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Harvard College Library 

Prom ihc library of 
I Harry A, Wolf»n 

CUti of 191a 

ihin IJitaucr Profmar of Jlc-brcLv 

UlcrdiLirc And Phtlo^jfihy 

HArv«r<J University 


9ty Cnnttit of HcbraicA and Judaic* 

p the 1 Jarvard CoiJege Library 










VOL. It 




(tin* ^orl 

111 ntUKlH AVRNUR 


















Wt hupf t^id thslvx "i^it thooa Idie mt/in,ia^ that lAr mmji it that teM:A 

tkf^H^Xlrfst^ai' fointi trul. But ttow ktlUr 'rtg*r rfi^ei*'' tiftttwmfi' Wkat 

m^jlti il ' J)t4 wi^X f^aimt' * iyhal u ti ihAf ^ fMs ri^kt r/oion' kai in vi^tvin 

fiM»t ^^ '*" /*"i"' r^tAfr liAdfT fH Mjtf HI *eht mt-t" ' f TAe mmi.tdr*^ far 

«44«i/A, in i^ttin^ki4 i/vtraiM€H/, tnun kavt ivme UuitJaftS iff Ufiitun ttfotf 

hit mt^/. ft If frtttiial rA4 ttriitfs mutt tuft f>f l$e lit^ht er UMiotit. ^ujjtul 

Uu ri^M-l ri^tnta Jplm. it it frin fkitf tha /Jtlunt mttrt ^tt jm} ft'Aal 9 

tkiifiti fikftiifAn wnilii ^iHn&e—milJii' m^ri nfir Un: nil tkii ti frmi. ^M 

^ i4 t^ /f/iniet fMMtgA. St iff mnah it ii trmt t^uJ wt mmtt ^ftOMt M(f «/jb 

)p» Mf rigil rtoHtf itii4*U , iut nut Jt/aiti tMvugh- H't mttU tnaw di/mlily 

lAf r^iX r-MJMr is TAat is, n-Ay. gr m rdattan to ti-hai. tt 11 ■ ri^At ' 

Wt AoBtiiitfij^pritkal fAi vii^u/i f/ ifif taut at iftrfufr nf the mm-al iiixr't--itr 

aitJ ifirf$i4l tf tkt imaiUtt. I^'t fiat,* iHutmBdlAi merai vtr^mu /rf u ruv- 

yditftifl th/ MttftAftlui^htt jCrtt a f€Vi %fOtJs aUtit tht ttui j^ntK^l.^, W4 

Htm 1k^ ftjrt art mv parii «/ th ti/uJ. tkt fart jvkith hai 'tatvn^ owrf 

\t^ irrdiitniij /art. ^Vs'/c/ tti idh-i/ie t^e /i}rt itr^ttA AflJ rtttrnn i/ila [,1 1 Mfl/ 

ffitrr hf wJiiiA av ftrxttt4 nfftt'ury trwf'i. ftmt 1 i ' Jhat fy 'Tt-MirA rvf fi^r./itif 

i^mtMHffrmttntth-'/f^.J/tAttf^'A^licif i^rrtf italiy tHi/irtrt^ iMjrt must /*/*"/*>- 

t^Ujr dtHimtl foftittiii ^ tJke ietiJ rMtarrafly c^trai/nnf/iffg/f mjA iJaa if/>Jyfif/i, 

i«UB\^A{[V Mr/tyiW.'d i^rtiiM iimiin'irj hhJ AtHtAi/ i^tv/fiti /oiu/tf iirf/ vfit'tit. 

La u inti , [~; tkt Sikntr/^ /inuiCy. 'inii (i) i/it Caftu/mivt f-'atuhy. Jar Iff 

■ rfrtWinW and la tal.-uhu is ths tamr thittx- ^^ k' *>^ dth^fem ^honi uetts- 

aoryr^^ki. 7ktt*tl rtast «f tath nf tfwt fatutiitt niltUtkf 'tii^a**'' fftA^k. 

H't kj\^ to^t^fttf^/^tn. ti-fiatit Ikt virtue Jt/Huh, wr tk$ ita^tu^itk tmsiUiil 

mftr^rm iu /rpptr f^Ottitfi. 

Hl-4^] KaBsow(/'i»AJf^pp> iQp 10) poicia out that this book ha.iUS0b.13, 
tvo tntrciJuciionft, { i) ^v<l . , . S^vr^ j} 1, a^ 3^ and (3) rar li . . . 
tuCrmtf { 4. The moiivr* or ifit'Sf tvo imro(Tu<Tiom term, on fim 
inspection at leasts 10 ditTc-r. In {{ [-3 wc 41c loM ihui the iilcjil 
or ]a^v of the pcfrect cxcrci:^ of reason must now be examined, 

TOt- It, B 

Z BOOJC I'f: CHAF. 1 ; {$ 1-4. 

liaab.16, bccftUftc rcftson (u diHlii£ui:(b<-d from fcclinj;^ Ik the TAcnTiy which 
[rorccives ih« exaci potni where, in a given ca*^, Llie moral meiii Zj«t. 
The moral functictti of tPikM>n cinrHJU it wnuld apprif . be riRhily un- 
dcr»4f>ad ApUuit from llic i<icftl or W whi<h rrgulatcB ttfi npccuUUvc 
function. The ccmpleuon of the iloctriiie of the mor^ mean thiu 
teems to Iwr |irvwTiicJ Iv ihc writer of $$ x-3 stn tho JuMiAcuiion 
of & fonnal dbcumon of the J>ifnW of the ratEond port of the louf, 
lending Lip ro a drlinUtrin of ihe id(<al, or Iaw, of the perfect exercise 
of reaauu. But in j 4 l^*? dihctinsioH of tUr iiitellcclual 4«T-flf is not 
iniroduccil lU for the Mkc of the rip^ht unricr«(ai;<lirkg of chc mo'Al 
a/wm.'; the wrlier, having flnUh^d what he ha* ro s^y alxjut the 
ruoraL dp«ni^ niii]il; pnues on lo llie >ei:oad ciJorJinate pjii of hva 
treatise — Ihc dtscuseioTi of (he inkllccluat fl/Hnu. Ii fa to be notcJ 
that ihe i*'filer of (tie M. M- %.\'.yv^ rior seem lo have had § ^ before 
bim. He follows ihe wrilcf of 5f '-3 m intrxlu^mg (he discussiou 
of the inteiL«clual ipnal an necessary ta complcle the doctrine of 
mora! \'imie ; nee AL M- i, j^, 1 1 96 b- .| ortiA^ K vvip twp ft^*ri* 

f^r;rul, tai TMt rftfi*' 44^ <» nVif cot irrpl iti^ij, wl nt^ti {niitnit auTvr. (I>i 
«2 v^rroifi'V tutu rair d^^v loTVf ri /SaJnimtVf r^ fUr oZt^t iiVro') ri 

fyvT* Ar ^ivBirg:, «* nt rd £y«4yi ir^hKr^V^"*'- '^ ^^ tuwvrDf Jw^f'i' 
jXX' 'li'I /"^^i ^^ fl'iH flui4Tti^^inlB> iiTfiv LfytfjM, ivTVf "il f'ffl wC \&y^nt^ 
T4 <'iTTi* li Aiivuv iCAt fit fi ^^AVc Xii^ot ; diMyjiQiav irrfuir taTv/np^mtf itif, tV 

^1 rvn^ ihI trp6rtfH3f, £rt r^ ^«» nkV^t itrrl X^ytv J\ov. fa Ai riXo^r^K fi6putv 
r^e lifUX^t' XtJTui ff rfc Avu t^i* jfwtjKirU' fj-w t£ JKlynv T^i* /uS^o» i^ 
^I'i^t' ^■' '"• f^ f*" ^tiif^fVTiAOif T& A* iVxTTfj^DfKuir t.f.X. I'urthcr 
CD, (-1A -1/- [. 34- ir97 K 38-35), we liml him staling diMmctJy 
thiU his irciitjbtf h imip idv", ^nd ilefc^ndlii^. ilKiugli eloI uiihoui 
ftODic confu^ioi^ of (hoiigbt, ot perhaps of language, the diacurision 
of m^h In fiuci) a ircatisc — a*4i^^04if d' Tl* tiv ml ^itv/^iidf. did n' 
wtJi» ntfia* X<yurT*ir nul nuXinifr^i twin nttvytmrtiai virtp utnttint \tyontt, 
vri lufutf Vr ifpwtav pir nva oXXorpta cir^tfr Sv twai if 4ifi^i( ff VT'^ 

rovTtfi' it<j^7rL<Fj(«!i' or/a (V rw ejCt^ Tir^;:|tii'ULitfir 5mi. iml mTiyvaWK £/, 

ir ^xil ' ^''" '"^* ii>><^pfoi< Cn«y . , , ^^\'jt iwuotfutfo rove \Ayftvt, 

It ia riot * profiutk Uiic of ciiquir/ to titk which * mtioduction ' 
» ' Aristotelian/ ind which ' Eudemian/ I'liuv much maj be isid, 
hoMrever, by v^-^y of blinking out ihc Lmpllcaiioo of each: — j 4 

BOOK Vi: CJiAP. \ : §4 1-4- 


MCna lo RKvimc [hai Lhc SiBtcfEnflnN M)tnijn] ongUl to corcr tltc UM b. tS. 
wlttlie ground of human n.nurc, ihc inullcclual il>rf'fn" being «* 
mdupensablc ai the moml up^mi to tbc noble UTc, The uniiy of 

die ^prm*' ill Hie tntm'^tiiat liuviii^ btcii ibbuuictl uiiLi? fur all. tKi 

expkbiitOD U offered of Ihc tpcdixl connexion of one tiptr^ wiUi 
anoth^, or of ono ie\ of £pmi uith ^not^ii^r b«e : it li Lhoughi 10 b« 
enougli to aijongc them accordiii^f to ibc [>o|mlar]/ received ji^^ckiO' 
logical <tivi\ioris and to dc&cfibf lh<;m tn order uf> Ihoy occur on 
llj* liHl' j{ 1-3, on ihv otbrr b;in^, infiCrad of paKvhig. Ilkr { 4. 
wi^out comment from ibc dc»crip1ion of the moril liiHTut lo tbat of 
ih« inltllccinal npjr-ii; come forward wiih a reason \*hj' (he inicl- 
leciml AfiMTai ahnuld Iw di>4c:i]3^e<l ai nil : — tbcy arc lo 1>e dihcuwacd 
bec2UK Xhc Ji-tuaaioii oflljcm it r>ecc:ss4ry to complete tlic dr^ctrirw 
of ihtt moral mean. Whereat § 4 seems to present ibc moral and 
jnEel1pc:iUA[ ditr'ni as holding coiiirdhiiile ^hcpit in llie EK-ari£e. §f 1-3 
gi\it u;! a lexical bridge by vihich wc fccm lo pau from Ebe main 
ftObject of Ihe ifcaiieo— the mnril opcm;— to a eubordinaLo part — 
the diwtiiiKion of Lbe uilcllE-aua.T Jpivoi' — afipendrd a-i necesur/ to 
ihc conipcel>cnBiion oTtbe main subject. Bui if the true pobitioii of 
tht nrilcr of {^ 1-3 ic to be cflimaied fri^m £. Jl'. O. 3. ^H. 15) 
1141) a. ai-b. island ll \a f^fe,l lliitik. froin ihe Biriking HimTlailiy 
of kn|U»{c to suppo*^ ^^ ^^ ")< ^c misftprcKnu hiuiKtr, wbcn 
he Ui«fr— apparently from a ct^^jre for logir^ connexion betwten 
(lit pans of hh ire;i:i?e — infrodaets nti^vyn gx t/ ii w^rt merefy 
OMciUafj' te mcraf lir/iar, Jt t-;imioi be bJB real intention lo put 
CMMA on any inch fooling. The fframir or apor of tlie pr<>Bent 
pMttgcif identical with that of J^.^> 0-3- (>M5)< will, aficr all. be 
tht law of ihf moral mean, only because it is the bw or {deal of 
Enafi'i life, ncit ax Imnmn and ninral. bui an yoJJike, Reason iloe> 
tM)t oi&l (aft bccomcfl afterwards clear) lo accommodate ilsetf to ibc 
engencie* of tht moral life, and to [lerform ihe function of blind- 
inan'a leader lo piiMion ; lalher the moral life is for the bakr of the 
life of divine ^pecilation, as maticr ia for the ^akc of foimn Keaeuri 

tttUi^l rrf^ulntn pMxicn^ tb:it mnn*K li^v mny become ^ttrurfiif roG ^ZAwr 
— receptive <;f ila Ijuc foini, c;*pAblc of the con tempi at iiin and 
rrvicc of God. i ironMribe Uie vLhole passai^ i^-^.»,3.(H_ 15) 
1949 *' •'"b' 3fi. as l>Hng ratrntla! to the rigbi UTidersiandEng of 

£*, VV, vi. J. ^f t-'J — Vnrl A" t'liW Tir ^i>i Kijl iy ^'rr^, FTfiu^ Av Jm^ipur 


4 SOOK VT: CHAJ*. 1 : ^5 r-^ 

u^uf «(iL tijv tffwr I'll Tr;v itiptiftatt aui j Tfi^iJ ipvytft (iiat ffffiii j^fit^f^ututr 

' nXrj&avt uttl vkiyonjTfif tak rSiv tCrvxtfitorayt Jit fU^ tSf Tvir vfinpo» 

ikix^*1 tI uv I Xdyo;' rALTu }f iirrw &irrtft Ait at nt iv rtls fr<j;4 r^v 

J(ib curd r^t^ ivipytua r^f tdu ^hj^oimc. n^^ AifvAuv npt^ ArrrrruTDif jvl 

^xh^ (^^ (uvny At AitTq' oXXufr yu^ ff latfintf apx'l "^^ JXXur ^ 6>i<bii' 
rtunjB i< 'vcftu tmrirriy ovtw iT t^n tare r4 StwptjriKOf- «v yo^ Pirira*' 
TiKutS /ipviMf a Sti'ti^ oAA' tti ivwun if tpp6i^irit f'mnifTfi (Airrdi* 0< n ov 
Trtirt' ^liifntrrai d' fv /iWoii). <V<i mivuf yi cv^fui 0t!fuii, ^ris oiv 
auftpts Anl ffifTii Tuif ^vi7" avM^uf fr^kfjiTf* ^iX(4Tra r^v fnC Vrei' Avpiaf, 

^JTi^'t /^ TutUbtUK- tif fain auv Vit\n rrjt fcgAurriyijE^uiv, icfi] ftv ^ onun^E 

rw iwXit dya^», fi^TH fj^q^'pflp' » , . If I may >'cijtiiro ii> s^y so, 
ZeBcr hard!y does justic* IQ the place of ihe Sixih Book in vhe 
Erhks. fTxiir failing to coiuject lUc tptt^ oi nitonili of cliaji. i wtih 
Ihtu of ^. i". ©. 3- (Hh isV He rcgrarda tht- Sath Boole a* u-ritlcn 
Bienelj lo compleie rhe docirine of moral virLUe by an apcouni af 
0p<l*njffit— tJic otUrr intcllcciua! ilpirui being discussed only v-iih ihc 
view of dcfimnjf more ftccumiely die sphere of ^potijiri*. His words 
art iPh.drr Gr. ii. 2, [». 648 Ihird Kil.) 'All* udiisclie Mn^l^esiJin- 
mung, und mit ihf allc cthischc Tugcnd, i^t dutch <tic Bii)»4cht 
b«dingl- Auch fiir das VerM^ndni^s <]er eth^fichcn Tugtnd J&sst 
Hich duhcf die Frage nach dcni Wtst-ii dtr EitisJch: ntcht umgchcn ; 
tind ao bcfrthlirti^'t i^<A\ di^ni] AriNFotclc^i in> Kcliaicn Dudi »cmcr 
ElhJk mit detnBpIbcn^indiTn cr ci ilurdi Vcrglck-hui^ff milvcnvandtcn 
Eigcntichaftrn crl^ut^/l uud die: jjiakiUtlc Brdeuiurig dcr £^hiclit 

j L IikS &4 TVYX<t«'(**»" np^p*r ctpi^Hon^j <f. E, it^ iL g. 1 993 a. 

Ii-io, Z". ,V. ii. ». J. Gr-int inndaErM 6^/jd<li: >i;yot Ijy ' ih*? rit[hi bw* 
It IN liiipui'ianE ti> rcniCTnt>cr ttia4 Xv^.^e ia at oiicc ihc objective oidtr, 
and tbe faculif in man which pcfrceivi-« it When a man's passions 
;uv rrgulai^d. Kil naiuT<f ift a X^^r, or orgunimi, of the tolancc of 

BOOK VI: CHAP. 1: 5 I, 


which in all ill pcirU he i^i delicai*rly jiercrpiive by meUli Of hlf IIW b- >*' 

X^r, or rcaAoa> Sucb a man vtill know ii once where Iht mc&r 

point lies m a given case, bfcaLBC his ' moral conBdoiimeu ' -hift 

conitdoiipmttv of ihr 'riKhr lflw,'*ir 'Just prnpAnJon' of hU na:iirt 

will tell him, » healthy f:;tr]mg Iclls n tniin when Ijt haj eaten 

cocugh. But whai nakef lEic X^fy^r, or proportion^ iUclf ^pfiit^ or 

righl ? Ti ii «afe to answifr — ils end. What the-n is its rnd. or, 

M the wnier here ciprci;es it, its anmitf or «^i } For the »akc of 

wlal does httmAn naEure «xiai .113 an organi^in P Till v/e know thn 

we csimim minch clrfiTiitc- nipaniii^ [» Ihr phrnvf? 4 Ap4^ X^r. 

I^n Ti$ 9KoiroiJ Gran: saj-a — *'Emr*>**i ni drii^o^r ja ft i&ctaphor b. fll. 
from tuning the ilringt of a lyre. C/. Plato, Xjm. p. 309 B ml 
fwfiAAr^ ^ /yi^fuii. rgp Xi/,'Hr Xfi^^'n "^ iiutmokvtnfiri irt oGff 6 fmr^^ oCff 
T| fujTT]^ fTtrriMif Tf <Of 'jm^'ii rjr ov ^^im'^;^ fail' jf^r^owk' * . > I niTt Tnela* 

phor if Tim qiiiic in acc^rttancc with the other metaphor of 'lootTng 
10 the nurV,' buL in fjcl ihe term ncoirJf neeinst Lo hive Income ao 
jjtular a fonnala with Euclcmus as lo Li^vc lost its meUphoricftl 
:lation. By Atiitoile, ffjrom> was used ij* a pure neuphor . , . 
But in the writing of Kuijtmns It actum tjswI aa a ^dcntltlc tenfl 
cqurnlcnt Eo rtXut ^ ^ /J/A. /.W. iL lo. fo [i-e- ii. lo. 1117 a. 6] 

JbvX«t«Rit . . , The nimilar U'le of oy*or by Ku^Icmua is not Found in 
£rji. MV^ but sipp«an borrowed from the mode of wHlJTig in ihe 
-jI^Mies of ArUtolle/ Giant'* remaik lliat ' by AH^tolli^ anttwd}: wslk 
as a pure metaphor ' ih Enie, 1 thinks only o{ two paFi3!.iK4:s in 
the so-called ArifitoiPlLin book* of ihe A". A' — uik, tl.ti. t ^ p^^tov fif 
tfr (tvoni;((ir nD tficnov^ and i, 2. if froAinvp rnf '>rni 0KDiT6f f^w^t. 1 11 

ifac CDC Other place in vhich the word atrrtrSt occurs in these 

bOOlia'-^ii. "< 9 ^'^ ^1 ^'"' <Ttti<fipirfiit tA ijTifitftifntfiv avfttfiranlif n^ 
MyT' avuirAi >>rV J»>4r>u' t» ic<iAd»'> it .scci»>t to be U-sCtI in lnUc:U the 

Mme w*ya» in A' J?, it, 10. ia?7 a.f quoted by Grant. The »amc 

Vny be Biid of IfH use in If&fJ. L 6. 1363 ;l 17 Jwii Ai ir/KUfiTni n^ 
v«pj r«f trpur r^ rAof '.r^.. aiitl of tt) UB« in /W. A. (11.) 13, 1 331 b. 

WXu ^^uiifrair TT^m *;T».'iT«n". Ilerc Mtrcl/ wc may borrow Grant*! 
wor(!» at»out the Fudemian irnwrrt'c, anrl say that ^ Aristalk v«nrdi 
b used as a scicniific term cquiMilent to rcXni' — nlthough, v^'hen two 

6 BOOK VI: CHAP. 1 : 55 r, 2. 

1130 b^ IS, lines below he uses it fLg^in, h^ ^cnis Fo remember its mctnphoncal 
Cfunicter — *■«*"* ^^> / jin* ff*mr^ji imrtirai rn\^v, ■f Ai »^ *rpftTT*i>' tsu 
rvxiii* u^TDt ^(fitfq/iTaj^pvinv. Bui m £1. K.'x- 2, 1214 l>' 7 ^' '^ ^^^^ 
ftlso UEtfd nri^lapboricarii'?- -Jir(it«j t^i* Ai>fi»i^M<iii f/i* nnth r^if iiipn^v 

therefore to be noliim^ in Grant'* \-icw thai ' By ArUtoilc onan^t 
was ijftcil a* a j.u:rr mefspbor . . , bui iti xhv wrMng of^n»i9 Ic 
wcnfk5 iMcd &> a ficicniffic term equivalent to trXuvH' Ikith 'Arii* 
tolle ' and ' F.udt^Tntie ' uee il a^ a meuphor* and both uw it a« ft 
!icirtifiRL- rcrm rquivulr^til to vAvt. Ai for ' dir similar uw of fyo^ 
by £udemu»' iL is true ibai Lt ' Ea not found tn llic /TM, Xk* But 
Grant aiimtis ihni \\ occur* in the Po/t/t^s, The non-meUiphorical 
use of irn«r»( am! ipnt a* ' scltntlflc terns * in the SiMb Hoot of ihe 
£!thk7 seem? to mc to contribute Dcthins to the *o]ulion of the 
qtuAion of authorships 

b. U, j 3. JffTi U tA |iip <LT<tp oJtbt dXiftit n4¥, ttMr U n^A] 

Fritnche finds in tlietc wordtt a sttopg confinnation of bis view 
thiLE KLidcmuA is the author of this Book. He sa,ys — * eadem aunt 
verba de r<^ ^idem fcud, p^ 13^9 K ft: n»ift<iuain m £. jV. v^\ ha*c 
fonnulfl. An Ariilotclem *c ip*uni tam gravitcr tcprebeiidisic ^cn 
irimiJc c0t? ConLta turn, qui r«preh«Ddendi et coTirormnndj cmen- 
dandique locum >'ibi reperis*p viileiftiir, in rt|>ptcndit hac fotmol* 
aibi p]ai:ui»iic ct cfeditrik eat ei »iiiii]ibu« recentiortim phiTofioplioiutn* 
qui, (UiboiaephilotophicerUaddicti, quumquEied;iTiiprLncEpeschcUe 
melius Kibi irilH%<*re vUlrnlur, haec ut nauT^eam |^rne inovj^nt 
idcntideTH rep«Iunr. exempliB pf>»?i[ lUustmriH nisi odio^a aim exem- 
pla-' Grant affto nett in \h% words the protect of the dtnciplf 
axaiiisL hii mailer. He sayi-'This s^me ciprefrtion, v^iili ilw 
iflmc illiutraiion of the medical art, is repented £/k. A'uJ, vui. 3, i j 
\t^ 3 (H, 15). l)#f>b. 6] /* i^iif roif tfpfttf^n a^lix"^ vA iir A \t^. 
TPtVu A" /vtir fiuvrfp jv <' ri( ^i* tdu it'^i rV T/»f V 'urttfP wc 7 iitrpcc^ 
■CIA ^ Xi^yob r«^r, lo^m d* 4jXpjd>t )«it, fv mn^t Ar » < - In tbc pTOCHt 

place tbere h an appnrenT protest against the indetinilencu and re- 
UlivtEj' uf AiisiolIcK iiHJrdi thcuiy of '* die m^an " and " Jir law." 
Hudemua docv not seem (according to the siaieucni bcrc) content 
10 givi^grrair-r eipliclintiis to the uloa of the ' law" by ihe develop* 
ntiil cf llic idea vi the viric niori wbo is Ii» inipcr»onntioii. But 
he atlu (acpar&tiiig crinHTif rind a^wi from (he X^y«i)» *' What is tb« 

BOOK VI: CHAf. 1 ; {M- 3- 1 

iTfirlc to which on« poKMsslng' the law mjiiX look?" "What h the 1100b. W/ 
tondard <sf iIjc b* ? " In T^alriy t)if ^e que ^lion** get no aniwer. 
Tlvty only cloud ibc nubjc^ct b^ tnTfVHlucmg a cofLfu^bn of formuUc.' 

But V« the WOrdfl dA^rfrc fuv avM^ ar ffittfr^ lOO Slrong 10 bf UbCd by 

a writer »peakmg oF liiins^irf Surdy nm. if wp ma}' jud^f* firun 
Wfl^ /\tj/. ii. T<r. ICO A- 14 (qooE^d by K.imsaucr) t ^ f\*x^'t M* 

vdlw, itv <r0^vr M A<^. fii^ii' ffirvjjff, Or trOiTi A\ N^ \. "j. 9 JXX* 
VaA^^i ft' iVip^Vv'fjot r^ /irrifr frt A«j[fi^»au Indccd in £'. £"1 O. 3 

(W. 15) 1^49 b- 3-6 (quoted by Frit/sche atid Grant I) vc lind 

Kudcmia cm iwiiug hiui&clf ' iti worda ideniiLid widi tlit>*c in which 

<ntBschc itnd Oram bcrc ncc :hc protest of the diKipl? a^^iinst his 

A^2tn, la CriDt rishi who: h« »ay» that the quntionn — 'Whal 
m the miTk 10 vhich one poRBCKatns the law mufei look ? ' — ' What 
ft lh« ^landnrd of rh« Uw ? ' g^r no aniLwpr f Surely i\wy da ai the 
end of the £"- Jt"-. where the ipuv ifiB (aXuaJyudiV is dcicrmincd, and 
in the Tenth Book of the £. N. wh«re the ffint ii^tpTnir&t is dincuL^aed^ 
fl l« tnie howpfpT thni in ihp ^listh Book itself wc g^t no anewer to 
them. The Sixth iJyuk mctcl> prepares us fi>r the answer by 
CODoplctinjl: the dclJlilcd account of the aptrai of the 'mov^'ior. 
When the tmou&olot ha« b«f«n once placeJ concretely before us in 
the Julnest of hfs atulbkilra, ^fe ^hdill then be in a pouiiuii to 
apprecuite the definition ol tiin Ipca or ff-uwrii — of ihc ideal for 
which he li^cit. U tnay ho rhai m the undispured NLcom.icheiLn 
Books more value in altactied to lL;c living example of the irvovtalot 
than 10 a formal definition of hin ntwot — as, we have it at the end 
of the f JT, (lee noce on F. X. li. 6. 15), but §0 far a« a formal 
accoxinlof iheideitl 1? aivcn in the undisputed NlcomncheHin Ijooks, 
ll doe* not teem (o diElcr rVon) that given at ihe «nd 0^ the £^ £* 

In £- N. X ihe illcal I* »if' oarv itAixTat Muvurt^nv «■ iTriiffO ■Otfii' ir^ 
ti ^ urA tA i^JiincrTQ/ t4ii' ^p a&r^ (f, W, X. 7 &}, and t]lc fnan WJK) 

acts up tA it u jirn^iXt »niTDr [x, 3- 1^); 10 Ji\JC^B. [H.} the ideal is 

tiiw ^bm fir,vmiinuf rm fltwptii', Thih latter formula is <^[i\li^ 'Am- 
hXclism' in subiiancc ; and it maitcra lUtk whether il owes its 
phrueology to ihc ma^^rer himself or to a disciple of the schooJ- 

f 3. tiA ftfll . , . ria Ipof.] A moral mle— /,^. * Be moderate in |>, asL 
your p]cA*urea' — cu^not be interpreted aright apart from a correct 

* If he ivn^tff H- // vi.oM yrftrichu ujd t^nnE hold. 


JiOOK VI: CJiAP. 1 : 55. 

1130 b.3S. vJewof ihr iJfa) orcliiefendof life. As InTerpT^led by an Kpicurean 
(lib rule yioxtXd mean — ^%uy->y yourself as much a& >yu can 
conejttenllj' \vjih y<iut own hi-alih and pctue of mind.' But Ihis 
wouk] be eicess from \hc Arisioidian pomiof view; such ^njoymeni 
WOVU hinder rA f^^ uri riV HfMrurror tw» «V ov^f - Wh:il ihc wri(<T 
of -^"^ A', vii. 13.4 says of ■vTi'jfiaishere virtually said of |i»fft>';t, vie. 
rpAc T^t eiSSttLpn'rai' rj ^/ific QtT^r— tljp li^-lkD poini In (^vcij-case is fiicilj 
where it ii iixcd, bcciusc ihe Chief Good is what it i.i. What ihcri 
is u; The answer fiiiilly given is — TheestrciMT of ihc Spcculaiiv* 
Rcjiwti. But befcrie this answer can be given, the raiiaiial {lart of 
the 90u.t> aa ft vvholc, miiiil be examined, and enpcdally the Pmciicnl 
Rra^on — ^fift^ins — bolh because ir is that niarifeclation of Kcaaon 
uhicb \s ^FupL^vTt^k ^Hti-. anil because it must have perfornieil 
i\& function of raUonaliainj^ ihc feelings and desires, before the 
Spcctilative Reason can engngc, 'ivilhom trnpe^iiuent^ in thai 
activity \A &ttrpia H'Mdi b ihc htghcaC eipce&aion o( tttaii'^ nalure^ — 
t\^ tbc BnnI cause of his bdrtg. We have seen chat ilic object oT 
this speculative activity is *Goil,* and that the mnr who engage* in 
it h fffo^uXiirraTdE- ft may be uiid then ibj^t, in tltetr answer lo 
the question rvir/m lis Sfffs, the Aristocclianj mamtain that the 
ulrfmaic moral i^iandard in given by ihr^ rebgioti^ consciousness;. 
The opoi r&/v i^tforitTav ^ivcu \>y tfrpirtfcu. at Uie Practical Reason 
{e/l ^ it A ^^Hftot ifflimrr J^. I\f, U. 6, 151 and ffit ^ lora rd' 
ip^p >i\yni', Ofl^t A' ^ irnTri v^a fjtptiptjiriv v{. 13. ^) ia not the uitimaif 
ipEandaid, ticeau&c the po^iljc^n (^f i^^;;uii in the Inc^a^chy uf 
fscukiCG tft Lbat described in /'. A^ vi. 1;), A — oXXd ftr^v «v34 nvpta 
V /0*ij' f fpff^iTtc r^c 4ro0(Vi( c£^< nir ^lAr/omr ftopioti. Sutfup ov^ 
r$f i^tiJflF If JurpicrV f>^ ytp X^'^''"* "i^^i ''^ ^^9 (hut yi'^frm' titiiprrr 

<^iif apx'" '*' "'^I'l ^< ■JTH'iJrT*! flt^l niivTii ri t'r ijj iroA*i: ^ K. 
B> I AfirrVpwf j^ ^ JTffi^ r^V JXXijr a^t^ CifX 

Tbii note may be biouphi to a close with a wferenc* to % aoie 
of Fitlr^lic an f- JT. ij. 5- 1222 ti, 7-8^ in which he nuuntair^s ihe 
view againi^t which 1 have beeti arguing— that the ii A* * ^fufn^a^ 
dp4rtm of iIjc £. A', was put forward as an ullmaie ttardard 'by 
Aristotle/ aucl thai it was kft ilj Eudetuus Mo curittl Arisiotl^.' 
by sbowir^g that il ia not tiltimace, but dependent on the «^i r^ 
■nXofldynffirif : my conieiition being that 'Ariitotle' fas ve must 
conclude frcrm the ^ubordi^ale place which he uaign» u> the 
4^in3 apfrnd al amv t^- ^f7<^»^nr in £'. iV, X. S] doGS noi regard the 

nOOK VI: C/fAF, 1 : 55 3-5. 9 

At Ir A 4^p^r4^or ipunitr a» an ultimate standard, bai as dependent U99kH. 
on a *utKJard which it ;d«mic;(l with ihe 'Kudemian' *por r^i 
mka^Ayodtat — thni, in shtiri, xhrw Is un Lllffcrrncr tvrwrrr ihc 
poaitiona of 'Ariatotlc' and of 'EuJcmus' with regard 10 ibe 
ultintatv Handard- Frittsichc'* noic, which ihnu raisM a very im- 
]xjtfiBJtt (jiiciibn resf;ecijn|j the tJilTefr-nce bct^vyen ' \thioi\c ' and 
'Eudcmus/ vM] be found on p. 4^ of hii edition of the A'^h ^. 

dX^6i] K»>rAld, If. 

{ 4. «faf«i'] /,\A\ V. I. 1339 9- 3, ^'. yi^. i. 13. 19, IISO fc. 

{ D. np^r«)jur] J^'.^. ii. 4. t jji b. 37, ^, jY, 1. 13- 9. •■ 3- 

AXeyot] After this word Spcngcl {Arrti. SfUif. p- 31 r) TOpfM^g** •' ^ 
lhat ttt ^^fi fl(<upifffui ri ^Lry>r, cf noids It) sucb cfTcct bjvc fiiUcn 

out ; bUl the »<uppoaitic>n 14 UnnCCeASirV. T<^v hvtAp rpAtrn^ ttnipfiJow 

relaiCB 10 ftiT ffmi fjffnj tifr ij^vj^^r. and ihr writf^r ineant that, im rhe 
+v;(ihas twtj pari* — tA Xi^ttx'" ""d tA JXiryo^so ri XfJy™' '»'''' '»*' 

1(04 vironiitfOaj Biio t4 XcJygi- ?xo"*l T^lii* divJsSoo Is not (o be •> 0. 
confused wjEli ihaC indicated in A\ ^'. ji. 1. 1219 b. 28 bn'»riatf ' Aut 

iX^A Til piv Ty ^iruTfAr, r^ JV rip uri&iir&iH tul Jcavir mipvu/yat. and 
in A. ^^ i. 13. 19 fiTT^v 'imu fnS rii \aynr *xoi/s Tit fitr tvpitut kqi o* 
fi£r^. T* y fiirtrtp mi. frflTfmr ^wH'tfrnfd" t» In ibCSt" pa'«*ag« wi* liav^ 

fcally ttic nuin division of iIk- ^'"'^^ "ii<> JXcti-* ajid Ai>ju»' fj:"*> And 
onl)' jipfamuly u bubdivi&ion of r<^ \vyof T^or, But m the ^u^ngi.' 
before n« (vi. i. ^) ihr hiSyai^ ;;^ni/ rv/ttur Ml iu RLT^ In U«clf sub- 
divided into lIjc fjtuhy which apprchcnJa ibmi;:* which an; iicces- 
iftrily what they arc rd /t^ fV^;t(i>/<va oXXvf ■j^fii', ind ihttl \vhich 
apprehenik things which nrecotitingetiily whaT iheyar^ — ro ivAt)^^ 
liuB. For ihe distinction licl^ccn tA ^ iVAti^if^it^ f^vit txn* (^tA 
4J3ui, ri «f ti^iynijt <irrX£«) ind rA /t^^j/^M JXXair c;!'!*! (I^icrc stA 
■f 4ni rri *oAi.). sec notrn on iJl. 3- 55 J-G' ^"'^ ^' 3' ■(■ "^^'^ ^^^' 
liacLion, rcijarded by Ariatotic a» in ihin;:a, is really in our way of 
looking at ihif^^. There is no contingency in things, but tliere is 
oAen failure on ihi? psn of ofganir l>clng5 to cope with ihr com- 
plexity of the ncceiMiy lnwn which ihiuga obi^y. A 'ncccaaan' 
truth' K>-c^iied IB one of *^'bich ^vc become conscicin^ by the way 
of in[uitiDn^ Thus, ihe truth thai tht^ tlire? angles of ^ triangle 

■ CL Spinon't ^tory nf Stitntia inrtti/iva, £rJL U. 40 ; SchftL ). 


noOK VT: CHAP. 1 : } 5- 

us© », 0. arc cquni to two right angles is upptchcndcd by us as * ucctasarvj' 
tifcnufe we ^c thai, tn tltf? diagr^im before us (which rc^resenis all 
diat is rtscntial [o ;t utaiiglr^). ihcy arc [»ldnly tqual to iwo righl 
anjclca: we as&isi at the opcriition t^f superposing ihcm upon two 
adjacent angTpnj at>d s^^e (hat iht^ cover ibvm. Agiin, rhc tmih 
ihfli A thing cannot be at uncc this and not this ia apprc^iirndcd by 
us as ' necessary * as soon as wc look at an object and ^c plair^y 
thai it ha^ a ripfinitp nnrilnile— that a rose, /,^. is red, and nfW slso 
noi-icii. When, howcvtr, wc pass from this region of Jiiect 
miuition to ibal of forcefi eo complicated in th^li inccractjon that it 
Is Impnwihlr 10 i^leulaE^ more than roughly what evenis \\\\\ resuh, 
wc afc ni the region of tlie so-calicd ' couiitigeul/ The event* 
whEch J& rcfuit arc indeed ntceEsnjily what thry are — there is no 

* coniingencj' ' in ihrm^ an vie should ^tc jf wc could onmprehcnd 
aii llieir causes; but Lhia ^^r rithcr cannot ilo, or cUtnioL uait to do; 
for in most coem wc arc called upon for present tfr/Ztrw in relation 
to ihe'ie imppr^ctly iindejstoort future evenw, jind af»^ comju^llfd lo 
for^Tca^i. them u wc \xi^\ cvui. Uur aLtiiudc tiowarO:* cheni U diun 
not 'speculative.' but csscntiAll)' 'pructicd,' Tte apprehension of 

* coniingcni truih ' 1$, in short, "coftespond^nc* with environ men l' 
En apprehending ttiis kind uf iruih, wc prepare. &a wc Ik-^i can. for 
a future condition of ilie environment* which must aiwaya be inor« 
or IrsA ftlfhrLili to forecafit ; in apprehending ' neresKir)^ tmih ' W6 
xG pbinly eomcJiing which b iinincdiaLely prescnL *ConLingcnl 
truth ' may then be descnhed as that body of bdicfj^ and expccia- 
tiuns u|)on Ahiuh a being, whow life is * a correfpandence eitt^niling 
in lime*' acts on the whole sncccaafully, TTjc AriatoLcban God, 
whose life is a iuikele»8 intuitive function, perceives all thing) a« 
' npccRHary/ In m> fat sjt mati perceives ' npresiBary tn*ih,' he roo 
ui a ' spccuior ' of iIjc universe, and lives a divine life ; but, a» con- 
crete human being, he, m no longer a "speciaior," but an 'acior* 
engaged Xn u struggle' — at\ yAft «ohi rA i^av< — aiul in thiK struggle 
hi» human hfc is guided by hia perception of * conLlngCDt,' or. a* U 
may be calied, ' practical ' iruih- 

In the foregoing remarks 1 have treated rA Mtj^at*'^ AXwr ^x*" 
at being here equivalent to iA its aVt r& irnXu. Technically t^ «ar4 
rCntu aa v/el\ as n w< <tri rw wvM^ fall under the head of tA Mtjffytttm 
dAAoHe ix"^r ^^ <^^ ohvjously not lo be thought of here in a pusiige 

' See SpoigrTf hjtM., *ol. L p- jao, 


BOOAT VI: CHAP. 1 1 § 5- 


vUdi dodngui^hcn rRE-ukSci ^r knowlci^gc in relation to objects of 1199 b.^ 
koovlcdge. Td dff^ rvxit txt not objects of knowledge. 

vpit Y^p - . , Andpx*^ aAmtj Th« doctnne thai to penericilly ■, i. 

Caculucs is hc:c bucd hy Lhc writer on the hypoLhcais that know- 
lidge implies il 'stmilancj,' cr *kfnthip' between of>J«ct and 
fftculiy- This hypoihcAi« niccU ux in various fonns In tin- bUloiy 
of P«ycholoEO~. SoniGtitnc^ it i« i)ic nnalot-y of itic reflection in a 
mirror ^pc^hapl ivggpikd by the fjtt that v^c *cc by images 
icflcUi:<l iu tUc cyir). ulikli iiecmb to dcLcimtJic llic form ulildi llie 
hrpotltcti:! lakc^ Kno%vlc(lirv in the mind le somcthm^ in having 
which ihe mind hrtomcs Ulcc ihr objru which it knows, jusi ai the 
miirot, in rcClcttingt becomes like ihc oljet^l nliicii it ivflecLf. 
Under lhi« head may be brought thotc sncicm thcoriea identiHed 
vith the name* of Empedock*, Dvmoirilti^, and Epicurui, accord- 
ing to which i,uUjji (T^Xfl, mttiiipt*at. ^lufi^na, iio^es of thciLthdvcti 
ue Ihroun oil by objeclfi* tind panEnin^ into ibe ii^ouJ, bevomi: its 
knowledge cjf ihc^ objecrfi: and alno the vanoun modern llieoiiea 
of Rcpfe9cnt4livc ]*er<ccptJon, whuh expluin knowlcd^ Ly me^nn 
of Mdetu/ To n closely related claw belong the theoriee, both 
ssctfnc and modem, of 'impressions,' "trace*/ and the like, m 
which the mirror anaJogy haa been replaced by llie allied wax 
tad seal analogy. Som«ttmea agAin iht- bj'pochefiis yi^tntv^ak r^ 
^f/oi^ r6 fyiiAor appran In a form dcirrinined liy a desire artualty 
10 (denh/y die fatolLieH of the kuuv^irig mind ^vitll die objects 
known. Under ihi« bc-ad come tho«e theories which assert thai 
the mJnd ia iiwlf ma^fr t*/ ihe cJ^menia {trtfux'^^)* "^^t'^r'al Of 
formal, which it pctcdvei in objecta: iiee dt An. i. i. 404 b- lo 

i^^ifr Tai/tvf, X«ywf vuTiit 

■U^V^i A' qltfc^ Aulf, UTUp fTtfil nvjJ Utfl'TXlA', 

pffA;, a^4 ^rr to fipo*' •£ n^iyi rift tw /vAe tAiar Ail rw irfji^gu ^'^"vt 


BOOK yri CHAP. It 5 J5- 

^aCiivf ii6iaift ala0iiatv Ai ™r roii tntittoi: All such :il1cmj)lS ID 
ciplnin how mind and cjilemal objecEB con be brougtl into tht 
conuct of knowledge arc iJte. Tlw gulf, which ihey woulrf bndge 
by 'inmn«s' ami ilic like dcJcs n<it exist, Kitr^wing faculty und 
objrct known arc not I'S'O separate cmilies. Each exists only as 
ihe rotrclflje of the other in the organic whole of knowledgr. 
We cannot go behind kiiovvictlgc to find (here somctliing yi^o^K- 
^irf^fr by means of which lo explain il. What seems lo be ao 
'^Kplanatior la invanibly it meraplior, fiiTcd only tt> conceal from 
an our iruc problem— the raiihrid dcicriptioii of ihc organic whole 
ftA it h aciuilly ^rivon. 

The view K't&' oii'ntWrjtfi rEKTi ffm airrjar^rff ^ ytMftt. SU^opfcd tieTC 

witlioui demur, b bubnuLCed to letjgdiy cnlkisni in the r/r vfn-i Jintt 
(inolJy accepted only in a modified form. Jn cfe Ah. i. c the point 
ftrfti innlETod upon i^ thai \i U nor c-noi:gh in mnbe the* ^jfi roncnin 
merely the foMi matetia! evix*'"* which it perceives in cxtcrntJ 
objeci« ; it mn^i aho, if the view la to be conFisienily hold, coniiin 
ihc mTinifoh! ^*yo(, or in-¥6mtit^ in which ihrvc ffTni;^i*i arc combinefi 
in ibe objects I and this is rej^^rdcd 'M ^ rfiutfib aif ii^ruri^un 
of the view m the crude form m which il in held by Empedocleu : 
upe tf/ An. i, 5, 410 fl.. 7 i>i^iv nlv iiip4\ni Jv4ivtii rh <rTni,^Mo r'f r^ ^'T^. 

n ff Atrjfivi' 7 rdf £t*Ppvmu' wA/v, «J ^ mil TnCf' fWrnAi, rpiro if Sri 

■a] fTf^i •.^Ji' -UA*.!-. The more rffint-d form of ihe vii-w, aecocdmg 
to which ilw mind conUins not the marerUl, hut the fotmal oroc 
jftM — t.t. the categories wbich ii perceives in thin^, is next 
ciimined, ond divmi^i^cd — for the mind cannot perceive these 
oTwjtrtrt in tilings eiiher hi viriue of containing ihar M'hich H 
common to ihctii all (the cAteicorJcs having nothing;: in common, 
being ultitniiie ywj); nor y^i In virtue of contstlning oliriii^ irojo»v 
iFftTdi". uiid djc JeHt *e|fiirjipty. inasmuch a* 11 in iiself owfa. and 
a^rfio cannot be built Up out of elcTncnia which nrc not Mib^lantiaL 
Jf, rg. ihv mind ■ conrains " nwrrf*, or it tompoieJ of wwA. ir muK 
be iTHTbh Again the vievi is inconsistent wilh the fundjmrntal 
truth that ' hte tarn*^ Sf agetfed by like " — 1 ijulh which is r<h:ffed 
to in rff ,4ff. ii. 4. 10. 416 J. J9 in connexion trith tinm'iion (the 
giArallcl between nuiriiion and knowing is an inicrtshng |joiiit in 


SOOK VI: CffAP, 1:5 5- 


ihe Ariitoieliftn paycbology). jind in«(«tod on ^cnlly in dt ff*n, // iiae r n. 

<7iV' i> 7' 33J b. 29 i\V 111(1 gv t£ Tii;t:">' ^^'^vw nAaxtw nut noitir. 
«jXX viKt i) ifum'tf iirrii' f ivw/rwatv cgri, ^Jniyc^ ciil rv ituinin- tal vu 

■.rJL In Jir An, ii. 5 llie view is subjecltrd [o it stcconil critic-LHui, 
lhiOuj£h which AriaLoik p^s^s loihc ataicmcnt of hin o^n po^lLion. 
Jf ft MD^ (rA dlffOfrMn:*') jb hkt iluE %vhich il perc«]V«i4, why (foes it 
noE ih^n pcrGci^c ilsii^i It (Iock noU which fhowi^ ih^l it !:< a 
poitntiitlity of perceiving (which only Lcc^omca actual under Uic 
Kifiurnce of ihc iiinitJu* supplied by an external objcci), not, 
AA vht: a^iitiv viittlt^ i^jctuy nittkcb iX, [lie /^fin^' ^fk/i^rc/— <ihc ivEuil 
'e»nh,' the aciua! *iiufl<ir,' It may be compared to aomcthing 
comhuttihlc vhich does noc fteniaLly burtt till tlrr is applied eo ii. 
As ibc combustible is noc f re. buE bccomct iicry, so the mind, 
unlike the object which iHcctS or irnpreitLea it (for othi*rwu« it 
could no! be afTireteLl or imprr^M-tl). when once atf<?c:cd nr Im- 
ptewed, til like le: «ec tk An. i\. .1. 417 ^- 17 "'^^'^u At n^aiu <ul 

AfuUDV nff^t. i(7n Ai ^< £vru rou Jpnfjtjfnv, fa^jufp ftim^v" irao)(ti jtJir 
|i^ T^ an^mnr, Kwitor&tt C f^tijt lortr r . , ^ 1 8 d. 4 vuiriit ^<r uSv n£^ 
Jv, *moi^Jt (T upiiwnt* irpii Jitvim 6t4f aWiw, This tli^n i^ the 
lifird fcirm in vhirh ih*' o^niosp i^uni'i)) hypothesis i^ accepinl Iti 
the dt yifl. — a fotm in which she influence of metaphor id a& plaiti 
4A tn liic cruder forniH of the hypothciiifl, upon the crilictHm of 
whieh U Ul built. The ArisfoLelJji] ihi^orj' of sensalion^ in fact, 
from the wax and *cdl metaphor r see tte An^ \\. i j. 424 &• 

M Mtx caniwt be imprcAfied hy & uoft HubMance like iL&eif. but^ 
bdfig impressed by thitl which it unlike itself, take« on the ljlccnc«« 
uf that whiib imprnbea El, kt llic mind l&kcs on tlio likcructM of 
objects which ic knows. Vet the metaphor* awurnin^* an it 
i, the !pppiTaie ?KL&Eencc of two onlines btou^hc into mcchnnlcil 
rcUlion lo each oilicf. dues not biinl Aiisloile's spec utat ion. a» 
■LDiilar mcULphom seem to have bound the pv ycholo^ laEA whom he 
crttldse* Th* pwwt-rful tnsinimenT of thought which he wields in 
n pyiDSOphic^l l^ngUd^c. enables him to |tass beyond his mr.iA' 
't. The eniplo)Tni.-m of the dJatinciion bclwocn AvMifki* and 
Jripy4nt en^iblcs hirn Eo tee that* afler all, th<^ two eniilieii of Ehe 
mcUphor uc rc^y two corrclaEc^ — aji apcrvu which he formulates 


ROOK VJ: CffAP. 1:^5- 

ph\hi<^p-hic\il jioiition; but on ihc wtolc he is tiiisfied wiih hi* 
uicCupbui , ^hiclip it mu^l be silmilLciJ. iAca 4ccuijiil uf Lhc duulily 
in kiio*'lcdpc, »*hich some of those who ins»isi upon lie uniiv, wt 
inclined to aiake W> llLtie of- 

Kow lofvtuin Mj JT. -VI vl i.g. In what sc^sc Ik iIlc facuU/ which 
ft|jprcbviidij*M»Td ttliitbttro nectEainly wUtil the j* arc ViH*tf ihc*c J*tu, 
iuid the r^uhy which apprchccdE ' 3>^a which arc coinmgcnit)' whtu 
they ait ' like ihcsc S»ra ? TJie au^wi^r is tliitt, ou AnsioicHan prin- 
ciple^ the faculties in cxefcise arc not merely hkc, but idcnLical 
with the objccu 38 perceived- Th<r hftt%, ih<>lr objects* are in both 
CBAea rtlatiifnu i\e. HvKit, whose ' entity conhisti in tbeir indrllit^iljilUy.* 
Thai Btmipia, or the sclcnti&e focuhy in cstcrcisc. u idcnt'cal with tbc 
iffoi^rj^ir \s a doctnnt^ of ilit #kl>?!£t reach fn ihr Artfrcielian philo- 
Mplj>. Mil} ib often inst^;cd upon: r.^. i/r An. HI 7. 431 a. t r* 

4' dbrj itr^wij Mt' t>-«/r^M»' ffriiT^^Lif Tf irpayt*wti: if. 4e An. \\X. 4- 

43c a. 4i Ui 7. 431 b. :ii. Bui vhai Js ihu« said i^r the ecj^n- 
tific latulEy ix true or all racuUtCji. In active cjierdsc :Iie/ ftrr 
all identical wiili ih«ir objects— roi tbtir true objccie aro 'lAij, 
construtiifimi of their owti atliviE/* " relaiions \j\\\<\\ tTic mind sera 
up\' wlieilicr il be in ecnutJon, in practical ddibci&tiojj. or m 
4lr«/>Hi: sre j/iT vJn. iiip 14, 4^1 U 31 4 ^v;(^ rd ^m irvr /rrflf' irj/rs 

>a/> JJ n*V3i)Tcl rri owro ^ W17™, IffTi V i^ itUTti;tirj tait tu a-nitrryfrii «■•(, q 

«4i 4 at^tfifffAt 4tr TO pfayfiOTB. ^ fiir li-mtf^i As AtM^iir, ^ ^ «'>TaA«;t*^ 
tit fWfAf^rior fff' dJ V'V^E *^ dlndr/nK^ tcol r^ rniTriv^niw^ ^vwWi 
ravTii Vtfri, fi ptV nriimjTui' 'w Br aiu^^rjrJr. viiuyif i' 7 tiuT^ fl vii ti^ 
itf^. ubTJ ^V <*^ ofl' oil ^Vfl o >i9(n ty Tfl ^;n^, iiA>a tu it&ot' <i*T< ^ 
^u;f9 ^fiffp if x'^ iTTiir not ybfi ^ \9\fi Zftytiv^v /rfir ■Ipy^ifuvi mil 6 Htj}< 
r&l ■lAur ca] 9 Aitr^crit «i^r cJa^tvki, With tlie ov y^ J \l^t ht 

r^ ^u;^, aX;l^ tA fZdoff cf ttii« pledge xnaj' be compflT«d Green's 
remark {Pfvlfg. pp. j6, 3;) Lbat'ua we pui>ue tiie ouai/ik of the 
operations involved in the aimplcBt perception of fact, we are uiiubte 
to detect 2ny re&idu:iry plienoRienon aiuounting to % face a< all^ thai 
can be hclJ Lo be |;ivcci independently of a combining and rclaliog 
iuliviiy, wh>ch if the antithevia betwt^en the work of the miiid and 
the vc>:k of thln^ be accepted muKt be ascribed to the former/ 
^ alM> Giccu'i WcrlU, vol. iiL. p. 179. { J8. 

ffooar v/: CHAP. 1 ; ^ 5, 6. 


The forccujing or calcuJAtinjc T^ltuIe}' in rucrciw will llx-n be IWO *■ •■ 
iikniicaT iviih in cbjwi— ihc probaliliiy of Ihc occLtrence of Lhc 
cveni about wliJch t^c forecui is midc. The probabiliiy Is noi 
a quality bclon^tJi^ to Llir cvtrui; it vs 'k JjuuUty giiucliifig ii> ihc 
tUiCHi^t of a mind r«ad>- tc vtniurc upon a certain line of flction '. 
Sfi lhc ih«orcm n wUai the linker plimly ftvn i{ ro b<;, /> 
tliouf()it VQ tlic ijrol^bility of itic occurrence of » ccrULin cvcnl It 
ibc rcaJincu to tCC In vie:v cf lE di^plajcd by tbc mui vbOM 
iterrest it i* lO make ii corrcci a forccwi a* poKEiblr. 

Wc lliiu bavc iMvo distinct f^cullica of Liu: ' rLLLiuii4l puu' — ii\^ 
of plainly B«fing tbc^ tiuth of th« theorems (fv <£ uptiyrri vi. 3. a), 
ftfid thnt of wivly forrf^mlng fuiurf^ occorrcncea (^^ toA^Dmv luii 
Ir^j^^u^rav vl. a- 6], c^h Qitturally relalol lo i\% object in the way 

T^ie vrircr of ibe ^. jV, give* u good commenury (Jti the 
^linaicti between the t^o raiiona! ficiiUicftp It ^vLll be obsi.-[vcd 
IbaiC be doce not trouble bim&clf V'iih ihe m^ff ii^r^rrTru 9 y^^atv 
rxi>!jniaion nf the distinctiufi—J/. M. \. 3^. iiq*^ b. 15 rrmM fl' *-c 

nvra AJ ^^icfr yt'vj'^ffi^^'i^ mptit Xp Jb- f?r^ tA ^rjpjo:' t6 rrrjil nl nfnf^r^ 
UB'']<r*i cai ^^»( QJa if yivacf'i Td iriir ^f^4>iHi JETTif. fAiru\*vt^t&tt y^a 
dvrm [Koij ff&v\fj mu\ w^^vl^tain row it^u^a i^ HI Tpufj*' ruLrra Jt' iartir 

{ 6. ri fuv tn^^rT\ttt)vMv ri Sc ^yivrtK^J Lht: * ficientitic ' fucully «^ 18, 
and tbc ' calctihlivc ' facuUy- 1 thmk Eha: Grant ie right wiien he 
taya lli&i fix itiiijn <ntairjit*>vu9v und Xvy<<^«(b' aa ihe^^jccur in t/e An, 
til II arc 90/ oppottcd to each other* as they are here. In f/r ^k. 
Ui. J I Ariuoile js diKii^ng ihe psychology of animal mouon^ wjiJi 

* Cf. LoUfl^ Ziyh. p. z^7 i^g^ii^ ifu«Utifrn). 

perception ci a particular fiiot aa fulling und^r tlir? 
perception of the fixed principle, ^ tMXnti itm^t^t 
ttic sockci). is <luc lo an element in llx cjikublivi 
faculty which he caUft tA ^Km^tuM'iictik (434 a. 1 1) ^ 
^nidi- of £. A^ vl ia not a principle of action. 

o^&ctt %i ^vX<v4Tai mfil rbv ^^ it^^tj^a^irur 
dctibcratt Oiily where we Ituve iu <lo with tliingi 
mtxIlTy by our action* Fowcr of raothiyin^ t)jc it 
by .-iciiozi muy indeed b« tLCcq>(e<] il? a dclinition 
pouXruTiKii ^p*t^(. An irra([onil sntm;^!, being witi 
Aftt^ — hciuE dotijiiiAlcd by the impulse or f^ncy ai 
«fid urnble 10 u'(:ij<l) AhcrniUtvca before Acting, is' 
cfluic of tlio*c moJificafion* in ill* eourw of evenU 
1i) LiiLii); ubuuL by wliit it doct. It i» uit^n^ly 1 liijk 
of neccvAiry cona^qaence formed by acl, impulAc* eld 
of Lmpul». Thm U what th* writer means by dec 
Lhc Icwcr aniinaEa. 1.1 he doea below in ch. 1. § 3. 
.rational bclrg ihm imhaU si modificaucn in t 
evcniM. For the Irmiionjii animal Iht^re exit^c no «V 
[ix'i*' ^>^ ^ic KnM cf f o ^1 «rI t^ frtf>v. ^iiy nioic ilift] 
>f fi4 iri fvi[7r: sec J'At-r ii. 6. 1^7 b, ,t «»*r^iT »f(ii ■ 

r/tvil mtA ^Jlf <i ^ '^^ ^X"* ■'j>Bdi^<ra^ e£ff nrv^ia ovlT 

Onxtf ti iifi Moff /itioi/iTrjra, &trKtp hfn^ npitmtflj^at «£vi 

'hi% I tbink, i> & hir slatem^mofwho^^^^^ 

BOOK V!: CHAP. 1 : §5 6^ 7. 


ivpellxng fixce ; *Enin it not a f»c«nar)r, because not a naiuntl uao*. t*. 
vgetit'/ 1( b plain ihal wl^ havr hrrc a if^rm cajuUlc cif g^rowing, 
in a euEijiblc aoiL into iftG 'Free Will Theory' aa nc Jind t( in 
raodcra pbilotophy. Il may therefore be wonh uhile 10 call 
^Leuliuu [o (Ijc apiiiuaidi whkti Ink! Aristotelian ism made lo^ardt 
mch ft theory. Ln his trcali:^c fl-^l i^^X7' ^' ^59 1>- >^^ ^- ^^ 
lind AlexiTidcr Aphrod. deifying ihai ^iWn and iiflrtT-aA-n are in 
any real stcnic Uk: uiustcn v{ our ir/xHUfiVvfii. H thtty were, our 
ftCtKma would be R^-ftsary. Ot>ly (pnitii^mt arj/flnt ftic iii our 
power, and contincfent aclion* imply rrp«t{fftmt At-altin^. His word* 

MC (nffj'i •i'vx^r D- P- iCiO, cd. Aid-) iA6m¥ ^t^XV^ \oytitlir !j(tt (j 
■Sr^^HHr«) jiiitf' /;« fSoi'^rv'cr^l vr nal fv'^u' Ai/vntfli mpt tair VfiaHttw 

AntT^r 1'^' uvf^ rd r^Tnjf fj^if. ^1 foi vov ^i^ rr^mi/ rA ai^A rovr* 
r^ tfmiTHiit fj^ti .,,-.. J off limif^rur «r)i >i^ itpovrapxr>Ctntt airittf 

■dvfiH* A* TOb yaviVf^rrt rovm t^i* liHiyi^r rrnpfij^f, 0ii^ rnvtfl itoIAiikcp 
fiWi cat pv^uiufr'i J^ftfi «( ^r roir avroit fftvif ^fiiVut, 3t<r^<jff;»Tf > 

In (hifc thrcsry t>f w^jim/jMirit ArolTioc We liiivc pcfhcipii llic necLFetit 
kpprcadi in indent pliik^aophy 10 ihe nioderii doctrine of 'Free 
WiiL* I will only add here thni the fjerm of the opposite theory of 
* NrcenlUiianiani ' itt ulso LOhUiiirJ lu dir AitAMdi^n view. The 
Aristotelian Ticw^ as presented in ihc iH'MiV/, however, seem* lo 
oomtnne itic titilh of the ' Free Wiil Tlieory/ with thai cf ' N>cc«fti* 
tarianuon/ wilhoui ahnir-icting or eaiiLg^c rating eilht^rn M^n in 

'A CrCRture, yet a CILIIMC.^ 'Af^^wmt afj;^^ frpafrvr, and Mp^irat 
JiiSp^vaw yr¥r^ n\ ijXtfft UK bOlh true- 

( T-J C^ ^' A. U- 6' 3 J$ rvtf ^^lUwn'ffv o^jtr^ ivj & ^ ffic J^* IJt a. IS. 

' Sec GwnV /VjAx, IV' m. "J- 

* 1 ban Ouu|i«cd iIjcm Iho pawL'u to biinj: oul ihc ari^qmcia iuur« 

^-OL-U. C 


BOOK VI: CHAP. 2: 5 I. 


THrtv aw /Artf primti*lei /« Mtf jfftf^ whtch ga t& dettrmim 9mwt ut.'pm <mrf 

Ai /er tfojen pr umferiramimj^t n'ui appttiU—U v it it nfteJ thai ftiritnl 
mul oT'irui^Pfe ttt Iki tp/ure nf apptiia am^eer ItmJJtr muriim aftJ itii^itn in 
tJrr i/Jttrt pf tAf utiffffas'fi-z i4ri«rJtttj;/y. iiHft mattU virtue ii c Aahii 
Hw|ju-,4 irttv/v/r thdet, and tinn ektii* ii Jt/i/fn/r apf*titt, fkt ptveru 9^ 
diHitrttli-et muil hi /nr, atfi /if tap^/fje -rvtt ft rt^Xl. if ihi <Aaiet u ff* A/ 
gotd, rC' lAd n/tde* tiiMt^'Hj; miu/ ii^' ffi. •1'% J fAi tfppfJiti mmi' fiH'jtu (At nwv 
fAii^. tfttt VT Aiirf tAt pra/iUai ttndtritimfini ami paariical mih. Tkt 
fmiutiel* i/thi itfJinfaiHiftM^ ih tftfitf at tftttivjpihk^ /'om ill /untftmt itt 
WMW/«W i/i /uiji/ifltf tn Art it n^ff pf/iirmiJ H'Afn tnttA it j'trtiftif^.i^'ty 
ptiftrwuJ aU^A /aijUy ntiifti. TV itttitiit fnttA ii inJtni tAi /nvt^iei tf/kf 
nniffitaadtna ^rnrr^Hy. hut tkf iptii/i/ fir/it/icfi vf tAt n»/rrtfunifim( iM rtia- 
rim te <ort.tiH{—\. z. <^ tht frgiti<a! ttudtrifjiiiii/^. Is to atiam nuih whi*k 
il in /i.i' tn/inf ivixA appeiitt rigkt!y dirtttni. 

iApi'f It f*r r^ir/'j/, fiut m/*/ fht ftrtiit tattft, »/ meral Mi/itm^ tvAr^ tki 
tpirffst **nin tf-'hfi't itit^ii appfiir^ mui ifjvmti^ ^rrfihi it a fitf^n rttf: 
tAii ihtiit imv/piti rtaim ami ttruUnUH.Hir^, cmi a Jifi^tii tif^ifvm t/^fAt 
m^nl jftfWn. C'njfmauilitijr Py imif Aufpfits no mutiw : fi it ctfy nflun 
Mtmdtn^mJk^g A-v « pnufiral nrJ f^.*f it tAit! it mtv^i to &-A4W. iA* tnjt of 
fA4 VMdtnifmdin/f «j trnp/^nfiH a*-/ hi'iff mfiu.ffJ smdtr lA* pnti^iicel fteJ- /r^ 
tfAf^ Uff*'aJv^-t fir mfiktt fHjfiAtrtj^. Uf ,^^ /*. nor f^r tAt m^y ja^ ^ muktug 
tAi t^i^X. /mT wiA a proftii^l f**J it vitxv. Uli4rrfen *Aifitr tr rt*itn ^sftJ 
tfapfttiii, irttpf^nif ifi/ttti-t /r> ttfitn/sttdin^. iiHti >tith a printt/ir ii mtm. 

r^tftitii nai/molyfMtffA^ifr: iw *tfH WAiyfci' tft /l/ir^ titftf^ J^ty./t^m 
maw J^liifriiUi jhotit tAe pill, imi ^niy pltntt Ikf /tfiutmnd .-tntinj^r^tt. 

J'Hth /Art it Ikt ff^jA/ oj hi/A tkt ttsfti/zttiitfi p^fti^ TAat ^pmJi/iMi »AirA 
mihi M. * itir a^it /a ^^ttaitt ifii/A n^W ^ rAr vi'f*^. c tJutietttt. sfMtA, 

17. 1 1' TpLft t^ liFnv . , . Sfxfic] Those word* fniroduce a »Jngulqrly 

confiiBcd pi.>94^^, in vEikh Ehc AtiRLotcliar doclrmc of animal 
motion, an iA« find il rn ift Ah. iii, clia|>Krs 9^ io» 1 1, and J^ AfHu 
Aai9t., Is ajtplird 10 the vipbn^iTinn otwphiit in partif^ulnr. It vill 
be yttW ihe© 10 bcjin with a skclch of ihii doctftnc 

ffCOfC VJ: CHAP, 2t % U 


an animal iriO^c i[» limbfi?^^ t£ aivour rit i^«¥ rfiv mra ronw 
■wnrffv; 'U «iird f^ii«v xfvqtfu is altnya aiccompiinicd bf the idea of 
fttl objrci (i^fltTnir/n], nr hy nil flppriiie (^/i«fic) urgli;g ihc nntmaJ 
u> -rck or shon an object, llcncc it ^pmn*;; A^rirfuv cannol be ibe 
cv>M of ibifl ftw^tfii, for plinla h^vc ^ fl/«fff. Jv*. but rot ^ommm 
or ^fu^ Ni^ c;ui ru d-irtfr/TLrj^jr he tbr C3iii(- (if it ; fcr mnn)r 
ftcniicni inin^als do rot move mrk r^iTB*. i\ft for nrtr bcIriK the 
c^att of il— (h« ^v^f)Ti4ff» Ktf cannoi be tbc caiuc of 11, for ihie 
*tort not Cfsmrmplalr *fom1nrt'; ii ban iioThlng 10 nay about 
'thJn^ tbal irc sou^'bl or (iiings LhaL arc shunned — ihc objccU 
which ibc mui vho move* um riMrop hasi before hin mind t while 
ih* Mher khJ of mvr, whkb iT<xM eoriTriTijifiiie 'lOiiiUKl,* and 
1)41X9 comniands abtnut (hucinin)^ ibis or Kckin;? Lbai — the ir^viuruAt 
twn cstnnot insufi *i/^f>fir m accordance Avith ii» comm^vndtt; 
rriAijiid sri^pft Id, aft In tbc ra:9P of ihr oc^mt^c, and pro^uci^K a 
■I'tirffii conttirr to ihat cotnmanicd by •T-tr, And yet. on the other 
hard, wc cannot fay (hat ^^'£ti or tnifit^itlm is. ihc eolc dt^tcrmminff 
c^ui^c {rupia) or li hitA jAuov ■iV^mr, for the ly^^f^j, nllbough hii 
Apr^i [9 alrunc, foUourH the dicuic^ of bii ntlt. TJiuH it V'Ould 
ntipeot tbu MA »vw (includitif? ^amvtd) and ?>)<f«t are cau^ies of 
If ca«d r^imv nfffoiff But a HiJf, in tbiA conn^^ition, vt A tmrA ntvt 
Xo^vf^prni It'll 6 /rpatiitdt, md All llic iJpxV ^^^ tltc ^r^Hurru^i pnCc^ r^. 

Ihai wtiich atarts iifi dei^herntionr is rA Qpnrjtr, «« gict ulEimaiely one 

md uaej wCt (r. r^ npuaifM'jit, or jSniXmH^ ff^tfir) anil_^fn (r*. 
^lA^fii rotlKcd by ovrSijirit or ^rr^acui) a» ^tfi JH iirunifnif. Th^E rA 
i^tri* Is tl>e prfme moi-^nt ia sp<eik from the fict thai t^Sq^nr (lh« 
oierc contonpUtion of uuib) wiihoiJI tp*t\i docs not produce 
w^ii, v;borf%u ^^f<i (;ip(^otL(«) ollvr prudui^cH ^iVp^mf in lipilitf of 
XAftfiK^, The J^jm^, fls primr mcjvmt if ^ nrfA T<iiT, cif. i» 'the 
good * — either thftt vhicb is nrJly j^ooil, or \\\\x v^hich a man ihinka 
good — Uw poodf lio«'*^cr, in ih* spbrrt? of conduct {ri vpfucrhf 
«|aAk>). nnr thr ^<^^ Jn ihr *pheTo of piptviilatSnn*— thi^ good 
whkh b realised in JJic coniingcnl sphfrt, not that which in rcsilbcd 
ict Uie Decenary sphere: tec 'Z/ An. in, 10, 4,^1^' ^7 '■■' '^^^ ^<'' ^ 
J^atA', SikkA rvjir* ^inlv 4 ^ iyn€^v 4 tA r^jivij^itvk li-ynf^v air voir H, 

' It wal not br fnrcr^itcn, hoiriTrcrt [hai It 14 an lftt)K*v* \\\9X Orn\. ihc obJccE 
•f dkb'i ipKvItTivf fftctllT, mom [he nnl^iziK \w\ nrJEb it mAu'i »pc«iilAtiTe 

C « 


BOOJC Vf: CHAP. 2: $ i. 

IT^ dXXi^ rit nfiturit dya^v. irj^ucr^v 0^ iari tA Mtxfi^for Ka\ JlXXwt Tx'^'' 
and dc Miiiu Amm. 6. 700 b. 15 ndnM Ta {^u jrai eiwi mi *iy*if#« «*« 

n>«f» •^fTrr rniV /rfTiv o^oJc irdtrifc t^f iribrjirfohf nipitt. rh oZ Thko. 
^jW^'t *^t li ■ifQun'O tJ i^Km J^%uvia\tif nui i^awTUTUir *"! Hj/uuyKff** Mil 
fSnv^tfftv Aoi itrt&if}*iary rav*'ii 0J irnrra ^Jniyrfli ««; wtnii aiil J/Jtfit. Mil 

nil fltrti' A* tA ^inviiTtT4'\f, ^AAd tA rn* TpiirT»t» t*Xbi . . . tA p>V otip TrjiMToi 
ji^fjpT'ij', aA aiiioiH wfmTBte mOVc*, btlt 11 nol moved {nvii^C ciKiw/ifVOk): 

ihc JpfJTTWjJp, or rtp|*'lilivr facull)'. is mov^], and niovus {ntttvfitimr 
uni): thc immal u moved (nuffint): or, to put k othcr^w, ihc 
UiimaE is moved \>y i movcni whkh h:is iwo pArm or H^-mpnw 
— *in unmuvc^d jwn <d<r[H^r*v A yl™, iii to-43311- i5)m-rfi npaxr^ 
iyaSdt^ and a part wliicK ia moved, jirid movc£ (r^ Kint^v Wi ^w^ 
^frtk), rr>, f6 <ip**TUfJ»' or ap;>clitivc riculiy. Thus J irrri)ittf ^ ntA 
nkov il^prii'.la oil a mi^chiuibm which in^^ be compared to a bill 
ftnd tockct jcnnt[^<f ii^fi. iii. 10- 433 b. titt/^ de Meitt Anim, i. 6980. 
i^), r.ike ihe hall, nptj-t movce in the fixed socitei of ^ ^powtitt 
dyiiA^w, OS «>tf (whii:h ii *lv^;4ys ^/^Ai*', wc de An. ill. 10, 433 ii- *6) 
prcscTilB thc «>aSJ»' (ruly, or as ^a^^nffm fwhi<;h is ml ^pi^l <nl ob« 
ip^, *cc df >iff, /-c,) presenU U truly or fflisely. Or, wt my com- 
port- il« TracUcal SyllQgi»m (»ce noic on vjj, 3. 9, a. aft) (o ibc lull 
and docltcl joint : ^ midA^v CirAif^tt imi X<iyot JH a ftxcd ccnirc of 
concrcl drii^rmining the «wccp tif the /if/u*^ A^fa; ihe /i'pMt^ '^^ 10 
ihc cllicicnt. but J>ot tbc fMiiil cau^c of Lhc ftpo^is — the otxaMf^n. but 
not thc principle, dS iht act: fi&^ <ivt^ *i>vf ^ SfSfo, i^^j^ 7 <d^"Xav, ( 

There tin be nn ■(Vrjuu without a fiscd /^r^r*/ 1/* uppai —npits to 
4j3*>»>ivr Jf( MtjjitS'r^di ru xm^r {de Mi^tu Ahwi, 8' 701 a* '^}r ^^ 
ffpafH (T yilp irpa^t v/tirtfiv) wijhoui a fixed principle of conilucl ^4 
utfrSXifu Wfo 7 (5pf>witfd. In Other words, animal molbrt (including 
monl action) imphc»adejimcely conaiiiurec] organism (or char;;cier) 
and A sriiRttlui rctdved by thsii organism [nr chamcicr) fmni Im 

To letum now to E. N. vi. », i, — The difficulty is in rpia. In 
the df An, and <ilr Motu Amm. rh fiHuva are nvo^tKnit or A<d>«ui 
(iocluding vTrAfnt and ^ii^ckpiu] and J^£tt. Bui even iheic two are 
ftivDiTFni only ia the fiente of being int/rvnujiU of motion. The 

ffOOfC VJ: CHAP. Si ^ I. 


•i ff^rtrti** nyc^ffv, 11S9 a. If. 

koconling to the dnclrinr of rA /In. vX. 9. atir^firif, fuCi snct 2/i«£« 
Arc ccrtttnly not to be docribcd ah K^a *^^i nor^ rJntU' qj{<rti«»— ^ 
under wliicb, of counc, ir^dfir iK included, ^ -^p irpufir ii'tf^nf 
(£ jr. IL ^, I^3J b, vv)< ^^^ ^'^<'^ ^1^^ nddiljuii cnl dXifOifof in 
E. N. vt. 2. ] make any dincrtncc^ It indicates iKst like irpnftr 
which wc h»v« here lo do wilh ii ri^A/— that «w, which 11 wii 
d^A5c [A vJn. iiL 10- 433 a^ aC) i* n|H'riUivf*, ami lia* prcsfntcd tA 
ivXwt d>cii!U». insuud of ri JBy 1;*; {a<c i/f An. iii. la 433 f*- 7)- ^ 
ihc flgcnt ft£ h]« end ; and iJuc ibc appetitive fisui of hin nature hog 
^"crp^ect Ujitt nqnir u 4p4vnfi'; fuithc^r thil Aidnin, tlic ditKUTBLVC 
faculty ffcc Iloc^itK, MtL p. 214), which axuinii JX^^ia in joinini; 
ftnd BeparaEirg tlioughct se ih<> corresponding things arc actijatly 
joined and Kpar.tlrd (sre Mtt, e. lOi, 1051 b- [^ uX7^>bf( ^V ^ t6 

4vtdoc fiiUTOb f<Ju i^tfmtptii if^v urtitpuan' ^ . . ol jufi *Wi Tii if^v^l 
■d T^ ah7f$it if ni< irpny/jiivui . . , fiXA' «\ 0i<i»ii>ff . . . ^ tfv/»fTA«ir^ fWi 
«iil i( AjflZ/Mffic /p Jiuvuf^, uX\' ofc h mXt irpAyiiatn\ And in Rtlrcting 
tijc suitable mcnris 10 ftn end, has performed iC» work wcll-^^. 
AAij^f, in exacE (Orrr«pciiid«ni:e vi:h the tondilionif of ihe virtuous 
llfe^aml LhALtvV*''"^ liit* coiiMutcittuddopl the lucifi^ ^u^KC61ccl> 
Thu» J f« X^ 4^1)4^1 ■"■ ■BB- 4 V£<f ^0^ (S 3)* and the result cf 
ihifi h^innonioufi co-op^rAiion of reason and ftppcfiir it irpaimc^ 
Ajdno — rigid action. The ^Ldditlon «il 'EAr;tf<£ut i\yii\ indiuiu^ iljat 
w« arc concerned here wirh the ktrftMieut action oF rc£r or <fwroirj 
(tt»duding nTcp%fl-'f} and £,»frtf Although t-nch urpar^iel)' maybe 
described v twovt (ju*l as cntrii^C'drivcr and tlcam rnny both be 
taid to *&et the trum in motion'), neither can bt; drbcribed afs K^pios 
foff ■«> ncctU fi^fir, and ofirri ihwarit ir, :incl lioth are thrmfirlvrt 
moved by r^ ^i,ittT^. Gut acting h&rmonioua!^ logetlicr. the/ coti- 

VlitUlC ft StTlgic CaUtC of irpnfcf nal JX^flcfci {■= ir^acriKj oX^fia f 3)j 

or Hght aoilon; nnd may wHI hf drAcrihcd as ifi(fi«i, IvMng cneic- 
tenai^-e iftiLh (he whole n^ttire of the ag!:nt(*ti* QT'/ioiii a^;?^ ■'I'drj.Hnn 
) f^)- In their fiarmonioiiti action, tnantfrtung itself in ftp*tv{ptoit 
(dHlned in J g at rnvt iptm^ or Spirit Innnryntit)^ ihey ar? a single 

principle cf motSon, like the b&ll and the KJCkei (n the orgaruc 
DDfty of tfa« joifiL 

But 9>lill the diflicully remaJnfi that a ctxirdinaie platir \% assigned 


BOOK Vr: CHAP. 2: {^ I, 0, 

1180 4, 17. 10 ultf^rfjTit, aji one oC/Arft elcmerlS jointly icvpjq frjidfraii inl tlXfAid'' 

Th« ^Oiilicn here a^Bi^nctl to a'atfrj^iv is certainly not that ^i^big^i^d 
lo it in tlic tf> ^n. anJ fl> 3/^/, /in., where only iW£> vtotJipra arc 
rccogniai'd- — rvlt ^nd S^fn—n'o^'iatt bcmg included in vavi ; buL il 
is not nccrunrily mconsislent with (he docirinc of thrrtc ircatiMi. 
\i oughLt I iliink, to be explained in connexion with the ilrcory of 
ihe Praciicol Sjllogi^m, the minor prcmiu of which h described in 
JT, A'- vii- 3 as flfifi njffflijfnVf and as flj>di)T<*^ /frwTT^^. A righi 
aclioiiisil^ t-onttusiwn of a sylbgistHin wliith ihe minor prrm[s6 — 
a aijmulua of sense — \a followed by that action which tjic mora! 
rule, deltret] by ibe m^kjor premiss, rcrjuir^i in iTie cir^uniitinncvs. 
Indeed ;tU jTfiaits, mkir^ kb well ss right, involves such a ayllogiaiD 
vitb major and niiuor premiBaca. /itv&'jtrit or oiir^ruuf ^rr 
(for i\\e laticr (re rf' An. lii, ii. 434 a. s) ^l^'^^> ^^ '^^^ lower 
animals have iM';innuL liiitiaLt' vpaf jt, nghl or wrong .~-"£^ A'] vl. ;t. j 

Tovraay i' ^ (.rtfi'ifffu ooflf ^dj "PX'I "■^'i^»»r' i^Xt* 3< r*^ tu ^jfia arirjifciv 
l*<V Jji"'', itpa^imt K /i^ ■mHk>J'«i* ' £". ^V vij. J 1 1 rci ^pj^jcVi nin ri<^»nr^, 

^»it^ijv: €/,M,M. ). It, tili? b, T. <^i^<i ^' ^* ^- 6» *^92 b. 15, 
The lower animals. In Arisioile'^ view, act on no definfie pbr, 
of wliicli lliey arc tlicmiiclvcH coniiclou#, but d^ aXoi/jen, cla^^rmq 
^rtvcio, and Sfifitr momcniarily determine 3 whereas man'ti eK^fl^^r, 
wiih ihr tnifiifiiti aiLending ii (see r^i< An. ii, a. 413 K ^3 ^ivw pfv 

move*, or ought to move, in a definite manner within iho ' fixed 
locktri ' oftalioniil ^irinciplp. 

] would chercfofc ixplain the words apa^ius Kitl tt^JtSiim^ ntrOnirn 
ttCt ffH^tff in the present passage as lh« formab ol the Fraclical 
SyllngiiiTn read upward* [hiJs — iT|j5f-f (contlusion)^ flcJ^u ojtfjV-C 
{minor prcmisi). C^^IAr;^** ro^ t'orjr^r' JfKKTvv Jt'Tflf (majcr pr^mijis). 
Jointly the pretorsses dttcttninc the conclusion. The minor oionc 
coitld not dt^Eerminc It, for the mljior alone would have no ^'iti 
ifappuif nor could Lbc major alone, inff^u yAp. 


oral ] 

ws. J 


& SIh $ 2. fvTi I' £v«p . . . ^vffi] rft h« T^ nir ftXijA't (flnd it IS with 
dX^tfru the ^pyv» Aujtw'ar lliat uc are here conoerned), j^f, 'j!r = it 
/TMt' (for the various stasv^ of ri iEf, ek« Jifft A. 7, arxj O. 10] 
COneixtfl in afhrmation fAiTLii^fTK) and ncg^itinn (ciiri^iTJt) in corre- 
Vpaniiertce with fatl .^MtL .1. 1017 A. 31 in tfi tlmu oij^cimi cttl t4 

SOOX Vi: CHAP. 2; 5 a. 


irt'^i^TffiJk. ill i^iv^ut : O. lo, t05i 1>- I 'fl . . .tv cvyjwram A* fi^r7li'lt 

f^virtBi Ai ^ •nJM-iarf f^vr ^ tVi fr,iify^atn, n*^'' (Vrir ^ tfCn ftfri t6 dKt\Q%% 
X'^^'Miv 4 ^fi'.J^ ; rk>viD yip <rr«irT«ii- ti X/yo/"^- ni yip ''*A '''^ fl>*^ 

b1 ^rT«r TaiTD aXT^^fvo^ft: /A* InUrp. (, |6 a. 11 iTtpt >^^ <ri'»^f0v 

dX^Awt, jfrap f« 0A1. ^w^vrni : i!^ jflV. iiL d- 43O A- »6 ^ /i** i^h rur 
JSuji^'rcirv r6^ts ^vTOi-rvts, sip] A ol'tTtn t6 ^tdtw^ it utvAjxai tA ilPCtf&vi 
titX T^ dXfjt^f, 4rv>^r0(< rif ^p; K^^ridf- aiwwp tr Zmaf —J,/. unilcJ [lOl 

tA Ilie «i]c<«9!ijv^ EJe»^ in « reverie, bni bf^c)iu!(« cpriiiin AiLiibuteK 
,XCAUy belong icJ ocruin thbtpt. Now, the f^cjlly ^Ijjcti iljiiika 
rthcr UiQM thmga wttich «xi«t or occur icgcUwr in Mm: vxicrnii 

I, and Ibinka apan ihflw ihingi wMcli mm (ir o< ajjarl — 

licbt in othet wutjs, jiflJmia aiiJ Jttiica ia jitttifilauc;c wiili ubjcc- 

ihc ccn<IiUoiiSt EUid rcali^ct //^/.4 Adhere it is pcw-iblc to fall inio 

foliiiy {t<' 'inilh' a« fhit U givr-n In /^^i^fVurir/^nr) i^ AirJvrtin 1 <ti>c? jl///. 

L 4, ICJ7 ^' '5 *^ y^^ *°^* '^ i^iCAui iiui tA dXij^it tV rvi( iT^iryiiuifti', 

rA dtfXd ml ti ti' Jtrrtvauf^' aj> r^ ^^Mm'f . ^ui>W4 is [he UndtiManilinj^ 

or diactifvvc intellect, u diMinjcuiahcd ffom tt^w — Reason, or the 

.jBtuittve im«llect. The bit«r £s concerned xviih rr^ti^ or noilonn 

i^, which arc imlimblc in ihc unity of tbeir oi^oia — ir<pl Ai iJ JnXa 

rd n' ^mw mff ir t^ fituvoiif t*'. firrl ro aXpj^M hoI r& i^cuKft^ (fcr 

t- cjuolcfl at end cf ibti noie)--]bdr JXifti tou*isn limply 

ibcir *clru iulcliigiUlity' [tJ At iiXi/tfi< ti) hhIp air<i Mii. O, lO- 

IC5> a. i), and t^o no 4^'^^" opposed to \\: sec ^A'/- o< lo, 1051 

r^ A' ijytwU' ^4 f^yy^rti*' irrfriTii^^i^L yilp Fipl jh rf ^arii' o^k frrri ^ - > 
ri 3d <f fC^ oCk 4iTtw, otff linan^, uXX' SyitHa (on which sec AlexAndcr, 
p. 5TI| Cd' BoniCZ-^^'Vi iih o>% fiiii< f)fTAAt» ^ Ayy4*«i A mht airtMV wtil 
acSAvtp >;Vi' Arrtrdt r^< 0^irv«t ainvr kuL ^nA^ rVijlfuX^ ftnfia;/ tiA >} ti^H- 
riif j^fimtttiT^/r . , . ^ 9V OtyyiiHt^ **l'l' blav 6^f nkni] : (/. a\v,o '[ ilcnUQEiUE* 
Vfpt ^I'jt^f A. fol. 71 b f^ ¥tfw ftiif iray nvt JirAwr a^^otc mroXa^^iiiT;. 
tA SuirtHMr^a4 AJ ^r t^ ovtni£ivat ri/vfoi^i ul Biai^iu' . . , r^ ^'bfoi Vp t^ 


BOOK Vi: CHAP. %\ % ^ 

ed. DonirE. p* iSg. line 15;).' Thn U undouUic<E]y tb<; distinction 
frorc^niiicd by Scbwcgler, Mff. voL iii, p. 183, Tr«»delenbiirg, rfi* 
jin. ji. 37*, BujiJIx* -Wi-/. p, »t^> V/aUx. Of^tinon, vol. ii. p. 3^^), 
Y^'hich (lie AmioWJiani make between ycCt anJ iiJinaMi, when they do 
make jtny (lUlinctlfin ; but ihty of^cn i^k^ ihc (crmt inicrictmngcAbly. 
ThuR in ihe cluplcr before us (£, ^. vi> 1), AtdKiia in { a i» 
obviously cc^utvilent lo mU in { i ; and in j f; ir|x>at)>ifTii ia definL^^l 
at 1^ ujkfvTLri^c voii« 4 ^/"^^ Sitivoifnvi^. Af^, In /U At. ili. 4, 419a. 
j^. vc nnd «Ci given 4S iltc faculiy of ■W^jiltri'at, and in v*m. /WA 
iL 19* joo b- {1 dvifmA ^Wt:n an the gtnuh undur v/lii(;h t^vi ia\\9 a^i 
a »peclo». .^gain, in tU An it. a. 413 b, u, ihe iinn< of the ^^.^ 

arc diiiCinguislKd U? ^/^irnKiIt^ Drcr^qTU4!i' iLuJ SkaraifTtK^ ; iu m* 4. 
41$ n. ,^0 lU roTinKAi', aJ^^r-irji' ^nd ^/leirruti}-' : m d^ A/r. lii, lo. 
433 "^^ 9 ^^ fon^ i^/l4tii( ^i yt h'ti rnirrn vuavhvi ^ Sfltfic f *Jii'f, and 
a few Unci Ucluw 4;^^ &, 17 fiuo rnuTa ^nrffrra* ri iwiuno S;Hfiff vol 
Jtuima r-fiVKTiiiri. LuiHy, Akxandcr in bin oommcmary on Jlfff. 
H. 4, v']i«re lh« technical meaning or AiAi«m as tfij^mrros Kcvms 
clear, wtit» OM if hucllcct iii llie gcn^isl kd^c were intended (Alei. 
cd< BonitX. p, 414. 4)-— *>£ ^^fir fl* «V mft np^y^uiiFir ovt ion iA Jl^Mc 

Foi ^tyA >t)id Awftt at elements of 7 cdTo r^^ffur iir>>iT<7iE 4 '^ Cfc'i 
Me ^if Jiw.iii. 91 43a b, vS ^ B' -li^i^ffK # ^*b^pW* n fl dtumi^r n" Vuti, 

&.9S< 'Ck irpoaipfTiM^] JT, /'- ii. TO- 1237 b, S, JT.A^ fl, O^ 15. 

ft. 99. op4(tt ^otfX^vnKi^] J?. A*, ii JO. 1126 U 17. jT.icV. iii, 3. 19. 

it Mcktf (^iw^'a) wJiJLt X4;yi>v or i^itrut-t aOLrnns (cur<ji^ff«) lo be good, 
and (huo> (f^vy^J «bal il ^enicf (^dfrojidvir) to be j;;ood:--when. co 
Q«e the cipre»sion oTfl A^. L 13. 17, it ^»uj0ftmr^ Xrfyy: c/.K-N- 

• Cook Wilifln (7>dw* (It/ Pk,!i->i. Si^. lM*-SK»p. 6) nmBrkt tb»t ► (be 
^iKtrin* UiKF iiriKU <v itrnple notjocu »n ntiihtr ini* nctr f&lf ■■ i-InLfly lUicd 
in trmtjku wlmx ^nuiufntvA it douLrr^, vir. /,'« /m/, c. i. £df, 4., uid Mti^ K- 

rt^tfX.iB^f Xi^uV"* *rt •neither tnir nor ifllfcc' ki the wrfinc iti uhuh "true * 
«Eitl *fftlK* Mr fti^jtlicJ ti> pnf^iiixom ,, but T lio noi (huik ibcrl ihU UALcnut 
i» incouintcEii mtili ihe dwu^oe that there la u d^i^fii • tA mil^. 

BOOK VJi CHAP. 2 : S a. 3. 


«^ /rr-rafTc^H^ n^fiV^nV The tni^iW powcr in man, r^&^^- U90*.U. 

ratov, \etl to irvflf, limply «r^kiB pri^vrnl plcasurtf, unij aliur^s prrs^ni 
pain : Inil iLm iit wtoni^* The )iio;ivc j^ovicr Is used rrghHv, pnly 
when It U used to funhcr that wcKarerof ch? vhole M«^hi<h fca«on 
f-ompfirhrnclt : ieo f/c ^v, U1> la. 433^1. ^ *(»< <1' ^iut yinvm 

ftrii, yit^Tjtt 3' /f ncir j^jufiw tu*r&ijirir S^ovrif {6 fiy yitp vji'i Aia r^ 

q^ jiiti ^Xwi if^v All ^yoG^f dirXwi, Aiii tA t*ff ii>u.i' tA ^rXAuv). <?4ii fiiV 

rd umtmi. Dy ^ifr^f in Z^.N. vi> j. j >vc kirc to uriJcEBtaiiU tlie 
9i^«7i0|idr or chain of dclibcntivc reoxor^ing Icitllng up 1o the 
act of npoaipioit. Thi« k^ot is oXrjf'flv whrii [lir thniig}tis or 
whicfi it conn^tit Arc connccU^ m f.icln require — whcTi ihc means 
ivhicb vUl actually ensure the end are duly thought cf in the 
]>roptfr ortlcr. 

^MtTj4 in ihc Icchnicil tct^sc — the undcrKLAndinjt;. or TACuliy hy 
which ihe rt^ps lo an *rid ure r^jvieu'ed in Xhvir Srut order, i.4. la 
torres|jomlcnoc wiiJi ihr at:ii]at contliiitKis of llir pmlilriu. niv^mrai 
in thrci^ licld&, according a^ the end is ilic aolution of a scientific 
probkni, liic auainntiH of a praciicaJ ycwi. or tlie consiiuction of 
a woik gf an. Take ihc la*i— the lirM ufn'x*^. The aichiitci 
apprehends by wtf ihc pbn of hie; tcnipk--an ind^viiibTc forcn 
[aliai^-^tu^^ &.iiWvv]. ThiK plan \% u-ith him in all the iLtcpft of his 
l«Oik. U ia 4 frxcd iir^iiLEjjIc (J«Jv7ri»') ffum vvhk-li Iiis Aid^ou iruy 
be taid \o deduct ihcM i^lcpii. Ihe plan being ai^siimcd (o t>c a 
realisable eiic, AuiKun *oirjn*^ or 'the Taculiy of thinking of iht 
means h^ which a itiing may 1>e mud?.' peifaniis ila funclinik :vctl 
vrk«a it dv^iict a method of Ending and employing mLUeiinlb which 
la trw^i.f. one i:i which ihe step* really suitable are duly thoughi 
of Id Gcomelry i.gmn the ihiukcr Mari^ wlih a definite phjUlcttk 
to be solved, and hto iw^m tf#«^fnf7 reviews the fiieps w'hich lead 
10 ft foliuiofi in the order dciermineri U/ ihc coniliiiont of ihe 

problem : sec A*. /^- ili. J. l J A ^n^ (S'vKtvAiitrr'.n imut CTtir *a'i JiV" 

Amu> r^ f'luffi'iwi' t^h^nw uffWfi liAypaiiit/i. But in the Jveld of Upa^it 
wc caiinc)t> a:( In the firldM of Ttji>^ and Biv^tfTtxfi iittirnntii, stan wjih 


300K iV: CHAP. %i 5$ 3, 4- 

llSQ •. 27- a Jeflritt plan or j>rubk m- W* no cicnr-cul ncrtlnn of Life 
(t^ tf £^r) before vrc l>cgin \o cIgaI diAnociicAlly svjih Lhc circrgcrclcft 
of ]ir«< II iG onljr afkr w« bave spent niucli limc in dealing ^-iih 
ihttm, [hai wc seer t A iv <ijF as i^iqr^ »ni1 coXift. Wc dci rm kxiovt 
\t\\A\ the probk'iD of Life is ull wc luvc \i\ purl tiQlvcd it. This ia 
p<rtm|>s a re;L<oii for u<^i irisLbtinR much gn ihe (cchtiicflL dutinclion 

A. 3D. toOto •'^dp itrtv irtiiai^ fii<U'nT]TtiroA 'PY°^] ^^' p&uu)ges quoted 
<^bovc in note on J"ti il' lj\»fi K.t,\., ^ it. ^ a [< 

function i^i the ftltaiittncnt af liX^^rm ^^uAi^hi fa^aiuro r^ o/;fffi t^ 

ppflj. Thai -f(wf*f IN c^^ '*hich obe}'a lhc dictaie* of the n-rMHTunJ 

ffe^puiri, and liic clicULc:i tif lhc fi/nucru^ AuikVLu arc f^uJi as ^f>c cm 

obef — i.i* they arc concernini,' t^ ^twtf&n khX Stiun^ 

a. IL $4, This st4.iL0n> { 5, an<l j 6 do^vn lo iiwwpay^>a Ru^mGauer TDUirks 
fl8 prohahly ahuntif hut iratttt^lij. Ai any nie, whether ;i iligrf s*mn 
due to lhc AVTitcr himself, or an micrpolutcd fragment, the possi^ 
BCQTns lo him 10 be cut of place here. I cannot thare this view. The 
])axxagv. culminating a*( it iloe.^ [n AiO 1^ ^/wrnirAt iff^~> 4 ffjKMiv^tnf ^ 

lf»t\% AibHif^mj (I 5), seems 10 me to be fully ju«iificd by (he con- 
thburion v/htoli il inal:cs to llii; ^v^ttv'« objeoi — the cxpliiuAtion of 
AbiitKu v^HuruQ as rt/itii r/uftvi rai oAififrEur. Murh leu call I foltow 
Suscffiihl who brackcL^ } 4i S 5 Trom 3kii, a.ud { 6 dovfn to wtwt^Q^ 
/jfMJ, nnd thuE t^ing( ^m^ui A' abn7 ctL<Mr t^wtl aX. the bcgintiing oE 
{ 5 in(o Emmcillaze connexion wUh lite end of f 3. U Awnia [o ine 
thai } 4> dcuhng as it docs with n^MKiiKf^upmi* aaa ^lourccof vuvpnij 
ift naLU^iiliy loUowe*! by lulvn^a ft" oC*^ mW^i*- nttl. 

nrpjfcwt ^tf ovr , . . Iv^a^ nfotj TrpAoJ^ifif IB chc clBckCnt CAUM 

(ap;^i7 &Otv f vi»>7'rii), bill HOC ihe finil CaUK (tJXA' Qi\y «f fwn) Of 
ff/)dji(^ '/'r dt An. iiir 10. 4J3 a, ij tf/i^d «1>ii rdO;n tivt^rttk cotA 

Avi^'ri'i Ar TDb fiuY-'Vvi'ni' ^^ r*K*%- cal 17 SfH^t ivtvi rau nntra' aA )^ 

wirrv 4V^<iyDar Tfrvm Acq ^iifrai Td 44'aCiTii, ijp'f'i Kal iuirnia ftpatrvc^' 
r^ n^n^v ynp biwi, ml ^lA rniim 15 Ainprvn lui^J, Sn ''p^^ ai'ftfl fori T* 
jpfTJi', The final caliic of vrpoftr in t& iprwriw vliich !?» r£ vpaer^r 

cffieieni cause i» thr ■ last appriilc ' in the dc-hhcmiion suri^d bj 
lhc iiiuL cMi;«— «. r. ila efhcicnl chukc i* iIn; ^ftv whitii tmnaUica 

BOOIC \'f: CHAr, 2: § 4. 2? 

into id ihc idc* of somcihins; now to be *Ion< to which $tVKivfftt use %, 31. 
has ixitiituctrri ihr ngpni : ic* (fr ^Wr tii. 10. 433a- tft ^o ^ Sa^n-rin' 
4pv4 ^^ >r^^4Uf, 4Ih1 E^ N. iii. 3-1^ ml fi ftrj^orov /i* r^ droAiirrfi 
^r. X. The tr>M»^'>^n« Or ddibcmtc opffii of CLn del tElcn is Ihc 

^lAcient cause of the xtf^x ; white The eflliciefii cnu«e of the rtHiherate 
i^ft( il^cir is ihc dctltirniiinn f^Ltrlni hy ihat fini] ^kcti^ for the 

take of which tht ftCl Jh pc-rfOimeJ — frfjoni/jtfirf«i A* iV'f'S *^^ Xoyni 4 

ivna tunc. Briefly, llie good mc^vcfi ihvr S^jir ituivovTir;), ;incl thff 

^^ bittmriTtt^ uimi^H the :i^lmI; hcc ^€ Ait, iii, ig> 433 b. 14 rh^i 

Tlw tai'fji! r^titivtyrd hy lh«r worrln 'IXX' «v;f ct Svimr vi liOL lo be 
CPTCilDOkcd. Upvttptviw t» only the ini^tnimcnU not the raisott tTflre 
Ol v^'f- An :icc IB good, not bi?cauae it g^ves a cc^HAir^ fuculty 
aaaojinctl to br 'jtTilhnHiRiWr,' or 1 ccrinin motive cU^iril ^ *high,' 
ta opfkortuoity of maniftnling; Itnclf, but bccau^^ \\ coiitribuLcs to 
Ibe Kolimtioa of eld objective f;ood. Right nnd wrong do not 
depend on an 'aihLtr::rj mtikp of f,icLiI]ie«,' but ue i.|LiaIilie^ 'in 
tbJDgK.' n^toaiVf^if ia dlitin^iisbcd itom the iii'Svfila vhich is con- 
irvy to il, not by its ^ good intentions ' or :iry other Mich sulijtfcti^^ 
quality, but by its t^iior\A\ixy; and iik miJoD'tliEy incptna i[« <:orrc> 
iDcfeocc wit)i ubjfciLve kw. But ihc atiiA of ihc atj^r^c ^uho is 
wp«mMpntk4w« j^'. jVI vii. 4, 4} flic produced by an tlftf^fj — the 
AnAr^u of lite mom rnt— which h at unce their cHlrJcnt ^rul Iheir 
fin&l cause, I'hcy arc done not for the sake of cbjecrivc good, 
but for the t^ke of the gratilii^iLion of tho f.i^bjecElvc rrrling ivbicti 
^Aune^iultfly excites tlirm. h a i.a\iy iti lii^in, bu^it^ver, ilui ?iuuh 4 
notation of nature )» po^ililc. In the irrational animals (which 
u« incapable of inp^cia, £,', A', vii. 3. n ) 5^£i( ik always prtmanly 
lui thr ^i\ke of o^yn /i And oiily inclilcutilly for ihc >Akt^ of iix own 
giaiifitalJonp When the irmtionaL animula tc^m to loiiow present 
plett«(irc Eh<ry arc realljr ariving after r^ £*} Kai td Mav. Thus 
v^oai'^tr<( or f^rfiv Sttwoitjui only Lanfofmb l^ ihr Idw of jill lioallEiy 
^£<i in pToducin^ actt ^hi<.h look beyond the gratilication of 
tubjeciive TerHrg [o correspondence with enviroi;ntciiL UuiTffr's 
con Lenlioii against Hobljcs — iha:,as food, no: self [I'.t. pitaavirc), is 
the object cf the appetite of hunger, so our neighbour, not self, h 
ihe object of b«ckev<>]eno(^, m has^d oti the rrcogniiion of this law 


BOOK VI: CffAP. S : § 4- 

llM «. W. of life crftcr slrangclj ignored by moralists— an tilled Otiislic 4S well 
u hctlonUtic, perhaps more often and more ihoroughly by xht 
foni^cr thdD by llie latter. 

In hi» note on irpboi^iVevf l« u/^fir fml \i^t J rtfid r»Vt. £uStn4r* 

tiu« is puzrtcd X\y ArisioLle'^ tnccini^lkU'ncy in Ard making S^it^if ihtf 
y*W of iTpotii/jfcu, dcSncd ^s Soi'Xttfu^ (differentia) Jp«£*p £^*n*tf)^ 
/./'- its maitriai c-iusc, and ihen her*; ils r^ii^nt cnusc^ 

p<m] Here >v£ <a1 Om-oJac uLc up X^r ti} llic intmcdiaEclf prrccdiriK 
clfl«h«, inJ ^flu^( t'^fftjr tnkci up 5p'£"' i"^^^ Jj"i4f involved in 
fTjhriiipfVK, at diitilngulsbcd from ihac involved in mfrri? /iri^vfEiu, i« 4 
»tcadily openling appetite, protei^din^ Oom and dirclaiinf ibe 

7^**^ <fif or i5^# of its 8»l>j<:Ct ;--SrC A", N^. Ul. 2, I oiJr« Jinfw ^J^ (W 

Accojdinjt <u tlie h^i^ tin ur ff^it- la good or bid, 50 b ibc end vf ^^M 
7 i^'^^ - J^' TV'- UI- 5' ''^ ^ itwoi nwr fr^^i r4 rflXor tpiiii^* ti&tfiMfia^ ^^H 
vi. IS. A q ^^r ^p apfTjf rAiKitrfnAv wivi opB^r: r^vi. tl. 10, vL 13* 7* 
II may \)C na!kz(\ »belbcr mCn And ^utrwa are dibtin^uitbed Id 
JT. A', vi, *, 4. h IS ccnuinly plain tliat eltewbcre in ihia cbapter 
lliry are not diitinguivhed : bin b<?r^ we are tempted lo diink lliit 
ihc two n&mcft vodd not liuve Ulxh brought so close togcLhci 
unTtrs* Lhe uriLer had wit^hrd to dislinguisii two faculucs. In 
tie Ah. hi 9. 4^% a_ t. whirh tc5emb!rs lh*r prpscni passage in 
oringin^ the l^o tcrtiiH doaclj^ io^cibcr, i di&tincticin seems 10 be 

intended- fn ndi WTdrroKrftf rciv mv *o> Xtyouffijs T^r ^i'j»'oi'iir ^rv^iir 

In iiT vjn. iii. 9 AriPtlotle rtccm* to di^llngubh i-urt aa authontatii^e 
principle or ofxji («nTPiTi^iToi) tVom auw-omi us merely indiraiing 
(Xiyot-njt) M'hui paftirular tiling* xtx^. lo l>c sought ur ilmnneil. If 
we nrc 10 diaiinguisb between vn^f ind St^iwu in .^^ A^ ^^< t. 4, wc 
ati/ My that >«»■ gratpt the end imrn^diaCely, &nd Aicii^ui r«viewt 
titc mcaJki ; i^iiij Jpni7 gives die moral intcitu in the end decbred 
by fbCi, dud irpod^V* <*■ I Is th^ rurjonal chcicc of tbo means discovered 
by Skiitiiia. it may be mentioned that EuciraiiuKy in H% note here, 
tie^tlH nOr and fiidiijka a^i dlbtineU He bayia--^ tvpUt vnOr duXctf 

itfxjy^Jirric vktjXiy^ffAiB raTa^t^(!fdffi. 
ft 34 tihrpofui yip K4( t4 Jvartiov ^p irpdfc4 Sjku %iWHt{.t,\ koa xfiaa^ o4ii 

BOOK VI i CHAP. 2 : }§ > *• 


{ C. Si^yota e' a£T^ oANr siyit] d^^b^ iUcIf, vithout ^f t mv U30 *,!». 

dff%»f uir^ JM^ rttr^r etir *^** ri rAuf rftp dXf^&iflj aitoirt^<iff«j>r>0 £hi ti 

Arjf'iutv, «ai r4paiT*p9 flWrV trpOiTTiStaii'. ^ J< ir/fiuru^ n/iiffinrrtt fiii* xei 

^iif]Tfl4 row J|jfiTtfv mfA i>£ am tfVMXvy/tfBTD : c/". J*! J^tciu Attwi. 6, 
^OO b- ^4 ''^ ''^'' ^' *^ AinvoifTiJi' fTfjnrti^rfifi' dAAd m rv> ifpnrti^y trKot. 

4>& itbich Mich, Eplin (r/r Afafu Art. fol if|j) has t^ ynj? W^ura 
AUhonith ii it» coovcnicnt Ic disdnpuiah 4ni^cfl« uvt^ from r) **«' 

Jf«(n*r (f>. £pi^vt liHf ftpitni dyjtGoi). it mtiEt btr TClzifTntkeretl ihnt 
all JdtUom u M*i^ (Wfflur. Pure EL|>cau]atioii is austaiTieil by the 
ardour of h mind fttrivinK lo make iLecIf more and more perfect^ 
A Iniih rtfi-Ogniftcd by Plaio whtii lie makp* Jfii¥t iJie impobe to 
'tibdcctic- And by Splrio^A when lii; idcrUifirA inkliftttts aud I'ttfuriiou 
find by Arisioilc himself iti the opening words of ihc Mr/afiAysiit — 
rfJBTre jjipflpiaimi tow iittfvaL Ap^okrai tfttntrt. 

afri) Y^ "f*^ "it voif|Tkii«it ^px"] ^-^< ^<^ have not /uw dionoctic b, 1. 

tliC JptO uf ntiPiTt€^i &id¥ota. A Ij/e; uf ndbXc :ii:]jtiri (^fir/xif^a) ia |[]f? 

<nd for ihc take of which all irw7r«', from the cobbler to Phidiw. 

««I c4 rAvt dTrXw% (^Xd rrpui Tt ini T4k^) t& iratijT^i'] C^i E. X. y>. % 
*L S'. 4 T^' fiiV yi^ fTOMja'fiB trtftrf¥ tA rVX^i, ri^v AJ irjH£f«t «£i( Atr iltf 
ttm y^ {Jiirif ^ ti-7Tpti(i'a JtXut^ 

AXXl jh npoKT^i'J f/. WXdi avXvtf. I he fcadinj? oXX* "S rv TTficrfr^v, b. ■. 

given by Aid.. Knsir., rr K^ re. C'CC, NC, Cambr., T«qi)1re« ui t» 
ttodcmand rtp^ tc iu] riBrSr. 

4^ W Cf<&1 ToJniJ. S(A A.r.K.] tA tpaKrav Jya^Jp. UlC obj^Ct of AiAmux b, i^ 

{ 6.] 1 bks Mction do^r to r«ir/j/ry^*Va, tuigJit liftve be«& dUpensed b. B. 
iriih : bui thift b no teawii for brackeiiiig ir. 

irC«j(o^^>-4v| S«c the remarkable faa&agc, de Jnierp. 9. i@ a. iS 


BOOK Vr: CHAP. 2:^6. 

dXijtf^ q ^fuA^ f^wri , , . as 33 fVl A* t«* ■off iiatra vai t^^WAvmy ovx 
i/toiun' tl y^}t ntfnt nura^itis f) ujivif/iivtit aKTiOrji- ^ ^tvSr/i, tui umw 

«VT1 ^ftKJjc ruv. u\rjdi( '/f riiTfii' ir^TTfrup <fT> form \'v4oV, S/Ofw urt iiXff«v 

ytVfV^f' jfram hSp rd io6f»a-a avnyniiitr yivi<rBai.* ftiJiif riptt in^tp' 

Di;a »f o^SiTf/jiip -^c aXf/J<f /k^fj^tfrai ^a-^Li'. oL^r fn «iV« <Trat nZr* nun 
^mw .... b. 32 rJ Ac /i^ «(iTaL ^^ra fj^ JrrTm fr^^fOK, <it« Air «ji^ rd 

yrp/r^ . • . i b. 31 4fl^* flPf* jS(niX*uc*^* 3f04 fi*- uft* if^i)r^rf«<r^i, 
4C f^i* fif)> ta^i rrnL^crtaTUfv, ffftai roAJ^ th*/ ^4 fitj tn^, avK tirrviL foAi- ndArv 

.... 191. I Sum ti aV JF4*f-a ^ii>^ itvrttt ttx"' <<"'^' '^ ^tflau «Ai]-' 

ajj^rt ficTfa <£ fUtiyiVyr yii'itfrati o ra yti^ <i^i£*it tint tn, vtt torui, oi-jt 
at6r Tf ><^ yiWffAir cdi W* ^iM^ft'Ji' aiiytfai ^b arirai* u#i wp* *iirm. ri A^ 

XavfirAii iCEiL oiri rov trpa^i rt, niti vn «^we ^artv fV rvit >i^ A^l /rtfytvftt 
tA l^nnj^tm 4«irnj rnl ^1^ A/ifi'^iX' '» o'f Sfi^ttt /t^fVaffii, iijif rA a/iAn jpol r& iJi^ 
'!>'<■«. ^crra nuj r^ ^vf/ir^i lat 'A fj^ ^va'tr^uc : 1. r. fulurc CVtll^ Iff if(^ 

///JW ift/or.'kcinti. 1 iri>y hav< jtt 10 Iw produccil by ^i^*v or by 
hum-in u^f ncy. If wr muiniain tlifrcfore ilnt <if 1*0 comradiciory 
proiKT'^iuoti'^ About i future <\x\i\, tlic cnc irtu^c be iruc, Atitl ihc 
olh*r fils^". in ilxe lense thai ilic oiw is nir/j^y inie, ind lie other 
<7/rrtfr/i' fnUr, wp inakr ibp fKnifreuce of rfit- ' contingrni ' tvitsstiryT 
wc bmifib ihc ' coiuingtnl ' from ihc worW* and leave no place for 
dclibcrauon. It ik, oi cou«c, iogimily nixctsiry that 1 battle should 
rilliLT lake pljwr (it-nioiiow m i tcriain npuE, or nm ukt place: 
but if it (ultci place, ic doca not take piece ' ncccAurily/ and if It doea 
[toe iat« place, it docft noi noM^be pJaci* ' nfces«ahlf/ — ^t InL 9. 

BOOK VI: CHAP. 2: J 6. 



TV fnAiV/ /n 3?itV4 /.^^ («»/ f^*iiAft f/tttA it a^rwafim fir n^pn^Uv tn 

7\» 0^r ^ yitwet ttrittfy to <ftflf4 ii mftiMty Imfk or ftal wJ^tfA r-JHiMV 
iV HAfw^U. m*4 u tMtrii/t<4 tlitfnaHy trm i f«' /AwwfT tkat art mjvfit^ty m 
Mf ifntf HKM art *U tttrrta', amf ikim^j vJkStJi art tttrfnU mrt teitAmut ftW^ 

«wiv <y /V v mhytm/; r/Otfirfif r^ttfiiiurg ifaf/i /f itm tnufKUttt. ItUk^im' 
dmii*n t^rr/trt tk^t rj^t£irfi/ finrr/ifJcr art o^/aiftif. The i^it^tftfii ^mHf 

4 1- ip^a^tvfii tt^f AvuOtv fr<p aArur lAXiv K/yu^ai' 1 ' TNs chflf^- b. lA 
IcT.' Grmi >4_vv 'pinfjQflc^ Ig coiiKii^lcr the l^^o p^iU of ihc ica^ou 
(icrenlilic and c;iIi:li]^lv«] from a lrc«l] poim of view' Jn ihap. i^ 
f 5 KcawTi wi* <JiviJecl luio iw(> pails, Itrcauiic iu nbjfcrii Rit 
of ivo kinds ; here it i* the corifcidtMibn of fl«i*in. the f^Lculty of 
affirming and Uenyiiig truly, Ahich h;i)i;ifi;ii6 i li^i of fi*-c rational 

r^ Jpltffii*. [n ihiil list rrj;'r; itnaWCB lO dianriM n-ui'^ni^, trwi^t"! ^ 
&ai«a tfmp^ia^^ and tjiftifiois to Xiiifota n^ioirrur^, wIilIo v»bt SlJppUn 

TJj£inj, rfBnTf^*(W, itid ^^HJiTjffjf wilti ilicir rtaptcUvc dtixai (sec rhap, 6), 
and m^Ld i> (he poucmion of both fw and Aidraut — cspcci^Ujr 
tftM^ir) «.a^i<i (m€ chap, 7- i 3), If ihu i(< plainly iht raiionnJe of t 
tbc pfc»cm liM, it tf. even more plainly iliai of ihr lUi in Anai. 1 
^flrf, L ,1.1» 8i> b, 7. br *^ich Gram lliinks it highly probabk ibai ^ 
Ihe prest'nt litt was luffgcitcd- In ,4ji- P&il L 133 «« liav« Lhe 
latioi^al Males given in ihr fuHowiii^ urdcf^-^irtiwrj. wur, /vior^^rj, ^ 
"l*^. ^itcfHjiTK, (Fv^hd — 1.<, first, tht main division of the r*itioniJ 
part into [h* dttfcur4i%r r«*on (At-iwufl) ami the reason whidi grisp* 
principlca imuxdiatciy (ratt): tltcii, tlic liucc kinds of discnriivc 


BOOtC Vi: CHAP. 3:^1. 

LtO b.l«. reason : and \\ff\j, the pcssefsion of dittcursive abilif}' to^Lh^ vith 
tliL< [ic'vifr of gfiL^puig principlcf. Tlkc lihi oj^ wtr find iL in K. X. 
vi» 3- 1 bcnis tU ratlcnalc Ic^s iikarEy on ils face. A4<jk>ui b not 
meniLonccl. allhough wc must aEsumc from elt aArj^ti^n 17 -^v^^ ry 
■nm^rat ft dimc^dwi that ihc wiUer hiH it In his muitl ; and ibci 
Logical order b reversed %^'hcii tfu^.a U placed before M^f^ allhoujih 
IE is to be rotcd th^ m the iUl\4^qiii>nc rliViib^iori of tht^se iwii 
sUtcA (TOf^q 15 ukvn ]»l, GtiiL^l (UJuks ihnt ' Eiidcmu^ ' ttuea nul 
diaiinguisli S**him from mCj here. It is ccruinty \t\ f.ivoiir of Ihii 
vievL' iIluI >"itHr appctin irt a Hit «rt hAit/)4i'(i r) ^^l';(>') n^ itiiTafetitu f| dncK 
^drai, (or. fift wc have Sccit ill Mti^ 6. lo. LD^i t>' ^4' <i4iuk'd iit iiulc 
on vl », 2| a- ji, iht iA^(V.u vhkh is perceived by tuvi, as itituiuve 
reason, is iliac of rd iTiyjidifitr^ or of ^eiitif, not ihfli of Airq^ttmf f 
oiTd0atriv wlikli is tic r>)>i># AifEMHut. Oil [.lie Oilier liaiid Oie idenLi- 
ficAtion fjf pavi in the pretj^n: \\%\ \htih ^wi^ir 18 inconnUcrnl with 
ihP special fiinctlofi astsigiied 10 »!*>> at dJainguishrd Troiu fViirrifj^f 
-^ Id chap, fi- The ^talenicril with which thap, G ciid» — >*«rrTm tm* 
«7hu TVf dp;^*^!' makcft U, 1 ihink., impo^eibk uj regard Che »0t of the 
hm as anvrbing bofl [hr inrulliv^ reason. The v/ordt fU o>.^fkw r^ 
ROTa^drai f| diio4<troi mu^l Lbercfort: be lakeii tu ^pt^ly dinrctly to 
nj[Kr 'RiTF7^>t and ^pd^-Tcit, and lo be loosely extended lo B-oCr oa 
acc<:iunt of ii* position !i? ^rt^iXi^ r^f fffi^^i^r (chap. 7. § 3). 

Prantl. In hln work Ubtr dit titunffcitiihrn Tu^tnJm in <Itr iVi^tf- 
machisffsfn Kthk dtt Antioffks 1*^51, mamlains li>e ihc&ib ttiut to 
regani iliw n» 1 U*it uf/iv inlf/Urfual dprra/ is lo involve onc^lf tn & 
confusion of Logic and Elhi<:s. Th^re Are only two kjiicllcctua) Jprrof 

— ffo^io and ^^"ifl/ff-t. To^io is the -i^'Tr; of the ^ Ayni- ft" |»'p*0'« f*' 
conccrred with rn fi^ ivht^it^tm JlXmr 'jv''^'* ^^^ 0/>ii^^jc f^nrhidmg 
v^^Dv^iu. ir6«flis> T**»/*'2 and 3M>*jn;i) tnC u^ffr; of the XtfyoF tjfiu' /I'V*'!* 
fmf concerned \vith rh ift^)^6^tpa okKtet *x*"- ^^< >< not an ii/>rr^, 
^ huf r/'is Unmiitridart. rr. tlir mind ii»ir. 'Kiv<ffn^f*i} it hot nn ^t^, 
for ihcrc la an ^ptitf rtnortittiji. m's- arista, f'xvj in not an if^itri^ for 
ther« it an ap-r^ n'x'^Vt uhich in its highv^i fofm is ilbo called 
iTfi^ii: — wc p. 10 of l^fantl's ncirk for ■ mmmary ^laicmpni of 
ihcic retuhs On p. i^, hccalhacicntion to/-. A^ vi. 11, 7- 114:1 b. 
IS. w Wrongly lupponii^g hin view tJmi ffo0fa and ^pii-ijiTa axe the 

only iiitt^tktlual uprrvS — rfptV vilf /ittIi' ff ^fHi«tjiri< icul ^ rfj^in kjiI frrfit 
ffiv Jifpirfipit tiryj|^MVi4 o'tfv, ml «ti iiXAou r^r ^vjii« ^Ofi<«v Ofj^rq Juar*'^ 

«^fO(. Zcller fKaminex Pranrl's view in his PAi/. d. Gr. M a, p. 
4^49 note 3. 4ad rejects it cit Cwo grounds— (1) because the uibjccL 

BOOK Vf: CHAP, ft: $ 1. 


Book v^. Aft ftLiLtcd ill di. i . f 4. ifl lIic hvMj^qr^i ^pwtWt nuij no 1U& bL li. 
Ilint it thrown out that Ebcsc ore not the fivf itatcf enumtmtecl in 
ch. 3. j I : (») bwfliiw the Aris(nT?11>in conccpticm of Afurrt »ft 
AiArvrg afit (JT. A' i. t}. I9) appHcs tO sAX five- 'HrTiifr^ttf/ and 
n;i*V fli« C«rt»tn]y Anurrdl i^it (/irvTr^ i« flddui^od fl« aa 

raun|>l(^ «f a /(i* in O/. 8, S a. 99. ii 3. 34); ami »£( (n<Ji 
a4 /tff/ of lh« >oul, bttt u //(/// of the «oul) Is cxprculy dcHiibcd 
a« a *(-# in A'. A", vi, 11, j. Jf ii is a <"f*(, 11 la an imirrri} i^t— 
Lt. an i|iu i i . I thiink ihai &]Wj4 i^nt^ral pnitiiion in im^f^saiEalnlc. 
'Riw/TvI vftrA vfTP Itir cotild tmdoublcdly be said of the rvitrr^^iv, 
and aJto of the nx-inrc, withoLt violence lo ArisdrM^lian luflgt, 
Rut it tnusi ul ihe wtnr linir lie ronrrihrd Eo Pranil ihui a c^rtuin 
difficnliy U felt by the writer of ihc Sixth Hook about ihc place of 

nruT^yi^ 3Lnd Tf<|Mj — set; VJ, 5, 7 ^J^d ^A^i* Wjfi^t ^^ iar\f optry^^ 
^pw^OMf A' out Tvta . . . AqXor otj apir^ rif /ortv [^ ^/jrSk^iniJ ni riA 
W|T7 — (ihia b perhaps why 'm'^ isomitccii from ihc IJsit ^ivL^n in th« 
^^f j): »e ilto A/. MA. ^4. 1 19; a. le forir S* 7 ^p6ff^it tifT^j «c 
^tI^A4f dr. o6f akoTr4»(iT (^ffHrrn/irr M^'ms to do tluty fof bulli ^immS^ii 
and tV;c>i| hcfC, U in the lUl 1 1<)6 b. 36), ftmnrnl yafi titrw vl ^/hSvl' 
fioi, A (T CrdtfDt fi^imft' In ^ Vn^v/^ifp /itt mi'fyjs «p«Tij t'vrit, fl>^n»^rr4«« 
^ ib"^ °^' Icrru', JX\' Off ioittr, mfT6 rt Jitt'w (E^t^. f ouEhf io A<ld 
that RAf*<jw(/Vr/(/. p. IJ4 noIc)g^ivc9 his opinion very sirongl)" in 
faivour of Pianil'* vicvf that fro/fiU anJ r^/idixj^ic arc thr only Inlrl^ 
Icciiul ^cnu, propaly su callcJ^ icvo^iiiM^ in tht* Si-\lh Bunk. 

AimX^t4t yip Bfll W(»i rffc*rfx"*^ Bta^ffJSfirtai] VVhiit i^ hcri* h, 17- 
ivnpticU ia ciprcsMd fully m tli. 6- j j^ — fJ i?/ oh ift^(3*u«^* kaI 

KUK, lljCii, itix aU ilicsctfuv Aflid lo be itt/>ifiibk} Nuu» in infallible ll 

a* the immcdialc pfrcccpiion ol Ahinl^trms s^M^i seo J/f/, 9. io< I 

1051 b. »4, and ahtfr psura^i: c^untwl in^ot et^ vJ jT j, a, aQ 'Cwi- '' 
9T^ b inftUibk UuAcnuch its ibc L^Lh*^^ich ii spprchcnda. or of 

M^ch it 19 (he npprchcnuon, arc ftucli as, if seen at all, [ire cJcorly 1 

**cu for whai ihcy aren ai^d l^ve rio rofim for The suppotiiiAn that / 

ibcy might be seen OthcniliM^^MC { 1 below, irurr«v y^ft tni^nMSu* 
Hfirr, ^ An^ra^tftf ji , ^ •V3tf;^'ir1ai <IXA«i •a**'- It^in )« infa]]jbE«, 

b«catiac it U £?« m- Aii^f^^i? (ch, 7. § 3']. But in wbni scnw* 
cuj t)ie ff#« which hivc 10 do with 10 //ft<;,*W^ i'XXo.( J^'** be taii 
10 be iftmiibk? Wc are lavcd Ihe iroublc ol Irying to answer 


JiOOK IT: CHAP. 3: § 1. 

ll8tb.lT.ihi» qucaiion as icgarJs tJ^w?, for rixp\ docs nol appear in tKc 
corrected list of infallible ify%% ffi^-p^i m ch. 6. % x, and K iu *tJit«J 
In ch, g. { 7 that tlierc are drgriws of oxcplf^nre ir li — r*?")? ^i^ 
t^xa CJ>(T^ and Lmplicd lltfti involimiary, n.i well u vcl^nTary 
^M^Ia is pcesible tii t1--Vv ^Vi* k/x^ "^ 'jv^I' ^tpjpriiwv ni/Hrvn^H 
(jf . roi) ojTovcTiftit J;in^>To*piTor'l. M'c huvi^ iTirrpforr only to ifX|»lliTi 
how ^/rtHffiii. CfUncctneJ at ll i« with *n Vpflfj^ii^M JAXwt 'ir'<»". i' 
inrUlible. The explanation £Mmi lo 1>« that ^pdH^crir Is corroUied 
wiih ihe pi?ffi?ci orfraTilsaiion ^f ihe whr>1c moral naitirc — iT. K. \\, 

\2* lO aA«ranv ^^'x^tw turri ^^ jfrrfl t^yoA^'- ^^*ivf\t*% IH Lnc COfI' 
scJousnoss of what goodness requires for \\\ proserv^ton. Thi« 
co]]HiousEhe>uf k alvEiy^ prrsem wilh :hc good iDan, and AUlhoMTa- 
tfvc In him. An Anist mft^ for^t Itia Art, because it » only a pore 
of fiiniB^ir — like a limh whi<;h may be cut off, leaving ihe body 
aIIvc; 1>uI 0/»<tpf/o4P is the j^ood niiin Wniadf— a second n^Jurc. 
whicli^ having cmce put on, he cannot pul off — E, N. «i. 5. fl 

dXU ^Ji^ D&y «£■< >i«tS Xffyau fiavtaf ff^futQP tT cri X^^ r^ fMco^rqc 
rffoiT ion, ^poviftTfttt l[' <iig fariv. It dtrf^cti liitn uiii^rriiij^ly id ihr 
inCf rest of the iioLIc life, aa instinct directs an aniin:\l tn the tniertfiL 
of the phyiicfll life. There i« indeed nothing exceptional in ' ihc 
TnfaHibility of the pood man' ^^ec J?. jV. iil 4. 4, 5 — 6 pwnvhtute 

navur mi ft'T^v nvruv £p) ; tvnty ot^wstn knovB infallibly how to 
be itvflf. 

4hraXii4i<t] ltAit^^c \fi a vi/tv or axj^mpitm^ whether true or faXbe: 
sec BoniU. Mtt. pn 41 — ' SigniliL-JLt hmifid^i^wit* vumete el «C8tuere 
ftliquid pro vcro, »ivc iJlud c^t vcrum nivc «ccti«.' ll \% Homctime^ 
reftch^r] m^ioii^ly as ih^ conclusion of a syllogism^-^av J14 etvULo- 
ym*(oC hd5'/ r^*- hnjXii+ir, somcliniCT i» lakm ui> immcJialdy — ffrnr 
4n-Awff i^ii^ij^^'; vrttipj^^¥ ^ ^i) imj^vLp {tee ■'Ifi. P^tf, i. 16, 79 b. ^7} : 

in The latter ca*e il mny amouni eiihtr to ffliflr^/Lij ift4frc(£4urT«« — 
defined in v4i. /Vj/. i. 5:1. £6 b. 7 aa fmAvJ'ir t5s J>»»ooit v^varJirvn 
(j^. jTdl in^nfflt), or to A^Ifd ofl defined in the same pfL>M|[c (Sf a, 

«IIL uAAdib fAfi*^ mtru i" <tfil* twuXrj^Li r^t ii^tvnt iT>iuiuir*wr *ii'i *ti^ 

A/vfutub^u It wonld thus nppenr :hat i-^&^rf^tt in a term ol vet)' wide 

tpplit'ulioii : r/! di An, tii. 3 4V7 b. 24 ^ItA h\ vk a^c rifr pffAA^^-«wt 

Siaf'fHb, iramffiff col Au^ mu ^f^rrf^tf coi Tomrrfu rvvrvi' : anU ^. aV^ 

BOOK VI: CHAP. 3 : }§ i, ». 


IkOwcwT, iFirrfXflJ'xc t* tvidemlj ;j»<N.I Ell !fc "NiiPdHc **iise a» ctiuivaleril 
lo Sift, the jiancDng opposite of inwi^f*^ ; *cc -^ff^ /Wa i. 33, 890- 

sfrfH Aofdfnp inii" offjrm «ftt*nTfi»' <tXk«e ft"*". '^' rniTfjirflin" iSiX' 

£■ utri(if^ iVuaw ihrAtec, iWH ftft ^* uo^vktuC*' Tprmcv r^i' tarn dVM^'* 
A^irofr i/rnf riir r' airifii^ ni-^'}ttt0't ytni</rtt^if Xi' ^t» ri vr^Ay^ (Wif, Jri 
ntr/pOD AiviiQ iTti, in* fti^ tf&ijttaS'n ruirr^ ^AKur 'X*'^- ^'J^ow rDriqw H( 

fi* ^^v 4iDt^iif oiVui tivTtf* ^K*""' "^ ^ trriifTittHKH iM< fjfoi'irifi uirri e£ 
f^>^ /irriir twnrr/jtiii, Tftvt' A^tvarov JOi)ion Tx"^- ^^ M'^ "^'^ '°' rripite 
«<^i mv fffkTriiiPVui tfjunof. irirtf^uir w^'fufttVt f^tr^if At iitj Ji (Diu3fi'fi4i 

li Xfy<r raff ^ fi^ f^iiv af^^v /citiniM'^ri. E^ ro4ia>ir Vct! tA AriffTuctfai 

v^MTVi- Aai nfUamr ml ytvpiittfrtffvy na\ irpnrjpv* fa\ aifi^-i' row trvfivT^ifij^ 
ftoTW iivm yAn laavrtti cit'i nl rifi,)fi! citthn rnu ^itivfA/imv. ^vWtiyutfiAr 
rt^f flip J^in ¥Qi tinv hiCtv¥, uviJArkfif d" uIk t^rw' vv >v^ rtwitat* 

Tort 4|iciiiTT]a.i'] ' ihe various unnlifi'H:4l mvl iri^cutjiic uses of b. i», 
the wotd * knowledge'" (Grant). In vhc ^Iticl wc;»c /irioi^iif? in 
«w«ArMrj(^. a* d<'*chbc(l in An^ Pi^t J. a quoted in Insl i>o[^ : bul 

frjijiti-, and tnflnj' f>Tlirr ff^m^/iitTtini flc^Hng M'i(fi rn fvAtj^it^fkvi uAXuc 
^^•(wlicicllicit'tjn iw no Atdidfi* — ?rfc i. A", vi. 5.3), uit-'uiUcd 
«*rT^pfli m a loos* wnsc. They Arc ' branchca of knowledge.' 

4mi> Ifu row (fbrpflv y^H'^^O ^^ i^canK tlint a <oncrcic ibJufc Ik b. 9i. 
Icrown for ortAin 10 t:xksi, of be of a ccrialn kliiJ, only wbtn iL U 
<iciuaUy prcacnt to out obiKivalmn; whcrc>u a ncc^asitry tnilh 
U apprcbcndd w bc^ng .tIwsjk what u n: rnw upprclvudrtl (o Im: 

iU^3Ur ylrtnu' o^wit yap i(mi< c£ «n vno^^ti, SiA rv r^ mttStjati ^intf 

if &rdrn|«] Tn Mff. A. ^.r^J^ ^ytjjt hk ( I ) ^ ^p^x^f^'**"' ^^^^^ b' ^2- 1 
f^r ifi iltfitln^itthtd from (it *^ ■T>'rv oj^ du^ /rti^f^iri) (3I r^ jS»4Mnft»» i/t^*^ 

and (4) 17 Aw6&t,^t, or nyllflgiiik fons/-jti/ntta : //- M*i. a. 7, 107* b. 

SS SOQK y/: CHAP, fl ; § a. 

uao t>. tt. 1 1 (where na 4 te DmillcJ) ri yo^ twiymjo*' . . . r4 t/fr i^ ^ wy 

-^ dwyvflla *( ifltBi^ifftffcB- - Me Phyx. ii. 5. 195 b, 34. 

yif<!^i'a rd hi ^f jfvl iroXv, fiora^M vrt tthf^tripov rtfirvf dirid 17 tvj[ij 
Xryrrot oltt r6 iliTi^ r^X^i, oSn roC ^ dHiyiOTf mil d<l atfri rvA «fv iVL 

Xa'^fj^t T^ ^q /i^V<'^' JAXidf, <.r,X. Tljr DivillC ToWfr whlch 
inovt's th? fiywraa ^itpoKftt and wjlh it all thinf^lS U o^ui tj»344r 
ntivijf€>x — *ce ^//-r \. ti. 1071 b, 5, and 7, t07» a, aj. So aJio j*uri? 
fuim, 35 Jl a Mudial in ihe madktnialical actciiLCf^, lb d^Auw » ftvc 
£, A. lii- 3- 3 ^'fi^ ^h *"' liiJCvi', oL0(ic ,l^uX4vcTdi, vv>K fffpl tvO jukr^t 
!f T^c Ai/i^'rfKiu iml t^c vKtVfiat, cri atrififirTpiM ■ PhjlS. iV. IS. 399 &■ ^ 

T& yip J£ dfdyHtif oi^n AirXu;] ait dittlinguf&li^d frt^ni rd ^wyieaui 
rw *f ufrri^iViian: sec P/j^'S- Ik 9. 1*^9 K 3 ^ ril fl' #f fli-Jyifjc TrFT*(K* /( 
Wo^ff(EB« biiuj>4tt ^/ aul JrfXab cr.X. ^ A !IUW Is iQ CUt, 'll U 

nccpstaty ihat ' il should be made of iron {Pfyt. \'x. 9. 300 a. i») — 
**f tim^V<«t fl^ ri nvayca'mf. Hrir tIic ' TiccrBhity' id eittrinsic^' jT 

wc arv to have cutting, it Is ncccftwiry 10 have iron.' Bui the imita 
of mathrmaiics jire avityirnia iiirX«< — nec-jftwry without qnaJificftlion, 
in theni«t'1vri, f.t, their nc^cfsity is inttiiinic : kt Afef. d^ 5. 1015 h. 9 
r«r fiir itj Trtpoy ajttar toD dKayald f^i, rup A' n^i^/f. tlXXA Aid ravra 

b. 34, t4 V d^tadY^vvrio hqI ditfofiTa] Scc J/f/^ N. 3- 1091 0. 13 ^rvrw 

Aa jfiTi yiiviTtv vrut'it/ lUAimtr i'lfran'-. Z- Ji, '0^3 b. 1 y ri* fwi' nvf tSiat f 

^-fliloiLi Xi7ilirtivr ol- yfyvfrai : Z, lo, IO3571- J? iffu i< ii^ trvttO^tjttTat rfl 

.,,X^ vXjf dXX* £t^v vXrjt, ^ 0^ Aifyw roC n^itt f/At^v^ rmfra ^ o£ ^Sitptrm, J) 

frvKAcir mil rf Xiyffi' Xjtyv A' vri ^^V uurvr fVnf auffiu trvrr^CX/j v-i'niXq^< 

IffTi ^^/ici' cai ^fi y«M<iTir. tuu Af Xoyoti frAm /mji- oiVue ^orf 0Ai^- 
ir<?iu' oi^'At /dp ->vn<m (uA ytl^ >iynnii t6 qIki^ tZni oXXd tb r^^ r^ «fup). 
ttXX* Awn yff/jfvr 'ul 'P$ofiiit iwrl ul «44 ifirjiu 

BOOK VI: CHAF. 8 : J 3. 


}3. ^tiBttcrJi .. . «vUoY^ir)L.;] Sec An. PfJ/.Ut,^1t. t Damt U3eb>fl6. 

AiAnemtAJn nai nnna fni&rj/rit dtnifirfririi 4ti irpoOTTn^^jownfC ylnrrrft ytfAtmn. 

nrurr^fwv &to mTau mt tponw iradayt^^iTai fol fM* ^ftXuV (MAtrti^ tfj^i'dw, 
<iKE< rA iid^ lAumF. 'OTdUTut vt'i oJ ^QTDjiun} fn^fiirri^jumir^ i) yi^p fiiA 

Gront aft*r quotini? ihc above pawaRp, saj** — " what Arisiotle had 
wid of liialcLlical n/^iiciicuLb {rois \6ya"s) EudciitLS u|.ipiitra lo 
adduce, ^Jiitli he ikctoidiTi|?ty awcriA lo be somclimt's juiluctivc- 
Hht funhcr flsnprrion thai the prmcipl^a of dc-duciivc liclcnce ftrt 
ob4;uiicd b; iiiUuclEon In incoHHiatcnt vilh the coucluabn of chap- 
ter VI [i.r. ^timrai tov¥ th>tt tv> apx^], ttiOllRh It a^frccii with Ariul. 
An. PitL a 19 [loob. 13 voi'i /v *ri *ft»M W*"^]' Whctbtr Ihv 
two slOlcnwiiLl q ivaymyij an^ *'*^' *°^ "'>^ nqfvXcic and Kvvr itnu TBi 

^if SLTC really ' inconsiv-tem ' wiJi tw examined undor chnf. 6, } 3^ 

prruion, not a jianitular rcfcfcnrc ' (Griiit)- For ihc * Aii^vljlit* " 
of Eudcmua &cc Friti^fichc, j?M. f n</. Prolcgom. p. 2vi, an^ Grant'fi 
EikicSf vol L Ettfty i- P- 3^ (4th edition). 

&i' ^iTO-yuY^t] Anntotle's (rentmcni of n-syo^ ma}' be brought 
under [}uee diHlirici hpaxb: — (1} In ^n. pf/tS^ il. irj hr [nriua 
ic psycholorcal!y, ^ivinjc ^ stcich of tbc process by which 
gftneral notions are ^mUually rorni«d i[i ih« mind out oi tlit; dau 
(jf M-nw : (?) in /lii, /Vw, ii. fl,i hr ttPiiu it fortnally, Mip|»lying 
& Byllcjgulic fonnula ft>r the inductive proccaa, to correspond mi\\ 
t&&l aln^y found for the deductive process: 3.nd (3) in Top. t 
tl, 13, ii> I0| 1 1 oer1;lln Ipyivrn Jit hv tCrrip^im^rr in'kXiryur;4^v. and 
certain f<W««,Areca£pliiinped which remind ua oHhc Jmfii^/iiv Jifirl/icds 
of Nfod'jm r,ogic- U is m these chtipiors of ihc Tl*//-' (m which 
the Mnjrd *«ci>oty^ srUlom urriits), -in<3 in the chiiplef an tcap^&ttyjut. 
Am, Pricr. \\, *|, ratlicr limn in An, Prior, ii, * j (on the inductive 
syQogiim) ihat we muiiT Took for Ahitoik'iL real contribmion^ lolhe 
' Logiu of Imkjcibn,' Thi^ nixalkd imJiJCtlvc syllogism of /1«. 
Pri^r* iL 93, bci&£: f f iv^lt^rwr, misrcprcncati a proccM uhich results, 

' bvan ttfiiu to ukc no >« rotmt d( thu ^Mttribution, 


SvOK y/: C//AP. 3:^5- 

L3ftb-ftT^ not (n dmdn»tnti4r<l tnjrh, ns the d«<lttciive >i)'tlo^'[sm Jors, but In 
raonl, or practical ccnainl;'^ 

b,Be. ^XXoYk^fKy] ddin«d Air. J^Her, i. r. 94 b, i8 as Xttfor fr ^ 

4 l&jv Sf| 4fr&YWY*i ^fX^ ''^^ ^^'^ ^^ HaAaX«u] L.^ and Aid. rvad 
apxfft. iinti r ntfomii !o omit *di, Kbl niay have ficrn inircducpd, [o 
make L^ic tUusc cohefenr. b}' ^ scribe uLo read 4tf;vnT. If ihc 
genitive tW wiA^^vi/ tltpcnds on ^px'l* ^^ ^ c1l0jcuU i^ expLoin ml : if 
jmi" he reiflined, it aeems nece^iBaiy to render— * Indnciion is ilio 
beginning, ;ind h concerned with ihe univctaAl' — not a very 
^an&faclory rendennff, I ihink. 

b-30. tCoW Apii Apx*^*^ ^£ £p- . . ^avuY^ ^pa] Sec ^iv. /*ai/. i, 3^ 7>b. 

inUnafj&ai rd frprfrtpu ml cf &v ^ ond^dfji, M/ranii ^r rrvrc t£ 4M*cd. 

4'rriipr^/(>7V nXX^ rni ^i^X'l^ iniirrijfiijt «4»di vfV'i ^rrfidv, ^ mie bpms yrapi' 

Cu^iir, Tht^ fttjr.!* /trtiyiiryft upa aie itrgardcd hy IVemlelcnburg 
[J/fj/or. Bttir. aur Fhl- vol, ii. 367) aa i\ gloss. In llw; paiuUcl 
[lu^f^igt M. M. u 34' 1197 a- at ftntr<dy4 ^^ i^^^^ mcniLoned— 4 H"* 
yup /TTitJTiT/tij Til" ia*T jpir*S<££»»t Jirwii ^Tcnft*. al t* <lpi;*i3 d«nrdftH«rw: 
nor in X\\e pastfigc joui quoted (rom An. Ft>sL i. 3. 75 b, 18. Jiut 
surely wc musr rrtain /imyoiy^ J^, unle^ \\c are prrparcfl (o ivject 
ii ttiv flft ^ayvyf Jp;[7 iW* i^m f uv iiitfd>ciJ. Il srems to be ini[H>ui^le 
lo diKtin^uigh between 'Kud^^mus^ ^nd 'Aristodc' here. Both 
ascribe tlie printiplcs iif ?i>'l]*»gls(ii, ^^>mr^j^ll<■^ loiimyvy^, »omeiirac» 
In vouvm AriHoile, at any rate, saw so little incon^isiency in thi^, 
that he «v«n giv«£ ua the iwo explanaEiore utEhin the ltmit£ of the 
fiime imtutdiaic cotiici\—Art. Fosi, ii. 19. rooU 3 ^^v lift (It*^^!*- 

xh iTfiura ifiayoyfi yrv^ifcU' <iPnyvjLDf' kiiI yo^ jrul flurdrpirii (jtrtd tv 
■dArXrit- iftinml, tin\ 94 T«it «M^^ rrjv ffiiiwrfov ^'f'vt-^ nU dXrjAvd^a-, ol 

oXr^ f Jfl aVMn-QiAif ta\ mvt, «(«< DvAff ArHJTrH«fj( ilB^ik^tovi/wf <TXAo v'^^x 
^ Mbt, uf A" <i/rj[^^ ^' afroSo'f^hiv yvwpifibir4ptn, rrrttrrtjfirf ^' cfToffd pir^ 

<fnufTDvci luc art nnoAfi^vc (■f';^^ n^'V tiri^Aci^r, £rrr' fi^ft* ivurr^f/^ 
rlf nrHTT^^A^e offlCt' No explanalio;i of hi^t Av iai^ rwy d/i<(^r caQ bo 

300A' VT: CfiAP, 3: 5} 3,4- 


riKhl which Tails to lake account of A passage like ihc foUowIng— llMti.Sff. 

Am. Pptt i. t8, %l 0- I'A iptunpiif Si ni Srij ct nf aT^Aj^u iVXAoiHtf, 

rV«j[^Kii 3' /iif ij^airrat tuiffi/rtf iiAvvarn*. r^a- y?tp Mn6' 4iintrt*^v ^ 
ala^^W ill y^ /fflt^inti "hndtii- avraty rffr a'pitrriiitiv' n^ Y'li' ^' **'*' 

oott on efa. 6. j 7, a, 7. 

XvTtnett-j S;c Jn. Pifii. i. 2, 71 b, y — a pUAajjC ^uOKti ftbovc^j J 
nOt« Jv»VT^pTf, b< iS. 

5Ttti» y<lp , . - l(4t 7^9 iw,vTi\^x^v^ Sdenlific knowledge U r«&1iking b. 
ftinuhu Ehe iicG<^S}tfr> t:o[)>ic<jLiCiiLC4;r pIf.lJl(^^r?l wlijch ait- clearly 
kDOVQ, t\t^ tnorc dearly known than ihr cgncliislon c^tAhlinhcd by 
fiMaM of ihcm: for If ibey wen not mor^ clcirl)' kn^^t^l, how 
could ihe conctusion be c^t«bZi9phc<1 by me^as of tlieni? ]t would 
DC ipdc|»en<Tcni of ihcm. \\ vould be knowled^ widioui proof—* 
■ accideoUl knouletlge.' The lunpuiflc here resembles closely ihai 
uF An. P^t. L J» 71 a, sg^ — Vnvl (If J^fi ntfrnJcif r« cal f^Aitui tA 

Surt ilttft royat Atd rA fT/itftn titI fTifrratV^^ift, iriafiva lafttu n vat 
niOTtvoi^tn >fldhk»', Sft 04* /trcnt iciit tA St/it ffot. o^x "^ ** ^ 
[Vterv^*' >iaXXoH Lf nij'i'i J |>f) Ti^j^t'fi ^^rc 'lAvv P^ ^t\nof 
btHMtifitrat ^ fi «Tvyir'i>^v 'fAorr. ffiJ/j^^rTfrrti Aa TotTQ, 'i jtif tic Tuoywa' 
*rtwi r£p 0A* tbidftciftp ■bcTfiJ^nvi'' fia^Xor ^^ ti^jyit^ iTiorfffiV taii 

flTicTT^u^tf r^p Ai' flfm^i^oir oiV fiiWr (f«< rdr <i/);v^r /j^ikAnv yviapC^tiir tal 
^pAr 6 rfr fWrr/at airdngf, rliTf^ At i r&v i'ltiirrofitvov fhrAA>i d^kcrdmiirTOi' 




BOOK Vi: CHAP, 4: « *, J. 



Jn tJu tfktvt ef tMt tonUngtnt, or tAai -Tuhith .-lOn Af crJtifuiut, misiriK^ anti 
ifffingarrif be tiiitii^^iAnf^ TM A*W^ rftuOHtng irvij-^tfAerr ike mji^ns 
pf iowfthins iJ i^HttTHttf, uAft. 7'hesftiit ten furv iemet^ijtjitt/kk^ mn^vr 
ntny rn>e U. rAaU bi /nnfttioi^ the ptiffiplt niu/t'itj^M Jiimtr^^ iM m^Jttr, mud 
HO/ in tUt tktHg that is Itiu^ matfg : Jor Art U not /onifned wttA things tta/ 

^ t»t^ttr<f/er ihfjr Aavt tAttr /ritvi'/It iff ikimuivu. Thin it a unu if* 
^uA <kami anJ >Mrl d^v tonffrynJ tcitA tht s^me Min^j. • Art tvws i^an. t 
9rut ehanit iffTf^i att* Att,tAtn, ii u kni-ic r^ rtt^ivninx truly ^fki't i&metAiKg 
is i^ng *fta,!f wihUtthi nfjin u/Ae h tfitAout art nmanj /clirfy}. avdffurtati 
in fAe i/A/i-n ^ tkt e69*ttn^tnt 

ytita^iv JH an ivi^ua nliich It iis Oft'n tAoc: *ec ncit« on i- i. \, »: 
^ Jh- Af, i. 34' I '97 ^^ 3 "^'^ ^uvT^ rJt noiJfutiiv nai rTpa«Tt«*M^ tuji* >ii'v 

fUc^, itttitirj trmv vtitifTU^ nttlat, Mrm OiT^ t(^ rr^Ai mpd r^v frn^njif, 

atN fffrji- akkv oi'$if rtXut frnp^ AtT^r rijr wpn^, itaw ma^a to b^tifxfftt 
oiti lirro' 'TaXv tAoc inS*¥^ dAX* o^A rovro riXef, iq iripytta *ai ^ itpa^n- 

k. I, Ifunpmcit X^fVLt] Soc note on i» 13. v. EuslrLiC. has — ^fatrfpucoi^i 

r inffM'ifi \6y"ui via 1^ r^i Xoym^ iro^ililfffMi loivur tw irX^ "frinjf, 

J| |KTd XiJyot l|«] i«r4 Mytrv ut (jjiposell In £0701 JtJ jWf/. 6. a. 
1046 b. 3, and is rcoUy = Xt^u^t, eu^ ihnl adjective ia UflcJ by the 
bwr AiiftloteUanB m the KCD»e of ^ riiiiori^i/ 

a, d, && oOSJ tttfUxrrQ.t An dXX^Xut-J KaiiL»aur.-r rem»rks (hal iTiiK i« 

iOCOnSJirttlll with vj, :i. 5- ottTj (^ irpdJifK^) yu^ juit T^t truUTTW^j Spxtt^ 

un6 tliinXi ihii tbe uiiier of the prcMut chapcor cunoot ba^^ had 
cb> >. { 5 before him, 

«, 7- f fl' iirtpj ' A togicil fcnnuU implying identity cr comcnibilily 

of I'^nna' 4Gnnt)> EuKtmts ad loc. has — r^ H fm/i l^'Kovw wlrru ro 

BOOK VTf CHAP, 4; }{ 3-J. 


Ai^Arnjrf* Btl rl col ^ptit tlvat rav {^b ri* &>tf^wiroft' ^r 'Rof 'Iff y'Mr 1140 «- T, 
r^ Cfov amr^pd^ifHM'' ttnttmo/ yhij Ti^iu ti^at innp W irm tA ytitit avrntr 

vp^ v^w f*X^if <il rt«Ti<FTj>.^iT»«, Sf« fioEc cn Vb, 13r 1 Sircpj t>. 6. 

|L<nl X^You &Xi|OoutJ Whcfc we have "jfi^. »» dlstingiiislicd from *■ 10- 
^rr^rCi (acc bclow, } 6), thtf CAkuUtion, oi ^cfy>f, whlch Wrow 
■rwfnc^ gocii through, ccn^i&iH of idoM following one smother in ihe 
frw onSo''^' A in iJw order of Ehc HLcjjfi wbidi uccuul]> L^inatltutc 
' Ac nnking ' or the thiftn;. 

f 4* irtpl Tf^rtffll^] Sec -!«. Pasi. \\ I 9- 100 a. 8 (ti mJAnt) tv^i^i* ^ ^ 

lint. But rfwit IK aJMi v<pi yivtitiv: acT^uidrnglj. lo Jcfiuc [he pr{>- 
viace oi '*Ht"T» It '* nc«S5af> to add — o^j ihc wtiicr doc* here — Iw 

1 4 >a'r off Tr\v7 4p\i^ it Skktf, 9 Ai <^siuis d^^ Vr t^fy : /'Ays. H. 8i 

KuWTaiiU'? Iiah ill'." following iitJlir ln'itr — /jm ^/i l^ltl^ icnl Ti^p ^vffu' 
«■■* y^mt/ir t'm>yitaifuf, uAX* 7 ^V i^i'i/Lt cn^ii u^vu kuj fiid ntv i/vfHcrwr 
j{*^«biM wf«r «V o^f*I< /Kp^t, ^ Ai Wjfi*; 0^ /trAff AiWa ^XX' ^irr&r rv¥ 
tfuflarMw rtfil A larrayitur^i, cl/toic ft oiuoit Jmjtytt, ml otTaiv aiViiir rA 
rt^rp^Td aZdij imeiiirV tWuF yiJp f^ dp^^taToiTniiTtUiT tot ;|ifXj(oLi, aai f 

vetJt$i^i-it. Ati> cnl trrrt axTot vara r/tr tTrnpAunaif ra tt/^rt ntinrt^ifuni'- 

■at tAt«x*^1(>' "o^ tfiwp^tv] Ikk,'. I'rilzschc, Rama., inJ Suscm., 
fbllovmg Moreno, bracket lite second uT Mur«tiiB Ktyg: 'tJeUo 
■of. idii cniiii tI[H.-tiU quiil %\x t*x*V^ s'aijm atldii quid lil nj^wiffit/ 

brockelK ihis tcntcnce a» An mtcrpolntion. 

rpufir (mifirtriT or tij^iaj Ix^ing included uridci rr^foftr. sec ^'. A' vi, t, 
fi} 0|>«ral« in the same Ephwc^ via. m Ihot ot ™ mtu irpoal^tirip yvf 
F^tA4 Jwni tow (sec /*A?',t, 11. fj. i«)ft h, I M). Where n man uses hfa 
JntcUigcnce U> Ja or ma-*^ tiomcihing, lie generally succeeds — it. 
^ re»uh tvhich fcllo^n is eauiied by him. iJut soiuctimos a rMiilt 
(good or bad) wHch Ite iJld not cc^tii^iTiplaie makes iu Lip[>earHiice. 


BOOK Vf: CNAP. 4: ^§ 5, 6. 

\t> ft, IT. 0/ ihis Chance is iJic c-iusc. He ^lougb^ in order In niiw a ci 

and he turns up a treasure — *\>y chance': see Phys. a. f,, 197 ft*' 

5 A^Aflf 'Tpn itrt 17 rifjiff dfrid tfor^ trvfitt*ji'}it^V if toit VAfa ftpoaiptViV tan* 
Oiavotas : IJ> 6« I ^f b, t r; jatr yap ^^Jf^ ^'^^ ^^ ■''^^ '^'JC' ^'^'^^ ucruiv *d> f" 

Jrvj^LQ vmi^jt^i rovroiv, tl fi^ ttuff aftuiArrjta. T^^ij and upa^ip (the lattef 
inoludiiig mtfitjw) are thus ne^il rti u^ii, riyj u^icmLmg irregulLirly lo 
prodooeorfrusUilc rc^Ltlia vvliich ff|*.ii« producca rcgularlj* Thetc 
ifi a special itenbe^ ho^'ev^r* in which rvx^ and r^x^t {"x^l bcin^ d&8- 
tinguialiccl TiCJin w/idfn) maj be said 10 L»h? m/ii rA uCru. tJ^^ scrm» 

Kt coopcrAic vjih ai)cl favour {fffrf/jf*) r«jrrr^ as it docs not ravcuf'^ 
irpa{j«. Tbi« U because wpaiit is a more perfect exprcijtion of 
reason^ Ol llir ur^iimsing pritiLipk-, ihiita ^'X.^- Upafis is tijt 
reLliiation of the r^Uoiia] personality tLstlf. BliL vt'^^ rcaliK* 
Its good in an ejctf^niul Ipyo^, and (he #2001 whiclt it imposes on 
Ckn is only a mrlncc form— ^vry diflcrritl from the fornii^ 
penetrating to tilC very heArt of the t^'j, which ^virjc flnd a^ri 

prCwiuCe {^ JT- iV! Il 6. 9 ^ T a/Hr^ jTiHrfjc '^X"'* tafuflttrf^im vil 
Afuitnmr fittW lotmwp ta\ ^ ^vvit: ^ftL A. 3. IC70 1- 7 4 f^^ *>^' ^^X't 

dpx^i o SkXif), ij Ai iJfCait apxfr u a^^). Ttxvt, a a weak pnudpLc 
which caimot succeed urless the underlying J>.j^ihe elemcni of 
iiiiitjonilily and iccidcni — be fdVourjUc. Tbus Its gicalcsl 
itiumphs arc oficn unexpected. The exigency of a thyme suggests 
a bramirnl mm of iboiight; 'a nere accident" give* the world 
a great mcchanica] mventior;. But llkough, for this reaAOO, rfjcnj 
ovrcB motv IQ iC^f/ than nfM^tt doc»> wc must not forget that the 
highcii' wpa^ii — tvAntfumn. n^eda KiTvxin, and that the tundamenial| 
flpjfti — the pEiy^uil life iif plant and animal — \& of^n molt vij^ovoitf 
when Homc 'occidcntar viu-ution has given ft new direction 10 
inherited tendcoc/- 

ttlier On- unskilful man Liie* to make M.iniHhini;, he i<ialj«s ihc 
sicpi of the operation ' falirely.' lie goes to wotk * in the ^v^OI]g 

BOOA' VS: CHAP. 5: § K 



T^^tdmt* iV"vu Mur.- lA W^/* /ff HoJ^rtltni Tuhai it £i, kt ut J^k tti 

^AanuteriMir ^ iAf frmOfm maf* tu hi aiiU to tielit^nitt vHll ad^t tht tkit^ 
-Skal «Vtf gmd a»d trf^tmt /if himtflf. tut tn tkt ftitrrtrk' wwi/ <f /flft* 
^JtrlamtUi wr atro^h^ hmt lit t/u ftntnti itKmf gtai /or lAr U/t t/ thi ruit^ 
tititfKt Si*t IV Hkiff Jtirifralfi fiAm/ tktngi tiikii\ drv Mintjariijr v^/ fkty 
«/r, nor aitmt tAiiso vAitk ii it net it Ait ea'it pffifcr te Ja^ jitcvtuin^fy 
[jrtuQw/ tr^ nat Ar nitmt, «r irt—mflt idtincf. Mdnur ifj ahjat—ihat which 
iiJtnf—tr lamtmgtnt: mH art, AwdHrr making jnd J\?tng srt f^tn^tvaJiy Jir' 
Hmi, a /dwvdr*/, tAtm, /i^ p<u.Un<i ii /hf /aiwiiJy e/ rejueniitg tmiy wAfr^ 
temtitMittg tj ^itt^/^Htr. itj i^hitt hcinj^tkal iff tnam'i goffd ttnd <%fl. 7\t tnd 
iif^iax iiivi if^KUinji Ji^<rrni ftvm lAe Uvinf! . U t'l i«//-/tfi'«v , wA/r/jm 
tiftftd ^ wa^tnt u oantTAinfi ^ifff'tKt /fom rAe frertts i}/mt\Jtin^ ftritla 
tt^ 6t tattu tu en t-tatrfff .y fi* frudmi ■Didf^, 4/ fmf^hriy nndtfUiroU — ^*/i' 
«lA«b4#Av Jir/iw^^jwtf fr/^^ h gtini /*r Aimit^ Oftti/ar' cfKtrs i» M* 
il4i* ^/^d t\i /**ti^, titf^it ha a-m^-fa^yfi f^rtt its namt Awi r-v iri^i*r r^v 
f ^fry tf , Aotmr it *pnwvfi'o mnn't ivnetfiien &/ nfksti ij jiwrf— *i .vfHtf- 
iAw. ^ffimifif. trAirtt ^^j /i^ti *» ituttti/ii itmiffian^ or princij'te. 
m Uiftjt ^a^Ftfa im^t t^in/At fiy f!^/urr ami/ jWiw— /» t'M f/Miimi lA* 
tmi^iM^t^ ii Ih4 prif^ifit^ anJ Iki nttut u/iia kai htfn mltAitd hy fk^it^rt cr 
fiMH it, Ut4iMf w utaftt^ Mifui io tha xoodttai- /VWcurc. Ihet, it * r^^nai 
JvMr, wMih /*rmi trat itnirftteni aftwf ivhar ii ^^W/i" mait. anJmvtj iW 
manfOifitn. // i: « f^iv iv ti^ffitts/f. net An art : /&r wir i/m* h/ fj*//- 
Jmh/ It a-y, >•■# «#/ of t^tltmet vx ^mdit^ti ; and in tirt tvJMtt^iry rrrer it 
ttOtr jl4#m imtiiatttAfj, vA^rtai in tha r/ktr< t/ frudttK^ tintf // tht iNfi^ 
rirtmt T«/itmiOfy trio'^ u tvfirjt, ii u lA* rx,ttiert.t 0/ tAat tiivitifH u/ lA* 
watitmiJ /itrt */ r4r toitf. v4iV>( /armt pfmieni. vr titali wlh /rvtwdiUfin. 
fftatit it uat mfrrJy4 r^rtavof Anbir - /ifa mtnfy ratienal habit moy At fast; 
Ha/ruaifnst u nnw itri, 

\ 1.] From hence onnordfl Uic Sisclh Ilook may be tlwughc 10 luo 
Juffify hcrirr ii« pliir4* In an tlhiCiii Tr^^atiat^. Il will now te con- 
cerned amialx with Kc^aon u 'the Moid Fdctilt/': but ace nolc 
on ch, I. j{ 1-4, 

npl %k 4poi^r<vt] Grftct has an unporUnt pote here, m ^hich 
tk* XTAct^ th« hUtoTf of the docirin? or ^pii»f^<f doun <o thi? forrn 
whkb ti Ulbc4 in lUia Book;—' Pbtu {PAaedtt 79 D) iJcndlicd die 



BOOK VI ^ CHAP, 6 : $5 1-3, 

1140 A, St. moral cotttdonsness uith philMophy' — i.e. he maclr ^pAvrjftM 
idcniJcAl willi ffoi^ — ' Wjllk Aristotle </»/MJ*nj[rn was giaduilly coming 
to assume iU digtincLivc meaning, aa prftctic^ wisdom/ bcinK 
describrd in the PoHlics v. a. 1*77 b. a^ os * the only virtu* 
pro^w.'rlj lictonglng lo d ruler '^rlr a.-^ ' |)TacltCftl v^Jwiom, but in 
a brond gcneril sense with refcrcnce 10 ataie eifaire rnt}:er ihan 10 
indkvldua] l[f« ' ■ while ' in thr present Boak we have the Kud^minn 
cxpofiition and dcvcloinncni of AtistoUcs theory, vhich eniirclj 
coritnLsis f^pirtirr^t wilh oof^U^ And limit? the former to the rcgii]:ition 
or irulividuil life/ Ste also Grant's Hiht'cf, E^^ay til vol I p. 1 t}i^ 
I cannot agrc« witii G^ant tl»[ in th]» Book 0pur7iJ>t i^ limited to 
the reflation of individual life ; nor do 1 liiink \\\xl in ihc PeHltft 
it is denied to ihr individual as managing for himself liis own 
private affairs — [if this in ihe import of Grant's remark, quoted, 
Above, on its jtbce m iLic PoUtus)^ but only to the individiuxL ^i 
n/j](t(fupDc, We Khali have oftporninitiefl, however, of rertiming 
these points in subcicquent notes. 

fli«p^fffti-T<9 rfvofi X^y4fLiv roi^ ^popifAou^] For tbi* method oT 
cnquii^' Frit^i^che compares E, N. i^- 3* t Aunfiiptt I' aif^ T'jr if*" 

It aa, »p4« Ti tf Ifl^ BX«*] (^ ^, A", vl 9. 7 npk fA rAof tA oeX^. 
ilclcker omit* oJuii viih K\ AH other MSS. read \i (or iXiv), A* 
I have hiid occaaion to remark before, the omismm of Y^^ count 
for litde; an^l Raswiw (Fi>rifh. p, ^a) is undoubl<-dly nf^ht when 
he »y9— 'uXar, das kaum cnibehrlich ut» h&tte Dekkcr mdner 
Angicht nach ;iufnehmen sollen' Vgl. p. 1141 a. la •am U riHt 
CD^oir o\6^Mda tPioiv, oD Htrd ^po«> e£A^ JlXXo n iTu^^OM.' 

fc 10. j 3, wv pi^ *flTi t£x*^]i becaOBi; Ttjr>^ \% concerned with vaiq«(, 

noi Willi fr/xijtr, 

a. 81, { 3. pooXtii«Tci( V dA«4U «<tA.] S«c JT. A', iii. 3- 

B. au. |A<r' iDoScZ(tui] Sec note on ch, 3. $ a ^n^itif, b. t& 

jji> V al dpxc^l JfB^x^iTai dXXgx fx^^''. ^Toii' y.i\ iin\¥ dvdfichfiic) 
See /ff, PosL \m 4. 7i H- si intX iF ^biivaror JXXitfE *x*" '^ <V»ip 
tirt^nj^^ ^vKwr, drayraiov Ar> (^) r& JfruTT7r^»r *h vhtA ri^r JvroAftirriJi^i' 

SQOK Vi: CHAP. 5: ^J 5, 4. 


