 
observe the general behavior of the men when off duty. I 
spent the day in Sasvar, in the midst of thousands of them, 
and I did not see one of them slovenly in appearance, bois- 
terous in manner, or disorderly in conduct. During my resi- 
dence of a year in Vienna, which has a garrison of about 
"20,000, I have never seen an intoxicated soldier and I have 
never seen the slightest manifestation of disrespect by a sol- 
dier toward an officer or a civilian. 

Artillery. — All regiments of field artillery had four bat- 
teries of four guns each, except the second division artillery 
regiment of the fifth infantry division, which had four bat- 
teries of eight guns each. This division belongs to the first 
corps, stationed in Galicia, and the artillery regiments of the 
three corps stationed in that province are kept on a war foot- 
ing. The horse batteries had six guns each. No caissons 
were used. The ammunition that could not be carried in 
the limber chests of the pieces was transported in country 
wagons. The horses are the best of all artillery horses that 
I have ever seen. They look rather light, but they are excep- 
tionally strong in endurance, and are so much better bred 
than ours are that, if they were placed in competition with 
ours they would still be doing their work when ours were 
dead or abandoned by the wayside. 

Cavalry. — Except in the maneuvers of the 12th of Sep- 
tember, I saw almost nothing of the action of the cavalry. 
Reference was made in the comment on the maneuvers of 
that day to its dismounted action. By way of illustration 
of the training of the cavalry, it may be mentioned that a 
brigade can charge in a perfect line and halt in a perfect 
line after the charge; a division can move at a walk, trot, 
or gallop with every horse in the division maintaining the 
prescribed gait. I have seen a regiment in column of pla- 
toons in double rank take a series of obstacles without one 
horse shying or refusing a single obstacle and without an 
accident. 

Infantry. — I should say that the attacking formations are 
too dense and that the failure to take advantage of cover is 
too general ; but it may be answered that, while a dense line 
of attack will suffer greater losses than will a thin oue, yet 
an overwhelming fire and power to crush an enemy can be 
obtained only through density. The use of volleys has been 
abandoned. 



w^l l l 



i 



MANEUVERS. 345 

Automobiles and Bicycles. — While the field of the ma- 
neuvers was smoother and more open than would generally 
be the case in war, yet it was impracticable to use auto- 
mobiles or bicycles across country for the carrying of supplies 
or messages. The man and horse will continue to be the 
most reliable means of carrying orders, ammunition, and 
the wounded on the battlefield. The bicycles were pushed 
along over the hills and the valleys and across the fields, the 
men belonging to them following on foot as best they could 
the headquarters to which they wfere attached, while the 
orders and reports were carried by orderlies mounted on good 
horses that could go anywhere, generally at a gallop, and 
often at a run. These machines, automobiles and bicycles, 
may be of considerable utility on the roads of lines of com- 
munications, but on the battlefield the bicycles are a useless 
impediment. The employment of a fighting force mounted 
on bicycles will be impracticable in war, notwithstanding the 
organization and maintenance of small bodies of such troops 
in certain armies, and notwithstanding the volumes that 
have been written in support of this idea by military bicycle 
enthusiasts. 

FRENCH MANEUVERS. 

[Reported by Capt. T. Bkntlf.y Mott, Artillery Corps, Unite. » States Military Attach 6 

at Paris.] 

The maneuvers being in a way the annual examination or 
stock-taking of the French army, the programme varies from 
year to year, so as to solve as many problems as possible and 
extract the most useful conclusions from the work. There- 
fore we find that combined operations of the army and navy 
and the assembling of an enormous force which characterized 
the maneuvers of 1901 were not repeated this year. 

In 1900 the region selected for the maneuvers of an army 
was the great flat plain around Chartres; in 1901 the rolling 
plains of Champagne; this year it was the broken, hilly 
country about Toulouse, in the southwest of France. Each 
year the problems are different, as are the effectives, the ter- 
rain, the troops, and the generals. The same imposing 
personeity, however, has directed the work of the troops for 
three years. 

General Brugfere, since his appointment in 1900 as vice 
president of the conseil supdrieur de guerre, has directed the 
maneuvers and sharpened the weapon which in case of war 



346 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

would be placed in his hands. This seems a wise arrange- 
ment, apart from the happy selection made in the person of 
General Brugfere. Almost every year each general com- 
mands in the field his appropriate force, and one or two are 
selected in turn to command an army ; but the officer desig- 
nated in advance to command, in case of war, the principal 
army or group of armies of the republic is permitted to 
superintend and control all the maneuvers and to actively 
command an army of maneuver as long as he retains this 
designation. He thus learns to know the army thoroughly, 
sees and judges the officers at their work, and fits himself by 
long practice to face every problem which war is likely to 
present. 

General Brugfere spends not less than one month of every 
year in the field directing the maneuvers of divisions, army 
corps, or armies, and most serious and exacting work it is. 
In the saddle by 5 or 6 o'clock, he follows and directs the move- 
ments till noon; when the troops halt for their rest, lie must 
gather the general and staff officers together for their critique ; 
the afternoon can never be free to the commander of such a 
large force, even if he does not visit the cantonments ; then 
the work for the next day must be prepared, and he is fortu- 
nate if the evening does not bring some official dinner or func- 
tion where he must stay until a late hour to entertain some 
distinguished guest or himself accept hospitality. 

The French law admits of no higher grade than major gen- 
eral, and thus from among the long list of these officers those 
who by activity, youth, and intelligence are marked as men 
who would be called upon for important service in war, can 
be selected without regard to seniority and given opportunity 
in time of peace to use the tools they must needs know in case 
of war. This is the great value to the country of peace ma- 
neuvers on a large scale. For the instruction of enlisted men 
and officers below the grade of general (not counting the gen- 
eral staff) maneuvers of brigade and divisions would probably 
fill every requirement. 

The general performing the functions described is frequently 
referred to as the generalissimo, but this he is not in law or 
in fact. The minister of war commands the army, issuing 
his orders directly to the corps commanders and chiefs of 
supply departments; he also is ex officio president of thecon- 
seil sup^rieur de querre. The general officer appointed as 



MANEUVERS. 347 

vice president of this conseil is the one selected in advance to 
command, in case of war, the principal army or armies of 
France; but in time of peace he does not command them 
except at the maneuvers, as explained above. As vice presi- 
dent of the conseil sup^rieur, he, of course, has important 
duties and much influence. This officer is not at present, and 
often will not be, the senior major general of the army, but 
rather the one who gives the most promise in case of severe 
active service. 

The greatest interest, especially on the part of the foreign 
press, always attaches to the grand maneuvers, because the 
spectacular features are more prominent, the numbers in- 
volved greater, the officers commanding are of higher rank, 
and foreign officers are present; but these grand maneuvers 
constitute in reality a small fraction of the army's annual 
maneuver work. For example, this year the grand maneu- 
vers involved two army corps and a division of cavalry; but 
the other eighteen army corps had maneuvers during two 
-weeks no less instructive and useful to the troops concerned ; 
fourteen regiments of cavalry maneuvered under General 
Donop for ten days, and the siege maneuvers for fortress artil- 
lery at the Ch&lons camp kept 25,000 men busy for over two 
weeks. 

The cost of all these maneuvers is very great, but no part of 
the army appropriation is, in the opinion of the most compe- 
tent observers, spent to better effect. The array learns to 
know its chiefs and the chiefs learn to know not only the army 
but themselves. If defects in organization, supply, or instruc- 
tion are brought out and corrected each year, there can be no 
doubt that many a higher officer learns something of his own 
limitations to his lasting benefit. 

The cost in round numbers of the 1902 maneuvers was 
7,000,000 francs. The various items may be interesting : 

Francs. 

Algerian maneuvers * 195,500 

Garrison maneuvers 249,000 

Staff journeys 120,800 

Cantonments (revision) 87,000 

Maneuvers with cadres - - 169,100 

Officers sent to various maneuvers - 28, 000 

Technical exercises, infantry 720,000 

Technical exercises, cavalry .. 11,000 

Technical exercises, artillery 523,000 

Technical exercises, engineers 98, 000 



348 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

Fmncs. 

Maneuvers of an army (2 corps) 348,000 

Maneuvers of an army corps _ 338,000 

Maneuvers of divisions and brigades..- 2,200,000 

Maneuvers of cavalry (7 brigades) 350,000 

Maneuvers in the Alps and Vosges.. 1,368,000 

Fortress maneuvers 180,000 

In other words, about 5,600,000 francs for maneuvers 
proper and 1,347,000 francs for technical exercises. The 
budget for the latter probably entered in the payment of the 
expenses of the siege or fortress maneuvers at the Chalons 
camp, for the cost of these is estimated at 1,000,000 francs. 

This sum does not include indemnity to farmers for damage 
to growing crops, as this comes from another appropriation. 

The following is the list of maneuvers executed in France 
during August and September, 1902 : 

Maneuvers of an Army. — Sixteenth and seventeenth 
corps complete, plus a brigade of colonial infantry and two 
brigades of cavalry. Duration, twelve days. 

Maneuvers of Divisions. — In the third, fourth, fifth, 
seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, 
eighteenth, and twentieth corps, and the fortieth division 
of the sixth corps. Duration, fourteen days. 

Maneuvers of Brigades. — In the first and second corps 
and the twelfth and forty-second divisions of the sixth. 
Duration, twelve days. 

Maneuvers of Brigades and Divisions.— In the four- 
teenth and fifteenth corps. Duration, fourteen days. 

Cavalry Maneuvers. — The first division (3 brigades, 
G regiments), a provisional division (G regiments), and a bri- 
gade of cuirassiers ; 3 batteries of horse artillery. Duration, 
ten days. These cavalry brigades, which took part in neither 
last year's nor this year's grand maneuvers, executed cavalry 
evolutions. 

Fortress or Siege Maneuvers. — About 25,000 men, 
mostly artillery and engineers, but some infantry; 167 guns. 
Duration, two weeks. 

THE CAVALRY MANEUVERS. 

The cavalry maneuvers were regarded as of special interest 
on account of the large force engaged and the personality of 
the director, General Donop. This officer seems to lead the • 
progressive school of innovators in cavalry matters while at 
the same time keeping the confidence of those passionate 



MANEUVERS. 349 

horsemen who dread any change that might tend to lessen the 
value attaching to the horse and to mounted action in favor 
of work dismounted. 

The novelties brought out by General Donop this year 
were: The charge by successive echelons in single rank 
arranged checkerwise instead of the charge in mass; the use 
of Hotchkiss machine guns (small-arm caliber) carried on 
pack animals as integral parts of the squadrons; the large 
employment of systems of light footbridges for crossing the 
men over small rivers, and*a considerable development of 
fighting on foot. 

The question of a suitable method of charging for five or 
ten regiments of cavalry does not present the same interest 
to us that it does to the French cavalryman, whose belief 
that his arm must charge on every occasion is born and bred 
in him as is his form of religion, and he can't reason about it 
without falling into the domain of sentiment. 

The use of the Hotchkiss mitrailleuse seems to have been 
attended with every success. It was considered to afford 
excellent support to the mounted troops and a shelter to fall 
back upon, relieving infantry or cyclist companies from cor- 
responding duties. The tactics for this gun are, it is under- 
stood, now being prepared, and the coming year should bring 
definite regulations concerning its use with cavalry divisions. 

The pack saddle used is made by Mr. Alexis Gendron, of 
Paris, and he has promised me drawings of it for the war 
department. 

The "Donop bridges" have brought about a large amQunt 
of discussion, and their partisans find every advantage 
claimed met by some fault alleged. 

One system consists briefly of a light footbridge supported 
on collapsable floats, with all parts light enough to be car- 
ried on a pack animal. (General Donop is quoted as believ- 
ing that no vehicles save those necessary for the artillery, 
and then as light and mobile as possible, should accompany 
cavalry columns.) The bridge can be thrown across a stream 
25 yards wide in about half an hour; the men walk over, 
conducting their horses, which swim alongside. The floats 
can then be made into a raft and the wagons and artillery 
ferried over. 

It can be imagined how long it would take to pass a 
regiment by a single bridge under ordinarily unfavorable 



350 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

conditions, or the serious encumberment of having several 
equipages to a single regiment.. 

The Creusot footbridge was favorably received by the cav- 
alry technical committee. The material for a 65-foot bridge 
is all carried on one two-horse wagon, and consists chiefly of 
four corrugated-iron boats and five balks. 

The bridges were generally built by the cyclist sappers, 
detachments of which accompanied each division. 

The fighting on foot during the cavalry maneuvers is an 
echo of the numerous articles, some from weighty sources, 
that have appeared in the press ever since the South African 
war. The teachings of our war of secession have not been 
neglected by French writers, but they have never fully over- 
come the contempt of cavalry officers for dismounted action. 

It is to be noticed that even this year the fighting on foot 
was done, as it were, 4l by order," and not at all habitually, 
and as a matter of course by officers recognizing the value 
and application of this method of meeting an enemy. Cer- 
tain days of maneuver were arranged apparently for the pur- 
pose of illustrating the use of dismounted fire action, while 
the other days passed almost without seeing its application. 

These remarks show how far the French are from viewing 
this role of the cavalry with our eyes. 

These maneuvers were carried on in a rich farming country, 
and their expense may be judged when the damages due to 
farmers after one day's operations amounted to 60,000 francs. 

THE SIEGE MANEUVERS. 

These were the most extensive and costly siege maneuvers 
that have ever been seen in France ; in fact such have been 
undertaken only three times before. They took place at the 
great camp of Ch&lons sur Marne, where the "normal school 
of target practice" is situated, and is one of the best-equipped 
artillery ranges in the world, permitting each year practice 
with shell under war conditions of whole regiments of field 
artillery at once. The maneuvers lasted from August 4 to 
August 20, and occupied 25,000 men. These were to a great 
extent under canvas, an unusual thing in French maneuvers, 
but made necessary or advantageous by the work in hand. 
The troops consisted of engineers (railway sappers, miners, 
aerostats, and telegraphists), position, field, and foot artillery 
gathered from the center and west of France. 



MANEUVERS. 351 

The general theme had in view the attack and defense of a 
part of the principal line of a land fortress. Five thousand 
men "were assigned to the defense and 25,000 to the attack. 
The investment was supposed to be completed by the assailant, 
though the sorties of the defenders had harassed him in build- 
ing his first line of approach, his railways, his batteries, etc. 
The engineers (railway troops) built and equipped l± miles 
of permanent railway to connect the works with the main 
line; constructed a military railway station and manned the 
trains which brought up all the heavy siege material during 
the whole time of the operations. Besides this, they built 
some 12 miles of light temporary line for siegework. 

A serious effort was made to conceal from each side what 
.was being done by the other and all communication between 
the troops of the contending parties was absolutely prohibited 
during the whole period. The besieged were considered cut off 
and no information of the enemy was allowed them except 
what they could find out from their spies or balloons. Consid- 
erable extension was given on both sides to every means of 
deceiving the enemy ; false works were built and never occu- 
pied while well-concealed batteries were dug alongside and 
usually at night; the exterior slopes were sodded, and in some 
cases the interior of the battery was likewise given the ap- 
pearance of the surroundings as a protection against balloon 
observations. (The soil was almost white, easily betraying 
new workd when such precautions were not taken.) 

Considerable use was made of a revetment of iron sheets 
cut into network, as commonly used by plasterers. 

Captive balloons were employed by both parties and in all 
weather. The defense lost their balloons twice (by shells cut- 
ting the cable which ran along the ground) during the two 
days of firing with real shell. A telephotograph apparatus 
was used both with the balloons and with kites. "When the 
weather was too bad for an ascension or when it was desired 
to reach a part of the enemy's line too dangerous for a bal- 
loonist, this method of automatic photography was used, with 
what real success can not be said, but it was persistently 
tried. 

The balloons were used to find the range and regulate the 
fire; they telegraphed the fall of the shots, and during the 
fire with real projectiles, they were enabled to prove exactly 
how efficacious is this method of fire observation. The army 
seems satisfied with it. 



352 NOTK8 OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The assailants' first line was about 2£ miles long, comprised 
thirty-nine works, armed with 167 guns of all calibers. The 
heaviest piece used was the 270-millimeter mortar, firing a 
350-pound shell. There were four of these. There were 24 of 
the 75-millimeter guns. m A new model 155-millimeter short 
seems to have attracted a good deal of favorable attention, 
but no details of its peculiarities are obtainable. The usual 
equipment of truck cranes, truck platforms and truck gun 
carriages was on hand, rails were laid for them behind the 
parapets and their functioning seems to have been satis- 
factory. 

The organization of the defense comprised both permanent 
works already existing and works built during the siege. 
At each extremity of the sector attacked was a heavy fort pro- 
vided with bomb-proof shelter, deep ditch, flanking arrange- 
ments and a glacis covered with barbed wire. In the interval 
was an almost continuous line of infantry epaulements of 
various profiles and dotted at intervals with field-gun bat- 
teries. Behind this line, concealed from view of the enemy, 
were the main artillery positions containing the heavier guns ; 
some of these had been brought into action in the earlier 
stages, but for the most part they were carefully dissimulated 
and reserved for receiving the attack in force when it should 
be pronounced. In rear were various kinds of shelter im- 
provised for the reserves. 

About a mile in rear of the first line of works a second had 
been arranged to oppose the enemy in case he got possession 
of the advanced positions. 

All the usual phases of a siege were simulated and the zig- 
zags and parallels actually dug, often at night and with a real 
effort at concealment. The last parallel, of no mean profile, 
had a length of 1,600 yards. The assailant made several 
attacks in force to seize works of the enemy which impeded 
the progress of his trendies. Some of these were considered 
successful; others not. The defense made numerous sorties, 
some at night, with similar results. 

On the 13th, 14th, and 19th the attack used real shell, the 
observation and correction of the fire being assured from bal- 
loons. The fire ceased as soon as the range was gotten accu- 
rately, in order to save ammunition; thus the experience was 
chiefly valuable as practice in indirect fire at unknown ranges, 
practically all shooting being of this nature, which the French 



MANEUVERS. 353 

employ more and more each year in field and siege artillery, 
while its development in coast artillery seems much less 
marked. Most of the batteries could not see their targets at 
all, being on the reverse slopes of the hills, in woods, etc. 
An auxiliary target was habitually used, on which the sights 
were directed, while the angle between this line of sight and 
the line of fire was read and changed from shot to shot by 
the goniometer sight, which I have frequently described and 
referred to in my reports. Thus the methods of aiming and 
ranging in the field and siege artillery approach each other 
more and more every year. During this actual practice 
3,000 shots of all calibers were fired. 

These siega maneuvers cost, roughly, 1,000,000 francs, and 
the army and the press seem satisfied that the money was 
usefully spent. The most evident conclusions to be drawn 
from them seem to be : 

That a great development of indirect fire from carefully 
concealed batteries is advantageous. The positions of such 
batteries may be behind hills or woods, and even balloons 
will have trouble in detecting them. 

A careful study of the method of observing and correct- 
ing the fire of field and siege guns from a balloon is much to 
be desired. Actual practice can alone produce a satisfactory 
system of transmitting information and of using it. 

The erection of dummy batteries for drawing the opponent's 
fire is a useful ruse and can be depended upon even in the 
face of balloon observation. At Chalons a large percentage 
of shots was wasted on such dummy works built by the 
defense, which entirely deceived the attack. 

GRAND MANEUVERS OF THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH 

CORPS. 

The only maneuvers of "an army"' in 1002 were those in 
the neighborhood of Toulouse, in which two army corps, a 
brigade of colonial infantry, and a cavalry division of two 
brigades constituted the maneuvering force. The ordre do 
bataille gives the strength and organization of this army. 

All the other troops of the French army had maneuvers of 
effectives not greater than one army corps. 

Most of the troops of the sixteenth and seventeenth corps 
left their garrisons August 27 and were moved to the places 



354 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

of concentration by rail. Some that had marched started 
the 23d. The concentration was completed on the 29th. 

The work began the next day, August 30, with maneuvers 
of division against division in each corps, which occupied 
three days; then the sixteenth corps operated against the sev- 
enteenth corps for four days; finally, the two corps, united 
into an army, maneuvered against a represented enemy for 
two days. There were nine working days and two days of 
rest, neither of the latter falling on a Sunday. As a rule, 
Sunday is a maneuver day or a day of rest, as is most con- 
venient. 

The consolidated reports for September 4 gave the follow- 
ing total effective of the maneuvering troops: 



Staffs and auxiliary services.. 

Infautry 

Cavalrv 

Artillery 

Engineer* 



Total _ 



130 ' 


1W.I 


1,111 1 


37,718 


231 


2,738 


190 


3,015 


22 ' 


878 


1,684 J 


44,629 



THE THEATER OF OPERATIONS. 

The theater of operations lay to the southeast of Toulouse, 
between that town and Castelnaudary and for the most part 
to the north of the Canal du Midi, which, starting at Toulouse, 
connects the river Garonne with the Mediterranean. Numer- 
ous small streams flowing northwest are separated by hills 
which are generally high and frequently precipitous. Be- 
sides the usual rows of trees planted along the banks and 
ditches which separate the fields, there are numerous patches 
of woods, which, with the frequent ravines, the rolling coun- 
try, and deep-sunken roads, furnish concealment and cover 
for troops and constitute an admirable terrain for tactical 
movements and the application of flank attacks and conceal- 
ment in approach. 

The numerous hills furnished not only a great variety of 
artillery positions, but by the very fact of their abundance 
gave a chance to the artillery commanders to exercise skill in 
selecting the best, and afforded every opportunity for the 
application of the system of indirect fire, the battery being 
under natural cover, and of stationing batteries in " waiting 
positions," concealed, but with all the initial elements for 
laying determined. 



MANEUVERS. 355 

The terrain was not favorable to the action of cavalry in 
large bodies, nor to charging in any number, but it was favor- 
able to the action of cavalry in raiding movements and for 
harassing and deceiving the enemy by attacks on foot 
followed by a rapid change of position mounted. 

The only railroad in the region runs along the Canal du 
Midi. Three of those perfect roads seen only in France run 
from Toulouse southeast through the scene of operations; 
two nearly as good run at right angles to these from Ville- 
franche and from Bozifege. The rest of the numerous roads 
of the region are what in France are considered poor; they 
are very hilly and in bad condition, but even these in 
America would be called excellent roads. 

This country is not a very rich agricultural district though 
thoroughly cultivated ; corn is raised in large quantities but 
of poor quality. It was the only crop remaining in the 
ground and caused much trouble to the troops that constantly 
marched through it. 

The weather during the maneuvers was all that could be 
desired; it rained frequently at night, but was fine during 
the day. 

It was in this region that Soult and Wellington maneu- 
vered in 1814 and fought the battle of Toulouse. 

The maneuvers were divided into three periods, each sepa- 
rated from the others by a day of rest. First period, maneu- 
vers of division against division ; second period, maneuvers 
of corps against corps ; third period, maneuvers of an army 
of two corps against a represented enemy. 

MANEUVERS OP DIVISION AGAINST DIVISION. 
SIXTEENTH CORPS. 

Situation August 29. — An army is being concentrated in 
the vicinity of Toulouse. It has sent a division (the thirty- 
second) with the seventeenth dragoons, toward Castelnaudary 
to watch the roads leading from the east, from which direction 
the enemy is expected. This forms the party " B." 

The party "A" is in two groups; the sixty-first brigade, 
the colonial brigade, four squadrons of cavalry, and three 
batteries are in the neighborhood of Carcassonne (southeast 
of Castelnaudary); the other group, sixty-second brigade, a 
squadron, and three batteries, is on the other side of the 
Montaigne Noire in the valley of the Agout. The party "A" 



356 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

is expected to move on Castlenaudary and Toulouse and 
break up the concentration of the other forces. 

The programme mapped out for the three days' work of 
these troops was as follows: August 30, " B " tries to prevent 
the concentration of "A;" August 31, "B" retires and takes 
up a defensive position and is attacked by "A;" September 1, 
"B" is reenforced and resumes the offensive against "A," 
who has been obliged to detach a brigade to watch the valley 
of the Arifege ; September 2, rest. 

Operations of August 30. — General Laplace, command- 
ing the party "A," divided his forces into three columns; the 
sixty-second brigade, one squadron, and three batteries, were 
to move along the road Brousses Montolieu and the CMu. 
Bouillonnac; the sixty-first brigade, a squadron, and two 
batteries, were directed on the same place by Pennautier, 
Ventenac Cabardfes, Moussoulens, and the valley of the 
Rougeanne ; the colonial brigade and one battery formed the 
left column and were to follow the national road No. 113 by 
Pennautier and Pezens, directing itself toward Alzonne. 

The front of march of party "A" was about 9 kilometers, 
each column having about 3 kilometers to cover in order to 
come to the aid of its neighbor over ground that was quite 
easy. 

General Herson had divided the party " B " also into three 
columns. One regiment was directed on Alzonne, two upon 
Raissac sur Lampy, and the fourth regiment of the division 
upon St. Martin le Vieil. These troops thus had a front of 
about 6 kilometers, but over much rougher ground. The 
one hundreth regiment of infantry (party "B") left the 
column at Villarzens to occupy Alzonne, whose northern edge 
it indifferently organized for defense. Proper measures,how- 
ever, were not taken to barricade the eastern approach to the 
village, and it was from exactly this direction that an attack 
might have been expected and did take place. The rest of 
the division continued its route toward St. Martin le Vieil, 
but after passing the Tenten, General Herson detached the 
one hundred and forty-third infantry by Raissac sur Lampy 
toward the Chateau de Bouillonnac. As was stated above, 
this Chateau de Bouillonnac was the point toward which the 
whole thirty-first division had been directed, and so, when 
the one hundred and forty-third regiment came up, it found 
the place occupied by very superior forces; nevertheless it 



MANEUVERS. 357 

attacked with some vigor, but the umpire sood made the com- 
manding officer understand that his action was a mistake 
and there was nothing for him to do but to retreat. During 
this time, toward the south, the one hundredth infantry- 
stationed at Alzonne received the attack of the whole colonial 
brigade, and, as they had failed to fortify the eastern entrance 
to the village and had not destroyed the bridges over the Ver- 
nassone, the place was taken with little trouble by General 
Perraux. The latter left one of his regiments of colonials in 
the village and sent the other with a battery toward the north 
in the direction of the Chateau de Bouillonnac. 

The arrival of this regiment and of the sixty-second brigade, 
which after a hard march debouched upon the Plateau of 
Bouillonnac, made certain the defeat of party " B," whose 
artillery, almost unoccupied during the beginning of the day, 
had, at its close, the heavy task of arresting the progress of 
the victorious enemy and of covering the retreat. The 
maneuver ended here. 

Operations of August 31. — On the night of August 30 
the party "A" cantoned to the north of the national road 
No. 113 on the left bank of the Vernassone; party " B " can- 
tuned on the right bank of this stream. The latter having 
been beaten on the previous day by superior forces, and being 
separated by such a short distance from its adversary, General 
Herson decided to make a night march so as to withdraw from 
his dangerous position and take up a line to the northwest 
so as to menace the flank of his adversary if he continued 
his march toward Castelnaudary or else to check him if he 
attempted to make a front attack upon the heights which 
separated the valleys of the Fresquel and the Tenten. 

The position chosen by General Herson rested its left on 
the Ch&u. de Ferrals and its right on the Ch&u. de la Rou- 
quette, passing by the Bois des Potences, a front of about 
3 kilometers. 

The interval between the Ch^u. de la Rouquette and the 
bridge over the Papoul, near the village of Lasbordes, was 
intentionally deprived of troops, only a few sections of in- 
fantry being left along the positions T61£graphe, Fort, Fort 
du Faure, and the Ch&u. de St. Gemme. This weak screen, 
spread over about 5 kilometers, was intended to deceive the 
adversary and to tempt him, by easy success, along the route 
Villepinte, St. Martin Lalande ; once engaged along this road 



358 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

the party "B" was to fall upon its flank near Villagre and 
the hill marked 169. This ridge presented quite a strong 
position for the party "B," whether for defense or from 
which to make an attack. 

The first column of the party "A" to make its appearance 
was the colonials who debouched from St. Martin le Vieil 
and St. Gemme Latour. They attacked at once, and the 
defenders of the position left it rather too precipitately to 
cany out the role given them, not waiting even to be can- 
nonaded. While the colonials pushed toward the northwest 
the rest of the party " A" moved up the brook Lampy, follow- 
ing the route Raissac sur Lampy, St. Martin le Vieil, and 
Carlipa. Here the head of the column was stopped short by 
an unexpected fire of musketry. This was the cavalry of the 
party "B," who were fighting on foot, and, though a single 
squadron, forced several battalions to take the time to deploy. 

During this time the colonials, pushing the advanced line 
of the party "B" in front of them, debouched from the Fort 
du Faure and continued their offensive upon T^ldgraphe. 
At this moment it looked very much as though the troops of 
General Laplace were going to fall into the snare prepared 
for them by the general commanding the party "A." 

On its side, the thirty-first division (party "A"), after hav- 
ing driven off the dismounted cavalrymen, moved up against 
Villespy without apparently bothering itself about the thirty- 
first division, which was solidly fixed in the Bois des Potences; 
the artillery of this division on the hill marked No. 191 was 
getting ready to enfilade the thirty-first division the moment 
it came in front of the woods ; but this attack did not come 
off on account of a mistake in the bugle calls which stopped 
the maneuver along the whole line, and after which the day's 
work ended ; not, however, before a counter attack executed 
by the defense of the St. Andr6 wood had commenced by a 
charge of a squadron of the thirty-second division of cavalry 
against the left flank of the colonials. 