WiTft ^Ap IvWxvTOi Hal i[XX*K Ix*"] I- f- ail £tfmiMicHt/ram rwi- 1140 ». a*- 
/i/tfifttJ fvfmtt/ij arc contirifTcni ; icc Eutlmt.— inij^v rA ff /vAfjifft- 

^tdpmlf A^X*^ rruKryn^rifl inj^ir*^nf>j(rrT 'if&';^rfiii "ii J^Kmr Ot'it^ rnuro (V 

/p3<;f«rrh. Tlio pftfiJnLho&ia beginning \^'iili ir^ina, whicli Trjuschc, 
JdicMvt, SuKcmih). anJ Bywatcr close wi'ih /j^#i^. fJUBhr, us in 

r^ru^iriTf a--rtf>^ for, u KaitiKaucr poinu cue, il' ihctc word^ belonged 
1^ the [irousis, we »ho"ld have ^, noi oi*'. 

j$4-8.] !n thw* S ^T** o'"!*' U very ccnHiwd. The following »« 
rcskrfanj;f.-iiirnL i> ufTcrrdj roc » % rcconsl ruction of \\\t lew a* Si 
may have oripinally irtf>oJ. but na an atti:mpi to make the meaning 
of ihp- passage, as we now have it, cirarrr. It will be seen thai 
I fttn indebted to Rjusjw (»ec Fifrsth. pj^ 43~45. and 30-31), and 
10 5i]ficmthl (ipp, crit. i^y /<»'.], ulihotj^^h 1 hnvc vcnLurcd to uke a 

tine Cf mj own: — 1 140 t>. 3. , . ^ri ^TA^ri r^ y/i^V ir^f'wr «■ fKh^ittff, 
r^c fill' yd)i intv\M*tot tiff/ar tA '•'Xur, ri^r ^ Trpiffxpi f}&( Jli* ilr/' !mt y&p 

frrgr, 6rJiTf^ tut Hfjjl f^ Jprrui, Ar)Xot* u^r ufi Lt|>iT^ Tif /drl kuI 0^ 

dpflTf, TW Aa£ihrrtar>v' ^ rr ^i^ AWjn ih/iL r^^ Vi^«;fA/io>ay ^rXXst t^'ttf te\ q 
4|iJf^ir £tfT* Imytij T\r tjipvrrjiriv *(iv tlria iht^ XiytivdkijS^ {tiXTjCi^s}) 
vtfil r4 ai^p^tm iyafiJi wparrutfji^. Ai^ Tovri> n'f>tKX'4 not Tova frvtvtnvr 

AU ^r tivJf ffif pif'il A^ui^ laAmV ffifftiiov i' 5fi X^^ Ti^r ^^iv rDiavnjc 
#lff400 fifri, i^ni'^inai ^' nva ierrt*. 3vt9i9 »nl t^w flnn^^/iftflvnji' rnury 

t6 4^^ "i^ \ifirrfp6t, ribtr iri Tx> tplya>¥tiv £1.4 J^i^bt Ij^ri JJ o^f f^fi, 4XXd 

Twrav <Huv tii^i A16 roiff uipttaAii nana wai irfxirr/iw Sort yAp 17 nnta 

^AfpttAi^ i^x^r. The potnta Sn the foregoing rcarnngcmcnt which 
I wotilO ciill anention to arc — (i) one of ilic nvo ciaunes in which 
^ptii^ir is tlcflncJ i» <»mllud — vi*. ihai in j ^, which ililTcfs from 
thAt tn f 6 in flddirig lal <d«d, and in having iIX'^fT, in n position in 
which Ix would be diRicnlt lo read aXtfiovt: {2) W^mij and ^o^oir 


BOOK VT: CHAP. 5: §5 4. J 

nKKh fxyjti fiv^ <fit firra Xiyav futt^oi^, With ihc o^jhio*' — J^i X^tfrj fipO 

iTf^t aiif t*m. i.q brought into r\o*jc crtnn»inn ari'ih the p;Ltsaigc 
which expliins the function of ihc meriij i$^%. aa^ipo'r^vii, in *prc- 
?*rvifii^ * tilt aXfSrif irtr^Xri^it of (hi? mltUni b»^- tA oi^^maiw) txyada. 
This Tfirr^nfi^ment profeiw^ merplj" to iiiAke \% 4-S rcinl inor^ 
evenly. About the cause? of ihcir present uncvtnncss— omissioM^f 
interpolations, trancposilionftH or double versions — I forbear u 

b. 6- 5 *- ^i^*" 4^3*il Raj?iow {Forsch. pp. ^(^ ,45) calls attention to 

L)ii£ sJrange conjunction. The definition of rijyf^ at the end of 
di, 4 is *^« t^c *""* y.&yt'M JXij^m'c frm»fT4*:^ : Hij Wir oiiglir to have 

here Jifu* >nta Xciywu jXt/flntB npuArm^r', In \ 6, hdWCVCT, ^IX^tffjvr is 

supported by good auihorJiy (r) and oiiphi, 1 lieheve, to l>e read. 
The (Irfinilion given \\txv in } 4< *ith lis m1 tn»rf (nti addition stijk- 
pi^ned nL-(t}iei" by f i, nor by ( 3'), aii*J its qKti^ placed where 
aXijflflvt would he uniutural, seems to be % late imcrpolaiion due 
to Mirne ctne who tliou^lit proprr to ^Ijcw iTtui ^p^\tffx\\ in 1 /(lit 
jHf^ Xit>0V (■ (itji ftfTk XifC^;, bv dcHninjf it ^ a fftr d — ]^*|ti|t |urd 

b.o, Xrtpov ift tA«] Srr iiLAf. i. j4, 1197 a, 4, qiioied above In 
DOU on M< 4- '■ I >4<> 't' a< 

b. <7, odi Ir alql The ec^rniptJon ovir mi \t. giv«n l)y M^ ftnd aoovpted 
by KiiMr.ttiuii an^I Mkhclet, uho fxi^iain ihriE there ure iicme 
*iKif»i ot frfjcmr 111:411 rixro^ ^\\\\ end* whJch. thoU|;>:h not tfya like the 

enilft of the ftrnFiTi^ai rtj^i^i. are still Bul>ien'i*ni 10 hi^lier endt — as, 
t.g. \\\c ImmeililUe i^tid of rilling '» suljurtliiwie to victary. 

b. ». 5 *. fltpixXrfaJ Surely this is against Grant's view (note on vi. 
5. r quoted abo^e ad he.) that the developed theory of the Sijtth 
Book ' Unlets ^v70-4c to the regulation of iodividual \\k' liuleed, 
in hb note on the present $, (.jrant refer; \x$ to hii note on ch. fi. 
f I, whieh treitB of "the conneelirtn e^lahlitihcii by Eudeniui 
bclwi-'f-a ihouglil ij.t.^^v^ix) for l]ie iiiditiduai, fur the family^ 
and for the mate' 

b, 10, »iK«mfAL<(i>v9] CCC has th« strange blunder «lvivn%tvttCt. 

noOfC Vt: CMAF, 5 ? 5} 5. 6. 


T^r Obi^poaJn]* . . . ut vi^ltgucrm- T}]r ^p^Si^ffir] The CtlilOlTi quotr 1140 b |1< 

fui^v 4 m «va (EusrratLU8)p PJcu&urt anJ pain arc ihc inflLi^nccs 
whtcli interfere willi ihe maSntennnce of that moral iKikmr cf 

which ^tf^fntnn \h |)ic COniiilOUAIICSA. ^^ut^poaivff, ihcTt IxmiT the 

pleaKurri; and pah«j uiH "prrsrrvr" tj^i^Avrjmt in a sjurhl tnanner- 
Thc nit!c Platori;; conccplior of uw^^-^^"/. towcvcr, as tbo 
^pffMAd of all the parln of iho vouIt trCf^mc aIbo lo be pKEcnt lo the 
«rili?r'H TiJnd k-ie, rts well a§ \\w narrower ArhJotrliiiTi concrplSon 
of il Xt luv^^i m^u ffu^mru^r j^Sami tui AiVqi. T^^ With the doctfjne 

of ^Is pgL«;i^ thai t>i E.X.l 3 — tlis^t ihc mar whow baAj art 
no! unilCT inHnil ointml dors nm ' tti'iw ' whai is nglii rinJ wlml 

U wrong, aud that ihcrtfon; (sinoe wnva hi^navakia Ktil ttiaa fiv^nt 

train him bv ihi* way of (h<? inicllfci — r^c ir-AiTu^t n^r ffrm- fJ*ftoc 
fvpvif^a i Hut' brr*i|Hi4 yip rmv ut^ t^ ^^W ir^w^mr , , , f fL vi nb 

TOioirrtijt fi'-r. TcJf mrii jrAdoir (6rca) di^vT}Ti's ^ yfiftrit yUtrai^ vaSdnrp 

fr«Xvfa^Xr< ftl* t'rj tA ffrpl tm>i** **^(i*n*^ — /T. A", 1. 3. JJ ^-7, 1E 1} 

onl; the ' ftood man ' who ii ifffiAri/iii<t, hccauae the ' luiowledge ' in 
>iriu< of which fi truin i» caltc^I ^^j»»inr ii- knowledge; conducive 
10 fiRTit aclion— tncwtwlgc ujipn whi^h a mtm is pre^'irttt fo acf. 
Tht * knottledjfc ' wiih which iIk uvfxirjr i» credited i« only 
fonnall)' 'kitowlcii^^'; — sv r^ WS/hu pWi' ^/jrfw^i^ flX\^ mi] ff 

lepnmtPi^ A ft* Jc^mr^c ni irjwctmif {K.N. VIL fO- 3). Rl]t htlOW- 

ledge mbJcb dots not c^l for uctioTi— ^nTuf Sn rA ipr/viNii< «.T.\,^n 
ftCCtsfJbTe tojiood and bad men mdiETercntly. In thon, knowledge 
offtn cn^ronrrh«iit we ascribe only to the Mng which corrrsponda 
wilh that environnrerit ; — i anouJiaUts tvvrrn Kplnt Afjdvt, ml 4v 

BiiO £pOl£^) j(. ywujv. 

b, 10. 

WpOKtw citx^iif ixay%i^ ffffiv. /iTfidA roiMt rA rAof Mil tA fifivsrw, 
^n&fVH* J* (*<n^ >rt^ \vyQV x^pi* to f^x**)' "^'o i' '^ ^^ ^¥ ayciS^, ot 


BOOK VT: CHAP. 6 : }{ 6-1*. 



J Thi^ Punph. 

liCilOaOtMh hA.i- — tqi jhV Ttj»nj£ (lyfi «iit jl'ihlu till ujitrif' m\ V^ 

Inryy (a^tmvrnv ydp 0/)riw>*i>t nvn 0fi(iyii>s ^rwj) offrt flprr^, ofr^ yip 
JoT<r a^rtf uptrt} ti (ijHTi^t oCu ftn-u*. ov 70^ ^itrji^ijE ^irrfrf^rvi : ^ 

AnuT^^ij (^ Hxvn httv). dnait'ivQ\ yap tlfro' ol ^ppdvifioi, A fl" Arfiitw 
dptfT^r. Jh 3* ArHTT^jiij? ^f» ndffijf a/wrg rffriy^ ^porfmAi 2f Jprt^ oi* 
firrii', iftX' off JoiJiy. H{'r6 tf /trrii' n^''>f 

to Mff- A, 39, 1035 a. 6. wben> the pamdoE r^n iwWa ^i<x«v 
^n'u, miunmincil in Mjry>, il/m. 373 C, is riiurinciL The 
AriatOLcliftus avcm to miss Plito's point wlicn he ^ys tliAl it i» 
bcit«T to do injuniicc voluntarily than to do ti ititxiluntarily. They 
Ifll liim ' diHi die Aiiulogy of llic ans does not ''ipply lo lIic virturi. 
The man who voliunarily spells incorrectly is indeed A belter 
^fUr tlian ihc man who tinxjluiilarily spfUv mcorrecily («c« Xen. 

jI/^JV. iv. 2. ^O 1l6r4iKtV Ai ypaftpalwitTft'tiV iTp'WK &c &r ixttlf ^^ ^jjA^l? 
>piii^;j Kal jH>i7hiHi7c;7, ^ fif J«:wr; At Ar Jftuv) ; t)Ut Volunla.ri[y tO 

keep back money one owes ii worse than to do »o unwiitingjy/ 
Suri-ly Plakto d&d niX wthli to dibpul^ this tnilhK Vtilururily in 
keep back money, he would say, is worse^ Ixjcqusc it iitdic^iei 
Mgnor^co In the K'ul' l^^/- 3^^ B) in ih<r u:TiKe of a bad 
chancier, ju»t u invuluntarily to spell incon^aiy in woik. brtijiuxc 
il indicates ' iKnorance in the rtoul " in the *cnsc of defective 
L-ducaiion or siupldlry. Rut Plaro put this paradoxEcally ; h« fl&id 
that to do wrong voluntarily is belter than to do m> involurLlarll). 
The AriatotoCione. it u'ould appear, ciih«r could noL, or ^woiiid not 
»e« thai by 'in\oIunrarily' he mean l« not Mr consc^quence of an 
accidcDlA] oversight/ but 'in coti^ciuencc of nnoral blindnct*, or 
i^orance in tfcn: eoul.' Hi^ hr^aj^ is of cour>t« rather misttad- 
biy; bm hr <--oiild not have really misled ArisEode. ArUiotIf tniwi 
ha\« Kcn that Plaio ^vaA only m.-vking the iKstinctlon majkcd by 
the tyt^a 17 Kit9 TtoffTd and the ''tytotit 1; KuEiuAbb of £'. Al iii. i. i,';, 

b, 3(1, } 8- &o{avniiov] = Xvytirrum' of £'. N. Vl. 1. 6. KORBOW {Fetttk. 

PP* 43t 44) ^dti llic cmploymrrnt of Ao^orw^ fur Xvyumni' incan< 

SOOh' VI: CHAt, 5:^8- 


&ifttcn1 y\i\\ Uic roanncr in nliicb lUfa is cQiicciv^tt nol only ii)U40b,)& 
olhcr paiti of ihc E. N., but in Lhia Book, In thU Book ii in 

i5**i*wffA.i, aiifl nol Angtffnv. xvlifch is cl^^racterfsT^c of the 'fi^^/fls : 
ami ihc viktc clifFcrcncc Wlwccn Suja And ^tA^ ^^ ^^^'i ^^ '^c 
chttpttr onfi'^4tJk^(^]. 9).^'hcr«"ii43 Ix 13^ { 3— ilis &aid mlyi^ 

^ Ufa oft f)ffi)fn« 4fA.Xa ^riiTK TIE fflift 6 AJ /^u^rtrd^<iv>f, ViJFTf fiy /Jt* H tni 

U liie ^fn of the ^o$afffu> t*ip<^i, xhc vriici <if vi. 5. 8 adds — ^' t* 

71^ '^^(^ "/>^ *^ /i'Aij[4jp«voi' AA<u< 'ix"*' "^^ 4 <Jif^v^tiit: bill |]l]4 bi 

incODJuicTit (Rosaott tliinka] vrith E.N* Hi, 1. lo. iiii b* 31 ^ im' 

^id^ Apifa /mi Rtpl rroBTd «jmu, t^l a^iV ^rrov frc^l to 4i9i4 Ail ra nAvivm 
4 tA J^' f>i!r. Till? Loirti Ati^ncrninfv fur >fi>i'rriii:ffr uttur^ H^a^n iit 
tfab Book 1 144 b. 14- vi. 13, J, in a cODtcxi, however, which Rusow 
•vsp«ct» to b« of Uier origin. I cannot aiuch much weight 10 
Rasion'* ilifTiculticiL IL \% true iIiai the Ind<^ An'ii. given Iht; 
Ictm iofntm*** = ^flryivrutifv a* occurring only in iIjcsc t*o place* 
in ihK Aritiowliin Coipus; but i( muit be remcnibcTcd lli^l in 
>i. la 3 vc find trmmt dcfjiicd as coiiftit^tiiig h rf x^j^^^'J' n' ^n 

^'th^ptohable'^s fhc regular AtietoU'hiTi opposite of rimflr^^: 
mir tnuat vre fbreeC th.iL the jnemi^sra of ihc ri^iclic^] l^yllugiT^ni 
vc iccQcnIly described bb Mfn* (c.^. vji, 3, q)h All this irtabcv mc 
ihink thai Ru«ov go«s 100 fir when be iccc^H the occvrnmce of 

io(aanMO¥ = ^o^rTucdf Icfr 3,nd tn U. J ,^ I 4H cvIdciKC fof llic b- 
Icrpolaiiot] of ibc rcapccUve contc^Kts. U seems to mc quite niiiura) 
thai the vril^r of vl, 1. 6 shotild happen lo KuUtilutc Anfa'n-ur^ 
liCK anJ in vi. 13, 3 fw AcrytvnioJt, Willi icgard 10 Raasow'* 
difiicLiJly abom the consistency of 3«fd(nua'> = ^*,yi9rtna^ wiUi A. iV. 
iti. I. lo^-arrrly ihai pa^^g? dOrt noi mean thai rA Afl^^rtn*. rtj 
jauA ill e^tr ru ue^ie^/ : it 5urcl^' mcint only ih^, stirhough ' probable 
mtlttr' h ilic proper object of H^ at diatiiij^uished from mTtijtiij, 
yd people ire ready enougli lo irrirp^m into rlip region of ' ntcp*iiiry 
tfulh" wh their 'unKJcnljfic opinion*' — to olTcr 'opinion*' ttlxiut 
vhat ought rot to be itAl^r of cpini^^n at all, buE of 'scieniiftc 
knowlrdK*-.' I^Mly, na regaidn RaMow'n dJITimlry in connntion 
vitb ^..V. vi. 9. 3. 1141 h. 13— lib true thai d<{£aO'.f. an opinion) 
U ^tfir ni.and itniXtwit ii C'TW^*- ^^t thifi docR not imply that tu 

Jbfnimcof iMMpnt gu4 Xjia^itfiv rait AiiffUC XH IkOL d facully of (qriTir«. 

0^)U4«r V fin k^if iutX] See note on vL 3, 1. i T39 b, 17. 



BOOK VI 1 CHAP^ 6t 4 t« 



(■niW; tkty lannQlit nitnti/f/iliy il/nrrnmirairii ; nor ttm t/ity tt fiminttd if 
the tfiMty lAt OfemSiaa o/lht rnatinff/niufiy^ nar ytl &y Ikul tf thi /rtntltjt 

Im'M ^-fitrjiitj^fH^i : rtsr Offlm £A*t it* say /^af ti'iitiam f fH/iiiff-i/ /vVf/ ■■/ 

rem- !u ti^Ki frciH prim ip^- Auvrdm^tji, in our Utt of thf /atiifux ttys'kUJk, 

and XfOim — Jftaitm ady mvaiHJ ju lAt /amJty ty aJufk Mtf ^Mft AMt 

Ttic ur^umcni of ihts cSaplcr, an the editors nott. ifl borrovted 
from An. PtMt. iL 19- too b. 5, quoted in nwt on vL 3. 3 b. 59, 

1140 b. SI, $1. TCpl tAi' <a0jXou ifrriv OndXT]i|iis] dnaSciKniit) ^E<n^^i], wiili 
which, OA (liiitinguishcd from htli, the i>rcseni ^rj^umcnl hsu to do, 
IB uiTf^Lip^ir p«jii r^ Im. Tut- it/i^ii>ai> — s^o K. jV. vi 3. 3 Add tn^^v^v^t 
iw. TV)' jiaAiXair. n^hc^e ilcmonstriiied l^ul^l^ nrt of coufnc il^ni^ve* 
n^oi> -a! vfA^vxIiif but \x is awk^vE(rli Eo bu^id u cha^dcr, intended 
TO prpseni ihr ili<LliiKlktn l>^twrrri tn-jirr^/tq and vainr, ^ilh XVOrd* 
ancrjbiji^ «o the former n char,>cicrisiic (ri m^l t^*- jtoMfiu tuJ!Vft*i» 
-'m.) which « sliarts wjlh tin; htliT. 'I'he iitoArj^i* cl ihc prcicttl 
pawagr is 5 I'o fnjA^o|Hii>iiii> of ^Jn. /*of/, i, 16, 79 b, ^9: sre now 
i>n ri. 3. I. 1 1 J9 b. 17 wn«Xi^<^4b 

b. 90. ^ir^Xdyw] Cf. An. Pcii. ii. 19. lOO a. Id rmn^^ 1* Jm^a ^vrl 
A(!70L( /ffTJ. Adyof is here = <™XXovnr/inf, as aguiii in /*. vV. vi, 8. <) 

4 f^V y^p nuf rwc fj^aii', Ir «&< fiJvi ^Jjf^^and vL It' 4 tim ia^urmw 

fViffT^^ (with wbidi iilont.- tlic present ar)piment u coinccmcd— 
i£ ^r ^Ap fViffTi)fAi> flirnSrinrJa-), for thcfu i§ nn dtmr^Stut^t lm\9T^i^ 
which givn ^X^'- 'i'^' ^f"- /W, i. 3. 73 b. iS rjfUig Aff' ffvi^v <iiT 

nOOtC yf: CNAP, fit »^r, 3. 




coinpcYhon&iv4 ^nhiB wlio gr^p» aoknufic principles, and r«AEOna 
from tliem, ^ rxpbif^fcl in clmpirr 7, { 3. Zor^tb U not txdusivefy 
r^Hv <f^:i«r. Wc hftVG to fintj ihc ffLCuh)* vhich h^A lo do Willi (hem 

} 2-] ^^Ijj la T^;^ omiUrd from rhJs liic, after havitkg bfpiiA>9- 
inctudcd in t^cn in chapter 3. } 1 ? Ts it bectitisc rix**i titui 
bwn i^hown In ch^ipier ^ :o be a «'fif ^t J*m A^S^f Of docft 
Antm&w hcic include ffif*-*? f Oi lave wc ihc lisU of two dilTciciit 


Vtmrak rtw** ^ti-di tfiK ^^^] CnnI wy*— 'In folbwinp im-»-T» 
pUriiljr thf piWM^cr Blx>ve c[l«l (j^n. Afj^, il, 19. 100 h. 5-i5j 
wliich is lo ilic ciTcct tliat tovs dp cLj rwv ^it^^J). J^ujc-mui hiis 
ignored for itic time the earlier puri of :hc same chapter, in which 
A^oile AXlribuieA ihe oiigtu of luiiversala riiiie^r lo intluvlioii 
(/'ewA v4fl> ii- 19- too b. Pi). Also be is At variance wiib hi? own 
atat«TDem above ch. 3. $ 3' I have pointed out in my note on 

ch. ^ { 3 >'J9 ^' '9 ^^'*^^ 'Jtuyary^ "fX^ (im ml rat Kii66Ki>u md 
Xrkvrdi nvr frioi rut a^^iLv c^n Sc&rCcly be inco[iAL£l(^nt iitaknicnU 

m the Siiih Book of Uie JL'/AjVj, when Ariiioile himself in the 
An, PvU. makes ihem both ia llic MTiic contejit {An. Pail. li. [^ 
Irom 100 h. 3 10 end of ilie chapter). There w no iucoiwiatcncy 
Id fajmj^ ai once ihat m^f g\\c^ '■fa"'- ^^'I ^^^^ iitpyvyii givrG 
4newL bccax]3C vd^, ^a dUlinj^uiahcd from aTa-^int, ia llie fi^dliy 
which nun, as ntionul being, (lossesse^i of taking Tiolice of thai 
wMdi {3 common in a nuinbr^r of particubn! preTtt^nted ; uml 
V*a}vyiv is ihe process in which the piirticuluE aic pfc^culcdL 



hyr * h^iMbn' fuTiifi; Awr esctUtntt in tht ftartuulv an. 4 * * 
■ ^iti/om ^ fit in i^Urf, lAt ttini /€^^t ef fAi uinutt sr arft: tirtersfin^jf, if 9 
VMM it * win' i.«. i»MPV *fffft*lfjtt' A' wV/ ^H'?;^ «r/ ^h^ Ktemiijit rttufti 
tttt frvtei/Sa: ' Wudtm* u ihtrtfert Sritnet ertmintd, c* it tr/'v, tifitJl 
^M i— — J*fWi/i<^ ffftHtiit. itnii giaip ijf p/itt<ipk>. in 4h AifAt>f t}fun. 

B 3 


BOOK Vl: CHAP. 7. 

^bmnrir^Xf. uru'/i* Man w/wt tAf Jti^tU otfjfct n/ ino^ittsigf tn th/ mtTrrt^- 

vary : Ai" rAt ilt\}Jttte frmA. iv^uA ' IfiU^m ' tr pkH^MfAj tf-^iJ^Wi, m^ 
it €^mfiaf-f to * ff'4ii4* pr'SlrM^Af' ^huh ir ahvnyi fkr^mt, TT^'t^rctm 
matty lii^efm/ l/rtifi if t^rr/ er/ i'tJirn/ mft i/fi^^ trftt^giU 
tff fHj]', e/ AMfi/iJi I -A/^nhf/ fl/ iffiitx f* thfir n-A'it 'Uffertmt iKtt*4tH. it it fimtm, 
iktn^rMtr ii'/ i'^mar iMati/y Pn/tftnn ttrni tyu/^ni rcifAtm.' /•t/Za'Kff mlr fAit ftn- 

feiAapi ii may Af OTHUtd — jMun ti le far ttaiifit oAvm otAf rran'Mrt*, 'i*! tfi^ 
may •fgurd hit pimliar kumtm ^i{ cr 9 iAirtg viii jjrnrii* And ttn/^ui — tu 
ihi hit tA*ng in lAd urnvtrrr, dfl ^hiflntf fa f^ afi/"'tfnHiie^ ty thf itgA^ii 
/t/H/fy,lAt /iaiav'/ji fif' iVijiitm.' T» 'An il muif 1*4 n^^ir.i, that mart ii ntt 
Aighixt m iht ttnivetif : tAt it^iart affh* J/^avcvfy S/Acei ii mert Jt'pime 
tA^a Aiifiiin KUtws. ff iht kn^wUifj^ </ miin's /vrir/'id^ AimoM jyoJ M 
* U^'itdpft l^ttf ir'iU ht ' antifitr iin^f ttf W'iidam* (^utrtird m'tA iht ftai 
tifAifA itatfrf ifit'tnf rJtaH ma/^i: fiw/ ' iiin\fkfr l^\titf ^ lV\nt9m—avetAfr kittd 
t^ A^Mtu't /WiyA ' U t £AHtFAftflitvi irt //'m.r. 7'Afff u tmljr etit * H'udrtm* 
^4k4 tJftruc ef the utiderilnaJirtg ami tht rratffn ift rthfvH iff tAt ml'i^ttit 
Trmih. IrtUmi, papfU" vpiitian raa£ninj tUariy cncffrl fht ^>tmiiiMa 
^erufun tie fphctf% ^ ' WUdom ' atid ' P'XiftKtr' Artiuv^rm and TkaUi 
■art hrfit to ^' jifjif mtm ' — ' ^tiato/Atn' jvttk ikt J^netvltiii^t cf thimgi i4'jpl 
and wnder/tii, but igmrt^Hi t/ Mtf mj^vJ truthi tf4mty lifi teAt'eA /^wAwir 

r>wktm ii /(VT>rntf</ tp/'M mafi't jvmftar Anman fpn^ i'jv f^Jitr at iAai 
£Ofitf mn iv nrntff A'l/it/ ^ ^tliUr^hti /atifeti^ .ie^tlttn^ini fuf// O tAf iutm' 
gttiiA*9if;/ni*iU.--t ff the frvtitwf intrm. ,\\t mart dt/if^'tUfi a/i^tn jAit^tfiAtfA 
an nttiuifjJj ^'kal ikty d/v, anJ tatiNtit If tAoH^^wf. or ^Afiuf thing* stAifh 
Amtf ne rt/trai€S t* 4 ftVUtf^'^i rtvt. TAt wjn wAo ' Jt/i^ratti ovrf.' « iJ^ 
tlriit Htfff ff/ tht fjsfrtuvr, 4t in vAus m/tn/afiif't tnultii At'it te A*t tJke 
Ai^hitt Httii fir*t MiirA it/hitA nan ^an aim ai -t* mJiuti ptr/titlji at wi^ it 
ikt tdfi! e/ lA^ Jr/t <?/ tKMi Oftietk. liui frHittntt Am Is Jt^ti^ trwtrt^ with 
tAt W«/| ^ tmivrm!, but ai*t n^ifk p^^iHt'tt't- Py^Jtna it s AoM/ ■Mir'i 
TtMlti in tt/ifitt and *ttti^n ti fcuctrntd nritA /tftitnlAr tUt^ A* Jv dftt: 
tAiie pn'tttttfiir tXiHXi t* ^dom^lhtrt/tit. tAt fmdrnt utrnM /m04thmra» ■■// 
at ike idtal Tin aiaafs^y «f an «r/ Ok* iAai ^ ikt ft^tiatt tAtrnM ur jImv 
imp»iatu Ikt Atuni'ifd^f fi/ purrteia'afi if r 4tt tm/irit Am^^itdgris m^n Kit- 
fili tkam mvrt lA^iyy^ tPitAit/t txffrifHtt—i/ */ hifUf I* Aut*f that ' eAitkttt't 
JUtA is iffgtfii^t* lAa<t ta JtHor ^rttralfy tAat ' aJI fi/^l jUiA ii dij^trhtt,* mmd 

Stutt f^ntdhtttjAen^h iM mtrs tAeoniieat Anfftttie^ge. bnl Itrutiitd^ /rr Ht 
takt «/ mor&^ ^tlitt»,itKd itfuf marat ti^rien in^wtrm ttn tttd a*- t^tei /or tAt 
imtt iij n-Au'A ftJftifulir t*rigi art /ftmt, fa Iv frtiilt^i t miirt mwrt l>t/«' iaVi 
tAt vuit'fria! gni/ fAe farftfu'-art: at any rati tAt fa'tijviart^ fint »4f* ^v 
tty—*ut amy -ite lAf /artf^titixrs' ftt m rtmimhr tkal ivtn «• ^haf iettmw it 
h ibmtia^ ^ mtrt fvlm/sn lAtri mHtr,iIt^i k ^ittm sMtt (omti^mttua 
^§kt *flati * ithitk tki fartimiart m&itrvt. 

SOOK VJ: CHAP. 7: ^ i. 


With ^ 1-5 of ihis chapter ef, Mtl. K. a. ^9i a. 4 m«i Ar 

rmnji' rrip rtitmritfiv (rmliAtr, ffliV Aw tit iT*tirriat, ^ tctpl uniae nMit 
■at WfyX miiAt ^'fX'^* twioftiftrt iru^iu Vyfi*". <i Bf) Au^vi tn lai ^jruXf^^tia 
^ 'X'^t**" *"^' '"^ 'a^ff», '";)(' <^' *■ tt'VTOv ^avpi'v yi'mTa fjaXXov, 
^fi}l4r(idtJiio^ri' f^witvTop tain dniaTatrfoi vdtTa rhff trof^itt iet it^](iTai, ^ 

irPTO' nutrt^. ^ p4^ojf €a't OL^tt (mrfidv) fn tAv (Lrjii^tcn-rpai' tial rhu 

rdp AKv^fiHf A/ r^v 4aL>rT^r ttfcti* mi rt-u <L4«iifn jt^fi" atfttTfjr aZtr^t 

ri^ i-f^toviiTjt ^Wdc «nu vuiJhui'' uk' y^^r Acit rntrurrrtfdai riir uu^df 
aU* 4JiiiinifLi^ cal » roiirDir 'ffpifJ irrtStudai, aXXh n^y riv J^rror 
*v^r. T^ p/r uiS/ iftuKn^iK fomvrtiv tai njtruCrat ij^of^fv nfF>I r^v 
w^caf mi T«r ^o^vr, tatrwv 0< to f^if Piirra t-irlcTaitfiiu i^ ^<JA<ur' 
/;i«vn r^i* miA^dv ■iti'Tr^/*^^ ai-nyfjiiot i'rtffp;\*iii'' /nVflr 7M/1 n^^' iriihF irnifd 

«« ffAvm ir«J«A<ii^ wofif»rr^rw ynp rif vlo6rjff4vif ftrrtv. Atfn^trrrrrai 

■LXa /iifi> ici SifaiTfitEiAi':^ y' ^ ruv aiVwF ^vpi}TA*7 ^^uiXXof' d^«i yAp 
At^Amntir^ nJ *rif ait\At Xtynwtis vtpi tMaiirotL ru A' ti^nti an! rA 

4 ^^ VvuTVafftfat 3*' *auTfl di/jq^^rpor r^i* fidXurta tffiirtrjf^'jv ^iXtirtu 
^fr^Htai^ «uivr^ S /«ti1v ^ fou ffcdXi«r' Jwtcrijrvif' fiAXiarii &' iirunrfrA 
n mpSrru va\ rl nTrio' diA yi^ ravrn kbI ^v rovrui- ilXXn ynjiftifviui, dkX' 

yift tayaSur tal rv pS (MKa ir t»p vtriwr Wtir. AcCOtJln^ EO this 

4CC0UIU vit<fi'ia i« (he fiCJ*nco of firsi causes. This is tioi incon^ 
nstcDl wiih ihr tiew cf ihc writer of ^. A*- vi — Oo Jlfju rJ» orw^i** 

(vi. 7- 3)- 

{ L &* v*] L>^ M>^ have Tv y«, and Cambr. and Aid, have ^r U41a. o. 
alooe- Ri4En<hiu«r, r^adjitf^ rr, antl fitiltng lo find Kny LUiijuficlioii 
ftASvcrinjt to it («bpui U rvdi in E a, I. iz ht^ regards as an^wGring; 


BOOK VJ: C/fAP. 7: §51, a. 

lt4lL l>. ic ivTftiSrx ftO in f 1, 1. 11), cnnjrcturrs ihai fhe (jiiolatlnn from the 
Mar£Ti<s wa» foSlowed by a dutiMr containing i II iisi rations cf itic 

frnm ol otfn;?. rat r<'j(i«r As the lent now tiands^ tlic flfgumcM 
co]>ducim^ IQ wffT« j^Xop I. 16 i£. he iltinkfi. dcfcccivc# It is 
pOKsilile tbil something h;is fdlcn out before itan ^^Au-, but tbc 
anacoturhia nciFeit b/ Ram&iuc-r ni.-od noi t}<? rcganlinl a» pointing 
to atich a supposition : bt oflfn answers to n in Aristotle and ihc 
bflst H'nti^m ^see Eucken <^/ ArnL tii^-tndi miioar-. pars priniAi 
dt piiriuutarttm usu. pp. 16, 17. itnd rric^^stbe on ^.A", viii, 14. 1 
and ix. 11- 1), and aW 0< ntttt, though answcrir^, so f»f aa 
rcgiilar form le conctmod, to the nearer oTnifti /j^'i'. may ^'ell 
inAWCi' A^fo. pCT anacblulhiimi, to tv rt ims r/yvcur toIs uv^M^frruTiair 
ris r/jtrtu (to which mdctd JtraySa t^itf relates), 'I he two facts- — 
that ffo^^i {•> ascnbcd bo;h (n) to those who arc perfect in some 
art> and (df) to those whi> arc capable iit tl^ gcncru] scaiic (tS^ur), 
sccTO to mc to be snflicienl to warrint the coodusion icT* A^^of 

All cxamJiiation of ihe articles vvjl^r'u ^ni ooi^iir in iJddtU and 
. ^r0/i bhowfl(i) ihat -tny one who excelled hia fcLlowa as a carpenter 
cfaftriot»rf pilot, sooihsay^r, sculptor, and especially as a poet 
or musiciLLM^ waft called ^'v^\ {i) ilai a man with lutural 
abi1itic« was disiirgui^hcd as ^^^^^ from A ^^ who owes all 
m trnrblng r (3) Lhai mi^r wa^ applied like ^^mviytnt lo ihe man 
iftlio was w:hc in nviLtcts of common life — f^g. die scvai ^a^cs 
were called aoi^at: and (4) that the appliculjoii of the Icrm wa« 
rrHlricltrd by ihff pftilr>fiO|>hcrs lo tliosr tvho were bkllk^ tn ihe 
Kicn^cfi [cAincdt profound, wiac, 

dKptpciJT^ni^«] On (u^td, >cc note Oft i 7. ifl; aIao Graikt't 
pote on ih^i f 

k, tO- olvf 4fiS£ai'] 'sC' Xrywrtf : qUod e vcrbo Jin9»3o|ifV elfci pOtOt-' 

k 13^ j 2. 90^^ oi^|ii*0o Aii>« oO iioTd rUp«t] Of course, if Ihcu are 
(as in ^tJiejall^ aa^umvd) oo^of ^r fA'fi/rmr^pluIo&opbers hJie 
Thftlc^ ^xA Anoxasroru, and not tnrrcly men of briUiatit stiicral 
ability and culture, the concluhion vtrr* ta^aw cr-A. follows «afclly 

kt4. &nrfp *OfLnp^ ^'^v\y\ Tlie quot;Llion merely gh^s Ulu»tutkkii> 

SOOX VI: CHAP. 7: {§ 2. 3, 55 

of 17 ifffrrt ^H/i'i* ffo^fn. aati throws no light on the f^onception of the iwi *. 14. 

Jf r» MopYtri^J In Pcft. 4. I448 b. 30 and %9 AriSotlc SflcrtbCf 

the Margi^j 10 Hom«r, ind Siay^ thot it beura ih« «amf relation 10 
cODiinly ihil ihc Iliitd and fTt^^it^ do tc tra^rdv. 

oGt' IXXui Ti «o^j>'] The editors refex to Clem. ALcx, Str^m. i, *, 16. 
aSi (aai), who complctira it;c tine wlih v^irifp ff i^pi^m ii]c*^r> 

toffT« ^>or IT T-\-] The iir^imrnt lit (1) ihnt. becnusr ffo^ui iv 
i^cnbcd wtsi uri^i^foniTO't, it iH iisclf ■Ujjt/tfQfuTTj, and (1) (hat it b 
M^i;f«cfTflr'7 Twi' iinffttjuft* — becflute, it ur^«S*rrf(lfTf, conceincd, not 

only wiih fo fV r^ ^px^'^ ^^^^ wi'^ ■'/^X'^S ^n^> ■'^ '^ hlghr^l form, 
with the t:ltimite 4/nvt oF all (Vurr^^uUf Vith rA ri^iwraTd xfi ^Catii 

•CO ^». /'flj/, i, a-. i(7 a 31^ where fl icicnec which han in itwif 
boih ibc JIfi and the £4^1 h M-ld to be ^pifitin4ffa itian oue wiiicb 
hS8 to bovrow its &Jt<. 

5 S.] C/. M-M. u 3(- 1197 a. 30 A BJ Moir /atS Tfcp) ri* -Vx^^ rfii" •- 17* 
IT 4(>|;iii a>4rJAM*T«<, £/ar* otn ^ irr^ n«j^ tui Dp;(ui ^ ''flurT^/ti], oXX* ^ niv<. 

Aemp Kt^aXryf ^xoum ctivt^t) tui' TL|uuT^Twr] The ffxjila. tul/Q. 
00 Calti^d, ol ;l CTeaU^'« ar[lF.L like Phidias bt i^antp M<tyoX^v ;^uu<ra 

tffuTr^>fi; — teirhnicAl ulcill guided b^ snistie ideals >vhir h the ariJat's 

own gcQim nupphejt — tr^tm pir iraj'JpiiFTnt ii oAt^ vatra t^tja-ft : ihc 

rtt^pU of the mctaphytjcian — ^nd tlii^ is die <ro^Ja btncity to cnHcd 

■^ aiBpiia», ihc »pUruuicrh of the iirivcrte by reference 10 iU 
ultimate principle. Cod, r^ */i^r»' mi«br ^, hence dit&tioguitihed 

from jMafirj^tttTV^ and 4jibtnr^, the other l^fajjiqtiiral riTUTT^^i, a--i <Tia\o- 
1«4> ACC ^fA K. 7. J064 £L. «S twil A* TiTri rti fViirrV'^ ^"^ ^'^"^ ^ ^v 
■** Xlf^^^'t cv^"'^ i^'*p^ >fB" '^ ^1^1'^ ti^if airrift $irtrnf ra^r^p 

Sfi BOOK VI,' 04 AP, 7: } 3. 

tUl 4. 1A. r</f0* Tar ^irrrifiitf tcrri rte, **1ttp vtrAf^j^tt rtt ttinwin vtrltVTff^ \ff0 dr 

TtHaCr^ ^v'lv /r fut ov^tv, fWat^ Ar tlrj frit r«l *^ Stttn^ vat aur^ ^ tuf 
irpiitTif *fll rupLbiTvin; d^vj^i^, Jt^Aiv mm* or* jfia ytrtf rZty fftaipnTnt£ti/ 
/isianjfiwr tirrj, t^bUitr;, ^utf'?^ur>trf» vtuXirYivi. ^■XriTTnv ^'i* ov to 

fifil tJ TiFii^fanor yip /tm rwf J^Toit, J^fXrior 0i id Y'W'' 'c'urr^ 

t*b JtTVtf ^ L"- trr^iTT^fA^r *nfiftw fl*! tf*i*fli ^ flB. tif fii** yAp fiaft^^o- 

AvtfinTj tTpvrrf tSdi' irrnfrrj^tity *trf 4i A f'Ofrv fr4^ <^i'irj( >iii ib^a 

meaning of fifi^t sco notes on £". A'. I ta, 

■0, {TaiFov ydp] Kimaauer and Susemihl suspect % lacuna bcEw«cEi 
TipiaoTcir** iiui Aronov — on insufficiciil groundu, 1 Lliint : sri? ihrir 
iM^ies at/ hi-. The connexion sccma lo mc very pWii in ihc text 

Aja we have il^-l&^fa \S antit-iitntJn} ratv iirurnj^io'f i.f. Birov^<^atarT^ 

because concernrfl whh ta T*>i»iiTcmi (^ jT/r/. k, 7 <|uii]cd aboi^) ; 
for (M*' hu Ji) iL vrou)d be absurd Lo Aftf that ^fi^cw i* cnmv^ldiv- 
rinj, tn;t8much M Its obj(^ct is ^f^*'* — '/• ^' ^' '' 3*- ' '97 ^'^ ^ 
ftrriv Ad X"'p"^ 4 ^pi^i^mc rt/i trinfjlas (mjii ^''p" y^p ftrriv ^ ^tv yip 

L'', 0^ D', B\ B'. NC. CCC, r, and AW. read r^. «*.m>^.,3^ 
ffc^triKrjj'r introducing coJifusJvn iuio Uic p;if£asc by matins 
*riCTii/Ji? ihe subject cf a pussagc which \s concerned 'Jiith cv^la^ 
Corac^i, fc^din^ ininHit^riv, propose ji io mcei ihc dlffiLuU^ b/ 
inserting r^* before nAirifl^fi ^hllc Ciiinbr. does so bj^ rcfldirg r^p 

ax, tt |i*| tA dpiVTot- k.tX] C/. betow f 4. l J4I a-34 jrd y^p JiHilpwiw 
ffXAa *Tfl>t rffuiT#pa r^* ^wtfir, »-t.X. ^ an inTrrrsilniir p^iMagr In 
Grsni'a £lhi<t. E^say v. vol. i. pp. 3^6, 187, in wbich Arlitoile'?! 
Mdei of ihe iZighineu of man and of his actions m coin|XLnBoa 
ttUli nature* and whai Tic wwild cali th« "diviner |iarU" d[ the 
universe,' b dActt <3n : ^Aribloilc miffhr, iiidccd, focin to coiociiio 
tvtih ih^ itiEcr^ncr of ihe PuilmiNi, " What ts nuui in compcmi 
«ilh the f Ic4Vi.'iu ? " Qui wjtb him the heavenii were not a inert 

BOOK Vf: LNAP. 7: 5^ 3^ + 


ph^icfll cmlJon ; nilSrr the t'[prn;[l »phere of Rpjlidii, iht iibo(!« of 1141 
pure InEcUitrcnccA, tlic source of all cinai)&lii>:iB of Rcaaou AnJ 

InlcUi^ncc ihrouRhouf Ihc world. CompcirctI wiih this higher 
atphcrc imijvidnal man, wlih hh pracilc-il (in^ mor^l llfr, appeared 
insi|;mfioaL' On the rpAroi cf^uvJc and other tr^t^i, icc note 
on iii 3. 3, 


( -in *I 5*1 ^i4i»4r ii.T,X.] ! prefer I* (M**) to a^; here : <ini'thtr ■- aa. 
reason is l>e;ng given for not ideiiljf^mg f poi^^ir with CA^k'n. The 
If^liiucnt of the § i» — A* "healthy' ar 'good' has a riifFrrrm 
meaning, according' ns il i» api>]iL:J to the condition of men, or of 
flib««r while 'whiti;' or 'sirmftht' hii* itie name meaning in al] 
coiincxioiu; fo 'nise* has ;LlwL£ys the fame m^amni;, whereas 
'pntclent* ha.i net: 'prudence' 111 one cMe u not necessarily 
■ prudenci?' in unothf^r, any more lh:Ln what \% a 'healthy' con- 
dition in ime nsc » nrcrji^^rily n 'hcnhhy* comlltlon fn another 
<aK — utilli;<ji, the objects of P/udciicc or Statcamtnebip. vaty, and 
there ire ccn»c<iuemly many kind* of Prixdcnce or SLcuctmAn^ip ; 
bat philoftophic iruth, the olijett c»f WL^dotn, is one, ^ntl ther? I« 
OD^X one kind of Wi«Inni : ac^ordinj^ly, if wc identify Pnidencc or 
Sutevnan^hip with Wisdom, l^y making Wtsdom the knowlecSge of 
ultlities, wc shall bnd ciuTsrlvn in th*? ran I ra [fiction of 'm^ny 
kifids of W^adom *— ' niany lvind« of pbiloAophic truth/ But it 
may be asked— U no! man 10 higJily eJialted ahove the other 
amiDiIf, ihdt wc \i\-Ay (ituce hi« uiiHiy it\ a caLr^ory by ilbelf, ha ifu 
utiliLj /tfj- excrJJciKe — one in contratliatinciion to the many vaiyin^ 
uiiUiieft of ;he other animalii ? It i^o, may ve noi (hen iiUntify 
StitctfiiaQiln|i, ihc sclcna^ uf tjiui's utiliiy, with WlntliJin, uitbiut 
thin makjn^c ' many Wisdcit^A f No» bccaunc there are c;tittcncCG 
btgb^r than man. With these WMom mtksi cxincern ilvelf; and 
if it ccRcems itKlf x\f-G vjlh inanH uiltity, vre >ha]l »iU] ' many 
.Wifldona/ 1 follc^w Michclet m mjikiti^' the apodosia begin at 
TI& im^ftv 1, f|- iCell would make it tu^gin at ^diitfiof fti ni 

r 18. 

'Y>t(»V insl vfoffiw are the o^jt!CLEl of tftft&ytfint, in the widi; wnnc of 
the term In which it Includes (he ' InielHgfence ' of iJn? low^ 
aniraal? ; bui rA Aivw kqi «£e)u .ire noi the ohjcan of tfu/Ja; ihcy 
merely numhU i(8 objects in hcijig aU'ay» the same^ So Llie 

Paraph.— fA n^il ira^id Trairip Arnm^v (^^iro^v) iTiv]!, KaSdntp ka! rA 
D£f4 i^f Mil tA ri^T^ \(U*u^ noj)^ rrwir, Thc ParUph., it Wlil bc 


BOOK Vii CHAP. 7; ! 4- 

1141 a, as, obs«rvfd, uk«« th iro^ifi' n« Ih? ^Jftt iif crmj^. Te Ss Ix'licr to (ulte 
it as the suljcit of tro^m — the wiflc being oi faculty. I le or il is c£ 
only ore lype: wheredA fA ^^)^^q¥, ihe prudent being or faculty, 
is of many lypcs. 

TuuTY rfitiTpj/4'** aili<tj This i» Byw4lcr*a reading fur Brkkcf'* tA 

7i^p nrp'i aifTi'i tKaitia tl divpoCb '^Uf hr lotu tftpAv^ffaf, i«J rovr^ twitfti"^ 

uat vivfi- For Tit all MSS- read rrt: tA btfunr rr &Fi omliTnJ hy t* 
mid M^: ^<nV]» given by K>> jilone; and ^mt^c'^t by K** alone. 
Sutcinihl, ctherwi&« following It^kktr. rvada g^^f for avn, ifUr 
M^ Rastow advoratcji aimvc, /Vif A, p, ft^. If K^ is right with 
^fioir and iViTp^^u* lite clmiigc tv tlic siti^uUr imiiLbci^ iftcr the 
Gin^liaiic tk£ft«5 J&>' <rT4t<v, is ao nwkward, ihsit one is tempted to 
^»]tect lliai <tonMlii(ig b^8 dfn^tptd uui; tiul wf Byv.. Cftniri'b, 
p. 50. Atrd arc the Mnutu, JU ohii pcculUi v^i'Xi/'ii. Wc trust a 
b^ing wliKh is f^^kj/jw io txe 10 its own intcreais- 

aFav ^«X(TTJf irnl f? Tt TOiniTOV 'IXXc yaL4f (ipuv itrtiv. 

II, £S. T^' 5»-Twv~[ Zarjii*^ is iT<^ f^k, flnJmate beings, not in^t Svn», 
€itsien('os as fiiicb. llcnce the editor* have raspr^e'l ihf gfnuln^ 
ne^ of tijc woria. Perhaps ihc:y have arisen oul of a djitograph 
of intftv; but ef^ £.E<, 1917 a. a6 quoted by Byw. C^a/. ^t. 

A. 94. oOtir tio^Vpcil 'ihal makes ro diflcrencc '—t^ril there will be 
•many »'i*Jt>m!?J tLisir. has— c-iWv &n^ip« invtn' ftjvrimi' tjv* 

b. 1> otet ^i^pt£rard yt it tr 4 ^iQyM% vw^VT7|Ktv] ' As— to UlLc tbe 
moBi obvictis inaiAtice-ihc heavenly bodies ' (I'elcr*). SotbcSchol. 

iaitMKJt, Cf, Met. i^. 3. 1074 a, 30, quoted Ly ibc cditoni. rAor 

/ 7vni miv^r ^^n<c T»r ^fp0f*4a'Qa' n $rlv d^UfMirwA- lofd rAr 9tp4if4» I 

1 {^ J/ItjL E. 1. toi6 a. 18 TDLi iJfdH^A riv^ AivK TbcK phia^iea-^ 
n fiti^Ttro T«v ^mvjwv — ra ^lamfid r^tf Gtluif — ahow that 'tO tAkc Ihc 
Riobt ohviouB instancr ' does not fully rendt^r ihe fort'e of olor ^om- 
pvrtTu ft. For womc account of ra «f Iv cvniTTqw & tti^ifm acc 

pasuget quoted in noc« On Ui. 3. 3. 

BOOK VI: CHAP. 7 ; Jj ,^, 6, 159 

*tjrcl». They are uimi-cc-MiLiy, im! iiUerrupi du^ oUviously close 
COODClion bciwcfn t^c cloibx ^^n-:S of { 4 and til 'Ai-n£ii7^pMi' kuI 

nucr aI&o hoEcb Ujc uuuMial iMlurc of Jic (^oosliuciion mit titv 


ftiiv.T.K.I Grunt quotes PblO Thtinl 174 A^vo'in^ w OciXqrb>9. 

Tiv t^t^fX^r Kii] \npt'rt7cra ^r^iroifir dnnvii^oi ^Jyrrot. its td filir 
/r ttVfMuy vjia^ftfiirt iHUroi, TU 6i Ttiftpoa&tw aC-rov nal fra^^ iri^c 
Xa»Aj>Bi a^nW. Tn^rn^ JW rip«rl vw^^a Art ir4i^(u Afm «V ^iXoTn^/f 

f 6, ^ (} 4pjri19i4 . ,.h. 12 ffpaiTTd)' dya64»-] Raaww {Ft^nf^^ b^ & 
p, flc) pKnu ihis wrtfncc and the bcfiinmn^i: of chapirr 5 fl» 

•v9<U v.tA. is here icpc^lcd for itic iJujd lime : ^ ch* 1^ $ 6, ai^d 
di, fi- i 3. 

«^ £«w ^^ WX01 n f«TE, Hol tm)to vpOKTAf ^yoBi^] No ican fa- IL 
de1iTvr4if« about whac i« itivarubic, nor, in ihc rcgioti of ihc 
vuiiublL'. abuuL tilings wlikli have no praclicul bc^rii:^ uivii lirr-* 
i.i. ftboui (liin;;$ * which iivi^vc n*) end rcftliublc in nctiun.' As 
Ram«aii«r wtnurk^, mVT iitair limiis ihe sjrfwv of flj^mn/rrje m n 
certain cliiAs a( it^x^'^o. whema in ch, t. $$ 5, 6 it it limply 
said that r^ XoyirrvJi' ia concomtid with rd oAo^^^ki. 

4 S^ dvXwt *vp«uXotl I. f. t('»oi'\4.t in jhe strict Hcnic if rhr word r b. IS. 
to6 AptiTTov] rr>C fiS (^f. Eustr. hrui the foElowing nOEc hcrc:V-19- 

^amrr d« Did^nunv urm^ 0tdf upd ■irL|f*i'np ■'»■ ru ^eiT^^ dffd TWt lorl 
rtffWtfr Anitft^fntfi^'^i' tkarrrjrrt rtrtt tpp/n/tiiftv tni rfjtr if^itAvr^mv . tiynSh 
yAp ua^ Tfti* Aynfiiow ftxva/r vndpxti ihiiiT<X*V>iaTo, JXX ou3iV <( twit™* 

mk rk ruim-fd iif^^a p4« ^v^/ff-rr^t. '^r ;t/>4'^';'4 I'll «f»Xi^i r>^3'>' AJ 

■u£^, juil iC^idt ptt^»' Hell tumirifv r^f oX^yov TrTii^ou<r£Jw, wpnrtA da 
XiywfW rtyofla ra Siv itpd^i^t tnwftp6m'f*€ini. nTo* r* /v mA*^ cli'fl>ji- 


BOOK VJ: CHAP. 7: ${6, ?. 

10 *u^"5pst (tself h(?Tr .t* i qiMlirjoarfon fif wliai has juti been saiA 
The general roncrpriiiM of tfl dpiinoi' diffl^iinY i* '""^^ cnuinjli ; 

b- 16, irpoKTi*!?! yi^\ U is of the CMcncc of ilic * Itnowlcdjcc/ wMch the 

fprj^fp>c ^i su<:h p06se«st8, to i&sue in actron- In lh« ipberv of 
conduct, ■ kiiOA'lcJgc * rtitliout varies k dead. 

■al ^v ToTt dXW«| in oihtfr m-.itlfrra anwrrll as in rliusr vrJtli which 
^j/uvr^tfit 13 concerned; t.^. in n^^Ucrs vilh which latptKr} {*l yap 
•lAiii? Art FA vDu^fl A.rA) ill cOJKcrneU: so EuainiL jCuII ^(J oilier 

Ojj«M(i' TDuc dfjutfiAfvc tvv ai4u Tt^c ftfiri4i>Li]c A.^y0» •jfutrul', aT'tw ff 4n 

(TfiufiK cmI u4 ytntr€ti Paam nwpl ru vi^ eitnc-rtSv ilavf' 0I yiip uk^^rvirar 
uy^£«i 6 *iir;ni'*i*', wV^v iiXX" ^ *n»A m'^i^fj^^iflff, o>XA kriXXirfir i^ Xvt^S^^I 
4 rur (IXXtft n>Tk rue obTU A>)iiW)'<v't ^ iTiJ|j3r'jiiJ"^ urfipunrift ii*ui. tAv 

T4-J1' 4fiiritip*ii^ vnif\at*fidifaiin^^ a^c liira r& ti^fai fnWor n/fi\titiO'*vVir Twpf 
imfpiaf vaow imrv At, vji vl it%¥ r^^ oirW ]au*n¥. a\ S ufF, <jJ fiAf ylkp 
TUTt'ilJOi Ti «n jftr Wain, tUti A' avt l^wnr* ol ti r^ 3ifSri u^ rrjr aifdii»> 

^Vtff loivir. l~h« vrjtcr uf £*. N. vl 7. 7 naay have hod (his pA&t4gfi 
in litR mmj. His imroduciicn cftbe term ipxtnwroviie^ 1141 b^ va 
may hive been suggrstcJ by &i tal ruir iJ^;^^^""' (^* h.t.X. 
b. L& tA jMvf 4 cJncwTo irpia Hal (Vyi'ii^] fwv^aj* it opifKttvd lO ry 
iTMoCvn tSi&^G Jt PitrL A/tim. l". 1 1. 67,) b. 7 ^uok-d by Rani^aurr. 
The ftrgumcni is—' Ail iighl flesh ia wholceomc : the flesh of fowb 
is lighL : ihf lefore 11 is vt>olr^toTn«/ The msin who hnowf itie con- 
duKtcJO, ' [hcfkah vfTv^U is nholcsotnc/ is moic likctylo jxcKribe 
0uccc5»rully Lhvi the man who known the major 'itll bgttt 9c«^ 
It whulfiDinr/ wilhuut knowing ilie minor, ' ihe fle^li of fowli b 

BOOIC IV: CHAP. 7: } 7- 6i 

light' Hence Trctidcknburcr [fTitf^n'. MJrJft tirr Ph. vol. luu^ib^ia. 
p. 3Ti) tooutd aeem to be right in bnckcting *w^ «> I so. 
U'hcllicr RannipV i» rlglii {F^rxrh. pi>, 9*1, jjj) in Wihsilmtlnj: tpdn 
■Ok for the r«j<:ctc^ #orda is more doublful. linx n^m la-i may Euvc 
come in here (L 90) ds a diEiograph of tfia nti in iho hne iibove 

pftasige beginning with ihcsc wortls and cndinit wilh vtxrtriiiv cli. 8. 
I 4, iif* 1. 11 Aflan LnU-rpolaciun- Th« rr^^'HH' in ch- S, f 5 can 
te iinDpcri/ unt!t-r»U)o(I, hr think*, only itt c\a^ rnnn**xlfin wjih [fit* 
remarks in ch, ^.% ^ ending wiitr frotriffn ^rtAAot M41 b. zt. 1 
thall liy 10 ahow ihat the (r^^jio^ follow* nirurallj' i^'hai has been 
iaid in ihc iTnmedlaiely pie<:cijing «ec[ion^vL S. 1 

cTn V ar Tit "'^ JrT«u4a dp;(LTC«rvr(V^ ] Uni CVCD lO ihc fl^OsE InLi- 
fQ^te know!* Jge of tA -*fl" «<ifrra iht tlLreciioiT of a mailer faculty in 

LfMccvttry- The man who knows Oc-t.i^U cinnoE drA\ ujiti ihcni 
wilbaut a plan of life, ThiEL plan he lincU, for ihc tno^i part, 
embodied in ihe irttiitutLonc vhich hxvi^ grown uj) iind^r the 
M^tfAvfn of tiifi Stale. The nuatci piudciKP, dp^irtfrttntit fP/tAvrjmr, 
ondcf ^vhtch his prudence of HciaiL vrorkji a^ n ji«i^«t*k^i» b Ltic 
difvciion atfcfdcd by mjAtrw^ ^ u^ jro^DJ'trtf^ - rcrcrrcil i*> a Sew Unes 

'below in ch, 8. { 3. U is on\y a^ coiiforrrun^ 10 ^-l'tk^fuI rtiW bid 
down for the common ^^ood chal the indi^du^il findn hf.^ o^n 
private good. For ai*^!!-*!^^?^*!^ tppiifitmt see J/, -^, 1.3^. 11^8 a. 3« 

^AffT^^i tifij^i'^fat, 0*01/ irri r^v tnv'iiofixnTit'. Jmo yiifi, ** ^a^vV, V^ 
ofrae A* t'lTTEP notgriirifl aft^f. /crrli' ^' ta) A JpiriTirTBfP.iur^ nf-mc tniiiti 

^ftalmKimi nt tw (T^frwP Tj^fi, fiifj» flcir nX rtfkrj^y, imi tf f^p^ifjatt &f 
aI for' Qiir^r ■'jMt*ai'[Vt*' /*<< UK-f d* lifimi; fr^iATiitDt, iral ^ <^fjrjinjff^ 

«pavTuq Aff iiq. In this i^axsage we cnuai undciSLond ihac it ia 

1141 as reaJkinfl: if mS' Stairra tpp6i^mt. Or empirical kro*-!*!*!^ of rigbl 



Xeatnna^i»i^ ai^ PnMtmee^re the tawK /tmilty n^rtHrJfipm M/mnf 

f'Ad^rJlMAcroiidiuif/rtw PrH-fftut at fMtifmtJ wi/k fit tiv/^^f/t^S$»fi, 
art int/lti/tif—{l) tik /4ittHj vf UiiiihUnii in af{oniart!.t wi'fA d tfimfrt^rmit^ 

IbSUi ij^fiti {jvkifh AiU tttifn te itut/ fk/ j*fH/ttc ttrm , Stflt/entamtAtfi) jf (a) 
Mi/^ra/iife aw/ (,A]. fit/r/io/j ttHtf li^aliNg. <u rV doia in tMt atjfm^fy «md 
law i&HrU, vifh /^vtint^' mas --ismmq in farticHhr d/trtft AttJ ^'B'^iitt. da 
IheHsr^thy wtany A» f^t the eniy ftwnt o/jruti^mtnnAi/i ; for il ii ikai iti tin prat* 
titt fifvihithai^H* ptDfle lire Htrt U 6r' lifiicj;- vwrfkin^t iikf ^lutrhittn. 

Simttorfy, mn*ty tfitfi^ that J'ru^n/f ai f/m^/nt/it o-tfA m/s own f^i^sit 
apii'n il /Vw,£fnrf pflf ffKcjIlffflc*. Jt Aat, inittfJ.iAt gvwH ptdiw/, /^udhuM!,- 
htf km^iitff tkj j^^ i^ <^ht*f iri lAt/tmtljF ititJ irt tkt SfAte h e-fti^-fy FntdtneWm 
A'nifwiirt^ tiAat iij[mnf/in- omjt'/ii v^ly ert€ tfrtirt c/ inenurx '^'htif ittveaifirr 
man: titt tt it a iprtUi disiiK^iihf.t/'em the other j/tciti^irrati'mc tektat it 
fpioit far olh/r ptof it ^^ A UrffriMVif nvX'im it Her/fart s/^ult tit irnmy « ^ Hit 
gtncflir fAj 9i9tf wApfnt t^ewftfto h'ifUm i'tt/mfs 11 iAfiii/^tft^* pih/f/mfj" 
and tAou tvA^ Jft<>u lAtmrtkf^i 4^ lAf inurwttf pftrfAfrt an ttntitirr^' tm^ 

tfnuttii from (At iHttrttCt p/ ' siher pcepft? A inan tomtiot ^ prudtnl in 
*kit itrcn* tntfrttt teUhnU ter^idtrinS '^ inlervtj of etJur ptopit n> du 
/amity aid tht State. 

if^am't pvtt * ittt^ttt ntitJ A# ahtt^ettJ /nm tAi ttnai tititt^, and nodi 
^ ^(i hy it^if e/ <> P^-mJt/act.' tkert day* trvitid it ' pmtUtii* : tAeytkaJtme- 
tn^uify wiih tAi uhlrntlioai 0/ mMAemaefii ; v/Ay fw/, /^«, afjv Mtk 
tAi a^Tlra^ttfiit fif' tAfir ^"ti' inf(tti/t f fiut ihry artnc merr " pnM^fmi' im 
' tkti* «wt * inf/wtifi than twjy an writ Vf-i/v/ tn fAthitpAy attJ tkj luTartiel 
rritva. Thit may ht tsAen ta a lifm fAat 'en/s ^wn'' inHriti n^ntt Aa 
tiAittacftJ ; fAat /\itJiruf. Hit prf/to'inty in iAt spntrttt iiitmoif tfudrrt utay 
antJ xciiie fipftinur /iff ifi ttc^mftmtt$f — t^pcritnct ff/'cm/t gwt* t'm'truf M 
thm inhens 4n Ike tittw ^ tht imtrisei ^f the iommamtj. 

JViuf/wr^, tAn$. being tkr iwmfdiiift inmittniffr t^ ^eirili:nUr^, tt m^ irit^Jtt 
\mnf\Ui^_ ftnf uiinftfit infiw/e^^v it iveJ^e, tr prapr^, Anw / n^ ; it it 
tktr^ f$ fv rJu otttiiAeiii tf R^atem, for ^/aa^ apfpt^tttdt nnimwli immo£- 
ately. lit p^rtiiHia^s^ tkin, htirtg apprt^tmdtd^ mot maHMtfy a amclaaimt 

£OQK VJ: CHAP. S; 5 I, 


«rT 0pfrthtn4at fy leimte, hut iiamediaifiy, Prw^^nri vril! bt 9 VJri iififrtn— 
nf ituBuiii** iiii^t, whuA pfttettfi rolmir immNUnffl/ as iti ifttiai fflye^t, «r 
kiorins.^^Kh f*Ttfwti tounJ. hut rviAfr /1J14 tAf uhu by h»>w,* vt ^nth$0 
fi^mtfrt^al figttrt—a Irimgte tr a arett—immtJiaiti/ ^r tfkai it £r, 

}L ^ iroXiTiH^] Grant kaa on imporlant remark heic— that. UAlb^93- 

accordirrff to Ansfo'.le, ' ^i>ra'7jmt was fl pRycliologkal tjrtn *x- 
prciTimg a f^cuhj of the mind, but flu^irwj was merely one tjf llic 
diviiioti$ of tbc tdcnccK' Jn ordor 10 irnkc thcni commensurate, 
Eudririiift allf^TH ihr sigiiirinuron of w^Xininf. Hf* Irrai!« M in a stxte 
of the mind (tifiT)i u B mode of ^^njrrt^ ^IcAlin^ with the St&:c 
eiiiior uriivtr^lly or Ln dctaila. From tl:« 8CLnL« later point of view 

]lr adits :Ll!it> viirftvvfiitii' 

^ <iM] |k<r |(if, T^ p^^roi tlvai of Tofrit oAtnrf] ScG nOlC on 

V, 1. 30- iin><ri«if, the pradertce of th« ciiteen, ^ind ^p4^<r.f, the 
liniJaicc (if lilt nian, arc the anmr hahtt viewed finm dlflVfent 
points, » the citlxcn and the niun itrc the ujinic person viewed 
frwa different poinis. Take ihc ca*e of one who 'gcis on well 
tn die world/ He may be looked ut either a^ a nun who c:0]icfucs 
his own oiTain prudently, or a» a cititen who coniribuicfl by hja 
poaLiion and Influence lo ihe welfare of the Stale of which he jft 
thr pmtlucL Hi* rufeer \% n linp in which rhe privalr can only 
io|fic4il)' be djatinjfuiahcd from the public side- Except as con- 
forming 10 the condiiioni of ilie ccmmuniiy to which iie belongs, 
and 4« promoiinfE iE< good, no niAn can be taid U;) m^na^e his own 
sfTilira prudently — di^<« Tart r!t aCrob a£ I'rrv vlnarvitlat ouA' cTnt' jruXiivEDf 
J 5. F-wn (he narrowest ^/nii'iiffiff mj'>i tiisr^* ts neXcTutT— although 
ibc lalid name is technically given only lo llic facuily of the 
'public man' — the Icgiilator, cccScsi.isi, dicfifit, or cKCCUiivc of^ccr. 
We may say ihen rhat che ifjt frft-wv^tiKti m^. th rpmrh n^0d ii 

^fufvifuh ^ad fTFjj] iflj^v, and iroXiru/^ qtiJ rrrpl h*p*n'. Tl'^&C arc 

two aapccu logically diaiingtiishable : bui there 15 no such tiling; 
ftS atring f^fy for anevelf. or caring ontjf for others. 

Frimcbc and GTaiii n^ake moch of ihia { and the three following 
Jj OK folfillrn;; a promiae 'mude btJorc in the £. L''—v\^. i 8. 

Ttlfi h, g Ti d" ofl Svtia avi u'}.ot ufittrron util nhmv rvtf iJ<f" aurn rni 

64 BOOK VI: CHAP- 8:^3, 

1141 bB«- 5 3] The ilivisions made in ihU j and in § 3 itirty be Ubulitied 

<^(t6vriait (A] 

' ~~r 1 . , 

I , I , 

fToXtn*^ (a) vo|A0A-r4«f 
I iT*pi irrtKiv 0p,) 

H«ri> i^^iaj^if is vsod jn a g^n^rSc ftenft« (A), nod a &p«clfic tcinie 

(d) — Au^flE ^ Hul t/f^Hir'^inv M'J^^'''^* tlmn if Tttfil it^hv lun i'kj' ta) f^n 
ai'tij {a) ri JinmW Jw^rt (A), ^/-ocvo-ii J 3, Oa^trM^ iS alK> U*cd in 

a grncric ^A], and a tpccific (a) kcrkc. 
b. UD, vD|LO#<Ti>in) The afdiitccioaic rctAtion of n^»£i>ri«^ to 4 v^l^irui 

ij itip\ tA MJiff iuaitn, ^t 'VeW tkA CO oUofHiun^ and 7 wpi avt<lk ^^u'^eti, 
b nol cjihihilcil »i ibc pjt in thr ;ibnv(r iMe, In whirh nt^ioflmrii 
it>pcars aa coordinate wiih fraXiv^q (<!)» und u hitvin^ no bearing 
al all upun o*M*fp>"<^ or 0>>tf>«ifltr (ir). In ihe well-ordered Sldlt> 
however, Jl (Tommalcs all tlirw — tt^mjirtt {a), ofifnpn^K^. and roXirw^ 

lion, to iroitr*'^ (tf) ai ^a«, is betfer brought oui m /**/. A, tr, 
iHiy7 b- 37. uIktc! [Ijcc^ pApia ror iTDMrrivv ifair^iv air di!(lirigUUfK*d 
(i) ri /JjuXfirJ/jfof in^l r^r iutr«» — ihe dclibcfaiive body: (a) i4 
r-pl Tn( ^px'^'^^^^^ NKcvttvci and (3) r* &«(v# — Lh« Judicial bodj^: 
and ratta&trt'iti U Said iv be tontcrucd ' lljroTclicaHy/ *'-/, arcM- 
iCCtOrtKallj", ^ith al! Ihrcc : tim ^ff r^n fi^^ia rii- iroXiTfitfr iranv irr/t 

4 $i ^ tA Kftfl* fjta^ra] Hic VeU U. lua — hacc aulem uC dl 
rii^tilaria commune habei romcn jjolitica^ ae if he read 4 '< vf n^ 

ir^hirruLMTd) iTipi rii u^' ftuffm. Would it nOt bc f.implcr tO md 

BOOK yi: CHAP, 8: {5 a. 3. 


i^poKTucfi ul p<wJUimi4] ThU U noi iho fi>rwaJ division ofJUi b.37. 
vnJUnct (")- Tktl U ^vcn In the iicxi section iu ^v^rt/nt^ and 
Anmc^ Here ihc wntcr wiahcs merely lo cb&r&ctcHsc inAiTu-; [a) 
If rpuri'^> t\ r. ^ concerned wiUi tA nrfT fvtrrfi, in contradistinction 

XftTt4if in order to explain irpfttruti,- -th y\^ ^inptofia npoHrif vt t4 
t9j^ara¥^ Hc tllighl hfl^V WlitlOl^-ai'rff A« ir^irrjiir^, fnj ^ufJirivifif 

^ fd JffX^TOt-j Eustr baa— ^ J^i^^wfia ttjrir E r^Xfirraifl* J tfilviu tt. SUP. 
irpo^t virvr^mit, A i^^i^fMi h the ^r^t Step in the OtCCUtion of 

& policy- I: cArric^ wuh ii conecqucncos whtc^i result in die 
tczliMlian tir n crrtain tiXm. iVHlicratinn^ (Uriliijj fir>ni ihr 
conception of thi& rAoi, rcvic^va the 6ttp9 by wbcli ic nuy be 
reiliicd till ai lasi iht fint step actually lo be taken ii: reached 
in iluiughl. Tliu \\ ihr ^fQi^tcr^, wliidi \\ iltui rA /rrj^(m>v: r/! 

ZT, A^' ill' 3^ 11, 12 d y^>r ^vXrtu>u»i) fuur ^fTtiu mil uHj\^(tl' i • < 

ynt^irru The temi Itfj^orcv often A;i[id!( Himply foi ihr ' phtrtiatUr' 

iiH ludi^^^j". S'lY' vi. tJ. 3 'oTk Aj Ttfv noC^ r«j(rT4 Aut rwv /(Tj^cirvf 
OTdiTd ro vpacra: JiStL K, t- 101^9 b- 26 nora fVEcrr^ij tuv iCfitJuXQii 
tgUoii titt itrxitmrl £/, f.A'^ \iu Jh 13 fojuoTof 4(»c, PurliLuluiS US 

*uch jwc called iirjr-tnj, dooVtlc** liccausc thcj- ire individuals, of 
ultimate unita found by brf^aking up genus :ind bpeciea. 

ftti iruXiTtutE^Oafc b.tA.1 nuhiruq (tj)— q j^ttfnmx^'^Vr hCL£ ApprO* 

;jnac«d to it^tti the g<^n«ric n&me v'hich it ought to sh^^rc with 
4 df ^■"'■^■^' Only 'parfy mrn/ 'active politicians' — those who 
' have a band in cirrring on tlic current buaincBS of the Slate/ Art 
popularly redded cu» ' our statesmen/ Poiiiiccd thioken arc not 
regarded as ' siateamf n/ 

{ 3, Eowct &a tttin ^^4*^711 k.tA.J Similarly, 4'p^trjait {a) hai np- b^ fiO. 
propriated 10 itself ih'^ p^Mcric namo whkh t[ oughr to ahi*re with 
vuvnvuicv anil iruXircc^. 'i^o t>e able to manage ' ouc'k own ' aiTair» 
u-cU ku Prudence— and the only rcftl Prudence* it ib thouglit (Bonti) ; 
for to aitend as a, 'poliiiubt: " 10 other people's affUtra is the mark, 
not of a prudcut uiai^ but of ^ busybody. Tbc truth, however, 

VOL. u^ I 


BOOK VJ: CHAP, 8: 55 J, 4^ 

lUi u,'i9 is jImJ. ill- llie Stale rt■llid^ i.4 rul^J by ^/ij^/ff^rr^ iristfaJ of wt^in* 
!iink!i into the socia] chnoi^ of j? w^^j^ 37^«fi<iiru< (/'if^ £, & \\a 
bi 36), ((O ih« n^an tvbo ir^eA to manage 'liie ov<n iffuir^' uit^icut 
re^rd for tlic common poofl, courti to nwn ruin, ■ One* own 
good' cannoi be abstracud Trom \\v. common good, and tre^Fcd an 

b, SS, {4, cTBqi . . - ifgXuiTpiiYh°^^1 ' Knowing one*!i own gcod (i^mtj^lc 

'i) ' and ' knoxving ^vll,l[ j» ^ood Tor othnr pooptc (ro^iniiy ')' Jtrc ibc 
lvk<o spades ['IA7) of 'knowing vfhat Is goo^ (^t^jtie A)/ BuC 
tlicK Iv'o »t>ci:ies <iTr dlAlinguIshcd from each olbci by mch a large 
'ffif&rencB' (^£ii4>n/f^). ihuc they often do not ev^tn to be coordinate 
species at nil iin<1pr ihe same genu*. 'My own gootr ii such 
4 Tcij- diffctt'iit ibin; 10 me from 'my nclKhtotir'A fiootil/ and 
aeems so superior, tliat the tendency is ;o make the knowlcdfcc 
nf ihe former cnexten^rw wijb Prudence, and to cast the know- 
ledge of Lhe latter out of the genus altogether as nuXiffi)Atiyj*<Mi'rq. 
'1 hi« interprelfilion oseunics tiiat ttn^a^a \% here uacd in \\% logLOil 
<enae ns A«0opA #<Mfi?rinoV or diffrrmfia tptajita, and is suggested 
by the foregoing r^ = ^/vuVj; 6cc {f'g-) Met. l. 7^ 1057 b, 7 A* 

76/> roD ^f'fiftf Kol Taaf iittpa^Ly rJt tiSr}. tt I£ ttjC irtcrprcldlion 

adopted hy Fnsrrarms, vhr^ writes :^-r^f flioiT"'P"^ M^imf*! /liri Wtth* 

itntrru ftir fovTwf 'dI yvtt<Tip /ifrri rai ^p&v^cnr, rrX^v i^m^n 0ia^r»/?uf v^Aff 
ifKK^Xrwf, r^ y^^*i /I'l' Xtrote ^'rrat to^ oi'fflvr {roi'imr Kuslr^) JUir^'^mie 
n niAv rovTivii itpor rii \i?'irUt a-i' ripiraj^rak* Jturf Kat Aeiiiit r^v vloutq 

It is difljculL to BUppxMo that in a conicxt in whicb ihc Jficcfa of 
^gmiis ore di^in^ishcdT Jm^opd c;in be used in nry but in thiB, ils 
|ogLc::d. !4cn^. ZHl, CoraeE* GranL iiid R^maaiJer. houevci* fullow 
Lambinus in understanding ^hX' cj^h Aih^d^ ngXX^r te nicdn — 
■ verum de hoc ipso magni cti controverBl*/ 

Ii. M. YB'i^vsJ Eu^lf , had ». t'. /. i^fHii^invir before hint. 

t^ aOru atU»aL| Eufttr. fiiys that the phriao is cIEiptical, uid 
IhcU wc^ must EiDdrr^hLiiil Af^i^oi', w^tftiptft, or ^imii, AumM, the 

BOOfC VJ: CHAP. H: { 4. 


r«MJinf|f of M^, ia Ecmpiing, bui b protiably only one of xht coii- 1141 b-3-i, 
j«cctirc» or ^hich M^ U futl 

■al Btmi h-tX] Euitr. bn'rgir out correciiy ill* force of tbeoc 1149 l l. 

U wrAtrtai'V fti tpf6fifHiv aXXA fTn]hTiiT^ny/''iHn, So mucb iS mud'.' Of ihv 

^sipccific itiffcrcricc bcLwctn tJipcWfit nr/^l utrJi' and ngAtriir^, llml ihc 
hlter 11 cut cut of ihc gonus, whioS the former ia Alkywcd to 
manopotlie-' But th^ irudi i«, a« lh« utli^t ik al^out lu thow, 
that ^ iffpl uvrJr and iniAn-Et^ ajc dofecly Loniiccccd A nmn 
cuidM Oflcure 'Ljb own' int«T?ttlH iWv uiin>wi^*iif ovA* ''w TTuAtm'ut 
(( l)- If (i sl 'onc'i own ' inttrrsti could he atwirractpfl trcm thp 
concitt« tissue of tjwdij ivcll-bcing, and ticatL-J simply by ilicmscivc*. 
boy>, who can cltal vilh simple abitraciiojis, mifiht be e:cpectecl 10 
be iftpdinfM. As a fiianrr of Tivct itury arr iiot tjiptrnttf**, liiT^nst' (In? 
'good' with -which even the n;o>t wlf-rcgirdLnG 4*1^*'*^ ^^ ^o^ 
cttraedi, » concretely im^icated nith tho 'commoti good,' which 
only K mail of lipr rxjieTiciicc ran csLxniaif. 

H U voXltikoI irDXi/irpdyr^ott^l ZcU Aud GmtX quote Plato ^ S- 

llOC- Mfl dniS6cr««r( JIQ TB^ juv Am irg^HTpuy^cbi^p <V"*(p^'' 

EiptmlTi«j From ihi' PhihcttUt of Kuripiflcfi : »» Dindoif /*<W, 
<Sj!/it. p. 35a. The tliird line of iJic prevent quolation sccma to 
have bccjt in ME— 

After thi« line there nccm^ 10 have followed a passage (pvi- 
phtued bj'DioChr. Or. 59. p> 575) which ended with the lincA — 

pvAv yap 4itr«i y^irp'tv * a-« Jy^p r^^v' 

After irXtV in our tejit ii^t u, 6 tlic Paraph. HehodoruB at-eutt 

to hiv^ rfsd /«i)c |uinij anfl CCC ndii^ aur ^Tfra tfipotitutui^ 

^ Forciamiple* of thei.'cuFEalUiiitrhtyilliuUaTTil b; UiCdtnitbD oim^tt^ 
from ia £taa\. kc Mtiri Lafitv i*. Ai c>i>;(;Jai1y i 4. 

r a 


BOOK Vr: CHAP. &; SJ 4. 5- 

Jt Is inipossir'ic lo secure one's own good, without taking [iccc^unt 
of Uie g^od ol Lho bouMtiold and ev<n of the Suto. The Tsraph^ 

has a goml i>oti' hcrr In whir.h he shows how llie next sentence 
fri it h.tX and lilt ijtu^iav § 5 arc conncclcd wilii ihla remark — 

o^ifoH^Ufi^v 41*11 Tt^s 7Tti\%viK^t- ifi ykp f^i)rt\rhu «^ vriL vnXJic to m^ cavr'i* 

p^v^c fU^Tftifiit. clXXt'i filfir /^«( ^<nFMTr)t<, •niit tXtrrrm Tit invt^ ifyp<fdr^ 
6^\ov yifl. ttii XP*^*' i^aanaXins vp^ oM leu ra^Bv, ranv M 

jfdr m'noc Kal fr>iX»***t, *ci flt™ roifoni oC-t ii/i ZfiTrtiiM-y iiu^t rp/it'itintw tuntr 

Sinularl/ Eustmu »ho foriii;dly JblingiUii'cs lwu ic^taons why 
o£ji( t-trt rij avTDi/ r£ ^n-v vuiorvjaiar oi/f iWu froAiravK — (l ) Man IS fl 

social b«iiig, KainDy and public liA? la pan of Th« ooncrri^ liHt of 
llw indivitlual; (a) the dclibcwlion nccc-ssarj \o socur« r4 n^rov 
oyoftSi' cannot be tamed on wichouE *<h*»«moJ. I'his is how he «- 

plains 1149 a> lo fri AJ vA oivou w^ iil Suiituv, ACr^Xov ml trmr^tr. 
JTc !«iyK — T^ ^ mrr^i ArT raiviorQir, ^ Af tonntvia j) ofrai>0^u^ ( rrulVLnc^. 

Thi!» interpretation of oa^isriav j 14; a. 10. E^y which j[ is rat/de 10 
icfcr ro the ff<-V"* ^^ *^^ fppomficr, \s, ) daresay, posiible; but U 
wuulJ tic fiiorc ill ;tci:Qjdancc with A.risiotdiati UBOge to make it 
Tcfcr lo the ^Jir^f of the writer and his rcitdcr. The ^nicncc 
friiU^.. tfi^iTTrtM L« one vhich i\ is inJeed <1iff(CuI[ 10 explain 
nlillactoril/ in Its coniexl, Al ^ny rale, however, we may nippose 
that the ti" '"iBi^ay of $ 6, 114? a, vo 13 intended cc contmat with 
the ^\o¥ of $ 4, If 43 a. lo, 

*, 11. j &' ff^|iL«icr n..tX'\ Rissow (/"^^r^M. p, 45)1 fis wu pointed out 
in iioie oil ch- V- $ 7, b. ^t, re^ard^i the pav^oj^ lie^iuiJiig di, 7. 
}7-ti4tb.3ii7dc ^Jviftriv iT^KTtc^r and cndinjc here ti4» Ok. it 

WLih fTjinrrt'dP, Ofl At) IntrrpobiiDii, and ut'>t thi^ ff^^im- closely with 
iJiC rcmaik* in chn 7^ j 7 *ivhich end villi notfjati /i^XAov 1141 h. ^i. 
It ffi true that the nf^Iar would follow these remarks very appositdy. 

Put <)cefi It not follow irnl'r'<i 'ffmi oi'n ifrrt ri* nxmif rl (Wv ofm^or 
ntf ff/iii iToXtriMK ap[>on[rly enough? TiV tlpijiUru¥ If, n£K fim fd 

* Cainbr. wtnu In be \he an\j MS, which Mrwwwllh K^\n n^dingfA- 

BOOK VI: CHAP. 8: 45 j;, 6. 69 

rrquir«fi thai ^\^ experivoc« which ciLn be obt»i&6d cnty in voj- 114s a. ti. 

wwtU^ The fiLct that tKkjrd urt* rioL ^'i'lEiit^f, although ^&mtMrvi\ii^ 

points lo die truth of chi^ atakmctU; for if wc enquire why the/ 

arc DAI ^^n^Di, w<* ItnJ lh:it il in bccfltJ«c ^pi^H^r necda lon^ 

cxpcricQcc of life, mid ifwt! ttmuirc why the/ ii:c juitfir^Tuo/, we 

find thai iC i» bccatific the nbKirnct truihit of mathcmaiici do not 

tvrd * long «-icperr«nc« ol Ufij ' Ibr thoir Apprehension, h\\\ ^ri* plain 

at nn»t sight. If ri^ ttlmu nyu&Av Acrc somcLhiTij{ whitJk coiitj siib- 

sUl bp iiACif in ab«tracL)on hroni ri* ko^Av a^Bin (a^ the S^fn AtntcU 

aiul «uiiniQed in f 4 would hixxv iit bclwve), boy* misht bf ptiual 

to its comprchcrjTiQri. as the/ ^e equal to ihe tonipLelieiibioit of 

tlio abftiract truUift of mEUht^muiUa : but the)- are not vt^ual to the 

compr^hi^^on of rd wntv ayoBAvi fio it would Acem to follow thGit 

iJiis vyn6^6oth noi subwftl by itself in abaiiaction from rft mHt^i* 

■yA^i*, but ihftE to cctnprchend it one mui^C be able (which boyrj 

:irc fw>i) u> lake account of the good of the honwhold aruJ of ihr 


Un]=^i : 4e« I*tdfx Arts/, s. v, Ai'^i : but ^erhapa uo ought «. is, 
to read ^1 here, trc-iting A'- hh 1 dittn^rapli of the preceding « : 
&ee /m/*.v AriiL—' inlcrJuni Lilcrafi (* ii: v. aM^r* jcidc vidcri ortaa 
esse, quod praecedit voc^ibulum icncinoriK in nc, priet'ipuc lai, 
Vahku iiionct Rlitl. p. fi8— * then follow sever*) rtfercntcft to 
pkoe» vhcre 3i^=JFt ia preceded by ■«'. 

It ^pirctptas] See I\fft. \, 1, 981 a. 15 J ^'v if^viip^n tSv <fi6'«>Ul< 

rnvrTiJv jVn ypwirit ; j^fl, PoStt III I9. lOO 1. 3 ■'■ (i«V oJi' ult€injtmt% 
yiwrii ^vi]^^ j^tf^f^ X«yii^uv, rV 4r f*^'J/"]B YnXA-nffr rvrtJ niffcv y<^''VuiAj( 

f 0, imf] To ( £ il)« qu««iion wa^— ' Why is i boy ^a^q^arM^ >. le. 
but not ^KJHrioi ? ' ind llic tinswei was — ' bnmiiw? t^ft^vijtrvt hcpiIb 
mpcrtencc. an;l he hna no experience/ Section C proceeds — * and 
this ii the true ^n^wer, becauie I'^vi) it avjtignii hit lack of ^piw^^tt 
to ft eauw vhirh neconnitL ako for hU not hnvJng a gj^p rif the 
prindpfea of philosophy or of natural science/ Render — 'For if 
v« go on 10 ask vhy a boy may be a mathcmiLician, but cannot 
tmikfiland pliiloviphy or tialuTiii m. Icm-e, »-? Ilnil thitt iL i^ liroatiae 
Smiths of naadiemntic» arc abstract, whereas ihe princi[jlcs of 
philoaophy ard naturil science are reached through long ex' 
5>enence. A boy tlocs not realise the meanmg of the principles of 


BOOK VJ: CI/AP. 8: { 6. 

»,ia. philoaopby and t^atunt science, bin merely rcprate by rot* iht 
forroula* iiicd lo eipre** them ; the truth* of mar liemsi lies, en thr 
OtUcr hund, Ijc Lo[n]*relicad» fully, foi tliey are plain 4t first sight.' 

ti?. tfo4^vl '■'■ <"^"f dwXfcf Ob disiinfiuiahed from -ro^l rfl f«(*^n 
abovf, line s, i;j, 

K^ 10. Sl* d^(p^ft««l ro Ai' or t£ tfi^bniffCHEM, 'rrtulrs or producLs of 
absltncliti",' iuc rcguliLily uacd as = "the trullift of maEliemj^itcs ' : 
HOG notes on i. 3. i Etnd 1. ^t. ^ : r/^ TrendclcnbUTg'A note on 
df An. W\. 4. 8 {ff. also his ^/^m, /-flg. j 3^, not'*)^ vhcrr li k 
pointed out [hai the firat mcj^nlnjc of li^uE/.ivir is material — e.g. 
it m Ihc proccea of chippirt^ uv^y the block of sEonc lill ihe pcrTecC 
form of the sTnii» ii rcacJitd in Phys. \. 7. 1 90 b. j rft ** J^<p/iMi 
oEm- *\ roC XifW d 'l?^>i^s. Il is then applied to the proccu of 
waclung fH'i or concepts by leaving out of account th* particulafi- 
tteii of ind]vidit:J«, srrd fixing: ftiimtlon ujifin rKt^rniial chflrncter* 
iaticA: &nd especially to the proceu of reaching thoM *lin tn\h 
vhich mathemniical science (bcc -^«- Post- J. i^i- 79 ft. 7) it con- 
cern^, Eusii^lius haR tKe following nnre on tA V d^r/itfrfvt lirre 

> — X^pit TBtf vifnitttirratr tsar tvjfryttnp i/ifflnacffai ^^ JtHX^ra^ a<^i^w»^ 

roffi/^ fir^tfTTrjifdra ir<pJ r^t dfAVEfiac T^f tfrrairii' (!l(;i((»Ttii «»/il rir #mx 

Opposed to ii A^aiftifjttfit *ah«rflct' is » ppoiTflfff*»r 'concr^c'f 
see Mtt A. 2, 582 a, jj aiid v^^- ParL \. 37, 87 a. 31, vh«r« 
geometry is siid to be ' more concrete * ihan arithmcltc, and ihcre- 

vrrf^^ ZS o5»*a tfcrJr' rotr^r « fff]«a&VtB>r. Gcomeiry £» A Vffov- 

Afff««K lie compur^d with irithmetic, btcauw it add* jx^siiiffatt ii 
odds alio the ihrcr dimcnMnn^ n^ generaU^l liy (be nTf^/rivi of the 
point, line, and plane respectively: ecc Trendelenburg, Kai/£triaf 
khff, pp. 83, S4, 

It \% noi Ic be undrraiiJCHt from tlie wurOii r4 fii¥ K ^tp^wJtrtitt 

/rriF. T^r ^ oj "PA!*^'' 'C tfrrfipinw thuC a^aiprtJit and ''^irrifHil arc 

muiiifllly rjrrlxifiivr- Th*t i^^A<n' of natural science are ^j» D^Hiptff^i^ 
in&^much u tliey arc gencml poinw of vicv, not |>anicuUr ob- 
servationii ; koc virr. Pc4A ti. 1 9. too a. 6 /« S' rV** (piat ^ tV itiutok 
Jp#/*^fTarrnf toG w^(l6Xtt\t ir 1^ ^'';f,7 f**" **^*< veftA to mXXit A <V Aaivfi* 
II" AiJ MrttHT ri fl^ Ti;(ii7F J^x^ ™1 rfnwTji^ijt : aiid 11 lA by induc-lLi>n 

BOOK VI: CHAP. B: j§ fi, 7, 


thii pv«?D rri «{ jfNup/tfaoc /err txeffi^nri — (h» LruihK of mathrniftlici^, 1143 %. 1«. 
arc M^d to tKCOmc kno^n In An. F<tsi. i. |8. 3i b> 3 ^^vmrvir Ai 

brM &' /irdyvy^i y»ia/iE^ Trnii ji<^-oii wliicK urc Wnilx'it note. 

■ol t& p/r] The 4j>;t"'' <''' philosophy or nstiural idciicc, rfiv ^a. 1*. 
being ra V d^ipiVttft. 

ovnniiko tiniiiEa:ciu pcrMiuionis st^Bcat, ?tvc ca ^(^7* aivc iVifmf 
fifc vlfn AC nAtiiram liab^E «{w nil rogTrltlon^m prEnfiploriin prr- 
liiKi' — %tt d€ Aa. \C\. 3. 4^9 b. 4, 438 iL f 1, /\A'. vii. 3. 4. An. 

Prtcf. lL 23. 6t( b> 13 dnvrd frmfH^tr 4 ^"^ ffiAX«^(r/i0v J r^ 

AlU X^Y***"] GtatiJ compiirci X A'', vii- 3- 8 4J irpfifoif ^^dvrtc ■. so. 

or w>o. Tov rf <Vt<p ^lpf. i-'£>f;. U. 10, 94 X i6)y from which Ibe 
nuiihtnx^iit^i^irj stArw, jrr j^Liiji ami cMfcJy urulfrsiooil *L (Irsi ^bi: 

l;;pJnT vpic ri cai n>vr Jpova avrvt- tmimiirSitt. On apuTfmi and lljcir 
relation u> ^i^nfir te« ^. j. ^0, /*<);/. ii. 3. go U 30 li/utr^r ^ir yap 

{ 7, In K-T-X-] Thi* jscms tn hfl imolht-r ar^meHt (a-ftcrr the 
dilfmsior^ m {{ ,'J, 6) 10 proi%'C lJi4t u^a 3*rtt t6 uCra^ f^ *Tnv cum* 

£n All T$ fi'ift^fm rob ^iini^iir nyn^v, r^t rnC jciiuviv jyit^nv yiwir'ur 
, . • i jJp 3hXrbff(j^nj|r ^ ^^^r . - ^ fl ij\fO T^j^yji/t . . , Jr tr rif dt^lAw 

«Vdf«t fi»^ <I->v(i^r obfiAn/fHt ^ rrft lat&i/kiiv^ 4 '7f litjji'r^^ (jcue yi^^ d ilyvvaii' 
««M^»-i ^ rA dapyrrafifiti Zitir^ ^lAd^ iral J TOutd ^<r tiUvt, vfinmr &r 
ftwptMiit, Art *i8M rA vBura pafwrei^fmf Afvtiun AfUtpr^trtrai' ;f/irfiTfnn 


SOOk' Vti CJIj^P.9,1 ^ 7-9. 

tl4S*^S0'. 7^^ iitartpot T*fir ^c'Awr rSuffi], (^«^i» m vpit tA /*^ opa^**, 
ta 0aflCtmt&^ta tfiuHhar fiitrat Spa ^ t^p"1 0^i[S*^ffJc r^f iroAftww ^t"^ 

It would ibiH ipjic:u ihu in ihe [ift'smi ( »c liavc a [KtraUd 
nddiiced from medical science \o illustrate the inlcrjc|>er>dcftcc of 
a kTtowkdgQ of uhai ii good for oihen and % knovlcdge of what 
» gctid for nmpBplf- The univpisil fl^ira r* jSnpikrfatfMa f*CT*i ^n£A> 
t» ptnllcl XO the kntJW-lcdjEc of tJic w»cial Kood; tin: puriiCTibf, ro'i 
j9d/ji>om^^i»', to the krowic;dgcofone'*£ owr l^xI- A&ihecoitclli^ii^nN 
of uirpu^ tlnnarici iTic tnovt It-d^ 'if boLh & major and a minor, w 
do tho« of ^pW*'" — «vcn ^tbcn it !!c«iiis lo be cf>nccrrticd mctdy 
wkh ■ one'fl own • ([ood. 

Zcll rcfcru Ui /"roi/, 933 b. j8, whtic it b stated thai tf, ^ 

to oocur only liere in the Ariiitoldiun Corj>U4. Susfmlhl hrackfts 
thta $. 

iffTTcp ttpTiTdtJ ryi -1/f/- K. 1. 1059 h. j6 nuffii ViricfT'j^fj rwr cuAAc* 
bii D^ Tui- fVj^otHi'. Fortlirfi s?ns^ of fLP^nTDp( = xjlUmat< iiutmduftl) 
!cc above, notp en "A. 8, a 1>- aS, 'Hie cxprt^siIln rofi fvxinv 
fWlt ij ^■Ji^tf'if hu not acttially occiitrc'l before, but, njt Ramwucf 

nosci, ihc equivalence of tA mff Uaimi' and ri *(7^rtrn.' ift aMUin«d^ 

a. S£. id. nf J f.f. ry Ahi^/y'^vV n^ ^ dieting UEiJicd hckt^ in vL 1 1. 4 
fiom the frpojtTn^t tmt, which U w ^j^orw nl /ptfj^^ptHV «u rit 
iripat irpormrrBC. 

a. a?. Jm^|if|] I./, tnedijte, di*ductiwly deriwd knov'ltfd^. 


J^X^*^^ r^iY*^^1 ^c hft^c ^^^ U)c AnAtotdion diiitinction bclwetci 

ihr Wio mVA^Trr {pr.ij>rit) tmKiM'fi of ih*^ Srhfn»lmcn} and the mo4 
*Hff^r;fii (*-tfmmMWJii jfn/ii!j7ja), ;ui explained itiJt Ah^ ii. 6, 41ft a, 7 Art- 

rtt^^i maff iii^ifTTjr nla&jfnv nrpl t^r oiirGrjriiv wp^^ittfi; Ar)YT«A ^ f^dJff^rrv* 
fjM^lfJkf, im auo pi¥ tap aiiti ^ci^v mit^iHBBot. r6 Aj Jir vutq irvft/ttfitjiiit. 

BOOK Vis CHAP. 8: J g. 


amvBTA fin j^prnfta oi'A art ^<i^<*1. «XAa ri rA ii'j[puK>/j*>'or '^ Tnir, r; re r4 

ffjt^f dpidju^, fj^i^rii. |ir>ftfvi' rd ^vp tcuDto 'j^Avj^mi fi/rlt li)iri. liXXA 
■«IM ir^iPbt' oda y^ utjijf tu¥t]iiU n'l t'lrTifr aia^rjri^ uii ^4^r«. ihir^ *tv^S*- 

tV ™tov ofirfliifttoi, 5n tip A^uiify a tjf/^i^iiM fvviv vl o^ffAinryi- ft"i 
caI aiiir iTLi^r^t ^ fuioCrDi' bTtg ni aia&rtrnl, torr &4 Kti6' PbTd aio^rmv 

CY- iKlil ivvwla' J^ 4 5^ b. 4 «in£m A" /itI row a'mfiijrtMaiP uurf <f:|[fT^ 

X*^' We intifii no» ihc aclmiiuloti^ ttifldc fti the end of the 
pMWgc qaoEctI fitmi </f ^^r, ij. 6 ihaC (Ijc nckvA aJu%J arc after 
>U DM aI«#i)Td in the Slri<l ^^rn^e (pfvpwi). Iti if/ Ati. lii, r^ 4»fi b, 5 
ihcy ftr* called ihe common coiKomiianta {tJ\ a*o>Mfim%r4i mi ■m^p) 
of the Qiu H^tr^pfni, and Etiii^^l t>e freArdc;d m icaII^ tntf/Zigr&iitti 
fcm^Hf prea«nt in lh« propriii ttnstbUta. As buch, they dtffor 

Irora ibc ram trxvtU^tat Aitr9tfn of '^^ An, il t. 41K n. 30, whlch 

art merely empirUuHy infim^ pr«|wr sciiajblc;*: r.^, wircn oric 
ia&TS tbc bil[crnc(« c>r the yellow bile which one sec-s, the biltcmcfw 

\% tmik trv}iflwflijiiht altr^rjrii^ [ff/ Af. iii. I, flSfi b. t). The ejC, !W 

51Kb, ia &01 AJfecLcd by iu The tcfvtk ojV^rjri 4rc dc-^tribcd by 
HjLmJlon {/ifid, p. ^30) OS ' concomitant cugnilLons to v^hkh the 
Trnprcsdon on ihe organ of Ihc proper sensible only sffordM ihr 
occsAion ' ;*and GnwU »ys — 'Wc »cc in ihc apprehcnsvion cf 
number, 6^re. and the like, not an operation of wnne, but the 
mifiil pmiing ttsowu forrntand categoHe*, rW ilseSf, on thecKiemal 
object.' In (/' .-fM. iii- 1, 435 n- ij the five common Ken«iblca 
encmerued in ^ An. 11. G are reduct^d toone-nu^ipiff:— d^Xd fii)»> 

■ivni^fMAi ^Du) RBtd trvMSf i^'^K^f \ oia* <4»j(r'uif.fiTimfu<t. oa:''>"|"'^p ^*7<' 

■uigirM' ^tftf fvi trjf^fAif fliyrfint yrj/i r< rA crj^^^o' rd ft* ^/'^i^' ^ f^ ■'* 

' 1^ »4 b Tonlfik'i tflnKctwc TTic «a*il oJofli/ri »fe nut lu txr k^hi- 
fiadDl »ilib rd nnl *t>i£<^7ni}i uiu^vrii trf iZ: ^n. ti. <t. 41&11. jg. Thi- voird 
>l#Ajf-E trt tii>l ftm^trku/J^ in/trrtU fivm Uac fJ5ta alo^rd, IjuI a/r fftnria^iy 

■ WrhtTThoi rwlly a liirh (nmmon tWilWc •dctfd here lo tha ftvt giVM 
fa IL 4b Ibr '' ^ ihdodbl m d^0^i. 


SOOJf V/: CHAP, B: $ ^ 

tv i)j<TA]Krfii vtirdijais. Sunt A^Xbv ofi a/luboroi- ^Ttjunvr r^iai'a''^r?rjff cv fiHM 

fffinuirif ^n yvatpl^optv. On tliis rcrluclioii of lli;." tmvA id<i6f}ta lo 
ni>'7ffu Hnrrjillon {Rejtft p. 825 nme ') has the following remarks^ 
' Miny moJ<?rn phitosopheia when they SLn«mpr'!i) 10 cTtplain the 
cirigin or our nntion of c;(lcn^ioti from iiiulion. and, in piviticuJur. 
ihc notion of Ihc hand, ^cte no! awMc ihat Ihcy bad ihc Ktusirilc 
3Ll Ihcir head. Il Is lo be remem1>^-r<?(l, liow«vcr, llial Arintoil^ ilo^t 
not atl^mpi, like tbcm, 10 explain bj^ moLion our ucccfAry coricepc' 
of ftpuce, but merely our contln^^nt percf:ptton of ihe rclilivv CX' 
lension of this 01 that parLicuhr objoiri. This, however, tak« ii 
for granieU, ihat by molJoii (ictVtfOK) AnsLollc inCcnda /uftr/ /w/ji>ff, 
Bli motion is with him a generic If rm, comprsing under il fou% or 
ftix, apedes; and In poJnr of fact, by irolion Arisiorle may herr 
(dc Aei. ill. 1), Aa in many, if not moit, other pUccs of bk» psycho- 
logici\l wnlmj;^, mean a subjective mutnlion (AXuiajcm) ot modific*- 
lion of the percipienL Thts too is ihe injerpretaiion given to Ihe 
piU»a2? b)' ttic ^icai majority, if nut the whole, of the ancicai 
expositors ' . . . It » therefore remarkable thnC Dr. Trcndelentmr;;, 
In bis htp vabnb!^ o^ltion of th*? r>e AnFma, should have appa- 
icnily contcmpUicd the inLcrprcuiion by IocaI moifon, as (he only 
one proposed, or pcfisibto.' S*e also Trendelenburg'* Ltfgufk* 
tfntrrsuthunsft}, vol. i. chaprern 5, 6, 7, and S, ir which ibe inmitiOTi 
ofinution i5<tcsc"l>cJ aa fuTid^nicntiil in st^nsalioii and Ihouglit — 
'Die Beucfiung ist die ^rsteTb^Ugkcil des DenkenRunddcK ScJna: 
dr^r Kaum ist das AlVHere Erscu^ni^s d^r Hewegung: djo 7^x lit 
die VorsLcllung des innern Misses dcr Bewesung ' (p. 168). 

The "oii^ alrBijta^ as disliinguiahed from the lAm mfftrtra, aiQ to b« 
aligned dirtt'lly to ilie io-calli^i vdevAv or ■v/"o> dCirArrqpiu or ftfcpf 
oTu^ir, Aa faculty 1 [kc </f *1/r;n. i . 4.^0 a- ij)< But u}timatdy tlic 
iBia 010%^ iiao axe to be referred to it. ' Common lenie^iDOuq) 
MiTthi/ttt' vijf^ Hamihnn (^r/r/, p. 7£ft),*wa»eraployed by Aristotle 
10 denote the faculty in which the various reports of the icveraJ 
Miisea an! rcducfd to the unity of a tommoii apperce^Jlion '; aee 

•tttfti Jfrvou KA-l l^pr\y&p<TtMK a^ (55 el 1 a ^ri If imApx** '"^ itatrnrf 
' Kujt would Hj— btuition* nol cotic«pt. 

BOOK Vt: CHAP, 8; § 9. 


mk -f^ j^ r_^ ya l^*% &p^ 5r* op^, mi npivii Hf ic*ii JivmrtH nfnmt ttrx 
Tnpo t4 jXvaJa titv ^luit&v, ofr* ytufrti ai^rt Ziffi* rtCrr' t\u^oW. iiK\d t4H 
«e«y fiffi^y 'i* iti*t0tfjnt/ivr An^vnuv. Jtrri ftiv yhp /im atrtffjrTu, *al 

tSof ^^f^itv lai )(fimfWTtit rtiyrtt ff Xtia r^'j dirru^ ;id^(r7tf va\iii)(W 

K«nt atir6)ffi» Ts ihus llin ' consciinisncMi * of wnsalJotis^'tlic 
rdcrencc of xhcn to k aclf-conacioua suHjcct, ihi* 9^ahi<^ct bdnp 
enbodred 111 1 Taciiialiy cenxiiivc organism govvrn*?i]^ Ui thf c^at of 
ru im/ur,l)y a hir;tr[— •// ^itmitrJ, ch. 3, 4A^ ^l, 4 ffdi^n ta fmuut ■n^^iui' 
fjff^ «0i ^ *Ipi[^/ '^r ftf")jr«r 411 T^i aiWr^iTivt Tijt HVpfokt t'travffv irriv, 
Kiwq ^0ijtrit :k thff nltimati* ■ faculij-" of *?// sensation — /v. r4 ■roii'd 
oiVArfd (magniiuJct ligurr, &[:,) art Indeed tu be rcfcrrcJ lo it, but 
»o aj« uLlinaleJy the i%a «rffdr/ra s!so> It is the Uvin^ beinff. on« 
flud iiifBrlhiblt?, CODsdou? ol'the varioTis Tfim ttifrSrjrd \t\ the form* or 

Ca£CgOriC5 Ckf ^t*yt^hJ1^ vxTjttUt imiriit, UfnOfi^s; umitnt. Gut tnC UVJng 

bciagta cucnti^y 4^tfriuh)v«wf itii a/<7(^}cr««r {iff S»rfnrfl 4. ^Ci^ x ^), 
and iJie categoric* in which It is consnous of nirrfif/rti inity l>e 
roductd M onc^Vif, Wrqffiv, Since, Ijovcvcr^ ft rgv n^fCfTrDv iVj3>iia 
Kfll r^r mVfqrfvt ^ 01717 4W1 ul ftU [de An. \\\. 7. 42^ b- 7^) «inc« 

fti ftt-m^l fHftfritfTice «Lubj<^ci and objtoi Are on^, thk nlfiraaie 
category of ihc mind \t (l!so ulimutr in ihingi: 'die Bcwcgung 
tit di« <nMi Tblii^'ktit <Te9 Dcokcna Ltnci <]cs Soins,' 

On ihe general *ubjra of the Wii and irmwi t latfij™, sec Hamififju'a 
Jtf^ note P on Fiimary 'awA SccoiiJ^ry Qu^1iLi':» of Ikjdy>cff|>c* 
dUlypp, S2S-S,io (tJAmLlton regards Lhc AnsEotclian di^liiiction 
as an»logr»ui to thni between Primary ard Sjrondary Qu^Ufirti): 
see aUo IVcndclcnburg^* ci!r ^A/mrr, noi<« on pA^»ige^ quoted abcjve, 
and Edvtjii Wallace, I^iycfulc^y ^/ ArtshtUt J nt rod nation 5 in, iind 
ndn on puvagcs quoted above: «ee aJs;o Gmnl'it uneful noLe 

<Iy] ■ like ihal hy which we perceive/ The nature of the per- * s«. 
OcpbiiH iniulved ili i^pfJb^trit ja ujt^n^ly itluAtmed by iiie;i]j>> of llie 
imihematictan's perception of tlic common ^eniible 7f7^a. The 
fcx**™, Of particular, wbicli iht muilwm^litiAti, as such^ perceives 
b ibc pjFfiiuIar ihjpe ([ii%iiguitii, <|UiLdiiIaleril, diculur) uf the 
Agvfe before him ; and bhiLpe w not the dutum of a bin^k sense 


BOOfC VI: CHAP. 8:5 9- 

li4J) lb aa ns colour t-ff. is, \mx U given in the ptrccjiiious of inonc ihan one 
MiiBf, I ihuii lake tftlymt^v to bc wctciy Eio fxompk of the 
oommon ««nKtb]c i-^^a (vvcAaf wouJct haw done cquilly vrclJ>r and 
dihuiias ua urrlcnable ihc view uf IMichek-l ami oilier cumuietiuiltifi*. 
that U'hai ihc mathcmniJciAn 18 Itcrc anid Lo perceive h ihdt ' whut 
ift uEnmnic or Btni|j]evi in gi'omtfUy is Lhu irungrt-*— r r, thai 3U 
figuien msLv bs brukcii ujj inLi> iriaikglcj. But ^u^cIy, if the wiiicr 
hact bet^n thinking of Mhnt ^hich is ultimal^ in gcomcuy,' h« 
would not have mentioned s^ figure xt all, bm fl-r^y**!. 

♦(hIpijoif [hen is Lon^jciucii wiili r<r;iaTii— pjLrticMlAn, which it 
pcrceiveif, »d alT&f^tri% jwrceives lis foj^arti, iT»*fteiiiaiefyi but thft 
J"tf;^rfl iaf ^Mjffjc arc HOT lik^ ihc !flta a-rf»]Td perceived by Ihe 
apctial leiiscB,— ' ihift is red, lliis ia awe«t,' — bui rather, ihcy »re 
like ibc perceptions of the geometer— "thl* shape before me ifl 
ifbngiilar, or f iiciiliir,' Aa u colourt'd obj^W wm, or a rrxivting 
object touched, i^ the ec€aii<m for the jfeomctcr of the pcrccplion 
of ojfTitta by bis jtoii^i' crffflTf^^toi-, so ifi ihi? <^/iJw^*( iho varioui 
reding* 4tid cirt:L(m»Ui]cc» w)iich m,ikc up r^ /v fn7r irpJ^ffi ate 
rciipOTidcd to by an ^cii^ty uf llic mor^il rrusoii ^bj<.]i int|Kjf<cs on 
Ihe ^1 preitenied to it its own fofin of Duty, As the geometer 
BolvrK hU pToblcm hy pi^rceivSng fha/tf.r in tl>e datA of cyr (or 
louch), and rf^cognisitig this connlruction, or manipuUtion of 
nhnpcs 9A better tilted for the soluuon of a given problem Chan 
LbiLl odicr eonauuclion, so die tfypSvit^s noWca ibe prtjblcni ofrt 
f J f^f by apprehending lU «V ta^i rrpJ^iri, not -t» thin^" pleamnt or 
painful 10 ^vn^c here ai>d now. but aa linings which are ffetwi or 
£tj(f^ — t.f. Hued, or ni>L iittrd, to bane a peminnent pkitc in ihc 
gCIKfll plan 04 life 'm ^y«&ov yAp if atijdij*ju, g olir&riaiSt vwiX^pk^vUfCm* 

ia>\ j6 ntiid*' rov va^ itAvtA/ titiKtv tori : Thejulallua, vol- u- \i. ai, cd. 

Ahhough I brticve iha: the /^j/ riiifaning of rt [<v rclt fnft^/iiiTi- 
«H(] ' fcfjifaTOi' in the uritci's mind was Hie gfomeletV pariii^uiar — 
M'> fiartttuiar thaptt r.^, tri&ngk, hc COUld not fad to he cOTAdotn 
ci the otiwr meaning of itr^forttr, u Uie ^r/ sup in tfW'« : »e© ^- A''. 

* Jp rmr ^, bracktftid Ij DjrwDtei. The words (nnj vciy mrll h*** l<ca 
toKfifli fcy A vcrttjc in iJir tiiitiai of die iuUiy^cittiiou tloirtoi bj- Midj^Ici 
referral V> iLutc : bi liHk Cotttrthetn^ii {\\. ^\\ hMyr^m, Bywiicr reiiu'ka 
ihfti 'it i»ii«icc imetblc (hut Jr thi ^qi^^rm^ u onlj out of |Ja«, and that 

BOOK VI. CHAF. 8; { 9, 


ill- 3* ' 1< " ^ tV dn^f^^o'oi <viii4 (?"*>' '™^ op^vtw - . , Auntp 1143 b. SI 

Indcef! ihr wnnls viih which vi. 9 Itrjfins —r& tijt*!*' K ^tA. (1 sne 
no reason for ataumin^, uitb R^aow. Ft^rsrh, y. ^(i. .hnd Su»cmih], 
Ihcu Iberc » A laj:uru between ch. 8 afiJ du g) mtkc it prcUy 
CCTIaln ihsu, as a niaLlvr {if faat tlit icrm rT^aro» Jul AugKf j,( C^ninw 
Cobb mind. Wcmiiy ihcnfoUowupthirtsiUfft^sJion. and £*iy that the 

4^M^<, like it\^ Yfvj^rrprjf, fi;rrj — folCoWR OUl ,1 tr^lln cf ihoitghE (^>^ 
Tttffin XjrjMrfur'} in his c4sc,itM»^, ufcrrfTTU^iii the ca^ecif ihc y*»i|(i/'fiijf : 

dfr j4». iii. lo. 4 J3 b. 39) till lie reachi'i* an Jifj^nmy ■v r^ JwiAii^*!— 
somrtliirLg winch lie ii»d» will nrfvc lib |»uqo*r> ftn.l U>oijc3 which 
he does not taic to jj^J. This r*x<*^^* i=i ^^ par/Ku/ar r€ih:he\i at Jjitf, 
and rccognisrd as .^ nifuas natt tft hf fatnt fnr ihe aitainmeni of ihe 
end ia tjcw. Thus the y<»(*VTpi?c rcdchcH jt iidnt ai which itic further 
^M^rit of kis 0(ayfHi^<^ |»oc ^Vi'A 6, 9- 1051 n. 2t. sqi], stml nnte on 
Z". A' iii. 3. M l>, 10 AvaXjJtit' . . . %i^^n,^Y^ fot tfii? i]i[ti*ivnf:'<» 
between iimkKittt And tWijMirLi) niA/ cc^^, tAhcn, nji in I'>ui:L AV^ 
i 47. he hiw ffot certain fj^V"*^' ''y means of which he can show 
thai the sqnnre de-icribed upon \hc side unht^^nding the right ftrglc 
a eqiul to the squ4ic* dtsciilKJ uijon the aiJcs ^^hkh toutiin the 
nfJDX Angle- The ■^/iu*i^af likcA^iAc rcaclica a poini at which he 
inuit My — 'Here ai la«t t must stop think irg, and begin to act, 
Thi» ift the m^^ ihing to do: It i& unpleasant, pcrhAps; but it 
B ri^t. i musL do it.' 

■isch] ' ibr en tlat side loo wc ahall reach u point beyond wltit:h «> BO. 
wc cannot Ro.' Wc cannol go i>cyorid Ihc irpinh o)^* oTi ihc one 
ri/ie, or thi? ■nf «ftiffrfl <if fffj^nf/f on ihe oiher aldt. 

4kX' ttJn) fiaXXok oiMf|iTif ^ ^^t^vi^o'tf, JH<ti^s &' JXXo il&of] 
'But ihix lailcT veruc [ilf' the totv^ nwdiTirir ofieiaiive in nijitljr- 
maxic^) iti scneo rather ih^n prudence, though Bpecilicalij' different 
from the other wn*c [i.f. ^ tm* Mimv)': «i C'oracs — omp ^iv rj 

Iv fuXXdv X«YDird 7 ^^vfia*t. Jii other word^ the Rcnsre operative in 
nuxhi^TnatlrJtl f^Tit, thoui;h uprrifirally iIlMinci from the Jpecial 
mum^ ia not to be idcntiiicd ^hb prudence of the dcHhoufing 
6ciiltj. It i« only aimlogous to prudence. For f seme \fSS- and 
editors read 4 — ii which case the dtstinciion i^ belAeen f 0p<^iri« 
4 «d^ r^fltfro (ifhich 13 then said to resemble the matljcmaliLian 5 


BOOA' V/i CHAP, ft 

U^B-M'Oi'^'j'ii) Art[ 4 tit>x*-^nrovutxi ftnt^^tjtt (which canuoi be clAstctS m 
z kind cf fllT^(nt). I ]jrefcr ihc J r«ia<ling ; bui Abj'how the cUuM 
1)4 awkward And unnrcrssary. 



iP'JM it goffd t^umvif It tf uiemi^i Jbiorfie^p^ '^ c/iMtm. or htffy 

it iatvflt U h-J^Hii^r hwipJnl/pr.fiv kt 9tfMff knfliVfi rfp« fto' tfl:, an/ faking 
i^P^ iifHHuJ, «r Jtiiitr^ut^ ntU, ii a farm vf JiUhtratwt, t'-r. v/iuin^, 

tkimJttHg. vttHrKti dMfratiaa tai^ Hmt. N^ i% f/ A^pviCf ^Mt^ f' d iutf 
9f hapfy ^ftiing- 

jlpim, it iSMftrrat iv ^/im'^n sf tmy kmd. 

Sittif lie'if^fiatinf^ tt^/l tj ^Hi^rnfivf^ ' tcrrnitf,' ti ipifJ W *i^f«fm*a' 9j 
toatt ki'ni.—fUft torrutToit c/tviertti/f iitov/l^tt Aff9ffirfr,fitr ' tr^rKf* ij and 
cnfyrtirArrt 'infirmei' it /fljjrffl/*. arui uitntijii knevlaig* it Ofv^r 'itu^frttt' : 
m»r<ftpi9iaft,/t^i€rrNttNiSt^ p^Hi^fi if iryttk - ttm^Jiutf dt/niit aftd »tttUd 
(JimW. BHtfiHun d/ jK-i, wkftAtr trttf fir jalitt " aAt^J *MmtAittffdf^mdU 
<tMj tcte/^f\ ti'htrt^ tht man wAb JtH/traUi ''ocAftijr tvtrafJji vr iivttrnf^') 
4lu Kvt yet re<AiA<ii anytlktMig i^fiaitf ami i^ttrJ. iat it stUt iratiin^ nHtfihittA- 
iit^. it wtmnim, thtrt, tkot dtH^rtittn^ t'l^V I'l 4 intmi ^KtoPH ^' lk%nttmg 
tvntrk'tdAi Uiitgtiag^ft, not i i^rmintttk 9/ Iktnjting /ptiitriMd ni dtfimttijf 

Sm <ivAtn tV4 f/iwt s/drJifitnM\m oj ' itm^i' wt tHmti iv car tf^to iva that 
ii ii not rHffv^h tAat it shifuiii i/r ' icrrtci' a$ rrgar^ ttijtinglt^m t/i^tkra 
fUmtmts—iHd, inf*wr^ an-l !m0k ef time taJ^M—feAtfk 4H dlttii^jfutfUd *m 
iifiiSfrti/i4Jn- if murt ^ 'ittmif itr ttg^rd* oil tkt^i,4-g^ htdtet tut Jt/iitralt 
wt//f pr * i^'^TYitJy* v/kf ottMitJ /» d ggigd fW f'y i^td meniir ; tr f^Am tf^M Otfruf 
to •! iyv/fttJ/f fOifd meant, Atit laAri an mnimtuHt !vf*f(lii*K ^MiktiiiriHtftf'ira. 
ftnii j*» rum tht rUi o/trinin^ ik* ffpiyritinitv pfa^tiifn^ 

7'Arrt art of ioune many tttifi in rrftiFim ti tfAuM »* **/ tf fUMb 'it 
d/Sib^ratit nvU,* sprajying in fura mi/ rht frvJ; btit U^m «• Mtfn 'dMMr^ttt 
fUt/J fir t'Ttrt.'t/^' iu reWi^H Ai iht t-md par ciixllenn — fki ihit/titd i^ mam — 
W4 Hff V/fthmt auy 'ftfiiifiitififn, ' Jrt lioHbtriittJ we!i tr c9irtiify*—'M ta a 
HUH f/frW tauijti' Cmni mMtnu-i thin, in tftt tfriit te»u. u^ ^ a4c 
tktuvatfiitit ffafi(y ef tht pfuJettt miin—ihir mitn tuho ha% n int^ ramff^ivn 
/>ftki rkuf ntif atid imfiltyt tht ntfitnt ^'kijk fnf'Serr<^ tf. 

TJiu chapter, Hii Gnr^C cjiiihinn, commcticcs tlic cjaminalioo of 

A Wt of HlCUllicl {tb^oifXiitj i^iTTfljfici, iiyj(ii9iat vvivaie, ftlid ^rftpf) 

cogniio (o ^p^tnt^ or fonnitig pirt or ir. 

BOOK y/s CHAP. 6: §§ 1-3. 


\ L iMpl av^frvKiai.] ' tt is ftji abrupt awkward cotrimcnccnicnt U4S &. 3J 
of th» cJiJ^Uf lo t^y, '*(n<)uirlng; and doltbfniing ar« diirencnt, 
for drlibcmting in a »pccirt of cnqinrJiig," Wwl what k mnini 
ai>pircDlly n^ to brin^ "f(ood counsel" ur^dcr tlic head of cnctuinng, 
which KpanU<» it oG onc« frcim both icicno? inci opinion.' — Granu 
This ■eem* lo mc 10 be ihc iih fcci view of Uif placr <tf lliw tUij«c ; 
oud 1 cuiitct agree nuh Kiiasow {J''af£(h. fi. 46), who utyik— ' ilaa 
Ciptiel d^f llbfr die ti^inA^fl hAndcll, brginni mil cint^m Snlz drr 

ju^'pfV ri yip &a]Afittr&fn irinlv rt ttrtiv.' Thc PiDtpliraai: bni];^ 
o«l the connexion, rpc^gni*cd by Qtxtw. as /bUows — »ai np«rov irj^i 

VHUivvW. trpvrav prf n^f a^it iTn fTT^rr'f' trr} rr\i^v ydji nrfi'' 7 

f^roviTm' iWpl J /ff*!!* ly Jirift^/irf' clow, tt r& rpiywvoi* Jjjt* ^Cn 6p9it. 

#£^iOkJfl' A ^f yap Jittmjfiw 4ti f^'i FTf^ ^t iwl&^am, A li tZfftrv^Qt 
{Jirf? 4 ^4/) fii9«t<\m /^ubXv riv irrr/y^ ^ Aj ^otA^ fr^r/jcrfc timir rm ti All 

TVBttrq' 4 tC'3nv\itt AtHi oi/iL i^mv ttrtttr^ti'). Tlic wrilcr of lljc J/- Af. 
Ibua dcficribea the fchiion oT rC^uiA^ lo ^pdv^^u ii. 3, 1 199 a. 4 - 

If fl» y* rC/?oi'Atit *Wi p*>' nrpi rnvTfi r^ ^ninvijitti {ittpi yAfi rHi vrpaicrd tirta 
tA r»pi aX^ttmr ml "^ly^^ Jim), tt^r^^ dl oCk *T;^ii i^puif^tfiuf. ^ ;«V )^/i 

{ 3L £»^M T< y^p X^yovj does not involve- a proceiii of rcOMining. >. 1. 

f 8. Avx^*^^°1 ^^c editors refer lo Ah. I'osL \. 34. 89 b. 10 for b. i. 
the (Se^niijon of dyj^iVom :i*f 4^«TA;i(ih nr iv aoniim^ XP'^f *^*^ /uVw. 
k ia iIk faculty of gucA^ing at once thc * middle term,' or c^use, 
vhich cxptftTiiH 3 phenomenon; ani ihun ansvvers lo Loikt-'fl 
Aq^iVfyy (/jjq>', iv. 3. 3 ' 4 qukknL-is of cbe nLimJ co find out tbrjo? 
intcrmcdiaic idcAAthat thall discover the agreement or dift&grccmcnl 
cf any other, 2nd lo apfily ila-m riglil'), or to what is now c&lled 
the 'SclcmiGc Imagination/ 


BOOJC y/i CHAP. 9: ^ ^, 

expect A cUusc Ki^i"K 'Jit icajwn for it: bul instead wc have 
a clause winch ^;tx:?^ ofi wilh aXA<i. Jt iu not tUi w« com« lo tbK 
vorrin I \\3 li 13 wl }«:/) ^ Arifo . . , i,nyl^wm\ ihat Wp grl the rrARCin 

for the assertion dvSi Ac} Mfa h > . ovSf^^a. The run of ihc p«w«j^ 
would bfr frrwitly improved if we cou!d adopt Zwinger't rrair^ing*- 
ni'-ril^for wlikhhJ.-L" ZHl'^ ncte and Suwraihl's ^;*;iflr, ^ri/, o*^ /oj'.) 
so Tat as 10 insert 1142 b, i^ me yt^p 7 Ai>fa . » . >oyif<ftik oAcf 

«^ffUa 1 14a b. 7. Ttw sentence 1 14' ^ T ^^' ''^'^ ^ fJrtcacvv.. . 
K IS irfiv ut^ £dfn arn-ir W<n)l<I lIuTl> COmt? Ill Wllhoul ^LwkviUXlQCn. 
As for l])C words 1147 b. 12 <lXXn ^^v . . . oCina ^airiv, thc}^ arc 

rejected by seA'cral crkica. Their incorimicncy with 1143 b> 16 

{ForscA. p. 46)--'Atlicrc ErklHrcff wi* Giplinrius utid ^win^fcr, 
nclimcn Ansios^ 4n den von mir dngeklammertrn WoTten ^r",*, 
1143 b, 12 d^^A |i4^ - - ^ ofrrfj ijnirrti), die ncruci t'li IjLiUtrii cs tUr 
IlLnrcicVKitd, en AHUvi'of J/>ii X«iVitp( die Wriric cp^jTfjni avr^v wirtu ju 
erglnzer, Allerdirigt h:tnclc-li es uoh iim ilie Frage : rjMif &p6«irfjs 
^ npinv^ia; ,iliur ^L'nii aiif tlif^ne bfrctlh mil Xfrrrrnij v.t.K, dtiT IcUtt 

AniTVon ^cj^ben wild, wic poascn dann die Wortc ^XX* J^iA^i^t rJr 
((TTw ^ t\-^v^io ffabXrjt, in dcnon dochfrskhlUdh «rni dw Ki)dri*vDh« 
der UnkisiiL-hting ajigcB^bcii werJen soil? Durtb Uuiatclluijg bL 
vdc icti gfaubc. Iiier nicbi zu helfen/ 

b. a. ^ 1' cj^ Apfliiis ^DulfiicTaL] r>- tZsap^at, thfrefofc fvj%mXjii b 
£pOJn|% Tit, 

EuBtnt- rJcplftinE — «rjn^fi7 i« iuclf Af46niv. and ibcrc it no J>iMt^ 

^p96rtjfu%. The iiifiilliMliij- ^r /sifff^fu?, 44 suulj, ha» vlit:^^ tweu 
asserted in ch- 3, J t and *:b. 6. 5 ^- 

b u. (o|t|s &' 4f)4i>TT)4 dXi^6»A] or course ^Kmf/if^j atchough it hat 

Sfia 8* Rtt'i «2^itfTw ^Sif vai' ov td&t 'vrfv] ' the object of OfiiniOfl 
LSi, u!t <iulIi, ilwdys something drrimle'; fid^ lias ilicjiJ} julujiicd 
A definite vicvr: ^tX^ i^ a process vhich has not ycL led la the 
adoption of anything dcfin lie. As the Paraph, putt \\ — f i^w *i^v3kta 

b. 13- ^XXi |^}|i- <>£&' ^ . . 4V1TW ^dflifj IT Uii:) scnUDce be rcUuKd (and 

BOOK VI T CHAP. 9 1 4§ 3. 4. 


J think tini Rast^vi and Su»«mihl go too ^r u'h«n they brachn ii. lu^b. it. 
After (ji)>liintii«y uc cj^K^Ji to Ukc ihc- l^r^i clause very dui^lv 
with wfaai irnmcdiaeclr precede^--' Tb« object f^f Sdfa i» uiwa^'s a 
iMiniie recnlt alFcady reached ; but fifi^vWa '\^ only a process 4^r>w) 
vtbicb has not ><i rcaclicl 4 mull.' Tln-n follow ihr word* 

&uH»at i^ifi XfiVcTiii, lO ^hich we mUftt SUpptv if^jASr^rfl avT'}V w*"^ 

Sincr ri^rt^X/fl cannot he ihf ^p$Art]s of «U*Jcr iiM'tTi7/i7 or ^t^fi, for 
ihc muons f{iveii, ii rrm^iiLi* lti;it it h d>r f^'f'^qr uf ihr iUmiutsat 
facility— l^ic ffcculiy ^Khich <«rric8 on ihc process cJ reviewing Mr 
fX^f K^ffr^ Jr^y ffi r/sa/fi, buC is noi ilMrlf che tinfAi^^ir of lliew 
rrtulcs— ^un^ yAp {3/. tii4^iMi) oftiw tpatrtt- 

{ 4. UX' 4f>a£nfi Ws 'TL' ^ i^P^aCa ^ouX^t] RfllSOw (/''^r/^^. b. l«i. 
|x 46), ;t^ wr bavi' »trii^ rc}Ea>'dk tTicm- woriUu Inconsiatf'iu with 
ttai«>«i Ipa 9kn'nT«L 1 think that flomclhtng mijchl be ttid for 
bradcMinj^ them, Atid reiimmg the u^nrcnco dkXA ^^v o^T 'i-rv >utynv 

Ka»>OW, As Tor liic warda 1142 b. ifj 3^6 ^ ff^vK^ f^rirTta TT^tXrov ri 
*4i iH^ r; — ih*y are brickclcd by Kaisov, bccauw? [I-crsc/i. p. 46) 
•da* Wtwn dfr ^wlfl isi ja Achoci vide Malt- crOjicn ufid In 
Fo^ndCD 131 Javon nichl die Reck. vi<:lnichc wird dcr BcgriiT dcr 
opA^Tv, auf d?n c« hicr gsnv allcm nnkominl, nahcr l^cHtimmL' 

ii %n <xprtr^^\oi\ vhi(.h l*.ii(i'i its-jlf lo ncvcral inaccurjil* senses. 
It 11 JiuKcuut« lo dcscribt (i) ih^ man who has Inken /At rig/t/ 
mftm \o ihc sLUinmcnt of n /aj^/ iW a« ^p^uv d«doLiXti';»Viit : or 
(fl) the man who hi» rcoclLcd a. good mtf by improper me<jns: or (3) 
the tmn who ha& reached a good end by right rncms, but only 
af^i tfitiidtiL^ jUi urir€\2svini^fy ioftif iimt in delibenil[on- TEiuts 
sotf* mux be taken dbtrihutivcly': 'when we ^ay v^h^ de/SovX^i' 
ium, *^ do not wKh the piprtsfioti to be ofuV-rilood in uny ^m of 
it» various *eiiK3, bm only in ih<; dik.- ^crki sc^ri%r [n whiih \\ im 
apfklicd 10 the man who reaches? a good criti, by 1 ight tncriinB dm- 
covered within a reiuonuble time/ 

^ Y^ dMpar^t «,tAJ Tlic dcKrtplitjn of the liipor^r here, Jib b. IB, 
esiipk))in^ >o>iff^>;i for the atlaitiment of a bad end^ in not con* 
iJEictii With ihc Accouni of Kim ^ven in E, N. vli, aod answers 
latlicr to liie Jfi^XoEfTur. See Gram o4 i<x. 

& »P*Tfe«Tot lUlr] i"a.» h (lie re^dln^ <'f K*>, I>. M>»> 0^», CCC, 
VOL- II. a 


BOOK VI: CHAP, y; j^ 4-?- 

U4vb L8.Cambr.. ]3>. InsEwid orr^-f^NC and Far. 1953 have m^oW^w^ 
/Wb- — («*Vom?iu lufjTig^ probably a gI<Ks on JjVip : t/. Eusini, A >4^ 

Mxdvig {^fib. CrtV. 461} »u£gn(s Arlv (m> r). v^lik-h \% ;ulop[rd h/ 
Grani (3rd cd.) and Jickbon, who compare PUic. ^c'/^. jai A 

ftr*^ apr* rr^l^iitBa ftfi;- •fiv^-Si'. Ra&sow (/>rjM. p. 97) tUggcfitfi ot 

irpori^roi rfjf*!*', wbkli is fldopicd bjr Bck.', Suwirllil, ami Gmiri in 
hia Uat cciiiion. 1 wouki »ug^3l \uffwlr : f^ tbc foUt^Ins tArj^v. Soii« k.tA.J Pritrache quoi«^, among o:hcr apliori^ms, ^cfjh. 

Aflhg, tO^O wparurrm' tnffmwr ivjJovAi'a. 

^ni;^ri'rrnr r'r mrmrif ijiiwl^ijirrv, It is tnaccurtTf, rk Oratit notM, tO 
speak of ' s, false roicMle tcrtn ' (^(vA^ t^j- ^Vdi' vf>uv tmii), r&lKliOOd 
or irulh belonging xo propositions, no! 10 terms. Whai tin* wnlcr 
rncann is that cither or Ixiih flf ib* prcmts^es crtnumitiR ihc mkldl? 
icnii mny be (ajac, inJ yel iJic conclLision bf Iruc : *cc Aa. Prkr, 

IL a. ^% b. 4 COTl ^fc* OVV OVTVt *V'^''> ^'"" ''^'j'''^ tltfl* ™( fT^BTAffVlIi ftl' 

iMi* cC^ frtK rtfTi ^^0o« TuXXt^iVatf^f «« ^fvflwi* A' Sativ aXi^^Vf vXi^ 
av Au!ri, ({XX' Jrf fni- yi^ ^liri oA* lorui 4V ^ndbd' ruXXo'yiffpdf, 

tk t7. f 0> tftflrt]) ''c. the ^v\^ whicbt haviog a good end and eni* 
ployinjc fi^>^ mc^iiE, yd mkcs too long timf. Ihr iiian who 
comei CO a * rigbi ' decision only wheii the time for action Is pati, 
C4int0L be called ttQw\>n. 

^X' Apflon^i ^ Hard r4 b^XLiLor, «al o2 f»4i iia^ Af haI ^t%\ ' but 
nghtnciLs uhrrc the niclvnnugcmis is concerned — crd, mean*, uid 
Ico^tb of time. Icing at] \/\s\i tbcy ought io bcn' 1 Bcarcdy think 
ihftl Kiuir. if rig;ht in makiQg mI vf Ac! cpvxcgeliira] of r^ ^'X^^iM. 

He tayft-^™**} 9 epSonjt rrjt ti^Ai/Xjif fVriv fU^wXirt, i^ tnl fVu^rXyafW 
fl[ij TifP Ta\wi, Jiol TDV T^iJnvi' fd /irakftTtf^, £ AjjXqi rd tft, nt nO j[fiitiw 
rA 4^j»vV| Hvp A7X4H rd 5rr» rA At v^'Xi^i> lai e£ 0ri «t MqpaXX^Xnw 
^ffTi rA frirrf. 

buSft S 7.] Tlie Patapb. Hcliodorua ]li» liie following note : ^wA W f4 

SOOK VI: CHAP. 9:4 7- Sj 

fin cu^lhivtti] ^'^HTflt, ^t'l't'^'' ^f Ttpln i rant vpditit ip4iToi}tru, ntoXob^wE UAH b 3d 

^M tn pfpfc^ n rAffv ^rpti, h o&i tcrrt ^f r^ Sa^^amv, iftiptt bi th rA 

e/i ^, jV- vi. ^, I Bntal Ail iffpaiKftov ttvui t6 &vtm4T6ai laS^i ^^fXiCvturGot 
impi t4 d^ dyoA no) ff-v>t4><tfo*Tii. ol nm-A iic^nr. oTrv nrno njAs iryUua', 
«f>it f^vf, aXhl n^ifi npDi ri <j f^** £Xaf< 

i4c t^J 10 Sui. and B>'w, after K^, Ml>, r. Bekker's i di nt h 
gmn by L^ KC. O^. 0'- **; iih I.' by Cainbr. 

J<m>'] B^vii^r tJJfl r«ftturi-J r^ before wt^vt froit] K^ uud l\ inKi«-jd 
of T< rcitd bj Uckk^T. It liir* brco tuggesccd ih^I rA nr^^iVot* noi 
rtX««, ia the anUiccdcni tu i^kcU of h.'laies — on iho grDUTid iKat 
^hf>^*7^r b conccrocd wUh mcnriK w the ctid given by i^Ai^ *T^»t^ 
(»« iT.A'. vi. ih. j:i. S ft-tl. 13- S a)- Bui iben. wc ahoM have 

hod f^ ro nXfff TO JirXur, nOt irpuir to rtXcri Of irpfjf t« riXot. 1 hc 

diofie beginning tiC k neceswi^ to define (he refeience cf fo (or ti) 
WXn. Ngr !> there ajiy ditTicully in mo-kliig ^/f^fi^vif iht vndXiT^n 
rw riXcvr. ^^»f]i}» is n^;|iT«KrwiiV7t a^ ^^'cll as nipl ta naff tKtwrt 
(«« J?- A', vl, 7, 7J, We m^y ny that j^^^^js indctd apprehends 
die end, buE cculd noi <to bo in ibc w^ty ii:4uitcd by mor^liL;' — r.r. 
with a 'Bingle eye,' unlena ^tfw} V'7 m^L^sled thai end vrilh a morftl 
iftirrraL Th^ Paraph, U qiiitr tUslin»:t Jn rrfening nS lo rAor. He 
«)'» ibU llie ttOlda n>jdf Tt rAot. oC i tf^vj^nit oXijtf^j tndXi^^iV ^ari arc 
put ^ta T^w minjpcr JJoifKi^»', ^t ri ^iV rri.»( ftpOfrrjuotTH »!■* uuAuuflfl 


/mttl^grta u 'V' Mt fVJiw ai tnewled^ fftntmlfji, or efitiitft {tktt all mtn 

tiiimt4 ^ gt^mifff ; /^r it ii nal cemtiimJ wiFA the ' €tfniki afui tmmftta^ie' 
^ad Mm9M^ ikiK^ ' thiaco'rte intoning* tmiyiifitA lAtrtj vfAitA.dein^diJiruJf ta 
tati^eni»ud. an sii6fti/i oj tieitRtraiim. Its /tl4 thirtfore is the same at ifiat ^ 

C' it wvl i^rvitmn - /or J'rviUtut ututi itmnnadt or rtf&m- 
Vdf Iitftliigmie mtr9iy lift, at ii uvtt, »H*i pui^i. 7'A« 

B4 BOOK Vi: CHAP. 10: §^ i, 7- 

infel/ijim/ man, ttiin£ Aij t^x^iiitit^ (vmti U it rii^^ dvititm aSMat mutkn 
mV^iH /^ jtra^Hif ff r^witMie /niif /f/fv Aim *r anJ/Atrm a iftttA: m ht 

iulrnt hf /tfvt ftflt v\ii tn Aii frf^rtfair. Auf tni]ip< iif of ij> a pr nn ur^/ult dt 

(frfrk. &ut atses tA* C'veA nt-hitA %f haj, in ftfrr tf iirviertUhi «i"Aitf if uoi. 
Tkt iitfih'j^M man u ik^ u/Hs uodrntand*, or a/J-rf^-iaiJi fffre^fy, ilt tnbtt 
^ firtmmrmiiitwnJ maikfthim Vfitkin tAr pr^mt ^fn^ikmt^ 

1.94. j 1. mrffffLt] mt^lligipricfT, H 9Tif)tlHfr clrmeni in ^^vr^ott^ or a 
eLiEc cogEiacc l^ it. Il U llic faculty erf undctnanJmg ind apfirc- 
dating good advice laid btifore on* by anot^wr pcTMMi> The 
trviitTAf, qud mryirrAt^ flocH Xi^X inklale pnlici>5. nr srhritir* of Con- 
duct, but h4s tbc iolcUi^ncc to recognise gooJ ones wbco ihtjr *fe 
prcaetited xo hini. It^fic tji thus tbe cxwllence of the v"i* *bo 
lisitrns to n sfieceh (cTJiXnn Xiyayti^^ j 3), anJ jiulyes rightly a*i to the 
vierita of the pTnn of Action which it recommends (^lumi \ t), 
Ivtvtfir miy be regarded aa & stage in tbe development o( ^^r^«t, 
A man muHt have lislpnecl inipliigrnilr Iti whai hii dtlcr* ndviw on 
praciicfvl mutters, l»cfoTC he can t&ke rank himseir as sb atthoriia- 
tivc Jidvivcr. Of course the mtijority of men- so far aii birge 
political qurfttions arc (oncf-rned — ticvtr Ix^cejitii.- ^/xft^^iH aTid ^- 
racTiRD^f but &rci at best, only intelligent fblJoven or crJucA-^ 

<£cnrk4criaj All MSS, scCEn CO give aov^nxity ftnd, in [hc Dcxt Lne. 
drrvi4rin/r. KiWuBWir^ii and 4wvwnji« is tbe certain ^mmdation of 
H> Slc|]banuF**inade, ludependeiitly it would ;Lp}ic^ir» by Sjicngel 
alao (fiec ArUt. Siudstn \. p. 713). 

IMS a. I. TdfTt^ yip Ar V<l^ truviTotJ \\c steiuHlci mean tUal fz/f mat wnuM 
Iheft be " Inldli^ciu/ for all men have cither /n-i^TTipij or 3rf£o ; biit 
the Paraph, understands the wonia raiber tlinerendy : h^ *iys — $ 

t^ ^. Cither «7J/ ^vurT^|i«>«« or oil tef^torrc^ would btf ffvwn/. 

fi^*"] Grant jx>mls out that ' the opposition of theic trrma j;^ taken 
from Plato, Pc/x/iVj^j 255 E-160 C/ where it is snid that ' all science 
maybe divided iiudef the [wr> heads of ciiLii.:il hiuI itiaiiEhunry ' 

». 10. ywM yAf vAmvi^ naX ^A^vt^^'a ««ii vurfral nai cArJvcniJ added to 

JJOOJC vr: chap. 10 ; j§ a-^. 



■Af^Hirfd nifiy be aamoiliinjL' mt>rc. 

f 8. iXX^ 3irrt«p t4 |Aai4<£k'fk' ^t.X.^ Grant quot«» Sof^h. KL w. t. a *. 13. 
(r^f. Jff^uc. 3^ 165 b. 33) for Lhe dcuhlc meaning of rKB'AliviP?(i) 

of giving gOfMj 3Uvlc(^ — bm tiip cmploymffn: of one's iiuelligenrr in 
CtlintAting aivicc given. Zlipuhh la thus like ^i^&'tv, where »avAS' 
•w* ni«ans, no! 'learning sjomctliing new,* but " underBtanding ' 
«Iuj u uid to oiie in cgnvcr^iiiin, hf incii^i* uf kiiuwlfdgt (r.^'. 
knowledge of th« laiii^a^i: in wliicb the converaation ij carried oq) 
whicb oiw Almitly powieuct. 

nSh^ng KhT.X.] As, in conversation, one ^urdcrttiindA* (fui^uhi] «> 19. 
what B vaid in x Ungtiagc, and on ft subjcci, wiih vhicb ono \% 

huj^cnenil cxpcficcicc and inicUincncc (iiJfi— t/ r<l flo^nimKoe^ri 
XB>*mA# Jt'. A', irt. 5, 8, vi, 13, j) in apprehending ffftwiwu) itie 
advice giivn in a idaicHman s speech, 

iMiov X^Yon^J I'or ovn^it, regarded specially as the CKCcllencc %, \^. 
of ih^ Iwt<n*^f in the iissembly or court, cf. Philemon ^MeLnelte, 
Fr&gm. Comu. yoL iv, 46) — 

j^tinr y otcpoorftt aniHTfif mBrffttnof, 

vu flpLHiv iiaXwt] x^- SirtiM f avMvttj ul ^ ^uvuvt^ja : then fbUowt 

{ 4. Ik Tii< ir np pwrfdmr] ' from the jiiltlliyenLT: ihuwn ui ■• 17. 
** uot)cr>lJUiding '^ ' — sc. the meaning of a pcncon with Avhom one is 
talking. Cones has the foILou'tng note Jiere — ' xp^/^^ iroXAautt r^ 

fuit^imir M TQv fffrii'tti' irri^v. ijtlta 6 fJ^ iruruir ra \vy6itfva ^rjal rpAr 
r^ X«V**M ('A^wrro^. Diyrp. 1444) 

Artplr ri£XX«i il^p Jp^irJ»^ic^«»^ortli^|, comment? je ne tccomprends 
point ; pArk-moi un peu ntoiris tavammcni et plus imeUi^bLemenL' 






Jmtfftifnt is Skt faculty «/ ittetifing tarrtttly ^kat ii ffuila/^fj ■ th±i lOfbtt.'teii 

ait,ii ii iojy W tn./kc same refiren(i,a»dni^biajaihe<itifkiNtmniuiraiI<r: 
fhry all he^ W tta ^tth taittiKisit parlimlftrw, inf/t:ignt/f axJ ^tidi^mfiMt ivriy 
f^atltiii W'htfh icmt f» fight Jfiififfw ar rtgnnji n4iilftr$ tcii/Aipf ll'/K^'jHff ^ 
/rudtiut. i,r. 0/ nr/d/v/r f^fJfT wAiiA men Jfi. tvAlVX «rv oh^j'i nJTtmStt 
parii{uiiiri, ntivr nnjtfrjd/j. J?/ajati. ituittif, ii ionnmeJ in/^ ' milimaH*' ^ 
twh eni/r c/ iA^ sertti : it is t>sth ^i^nninz nHtf md^-^i tftmi^itit, tt h 
atnf/rnfd TtntA tht ultimisit tinwtnnii M^htch rnnttei if ^mtmitratM 9^ 
tj'th^i^H naiettmg. fin/ an Iht i^mntnhh /«/ friwr^'ft tf trimf^ 
df0tfiufr^rfM aj prji^fital, it it ettvreiitd veilA tht nJttMAtt f^ftiiw/srt^ ^^itA 
arv ttHfiui^tM, ami /aJ ihttr fhn in tA« minor prtnia ^ «4f fr^rit^ 
^Uagiim : Sl€U f^trtkuiun Iht fira^rifoi mj«. at rtigmSaSikf cmmimtl. hut 
fif^tttn/ immofiarp/y, /er it u/reirt e/tfu ffri/tvtmg tJum lAmi IMm a mi^n 
of^Uirti rA/ nnivfr^iJi fnnt^t it/ tt^mtl—lJ^f frivatlinf t*itJ t/^Aamifr. 

SituJ rf^vn, an^ tXn iagnalj /tNtiUMi. infiUi^me and Jit/gmaatf art iM>' 
itrittd tuith partiiuian, fAfy ti/i/l if/triri /inn atJ fit^fifine /w .'icp 
Jtvthpmtnl - liuJ, HI a matttt of /itt. w ilf fhen fatfttiiti ^ d£aimg)MiAtd 
ffcm tJlf tffyt/iaeiTe fnfu/fjr) grmvirtg natutuffy uf in tAtf itnmt 
tMir - V ravtJh tp that set ftt! th*tt undtm^Htt'OiFd titurtttnt AtJ tfjttAtmt, 
rfmingfrfif** "an ff jvdn artii tAf^ri^nrt, kmmaJl t^t wtighi if tftmcmtr^ftn- 
St$-'k mtn hiVi iAt rye pf tjiffitrtft tinJ it^t^mfJy. 

Sff tHHiA fer frtn/ime arui iViidcm, E*vk ka> ifi iftvtt RoAinr. atiJ its \ 
rfAert, and i$ the iMUltoKi q/ Us o^x sepattitt part of tA* to§d. 

11-49 ft^ie. f 1' r"^M) 'cndcrcd by Grckni *c(>n&id<-ralcTics»/ Ft ia 

Imposfiil^le 10 hnrg oui in any fiingltf Eiigliih word ih^ wi 
mcaninji of diU Lctm. Il mn^ lie suflldcnE lo itiJnJb €^t 6ytAit^ 
^«n>os 'the man cf good flcnso and good feeling'— eapmally in bo 
far u h^f f ihibilft lhe*e qualine* in his judicial deciKions (4 "^ Vwbw- 
ni)rV<rTWpJirit ^P^)> TbcdlCUU SWuTC yiw/ij T$dp/dT7(oi ^wiinntnr) 

i^ivt—^\o decide according to Lhc beat of then judgraeni* t/, 

PtsA fli, 16. 1387 a. 3g ^XX' hiin^^w iTfliArbfTfle & •Afmt: i^ioTTjn wA Xm^ 
fi SduioTVTs ynti^g f^iV*i> ml ^iwn(i> f o^( ilpx^'^^ot - ^hii. i. 15* 13751. 
fj ^Mpftf ytfi «rt, /dv fiir ivarrioe ^ S yrypvitft^rw ry wpiytaum^ wm 
natty t^i/if jfpiitrritfr ral roip Jwniti^w wt liintoripvtu hI «n tA V^fS ^ 

BOOK VI: CHAP. -U i ^ u 1*7 

i^vw^ tvvr' irri, ro ^9 iraiFrrX£t XP^ofiai *f»t ytyfiafifxit^t. Tb«lltSi-lfr. 
ori^al mcanirj; of yi^^«j i* " knowledge " or ' nfKler^iamHiiK-' Tims 
in Dcmocjiius. quoted by Scxius Lmpiricns Adv. Afaik^ vti. 13E), 

knowtodge' and 'Uaik knowlcilt^e ' : uinl in Hcnxluiu* ul- a- y^i^^ 
Jtvr6t xncvm ' Ji mari ^r f ood nndcmtindin^/ Secondly, yrmi^i come 
to fttind /or ' * ibougin '^ — e*.ptcifllly for " a ihoughi ' or ' opinion ' 
ftUdiig to Uic conduci of lite. And ihh \t dte senKr tn vlii^h wi? 
find >*»fi^ technically u«c(l by AriKotlc in Ltic Hfteivn'ci ace /^^f/. 

& a 1. 1394 Q, 3t 7ti a' 7 7n>>**r ufN^ii'ffir, ov ftipnt ffCrt (Tf^i r*ii' m^ 
f^ «tft f^ 4iif<rtvXf •M*-f4tfr, JXXd wf^ii vc/ctft' al it^i^tit *JffS "Oi ityjtfi 7 

^nvrd Am v^c to vpomiv. A y>'up| ia thuv A g^ncnltsatlon rdatiri|f 
to ibc ccoducl of life : and An^I0I]c lakcn af^cial p&inn Lo make it 
clar thM il ifl a j^cncralis^iiion i\'liich hiis merely an empirical 
buit'^f.A ha^ not bren t'^rflicil by lyUOigiili^:: dr?riv:i[fon from 
father principles; foi he goca oii II) bay ij<>f a^ »6 fitrr' ^l rd 


;^|!^ A' #f rod* OS rtr d^J^^uf vit^vt otnfpj 

rvtrv «irr ofi* yru^q" rptftrrtdfiorjr Si r^v lUTiftr ncu rn ftd ti iyQii^fipA 
Jt^ip'ii yi/» Jllfj* ^ fj[;0nrir u/iywr, 

OMT ttrtiv it tic iTiikT* dtnjp fvAaifiaMi 
OM tutw JrJ^r fir Til Jur' iAiLA>Hft 

A tnukn nbich may be u«ed, by wuy of trij^roi' or ^fvof, as ih^ 
|)recn» nf nn tt^vittft^ nr ' rhetorical syllogism * (srr If Art, i. s), or 
Qttjr, AA conoludioi^ of ^n 4V^>»rf>ifi. be dcduccil frOTii »uit)ibk pre- 
HlMtet, W, if liken by ilvclf (u^orfjflfli'rTiH rou avXXe7<0>*u<^)r a ytv^iT- 

A p^i^. then, ia jt iroral maiiin, a plect- of proverLiial wisdom (^ 
the expression vi>i7riij yro,^natt), advanced and Accepted withoni 


BOOK VI: CJIAP. II : { l- 

lii* L iOh proof, but recomn^cndiii); Usclf bj" iti obviooa aRf«nicni »!tb Ihf 
(ifniimcnu nnd fcr-lrngs of tl»c society Eti which ii ^pppArt 

Htre, ill ibe ZV/aVi'. ihc nicaiiingof yWtj scemi lu wuvtt brl*'«n 
' Lhc act of deciding iicnaibly and kindJy/ ind * the dlspc^ilion ^hkb 
re«ulfs in sen&ibl^ \fv\ kin<l d^ci^ions' 

ervY7>^^or*w] Tliis is itir reading of Kb and M^ rtsiorH by 
Hyrvoier, in«*cid of iickk«r*s tlyv^t^v^v the rcodifiR of L'", r, 
Cimbr., NC, B*- * ', CCC, Knair, ^Miod, Tht- /vrA-^- ^«i/. 
(I<>ts tioi giver <Cynu;io>v except in ihia Llifl[j[.t't. ;iud in M^ M. ii- 3, 
^bcfc oi>yvu|uiv di^ca not occur, and tv^in^^t>tsvvj\ \% used intik.'Atd of 
y^i}. 1e ift not untikdy ili^rofoiv thai f/'yvM^aiH got inco Ebe iiexi 
of llic F.thiii aL a date sub«ci^U(^nt lo ihc compilaiion of die 
^. iT/»^ Apart, howffvcr, (rom tliia auspftion, liicre w notbing 
flRHinRl iho ft'OKl in the cnntext here, Indf^d ir may bi? [bought 
tbut lLc A^ui'dH a. J I ^^i\ti\f hi ri^ir yA// «V»Mrq ^^iXfirrd ^>jfy «&tu 
ffiy^BW^jfiitilF follow Ayrft'ii^nftn (DOfC HAlUrally ih^n Fir^^HiJ^anif ; 

that the conTif»inr betftten *iT(*(Vrin and ouy^wiVrj i^ ai^umrd !*> b* 
bcUcr knaun Lltjin [bat between riri*[nia ^nd yvv^?, cod' fyr (J>»tt< 
i»omf wl •j^TLi' ^o/Mr ^toi^^i-, and L6 therefore nddu<.'C(l as a ^iii^mk : 

*nn«^, and b. 10 ri mi a^^^vnhm^t ^vyyu'omttiv rni^uiV. 

£vyy*fc^7 mcflUB |]roijeily ' thititiii^ untl feeling with oibcn,' 
and ansii'ors (d the xfnsns communis nf ibc Roman writrn? 
</* Quintil, Jnu^ L 1 — Scutum ipsum, qui ccmmunii dicitur. ubi 
discett ciJni se a congrcs^Q, qui ncn homimbui (olum, Md mulcis 
quoquc n4iiinalilju>i luiurjJis l>i, HCgrcgfiHl? — Ht>r. i^^;/. i. 3. 66 
Simplicior quis ct «&!.., ut forte legentcm Aut lACtlum impcIUl 
qiiOvLt tcrmone molcstuii, Communi scntu plani; carcE, mqujimwT 
— on wlikb OrcUi quolch Scncui, flV Bentjii. i, ij Sit in benrfidis 
Kcnfo;!^ communis: ti?mpu3 locum pcnaonaA cbicrvci, qukA momcnitis 
quaothm grau et irgraia sum. The ffvyytvfibv iA thi; man of 
MjciaL »ympadiy, who ciiler!i into the lliougbis and feelings of 
Otlicn, and especially is ready to make atlovanco fi>r i>ioir diffi- 
culti«V In biH formal <yt informal vprdicii — who, in ibott, gives 
]ud];nnenl (y^'w^ij) In ibeii favour [*rv¥) when a rigid intcffjtcUliun 
of the luw would warmnt un unlavourablr; juiJ^'Tnont. 

* 1 Anil, «ini» wvilini; cEw ab^fj thai ihit ia Hywatn'i ajHoioaj m« 

iben 1 mere rcpciiUdn of whit bas juit been uid Ihrcc linn 

aImvt— 7 Y^i^ . , , 9 row ^iruun^t *Wi tplirit tififl^^ an th<? Olhor 
ht^il^ iviUi uv77*vt^ retained, ihc dcfiniiion of ffvyrfbiftrj b m the 
^roc (crriM a» ihat of >»«if-i» I ihink ihxi iJjc wof<)8 7 ^* ^nyy^^^lr] 

ckiae 3t*^-i ff ^ rof iiXT]6*vi folluA^ tJic o^di] of line 10 very n^mr* 
aUj-, r^flof fl* . . . ffnyyi'i^Fii' being parenlhtiicaJ, I J^rec u^iiti 
Ramv ihit Tof nrjr4<nui ii) linr JO, ft« m llnr i^^. \a nnjLrr— thr 

KduliTc cf Lhc objod. Grant mako it maac^ in bolh pUcc!». 


4|3#i| B' T| Tov ihii^oik) sf. rtnnti^ if Ihiv 13 bir rriaiiicd : {i iiol, ft. M. 
^irit — ■ that is 1 ^"^ifi/ dcciiion which give* a /ru^ \^cfdict.' 

The vholr j may bo paripLrofiod ihuB — What U c.iilcd *good 
amac'— ihe quaiiiy of itcojili: wham wc describe as ^ fiit and 
vmnbtc/ and u 'Lakin^ a tf;iiaibfc trid proper view/ ma]' be 
deAfi^ ** ■ the hiibii of ctrninjj to righi tlcci^ioi^> in matten cf 
eqnitj/ Tbai thi^ ia a currixL dc-riiiiLiuiL of ' good mam " is seen, 
if «? refer To tbc usige of ihc Icrm ' common >cn»e ' a3 equivalent 
10 * fellow fcpling ' or ' icndcncy (o give favouratile judgment,' It 
is ^uenll/ admitted ih^il 'ihe niuiuble m^n ' h iM^l]t\siiip\Mcti Ajt 
his 'comnon scnac,' or ~ fellow feeling,' and thsit to ^vc effect to 
this seB»e or feeling in ceilain mvcit 'a * ^qmiMc' ' Common 
•citsc' is, in TavL *};ood ^leJtac/ which cn;ib1e» a miau lo <oa\i to 
t fi^l deduon in a matic of equitx ; a ' n^-h! * dt'cision bcmp one 
vhieh give* a /r^*- vcrdia, 

fftftead of ytimni!^ the «olcr uf J/. J/. Uie^ ttyrunkoavi^. ;i5 we 
have Men — ii, a. (193^ b. 34 7 ^ tvytv/fOffCtr^ ml i tvyrot^vy ivrv 

TflD wpttfcfw, «j yiyiwiTiutv ffn vtti mv r»» iWfioArflU AX<ifiirrai, tttn 
^Wvi A^aiJi, (f T«(«^o« tAytufiatr. Jm ftir afv oi<f Svtv Jirturtim 7 

idpA T^f i^iiff**' TOY' *ff»*4ifc*tj, !e ouR^^t itJ be rcmcmbcrrd tluU Ihc 
wrilrr of dir *■!/. jir. discn^aur? rir*u'itrm In a conirxi parallel. Dot to 
£1J^* V. 10, but toJ?.^. vi. II. 

I vud thai <rv>*rfric may be itprarded at. a «lage m the davclopment 
of ^pSi'^tt. hxil ihv jK>WL*r of mEc'Iligi'iuly ioWay/ityg n Hptrech, and 
estanalinx its rcctimnicndation^ h\E vh^t thcyare wonh, prciupposes 
aooBttlilng more than mere intellectual bliaj|]n«aA and lumbleneftl. 


BOOK Vf: CHAP. 11 : §§ I, 4. 

ii4Ab, 14. Tiie succn^fiLl critic of a policy tnusE be in synapiih/ wflh tV 
tradiliona] thought add feeling i>f the community for ftbich Ihc 
policy U recommended- rmit/i^^ or efimmums nfntur, tinderljen 
irwtrct. And, a& ihcfc irc many who arc pphtoi buinc\'er(al Icatt 
in great msitter*) become <>/joh^ji, ao ihcre arc many who htwe 
^uyf»j and rriyyvw/jfj wJThotii rising To Ihe cJear inLrEIrdu:!! con- 
scioutncfts of reasons possessed by ihc axa^ml The <ftf»'fm 
apfirociaie the fOTce cf th? ^p^/j^^iAm (^i^ropuiot in>Vh«Y*ir/io^ wtiicb 
ihf- Kprnkrr rrnploys ■ hut yvv\in\ s^xf. polriu; of vl*w whifh rretini- 
mcnd ihcmoclvcs without syllogistic proof (u^t^t^vW'iv ww uvX?u^ 
yitr^ov) — arc /tU 10 be /rvi' by i ^w^*)*- <;f«*- 

In t]iL- furt^f^oiiig rcmiLrks 1 Iiavp jiurjiobciy ;ii1uwt<d ihtr Aristotel- 
ian an^daticins connected {a) with the term ycia^^r " (■) nioiul 
maxim, (a) Judge's decision, (j) disposiiion wliich result* ifi yvufuii 
(i) i>r (2], and (3) with ihe term ffvyy^ii^rj, ;(% (apimvnx's sfnart. 
and c^pccLiEly the miLnifcitaiion of rommttnh stntu^ in cqu^ubte 
judgmcnit, to have ftee play, and influence one another. I believe 
iIiaE lliL' wiiici of ihi^ § Lould not um- llkc leim ^iw^i} ullhout bring 
nfTccted by these \arious as^ciations^ At the same time, it if^ 
pro[ier to say, in coiicluaion, thai I think that the &«nsc of ym^i iii 
jud^'K dccifticin VA mo5t prominent in his miiKt If vlv^tnt is 
especially the ip^Vi^ in the /niXTtru, y»^7 is especially ihAC in the 

itT, £ 2, yrttf^-iT' txt^*"] Thia infinitive is gramma^tically the object oT 
/tn^'/wrrt, and wc ihotild have expected ibe article before it : but 
tlie wfilcr omifs the aitkb, bccan^ lie Mill ba« \fv>fi*k' in litK mind. 
That he has A^>^if in hi? mind is .ibown clearly hy the following 

accusatives unJ ^povlfeivt xqi cvntrovc, Mtch^tei makes the confltnk^' 

but, if ibis t« th^ construe iiOTi, why h^ive u-e not the article befoiv 
*t>ttvrvtivvi and tn<*TTDi'c ^ 

>'«vi' tfii\] 1 think that Grant's suggestion is right -thai thi> ex- 

pTfiitlon ivfrr; 'to what is naid in } 6 ^^ ^ i^X»^ vai/v Ijf**' and i* 
' nearly equivalent to our saying of hI pecson lliat he had '* atiairicd 
10 ycsLTft of discretion/' ' 

91. rd yip ^fifltKi^ tov^ tvc dT^^O^v dird^rwi' itnXr it ry vp^ AXXdp] 

' for equity enters into all good relatione between man and maD' — 

mOK VI: aiAr. 11: 55 4-4- 91 

t\ f, rqatcy i» wcKicnaK-e with joitic*. This is fiivcn la a frason U43 *. ji. 

■^►wnw* fl <n7)TA|i«»: — Oie ^pdw^or liaa to do with *iil] booU 
reiAitonn bcLwccn rn»n an<j mnn ' ; nnd the Tuyyiw^wk' ea jvptrvior rav 

{ Si] Ilitvinjc proved At ihc end of $ x Lh«l crvMcnt And y^fin *- ^9' 

corltniflivr wilh t4 dynOft tA tv t^ n/jflc (TXXdp, llir writer now [irnvm 

the aftmc point a^Lun, by rtfcrnicc lo the nicttliattdnpoiiTdi (^A'hidi 
nie Tcj^ra) iro the cbjecla of <rvw<T» Lind r^>*'ii ^ ^^^^ ^1* <^^ 
^pAwTfittt ot Mvt- RaruiEHUcr bnickctK ra nprtrrd In Imt jjj and K^' 
H^ r, Qinibr. pr^ a[id NC reid finurwr fur ^uvra. 

I 4. Kol A vciu« riuk* Jff^ifTUf ItC d|k^drfp4] yvu/ji^, av»tiTr<, ^/idtfijcrif *. 0S. 
And Mvr b;Avc bccji eAhibilod a» irorrut r/^ rmVA TcftoLfl-ni, because all 
eonccmcd ^'ilh morol rtf;(«ra (mti-t^, ayafii^ iTyH«id), The writer 
now goffi or 10 wiy that i^Cr Ja concf?T»ef.t, nof only willi moral 
lirx«ro — ihe pariicuUrs of action — biii, in science a% di^tinguiihed 
from coiiduct. wiih Another kind of JVx=™ — ^dtimak principlet — 
the hlghcKl Uttirtrs^l! : so that, if we use *dCc in iis generic W-nse, 
wc eon ioi) ihaX II ib tuiici^rncd wiih ' u1iJmLite& at boch rtidx t^f iLie 
lenes' (Granlf- f.^. nith universal al the top* and panicular« at 
ibe boiioni. 

rout '^ "("i 0* X^Y**] '^^^ highest anlveraala and die utlimaic b. L 
putkobn ftre apprehended iniiijlivf}^', not reached by discursive 

4^4 £ ^cr itari t4b dircfeff{4ivf jf". voivf. The construction b 4 

^ jBijfd T<lf rin(>Ar4f«jr wii'* firfi tmp ^wir^Tiui' o/rAir, This i^ ihe Mii> 
AB^nirdr, Oa dislin^iahed from Lhc nCp rpuinuiii— v iVmiE vftoK- 
T««wf (ff»Jlil£«i« f/1 A'.A*. ^ii. 3^ 9, or irporurr<r(} or perhcipS <If»dn(«in 
understood in a Itrntc sense), 

Tw A>»i)ruvipbi'4BLir^vrwJ;c.JffTi, ' is concerned wilh/ Tbc« b** 

irc Ihc Fir« PrtnriplpB of flrnArTi*^ and ^in^xfri-r^. 

Ji'S4xo|^rcv] The full evpresKoii ic<iuircs ihe Addition of «lb.d' 

■ E6Tr^jiair4 fort- Kdudcndnm K>v>j lectbofv f I, iLOlc <fn 0vTTviivitirB> 


nOOK y/: CHAF. 11 ; {^ 4, 5- 

1143 b. 9^ dXXvii t>w, which Ruj^ow {F^tch. p. 77) acci>rdiii$Ely prc>po9C9 to 

f»St *Wpg4 Tp*Td««s] ihe minor pr*tni6e, called in Jr.-V>m 3, 
13 h "Xtvtofci npdramc. Th*" phrasr Mpn itpAniru tlDi-ii not appear 
fwm the //f£/fA' /!/■/>/, lo occur c:icc|i( Ikix. 

b- 4. Apx*i 7*f ">>' *<J lnutt aJSroij afro* (iiUractcii 10 ibc ^^crdcr of 
Apjfot) Eire ih« panicLilars (*rr;t''''<') ^~h<ch coti^titutft the *inbior 
jifemiss ■ sppr*henjTL^{l Ijy i^Oi tijwir*irAe. Thew panlfiiUr^ are 
sai<i to Ijc the OF';(Lii tou ov («*[*j — to supply ibc mai^riala cut of 
vhich ihe moril end, or ih(? character, is built up by *'fiiiTfi&t, a* by 
a »Oit Lif inlluclJon— 1« t^v nt^ cmrrrn y^p rik 4aA^'X«i'\ For ft 
similar uac of ipx't (*' ^^^ maUrial scarce] G^fint compare* £* A. 

b-0. j *■ '^''Ttti* w/M ^x"** S*^ (iMt]*^^, aJrij B" *#tl «*$! The 
ff^iiffnuc rn^rf \s here rej^-rciei'iK^rl iis a imxt/ii/ity lo rrrltiiii for- 
ikuUr improsions. The cumulative cffccl cf such p*rti<ular 
ionprcsflioRH is a certain l^m/ of fhnFucUr, or settled vrny of looking 
al, and fi.-clti»g wiih regard to, the objecta from which U»e im- 
prc«aon» vc received- But wlun mi'v irpuarutiG i» thiu docribcd 
oa a KVQbubiUCy to ccriam particular imprcs^ons, it is evideal tiai, 
f$i<fa thf tpny firit. it n^uat lind, in the things uHch imprrw it, the 
common atinbuir lu which llie chdracicr cvcmuu-ily foimcd U tbe 
■daptaiion. Nci^r rr^atnaJi js jndccd the Ecn^bitity to ccrtmA pu- 
(icubr impressiGTi^, in &o Tai' as it ig on lhi> occ^tKLon of the 
presence cif parlicuUr tx\^$nt^ (54<a ml \birr/fKS) Uat il receives \\A 
iniprcoaions ; but thesfr ai^^rii impiX'^a it from the lir«i m d mi>f4i 
way. It is Ibi-rcfore not mereiy pasnivt in reUiion to diem; it 
pittavtz this dLinon^ ibcnn lu \jc ^vifti, ttiid Lhit ^lit irfetpectii'cty of 
the prt^rt pleasure or paio which aitenda either; t-t^ it criljctftee 
ibcfo in view of the requirvmentb of its own |>cniun^nt nature. 
It is as irue, in ?iliori, of liie tiUSnatt uith which ibe nuf s^Hurw^ 
is bcrc idetiliiiciL n» of tt)C oltf^vr of die bodiEy ircniieA^ that it 
involves a perception o( ihe vn^^Jiot : ice ^/fn. /'(u^ ii 19^ 100 a. 
16 mi yAp alu&ubttat, ^iir ri vp^ titwrmv. ^ A* oTir^kr^xtc mC niAlXvr 

Ttendcl*nbflr|r">, I think, muiiken view (Hat. Btilr. U. 314; U*l riAat i« |a 
be aappticd Afiir ntf^av ii litulljr diipoacd c£ 


BOOK Vi: CHAP. 11: 55. 93 

The tharp conrmst drxn-n bcfwrcn ihe twtc ^*jiiriv^f nnd ih^ U44K9v 
nvf v^iurivfc tii J? /^'^ ii> M . ($ 4, s ia Indeed very miileatfing. 

A cD^fXav bi at hnL dimly n^n ^^ ^^aeh in the miUrrio) Rciiinjf of the 
wirf (Vp.TTfl belonging la ils iphen? : ind ^^jr^. using its own 

pCCulJ^^ method — ruvt ^taiiitynKAs Uhi*J|l iitvyvyij^ XU<\ vm>v wpatitK6t, 

*lKff|i*i( — comtti lo ipprtlicnd ib JiuAAflii more ciciirly. U'hc only 
gfound (apflri, of rotirtf, from xho difTcrc-ncc aC (phcr«E, or objeci- 

nuller) Tvt CuitU^aliJig tZie ^ti eWupr^nuIt ;iJid ihc t^vt rtimrrt^^ a 
thai of the clrAfrpFA vilh which eit<^h ultiniATcIv npprchcodji tin 
MifdXw. The geiivolisaticns of tlie uti-c f?««i/ir)finf, cWr-cut foTms 
vtDbodicd in ^(r>ui, »ccri» ^ Um. 10 at^ijJ out iiKlc|>c[id(;m ufitic 
TaixicnMrft; whereaa Ihe generalieutions ci ihe wvj w^ortv*»if arv 
titvef <1e^-rui, but always inherf^ in patttculur*. They arr the 
way* In v-hicli Kalliis, and pcojilc wlio have rccrivcti ihe sumc 
u^ininft aft KaJImf, ffcrernlly act, in certain (approximiiely de- 
scribed) cirfumstanteSv when fhey aet in the mannei generally 
tssumcd lobe liicht- Dui ihc i;enerAlisalion»t ofthi: putv tffarrjruri^r 
tre abttlract formulae, which diAtingiJJBh tlLembdvctt by Ihcir 
hcceuity from the p^^riicitlars (»» Ruch, conttiLgf^ni) fulllt^g under 
them. To arrm at siuch fbnnulac being the goal of ihc #fl£r 
IWpfru^f, ih:it fActiTty ]» ri^pa-eented u l>eing 'concerned viih' 
then; whercrit the vni-t ir^.tn,t6t h *aid to be 'concerned with 
l^tlktibrs/ because it never can. :vilh any appcanuicc of pei- 
fedion, detach iir* gcncmlisiatictTiR frotn them^ 

and >tv^, At J^usLruiius noi^s. T!ie»;c habitu are all conoernnl 
vIiIj t4 «^ normt. and llierefofc (Ato) requite lime aril rxpr^rir-nce 
fcr tbcir fonualion- They ^r^jv up in uj na/ijnj^fy i4>voimi Bum. 
•iw>, na w« ftain experience of life. Bm wo do noi nariiraUy (jrow 
Dp lo he p}ji]u!4iplie[s (^ktrrfi iru^Af ^tt u^Arlr) : phJliHOpliy rrqitjrc^K 
fpCCUl ICAChin^ : ncc HuMrftl-^tZ/Cf. — Aiun ^vainV rli' RD^JcaiTrq j 
itjfcutiM^S flit nal ^ ^^'qcrif ^ftiv frapayiMm* mI ^ cvVfffLf xal ^ y^^7, 
Aid rrt^ Moi *irvttuA &ii*tl 4(iw< rufTa- ii n^> y^kft iftiifila ti«i' jrn^SXrm, 

u^ «ni ffp^iXd^^aw 6 i^i>^u<;tEJv «'/jrjirFV. ot 0< tiprjiitiNjn fjiiE, t'lrff dirt) 


BOOK Vt: CHAP. II: 5$ 5-7. 

C/. PhiTrmou ^Mtiifcekc% Fragm. Comic, vol, Iv. p, 3^) — 

l^ici'mi TULTUf ui^rOt. uvOr ^i/rfirt 

Ainnp tv fyp^ d^fiDf^ /( fij rot >ryri> r« «al 
irifimv vmvftv Kt\ ^^vpr^a-at . . . 
Cirrd fjiiK^i> Oft', ^rr;', t^\n>»7in ^fHt^t, 

b.9. { 0< %*h Hal dpxv} haI rAa^ nvt' iti Tourvf y^ ^^ IfnSfiJbi aov 

iKpi toiItu*-) Ris^w i^Fcrsi-A. p, 31) places l}ie»< wonli after oi^T 
^ »Vr3 Puis { ^, 1143 b. S- A bcriljc. lii: ^u^gc^tA, ir^ii^fpotctj ;]ic 
two sentences both beginning wiih 3**!, This is vcrylikeJy. More- 
over, it is Gl\\y ifter TOgTHi- oflp f;^*ifr fiti «[^rt^JcJ*y, rttVij i" iWi mvt 

ihal itic gnmtnalital idcrencc of (Ik worda 4k TO^jxwr y^ al 
diTo^ei^tt wjI ir^^i TOuTuf in miclligible. 

A* for the meaniMg of iho 4iarcmen; J/i)^ *«1 T*?ii>f wi^f — k is 
doubtless given corrcclly by the Pji^ph, — vpx'i t^"^ ^ «'^"*' »^ 

oTriilti^ttui- TtKut fit, tiilf Atrrur yvanfit tWi raiw raff «Bffro ical tr 
«Iv&^vri, Ki3 VjMiaTAiiidi Aryvtcu. For llic expression A rvvr«ir • . . 
Ku\ wtp'i TvtTtfi'i f/1 i. 3- 4 aytJTrrjT^r tCf wtpl roivvrw ivl /■ *o*wr*i» 
AryoiT^t jir-»A. He means thai " reasoning;* in moriiU 1^ « rmt iratf 
fHiHmi, and TTtpi Ttof iKfl^ tvitrriM. The icnti nno3Bifti»' is, of coufie* 
used here in a loo^je sense, for ' moritlity is noE CApablo of jfrmMv- 

b, 14. Apv<rip Ap6wt] Thia is the reading of U^ (and jipparct^tly 0^) 
only ; dpx'^e or rif il^t^fc U given inslcjJ of J^wi by K'', M**, P, 
CCC, NC, Cambr., and ti'- * *, Aid, HeL, EusLr. 

b. le. i 7- bXW njs i^xn^ fLDpiou] $\f, ou^/a is ihe highest excellence 

of the tnirrfiftontvif f»tpotj and fjtpoyr^n of the Xayi'stvfSr ; (;£• nole 
on eh, 3- } I- 1 139 b. 14, for PrantL'u vjev of Ehe ^vu-i>f;TUFu3 J^mu, 






H^irdtm^iim^yie usttai: itii torumuiiwUh ifiattvAkk e-XtmnWy 
^mstwitk tksiy^k^M ovnrm to pnwifr^lt j<rMLi«d, aH«/ ^'tmji'fVM/:^ tlOfs met 

AWrwtf uidt^ r^ffmid$ iAcre mmu .- JM mmaf wt Aarv Prmdnui ia erdtr 
t9 ttiwr^ Mktm pr^fii^if t The f;*^ mart In vlnuc of hli ^otni ^^^hiar lajt/eyi 

«bvi Mar lif^tf «**/ Awmf'/rfarm tUm.any tuanikaH kantrntjf fijit d tt^iihr 

t^^m ir/iQ(iiJc/'^ii4flr' matft a mvt'/ pnU* mptfar. Anti if *t be iiiiJ thai a* 
■nil/ An* Pn§dtai€^ utC mUetit fa tefi tti that am A ami nuh atii \if€ i^iifit, hut 
M 9eli m ilMD i* mifrt tAair fvr/ar-martfe. what, ii fney siiU ^ 9i>'r/, ii i^ 
^ta^tif^ fu tf FruAnef I It ii njvrjt^aa^t tu thi rutf etj that* ivha ntv 
<iW*Jrjiw/ w^ fff/frm ikr atii t/i ^ti^rSitit /rafn /laBil ; anJ lehy tjkmJii 
<4wc w^ vc Aff Wr W;r /nJ. ^f viiA ta Aeavite i^Kd. frtftt&ie thtm*eh^ A» 
im^e Pndtmi ^ tAt*mm f li'ky skffKtd (ktytici ioniuit ii ^rofttusnot expttt 
M ^n^mdt, tnsvi'ra d^tor it lAf mtttrrr »/ hrailkt f ^tij, ikftt ri JV 
j!Btl w ^ 'ifoimi—i/ Pn^^f^ft ii ^rfti^Hy ujffiii, if it natly dvr ifmtfhmg-^ 
4tfttistfy j^m«tkiH{ M grtaf aj /i/ fpffJti.'tim if J/nmati ff.t/ftrten ii m^!t 
t^Id/ii Umic9tr ^VitJam^/cr Iht Jir^tiiai/a:¥Uy nfhi<hM>.ifffniittfiah littfaj/i 
ditnt! lu a mittrtnfJkt iitttU^ vr artitiii/^iuifywhith tupj^itaihtmah-rmtt. 
0ttt knp f4m $VisA9t t* thm andtlaiy to FnuUn/e t f^udaut ii mrefy m- 

S9 mtuA/prtJkt tfafffHtnt s/iAt tfi^tvJtiti : new iti w a/tim/i to dHnwi' 

tti ftJ #*ryjt hy myrite that tTijJpm arni PrtMitnti. evm i/ thry rtatti /i$ 
m/rJhMi^ 'fntft^aC ^ant ^ jAcii^-^boriAy in Ihrfiitfhm. itvumvk m mk t^ 
iknt n tAf 4^(t'Um.-4 tf iU irtifn fitwf tif thf itwf. 

Aw* J/Ki '^O' **s f'^atee rtJ^Jh, Wiid^m /r edthtJ //aflfiint/i, iMf ittdtti 
tU *fini<nl to$tieofif. tMftii /tf-nt*Ml •itttif : si it 0*4 of tkt format tltmf nit i» 
th*I t4iMy i^tkt virttuui iheratter, whuM reaiiiet iiJeif in ififfumlivn udied 
Mof-^Kftu rhtothfr/ormai flrrrnnrz art /Tbii^arf ami Afar^ I'irtue, yirtuf 
makittg /it fwt nitHtd at got>d, untt f-Vudm-.r ihi mrnfti. IViifit^m it /Af 
^^uiUtvf 9ftki tfvrtfi/if parr, Prat^ncj rf tht ^4/tAfmtiw^ Mcrai t^ittite ^ 
iJU *0fttitiv : Ikt *^.^!eM£t of tJn fi}ni th p^rt cf the lO'tJtthe KB/rtViW, ii not 
mm.^^ ftriNdtt^ifniHfi in t\t tvttilitytf Ut vtrtuffut (Maracttr : /or il Jiia 
mfrrif^iA it iodt. ormelia da. 

Ji ngarA tkt j^^Anii rkat fyadtntt dott wof h*Jf> ut t/t ^rwfan* pvrf OiU, 
UiMi w>^ U ^ 9M4i^i'%' A svfd Oil* ^ itltk da/tr. tt'hai Mu lUm 'm 


mOK Vt: CHAP. 12: § i. 

dn iUf iJ rtaify '^o^' onJy luhta it is itfrv ty a ^ffpri am*, Ar/Hf ift/itfrv/r^j 
infirm ^ Jiint fif/antf it rr aj^odaft—i.i* tBHtritmtft m iltt tkit/ iwd. 7%ii 
ihiif ttfd,Jar tkf ^aki ^ yLhi;k •itts ar* tfehftrattf^r iko/rmai m/ein. if tet v/tiy 
i'frr§K—i.t. re it t\j Mftw fhinj^ Is la^ ' TAit mBK ii vtrtHOUl Pr pm/' ^md 
* hit fnif t'l jeffif^*'-^«' i^* 'ttff ^^iih miut i€ taktn ta anitr la mnIiM tku emd 
art liiiiirvfrtii. nof if I'irtvt Oni by anvfhtr fuiutiy- l.ts m itop it tJfiiain tMt 
pomt Cirzttt'futt is Sht fc^ftr of Aiiii^ npan thf mmnt tamiucivft* «^Vfm 

*W ttkil it J'm^emt : hii iw «// ii Kr^try if the «rf k U4, CUf^rmm i> 
Mr pgtcnUflJitr f/ /^ll4VMlr {vit ii^ ^tt^rj) , ^u/ dVuitnit^Mj ttmjirmtd 
tubjlndlvj not ftiptrprnt a-iihtmi Fittnr. /^r^wUhoui yitiiu.iJH i^JIcfijmitm 
tBhi^h ftudema r/ssom u-au^J Acr^ tts mn^f prtmHs : ii i$ Hiiy i^ Jioa^ JtMti 
Ivtd Jtn tJv jfO^ fn/t Vfkuk t/tmitilvtfi thf tn^far firfmi*s^ Vh* ihttcrft mMt 
fiiti/iti JHd4/ c/no Iff lAf fni^fifj ff ittidmi. It it fUim^ t^K^tJ^ * 
mdfj caHHOliv f^mUni miiA^ ^fit^fgVKi. 

AH other MSS,,ip- 

b. UU- odSf^iAc ^dp Imi yiifimttii] a^ (hr- contmry, it it ttie cunTcmpIa^ 
tion of ^m£ (rd Sf. M <1iKlirL|;iiiAhcd from rA ytyrSittna), 

b. Sa. ii iripi ri Euiiua] L** stems to be right in oiuiUing ^ : sec Rasaow 
[/Vfji*. p. 63), 

b. 2^. uvinp ovij T& vyifi¥&. Qii%i tA cAticTiKcL] RamMucJ" ni^f^fSls the 
inarriion of r^ before tA {ytivii. Th« coniimcricn iit — ^icrtp «£9I 

ry tCt lyittrii tel ificTUft AfAtVai npaicTwamftoi f^rjitp rat vyitiv^* id 

t''"rri4i^if. This usage of iFj>iicTirtfrf/>M i3 wcU iltusintcd t>y Rii^SOW 

(/WlfA. p. I S^) from /^ A- v. t. 4 nlnv iin*i r^t ipym'af nt irpdrrmt 
ri /wrrio, uAXi t^ vytitvik ^nfc-or X^>D^ir ^ vyu^rivv fiatiCuf, fm 

vyitwa anJ »M*Ti*fl in the seniO; not of the tnid^ni causes, but oC 
llic nDAnifcfitaiionH of ir/Uia niid vtifu.' C/. Jiff/, r, 1. 1003 a, 24 

1 10 a, 19, J/rf. K- 3. 1061 a. 6. He means that the meit know* 
kdffc cf "whal conc«Tit health' docs not miUtc a man pcrfoi 
healthy futictiunit 'Healthy functions' (vd L-yjc^M ni ry wrA 
*f4v> t(ni XryD^>>a] arc IiijL like Uhe meani to hc^lh ' (rd v><ni^ r& 
rf irwiF T^» #^1- Xry^rHi) which arc suggested by mtdicaJ know* 

BOOK Vf: CHAP. 12 : \\ i-j. 


kclj;c. McdiCAl knowkd^c — knowledge or * ili« meant to health ' — utSb.M. 
ouNv Y^ TrpixifTi)ftiT«pBi ii.T.X.] Arer *r/virf**«it«^M w* may unJer* b. 87. 

Maud, LbcJl, ur^ rij C>4fmu( «il rtfTtvoii /h^ii', or tomc HUcU words. 

Knowledge of ihc rucatJB 10 hcalib or good trainuig, ao they w« Mt 
forth in iht; >ci<rncci or ttnptK^ and ^/iHuTTui^, will no: m^ke a man 
v-Uo ha fioi tlic fftt of ty^rid (jr f^'f^o* -i liculiliy uinu m & ^toucrral 
alhlcic. I'hc J'lriphriil Hcliodoruri hrnt ihc following (x>mmcnt 

i^iolf I, ij £ vwjcrw-, and rav /fir £^f I'df i} r^^'m ix'*^- 

f S. TO^v X<^^^] ^ ravTfl «»ftffVai x«^- b. ftS. 

Tci*t |i4j /x*****""] ^'^- ''"j*"^'' '- r, ' ihciHP who hnvr nin ihc I'^, 
(of^pcT^)': oJSffw hiis beta mmcccaaarily suggested Ibr Ix^wtv. 

«^ni^ ^X'"*] ''' ^*' ^p'fri^'rv t llkc Writing; is very cflrelc&s. 

} 3, nOioCffo] Uird h<*rp in ih* wnKc of jdiatniit^ (sec ^. JV. i b. 9B. 
7, 7): hfTiice noi 10 be toinimrtd vrilh ^ ffot^unuira, bui *ilh 
fj ;tp^>Wr^ of i?f/. 6oi D. The Poraphrast secma lo BUggeet 
the lin* of ihouglil tvhich Jed ihe wHfei lo riejicribe ijSpJuj-Mc aji 
4 irciia«Ott; be tay* — TfiuFit 3' f\ ^^6vtpi^ jJrXrfau' r^k' fri>04'at, hoO&ooy 

rir^ con*' ^ yjji Trpurriifiy Jfjf 'Vlf'^ "^^ JiriTtim* wtpl Jitaffror — -1' ^^ 
i^pdinfffic, ;d rpofTu^ ui tlp)(^ vpainof^ la ibe cHicicnt came r5 
fr«»jTM^ flIrjM" (see d-r G'ffl. ri tWri/p. i. 7, 314 b, 13 .Vt* W ri 
vnujwitii¥ n'tinr lai n^P ^ ^PX7 ^' nt^'Ui) of turlnipivui, And (ll Eliny 

be m^niainnl) utts maUrvits sxipplit^ />' To^fo. wbich il Elicicrott 
directs, &» the <woarur directs the tojlor. 

v^ €4t n^TiH XorrCor* w fUf y^P ^ir^tirai it«pl aOruf i^^hjb-J 


BOOK Vi: CHAP, 12: ^ 3-5* 

^dukrUE Tfl ml jcii^ovjr/tTbn^iu i^ jl^, jtu^urf'^ ^(i^q'^7 ir^flrtf^i'. piw 

114* tt-L { 4.j Human nature, ii a ayaicm of np^ni, is an «id in ilMJf: 
see vT/f/^ k. 2. 9«2 b. 14 fli\nv e^f- wr 4i* oil^*^'a*' alr^v (j^, va^Ca*) 

fjAinj yAfl a^ri) Jourfjf irnif ia^iif^ 

ft. 3. * .] After diU' ^ ^ ^U\fi^ under^und ri vyioiVrir. in^ ' pro- 
v» ' ri^flWiflfui — noi, however, a?^ (]ic iloctor (rdicicTit cautr\ hwx. 
> ibc principJc of hcallli (fomul cause), produces & liciltlij' suit, 
EustratiuE rfatJs rA tU^erutu after i^lii^t but txph^ns Uic sentence u 
if he read fi'^iWii^ni'inv : fro^/ici and {^putnjirjc, he f?^|>]a)ii4. produce 
ruAdAHuvju, iiol ai merely ctlcmal causes, like fur^^ic^ whea it 
produces hcallh; [>ut as cotietJiuenC parts (*«>■?} cf *i'ln*M*»«> l*k*J 
^id, uhuj] ki ul^iu ;t ron^iiiuetil p'pirl cf tllaittDviiK 'H JX9 iEpcrf 
(ihc characicr of wluch rCAoiftni'ui is ihc functjon] is made up of 
the aftt-nvl of the mind and of Ihe ifOd}\ aided hj e.xUrnal mttiKS, 
such as rvL-alth, 7.atf,Sft is [he Iii^jhihl dpir^ of the mnttai, as v^ui^ 
LB of the bodiiy p4trL E£^u>w»iii is a fXar corstituted by the unkm 

of ihCRC (wo #*fl/*w., So^ia accordingly froduia »vam^40>fa, just « 

tViiifl aUij produces il, in tlH: s^cusie i}f being flw af iht fatiarj isthiih 
t&mtiUtir it "Ur^u^ is not onc of the f<uhfs or c^tnifUmtni tkmtnis 
ol^ th:il which it ■ produces ", but it tititmal t^ the producL Such 
b the eiplainadon o^ccd by l^usiratlus- It is not incoiuisient 
wiEh the view of rvAiiif»->H'ij presented in RhsL 1, 5. 1360 K iS *J Af 

;i;p7irr0r^[Xmi', irXo£To»>, e&Tfiri'faF. vroXvtciCfbjpH fi/yr/rfcu'H in rAt tou 

Aikfn^ T>^'}-, ii^n-xi"*; d^rr^i*, But sun-ly ii Is Inconsittcni vzib tftut 
Word^ whiih fnUow in { ti, 1144 j.. 9 tvu fH tttaprriv itapiov r^t 
'i'VJi^t oi-K Jtrtr ^I^m-^ TOiai^rr;^ rou jJ^ffrrtfnv, Thc^C n'Ofds Olkc it 

iinpotdblc to regard vyvta, th« excellence of r^ ^parrmSr, 3« a 
w'pfi r^c JXi^f AtMtrjs: se*: aho E.E.H. j. J2J9 U ^o ^ <al £1X0 « 

p^iw t^r oXi^r ^ii'^i, ^inrtp wlf ^ mu ir^t"^m. Wc niUt»E thcrclbre 
undctsEand r^ initalmK not iCOat^ujf^f. ^fler irytiia 1144 jl 4. and 
expUin — «^ (he has dropped ^pivijir*r for the momcni) 'pro- 
duL't^i' tHhifiOifia, 1^ formal, not ±1 ^(BdeRt cause:*— ^r it Is ft 

nOOM Vi: CHAP, 12: §5 5- fi- 


ff'pot. or fonnal dement, m the u^oi-, or iVhi, of tlic virtuous U*4 •. a. 
chanacirr vhosr fuTtcdon Is tAAai^ifiu. For the technical use of 
^pi). ajt ihi; iTtT/e;^ wrfibnit. mx BouJlz <;ii it/^/, &. :i5. loij b- 19 

*ftof. The phnaeaij j/wtt (\fy^ noi occur En Tfi(» ' Nicoraachean" 
Docks of the //. jVI, but b wdl kn[»vji to Etivlcmus. Grant 
tcmai^ that Eudcmufl came to iiicniify n SXtj a^n^ with KaXdVirya^ia 
— ^or which wTt! A' // II. 15. 1^4^ b. 8 sqq. The Paraplira.^1 
cxplauui ilie prtscnl j correctly — ^F.iTfita k«1 x*"'"W flut npoB t^i* 

n^^kMUF, o^x Siv^tp ittyv^ wjjlf *7iV4n»^ oX\* tamp fl vTiMO ff^t 
i^^iav fyi. Airnv 'rnt^irt uii tjtpairrjnn! Tftut tuhaifitvmv j^pfyTi/toi 'im^^ q 

{ d. ^n ri lpy*)v &iTor<X«tnh k.tA.] ' Fuithcr, the function of itic a^ 6. 
flvHot^wr (*^ d^kyqv Lak^q up ivtpyilv[}) tmmfdui<rl^ preceding) rvquir^fl 
for Ui complcr*" fulfilment Pnidcnce and Moral Virtue — Virtue 
Bi&kjog the end aimcil ftt (^r. in tbc ^pliere of conduci) right, and 
Pnidcrnc m;\fcing the means right,' Man's is a oi^Snc* ^win*. 
'H «>)} dprr^ lurliulp's, aa it! ^'V9. tbe it^*ieiit, ss w^ll as Ihr^ Aiwnffival 
^prrei. I'hc ^>4ptrifft*oi' dyMr. cr ma^n'? funciticd, ns man, is Ai\ 
nwpytid ^t^*- >*'hich involved not only &«^, but ir^pfjF- Kor the 
doctrinr of llm pu*c>agc f/t B^ E. li. ti. 1117 b. 19 Tin-t yt^t ritr 

Ttf" /ttf irtafin' inuipw^trSoi, rti Ai wfiot Vwiww w*pnli>om vpfiiiv tx'*''i '"^^ 
IvTArtapor, iTi*»*jiap A* If J^mt^ VBifl t&v mtawfiv 4 ^^ wfiiit r^r iririrrAp* 

gXXa ^7 b44T«p ^fX^ voirru infuni'ir^'j, oiTt* ^^aji iaraot ttroriKi it Afi 

iewtfi y^ Trhf ^v/tittijebEc iJ biTf>6tfTfEi iif^x^'r bvtv roi rnir frntifViirarf ti 

«I ATTOt fWve, &*nrtp iitti, tt tm r^ Tfity^ra* ACu vpBeii^ aniyKfi luSl 
i!nm. t^t Iff* *pi'i' »n^**»F *^PX^ '^ t<'Anf, t^f ftf fr^^n>B ^ r^( >iu^ffr«t 
Trknrq, <i off ntiurji ^p^J/rw 4 ^ ^i^tr ^ 7 u^tr^ cjJrui, «f fx^ A X^yor, 

oBr^vyxaiMUf mvra¥ ^XAijG fluHi/i'mi, nTU J'viirri raO it^ovt tUi tfonrrtiy^ 

*V^ i^ ^^^ mor^ »(fucturc Or g^gini^liOJi, wliit^b, iikc all living 

» 9 


BOOK VI t CNAP, IS: §5 6-«, 

RdEbT (Si^no,!^^ E!h^ iii. ii)' A^ki^ii to d«Iiiic die ' righrtic^t' of the 
virtuous cndt wc ca^n only answcr^lliAt it la bcinf; the tn<l which 
human niiiure, av a velJ-known tj^pe^ '^ ^^^ ^^ propOM lo LEt«lf. 
It is the life whii^h ihia particular oreaiiibiiL, aa a matter of fftCd 
strives to lead. Our answer ia thus ^vvf^n ir the some way 44 it 
U'ouid huve to be given, if Ihe qv«Hlion were^How do Jtm dofiot 
Uie " rightucss ' of (say) a sparroiA*s ffnonrlf ? 

♦pi«3ff<fi ^ m^ rVoo™, aa here dcscribctl in rolation to ffiiMii o/tr^ 
ii tlie con«ciou!«nes$ of ilic mor;il sEriieture or or^^i^ition, tn (o 
fir ab diL» coDb^iojMiuii^ iti3nifi^»ta il^rif m llic c3<-1iC'-Ltc pcrccpiion 
of the particular tliitig^ ^hich are advantagt^jud or hurclui bo Uw 

k p. iVT^pTtHi] The four pans are (1) ro nriin-7^imcJ>», with lis JpfTiJ — 

lis afrrrii — -ff€ix!j aptfif. and (4) rti dlfimrrtiLJr. ftiih ItA iJfjfT)/ — ^I'u. 

10. Apcri) roLQirTT)] is (jfjr>4 vliicli (';iii be regan^r^d aa t #*tpnt of 4 ^f 
(Jpirn (see note on { ,^ above), and more cajKciaUy (a* is ^hown by 
the CXplauaiOry clause oiaij- Yhp m" nffY ^f^TTtiif ^ ^ fr/hrrrf*) ^Aic^ 

ft. ut 4^. avu0(»] Ramssuer coTTparrM E.N. viii. 1. 6 ml njil ovrw 

flinaiow noicCvnt, »a\ |ii| St* icvr6 (Paraph.). 

4.1^. otor] hcrc = **-^/— «C Waiw, Ori'ttam vol, 1. p. i8o^'Ari»- 
lolcles SQcpe voce irU' ita utitur^ ut expJicct {s/riiiW/, rtfrn^^ non Ul 
ei<»mp]a afTcmt,* 
For the docuine of thi» {, sec K A\ ii- 4. 

L 90- f 8 Tfi' fiJv qSf irpoaLpffftr 2p9^i' mtct ^ V^* ^ ^ ^'^ ^«f>^ 
Imjtcl ir/4*i"r< updrrirflat o&ti *tm rrjt dpfTi|f dXX' ijtpai &uMi|Ubrc1 
Gniot saya' — 'There is some confusion here io spcakinj;: i>f ihf 
mc^nn 10 a puqiose* ttpaat>ro-ic itfcif being in the AfiMOtelkan 
psychology n farulry of mennsj hut^/' XrA Foft. Ii if. $-5 [1997 
b, 36], where TTjiuofitfoi* is ktid to imply both end ftn^ means, a»d 
whence ihe pretent passage is repeaJcd almost rerhtxhm, T^k ^ 
Vdira npnafpWii riv^G tai T*^Kti n^t. ot /liv 0^ lirtma *A ru'mr /vrit, «{ 

BOOk Vt: crrAP, 12; ^5 8, 9. 


[a2] 9 AiHTi) aHn.^ [ itiicik [liut Grant ia mlalakcn in ^uppiobui^ [is 
he Bccma !o dt>) thai Ihcrc is ory devioiion marked hern from 
AriiiioTlr's (Inrfrine of wpoai/^irj* as ■ fncuUy of meara/ TTir wrlr^r 
%ly^ t\aimct}y tajt ^ivrvt ^ trsmatiiifrit o^ mvrav ((. f, of th? fnf/). AXd 
iw lUMTDv fHAD (ctic tnc^ns) ; niiid if he gives us Id understand ihdt 
wpttaiptnt ' ifiipU^K haih em] and mrfana,' h^ only rxprcsws wIislI is 
intolvcd m A^i^tot]c:*s and hi^ own view of fr^jwiipfvit nit fncuUy 
of mfOMt — u. of mc^na /<? o crt/aia md. There la no more 
awkwiinlcie.iSH T iliitik, in iiiyuij^ rfli- i^iv ui% ffpouZ/MfTit dp^^fii- irniBi 4 

7(m r^ i^t, ihon in taying, fls boih ArntoiJe (^' A*. {U» f . 1 ) ontl 
Euclcini^>i (/>* i?. ii- I J> 13^8 a, 2} sjy, tha^L y/c judf;o of a man'ft 
c)uiraclcr (rV. hiti end) from 1ii» irfi«ii^4T>c — r.^. vii? th^nk I^uh of 
what hit ocu ire in ihcmsclves, than of the end for which he 
choiJM:!! ihcin a^ inv4iib. ]l tiiusL be rcincmtici^cl also that die 
popular meaning of irpfwiVwffit (to whkh 'Eudcmus' may be 
filloncd to revert here, witliout being thought gMiliy of mucli 
' confiuioc ') U that of ^geneial pulky ' — as in DcmoiLh. 157. 7 
4 vpe^HflAF 4 '>*4 "'^^ ^ noXf fu. Ify ^/^DF Suvrifi'wr wc aro to undor' 
ftttfid ^^«*^'F*«c. U pointfc ont 10 (lie man whose interest i* in the 
(OOd end, the ihiu^x naturally fillcil to Aer\G i4a Jneai^ t<j llii^ CJtd. 
Th«»f things he accordingfy chooses and doe^H 


ln#T4««n] JC. f^ (tibs-uv. 


f d- Tir DrnnWrra intonii*'] 'n givt-n end'— j'.<. flwmlnjf, cr a. a4- 
'dcvcmeia^' ii the power of discovering and employing the ntcatis 
which Joftd to >ny >.>nd which happens to b* in viaw — no jtccourt 
lieiiig taken, so far 7%^ iht motion nf Sfihirijf In conucrnetl of the 
mfffyttitf of the end, Afinlriji, of course^, opcraieu larjjcly iii rion- 
mcral fieldt, where it undergoc* no tnn a formation ; but in the 
moFAl dekl, when \\ Is lahiiually ciiliarcd in the <au>e of u good 
end, it becomes the Jfi* of ^p^i^fjw ; vhcn hnHtuaily enlisted in 
Ibo cause of a bfld end, (he '^t of nrnfiv/jy^'n. In A". ^. n. 3. \7ti 
w^. xt (in ihr Cmrypar^4 <jf doubiful audienEi^ity}, ^fjdkfiTtt is given m 
tht fwffir^ between Rwvbpyui and v£i}ff«ia. 

TUYX<^*|>' adrov) ai/fitv {t. f. roi^ irifMrnu) is Bywaler'tt reading for l 35. 
the o^w of the M3S. 1 ihJnk thai IC. £^ il 11. uaj L. 40 i» 


BOOK Vi: CHAP, W; {{9, 10. 

lli4ft,S0. againsi Byvai^r'^ reading — -^^ivnt^ Tuyx*^"^' toJtiiii' <'>Xrjf t)ita^mt, 

<^ >?■ di Kol ro^ ^f^n'f^vi ^i»-oils koI novixSpYavi ^r'^r ttvcu] Thcac 
wortit arc lo be conslrued (^a by Euslr, atid ibc Pataph.) m the 
ol>vjouh v:!^^' — r^m ^^Q^fiyioiHr tK^iJig lli<.' aulijiTCl, AITil drimtf col 
RuwtfiyH'i Lhc predicate- It 19 adduced u a i>roor of the close 
cdDDexion which Lh« writer u-iab«B to esiablUh, l>etwei?ri ^ivrfrfc 
ami iroKwpytu on ilic one hand, and iBiwSnf ami ^^hIjijith cm ihc 
OlHcr, thai * ctYff ihc ^iH>*o. arc oft^n popularly dcaciibcd as ()*•«»> 
anU ffoi-ftiyyM ' — r. /. ihai ihe lerms ^/^j^ftorn Sfi»^r, anJ irri^vp^n* arc 
used (inaccurately, of course, Uuc siill iJ«d) imcrchaigcatlyn 

AiiwvT, hut dops ndi saifsfactorily ctplam ihe rtmistion of ihc 
article before FraKLtryuvt iJj llje cxisliiig LrxL- IWn^Jiucr (followed 
by SuEcmihl) inserts the article before ita^vpyovt. It may pcthap» 
bethought that ou, which CCC reads heforp irni^iVv"'<J«» fragment 
of an original rvvi. Fritrac.he qttotcr* Flalo, llirntt. 177 A dtmn 
iT4i fTfltp^^jiyoi, and Dcmo^lh. Qfyntk. i. p- 9 ipomi^ar ^ 'nt Srvis 
Siffisiaritin iffniyitiiiri j(nfjtratT0at, 

A. Z3 i 10. ctAx ^ SiIrofHt] Bckker'ft o^ ij tfudr^r b the reading of M^ 
alonc^ Not only<Io the great MSS, — K^'andO — read ^vi^i^ir^buE 
the infcibr 0ijc&— Canibr ,. CCC, NC, B". B*. aud B'— also, Acco:d- 
ivsty iJUAciiiLhI and Jlyvatcr revert 10 ibmtttt. I agree with 
Rarcifi-nuer (jgamal Ra^sow, Foritfh. p. 03) when he says — 'oix 7 
Svw^K uullo niodo f^rri poic^t, nbi addaiui {h Ai^>^if ) avrij. Opiiine* 
ut scxccntics, BckkcKm cLc >Jic, mcniii corrigen^ Snmijc/ It la xo 
be t\<A(^v\ i'h'M (hi? Parapli- Heliodonis has — nm ^ ^ ^^ntmr si^ 

SO. ^ %' li%% tif 6fi|iaTi nirf v-tX] Eufitraiios (followed bi' Zdl, 
Fritischc, And Gr^nl) ia plainly vroog h\ re^rding tlic W^i Iterc 
05 tDMf T/Tdjm«(c- The p;t&£3gcs quoted by the&e cditorv(v.^. £.M 

yiji V* ffiii^ni wJ'iK, fV J^nn ^""j) certainly show ihat ^ti \a dc^^ccibcd 
as 5/tftJi or ^i( : but the question here is— What tloee rf tfi^mu Torfty 
m^nf aud \l surely can only mean the Aufo^t of Int^n^, which 
becomes the *f n of ^^Ji^aLv (or wi'i irpan^ujj)^ when 4^r^ hxs taken 
it into Lts strvJoc. Gram cotiiparca Plato* ^f'^. giS U will be 
seen that the Avm^r or dfipi of Plato answers to ibe iWinfr^f or 

BOOK V/: a/AP, 12; $ 10. 105 

inviXi^ CipUritr of £. A\ vi. 11, 10. not to tppArtftrK — 518 B Ail A7, 114««.». 

4VXV raMi rVdy>rAX<>f*'vi>t ^air tinti^ nxovTi^^f cul »*vn*, (^n^J Si imv oi'ir 

f m ^ V rfg. 4ot;l ^^ oJv. f^ii. 'O St y* nJf XJynt, jr (^ ^, ff^fin^vri 
'4t<qp r^p nuvcruf' t'«iiirTE>v flvi'Df^'' fr r|7 ^*'X^ *^^ '^^ li^hi'uj'h ^ Kura- 
Vd4(ir«j t^narft, Pinif rl ififitt fi^ Avvtrrnv ^f iiXiior ff ^vv dXu tv irja/iTri 

yt^4n>/LfrDtf tttfyioBnov iZ-yji., ^i At *lt fu £r *m T«b ^rrot ra ^nr^rorar 
hwiT^ WtijMi Aitfl/Tj/i/r^nt fitnpMwrf' tviVn ^'fii^i 0^/i«ir f>iyof!ov ^ ylp ! 

tfitrai K/vX/tvfUMii ^'V)f7ff JMrAt'i4L<oi'?4i' *y>^f ^< (ifuj fw** tbtr tTaj^iarft' rv 
n*Tl ynyi oi'e iifuvtrm irjuiripnu ZTripnv ijiirrjirliffini I^ttri rt tn'i nirw^tirfttV* 

H^Xi^Of KOI fT;^i9imrif dr> itti\ ^afUphv ytyitriii. rj <iCftto ivvt]t&t)tot, tm 

Af*«ic 4iO^ Tui^q, ^1^' d riffnnrftii. iit tfi <^ui<A'/i' '^ii» rr)f v'^iy. fani^ IT 
ifuryKttttudWDif S'ri^fiWTtiif. fid" Sirtp At- fTfur»/inp ffklv^, rntr-avrv nA'^'oi *nrrt 

^ ai!f»i|Tm] RamsaacT iniiVe^ a dllT^culiy about ihe Kiafrmeni ttiu>t t. 30. 
rcfemd to« ami come? to the conclusion ihrti il ia not to be found, 
an<1 rmist hnvp occvrrcd \n a lost passage— most likely m ihe 
prcitnt BiioV, But wliat i* Ibc aUUfinent? Vitiually. [hat Jp#r9 
tnsU^cr^ the ffxwr^t of the tftfm rijt ^v^tfji good, uncT NO makes tlie 
t^i r>r ihffl if/iiii ATI irrfltP€tTj i^te. Ttitt hits bei-n ^M SGvcTi\ times 
I'* f$ ''"9- ' Cflnnot undcrilAitrl ?liy RamMucr r)rulinc& [o rccog- 
niM ih« RtttftTJu b ihcftc {J SL» tvf«rr?J to bj vi t^pnroi, 

fti yd^ wXhoyuFiMi Tvk' rrpanTuM' ^PX^" ^X^^^t cttnK, Jirctt^ it-r,X.] a^ai. 
rj^oirrc 'iait (l£ the rcftdin^ i^ coLind) mi:at be uk^n as oqu^valcnt to 

J'racKca] ^Ulogiijn, &«« note* on vu. 3. 9. Ramsiuer suspects r* 
rvxAr, whidi be icgaids an inajiprt>]>riale where tA Aftttrrt\tf h con- 
ocnied This obJMtion wem» :i IHtJc hyptircritKaln 


BQOIC VI: Cr/AP, 13. 

1144 kSa. ittJmroi' 4p6n^¥ thtxi ^^ o^ra AyMr] <^f>^«^ni b ihc COnsciOtlS- 

new of whfti u requiroi, m all circum^iuncefc^ for ihe mamienancc 
uf the marA charatier. Similarly, eveiy living crr^Lwt b i&w«rc. iti 
nil thu it docs, of ihc requircmcx^t^ of its patiicubr typc- 

Alto (inn; YT, 

mattirai vfrftte. TAaf rAtrr I'l tvrh a thini'tu natttrtt vtrfin it fl4tM ■ f^fit 
art Scm tr^A feHAit..'^fi ffiaryutn i^it l**- ffta/ virfnoKnfirjVff'ri,fit—tfm^minr, 
#r 4'«i'rnii^Vj sr j*ftitft ,' ji*r^ trtdtn^i ijrj ^-omtiinttflH^ t* fmfurmi^ IMliit 
£r4tted ij ttAMn thty art aAchuify karmfttl \ i^id uiaJir tAt ^iwntitm ^ 
Rt^tim, Lcf/ PruJtrHt.I^ry leCi/t ciu-init iniiiAu6iU txnd hf^irtt virttttt ttrittij 
t£ letltit. TflHt, m ir'T Jitr-f Ltf^ffiess afit fftfitfticf i/txitr fAf tfn'wiiif fmrt 
^ iht latii. 10 v'l /nfi nafurai turrrv and nrfut ittiftif wtoiM f$^r fk* 
mifrttl f0fi ," a«rf virttii ilriitfj tt ea/M ii^i mrf ««* im/9 uuHouv vitA^itf 
frmdma. litmt St^votft htli th^it ikf virttut art i« m^uij fermi // /ymint.^. 
fft wai tmna in tim/ly iikattfyini tkj vitina mHA /Vkidmy» 'i^iJ in ip/<xr 
0/ *^ rt^Cffniiat Ihai /"ntdfntt fi ntmsary loihtti- AmfiAiJ it a*Aa/ tii m^ 
mt^jtt in thftf \/f^Mifi/iH ff I'iwfu/ ui • a kafat in mtati-Mm /j //rtMn M/ffIt 
—^iff/frmittJ,^ tftry ettd^ ' »t Ihf rigM f^Ht rt^t4irtr^' mtanimf ty * rigiit * tJkMl 
JfUntioftt ly J^ftkiiHct. A itif^t aiffxitufH, Aaitfwr, ii ntitgnty im lb 
difinititn. KiVMii u «p^ vitly ' a Aoh't deUrminfd Oi th rij^Xi rafw r*fuirv' 
ferlAtii lAe li^htrutio rnt'iAt dt a faiv fJiKrrKi lo th* 'tirlwau Jufadtim^ 
tv/firr, ftrtiu it ' a A/tMi n'AiiA Attt thi rij^kt ram im iftf</* 

It it //uim Ik^n from TfAai itt Atf rf mi J thai d mart ^dmntf It find i'l* f4t 
fiMv/ ttnst ifi/Ant// iVudmff^ tr frttde^ n/ft^em/ mjnat rirfrnf ' awJ ii ii ty 
mmtnt f/r^i lii/fiitf/iffH twfiVi &v Aam dra^-H W/^mtt t^irttrt iftktfy ttt^tai 
9Nd mirufui vifftu ihni m mai t^t diaitiiimi arj^muM x^lw/i fria tr nIvM 
lAil tAt virruti mtay uiiif j/paraJf^ in m maw—/Aax A0 m^ A«rv tAu n'rfiu. 
ami nuT jn/J Jkttv/offi/ircd Ikitf. Tki * ^>%rtuii'' wkitk tAii arguwvtt mAmf**- 
i^ltt «rr pnfjr tkt ' rtaOtntt TtrtV^I,' vkiiA indttJ Htff tritt jff^fotjJy j ^att dr 
fif thi viitmt ^oAitA iOMsfitnU tht lAaratftr n/ the fww/ muh rtriUiy jp *MUttd, 
tAiy iannat aiit ufiarfittfy. //a man Aavf lyvdirKr^ fn wHaf tkt lawK fivit 
kavi ail tAr vittun. £tvn ^ PntjSea^i did ttat luip romivt^ bv tktaU lurd u 
ar Ati^ fht txtftttme -1/ ti firf a/ tk* icil ; 9} tl »i, AffVMfr, 1/ Afi 4/^ ^wv- 
dttfi; urfAetif If and Vifiuefhiiit laevH mtd ht tij^At; ftr t-'irlntgim^ tksgttd 
tnd and maAu ii atira-iivt, /'ntdtnct diKntn n^w nreH at xdttnMit tkailtt 

At /fft tit ifijicuity a^t fnuittKf IHug mittmi ^ iViid^m—it ix m 

^OQK VI; CHAP. 15: } i. 


■Vf7 V tJiat wudUil xwvi ir nijJrta qf Aeaflh. Ifvilctttt ifiMf JMf uu 
H'it/icm at d mmmi^ ttti ^aii^a Ikat'm ^An/f f^mtt^. ft ij lo 
h'iiJen ikjsr f^vdfKf* inntt iartr/amfi. J^vdfuu ititmir tt JiVz/nv^ at fitt 

i L -«> v4p ■ - ^7^ T^>- "t-pfa^l The riading of L*-, 0\ NC is U44 b. 1- 

t^nipliitg — irap«n\ijfr<tit y\i fx" **^ ''T.A- for \he lal yAp ^ ^prr^ scpfi' 

wXfii/ittt f(« «i -^tX of i^ic iMhcf MSSh : in any caac, >iowoxr, ihc 
JiifiX'Tiu is jjivert incorrecKy : it OLif^^ht lo be — ^t f ^p^ivj^ir ff^^r rift 
^ir^rtjn^ otru fnl 4 '^J^^t li/Jtr^ irjiAc r^v i/jif4ur^*r. Otlc i& atso triD^lcd 

(o think Uiai ui fm^i (.t*-. ff^'ncj*- .V ii jn imf^rpolaiion. If wc retain 
it, vc mutl undcnianct ^ drn'orffc r^ ^;i(H-7rr<i: and might Chen b« 
icftd/ CO Agr^c with Rumuw {Fvrsch- p. ta^) ihul the terviit uT tlie 
oihcr ratio Arc icivcn in the correct order — ofrn q ^atc) Jpcr^ 3ri>di 

tioral lendcrjcy to BOOdntsB, which Itndc iHclf kindJy to moral train- 
^Z^ ■*' FHusrhp [K. E., noil* hpf>' pp, Uf^T, a^fl no*'^ on ^. S. 
iii. f. 1333 ^< <^) tJikcs pjiina to jhow« a EEidcmian development of 
htnis supplied hy AriBtoift'— r^'* in Z". -V. ii, 1, 3, ii. 5- f„ x» **. i^ 
X, 9. 8. It b mac thai ihc doctrine nf ^uji*^ up»T^ is verj' dcflniicly 
prescnEcd in itic E. E., ^\ will be setrn from thc pans^^ <|tiotcd 
below ; but I think thai justice is sCDi'ccI^ done to Ansloile's Titatc- 
mcnifl on ihc ^ubjfci, when ihey are summarily described as 
'hints;' — ' Coniidenriu* ut de rebus expbtaus loquliur Eudemu« 
quam facit Ari»LoteIc0, ex cujue quasi adumbraiionibus . , . Iiaec 
doctrina pcriin e»t*{PnrKchff ^^ F.. E. 1^33 b- 16). The iwtt- 
mcnt of Aristotle (referred to bj FrJiBsche) in B. N. ii. i. j, f>tk' 

Wtoffloi iiOrdt, rr^urw/nniK fli ^ta Ti]u fflnur, seems to go far hcyonfl 
A liini. Nof mual *'e fcrgci, in estimating Aristoile's poiiiion in 
relation to this: doctrine, to lol^c into aecounc the promincncf xvhich 
be givt« Lo tirfirtux [dtfiineJ :iH dpfn} yi'mi-r: 3<^e nor& on I- S. 16 
c*7V*Cw iogg b, 3),andtofftf/n>Wfj/ tharivctcr (sec PoL ii,6- 13J7 b, 
l8tqq,).:indtoihe4Vff/)w'/>'ofincniiU,aau'eIlasof carporcoJ rorms, 
in Ibe AftCcndin^ wale of orgomc life gcnrrall/: nee //*W- AKtm-9, 
I* 56S a. t6 Ti ^V o0t* Rt|>l T^k^ itXXqi' ^vauf t» C^^* '"I v^i* yf'i'ftl' 
rOWTcr f^ti fir ry^frw al £4 Vf/jiiffif MrU ol 3io* (Piri -r.i flT^f^ <ol rqc 

TOP dtatfuf^t' ««■ yi^ (7^ip^j nn'i ay^nAtft, ■«! frputtn^f to! ^oXitJttji, vl 


fitfwr tKiyofttf. T^ fiei' yofi roj fiaX^ub kiit ^nof Amtfiiprt n^lt rlr 

ava^oyof Ziatjttpii- ai£ yA^ iV nr^f^^iT^ "^r^ irui vv^io lUi'i oCwvif. Bvrtet 
tuvn Toiir Cvbiv fitri Ti( iriiia rnuriT^ ^tiiji^ AirHijjjf' ^aH^taTtfrrt* vT 
Vori ri Tovii'Tfy tVl r^if toii» ifJi'^Ctft i^\titui« ^Xf^DAM' /* TWimii 7«p Tir 
ftiif Ctrnpuf t^ioy rtra^tVBDK t*rriy tliiv clay ijpfij ml BwiptMTt%, ^a^p** » 
tn.ftif »t tiittiv If ^1';^ T^t raw ^ij/tiow ^n^ff orrrj^ «a» ^/viMii' roumv, Atrr* 

'T^Xwr f^^r- Cvng 3' ft r^ir o^t^tfr *'C ro {yn ^rotfatm Vdrd ^iv^t^ 4 
ipvfTit, Sifrtt tQ trun)(rl^ ^anOdvtuf tu fttdupiav hIt^v tal tA ^iftO¥ f:vnpr» 


Tiio moBt definite ulutement cf (he doctrine of i^in^ Aptr^ in iht 
A". £". is iha: iniii. 7. 1234 a. 34 sqq. The writer \y tppniking of (he 

respective extremcfi, Ard hcfilys — tnaat t'ittrai ed^teArr^t lirmwrral 
fiJif, oin tta\ ^ iiptriti. ni!^ al t'tairriiti ButttH- fTwu wptaifUmitt >vip- Tomi 
&i narr iatlr 4r lolt tvv ini$'jr*ij^v ttaipiutiri*^ iiincTW y^p airvif inifct 
Ti Jtnir, htA ti 96 ^t-aiM^ 4'fOA vJrrAr ^t^utnrun tn'fijtfikXAiviH ofiftat' itrri 
yoft, iMTwtp Xij(^i)nwfm *tf raic vartpot^ Jtt'iprri W9<i aprr^ mS tptioti nk 

yap ahXoi' e'l Trpa^tit oi tirt'avrriv) mji ^ M^futt •ic &iwioffi*i^, ^ (ilAoii fi'c 

cui altcmpt Lj made (l^ dlstin^iL^h ^cparAic naluml or constiluliofial 
biiti in the *roAr, not only for aeparait^ virtu«B, but for MpdLme 
vif-en: aiii] IE Xiuy be al oni:c aiimilif^J chaE Arivuitir xijpplit» coif 
A{/;Vj for nxch dcL^il, bis when he bAy9 of tiic courage A^ rAv ^vtov 
£\ A'^ iii. S- 1 2^-^<riiFA^t£r7 d' **nKti' f 0«^ rur fhi^u^* ^Fmu, cai irpnrltd* 

ihc value oC ai'Ai* aa a quality in the yovn^j, £"► A^ iv. ^ 3, The 
passag* in ihf JV. jT/,, parallel lo /^. ^. vi- 13, {{ 1-^ U as foJTows 
— i. 34. 1 197 b. 36 bttmp If tx*^ 4 dtu^Tifr n^t ^p^rrjoiv. vvmt A^mi* 

Cflt rA AicrJiu 4iil bid' JcuiTTr/v fi^i^ rii r^vtvrrt' *iirt ti &n fti t&tt oti 
tpaatpiirti. 0I ^ A^ >*fT4 XJy«v «fff4u r*Xfvi apttot tiffw *iriiyryi 

tail Xiy«v >>uj^ col JmAmofAtr? Tffb ^inunujr^, i^^i (f rir Xt^yw «1 r^ 

BOOK Vf: aiAP. 13; {J i, i. 


irai tit Jtrtit ilvm Tmi i*j^ji> ^ ^iftrur^ ^/"^^ n/rf^c j^tr^. ni/fS of' A Xdyaj 
tal ^ Wfivaitfoit ov itGvff tt'hwioiiTat r^ fTcai dprr^ Jvu rir* fpofrucrjt ^/>^f)c- 

T& ^p •oni TQf opviif Xiiyor Wfffirrrtt' r& viXiE, rvjirii <pfnj*v fi^dt ^ijift^' 
4p0^ >iJp Ifiif i^nt. fPpfJ^ ;i/f yip av tiC fri AiVdm 7r/Wni^"mc fuv 

^trm T4k' 6pff^¥ XrJ^'Av (A<^hi o<, w< £»* J Xjwj <> **f>0Ai utXtvantr^ OVTWC 

nasCr** Jiaj aptrfi fut tRwrtr^y. KuUmtiUH describes ^virtKii o^r^ U 
r£^u^ fit wpdv iioodn}('iv r^t rvplmt ^prt^^ :ind tfnt^ttjav U ifAosrvJi^t 


^u^amcoL] CAptNecf beccrnitng <r«ii^pn>«r- 

KOA riXXa J'x^P*^] '' '■ ^^ c&pOLbJo of acquiring the other tfm, b, 1 
Or have the other i^tit potrniialEy. 

{2, Jd^ hi X^Lp^ I4UV, ^v T^ iTfdmic Sha^fptt] The hjj^hctt b. IS, 
OntaJ life con^islJh in Jic grcutrsl jHJ»albk oiftdptna tit thf innrr^ of 
rttJonoJ, oa di^iin|;uia}icd from the oui'-V, or scnaiiivc. man. But 
reuon *n<1 sense are not to be regarded as two fniiftfs having to 
paix in thuIi othrr, ihf one bring the |irimi[»k" of morality, an J the 
other of immorality. If \h\& were the dblinciion, ii would be 
difficult to tindfrsinnri Aristotle's view of a voJnniary aci, as on* 
»ljrii^lftiig fiutii ixxy Apx'} wiiliiii djE.- luaii, wliLllici it Ikt im^t^ia, 
iv^tj or >i!ydc {£. A', iii. 1. 2o)h and his liehnitiou of irfiWp^rir b« 
SowXo*irn^ npf^^ (^' A'. H^. 3- 19)- Thi? mora] reason i§ no mfre 
4b9itraciJon out of conticc with the passions, but it ii the Form 
[diftfff) and Ihcy arc the Maticr (*a SrirvMr)^ not iiriturohisiic, but 
reillj cotnpkmentary forct^it ^x'liieh moruliiy ^ekb lo liarmcmisf-. 
Choice, or n^nji^Htfii, wherein mnn appears so cIcArly aa an 11^x7 — 
without which there wou]d be no buch thing a£ momlily, belongs 
umuch T<i llir iwn>iiliye ami cmt)Liiin;il, us tn the radoni! side of 
Ittinitii n&ture, and prcftuppo»C9 the fMjwcr of performing^ volunlaiy 
(wvw) acu^ which irratiiinal Lvmf^ liave no less th^n man. 
A» tbe objects of the Kifniilii. *oOif iire alwujs picscnteii in ■ 
ptfticular bXij, tto llie Jj>A^( Xpfyiir, or moml organiBm, of whicb ^vtf 


BOOK VI.' CHAF. Ift: J 3, 

'iI44b.i2. fr;wcni4lT is ihc cofisciou^css. Is &n f>t>Qs X^yvi, ftn cqulibrium of' 
real poEsionf. The inner, or r;itioni], is ihe Fonn ol the out«r, or 
^nsiiivi^ man. The mnml Tesisnn U (he tl^oTntifiau tuxl p^prpmint rvr 
^a9iifMT*ut. ArisCoik thus avoids the extreme SocnWit positioo— 
ihai Virtue )s knowJedgc^ ntid vice consequeniiy involutitar}", 
witlioui i^um-iiik-ring^ the tniili ihul R-ason In v^^ntiiit lo moralhy- 
Morsiliiy is the perfection of the form t>f a given mciRcr. In 
pkntt. their marnier of growth — ri tf^nrunSf — ls iho form, Aaimatt 
ire (:tJiiS4;Hms of their arg-jnisma in tlie ichi^raatii of plcaaurt* aiid 
tMiu ; and mere ipc^-r ia (he csujonent of their fortD, so tliat what' 
evpr thwurlu wvTc ^p*iit is noi lh<-m«elveK. AcU Aorvt from merr 
Jpcftr hy iffi/n arc hi^ own acts, and voluni^r^, brcauw in him the 
ftcnnibk nuwti U the materiaj vehicle of the rational moral ntittirt. 
and if he i» lo havp credit for achii^ving the pcrfea form, he muni 
[re rcaponaiblc for acts whLh hinder Eta reception— if Mriue ta in 
hia power, vice mus^L also be in hh power Thi^ la Lhe practical 
consldiTiitli^n ^^'blch maltes ArisioiU-, in tresitinj of tA itm'/mcvy 
rcprc-icnt man as coextensive wiih hi» iS^'ftiv cf nil kinds. Thei^ 
is Lhcrffore no contradiction bctv^ccn the stalcmerts [hut Kca«OCt 
is the Van {f^. A". N. ix. 8. 6), and thai acts done from rfr<A>^ 
and ?4/^i, as ucU IL9 those done fiom \Jtyot. are volunt&r;^, t. r. the 
mans own acts ^A.iV. iii, i. *i)- Reason h the Korra taken by 
the whole sensitive nature. The moro clearly a man *i''e* ihax 
R<i5on is hicDScU, the more rc^dil/ will he hold biiUKlf re- 
sponsible for flit acts of the £i;riMbiEity wtnch stand in ih« wcijr of 
the final vit^iory of Reason, A oentral government becomes «Erting 
and j<uccceds in utjflhiiig Uwle^neAi in the provinccfii ou\y by 
holding i/si{/'- iJs ^Kt'n weuknL'Ss— responsible for the la^lestneM. 

The educaircin of [he young citizen under v6npt con^lAU in the 
process of ccniraliMng ihc ^tix** of hi^ nanirc. At hni he aciv urA 
X6yiu — in accordance with an evternal standard. duppl[«d by llw 
wfvrtHtTje. uthiuh he coitid not ^ee un[(;»i ii were pointed out to him, 
and voald not conform to unless he were conaueincd As time 
goea on, h« btgins to see for hiniscir urhac ta right, and to deain^ 
indqiendcrtly of external tonsiraim. ro do it^ tit) at liut he acts 
>tff^ li\iy»v — 111 accordance with a utandaid which he has now 
approptiaicd to himself and assimilated ; sec £', A".vLi3, 5<VTi y^ 
oA piimii ft nrA tAv &p6oir K6ynr, aik\' fj fttrA nH itpSfi X6yau *^t 'pfi^ 
/oTiK by babituaiion th« natural icndcndn to propcf conduct 
(al ^unni ri^Taf| bccotnc fixe<l in relation to on? aAOihet; aAd a< 

BOOK Vtt CHAP. 13: 4 a. 


tb«y became fx«d, <h« consciou«ne9« of th«ir rclarion to on«U44iLLDi 
vioUier bfcomo cIcailt. aiuJ innrc c^palili^ of serving as a pnn> 
dpic of j^dftocc, vlicn circiim»Uncc3 irisc in x^liich ihc duo 

by habiniaiion> under the e^c of ^^L^vr/tru, wtii^li iiK-If bcLonica 
clearer u ihe paf«ioTi» arc reduced lo order \E.N^ vi. 13, 6). 
AiVUf. for exAmple, it. the nftiunl bfli^is of itbi^jkww? (JT. JT, ili. 7. 
■ >34 *^ 3')- Thia naLuul tendency to refMin from iclfi of in* 
impenncc U Rirengllicpcd bv «!ucation lili it begins to attnvcT its 
poflvnor't artpntioTi, and he males ' intemprmrice' and 'cem- 
peruKc' 0«j/n:j!i ^f moral Ftfis^iton m relation to other objcciA of 
mom) txpcrcnc*- This le the beginning of ^pa^^ip, which re- 
acia u|wm ilie Incipient bnhii of Eem]>eranoe — eruurev its fixiure by 
keeping ic stCJidiLy in conaciotifnc^a, and determines its place in 
relation 10 Other habiii *imilarly made objects of reflecUon: <f. 
Shiftrshiiry'ii nfittud xmu, by the u^praiion of which a creatTirc 
mt:^ from ' mere goodness ' to ' viriue \' 

HVjittti dfiar^] h \i not Idl a man becomes fully con»ciouA for b, U, 
himtelf of the order of hh mornl nature* and delicately sensitive lo 
iJ] ibai makes for or against ic — that he is viritinu^ ia ikt strut 
tmt€ &/ the tnm — i.t. virtuoBB in hh own r^hi, and n. law to 


So{&mi(Dv] See note on vi. 5, 8. 

i\ Kupia oA yircTftt Anu ^pot^mgfi] tie has told ua in ch. ts- b, 10. 
\ 10 t-bat rtAuKirfit' ffip^ififivr fii-ai ^^ Jrra iiyu^i*, 'I rendclcnbutg 
<///;/. fi<i:rd^f 3w» Phi'is, ii 3>^r*-''i) iIihl'usw* tins a[>|iaferil eircle, 
mnaikinjE that ^ I>ialectic can caniJy cxhibiE a relation of muiunllty 

' StaftcaluTT^ Fm^iry r^mmuni' Virftu. RtKik i* Ft j. I j— ' Whro in 
£rfj0A], all thv AflecElom or rjiminn^ an? viuicd la ihr piiblJik gonil ctbixhI 
ol tW tp«ip« . . . lAm » the nafUfOt /em/rr entirely );c«ii . . t ^ llnl to 
prOCMd ftfun nhit U fcicvmri'l irtfre GooffHtit. uid U« within ihp Tench itid 
apacttf«f nil vnj/^/r fw*T/WYiH i" <hBf whtrh it ciIIeiT I'irt/w af ,WnV, atif 1 ii 
lUowd to imaiv only— In a cfvciFun capoMfi of fumm^ i^cndtal noliont al 
dnt^i, net only tht onEmn! bvir^'i which vIFrr chsmtali-H 10 (ho bmiw ai* 
«4^cei 4^ tlu at?o«ion, but Ihe very a/tiatv TlicmuUtV) imd tht ^t^fiiianj nf 
Hty, KiaJnca, GnLiIact«, and lldi coptraiici^ licliaf broLiitht into the miaU. by 
ttflcctkou become olfeot*^ w thii, t)v ntans gf ibis i^«C«d mx», thciv 
aite« ADottjcf kind uf affecilwi icwudd iIkoc \«jy offculloiu tbvmadvn, v^liidi 
inv bao already felt, aad aie aow bccouic ih? lubjctit uf a ncrtf Ilkioc oc 


BOOK y/r CHAP. 13; {§ a-4' 

UM &.I0. a« A vidotu circle/ We muBE look out of the dialectical circle, t> 
\i w«Te, beyond ihe r//rx/*i Ehrmselvcs^ and enquire ifier the caufic 
wliich has broughi Llicm inlo ihls relation of muiualiiy. We 
shall then ace that «/jrr7 aiid </jpa»^<r« grckw up iog/iher in the 

CiMzen, because the iwuf, or <p^nn^ii cpnir**Tnw*^ of ^tW w^rtflrf^, 

whiLli produce? boLb. catmot, a» a mjUci of fut:i, produce vhc oi»e 
without producirtg the other. The fjlly formed J^if of Avp-'ad/vrf 
iii ihe is^ured order of the pai^ions ; arid ihe ortkr is net a«mred 
till the eubjcct is dcarlj' con^ious for hinisdf of lU es^cnlial lines. 
This cIgqj consciousness of the rnoml order ia the lolly tbnned 
fififf cX f^pofffott I f/ alsn Zellcrs Ph. dtr Gritfhm^ il. > (Ar^sUHelCf) 

P" ^^ [y^ «<^")- p» 5**3 (^^^ ^^)' 

b^ 17. 5 3' Biiirep] The connej^lon here is well brought out by the vritef 
of Ihc J/. M. in the passage i. 34. 1197 k 36-1 19S a. 3J quoitd 
above [n note ou \i- 13. t. 

(If/ f ^Mii fAot ri ytviaVKiiV r^i* cpfT^>', ical Art fflwi W /fff(^ ^ AmtiMnnif 
Mul rf 4 drfl^kJ iTiil r*ao-n)V rStr tinftitav nvt^t. t'n*ii*t y^it roirr' a^XtTv^ 
rmm-rj/uft y^jt t^rr <7*'oi miiroB ^jit ci;^<Ta(, ifftf" Sftn irifft-liaiftiii rlZmt rt 
T^r AivaiorrCifrjf m\ thai AiraiDf, 

l<jitp(iTT|5] See Gram's note mthr.. in which J! It concluded from 
the absence of the article that * the actual and hiatoncal SocrHto 
is deiignaied' here. It la scarcely neccGSflrf to «ay ihnt the bold 

docCnne — frdcrne file J^r^c fVfrmi/i/if ilvai nEiributrd }yf KttdtlDQB in 

i. fi, t»i6b. ajqq. to Efl«/Mnjf -1 »r/«o^vr»/i, and bj the writer of Uie 
JiLM. in i- I. iiSi :l^ 16 to ^tanpawris. and in iiS;) 1x8 eq. to 4 
aatfwr^e, k not the docirinr eitlier of ihe hisEorlcal or of the 
Platonic Socrates. %v^irt% ojli' obr^ (/i-. SwciMifii) inttrrfttMas irDcvftn 

ffdil^c ml j^6w (iV/. iir i, I- 1 1 ftz a. 20) \% a caplEout tnferriKc from 
isolated :itatemcnt3 of Socrates or Plaio, not a fair Acvount of the 
theory of either, i*hich did not differ eaaeriiiaUy from that of lb* 
ArisloLi'liau sthoot. 

b, 19- rftV^O ^-"sl'. connects i&t»t wUh the circumstance that SoeratM 
jjhilosophLacd ^uikoyMits nol iTiniTdi^p 

b.SL { 4. ml tV 'Vf irdrrc^] Fiiu»be has on imporlAiil note here 
{fi. H, p. 147] —' Lgo interpreter 'rtfjc, ^um vattai JiKirina Ptri' 


BOOK VI: CHAF, 13: 5$ 4. 5- 


aiqur cxistitijt) Ibi srrilirrr poluissc Ari^toiclis actnulum EuricniLm, 
iKjri poiuiH^c un scribcTc Aristotclcm, C/l ciiam infra v, 30 fl^itf/ 

Stiar V%>f>'nk . . . , . Tijr itarA tAp ^ipfi^r Xdyovj What ttl ivafjiiid i?i b>SS. 
umi Tor opS^ Xiyor, Tlicy define op*r^ as ' a "ft* concerned wilh 
GPfiain objecLi,' uril adcl 'm ax'conbnce with the «ipA\c X**>*of/ 
tustT- cxplaiiu lbft[ ir^Ar J^irpdr irptiffit (u^ r^/h}. And thai ihc 
lS*»"wh[thiR added ii Kiri riif oV^dfc' \Ayof. So the ParajjhrMl — 

rtSian tt^ narik rot ip$ov X&ynr, 

itaTd t4*- AffSav XjSyD' — ^A »u ApOou Kdyai/j Socra(«fi made Lfae 
Jpmii Xayot, the nriter sayn 1 ihey are noi Xjiyo*, hill tftfc, r*pJ irAftj 
ml flfjiifftiH Miirlt AJycv — or ra[h«r> fina XJyw, for llic Ai^yoi s\hich the 

«d^ of ihe cir^Mi ayaffoB obcy IS HOl atl CXKtXoI OtW, — IH)t thai of 

Uvvtiich J man cnnfor:Tts Eo, but of prindjdt.' which \tr revrrciL 

Theikfx'Kidya^i pcrfomifi his viituous acM prcprt'e m&iti, according 
toasiandard which ht ha:; aa^cmilaicd^ — vilh whicli (k« id«n[)lii?shi[ii- 

iclf : HV Fllttniius— ni y^p lunmp it lirT^Kip ft«A Tiifui ti* ^^i&ap "^t'tyitt 

^^ f/kirpw 4»^'jffToJ ffDTt tnv ^^rpoti^tfjrdL' )^w^Lft<T^r DiPif dii ftc ffurr ppiir- 

fdv 4^dAr ^Aytjv Jfc', cn'i ^r* avrov tat Vfiil^rii yiVrcr^ lul tuv jiriawn iw 
m^ ^*f !► ^4iflf">, Mill ^ /i#rA roi> ^^pflow Xvytrn i^it ofarif iim^ i.J, iljO the 
PirA|ihfiUt,Hho tiAflfdy^p faTaX'5yD» A(fH^f/-!»i r^ ti/rwh^^Y*^' jiittiIi Xr')'m» 

■nra Xavh* ffui*(' ^ffd X&Y>it Ad, vrnp cjit^p tiJui ir^rr^, jrat tv r*X.ot rPcm^ 
■orA \A'jtn' »oi!5. The ililroduclioii of eonsdouittm (ornp nf^rk *iflif 
■]piiTTT;) b^ the IVraphnul, as diairiTninating rii ^r^ ht^Tvu from f^ 
amr^ x#yA>, Le iinronunaif. It is au« thai in mstn ihe rule of an 
[mcmal priiitiplc ij llw iutc of consciousness, of c(?iisclcnt« ; but 
aiirclj pUrtt hfo. from which conadou&ness ia absent, b also ruled by 
an iDtema] principle (i -f^p tpCaie fl>»j^ ;» alt^, and if the lerm 
%dyot lA UKd to cx^rc^ft ihc Uw of thM life, k ought 10 be used in 
the fonnulft lurrA X^X^t. not, as b^ the Paraphrast, in iho fonnula 
mm^ Hyor. We »hrtll avoid Cftnfunion if we take ^"fl Xdyuo |q mark 
irj firintipU (v\b<ther uft iaxrArdncw appear ^A Klf-con- 


BOOK VI.' CHAP. 18; 5i 5, & 

1144, adousnoRS. dr merely ^a the organic iinii)r of th^ftt^sicel EAdjitJui!]^ 
and MTD XJyoif ^n fxtrrrtat ruk. ThuK, a temple is built mth Xaya^*; 

b' 93- $ S. &KXA Kal d X^y'^ . . - • - ^ ^vai 6irdpEoifffii-1 TKo Wril^ of 
the vV ^/, hel[>^ us lo aiiflersian<l ihe r(-';i! ii.iiiirr^ anil csliject of the 
dialectical AF^mcni (v Xd^m . > ^ ^aXix^'> *•( ^') referred lo hcfc. 
which tries to prove ihat ih<? iipmu are independeot of oneanoT 
[[^ reaT object ii^to T)iateacaMiisiicalmu-fpretationrhfiIutypa«9iLl>Tii^ 
by showing thu ibcrc majr be ' a conBict of duties' In any ^vcn 
caee — chat m&n is nothing but :i bundle cf fiCjuraifr vinooufl 
Irfuleiides. a.ny 07n? of iaImcIi may be indulgi-d a[ ihe rxpiriiw of the 
Uhef*H His words arc — M.M. i\. ^. ]'r»9 b, ^^ ixti **' woi ru 

[Sm*-] T^* TJfi^t t!i moXiV WTO|»J[fl»' tiptv X<'fir^ ^ ^ i'lTTi*' JifitVl^t *" ^T 
Xvyfti 'dj TQf Aeyiri' fttvri ttrrlw. Simt Hfta to iXtifSat [mi I fTdpfdrai mi 

itfH' T'li 'ppoiti'/riof aJ JXXfU aprra'i ylwovruix *rCo ij 'ppiirrjitit ftKtia atrv 

b, SJ}, TDUTO yAf «r]iT& |iJv r^ ^ii<rivA« AprrAv M4x;tnA c.tX] The 
Xvirik of ihc cn^ublical argumoiil i^ thjiL man is Ciot a bundtc of 
ai^pirutr iiatuml t^ndencLeg, but n mcfn] or^nlhrti r and ihtui, as ft 
nucirr of fact, thf^ bcfji men arc <.-on^ious of this orj^inirira. and 
mike the consd^usncss of ii> and not feeling or natur&l tncUnAlion 
(however Antiable)^ their guide in life- 

(BjWh) i* ibf (I'tflin^ of KK M*\ Ciimbi- : nCff?j is tlic /t^iuling of 
L\ and other authoridci, accepted by Uckkcr and SuttcmiU. I 
Ihink that ivtipx'^ii K bettor {hm ri&irrj. iF wc reeul the futort 
£n4fTfovtfii' — * if <Jt(>6vf}mt h prcaeiit, all tJie viriuca will be prcwnt': 
bui L^, which rcAd^ oOirjj, reads virdfix^vtro'. A» for ^- it accordt 
with 0^^, but Acirccl)" with imj/^x^^'^JV* ^^'« '^^^ to require— ^^ 

yAp T]7 ^f/iUfftff4i, tii^ <iCijj}, viraiijiovvft vaaat umlpfoivir- A> icttuds the 

doctrine of the »cnuncc — vkq uji^i^, of which tpp^ntoti is the con- 

BOOiC yf: CHAP, 13: 5^ 6-8. 


sciousnees, is, ihe resultant of all the flpcckl iptrm '^xn*i V^"^ ^ UiA 4, L 
#i<(Caift of tlicnonniiltondft ion of all ilir bodily orj^ans: — ie& E^£. 
li, 1. I23 0d. 2 &ai!tfi i tviiia tnyiaiTm tK rbit-iuT^ ^d^iiu' tiptrvn', uvtcujieiI 

^ r^ V^]|^ «f«r^ J tf'Xoff, W«ti,^ it net for the r^suJtjini, ihe «^<:U1 
iprrd would lie Apfrai onlj in ^n cquivoca! artxsc^ If wr? can l»e 
son; ibat i man has rTaUy <nic viriuc — r,^'. ff™0pcrffu*flj, ^*c miij be 
tan ihox he b^^ atl th( other vinu«s %vhich make vp ihc org^uiiani 

of 4 S^V J^rr^: biLt 1 niuii mny hiivr^ niAur, unit ncl t/f^iirir, tn his 

DaEurM coDBlituiLon, Crart [cmark« that iLc theory of ihis j ^p- 
proachcK n«irly to the !>toicil \i.\vn of clur wiue uivi : f/. Diogi 
Fjrn. lii- { 13^ (qiinrnl hy Mlrhfln) rip f^i nprrin Atyowrur (//■- rtl 

Xrvlnu) unut^cL^d' JXXpJXais, 4ij1 rvp ^fup r'i;a^u iruViik ?)[*(»'. On tbc 

geticrU subject of the rcbtton of <jj^pi)v(t to opir^ tec nolc on ii. 
] 7.] Tbift j r»:aLii[iiI;ii«« what has l)«en sajtl iii ch. tf . J 4 uul », a. 

A»^i«», nFair r^t iTer^jnr nin ^i'X"' ^^^^, ^t"}"^'- "^'^ f'Ri/i«Afira< Riivrait-^ 
to* Kvitiu /urJ B-jjuUT^itruijafl- uXX fff»»ii t^" ^"Jrf/i ^f oinii^i ^ in irfjajniSM 
#vroi y^ji narvwi' jii^di Hal itarrti oitttHft' oXX ofirai otrot ^fiX'* TUtrw^, 

ifvrtf -AEJi fif>'>b«t miTft >; 'P^iifri'rtt Iftrirtp /utrpotro^ Tit tcm Ti;t wijriutt mi 

^4 n^v aiOT^f Svtmtv jiai rev fidc'rcu j^afO' uijjf t^>' owi^y ttUKKir tvot ffi^^i'iif 
f wipr tiftv <{im^J»iWiiiir rivrfv, inl *^v ji/i;^i>rtfrf ^nw f^< inn^j>fTi>ijrrT7( /liJXXnP 
■£ui rrv^uj' t£ yr^ ftili' rViruTTtf^ Tut uo^uf ciXX* fViruTTfiv, nvi (jC 
r**rw rfi^ iTffilitfi'ai, a>\a rowf« t^ (rrwi^ cflf^^i. As waa [>OtntOd 
ouiitiooic ofi vi J. 1-4. U38 b. i8,^^iiyff*f *Iocs not ajiiirehend the 
mltintiik sundard. Th^i i» ^ivcn byvo^fu. Tiic moral life 1^ wh&t 
it is in order to njbicrve the ideal d' the ^pccuhtive ivason. 

VOL. ti< 

BOOK yii. 

Infeo4ud0Ty Nod. — "These cbnplers [vH. »-io]/ says Gnmi, 
'form a necessary com[>ltmcni to llic Ari:iloicliaA ciLical s>flcm. 
taking a more fract:c3( point of view {TtWr^v d/i;^k} than ih^t wKich 
would divide tnankintl aimjil^ iuTo iIk.- virtuous anJ the viciouj. 
Moral symcms b gcnerrtl have perhapa loo much n«jflecu4 thLi 
ficlrt of the ixiierrocdlftle euics; and fc«rter^ language his not 
dcfiiiild/ udoptwl ibc Llistinc^Lioii toweL-n ihe "InlCTHjJcnlc'' [W- 
AofToiJ, QTLd the ^*lrccmin^nt'' [qn^TiJc], as the use Df the English 
worda a.t on*:* testifies, for vo are evidenll)' obliged £0 give a 
certain special iuiti iccliDical me^iLUjg [i> the wnrd " Intern [icralr,'* 
in order 1c make it stand as lIk represcnt^l^'e cf Joftuvivf '.' QI 
the AUtne Scholiast on vil (not Asp^E^iuE, but ' Anorymus t«c/ — 
ace Rose; Cvmmmiart sur £thi^ dcs An'U^ Hcjujciv vo]. v) foU 

^^ iWiP 7 *yi*;iiiTf*it *'* irpnuipwiTttav yiypfitifj mii vifpi irptiwra comyjhc^v^, 

^aj^r^ Tiff Jtat (rrniruirr^cfp a^rr^ pCk tanr' I yh^ iy^i^K 'x** t^*" '""* 
li^yib irpoitriifttrnvra flilt t!ff/i£*frAi» rJ* ^'^atAir t£v nlffjjt^, f^»» U An- 

4 'JiTiM(>ii»i7 T$ ^^>fT^ ^TDi T^ ryuptiTf^ /rijHt Wr /iFTi Jtrtcui fr<^ fi&r 
nl rir Aoiirdr* 4 ^^ ojepvnft ij^ti p^r tAv X6yo¥ Jppvfutor ^> 

* ' Ircnrri^ibTe ' i« iierhjipv lh« cIovkE rpEnlvnqg erf* tt^vAiwtvr. He it ite 
BMAvbo h'a no principle, tud n tn M^cnm^hlt ofTmJCT.' ' JnUfQMnte,' 
bcwtwr. >■ ftinjJ}r jiulifie4 by the lut (hat dJrAAdffi* |i ihc Rgulkr ccotiMj 



fi* TH* ^pw T^f ^'Vt^f ^f yf^P *nt0\'piat irmi'di}V<T*}t rbr^j^fnAri ri^ 

r*ktf^ij..ay ^(rvixFiA ?rpot rns tpaC^ac ^Actrht rifBir ^X" '*" *^ \^yQif 
fwwtvXmSm/rm nal nff liyiirtimfta. Cf. M.M- il. 4. i;O0 a. 35 
|itv4 ^< ravru 4ta7ituwv /(rrir ttipof J^JCV" fi<'('/<"^u''uii Xryrit ^fp 
J)*fgTt w f Jtm oMpa^iat. £<nr>f7 A4 01I 1^ dpir^ hcm 19 wirla atrol iiirtji 

yjW^T^' dC yhft &ii4iiit if iiptrij oiT*] *<ru rats £XX/tts. iv /yif y^ 
nut SiXais awl toi'^ii *Lk< i X<>yur fii ra jra&rj Apfi^tri, tai ovit iifarrtv-viTDi 
AX^ti, *iri Af rn^i ivarrutvvrtu dXX^Xpiv rt Xdyo? roI rd ffd^ 

Th« pindoncal choroctec (t« ^imi') af tJH^mrf^. lo which ^ccmtct 
^m called i:tcntion, made the «iate a f^vouriic subj^tt of cHscuHiion. 
Tboft (he cbtcf dxfEcuItici in the nouon cf valunlaiy Acuon prcMrnt 
C}irai*dvc» 10 :^« writer of ihc J^utiemian £lAur [S. S. ii. 7 And 3) 
in connrslon v.'ith i^parna and o^pnnia : thf u^riier of JT. !^. v 
Anttca the pujifc oi sclf-injujy with immctlwk reference 10 ihc 
itpirrfft {£^JV. V. 9, 5); Uie inicresi of ihc wriL«r uf A. A^ ni, 
cfiapi^n i^io in h[« subject is, to a ccTTMdcrahIr rxLcni, a dtst- 
Icciic^ ODt; jUid the Aunc rcoiai^k applies to tlic vrritcr of ilie 
JV.J/i iLduq}tc» 4, 1;, and 6^ who fotlcwK Jt\A'. vii. f-io very 
dM»fy, ADd probably (we RumeaueT ^. A' p. 4 3$) had no other 
Ircatmcnt of Uic nubjccl before him, when be wrote. It a ihc 
d.rcuinf>iAncCt as it !ie«mB to mc, that ^paaia lends iieelf to div 
Itxlionl di*ciui*ioii^ raiJier thnn Ibe iniriTiiiit impurtaiiLT.- of the 
lubjcct— prciLl AS Lhil lA^— wliich AC<:ounLa for )U rcm&rkablc 
promiii^nce in the Antiotctian sy^tpm, and moiv e£p»:taUy (oa 
wu tD he eiprrtcd) En the later ventons of that ftystenip 

* Ttic Acocvitj «r uaLiJiilJk£ the cjdil<intc of inicmwiliiil? GtMrt bvt<r«n Ibc 
C«Afiriac<t ti^ii. ^*4 ukI AUii^ b Ht Turth by^ AlcunJcr Afihrod. \a bi« 

4^«T^ T« «n] Buiiif,!*^ t<r ff>i jiinfi'J If ihere Aorr m* ifilriTun^Ut? )Utc*, 
llriw, be i^t, world » be jimflblt to ^effl^ vlrliiPiiii ' F.vrpytMni; romc* 

^nrfii would b« f*^"*! u^ <fprti( cotiwijurritly m^n ^i^iv. ThirrtfuTfi (f/iiti) 
41C djflcrectntcd J« rub>M-raf^- 



BOOK Vii; CHAP. 1; } I, 



t'trftti AaJ Cimtiitmtt aie piiiii/y ih€ lanlruritf n/ yite ami fmenfiivfKt - dn 
tinirary t/ lirvtAlifjr ii 9KI S9 ffat'n ; dur mqy bt laJUK Ai Af ttiftrhuttaM 
trittirt, tMth a^ tvt lUfriAt ftr hfot* jtrrt tf Ikt ^adi. At /-lit jpeMit^ rtftut it 
rai4 tvnmg mrtt, !B ii th *ff^iw/t t'ryftaiiiy —^/littat /mmJ itmrftg harf/crimmj^ 
amJ amOim** tvw fomni fyJiutut d"</ frnt^i-Wicn. If> a4i/( rt.'Ufn ft ii 
l^imtnnfj — at firrjent m art cfmttr-anf wiik tkete frvp^rtfJkwMit Jufivtriltmt 
wAtiA He bt/nttiii rAr i;vti and tht ^futt. 0/ thtifi/iifusitftnK Viu ««/ Virtt^ 

att^Avifumnif, f** !afUr «(«i Mi-W^k^ K^ the lam^ i/rrul Ji yirttn^fmt Jifir- 

IjIuj ceniluci rhii m>2uity ill «t^ uivai way.^'—firirt liiUittf iAtnnpt JMd fw 
for^Hf lAtst tiiifoii/tctis ; shin ^oi^s ^^""^^'^ ^^f /fjffi'MA'irr nv fb v^nm i 
thtn /rtf/^'fl^ /*" firaMirh . '/fVtttbU. a!It^ tir^f fi<vtfi^ »y i9i§kktti afimn, 
Or, <f/ ItOif. tkt most rf th^ni, urni tkt ^ti^tieit - /cr tAt /w^fat ^ tMt traatij* 
n^i Aj&v ^rn >fgiti<Hity jtrvni if. kwin£ itmoi^it i^lUM tt^tMvtu, «r 

Tkt foUiTstting tit'/rjux, ikm, an HtM-^ 

[i) CannnfHtt an-f tnJttranft a^i gK*i, ttffimtimtwttf t>u4 nftmat Afi^ 

{a!\ T^ cffMtiHen/ /Nan t'j A/ titfis ^^i^ ly tAii rtmU j/ Au r^/thtim ; At 
iiuaritifuiiT, Ht wAo/aOi av^ayfrom it. 

f^^ TU ineontineitt wwn acu whiiw (hs infiuvrKi ^/tfJAicr, imnfim^ i/kat 
v^hnr At Aif' /j Aoi/r tkf t-rvtttM/nt irmti. incvtr^ lAat Ait dmrtt art ioji, t^t 
hi* rtitten 9.^ avtJ nafje/iinf ikrm 

(^^ 7'/t* Wtf^^-M* iviHii it^ifiirtfJ jjfJejfJttnHg i ttrAUt fit irviwrtt ^ lAir 
italtm4nt*»itttrffffdM vjtiftna/fy fntr. andr^hfri /# mt. 

(■») Sttmt tur tAt ffrtiu ' imsfri^yk* amC ' itKi/H/intrnf' Jwfcrr^lanjwi^ / 

;6) Snpif tay/kaf tkj /rtuiertt man mnnet Af imattititmi ; Ptkrrt ia^t^at 
fn*'itHf ami ttntr/t9f!t an lOfrtHptn imfHfinfit/. 

v7) TAtn it ' ImoHtirtethe ' tM an^tr, an,f in lAt fittrtmii of Itft^mr ^r^ ^ 
nalmal aJvanJitj^, 

1145*. IB, i 1,] In ihia SMiion ^e hxvt six stflia«— (i) $tia a^, f Cr^ 

iyttpduta tn pari materia ii o^potrvrrj (j'f, jr4p\ rdr «ftyutuat 

BOOK VIl: CHAP. \l Jj I, a. 


q&u^T icoi Xvaqe). and OlC aovtu VIcjW Jcpofr^ is JuD^airfa. I iki DOt 1I4A ^ lH. 

thinly Ebil Gium ift rit^hE in Ati^ummA, a« he seema to cTo in hU 
fiftv on thk i^rtion, itint ihe fermff flprrij anrt tatlfi, as here cm* 
ployed, Arc simply cc|u wile nl to cuifr^juirunf and uK'i\tiaUi rc^pcc lively, 
"A^mj hoTC tnirk* the cti-tracter. a* st v-lioltf, of th^" virluoui man, 
OS cli*lir»^i»i»h<'(! fmn» rhf ^iirf, whtxc Tiirrilmte is fi/j«»rf/>Pi* ripfn^e, 
and cojtM ibe charAcccr, hU ii wliolc, of ilic vjooua mnv. a« di^ 
iinguifch«ij fromi tlw bt*jst This svcms to be the view of the Aid, 

bchol. itti io(. — fi yaf nurin orrKurm Bflrmit riHt ^fliKut nprmW 17 yAji 

&lAu Ut 7 ^^riJjf^t Kill )^ Ucit^dLTiU fi fitfiLHl lIl^r^Vlt'Tlll rifih l^^tffJU' 

ifimit. SanW^y [he PanphrssL Helitxlon:! dcscrvbct the ofifrtj 

o^i /«■»& k.tX.] /L xxlv. iQS. t.. fll, 

{ fl, oJW fqptou , - , y/«>t Knfot] ^ Piii. I I. 1753 a. j; *^ fl* «.K6. 

i<TT* T ftjpi'oi' ^ ftAt. C/. Piut, */<' Vita tt Pofit /f^iJifrt. 133 fiioot 
^t>v mA &tjpinv -j^'yntfv Ai/ipaitcv . >. - t^i^ fiif Htpev ofirriff ^'av {/yt7fm 
[ OfifTjjm J, nyr ni JA^f miKniii viif'^moLir, an I'TrvpuP .\ptirTitT4\pjc <Vi!^i<r<, 

The bnit« liavv neitlitr i^^t^ nor «it*»», becauio "^»r^ and «irio sire 
f(iat»^ nirquircd by hntHtiinlion Cffir); wherrA*^ chr dispositions of 
bnitca *rc what ihcy arc i/^^n*. The AIJ. Schol. and Helind. 
txpbin thvt difference betw^ti mxn and ihe ha:tcA by the prpacnce 
c/ M>oi 113 lUAiL Tbe Aid. Stholp says— ^twi fiif &t}it!vit dprrff of>f 
JffTt du^i fl aprr 7 jr^wu^'r^ t*rtw. fj &i nfionipunt TOfv "^ayiKattf itn-if I and 

^ npa tAv Xrfyav : ^ t. tnan livcri In. iiiid is conxiriU^i of (7i<i>ov)» d 
taoTil eavirotimerl (rJAnit wiih (he conditions of ^hkh he either 
may (Jp^nV or may not {tauia) correspond. But Ih^ hmtfft are 
born laLu jl iiicri^ly phy^^al ciivlroiiLueni, wilh vhich they arc, from 
ibc iint, in pcrfcrt corjc!ipond«;cc. God, on the other liand, has 
no iv*^. f^f 'V'^^ '* ^ '£'*' "^ acquired eapacit)* of rorrespondrnce 
with on environ tiiciit. and leprcjicntu i}k painful victory of orgiiiiie- 
iikjc kam (A<^r) over matter iO.fl)'. God'5 being JB ptire forni — 

imffftta Xwnr ^iMjtfisr-'— if^irif ivD^nrtff— |h/^ fi%rtn^l1ve principle En him 

ii not confronted bv an alien matter, hut regards iteclf alone- This 
copclttfion, nrr^vcd at by an A pnon mcihod m Mtt. A, 7 anil 9, in 
confirmed by con^cU^ndonA of a sointvliai popular kind in B,N, 

The expreuion t\^m^po» 6f,tr^i 1145 x j6 indicitl^ that ih# 


SOOk Vli: CHAP, 1 : {$3-4- 

IIU dMM good 16 no( a ^ia. vhicb ia merely Aroirmi', but ftD tr^pyM, 
wMch i» rf/tiftif : sec £", A". L 1 7. 

t.lT. Inp^ fi Y^t^ jutKLOf] T\k genitive mq^'mc depends on mpn: 
'Apyvpcnot^Du — divcrsum quid ai i viiio ^niu. 

a^Idg ft, I like heiitr Suscmihrs way of mecUntr ths (JirficcUy. by 
making trtlae Aritp tinufm paienJielical. Comes (willi lUc Jip^u^al 
of Ra33ow, J'Wu^. p, 136, find Suscmihl tni hi,) reads ofm 
berween ^jjt and flrrso, on ih? strengib of Plaio, Mma. 99 D, 
\vliich tlic writer of Lhc present pui^a^e seema Lo have hod in \o,% 

Argjropulub, »& Coiftcs noic», favours u^tt : bis tct?uoti is — Diciun 
enim vir <livua Ait est. 1~he Aid. SchoL also may have rstd ofrst : 
hit ^ncnlon is— «>I iiAiwwr . , . «>«ynv o&vr A Ari^p $iAt /drtv ifr« Ai«c. 

On ibo conslnictiou /j«f , . . . m™ we Euckfn^ t/f i^rii/ ^emdi 
miiene p. 30, who compares P^. 1x53 Ix ij-33, &nd Pd. 1158 

ft. 31. 

• so. liiXi*™ 8* , . iTriSuff+TIjiou^i-l '(i) Soma men are bom bruul; 
(1) otberji 4re mudi^ sn . (3) [iiUrts m;ike ihemst^Kes so'^ — Pcwnf 

note Jr/ /fli-, Toir flw^wmvifffptfcf^XoKJ-aj, mlfoduccd bynl — 0«\ 3JC 

(ii»iinguUh'?d m a ihird vanely from (1) «I frCinir f.<, jt^p^aptM, aad 

Ah 8L, -ffiipwmi] Wc arc to think of bodily mutilations and dcTedM. roL 
viEh the Aid. SchoLf oi* a defective mor;)! nnture-— *f'i yoft rwvr, hv 
&ayS) nrmi/iViUCfDt ^1 df^^^^^i'^o^ ^X'^^'"' ^^ Xo^httui^i' va'i th* duKitf* 
c^^Mvik AiTTartTi, Comes, noJiriK that Arjryropulns hw /^/jftHPrt 
prinnpn, £ugg<jBW lliy reading ir^/niifffrt r^t 'ip;('F*» ^"^ eoreipores the 
nmr^fiaifUKOf ?i/f6c aptTfi¥ of £*, A" 1, 9. ^ : bui iht" Mfociation of 
n^pwff*** wirh »i^oi (frcqucnl, aj Fritzache ad he, notes, in lhc £,£. 
and in J?, A' vii) t«ems condanve m favour of undcntanding the 
fi*nnci term of bodily injuries ui dcfccla, 

9%f\ %i nMtctf ^TpTfTttL iFp^tpor] K. K. ill. 3 (^ A'. /V- id, io\ it 

iriuna li<.' tak>-il Jti^rt' rudit^r in its ^peciiil aen&e, as dfnAairfa, ihon In 

the general sense of the contrvy of n^ d^r^. The Puaph. 

SOOJC Vfl: CHAP. Ir } 4- 


probflbl/ tat« it in the general sense : he eit^ wtpl ft* mr/ntf #T^ijrd* ii4b l s«. 

pk !«<>) remarks on the exiraGrctinar^ cnrelc^sneas of Lhe writing 
here, uTiil iiip^K^es thai ifie -.lUtlKir. when iie wrTHr rf/?/, imenflt^d ta 
i»c Xt«rtW, lui in ihc pfcviouK clause, but wrote im^tfntiow lnsi«ad. 
Corufi odopu iho reading ^inrtjoW for &f m^L K^tCk&sMuT nocet^ the 
caidewTiFUi wilh ^vtli^h /tarJpair h \}wtt\ m Ihc HJngukT niimbf-rt 
tkhovnh* 0T1 ihc one sjdc, three dispositions (aVfinvM, >MXaif/a. and 
i y ^ i j ) ttJt cnt)m«utc(l, mvl, on ih« otiivr aiJ«, two ((7«^urf>a and 

Adpn^). &trw*p Qurrin. fof w* irfpi', liUg\il hc hU^^'JifCStcd, tf £l WeiV 

not «utcr CO accept ibc ctirclcia ^vriiing of the text a^ il stands, 

'Efiqvrrcn And (iprr^ [here^ETDo^^jniTiJi^, nppaTrtllly) brlong lo the 
tuiirynf, iujaujuL-Ej U& Lniih it^sult In gtiudnu^. when.' Letuin Iicidily 
pkaiurci nrc concerned ; hui d:frcT iht' ciflnv^ in iltai tbc j^ood acu 
prooeecling from apm^ Jire donewichou, and thos« pro;: e«dinf^ from 

J^/Kfiwwia uiUt* A »ilmp[^lC' Stntilafly, wtftfiir in mid tin^Arjftia [ = dtaXiMia) 
Moogto t^jcum'J^'^ii.iii^'diiuch ^u Loth ri:sul[in bad ocli; but ibef 
dlSeriMr' fEBftf.inlhai Tht b^iflacit prac^L-iiin^from /^nx^-jftia arc done 
vilhnac, ami thrwe jjniccr^tliiia from oupaaU wilh, 4 situgK'*^' So 
tbo ni>r*|)Ja produces fEood acta, where ccrtttic) bodily piins arc con* 
ccnied, but stftcr 1 imi^le ; and ihuit ()e]ongs !o the tame 7>h3p as 
ififT^ bot dUTcn* from JC nor t^t : and ^uXqu/n product-^ bad ads, 
vbcrc ceruun bodily poina ve conccrnc-di but after a scruj^glc^ ihus 
belonging 10 the lamc >■«* as ito)(6rjitui^ bat differing from iE ■nr' 
pAar. For the ililTen'ncc.' bc(^v?cn iIji^ owpatijt h-ik) dtriiXircrTfit trr 

^, *V, vii ,'^. > i ^"^ ^(i/» (i^v aiDikairrot) aytrai npoiupnCtiii^t. t^^^mv Jtl 

AldL Sdiol. marks the di^crencc by Siiying that in lIm fyitpar^ aatd 

there IJl a f^lCJ '"■ ^^ ^^'^ ^TH^fiuv illtd ^iicifXpurrav ^.n ifmtDf*uj 

rfnf |Wp /utiPj v£ r6 Fo^irrtK^ tfT'nr^i tviifiur &pifttui *ti) Frp^of ^ Xoyianlv 
^m^X" *■* j»*Tfl;i«pifrtoi, ftfpl rAt imdv/tiiAv j;^<tf|*frt)* tiT<**f"wrt ■«! A»X"" 
^W ¥4* ;^X4>iW' tffti uparovPTt Ti}U ijri^ijxtnn' t'yupatriov fit pi\w HXvfrur 
ijn, odAt iniA'^t^f, l\Xit a^uyunf kti'i Ifrtttimrottar, tilur In^ it^ijy^is kuI 



soojc vrr: chap, 1 : 55 4, s 

llUa-SO- ^\ca, 9SU ntmrriwrtv inh tntovf<iiv i^tfi^fJiCi'^rnw ail, t>ff ^riX^i pantos h 

AptfV K nrVKu^t r> ta\ trrttrayftdTtuV. 

^ a, f 6, 1 f/tf Mf mefJiflff 0/ ihe prejvn/ enquiry. First, wo WIM fCiM 
Vtfliai men ihirk on ihe subject (rtBirms nl ^i^-ri^iw) t ihcn, T*vte« 
llie ilifftcuUics i]> ibc vaHouk opinioiis (fl«mpp')""a[Tcij) ; but coim 
cutli a vny as to overtlirow anv, oir, at leant, many of them {ov** 

titiMVi-imi fiaXtfrm jiiv vri^it rh fvAn^ nrpl Tm!<r[| r^i (ra^^ at Af /i^> ^ 
frXfliTTu «ur Hv^ena^a); fof mcri^ opmlcjiwahc^ut tcuuursof conduct 
if ccriain confusfona be clean?id up (iav Xvrjrai ri Kirjf*p^), viD 
jjciRTjlly l»c foiiml 10 lie r(g]il Cf. /T, /'. i. ft. iii5 b. 2B (^Tt*TiT» 

^■v 3i*ivt(iE tfPf'iiiinin rjnilitirOiu tjvsi}}4'i\<ty*>ii'Tiiti roit pij0tjav}iitotif tl oi 

AiocrruT nTntiip n irpAt r^v Jh^«inh>, /f ^f ifHi^imriii' ^tuutwac wan itt/A 
4l£r&V ffV yV ''^"' ^*l^^i p^v XfriifitVuii' o^ iTfii^iiTi dr. rrtKr'ovatif Ju-ia 
Hi tA aiffioit, fitraKiffificimvfrtv ail tu yJ'VjJiffuTffa Tiuf *r«i^f*i' VryicAH 

<rtF7Kvx<'^'*vr- A«:cofding It) ihiH vic.'>Vh ttic fuiitltou of llic itLorJ 
philosopher 15 to introduce form into the maitcr already supplied 
by the common opitiicns of men, Thotf opintoit^ often rep»- 
MuUjig uDpcrfcct Luuwlr^gc and ai^ite^ uf rcdiu^, and ^Acrdlj 
couched in misJeading Iamj^ua^^ cnnnot, rP' they Mand, ccmbiDc 10 
form A ccnsiftKni ;heory of contlucu They pow^ssanly conttln 
with one uioiher At many poincf, if not in ihi:\i smhttxnKc, at Icflsi 
in thfir cxprr-^ion- The moralial has to note the points at whicli 
lliey mHflitl,and ti» present ihe cxlicc naiiire fif the ctanfiict in 
eveiy case: as sharply 45 pos«blc in a aLrtktn^ ^opiu. When two 
conflicdng opmionx hive been nhaiply d^Gned tide by >ide, to 
gnniiicb on which etch lias tK-en adoplrd will gmerUly nppnr, 
Eac^ if seen to embody pait of l}ic trulli ; c^cli rt^ards tlic aamc 
ihlng from % somewhat different pdni of view ; or evtn perhapc it 
i% DDt the ume tljing ai \\\ ihai is rc^^rded* hut two ihUigft whkh a 
word confouAds. The detection of the c^juivocation, or other 
rau^ of miatLnderftitnding, which htm opposed tivo rtcarty coovci 

HOOiC VII: CHAP. 1:5 5- 


opinlOM u the /m>»tI<i of in dr^^Jo, imTircdliUt'l)' remove Ihc doSLd- il4il b, a. 
lock, aod cnablcB the motalint to uw the opinions as marerial!! in 
^ac cojuairuciiujt gf liiti ctlucul *tyw^v\. T}ju», i Xuc/k t^v thi'niiat 
«^*p^fWtf (^■, A', viL a, I a), ihc Av^ir being effected, not by ihc 
rrinfc mrlhrvl of rbi)]n[>lonbg \hr owr. /vnBrfupanfltliKcrrrlirlnft ihe 
other, but bj ihc^ mriliiKl uf ci^miriiuj; Lhc LnitEi in cacb— by di^ 
covering "the grounds on vhich CBcb has tiaturallj- Approved 
kwir/ ar^ Kucl^mus juis it in a pitst&gr {E. K. \\\. 2. 1235 b, 13) 
vhkli Cook Wiboti (Ansf. S/uitih i 6.^) tomparcs vritli tbc passage 

wtXtTm Dflf jAu4t<i, fal i^t j^opuic \vni tai rat fmi^ionrnK. roiTo d (urait 
nor cA^ul ^iiur^rcu ra ■wm'u SonoifrTa' ^AciXurTii ]f^p tttiii^t/yuviiiWf 6 
T«»v0t Ttfriu Xf^ynr T«iF ^Ai^i^fMiiir. (^ JT^ iV, Vli, '4-3 ^h1 ^ o<^ 
Ii4aftr ^(1 iriXr^V ffviv- JXXa utii t^ niTjar tou ^itSovl" t^JUTO yA/j unit* 

^inrjiu a\ t/wiitninat ^^vtai DijjiTUTapm. A good fJl^lTlpLc of ihc 

meUiod of <LeaUng with onopUu recomnt'ncled in JC. K. vii. v^is given 
fa K- jV, \jl. fl. One XiS^r, ot vie^v^ cordcTrns liie ^jXihtocj anothcP 
matnt^os that a niun ougljt to iovc liiinnf If ;noi1. The ^Kjrrcwcritf 
berc 19 cfljucd bf the nmbrguLiy of :he term avror. The former 
vinir regards ih^ lowor arnJ men;ly ^ntitive e^lf, Ihf- krter the 
higher and ralion^il srlf- Inst^Mcl of Vicing conEr-tiy vicvR aboui the 
aioe tbtng, th«y turn out ti> be viewe ^bout enbreJy diLferent 

Moral Kcicncc then bcingi as il were, \\it: /^frmathrt of common 
opildonfi into u iiyvlem, tbe moralist muKt begin hy stating these 
upimoii*. Hr must met arrange ihi^m w as to brini^ nut clearly 
flic tnconaistciicicK whith they involve in relation to one anoEher. 
Wt U ihen in a podlion to see more or lets easily why they prcBcni 
iboateJvca 9A IncorjMitilcnt. and il Higgt^nls it^irir to him to moiidle 
Ae inconmlendcf by dinwirg needful diiLtmction^ — ns when in 
E. JT- vii_ 1 the disctiasicn of ilie jkopio whether t* ^^iXou^wi- is »4 
«}C or tA JyoilMv iciuItK in ihc eiiablishmcnt of ihree j'^fj (jFi/«Xmi; 
ot by applytnjc an ■ appropriate idea ' inalead of the mappropridtc 
one fihfch caused tlie 'iiro^io — as in E. SV. vW. 8, i , wfierc the appro- 
priate idea of Tu ^tfn/fciXiTTMiij^ tfrjii lb iiilro^lnced, and cnaljlc3 ti4 to 
ae« tbo A«AdffTD( and Jt^r^f in ihc-ir irue relation to eich oiii4*r, 
vUch we could not dn KO lon^ as The TDtslcadirtg idea of «^ pfm* 
rtitfffi'vi it (jEI A" vii. *, lo) »a5 rcLaincd. I'lius, by the meUiod 


BOOK VUt CHAP. 1:^5. 

the momlixl hira uimn the disiinciions and itlias (together with ihc 
icrminoTcgf lo express ibem) which bring light and order into the 
rough rtiaiehal of popular oi>inioTi- These disiinciions and Mfa* 
QIC not likely to be fanciful and aibilrAi^, for ilicy hAve been 
forced upon the mornlist by a (^areful study of the mlnCEicret of hift 
luhject-maa^f. They will be oUcioi \iyOi roi) n-^wy^irtDf (*cc E. E^ 
i. 6. IZI7 a, ii]< In other wcn'ds- — 7 Xi>iTLf rrrt ditopwf fvptuit 4tfT<p, 
As most *iTu/»fto are largely due to the ambigtiiticn of common 
language, an importanr [lart of ihe ivieihorl of rA h\imiif^ma is if> 
diatinguiiah ^ Tr^nu^iwr ^r^'fici'Li. Thui, in Top, i. 13. 105 a. %\ 
thi^ is ^ven fia the second of the four pane into which th« tneihod 
of dialectical entjiirry in divided — tA flf Jpy^/i/a fl/ £iv (^Top^0O|irv rin 

irniTii^vr '■cioroi' Xcyrr/it Ai^Hktr^ J)irAf(>^ T^iTUf ffi rd rit 4i4^rydf *v^<*, 
TTTuprcH* A> ^ »o5 *?/*i«"{in trrfifie. The method sketched in thr *bfJVc 
pA^^a^'tiinrl fully cxjilaincd in Top, i. chapters 14— iS, ia indicated in 
iho seclion before UR(£".i\',viT, 1, 5), and followed, thoiiith not vtry 
sjsiemaiicallyj in die enquiry prtisecutpd in /T. -V. vJL chapter* i*iO- 

In the section before ns, nBtrnt r^ 'paitdi^fva anSVCfS Co td irjHrTnimc 
Xafkhfl and r4 trubHuwit rd !p9«^ (r^euUing from r6 itna^^af^mn) 
rnrrespnndA (o ihc fuwnp/n effrcted by ihe dettcilnn rjf imhignlti^s 

(r6 wocrax^s imnrtiff XiyfTfii 4vi«crtfi;i #if ^ff^]. by thc obncfVatioil of Cfiv 

1inction« which h^d been overlooked (ta r^c Jk^^D^f n^ivX ftnd by 
the surv^ry of the subject as a LOTinccted vhole (i^ tou i^w (Kn|rir}, 
which ihe detection of ambiguities and Lhc observation of distinc* 
lions render possible. 

The ViUue hy Ansiotle lu ri Aumopfjfroi JcnXut b wdl 
set forth in the following passage:. AfeL 0. i. 995 %. t4 9qq. — 'Arjyoi 

tfAi' f3! n j;vpir roviiBt wyxi'twn vofrrmpofatvitr. Tim ^i rrnt t^wo^am 
ffmtknp.imit niHtT'pYat.' vA ^itmopijant xnX^f if yAp vtrrtpav tvropm Xivit 
rStr np6nfiity orropoufthmt /vri, \vttv A* oi^ ttmr A^Kovmtt rAr divia^t 

tni'iT^ fffl/jnfvk^mnv vrVnf^ Terr Af&rpfi*nir' Aflftmfnt* y^p iftAttnpmt 
nfrvtAAitr ttf rA irp6ir9fV. SiA Aft rAr fiuoxcpi^ rfAopTJi/pai irdrat 
irpJnpor, rvvrmr t* >'^P»'' "ftl '**A 'i^ *^*^ ('jraCvrat Jv-v rw 3Hiir<ap^#« 
iFpvrov ^1)Uf)JDLir trirai tc<( mi Aij fitiX^nw ayvati'Vi. ati rrpAt rwriHI luff 

moK VJI- CHAF. 1:5 5* 



ftnuf^rai] 'to ««tablifth/ 

The condhioiw of moral and political welfare (»a diBtuiguiBlicd 
from lb« recondite ban of the pb^wicat vorld) are represented M\xh 
mlHtanih! accur.icv in x\\v comnu?]) opitiion^ nf mtrii; for if 
common opinions had mi»rcprcscnicd conditiona J^<^ eascniial 10 iu 
tuniv^, lti« liuiniin rac« must have long 1^0 |wn&hed. These 
comiuooi opirinns, ^iTbiirar^ iind ncci*1piif;*l tJiriiHb tlicj may oFli^n 
ftttm, *fc really, like the colotiis of flo^vtrs and the markings of 
i&ftcctfi, f'Sftt of ihe rational or "noumcnar vfoHd^ Bot mere 
Ojku^ia' ^ |»lierjor»etiii' A^hi^ii Imk- it Honr <ntr vlj^hL Hiriitcf the 
mor«li«l ful5!» a funciion of rli*; fir< f>hiioX\>J'hUiAl imporuncc, 
•beo he deuctB and t*inoves cenain obKcurUies and confusion* 
■hich prevent a tonn'-cted view of th« whole Ixidy of experin^ce 
r«pjtj<Titcd by Mtii^t. 

lA^ Y^ . _ »ni^] Th« AM. Scbol and the P:ir. take tA b. e. 

Ainrjt^ to iTiT:4n J'liUe ideaj — -roic ^ifyonc rnyf /i^ frvftfSniifartot ts 
Aif^bf (Par*} — 'J^rat |Hr Tvf Ao^t f^Aimf ({Xr^jiif rvvrai Xo/^rTr, Xrot 
A< Ml irnT^ii^^'i'Jti Bfll r^* o"A»j5fififf J^o» fuutiie iiimii {Aid. Sfhol-)^ 

but X^^Tdi TA Ai^o.^f;]^ cuiirtol Diifuii ihc rcjizctLon of falsi: vicwtfit 
the reft^rcncc filainly bcin^ lo the Xwit ^' ilirapmf whicb ir tvpttrit, 
or «£vi^0. 'J'he avrf;^*^^ here are evitJentiy the fluffjffjjfifii or ftnrp/it 
of ihc paMojcc qnoEcil Above, J/^A B. t. 995 a. 24 sqq., t.f. die 
f«»j^« of the variovsi «n'>fj>4i, auch r.^- as the reason uhy two 
Mtifa, each of which k appatpntly wt 11 •founded in il^elf seem 
to cootradict and dia^redit each othL-r. When this rcuaon 
hu been deiccCedT then KiToX*rtrmi» ri r*ao£a— each of the iwo 
iw^ti^ \n tj^rn 10 he tnir- from iiK own fOTnenhsit different pcinn of 
ticB', and the moralist fulfil* his function anflicicndy if he sUilcs in 
UDunfti^QOUH icrmn the precipe kctiiki in which each te true. I 
thcteforv agree vriih Gianl and Ramiiauer. who exitlatn ii'iv yfip 

\iyfttd r* ra itHJX'i^ ^"^ KaToXtiwjTai tli fv^ufu in connection Vp'ith 


BOOfC t-'J/.' CNAP. I: §} 5-7. 

lt4B b, O. -£\ ^ . \i[. Z. I J cf ><i'v u^' uirn^ac Tinavrxtl rim rrvfu'itii'nviTt, tuvtup A? 
Trt ^'f anXfir 3ri M it ^otiXait'V ^ y«p Ai^tji riff uimfiuts fvp€^U *Vr*fc 

H*r* tA ^« dMAtiM nnd 7 kC'itit t^ uirofnot anawer to iar iv^mi ri 
ijff(»/>i7, n8 t^C5e lailff ivauls linvt- been c3L|jUinc(J Hbovc i aii*l t4, 

01 NMra^MTfJ* a:i5Wer^ to Karaktirnirai tij tf^u^n. 'I'tit WQrds III- 

//.A', vii. f- la ! iindcrsEand if] mean that lIipsc qxi?«iion« fnuei 
bo dealt v^itb on iIjc iiicdiud uf rcmtning difficulties one/ «» 

Idvitifir ^ ^^li (embodied in the odofo) plain. 

Atkwmj nnd ^i^ty/itutty \rrTr\ TO Ixr u^cct hfte rAih^t ih:in ihf^ 
cmnpound \nih ujru-, bccau-i? chc AiaXinTuAt LfirXXi/yi<j^k U Llbtiit- 
guUhod from ihc dircArtcriir^f tn^XXfj^^r^i^r by bciHg if fVd^^fwr, thc 

^lS. {f 6.7] cnuin4rr;i£« rhe ^ai^i^jtim, tf^o^e. Of Xryif^fHi about 
/yjr^T»»n, thuratriaf At. These I'pflftfri arr gt^nnrnWy rcdut:«( to iis 

(» by the PATayih.). thgutrb a more miiiuic division n posMc. 

The Pmph, has AnjHi ^7 noofv ^ /yrpdr^fo fryo^iif^ mt ^ rap^tfta ti^- 
T^r tyKtMtxtimi aoe ratirci aipMiot' ^cr, Zu d ryt^cEvjt ^ uiTiit tvn r^ tfifftrt- 

iraj^^tfF fytiHtTtjt ^(TTi nm fL<i/;TTpuiS(, pcm & utifXiHirvF TP^i'aarfji'' rrra^rTvi>, 
nfWfri'^jrAnnTDi"U(f>rirq »iwrE <^dir<if' nX^ru A* Arn^/mt ri^Aj^Kedif' W/firrvt^ 

rai>it ^V r>£L' riirt irotrfi irj^fil'V rh )nytiftt¥it vrfpl ^yirptrvuit mil itflitirinC 

For tUe vitious viev/s sec the pAfisaget quoted by FnUSctic and 
Grmr frijui Xt-n. J/rm. i. 5 {J 4, j'^. 6 ; iv. 5. {} 3-; ; ii, ). f 1 : 
nnii>. CrV^- 491 1); /?f/, iv. 410 F!: /-r^V' ^^' ^^9 A: ^nd Isoc. 

miiTUt-. v/pAnuf, (1/v>>7tr ^^*^. X^trrjt, 

b la, f 0- o* S* nSJ I-/, ihcy rc^ftrd VpiiTtiH ab & icrm of wider extent 
b IS, J 7. ^ipoHjiMK OfTo^ <al ^ii-oilf] ri n^l apti t«C (Jnn (Aid. 

SOOK Vtl: CHAP. 2. 


SchoU). li U because they confounfl ^^-Jujrif iofl <l«iitn/t (arc E. N. 11«5 b. id, 
\i, Ti> 9 for the difTcrcncc), ihai iIjcj can, with any plausibility, 
•P«ak of the ^>H^M>iae us 6omeltme4 J-r/^ir^f. In (he words ifii 
AciHiur wi: tuivc ihua u good example of llic Xvtrir t^ nVoptaf. 



in tJum, 

TXifirtt tKffittitj it'SoTBtan a nanAatit a ' rij[/if tamtfifiom,* tit^jftimi 
mctmfincnify a^afmt iif Hh 'nwnpiiou.^ te/ar inainluin, lamnat it * Mv 
JptfftM^' ,- • fnu irtiw/wfep" mantra/ hf itrnff^fd a/v*ut Uke it tlmtt hyp^slen: 
j>svi Ml Ikit ftc*md iA^ SfcntUi al-iflNtfJy dfnitid iki txitiintr cf* iacrnii- 
•*ar '«fA'iV ti^itrl tfVKftfiige ef ri^Af' ^cA/r»/ thai igftOfttHct tt lAe 

fitrifm<t: tAf piitn wAe titrt inaarnifariy it nrfaittfj HM 'Cfmnm/'A^vr V 
it jnrtii>ftt A^ /•riru*. GritiU't iAoT i<r l)r>(fPDm ^pMrdVT ; Av/ how /a*t ht 

Ot^ri^aj^n. ^Miuttnj; tAaf *fmt kmm^tdj^' ftttrtff/At ewtrtenti fy/kmiea, 
US mi ikat'tfiimm' mitt'' itttJi^4i umffdin^h ' epintvn o^vi4t whut it ri^ht' 
H^'iVa^tefttm* ^iitA tfpom Urtf/ [Maimtsstfuiiy') tc pa^n^n in the incori' 
timtml <■*■. 7"^* eifA-f$*H fit Hii vi/^u it thrst hy mlitiluttng ' nfanum ' fiir 

•i«n k^*4tm^* Lv4it fifiw/Je itM n/hu^ fa r^mi^r tttvH,c dfiara, Ai ov^it 

Tkn. it may *r rtf{teJ. ti/tir the rt^ttien b/ knowlttisiB aad opinion. 
^Mdnn* frmtttt v /A/ t//fitni^ *timcfftitn ' ; tt u tvrrty u n^ nrri'ti^ 

mmif mk^mttitlj tuid// tfit v/irtMi.^itf cutcihCA r^w, vtltuitariiy perform 

Amtktf pf9Ut it^C^fiimi^ n/rfiiiH^y im^itt th« pnrruie &/ itrong eatd 
tmd ^rrrrt ThI/h^ 't£^fjni.r' aritl ' iivifirifnf' ijrr tutt (anvtrh^f ttnHi—fJit 
fymftra/t i*Mh Mmt tul *Mmsn*t or t^t tteiir/s) ; ftr * ^PitiinttHf * f//iiirt£ 
* ftad dttirei' wfvU pvt W p>»i, ami nfi^itn^ ti'cai M4trtt, itwonUi mt U tin 
j^rtai am/ mti^U •fmi/t/f titJ U n. 

jIfaiM, ^itiffci/umrt d a^idin^ ty any efifnian-'/aiu aiTtreif v tnte-^nvi/l 
Humjtimte! t* J h^ IhtMg : «iaif ^tNAwniWW' t't/a/'ivffattviy/tum itnyfl^mitrf, 

ite/ a^M^fyh'i imttntitn tftt^itCA iit,WfAt,*t ii pctt Ai'w paiit to Aa^ fa 


SOOX Vii: CHAP. %i % u 

Othtr ^^ultitt—An^ hard pnti U Mhv— "' sf9 /*rik im the /*iti*vtf 
t»/Jtitfit^ vjptmenrt— 

(I) //a Ktak 4ttf9tiitKH/ ^tttfi U ifnly itttfiii and ign^rmttt A«M|fA,Ac u tf 
virrmwi *MntJrr,/er Jiit cpiniofts err wmj- and if Am mgl UrtifirM ^^mIV 
fff get on lAfH. h*t iu^eK/iHrHily tiaii what if n^t. 

(Sj fhf man titAt /wrrwE /ifffititff <frhttt9Ulf,temMaut^§J^fi O wffMH 
Ja », r> J MUr i/mr^/er tjkart Mf Mtfn tvAe d»i i^/ram Mjguaftwwfif , jirf Mf 
^id*jtf Ae ir itnttfinuJ tfitl iJ it ri^l. 7^M< fetmtt may tkamgt kU f f rw r 
ionvitfi^*! far ti trui aw—iOMtttfdi'/ifvt that ii it v¥ran£ t» maJtt fiUant^t Mt 
tru/ — arui then Ae wiii fit a rt/ormni iAurmtrr ; ^•h^r/as Un iaitff-^tAf imctm' 
tiami inan 'anm't tAfin^t Mt eotvirfiffH /or a btttrr i kf A^ft4^ MtfX*t ftM 
Ati a-tiifu art ^^Mff, httl ht ruvi'ihiifis /^s tn /tf/ff*m4Kff ftt*iM ; kt it */ 
fttU a/ ichjkI hi9^lf«lgv at 4 Jrervhittg wdif 11 */ a/attr ; amd it Atj Aim tn 
jpf*f^ His idje hit ks/ttfus^ 

laxtty. wid/ u tht itriil itnie ^tke IsrtH ' intottiinent* f 

Thite. I/!£n, are the dtj^iu/tifs ; iw mml Htrti' try ja t* rtmate tAem m /» 
Jmv fAi truth ban; f Of it u in Xh4 rtteiUfioH ^ Ji^Mititi thai dUtfvWj 

U4ab.3L S 1-] Tills S introduces ikc dtw:u93]0ii of tbi; ^vopioi in\x>]vcd in 

the Mew o fitv arftarfie *j'i*** m t^vKa irpirt"! ^lA miSat n^r.X, ch. I, 

{ 6, 1145 b, 13. 7a;\], FriUschf, antl GiaiU qutitc Plaio, Praltig, 
35a I*. -T possnge which the prcscni wrilr^r evidcniJy hfld in his 

iiXX\ rVo^crr^i itdXXJiUT arSpuirif firdTr^^r. ov t^v /iturr^pji' dvni^ ^Jfo^ 

Ttut9 6iiflXa|i^ilvur Ap6£tf djrpaTfiictat tLfi] ' hov ll in ptutttbl^ to 

bavr an o^j^^ uflAr;^^! nnd j'ct ocl inconiincnil;/ or ' whoc b mcAnt 
by the ^pOfi vn^ifptt ol the ii^/iatiif/ 'Vfr-fXsjf it U the gcmiric terra, 
incluiling boih aVwrr^H^ and Aiga (*ee note on vh 3. 1 b, 17)- Hfnce 
the writer goes un — JirfcOTi|*<*w tUr oin t,.rX. &nd (S 4) J*^ m* 

bL 34. a^ir] This h th? rcadm^ of K^ iulI NC accepted by Rrssow, 
Su»cmiht, and J^.v^vakr* instead or aM' given by Ikkkcr &nd 
KunsKTjcr. R^iio^v {Ldvoca:«« nr^v u followA (/ivfi-A- p. ^j) — 
'FUr otriJj' gicbt K atr^v. Dii^se !,ts4rt vcrdicrl deu Voraug, 
llicilt wc^n dcr plntoniscben Slcllc, die ArisWlclcr* ifn Sinnc bat. 

DtAfUfrddou, n«pt<Xjt«|L^nii), thcila neil t^ aii^ ScbluA dci vicilcii 

BOOK Vil: CHAP. S: } I. 



af«i^iri}c* RAms;vue^T, r&tding afr^ir, explains — 'qiiem srifnEia 
Lbcrum tC qua^i <Ioininuni reddidit-' I think thnL this la ft very 
Btnuig dcCeace of aMi^: tf. Xcd, ^/^ra^ i> 5< f 3 ^^ ^4'' *• 7* 

»TU eiuirtlj- opposed to Ihc view (jf, that n man inav know ihe 
i^hl stnd do the wrong), m^iinliining tlial there in no fiuch tkjing 
an incoQtiiitiKX (jf. OcTxiicd as — knowing ilit riijlu aiitl fMng ihe 
iPTOAffV Sec Xcn- J^/ofif iii- 9- $^ 4 ^tid 5 £o^ui»' ^4 khi tjM/rjtptt^rCvijv 

ofruir, ml tAir t& alfrxpH tltiiku tlKuSt'ur&at, vuifi^tf rt ta\ aifppitva 

r'Uoi'Ftac Ai nTHiirm, tfotptn/t rf ril ty'jtunci.' ^'ifri jio^i'fiii ^ OuAc't yt 

'M/^ tli Bai r^tp Ai&b«rv»*]i- cui t!)' 'IXXrfv ifuethi- n/>tr^tf troi/yL'jii 'ivhl tvJ 

gm AVT <b> Tuvi Tdi-™ iiflurmr iiK^ti riwi thijtpijI' ou*^"!- irfiatX^Sin, oCrt raCt 
/d^ ^narofiji/ovv biwaaSai vpJrrfu', dAXA la/, /A» iyxup&ctjt, d^prjno'. 

duna mt rA JOiXa uiXd rv tnl iyoAi sdrra d/irr^ r^ifmroj^ A^oii f?Hu, 
Sfi nt A4frai«<r^ aqI q ilX^^ ira^ni dfvr^ iTi>0^ ^(TT', C/. PllltO, J'rifta^, 

^a C i/>' ntu Rdi ftfli ruiriLTiiif ti 7r*^3 rtirr^r flo«I, 7 miXnv rj «Zmu ij 
^i(rT^tf7t wui uiuv J^j^r^f tu^ nt^putrov ; <ini tar jttp yiyviHriqj rif r6ya£ii 
Ktti ra ku<tf, ^tj &i' ttpatijSrjfiii vtTif fir^^vutf aurri uXX nmi Hfuimi^ tj & 

^dm fiffii rvv AvfiptfUfimv •rrpnyn&rfitv. KakAts yt, T*fi'}i' iyot, tri- Xtyur 
mm J}jjS^M criirAi nr on <Jt rruXXvi ^v ur&tta»nw tftai rr a^nt aai tft 

■mr, Jl$^ a^nlt, ^\h ^Xa irpdrmtf. C/. t^t.M. 11- It. taoo h, 35 
Sucfjar^l juv oilr 6 irpwiivrtji ' di7)pri £Xati urU (tCx t^fn} ditpiw^ tEnu, 

■ad dot* Dot du(iii|<(iuh 4 Mrncifr Irooi « junior S«nieflp 


SOOiC VUi CHAP. 2: % 1-3. 

r^ TDin^T''^ ^nyi^r i^vt ijlTr" »»«" >p-^hJ*"ii*'" ov ^'j Zt}6mt^ itrvwot '^^ ry 

h. ao. tirolflfipdtforfc] Spcngj.-! {Arirf. Siiidnn p. 45) would inwti 

th&re is noUiilLg to prevcnc fw^^^ufiiy slanding aloae, u f^v to 
of:«ii does. I agnre vilh Kassow. 

J* 87. §3. o5t*s y^ oiJv & XAyo* h-tA.] Thi? riew of Socmie* (**»» 4 
Xrfyat) cunflicih \viili *<i /jA^ri, Lilt, is Socralcs Ja & jj^cat man, wo 
musi ircal hia tf<V*t, Of nivw^ojor, rcap«ctfuliy, and enquire bow the 

b> 19 — 5ec Giant utHoc.). It i& evidently not & chronic ttiate of 
ignorance, but an ignorance which 'comw on* like slcq^ ot 
drunli-nness (hcc ^, *V, v\\, 3. 7), for the aif/jar^i In rot ' l^or^ni ' 
before he is tempted. 

TTJs iv'^^*^'] lJ.v*alcr suggests in his noic aJJfc. {_i/l C^nfriMioni 
[u 53) ih^Li j>tfrhaps yiwra* ahould he inserted after fi»*, And 
omilted afier r^irfiroc. Tlicrc M^tnw icj be MJimt douhl ibnui the n*r 
of 0vu>' (r^. iiuM *Wi| as distinguished from itor the ncc ab*., which 
is common) = *n: see /nrft'Jt Ansi^ a. v. i#i»: In £". At ii, 7, i, 

1107 Aj 32 — nfpl y^fj vA KtiS' fmrrra ol Trpd^ir, ftfcv ff A4 ravrvv 
irv)A^q*mr. Xr;nT<uf o^f rit^ii 4V T^ Sui^pn^fje. — K*^ Om:t^ v^P. If 

the donbi n sufficient lo rrcommrnd b changr of the ic«i hprr 
(vii. £. u. II4S ^' 3^)' I ihink ih»[ il vould be simpler io rcul^Mi 

av for iiw, them Lo suppose ihat ytWdi boa been dispbocd. 

1>. 90, oi^ii otrrof y«] After yt KG and Ahl. [[iSf^rL Af7i' updrrfi^ d ir^rrM. 

These w^rdt mu^t, nt any mte. be understood; </ JT.A' vit. 9. 6 
ou* fj'u^ifuv : -fV. -£■ iu 7< i^'3 I*- ^ '<^ 7^ ^iif' ^ oi«riii dAnanv vVhh 

ThHr argument (aMh hiitk on the ' unccitjAidiy of &ifii' — x (o:mi;oii- 
place of Greek pbiloiophy* Tboy tigVM OiUt, W^um l^ m n^ 

BOOK VU: CHAP. 2 : % S'5< J^? 

AO ' ccfiab/ il 14 net so ' «rong ' aa <ni(n^*.7— a piece of reflflonics 1145 b. %t, 

dupO»ed of b«[OW B. JV. ViL 3- 4 />«« ^^ ^torwvi^vav/ r,t^v ^rrair oTr 
Atf^JfiniTt;' *J fTf/nK nit ffri'iTT u wtu' ^7\'>i fl " Hpf ije\»irot> 

A^ L5 not K> ^ccriain' a^ iVivrvfifr, bt'ca;isc ihc vn<A^^*t« of the 
8A(d(*r 2re not about things (akcti in conneitioti u^ith their cau);«l, 
a:i ibt £«oX^^»f of (he ttntrttiftrifor arv. Th<? Irue^l inoXii^-ie of llic 
3n^{Wr Arc «pt to ruD away Ktc slaves^ str;d leave him, because thcx 
a« not bound by < bain* of reasoning to tlicir cautcs. "o ApS^ 
Adfafop hut, in ulirirr, ' i-mj^lriciil,' a* tliitini^uiihed fTom ' firicntifn; ' 
ki>ow1«d^. ThU is how itie ' uncertainly ' of ftlfa ia represented 
in the ^rFir> 1)7 D- Elaeu'hero Plato describes the 'empirkal' 
cfvnict^r of ihi- knoulrilgp of the ^fi^^uf \^y making r£ ftrraii^ mS 

irr^ ftnl fti M^ ftrwr llie ohjccl of i6iu '. Sf C BoTlllZ, J/r/. p, 4 1 1 — 

'opjnaiionem, i£^. a tcicniia Plnio, lorEastH- uct^itus Parnicnidem, 
la disilnxh. ut ((Liomcxlo generaiio medium mier cnH n non-ena 
locum habet. Jia ivfu mcdiurn fjuidpiain sit inter sL-icnTi^m tcj ct 
l^orantofn^ e/i Convtv. joi 11 fim Ab ^^au TDiavTDv 9 up^ ^f^v 
livra|v diioA^r luit ^poi'^fur: tie Rep, v. 477 ;& o^mi/if irtl h\ piv r^ 

kEkt ^if afir, *Ap' cJ!f yiyofiiv ti Arifni' if^ni ; viit >dfj nJ ; Tllraef. 1 90 
a, Eo^Jh 163, PhJiclj. 37 a. Idem diBtrimcn Ar, cxponit AmpOit. 

M intr ^« rcuvrioi io^f otfii*, tui ^* ^rayfiiiiv iniirtitfifjif' : if. also 

BonlLT, J/// p- i^j'vocabiito *nfi . . opirandi naturam incenora 
cC incon^tanleni nol^ [A^j^t-], quiie fcjc c>t vis Lujus voL-^bull ubi 
mwTvij oppontlur/ 

(4.] Cf. M. M- ii. 6. 1100 K :tfl J^V 3^ >« Jmvr^^ir H^r vff, b. 3fl» 

dff ^ Afprti^lH rfnap Ad^v Ij^fi, otic Itna* ^cjfrifi. dW frTT;i' '^twt&t^ 

{ 5< 4pO^>v^ ^fXi Ai^rtivaJinif ; aCTf\ yAp Urx^pl-Ttt^tufj If an ll4tt &. 4, D 

^f;Hn'd tfTftXpj^** oll^not, consislofilly wilh ihf tirtiim^liinte thai he 
U "f*****, l*« oKriiwd to \hc cKt'ariji, K follows ituii llii^r iltl iVj^V^ 
CvdXq^ic RiuiE hv ;i^-nbt<d lo liitn. Such h fipd-ijfTir—n^fPl yA;> 

f^^iy^firtM' ; ^ J^\ Z^. H, tj. 1246 b- 34 ^^ Zua^tiaA' Jti iii'»0/jr 


HOOK Vii: QiiAP. 3; J 5. 

ii*«ft,4, *Vj^pJT»pftK <f^>^ifr«f. It i« ift be r«nifkGtl> however, iltit, for 
ihdw? lA'lio tikr tlirir >([n.nil on iht Sot'Nirk d^A/i*^r<^nii (jyoi'^ 
otui. 1I1C poMiioii ^^v^fwt JvTiTtfvuvd^i U rcftlly idtnllc&L with the 
|)Obilioi» flTw^^r)* V^-n^ETTf (^ 1), J horft wlio lakfl ibcir Etiand on lh« 
Socrailr rnrilfv frn^F/jE^rt^Hii; rf>/hn>^iT>tf< rviilrnTly Hn nriE clJi^lrtgitiiih 
between tntflT^^i) and <ii>^iJfiiff.v- Arialoile and hii school, howeter, 
dUtinguidh bcl^^'oen ihcm; nml Ltic rcatonin^ hy whicb tlic prcA^rii 
vritrr refutr*: ihe posiiion 0^i>4fTfoc rT/>a iti-rirfivatMnrv invrilvirt ifaf 
ApccutJ ctjnnolatUJii wlilch lie studies to ^/jii-Tjim 84 somdliing 

dtfterenl iiom (ViTf^^ij, TJie word^ avrt^ y^i^ J^^r/3^r>ir«r ({ 5), 

Ihefpforp, trp resenting 3s ihcv rfo ihc txtrrmr SMraSt^ poaiiifm, jre 
KHucwb^l startling, uv put In the in(jiiilj9 (;f pencils who cScpnirL 
from ihrti ponilion (rl ^ft'ffvy;^^/^^^! t^ A' oC f 3)^ and 117 10 t:%^\%it, 
inpattln hy (TSHiLii^uKhihg tpp&trjait from ffTiiTTr)fiif, nkr^d lliui loo in z 
iuE which corrcuponds cxftcily wilh ihr Annloldian divi&jon of 
ti HMii', or i^oXr^^f, inio rRjirr^^T^, Anj^. <^^jirj«if» a^ ^iven in <// 
Att^ iii- 3. 4^7 K 9 Ti voili' I* ip h^i ri ^f>rful fcJi ri/*^ u^wr" Ti ^r 

rio wvi-ratv -. and 4(97 ^- '4 "^^ "' *^'* '^^'7' ^'jt kfro^^ivc fi-/! ihc*W 
Airaho^^dHfli' UpSan of -^. -A^- viL 2. 1) A'Uijaijnii •'irnrr^ji^ mj Ai^ ni 
^pSrtfvtv cul ri irania rvCmv, The PurapltraBt aeei that the WRtrr 
IE conduciin^ hit cpponcriu through ^ formal h«l i he nays Ar«a ^i 
vOtt Atlfa f'trrlv ^ yniivtv toi aKpajtrCs o^t intTtfifxri, Aomi tfipatifjint ftmi' 

^ B. dXX QTcmt^ foTut yap ^ aArif Jt|j,a ^p^njioi Kal dipar^t] Aflcr 
llJIi L^r? pobiilion u'hkh ihe uriLi^r (Jiketi up hcrt- — ih^t the ^^>u4fiAf 
oannnl Iw iwfiorSr' — dor* noi diffrr cfscnliafly fmin ihai of Socraie* 
*— ow^tVo LriruiXn^iifjiTii ■rpifrrfti' iTn^4 'J ^jXuffra*, iSX^A Si' ifyviwu^ 

for ^pJHjffic is iin nX^fl^*- W"A.r^u (/' ;V. \% 9. 7) involving the 
pi>sbcKtion [.uid exercise) of all the vitiiicj»^^d^ yhp r$ ^lorirtfn 1149 

Vffa^^Cftvi/j; natru inVf^vvjuw a'l up^ai, 1 hc <iX\il di Jycpmo of lllC 

SocraLic poeiiJon mf^ans thni th« oXqtf^c utp^i/^^iv, uhjch AntloU« 
cqiully wJLh Socialcs rcgatdcil u incompatible witti iHjutP^. e 

IL& irpoTip**-! i.r^ /".^i vt- T- 7 (Hprm-iKdrs'one who Icndj Ic pei- 
form good aci:on»') — \-i. 8, 8 (rwi' f>jf«r4s»» fJt=*onc concenwj 
with |>aiiJculAf«') — vL ij, (rdf dXXar fj(ur d>Hra(=-onr who liaj 
all the virtues'), Raeoovr [/"'crs^A. p. tj-j) poinu out ihat iba 
wordn ml fvc rtXXai 'j^Hi' (j/MTvir do nct bclong 10 tha cauni eUiuc 

BOOK VH: CHAP. 2: \^ 5-7. 


yip fV^ffraf nr, \fhKh lic accordlnj^iy (follo^verl by Suacmilil utd 
BjwiJpr) fnol:« ^iwcrihclical. It \% Inserted fo J-tjilain vpa*- 
nafr : rf. £. J^M vu^ 8 TcC v^ /(Tj^cfrav 4mv, Acntf^f «i^(U' ro >dp 

PrrhApK vc oiigHi lo rend ^rrrf for np 1146 4. 9. 

t4 iT*!*] The AW. Scbol accni» to have read ri iV"^*'^' ^'is 

ff^il jj[ii Ti^K riTiA^'nv tmi<fiXov^v0iii' u^ru^ jiol ^/m ^ptfMf 0^ ydp 
hr^^r. "i'hf P;ir-ip}irasl J IHioflorict maj' also Ji.iv*? n-nil i-Tyt aflrti ■ 

'ntfviiiat r^ X*>ip ^ (Mn0^i^*ij nu pytfirrnTiti. f^? ^. jV. vii. y. 6 J f » 

|4|1 ^i^parFji r/^ii ^ijj^V irit^ te<' X^yo* Hiti tat w^Jiiidr ^^if^i iniiLr «ul 
i VH^pWi dXA ^ fill' 'iriuv A A ('LiiV t}fui\f ibtn/\ns iiri^ftioSt ml & fiir 

Thc blunder of Ihc Aki Scliol- may pcrliaps be due 10 a tonfuiivd 
rccolkclton of ihii u»e of r6 AyiaStii. '>v r* cerifliiily ri^ht here, 
fthtiuu);^ ibis i« the only pl-icc In (lie Atiaioieliiiij cujpiui ^ivcu by 
tbc /ifrf'j: /J"i/. for 119 UBC, wiih ihc ariidc, as a lubiianiivc. 

Wli |hV ^C Y'j <-'- 'he iynptrnj^ must have strong and <Ml 

desmw: ff. M-M. \i 6. not a. 13 <i ^J" ciVfirrfl* iynp^rlit, ff^j>4» 
5ff«ti fj|iv o^Ay t'rt&utiiat. Tie tycpuf^i' dllTcrft Troin lljr (rw0^uf ][i 
having ilron^ and tvil dwiicK— in bt-ins BUotigly kniplcd by fi ><i 
0Lvti fjtW : iind ihai thr tl^siru of the Vyc^viT^c mtiBi neccfttarily 
(ilUi (u^r dii 71) be ntti>ns mJ evil is plain ; for oLlicrwiite il nouUI 
folLovr thai 4>^r'H it noE alwaja the good an ti adminvUe quality 
wbkli il u supptitied to be. 

j 7] Thh annpitt k solved aT the he^nr^in^ of chap. <), ivh^'Tf- It . 
b pointed out thai it ia not ' any opinion '^nGvn iofa — which ihc 
/^^p v rtickt to flpd ihc j*T/;or7< abandons, but ' the true opmion' — 
4^p«f *^ 

The Pankphrui HcllodoruA, following the order in vhidi the 
iMyi^va trc enumerated \aA\^.\'i\. t. j{ 6 and 7, gives his version 

K 3 





JiOOK VII: CHAP. 2: §5 7. 8. 

give h]9 I'erslon of viL 1h {$ 1-6, anil ^ nds with vti. 1. 1 1 Jn « »/■ 

■■19, N««irT^cp>9l See Sopb. PhihcL, especially ^4-12^ whrre 
Odysseus persuades Ntopiolemus 10 d^ceiic PhilocicJo, and 
695-936, where Neoplokmus ull* Pbilocteica the irtjib. C/. 
£. JV. ^ni, fj, 4. 

ft*ai. $8. Iti 6 90^icmit6f ^^Y**^ (i^cu&d|icpD«] diropfnj ^tt/l^m boa 
given much iroubic to the comnicnlaiofa, 1 AKTve, however, vith 
KaBsow (/Vji-A^ p, 1*7) aiirf others thai it is mcfcly a dmograph 
of ^fbAo^rfur In tlie lini? a])rlVl^, and ou^ht Co }>e cic^iigTtl from ttie 
\CM- Tlicfc arc itiaupcfflblc objections 10 5Upi>05m|>, with Fnuiche, 
ft refepcnc* lo the logical laHaey, a ^tMs^tPos, mfutftns, nucocuiieii 
with ihp name of KuhtJidea Our Megnmn. ibe fonnula of whirh ts 
given by Atil GcU. xviii. « Cum niL-niior ci mc mcniiii tHco, 
roenitor an verum dico^^ As Rassow rcimrks (p- 137), tho 
ailH'le is iiidisjitiifiable before ^tvMfiivn^ if Ihr ntfrt/irns tn to be 
undcrslood ; also, inatt-ad ofov^f^m *k nytt% XiEyov $ 9. 1 146 a. af, 
we filicufJ require <« ni^tov mi' Xiynv. and l»lly, ihv argument 
whiiJ] proves llial ^ J^^patrut^ /un^ Jjr/infrtiic ^n^ IH IVfT/ tbr jwnr/firwf, 
ITretutned.^t'^'^i'oi niusi be uken» m by Ztll,to be ft prcdicilc 
<luaUfyipg ^ trvpiTr.itAE X^yi>s—^ Ag^in^ iherc is the ftopliivcicil aipj- 
Bienl wljicb ciu^PA diffiiiili^ by CL."»n J (Acting jwopic lo » false ron- 
clusion'; and Cirant's very in^nious eompftriaoQ with Sa^h, JLZ J> 
16,'; b. tJ may be aeeepted- — ■ Suppo*ing/ (a)^ Giant, *ihai ^rM- 
/toMis be allowed 10 sl.itid. we lausi iiiLeiprcL it in a fogicnl vno*, 
noE ns if ii hiid anyihin^ lo do vith the r^llacy of KutruJidc4. Thr 
explanation of it ia (o b^ found m the Sffi/j. Eimch oTAntlotie 
ill. i-a, vherc it h said thai ihc Ajms of ihc Sophutu and Ef jMici 

(making one lalk hitd ^rarnTiiar) ic<u Wfiirvrw ru ir^ii^frai u^\<ir|^«ai 
(Mhtkrng one iqjeat the &anic dimg over und o^^ci) . , . H^Wrq 

Tpitufv fJf iTtf/iri^nv Sytiv ti.r.\. Tn the above p^S;^^ wc Aee thai 
iJie wiiter ban btou^ht Ic-^lbcr two of ihcac scparaie termi^ apeak- 
injf of nopj^D^tj 4><y^Lfr. Ic iH po^ible that iic may {Jso have 

■ For il^Ji f«1Uay tM aUo Kilter «nd rrdlcr, HiH. J%t/. f ijj EctulidM, 

BOOIC VU: CHAP. 2- \\ S-IO. 


^Ullifinl tb« " fiophkiical rrasoning" with anotlirr of Lh<^<(p logical lUO a af, 

irapiKol . . , ofX^Yx**^] ' (<^ rtfrne by neotia ViK panidcxical cimi- ■. St. 

dmionJL' -Thr Klrnrhiu," says Grnip^Jm/tlft^), M? a liyflogisrn 
with i conclusion cotitradklorj" to, or rcftitaiiv<^ of, some c^uurJAicd 

or Kcfauuion bcinf: a dclunlvc semblance of rcrtiintioii, vl)ich 
imposes on ordinary tncn, sind induces ihena 10 accept it aa real,' 

U&<rai y^ 1) Sl^ivlo] The Cflitotfl compjue &f«l' b. i. ^gsa, S€> 
1. 34 !wj<i, quoL^d ahtjve in noic on vii, i, g. 1 145 b. *. 

f 8. Ik rtMT« Xtty^iu] i.t. I va^^vritT XAyv mertloncjj above ft.S7. 

i}cciiofi« S and 9, in Ihelr connexion, may be panplira^cd ihu« — 
'AgitJn, there It the Si:^hl8i1ca1 argiimrnt which gvtK i(oni<- p^rople 
into 4 ili^cuhj* by :itarting trom fiiaj\s flijfrfh Ucratitiir r} uK/mLr/a 
y 7), and conductm;^ Ihcm lo a fal^c conclu^on, whicli :hcy see 
plainly 10 be fak?. niid yei cannot rr-rciic — 1 mean the sophiatlcal 
argument vrhiclA ^'lovcs dul ' folly with iiicoiLlint:iicr h vittuc' 

This pirapbraw, h wiJl be observed, tctninii ■^ivi^/iti'ot a. at 
(=■ by roTiduciIng them to a t\Ur ronHiialon ') ; bul thtf ien*e of 
ihc whole piiswge jaiaijhrascd would not be afTcclcJ if llic ^^ord 
mtK omiited {und 1 think It ought to be omitted, a» a dillcgmph) \ 
for lh« u'onlt iiA fAfi fA nflpfJSofn *r.r>. down to the end of j 8 
cxpUin tJu; ii^krticiil^r djiVfiU produced by [he troipurrnii/s h^s in 
qucijUon« at Ihnl of one who h:u been en^tnppcd into n conclusion 
which he Mvn lo he fatv, bnt cantior refute. 

( 10>] ThUj cortA^ns another itn<t>ifrr»iAr Xiyot, ilrrahr to Ebai4,SL 
gliven m { 9. and. like it, starting from the anKutnpiion mtorts f^t^t 

t» the civAff-Tfor. oi dJ«tinf^Uhed from the uttpnrTjt. The Arparijt {% 
dbcvh<Fc in thiv Book cnrcfully described ab at iT>]nwp(p£>rfi^f. uh% 

#U|MMf, «£ irwwiurft^T I f^C -£"• A* vil. "J. 3 704* Si ^7 ir^adt^aufi/»«iy 
c.TJk. : vii_ 8. 4 /iTf} A* & ^tf TtimvTOt D*r>c |if] ficA tA mR(L<r4aj ^fjiarvjif 
• ••In iTfii«irTui ctu r^ joLOkio^ imri dkui oiwnir v-r.X, : vil, }, 2 a 

^A* olrrat ^V, fthiMi Atf : vii. y. A Siiom tH val A jfif^rfTr^t tnl rir^rTinT>r, 


BOOK Vlt: CHAP. 2 : ^10. 

and Bywatcr, foliowirig K**, IM^'j r, omk ^^ {read by Bckkcr) iM-forc 

fffflfiflflii* nr MTcl ^^i\%^tc\». instrvul cif ii-lin^, ;ii he doc*. iropA 
irf?«i^0Mf or oAv DiaftfVDi Atif, ihcil tA p^ranbT^nii would bc p03^Ue 
in hid cave/ The emission of ^^ bcfarrr I'lrrinjirtn, ho^^infr, ncCftAi- 
iRtca ib<^ IrLteriion of o^ (or 'IXXn R^imsAncr And ByuAtrr) brforc 
ir»ft*»ff,if-«j 1 1^6 b. a, againal all MS, auihoriiy, cxccpl ihat followed 
by the VcL Inierp, (r), which gives nunc aufem non juaiut. See 
Rassow {Fers^h. p. 64) — * Es scheint mir keincoi Zwcifcl t\x uulci- 
licg^ii, da&a mil den bes^r^ti Handschrjflcn dieses Buche* (MK), 
die Negmiion ^^ vor *Wtrf*irto zu ureichen jw, FrcFhch Isi es diTin 
nQihifZp iudcn ful^cndeii Wortcu mil Lambln. vZr tj^ qO vifrtd/^/t-ot tu 
schreiben. . . . Die Alt'; Uetujfecuun^ h^l dkc Ncj^.'iijoei An mitr 
Srdle nicht, vohl aber on iweiter ^ ai quidcm eniPii jhtsuusu* ««■» 
((ui ag\[. dJASUA&us uiiquc quioccrcl ; Lunc Jiiitciu nrm aua»ii» ni^iil 
minua Luha a^L.* The cli&cuIUeb vhich Uic omlnion ol ^^ And the 
irtKcnfon of tib n^movfr arc (i) ihat of havmg 10 Apply ihr letm 
n-irifiv^t'vui lo tt;c JcfHiri^«, hi o|ii>o»iEio(i la the u^f^c! of vil atloied 
by sufh po&i^f{E.-a Af cli-d. f 4 quoieit aEiovc: nrd (a) Ihai of h^vin^ 
[o itniTersiund /irfirfirrTv :Li>d TTfirnT^ifW Co imply a right conriciion, 
wlieicAS vtjulaihi at tile beginning of ihe j mu«l be undcf^loud lu 
Imply A -wTOtig conviciion. Ramaauer's conjadurf (adopted by 

Bywalcr) yur ftJ S\Xa imturtxirat wfl*» (ttoi' fR^n irjMifr#i (RyW, 
brackets ATl^i before irpaTrft] secnis lo nic to Ubour under tlic 
objection Ihat it doett nol remove diliiculty (1): it Kill Applies 10 
tin- ar/jnTflt die ejiLihi't wnT«ff>H'»c, vhuli 9cen»s in ll»i» Booh 10 he 
Tcuincd in a icclLincal acnsi^ for tlic u<vXini*(n alone Bui tbc 
* nunc iLitcTT non suasu^ nihil inmu« /aha ngtL ' cl the Vet- Interpn 
buggc^xLi a rend'iag whidi, 1 LhinL, ineeUi the icc|uifetiienLs of the 
auc. The Vcl- Intcrp. had doubtless bcrforc him »v ftr^ «£ imrviff- 

/fc«Hir o&Arv IJrTDir raini>rii npiimt. For rfMii^tJ rVAd tA cdfdi, AAd 

rclAiii uv before irrpti(r;j4*ur : itiL' mr.t^inj^ bcinx llui the Jcpor^, 
wiElioui ti^ iTm«iirfoH coinm^lb /V Mivr >aV^ ru) ihu nK^ka^rwi doei 
Willi fi frinfiffffint cf. £. N. vii. 8, 3 oft ^4* oAA' l^iiaf yt jmpA r^ 
vpofatr %ffX. It sccnis lo bc inijtotaiblc Lo drdde Khctlici Que 
wicr of th^; ,V. ^/, bud il^c text at given by Btikkcr(/. t. vh before 
^tfirfin-Wf unJ no uET^ivi; Lefortf ir'Tiiv^i'rtt) Of AK rendered by Ibe 
V?c. Inkrii. : &ec M. M. iL d, i^oj n- 6 mfrffhtt iU *£n j rdri ^ , I 

SOOJC Vrfi CHAP. 2: 5 10, 


6 r«iDfTOf Acifrfn' dv^me fiWni '. 