Operations of September 1.— The party "A" cantoned 
the previous night east of the line Villepinte and Villespy. 
It had detached its colonial brigade to the bouthwest toward 
the railroad to watch the roads coming from the valley of the 
Arifege. This valley is to the west of and parallel to that of 
the Tr^boul. 



MANEUVERS. 359 

The party "B," on the contrary, received from Toulouse 
reenforcements consisting of one brigade. As may be imag- 
ined, this is simply the colonial brigade which has changed 
sides. The troops of the thirty-second division (party "B") 
cantoned at Castelnaudary, Peyrens, and Issel. Their gen- 
eral, confident in his recently acquired numerical superiority, 
decided to take the offensive and push back the enemy on 
Carcassonne. 

The troops of party "B" were started out very early in 
the morning; a dense fog made it difficult to see more than a 
few paces in front, and General Herson decided to profit by 
the circumstances and throw his cavalry upon the canton- 
ment of the party "A." This was done with considerable 
success at Villespy, where the cavalry created a great deal of 
disturbance and uncertainty and made its escape without dif- 
ficulty. Order having been established, the troops on both 
sides took their positions for the combat of the day. 

The thirty-first division (party "A") occupied the hills 
which crossed the road from Villepinte to Villespy. Its 
sixty-second brigade and most of the artillery were in the 
environs of Villepinte, leaving only a small detachment on 
the heights of Tdldgraphe, Cammasou, and Cammasblanc; 
these positions were very strong and assured to the occupant 
access to the valley of the Tenten. One regiment occupied 
the village of Villepinte; two batteries were sent to the top 
of the peak, 700 meters north of the village. This was rather 
an uncomfortable position for the batteries, as once there 
they could not move forward and could only fall back with 
the greatest difficulty. Two hundred meters farther north the 
other regiment of this brigade (sixty-first) was held massed 
under cover of a hill. The second group of artillery was on 
the T613graphe hill with a good view toward Villagre and 
Garric. One battery of the first group was on the road to 
Gresse. One regiment was in reserve a little behind T£\6- 
graphe. Tho front occupied by party "A" between Cam- 
masou and Villepinte was only about 1,600 meters. 

At the opening of the maneuver the troops along this front 
had a very simple affair, since the orders given not to trample 
on the crops caused the front and flanks to be almost unattack 
able. But this situation was changed about 9 o'clock by the 
yorps commander giving orders to march and attack across thQ 
fields — at least the corn, the vineyards being respected. 



360 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

Party "B" had taken up its march on a rather extended 
front. The left column was moved on Villespy, the right on 
St. Andr6, and it looked as though the opposing sides would 
not make contact since the thirty-first division, as has been 
explained, was between Cammasou and Cammasblanc. The 
colonial brigade (party "B"), however, descending the valley 
of the Papoul found the advance line of party "A" to the 
east of this stream, and the commander of the party "B," at 
last learning the position of his enemy, could oblique one of 
his columns in that direction and reenforce the colonials. 
These had reached the Escabasse farm and were moving upon 
the ravine which separates Bigou from Villagre. One regi- 
ment of party "B" had opened fire upon the eighty-first, in 
front of it, but its artillery could not follow the movement 
in this difficult country and the attack was given up. These 
troops of party "B" made very little progress toward their 
object, especially under the heavy fire of the batteries on 
T£l£graphe. The theoretical projectiles of these guns, how- 
ever, did not prevent the colonials and the sixty-fourth 
brigade (party "B") from taking the enemy's first line; on 
the other hand, the commander of party "A" moved three 
regiments against the heights which the enemy had taken 
and which he refused to abandon. The maneuver had to be 
stopped, and, after considerable discussion, the umpires 
decided that this counter attack of the party "A" had failed 
and that they must fall back. 

Upon the renewal of the action the colonials, delighted at 
their first success, made a dash at the peak to tho north of 
Villepinte, where, as has been stated, two batteries had been 
placed in position; aided by the sixty-third brigade, the 
colonials forced the one hundred and forty-second infantry 
to quit Villepinte, and thus the guns were left without any 
support. The officer commanding them waited in vain for 
succor or a formal order to retreat ; nothing coming, he dis- 
tributed the carbines to the cannoneers in a last effort to beat 
off the attacking infantry. This failed, however, and the 
guns were captured. The thirty-second division and the 
colonials had the honors of the day. 

SEVENTEENTH CORPS. 

The maneuvers of the two divisions of the seventeenth 
corps during this time had chiefly for their object the con- 
centration of the units in the neighborhood of Toulouse, 



MANEUVERS. , 361 

where the corps commander was to take charge on the 3d of 
September and begin his operations against the sixteenth 
corps. 

It does not seem necessary to describe in detail the opera- 
tions of these two divisions as they do not offer as much 
interest as the work of the sixteenth corps, and a description 
of the maneuvers of corps against corps will be taken up at 
once. 

MANEUVERS OF T£E SIXTEENTH CORPS AGAINST THE SEVEN- 
TEENTH CORPS. 

The following is the theme of the maneuver : An army com- 
ing from the north has, on the 2d of September, reached the 
Tarn, between Montauban and Albi (not on map). It has 
detached against Verfeil an army corps (the seventeenth) 
charged with the object of pushing back the enemy's forces, 
which have been reported as marching from Castelnaudary 
upon Toulouse, The sixteenth corps constitutes the advance 
guard of an army coming from the east and which has estab- 
lished itself upon the Aude as high up as Carcassonne, between 
the Pyr^ndes and the Montaignes Noires. This army is sup- 
posed to occupy a front of about 40 kilometers perpendicular 
to the Canal du Midi. The sixteenth corps has received orders 
to push rapidly from Castelnaudary upon Toulouse and occupy 
the latter place. 

The headquarters of the seventeenth corps on the night of 
the 2d of September was Verfeil (nearly east of Toulouse); 
the headquarters of the sixteenth corps, Castelnaudary. 

Initial Positions Night of September 2. 

The initial positions of army "A," the seventeenth corps 
reenforced by the provisional cavalry division (three brigades), 
are marked in red on the map. The corps headquarters were 
at Verfeil ; headquarters of the thirty-third division, Verfeil ; 
of the thirty-fourth division, Lavalette; of the cavalry divi- 
sion, Lauzerville. The corps artillery and engineers were 
about Bertron. 

The initial positions of army "B," the sixteenth corps, are 
marked on the map in blue. The corps headquarters were at 
Castelnaudary; headquarters of the thirty-first division at 
Souilhanel; of the thirty-second division at Castelnaudary. 
The corps artillery and engineers were about Castelnaudary. 



362 k NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

The colonial brigade, with headquarters at Tr^ville, was 
held at the disposal of the director of maneuvers, General 
Brugfere, who proposed to throw it on one or the other side 
as he saw fit. 

Orders Given for the Movements of September 3. 

The following orders were issued by the respective com- 
manders of the armies the evening of September 3 : 

ARMY "A," SEVENTEENTH CORPS. 

The seventeenth corps will move upon Villef ranche to in- 
tercept the enemy in his march upon Toulouse and push him 
back to the southeast. 

The three brigades of cavalry united into a provisional di- 
vision and reenforced by the two batteries of horse artillery 
of the seventeenth corps will have for their object to find and 
push back the enemy's cavalry and then to reconnoiter and 
retard the march of his infantry, at the same time covering 
the front of march and the left flank of the seventeenth corps 
so as to enable it to take position on the hills on the right 
bank of the Hers, between St. Germier and Montgaillard. 

The corps will march in two columns; the left will consist 
of the thirty-fourth division, the corps artillery, and engineers, 
and will march by Lanta, Tarabel Cessales ; the head of the 
advance guard should move out of Lanta at 4.30 a. m. The 
column will march as follows : Advance guard — the divisional 
squadron and company of engineers, sixty-seventh brigade, 
divisional artillery (six batteries). Main body — company of 
engineers, corps artillery, sixty-eighth brigade. 

The right column, thirty-third division, will march as fol- 
lows : Advance guard — divisional squadron and company of 
engineers, seventh infantry, three batteries. Main body- 
ninth infantry, three batteries, sixty-sixth brigade. Itiner- 
ary : Dremil, Aigrefeuille, Pr^serville, Fourquevaux, la Bas- 
tide de Beauvoir, Maur£mont. 

The head of the advance guard should debouch to the south 
of Dremil at 6.30 a. m. 

The corps commander will marck.at the head of the main 
body of the left column. 

ARMY ,S B," SIXTEENTH COR*9. • 

The sixteenth corps will move directly upon Toulouse by 
the main road along the canal. Its brigade of cavalry and 



MANEUVERS. 363 

two horse batteries will reconnoiter in the direction of Salles 
sur 1'Hers and Nailloux, the region south of the canal ; they 
will have two points to fall back upon, one at the Chateau 
Majesty, 2 kilometers southwest of Avignonet and one at 
Gardouch. At each of these places a battalion of infantry 
will be stationed. 

The following order of march will be observed : 

Advance guard — the divisional squadron and company of 
engineers, sixty-fourth brigade, six batteries. Main column — 
sixty-third brigade, corps artillery and engineers, sixty-second 
brigade. The main body of the advance guard should reach 
the hamlet les Carmes on the road south of Ricaud at 4.45 a. m. 
The distance between the advance guard and the main column 
should be 2,000 meters. 

A flank guard composed of the squadron and company of 
engineers of the thirty-first division, the sixty-first brigade, 
and the six batteries of the thirty-first division will cover the 
right flank of the corps, marching by Montmaur, Mourvilles 
Hautes, Lux, St. Vincent, and Cessales toward Bastide de 
Beau voir. 

The head of this flank guard should beat Montmaur.at 5 a. m. 

The corps commanders will march with the main body of 
the advance guard of the principal column. 

THE COLONIAL BRIGADE. 

This brigade will be at 9.30 a. m. at the hill marked 266, on 
the road and halfway between Auriac and Vaux. It will 
receive orders there from the director of maneuvers to move 
against one of the combatants. 

Resume of the Maneuver of September 3. 

The commander of the seventeenth corps intended to install 
himself on the ridge Tucal Lagrange, due north of Montgail- 
lard, and from there continue his movement on Villef ranche. 
He expected his division of cavalry with its known superiority, 
to drive back readily the adverse cavalry and inform him of 
the whereabouts of the enemy's columns, at the same time 
protecting his left flank. 

About 7.30 a. m. this division was marching on the road 
from la Bastide to Beauville when it was shelled by the artil- 
lery of the opposing cavalry brigade (sixteenth), which, in 
marching from Villenouvelle on Varennes, had caught sight 
of the enemy. 



364 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

The provisional division established its artillery to the west 
of the road and opened fire, while two regiments of dragoons 
were sent by Varennes upon Maurdmont. The opposing 
brigade, however, leaving a support for its artillery, slipped 
between the dragoons and the rest of the division, fell on 
their flank and cut them off. It was a skillful use of the very 
broken ground. 

But here the advance guard of the thirty-fourth division 
(left column, 'seventeenth corps) arrived; the infantry opened 
fire on the victorious cavalry brigade and obliged it to retire 
and cover the right of the flank guard of the sixteenth corps. 

The provisional cavalry division then continued its march 
to the east, and soon opened with its batteries and one brigade 
upon the head of the advance guard of the right column of 
the sixteenth corps, which had reached Cessales. This column 
had thrown one battalion into Cessales and with another pro- 
tected the two batteries which, in position to the north of the 
village, were firing upon the cavalry detachments in the 
neighborhood and upon a larger body of cavalry plainly visi- 
ble upon the hill of Lagrange. This body was the provisional 
division which had taken post there and was waiting the 
arrival of the advance guard to establish this first position as 
contemplated by the commander of the seventeenth corps. 

While the advance guard of the flank column of the six- 
teenth corps was making its dispositions to take possession of 
the heights to the northwest of Cessales, the first hussars 
(provisional division) made a prettily concealed movement 
against two batteries in action north of the village, got in 
among the guns before they could be returned to the flank 
and captured them. The infantry battalion which protected 
these batteries had moved forward to aid in the attack on 
the heights above mentioned. 

As soon of the commander of the sixteenth corps learned 
from his cavalry that the main body of the enemy was toward 
his right, he changed his original march along the main road 
from Villef ranche to Toulouse, and realizing the importance 
of the position of Montgaillard, at once sent there his corps 
artillery and one brigade, while the rest of the corps (one 
division in all ) moved along the road leading from Ville- 
franche to Cessales to take position between Montgaillard and 
Cessales, to aid the sixty -first brigade already engaged at 
Cessales. 



MANEUVERS. 365 

General Brugfere had given orders to the colonial brigade 
at 0.30 a. m. to reenforce the seventeenth corps and to this 
end to move by Cambriac and Beauville to support the thirty- 
fourth division which was attacking in the direction of St. 
Germier-Cessales. This order was received when the brigade 
was on the road halfway between Auriac and Vaux. By 
11.45 the brigade had reached the outskirts of Beauville. 

The flank-guard column of the sixteenth corps (sixty-first 
brigade) was hotly disputing the possession of the heights 
near Cessales with the advance guard of the thirty-fourth 
division (seventeenth corps) when the end of the maneuver 
was sounded. The colonials had not had time to attack in 
strength in aid of the thirty-fourth before the maneuver ended. 

The positions of the various troops were noted by the 
umpires and orders were given for all parties to resume them 
the next morning at 6.45 a. m., it being the intention to 
resume at 7 a. m. on September 4 the movements where they 
had left off at noon on September 3. 

A glance at the map will show that the main forces of the 
two sides were separated at the beginning of the movements 
of September 3 by some 38 miles; it was evident, therefore, 
that unless the troops were subjected to unnecessary fatigues, 
the day would be spent in marching and maneuvering for 
position rather than in fighting. Such, as is seen by the 
rdsumd above, was the case, the advance guards and cavalry 
alone making contact and the engagements being chiefly 
between the artillery. 

If the troops of each corps had only to leave their position 
in the morning, march 16 miles, fight an engagement, and 
go into bivouac on the spot, the necessity for making the 
maneuver cover more than one day would not have been so 
pressing; but it must be remembered that in this not very 
thickly populated region the cantonments were rather widely 
separated and many detachments had to leave them by 2.30 
a. m. to march to the point of assembly of their brigade or 
division. Then the march in the face of an enemy was neces- 
sarily slow at times and subject to digressions following the 
reports coming in of his movements; finally when the "end 
of the maneuver" was sounded the various organizations had 
to march to their cantonments, from 2 to 4 miles distant, 
prepare their supper, and make their dispositions for the 
night, knowing the reveille would sound between 2 and 3 
o'clock the next morning. 



366 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

This idea of making a single maneuver cover several days 
seems rather new in France and its practice this year may be 
said to have made an excellent impression, the occupation 
next morning of the lines held at the close of the previous 
day being much as things would happen in real war when 
two forces have gotten closely in touch with each other. 
Besides all this, the development of the maneuver was slower, 
more rational, and more instructive. 

Cantonments Night of September 8-4. 

Seventeenth Corps, Colonial Brigade, Division op 
Cavalry. — The advanced troops of the corps cantoned along 
the line Varennes-Mourvilles, with the troops which had not 
come up distributed in the villages from Odars to Tarabel, 
Maureville, and Caraman ; the colonial brigade at Toutens, 
Cambiac, and the village in rear; the calvary division around 
Baziege and Montgiscard ; corps headquarters at Bastide de 
Beauvoir. 

Sixteenth Corps. — Advanced troops from Montgaillard 
to Cessales, the others in the villages on the road from Ville- 
franche to Lux and those to the south of this line; the cavalry 
brigade at Gardouch and Vielle Vigne; corps headquarters 
at Aviguonet. 

The outposts at each side were established in front of the 
cantonments. 

Intentions op Each Commander for September 4. 

The troops on each side were to resume the positions held 
at noon the day before and the movements to proceed as 
though they had not been interrupted. 

At 7 a.m., then, the line of battle of the seventeenth corps 
as marked by the artillery positions was along the front 
Bosse (near the high road), Bordeneuve, Emboudiferes, the 
sixty-seventh brigade of infantry was toward St. Germier 
ready to attack Cessales, the colonial brigade moving from 
Beauville with the same object. The cavalry division cov- 
ered the left of the seventeenth corps toward Beauville with 
the cavalry brigade of the sixteenth corps opposing it. 

The sixteenth corps held Montgaillard, l'Ermitage, Tucal 
(a high hill and the key to the position), Esquilles, Cessales; 
the main artillery position being Rigaud Chateau. 



MANEUVERS. 367 

Resume of the Maneuver of September 4. 

• 

The first troops to attack were the sixty-seventh brigade, 
moving on Cessales, which the sixty-first held; at 8 a. m. the 
colonial brigade made itself felt in the same direction. The 
sixty-first yielding to this pressure, and the necessity of join- 
ing hands to its left with the troops of the thirty-second 
division, now moving up the stream and forming to the left, 
evacuated Cessales, which the colonials seized. 

From Tucal the artillery could enfilade the sixty-seventh 
brigade as it advanced, and this determined the commander 
of the thirty- fourth division to make a change of front, facing 
more to the south. The artillery was established at Lagrange 
and the sixty-eighth brigade sent toward Emboudi&res. This 
was about 8 o'clock. 

At 9 o'clock the thirty-third division (seventeenth corps) 
sent its sixty-fifth brigade from Coudfere Haute by the dip in 
the ground west and south of Maur^mont and deployed it, 
facing Montgaillard and l'Ermitage; its sixty-sixth brigade 
moved from Bastide de Beauvoir by Varennes upon Barthioles 
and deployed facing the hill of Tucal. This deployment was 
supported by three of the batteries of divisional artillery which 
took up a position south of Barthioles, the other three batteries 
being at Enf riesbise and having for their objective l'Ermitage. 
The corps artillery was sent to Bourdis to support the artillery 
of the thirty-fourth division at Lagrange. 

To meet this move, the commander of the sixteenth corps 
sent the sixty-fourth brigade to reenforce the few troops 
which supported the three divisional batteries on Tucal and 
had the hill fortified, placed the sixty-third brigade on the 
west of Montgaillard and l'Ermitage with the other three 
divisional batteries, called up toward l'Ermitage the sixty- 
second brigade (which had been held in reserve near Rigaud) 
as well as the whole corps artillery. Remembering that the 
sixty-first brigade was in front of Trebons, we have the whole 
position of the sixteenth corps. 

The seventeenth surrounded this position in a vast arc of 
a circle from Cessales through Lagrange to the south of 
Enfrisebise. 

By 10 o'clock the action was intense. The sixty-sixth 
brigade (seventeenth corps) had gotten into a wood 700 
meters west of Tucal while the sixty-seventh was descending 
from the heights of Lagrange to attack Tucal from the north, 



368 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

supported by a heaVy artillery fire from Lagrange and Bour- 
dis (nine batteries) and by the reserve of the seventeenth 
corps (sixty-eighth brigade). 

At 11 o'clock the sixteenth could no longer hold Tucal and 
fell back to a position half a mile in rear. It was at this 
critical moment that the reserve brigade of the sixteenth 
corps and the corps artillery arrived near PErmitage (a move- 
ment, as we saw above, ordered as soon as the intentions of 
the enemy became evident); these troops were assembled to 
make a counter-attack, but it had only commenced when 
General Brugfere hoisted the signal for the "end of the 
maneuver." 

Cantonment Night op September 4-6. 

The seventeenth corps occupied the villages in rear of its 
positions from Villenouvelle and Bazi&ge on the railway to 
Caraman and Maurdville to the northeast. The colonial 
brigade was around Toutens and Beauville. The cavalry 
division west of Bazi&ge in the same region as the night 
before. 

The sixteenth corps occupied the villages in rear of its 
positions from Montgaillard and Cessales to Lux and Ville- 
f ranche ; the cavalry brigade the same region as the night 
before. 

The outposts established in the morning along the positions 
held at the end of the previous day's fighting. 

Intentions of Each Commander for September 5. 

The maneuver was to be resumed at 7 a.m. exactly where 
it left off the previous day. The seventeenth corps having 
taken Tucal expects to continue its offensive movement, while 
the sixteenth corps intends to resist at every point until the 
reenforcements which are coming up (this information hav- 
ing been sent the general commanding the sixteenth corps 
by General Brugfcre) have arrived, when the offensive can 
be resumed with good hope of success. 

Hypothesis of the Maneuver of September 5. 

General Tisseyre, commanding the seventeenth corps, hears 
that an enemy's force is reported in the direction of Cuq 
Toulza (about 25 kilometers northeast of Villefranche), com- 
ing from the east. He sends the fourteenth brigade of 
cavalry to reconnoiter, and it reports that a force estimated 



MANEUVERS. 369 

at a brigade of infantry passed Cuq Toulza at 4 a.m., march- 
ing in the direction of Auriac. 

General Tisseyre gives orders to the colonial brigade to 
move by St. Germier, Beauville, and Cambriac to meet and 
delay this force. 

Note. — This hypothesis was announced by General Brugfere 
with the sole object of changing the colonial brigade and the 
fourteenth brigade of cavalry from the side of the seven- 
teenth corps to the sixteenth corps, in order that a new 
element might be introduced into the succeeding maneuvers 
and to give the opposing commanders a chance to make dis- 
positions in the face of unexpected events. 

At 7.30 a. m. General Tisseyre learns that the enemy has 
received reenforcements during the night, and he decides that 
he can not maintain himself upon the position at Tucal which 
be captured the day before and makes his arrangements to 
fall back upon the strong line of La Bastide de Beauvoir- 
Basifege, where he expects to vigorously resist the enemy's 
further advance. 

General Pedoya, commanding the sixteenth corps, learns 
at 7 a. m. that reenforcements of one brigade of infantry 
(the colonial) and one of cavalry (the fourteenth), which 
had been looked for, had arrived near Beauville at 6.30 a. m. ; 
he immediately decides to take the offensive, and gives orders 
for a concerted movement against the enemy's positions to 
begin at 8 a. m., at which hour the reenforcements will have 
had time to reach and attack his left flank. 

Note. — General Brugfcre's order informing General Pedoya 
of the arrival of reenforcements stated that the colonial bri- 
gade would be at his disposal at 7.30 a. m. and the cavalry 
brigade at 6.45. 

In order to facilitate and make more natural this change 
of fortune, General Brug&re directed the commander of the 
sixty-first brigade to take Cessales (occupied by the outposts 
of the colonial brigade) before daybreak. This was done at 
4 a. m. and the colonials were driven back in the direction of 
Toutens. 

Resume op the Maneuver op September 5. 

When the maneuver proper was resumed at 7 a. m., the 
troops occupied the positions of the day before, only Cessales 
was in possession of the sixteenth corps, held by the sixty-first 



370 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

brigade, while the colonial brigade (now part of the sixteenth 
corps) was assembled east of St. Germier. 

The attack of the sixteenth corps was begun by the thirty- 
second division, which, supported by its own artillery and 
the corps artillery, drove the two regiments of the enemy 
from the hill of Tucal and installed themselves there at 8.30 
a. m. Meanwhile the sixty-first brigade (sixteenth corps) 
had advanced from l'Ermitage and attacked the farms Ledegs 
and Montagnol. 

Toward the right, the sixty-first brigade was now brought 
from Cessales and Trebons and placed in line in rear of the 
right of the thirty-second division, which having taken Tucal 
was ordered to attack Lagrange, its left marching on Maur£- 
mont. The colonial brigade was to move with the high road 
as its axis against the enemy's left; its head reached St. Ger- 
mier at 9 a. m. 

During this time the sixteenth corps had made its disposi- 
tions for falling back. 

The thirty-fourth division occupied successively the heights 
of Barthioles and Lagrange by its sixty-seventh brigade and 
of Embulargne-Larguille and Bordeneuve by its sixty-eighth; 
then the hills at Varennes (sixty-seventh) and Lambri (sixty- 
eighth). This about 10 a. m. 

The thirty-third division at the same time slowly retired to 
the range of hills north of Villenou velle and running west of 
Maur&nont. 

The pursuit of the sixteenth corps became more vigorous 
by 10.30 a. m. The colonial brigade passed to the north of 
the high road and, supported on its right by a provisional 
cavalry division formed of the fourteenth and sixteenth bri- 
gades, tried to envelop the enemy's left. At 11 a. m. it had 
reached the line Lambri-Mourvilles. 

On its left the thirty-second division, south of the main 
road, was moving against Varennes and Coudere Haute. It 
was supported in this attack by its divisional artillery and 
the corps artillery. 

The thirty-first division on its side pushed back the troops 
that were holding the line Maur^mont -Villenou velle. 

At the close of the maneuver, noon, the main part of the 
seventeenth corps was grouped about la Bastide de Beauvoir, 
which strong position was solidly occupied by the thirty- 
fourth division. The thirty-third was still retiring by eche- 
lons, fighting in retreat to reach and occupy the heights 



MANEUVERS. 371 

which run along the stream just et-st of Bazifege, which once 
reached would enable it to join hands with the thirty-fourth 
at la Bastide. 

Cantonments Nights of September 5-6 and 6-7. 

The seventeenth corps occupied the villages along its front 
and to the rear as far as St. Foy, Odars, and Pempertuzat 
(south of the canal) ; .its cavalry (two brigades) were at the 
last-named place and Donneville. Outposts from CMteau 
de Mourville by Varennes and down the right bank of the 
stream to Bazi&ge. 

The sixteenth corps was in the villages from Villenouvelle 
to Maur^mont and Segreville and in those to the rear; its cav- 
alry (two brigades) south of the canal as far west as Ville- 
franche. Outposts from Falgayrac by Houliers and down 
the left bank of the stream to Bazifege. 

September 6 was a day of rest. 

Instructions for the Maneuver of September 7. 

The seventeenth corps will move in the night of September 
6-7 to the positions Chateau de Montlaur, hill 223, hill 235, 
Fourquevaux, where it should be in place at 6.45 a. m. It will 
resist here to the last extremity, reinforcements being on the 
way which should arrive by noon on the 7th. 

The sixteenth corps will follow up its success by vigorously 
attacking, at 5 a. m., the enemy which is retiring to the west. 

Orders given by the Commanders of each side for the Movements 

of September 7. 

Seventeenth Corps. — The troops will fall back before 
daylight under protection of the outposts. 

The thirty-third division will take up the position Montlaur, 
hill 223, up to Palis; the thirty-fourth will hold with one 
brigade Palis, Tiff aut, and la Truffe, the other brigade will 
form the general reserve. 

The cavalry division (two brigades) will cover the right 
flank. 

The corps artillery will be posted (in "position d'attente," 
that is, concealed but with all elements ready for opening fire) 
in the southwest angle of the roads that cross near Fourque- 
vaux. 

As soon as the attack of the enemy is pronounced, the out- 
posts will fall back slowly upon the front of the position 



372 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

indicated, each on its own division. (These outpost troops 
consisted of four battalions.) 

Sixteenth Corps and Colonial Brigade. — The corps 
will resume its forward movement. The cavalry division 
(two brigades), reinforced by two batteries of ^orse artillery, 
will act against the enemy's right flank down the valley of 
the Hers (that is, along the canal). 

The thirty-first division will assemble to the east of Segre- 
ville, with a detachment at Falgayrac, and take as its line of 
direction the road to Segreville-Caragoudes. 

The thirty-second will assemble at hill 219, north of Ces- 
sales, with a detachment at Chateau Pausi£, and will attack 
the enemy as soon as he is encountered. 

A curtain composed of the colonial brigade, one battalion 
of the one hundred and forty-third, and a group of corps 
artillery will occupy the heights on the left bank of the stream 
Varennes-Bazifege to keep the attention of the enemy and hold 
his lines. In other words, General Pedoya, knowing his 
superiority, determined to make a turning movement around 
the enemy's left flank while holding his line by front attacks 
and thus preventing his meeting this movement when it 
should be discovered. The force for this turning movement 
was the thirty-first division, which was ordered to move from 
Segreville on Caragoudes and Tarabel. 

The thirty-second was ordered to take as its axis the high 
road from St. Germier to la Bastide. The curtain along the 
stream, composed as stated, was ordered to march from 
Lagrange upon Coud&re Haute and on to the southwest of la 
Bastide. 

These dispositions seemed entirely sound, the only criticism 
possible being the separation by about 2 miles of the two right 
columns of attack (leaving out the curtain of troops on the 
left). These were divided by the Marquaisonne, a no mean 
obstacle, and the country was very rough. The curtain 
troops might also have given another group of artillery to 
convince more effectually the enemy of a serious attack on 
his right. 

As it turned out, General Tisseyre did not worry himself 
much about his right, and the turning movement having 
been discovered, and indeed made itself felt before the attack 
of the thirty-second division, he did not hesitafe to meet this 
move by sending up his general reserve and making a change 



MANEUVERS. 373 

of front with Fourquevaux as a pivot. This he was able to 
do without danger of having his center pierced by the thirty- 
second division since it had not come up. 