As rcjtards ihc proverb — Sraw ri w**flp vn'^. »J til fmitimr; — tho 
■i«a««Tvr, it \s argueJ, acts from a wrong conviclion, vbich h« mny 
cxcfun^c fgr a ri^lii oiic, nnil so licctjmc a rdbrnicd character : 
bui the dupvfft <loc« not act from conviction, but from paislon. It 
in true ihdc he hat a ri^hl npinicn, hui It ia noi capahlo of In- 
AucDcing biB conduct : Ijjh c;]>tc is lh(;rcrorc Wprksii: ilir piovcrb 
■ppli«« lo him ' when wnic^' tticltfi in n mun'* {broal, whnt can he 
rfrint to wash ii down?* Thr true opiriTon or ihc Atpnr^i {*i in* 
rfTccUul ; ftiid m) ixacr And more cfTcclLa} one cia.ii he founil, TI:iU 
f«pr««cnL« the intcrpret-inoii ol ihc provcib tcLvcii by th(' AMh ScIjoI.^ 
Sohr, Grant, Piners, and oihcrL Rasaow, liowrvcr [f-ortch. \i. f>£), 
lMctprri« differently, ' Da» tcrtium con^paraiiooK' he saym * i:*! Jie 
Pttlkt An richligvr KrkcnTjlniKi (jnd dipst iti «b doch die mil dom 
Wm>r wrg!ichen wird) Hilir* drm ^Hgclloun richt, cr hat rinvon 
die Hfillc litid FtlUc, rnan Luucht lic ihni nichl cnl bciiubringcn," 
If we lecepl ihiii intcrprpcation, «c in^y perhaps render the proverb 
— 'A drowning mun d<^FHn'[ nif^d niure u-*ter to drink-' The 
pBnphmt^ expUriAUon leaver ihe scn»c in which be unik-rbluod 
ljMf>n>\Vrtr doubKul -Or^ H 6 ivpdtAt^ot itorrim* r^r Ar^f^i ;^^'l»i' roi 

Ai rc^ardaihe gpriMiI significanc*.* ofihi'^, and hi connetion wiih 
whal prcccitc^ — It is aiioLher ^o^^aTucii^ \dyat, KlArtmj;, tike thai 
^^treti in \ 9* from the &e«umpiion — nd^iii Aff^t i} A^prhnu cWriirtviv. 
In f 9 it wj* prcJ\«rl pinrloxically iJiui, if the Atptm^K btr I'tpptt*, xnd 
Mi ^m U\%Zy ltU;^lioiia Mill be good: in j lo it m ptcvcd para- 
dosicailj' ibot. it ho have (rue ^rffo*, he h in a hopclc--^ male — he 
hit ihc lx*i poE<tiblr Adfm^ hui he h too wiratc [o inet tip (o th^m; 
wbcrtA^ die Mkanvi, who is not /irffTuni^v r^f AiJ^rfv, tnay, if sup* 


pai»g< u u ecb* DC*{^v^r» wparrfj. withuut tie oMjiofubr MSS. 


BOOK Viit CHAP, S: § 10. 

iU0a,81, plied v'lih tnK' (t^*, flci on ihpm as sicft(!ffl«th nn h« now actii en 
his falac frjfui. Tli« paudox llim c^ubli&UcJ by xncui» of the in- 
appropTiitc use of the IdcA ^rruTrturf^t^ii m :hc conicxi is ^ti bcro 
l^- the writer unr^-ruitd, as an r?«ampl<^ of tbow t]iffi(ulT)«s bjr 
gr^^pling with wbjctr cititcai theory adv^oces. His answer to It \% 
dercrred lo f . /^^. vii. £. i : but it niay be u&rrul iast now to poioi 
out the solution n-ituraU/ suggaaied by the lermi lo ubich ihe 
di^cuky lias bcctr rrduccd- 

The poim which ilccitles us in favour of ihc Jiv«*Tt aj^iiut the 
dr^fXnTTDE in thai th? ^rri^ which [hr fnrm^r EgnnrrH tn ht^ %c\% M 
gcod. lAhrreaii thiil vrhkh the btttr nets u]> lo ii Lad. The at^- 
meut insi&ls on the pomt ihai the ai^XaaTor roltowR the rccotmiKn- 
datloUK of his >f^c. nliiltr the ajrpnrqi doeit tuM. 3til «« piik, H^ 
docB the [LiffXaiTTDt follow the r ecom mend alio n$. of hJa A^i? and 
Iho aniwer ii — htiautif it ti<mttRfnih th'i! whtth it lod. Ilii* 
the sopbisti^^d argumcnl m /,", ;V- vii. a. lo kcrps in the luek> 
groutid, proceeding to infer LbAt, as the <i<A<;0Toi follows rv«Mn 
when it recommendt ihe bad, he would follow it with tUe lame vtead* 
fa^inc^H if tl iiniild be made to fecDmnien<l ihe }jC>od. Uut tlie 
tJitih 15 thoit wc have not to do here with the Tcoson or undcr- 
BCandJiif^, but with the moral character and hab[l& A fftlfi* iniie U 
raised by ^issuming i\m. the dAf^aoroi wiU )ir1d to sr^tncntn 
ftdd[«3»ed to hia undetstAnding ; and when it x% argued ibai k is 
tiseless to tiy lo reform llie J^/jar^*, because he already knows vhai 
is Hghl, the pos»it>[]iiy of ktrei^gtheuiiig \m rnorid tiAliire in Ignoird. 
But thU iu nnUy the imporUnt pcnnt. What \% repreaeiiicd u 
' filse opinion* ot ' wrong convietion,' in the iv^atma, it really ui 
inveienilL* moral blirtdnrw;;vnd depravity brought on by ihr repni^ 
neglect of thai 'true opinion,' the poascssjon of which is reprc* 
sented as putting the ojr^n^r in Rueh 2 hopete^ position. The 
ArAaiTTTiv wasoMcedtfpkaT^i. His tto-ealled 'fal^ o^iiiiiun * or * wrong 
comiction ' U merely an intensiBed form of the weaknev cf the 
dir/wr^tf. The fallacy of the argument lies in iu transformatioa of 
moral depravity into intellectual erior. The intrllrciuil error »cv 
aJIcd of the w^wrroi Is contrasted with the wcukncsi of the 
iMpterii^i in1ellcctu4l error, it 1% argued* mxy be eorrcctvd, but 
wenlEne<» •sumh as ih:^! of the dc^MT^r eaiinot be cured. The iTVthp 
bowesrer, i» thai the so-cj^llcd inlcllecLuaJ error of the M^i^^ffrvt^ 
being really inveLeraie weakneas or utier depmvitj, ii inciuttble^ 
wbcnuthc dot yet inirelcratcwcakries&of the dipmHiv may be cured: 

PCfOK r//: CHAP, 2: J5 TO-ia» 


«fC JT A' vii. 1. 1. where nKoXorria fa rnmparvd lo ;irhronic cliii^ue, U4ff A.8L 
and ^poata tp n nuiltlcii |>jj^i]ig MrtHfuic ; s« ^?io J^, N. vii. 3. 4 S 
U (j<. tiK^XiiirTOi) nVmturrni Sti ro TiHAiTat t*y<u *«'»< ii*fl«4^ avrdi — where 
the *convie(ion' or -opinion' of ihe flrWJvn^mr 1* eaifl fo J»e the 
^rt/ of his dcpr&\«d mordl cluracler. Thus ihc im^i^rKit Xi^w of 

Vii. 3- 10 ia gailty of a rcrrr^^nj' rrpiVrfM* : i< a3»ijm(^« \\vxX hiR 'con- 
viclicn * or 'opimon ' IE the tauif Q^\i\s ha*! cliaracici — tliaf if we 
could (hon^ his ' opinion ' wc shouIJ change hia ch;iracfcTH There 
ifi nothTn}- more MrJkmg in ihc ArjKtoiclian ivaching than its oppo- 
fiiljon la thifl v^ilgnr awqumprion. Opinion or Hcllrf, accntclitig 10 
Arivtoiic. follows conduct— -is 4 Enan bctornci b*^licr or worse his 
belief becomes htitcr or worw- l^he ' Imc opinion * of the *^>«f^* 
Is & favourable s^mpiom so far as ii gOfrrt, tnitkaiing that hi8 
characwr is not j'cl utterly rumcd : the 'false opinion' of Ihc Aii- 
X«rr«f meiin^ thi: his diar^ier is utterly ruined ; it is a ' UXve 
opinion' which he vi1l alwa^^ «Tick 10. 

} IL ^n cl T(pi mlvra . , . nraf AirXilicl Tf ntftairio he mnnU b, 2. 
&9teil in Hnvthing (fri/it frdtra), t'. f' in ^>((i(. 01 in rrLtlio[] Co "'^[»(, 
or to n>iv, whiLt do we niL'^Ln when VfO uae the term ^nr^i simply 
(dfOLM}» wiihout adiUnR any iuch quaHTir::t[ic:m a* A/^ot or Jt-VAcit? 
Wc mu^t mcaii lljdl \\kvi: is a man ivho is rkpifT^E in aomlo uejc 
epedal revpcct not explicitly stated, for we cnnnot mean that any 
onr in arpoi^r In all re^p^-cie together • <f, ihe Aid. Schol, — *\ n-*^ 

iynpiiirant ma'i t/ itfturia MaTttyivrriti, i (WX^r rfrai a I'/i^uf iivpnr^r Wt 
S U flc^T^B T(^v, £ 3* diporryr ^nAfjj(^ii7^uT«mE, «f off A ;»V Tjicii nfpftf 
MVpiu Atpmijt fit itrtit^ >ty>^v yii^t vti ftirj Tti^e airXvr frm cvjiimv 

1 12.] S« note on vii» 1. g, 114^^ k 6. Qoo\l Wilson {Ai^itf^.^. 

SMitS \. pp. 60, ff\) [hrnkfi thai muftfinifti hi n^vwiv n'le havrnotriu, 
Hf nri iur v< iiXft6ii fi to )>4y4ifitvor, litri 2* un iiG fC. IC, vil, 3- !■ 

1*35 b- 1 7, ift, wriK almost certainly written (by another writer) a« 
an rlucidiitirEEi of th M univiXirjIp of E.N. vii. a, rs, "whirh spenm 
Id have been understood by the author of E. E. vii. i. t as mcOiiL- 
irg ihox some of ihe ampjut^ miiRL l>e done awny with, and vofnc 
left. Tlie latter ^xpre^Hion {MraKmtW) seemed iTaratlovical In 

connection with the sentence which follows — ^ ya^i XOmt r^t <in<J^iur 


JiOOK Vrii CflAP. %i J 13. 

who** opposition muM be 5f)Tin.-hQw overt' om* : iJw auilior of 

£. £* vii. 3. I ftCCOIitijIj^ly >A'fOlC tlic pAS»Agr vcrfifliitHB lurX to 

explain it—" The oppr>^itioi] {ipaMc^t^t) must be :it]ov^ lo sEand 
^i/hi)'), if whai 11 luid j^ true in oni* sm^e dtnd nni ir anoiher."' 
I liiink tliai Cook Wihon"* rcnJcriiig^ — Mitc ojjpc*ili(Jn must If 

a/ioJtvJ 10 ll£U3<l ' — of the WOtUs 0U^/:/m*<l 4i /ifwii' rd« imn't«'<i< 

places bks vic« of tlicir origin as an C!t|ilaiifllJo[i of rd Ai ttirakanir 
in £*. ^, Yii. £h II in mthcr too favoumblc x light. I ukc Um 

*— ' if ihe iliing s:i»I bt iiut i:i uiic whi^h juiJ not iti aucjilirr. A 
rT«*/y w (tftfjj^aini) ihflt ihc oppoiition of opinion rcm«Ln» un- 
resolved': Kf. on« reason vh/ tlie opinions opposed in «» Jr«^ 
rtrnain cpjXiMrd — uhy. In «horl, ah ilirufffD i* not resolved — ix ihac 
tlic tiu)>i(;t.l about wLJch ihc opposite opmiona arr.- lidd hud rciLllr 
two side* (from oiie poiii: of view it iit true lo »ay thi* about it, 
uiid Ukiiw UJiOllicr jjL^Liil or vickv liidl, a^^.j^, itboui rA 0(X«>i«vw). 
but vre bavc not yet eucceodod in shi^virtg that it ho^twoddcs — 
in showing That ihe two opfiOHtbe viows about it are Ijoth rtasetMify 
Leld (it^uyur Aoira^vra £*. ^. 1235 b. 15)^ — tba£ ihcf da Tim rralljr 
COiitmdici cact) othor : ttic wbolo puaaa;;!; (^\ H. 1 «,is b. 13 ttqq.) 

ti — ^Xfjfrrifli 87 Tfi&ni>t vtjtit ijfitr 5^a tu r' Aotovrrn rMpt n^^aB' ^dXiora 
JimOitffrfi. <al Tic iJirnpiffT ^irir*i tal rAs /Hii^ittUfif. tnCra d* rffTai, iir 

Ai' TiTTt ji^v 01 i)iif6it S tA X<T(i>riiN>r. ftm V ^s oil* It WiH W 
Cihser\cd that 1 nUnrh importance to the aniiihesis nuirM bf 

^a^rDf^ — ^. ]c would l>L' true to s^y — tri'ii^oi^i U X<Ew9m *^ 

fk^jTtwfis, fiiv /iTTi ^V ui 4iArj^\- 4(^<*^T^ ^^ XvyJ^iti^rp rtrri K Sat td^ 
I'he dfT4,>io ik rcBcJv«d. u'h«u Llic rc;ifcOnubl«n<'ee& of a diO^crencc <^^ 
opiniun Utki brfii fibown. ^H 

As I »Ld in my note on ml, i^ 5. 11 ff^ ^- ^- 1 undcmuiid ihc 

WOfdft before us. ravrv* Ar r4 ^uv of^Xtlr Sfj r4 £< uTvAivriP, lo nteill 

thfti Oiese qupstiouH mu^i 1^ deah wiili on tlir iii^bod of trtnonng 
difficuiiit«, and stt leaving ihc truth (cn^l>odicd in tlic fifAaju) pUin. 
Ttw H'ordt belb'e us stre, in loci, otimi/alent Eo ih« Vuv ^p X^yni 

Tf rA Avrr;^^^ irai raniXt'ir^rrii to 4i/t\a^iM at JC. A'- vji, T- 5, ^ad, thtBI 

undtrMood, correspond tiictJy 10 llic \gvWoi A^ rjjikvt «ufu qm^ 
ifia t^ fi B*ifeDfrvr« r«^ rovrvp ^uAivtei iirvjwm (= t4 0* ««aXiinS*J 
■al rdt dvff^fac ^bcu tm rdr iVapruuvnc (^ fiA hi duvXrlf) of £L A. 



JhAiji- t^ jU foroXm^ir <lorK nut mran ihitL ' ie/rtf *yf fht dirvptai 
muM be (loTKT away wiili atid &omc Icfl,' but that ' tom< thittf^t in 
dnpioi mufil be done away with and som* left' — r ', ihe 
kfusiOLiBp cAUfeiii^' fVart^wnri iiLiib£ be duiEc away wti]:i, or cIcarrJ 
Up, in jucb A VTAir thai, a* ihc^ aTc dcired up (J/»o £. /- la^j k 
13). vicA'F, hithfrio m^rdy Vu^ipria, arc left iid longer as r^cttVf 



i* * tmt^i,' t'tt ti'AiJ /tttjf i/ it /Jidi Jn ' J^twnt.' <i) frt r&Uti^n t* what Aii^ 
M mm £j fit h dVsir/Vr^ <u Uerffintnt' or ' imotfintft/* — Lc^ ve^^W Ai 
I'Mnm U oi^ fitamrr or ff^in, ortjrifj- in tt/a/iim tfl tirfam ift/!nili f^taiitrti 
wrpnHt. (Jl ^Vhjthir * rmtiitfUft* ii iJ/nfii'tft witf\ ' fHtturTinn' er is io ft 
iikt£/ram il l^k*tt cuA t^ifttt ^juttttont ^tt Amu ft ^inruff. 
\&mr fMfw/iwy ^jfW tVftA fAf fnnt/^t ■ | T li'kriAfr wJ it a iiiff/rfHU tvnutft 
Af{' m^titrvr t^ft.-t^,ara dt^-ztHfi I'ftivten thfir attxttiiftJ fp fi^jf^/j i^tvriA or 
m/J^mt a tftfikftntc in M< t^-jafj) wAii^ ituttHjCMiskit /nAira" Mc ivntttttnt 
man *ttJ ikt iiuf^iiuwtt mit. Our ritrf ^K^rthn {i'\ h vht/her fantiKfntt 
Sm^ Mitfjmt/Ufmt ttw t^ti^trinJ '.t-tlh any efi/t^fi—i.e. viitft any plMyvtn or 
^MnVf *r A¥t ttmtltJ {ai Ikey ttrAirtriy a*^ tv^f tTeiiUy uttHirtfi^\ A» thf 
ftrmturtt jv/ p^tiu tt^itk wAi^A iM'trrrti^Jrh /rti/Sij^y, jtrirt/tm/trrtnn, Aai la 
Ut — tA4 d/^kfirmt ^tVHJa inJtm/ttraHif aB*f imatiiiMnte ^titiify to ^alltif fvmg 
lit tU atriiViJi^nct tH thet^ii—\.c. {Humftrame pursHits iftf ptm^wnff tftt 

fittfft - 7%f M^fAV«v!nw fff* iftat apini^^* fa>- "^/wti'Wj* ' A*; ***/ m^ki it 
iditfr AT fJ/AiNW tke fwtff^loKt^ p^utm in ifKontiritnt/^/iir'vfwivn' ii vfitn 

Tiu dii$imliAn Ij^nytn * Uttrwly Actving tnimififitgt ' antt ' fiat'tn^ it and 
ri^siim^ 1/' tr mtrt itMy /4ah tiiat MtiffH ' Pfiiiriefi ' ami • tnr-ii^.i^^ ' U heifi 

A» Asji^Mtt/vti nar rt^Hi^ 0/ (Mi iiw ftimiitei tff the Pratti^tii "ty/Jj/iiWt 
Alf mcj^r—tmu it anl—nqy dt /ySfy reafited. qaA utiivtrsat prff/csitian. 
M ttmiittm*»4tt, dn^ iJkf ltd* mity yit tSft taiPntitttnUy^ bttauit 4/ doti fu/ 
ftmtin tif Mttttf— ' thii I'/d t^it e/ ijurii' 

^nwr rttifMJ Sy jij jmom^mM irnin./^e t^ttr wl rtaUiaJ—ivt it tkt m^tr 



noCK Vil: CHAP. 3i § i. 

ilitS/fM H^ tt diitingtiisJi i^^ litis -*9* rt^affnf ft Af^vfAvJ rA# *lU' 
fe f*iM-F, 7'Ae /orvt i>/tA« 'na/vr *'t, * JltitgeHti wAo^ft w^h titJ iitit,r*tj^ 
to <io mth artit jmiA ihirij^^' Tir fhi* fPV'u'd^ /raijijr utTTHfltadi o rtr^wiitt^ 
mifUf—' fam iii<fi ^rui imh, atvitkU //liri^it luiA aft J iter h.' 71it!aff^/^^ 
fi/fliii pri/tflt a mifti ts mUiA "iurf f\ktty ' Wi/ M ktmrr." er'ustu wMlitt* /Ajif 
tki/fviif f^itrf} fijtj rviv e/if* rjffr/yhkit t^nfir/tntf ef tilt min^ it mf^k i» 
otitHHf €ititi/ /ar ittufft/ittftm, er <uti»^ ^iffaitvt /hU/ rratittd tmK^rJgt t/§M 
major m uDirciuS |>ropvdiciiJa '. 

Sn i^wA ffit ■ kAvinff ktiffwitd^t.^ t«if ' ^tnim^ it oftd m^itin^ it* ; AtiT r^kfrr 
is a third ttiKti of ' hi«tii^^^ Mat'iit^ ^i^Mch tiatt tiai aiaitne u Am^nf* ft^i^k 
may ^ (*nsidrr*4iH i*im6jri*H ^tft it-i^mfinfiwe. ti is in t\if tKirJ u^^ thai 
a tnat or ^nmJttH man ' hci hwwinine * ; dn/ t&a vutrnfiiicmf ■■cdA, tifittfv^ 
momf f'A/\inr wiiheitt 'intm'tHv ' whul th^f mcirn, mar i< tfMptftd tr9 m*^ 
man, ff toa man ipAs is ttfuni", of te hh actor /*tnj'tHjf tAe pAft atcipvd t9 

//i/Mtrir ffttr t-tftanaJiMt tf inffMHtUHcr AiK e9Hiiiifd in t^rrftraJ n^ftma 
ta ' vjurtit/ijril Awtaw/cJ^r' iM nj hiHv try ft /S/tft fht limnfOlwC C*iiM ^ 
iuttPNfintiur—haii' it ftrmrs ahuS ihat. in fkt f^uti^ir runAi/w o^rf* inc&mti* 
tUHt waH. buMsflf^i it ■ trM nvt/ii/d.' 

it If tir Ihf T?wi/ tki\t 'ht mafhiHt^ of lAt Pro/ti/at SytJffi^m ii workjif *f 
Dttir* thai ^M Mkail find !kt! intini'iiatt ttus^ fif^jt impnfinjtf s/f- T)kt m* J cr' 
firamtM, ' tjtf-ji L tvH' tohi^h effnt^fji ifxeff to /?iijirt ii K*t aUnvJ M rtigm 
tvifkaut a rival, /hiire iCfi up *ijulliti uiiijor,— ' swM Mttfi art fU^M/ti' 
aivi It lAut RbU U r/prtitnr th$ incaJt/innri tut O-t & t^ncimifitt v^Mjr ^remm 
/ram ^tjotiiut Daitt marki iti cppontum tP A/orai J^iunf/r *7 faaihttg 
forn^rj 3 tftojtiiv — ' mvff/ rt^tngi an //ftUiiMf — lehitA Jott ivt itt ifttJ/[lAtHjf^ 
ij lAw iit Uj ff/uefwniti) ttnjlUt wiiA • 9aMI /l mriV fAt vmurjw tfMr^ 


Aiff ihe qutsiion^tlim' tkt imnntiufnt /aan, ifAtn tfttjii ii wtrr, pwrcvri 
iai bngwttdgt, /A/ t-t/ItniJiri'Hi of ihii rt^mnry mi/fitth* titmf aa tAol ^rtwm hy 

Iff an nffv in a /tuifien fa d^ne our ottHudt to tAt view 4/ S^^raHn* 
StKTotrt may tv a^lim^d ta .rj/— " Ji*Pi"!rii^t faKial it tfTtfrpafx^rttl fy f^tthm* 
'-'i/hy *hnmlt4g9* hi M^fritt^ 'Ifu* kftmffai^' ^-* ht^ttiit ^ /*# •*•*■ 
Vf*^' 7'Aii, ItMti/g it it AWfEvr/j/. is 0^ t^n/^rft ty f«utiftt. It is tmfy 
* thi kiio'i^'liii^ pf ihi Ufjt-fiartituiir^—aitiithiiafftraUit mtt * Amemit4fi*'^ 
wAiiStKttrt intiK^njtiit -afifh fiUitan, antlMiiy de aitfrnrtiiiy il* 

SM b.9. f$ 1. 2.} RtissoH (FifrSiA, pp. 20. 2t) poitiU nut thxi c^icK of 
tiiCBC KCtionn ccniains -a scpHratc Iiat of proposed tnquific^ The 
lii»l given ill S I corresponds^ in sub^unc? and in cixfcfT, with ilie 
conicrLs of lEie folbwing cbajiU'cb. vrlicroa^ ihu given In ( > 
mentions only cnc poim aciUAll)- discussed aftcnvords— ii*- Avni' 

* 'Knawlcdi^ oT the mjOTp m Buverul propOAJIiein ' motf no! (• 
ftmM with *tbo «p]>1iAti<m of thit kiiowlec3|{v lo p&niCDlM 

BOOK Vft: CffAP. 3: 5 i. 


vi «(j>l iTiW /crrlv 4^x10-^0 tfa] ^yvpiirnti f^ oC ; 1 146 b- |8. ThC two UA9 &^ Bi 
pOMUjctTS thertrfoie Ap|>cnr lo Rslkhiw and Coot WiUon {An'xit 
Staai*t4^ PantjL-rapbs 25, a8, 3g, 61) Co be bclcptndent duplicates 
not belonging 10 ihc same x^crtton. Cook Wilson Bcome inclined 
to rr^uxl ibat in J 2 ai llic tJjfc. iinJ a* having intmtlitctt! 31 
vcnnofi now losU Thi^ opinion mu«t be Uken in connrxJoii wJih 
Ml vhhote iheory of the etruciLire and auihorttiip or the i^reiienc 
chni>icr. He regaiiJs il n^i thaiIc np of jinTi&Agct^ from iwo vi-ry 
sxmiUt ^er^on^, cither of vMch i 1 fits equally, while } a fits 
nciiber: and with respect 10 the authomhi^ of ihc chapter he ik of 
opinion that ' whcdicr the two vcrsiLinii [uf whidj it is L-cmrpn»riI] 
ore by the stmc hand or not, there \^ n atronp: probability that 
(a) reirhcr 11 by Aristotle, that {A) ndthtr n by th* iuilior of the 
fludcmi^iu Ediic^r — gt a1 It^ut of the second liook of ijiat tTeaiisc, 
and that [y) they are not by the 6an)« author ua some of the most 
unpoftani parts or this boot' [Antt S/itifirr, L paragrf*ph 60), 
He ai)^ngc» the pafalicl versions tltub — 

A^ i 1 A } 1 

,«."■,'.:} - »•»'- 

See Arukfiii'Trt StN^'ttt Ir Table 1, and para^'raphs z^-^i, and 

That tbenr b conHdcrniblc turfusiou -md icpctiijoTi in this 
'^Niptor no CDe can deny; but whether t^o much a« to jut'tity all 
the detaib of Cook Wiluon'^ ilwory tnay, T think. W doubled, 
Scct>i>n& I And 3 »c«n] to me lo he clearly, and ncciions 3 and 4 
probiUy, paraHt'l ver^on»: but \\ ^. h, ;, and ^ ^tnktr rie aa 
ccnvciiiive ; ami }$ 9, ro, iind 1 1 can only !"■ dpstriliw! n« p^indlel 
10 } 6 \ii (be «cnsc tlttil, like it, lli^y cr^ai of eIlc Pracdc^l Sylio^ifiin ; 
for Ebat bylbRiim \% analyied, and applied to Ihe expianacion cf 
Af/Wffifl, in the two piimges finm i"<» difTcfini, though not fn- 
COnMrdcnt poJnLiof ^icw- in pucb ji i^ay ibat die two onalyTcs and 
appiicaiione, laktn lr>^lher, (ecm only to preu;nt the subject 
abaiiMiTely. The icUliuii of jS <J- 10. and u to 5 HteTiis lo irttf 
to dffer in an Important point from tho.t of { 4 to { 3; for whereas 
j 4 merely repeatij the 6ub«i:iiice of § 3* J§ 9. 10, and it fljiy 
lomeilitn^ not taid in { 6, and soinciliing uell worib taying, 


BOOK UJI: CHAP. 3: $ I. 

Ib not conuniiouii. bui broken by ff 7 anrl B. b evidence of con* 
fusion in itw structure oi lh« du^il^r; but, Aa th« consi(5^nlion> 
atldrd in ^ p, lo^ nml 11 avc %a wtll wnnh adding, wr ntigfai 
perhaps nol \o have much diiTtculty in mippOAing that ihc writer iA 
{$ ^. 6, 7, and 8— doubtlc»< with lomc *iicrifi« of Aymmcirr — 
added llT^m, On ihv o\\wi band, it niu<il t>r iiotrJ ibai ifie wriirr 
of the M. M. (ii. 6)^ in hh version of Lhi» cbapier, trcacii of ibc 
Praaicnl Syllogism in one place, not in two pl^ea ; but his ireil- 
^M^u of II h wi jqune nud sli't'hl as Ui makff it utilifcrly tlui, cirm 
if hb jmtliorilv bjid (rcac^d qT it in two pbcCB, ho vouid bave 
followed his example. 

Alihou^b 1 c^nnm accept, in an/ihiiig Itke iia fLiln^ts. Cook 
Wilson's ihcory of ibe ^truciure of tbin chapter, I ihink tbJil U* 
view uf iift aiuliorship (thai it m probnbly not by Ariiirotte. not hf- 
KudrmuK, noi by the amhnr <if th^ pntirijial pant n( thh Book) 
baa much 10 sny for ilscir; and the rcniArka vhkh be m.ikcs in the 
courKtf cf pa.ragrapbs 59-61 in support of hifi view have alto gtf*i 
value, irLdrp(.'iiilcndy of ihe immt^diaU* purjMMf (o which be spplii 
ihenif and 1 shall frequently bflvc to refer to ibcni ia AulMe^|uciit( 
noles, Aecordint; to CooL VViUon tliitt cliapl«r iv prob^ibly not by 
Aristotle, ijot by Kndemnv, tioi by the ainhnr of ihe prirdpal parti' 
of Book vii, because (1 ) ibcBc three writcra d<icribc the urputvt ftS 
the buhject of ^an active strngf^ie between rvaf^on (A^c, wtnciinwfli 
irpntiiptiTn:=^* iitxionn] wilP) and »jipeLiie (/jnAf/161), beiween thv', 
desire 10 do vhtki n wroni; and the conviction that it h wron;'' 
(Ariji Sfu/f. paragraph 60, p. 49} ; whi>r«as tbi» chapter, hi- sppJj^ 
ing il)e diiiinciioii of uriual ^itid pncpitthl knoulnlgr vn ovplain 
anpaftn, makcs ii mcninsl mru^'glc impoaablc, there being no actual'^ 
knowledge for appetite Eo strugj^l^ with ; and t>cciufic (a) ' chapter 
3 U an obvious conce«»Eon to the Socrailc piinciple, an lb*? writer 
of tlw last section of it felt" (p, ao), whereas AriiTotle. Ftidcmw)* 
and the writer of ihe oiher parts of Book vii. arc ^[rongly cppoced' 
to that principle. 

The following (among oihcr) passages are quoted by Cook 
Wflson (paragraphs ,^9-61) to sbow Thar Ari*io[|e, Eudemu*. %tt6 
the writer of the odiei pAiis of Book vij cegard the Mrug^e in |be 
i^Hi^f as an active and coti»cious one— i:'. A\ i- 13. 15, t6. 
ito^b. 14-as; Li. 4, 8. 1166 b. 7-10; A^«. 111,9, 9» 433a. l-j; 
dt j^mmlL 10. 0. ^3ibH 5-10; ^.^'.'ii. J and 8. 117% a. 30-3^ utd 

BOO^ yff: CHAP. 3: ^ i. a. 


laif b. i^-tj; £'.j>' vii. ft. 1-4. 1145 b^ tt-ii^tio, 4; £*. A'. viL U4« b. a. 
7. fl^ iigo b, 19-tS. 

f ft] Rimvauer, who thinki that ihi> teciion bt om or pbcc here, b. u. 
UiJ utav hrivc been tlir cipcxiili^ of an Arlhioidian Uistufiaiun vrliidi 
hu not come dosrn to uv, rcmaflo that the ^ord:t ofTv y^i* m^t 
avor' tr,*. b, i^ A«Bi:me fts flPEito<I wbni ifi cEiborfltely <ftta[>lieh«d 
in subKqucM dinpicm^ VooV Wir^m {An'si. Siuiiiei,. jur^gupfi 
61) rti^Arlu Um ' accordinff to $ I Lhc ^rnl eubjua [or constdcm- 

lioa U thai nhich foklOWV . . . frAnpnv 'ZArlT'r f a&, ital win t\^ft l 

f i not only put» a i^^ilcrc-m >uIjJccl fi^ai. bul omit^ tliiA. At leant in 
U17 distinct Bhape, Irom the hsti li'erhapa ihercfor? \ t belong 
Ui \n i^xXwt vcrunn wlifch ermtainM nfirhin;j abcrnt poi^miiil 
k-iiawlcclgc p[)»Ci*cil bj- ibc Jfpaxw^ Tbc wiiitT of { J iHJy mcfcl)-, 
as af^Aimt ScctntcE, lictvt; tnaitilfltiKMi or prcsupponcd whiit is im- 
plied in chapter 1, thai in Atnattia x\\<:Jt ifi n Miang and acti^ie 

f Cm>ci0U9i»CM oF Wf Ong-dmng (la^v^u vnAr/^u . . - «M[Htmtffii)f And 

bivft add«d that ihw corLvti:(iart couTd br dieob^yed, li' not ac- 
companied, flx in ^jiri^ffit (^ eh- ii. § £. 1141^ A- 4 vqq,) by a 
strong tksirc to Koliec ii, but opposed hy Jnidvuh^ 1 U may htve 
M no more ililliculiy in thii repreRcntAEion ihiiTL the :iiithor of the 
pung^i <|uoi»*d from th* dc An, and Nic. Kihlc^ [see f-nd ofUii 
nocc] *«m» to have done, and ihcrefoie not have dwcU on li 
furtlt^r. ^ - ■ Ttip above ia somewhat countenanced bv ib^; concluMon 
of ( *, The fir»i problem (^ Jm '7^ fl(r<V<*#i) bdng, wheihor the 
dtpor^t iiii^ iytt»*n'jf arc i^lTcreoctrd b> llidr obiecCs ur by their 
Klaikm to ch«m ; ihc Lict Ihit the d-'fjar^v kticwt he should not 
adopt ihv jAcA^mni motive (A /T nCc nlfrnj rij» BifM^ a*) is asMittied a« 
sul)«idiiry to the solution of the prcbtcm, withoiit any hint thai ihc 
Eact ItAvll lA a prjncipii diDicuUy :LW:Ltting ^eulemcnc' 

Peter* cxt>rniM3 hh view nf this neciion in ni\ hittresiing note 
4p- '^^y which ] quote to ftlww bow plausibly tl>e obscure phe- 
nomena here prevented to criticiim may \>; accounted for on siill 
inoiht-i hypotheirit, — "11118 wclioii (j a) wrms tome not an alici- 
nalivc &p $ I , but & ccrrcaion of il. or ratl^cr a remark to llic t-fi'cct 
ll:at the uhole pots^Rc (both j 1 and the di»:uHaicin introduced by 
ii) ouglit lu bfT rewiittt^Li. mid mi indituciun of lUc ^ay in wluLb 
thib ahould be dene. Of comtiderablc portions of the Nicomachcati 
Iilbiu wt may safely say thai the autlioi cculd not liave r'^garilcd 
tbcm HS foiuhcd in ihc form in ^hlch wc have Llicm. 1 believe 


BOOK Vff: CHAP. %\ \\ % % 

U40b,l4. thm \\\v. author made a rough draft of the wboTr worl. or of the 
several parts of il» which tie kept by him ard worked upon. — 
v'orlting some psits up to completion; sometimes rcvrifing a 
ji^iMge viiliDui sirikiiig oui tht onginal vrrsioti. or tveii iuilii. aciug 
which was to be rcUined {^.f. ihe theory of pleasure); mere ffC- 
cjucntl^ addhig un ifterthougbt nhich required the rtwnting of 
a v^hijlc [u^ji^gc, wIlIlouI rewriting it U.g., to tnkr <^ne ini^LAncc 
out or mmy in Hook v* rc^ amir<ir«iASi L5 ati ivftcrthuiight which 
stricily requires ihol ihe whole book should be lewrilten] ; ftoroe- 
liiucfl (as her?) making^ a nole of the way in Vp'lii^ti ji |iu«i^e 
c^L'^uId be rewrillen. Suppoac, if need b^^ ihm the wort, left in 
ihtB iJicompkte smte. vaa edited and perhaps funha wofktti upoji 
by a later hand, and wc have enough, I think, to account for ihe 

b. 19. A dirXfis dupoT^i] The man strictly fio caElcd, or wilhout further 
qualification — i.t. tlie man w^ho is ineontinent about ceriain trodLly 
pleasuri:^ (sec ch, 4), »b dlsiui^Uht^d from the wv&w m> milled with 
an Added i^ufililieaiion (^nv npod^Vrwi) — cu^kiti^i ifvjiov^ irip^ovt^ or 
Ti/i7rp Vi«ved as djfX^ ar^ntijt. n mat) is vie\^'ed as relatM 10 the 
«ame bodily pleasures as cbe dMnims : but llie relaLior h not the 
same in each case. The relation in ^hich the Aw^^t aipnn^r Atuidtf 
]o Ihe^ pli^aMirrs k [lot so simp/r ns that in whi^h thf ajr^Ad«-r«f 
bUiids [o (^u:m ; the dK^^vitrm h conidvcd ju ' iiniply rcUlcxI lo 

■rclared lo ihem in a certain manner "— Mil J^i* — in a c«rtalD 
niamiervhich disii[igulalie>i him from chc iiiid^ourtiv ; i. r. tlic Jio^ 
AcEiTTCf simply goes in for ihem : the AwXart oKparrst ^cett m for them 
—'Ofl/r a struggif. 

b.M. H *. *] li^flrnann {Qlt. Crit. in AriiL Sth. Nk. p. 44), 
regarding ^ 3 and 4 as two indcpctideni version*, wi^uld slnltc out 
iheuortig fVidr^fj^ aiif rjr in { 4, b, t% on the ground that o^fXiAwn 
inKiiediiitely prefeding i* eijiiividcm to ihe ntA^* iliaf}/^ vjii4 f4» 
Xihwc of J J. b. »5. ' Quae»no cat,' Ire aayn, ' uirum contra tpann 
acientium immoilici peccent An contra opmioncm : quiun nihil fsccic 
ad rem Arlritoieles imKc^f, qiionlam opinlon^m tnicriJiiin «adeni 
pcrliriacia atquc icicntiam dcfcndamns ct obtiricamu*. Qtirin 
»vntcnturum ncxum duo vertu apcrte pcriurbam* Eunim ft4i» 
AuKPfi flnrrr^M'7 ^^^ proiMi^ »mu alirnii ab hotz loco, cum, «l ijnid^m 
•I if>l6i,jvjtt facilius molhliac indulgenf, dilfcirc h^vx^^^ bl^t 

SOOaC VJI: CHAP. S: 55 3, 4. 


diccndam criit < . . quam inopte auteiti ilb ilhta siim« mnnircslo, lUflb.x 
optnor^ ehiccbii, ^ bic quoquc duplicpm cxitarc pjnsdem s^niemiac 
CuriruriiiuiioDCTii \\>&^ vnlx]iU[ji culluLiLtJOntr d<:iiionMrdV«ftmii»— ' 
be Uicn ftrinu §§ 3 and 4 in pamJlcl cobmnn, omitling the worda 
/rwTT^^ij An^r, Bin i cnnipnriwin nf the rorrpsipnnriinpj p.iiuagtr ijx 
ibc AI.M. ^li. 6. iioi b. I 7pI]<].) shows tlio^i tlic whole cUu^cu^dir 
tttiatt itnarii^ ^il^, ^*^ i( tdsinds, ia cquivatcnl lo iCSrV lia^i^t 
Wp^t r»t )t^r. The ptwagi? runi; ihtis^ — rf^ piw ov¥ rf/v afrrtpirtr wop^ 

r^ M r^ /ir<7r^ijr JTrnr"* 7^ tSSta tjrfu /turr^iarjr t^tirt* r^^ij*^ 
JytfaJ^Xjn* ]^ ^ruHTJirrfir, & &^ ai^t '^Ayct wiik rri r^c Aiifrjt' />{>fi¥ yhfi 

4&W csl a^4riCmtffTcv. otdtV ^toitft r^r rm^rr^^'ii, v.t^A. : .-/', tl)0 
PllTaphrn^I— -ffii^^iWi /U voXlci'if r^i^ Aafai* Quru fUfUiiat tyntitrSai Atrrt 
^ Ju^^v fV<(n-^>iiT< kotA t& dd^tpoiMbr reus ^vi$u|A£abi. In the 
light or ih«K {.cmmentafic? ^ 4 nny b« {^^ruphri&«d ihuE--' If yoa 
arpie ihai Aifd 15 acat, anJ ihoTcforc more l\Vc\y than rni^TT^i^ lo 
be overpower^;!, wc ahall reply ihal ilKrc is no difference between 
Wfa and rtTiffT^>ifl m ihc matter of slrenglh, fcr aomc people, like 
Hmrlilts^ are 3s fiim in chrjr 'lofa us olhtrs ar^ in iherr iitior^firj' 
OWr l»Jir« /nwifli-ff fliff^i is llius noi to be urtdcrsloofl, ns it i?t ap- 
pOKlldy by Imclmiinn. as an inj^tnct/rfm tl ovv . . . mpii^vr\3i, but 
fifi an iiftrtr*^ w ^t : "If you argUi* «f off" . , , o/Mif owmi^ our answ«r 
win be trCAV Sut4^fH4 ivatniui Jufijt/ DDubllc^in the expreuii>ti vt&*v 
lba£m ii^ii flr*tfT^**qf woultl have liccn more correct Ihnn llic *y4'V>' 
lUifffn At(^>i7 itl^i of ihc text» Wfo, not Jrt'TT<Jt*1^ Mng fhc proper 

»abjtGl c»r t}jc ar)cumcnt; and it will be observed th^t the wiltrr of 
tb« M.M* and the Paraphroat have adopted llie more correct cx- 

The exact ticcpc of ibe argument *»\f^i^ BujiVt* ^^10^^17 flufgr b 
w«li d*l;rwd by Cranl^* Of courae neither Arialotle nor his «GhooI 
would wiih M\ du awuy with the dJMtinctiDn which Plaio had 
established bctwe<n ft'^fa and •numj^. It i* only iu connected uitb 
the will, ani u forming u gicuiid for action^ that opinion can be 
C0n=idrrr<1 as firmng aw urirnrr-' 

{4. h|\o7 V'HprfiXf tTof ] The Aid Schol. (trho slfo instances ihrb. 9a 
dogEnatiani of Deinucrituaabotu lib atoms) aays— dijXtritli 'll^ifXmatf 

Ao^fviir ore iipf^jc ovc /(ir(t> JXtyc* on ui^t^arc O^fj Alifnl ori lib* Mf ov 

VOL. n. :. 


BOOK Via CHAI\ 3: $$4, 5. 

114s, Tiftu' X/y«ffi rJV» nv/HT^ niv JntErr^^irr r^ atr^ onm^^ari /j^jfrtovAi, Sc* 

Dicg- Lactl- i-t- 1- 5 quokd bv Fiiusdic; nml Gmut^ffwur^ r* o£AuAf 

nXV aC'tui' 'ijir; ft^^r^aiT^iK *ni /loftcp fffi>Ta ird/*' catiTOV " and DJd. IX. I- f, 

where he is dencritied ■■« ^*y-j^-i-(i/ift-i' mi vr^priimjc : we alio oiI>*r 
pi^ag» conecLed by Bywater {Ileracl. £ph. Rdi^. p. 33) noder 
fragn). Lx:ut> Pclcrs (p, E16] ^i^pposcfl thai the ftlluiior ia ;&« 
words ^J7>m Jl' 'H^idirXKfer is !i gcibCfr^l un*?, lo ' ihc ((cracliKOlt 
doctrine, which Aristoilc raihcr unfair]> jntcrprcia as a dcnUl </ 
th«tnoBi rundaEneLitalofLil] Tirat prmupl«& — iheluwof covUnidicboa. 
^ JV// lii- 7. 1011 a, 3^/ 

1), 91. {{ 6-11-] Ras-«ow'« view (whh which 1 flffree) of \\\t rclACion of 
lljcse {§ to one aiiDther U as followa {Forstfi. pp. 137-119). 
Agiiinst ihc SocraiJc docirine that there is no such ihinff aa itp«ai», 
htcaatc no one iftflT*i/>f^/j* does wrong, four conwMeraiifMis, cotipW 
loettlKf by fn. jpc bruu^^^^ forwitrd — (a) Knowledge is not ^aaj3 
ftctuol. A man may Ai»rr knowledge, vithoui ttsir^ii: f 5. (i) 
The reHerUori uhich precedes acllori may be trdurwl in the rorrn ot 
a syllogism, la wbkh the getierAl rule is the m;tjoi, die |)arlicuJ3f 
CA«o l>ic minor premiss. Now, ihe knowled^ cf the major 
pr^miti* may !ie eori^oiisly present, while ihii or ihe minor raaj 
remain 1;([eiit; and so a man rnny do wi^^ng, noiwlihsUndiagf the 
fact thnt hiii Sytota h only partial : { 6. {t) Hie paswon$ may like 
mich hoUi of a man ihai he mny be said lo Arffur In n Kense, and j« 
ih?/ Ativc, ihc knowled^ of nghl and vrong, his condition being like 
that of a niactmnn, or of a man o&lccp or drunk: ff 7, 8. 1^ 
Itpfmrrfft Anparrio, or frfjoWtUd of E. A' *ii. J. 8, i'i ihe form of aitpaaU 

which the writer has in view in 55 7 ^^^ **■ (i') The fourth 
consideraiion (pre«enl(d in ^ t>, to, 11) iak«G Up the other knwl 
of Jifpnrrirt distinguished in -^, A^ vll. 7. H, v|jt, bVA'iw>c. The 
pn^i^ions ui^^iahion i^-norancc or unorat blindne^ not dircctJy. but 
by ini:ana of scphtBtica] repri-sentaiions ; they plac«, by ihe side of 
the major premiss whieh contnlnii the rule ot conduct, ftnotbir 
major prcniiss ^hkh h nut ir Itself hhc, but in the ciraiiDflituiGtf 
h irrckviinc. Hence;, in actiii|,' from ihis true, but irnelevunc, rriAfor 
premis'!, thr aif/wr^P acis uirA ^Ayiti mur unS JUfrjr. Thrse, acmrrifirg 

to Raa»ow, arc the four ttcp^ralc con£idcration» urged in thu 
chapter nf^inst the new of Socrates. 

4 S.] ' l^he dJKtinclion between the possetsion and the appIkatioQ 
of Imowltd^e ' is made, as the editors note, by Plato, TAm/A 197, 

BOOK VU: CHAP. Z\ %^ 5, 6. 


wpdrrcif [too Jx**""* '**^ fleiopouFra] ] So B^tt'LUer B^kki^r .iiitJ 

»*v f|wifl aui J*»(iat*m, which cjcprcssoH ihc scn*c intended more 
neady. The wi^rrfe *o\ r/, ^it^pnifra ar<^ given hy all autliori|ie«, 
ajJiKiirntly, cxcrpi M>'.iml r. On thr oihr-r hunrT, all antbnriilps 
M<^m lo ^ivc the worJa bratkctrd by fiy>iratrr— ruj/ Txona tai 
Aw^iWfl, Of courwu wc cannot tctiin both the words fltnitici by 
M"* ami r, ami iliow bratkcif^d by Rjwaicr. 

For the iniithc^is t^'^'^'^ t^'" fn ^vpaCrra it ficc de An. it. 1. 41a 

4 {f ur tA Sttopfhi. *povtflAt o^v fin ic /vifrrffvrr '** >^ t^ i'jrJ/fj^*iif r^ii 
1(^1;^ ftai timtr ii'>i typ'ryopirit /itti'i cwXoyay 3 ^ fiiu JyptfyHfurtt r^ 
fftvpuf, A F t'Kt^ft r^ fC'' "II tti; tvt/ryiiv r. r \. Cf^ AffL W. 6. IO48 

tftfw^iTiii. ^ PAj'/. %'iLi. 4. 355 a, 33 7flTi ^* ^liW)*« ^Xflir A 
iM^f^avub imirrrifivv cffi ^ ixaip ^^v ■"( ^t '^'^piifc- , , , A ytifl fi[<a»i 

fofifir. Sec Boniif, J///, p. 394- 

{ 5.] Section 5 TxWcA aticniton generally to lli* fucr Ihai know- b. as. 
Mf^c iDAX ^ pOMo»scd «KitIkOitt bcifij£ rcaliiscd in consciousness, 
■nd argued that ihttt U nothing paracloicica.1 In euppotiing Eh:U the 
aafim^ ftCis ' 3g:L]nflt knowLrflg'*/ it hU knnmfErl)?^ is merely ff»- 
scascd, bat not rcalitcd in conAclouant^u. Scclbn 6 potnb cut 
^iMTlhat there U nothing to prevent the o-^wn^e acting * against 
knowMge/ if, whilr hU kmiwleiJgc c( iiie urivtrrsal b rralifufd in 
ci>Qac^$4 (xi^tiiixf fiiVroi TJ7 M^^mf), hiti knowkd^ of the 
pirticialAr ii cot [mi}>t ^4 ^b "^ ^fji»t)- Thffc* I& nothing moon- 
tiumt in ihia fiu[>po>Junn, for, ahhcHJKh knovvleiTgc of the univrrsiJ 
indcidoknoiflcdgcofchcconLtiincd pa.rlicuhr, it dor^ noEnccc^wrily 
*niail the /tviuioutiy ffaiiFtd knov^-Mst of ilie particular; «tc Aid. 

^^ Jv^><?i ymUfUi Wip* ^i inpyti^' ^yo^/i*^!*^ fr^mru n'wi r^ 
flultfUv ffpor^fwc ffr^»;frm. Nor h thcTt fliiy dillictiUy in fiiippaung 
ihas tht diparji, in acLifJg again&t his iion-r»lj&cd, or latent, know* 

L t 


^OOX" vri: CHAP. 8:56. 

1140(^35. kiifff rf \\\f pafiirular, act?, also a^a)Ti*,t Us corisclnualy rmlii 

knowledge of Ihe indodmg univertal ; for iiction docs roi lie id the 
eph«Te of the Linwereal, but in Lhai of ihe pirLcuIar — n/mwrvi ykp ri 
jEo^ rmura, it is ' lurlicpkr things,' not * liiings in gcnenil/ timt art 

t*{a*<vf-, JT*'AAf tiTith^ftia vif riti ti "'".f Troytp'^f, ai'tfini'^'t ^ff /itr rd^i^oir 
j^j^fTlfai, fri T^ ■njjitl:' oi tin irpdrrtiv, tn\ Stuipthr rur' diT^i- TQniotTa, f^ 
U tUfiiurfVt in r«^r irtunfi', ';('■' ^^^i 0^ JVP^^ ^'f '^ rvM|}f» Jr^^ynf, u3 

■upw Twt ir^fao**. Here tho Um 5,onicncf explains vi^rj cWrly ibe 
WO(d!> of ihe text oii«*' twkt/u Trpimi*' nuffi Wyi- ^■ITHfT^Jl*F^ . . . mpOKTA 
^p r& Knff •■MffTa, A man may consciously rcatidc a jfrncnl rule of 
COMiliici ivithoui rc-LilJi4iiigih;L[ ihis is a caw En which ii i« appliciblc, 
uid it \% only bj^ wh^l he rc^Ubf^ In {laftLcularcAscs that hi» action*, 
bving particulars, can be mHu«nccd. The knowlif Jpe ol the j-^ner&I 
nilpUnoraTicfTicicnicansc, I['ri?sU'aF(3^iulc3UHr^ Where hdo» 
no: inapiic <f[icicnL c^nacn to act in it^ intcrcai* acLioiis fproclooed 
by evident causei hostile lo iu interest) mny take placo : 9Kdt Am. 

JiL 1 1. 434 A, t6 ^1 A* f; >#'f «ri^hnif fiiMXrj^tt Rwl Myov, ^ ^ **^ ""^ 
JimnTu (4 ^aV ya^f ^*'yrj ffrt Af! riy Tovivriji- tA T4j(rli'% ir^^^ttr. 9 A« 5n 

jj Sfitpa. ii^y rf ftiv ijfMt^aiirn ^XXni', 7 A' if- In Khcifl, * iinivrmal klV>«- 
IcJec' bcift|: 'at fC6r"-nol eiik-rmc into the «rcra of pftniciiUr 
conflicts — is no more atlccicd by the pns^ionj; whkh affect 'patiti- 
cular knnwle-lgc/ itn<J m^ike it ' latent," than ih*? Rac*.' i^ ufTecicil bjr 
tbe panicvilAi indikni^of Jiaea^c and d^ayivlkich atfect IndJviJiialft, 
The section then proceeds (from JU^r^i 1 147 a. 4 on««rds) to 
call iiic-vitLnn to ihe drcum'ttaiiCFs in vhkh cDn^iousilf ri^ftlinrd 
knovrlcJj^c of the unjvciaal Tno&C frcqiicnify coc;iisl« with ihil cncrelj^ 
Iflicm knowledge of ih<^ paiikcuUr. which makf« the prevalence o( 
Aii^lii'a ii;tcJUg^ihlc. I agree wIJi Cuik WiiM>n {Arisf. Statd^i, 
pamj^raph 31) in rcjirardin^ 08 mistftken ihc view (DQAfaiUiftcd by 
Rastow. FTteh. p. tj8) ihat J5 5 and 6 'do not refer lo i/ipnU, 
and (hat the words S^Af* oft ^j 4^£hv fjrrta' A«miDf n^c ^M^Mrniv 
tDbTihi 4 7 show thui the stale ol th<; Jr^rnj is 6r»l divcuucd 
i>^ $$ 7> ^'' 'This Hould be Kinnge in liwlf/ coniiDntt 
Ccok WilAOHr ' and ttecnu to Ix disproved by tlie scnteticc in { s 

BOOfC VII: CHAP^ 3 ; 5 6. 


juaitr OL'ftf ^^v <iA(i^K iAfdiv tiioTTw. JaXdiii ijt vutftiiuTii*' : i<ir tnCftC 
tuui ihM the dtt^cinclions m^ile remove [he n^ip^rc-nt pmdox 

ItnoivlcdKC ; for ihis a ihf paradox which »« hcforc ihc wfitcr, sm is 
evident both from { i And { 3/ ll miy tw attded ihut thr wrtt^r 
of M.M. \u 6, 1 301 h, 1 1 sqq. ^ippJir^s remarks jmralld E» ttjo^c in 
}{ 5 ani 6 cipUcilly lo ihc J^^wr^r, Wirh Cook Wi]»on'» opinion, 
however, Ihal it b wrong lo argue (a? Rakbow tlocs) on the aup- 

5tCL4'p«t ti nal ih voft&Xau v.t-X,] ' Alxr niich bci t1rm Allge* 1147 a- 4, 
mcEiicn mAchL cs cincn Unur^chicJi ob da^sclbc clwas von IhrR 
(ifcmMerbchen) wlbst oder von fiincr Sache aussagL'— Suhr. Not 
only \f. there fhe iinpririsnt dilTertnce, just noiici^d, heiwc^n ihe 
UnivcrNJ &nU ilic pjirlicular, but also in the universal \iu\l (Hat r& 
mAIXav) there is a diHerent;?, according as Ihe reference is to 
'nnrMlf' Of to 'things/ This difference is mentioned, beciuse it 
b^ a liMrtri^ on the 'luir^ncy <if ihc paiticular,' by which Uie 
phenomenon of lUpiripL^ U bcinu Accounted for* Sec the P^st- 

^VT^r AwfTDc ii)VDfV Jti fWiv iiv&flvnoi' ^fjotuir A* ir^f to^p i/toiii^Ht 
inpttjfyj^ QvSi yftp nCdi iiitrrvt uytufiy ^ui^riEp, orni- Ai rj tafivfiot? vpayfm 

^ttvoifiFnjr olu', put iXXe'p^^ii ^XiLj^ifH^Br. rcidfl (^Atflrr^tt rEr^f Jfju 

In >o fjir ai eHc nnivcr^l ' rcUlcs to on^sclf/thc tiidudcd know- 
ledge of tfie particul^u- is not likely to rematn litcnt ; but tn so far 
as the universal rcUies 10 ' thingji^' ^le knowledjj^ of the jmnlcular 
b often blent, and tit ikpuMHj^i casjly cxpblncd. As ' the 
ditfcrcnce in the univerT;il ' thus owes i[& importance Id ihe 
fUffeirnte which ii Involvew between particulars, I he Pamph. 
ttCtiuliy hefcins \\\^ note (part of which hnn been qiioted above) on 

hjt^fitt Si Moir^ dolA^oiii. Wklh the WOrdfe — al |ACpi«ai 9i tut^ifi^wt" 
toB fuV >A^ iliH^)«q rrucm ilA/tm, ruv coAlXev ytiviTvo|iiniv* r^ BJ <rf^-^ 


BOOK Vr/: CHAP. 3; 5 tf. 

lUT&C(then follow* the pa99ajt;c quolcd «bovfV TTic PnrarhfnM'si J 

^piirni hk Am^ipiirm IS quilf in ^^^^^ ifi jl tcmTiiffit'STy ; bu: Rim- 
saurr'a rnnjrrturc dirt0>>i ^^ cai ru rrra >j/^c Tar ilu? AuH^pii Al ool 
n^ «iAJ>n' of the /f^'/ t» unworthy of Jic «ct:ol£Uit]c subtlccy of the 
present paE&agc. 

The best mplanation of Oi« ivord^ j)j^<>i A« «nl rA <Dai9Aau kciqi 
lobcf^ven by the pA»»a^c^ An. iii. it. 434 a.16, UtcljquoCed — 

X^yri frt flti t4» nioi-rtiv r6 roidt^i rtpdruw, f 0j An r^£f ro/mv roidt^. 

piv TifitftnvTn itaX^cf, ti If ofi. The formub of ihc univcnfiil proposi* 
lion h ' all meii in biich and Kuch cJi'iTiimiEfliiccft ought to (k) acts 
of such and such a kind/ To spply correctly A gtncral ni]< drawn 
Bccording ro ihis foTtnuTu, ihe agmi must (t) rccognw hh own 
ciii.uii]^iJ.iicrTA ill the ge»rt^ dcftLtiption fpvcn—'Lhc general df£<fif^ 
lion of tircumslanccs being the r^ i^' cavroC of ihc preM-iu J : it 
h ass-nmcil iliai he will not find much difllculiy In dnln^ &a, and In 
siipfilying^ the ui/rfit £vdiiamvi or nrjyw Ai tuiiju^ part of the minoirt 
[i) He miiEl roeo^nisc in the parliculor ihmg tio^v before hin the 
fn:irka whieh the general mie gives ns ch^ricTcrisdc of the tbJngi 
Trbich men in his circmn stances gughi to do. These cliir^cieriBtk 
DiArks given by the genemi rule ore ihe ra cnl rot irp^yj^irrvt of the 
present (. where it is aasumed Eh:it the agenr may oarflj (ni\ co 
notice in a pirticLiUr thing the tnarlu \vhich characteri:ie the ihiti^l 
which men iii hb circnmatanccB oughi to do. 

It will br observed th:ii rhe one tiiiK'^rul prcpovirion of ihe Jf 
Att.» wiih its double rcfcrci^cc — tc persons and to ihin^f (Arj t^ 

rmwror^-r^ mu^vAr iv^iifTfiv), 19 molved, in f.A'. Vn. 3. 6, into Ivro 
unlvrniAl pmposifions — (i)Tru»4i av0f)rurtifi ovfiipifKi tA ^{m, ' iM mm 
BTC benefited by dry nourishment * (with its fflinor oWj Jrl^ivaai — 
' I am a man '), and (a) ^^^r r^ * diocS*, < all thmgv wiUi nch luk-i 
Biich (lUrtlitEe* are i/ry ' {v\ih hi minor T6fit nnriiJif. ' iJiis thing nriw 
bci'ore me poaacssea ihew qualities'). 'I'hc resolution, howc^ncTp il 
more flpp.-Lr«nt than rent, for the fint uofvertal propoeltloil btt 
vlreiily li rcrprencr to both peritoiix and thlngai. ind the iwcoikd 
iiriver*d proposition merely describes more fully the tbinp 
nferreil to in the first propiDfiitiun. ll^i'^i avfJ^virf rv^ip*^* ri i^f 
Is really cij|ulvalent lo t^ rMoilry rrtjii^ipti rA mJtAf — a gerjend r»kv 
expressing ihe relstton of n cla^i of pei^sons to a dsoft of thiog^ 
vvhlch finds its sippticaitoii in the tninorn^Acnufbuyv StfA^rAf-* 

BOOK VII: CHAP. Z-. 55 6» 7, 


A propcsiiiftn which hw likewise a double reference — 10 a |>ertoii lli7 %. <. 
and to \ thing. Ic la iu ilic j^plitaUi^a, ilicn, vf tlm liiing-^^c oC 
Ibe universil pr&ponilioti that, nccordirp lo :hc prc-gcnt $, ihc 

1147 a. t). a iTun rriAy Isnow generally Oiat tclda aic bad fur 
biliout people: ane) he mtiy knovr iluit he ih hilious: but he miir 
continue in drink, sherry, nor kno^vins that it conwi^'i n gfeiH deal 
oTsci'l lira conduct might t>c deatribed da f<qJ1i*> Jrnrtrv. h ^oulil 
bfve to be deticnbed ^e ^vf»<irTv«, if he continued to drick sherry, 
tfirr hifi dfvior had toTfl bim It* real uarnrp. The diHiinetiori, then^ 
dmwn ill this \ Bccin« to rcvotve iladf intn that bct^rccn knowing 
and not kncwinfr tho pftrtieutnr— a djf^tinction which haa nDtH:li 
morr «i)!:niflcaiice hi the CLit^ of the d'^nT^ tliin in that of the 
'bilious patient' cf our example, for there is ih^t in llic condiLioti 
of the «p<ir9r which nukcR it r>fcuhafly dlfhcult for him to iiHerprcl 
iinl a()ply ilii- uiiivnsil — thai in, ' t*} know ihi' patilcnlaT.' The 
■ujbOT^f is hkcly 10 5nd as much difficulty vith the uy^ 1% ruuSud*, 
84 with the fiiaf TU(4t^4, 

a^Af ai^^virot^ oiTM i* Rahkow'a readLiig (see ^tm*^^. pp, 65, ^9, 

6ft) for Hi^kkiT'-t ofn^r. !<*» pi. and M*j hnvp h ih^f, and Ombr, 
hjj Tf ovfui. The PAmph, Mctnfi to have lud c^r, uiid (he 
rcadmg u supported b> the avri? AJ H^&fitMB^t of the t'mctical 
SylJLiBiiuu in *Ar /1/j^ Jnzm. 7. 701 a. 13- 

vat4 TV U) nJT«us ttoMTM Toikf TpitinMit] Ramsitucr notM that a. & 
this ft AT)Siver» 10 fn li Ijcrw r^if ^11771)^1** J^Xw r/>rfiroi fat ru* 

/^^>wv § 7. 1 1 47 a> 10, where mother rptjmtf is mentioned- 

•vTs* ^r , , , «XXvt &f| Corncs has— oJito ji'*^ i W( B* 0»v. •.O. 

uiTTf AoAiur ^ujA't *inttfnv r^\ n'tw tiMvai rijy Virifrri^/jffv £ot4 ri^v fiti^m 
a)*vW| col ^ rvvitj ifiapT^iv £XXut 3^' iTrurrur S< mi Qm/umtrm t^ 

f 7^ frt ri ^<tk> t^v tTmrTf\^w\v £XXeH rpfroi' rAf vvr ptfiit^v\f ^ lO, 
Airdpx«t ToU d-'flptiffan] I'he LotnitxiDjj between litis 5 axul {f 5 
and 6 scemrp to me 10 be the following — f g c^rplaincd the 
phennm^noi of I)ic'jminetiee by a general reference to ihc fli»- 
titiLtioa between piilcntlAl and Actual kriowledg^e: J 6, ^ing inio 
dciftil, choved that knov\'led^ of the particular ii often polcntitj, 
even when tnowled^ of the including uiiivf^raui la ucluol; j 7 


BOOK Vir: CUAP. »; i 7- 

114? *. 10. proceeds 10 point out Ihat inconiincnce may bt cxpldit^, not 
only by reference ro ihe disiincdon, jiisi consUJcrt>l, lirf»*cn 
polcntial and Admtl know]c(l£Ci but aho by reference 10 a dii* 
linclion ■fchich tnusl he rirawn wiltiin Oic limilB ot poi«ntiai knoiw- 
ledgt iis<?lf^foT knowle^lgc may he " poletitlal ' in ihf j*fop« and 
positive sense of * likdy to be actuiliscd." and ' poieniial ' in ifcc 
merely n?^tivc sense of ' not only not LUiaalited, but imlUwiy, in 
l]:(f ci re u in St ancE^, to W Uctualised/ Therr are caws In which the 
natural tendei^cy of potcnlbl knowledge to n.<ic into aaiuHly 
{</, K^ N. tX. 9. 7 1^ AJ hivii^i 4U T^v iripyitof dt^ynm) M impeded 

Eo Kuch a degree thai, while the imprding mlluenoci continue 

to opcrAlc, the knowledge can SLftrccIy be called <vcn potential— 
i^i. it i^ potenLiai in a merely negative seme, ^rtie Paraphrasi ex- 
preues ihiii view a( t\K meaning am;! connejLLCin of $ ^ itiy 

dnjr^'j'vi'^it' ov yap ^oTwr f^omri rdr Iritjr^tMis o\ /itiTTvpwm- /<m 7^ 

Hiw^iVpt' itdrd r<vr4?i» t^J rhv vpirnnv ij(ov(ri ti^v ntvrfiffiiiif ml oj Jp voiit 
ifddicrtv ffrrtV ^^Njouiti -ydp M r^v rtuBniilas, ml fioinvrai M rot 
Svtmv. Similarly Raaaow [P'crrtck. p, laS)— ' Uort [i,^. in the caM4 
con tem pitted tti JJ 5 ami 6) war das U'issen dcm Merschcn x^tu 
nicbl gegenw^nig, abcr ea konnic dvtr^h Enancrun^ U[id i^uioJvn 
in ihfn erneckt verden; in di^eem FaiJe {uf. the XhXn rp<hnf of 
{ 7') h;ii die Leidenscbaft dem Men*cben mk der Betlruiung die 
Fihi^kcit geiaubt, sicb eu E;Lmmrlii uiid i\im Wiasen luilick' 
Eukehren. So lan^^ daher die Kuerci dcr Leidemcbafl %'OThllt, i»t 
er gcgen alle Mahnung tanb iind vollkommen atts^r »Edi/ Cook 
WUbon (^M>A*SVu(//Erj, paragraphs 26, 37.30). holding {$7 and S to 
be another version fsaraiiel ia { 5, and placing lli*in immcdiacdy 
after { 4. niakt^? the wordii iiXXov rpdiroir r^ iwn fyjdiima^ and 
tid^^ifrtr in } 7 refer to what baa preceded in $ 4. ' Tbeie 
(j. ^ m § 4) the only kindd of "having * belief are having il 
dQulitfully or having it cenalnly. in eaoh of ihrw thr*'hav<ng" 
being actual, \\ 7 and 8 add the case where the *' hating" ia 
poteniLTl/ He thus regards }§ 7 and y an explaining, yer Mf jtfrr^ 
timt in ibe veraon to which they belong (Me above noLC on viL 3^ 
l-v, 1 146 b. G for Cook Wilson's resolmion of ihii chapter), ibc 
dilf^renec of etptidi or aciuaj, and impEicit or potential knov* 
kdgc. ' According to wliat vccms the nccesiarj meaning of the 

BOOK VII: CHAP, 3; } 7- 


*wd8» iS 7 »Ti£l « explain ibo difference of fxplirit (or actual) anrf 
implidt |oi pa(«t;liiii) knowledge. iircoiiKing ilmt it lux rtoi htm 

^ftVtrvr if.T.i.' (paragr. j6 ^, Now, 14 [he difference ha^ been 
fDcnliocicd In $ 5, CoqU Wilboii nfjcucK ihftt } e and $ 7 cnrtnoi 
belong 10 the Wiuie vcnion. Then. Kfcrring 10 tlw inierpiveation 
connnonly given (an by ilie Pflraphraul, qiirxtd above, and Iiy 
Rasaow), he uya (panift, 26 d), 'aume hAve thought ■ . . ihut 
dw inlcotion of 4 7 ^ ^<^ describe, not the difference of implicti 
frotn rTplkdi krtowleilgc in general, hnt a new f^prcie^ of fmplldl 
knowledge, disimci from whil has been given [iTXXo* rti^of r«r vvv 

f^rrtay), ftnd dfljncd by the ^XaffipJL'S ■nPfwa**', ^*i"!^rK(, otVw/i-twjr 

]| nay be doubted wbrtb«r thi^ expl.inution would ever h.ivt? bi^tn 
tboitf[ht of, bad it not been (^r \h< ^uppo»cd nccd^f^ity of reconcil- 
ing J 5 indj 7, for it docs not wem ii> mit eiliier passag*;' — For, 
be argO<*)t, * If /tX},Dv rpnimif r^t vvv pijAivr** refpfled to § jj, thur } 

muit also be the dcxcripcion of 1 pirikulAr kii^d of implicit know- 
ledge ; but it u a dencnpuon of imphcii knowledge in fi^enersLl, not 
of a patticuiar speeifrn/ Nor. a^^^irr. can ' the i^rerrnce lie to § 6, 
■S ihal only u^en tbc general notion of poicnlidity {dCk ri^yil) 
given 'n f 5' (paragr. 3^) — 1\^. 'applies the disiinLnion [ofpoteniiAl 
ind acitjal knowledge expounded tn J £] to ibe ^vction of tbc 
c^arijt through ttic PrAc:Lica] SjlTo^^flni' (parajc^- 27 end). 

Cook Wiliion's siaiemenl* — ihat § S is 'a descnptlon of implicit 
kiKmledge in gencTsI, no: of a \iAnlcv\,xt species,' and thai § 6 
'only tHC9 the general notion of pGtentidity given in i 5/ do not 
ttetn :o mc to pm the matter correctly. I tale it ib^ii }} ^ and ft 
art ttniceiiitd, not widi 'imiJitii tnowlevlge in general/ but wUh 
t*o particular species of'^tu-irt^ knowledge ' — -rov fx*^^ '^' mutti- 
fFfir. The noiion of * huving knovledg<; '-^j^nv r^t rinar^fujp — U not 
timvcnjble with the notion of 'Implicit knowledge': * tlm im- 
plicil Ain.-iftf; of knowlcclj^e ' ih one species of *Aai-irtff kni:>\tleUge ' 
and the cither ipecien i* ■ the cxplieit iKftnitg of knowledge/ 

The fri xh tx"" ^*' 'VhUT^jiiji' iU*.^'i¥ Tit^o¥ jm »tP pf)OirTmt of 

} J, then, naturally refers to jj fl and 6, because in J 5 two specie* 
cl 'having knowledgi* '— rd *x"* ^^ riritrtrnirtt' — have been dli^ 
tingnisbcd, vie. tv i^tiv ao\ Oiaftii' (where the 'having' la actual) 
and n ix"" t^* M ^»p*^^ ^ {wh^rc the 'h.iving' \s potential); 
and in } 6 theve two K[>ecieB of ' having kTiowledge ' have been 
COOflideitd Id conncaii>n vrith tbc tno jiptitaaM of ihc TrBcticai 

1147 «- 1< 

SOOK VSi: CHAP. S: § 7- 

U47]Ll0^ ^yllof^tm, ami the «p«t4' ^^ \yi^i\ \SU\\{\<:\\y \M vo 'h&vc' 

TT^rJi/fii. ibc ' titivinn; ' of ibc nnnjor lacing actual, and thai of ibd 
minor pOCenml. — iyii>yf«. yXv dfi^oWpo^ . . ^ ^^itt^trat ^imn r^ ta$6* 

To thc^c t^vo !>p<:tics of f^rv dititn^iahcd in {{ 5 ti.t\4 6 (the 
*(<[* of the oJ )f^«/if»*i and ihc t^tt* of the j(p«^*"'ntf), J 7 adds J<t" 
anolbrr Kpcclr^s (r/1 RamsautVh iioii — "jcn™ n fl^ tditmii 
TpcSnwf 1147 a. 3: r« ifttud ad ri fn 1147 SL lo, { 7 »pcclflt, quo 

frum (lie iionuiil f^'*^ M^' m4 r?<vp<i^ fli in ihr tLjjiuK'r (f^tjiidtiiLHl ai 
the bce^nnin^ of the present note, ff vc keep it ntcftdil? in view 
ihai iht objtrcE of } 7 IB not ^ to vxplaiii th(- djflerencc of oxplicxt 
an<1 imjilkit kiinwlcdgr,' but niri<-ly la r^U AtlnLtion lo onollici 
kind rot Sxnv wtiv tir-*rr^fifif, the facl tlml this third kii:d *Db « ^vw 
rescmblcB one of the two kinds distinguished in §§ 5 and 6 in 
bi'iii^' iinjilicil need not trouble u&. Indrctl. ^iilioui L\>ia^iomiaii^ 
the portion Ultcn up agmnsi Cook Wibon'ft view, arm might 
admit (though I do not think thai lE ie neces^iry to do so) thai ihig 
diird kind af txitir, hiring u. varieEj' of impJicjE fx"^Y was [>cihap< 
not in liie autJior's mind wlion tic wrok S ^. I»ut that lie tbcro 
thought tnert^l/ of the broad specinc diflerencc bcEw?cn implidl 
f^fiv md (^ipIiciL i^'ir: f/. tlie opinion stated b/ Pticia at the cod 
of t^ic following note, p. 217 — '.Action in sptEC of knowledjcc 
presmTB no diflicLtlty (i) if that knowledge b» not pnr-wni at the j 
timo of atlfoD § 5»or [2] if, though (ht: majcir (or major*) be knowQ' 
uiid pr^^frnEi ihe minor (or one of the minors) be unknown ct 
obsrTi! § 6, lint (3} nrher cases remain which can onlf br c»- 
pTiiintd by a furlhcr diaiinclion inlioduccd iai 5 7 ; '"''- » ">^i *1>W 
has hnowledj;c may ot umcs be in a atatc in which his knowledge, 
though prf^gi^nr. hntt lc«i its r^allry-^in which, thongfi h? may 
rcpc4t ihc old maxim?!, tliry mr^Ti no morc lo him than lo one 
who taLkH rn hiti t]vt.-p. Section 7, 1 venture to think* h Mike } a) 
not A repf tiLion or an akrrnacivtf vci&ioi), but an aflc^lhough^ v^iich 
require* the rewriting: of the whole pOAadge/ 

In rcfetring the words aX\vr r^vopr tvp ¥vp j»^W«j' lo f 4, 
Cook Wilson Kiys (paragrjpU 30) 'There (i>, in { 4) the nnly 
kindi of "having' belief arc having U doubtfuUy or baviDg U 

^ Ttic W4>r(lft f;(;oPra ftit i^^^npat ir,T.\. in f 6 arc vnffi«ienl loaboir thM 
net f>n1y Ihv f^^nr ^iv v£ ]i^^<r4if H, bnl alio (he xpv>"*w h lhi>;ifhl of m 
IXiA>— ap^L which BTWitcF** rcJkdtojt uid bracket la 1 $. Ii(fi t ji rwirrrf. i 

BOOlc vrf: ctfAf. 8: 58 7, «- 


certnmlj, ui eadi oT thcK tlic "having" bdng &ctiul, {{ 7 und 8 U«t 

iidd ihc ci^K wli«rc Ihc " Ii4vm^ " i» potential/ SurcW ih\S{ vicvr 
r^quiTts S 4 '0 ^:^y Mliere iire two kinds of "having kmmtnt^t" — 
TOP t^tiF Tr^r ^ntvTi'mi|r— hia^i;)g i[ doubirully ^nd iiavlnj;^ it t^cniinly. 
iB «ach or ih^e U3« " hiving " Isoing aciULHI ' : but {4 comparea 

^ffTi^^ anti Wf» — tlops ntit m*ntbTi two kinds roi /;(*i» /fliffr^jiijif, 
indeed Mjs noiliing about ' Imvi"^ '— fjtfir^cither h't^ or «u4ijTft^i/ ; 
whefca* the itorJi with which J 7 begins — Jn ™ 'ji;**h t^i* mitfr^^jy 
JXAhv Tp^yrnv r^v iniw pijBii'^tftf ifT6p\rt riut lii'd'p^ojc— -seem (rt ImpLjr 

tliaE llic t>rchiiiciil opro^oii «;<*»•* Tr> <V«vT'}>i^i' does not occur here 
for the 6rit dmc in the conlcxtf and Lhjt otber modes nC (rftttv r^j' 
Hurri^P^v \vA'*it l*fii iTieuiioneJ bt-fore. 

The M"!* "ui A^^fiF — i\ttr (wv (»^ Au^ijfi*' 3i' — And T^n*' !iT»r Jiui pq 
fjf*tf of lhc*e 55 reC*U Ti a<>MTi^ <;f* JJVfj Itrtt nw^h iMipyuav — fifl 

of it Irtftrp, 1 :). 13 a. 8-as, on wJiich aec Groic'fi *^rij/. irol. i. pp. 

Bcfoic Ica^iit^ tlic subject of Uic Tp&tot rou f^'ik t^ ^iOTi}- 
^^. I would col] AticnLion to ibc cxprcsw'oii* oi 9<6»pw»' wid nii 
j^^vt^, uKcd in {$ 5 mid 6 lo describe Ih? aliie of dif; man 
whoK ' IjA^in^ ' ifh iiii^ihciL eiai^iftF Aiid ;ff)^<;tffE( iifr Lr^m;^ uppllcabtc 
only 10 \\\c ni4L)i whodc facuUicH ire in norm^Ll working order* und 
Ili« cxpressiom «C Qi^pitv, »& ;f^c;f>Lrw)* are intended to thow that oiw 
wbo vaally couJd ' lliiitk ' or ' uae ' MMiply dura uoi tiappeii lo du 
SO— »» when an tnglbhmfln who ' han ' a knowledge of Ckrman 
docB ncit hapjicn 10 \ie reading n German book; but the Tx'^^ ^^ 
{ 7, which in prai:tii:aUy equlv^ilent to w\ fj^nf. and i» defiiitrJ, not 
by «v ^wpvr^ but by tou*<iji«rn(, is knowtcdj^c whitb earmold in the 
circirmbUncei, be produced it will — il is tied up, as k werCj like 
CDOney In aoiuc bud ujircalisablc liccurJly. 


j 8, ToOt A<™ rq( jfTiffTif^rif] (y^ MfL K. 3, lo6r n, 3 iar>J<*<^t 7*1^ a, IB, 

fin) Xiy«wir 'EpwttoicX^ov; | BesldCB th« povm ird^i'i ^vawf* a, 30h 
Eiupci^liicln wrolr j poem cLiIletl ra^/to^, ui which die A^rignitinev 

were cxhojtcd to live piously and vjfiuou*Iy- Sec Midbcb, ^^• 
Phi vd- 1 [^ IS sq*^., and Ritlcr and Prelier, //ul Ph. %\ 167 
*nd lyg. , 


BOOK Vff: CHAP. S: ^ 6; 9, 

U47LfiB. #U|4v^rtH] AldScb. >«;«; ^ffliTTm^J^rfp «£ir^flfTo;i. TtiC 
reading of K'^ iTvfi^>n<. vhich Sut. and Bj-««B«r adopt in pbc« of 
Birkkct's ffv^f^iMi, b supponeil bv Ald^ CCC, >od BV nbkh 

>.ft4. } 9. 4i'^i^^] ' Agaiii, we majr look 11 tlic more tmcnc^Ulc 
caus^ of incoQlinence "^1 *. we may eiamttie ibe pr^iM 
mechanism by vhicb an inci'nilT>rnt act \& producril^ Hiih«ita 
tbc <fiquiEy baa been <oi»luciccl X-ryim^ rather thac ^«ia^ -the 
femoEc and at>ftract explanation a(ford«d by tbc great AriRoteHan 
disunctlon of b%i¥^^t and iwipyma has \ret%.\ adduceil ratlKT Uian 
Ihe proxiniaEe cauee or b;«~u>i XJyoe, wbkh an cxatnioaticfi of ihe 
concrete nature (^uj-^) of iJrf pVtionj'^non ivill make Lnovm. 
(For ibc ditliDcULjD ho>UHC^ — ^vvcubi sec note on i. 3. 4 mttnAtw 
fJrov 1094 b. 33, and on viiu 1. 6. 1155 b> a.) Tbc provinMite 
cauie (criirtM0 XAyn) of an incontinent aci, or ihe pr«<ctse mechani»m 
by vbich i( b produced, U tiOI, hoveicr* given in dke pfeoisuc* cS 
tbe Praelk^l Sytlogism, as ffuch. The premisow oi ibe Fnccxal 
Syno^an^ aa Kueh, explain all acts generally (XfvyaoM), oot incon- 
tinent iCU tpccially [^vtrutwi]. Tlic proximaie cauae of aa mcon' 
tineni act ?» to be K>ughL in the special mantwr m irbicb nrAyua 
uw*i th? mechanKm of ih^ PriLtical S^-llogiim to attain il» own 
object; and ^ 9, to and it. in capUininjE <be foplufdcal toe 
vhich AnA»>u4 makes of llie Practical Syllo^un, giv« lb« *wr^ lJ)p«« 
of Of* funn, al least, of iaconiincncvr (dinVtvid : lec vii. 7. fi, and 
note on vii, j. s-ii. n^^ b, 31), tbu» diffcrtris fooi i 6\ which 
merely mentions tlie premisses of the Practical SyllogUm io ooo-' 
neiion wiib iht rrmark that ihc knowledge of the uniTerml Biaybv 
QOnsckOUaly rea1iEc;Ii while that of the uicludcd paokvUr may. oa 
aecotint cf cauaea not specially siaii^d^ be blent, Scctioo 7, inch 
iia dfttturot. iu»i/SiuPv<. mAvdvp, prepares ua for the uarior Xi(yo» 
mated in H 9-ti^ 

& 10, Srof hi^u^yiry^'mii^ afiwrj i^f. vheii the CondU^tt fMUi tj« IrOtn 
the premUm : irar ^ oxA rift viMXav cHi tiqC ia^picifr Adfvc AX^ nf4 

K ST. Ib4(I |UrJ «i /!» fTTii' ^ 9^ $t^pr^ntTi (Paraph,), 

•.ML voi«]TWiufi} =wpiurtwaUz rf. dt MoiN Amm. 7. 701 L flj Oi 3J 

* Aec»dia«t>C«ok WilxAM?-" wM'»A^>»|(i ttc firT fr^/i'ri. 

BOOK Vri: CiJAP. 3 ; 5 9. 


«p»n0«i(fl a| tnvjfvni. The Alcl' Schot. faOfl — hf df rfltf mit^nait, U4T*-fl8> 

For the I'uczical Sjlhglamt sec note onvi. >. j. 1139 a, 17. and 
Onim'f: rtrpllrm fection on ' ihe docmnc of ihr PracticaT Sylhglum/ 
Eih\Sy Eua)-iv.p|^ 265-270, 

The ^i- Moiu Ammtttmm. in ihc 7lh chapter of which (76I i- 
7 Sfiq.) vr find :t (iL-iailed atrouiif of the Pr.idicivl Syllogi*<m, ii a 
bte Pcripaiclic work (set Val, Rosr, Jt Aritf. Lit. Qrd. et Atief.^% 
(6»-i7|J; biil lh«^ accciuiit docs not seem to be in anyway incon- 
KistrnT wcih what wc f n<l in £". A', vii^ nr in */-- Attrma iti, or elwr- 
nbcrc, in work* preium*bl)- earlier ihan the dc Motu Anm. It i» 
just whM wc mtRht «xpecl, however, Ehal thr docirinc of the 
Pnciical SyitcigLHir. origin^cing doubcleis in Ari^ioTle's own uiah U^ 
find m. nnt lojpod ToTmuU for action corresponding lo thai found for 
ntiocmaiinn, would, because ^'iving a neat lo^cal fi:jrmub, be put 
praraitjcnily fctM-ard by his fnllnwrn. Accordingly h U tn n btr- 
ircaifM like the dt Mctu Am'm. iljdi vri: have to go for 1 deiailcd 
account of the Practical SylbjfUTn. [n reading this account, il is 
Imporum Lh^V we nhtmlil loolc behrml iis ^fioli^itc phni!«eo1t>gy. 
aaid remember that the ' m;iior picmlsa ' Mandii for the pcnniinenr 
organism cf th& animal (or iha mor^il character of (he man) : the 
' piinor prtmira ' for a itiroulufi coming frnni die envimnmenr, and 
c^lin; forth a mo^■emcnl (or action) — ' ilic conclusion ' — in 
accordance with the nature o^ the permanent organism of ;he 
arimAl ior mora! characUT of ihc: Thus tl>t' rniijor pr^miM, 
compared to the 6xed socket of the joint, is said 4^M<i' [^'' Amma 
tli iol 433 b- 31 »qq.)> white the minor premiea is said Ktwtlt — 10 
{.iiuduu' tiiutiuns (or acitons) with a sweep, s^ it wefe, con t mile i1 
by the fixed socket of organic ssructure (or moral principle). With- 
a^ixhr pfitnt d\tpfiui ot pprmaneni org;iriir Hruciure (or fixed moral 
principle), and llie partkular slimuli of acnse. animal motion (or 
momi acLion) is impossibles In short, ibo movcment^of an animal 
uke plaiv, in uecordiincp wirh the iirucuire of thr animal, on the 
occasion of Mn^-«timdi. In the doclrii^c of the Pra<.tLCdl Syllo^iHrn 
thie phy«iolOj^cal tniiti jb put into scholaMic form, and the formula 
Applied mr^rp e:ipi'rially in the erplanation of moral acrirtn, 

Tbe laller part of */c Mfffu An, th. 7 (from 701 a, 36) and ch. 8 
may l>e read for the * phn.Joli>Hy * of the Pmcticiil Syllogism. As 
a aaail movemenc of the rudder produces a greai movement At ibe 


BOOK VII: CHAP. 3: $5 9, lO, 

1147 «- 39. prow, eo !i slight ph}f ical cbnn^ or movement io an hitenial paitr 
cau-tcd b}' the heat or cold trtJucci ti^ ^ vnifar, ii (x^inmLinicilcd 
through nervt^t^ and muscles, and results ;ti ihc tnanifeBl movcnical 
oftt linib: 7^^ ^- '3 *1^' *" ^' ^ ^Vl" ^^*i™' ^ "^'^ ™ ^•if*!' ™ 

rtfutyi/oTtar 4j^o\'trt Avntfuv' rpitirar ^p rvra ra ttAov r^ vaDV^avov tJ nv 
ffipfifv ^ ^rrjt;/ini'i fl ifMnff ^ tpr^4pn{' rninvmv tv)^rtMi A* flfrfi- ir*p irni f»* 

fUv /iH^at Tii It JhuTfto ytvrrniM aft Ai ^'H/h ^tfra/W^ ^ftv^tfiiv^ V^ 'VjTF 

AiriuvKu^* Ti ^' ^iCTTdfii'i'oij TT-fiA^^ ^ Ti^T npoipat yii^riit /utiiimiTtt, , . . 
ritrt Al T<l XuRi^jio cnl ^Ara irifrrci Tj^f^av ^irrj^ y^'^wt rtufK tnl Bipfi^ifntr 

jypW^4t(|l Tilth TllUII/fllS, Ct* ft*!' firlCif bTf fH fiiWoIr (Utl'nt rHV OVTVr 

titrif. Attrr' (bX«^v ^Bi? ff'?fiHjL'j>y<«rii tu ^iv&f 4ul vA inj>l rif ^/'A^' ^^^ 
^^i^tiniv finpi^tu firtu^^ilWnvrn it nrKTjydrvv vyph ni /£ irfitrnv i cfirqyo m 

ra^off Hfii rri rov ira^irfifob viil grniijTi^ov rniBL'n;i- f^rivrpiif ^i'Vit «Zir 

iropfirTi'JF cal ira/fiv'tuu J** ^^ fi iymti^lQ trtptar, r& faiv yAfi <lj>yn«#i 
jiipij n<ipooiava(ri •mTT^^iflU ta Rurfij^ if ft' u^iijic f^ ffiltfr), r^v A' S^fiJr j^ 

i p'pu^ flit£a Jrfpytl (Aid. Schol.). So also i'ctcrs— ' Now irben you 
have on ihe one tide th« un]vc?r«al jadgmeni forbidding youioittstr, 
an^l on (hr otl«rr liflc ihc im'ivcis*! " all sweet things arc plcaMnt" 
('jJSv bcrc corrcHponds to ytvicSai 3*1 above : rr^i/f), And the ptniculftr 
judgment, " ihis ihmg before mc is sweci," and thift Iiilter Judgment 
is I'fTectivrly prt's^rnt, or, in oihr-f wrjnls, ajtpciile for ihe »wcct is 
ibcic....' Grant's rendering, however, ia gramm&lkally profcnbl^, 
«ref*rring:ovf*i 10 ihc*fCOnd universal proposition (4 A-), iwin> ch* 
iupic^ Aujd under it — 'When iheicfbre ibcic la in the min^ 

BOOK VII: CflAP, 3: { lo. 


Vniv-cm! which furbidti luting, but another which uys " all ihai h Ut7 A.a3, 
cwtct i« ptsuum " (hiLving a mmor) "ihis ihii^g is ewtti," and 
lbu« the second uoiverfal b reuliicd ' — /' ^^ ihe Kcond univcnal is 
Miplicd la iu minor. 

Kkttir y&p fHoo-mv SJraTni tvk¥ |iO|i^k'] Some (^'jT R-^TiiHAuer] k>35- 
bftvc Ukcn ihis to mcaji--' for each of the " Pixrls of tlic Soul "— 
^, /, X^^ and *Vi^i« — civn move the man " i bui 1 have no doubt 
ll^At r«»» >flp*Wair ilif il/>7rt«<ii m'>7 MicidHy pari*,' of Th«r paH^cigc 
qur}Ec<] above froro ihc c/f Mfiu Aiiim. i^ ^tV y^jj Ayytiviiai tiifiij vntta* 
tfniiuf^i /wiT^Jjiaitf Td wdfli^ 17 3< i^p#£if To flii*'^, and lh.1l the I'il Mph. IS 

Scclicin ici, fts I fail), ittvcA t[>e ptdxltnaic aattf of An inconilnonC 
ftci, by cxpoAEii^ the »op)uaLcaI use wiiicb in^Oi^a makca of Ihe 
Pnccica^ SyHoRicm. 

On tijc oiiv »ii(.', ^r fiLive Lhc niaxini of Rl^jihuu — 4 W' vu^Xdit f 
■■Ivuvm ^ifirflpif UTid on Ihc Olbtr sJ^Jc, the dcsifc of *wccl [hrnga, 
BviE thi* Qwpvrrfl. unn^ithrfg to ^ppJv tti« xnjxiTH of Kt^EXiton, and yet 
anxioUit riol la Mr^m \^ Sict wJihotLl Ri^A^ion, jirc^tkEs his irrartoa'<il 
dcjirc in Ihc diByiiiac of a raiional, or tfUc, proposition, which Ijc 
inftk«> The major prcm^t^ of a new Pntccicnl SylTogi&iti, and his ill- 
coniiiKTDt atl, tJiough fpally piocci^ding from irraiionjil ilnsirr^, i^^cmn 
10 be the Conclusion of ihb syllogitn^, Find to be performed * under 

the influetlCe cf Rf^ojon* — witt* ^n^^/^irni vvA \&y*'v rvr irnl S<^f';t 
dipanuiff^i. He iniTi^rtlinrntly lastrii M^mrihiii^' ^^tct^L, 'ai\\\ iljcii 
plcttdi in justificAiton of his act chc authoriLy of n principle 
vhkh he can represent as a r^lionaL one; for it is eertiinE)- trut 
Kha 'all 5vcd tiling's arc pjcavjiil/ It h not ifioS (rue ibal Ihitt 
priftcipie is conlra^ry to> tbe other prineipk— that of Right Rcn.son 
oc Temperance — ^ m#/jAw ») c4.xCniPrfn y*iiflfl™, bui f«rt' implying 
the i/oiW /» d'jijtJ^fy thnt pimnplr- The two (fcneni] propoiiltions 
' Immoderate iTidulj^cnco in bwcci tliln^ is cvd/ and ' Sweet things 
are pleaiint,' are both true, and, *o Far, there tfi no contrariety 
bci^ccii ihew ; biil ulien ihc laLtcr is put lIiui iji lis true LJtoar, 
'I must have aweet ihin^i' then its contrariety Lo the former 
becom^ft cx'idenT, *ii ^t^juf^ l&^ — • this thing k sweci/ and die corrt' 
sponding tajBaktv — ' ail ^^ce^t thinj^i arc pleount,' art pkted in an 
MlWik of opposition tc the principle of Temperance \>y thcif 


BOOK K//; CHAF. 3; {$ lO-ll. 

lU7A.afi. L»«ocLAtion viih dc»in:, >lthcuich inihiitsehei ihcy are not opposc^l 

fO \\\X\ principle — Afrr« ffv^i^nfkfi htA Arfynv TTiaf ehI ^fS^^f ritf^anuttfAu, 

-jAV wj ij a<ifi — ri^ IfiO^ Xrf>». The XtSyo*! iindcr ihc influtnct of 
vhich the n*^oT>}s is *aid lo act inconiin*nily, n limply hii principle 
of uncoiitrolWi mfli^ta (ran^muiejl into iJic iruc jkrQ|>Q«Ltlon — *all 
sweet thing:; are pleaianL' But it is not the truth cif this pro- 
pOKUJon ihat is in dispute, bur Jis v^Sue ns a principle nf rondnct, 
]| in no JLisiifidtion of an inconiinctii act lo say "all *accI tliingi 
arc plcAsant,' when ihis only mcnna — ' 1 im pftf^ioT^alcly Toncl of 
Bwt^el ihtngB/ anci ihe poitii ^r i^su* !s— ' Ou^^/ T to yield lo my 
pusMfin?' The Aid. SchoL a good noic— -y^n immin U Atn 

r^ ^tyoirri auAA^r ^AujfrrtE iliroytw^rdrii Air iroira' yA/i fimvTiiirfro «;^i>iHti ; 

^XvMftr : — / r. 5 ;*'/"'9 *^f°> ' 'his is sweci,' is the tircaiifin of <^om' 
Inricty to the moral law, by arousing dcarc, which is dircctJjr 
comrary \o \U Then men atiempt [o excuw ihemselvM by ptea<l' 
ing ifif^ ' niiDnality of ihetr dtsire' — liy Transinuilng ^iA^m^ into 
»u yXi-nC ^Uh ■ Die Sophistik der Bcgicfdc, voti dcr unier }f lo. 
ii die Kcde iiit (eays Raseow, ^(irji'i. p-iag, iiote),mach(fJcJinaiQr^ 
Hch ncrh nuf andcren Gebblen gi^Ucnc), als dem deroi|Ma-d, ond 
»jc i^t vm so ^cHlhrlicher. ]c mehr sic das ^v in cine nttlichc Fonn 
2U kltriddi weiEs. Der Feige, der ^rn Lcbcn nicht preis gicbt, 
wi'tl er siih fQr fttine Kinder erhallL-n will, dcr Hungtinde, dtr 
aiichti, indcm cr dem tichcnEcn Gcboie da£ Ccboi dcr Selbstcr- 
haliuzig gegenUhfTBlclli, ^\nd derariigc Sophlsicn/ (yi FluL 4fr 

tL 4. {11. tAl <t|pta dAh dHpoHj] be{::tusc dtparia impllen a utm^f 
between imSv^ia and Xc^/^h. nrjd llic brutes have r*o[ Xifyvf. TTiey 
have no p/inopk' 'forbidding ihcm ic tasic'; ihej cannot cveti 
con^tnict a spuiti^iiui \6ytn by tr^tn^iriuling ntTi yXtnv irto •ar -^w^ 
jflv, They have nothing but tlie impression or idea of the pant* 

^arta(iTai yfi /jt#i /ruffr Vol ditn0fi/^i oM¥ (Aid* SlIi.). ^ £". ^, U 
fi. 1334 A. l6 cjv >ii>t 'X" Tu uX\ir {vu XJjvr koI J^fw ivarriar, ilMd 

b. 8. i IS. ^loXi^Y*^] See Grant's note o^ /w. He quoki Sext 

BOOK I'll; CHAP, 8: (J II-14. 


Eotpir.^ A'-iVd/^'Tii, 1 2 9 , on ihL^ liiccry of Hcmcliius* ihu in sletp cite 1147 ^. fl. , 
ofrAfnvd tr^A Ar« cl^iiedT and ih^ voi^c is cut ofT from kEft connexion 
wiili tA fffpit'^flc. The rrrfliisr tie Somrvit :ilsii (^p« a phywological 
Account cif !t}c€p and iHnkini^, in wliicb uFpdi>ttn?fk(p |)roduccJ by r» 
tf*jv«f, ind hting to the slccppf's bmiii, pUy an imponani part. 
Ttte Akl Sdiuf, |iMiiUily y/\\\\ A rccotlocijork of itrfs aucounr, 
speaks or the JraffK^uiirov of driiikkciinc«» in Mi note on the present 

Hld>14.J If Rfimsnucr'* very plausible conjecmrtr— if" after tO- 
voM^rb. 10 — be accepiwl pi t« ac«pfed by Sti««mihl), lin? words 
■nil b. 9 . , . i!^r h. 14 make the pioLiMi. the Apodditi^ beginning 
wilh and lunr U M - ^^ Kumsaui^rs conjecture be riot acc«pied< 
^vri b. p , . . ifftl^^if h. to l« lh<r protasis, and rnvrrfu b- 10 . . . 

'Etdi<A(MX«in-E U I a the ^iKjdoMS of one sentence; ^vhilc loi Avd 
b. 13 . . . d|r'^>- K 14 It ihc prDtMJiii, an J iriS Tomvp 11 i 4 . . . rrvf*- 
Jbtfw b. ijj thr apndofti* of anoihrr wntence. This is the alicf' 
natirc accepted by Dywatcr. Cektcr's i^incluaiion — a comma 
after '9^iivt%Uvi. anij a (uli stop al^L-r opof — niuut, one would 
think, be due to iht printer. It givrs no consirxiciion. 

J vndernUnd {{ ij. 14, jii [heir conncxiuEi "^icb ihe wbole 
chapter, oe foUowt — Ti o*^«T»v»fltfu< has been accoaolcd for by the 
hAtnty orilie knowledge of (be particuhr, and ii hast be«n carefully 
pointed out dial, altliottuh iUc knowkd^e or ibe paiticuUf n lauiKi 
that of ihc universal is actively present in conHciousncsa— »V*™ *"•' 

Mo&Shou liXXi i^t) t5 nuTii ;t'poi { 6 — if J mail's kiiuwit'dgc of the 
pftrticulAr — vii. that Mhiii particulnr act is wron^' — be rendered 
blent by pai«ion [w^ {} 7 ^ind S), tliere will bt ro(bing t.o pfpv^nt 
hitn pcrformjng tbc ^roji£ net, for it h one's view of a particular 
idt not Ottts't ^'eneial maxim c1 conducl, wh^ch i& the iminediLtie 
antecedent cr efiiricni cause of the pfrfofmancc of ihc pjrdcular 
act ; will^oui die Jk^fa ah^ritWi the act could never lakc place— sec 

J/ Amnj i]j. II. 4'14 a, 19 ij-^f «ut^ '^rrl ^ fl'j^j {/, f. T r"V Hfltf* 
JtOfl'Tti'i), n^x ^ r'iA7JLfiiJ, ^ t^t^'m' iW ij fitw if^itf4oiiirti fi-hXkuy (f' ^ afl S| 

rc^httiTe principle, and /w»?/ ti'appui), i fl' vC. Novf, ij 3.S^i 

wbicli ik rtnderrd blent by jiJivsion. ih a ' minor prtmi^^ ' ; ^ind, 
«ncc the knoTnlciIgc in^'olvcd \i\ the minor premiss ifp noi really 
^fnat^, ak U tbat invoh^d in (Im^ m^jor prumi»a, ue can vee lh4i 

VOL. ti. H 


£0OK Vn,' CHAP. 3: 5} 13, 14, 

lUT b> fi l^iE Soc::Uic poviiion u no( wUhuut fourifjiirkin : ihr pinion i*hicli 
p^cvaib in Incontinence \^ noi ni^chcd <lircctfv OKninM real knov* 

|(;df^O (oC yip r^t rvplvs ifrnrffiftrji ilt/tu fln^nvir^j ir»psi3r"^( yiVrrot ti 

tfddflc 5 1^^— real knowledge, ihough consciously pn-w^nt in xhe 
miml of ihc a-p^tiff, U not war oi^ugh (vC ua^ff^i) Lo ibis pa^ion 
Id be bufr*?ted aboui and aupfressed by it ipi-Ji' hCt^ «^«7-flT4ii AU>i 
irdtfuE) : it IB only Llif t(io*lL-ilgc of ilit |»arlii:uidf (9 t\ltj9t^r\t,^ m- 
vT^^fr = 2(!£a Eiif^^rjruv) which HLind^ ncir cno^f^h Eo the passion to 
bv atTcci«d by ix, or, iiidoc<J, ig of a nature to be sif!<^i«<d by It 
•—/-*. supprrticti and rpndrrrd l.iteni by iL But tititt kncrtrlcl^4c 
of the partlculir [ifjat ' this p.irticuJaT llLinfc i» wfonf '), as ve 
£^id, js noi rcaily knou^leUi;* (-Viffr^p*^) ' so, we baic explained 
itpnela (knowjng the riglit and doing \\\v wroTtje) u-iihoilL ma^clj 
discrediting the Socmiic position. Tbis is a result in perfect keep- 
ing with ihc principle of procedure laid dotm in vil 1. gAiiN 
, . , hunvumi fitDiiOTa ftiy frdirii vA fyAu^ mpL ra^ro r^ ■'■^^t ■? Aj ^Qp^ 
irXnTTn k'jI -tv/nuriiro, ] ani accordiufly unable 10 ftj^rcc witbCooit 
Wilaon tbai an ' obvious concession of the SocrWic prtncipto' 
(Artii. Sfvil [laragt, Co) Ih contAincd in ch. 3 ^eiLer»[Jy, and la 
{§ 13 and 14 in pankular, which contributes to make ii proboUo 
that ihe chapter U not by the same auchor as some of the cnnet Im- 
purlajit jmrU of ZT. A^, vii. I svouM put ihe titue, aa beiwtai 
Socrates ^nd the writer of this chapter, i\iU9 — tini:mie» denied the 
eiistence of anpnrrh. beciiu** irnntpit canfiot be conquered by ma$ot^ 
The vjiier of itn^ iLapter opposes the v]fw that d^^tfilB does txjt 
CKist; Irut 'corcedcfi' die fpomt that true /vrMrtf^^ c^'Lunot be 
conqtipfed by mf^r He 11 en;;b1r(l to make ibi* ' eoneeBion " by 
driLWLzi^ u dlbtSiJLtiun- — the Jv^orgv luu Hclively picKDt in ha uind 
(t)c true eViffT^o-t^ ihc Rcncral prcpotili^m lh.1i * it is wrotig 10 yield 
(o nofint^' bwi ihJft «t(ffr^p7, to qno?e ihe eitprfWion Dwd In tS^ An. 
iii. 11, 434 0. 30, 'ifitftu it<a>k^w, and can touch action only thnragh 
the intormecliaiion of the ti^ 01961^^:—* i<i do Lhiai particular ttt 

would l>e t<] yield lU ird^nr.' I'bbf AJ^ Oitr^Troi'*, hilMeirr, B bOl 

true Vrrmrr^^rj, ^nd itt latcDCy, cotJKd by itu&t,u Aujficicntly accoonu 
lor the occiirrtiKc cd' an act of J'^H^ifl, xxiihcut oUigjig u« lo say, 
Agamic SocrarcTM, tlmi true frurrititj \% alTf?rTed by wHn. The 

rp^i 1 undcmntid to mean thai 'the ailocbon {lA (i«i«-«i«(r<U] 
doefl tioi occur in tlie immcduie presi^ncc of real knowledge' 
— *rca] knowledge/ though actively prc»cnt in the co&sciotmcas 

BOOK Vii- CHAP, fl: ^J »3, M- 


lapntT^r, tl«» not opcfitc AS an tgi^mt c^ust {ah fttMi A /Iff, 1147 fc. »- 
uu> ti. ^34 a. 3o)of aclion.and «o dof^b noi comt tnio ccnHici ^itti 
«vA«ifd. Ofilj piLrilcuUrs rari romr* in rinse qimrtf-rs wllb 
fMTticultfx Only ji'jfuiiK ^fm Arc '^^wi t^v iT^Lif<B]f, and ihc 
»f^i4v 3i>fa, * Lhis is uroD^,' U c1l^ff?aIc(l Ijy inoliier f/>^i>r^ 'Jfrj — -IhiE 
ofririA/;AtA — ^' U is jJen^AtiL' While I am ill one i*'iih Cook WiUfin 
(pira^^ 66) m Llunttug tltai the context doca not allow us to 
tudcrsund r^i icfpwr imtrty^v^ to Rivan the prcit^ncc of boih minor 
itid major pTrTTii«f^\ 1 rannnl arrrpi his virw thaT t^l -yh^^ r^c 

Socralk opinion about d«^a«d agrccK «Uh the theory jurI given, 
iQuninch as ktiuwicdgf ptoprr ^j-f ^fr^/ bttn tiilint^'iio \\v^ ^4pnri}« ' : 
ao^ conxqucnil/ I cannot follow hinn in a dil^ciiUy which lie ex- 
|iii[MiL» D few lint-A b«low — ' The reason (which \\\e pr«i«ni paftsng«) 
airigitt for thr abwncc of knowfedgt proprf in 'Mhiit ihr minor 
pcemUt b noi 90 much oF the nature of Inie koo^lcifflc GUi ihe 
major/* 'J'hi* musi moitn thai the J-^r^f hax noi tnit /m-rfv>ti, 
becaufif ht* Ii3» anly the minor ami not the major, vhirh of cotinc 
« in dJrccL cotilradktion u> ihc bcgbmngoff 13 und to the rc^tof 
tlrt diaplcr/ 

According lo the view willed ] have artfmpted to (rate above, It 
IS ool aipicd in { 14 *lhal Ihc aVpur^t h<t^ racMruc *Bicn^Mp* hut 
'lliai ihe tree (V.rrf.j^, which he hae — anti has conacioualy- \v. not 
in a po<ftJ(^Ti Eo hr aflTrnrd by mi^nr, Exrcsiuse it is ^^r\\vt^%n\, and sc 
<toe« not enlcf llic arena of pailicuW aclioii." 

While the word tr^tpov^rf^x mny be thue, I think, ajlisfaeiorily 
fi jilarneil . ! Iiiiw cun*i(ideruWe flouht us 10 iis trenmnpne^-i. The 
hotnocotelriiton Au^vbiFf^t nuiivvtrtj^ ' i« AiJ^|>icLOU\ and die aviliwajd- 
M^ of having to tak« rA ni^i in a clilTerent gcdec nfkr yivrrav and 
/TMi rcspmivcly — as 'ihe affcciion, vijr, Mprom* in rhe fir^i c.ise, 
And a» ' piisaion' in the second ctsc*— wcuis lo tu^-gcai thiil there 
is Kunothing ^'foni? in the text an it srandc^ J olTer the conjeclnre, 
1 tonfeu wJih lit'sitaiion— for whsU it is wonh — thai vapoCfttrji 
rcftfdcnts nijji and a diitof^raph cf the icrmijia^on of AwaJmic, ihc 

' Rumuffi oadnilAnrU ibc vorda lo mcjiii (hi>- 

■ CCC will NC. bowt^cr luvc tfit itvfitan *Ttnn bann^tuii |it«4t4^i;i mtptn&''ijt, 
* Ruiiaiirr w}^ 'tO iri^^v Vh, lf> JiitclII;,'Hii rA «^< iur/oTfit f]nrii1 fit fjii rh 
«d#Di v« i; afTecniiD <)ui ^U iiuiu imjieEum,' ^imilaTly. Srahr imntlnm iht 
ftusi «d«oi by tJiMnlbalwiiukdl, tiir ircojiil ^y ^fuLmifhalt. Eluili l>p>iii[ nnd 
Pdrn rriintgc tngnimUy 10 redder v^fw u cicli plrcs by phraact ctm- 
lM*ia|f * cuidiligii/ or * paMlua/ 

■ t 


BOOK Vlfi CHAP. 3: !{ 13, 14- 

lUT b, 9. dittoj^aph av^T hnvln^ [bf a blunder which sometimes oppevs in 
MS?,) hfi^rtc!!.! il^ir belw^en ihe m^i and lh<r >■'**»( of an origitul 
fri/rtyitrrui. The deliberate .iherAlioEi of the rcnuhing m^btirfit Into 
fFf^^niTr wcuid llic-n be naiuml, ev*n if ir4j/*-iy*V*T*i had no«, befot* 
the mnrtion of llie ditfugmpb ovrrryc, Euke:i tht? |>l;iicc of irtpiytwriu. 
hy % HxkTiMv which often* occurs in MSS, The scmctite Ihcn 

would oH^nal^y Biatid^ — pv yAp t^v npiV; /iri<T^>'r}r 'fut &H«rv«^ 
ircpiyfrtTak n) irdf^Di^ oviT avni vfpt{\ifjax Aid r^ iniCot^ o^Xd r^r 
afir^F^ru^E. Here ru niSot mciiTiB ' pussJOTi ' in hoLli placcfi* find rrji 
»Ff(f 3ip-ii»^E is governed, a* is r^r tvpiojt iniirr^fi*jij b)' iri^iytMrm ^ ' gelii 
llw bL'Her uf.' 

The fdiowing is the ParaphrAfit's cyplanaiion or ${ 13 oivd r^. 
It seefng to ine to bt x ver;* sat^sfactOTy fXplariAtion ot ibe t«xi u 
it stands ; 'Onik &i Jir 1^ intrf« ytcr/rat fi J*parf}¥t t^ /XJtTi* irpiSfvnv, 

ndVjBO'mi' nttnji' yiip &.tifjt8ti,ui n rF^rirrmv, ^r<c i/rri irijil Tdf r^Affif 

ti. H, 5 13. UV'O * MJUfilil to c^Ubli^h ' (Peicra)- 

b. 17- } It. Tiis uLffOiinKiTt} Sec GratilS note; he quotes ScxL F-mpir. 

Aift'. MaiJiy \'\\. 145 Oti the tifurrrj/i^rHJr^ nlr^tnf of S|J<U&i|fUS, 
nbkli U Llt'SLTilH?tl as ^ ^ifT^fXn^/^jvovmi rqt nrit ti» Xrf>4r (1, r tar 



Lti at/ rvm dittf^tHt tkt i^h^ft tf iHconfintmt. itnctljr to caIIcI- 
// fi fifam fbut caniifitme and tntturt^nte. iftcvnitMtmt «W ttfim^tti, 
rtUiiv* It ptmiWii and pAfns. 
A&ti tht ikin^ vkirk rauxt f^Mimrf nrf fifkfw nrmurj. ry^i m» ft94^ 

' 1 faavc couaifd lb K. jV. v ci^bt cuc« in which ro^ »bl vi]^' art ciittlhi«4 
hj KC ; and In livo onl af the iovr plnCE* in which wo^T^Hvaa iHCWi 


HOOK VSSz CHAP. 4: §5 i, 1. 


UVtu ^ fUttH/t» art ft^ ^tiiri^ai m ' tnntntiBant' jtrnffyr Mi ff/M ti 
imit^ afffv^ ta /*/Jfl, Aat Hfit »■ %tf ifnt-f wu. miy trith a j/;fl/*/fi*/ 

^gtimtt hit jui^^ Itf t^ fi-iAiUte ••/ fft/iifj^ hj"iimr or ivtatih, or a/ x^OttC 
tK9l §9 AJi *njyr. and jm tAt ^htr hmJ .'a tkt iitii wAo ytWdt ^airut Ail 
pa^mttii if rif fi^Miv/i o/ toHth atiJ fat/t, is iAoK" I'y Ikf iifrurtitfamf fAaf 
«V ^f^mi it in tltf !Afftr Mtf ^ x/flrnH fifvkt, h**t Mi ii tAfJar^r/r tan; incJ 
Wtf ^ Cb eiivtimj/ant* tJtai wt taii ft^fti ' tojt ' in t^h/ifn fy th< nijiitiaNi 
tft*mA aiaJ liutt. ^»f nvt in riitxiitm tv Aov^w er uieit^iA. Ottf lO't-itsitn, 
U#a. u J4d/ thtfrrm 'im^sjirrfni ' ii appiini ^\t\KX\y, ami ivithatit ^naJi/j/ivg 
tHUtfitm, tc Iht wdfi »*j irrs^ n^aimt hii jndg^ittit anr/ mafpt. in r//j/**ii 

/wwr^AV 9f iiHrrn/f -Mir nutn trrj .itliUittteiy, and tht um/frtu mem 
chtrrta mtdrrathn. X^it-dtirWrai€ tattit i/* Mf puti-ati j/ unA t/^/ata ai 
. Wt ttnd wtaiFk (.fun/ luu/ JitiitiMt in lAemielvtft i h ' 'HiOHtifttrnt ^ ivilh 4 
ytlfinrinn limiUirl/, sr<r A/rtfJa aitt ti gutJi/Sfurvtrr, if -un <*ff!y tJt* turn 
'tmamfHUite' la ttm ^-^ yitiA ro ikt trvntti/rflj ftt^tnrn vhuA #«/ *^ 
dirJt^/r*m lAf coDtnnt* »/ tAiftf: )^f ^'tif 4^tir,s^!* ** fk/mftiut. ^ tai4U- 
titHmt' it itiiHhiit v/Uk *i tfU>i/i/i-<tJnin olnf ftfhi man w^a taitNoi ttttrmn 
Mi a^ffr: witAmt ^Uii^/fotitm only tir lU man Mfk* t^^reifs. ii^n$r Ati 
ami rfs^iv. i'h ttiaiiJH Io the notiuL\ pietwrti i^ /outA and iititt. 

f 1. l^cfflTj Scrct. i. { i> U46 h. V ''ra t.TX 1H7 b St, 

f 2. I»ii] here ='w lit Ftaa'; sec Cook Wiboii, Ami Stud, parag. 
j^. The apcdcaia begins wiih fuvi ^ir oSi- v^Ar ravn b. %i, Vf. 
Simplidus (fol. 5c h) qiioicd hj Trend 0"i rf< An. liL 3. i^^i- W 

ttt^np &ti M^r.'K, , , • . ^ r^r ^td ^uu^ir innfSairw ivv o£f ir^frHrffdif 

0iALrywfi'fVi, jrptrTW ipur*itftt€ti niv f* ufiiyMai'ivr ini6vftiat *'ir\ '^l ^7 J . . . 

■da WM iwort\oufitiiat w^^aAo^irtr ^^us i rm'rkrv yiy ii^'^r«)M>f i*ftittr€ai 
^W» r^ ^^'41 U>f>Jin^ • . . . & y/ TIC ^ITQ^AdfllJ'P flff flf ^l^cri^P^ ^H UtAV, 

■ol tTjX^f afjii'v ■iyn^Ai' /i>v>Pcmi tpiitjiv^ iil flj rp] fotMur^ok, naaos raiirat 4I 
^ ii»iryAfuvui ^i^f fLrcu^ ip" ot «ci>9< &w )>tyoift4y j . - . irpu'^w^fla ff^ 
n n^Aityfta iMori^w^ /u tfiiriJif <»! Turry An^li'tf/irj' n^Tjjs » . , ^p' avi' nuj^ 
^ Tvt! i^^iV ^1,^^ iytiiits n hui r^<£i(it mii avrvt o~iT9ir t< lai S-^ntu 
owvyKaiat if t^ f • i ■ 1^ Rfpa rmiTttt iral dXXuiuif Jha/aif^v !^ miovruv 
tin^ftio, AvHir^ Ad aoXa^^Uifif it tiiun auI ffrJiJIftu^fr^ Vjc rani iro\Avv 

i65 BOOK VJI: CHAP. 4:5 a, 

FortheArLCtc>tcliantificofuH7««ior, Ifotfsowt/i^^jf'^p. aa.nolfi) 
fomparea £ A'". L 9, 7. 1099 K 17, i. fr ^. irjft h. a; PaL 1333 
■» 3*- <33^*. I J and 31. 

b.39, M4JMI-] ^. £. til, a, or JT. A'. ilL 10. When vc u«e ihe term 
dtf/jnr^f pimply hy i^rlf (dirXbr) wtEbom ()uaTir>']njj addition, m 
signify (he man who ykhh, after a strugg'^' ^° ^^^w boilB^ 
plCASur«ft (of touch and autlc). Ihe dtlitjtriittf purautt of nhkh cofl- 
joimica dirriXarui : Imi ihc mnn who pursues givin Incomincntljr vH 
be colled aipittiit only with a qualifying Bf"KFfl*ff»i — a*piT^( ft^|pt«w|: 
alijo tile man uho dccK not succeed in controlling hia anger K 

^licpnr^r with a irpuirAnrf— 9u^fl. 

Rnssow (/^r^M. pp, it, 21) ha?i called attention to iht drcum- 
stance that J 5 goes ov*r ih« tiamo groutui at S a : and Cool 
Wilson {Ariit Sfuri. p^raj^. 6-9 And 37-4^) lestjlvr* llic «bofc 
chapter into riuplicak pa»*agfa forming <1iifcrctit ver^iorift. li^* 
resolution (Tabic II] i( sb follows t— 

A S 1 (IntroJucEJon common to both ver^Joni]* 

D, { J iVtl .... ^Ar'iujt = tl, J g cml .... f-MpiSiA^fir. 

C^ fiivi yiir air — vvfftU =C^^ S ^*<* > • • $ 6 nudr, 

'Both colnmns,' tays Cook Wilson p, w, "Iwgin *tth *>*i *«', indii 
will lie Hc'cn ihnt cithrr may be read after the fini a-L-iitin of the 
ctiaptcr. A. wiih equal coliercnce boib in syntax «ftd *ubj«*-aiMi<r. 
Thuscich ofihtf two orders A B, C, Dj,A B,C\D,)ieI(t* 4 cbip(cr 
on ihr saTii*> siihj^^ci as ihc oiher, and very bte it/ I cniirHy agree 
with this stAtcn^cTii of ihc uabc ; I a]>o ngTcc with Cook WiIaoq* 
condu6ion(pafjg. 4J) that there are diH*Teiice* m nylc flndsubjeei* 
maiter between the two columnn which ' jmmt in ll* direction o^ 
divcisily raihct lh*n of unity in tlie auihorship-' The diacrcponey 
i\K> betAcen JT. /-' at and JC. *V. iii on ihc ont* »ide, and ihU eh. 
on the oditT, willi respect lO llie ot»]rCt of frvtjip'iai'rrj and i^uXciatd, 
ia ft point or grcAt jntcreKl noticed by Cook Ull^on (pArag> ^q\ 
tnd 1 ^m inchntrd to Uank with him that it proves that this ch(4)bn 
is not by Ihc wtitei ciitier tjf .£- J?, iii or of £. A', iii. 

b. 84. nai fupov] * Tllf poftititin of aMptKrU Sv^r^u in C^ 4,* Sl|*( Ctaok 
Wil:ion (porfl^;- 70), '13 not without obscurity, for ^^ CiMHM Im 
Ca\\t^<f'Vffit aj^rat, ^w'l fwt vaXw* u1 J^fl^wi', ol^^r co^ ovr^ jn lite 

BOOK Vir: CHAF. ■*;§», 


sunc WDse OA the cxAmpIo xiVlkii, ri^ij, ^n>: ii in not dtLtsd widi U491i.84. 
ihtf^o highor j/fin. an^j r^pfurin in respect or it \\ asaociftitd n'iih 
^psrfii in rc^prci of ihrm withmii pxiiUnmion, Prrlups iht ovrr* 
•Sht occRsioiied iatcr llic iiiirodtKtion of a jtop^^rjiif proof in ch. vi 
that d'^fffTin ^^b ii not ijO blameworthy i^ nwpav\a of bodily 
pIcAhurc^i an*l it (h worth uoiice ih.iL § 3 (*.!i, fi, 1 r^r; b. iv) ailils, 
as coroUJnv the [U)crt>on [hat it ii* not properly (tbr^ui) ii«jHffi'a, 
vilhoui reference 10 thr result of ch. iv, which tnAy veil hive hci^n 
Uiouglit iuaufficii^nl-" Tlie Miggpslion here iii;uli; by Cfjt}k ^^"tl^on 
teemt to be AUpi'orLcd by a p^'iga^c in M, M. 11, 6. 1 joa hn ,^— 
ref< rrcrf to by Ra*4Sf>w (ff^rrr* p. 4 7) Jn his *1i>CMS*ioii of the plac * 
yfcli 6 in K. A', vii (itcc below, noic on vli. 6, x, h. 24) : frn* yi^ 

Sr! fd iynmtfiani' n^ ^if dJv mil ^^^ tai "t'X'l '"^ Xf'it**^^^ '■'^ ^'P^ ^"'^ 
^\t vptrrt^t XntmUf out *i'tw i^trtu, oJ 3 r^wvni d| truJ/iorLTai "d/trrvi' 

Jktyiruk tVatAq 3t tun i£ar n*fi\ ru ^TXXu uKfiuat^y Xf jD#,i*Vuir' v ^'i'l ^7' 

4«v< '*' vftowj*;— iJteti follow* a patsngc fciundi^J on K. N. viL ft, 

IljwairT ri-sinrcs i'j*.;n,i from K\ in ptnrc of Ilc^llii'T's w/mjitwwi. 
C^mbr. is, s> Htr as I know, the only MvS. nhich JK^rc^ ^iih K^ Jn 
^vlii^ pubh J cxE^bm the p^f^af^c as (oHowh, m^iking ^i^pbmm 
a pctidicate— ""The Olympioniic*" iii iht sHiorl-e simple — '*Tbe 
Olyaipionioes ia a nan/* uili illu^^lraLc ihc distinction bt^iwccn the 

Jyr y AirAscStld the ucpnr^c jmro ir^Hivf'Effu^ '*Thc OlympioniCCBi** 
lliougli d<r?ArTbL'd gt^ncijlly as **a iiiitn,'* Imii also, yurf ''Olynipio 
nico/' A nction of hin own, vhlch <liflcr:i| Mighily indeed, but yet 
ditfen, from the notion ''maik.'" C/. Pol.Vi. t. J376 b, 21 (quoted 

by ZcIL) rvv N ir^i«i~^^citp xn'rfrp tlitifjr^d'wir avrav t^j" i^ci'q^iv (u ^tc yrijf 
tfVviv fjWtiffr i 3* 'n^jii^r^t, ft ia ftjj^jpfiif, » J' I'XX'p rini {"a*** 7i»(flvr"]r 
/ i mn pfqi') AqXo» »f A fftf)' Affn^i^^ittcv **aflTou Xflyflr Wwr /tffoi ^ 

)ktv *^y** titf'i' DtTwr n"ii»TWF' Tifx-rOf fOf t'lifyvii vpty*rni fCi\' nXw*T/J"*- 

Tho vtiif:t meanft thjt the man ^vho is fnooncinent in rebilrn LO 
cctuiD bodily jiltrotfurcs ia uKita^iti without qualifj^piiion, and the 
Dion vfho is inconuncni in telsilion to mojtcy in ai^ntn^f with thai 
quMcatianJu4[ ^.i^udflvanr, when unquLikJirfd, tiand!! Tor £^«v XoytvAv 

ffi8 BOOK VI/: CHAP. 4: J a, 

■rprrruvrr OHi/A*ifufjf«fl ^' o<j>iir^< flia tim iTf»r minor A^atfitfjtfnt' ra0irfnf 
^i:vf\tpti A ^A^fittfTor a tit 'O^f'jiiTia vmtwTjtinr Titu A-f\u< dvfifnittitiv' ml yap 
■I ULii >i4A^r *'fm ru flm^u^Jur aCtaiv. uXA" tr/ui'i £id^i^f. uni trfj>>i Jon 

aiA n^r ftpoT^cjy. C levari y 1^« psirall«l h«ro l« not in «nct one: 
ihc Olyrnpioniccs i:* culled ii mjn, Iwciustf l^ic Lua AoiX^v cijc 
nature of ntr/r, and is trtLludcd within the <\nst men: whereon il^e 
J'pdTi^c rtpAouf ii noi includpU uriihm tin* f lasii of lh« <tf/Mf*«r jlvJivt, 
Ijlh ticlong? 10 n i.l^a which In cfxirdiniU: with iL Under ibc 
general notion of dap^iit fall (i) « ?*>- ffB^nrMiin ^30**^ dj^Mr^tsJ 

arXuc iitpoT^t, and (a) A ftp^rnrv (or rtft^r) lifjiflT^j t i ^ffX^V antfinr^ 
iluc-y not irlt-lud^ ^ Kti/fiovs a^nrrjr^ aa li vnXuii ifv^^wTToc Ulc]uiJcft 1 n 

'oXt>iir«i ruM". Roibcr, in the t'Xprcssion vMfrariti miftl^vt. ihc proper 
meaning of [he ttrm arpori^f U mnraphi^rirally rxirftic*!, in -he 
proper mcnmn^^ of miin (^tiumin b(iii£r) i^ extended in l|]« eX' 
prcsiion ^\vM mun of ttic >ioo4L»' (sapc}. Nor do 1 ihtnk ituL 
llie parsillr] lietwrvtt llip df^far^t rrjrd ir^aElfaiV and the Oijm^M^JiKirt 
would be made more stiicL if nc accepted t}jc incredable and ptuclj 
* aetiobftiefll ' aioiy about the Olympiun viccor whose pro|>er uinw 

0Xi')Jiriu>'L4<fb wnr^frro a^if fdutu \>^|,>Dnmi. AlCK. J*fP- 102 b* t4 
^r$pav9t ^ir yap "ai I9ipr D;«>ia rvvn rev OKvfttnotiK^v vvifTw ti t* 
'H&iviit /fAi^ii^i/wvfnv. Suuhn ^ v. JifSflunnt. — Jitfdpioicttt tAtpbtf^yoftvir' 
ml ^Af0pamt tlSiov ttrotvi d£ /f Jtdinols 'ApifrrurrX^i fu^orii^L, F^&talh, 
/A A. p. 84^ Jiat 'OXv^iT'ivtvrjv rii «drtf fcvpivvt^iiaj' iJiiX^f 'Av^^aMTor. 

Mich. Eph, on £rA, Ni>. v. In{i. fol 5A b ^ A* v^ffi^in^ n^r^ (I'.f. 

^matoirOr^s Pnifaa't^ ^i<Dfjji tf iJtioi' vvn (VXrj^>vvafo, fiAX' £tfirrp fliu^nf 4 
Alir^nifffEcp^r nir luft^irijrTiL'IIXrrrmfV <rifir 'Apifrr'iBgv, oXXd T^ Btttm Bi u ii M 
or^jjWTAVf Jnr^Ti iWpwrrvE <)H)>>aC* '<i<> o^t vital ^ ro^Cati ii^irrq Janw^bPf 
fttXiimt f^ irvii^ rqf 5\i^t 9t*attffyyit 4t4)tan, Ald> Scfad on Ihc 
pro^efil pAs:4ftgr^ — Sitmtp tAi i^t nc t^A^ar fir rd 'OXij^ma nii ^cmvi> 
Ayp^ranroi. ufirnf^ ^ oritiii iHuLfi XtfKfhi'*;^ '/ IlXuraiT) <««imv ^up & itvtvf 
X6yot ^Ttii i m^AaL' A'^^vifrot fret r^ f<f<^>' \<>yu(iJ>- Ct^nr fttM^or 9kt^fi4 
rait lfSi«v Jn^fLfDv ArSflomoi >Ap itai ftfrar finvr- ^;ap6 yc^ n> vpovA^ 
hdui Ti^r Stu^pdr' ol ^«XXt>tTff ydfj 3i/X^(nM ctfrur mn Ai«x"lpHna Mfr^ 

^OOX Vtr: C//AJ', 4: ^J a, 3. 


TKi« ttory in acccpTerf by Mi'chclei, Williamf:, and Stahr. Suhr U47to.Si- 
indtrU Jidda a (iQi^liing toutli lo llitr mj^lh wIljUj lh vroitli refolding 
(p. t40, noEc a] — 'AnthrdpO!3 mil lanjccm 5 hciflst auE Kficchisch 
MeT)ftch, n*r Siegi^f m der cl/mpibchi'n Spitl<?n hic^w ruin cltn- 
^s Anihropos (vi^l Suidoa .i.v. *A>^^wntJv}, abcr vahr^dicinlich 
ikurdc win Npimo mil imrstjfiL <i ^'g^rochcn unii gi;»chrLcbcn.' 

tbc lo the ficiion about a jjcreon called *A»^uni^i ls probably cor- 
iKt; vid tuB further remark iJut div pa&i t«nfi(?B ' must b« tinder- 
finrirl iji mran a rrrcrcncc id ukUir firrvinun lojirira] dijirniinr wlih 
which ibfi ochool wui Cuniluir ' 1 ivc^cpt. ^ub9[i[uEing ' grammiiiiial 
iXMt^ir' for *A^ta/ ^iK^urte'i uc ihe gr^mninrmn ApotlL^iuu^, 
xtffi ffk#r4i£fvr. Book i. |Xd — irf^XiiroE ^rtpwrofi irUiftr^ r4 '(.iXii/ifliiL X. 

V0U4:tlcd for Lj' lllC^' paA^i^^bi IIilM <Ii^^wJTaf f'H«7irf Til 'OAi^>jiruj WAA 

a grav^matiidl i-rample in u»t*f itecms lo mc entirely to dL>pcnc of 
Lhc'A»tf^wr4r nxdi SiS afcppird by MiLftcIrl iirid :^^ihr,jtnil lo makc 
it qnneorttiary lo hairefei:ourectolVtcr»*conjcctufc(p, 321, uctc)— 
'As ffc do noE know ibc f^cli to ivhkh Ariatotic alUtdfs, we can 
oiilj tutijutiurc (lis niraiilu^', !i loay bt ihaf eIj*" nmn In qurnlion 
ha<l ccrtisn phr^iciLl peculiar it ica. so ili.iC (tiou|;h lie ** pui)acd for ji 
nan " ^e va* not a mwi quit* in the common intoning of the 
oamc. So I-Qckc aika {Etsoy iv. 10. 1 j), " h tk cb^tii^rljiijf a man 
or abco^tr" 

^■iwiffr (Coraa). 

^y#»y whether in rclatioii to a/J ho^lily indul^oncce, or io une of 
them, \% bhkmc'd noc merely .l« a faulr, but as a Ibrm of v\tc. I'tie 
Aid. S^hol and the Taraph. arc wron^ in taking n^a with Ka%ia^ 
idtcid of with ttrjjflffi',j ,-^8 aWvf, and in i)iub nu]ti»g ilic wordn 
bcfuic U3 mean Jiut ' dic^Miifia ix bltittifd . . . riihrr lu T«X<m ch'mi 
(^f, una Aii\vf o&ao) QT SA iyfiimva r^ Hin/f (f', r. laifa xorii U fiifiOS 



BOOK Vii: CHAP. 4:^3- 

Waudmg ri? ii»</3^ii?i«(, Ramsaucr suggests ihc inscriioa cf Jri't* 

aflcr fup Kv*9pVI>4 ' ideo (LUnl dnEXn^ra el atpmU <)IIO(S ipmQ 

voliipum absr-mUm miEquam miHrriiim fcrre nn[ucuiit' li the 
reason which he ^ivca for hla suggcsticn ; And lie ickn lO £',A\ 
\il 1 1. 5, and lo § ^ of ih*- prcBem clapiei (anJ ^>oi- . . . ofSllpa), 
md lo viE. 14. 3 iptiifrtoit A' , , s T^f fhrt^^nXqi', SinuT^'l}', Rasttow 
{FcrJi^JL p. 78) Buggcrfa Ihc inacnion of ri >*«V,i>a before tmr 

XvKfTp^t; COTTifiarilig the *m flj#vyf* ^rrj^Mif Atir<i« of f 4 bclow, Hfa 
wor(!s are — *SeUi auffUlIig Jsi ti** Xwrf/vii*, Di;f. »ckWr fUs 
Uebcminis dea Schmcrxc^ flicht, nitic cin Jm^ti?* ? UrvfnC^j^lich konn 
dies die Araiolil dw Ans!o(ijl« 8dn_ Jedcr vernUrifilgc Mcntch 
fiic:lu iJas tlehcfinass dca SchiiicrKcs. uniJ nur Ocr. Mt'khcf audi 
vcr miiBi^i' Uiiliie: luitlck-^ctLrickL, k:tnn iiV^r.^ [^er^apiil v<id* n.' 
R3U0W wrm« LO find suppori for his ^ggcscion m the (xci tliat 
Bckk4:i's» rv bcrforc i^i^fue-A, 7 (if ^^nuintr: B/water unuita it: U U 
rot K'vco hy L'*, M'*, r, CCC, or'Ald,) k wiott^Xy placed, as ihe 
semence EUnds; r^n 4^««v and ruf Avin/j»>, en account of ib» 
dlfTcrcnt verbs ^^w uiitj 4(dy>ca}K m tlm two cIaum'^. ci^nnol, he 

thinka, be connected by n- tmt- bul riiy rt r/Vvi' ^t^awr roi vfTf^ 

floX^ic, ral t4 /i^tpia ri* Xwriyj.:* ^*i7fcu- would bc grammatkalljr 
COT red, 

R^maauer'a JT(4vf and RcittfiowA ra ^Hrpia Dcem to me lo 
origfnac^ in a misundcrj^ian-ding. The pa^^n^e whkh Rnrmwr 
quotes from iii. ii. 5 Ufscnbes the dndKotnov, uut iLc dif^Ti|ff: 
and the pa^augc which ihcy Ijoth quolc from vii, 4. 4 dcacribcH tbc 
dK^acTTOf a* nvoidiiig iitj,)iac Xi'ir^f. BiK ibe danici*r dftCfibH 
llcrc: ({ 3) \i not lt)C lix^tmr"!, bliE lljc fUpar^t— ^ p^ r^ titwiafnifffm 
itJmvr ... HI f fuyttr— ttw man vho stjug£;lcs mi\i strong dcsirtt 
(pli-nuirrq f)ml pAinn). »nr1 who surorimhs A>A rA^jsi^c/uw 
btcjui^tr tic I|J5 bccTi ■jirrlakeu by 4 vta-^tx!, t'pifK'ttU unl vrjtl rif 
aiHiyriii.wv tv^riat \vWi l^up4, {§ 4 bolow). Jt 19 HOl iriovr rvr 

A(jiTi7pub| or fii< |icTp(a( Xi'^rni, [Ij;iL siii h a penion yirldn to. but t^ 
Xvii>7pwr rds tJrrtp^cXds. The i^ansagc, again, nhxcit ihty botb 
(and JJyw.Mcr, C^tifrtb. p. 55) quote from vi). 14. a ia not, a» i 
uiidciiitHLiid i£, inicndcd la i]e^c(ilie the flv/rar^t. but tbr ^iAk* (of 
it£4 a, 1 6), I. r- the axwAioTOF, who ■« ibc subject oT ^iyt^-^ 

yrip iim tjf; tni^^'fo^^ X^'Jij itm/ria iiXX' r) rt^h AtUEajni r^t Un^.^iiX^ — 

*tho 6K^\acT9t puiBUCfi cicc«»ive plejLaurc. and at<iitj», kk otity 

BOOJC r//r CHAP. 4: $ 3. 

tlBWiw li.iln (;(fi iJir lir^nT^c dors), Ijui any piiH, i^wn ihp nlKtird U4ft a> T- 
p>fl( dF iWni ptcaaurc (sc* £". vV. liL 1 1, 5) — a pAJri which only 
an habdiuAl follower of cxccE<ivc plensur^, Itke himselT, fe*U nl all/ 
Sec noic on vii", 14. *. Wiih rL-gar<! I'l Ran.^ow^ rt-iTurk~ihar 
every ralional man avoids excessive paiT]> I would sny— Burcly ihc 
lfpnri,t atut «,r?*/.c*.if ddibcrutely endure U, and the d*j>BT^« and 
IMXoviIi try 10 ciiduic it, Lu[ fail 

ihc doctnnt of the present pu^aA^c, iigcordinK lo wbfji ilic JxtS- 
Xoff'Dff has fo ilf> wjtti (hff paine t>f l«ia: and cok1, 'dia,igre(;e as 
mucit widi tfie tu^lcmfan a» the N:c. Krhiai. According 10 Nic. 
Elli, ill. 10 and 11, the t^ih**'" ind umiXnoTaf have to do wiih 
pIcaEarot an<t pflTrw, but ilie pains are only !tio« cf uni^iisfied 
desire for plrasurr. CoTn|>iir».- Nic Eih, iji, 1 1. 5, 6, n i« l>- jS- 
1119 a. If. 

'Rirt !hi* chapter (^ of Book vii) gives as examples of paina 
withinihc itphrre (iffTD^^^i^fri^pi} anJ a'^XiiTi'i, , . . it«uki. Ai^^i, dX/cr, iini) 
i^;i'os. The l.xsL iiio of ihew are obviously L'ldudcd by the dcfirti- 
lion of Root ill : they *rc not pains rauved merely by the dvsire for 
pkaaure; \l atunm (le Mid ofilfrni T^i^Xi'inft irmii r^ ^fitn>^. 

'Two othei paasa^fl in Nu. Eth, \\\ fihow ho* mui;h aircS* thfl 
author laid on the cxclntion cf aJl paitifi origmiimg independently 
<>f Liimgii^cJ pleasure— 'Lib, to. § 1. 1 1 17 U M'^Ti '-'< ^^ '^ pnjjiiitly 
of pleasure and CTi]y xecondahl^ of pain, ko far a» pain may be 
"c&Lwed by pleasure"; ch- la, jf 1, i. 1119 ft- ^i-^f- If the 
account uf ■rBi4b;x>fru>^ in dir rudrmi.jii Kihk^ (iii- 3), whiuli anawcr^ 
ic the ali&vc part of Nic. Kih. iii, showed the sitme dcvi.nion from 
tl* I^icomachcan Tcr«on ai Book vu. ch. 4, there ^oijld be smrie 
ground pfihap* Tot rcferriiij; ihi; lahl to tlic amhor of Hud. Hih. ti. 
But on the contrary, the Kiidcmi^in account (li, <) fCiNow» ihe Nico- 
niacbe4n (in. 10 and n) m mentioning nn nlhcr p?.in ns tjTijt'ct of 
vvi^^aftv>^ and Au\affia xaic th^Lt of un9pa;i?trLed desire for plc^tburt : 
compare Kudi Klh. is^i a. ^o-,)' ^^'^ ''^* 'ivl* uv3' Kiy4>«taA djuiXfLffTOk' 

^aUw^ An fi4 Tify^iJi'ortff. Tlrt: prtJns cf "Arm and ^('Xl ale rcftrrt-'d 
to (Hud. Eih. 12^9 b. 5) in Ihc ehapLCr on ar^,^«ifl, And noi in any 
GonncC^icn with ffmifpnfrui-^ and oKoKnam, but assodnied wiib tlie 
objvcu (if ui-^tpjJu and B^.X/an' To the pasfhigcs quoted ftI>ove by 
Cook WiEson from ihc JVjir- Kth. may be addM E. -V. ik. 10. ■■ » 


BOOK Vil: CHAP. 4; §{ 3, 4. 

■.IS. {4' fLaXaxoiJ g'vJXfiTrcfi, the recidinjf of CCC, Atd. Scb., Ilcliod, 
Al<1 . Is nLV^].»ccd by Coraes anJ Mrchelei t hv\ fliXaf/u in obv\om\f 
ri^til. TIjc f^Ll tliut people arc |K4>ij]irt/ ailed (Xourroi) palkool 
in rclfllion I0 <rv>iaTi«. mid not in re]«tiou lo n^pa^r &c. (npl 

inlymw ffifitiitaf), IH u <rrj^riai> in f;ivt]UT of Ihe L^rrectn^l of OUr 

view EhaL 111 ihe ffiu^nnE we Ijat'c a very dcfmiidy marked off 
and imporlant diLss of obj^cU or molivw, which warriinu ui in 
flisiin^uitbing (>rnplr vhn arc itpnrtU in rrlanon to ihrtn as 
a»ftuTilk JinXwi. rrtm ptcplc wlio arc i»<iiiirj*( in rclaticn to Other 
objccis or nioiiv««> Cock VVitnon {Arisf. Sfuifi/s, p. 47) remark* 
ihai ihew vonla Mi r^p fi^rXajroi Xfyiipriu i^iiorr ihp doctrine of 
ch- 7, In which >»iXajrrcf i» icchnicAlly diiLinsuisbed from up«iv«, 
aa the yielding (nt'Lcr a struggle) lo pain, from ili« yi«ldiD^ (sJier 
a «(rii|fgle) (u pk-asure. And en p, jj Jic wriles — 'The wiy 
in which ^XdPEui occurs 1148 a< 12 (vtr. 4, 4) is rcmftrlciblc: U l> 
uid Ihat the pain« with which the vf/ionit AirX^i bos lo do ue 
boihly, nnd 2 i^ign of lliis ia thai |>tx)ple are culltxl |i«iXaacJ foi 
yieldini? to them: whereas according Lo ch. t - . . ^KiXaKvi' is Ih 
pfi>p/r nam/ for (uch chAracters. TIlik ditliculty ^miu of cxplam- 
11JIU , . . ll W \>tKi\ puinifd mil (p^m^;^ 39 /9) dial the tUid buok 
of ihc Nic. ICtljics and (he Eudciiiian book correspond] iij; jl»«ocUic 
fAoktifia *iLh cowLirdkr^, and noi ivilh Ataki^M. and ihai tbere 1* no 
U.iiic of iIh: deJinke cotifdhuiiitm [»ee cb- 7) of ut^fnpfa s&d f^^n* 
with (;w^^o^n], 4iKj>it(7*Vi &Ci The author of vij. 4.4, tlionfiti deviating 
in one rei^pecc from Eud, Fah. ii and Nic- VXti. iil (i.#. fts to the 
painful niJtivcH uhjih cuuueni tfoitJjpoiTirpq und dn>fiirrc]), hiu nut 
advanced to the development ofihc ihcor/ of /LaXaflia found tnch. ?: ' 
be meroly calls aileniion to the fiiei thai the ignominious tt^rta 
fla^lllrlfl i« applied vheic men jield (o bodily painx, to >how ihat 
Bucb conduct in held specially bud, and beJongn ibcrcfcre to ^^wiu 
propf-r. iind not in a^imirUi rara jrpdflfl#n-.a,' l am not turc ihai 
it U ioSc 10 tayy widr Cuuk WilKjn, Ehal ' die author of vit. 4. 4 
, . . has nui ^idvanced to the devdopment of the theory of 

' 'taKicEth. JIUh loand u thcic is q« thinjcht cif fcpandaif the daltv iiac 
plemire and iht p*Ui of web dcilrc «» itilTcmii moUwa, toJ ccottftMtn of 
dllTGrcnl ehLTbim. hai they mc clearly aspruu of opc ud Ibv nsit It^,' 
Cook WilMD, y^r/iT. ^/ik/p lu 47. 

BOOK VII 7 CHAP. 4: } 4* 


found b ch. 7.' W« niu»( remember that in vii, 4. 4ii4«a.t>; 
it ia only ihe pepuhr dfn^ah''M9 of ihc Ttnrr yiaXn*^* thai ihe wriier 
aplic-als 10, ilk oi^cr lu thow. by ^ (rT7;ir;ov. ilmt the ajfbcie lij ^^lliLh 
he has 4H;ij;n«l the ai^fntflr -tifiir ill very dtlinittly marked oil ircm 
either Rphprrn r4 uo-callrrl d^/wrtwi, Hi*i fmrncillaio rihj^n clnr^ nnt 
ittjiiirr Jiim lo gKc hti tnt'n /heary {i^tn^cd ui di. 1) &/ the it^nnotaliQn 
of fuXoiio. 

«1 tAJf irpOfttpovrrVK ot V o4 irpOAkpovi'tai] l^hc trpon^pfirit of \ht %. 17. 
a«1h40Tar srdcs XVLlh hi& fVi^L'/iiai ind he IE mid 10 acl nptMipoi^rne 
I4llicr lliin rVi^tipttr. whereas ihc ^pnr^r cicLa j>riAr>i£w IajC llOt 
rp*«^*pjifwi — from mcr^ dcjirc, and tioi from dolihfralc cb<MCC — 

i a^ffT"5ff •Vitfu^iii' ^tP ir/xirT**, «pofli^oi'f*-Tinf ff oi { I''. N, Ml. J. 4 ^. We 

can undfmtand whjLi tk miranl by the Trpuaipfint of the /yi/iai^v 
vttieh ijpp&tfs intfivftia^ and frrevnt^^ over it^A ^pnt^s &' . ^ . . 

1f|pHiiijHri'P<Wr ^4' Kpnr*fj ^lOvti^a/ o trC-' tiil itptfiipttrii /i*p trti^b^iv 

inrfutirrw, m.TX (/7, tV. \iL i. ^ 4 and $) ; bul svhul is llris ir/iWjirmT 

«f the (■M^flffT^f uhkh JffA'J f*^;rt rir^tfuMJ"? The object oi *m9vttia 

IB prieivnt pEeaeure i/t snth : surety It is tlie function of ir^fi^'u, as 
jSoiiXiinin) i^'fii r«v Vfiit rA fAvri to look nt pre>cni plrAiurc, not oi^ 
tvcli, but in rcliEion to a ay^tan of life ? I» not Iho very notK^in 
of Tp«Fip#(rif, thtn, ImvcKJipil in a definition like thit—vh. 7. » A ^iv 

«<Ar ui i^^iif ift Trtpoy afrujSiiiriy, JjtAuTfffi ? If it 19 inie thai ^ i^iv 

sV how can it be ipoa/pfffij, ;us tliiiin^'ubiitJ from ini&vnia. in tlie 
^■Au^TOf, which mnke« prucnl plenftLtre, aanucb, itf; object^ Jnde«d» 
except In a somt^uhat retondLie «enae (lo bi^ notfecd ;iAerwiirfl»), the 
OidlairT ^^a<iTvv unnoL be laid fo act rtHuiptiititrui^ any mere 
tfaU) thtt ij^r^f. 'l^he ordinary jiJiAfltrTni rvneontt^ rit^ir^r. Strong 
ncAMMi, afirr n timp^glp, have ihcir nwti w;iy in the n*pJTT)'(. An time 
goc* on tlic Bftme tnuii yielda to feeble /jriAjri^ui wiihoui a aintt'^le, 
fttid it called AMantt, Thia he doea habitually — 1. r^ he always, 
witli p^ffect con?kiMfnry, ylelin K> frc-blo ^Jiifln/-i"m witlmtJt sinigi;llng. 
or thinkinj it wrong to yidJ. The conftistciicy of bis conLJuct, as 
COnpjired vilh iho tnconsistency ixhich cxt^M between the theory 
and pru:ticecif thefi^HTiii, wrrtiiMMjiJiriliiri^ralicinalamldrlilJc^aiir: 
be loiy even £;el credit for siren; ih of ^harKter, and hQj>cR may be 
enienaJlied of his rpfonn^ition, if he xvonld onh' li^lcu lo good 
sdvkc Bui this ' consistency" of iheiwAaoTfleisouly ihc weakness 


BOOK VI!: CJiAr. 4:^4- 

Uis «, 17' of llic ^pnT^% in an tnccn^ificd fonri, and become chronic* SikB * 

tn;in [fi after al) more cf^ncctly GOncH\'cd as icilng n^Af^u*, than ax 
aciitig npftiip'HV"*^ : imk>s it iw siid ilhti, since iciiun breed* 
hcliff^ hf cvcniuallv a^quirci & false Xnyp^oi, or Oicory of lifc, in viftoc 
of pfvscs^ing wbicli be maj- be conceived m aciii>g ir/>'r'ii>4iijifn>f — 
as dt'libtfra:*- ly choosing mcjns in ;bc end whkb (bjl fiJsc ihrory of 
life boHs up before hjnn, Tbii ia tbe recondite actuc, juvt now 
rtfijrrtd to, lei vvliich fit? n^a^' ht^ *aM lo act w^oBi/W^iMr— 6 ^w yAfi 

life) rft nopit i^SO &tttii«iK vij. ;j, a. But after All ii ii bis lonf;- 

indulgwl craving for ^Jcasuiv. ralher than Ills fatw thfOf}', «hidi 
ni:(kos liim ad as be (Iocs. Ariii in tlir wrmenw: ju»t <{Uoted note 
the contradiction in the icmis — 4y<T»* — w^aip04if««>f, ift U) 
d^;f^~ in liis irpiiiiprjnE : tl 19 by hit nri^inj ihat he \i, lid — 'Ty^rai, 

So much for the ordinary imftutrTcs — the Jflftocma »lu) once wu 
vVoT^E, Bnl it perlmpa ciu^rht to be admitted E.hat there ore aIao 
bom dj»-XiiTTnj — mtt) in ubom \(>f^%. or ffmsritnlf,^. w^s n«ver 
clTcc(Lvd)' (.tiGScnl to nmr ihc pleasure* of induljfcrLcc by it^ i^badow ; 
who ncvei viewed these [Jcasures uskance. aa forbidden fruit, but 
aiwAVS c-ilmly as pleasures ; and so have l^en able ciHy to 
mate ihem objccls of llie nice connpitiaons and dclilJeiiie pre- 
fcrcni:c3 and rvjcclions of the connoiascur. Such nv.'n mjy be 
de«ciib«d aft ff^rwupnu/unu WLtb more cornpeine^s iJiin th^ ordinary 
dcifAcurTUi or chronic Weaklings, wllb whom ihe ScvcnJi Boofc ts. I 
bd^vck diiclJy, if not excLu^Jvcl^, concemed. 

tt£] 'The conjunction ^i/ says Cook Wilson iAruL Si^ditM, 
p- 73)1 ' ni^>' of course be taken in t(s non-iUaiive ute, bet even 
tliua il inu>l al k^k^L be equivalent tn "nnd so,' ar^d implW that 
the subject wbicb it introduces baa been in aotnc waj- prepired 
for: bui U U by no riciiis pr<fjurcd for, and tucceeds »Oft 
abruptly. The atibjcct of Jie wliole clupti^r is the dimiiKiion of 

tllC rfJC^QT^f ^nAfrt froni the atpari^t «uru rTf/^ij^iifii', whJch » VOIMld 

up in § 4 by the stitomcni (h^ uifprn-^E riiti«< has Xc\ do with 
ibe tarric plc^iiiiuro and \m\& aa Liir 'fVL^ircrroT, I'yipar^, and <r^^fiv9, 
and iLiiE l^Le eh^tracters to associated diflcr u rcj:ardftRpu^«i«; 
it i>i cirnr thni tltt? tpcrcial r^epraviry of that ntinnmrr nbo bis tittle 
or »o fVt^i>Hi is put in 1:0 »oit of connrciion ntilL ibiv' \ confvsi 
I cannot tee 'nryy diUicuJty in tjikrn;; 3«{ <l;>sc]y wi[}t the uxatds 
vl laiif n^ipovym*, el fl" at irpoiM^^Tfl*, immediately preceding : — 

BOOK VJl: CHAP. 4: J} 4. fy 


Ihc n&dVTDf Ift irpoiifwvf»»«c ; and this Is why {^i^ wc ascribe U49«. 17. 
^fiXuuiv nthcr ta llic man whoxc octn of indulgence an: nol 
AitCLidcd Ri >H, or not to any (TDrLsidcrnbk- CTCtcni, by 4tf6vfita, ihan 
to Wif man wlioie acU are coniequ^ni upon ftrrdng ficifli'iil<r : iht 
acit jTilic foirncj. rjot bciii^ cxpUcAblc b/ ait&vitiu, must be due 10 

Ai^ f^aXXrw ttiiliout changing ihtr i«nv cir tbc f niC5i;igr-. 

ll is to be obacri'cd iUai Cook Wilson, &s quoted above, taic> 
jwAXu* wilh (?ifiliX(HTmt=n«>XiWTJT*|wr— he Spculcs of 'the fificdal 

depravity of that rt*An*r->r *bo bas llu)*- or no rniButii-t.' Slmi- 
farl/ RoiniiaucT iipcalcs ' dc divcrals qujiti gradibus t^i uiu^uuiai ' ; 
Grant nvft 'it Js moro mE<inpi?ni(; to pursue luxt^n; Ac, tn cold 
blood ihan 10 ilo sd undrf tbf itifluence of pn^sioo." Cor.iM 

UhtR Eai t4^ ij«fAj»irT i}v aACp^uimrrrpnFj ami )Vlcf3 1r.|Jl^Uttft — ' And 

*o & man wbo without dtsire cr wiih only a mot!cniie tl^irc 
piirsHPii rtf^M of plrasurp, and avoids pvon slighi pains, i^hould 
be tat!cd more piofljgatc than one wbo, ftc/ Tiija, J think, fa 
wrong: Ehfr claui^c, as 1 urtdcrEiind tc, mcici'^^' And Lhlf. ie wliy 
^XmrAi is ascnbc<l to the mnn vrhf>f wiihcjul iksirc, pufMiei; 
cxccwvc pIcaAurCB. r^/^r ihan lo Lhc maa wbo, Ac.' Dcpit«9 of 
m*tk^ovk Arc not ditlinguiiihcd, but uKiAtioiu l& dif^tirguishcd frcni 

Aapntrii. Tho Tfli>n» orrrif 0. 19 K ihr dupoTqs. That ihl* 14 \\\t 

mruitng cf ih; pnuagc i^ clcirly fthnwn "by a compari-ion of U 
with V'tiit IH probably lie ' duplicate ' — vJi, 7. j iravTtf Ai» 3D^rit X'V*' 

hiA d dfldKoffTOf x*«'p*^ ■^»' ^HpQTou*. t;n tbv ' duplicate " diameter 
oT vll, 4. 4 tiA . . . r^ryiJ^u find vh. 7, 3 rarn . , , Hji^rinivt, i^-f K^)i><>w, 

/^'BtmA, p^ 13 and Cook Wilson, j4m/, .S'W. ;>, 7J. 

{ 5] ^» K T.k] A ' dupHc^itc ' of vil« 4. » : ace note on ^II 4, ^ »- 
2, 114; b. 38. 

B^kkrr and Bywaier moke tuv yap ^ArW ivm ^i^^fi ru/iini a. 33, 
94 parcDdjrtiMAl- 1 prefer to wake ^if^ y^^ ^^I'utv Ah f.i . . - 
vpjrfpw ft. 2^ parcnihclii:4lt thuK rcfcihnjf lEic eiiain|i1c!i j^^T^/taw 

#04 rip^fir t-ii tittf Mill rifi^ lo rinr t^ y'rrt ttiiiinr ani irrmuAuitfir A- 33 
^Citn aiptrd of ihh atCllOtl correspond to ihc tupita naff fruni of 

f 3 : the iriTvria tovrwv uert- iloT mentioned in { i : tliL*)' are ihe 
^cvTu of tbtptcf 5 : vliiU ta ^rTufi^ao called, I think, jimply 

BOOK VU: CHAP. 4:^5. 

Utf& 89, because the prcftcnE list » ci dirc<fo1d oik, nbonu thftt in 
J 3 u'a4 onljr twofold — answer lo ihc oMyrala or iru^iarud of f )« 
R*HSi^w (/t^jf*. p> 7g)» rollowtd l>^ D>w*lc*» inacru twp before 
ff ft, a,i, rjjtiuly. i ihjnlc- 

L SO- trpi* ifTOfcTa S/] Zell, Bckltet :int^ Ram*aupr (Raiiifrtuer Tcadiiig 
0?) bc^D Jic ApodosEB here. DyNvitcr (mftking h\h fu^i a. ^S . . . 
^^ptxit-t^jr b. 1 parcnlhelital — and apparently following tho Aid. 
Sell. LP uiHEi-rsUiiLlIng llu' cotiM rue lion to be AcA £?ni ^I'r iKJfjA r6r 
XJyoi- a/^nrol^rtui - - . i(*^yoK7at) accm:* [o m.ikc ihc apodosb bc^'ll 

with /i'>j(drjpi4 ptf DtV l\ ;. Thai [his iu really the apodoiu it ckv, 
I thmki Troij) dip 'duplicutt?' jmaaiL)^ vli. 4, a, Sa wbicb llie 

apodot'l^ begins b^ 31 ^'Uh ^olt fu" oZr vpii rot^ \l. f. r^ njprri 

a. flB- Tif iTwv KQi ^nip^dX^eif] Drkkcr omlts me wiih K>> M*" ; but « 
(approved by Rahsdw. Ft^rstk. p, 66) H ntofsaiiry. 'J'he intanin^ 

NC, CCC, Cimbr.. B'- ^ ^ give -af. 

On ibe rehiion l»lwof^ £ 3 and $ 5 of thU chapi^r Cook WtUoa 
[Arist. Sfui/. \\ C) Irjs iht hWowhig remarks — *§ z diTJdes objects 
CUiftInf; plcjisurc into l^\'o (l-'isacft ■ » - f 5 gLV<:» the t^nrc ondcr 
c1i]TE.'T«nt phraseology. . . . Tlie exampleft too of Uie first cUw In f f 
arc rrpraicd In $ 5. . . - Bui i 5 '^Lja a tbird <U^» fioi found Jn f s. 
. . , Thir AniourHA to a corrtction of f 3. In $ j it U tsud of tbe 
ar/»TA rii^ avf4 ihflt thpy admii of excr-u, nnplyirg thai th«y an 
vtmiig ui excess. < • * In { .^i the h^ic tliint; i» put in a dcartr utd 
bcticr wAj: "h Isnol fiuaccptibiiity to ibc-uc, nor dcaiic and UluAg 
for ihem which are bad. but a curiam pxcc« in them." . , . The 

bai^IICbK (jf di«yrdui or rrw^inxd i^hcii luduJgcd iiL tu CACi^set h tMA 

stated in f ; ; though liulf tmpljccl by the term w>wa, anil aascftcd 
lovvcr drtu n in ihc Kamc column l$ t^). Tn } g ihr fooi b cxprcuLf 
incnLitJtitd. From ihifsc considc^ilunti iL i» evident iJiat { 5 it^ not 
a mere i« capitulation off s, for it contains norr; that it is not 
a m«re aJdttbr to { 3, for it ror^uins ihe «ain« mMivr av j 3 : it ii 
rather an cnUic rccon»i ruction which miikci^ £ 3 quite wvieucMarj.' 
Then on pp. 33, 34 hf says — * in BubJKt-m^iikr the «oon£l \<erMQo, 
aft alrr.tdy sMUr^xpandx thf main «tati7-mcrt« of the trst. The 
adidiiions (jn (he *ccoiid version) seem a true odvanceH < . , Of Ivo 
vcniofiK of the «ana« subject, the more advanced may be by tha 

BOOK VJJ: CHAP, 4: ^5, 


wow auihor 4B th?- oth«r, And wrili«n when his mind hCLt <!e^<«lopi*ii tUA 

lulv&Ticc m*)- ))c ihc lA-ork of anoilicr and even inferior writer, 
rc|ir¥»entiRg merclr ihr general prcgiess of philoHOphy «iticc ihe 
drsi autbor. or Lbr ^vuniage which l^ie wcoiid ^tuJior hud in 
having :hc work* of ihc first before hira, l^hc lailcr hypoihcsi* 
will he Ihc Tnorc probable, if, uhilc the advance is such sis migJil bt 
'irmdc by an inferior dmikci Liikilcr the condilionK afor^fjiid, ihcrc 
»rc found real (raced of iricnor t'biloflophic nbtlily m the accOnd 
v^nSon. And l>ie inference will be much strengthened if Ihcrc in 
ft couidcrtble f.ilJtJi^ ufT in blylt. ... In ihc case uf lijc m^cuuiI uf 
lh€ two vcmon^ now under d^acuMion, tbouich the improvcmenl i» 
snch aft would in all probability roi be reiriced by th« sane auihor 11 not loo gicaliobeductDiheTeraiibfepkjilosDpher 
Tc^ctintr on :he wc-ik of 'dxt abU'i. And on Ihc other hand iheTc 
do wnn to br marks of Icvi ability '^e.g. the writer of § 3, wi&hini^ 
lo dikwfy r^umxi and ririA/^Mii, bcyins with a division of obJccL* 
causui^ pkai'Urc («mflCpr* ^fc**^!*) and gives ylKrj, n^t^ Ac. as eKimplftf 
of iliew objects : (he wrlcer of } 5 begins wjiU iihnvni val CvtSvfthi 
tnd ' involves hitn^df in tlic inaccur^icy ... of giving n^'u and /iri' 
tfkiafnj, f«*7. ti^^ &C', ft* instances of ij^finit and fffij9i'M>'4i« whioh of 
course is avoided in { >.' H«rre 1 think Cook Wilson is a Uiilr 
hvd Oil ilic wfiicr of 4 fi- Although tlic wriitr of } s tcadb off 

Vlfb rttfl M f«r ifjfDMvv ■<!> /trifffuvM ai /jri*, llC gOCti on -ctvl f^j> ry 

ytBtfi aOlvv *.Tjk,, U'hich really mr^ni; 'tinre the fl^>r/j of dome 
pkaawvd And desires art to be claA^ed as noble and good. . . .' Tbi» 
writer, equalli- ^*ith tht* writt-r ol 5 a. seems to me tr> hjvve a ctaaei- 
ficalion of fd imiffbim T/*fli^P primijrily in view. Although, however, 
I dUTcT from Cook WiIboh 011 ihib muhII poiut. 1 ^igjce with hiui in 
ihiikkirg that f i and | ^ are probably by dilTerent autboni, of 
vttiom the atithor of $ f; i^ probably ih? Uror, 


St.^ 5ni - . . jnox^Tjpia fiJr ofr oOScinta h-tA,J I hnvc £^d ihll 
I ittitik Ifmt Ibe apodosi* of ihe sentence nr«l v.r>. a 13 is ^o;y^^4 

fUf vlr *iitp^i rxf^ii TUtr* iari - bllt clic prlil^agc Ai^ ffiftj* ■!. ^8 > , . b> 2 

fM^Hv, mad« ptLfcnIhotical by i1yw:Mer, ie not i;;noTed by the 
wribrT when he Lomes lo Ibis flpodosis: for mur' U t in not the 
fa wwtt mI Td vwaCru ul id ^urafv of A' 26, but OEllj rd Toinura 
(jiy4i*«H, cfpfor, n'lH}, fi^^J lo which the words Si6 , . ^ ft^tpalntf 
conAne themselves, 


BOOK Vli: CHAP. 4: {J 5. ^^ 

i» »- The meaning is — 'Those who pursue rn ^wi r,?^;*™ lo txcc» 

arc t^Ot liOxSrjpai, r./. dcfXniTToi— because ihttT object! 3fC HOI 

{^fioUv I 6) iticy arc not J^ihirc;* JirXif— their objccla arc ^t** 
flj,>*r,i, the €3fce8sivo put^iiil o* which ib 'fwwirbj' but not (tricky 
^ifrfi-, at in ihp excessive pursuii fjf ^A awportitd. I'^yey irt^, lionr- 
cvcr. cuUcd ciKporrtv i>«^ ^;M>iifn;in.' Rainsiuef li of opinion lh«t ihe 
xeason ELatied- — ^ tpvaa rSiv olinr^t Uatrw&r /irfi K atC«'d^--Ci QOI 
filifllH^nt lo pTOVe fmjfSrjpiit /«V nrrk> afrAt/jm wtp\ rrwr ttrri*. IE IVCflU 

to rt)c to be suJ!icienU if umlcrslcod a» above — Mhcii objects trt 
^Cvii alptrd, as reccTiUy distin^tF^he^l ftotn wiitruia — ^thc objcctii of 
fiB)(^t\pla or firoXflcrin.' On llie wordn wilS uliirli $6 nprtis, CodX 
Wilson (p. 35) »ays — ' In § a the fact of the urcalcr (iiiilt in ime 
(**^«c'-ii )B clearly vxprtssed in llie aenltnce i^ >mv ^n/j itv^xifr^i ^jrtun 
bIx uc il^a/jruj ^^ffpaf uXA^ mi uf nurra riC llio roric-^fMiTKiiiij; pTintv 
il> ^ 6 4 yiip a^pafiia at ^ofav ^it-rAi' liXX^ jral tup ^^vktw* « tfrtf' ja mtich. 

tt-dkcr and gets ibe auibor into a copfuiion^ for her* h« nukec 

^iyt<r6n% iIht iJiffi"nrniia uf tJie atpa^i^x AtsK^'v frouj ihc dr^^rn^t cani 

, . , ^ynmjij ihe term ^y»*rft]i is used of ihe error of boib/ I &en 
inclined Lo ihitik that, wlierpaii ihe verb ^^a/raa may be uvd 

popularly ainl vaguely, tAi' ^e<ri'- — 'ihc class of ri if^mi' — it t 
technical expr^^ion, and marks thai severe censure winch we pu» 

1.34. Ittnipos] Tlw Stories given by llic AH. Sch- and tlw Panph. 
(different stones) arc not wurth transcription. There w<te kitigt oF 
Bosporus of ihis name. fsoc. TfntrTt^mrt'e ^ TO b. ineikiionf S^iynif L 
(b.c. 407-30.1) a» con LiEiuing Ills fiiUiers polic) offAvourii^AtbeiiUB 
gratn-fihipperG- See note on v. 5. ij^ b. 8. 

I,, 7. j 6- «*fl J*«t<rrtv] Resiorerl by Ramtauer, Sosefnihl and Bywaicr 
for Betkef s nt^l ii^rtw. 'Wc use tiic Icrin d^paaio by aiulogj, 
adding in rach case vhai the airpvcia ift in' — }kr>«vt ti}» Jt^Hute 

BOOK VII: CHAP. 5: § t. 




*ttr rvrttr^l/y ///^^Attf. fitif (ii fn^'cntr fJtiiiiinf for t^fiiiifBiism Jrf-ravfi hy 

rtiftmr^ A/trf^t diifoiiMhtu, MiktiA may ^ tfhiifi^ithtd 4J Intttih tt^- 
fa9ui\%livm],&t ftOiXfA t>y4rfimtU 4ltf:9itt <tk¥^ it mat ni/ttfa! tiiitH't ^Airh 
mad/ Iki m^tt tal ltit/ii^t»-Krv<tKft lif^. a/ijf bi j^urn/ty 'mtu-Ai.*' fir ifUt 
ftftfVfHMlltjM («-£- t^img t^Hk, Hnna/wai fmi). Jh tt^/ttr •t ht kss^ fimd 
jptWi h^mtei/ Hpi9. ons ^f ihtn duyesitians, n man is a»ii\de iht h^trndnrio of 
ink^ Ktta^ iiLx;^&'- \Ue i' rt/n/ive U tufrmtil Anmurt i!ttifti ; unj in >ir/nr 
4Hlj ^eiu p/ tkist disfosilimi amt kttfs it unJer eifnirol. or is nai/cnit ^ 
if. it itnifif ' rfitrtttfni ' r>r *inrtmtintnf' in fif tfrirt i/Mtr 9/ tki t/9m. fmt in 
a fttaSjifJ trujt. Jirjt jT/ th km v^t tAat iht mart wAa tt^trth Ati cngtr it 
'^rmfiiuKJ* in a^mtJ'^ unt/. H'f ftvr/ ^u-i/i/y rhi Itrmi tI« dm/ icconrln- 
enoe v^tm Uf »u them la n^ii^rt t9 thi "phaM^t fhins^ * ermmcatfJ VHotr 
(»), flr/f/foE^^brulihh'v mnrbi!! »*'«, bmliklj or murEiJil infaridnrntt- 

Iit!r<^£(ory NttU-l Thistliapicf goes on Blill further to limit ill* 
b[iticEC of *i &tt\its AMpi%oia. If a man have unn^Ltdra.! dcsifc^ fwlji^tlicr 
(1) conriA^f. or fa) induced !>>' (>i) disca^Cn or {I) \\^\>\\). nud kctp^ 

thffH tn ch?ck| CT yields tn ihrm, h<^ \^ not V^^pur^f or 'i'yxir^r AnXit^^ 

but M nrrA iT^trJtrru— j' t, tli« Lnn;ilura1 dciirf? whicli he cljccks or 
yieM» \o mii»i be specified (jual aa tti^^avt &c- must he specified in 
the Ci£C4 mcriFTOnrcl in eh ^y f^r [ht* l^rrne ry/mr^t and u«par]f«. 
c^rcn \u lel^lbn 10 lr«^rlTllBi, arc ap^^lied bUiLllj (Jfrh^f) oiil> ici IIjc 
man v\bose il*faif« arc niitunil, AsUriLnC snj'e— 'In suite* Uia( are 
crtirdu morbid, whrjhri 0Tigina% bo, at from ihc effpcts of ^n 
ill-icgublcd lifi:* the distinclJODH of riglii and >vioiig ;tEc do longer 

\\ l-0»] The wrilinp of ihia chapier is vcty careless, and hrtr* 1140 b. 
g;ivc[) mueh trouble 10 the critics (ste Rassow, J^^ruA. pp, 79^ 80, 
and Imtlmartii, OM ^rrV. p. aa note) ; but th« general rreaning U 
plvn: — Umiaturcil prDpei^Eiiica are (1) fr^ivW — bestial {t.g. 
cwinlbalitm), «ihihjtcd, for the most pari, by savagps, Tliese 
AjptvStu /fiir aj« onmcJir, bcttinging lo lite fwj^AjpA ^unr cf ilie 



BOOK Vii: CHAP. 5: }} 1-4. 

b.lfi- race, or of ih* Ifidivldua!: (a) i*iTiTpflT»^n — mcfNd prripr^ritiM!- 
Thcw HKnwii^i*<« 'f"r are tritl^icr {a) iluc to a^rventrtg iIdol^, 
bodily 01 mental— at flJ W (omit rf aficr 8« *ith K* L**: *cc 
Rfltsow, Foneh. p. 67) I'^jour ^tF^hwi «4l Ai ((iift^rt JIM wllh K^ : 

MW RaSSOW, /. f,) (inliiW /frfnlF it,T,>,^ j 3, ll. i^ — '/' 1*^1^" \ ^y ^" " 

i«ffi7/uif^«is, in a «p^c{fc si^n^t?, as boing morbrd /rontlifu/ioaaf %miti 
'Svatt fir uSy ifiwit (ifTiu { 4, b. 31. From i)x na^tMwm^s ft^^s 
in tills specific ficnae must be <tislirgiiiBhcd (r) or ( j) d tf 7i(U«t - 
how clotcly^ however, Uie iwo kinds are connecTcd is shown, not 
only hy ihc expression b1 ti rv^iitcrvtus ^ J£ Timv 5 J, b. 17, bat 
by Ihe diflicuUy of detwrnming how far the t^'t adduce a^ 
*X4mplps (fiTiw *-p*«* ^ . - - fl/ip#(Ti* § 3, b. 27-35) ztt ttu« 10 con* 
stIiuiLtjaiill> niotljid condilions, uiiil bow fir they are lui^its tbc 
formiktion of whicb coutci hive bccrt avoided, 'llie exT^rcuion 
f 4, b. 33 «) ^1 Kfrrifttrrv>f^t f;^nvJTL Ai' JAw ^e^mS TO ihow ihll 
;he diMiiiCUon most prominent In ihc ivn:cr'* mind wa» (li&l 
between tonatitutionaily morbid <imai, and mor&td suicft prodoced 
by bad hatiirc^ The- question — how far bad habiu can result Ir 
nor&i'i/ atiLc?, where there is no cnnnlituticiul bias — he doc» ml go 
into. He rocfcly 5ays, with special reference lo the Ivl instance 
in his \h\ b. 27<'-79, lli:il (hr^Sf unnaiuril i>ropriivirr^< u^ di^ 
sometimes lo i^wtt, sometimes lo J'S^ — »Mr (nV y4p ^uir«» tb« ** /f 

Th'^ forc£:oirt^ i^ipbnaiion of the divtincticnt intended w «£n 

^fj 4^ €9oiy§ b. 37 renders tnneccBsar)', I ihrnk, while it pr^udcally 
givts the SBTne sense ai, Rassow'a cooicciure (adopted by Sti»en^ihl) 

ol ^ murjiiarit^tit f'f^tirvi 4) /{ fi^ur (/^^irjrA. |i. 80], kdJ jUw 
Miowe that the omiesron of v before <( t^wi {K}% approved by 

Imclmann {O&n. Crft. p. ? ? n:>tc f. is a bhmdei, 

Bywatrr** torrcciion for the 70if of die MSS, Rawow {Fcr^k. 
p, 3o) says—' Gcdonke ur»d Sprachc fordcm glckbervdM ckn 

ActtlSn^V : Satrtrvf^V Ai Mil Tttix ifntriffmrwinis ■j^avrar £■' i6t}t ft. «f4fi« 

^ irr***!* cUpoTMr, Die luMere I'nvAhrBcheiirlithlLeil dirspr 
Acndorung Icuchti^i mic dn, abcr ich habe micli vcrj^bcb 

■ It RiA) be nnUrd ihii tiumJbBh&m, whieh wrmv to be tfap tfplul fiyiAiry 
Jjit, U iiKDincfri hrr« u diie to tnperrvnmg dtwa«& of rnkdnvB. 

BOOK VSS: CHAP, ft; }J 4-6. 


brniDbt cinrn andfrf^n AuKovg tii mtdcchcn.' The mcflning i3n48t^89. 
undoubicdly tl^at ci}:>rcMccE l> Rauaow's conjectural rtadiiip. 

I liacl made up my mind, however, lo ncquicucc In rotr, &u[)|>OMng 
Uul Ihf^ «ri:er imi^nicfl 10 convcj' ilii^ nrtnLng, bur, initcad cf 
corrccLly cmployiri; the ACCUKitivc, btundcrinj^lj ^vfolc ^cah^^ lU 
■■d roTf lo corrcHpond A^iih Sva^ ftiv tt^v above. But now B)**- 
water's cnnvincidg Zrjw removes all d[fficulry. 

{ 6. lAi- 8' ^x^''^ ■patiii'] Byvatcr r«ds trfr with K** iniwad U4fi ^ 1. 
of fi. I lurefer nf, noiwithbisiidirg iIk rdi^ in &, 3. 

upomr] Wc oughl \0 l);ive <ji> "1 ArrX^ ryjspJrrta aiiSwcfitig to •- >- 

4«9i£inp - ^ . A<kWo^] * jusC u wc call one who atinds to hb a. 3. 
angry ffcltngs in thi» rcbtion (i.y, in sl relation of inferiorily to 
thcjii-'itpanlcre'iu) incomincnl in tespctl of those fecHngis (toD 
iraA»t r^^- n>v A'^ou Jc^r^r), but not mconLincni wilhouL qv&lifica- 

tion.' I thUl read rou iriiAmC &itpnw^f ilnpfrrif Jf ai- XfimVi' ttilh L^lTib,, 

Coracs, Susemihl. Cofacs wriirs fnAhr*^ ... rot niitfnuj rtrpar^, 

fTtptfy tptHiifTaM'- 6 yitft pave tal ^ nttn^rrTiTd, jeqAirvjs ^al t/iw f;!"!^-!! 

i €.j In ihia feciion /« ^i^v'tai ia ovpoftctf ^ the chanctcnscic a. T. 
of a ^prif^Tjc 7fir, \o fUA i^irovt wliich in made the charactentftJc of 
a nvrjiionifij^t ffjr. There Is some confusion In Uie c»j^«aiJon. 
A AfpAbAf/ir Jlfa ia i^u^fi fts ficlon^ini; to the Fjux/^vf*^ ^MJtu of 4 race 
0T indjvulual; bUt^ as we hiivc 'tCt'nj .1 tt^rn^miBAtit 'f'c may =d:*0 be 
p^fi. Only ihtjse »wT<TM«T(&flci( /fill L'aii Iw fiiirly said not lo lie 
^vffft, vrhich htLvc been contrttcicd solely byiOoi ([f ihdl it po&sibic), 
or are due to vriimi 4viXy\imK<f,i or ti>nintn—suf>/rj'trii/t^ disease, a£ 
dLiLiiigiitsheJ ffQia a mofhid comlilulit^aat lUaic. 

T^i^ Y'*^'}*'! ^f' P'"^- (^J Fragtn. (cd. Touchnits vL 341) rf ?»*<« jta« ■. 0, 

eC^/iioK 0uHpdf flit^ar I'lie yaX/»j m yoKfi xtx:ias iv liiivi: been ihc 
polecat, and only in laici vriters the domcnik ta.U Sec I^'MJi 

rocTtfiarw&^K] The conslruclion of courw is— ol *f ft<i inJ^s^f, a. la. 


SOOfC VI J: CHAP, hx {5 7-9- 

1149 »,13. {7. Ul^jA yAy yiv^ Bjw-akr adds ^iV uutb X^ sikI M^. 

Altljcugli fWjTr ^ifup siaitds in Caiiibr, iliejo arc «i^iis of cor* 

A S3. 4 e. oXXo <tftoi dapaff'of] i'. ^. answering to oihcr objects {the 
^vd-fc ai/fcTpi o( Chapter 4 and ihc (fyivfrrd of chapter 5, :i« d:^^ 
liiiguished from the awiyjmTii) there ire siaira ' «ijwcifica1l j^ cliUinct 
from ac^ria,' lo whidi lIlc Lcmi u/niffuj it applied m an cxtciukd. 
not in iL* properp «ense. 




fnu^menci in ans^r it Mi la di'israt^i at iMtcmtiamt in daira.fir 

anji^f tndtfd Iruiit itn tnt t4 rtaton. i»t mtitjtpirtArfi'fi iU itutrtUtiMit S.t^t 
« haity ^eevanf wha ntru aunty la /^etuti M*j m^ttt'i oHtrt W/AMii »Mfim( 

9a(f jHjCO^jf fJiat imu/t or iti^ht koi htm ff0itrJ—eftt ^wt ja^c^/MH 4f 

entniA tt maA^ ttn^tr tmh t^fiauh ike in/tUHit tkiu tht tnjud «iur ^/trik- 
wifk a^Kj!f-f, /f/iinc. tvi thf ethrr hand, r^xhis p^ tax /vjry ttu^. »/ f^Jy 
rraiffra ef tfuu havr tmii thai jffvif/Atn^ xi ^/maih/, 'J'ikMi J i yr r itmt ntUM 
l'« d martfter, wAi/e iitiirt Jsti nat^ JgJi'n. drf£€r u nfn rtUHJi/it/it/^t, 9md 
tvrn Ar^iJiiitfy, than ^iJJ/aifet aif, iiW fAtt^rt 1^4 "ttrt vAfiyiitdt laii u 
matt rjiiua^if : altt. iiritir it nyen—Htft. lilv itntt, an intidittn frixi/U 
pfat'mx ^v^i'Jit lAe jvst tuft of rtafm. Af^rMtvr, if it f%im wWi -nt^t 
a man ttnt m$i 4sn,^r : hut pfHtiur* ivkifk d//u«&f /*f bvLfHim $fdtu»* ; 
9nii it-iinfatiH/s/ riju/ii cur jutt in^iigH^titt* fmfhtf f^4M UittJfl »f ftfrr. 
Sia.e, at nt A-it* jstr$^ ^ily fitaiun* art tieAtr narmotty ivntaH, «r ivtuVjA, 
tfr infit&iJ. il ii oiiih thtfiitt **'j>j vniy Mu/ itmftranie iritJ i^tmftnttia an 
certterittif ; ami the fnvUiori not le btdti<rihd e» etshtr temjrrAt$ ^ 'flAm- 
pirnte — i^te/t ftrkajii by il mtfa^Acrimi tr-^m/tr of tkt Urm. 

Br^i^itty ii net tufk an r^tl aj vht—ji>r 4h hntt^tity frimipU fimyjy /§tt 
Hfit tJiiif, Adf mfit hm i/ttffvyfJ— hirt ft u mm/ermdMUw 

j 1, vTi %i hat ^rror alirxp^ dnpcuJLa ^ Tou Ou^iou f| ^ l4ril^ 
Bu^4i-, Btup^v^^tt] AppLxrpiit^Iy i^ ruv ivfMv onp'tjii', 1L$ 0CCUp7iB|* 
A pc-culmr pcir^ition among the nihrr kiiidi 'oTd ^rtDtJmimt XryAfutw 
(sec Tiotc ou vii ^, a. 1147 t>. j4), ifl adccUd here (or coQspah^on, 
*l!rom u moral point of view' (Grant atf/oc.), v'Oh wpttvlo proper: 
(/! c«|AH;l4]]y Af. Af, ii. rV- S30i b, 3 (quoied in now on vii ^ . 9. 
1147 b. 34), a piusagc which Raasow (>Vj4-A, p. 47} accotiou tar 

BOOK Vfl: CNAF. 6: § I. 


\yy the elodff of ihe wtrr to give imme reason for dJscusiitig ihe U4lfta.M. 
special qUc&Cio:i of ihe ^uperiorily of a€fiQ*jUi 6i'}mo\i lO aninmla aa\a% 
— 7 rii- iitiBv^iLvj v^hcn olfcaJy it had been caUblitbcd that the 
form* rif dtputria tmra wptioStaiv geni^rally ^nVpa*Tifl fi^'/mv hrmg one 

of ihcm) are better thin Jii^ir^ hi\As. 1 gather that Ru»ow 
regards vii. 6 ^ intcipohkd. SueeTnihl brackets it. 

J^rd/- KH- J- 949 '*- 'J ^'^ '^" 'I'pi'"'^ Xcy^vrjii *orJ fiic ruiiHi^io* 

^ iH'ttfUif arret ruu Xi^V. £^X' uf Ai^Xv^uirat fA' iiiJaitrikiia.HJii'jr J) W;r 
ocrvah In ^'..V. ViL. 3. f& the dirpan^F proper IS 6aid lo ncl tvo 
X4)«i' in ft flcnsr?, jja*H. as litre ]lll^ dtpariie ^'ju^'u is sakl ^urniyiiV ti ni) 

X^j-wv Morcorer even wiihlo (he lipiJt> of the present v'^v^^c 
X«^ is r^firowntcd as inlluvncing •Vi^hTua nu kta linn ^v>h^ — ^/i^f 
7^ Xi4yo« 9 4 ■^'^ii'^^'ii 1149:1.33 . . .Ar^owwixi^h. t— although 
ihe write: proceeds imnjediilcly to tontradict himself by addiii|- 

1149 ^- ' ^^'^ ^ f^'^ tft>i« unakevSwl ry Xtfy^ rrvi, ^ A' tVidu^itc »£. 

Tbc writing is il)U4 VL-ry (.artier* nnd toiifuseil, but tlie wnse 
intended ia true, Tfie X^^k upon which iqitfti^ta act» is Ibe 
soptiLbCry of tbo iidti»h pa^siona in the ^tpariff, or th« bedonuiic 
U^rory of the diahtvmn, wlitrea^ ihiil whi'tli pjoinjils Aj^Jt in 'an 
idea of jusiicc. however v'ild ihii idcn may be*— Grant «J iix. 
Apgtt ind Uevire, m thvmielve*, u« equully irratLoml ; bui Ang^r 
Cocii»lA widi A crrUin eonsdoiisiie^is of whjtl U due beE.wt?en man 
ftii4 cnaa» uhercai» Ucaiic iliinks only of its own ^uti^cation. 

• Arf*rr is -x lt*B inirncdiatcly selfish pasiion than Desire. Il is kss 
debiHiJ^ ill tlic loij}f run lu (he ehimLLer.'— Gr;iat ai/ /tv< ^ 
PlolOb^t^ 440, where fv^^v is said to aid Xoyot against nrtdi-^ici. 
Re«cniTnrni In rnuficd by ih>? thought of bs«e ai^d sr^lfi&h ^c[i : see 
nokouiii, 8. 10, L jj. C/.ahu^uilcx, Serrrio/i B t/^f^i Reunlmmfi 

* The cnfy way in whicli our K^afinit nud Uiiderstandiiig cnn raise 
ODgcr ifi by represenLing to our mind injustice or injury of some 
kicjd or other, , . , Since • . . it U neccisury for ihe vciy ^ub^iiaten^c 
of ihc world thai injury and Jnjustiee and cruchy should be 
puniULcd, and ^ince conipa&sion, ^tuch is bo natural 10 mankind, 
vould rcmlcr liiat eKceuiIon of justice exceedingly didiLuU ami 
uneity ; indignation against vice \^^ wickcdnefis is • > . a baJunc« 



BOOJC Vlli CHAP. 6: jj 1-3. 

ii4« ■.■& to thai weatn«* or piiy, ud *l»o to ary ihing *fae whicJi would 
[Tpvcnl rVie nccesfcarj- inrihods of scvtriiy. Those *ho have nc^<er 
thought upon ilicBt Buljjccia mhf perhaps not aec the wc^^lit of 
thU : tnit let us sii[-po«^e a person guilty of murder or any oth«r 
aciiun of cmcli/r ariU lh:tt nutiiluiiJ Inul lultiruliy cto iiidit^nuion 
a^amst such wicVedncu and the auEborn of it ; but that every body 
was afTccted towarcib such ;i crimin'^l m tb« tame way as iowd< 
an mnccrnL man : ctnnpEiiuion aiuonjfKl oliicr Uuiirs would trtidei 
llic cxccut:cii of juiiEice cxorcdin^ly puinrul and difficuJi &nd vould 
often quite prevtni it. And noiwiih*iandmg that the princip^ of 
DL'LK'vukiite Jb drilled by jh^ibi: mid ib fr^Uy iu ^ very lov dr|;rtc, 
ih.-it men at^ in grctil mcasLtrc mtcnsiblc 10 the happincM of their 
fellow crcaiuiea^ yci ihey are not msfHSlbl* 10 their tuftery, bin 
arc vciy ^IrQU^ly moved ^vilh Jt: in^otimch thai there pbioly 19 
occn«ion for tliat feeling vhich is raised by guilt and demerit, as a 
balance 10 Ibai of cGmpa<»ian- Thus much may, I llnnk. jiuily b« 
allowed 10 Teseiiicnent in ihe atricte&t w^y of moral coii^iJcf aliod/ 

fa. 4. S ^0 4*'^'«"4'j It ts more excusable to follow thocc ^pi^tt (^{u 
is d]( generic term covering Affidf and rtnA^n) uLidi aie ^mniu. 
r^r-MULMir, not TAio* nnX ^^tm (see J?. A^. iil. it. 1). And iWfr 

that is (mi] 1^ ;^fiAnr4ir>ri (^ ^ Ch-^e d ira7 vvrfp^aXTp), le ^kfHVMvpav 
tli^L of tiri^^iiiu ol T$i ^rjij3oX^r. 6if^dv ia, as Gnint put» it, * more 
confllituiional/ and is even hereditary: ^ ihc Aid- Schol. aay»— 
m ^« ^iiptf'd^i rt ^p^f it^'Xiti^ biAri wara yiwthf iimAftKoi/Bti. Of COUTK 
the wiUcr'f el^>\]icTC'Ci{:ires»ird vle:w — ihat gihrXai ^Epaata, thougb 

conccfJied with ai tai&vftMt ol rijt vu'pfiu^^t, U nevcrtbelefs confined 
within the limiLs of mau'^ normal ipCmi, must not be regarded » In 
any vvay modiltcd by the prcacjiL paaajtge. 

b, 6. & diroXoYwJfHrfls] Cf.-'^f, iV. ii, 6, iao7 a. afi— be wa« icquiFtcdt 

t)- IV. { ft. fioXcirXiiirau y^ iriRrpoYfKhh] a lyric fhlgment (tf TinlcnoWft 

authorship. The cJitofs compare Sappho— 

vta'i At6e do\4vXaKtt Xltrtroftat v. 
jifiTTbv I)id)Ta] * the embroidered (mmlv to sdtch) girdle.* 

b, IT. *0^f)poft) /!. n'n, Ji4-ai7 

f, ml dir^ rrrfid'frtpiy Aurora h0t^ J^Ij^M^ 
naiXor' It^ ^ el ^iXxr^pw f-flfm n'rvitTO' 

BOOK vii: VHAP. 6: {{ 3-6. 


114D ». 17. 

Gnni observes that ' ihis ar^icncni is simJJir to that i^^d y,\h. iii. 
I J. a to prove thai iiutm^e ranee ia more volumary than cowardice.' 

<( offf oT* - , , <Jfljm] The ff-asoning ben? ia — (i) ibal th(^b-2L 
fndiil^ncc of in J^fii vk-!iich mvoivc» pain n less voluntary thvi 
thai of one which invoWci pJcaKurc, iind consequently, if ^rong, 
lcK> unjust: lli^fcforc Su/iit in \e\s unjusi llian v^pjc— (>) ^inc4r Lb« 
object of onf^r ii supposed itijuM]Cc(Kc S.JV.y.B. lo iVl ^ro^^ 
n&jt^ tf ''pyij /m-i], ihfll which nl^ffi anger with greater JijstJc^ ia 
more urijuai 'Ji*n Ihai vihkh raise* it wiili leas ; yvc iic tnotc jn^i\y 
an^ ttl vftt'*!, than tl cxcc^ca of &vfUi which do not iitvolvc vffp*t ; 
therefore acii ot v$p,t xtt raotc tinjuit Lhiin «xrf<(sea affik'nit- 

In i^ort, v3>»v U «otw tlun x"^*^^1'- l>tcau5C (i) jinJitmin?* ti 
piimful, anJ J^^.t picONinE: (t) wc do ncjl feci W3 indignonilyiLnj^r/ 
ai act* due to xn^m^r, eis ill acit ctii« to v^/»ir, 

ft nuy pcrhopsi be lEmughl that the rjurHllniL ia bcggc<l in llie 

WOnb alt J/'yifrtrAit >AaXdirrn %tttixia¥, fui^ra dSmc^Tifia, The truth 

Iwwcvrr TfTTiaiti* ttmi, roughly, thing* iire vrong or unjust in 
proportion to the indixi^iaiioit llic; louftc^ Thb i« all thai the 
writer means b/ the unbrtunaitly worded Gt^rcmvnt thuE Mhcy are 
unjiisi tn proportion 10 fhf jutnrt n/ihc Indignation,' 

\^. ctfi^Tai Kcir ^pX^fl '^h<; difltincEion is made in chapter ft : b, 97^ 
hut if w* sufi]M>ic llat the ciprcusion irur" ^px^i must refer to the 
tetfinrJciul of liie picbciil Lii-;ili^i:: oil d<^[f^. we ma^ adopi tlic view 
of Cook WJhon (Arisi. Stttd* p, 15) and others, that the rclerenc^ 
in loch- I- §3: ICC Cook Wilsor (^.5. p, 14)— 'The phrase u<rm^ 
«BV^ d^jrdf do«a not »eeni to be used wiien tlie *' begiimbg " referred 
to is AC such a flhorl distance (the preceding; chapter) aa ch. j; would 
tw En dw t>re««nt c^ic : but only when it is k> far off thai U is better 
for the ukc of cleamcaa to take this rather than a more gcncihil form 
hk« itr^p tXfif^M. 'Iliis is borne out by all tlie pae^ugcs collected 
in Boniia'i Index ' — where, actoidiug to Cook UMson, the intprvnli 
veof 83. j>,ai leui 15, ijt.9j,^[id4iPMCji(Dckkcr)rc!apeclivclx, 
■the 5mftlle«t inten'ol bcin^ about ^ffi line*.' Cirant, however^ 


SOO/C r//; a/AP. 6; } 6. 

U4»b.S7. ho^A thAt iT)« rercrtJice in tlie paBAigc b«rore lu (vii. 6. 6) 'gWfl 
bLick Hi ch, 5. { E, and gWirs colour I0 ji stlspicbn ttiAt itic btxrk 
in>iy \ix\-t bcfii puL logctlicr out of ^paratc picc«4, lod |>erha|il 
kciurce, one of ^^ liich ma;' hiLve coinmtnccd with the Mih ctkiptcr/ 
So S«iilir\A>A, r«^rf. p. ^48, iiore)— *DcrAu»djuck" iuAiifin^" 
gchi jLuf den Anfmg dcr "hcmigoi^' Vorlcsunjf. Dcnn dot 
Arisioieiischen Sclinflen irogen diLrch;;us Ucn Ciiinckr mfliul- 
lichcr Vwlcsungcn un*! Vfjiirage.* Without pxprrwinj aaj 
opinion on itic point of ' Uic oral tharactcr' of the Efhia, 1 would 
B^ty that t hive litck hcsiiadoii in referring the present Al^rjrm. 
ifi^i lo vii. 1. 

b, SI, Gt& Mol TO 9i7pLa <c.rA] TIit.* conneiioD BraQU 10 be 

' ^r&fivnvt nro called tfaii^>puk'ri Of UtcrAmrrvt ID JC^k^Ct Oi B rCnMMI 
flUbfiiGting between v^wii^tfic and m'i^jjWiMi «vl fiviTi#ji»\ roc taviji^i^ 
rviAfjv Kill A7pL&jAae-, ^^^^mi: lirinr rti ^pu nre net dcstcribed ju 
ffi^pom Of »*t(i\*nffa (except soniciinioa mcraplioricnily — t.^, wbcn 
thr lEciTibt-n of el race distinguislkcd b/ ^sir^ordinar/ voracity ot 
Ufeclvloui^nc!!*^ an.' describrd as Ai^htitmi) i for (1) [heir hn&vpiUt ^re 
^^v0«it, and (a) thcj h£vc ro fTp«v>fait,' In liiort, cv^ttJovCti and 
acoAairi^i an.^ ^i^nbcd lo iiian widi I1U normal human d««ir» and 
ra[.knL;i1 principle, nol 10 the IrrjiJuiLul bruiei; wtih ibcir Lruiish 

b, aa^ Tifk] Tf t^r rc;icl nvc il mni^] ^ with I^A^'^ — ' rcin:trkAh1r fb 
waiilonncs*, it may be, or letljcrj' (Gr;vnl); but Bjtfate^ 
SuggcbtJon n is pfcfenble, 

Ik B5. ^a-n|«t t^^ iOo«vs, ivinvcp dI fLair^fitMiL luff d^pt^Trui'] RaniKiiKr 
h wrong, 1 Ujinkf when he m.ikcs TaLai}TA ^'vr; titt {tftuv the subject 
of *'^'<rTijirf, nnd ar|(ta^' Cogil.iiur igiiur gcacrali* (juatdam cinmun] 
aDimalium sana naiura, n qua nomtulU gencia (mv^ ^iru>) dc- 
genernverini.' Tiio sobjcd of Vf.'uf,** is ihc same as Uut of T;^ 
in iht lm*f above^— vi?, ri Sifftiit^/i/f brulcs gf nef .ill/, and the tneao- 
Jng: i& ihiil ihc normal condition of brut?$ ic^^p nibka diui of itudoies 
in being u-iihout ihe con&cioLi3rtc.<>5 of those limii^ which dcBnc the 
*namre' of niional beings. Tlie te-rni ^Tio#Bir niust be regirded 
as coloured hy its proiimity to npuoiVvt/ and X<;>ttf^f. jiut a« 
f V9if«j above is cotoured by lis prcxinncy to n^tfjjW***, The Pikraplu 
brin^» this <mi in \\h version — rtudo^eif ij^ovin {tA A^) Ji^r ^Uii 

BOOK Vff: CtfAP. 6; jj 6, 7. 



SJTRilvly Lhc ATd. Schol- — ot ruvra ^utf vTt Tftf ri}< ^i^rwt twlM0b 4«. 

i 7. IXorroi' W 6TjpiiTiT? nanio*] Ram^w {Fortt^h. p. 81) rt^aJ* IISO ft^ I. 
fXurTfl* if KBiior flp7;/j*>rrjf p(«ih',ii, (|uotmg iIil" Pttrai>hraai tn suppori of 

CfiOLOV . , . Artpuu] Ras&ow {Fortch, p. 23) rfganln 5/irMnf».a, 
ft> 3 . . . J>X$ iL- 5 '^^ *»tKm\fi^%ivr a. 6 . , . ^piUV iL. 6 IS dupU' 

cstec. ' The li^l pn«»ig«/ savt Cook Wilson {JrrlrA .S'^Hr/, p. 16}, 
' U cvrtk'iidj a biiiifjlf^r v work, fur llir cuinpfLtinuii ffi'/L/^iJXXfii' dJ!ifiair 
wpit M^itvif tiAmaf j'a An unforlUTiiUC SlibstinUC for -"l-ujiw irtM- 

fioX^nr Vfi^rE '/■^vj^u', ixiiU cun li-irdE)' ht by lite iume autlior/ It 
19 lo lie obftcrvcd ihat clic raraphrasi tloc^ not notice ihc clause 
««p0ffXrjtf««r a, 6 . , p kbjni>f 3. 7 : hiH toicimcntiry i>) good' — d^t& 

Aairtf All t^ iT^-yii' iia«rW /Xiirfnii tol* «'/<^iihr>u trnvow' r^ yitit ".ahiiV rA 
tjflf ^X'J*'' ^' u^A KiHi, fiXiiStt'VTt pnf Tiiu (if) tjEOtrriK' t^ >i^^} aii^i^Tid' 
aadif atctJrrpQv rot j!ii*n^<Vi/v cukurt •a^i^oot' fAoTr4>r d^vuriii A^i^f. 

^xi'* V^'s 0^1^ 'C^ <^H 1^^ t^ AtryjiiDt, vri rov d^ifyju ^aXXof <)^;^4v 

i^j4v, 1 he Aid- Schol J however, coirmci^U on gri^pmA^inov , . , mmmr 
ill d niitnticj which Amply bvitsu out ihc uudi uf Ctiok Wil^jn*:! 
rem^lr); that ' the conrL^jAri^on njifiahkitr aittiaM npar fiif&p<aitQV t'Oiivto/ 

I* Ml Tinfonuriaro atih'HiuK* for ^T^uj^w ni^^ijiXn*- rp>.t tf^^^vw. 
Ilsc S^holiJUhi's v^omcncnl is to the rQl]<>\biijg cETccL — ' Tliiit the 
ttnjUfit ra«n !» huilE^ul i» proportion to the degree in viiich he 
participafci In Injuiiicr: therefore Injuftilce, as the sou^c^*, i* worse 
tbftn UlC unjust man (t' >ti|j tp nptvyytiav r^ wpl dtiJtioinrar, nvWa 
^oXAai' Ztrr^u fo ir^y ffipfi-^r^^uv). On ihc othci hand, Injiitace is 
A hn-len tiling m h%rlf, unable lo hurl iLnlrs^ realised in ihi? unjust 
nun; and in this Muse is not so bad u the unju&t man-' 


BOOK Vii: CHAP. 7: § 1. 



to vMiA dKMAdfa OHii a^ptiavv^ an rtiilr^, rrn^ tjAih'i rit^rr m*rt 9r ku 
lA<ift Ifti drvr^v fotptr e/ i-^inr^ Vflk lAem. If h« fxAtMi m^rt fMAK rkf 

iAe ttveroff pvwer 9/ <fftni with tAc faiM/. tia^r*pt*it: if i# aMhii itn 
lAoH thi aDt^as:* fifuMf i^ iifpii^ v/ilh lAt pttMiifVit ia^r^, mitk tAt /aiiiu. 

Oh IA^ mAtr hand. lAi vtan wAa datt mm iFrtiffJif ^gifMt/ lAt ' mt^^iary' 
fJtaturrt t/ tpu/A aniiMtU. h%4f f^srmtt tAim twitsti^iy^ t/di^ihrvlt ek*Ht. ii 
Attl>jumtt— ikiti ii * iuttrrijp^Ui' Jitr Af it not /ij /Hun if /til rtgrrijtr mXat 
he dW', arnd iff it immntiit,- effvitJ fa Aim ia lAe m*H ip4> diU^tr^^tfy 
Mtt(£ts t&Q tiitte in Skta fleajurts. vjAifi tkt ^it^pm cttirjta fAr mt^t, 
TAfrt ii •stft tht ntun Ti'ho iAhhs /lafi/y fninr, ni>t fnuauit kt ii .rtttfufrtd u a 
Stru^lt n.'{//i thfm, Htt JilibtraUly. iU » not ijattly jfi>Mm&*—/f^ 
ittht Htn 4iiiifrait afw'tiaw.^ ^ p«iiS—kKt if it a tOff sffASaitia{^i 
■TBoi fiaAAn^ ufkiiA At e^Mi, TAfitt wAa Jit ivt ^//trm utAHarMV r4«£iir 
arc IP h Ji'ifin£!ttiiAtti <ii lAt mtf m wAi ii !tU m ^y fJcatart. amd /Ar mam b4« 

WTfvtg wisAfuf /At ifim' tj ^vr, nr a ttrong, dtiirt ii /Ainv^ V^rv /Aam ik» 
mart vAo Jots it vw/f/ fAt ia/ftffitie iff a /irfirtffdtn^^ S^tAt dvi^anM U 

TAa nai iffptaUi vf t^a <la(jui^i w lAt k-yn^r^ji, amJ ff fit jaVoaA tit 
ju^tpurdr, 'K>«^r#ui »t a *i/A^.r quality lAtm xa^rnfU, f^ a r v r namt 
{kpatiir} ir litT/r tkan wHtrely to k^id ont'i grcnitiJ {drr4j(ti')- t/n^w Mr 
Affj^ ^^uAavJa m&y h hrebgAf Itiurieni t^^mina^, wiJ* %H indpimt r>aMm' 
JimariitH in^yi^ A mttn fay hf /farJ^nrJ wAt afitr » itntff^ if m^'ttmt fy 
frwf/ii /.'tttinrti or ptips^liAt /'Aiiv/efi* vr Ctnyofi ift lAt f^ty, yr tiAt 
Xiftophamus. wAff roalJ uH m/raifi AO Sati£Atrr: Aul Ikm U m abait jbr 
OH/ ^>Ao, tint&oM vcuirirurionai ar mtriiif nvahidii^ yiflii a mkM mmT/hi/^ 
fan nitit. 

7'At muH tvAa I'j wyfonJ e/pmutsmt-t it jtmttinni ikt^^ tfa* 1*JA«' 
arm, htti hi it wtatiy /taKait^t./pr amttttmcal ii nitua^iaH frfa* /i* /«tai d^ 
worA^ tiiHi it it lAit pitiH ii/AkA rAt mun wA^ is nvj /mJ ff ommxmtKt 

7JIav APtf itPO r/vrnff of Ajipaohi'^^k*/ fif /Ar im/t/Hmt ' mttimJL^it * J»a^ 
ffrattitnf, atiJ /Airi a/ lAe n-t^A ^Aaro^if, TAi vvu^ wdv JiH^f'^ti amd 
lArrt f^h aufay frcja Ait rf/ofn tatJtf iht ittfiutwn ^ patat**, vAfrtoi tAm 
impttmout M^H JiKi Hat JtU^mit aniiii tAn^ort turritJ mw*y ^ poiaiam^ 

{ t. 1lwp£a6iiJ dr. tiHi or yina&Ji (Zcll). 

fOTt i&ir oJtvi lx«k' , . . a. 16 x<^pMi] Gnnt baft ft good note. 

BOOK Vlt: CHAP. 7: {j i, a. 


Hera Uio tcrma ' contincDl ' and ' Incontinent ' ato flxcd * rchtivol^ Uso 1 
la what !>, iK implying more or lesa coniiiteoce ih:tn peojJt in 
^cncittl Ij^vc. And jx( i\\tiiK b cviJlmiI^ aumc rcfcreiice bvsiJc lo 
the tiiamkrcl of what ouj^hc (o be, else ii oould roi be fni^l ihot 
P^pl» In penpal verge r«tb«T to ibp worse sidi?. To roprr?irTit 
tbc majoritv cf inonkinil a» rri!<K9i«ing ;i racdiocrt mo^al nhxvMAztt 
neilter cnainenly good nor bad^ but inclining to wenkn^sfif um3 in 
acnurdiTicv with ih^ Grf(?k point of view. Widely tlifTiprr at Trom 
this WAS whaL iiMy be calk-d [be Semitic point of view, which, 
i«g:ir<Iing man with f^reaier rcMfiiouB camestnfris, aiirbmed to hjm 
"rift^prraw wicfecdnnsfl/ Tlif htirr frolin^r was not ronflnrri to 
iIk Jcw) and to (lie p^Kc^ of the Diblc, but in a^rue dc]frce made 
iUcir known 10 ibc world in (he Stoical philosophy." 

ftUvcplX^TM ^LoXdH^ £ &< napnpiiK^I Cook Wilfton {AnsL%.X^^ 
Studits pp, 3^ mid 73) points cui iliat E. X. \)\, and tb* corrc*- 

pcndtng £.S. n, jUfRfciuLe ^nXoiria ^ilIi AfiXm. and «nprvp^ii wjtJi 

^■ J^a f i^and thai ihcrc b no tra.ce of the dcHnitc co-orUi notion found 
In i4l. f , with tFi»^pwr\f)'tf^ Sec. 

ff S. 3>] According to Ra^sow {Forsch. p, 33) th&M fj conEain ■. L9. 

Hn UTinerruMry dtfcufifllon of the dilTi^rence lietwoen JifoXajrfn and 
Jtfrturvi, which rcpciti what has atcady been taid in ch. 4- 55 i"4' 
The concltiitjon of tbc pass:Lg;e cb. 4, §§ 1^4 S'A ^oXXav [I4H 
a. 17 - . . Itfjrvpu a. a7 present.* a strikLny i*>'t:ial>lancc to ib*l of 

the pASsage ch. 7. {$ 2, .1, nurr! I' !x¥ 1\^0 Si. 2*1 . . . J^ m^i ^¥ 

a. 30, and nothing woul'i b<? lo^ibytheomi^ionof tb^wbolepitsag^ 

c)l 7. ff Z, 3, the nrrrdf^ drTUnrin k.x.X. §4, a. jz, follow ilig nituially 
flAcT wpit$ rAi v^^^r i I, Ai 16. 

{ ^ ir4\ S' - , . A^cJ^iit] * Since some plcasureB arc neccuary 
(whdl^ others are not), and the necessary pteaaurcK are go only 
viibin CL-riiib iiiiiii*, ihcirexftttt and defcct noi Iteing '' nece»ary" 
[/.«. bein^ wrong)' ; ^e Subr — ' wir habcn (crncf geschcn* ^nn 
einige UenU%ie noihwcndig sind, aj>de:t da^^eij^n ea nichl smd, d.ii* 
{rttiCTjnu eT5i/nnr>A nxirbis zii eincm gcwlssen Grade sind.' Gram 
is wrong tn referring nui v'Xf^ '■'^^ to ^ 3' vf» translating — * Now, 
M tome pleati;irc^ ore n^ceatary, bui cLber« arc not to t>e called 
ao^ as btrinjj {moi) unty nr^ccisaiy in etjuin degrees.' The \\ords ol 
A* off arc really parctithetical. 

XJ«ftfJ KiMOw {Foruh. p, 13*^ conjccttire* ^vyas, Tcfcrring to ■■ la 


BOOK Vii: CHAP. T: §5 2, 3- 

llBD ft, IB- { I , wlif re ae b^vf rVi^i'^Jur Kiii ff^vyn*., nntl l<i ihf v^rl» K^irw' and 
^ttvytii' ^sliidi fuHuw ii; ihc present ^. 

■fffwttkpiffiii'j Sec Ra»How (ArjM- p- 1%^)' *Sichcr vcrdcrbt sind 
(lie Wortr^ : -:w(r iHiTi^tfoAt'it ^ hf* irpoa^iffi*. NichI bIos» f, du man 
hi ^ odcr «■ liai a*nlrrii tviilk'n, sondrrn autli tntf' uirifidalic k»i 
ansiOsaig. Was man cr^^ifict, findol &kh in <icr Han<bc|inft M : 
jfof)' vfTip^oX^v Hal Oia ir^cW^ffii'- Sollic dicie Lccuc cuie CoiTCCLUr 
6ein, BO vsX sEl- weiiigstcns waliisdiciiilit:hi-*r aIs die Bcucrcn Acn- 
dcrungsvi^rschliige/ 1 think ihni Bywaicr a 5aggc:Jtion — J tiri^W 
for fl *mfl" Cnip^nXaf — is good; tlic menning, 1 uke i(, heinfc ihtl 
* lie pUT^ucK excessive pleasLir^. becjuae ibcy alt exccnive, UnX b 
(fl) ddibcraicly '; but roihmp wouli be losl lo I^hb mcaiiani:. it 
tcemK In nif?, by th? simple oTnission of the word:! ^ ruif k«*p> 

I'he harapliniBt'a enplatiaiion of Ihc t«( at it tU">Js (the second 
f apparpTiily omitii^d) is ^iTiEfadory eflmlg^— 6 |uV rdv unptfbX^ 

iii'f>7lur, 44XX' u^t Ae' I'ubrdr, iIiifXitvTDb. 

ik SI. dt^yic) Y^p . . - ^mrJ.Aitf«« df^Tot] ThCKC vordt u«tii oUE 

of jilucr lurre, unless the »ugge>ilii>ii ibrown tjur by Gr^iu hf 
acccprcd. that ihc^ ' lay some stream on the cLymcb^^y of ibc itotd 
rt^AnfrtoF,' Rumsautr places ihcni afiijr aff/Kirori j 3, 3. ^i- 

^ 01. { 3> TWK £ii Xfx^'^v*' ^ ^<>' fAftXa<i^<k< (tBes ^uLXXAf, % %* dji Aovrot] 
Thf'se ttort^fi refer to the diMincitcn drawn in § > between d ^i» Ht 

fiRdi XiWap ^^ E^'^ ^T-rnf oAAd A'A -tifKiaijiteir—i- f, the dc1itX!fSW pUmtl 

of Ixiilily pleii^fure and the deUberaLe avoidance tjf bodily p«m afit 
disiingtiishcd, just as the non-dclibcratc yicldmR (o pfcuurc i» dii* 
1inguish«d from the non -deli be rale shrinking from pain. For non- 
deli^ieraie aciion, according a« It refer^^tn pleasurr.or to pdln. ih«r« 
ate appropriate technical it^rma^nitpaaui and >iiiXeu^ : but there &rc 
no appropriate kchnical terms to mark ihc similar dUtinciioct nincb 
obTains in delitirtatf action, and ;he wnLer n oliljged to retain the 
term a«uX(Kri'i lor the ddibcrate pumiiE of pleasure, and to describe 
the delibcr^lc avoidarce of psi^n as 'rath«r ft kind of /uiXwfa' — 

BOOK V/f: CHAP^ -^ " § 3- 


fvaAvior liBoi ^mXXw,— - nol as ^LaXttKla slmplj, for thai li^rjii U irchnl- Ul(0ft.9t. 

caljy Mtaincd Tor ilw «jiii deh'kriL'4 avoidance of pain : wc KaHK>w 
(/Vf^A. fp, ij», 113). who ^xptiiufi as above, and Ct>olt Wilson 

{^Athir S^axJie>i, pan^r- 77, p. 6^;). 

I'hc intcivenlion, hoi^cvcr, of ihc pa^Miffc Ta# Sf ^ij irponipfA^ivt^f 
ft, a^ , . . li'prtTAi'ff a. 31, utiich Maicfl lo Tton-di^libprjite action, 
ha!L indcitpd m-itiy criiit^i^ In Mippour ihiii tw A^ Xt;t(?4Vvk' rnuvt be 
UtC dKpor^r anJ >«¥tArr«^. and hencc ihnl & A~ riffJXatrfor ft, ^3, the 

rwiJing of all MS5^ should b*? A ff &vdif7e : *cc Michclci tf<f A>f., 
vrho icAdh and dcfciidh liEpnr^r, and Spciij^cl (An'j/. Stuti» p. UI3), 
who proposes ri T «."*/ifwfdt. The iniervcniion of twj- A< ^^ TTfJMipw- 
fwwita. 95,.. aiTfMiTnvi a. 31 U ccruinly n\i'ku'aT(T, biu ) lio not 
ihink thai ihcrc can be nny »criouj( cibji^ciiun to treating; Lhc pd&injcc 
ftK a parcnihcsis, so fur fts lift Icn^rh is concerned^ Of courftrr, if the 
fiOdeci^ \ii nn inleri>[iln[ic)r)« as Cook VVjIsoti nr^i^'s {An'sf. SfuHes^ 
pAra^fi 7&1 Ph 70), all difliculif <li&appcAi^. r£ii- A4 Xr^AVruri' fullow- 
Oig Immediately ali^r npntlft^it f j, a, 35. * In ihc first place,' i*yi 
Co(^ Wilson, ' ihf scnipncr vavrl A' ftv fltif^cf ii-r-A. (a. ^7) inirmipiu 
in lite rooai irrflcvioi maimer u ciintc-\l wliich has for lis object to 
«Sp1aiil ll»c cbaracl^rt of /nprtpio and jwiXflicj'rt, (ind )n the tccond 
place il \* t^(\u:i\\y fH^icuU lo keqi ]h<r ftrsr |xin of § 3 in tht tf-xl, 
because il makes the pain to which the ^iXcuhIf yjcMt iliat of un- 
mti«Bccl debtfA; which by no mcanft ^uiu the dcttcription oJ Ihe 
^n>fl»fr in 55 ,1i '^F where the examples ari' rrrialnly not of vwch 
pauvi.' Huldin^ tlic dJMiuUiott diiwn in ^ 3. & ^ii'r n. afE— A fit 
ft,s6 * . . wTt Biai^t»v9W aAAFj^fci-. to be bttweco two loila of 
Atpa/ria pro(>er(*iw paragi, Sj)— ihit in whiJi ihcnioJive is pbaeiire 
ftn<t ihaE in which it ia pain canned by the absence of pleasure — not 
b«lw««n dtpitifyit and the tutXuiUti of vhLch instances are i^ivcn b(<lo\? 
in $ 5, Cook WiUoii MipiKjst'i die o;iginal locus of vij. 7. 3 r&v (U 
#4 ffpowjtvf^i'iwr A. »^ . . , otpartnt a» 31 to have been somewhere 
flfteriht pa»B3gc^tf*v IMS h. 9 . . . i^pj^ii* b. 14, viK^. 6, uhrch 

dfld v|L 7^ 3 rb" ^ 1*4 iTj>arEi|juu^Vur A, 25 . . . di/inTfivc a, 31 he 
prcienb (Tab, IX) aa fragments of a duplicate of vij. 4. ^ 3, 4 t£»- 
Bi wt^i 1 14K a. 4 , . . iay^vpA %. sa, a po^vagc— also presented by 
him a* aiuuewhai fragmentary — in which the dipant^ is said 10 
yicM 10 bodily pleasure; itnri lo avoid bodily pains. The bodily 
poinB cntitnerated m vii. 4- 3 aTc^ \i ta iruc^ thoie of iT«iM, ^'^, 
iDi/ii. i^irypt, vbcreai lho»c inci;tioned in vii. 7. 3 arc only rhoM^of 
onaatjaficd dealrc; Cook Wd^n notices this dificrfpancy between 


BOOK Vlf: CHAP. 7 : §{ 3, 4. 

tiftO a 31. vii 7. J and vii 4. 3, but do» noil fiTid It a»ifiUA wt bF|n««n i/if//t'- 
cak verzions (ace /l^t//. Statlm, parftffr. 85) i wh3c between vii, 4. 6 
and viL. 7, 3 rivr Af fjiy vpootptrvikm^ ^ . < Jji/^nrnvri which he jinciMi^nts 
fli pnrtw nf ihr jflmr Tvfj/jfw, thr*r^ U nn siirh fliKcrnpanrj-. vii. 4. 6 
merely dcHcribing generally the objects of Jicfwr^ aa the kuh^ u 

I orTcr no opijifon as 10 thr «^oiTecines4 of Cook Ullson'ft vinr 
ihat the OTif^nal locu^ of vil ?. 1 to* Si ^4 "po4i|Hia*n*» • - - 4ii^«Tm 
la ftfl^r \ii, 4. 6. I Jiinit mysc<]f to saying Uiat, with Raiafiovr {Fertt^ 
p. 33)j I ihmb thnt llir whnir jins^r Anf 1 150 a. 16 , . , 
»- 3*, viL 7» f§ a, 3 intemipH ibc wnae, being ft rcpctilioa (c»pc- 
ciolly in ihc latter purl of § j) of whai hu been loid before id vii. 4- 

j|ivulxr» tit vjionlv (and i^vfjor^r. rd cpurrTrj^cri) : and BGpitpm^ b ibr 
proper oppoi^lc of^mXttui^, because to *flffT»prir invoilv» ri m^J^*■r 

<— *bP3rlTig up* afpiintt i\\t pr^^sure to vhlch ihe jtalajote, or *«oA* 
miui^ Jicl(1^t. l^hrru U nti value trt the di^lbettm tli^wii 
twtHTcn ihc cyjMi^G and the 4n^r/>t'nfr, On tlic j^round of the 
enee betWT*en 'viciofy' and *bpnrinpr up/ It may mifely be 
ihat ihe ^vipor^r 'beai^ up* dgiiiiht pleaaui e, uiid llial ihr ■apri^Mfc' 
is ' victorious over ' pain ; at any r^Xe^ both tiueeecd in acfrttg well, 
one in GpUe of ple^rare. Itie oth^ r in «piie of pain t \\v^ <«/it^c^ 
no[ fairly tilL:F.imgui>hei1 frocii the ^rfnrvf merrly by llir pro^cssi 
of the ncf^tive viriue of 'bearing up.' If be 'bean «p,' it ii in 
order 10 act weM. 

Cook Wilhou (^/^^V, S/uditi ppL 17, &C, iLDd pp. 4S. At.) 
regards { 4 as pari of a version pamlld to 5 " (^^ Table IV) — 'In 
5 I ihe r<^latioti to one lanoih^^r of the rirpfTT^, fuiAjiimf, 'v'p'*'^. wid 
titiirttumk iV driennined. The fini two of these }iM {krno4m) u* 
ihc bad impultCt but for the aicfl^t, this is given by pletmre, fc 
lhf^ nnktue6t by pam. I'lie la^i E^^(} agm? ito Tnr a^i both ovi 
{Kfionlt) ihc (md impulK'> Ard ditTcr, lite itic firtl l^«0, in Iti naiarc, 
Kp'ir«ri' then iseommoii (o the wynp^r^i and 'ajntpvtitt^mw^ io ibe 
/jaXdKr^v nntl njr/v;r7G, ThlK It rontradlrfrd hy { 4, according 10 
nhich nfltTtii' belongs Ic the * /■P*"^^ alone, and not ro ibc uin 
vho»« acticin in mi^re avrij^ny : and Ihis dt^Terencc is nude a 
for prefeniiig the former to iht' laiier, beciune rponlf b t>eiier than 
fi^ fmcr^, 'IVo such oppodte viev'» cannot hare been intended 

BOOK yri: CffAP. 7x^4- 


for the func cont«it ' (p^ ■ f ). Th^ vcntion to which \ 4 bclcngi lUO ^ as. 
Cook Wilson rF£ardftascom]xiftpfl of i\i, 4< 5, 6, Anit Vio1d8 ii [o 
be * the work of an inferior ihinkc-r who, in aitempling to mnke 
advance on the other [i.t^ the pLimtkl vor^Lon f i] only Atiiln 
wjbLlFlJn, pxnly confuw:iL imtliy fulhcitjus* (p, 45) — i.t. \\r. udiU n 
chancier stAiidin^ to Avi\aaia in ihc rcUlioii In which ^uXotw 
&UndK to iii/wffr-i, calling Lhis new character ?otnewhal coni'usedJy 
«Avc noXniiaf jjilX^w, and yci i» *lTeni as to his reason foi iioi LOiJi- 
pletini; the M-mmctry \>y iddtnn mother charactei differing from 
mA^pla^^ ff^^povvv^ Jrom ^yt,p^rtia. ^ Another un&ijccet«ftfu I titrmpt 
to rr-finc IK ihr lubstilution hy ihn M-ronil vrrsion of Avrix'tv for 
Kpsriili' »& chan<;tcrLalic of ffuprtfjfa: for this ao far from h<:\r\^ an 
improvrment is a fallacy , , . d/rV^civ couki only mean a baknci? or 
moiivi.-v when the agent is cjijir<? umltvideil and no action results. 
But this ifl not the mconin^r of vn^mpfa, nor is there any ground in 
the context for hclicvjng; such a meaning here inti^nded. And if it 
were, ile division ought lo have twrn carried fonhei, and a uirre- 
SfXifidinit chnrjctcr pot on the fide of plijaaurc, differing tL% only 
vitbtlonding pltasure, from Ihc ^fjar^i who overcomes it. The 
author probably thinks of ihc n?pT*pi«tc as '" cndnring '' {naprtflvf}, or 
" holdipj: ont (arTfn**-) affinal " pain which cannot be annihilated 
, , . and in th^it aenne cannot be overcome (•t^MiTrii'). But since thifi 
"hoMingout" means llial the man does not allow the pain to dtter- 
mine his will, it w Mpart'iw in the fullest scn^e ; il;e other kind of 
^wf<iv whkh ?ie ha2» nor. is of tio tmpofUnce morally, beiauee \i 
is not in the s^^hrre of hh will at all. It \s quite niif^Lakcn tticreforc 
to rank ^pariti Jiigher iJmn nai^nflMt, on ihc ground that the latter 
docanoc "overcome " In the ««nfie described ' (Arisf. Sfudtff^jt. 4^)- 
t entirety agree with Cook Wilson hi thc^critieism ^bjeh Ite [hiANf^ 
in the Tati sentence ; but 1 cuinol sec why the writer of { 4 tlionld 
not ttiFI be ifie wrirer of j 1. Having stid fierofO K ^ twm frAf^Vruk 
f^c. ibe writer of $ 1 would very naturally ^o on to cx]LLun^ an ls 

done in f 4, which of the four — li^pivrin^ /yji^JT'in. ^aXimin, imfiTtpia^ 

are really diriMfiwi-at, or j'n A vu 10 which. AppeA[jng 10 
etyniolo^y, jtiJ iJie u^ta^^c of langua^E.' {lapupf'iv i\k^u» drtij^^rtif^^ 
*iC rtM/t. pressure/ *io be hard'^ ^>irf^rir^i and wrpcrrifs are both 
compound* derived from jr/iflrrr^), hf ^how*irhaT it is thetyKpnrf,{ 
the riifTtpiK6t. who hk the r/V ^ p/i (itrrtntirat) of tlie Jk,iut^(, und the 
■npnptcff, not the i'yicpar!jtt of tljC /^Xn-rJl, It 80 ilUppCUb tll^t IlLS 

a|ipcal to etymology and popuIiLr tiitage becrayB him into the error 

TOL. n. o 


BOOIC yil: CHAP. 7: ^ 4-^, reprc9cntiafc the cir^vixJi u iofcrior to tbe Jyv|M'^ ^^ <^ 
flchieving ' viciory ' ; but 1 <Io not see why iht urilcr of $ 1 thouM 
be deemed incapabie of fiilling i:uo this error, wliich, aftcc aIL, doe* 
not come into coi^^ict with anything stated in § 1. As I read i!, 
{ [ only myi T.hat ibe r^'/^r^r and mtpnpirSt ax^ ^iroiigcr ^ltfltirmt) 
attd ihr Jjcpan^v and (laXmiiic vea.l;er {^rrovii) than the a^'Ciasc man, 
tthe:e pkasurca and pains jtic concerned. 

If I have ciplnincd correct]/ th<?iialurc of the appeal to etymology 
tndJe in $ 4. Cook Wilaoci's conjecEurc (/I/mA StaJitt, p. 70) 

be flccepied. 

^ioXturTit Aa; ^cUllvc Lo ^ rv>- vXi^trTcvf T^ct: fO ilno are ty^pdtwt tad 

«ir;«ff(q : then follow CX[.i)^n!llOr>' remfirks — oC yap n rir ir.r.X,, ^tiidi 
conterii bolli rtr^irJa aod ^aXncui, as is plain froTn the worilh ^^^otw 
^TTBTm ^ Xifirvk b. 7< 

ii 9 e*oBVHTDu] TlicoiJccks WA6 ^ rhctoHcian »nd Er^cic pc«t, oAco 
mcmioncd and quoted by AmtoLle— «.^< i?Af/. ii 33. 140C o-wf as 
ihe ailLhor of z piece called the Aj/tjr: J?^/. ii- 13, 'J9T h» 3 of u 
AUriiQfon: Jihtf. ii. 34. u^t u- 35 uf ^^ <Jro7fi; J?/f/ li- J3* 
1399 ci, 6 of a HiKraicsi I*!*!. L 2. i?5j a. t6 of a Hittit/. Tbe 
^hfhrie oTTh^odecies {probably iound^d on Aristoil^'K )N?[«r«t) 
is alluded lo tn Hhtt, jii, ^. 1410 b- J <ti V tip^ul tw* wi^t^^t* v^Ai* 
/r Totff e«r.AfriTrf(Mi f'fT/i«^>"i>^'< Ho w'LLfi a imuvo ol* Phaactifi tn 
Pamphylia, but spf^nt most of hw life 41 Ath^nn, wbere be vm ihe 
pupil of bocraicA and ArbLode (sec TdchmUIlcr, lukrarittM 
FtJtdert, pp. a6o and a66: he d«E<ericd Ivocraiea for AmloUe; 
and^ in facii seem& to have jkiii ArliiioLle \x\ ponwHinn of moir 
of the secrets of Isocratca' rhetorical tcachmg). Anslotk crid«ikt]f 
thought very highly of him. The writer of iho Rhf- ad AUx^ 
t43j b- 2 aJTudf^s 10 an Axi^otdiaii rbelorka] ir«ad^ with wlueb 
the name of Thcodectcs vra$ AAi^ocfakd — ir Toiv fv* ifMi n'^N^ 
euSr#f^ ypn^ufTott. He sc>eTn3 to havf <1ied ait Aihenv: Me 

Plut, Q) Oraiijrum Vtine, Jiosr&Us, ^iAit^itrnfi A' dfr^ . . . e«l O wft w iT* 

/Kitifttmi'. Willi rtgftxd to ihf Phttoittks mtniionrd beic die Aid. 

Scbol- hat) the foIlowitLf; :- ^ Oro^'mri r^uyu^r 'V ui ■■«f>«>tt f£* i<C^ 

ifOOK V'll: CHAP, 7:5 6. 


V^wfl* ;!*</«. AspaMiis (p- 133. 6. Hejlbm) hsui: — tKon *t nt iLfnnf> 

A Kopi^Mju f» -qj 'aX£t^ K*p<ikj^] There were two iragk pocW 
calkd Carcinus. on? ixn AEhcnian, the otha an Agrigcntmc. In 
^A// iiL JA. 1417 b. (fl'the OfJiptis of Carcinus ' is metilioneJ : 
in R^, ii. 33. 1400 b. 9, ihe Muk^ : /"mA iC, 1454 b. aj, the 
7^ff/»: iL&d in Poet. 17. 1455 a. a6, the Amphiamoi (?}. In 
Ais km pUMgt Ari^iotl^ rerirn 10 a b]uiiil«i in th^ aeiirg of rhe 
|N«^c, which <!iiiplc3Acil ibc *pe;;ta(rire vciy much— mjjutvf ^J tu^fot 

AtFrAr. FnjDi lIiiA (^afi&agc \tf: ma> infer that i\k play mentioned 
was acted at Athens* ind that its author was the Athenian Caicinua^ 
Wr may a^iime thai in ihe other places where Cardnim is 
mcnlkined by Aii^Lotle tJ^e Alltt^nipUi clnuiutUt ^ is intended. With 
regard to tbe AUf/, the Aid* Scbol. h^ the following:^ Kapnmiv 

nofuAr ^ A Bi Kifttmintf^ ^nyaripa rJ^^'AX^finj'. fiafiifn At Sri ipo*t(*(>^ 
4 airov ^ifydrrjp ^aXhtTi riparriaw ii^rf^if rit f v A ^iN;^ft{j-ui, Xcyuv «? ^44 

JnXrffTdp f^ Nauck, /Vdfffi. Tittg^ }^. fii^j: and for a discussion 
otf ihc myth of K^rcyon and AlopG^ lls represented in art, see Mlse; 
J, K- Hifriion's Imroductnty Ess^ty lo Afyihehgy and Mortumenls 
^ AtuKMi Athens, pp, cv^cii- 

Ecn^^KTb] Akiander i^ said to have had a musiciftn of ihifl name, b. U. 
who may bavr \xvv\ known to Amtoile: see Seneca, de im \L s, 
quoted by Zcll— ^Alcxandrum aiimt Xcnophanto cancnte manum ad 

ir TOLt lKu4£k pa0kXrv<T4v] IT ift not nec(«Gary lo suppose vilhb. 14. 
Riany commcnlaiyjh ihai die reference heic is to llic infiimjiy 

■ Hitm WH A cocftlf CstdMii too : he l> mmtiooed by ArliFophiMfit N^¥, 



BOOK y/f: CHAP. 7; §} 6-«. 

il0Oi>>li. mcnlldncd m Herod, i- 105^ Nor do I find, in the dftftiied 

aocflunt ^vrn by HippcCrflFca (v/jI ii'f«i' i/tarvv rWrwb Ji. sj. cd. 

Litli^. vol, ti. pp. 74 stjq.) tiF [Jic jibysiique of Ihi- Scy^hbrLS, any* 
thing aiiFwcring to ihe ^mXrn^ of ihc prcfcrl chciplcr, which is ripl 
\vwae. The ^^ wijrror rS tndc^d SJiil by HippOcnlteS tO attick lb? 
ricbrr do^^cs cs|>{tcially, but ii hiiK riLjLhlii^ in coHimoU wlLb ibc 
^D«ia horc mcntion<;d^ 

b. 10. Kal il^ tA O^Xu tpi^ tA (Cpp(»' ti^vnjicck] Tlie point i* the nalural 
inferiority of woiocii in ibc power of bearing up under ptin. 

to- 17- f 7, J| yAp mii&id k-tX] The irflia*»ftj;( — ihe maa gi«ifii up lo 
amuacmcnt — is iliou^bL (c be uftc!><jcrTu[. but i> rr&My ^uXIuJc, for 
fmi^io is ^n '.vt/rit n^wf. This r^Uxatio^ from niv^ the viuAi^^ 
puriu^ exv f s^ivcly. M[^ fs LlitieforT- ^a^uinJE, or Loo fond of avoiding 

K-airnf, not a<iiXacrT«(, g^iv'Cn up lO f;3ui^y The true Uac of n^uAm 13 
given in f . A*"- I. 6, 6 B-cH'^fiF ** w-we cniWtdfj, un-' 'Ai'u;^(^wi', opjlwc 

b, 10. { 8. at |i^v ... at £^ f>! lUv referfi to Jir^rvrui, :tnd ol Ar lo vjiotfifrrto, 
Cf. Jif.ilf, ii. 6, I'Oj ti. 30 iirrt ^i tal tije lupqiroiv 3vv '3i}, 4 f'" 
vpDfrrtvri^ t*9 Hal dnp'^Ml'/rop >ifli c^-il^iji ytrnftivq (ofa*' •ffli* TA^^f* fia^ifV 

Ti Lv }at0t av J*i), ^ ff «Vipu oio* rJirflri'ur^ ri(, ^ |i«ru rat XJ^vu vSw rtv 
oirttTpfrtwirTin^ i**i¥^ fiiW uw u^/)' £r Xf'rti< Aj^^'I'P fkboi ^irr^' jhi y^ ■• 
Tclr ofTQutlaLaiT ^ Totoi^rij tyfittrax, tv ruTv thpfioU tat ti^uVd' f At ^ 

bntfl. trioi fctp x.tX] This clau^ ia added to show the value of ri 
^niArb^flirfai, which IS absent in npoirrrna. The impliciDOTi IB that 
ihr irparttrtit, »» dislinguiahcd frutii iljc dfldrwjj. arc nuou^ cooii^fa 
(o abiiJo by ilic results of deliberation, if they deliberated at all, viiidi 
Ihey do rioL 

iTpoYapYA^^<u''^l Ii seeii>s lo me that we nraat eupply iUX««v, 
noJ {i\i- 7rl1 does) /atrrai^, vith tTptyapyaXioarTft 1 and Undemand 
the tcfercnce to be lo a ' Lickling nutch,' in vrliith llic aggressor 
ha« the advantage- The reading of L*', M*", CCC, B*, NC, Atp , 
HrJ., 11 wpirynpynXiirfHytwt -. tf, Prubl- \E. 6, 965 »■ II (quolrd by 
the editors) ^wV r% a\i%iix atroi- otflfli ym^rydXifn , f in oai t*' oKXw 
I|rrnM, I'dk A/I'M ktr^v^r, finlkXcti ff, ii» jj^ d/d ; 4ir^ fitavra ycpynXtgdyi f^ 

BOOK ViJ: CHAJ". 7; ( 8. 


|MX«Yx**'^^^ri ^** Grttni'fi excellent uolc ad /tv. in which he iiacb flfi, 

rcfcrx lo Mhc (urioiiif ch'^quL^iiiiioii cm fu\nyx<i}^iti>i ami :he MfAfutAi 

XB^^ ^" ^'- Pf^^f' 3titx> 1 / 10 biiaM^ that * bucfi pu^siocia-lc impclu- i 

caiiy and cold duggi^hneGS were conudcred by (he ancient I 

phyiioloEtAL lo be diflcreai ui^iiiTcKLulioiia of (he aainc airjinEC^ I 

temperament' ". . , With the modems," he adds, *thc fcrm I 

•' mcliUicholy" in rc^'ricEed to the colrf and dtjecied mood; while I 

\\k A:Kiciils much mcie comiUDdy applied the Icrtn Mr^ayx''^'*'^^ t<> I 

dcnoie warmth, passion, cmd ecceniriciiy of jjcmuft,' 'I he opciiiujt I 

wnifnce nt Pro&f a. 953 oi. 10 ppp^enlft the /j*Kny;(nX'*i) j^aw at I 

A^90ci;[t':d with gi^mUA — -fliu i» *t«ipTn oun in^jtiTtil ytyominf ir^titv ^ I 

Mora ^fMX*'ifQ<pior ^ noXiTtMifir ^ itQirjf/iv 4 *')(i^f *ftaiwoirrQi firhtiwitKiiml I 

&rtf ; In ^he^e i^aseH ilic m^'a^ji^vt jfi^'^4 (which in3.y l>e vilher cold or I 

tM>t) U mcdemlely ho(. Wficre ii ts loo hoi, men are given lii> lo I 

ibetr pcusiot;^ and lead to m^duess; where it ib too <:old, it I 

DUlidpacei: ^ind ^^^niv^Tes ihc chilling cited of the ihoii^ht nf I 

dftn^r Aod trouble, and makes men dejected And timid, and diivn I 

them to fuicide. In dt Mtm&r. i, 453 a, 19 the ^fXayx'i^draf irc I 

uhl to lie 4fi.tily ulTectrHl by idf-a^, and imugt-'s of tlie mmd— ruLTObi I 

y^ ^(VTUcr^biTii *&m pJAiirrLi ; and in tl>C trCAtitC nrpi r^v KU^ vnvoi- I 

^dtrir^ 3. 463 t>. 16 tltej' ore tiaid tf> U? great dreamers — otum I 

•od 10 be diaiJQet drcflmcrs — tvi?odtfi/»oi, And (.Jipablc of divining; I 

the fulure in ihcTir dreams — 7- 4(>4 ;i. 37 oi ^ jifX(ry;^aAivu< Ai^ r^ I 

B^Ap°j £<'7'|J /^T^XniTfC vtippaidtB iSaroxfi tiof Ail 0(^ ri^ ^«rn^ijrijrr^j'» I 

al ol Jmiavtit tj(AfHffa rui/ dpaiAU X«^nueri in]] ^tiUHttyliTUi, aiaif ' XfppttAirrjv' I 

•ol ^vTiB Ovrsiprnitriy tU r\r irp^troj. Trt &i no.) fl^A t^p o'l^oflp^To ovc I 

JajpouTdi oCrJi)' ij fivjj^ii vip' Jr/fMF aii^irrffic ;- on this paAIiajte 3<'C I 

Tli^naluius foL 105 b. {vol ii p. ^96, ed. Spf^figel) iWm^ y^/i fi I 

/jMiofii /j^D^Hi TD^ D^vf?i> AriJVi^aviTfU «'il ^XaTTDivb, 11^ sllOit, thc I 

l*fXay;pXuui' art perconn of nironf; paa:^ions and vi;Sd imaginalion, I 

who alTow ih^msflvirs 10 drift down thr torreoL of ibeir faTici<'K and 1 

fee^gs;^f/l jEL Al Vii, I^. 6 o\ Ai ti*Xt(y^i»Xwui i^r i^iuii' Jitvirrm I 
^^^^Jft LBT^iiar' jcol y^ to tfvpi Janrti^fttiv Suit*X«< 3ia r^f i^dmy, jiai uti tV 


MOOK Vfl: CHAP. 8:^1. 



T/tf ijMjtfirm, af vir rofi. ii wwtti/ mart ta rt^tnf trftpJtat Ir 4a dpiHihu 
\ht ilifpflTiJt h ahfityt rtaay lit rrfint. Htw* 4t 4s «r /Af dir^Ar^*, At MOT 
ittggt//aJm J, it t^, I t,/4i/t^ ^o^Jtar^ vha u imir^Hi^ 'AAU^dd* it JUr 
d cArtHti diii,iJt, nuh ai Jrafiif vf c^nnvmflhn ; J«^a#(a like a tt m/ trmry 
ithmrt. Irt ihvrt Ikey differ /(ncriitf/Zr— ^loAuuia i$ putM im iia im^t 
XBiihent his Anirorie^ii. but the dipan^ Jriffn'r thai he ii dU^aT^i. 

C^ rkr fwo ifir.'Mi f/Ax^Bia. thtit o/lkt im/eTi/jmi riarotfM'tt iktittter. 

TJk4 Axii^vf^ dW l»i Av/ar^i art iUf tfitffvt iAara/l9rt, tk4 /tr^mfr 

lititi'fratt .^cii/^ ifAa/ thty da,^ ^tm^vir^ti motA tht jvm'- df '/i' MtUiictt^ 
art fiBl uniNtrllixertt. f'ut dc tkt Ihftfgi that unintt/Iijynt fn/A db,' ta jJf 
dr^njc I' i*4ff di/lhrtiTTA<» Av^ <Avr Mr /htuffi thiti the tlc^Aiwrffi Ab^j, fiait 
titter Ih* ekarctrtr cf th* Axfutrifi ii /Kt* that At Jelittn Sadtfy f/Mtmv 
ijnmtJfottfy witAffn/ tAttti^ing ft fifvfif ft dt ifi. ini^wa/ Uf ja^Xb* fm tMdtUi 
tJw H ii frv/tr ta f^lma thin hti^vn ii i* kit sK*raiUr tefUlc^ iktm, tmr 
ftnttuiim mutt U Shot it it iAr dvpcn^, anJ mt ike iciAvrrpa. ttvttf u» 
hi foriJy iiufMrtf fit ' lAint iftJ^fffrUfy'—Zhf i/tfor^^ muty tttlt U v^trwmi^ 
t*^itutt kt ifiU hat thi /'riKti^ 9/ f^9td fffnAitt nv!Am Mim—tkat J^fimtifU 
VfAi^X tiirttif {at in the ffi^^a*) freufVN i/i/aft. and s-fc-* (« /« tkt iiniXarm) 
dutrajii^tk^ s;e^ iitti whttA in t\sih/*fMt it tht frimipitt lU Iht jurrtnt^tj^iu jk 
tht priitiipiei ifi vtathimatiti; in inai/umaii' 1 if ii tut */rixai efratt^miug 
vA ^'h leads to prtitiij^les : sa^ in toHdttit fr ii nor rtasenttf tf atty Jtit^ hit 
ftirfitfy nittiiTiii 4ir ai^tnd hji koMt, jv/tifh ^Tivr rf ry^r mew »fSkt P^ineifle, 
Thf rifppvr. then, kaj ftj ri/f^f c«rto» dr the IfvAavm Av a fiiv viae ; uMk 
fAt Anparifi. fktnj^A tf>i^it'at**eJ by fwii^n U/r^w *<JiJy /k^ttrti imrttdrr^ 
aiily. ii twf ivititraiiuii fiy it tv ^ij/vi thai it it fr^^ U A ». /ft it Mf 
t^An/fy lati: far ihut ^hiih is btit-^Frimi/Zt—it Mifpt tn Aim. Ofprn^ 
Ai tht lU/Mr^v It /kt i-frgnT^ , in ti'A/im r*^CfH pret^aih 0gnti»t4 f^tri^m. 

U5i> i 1-1 Th«vril«r nowpasHca mturAll)' from ol p? tw^'rwrn (du 7. 
^(ffntp A^x^] A rtfcfcntP (bratkcled by Suscmihl) lo cK 7. [ y. 

%t^O a- 21 fifay*r} ytp Tai-ror }tn nitu fieratAi^*jHKiwt i^rr Ofaaruif ^yAp 
At^traiteXtjrrw avirrtne — a claUSC which (iS nOlCd Oti Av.) GOCnC4 io, ^jwop^ffof***-! Ch, I. 55 to, II. The appropriiae conccplioo 

IttratitXifrvtaw §vfai ftOlvcR ihc inritpia which vna ClUMd hf Ihe in- 
flppropmtc coitoeption ii^amiQitit^i Sr ch. t. H lo. II. The 

mOK VHi CHAP. 8: ^5 r, %. 


•fit. afkr he hai itf*tificd ihc dcwre of ihe momcn:. cease* co uco b. >t. 
look b»rk upon ch^ gntinc^ificn ti-ith ih« same KUittfacuon vilh 
whicli be rt^irtlcil il liprorr hr pffrrieil it ; ihp iclra of ihp A^^irc. 
ifl now weak, and the Acnsc of the liinn doric b/ lU graiificiiiion 
propontoiaUy Kin^nj^^ TIiu means that b« now ' refip^u ' that tie 
ha* pTHtifird ihe cIcKtre. Bhl ilir- Ar^atrrxtt a<is under the haljiuial 
influcnec of desirrt bo comparativeiy feeble, that if ihc ideaa of 
them occur lo htn mind ai v^\ after graitfieiiton, they must occur 
Willi ■ viviJiu^M liLilc uLferior to that whicii d«^y possessed bcfrjre 
jCmtiAcAticiii. Jf it seemed good to gratify ihcm Ihcn. it now seeing 
good lo have grntirted thrm Thi*t means rhat the JifanffTut doea 
nol feel 'legict/ Indulgence \\.vi lieconie sn liablma! :o him, tliat 
it \% no longer, in <MXch cnne, nccoinpanied and fotlowed hy the 
cOD<c:ou5i]e&H of a sy^rem cf life ^^'hich i?( bem^ i^teriliced- Acis 
of imtul^cncG ifc no longer rcKArded ax involving die a^enl iei a 
serious responsibility, buc are ji^^rJormed as it were TncdLonically, 
^d In nneonscLousnesi nf nil hiir their mnmenrary pleaaiirc. 
Thus il ^P 4IMUII WAirtt, 4 9* ilfljpafffa Du \ai^iim 1 150 b. 3A — 

tXpIftined by die Aid. Schol h t^' nutla jfroi 7 JcflXairirj Xn^flovfa 
itt^^r o^ yii^tfnt ydf) Cfi rA ^(j^rurif jnifc^t ^irri, iJXA' £L>r Hyadin ai/f'^ 

f J.] Cook Wilson iArM S/uffih, pp. ag and 66) legaida this 5 lUl &. 1. 
01 inlemiptiiii? the line of thought begun in $ c, and pursued in 
(3. Cnini, on the orber hund, snys — *the thread of reasoning 
goes on cODIinucJUaly from the end of the preceding chapter, and 
«o thcfe » nothing renurkablc tn the wrilers now reverting lo th« 
tvo kinds of inconrtnence, as if he had never dlgrcwed from 
divctiving ihcm/ 1 am inclined lo endorse Grants view, wtjlch 
feenus to agree pmclicnliy with thai or RiLmsiuL^r — ' Adjun^uutur 
hftec (a. i-$) baud ahcno quidrtn loco, sed (a.mirn iia ui un£l hit 
■Cftleolia ab el diapuialiotic <iua<: per r^^liquum cjjiut ob^mctur 
devenaiur. Ita vi;ro jam agctur^ ut nisi eC praceetgerJ izfiO b< 
19-18 ei ewlein rt^pSLiiiiur verba vii iniellegj possini/ Alfbr.^ugh 
J a opcni rather *wkwardly Vp-ith aWwr fti" rovr^K vhich ate not ihr 
AitfXdtnvF and -bg^oT^c a^ mi^liE pcrhaji^ be Euppos<.'d, bin [ho 
A^jMTiEr ihentVfLveH (nt ^atrrarmt^ 1>eing ihe <rtpontTtu, atn\ fA filf 
/fitpmrnt the adAmi of ch. 7. $ 6), I cannot think ihat its subject 
it out of plac«. Section 1 has Mlved iho old ampia of ch. a. {4 10, 
II by pcanting out tlmt ihe uvrAuurvr ftdcks Lo his bad pmic]L>le 

711^ fiTi ^vn^ivvv TOP \Syw. Wliiil, XfusUf Kit 
sbouli siipplcni^nc $ i hy ihaving iliut i 
Jbtfyy »rc ihud belter ilian oJ f'f-^Wrfi rfi ^ 

Raiiiv.iufr ricxeh tbai dI ittmtnnU in ch 

dirAnft. TJi^s ifl one of [he rc^oiiH w]j 
.yi^wii>/, p, 26) thinks ihnt ch. S. { 2 an 
Int^nderf for (ht same romt:n : bu[ see not 
Grant ohxtvts thai Ihc terms ttorBon, 
are frequently vwd in PrM \ m oMinexic 
The ftiulogy betweMi ilie /i*x^iyjfoX«^ tpAtr 
aLto mskitcd on in PrM A. 

A^io^ yip A Aitpof^i n.tXJ The Piirapt 

D yap afftfif^i J*^Tiff u.tA, This musi be :b 
\\ ih vrry ciifrli-v* Ic ii%e [hr? gt-ntnc term ihi 

■. e. 93. lUXA «i] Icrut] ftnrtiiaucr tintrlEti« 1I 
tainl/ iatcrnipl th^ run of the scnicncc. 
(Bywiicr makc« them pnrcnEhrrica))! the sen 
plain, then, rhal fifrpnTi'i? is roi vnitja (= dt 
gardcd yvr i*-, OT as what Ji i^ \\\ iliclf: yc 
that ihty ane the eanie it^undum ^ntd-j 

viewfll ;iK what k is ttl itself, i^ nn^ ir/m^i/^n 

BOOK VJJ: CHAP, « : 5§ 3i 4- 


\ft>rsth. ]]' 133) ^ltf>K> tlt-il ffof btJLnds fiji ^jutu xui, aiitl th<L[ 
Bckkcr't full stop aflcr nii^i^frij a lo b)io«!J b<: replaced by a 
tomma. Suscmihl and Bywaier foJlow him in this puQctuaiJon, 
])yvg[lcr imroducea dAtK^travot. Lbc leading of K^ CCCi &ni 
Cvnbr. \ prefer Ihc aiucBJr* of oilier auihoritit^an w> iar aa the 
sense U cnnccmcd ; and njEpcci thai (he prri;cdlng lurir tnaj' h^vc 
gJvcD rtac (o ilic form JSjK^irotvt. 

{4. jiif (ift tA Tnniadoi] Sec auCe UD vit, B. tO< II46 a. 31* ^ 1^ 

t U iT^TU^nu Sii li rokoOtdfl ctrai oT(« £ii^«l>' aflrdfl] The ■-13- 
* fOMvicbon ' or ' theory ' of ihc u«o\«flTc*i is pEainiy siud here \t> be 
th« r^XB// or moT&l depravity: eee note on vll. 4. 4. 11481, 17, 
To be * convinced ' as ihc «if«ft<jirTw i^ ccnvmccd, implies the I0M 
of monl chivf^clcr which is irr^p;irabJt : moral chftrtcitr is not 
proftnced, like the conclusion of a syl1ogt¥ui, by a proc»t of 
mscauiig (^ \^tt &- 17). nor can lI be relnsLalcd bj such % 
proccu; it is raEhcr n Life (analogous to the life or nature of x 
pbhl or animal], inhen'tctf ir germ by the Irdividml (^nffw^ a/irr^ 
3. 18). and largely di:veloped hy him (I'^iur^ a. 19) in loi" 
rtspoiidcHL'e wiih Ihe conditions of hts special environment. If 
thii life be oiite lo*i by the individual, \\ is lost irreparably. But 
die dCfMTiTf hna not yel tulTcred this irrc^^Afabic losa - he f<tiJI thinks 
Ih^l hia attjf fwhich, as nci^. are much the «ame au thoce of the 
itiXoffToi) ar<* wrong : ht mill ha* rhr prindple cf moral life in him 
(4p]ri> T* "f •»^™ *» i6) — the conception of conduct, tind i» fv**rrd- 
•m*9WTQt (a- 14), *'.^. amenable to moral irfluenceii — can siJI be 
lOiirhfd hy rpproof anrl rvntnf-l^, and will has ^ome regard for 
other people, and for hift omh better self. iL ia true JiaL he haii 
ito need 10 'change hi$ conviction/ for it is already correct: 
he ntubt choline bid rjr/i; aiid it ih die jxjebibility of his duinj^ 
llii* trbich is conveyed \yf the term fi^fnnHitno*— used here, 1 
thinly not because W 19 the mobt npfiropriai^ icrrn^ from the 
writer's own poim of view, lo cajirras ihe coavcraion, ar refurma- 
tion, cif the Jicpar^i, but because ^nan*\ad%ytx^ occUrs in the PUHeICb 
I«fr unsolved ?n ehapler 1, Jj 10, 1 f,and dt«|i04ed of here by ni<^an« 
nf conNderatii>n!< whir,h m^ike j[ j^jo^siblc for die writer now :o ^n^v^ 
the tcnn, vHlhout bein^ mi^umkTHtood : — 'if,' he in vlfcct £a>'S, 
• we may ti»e the misleading term *v^*TiifltmTar, it ii; ihc iw/wt^i, 

»l>t, U cut C^rpoTkcaE* argue, the ilf<^^c>fTof, who \% iDiifrdDfitrrGB/ 


BOOK Vff: CHAP, ft: ^ + 

die fitatit, or peculiar iTy>jni, of matiK^miCica which if« ^^h*^, it 
not in acconUnce wiih aiticl Aristattliin uh«gfc Acainling lo the 
docdinc of Lhc An. Post, the ^tnit, ot iEnmcdiflle principles, of a 
pardciilAr science (a» diaUngui^hi^ froni fhe pi£i«^-Tiv €r inrnif^diiK 
prilKTi^lcs iicces^^y to aLI Kci^ucesi) ^rc cilhrr inro^'cmt or ^iriiB^. 
'Yno£r~iT>iv aire dfVf^r ^vtitcli 3LSSf!rt citisCcncc or iioti'«xisicnc«, wbile 
ipiiTfinl UK fiioMt vthkh Sine fonnal essence. MathnnEitlcid scioicc 
hiLs, A» )t» pccuUi&f ■■Vx"'- ^V<ir of iJ)G hitcf ktiicl, f. r. 0imtA 
whicli ure r/^i/ i'wo$i/rt»t, bul Jjno-^. See ylnt, Pos/^ \, 2, 7a cl. 14 
'AfiHTtiit i' up;Y^c fluXXtiyi'rTtr^p diinp fti¥ Xtya f}* pi^ 7rm itttfai, (BjV 

^fufi^u' Tm yit^ !na nunvra' w^ 70/1 ftaXurr' rni nu rttoCnag 4i^ 
da/uv /Ivnfia \iyrtt. viuriar ff v t"^ Afrartfftwfir t&v /tApirow f^t An* 
^WcriDJi ^atitkivtiutia, omit Ai-yv r^ ftfui rt ff rv f^^ '(mi rt. vno^vii, ^ ^ 

fvT4' t4 ^op r*' ^^ri H"vf Rai to iHt Moni^a ov ja^r4ff. £cc ^lLmi .'^a. 
Post. iX. 7- 93 b. If) rt ^tV ^o^ ^^(L^Ht rd rpiyvnjM iXafitf i yfw^Tp^ 

Jt* A" Jot* af«HFcfi— Kill wljidi Tlwmisiius hiis (fnl 10 ii, vol. I p. 
fi^4w»: y'ec .ibo --in. J'&jA i- 10. T'* ^' 35 ol }U^ o5v Spcn «ub fiiri^ 

dnitccif' ov&ir yap 'trfii ^ fi*i 4tt^t ^ryvrrai , • , twi 3^ v^uit >im* 
fiii^rt7tfu( ^"4, Toi>ro A* flu^ vr/toBtnit, ti ftfi unl rA OMCVtisr vTri$tvir Ti* 
i^i^trruv c&at. Ac;;ordii]g];^, in lhc pdsj^c bcfon; US {£. /^. vfi, S. 
4], if the ^LiTfioi' cif m:Llh4.-niatii;s are mc;uil, tlie empb^ment of lhc 
terTn i-v»6«j«kc lo convey ilie mcanitig is agaiiiEt aCiIc; Afistcidiui 


Grajii obscn-e^ thai d;e Icrm Oir^^onE ts ueed in precisely llbe 
jame way iri ihe ^, At *s here — m, ^, E. ii- lo, i aa^ a. a wtf^ f,a 
Toij TfXuur wvftls ^tA*irfToi, tt^M Twr* VffTl*^ dpxf) *uJ i^rtAtnt, £ff«f/i 
» roif OmtptiriKitit I'lmrriifMiit {nra$*tr€it {*'pr}rai Ai w*pl tvrW fV pi* 
Tolr ^w r^px^ ^/">X'o*'> '* ^^ '°^^ iiHtXimcaEff Ai' jjir^u9«;«f J, and £ ^ U, 
J I, 12 J7 ^' '^ ^rnrap ^nf/ ToZf ^wF>r/Ti«[iiB ul i4TriA'(r«irilp][iAj^ O&w tai 
tdif itoiPjrivaJt ro TtAof apxij "al vvifftuil, NoW, iheW pOflMJUl boffa 
agrrc villi ihal br^fdre ief^ (j'^. jY. vJi. S. ^) m addtidn^ :Ih- Wvtfmu 
o? malliemaiicfl lo illustrate ihc tAoi, or oC fH«i, of «M^ ftw 
which ^Dv^'wfi^ finds me-anft. KemembcrLiij^ dial it is «id> 
mathematical anaiytu Ihat &Ql\mnt h contporfd in £ iV, iu. 3. 1 1, 

BOOK VTT: CHAP, 8:54. 

proh:ih1r Thnl U51 a. le. 


: Boe notrs), i»^ may ask \ht qiic8tlr»n — 
the writtt cmplo>'3 u^oftVo* here (Ji'.A", vii. 8. 4) for fciff^^, or the 
4/iS(at of lh« s^nthtfie proceed in mat horn Lilies, and conseqiirnily 
liolilta atiiU Aiijilutdiiiti uKi^^ M»y hr nnl Iw employing llie 
lenn quite accurntclyT 10 dcno^ the usumptioit of the Ihing to be 
ptftvr*^, from which nn &»a1yilc^nt proof in ma the mar its ^larraf 
I ATD iiidinnl to llihik itut he; prohat>ly cniployt ihc K^iui tiro* 
A<rftr in this 8CP8C. OF couriic the ^-ncrai statemL-nt wliich im- 

medlAi^ly follows — a^r* hi\ §ni & X&ynt AiSotrmti^traf rvf 6p};i)if^VtUiy 

be thouglti to poirit iLc oUicr way. 


'ttti\ ' is ^ivtn Ly hW character; hb ' tnd' ii ihe aaspriiiiii Ehruugh- 
Oijt life of a character, ju!i m the 'cud' cf ftn Aninial or ptant is 
ihe ftiiwrtion and naJiitenance of itt parLiinilar organibm> ^ 

a^: or as the same truth m aiaicil, more f:ci)crally. by Sj^inofci 
(£>A. ili- 6 and 7]^ ' Unaquacquc res, quacEUin in »e est, in suo esse 
pciMtcnut conatur. , . , CL^tiatus, quo ttAaquaequc n^ Id buo 
cue pcTScvcrarc conatur. nihil c>t pmeter ip^us rcl aciualctn c&scn- 
lURi/ It goes Without saying, in short, thai x)\tf good man's *iind' 
or ' pricdplc ' is gooJ, nind ihc kid mjn's bad. ^y. A', A', vi. 1 j, 10 

ol yd^ crrA^DyttT/ia* Tui' n/J4icr»ir 'iflx'iif tj^t^ytit tt'vtfi (jrfi3'| rv^k^* t^ 
iraH4 if^ii tilt irfHunviit "itX"^^ '• ^^^'^ ^'' ''^'- ^'' 5' ^ "' P^' T^t' "Plt"^ v^' 

rifitrmtr- ttrra >i/* ^ *cwiu ^{'u^urf o'^x^'- Oo 0v*i*i^ antl i&tor^ (or 
opla) djwT<7, wy» VT, .V. vl. 1 j. 3, 6. 

PluUTch {lie Vi'rt Mor, th. 6) illustrates the difference between 
tb» X(id>iTirtvff iLnd the >vjMT^f irom th« poeta — 

n^yov]' Jr* >iot ^^f;*"! ravru /H^ri. 



BOOK VII: CHAP. 8: ^J 4* > 

1151 ft. 19. ^ttfvii^ 41 A< t^r aHfjnTLUE «Vrpm Hil ^u^r^uffH' 

wiippv Si irjc ilirSnt rauri\s irOit*i'« tTprjwitt' 

ir*/irjMrn yA,i X/y<i rAf dvnxitvffoe t/tliriit npAt tA *%Jaj(P^ . . . r^ yi^ 
tnkG thus (i/^ tV/, Mor. ch. 7)— 

nrXet-o rt^>v^''/» voi^tffi^f ^i ti^ara ^oJ^v, 

A.SO. { B> tfnoratLK^] Cook WUium {Arwi. Sfuttiri, ^yA)ihlnks tW 
$ 5 4IkI { :r *wcrc uoi iiiiciidcd for the bMoc coiiEcxc' In f 3 'tbc 
(CTTDit timrrtmnl itid /4^ f^^ti'Dnrr ir.r.X. are OppOUtL, Oft (denoting 
<tifTtreii[ K|ii^d^^or [hi- same ^cnua' — I'.f. irpMrmui md AtrdtHta^ ib« 
tA^o Species of lUpauia: but in $ 5 'the pjusagc» 1151 jf.. zt I J^jm' 

■tfTi AJ nc ftii ird^c *'ct"-T(iturit TrapA ri? d^idii* XJ^^ ^rvr . . , lh,*t tbf 
terms McmtTtvoi anij ^^ Cfi^Krrrriff/ [=0! r&v X^ygv Sx9vr*f p^ i|i#uMTti 
W] are ideniical, and rot oppoaeJ to one nnoib<r,' lo J 5 each 
Icnu 'kuscd 10 djaricLeiise A\ ^itimma. an:l not a s]#d« oJiu' 

The circumafanccthM % z and ^ fi <lifTcr in their use oTlhc Itnn 
tfriTTortin^ (fi^ //i^ifiTLrik does not occur in J 3) U nolictd by Run- 
saoer abu (kv above note oa f 1. 1 151 a- i\ but he ckies nm ilrav 
Cook Wilson's inference from the circumstance. I i\\\tik th«t the 
tignificanct^of iht circunwuncemay b« easily waggenicd. Tbe dm 
offVifror«J£ in lite gencilc whst, am in { 5, is of course thp regular 
UM oi the l^'rn^ in thla book ; bui J coqJcess that ] do not &Dd much 

KOOfC VII: CHAF. 8: § 5. 


<]ilScii!tf In allowmg die writer of $ 5 to use ^\ /nffniTiPfffJ in ^ a for iioi 

f'/ijwHhtTrr **. Associmionft ilerived from It^mai^ and «frr^i naui- 
lalljr {iUj;c chc «JrimiTiii>F» A& nku-ytiiT»\t In oppcuuon 10 ^ x^t Xoyuv 
ft^t : and 1 do not h«« why ev?n the wrili^r of {| 5 should not be 
ftUou'td w yield 10 ihesc flssociarions for ;i moment In § 9. 

Cook Wilson 1» of opinion that { 4 (n-l a. it . . . n^v ^^^xh^ 
a. 19 ami § 5 v^^'Mt a. 19 ^ , ^ ^uvA>r a. 38 are panlld vprsions 
{^AritL Slui/if.t. pp. j^ "^t^ciT, Tiililc vl)» $ 4 being iLc later, and 
b^ u ir^rerior thinker: — 'al kasE there are confusions in it from 
which i 5 in fre«* (p. ^6), vix. in { 4 ' ihe acniencc iHtl>ae . . . 
nfn iirtpfies lliil l\ie dtpar^e huA rfp«r^ ' : the aiiribjtion o( IpBtt- 

Bofu' n'pl T17* iV'i'V to <itvviK?i itiwii, ' h quite agdtnf^t ilic Icnor of 
the doctnne about ^tsic^ fl^<r^ which ia given in £ifi.v\^ 13, There 
it \f> i^ifitinctly SAtd ilut ^iiam^ dptr^ dors not belong 10 the Eafoo- 
nH^r bul to the i^iKur in ilje soul ' (vi. i^. 2)'. \hii\y ' the subslitu- 
lio«i of the more detcrtninate *C/jmiir*ioToe (§ 4) for &i\ria\/ (J 5) 
diaiu^b^ the le^ti awkw^iidl// I cannot see that k is implied iu { + 

ihit ' ihc aHpat^t ha* op«i^/ What Ihc writer anya is thai Jp^rn (jr. 
in the trv^pwi', mcntioatd at Ihe end of the | — tn a ^titcnce with 
whit'h Cook Wilsoii begins tlic iwntllel vcfsior^ i:oritained in § s) 
v^fii T^F uVivr. Jtnd what he inipJica in that the v/jot^e hu not yet 
kxt the dpj(i7 w^ch optr^ (in the o-uf pvv] keeps permanentlj^ aafe. 
A^ for tlie aEirihuEJon of r^ ^pdodrtfciv irtpi rftv npx'!^ ^^ ^ucrnr^ Jjxt^ 
t>(^i>^£ Jig^Lnet the Knor of vi, i,^* bcestu^e ^wmt^ apEn; is ^aid fvi. 
13* a) lo belong to the ^fli^o*- and noi lo the to^irriM^ — ia not vi, 

■l^aimt ihc tenor of vi. 13. 1 ? Both kinfJa cl dprrii belong lo iJk 
fA>^. An inidlccttjal function is ascribed in vi. 11. 6 to ^ Vflifftir 
Jlpff^ — iDaccuiatctj, no doubt, if wc insiai on the point tliai it 
bdofi]t:> to the iSiHt,^ ftipoti whsLt, thcn> ;s there to prevent the 
writer of vti, 8. 4 — inaccTif aioi)", but not ng;aiTisi ihe lead given (n vi 
*— ascribing an inlcUcctUil function to i^iotit^ djj<r^ — especijlly. 1 
would adJj in n elauBC m which iho two kjnds ofii^er^ itre mentioned 
so eIo«l/ together, in one breMb, as it werc^-dx^" d^rt^ 6 tf^wr"'"! fl 

With regard to the use of the term iit^tT£tt€*vi99 iti $ 4 see role 
a& Uua {» ft- 13. 



BOOK VU: CHAP. 9: $ r 




n rwtrt fy a fttrmir £^<tiUy—!i it tuj vitvf omtiMit, #*■ Ht ri^ 

ii ii Roy vtew and ^hrfUe^ w M« falic vkw, mtd wkbh ciM«j 1^ 'Af 
ixfUT^i/tx/i Iff /xfiiiif Ay f 

Our iirntt-rr tfntit twtiyAg^ thai per Bccidens it may Ucny mjtmr- tk&iit. 
JW HKnlmJly if ii tkt im* vitw attJ tht ri^bl <hn<t rAai lAt m* ^i^i t^, 
amd l^t orhrr faih tc ofiSt fy, 

nkeri *rt ttrtain pwpU-iItHriittiti ttnit^Ify €S 'pvofU ^*k Ormfffvitan* 
^^oka Asid very jirvtiy rfi lArfr rmm e/iuiprtt^ imrf aiv IM7 ktn^ tc itmvmn tf 

wftiStr maittMimug an uptr^fi^Mg a»i/utfr iffwrnf^i /lanifitt. if fd^ i> yuM. 
i/ HtfdUyla thi pr-fov/nie^ ^ f eaten ; i^Jurtaj /Atti* fitaf^tvUAitrm^rmtn' 
an iwt OifsiattJ dy rmit^ &ttf ^y Jairif—^Aey nr* ipttrm^t ^Awm^jA fiar/^ 
* MfiSA rfni'i 9/ Ihtir twn* Vfhe art aauatai ty the //nuivf ^mit M»t Jv«Av 
by ihiiir v-'hA try tJi tvrmitiff Ihrm-^hfy Arf unknffyi/lkrykommM A\u MM 
uayt i'^* a Jtmoiratk nutmhiy, 7'hty tirnj rtumAt* fit d*?"^ nai4fp 9k^M 
the l-jKfitTrjt. 

T^tart art ffiAtri.effiiK. u-^e rh ntt nh'tfg ky tAtir mtktj tvi yrt artmf 
iMpm^ : C-g. fAf A'r/^/fpf^ftui if \i?/iJiiv!ti /fM mfif aiiJJ't Ay Jii$ rv-nJpt Utdtia 
tit: itvuufimnrrt wAirii nW# Him a^mirvt Mil rviifh*~-hti noble fib/tm^ 
^tkt flfaumrt */ M/i/tg iAt tn^h. II it w// ^htrt t\t /^AMVtf lahiih ** 
hr^it^i i^ii^t* it bul fAiJt Elf ^fttiA I'/^iikaoia tiiJ -ijii^iia. 

Jml Oi ovpf>e^\"j n/tmi to hat'T rtily tfrm tfrUrnry — dtuAutb. JaiIIiV Ai 
man iiiAe irr/outi j-i/afii t/ /rom A/Uh/rfiJe ftitti^ \iulitom mrttjfirhj uJ^i^rfrwa 
H/mt Ifl kavi /m!y ah/ c^frary — Aff^vt'm, jM-dH/' trtf jaUtm* ift m man vAiVt 
njfih/ It ittJr iht dm ttmtttnl 0/ plmturt ii n'^rfffutrwd iy m tfi0^if < — <iha 
Iffivatdi filemttft. Sm^-A d man, Apo^t/er. wAtn Ae ^iifn,it Ȥ Itf 

kVfif^ck^in A iff£Jtw>y, e^*fAt r'mtiKeiut[i^fiirMi^^lAfUm/trttt\ 
{raij tA'^^hm) ' ■ ^ut trt mnitaht^ys rrm/mi^r fA4f^afl^*ttgA ^A ix^sf^ 
apid aifffti* ijrt mtri uihoihn^ rrjuij^u tJke lim e/ rtOHm tntdtr ^At iH^mfmt 
tif iaJtiy fitoiurti. ytt tAty Jijir in lAu invii imfivttttt rtif*ff. Asi iAt 
iyntiar^t \aj dai/ ifttires. and (he a^f^v Aaj nM. Iht f ^tvr djt$ mti ^i 
tht^ftMn^x ffl Af ///-ff-niK/ tffkifh transj^rs; tkt Jgw ijf rm nrn ; tkt ij^^^r^/ttit 
fiioiHrt in thim, tut d^i ne/ !it tArm UiJ Aim Ottay. 

Se nht /At Ajifor/^t and rAe AM^Katrat rtttrrMf, ttn-i Jifif/ivm^ satA ^/lnTi 
T^ty hffth fcilMff A^ily //Atntftt^ litt tAt htiKaar^t tAnUt, trAHf tAt It^r^ 
tim tufi tAink, thiU U ityrvpcr ta ^ tit^ 

.30. \ 1.] ^w^v^f, {.(. 'gor*\ or tatl, as xVa Aid. Sdiol tt 
FriUAchc ind J^Ikhckt (bul ml ' Aapaaiut/ i. e. the Aid 

BOOiC Vil: CHAP. 9: ^ i. 


Cnnt CTTOncouily mates) cuny dti ip^Uwif from m ^w»iw lolUi^S^. 
go^^rn r^ ^tviil \6yif tT,A. Bui, as Grant rcmarltft, ' thi* will not 
rfo- The iutarijt cannoi be ^aid " (o abid<* hy 1 r;i?Kr <>jHni<jn." ' 

d^^iw bein^ understood) adopted by Bywatcr and ttomc other 
cdiEOr* (Susemihl reacts u^riHJft in-il^atl cf ^i^ ^ruAfi), I prefer lo 
leave the text as Bekkcr gives it — t^ ^uAfi \6yip aui 117 np'uxipiatt r^ 
p^ii ij^flj— following all tlie MSS. (eic«pc L'', winch has r^ ^') V""*'* 
>dyy Bul T-fl wpKUpmt rfl J/jrfjff) ami K^p., xi\^ In nujipoic lb;il ihc 

*vritcr, vriahins to make 2 dymnKtricul 3GKcrn&, ndded & t*h w't^i* 
«f ifriu^i X-S>^ on th? ^i <V^dWf side^ n the damclricai op[.^OBilf of 
^ /,^^>iur f^ ^/i^ npuraipiTfi, trt' r^ ljX^j^pi ^>^W> ^'^ ^^'^ Other ^idc, 

6 Jjtiiitww 

noFB [picking to oiw'v opinion or purpose, right or vrang 
{6)roi^vv)p chdracteHiie contmencc, or 6ocj> tlu: ronLinmi man xiick 
onlj to ft right opinion, or purpose? And does rot fltickin^ io 
one"* opinion, or piirpoKc, righi or urotig, charn^Mc^nt inconiiiipnce, 
or iDUei wt auj tliul 1I11: iacontlnenl man docH nol slivk. iv n inluc 
OfMitkni and wrcr^fc purpose? Here, 1 thinks Ihc de&ire for 
tymineiry has led tlie writer to momion a csift* so mronsisr'-nt uiih 
ihe noUon of dcpui7ta (allhougb* it is lo be noied, vii. 1. 7 %hew9 
that it tvaa rei?ftrdecl by eom-* ai popiibly a case of dtipiurU) that 
critic^ amoTig ihem Fa^sow', hiivp tlmuyht ii necessary to rtscue 
him from incojisjHleucy hy Lbaiit'tug the IcaI which xcsU on the 
uiUiority ot all IMSS. vave L^ 

Z^ynp ^|iwpj|fr^ Trp^Tfpft/j vii- a. 7. 

A. 99. 

1) ROfA |U» ab^Pipi|itff 11.T.X.J moral sinn^ih (rit c^aVitk) id the a^ Sft. 
gefienl characierisUc of lh<; corilinent man, Wp^ro/itt'j7*^^;j (i-i^/^ii 
V^ifit'tvif) of ihr inconiinrnt man- It may f^om^ tlm^s happi^n tho-t 
ntofd atrcngih is the cause of a man'a sticking to a mistaken 
pcijpcse or opinion (vvru ^>v trt^j^/^ijir^r ^Hfoup), but, ai n rule, it 

' Rmimw {J^trtik. p. 100^ appfovci [he cmmdAiii^n cf Muntoi — A f^ AXtjitt 
A^y|r jid) rp viMGb^vifl rp 4^, UiLiovint; IIlaI Uiq |jAUd^-c hot bHn comiplv^ 
Id Mmaot to Um new ibat tbc i>i<roiiition bdwcgn iyKpirtux ud aj-^?L« 
it OoocMttiy t« gilie XJ^n oppuilc prc^JcAtif, 


BOOK Vit.' CHAP.^i 4} 1,2. 

lift] ft S3, b A good |nirpo8rr, or ri^liC opinion, ihfli markl sirengtli enbln i 
m\t\ lo mick to, and wr appl/ tb< Icrtn coniincnt sinctly {uff om4 
ot ^XuO lo lb« man srho alick£ lo a good purpo«>r, or rigbt 
opiiiiun; for ibe man who slick* lo :i had purptme, ut u^roitg 
opinion ia ^dXdffTos (sec vii^ S. i). Again, it may tomctitnea 
happen that mom] weakn^^ss it ih« cauK« of a man'H depaiiiag 
from a Ejftil purpu^L- or wrong opinion ; but ^ucli an cxccptlonaJ 
case 13 not conicmfbicd in the kmi 'inconlmcni/ winch ifl stricdy 
applied only to ihoGC who do not sitck lo a K'^'^ purpose, or 
tijfhl opiniun (ditfa liXv^i?^, or Xdyof iiXi;i?^i). Wc inu^t mticiuibci 
that it is the ^«o7f^cjTOf and the tlit^ior^i who ore difiUpsuiilicd in 
respt*ci of ^i^> or ^ulym, ihat oF The ^niOuiarof hieing ^*tfliTf, and 
ihai of lIic a*pnTF/f bciijg dX^difi ; bui it is riot in rc»pcct of X*yot 
thnt the uvpiir^c i£ dUlinguiahed Trom the •yc/Mn^r, bui in rei:pc<t of 
Htr^ngrhof char;ic[er (fV^rvrif and ^^ //i^fKit):— -a^i Zi^llcr puu it 
(/'//:i'. (/. Grieih. vol- lip a, j4r/i/. p. 659, third ed.) ' ArialpOtclcj^ - . . 
untcrscheidot b«tde {t\t. iy^^^tM and iMpattin) vr:^ d«n ftLttiichen 
EigcnschsiFtcn def Sclbsibcherrsthung {avtjtptioiirn) in*] i^agrtlnK- 
igkcit (J-oXuora) dutch daa Merkmal, da^s die Btlicrrschujig oder 
Hcrrach^El der iiegic:rden bci diesen atif «incr j^nrndfiltilip^eD 
W 11 leti!^ rich lung, bd jtrien nur auf der Silrke o(l(?r SdiwlcliP i!ca 
WUIcns beeuhl/ 

The sentence d ya^ rw a. 35 _ . «^ flW b. 3 Mvms lO be 
merel;^ a logical note inltoduced Ir* expliun llit din«iifrici? Ijeinrven 
mu&' ai-To and *rrri i7u^*fllTniJf^ — which hardly need* cjif>Unaiiofi — 
and CO enable the «wnter to wind itp with t}>e aaiisfactory ronottla 

librn ^Jv Sa . . . dn^vfv. Tt>e arlicli: before t^ dXijAi b. 4 xhoulij bc 
omiEIcd : aec Rasso* (ArjfA. p, 100) and KAmsaucr jrf /*r. It 

is brackeifd by By water, 

i-yKporris ' alickf^ li>' hib (me opinion , but thrrr arc people who 

resemlile him in * sticking lo ' iJicir opinions, but differ from bits in 
thai fhrir opinions nrp ofirn wrong. The obtftuiate man Of 
fantJjfliryL'u^ni* in icLltcd lo llic iytpuer^v US lllC Iff«ar« i» to ihc 
J^€V&i^iftt. Both atrtoMj and JXniff/^ior *?!pcnd,' but the S^vnt 
spends foolishly, ihr «'Xft>rfrj)inr wisriy St!i hoih iir^/ia^tttftaw aod 
ryupBTJv 'stick lo' an opinion, hui the opinion of die Un^-fiayviuiimr 
ia often fooliali, vrhile that of tho tyMpanit is neccveajrily cr«c< 

b. G. I ^vfA^J J'^ both pbces where J ryr^Hmjt occura, here and in 

ffOOK VII: CHAP. 9t {{ z~4. 


b. JO, it iccjiJ!» Lo lie ktiTpoklcfl. Suitntilil bmckctq Li Jn holh llQi i>. 9. 
pbccf : Bfwat«r in b- 9. 

tail iintii|ifa^ Y< Xa^^ib'CtcHrfc, ncit (yoKrm iroXXol ftiri tw^ ^Bofc^*'] b. 11. 
'For they {i.e. \he oh^ilTmii:) t)hcn coou^h conceive dc5ircs. iiiiJ 
arc led away bv tbeir pIcauurefL/ 'J^hc cxpn^&ioii ffntfi'^Kii ya 
la»i3iiHvffi (xcurft in A\ /T, iii. j. 1 231 ft. ^8 vdinr >V robTui ^umi 

I 3j kKioyPiSfiwif] 'tftr At uJ r>iXXkirri uXovafrot o/fwiiVlrfj' b- IS- 

•l pJv E&iflyi^^vit] The fi'f cCmlrneU llic t^ioybv/^ai^rc with th^ b- 1'' 
q^Ml^ic ATkI rtir •'yj-jnixm, u'liu, Tiijwevf^r. ar^^ noE ihjr;;ii:trrjvj. 

A^r* fiftXXa*- T^ dirpan! Joivatrif 1) ry lypaTti] becauM ihey are b- !■- 
too much JnflL)cncc<l hy pleasure {xttfptv^i) ant] \k\hi [Xvirnwrni). 
'["hey are ^^porut w*fu tU^y, howcvtr, not Jir^iifirfrt *iffX«f, 

{ 4.] To ab4ri<ic»n a h^^d rttofulion. no f^r from bcinj^ ai) th IT, 
■udicatioii of wcakiieE^a {^tf-naia}, may oUen b« an indjcaiion of 
monl fitnrnglh 4ud ibc pot^ei of priDciplCt aa in ttii^ oLsn of 
NcO|X^CGnu)4 : ace vii, a, 7, 2rll rcfcis t£ic point reused in ihia 
f to the qumion mooted m $ t of the present chflpi«r — ' an eiiain 
jft impOKns tjvc inLumtmrn!! dicj pcssil. qui fatsani r1 pervcr^iitiii 
lenlenlmm »u*ceptani rton tucaliir?' This be docs believing that 
in } 1 Ihe qwniion conveyed by the words fl * rf ^vAfi a,TA-, ?« 
tfaey »UDc!, i» inadmifaibLe, and ll^tt wIml the writer re4l]y meana 
to aak ift ' uhether fffn he who, Mie Neoplolernus. ile^>ftrtir! from a 
wiong puT^vjiae. it nft^frihfUss lo be ealltd incontineiii ' — as if the 
tcxi aTQOti 4 Kai it TV ^vAtf vtA- R.jniMuefr Ln hii note on § it 
aAef F^viDg laa a^jproval lu iht^ emendaiicii IQ £ r^ akw^&A Xoy^ hoI 
p spaoi^iwi rj7 ^^, a<liU-' ' T)c mim tevlore currrtLuiA eadem 
Kit) qtiLie prior enl aliia verbis ilcrum efliaa^uf 4 ^^^ ^ ^ 
^-fi>d*: X^ *a; T17 irpodi^Vri ¥j^ ^4 i^, diMuadet, HI Don ipw 
»fntfnii]i^ at lex ccnrtnniintU/ 

vcJ^Jv] * imo q£f f ^SA ifv Kr niAJi' ' (RarnMuer). b. ao- 

od yV ^edt K.T,X.] The befit /viVyuu bave tbeir own ituXal ^doni, b.SL 
b sustain and porrcct tbem : liiu^ n j?>rti arl >U4«' ni ilrrX^ X''^* 
JT. A". viL 14. 8. The tuX^ ^^vv^ whkb attemlt tlie [unction 


BOOK VIF: CHAP. ; $5 4, 5. 

UCi b.BL cf tl^^ivli cjin never (rnd itMrlf :o inlcmpcrntc uscv; nor c&n 

jileasures of ¥ighl and heinng. illhougli perhaps \Wf roftj^ %c«mt* 
ixxtv^A hr pursued lo a somcwhiu rctiidicnsiblt rxloit : tioe £", *V- 
iii, I o. 55 :"6 ; vilh whjtli compare Piuiarch, Sytttp&t. vii. f^ axpqr.oi 

y§ winfHiiitfiat wayrAvairi. rairruic ftamit i^y'tattivri mU ^^nutiv rd ftoXfil 

dfriV Aitoi'g r^r ir'pJ &ioP xal Atp6oetv tCimMit miiXCtiP Jupoo/dr, vt 
pvrai otOitwrrtK^t aOtms' raii A u^Xaui koi ra ^71*10 ^iour ij^Drra ^|>«^ff^ 

b, 93. f 5. "EtcI V hfu . . , |Un< i ^HpaT^^l In b. 34 Bekker, ToU^w* 
ing aII lIic ^tSS.^ n-ad^jT'H^^' ^'ui^i^i^us, olijcrimg 10 lh« panklplM 
afltr rf^oi^iff oX"%, wishes ta rc4J j^nipiiv and v^« i^i^ivnw, forgetting, 
as Runow {Forsth. p. t<i^) pomifi cui, ihat i>^>k<i>' tt'ould require 
/A^. Suiiacmihl and BjwaLcr tidopt xo/^v ^wliitli Aitp' aecnii lu 
have r«ad\ retaining tp^Wv* Zcii und CorM», en Ihc jcroand 
that the AM- ScboL. ^pciks of the AA»«-«>i aa nMW/iAi, lod ihe 
Pajajih- uf [Itf^ f>Aeiirutffo t£(v A^t clvanvot, tlilnL thai wordu 10 Uutt. 
clT«ci have dropped oui of ihc toxt, and Zcl) sumfcsta thu iheac^' 
vords may Jvive justified the participles y^ip^^ and ^ftfti'ttK Kusov^ 
however (pH 1J4), ()UciicB M.M- i\ 9. laod a- 1 for ihe paittdple 

irpAi; Ki fifj tiyai ai-r^, o("c At ttu^it uAuf jtnJ dynf^i^c #*irti- 1 do |*0l 

think ihai ihc Aid. Sdiolia^fx rcm^fk Ihat the AXtinvp b J iJi i pat , 
or the P-iraphratl'a that the tXltinovim ff ip is ai^n^r* by any mcAM 
makes ti even probable thai eithpr commentamr had uordi 10 thai 
effect in hi.s text, Each makes the remark* indeed, ai ihe place 
ne&r the beginning of j 5 where Zc\] suspects that iho woirdv have 
drupprd oui of iht* levt; but rcp^aEH k later on in coni^exioe wiih 
the Matcmcnt u^X^ ^ ri r^y b- 30 . , . rv ikpui'f b. 31, Ttjc 
Paraphrafti'a vords. in this connexion (he has aliTody aid at ibc 
bepinnii^g of hb [riuaiks on § 5 v ^' ^At'impoD Jf« ^>>m>ivm) v^^ 

dupaaui ^«iii irtn^xt wXruiy on r) ^Xl6ii£tt|^ uXiyi&XLr fifjiVciTia. Hrtr die 

(i»e of the word dM^nf>in( iie naiuratly suggested to the IW. tnd 
Aid- Sehol by Ihe worihi /v (^Xr)Hiif tai uXi^it, and |wa ihc way, In 
tbc citcumsiances, lowaLrds proving ihat il stood in (hcii text. It 


^roulcl be v^ry ra»h ind<^ci) io round Any inference here on t)ic HAIU S9, 
word» of commcmaiorK who arc to CArelcss as to sn^y, a» they 
vlriusUlj' Ao, that *ibe 7fi< i^ diwvvfiAi anJ i: h called ^USt^e' 
I MK DO rc4V>n Tor supposing that tirorv^iri, any more tban ^Xi^nrt, 

All MSa. PXCrpl MK leacl ^ ii^Lrud of ilekkei 5 g {M^ Tms 17) 
before ntavm U 14. The feftdinft a To^rot sccma to mc lo give 
«3cacUj^ Ihe **n*e required— ^-ii. ihai ther^ ii a charactti *^^w*/ oj 
i]c|i4rtiiig from roniit:Lotif4ly rCiiti^d dtcULc^ of rc^uon in ih*: 
dkrctjon of the uvoidanv<: of bodily plenBUrcs^ whicli atinda to ihc 
traju&itlonol fiUE«K ^rpartia and iii(/>dtf-Mi in the nme relaiioii that 
^Mna^tlvU siAJidn tu lljc fJAird aiBtc^s iro0po(rv^ and JffDXn<ff[i: [ir;er 

/-\*V, iii. M. 7. Of course M*' in pcjictaliy on uniiafe authority, 

but I think thni hore* il has made a 9!^ic i^m^ndaLion, AlJ MSS. 

feccm Ui gi^e Tfitbro? b^ 24, wtiicb By water (reading d) bmckcU: 

^ his CfftitriMiOfUf p. 57. 

prfv«s h ^xpan^i] * li Ia plain/ Grant says, * ihat iyKftarvM Is not ^- 3(. 
a iiioji in Jje a»^na<^ of Uing ^ balant*? or hunnony of the mintL 
U ia oniy imi>crrcct temperance, il is temperance in the act of 
rofftting.' The writer timply meina, I lake it, ihat the ty^pntifs 
' Stftuda between' (he ^fjirr^c and tlje Vr<j^ f) 0<t mic ovfjuruiiir 

«CU %i fTcporl ^ v^ ^■y'i^itv'M' av^i tt 4nftot owriraierai itara rf^^ffvr b, 8?. 

Apr, mJ Mufrtiin' [Coiuea), 

{ 6< ■«> ^ JY'^^""^ - ' ' ^KoXavVifiKr^ 'We come to sp^fkkb. trs. 
mciaphoritilJy of the tontincnce cf the lomperate man' (Petpff). 
Tbc wnicr pcobftbly uses J^iAu^^-tir luvc with wjinc conscious rie«s 
of tJ»c technical mcariiiiK of ihe lerm, for wbic!i sec Bonite, vTA;. 
pL 41 ' vert<i iUoimifl*!!' partier ac vcrbo madai ArisioH?lea denotac 
pnudicaii aliquain noUt^cia dc aJlera, ita UL hixc pn^iU ilia etiam 
pOMDida fiti {/. r. a. 1003 b- 33 cC de intcrpr. j j passim.' 



BOOK Vtf: CHAP. 10: 5^ 1, 2. 



Tkt ntrt feint te naft^r i> tMitt tkt tarn* mam iftnnai t* M^ ^^4vip«i 
^npv^i. /ffr fflUrj^t, OJ ft* AttM J«»t, tTtfiki g^titltni, ^rtd u mH n 
Jtno\Eif*fj!e. httt ^N^riti//* u^jVA t'liini i/t /ta^ Mtimu^ uAtftUi /At dt^rfi ^ 

HPf PMf H'flcF ffrjermi /wY mfioiu. C^'trtvn —^Hrijiit. ij imtad «*/«fli#^^ 
tifith trwaHitnt/itt ; hunt, fftaun Sfiy&njt auii ^fi^fifeinff ntAwfy tttatd i .Mf* 
Wi. M. t) g, 10— ffJ »Htt/IffiH9t f^ufift* ikty /M't ttfariy rtiitfn^, t^f /r*m rif 
mprai /huW i^wifr/' ihfiy Ji^r\, jaatf haw takfH up tkt itMWt tX^ ^f^^rv 
an^ iintttala itrr campatihh. Snf tv/ar ti ^^taiit/rem hm^ ^em/fSfiKf mW 
Ihi acUm kfi/wft'ixt tiflhf ^ffi^yit^.tfiat nv ffn^At rathtr to ;£VpAn iMt^mt^^ 
jpifa ANf^fhA I' mir// or dritttb i}f fjmtxt kf 4titt xtttuntariiy 'Jfr Af^mmt 
tt/^fr a fmhitm mAu/ A* if^i JWi/ why tn dcfi if) ; tmt ki\ chuKtcr ii moi *•/ 
/tr hfi J^iihtr^f fhs{i4 ii geod kit t^tu/j it tJktn ^niy far/iti ; ttit^Atu ua 
Hnjmi, far k( liiVt 'Wt tie m.' if//ii'eftifeJr-~^tHr «^Arr a voaf itrtMtaU ma 
hr^0 /nUi fo ntiJt hjt ihi rtxHtt ly dflihtrafien, or am imftttimit iiws vlIj i^ 
not fittihfrittf at ji/ 

TAt tntml'ijfre o/ ike trnpetHfui mmm it AHfV mj^ r*«v^ th^t fJM 
pf Iht irtvsalHU miOH : arnf imftiiirinbf, Jui ie fiatll, it mtv^ tojuy tmr^J ik^it 

S9 MtuA/er isniittfiBtt ami inamiinentt, mdMramt datf t^ttuti- 

liM ft 0, 1 1] lafcw up vli. T- 7, 

•- 7- AfLti >Jip , . . tA^iVTfU up] So(r F. ^^. Vi. 13. ^p£rifni Ic xht dfar 
coiisciou^EK-^f oi oiic'9 nioial it^lurc* a aii urgAnic whnt : It 
injures the mnintcnancc and proper funclioa of ibe aaor»1 

^0. J 2- T^ v/tttjiTLK^] sr. <r*a(, Tlie r^pdH/utf noi Only kno«^ whfll 
is n^liL, but applies Ills knnwiedgt. or acts upon It lie Ja j»m 
flflins T.l ^^4( — f,/, liie Tcclm^fi and d^irf^ htivc Xt^cn ao Accu^tocncd 
[o iT^ovc in hurmony *iih \m knowledge, thil wbai ia lechiiictllf 
i.'j>EJo] iTjj^fv may be alw^y^ Itx^kci] fur tmat liim. rr/iafic ii 'monl 
actign,' or 'cotiJuct/ It is tteUberale, bcin;; the outcome Uiil 
^Kprvaion of drGnii^ oriffmni^aijon or X&yai, IsoUicd v^ 60 otA 

produce wit»im : hcncf: Z", A*, vi, i. 1 al*t&ijo*t ot'TLfjuoi a(f;^ff wpA^rt' 
Jl^Xfiv 01 r^ *^ ^>Tj>ia ar<r^irAi- ^» 'j['t>' v/>af«v> Ar ^^ «dvwh**. The 
JirpRT^Ct iklihough lie poa9e«se« itxr general kncjwledgc of right &md 

HAP. 10: 

1v^<;5.~mi|, lets his iTci'tf'j pro'cni Ihc application of it- His IlBfl •- ft. 
mf re responecs «o ifolaicd rnftj^ not irpn^if <«»" n^rPTi- — A *' 

lir t^ Wrir oijSir kuXuk dvparfj ttvak] Src JT, N. vl. ii, 9, to. ■, 10. 
^tttit^ U ific c'ltuntcHi vri\.\i nvhicl) tlic mcJtnii lo ^n fii<) are 
lEscovercd and ciuploycd. It docs not give ibc cnd^ or moicc it 
lEDOd or bul (tfcin^ a purely iiildlrcttLal fviculiy), bui. mrrt'ly puruuFS 
il cleverly irlicn given. If the end be morally good, <lc:vcrnc»« 
tfi lh« piirttiil cf i't hAving bfcomi? h,ibiiUAl, ib c;illcd t^p6f^Hi 
And ir<i»ou>jri'n> if ibc C(jd Iri.' biid» It is oulj uljtrn ilic end is i\t^ 
one which can bp viewtJ morttUy — as roorally gotxl or bid— that 
ihc nniLral irnn A*i»Tf?r can be properly used. How then ia the 
Apotijr here bLiid Lo In^ ^ctin^lJmr^ Atiti^i ? f li^ end iii good. -^\A 
be i» blind lo the means ther^ti>- Tliia diRicuUy admUs of [h« 
following answer, 1 thlnl:. Il it the steadj' influeiiri? cf a mori^llj' 
good end vfhich convem the At^irjiih of An^ijt into the *ivi of 
fpijnfiFir, the ticady mlluonce of a bad ei^d wIie^Ii convertn 11 inio 
■wvpyja; ue. i\\ft ft'»i((. us ^ucli. ik clevtr ;^Tid LU^'euiDUN imd 
donbtlcu sho\<9 his cleverness in many way* irr iion'moral mAtter* ; 
bm It rwjuir^g ' a good or bad end' — a aieady inducement appeal- 
ing strongly to hi^ vill mJ emotions — ll:i rn^f: !tjiu shoiy aiid use 
hl» ckvcriKipe habjltjally in Lhc moral sphere. HilticrEo, v^^ eup- 
po»e, hii elevenieo, »o fat as :he mora! sphere h coflcoftied, \\%% 
not been babltudlly bluDvrn— z> e. it has eiL!>Le<] merely as lIjc SbKj^f 
of eiEtwr 4>fMS»r(r«« oriraHt^y^. Now, [he ■iv<tT<i" has 'agcodcnd'; 
but It 14 moperoiive '\n hiiii — In biu ill-fe^^ulated miure it <Sou% not 
App&d attctigly eiiouj^h to his will and emcitJoiiA to m^Le Ijim 
aho^v, tn the moral sphere, as ^p'^pv^it ihc fl'u^s which lie 
probably nhow^ in noH'moral maner^, u'here ihe ends are ftUfB- 
ciciJtly LTitcrc^tLii^ 10 IttiJi lu make liim exert liiA natural abitity fui 
the diJicovery and <mpIoycncnt of ihc suiublc mentis. The end of 
the Airgavrr^^ is good, bui not gocd with ih& consiraiTiin^ po^L'I>^ over 
conduct wluch, iq ihe (nravAu^t (the man who Is ' in earnest ' nbout 
j^od conduct), prewcfl the morally neutral aeitonjj into the service 
or morality. Thus ihe pupar^t, in api:^ of his so-ealled "good end/ 
remains mcMy c^uili, his Aiipdr7r licJng infetfcd frotn Ijis non- 
moral activity, and doubtless, as \iw\t goes on (for the Jc^t^ i& on 
the downward path), from indicaitons siiggcwive of incipieni 
*Hovp]F^. Tbc Faraph. ba^ a good note — KotA t^h girritt U jpitntv 


BOOJC Vii: CHAP. 10: Jj fl, 3. 

i^^vrTf^tt' ROt yn^ of ArituE aoro r^"' yranJtr TOi" i4DiTP» ioUaitt rolw ^jw 
birdi viidtrovmy' ul Ai 4>pi^*'V'i yccttircimfir t^ Aa'or ml vpurrinrtfr ml U 

k 13. Kori ^f tAv \&yor iyfy tTvai^ tt&^'f^'*'' ^ ^oTd t4|v wpwaifBHtf] 
' u for u mson go<?s itit^y ;Lrt- cloEiely allied, Ibough ihcy differ in 
pur^XJ^'* (Paera)* tUh iiai^bkLbn mi^-bl l>r: ij£i(1ci«l<hkI to knjjij 
ihcil Arit^rqi JnvoWv& purpose {nftaoiptv^t). lliough n clilfcfciu sort of 
purpo^ fmm ih^i: involved in if,p6vTjirtf ■ bm A«itr<&rv< (so fw ti 
TJiorulilj i?( colKcriicd) i) mcrclx ^ &C»atHt tup i^arrim'. not A 
wfivrnpttm!} <{ir. The oicAQing Is — -' ^wCnjt rencmbJcs ^j>ovif«i in 
twiiig ati intclk'ClHfll faciilTy, bm dilTera from Ir In not involving 
moral choice/ The Aid- Sdiol 19 wrong in two poinu in his cOEi' 
lucTil here — "t^ ftin ruv Xoyii- i|tvi rA> Api?^^ 07^^ *'*rrw ^ i^^t^^t 
mat if AtiVvTifv . - - Rkl ^lip ^ ttf(>'<^c t^it /jtr 4tJnvp4Tmrj fair ffpoc r& rti^ 
dn^pouiri flf amrch rgr njiaafpvcrit-' rov ^1* r^f' ^^rif""' i afnntfi»j» 


u ilv^ur^i Aid- Schol Notwjttismiiding hi^ formal poiacwioa of a 
' good rnd/ ihe df/iin^r kcrpi his inifllectual rrdowmen* At ih* 
level ofAtjra^jtv, so far us inQral maruis aiK concerned: /.f. he ti 
Jftwr, not ^^I'lfiDF, because hii^ ^{ocd rnd is otioMt And doo not 
inrirnr^L Min bLt]1id<'n]l>' 10 (ull Innh his ^tArrje tiiio il^ svmre, itnd 
tijn»rorni it into ipputnjim ; 1/. ihc ^auph^nM'^ noic — icui 7^ «r nal 
yiMoffHfi i4 2c4r (d dv^T^f) <iX\' ou^ £<ntfp ^ ^ipJrif.DP ^jrjrfbf fti^i» I 

^po"*)!^. Set Cook Wilson (-4r*j/. S/mhts^ p. J7) on Uic dilEcukj 
oT L oiinccting the woilIs ouAd Ar) Ai fJ «fdw< ul 0raj/iu^ wkh what 
goes before- He iliirJts ii * probable thai ihe end of the book ti,r, 
ch, 10) is xoAi}*: of pieces not belonging to rich other.' Efjrwater 
CuiinccO iiiiti ^ ft.T.A. clortelj vritJi 6 K djc^ri^E oil irpuirrittlc § 3^ a, 9. 
muking the iiilcrvemng worUa r^r Ar Sitttfi'a, 10 ., . rped4Affvft,i4 

a, Xe, Mai Ik^ li^P , , . i) Y^p vpoaipcois ^«tiv^] Tl>e vparift 

BOOK vif: CHAP. 10: § 3^ »',5 

vntuQCirily, t^causc /tiAi^io I« ihf? cauoc of volnnury ariJortK : s«f it$3 «. is. 

Th*ri? IS somr confnsion of languaK*^ in tlio ^Latemeni ^ yAp rpa- 
dtfMvif trraiK^t (u alwj in Ihr Htabcmcnt rv fjtv >^ nufih nprhii/jiw 

vij, 8, 3), Ijccaufto »rpMi>r(fiT is ihc a^/ of choice, ftiid ihe i^pat^r of 
coune <|oF« nol ' ildilif rAlrly oIktohf? ' {itpoiii^JriTi) what he doeit, hut 
Acta from miWnu He i\ in f^cl, di»iti>eut»hcd as t^) itpw](/nr»^ru< from 

ttte A«<Xj«Tai,vrhoacI&fTf>AOj.^^^i'af. We f ri uiit »UppOK« tluL rtpottiptais 
Ut U3a«f kiOKcly here for * ihp goiul Inrrntinns ' which Hte ovprcomc 
bj ffuA>i in iht oiifnrqf, l1cJ^70lf would havc bcvn more correct 

«0r« yA|> 0nirA«rf>i o£0fl( £ fiij aIvtoi «rvGii iriTniiAnuii', S tt t^tpmi^e lAj 4 
wmt tifir npiiTrtiK iTpuTTti. A:ipa»iu:i «ccK the aukwardnciix of 7 y^p 
»j^i|Wtfn «i*;ii^* : he ftij'«(i4i 6 H*yIbut)^^/««jV**'*'' ''• ttdAi* ^ 

■ol oU fiBiKiK- oi Y*P 'wipouXos] Cf. K. N. V- J%- a Sta* A^ -Wut & IT. 
wnfMWt 9 ^Mrata Wfi^tmnA rviv ufS^^miiT rttvro yap BXanrairrf* mi 

>TfiHo( itiii itoj(fifjpAe. A^ain, btiow(v, ti. 10), ihe£<1x<ffE (s dc;scrl>«<l u 

On «£ Tdp tv-'Vc^^'H here in vii. to, 3 Grnni remarks that ' though 
)iul, ȣ conparod with anger. U trailed /iri/fntAor (f/: cL 6. { 3J, y^i 
il is true on th^ othci hiLiul Jiii; llje incgriLliiciU man J6 iu>( s, 
dcngnini^ cl] A meter/ 

*Ara(arSjriST|ij a comic pocE, a n^iivc of CamiruB m Rhodes :lS8> 
menuoncd Uy Ar:fiEotle three linieb in ^A/A iii, vii. 1411 n. rti, 
>4IT 1). 16, 1413 b- jg, AiJicnaru^ jire»ervcH (|i. ^74) th^ follawii]^ 
pttHige rclaim^ to AnaxandndcQ Eronj ilic rrt^ itDMy&'di of ChEiniac< 

IMM of Hcraclca— 'Aiflif[i*AftfJi^< iflN*riroik woTi ^iBvpOfifioi' 'XS^i^iTaf, 
fiv^k^p 1'^' iTTvm. 411] (l1T^ry4l^•' T4 T&v «'< T*iv ^oitaTov. ^tr fli rj^ ^^lc 
oXftt en. rt^yai. mxi '^ii' tiptipt, koI iipApti AhavpyHlit irui JcpairiTtAci A^p^'^* 
ffitffȣr A* Lv T^ 4^, ivniti n minLrn;- ite^J Tii< tiur^wAiir^ rV* yAp pif 

£0*^ b KoXXai. tuxi iTP^Xd f][Vi^Q lofiifuf rvf ^paftdtaif ^tf>6fi^*, fiviTKo- 

iWrir TtiT frrray f t^ rfr >ifmg Af>rrai A* ffvm fi^ ^Vuf 'Pilftjoc V* JtdjWjLWU. 



BOOK VU: CfMr*. 10: 5$ J, 4- 

1U3^ a^ajH* m ^vm. Cimmoclpor, ihe writer of ihis fut-s^ge, bha 
P*7ipa(r(ii nhilowifihrr, one of ihr imiiR-dialc dhd|i1c3 of Arnioi 
Coiacn thinks thii the line bcrorc us is from the infXtK of Ai 
drides. Aih<na«iia (p. ^99) prc(«rve£ fourUirn liiw^ of tin 
The prp«rnt line if quoted ul>to hy CyiW, £& TWJu. ii. p. ^6 (^ 
Mcinckc* lya^m. Co/n, vot iii. p. 100). Anaiiaiidficks 5cce3) 
havtf itiuuied Kunpii]«i (apuJ Arf^fin, H^ A. iv. 54) — *Ofitfot ^ip » 
fiSvfdi' tnn^ ^Mfi^rp uiftr^i AJ 17 ^wk ^ I'd^HOK oC^r |»Alt, ^i^ 

ft. ST- $ A' rdta-rOT^ptX - . - TaXrimkrov ^Ctnr finat] ThU paj^xag^ Cm^^Cut 

Wilson {Arii/ S^iej, Tallc ^') t^l^ccb a/lcr viL 7. 6, and tvpL^^rk 
as a dupJicale of vii. 8. a. 

a. 39. ^vtriKVvJ KaTDAflUCl aUg^CtstS ^Cvr4. 

ft. ai TTJ ^iSff** JoiiKv] XtW and Fritr*che quoic dtf Jtfrtw. ». 45* i_ ?/ 

K^fkiOa' OHmtp yd/r ^vvai TiiJf picrd ttrJt ivrtr, ovrv ini tW^^uf. r^ff^' 
mAX^i'ic *pCaif ttoiti. 

e5iik«) There Hccm to have httn Iwo elegiac of irnomic powicT''*^ 
this name, naiivfs of I^aros, On^ of them (wh«ih«r tlie «I4^ cr 
yamiger h uticcrub) ts ^id in have iiisirucictl Socratra in ponry. 
Plato rcfcra acvcniI limes to Kucnu» as a ^rachcr of rlic«o«k.iD 
somfwhai eaiirical icrme— ^/^/, 30 A, Ph^tdr. j6; A. and /'AarA 
60D-A1 A. In MtL ^ 5, 101 5 a. 25 and f, £111. 7, 1113 at 31 
he is named its the author of ihe line naf ya^ jMycaTu' m^^y^ omipat 
r^, which IS also quoted in Rhri. Lit. 1370 a^ to uithcut hi 
nam?- Sec SthwcBler, Mti. vol iii. p. 103- For ihc vena of 
Kuenus vx PhL Gftcm. («d. Tautbiu p, 109)^ 



tt^Un iw .d/^ rAii j^a^ df«i Mjt ^W. 

Tkert art Ikra ^nicni jt'Anh {_ /oH^.tin^ oMt- crJinary melAA/ t/ 

TAtjSr^ iipimoH h iitpj^tirifit f>y iJi/f/oiitwimirratmM i—.d- ttU pfiosMrt tt j 

ftffftt ; (* ' the temptra/t man ittsfr/fr ^If-tntfa ; {f/ tAt prutftmt man Mrtki 
th^H^ if pam. tpr piramr* .- uO ^U^vm^t hind<r tAinking: \i) fJi^rv it «# 

*AMrnt tnJ trnr<i Joiiffii' pffnima. 

'f'j^ ttJcttAi pjmun jT lu^fffFfA/ f-y r/firti^-t tfi thf- hud^dixnffuU^Ht. and 
Mt/Ttful fi^^ittrti which ttdrntilmity ixirf. 

7'A< f-iw,/ 9jmi9n is itli 011 fJh ^mrtJ thai fiUtuury tj nj/ l\^rfit/irm #f 
£tut. ^t /•roytn, 

Sp matA/ar tkt ■ sayirtj^ ' sa tkit atit/fie, 

§ L *€p* U T|^"l* ncX \vnti%] The disciWKion of ^fl^r^ con- iisati. 1 
t&ii'KiJ ill llic \^ii r<jurLlu|j[r?ni uf vii. aiitl ili^t coiiUtiic^ in the dial 
£vc cbaptcn of 3i> follow ^hc aumc gf^noml Wncfi. but izt'tvc at 
difTervne reiulli m ncime point*. The mere drcutniUn4^c by iticlF 
llmt iwo irwiii^rs ou ii^ia^ cxUl viJf |jj sitir tn llvi' ^'h A'. taifl<'s 
A strDRi; ptr^utiiplion irt favour of Ihc view that the corpun of the 
if. iV, as we have it^ in :hc rctull ftf ediling: fof cither lh<- two 
tic&tl»ci ou iSat^ were Lompoivril by the hhiibi: Liuihur wrkiug ol 
(liflercni limcii, from nomcwhiL diflcrcnr poliits of vic^w — in wlilch 
case ii tccmsL highly im^rolKible iliai h* would publiih ihrtn both 
logctli^ ill one work, though 1 \aicT cciUtor mighi (to >iO ; or (hey 
««Tc composed by diflcrt'nl AUtfion -in which casi; the hypoilicsi* 
of 111 editor is of course nccei&Jry. So much for the ameccdent 
pmumpiioLi in favuui of [he hjiJOltit&iB o[ ;Ln eililnr rai^r^il hy ihe 
nwe ciKianBlflncc of two Ifeaiises on ^^0*7 cocxtaling m the 
Nicftmaclieatt Corpuii. But we can go further ihati ihiSj and say 
tlui aacdiior U certaiiJy act ouui able foriheNkoniaLlican Corpus, 
u i»e DOW have it. There can be no doubt thai £. E. iv, v, vi 
(sA*, A'. V, vl, vi;) belong, in ihoughi and style, raiher to th(* E.E. 
tha:t to the E.N} It i^ impossible to account for the fact tb^l 
thcw three bootsfl-re common to the E.N, .ind£'.£, by supporting 

r* h fo^Y be wflioical to teGer ibc »Lud«it In Gtant^k EtMut Ecay L ppt 


BOOK VJ/: CHAP. 11; f I. 

U5t^. I. ihAt ihtjr ongmnl locufl wu [n th« JT. ^., Anil ihat Iher u-fr« 
trsnsfcrntd ib^ncc m */(V Into rhe /". A". We mu^l raihef Wifvf 
th&t llicy were comptlcvl, subrsetiucntly to tbc conDpowtioo of ihr 
K. jV, from mai?ria]ii already to hand, and were trAQ»lWiteHj «■ W*f 
fioni die £ J?, mLi> ihc £". A" hy an Mfmr of ihe E.X. »ho 
wb-bcd to mJppty an original deficiency in \hi\ corpos, or* more 
prolablj% (o repair a lo«» which it had Kullcred, Bui U naj 
be asked— Wliv did die editor of ih© £*. .V. admic Ac Hfperflaouv 
Accouiii or 49o»)? lhi» dilFiculty lug^ala the »uppmition thfti, 
when hr inserted v, V3, v'w, he did not !ind i aiuclwd lo ihe 
Niconiaiiheaii Coipus, li mny h:ive ;LLtic}»?d iLnelf ui a Ijitrr tkne- 
That [his suppoaJiion is not jfratuitous Kcmt lo be sbown bj the 
fact that the wriier of the -ff. £. (or perhap* I ougbi lo put m^-tdf 
)□ order by Mying — die writer mainly te&poitKiblc for llie cooi' 
potiiioncrdic E.E.\ — wbo apparc:idy had Nicomicbtap materials 
1>«rore him in the rollowitig order — 
(a) K .\\ i-iv. 

(^ Books on the Eubjec)» oXE.E.vt^ v^vi. i-id = J?. JK v, «, 
vii, I -10, 

(i) A treaiiae on Jj^ttv^ pcrhi|w idcniicil \i\\l\ that Li 2*. JV, x. 
\<f) E, jV viii, ix fl-r^i ^iXiav — 
ends hiswnrlcwiih iwochapterf^ (.ippen'ited tohUlen^hy dt»CDi»ion 
of 0i>ia>— one on ■in<;(ifl. ai;d the other on iia>iMu>o0fa — wricter 
widiout reference lo the comenti^ of E.JWjl. t>^^^ It ii diflicull 
to suppose ihuL ihe Nicoinacheim nork, ^hich lie folloviS rctf 
carefully up to the dose of Its discussion of ^diiu, can bji%'c ended 
with our E. A' x. Kven Jf the JLUdeinian writer ditT^r* froro 
dit Nicomadiean, as Sthldermsrlier und Kriwwrhc Mi^^oav ivvc 
Frii£pichc, EfA. EttJ. pp. 263. 365), in ireaiinj^ Ethics n* a ^ubfecc 
diaiiinci froTii Politics, ihi« docfi not appear to me to account 
for the Fudemian vfriicr undlthit; lo reproduci? Mvn Jin» inocli 
or the iMicr part of £, I^', x, hod that book been aciuaJlj before 

Tlie au^if^eAliori. ihtn, ubich I venlun.- lo En^ke is ihl^'-'^iMien 
the Kudemiaa compilation was midxr, the Nicomacliean Corpus 
cndr-d wiib pnri {rf} ; and when, parts {A) and (r) of th;u rorput 
having been al^crv^rds I09I, ati editor ^upplicd tbc ^p by insertion 
£. E- iv, V, vi, the EicAtiae on ^AwJ, eonuioed m the lui-ttamcd 
book, was iiiMfrled wirh the rest, brcunur ihe NLComaeheaa Cor|W« 
SuU ended with {d). A ftcn\Aid», however, tbc misnng Kicomtchcttft 

MOOK Vli: CHAP. II: § 


trcatix oq Aftw4, of one vcr>- IJkc Ilwak recovered, and. Us oiisuia] UUb. I 
iocut immcdUtcJy ifier Ehe dincmntion of ■Kpcxria being now occu- 
pied by Irs EudemiAH equivalent, fl was plated, lo^'tllwr with 
X. 6^, %t ihc end cf ihc^ compoi^itc ccliLjon, ihui^ complriiog ihc 
A'jif- Eik^t as ve now have ilie work. 

1 o^T ihift tnjgeMioD for whflt ii i« worth- "bihich an^erT^nry. 
I ukc [l, will durtja icmain as Lo llic c^iact circuEii!tian<:c£ in 
m^hich the two treatises on i^Am^ [btind their way into Lhc Nic, 

To puf then from speculation to factii — li may be useful here, at 
the out«iCf, ID state, nitltoui deuil) tho chief points tu whtvh ihc tvo 
IteMlrtes un ^Aoti^ diflTft nnd nyree^ 

In the £iat pUcc, it msty be noticed ihat the present lreAti«c Rrivea 
flomewhikt more prominence to hodtiy pieiaucx-*^ thun thftl \i\ x. 
TluK I do no: silritiute, as »nmir do (f.^, BcndUt-n^ JirmeFkuru^efi 
jtum Siiifnim Bi4ch dtr Nik. Eih. Fhilolu^us, vol. X' pp* f70-9iv 
to die dilTcrence betuecn the po^iitions of ihe two ireatiw* — thai 
vliich \xA3f, tnori: lo aa^ &boul tlie trtf^unc^fl ^&»^i roUowln): iriLiiJc- 
diotdy afccr ilic diAuuaion of h^^^il^. and that whic)t ho^i Iciis to say 
tthoiii them leading up lo th« disc\it«lon of •i^i^^via : fcr I think iC 
probable ihc ani^tnA! piuiiinn of Uie tie-iii^ in x (or of ila 
flrdi«l)pc) was thai now occupied by die ircAiise in vii— vie. imme- 
diately after tlie di>iciii«ion of axpocia^ I: seems belter to explain 
lhc icrcatci promiiicnLT of lhc troj^Tucnl ^ival iti ilic Id^L-iiKrJilJOjjcd 
iroaiiso iimply by the pfcltircnce ol the writer, lhc subject of 
d^fioffia. invcklvin^ ^ It ^lors ihai of the au^iricm ^wtt. had A greater 
interest foi llje <4nicr (or writers) of tli^ Eudcniian Corpus, tbiu it 
hod for die writer of Ehc ^A'. Thin is very cvidcnti for JnAtancc. 
If wr compare ilie Eiidtniun lr<?itmrm of tA (jmilmn* wiih ih*? Nico* 
machean ^ Jl i^ noL ncce»»i~Lj>, (hen, lo ji^o to die pcnition which 
the EudctEiiuj] tri'ulLw on i^u^ occupies a It c^r ihc dc-tadcd dtscuMiort 
of Supaffut Hi ;iccounE for the ^prater prommeii'^e giv^n in it W the 
wjAvri&i'i iitovaL That Uk bXtbjCLi of i}^y>p^ L» closcly conncctcd 
^■ilb that of liKjwff^ in the mnd of the Jiudemian writer, and thai 
hl8 Epct'i^jl mtrrpAi H in thf it»funiti'i ijAomi, m hhown by a p^K^gc, 
£.£,\n,2. ijji b. a (referred to by FritxKhe, J?. j^\ Prolegom. p. xlv, 
and Spffn^cl, Aru/. Siutl. p. 197), ^vhich promiset a more accurfltc 
account of die ififufoi wlitn fyir/WTfu and at^paaia LOini! U|» fol Bprcial 

■ Sm wtroJaolaiT ootc 10 vik 


BOOK VJJ: CHAP* 11 : § I- 

Jl would t'e a TniaEftkc, however, l£> iliiiik Eh*:, bccautc ihc prrscol 
trtaiUe^ has more lo say about ihc ffw/iffr.trti ^»ni" tl-ian thai in « 
hu> it» connq^ion with the ^gbjcct of wUtaxtutw i» Ic5i viuL The 
words with ^'hidi the prcaeni treatise opens (vij. j i. {{ t, 4) ore u 
explicit 4fi ihOKc wtib which thr Erontisc in x nprnt, in dei^lixHng tbr 
inliinaic conncxLon of ihc two subjtcls of i^'} arnj v^Au^uni, 
Moreover, there ia a highly interesting pa££;^c in an Ptulifr poit Of 
the £, /". (quoiod by Fritfflche, E. F. p. I77^ and hy nrsni on vi. 
1 1, t), m which the writer promise* to dijcnw the rtktLOo of flS»^ 
10 *viJdi>M*iB, ^vith special r;^fcrcnct' lo the evimttKja* i^davtl. X\ b 

irwc ouvnivrrbdi, *fli Tmrtptv *i M si/ioiT*i7r»»i* Ty C')*" '-fl^At <j3«>^ii rd«r, 
vavrar 3ft ir^jutrdirrwr, ij rot^uit- ^m*- uA^ur nt'i T^dnar aniyoi Mcuvmr, 
Utpjti Jf tiirh' ^Aomi ffi' At ivXJy»t wrrat fw »Mf»i^n>m (ifv qVvtf mI ^ 
fini-rjv (iXiMvt. I1 i\ wort!) noliciiig, too, itmt the vnt<'i of t>)e Jf. JT, 
introduces hb accoiint cif jjao*i7 In ihc following lerrns— **A J/, li, 7' 

/taUav /■nil' ^ X^? ji.rA. I Micordmgly disagree ruLitt'ly wiih the 
T&ew thai the iwo trcaiiaes on ffio-'ti in vii ind s rt«pcciively ircre 
written «'il!i df fFen^til objects — that m vii fitawij t% conaWered merely 
a& die nLi^tL-riai of eoniiiience and incontiiicnci-, in x u tweeicninB 
Mm/MtMi see C£>ra<S JXXgi ^' ^wrv ^n ■jwruTog Ki rii' ^iXio^^vr 

T^if ^Aor^v CnoTu^f^r'iu'' /r 04 rait i^fje (r f- x) as ^rfUDUfVijr £X«f tit 
<tflaj^o*ii^ SuM/pavt^a. Tlic ohjcct of boih trcflliscs ii oopt — to shov 
how iifioifti is relaifd to tvhuiftovia or tliJ^ ny^rf^i' — how it hinden. on/ 

Acto iijurihtrs, the perfonnftticc of duty. 1'hus, iftcr a Ictt toiio- 
duoiory remaikiL, tlic trt^^iiec m x opcii» its subject veith Ihe vofdi 
ai ^i> ymi T^ya0^ ^A^vT^f Xi'ynt/tn, inil that in vii with rv!v mJp «f* 
jiMEfZ oi**>iio v^jr^ irHii ^yaGUrH *!* PlcAflUrC ftOod?' ihcD. lA ihe 

chief qucotioD loi both treame«, rh« pji^wert, howc^'«rr Mem. At 

■ Ferhap, however, ve oo(ht Co r*ad, tor -» t'*™'- •ov»» f«C ^1 
ter<'r'ii|* la td i^Ua rk tltHj/tiya rvv ole^w' UjL jl^- If *i>, the |i*l 

' For T^ v^|L«T« tMil T^i lUiAdbrful oug]\t vrt not to rc«d ^ «w|i4vub^ 

BOOKVff. CHAP. II; } I. 


rig:hv Co diffof Uh ct?fh. According lo xhc wrftcr of vji a uflfl b. L 
itemv may be found which U Identical with iht- tummum hanutn 
{\\u 13. a); accordijig 10 ihe writer ofx (j, [,)) plc^i^urc is uoL ibc 
Mmmum Boitum, No two positions ?tircly could dilTcr more widely^ 
Th« writer of vll musi ho a ' Heilor^Ut/ Hut Iw Is na noro a 
bcdomit [ban the writer df x in. The clitferc-nti' between ihe m^ 
position^ in tact, rcducoe iuclf to vcrr mudcmte limjis* wlien we 
examine ihe whaliiiiic ground on which it rest*— v». on the fact 
that according to ihc wrtlci of vFi ^Aoc^ ih ivipyt\ti. wheiiraji acLuiO- 
ing 10 the v'hter cf x it i* not ivipyrta, but attends anil ' pctfcca' 
\i — thp fnrmnlfl of vii hrlng #Wj»yrwi nw/tTTj^if jrnp ^ jAa*^ (vii. is, 3), 
Uld djAl of X TvXoDt r^f /tZ/ryrtJiv ^ ^^vrv (x. 4- ^)' If^liic wnEer 

of vii infers— fM^7<cu and ^»T7 aw conv«ml>le (crms (where vital 

furKlioriH an? roiio^rnnl)^ then the itri^tta ij'vj^^f rtt' rifwr^i', or 

i^o^tDrid, will be a (JBtwq. Pl*[nly, ilns position (identical it tnay be 
aoivd, with that of the writer of Met. \. 7. 107a b. 16) diff*ra only 
irrtmlly from ih.if of Aristotle in Z."-A", i. *!. is oiiWi' *q fff.nrfA«inn 

J^rt r^ tjAo^v £¥ iavT^. licih mnsier and diacipl"" are fundamentally 
aE one: iKHh cunfieel llie moaL desirable pleasnre tnsejanibfy with 
the life of viriuoira activity— against ibc Iicdoiiisls who coimecl it 
»i(h iht piMivff life of personal i^njoj-mem. Perhaps 1 may venture 
to formtilaTe llie difleicncc lieiwci^ii ihe writer of vii and the 
licdomttd in thi* way- — -The wriicr of vii aa^&^Mbc Good (mcan- 
mp the sirtnuouw pvrforoiance of Ihe highest duty) is Pkajurc'; 
the licifonifii« say — =Pleiu,[]re (mrai^inK the pleasure of aen^e) ia 
the Good/ The writer of vii coirica to the 9iit:ijctl oT plc^asurc with 
a bim grifp of the AristoiciJin definition of the Good : ha identi- 
Gcalioii of 4^1^ md intfyrio itt n pieee of scholasLiciBm wIileiIi i]c>r*t 
not affect hi!^ po^ilioo as a moralist ^ It in bccau^ he doe» not sec 

* KflBOW 'ffirjfA. pp 4M. 40l tvtievn ThtT rhe iimtLW in vA. it tji*. 
figgqlt>ir<l rfOin ThAr m it, hih n 'hnluntihc chant^Ifr': Tt« cijs— ^ IVsdtf 
AbhuuliiLn^n iTinrrii-ni in di-ti wr^mllichit'^n i'linclcn. Jm iFhiil«fi Kutihc 
rri dL« I-dkT vnn drr Thatigk'lr gpumclffri 1,1 Jj^ b. ^j), «□ dov ti« mchU ah 
It bloHV QubIlial cltrvlbrn fnuLicJnt, im lifbcntfn wir) i.K als l^i^^m 
^vff^lifTdi defintrlL ^u cchnic buuh belidnipri (Ik Aniichu dnu die l.att 
du hoJutc Cur Ki, flm ijcWTitc nchf, wje >iclt bei Kincr <*>« undojiicWDuoi* 
(cviRfn bbl. ^abmchcinlich nl michcTi, tJAii mindeilcQi ciuf Au ilcT 
Lott das dp'om' iffit Sclion tilt^ An»lt:]u fcrijct. um dte Ablujii1liin|[ 
dci fkttfiiica bucbn th uiicdit fU I^eniiidiJt^ifU: ilrnu sic wUMc cW 
AfhColciikdjm l^dilk cini^ii liedurii^litchcji ChankCcf miMTiiLkcEi» i1c-r mi: ihrm 
ADKhovaDBOi lUTcretnbar i»t-^ 1 difftr fiom itilt view In i^t) at- 


liasb, I, this thai Aspi-sms (151 llcylbui) — who Mim* oai to lie ihe wrte ^|Q 

of ihc 'notable acholium' diacovcrcd by Br^ndis in ihc V«iicui Hi^ 

(quoted by Frii^-sche, £.E. p. 189^ and by Graiii on vH. 13. i) Bq 

^L — tiiiiiks of ' EudcDiiis ' (to wliom be coiijvtLur^ly atuilruica tlic ^^ 

^1 treatise rt/iX ^Bdp^c in vii) u; merely airinj; 'a probaUe opjnaori' % 

^H ('^'Y'^P'' t'vfi6^^ vc rVAt iJiiT^M Ti^ J/iirrmi* Xfytiv)) und not gfvinff ki9 1 

^M nvn icd view, in ihc 5iaicment (vii. ij. i) i&irTf I'l? & td ^Appi^ tv 1 

^H 'HArn'^, chf^n, IK dKrti«ited lifr^ in the «;cvrmh. ^ ii i« in ch^ tNHh^r^^ 

^H bcx)k, ro rfhJion tv J/if gwJ-^i.e. nol theoretically, 4s inlcrntin^^^^f ^^ 

^M from a physiological or psychokt^cal pt^ini o( view, but «ith 1^ I 

^1 pracriciil refcrence. In oiher i^'ords, the obji^ct of th« Mn|iiiiy !■! ■ ■*! 