General Pedoya, finding the flank movement met in good 
time, profited by the resulting weakness of the enemy's right 
to make his decisive attack there with the colonials and 
thirty-second division. These troops were cot fully assem- 
bled, but were sent in, nevertheless, as it was late. This 
attack was not pushed home, as it was 1 o'clock and the 
troops had had a fatiguing day of marching since dawn; 
therefore General Brugfere hoisted the signal for the end 
of the maneuver. 

The following is a more detailed r6sum6 of the day's 
movements : 

By 8.30 a. m. the sixteenth corps had begun to push back 
the four battalions left by the seventeenth corps along its old 
positions; by 9.30 the sixteenth had crossed the stream and 
reached the heights west of the road; the right column 
hal gotten to Tarabel. 

At 10 a. m. the squadron of the thirty-fourth division 
(seventeenth corps) reported to General Tisseyre that strong 
columns of the enemy were seen about Tarabel. He immedi- 
ately directed the brigade of the thirty-fourth, which was 
his general reserve, upon Fourquet and Foucaud Chau. The 
thirty-third division was ordered to hold fast with two regi- 
ments along the line from Ratabou to Palis and send the 
other two to Bichinis to be held ready for any eventuality. 
It can be seen that this reserve could be thrown equally well 
toward Fourquet or Palis. 

On the other side, the thirty-first division continued its 
movement toward Foucaud CMu, the thirty-second toward 
la Pradasse and le Loup, further south. The latter's artil- 
lery, established on the hill marked 241 (near the high road), 
now took in reverse the brigade of the thirty-fourth division 
at Foucaud; this and the advance of the thirty-second 
obliged this brigade to retire to the south of the Marquai- 
sonne and occupy the heights of Fourquevaux, which it did 
under the protection of the batteries of the divisional and 
corps artillery. (11.30 a. m.) 

Meantime, the colonial brigade marching south of the high 
road could not get further than Francou on account of the 
fire which came from the two regiments near Embesse and 
the six batteries on the hills near it. 



374 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

About noon the thirty-second division took possession of 
Palis. The thirty-first was attacking the heights of Fourque- 
vaux when the maneuver was stopped (1 o'clock). 

The cavalry does not seem to have been used to any effect 
by either party during the day. The two divisions faced 
each other near Ayguevives, and early in the day, after 
maneuvering for position, they got ready to charge, but a 
wide and deep ditch was found to separate the two forces; 
the charge was halted and nothing happened. It would 
have seemed a fair chance for a little fighting on foot, but 
none was observed, the artillery alone firing. 

On the evening of September 7 General Brug&re united the 
sixteenth and seventeenth corps into an army, of which he 
assumed command. The intention was to maneuver this 
army against a represented enemy on the 8th and 9th. This 
force, commanded by General De Lacroix, was constituted 
by the sixty-seventh brigade, another provisional brigade of 
infantry, a group of field artillery, and the thirteenth and 
fourteenth brigades of cavalry united into a division and 
reinforced by a group of horse artillery. 

The place of the sixty-seventh brigade in the seventeenth 
corps was taken by the colonial brigade. 

Cantonments Night op September 7-8. 

General Brugfcre's army was quartered as follows : 

Sixteenth corps in the region from la Bastide and Bazi&ge, 
on the south, to Odars and Belb^raud,. on the north. 

Seventeenth corps to the northwest of the sixteenth from 
St. Orens to Pempertuzat. 

Cavalry division (sixteenth and seventeenth brigades) 
south of the canal between Castanet and Toulouse. 

The outposts began at Fontenilles (on the river three kilo- 
meters due south of Lanta), ran west to the Marquaisonne, 
and along its left bank to near Toulouse. 

General De Lacroix's army was quartered along the line 
Flourens, Quint, Lauzerville to Ste. Foy, and the villages to 
the northeast. 

Cavalry division on the right flank in the villages east of 
Toulouse. 

The outposts faced those of the enemy. 



MANEUVERS. 375 

Hypothesis op the Maneuver op September 8 and 9. 

General Brugfere's army coming from the south has crossed 
the Arifege at Auterive, Gr^piac, and Venerque, and on Sep- 
tember 7, in the afternoon, after crossing the Canal du Midi, 
has encountered the advance guard of the enemy and pushed 
it back to the heights of Ste. Foy-Lauzerville. 

General Brugfere intends to attack vigorously on the 8th 
the force at Lauzerville; the main strength of the enemy 
appears to be on the heights from Quint to Aigrefeuille and 
St. Pierre. 

Intentions and Orders for the Movement op September 8. 

The commanding general intends first to hold the enemy 
by a vigorous attack along his whole line and then act upon 
one or the other of his flanks following the results obtained 
by the preliminary action and the facilities offered by the 
terrain as the fight develops it. 

The seventeenth corps will take for its objective the line 
Quint- Aigrefeuille, the sixteenth the line Aigrefeuille-Dre- 
mil. These two corps will keep in touch with each other 
along the line CMteau d'Odars, Lafiou, Testettes, Gde. Borde, 
Aigrefeuille (a north-south line). 

In each corps the movement will be executed with divisions 
side by side. One brigade of the sixteenth corps will consti- 
tute the general reserve ; at the opening of the action it will 
be massed at Mourifes, 1,000 meters southeast of Belbdraud 
(near the railroad). 

The cavalry division will operate in the direction of Flou- 
rens to worry the enemy about his communications with his 
army in rear. 

General De Lacroix had placed his first line along the hill 
Cayras, Bordeneuve, 223, Lauzerville, Pujol, Ste. Foy; the 
remaining six battalions organized the defense of the line 
Quint- Aigrefeuille in rear; the engineers had placed bridges 
over the Saune between these two lines. 

Resume op the Maneuver of September 8. 

The Southern army moved to the attack from right to left 
as follows : Thirty-first division, thirty-second, thirty-fourth, 
thirty-third; sixty-third brigade (thirty-second division) in 
reserve. At 7.30 p. m. the thirty-first had "reached the 
heights of Prdserville, the thirty-second was crossing the 



376 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

river north of Odars, the thirty-fourth was at Auzielle, 
the thirty-third at St. Orens. 

An hour later, after preparation by the artillery lasting 
half an hour, the thirty third took hill 214 and the thirty- 
fourth Lauzerville and Larroque. At 9 a. m. the sixty-fourth 
brigade took Pujol and half an hour later the thirty-first 
division got possession of Ste. Foy and Enfarines. 

The whole artillery of the two corps was now established a 
little behind the long ridge running from Pr^serville through 
Lauzerville to Cayras to prepare the attack against the main 
position of the enemy, upon which his advance line had fallen 
back. This withdrawal had taken place in good order under 
the protection of two batteries posted at La Tourette (east of 
Quint) and of three others near and west of Aigref euille. 
The position from the hill northwest of Quint to that east of 
Aigref euille was fortified and held by the whole force of Gen- 
eral De Lacroix except one brigade in reserve south of Mon- 
tauriol. 

The artillery preparation lasted about half an hour, when 
the infantry moved forward again. They crossed the Saune 
between 10 and 10.30 a. m. and slowly climbed the slopes to 
the enemy's position, each move being prepared and followed 
by the artillery. The ground here afforded excellent cover to 
the advancing troops, and constant and skillful use was made 
of it by the small columns of attack which moved up along 
the whole front. 

The thirty-third division was directed against Quint, the 
sixty-eighth brigade against Boisrond and la Serre, the 
colonials against the Chateau Arbanfere, and the sixteenth 
corps had reached Brignac on the right. 

The assault of these positions was about to take place when 
the enemy retired from them and fell back on the line Levade, 
Montauriol, Dremil Lafage (the most southerly village of 
that name). 

The maneuver ended for the day, to be resumed on the 9th 
where it left off. 

The outposts the night of September 8-9 were established 
by each army along the line Quint, Boisrond, Gde. Borde, 
Brignac Lagarde. 

The troops on each side went into bivouac or such canton- 
ments as could be found within 2 or 3 miles of the outposts. 
The cavalry of both sides was sent to the cantonments of the 
previous night. 



MANEUVERS. 377 

Orders were given that all troops should find themselves at 
5.45 a. m. in the positions they held at the close of the maneu- 
vers on the 8th, these positions to be verified where necessary 
"by the umpires. The signal for beginning the movement 
will be hoisted about 6 a. m. 

Note. — No change in any of the forces* was made, except 
that the colonial brigade was moved from the first line to 
become the general reserve at Gde. Borde, the sixty-third 
brigade taking its place in line. 

Resume op the Maneuver op September 9. 

General De Lacroix placed one brigade at the most advan- 
tageous point about Dremil and Montauriol and the ground 
between, on one or the other side of the road, as was most' 
suitable ; the other brigade was on the hills about Levade 
and Serre, north of Quint; the artillery was posted on the 
hill 243. 

General Brugfere's forces moved to the attack as follows : 
Thirty-first division on St. Pierre and Dremil, sixty-third 
brigade on hill 243, sixty-fourth brigade on Piot. The artil- 
lery of this corps (sixteenth) was firing from Bordes Haute 
(south of St. Pierre) and Libournel. 

In the seventeenth corps, the sixty-eighth brigade moved 
on Montauriol, the thirty-third division on Levade passing 
between Quint and La Tourette ; six batteries were on the 
ridge of Boisrond, six others on hill 214 near Bordeneuve. 

About 8.15 the sixty- third brigade debouched from Car- 
bougnferes; General De Lacroix ordered the one hundred and 
twenty-sixth infantry, till then in reserve behind the little 
wood near hill 243, to make a counter attack in aid of the 
regiment already engaged. It was a very fine sight, but 
seemed like a useless sacrifice. This incident was one of the 
inost striking examples of all the maneuvers I have seen of 
the target made by a great mass of troops open to hot fire at 
close range. It is wholly impossible to say what would have 
happened had the guns been really loaded. 

The brigade reserves and the colonials now coming up soon 
made the counter-attack pause. It is probable that this 
charge was ordered to cover the retreat of the rest of the 
army to the north, a sufficiently difficult thing, with a stream 
to cross and the enemy on their heels. It is also to be sus- 
pected that an aimable desire to close the maneuvers with a 



378 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

magnificant spectacle for the benefit of the vast throng of the 
country people assembled, all of whom had friends and rela- 
tives among the troops, was not absent from the minds of 
the officers who arranged the work of the day. 

Meantime the ront of the Northern army was completed by 
the taking of hill 243 by the colonials and by Lacase and 
Levade falling before the seventeenth corps. Dremil and 
Chateau Lafage had also been taken by the rest of the six- 
teenth corps. The attack had thus gained the enemy's posi- 
tions along the whole line and General Brug&re had the 
maneuver stopped. 

There was no review of the troops by the president this 

year as has been customary, but at the close of the day the 

^various organizations were assembled where they had 

attacked and the minister of war rode along the lines and 

conferred a number of decorations. 

In the afternoon of the 9th all the troops were marched to 
the cantonments they were to occupy in view of the departure 
which took place on the 10th, when all were sent by rail or 
marching to their garrisons. 

Forty trains conveying troops left the vicinity of Toulouse 
between 9 a. m. and 6 p. m. on the 10th: the troops that 
marched set out on the 11th. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

The impression seems to have been left upon the minds of 
all who witnessed this year's maneuvers that they were more 
businesslike, more instructive, more interesting, and less 
spectacular than any seen in recent years, although no new 
questions were definitely solved. Indeed, it would seem that 
those most under discussion will never be decided to the satis- 
faction of Frenchmen until a long campaign has shown con- 
clusively what ohanges in the old system are made imperative 
by the smokeless powder, flat trajectory, long range, and 
rapid fire of present infantry and artillery weapons: 

These things have been discussed in the press, both civil 
and military, and the " teachings of the Boer war " have been 
cited ad nauseam for over two years. 

Writers without other responsibility than the possession of 
a printing press have been crying aloud for changes and 
demanding the adoption of new methods of combat which 
will enable an army of Frenchmen fighting in France to 



MANEUVERS. 379 

stand off odds as great as those met by an army of Boers 
fighting in South Africa. 

Those high in military authority have met this indis- 
criminate clamor with both conservatism and open-minded- 
ness. The Frenchman is not a Boer in physique or habits of 
life ; France is not the South African veldt, and the French 
army is first and forefhost, if not wholly, maintained to 
defend the national territory or at best to make a campaign in 
contiguous countries. At the same time those teachings of 
the recent war applicable and essential to a continental army 
have been studied carefully by the highest military chiefs 
and it is not to be supposed that somo of their published 
works dealing with the subject represent the whole result of 
their labors. On the contrary, the matter is being examined 
most carefully and the changes made clearly necessary by 
the progress of armament are being tried and doubtless will 
be slowly introduced ; but where the best responsible military 
intellects are widely at variance as to the needfulness and 
the scope of these changes, it would seem that the French 
Government is acting wisely in not making too great haste. 
The French army is too large a body to be remodeled and 
retaught unless the necessity for it is unquestionable. 

If the year's maneuvers did not settle the question of what 
changes in battle tactics are imperative and what needless, 
they did offer occasions to practice some of the new ideas and 
furnished to all the chance to think and compare on the 
ground, in the presence of actual formations of troops en- 
gaged, and to draw conclusions more or less definite as to 
whether battles can be fought to-day in the same fashion as 
they were fifteen years ago. 

The terrain about Toulouse was admirably adapted to 
marches of approach under cover and illustrated the need 
and value of scouting. No points of vantage offered a post 
from which a general could see his army, his corps, or some- 
times even a whole brigade. The necessity for initiative in 
the lower commanders was evident to all, and fortunately the 
rigid formations of the drill book, so tempting to follow on 
the great plains where the maneuvers often take place, were 
out of the question on this broken ground. 

The eternal question of formations for assault was much 
talked of during and after the maneuvers, and plenty of 
criticism could be heard upon the terrible loss of life which 



380 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

must ensue when masses of men are moving against a hill in 
final assault; this is inevitably the first thought of observers 
unaccustomed to seeing bodies as large as army corps in 
action. But the question may fairly be asked, how can 40,000 
men attack a position about 4 miles long (as for example on 
September 8) without being seen and fired at in close forma- 
tions? 

Ten thousand men to a mile means 600 to every hundred 
yards, and at the place chosen for assault, more than this. 
The successive lines and the reserves can not produce their 
effect if not close enough together; if close together, how 
avoid a large target and much loss? Is, then, the assault to 
be given up? Even flank attacks if not complete surprises 
present nearly the same problem between forces about equal. 
If there is to be no assault, will the enemy be driven in con- 
fusion from his position and a decisive result obtained ? 

Each man asks himself or others these and similar questions 
and the replies are as various as the individuals. The French 
in general believe that the assault must be made as heretofore; 
that the troops for this work must accomplish the final act by 
shock, and that to this end a certain density of formation is 
necessary ; heavy losses in these troops will be inevitable, but 
the position will be carried and it will be carried in no other 
way. So, also, in no other way will effective and disorganizing 
pursuit be usually possible. 

If an intelligent reason can be given for the dense forma- 
tions under fire sometimes seen where the ground makes cover 
impossible, it is hard to defend the poor use of cover made by 
the individual French soldier. On outpost, on the defensive 
and thus stationary, he will get in a ditch or behind a wall 
if told, but in moving to the attack he almost always stands 
and fires, kneeling only when ordered to, which is far from 
habitual ; as for lying down it practically is not done except 
to rest. It may be that all this would correct itself when 
bullets come singing by, but since maneuvers are for instruc- 
tion and therefore intended to inculcate correct habits, it 
would seem that here is the place to teach the individual that 
use of cover which has been dinned into Europe's ears Qver 
since 1899. 

The most precious if not the only effects of training that 
remain to the enlisted man or subaltern officer when once 
engaged under killing fire are the habits and instincts made 



MANEUVERS. 381 

part of his physical system by long and intelligent instruc- 
tion ; these habits and instincts constitute the only effective 
difference in battle between disciplined regulars and undis- 
ciplined levies, and they chiefly cause the former to succeed 
where the latter would fail. 

In these days more than ever a perfect drill book presenting 
a most skillful method of attack can not make soldiers suc- 
ceed whose individual habits as fighting men are bad. The 
intelligent procedure, then, is to prescribe a general method 
of attack premitting much elasticity of application; educate 
the officers to a thinking use of this elasticity, and the men, 
the tools, to an instinctive obedience to the necessities of the 
ground. 

This elasticity, producing considerable variety of method 
during this year's maneuvers, was the most noticeable result 
of the recent wide criticism of the old attack formations. 
The influence of the new ideas upon company and battalion 
commanders, as well as upon the higher grades, was evident, 
but the enlisted men seemed unchanged in those bad habits 
above referred to and commented upon in previous years. 

There is another side to this question containing an impor- 
tant lesson to ourselves. The French soldier's pack is of such 
bulk (it weighs less than ours) and so carried that he has 
much trouble in shooting prone ; this, then, is probably one 
reason why he has not the habit seen in our men of lying down 
to fi?e; he really prefers to stand as a matter of comfort and 
he can not shoot well if he does lie down. 

The lesson to be drawn from this is, make the pack as light 
as possible; reduce it to just what a man would carry when 
going off with three days' rations and the anticipation of long 
marches and constant fighting; place it in the small of his 
back; reduce its bulk. Having done this, require him to 
carry it whenever he is under arms — drill in it, do guard in 
it, above all shoot in it in all positions and especially when 
skirmishing. 

The French soldier carries his pack as easily and as natu- 
rally as he does his rifle; for him the two go inevitably 
together — it is one of his good habits inculcated by peace 
training — but the load is too heavy and too bulky and he 
can't shoot prone in it. 

On the other hand our men have excellent habits of seek- 
ing cover and skill in shooting prone, but they have acquired 



382 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902, 

them through always drilling and shooting without any pack. 
A combination of these respective good habits is most neces- 
sary and can only be obtained in the way indicated. 

The following remarks on the attack of positions are be- 
lieved to translate the ideas obtaining among the officers who 
to-day direct the training of the French army : The new the- 
ories which deny the possibility of an assault and admit only 
fire action and enveloping movements are considered danger- 
ous, and if allowed prevent a decisive result from being 
obtained. The South- African war is an example in point; 
no one of its battles was decisive to either side, since neither 
seemed capable of final offensive action. It is to protest 
against such theories that the attack continues to be made in 
the French maneuver battles, though it is wholly granted 
that the assaulting columns must remain under cover until a 
complete preparation has been accomplished. 

The latter is effected by the artillery and by deployed 
infantry which has gotten to as close range as possible; it is 
considered complete when the enemy's front is wholly engaged 
and his reserves neutralized by the expectation of assault and 
the uncertainty of the point chosen; when a fierce and in- 
creasing fire has reduced his effective and shaken his nerve, 
and when the assaulting troops have gotten within striking 
distance without being seriously shaken or reduced by the 
enemy's fire. 

The above results once accomplished and the fire of the 
enemy practically silenced, the troops designated to make 
the decisive attack move upon the demoralized enemy with- 
out pause and drive him from his position with the bayonet. 

The fire at will is the habitual fire employed, volleys used 
only exceptionally. Fire is opened only when it can be made 
effective, and then with all the intensity consistent with the 
supply of ammunition and the further work to be done. 

The grand maneuvers this year presented unusually favor- 
able occasions for the employment of cavalry in what wo con- 
sider one of its most important roles, that is, rapid movements 
to favorable positions followed by fighting on foot; but it can 
not be said that advantage was taken of these opportunities, 
and this in spite of the example to a certain extent set in 
General Donop's maneuvers, already referred to, or the teach- 
ings of that officer. 

The ground was such that cavalry could readily move under 
cover to favorable positions for fire action against infantry 



MANEUVERS. 383 

columns or against the enemy's cavalry heid fast by the nu- 
merous impassable obstacles of the terrain. But it seems a 
point of honor with French cavalrymen to attack opposing 
cavalry only with the saber, however favorable the opportunity 
to get behind air obstacle and fight on foot. 

There are no more intelligent or hard-working officers in 
the army than in the cavalry, but in no arm is tradition so 
oppressive or outside interference so much resented. It is not 
an exaggeration to say that the average cavalry officer would 
rather sacrifice himself and his men in a fine charge with the 
saber or lance than accomplish a useful result through what 
he feels is the ignominious method prescribed for "mounted 
infantry." 

The whole matter is a question of caste which military con- 
viction can nob dissolve, and it must inevitably injure the 
usefulness of a brilliant and devoted body of officers. 

If it must be acknowledged that maneuvers can not conclu- 
sively show this or that method of combat to be good or bad, 
can only illustrate theories and not prove them, the same 
inconclusiveness can not be alleged as regards the visibility 
of uniforms, the marching capacity of the men, the suitable- 
ness of their equipment, or the mobility and strength of the 
artillery material. 

In all these things the maneuvers, as conducted in France, 
offer conclusions hardly less valuable than could be drawn 
after a campaign. 

Previous reports, dealing especially with the artillery, have 
expressed the opinion that French officers had good cause for 
their general satisfaction with the qualities of mobility, resist- 
ance, and freedom from derangement exhibited by the 75-mm. 
gun. 

Nobody has ever doubted the wonderful effectiveness of this 
piece as shown in polygon tests, but the statement has been 
often made in many countries that it was too complicated, too 
liable to derangement, too hard to repair, and too heavy to 
stand the rough work of a campaign. 

If the French had any doubts on this subject they gave little 
evidence of worry, and certainly they are not the kind of peo- 
ple to go on turning out each year a thousand or more guns 
of the same type without having had severe tests of their 
resisting power under campaign conditions. 



384 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

These tests were never given out, but those to which the 
batteries were incidentally subjected this year in the maneu- 
vers over the rough ground around Toulouse were sufficiently 
convincing to those who saw them. Freshly plowed fields, 
others of standing corn ready to cut, bad roads, steep slopes, 
and numerous ditches offered a sufficient variety of obstacles 
to test all the field qualities of the artillery, and it can not be 
denied that it acquitted itself brilliantly. 

Indeed, the almost reckless disregard for men, horses, and 
material during combat can not fail to strike any observer. 
In action, when a movement is necessary, the movement is 
made exactly as it would be were the fight real. If a ditch, a 
stream, or a cornfield lies in the way of the artillery changing 
position, if a heavy plowed field divided by treacherous banks 
and ditches confronts the cavalry about to charge, there is no 
going round to find a safer way or an easier place, unless always 
it is evident that this exists near by and that time would be 
saved. The artillery horses are put at the ditch and the gun 
bumps over as best it can; a carriage may break a tongue or 
a wheel, but the others have gotten to where they are needed 
and the broken tongue is quickly replaced and the other gun 
comes up; the leading squadron has a dozen men unseated as 
the horses fail at the deceptive obstacle, but the others follow 
steadily on, undisturbed by the knowledge that more men will 
be spilled. 

It is admirable training and spirit, and as far as the mounted 
services are concerned, vividly illustrates the value of the hard 
work done all the year round over every sort of obstacle pre- 
pared on the garrison maneuver fields or sought in any cross- 
country ground available. 

The question of the too great visibility of French campaign 
uniforms seems for the first time to have been made a subject 
of serious study this year. The khaki uniforms, the russet- 
leather equipments, bronze buttons, leather sword scabbard, 
campaign hat, etc., characterizing the dress of the British or 
American officers attending the maneuvers, received marks of 
decided approval from the Minister of War, many general 
officers, and the military press. As a result, a board of officers 
was convened to study this question and in a preliminary 
report (as published in the press) they recommended changes in 
the French field uniform following pn the lines of our own, the 



MANEUVERS. 385 

suppression of bright metal and the substitution of a felt hat 
for the forage cap being noticeable suggestions. 

If these recommendations are given effect at all it can not 
be for many years, since the replacing of a stock of over a 
million uniforms is not a matter which the French budget can 
lightly contemplate. 

Nothing but admiration can be expressed for the endurance 
and cheerfulness of the troops of all arms. Generally they 
left their cantonments at 3 a. m., marched and maneuvered 
till noon, and then, after a rest of an hour or two, marched 
another two or three hours to the next cantonments. Some- 
times the day was much longer than this. 

During the "long halt" after noon the ingenuity of the 
Frenchmen in the matter of making a good meal with few 
resources was evinced in the most picturesque and yet sub- 
stantial fashion. 

The stacks would be formed where the battalion halted at 
the "cease maneuver," in line or column of companies of other 
formation. Then each little family (a squad of eight) would 
begin preparations for a comfortable meal out of the provi- 
sions kept from the supper of the previous night. Each squad 
had a different method and the supplies produced from the 
haversack were no lpss various. Here a man would be peeling 
raw potatoes to boil, there last night's cooked potatoes were 
being mashed to go in the gravy ; here a piece of raw beef 
was being broiled or sausages ingeniously grilled on twigs 
across the fire trench, while in the next squad the cold roast 
beef was being heated up with fat to make the gravy. Every- 
where were tiny fires, made of the twigs collected before the 
morning's march began and carried all day on the knapsack, 
and over them water boiling for the coffee. 

Wherever the army halts, whether it consists of eight men or 
eighty thousand men, the method is the same. A portion of 
last night's supper, prepared most skillfully in each squad, is 
eaten with hot coffee ; then a rest and in good weather a nap, 
after which the march to the night's cantonment is begun. 

As this system is exactly that which would obtain in war, 
it is evident how useful is its constant practice during all 
maneuvers. Indeed, it can hardly be truthfully said, as somo 
maintain, that the maneuvers of large bodies of troops is 
solely an exercise —though a most necessary one — to the gen- 
eral and staff officers ; it is equally a practice to the enlisted 



386 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 190J. 

men in marching, sleeping, eating, and taking care of them- 
selves under the precise conditions which would obtain in a 
campaign on European territory. 

There was no " special attraction "offered by the great mil- 
itary show of this year. In 1900 carrier pigeons and the 
extensive usfc of automobiles were the talk of the newspaper 
correspondents; in 1901, such space as was left after gossip 
concerning the Czar and suite, the grand review of 140,000 
men, and the cavalry charges, was devoted to the numerous 
balloons and wireless telegraphy; this year these various 
novelties were reduced to simply practical proportions. 

Automobiles, usually small, light, and powerful, and in 
cases capable of going across rough fields, were used by Gen- 
eral Brugfere, his guest, the Prince of the Asturias, and the 
two corps commanders, but their use was restricted to serious 
business. Indeed, I remember seeing only five in all. No 
balloon was employed except a small one for hoisting signals, 
and there was no carrier-pigeon service and no wireless 
telegraphy. 

GERMAN MANEUVERS. 

[Reported k\ Li Err. Col. J. B. Kerr, Assistant Adjutant General, Vnitkd States Military 

Attache at Berlin.] 

While the German Kaiser maneuvers several years ago 
were held between two armies, each composed of several 
corps, the maneuvers of 1902, in accordance with the practice 
of recent years, were restricted to the employment of two 
army corps. The organizations of the two corps were estab- 
lished as far as practicable, excepting as to their strength, 
after the model adopted for war, which finds its greatest 
expression in the fact that each corps is composed of three 
divisions. The opposing forces being thus limited, their 
contact furnished more important tactical than strategical 
lessons. 

The maneuver was held in eastern Prussia, within and 
immediately to the west of the territory acquired from 
Poland, near the Russian frontier. 

The forces engaged were designated as the Blue and the 
Red, the strength of each being 35,000 men. 

General of Infantry Von Lignitz, the commander of the 
third army corps, commanded the Blue. His forces advanced 
from the west and consisted of his entire army corps, the 



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MANEUVERS. 387 

third augmented by the first guard infantry division, which 
in turn had been reinforced by the Leib guard hussar regi- 
ment as divisional cavalry, by one company of pioneers of 
the guard corps, and by the first and second guard cavalry 
brigades. There were also attached to the corps, balloon and 
telegraph detachments. The Blue cavalry up to include 
September 10 consisted of one regiment with each division as 
divisional cavalry, and one cavalry division designated as 
cavalry division A. The latter was composed of three cav- 
alry brigades, two batteries of horse artillery of the first 
guard field artillery, one machine-gun " abtheilung " (bat- 
tery), one bicycle company, and a detachment of guard 
pioneers. During September 11 and 12, cavalry divisions A 
and B were united into a corps, under the immediate com- 
mand of the Emperor, and constituted a part of the Blue 
force. 

The Red army was under the command of General of 
Infantry Vofl Stulpnagel, the commander of the fifth army 
corps. * His forces advanced from the east and consisted of 
the fifth army corps, reinforced by the provisional forty-first 
infantry division formed by two brigades taken from the 
second army corps, with dragoon regiment No. 3 as divisional 
cavalry, and one provisional field artillery brigade. A regi- 
ment of mounted orderlies acted as divisional cavalry to the 
tenth infantry division of this corps, this being the first time 
orderlies have been employed in the Kaiser maneuver in 
regimental organization. The remaining infantry division, 
the ninth, was reinforced by the uhlan regiment No. 1 as 
divisional cavalry. Cavalry division B was also under the 
Red commander until the evening of September 10. This 
division was composed of three brigades, two batteries of 
horse artillery, one machine-gun battery, and a pioneer 
detachment. 

There were altogether engaged in the Kaiser maneuver 79 
battalions, 90 squadrons, 78 batteries of field and horse artil- 
lery, 4 machine-gun batteries, 9 pioneer companies, 2 corps 
telegraph and 2 balloon detachments. The organizations of 
the Blue and the Red forces are shown in detail in the 
accompanying diagrams. 

The Emperor acted as chief umpire, excepting during the 
last two days, when he commanded the Blue cavalry corps, 
the function of chief umpire being performed for this time 



388 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

by Field Marshal Prince Albrecht of Prussia, assisted by 
Major General v. Gossler, chief quartermaster in the general 
staff. There were also fourteen other general officers and two 
colonels on duty as umpires. To each of these umpires were 
assigned five officers, principally from the general staff, as 
adjutants, and a number of noncommissioned officers and 
privates for duty. 

The maneuver direction was under the charge of General 
of Cavalry Count v. Schlieffen, chief of the general staff, who 
acted under the supervision of the Emperor, and in his absence 
under that of Field Marshal Prince Albrecht. 

Besides the regular army with the colors, 199,795 men addi- 
tional from the reserve, landwehr, and the ersatz reserve were 
called into active service with the Prussian army corps alone, 
for periods of time varying from fourteen to twenty-eight 
days during the year 1902. Of this number 12,440 men 
engaged in the Kaiser maneuvers with the third army corps 
and 9,595 with the fifth. They were called August 1 for 
twenty-eight days' service, and were required to report in 
time to have twenty days' drill, discipline, and practice in 
marching before the maneuvers commenced. 

In accordance with the requirements of the field- service 
regulations, the organizations taking part in the Kaiser 
maneuvers left in their garrisons about one-fifth of their 
strength. These consisted of the sick, the physically weak, 
and detachments for guard. As many men as were necessary 
were recalled to the colors to make up the prescribed peace 
establishments. The cavalry regiments recalled only as many 
men as they could mount on horses in condition for hard serv- 
ice. The commanders of squadrons decided whether young 
remounts should be taken or not. After the permanent organ- 
izations were thus reinforced, new organizations of peace 
strength were formed. The battalion was the highest organ- 
ization formed for the Kaiser maneuvers. There were, how- 
ever, entire new infantry regiments of war strength organ- 
ized for the corps maneuvers of the seventh, tenth, and 
seventeenth army corps. In the formation of new organiza- 
tions for all the maneuvers, nearly one-half the officers and 
noncommissioned officers were taken from the active army, 
these being detached for this duty. The places thus made 
vacant were filled temporarily by officers and noncommis- 
sioned officers from the reserve and landwehr. The remaining 



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MANEUVERS. 389 

officers and noncommissioned officers of the new organi- 
zations came from the various reserves. In selecting the 
classes for the exercises regard was had that the men, if pos- 
sible, be able to exercise at least once as reservists and once as 
landwehrmen. In the landwehr the selection began with the 
youngest class, in the reserve with the second youngest class. 
The calling in of the chief, assistant, and under surgeons, 
and veterinary surgeons was under regulations prescribed in 
special orders. Enlisted men called in for the maneuvers 
from the reserve and landwehr, whose annual incomes were 
less than $714 each, were exempted from the payment of all 
taxes during the exercise months; an entire month being tax 
free if one day's service was had in the month. Before the 
granting of this tax freedom, however, applications were 
required to be made for the same. These were handed in 
after the maneuvers to the proper civil authorities. 

The territory used for the maneuvers extended from Frank- 
fort on the Oder west to Posen. It is bordered on the west 
and south by the Oder. The Obra runs nearly parallel with 
the border between the provinces of Posen and Brandenburg, 
and flows into the Warthe at Schwerin. It passes through a 
section strengthened by numerous lakes and divides the 
region into two parts of about equal size, the eastern of 
which served mainly as the exercise ground of the fifth army 
corps and the western that of the third army corps. In the 
environs of Schermeisel the Baltic hills rise to respectable 
heights. Eastward to the Obra these hills decline gradually, 
forming terraces, until in front of Meseritz a wide valley 
begins, in the center of which the town is situated at the 
crossing of the Obra. The latter is a stream of considerable 
width and of dark color due to the swampy subsoil. The 
swampy character of the ground makes the Obra a formi- 
dable hindrance totroops of any kind. As the lakes generally 
had marshy, reedy borders, the water supply of the troops 
was somewhat complicated. The maneuver ground was rich 
in forests, especially on the lower Warthe and on the Oder 
between Frankfort and Zullichau. Smaller water courses 
with marshy borders also cut the generally hilly ground. 
There are two main roads from Posen to the Oder. The 
northern is along the left bank of the Warthe to Custrin, and 
the southern extends through Gratz Zullichau to Grossen 
Frankfort, with branches through Meseritz and Schwiebus. 



390 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Ground on the maneuver field exempted from occupancy 
by the troops, such as nurseries, hop, tobacco, and garden 
grounds, etc., which could not be readily distinguished at a 
great distance, were marked before the beginning of the 
maneuver, by means of conspicuous notices placed on sign- 
boards at the height of nine feet. Ditches, steep inclines, and 
pits were marked by black flags. All field damages by the 
troops, which were caused by the owners neglecting to timely 
harvest the crops, gave no valid claim for indemnification. 
Citizens were required to submit claims for damages within 
two days after the end of the maneuver. The expenses for 
damages during the Kaiser maneuvers last year having been 
unusually large, on account of the unfavorable weather and 
the backward crops, the Emperor directed that for the present 
year and in the future, while actual damages would be fully 
compensated, excessive and unjust claims must be strongly 
rejected. 

The fifth army corps having been assembled, its Kaiser 
parade was held for the first time in the province of Posen, 
on the drill ground near the village of Lawica, four miles 
from the city of Posen. The troops during and after con- 
centration were generally billeted. The great parade of this 
corps took place September 3, when it was inspected and 
reviewed by the Emperor just previous to its start for the 
maneuvers. From the 4th to the 8th of September, inclusive, 
the corps marched, practicing reconnoitering exercises. 

The third army corps was assembled in like manner for its 
Kaiser parade at Frankfort on the Oder, where the corps was 
paraded, inspected, and reviewed by the Emperor on Septem- 
ber 6. The distinguished foreign guests, to whom His Majesty 
the Emperor and King had forwarded invitations to attend 
the maneuvers as his special guests, assembled here and 
formed a brilliant attending suite. Among, these from the 
United States, were Maj. Gen. Henry C. Corbin, Adjutant 
General, United States Army, Maj. Gen. Samuel B. M. Young, 
and Brig. Gen. Leonard Wood, with their aids de camp; 
Lieut. Col. John A. Johnston, assistant adjutant general; 
First Lieuts. Frank R. McCoy, Tenth Cavalry, and James F. 
McKinley, Fourteenth Cavalry. From Great Britain, Field 
Marshal Earl Roberts, Lieutenant Generals French and Kelly- 
Kenny, Major General Hamilton, Secretary of State for War 
Brodrick, and the Earl of Lonsdale. From Italy, General 
Saletta, chief of the general staff. From Bavaria, Crown 



MANEUVERS. 391 

Prince Ludwig, and Princes Leopold and Amulf. From 
other countries, General Granadez of the Republic of Guate- 
mala, the Crown Prince of Roumania, Prince Henry of 
Prussia, Field Marshal Count Waldersee, and the military 
attaches of the United States, Great Britain, France, Russia, 
Austria, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the Argentine Republic. 
The numerous attendants of the high personages and foreign 
officers is an eloquent evidence of the generous hospitality of 
the Emperor. The difficulties arising from the transporting, 
mounting, quartering, boarding, and guiding of all the invited 
guests and of the officers attached to and accompanying them 
were overcome in a faultless manner, and the model-like 
machinery put in operation for this purpose proved a valuable 
and pleasant lesson of the maneuvers. The parade and sub- 
sequent maneuver took a splendid turn. The reinforcements 
of this corps for .the maneuver from the guard corps did not* 
attend fhe parade, as they were paraded and inspected by the 
Emperor with the guard corps on the Tempelhofer field, 
Berlin, August 30, previous to marching for the maneuvers. 

OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

The following official announcements were given out by 
the maneuver direction concerning war dispositions, situa- 
tions, intentions, events, etc., from day to day during the 
maneuvers : 

GENERAL DISPOSITION. 

A Red army corps has crossed the Weichsel and advanced in the direc- 
tion of Rogasen ; another from the south has advanced through Silesia in 
the direction of Sagan. 

A Blue army corps is being concentrated near Frankfort on the Odor. 

SPECIAL DISPOSITION FOR BLUE. 

The Blue (third) army corps is to repulse the enemy, who has invaded 
the territory. 

On the evening of September 7, there are in position near Frankfort on 
the Oder the fifth and sixth infantry divisions on the left bank, and the 
sixth cavalry brigade on the right bank of the Oder, while the remainder 
of cavalry division A is at Drossen. The first guard infantry division, 
which has been placed at the disposition of the commanding general, is to 
be transferred to Landsberg on the Warthe, by rail, by noon September 8. 
Additional troops are being concentrated on the left of the Oder. 

The northern army corps of the enemy crossed the Warthe with the 
left wing of its infantry on September 5 at Obornik, and with its right 
wing on the sixth at Wronke. The main body of its cavalry was on this 
day at Neustadt. The advance guard of the southern army corps of the 
enemy is expected at Sagan on the 8th. 



392 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

SPECIAL DISPOSITION FOR RED. 

Both army corps shall endeavor to effect a junction in the direction of 
the enemy. On the evening of September 7, the northern army corps 
(fifth) reached Zirke with the main body of the forty -first infantry divi- 
sion ; Kwiltsch with that of the tenth, Neastadt with that of the ninth, 
and Bentschen with cavalry division B. The southern army corps is to 
reach Sagan on the following day with its advance guard. 

EVENTS OF SEPTEMBER 8 AND INTENTIONS FOR SEPTEMBER 9. 

Blue. 

The third army corps began its advance September 8 from Frankfort on 
the Oder, in two columns, against the enemy approaching by Obornik and 
Wronke. 

The following points were reached : 

By the fifth infantry division, Reppen, with advance guard at Botts- 
chow. 

By the sixth infantry division, Drossen, with part of its advance guard 
•at Heinersdorf . 

Cavalry division A on the morning of September 8 moved the sixth 
cavalry brigade, which, on September 7, was still near Frankfort on the 
Oder with the machine-gun battery of the third army corps, by Schon- 
walde, Lindow, to near Grochow. It also advanced the two guard cavalry 
brigades, the battalion of horse artillery, and the two machine-gun bat- 
teries of the guard corps from Drossen by Zielenzig, Schermeisel, as far as 
Grochow. 

Cavalry division A, now united, marched northeast from Grochow with 
the intention of observing the flank of tho advancing enemy, and to veil 
the approach of the first guard infantry division. Its reconnoitering 
squadrons had along its whole front come in touch with the reconnoiter- 
ing detachments of the enemy. Late in the afternoon the cavalry divi- 
sion went into bivouac between Falkenwalde and Neudorf. 

The first guard infantry division by noon of September 8 had arrived at 
Landstxrg by rail and went into close quarters south of Landsberg, occupy- 
ing the Obra line from Blesen down stream; one company securing the 
crossing near Zantoch. 

By noon September 9 the commanding general intends to reach, with 
the advance guards of the fifth and sixth infantry divisions, the line 
Grunow-Lagow, forest outlets west of Langenpfuhl. The first guard in- 
fantry division the line Neudorf-Grunzig. 

Cavalry division A stands ready near Neudorf. 

Red. 

The fifth army corps, on September 8, continued its advance march 
undisturbed by the enemy. Only reconnoitering detachments repeatedly 
met the enemy. 

The following points were reached by the advance guards : 

Of the forty-first infantry division, Politzig. 

Of the tenth infantry division, Schierzig. 

Of the ninth infantry division, Lagowitz. 

"NVv»r and to the east of these points the divisions went into bivouacs. 



MANEUVERS. 393 

Cavalry division B advanced from Bentschen by Stentsch, Schwiebus, to 
Wutschdorf. It also came into touch with the enemy only with its 
reconnoitering detachments. In the afternoon the division went into 
bivouac in the locality of Lagow, Grunow, Wutschdorf , and Selchow. 

On September 9 the commanding general intends to advance as follows: 

Forty -first infantry division, by Meseritz, Pieske, to Tempel. 

Tenth infantry division, by Banchwitz, Hammermuhle, Kalau, Hoch- 
walde, Seeren, to Langenpf uhl. 

Ninth infantry division, by Schindelmuhl, Paradies, Starpel, toSchonow. 

Cavalry division B stands ready to advance in a northerly direction 
and to place itself at the head of the vanguards of its infantry divisions. 

SEPTEMBER 9. 

Blue. . 

The third army corps continued its advance march as intended. Weak 
mixed detachments early occupied the forest edge west of Grunow, the 
narrows near Lagow, the forest edge west of Langenpfuhl and east of 
Grochow, also Neudorf and Grunzig. The reconnoitering detachments 
of the enemy experienced much opposition in observing the advance 
march. 

The following points were reached by the advance guards : 

Of the fifth infantry division, Lagow. 

Of the sixth infantry division, Grochow. 

Of the right column of the first guard infantry division, Neudorf. 

Of the left column of this division, Grunzig. 

The main bodies went into bivouac in rear of the advance guards. 
During the day no important engagements occurred with the army corps 
of the enemy. 

Cavalry division A, in further carrying out its intention of operating 
against the right flank of the enemy, advanced from Neudorf at 5.80 
a. m. through Blesen, east of the Obra, to Meseritz. It succeeded in sur- 
prising in attack the head of the forty -first infantry division. In leav- 
ing by Weissensee it suffered considerable losses by artillery fire from 
the environs of Kurzig. It then remained for observation between 
Neudorf and Grunzig. The division went into bivouac for the night 
near Gleissen. 

The reconnoitering squadron sent against Krossen reported that cuiras- 
sier patrols of the enemy were recognized in the afternoon of September 
8 near Sommerfeld and Chris tianstadt. 

The commanding general intends to attack on September 10. The fifth 
infantry division is to march north of the line of lakes against Tempel. 

The sixth infantry division and the first guard infantry division are to 
turn the right wing of the enemy. 

Cayalry division A is to advance by Blesen. 

Red. 

Cavalry division B advanced at 7.30 a. m from the line Langow-Selchow 
through Schonow to Pieske and joined with the advance guard of the 
forty-first infantry division north of the latter place. It next took posi- 
tion east of Lake Pieske, where it held itself in readiness and observed to 



394 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

the north, also the east outlets of the beech forest. When shortly after 
10 o'clock the infantry of the enemy with some guns debouched from the 
forest west of Tempel, the horse artillery of the cavalry division deployed 
against them and compelled them to retreat into the forest. 

The forty -first infantry division, marching by Meseritz, had deviated 
from its course in the direction of Kurzig, when its head, near Lange's Vw. , 
was surprised and attacked by a hostile cavalry division with machine 
guns, which had advanced along the right bank of the Obra through 
Blesen, the infantry division suffering heavy losses. The division later, 
from the height due southwest of Kurzig, fired with its artillery at this 
hostile cavalry division, which then withdrew through Weissensee to 
height 79, southwest of Weissensee. 

In accordance with orders received from the general headquarters at 
12 o'clock noon, the tenth infantry division turned off through Hochwalde 
to Pieske, and the ninth infantry division through Burschen to Seeren. 
The latter in the afternoon compelled weak hostile infantry and artillery 
west of Langenpf uhl to retreat into the beech forest. 

In the evening, cavalry division B was in bivouac near Ober Gorzig, the 
forty-first infantry division near Kurzig, the tenth infantry division near 
Pieske, with advanced posts against Tempel, and the ninth infantry 
division near Seeren, with its advanced posts at Langenpf uhl and Schonow. 

The commanding general intends to attack, on September 10, the forty- 
first infantry division in the direction of Grunzig, the tenth infantry 
division by Tempel, in the direction of Neudorf , and cavalry division B, 
the flank and rear of the hostile division. 

The ninth infantry division is to advance by Langenpf uhl against Gro- 
chow, and is to block the narrows east of Gross Kirschbaum with a 
detachment. 

SEPTEMBER 10. 

Blue. 

The commanding general of the third army corps intended not to 
advance or to attack until after the arrival of the fifth infantry division 
north of the line of lakes. The fifth infantry division, however, was 
attacked in the beech forest by a hostile division (ninth) from the direc- 
tion of Langenpf uhl, and after a fluctuating fight was compelled to retreat 
upon Schermeisel. 

The sixth infantry division while deploying was attacked from Tempel 
by a hostile division (the tenth), its left flank was turned and the 
division was thrown against Grochow. 

The first guard infantry division was standing in a position of readiness 
between Neudorf and Grunzig, when it was attacked by a hostile division 
(forty-first) from Kurzig and Weissensee. It maintained itself and in its 
turn attacked with its right wing in the direction of Tempel, without, 
however, gaining a decision in its favor. 

Cavalry division A participated with its artillery in the fight of the first 
guard infantry division. Its left flank was temporarily threatened near 
Blesen by a hostile cavalry division, which, however, soon withdrew. It 
did not follow. The division remained on the left wing of the army corps, 
where a cavalry division newly arrived by Landsberg on the Warthe 
united and formed with it a cavalry corps. 



MANEUVERS. 395 

The fifth infantry division bivouacked for the night near Lake Vorwerk ; 
the sixth infantry division near Gleissen; the first guard infantry division 
near Falkenwalde and Oscht, occupying Grunzig; the cavalry corps north 
of Weissensee. * 

The commanding general intends to attack on September 11. 

Red. 

The fifth array corps attacked as follows : 

The forty-first infantry division, in two columns, in the direction of 
Grunzig and "Die Zauche;" the fighting here remained undecided. 

The tenth infantry division deployed from Tempel on both sides of the 
main road to Grochow against the hostile sixth infantry division, which 
was not then deployed, turned its left wing and drove it toward Grochow. 

The ninth infantry division met the hostile fifth infantry division in the 
beech forest and compelled it to retreat toward Schermeisel. 

Cavalry division B advanced against the hostile left flank from Ober 
Gorzig by Blesen, but before being able to participate in the fight it had 
to be sent away in a southern direction to form connection with the sixth 
army corps advancing against Krossen. 

The commanding general then withdrew the forty-first infantry division 
to Tempel ; the tenth infantry division followed the enemy up to Grochow ; 
the ninth infantry division pursued the enemy to Schermeisel. Near 
these places they went into bivouac. 

The commanding general intends on September 11 to stand on the 
defensive — the forty-first infantry division northwest of Tempel ; the tenth 
infantry division behind height 152 northeast of Schmacht; the ninth 
infantry division is to cover the left flank of the corps in the direction of 
Gleissen-Lake Vorwerk on the hills west of and near Grochow. 

The right flank is to be secured by a strengthened regiment of cavalry. 

SEPTEMBER 11. 

Blue. 

The third army corps attacked all along the line in the following order: 

The fifth infantry division toward Grochow, turning the hostile left 
wing. 

The sixth infantry division by Posersfelde Vorwerk toward the heights 
near Schmacht. 

The first guard infantry division by Neudorf in the direction of the 
heights near Tempel. 

The cavalry corps from near Kurzig assisted in the attack of the first 
guard infantry division and crossed the railroad east of Tempel, and its 
horse artillery from the hills east of Tempel so enfiladed the hostile right 
wing that it was shaken and obliged to retreat. 

The hostile left wing near Grochow was also forced to retire. 

The tenth infantry division could not maintain itself longer and joined 
in the general retreat. 

The cavalry corps availing itself of its opportunity threw itself with 
full force against the shaken forty-first infantry division. The latter was 



396 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

overridden, and the attack was then continued against the tenth infantry 
division, which also suffered heavy losses. 

The army corps pursued the retreating enemy. 

It bivouacked for the night as follows: 

The fifth infantry division near Schonow. 

The sixth infantry division near Langenpfuhl. 

The first guard infantry division near Pieskerand Kurzig. 

The cavalry corps behind the left wing near Weissensee. 

On September 12 the commanding general intends to continue the 
offensive. 

Red. 

The divisions of the fifth army corps early in the morning stood in their 
positions ready for battle. 

The hostile attack first fell upon the ninth infantry division near 
Grochow. Its left flanlc being turned, the division was compelled to fall 
back upon Langenpfuhl. 

The following infantry divisions were also attacked at the same time : 
The tenth near Schmacht and the forty-first west of Tempel. The artil- 
lery of the latter was already heavily engaged and hard pressed, when it 
received an enfilading fire from several battalions of artillery deployed on 
the heights east of Tempel. The retreat of the right wing was thus ren- 
dered unavoidable. The tenth infantry division, favored by the ground, 
had maintained its position until now, but could only avoid the threatened 
turning of its flank by retreat. The entire army corps was thus forced in 
retreat, when from the environs east of Tempel a hostile cavalry corps 
charged the disordered and shaken parts of the forty-first infantry division, 
dispersed them, and then overrode the tenth infantry division. Hard 
pressed by the enemy, the army corps retreated beyond the line of Lake 
Strauch-Hoehwalde-Liebenau. 

For the night the divisions bivouacked as follows: 

The forty -first infantry division near Kalau. 

The tenth infantry division near Paradies and Jordan. 

The ninth infantry division near Leimnitz and Rinnersdorf. 

News having been received that on September 12 the sixth army corps, 
which had crossed the Oder during the night, might be expected by 
Wutschdorf , the commanding general intends to fight on the heights near 
and to the west of Kalau. 

The following additional events of the maneuvers are of 
interest : 

SEPTEMBER 8. 

The bicycle company attached to the Blue cavalry division 
was employed September 8 from 7 a. m. in guarding the 
narrows of Lagow and Gross Kirschbaum and the eastern 
outlets of Schermeisel. 

The Blue corps telegraph detachment with the advance 
guard of the sixth infantry division established connection 
between Ziolenzig and its corps headquarters at Drossen. It 



MANEUVERS. 397 

also forwarded reports from the Blue cavalry division, which 
had established optical (flash) signal stations at Zielenzig 
and in the environs of Konigswalde and near Schermeisel. 

The two following suppositions were authorized : First, a 
Blue reconnof tering squadron was supposed to have proceeded 
to Krossen ; second, the Oder bridges from Krossen to Tschi- 
cherzig were supposed to be occupied the morning of Septem- 
ber 9 \>y Blue pioneer detachments of the fifth infantry 
division prepared to destroy the bridges. 

The headquarters of the Red army at Bauchwitz was con- 
nected by its telegraph patrols with Schwiebus, Pieske, 
Liebenau, and Niedewitz. 

During the day the cavalry of both sides successfully recon- 
noitered the situations of their opposing forces. 

SEPTEMBER 9. 

The Blue cavalry division early on the morning of the 9th 
proceeded from its bivouac between Neudorf and Falkenwalde 
through Blesen toward Meseritz. It reached Georgsdorf at 
8 a. m. during a heavy fog. It discovered the advance of 
the Red forty-first infantry division on the main road from 
Meseritz to Pieske. At about 9 o'clock a. m. the second guard 
cavalry brigade of the Blue cavalry division crossed the Obra, 
and having established the two batteries of horse artillery 
and the two machine-gun abtheilungen of the division in very 
favorable positions, surprised and suddenly attacked the head 
of the forty-first infantry division. As a result of the attack 
the battalion of Red infantry marching at the head of the 
division and three batteries of field artillery following it were 
put out of the fight by the umpires. A great part of the Red 
artillery of the division then went into action and forced the 
Blue cavalry to retreat with considerable loss in a north- 
western direction. Halting at Weissensee, its horse artillery 
entered into a short duel with the Red batteries near Kurzig. 
The division then proceeded to the eastern environs of Neu- 
dorf. 

SEPTEMBER 10. 

In accordance with the supposition, the advance guard of 
the Red sixth army corps, advancing through Silesia, would 
be ready to cross the Oder on September 10. The commander 
of the Blue forces, therefore, decided to attack early on the 



398 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

morning of the 10th, in order to defeat the Red fifth corps 
before the arrival of the sixth, and in order to be free, if 
possible, to turn afterwards against the latter. 

Although the approach of the Red corps through Silesia sug- 
gested a defensive action on the part of the Rted fifth corps, 
its commander decided to take advantage of the favorable 
opportunity presented by the very extended Blue line and 
ordered an attack. With this view he directed the forty-first 
infantry division to advance from Kurzig against Grunzig ; 
the tenth infantry division from Pieske through Tempel 
against Neudorf ; and the ninth infantry division by Lan- 
genpfuhl against Grochow ; the latter division blocking the 
narrows east of Gross Kirschbaum with a detachment which 
should prevent any part of the hostile fifth infantry division 
from proceeding north. The Red cavalry division was ordered 
to attack the flank and rear of the left wing of the Blue line 
held by the first guard infantry division. 

The Blue commander, having also determined upon an at- 
tack, ordered the first guard and the sixth infantry divisions 
to attack and turn the right flank of Red, and the fifth infan- 
try division to advance north of the lakes against Tempel. 
The latter division was to approach near to the sixth and was 
to occupy the lake narrows of Gross Kirschbaum with a de- 
tachment. The Blue cavalry division was ordered against 
Blesen. The first guard and the sixth infantry divisions had 
assembled for the march at 6 a. m., and the fifth infantry di- 
vision was already marching in two columns on the roads to 
Grochow and to Schermeisel. When cavalry division A had 
reached Falkenwalde, the Blue commander discovering the 
advance of Red, he countermanded his order shortly after 6 
a. in. for the turning of the hostile right wing, and instead 
directed the first guard infantry division to await attack while 
scouting toward the south ; the sixth infantry division to ad- 
vance on the main road Grochow-Tempel to the edge of the 
forest; the fifth infantry division to advance north of Gross 
Bechen See against Langenpf uhl ; and dragoon regiment No. 
2 to scout as far as Tempel. 

The Red army advanced with the tenth infantry division 
in the center, the forty -first infantry division directly to its 
right, and the ninth infantry division to its left. The two 
latter divisions each advanced in two columns. When the 
left column of the center division debouched from the forest 



MANEUVERS. 399 

at 7 a. m. on the main road to Tempel, it and the ninth infan- 
try division were ordered to attack in the direction of Gro- 
chow, and the forty-first infantry division to hold the enemy 
near Grunzig-Neudorf . 

The left column of the center division, in accordance with 
its instructions, turned off from the main road and deployed 
against the heights west of Tempel, its artillery going into 
action west of the Piesker See. The right column of the center 
division was ordered to turn the left wing of the Blue, reported 
near Grochow. The fight commenced by the meeting of dra- 
goon regiment No. 2 with the Red regiment of mounted orderlies 
north of the main road Tempel-Grochow, the mounted order- 
lies being compelled to retreat. When the Blue commander 
perceived the advance of hostile infantry from Tempel, he 
ordered the sixth infantry division to attack it. This divi- 
sion being in march column its deployment was necessarily 
slow, Red inflicting heavy losses upon the division before it 
could come into action. At 8 o'clock a. m. it had succeeded 
in bringing into line two regiments north and one south of 
the high road, supported by artillery. Against this force was 
opposed the left column of the Red tenth infantry division 
strengthened by two battalions. The remainder of the tenth 
infantry division attacked the first guard infantry division 
deployed between the roads leading from Tempel to Grunzig 
and Neudorf . 

The Blue sixth infantry division now suffered severely 
from the effective fire of Red artillery on the heights west 
and south of Tempel, and having given way before the well- 
directed attack of Red infantry in its front was driven with 
heavy losses into the forest, its artillery being compelled to 
retreat across the Panikel brook to the heights north of 
Grochow. The retreat of the sixth Blue infantry division 
was continued to Grochow. 

While this fight was taking place in the center, the left 
wing of Red, the ninth infantry division, had advanced from 
Langenpfuhl on the main road, sending an infantry regiment 
between the Gross Bechen and Klein Bechen lakes toward 
Schermeisel, and a detachment of all arms against the narrows 
of Gross Kirschbaum. When the main column of the Red 
ninth infantry division, which had left its artillery east of 
the beech forest, met the advancing Blue tenth infantry 
brigade of the fifth division in .the forest on a line with the 



400 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

north point of Gross Bechen See, the division deployed north 
of the main road, sending one battalion south of the road, 
but on account of a flank attack of the tenth Blue infantry 
brigade it was compelled to retreat and to withdraw from the 
beech forest. The Blue did not pursue beyond the eastern 
edge of the forest. The ninth infantry division was then 
re-formed immediately to the left of the center Red tenth 
infantry division, leaving one regiment of infantry behind to 
observe the Blue. In the meantime the Red infantry regi- 
ment sent between the two Bechen lakes had met at the 
western edge of the beech forest the ninth Blue infantry 
brigade of the fifth division ; a fight here developed which 
prevented the ninth infantry brigade from assisting the sixth 
Blue infantry division. This success of the Red infantry 
regiment (Grenadier regiment, King William I, No. 7) proved 
to be remarkable and out of all proportion to the number of 
troops engaged. 

The Red detachment of all arms of the ninth infantry 
division which had advanced against Gross Kirschbaum also 
succeeded in pressing back the Blue detachment which occu- 
pied the narrows ; it then established connection with Red 
infantry regiment No. 7 in the beech forest. 