^1 not to Icll U5 what plca&urc i>. but to tell us vtnt it c£vf — bow ic*« im 

^M hinders, and ho^v it helps virlxjous ftcLion— tn short, 10 fAxcc itE^^^jj 1 

^1 rdaiton to the practical end in a ime light, as ngsinsi the crroneoiic* tr^»^ 

^P \kv3 of others — extreme Plaioni^t^H on the one »ide. who hcM tbau.v^rlj 

pleasure can only hinder morality, and hcdoniau of the CytewJoJ_ja„ 

sismp, on th<! other sidr, wht> held thai pas^iive enjoympni h th^^cf. 

chief good. It is true that llic followinpf ch^iptcr* abound '"^J^-^-^ 

ciciremcly abstract considerations, which mi^ht eaailybt nibtakcf»^^^f^' 

for ^vl11lI a trHrrvn MrboJAStioifm haA To ofTer as phy^iolo]^' 3n»^^ ^ 

psychology; but we musi remember that an ab>trjM;l KboUjlirj 

ireatmeni of the Bubjecl i?, in part, forced upon lh« wrtier by ll;^^^ 

nature of the argmnenis whkli lie tuut In mrrt — tuiit iW «air^ ^^! 

remark Appllea to the writer of ihe tre&tisc in n. If, however, ' ^^^ftffli 

turn to the doctntte concerning ijioifif which mny be exlnded 1^^ ^ ^ 

ihe ^, A^ and i?, /T. elsfwliere llian from the treaii*es in vU ^*9^ tfi^ 

^vc find that, not bcinp; itdviinccil in el polemical fonn, il ^^^^^Jt^r 

from the subiletiea whit^h mark (and. it may be thought, mw^^ ^ 

tlisnissions in vii, and a]j«>, ibnufrh prrh^jw in x km A-grev/S^;-^ ^ 

in X. We must be careful, then, not lo ■^onoufKC tht *'i^^Xi> At^ 

vii and X worthless, because v««bc^ c n c( n UnJj ^ctaJM-^/ 

difflLuliiL's 5*1 cJe^trly ciponrd V 



riHtonimst who coniKCt tht 
neiloDieUk bc^Ofc n lUit' 

iiTicl (J' in rf^itfilLur 

sooK vn: chap. 11: §5 1-3. 


Ui Ext^ifimaiiim tf Sir W. HamtUon's PhiioiopJ^. yi'iWUuh^^ 
\% rfkvvU only ii^mM wriLcr^ who piotrsft to give ari 
lo the purely »cicr)iific quctuon — *\Vhai is Pltuatiw, a« « 
i^lologlcnl or p«}T^o]og1ciil ph^ncirnennn } ' MUl has Utile 
icully in showing that the formula in^/ycm aH^nJAujiDf, as re* 
uc«d 10 ' Fkuurc m [he rc^lc of 2 pleasurable slate of ihc sctifc 
D(J & plmurf-givHij^ 4|iialii^' in ilii> object prrw^nletl li> \t,' is 
pcniilicaJly wonhl^u* But he fuls U> j<c llmt the red obiect of 
writer* ift, ju hii been »kd. to eipbii^ u-Iul pkafiute f/cvr — 
jl bfljif- cr hituleTH ihi? aLainment of llir rlhic;i] enit— ^ car* 
^v fW^iui, It ih inAcpirablc from ivftryrio, enhlttccH iviftyrut, 

^^>r*ut, V9« the rormula in vtiich Aris^toile ind hiit tchool tum^ 
up ihe le^uIiA cf ihieir practical enquicy. TIiIk fanituU cannot 
taken out of iEa scttinf; in the practical enquiry. At it iii by Mill, 
»OUl being oniTply mUrcprcBGni(d> lift uue algniricance, mb^od 
Mjtl, h that it 4iM!ii.i Ltie op[KMiEf ot ' Pk uaurc ix ytwoii or 
rX^pvQic* — thftt it iTLfttnttins ihc paramouni importance, in 
\ittt lire, of lie pTeaiurei of j^live fufictJoti, ugai»^ thoie who 

lorrd iliem — tlic hri]ori«*, because ihry wished to reiogiilse 

\y the plcdifurea of lifDirX^^irih, or pauive reception, (u worth 
ling — the ascrijc Plaionist* hpcawsc ihey wished, in their 

jumciit 4^.utut the hcdonitta, to<lwcll on plouiurei which could 
If be shown to be unMCiif^tory. 

rX6f] Thing* ar« dlkd ^tf*>p/ Or **i^in the eiHct s«nB«, when b.a. 
krdeil fls mraim, or hvu]T\vt\vin. rn-h^Ft-tivtrly, ro iht^ aEfninnieiii 

ifi«*i(i, When ihcy gzt cftJIcd itood or bid in relation to 
ir erdfi, ila ends have to be vpeciCed; the tenne good and bod 

t, in Ltial ciuif, lir u*ril by ihtmwrlvcn— I'^irXfic or aimf^ititif—^ 

II further spcciflc^EiorL. 

ttq»*T| i'. f. ii. 4. Mil b. 38, t. Q, 

tW X^^w] MuiClUs conjectured Jir^ rol >t<iXa xa^^u', atid b. 7. 
^r^ ror /■4iAA7rd J^|:^|l^ The Aid, Schol. hot iii» rgC ;);at)jf(i' 

I'jtoAipuf ivere pdcp^x^P'^E- Asf>. haft rd* f^JhitV^va 

] N9 fkoiurt it goijd^ Thia w*i» the view ^. ». 
''t (ad Acp. noEe»): sec Aul. GelJ. ix. 5 
erirt i»umm«m mahirn ilicil eswf volup- 

"bum est fmrririr fiaXXov ^ '^Btirjv, V/l 


BOOK Vii: CHAP, U: 55 3< 4- 

llftS b, B. KoBcb. Praep. Evnnff, xv, 13 (quoted by Mulluh /Vdf. i'i*^^ vol 

of ?Jfl[o) alxti hrld rhai nti piraxitrr U ^noil Stt^ vii. 13. 1 fur I 
^jjumcnt uttb wloch to nnfiintair]c<[ this po^Eion : r/I Aul. (k11- 
uc- i3 (quoicti hy Frilasche) ■Sp<csippU!t vetusque onnnifl Acickn^i 
vo1ii|it!iu-n) [^[ dolorrni duo inalA euic iIicuul opposiu inirr kcsc.' 

MO, T019 SVnai <.tX.] ThK as FriifBrhf* rthsp-np'fs. h ihf virw oft 
Ploco [Phtith. 4$ A. ^qq. uhcrc it\r/f7<u> KuS'iifau 'tftuum arc diniti — 
fished ftctn >iLAT4i and ciidiAifjrDj rf^otatj^ 

b, 11, £n K,r,X.) riatoV view, cxprcncd in the PMi&hj^ and rdeiTcit:^ 

ifAoi^ Tulyufliif. The \\cVii of ^, A". X in alMJ ;l^ iVV^faAu ^Thu t&^ 

For BekkCT'4 ii^a^u in b. % flywattT read* n* ^iyq^ii with K"^ 
This is riot k.i be uiiiicrntootl as iIjc ^uffj/r^Km limum. hoi simply i^ 
' that which ia pood." * They thmk ihai no plcamrc ia f|?ood, either 
in itself {as ihc iiprrai arc ^rtod in themselves), or rcbdvely (u 
Jiir^irai arc iclitively good) ; for " good " iind " plca»i4 * a/e noi 
[he same/ 

b, ja. i4^J The Piirnph. expUinii the conncxbn between this $ 9tnA 

IXut pJif aSr gAk dyaOdfl :. ', Dt^^/n ^Sov^ tivai cynMv bL 9. 

b la. !fi - , - oUCa] Thtf reference here ciiinoi tor, in jotfiCe. oufhl 
noi fo) be [o Plaio himself, for he did noi regarvl a/1 pln^iret as 
>ihViu : see below note on vii. i J. 3* ^ 6- Tbc phnae yinm m 
^i^tf4k» ai<r6rjTff doct not occur v/frholm in Plalo's writing* (oltbougb 
oi-nTrX^jifiurim-tifl^jTv doi.fc in Ph<kh 51 B: we Fritischo, i?. /! p. *Bi); 
it waa probably used in the l*Iatonic ^chooI, however; perhttpo, 
Fricxeche thmks, by Spcusippus. Il miyhuve been borrc«^ from 
ArisLippiiB (ulio is probably icferred to in Phikh. 51 C Ips vi^ 

^Aov^i) : An ex[>res«ion ofhis preiened hy DiOj^' I-^r li' 8. 6h 85 
(quoted by FiiUtche, h\£, p. t&j) icw^mbJea il -A^t^nwuvr rtlm 

ore v/f: TrnK'Tr: ^ 4- «S^^W 

Paraph, givcfl the following- version of the worcis before us HlSft b.18. 

JwMX*ip^vt^ iTuo-a fi^fff yJriirU iirnr tit 4*^a^^ alaSirif. ^ y^p uv Tijr ^tiMrir 

^'»*^*j, ^ flj ^<wflj( ATfhif^ T* 9i artiiti vim Ittiv ayttfivf, ^ ^Art"^ nyi4 
W« fcrTU nya^i^V ayudiiv yi\ii fri ff^i; yrynv6if oir r^ yina0in' "ii yixp liXTtr 

jFn 4 fH^pur ^^ai tAs *j5*vdfl] This flrgum^ni irrnsi noi b»t>l*i. 
MLTrbcd 10 Plaio liimsptf. He recognised ibe vuliie«f the (jIpiHurc!* 
which aitcnd ihc virluous life: ftcc Phtfth. rt^ E JlAflf i* {So^c 

dkqAit «1J fnf^hif 4f *tii9t, rj^fJ^fftf oirrim ^^jv ifrffjf', <'ii ff^t rfiUTdir ~1 

*tvatftf Prfrv 'jffrtfliij 'y>yy-f^<fiii tiira ^ni'o}i vvStrurt navrfi, riH/ras >iiyn*' 
rf «Y ttryvCvai. Tilow 4Melic:i who iirguc llial ' pleasure is baJ 

because (he v^puof aroido plc^taorc' faEI into the error noticed in 

£iV' ii. 3' $ '^ '^'^ Api^titrm Tdt o^ifl^t ow^Btiitt rtvai mi i^pf^jai' 
oAi f^ Ai^itri Att\&t XiyovatP^ iIaX' o^x ^' ^^ '^^ ^^ ^^ ^<^ ""^ ''''> '^^ ^^^ 

In A ^p^jMi ri ciXuTnr Btf^Mi, ob -ri ^tJ] Scc cK t;. t 7. The 1 

Fsraph. iw* — 6 <ftp6tt!MJt T^ dyafiov J1ti««A. rr;if ^i •jSnrifv ui ^vffL BuE 
ibe gooil which thr 0/jifiA>ii]r te^ki in no^ an ahntriotion : k is ntwnyx 
fliTni concretely ir the vXfr of iht- human afTcciiona ft^^d pistiions : 
\i it tiKTefore incorrrci lo v^y ihni ihc ^jj^M^^^cr ijhun« f^badurc for 
th( absence of [jLiin. Piftature for p1e;isurc'ft s&ke \ie sbmis; but ■ 

oot plcoaurc as the vehicle of tiaty. The dictum of Atilislhcne^ 
ccpreaws pf«t[y exactly ih4 Arisicti«]mn (and Eudomi^n) docirii3« 

of die rehliOD of tf^P^rrimt lO f/fiavfj — 'A*Tirrtfiflje hi r^ ij!iny»)lf dyt^itw 

lach,/>iwm- ^A'^. li. aKO). 

fn ^in^^toi- H.rX.] Uui ihfr pleftsLiri^fl of ihought sLimuTato, do not b. 18. 
hiniler, [h4jD[*h(, as v^LU he sho\\'n k^er on. 

Tp Till' d^pof tvtuv] Su*cmihl and By^aWr read t^ with K*', M^", b^ i7 
Oauihr-, Tut BcLicc'^ rqv. 

fn T^ri) iT.X.] No iiT^umenl of ihtK kind m Plato, According to b> IS- 
Spcii4(el, p. 515, quoted by FiiUachc. 
VOL. n, i^ 


BOOK Vlf: CHAP. 11 : {§ 4. 5" 

1158 In vai^La n.rX,] Cliildr^n »Xii biutc» seek picftnre by An trr^- 
tional impulfiC (fi^Araf ^t^ijk^vr^ Psraphi), and thlL vhich is thus 
4ouglit carniof be gcod. From thk i/ery ^ci> that chiTdrvn aorl 
brmes sceL pteasurc. iljc C)Tcnaics. Frilawche oWr\cft, dicv like 
opposite coiicluB:on — tbAl it ia ffooJ. 

i, 32, tNwiSTi) ' unhealthy,' 


i«ju^ /aa/, ornvH^^i ii it ntiftJU CAi^ C^ifJ i _fyr id lAfjr f/ttftt iJu/ktf 
thai n liing may 9n * ^p4A' an ftthtr ^/n^ jfMVf— /hri/r'/Mtf dAvAi^/ «r 
*j^ffff^t*fs/tptfy.' TAtn art 'fMthritu wK-a/ty f^f^aivm mSitA mn ^Mii rrUtt^f^ 
to hiuf fir ittipairttl liatiti anJ Ho/tirtr, ami vAh'A art cfioefmtwtiy idtf ; Stat 
iifrr art a/jf fifaaurtj whuh art jcwd QhotfU/y- 

<>> Ths.yiptert i/it fait ifita ths ttrn'gw^^ m^ te »fffiM t9 a« attmi 
Jtmrttim, itt ^ivii ttt ifl a ^tflif frr wrndtfiam- II it dvpid tM^ pUMntn £r ' m^ 

fftffffaiiffK 0/ mn impaired it^lg .- hut tkr pifAiurtt ef tAttMt^ tfT /tfgati/w. 
whith arg noi *prcrt'sti ttnvariir Ike rtttorati^a r/ iwtpmrrJ rttia* imt fmmc' 
tien) fHt forth by a ptr/ui ittUe. £vin cAt fiit^utt ^tTrn^itf 1^ t^Oi^^tiMt 
^a tie/itly wanftt rra/Zy u ' /uncihH yut /fftik* Jfy om uum/eirrd nmtS^mi im 
tht *ictf rrfUin'Hff rtHirratifn. 

7''if *ffVMHtti * t/ n ttaU. t\en, it Kfif lAt tii/y Ar tkf iiff^*U ' gt^dmti ' '. 
Aert ii o/w tAe * x^oJ"*"' <*f fff^titn prvciniinii from jtJ4t, and iHt u ri# 
AigAer i^iuf v/* fctHdrteti.* 

7>Hi if is HP/ ft/^^mry ta sHppttt lAof lAfrt it itrnviHitx Atitfr tJk^ 
p/ tkitntiis 'Mttrrkun' tAt frXfii tmMnJt lAr tnti : /^ ^tionnv w 

ft it fvtArra 'fun.Htn pr^fi<fi"x /''"f** i '^ ■' *■ '^^ rtjUifd tytht f^Jlttt 
ijuA 4/nv|' nrmrtAtH^^ mrt <jui tcni^f^iriftx 4 fr^tsj , tm// ij it Ar Afintd, ra§e mm 
a ' prcfiis ef whkhGtu iM tonsfiotti^' ^t as ' uitimprdttt fumtim^ 

Th/wt art t^mr apiit, tj-/ui,jpriin£ nttf^Afr m/Mting A* *frwtn^ *dmt^ 
plmtu^ and ^frsirii' ttiaujt, /hiy arffui, pUamrt it thfifittfi^ gmi. Ji/jr 

hcAiih. II .tbimni—/£r n-^n tUnhnx ii tameftntu h^d f^ itf«Ai. AViTW 
rkffH£A/ nfitany/itutyii AinidirtJ iiyxa own^tAivn, 4Miy fty tUr^ //£ 

BOOK Vii: CHAP. IS: \ 1. 

Ai^tit4rt Mitg' Its ar/ 1/ fi'^tui^' iAtii i/ jiift w^nl tut mtgkt tj/^ti 

A%/9r tki arjfumeHf that lif tfttffr/tJf mtttt lAtfx fitojutt^ itnJ tht fnt/intt 
0aMM tMti tki lift Jnm'i ff f^af rar&tr thjtn M/ ttjr it/ ^/.livre—r^-/ nHnMr rf. 

( L |i^ ttrat dfaOAr fiiitj v& IptcrTov] An Midiclct ncte^, (lie USS b. S(. 
pTt4«ni chapter dcab wiih »i^ Jhk aya,9ov^ an<l ch. 13 V'lih ^fj3J ru 

irp«w» ^iJi- , - . na^vJiTuv] Th* apodoslfi begfns b. 37 with *ol aX b, IW. 

^i>ff*ii. The term t«o^i>ud^tfoirtfii' mij^E In? understood in menin, noi 
oniythni thp jccncral diatinciion, formulated in the prota*ia. between 
ri f^XMr dya96v and rd fi"J 7£f/// ht fotmd cppiicabU So J^itfloil <^vffB« 
luii rf*iL,^vitb iht^if nv^iTfii (IIkI yfrt'ofH, hiii ii)*0 that a ittrtfipimifrng 
goatrai di:slinc[io(i belnccn ru dfrXof 4<hIW au^ rii xtrl m^y be 
inferred (on ihe principl* laid down in X JV^ v. i, dKo^ovOt? 

XryftrAitV 3J^d ih^t it ^v]]| bc found Jift[>licaUc to ^aCXm (^i^crco ml 

*"|<*f, *ith their ■i/'^.ttK and y<«<u«r. The Pamphrait kcl-s this — 

hmkit rat cn^ ou^ kaI rtfffvf , «c 9 '^p'^. ^^ ^' i^^ VRX»r ^(v ayo€6v, 

«>«^, 4 ^' ^vi. djiMmt tfdj fVl rai> innv. vji^irfif yip. anl ftfw'^ttf, teal 
■HI ^M\\ol rm. 'ii ^ 'nfs tiki ffirifrci', kiH iiy,'i-fvv xp&ftt^ 

ThL- irRumcm in thi^s §, direcicd ng^nitjsi »■ ir>ovT-j ^7 ttt^j <S)«ifJui, 
f-^ qftji^r, nmj' be cxplAfued ai follows- — When we siy thai 1 thing 
ifl ■good,' we Tnean, «ilher Ihai it is good without qualiJication — ■ 
gOOil in iJSplf \ thiTft Wisdom is good in iis^lf, wiihout qualification-^ 
or \Y\sX it U good in a qualified sensc^— Tioi in iutclf. but in rctaiion 
CO something c!bc: thus the venom of a make is pood in relatJon to 
ibe wt^lfaie of the >t[iiikir, l)ie aznpLiiation of a limb is good in r^la- 
tkm 10 the siurvival of the paucnt, but ihcy are ' bad ^ in ihemscK'ci 

— e/,Ji/,Jf,tL 7, 130$ A. »5 fffTt >dp ij ^uiTir 9avA% orflf ^ T«W 

Wj chap, 12: 5 I- 

Now. ihosc wlift My rounJl/ that ■ no pTcasurci txt |p>od ' r«ga^u 
«xclufiivc-ty moHonn xncA proccMc* (in»^tf*u mi >firf<r*t), whicfc ir ^ 
* goixl ' tiiily tri n Hallve iii-iiar. am! ' bad ' in iWowelvn — vit tttf"^ 
rrotif>ns nnd pfoccMcs" which belong to bad or impair^ vottx 
\^^fTtis) and flt;(t«s [*iitc). Thr^ motions And proct«ip« (rquira 
in tlic view i^r ilic pbilosopluTs here criLiciii«d, to tlic pJcanrea 
bad oaiHrcP arc good for ibc posf.i:s3,or3 of ihc had itftturctf (b*i 
thfir ffvm pka5ur*s,seeX A', i. 8- lO), but are in lli«nwehw« bad ^^ 
f*,f, unAorihy of human nature: the motloni aad prooesic^ o^lH 
remedial kind, which rcBtore impaired natures and states lo ih^^«^ 
nnrma! rflndirion, are good for ;hc posscison: of the impai^rr-ty 
n^iliirr» or »uir<,, 1iu[ had iii Ehfrnf^lvef^" — s\f. itot ri]aractcri?4i^ 0^ 
hcahhy hvHTiJin nature: indeed tlicy arc often not even fdt n 
plefl«urc* by th* patients, bul arc only thought 10 be pleMttJW 
bcLdUM.' ibey itriTiovtr pain. It Ja fjum UruLiiiji; exi.1ifHvrly, ihem. 4t 
these 'pleasures' — ihc 'relarivcly j^cod but 'imrinnraUy fcttrf' 
niotFon« ftnd proees«o« of (t)bud, nnd {a) impaired na^urct ind 
MaCeA, thut they draw llnj sweeping ctmclusioft — ■' no plrasurr! trc 
d^d/ They ignore the existence of pleasures (indicated in ibe 
next 5) bcTonpinp; lo ihft fret" activities of the nittoinfl] nsture of 
niaif. whiL^Jt ab lalioual. in good in Itbeir, and suiT<>T9 tio Icten 
needing painful repair The arp:un^eni of this {> 39 gi^^^n Bbov^ 
Ik snniTnefl u\i Inier on hy Ihp writer him^ieir — vi\. 14. 4 al at 

intovOainP iij nnm 1^ ijiV^vi) Atrl iim tuvTtt, wTRr^ viti^nri, on a! ^r ^/oAm 

On ibe Fp-mind ihai EhrtJ^tAmntJi^cficmi^hrTnhriciibclhdilcvf Inthe 
Mmc mannei aa the f noiiAntiJi. Raaaow (/VjtA pp. &i. S»\ cod)cg* 

lUrvl; ibaC ftncraV'*' 'Ir^vr <7MbAai b, 19 the W^n^l nE SJ rb^ 0ip ^aIh 

havr^ fAllt-n oui ; fiiid insimd of undemandjng ii*X^( iHih v^ttrai 
ft" oiS b. 31 (m Hckker's t^™-, nJ^rrfiJ a" iri; require* cf. Aid. ScfaoL 
«i^i At jro^ npTDf il/ivrnl amt riVii'), be conjectiiref jt^In» «^rrW, Atk 

tf oA, Thib luH cimjeL-Eure Uccepiv^d hy SuB-)giveK,1cbiDlE. Qgot^l 

mcaninffj ind ijj palneoRrttphicfllly probable. Bpmo's ^vt^ 
^t^A^ir) 1^' fr^ L 3? does not «eein to me 10 bring Out Mo «■■ ihv 
contnmi inicn<led, which is Wtwren ibe AirXvir ^fXat AX' o^sfral t^ 
JXtyAV ]rj>^">v, and the ^>«t ^vXoi JXX' ikf^irrni t^tt nvvra w ^w. 
So fur fl< tbf auihoriiy of A*p- goec^ T ihink ihat \i li (jqlie as moeh 
in favour of supplying Jn as i«X«s — of ti olAi aipmi t^. uLU 

BOOK Vli: CHAP. 12: 

--U^C insetlioD of w ftr f^fi ^iv ^vXai in b. 39 (accepted by Sua.). 
Tfad* would favour RasiAOw'B. 1 think misiaken^ view thai dwXuf i^ 
locil in IWD sniac?* in UiU §— -in Jlit clause ri >jif yi(i (hrXut ri A< nv* 
ia iuordihnry MnsCt cl» dcJtncd in 7'v^. ii- Ji. Ji^ b, ig r6 d* itvX^ 
'Vrip & ^^»^t ffpoffT't't'k'rof <l^i* '■ft vdA<ik> /trnir f t^ iKa»fiw — 1. ^.^ 

per Jr, 'in iCwif/ 'wUhouL qualiticauon/ 'In the absciu:!,' 'ohne 
EiimclirAiikuas, schlcchihin ' ; buL in Lbf cIauhc di ^V JirXof n.r^. 
b. 3{> in attoihcr lenv^ meaning * gcnen]!},' 'in the majority of 
ca^ca/ lA t]|jpu<iril lu tivt, < ill an cxLepLiuiml ciue.' Kur llns %rcnnd 
cncftDin^ of ifarA«a Kasdow quotes K.N. v. r, 9. Mirjb- 3 v«p2 

^trrt ^v drXttt fitl cfyu^ii. ri*i 0' otff <irt, BuE if fvnXht \\\ v- 1 , ^ Iti^-An^ 

'gerwnllj,' 'in tlic majority of c.ihc^,' na djeLn^uicb^d from 'in 
ittdf '^why 1* A»{ vU^ed ? Th(" wriier of v. i. 9 mtaniir 1 ukt il, 
tittt 'moiicy ' i^'i') ill ukLA or in ihc iibslraci, is aUnyH [Cf;urdvd 
tt KWWLhirig S*^od; ttiOUi^li uhcn w« view it in iJic concrete — 
(ju^flrd ail 'tbr (rcrlli^nlr^V mnnry* — we? may ihink of ir 'AS a bad 
thing- So in ibc [ircMmi { {vil. ij, 1) «lnXAv nia), 1 ^ubmii, be 
trvttkited * pn se* in belli pUcei uh«rc- it occun. 

<J V oi5B" ^Bowfc] 'ntfdmii oi^fm;' (Ranisaucr). The motions b. 31. 
whki:l] fjfcjcrril from a TkhJ nmnrr, though good and pteA.^ani 10 thai 
rtftlurc* as bdng iia own moLiojis, sic in themselves bad; the 
rnot:cnA which tlk called forth to allay p;iiji and want arc not good 
in themselves, or *;ven jhle,i5aiil, bui aro chosen merely at less 
cviid tl&in ihc ^dln and W4n( whirh [hey allay. No wonder that 
thotc who confine their atlc^jiljon to molioni of these two kindi 
ariH* at (he conclusion \\y\\ ' plrnsun? i* nfiT good,' 

j 3L 'n ' - ■ TTj« ^iJiJovs odii jv&tauf oJoi^s] In J I ibc writer has b- 33. 
nfcrTi.'d lo Lh^ [ormal c]isim';tti;jn hchvccn to tmhiot a^^B^v and ro 
nn pyAlw, in order to siig^^L t[» Itrx u]i|M>nent!(' — vJ \iffivft^ },i\ f'tfu 
dyodbr TiJ» ^&»Vi 5ri ariiffu f;fto*]i ywiirii iOTt*- %h ^uliw — ihc onc- 
BdcdncM of ouuminfjr, w ihvy do, that only ' rf^ULively good* 
[ilefliurr^ txiRl^^nly thfMr which are ' good ' Ab ri»)if*ic urui yTvi'mir 
whereby ihe oaving^ of some inferior or defective ^vou arc saLiB- 
ficd -. kimilarly, m ^ a, he now refers to another formal diKtincEion — 
that bclwcciL tA nr' iVpyrmv dyntftiB' d^nd rb xu^ iftv d7<iJ^i', in oLiIer 

to bttmAi« to hl» opponcnU Out ihcy err in usuming that the only 



SOOK VII i CHAP. Us 5 a. 

USB b. 33. ' i^Qod ' ihey have lo conftider In ihl9 conncxf on ifl thai of &\k <SjP^. 
They arj^uc — the «6itaa ctid,is " gcxjd " notl real' ; llicrcfbrc |>lc^^^ -Cii*l 

hUrCi which 15 ^ yivtfftf 17 jca^'iTraiTD r;* r^r f^wr4«^t ffiV| 13 TlOt ' J^OO^^^^^kI^ 

or ' real ' iii in own right This h ilw argun»*^ni for which Sooai 
gives lhftli]i.& ill PhiU^. 54 C. I^ oAnJvjr ^Aurj ^, inrp yimmt 4vt 

4vri4i ri'vi QuvtciE 4^ if¥**yit'is yciffakr <■»,*. ai^c^f ry p^t"Mrarri r^i 

buL ihc ' gcx»d ' of Lhc *C^< \u not the only ' ^ocid ' lo be cooiidcrcd M^i 
this connMion, The /{ip f» for tho sake of tUf »w>yr« which pr-^K^ 
cceds from it, md (he uvVyiw in ' good ' in n mQr<r cmtncni Kii^ .risp 
than the 'f*r^ Wljatif pka^urc he. net a 'morion «-hich gctK^:atc. 
met (r;iirjmc=y/*«mr] lh« /fip. but 1 function which proceech Tfc^^j^ 
iE^4 ^v ■^I'tTLK^s «£«uE ^B^Y*L<^ ^^^ >*^ ^'^C ^'^^ olaia of tliC tf^^^ 

I'hit, it i« mig^c^icd, is ;i point wliich H overlooked by «i Xiy<*nt ^ 
It 1:1 thus in lhc form of criLiciMn that the writer tntrodiic^ la 

own theory of pleasure xt Ivi^ftv^ rrjc kotu ^vm* «£■»!. Aitd ii u 
Eo b« noipd how cornplelely \\c mak^ft hJn own ihfory occupy tbf 
l^iound from llic wry fir*t. Not only arc lhc ^Awni' of ibou^ 
which involve no pain or cravtrt^'t 4*<^yttfti tqi ■«t4 ^ri^tr i^iat. but 
ewn ol liL^tfiir Jirii aJ >fHffrie ttl ta&iarAaM *h ^v 0urti(i^f rft^^the 

gttcntivc niotione which resiorc a *^i— dcjjcnd on the unimpu'icd 
part of the J(.r — ijr the *£-(■ /'rf-f unirnpLiiic*! ^7 t+i^ifctrfft cfit^— per- 
I'onnjng i*ii /i-r/rync, and it in ihi* /tt^iy^ioofthf udimputml pan oC 
(he '6<i ^r of the *£>' ^ja/ uT^impaJrcd, which u» the pleAvurc — iLerc- 
fore no merely urcondar)' anri apparpnt pleasure— experienced in 

connrxion with ihr* yti^tnx^ 6vim\iifwitt\^ nr Iiir]Hia. by ^'hLch % WaDt 
\> »li^fied. If the ff.s wrrc entirely dcairoycd — had no rctniont of 
viLfthiy left m it, it could not (w rcsiorcd. 'l<rrpfio inapli«« the ni 
mtdicatnx na/urar. Tlw pltr^ai^rc txj>riieiiccd in rotoratloci It 
thus the r^tjcficn of the m^msiti, ^uif unimpaired* a^akitf tbe pain 
uTtd vunt or li*t pardally inLpiirc^d condition. Thcro are, bovevtr, 
other pleajiures which arc lhc iponinneoius nfitont orf (hrir tint. 

Tl^c pa&saEc \lt\ b, j,i . - - ofl""!! *- 1) may be pvaphta^ u 
follow* — ' Again, the term *' good " h applicable to a funcito«i aod 
tij A Mate :— lhc imturjl Wair being ^"i^'iiydi" (lie atiutium which 
restore a man to il arc, of course, " good," and " plcaMM '' dcriva- 
livtty. If these "moEfonn" are what wt are 10 Q^entand by 
"l^tfaAurcs." then our opponents have ntadc out tlicil caae— 'iM 


plcflsaren art ^* good." Hui we tntiKt not klbw them to flop short ilSS b, 98* 
ai tht "^oodnesft" t/ t^^ mtrr xf>Vf. The "gxjodocfta" of its 
^fiatJfvm ia bi^ltcr : and when dnittc for rcatoralion is hc'mg tMix* 
A^-d, ihc SUtc, in 90 r»t as it rcmam» parUy unimpaired, perforins 
aTuncrijon: It U iJii* furiaion which is ihe pleasure expericncpJ 
in liic itilOE^tivc proccftft— -noE bm [Jiit; there Arc ptcMHUrca williout 
wcomiianj^ing patn anJ cl<^irc — for ineiUncc the functions of 
thought, procpcdln^ from a suic, or faculty, trhich Uck^ nothing 
Lo the folncMi of its naLutc^' As;iusiuH hu a gnod c;>t[]mci]}- 

^14^^ t HcyLbat) — mti ^ ro^ oyd^Di^ tA ft^v (W^iyiu r^ Ac (f^Fr bi rftf 
liiir ^yn^i' rt/jrr^, iff /wpry#j« ^ ^ hit' dftfT^v «'m^i/i^ flnJ oTrtAjff*? /*<V 

•11 TJf tftCotTt ^tai, tpoifyuvfiroji fi^V yii^ J/A^fi^Oii f^ia t^ Vw/ijfi*" T^r 

^inrrtfq^ cni Au rn^o ^Ai^^tf^if, mr^^jfi'ivi i^r ru rrjutaiun urn dMnrX^ 

uii «f<bif. *£■■ yuj ip^flflir bBfi*v nvra r^ tfu^d r^jr yt ipt'trtf irmXvXttu- 
i/n^r ut hivofu'v^v iv hi't^ (WpyfiF fj^r^BV ^Imtu DirlhJ n()r^k mi^ 

fV 1^ inDjAutA 

='t)ic '^tvi\tjui xvhitli prepuce and rcftlOic f frir ' lo Ik carcfuJI/ 

dittinguifthcd, as ar'Arii (^C Vll. IT. 4 ov^'^m yiffcrcf (ny^>^t twf 

fArfrnp), from l}io f'pfVi7>iai, or furicEmns, whkh prated from the 
JttH. The viiiicr'* jjoinl i* Uiai his opponents, not locking licyond 
* the good 0I thv ifir/ ro(g<-t ihM iheru are JiVftymti proceeding 
Oont ihe «!^r (which arc ' lictirr llinn * thr S^u), ns wril as vEj^frtie 
{^jtnvwn) Ic^Ldljij; up 10 it, The iiyjdciK-y 10 acquicec^ in ' the 
Itood of itiG ini^ro tilt' IE on« lo whkh ihe AnstoLdian tcbooL 
off<rr* oppoiitjoij all .ilong ihi^ Ihif— ^yC /T. A', i. 8, 9 r^v )Jy yi^ 

r jw 'W][<T«ih fiijitr uyn^uv inroriXfi^ vnapf oi/ira*' ji.t.X, Fot the phrj^M 
«j «a9(0Tatfai 'fj *i}k ^LPfnui^t* <£ii' FrilKsche qUOiea PktUh. 42 D rZf ftf 

frfjiMij 'but vhftL performa the function (/.«. df/uaf^ /x^^imfw 


h. 36, 

BOO/C F//; C//>!P. 12: § a. 

p!iiistirf), whrn the desires arc bring uluQcd. is (hat vliidi 
kd o\ [he iiuiuraJ ^iaxc' 'E^ipyaa if, uscii hcrt in a vay «h 
»««m« to inticipaie the i<tentificati<)n Tiudc in f 3. 

"riFoXoivou {K^, NC. A»j)^) nic-Afib 'icmoktin^/ 'Icfl uDIouc 
by the ckc.^y which has d«etroyi;d ih? rest d the sUle : </. m±. 
7^ whkh L4 A complete comn^criftr/ on ihcr prvieni pfttsage— J 

vroftft««Tai iyiovF vpoTrvrrdi ti^ Sis twt^ ^dv 9<NEr< fvcw' ^*c*i A* ^ 
J irnift irpiifjif r^f *<if<WAr r^i^urwr. Thf riding of M^, CCC, 
Cambt. — vfiitXvpinj {sdopicd bv ZcJh Cor*LCN oud Ai!kbclct)v 
plauftjUlc un atcc^uni of KifttTje in the hn* batow, but mutt 
dianisw.'!], 11 mtoiiststeni witJi ihe rov iirtitUvamv ^yvavt of viL 
7- N91 can itic meaning given by ihc Aid Scliol. uad octiti> 

wfrvXAlirou^ viz. ' dcfpclti/f;' (^i r^s XmnaCaftt^tt ^*#4ft4 mmi <'v 11^4^:^^ 
niatjt fitiojfuirvif Aid, SiL,) — suggr>aeil ap|?aieifctty by nur >»A»ur oCff^r^ 
ti»i3 4. 1 — be defended; wrJAcuroi can nican only 'left beb'mil 
■left umouchcd," 'remaining/ L^ and O** have miufim, aad''^^'^ 

jppiirciill^ tiriXiimi^ (ina'i^fn/rs ti imprrftcit). 

GiHLit Ki^c^ ^^ S^^^ of 5 2 t3t<:cllcnily when be mjts— 'Iho 
argunieol ii that it is cnly Uk, and the viiaJ action (^vnifr «^ oi 
rnvnjr n^^jTHfl) whiih IS gOOd and [jltfOTUnt : Ihp trrlfMltUf frooTiw 
>rc onl/ secondarily, non-e»«eTttiaI]y. and by a son vf iitf«jcncc 
p]«asani. . . , The ar^^uirivnt goes on to add dttt, «v«n in these 
rcKtiiraLivc pr[ire«Ne», ihrre is vilhI action (W^u), tuuDrly of dM)i« 
organs that remain unimpAjfcd/ 

jfnLJ The LiauEsJlion marked by ^irtt here may be brouglit am 
ihM.^ — ' Jn restorative processes the pleasure is the r^^iiva ol tbr 
viulicy \ei\ in the «'{» : but Ii imij«( fioi be auppoacd ihoi all 
pleasure is reACtJon, for theie ;iie plcuures whlcb Arc spoBUjimus 
^Jiffrrj,' tor thi& UM of rnJ (=*aIttiough,' 'not but that*) {/^ 


iia» ft. 3. 

(FrUische). ^ ^V.j*/. ji. 7. Ut>!i b, ao finl tf oSriaivi ifit$i ^i 

QOK V/I: aiAP. 12: \ 1, 

pleasure*— that ot HumX'^pwrtif anti (hm of Sia^o*prftiA— arc lI5»».t. 

but like foinKr i« a]>I to be C0iiAjS(.-d vriih \ht accompany in i; ora- 

«A{^HV<v, while ihe latttT m ijnfirstl by ihfwe who, on the Htrtii^-th 

oTlhc corfii^mn. cntirliif!*' ihnt ■ |iJ*-*i>urr iu ntit grxn].' The rir- 

Clinkiuncc, however^ ihai liicrc arc plainly two clisstb of ihingft 

caJIcd ' plca^ni ' (i^ac'dj^ihc one indefinite, ihe other perfectly 

defmlEc — indicitn tbiit chEfe an? two kinds oTplesaure. The flrsi 

lund of pJca»jrc i» rcUlcd lo aayihing tvhkh, hGU>ever kmpor<trily 

t^nS mprrjieiaifyy r/iifiyj! tkt f^ti^mq want {t. g. r6 d^ ta\ ri iri^^jfli'), 

tlK* 3ct€uu! i(j /4rV^x miily pirisanf (rA 0fou ur dirXfl* iJBi) — i. f. to 

a dtfinik ciasii of healthy functionff, and the spccid circumtkLanccB 

jn which — And tn which atone — ihej;e funeliorLs sue manifested in 

tlifir Tull peilL-Lii^JTr. 

The f^lluvrui^ punagc iQ M^M,\\. 1^ 1104 b, C-36rcntlenLhc 
doctniMof vii. II, * cuccllentlyT showing (t] that iLcrc are K>m« 
plea>iiirf«, v'\X. iho^ dirii r«>t Qtax^ilu, and tixct}^ of ^''^^g, Sin<:lilng, 
and bcju^irg, sthich aic obviously tLot yiMum ; and (:r} titac. afier 
allt no pleaiu^T i& a >Vvrff.i — oven itc pJeOHure cxpfnt'iicod in 
«aiing or drvTik.hig \s the /Upytm of a j^ri iif Iho ^"X't, ^^^ 
»ccomp3inic«, but i» not lo be confounded viih> the procc'iA by 

"whicli hunger or tUmt u re^c^vctl — Sc^t yrp ir/ivti« ^jp n^ nufu ff^i^vii 
yttttrH- ri yap nv^ ntv Btir^itif ^Arn^ yiriifunj ovw Zirrit yivrtiit, auK 
4 Am^ ii^ uHWiroL mi {Ittlv ta-J ^itpuuOtifitki. «£ yAp J( tVdrMi« 

v4«p|!^X.iri Li^ncjiriu'duE' iitp ytyttrit vufi riHU, ■) Sffina nai vntpliiiKq 

^ftff- 4 r^ otP^iiiKU'^u wptr\im'i&'). vfttiini dt niii iVi Tr;f 4itJt-via» rirfk 

Afti )^ffit, flJ oSf ^ fuV fjAiivJj. WE A Hc^E aM»v ttpTj. iih roi/tv cIk 
dfatfi£r, Zrt yittoit^ Jirti Ai iu tf^oyti, 4 oJn Virriv ycHcu, avrri At ttfj 
Afa66if. tA Ik iSofr titt imv ouAtfiia i}&n>ii yivuriir vvfti yap tttrai nt 
offO roil <^-^tiif cui mt'iv tjoorul ttvn fiffi -ytPiifiVn tlXXA Rtattafirdirovoiv uJ 
mvrai ^oanurii fiKit roc i^AqBdf yrfcrtir. qioirrm ^'■^i trrf^Ai^ tiji ftftur' 
tpapat ytvttfHiiitt Y^i^Tai i^/lov^. AjA fm>o ymaM ftvai' Zttrx V ot^ 4ir*t^ 
yap Am tqc ip^rg^i^v ti p/f^jr (^ '}A^m'^< ■T^^" ^f> fipwnpfpq Ziw itt^ir /vdiiii. 


^OOK Vn: CNAF. 12: §5 a, 5. 

TV Tijt- jTpw^nfai' iriKfj^ airat^ to it rrjt '^vj(iji fit'/iti/r AnrjXfii; tfj MV f 
tt rtr rhv avSfjiomiv nttrnt tttmt irb/jd, fn rnvm ^v a»H^t^ /rKr. 1^ 
^^y^ ul7' ri/Ti « -yi Kill I'M f^rvxifm AfUHmV Of uU f<T4 rtfvrul'' f^tu fvi^r 
HOpiSv Ti t^t ^'**?* ¥ ^flo^f^fl, & fl/io Tj rrpor/popf tptpy^'i. tko out aiTTd^ 

lT. Si/<m]K»] The MSS> hive Ervt^VrifJEfk, biit fl correction in CCC 
aiuidpate? ihe conjecture of Bomtz — AittrrvHr, adopted I7 Bjr, 

Parifjh U wrong in ^hmUii^ Thai (he wfiLcr [iakk? on hcrr 
diacuss the second of the two poinis milicntcd at the Ixfniuiiiif; of 

^i<rTOk, ^* T&rf* a^Xov, Hr tn slill cuiitcnjcd ttilli ihe fital pumt 

and does not deal with the second till vij, 13^ 1. 

8- tSffTCf nr^ io^i k,1p\,] The argument 'thfti thcr« is scmcihinf 
''belier [lian" pkabure, r /. £on;eih;ng fonhd^ike ofwhicfa pteifurv 
\h t:liow.-it, lK'c3U<ie |]li?a.Hur4- ift on]y a yivfirit,' HlIIa 10 ihtr ^ound, for 
plcuurc 13 nol a yinvit^ P'or the dlftmction bctwce^n the rAai [or 
ovvio) And iho •yirtfftc, OH which lh\f. ttrgumcrt rclicK. kc PAtitSi. 
54 C (iiutilpd by YxW and Friiz-schf) *Ji9>il /fliffTr;* ymcn* JXXit» AkKfc 

Jr) yiynitr' ur, iw r^ rou aya9ifv fn^ft^ ii*iv& 4W1' ri dr TiW m«a 
yi^kv^fMJ' *p'( oXAjji' /foifsai' Bw^iitv. i/i' ot^ ^^»^ y*, ^itfp yi¥*vU **t%, 

^rt** frJ*. ffVKDH' rw fiijn'ir'ii'ri rrjt ijfift^t rtpt rii y«rtai* ft*e, AvnW W 
fii^A' ^imvnw flvT^tf 47"CM. ;v'^^^^ ^JC" ^*''^ i^^Anf y«^ £ri a^c tv« ^mno^Bw 
fAupi^ liyg^^t iiVii' jrjirqv'^9' Hrrc PI^Iq thoiik) Other* for die iix* 
muJsL y«rt<7*'i 4vnw ^ v^Qi^, Scc aJh:} PhUhA XtTi C Jpo vvl q^x^ vh 

yi/i i^ Tirtf [gcnc:raHy itjoughl to be iIk- Cyrcnaic*; sec Gracil, 
£.'JAlcx VoL i. |]. 176, K^fS)' Xl] a£ Tvmr ri/r X^yot /irL;f«i|i»bCi y^B^Jti* 
rj^tly fJf il-i j(aj"* fn'w- The fortmda then was tml iiweiucd by 
Vlnkv, iiiid lie did not 3.\ip\y it Lo the pleasures d ibotigU and 
of the ^i^hcr i<«jii«i, Gxccpi in a way vhich deprives U of tbe 
ajgnific^ince whidi it liab :!■» applied u> lliOGie of «auiif lod 


BOOK \fii! CHAP. 12: § 3- a^^ 

drnliiif^: for, allhniigh he thiubs of ihr Tormrr p1ra«ifrt an lifts *.«.] 

tbf latter, which arc tfrro^Ajiytil >.im^t\ icc ^f^^. 584, and Pkiitb, 
5>. £>- 

Oraoi may be nghl trhcn be aa^'s, upcaklng of ihc Arsumcnl 
0fJkrw i4 rAg* nil yn<Tf«f CMlici&cd in tlic fkft'ftcnl scciion— 'In 
Ul probatuliE)' llie school, and pt^rh^EH ilic iiciual wriElnf^ of Spcu- 
lippcs arc here alluded to-' 

od Y^P Y**'^^^^^ itvlr c^SJ fieri v**'^''^^ ir^iruk] iriVni. of COUri^, ■• ^- 
'(ler* CO oufl* ^ri yviVftff only. No plcafitircn are ><*^tf4»i, althougl) 

valcitl lo oC >iV' >*tf<Vni .^trfi-. luusi bc [rmmlated ao :ts uol lo 

CX^niradicI tbc trulh-'fi<'4 ^inVfur rjvar lyAwot iinu, ^vftffalnu', 
st^ in O1C fonnula of the y}llogi*iiii To/>. \. 1, »nt1 aa on? ><Pniie 
^ Uic icrm !!» defined in Aft.\ ^. 10. 1025 n. 30 (XtVnd <)J »] 

4SrrD olov r^ rpiyavtp tu i».'o n/jt'iii 'x'"*)- '^'ii'l^* ntftsxary- (/ms^qu^nff, 

<u of llic cfTo;! fruni ils cauac, tlic piup^^rrj fiom the csience. Il 

^ in (Zu« fteiitc* and noi in ihflt cf accidental concomiunco, that xx 

imiBl bc under^KKJi.! heri^. Gr^inrn 'rrsull frcm' brings this om 

^rtU — 'tbey do eioi icauU ffom our coming 10 our po^^cns (yu^/ituvt). 

but ffom cw using ihofcc power* (;(p»^V«»»),* '1 lit soLj<?ci of 71™- 

iMPH uud x/itf^t6ttv b ^pA»^ r^/fiTit it uiinelimcw muirri^ly uccpk- 

ffiry to the jr^tV^ ip'g* the ^^ohtoe «fif of tlie hun^r)* min fecbi 

pleasure, on the occasvon or eiEmg). bat \% not to be idenhii&d 

villi iu 

GkkK TUP 4v% t}|V TtXiiHTLv Ayt^Li¥uif Tt^^ fiunucl = rue tiftfirrrarrrEitf t> IS- 
afr rr;!* ^x^v^kv^ <6^« accotdliig Eo Ramsaucr , i\t. uyL>|uVe*t h nndijlc, 
lad Its «ubj«ct K fi^w undcratood, 1 his is ih^ view ot ttie 

P^nph- also* who hnx— Kai y^p vSv cVip^fi^ ffirrri ^Jir «/f rtXtitotrtir 
o^vwn ^vv'ai(, 0VI ui<raf 4im rikot, £nntip tj tiff rfir iarpufiv VW/jyui 

1 »iTi jiTfhmd to think l1i;i( ihe uiiliiig Ik vny (."iri.'h."ii, ;[]id ihrtl 
■>«fHM* is passive:, la f^ubjc:! bcinf^ the pefhons whose nature (1^1 
^r— j ) it in quenion. [ Lhink ihai ii ia tnsier 10 nrppose car«- 
k$wcu of Hia Und, than Id take ^yo^Jntf = Jyuuvup. 


IS: §3. 


ft. u 


E16 Mol o9 MoX^ M.rX,] The dcfliuJon mjccii^ on phUogophJca*^ 
grounds here (and. sq lar ;Lk yiWcn is mvolvcNi, nUo in x. 3. 5) fa ocX 

very flificrcru from thit ncccptcd by Ari»tMle at adtqu^iic far ih* 
jiiorr pajjufdi ptj(|?uMr of iIk ^tuJtm of ili^LurL— ^^.'. 1. tJ> 

1369 b. 33 vrroMtitrffia ^ rttf.ii' rlftt r^t ijAorifw fr£p«)VKif ttyix fijt '^'V'^^t «■ 
mTAirrnaiv d^^ifinv nrl tl^rfhjrf^r rit rr^r iiitiipjfii^Hrar iJl^^^rw^ Xi>vi|v Ai r«vit^ 
fiw, R.-tiruiAUCT (p. 4S7) quotes two olhei pajuAgci ia vtad) 
Ahalfiilc fli.-«cnlj«g pkoMiro m tcrmb wh^ch recall tho«c of tbt 
ilefinjiffin hf^r? conclemnei.1, \iT.. Prohi. 87^ li 11 i\tXt ^it sor^ ^*«w 

^vi r^^Vy I'tiv I) -jid^JTri?) and ^. N, \\. ^. g t^ f ajv^nu^ «ri Q, t«r 

iilaSiiinitdai 'i^v). 

^XXA f^KKor XcKv/or Jf^pYttor *.t.X.] ' Ari^luLle^' saj^ GruA, 
'whcEiv-ming siccunk'ly ili6tbf;uibhes pLeaHurefrom ihc momcnli 
of lire lind roii&ciciiisneiu ^fiv'/j^tmi) from whkh i< b inirpimbilr. 
C^ X. 5, 6. Me, Ijowcter. doctt not mojc spccijictllr define it iktn 

Oit /«<><yrii^^i» ri nXof (r^ ^^7'<>} A/A, X. 4. tf. HudeOlIU do«< 
nt^ prrsi^ri'f? the <l)M]Tici1on, bnt pimply «ayR tliAl pleasure nhotiU be 
defined iii» " ilii: unimpeded pbjr of life/' AriatoJc biQUcIf ooo- 
tionaUy writes m ihit va/: ^ ^l///. xi. 7, 7 (A. 7. 1073 b. !<»} AnS 

drtp.ndfitOTOi'J (In^rnSAitfTDE occUfS flQVrherc In the £, .y., ftlkd Oq]/ 
here mU m ch, 13, } a in the A\^\; but in /W. ^h 9. 1*95 ft. 35 
ihe ffillowJTig words nftui — *i yj^ laXuf « tcii i^cuic t^Vfu ™ "■ 
r(Ju»Vi"'(^ ^■^>' ''vv' r^'' f^ •iff'T^r difc^TroSkifTor i,r.X. Hciice Ben* 
dixei) {Itfmfrkun^m zum sirhtnim BuiA tirr .VK^rn/JiAuthtn fflfcl: 
Phitolog. X. 199-iics s^j-jpa) nuinuini thni AiisiuOe mu«t lefrr 
10 £. N^ vii, bc^u«c it ia only in f. A^. vii iha: tJjc lenn anii^^A-vni 
occurs; coiiEequei^tly. thai £', «V~. v-ii 19 b/AnMotle. AgaioM Ihb 
vJrw Sppngel {Arij/.S/jid-ii^*. i89?qq-) haq tiiilr clilfioiliy In show- 
ing tlmt ihc reference ia Ujc PoJi/ki is not to Ehc dcfiniiioo uf ^3ii>4 
given jn vii, but to the doctrine of ^'.A', 1 and Xj ftecordiag to 
which lif^iMvia iA iifitrytvt ^j^qff vtf Aptr^v T^KtCar A> dJy nXe^ "■ 

emplo^vd to (um it tliero expLe«H<d by » jVt^rtXM Mid 

roir iMT i>>utfal( Inatmt ftj^ofir^y^^ivy — ty^ £', JV. L to, 1 J ril Ai |ar)ttha 
{rwv arvx^f^Tttf) - . . Jp«4&il<t rrtXXdit trtp-friats. Scc also Giant, 

JCih'a, lijHuy i. vol. I pp. 55, 56. 

' ,1/f/. A i> pi»l--^iiiolc]iu : n BUac, jtt Atiti. HSr. rrJ. tf amtUr, |l M^ 

BOOK VII: CHAP. I'i: 4 3. 


Tb« At^fLvAmTot ivip^nit ot v\\ % afkcT alT, not very diff^rc^nt UBS », 15 

rmin iltr r(X«ioi Ai ti}v VwVyiiai' 4 ^r>pq <»f IC^JV.x (4- 5). Atxotdirig 

lo £'. jV, X p]c**iirc pcrfccia, or h the jicrfctlion oC ^^ Jy^trf*"* — 

Hjpcn^citFi upon if, orcniwni il,fl« twa my crowns yourh (l 4- ^) — 

vltboul t^caauic an ititryt\o h, iii facl, iriy^e — fjilU sliorl of the fuEl 

Wulily which ii b k» riwrciH (T/iy^ to rcftliw. In the i^liiaaeoloc)' 

of A". >V- vri, such fln tW/rytn m ' impeded,' "ha* not free play." 

riejuturc ifl ' the fitc phy of a funcliori ' b j^.iV, vii; in JT.A* x 

it is 'the perfcciion of a function.' An in PcJ. A. 9 dtifnrDflivtai 

lAk-^s the jkl^cp of i^)f fAfirti of /T, A*. I In iJie MAiem^nr of rhe 

<locinnr of *tiSiiitur¥ui, 10 in A'. A' vii It tjikcn the place of the rr>iiut 

<3f Ji./^. X- 4. 6 in ihc ^t^cmenl of iho docLnnc of fjS»'^. Undue 

iin|>or(ancc hna been oTluilted fo the ilifference bciitrren tlie J«^ir^- 

jlv^ror M^fta 4 ^hkq of vii mid the jtXtMi Tt}v ivip^utv ff ^Antr^ of 

31, tM^cauEc the docinnc ^r^ nc nf ^So*^ Ti LT^nrroi-fvii. ij. 3), lijflicnlly 

rec4r«a1inte<f hy thp forra*?r fomiuTsi, Tias hrcn thought 10 nmrk ihe 

wriicr of vii a» a * hedoniM/ 1 Iwvc Iricd lo show (noic on viL 1 1. 

i> tif;« b. 1) that hin f-ihicil poaiUon ib subi^umially th« «ime as 

that of the writer of K. N. %. He ilitfi>K merely \n atiprnptrng 10 

do m*rtc nltU the tcitn W^iytHi, or a symbol of lijoughl, tliit; the 

writer of /** JV. < attcropiu ; nnrt ho perhupa tCraitie its uscj Ho is, 

in sfaMT. aotneuhnt scholailk^ but in no lenie a ' hectonisi.' And. 

u ha^i been notkcd »hovc> he does not fiiantl ulcne in ideiiLifylng 

^Im^ and *M'ity*tt. 'I he writer oi jl/rf/, A. 7. 107a b. 16 dcseribci! 

God'ft life an ."r»py*m» fiur) npiiftij, flnd ^*ni'7, udng these eiprfiiions 

u interchangeable. ]l may pcrhAfTA be $aid thai it i» tialuul to 

into 1 more Achnl^tK uu; of terms in d«£onbin^ Ehc hfc of 

than in describing the life of tnan, and ihaJ while Afff. A. 7 

is not inton*iMent with AtJAiotclian pririci[:"lca. ihc prewm Ucallfce 

1% being * hedonistic/ 'I'o thtA wl* iiuy a^vwuT Lhal \t 10 nol 

' hrdoniim ' to identify ihc hifihosi [>!rn^ure with the hiRhesi fnnciIOTi- 

UedonLtin ' taltGb no account of the plc^LMirc of action ; its highest 

[good tt pLUftivc enjoyment, Ariilolelianiann— represented by the 

Wriier of vii a* wt'll ny l»y iV writer of x— jilace^ pleasure in a 

ntioQ of phik>>ophical dignity whirh ii docs not occupy 111 aii> 

Tocher Grti^k Rchool As wvdattto^ia is Life — what a tnan tfofs^ not 

-Whut Ijc retfireK — *£» F^ejUnUre Ik noi mere rehf/, of even ftu.v'vf 

'tnj^taatit Irui /Aa/ ui^ir^ rfJKjjtoi/M ^w r/r//trf*— oi. aB the *rilcr of *'ii 

ftiys more simply, rV u/tatciitm. So intimately in it bound up with 

Life, thftt [l Is diflSculE 10 «iy which ts cho§cn for die sake of vhich 


BOOK Vlft CffAP. \%x 5 3, 

liaaLta. (f.A' x^ 4> n)- All Uvmg bnnfct sirivinj; after 1iiln«Aa 

acccrding to iheir kinds, ii i^ in ih? corisduu^ntrs^ of HucfmuM 
life — f>. b plcjuarc — that, for man and the oihcr antimiU, tJic 
fiilnesB of life t& octu^y giv«D, Life ;m<l Pleasure th«rorore cannot 
be ^lOELiLcil as outer and inner— 

NBtxir hai weHcr Krm noch Schale? 

Alks ial sic mil d:jcm M*)c. 
The high ponition thus assignee! tfl Pleasure by the fide of, or 
rather in impllc'iuoit kviili, Life, ui the CUef Gocid> inarlut Oic tliccry 
coTitLiiii«d in vii and x a^ one to be viewed in a practical, or moral. 
rsiiber than in sl sclenciAt ligbL Thff qnrttlom, a« t havf ub^ 
which the thccry acts itself 19 answer Jb (in a^ie of »u|>erlicial 
appearances tr> the contrar}') not ' Whu t« j^Icuurc lu a f>hyaa- 
logkal Dr ii^ydioloj^ical jihenonwiioii ? ' l;u! '1* it gocxl* And if 
so, how ? ' — ('. f. ' What arc the trlation* of the viuioiw plcuum to 
ihe good \\X^V Sone of iham douUlees hinder iE ; but othen 
ag-^n KUi^uiii and heighten it, Thr hf-dnnjuu plai-ied ib^ wtnng 
plcasuics — those of piwivc cnjojmciU — higbcat; tJie PUkiiiittJt 
unduly depreciated pleasure. To «how, u against l»>ili icboole, 
ihai ilie plcfthuie* of virtuous fiincUon, or Duty, crown life vjdi 
perfection, seems to me to be the object of the AriatotcUa^i theory — 
a practical, or tnorai, object, which is mi^rcp resented by Milk wt»en 
he poinls out (uuly enough) that the uLijecl of ;» W-icmific paycboloj^ 
hiM not been uttamcd— Ehat no answer, or worac ihaa no answer, 
hat b^en given ToicxqiieBtion/ \Vh<jt is ^t^w^x^V 5««Mi[l, /jcomi- 
ina/ii'U f/ Sir W. ffiimtlhn's Phihsaphy, di- 35. pi. 466 : * AriMotk's 
theory, which, a? uitdL^ratooii by our anLhor, differd liltio fcooi his 
own, in prcsenwd by Sir W. HuTnilton in the fbllowtnj vofdt 
{LetSurei vn Met. ii. 4511): "Wicn a scDse, for ciample, is in 
perfect hcoJlh. and it is presented m\x n fluilnblc object of the l»o«l 
pt'rfect kind, there is elicjled the niofit perfect energy, trhich a$ 
every instuDL of its contiuuau^e is accompanied wiih plc^uurt} 
The same holds good with the function of Ln.igina[Ion, Tbo 
Ac, Pleasure Is the concnmitani in every cate where powets snd 
objects arc in lljemodves perfrct. ;ind beiwcen which there Albsista 
a suiuble relauon," TJil* oondilions whereon upon thus showinjc 
pleasure depends are the healthiness of the sen^, and the pcrfe<lton 
of the object presented to it- This is simply making Cbe fact 

> ThJi tt tti« ilieoo of E* Jfi. I railur iban of viL 


BOOK V2I.- CUAr. \%\ k % 


own tbtor)'. When is a ftcnbO in perfect health, and ib ob]ccllli»3i.lfi» 

pprfiPCI? '0)^! riinction of sl (cakc ^s twofoid— u a «ourco oT 

^OguiliOD and oTrccIiri};. IflJic pc^rfcclioii itit^anE bt In U^ ruiicliuii 

of cofpicioti, the doctrine thai picai^urc depends oii ihts is mani- 

f«ilj cnoneouBt according lo Srr W. Himilfon ii \% even the 

tcircnc of tlic Etuih, for Im; lir^ldx UiHt ibc knowledge given bj an 

tct of tense and ihv feeling accompanying^ it art; in iin invrrut 

pmpfirtirm lo onr atiorhet. Remains ihp siipposiiirtti ilmt ihe 

pcTfc<^tioii of V'liJch jVrialoilc? f^^oke was p?rfci:tioii not in rcapccl 

of coj^Jtion but of feeling;. It cannot, houevcr, con»i>l in acutcncaj 

of frelli^g, fr»r oiii actifpii foH(rg*< ar<? pahiR, What, ib^Ti, coi»- 

stiluics \\} Ptruurablcncss of ferlinjc: and the theory only Iclls 

us thai ploneuro la th« result of a i^lca^uioblc GiAte of the scrsc iiid 

I pleaiurc-givipg ijuality in the object [jrcBcnitd fo it, Aristotle 

&Dd & W, HAKiiUcjn did not certaiiil^ atalc tbe doctrine Ui ihem- 

>elvcs in this manner; buE ihry reduced it to thi^ by anirming 

ptpfttiTrr ^r pair to deptnd on ibe ptfftct or inipi?rf«:t action of 

the sense, tt hen there was no criterion of imperfect oi perfect icilon 

eic>epL thai it produced piin or plcaBurc/ Mill is perhaps riphl 

in hi* eoni«niion th;il our scteniific knowledj^e of the nai»ic of 

pIcABure ifl not enriched by the »Latenieiit ibnl ' il is ilje concomiunt 

of perfect action/ Uut aa n protest agoinsi those who sitd 'nil 

pleamifp J**vtl/ and those who made passive enjoyment ib« ^d, 

the Atatctnent \y of ^rcat ethical imponjinec. An interesting 

iceonnc cf the HUtonic unJ AntLolcli^n ihcoricft of ple^ure, 

and noiicet of later ihcorits, noTably of Kant's, will he found 

in llamjiton's Zfttuns an Mtl. Lci,t. 43. Kjint'a Lbcory of pleasure 

and paio u thu» stated in hia AnihropGhgk \ £0, as rendered by 

Hamillon, \fiL il, (73^-'P!easare w rhe feHIng of tlir furtherance 

(Bcibrdeiung), pain of the hindmncc of Iifc> Under pleasure i^ not 

to be understood lh>* fooling; of life ; for in pam we feel life no Ic^ 

ihan in plea>iiire. nay perhaps even more <iiron^Oy. In a suE<! of 

pain life appears long, in a slite of pleasure il acems brief; it ii 

onlj, therefore, the feeling of promonon — ifie furlheraiice of life 

wMeh eoEiviEntes pleanirr. On tbe other h^nd, it is not ihr; mere 

InndraRCC of life ithtdi constitutes pain ; the hindrance miifti not 

only exifiC, it nnusi be felt to cxiEt.' * TItese de^nitions of pleakurfi 

md |ttfn/ Hamiiicn oh!ipT\rs. 'are virtually iil^ntkal vUh ihose of 

Anstollc, only ixt Icm clear nnd explicit.' But Kani'a theory soon 

parts company from Aristotle's, as may be seen from another passage 


BOOK 17/; CffAP, 12: ^ 3. 

IIU a. U. in ihc Anikrr>poiogit. ubitb, howcTcr, 1 quote lo sihow diac Ki 

though differing from Ah»i€lE« in importini w^pwHSi is ai one wiA 
Hi-n \j\ having n prnrr^cal pur3>iMe lf> secn^ with fiis Elirorf of 
pLcA^urc: uid I would ku^ki;«c (ImI ihc KaultdU tlcoo of (4r44ur« 
is a8 likety (o b* niiKrepwatnled aa ttie Anstoit^Inui, il Cr«aie<l ai 
a (-anirtbuiion 10 * ucicniiflc: p1iychoT^^^' The pxmi^ it given by 
HamilEon {Mt/. ii. 47*) a.* foilcws — ' if picjuufc be a fcdhig of the 
promoiioD cf life, Ihis preEUp^wf-cfi n. hindra^icc of Ufej lot Uieit 
call he 110 promotion If ihcre be no foregoiTig Hmlrarce laoiwf* 
cope, ^tt, iheieTorc. the biritlmRce of life i> paln« p]f a«UTc lawt 
pTVBappoft^ piin, . . . Wh^n we ca«t our eye^ ori th? progren of 
things, WE discover in onri-^lvf^s ^ tr^Hrli^iB tcndpiic^' fn cH^jie fron 
ciur [)tvKcm ^Uic> To this wc arc compelled ht a pltj:«ic4l 
slimulu^^ , , - But in lh« intell^iuil nature cf mvi Itwre b ^teo 
» «tinii]|us wliich ope-ra[ci> to ihe fame end. In thoughl nun ii 
always dii^aatis6cd with the actuat ; he is ever looking for^aFd from 
the presetu lo ihc ruitirc. , , ^ Man in urged on by ft iiec««*llj^ of 
Ills nature la go out of thr present :ts i »t4le of ^n. in onkr 10 
find in the future one Icis irksome. Miin thus finds hiEnarlf in 41 
nevcr-ceiKin^ pain ; and this is the vfjur for ihe activity of binmn 
naiure-. Our lot l8 to cahl that tl^ire is nothing enduHn^ f or in b«i 
fwin. , , . riciiAurc ii nothing i^ailive; \l b onty & UbenUion of 
pain, and therefore onty ncmelhing negative. . . . It na ccna-inAv tlw 
illtentinn of rnividence tliai by Lhc jltenuiiitjii of \m%y we slionU 
be ur^cd on to ActivU.v- [ifcrc Kant appjict hi« ihcoO' ^ '^n^ ■I' 
tign[ficance h« in ihe pi^ticil ^pphc^iiion h? inato of it, not 10 
Ihe scientific meaning which may Ik: ixtncled from lhc Icrmi la 
which tt IS couched J No cne can find (jje&sure in lhc contiBud 
enjoyment of deliL^hts : these loon pall upon nt . , . There i» no 
pr:rin:L(L^[i( jjleiLMjre lo lie reaped ejicepl ill labour ftlonc- . . . Labour 
Ja irksome, labour has 11^ annovnncos, but these are fewer than ifcoM 
we fchonJd tfxperiencfl wpre we without hbour. A* man, iherefon, 
musi ft*?L'U evL-n liiH rocreaikin fn toil iiM^lf, his life i« &i be* oi» of 
vcXpiiion and notrow. , , , Men thtnk tlia< it is jnj:tii!cful to tbe 
Creator vo eay thaL it le the (l^t^i^n of Providence to keep us in a 
vtaic [tf nonsumt pain : but iliLs \s a wlte proviuou in order to ur^ 
human nature on to exertion- Wrreour ioy*pennaneEit.i*c»ho«aU 
never undertake auglit new. Tliat \\U we may cftil ^^ppy «Mcb ll 
furnf&beii with all chc nii^au^ by which (uiiti ijM\ be overcocnc \ 
have, in fact, no ottitr conception of human h.ippin«Sft.' 

Boot: VtT: CHAP. 12: § 3. 


A \ieiy dilTcTtTit conccipb'on Ihb of life and happlnesi. and of the tl5s«-U. 

relAlion of pleasure [oJifo find happiness, Trom AriatoUo's: mycbjacc, 

'm^wtfvnr, 11 nr^C 10 oniravt Lh? ihtori^t, :is sudi, of Aiitcoili^ and 

KatiL, but Lu iiJu&ti&lc U> <Liiutlicr rx.imi>lc Ujc d^n^cr of Uking a 

'fa««ry of plffuur? (and llie rcmarU applies lo uiiy particular Uicory 

Advanced by a grciai tnnrnliEt in the cctittrurEicin of hlii crhical 

*T*iem— ^.f. loatljcoij of Coiiscitnct *ui:|i ^ Cuiilinal NcwmaiiV 

**r cf Wdl such as Kani'i) nui of the context of the etliical RyElcm 

*■< wliicb il is eint*edd«fd, ;M»d of in-fltin^ h a^- a rritnrilintioii-- 

valuable or worlhlcw — lo ' psycholci^cx-' T*lnJ* Kani:* *ihcory' 

<^H^t ^ pleasure m noihing pOHiUv«' may be accvpt^d aa a vaJuabIc 

P^jcboiogical tnilh (Jts b)- Scbupcrhaiipr^ and a whole uyviem of 

Fv&ychological tnitliF>' mcij b^: deduced (to The pay tboloj*i si's Mtiv 

'i^^^Lon) ff om it ; ot it may be rejected 33 'pnychoio^ficaNy unten- 

'^tilrf.' But pbinty our view of its sigmfirance nn Ihai whiih helps 

*^am 10 cjiprcw, in yd another ftguic. his deqH=,st iho[ij>hl in 

l>>~«itei]ce of the pfoblL*m of hfc, ie not nffecled m the \^\hi by 

^t*t favnitrabk or iitifa^nu table vprdin of *sdcniific psytrhnlogy/ 

**ld«dH ' tiniCDable psych oiogy ' matters aa litdt iu Kiuit aa unTcn- 

*l>k Ptolemaic co^molngj' in MiJtcm. So with Ari^toile's theory ol 

t^lcnsnire. Mill'* crrilidsm may rffectHnllydisj^o^ of it, as al>ni raided 

"ylln*nLItOTifiomiL*c?hit-Uci>Titexu an<l presented as a ccmuibntion 

y* p«ydiOlogy : bui W ia not a contribution to psychology. It i^ an 

^VaiftgrA! pan r»f AnRmtb s thcmy of duiy — 'The performance nfdnry/ 

^riotollc tclb U3. ' bu Ui own pleasure, wh'th ensures atid jjciTccth 

■^ic pcfformanco- All other plcnstires are inferior ip this plcusnre. 

T'bp nscedi's who ^\y thai pleahitrc is not good, and ihai we ciin do 

^tif ^uly without Aid frotn picuuic, ind the hcdonjjili >vhck ifjy thai 

Um- pIeMV«« of pu«iv« enjoyment :xre ilie only picosurc& worUj 

^rrking, are wron^/ MUr« criEJuisii) niisises all ihi«^ 

AxtI &j Tou atadrjT?]^ dhrF)iiTi5BiflTar] 1. r it 1^ impnrtani to 
3ub«litute ihe temi o*<^ir<W><rT*>»" for the term fl.ffAjT^^. It go<3 
*iithciit taying thai, brini^ an <nV»y*m ^^^f, it ii ma^Tr^ or ri^Alls^d 
in conwioUMiefM buI unless it be diw>ink^t(7tDE) ii ia not le.iliat^d as 
plt^t^at. The lerm aiireUi^cr^i ]» wide enouf;h, aci:or(linj; to 
AriflOl^llin nssfp?, to cover rhe con.i^dou^neiis of ihnnghr, a* well 
1* tbat of Knialion. I iherefoic think that the rarapliiast gees 
off on a wrong line hert, Vkhen he «ay»— 4 >dp JV ry ^tf^fli- q^ii^ 

voun. It 


BOOK Vft: CffAP. \2i ^ 3, 4- 

ilbtt A, Ifi. toKir hi y^tal% Tiffir ctrai. hi% jrupi'«< dyoMcj This rncn VKlM 1Q 

the Plcuoni^i^ hiEhcrtD criiiciscd, but jirobably lo ihe Cjrtniia; 
and yf'vtfrH mufli W b<r^ undorst^xxi 10 mcAn ibe MiA'divr or 
Qf'ffitlion of a <fjf, [loi tJie procas fy whkh a T^c '> fotincd oe 
rcaiorcd, as the icm vak^ unJct^lood by the PlalcnisU- 'llkf 
hedonists her<> rorerred to niAintLim ihai PleOflUrff t« taj/jV or 
pty/atly good (jiuf^'uir dyu^t) ; hi'mv thai ii rjnnct be A tfi?> wliich 
ia only pnten/HiUy or imptr/ccfiy ffood, but musi be K y^w^w— ibe 
Te:Lli!Cafioii or uptnucon ofi d'jtf : e/. K.\'.\ t- 13 (quoted h*fe bf 

Instead of \\\t term yck^cru, ihc wriicr eugRtf^is the t^rm tV.>7«i«ac 
belter fine! to signify ' ihir opt^mjon of a !^%t' Ra&o^ {Foruk.^. 
100^ rc-Jils TiiitM {ut iht Tir of ihc MSS- aficr yi'Mou, on ihc ground 
that the chuse mentions a view which hi^n not hiih^rto bcvo 
alliiilctt [o. Ht:^ uofik are ' lYve^^. Worft* iitrifl vblltg mtversiAntlCcb, 
wcnn m<v[i nie ^luf iJie in dem voihcrfchendcn SaUc bettritleDc 
Platonifcrlie I-ebre b^mehi, Man hat dahf-r wohl xcil Gnnt ui dw 
Cyn-aaikt^r 7,u ctcnken. D^mit r;i nl^er erkt-nnhnr winl. (btut nan 
c9 aiii cincr ncueii uud noch nicht bcspniclieiieo Anaichc tn tlvan 
hai| isiE ^'tc ich gliube, d.iM ohnc dies aullfllii^c nc nnch fixtm in 
Ttffi* nil JIihIctti- Diese von mir s<:h(in, Ohserv- Ct\1. p. 18, 
schUf^nc Aendcning \hK voti Bckkcr in dct klctncrcn Aiugibe 
1S61 [and by Sii^niihl and BywQier] auf^nommen worifeiL Uv 
Pa-raphnini. (icr tlic Strife riduiff crklan, haJ^ i-icllrichi nirbr^tirtim'. 

yt¥iftit tV 73d£( TLtri>' ttVw ^J"!'^ Vri tpov7n W^v 4^'4>' itVui rl ninif 

a, IS- { 4. ttb qM hiu JtTL ^Y^^^A ^"^ ^SKo. irpA{ ^^iman^iUirl M 

fT/^f X^'JM'''*''^"*''-' — ' 1 «t^v that pFe-isuret are, bccacff lome 
pWsani ihiiigs ure unhe:i]thy, i* like saying ihiL healthy iSTngt 3 
bad, because some of ihcm arc bnd, for nicney-nukifig ' : ^. 

Paraph. *i ^-iv^if ^«y«rui ^ ^^ni"; Jt* Tkui iTfli'a MffiS^, Trvnok mm 
iryuurik rfmvXa, uri Tii« liyiuM //iffraAii- 'fl-inr^i ti^ <r>niFtfIv. i'< wJ^X^^ ' 

jifiti/uijv*- •Vrli' "i-u^Hflrmii. Pctco^ I ihink, ii Wfonj whb * . . . i^ 
like arguing that some (hin;is that are ho^Lhy arc t>ad ion pnodWV- 
niftklng.' 1 lake on in a. iS.aaina. 17, 10 mean, nui/tn/, bui 

A, iG. ™uT^] vp»i xfV}jifrTvrt,iiv. He mcAns ihat boih i^ia and 

may Lc had cunt irii^<dv*ifi — in «omc parLJcaUr rcUtioD; bul thcf 

BOOK VU: CiJAP. 12: \% 4^5, 


are not, on tbifl accounl («ifi y< roito) bad in ibemsclveB— #fl£l« UM ■■ W- 

} B] An:i««rs vii. I T . 4 Trk I>infl3rij* >4 ^fiovtlr tX rjAamr* on the ^ 90. 
linuof JT. A'- X. ,'^. }f I-;. wVi^re ii w laid down it»ai ^very funciion 
\a& lis own (of^fiifi) jtlrra^^ure, uliich ^timulaic^i nml pFrfrrL-tv it, and 
ifafU ifft function I* tood (jis jud^<!> wc musl ijmum^, not by ibc 
mtiijrciivif ftUi^dord of pkosurablt^ r<«1mg. but by ihe objec^ve 
Mindafd of corrrspondrrLic with rnviirjnnicnl) \\% plcaj^uro is KootJ. 
lib by thus connecting pkd:^re with funclion, cr correspondence 
vjth cnvtronmrnt, that AriKiotplianintn nicety hedonism nnd 
UceticiAui- 1l ill la be ulitf^rvird tttut ilic writer bcii: epcaks of ilie 
'fir bcinfE impeded cr silmuklcti by nt^ov;: whereas the wriEct of 
JT Jf. X. g tpeaki cotitti^itiiily of ilur Uipytm (Ji^tm^itslifd by him 
iront ihr ^fiotn) being tin]>i-i1i?Ll or stimuljicd. 

4)w^fi, iV3 Gntnt Kmarkft, ib used here pencrically for * ibougUl/ 
fttid not in ih« reptiricicd se^nsc given to it in B^xik vi. 

} 0] refers to vJL 11. | fn rix^t oi&tfMia ^Aov^c co/roi frcr dym^tK-^- 

cuXd^vi 9U|i^Jpi]««vJ 'ifl but nflt^raK (Peters): ' ti just what one 1 
taighi rxfrt'Ci to find,' Tfj^i^ ift concerned with the ordeiing of ihr 
CcodilioQS (i^t Avni^jiuc ^DTi) of A |]cffoniiAnce (<W^fia), but not with 
CtM pttrformoAce fctfleU. ^ee ihr I'ar^ph. nvAffiui ^Vf^^yria f«x^t /<rTb> 

!^ /h'» >^ vrvfjl T^»'n'i9»p»'i)Ti*iJ*T<x"7*^^>"^<"l rov 8v*fjflfl*ii nQwpv^t^ ri At 
owatf ^t vi'^'^i^i' fln^v »W* T^* no™ r^t ict/&tpi't]r*iiJir Sviffywlat, So cIoSS 

t*t Tli^connftion btlvrcn tix^ unrl Aiimy^r, l}iui suth rp"x"« as ^"J™/"*^* 

IttT^iii^ jind JtfiKtniciJ lie often aimj'lj called itM/f>ca. They arc 

Um tfn^ir dl pn^ XJysf of ^'A O. 3. 1046 b. 1, ^liich ire Aaid to 

be concemrt! *iih rnntrarScs— *al aj ^v t^rit Xdyou ffaifni Tfif 

/nvT^ o? flutri. So lopg IS aUcrnMives flfc open — so lone m 

ihii possible vnnqiement, or ihat» may be preferred— jo long as 

preparationft bnvc 10 be made, rixv^ niles: Imt ibi^ iej>ub of dicae 

prep4ration% — that for the sake of which tbcy have been matie, 

vhcn once il ir rcft1i«pd, U something definUCf wl:ich rix*^ cannot 

nHxIify^ Art mjy insliuct 1 mai bow 10 hold his bow ami |i«im 

hi^ arrow ^CTaicht foi the m.i^k ; but ihc tfipyun of all this inairuc- 

I lion — the flying arro^i' — lias aboady e^cnped beyond the reach of 
lit- f^/l jV' 3f. i\w lO- t2oS^ b. I tti/di yAfi <1A^^ iVutt^^ atJffua r^ 


It 9 


BOOK Vli: CJIAP. 12; {^ 6. ^ 

U0*«.«s. Mairoi Kat k.tX] Wc ha<^e here ^liiE the Aid. SchoL detcH 

Si% an 4iH7jitirif brought Rgiin^l th(* trjiot-aiTfi — ^^iw^i mV Jem t«, 
atlvaiiccJ b^ ilic Opponent. Ji is ^ubmlucd thu ait» of piciaur^^^ 
tf« popularly recognised. This r^ffr.Jtrif however iJi obvioiwly n 
BO ^rioiisly meanr as the rimirji/Hi4T'ra-ir (Md, £^C-), or rejoiindcr 
conuined in the first piirt of the ?. The vritcr of .lA//. il 7 
%3C(t 0^ 36 oddly omiu entirely the weighty rejoinder •U* yb^. 
nXX»jf /ff/^mc o^fff/iuiv rtjftTj /imV, i\\a rrft tud^t^M. Blkd cOn&ie 
ItimKlT Lo the capiiouii riviufrii\ His uoTt!^ :ire HWrn 4rXj>«* 

«£0f^in inioriifir} ftoHi ^An»^P. Jj/n £« ouili mCrft oJLiy^if' ot yap 

iftXiui iit\tf trj fUJti 0L4 ftTfif ■; rfODVij ail Ti'Xuf uX\d ^i' ■jOutvfi vt mi M-^^r ^ 
&<<¥ ^Aou^r* Jrri'' off twitFr^t >m^*^v^ lyAftfifv^ Tbis IS ftl) thv L^^^^Bm 
writer has lo say in answer lo ihc lhc»i> offtt^ Arwrt^^ifl 

a 37. J 7-] "Moal of the argumentB,' tays Grani di/ V., 'tgai 
plr-uur^ ignore the tlistinciion between iliffVrcni kinds of plr«rur 
the one bjid bcirs of the nature of Vikt and che end, an4 iherefc^^BTf 
good in tlicTtiBclvcs (§ 3); the other kind l>eing connected w ^^rh 
[rtfciior condhloiit. of our naiure, wiili pain, warn, etc., and bd ^ng 
chcreCore only secondarily and acdifentjilly good {{ i). Thi> bl, 
kind of pleasures, and excess m them, arc made the grauDd 
icpiDmhrsayiiinsi phMiure in generuf.' 

•.S6- tA Oijpio &4Si(«L>-] re. m ^Sonii. 

a,ao. ArrXusJ Frlt^sche believes Ihal this word has crept ioco ibe f^ 
from A. icbolium , [hu& xUc Aid- Sclob has nuv djcAl ^toi ocM 

L ai. noX r}|v TOuTwr dXuiruii- A ^pdrijios] sr. AiainL These Wftfds SMC 
to form a piireniheeLia. The ^^^Jfi^ct Incs not to be pained bfibe 
ubHenei? of iheie bodily pleatiures, A yip t/^'ufj^c vf dvoMi^ iw 



ffw^pui'u rjSut'^ yiiniat (Ald^ SchoL)^ ^. J?.A*. ll, 3. I A ^r ^ 
oiTijI^clpaivr tvf irvfMTViait ^Aafv/ mbJ civfu retry \oif4tr cw^fiar» 



T\^ f^m h fril tad tnvidtit ''/tv" in itt*7/, ami at imf*ding ^ttii*m) it 
^imi/t*^ -VHr, /*** Br4jV4 n tfnfiviy it wA*/ *> tttvidiiJ njua ai-ar^fdmmt 
«vi/, ugfioJ. /ttMMrv M^n/w, df /4f ^wfJror'rri^^/tf (quidtv/f/o/dAym/At 
*J /M ^ fa li/ff i^ KBiyng m tki tiij^intnt af SftuUppui^ lAaf, at c^tttrr, 
/lAft/jft e9Htrary to iai mhhh ii n/i^ita!. it trjf/ fkmfarr t^itni. w ftntiwrr. 
/tti^jp* ftmlr^ry fn/arii TinhirA ir ^-\ n n/>t thtrtfert ^^ii^i . 

As /tr /Ar vt^tv thnt firajuft h th< thiif ff^d—tkin it mtfMa^ m lie 

tBBftI k^UH, t/m.t nitjitte pJcainrf uj ' untmfttf^ /Mmititn' ; fat ifA/finntwr 
tkt iki^ t^flJ n 'li^rit and ^if /ptu^tm.' /ttd ii %fmid ttot he ' hi^tiat Mk4 
AMf' t/finfrf' im^ed' lAiat Ik^rt^vUAno /f/tuvfv, vtt. • fMt Mjshtt! ami 
i*fi{N, tntii*^,ifd\ /uHttK^." \trkfr fletiaem Mtij ^<ad. i/ yptt iri/, m AI/m 
M^') v4iV^ ii Uitneimi ji4eh 'V e^V/jva^. 7'Aii it it^r ff-i firtt ^ind ufi 
ikt idts e/ ft<a*iirt laiih th-it r/ //c/f-ivm : ikt natiim tf "^ ptrftil /HtttlitfH* 
rM0 mvmru/{y £aMHcr stfarait fnm lAiV ^ ' umim/ni/d /vriftian ' -• himf Itf 
imf^tcm^t atierht'i A> tsUra^l prtif^rHj — at^t fs tAr uttft/t tf alf ihat * iW - 
/tda' /f /♦*/* BcAr mainfairt Ikaf //t//rWiJ ii ftiii^/ic in i\j raiJri */ 
trrtarrti *ttd j^at aJwtiftit, tfimJy a Man it ritiin^j. eithir iitttHtitrrtxt/x pt 
mni/afnttimai^}' »9r fA\U it dwrrn/', .- httttt tfie iJfniifiiariaN wAiik it madt 0/ 
^nt/tnty end //nf^iuai Ay /Jimi vk^t /rtr^t fAts/nvH'/rUy, vAfv ffo 

731/ /k' lAaf a/! frffnuru Afaitt and mm /"//»> fi^mt^rr. f^mtj ta iii 
AnM^tAi ikuf^cd. !/ tH da rtni firUeir iHt lamt fi/tmufv, ytt if » fL'AJtif 
thai iAij ail/aiion'' — nty. /fr^a/i at bottom tAe icmt f>l*aiurr,/or th/y art ait 
mrm^rt t/Hr OHf OiVltv rytff/H. 

yi* Mtiy ^f^fotttivx' iit7^fi//rt)jtna/*diJutNim4,ttfaii4ta/frtntjtfi/fi^mf 
fl^mr, x>W M-fty wni Arvtr ttt eiktri. 

fmriAet, mttiiti ^'tiutr't, f* fitntlian, he j^pod* lA< * iftffy IJ/4' mwditHW 
'fiMtamt*^ft /Aqtfwr it tn/frffum^ if m/ jynrd—may, iki ' I/*iffiy t-^9' 
migSttrt^m Ar 'fititt/ki'—frr ^/iMiurr it tM fattlrv*fj gxid.lktu pC9n it ■#/ 
f^Hftrffy Mrf, ^¥f mmf''*/. tittd fAir* it nt rraift far {n^'dinff if. TAmt lAt 
fttd *M«'r a/t it**d Kc/ i4 Mjfv ' ^^nvdH/ ' ikm jAt S^ mii/?. 

irityu^ ^Zr t*i» i^BoWjk- iyaWi- ti t\*'a<'\ This ifl the SOCCiIld pari ci 
Iht argumcni of FiKk^iim giv^r* in K. /V. x, 1. >. 

Ii W Ttt wn rf|»»flBKrTiiifl] Tic wofdfi as itity stiHcJ caiinoi, I b. ». 
ihiDky be imnBlattd oiiicrwihc (hnn aa Ihcy arc Irumlatcd by rcicrs 
— 'pftrU/hid t* in «ome tort an impc<]imcni lo aciivity/ or fay 


^OK VTI: aiAt. 18? 

HM \. s, Stahr — ' ihcih ist tr ((Itr Schmers) cs (dn U^bcf), itfMTor* tr 

irgendwie behindcn'; — np fr^ i^ffodnTria^ (jr. ^^mi} fanning a nmgte 
cJtprcMion in whkli r^ quulifi^ft *>Ti^<rTHi=^ ss hintlfrini: in iome 
way or ochcr.' But ihc balor^cc of ibe cbuttc requires t^ M^,^ 

^f;frfi^<mvi7 (iriuii)— ' Pafn is panly harl in il^f^Ef (4irXvt), partky hkl 
in rclciiLon lo something cbc (is/j^heitii n) i.t, icaimDch » il 
hirdcre wood aclivities" — ry <>frDaitfTHE^ (*ihii) being cpcxeg«iictl o( 
iTff, P^ is fieqtifntly opposed lo dirX»f by Ariitlotle, Iwi the /jidlejr 
givc« 110 inslatLcc of tu tt^ vhcnr n^ aIouc would t>c sultjdcnt. Of 
course fTfl- like imX^f. or my such krm, can be touwned into a 
vubiiiiniivr hy meins rf Lhe arric}'*; bin ihk iisr nf Ihr ftnlclr 
would plainly be out of place hcri^. where tht mcADing of thi 
J^rmuU w^ 18 not c*pLiined, bui the formula is «wd, Th« Par*' 
pEirad wem» In Hlivp read trj r^. Hl3 v<?rsioii u — % ^i> m^ bM 

^vn-^ I'mt curd ti, (En /^(roJUfii r^ ^wptf, Simibrly ttw A1(J. Schol 
^ £j aj'r MTir (WAaic nudr, JXK/i n;? mviAt nt 0ftfirtDii frrM nolfi ^^irs- 

11.4 1^ yV Iit&^Twof m.tX] The bcMi connnHiUry on thbobfcurly 
brief reference ia A". N. k. i. 5, wher* the Argument i« pvcti rooec 

fully bui V'ilhmH tbo nnme of Spfrutij-ipui- 

Tbi? Paraph, cnpliiins ihi; pri:ac»L icffienc^e Lbus — ^ >^ 4 

dfiiVti Tf) At.r^il^. ^^iri V^/i ori ■a^fT'^ rrl ^wl^nv ma} rA fXnrr«# / 
fVri rijf ury, Xbil mi jwr u^^iru' ro sup fviiffjici <hiKrui, xAt vir^ 
Tpoiiow ma] rfi ^win iirrtitttrni f^ ^i^ukr) au! Xunf^, ^ |i4» in ^tlC"* h ^ ^v 
atiXarfW Kni tan ^ /i»» a^ivia ayiSan, ^ fl< i^iW^ tul if lv«^ 
ofrov yAp 6 X^m natrfXiur ilAofJf i^jia' v^htA y^fi 4 4Ab*4 lOiudv 
Similarly ihc Aid ^chol. Tkty^r & Iirtvmrnar oTt 2i« r& |mI{«* on^ 
tiirai r^ Ajirroin cnj rjjh iirv^ nrl r^ jjit Jir/io if«vH ^ ^4(w ^ n 

*iffl JU«&, tl JW ^Mow frM ^ iiKimut ttyi^v p t — ''. ^ S|X-aitifi[»US If^O^ 

ibat, ' aa j^rcatcr and kss arc bath conlruiy lo c^luJ. ^hI llicrdbrr 
both UDcqiul, ^o plc;isurc and pain arc both contfarr to ihi 
Ticutm! suic which is good, and Th^r^fore are bocb eviL' Toiliif 
t!ie viter of x, and the present wriier, reply — ' ricftwre b «W is 
ItficU (Cirf/>) evj. Wc appeal to Dniver»ii CKpcnetice &5lu»t yoa 
Von niukr^ a vrong application of a useful formula (fitfnp i4 |iii^ 

HOOK' VUi CHAP, in; § t. 


The faimuli lliu5 nLlFiapt'li^tl l>y S;y.-usipiius is j^ivfii in Cf//. 1 1 . 
>3 b, 36, with ihc ^atvat ihni il ih applic.iblc only sviihm narrow 

n*0^i»|i ^iXifi' A^Qiur 0a jul «Vi rui* uXXt^f, i(a<u Ej &t< fLfV d^aMf 
T«or luuur Ji- ^^imvE fli *ui q ixicr^rjf tutanla inuriptp otatj^ iiyu6rif itrrv^ 
»* i>«f^» ivanioy itrriv. 5]J[-iitippiit nr^lpcti-fl the tAUIinn Ciinvpyrd 

in ihcsc woriJs- On 5(>cusi^^uB tct Gilllil, Efhtx^s^ E^irjy iii. vol. i. 
|»p. ai;, »i8, ^d Rjiter and Prcllcf, />'>/. /^M f$ 9S9-394. 
HU (hcory of Pleasure h il^un sUt<^d t.^ Ad. Orll U. fi— Sihu- 
*«i|>I>ua, vciu^t^uc rjznniii Acodcinia. voluplakm U d^hrtm dua mala 
^su flicuni oppoEita i;ii«r %k \ bonum stuiem «(^iic t^uod uLtiiuque 
nirdiuDi fojcL 

•A Y<^p itf ^tT) liTfp laif^i' ti iFmt ■riji' i^&or^i'J Grant tayii — b, 0, 
*" Wc a^Tc probablv to undcr^iiaijd uf, witli the Par. niij Schul. 
^peiifipput would hiive taid ilut pleasure n an «vil: */: h'iA, x. 
4. 5. I am not Mjnr (hat Gr^Dl is ri^hi brre, Spr^usLppuB would 
c<rl«in1r have Mid that pIcaMiwr i* an evil acddcntiii)'— pn^bablf 
He would hftvc said Ehai being evil h xt\ * infepamble accidenE ' of 
pbraaurv; bui wouM \w have surd ihal iL is fsitrttialfy rvlU It 
ftCrtn* to mc thai ihc wrjri ^tp j^ec nexl note) mahc9 it pcrtiiblc 
to Hi»dcr»tand Spcnslppus aa the 8ulJ<ci of (J»ni7 — which \% of 
CCRUx-, wtuu ihc run iiFthc ^cniencr QAlumlly HUggeiU. 

J»*p] ■ For no ntwr niiuld eay (nr^ Sj>r'tisippHS woiikl noi say) 
thAl pic&surc Ia (jt ;^jW/ rjnJ fsitntiitlh' m evil' Euiiiniius in his 
note On £. rfV vi, 4. 3 «ir«i f ^ olff^^DfiM^ "'x*^ '*■ '■"'■1 ""l "'V *^" 
nf fsrrA Aiyoir Tat*iTit(i} rxplftln* fUtrftlly ifir ti.'(. link ill iTiLMtiiug tif 

r^P »X^M. Sec Alex, ad Tp^, hi. 1. J7J a, 14 (quoted by BonlLt, 
Jiiti. p. 1 7fi. q. V. till dji' UBC or Jn<p) fA CvTp afit^ rot iru^jim Arrl 

on^r rt>dj*m*iB n av^ rtiH(^»umfFF, Oil Whlth BoTlJlZ fclliarltt— 

*G»hidit igilur pronaineu Girvp qutccLJnqui: rei acddtiaC, hdudii 
vnm ca qua« in aubstiinLia, ir tia ti ivrw ejus, iu&unt . . . omtiino 
tfo(rlf. by Jiwp) de-notmur id ipnum quod rc» est, rd riiori, ycl 4 

BOOK VlTi CHAP, 18: 

meaning of uiriy*, the Irrm is oficn used a* synon^'niovt wrlfi ^m*. 
U in 7i/» n. I. )30b. 13 oUt* yA|i 17 JtHW^nrp Xnnii-. 3>4vr^ d£ yiiDt 

(ivrirtrimr tx^T rhi4 only, na T^finiu potnit oui. ami ft« U [kUfn front 
[he tcnni of ihc pjivjigc just quolcd Top. mq b. 23, because ri 

hfiitf^^ \rfQpivwi Top. iv. 5. t4) b. 17. Accordingly, viih WiiiT 
{Ori:<m<trt, vol. i. p. 467'j pimply to My i)ia; 5it»p and yiW fcrr 
tynoEiymouv i& unduly to tiarrotv i}ie ute of ll:e former lenc- li 
may br uoirri ihAi ihr Aid. Srhnl. on ihc jifescnl pauagi^ tiArrciVfi 
ihc aciiBc of J"v in the way dtprccaicd by Boniu: hu word* 

r^ irif^t tf4i] t?Anf mf' irciicnC^ rjjp ^J^ir^p f *j^( The P^rUplinUI brtngi 
out the funibmf:n[ji] scnxe of ihc Icrm bcuer — v^Siii ^p tS* ^wf vV 

b. 7, f fi. T^pHTi^- t"] The MSS, have S^itrtir /, or ^vr^f (T, 

Th(^ conclusion 'Tr; iIm t<£ ti&oirfi rh iifiirrnp fOrmufAtfd in tks f t 
^(t^cii^Uy urtL-SRttiitEcl (iVtuv ^i vn) dvfryr^Zni' r.T.X ) by rhc kletidftcvlotr^. 

of vA^rn mHiU iVrVyia: buE. f)" J l^vc mcd lO »hOA. it iSoci 

involve any departure Uom ArixLoielian phncipleA^ in tb& dtrotfio^ ^^ « 

of ' hedonism.' 

1305 '1. ,)1 ofaftiffit t" ita\ rat iimrrijimi c^^'Anj^ ■vrui' bI 5«api'>v4' nkZ 
patullcl dmwti in the passAge before ns rrquirce lis to Uiink 

CL'rt^[n /iTifPT^;jr; (^iXfl^rof^ia Alll. Schol.) IVJI AS Rirrvlj ^D^^ ttit 

possibly the summtir/i l/itnum. This \% ^^^n by (lie Pajai)Ji.. 

Hays— KjiI yi\p rtiX'KitP t^miKt^v n^iri* /frwr^^wv (»C^V *hX*<i f4 

rJitti T^i- iViOT^^v. ir, ihen, a rrriain Ak/tt^^^ ie eH^ a^uirjtw^ bo — ^^ 
it may be atkcd. can a CCriAin ■^flar^ also b< ihc J^iHrnivP Gnat:^z- 19 
probably right m thinking (hat wc need noi iiikc llie ponltel w e-^ J y 
sLrictly: bin the wn[er, if a&kircl to Jrrfentl ihr uppnreni tnocnu^fi*- 
tcticy. -A'OtLld not have much difliculiy in dotn; so, for Aapw Jf 
^V7 on h]£ princtpko- 

h- ». biif 81 ^ w raSro BT frrlr ^ftoHl] It is Only if QDiaipeded {^i 
OFrpirrfanmx) ihal JjC ^An* '>vyffa ■of' aV'Tijr, V^licb l« ^If 

vuflai^k^'a, can be drscribed as olpfrvrdni: for, is he Mys bfto«t 

MfOOfi: VJI: CHAP. 13 : } l- 


ai^ftia rWpyrifl tA»ci| //iiTDSifOijirHj b. lA. If thru «iV^i^n»K MllAatkft. 

been dclicicd ao /f/|»yf.o a^-^^WSitfi-wt. 

airAr ift righlly cspUiin^^J by t)K AkL Schol. as fitt^pit, for whkh he 
rcfcrv TO X (wc -^, A' *, 8. «>, 

The Arisiotcliun iloctnii^ ol tviai,n>fiit dooft not, tiowevcr, amouTit 
to lb« cxcliuivc AccGpiancc of either of the nlicrnativr« here pn?- 
Bcurcd »W . • • Ari . . . TIjcMf flUeriiuEivts ii:uik idibci iwo point* 
of view from which tv^tuffviti raay bP fp^aAfcfl. If il Jw rc^rded 
Oi a:i r»t.Xw aiBoi — AS n life concretely ntaUwd, It prc«cm« iin^lf m 
ihc hAimnnious pby Df alt huitiitn futirtiQn.H, iniclicctualr moral 
■ikI bodily— ij> the cxptcasron, in mufiy wava, oflhc concrete unity 
— mfni lana tn eorpt^rr sano. But since Hijch a concrei* rt^siill 
cuanoi be pjoUuccd ji uidijitAint'il WidLoui ^lo^^p oi the OLj^ianismE 
imd rtguLilivc agtticv- of Reason— IB in fjicl noilirng but tht> 
Tnatetiji] inanifrKt^tTJoii of (h^pin which Ift In Form, T^w» ii£ct£b 
ifnii lA^f, or Ti fp tfwj£ : AT^d sim'rC ihe Form oi t,aw 6 (he Lliiiig, 
pltilooopliically considered Ucc MtL Z, 6. io:ii n. % 7 rifdirTt;f it dC^ 

rtXu BrM*i fltfii njr t'niTrfi) nifitiat^ Jmi tu ti r^v ritfii Xi'ynH aLMii 17 

MffTDir niiaU), it frJlow* thai n'.An(><owi, cnnsUlcrfd formaHy nr 
pbilo«ophi-(a]ly. irt identified witli CWpu ib I'orm or Law. ft ia 
ti^ieciall)- in £. jV, x it!;it li^mi^r^via u «o idcmificd. But \\^ muiit 
lie careful not to U\\ ttiio a lomeuhat tiainral mimndrriianding oj 
lite Un^tuirc (ini^lci/cd in such pauagci^ a» E. M s. ch, t JLiid 
di. K ^ 1-8. When the writer tJiyn (li. JV. x. 8- } ») ^trr' #1? Ar 4 

f^^fUfivTn fl*wpjrr nr, h^ llUMnS tliat rvh^ninfln Jumuitfy fftrtrfiffT^ff \% 

AspiV tie dorH i>oi mran ihnt if wc lixik at the iuAu^>«i»' in tlic 
CODcrctc, vc thall lind ll;;Lt be? i» c«er-ni];vt[y a philosopher or mim 
of ttienct^ ipendjng h]« wliol^ Vdv in the cxcrctfie cf hU Intellectual 
f&CQitie), aa jiuch, m Mime (lepadmcnl of knowledge : on die con- 
tnry, to to cuhivitie the imciloct, ts such, ihnt ihc other powers of 
the lKini;i:i ittjernttr ore nUo^vr^d io lie ^lov, would imply, in the 
wntcf » opinion, h narrow and pdr:ia1 tonccpiioii cf life — would, in 
l3LCt, iftdicalc the afceencc of Ihc * comprehenaivt view," ' the wjrwy, 
^ the regulaijve agrnry of reason/ or i9fd^ In %vhlth itAai^o^^n 
oocnt^lly ^Dri&iilf, 

We may say, ihcn, ihn in ihc paawRc before ua the clonec *Bf 
ij vcwbiF i^p^iA iarvf avAatfioyia incHcxicn thc^ more concrete waj of 


BOOJC Vn: CHAP. 13: \\ I-5, 

US} b.lO. TooUnj? ai the Happy r.ifr, and Oif dauioe t'n 4 tubi a^A* thf 
n^(jre furtttal philosophical »sy which ^ic^ il in ila Eruc natiuc ; sec 

It u f^Hi/ ra/t'^al thit man m crganiaCH the exercise of aIL hb 
powcra, intcJlcciutiL mor^l and bodilj'^ lUi 10 be Happ/; we miy 
therefore i^y tlui Hn^^ptucHi is lui L^mplojin^ii of Reason — 0i«^ 

b, i». ^JXutf oAcrAr, tl lni)(Vf, A-it1i£«] 'Kvm If mnd ph^ffir^ Are 

bad, H\nil, ifjou hkc, bod in thcmsclvej/ 

b, 17, Sii ir^tfSurai HiT-X.] C/. Z*. iV. i. H, i6,x. S. ■]■ l-'ntu<he qaoc«« 
Cic. -/^ fi'ia. ii- 6, 19 Afiifotrirt rinutU uitum ci»m \iiae p<fji-«i« 

nubjcci, and mako mvra^Hird ro^a. * in rciipcct of bodj, or eibUe, 

or foriiiiTr/ 

b. 19. $8. rpvx^Ur^ow] 'M\ quotctCic 7tf«t. V. 9 In co libro <^Qein. 

vcfipBJt ('1 ti?oplir;iitiij8) df vU;i l>tju in quo mulEa di^pit-it qgam-' 
ohicm h qui [oK^upatiir qui cnidriur iKituii ei«r non ixiwit. !i»' 
cc cliiim puiatur diccrr ii) rotjitn bcaum ritam non cAcctnlere: 
non usqu-im ul quitftm diciL omnino; «ed quae dicit Idem %iilen:. 
Thr rpnx^t is cIokmIk-1.1 hy ihc Sihol ap. SuSdu u fiAvw rt ^If ^ 

b, 90. ^inai^f'} I lio Cyriic». Thus AnlUtheneft />■ T%^ ipud MullicK.^ 

b. 94- I 4' Ttp&i yip T^if avSacfxci-iaK & Spo« a^Tiiv] * t'of l^od foitlUM 
tan c[i!y iie ili.-lijied hy its r^l^iioii Im hiippiDefia* (Frtrf*i> rA 7V 

b. 35, j 6> »al Ti *«iii4fc^ V aTUfra axXJ Tbc ar|;vi>i^>^l of tU(do«i« 

quoied in \. 1, K 

b.8T- ^^1 i(.T.K.] HcAiod, fpy. «gl ^ 763. The aecnnd Unc contiauo 
— ^Tfu^gvn- A^ w rif fVrS u» aunf. Here, ai St^hr rcouifc*, «e 
tiavc ihp orEgIn of tax pofiafr iiox Dn. 

800K VU: aiAP. 13; { 6. 


{6- iM ImX 0^ ^ adrii flSn 4uff<i aSA" f {n ^ ^picmj our fnu lt03b.9O, 
cmTti lloiui] ^ ^inl't huwevfi ihrrt^ is tio one (liilurt- <ir ^[iiTt- wliith 

IK or b lljovK^hi 10 be. the h<:%x for a\\, io iiciOicr <Io chcyi^ll ^iif>uc 
thv came pleasure . - . ' (Gmni): nauii', ncccttary in the prointiit, 
is cifclMaiy omiLtrfil. peih^ps because the wiitiT luukcd furwani 
to Bontt in Ehc apotiosifl. 

AX.\^ T^v aiiTi^v' iKffra y^p ^lirtk f^" " flciOfl 1l oW pursue b. SSh 
' Lhi* simt" f lL',Y*urL'," u nmsi be because liiey Ii'.iv*; ■ the <amc 
future* raiiJaiucL^tjICy, 111 mail iliis U t«v^ rceuIUng In ilic 
function cf ivi7i/ri or Otippitu, often characi^rie^^d as ' <Iivinc/ Uui the 
nunc orga-Tiiiimg jjrjiu iplc, which appoare in miin ns Pfifv, iipf^ark m 
tlic irulionol atiiinalii (and in plutUa) a.> a iii:iux im]>tlljiig Uicm lo 
purify ihc specific form, or *iios. from ihc inddmla of individual 
ilecay ZTv\ dcoih, nnd make ii rfcrnal in the ncc (st^c dt An. \\. 4- 
415^ 29). While individual iikiiiEab aer^ni Eci live Jdiri) fni^r, for 
thcmsclvci* and Lo Mtiiify merely their gijvn tmmcdikitc wnnU, there 
I* all thf whlU m work within ihcm "an eternal principto noi 
thcirwlvf:!! ' (tftiuK Ti), by utilch tlitir iM^haviour is regtilnird in 
conformity *ith a plan *hidi intludca all Nature : U roinwrc/i u^^v* 

f^iTifTu* A FJi'jtmor jKic 7 ^vn« (J///, A, 7 107:; b, 13) The AnsiO- 
idiui Gud !& the abstract ufull die vAiruu^ mudn k^ di^ orgAuisiiL^ 
ni»xut io Nature, He u described Aa<»>7fi(i if^^tuf — ctcmal Tunc- 
lion ; and thK (^lemnl rt:ncilon is also laid ro be i^h^vi) [Afif. A. y. 
1073 b- t6). IriAtmuth. tbt'tu y\s the Uvea, 01 tviiiyiitii, af aU 
cr«>lvR« are particular cases of this on<; I'rtftyfut titiun^ which ia 
4la*4^ ^1 crraturtrv mny lie !(ai(l ri,>f ftlr^v Aiuwif ^AAtqi'. 

6ct6r] Cf. de An. \\. 4' 4*fl ^^ *9. wlii^re il la siiJd lli;j,l living 

CrOLtUfCS prOpugntC tticir kmiis Tfa rwv «« fiut rvv At'uii ^T<j|[Qiiru' j 

vtLpaPiHtif <h aArdi] si. Jaurotv according 10 Michelet; buLb^34. 
the /fldfci- lakes it iiUrantJtivcl)'=' to pats over lo' MO incline 10 ': 

kO the Aid. Scboj. of ir^ftnta^ frp^e r^( <rvptfTmi\t jurAX'kk- ^iroiMTL, 

8i& t£ ^&v^% olv Y^up^out H-T.X.] ^ the similr Jf ^/. ii. 7. 1 305 t. 3fi^ 

^^ <i9drn t& inrrvip Oiovfai toit &Hii/f nlfoi' livti", na'i «t'4 t'vot rouf«v 
ritiar ttvBr'f rnvn Tsdc^tivai^ Ai£ t^w tiyktMitr' d^c ^lUtoi' irTiur^dLrit' vl 


BOOfC V/f: CHAP, 13: ^ 6, -J. 

1153 b, 95, tlbitai iik\as 9i^'/rin d\V 4 rot w^iJiTniii ravmi rr ip^ tar*** w aflfi 

itM %.l. I 7> ■£ P^ 4^<>^ ^Y^'^r '«'« ^ Ji'^^Y*'^! '1 '^^ subject Ls 

vai 7 <W^yim, unrl lli« pmlkCAlr Is liy^lfnr : in thr P;ini]]h. and AU.. 4, 

ScboK Suscmili! ftiitl Ramwiuct, on wliat ajipcais lo Ijt weak MS ^Z3 . 
authority, read rf >"^ ^ IM^ C^ Anp.) ^^i-^ *■>«*"»' «■ VH(»)*ia (M>^ Jh 
sfems lo bp ihe only Huihoriiy for ihe omission of J bcfofc i»v}*Jo)^^ ), 
m4iking oTnAiip aiid iWjjytin bo<h predicates. 



7'Aost wkB ie dirrriminan 6mtfeen ■ ttei44 f4t6swtt ' am^ ' MHfy ^iiiinw' "- 

ionttiiry H then tffitiy fitatuf^i sn ^ad. ' /'d^' it^Vi ' j^e^t' StUi 

TAt Ftnih it iJM tif K^t/y //4aiUfri fitvic^ ^ tAr iMun ^ikr J«A^ iA»W 

and mostttm tt'iiS ^hSih thty arf auai^ar^—uarii aie^ imiifiKi vAtjA trt 

ttumft tmi hty/intf lAf f^nt <f ^haStttt ftrfiKfiien. fJkt ttrrfiftmJnf /JMh^^' 
<A»j nff mffnit o/ t-tteit. ^fdtly /lenrnrri iirr jpwJ. urtJ mnrtmrj mf If 
it rfaim point ^ ^aJas FtitiHffi& exa^s ^yiht iHiem^iite mam^tp^. it ^^0^- 
/urSAer ahtttvt^J, attidt, afi/ ijtffixivi fiain. tttti pain timjufy-^tut^Afy tAt ^nc^ 
whith fi oflJVtrf M tjifnitv pittkivre \^.t. t^J f^*^ tnui*^ ty lAt «^«rf4^ 
jxeuinv /JfflMrr) ^ ^it vAi^S 9f*Sy imum/^r^it f*0fJf/t*i. 

/.it HI 't^m try ft mjkt r/u truth \tl*tmi tAt tttdHy pUatmrtx mtrt trmfii 
^ iktwnjc Atrw ttn rrnrnawt virw iAtn*t lAtm 4c» na/Hralit ru^ 
titri/. rhr frrtmnui Virtv ii Ihfil thr hadtfy plt^mrts «#« mtrt .jriplt^ i^ 
ctkrr fi^A*Hr4t. Why Jmi Ihit vi^f r-t^emiNfHd ittt/f ai trmti J/Mmttf ',s 
tAf twr4avt Miiy pitaturfi Aannk pam , tA^y jrv t^fif^ Jfi^iW ^tflfr * 
tin^iyHn anJ num-iilivcr : ii) ^fniMH tktf an tin tmty pti^mra 

/A. it—lAiiTtkfifar/ thf niM pitjntt — !>> irritist plran^rti Menf §» i^^^ 
patttm^ affit , i) ftrtitin ftAfr pjfoitiff! art rtsto'-^tiv^ fff tm/^irtd ■tiMfiLi ' 
whiiA dre Prvt^fiAt /ffn^ani ^y teme n rHp/vi JAe tfim^y fftmt^m i t^f^ rt ^ *^ 
pitojhre ii am /m/. ifetk tinei—tAat vku^ maUi tAr S^fy /ituirtrtt rJ^ 
nifir dtiirv&tt, cmt fA/s/ ivAifA viaineariu that fUtuurt ii wjf jadrf (fr f^ 
tJtiittftft if plritftirfi fi'fii'fA ii» iraf isJmit o/ tSitsi diuf iirr AlATidlitf l*^ 
lUpaiiu. J'Atit pfMiirniart iv!afM/, mtt to iArty^ 'pl^^tsMt per 


OK I'll: CfTAP. 1 

tA fit vfi rfiuftralit'f v/rfiiy tn Ihr tetimi f^an ftj an im^t^ 

Ji II dfiOMit Mdrv it ii <^iftpiftffi aH\f iurtHpti^lt At/tij! fJtot tht ' int^ftHia^ 
Jjfjmm'—Jkt ' fi^f^surtt ej /'htittjf/'—pi^y tilth a Iirjff ivyr^ iu *u !i// : tkt 

JL] FiiUs^lj? and Gnnl point out ibal 'Eutlcmus' here (livU64a.*. 
c«8M« iL subject ('unconch^J by Ariaioilo'— Gram) vL'Iiich he had 
propoftrd Eo hiiii*itir in hift Ursl hook — viz, iT, £ i, g. ixe6 i. 30 

rattuv ^ ^ ^'V ff'M '^ crb^'im jiiil ruv uqu\frui/><v ^Aeik^. cjI Ttt xul itoia ttt 

ti tnm^tli^Vtrl T< if>fAf fuAff^jovt'nv 7 ftri tiu ttun ninrtil^fuvm' ta\ tititlpoit 4I 

«(*■, 5 TfliVotfi' ^v 4fXXar ri>d rpvimi amyir^ ■ojyqjMi*' rff/joi i' f?ffl»' t)^»«1 
Ai" ^c iiiXr-^wi oTppto* Tfl* (iiVuVnvn f^jp f^&ivt noX p.^ jtivuv aKuvvr dkXh 

$ 2. 1ib& Tt i>Sr n.rX.] Aap^nUK. ihc PankpL, ind the Afd. Sdiol. a^ U- 
a»*fn 10 connect this quesiion ruii'a ch&oly wilh ^imi-itt;™' a. 1* Ibaa 
Brklcf r, SuH. uHlI B)'U'.h i>iil1i thi^tr full viJip tifter dfoAcinTaf a^ i d, tSo. 
'Tliosc who jtty thill bodily plca*urrs are not good, musi be 
prqmreJ lo m^vx the question — ^nhy (Vicn are the torUrarj' [wits 
^u*i ? SurHy A^;'/ involves ^fl^f/ as hi contr.iry/ Aftp^shis hnv^ 

r*iV 44 Ti^vra Atyi>tfi7L*' eVujKiim'oy, Atn ri ol ifiivriai XvfTiu fiUjiftfq^/; thc 
Faraph. hlK — fiTra^g^tir &' an Tit, cf nwf ^Jcniflii oyi^'M *iffi iwi al/>fT'ii, 
fats W t^iL'Xv^, Affftrp ol rrai;ziTTi<til ir*;jl At i^ diArfftTiK, flii t/ rrno'ci XirtT7 
piX^??^ 'Vfi Jiui ^fvflr^' £4! yl^p ri/r jic^ iWvriuK ra» uyaduif ijAnralj 
Xi'B^i' ffewjp-i' *i*ni. n)!- Xf fx»is <^4]|/3fii4 ■'vflvrin* oyflfl^i'' Hfti^ ytip t'mti^ 

AyaSitr *t«i. Similarly (he AIJ. Schol-- — nit^a> Jitapr^pt'i t*i , , . Jnir 

iiya$f'r ttvtu \viiit S'i ul aaiuiJttat ffiwml ain tliA tanti, fiXA* n(0j Kvpit^t 
Qy^ffni. uXX vtfitff fLfflv U)^*/*!!! vt ^rj laif** lal ue 4ifuyirDiui, nat CTt tV 

«i 4^»4it NTitfol t^ix^* finJf. Guikt undeiatjnJ^ ruit \%yitvai a.. *} lo 
be * thm KCtJon of thc PkttonUt^ rcfcrrcd \q above ch. J i, { ,1 ralr 
ti fni< ^> film, fll JU frr>>Xfij <^iiXn<.' Rflmsaur^r followa Gnnl : I 
agree with Grant and Kam%AUcr njfaiii$c Zcll and (Aijp^reEiLly) 
t'ntzifGhe, who wadcpslaiicl o/*'*" *<lh ruit ^lyobiriv* "I'iic writer 
having discuiutd th« voXa] it^'il' of the >£0o^ui' goea on as he (?) 



Ilfl4 %. 10, promised (f, E. L 5. izi6a. 30) ro^iarrine tfi« nipmMl ^SatvJ r ia^ 
he recommend* ihosc who say round])' ihai lliey af« bad to conflJ'' 
thctr nttur« n Uule monL> carefully'. If \\itty arc bail, og ibeyi^y' 
(hen h«w %rt Ihtr mntmTy pain^ alsji kul ? Thr tniih \^ ihai k * 
only b excess th^L itic ]>odi[y pleasure? arc bail 

k 12. al di«Y"*^^<>0 '''< ^'^ o-tf^nTinu: (/, vii. 4. 2, Tbc AliL Schol W 

Of ihciwo r<ugg<;»ii.ins iiKroduct'd by^(a_ it and a- 1 3), ihe hller^ ^ 
gives (lie writer's opinion, lite bodily pleasures arc roc mtrcl*^*^?. 
ii^gaijvi>ly good^ — 'good m ihe wns* in which lh« absence oE €vU * * 
1ft good ' ; but patilivrly gmd ^ to a tfr/ttm patnf, brjron<l vhleb, 
however, tlity become bad. 

A, IS, t^v |iJt yap f|«(dv ral irikii^cHutr] «&p n^tf fl^vr r^r ^'w^ifrcd^f £«t^- 
^0^^ o^c fuTii' (AM. ScIloI.); iml llic aiiMc may be MuUif any il^t^. 
cs such : us nolion Involves dc^linicc form, and excludes eiccu or 

the n^gmion of form. C/. E.y. W. 6. id rrufpp^-flvvrje ntj ii^^iatoi-t 
taut iinpd"^^ *fl^ rX^'i^ii Ami t^ rb litiny tlrni trui &^r«> . . , fXai 

aiii i^^al^^it- 

1. 1». itarrivi V . < . SituMOfTt i^r AirtpPoXiJi'j ' Qui wiib pain d>c case 
U reversed : not merely ihe eices£ of pAjn, but pa^n f;ci>cnlty U eo< 
be avoided: for tliL^ opfiostte at exce^utjve pleasutc U luit pairiful, 
encepl 10 the man nbo purauea the cxcck* (I'ctcn). Sfnadi;^!/^^^ 
Stabr — ' Entgc^r^rgfs^tzt i;t cs mit derti Schmerx, dCQO bier &dicv 
dcT Meni^ch nidil da& UtticiTiiaKf, wiLdrfn den S^bmcrx a1)erbaiipt^ 

dcT Schmera lsI namlich nichl das dtm UcbcimaMC ICntgcscn ' 

geseixte, auseer Hir den, dcr dcm Uebermutc DSulttnchA#c/ 

GranlH afier LranslaLiiig to ibe sainr eflvtt, adds — "Thist n i y u - " 
ment goes to prove that bcxlily pleasure 11, in ii^f, cood; onAj^^ 
when in excess U it «vil Or the orber band, all pain i% eviL — > 
Pleasure an<] p^n, ibcn, iire oj^posiEe terms, ibc one brlrig good^ 
and the other evil. To mjke tlic doctrine of Speusippvi (ch, i j — 
{ t) hold good, it would be recessary to make pain and the exceav 
of plea&uie oppo&tlc lennB. Bui iliey are noC so, ejCi«pt pertofA 
In the mind cf the intempcfa-te man. ^bo tbinUa thai the onJy 
alEernative is bei^v^en excessive plea>-ure and a pimful ieru^ation' 
Fril£schc bai — ' Conint se res bibet indolote: nun hujna aca 
fugtmus quod nimium est: Bed bune fugimus in unhoMPL 

BOOX VU: CHAP. U: {{ 3-4. 


ronlraria ?(unE dolor, (|U:l dolor t^st, ct volupLoii, qua volupia^i 11(4 >> IBi 
en, non Qua nimia c«i/ 

Aa:Grdirif^ lo these mterprHnitonB (whjdi flf^ree Huhol.intuUy 
u-iih ihnw of the Alil -Srhol., Zrll, imil Mididd), rw undcjstooj 
ia the Mibjcci of ^tfy^t a* 1 0. I tlilnk th&l J ^oC^oc a. 1 6 ( = A ««- 
Xonvr) i£ ihc Subject : «cc rote on vii. 4^ 3, n ^3 a< 7^ I'hia is the 
view of tin? Paiaphfasr, nfliciHC commcni w-pms to mc very pood — 
'Omn T'imr*' viift'&^Xov<ti tii teon rfmbKal iiiTi, itcii nofA TdiVut « oiifXHirT^f 
im, vdt & anfinrrff unfa Tide fit ipm^fit Xurrof 6it6kiirrrfK ov vtfil nt virtp- 
ddXinlt ■'cTTiv, ^Xd rif fir ijmfl^akXoCtrat tf^ovhs Aumi, fi( Ai ^<^v 

niAth Ar ^v^ni Tuv OTTfjtAn^iLOt', ori nMJ ^Cttal fiirii/' aSXa ra ^ivvntri n)p 

XfyfitTAe^at. The ^nviflj IS assumed to err bnlh In hii piiriiiir of 
)7ic:iau:L: ami in hiii ^vrriilanct^ of paifi. Tht: uEiiriiLEird noiiliuiy 
which Ijc seta U|> to excessive plen!.urc — the pam which Ihow; who 
purtiie mod^mie pleasures do not feel ni at! — helps its ro :ippTeciti« 

the moral diflVtclue— ignon'il by oi Xeyovrrc fifj ('po* tiytiS^a rat 
f*>*ufur'fi 'fStivat — between the «xctJi9lvc and ibc moderate purnull 
of boddy jileasures, 

^ 3, 'Eirtl . . , oIp<Twr<f}ai] The apodosis of Ihis sentence begins &. 9B. 

Tfti 4^Jhou«] The view thai the bodily pleastires are bctrer than a. M. 
iliO»c of the Vbv^tyupi car aprr^v. Tb&t ihc Utter ajc bctitr tt»an 
the bodily pleasures is r^IAijtf/t which the wrflet seeks to corroborate 
bj pnitilinjr out hnw ro ^iu?ifit rnme to h** telii*vi>d— 3iA t< t^mpitra* 

longer deals lAiih the opinion of the PlaioniBls [Kamsaiucr crro- 
neciiLsly nuppoaes liiat it doe«] th;it bttdily []|«)Riire ia an evil, but 
lakcK up inotbcr qucjilion already paaly antidpafcd cb. 1,1. } d; 
namely. How ie the vulgar error to be accounted for, which gives 
M miith |ji(iminencp to physical pleasure in the scale of pleasures?' 
-^r.r, tliia I returoa to Lhe f^g^aoi rifv rvij ^t«5^rvf t^ifltafottlav al 

{ 4> SiA fD irapi r& /^atrtAv 4^^^*^°^] Jf' a^ptr^t, suggested by ■- ^- 
rat ' Tbey Keein gcwxl by t'oniraut/ 

KoI «A (TirovSator . . , oflv (nrvvSakai] Thc»c wordd, suspected by *■ 0L 


BOOK Vli: CHAP, 14: ^ 4- 

lUi «, ?i. Z«!l. an* bracketed by Rims3u«r, as interrupting; the flov of iC 

aigunicrLl \ R^EiisAucr say^ — >' ct i^ljai? ante i^Iik pucccdunt, el que 




hncc vero ipsa fcrc in conirariam iscTi:*nihai dnjiuiaU nunt ifi r-^w* t 

quin c medio toUcndi sini.' Gmni obacrvc*— * 'I'hU pftn^fp^lV ^^E^apl 

reverts ftarenLht.-iicaJlj' lo the opirion of ilic PhioniiUv' I 

inclined to Uikc llic jmugiAph ^ the wiiEer'* i^atcnibcsb su^gc^ 

by the mr-nlion of Inr^ftat, tmrticdiaicly prcccdinj^^ ««n^ ■^'«w^t^ 

0-38 rrfcrs lo fh ij. J i, and ih^ Bvo r«i>n x 31 are (i) Xri «1 ^^ ^^ 

^i/XifE R.f,X. 4, j;f, aod (2) af J1' lorjitini /viDtcif-r il. 3|, R jhmjti^ ^ JUy,. 

i think, doc3 injustice to the wnttr oi the pani^-ra|>h, wl^a « fjJ 

aifcuses him df fis^nr^^ fir«(, thai ihert; are JUw reAion*, andlh-f ^j|, 
enunictaliog Mfrt, vii, (3) <rl W <rt/*^iiiwiTtf« rrAttw^wf K t. Tfc ^T^ 
words fiT ^t cfi'>4tfaii'DviTi rrXiDv^fiwi' merely expand vhi£ bi tUKl^^Ei^iy 
l]i« Jrfr^f'iM in the »eiiten£^r> immodiarrly precedtrig, and do ^ 

introduce a ihii*] cl-i»» of picasuic*. »cc Cotirt ad lot. ^C 4^ 

iiJiivit tirriv bum'^i}pivtTtit , r - cl yap rutairai nXijpaftTtti 4n>fiflaiiv*n 

Admttiing, ih*^T), Ihai ibe paragraph U paTpnfheH«il awl w 
kio>c])' Attached ic thr conLrxt, I chink ihc conncxjciti of the witla'ft 
Ihougfit m:iy be s^iligTactorily traced as folbws— ^ iJodil^- pkAlitfa, 
though inft-rioj, are sought after moic than other plentur?^ Wbf f 
Becau?tc? li^cy arc good remedies of pain by rcftM>n of thdr CXCT»- 
«ive charucier. And, in patising. it 'vt intereit^n^ io observe, th&t 
the very qualities which recommend ibem 10 ihr nilgar — iMr 
eKWWsivc dmrackr (in Lhc ^ui'Af; *vff»0» ^"^ iheir «iuublcn<asu 
remedies, are seized upun by ccruin theoristt, mentioned before* 
to (-sublixli [he aivcejtin^ gi!i]>^rall6-4ti(iii timt Pleasure is ool ^ood-* 

«.94. al V Uipfliai [6ii| ^r%«il«1 Bywatcr's omission of ht remow 
a gre:it difTii-ulLy , bui how f'n got iitio the MSS. {ftn:l 1 do not 
ihink th^t vre cah be sure that it wu QOt in the MS, used try 
Aspofiius) stilJ rem&inH a difficulty. 

fxctr] to be m a naiural stale (<'<&«). 

' DywateJ {CfHtht. y. i%), XakiDs tUi ^Cir of the poiUga of at U #t^ 

BOOK VJJ: CHAP. 14; $} 4-6. 


nXfou^^i*] Cf. vii, 19, 3 HI rAaf o£ vrrhrvi' ^j>uir n,^XXA ruf «■« 1L54 b. I. 
$ 5. fri] The argument, brokirn bj ihe paienlhesb cat ofi nrou* I1.S- 

tf^] 2el1f Coraes, MiclielcE, and Gnnl lake lbJ£ mcu-b,a. 
photicilly, of artifidttlly |frcxlyced desires gener;i]]y, imrrfi'OatQX 
in^if^JMM Qs ttwy Arc called by itic Par&ph. FHuschc fcillow.i Ehc 
Aid, Sch61, in taking the word liur^illy — j?fatXn^«vaj rrJHiP &' axijf 1^0 

Aipflafus. 1 ftm inclined :o thii;k thai it oiiftht to be l^cn 
IfceralT^, as a spechl ^timptv (introdui-i^d by yrfi-¥) of ihe lengLh 

of fi4 AiiKitff»t <T»oiir x''^^^ ^>^1 R^ ■'' ^^^^ piiriuil of cxci^Mivr 
fdea«urcB. Pcrlups, howcvtir, m^i is Li^in»l t]i« literal inter- 

dflXn^U] Not A^Qff ffopihTicfi/a^uirj, bttC ffiavdi irapdT«fvafbirft, fa. 4. 

oJn ydfp K.T.VJ Thiit <:laU3c explains (Jtai^ar : 30, Aapa^iiiis- b. 0- 

TJ T< ^v|tfTtp»y , . . ^o?&] The mere ibncnce of plcafiure if K 6, 
l^aiitfuT fci tn-.U}y men by reason of l1ie[r lemperELineiir {ftiii r^y tpCmv: 
Ihc reference b clticfly 10 ihe ^Ady^uXifNt r^ii ^Ctrt¥ about to be 
QKniioned) : for ' phyicology ' l«aclie^ u& ihal Life is ^ continuii 
arm^lt^j 10 (hp imin nf which wr bf-comc accustomed : some ni us, 
however, to impcrfcclly iIul wlicn ilw pleasure, which generally 
aids *ciaUim' in di?ad«ning p^n, h abttent, we feci this abMnce 
oT plrtteurr (which l(t perfedly rrgulaied or * accustom ej! " minds 
ouffht to be a ncutroJ state) positively pAinfuK i-c- we bc^ume 
;kvire igxm of the fundamcuial pain of Lift^* n'hich has bteri kept 
hrnrath ihc Itxri nf eonH:ioiianes& hy the aid which pleasure givpa 
U> Unpcricci ' custom/ Aspa&tua scribes [he aphorism «! itv>'tl t& 
{^cv to Anaxagorut, 

j 0, ^ ^r Tp k^Tifn . , . SffiNp et olvia^ttvoi Stttxrikrai] Grant b- O- 
ftppotntcly quotes Goethe's 

Tfunken mtlssen wir allc scin; 
Jugerid iat Tjunt^nheU ohne Wein. 

He refers to Prolrf. xxx, ch, i (a. 953) as the best commentary 
00 ihc present passage. There *a frequent comparison is tnaJo 
betwetu the cfTccts of wine, youth, and the melancholy (or bilious) 
icmpcrament, in producing deurc. < . . The principle of offijuu io 

VOL. li. B 


BOOK Vfi: CHAP. 14r {§ ^. 

i-i«4ta,9. youil] \% rr[rrr^^nird a^ proEliicing the- FiiTD? r^^ultsas ihc buaicvn 
(;icifM^r J ^Xiiyj^u^MilE — V r^c f«i\ii't-'7i x^^^V *>Htfu) in the biltfKift 

Tlir nrinunt winch eIic Aid. SuhvjI. gives of tht^ operalSciQ of llie 
^r\n.»ii ;rt'X^ ill UFOUi^mg \\*:mt i» aa followfl: oJ li fUXo^^flKm tmA 

tfOLfrcfii tA fV r^ yfUTTj^il dputfon. nu Zkj /iq rqv yatrrpit nHEdv^tffr 

nXi'imt;', Aid rtvt^ Hiirm d't ^ ^cXoyyuAiit^r i'lrfnittr ^m ar^m 
^ptittiiiriiii' T^v yamipa avtou. On llii^ t^tXtryxoKtuei »k avU: tm til. ^ 

r ». b. SJ1. 

following commciit — *al «^v 'A^o^rryipnv i^^fw nrifrTijiiiTTiic aV 'tUt'— 

dj(o^cr>ia<ri dia^;juiTiur yalptfltttu, 

b, lA- ^KifXaDTOL ir&t ^uXm yivoiraL] Ir u nnfanl to iupf>o;c ihai e« 
^Xqy;(o^uci?i arir])' iulctidcJ ; but il h puttiblCi villi A3|i4uuc 

b Id. 

gpnc rally, 

§ 7- TUf 4i!(ni ^Vuv] S:^ note on !. S. f r. 

VjltC Soul cCfai] 1^. ri iarptviv&oi: 'the rettoration itself Bccnr 
plcitt;iTil ' (Peters), 

jj. so, ^wrti V ijftfa, & irotct itpafiv TT|f TOi^ffSr ^utnta^^ Th04^ thing>^ .JT 

which effect dumX^paKut, or r«" lurpn^eoAii, irc pJc^sujl iadJrccily— ^-^ 
f>, relatively \o ihe namrc which it being r«&tor«cl; tJtifl aa(ur« ipdv* 

have a suutid pari left in Tl (tmi fenii^vovTM i^mt^r: ^ vro)immv^t' 

vih ij. a), oibcrft'ltc' il could noi be rcsiorcd At &1I. But tbor 
Fhmgt; which ^timubit' the fiDicrons of a compldeljr sound ntinrc 
{t$v Titin/rfit i/jiWtfivtf) arr in [hrm-selvfs pleAsani^-a* ihr Pmf& 
puts it <i'V-ju Ai qAi'u i>£ rd JnirXifpDiiM-ii n^ f»A«iar rifi ^iv*«i.^ oXU ri 

I'vtpyfinv. RiLinisHiLiLT ^ivf-H Oirr cr»rTCCt mraning uf t^ tmAvI^ 

^i^twi— 'quae ulU c^t qualb cdt, ncc comipta ncc cgtna,' Ftlcn 
has Jtn instrucU^v note here, which I take lh» liberty of qnotiaif— 
* I am aick and lake medicine, hungry and Laic iood (which flecms 

BOOK Viii CifAP. U; {5 7, 8, 


Iff 1m hen included und^r mtdlicifK?-) ; but ndOirr the drag nar the UUtopftO- 
Tood can nf [lictiiwrlvcit tur*^ itit sitnl rcttore ihe bal^nc(^ of iny 
^^Stcni — ibcy muM br ^tbiimiluicd (for Lhc liud^ i*> nal likt.- a jti 
Ihal can be filled merely by pcurin;; water Oom anoihcr jar), f>*. 
pan nf my nymrm miist remain In iu normflt a,ute and operiiie in 
it» DOnnixl maniiCf. Bat this opcraiiDii, liii* tV/*y*ui t^f Jitrri 0iWir 
f{4«(, is j>lpii£urc {ijy llic dctinitmfi givirn alcove li, 3), and in 
ifCnoFAncc of (he [irocrts we Iranhfcr the pk-asure to ihr nMlidn« 
and ciU it pkuani. The wnkncs^ oi thi> account is thai ii 
overlook* ibc fad thai, ihcuigh ihc medicine Ciinaot itself cure 
withoui ilii" (j]MTaii[Ji] or t^v tar^ tJiCatv /ffuc. yrt on ihr whrf hand 
ll^ ■i^I, thia fa<:u)()-, ctnnot operate in thia mai^ncr ^ill^oui ihh 
•dmuluf : ic that there »e«mc lo be ni) reason why ihe medicine. 

WK^gb^ I'P ^n fH^ryrin r^c iniTrl ^uo-iv ^JMC, ^llOuU nol llVflflw 

miP^£»i ijAvh J^uI the iwholc pnasac^ re>lQ on the Assumption 
thai iJiefe can br- activity without i^timului, /-/. \«iLhoui want — an 
amiraptinn whidi i^^jdJrtrfJmf iric-tjnie'iv.ihle to us,' 

It b perhaps true ihai. oii l!ic whole, Arisioiclianiam lakes too 
lilOc ftccotini of jtimubji. vhctc Ibc hlfihcr funcljons ;ire cciiceincd : 
hut I think iTiai Ihr (jrcsftiE pa^sugi.\ wItIi \\h tfrvfrit rj^t'o, A vokoi 
wpafip rqf roiuo^ f^inttrnt, CintiGt ix ?aiij to ij^norc it. T^ ^ttt 
IfiU constiTule the environmonl vjlih vtiidi ihe henlthy or^aniwra 
fTiTTri|ionrJs ; ri torA iTtiji^SrfKt'iv fifita. Of i& un-ftfwvm. are ihp 
drcumftl-incci in which an impuircdi but rot ruined organinUi 
recoi^cTfi iu healih. 

{ 8, ^4| AnXTJv] rA rvr&rrov cf /*. A^. X. f , S. Tn ITIfln't COTHpoaiEC b' 9t, 

nafur^ th* prinoipl*^ of Torrw assen* itseTf wirh difTlculty iigainit 
Matter* Pfrlfjcjit, ilic purest CJijirtwioii of this principle, c:annot be 
long ^^ wp- ^^^ >i '« *<^'>" th^cked, ard Hie plvaaare attemlina it 
deiiiroyed, by the renwtanc^ of the maitila! part of hU nnnirc. 
Before wJrjffx can be rcauiijcd, and ila attcmlant pleasure rxpcri* 
cnced again, the raAlerial rcKij:tance mas-i hav« hnd time to eubsido 
— maricr mnsi have i(s own way, for a vhilc, ami be allowed Ifa 
own plcaniic. Thus the life of llic indjvidu:il man is broken Lip 
into fthori p«riod« of t^tt, prop<'rly f^o c^^Ikd, aUt^rnatin^ %'ith 
timn during uhkh ilie itiaTt-ri^il vrhiclr ;i)(!iipr[K lE&plf on hs o^-n 
acccviU: and Uiia experience of the ioAvidual U paralleled on 
t great Kal«, in the life of the race, Ihe tpeciGc form of which k 
not realised in cnc immortiLl mdlvlitua], but asBeitB Itself, more or 

i 2 


BOOK K//; aiAF. U: § «. 


11114 b, Bi, Ic>£ f crfccrtty, for a short time In the aJulE5 of one gencniloi^ b 
^clipBcd b/ (h«ir decay jind death, reg^iu force in ibfir joimg 
rte!*cen(tiTH», aad itgaiii aj^rl% itself, more or less perfectly. In ibc»« 
when iho reach adult apc» Hi« Cod i* not thus dis<«?w^, hlt« the 
higher momeni? of man, or iht mdiviilualt^ of a «pocto9^ He b 

7. 107* \>. 35). Hie nuturc U ^n-^i) : it ia *V//>yfrfi J»*v ^wiO'nK— 
Form noi confronted by Maitrr^Form j'n iM/, nl^siyt icruiilv 
ichitvtO, not iigiiin and agaii> 10 be iiiiijuscd, by (iillj^ng clTwt^ 
upon t6 ihttmor. Hfs ^Son? therefore ui ^\^< Tbus, the contrast 
between the innintttabMit)' of God< m purr Form, uiii ihv DauU' 
hilily oT Lhc irdividu^l in:\i\, as corn|iounded »f Fonii xnd Mallrr.^'ss 
18 the burdL^n of the closing sentcncre of this trc-aiUc on PJeauuc^ 
But we must remctnber thaf Ariftiotclianism Joes nor reill/ ic — 
quiesce in lhi» contrast, Man hab — if I may venture to use t 
exprcB.iion— hb eternal and tmmutsible moments— the momenEs o 
►nrjmf whtch he cnjoy^An ^^b^n YifH Form— God's Fftnti — a»fiti»= 
ilsclf victQrious!/ in bis M^Lter. These niotncnts have iTitnejsur^ 
able uorlh and digntty — 3iaytfy^ B» Jtrtar e« w ^ cpiimT fua;par x^**" 
4^Sj» (/l/f/. A. 7. 107? h, 14)^ or, AK Ale-xandi<r (M^/. p, 67ied. 
Bontu) bAys (in a ^ui^i^c wbiiU sliowa how cull> AiUloUc'i^ 
theology lends iurU' to neo-Plntonic docrrine) -& ^>»m^f vova ft»i! 

/Lt( £jj> tA vojjtd, Srai/ it t^t <iryjdc rtrnrrifimt vd ri)( ii>iur at^sbTf m/jMU 
^flfir^f <iT<<'Ai'd {to^**, 7^<B \^yfi ^iv tent cftfififttitvrvtf yttm^terrm Zi Tti^ 

h- fis. Ira* 5' uwl^d . . - rA Tf aTT*l|i*i*i'] Jn^fij it^tnnsillve — ' AnJ vheim 
the two clemi^nla arc balanced* the rc^tilt appears neilhcr painfuB 
nor pleasant ' (Gr^ni). The Pamfb. (tollowed by Cotwb, JllichelH, 
and Fritciche) Is wrong in thinking that the ' baluncc ' mmttoard, 
h the "fi^roui of the viriQous character, in which rcA!cn rdc«. and 
fenw cheerfully obeys. The action* of the viriuouti cfaiLfaiCter *re 
pleasant, not iketilr^Ll. The wnjtr U thSnlitiig r^tlluT of (lie elTeci 
which custom has in dulling the pleasure and pamof acu: xe 
al;ove j 5, b. 6. 

b, S7. Amn^iiifj God, or ivipiytta iiMyi Aviufi'tai, JK dfr(Cnbc<! ftC ouvvrv 
hi J^fetw A- 7- 107^ 1^' '5 '<'^' T* A ^^ M^VM^"** u>Mi. lulSmv Kyi wf*^ 
juil cW^ia ofru . . - Jar* t< icii<d»> flwi ieii^tfi' £>■ CH^rjriif J*. The 

First Cau&e of die nioiion of niaierial ifalrga la space Is D0< tudf 

SOOM Vii; CtiAP, H: {f^I 

and ia rot it«lf a matcriai thins iri spate: Met. V 7HUSibH 

1073 '■ 3 '*'*" <"■"'" 'i'''!*"' 'nl jJiTiinjrin, ■o* <fjif«ijniT^«tf5 Tmi' qifl5ijT«i' 

Jlu/^frdr *>¥*•■. Cy. ^f/. r. 8, I0J2 L 28 J*tiy«i to tr ytrra/^iXArtr 

'J |i4Ta«^rA^. dXXd ^^v (f^P n'iiTa Apf^f^ f naniru! wvit, lUl If n^^V 
tort yop Ti £ dit wivti rh vfavfitt^, nu'i ri irpitri>t hiwoCv ojiji^t'V ii^<S. 

Ulien we are told ihaf ihc piotnal cner^ty of thj* immaLcrial 
Principle is PItasuft — ^Acj^r^ ^ (V<p7*ia tovtwi' (i1/f/> a, 7, 1073 b. 16J 
— wc inutti Aftlc no quevtioiit. Tbc Unif^agp is not lliot of science, 
boi of p(ie[iy. As porrr)' wr ttti?: acc^pi alsn the words Wore 
ii» here (vii 14. 3), notwichjitanding thai tht>- hcgin wiiJi a ' where- 
fore" — iti it fliiiff jai ^'at khI itftk^v j^rrtp'f qion)!' I>. S6. 

]iurr*it ^^dt^ is ihit of rVupiTrit]) ^n^yia, PT »^7(rit. and lli^ Hnyra'p 

(vith which yaii^i4 L« jdcniJCAl) ui B fiKcd Jiilclli^iblc &>£icm. as 
diftiia^giufclied from the Iluciualing crowd of Bcnsibk particuhrt. 
Thiis in An. Past. iL 19. 100 a. ft ™ «iflil.QM (ihc object of uSi^wif) 
is baiij 'ifH|i'|nL « Tfl ^\rxu '- *"J i^ '^^ An. i. 3> 4^7 ^^ 32 '"'c read — 
f KHfirii 4«(«if ^pf^^^i Tiyi (fill imoraitti ^ityXov ^ <At-^tf*( : ij, afiiO 
K.N. X. 4, j) 1-4. whciL' il 18 bhowii ttial ^Aor^ is ^or n, and 
Ihercrorc nOE a mriioit. Equally irreconciljibTc witfi its bclnfc a 
b'tqcff, or being iV Kiti^ou, la tlic dot-trine of ihi« Bock ihnt ii la 
4¥*iiiwiAtarQv fri^rytia. ht jK-rfetl fnntliim ; for tUtirrit h ^Iwnyj; in 
iUclf impcrfcci : .'/ Pkyi, ill. t. 401 b, 31 f rt nniou Mfiyita tJp 

ftrrB^oXf) Sc vdvrw yXvx^ £ur, Ori^j/, ^34, wbo has ^rrajSoX^ b.&S. 
inip*Mr ^>i«il, Bj-water restore* yXmiJ to ihe text li;?re. Tlie MSS. 

^ %«9|l/*t|] RaMow (.ForsiL p. 101) Argues th&I q must bcbHSO, 
dUkei c:(pun^t:d ot changed into 7^4^: S'n^aV^ is the prcdkaLC^ 
* A* ihc bid man 1* changeable, ^a our nature, b*ing neither limple 
nor goo^. needs <baiigc-' If wc rcUin q, ilicn irtpjTjpJ aiuji be 
trndcrttood cu predicate Lo ihe subject ^ 4^rn 7 Jbe^V? ^m^aA^^p 

ftod the ClailW c£ yhp ai:\^ ooff rauiitrft (^ AtA irnnjpiat iiwA\ Sv 



) 9-] ProbabI/ ihc work of an edilor- 


Bootc vru. 

BOOK ynr 

Infrfiihi^tfiry Aj'A-.] TIi? *pa« given to 'P*\'m m Ibe /WjW l4 
very liTKc, and doubtless ludlCiUct l>/ iL8 lxecijl tht- Jinjiuituict oT^ 
(he subject 1o ArUlotLe'tf front! xyskm '. li mcist be rtmembert< « 
however, thai Arisioik"* ^\>m is a *ti3*-r term ihan Ffjfnt!$Aip. irdf^ 
thill, ^Uhuuf;!] tlic SuUti is di-tt:u»Acd at ton»dcnilic IcosEti* the 
two Books ueiit aiKo or oLhef subjccift under Lhc general head oS-« 

The width of the lield covered by the treJiti»c tnaf be eslinnfcif^ 
from ihc r:tn(re of ihe iwo que&lione propounded respoctirLg +»> 
The*e arc ^t) What is iisNaiuraS FTitiory? ard (a) What may 
done vritli ii ID the interc»Uor the Higher Lire? As diacuuirv 
ihc tint cf these questions the trc^itisc antourus lo 'ui enqmr- 
ooncerning thf Principles of Sociology"; a« <tiHatAs1lig th» secor^j 
question lE is '^n EsKiy in the MelaphyaJc of Ethics.' 

Exiimimng Lhe Natural History of ^Xm, AriatoUe ftuds tb&l thciv^^^f 
are viiiiciuA foimtt of it, nW nuirre or leis ubvioua plk:Msr« vS ilu£ ^-^In 
greganous inaiinct, to which, rather than lo X pcrcepiiOD of d f^ ll 
advmta^s of co-op«nit]on :ind <hvl^on of labour, ftudety ou'es i« <s i 
oiigin And its mainiennnce-^ fire /V/. iii. 4. 1178 L 10 fw«i fim^ * 

The carlicbt rorm of Etie grcg-«mou:i mettnct in iead, o* id xTM^ 
lowtr anlmAU, Is thai natural nffeciion, or fro/tf^, which tuotvf 
parents actH ofl^spriii^, and generally thooc cloaclj rekted by bl 

* J <I<i rtcA wLsh Ui coinTTLkl m^trir la C*rant^ii vkw i^KtMiHi nL il. pL 1^ ^ 
that *nij(h]/i|£ [» iTinnr cl»f t)j!tii IJiiE [iht pmmi Tmrivf on KrindftUfiJ tr^ $ 
viiVtfn TO foru a pflrt oJ Atirtolir< wi^hl on fc^hlc^': hvl J mbifJl^ •ffak 
It ini(;ht haw N+n, »■> Ut M tulijcct and IrTAtmtnt^recDnccEBcd. Atu; 
11 arL^inuLty an indrpendcnt tKAttK 4Cncn|£ AriMutlr't mtnit^ k toof 
litfluilie foi^iiijii amI^i(;4 to it itbiDciJuiEitjr ttta the Uooki om lb* 
tLv^uJo, uid i^Sof^, It lauit b? ftuurani, I take it, ihtt the Anitf a/^BTc^ 

sooK vrrr. 

*lf wTYYtvttij t^tKla {v\\\. Z3. i) it (he pnTni!i^'? ^Uei. As lh« Fftttiljr 
^TonfH imo ihe Vilhj^r. ililcI Villages are organised into \\\t Cily, 
pcr>on« more «nd inore dUianily Akin »ic Chrovm lOffcthcr* artd 
fine] pkafiurc- and aJvantA^^ m aeso:ialion> Th« iggrrgiUet ao 
pirnditm! nni only rrfttallisr, as whnlfi^ into pnliiic^l lhrra« 
{;%ikir^f Lu, a^iffTOMpdTMi. TtpMjMTiJTf}) wlijcli fctaiii irBcc!^ oF the original 
fiunilj- rdAtioiuhijui, but ihc Lndirulu^lt composing ihc sggrcgatcj 
coRtraci, at Endivldualn, murual fvrUJoris in wtjich Hilicr social 
plcttfofc or private ad^'iniai^c i% the more prominent feature. 
Wbore social pl«aiur« ia iln; more prominvni feature chir mutu^L 
rchtinn 1% callcil ^l/hji^ ^i\i'a (viJL 5- 3); Mrberr pn'vLUe ad- 
t'uit4||:e. 4 ^^^a f ^"^ rA iT'^'^'^"^ Ar>!»iotlc'a method it iliua 10 
gciwraUnp ihc noton of fiX/a, Not onlj^ i» there Jraipnn^ ^xXifi, bui 
there Are jl?io iri'yy<pu^ 4^^°' "o^^^"'^ ^iKia (i^, ''j, j^ and 4 4^* 4 
•^ f* zpit^i^tv* (viii, 3, ('4Jh Two men bctome fricnda, or rnter 
tii40 ft budnew conTraci. rioi only or principal!)' tircaiiw ihcy now 
agree, u miliviiluitis, U» be frienilsp or [o ninke this pu.ilkulju 
b&rf;«in, but esscDilally IwcftiiK \hcy ,Arr member* of a lioctal order 
or c<^iiiTnurity whidi W14 conbEiiui^^l intl is hekl togeih^ by 
felkjW'fcvlLng'— by ^^avauj or roXirLiii^ ^lAid, Ht^itcc^ ^ici in \\.% 

tum toay b« traced baok 10 enr»*»44 ^^— ttic natural iH'ection 
binding tog^thrr p*ffnis and offtf^rinp, and kinumtn ypnemUy ; 
while oiTTtnif^ ^iXAi iiBdf toudira llic Fini Prindplc of Niiturc. 
heinjC ihc conscinimncu of that rndravour after ro m\ naJ r^ ^iuf| 
wWcb Ar«oile tecogrris^i ns ^irfnjftitnrftt in sll creatures. Conirad 
and the division of labour. rtTrcEirig pitiblic and private advantn^ 
(•* »i*^v«. ^* ^ri-^i^^jjwv), <arj operate only amonf- persons w[io 
already oceupy the iiains of memlwre of an cttahlishrd community, 
and feci confidence in one ancilher. The capreuion h ^\\t^ h ^^ 
ti jliii7ffdpaf Tnarkn Aiiatotlc'^ tecoflnnion of the truth that the 
tmlivMnTit cannot »«cuie Ms own ^irivate fldvaniage except tn so 
br as he b the ^iXcjk of tho^e with whom he dcAb. He cannot 
•«ctjr« hi» own ndvania;^c in n E^iate of ' war of ^v^ry man D^aLnot 
ewry other.' Men aie naturally "fticiutly' to one another, and I 
therefore tccure advintajrca to theuifcclvea by fair dcaliiig, nut by / 
plunder and murder. The thought ol thn privaic advanuac J 
vNch he Ntyi rcurin tipon a man'R ' friendly ' feelings, and give* 
these the colour described by Aristotle in bin accotinL of 4 ^'o h 
hia Tw ji^^rv'o"': yel, tave in a society ulunwicJy hold together by 
'friendly ' feeling*, private advantage could nor be Uiughl at all. 

jBoofc r/7 



The rules of Josticr express iJie ^'snou* ways lit which lay 
' fldvant;ige maj^ be reccncilrd with yours in siich a soci^^ry. Jwtiice, 
as ji hatAL of (lie mindn is a preparcdncE« U> act accOfditiK HCnifc* 
which nrc cftUibJiRhcd to secure the good of \he community, anri. 
Lhrough i[, tlie good of \lt inrJivltlual rncmhers. But rhp ncutrnfr 
't>l turh ruTc^i nnd of the prcpircdne^s to obacrvt them, imply tkkL 
on the whole, the gcod of ihe comEnunily is degired, alEhough indi- 
vitlunl mpmh«* maybe often Eempted lo disregard ir InotlifT 
words, ilicrc vould be no JivKvuM^yrt without ^«». 4^t<i, ithich i» 
4 tui' fTti(^i> frponipccTJv {FoL lii. Q. iifHo b. 39)h U tb^ individoirf 
va/iT^j/ in nk loiv^ ri'^fu'^ap, And ra vd^f^ inr^0i7iO' JK ifir naiidud 
of Justice— flCC T^i^/i ill- 4> 1x79 ^- '7 ^^"' ^' ncA^rtuJ* v^ jfoa^ 
avfbipipop VMvnavtrtrj a^raj ^dv i^^al TiT^di'ouif*!' o^rrai ana Tfl oirJttff 

From one point cf view, then, Amtotle'* ircfltive npi ^loi it 
■ AH Enquiry concerning ihe Frlnclplev of Sociology/ containing, li 
it dors, hi-s whole rheory of tlic^ nilural r^vDlutiau of llic State wilh 
Us political fomis and in»ilLiilions, it« ruica of unit^rul and puti- 
cular jusiico, lis trcont^mic \a.vfs, and its v»iou» Bttociadons {or 
pleasiirf^i Lusincsa, and tutUiic. 

From another point of view, however, th;* treatise [ji 'an Edsay 
\in the Met.iphysic of Ethics/ The md or final cuvnc of lh< $octtJ 
i^volaLJon wljidi Las been iiaied a i\ni friendship bctirmi £t>od 
mcn> I'hi:! beautiful rclaiion^ip in the hi>;hcct product of voeial 
hfe. Iti it ibe chief end of man — rf**j»7rijr^ tvipyna—h moai fol^ 
realised. F^ch frienil sees in ihr oibri a ' w^ond self,' in nbom 
he can * contemplate ' lh<; law of extdiine*; more dearly and eon- 
ttnuoiKly than he can do if be rrsiardf, it only in bim«elf. 

One recognises in this view of friendship the ixiflucnce of PUto'i 
doctrine of Ataktwrut^. In Lhc conversation (AuX^w^) of syrn- 
|iaiheric friend*^ Plain held, ihe truih h tonrhed. a* it can b« m no 
oiber wa>> siiirit is called forth, and the Idea of the (lood ii kt*. 
bitnilorly, Ari&lolle's i'erfcci Friend^^hip if, a Dulcctic (lik« PhlOt 
DiaJf!Ctic, thf; lai^l pnxluct of cuUurt) by which a few vtrtuoiv and 
fonunaie men in each generation are enabled to 9cc the Oiic/End 
(what Eudemne calls ^ eironAt i t^e «iA<JMyo^r) inOT« clcOflj, 

keep it ill view mort coniiniicjusly than their contemparariM- It 
for the saltc of Ibesc 'dialecticians' that_lh£_City exists. 

BOO/C VSIl: CHAP. 1 : J} 1-^, 



ffV mtat HM/ drMVJj Frit^UMp.far 4t U a ttHut. cr fttw/i^j virtut: 
^ttrtMffr, ii it nUfUtity mr 4 APAitJt to xnrittf ii/t ' ^litiumi tt Ikt tijA rfluM hat 
.JWWiH'* an^§tir/hrtr it*tj/h. er Ihr f<vrffni t^iir influm^t -- il is tht "Jut!* 

JSmt vhem wt my that ■ it ii u^tjsery kj a rw^m^ Jo nnint It/r, we i£a ttoi im- 
^fy iAat it it a mtriHt arftitr/tniy /h- arii/^etnt/y trie-itrd —it h tturitra/ to ntmr 
»■"/ flT^yAm lif til futtnrn/ a^tttimt ^t'hi-h imti ttt^turri pnrent imd P^spting 
^tkt ifov animalr j;V# fjM&it ihii httd aj ^/netuithif ^) : m<r* cf t%i nmt 
ritft w n^iH^iy ftiii^diy- nny. mf.H kj mtH are HtitHrjfiy ftittf^iy to tfW 
^jmrt^tTt 10 iH ttr whm ttran^fi frrt vn a Jm^ntiy. f-tirntitktp, in ihtrrit i* 
Artrf t^ Witty- The ia^'gii'tt titnii it warr ititpotnnt fhaa Jvstht. // 
'JDfc# tHittmi tit mtrtty furt that n net tvpn^k ; ikty f}iutt iv ^vUttn/trt/^ iff mr 
^mttA^Tf 9ftJt/smt mind, ff '^'Jt <"" /*■>, My ^W hi ytui 19 Vfu Aircthfr in 
£At kightit tatJff. 

S» mw^ ftf f*r ' mt<iitty ' of ftittdshfp hut it ii tiot ffrtff HeiAimry lU a 
w tta m W iJiinIixfr. ti it nixann tn/t I'tamt/ul m iltttf 

M^^t^*^*y haw ttm f*iir /frth jtitmt if. Semf f^fj>it tjy rkaf it ii '/iWr^ 
Imniy,' amJ ^tut/ ^ fiir,ti t/a/fsfh/r.' Bitf Plhln eppOft thu vifh'u^tk '/*icid/ 
FVlrrt* TlcHi 4\ct rtrt ikatt nihe x" ■'«■/""• <J//rfi«('if J^ricnJikip iit tgrt- 
HKrAw wiSA j^vw iA(9ry »/ ' the ftalnts v/ thinj;!.' Thm Jiitrifiifei >yc4ki tf 
• /^vM etrtk in lett itrjiH rainy liy,' emi HrratUtut tiHt ut lAM * Sff/i it 
/trtnt aj ali'' MA*ri o^im. at Jimfitifafitt. mamtatn that ' likt tfrit 1$Jh' 
Wt ik^ti int fei'^f ikNs ff'Ae ikut larry rhe f'ii/t*t'y ttitk t& ikt uifimate 
' natmrt a/ /h\fi.' It ii tkl ' 'uffrf e/ vmn^ tAttt tiv a/v \-0nit:rH*tf witk — 
matf'i fit/ifX' iiHil iHi/vUii/fij - arii/ rfii i/ur^tipffi ifh\h w< jA/i/f -tii art /kat 
—' Cjh ait men de /fitnifSt &r ean taii men not 6e /fiends f' and 'ft there cnly 
aiu tffeHt nj i-rtim4Kh%p, t\r ar* thtrr vn/rai ^//.teK f ' Tha\* iwAfl mnintata 
liM thin it »miy em iff^-Mi.leiimit there art Jtgr^i ef/netfJiAif, an miUaJten 
itt t^ir tK/erefie4 : Hi piittifi_t ^ifti~a senei ff ifuaiitalivf liutt'HitittHt^ l^t-e/ 
t/vuj. vft m'ly at tAt MrHt fnw* h a:irurt e^ftantUei ifunrttilatitv tfi^iMiti. 