On the right wing of the Red army the forty-first infantry 
division reached the line Weissensee-Klischt at 7.30 a. m. and 
engaged parts of the first guard infantry division, which stood 
with its infantry east and south of the Zauche and its artillery 
southwest of Grunzig, the second guard infantry brigade 
holding Weissensee. The Red artillery was in action with the 
Blue guard artillery when Red received a report at 8.30 a. m. 
that Blue was advancing against Tempel. In order to meet 
this the commander of the forty-first Red infantry division 
ordered the eighth brigade to advance against Grunzig. As 
the first guard infantry division had drawn off the Red nine- 
teenth infantry brigade from the attack against the Blue 
sixth infantry division north of Tempel, and as it was also 
opposed by the Red forty-first infantry division, it became 
impossible for it to advance in a southern direction to the 
assistance of the sixth infantry division. It, however, held 
its position until the forty-first infantry division withdrew to 
Tempel. The Blue fifth and sixth infantry divisions retreated, 
pursued by the ninth and tenth infantry divisions. 



MANEUVERS. 401 

As a result of the operations of the day the umpires awarded 
a victory to Red. 

The two cavalry divisions were not engaged in the battle. 
The Red cavalry division was preparing to attack the Blue 
cavalry division near Grunzig, when it was supposed to have 
received an order to establish connection with the supposed 
sixth army corps advancing toward Krossen. In reality it 
was transferred to the Blue side, where it was united with 
cavalry division "A" into a Blue cavalry corps commanded 
for the remaining two maneuver days by the Emperor in 
person. To meet the requirements of the situation a second 
Blue cavalry division was supposed to have arrived by Lands- 
berg on the Warthe. 

The Emperor bivouacked with the Blue cavalry corps for 
the night north of Weissensee. The Blue commander ad- 
vanced a regiment of infantry of the first guard infantry 
division to Grunzig to maintain connection with the cavalry 
corps. 

SEPTEMBER 11. 

Early the morning of September 11 the Red commander 
formed his corps for battle, the forty-first infantry division 
northwest of Tempel, the tenth northeast of Grochow, and 
the ninth immediately to the west of and near Grochow. 
His right flank was covered by a regiment of dragoons rein- 
forced by two squadrons of mounted orderlies. 

The balloon of the Blue commander rose at 6 a. m. near 
Posersfelde, and at 7 a. m. the Blue army stood ready behind 
its outposts. The fifth infantry division, with one infantry 
brigade and one battalion of artillery on the high road east 
of See Vorwerk, and with one infantry brigade and the 
remainder of its artillery immediately west of Gehauenstein. 
The sixth infantry division northwest of Posersfelde, and the 
first guard infantry division near Neudorf, with one regiment 
of infantry near Grunzig. 

The Emperor, who had spent the night with the cavalry 
corps in a tent with a small attendance, stood with his corps 
at 7 a. m. south of Grunzig. 

Blue advanced for attack, the fifth infantry division against 
Schermeisel-Grochow, the sixth against Grochow, the first 
guard infantry division through Neudorf against Tempel. 
In connection with the attack of the latter division, the 



402 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Emperor moved the cavalry corps from the environs of 
Kurzig against the right flank and back of Red. 

The Blue commander having discovered that a Red divi- 
sion was deploying west of Tempel and two others north of 
Grochow-Schermeisel, ordered the sixth infantry division to 
make a delaying fight against the two latter divisions until 
an attack of the fifth infantry division against the left wing 
of Red should become effective. 

The ninth infantry division on the left wing of Red first 
deployed one regiment of infantry as far as Siebenruthen and 
one battalion of sharpshooters to near Schermeisel, with its 
artillery immediately behind these. As Blue only advanced 
faintly from the forest of Zielenzig, the commander of the 
ninth Red infantry division decided to order the remainder 
of his division to attack north of Schermeisel. With this 
view he deployed the eighteenth infantry brigade at 7.25 
a. m. north of Siebenruthen and beyond the road of Grochow- 
Gleissen, connecting with the tenth infantry division. The 
entire artillery of the ninth infantry division, with the 
exception of two batteries which remained near Grochow, 
was now deployed on the height between Schmact and 
Siebenruthen. 

The sixth Blue infantry division engaged the ninth infantry 
division in the line of Hemm-Berg-Poserfelde, the fronts 
extending as far as the road Gleissen-Nendorf, where a 
dragoon regiment covered the Blue flank. The Blue bat- 
talions at Hemm hill were at first compelled to retreat. The 
Blue tenth infantry brigade of the fifth division coming to 
their assistance, Red was pressed back from Hemm hill, and 
Blue advanced to the eastern edge of the forest. Blue now 
assembled artillery on the heights southeast of Gleissen and 
at 7.40 a. m. eighteen batteries were firing from this position. 
At 8.10 a. m. one battalion of this artillery was advanced to 
north of Posersf elde. From there it entered into a duel with 
a battalion of Red artillery located on the heights north of 
Schmacht, the Blue battalion suffering heavy losses from the 
superior fire of the Red battalion. The Red forces near 
Schmacht began to fall back at 8.30 a. m., in which retreat the 
entire ninth infantry division gradually participated. The 
advance of the Blue fifth infantry division on the main road 
east of Schermeisel made itself felt, the Blue sixth infantry 
division cooperating in this advance along its entire front. 



MANEUVERS. 403 

A general retreat of the left wing of Red, the ninth and tenth 
infantry divisions, was now begun, although up to this time 
only weak forces of the tenth infantry division had been 
engaged. 

The forty -first infantry division had gone into position east 
of the Panikel brook on the edge of a hill extending to 
Tempel, with its infantry in front and its artillery in rear. 
While taking up this position it was under the fire of all of 
the artillery of the first guard infantry division, which was 
in position between Grunzig and Neudorf . This deployment 
took place about 7.30 a. m., and as the Red artillery moving 
into position offered a fine target, it must have suffered 
severely, although it was somewhat over 4,000 yards distant. 

The infantry of the guard division from the environs north 
of Neudorf was in readiness on both sides of Panikel brook, 
and attacked at 7.40 a. m., one regiment on the left wing 
advancing toward the northern outlet of Tempel, while the 
right flank was secured by a regiment of cavalry. The 
advance of the guard infantry was made along part of its 
line by creeping and along part by rushes; its artillery 
advanced by echelons upon the heights west of Klischt in 
order to prepare the assault for its infantry. All disposable 
troops of the forty-first infantry division had entered the 
fight, and its commander had sent in his last reserve. The 
Red commander now received information of the advance of 
a Blue cavalry corps against his right flank, the horse artil- 
lery and machine guns of which had opened up an energetic 
enfilading fire from the heights east of Tempel. The Red 
commander now (shortly after 8 o'clock a. m.) put in march 
reenforcements from his center to strengthen his right wing. 
These at first consisted of one regiment of infantry and a 
battalion of field howitzers ; later a second regiment of infan- 
try was ordered. When these reenforcements had crossed 
Panikel brook, the forty-first infantry division was already 
in rapid retreat before an assault of the first guard infantry 
division, covered by rapid artillery fire from all of its bat- 
teries. While in a disordered retreat it was attacked in flank 
and rear by the Blue cavalry corps led by the Emperor, the 
corps charging mounted with the lance. The guests of the 
occasion, whom the Emperor had invited from the United 
States, Major Generals Corbin and Young, and Brigadier 
General Wood, with their aids, rode with the Emperor 



404 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

during this charge, and notwithstanding the flat seats of their 
German army saddles, were evidently at home and thoroughly 
enjoyed this very exciting and brilliant charge. 

The reenforcements mentioned above from the tenth infan- 
try division were now also attacked and defeated. 

The Emperor had at 7 a. m. assembled from their bivouacs 
60 squadrons of cavalry, 4 batteries of horse artillery, 4 
machine-gun batteries, and 1 bicycle company south of Grun- 
zig, his command being covered by the heights of Die Zauche 
and the neighboring southern forests. The bicycle company 
first advanced to the forest edge and secured the assembling 
position. When the Emperor learned of the advance of 
the first guard infantry division near Neudorf he advanced 
his corps in a southerly direction, covered by the heights 
east of Tempel, and crossed the railroad H miles east of 
Tempel. The horse and machine-gun batteries went into 
position on the heights east of the station of Tempel and 
opened fire at about 8 a. m. against the flank of the forty- 
first infantry division. A pioneer company which had 
occupied Tempel was forced to retire. Red cavalry now 
appeared in front across the railroad ; the life hussar brigade 
marching at the head of the cavalry corps deployed against 
it, when it retreated south of Tempel toward the forest. At 
about 8.30 a. m. the cavalry corps stood facing west, east of 
Tempel between the railroad and highroad, division A on the 
right and division B on the left, both divisions in brigade 
columns. When soon afterwards the first guard infantry 
division advanced for assault, and the retreat of the forty- 
first infantry division was observed, the Emperor deployed 
the corps for attack, advancing it in several lines in a north- 
westerly direction. Division A met principally the retreat- 
ing infantry of the forty-first infantry division ; division B 
met the reenforcements from the tenth infantry division, and 
put the battalion of field howitzers accompanying it out of 
fight at the edge of the forest north of the railroad. The 
third line of division B carried the attack as far as the Pan- 
ikel brook. Against the left flank of division B a counter 
shock had been made from a southerly direction by dragoons, 
which attack was met and defeated by the ninth cavalry bri- 
gade. The main charge of the cavalry corps extended over 
two miles ; it passed from the right flank entirely through 
the length of the disordered forty-first infantry division to 



MANEUVERS. 405 

beyond its left flank and well into the tenth infantry divi- 
sion, both divisions being rolled up, as it were. The infan- 
try, as it was charged, fixed bayonets and assembled hastily, 
as best they could, in detachments to ward off the lances of 
the passing cavalrymen. The forty-first infantry division 
was adjudged to be practically hors de combat and the 
tenth infantry division to have suffered heavy losses. 

The Red commander intended to assemble his corps behind 
the line Pieske-Hochwalde. With this view he ordered the 
forty-first infantry division to retreat from Tempel to Pieske, 
the tenth infantry division by Tempels M. in the same 
direction, and the ninth to Langenpfuhl. The retreating 
north wing of Red was fired upon by the artillery of the first 
guard infantry division and the cavalry corps, also by the 
machine-gun batteries from the heights west of Tempel. 
The cavalry corps withdrew behind the left wing of the first 
guard infantry division. 

On the right wing of Blue the ninth infantry brigade of the 
fifth division took up the pursuit on the highroad Schermeisel- 
Langenpfuhl, its artillery firing into the retreating ninth 
infantry division until it found cover in the beech forest. 
The tenth brigade of the fifth infantry division advanced by 
Grochow and connected with the ninth. The sixth infantry 
division followed by Grochow and connected with the first 
guard infantry division ; it then followed in the direction of 
Seeren-Pieske. The pursuit was not continued beyond the 
line Schonau-Langenpfuhl-Pieske. 

The Empress, mounted on horseback, and accompanied by 
a maid of honor, the Crown Prince, and an escort, arrived at 
7 a. m. on the "commander's hill," where the Emperor had 
the preceding day viewed the maneuver. Here she was 
received by Field Marshal Prince Alfrrecht, who was acting 
chief umpire. Later she was greeted by the Emperor after 
the cavalry charge. 

SEPTEMBER 13. 

It may be remarked that at all German maneuvers it is 
customary to restore to action within a short time all parts of 
troops that have been put out of action by the umpires, in 
order that all of the organizations engaged may have, as far 
as possible, uninterrupted practice during the time allotted 
for the maneuvers. The morning of the 12th of September, 



406 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

therefore, found all the divisions of the two armies restored 
to full strength. 

The following supposition was authorized : 

"The Blue cavalry corps was reinforced during the night 
of September 11 by two batteries of horse artillery which 
arrived by Landsberg on the Warthe." 

To better carry into effect this supposition the horse artil- 
lery of the cavalry corps was reorganized into six batteries 
of four guns each, and each battery was supposed to have 
six guns. 

The Red commander decided to hold the heights near Kalau 
and to the west of it until reinforced by the sixth Red corps, 
which was supposed to have crossed the Oder during the 
night of the 11th. 

The forty-first infantry division was held in readiness near 
Kalau, the tenth infantry division north of Neuhofchen, the 
ninth infantry division near Paradies. Early the morning 
of the 12th the Red commander discovered that the Blue 
sixth infantry division was entering the forest of Kainschter 
from Seeren, and that the fifth infantry division had assem- 
bled near Schonau. He thereupon ordered the forty-first 
infantry division, reinforced by most of the artillery of the 
ninth infantry division, to take a position between the high- 
road north of Kalau and the road of Kalau-Hochwalde ; this 
position extended from height 105 to height 121 ; the tenth 
infantry division to hold the section between the left of the 
forty-first infantry division to the south as far as the Packlitz 
See. Shelter trenches and gun pits were dug throughout the 
entire length of these two positions. 

The ninth infantry division was ordered to march by 
Schindelmuhl into the Kalauer forest, to be held in readiness 
for offensive action in the direction of Kainscht. This divi- 
sion left back as reserves, at the disposition of the Red com- 
mander, one infantry regiment near Kalau, and one regiment 
and one battalion of field artillery between Elisenthal and 
Neuhofchen. 

The divisional cavalry of the forty-first infantry division 
(one regiment) made a reconnoissance against Kainscht, while 
the divisional cavalry of the ninth infantry division (one 
regiment), reinforced by two squadrons of mounted orderlies, 
advanced through Liebenau and scouted in the direction of 
Seeren-Schonau. 



MANEUVERS. 407 

The Blue commander resolved to take the offensive and 
advanced the fifth infantry division against Starpel-Neu M., 
while he attacked with the sixth and first guard infantry 
divisions from the line Hochwalde-Kainscht-Nipter. This 
attack was prepared by the artillery in position on the heights 
south of Seeren and on the Rtfssen Bergen, the sixth infantry 
division sending for this purpose one regiment of artillery to 
reinforce the first guard artillery ; it also sent directly after- 
wards one regiment to reinforce the artillery of the fifth 
infantry division. 

Blue covered its right flank with the divisional cavalry of 
the fifth and sixth infantry divisions and one battery of field 
artillery. This brigade, which was designated as the fifth 
cavalry brigade, advanced to Liebenau and from there oper- 
ated against the rear of the Red army, reenforcing the Blue 
cavalry corps under the Emperor during its charge. 

Flying reconnoitering detachments of Blue were also sent 
as far as the road Starpel-Liebenau and the road Liebenau- 
Selchow. 

The cavalry corps advanced to the environs southeast of 
Meseritz in order to cooperate on the left Blue wing if desired. 

During the night Blue constructed a bridge across the Obra 
above Meseritz. 

The Blue army advanced at 7 a. m. At 9 a. m. one bri- 
gade of the fifth division had reached Neu M. and one Star- 
pel. At this time a Red brigade of the tenth infantry 
division reinforced by two battalions had advanced to the 
line Burschen-Kessel See and had forced the extreme right 
of Blue, which had advanced against Neu M. to retreat. At 
8.30 a. m. 18 Blue batteries had been assembled on the heights 
south of Seeren and engaged in an artillery duel with 21 Red 
batteries on the heights east of Burschen-Hochwalde ; the 
batteries on the extreme right of the Red artillery position 
also directed their fire against the sixth infantry division 
advancing from the forest north of Hochwalde. This divi- 
sion (the sixth), which advanced by Seeren, had reached, 
as early as 7.45 a. m., the section northeast of Hochwalde, 
where under cover of the forest it deployed in two lines for 
attack. It advanced in the direction of the Drei Herrscher 
Berg (the three sovereigns' hills), and as it did so constantly 
increased the density of its firing line. At about 9.45 a. m. 
it reached the heights situated between the two roads from 



408 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Kalau to Hochwalde, on which heights Blue later placed in 
position one regiment and one battalion of field artillery. 
Opposing this attack of the sixth infantry division, Red had 
drawn up at first one and a half regiments of infantry of the 
tenth infantry division on the heights, which sloped rather 
steeply to the front toward Hochwalde and Burschen; behind 
these Red posted nine batteries of artillery. The remainder 
of the tenth infantry division was principally engaged with 
the fifth infantry division near Starpel. To the right of the 
tenth infantry division, Red had in position a brigade of the 
forty-first infarftry division on the heights between the two 
roads from Kalau to Hochwalde, with a reserve of two bat- 
talions at Kalau. The thirteen battalions of the sixth in- 
fantry division were directly opposed to nine and one-half 
battalions of Red. The remaining brigade of the forty-first 
infantry division (the eighth) was drawn up on both sides of 
the highroad from Kalau to Meseritz ; in rear of it, west of 
the road, the field artillery of the forty-first infantry division 
was in position. The fight here opened by ah artillery duel 
between the divisional artillery of the forty-first infantry 
division and twenty Blue batteries of the first guard and 
sixth infantry divisions in position on the Russen Berg. The 
extreme right wing of Red was formed by the ninth infantry 
division in the Kalauer forest. This division had marched 
with ten battalions and three batteries from Paradies (Para- 
dise) through Schindelmuhl-Hammer M. ; it had left at each 
of the two Packlitz (Jordan) River crossings one company of 
infantry, and arrived at 7 a. m. in the neighborhood of the 
western forest edge halfway between Kalau and Nipter, 
where the division closed up. At about 8.30 a. m. hostile 
Blue skirmishers of the first guard infantry division appeared 
south of Nipter east of the highroad. 

The first guard infantry division marched at 6 o'clock a. m. 
one brigade (the second guard infantry brigade) from Pieske 
through the Kainscht forest to Kainscht, and one brigade 
(the first) from Kurzig by Muhlen Vw. Kainscht to Nipter. 
Its divisional cavalry was at 7. a. m. south of Kainscht; it 
then reconnoitered in the direction Hochwalde-Paradies. 

The commander of the first guard infantry division having 
discovered the Red infantry of the ninth infantry division in 
the Kalauer forest, and desiring to secure the narrows near 
Hammer M. and Schindelmuhl for the use of the Blue cavalry 



MANEUVERS. 409 

corps, ordered the first guard infantry brigade to advance 
from Nipter to Hammer M. and the second guard infantry 
brigade to follow, this with the view of attacking later on 
east of Kalau. The right flank of the division was covered 
during the advance by a battalion of infantry which marched 
east of the highroad to Kalau. The first guard brigade sur- 
prised part of the ninth infantry division in the Kalauer 
forest, compelling it to retreat. The second guard brigade 
also entered into the fight east of the highroad to Kalau, and 
pressed back the Red troops in its front. Red had drawn 
over to the east side of the road all available infantry, but 
was unable to withstand the advance of the first guard infan- 
try division until near the edge of Kalau, where it succeeded 
in temporarily checking it. 

The ninth infantry division was only able to keep with 
much difficulty slight touch with the forty-first infantry 
division, as the former was driven farther back into the forest. 

The first guard infantry division made itself felt on the 
right wing of Red, and as it advanced to the western edge of 
the Kalauer forest it more and more threatened the east flank 
of the forty-first infantry division near Kalau; the latter 
division was compelled to send back to Kalau its last reserve, 
although it was hard pressed at the time by the sixth infantry 
division. 

Blue gradually advanced in the center. The Red tenth 
infantry division was unable in the absence of reinforcements 
to withstand the attack of the sixth infantry division, which 
attack was supported by heavy artillery fire. 

The Red commander decided to retire from his position at 
10.10 a. m. He ordered the forty-first infantry division to 
retreat in the direction of Schindelmuhl, its artillery to take a 
covering position near Neuhofchen. The tenth infantry 
division to maintain itself as long as possible, but if pressed 
back to retreat to Neuhofchen. 

On the left wing of Red the tenth infantry division had 
gained at the beginning an advantage over the fifth infantry 
division. But Blue advanced artillery beyond Starpel at 
10.15 and the Red artillery being in the forest and on unfavor- 
able ground could not reply with effect; the left wing of Red 
was thus compelled to retreat in the direction of Elisenthal, 
where part of it made a stand to further cover its retreat. 

The situation had become very unfavorable to Red, the 
general retreat now under way was being pressed by the Blue 



410 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

infantry and artillery with great vigor in front when strong 
forces of Blue cavalry appeared near Jordan-Paradies and 
threatened the rear. The Red commander had already at 
9 o'clock received a report to the effect that large masses of 
Blue cavalry were advancing from the direction of Bauch- 
witz. This was the cavalry corps under the command of the 
Emperor. 

This corps left its bivouacs near Weissensee at 4.45 a. m. 
and advanced through Meseritz. It was checked for a short 
time near Heide M. by Red bicyclists; these being driven off, 
the corps proceeded through Wischen. When east of the 
Packlitz river section one regiment and the Blue bicycle com- 
pany were detached to make feints against the crossings of 
the Packlitz near Hammer M. and Schindelmuhl, while the 
Emperor proceeded with his corps through Altenhof. The 
forests and hills favored his advance from Altenhof, and 
taking advantage of the cover afforded by these, he skillfully 
placed his command at 10 a. m., unobserved by Red, in a 
concealed position immediately behind the top of the ridge 
Annas Hoche, north of Paradies. Division A was drawn up 
to the east and division B to the west of the highroad Kalau- 
Paradies. The 6 batteries of horse artillery and the machine 
guns found favorable positions and opened fire from Annas 
Hoche at 10.15 against the parts of the ninth and forty-first 
infantry divisions retreating east of the highroad. These 
were at 10.30 a. m. attacked by the brigade of cavalry which 
stood on the right of the cavalry corps, this attack being 
quickly followed by that of the entire corps, which rolled up 
the Red wing from its right flank and rear. The cavalry 
charge was also covered by the Blue infantry and artillery of 
the main line, which fired into the Red to the front and rear 
of the passing cavalry. A noticeable feature of the charge 
was that the cavalry did not halt upon reaching the infantry, 
but continued along the full length of that part of the hostile 
infantry and artillery lines east of the highroad ; crossing the 
road, the charge turned to the left, passing along the left 
wing of the forty-first infantry division ; the cavalry corps 
was here joined by the Blue divisional cavalry, the fifth cav- 
alry brigade, which had early in the morning been sent to 
reconnoiter in the direction of Schonau-Liebenau and to the 
rear of Red, and which at this time had reached Jordan. 
The cavalry then continued along the lines of the tenth 



MANEUVERS. 411 

infantry division adjoining the forty-first. The charge was 
made over a distance of three miles, the ground in places 
being soft on account of recent cultivation. Generals Corbin, 
Young, and Wood, with their aids, rode with the Emperor 
during this charge. The intermingling of the Blue cavalry 
with the Red infantry and artillery retreating in deep dis- 
ordered lines, and the hasty assembling of Red in bunches 
or squares for protection, gave much life and zest to this ride, 
remarkable for its endurance after the long detouring to the 
east and south. The charge ended at the environs of Eisen- 
then without a serious accident to man or horse of either 
side. The demands upon the capacity of the cavalry were 
extraordinarily high, and the leading of this great mass of 
riders from start to finish was superb. 

This attack of the cavalry corps under the emperor has 
given rise to a discussion in the press as to whether it would 
have been advisable in war. As to this it may be well to con- 
sider that the prevailing tactical conditions assumed such a 
form as to extraordinarily favor a mass attack of mounted 
men. The ground permitted the cavalry to approach and to 
form under cover, its horse artillery and machine guns to go 
into action, and the charge to be well under way before even 
being fired at. The objective troops were undergoing a crush- 
ing defeat from infantry and artillery in their front. It was 
also desired not to allow the opportunity to be lost to practice 
the cavalry as a corps in all that pertains to the raid, the 
approach, and the charge. 

The victory for the day was awarded to the Blue; the Red 
forty-first infantry division and the greater part of the tenth 
having been decided hors de combat. 

When the distinguished personages present and the high 
officers of both armies had assembled on the commander's hill 
to bid adieu to their host and to hear the critique, the emperor 
on this occasion bade good-bye to his heartily welcomed guests 
from the United States, all being mounted on horseback at 
the time. 

REMARKS. 

As the government owns the railroads of Germany it is 
generally cheaper to transfer troops by rail than to march 
them through the country. 

All the infantry, excepting one battalion, which had but a 
short distance to march, was transported from the maneuver 



412 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

ground by rail to the garrisons. The cavalry and artillery 
marched, and it is reported that their horses arrived in better 
condition than when they left their posts. 

The various staffs, including the regimental staffs, the 
technical troops, and the guards attached to the emperor's 
headquarters were also transported by rail. 

Altogether there were 2,049 officers, 50,458 enlisted men, 
2,614 horses, and 147 vehicles returned by rail. Sixty-three 
battalions were started by train the afternoon and night of 
the last maneuver day, September 12, they being provided 
with a good meal just before leaving. Seventeen battalions, 
the technical troops, etc., started the 13th. For transporta- 
tion 48 special trains were used; 9 were loaded at Wutsch- 
dorf, 8 at Stentsch, 16 at Schwiebus, 11 at Meseritz, and 4 at 
Durlettel. In order to expedite the entrainment, temporary 
platforms, electric lights, ramps, etc., were provided at all 
these stations. 

The transfer was made in accordance with a prearranged 
plan. Officers of the railroad division of the great general 
staff were detailed to arrange with the regular railroad offi- 
cials the details; they were also ordered, together with detach- 
ments of railroad troops, to the support and assistance of the 
traffic officials until after the troops arrived at their garrisons. 

The transfer of the troops was effected without interference 
with the regular passenger trains, and with but slight inter- 
ruptions of the regular freight trains. 

The cavalry and artillery that marched from the maneuvers 
to their garrisons sent the men who had but a few days to 
serve on by rail in order that they might be back in their 
garrisons at the expiration of their term of service. Nearly 
one-half of the enlisted force of the army was discharged in 
September, the term of service of the infantry being two 
years, the one-year volunteers one year, and the remainder 
of the army three years. All recruits report about the first 
of October. There is great economy in this, as the young 
men who enter the army are thus enabled to receive the 
greatest amount of training and experience in the time allotted 
for their service. 

Some of the cavalry troops were exercised in connection 
with the maneuvers for about two months. The " Skull" 
brigade, composed of the first and second hussars, less the 
fourth squadron of the first hussars, which remained in 



MANEUVERS. 413 

garrison on account of sickness among its horses, marched for 
the maneuvers from Danzig August 2 and returned to its 
station October 2. Some of the other regiments were also 
engaged in the exercises for equally long periods. 

The ground was equally favorable for the operations of all 
arms, and being hilly and frequently interspersed with large 
and small forests, permitted the attackers from the very out- 
set to easily deploy heavy firing lines, and favored the going 
into action of large artillery organizations. 

Forest fights were numerous on the 10th and 12th of Sep- 
tember, the most extensive and important occurring on the 
12th. For these both sides employed "jage kommandoes" 
(hunting detachments). These reconnoitered far in advance, 
often taking the place of reserves for infantry and cavalry 
patrols, occupying outlets of forests and defending lake nar- 
rows and bridges. 

Bicyclists were also employed for reconnoitering and patrol 
duty, the weather being particularly favorable to their use. 
In fact the ground was in such good condition that the 
pioneers attached to the cavalry division could no doubt have 
used bicycles with advantage. 

The highest bicycle record for twenty-four hours was made 
by an officer on patrol traveling 165 miles. 

SANITARY MEASURES. 

In order to reduce the number of men likely to be disabled 
on account of sickness to the lowest possible number, the 
surgeons of the troops were required to recommend the sick, 
the naturally weak, and those belonging to the various organ- 
izations who had recently passed through diseases to be left 
back in the garrisons as guards. In the same manner the 
men called out from the reserves were accepted for the 
maneuvers only after a careful surgical examination. 

Steps were taken to guard against any infection from con- 
tagious diseases. The war ministry issued, August 1, a decree 
calling attention to the fact that generally every year during 
or shortly after the maneuvers there have appeared contagious 
diseases in the army, notably abdominal troubles, dysentery, 
etc., which in most cases was decided to have been introduced 
from the civil population. This danger of contagion was 
ordered to be met by all possible means of precaution, as 
when the troops were attacked in maneuvers they often 



414 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

brought the disease hack into the regular garrisons. All men 
were ordered to stay away from places and houses where such 
diseases had existed. The local civil authorities and the 
police caused every case of disease of a contagious character 
in the entire maneuver region to he reported. Notices of the 
same were then posted on signboards. 

CAVALRY. 

In all formations the horses of the rear rank followed in 
the intervals to the right or left of the horses of the front 
rank, instead of the croups of the horses in front ; in columns 
of fours, twos, etc., the horses likewise followed in the 
intervals. 

The carbine is carried in a boot attached to the offside of 
the saddle cantle; it hangs nearly vertical. The saber is 
attached to the near side of the cantle. The kit is carried in 
the pommel pouches; the grain sack and overcoat are 
strapped in rear of the saddle. Part of the ammunition is 
carried in a cartridge box slung on the shoulder belt so as to 
rest on the back, and part in the saddle pouches. 

As cavalry in line loses much of its maneuvering power, 
the column formations were generally retained as long 
as possible, they being quickly changed into the attack 
formation at the right moment. The changes were effected 
only when the direction of the attack had been decided upon 
and the ground upon which it was to be made reached, or 
when hostile artillery fire necessitated the formation. In 
fighting on foot when it was desired to have the led horses 
mobile, only the odd numbers dismounted, the even numbers 
holding the horses and the lances of the dismounted men. 
When the horses were to be stationary, they were linked, the 
horse holders in this case being the right and left flank file of 
each rank of the platoons, with a noncommissioned officer 
with each platoon. The officers' horses were held by trump- 
eters. When fighting on foot with horses stationary, the 
dismounted men stuck their lances in the ground or laid 
them down clear of the horses. There was no extensive use 
made of cavalry fighting on foot this year, as at the maneuvers 
last year at Czechlau, where a Red dismounted cavalry 
division successfully engaged the entire hostile tenth infantry 
division and immediately afterwards defeated a mounted 
cavalry division of superior numbers. The successful use of 



MANEUVERS. 415 

masses of mounted cavalry in shock action, illustrated by 
the charges made by the cavalry corps under the command 
of the emperor the 11th and 12th of September of this year, 
are of the greatest importance. 

The favorable decisions rendered by the distinguished 
generals acting as umpires prove as clearly as can be proven 
without actual hostile contact, that when cavalry under the 
cover of its horse artillery and machine guns is thrown against 
defeated and hard-pressed infantry the advantages of victory 
niay be secured to the fullest extent. 

The Germans decidedly accept the principle that cavalry 
attacks against shaken infantry can be of great, even decisive, 
effect when made with nerve and ably led. It is regarded 
that the attacks of the Boers at Brakenlaagte and Tweebosch 
recently confirmed the principle under modern conditions. 
That these attacks prove that, although when riders have no 
tactical training, and when the force of their attack may be 
disadvantageously influenced by the absence of lance and 
saber, much can be gained by initiative and timely resolution, 
even when the outside circumstances tend more to hinder 
than to aid success. 

ARTILLERY. 

The field batteries of the guard corps and those batteries 
having regular station near the Russian frontier all had six 
guns each; the remaining batteries four guns. 

In their field artillery the Germans still adhere to the pre- 
cept that in war only the simple things promise success. 
Their guns were all without barrel-recoil checks and without 
protective shields. They possess great mobility ; their bal- 
listic power is also excellent. The guns, carriages, and har- 
ness, with its rope traces, are all light, the horses of a battery 
appearing at a short distance as if stripped for a race. 

A battery of six guns is able to deliver 50 directed shots 
per minute. 

The artillery as a rule opened the various fights and en- 
deavored to gain advantage by bringing as many guns as 
possible into action. Two or more batteries were generally 
combined, their isolated action being exceptional. The guns 
were used generally at ranges beyond the effective fire of 
infantry, and the latter seemed never to be without the sup- 
port of artillery. The artillery seldom had a special escort; 



416 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

if they were endangered the nearest troops assisted them. 
Batteries once in action were not relieved, but were sup- 
ported by the advance of fresh batteries. Under fire, the 
personnel of the batteries took, when practicable, the kneel- 
ing position. The interval between guns was generally about 
10 paces. The pace employed in going into action depended 
upon the object, the situation, and the ground. The guns 
were sometimes unlimbered under cover and run up to the 
firing position by hand. The firing was generally directed 
upon that part of the enemy playing the decisive role. As 
every change of position interrupted the fire effect, as few 
changes as possible were made. 

MACHINE GUNS. 

Germany has made long and thorough trials with machine 
guns for field service. Among the numerous systems tested, 
the Maxim, Hotchkiss, and Skoda proved to be the best. Of 
the three the Maxim, a recoil loader, was found to be the 
fittest and was adopted. It has since been gradually im- 
proved and developed. The Maxim system was also adopted 
by Russia, England, and Switzerland. Austria uses it ex- 
cepting in the fortresses and the navy, which have the Skoda, 
a similar gun, the cartridge feed being different. 

The machine gun first participated in the kaiser maneu- 
vers in 1899, the batteries then being in their experimental 
stage. Five permanent batteries were provided for in the 
budget of 1901, and seven additional ones in the budget 
of 1902. There is, besides, one battery with the first 
Bavarian army corps, provided for in the Bavarian budget. 
It is expected that this number will be gradually increased. 
There is no service handbook published giving a technical 
description of the German machine gun similar to the hand- 
book for the German infantry rifle and cavalry carbine, 
models of 1898. It is doubtful if such a handbook will ap- 
pear, as up to the present there has been no service descrip- 
tion published of the German field guns, models 1896 and 
1898. The greatest difficulty to overcome, in order to render 
the batteries serviceable, was found to be the carriage. It 
was necessary that the gun should have the mobility of 
mounted troops ; should offer in battle no greater target than 
does the infantryman in his different firing positions ; that it 
should be able to be taken everywhere a footman equipped 



MANEUVERS. 417 

for war was able to go. To secure good firing results a rigid 
frame had to be found. To further improve the firing,, the 
batteries have been usually attached to sharpshooter bat- 
talions or infantry troops where skilled marksmen were to 
be found. The batteries, however, at the maneuvers were 
habitually placed under the direct orders of the higher lead- 
ers, who used them to assist or oppose any one or all of the' 
three arms. 

In order to accompany mounted troops, the rifle, ammuni- 
tion, and men are all conveyed on carriages or on horseback. 
In Switzerland, Maxims are transported on horses, and the 
mitrailleur companies are mounted and attached to cavalry 
brigades. For German terrain wheeling is more practicable, 
as it offers a much greater readiness for fire. No unpacking 
and packing up is necessary, and the guns are thus relieved 
of the awkwardness of mountain artillery. Firing from the 
carriages, however, was only exceptional, occurring notably 
in cases of sudden cavalry fights and in surprises. In the 
majority of cases for action the gun with its firing frame 
was taken off the carriage and placed on the ground. The 
firing frame, which is also called the gun sled, permits the 
piece to be fired at different heights above the ground, so 
that the gun may be operated by the gunners in the lying, 
sitting, or kneeling position. The target offered to the 
adversary corresponded to the different firing positions of 
infantry. The rifle as such and its operators could not be 
distinguished from infantry, at a few hundred yards, by the 
naked eye, as would likely be the case in those armies using 
the rifle on a tripod. The sled with rifle was generally 
pulled over the ground by two men, but was sometimes car- 
ried and sometimes drawn by a noncommissioned officer's 
horse or by a draft horse. When firing without removing 
the sled from the carriage, the gun was made ready to firo 
within ten to fifteen seconds' time. The position of the gun- 
ners in this case corresponded to infantry firing erect. The 
guns may also be placed on the caissons and fired. The 
ammunition consisted of the ordinary rifle cartridge, placed 
in belts, each containing 250 cartridges, which were carried 
in narrow cartridge boxes, each holding one rolled-up bolt. 
Six of these boxes were stored in one ammunition sled, and 
the sleds were stored in the limber chests. The ammunition 
sleds are simply open boxes, arrauged with runners in such a 

S29 27 



418 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

m inner as to beusedas sleds; they are similar to the gun 
sleds. Cartridge boxes were also carried in the axle chests 
for use when firing from the carriage. 

The battery of six machine guns as now established con- 
sists of 1 captain, 3 lieutenants, 1 first sergeant, 1 vice first 
sergeant, 2 sergeants, 8 noncommissioned officers, 1 trump- 
eter, 1 noncommissioned officer aspirant, 7 lance corporals, 
1 armorer, 1 sanitary noncommissioned officer, 54 privates, 
36 draft horses, 18 riding horses, 6 machine guns, 3 ammuni- 
tion caissons, 1 supply wagon, 1 baggage wagon, and 1 forage 
wagon. The guns are organized into three sections of two 
guns each. The caissons and the supply wagon form the 
ammunition train. The guns and the ammunition train 
together constitute the fighting battery. The other three 
wagons form the baggage train. The guns, caissons, and the 
supply wagon have four horses each, the other wagons two 
horses. For each gun there is a chief gunner, who is a non- 
commissioned officer, and four privates, designated as Nos. 1 
to 4. Nos. 2 and 3 operated and aimed the gun, Nos. 1 and 
4 unlimbered and attended to the ammunition. Nos. 1 and 4 
also drew the ammunition sled when necessary, while 2 and 
3 drew the gun sled. The chief gunner was mounted on 
horseback, Nos. 2 and 3 rode on the axle boxes, and 1 and 4 
on the limber boxes. The ammunition train was accompa- 
nied by the armorer, a noncommissioned officer, the sanitary 
noncommissioned officer, the reserve gunners, and the range 
finders. The range finders and the armorers, however, when 
there was any probability of an action, placed themselves on 
the gun limbers between Nos. 1 and 4. The section leaders 
were lieutenants or sergeants. The leaders of the ammunition 
train, lieutenants or sergeants. The gunners were equipped 
with carbines; mounted men, including the drivers, with 
automatic pistols. 

A battery of six guns carries in war 87,000 cartridges, 
which surpasses the cartridge equipment of two companies of 
infantry, which have 42,500 cartridges each. The fire effect 
of a machine gun is equal to that of a platoon of infantry of 
war strength, 80 men. Machine guns afford leaders an 
opportunity of developing from the smallest space the strong- 
est fire. The range of the machine gun is the same as that 
of the infantry rifle. The rapid succession of shots, the 
small dispersion of the cone of projectiles, and the placing of 



MANEUVERS. 419 

several guns on a limited space, often enables the machine- 
gun battery to obtain success quickly, and even at great dis- 
tances to be destructive against large and dense targets. As 
many shots fall on one point, the observation of the firing is 
facilitated, and on account of the firm firing frame the hitting 
capacity is greater than that of the rifle. 

The gun may be said to have two distinct parts, the recoil- 
ing and the nonrecoiling parts. To the former belong the 
barrel and its rear elongations containing the lock and con- 
necting parts. To the latter, the rifle frame and the mantle, 
which are connected with each other. The mantle is of 
bronze and surrounds the barrel, giving to the whole the 
appearance of a short cannon. It contains water to prevent 
the barrel from becoming too much heated, and which is re- 
newed from time to time. The barrel and lock in a general 
manner correspond to those of an ordinary rifle. The recoil 
gives the barrel a backward motion and is used for bending 
a spiral spring ; the power thus stored brings the lock into 
the position necessary for loading, and later it brings the 
barrel forward again after it has received a new cartridge. 
After the delivery of the first shot the gun works automatic- 
ally, producing an uninterrupted fire. The gunner during 
this fire has only to maintain the rifle in proper direction, and 
to press against two small plates on the rear surface of the 
case. The belt with the cartridges is pushed on by the mech- 
anism from one cartridge to another. One man can so operate 
the piece as to deliver 600 shots per minute; a slower rate of 
fire and also individual fire may be held. It is not absolutely 
necessary to fill the mantle with water, as the device is not 
easily affected. The mantle has in tests been penetrated by 
three bullets and still proved to be serviceable. 

The German machine-gun regulations provide for two 
kinds of fire, interrupted and uninterrupted fire. In the 
former after a successive delivery of about 25 shots an inter- 
ruption takes place in order to observe the shot results. The 
object of this fire is to find the correct sight. Inasmuch as 
shot grazes may generally be more readily observed in front 
of the target, the first sight is ordinarily taken with this 
object. The uninterrupted fire only takes place when the 
conditions require it. The target is fired at in its entire ex- 
tent, or a certain part or even point of the same may be 
selected. In the former case spreading fire is used, the piece 



420 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

as mounted providing for this in a horizontal, vertical, or in- 
clined direction ; the rapidity of spread depending upon the 
kind and distance of the target. The shot grazes are con- 
tinually observed through telescopes. In certain cases the 
observers are placed some distance on the flanks and are, as 
far as practicable, covered. They communicate their observa- 
tions to the firing troops by signs, calls, or intermediate posts. 
At long ranges, when the target can be recognized only by 
means of telescopes, points on the ground are selected and 
given to the gunners as aiming points. For night firing the 
guns are arranged and fired during the day and the proper 
elevations and directions determined for the night. Specially 
instructed men in range finding, supplied with the small 
range finder, model-1899, belong to the machine-gun batteries. 
They measure the distances to appearing targets or to suit- 
able points in the foreground, prove distances during the 
fight and determine new points for aiming. 

The machine rifle can be used on any kind of ground that 
is practicable for infantry. When detached from the carriage, 
the gunners can take both the rifle and the ammunition sleds 
on their backs and ascend with them steep slopes or ladders. 
The rifles may be placed on the flat roofs of houses or the 
houses may be occupied by them. In battle the rifles and 
gunners do not offer larger targets than infantry fighting 
under equal conditions. They are safer against losses than 
infantry, as cover scarcely sufficient for a platoon of infantry 
affords protection to a full battery. The attack of cavalry can 
be strongly met by the battery going into action either with 
their guns on or off their carriages, the fire being delivered 
undisturbed and distributed over the whole of the advancing 
riders. 

In action against artillery the latter arm has the superiority 
at long ranges, but at distances under 1,500 yards the machine 
gun has the advantage. When artillery is to be fought the 
sleds are taken as near to it as practicable and fire opened 
against a flank if possible, the rifles concentrating their fire 
upon a few guns ; spreading it over the whole opposing bat- 
tery at the same time is generally regarded as not so effective. 
Artillery in action against machine guns derives great 
advantage from the use of protective shields. 

The machine-gun battery is habitually used undivided, only 
for special purposes are the sections authorized to be used 
independently. The use of individual machine rifles is 



MANEUVERS. 421 

forbidden. The uniting of batteries is practiced only in excep- 
tional cases. The batteries are at their greatest advantage 
when full use can be made of their mobility and when they 
can go into action under cover separated from their carriages. 

The batteries are placed directly under the orders of the 
higher leaders of troops, as a full knowledge of the general 
situation, the intentions of the leader, and the phase of the 
fight is of special advantage to their proper use. They are, 
therefore, not attached to special troops or to troop parts, as 
their greatest fighting value could then be profited by only in 
exceptional cases. The battery commanders are in the closest 
practicable connection with their higher troop leaders. 

Before selecting a position a reconnoissance is made, espe- 
cially toward exposed flanks, hence the large number of 
mounted men in the battery. Care, however, is taken that 
the attention of the adversary is not prematurely called to the 
position selected. Effort is invariably made to take position 
under cover and to open fire as a surprise. In action the 
troop leader indicates the purpose and the general object of 
the fight. The battery commander selects the position, deter- 
mines the distance, indicates the targets in detail, the kind of 
fire, and orders the commencement of the same. The section 
leader indicates the target to his section, the elevation, 
superintends the operating, and is responsible for the correct 
perception of the target. The gun leader selects the most 
favorable position for the gun, sees that it is at the proper 
height, superintends the execution of all orders, and sees .that 
the center of the fire cone comes into the target. He also 
sees that the fire action of his piece is undisturbed. The men 
are not allowed to show themselves more than is required for 
a proper observation of the field of action, the operating of 
the rifle, the transportation of cartridges, and the measuring 
of distances. 

In the fight, as a rule, all vehicles are left back under 
cover. Advances ar& made by the men carrying or dragging 
the detached rifle and ammunition sleds, individual horses, 
when necessary, being used to assist. Cover is left only when 
the conditions of the fight absolutely require it. The timely 
supply of ammunition is of the highest importance. In 
action, when the leaders of the caissons have brought full 
ammunition sleds to the firing line, the empty sleds, boxes, 
and belts are taken back and filled anew. The supply of 



422 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

fresh men and material is also connected with the ammuni- 
tion supply. The cooperation of infantry ammunition col- 
umns is regulated by the superior headquarters. 

It is often of an advantage to attach machine guns to 
advance guards, and sometimes to the advanced cavalry, 
especially when the quick occupation and maintaining of 
favorable positions are in question, thus affording the bulk 
of the troops time and space for deployment. The machine 
guns are especially adapted for this work on account of their 
mobility and great fire effect. After the arrival of the 
infantry they are, if possible, taken from the firing line and 
kept ready for other use. 

When attack is to be made against a fully developed de- 
fensive position, they are held back to form in the hand of 
the higher leader a mobile reserve, which can be used for a 
rapid support of threatened points, for action against the 
wings and flanks of the enemy, .or for breaking into the 
defense at objective points. These batteries are able to fol- 
low advancing infantry in an attack. A closer approach, 
however, to the objective point than 800 yards, the range of 
their greatest fire effect, is, as a rule, faulty. In case of 
victory they participate in the pursuit by fire ; they advance 
into the captured position to support the infantry and deprive 
the enemy of filial resistance. When the attack fails they 
quickly go to the rallying position. 

In defense it must be considered that these batteries are 
not suited to a delayed fire fight. They are not given from 
the commencement of the defense a certain section to defend, 
but are kept with the reserve to strengthen the line of defense 
at threatened points, to prevent flanking operations, to repel 
assaults, and to be used for offensive movements. 

In going into position at points previously selected, cover 
is obtained, if necessary, by intrenching. In pursuit and 
retreat the batteries are at their best. When attached to 
independent cavalry they are used in the attack or defense 
of cavalry fighting on foot or on horseback. On reconnoiter- 
ing duty with cavalry they are of special use in taking and 
maintaining positions. When cavalry is advancing against 
cavalry they go into position as early as possible in order to 
support the deployment and the attack. If the action is 
successful they pursue by fire and prevent renewed resistance. 
If unsuccessful they continue in the fire position or retreat 
to a receiving position. In most cavalry engagements the 



MANEUVERS. 423 

vehicles are held near or else the guns are fired from the 
carriages. The batteries assigned to the cavalry divisions 
remain with the cavalry during a general engagement. 

Machine guns are also used with advantage for covering 
artillery in position, if other forces can not be found for this 
purpose. 

The great importance of the machine-gun battery in war is 
thus apparent. The machine gun is merely an auxiliary 
arm which, with its great fire power and mobility, assists the 
other arms in all fighting situations, including the rendering 
of quick and effectual assistance to shaken 'and distant points 
of the fighting field. It is of use to all three arms. 

Germany has favorably solved the carrying question, 
which easily places it in advance of all other continental 
nations in the benefits derived from the uses of this arm. 

INFANTRY. 

While exact and rapid maneuvering is held in high honor 
and is assiduously practiced, the infantry drill regulations, as 
well as those for the cavalry and artillery, provide for but a 
few simple evolutions. The time and labor of the troops are 
regarded as too valuable to be wasted in acquiring proficiency 
in intricate drill movements, which experience has taught are 
of no importance or use on the battlefield. A most striking 
feature of the maneuver was the few movements in the drill 
formations and in the manual of arms. The infantry, upon 
going into action, invariably sent into the fighting line only 
the men that were absolutely necessary, effort being always 
made to retain a reserve. The distance between the various 
lines was generally regulated by the object of the action and 
by the ground; as the action increased the distances were 
gradually shortened, in flat country without cover they were 
greater. In reenforcing the fighting line troops were brought 
up and mingled with those already engaged. The regiments 
assumed deep formations in order to keep the various portions 
together and to prevent intermixture with other regiments. 
No normal front was observed by the regiments in action, it 
varied with the object of the fight and with the ground. The 
brigades, as a rule, fought with their two regiments side by 
side, the fighting formation being that of the extended order. 
Independent fire, in which the men waited for the most favor- 
able moment for firing, seemed everywhere to be practiced. 



424 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Small volleys were occasionally used at the beginning of an 
action to get the range. Rapid fire was used in the last stages 
of the action, and on occasions where the enemy was met with 
suddenly at close range. The infantry almost invariably fired 
in the prone position. 

The umpires in making their decisions attached unusual 
importance to the superiority of fire. The idea generally 
prevails in Germany that the Boer war has taught that the 
fire effect alone decides the fight, and that the proper handling 
of the supports and reserves behind the firing line must more 
than ever become a studied art. The immense penetrating 
power of modern rifles and the extreme flat trajectory of pro- 
jectiles is regarded to have formed a zone within which it is 
very difficult to bring to the front reserves, ammunition, 
water, etc., if uncovered. 

TELEGRAPH TROOPS. 

While these troops are formed into special organizations of 
their own, they are, nevertheless, grouped with the railway 
and balloon units as communication troops under an inspector 
independent of the inspector general of engineers and pioneers. 

Although the telegraph troops did not fight with arms in 
hand, they materially assisted in the strategical measures of 
the commander in the preparation for battle, and in the for- 
warding of orders and reports, by their rapid and exact mes- 
senger service. These troops with the least expense of labor 
and material and in the shortest time established connections, 
which, by their situation, were protected from their marching 
troops and vehicles, and which in turn in nowise served to 
obstruct them. After long marches new lines were built, 
permanent lines repaired, stations established, a multitude of 
dispatches sent and received, often during the night, and 
after the main fighting a line built to follow the pursuing 
troops, or stations broken up and material gathered in for 
retreat. These troops are of more and more importance as 
the size of armies increases. It is regarded as absolutely 
necessary that these special organizations be frequently prac- 
ticed in maneuvers in order that they may be kept up to date. 
A net of field telegraph wire with twenty stations was erected 
in the triangle Sonnenburg-Meseritz-Schwiebus, the total 
length of the wire being 145 miles. The stations were each 
marked by a white flag with a black T. Most of the line 



MANEUVERS. 425 

consisted of cables ; a small part of it, however, was erected 
on poles. 

A telegraph patrol was assigned to each cavalry regiment. 

THE OPTICAL, TELEGRAPH. 

The optical telegraph or light apparatus was worked hand 
in hand with the electric telegraph and by the same troops. 
It not only served as a reserve means to be used where the 
electric telegraph was hindered by destruction or interrup- 
tions, but to establish connections over ground impracticable 
for wire. It was principally used by the first guard infantry 
division. 

The composition and means of transporting the chemicals 
used in making the light signals, as well as the great power 
of the same, were described in my report of the kaiser 
maneuver of 1901. 

WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY. 

There were two stationary and three transportable stations 
used for wireless telegraphy during tlje maneuver. The first 
of the stationary stations was established in Sonnenburg, the 
headquarters of the emperor, and was in charge of Lieutenant 
Alsleben, the second in Schermeisel ; the three transportable 
stations were assigned to the headquarters of the maneuver 
direction, the fifth army corps, and cavalry division B. 

At Sonnenburg the steeple of a church was used for the 
sending and receiving wire. For this purpose a pole was 
placed on the steeple which increased its height to 54 yards. 
At Schermeisel the height of the pole was only 33 yards. 
Each of the transportable stations was carried on a wagon 
constructed especially for the purpose, and which consisted 
of a front limber and a rear chest. The limber transported 
the receiver, the rear chest the sender, the current of which 
is produced by a benzine motor with a dynamo. A balloon 
was used for raising the sending wire. The wagons were 
drawn by six horses each, and followed the troops to which 
they were assigned. These wagons have very much the 
appearance of an artillery ammunition caisson. When an 
order or report was to be sent the wagon was unlimbered, 
the men deployed, the ballocyn raised, and the message sent. 
In less than ten minutes the stations would be loaded and the 
wagon again follow its troops. 






The distance between the two fixed stations established for 
the maneuver at Sonnenburg and Schermeisel was 22 miles. 
The station at Sonnenburg was also in direct communication 
with the wireless telegraph station of the balloon detachment 
at Berlin, the distance between these two stations being. 62£ 
miles. The distance between the transportable stations and 
Sonnenburg varied, as they were established from 31 to 75 
miles. Each station was in charge of an officer, the appa- 
ratus being operated by soldiers. 

The apparatus is not at all affected by aerial electrical dis- 
charges. It was furnished by the " Gesellschaft fur drahtlose 
telegraphy system, Prof. Braun, Siemens, und Halske" (com- 
pany for wireless telegraphy system, Professors Braun, Sie- 
mens, and Halske). The firm and the balloon troops are in 
close connection. They have much improved their apparatus 
for the army. The Germans were the first to equip their 
army with such apparatus, while most of the other countries 
are even now occupying themselves with the connection of 
places over water, where the difficulties presented by the 
ground do not exist. 

TRANSPORTATION AND SUBSISTENCE. 

The regulations that have been in force for several years 
requiring the train battalions to participate in the maneuvers 
of their respective army corps were for the kaiser maneuver 
of 1902 greatly extended. In both the third and fifth army 
corps provision columns were established from the train bat- 
talions exactly as would be done in case of mobilization. 
This enabled the different arms to be handled as in actual 
war and gave the maneuver a more warlike air. 

The present train organization was adopted by Prussia in 
1859. It requires every army corps to have one train battalion, 
which serves to educate the staff officers, officials, and men of 
the train in time of peace in all that pertains to train admin- 
istration. It furnishes the means for train drill, in which 
drivers are required to attain proficiency in the many train 
details which can be acquired only by practice. It forms the 
nucleus of the transportation necessary for the more extended 
requirements of war. 

The troops of the German a* my are subsisted in several 
different ways, which are employed according to circum- 
stances and the prevailing conditions of the country in which 



MANEUVERS. 427 

the troops find themselves. Thus may be mentioned the pro- 
visioning by hosts (billeting), the most comfortable ; the 
provisioning by requisition, which includes both the bringing 
together of the necessary provisions by citizens and by the 
troops themselves. These ways soon fail when troops remain 
for some time or when other troops have already been in the 
country. In these cases recourse is had to the magazines, 
which are established by the commissariat along railroads or 
at other suitable points. The wagon-train columns, which 
establish connection between the troops and magazines, 
become of the highest importance when the army is advanc- 
ing against a retreating enemy that has left the country 
exhausted. 

Heretofore in the great maneuvers and in cases of mobiliza- 
tion only one field-bakery Golumn was established with each 
army corps. During the present maneuver this number was 
increased to three. In addition, the entire apparatus of the 
field bakeries was made transportable in order that they 
might be able to produce bread during the march. By this 
arrangement the troops were better supplied with bread in 
unexpected and difficult situations than in case of the old 
stationary bakeries. The bakery columns were able to bake 
35,000 rations within twenty-four hours, the requirements of 
each of their army corps for one day. These columns were 
attached to the bivouac columns, the two together receiving 
the official designation "bivouac column." 

Each division was furnished two provision columns to be 
used for carrying rations and forage from the magazines, and 
two bivouac columns for the immediate supply of the bivouac 
requirements. These were designated as provision columns 
Nos. 1 and 2, and bivouac columns Nos. 1 and 2. One pro- 
vision column and one bivouac column together contained 
nearly two days' requirements for a division. The bivouac 
column carried the supplies for the day the troops went into 
bivouac, including the necessary wood for cooking. The pro- 
vision column carried one day's supplies of rations, forage, 
and wood for the following day, which was not used until 
after the exhaustion of the supplies of the bivouac column. 

With the infantry divisions provision column No. 1 con- 
sisted of 48 two-horse wagons. With this column were 5 officers, 
including a paymaster and a veterinary surgeon, 99 noncom- 
missioned officers and privates, 29 riding and 108 draft horses. 



4*28 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

All of the other provision columns consisted of hired wagons 
and horses. The horses and wagons of the bivouac columns 
were also hired. 

There was in addition one baggage column assigned to each 
division; the wagons and horses for this column were hired. 
Both the bivouac and baggage columns were also provided 
with officers, noncommissioned officers, and privates, who 
superintended the train and attended to the loading and 
unloading. 

One transportation-battalion commander was attached to 
each division and superintended the entire transportation of 
the division. 

The wagon columns were organized into platoons and sec- 
tions, under officers. 

The wagons were distinctly marked with a number; the 
kind of column to which it belonged was also plainly desig- 
nated by large letters, as well as the division to which it was 
assigned. 

The disposal of the columns and the manner in which they 
brought provisions from the magazines were left to the divi- 
sion commander. 

Each man carried one day's ration, excepting potatoes, and 
some wood for cooking. 

One day's ration of oats was carried on each horse. 

Potatoes were purchased in the open market from time to 
time, and were carried on the officers' provision wagons. 

Provisional magazines were established at Konigswalde, 
Schermeisel, Grochow, Sternberg, Topper, Mittel Stentsch, 
Meseritz, Bauchwitz, Durlettel, Bratz, and Ober Stentsch. 

The baggage columns arrived first in camp, and after them 
the bivouac columns. A great number of water wagons 
accompanied the troops. These were principally one-horse 
wagons, each carrying a barrel with a capacity of about 65 
gallons. There were also a few large sprinkling wagons used 
to carry drinking water. Trial was made of one large trans- 
portable drinking-water apparatus for distilling water to ren- 
der it germproof. After the steam was condensed it was 
charged with a fresh supply of air. In this way about 250 
gallons of pure water was prepared in one hour. 

The length of the train for one army corps in war is about 
6£ miles. As such a long column is not desirable it is divided 
into two echelons, according to their use. The first echelon, 



MANEUVERS. 429 

with which are two provision columns, marches from 4£ to 
6± miles behind the fighting troops. The second echelon fol- 
lows at one day's march distance. When a column has been 
emptied, it returns from the first to the second echelon and 
from this to the magazines to be reloaded. The column lead- 
ers always endeavor to see that their wagons are able to make 
these marches unhindered. The innovation of the mobilized 
train battalion for the maneuvers of 1902 was everywhere 
hailed as a new and useful step in the practice of warlike 
conditions. 

The indemnification for the feeding of the troops in billet 
was decided by the imperial chancellor of the empire, and the 
allowance for a private for the maneuvers as announced in 
orders, dated January 2, 1902, was as follows : 



With 
bread. 



Without 
brand. 



For a full day's feeding.. 

For a midday feeding 

For an evening feeding.. 
For a morning feeding _ 



$0. 19 $0. 15 

.09}^ .08% 

.06 .06 

.03% .02% 



The compensation for the keeping of an officer included 
that of his soldier servant ; the following rates were paid per 
day: 

For quarters and board for a general officer $0. 49 

For quarters and board for a field officer 89 

For quarters and board for a captain or lieutenant 25 

When a full day's board was not furnished, a smaller 
amount was paid for the quarters and meals actually fur- 
nished. 