Jj 1-6 J Th«i< Mcdons ^<iSgcst ibe chief points in Ariitotle's lue », 9. 
aux^uut of^^^xd. Fiieiidhhit' i^ nccesBary to iidi aEid poor* young 
and oid. W'iihout it lile would be impossible ; and, cvtti il pofisible. 
nm worth living (§$ 1, r). \i ^ubi^isis n^cur^lly brtw^-'t-n parenti 
and cbildiCD, uiioii^ ihc lo^^cr animab, as among men t§ 3)- 1e is 
the bond which boidi society together, and, as Buch, ie the biK:s of 


BOOK Viii: CHAP, 1; 

liss a. 9. Jusiicc (f 4). iJui not onty U \\ tbiia ncc^SMrj to tbo txulciic« of 

in the fttmtly, taubcd llic cvolulioii of aodcly). but il a i«ho u^«>>r 
*S 5)" "' ^** higher lil* r<rquirc* what may be called ;bc Diai^ciic ol 


{ 1. X<ji^ vdp Ap<n^ Til ^ fLCT* dpeH)i] ff^Xiu in the wide accr|:^ucii 
of Uic term ie noi iEtolf iin vm) ^ it is Uiat M:t)Ac of brbf; a tn^ntxr 
<ir [)if* body poliiit wiihoui whkb the indivMiinl could noi h*ve ihr 
v^lHqua aptTii^ indudnl ULidcr [he n^ciicral dcsif^iiaijuii uf 4 v^Q &«««< 
ffwwj. Ifui 7 TiA*itf ^lAiii (viii, J. 6), in whicii the «mmufm mtxmx 
iM di^pUyrd In ilii? moKi rmlriri^i w^}', may be d««erfhfd u v^ 
m — and aUo ;ifl ^f t <i/jjr^f, bctuuac u inanif«ti ii«lf Jn ojikkueiui 
wiib riX'iu tf^dTi^- or couiec: the diepo^iibn d«dcfib«d in iv- U cwt 
a]lulJr^i lo hrre- 

L 14. h 2- 6o>|Ekr&s] So Su5, and ttj-tv, instead or ^qM prdciRd bgr 
BL-lvken i'be iAcig;ht <f\ M^, auihoniy to in Tavouf orpa ^ fat, vUcll 
is given by K<', LK 0^ Cambr., NC, CXX\ B'. H*; boi ihc ccc- 
structicn juflft^r^. Fcibiaps \ie ou|:ht to rc&d Qvqh'nf add irakc ii 
depi^nd on i>I"^dj, the subject f^j!for;^fL» bcin^ rcb* fjiAi>i<. 

n IS. ffji' If ftj* ^p3(f>|ii/vcj] /?. I. 334, 

a. 17, § a. npis r6 yty*rkii)trf«»' TiJ Yit^crai^ ftail I'lD, K^, wbicb, 
however, rcnti:!!^ irp^i rn yTi^i7qp r^ ytvrfiBlm. Al± nnd CCC DDAllEin 

(b»TiJ, ] dtink, \vhich ufoif- i1j<' lexi} agroe villi K^ id givfng «A 

^rK^rraj' r^ yfvi'rrfV^Ti (ibc/ olniL ifffift bcFurc rd >«Ki^rfBv), bot mJ 

ttic ^oTds onitttcd by K>^— (CCC omiia dio Unt «^ in Icic t;). 
Ail other authorities, it would »ecin, omit the vxirds {■»£) «p4c t4 

^ipi^fTijir r^ ytitv^B\\n\, 3ubCiiiilLl biiL4.kcl» llicm. 
B. SB, ^ 4. Hat 4^^^ M^^ oiTWf oSSir t<t St'Kaiv^n^t* Sttfti^t S* «^Tff 

Whru men are frLeiiiiTit uo pirsauie is j^cquiied ;f> d^nn mi 

jOBlly tc^^'aE'Js t^ach oibcr; tlicy ruthcr vie \filh each Olli<r iq 

beneficence. Indeed, mere pressure could never succeed, in ihe 

r> long nju. En makinj; men ati ju^ilyn FrictKlly reeling made- inen 

I invent ihe rulet of justice at hr$^ and musi ol^rays be prtsoi if 

' they ire lo be applied rightly ; for 10 bo applied rigfaijy, Jim rolt* 

^ muBE be tifm'laliy \\f\^Xvci.\ and equity, whlth i» the peff«ciio<i >/ 

(*"i Justice (r«p &#nwi' M^AicraJj involves THifri^]hir(4"'^a(«r vbcrSUrf) 

BOOK Vlil: CHAP. 1 : {J 4t 5- 


Tl \% brtttr, wilh Zri!, Coru^s, Fritische, Grant, and I'elert, ihus 
t> UTiJrrtlflnil ruf i^uniui' tA ^ifAurrt: of tA inmrn't {f/. E. JV^ v, lo. ? 
Tdtrir rljja Mciuuf- uii irrtcmk* ■nil vfi0rHi' <7n&v&tL4t»' jivrutr h^ittw r^ 
Minof, iHtl vi. tl. 3, qUoE*?d by Pclcrs, tA ^p tViiic^ iUKvA ritv 
^fx&&¥ aTdrrmr ^ath iv x^ np^t dXAoi-), Ljiaii* uith A^paaiUii, Lambtnuif, 
and GifuiiUS, of ri «oX(rinui" AiMioy. Aapaslus wriltS — n^\k yap 
fOkq rav At^eiav, waBiirrp iXij^fr^ «V mi( it'it'i A\ifatoovv^t. nTnv rn rA>injif^ii 

■vKifufJ*', «]»p cr^iDt^f rf <VrJ t^ ^<\iii4^' ikut lir6rTjTa y6f> I'lm rw 
mMowp. ArlMoU« hc^ft, ind^^d. jlis[ Uird (h« uoi^a ''jif 0' tttl T^r 
•*Air* ffiw.'jn;. .5 4ii\i,\, bm *«c ^rc nut ihcrcfofc obll^cJ \o iJtntif/ 

would b* to make AriMctIc mtfpJy lepear Hmtelf; *hcrcaji, if wc 
un<lGrauiitl him to refer to tA Jatmii. boiihctliiii;^ in added lo wbat 
has been sji<L He begins { 4 b>' poinunp cu RcEicraJ])* that Justice 
in ihi* State— ihar ajsietn ort^>H>twhkh \vr rnW to imAm^nw fturnw* — 
vra5 produced and ]$ upheld by ^\m or J^u^uia: he cnd.*i it by 
iniiiRAiing ibat the hJgl^si nianLfosCaiion of this jvs1ic«^ihe j^p])li- 
caiiom of ihc general rulo in ils npjril and not in h% IcUcr to the 
ptiiicular cA^^T^ f^twf, involves a special dcgnc oi ipiKta, or 
(ellow -feeling, ela*wbcrc called rrvyy.^^7 — £,\ N. vi. 11, t rii- ya^ 

fViwrif piJAiiTTR fpti/itv ttfni tnyyirai^nvvtiiv, Ka'i imnait th f\tiii wpi Triu 

4v>7i^^rjr. It i% only the coniinurd norkmg in ue of tbc conrtu- 
lutive principl* of fWloW'ft'ding vhich can preserve the habll of 
jviMice Bgviinai our inclin^Llton to [ak? 100 fcirctml a view of the riglitv 
of ochcrx^nnd to make too much ofour own rights: Arid he realises 
bes! t^e spirit of Juftice (»«* HmaUv ro tiaXtata) r^hc, from regard 
for o^hc!l^ [inUa ur tfvyywifif)), Dfift* d^dincs lo prc&^ liis own ^rrict 


f B. at ^Kkk- V iMyueXiif ttmt AWA itiil kaX^m] *Thi8 10 WpeH- «. W. 
log tit OtlieT wii/dh [h^C fiicndhhi|i [^ Jpvr^ m ' (Giani), Friu^hir 
^/m. qtioleB A\ A', iii, 7. ? ri ■iiAi*- rVXfts t^t <v"^^»' 1 he e]au!W 
nwff ydjf ^lAe^tAdvc (P, L^i, Aid., and CCC ri^a<l ^iXofiiAouc^ other 
auihoilcjeii t^iXuvr) tiraimi^v mills a reason for reg;iniiug 'pi\k jia 

On tfav oppobihcn btftwi>i>it at-nyfOMu [\hM ^hJcb it inat«tlally 
neoe^tary) ind kij]Ic4 (ihe beautiful rcsuU) sec coles on vut, ti- 7 
ftnd k. II, I. 



BOOK vmt CffAP. 1: ^ s^^^ 

k«r reads «■! /«« for x^ in wicU M'j, r, C^mbr^ and NC. P*t«rt 
df^ /cf. £]nm|nifri ^*'^, 334 ^iXdi piv fi^, wt fju«, roiV^ nj 1*)^ * 
(E^n^^ 'iTTdi, ijQ^^t ^ J mi^^f J toi. 

b ^1^. ^ Q, l(a^iaPv|T«tTai k.tA,] Taken (rom PlatOf Zjx// 9 1 4 *i)q, : 
«tc ilitf rifMrs ijf Zt'll ami Grart. Boili ^uofaiiorrs— A< iii« tAt V « " 

d4i0At lidi^ j fpi ffTBijfir frru)(» ^H<:6, f^. iralffi, 35)*^^^^ '^ ^^ P^^ 

sage imlii^ Lysh. InJ/, ,1A ii. 11. 1308 UieptuivrbonXct^ri^ 
«>(4^v I^Dwt i» given^ Ham^aucr is of o;>iriiork ihcu Arutotie, wbo 
UK«S «rnfi nci fTi^. liai 111 vi«w another and an older prot^b Ihxn 
that given l>v lIh' wrilcr nf i!jc ^. j1/. Ii is \o be noted, honettt* 
thai \> rends ifA^. and 0»^ irapo. In j£',i". vR j, \t%^%.% (ibe 
paraEleJ paa^aj^e) ira/w i£ the reading. 

b. S. AntfTfpov val ^v^nutTtpor] '^ivtiur fijn^ rliam ])Fr loer uCiUuiquc 
valet : lum ita di-puiarc ut ad rci vcrtuvlcm ^cnctrctnr opi^. iraEirmL 
Xnyijeur^ luni Ita uL nalur^lia m qu£U!ftLion«in vocrntur 0pf3- •-{ 
^uve' (Ramsanff atlht.). ' Oibera go de^jicr into thcac tiocabcHU 
and mtu ihc causes of the phenomena ' (Pel«r»). 

*inr(jtii( *VtC'jr*I*, afi oppoicd to Xoymii VwifTTftr, if lO i»- 

vesiigatp a subject m n concrete way wUh specisU refeience 10 
pniiximaie causes; nvtiib AuyorAr hiiijru)i j& tij inve&tigate il bi 
the light of j^ncral formal principles: ecc ^ GVft. ti Ctfntf4. 
'■' 9- 33^ ^' ^^ ^^'^ vvhi.-ro ^i»r4.i..,*«p>i' \iyt%f mcani to «ut^ ilic 
el1icie;it <:au^e— -ri Af t^^* vXffi' nir ^^*j' ytvi'ov Aia t^v ^tni^at ^dmi^ 
Tjpw >hV dr Ar7« ritf aJtb A*7<iiT*»' (r.^, than ihcw vrho make the 
fI07 C*LU3P£ of yit«fir and *pSop^- t^ ^^p uXAotet*- Jial tA jarmr)[^/irnim 
uhiilirtp^ntnvytvrQi', iiBii¥6tntiitvrt'ii0ainrri>iin\My9ijf nk ircn^ur, ^^ic^ 

K 17 0umJ[»( W ml fti} rntoftu ■ncoirvi'^i (sec aUf> nott on f. A', i 

3, 4. b, 23). Bui ia the parage bcbic us the bpecal oppoutko 

t£ rather that between to ^lt^jmus VrrtfTrii^ and ri qtikcvr tmCrrnf^ •« 

may be seen frnm rhc words vj\iU wtiic^i J 7 o^»en». Tl»r rfttdl fci-i 
that here fA t^bfliKiLE <BiCr/TvIp, 'bringing ui,' as Grant iu>~^ 'thcr 
ana|og!c& of the whole o! natur?/ la, u eontiaBtt d wjtb lb« BarTOtrrr~ 
ethical enquiry, imlUlingukhable from tA Xoytriit ml a^Skav Jkin*' 
v'v. Ilcncc the raraphiast at/ hi. — n itit ofy wi>w r&r Xj^gr W^ 

BOOie VtU: CffAP. 1 ? ^ 6. 


r*dni«r fi^jfrd*, lol t^ Cj^o^i rdgi* J^oiW. ne'e JijTti' oJuIfi^ f^t frnpaE/ffrjc llfifib^ S. 

Thf "pTi ial mfflnitiy; wbich 0utft*wr#p*ii has tn iho jireient paiiange 
i» lUuMnilcd by the nci^hboLiring utuln^/av; hcc /r;</. At hi. s.v.^w— 
'ia Seri« nohonum Jiw <licuiiljr qtm^ tnagin BUiiL unjvtranl«v.' 

There is no reference hy namt to H*r4ditu» or KmjK-doclcft 
in the pab^gc />j. t\^, ais, Bui r/i Symp<M. 1S7 A rA fr -^ 

rdlfpv Tf «u Xii/xiE. See Bjwalcr, Nertah'ti Fph. Rtit'q Fr. 15 a»)d 

i6. Perhaps the idea in rA jKrffiruv ow^^/ ui thai qT thinsi 
rubbed against eicS other til! they bi^como smooth and lit well 
Twgcilief , 15, fur (Ttamplt, the strtmun-a ororga.tiic bein^ mmlifiod 
in rclilion to one another \\\ the couc^ of llie siru^-glc for exjtil- 
tnc« — V* T«H lkus^\fi'i)^'av -ulAJtrrrj*- h^t^vlix" (juncluniin) unJ irnyTo 

ffor' fjhjf y^ffiU— sfi^ Oti^tii 0/ Spttm^ ch. 3 *Thc wi'kjctupe of 
trcrj organic being is related in the most essential, yet oflcn 
bidden manner to that of al! the other organic l>eirg< ^'\X\\ wli:ch 
tt €omc» irilo L'uiuixrlitjuu foi focwj or rcsidi-nctf, or from uliich 
it hoA to cscapci or on which it prcy^^. This is obvious iii the 
•tnicture of \ht W<1\\ and talons of the ligcr, and in that of the 
legs and chms of tht pars&iie Mhich clings \o ihv hair of the 
tigcr^B bodjf/ IleroJoiu*, liowt:v;^r, uses li J^i'^*-, ffiihouC ntiy 
suggorion of its derivation from £<4, to mean simply ■ oppoiiUon,' 
HcracliltiB pKjliaLIy xxscs it in ihr; fimne way- 
According to ritnpcdoclcs ^AJriji* is the principle of urtiUcflUon 
«n<J order, tUoj of dinni^gration (we Ritter and PrcUer, Hiif. 
PAtt % 1 jo)-^ 

Ilia 'like loves like' principle is illuatraicd by ajj aiiecdoir [ii 
£L^ vii. 1. 1»3,-; a, 11, repeated aa follows in ^/hj^/.ij. ti, laoS b< 

If 0iiTi» ^ vnl iFun]^ iron ri«l jrdfVuAni^ifc •'«) r^c 'ivt^c n^^j^r, 
■AA^rt, fii*<r» frrt *;(«• rt t^ 'H;>u/it0i «/»io|i f ■Mtf, ^ 3tA tA l^tutW 

The wi>niii (quoted from Euripide* belong to a fragment pre- 
wrved by Athci^acus (xiLi, ^g^), and Stoh^cus (^^/. 1. 9^ 1. £0^). 
It appedXit ^ Ditidorfs Poeine Scmid at Fr. S^o— d^^tr 0/idjiatOff. 

^lXaus *t»'fnj ThU qutfition, ai Gram poinu oui, 15 vurtfii it 

<pi\ttf A JU Jtittor OLir' (r/^r^ rvf^r* BiJvy ov&iirvn *h vk^ffrj ^tiXiar l'y;|r*ai. 

unam Uimmi ^pccicm amiutiac esse, quU c|uao qoaitliiaic Uoiun 
difl'crntit [int^ix*rai ri *<aA\flf mI tj vrmf), quaiital« Vel pfntft* 

quil, III llicil A5]jajius, >juXXw jhV «rni' q tbi- iyaffAc. %Ttor AJ i 

rwp n««7p£v. Hoc tirjifumcntuni refutat Ar)aioic]«« optisio juR. 
dictmt hanc quanifimi^ dLfT^rcmUm i1I;ini cittm quaVtatPm et 
sp(.xkra cfllccrci cum nihil impctliat qiiominus iljvcf^ae lp«det 

(•*;(*Tiii yop ™ ^mK^rtv mi to Jrrfly rirf rA I'ttpn ry *!fl«iy MJdwte*! 

'liuTic quanllutU JilTcrcntiam iLliajn ctiim qualitilciu ci aptcko 
i^flicoT?' is hirdly to ihc point here. Ic cuinot be f^td ikti tbf 
thr« specie* of Frir«ii[lslii^ <1U[iiigui»Jje'l bj AHwoiIe [vti:, 3 1) 
are consliiuicd by mere difTcrenci;* of dcRTce. There trc pfo- 
found ciualiUCiw diirerencta Iwrwten ihe dfoMv, the W. *nd the 
XPTTTi^ou (viii. z- t). Bur ihrxr arr all ^iXi^nJ, and [his gaiml^ 
tribute mqy enter in vnrioui tlcgices iiilo tke fipedfic foima, dlhongli 
the Uegrce in wljich it enters into a given form ho^ aothiftx *^' 
do with the Kperilic tliflVrentialion of thai form from iUiothrr fc 
Tlitr frictiiUliip fur plca^uje dilTeis i.iLiali[aiiveI> from the fiiendiliif 
for the ffOoH^ hecau« the good differs qualitiitiv^ly Irom pTcaautt^ 
hut revert h'^If^H Nfi* r^n wty that ihe frirnd*htp for plesunsre 
itss friL'iitlahip than thai foi the ^ood. The »pc<ific cl 
iaties mnke it nn in/frior form, juat at thoie of the ape pbu^" 
hini beneaih mun, t>r A> nMj^'vni forgei \\\U \l b |xwibJe itd^ 
to diatingULsh Ppnricf . trrti 10 ^innge choic specieA 9o as to «xhibW 
the quaniitattve venation o( a given quality thron^iODt tbc Beric^ 
ur sjK-ci'es taken 0.1 ti whnk. That howrver rd vSUmv nil % n m^ 
is not itself #^3*BowV is *hown by /*f/. 1. 5- i*50 ^3* M^ tt tg* 

BQOiC ViTl: CMAK 1:^7. 


FjoUdp iral tjrror aUv rt Afo^pt^itip' n tiir yap iipj^adii nai 'V;(iiP "i^"* 
A^tf^'pft, r^ Aj ^XAdp iia\ l^rror o££/r. TIlc fit>CLL'& iff FiiciiJ^liij) 

arc like the vtKouii apmi, ivhich ore Apcciftcaltf dbiinct, and yet 
Daay be compared viih or< anoihcr In respect of i\\e li^gre^ tn 
whjcb llicy conducr to ihe Nol>]r Life: ihii.% MpwU \% m&rt of 
a virtue tlinn tiT^^^iXla^ but il jb noE this mare wluch Jiif<rreni[^UCA 
ihcm spccific^tlr: or, to lake ihc Parnphnut 1 example— 7 y^p Dtma 

9V yep ifiAitai tifi'4r J^vTd. 

vlpitnu V Mp a&rwf 7|Anpo?0c>'] The cvJinfitetituloti refer u«b.U^ 
lo £. A\ ti, H, whiTP ti^e v»rf^^o\^ 4n4 'XX<t^it opposed to a vinue 
xre prWTiced ^H fi()e<'irLL",ii1y tli^ttind from i1, allhotigh Ihey are 
only ihe ampKficAiion oi rfimimiiion of ihc rJAjv wlilclt U LcLi in 
thodtfrafion by ihd vLrltio : Stic Mic})elt^t <Tr/ /c^r, Asp^fiius^ not 
Ending any jianiagr in tlif /.'. A' rtac-ily ans^^-erinp in rh<.» pn^^erit 
reference, HUggests — to^Kt iii ^iflrnrOai iv rvU f*BtwTu«iMri itn/ Nuo^n- 
^uv. But the view nf ( and Knmniuer (supported appnreTitly 
by StIS.) tli3E ihff word?* er/i^rni . . . r^iirj>riirfl*^ are spurious sprmn 
to be correct ; for iw«V "Jrw*- niust be equivalent 10 frtpl rot) 

in the nrxi liwT (k 17) rwfrrs to rk r^r ^Xurc -W17: and fiiriher, 
ts Ramsiucr poiui* oulf tn*> nirAf is fffpl otrfij' IB unusual in the 
/CShkti »M Kucken fiher titn Sf'taeftgehraufh df!f Arisi. — Af 
Prarj^\itiimm.^, \'i — ' Im oll^eiricinerj nnn ist d;e*i (iV*p = r*^; 
with gert.)bei AtiMotdeft hflufiu- in cinipen Schnficn iind ^war 
in der Kthclt^ Rhfionk unJ Topik fmdc: c* *kh 6ficT als in 
d*^ umltm/ ft w tci he noted ihsit in (lie M.M. and y?A^/. rr*/ 
Altx- irtifi ss n*{tl vrhh pen, id almoal universal ; sec /mi. AritL 


Tlic nix pojddifct In vliTch ll itoei occur In tlie ^..V- f iira note en uL %. t 
and idd Iv, a. 4 10 ih^ pauac" ^^fe inoicdf aie- wUh the eiccpiioo nf ihr 
«rcoiul, than eonncetlng claqiei vhlch mlghi Irnve tI(^rfl JnterUjl }iy in erliirr. 


SOOK yjJI: CHAP. 2: f^ ], 3. 


SMti Jjkil ^ttfjfiin ax ia^htlkdr ihert ttre ifNrtd l^w ^ Frit^iAifmtfftl 
UtiitJSyr^rrnn ttr l/ie e&f'eclr of frttHifihif—it. titlkii^jp idi4ferA«H«UM V, 
/r^iu /liuf cw Mr FY — {hi aowi, tfu f/taMinf. siid tht uit/iJ^eA¥jinifv»*Mf 

riit/j ffir tht tttkt fi/ '^'hiih th* tMrxf it ihifien a^ mam. Tlu gitd ir fSamti 

fer kimitlf muy sr may itft ht rtillj £f#J tr /iauatrt^iiat it a/to/Atr ftf^i^ 

iti gecJ ftf iti Mffn taki. oi Vf w'/* fAt ^9/^ 'tf fw /'ttmi /^ JKii #•■ »>' 
H^trt, Affnm«r', /Ae /Vi^i n.-AfU j^t wf /Anj utj4 Jmx iM rt/ifr^tfi. «*' 
firiirtg Jjwiirr/i him u wtU ii^ti^inji ruthrr tAttn /-lUndMp: J^ Jv-ira^tit/i* 
rtti^rual nn/l-u-irAini^ — or, mors actMnitiiy. rttifirofoi vtff'WHM^ ^tM^ 
tht pftrtit^ an Jiinvr ■ far A mif^ht n'i'h trell If B vAjn 4i Ao/ matr V0L 
3^4 B *tigit ifiih W^F/ la A, oftd y*t tA<k ht ig*tora*»t ^ k«9 %tit rtgP^H 
U$ ftAv. /n t^as cure J and S u-ffulti net ^ /"i/tJti hai m^^ m'I~ 

1166 b. ITp § L iHp^ oCTUfj ntp't rvv rft ^i^lat tiKtK 

fe.ia. fiXiii^-] Th^sMihar of ^f^^f. (i\,tt. s^oAb 37) rllRitngutiW^ 

bellVecn ra ^HXr^nrv whictl h ¥9 usrXu^ dya^Jf and ru ^ririiir Wtta^^ 

'tLjjtmif t6 ^iJ^tt^ <iya36v. Cf^ E. N. iii. 4 ■ iiH there the ffi 

^iahtrs T^ -atT ^tf^^iwr [lyu^', iQ in the trrAiiAC on ^Juo, fiC lo^ii^ 

that uhich is lm\Z,% ^aS:,^ — haman natuie as a ^LtioTiiJ ttysttm. 

Th? uya^t> unci ilii: JAv ^rp Eovcrd ak crndx whiln ihn ^f^gq- ^^ 
k only a mcan»— ^ clic Paraphm^E saya ;tp'/tr>fM f rX7T« inn i ^>fc^ 

rv AtKoGvm ^la jtuI rfyaM <pfp*i. I 

b. Hi f 2] Three oIjjccIa of love arc djsiinguishcd in ijno »ecUxk. ^ 

(l) tiiyo^V, (a) »4 *»■ airip *yfltf^*'» (3) ri ^u4f*tm' iriTy ii 
Scp the Paraph, rlf^ //ir. Survr inXuit jut ^i^p^r^ rn oyitB^r V« 

irMdit l'h< wordfi />^tfr A< fol rrif} rrl ifSv jiTi|>ly that a eimUv 
ihrrcfdd division obtains alau where r4 ^iXfttdi' u( r* 4^- RanKSsrf 

GOinpareS vii. 1 J, 1 al ^v uiiXvr ^avXot nA ft 0^ AX' oi^vTvi 

Tht tpAifrdv U alwiya «umethiiig thitl Is gtioi] or p!<?asaiil for 1169 b.U 
« mtn, or which he ihink* xood or plcMant, For the g^oc! mii 
iKat i« good and plifa^aiu which ia realij' »o> beirig ab^oIuLtly 
micabtr lo human r^iiurr hk r r^nuinnl iplrni. Such a man 
comprthcn<k life u a AyBtcm, and call» things good and plGiant 
onl^r in virttie or Ihcir occupympr their fit places in ih± groftC 
wl)o1e; (he inferior man follow* Ills ffruflviirfo, wliidi ;j[ves hirn 
partlaJ ftnd ab^tTiiclcd views. Things arc ^ond and pleasant 
for hioi beoiuse ihcy satisly 2 stll which it LAoUied in its own 
tensM- and im^igin^tion. Tn the good m^n xhr mxtirr of ticn» 
Uid ima^natJon hjs received fhul form which is Reason, and 
iSicre is no lonrfcr any divert pantry between tA AiMit ayadSv and 
tA al^9 i(>n^ilr. as r^vrmrin prru'ni5 the [attf^r. ^avrairia ha> 
becoTiic the vehicle of Ktason, ond no lonj^cr ahfltracts r^ a^if 

' ayoto-. bill pf?4^nift it ccncri^toly as an aspect of ri AnA^f ilyflW** — 
;tt^ j/tf/r> Ofifrnitatis. The ^tkjiI man •■cc.i ckMrly thai ntt ttm 
fi a^^GC *J pIi'*!' oficore^ifls oij* J^rt ^T(J^lTf^JXf (i'..V^ vi. 6, 4), ind 

I that the rpQ^miht &\^t ibaelf i« for the sake of Ul« dfup^riM^f /Sicw, 

botffci S' ofii/ir foraL yip tA ♦iXiirai' 4icL(kil|itvi>tJ This w[ll m;ik* b, ao 
,(H> diHciciRc to our jjubiliou — \i la noL jdLc;(d by ihi^ subaiicuiion 
of Frt ^wAiatmv irftk^ t^iXttufrk for t^ iiyoSAv tj^iXavni indrcd tc 

f & TpiOi' B' %vTwi\ I ihink iJi-^t S|>-nKfl {ArhlSjad. f'iV.b.rj. 
p. a I s\ followed by Suaemihl, is n^bt in rcadin;^ ^ here. 

t %C &j K*" emits 8»\ which is accordingly bracketed by Ramaauer, 
llut (h? Drnift^on ^eeitiH tc ho a n^ero blunder: *f. ^t Stf n rw 
^frtllt'tvow ai the riid iif { 4, I'he 'it* d arr ihr tfiyfiAw, ^tr^, And 

liitirf ] Byw,p rKftnar codd, : Afiiw is ' the parlicular J^t^ok lliat b, 30. 
L happens to tnlere^it tljt niun' — hy^. {Confniufwtts, p. ^5), who 
[Tcfcis to 2nd, ArUL itSO^ 61 for ibe cunsuuction — 'd;iL aftur, 

tt^v] Kritxichc and Grant corrpare Lysis sia D- oi^' Jpn ^ftiir- 

fiUffiWf y« ml 0t>uf^i) x.T.X. The wiiter of ihc M,M- {\\. II. 
' taoS b, 17) deniea the poasibiiity of friendship between men and 

TOL. It- T 



SQOK V2IS: C'HAI*. 2: {J ,3, 4- 

Ltftftti-90L god«-^r<rTt yoii. tat o'wraL, t^Ala mi arp^ t*^ ul «^ fi)v(«, fir 
d^^vt. ti|f >^p i^iXi'iU' irmv&ri ^/■tk' fTvok «f ti^* 1<1 g«^ifth>iff^ 
fj A* <r/;ii ^jw 0(XiO off* amf^At\T$in SenfTfli, »iV oh** H #»)« 

dfoirav -y/ip t^f 47ij fT vir (Tiot'tj '^jX'ji' tap ^a, 

for B*4 sake, Uit B do^a noi rrclprocaie. A Is xAd to be '«tt- 

, dlsposH' toB— rot to be D'** friend"; forthc nctioo o**lri«di' 

i< that of two jjcnoni, reciprocally \\'trI]-Jie))0£«1 tov^Tda od 

^ nihrr, This definirion, howcvrr, \& ncn coinjiTclr — lln-y muS M 

inoM elial ihcj arc reciprocally wcll-dispoecd lon^u^ cwk oihe* 

According ^ SS 3 ^'^^ 4 '^■^'°■ rcquircf (1) r<V rto^p^«ff 

^iXui^^rui (cL 3, $ 2) : (2) Tn tUri^iAfitf^ : ( j) iJ p7 Xa><^ih 

oiftni'. 11^15 is actdt'tf lonieu'lint irrvlei-antly, for (t b obirfou«diil 
m [he fjicrd&lu(7s Au^ t6 f,fiCi nnd 'u^ t^ xi^'t^**'^" ^hc firsi rei)wnncal 
of frjendtihip, vis, tA ^v^«rr^■'l rit>nM iMirov o^Mf ;e aoA ctnctlf 

■Btlarii^d ^ tie ^ny£ in ch, 3, j 3 dT n Aj^ Jj^ fa ;|/ii^ai^rt» ^«Xa»*nfil 
rt o^TPif d^aflif *frVj*yu6tfv t«j1 «J Si" (ifloi^*" Aid tA airoi* v^t, vdc^if^ 

oCthl (fjTiP. The*"^ rri^ndsfups for firoPit irid plruuie, howitf* 
^alL&fy ihc TifM requirement after a orrtain fashion- A p<aoai^ 
IB merely a means la ppofiJ or pkasufe may^ liLe money, eciw» 
be ngardrd atttr n crrlam fashion x% an md- Thtt 9<e(in loh 
wliftt h meant by ihc eutcrnciu made below in vvi, 3. t ^'^ 

^■^nukffi «A>^Xdi.ii fioO\onni rayaOf* li^^if^flia XMTfi ^ ^flXail'V; ^ 

may perliaj)s suppose- th;tl ihe 'fticndkhip' of Ihc dog for fail ■>"■' 
nti^ca the ^ni requirement of fticililaliip ia Llib^ nuy. 


Tlf^f ^H«f thru fityo-tn/ friaai^ihif^ thert wW ^ tkrtt ifKkt ^ fi^ 
/fifmd$kif—pht$i*, ftf4»t$rt. ^ uHiHy: 1. e. fi^ iwiA «Ai #fW » J"> 

BOOK Villi CUAr. 3: } I- 


mrfhtmdfar o4«f 1/ tV in Umrt^: hn vAnv ^Uirjr ii ike grmitJ af/rvt^ 

fteri «j /Awnrr, 7''t« /riintttkips tA^n whifh art ikisttf oh /^{/mja/'e and 

tahHry^trt frundi^ift igtt 4i*n'l'<tii, - w/w a^ Imffd.nAt Jpt ^in^ /ArmtrfTvi 

friit$iikip4 Mfi OAiifj Jitiafptd^ Aftitdift^ n thty ds oh \\<i{^it\t^l rti-ifioHA — 
lUJrtttiJtAif t^utiNlfy Ei'i/r* t^iili €\iijiy Uitv^^ tfSfrly ^pl<, nri* df ireT 
«priu jmwHii o/f^i^ othrr or ttJtt mu^A ffntivrr U iht tPti^/yo/tinAotAtrt 
tstfff IK EH Jtir m* wm' lUtjutntAgr i\ hflpNi/or—lhr JmmiUhtp far ^i/tijnff, 
yJkitA It iAitfy Att^viia ymitt/^ frp/it wAe Jitft ai /r/iirij^ *^fAjr /£ttft a/if/fftjt 
duttJtt, «md gtt tki imm*iJi*ie fleamrc, a^Jmh iAtya^rt/t ty ilav iomfuniifn' 
^ifit^y it may h. Af /atfitv f''* ^i/^ ' f^'ffitre lo/tin^ at /iw minA oft^tk 
ttktTy a Iffv as tl*\i tomfumorvhip ii jfJfuniHt^ Aui wA/h i'j f/mft le hf 
fistiamt^ etAif M ^t /rirHiii—ianiffiitet tis luAi^nfy m tXry bjianif ftitntti^ 

Ptf/al frun^tkif ii /Ad/ itftv^v atgft trAt, ifiJtf £Ctif, art j^ likf fAm- 

nnbr. /■ ivA /tivyLkip A cctiAti tAc atnttt j^eaJ ft/* B a» B wiiAei /if A, 

i C^ ^lA ofjifj j^iT tAt otAir tket he ffuty rimain u-kJt hi ii ^~a pmf man, 

SanA frwatdikip it iatUi^.ffir gtuiimiiit u a ^xtit^ fttiiltfjr AfjrrtiHttr, nvA t^ 

ii^/rintdiu£9^ir» Aimt<l/»Aiidj^iHrdt^n toihe ^Arr',i-t. uit/td ftt 

V d/» fJmntr in kinifJ/, artJ W fAc ^iAf : fit &m^i ju-b a/w^j bW /J«* 

A4r Ht^ftni'H nfifftiyi givt o/it pit-jiurt ; amd the oifiertt e/ ipwf men^rt tkt 

JVHIM fv Atr, ThttM in lAe iimiiar i;wdittst ef tht /ritmii. ttpffn wktrk iMa 

\frittiJiAif t/ Mtfd, t^ri imWttH^ Ihftr it*ntfit' fit-ni'tH/tntc tmrl fhff itmt^ar 

vaatiJity—Jt^ fotA frittii. hitt^ rrai/y j^fjtf (jfjf £VtMi Jn i^mt .'jvt/nritry •virt^Mw), 

lit a/-v re*tiy flMsant a^d rtslif ttte/tii—wAiiA i^/at^t thsf Ae tt fJeojon/ Mid 

«uf /p/ 1 " /W tamf aay fiaiiAmihtr i*. f^iitnijAip lii^ lAii tktn ii vafurnify 

I JEw/iiv > hii it it ratt.frr ifwd vttn art rart ; tt ttUtJ ihm ^ /v/i^ tiwt ic :4M 

UatA ^Aer and £aui fOfA oeA^r'i atn/dtrnf end /t rAt^r /Aaraitfri ref^A«r. . 

Li'ttjfii/ immjr *U a/ smt^f wiiA ta he f/imdi ; httt thty da nat itti^tmu /n/nidt aii t^ 

hffc TJtiy am*t kvvt tim* ft hrtrw *Tf A ffirri eAarofterr. 

§ 1. tt.o4i?tv Cf TaDia a-rX] t\ e. dyaS^, 4^, ypfjatnov. LI50 a. 6, 

^roJrri if ^i^ouair] 'm rcbtJOTi lo that whidi is llic ground ofi^HlO- 
Ihcif fnendihifi ' — a^. ihose wiiosp fricndsihip [a for profit do not 
lave ficli otlicF for * wliai ihcy arc ' (Tcwrra), but for whiii ihey hope 
to gel out of each oihcr Ag Ramitaucr nolca, a^o^y a. 1 2 = i^/- 

oA aatr odrvvf ^iXouim'] Grant hai a ^ood noit — '^'Do not love ^ IK 
<a^ Olbct for ihcii' vcrjr sclvc*." Thi^ phiiwe icaff nirwr U latW 
« kgictl fomxulA tlion an ordinary grammatical combination, h 
seetnK ia have ariwrn from ta^ aM, " ihe abiclute^" * Kaff amit is 

Opposed to mtA «l>H^'^7^r f i. 

T a 


SaOK VUii CHAP. 8; ^ 1, 3i 

lUMa, 13. 1^ nOLofi rn'of <Wk] Tor ihdr qailiE)' simpl// An ^q (a^. 
r^pintrXin) is a ffhumjF : &t^e HOLe CD li. 5, t, K ao. Uavicg all iIm 

S (referred lO by Frilz^che) 7 rroXiTiix^ irX^^ffrT' rVi|ri%nav nwct^ 

Ifl. S 2, oix n * ♦^^'^V**^* i<rr%r] =iailif Zavfp /tftiV, Iwo JincsbdO* 
FriUKhf^, otnilt^ng cS with K^, make^ <pAiiCiAtwvt a pre4icue \kt 
xpitriiiot awd i^AiJC ' : liut tlii^ umlssloji in K^ U prokitlf itncre 
blimiicr. Suscniihl, folbwin^ BonilZj inscrra Swtp wit- afici ^tl*' 
^vi(t firriv, line 16. I Ihink thai it ifi ;itLit«ccfsary Co ilo »0' 

kotA fTu^pc^^irof T< l^ a-T-X] Friu«hp (Al A" vHi, bi) hu Di 
ImpoiUit noEe Jjcrc— ' conau^iHMc parli^ul^ ft 9j ail conclui!*' 
clam rationem iia, facmi>l. ut cum barhan dicitone umJ ahe t<fi^ 
parari |iossi7»t . , - Nam utiiur aiirtnr p^infciila ^ ad rfm inM 
cxploritam aut nec»5^no ex aupcrbribua consv^quci^tcni indkin- 
Jam ^ . , jAm veri> iirilc tinnc pAnicul^m quum iniupcr poiAltf 
W, causa baec vtd^iur cshp, qundj prnniinci^ii voce r/, MnientuD 
ftoiAm, Hubjccta vner A^, cnncluitlonrRi aHquain v aihUiurofi 
auperioribus tfcciarat auctor/ 2cll aAys to ibc aamc cfiVct— ' Pit- 
culft n pleon^ttice nipcratldili est, vel potiut pftrikiiU incrc c^ic- 
l;vtivB eonclumvnt! CQnjuncin. r^uti nrrlfu^ oraiioniK mrnihra ci^sif 
rcanl.' Euclttn (de Ar'sfotdts tlkradt tttfscne^ parj firmta: jt^' 
tKukruTn ujv, pp. ji, 32) oppo&cs this view on ihc gtoondi llil 
the meaning und afso is enpie^^L^i b> ml A^, ;tEu] Th:ii in aleiutf )1 
places in which ji ii occum the n is followed by nnciher cojiutivn 
pariictc. In the present pai^sigc, Euckeii n^stda ti tnih M** iuoe^ 
ufa^ ufltr *C<JuiAiFTiM-^. ij, iiiid nijkt^> Uns W ^mwirr per xnuni^ 
EhJam 10 n a, 17. He ihirks th^t Iwo concliuiortt are diiiftllli"^ 
from tlie fjcc Itiai f>* « ^^ &i^ ri xph^'t^**^ tp<Xi\»mt ft*u t* ii** 
AfMy tnipyovai. kh] t,l Ac' it^vyfjr&m tA u^tr jAt', cot virif / i ^uf** 
fVni', oXX' j j(p^iri^Ai ^ ^iui- -viz. (f ) nra irvfiff^fftftAf at ^iUm >M 
fZiritf, And (x) «i>Aiv>r<TrH nl t/itavtoi «(rrii> — theSC IWO COQCJuStOtftt t*^ 

coupled, per Anocoluthjf^ii), b> n — U^ lu ihe pvathH pwov** 
Idduced tiy FrUBScljt', via, /^^j, jgft 3, 4, c^ .4njAi.v/. jirA.*29tLi 
«jid ^^. 1 3&3 b. 7, iho r* befbrc 04 k £vckcR pomta out, taken if 

* Sa ft]^|}BrenTl;r BjWttiM, i^nfwt^mfwu^ p, 59. 


BOOK VUf: CHAP. 5: }5 2-4- 


b/ m in ihc ncxEclmiAC, CoKi of rv followed, per aiiacolmiiuin, ueorio, 
by 4* aie not rare in Uic bt»I writers (see ICuckcriT o. c. p. 1 7), and 
EtK-.k*"f»'* sngK^''^*''^^ *^^l *"'^ filiould rpad H Infltrafl nf flj aftrr 
ci'Ai^L'rwi a. iq ii» hlrictlv Icg^iumittf. Bui \9, ic ncccwary ? Wc 
have ihe lUThorrly of Kucken httnself for the r(i:[iLLr]c:tb]^ (act (hat 
^hilr T*, HOC folluwjfil hy another ropithEive punicl*, ts very rarely 
Uocd i;) Ituuks l-vu of the ^.A', it occurs m IluQk.-v vili, xx, and k 
much tnorc fiequendy than in nity ochcr viork of AribloiJe. In 
^" ^. i IE. (]o<fc not occur i nor in U ; ii occurs once in iiM ; iwice 

Liv ; not ott all in v ; cticc in vi ; in<l once in vll. On ibc other 
»d, in vili ii occurt eight limes; in ix twcli^ limptj and ir x 
flxiccn umes. In iht-vc rhrcc Bonk* ruckf^n finds ihac ihc Rtyle 
wproadici! (hai cf pocLry, ihc aubjCLL not heitig evolved by tAeoni 
Cf intricate ratiocitiatjo:)!, but graphically prctcfkt^d Lo ihc n^ind'i; 
«y4^. Hencr the jiari1c:Lcb by uhich douses arc Kubordiii:irL'd lu one 
another aic of rare occur«ntc, \vhilc thasc fthich dimply tocrdinale 
ciauM't' are num^^roiiit- Thuk *wn, which is fto common tii tJi»* 
' writings of AiiMotlf ajiil in ihc seven earlier BtH)k» of ihe E. A", n 
very rare io Ihew three Books : sec Eutkcii, Je Arnt dk^ rat. p» 
1 4, and pp. 75, 76, Kuckvn's inference from this and from other 
pfculiaiitics is (p. 77) — cum lihri Jia iril^r se diKTepem, hoc 
'vi<kuii cUccrc, nor omnca codnn umporc ah AHjstotcIc scriplo^ 
w<l po»tea demura allot cum aliis conjiincu>E caae.' 

May we not Lhcii tc^^ljiI ihe rr oC 1 156 jl. 17. noluiihiilandiri^Ehr 
immediately fblloAing h), as an instance of the wt not followed by 
another copulative panicle (W adjunct ixTim ; sct^ JnJ. Art'si.) vhicJi 
Eockcn finds c3iiLiU(,kri[itJi: of vlii, ix. and :i P 1 ptefer so to icgani 
'& — to mppOMT that r* here mcidy facjliiaica ihc iransjiion to a 
claiLiie wliich m^y hr vicued cirlier ae n conclusion from what has 
gone licforc (hence fl^). or ia merely adding (hence re) an atlcfjia- 
tire pbfiit* — no™ (n'^j^y^*^! — to *ispr<fSH Ihc nyiion already ex- 
preued by the eliiUii.- o(>^ f; 6 ^{Ka\'fiitv6s itm», fi>X' ,7 ^(njrTt,)^*^ t^ 

> Hen, iiij a. (J, BvTilfrntlorci 44 from k*» 

a 31, 


SOOK VIH: CHAP. 3: \\ 4-*- 

f.^. between an Aihi^inun and ;i S|inrUn, Jih* t^Ol tnplj fil ffvCv*. 
and r^Mii mprHyon mutual coiwrnicncp, R^muurr, ndmitling tJ» 
CorrcclncM of tlnjsbiiig fd«^ ^i^^^ under h ^lXm i^ Aid tA x^vrv"*, 
thinks thc(« vords out of plucc here, and brackcu tbem- TV 
pronoun rnrmar. hc \i^%ts, lias ixichlng ro wliMi It can Ix gtun- 
mj[ic-il!j rcfctrcd, ind ihc chu-ic is Almorit a transcript of viil u. 
I. 1 Idl L>. 1^ fif immc Af rof'tfp ^ t^i fol r^v ^tu^h 1 ibit^k thjA 
mtrflff (viiL |. 4) 014/ crustily be lul;cn I0 irlailc lio Uic ruiaui 
uii]i[arLUi ^im mcnlLontd Aibovc — itiosc oT T^tH1/^^«l. of iV u^, 
su^d t^n^ T^je vriter of lh« M*M. I1. 11. 1311 a. 13 looki >1 
ftiw^ 0iAiii rri>[|] a JifTercnC point uf vicw^jSiidtuortJTP? ff Af hi'^at 
ttvtu T«» ^tX;»r ^ ^vxtOf' ov ya^ iifT\v Diijf ovroti TfX<« *otw trvji •£ 

H. 3L { B.] *?eil, Coraes, and FrilMch« quote ^Arf. iL la. 13S9 i- 
ol ^fi* c^r vim TO /J6rj iltrlr tmdviijfruiti, nit olii itautir il &f ^A^-^aa^tt- 

fufft ^dAADH f^ r» Acyiv^trH itrri ^<' j) fiit* Xtryuffiini rait trvftAtptiTtt k 

/iljAflV, i«TT* l^tf^i TttVt fpiXout. 

b. B. hiZii€p ^lXci^i nal Tax^"* iraJoiTOi] Rlv^OW (/"wjfJt. pp. 35, 3^ 
^Ug^CMft ti^wft jajims tpt^oiui na\ vaimyrui, toii]p;iiing 3iA tuj^^t jm 

iMimi 0tXi>i «■ ircf^vTui sbovc 1 E ^6 a. 34. BuL thcrc ift n difTci 

^M-twrrn r^iAnCiri and ypAtvnj ^iKm wh^ch perhaps ^umcl^tlj'accou&^F 
for die diBcrcnt position of tc^ih^. 13>waicr» noic on «al t«:i«^^ 
b. J u ' fort. nij^Mic Km* 

It. a. T^ir^iUo/J 'Uurir fticmb.hip''-is tlK rcadlrg of K^ O^ Ctnih'**. 
CCC, n\ Q", and 3ccni« preferable to lickkcr's ^uv. tlx itadii^/ 

l^7. H- -»^»a . . . b. M tfii|t0«0i]iiJ<] ^Tbc fnendiiilp lMtira«i 
t^oit■ uho :Lrc good iuid alike m excellence la pctfiNlt{ fir hti 
r^h fiicnd, bcin^ good in him?icL/ [/>. not mcTVly good for ftlKXbcr, 
01 useful], vitJictt alike liie socxl of the otbcr ^J good m luniilf' 

BOOK Vitii CHAP, a : § tf. 


Anc;! lho60 v^I> thuH wia^fi ^rath llie t^ouJ of tlir oilu^i for ifw o[her's 11S6 Iv 7^ 
sake are fncnds \n the tfucM fcnsct cnch being itic frlcrd ofibc 
oth^r (or whu h<* is i^fwniiallj', roi for what ho is accidcntnTly.' 
Xbis rriciidaltip Iwtwrcn tlmscwlio arelioih gooil tn thrtR-wivfs {tuff 
ttfnwr) i» here shown lo be rv^Ja, bcouisc in it i^dirpf friend loves ibe 
Olhcr y>r wA^l thai oth^r is himstif ifC nvruut) -u **. lovca hicn ctt 
^'p<H a£ro« (in, 9, jo) — " irt-ai* Hiiniiinliy Jn him as iin e ml, not ll* 

a mc^DA^' 111 lint b. 10 ii' atrfltf oCruit <;tfl&rtl mcani /^Jif^r ^iXi- 
learr /;(<t iffiir <ie(i«poi' tx ituv^y — )". /- ihc exprcsSloTi a*' ovtoi-* m<trlcS 
the 1*10 riicudv legiitdcd aa each tin* /"w^r/ <J^«f ^btfiicr ftwl) of Ihc 
other's love, not regarded a.s suljt^h ccich of whnm hiu the rcclini* 
of lovo Tor thf oihor — In ihat case we should h:»v*j had jtiO' nf-rout. 
It it» lu be observed tliat ihc Far-iiihr^isl rc,v U fli' avroi^r, hqL t\t\v^mt%\ 

Vj 6* dpfT*f ri6npK] C_^. E, N. x. 10. 10, 


akX^Xaic tu^a'AifO' CSJi^aillS 'f' i/i"1t[J ftyd^lf ol the prifCei^H^ clilUflC. 

Tbcfe vorJsiiie qu«ici! l>y Ri^sow (/V«^- p. 83) iti lajjipon nf 
hii remark -• die Erkliicr dcs ftchlcn Buchci aind ofl eu ImhUnKrn 
vi^rlcket durch dAs Worl ^ifFt^^, diia batd Im Siune von ^rXJe 
bild ira SiJinc von xp*i^*^'^ j^diiiULlit wiid/ ^ ihe um- uf 
Jf«Aiv n in vlii. 3, i, j = ;^p7«-i;4fi* or of^Ai/^fl*-. 

■ftl Y^ 4itXwi oI ^V^^ 4^c^f iii^^ dXX^Xois] oj itffAA^v ^Ai(i are b. la. 
ihoM who, living ihc raiioniil life, therefore give pleasure by lh«ir 
wxietjr lu uLLct^ uhu live ihc Kune lift-- It ia the fml ihai ihe 
raiionol life in ore for «|] rncii vlio live it ihac makes ol dnX^i i;flaH 
also ^jfi rlAA^Xfuf. In the life of reason mati derives fron^ man 
true |)leaj(Qre <tiid trtu* prnfu — [lic^uitr which caii never tiring pain 
afkmarda— profit ivhidi never iceulia in losa to oneself or lo 
Otberv The common <onsciot[5nrsN of a nohk life lived logciher 
B \»Aic plcjLsuic; And Lo live diiri hA: tagelhcrr is \h\i liighc^L good, 
A<cordingl/ m the Life of Reason there is no conHIet of pleasures 
or Qtlli:lr4. h\\l 'xW men nccessarfly agrfe. As Spitioaa says {Klh. 
IT. js) ' quia uiLU» [[uisiquc ck &uae iiAturae b^pbus id ap|jetit quod 
bonum ct id uno^re conaiur quod ma,Eum c«se judical; et quum 
pncicrsi id quod ex liic-Eanunc- rJiLioiust bonuna ni:t mAlunt esse 


BOOK VIJI: CHAP. 3: {J ^, J. 

iiao b. 16. JudlcAmus nccesitario bonum nui malum di, «rgt> homines <{Ud.iifmft 
ex ducEu mtionia vivtini c^icriusi toikltim ca ncccuoiio Ajn^nt qiMc 
hum^utav tiatur&e ct confi^qaonEi-f unicuique hotnioi nectsaaw i 
liuna ^miln hocvM quae cum tidium ui]iu^cuju!ujtir tiiiiniiii* am- - 
vcniuDl. Atquc &dco liomiDct cliara inicr sc, 4]ua:^iius ex duan ^ 
raUoTLie vtvuni, necr-isuho Sfmpcr conv^^fiLunt. Nili4 iingvlirc In .« 
icniin nattjrA clatLir l^uoiI Tininliit »l lUJliLis qium hoiiii> c|Ui ci ,^ 
diKjm riviiOEkid vivit. Num id hommi uiilidbiinum at quod cum ^ 
sua naiura^ maxin^c convenit, hoc eO. homo. At homo ex IrtphTr \ % 
vxnt tiaiujac alwulutc a^il quindu ex (3uctu futioui> vivit, ct-^-H 
eatcnu:^ (antum cum natum nheriutt hoir]ini& nec:c5$ario Bdnpcr-^E r 
convf^niL Ergo homing nihJ lhut icb singiuUrcs utiUus iasxr^m^x 
quiin] homo.' 

rcflcniblc Lhem/ 

b. n. ol ailriu \ SfiOLKi] This is llic rcadirg of L^ W*' (K'* \a% ... 

■l^ciai) and s-^ems prelcrable to ro^oiTa. ) Iftai^ the reading of r, O*"— ^, 
CCC, NC, Camhr., Aid. Thui d rf*™ corrtsponJ* lo efwi^-^i 
(Jiue U [6)t and Sfitna* to <jI twhvtch. 

§ 7. Vj movni It 4tXiA H.T.X] Siahr {JC, M, p, 9^, Rot« ic-^^j) 
anil Rassov [ForxrA. p. 34) ifj^^ard lliin iiection 13 merrly a rqic^^K- 
tilion of 5 6, b. II Dju^<*^» *(?*'. . . U 17 flfl/»otai, Sialir accordiiisK^ "ly 
brackets the whole section; and K^nnuiiirr Ir-icketi Uown lob^t^^^l 

t IB. ffoydimi] inirarsifive^ — 'meet togrrWr/ The edfton rvTrt 1^ ** 
viii. .|, 5 "^ niin/ 1^' iilrni ovriintwuiv. V/^- nlK CcA 6. 4 b. 3^< 

ti au. ittL itoA' (fiotJrrjrd nifo] This i* g^enemlly taken {t.g^ by t>-^^t-ha 
P&rapb., ZcU, FrtL»i;bc, WiUiun^, ?ctcr») 10 mcftn t^Mi aD £rkndik£ 
'implies fiomc ^iinilAhty between ihc friends/ fhit Gnot «o«C--^' 
omit ilic coinma Hl^et ^iXmin and ukc thr- phrRst 10 mean ^tt^"^^ 
a friciithhip ^vhich 19 for the sake of a relative good or pkunp"''''^ 
i. f^ relative vy 4>^oi^v", iii a I'riendahip oiii> m^ A^CH^mr* ^ r« 
^lA/at — so taHcd because it rcscmhTrs thr perfect friendship. 
support of this ri'ndc:iiitg of nt^ ^taoi6fj}Tii hc refers to viii. 4, 4 ttT ^ 

■fAv Ai ^otnAs itaff £fiw6rfitv. He also rf'fcrs lo vIH. 6. ) tamCji A 

BOOK Vm: CHAP. 3; ^ 7- 


^na^^rii )up r^( jiqi' aptr^r ifHitwnt ^i^uji v.t^^, and lo vill, 4. t 110Gt>.flQ> 
^ ^ diA n i^i> dpHsipi mvnjt Tj^ti, Gnnx'i Jnirrprcutlon ia SLip- 

the ordiiiAry kmcrprcbUioit is coitcci. In the ' dujjUcaic ' (Mi3sage 
(I 6) Ihe ^di^a j« ilie timilariiy of the friendK. 

tWtij Si irii^ ^TTiipx*^ tA <(|>*ijirfKft Koff aimCij 'but ihift (rc. >. U. 
perf!fcr friendtihip) lias sll ihetptcified characlerUiic* (ff-, gooritiCK, 
|>1CRuniac»a, uacfulncw) us aavtnijl mirihnwi of iiu: parlies-' 

To^ yip SfiOia KAi Td XoLx£] The dit1ic^i1ti«s vhich Uiis clause b. 9X 
liA?* raivd for (he toitmit-iiisnor*, are wtH set foriJi by Coraes. In 
IruiMrribing his nc^Cc, i inncrt cxplaniiionR and the views of later 
^itors ^-iihin SLju^irv brackets. qJ fx*v /^t/^^fliTn (Aspaftius, 
Mlclx:1el, GiailE^ Willisinui] tdiV^ t^ i/jiXi^ rav anuvdaiieif flfkOfQ iriu Td 

f* 4*1^ oi W itinftnyiox/tftt rijf yf"<<pt' **t ri S^otoi (ihc rending fjf K^, 
P, CdDjbr., knouri 10 A^pu^ius^ accfpkd by Fn[£btl>c, Kustow 

r^sch. ft- -4, ntid SuficmlhtJ, Tnurrf, Ktarii t£ <}ya^i/i t&M Ap;Xai1^, tl 
#V>6nl ^ilLn ifAtii^i ittTi rnl /» rnifi AnirflSr T7Ji*r'i'Ti 'nl ^^cif riXXi^Xopf j:oi 

Xjniffitfai [A>-pLiffiu» rcndcrinff (}k: aliciriAlive reading ^iiihoi. L^tni- 
Innu^, and FritMcljcJ. ^ AIT [*'» r, ihc paTHpliraw: of ArKyrop)'tu^], 
A^^mtM Air^r rnfm iffftiUr lUJiJ ft ftltraf^ roiavn^ht nvA ypufprji* '^^imi, 
TOi^ fdp SjxoiaL Hal at XubntkC^ ravritrrtt tuvtji rfi i^iXid c!p,r4inj ilat jkiI 
01 Aumul ^lAlui' vp^p dii\i\ tui •'/ HAP \\hv J'amphnisl H<:]ii:>^ru^] 
'ml *a9' ifiM^TrjT^ rairrie til rtX\rti fj>i\ini cfro/iii^otrau *lffi i' o* 

fi^Ttaa T^r f£ AQm |lhe clause ravr^ • ■ ' Xt^iiT'i b, 3i\ thlpffi^^n^^ 

Here tlirn wi^ Inv^^ iwn alrernaiive fnteqireiiition^, ncrordlng tt 
vc fcn4^ utfEJui or v^utut : (i) rcadin;^ uii4'io — ' for ibc olher kind? of 
friendfthtp r^ftemblf ihtft, the perfect kind ' ; {3) rcadin;; d^c* — ' for 
bting ^mibr in rrvpeci of virlur, they are sl[ni]:ir a]'u» in \hr other 
nspccUii' A« for tl^c tir^l inicrprcifiiion — 1 lliiiik ihal il introduces 
an entirely iirelcviiiL reiuLuk, obiHouBly lu^f^-ak-J bv 3. iriBunder- 
BUndin^ of ihe prerri[ing la'f natf o/idjrfnjrri Tijpa^ and tnusT be 

reeded. The rejection of lljia inCcrprclalion of tvvt7; yAfi ojwa kqI 
I* tA Xoifrd may 9ceni to raise a presumpLion in favour of Sfta^Bi, for 
I vhich ihe MS. autliorily is ccrrtainly strong: alihougb, on [he 
k|AM^ftnd, thctc la i ccrlaln a^vkwArdncns in fiAving to take tqi^ 
^^«wA ro ayaSvii tiVm, wbercas ;n die llntf above (b* ai) it is the 


BOOK y/n: CNAP. 3:^7- 


b.a3. pToncim for tr rrXiJf ^i>ii^, But can wr^ )A* 2>mw mi n lui 
not tX' jmvrprckci oihcrwlKc than ax ftbovef jCc^II cuggtvi ihr 
fallowing iiueiprtlutum — " Poicst aulem k'i.-tb \ii]^-au alio niodo 
sk Quoqoc csplictifi; Huic bononim vij-onim iimiciibc vvr in 
hoc boiionm amiciEiA. ftimilia itinr, id est moniTn ftimilinjdn ti 
tHlqwi, i4 c'.-sli ro!^c]i];i ctii»? nd lirninin ct ^'cram aiiiidd«3; itt;ui- 
runtur, id <!at. jibsolutc bonutn ri abBol^lk jucundum'/ P^tet** 
>|^rcnt]y followmg Zdl, tmiiAlni^^s — *for here (here ii Hroilariii 
ftLiU ihc WW, vij. wLai is ^o<A aiaiply And plcatani »imj»lv/ Su.^ly 
4^ia t^nnct meun ' simikrity,' as difilingmfihcd frt>m " Xm«,'tM 
rcM': nnd iu It iiOL lK*iirr ti> ncgand ifAu vdihouc the -iniclrualhE 
picdicAlc of « claUK iniroducccl by the ' r*' Adjunct^tuni' M 
conimon in Itookft viii, ix. x ?- ^e note on %ia^ 3. j, d&d Euc 

Rcdiding fptiu I vcntorr; :o offer ihc foUowirt^ rtndcrijig — ' ettf]f 
rriendship is for good or [>Le.i6urtf (ihc ^od or plcisiue hcva^ locb 
either in lE^rff or In n^ladon ui thr [irt^ou %hu tia^ lite friendly 
fcdbi;), And implies tome simiiarliy bciwccn die puii<*; baE ttiiie 
Friendship possesses nJl the arorctftid choracirritticK in vtr«iM ol iW 
?%Hi^]iciuli]-jturrorLJi(r friends — ] >^Ly cf//, foi in ihis fnc&dalii|> ihroUiei 
ctunct eristics also (tai ro Aoiini, ;',«. ihc pkasar:tnc7« and useiukMfll 
of ihc Iricndft (o tach oth'^r, aB diEliii^iehcd Irom llicir gOOdDCK^ 
are ximikr (D^fJiu), rhe itnly gooif hping oJso truly pTfjatiT.' Tnn 
rricnds liavc a sioiilar, or indeed identical, plciitaiiinca^ and ufcfid- 
ncE^s, Ai^ Weil £is goodneaf^— f/~. below ch. 4- j i, b. 34 vri wdfi^ 

*■••— llic qualities whith the one friend rrally ha» the otticr UtiJy 
lovcB, li«cau8D itiey ar« fiimiUr to, or identical wiib, hift ow& tvd 
qualilicK iFciiiro(:4i]y Uived l>y hiK friend- THIk meanik that tlw 
quditics exj^t dirX^i, or thit friends between vhoat tbit pcrieci 
A/Jooff^f ^ub^istf ait qflfit KD^ afroi^r, &c. Where aU qualipcK *rv 
Rf^/ ojtuia, ihc one i« noi the other's aUrr /gu^ and, If t^aUf^d Jiu 
■ fricnil/ niubt be K> called bccouK lined for some quality bog 
inherent v^^eni^lly in hig t^haracicr, hut attaching to iIm epcdd 
teiuiion iiL vhitli jlv? twn happen la he p];\ocii Tbe lefldmg Ito 
of my rcnderinit: is tlint where «4tA frami mM )<Ut<ii ^ Jpnii 
itan'fufi mft ttntifMV. [here llie gocx! plewanl and ufeful qwUitic* of 
each frieuJ iiiuai htr absolute— dvXuc. taff amvc, not rcialhv : for 

^ 1 hjiTc Jiol nllcTf^ fljc punctnnlion of iIlc p,t>o*<e qnotAtioc^ bM vhit t ul« 
t« ba Zfitl'ft ta«djit£ wodd Ex m>4( t^lcuvt ^7 a oommt «ftar timil^AdU 

BOOK Viff: CHAP, 9 : fj 7* S. *83 

ifther vcre reUtivc. thf^rt a dinimibnly between the friends iiould UMb^fltt. 
he implied^ whcr^9 good mpn cartel be diHiimilar : ff. M^M. \\. 

11- WIO*. 8 ^ *iJk yAp taj' itfD«;Ti*rt ^ rip ffiroiAif^T Ml ^ r«Xf t'a 

l^dXitrra S/J The w^ig^tt of MS. authorilx t^ in favour of Aq ficrc, b- 93. 
ind aU MSS. Kcm to have 3< in b. A4: but I think thcu Bywaier* 
U in h. 13 antl SfJ m K 74 miike llicr p:i*5ag<? tun lifttpr. 


T«H y^<i<t^V9V^ SXot] (^ ^.£'. If, A. I23S n, 3 ^14 i|( iTflf10lfu'd» b &7. 

oAV dTot/ta<r^i t^ irpdrvpor oCS' 4tvoi f (Keufi] ' Tior Cftn 1h«y b ttlL 
occrpi one Hiioitf'f fl?t frietiJ*, (it lir fiitrnU' trpitn). (JC viii. 


For 2$ L^, M^ r, Cambr^ fcod ad. 


14 «// «rJ«' lapffti, tAt fritmti atsniyi rtiuming ttuA sriAtr'^ ffffUtr in tAt 
tamt fiW. 

Thf fri-ttttliAip v^i/A u/ttrtAff^atfof^utiirr. nmf tkes whir A ii tttird tm 
VA.'j^, dr/ .''*/ tAn /'rifndsAi/t^/titfirgMJ m/it ; /t^ ^luk! trim, di/r^rvi/f. or* 

fir*::iine enij mtfut ra ratA ^tr. TAti^ iMpet/ftt /ritn^iihi^ arc mmtiiMt.t^k 

u in tAt iumt kimt(" ittiA tu /Jfoiure, \iffJ thitt ihrh^J /ram the mmf rA/i^f— 

MfMtrt y'4W4 Sf M'ltiy. di tfiHi'ipiuAtJ from /At /imint^ e/ Jirvir sati Iitl*ti-ML 
ttof amJlf/m^dt neliic-itV tAeir /L'^tjnrfjr^m fht ramf thing : fht tttfrl 
fS M tmrr u dtrit*J/' pw jfWrtj tAt firtfiury o/rir Af^i'ftf ; tAe Itlt/ii<iff pieaifK 
ff^m Uin^ iim*ttd by tA< Sm^r ; btUx^'htn tAi Aruuiy/ /iuiti , rAt /nrn-ttArfi '« 
I tomttintt larety VH/nt rhr rti/ft. /rem Ioh^ /amthaiiTy, Aar* tetM ta l/v'€ m<-4 


BOOK Vlli: CHAP, 4: i§ I, 2- 


^am tAftn mirxM /ait imff J#'A/n hfiiiiy* ai tHuit^aiiAtJ/rvm fkmm^titt 

fit pAwiitt tiwe /f Ae ttn/tft t* fvak vMtr. 

It rt'iU ht utathrn ikai f\if /ht ta^ if ftramrt mtd mtihi^ ^^ mm mm^grht 

nfttktr cofd nar ftaJ^ fmt/flrikt ,iaft/ »/f^iA Kfrr. *j nui, odygBBimn 
^f/ntn<ii T /«• hetd mm th nAt 4tii^kt tta At* Jf i*r as f h^jA, taf M^ |A tt 
at 1**1* tu/t^vfftfr lit d^iirtd. 

Thffrimdihlf MurfH ^tW m/M iV i^^miy frmiiMi^ w^vA it frwtf 
ilamkr; 4itch/titttdi Aatit kntrvmoiAwtMrtmtetticttiitdimnr^iiUMitP^ dTa/ 
^iOtk olhir. 

/I mvit tu tiU't/rtftM tAttt v-t mntt a ttmaticm Uft^Sar uidgr Vlr*V h, 

thtlf-i ai fi-H-MJ^ itifti—utitay u lAehtwit/aJiuuareUltiittrtaafo); »v*V 
main a (^nttaiioit (a prpuUruia^ n'll^n tumli' fA^r n'At *iA9<iai* ftr fi^^^i 
Mcitdi L''* ^< 'A*"f "J -hUJMi^ pi!k}'mai4i as /riaaiijt : */ u miy grttf wum tsif 
If^ff/tvk tithir /<rr their gfft^ne^t yAt arr /limtis in the firuuryr and dntt 
unit a/ tkt nv^' /** fl/A^r Jrrndtkift an tvfy meM/X^r^Atfiy h rt*t 
httattr<t itrkile Ihfy ^r* haiiti on th^t wAJ^l t'l jva^. it is m*t 9^ jidfnMif 
rf^/ij/MJiV/ jjW» ^ftV ff« that ft'iiM i4 pnfj/ rritta-itfy /potdikM ikiji *fi ktJ: 
fit f^itiMnt /Aiy^-j an £0od in rtJit/iati /« Mr irMn ttl« tahs fi^Mivt i« 

Thi /4VI mtfii/Agritc/fy faHtd Primiihift, tr ^titmdiHift ficT keictAn* 
itiJtfin iti^itJl tc^hfr r Ihtrt ii ru imif Sy nAuA 9viidnn$ ^n tv^^mt d f ti 
f^riititva -/wNiMip' fat utility tddffm Aaff^i ts l^ fit htmt ^ tJLt fatv$ 
fVfl 'JHtndshif'/^rpkamtc. 

UMb.84. j 1. Ta^^l 1'!»« IS fi^kb^/A Kadmg (afur MDretus] far tbc 

fCTLTfl of mo*i MSS. 

11*7 ■. la iroXXol V cZ Jltnp./rtni<ri^] Zell vrry nppoiiiptj' tompam 

jfpijaTw Stroi ifsurr^t Aid /fiff ft,i.vt» At* fttirfy^ rvmMiic. 
ft. 13' {2. nal cCvlf ^TToi' ^rXot ftol S^L^^BVvmr] Supply ft^vr tt^k 

•h la, j&T]MrTpov enotuouvj i f. one vho i» nctibcr f^ood nor bod majr 
be a friend 10 a nan of uny sort, ^-ood, bod, or indlffereOL 

&i* qAtdi^s Sj SfjXok fin |ft^Kiv¥ roi^ dyoOoJi] Oa\y guuJ tnen caa 
cEuh Icvc ihc other fot ihn ottier'b «akc, bccftuac onlj good iat% 

JSOOJC Vni: CHAP. 4: §} 1-4. 


%n ftO >Iik^ ihnt tML'h fin<ls hi> ^npor ah^ in Ehc other. Hut tnd iisf a. u. 
men di^cr indctiniicly. A bad inari lias no lup*}^ o^nir. He 
c&nnCil iJvnliry him^lf with aitoibcr min ; he can only unc btm a^ 
a inraii* \q his own pleasure or proliT — 


Dd x'^tpoiMni' 4avn)ct] = JXX^>oir (Corses]. 

}3. iSidSXTiTo*] ' can J^r/ calumny' (Peiers). 

ir -muraLsj i. A ljptwc*^n ihe good m*;ii who att frkndt 

ft. 31. 

f 4^ iinl 7<tpl For 7a^» Ihc rcidttiff of all olhpr MSS- flp^iflrcTitl)', ■> *fl- 
Suwmlh) roafl* ftc' wUh M^' liut the scril>e of M"* (<jr Uit Bcribt or 
cortcci^r of [.he MS. from which he cii]iictt)p ^^^ I have had ncrsLsion 
to point om before, and a4 Suaemilil himKlf in aware (sec £th, 
Aiir. Prat/at. p. viit), ii wry fond of femoving diflictiltifS by con- 
jccluf iK-rncniUuoi^b ; ai;iJ I h^vc Utile tluubl ihaL In.' \iAA liied to 
do SO ti*re by subilituUng 3i for yAp. Kciaining yo^j, we may 
expliun thr? ei>nnexf<3n ihuH — ' KiKpidfSnn an;) rcrrMniclonR ahw 
in lie other (/* ruii iwitm*) fritndthipa \ for wc tciu tnu^l call the 
pcrvonfi slandtng in theiie rcUiioiiwhjps /rttmli, sjficu thoy arc 
cominonly so c^lk^il/ See ilie iioles of Zdl, Friltsche, and 



fiKfo^ irXtiv] We munt so lar conlbim to popular usnge tts to Cflll 
tnch p^rfon« ^^AfK, but ne mu&l mak? \\. dear ihai their fiiciidfthtpA 

«tt6* 6^i^ra] ' in a secondary sen«c/ 1; ^. on account of thoir «, Sl> 
rf3cmb]d[:4.x' to llic i^J^ fiii^nJship— ihe frkuJ^bip slritUy so Ciilkd : 
^f. A\ A\ vr. 3, 3, where a«p4f^DXaytia^q< 13 opposed tO aii«Xax'^f4r 

^ Y^ ^yaedf Ti toX ijioiA- t»] Mn to lar a$ there is involved in a. 9t- 
their IcbIk>n^llip ?<inu-Ihiii>^ good and rc(ir;ml>]i[)g thr godiP 01, \C 
wc ircitl riyijfl^V vi imt S^ji..W ii a» a hcniliidys, ' In so far as there 11 
involved in their rclaiionihip Honicthmg fiood in 1 secondary untc,' 
r.jf- plriAXJie — -ral yAjf ib h^v dyo&^i' taU <^i>»?fltW. So ibe Piiiaiil]. 
iitfj ram ^i^t'u ffpEDfvi: [lif Keti Ki^siivx 'f rirr aya&^v^ j/ iiyudut" ituff Sniftu' 
TTTfl a« o< >/ijTnj'' *Di yap "*! rn ^it, "otfA iynSov fi »Vrj», pI^c 73u 


BOOfC ViUi aiAP. 4; {^ 4-6, 

j(pmjaivtff tnh rttim ma& a^oif^Trn r^c flAijtfdtre ^tAf'nr of T«4Lrm( ^3l^ 

although, 1 Oiirik, hiactmifi%it*lc j» an pmfndatioti, gi*.'*! the stwe 
correctly. MU iitjtc is — ^ yAp dvatfii*' ti nol S^iCilr n a-tXj 
f^^4 vfTCiiror, in ftjKrtvtfi wnl 4I ^rTai^^irfir> i) fur yap AtT 

1. B3- 5 5' *^ ^**'*' ^* *!kZini ^unSfTTfrwi*! *ltut ihcsc tvo bitcr kinds 
arc not ai>l to coiTicnic ' (Pei'-rg). ^"^ &* fl^iAw ««* jjp^ff*)***' "* 
itict tii nduv yi^nai, Crrrt r&v *ttl>,iav rAk ttiti HiA H 4^ ^r& fife Aj AiJ 

ri xp'i'"t^'' lVA.rA].*K\ The PftMpli. is hartHy rii^hl here. Mixed 

ffi*niUhlp* ill whicii one par;}' SiuppUe* pleai^ure and (he otWr 

rcconn>cnacs him b;' pfofti arc not vciy lar^. Th^ bind 01 J 
nucc^ jncnd^ttiip htre alluded :a t>y Aristotle u thaE m wludi -^ 
both fricndn arc muiuhllj- pTcnennt and Uf^crijl. ThU i^ccids to t« ^ 
suflltieall> iccuijniH.'d by llie t^litar^— FriitwiheH Sialu. Rminaua..^ 
Williams. KnniftCLUcr's note l» jjood— " tjoiinitini dii^ciat ^ rfif»r"^ 
ml ntpir^r Tkryniiivrj a r^IiquU, ^xpoDiiur ui non po«tIi fn^lius. Qooi^K- 
cniiD per iJIiurt naiuram ultro c{iid(ut ut bcini ct utiles intfX K7" 
irdeniqtic eunvcs atnl, id in Lis vd i-^iu \ix bcbicI contiftgii : ab 
utiles, alii suaves,' 

^ JC tA nail tiu^Pffti)Kos] The ^enrte of fit KutJ crir^js^aift: here is 
clearly given in a passage [M^L a, 30. ioa$ a. 14) qticrt«il by 

FriUschp and GrJni- — mFp^Ej^fac AJ ^i^rni £ iirt^ftjgn ^H rvn, cri 
nl /iouffiirrif -y tlv tic ii^ Xitwwi' flAX* irrt'i otTf "f vvo^rvjr oufl" vt «ri i» 

b.a. {0. rab'-T^ £^(oi afT4i] Here Grant ftfctns CO ^ into error 
£rum a dcM:e 10 be perf«:ily GondftieiU m lui rendering of ^ 

BOOK VI tS: CHAP. 4; § 6, 


as il occuTB ii; tLiia niij the previous diitptcr. HIb rrnclcrinji iftUfiib.2. 
*In Ihit rctpcct [r^. aft affording ard ft«kmg pleauuro or utility) 
bflrrg like ((he goovl*/ Prr^rii adopfR Gnini'n vlcw< iramhiing — 
'icflcmUiJis true Hicnda in ihia rcs[x:a/ A^paaius pivcs the 
contci Inlorprtlalion v-h^n he w)'b rnvr.-j $>)dIi- fl^oim £w*( ttiiT*>f< 
jurA roifo. ^luet f»^<c mA^ ^0ftf i^ j^^'jm/jfJt riXArjXoir ciij j; napixm'nv 
AA^Adk ^t^nr^r fta^i Jh' ^S^r^i' ^i^oi fimV. (i'^ui d( uCk «^u^ j^uu. 

TTiiB mtcrpreUlton is MIoweJ hy MkLdcl, FrilK^che, Suhr, 
Williainit, and Rmnsaiirj, The rcfereiitr U lo viiu 4. j* w!icrr 
ihc diflcrcnco between true fncndsliip &rtd tlic other UlikIb turns i:>n 
die enentifti similarity cf good mTn. as dlslinguiUicd from the 
iiiridy sujirifittil sirMilAtiiy of l>ail \uvw ; IfUi ii inuM Ik udmiitcd 
that the void* «ai ru ^i^^tva&<ix r^avToa fc>]]oviiij^ immediately 
(b> 5} are awkward, and might bo ihonghi to favour Grani'* 

ICudeiitlg of Tabnr ^iioiut v»'rr(. 



^MAJw*^«r*4b]'i'jf j'lWwtfHx/i'/ ta nv Mrf^ /a*^ a/ frrti^i litXtr at laving 
d4< JSj/WnfMW pf /rititiijki/, tfTdJ *i/iti^/y Krc*iif"tinf it- A am/ 1^ m^f -toH 

diiumtfitm4^k atktrtnJ mrrtyhi rj mntnattykiifarti fu to mttt vfr^imh 
m^at tAtyda tmU'/cr rtfanUion—tmifri it kt vty Jon^^-JMi tifif i/tstf^iMi 
diiftritJi^M tf /riindik^, orriy firrptafi tht o^tivt moH^afatim if tJu itu- 

Sf^ mmi itftAih vlJur and itAkiitf fi(t}Mirs (n fiuA vtker^t lixidy h t\i 
jTMT mark ^ fHtn^it. Hfna iUi ajtJ munMs ^jiplfdo not pi^skf frt^Mf-'Jtipt 
jiu/y, Mdww /r/fff fffAiirr/ ir f/^ A/ h.i.f jr,ini fi*/A f^9fle. itm4ne^cdy /jpW /« 
ipatdkh dtjta with pfif!i u^A^rarf Mit/Jf^Ant. 

iPiAl'rf nuAer lAtiv /rteiti/j- Sftiiii^ mHi'iI *;>/ eaiA ^Aer^ ai uk ntKi, is tkt 
grmt mark ^ /n^Att —Tok/fMrr thry fit fk/Ji^ -.i-hu dtpfttii on *aek fitkFr /(ff 

7'At jri/ndihif difu-rnt gein/ mtu 11 ihc emejt fritndthip. Fath ii fmictf by 
OiA Mi/ar wHaJ htit in htmtft/ an*i for tp^iI/ hi ii i^iAt i^t/f,wAtir tath ii 
§* Iht «Ajt ^ing, IB /flrf, vhal r^A II ia Aimn./ 7Jif t^xeurv ^ fuh ti thf 
r99tt : mttritij^/y ttuA finA attJ kxtt Mi v^u /W in lAt ^-tfcJttfU of t\t 


HOOK ViU: CHAP, B: §5 1-3. 

^tHr: fork gttti ft rofA ani Utrrsn frtn Anri /Ai fa«v ndWiifvr "^ 

b, 0. {1, Arr MpY4iu] Riimaauer and Siu«fnihl rr3i1 ^tt' t^ >Vt*W 

arts, btit ilicir nUtc t« luch that ihrry etvu/i/ pcrfcinn lli(in,' S 
cirtiin»8Jancc8 permitted. L^' reads ^art «! m^r^tv, which pifriup 

<tt SinXvovvi TT|r 4iK^a' ^irX^. &XXi r^r MpyckOtJ noi ' 
fric(;<tship rt-ganied as* such. i.f. 3.9 r^tt, l>ul \u mantfeauntftfi 

^^'pyttit '. cf. A'. jV- v. I. ?D ,f A« Tflidfl* ifr* i^Xaif. 

aydfiniiTOTiTn Ttfi* vapirifitin' — rrat yafj nvt SKo■y1^^ rdirw r^r ^Jkidr (i> 
oil rftAnm 9pivtaBf\i\ 


b, Ul. 

{§ S. 9] The pa^tag^ ot^ ^^Iwvrnt b. 13 , . , b. 34 ff«> il f^ 
garded liy Ffl(/%tlic and Raiaow {Ffjrsch. pp, 14, jg) u 6e 
first cl gf^mini ha\ the other paaaac^ bciag cb. 6. ( 1 «V Ai wi 
er/n^i^ic ii^]( X i - - ^ - <^Xu4 a, ttx See not« on ch. 6- f I. 


b. IB. f 8. dno^^^i^L iKX^X«u«] 'Are on ^ood lenai'-^Dr 
each oihcT" t fii-i^ nciir nn viir, 3. 8, 1). »8- 


b^ 10- oAtiv yAp oiTrvc i^ ^fXvv &« Trt vut^tf] Peter* hat a UMfal doU 
here — 'To a Greek of course ihi3 does net neces»rily Implj livfoi 
under The ^anne roof, as ii does to ma \tiEl) cur very iKfleienL 

ttil^diljoitb li^ life' 

b' SI. HL ot r^aK^ptcb] 'even the happy.' It secma better to uDtt 
piHfAfHiyi hprc, with the Paraph, and A«p.» M «itiiva!ont to rf4«^w«i 
ft[i<l iiyd^i ihan, with Zell and Coracs aa nuanfup "rich* Hb 
th<.' Latin f>e^i'. Cornell' note U- f^iKafioi] in} »v rXovviH Mtti' 

^^X^i"*^^^ ^'is nap* ai/TSw iuifft\riat. Sumtp vl Vpftr4f^ TMf IcpbusSbV; 
hut reniJcred imprnhnhlc by the word* immediately foUoirinj ^«*" 
Tm< p» 7<j/t ir,T. X. whtch Siiggesi ix. 9, 3 J^fmw A" tcBc «1 A 
liQ^imji' iroifEv T^if (UJKrtpiuK ^hcrc the ttoKiifiior h the rifftgffi^ ~ ^ 
fur dpfr^ir rfX'Cdi* 4V<//y«v, 

b, aa. 4 lTa.ptc*| (tiXfii)] *comMdefihip' (Peters). Tht 


BOOK vrrr: chap, 5. {j 3-5. 

omt who haw been in^cpftrstble alnce b(>yhood = ihc Latin USTb.i 
^atiSas: see Fritxaclie and MicbeleL Ramsauer tbjnlu ihii ihtf 
uiM? 5ir>j) , . -tx^iv is an itilerpolalion lJk.(* tic rtibruc Ai tin n^f 

$ 4- voXX^i«] five dmes according Eo Rarmuucr. 


^^trry tj ti oiTy tqwCto^ 4 V dya^] These word* are omitlcd b, >T. 

' K*>, vhich readji . . . f^Vy rv ^ aya9v ^^^w rnvrii, FHlJEiche 
0|»9 the t«t of K**, itifrrpivdng thu^ — ^ Thai whifh is ^006 
d pleOMnt in Jt»clf is the object of love xnd choice; and the 
od man |H>fie«e««B both ibese qualities (i\^, the gcod m ii^olf 
d th* plcvant in itwlf)/ 

Rcuinin^ t(jc IcJtt or all other M5S. and authorities (for very 
;Ie wcipht ought U> be atutchcd lo the mere fimtsuons of K**), wp 
v« lo ilrciik' between iwo allc-rnuriir inurpfr^tiorw ot /jiffm 
iVu— thaE of the Paraphntat, ^nd that of Aapa^ti.i. The 

imphnlKC mv'fi— — leiKi yh^ f^iXr^r^' ^iv vul ajp#rDy ri rhrXuc ma) 

^ uyadin TV* il'yn^t' ^iXrl At a^0v r<Lvrii' Til ')<«]/) riyac^ *htov 
I Stir'KioK vdi rvpiutf jy^ffuv ^"r%, mi fn^ '^''^V tiyndvr ttmi'' ujtti o 
ttSAt ^Xtjriie ■Wf, «< ivar* J^urapotir roCi T/nSiraur. Thti view {4 
lopled by ViclOfias. Zcll. Coraca (fl' <V*<- »oCra- t<^ yi/i evmm-i^ 
Tovr *y«flir «itl iirAwc aycifl-Ji* iun irai avraii tlya0&f yiyTiu) and 

ichelel. On tlic othei hand A^piiiu!^ aajs — <(jt>itTii' ftiif y\p 

/4d«7tDk^ TH 0^ liyfi^L^ #<i'f a-^aSiai tai ^3^ <) dyaAtp. Grvtnt Lidctpti 
is view, I am U\ f-ivoiir of tbr ParM[ihrii*l'H intefpreiaiJLMi. 
h«t of AjpiBiua seems [o tnalci: the wurda tVoimp fl* tA tiur^ 
i«vrov oficJe«9, I undeNiand Arisiotle to argue thai a rn«nd«hrp 
bich rest* on tlic single ground of the subjcilive tA aitr^ ^SAv 7 
£ mual be surpassed by one vhlch rcata on ihc dnublc groaud pf 

d^^ f^9iiv 4 ^A« in perfect harmony wiili the objective ^A«( 

j 6-1 Iti fhin j Rajuni^ [/Vfrjl. p. 33) vould [ran^ipofe iheb^39- 
ntcnces fw«t d* . . . J$' lifivs and ml n^ad^ ^ouXovrut . . . ni^ 
*, on the fcround that the neniemce fo^vt A" , . , at\> i^tvt cont^ini 
I explaiuilion of tlie uunU ou t<na nti6os oh^A Ki3' f£iv li, 3a. 

4£XiiffbiJ tfiwr or amatie (Victorius), as distinguished from ^iXfd 


BOOK ViU: QHAP.h\ § 5. 

Dul iQo mii^li mubt nul bf qiaUc of 4 m^Kly popuUr ctiumcr 
Aristotlc'9 fully connJdcrcH ihcory of ^^XU makes k a rfit, r.f. :be 
resuli of lh<! rMioriiil formaiion, or u^rritoiinr*!/, of ctiiiin wrunl 
ttfTeciions, tnan^ of vhicU may be cortvcnicnlly bioufliL under iht 
gcncial dL'srf^naiion of <^iXQatr. S«c the noccs of ZcU, ^iUKbt, 
T^khelet, flitd Grant, 

b, 30- dptifiXoutri bi p4r& vpoaip^tfvus] This ifi not B very tiue or 
relevanL lemark if intcnOctI merely lo brias oui llw difftrcDCc 
beCnccn ^iKla and ^iXf^cric 'f^)(it indeed cannot love in reEuRLbiiE 
there aie many other objects of mere ^Arjatt which fcader ^"ii^ii 
in return, Snv nfioatptatvu and even in manv tjfXloi to ad\ci. n^ 
in many of ihosc 3i' ii^»'7i' (r/l especially viii- j, 5), love a 

mutually given ffvtv nponipMtnait. The wurd^ nm^tiknitffi /nn^ irpaa- 

ptvtai »civc to diiiint^uleh not so much between ^JUn And i^it't. 
a» bplw«vTi i Tt\«ia ^iXm aniJ the iiilencr kindft; Arid may qrll t< 
incmdrd an ayioihfT argument In Mippnri of tuStnan piV efr I'^ri 
0iX£fi (^ Ttfi- <>>u(?ii' 5 4. The lalter hiir of { 5 i» *lIso in faw^ir 
of making Ibe subji^cl of aiTj^iXovirt especially »J ayt6<ii ^tU 
Friends of llic infenor kinds never indi^ixl ptO|ierly acijuir^ i 
Hit of TJend^iip at all. This U shown by the fact that ihu' 
friend^ps com« to an end its circum glances alter- A good £{« 
is ihm by which a mun torrespond* with hfs i^rrmmrtil mtiiDD' 
menl— the world j^s re^^ion apprclicnda it, which U the uiDcfilif 
all men, and han a phcc for evc^ry man. The fricudaihip of llff 
good, as. b^^d on die rL^co^itkion cf An orderly system of Idf. 
is the only friendship which can be properly described u 1 hf^i. 
The friend&hips hr ptcnsuic and prolir, based ** they *re 00 the 
feelings of the isoUietl individual iinuicinaJly wee^EDg bis (vn 
^ratidcAiion without jcgord for others who tre u truly pcnocf 
m ci kingdom of ends m him«elf, may be diaracteri««d a* fciend- 

sllip^ tarii ituBnt. 

dXXdL KaO* lfiik>] DobXi^trir is of die rAirt (iti. i. 9). afr diatineuuM 
Jrom rA np&t rA rAv^ But icuch a rAvf, beirtg j^J^, cSft be 
tppfthfoded ouly by reison, not by wnse or feeing. Sot 
Themi&lius, vol. 11, aoA (cd. Spcngcl) Jycfi^oC ydp 4 ob^^ru j oMpiv 
arrXayff^nai^ c^'X ^ tf o£AJ taitov, il\Xd ^m rvv 

BOOK VUf: CHAP. 5' § J- Sgi 

ap^rfktnsioa of n f^od end requinng rea^or^ the irrr^^ t{> rciliftc il, 
or ihc moral inUrt\i in it, require a /fir or ratlonM disposirlon of 
l}ic ckmrcs. In chc Hfc of mere desire there Is no fiich ihin^f at an 
«^in ihf true frcnstf of ihc Lcrm, 

TQ ^Xi]ff4i «o^ i<f ^tti] Williams brings oul ihcr mcftning ofb. SV* 
this juttaj^e tn it< comcvE corrtctly, 1 ilimk, w follows — 'Ard 
bencc caJj friend iiol oril/ Tovi-ii lint ^Iiith is liis on^n ffiDod, but 
aleo tnakf* a ^icrfcci!^ equivalent return in the Rood ^\h^ch lie 
tttthrs h(^ frirnd, and in tlir pl-'a'ciirp whlrli he yields him/ Here 
j9avAq«M i^ 'tliL^ wish for the good'' [if. nuI TJyotfd jSowXojn-fl* above) 
naturAlly liu^gofils fArf i, /. r^ ^X»< ^AfT, vrhich is B.1waya associated 


The IV/ J>, and pr, L'» read Aiu, which Zell^ FriUwhe, Siahr, 

ind Ras^inw (/flff/A- p. 33] adopt. Zetl wriLes^'Non rrim 
ftolum amiciu^ Himico par onimno pin refert, ut ulcrque eanicin 
tllcnim dcmcremdi volunioHtem habcxit, aed ^enere et specie c^uoque 
paria refert, id eat, hona pro bonk, su.ivia pro suavibus, pro 
utilibiu uijlia': and Sulir hcts— 'Milhin lietit auf Lrcidcn ^cilcn 
jtdcr das fUr ilm selbsi Gutc luid Rewihri tcincrsciis durch seine 
Witbnshcstrelmng da* Glekhe ancb in derselben GiitUTifj-' Susc- 
roihl now reads JJt* after Zdbr (sec Suacmihl. Efh. Ettd. append- 
r» 'Tj)- ^*^ MSS. perhaps do not help us to come to a decisioa 
In ihi? taflt of two fortciii ^d similar in sound am! sppeirancr? as 
qAtl tnd ti2*i: but apart from M£S., the weight of prob^b^ltiy 
wcmB tornc to be greatly in favour or^Afi, which would naturally 
occur to the writer Et9( ibc constant concomitant of JyaA^jr, the object 
of ^iyrjau. Grant's poiui too that r^oi- 'i^( wodd not be a 
natural eXfjrc^Ki^ici, ad confounding degree with liind, i% worth 

The Paraph, has tiAufio^ olv ^\4X t^rttmv. uB JyA^&v Ktlfilav, ul 
0oi'l«rai fa oyi^ im ^Avf tVriv i-fti>i^s : ;;nd Ai^pLULUt has WOrds t{> 

ihc sjuue cfftti. 

^iX^-nti loAnul This ifi Ibe reading; of K^ adopted by Cj'walof. 
All other ^!SS- appwendy read ^ ticfore ItriWijr. In E.A\ ix- 8. j 
the proverb ia given aa ^crtfrirr ^iX^nji, and in £.£, IJ.6. ia40b. a, 
ia £*. A^ viii S. 5, howe^r, we have 4 ^ >^f^i na\. it^inAr^t <p*\6njn 

V s 


MOOK vni: CHAP. 5:55, 

IllT b.M, As Ramwuer remarks, ihr old proverb wjs doubllrto IfftPriff W 

or ^iXifr^r f^vrrjE Without the aTticIc : but Anatotli^ aJEovc4 bicntiU 
lo ilur & proverb to auh his purpose ; and il vonld b« a itjIwL' 
io ^uppot>e (h^t here (lie sensr jit^J^cii \\ impouiblc to Ukc Ifffrqi Vi 
the Bubjoct, Il is the predicate however, I take it, in lb* piw|V 
quor^d by Fritzsth^ from Diog. L, vjit, t, 8 a|M»* **" DvAit^m 



tifilk, dnf Iht list fltit\tiff Ihfy //>ht m eni en^tiUf'i t*fttly, tMiUtt <tjir^d 
/n^n^^hip is '/"".f fc/ httwttM IhtiN : fir nttkin^ ii te t^ntetttir^ ^f'^ 
tAif rmtd iv /foJui:titt of nf, aa ttking pitaiutt in pru anrfAtr'j MrvJy: dif^ 
firAa/ j«H V /thti^ iU : anti tkittfan ihiy Ummt frim^ q^kk^jf . /«^ m' « 

6u4 ti^ lanml profit! iy it mtkJ /n'jrtdj, tiiui tiny ^ tati ipvti (Mir rt* 
i^ittht./ or toitt pttaturt in tmt wlJitr-^Atu faiting t* rvd/iW lln hm ■v' 
ehirrtute/iitif frails qf/rimtfsAip. 

at it ii imf^nibit ft ^ in /tflw ti-tVA many at tAt jiwm tijiM " /pt J^fia /hi** 
jhif <> ttrr tjaifiii jiat/ nj fniing. aitJ, at ntr\. hot miim'^^ #Mf /rw ai ■> 
objt\-t \ tdio it it ntfi "uy fit inany tc a^tnl tAt ji^c^F^/ xtufsttd^m it tkt >■■ 
pemm . Nijtli/wentitiniktifi01iniryt^jlntiiHfinanytr'ktm^gomd: mtr^mn- 
ih/rf *:antia ff ptrfut /rmuitkip tinittf Jkf /ritwAt krtt^ fOfk Ofkrr »^. W 
kavr tofit io tnfir jatniJittrfy trrlo joeh cthff't Sipetitisiu—^ kard tAi^i^M 
fifj*£t4 sniy /■« pr^inu art i^nnm^d^ MtJ mtKk harder ^fJur^ '^>7 «■ 

Iffrrr, iimvtvr. ike pfifvt ^fi'imirkif ii uiiiffy grf^tarurf^ I'/^r/umUli 
Matv muny fiifii'/s ; for uu/ttl dutf pitajatkt pttfit art mtmtrcmtt Jn^lb 
umint ftwtAftrtid Aft tpt^kiy rtmdrrtti, 

CfihttH'9 ift/erifrfriinJiMipjtkatfirplarurt t — r*V' f\rfftt fiitwitkif 
moiT ifhm rAt sami sfitiiti art rrrnVi n^i^r ht^ fiwCk rmf r^ij UjJiyk^mi 
14 titfk otkff irr in tJit jnmt r*fii/j-"*F yetinr ptopU A in i^£r /ritmdiAifr . 
tA/rt ts iffme/Atng fi/reml in iAfit friFHdiAipx vrki^A duftngtujint tA^m /i^ 
tAt /n/itJtkip Jef ulittly—iAt frirnJiAfp 9/ hutuinu HtriArr, tAt K^fff 
MttJ^ Htt Hufnt fiiintU {tinit tArif mdfrri4i tvCili *ft atre^^ t*AfnM>a 
prrtiiitJ /9r\.tHt p!ttjam fn<nJ^—l-<,lAty iriiA fwr prnetwt mrffM w^tm 
^iiijiian ifuim^i/iy. pdin 9it<i ti»m li^i*m ht^r/trm ftttU mAik; HiM 

BOOk yril: CHAP. 6: 5 (. 


Hr vwMijri ji « aJnttyi tmhiriHf fHai viAi/A gaw Aim jvit'^K*, (vT/ith if it 
*v** /A* wimmnni boiium tru^. 7'kii u ntAy /■*/ ''W> ^''* '* *"^ '*'*' 
ritrad/ /AwH/ r fpir;' fbjfiA/ tf fcum t9 mt tg kavt /Atm j^rW Af ««#// tu 
ifbafjun/— /M^ ^^ ai^9iult2y iuivt rtlalitiefjf ; ihtt^ their frunJ/Aip wUI Aatv 

Afrm ^vMith 4nJ iWhH kavt fh/if/ritrtffi it dfttwrtsfti. ikfy h^^^ uttfut 
rimdt jm/ fJtAttnt /ri/nJi. an-i St i/.'Jf^i JiA//tn/ thtti Ikt tAmii friindi arw 
4tA nitftti ^ul pUnii^rit — ir^Ar iiilvtiiinatfi . aH/iifinii*fi^ comf^tiii/fri : /A//WiV 
tsKff ivc hni'i niij^iictft //{usait antJ ni//tt/ ; i^u/ tAt j^tK^J maw drt' 
tet dOnr kimtr^ to hi^amf sAr frimt rt/ m%i ^'k£ ii his ttipfriar. nnUis Uf 
vf*H0HlyMftrgM*ifi>* 'ir »v-'/^ in i:faJ/k avJ tto/ifit i f^r ij fht mf^rt^tjr 

tritrity ij any frf/^rfi\friati- rttitft. //'f^ -tta.'ian *«-/ j^atniit^ii, Ammw, 

71* iwtfitf/fvt /fi*Hfithipi m/ttiijHt'i srt 'Jh'fiffffAifii ^rfrnffir /^baA" ; e<fua!r 
'Tmdfr It t^h nthir /&/ j/iff tiwj;i, or fxfharr^ Mir rJtim; fir ano/Afr. t.g. 
Vtamrr/*r/rtfit. 7^/y aft r/ieuffht /ff bt orftoT t^^ ' /'\f^it^tf-s' tt^j-ot^tng 
u ikt/ -art tiaaJm r^temUiH;: ^r ai Jifft"Hj: /row rA* Jt^i^/anf /rwiJiki/, 
Tktf 9ti tAmgkt te bt fritmisAipj, htamr tAey art /w pitamtt vr pruft. sin** 
itt ^i^tdari Jritfidship—shta baisJ on virl^t—Aas Us eiirmnti of ptttuvrt ami 
tr^tl ; h/i in ic far ai tkr /rt/itiiiktp htirtd ^it virtut ii prpof ttj^mml iiitttttf. 
WaiiMimf. »AiU tAfi/riindiiipifprpi^^mrtitndp^rt/t fttii-&fy pairnt^y arrJ 
itfir fr^iHi^ frittt^ihip hA\*d tn vtriut tJt /nanytfMtr mpeiis.tAey ait tt«t 
•kaifihi to U '/rieruiihipt* 

I, 3* Ka3»ow {f^ors^/s. pp, 34. a5)i after phnling tlie gfnUm ion 
n panik) columns, leaves ii uncteddcd vbetbcr the frsc or ih« 
vcond ought lo be brackei«d. Againsi zlic claim of ilic firm 
asuge lo dUnd tic not^A the point, overlooked by FritzKhe, thai 
tut that part of it vliicli m nsJ repeated h«rc occurs a^ln in 
Uiullicr |i-j.^jgc — di. fi. { 4 mI oI /LfiK^ioi Hi xp'J'fV***' ^»>' "^Wr 

IcatToi, t^*wif Zi' ov^¥ fiir yap ^vvktinai riirii th &i kuwjp^r o\Iyi» ^ir 

iHTij^j' uOrip fl?7. Oil itio Oilier ha.ud he ihiriks II uiiikniUble ihii 
he Kcond paesoge connects Tieclf Jcee nnLurdIr viLh wh&t 
iwccdes ir than the first passage does. Susemiht agrees wlih 
tl««ow in leaving it ui^decitTcd which of the gtfuim lati ouglil lo 
« bracketed. 

vpM^LFnffdl^] Spenjel {AriifHfhtckf Studien \. p. S15) aske a^ a. 
Aiy vpwidvrair ^Louid noi he lead us below in ihU {, an^I in cb. £. 
I a. Victontis contends ihal R/»^i/rw< la mlendonaJiy employed, 

994 BOOK Viiii CUAP. 6; %% J-J. 

U58».S. M Arffltoi1«in (bis pfusage (tia <^«ltiif[u[iihed ^m 5. 1 1) re^di 

ihe (lisiposiiion riiiher ih:in ihe yearn uf (he olil tnen in (ju«k»Q— 
* ncijuc cnLm cunai hujus aeiaitA sujit difiiciJca.' 

saner ri^gards ihese words 9e spiirioiiSi ftnriing nothing to "IjiiJi 
Tofra can be soiyacltjnly rcfcncd. FrU£»clic refirts iwra tt 
^fuXiaif h^ a loose conscniction noi uncoirmoa in Arutocto'i 
wriiing^, Ramsauer nalice*> ihe tircumsEancv ih^i thi? word* I 
\lS>.\\t^ \inix ho^%i ijitXiAu at the end of this % v^y tlic Mnnc ihin; u 
the words which he biickeie ela spunouK. 1 would cali uiKniinii 
to ihe rircumsUnce (whulever it may irulicair) Ehal ihnt lamjo 
end wiih similar c:iprt8sion» — via, ch. 6-5 3 *^*»" X**P«"™* ^ 

outoiTt iff*^ V J"*p«i 6*irti ^;('"* ch, 6. \ I. 1158 a- 3 (r*o» r« 

^Xuik, 3^iid ch- 6- { I- ii^S a. g (vA X'^^p*^'' «IX\ijXuif,4 ISi^^aai^ 

I. rt ^fXoi H' 01) irdHj tW] * They carniol proper!/ be callcd^univ.' 

U. j 2. lw$A Y&p AncpQgV^ FiiUBchf b wroiif-, ) think, in mdilf 
rA *fii' the sLibjecl of <a«*. The Paraph- gives ihc stn»e of tt( 
passage righlly—^rnXXnltf &J ^^Aflt* aLmi vAn cnmiAoW mvrix r^ nJi«W 

yaff ri'r iW' ^iX<~af ^ trXfku ^^In. t^ J!' mQvr«> *^)i« A^ ''^^ 

yfv«iT<?ni, In keeping with ihJK ImFrprfrL-iiinn A<^p;ii>]i]« ia^ Xmm 
fl' trrf^oX^*- r^*> nari li *J- <!yi ^. A* ii, G. l^, whoc Jper^ b u4 
lO be JEDTd r^ ^o-rok' vqi rA iC Bfp^r. Afi CorOCl Kl^t, if yti|> nl^ 
^A/a , , , i^jXidP /ifrii' ^ oMpariinj. jtol oOitiimrn^iMTr/ir^palXXq fiUb 
Fcrfea friendship is 'an cxahcd KUtc.* In ix. to. 5. Itowrvcr, 
vrhicli reetmbies clns passage cloavly* t1 i^hf i£ vrrf^SaXi rw ^Jiu» 

.19- J 3, TToXXotf dptfoKtfif] Ranisduer conJL:i:iuie« nXXm: Udl 
^rily, for imXXoir djifVifii' menus simply, as Asf«^uA m.jS| 
«ZMt ^Tkmv. His commeiuary is — 3iA to jy/ttrffj^ov ^ *i«l ri 4** 

a^( HfiXXTfi/ ;t;^*^^ ^'^ <'^ /fmivfwt' aV JXiy^ fip XP^T **^^ 
fflkTroi rovrmr Jirvrtpaiif, Xvtrm 17 ^iXtV ir ^X<yv 7^ Xf*T 


JiOOfC VIUi CHAP, 6; %\ 4,. % 393 

f 4. fotite<>i>ff ] The MSS. rcfld ^ii*i,bui Acp^Afid the Paraph. 1148 4.1ft 

^J^p whidi is adopted by Victoriuft, Ramsautr, and Bywaitr. 

rd ftfuWpioi'] ' a gfiicrous splril * (Pct*rs). . •< *t 

<al ol ^aiii£|itot 8/] On jfnl — */ see Eiicken, A Arisl. Jk. rat.^ M. 
P" 3* — *aJjui]gii autem ■ul— fl* rem nov&m, stcpc tAtii Icml moJu 
111 jcJem fere valval aiquo r*/ li je mobt frequent m JL\ N, iv, viii, 

oJS' aM T* dyoKk-] ' If ArisEoUr had been capable cjf a joke, we a. 34. 
mui^t tcive considered ihi« to be mejLnt oj; such ' (Gram), 

Bti V Iritff Hol d^sto^ Towvrvv^ «>^afi icu fri aAroisj ' The o- BO- 
iuuii/hDi rj-tidlfe ih^ir rriends lo be j'U<u<tnt-. Ijui (hqr ought to 
require them to be good loo. n^ well as fjle^uanc (jawCrav^ Spra* = 
rfit'it Srrq*), and afao usfful (lit- i^ood for thfmsL'lvcs) ; for ihua they 
will hiive ail ihai belong* to true friendship/ This rendering 
represent Rassow'& {FoneA. p, 83) view of ihe iTilerpreLalion of 
UwM words. Wtih iTi m1 airfl.r he supplies SynfiuCs, rcgardidfj" the 
phrase its equivaleni 10 ;^ijffi)(fnn. Thua to sU|^ip!y ayafinvt aftrr frj 
m\ fltrwi (*/^ the Paraph, tots ^'Xuv* d! ffHfi/Saiui ^fftii Ct^«°^"' *Jk«i. 
oya^vr oirar, mS awrolc ayojovt, with whom Ramsauer, Wdliama 
and PefeiB agree) is obviously correei, aUhoogh I thmk 11. would 
noi be rLi:hL 10 prets (if indeed Kassow di:^c6 ho) iKc idcniiiy of 
«vr«« oynBirCs with xp*!"**^^' ''* *he mofe material senw of the 
Iftller lerm. Tl hat Jniit been siaied that ihe material warns of the 
^fcoaj^ioi arc ftdly aupplied — that ihcy do not need merely useful 
fiends, xn'^'f'"^ t*'f avSi¥ ^atmn. Stahr &eems to give the true 
lenM of ihr pasiage when he writes—' Freilich solllen sie wolil 
ADcb dazu Hcnschen rtchmen, die nicht nur an sich gtile, fiondem 
aodi fUr sEe s«lbGt sltilich f^rdemd aind/ To supply ^dciv sifter 
fn aOrotv with Ffitj:5<he and Graut is, 1 tiiink, quite hmdmissible ; 
dyo^^i evidently being ihc dominilin^ thought of itie cl*u«c 
b^nnEng ^1 fT luuf, z^ fAftv wait of Ihp clause beginning &« a. 9jj» 
After iyv6vvt a. a6 Rahsiw {^Ftirsth- Ji. fi*) Hipfili""S m^^ lavmdt, 
which bo considers ncci^BSify to bring out Ihe oppoailiun to uvt<«"i 
(oyflifDi^), and Susemihl tmroduoes ta€' iavrrwc into his text. 

{ Sr o! t' Ik rail itouoiaif] Xryii ff /»» i^vtfUn r«Vf rv/i^PvMt & tT. 



BOOK VW: CHAF. 6; §{ ,^ 6. 

llSS«.8fl^ &ti>w£i] After 3ii»vr Rftifiow [Fcrtth. p. S4) co^J^fiurefi ih^il 1^4 
tJ ha» fallen cul BywakA vugs^iUtxi liow^Ttr (Cm^ih. p, 6d — 
to ' inkc Tcvr St 10 mean " others," nnd unrlcrfttiiicl A«nfw 'jMif* 
f* *Vrfn^f9iV 10 be a kiiid of predicate a/ier C-jtw^i " — seem*t to m*^ 
tbc dlfliculiy< 

A. 34. {6- ^XX* ^irip^x^"^ K'tA.J Aapa^iui! fzivcA the more generiUy 

flcccptod mfcrpreialion of ihis passage — imp/^fofro* 0* TtHrai ^-t 

Sri W ou'Wf aaowit row y^^^(>•J^*flA^ Tiifr iwi^icmTi', iiTt* <ai n^'toi, ib>l 

9( ri* aymfiiof v< ■or Ofjcr^v n^Tcv ^"(frr'^o^ran I hlS VJCWp ACCOnUlg 

to which the subject of vVftij^ijTm i^ iirwfv titer (rAn n^r 2vM|itf), tl 

BcLcpteJ by [he r;ua[ihr;LM. Vkloriua. Larnbious, &1], Coi3C9» ^^ 
Frltische, Michclc[» Stahr^ Williftms, and Pcicrs, 

Aifor Iiii'p4j(fitiwvoB a. 36 — wime of l^*se commeniaior* natr 
the? grc^l man or prince* and nLhfn (he good miLD ; tl>c raiaylii 
tf- ff. makes it lUe good man — <w« yaft rfio«C** « ffT«k4ai« r^ ■•»" 

ihc olber LiHtl iiuiKcs iritptj^^tnt ilic great man or princt — tl 

ftf^ l'iTtp4jitvrtt 6 iv rfoutr'^ trar" dprr^r vtr^ tpv inR>v3ib<n^ ■>£« c'of'i 
Svav tKrltmv vrtpij(ti itar i^extriw- 

According, ihen, to the v\e'^' of Aspa^ius and rnow other c om— - " 
mcnl^ilorh. Arisioilc mcARA 10 tell ua ficr^ ll;At the ^ood lUAJ — '-"^ 
will not become ihe fnend of a superior in rank aind pou'er nnkv^^^ 
that sitperior ia hi^ Inferior in goodnriis- — or. 10 n^ Graint'f WOnl^ 
' a good man would not be & fricnc) 10 a potenutc, if that pottoUi^ 
had sU]i«rJor moral qualities/ This ciuinol he AriiCpoUr'fi tncui:!^ > 
Gran^ Ramsauer, and Jactwn {Artsf. AVr. AV4. &v>k v^ p, 91 ^ 
Arc iindoubicdij right in makinjf i cTwAcusit not A &nfMA«v, ihe 
subject of owtpijfifraif and rendering — 'the good man docs got 
became ttie friend uf a suprritTr in rank nnd powrr in\le«» hr 
is surpassed in |;oodnefr5, as v^clt Si^ iu rank &nd po-vrcr, bjr iloi 
BUperior/ The awkwardness of making ihe subject of imtpix^m 
different from tlutt of yit^Tot \h ihm avoided, and Account la itUtfiR 
of the force of nai before t}, «ptr§. ignored by llx other rendcfiof. 

* 5o alio Frituche, resdtfJi; A ^mffx^J*"^ vrltbotit M& Mihorttf, 

Dnd Jaickton agroc that i tnnt^^'ios ie Btiti the subject ; bui Jnckson 
alort *epm» to m« t'^i h*vp ffoi the meaning of the dauic c!c.irly:^- 

* bccdilMr Otl;cr>v'iHC llic; mfrjiur will iiui feci fui llic bupciiuf lli&l 

low nnd regard by which aione he con Teqaiie njpcrior tmvJCM.' 

Cy. JC. A. Vili. J, A owXriynn 4^* fV pniTrtif Talc tnft VFrftyj^b oCirnic 

q ^^rii'. ffdi TUH bi^fl>£^Lurf^Di', Kal T^f aAXMi- TiB-itfToe ^f^wt' »fflr 
7B|i rjr' ri^iop 9 ^Aijfns 7J''7'oi, frfr* yhtral vntt ItrAf^i, A *^ t^» 
^Jov *Uiu 0«tT. ^ a]»o viii, 8. t. I'hc cqualiry found in ■! 
^^A^ 4i j(4i!r i^mpox'i*' could not b« TcaJie«d in viicb a case of 
\uXci[o\\\y ax ihut (*f u poor goiH] mail to n bad (or not ffood) 
rich mm, for ihc poor |;ooJ nnan would noi be uirrartccl ia 
rvpajtn^ tlie great mnterial b*ncti[s, which ]i« mjght receive 
fmin the lich inj[)» with an ainouiji of love and tftlccm equ^ 
10 them. Bclsvccit a poor L^ood niaii nnd a vt^r)* ^ood rich man 
«qtu1 reciprocaiJon, and therefore a fiiendly relmion, in indcird 
pOttible ; but — ncli men arc uUom vt-iy ^ciod — "fr irdw A* ttbiAjETt 

Thf Clilt^« ff ^1 /i^. rC« Jrrir{>i jlbiiXo^a* mp4jifyt*vr'% may btf 

rendered — ' for if tliist Ixr not m>, he (ihr ]i(ior K<'^d man) cannot 
put hinudf on en equal foolirg by compensating- for hia in- 
len'ority'— r,f, b}' making a proponionaEe re(um for the hencitt* 
wUch he. in hla Infcilor ^obUion. rcccivr^. t lAc ili^DTtrv widi 

(*«^;iriV'*^ < C^C llie i'jkrapb. (uHiA'>7(r» fiirfp^x*"^ "^* \/at^*y^<>tf¥ttt\ 

and Comes <inofrd abovv^ and ^- viii. ij, i i-ov( i" diricm* (w. 

Petcn' ccT^tentLon that 4 ffiratauwt cnntioi he llic subject of 
*"i"CT'*'- l^^canw */4^ ideally good man cnnnor ho snqiaased 
In virtue.' Mould have fori:c if iE were tiecenary to ouunic that 
Aristotle has hcr« m view '/^^ ideally f^ood man.' 

I ?■ <t^ %' ^r bl «lpT|pJKii 4«^kai jv Mnjn] ^^. these $<Xuik« b, i. 
a« ihey h^ve lirrn hitherto deicrihrd, are « .Bc>rt/ri : but all three 
may be <ibu tad hstpoxh^ — ^-*' viij> ij. i T/iirr^v A' otauv ^tXiftr, 

Jgfwitf TUf ^^ iq^ I'Pf/m^^ir itf'iJ yAjj AfiniMt aynfini <pDtm yintvmi tat 
Htolfvr \ti^n., iSput'ofi Or <cil i/Sitt «u'i £i4^ ri^ j^f^r/Jt^uPp iJtifvrFtfv rms 

BOOK Vtff: CHAP. 6: § ?. 


itSSbn 10. AXXoLt TV Scckfi/petv itoXXqTs] t.g. llicj xmjr sulnuC bcLv^cx 
men, Lhf J may include nukn;" [-cracMiA. 



^fq>Ani /atkrr jntt i^—itfKf gtntraHy ^-tvfff *//fr awf jMiM^frr , fcr»*f« 

diff'f frum tatk athtr-^lhal of pnrfiila /9t fhiJJrtm ti /ul ikt rata *tti^/ 
wmim/er rvkii : am/^/vr^rr. the pietuf^hip^ /tMhtw /tr tan it )M At mm 
4is lAa/ nf ton /arfiuAfr,^ cj' AutJ>it't>i for vfi/r ikt tamt mm tA^^wafl^ 
/tvthiir^ ; Jcrr tin gPOdiNii omi /A4/H/t*trffn of tfu Attl6stU tr/iUktw artrnt^ 
game aj l\t gttJri^ and fke JuHtfitn j/ fikt ni/a f m«» sttd lA^ t^tJrm^ 
v/hhh itiiJi ftfii ftiinUihtf jV rt-i* «rt tH^frtiti, Tit jffTWH fWWffW fy** 
iJ']ftrin/;. thirt witt he. it /air it/tJ liutirtf fiitndxkip wkfn xkU^tm natr 
f^ partnfs, Q¥id pttrena to ^Attitftn, fk^st tkim^ wknk dw /ht ttftmati 0t 
4ftilttta rtif^trifiy, /At ajf/ffitn a/ifi m ail tkru /ritndtkifa Miia0 
UKi^uatj tu^At ij ti ' in fftifvr/irff ' tn Afci ridt^l. r. H^ Jvrtf^r «r lit «vf 
nir/Hf Vfjifit i<f if ii^id mert iAtM At tetrti - firr n^Atn that U ^ffnfim mffr 
l^riiGH to cf/Krt then, in a way. s^utUijy is fir^^Httd-'-^^TlUy ihe /rtmi ma^ 

Ji^HnJifji ir itpf tin ti^mf m /n^rr^f otif tn J-'rinuttA^ Jit patitr t* 
^rJinttaif /^i/a/i/j'ij i^/*''irnarj; \trtJ j*jg/flftV i^uniitytifNi^mdvjr t^t^ t u tti 
IV /rtz-ntiiAip afvB/j4ft tquaiiiy *omt4 fint, uhJ frcfttrtimsU tfm«^fy tokul^ 
^fiDTiii f/ait. Thii ii lAeii-H iy iAe /at:t tAai i/tA^^tiiiuKt^t-ti- iw^aim»^ 
vva^rA, fiff-tr/n thf f^rtUt heromfi X"^f* t^'J '"'<"' " Ai fwUmdi. *r mm* tt 
ihinM tfraiM ^thrr 4r frttntit. Thi ilfortit lau tt tAt riimtiM* A^tawiff Ar 
ftita ^nj nti/t ; o/Aer iaiej «n M' rr^^i^v Mtt-ent M^ omJ titir n^(v& 

/cr mfiAint. it U im/ouihU to Jtfim i^tmlty the ^itamt 4/ t^fhitM /t^ «9 
f/i/J Af /n^t/i : tMfj/ may iti/! he /ftmid JAm^k lAe ^atamct it nmit^ntVt; 
iu/rtfii ^ 9f hf that af ti'Ai.-h fht /P*it itanJ Jrffm mi/h. Ideive tAt jtiufJMi 
WkelAir fri/aJj rtnlty wiiA f&r iXeir /riewaJi tht grtMtii £»^ I Smr^il^ 
Jfi net vh'^A MrM tt hwfte /ydi. jrn/ iir tenje te ^ lAeir AiVmi^^ Lc tkeir^t^ 
(frtt utrs fij^hi in sayini; tAat a /rftHi/ wiiAn t;07d Ihinxs f*r kit fnryU jm 
Ail /mnJ'j inke, th/tt k$' /ri/tul mtut rrmmn mid/ i/ it ■ ■« /puWlH^nd 
fht greaTtii if grod lhitt£i /o^ Atf /runJ u ■ mu ; *ir f*rA^f4 mti^ 
gotj Ikingt i tAe wry gr^alett if Ihtm Ai wiit wi/h ffr kiiner^. . 


penions axe unequal ' — Pcicnii 

BOOK vat: CHAP. 1\ ^ \-^ ^99 

tia^tfpouai V o-trmi val dX>V|Xur] i. /. as wdl as generally from nfis b 14, 

i S. Hol Wjv ^*|CFLf] Aspiwlus notices the «/ bcfiwp r^0i7rn», b- •*■ 
bitl scnrccly helps ur 10 undcrsLond its Torcc — U ttdaats lals dif^vt 

divX«y«h I would explain as follows — The h^^r realincd in 
cbesi* ipiXiA* Ktff lint>ftx^' is noE merely th^tl of fl fiir connnercial 
tfvnAXoyfui, in wlijcli cquivalcDt amounu of diHcrtnt n'ofCH are 
exchanged; it is Uic ^tf(Jr7c of ^iKla — ihc superior docs not pive 
nxficly a»iiAUficc In rcium Tor the equlvalont amount of rcspcci 
which he receiver from ihc inferior: l*c gives iilhfta^s as veil — 
rince he i* ihc other's tfiiXot — and expects a proper return of 
^tiXrjtiir. The TmUUAl rxrhnnge of tpikijftit beLween itie superior 
and inferior is indeed more characicTiAiiL ijf llicir fnctidship thaii 
the exchange of asftiscancc* and respt^cE — raatenally ntccttmry 
ibougli l!ic latter exrli;iiige nnny br to iheir ' rdcnd^hlp' Tkl 
in this mmua) e3Cthdii|;e of itHK/fott ihc difTi'rtnce beiwtcn superior 
and inkrior must noi be Ifjsl sight of — ulo^ (h*re = 1. if, noi ^,^h) 

S8.J The e»3cni(al diing in Justice b ihat every man ahillb, iO. 
get hi* due whatever that happens 10 be; the esKeniial ihin^r in 
Friendship h equality. JutHitr^ dor:^ nni carir Imu- uin^tjual l)je 
pcr»on» are, bui give::* ihem ihcir due sharrs; whereas strict 
equality bciwcen the persons is lequireJ by the highest kind 
of Fricnilship. and alihtiugh dierc ajc Friendships aocuUcd in 
a tccondary sense [i*wi><k.( b. 33), vie. al ^aff i'THfto^'i^ in whigh 
llie absence of suicl equaliiy is compensated for by ' prf>;)ordonaie 
eqaaUty/ yet thi8 eoniprn»aiion h pos^itjle only within certain 
Kjnits^ If the leal intquality becomes very jjrcat ^lAi* alao 
boconies impo^iitile. See ilie Par- itJ ifit: 4^v nxr *J£in» «ii ai^vyav 

ritf TO<t Aiixiav ^frv^ii Xayii»', *l At Karit rA nooAr itrtj t'tf utii ftq 

Grant'* good note at/ ioc. 

{ 4. &idffTir|ia] ri mt^ TwrAr Xttni' h primary in Friendship, b, S3. 

othcrvJiie t'riendahip wojld not be destroyed by StivTqpa. 


BOOK Vrif: CHAP. 7: 5(4-6. 

uaekSS. hsi Tu* e<&^] FtiUacbc compares M.Af. U. it. tsoSo. js 

oTonnv yii^ ^v iirj, it nr <^t ^t^'i" ror Aia. 

1119 •» 4. { s, Qi ^oij RAm&nucr aiid Suficmihl bracket oi. Th« forTDer 
however suspects the wortin «w rTww ol tft^fi. Byw, «Hggrsi^ f 
0i>ia far 'A 01^01, thus ^ct^ing a sijlijird for i^'hi i jvcc dmfri>, 
p. 6o. 

>-A' { G» o> Y^P <^^°^ ^ynOi] ^. ««, noE a« ZcU find Fri£iacbt 
suggest. ^owX»»^fl*. See Kastcwr, Famh. p. 6*. RaA»OW (roUowed 
b^ fius, and Bjw.) reaJs w (with K*', M^', r) fiii Mi befoic 7^ 
Jn a, 7. 

k,lfi. uwr^ yV M*^^^^ k.tA.] Asp. >uy» J ^ ^f^i Xry" 4^"°" "^ 

FriLsschi^ n.\ix> lliiriks (Ml th« lEifehor E~(ten<1shLp> arc here rc4Vir« 
Id. But Htrt^ J^.JV. ix, 6, vliere llic cotidu&kjii la leached 


J/oif Mifl aji amftilieiti of rhe Acn^ur of ^i**S '«*rf **"* '**» fAiy ir^ 

UtTff€ thmg. f» fhfrr i-wm, at Ariag Mewftrfrf ; ^nd tr U t^^tnnJ it it^kat ii^ 
majeritjf ff mtH ifritv ftfitr. Bui Attttcuf *i tut at^i^t ftr ittt^. 7W 
mttjon'tjf a/ mert i*kt fifitanrrr m rtuJFmg U fivm ptn^m irA^ i*w vhA iW 
tin*' fifntr. btttiutt lAey rav^nut it ru l/a Jt/niift^kt mJinattatri nsfiVi tlr^ 
ki^/or : 'Mhii* otkrnt stri tc A/ Aptirurnf dygoo^ mm tp4« tfrv iWMMvivHr/ ^ 
goettnfU^ in aiyf/r lAat thty msj hevt tMifitmalitm t/ jMtir mkv /M^ tfjmi/m 
it6fvt tb/miftiff/. Tf he /ftvut. ^aa M* ftAtr A^itid, girti mrn fkmtf4 im i/jf^, 
^i^crdinxiy tv ^i-rtwiiia l^tlet iAt'nx. ii u'MiiU itrn^tJU* tt Tr Ai— rrf. md 
/ritndfMf %i ivmtiMnx in i/jci/ iAoittwerfkjr, ittu iy '/riritJMfi' wt m§m 
' i9vin£ ' rar/ur than ' bftn^ larrn!: Tht iffvt if iwtinri /»■ Umr jmaf 
ikildm fy M^ftm Ihty ftitmof ht iffVftf m rfi^f^ n^ keif ur M «w tkdtfntm^ 
ikif (SitrirU m ItnAirg mihtr ihitn in hriH£ Ur^^i ' tkit h/it^ t*^ tmi £4mv W^ 
• AfV^ ti<$*' fruiJi' tftnj ftnii^it it /vU^/Ut thai * immt rw amttltf* ittk 
rirfmt <>f/iii6 , ami tAott wAff tie tMi in prefortiw tt dotrf an ktfiv 
/rittttii. it it ty :Ait itrvinji in fro/^ttim te AuflilM l^m th4« «r«tf 

BOOK VJil: CHAP- %\ \% 1-3. 


•aU wtoyhtmsdt fqu^it &*d to fHtnds. K^uaftJy^nd iimf/aritj ft Fritmd- 
•f—*9f*ti^ilf timiiirity ijt Viriut. yirftariii mm art iroA!/ in tfirvttfftfi, 
d rrmoiti Mtkie fritndi if am /mjit^eft ititker i/fUng far" thtmrih-tr, nor 
f/im^ttU ttmefAif Ar. it/t/tAinj: l^ui ii et/il^rMf^trytHJi (a kttp am aftaiker 
ivftvii' iftU ii'iUrif men Mavs nv sta/iiiiry. TAtjnk not rrm^iin hitz 4Ai 
fw ; tkty ktomt frimdi ta tnt ms^krt f»r ti ihart eiiH4. pirtitd '.vUh ota 
<**#*'l ^ik^tiHit^ I'haru u'hflif /rten-tik'f ii/^r ^tthfy fir pfMiurw rtntaiit 

7%t frignJihip of utiii!]/ mm> upnialiY /a artjt fui trf teHfraritt—^.f^^it 
Cm 4tfKttn riih mtn unU poor mtn. tteevfeen ihe man ii-jfltf ANOiOi and /As 
or iitjl# it (/piarTinr f'n/f^r tkt i hrmt t^ may hi brought ihiU /wniv/n fttvr 
d ^/fVifJ, btfuffif J*# Uffio ii /tJiiifi/MJ amd am vfha " yioin- Htnrr irvtrt 
Itnimfj fV^>tf lk4mithti niii-uiffHi hy tape* ting' ft ff iitvJ ai itjuk ,v tkcy 
K aA4fjr* ihty onr Mrf 4fUi!iy i'jata^It. Put /ft fm/t lAt tjm nfHtr^ry dns 
f atrk Ikt ethtr oj stuh, iut vitiy per icaJrin — th* mian ining iht tioi 
'^ft wf Jtitrv : /or fht haii r'i ^foJ : thut iht ^luii for tht ' dry ' it ttat '# M 

) L Ainpix^l^*'^ Y^P 4^'^ A i^Kofj Wc ^c from this l^at (lie USO ». 14, 
dXirpi^ »>r-,x^f /►,!■»*.* of viij. 6. 6 tHtci* the equalit)' required lq 
cndtijip by r«niilcring metre love ihan be receives. 

vpooirQUtrat Totaurac] Bi.<kkrr'4 vlimt iflLT Tniolmv, omirt^ bf a, IA. 
irw., Kctna to bave no M^. authority. NC rca<1s npoinrtiuiTai 

J 2'] Gr^uit compares ^, N. i. 5- g. a- 11- 

W 9-fl. ty ^^^^i^'^oi* ^^ ■^'^^ A>^T& X^^P^v*^^^ iC'tA.] See the PaT* c^ S£- 

' i&t. fffii A^ oLh ^iivnv TO ffit\t'ifrikn hi iuvn) titprrriv^ n\Xh Bat t^ i^iXrip, 

(ffoXX^ ^.iWw. Sa<^ ff^Xiitr. To hz loved is bcUcr llian to be 
^noareil- Thun ^lAia, looked at cvi^n on its pa&stve aide, stands 
ry high \n the scnie of bitiTUEi goot] tliingft. Bur adive love is iu 

be flW^bi of n ^lX^lv^ proc^c^Jin}; From (he virLuous t|ir of ^Aia^ 
Ings the gQOiJ map, ?W i^iiXoF, inio 'the inielligible world" of 
Ihrc rcaaon, as diaiin^ULtLcd from lIjc region of paasivr feeling 
we consider in chin coitncxian the docirine which AmtQlIc sharca 
ih Phio, that Tf9*^on in all lis flight is moved and susujred by 
n% we cnn ace what a high pfa^e in the Amtoicliin MctJphyaic 
Ethicft fpi^ia occutiJee. Here, however, its pr^ice is merely 
iicated ; in Book \x it « more accurately deierroinrd. QC JV. At. 

II. mo b. 6 fcnl 0^ &'\t4dii r& i^«ri- f tl ^riiT^jr vA k^'y y6p 


^OOJC VIll: CHAP, 8: §§ 5-7. 

h98. j 4.] Those who actively love ihcirfncndfi arc /f-tnW; bo. 

h ihe inie virtue of frionde- Sec £*. .V' u 13. 19 vw 4i£f«v M rit 

b. I, j fi, oJiru &' £r i.tX] ^mn ^te* cc]i:alJttHl vf ^X<fp 

b.9. i£t naV dpcn^^] 'xr. ^'X«i'' (KAmMuer) : btil it ^Mtiu better to 

K 8. AXX" ufs ■Jneii' ii<ii] ' nAy f.iihcr, J ought to aay . , ,' 


i^ S' Apc^Lt TObi ftlifoii iartv TOVTO Y^P ^Y^^'^i ^/- ^' A*". iL 4- 9 

spt^dtncc will] cnvironmeni ' is ibe law of life 



frieniiiMp. Thni ruin tprak bf their fiiU/iffioidiffi^tkirir ^fiumJi.' A$/0 

ihf finrvrri ' Frtntds hav/ tAtrlgt jn fltflviHim ' t'l trat. 

4r lut if* fpm'twt^ fvr jomi /rifnJrkJfj art gtdur i4** A'-i/rj ; mmJ m Mf 
frUtviihipa vary, h Jni lAt jiutite in tmA tuic- llkt /mtitt svW'nt « 

BOOK VtTf: CHAP, 9 : {5 1-4. 



#NO U Al> iJkHJ differs frvm thiU Mthkh hiolUtn efif tmt ttfuflk^r^er^ **^m» 
attr^dt^—ff /tiiei^-iUiteHs : in/mUir <'j A^'^Tdi'd/^i/ if prefvrtiun nj it is 'Afvc 
At d tttartr /riaid. TTth ihevit that juxttrt and Jritn.hhip Katt lAf mrrit 

ji^ vtviMi^ni art^mm^ti mmf/*^ojh'vp a-v fa^fi if /Af ^rmf ssttn4/if ff 
iki C^mmtnttxnitk. A^ tArtui^iatijK vfth C^mnt^auj^^Uk hIJV-4piij'W/ viia 
mainew^tJiH iritiir fv lUirt ihr ftmmen f^wd t^fifx itum^i, timuk of thtit 
/€ftiitiiar tsjeftattfiKJ txtr/s in ffnf/r to m^rr tom^ pa'ticular gc«d It ii Ihi 
tsmmtH ^Bcd {it^ntifnJ x«^ Md/ whiik it ^utt) whUk /f^'it'tt^i j'f /it ; tki 

wUiA ^fir fkoiurr—tluAi, aad^Uds, itml /(^rheii inv^htth /Ac Vfsvtktf^ 
Ui^ ftds U tom^ntd ^ith niaxoiim : U is toh uott-fthai tl^i aitdttu niyp'oai 

timt mt vMcA f^vflt Atu t/tf^ Uimrt. TAeu amsitthfix fhin fef unnAifi and 
ni^^^tittt arr/trfi t/lAr grni n^nffaiioH 0/ /At CemfftanwenHk mkUA Itoki 
mtt te th4 cdxvtUiVt 9/ (iff dty fMf i9 that ^/ the ^hoif ^ t^e. HafA ^ iAat 

i'L if ^XQJ viu. I. 4< ^cording to Aap. 

h «T( dAto^] *bct*ccn ibc s:imc persona': kc Asp,- 


omiiT' tHOif ^iXia iirrh' fV rait ^fvaytrrpnTn^mn . . < JXXa iml wtp* {f^^ 

vol y^ rt Sfjiaiov] le. /r1 rwtMf ivri wf ^di* JtuKwovoi b, 30. 
au{f«4at £4 W^uitff Afio t|{ ^Xif nal tA Suraiof] ^M^^pri rt «V a. 7, 
dCftvui 4U< r^ lUiAtav tfp «V tvif atToIt ami (Asp.). 

ft 4, (, Q-] Since, ^V v^iHid'if if ^ia ({ t)^ the various associations %. 8> 
(iniwuvfdr) included in the commrirwejiEtb (miX(f^iir7 JFruHin'n), all of 
llicin yubscfvin^ ils mJ — lire [.lablri. |;*joJ, L/ mcanh ofthdjowji 
•pcdai end« (wl>ethcr these specjil ends be described as useful or 
plf^tK^irtE]. involve iheir frort^sponding friendsliip^. 

f 4. Hat 4 tbXitk^ %l Hottwla raS ^uj^^fXMTOs x^>^ ^i«i 'iVt i% ^11. 
ipX^l i>wtX#«tr icaL Ica^JvtLf] Z^U ^id FiiL^sche remind iXA ih^t tiiis 

BOOK yiii: CHAP. 0; {{4-5- 

noo 1. u, is not & complete slaiement of Ariatotle's theory of Ibe orijim uid 
niamlen:Lnc& nrsocfHy, and rarer 10 PoLva.^. iifSb, »0 ^i^i>p* 

\Q Pi>h \. \. Xl^t b- J9 -you^rti^ ruu 0^1* tvmtn^ oftra (U rcff rf ^r, ^^ 
aUo /W. ill. 5* i-Bo Qh Jfk '' ^'>' V^ r£>' ci^iTf»4T«rr X*'/'"' ^*m'^' jo ^ 
■nl iTi'rrjhfiMr, rflfrovrm' ^jvavffufn ti]T v^XdKr v'tHP'/i ti^ Ti^r cr^avc' ^ov 

j^n^oAr JSiiFtfLTAi, ^TfTt Bio r^t JA^rrynt ral r^v ;|^ijiriii n^v ir^i^ JUl^ 
Aii|.( . . « fifj^l r (f;/{tr;E BUf mmiifi TftfXiiivqj rlkuHiHtiiii/ti'. 4ft 4^^^ 

tif»<rjf 4bt9^Eaf if,r,l. Comparmg the pflEs^e before us ^A'. N. viib 
9. 4) with i)h.' |.ias?.age? quoted from (li^ Poh'h^s wir obi^rvf (t) thiL 
according to ArisEotJe'i complete iheor)' other &nd naorc powerful 
caiues thui the peri:€|)iion of rutvrial advantage brought men idEd 
BGCial union, and keep Lheni in zi ; uiid (t) timi tJ ■(Oi«lf n^i^i^ 
Is a wide expression invludin^ rd MaXot, ard not lobe idcaiiJied vilb 
the ' useful ' as disEinguii^ied from the ' noble and ^od/ 

^on^] 30 Aristotle himsetr— ^tf/. iii. 4. 1279 «. 17 ^t«^ 

Xa>in'(7ir ofirui card tu JitX»e AJfraioi'. 
». 17- 5 6^ iriXewi Ap*7^>«v«] is coloni&lB or as wtllw — Run»uer. 

^ 19. ft'iat SJ Tur KDtrunvf S/ t^Cvt^f Sohou^i yi^i^M] The Pu- 
takes pains to ahow that even ihos^ association* ^«hich te^m 10 
have p]c,-»sur<r 4s ihrJr end, uUimaiely suIjscjvc rA owi w^^ii^ 
because dt'awayviti f-J ^ao*r^( ftrc ncccsiiary to the proper pcrroni>- 

ancC of CSirncSt work. tifit ft* tout tmvapuuv rair ^^na J^UffTH . . , 
Affyrtf ^ fi-r dmrruruf iWHIKII mi ^ twv ^jiiiyujTi(v>' - . . wX ufmi Aj |iij| 

irnA»T*"'j*' nil >*V ■"' M<'Wf» *» i'l'i' tBti irvfKfitpfi' f^ft*' oXAd cof t w\v pir 
o£ ffUji^'jiri. mi'Qiati fii. ni^ tuvto Aiokk . , . &vt rvvm fivoiot Tt tirfymyi 
Koi ewoBwt mi vxmvrriat fkt^ ij^ar^i lui h^mh- viHTOi^BU' imta yJi^ tn 
f^v rapvaiv iJiyicnpi/iiit ni t« ntJiwIoi ryii^iTD rni n^ Ajni'aip ara^j[it{ TtUrt 
□Jirit<~ ^\iJTd T^p ^kf lovrwr 4V;fiJAafui> rotf tuij^i-if Aid £4 ^vrtov rv* 
mifUi'iii'V ^9 tt ^'cDir (^<vv diVvir ayiHrv, £ 914^9*1^ /Sbv*. ««« «tfW 

dnvuvttfifKH, no^l rbv ^Jp nu trt^ijH/KUTof flidnav jrrwA. 

£OOK VJif: CHAP. 9; 5 5- 


^tAvrai fft *^<ra ironvsi^'ii, mi i^ i^i>f mcs Yua^nn^, co) ^ rau vli^ 1160 ft, IB 
rijt *9XrttM^t. 

Sttwr^r ii<U JpftfivtAi'l ''I'he roeirbcn or religious p[ui1da anJ 
icxtiaI dtthii/ Thr Anim* wiuf a giifld of pcnoni vho (Tanced 
along llje MtccLi in ptoccSLwu. and joined in McrlJidiil fravt^i in 
hoinour of a god— cspe<;ially Hiicchu«. Ar» Jpn^jcwaB asocial dab 
in whicK tucU tnemhirr mude hi« contHbuiitin (<nr^oXq) to the 
(omtnon fund. 

ftvtat ti vaiowTtt ft-T,X.] FntzBchc (rolloucd by Grnjii) omits •. aa. 
nw fiutw pirmihrTicil, sind rrff^rt ihc |>flrUciplcK wtum/mr Ac, 10 

Mipntpf impticd in ■ait^tivj' iliovc. 

Mkihclct rcFcn ihcm lo ^A*Vdi iral Hrr/irh^i, r«fprdJng »iw a. 19- 
1. ^3 rhr f^iti¥ an parrnihrtlcikl. I .im mor*^ Inrl£nfi1 lo a(lopT 
Stscmihl'.i auggctiEicn diat :iomcthing hii9 dropped out between m 
Siar ind fivirUt n n, a.i ; pf rh.^pa, IS Byw.ifuf Higgr-si^ [««!> /tturn. 0/ 
PAilot, vol- XVriir p, 65), tmtii Ai ru}!- mk'ui-iuL' Ar ij^ov^v AtiKaurTi yti'«nSiu, 
\fliy ^uB^t^v vol JpowwtCff ^ZfXnyofi Oiftloimta ta\ in/mboias X IQ« JOi 
'flic poim of Ihc pasiuRc is «xccHeniIy brouRhl rrni by Polcre— 
■ Bui ill i!wse aMorinjions spi^m ro be Huhordlnatp to iht a^ftocUiion 
ofcilixenft; for the auofiation of < lifcn^ sccmi to tuvc for tU aim, 
not lh« inlcrcsiH of ihc moment, tii« Ux- intei'(<mB of ouf vhol* lift » 
fvt^zi when its iU4frnlic:? cirlebriTr fir^civLil'i and boltl |^[hrring« on 
rai:b occAfpioru, and render honour to tlic ^oda, ind piovjdc 
recrcuikon riiid j^musemtiit for Eheiri^lvi>i/ And m a noi« ht; aJda^ 
'II IK the in:i[i:ujiijn of ilic State which gi^e& a permancnl Kigm- 
l%cvic« to these amtt»cmcnt0 of i& (Uy ' 



rtfj^av/ti^ t9 fo/ft 9/ Ikfn tkuf. a tfigraJeit farm m ^I'^vA tht j^eot/ ^' /Af 

Ja/itv it/ iiti^jf rWd — tJu lytarU ii tht baJ kutg tfi^ fiUf4 /^ kis 

366 BOOK VUI: CHAP. 10: ^1, 2> 

^ xhtit ffWH fiai^ , ami ifftn^ra/y, f/iimtKiwy—tAe m^irt a* pnpttly^iatfr 

mlitn megftUAl tn fvnsfrnjr it aMiiArJ. Of thtM dif < ii ^ ^nra tft^ 
i* iAj tivit. fvtaitS4 ii ii tMe t^Htfary *f the A/f/— ii«^^ mU i mnJ it^f^rvy 
ij tA* Je^jf AM /ffi' if i/flfi mtf tiVffUv d viry grtaf ^^£nui*n frtm fimtc-A^ 
aintt limMttuj iiitif it the tult vf the jmji*/— ■- c, of tkttt uitt art tpm\ m 
virtm aftattiHjf Upton mn/fro/f f^rfifty ^ua/i/f.trtffv. 

Cy a// ihmt ftjuftfu/joiial Jbymr uw Aavf HHif^yfuit f« /Mf ^m.-^- ih 
nJatifn of th* father tt Au ikHilttft f^rniptm^j U ^t»giy rtfit^ tAiu. H^f 
ioih 2eM. fathtr - and h^fr/. « iit Ptni^^ « J*^th*r tnaii Ml fhti^m m 
ilavti wc ifui'f a itfotivn wAtih tivrn/eftdi to tyatiJiy- TTtt ntJafjiM fahnn 
Au^fiiitwi atjff urfft i-omsfo/iifj rtt amiccreiry. far tki >ba^mM4 ntla tJkt *f(B 
tAflif fkinf^ $n^iihifh hi.' tupfrnn-iiy fntitUi *iu ta ru// htr : 7VJt*rt kt UkaU 
fpsi'jr into hit fftoti ^andi Aiv rult hr<fivttji iiJ/t ^Ogorehy : vmjfi^tt: 4fat§^ 
i/aiwJti, flfj^irtkyis thai rf tht wife, if the hi «<■ Atinti, T^t ir ^ ttu hf*** 
hr<flii(ri iff' rtip^nth la fwngiritiy - ^rvfArrj tct f'jiui/j rxitpt in *» /$t c If 
ttutket a Ji£ffSBif. TAt atitfe^r t/JeniKrtty u./ffr tAi AMf part^fmadit 
ketistfioidi u'tiijii iirf n-'tAoHr a Ji/Ofl iv wAen iht tuitr it iMat «•! Jto 
tTKtntei't nrt nU9ivt4t* d^ai lAeyfti^i. 

1100^33. f 1. -ireXiTVioS V f^Tiv iitif TpfcL, Ini Sd Kal irOfUJUMtf ] Sct^ 

iii. 5, ii;y A. Tj ^i\i\. iuul Poi. iv_ 3. 1:^89 *- ^6. Gtinl tx 

ihe J'Qhtks : sec ttieir notes ad Ice. 

'H in ri^/irirvb is calleil fXaurcmpafla in Xen. jV>M. it. tf, 19- 

■Xi)PutA« Si* Tt5 <tv| pAtfiXi^^ Kriu^che supposes th« rcTcnutf 
10 be 10 lUe dicrir^t^i'^f mcMiionwI iii Pi>/. \\l y. 1^85^ 31. Cf 
oVfTVE f^fKifFDc* But Coracs 15 more probably x\^\it with nXiipaiiil 

"Arfflrf/fTi* ^ffuitjprtff™ jiacFiJuuc. Peicis and Riirs-iuri nclnpt ibb 
interpretation, Ibe laUcr quoilug Plflli>, /'c?/r/. ^gt A rovnvg rt nW 

All recorded sources except O^' and NC read (ftfLvr tof: 
ri.-tLduLg ieijuire& iiaWow to bt: ttuvpIJcd; ^etr tbe PuM|ib. I i 

and Pctf f !i tljiA meaiu; th^iL il n more evid«ai from on iEUpecticm td 

BOOK vrrn chap, \0: 5} 1, 3, 307 

vv^omf that ii it the uopit, ihan il Is cvldcni frojn an inapccLioii of HOO Ih B- 
^iXf.a Oiat Jt is the best form of £Ovcriini<nL Siirr^ly ihis ia not 
rhc mcamng- Nothing can be more evident, on Arislode's princlpW, 
i^Aiii lliJt^r;i7iXfi'o LA lli^ best fuim uf ^uvrninicni. The com[iaii»r>n 

tn ^tat^pvr4poy IS bclWOCn the WOnl oTlhe Jpflal irnXir^wi^ VIZ. r>>rii.«paria 

(fiiM abo\ie, r rfio a. 3<> x"P''T'7 ^ ^ T*/in*/>DTii), and the womt of ibe 
ird^«dfi0«t. VIA. Tv^prk l^he Utici i^ qulk pliiiiil/ tlic v^or^l Oii 
M« flidu t>ccftuae :t is Ivw^Uv lo ^emXr^ vfhich TS the t>«]^l of all 
formt; whereas it i* not 50 plain that r^ifw^iirii is tlif^ womt on Us 
side^bcGiUfG die difTcicrkcc bclvrccn U and ^atfiXffa doc« not amoUDi 

{S fUTuPaini] impcWDnal ^ i) ^rrvtSftXr) ^fivTru, according EDhlO. 
RambAUcr; but iho Pirnph- tnalccs ^ n^trtU the tiubjvct— a ccd' 
tiruction supported by ^stq /j«Ta/fniiHitrffjj' ai th? end of the present 


«it ^ npoiip<n{a] t'.«. [unfiL:rxc7f ax well as dr-mocracy, is ;it). la 
government of ihc m^ny: sec P<^h tii. 5. 1379 a. 37 ffrBr ft; tA 

VBi^<P«^ni] \dkea transitivclj in the /wtf^ Arhl., and by die b. SO. 
Paraph-, Ramtauer, ind FritKM^he. Th« i«rni mpikSaait ecenait 
ti> liavif beeu dtiived fioin llit lemiimilngy i»f miuir : sec /". J^. ii. 

9> t>4l bh SS rruXtrijcii , . . vai a'i VfjSai hb^ uI noprnffuUfif' <im ytt^ 
ri avtA ^tnitp VrrJ t^»»' 0^^ftHr<>v Jcu rvf «V rdiv iroXirti4fiE : and J'pL ^- 
7- 1343 ^ 32 tlal A' £ffir<j> o^up at ^^"^ mipfiTTfhi/ijifHiL r^r Riri 
^iH7*if t^mt, ovtv ■■!■ rojf tifji^onaiy ttafimQuattt cLii''t itOL Tor /.iiXvp 

Puftfik, iioie loyB, 

Dcmocrncy is the IcMt evil of the dcbftBei.1 forms (^ftflrn i^ ^rtx^*?- 
piv Jirii if ^}ititp0riit), beciu^ it irisei out of u form in which i}ie 
go^vrning luxJy isWge- In uinocracy the govnniiig bod/, lining 
the majorilj of tbc people, govuma for ihe ^ood no! <if ilaclf^ 
ihc majoril/ — hut for tlie pood of the whole Stale, the minority 
iiiduded. In dt'inocracy [hf majonly governs for ks own good, 
and nr^Iccis the rights of the ninoriLy, Dut slJIl in democntoy 
the rifbtfl and initrvsH of the maprify, ai lea^t, am aitended to; 
whcffU i[i Iji^nity a[id oligarchy, where ibc governing lx)dy ia 
tcr^ eflkill, the majority is oppres&cd. On the princi}.ile there- 

X 7 


BOOK VIII: CHAP, 10 ; H 3- 4* 

1190 V.SD^ fore of ' the f^at««t f-ood or the |rrealr«l number,* ikt MccbiM 

tmpticd in tyranny or ohgnrctiy is a much fnnre fn^oDi tvd 
ihan Uiut implicj in (lemocr«c;- BuL eiiiciit^ [iicci- Tlitft u 
a form of Democracy in which cvctything is (Iclcrmincd by #"j#i»' 
/irtTfl. ttiiJ not by n^/fflT, Tbi» rorm of Democrary, which AfMiaSr 
(Fti!. ^. 4, [392 a. 4 Kt<]') compares 10 tymrmy. oiutC W cicepfrJ 
(rom thf npplUaUon ol ihe judgmctil ^*iffTa *i ^jif^^pu t/*i < 
brifii\Kparlo, and may hav^f been prei^nl to \h*^ tnrnd of Aspuiv 

when lit' wrtilt!— r^ Autf* «&ri ircMrniTfitf. X"V<> J*"* ttjijfftw »W *|i^ 

iipaiia¥ riff hipar' ti yap ir rj S^^ajt^jiiTEf wirr^f ^;i(OViTir. ^ T 

b. IL ptdXiHI* odnitc] 'These then are iTi^ ways b «hkb ifce x^«nl 

con ^^n!^l lions iirc most apt to chiitigc' (Hdert); 'moil tpr'fty, 
ihftf uTtr oiher ways, as Afimoilr hitnuHf pninw oui w /'»'.«. 
f.f. lyrmnic) sotnctimca arise directly out cf oLpudurt « 
dcmocTdcics : rtemocraciea directly oui of tynntiea. Soe Rin- 
tnucT d^ A>f. 

bnSS' {4- A|i«iiiu(XOTu fi' a^Tur Hal o'ofr TrapaSiiYpAto^ 'unilOirilCi >^ 

as It worv, piiiiomt/ 

Thi; pamlldK rlmwn in {j 4. 5 and 6 difFrr in vthx pJ 
auggcslivcncss. Those draw-n bctr^ccn the normal coajiinl Te- 
lotion and ari&lccracy> and the abnormal coi;jugnl rdatioa Bnl 
oli^iKohy are jjcrh^ps more IngcnioijH ihan useful; but oa clit 
other hand. tho»c dravn between th« father and the kinjc, bci^mft 
the master and the tyrant, between brother* and the cuecntcn 
of a limocracy or democracy, rt-sC upon a true ticv of ihr raanH 
history of society. 

The clan or vjllage-cotntnuniry with tt« Chief (0dtffAf^) 11 iW 
expansion o( die hou^ with jtt Faiiiei': see P^. \. 1. ti^> b> if 

TDV irpfiT^vnirau' Afrrr hoI al infnitiax lih rijt ^niyyi^vta^^ Cf. /\/ h 
^. r3j>4 ^- fO ? ^' '"^^ '<''i'W>' I'r'^f^ i^iTI^itV t^ t**'' >4>*^#w «j 

BOOK V/ri: CHAP, 10: § 4. 


hJ * yitv^trrfr »/>dT tw Wjtmk It is only, however, Hhile a coin- 
manil^ rcumiris hmijiII iIiaI Ure pALriarcljaJ kingalii]! la jioiuihlf; 
aad tn the Hellenic vorld, when ArisloLle wroEc, il had loni- 
beoomc a ihing of rhf puBV Monarcliy nou- cuisiccl chiefly in the 
Ibnn of tyraniij, where ibe nioii^di was ibic to (oercu a inixnl 
■nd divided mLsa of sub}ects, as a ni^^ti^r coerces his *^luvc», 
Greek c^wnmuniiiet, when they became too large 10 submit to the 
mfc of the p&triar^liii] t^\i].i;{. iiiiLuriLlly bccamtr a.risto(;iaciea arLiI 
Umocxaciee; th;tt is— the cubtoms (kI^v) which hail ^rown up 
tinrfcr ihc role of ihe pauiarchsil cliiL-r coHiitiucd (o go^yrii the 
communiiy After the di^-Lppe&ri^ncc of lIiai rule. Unrsc cuNttimK 
txprc^aed originally what kinsmen deemed du^ to one another 
Id tli^iri'Anoii^ rchtion?, Il U true that on the diiappturancc, ^ 

in fk Urg^ (.ufiimunity, of the lively seiiai.' uf Uiiahip uhkh ' 

productcl them, the customs utidcrwcnt mnny iranijfornjaliotkU in 
correspondence with s changing (■n^'ironmtnt; but in all theSi 
txansformalions itjey continued lo i^ve mrrely itew exprc^:(icin 
lo ihOE feOcinil tcii&e— tfiiit rommtitiU urt^vs, whith, wide as il^ scope 
may become, can always be iraeed back to the fj?eliiigs of near 
kiiuTDcn — members of the same v[|laf;e, descended from btDtljcra, 
ncmberg of the same family— naitft w* nnl^y 7fa\ht%. 

Aristocracy and liraocracy repfewni diflfer^ni si3g« in ih€ 
O'olution of llie [riimili\e ;iKa[x.ta[Loii of b[od}enii. First ^ve have 
ibe preponderating influence of die * elder brstnehcb' ; then power 
becomes more eqiiatly distributed among all ihe 'kinunen/ sue 
population incicascs. and wealth becDini^s dilTubed. U\ oihei 
words — Ihe aritttocmlic families whose local power made the 
crnTral mle of ihe pairiarchal chwi impoinlble, conilTiued 10 ■ 

tx^tiMt; that }>uwer till new fatnilies hec-aiiie inlluential and fl 

competed with ihem. In this evotuiion ho^vever from arialocrocy ^ 

10 limoeruey diertf is no break in ci^rilinuLty. The old etisioms 
inheiiLcd from the patriarchal period are slowly changed. But 
tftlier in aristocracy or tn timocracy force may break with old 
tUfUDm* ami introLlncr disorder. Hence oligarchy or democracy. 
If ariMocracy doct not. >viih increa^inj; population and ^^alth. 
pa» naturally into limocracy, it iai becaurw cireiLmstances have 
aggranilj«cd cenain iristocrafic famdiea, aixl inutile ihem too 
powerful in a large community Ihc customs of which have ccaaed 


BOOK ViUt ClfAP. 10: §54. 5- )k lIiosc of iho paUiarcbil or tlic carTy ubtocratk pKciod 
Timocr&cy becomes democrncy chictl/ u:tdcr *lrvA or popuJAtioa 
ind poverty, when the old ccklottib Ui\ in nir^ (he new clroon- 
scanccft, xnA ihc many poor take il into their own hands tt 
nLter the old customs more or U%^ rudely. IJut a iltiDocncr 
which springs fro[ii liniocricy, (he (level opr&efit of 3iri*tiicncj, 
is obviouaiy much bcllcr than one which sprinK^ from oJifm^ti 
ihfl mip«j9iT-Tw of ariBCocracy, Th< Tormer ^eiriocracy >i iftif 
all of ihe naiiirt of -tn inevitable deirlopment ; ihe lailrr inplin 
a br<3k in conimuiiy and a rcvoTuticn, followed booji bj i 
' Saviour of Society ' in ihe shape of x lynint 

b, 91. Sicfctv^rrbt] 1 he alove is <^vati a slave ; he difTcrs from Af 
ffee Tn:i[| iis ihe body differ* from ihe soal ; see Pt4. i ^ t^jjt 

fVff^iuv, AitEnitt^ai roCroi* r^v T>h!ir»v, C<7w* ^or-i' V>^" T "^^ '■]" 

he i*^ nol a Persoii)' iral A vtamWiiv Ar^cr m^nfrfv ffrov auifeii4% 

vn'V/'mi. Kill q j(p''a ^* 4ra;jiXXJrT*i ^U/iilf' if y^ ^fm fjiV]|M 
r^ ffv/iiTj ftn^^cn yitmi iraff I'ftipa'hi, imfA w rvv AnuXov rr)j wBfA 
TBI- ijfiiiiQiv O^-tif- (ivvhrf^ft tii¥ oSf If ^i/jii flul fil 7^iii(iara Ako^^w* 

j^p^aiv, Tfl if 3|3flA Miii I'jdtrjtrta itplt fht T^-tBvf«t i/iyatriat, ^^XA t^tf^M' 

iifli L 1. ^cmXi^pol] v^cll, Friusche, and Grant quote Menanclcr in ifltfr 
Iratioii of the Gr^ek feeling aboui heiresses — 

wkovtciOmiy, ^m ^^n* tutiytt fitim, 
4 ffvCKtr Jtvj;'7k» fiwolt^ws laXu^fjrrar. 
In Fffiw ii> (j- 1770 a. 13 the evil consequences arising to thr 
tiale Iron the hcJrc^ae^ arc noticed — tan Ai ttal tvr yvmmr 
T^t ifT>(T7f X"P"' ^^ ^^^' f'P^ '^ *^» *** *" Arui^p** nix** 
yimiurur a.rX: hcc Newman's note on IS70 a, st. 

BOOK vrrr: chap. 10^ 5 fi, jii 

I 9, «!ii^o«Hr] ' Dicuniur auEcm baud m»1c D'<^ir qioe non un ». t- 
&uni oimai nviJum oZ»oi' ^Ramsiuer), The habiUlioia of wild 


jibcfbv t«r«Vvi^ f 4 /V /n/fttutar/itmt. V'At/rtfvi'Aifi */ j t*tj^ /r^ Air t*^ 
Jtcit it ik^t if cue iifAe fffmjerj thx ffrralfr bmifiti- TAt h'ag fr*»A Air /f^ftt. 

if a/6tkit ii jf rXij iiiMd^nt^. a faihtr i^ert i-rrt/r-r finu//i fkoM a kiHg. 
At oH/frt uttjifM^^tkau^At W U M* grtartit ^aU^nvriurr ami fdrntUten . 
/.m/afAtrt /pft art tiitvj^At r^f mi €»t^f^r\>*g Iktv ffvtfiti, i h* f.Uhn Ai\m 
««uifu/ H£\t U fti!/ ttvr hit iAi!dita~ Tht Ajv/^ elit Aai a HuFmrvI nj^t f* 
rmUfUrAii pcsf^i* litau^t At rtf^aiHij Ikt fortfathtr^ 

Tkne /'i^ihliAipi, 6eirtj! Itivt/H umqvtiii, imtih-s. Hkt fht Aindt of Jmti^i 
iMVttpim^^ to thim^ * rfjurn i* frp/t&riiffn la devrt ': lAti ii ittAy fartntt 
rrmf A*"Mi""— /*/ an/jf thrug vv^irA iAiliirfn i^n rrttim im an cmttint /nv 
f$rfi^H^i (e lAt hfftf^lt Mt^kA (hey rwfttv^ 

Tif /rtt/fttiA/y 0/ AtiJ^/itt atti trf/ku lAe ta/iti m that bttwutt rulfs amt 
rw^K/ w Am AnitxfA.-y. I'hf frtrHdth%pt^!^\>feti Urptkf'trtitfmf-i/* that htt^itwi 
r^titrt^iti—^ffr tkty an t^vch ar^tf UfoHg ttt tA* tamt fftKJ'-alrJa : anJ ik^UtvAt 
«rr Mni jpoHr^Ity fett and t\rt ifi'fOitJ o/iAk- AW lAt /rifnJrhi/ foufui itt d 
tim^f^ty ij sf tAii ktrnd^-Us memlen stand on ait ttfmai /wfiitx^, ond £ifA4 
Umu in Atidinf^ ff^it. flat in tHi dt^aae.t /ermi, aiJuitLt tjfua tea tirmit 
nftni. t^ Jt4t /H^tbfsAtp. A Jim ntUr tmd r-nif-i A'tfv tt*iAtHjf tn <tmmen 
lAtn ii n^/rit»tdt^*f ^fir*m Iktm, far ehwrr ij nojttiti.-t ; /At ^ilaltvH i^htt^n 
tAfm it JiAt /Aft Artfwww nvrAmtn artd/M/. vh! ami hoJy, mmttr attJ ilavt: 
IM ttaV€ ii a iifivZ '^f- t^' mfiw/ mai:i a */iiir, quA liatt, a ' fnetd.' any 
—IT Mffir oif raft At 'jmtt ' le him itllhfiMj^A \\iit mm Ae may ttr iht r^jtft p/ 
fritmd'Mf awijiuhtt. 

/m iyrmfmuJ tAtrt ii vtry UttU fritHtfsAif ami vtty Htik /mltis*i in 
^moir-srifi man tAan »« iAg nfhif Jtj^tdrJftiroii : /tr in dtmi.-t-ajt'fj mtn an 
apttti. aad la Aave mitcA irt nfvioi^n. 

j 1, fiKta. ^Euvrrttt, 4^' ^<i¥ HQt -rd lusLflr] i.t, fiXia SubiUGiS L101 •, IOt 
hy rdifOi : ^ £. A^. v. 6- 4 nvrv 4' [i. f. t^ niAcf hA^ ^Uaun') IvTir 
at^nyiat ^ rur' A^utf^Jv mrtt Smtt 11^ {art rovrc^ otK fun robTDic irp^ 



MOOX vm: CHAP. 11: § I. 

y^p dtttUOV, «fil Vil M^fioe vr^oi aifToit, Cf^ bcIow Vlti, It. f 
«M n JfiMuir froir'i Aif6p*titif trpitf widt/m tA* tMd^itiA* i m ^iaii 
pj^ob* rnl irft^pcjf^ '^^ 0'X^i A^, caff ftrirv Ja'^lpvnvr. Bf n^m fC 
are to unJi^r^iand thc^ boinal aytt^m ol Juhb and ctiBtom^ tua 
u'fiich mdivijiialu arc born, and in which thej" sii it werr tnlia:, 
being tlius not mere itidividuala — aci>iiia1c centres oT htvt ud 
caprice* but members of a body poJIuc or commonwc^ch. hlurf 
in common (^ Minn 5 6) a g^neml rule of Hfr whkh ilif7 aft 
of cnc mind (d/umidCm ix. 6] to observe in thdr vitioiA pcaioof*- 
But ati men and beoA^A belong Eo dtUefcnE worlds, a&d cinn» 
a^ee to live ingeiher under on? system of general ruin, m masto 
and slave, ^oit slave, belong' to different worlds between »h(i 
force is the only intcrmcdiiLry. The iriiive indeed beloDg» mIl 
liiH niAstrr ic one grtmi soii^l ^^inn^dir liroibrrhood ofufieaihiiii 
men ; and so far, just and friendly rektionei may subsist bvt«Mi 
a inflelflT and his slave; hut p<dUif<si JLJs:icc and it? corrctponJir; 
frirniUhip cannot- Tlie tynini, ugain, an sutli, auJ olipjih 
AA built, arc extcrtiLd to ^ny social a^bIcdi or body politk re|«lit«l 
by bw and cut&rom. They rule by mere force; Ibere a iioii^> 
between them and their subjeeta. Henee justice and frimdAiF 
are equally absent from the rcTaticn suUiutiitg between tbrn 
And their subjects. The action of their ruLe ia. if the iMCiphx 
be allowed, mi^chankul, not |.»hj'^ioTogic3] ; thc>' do Wulcncti^ 
the 'social organiam' from wiihoui; ihcy do Dot preside 
over \\% natural fuoctions. 

friendships corresponding to the various noXaMiuare prcscMf^ff 
ihia chapter as friendships between the ruler* artd tlie ruled 1^ 
JB to be observed however that in a timocracy ihc duuociutf 
between the rulers and the ruled Is very different froOD UlM ^ 
the TWO oihcT ^^&a\ mArniflA, In a timocraey ibe t^m^ pert^m nAt 
4nd arp ruled lei rotailon. There is thL-rcfore a reriain WtUgnHjr 
in the use of the term ^*>^a in this chapter. 'II ^ui 4 vttk rV 
f^a^iAfi'if is between one man — 4 ™™ "i"* ap'*™*V"'^** bctiPieii 
A few rnc-n, on ilir one h^jid, ^nd the ^eat body of tJi« peoplv 
on the OtlJCr hand; whereon ^ ^«Xia q aqrij fi^r Tva*v*"*V' ^ 

no reference external lo t it- popular body, but Is coin^t« «iihin 
iC uoitbg jis fquol mcmbera man lo man. Indeed, i 

BOOK VHl: CHAP. 11: {§ i. i. 