For the various noncommissioned officers the allowances 
were graded between those of the lieutenant and the private. 

During the maneuvers no officer of the army, official, 
clergyman, teacher, or citizen enjoyed any immunity or privi- 
lege which excluded him from the full obligation to serve as 
host for the officers or soldiers billeted upon him. 

Special preserved meat, ordinarily known as "Lauwer- 
Riipins preserved meat," was extensively furnished as a part 
ration and for field trial. This patent is especially designed 
for the tropics, and consists of the inclosing of the meat in 
an envelope of tasteless and nonodorous mineral grease, the 
melting point of which is above 70° C. This in turn is 
inclosed in a second envelope of gelatinous membrane of a 



430 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

chocolate-brown color. The double cover effectually served 
to protect the meat against all exterior agents, and the food 
was regarded as well adapted for use in campaign. 

Schoolhouses being required for the use of the troops, the 
schools in and near the city of Posen were suspended from 
August 27 to September 8; those in other localities being 
similarly affected a few days later. 

In order to provide for the great increase necessary in the 
field-bakery columns, bakers, in accordance with orders, 
were called in from the reserve (landwehr and ersatz reserve) 
in time enough to be thoroughly instructed in the manipula- 
tions of the field baking stoves in garrisons before they were 
employed in service in the maneuver. 

In order that prompt payments might be made by the 
troops for forage and supplies, the prices to be paid were fixed 
for each community and published previous to the maneuver 
in the local newspapers. 

RECONNOI8SANCE. 

The principal means of gathering information was by the 
use of exploring cavalry-patrols. 

Cavalry and infantry patrols sufficed for the information 
service until the moments of contact with the main forces of 
the enemy and until the adversary made his dispositions to 
accept combat. The difficulties confided to the exploring 
cavalry increased in proportion as the veil covering the enemy 
thickened. 

In previous maneuvers it was found that the reports of the 
patrols often reached the commander too late, or else they 
depicted situations existing several hours before and which 
were changed as the time arrived for prompt action. To 
overcome these difficulties extensive use was made of captive 
balloons, which are now no longer regarded as innovations in 
the German army. 

The balloons were raised and lowered by hand winches and 
were rapidly taken to different positions. They were inflated 
with compressed hydrogen gas and made ready for ascension 
in about thirty minutes. Kite balloons were used, which per- 
mitted ascensions to be made in all winds. To enable them 
to withstand the wind the balloons were provided with air 
and rubber pouches. Small additional auxiliary balloons or 
bags were also attached to the main balloons by lines in such 



MANEUVERS. 431 

a manner as to fly some distance away from them, and which 
looked when in the air very much like the tail of an ordinary 
kite. 

The observers i r ose to an altitude of from 400 to 600 yards. 
At this height they could observe the changes of position of 
companies within a radius of 4i miles and the movements of 
battalions and batteries at 7£ miles. The movements of large 
bodies of troops could be perceived at 15 miles. These obser- 
vations permitted the reporting of such troops as could take 
part in the day's battle. The observers discovered the front 
of the opposing troops, and, during the artillery duel, desig- 
nated objects upon which fire could be directed. In general 
they were not used for the observation of the shots, this hav- 
ing been found to be impracticable unless particular targets 
are assigned and the observations limited simply to this ob- 
ject. During the battle at short distances the observers were 
able to give exact information concerning the grouping of 
the opposing forces and the details of the ground. The bal- 
loons were not used during the night, although it is claimed 
that when in close contact they may even then be able to 
gain important information. In defensive positions they 
were particularly useful in the discovery of the direction of 
the attack and in the location of the ordinary and the masked 
or covered batteries. After trials, the Germans have found 
that the best results are obtained by raising the balloons 
within 200 or 300 yards of the main headquarters ; also, that 
each minute of delay in the transmission of an observation 
made from a balloon frequently caused a loss of part its 
value. Effort is made to have the tactical situation depicted 
to the commander as it appears at the very moment, and not 
such as it was a few hours before. In battle, no patrol can 
depict a situation so rapidly and so completely. Were the 
balloons raised at some distance from headquarters the obser- 
vations would have to be transmitted, and any delay would 
cause it to lose its principal value. Instantaneous descrip- 
tion of the situation is of the utmost importance. From 
trials during previous maneuvers it has been found that 
when messages from the balloon had to be transmitted some 
distance they often could not be prevented from wandering 
around the field, and even when they were ready to be for- 
warded by telegraph or telephone lines these latter were 
sometimes occupied by the transmission of communications 



432 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

and urgent orders and the observations failed to reach head- 
quarters in time to be of value. The greatest objection to 
the location adopted for the captive balloon in the field army 
is that it betrays the seat of the headquarters. It has, how- 
ever, the advantage of indicating to the friendly troops the 
proper direction to send their communications, and it also 
serves somewhat as a guide for the march of the troops. 
The knowledge by the enemy of the location of headquarters 
is not now, perhaps, of so much importance, as the wings are 
well connected with the center by the new flash-signaling ap- 
paratus and the telegraph and telephone lines. 

Much attention is paid to the question as to who should 
ascend in the balloon to take the observations. If possible, 
the observations are made by a trustworthy officer of experi- 
ence attached to the staff of the commander. Particular 
cases and the kind of observations to be made decide whether 
this officer shall be an officer of the balloon section or of the 
staff corps, the engineers, artillery, or infantry. The success 
of the communications made from the balloon is greater 
when the relations between the observer and the chief of 
staff of the headquarters are intimate. 

The long range of modern arms now holds the patrols at 
great distances, rendering their reconnoitering more difficult; 
the balloon at the present day is therefore a greater necessity. 

The clear weather which prevailed throughout all of the 
maneuver days favored the use of balloons, equally klso the 
services of information, reconnoitering, transmission of orders 
and news, and the transportation service. 

The hard ground permitted the balloons to be mobile both 
before and after they were raised . Thus the Red commander's 
balloon, which was raised near Grochow September 11, fol- 
lowed at a high elevation its wagon (to which it was attached 
by cable) when that vehicle was driven along with the retreat- 
ing troops through Tempels M., Seeren, Hochwalde, Kalau to 
Paradies, a distance of 16 miles. During this time numerous 
valuable reports in regard to the strength and the directions 
taken by the pursuing troops, the roads that .were free of the 
enemy, etc., were received from the observer by the Red 
commander. 

Cuttings from maps were frequently used by the observer, 
who would sketch in the extent of the enemy's position, the 
general line of the hostile outposts, etc. Ordinary descrip- 
tions of the situations or conditions of the fight on the different 



MANEUVERS. 433 

parts f the battlefield were generally transmitted by tele- 
phone, but sometimes by means of written reports, observers 
being able to make use of both methods. 

The greatest number of messages received from one balloon 
in one day was eighteen. 

Th' "signal balloon" was of great value in marking the 
headc uarters of the maneuver leading, and for ordering the 
halt, he recommencement, and the end of the maneuver. 

AUTOMOBILES. 

Du *ing the maneuvers full advantage of the great velocity 
of th automobiles for persons could be taken advantage of 
only when the road was free from troops. This often occurred 
between the heads of the advance guard and the advance 
cava' y, between the ends of marching columns, between the 
arm) >arts and the ends of certain telegraph lines, and on the 
crossroads connecting the lines of march. As the drivers 
were sometimes unfamiliar with the roads, frequently only 
from 15 to 25 miles per hour was practicable, the average 
speed being somewhat less. The automobiles in general, 
howc er, were regarded as of satisfactory speed. The desire 
for hides of greater velocity results from the wish to 
maintain quick time on ascents and in mountainous country. 
The objection -to the automobiles using benzine was that 
the dangers arising from the use of benzine were greater 
than would have been from those using steam. Reliance had 
to be »laced upon benzine depots, as the quantity necessary 
for 4 *r use could not be found near the line of march. 
Besi- 1 the. benzine had to be clean and to fulfill certain 
othe. required conditions. Reliable and fearless men were 
required for drivers, who had to be relieved in order that 
they might rest. The propelling force was not so well regu- 
lated as that generally produced by the steam motor. 

It i regarded as undecided in Germany whether it is more 
to the purpose to use automobiles only for the transportation 
of pe 3ns, or for bearing freight, or for drawing other loaded 
vehic ,3, or whether the same importance should be attached 
to all iree kinds. 

Thv reight automobile and the draft automobile, or 
traction engine, are yet far from the standard desired. An 
automobile to carry freight is particularly desired, as it can 
go backward or forward, and in close places can be better 



434 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

directed than a wagon and team. Effort is being made by 
tbe army to secure a motor tbat will be able to draw on good 
roads an attached burden of 30,000 pounds at an average 
speed of about 3 miles an hour. 

Twenty automobile j for tbe transportation of persons 
were used in the maneuver. These carriages were generally 
of a light character, some of them having only two wheels. 
A lC-horsepower Mercedes was placed at the disposal of the 
emperor, which he used once in going from Sonnenburg to 
Trossen and return early the morning of September 10. 

The firms of Adler, Benz, Daimler, Durkopp, Eisenach 
Vehicle Factory, Marienfelde, Opel, and Stoewer were also 
represented in carriages. The two- wheeled automobiles were 
all of the kinds known as the Neckarsulm, Cyclone, and Prog- 
ress. Of the two-wheel variety those having the motor in 
front stood the test better on soft ground. 

There were also in addition ten Daimler freight automo- 
biles used. These were in charge of Captain Mayer and were 
brought from Berlin to Frankfort-on-the-Oder, and taken 
from there to the maneuver ground. They were used in 
transporting provisions in connection with the steam traction 
automobiles under the command of Captain Weisse ; the lat- 
ter consisted of several Thornycroft and Fowler steam trac- 
tion automobiles. 

The ten Daimler freight automobiles were assigned the task 
of filling two maneuver provision magazines, which task they 
were reported to have accomplished in a satisfactory manner. 
It necessitated the transportation of 275,000 pounds about 44 
miles. Trailers were attached to some of these automobiles 
with favorable results, the automobile and trailer carrying a 
load of 8,800 pounds, with an average speed of 6 miles an hour 
over roads generally good but sometimes soft in places. 

For the motive (motor) power of the ten freight automo- 
biles alcohol was used, preference being given it on account 
of its being a home product. The cost of this power in Ger- 
many is less than that of benzine. 

There is much material on hand in Germany for the con- 
struction of narrow-gauge field railroads. For this purpose 
sections are made consisting of the rails united and held in 
place by the ties. These sections are transported on wagons 
and are quickly laid over the ground in any direction. 



MANEUVERS. 435 

REPORTS. 

In accordance with field-service regulations the corps com- 
manders of those army corps which have engaged in the 
kaiser maneuvers must forward by the 1 st of November to 
the chief of the general staff of the army reports on the 
maneuvers held before his majesty the emperor. These 
reports, to which must be attached the reports of aU the 
infantry and cavalry division commanders, contain only such 
descriptions of the tactical exercises as would be given in war 
service. 

Officers are not employed in sketching the movements in 
maneuvers; it is preferable for this purpose to append por- 
tions of maps. 

The umpires also report by the 1st of November to the 
chief of the general staff of the army the decisions given by 
them, stating concisely their reasons for the decisions. 

CARRIER PIGEONS. 

There are 784 carrier-pigeon societies in Germany, which 
own about 240,000 birds. The number of birds found in the 
empire decreases gradually from the western frontier to the 
the eastern, as the pigeons were introduced from the west, 
Belgium, and the farther from the starting point the less they 
are understood and the more difficult it becomes to find the 
proper personnel for keeping and training them. The socie- 
ties are consolidated under the name of the "Association of 
German Carrier-Pigeon Amateur Societies." This associa- 
tion has accepted an obligation to train a certain number of 
their carrier pigeons under the regulations prescribed by the 
war ministry, and to place them at the disposition of the mil- 
itary authorities in case of war. The war ministry presents 
9 gold, 140 silver, and 240 bronze medals annually to the 
societies for good flyingf results. It also pays $1,000 yearly to 
the association. One T half of this is generally given as a con- 
tribution to the fund for payment of the managers, and one- 
half to the fund used for premiums for the destruction of 
birds of prey. 

In addition to the amateur societies there is a military car- 
rier-pigeon service with headquarters at Spandau, where a 
fine special building for a central station has been erected. 
This service is subordinated to the " inspection of telegraph 
troops," the individual stations are subordinated to the local 



436 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

military commanders. In the budget, for the administration 
of the imperial army, $10,000 annually is appropriated for 
the military carrier-pigeon service. The system now spreads 
its net over the whole German empire; every fortress has its 
carrier-pigeon post, in addition a large number of breeding 
stations have been established at various places, with a 
capacity of 200 pigeons each. Pigeons are sometimes bewil- 
dered by the noise of guns ; it is therefore considered neces- 
sary to send at least four out with a single dispatch, in cases 
of news of special importance two or three times as many. 
It is considered as possible that in time wireless telegraphy 
may do away with the necessity of keeping up these stations. 

During the maneuver the pigeons were carried exclusively 
by the cavalry, there being one carrier-pigeon patrol of the 
strength of one noncommissioned officer and three privates 
established in each cavalry regiment. These patrols prac- 
ticed with their pigeons only during two days, the 8th and 
9th of September. 

The pigeon ration, the preparation of the dispatch, the 
adjustment of the same, and the regulations observed in 
starting the birds upon their flights, were the same as 
described in the report on the German kaiser maneuver of 
1901. 

THE JAPANESE ABM7 MANEUVEBS OF 1902. 

[Reported by Maj. O. E. Wood, Artillery Corps, United States Military Attache at Tokyo.] 

The maneuvers took plac between November 9 and 15, 
1902, near Kumamoto, in H' » Province, Island of Kyushu, 
about 830 miles south of Tok ad within 60 miles of Naga- 
saki. 

The foreign military attach and other officers who were 
invited to attend the maneuvc/s left Tokyo on November <> 
and 7, arriving at Kumamoto two days later, and were met 
by officers of the Japanese staff, who conducted them to their 
quarters in a large school building, which had been specially 
prepared for their reception. 

The foreign spectators were as follows: The military 
attaches of Great Britain, France, Qermany, Russia, and the 
United States of America; ant? in addition there were three 
English, two French, three German, two Italian, one Ameri- 
can (Lieut. H. L. Wigmore, U. S. Engineers, A. D. C), three 



I 



k 



MANEUVERS. 437 

Korean, and ten Chinese officers, among whom was Major 
General Creagh of the British army. 

On November 10 the emperor arrived at Kumamoto and 
was received at the railroad station by the princes, high offi- 
cers of the Japanese army, and the foreign officers. 

On the 11th, 12th, and 13th the emperor witnessed the 
maneuvers, and on the 14th a grand review was held by his 
majesty on the Champ des Manoeuvres in Kumamoto. 

On the afternoon of the 14th a grand reception and banquet 
took place in the emperor's presence, attended by over 1,000 
officers and officials of high rank. 

GENERAL PLAN OF MANEUVERS. 

1. The Southern (invading) army, composed of the sixth 
division and a battalion of infantry from Tsushima Island, 
commanded by Lieutenant General Okobo, has disembarked 
its main force in Imari Bay, a part of it effecting a landing 
in the bay of Yatsushiro. 

2. The Northern (defending) army, composed of the twelfth 
division, commanded by Lieutenant General Inouye, having 
concentrated its main force near Kurume, will advance a 
division in the direction of Kumamoto. 

GENERAL. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE SOUTHERN ARMY. 

The advance guard of the sixth division of the Southern 
army, charged with occupying Kumamoto as soon as possible 
and proceeding northward toward Kurume, will arrive at 
Yatsushiro in the afternoon of November 9. The main force 
of the division will be assembled in the environs of Yatsu- 
shiro ready to move forward by 11 a. m. November 10. 

The outposts for the night of November 9-10 are assumed. 

GENERAL. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE NORTHERN ARMY. 

The twelfth division of the Northern army, charged with 
repulsing the enemy, will arrive in the neighborhood of 
Takase during the night of November 9-10. It will then be 
learned that the enemy disembarked in Yatsushiro Bay on 
November 9 and has concentrated its force in the neighbor- 
hood of Yatsushiro. 

The outposts for the night of November 9-10 are assumed. 



438 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1002. 

CAVALRY OPERATIONS OF NOVEMBER lO. 

The cavalry of the Northern army advanced southward, 
crossed the Midorigawa River, and occupied Kokan Mura and 
vicinity at 12.30 p. m. 

The cavalry of the Southern army, in cooperation with the 
company of infantry acting as its support, drove back the 
hostile cavalry and took possession of the bridge near Kawa- 
shiri at 2 p. m. The northern cavalry retired to Chikami. 

COMMENTS. 

The action of November 10 was not witnessed by the for- 
eign spectators and was a small affair of the advance cavalry 
of both armies. The first brush took place at a bridge in the 
neighborhood of Kawashiri. There was only a small force of 
Northern cavalry on the north bank, and their fire was over- 
powered by that of the Southern army, which was supported 
by a company of infantry, who poured in a hot fire from the 
front and the left flank. The Northern force was consequently- 
forced to retreat and the invaders remained in possession of 
the Kawashiri bridge. 

POSITION OF THE TWO ARMIES ON THE NIGHT OF NOVEMBER 10. 

The Southern Army. — Main body near Ogawa, with the 
advance guard near Eitashinden, and left detachment near 
Sumiyoshi. 

The Northern Army. — Main body near Kumamoto, with 
the advance guard near Motoyama Mura, and line of out- 
posts extending from Shin Tokawara to Nishimuta. 

GENERAL. ORDERS FOR NOVEMBER 11. 

SOUTHERN ARMY. 

The division will advance. The independent cavalry will 
advance from Kumanjo. The advance guard (one regiment 
of infantry and one of artillery) will leave the south end of 
Matsubase at 7 a. m. and move on the Kyushu road. The 
left detachment (two battalions of infantry) will leave 
Kitashinden at 5.30 a. m. 

NORTHERN ARMY. 

The division will advance from Ogawa. The advance 
guard (one regiment of infantry, two squadrons of cavalry, 



PLATE VII. 



Ordre de bataille, VI* Division, Armee du Sud. 

Qeniral Okubo. commandant la Division. 
Colonel Yamamoto, chef <? Et at- Major. 



23r Brigade dimfanterie. 
0' Kigoehi. 
2? Big 9 din/anterie. 
IS-& Tomita. 



4& Big* (tinfanierie. 
JJ & Hirai. 



Ba4T dinf* de Tsushima. 
C Sadowara. 



IV Brigade dinfanterie- 
G 1 Ida. 
IP Big 4 dinfanterie- 
O Matsui. 



45' Big* dinfanterie. 
& Nojima. 



6* Big 4 de eavalerie. 
& Jv>apa. 



6* Big* dartillerie de eampagne. 
C Hara. 

iininsf tFTiT^sr ^b^uT^st tst^st'^b Tins^sy \ir^2^Tff 

n\ rn m n\ n\ rn n\ n\ m n\ n\ rn ft\ jt\ m n\ n\ rn 



^ Bataillon de genie. 
C Tsutsumi. 



Train de division. 
Oolonne diquipage depont (supposi) 



MANEUVERS. 439 

one battery of artillery aud two companies of engineers) will 
leave Chikami at 5.30 a. m. for Ogawa. The left detachment 
(one regiment of infantry, one squadron of cavalry, two bat- 
teries of artillery and one company of engineers) will leave 
Hattanda at 5.30 a. m. for Matsubase. The remainder of 
the division will follow the advance guard. 

OPERATIONS OF NOVEMBER 11. 

On the receipt of information that some of the hostile infan- 
try had crossed the Midorigawa, the commander of the South- 
ern army ordered the advance guard and the twenty-third 
brigade of infantry to deploy for action; the former between 
Iwatake and Uchikoshi and the latter at the northern end of 
Hanazono Mura; the artillery taking its position astride the 
main road near Iwatake. At -8 a. m., being informed of the 
approach of the hostile infantry near Kiyoto, the divisional 
commander of the Southern army came to the determination 
that he would meet the enemy. 

The Northern army division occupied Utomachi with the 
advance guard, deployed the main body near the north end 
of the town, and placed the artillery near Udo Station. As 
a consequence of the artillery action, he decided to attack 
Hanazono Mura, which he effected about 10 a. m. The left 
detachment of the Northern army drove back the right 
detachment of the Southern army near Kumanjo, and made 
for Matsubase; in this pursuit an obstinate resistance was 
offered. Judging from the report of guns heard in the direc- 
tion of Kumanjo that the enemy in front was not of superior 
strength, the Southern commander made an attack on the 
hostile forces in the direction of Udo. In this fight the 
Southern army division was compelled to make a general 
retreat by the situation existing in the direction of Kumanjo; 
the troops regaining order near Toyofuku. The Northern 
army division pursued the enemy up to the line connecting 
Matsubase with Magarino. 

The Southern division placed its outposts fully prepared 
for battle on the line of Kawatoko, Urakawachi, and Kugu. 

Having a line established along the Onogawa to guard 
against surprises, the Northern army division bivouacked in 
the rear, with its main forces present at Magarino. 



440 NOTES OP MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

COMMENTS. 

The position of the Southern artillery was well chosen; 
they had been under cover behind some bushes and farm- 
houses, but rushed out and unlimbered just behind the crest 
of a hill which commanded a large extent of ground. Gun 
pits were dug, the guns placed well back on the reverse slope, 
and the horses and limbers were sent to the rear in? short 
order, but were badly bunched, for a single shell judiciously 
placed would have killed or wounded the greater part of them. 

On the crest of a lower hill, nearly in front of these guns, 
was a company of Southern infantry strongly intrenched, but 
they were packed in the trenches like sardines in a box. 

The Southern forces held a stronger position than the 
Northern troops, occupying as they did a range of heights 
while their opponents were in low-lying ground and would 
have to advance over open country if they determined to 
attack. 

During the progress of the engagement the general com- 
manding the Northern army received reenforcements, and, 
making a feint with his right, massed them on his left and 
hurled them against the Southern right in the neighborhood 
Kumanjo, and then advanced toward Matsubase, encounter- 
ing strong resistance. 

The infantry came into action rapidly on both sides, the 
men seeming to rise out of the ground in all directions; but 
their line was too dense and the supports in company column 
too close. 

The Northern force was adjudged victorious and the South- 
ern army had to fall back. 

GENERAL ORDERS FOR NOVEMBER 18. 

NORTHERN ARMY. 

1. The division will effect reconnoissance with view to 
attack. 

2. The twelfth brigade of infantry will occupy the line 
extending from the west end of Matsubase to the extremity 
of the heights to the east of Magarino. 

3. The twenty-fourth brigade of infantry will occupy the 
line extending from the nameless village to the east of Maga- 
rino to the end of the height to the northwest of Haginowo. 

4. The cavalry will search for the enemy from Toyosaki to 
1he northwest of Haginowo. 



plate vm. 



Ordre de bataille, Xlt Division, Armee du Nord. 

General Inonyi, commandant la Division. 
IAeut-Oolonel Ohara, chef a" Mat-Major. 



4W Brigade d'infanterie. 
GPOtani. 
2* Wtf d'infanterie. 
& Semba. 



4& Be? d'infanteruf. 
& Kagawc. 



Iff Brigade d'infanterie . 
Q 1 Takinoucki. 
1* Rtf d'mfanlerie. 
C Imamura. 



.4T Big 1 d infant 
V Yoda. 



13* Big* de cavalerie. 
L-& Yamamoto. 



1ST Big* d'artillerie de eampagne. 
Z'.C Mai9umoto. 

nff"^^™ti7 Tinfinr iininsr Tm^^r ^sr^^r ivv ttt - nnr 

n\ tt\ m n\ m rn n\ rn m n\ rn rn n\ m m rn ny m 



V? Bataillon de ginie. 
L'-C Okada. 



Train de division, (supposij 



MANEUVERS. 441 

5. The regiment of artillery will take its position on the 
height to the southeast of Magarino. 

6. The reserve (one regiment of infantry) will be assem- 
bled on the dry rice field to the northeast of Uenohara. 

SOUTHERN ARMY. 

1. The division will take up the defensive on its position 
extending from Kawatoko to the height north of Toyofuku. 

2. The cavalry will keep its main force at Yamasaki and a 
part at Toyosaki. \ 

3. The dispositions are, roughly, as follows: 

The right wing (having the twenty-third brigade less one 
regiment as a kernel) on the line extending from the height 
west of Kawatoko to Urakawachi. The left wing (having 
the eleventh brigade as the kernel) on the line extending 
from the left of the right wing to Kugu and Shima. The 
artillery regiment and a company of engineers on the height 
at Toyofuku. The reserve (four battalions of infantry) near 
the south fork of the Urakawachi. 

OPERATIONS OF NOVEMBER 18. 

In pursuance of the orders issued last night, the Southern 
army division occupied the line extending from Kawatoko to 
Kugu, the artillery being posted astride the crossroads about 
600 meters to the southeast of Kugu, the reserve being on the 
dry rice field about 600 meters to the northeast of Toyofuku, 
and the cavalry keeping its greater force at Yamasaki and a 
part at Toyosaki. As ordered, also, the Northern army divi- 
sion occupied the line connecting Atariomura, Nanden, and 
Matsubase, the artillery being on the heights at Nanden, and 
the reserve of the division near the three-forked road to the 
northwest of Magarino, and the independent cavalry keeping 
its greater force engaged in the search on the right side of 
the division and a part present near Hagiwo. 

With such dispositions, the operations began at 8 a. m. 
The commander of the Northern army division decided to 
keep ou the ground, as he judged that the hostile forces were 
superior to his own. The commander of the Southern army 
division, on the discovery that the fire of the enemy's artil- 
lery grew weaker gradually, decided to lead an attack near 
the nameless pond at Atariomura with his right wing and on 
Nanden with the left wing. He thrust forward the reserve 



442 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1903. 

to the nameless pond out of the valley in the southern part 
of Urakawachi. The Northern army commander gave a 
counter attack when the left wing of the Southern army 
reached Kugu. 

However, the heavy loss suffered by the artillery compelled 
the Northern army to make a general retreat, and the com- 
mander decided to retire to the north of the Kasegawa. 

At this moment the division commander received instruc- 
tions from the corps commander, and learning that a rein- 
forcement (having one regiment of infantry as the kernel) 
would arrive in the forenoon to-morrow, directed the retreat 
to Oita. 

The Southern army decided to pursue the enemy and to 
secure the various points of passage across the Midorigawa. 

COMMENTS. 

Each force was strongly intrenched along two parallel 
ridges about 3,000 meters distant from each other. A valley 
consisting of dry rice fields lay between these ridges, which, 
being undulating and covered here and there by clumps of 
trees, afforded fine artillery positions. After an hour's can- 
nonading, the infantry of both armies advanced and brisk 
fighting ensued ; the Southern reserves attacking the North- 
ern left wing, while the reserve force of the Northern army 
engaged the Southern left wing. The two opposing lines 
had nearly met when the bugle was sounded suspending 
operations for .the day. The Southern army was adjudged 
to have the advantage. 

POSITION OF THE TWO ARMIES ON THE NIGHT OF NOVEMBER 12. 

The Northern army occupies the line connecting Chikami 
with Fuyeda, with cantonment in rear of the line. 

The Southern army has a force consisting of one regiment 
of infantry, a large body of cavalry, and one battalion of 
artillery in the vicinity of Medomachi, with the main body 
of the division to the south of Kawashiri. • 

GENERAL ORDERS FOR NOVEMBER 18. 

SOUTHERN ARMY. 

1. With the object of advancing on Kumamoto, the divi- 
sion will be formed in three columns, and first of all sweep 
away the hostile forces in front. 



MANEUVERS. 443 

2. The right detachment (one regiment of infantry, one 
squadron of cavalry, one battalion of artillery, and one com- 
pany of engineers) will cross the Nakanose-bashi bridge at 
7.45 a. m. The right column (twenty-third regiment of in- 
fantry, one squadron of cavalry, and one company of engi- 
neers) will march by way of Gensan and Hetamura; the left 
column (the rest of the division, less the independent cavalry) 
will leave the northern extremity of Kawashirimachi, all 
moving at the same hour, 7.45 a. m. 

NORTHERN ARMY. 

1. The division will meet the enemy, occupying the line 
connecting Chikami with Yayamachi. 

2. The various troops will be in position by 6.30 a. m. 
The forty-seventh regiment of infantry from Kamigo to south 
end of Chikami. The twenty-fourth regiment of infantry, 
one battalion of artillery, and one company of engineers, 
from the south end of Fuyeda to southeast end of Yayama- 
chi. The second battalion of forty-eighth regiment infantry 
at south end of Nishimuda. A regiment of artillery (less 
one battalion) on the dry rice field to the northwest of 
Nishimuda. 

3. The regiment of cavalry" will cover the front of the left 
flank. 

4. The fourteenth regiment of infantry and the forty-eighth 
regiment (less one battalion) will act as the reserve, being 
posted on the dry rice fields to the southeast of Kamichikami. 

OPERATIONS OF NOVEMBER 18. 

At 7.30 a. m. the Southern commander decided to place 
his artillery in the dry rice fields to the north of Gensan and 
destroy the advance guard of the right and left columns in 
order to make a reconnoissance of the enemy's force. 

At 7.50 a. m. the artillery of the Southern division opened 
fire against the enemy% artillery posted opposite it. 

At 8 a. m. the twenty-third regiment of infantry, the right 
column of the Southern division, started from Nishimura 
for Nishimuda, and at 8.15 arrived at a point about 600 
meters southeast of Nishimuda and exchanged a hot fire with 
one battalion of the forty-eighth regiment of infantry which 
occupied this point. 



444 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

At 8.15 a. m. the Northern commander reinforced the 
troops on the Nishimuda side by the forty-eighth regiment 
of infantry (less one battalion) and ordered one battery of 
artillery to proceed to a position near Nishimuda to attack 
the side of Kibe. 

At 8.20 the Northern commander, informed of the forward 
movement of a large body of the enemy on the side of 
Nakanose-bashi, strengthened the troops in the direction of 
Fuyeda by two battalions of infantry, forming part of the 
reserve. 

At 8.40 a. m. the Northern commander, with the object of 
carrying out a great counter attack on Nishimura, an attack 
directed from the tract of country lying between Chikami 
and Nishimuda, added to the artillery already posted there a 
battalion of reinforcements, and made the fourteenth regi- 
ment of infantry (less one battalion) deploy on the side of 
the left wing of the forty-seventh regiment of infantry. 

At 9 a. m. the five battalions of the Northern division on 
the side of Fuyeda went forward, driving back, little by little, 
the right detachment of the enemy. 

At 9.05 a. m. the chief of the Northern division went from 
the east side of Chikami-mura toward Nishimura with all 
his reserves. One battalion of the fourteenth regiment of 
infantry lost its way during this maneuver and was conse- 
quently unable to take part in the principal attack. 

At 9.10 a. m. the chief of the Southern division decided to 
attack Chikami from the side of Takaye with all the troops 
of his reserve, and the two opposing armies opened a pre- 
paratory fire on each other, when, about 9.20, the order 
arrived to close the maneuvers. 

COMMENTS. 

The Northern army, which had retreated on the previous 
day, took up a position in the neighborhood of Chikami and 
Nagamachi, south of the city of Eumamoto, and encamped 
there, while the Southern army encamped on the field between 
Kawajiri and Tabe. During the night the Northern army 
threw up intrenchments near the houses at the southern end 
of Chikami, and behind these the forty-seventh infantry was 
posted. Other defensive works were also constructed at 
Nishimuda, Fuyeda, and Nagamachi, where five battalions 
of infantry and a regiment of artillery were posted. The 



MANEUVERS. 445 

artillery of the attacking force opened fire shortly before 8 a. m. 
and sharp fighting ensued. About an hour later the reserve 
force of the Northern army forded the Shin River and 
advanced, extending west of Nishimuda, and made a furious 
attack on the enemy. 

In the meantime the main body of the attacking force 
attempted to compel the evacuation of the troops intrenched 
at Chikami — the right wing. To save this position five bat- 
talions of the Northern army w.ere dispatched to the southern 
end of Chikami, to the assistance of the defenders, who, 
after exchanging a hot fire for a few minutes, advanced from 
their position and made a charge. The charge proved unsuc- 
cessful, as they were not supported in time by the battalions 
which had been sent to their assistance. They were conse- 
quently compelled to retreat to the breastworks, and an 
apparently desperate encounter took place. 

At length the Southern force charged and approached to 
within a few yards of the defenders, when the order for the 
suspension of operations was received. 

This concluded the maneuvers. His majesty, who was 
present, then summoned the officers of both sides before him, 
and the marshal, Marquis Oyama, chief of staff, commented 
upon the operations of the preceding four days. 

The emperor congratulated the officers on their skill and 
spoke of the diligence of both officers and men engaged. 

THE GRAND REVIEW. 

On the morning of November 14 a grand review was held 
by his majesty on the Champ des Manoeuvres, a large open 
square in the city of Kumamoto. 

After the emperor had ridden down the long lines, fol- 
lowed by a large number of high ranking Japanese officers 
and all of the foreign officers, the troops of the two divisions 
were merged into one body for parade purposes, the various 
lines passing the reviewing point successively as follows: 
Eight regiments of one battalion of infantry in company 
front, two battalions of engineers in company front, twelve 
batteries of field artillery in battery front, two regiments of 
cavalry in squadron front. Alignments and distances in 
column generally good. 

After the passage the troops left the field in various direc- 
tions and the foreign officers were dismissed. 



446 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

EXTRACTS TAKEN FROM REPORTS BT SPECIAL CORRESPOND- 
ENTS OF VARIOUS JAPANESE AND ENGLISH NEWSPAPERS. 

The area chosen for the maneuvers was a portion of the 
great plain of Higo, south of the city of Kumamoto, in Kyu- 
shu, the most southerly of the four main islands which con- 
stitute the Japanese archipelago. From an historical point 
of view Kyushu is intensely interesting to the European 
owing to the large numbers of its chiefs and people who were 
won over to Christianity by the Jesuits some three hundred 
years ago, and also to the fact that it helped more than any 
other part of Japan to bring about the restoration of 1868. 

The great plain of Higo is well suited as a maneuvering 
ground for Japanese troops, being composed largely of rice 
fields in which the Japanese soldiers ought to feel most at 
home. 

The number of soldiers who have not passed some years of 
their life among the paddy fields is very small, and that this 
fact is no inconsiderable advantage to the Japanese army 
was shown in a conclusive manner at the last attack on the 
Taku forts, on which occasion the little Japanese marines 
were able to negotiate the swampy rice fields with surprising 
rapidity, while their less sophisticated brothers in arms from 
Europe often found themselves floundering knee-deep in the 
soft mud. 

The Higo plain is broken in some places by hillocks and 
woods and a good deal of undulating ground, which gave 
the artillery a supply of good positions. The cavalry had, 
however, little opportunity for close reconnoissance, a fact 
which is not to be lamented, as the cavalry is not the Japan- 
ese army's strong point. 

The general idea of the maneuvers is very simple. A for- 
eign fleet commands the sea along the west coast of Kyushu 
and lands an army, which is imaginary, but whose advance 
division is represented by the sixth army division and com- 
manded by Lieutenant General Okubo, at Yatsushiro, to the 
south of Kumamoto, and at another point in the vicinity. 

To meet this invasion and to save Kumamoto, the most 
important military center in Kyushu, from capture; another 
imaginary army, of which the advance division is the twelfth 
army division under Lieutenant General Inouye, had been 
concentrated at Kurume to the north of Kumamoto. 

The men of the Southern force, which was composed of the 
Kumamoto division, which distinguished itself so much at 



MANEUVERS. 447 

Weihaiwei, Port Arthur, and elsewhere during the China- 
Japan war, wore white caps as a distinguishing badge; and 
the men of the other side, the Kokura division, wore black 
caps. 

A few words as to the Japanese cavalry. Owing to the fact 
that Japan is a mountainous country and that her plains are 
generally used as paddy fields, the people are not a nation of 
horsemen; even the old samurai do not seem to have been 
good horsemen, they simply used horses to convey them rap- 
idly from place to place. The army authorities are now going 
to great trouble to improve their breed of horses, and have 
already established studs in various parts of the country and 
sent officers to England, France, Germany, Austria, and to 
America to buy good stallions and to investigate the horse- 
breeding industry in general as it is carried on abroad. They 
find, however, that the foals out of the half-breed mares gen- 
erally revert to the native type. The military horses are now 
castrated, so that they do not seem to be the same beasts which 
were known in North China the year before last as "the wild 
animals of Japan." Though small, they seem to suit the 
country and to be able to stand a lot of work. 

As to the infantry, it struck me, as I watched these gallant 
little soldiers advance to the attack on the second day, that 
the Tommy Atkinses of Japan have a peculiarly neat, com- 
pact, and uniform appearance which would throw a British, 
French, or German drill sergeant into ecstacies of delight. 
In fact, being all beardless and of much the same height, 
they look so much alike that a foreigner who sees them for 
the first time is inclined to wonder how their officers can dis- 
tinguish between them. As for their low stature, they are not 
ashamed of it, for the advantage it gives them in the impor- 
tant matter of finding cover need not be enlarged upon. 

A small corps of cyclists under Captain Umezu was also on 
the scene, but was attached to the general staff and did not 
take any part in the hostilities. Behind a farmhouse was a 
field hospital with all the up-to-date appliances, and surgeons 
and orderlies were standing around as seriously as if the brisk 
cannonading was real and the wounded might be brought in 
at any moment. 

The Japanese soldiers did not bivouac during the maneu- 
vers, they were all billeted in the villages and farmhouses. 
No attempt was made by the army authorities to test their 



448 NOTB8 OP MILITARY INTBREST FOR 1902. 

transport system, only a few kitchen utensils being brought 
for the officers, on pack horses. I think that this was a mis- 
take as the main object of grand maneuvers is to judge of the 
efficiency of all the various departments of an army, whose 
functions can be truly tested only when they are called upon 
to operate on a large scale over an extensive area. When 
the time for eating the midday meal arrived there was very 
little of the bustle of preparation which would be seen at such 
a time in an English or German camp. The Germans would 
be dividing their rations of potatoes, bacon, and black bread. 
The British battalion that had been in South Africa or India 
would soon have its tea brewed and its meat frizzing over the 
fire. The Frenchman would be getting ready his coffee with 
that extraordinary rapidity at which his allies in the Crimea 
were so surprised. Fatigue parties would be going for water 
and a look of expectation would appear on every visage. In 
Japan it is somewhat different, although, of course, the con- 
ditions on the present occasion do not admit of a just compari- 
son being made. Each soldier would simply sit down, take 
out of his knapsack two balls of cold rice, two pieces of fish, 
and some "konomono," a kind of pickled radish of which the 
Japanese are very fond. After he had done justice to this 
humble fare he would take a pull from the water bottle at his 
belt and his meal was finished. On the last day of the ma- 
neuvers I noticed two soldiers take their food leaning against 
a bank directly the signal to do so had been given, and then 
fall asleep, both of them in almost a standing position, and 
with their guns at their side and all their warlike equipment 
on them. 

The question of what rations are best suited for the Japanese 
soldier is one that has often been discussed by the military 
authorities. Some think the rice should be abandoned in 
favor of bread, and indeed the navy has long since, under ad- 
vice of its medical officers, adopted a system of diet in which 
rice takes only a secondary place, biscuits and barley coming 
first. The result of this innovation has been very encourag- 
ing, first, on account of the evident superiority of the blue 
jacket over the soldier in powers of endurance, and, secondly, 
the remarkable decrease of "kakke," a disease very common 
among Japanese. Notwithstanding this, the great majority 
of the medical authorities in the army think that rice should 
be retained because it is always to be obtained in abundance 



ft 



MANEUVERS. 44$ 

during peace or war. In the war of 1894-95 the Japanese 
found, wherever they moved, sufficient quantities of rice to 
meet any deficiency in the supply sent from home ; and in 
every village they found, ready for use, all the appliances 
required for the preparation of rice. Had any other diet than 
rice been adopted, the commissariat would, of course, have 
been seriously taxed at times. During the Boxer troubles of 
two years ago the Japanese were, however, placed at a great 
disadvantage compared with the foreign soldiers, whose food 
could, in case of emergency, be prepared in a few moments, 
while they had to spend a long time looking for pots. in which 
to boil their rice. Then, again, the foreigners could take pre- 
pared food with them, but the Japanese could not carry pre- 
pared rice for long, as it quickly becomes sour. 

The daily army ration is 6 go (0.95 quart) of rice for each 
man, besides 6 sen (3 cents IT. S.) worth of vegetables, meat, 
and fish. He can not therefore be said to be well fed. The 
bluejackets are much better treated; they get 20.1 sen a day, 
or rather their daily rations cost this much, and when at sea 
they fare still more sumptuously. 

The equipment of the Japanese soldier weighs 25£ kilo- 
grams, but the authorities are thinking of reducing it to 21 
kilograms. 

As to their health, they seem to be, next to the German 
soldiers, the healthiest troops in the world. The death rate 
in the Japanese army is now next lowest to the death rate in 
the German army. Conscription seems to be improving in 
a marvelous manner the physique of the Japanese, but it is 
attended by one disadvantage, namely, that when young 
men return to their homes after three years' experience of the 
better food and the better accommodation of the barracks 
they become discontented with the old style of life and are 
often a source of trouble to those about them. 

THE SWISS MANEUVERS. 

[Reported by Maj. O. R. Cecil, Third Infantry, United States Military Attache at Bern.] 

The maneuvers took place northwest of Luzerne, between 
the Limmat and the Aare. 

The terrain is cut by numerous small streams, between 
which the ridges are much broken and heavily wooded, and 
rise from one to six thousand feet above the valleys. Across 
these ridges there are but few roads passable for wagons and 



450 ' NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

artillery, and in the valleys there are many marshy places, 
especially so between Munster and Suhr. 

The following troops engaged in the maneuvers : 
Fourth army corps, Colonel Kunzli commanding. 
Corps troops — 

Two regiments of cavalry, three squadrons each. 
One regiment of field artillery, two battalions of 

three batteries each. 
One Maxim company. 
One bridge train. 
One telegraph company. 
Two engineer companies. 
Two intendance companies. 
One provision train. 
The corps had two divisions, the fourth and the 
eighth, each composed of: 
Two brigades of infantry, of two regiments of 

three battalions each. 
One regiment of field artillery, of two battalions 

of two batteries each. 
One engineer half battalion. 
One field hospital. 
One company of guides. 
One section of bicyclists. 
The foreign countries were represented as follows : 
Germany — one lieutenant general, one lieutenant colonel, 

and one captain. 
England — one lieutenant colonel and one major. 
France — one major general and two majors. 
Italy — one captain. 

Netherlands — one lieutenant general and one captain. 
Austria-Hungary — one major. 
Russia —one major general. 
United States — one major. 
All were well mounted and handsomely cared for as guests 
of the confederation. 

SEPTEMBER 11. 

To-day begins the maneuvers of division against division. 
The supposition is that a Northern or White army located 
in the district Entfelden, Granichen, Aarau, is ordered to 
move against Luzerne; the main body in the valley of the 



MANEUVERS. 451 

Suhr, with the fourth division on its left. This division is 
ordered to march through the valley of the Wynen via Kulm 
and Munster, its infantry not to cross the line Rutihof-Heids- 
berg-Bleien-Schwartwyl-Reffenthal before 7 a. in. 

To resist this movement a Red army (supposed) located in 
the vicinity of Sursee and Munster is ordered to move by the 
valley of the Suhr, with the eighth division on its right. 
This division is ordered to march through the valley of the 
Wynen, its infantry not to cross the line of Schwarzenbach- 
Niederwyl-Wetzwyl before 7 a. m. 

The following orders were issued by the division com- 
manders to cover these movements : 

RED. 

Headquarters Eighth Division. Munster, September 10 t 6 p. m. 
March order for September 11, 

1. The hostile army is situated in the district Entfelden, Granichen, 
Aarau. 

To-morrow the main body of our army (supposed) will advance throngh 
the valley of the Suhr toward Aarau. 

2. The main body of this division will march throngh the valley of the 
Wynen on the road Munster, Menzikom, Pfeffikon, Gontenschwyl, Kulm 
toward Aarau. The flank column on its left will march from Gunzwyl via 
Rickenbach, Mullwyl toward Gontenschwyl, where it will await further 
orders. 

3. The eighth cavalry will march at 6 a. m. from Maihausen to XJnter 
Kulm, where it will block the issue from the defile. It will also recon- 
noiter via Schmidrued through the Wynen and See toward Aarau. It 
will maintain communication with the main body (supposed) in the valley 
of the Suhr. 

4. The infantry of the advance guard will assemble near Maihausen, 
head of the infantry to pass the frontier of the Canton at 7 a. m., where 
the eighth rifle battalion will join its regiment. 

5. The main body will be in marching order at 6. 50 a. m. on the Neudorf , 
Munster road, head near the chapel, and will follow the advance guard 
at a kilometer distance. 

6. The left flank column and the ninetieth battalion (outpost) will pass 
Richenbach at 7 a. m. and maintain connection with the chief column over 
the Sterenberg. 

7. The combat trains will follow their regiments. 
The troops will march in the following order: 

Advance guard — 
Eighth cavalry. 

Left column- 
Thirtieth infantry, one officer and two groups of guides. 



452 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

Chief column- 
Advance guard, twenty -eighth infantry, one section of guides, 

one company of engineers. 
Main body (1 kilometer distance) , one battalion of the sixteenth 
infantry brigade, one company of engineers, eighth artillery 
regiment, rest of the sixteenth infantry brigade. 
Eighth division field hospital (1 kilometer distance). 



WHITE. 

Headquarters Fourth Division. Aarau, September 10. 

1. The main body of the enemy is near Sursee, with small bodies near 
Minister. Oar army will begin the march to-morrow with its chief forces 
along the Suhr toward Sursee, Luzerne. This division is ordered to march 
by Kulm, Munster toward Luzerne. 

2. The division will pass the night in the cantonments occupied yester- 
day. 

3. (a) The eighth infantry brigade and two groups of dragoons will 
secure the line Rutihof-Galmhof-Bampf ; fourth, rifle battalion and one 
group of dragoons the valleys of the Suhr and Uerke, and maintain con- 
nection with the outposts of our army (supposed) at Rutihof . Outposts 
must be placed at 7 p. m. 

(6) Two officers of the fourth dragoons to be at Aarau at 5.80 p. m. to 
receive patrol instructions from the division commander. Six noncom- 
missioned officers and four groups of the fourth dragoons to be at the 
Suhr station in marching order at 6.45 p. m. 

4. Until further orders the division commander will be at Aarau. 



Headquarters Fourth Division. Aarau, September 10, 6 p. m. 

March order for September 11. 

1. The fourth division will march to-morrow via Kulm, Menzikon, 
Munster toward Luzerne. 

2. The independent cavalry and one battery of artillery of the fourth 
artillery regiment will march from near Teuf enthal at 6 a. m. to the hills 
of Seeberg north of Leimbach to secure the debouch of the division from 
the valley of the Kulm. They will reconnoiter the valley of the Wynen 
and keep contact with the army (supposed) in the valley of the Suhr. 

3. The advance guard will march at 7.15 a. m. from near Reffenthal to 
Kulm, Reinach, Munster. One company will be detached over Bampf 
and Durrenasch in the direction of Homberg and Schwarzenbach. 

4. The main body will be ready to march at 7 a. m. on the highway 
Aarau, Suhr, Granichen. It will follow the advance guard at one kilo- 
meter distance. 

5. The right column will leave at 6.80 a. m. from southeast of Ober 
Entfelden and march via Engstel, Rutihof, Wannehof, Gschneit, Dornegg, 
"Waltersholtz, Rehag toward Munster. 



MANEUVERS. 453 

6. The division commander will be at Aaran until 6 a.m., after that at 
the head of the main body on the road Granichen, Kulm, Mnnster. 
The troops will march in the following order: 
Independent cavalry — 

Fourth dragoons, one battery of the fourth artillery regiment. 
Advance guard — 

Sixteenth infantry, one section of guides, one battery of the 
fourth artillery regiment, one section of engineers, one bal- 
loon company, one telegraph company. 
Main body — 

A company of guides, less one section; one company of engi- 
neers, less one section; sixteenth infantry; one section of 
artillery ; eighth infantry brigade ; division hospital. 
Right column — 

Fourth rifle battalion, one section of dragoons. 

Fourth Division Commander. 

The fourth (White) division commander sent his cavalry 
and one battery of artillery to occupy height 681 at Seeberg, 
and to secure the exit from the defile at Kulm. From that 
point the cavalry was ordered to patrol the front of the 
division. 

The advance-guard regiment marched by the road Rutikof , 
Wannenhof, Gschneit, Dornegg, and Walterholz. The main 
body moved by the road and passed the defile early. The 
eighth (Red) division was reported to be moving by the hills 
to the west of the valley. 

The eighth (Red) division detached the thirtieth infantry 
and a few mounted men to move via Rickenbach, Mullwyl to 
Gontenschwyl to maintain communication with the Red army 
(supposed) marching by the valley of the Suhr. The main 
body of the division marched through the valley of the 
Wynen via Munster, Pf effiton, G-ontenschwyl, Schoren toward 
Aarau. 

The main body (Red) was inclined to the left, and about 
8.20 a. m. the fifteenth infantry brigade (Red) was united 
near Geisshof . The cavalry of the two divisions passed each 
other without detection, that of the Red division west of the 
Wynen and that of the White division near Seeberg, east of 
the Wynen. About 8.30 a. m. the White battery at Seeberg 
was detected, assaulted by two companies of the advance 
guard and captured. The three remaining batteries of White 
artillery came into action near Zetzwyl in a good position for 
long-range fire on the enemy advancing near Gontenschwyl. 
At 9.30 a. m. the fifteenth brigade (Red) was in action, but 



454 XOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

the White division threatened the Red left flank with three 
regiments of infantry and the fifteenth brigade was forced to 
retire. The sixteenth brigade (Red), near Geisshof, did not 
come into action. 

At 9.15 a. m. the four batteries of the Red division came 
into action near Reinacherberg, but were too far away to 
have much effect upon the White artillery near Zetzwyl, and 
the country was so broken that they were unable to reach the 
White infantry. At 10.30 a. m. six batteries of corps artil- 
lery were placed at the disposal of the White division by the 
director of maneuvers. At 11.30 a. m. the troops were so 
much mixed that the recall was sounded. At 12.45 p. m., on 
the supposition that the Red army had been defeated, the Red 
division retired on Munster and the White division pursued. 
Contact was soon lost and the operations for the day ended. 

The White division established its outposts for the night 
on the line Schlierbach-Emmet-Schwarzenbach. 

The Red division established its outposts for the night on 
the line Adischwyl-Gunzwyl. 

SEPTEMBER 1«. 

After the defeat of the 11th the commander of the Red 
army (supposed) announced that he would take up a defen- 
sive position on the Leidenberg to the west of the northern 
end of Lake Sempach, and ordered the eighth (Red) division 
to protect his right flank. 

The Red division took position near Wili, about 3 kilo- 
meters southwest of Munster. This position is on a domi- 
nating height with a spur extending in the direction of 
Munster. The northern end of this ridge is fairly well cov- 
ered with trees and extends to the highroad between Munster 
and Sursee. The east slope is abrupt and covered with trees. 
To the west of point 801 the ground is quite open. Farther 
to the west, point 852, across the valley is the southern 
extremity of the wooded ridge extending from Rickenbach. 
To the south of the Blosenberg (name of hill) is a spur, wooded 
at its southern extremity. This hill and the Rickenbach 
range constitute the divide between the Wynen and the Suhr. 

The Red division was ordered as follows : 

The eighth cavalry at Kommeln to reconnoiter Wetzwyl 
and Rickenbach in the direction of Gontenschwyl and Rein- 
ach, the company of guides to report at headquarters at 



MANEUVERS. 455 

5.30 a. m. for further orders; the sixteenth infantry and half 
battalion of engineers at 6 a. m. to occupy and fortify the- 
position in front of point 801 (right wing at Wili, left wing 
resting on the Sochten, Walde road); the eighth artillery 
regiment (four batteries) to take position at point 801 and 
prepare gun pits to fire in the direction of Rickenbach and 
Liden; the fifteenth infantry brigade (division reserve) at 
G a. m. to take position in the forest east of Wili, and to 
detach one company to protect the balloon near Romerhof - y 
the outpost battalions to withdraw to the main line at 
6.30 a. m. ; the balloon to observe from near Romerhof and 
to report to point 801. 

The commander (White army, supposed) determined to 
follow up the victory of the day before, and ordered the 
White division to force back the enemy in its front in the 
direction of Hildisrieden, Rothenburg. 

The commander (White division) gave the following orders :. 

The division will assemble in two columns, the seventh infantry brigade^ 
at Rickenbach and the eighth at Niederwyl. 

The fourth cavalry and the Maxim company will relieve the outpost 
line at 5.30 a. m. and advance via Witwyl and Helisberg. 

The guides company will reconnoiter in the direction of Munster and 
Blosenberg at 6 a. m. 

From Niederwyl one infantry regiment and two batteries of artillery 
will make a demonstration on the front of the position of the enemy at 
Munster and Wili. 

Three regiments and two batteries will pass via Rickenbach into the 
woods to the west and debouch ; one (fourteenth infantry) regiment on 
Hasenhausen in the direction of hill 804, and two (eighth infantry 
brigade) regiments to the north of Holdern, via Kommeln, Walde to 
reach the woods on hill 804. Infantry will not pass the outpost line 
before 7 a. m. 

At 8.45 a. m. the feint attack was made, but its weakness 
showed its real character. It was stopped by the troops in 
position. Soon after large bodies of troops were seen coming 
from the wood to the west. These troops approached to 
within 200 meters of the defense under cover of the woods. 

At 9 a. m. the eighth (Red) division was reenforced by six 
batteries of corps artillery, a brigade of guides, and Maxim 
company. 

Seven batteries were placed on the left center and the cav- 
alry on the left, all facing west. At 10 a. m. the White 
infantry, advancing from the valley, were attacked by the 
Red cavalry and Maxim company in the flank. These, 



456 XOTE8 OF MILITARY INTEREST FOR 1902. 

however, were repulsed. The main attack by the White 
followed. The fifteenth infantry brigade (Red) and the 
reformed cavalry advanced to meet them, but at 11 a. m., 
before the two sides met, the recall was sounded. 

At 1 p. m. the maneuvers were resumed. The fourth 
(White) division retreated in the direction of Kulm in pursu- 
ance of the following order from the commander of the White 
army (supposed) : 

A strong Red army corps is situated in the vicinity of Dagmessellen, 
Reiden t with a portion of the force at Nerketal. My communications 
being threatened, I am forced to retire to Schoftland. Yon will retreat 
to Kulm. 

At 1.30 p. m. the Red division started in pursuit. At 2.30 
p. m., however, a heavy rainstorm separated the combatants. 

The White division held an outpost line in the vicinity of 
Kulm. 

The Red division held an outpost line in the vicinity of 
Qontenschwyl, Zetzwyl. 

SEPTEMBER 13. 

The commander of the Red army (supposed) issued the 
following order, dated Tringen, September 12, 5 p. m., to 
the eighth division : 

1. The hostile army has retired to-day in the direction of Aaran. 

2. I intend to continue the advance to-morrow via Schoftland, Entfel- 
den toward Aaran. 

8. Yon will advance to-morrow via Kulm, Snhr toward Aaran. 

4. The outpost line will not be passed before 7 a. m. 

The fourth (White) division is ordered to take up a rear-guard position 
near the town of Suhr, connecting with a supposed division occupying 
Distelberg. 

The fourth division, therefore, took up a position extend- 
ing along the steep ridge on the south side of the Gonhard 
forest, from the town of Suhr through letter " h" of the word 
Gonhard on the map as far as the highroad Unter Entf elden, 
Aarau . The fourth division commander had his troops in posi- 
tion at 7 a.m., four batteries well masked at the east end of the 
ridge covering the valley of the Suhr for about 1,300 meters 
and the valley of the Wynen for about 4 kilometers; the 
seventh infantry brigade from the town of Suhr to " h" in the 
word Gonhard ; the eighth infantry brigade from this point to 
the highroad Unter Entfelden, Aarau. A flank detachment;, 
consisting of the fourth rifle battalion, occupied the little 



MANEUVERS. 457 

wood to the east of Buchs. The cavalry was ordered to delay 
the march of the enemy as long as possible. The streams were 
swollen and the bridges were supposed to be destroyed or 
prepared for destruction. Roads were constructed by the 
engineers through the Gonhard forest toward Aarau. 

The fourth Red division commander formed his division at 
Gontenschwyl and Leimbach in two columns of equal strength, 
and advanced along the Wynen valley by the parallel roads 
on either side of the river. At Kulm, about 8.30 a. m., where 
these roads converge, he learned of the disposition of the 
enemy and sent three regiments of infantry and six batteries 
of corps artillery from Teuffenthal via Reffenthal, Hochspuhl 
toward Eien. The other regiment of infantry and four bat- 
teries of artillery continued along the main road toward Suhr. 
Soon after 11 a. m. the corps artillery came into action from 
the crests of Strick and Hochspuhl. About noon a battalion 
of infantry appeared at the edge of the wood directly south of 
Suhr, and a little later the divisional artillery came into action 
near the wood to the southwest of the town of Granichen, 
directly under the artillery of the defense. At 1.45 p. m. the 
Red infantry (three regiments), having made its way through 
the wood to the east of Suhr, waded the Wynen to attack the 
left flank of the White position, and at the same time the regi- 
ment of infantry on the main road made a strong demon- 
stration. Both these attacks were repulsed. At 2.15 p. m. 
the signal was sounded ending the maneuvers of division 
against division. 

SEPTEMBER 14. 

Sunday, no military operations. 

september 15. 

Maneuvers of the Fourth Army Corps against a Combined Division. 

On the evening of September 14 the initial situation was 
announced as follows : 

The principal forces of a Red army have arrived at the Boz- 
berg and the lower Aare. One army corps (fourth corps) 
coming from Olten has reached the district Aarau, Hunzen- 
schwyl. The heads of the columns of a White army have 
reached the line Stadel-Dielsdorf-Weiningen-Dietikon. 



458 NOTES OF MILITARY INTEREST FO