\ very rca] sense rhai ^nrc can rspcMk of ' frictidE^hip' {rKiBtinj^ 1141 ■ 
Vivrrn kinff, or aminrnffi. ao'l tuhjccis; and probnhiy Arlttoilc 
13 h^ lo UAC llit^ fTiprtmiuii [ucrf-iy m (lif^ iiiti'ic^L of llir j)ur;^tlrk 
which be j« Anxious lo make out bcl^^ccn the kin^c and Lhe falhcr, 
ihc ari^rocnt^ and the h^ebai^d. Th* (piX.n betwc-eTi king, or 
amiocrnlv nn^l ^uhjrrU i^ noL ' rn<-[icl»hi|]/ htil iniht^r willing 
obedience and lo^'nUy, on ih^ one oidi:, to ihofic who ;iclmimAtc.T 
law* which rrrpreKpm ihe Jftir of tht community; ind, on (he 
other Aide. mocIcidLiun auA public tpirtl stiuwu in their puurrftil 
posilicn b> the hcrcvljiorK admin iv^irntor:: of auch laws* That 
ihrrr ran iicftrcel)' tw *plX^(»^ m tb»e *en*p cf * Frienrlfihip,' beiween 
« king 4IkI hi> »ubjecl» is admitted by Anstollc viii. 7. 4 Jl^hnw 

ir Ompo^ri «Otpy(i?fo<i] Thtf KiiiK fc'uklcii itiid |)iuleclM his |>paplef : »» !>- 
Ihcy mu5t honour nnd obey him in rcrturn. 

{ 8. ^ iTciTpLH^} fr. ^Xifi. Il ii If} Ir lurticrd iKuL in K. N. v. IV, R a. ifi. 
it ia hid dortM thai llie rclulioii bclwccii a father and his diildreti 

iRnot one involving i^JEticc (riA*«aiw) in the proptT acimc of the 
usTin. Juslice in ihe prop^f wnse of tlit term exists where tiw 

The ^JUa which marka the latter rrfaiions is orop^, nnd Jo>nity, 
rathpf than fricrflshfp, 

Nol Tolt vpoyd»^Lc !U TQUTQ npook/jitTai] ' and we aUrfbuLr thcfc ft. IT. 

Wiietiu to our antrslon also ' ; ii>Xii ^ul r^ri irpo^iii'fliB ruvT* nVo- 

Xatrtd. «f «ji iiri fJWdwr o^Ao ^<(^ /ictraii' t«i' irfjrrfiuf (Abph)^ RaniaaiLff 

thinks that the words MlTuIf n-po^aiT AJ ra^n wovd^mu intemjpi 
thr HcnRP and he a.ccordtrgJy brackets them. Frit«srhe, S^ii^tmtlit, 
and Dy*^icf lewd py*iai>9t^tai with K^, L"*. O^. Riitus^ucr rtrads 
Eiir«r<)jcrii4 (M''^ Bcknji remnrki)!); thai frpo^^ is a rare word in 

4vtf«i '< dpx^*ivi' H.rX] FnUsche, Michclct and Tjuaeniihl read & in. 
7*^ after h \^'ith L^ M^", r, Cambr/, CCC, NC, Aid. Btii, as 
Rauisducr points out. iht.- cbusc [jcginning wilh ^mi adds (n(H 
ft rc^on for anything] bui A second point — viz- r^ ^Ct/ti upxtti^ 

' TbU pui of Camhr. (pom ti|7 a. ii to iiCi h. 19) U «appUed hf a 


300K Vrif: CHAP, llj §} 3-5, 

im A. IB. fTKfi — Tn *)ilch ibn faiber TcscmWts ibe king, ihr oibcr 

resemblance being r^ ■vf^mnDi' rlniit /r oTrMir tw rvBi HOI rpn^^ vaL. 

irwfafaf. The s«nse of the section may be slated as foUow»— Tbv 
posiTif^ni; of ibc father and nf the ramily at;fesinr arr of ihc Kun« 
kind. The falhcr 6mtfiu bis children by giving tbcm czt^ci^cc. 
flustenftnce^ and ctlucalion ; bo nlso a^ccslo^f benefit tbcir dC'^ A 
ftot'ikdant?. The Htrhr^r h;;Ls a natural nghl Lo rfr> his diildi«n ; w^-^ 
also ibc bercdiiary kinff, rcprocncirt^ an anctnor* has a njuunKj 
rtgbl to rule hie people ^'ho represent th« di>sc<-ndnnt« of tha^^ 
ancestor. A4:i:or(lLiif;ly. iiUhcjugb I ngrre wilIi RatiiKiuri ih4t y^;=^ 
ou^bi not to be rcftd before d#x"'^>'< 1 c&nnol agree with hiic ih^^t: 

the clause ml roie jr^wyiwhs M tbu™ uAat^^fraj (Or »^offW>4i«) t^ 

fiU|)ernnous. 1 reg^tTd it im occupying a place in ihc drst pail of 
the ^eetion similar Co chat occupied by rhi wp&j^mk i^iyirmr in the 

due of such superiority is that of parciua and godk RsBuaoct 

comparer iv. 3. r^ fV vittpo)^^ ynp^ rA ^ oyndtjj vfTfp/ffW t-DP tyrip* 
npDP; viii. rt' J( Tui fJf v7T<f)i,]i<MT( t^i*n [vriir*'!' Jit nV'kf] . , , i^i #iP 
y^ii uyirt^e iTfii r^r flt<^ffj«r q iifaif ytpatZ c/, ftlfiO vili. 14. 4 *A JwiW^ 
yd^ 7 ^iXiia t?r(£p;ril, m'r r6 tin* iffuni' r>rfti yiijt 'ttw /c itmi, ndrr^ 
Jp juif rr^^E mis diutr Ti^iaif rnii lutt yi^Fin' ot3i!» -/u^ ir^r (Iftur ■vr'ii 

■. iL of TuArJ] Williani-s biiiig» oui the ruraning cjf thu cxpreflnon 
correctly — ' Neuhcr are the claims of ju&ticc in Iheee . . . relauoua 
equally balanced on either sid*, but rarher, at U also the friendsh^, 
pi Oj'oriioDc;! to the bencftts received/ Tlie Paiaph. haa — tMH 

vaTalpA £ticaL»»' viif>>vj(«i tdlI t^j vJjJr' r^ yiip iwr' Jftor JirvAtffvm Ail 
^^ £.£. fl. 9. 1941 b. 37 ^ y^P 1^^"*^ AiiiMar *^ i^ttfij^am at* 

ft. 9S. $ 4, J^ ft^Ti^ ^cXta kht.XhJ a compsjison more ingenio 


a, as. is. JTOipmin] 4 iraiptKif ^nkiu tiitwcn moM oearlj lo ' 

modem time* uw uniier«rand by fricadAhip. It ftubai«t£ between 
lio0C who. tiritbout being necessarily Xinttnen. are of one age, hiv« 


SOOK vat: CHAP. 11; 55 J, 6. 315 

been hroughi up in dofle L^ompidonihlp* ftnd hciv« common tOBtee llSl «. 98, 

and puiMiila. 


4oM« Brf] Bvkker reads *^, I prefer S/, which Runsaucr, Suse- ■- 97. 
milil, and Bywairr reaJ, foUowing K*", M''. 

I^oi ydp ol itoXlthl 0ct!XtJi^aL kqI ^uLErtC it^i] //. in AB-UI' 
timocrjLC)' ' ihc cttiicna wish to be equal and fair' iPtttrs), or 
perhaps better — ' in a :imocricy it is chiracicnslJC of (SniiXoyrm) 
ibe citiscns to be equal and fair/ 

Vw n^fMi B^ iiT-X,| Cf. PoL jii. a. (ijy b, 13 Zf'iii Tai- flwXrr^i' Toi- i. W- 

{ B, fi^rfiiv ■Dtrjk'j j>, ihcy do net porlicipacc in a common t., 29. 
vJ^uf, or belong io Ibe ume social organism, Tn an np^ Ko^ir<i4 
tYCTy member, wlictbcr ruler or julcO, acls lUiihm ibc social 
organtsm in a manner conducive to (h« j^ood ol lh< whole. This 

i* 10 act yni/Zj—see P<iJ. Ili, 7. T^?^? b. 16 Jut. 2J *tnX(fUfnw nyn^v 
ri di«uo*', ToiJro #" edrl tA coii-^ wvyi^tpoc. BuL ihc lyraiit's aclJi are 
noi i\t^9 /umiiifrnt of iho social orgambin, Thi?y arc .-itMuF/t from 
withour upon ihaE organitm. Again, the social organismn like ihe 
phyt\i.i.\\ orgnmbm. icquin^s for iL« aubai^tcncc Tnnxty tUn^ which 
arc not ikiti of itself: fee /"-f^. 11, 7. 1,^18 a. si ml ^ ifffi*fj f^l* 

flXXidj' Tuir *oTfl ^viTir trtintfro'rM* dv tnvra ton n6pm r^c oA*^* irinrrii'niot, 

■aXftfiv a*4yiiriiinv ^iip;f«iv, a^S' nXXi^r ii"ivaitiiit o^^'^wit . - . lenitrtitt fir 
iti fn'\t ffoAjHTif, tyv^ir f\' itrriv ^ *r^n p*pOf t*)? iniX'n^t' flnXXn A 

Jwicf flJ ^M^t Ti^i e^|Jl;^D^^■^^I opiffrrjr. Slaves, ^^ho 'Aft '>»+vv" ^^m* 
T^c AMtyrn^fip irr^trtvf fttim, aro noi paris of the Social crgnrtium, 
be(wi;cn clic 'paiLs' or memhtfs of which iilone jusC and frtciidl}' 
rcUliont can AUbainl- 

<4«X«iTat ^f Y&p ffdna toutb And nil' )ipv^it^\ FtLtZKChe and a. 35. 
Grant cumpare A\ £\ H. 10- 1^43 &, 13 iftAov^ tp^aov trvvhX^ow 

wp*ttv tal Tix*1t "^A *>^*a jewcv riMSff (e£ii- yap Spywitv mti ■^''JCv) f*^^ 

Hi*, ^c iiiiaivir u/jit ri f^ryor" trtlvnv yap tttriv iWi. ' The iiisLrumcnt,' 
MkjTA Gnnc, ' receives jual so much care from it^ maskr, as will 


BOOM VIII: CUAP. 11: S§ 6» j. 

iitn ft. n, kcrp ii in prOTicr condiiifjn Tor ibo ticfciw 6f itB fUA^tlons. IV 
slive^ who i& [T^aiecl not as a ppr*an l)ut »* ;i ihm^, rrcclviet jbe 
lame kinj of auirnlion. FncnJaliip ajiJ justice iniplj' tbc ic^osnl- 
Lion or pcrsonalit/ ; thcf imply Ucoling men noi u iii5tnitTtml 
bu! as enJs m ihemselvM.' 

Tlic bcE^efiL received b/ »Uvc* U ihua, u lUiamjct rcniaika, 

b 4. l^^fKXfiVw t^^¥iyt\ See 7W i. a. 1^53 b. 33, 

b. 8. } 7, i{ %' or6pw«4«[ Aristotle, writing in a reflective age, MlenifNtiL 
to expUiii aiiJ i-ituse iIjc liUtcrk-al iiisiiiu^icjii of sbvtry by luesmc 
of the nbslraci noLiGn— ^^^« duvW : but ihc pohtkal Aod ciLicoB 
diiliciilil«B encounkred in the aiiempi were «o greaE iliai b« vas 
obliged ID admit the dlscinction j b^uhts- — ^ Hv^it'^n^t. a rlii^iiiciKin 
wlikli the Roman jujjal^ vilh llicir ihc-jr^' ot tlw " natural equiljif 
of ftU tnen," inerward« brought mio prominence: see Ulpnn. 
quuLcd by i^cll f'l^ life. — Quod ^tlincrC ad juft civile scrvi pro nullb 
habcniufi non tamen jure nnltinili : quia, quod ad jus naturu 
p«Hint;t, omnes hon^Jnes &unE aequalee: tf Jusiini.vt /lu/ i. Tii, r 
$ a juie naiiir&li ab ini^o omnuK hgrnii^eK libc-ii iiaMclKintur, But 
Ihia distinction between ttic siaivt oiid (JitJ ami i£ prcftCnicd bf 
Aristotle rtnd ihc juri&lic in too iib«tract a manner to furnish 
inaierL;]! for Anaw^rtng tlic quL'fatioii»— '/rr whtii imst lltvn U be 
a man ^ U'hai is meant by hia i^afntciiy (rip divu^m* b- 7) ft* 
participating in >^}Uit and rvw?^? Can there \k a capacity *i 
ihist kind wliLch 1% iiot aitualistd in »omc definite way?' Ariaioik* 
nminly concerned to l^nd in tbc in^ititution offclavcFv, oa it ctisitd, 
an eci:iinr>mic basis for bii brillSanl Hf-'llenic lif^e, did not UouUe 
hiniRitf mucb with ihc hi«t[jry of the infilitiilion. It futtetl hit 
purpose to reprefe<:ni the* idu^y u u ikt^. Jl, Icllowing his uml 
method in KOcinl enquiries, be h»d exatninrd ibc history of Hiavvry, 
be would Tiive found ihiL the ^Ijivc i« c&KniEally a fitrsett — i.f. 
a mcmtwr oT Lhe pariuuliir social organism to which ihc vnosUf 
hrlongw, noi meidy a ' litiman bHn^*- — Jb^jt4*rot, ns he vagvtfly 
admits, in much the ftarae way as nowadd)-^ wie admit thai itf 
lower animaifi arc^ ' fellow-creatures/ ArisioUe had l:ille apprcoa- 
liuu iif ilir; ' digrtiLy of laLiour ' : be did nut see dearly ihal lodcnay 
is on essential yAHt/^n of the social or^niem — MmctUn^ ttAth 
and itot tncrely mta^Mv — and that the ftovXaf, tbe ct^pn of tkc 
function, ia as much a rnfmber of the orgauMn a* \m nwilvr, vlv^ 

BOOK Vai: CHAP. U; {7. 


t* prrAmywtt^x for insiAncc, is lli« ont&n of another social function, u^l ^ ^ 
The inaih is Ih^E ihi> Gr«ck ttavXar atiuatly ' partlcipaied in ' >>fVu>r 
In a Ken*r not mlii*d by ATittnilp ai all, wlirn lie s;iiJ llMt J 
■Xpd/twnvi lie 'fan participate/ TUc skvt'? ttosiiion, thou);h of 
coun« mon* open to Ihc cncfoachnicnin of violence Than (h« 
poHlioitf ofxhc oilier mrmltfr* of wicirty, wai srcurrd as n mlcr- 
■bic one by j|:uaranLG» oi' easicnti^LUy the sixnc kind as thortrr ivhich 
secured the fret man .ign^niiC tbc s^rdtirnry nciton of hiu Icf^Jtin^Eiie 
nilem. Tbcy c<mld not ni^e wiihoui the gocul-will of ilicir free 
•ubjccu, nor on other line* than Chonc defined by ihc history 
and tndiiion4 orihe eommunily over uliich Ihvy ruleff. Similarly, 
wc lEuy feel hurr dt^K ' A^vn^ ' vriiuld noi hikvr long condmird lo 
tutAbl* m llic free jind mobile Greek aUEes lU the norm^kl con- 
dition of a large part of tlip working cUhi, if forrp had been ihe 
only rc«.»on fur it» coulinuAncc. The gDod-ajll of the ^kvea wa» 
PCCctvary, They Acqtueaced in n wcll-dcfincd historical i^CLtuf 
vhleti wii» fitr ffom Vwing intoler.ibli^, To ihnt extent, j^wr^ /Ajw/ 
ifacy actually [iifikipAled in ^uv ."Lnd avrff^Htt-^victc, in ihort, not 
Anr^ff, bui /ertoris to be reckoned with— 'partH* of that socinl 
oiganUm vhJch is held logelher by ihr Afi^mto of itii mnnhi^ni. 
ArbiullcS ifjctJiy of iitoiitaria prevented htui fioxa hceing this, anJ 
oUowrd him merely 10 mnkc the vafi;uc, and in ihc context, almost 

offw If^fi^iTDi. He IcU utiiin^tAered tltc quebltuns wiiieh touch thtf 
root of the whok matter—* In what »cn*e ihcn bthe slave a man? 
What b meanE by hij^ cafiati/y for pirlicipHling in ni^ni and tr^^ 
^n^f Can there be a eapactiy of this kind wlach ia not adHaitsed 
Id cotne definttr way ? ' 

The anawei^ to chc^e questions, as the MliatoricAl Method' 
^nablet us to give them, ^te indicated by MLtine {Anttfnl I-am^ 
eh. V. pp. |6a sqq.) in a manner so conducive fo 'ii juist t*tJmjr<; of 
the value of Aii^^ioilc'a view regftrdinj: the pcrsonatiiy (or itn- 
peraonality) of the !ihv«, llut I venLurt^ to tmnncrib? the p:iv-ia^e, — ' 
'Thr leg;*! lulc* hy uhirh tysirms of tn;t[ure jiiHupiiilfncr regidaic 
Oic connexion of jnojAr/- and jjW present no very distinct traces 
of the orjginal condition common to ancient uociciici. But there 
ftre reos&ooft fo* tin* execpiinn. There wemn to be nomeihing in 
the ioMiiuiion of slavery vbidi lia^ at ull limea eitlicr falioikcd or 
fwrplexed mankind, however liitb habituated to rejection, and 


BOOK VIIJ: ClfAP. 11 : $ 7. 

1161 b< 9^ Ijo^'cver sligltly a,dvancjed in itic cultivation of its moral instintU. 
The compunction vhich Ancient communiLies nlmobt unconsciowtlv 
exfjerii^t>oe<l appears lo h-tve uli^^nys re^ulkd in l)ie adoption ol 
»nic im'^^maiy t'"'>^J|!lc upon vfijjch a clcfcncc^ or *\ leas; J 
rationale* of eJaxery could be plaueiWy founded Very ewiy in 
ihdT history the Greeks eicplilricd ihe tnslffuiion i« gracmiiei! em 
tlic i^ucUrcLual Ltiferiurity of certain lucea and theic cuiociiucDt 
DQiunl apliludE? for th« servtJcr condilton. I'he Rotnang, in ■ 
spirit equally charac(erUlJc> dLTJved \i frcnn a aupficited agroeaim 
between the victor and )hc v^nqui^hed, in which the first ttlpnUcttJ 
for Ih'; perpirluoJ services of his Ibrr ; ard the other f^in^d in 
ccnsidermion the life which he had legiiimawly forfeited. Sncb 
theories were not only unsound buL plainly unequal to the cW 
for ivhich ihey affected to accounu Still they excrcif^ed %. |io*erfd 
influence in many way^n Tli^y «ialiitt]e<] ihe conru^iefice cf ibc 
master- They j>crpetiialcd and probAMj- inc.rej*e<i ti*c debuc 
ment ofllie alive. And they naluraJly tended to put out of tjgfcf 
the relation in which servitude h»d origitially Riond \<i ibr rm d 
tlie dcmctilic system. This relation, tliough not cinuly cxboLiied, 
JG casually indkatcd in many pircs of primitive lav, and morv 
panicnlarly in the typical system — that of ancient Rome. . . , 
It is cleari from lite tcAtimony butli of ancient Uw uid of tntny 
primeval histories, ihnt the sUve ini;c^t under ccfiain conditicca 
be made [he heir, or universal succef^or, <s\ the mau«r, and ttta 
fligmflcint faculty . . . implti^^ thttl the go^rrnmcnl and fefrtt* 
Kntation of the family might, in a particular stoto of circumatuioca, 
devolve on the boi^dmstn, - , , What then ie nteAnt by faying ilul 
the bUvc wab originally included in the fatnilyf , . .When »c 
tpeak of the ilnvc as anciently included iti the family, wc intend 10 
assert nothirtg as 10 the niotivet of ihos^ who hrcughi him into ti, 
or kept him there; we merely imply that Ihc be whicli bound hnm 
to hib matter v^is re^rded ne one of ilic »axnc (^ibemi <hafKiet 
wiih dial which uniieil «-cr>' other membrr of the gnwp to the 
chieftain, This consequence ia in fact curicd in ihc geooil 
asKertion already made ihai Ihe primitive ideas d minfchid ««K 
iinpt|ual 10 comprehending any basi^ of ihc crmneiitin int^xtcl 
JndJ'viduaJH, apart from d^c rcUtionB of family. The Fainily coft- 
fisited pntnanty of those uho belonged to it by connn^jnity, and 
next of those who had br-c-ii engrafted on it by adoption ; bvi ihciv 
was ^till a third cla»s of per!ton» who u^rc only jooncd to it by 

MOOK Vni: CJiA/'. 11: §^ 7, 8, 


common subjection \x> Its lieaJ, anJ iliew wprr ihc slaves. Ttiell6ib.a, 
bom and odoplcd subjects of ihc chief were raised above ihc slave 
by ihc c^riaiiiiy iliat in the ordin-ary coufw of cvcnu ihcy would 
be rclkvci! from lnnnla^F ximX ciiiitlcd uj cxrrt'i*e pcmc^n or thrir 
own ; but thai ihc mfcrioriiy of (tn: sbvc wa% noi such as to pbcc 
him outside the pil* of the family, ci iuch is lo degrade tiim lo 
iJw fooimg of inaniufcaic property, is cicarlj' proved, I ihink, hy ihc 
many tractji which remain of hi» ancteul capacity for inheriiance in 
llic lati resort- . . , The Romntt Jaw was arresitd in its growing 
Iciidciiiy to look upou liini moie attd inorr^ ',ih ;iji aiiide iif 
property b)^ :bc theory of the Law of Nntiirc ; and hence it is thai, 
wherever fieri'iiude is sanctioned by inacitutions which have been 
deeply affeLteJ Ijy Roman jurispnidencc, the servile condition it 
neTcr iniolc-iahiy vrclcliod.' 

^iX£a] So Raraitaucr. SuGcmihl, and iJy'walcr. 
^■dv with the codd. 

^cUer reads b. a. 

{ S. MtXiioh] K^ And A^. ; the other auihoridos, followed by "b. 10^ 

BckliPf^ read itU'ttnof. Avpasiui gives the rnraning corrceily — (V 



«* #rAtf-, At wAiV* /*<7 »«/ aa tJtmM^n ^i^ivJ, thai /rifttdfJt^fi. i/t viholeotr 
Jirrmt tihitti ; a/lAtn*j^ fV/Aaf^- /^<? jti^nJiMf of AimmcH ami semradet m^y 
^ JtitiH/^mu&td /Tarn sM i>th.r fofMi : at tiny *air iHih/n'titihhips at tMate ^ 
tiriant). irt^timfH anJ /t/ltiP-mya^frt itrm So AutAr Putrf sf tkt rhuTattfr ^ 
mSMciiiidmt—l. r tkry ittni f& tm'<f!rif a sott o/ agrttmtnt mttH'i mt^ to 
4jV«rjl«V, ^iic /ritndiki^ hsiitntf kmimm and tom*it4ii itthiuti witKeni any 
MfA a^rtftmi'H/, To the tlaa ^f fritmSihipi wAi\/i ifam to imv/vn all <iXrif 
wnewii rk9y it oiiigHaf \*tiif tftt gtnit fritni/jAtp ^lutrtt ru/e meiitifAt4rt itlitftu 

7^/nindtkifo/iimtmt» hai mtuty /pr-MS, hvf fan iiiwtyi U tnutd lit^h U 
fAai im**AfJ m tki r^UtrSH t^tvufia ptrtnf.- ettj ihiUi^eH, Partntt amj 

BOOK vm^ 

n^tvrt tiAiik uniiit itak tinii^iprmg-~a iat un pmmist tm wkifA daia 

tht fiirjAf/lAf iAiliirrt. wVrvdr ekHdrfa its R»i **r«*r etmtiMH^umm wC ^rffc 

t^f^ffit ift^-t/tJJ rArjt arrJNM tk* /ten tf inffVigrm't. 7%ii £^Jaimr~ . U 

a.'ii ^ Mint ifi tatUrif'urtrtf liUffirljf le tkt /Hrmdtkifi ^ ^t^kt^t^ <vAv* i^ 

tfi'X^ft -- it it x^ialtr cr /eit pi tht {cmmom auittar ig itawr tr rtmttt. 

rht /rifrttfiAij> of iAildren /sr fn^rtrtu ^ HM* tAat ^mtm/cr tkt gfit^m^me^ 

ifil^Br *s thfir rMrldrtm Ihi graliaf t/ aSl jiftarf tMitt^t tAfiitmtt t — ' -^ 

t^fft^'vftr Tkh frienJiht^ ir ah* mvrt turfrnJ, it tA* f^iM^fj jfVd tf~~ ^i^ 
itrm. and mon pfisu^jiii than nWi i/rm^vv/. ^h i^/^rtt ikt iMVmm ^^ 
ra ^ti/ti.-A ii Mint/r it men iniimatt. TAr /riimdrkip ttfwmm d rt fAft J0 /^ 
ikara/imiff^i if that 6*f«fftt ^ttintifei—arKt i/ lAt M^Atvi an ^i»/, i> j r^Mu 
'oJtthif pfth4 httt attfd mitf htting hmj. TJit /fi*nAMp i*/nM<M Amt*^^ 
iim/ wi/t it H^urai, ftr mitft u n^/itrA'/f Jtr/i d trmftifiai ^'«f , •ut/^m^ 
afier-Bit'ifj it paiiticpi ^afJCt *f'*ff rAt /amrJj ii tAfvnrJt^miify ffitr t* sk 
riare. i>eitis^ manritxtfy maa^ty f^ it. anj f^vrrraritn it rfWiWf fcmamwet 
4// fithtr ammah. Jfitmitm Arirtgt, Ikr^trarr, itifier fiaim ftArr oittmittt im «if 
jl4t>-|Wf mer*// fir lAf fOifrf ^/flAnM/iM^ Smiaht/ff t^/i ip4hi4 4#W US 
^<iih l^t f/vfer i^tfwiUV c/ /i/f. //ttJ^tiJ *i$J tri/t i^ov tAttr vf4'iik 
Jkniiioru ■!>«/ thiir jtptratt vitftitt, attd B*tA tuntriittit Af JttuioH ffiaAim 
U lAi t^mmm fi>i>d- l^Atti i^i frimttshif Mbvi tAtm ti ittA MfM tai 
fi/atj'mf, a$ia, 1/ tUfjr ffrf T'l'tnoii firrtiur, Adi, si mtmifitltJ i^ *^fK tU 
^vttJruJt ffitifiar /^ l&t itker fir iH abfeit. SmS tMi^rn Vt d g^tui Amrf^ 
-fiien, ttt'i*/^ Jowiei fling ianimtn. CAi'dltu ifupta ^/^ mtft fMiiJtiy MftW^tJ 
lAan tJiffte n'Uh thUdrtit 7'e aii haw 11 AniAam'd iAnfJ rtgmimti kit HfiwA^ 
Jtii 'iriifp. litut fitfr.iliy Atrui put fiitmd tAtm/d AtAiot tt OHMAtTt it f« oj^i^v 
jtitrtVf r^fuiNitkt Auiivintt it /rtmd ta ***«»» ia tht timmiUmea. 

IMIIkU. {LJ 'AlHHcndiaMptUwc have already »4](i, iniplioitafiOCMtbii: 
but ^'c may «eparaie rrcm i\w rf^i lUt fri^jdahip of kiiuaieft m4 
dial of *.cHTtr*Jrti, The fricntt^hips of frilow cjra«n3t, of fcttcnr 
uilie^mcn, of fellow jailors* &c,, wem. a« opposed 10 tbcM, to 
hive iwoTV Eo do wiEh Ds«c>c i^iEJoii ; Tor tht-y npptor lo be fbundrd 
nn loinc Hiri of ^ umpacl. The fi icndaliip of Ixut and picM michi 
also be included m (his cIa^' {PctcrEt). At! friendship it J> w n wiip, 
or MtiwiN'i? in tin? jjenene *pns^. Thfcf* iro thrre itprclrn sncW 
tJie (cnus — (1) avyytvitiij, (3) ^mp«^, (j) i»adiu/; in the nartowcf, 
specific EScnic, where ea more or le^ expre^ J^«yid cxitta. Tim 
in £".£*. K. 10. I34> a- 1 we have Xfyru^m £j tpiX'ua. ffvy>rwif, #ra^^ii%. 

nooK vrrr: chap. 12 : 5^ 1-3, 


fffut TOMvrdi. fif ravrcg ^ rd^Mri' ^f rit ml r^f fc»'jv^. 17 3f nr/yfrliCi} 
rati ^iF wi iftCirit avviH/ftrt, Tovff Sf r6 ruj^fir ^tficdT<(E i^kii. at it4fA tA 

Tar mrv^ww^ XuftQutmi 9i 'Ufcrumc^f rdt jtod* 6fio\vyiat rita* Corocv 
|U>U! M o^*piintt fr Jif na jlt-X.] ^ yAp *Tvyy<*'m7 inl »; iraipviii iwrA 
^IfVit fuWifr fJiTi fdi ftJi KarA (rv^i^iirjv, wittf'jj til trtintHMni. 

tJ|k fcm^i^] Sec note on viii. j. 4, i. jo. b, la, 

§ 8.] Rarni4urr noln Chat nre hnvt in thix { three iFpatntc 
?C6MnA Riven for ibc superior love of parents — ^vis. (1) ^Xav ft* 

yotitav ^itktiTjw hoAJtiflti Tii% TOi* rtKVw. Vtiluiiu* lias a noic to the 
Mice cCect- 

ol ^iir/pci] Zcll, oTler Murctus, qooten in illuHtraticn of thuib>B7' 

remit rk — 
Euf i[). Frag, mc. — 

fi^Tiip 4^ik£nHnt fiSyi^df Jtrri ret ytarp£t' 

McToaiukr — 

nCriy yAp «£0fi( oDf tt^^ iror* ■y^Wrfr, 

Horn, Oi. t, 115— 

^^^K Duf dA ' Ob yrip B(A nc ''W yiivtiv oOr^r vrM'ynu- 

(S. In|>0i a^»l ry KXvp^aO ^a*Ccond B?lf scparatelj' existing?/ b<t8. 
Tf <r;|op4(7i5n( i4j;tlifrcfi Wr^i' pdrado^ic^lly— ihough indeed UiC 

putLdon is already caniamed in ih? application of lrtp*n. to avrvf. 
1 canwx AffTPJ^ with The Entrrpreiaifnns which innka Tkjt ir«;^n>pJ'rA» 
give the reason for f"p». Thus Lainbiiiu* liansltlcs — ' nam ijui 
tx cii4 noli eimc, eo ipso qitod sepirnii sui^t^ innqu^ni Ltltcri ipei 
aunt ' ; and Vicionua — ' qui cnim sum ex ipsts, veluii alien ipsl, 
VOL, n. V 



BOOK Vrri: CHAP. 12 : ^ 3-7. 

1101 b. aa. <iuia scpanll suri/ The objccl cf ihc dniiM is &ot Eo show b)f 
children, b^ng abTfl<H are al the same lime M>»x,bai totatfite 
p3Tac1oi that, being mpoi «m jif;(*Hyiiffi4tKM, thrj' are jet oJwl 
r<:lcrs loo missesn I lliinV. ihc exact force of Ibc clause with—' far 
nhil proceeds frnm ihetn i« as it were a second self wbfii \\% 

Rjtmsauer ^r/ /<v, icmarks that, while Juviice is irp&t ^i^v^ ''■"^ 

b. BL Trp4s *int«i] ' sunt bacc, unde frcncnli sun, ]>&Ktit«3 ; i-i quo* 
nftulro genere propter EUperiiis *V rM* oiTOi- ((|U0 item neuM 
parfnies indU^inEui) (lasliuin esl' (FriUechcV 

H. », lajg a. 33. 

UOa A. I. H rvJiur] ' Verba 'V mrm^ intelligc : fx AfJ tctuu^ pr^Sit kt' 
N'am uti^ seqiiens yip linguel' (Zell)- Fet«r8 seems 10 agW 
with ZHl ill tnaking ^oiitt>tv neuter. He lias — ' Cciu«n» 4nd cthtf 
kinsfolk become aitached to each oihcr for the utmc rcai6ti-l 
meftn because they come of the ^me fitock.' But it U beLl/r, I 
think, to refer murB^w To ^^JrX^ir; unJfr*iood fiom ilw prenott 
aA<Xilii..^. This 13 the view of Asp., the Fanph^ GranL io^ 
Wil^Lotns, ati<t RamR;itier. 

%,h. {5- «pck« 4iou«] ZeU and Friiaschc <juotr J?^ E, R. 10. 1141 S 

^1^1 ap^V*ov- Ramsau^r bfAcketft the worda ml iW^ivvou fl|)it 
tf'(^ 29 probably spurious, on account of their inccnusieftcf ^ 
AhsEctleV doGtriti« (viil. 7. 4) that fr^ndohip cannoL SubC4lL bftvefO 
goils nnd men. 

^ 10, Hal fLaXW] ' ThefrientT^litpofbroclipr^ ^iasa]hhecLarecteriil3c< 
of ihc friendship of comrades, and has thrro in x ffrcslcr Afiw 
(provided they are good and generally rewmblc one mollis) 
Peieis, So Stahr ' urid la noch hOherem Grade," 

a. 19. 4iTEEpxov9t «T/pYovTcs d^Xi^Xeuf] * Have an origiiuJ love fbr Q^ 

■*U, f 7- Mlktrfiv h.tA.] m J* ^XXv (Tv/yinnl ^tX2ai) ^vDlp>«v 7|<^ 

BOOK VIU: CHAP. 12: }} ?, 8. 


vp^npoi' Kol dvayvoiirfpw oCiici T^Xiuf] ^Cf Grant's flOte llSSi, Ifi. 

^ toe. *\u point of time the raniil^ i» prior to the autc, but in 
point of idea (^oy«) and cssentifllfy {^i^-O the state ia prior, (y, 

nil TiiniTTtir $^^jr Jortr. rA yAp DXaK ir^n^pgr avuytavov tTitik r?v iitpcVE' 
ap44p9i'^iiVLr ^i^ roir oXqv o^f fOrw noil'i ovoi ;^'<^, *^ ^4 ^i/'wu^mt. 

Aiifltotle strgiie& thai wtihoui th& idea of thfr "state," the lerms 
"man" and "family" would lose lUeir meaning. Thus ihc iJra of 
family presuppoaes that of the alate^ which will accofdingly b* 
prior. In the same way the family is raor* necessary a* a mcanii, 
tbc state AS an end,* A thing i« itmytaior which !& anurans: cf. /W. 
©' *' '33^ a, 13 rat >■*»■ (»i^^ffjie /mTBtt- ^T^t ^^P*-K ^^t *^ npi< r^K 
oiTX°tf^''*^ "f oipfiymim tfn! ;i(rij>Jv aK\*t¥. The avayjiatop !& ihl^B oppOSed 

to llie *aiJ*, whitli is cliotceworthy on its own antounl : ^/. PoL ©. 
9. tj^d L 3' ^* fatmirvr Jm vai^ia Ttc $r c^j^ Lt xfj^rifajf iratSru- 
rfd* TA^f uJt iC, ft^'lf iit iiturytiiiau ayy ^i t\iv&tp4fw Mtii im^tfif. ^oi-f^iit ivriy, 

llcncc arnjumnv 15 [Icscriptivc of uKn. as di=tinguislied from c?8flr, 01 

X^f, which ]& #aXi^. St'<' PhyS- \\. 9- 2DO a. 12 Hivy«7 rt^a fftflr^povr 

np X^yy. J h« ttatoment, Ihen, «i>«y>:di^r^i' ci(«ut WAnri mciins 
ihat rhc family belongs to the mailer of which [he state it, the 

M lODoCror] j^. ^* Saor fri T«n*<irDi?vat (Paraph.), Zcll and «.flO. 
FriixKhc compare Oectft. u $. ^3^,l b. 13- 


Peiera fan hardly b« «. tB. 

ni^iTTj-r^f] ■ cnndisciptilus' (Vklorius). 
dii with 'TraveUing tora^anion/ 



''# Mcv »*i^if fArtZ/ii'i' ttr-t /#nw i/ff-rVj f//iVH^iAifi. ant/ fkat rotA bh^ 
m^tiit iittwrm thote tuAo an t^uah or tAan who are untijual-^hat tkesf tii/iB 
«rv tf%*i*f or utififuatiy jyMi. uftfu(. P' fft'M^Ht may f*f /> iftut! . Tfii'it tktn 


BOOK VTUt chap, 13; j I, 

a£aivif I'diA e/itf» snd fmt {tkHlt toilh amA tf(h§t. T%ts< iMwr //it^ihtft 
daitd an vtrttu kiti/i n^ rjman ta firt^ fauil vi/A *wA efkfr tr faitfTti.ii 
thtir t^fi is r9 ifm/l *afA etkfr. and f>^'>t trj/i ra twttff f4r tikfr m tin . 
Kcr it JkuItflmittKff nnmoft in lAf/ntHJxhtp f^ ffjesm. TA* /rv^ji *jtt 
fliiisiiri it etvh fititr'i so^itty: i/woulii ^ riJieuh^tt I* JiitJ fiaiil tri-^ tmi'i 
ffitf^d Iviauif hit tnu/yihci not £iPt trttt filptiwrt, tvitn tn* ittlSvt^l' 
dv^P hint. Sui in lAt ffie^s^ifi ff-f frofir /nuU-J^f*it'n^ ii Ptff ovw- 
i*4opU art not /itit'ly tntuJiAJvnth ^'A/if /-' dmtt fur fkfm- 

jAt jHifiJ^f $1 nthtmrruvifttn t' emf^t^if in ^vriStfm torn, a fi i /ndtA^ff 
prs/ir rfittJ tilAar ah ckarAffter' tr ttt hv- TAtii tfAa^ relitt «■ •«» li* *"■ 
ttitdid tH f fulfil ttrmt—^ *€rta*m JFmtn it rtndfriti/fra n Am l^^v"? 
»la£rd ; tAfrtfum b/in^ wtatfe tilAfml an^r flra/frra ti^u - in tAt hf&fiM^ 
alrAflugh a (feht km /f^ toHfrar/f'i afirtu! vkUh t»m it iH 4HM-ptl^ 
tUmtnt if fn/Kiithip ramn im itn/h fii/ /v-'wiiitim ft dtft^ f^yfymi : oirfl'Mf 
ii wkjf in nmf ttAHi actitnt/or r^tm'iry iffmfh jfeiit^rt mfi oH^t&d. 

/ti tftfit fifu ■/ f'ietJ^ftiff f/t fwjit ii'^K^ r'iiVj 9n fAttmtftf iwf/rivw 
miHiiffrtft: A vsokti a prtjfni ff nMtihiif is S ^ t^ ^ /ntmt^ hit aftJl 
(/mm Alt ivffi-™/ hum'lAi^ a/ /fi rk^ititi'tfr) to iwriw in rrguni mi mad^ " 
ftt^n. for ir-hat h rMtSy ml a gtfthtits t^m; mJ if Kt dttt tuff*mrMif 
tfn frifftiii/i&ntH thf itmy h' fjrJttfrJwXln Af fM^rrJ iit^ if. At m nr^tlffi^ 
fttiU vi'lA Ail 'friinJ' ; for a//, er mait, men Actt d ^t/oer^ ttofi If Ji itl 
Aarutiimi (king, htt, wAen it tama 19 lAt pariiiular tau, cAt*H iht fn^l^ 

A(Ci*tiitg'ji, ifcnt (an. ^nr muif x'niitnfa'Hy matt a r t t i/m jy im j i af » 
that tcAiiA jvtf har meitvfi' tne fHit&itiit ih-Migk ffft fiirf mnarfr ■ mitt&Atit 
jSnl la/'VHf the jfiTtit htinffi^tii'^ 9Ht 4f fmn fiit^dU^ip, sta^ m^Maf^tru 
/Hj/dr if ihetf hiuihrtn an nfirrit iarjtiit . fffr ne mm mat tr$mi ^ mam a§ 
a AtiiKfrrarni frtrrtif itXitiitl hit vtJl. Jiur/fcwrrrtl ii a fl^i m iSt ft m miMi T 
at fAi t^ptning ^Aa it ii v>At itmft^ lAt tirtvtt amJ am frfiatta^^mm af 
rtturHy mtd ^tiide ^fhttAfrcne v'tU vcrft ii in iht nrrvum^fatUta arattf, 

TAe ifHttfifft titiiu ^'kiihar fhf Artmunt tf lA^ trfmrit fW»A/lir 
lAi Itn^t tufua/ly ufiirifrtinf iy /Ac rtitivit^ or ty lAi i rvaiK t^ 
^imtkdhy tht ^mi. iVkire ihe frittutiMf is fur fi^ffitUt 
org tf \t>H*<h raturti m/^il ft hn m/vJf iv tn tk/ atvtatf* a/ mm fr/wrta 
mtraf) ii tkt hffufii lOHnally exf^rjnt^td hy Skt rarrravr ; ^t U/karr ikt , 
#/ ikt frianJihi/ it virltn, tAt iit/rmfian af Ihi x'^' " 'At ai 
inUntaora, 9r litlihrate iA^iit, ii tAt (ritfrit* ^rf vi'tut ama/ iAmtmrUr, 

iftwi^rf; jlr i 1- ^iKiAk"] Asp, ]i35 Tuv xtM^iitr ttliiij] Bjrw. [£>K/rA. p.£t) 

1*. 1. 6itmUti tJ Wh ^t«ii) 'uilI a atmiUr remark applies 10 fncEfdihip 


BOOK VilJz CHAP, LS; i$ 1, fl. 


on pleanjre and profit" The Tull cxpnsnion would be — iiBib, L 

cqiul beiicfiis on culL oLhc^.' Tlji» duuiic, tbough airtaly 
&ppliciil>]c, BO lir 36 cxpr^isbn goes, to nl i%^ r^ ;ipgtfLfi»y, muii be 
tAkm TO refer alto lO oJ 9^ie, sl« if It had been — (jnifovrir t^ ij^l All 
ruJj wt/ifX#*o.£ *iil Ab^i^VnT' h oughl ntil to be Ukco to refer 10 
vf*&oi XOft, the |>reetsc dislmction ret^iiired under ihnt lie^ havJr^ 
be«i alrcadj' marked by the expressions ^(«r n^iiflni — fl^*i'wv 
jfitjfiH'i. retcTi, I ihink. is wrcmg when he iransltLcs' — ' Sgmetime* 
IwD cquiJty g^ocxl pCTSone make tnends, Ltrd sometLTnGS u br;tter 
and d worsp (ind so with those wlio nre plr^'^niit to one anothrr, 
and irili^ ttio^ who &rc fneirds with a view to profit)- — dfccLing 
equality by the jfer\'ice« they eichiing?, even though they ore 

iyHnni=?lvrB dilfeTOTiL* Does Bywater a]so^ with the comtna After 

llPt'^P^', refer lullvftti •.r>. to the ayu$tA} 

■at' tff^Ts] 'Tho^ ivho are tqu;i] must eSecl the equality b.S. 

luirwl m Fnm^nhip hy making exjcily tqual returns in love 
fiicndJy ofliccd.' A^pa5iuB incorrecdy lakts «fr' iffrfTi/m with 
e*ir iirvtc. HJtt word* arc — *^vi loots ^ttr lvvrrjrt% ripi hm. rh iya&iff 
Ml i^it im] \pi^t^f*^ Ari fm'[ ifrfrk tA tfttki^u tWf'ii', Bul tirn^nv t/u tfuXwi* 
nr leiirTTu is conlTA^tcd uidi ■ffiiC'i*' ^^ dircrSkAufiu (u^j^u*- rul\ iir»^ 

is llie rciidin^ of iOit. cod. Far. 1417'ptcd by Bck. aud 
Stic, while K^ 0>', M*|, Hs N^ Aid., and pr. Par. 1417 have 
Tft flwAflyoy, accepied hy Bywatcr Tinmts (b. v. anihnyav) dectdcd 
in favour of the laEier reading ; but Rasaov {Forst:fi, p^ 67) con- 
tends that T^ in indispensable, becati&e not JWi but &■ hro^tw must 
be liiiipptLfd after Av(ffot>s^ and remnrki Ehai ilir v:Lii!ition cf the 
MSS. (which he exaggerates) riilicr points to r^ r^ JnAv^dv a» the 
oripnal reading. Kai^sow quotes Meteer. iL 5- 363 a, vi r^ cWX«yoir 
ftiTDAuirfc, which he seems to mke as nn Instance of the ordinary 
tracsiltvc uae of iijii>3i^iiv[it. ^^hcrcas it is given in ihc In*f. An'it. 
under die intransitive Ubc»i- 1 ihink that Kassow's rf t^ divAAyAv iv 

f 2. x<^^t] A 1^^^ or good taste. b. 10, 

Tvyx^*^^ oS fi^vnt] '- '- the friead wbo, in the compeiilioa b. 11. 


3Q0A' Vtili CHAP. 13; JJ 4-5, 

U68b. 11- (rl^XXtffitVtff b. 8), ttuccccdei in conRrnng vuptrior benefits, (cu 
whsvt he desires, viz. the good of IjU frieml^ and h9% ro rasob EO 
cGULplain, The oihtr agnin who is ilfiritcd in the imaiEiitiaa 
cannoE disLihc one who coDfers such btrneJits upoa him^fl'TV 

Ramsaiter cont^nrls (uhhout ^TAFtng the rea^ns for hit o^nian, 
bui merely ^x^'y^g ccrUJn reference* to ihc H^t) ihit duiJi*- 
tincLicn is not (08 ZoJl and t'nljesclie tuVjt for gnmled) eucily 
that beiwccn r6 ^uffi*fl»> A^uiof and rA vt>i^tKiw Aitaior of £. jT v j. 

Bonitz however (I/ti^. ArUi^ sub v. a/jcniw ) makes ri i>|ja^ Auiv> 
svnonymoi)' wUh rA ^Lrri*-!)' 9j'mj«p. 'i'be ToIfuviTtg^ pof&kges iel tbr 
Rhft. (refffrcd m by Ram^sn^rr) will c^nablr u* 10 liecfrte bi*t»fft 
tbCflC two vlcwSh — Hhtt i. 14- 1374 a- iG aqq- ''■I ^ 'v {wv>v w 

Tuv offijftfv ^v 0i'O 'I?h} ^T^ ^<v y^f yrypaiiftitn ro ^ ay^«^), vr^I «* ^ 
oZ ft^^rx ayofifiPifi'iTii' 'Tp^rai, r^p ff ^/id^p Ai^a itrtit iTSi)' mtn tf Jm 

dfiM^ai ffil Ti^4il 'vl 0up«aJ fthi' moril ind «ociaJ lanebofis u 
<ff»Ii11^t]i^hc(l from the legal smiclmn), viar ti x^P*^ 'x*^ *Y ""^^ 

t6 y^;> /*w»4r dcHi dfjiDiar vfroi, fori Ai ^ni'i^Jf rA rapA fAi> yty^ji^im 

dxy Aitaynuhv /tiv f t.n$6hvu tlvii¥. iii^ J fl/, iiXX' in rirl ri citt- 
Kdl JiTd /'^ ^^Df jtcpiirai Si' Avrj^'ar, 001* r^ r^fO^t m^fn* v^Uw 

di'fl fli utittaOtTfiotit, (injy'f; d^X^i iintir, vitti «:Ak JnrrvXtar ryia* Jtiiji^ii 

i< l4' '375 a- 17 '" H** "^ TOi'TW"^* *"i dniy«W ri 4' J)pB^ 
«f, antl ^4^/- i. ig, 1375 a. 31 ... ru /■Jr <V»iimi ul |irt«i mi «Ur- 

ffDtf fifT^J^aXX'f, AbA' & icrttf^t ('nra tfivflvf yi^ itmir), <tt At iiiiji^ih'i 
irflXXi/*r(E. cG*v iX^t^xat fh in Tj Iirfjtu^AauVk 'A«*jwo' ii9rnk»>v4r«l 
^< 1^0^ irnpi r^v rvu Kp<«vraf *^f*v, «AX' dv ffn^ rdv Jy^w^w 

TbcK passages sccni lo ice Lo £up;?ori :Ik view tliu the distil 

BOOK VIU: CHAP. 13 1 § 5- 


hecuvcn fA 'fy;>a^nv Aiviiinv and r^ 'itrA irf&^Av is noi i^edlic^l with llOt bi ^- 
lliat bciwci^n f^ tftiE/irAf fliJuuDi' and r6 *u(iLi^ AUaiOf, TA ^jjih^ 
if^aiflv and fA (fofj »'o>o*' arc of course njviLualfy cjicliisive. The 
&!cAm iiul JBuA recoj^ni»«d under th^ first irSoc uf tA ^fypa<^t iliVauJi' 
^vj£« nl /^' bfr btti^^ ml lv\i%tnL. where ibc Srxnciitxia iirc mcrcl/ 
'£odal|' cunnoL, from th«rr nature, be brought uilhLn the HCOpe 
of ihr written Uw- They belong c^isenrially to die irnwrilteu 
llw. They cannot tc tnfortcd by 'legal sanctions.' The tViii»} 
again included under the Gecot^d iniac of the 'ly^t^^y ll^io^ c-innoi 
be embodied in the written l.iw Tte |t&Jtieular iasura involved \\v 
ihem musL be dctermir^cd indcpcndcndy oF, ond even in ?ipiEe of, 
the tvnitcn Uw^ Bui a does not lollo^ from this thai t6 oypaffuv 
Umov ia identical u'it!i rA i^ujuAf ^jriuai'. In a gwx] ^utc much 

Ofi^ 4^rrucor AZcawn- (nl iTa^o^ab n^v tstt'\v fx^>' ^^t^^t*" ^- -V' V. J. l) 

B embodied in the vriUen \as\\ Ti ^ypnt^tat fluriHui' is, m jiafl, that 
nsidnuoi of ri> ^bt/iKUf Aiitfjiop which eiihcr tanDoi he, or hat not 
bUhcrto been, embodied in ihc wnttcn code ; in purl, ii coriai«u 
of K^C^/.m'i — local CQitons and etit^u^tCcSr «rhich, so fiar irom 
fidliuf; uiidtf die ^V(fv6p dfcetof, may conllitt with iL. 

I lake it, Ihen^ that Ave mu£C not idcntdy the dLstmclmn bclore 
us b(;re with that betwe>cn tA ^ii^icdp AiKaiof and r6 M/iut)v diVowv. 
g«dc»cr^bcd in JT.A^v. 7. Wc have to thmk aiinply oT'unArilten' 
a«d 'written' regulations- The unwnuen repuhtioits may be 
' oalurally ' just, or itu.'y may be only 'conventionally' j^i^l; lli^y 
iiDiy be Audi &» c^ri, or &uch aa CAnnoi^ be embodied \\\ a wrilteu 
code. The dt&tinclion belore lia indi;ed ^eems to answer ea;aGtly 
CO thai between the Luccdacmoninn and the Athenian atwia noted 
in tlie foUowing pa^s.^ge of JuatimW? Insiil.~~\. 1.% ^ 'ex noci 
«cripto jus venit quod u^us comprobavic. nam dmiurni motea 
COHftrnsu utenilum eompfobad legem iinituitur. et non incle- 
gftA^ci In duas specici jua civile diatributum vldciur. nam origo 
cjiu ab insiitutis duartitn cLVitiliutn, Athenarvim sciticet et Loce- 
ikrinonis, Huniase videlui^ in his enim civiiaiibus ha agi ^iLma 
crat> 111 LaccJiLcn^onii quidcm magria Ht Quac pro Ic^ibua ob^r- 
vsrcnt memoriae tnandarcnt ; Aihemensea veio ea qu;te in tegibua 
vcripta repreheitdi^sent [comprcbendi«^a[ ^J cuj^Lodircikt' 

\ fiJr ^9»PCTj % W TO|iiKfl Williams brings out the force of thisb. M- 
diitinclion vrry weJl whh' — 'the friemi&ldp of conliden*:e and ihe 
friendship of tovcnam/ €f. E.E^ H. to. 1141 1. 31 f^r* W t^s 


BOOK Vm: CHAF. 13; §} 5-8- 

irvXiTKi} I"* »« wi>*" HOI eft ri irfiuy^Mi, unvf^ fJ ■•^Xtirtij ^ J 
^I'Oi'^'Niu fii^ t'iptfra^' tutr&it lirS^i <pikv, ifHP faif o^r for r^«^* 
(j5 Spciigd, rfitJJrtihf, ^liwmilil) ^ wo^inc^ atrjj i^tA^ ul nii"^ 

b. B4, Srtiv ^4] lani k.tA.] 'conplamlA AHAt nrhcn 4 tr&ntaaion it 
not cndtd in Uw spirit in which ic wa* b*guH,' or in wtwbai 
lc-ft«if one of tlr pftTlic* thoii^ht [1 wa* bcjutii r,^- A Ic&iJt B 
a sum of money, \Mif:[i B r<paya it be docA to wtlhoul lAicmL 
thLTtkiEig thai A lent il Hb ;i friend; but A, it appcart, lei^E 11 
as a mallei ot bubi[jc!t!> ^nJ cJipctttd ihe uvutl iiiicccat : kc Ai^ 

0r tffrr]/3fA AbnAvf^Kdi. Wc have hctc &n tHusiroiion of ibc (Tutb 
of lb« wying lli*l * iindersi'jn dings arc misumfcriunding*," 

b. 80. § 0. Btiftp rf^ioii u.rX] In addilton to the paisa^e quoird hf 
L FriLitsth* fiiiiK Nic- Damaec- (|k 314 TauchTi, vop' 'biKi ^Jr rn 

^^^^^H ^ fR(Tr<Li<rD(), se? TheOphntslUS m/i frf^jVoXniW Aplld Srofa^ fhr.ttiL 

^^^^^^ ii. p, ifiS ed. Mdnckr^, Xapuij^ac cai llXdr^K (^pjiaicDtly L^gf.^l^ 

^^^^ D nfid K) ■ ■ ^ Jtopttjf^^tfitt KfXtvnrot A^iV4 nai Xdrij^nAVy JA^ At m 

^^^^F maiie kh^ for Caimia aiid other citici. 

■ (Pamph.). 

nofiit<Bffav S^ n.T.X,] /,<f. the motive of diU 'fi^ii 4^1^ no Iw! 

than ol ti>>iM^ ^jAui, U ftftcr all rA jQtijiUfiow. 

Wfr have here ihe difference between M^ wriA fof aomeiliUlf 

t remote and perhaps unatiainabki and /Af Jifimk chokt of MfDt* 
ihing immcdiaicly before us. '1 Ijv ideal of ft nobJe Lfr» thouEfa 
present JnEelleeiualJy to most civillzrd mrn, ik pnciicaUy (00 Wfsk 
to regulate thdr conduct b the midst ofobjccia App^titns Ia- 
mediaiely to ihdr desire for plcitiuic or profiL Therefoire 'lo 
etu>0?ie |irofil '— vpnnijtr jrr^ rd u^mXi^ — L^licro tUlUBWC&t lOKtlRg 

300X Vili: CHAP, 13: \ 9< 


fjiobTa Y^ ^iW od noniT^oi-] 'A iTiAn ongfit, Utcn, W br tiiii, 
ID return ihc worih of what be hnis rci:civtd. ind to do so willmgl^ 
\f.i. wiltiOiil waiEJng \<s be asked) ; lor he ought noL to mate a.nj' 
one a friend a^JuisL hU wtir — f.^, by n-uiimi]j ik^ a fiii^iiJly 
gift what *** iiucudtd ((houyh not bUtcd) ic be ft ioan. There 
i« % ccrlliU awkwardneifi in the proxiniiiy of iit^yrt atid Jicnvtii, 
referring, as they do. lo difiVn^m (persons; and accordingly the 
vocdd ui ^rti [omilied by K*", U^, Cambr., Asp,) arc bracketed 
by FritVK^Cf Gram, and Bywaicr> aa an inierpolatian. "They 
may ciihily be conct-ivej/ Gr;tiit says, ' to Lave arisen oul of 
the following words ***iimo yo^.' K^sow l^Fors^h. f , lo*), howcvtr, 
Itti th«in stand a^^ g«nain?, snd conj^iures cIttiW for (m^rraii, 
nuking ^Qira refer lu t[ie iiubjrcC of Ativ^ii^ and iitfWu I carmol 
regard tbis conjecture [^vtiich iii adopU'd by SuBemibl) as ftt all 
probable; nor do 1 feel ihat the pawage. as iranslartd above, 
prcscDla ibe di^iculiy v^hiL-li Mume of ilie coqiiucliisioi^ luve found 

BiofLttfmit^Q . - , noOdkra] The acctLaativcB are lo be takn^ wilh a. 9. 

irt-un-oi^^ok LT 5«-XvT»flF, t'liUBche qtioEcs ^\ A', vii. J. 1, viiL 14- 
4h tx- 2. t- and ^for both d;it. and acc^ widi iht tame verbal 

aJjCCtltc) ^.jVi Vlii. I4> 3 ru at^iXnv^arw , . . urrunbAufivi' iirr*- 
■ffofliiiirTa tA (V3r;^El^rw^T GUld i'latO, Hip' 433 D ovunk^f i^^a^ iwffWotp 

B/ avT& roGroJ ^i.i. Si' ovt^ to «C %i^ ^.^ it^ ti^iiro^ (KUQ- •• 1- 


A|U>XoY/i«ot V £v| I prefer «^Jyr/trr ^ <ft in correspondence *> 9- 
wilh 7ii**tf« ui' a, 7, The meaning vs — If it liatl been put 10 IIm; 
leotivri wlirn ll»e Ia-iiHaI was ccinfL-rrcd, be unmid hai't agreed tO 
make repayment, if nble; 'nhtle, on the other Imnd, the sivci 
iK/tMild not hox-* eipecied rtpaymem from one obviously unable to 
mnkr ii — and, \i must lie supiJnsed, *nultl not have ttinfi^rred the 
bcnctit. Ov*" i5£Uitr*»' Sv doea tiot mean 'would not have asked 
him for repaymeni v-t»en Ik delayed to mate Ir,' i^a the P-<\raph. 
lud nioit of the comineiitHiOfS seem to suppose, but 'would nol 

' J^wnui {i'9Htnb, p. *!) ibJnks that -Uwrn 7-*^ ^Aa* oA nanrrio*' fi » 

U93a-0h h^ve bef}3n by oxp»t[nj^ rc^paymont f*oin cne oMoa^y imilU 
ever to mttk* it.' In short, rhr fact cit a briifffii having been rcn- 
[cncd iai«es ilir pic^umpiiun thai the j^ivei cxpccced* when he 
conferrfd it» to be eveniually repaid. He beliei'pJ th*i ihe ft- 
ceJvcr wcmlil be able to repay It ; othcrwisr he woiiUI not hjw 
conferred it. TUeie is fio reference bere, it »eems Ip roe, to ihc 
c^e ofd rricnd d>a r& jfp^ifV'i-, or creditor, finding out ift couneof 
limp that [he debtor k irsolvent, and making him a. present of ibe 
5um owed. 

■ ConseiK 10 receive the benefit on these terms, or cfndine h.' 

J 10- Afi^tT^^Tiiffit- ir-T.\,] We must repay bcnirfi|« iraAirap tu 
Jijruif tltflywt^Otvroi wlitn HO jJijTil cxisL How arc »e iHeo lo 
determine wh,it the pt™ would have been had ihcy existed^ Wt 
musr yni otirselvo** buck into th? poeition i*e oceiipied bffore the 
bcneJiL was 4;onferrcd, and suppose ouraelvcs to be malirf All 
expiess bar^in Tor an advaikU^ which we with 10 pit, but of 
course should be uJiAillm^ lo pay too dear for The pdce fiv 
uliiivh we could lave got the 4idv;i]]tage> aupjicaing the qucsUon of 
price 10 have been rii&ed, is what nc least wc ought to pxf no* m 
relurr*. It U of course very difliculi tluis lo constmci jiirii irVt 
an inceival of limcH The giver will mftinlain ibai the circum' 
fitanccfi v^«rc- exc<^plion;il and enhanced lh« valu« of the bentAt, 
and that he would not have eonfetred it «r he liad known ihjit to 
amall a return would be offered for k. The iccelvci CQ the otficr 
hand will point out that the benefit has not come to mudi, and 
will mainiain that he never rlionghi that it would- Th« siandvd 
however nhicb must be found, if ait agreement bctwecik the (Allies 
is to be reached, is — What did the receiver t^tnk it worth k/ertht 
got ifi The giver ointioi rxpcct more than ilii»: >«« u. i. 9 

IiTdof of rmr^i^ov ri;^ a^i>v ^J^a^r^ *ffiiivrttt i^oVf vJlX* J#ov fl^p*^ ^ p# 

From Thccph< »<*>< (jv/^SoXaiV (apud Slob, FUr. voL iL 166 
ed. Meineke) we learn that iindi<-r«taiidbg« hkely to d^vr^p into 
misunderstandings of tbr? kinJ iiidimled in (he lectlun belbn VI 
{via. 13. to) were discouraged by many Gr«k code*, wUch coo- 
Ulned provision) for Ihe payment on the tpot of aa ^tfiwr prfr- 
potlioiiE^d lo the amonnL to b<: afterwards paid IQ fttJL 


BOOK Viil: CMAi^. 13: 5 ll. 


{ IL fvttpflffi] U, i lirifTyrnrr Tn the fHcfid«hfp of Ptolil rqual iiasa. IS, 
idvanuf^cs aic cxtliiingtd: ihe qu«liun b-^Wbai is llic amounL 
of Ehc ftdvant«£C received ^ for an cqu;i] Q^VniiiTaf^i; mu&l be ^ivt^n 
in ^iGchiVngv for ii, Bui rhe Friendship of Vittue H not a *rK*d»- 
Juryita, but a Life m which ihc friends siiinulaic each oLher lo the 
m&nifcsuticn cf ihai which procccrds from virtue. 

riit d|ifTiJ4 ^ . - nJpiDi'] ^ for in choice lies Uiat nhich is essential k- S3, 
lo vimip and character/ Ir is ir/mni/wmf which eonverin ih* Avpaint 
Tuv t'vatrlur iiiLc) l|]« /fip (J/f/- O, 2 anij 3), and dprr^ is dcfjncd HS 

a J£n itpoatptTup) {£\ A\ \l 6. 15). In £. N. %. 8> 5 we read li^i^'ff- 

fiijtuTtti *> iri^r^fui ntp^^itnpov r^r dpft^c ^ v^Dipfiric ^ nl vpa^t. The 
an*^Mrr hiid Itcn given in iij. j. 1 olwi^Tamr t^nn dottl (fl n-piwJpfirif) 

pasdg^ in i^onncxiori, we can see ihat in ihe s^clIoh befort? us 
(viiL ij. ii) r^ ft^tnr mcariF) iLai \vhich. bcin^ c&sciitiM lo vinuc. 
serves aJ^ u a (r^ir7^iu>", hy means of which we may dtit«rTmne 
wb^ihrr virtue i9 prcwni in a given <3^e AcconJmgly in ihp 
fiicnd»hi]i of vtriuc, the iitiUtfUrd hy wbith wc ntctsuic tin: worth 
of t frkodly office m ihc choice or intoniion of the flg«ni, fci Ihia 
IS A true ntpffiition of his vinuoiis characlcr, 10 manifest which in 
feUowahiji w;Uj 4 m^ac a6ri>r i« tbc oi^c oljccL of Ujc ffiendtililp. 


§f tit Mtti^uttl * f' uHih ' th}ftJis tkut kf en^At ta v'' ' ^*' Sargnr ihaiv* : IA4 
'ffirmJ' iv^r if l^Urr fir mfn *t!//H/ tAr't^j thit^ at in a jetst r/ink htt'Heit 
tM ^*T" >'**^'>i^*f"' fVfi tht tanfr ih^fi (/ iKe ptofifiy fit in /"iamJiJii/ tA* 
Murvr mort m^ui^frknd' ifiauU s:tl a tan'*'' '^'^'^ a/ rtmu'ura/'OH. aJlJui 
iitf '/ft'tnifjAi^' II to iMstHt n Attnttn Or tiix. On Ike other hamt, tJ\t tttiSy 
ami tmjint^r'ftn^'i' tfntit^ /Hat ftu sniy ^st<J a /iv-/ otiit ffKvrfv/ ' /rum/ ' 
it tt At!/ tiit ntrJy- Kut^ifftth ^ "X^^ "'^ oitgMt to f^t oirt of iXi frittut' 
iiUfi'a itrgtr ihate'^bn4 aittfOfttvini, e/ iht mmt thiit^ : Me lufitrior /rifrad 
^t^Jit fv sti hit tiifgsr jhatt in A&HifHr^antffJie neeiff friertit hh lurfftr s^ata 
ht wnUeria! aiftjartta^, TAe tavif mif fioftft in /i/fitif ir/ipi \it frifrtsfthip ; il 
tttf thai thtut orAn iftnd tavnty/ar tht tomniaH gotd j^il tAtir mvard. 

334 BOOK Vrn: CHAP. 14; ^ 1-3. 

XtfUWf iuMjT b"b' l>i* itmmmiity kar U frPtfo^ tm§rJkU rwftimJ, A tvoH />*- 
nat xit a tAt iamt !imt Aeth twnry •W .**i* Wir mT y/i#MbiMiVH*rr.- dit^« 
nd <tf(tf cans to Ae a Imer t^l rffvitd, i/m^mj it tptM /rr ^ am mtn lati, 
koneuw it fxf^trii m rftum, 

f9Und4hipz dW pfiiitt*t tkert: tkr f^tftd w4tf dWr man /^iMt m^uimd 

mattridf tjJivnu^ pftht iftAtr mtuf ^ Atmfmr—fAit I'j nA*/ Mr Mic Mm it 
fife . evtn haHCht ii H^t unify t^iwkkmt to tit grrtitif ifmtfiti (iw^ V tit»i 

^fj/, UHi/rfJ ivifi m/f/i/tt rfifttifrmtwrti ^/ruu^At/K §F4 itftv latd iAol tit 
t/tH^U ttr^fi-r*^ fry /^pfrilt kaVf tu rvsJ t^uiwoItMi. Tttii u srMy a /i4Mr 
may i/iitwn hii ttn [i/ismrM iMtnr^ cft^iwr *ttd Vtitrta M-iii rrifrmm Mrm 
/nrvi i^inx itf ffticit Ai'j im it iv/^ Wl ; ^w a MM m*f mrfw Mtttrm Xit 
/arkrr {^if !itt iBn u I'lui kr mijf tkint it kit Ixirritt t$ dtiiom Aii /ati^ , fir 
Jkr cmm nfbtr (fair off tht lUdi mkiih Ju p«ri It kitjatktr. 

ii6at.S4. Jfl,al These eeciions are bert illustnied by ilie panlM 
pax»ngr E, E. H, lo. 1247 h. U iV lUv rj? ta^ £m>>4j(^* ^laW^ r4 

(a ^ TVbtv, uAXa tA uro»' nur* apt^tilir d^nil. at )4p d^ im nri rW 
nXX*>i' ira<i'HtH<wv nvttt trvfifinlMt' iri (**> yap 4^^^^ Tn^ Iffvv ^trfi^ovri^, 
&ri ti Jtdyy. . . . A If irnfax^fttitit rtidvarruat ffTp^t^i r4 d»^o><Vt ad 

<m Atafiirpov iTv^w/i'VflU' (on this scc Jacltaoo» B<H>k V. pp> fl5 sq^)* 

4 irUii'Hk'm, S*i Jita Tivt iriptp ayttj^aoi. mil noi^a^t ^bAefy^r. rvvrs 

*-St*- ( I. XttTBupYut'J properly ft public service dcfr&jed bf a 

fe. 6. o£ yip Jo-til' fl^pi ^cpiif»QT£t<a6at &n& ifi* noivAr «al Tifivftu] 
Rassow {Fctnck p. 26) biadscu ihcw u(>rds Afc oncrdx a rcjx- 
tiljun uf iho woriis 11^ yof, firioroi t.r.lL. b. t. Tbtf clause » vw 
VdEp ■nr-A. b, 9 has no cAusHt) connexion, lir (hinkti, laith tfar 
bracketed vord 9. Suscmihl pUcca the word* 0» y^ n|i^« » . , ^ 
ri^q Al totMiv ufter llie words bracketed by RaMOW. I ihink ttui 
Ihe received ccxt ia salibUcLOjy, ujd that the coni^eiiofl my be 

SOOK Vm: CfiAP. 14: ^ 3, 4. 333 

traced M follows— * ri TOivif ^yjpycri*- (jels 3 TCwafd from Ihc U63 b. 9, 
*«»^r. This musi Tie ti>i^. not money, for, jrui/ tUpyrraf rft Aiivrfr 
(/-^. AA *JiHi^im^iov) and not /oi/tm, he sprndn money — and thai 
nch a avi^THf misfit gf I *ih>7< s>no<! he floes not got money, is pUm, 
Ibr DO one m willing tit TuicriHce himself all nmni). 

d4«Xjoif/i«vy . , . AtTiiwaftMfaf, iiiroBLtrf»t«i] For thtf change of ca*e b, IJ. 

JCC note on Jivifiaprnria viJL 13^ 9. A 3. 

f 4. dniiTot^Qi] According to lIil? Athenian law a fattier mij^lit thUn 
diSK^tve the legal connexion between him^lf and his son by tho 
prorrM of firrD.r^jivf ir : — r/l V\iJf>. fjgg- 928 E i^tlviti ttiftimu^ *at 
09tt\trtnMit fii* tiiji' vJTu K^tritot »«iin-iDK dvoKTarv uirvin'ri*' uii*' uattl lie 

W^WF^Wr' riWu. He hrid (o [^rove to ihe satisfitclion of the court 
h[« wtns defidencj in filinj attention, riomus living, and prtifli^jry 
generally. If the Jnw^^pvfir were not avoided by ihc father's sub- 
t^uenl p»r(3on oF lit? noa, ihc latter waa di^nhorited at hts father's 
drath, Api^jr^mly hN privi?f^B w tci the iritK* and *ta(c however 
MftTc noi ificcled by Jiron^vfu (t/ Plato* /^yy» I f. ^"' *«'* ^J' -^n 

iT^ropa). Sec Smith's /J/r/. c/ Anti'jttiiies article. Apokcruxii, 
{somtnarised aboit), and Lucian's [I) ^not^pvrrA^tvoi^ vj\\\c\\ opons 
a* followt — * A Hon dlftinh^tiied by his father studies Phy«ick, and 
by A xftdfiik remedy cures his father who was become distracted, 
•fid was jfjven over hy all other physicians. Thereupon the father 
conccU ihe will, and again declare*! hnn hi^ beirn Bill afterwards 
upon the soli's i-efusal of curing hia mother-in-law that wa« fallen 
into the sam disEeniper, h^ is disinherited a second time, against 
which the son niake?i the following oration.' 

Spa V uTbK K-T.X'] urmt A* o^fliU f»T^^ ^iflMTOi To{) ubC tff jif b.SS, 
(ir^pfSuXXu^rwc tfii fio^^>jiir (/.^. (he son) — Paraph. vvl*\% ^i fttrc 

Suv0<i?4(uj of the fuCher. b. Vl 

T^WJ Ukcvon. 



intmiuctGt^ N<>ti\ Th^ Ninth Boolt nta^ \x <lcftcr]bpd uaimi 
vcr;- ftvstcmaiic tollccliQii of hitx^im rc(t*idii^B Frieniisliip, vlii 
are diecusstfd nnd iLnswered oii Lhe ^vn«ral pnncipkft Uid down in 
ihe Fighth Root, Michelrl (p|i- s8i sqq) thinks ebai ihis cnUfC- 
Ijon did nol orignully belong Lu the Eihin, and he idcntifict il 
wiEh the Biirnt ^lAiNi d, in the Uri or Uiog. Lft«r:. (No. 7>, Roar), 
the ffvp] 0iXiav n of tlie fiiun« list [No. 94) b«in^ the Eighth Book. 
But alibough the Nmih Book LndoubtcdLjr coitibu, in nnki pan, 
of M^us th«re are cerE^kin cliapicrs (4-t>, ij66 x 1-1167 ^ i^l 
of An exj^osilor)' ctiaracLer vhidt seem out of place in a cnJlpction 
of Ajt9fiUi. Spengcl (^^'>/. <S''W. u pp. aig «<iq.) calb Aitca:ioa 
10 tlte fad that ihe iCud^miin c^quivdlcitt of thc»c chAptcr«, ai^ of 
chii|Jtcr 7 — K.K, II 6-fl, 1^10 !i- it-i34i ti. la (= £. A\ is. 4-7, 
1166 0. 1-1168 a. 37) — \s inserted at a pomLi^hich corrcspon(b id 
the £. E. to ibai between chapter 8 and chapter 9 0I J£. A\ »iii— 
1 159 \\ jg, WJielhtr the wriier of ilie /T. /". found A*. A' 11, 4-7 
in ^V A' viii be:%een chapter ^ nnd cha|>tcr 9, or lacrcJj altcifd 
xhn arrang4*meiil in his otvn vemion^ is a quettion wbncb, in 
Spengel's opinion, cannot he nuswered. 

The writer of the M.Af., wiihouL following cxActly the order 
observed by Lhe wiiier of the K. E\ does nol^ in Sprngd's ^xw, 
deviate seriously from \t. Susemihl however (AV«. Z"M. ^ 203) ia 
of opinion Ehai Uie wrii^^r of Ihe M. M. mu«i have rt^d ti. t-6 
where we Hnd them, and not in viii, because the order of hbt 
di>c\iB»on {M.Af. 1210 b, 33-im b. 13) b pvtiy thu of 
£^'. ;ind pailly tlm of our £ JVl 



Why tmd how ix. ^-6 siand where we f nd them, whether the 
writer or editor of ibc Do(}k intentionally placed them tlicrc, or 
Ihcy came theiB by some accident, nrc qucalions which. I tliinK 
caiinot row be answorcd, and ihercToff netd not be asted. As x 
whole however Book is h>i5 a i^listimtivc chifaLtcr of its own, aiij 
1 ace no rca^n for douUing timi U wan v^Tittcn lo followr Book viii. 
An Spen^F^I \Arui. Stud, i pp. 215 iiC|q,) Biya, ' Daj neunre Buch 
bcfllcht aufl Aporicn ; es Bind Zweifi^l unj BeJenkcit, die, nachdcm 
(He Krklirun^ voq der ^iiXm im vor^UfiKchcnden Buche gegebcn ist, 
enEEirh^n k6nncn und g^^l^^t werdrn mtlssen, wie vwr\ bet der 



JHtmiii'p biirtftn /htffi it the inrHe as that wAiih rtptiaiei She ijiAanfti hy 

rittfrmj /*f /Atif /^rfidmfi. /« iommtrfr, J/ittfitr. fk/ diiiitfiilar /ndutfi m^ 
i Mt mi^ an ali r^ftrr*4 to j .'emm»H me4inr^ mOHfy; w^frt^ Jht Jininihr 
ttr¥kti rmdtrtti by *t<i,-k ■^/rietn£j' di fffixr anJ ftin'oi Am-e na cerii'naH 
WKtmf<i Krmr retir'/Hinu^ii/m. <tnJ <liiwlmiivrt of ' /ncnriiki^' TAr iikingv/ 
tmtk 'friinds" ixttat /or tftth othtr nt fifrjent. ^1 far tht slort tf flf^urt ^ 
^njfifb^sck lafk fiaJ ttl kit ifuf'B'al ; irnJ if tk%t /omtt It oh ttid, or tfinU eut 
ifi 4^ Afffeni ffem ti-kat '/ t/aj mf/^sifi to hi m whtH tAf mutin^M fimpfii 
e^tt tA^ i&i'j fi-jf/ffti A^»f fifrf-aJy /iMtJ Aim ivilk /Af fi/ta/nn ^ <x/eci^ /cymeni 
^■*4ktir fritntiihif' rvmei to «■ tnd. 

Wk4 tttXAt to diiide ii'Aii; is tht w^rth if a urvfie rtndertdy wAen jm Aar* 
fitiM tti ttin matU hrJitriXtir^d ' Tht /frjtm ivka ffftt/nri Tkt tfrx'iif, tr tht 
fm-rm fc4* re^eivii it f 7'kt rfnivt* iwtiy^ fdr the pitSAH u.'hi> t&nfm a 
itrviVt, tcitAettS miiAirif 4 inir^rt, Utrt't^ ih( rrmuwt^»'<it4gn la lAr- pit^^ntre 9/ 
tMt ftceuxt. TAt'i is irAat Prtttn/yrat did ; kt itt ike pMpit fi^ Ike ampuni tf 
tht fa: ^u/tn tu/A tna/l^rj tome pespie i'At ttatr the p/tn^ipit of'jSjed/eri' 
At/*' Ihi rtAfhtr iitho/^^nt by ' n^fwrng' th* /u, and then /^iix ta/ul^i rh* 
adr-mtMi^Ht prtmijifi hy wAirk Hi indnttd hit /'Ufit'ii ip pity in Adi'anff — At 
■JlkirWfjr b4*einti ike a^Jeet ^ lompfaifi: /Ait ir fhatiAe t&phUti Aav/ te d», 
/ir nH^r Hf oihtr tyiSfm n'cidd pe^pie pity tAf/M any/ki^t^Jot- tAtir iHonded^. 
JUti t^it vtho tanfrr hen/Jiu ft' tht icie t/ the ptrlem bfiitjitrd uAii is trhaf 
tJUjf d9 fH lAt /nmdiAtp ifised tm vtrrui). iff/, as wf hoTt und, utrer f^fect ^ «/ 
m/^airlj and avghl to d*t a rtfum t^uivMaM ta tAttr £&ad uifettiitnt /tr 


BOOK IX: CHAP, 1: § K 

hy a irKt fforAtr nf ^iljA^f'hy m*ut i< aiim^tttd iit ikt mm* ftn/ oj eJkM 
¥tniiittd A>-Et inae/ri/ruf- Ft toanM If mmort^ fyfktt^^a^a^ ^ mfmtjr; 

katuiur i/9rmat hf vtvv^Af /it tilt t^ftt^' ^faimtt if ; Mif f^'fk-a^' fB*K^ ii ^rwt 

li'Atrt/\t wxfitfii nrukrrJ, mtf fer lAe MjIk tfi)tf fie^am f* tv^rm U it 
rtm/tm^, dut in vitw ef ioms ftfura (trAjiiA, ksatt^r. A** "«< Afcn ^grtrdwff 
ltf*irr.haai{'\, U ix^af ifi\trs£, btn fAat rii rrturtt vBodi tAoutJ kt fm v'vl 
Idfli farfirj tMirti ajfr^Hiifj ; /dili'my taunii/nff m f^r f'ft^r *^ Wi/ fiV If 
Af mfiTfiKfy ntiitsaiy htsl fmtr iXni thf r<fti^rr vkM^U Ati tk* ^m tm rnt fftk* if- 
tarri. At i'r*»i^ lAe tniy f^(f* f/ ^tv mtr.-k ftrtrfi Ar it-a drtiwJ fr^m fM 
ttrvue. and t hit ruli Jutt fioC apply prnfy ift ' /rUmi/hift ff^ f^f pni nw^^f 
a rAiHx tAat ir Aft/ff-At Tf^ iAt buytr n// /fH f*r ii: arut ti$ imn oatu 
ihfrr it mtt iff^At rtim^'fy of ^ftFt—tm tkf pnjtri^f Ihtt ij p*m itgim if 
intuit^ It rnuft yrtt engAf ttet ip mJ ^jvi'i^^'w^ 

iiiifttlkt rtnlvf to Jii tk/amtiwitt^tht rrrtirn— fAf /wrr rdAJVf ArtfOnvi/ 
t&dose, for ptoptt pat ten hi^h a vtivttm tJkt fAm^ivkkA tArx^ttv: Htm 

«fff[' tkat kr hat rfciivfif ii, hit iy taj/mr At fho'tf^hf it nvr/t hf/f** 4' w ft ffwrf 
it : /o'' pf&pie gtteraJfp J9 not ptii the samt viiJnte ei% d $kif^%¥^tn thtj l^trt 
ct thsy did wAeif iJuj mtAiJ lit pi it. 

llB>b,SS. 5^. i»^|ion«iSfffil These ' hcierog? neons fri^n<!KTiij>«/ aa Rim- 
saucr points out, have nal been |ircviciiiily rrfrrrnf to und^r tfak 
name. They irc not ihc same na al «i^ 6nrr^xi», hot abl whcic 
the object of thr is&odailon U not the »mc on both >kiet. one 
parly seelting^ for instance ptft*«T(re, and ihc oiher money in 
rctarn for pleasure pro\ided, C/. viii. 4. t fioXurra M «al «V fwrvu 

^HMT nufuf dWkii kq\ writ rm aintv, olow TOii tCrfuvrfAots, uA p4 ^ 
ipiitrr^ *ai tpo*iif^tf' <ii/ j^cip /in rnif tjirroit tj^rtm afriH, oXX' A ^^ V** 
^•ti*w, A ft* ^ifMirfiid^fvnG M r^m ipturrw. It lit obvious thai pfnoiu 
wlicjui it would be jmjrossible lo difitrngui^h ^ fcn^a'^or m un^ 

b. 9S. KftOrinrp erpiTab] It hfls bcfn said hefoie (f,;. vHl 14. 3) thai 
proportion ^qu^li&es the dltFercnce heiwc;ea the superior 9StA 
infr>rior, and «o preserves fricndfihip between Ihcm : but it has MM 
bwn said (ciprt^ssl/ at leiist) ihui it |jrcs<(vca frrnd^^liip bctwrcn 
tho^ whose diffcrcticc ta T)Ot qusLntilAtlvc, but (^u^itatirc (dra^ymt* 
4<aar). S^<' Tfamsau^ ad loc. Grant'i referenoc to viiL 15. t fi 
thus hard!/ rdev;uit. 

HOOJC fXt CHAP. 1 : 5^ J-3- 


The ranij'h. simply [dcniffio* aT im^wiftiEff ^im svitJi ol toff 1109 b, 03. 

oU^Xvir rtri/t ^tXoXft, iv it rote fl»Mi/xoi(m3*Vi ^LXTair, im^uv ar^ijT"!, fA 

di-aXnTvr), but llje vrrUcr of iXyti r^immrni.iry ori eIils It<HjW alykd 
Eofttnuius by Aldus (bm Wcnlificd with Mich- Eph, by Ro«, 
C<mmfnt<xrt tur Ethik dts AnsfaUfiS, Mertnfs. vol. v) see* ih* 
diAiculty. aiid ukps ^rcAl fialns rn slioiv AfTf? al Awt^mntit^U arc jrn^ 

6iAtrYiumi^ l^u^ yap or* to ani^oyoi' cio(ft rht dPo^ofiAfic 0iAid(. 

(ihc rcadmg of V\ M^ Aid,, CCC Umbr., I3\ B'), Jpcwi yip «a 

ttnt aptfifi^ *iil ^4fAi^i4 al oyu^ai' , > . (^ W mi' frarpiv ""pie vliv ^^iXi^ttjc, ^ 
rou vjoC n-pAr irerri'fHi^ 0^:^ iS^ofn rjuA' tirrj ilrXuv r,r.X. It Is &LAICCI/ 

t>ccc£8ar)' Xo point out line itiio idtrnUBcatton of af ^vo)toi<ttiZ€U ^iXiat 

vhh rti »uJ? vjrtf^xi*'. '^^ <tlf gfOlirid thai al r«^ Hynfliii', bpLTlg 

(i»iDtiA«ri; Aic nut ca^ ^rpoY^i', ij^iKjrvH AriKCullL'^Tt yt[\i.iii nlnUisncni 
Uiot in ^U ihc three kind.T of ^iKU wc have iTnpi^ ''^^ Mrrft — 
»HL 13, 1 TpirrAt ft" ftiiTiuip 4*i>irEtff . , , mjl Bnfl' iirfftfrf^v ri* ^v iy loArifn' 

<al a^«iVwi» ^tlffitu, Jifulms d< VH ^Aiic mU ^«^ tJ Xf'^*'^i*''S ^^foVT<( ^f 

ireXinniJ] jr, ion-w*-!? Mkh, Eph„ Par., FritJ!., Stihr. Pclcrs. b,3*. 
Ran)»U£^r however tuppliea^iXf'f, \^htch is [irobably nglit, n» it has 
rrrlmiilj lo br »iui)|)1k-i] iil the ni-xt { wilh iptannj} ; i/. E. E. H. 10, 
1 f 4^ ^^ 3^ ^X''IT'< 3' ^ ^' TTuXm<i^ 'I'l rA UDV jim tU t^ vpay^j £tnTcp 

frur t^t Mr miff AiHiXirytair ^f}) ^ itokuiK^ aZtJt ^*XJii, [■aij rvftviTt' Sm^ 

words isccur f n a conieii eatteniively drawn from K. -V. It. i , 

I 9. ^r Sj T^ ^pgiTtriii a.t.Xh I f- ^ here (here lire mifiundcntondinge UOi J 
becNSP there i» no conimon measme. 

j 8' TowTo W |»^ d^^oi' *ndpxn] PcicTs with ' ibcy c!t> not both ■> f . 
gel uliat thf^y want/ misses the forte of iif'fyxn ^*fT^, which (a,a 
loay be sren from ibc use of wriip^r'iTn bdow, a, n) maiks ibc 
jobftiatence of a quality — ri v^f* *2vm or r^ ;(p^c«puK «^ai — jn A, col 
ihe stttirfacLton derived by B from thai quality in A, The Puapfa. 

VOL. 11. X 


BOOK IX: CHAP. 1: {} 3, 4, 

1104 li X is ngbt with 7u;i5a[»ti A« rn nfairrit ^i- ^ ^I'v &' ^i^ ^P"'* 5 Aj liA 

r^ Xpfiettnnf, tlra fiqrc ouros frriru i}^v ,^» >A7Tf iViti^r j[/J^ffi/A4i. 

«. 10 AXXci T& (Wcffixorre] MicL Fp)i. hfls rvMSdiHi ' - • tit* ^iXht 
eL^^p, T^r 4' tftvfKVDV Td hoAAof' ai' yo^ dbmvs *p*jinr r<ftiXov¥ Jit tt 

fc la. ^ W ™' ^Kf] Mich. Kphnj ihc Pdraph,, Sl*hr.. Rams., ind 
Gram iab« tfiis as ^quiAait-ni to q ivr' v/^f^^^ ^>x^, or p«rf«ff 
ffictiHship, Viciorins howcvtr trfcrs tcj v\a. 4. 1, «hrtr, iprakinj 
of ilic icsLibility of ihc friejidahip bctv^ccu /jwot^f ooij ^^fvimv, 
Aristotle saya iroXXot C* af ^utfl^tw^fj «'^ ^j< r^i vm^^ f4 A 
iFiVp^iTit, jV'^atif Jmc, T})C >vof(h fif Viftofius are *qiicJ 
scqjjtur apud auctorcm 4 ^' '"^^ ^^"^ ■«<(■ ui*^*' ^i^av >m in 
accipic ut perineal nd <xin<tr(n ajntciciim decbrandim <^uci jutfl 
itujit inter «- amnuir 4loIii:i:ic(iuc i\}!siii* : uxit euim veiiit aliquiii 
Ut ipn quoquc mancat, cum purn aiquc mtcgra est : ncqac CcM 
prr>pier cxp!cn<|[tTn libidmcTQ, aut fructum indc oliquem cooiD<* 
rlumqui? (lufcrtTiclum : sell proirter moruni bg^-Tiilque ^kihltidrDcs: 
nam quo^l addidJi nunc Hoc a sc toxica dictum foUie, iittdt(^ 
locum euiD in quo primum supenore in libro do ipa pEUeifk' 
usus enim quoqiie ilHc rsi in djis iiNtL-m quitnii tic vrrUi^qoV 
sunt hacG ttcjXXoI ^ g^ jr,rX viii. 4, t/ Zcll takes iHc w« ^ 
as VicloriuE, rtfflrring Itie words *; ^^ rif viUv -(.tX to tifce y*«i 
^la of ihe immeLlialc conteKt and quoting vlS, 4. 1. 'B^mu^ f' 
|iLs Viclonuri and Z(^ll undLTStand ll;c prc^nt puaaigc)is pccufist 
un^abSc unless it happen lh;il stmilariry of diaractttr (lAi i4dktf 
good Gi iadiffer«nt} establishes a more Usitu^ buitd bctveeu ^ 

Aga.(nst this mterpnetation are the words «f o^rWin^ vUik 
can scorcdy b(^ anydiiitg bui an abbtcviatnl cxprcnion for^i 

3. 6 — ihe pn^age, 1 lake ir, referred 10 here (ix, i- 3) in tbe «fli 
iruAimff tiitiiTtUM Of couffic 7 Tbv ^OS)v iJiiXui bas JD aiir iM^ 
nothing 10 do with the 7^«') ^iX/* o( £.^. viil J3. 5, whki&lk 
umler the Jiead of 7 Jlid r4 xPT^'f*^- 

, IB. } 4. iiteapftJ] Sco the noieA oT Zell* Michclet, an<l Gfu^ fcr 
the sLor;'. 

noOJC rx: CHAP. 1 : 55 4-9- 


«dA4u^u Y* X'^P'*' TJ^i^Ta £^crfl(] lirvi'rivir tft im a. iro anil T^vra whal 1104 (l 91, 
he ha* EO offer in rclurn : J**- 7^^ titavrvt ^irm rnvraf wm fliJwffiv fl 

♦t'y;|u-jf iM£Tfl;^«tof ovTOf (Parapb,)H The reading rd ftrd (O"^, and 
Mj mrhoHiy fcriDttn to Mich, E]ih-) is arcrpind hy MichrE**! will) 
the sense — ' he *iU be ready to give of his i>wn an amount equal 
to that which he receives.' Coraes reada »^ -lui-sS— ihc eonjcciure 
of Mureius. Tlit- change of number (i»ii — ivlvou) \y.\:A\y (alls for 
tiotiee in a writer like Arislotic : at fLny rate I caniioi think that 
Friiuche's explLinaUon atloplctl by Gnni is EatUf^icLory — ' Pro- 
niMiicii /if'^vDu ^iTigtilari niimcro 3cl |<rioTem muhiuidiniv; nunicrum 
{tp h^A^toi TVY^\»'*^) rcfcrlcr propkrca quad una ret. BinKuIarl 
dciidcMia occa^iQnc, expnmifiii.' The passage viii, 3. 3 referred 
10 by Frtt£6chc in illu^tratiur H?eni^ to me rather lo be a ^ood 
exanopk of a change of number carelessly made without any rca.^on. 

}{ 6-0. y^v dfr'«»* K.T-X,] When a service Tifls been rendered »■ »<- 

williutiL any previous ^to^n^iiyfn. 01 itrii]rr>i[unc1ttig beUvtt^ii die 
pvtiev respecllnp its value and Ihc rcmuTJcnxiion to bo ^jiv-cn in 
reltirn for il, AuM;t'>pDt ^^d iyvX^^j/irn naturally ariic- \Vitli whom, 
in nucb a case, JoeT« tl re^A to put at\ end to thern hy fixing the 
value or romuncraiion^ VViih ttic recipient: for the other party 
cannot force a stnice (ot whaievcr else), at his own price, on an 
uuvtl]!nj{ reci^ieiili ind if {aUIioui oli express CiVMoXfrym) be 
perform:: it, he cvidcnUy does eo leaving the remuneration to be 
teilled by the recipient. This U what Prot^j^oras did; but whal 
onlinarj soplji&ts do not venture to do. Tlicy cve^i coHett iheir 
fe*a in advance. It is lo be carefully noted ihaij in these seeiiong, 
Aiiitoile is speaking only of those cases in which po previous 
diOfiB^vyfu c*ist>. The ^Uir^ttjla Awv ho}itiKvy'mt of these sections 
may be compared with the i^di'4 4^'^ of ^^1^^' 13- 7' ^Vhcrii tn viii. 
■3, T t, Arisioile snys generally Ih^i the stanJanl of vjlue in ^ S^ 
t4 Xf^\))Mt ^iXia is q tvv vu6iyTos u^f^fWi he statc& dic ba^ia 
indeed on whjch the quextion of price must be discussed by 
r^4fyiryit aiid fififi^v, bill dws noi of covirse mean it to lie uni^pr- 
Etood that ihc htter can (csEcept in the absence of a Aio/ju^r/y^i) fix 
the price of ihe iI^Afia. The UTiwillingDCf^s, due 10 various causes, 
nf ibe prospcciivc rUfi-ytritt to [jprfoTHi the servlte has the effecL 
cf making ihc (prospective) wu^J;*' estimate ihc ut^'Um more highly. 
The unwillitipnest of ihe one to p*^rform the ftervjce Jx-low Ji 
^ctf haa u lauch :o do wjtb thi.' result of dje dK«w^vyfa, a^ 
1 1 


soot: IX: CHAP. I; « 4. 5- 

UM a-sa. tbe un Willi ngnesa of the oih«r to receive ti «bov^ t ci^rtaln pHc« ? 
or othcn^ J8(^- — Tin- ^t^^tta of ibf?: buyer U the t^ltimaic »t:iiidjit<l of 
value, but the applicAtion cf this itar^Ajd w» a pitlkulor case, 
rcsuUing m the naming of -^ price, i« not left to ihe buyer afoii& 
If li were |Hi!csiblr foi biiii to fix tlje price aa low u lie lilcd, ft 
would be poi^iblc for the »cUcr to iro on a1«ajt veiling M & \oA 
U ia therefor? on!}' of «i 'T»«v ^ix^.D^Dfiiaf <^f^^49riu.or of ininsftCEJont 
r^lliEiFf iinfirr [he hc^i\ of iir?!*^ <ji\ia, ihnL AtiKEotlc's answer to tht 
question u,i;ke<i h<^rc al (he bc^-mniiiK Of S S applies. 
A. SS. { 6. irpoTi^/n>ii , , . irpaXa^t-req] ?x\\ lllilllu lh;il vp^adii/nt tS 

BiiDpIy cquivnl>:nl to \ix&6ynt'. but Corae» ii rij^ht, I ifadnk, vnA 
«, 34^ nfwTnYopov] Coraee, Micbelet, and Siihr quote Pla!0, Pr^ 

338 B /TrffW* 7^/^ ni ntif^ J}jau fuififj Av ^lii- &ab},ijm, Arr^t^atKrli^ 
tlrei tJ paSijfitiva, focrotr^ir norttf^^i", But perhftpt ihc pKHVt 

exercUi'O by niean^ of Lhis inelhod vra^ more con^udenble ihu 
ProiAgoros wished it lo be iboujhl, 

brackets these ^^oid^ as out of phce. The context in vfatclitlw 
quotfltiort occurs in the A?i. Ftuf. (H, 10. 1 349 b, j|) — *«< »t» 

cOTiaidcra more nalural, But if wc icmcmbcr what ihc bw 
(Heaiod Jfy. r. ^/l, 368) is in full, and wiiat iu eonievt is, it rfl 
appear, I lliink, thnt Runsauer h wron^ in btsukeiing ibevffdl 
before u3> 

ritTTtti A' ^a Afiitc urti nnntritu i&XttrtiP JbApat 

i.t. even w-iih a friend, ray even with a broiher, let iheti he 
no 'mere umJcrsundirgs' ; let every contrAct be enicted tdtt 
M i>ijr\*U. This is the advice of Heeiod. After raeniiooiDp thai 
Protagoras allovued his pupils to fix the fee> Arittotle j^roctv^te 
to say that in ihc matter of feea 10 be p^d for litilosopblcd 
inEiruciion {iv tritv twrimta), af>rne teachers [ifitnt) ar« oT tht 
opinion of }-}es]orl, that there should be a Riatcri fee {lo be paid 
a^cr the insLiULtion Iioh been received), alihoti^t the rcbika oC 
teacher and pupil is one cf friendihip rather than of brnaani 

BOOK IX i aiAP. 1: H 5-7. 


k all *7<X5frtTii are avoitlccL Those Sophletft liowevfrr wbo, iia*i 

^muncrjkilon lo be pAid afcct^v^irJs, go lo ihc ciircnic of 
riftg thai Iws j>ropori)Oinfd 10 rlicir txtravagant prclcnaionK 
lid in adv^nrr, nalurally become objects of mmplain whfii 
pupils find OLit UiAt lIeC}^ have been swindled, Wc luvc lliuii 
rebtions between lcacb«r and pupil^^ — (i) vbcrc the pupils 
If fee: {2) where the fee U fUeJ hefordrAiiLl [n ;i fuir iimmier^ 
"tling to the slandard of rcti^urrcration commonly rC(.^giLij>cd 
ucJi inftirttciion : (3) where tin? pupils nre swindled ty *n 

9lOr. The CJL[JrC5fcioiL oi n^uXiw^cJi'i'rTar rA litiyOfivar is ID h? 

ratood in close tonncxnJn with the f«v n-^iAn^i^Vrui of line 
L Where ihctc U nn ^/ia>cyiii, ihc vpaAa/fvv, noE tho fr/xil^ 
L 33 (or di^tXiiddkv b, J I )> fixe? the reiuru ; btii If tlic irp^iji^ 
(3PK>ff^ received foi sen^ices yet Co be rendered, the transaction 
H»gr*ctful one in which the rulis laid down ai ihelvgiiming erf 
00 noE app1y> ^J iT^iAii^imjtTiv t^ d^ytfiLO^ (as djaliiiguishcd 

tho^^<r^XaK''jiw»vc r^v tdtpY^^Cai') ccinnot be allo^v«d to 'l&l 
flee.' Their servlcos would he drnr *( the lowest price, 

I ini right iii iuppusing thai Arifltollc has UcsioJ's wlioJc 
■XX in hu mind here — vis. ^lct^c ^ . . . SKtvttv Mpat — the 
iOT appo*iTene*s of the quotation in ihc Eudemian connexion 
C»; be admittcd- 

'i if ntt %i |tf) YinraL Kiv^okvyia ii|t Aioufifia^J The subject •■ S3. 

trtv ^iHfA'^kvyiaa vir/ivpyiii a tut* rectumcd iJlcr the digrc^ion 
; the teachers who net on the mavtm /ntjB^lf AvAfii, and inaiaE 

|fcjr tt' oCrouf irpot/ji4roc] ihose whofie friendly services ureft^M- 
rcd la aiid fur dit site of the penonaJiijr of their friend*. 
itb a view 10 aomc advantage {^i nn § 8, b. (p) to be received 

Un^ ; trl v'ptXtfirrrtf rfii't ^Aavt fii" dtro^ cq| rTjitiifMitu rd iai/riir 
HXttV ivtta litai thtr uJ tn-auAtibi, as distinguitlied from oJ M 

yftX^tAt] In PetCtfCt Frterdship a itoimiktyla is unneceasarj-, l s*. 
lliundcrstanding in fH]!isibTe, K-tause the vaIhc of a service 
lis in its bcirjg llic (rue expression of a virmouH ch^iiclcr, 
la 0ach It u immedutely recogniged by the ngcnt's ir^ptrt 



BOOK JX: CHAP. \i §> 7, 8- 

kdI r»]s Apenj^jJ 'The rcitim m-^i^c itiuai be for nlmt the 
inlcnded; lor it is the intention which U th« Bi^Utcant t^ng ii 

a friend anJ in vlfmr." 

tuoTs ; but Rimmuci siupccis the |»9m^- As kc alull *c« 
Uier, tlic highest friendship is of ihc nature of philMOphicil itftf- 
course — a tind of Dialcaic. 

^£ Tvri] Tor some rctam' — *./. not V aCrwi, 'fcf Ik 
rriend^' sake/ The expression «rL nvi docs not TkecwiH| 
implj [hat Itic transaction is iVl f^vra^. or founded on a iJcfiuE' 
^koi^vftn^ OS ^ich. Eph. &cenis to take for ^[ranicd— «»' «ri 

7u^ /(TTtf r^ 9/ i^^XuyititH An adcijtiatc rciuni iii c^tpectcil ^ 
the giver, but no tlefmite bargain has been miido m the ca« 
^^ch the XTction ha« in v{rw< — & taac aiuwcring lo tbt 
dcKriplion of Jfl*jl ^iXJn given in riii. ij. 7 4 ^ ^fUt ■«** 

T(i Iffoy 5 trXf'o*. i»c tC ^r^wt^r iiXXi ;¥P^'*^'' Tiitre being do pre™» 
Agreement, or fku^Xv>iii, the recipient <&> ftn honest roan, tnv 
irj-j if possible, to meet die eipectaiions of the giwr — ^i^ra *^ 
Vim irT,X, b. 7 ; but if ihis br nci: pomtijjlp, be has the taaSsx 
in his own power, fincl muj^l m&ke vhat jwjtncnt be thai* 
equivalent 10 the benefil iecei\'ccl» 

b- 12, sot y'^ '^ ^^^ ufLDit offtbi ^LvtTTu Yird|i«k«v] ^ for ewfli 

a thing :a offered for sale, this rule holds good' — ut. ib< l«>« 
fixes Lhc pricf: a /&rtion\ ihen, in ihe cases juA nieDlioned,vben 
a n^or^ or le^ fHenilly gift or h.un ha^^ been made M twv ^ 
4>4v Jitr^Xurmr, ihc receiver fixes ihc amount of the return^ It il 
not nccenary to think, with Kam^auer, of a thing being boa|bl 
Awir AfD^AoXuTiiit— this wouI<t surtrly Imt un unusiuJ caUN^— but nikei 
of tht^ ' hi^glin^; of the market/ by which n Sic/JcK^'e as to price 
is arrived ai. U"here things are rot offered for laie "al ted 
prices/ tlic bujtr rather ihan ihe seller ^ecms to 'fiv tfie ptloc* 
^^'hen he beats doxnn the seller. Again, at &n auction the hiirhm 
bitkler sci^mg to Rk the price. The Paraph, and Micb. Epb, bob 
KTOi to ujidcratand llie reference to be to Uic 'luggfiog of the 

en sbcft I 

BOOJC JX: CHAP. 1: {5 H, 9, 


vq] rotrokTuu ij^ini' t^pfii Xi'vfi ^ fi7rirv/ift>oi> iSa'eu*' : ttniit I^lic]j. Kp[h 
I1.IS— <5 yi>J TrinpiiffKajv irh/of ^j fijrti rvc ■tfior, o Aa mhiu^wic TwtoDrop 
9i9tt«ru' fttro* itv cIi^Tat yrtvu^L Hfr «ifA Tti wtiav ^' 

«.T,X.] ITaviiig jiiblauccJ llje *hi^^ling of Lbc iiurkct ' to show 
how much power rcats wiih ihc 'receiver" even as prospective 
Aw>¥r, ArisioUe now a<lds that in same Wiiieij tlie law decline* 
10 intciTcrc vvlth him aa tk^ler — j'l lOAy be even as TfAuilulenl 

The rxpression wniWa o-i-;4jftiXn*a (^ Pbrc, J?//. 556 A) uimiik 

tc be c<iuivilcnl to llic ^iMJtO'ka >rvifo\y.nyiMTa cf £*. ^. v. 3. I J, vl£. 
v^ffK, uin}^ SuHicT^df, K.T.X-, uilh thi£ diScrcncc perhaps that it 
calls tpeci'.^l aitcntion to r/i^//// given in ilies^ transactions. Ii\ 
Alhcnia^i l^w evtM^i^ia (plur.) is a Jo/zc/ or cot'manJ — mere 
pirtlcuiarly wjih regard to money leiU. Where credit wa^ given, 
even rfri /lijToif, ii would appe^tr from ihis and the parallel passa^ 
Tiii, I J. G (where see note), thai in ^otne MAtcs tlierc vrua no IcgU 
remedy axumtt one who declined to ful&I Ihc contract. See 
Newman's tioiea en Pn/. 1 163 b- ai and 12^7 h, 37, where ho 
quote? Sirabo 701 — {^» A*^ ;ij^ «Z-aA (among certain Indians} 
rX^v ^F<iv Jtaj li^aic' o^ Vir' vvr^ yap t6 ^^ irn^'E* rtivm, n JS 4¥ 
foif ^vfl^o^nimi in tri/r^ Jniirtif, &fm aHfj^firdw ^*l rav riE nnpo^S^ 
r^ irfCTTLi', oXXi ml ff^trtjfitj' ^ry RUfTfLTiot, jml ^ Aiioii' nXijfioCr 

y Y&p ... h. 70 XbfipdwuTTf^ Ram.eaueT regards ihe^e wofdn as b. 16- 

oui of place here, ^nd in ihemAelves confuted, and bra^ckcts them : 
t6tuft, or rnfioSirrii (suggested l>y Mich, Ephp), is scarcely satis- 
factory, lie thinks, 3s ^ubjert of nffroi : an<l the ccinparison beg^n 
by ^jcDutrfpif*' is not completed — /< ^- the refi^n for the failure of 
the givei to mak« a just e^iliniute of Che value of the benefaction 
U (ndred suicd, but cvidenily the wrller intended to go on to 
point out that iJic receiver's estimate is also prejudiced, tliough 
not to the tame extent as the f^iver's, for he adds oXX* o/iuv <i.fA. 
In addition to lhe>ie puini^ noied by Ramsaiier, I would call 
attcMbn to the point that oi f^oH't in the suspected passage u 
DMd of ol irp«^»i, whereas in j 8 n-p^c^vrrj is the receiver, and 


noojc rx ; cnap. 1^59- 

llf4V,19. fxarfft uid 7xtw At the Old of tlK preKiit \ aUo reicr to 

If the paBM^T-- Miaji«tctl l>y Ramsatici be ulloweil lu »ul 
u U i£, oXX' oyuF vill tncftn, I AUpposc, * tiolwltbRAndin^lk, 
etirava^atnE valoo niinch^d bv the giver fo his gift, it ii i 
recrivcr's cstimutc llml he hits afirr all to accept u final' 

b. SOL B4t V Tout H.T.X.] I'tie siaicmcnt d-sii Lhc ircicivcr, in adouiilif] 
the viluc of a si:fvic«, must keep in ^icw the tlistinction beMa 
i;iaj^i An<[ itpii' ix"" vhows that the at^ here conccmplauJ b oec 
in whiclj tlu^ fiiTvitx h^i alrcaJy tjcGii rciidcicil viulwul prcvicn 
ftio/»>fly<L, and it devolves upon lhc receiver aldne to d*Ear»i*' 
SK an honesi man what return he will nuke- Ramatfri 
suggestion Lo svad lhc scnicntc rit voXXi 7*^1**™ trm »wi™ 
n aj^arrff ical «1 j^^Xd^'imh Xaj^T" oflCf aVtiM b- 11 SdOni CO I')' 

an cxc^tlfni one, and enaWes u* lo give oJ JjAtrti lit prop** 
meininif, '^bich, a& I have (iQintcd out, wc cannot fitr >t V 
iL now ^laitdA. 1 olt^r tb« following ri?nmng«incnt, which ta 
only siHows n* consistently to refer Jx™^'i 'x'"' ^^^ *■ 'l"*™ 
to the receiver, but meets E^iaaiKi'a diffitulij about Soawn^ 
nnd places ^y o^aji where iu force i* felt; — y 7*^ Ar*?]*^. 
nti/Ttn' lu^iii ^ucnu'irfpen' Tdj'K mf; tjitrpi'^favTot' vA yofi niala tf ■ 
t^6otrw imunoit ^aifirui iruWtiiJ S^m' ^ri ft* Tatt «v lurvvm v«iv 
ftTDf 4Jt°'** ^ikmu fj^iQi', oXX' »af frpb- ix*^ iri/ta' ra r«U^ )«|) 
ojj rai) trou rcjiAiTiv <?I Tj^nrrff ital nl QtivXinna Xafitttr Mt' JfH< T 

ditticutiy of OndLng a Bubjeci for o^Voii pc^nL&t I ibink, to ft laciuA 
betvrctn tnuufuwrtatv and ^ TtJ^ l^ 15. 



7^ /oi/cvfinj: alic art di^uii ^ueteiuHi^-^O^g^t matt atw^i t» , 
pf^mnef to kti /tirhir. tuift oivy Aiw m all Ihinj^tl Ow et^ftttid, ^in\ 
IB pti/yi kit >^rer ratkrr t^am Mt fatktr, anti^ i»tif*iiit£m£tmfr^, BWVjfiri 



luieaijr If firj t-i^if ennvtrt ta imk fueitiertt^ C^a ifrjftr iinftjinit//y, avif 
wAai ii rigXl 4r m^ttsary m hi/ out it ftrkaft not to *f* anathtr siw, Btl 
ikii u ^mm~-4Aai etv tMgAi m^ ffi fin tAt tamt f^rtcn tSU frifere/tic m d// 
tkim$. A!m. ^ a rnii, pfu tit^hi ttf if rat tirvint rtinit'tJ ai dVM anU rrfiuy 
fAm i^fftetn ma^ /rpjtati t9 om*! tutoetntri—ta o nt!e: fir Uirearftj- 
aft^otii — A hot iftH mrtitifni^/f om ^"i^Hiit f*y ff : lAai/if A nmipm or nftty 
Bf »r ikonid hi ramsm ku «i« f&tktr f Tkrn tan ii/ »iiiy ^M* nini^vi'- Hi 
oa^^ to rtmiOm ku JatArr, Anothir i9i4 in wKu\ iht ffFntr^ nth thai 
irrv^fi tngAi t^ht rrpsi^tiict J/Afj m ptrka^t inkkfptit^U, i> ^Utt A doej « 
itrwHt m S v^PM ht ^ffWA to ^ t few/ misn, unJ It ii riw jmi fm lAr 
fOhihm ^tvOtgn rriHin to A orAcfV hi ihffostt lali d titd ttiaa. TMm. 1/ 
A Ihb/; mavy m B tu/rutit/ tintl n u 4v Aurv't w-n* aw/ ii'ift pay iwt^ iMe 
iO0j$, B it mtt ivuKtiin turn ta /tr$if MOrtry fc A wkcm ki Iwki u/wt am dit" 
imtiii *ww omd not tiktjy ft refay ii^ H'l reltirn rftcj mt Aaini en (hi tiipw 
^Wb^Ai A'i eri^Koi Jtrvut, if B U tit^t it Aii o/inicH iff A' a iharactir - 
amd if Ml ffftKUrrt u trtiitii^n. -rtf ti ii j4ij opinion, anil ^^ mtd hoI H atr- 
friud or Ais aeliHg hm j'/ /JffUftVr^ Hfhert ftrtVwjfaitf/i vary tHdipmittiy if 
it umpmii^ ta j^t drfirtitr aniu^n i only thux n/tnA ii i/fjr — J^ni tkt u/ru 
ritmrnJ art not ta h rrA<£fr«/ to (mU petutrtiy anA ihut j// ihin^t *kre not Iv Is 
rtM^'tJ ttitn toafi/Ai* . any mtn ihtin aJ/ t^inj^i «it offtteJ t^ 24us, Thin 
orrMfjtjj ^'hiik art prvptriy anii fitiin^fy rtmdfirdia pirftiti, hroikt-n, tartt^ 
faHiomi, oitti bfn/fat/ari rttf^tic/fy — ihi* U $mfr*tS iatHHiOH!y magtwiitifi lAft 
$f it ii*rr iintiHen it/H&m pt^pU tnvtU le inJJtn^t oKti/uifffa/ifOn thi grwatJ 
tJkai ikttt f/v important jaaiijy atntt. 

To fftMti.tti to ihr iMiAori of tktit htinj^^tkitdrin ouic^f to rm^er ntpport, 
€mda^ Aonpitr.aj to gods: 6ut not etUrykM t/ J\onoi/r ; /or iitiAe/t5tpie£t 
Ai kmemr ttut tn a J'atkrr diffttt Jntm thai duo to 't mathif ; Ast^ a^nt*t the 
JjMJMr dm to o fatktr lit^tri from thmt ifni ta d phtiotopMit ttdiAtr fr U 
OftKrai. i^JteJ, toali thou Mfk^ort tidtf AoftoH'' it dt*i iurfrdt/tg to ^tf — 
lit itjpnti/ii^i ifn\iatk4' imhA ma/fert. 

To tortrnda and ifrolhtri our btarittg ou^ht to bt frank arut open. To Mu- 
mtw, fti.'oV'trHYitHfu. ftiSo7r-cin\€fii. and sU othtn iiv mvji fry to fiw vA/ir 
itjf^ttvtiy dm to tktri antmting at tk/y ttand irt dtfftrtnt d/grttt of rtlatioti' 
lAip to tftrnhti, ottd diffir in vtrtti* •tr irt uj^/nfftt/r. IVhtrt pcop/e are of 
tkt Mott ^trtd it is nvt ttiy i^flutt/i Aj asji/^ 10 f4uA A« dnt ; i*H ivhtn 
tk^ d^tr it ii a harifir task ; ttiUt mt mmt tol thrink from it, dut do our 

^n^ethieif*ry Notf.'] In this chapter, Mlchelet remarks, we htvt 
ihc ht^t'^Tmittgs of Casui?itT}'. ' CEuui?i[ry * ha^ gol a bad fepuiAtiim 
bccauK ix lia5 manulacturcd. in imitation of hrt4 fide cased of 
moral perplcxit}', ca^e£ whidi no honest mim would find petplex- 
ing — and ilibi. wtili lIjc lonc^jtlcd obje<:l t^f ri^solving ihrm Ln a. 
KAK Eivounbic 10 iiomc dishonest inclination. I'hc perplexing 
<a»t« given in ihis clutpt^r are all^ however, bomSfidt cnefi, thougli 


BOOK rX: CHAP. 2, 

die form tn whitli soiiit of llicm ire jircs^iteJ remind* one of A< 
Debating Society- Thty arc ca*cs wilh which di: hor«l fwm 
might liod bimeeif confronied— cases tn which hr has uj chooM 
between l>*o courses of conJuci, each of which alternately * con* 
mon sense' prcsetils as a 'duty'— if it B«ms right to choo*t the 
one^ il then seems wrong not lo choose ihc ctli^r. 

Commuti sense takes out of djcir real ccuttexi cettnin poittU 
of view, presented b> itnoginntion, and reccuitnended lo the 
attention hy fwlmg, and mak« them Jnto Ahf/ilmi? and self- 
feiibaisLeni ^cniilba,' JncapaMe, luiurnlly, of recondllatioo M pan 
of a raliouLilly consislenl EysUtn. To itt«m[:il to wive for him- 
self' the prohlcms of casuistry " from the level of "common wnjc* 
c^ accordingly only wriken the iDoral nature of the man who 
ftttempLs ii. He has lo tjchcve in "two duties' in the saane e*- 
ttiDisuiKifiS, to one of \i'hich he nnui^l net-ds be unfmchful. IlaUDtf^ 
by ihc iliought of unf^tKfubcss lo a *duiy,' evety time he « 
forced to mike a choice m circumEtanccs of moral pefpl*Kiiy he 
does viok'Dce lo aw hniwsily enterLilned niGral senijrncnt, WJ 
bnngs himacif ^dually nearer a poinl at which it is no bogtf 
doubllut tliat hie; decisions hive become difthonevt. 

' Thi; jnohlents of Casuistry' ntc only for Ihc mu) vbo bit 
risen above 'common sense' lo liic height of rcAwn; *to «« 
lee life clearly u a aingle organic vhole- Of courte the piacdcal 
dilUcultit^s of disEingtii.siiing between liic rigLi uiiil the woo^Hd 
of choosing the right, rcm;iLn for such a man; but the faJbeff/ 
the ' two duties in iJie aanie circumslanceft ' — of ihr mor>] im^erhM 
in im/trio — -no longi?r imjioscfc n^jon him- He now fierceivc* th* 
ihcrc can be only (]ic one duly, however hard to find, in ibf W 
(et of circumjtances. His alltiude lowirda tlie perj>lexitirt ef Ifc 
is a resolute and objective one. He Is not jjnMljMd by ^ 
ihoujjhi that, when he doc^ whit i» right, he ia also doing whtf « 
wrong- Hit philosophy ha? not ma^le life lew^ [vrplcxing tn dtniL 
but it bus |;iven him the great idea of the ur^^onic untly of ^ 
world— an idea which inspires him with fonimdc and rttigw^ic* 
Tr 'n the clearness with which Amtotle presents life U intkuil 
whole that makes the diacuwion of ' the pioblcma of Olmixij ' * 
^lisfactory in his system, f^vrnirio and rniSoi bruk Duty i»o 
a miLlEiliule of 'cases of conscience ' — Life, intoaehaoiof «e|ianl' 
and repugnant iKtms. malting U ' a »crie* of epi«ode». Wit tt^ 
play/ The perptexidea of ' Casuistry ' repescol the vort of 

BOOK IX.- CHAP. 2 : §§ 1-7. 


^taroffln anrf t'iO'it. The rcMjluiion of thew pf^qiltxities tt ihc 
work of RcisoH- Oil Lhc rci;iiion of PhUosoiili/ lo Caauiatrjr. see 

{3. Ty h<lXc^ Hal di'ayitaLy] r^ itoX^ mnikfi UiC claims of lIic lie4b.2D, 
Form or Ideal whIcJi ihf^ g^wid man strives 10 rcaliw ; t# fimytuifi, 
ihc limliaiion^ impost^d tpoii liiin b)' the jwrt/jVr of his ciraiin- 
atanocs. 'For tljr diffcffnl c^acs dlffirr in all Aum of wajv, 
•ccor<ling lo ihe impoiuncc or unimporlancc^ the nobility or 
fiecMiity of the acl' (Pei^rs), 

{ ^. upnuBopx'i*'] 'the primary obligation' (Grant). 



S fiiv . . . t^ B/] Both refer to the same pprson, viewed Brsi 13 s. d. 

ppoTtf&mic, and lIicii 9t^ 6^Chn}i^vu¥. 

«0k I^ok' T^ d^LujAci] ' [he chim is not eqnal ' (Gnnt) : t/. Mich. &. 10. 

£ph' — ovhi yi\p fljrrfy f^ ufiu^d, uAAd Totf jfi* fTi}rn]pfur laniifiV Arifirfi 

Aftiimn. VicloriuE ha& — Kon esl par postul^uin. 

oTorrai] CorLies rciids (^fffmi, which the Paraph, aerm^ iti sui^jtort »■ H- 

fl*i, iilrroj W, j(d] Al^ tovto o£* dw*j'^frai xiirf hfnt, nuX ot^ut o^ mJww 
rorti mC Brjtfliov, Coraca also reads l^wnif vith r, M*", O*", Ald.j 
insteiid of W^in- gi\fn by K^', L^^ Cambr, ihe snbjeci of oTrfii 
and fio^M* being ihe ffituuSutuf. There tan be no dovibl, howcvcf, 
that if »« read <>L»n>ii tuid fliffdui', their real aubjcct ia still Ihft 
tfir*uaiiTor. not both [wrtSes, Ramsauer sees ihk. for on the wards 

tti/A Ay fli'^if*' VTruno !i**»ii' he has— -'Jd ol iViftTi t^i* "■fyoyffup;!^!' iwt 

ui^tt^it"^ '^hc change rrom the SLngular rXfrcf" (■> ^^ pltiral 
oZuyni need itot Gurjirl^ii; u& In Artetotle. 

f €. n^X^if] i. 3> J, ii. 0. 3. 

tip Aii] Grant refer* to v, 7. 1. 


{ 7- "^^1 * funerals/ Mich, Eph. is cerliinly wrong willi ^ijflij k^SOl 
A' AiA jlt nyit rav yu^f wiuXAdyptrii. Wliy* OS Micliclct a^>, if thb 
is (he iQUJUimg, &re r^ •r^Ai; mentioned septiratcly from and after 


SOOX IXi CNAP, %i ^ 7-10. 

U0«».90.lhey<[fi0(? According to the Jnd. AritL the word occun odf 
liere in Arlsic^ilc, 

a. 09. {8. Tpo^f . , , yaniHTb . . , JiTop««tk-] The genUlvtf Ig ponj- 

tive^' lo supply one's pa.[enln with their due »hAic of sujitcnaoce.' 
'^ell and Ccrnios, follovrng the Par&ph., conjecture r^vf^i^v, Tbe 
reguUr con^truclfnn of Jimpnbiui dat, of Ihe j»rfHon and accc4 
tbc ihing. The dil. of the lUiiig howc^t cccun. Pcrtiap* »t 

vhould r«ad rpo^^?. 

■i 07. I O.] Ftiu;chc, Grant, and Rrnnsauer Quote Plato, /f'?^. -l > 5 A 


L S9. ifuyiipjvctr Tik iKtioT^ii ^Ttdpjtflvr^] ' to Ob^fpi Id cad) vIlU i) 

properly due on the ground of rehiioiialiip, gocdncvs. or lucfulnca' 

•. n, XPI'^O ^^illiams ^'cry phuijbly translates this by ' Incina&cT — 
t/, Lfliin *jttf; bui the commcnuiloni are probflWy right viA 
' iiHfufneiit': xp't^' ^^ i^^' qTiutml in tlir /ar^. AriiS. in tht KOK 
of ' intimacy.' 

ft.S4. f 10. V| ffttyiipiobt] So TjA^atcr ftftef Rucllc ( J7«r. d^ ^jUI ii^ 

P' 175)1 for *^c *("''" o^ the MSS- *The qu»tic«i/ Mja Byntw 
((?fl»/wA«/ii»/j. p. 63), * here k not cf " juJ^tnenc " or " r!teiaan»' 
or any tiling of that aort, but rather of comUaing the pcrvxwul 
their respective duea ' — and he <]UOCe« de Grm. tl C^rr. 319 h. t* 
for the usage, and compares atynpiiTit here «1lh in/fcvf^f in £.V 
V. 3. I a. 



Aitfithtr di^cuti ^ufjfffftt it a^eut iMi JtssUitehn ^/riind$kif mc* eAm 

BOOK JX: CHAP, 8: ^ 1-3. 349 

Hit^ftr kit frrrvmal fharoittr, fvhJt «li iki timt i# war mify in Anv wjM 
JUt mMfnitMti: m thai ttrt ikt tihcr hvkJi/ Aafe a rif^f le e^iftftnirt ef 
ttmmier/tii frienJiXi^ — d trme^ titrte iAiHi; /Aan i-.'M/ifirrftr't e^rih. JJut if a 
m^M m^it 4n4ihrr kit fiiatd vn aaouni i^f thm afAtr'i j^vaim^ij atiJ thai 9t/isr 
Aviur/ Mrf, <tm kt tvttintu to Aflfv kim m tt/rint^ f Sitttfjt not- fU lannot 
Inv Md/ vJkifk H *T"i7. f ^ /i>* f / ; /,*•■, aI fw A«v wfm. iit/ Mtvi /it* It 
Mt t^kttt if kttMjt ^ lk4 fritndikip At ena} /r*i urtZ-ut tht tiktr kat ivi^Mn^ 
JmatraUy bmL // Ikt efktr's churiultr ccm iJiU iff n/imntti. ke tSuId nfff lia 
t/^iking nfin worthy of /fiendtkt^ ihaa /ryim'/if t(/e'7n iL A^aifit if oftf vf 
lit nn> JrtftbfK fwrvain tht iajit/, nnd tkt efher /tfrcm/ n mutk fi<//rr buh, u 
rkt t*t/fr i/ill /rt fJvJt li/f kif /r^rtvirhi/ fvtlk fhtf^r^it'^rf Ht mtt hnr^y *i9 
9»—^imjf rvt mtt if hit fti/mi h ^ fntrtd 9/ h^ht^d %uin- hu mwiitfdAtty 
jm timditt(tatdiit£,^hiie ht koj kimsiJf itismi a Htaititf Jiiii^i^irkrd ejttiiaut; 
fif wnkai itn!*! tki tmtn t^iwv }mh/^>Vii Aubv inttmrnOH ! /Aftif tvM ttvt 
nurk ftrtttit stt mM/ft qffSfk fth^i If tht dtsfini^iikf^ man tktm t9 maJtt 
IM diprrmet htittn^ hii t^ld/ritnil jW d simMgrr f Ovr tmt^tftr ft —At Mqf4# 
f* rrmtrnf^r iki «t4 iftli/nafy. Stvirlkiig *s itM lo ^/gf^* /rftjtdik// ^ktr^ 
nil Mfarmr^ Am wf 5n^ to-vifinJ ^ Ik* filJ /rifmJ fitmdmf ^kJ «v>7 kaJ 

i L t(^ t^ ^M] li ofHi^r ifH t^ i^ot (Mich. J^ph.). UOS b, s. 

'■' ^'d] ^^ remark c:ia<;lly corfcsponjin^ io ihlf hu Wnb. 0- 
nuxlc. Zell, Coracs, FnUsciie, :ind Mtc:h«kH however ri^fer to ix. 
I. 4, and Michekt rcganls ihe expfr**ion *V apxr as showing thai 
llus collection of Gt'trui ^iXuui cor^tituLin^ the Nintb Book was 
pObUahcd sepSLT%is\y. Rftmsnutr finds the apxi in viii. 13. j 

ylvfrtn civ rit /yikfifiara ^dAiT^ Srav >i4 rarh T^f a^ffv <fvvaK\ii^totn JRll 
In^Cionai, where the discussion of^iorlropai bi^gLOS. 

f 2. mPSuWoirpitJ Tbc commcntalora quote ThcogniB — b, U, 

Kvjjn, K'tl J^Ufinr ^odoiv afSftl aip^^' 

Tovra Silt KiMriK6niT0¥ Ttrifjtrt ^trolvt, 
ittxl yyvi'm irdtrmK roi-r' ufi'jpifaro^, 

j 8. dnofi^x^TQi] ' receive irtio his friendship/ h. U. 

rfr* SJ ^iXiiri/ ^i4) mtfcTjp^KJ Tliis is B/walcr's rcadine* b, 15. 
after Suhf, for J^ckkcr's oSri li fp*>.fjriov no»^/nif, Ruiififliivr ind 
Sucmilil. however, righily (I think) hracket the word* (oraiitcd by 
r), rcwling oyV (Rai^saucr's toujcctute) bcfoie ^T L 15. K^ 
0Diil6 «Sn Art' ^tltFfTijn/poi'. Wc mik^ suppose that the scribe of K*^, 




BOOK IX: CHAP. S: {§ 3-$. 

LiOB b. ia> \ulth a KXl before liim likr Beklctr's, acddentally omhted 

^iXnnurr^jiui', liccauHc of the aimilaJity of IbcK wordt to efn R^ 
^iAi^rio*- Brt^jwir which h« hul already cransciibed, Thar we fn 
Mmilir ; mul u jcumui Tor ihrir limihHiy my be Rivrn aufdilowi— 

The OnjIfLDal XttX tvcillg t^p' frt (jb^Xf^n'of ; ^ vv ^itviifr, vtirfiJ yi^i lot 

MuTkder Ti^;>cftic(1 the wotil» a{M AvT ^>fFn^^4r. The bluader v» 
thcr racionaliacd by the ciltcrAticn of the fir^t meinbcr of Ak diCH*- 
grafh inro ow Sj i^iA[r7Tf]n[ir1 imibtj^k q^nd of i>tAf' tit the fcoul 
iiilo oJt*. TIh? acnbu uf K'', wiih e}iis raEHULulNed iliiiogmpli Ufac 
him (as wc bavc tl tn Bi:kk«r'» icx:). was led by iLc liiaiiin^ 
between iHifif ^' i^^i^Tfl'oi* mH^k and o^Vf Aii ^ilArritij^d* acddeiitill|f 
to omil :hc laiicr. FrJtiscbc oinivs ofn Ai ^iXjpmir irci^p^ dVt ^ 
tlllppO)I^g itiELt tlifjae words rcjirt-^^nt two gloetK* 00 ^o««v<> 

b. 16, ^LX«irJKifp4»] Zfll ^nd Coraeft quota Thoophrasiya, Char. [4 (s*! 

b. SI. Tf TmoJnf] Toury fl rou^^ i?i the rcadbf tdoplcd bf Coao, 
KritatAchc, and SuDcEnihl, atid found m Par. 1417, eorr.' K\ 
C^imhr., atirj yp, O*', iV^^ $ Tn«i>» li the re^rting of K^, H^ 
1)^ b". r, Al(], Dckk«rS and B/witcr's ro tiwtv is tbrrc^as 
of L^. Ot*, CCC, and B*. See Bywaters dmlrtf^tatem, ^ 63. 

b. 30. J 4» o^SJ Y^p mpl AXXV|X«f9 tsCA' Cin£p{» a^nli] l/, 1^ 
a^o«<rflni tck aufwp, &c. 'for not tvcH in regard to eacbotfvf's 
character will their taatcn a^rcc ' (Pc1cr»]. 

t>. >]. ttpijTot] ^viit. 5. 3» and viii. 7* 4. 

J 0. Sp* «iSv cD6Jr dXXoiJTtpok' iLT.X.] 'ought fac tben to ibce 
hiin:Lclf in no other rtlation low^dti him thftD 10wiri» qcic vtO 
hfld never been his friend } ' 


SOOk' /X: CHAP. 4. 




TV iAjtr^/eriiHt ffwrib j/ our /ritndtkif /or efhert i^m t9 U ttfiit ff 
iJ^u irAfifi heJon^ ifi tfie /tttiitjTi ivitA n/^^M iiv fe*ar^ earifini. Thd wifj 
^ftth''^ Ttrtfttisfd as lAaratfertir^c of eur /HtHdihip f^r v/Asn art Mar on 
ini/h *»f Try M rfi^if the gm-i pf mif /rimdt, Br Mikat Ttw think lit U thtir 
gUdif — Ma/ ^tt w»f * M/w to lyatf/ff lArir mttt yalit* thii it wiiat ini>/htrt tf*tA 
/tf t^ir fii/Jrfi, im.i tfJuj kiiTv kaj a lir^rfrtfi wuk fit /a-^ ^Atr) 
^^Aat vr i/tH^ ffvr timt tviiA thtit and (Aitcn tht lame ihin/^t ^ tAtj dr, 
ffm/t^ijj^ Ufi'jA (kiir jfyi ttHtf jfrr^uft [as.a^nin. mctAtn tifftia/fy^M 
nigvdi /kfir rf*jWf^Hl, A^oTi' tArrf an lAf mrtrki wAt^k fhitratiiritt tkt fui- 
imp 9f ikj £COti MJw tffiiHirJi himj*^, *iW t^r fetHfp p/ ethrf mttf l^aeitrdi 

ardvitk kiimtff, tirui Jtth afU* tkt lame tkin^jwitk aH piiris of ku ini/. /ft 
^tiika amd trffs tot^f^ kh onrrt goal for kimim sat£—thai ij./or tkf iMtd tf 
U4 rMipK*i /tarr p/ A$i H/ttw/ - A/ aha ^rik/t tff 4X»tl, cnii ^tiatimu/ i« z^- 
■fCfvwr. ftr te kirn ati/fiuj h a /psoJ ikinj^—tktti it. kii owrt uiiitmt vitkm 
tkt hmiti efktutnut H4/Mft^ far hs lioei tv/ u-tjA te /(tfrv Aii a!ii siif ^Jkimi, 
tmS httr*u tmtrfAtr Mitjr—iuit ftta OfiJn'itk ixH fhrtrtptf a-^ir* Cflrf a <M 
fmtiiti Siuh s 'fiUM ^^ithfi ftf t/fHi! kit lift '.tiith AiinJtif.' far b4V atlU 
k4 m^rt ^tfitatit f kii tift \t /Hltof k^ffy mimti\wfatuift^ ^cfft- kit mimf 
u riekfy itend tvitk Ikiitp tvBrik tkiniin/; ttSmf, Afc/tvrfr, k/ tym/tfkitti 
Irl^^J tvitk krj 6^111 pains anti plettiatet- Tkt lameikiff/i aJbijyjX'vr k»'m 
p^n, sni ikt iiimt tAitti-i atwayt ^ii/t hiiH pitatnn, wtfAeht ijiifplien : /vr kf 
■rt«r. tct m^ icy. ftih rtgrtt^ 

Sk^A. tkfw. Jvttijf tftw good rttntr't rtliti^m tf kjnirtt/, Ait nlaftfm ta fin /riin^ 
'^kiniittmff - teifi tt limaJsr. Whith/r kii rtlativH tt kimi/if it '/rt/mf 
ik^' ri a ^uaiien vkitk ftftiJ Hiff i* iHicuju^ at frtjtnt : ihtii mii<k hffu<ev*r 
m^ttuid. tkaiit tumi tah frttmLkip in ivfar m i4 k^ Aiv or mi/re vf tki 
dk^tatttrjiT^t mcrfr i>/ frUnd^hip ^ttsf tvnfhtsni. AtiO. tk* txfrwtjtoH. ' /ft 
bmtt hii/rii/uf ar krvurif'—m^uimg tkat hi* friimdshif few him u %*rygrpU 
— w«vr U iinf^jr fkal a «■#« ^an hi kit nw '/ntrrd' 

Tkt ikaroftirittie mark* pf /HfrtJihip xtkitk kave fvftt mtutian^r/ it«m ta 
Jc/m(| rviA ti/ the faiingi vitk wkik mtrt ivka art hui tt^anl thtmnhtt ; 
tmfy, AmvtWV IW JC far as smh nrin arc fkasitl wtth tkemseltvs ant tkitik 
dkatathni grwi, Tk^ f/rhu}^ -iiitth ^I'hifh ikn<f^i^a art xn tt-thrly hud ax uot 
M i* d** /e tAink fkimir/iit ^eod rtgnrj ihrnmitfis hati drlairtty h«w y 
tkfj^sfn^t/n/tinpffiiffdikif! atul,ferhafi itt oHj^kfto m/.o^h thtftdinft 
^lAott ^ka art had wttheul Muii ulltrly iiai art dtJtiiuti ^ thru ihof^Xiitr" 
i/tkt ; /rr juik intn art at variaittt with iktrnKlva : iktir deiira ttttJ tfiuUt 


BOOK IX! CHAP, 4; }§ :. 3. 

tkm^ ef thf mit Ai4^^ Ihty Atpxii^tu. «■/ Ahf drf/rjUifCM /j« vJ£4 fil<f W 
kdd/fr /iAT ivff, tfM*' /^^*i />f A/f avl/ ^dttt^ tMfmuitmt. Aim. lit 

tkfyr^numhir and Uak fatjmtni tc nwA t^ it JiMgraa^t oAkM l^ Jtiul 
ihink >tJ>Put itfAftt iArt art ffi/A aiAers. 7%crt £i ntf/A/'V ^" *^^<^ ** *""' 
friendthip, a,%%ii ta tkty hns^t tafrttniiy fuiit^ Ungrdt thfmuiptt. Thiyit 

attJ Mtttidf fan it jctaJ tAtnett : ti^tj *ft t^^t mrrj U*iU>fx h^t^ km gld' 
fktjftn /itti tf rt^rttt. Tkit t'l ikt tittnf tJ^ viiltni^turtfra nnxklti 
itoN : ftT^iftvf AT Ik^r^n U^t irtffitnteji, iMirf try ttttk sli^tMrm^it 
Af j<Wj t»d ij bitomt/ri^nit fv turrrJort ami elhrrt, 

[S« In/r&^thry Note lo Bofjk ii Tor Ihc reUlioD of ChlfMI 
10 ihc rest of ihe Boole.] 

1166ft.l, f{ L. &.] Fi^f^ i^Xiwi, or charaderUtics of Frlcrd^hfp. ^it tno- 
rncrfttcd in J i, all of which are to be fotand in the gcod m*fl*_ 
relacioiiA to himseli, j a. These arc — - 

3> ri idui'Xfa^iH fti^it aim ^/^ fi^r ^^uf- afruv Jtiij^w. 

The good man ({} 3-5) (t) wiihcs good to hicnfttirfiv h£i 
sake — i.t. for i\vt sake cf hb Reason tvhich is hitnwir; (i> tic 
\riahes his own concinued existence ; {%) he dwells wiih hmadf « 
Ihe pI^asanE memories of ihe (.^ast, and Ihe good hopes of th* 
luture ; (4) he is of one ound, aUayGsccLtng ihc t^mc tliiiiga viib 
qU parts of hift soul ; And (5) the same thini^ ve ahvaff dbavldiil 
to htm, Afid ihc same things pleasint ; he doe4 not nov (u3 lo 
fl^mfjBlWc with feelings :v1iicb hr cnicrtEuncd then; lie has no 
C]iE!!i: for repenting. Bad men on the other hand (ff S-io)flf« 
fmiTi ih^mselves, even 10 the length of vuicide. Tbeir cools wn 
full of diKDndcr and regrets. As EudemuA aa/i {K, £. H, 6u Mtfi 
b. \t, a chapter to be read in connejiton vj^ Ibe chiptcr bcfocf 
lis)— Ji yt prfx^pftt fiiix '^ ^^^ iFnXKoi, nl rijt olt^e {ptj^* "^iMf ^ 
f^rtrXrjffrtiir (unstable). 

These fe«hng«i then, with which the gooj ouui Ttgutls hinttdf 

SOOX JX: aiAP. 4; ^5 r, 2, 


w sajd ($ i) to be the ekmitcc of the feelmj^ with which a friend is UM ft. L 
rrgard^; or — (he chief characierislics by M-hich friendship is 
ildiiieJ, fiiiit their exfJajiJiLion in thr goiid inan'a atLiLufli^ [g liim- 
■clf; fl« Ku<tcmu9 aaya [,£'- A*. II. 6, i ^40 b, 2) — Smom ruvm (f.^. 
ni ^L>M4) /iTflw^yifrm ff/>Ai ri^** /^n. imd (lJ40b- T7) ^ ctiV-iiJ irpAt 
avrdr i^jri itniTfruj vjii^i jifif tuv dya^ot, Tlie good mail rdliscs 

perfect])' Ui hjmaeir thai ort'.'ncfia of soul and life which chnmcicrises 
lZi« rvliDEitmship of <hos« who jir«' fn^oi airroi to »c|i nth^r, Btit 
thiA dcfi^iiion of ihc ffelhig* of fdenJs from ihc fct-lini^s of the 
good man towards himsetf mufil not be titkeii too lilendiyi The 
ia^ai rnltr may be iha: naccd by Ari^irde in ii. 4. 1 ; but rhe 
fAreiwfofica^ order is diffcrcnL The good man himself h the 
renalt in umc of ihat development of society from Family to City 
which ^^''a or saiiai fifi.-1ing has rvmlerL-d possible ; or^ to put Ehi; 
BUne initb otherwise —that Reason which gives the good man bb 
imity of life, and in I'iitue of which he ig hia own conxtant ' friend,' 
b rruli)^ nui in iin i.soUtcd individual but in a dlifpn ; tl is ihe 
form undur which, &t U^r^ alter aj^tt of incessant struggle with dis- 
Jaiegmung forces the f^ood of men, ^ members of a 90Citty h(;!(l 
^^Bllier by utility and uatuthI affoclion, has presented Liself to the 
inoflt giAcd minds : or aj^in^ihc * scH' v^hich the good miw loves 
BO conetanEly m not thi* t^obud t«ir of ^nue which eeek^^ its own 
^ckkI hi ilie <x>«t of othem, but tin? rational self which consists in ih^ 
happy conacioosnesa of being joined together with others in a 
b«au<iAil social order. 

The ' good man " ihrfr-fore cannot be absiiacied from ihe society 
in which he ha» hi» being, in order that the feelings with which he 
reganli 'himulf' m^y be represented as the source of thoB« 
villi whiJj he regards his friends; for we c:m define 'himself' 
cmly ^5 ^a being whoiic vefv essence la regard for other»^^ 
de%t>t[on to Justice and Friendship/ Eudemus indeed [E.E. H. 
6 tn^ im!.), before beginning the remarks para.l]el lo Lha»c 
in thiH chapter, points out that ^Ala ^plt aitir cati be spoken of 
only in the sense in which ntutia vpftg avi6v is sj>oken of {see £*, M 
v, II. 9). rrlchd^hip. like justice, la propeMy between man mid 
maJK Ihoee whom it unites most perlt?ctly are indeed fiimdur in 
chantcrErr and Intrrcsts; but it is only by a figure of speech that 
those whu aie aimikr can be represented 45 one pcrwn, 

\V« mu&l suppose therefore that Aristode ist describini^ the 
logkal aa dtaiinguiaJKd (rotu iie cluono logical order, when he 

muu. Aft 

354 BOOK At- CHAF. 4:^1. 

U6fl 4- I- writes fix. |. l) rh t^jrh Zi rl ff^ t«£« * An*, nl afie ol ^X^ ififvfit 
*wtt /■ r«r ir;^Af 4iitT(^r vXirAvl^'hu. JiUit U UlC SlAk b MVJ in the 
JWrVf>j lo be logicnllr or mem physically prior to the i&dMui], 
dtough chronotoglc^lly^ttbsequerii^ whi?r<r Kcason i* icprftenifdaii 
prior to the Suic itself — ihc hanncpri> of the rubuJ Mul vitim 
iL»cIf iH repri^»<;tiEcd aa the Bourct of thoae friendly rebLkvu irbdk 
bind mm logeiher in ihtf SiMe. This i» the Togicsl or nirU)ih>^al 
not thccliroiiLjIogical ordrr; and CoraeaKI think, much niittka 
when, on the «LrcngEli of this ptts»Agc he ucHbcs to ArisEoAf ibt 
vTpw which derives ihr ^imUilc r«e1Jtigt (n itmr- from egoiial^ W- 

in^fi— ^JXuk oi rovrv to <fi^'X.4iuiv iiiii' ri^ufu nr^HAMiri^JfirfiAr*!/ t7*f 

rjvt^jjf^nv/jfVn ncpl r^t Ar^n^Vqc irpAt n>tc ^jJwr nv^imilfbt, tt lit 

)iayn TTjif irplr rnur A^AiUf ^^iflt. Htfre, at 1 tll\'« ftOid, COCM i 

miuh niUtiitf-n. ArisicUle I* nni conrpmrtl, In thf* chaj<rt;«ilh 
the NaLural History cr^^io. This t« one of the mo«L tnctaph^vdl 
C0Qi«xi8 In ihe whole of hS« uTJiInga. H« Insifts «Mrliiaw> 

on [he metaphysical piinrUy <>( rh vpht iavritr lo tA ^i^rlipii 

TDi^f TwXfls, bfcauBi- he wishes ua to rvganl the FriewU^ rf 
Gcjod Men iowiird* rach oiher m the jwjj* (t» j/-^w of Reini. 
T(j know orirjic'lf, {a be able Lo contenipluEe with llie e>e d 
Kenton the Sy^tern of Mtiman Nature, andj in ccntctnpUtJfti; a. 
let inajniain u as irdXrii' in the mid^t of the ?*■) of <yci pMSJcM 
and neccraities. is H.tppine^ oi Uic Chief (lood, Bui 1h« 
shall a man 'know tiimBcLf? Only by H>cSiiK bin^ ia htf 
friencfs — ;. t*, by ha\'ing frlemls townrdt whotn he CAft ftC£, and 
fO realise himself; for he \& what he i» to his fricnda. Ai EuiJfiniA 
puts it (£.£", H. I a. iJ4.^ b. 1 3) ^>i:*>*J- »* f^m^ f"!"", *W^U 
(^,A tf*^) jjuT^s duTut Tii *u cWi^. 1: is in strirt ronformrty iherefbrr 
with the metaphysic&l ba^is of bia ct1uc«] philonopbj And la "ix 
inlerciit of the development of bin ethicd philoAOphy on dut bfe^ 
rhat ArUoile he^(^ derives rn 0i\uj rA ir^r ro^ ^avt froca tAi 

j 1, T^ np^ ro^ oAat] By water's reading for rl »^ n^ ^on. 
Thete words are omitted by Spengel [Antf. S/ttJ^ i, "17). after 
MiirvtuK anil Sc^iligef, as aupcrfluous. It aeenm lo mc Ihit cbr 
antiilKBif to /■ ri,v nj/ot Uin£tf Fcquiresi ua to rcttin thcPQ. I do nOI 
i^ee wiih Ramsjuer, whose rioic on « ■ rw irp^ lavf^ U*— ' ne . 

BOOK tX: CHAP. 4- §§ i, l- 355 

COpitatiori! iiXicJkr. Rd prima Keilcs rd tr^^r itivtiit dicuntur esse : 1160 a 
nominn 0. duorum Boci'.-iaio poitU sunt.* Surd/ vc ought lo 
lUpply t^iXttotv here — i/^ in,. 4. to avtw ^^ *d1 frp^r *avrd»i ^LXLKuiAf 

Nol oil] SpctigvJ {ArSSL Studim 1. 217) lUf^^gcKtU o'r ru. 

ol TTpwRiupctHorfs] "fricmls who have had a difff:ftnce'(rcicr»), t, 0. 
biu fiiiU ;if« H'c^l disposed lo cjcti cihrr :Lt ;x diEtance, Mich- Hph. 
nAf dXXo vai rur 0iAdiir, ^Prjai, o\ TtpotrKftittumdrti. tolrnp ftij/ii tn'(avne, 

lUi wpA^rpevaiyf <ai otTtn rotevrajt tyovnr d'H'Afwraj ^lXX^i^avr hq! (r/r' rdj 

no^ttr JUaytv- Ramsaurrr rc^rds [he wurElti coi r^^iXvr of npon- 
^rt^viiWfc zs spurious, on the ftround thai ol fr^rtfr^MpomifTtr, who 
h»ve omicied ih^t which is most characierisric of friendship, vi^ rn 
ryft*, can Imidlj be addutcJ in support vf a dcriinlitm v{ fricnc!- 
ihip— 'vcixor ne ah^urdum aiC, ad proboiidam aliqu^m fimici 
drAntiioiKrtn eos kudarc qiil t^ fMXttrra 0*X«*iv (tA fn^v) s-inc 
paniin amnntci cminciini cr ■fi'ai, pouun quam amici. appetiandi 
«{Dt' To ihis ii may be rcphcd that AnstoIJe i» here tmnicdiat^Iy 
concerned with onljr ajt/ as/i/cf of fritndfthlp, vik, rA j*n.'Xf*rrfui ifvui 
cot ^ Wkf ^i>w u^raf v*^^iv» and ol nimaKfiipnvK6itt aic specially 
fitie<l 10 ilJuslraie this one aspetrl, tthich llitj, as il wtrc, ieolate 
ffotn ihc oihef aspects for wparar^ exummalifm. Ji [s no: implied 
xUsU ul fr^uMi^ufnurit arc pc^rfc:cL fhctids, a.ny more than eW the 
relation of a mother Eo her young child (Eo ^'hich Ramfiaucr does 
not object as aw illustration) is, m the absence af drrttpiXtjirie. [jcrrect 

9fftfrpt<i' iTnptx,'* (Paraph-)^ C/'. -£", ^K vi, ^, i f*/)1 ^' ffipm^itrtat ditue 

J 3- 11 ToiouToi flireXajipdi'oiiflii' ftrai] The effect of thlK ftdse a. U. 
LfTcfX^iF h txpbJneJ Lelow in ^ 7 ; ilii:\ dunk [hat they arc good, 
and so arc pkasicd with ttieniscKcs — ^aj^rro* 3< ti rJ^rj^tVa (I'.f. fi 

v^itr] il i$ only by deceiving hiniscir inio the belief that his life 
has the Mnhy of the ^ood m^n's, that a bad inan can fed on 
' lijendly unna ' mllU liini^lC I ihiuk tliat UjwaLer'ji &i, Unc is, 
for ytp if an improvement: see CoHlril. p, 63* 

A & 9 


,35'5 BOOK iX! VHAP. 4; }i a, 5. KABifirtp <i;pf]TQi] i.g. \\\. 4. }f 4, j^ 

/■iUrtii'] Bj'uuicf's rcflJirg after K^ for Qckkor's ^k^oty^ "^^ 
is ciiicr (Lan Spcn^d'fc coiijcciaic /cd'crtou neu[^. fur vbidt If 
qUOlctt [Anst. ^M, U 917) lii- 4- 5 6 inT«>3(j7c>« rw tAij^i iw iturvm 
6p&k, SitriTtp mimv «1 prr^v nifwi- <fi*, and X, 5> fO *f *• n^ ibLm 

BotJjjT*AtV oti^ »p Xuyiurmy toX*m"i (P^rapll.)- ^^ ^, ;V. j- IJ-^ it, 
IJ All iv T^ ^f")^ nttiitrr40i' fii^i *i ira^A rlf Xiynr, /rm^M^MW *wr* 
ml dtTi^aiifU' ^ - . \&Yov At tal nitv ^palvitoi ^ur/j^tif . . . tttfitp^ 

£/^ f . JVl ^. 3. a wt' mitt, f) v^h) JfHT^ 4{it w^aotprtmu t 3i 
r^t tpt^iu Ap^Ti^, ttvip ^ npftatpmic avniala^ ml T& <L^d vAt ^ ^M^ 

4fiiX^*" xal PoiSXctoi !l^l Ram*v aril Suspmihl pnt a fidi flCf 
afcu V^y4^ luiiLcad uf Dckkci'b commA, ami >ritc A/ for B4. Tla 
ficeiriK ripfbl. Having implied ihtii ihe good ftukn's rpomftm il 

oTTnuAflin, AnsEoile proc^^^ds (na't- -fii) tty drtnihr hi» 0iiii3LJ|Vitf. Ift 
^^ffih Ex:ing nard rlr ^^^ Xi!7oi'. ttv: Xijoi h;1] be J^M in >dlliot 
lo A rTLlion^lly apprehended end which he «^sh«s for (dnSiivi^ 
Thi4 ririortiilly appri^hendL^d ent\ which [he good min uriihec fixll 
ihc pci rcclion of his own nature ast an or^attJc whok^-or a i 
ntiotiit fljitom (r5 Atmrai^nfrof), /-/. u ft ^j'^lftn of hMimoaioM 
rcktiiitK nnt lublr lo Ih; di^turlxnl by [un^ioii. T)itt fpnd mw^ ■■ 

the Paruph. expresses it, t^ ^foipUr Tx" rwrAovi rw /aiivv Bp^fMr, 

wher^ai tbc bad man has cnly ^^ovX? ^o*^. 

10. rdY&fl^ ha'i t& ^oti-dpfra] Fxplaincd by vitL 3. a ^Jvl f A 

cd t& tir 'iiT^ u^Hr^Hjif fjAAi'i fi'i fiaivAi^aKH'. ^fi/rtt iC oUUv frw* y^ fi 
^iiAfjT^t- ^im'fjflL^t. lit djc case of the gofxl miijj hoirever, tbt 
ditfcrence belucen ri, «yo^6v and rA ^u^i^Hk- my^^Ar \t lociicljrt 
formal one ; for ip irdirtnu roXifMc oCt^ ^arrtttu (JT. A*, fit 4- 4)- 

(ictu yip ^Y'^^^'' jA^ahly Sianttki')] added (O CXpUo 4ai flprfrni. 

The good man does not sio[> at ^bvA^ir^ but gon co to «^^(il 

BOOK rX: CHAP. 4: ^ 3. 4- 

10 mean \hxi ^X\e good nun dcvot«i hiiniirlf cntird/ lo hie 'in- 
icllfci'Kiricily wi calWI ; that he gKvii himself up to iJir ciihfva- 
tioiQ of bt» ' sckniilic TacuUics.' If he did. lib life ivould be aa 
ooevided in iU own way as thai of the politician who Mcrificfs th« 
good of his nature a* 1 whulr to hitt ainhiiim. or as (h;tt of the 
mdctfltan who iiacriliccJi it to hiv dc»irc for gain, t^ iv>£r or rA 
Aifivwrrif^ii >» (he wholf TiLiEur? of n^an ^f/>f conaaouB for iTwIf of 
Uir hnrmoniou* action of all ii» parts, Thcic ' pnirtK * arr frr-lmgn, 
vdf-rcgarding and alErtiifttic. aa well as faculuct and acts of hno«- 
]«fg<. Raton rcili^e? luclf In lh« di»corery of irulh, tf*rf in the 
rr]$u1a(ioii of the freljngv 

Sirtp l<(WTO( iti-ni BoiEfi] The ' pcr>ona]iiy/ or wlf-idemiiy. of ^ IT. 
man is noi given in any Ttcparate imprcaaioii of ^enst or reeling, or 
icpamto outgoing of dcfiirc; ii c^Mlh oxiXy ho far as imprcuions 
ire rrhtrtl to one uoothfr, jtnJ dcMTtv arc regulated* Reason (t£ 
nwv— rd havnfjTiM^t), aa ihc xnircc of all relatione and mlcs, in the 
tphere of conduct %i veli as in that of »denctf, 1ft tluereforc Die inie 

man. T^ jSnu^r<r^i ^ . . ni irpdlrr*ii> . . , t"u AuifqiTricfjiJ Xf^/iitf ts a life 
avtA XJyor, in which boih knowledge and conduct h;tv<: <)uc place, 
aa dibtlngtli^cd from a life tarh rdArf^ ahclhcr the troBat be an 
(TTCrifoiJi or prejuJiced notion in the sphcit of Bcien(.'e, 01 the 
undue influence of a pleasure or pain in that of conduct. The 
order of Human Nature as a wfiole Is^ in short, henr oppowd 10 
the disorder* tA BupwTriJiiIr Is co-extensive witli Human Nature ii.% 
an orderly svBioni, 

) 4. lyo-i^P Y^ T^ iniou&afy t4 dvai] C/. SpfnuxA, E/h. \\\. t & 19' 
and 7 * L'nattuacquc rc», quantum mx ^t est, in auo esse pcrscverarc 
cooarar. Conaluiri, tjuo unaquaeque rea in ftuo esK peneverare 
oonatur, nihil est pracief fpsluH rel actualem c««cnlIaEii.' 

hio/rt^ ^ lavTy povXfrat T&ya9tl) yck'a|Mr«s V fiXXof olfMtroi 
oblWlt irdvr' fx'^' [fii<^t« tA y*^!^"^^] Cx'^ Y^ "'^^ '^'' ^ ^^ 
tdTvftSr] Ayy,' Grr I 1% ic*i' itrrU- &ii(<ti S' Lr j^ ¥^oiir InouMts tint 
4 l»4XtcT«] isuscmihl hrack«Is these tvords (iVurraf a, 19 . , « 
fi^uno a, !13), and R^LTn»uer hrackeis /cattov tt- 19 - . , J n mn' 
/crrfr a. 13, Tlic pa^a^c may be a ' duptkau; * of Ehe prcccdins 
section : il it certainly obscure, and interrupts eomewjiat tlie oiher- 
ttiM fiiraigh if orchard account of the iraiti distinguishing the good 


BOOK IX: CHAP. A\ ^ 4. 

fiErly rcprcaentirt^' ilic interpretation f;]vcn bf Ibosc conimcfiULton 
(ihr majority) w>lo do not make ihf words tx'* >4p «! ■u^'>v( 
rtiyiiASi^ ijHtciidjclii^il. buL ;cfci Stv S ti !<"»' mu* to o AfSi,— "Ein 
Jcdcr wtncchl such olcr dae, way lOr ihn tta Gxjl i« ; •ud « ifcff 
cin Andcrrr, *o «ird kcin Menich HilnH:lwTi, ctua dii ww; » 
cnt>iuiiilc[it; Wl-sczi iioch Al1c?» tkb fortbcliaJtc, via « in KiKfii 
frlihefcn XusUuhI* bci;it€. FfdlicU lial die GotUn:it aucb hron 
roth ila^ nljeclm Gutir iii sich, shi^r rt»r<n niir danim, wal iu tttl 
»^ wa9 mc ihrcm Wcsen njich »t; djc9 Wcsrc^i irt fUrJcdebdM 
<lGnlcende, entweder si^hlcchEhin cdcr doch vorTUg«wciA«-* 

Gfanl aad Byi^aLer (spr Bywuttrr's Lrxt aa r|uoted ai die Sr^dcf 
thU noEcj differ from other commctiliiton in making the tordf 
f^fi yhp cn\ vi<« 1^ ^«Ar tnyiS^ parcnlliClical. and referring ohA^va tn 
RorVirrii', not to o AJr> but Id fufrroc. Sec GrAttl'^i note. S<iwaihl 

priuta the paMagC llms— oraorof a' iat/r^ ffttC^rtm taya&i yr^'^ 
ff Rk^ti^ oi-^tit itip'ttai mivr Ix"" '■"■i^*" *^^ ytt/iftvo¥' lj(" V^'P "' "•' 
tfr^i Tij)A)(?iIr, q'AX^ £jir J rt jTDr' ■irriV, AJ^t* A' Ab* td pinHv 7cairrin w^ 

If wc are to assume, wiih Suwmihl and RAmtmr, th^it Uk 
pas¥3ge IS an mterpolaiiorr. wc miut, ai ihe (ami? time, ree^igpiv 
il (punclualtfJ aa in Suscnidd'h text) as ilic ^Ltuk «f aii "iDlirtfO' 
lator' ^'ho understood well the mctafhpical drift of tJic Kotiteti 
which he thus vpiitured ir rntcrnipt tn \ti t\tn flow. We ciqtwc 
htip sccin^f tlmt the present conir^c, wiJi ib r&> n ^ gtg j ) u> p*i<i 

^AriiH (j ^), and tlH Bratprjiidfnfv K fbiropil r^ AidML^ ^f 5), r^muull ifab 

* interpolator * of other desG^plion^ of m«n^a dfiarf tudijvryi, tn 
which ttg shorlness, and yet tmm«abiirabLc worth, %n pmsed M 
our notice by the c:olI]pa^i^on wiili it nf the hfc at Crod: fwhapft 
wc may suppose ihatMe/.A^ 7 (lo?) b> 14-tS), vith tiadifl>^l' 

Jjjvlw oia ij apiitr^ famp&i^ jyJi^Mgr rffiiif' vvr^t yAp litl V^vuv (j^f^ ^* 
7(^ji riA^>'Uf<jf), tVfl Jill] qAur^ 17 t't^pytiu mi/mu' iifS ^tA rmn ^fjp^fapm 
diif Jhjmi vdr^cnr ^^i<iTai', r'XfrC^rt 2^ to! >«"7^»a« 3(4 ravra — Vras spCcUlgr 

ill his miitd, and ihat his ' mtcrpolaiion ' cnenns ibat ■ ttvrr tmn 
Kiifhts good things for hiii]>elf : for himsdf. aa hn \% not a« hattnj 
btcome another betng: xvishts — God, indeed, now ttAii for cvtr 
pcssersn ihi^ good, but possesses ii as being what fl« i».' Tbe 
two points which the cointitujaun of niui'» ewaic with GwT* 
bringn out «bewhere (r.g. tn MbL -V 7) would ibus app«v lo 

BOOK IX: CHAF. 4:^4^ 359 

hraught out in this 'inlerpolalioti'^ — (i) Man tnuchcs ihe good USOk-IBh 
In so r^r 4s he Li m. adf-idcnticAl bcmg, t.t. raliotml; and Cod 
ftJ«o louche^ ttiL* good its a scIMd^ntkal ntionnl being. I'hU 
is \\x i>oini in which God jtnd Man are alike: (a) Man, how- 
ever, differs from God in ihc maimer in which he touches Uic 
good. Man's gooJ Jiea in ihe Future, and lie touch#« Jt 
after reachmg forward to il In RttUKfjiHt, TichVi gotnl la always 
present with Him in Ilia comiruous >j<TJ>r;^ct r-^J *'i>ipreD. The 
time sthich intcncncii hctwtcn Man*« fSavkr^att ind its rcilimiou 
nwy ehini^ liiiu (ftjr lir? itt iiiim(?nic%J in tAi;)^ aiid may iii^ke his 
SDu\f;ai< vAin. flc may not be present in his old person to wel- 
come ih* good ^wished for, whon at last il come*. God irtpy^l 
t^vr (Jfti. A. 7, 1072 h. 22); Ltme dues nol elapse during mIucIi 
He poaxf^fs a eapadiy which \i not yci naualiscd (on Ihe e&- 
precflion o-^PT*! Jx'ov %ee Kosmmi, tJjW/-/ vol viil. p. ^2$^ Torino, 
1857. aciJ Sclmfgler, Mt/. vol, iv. p. Jft7). He lins not an iiJf;iT, 
held up by tfov>F/ff«, of fumrc good never fully rcaliacd. Capacity 
ud actuality, the ideal and its reali^tiou ar« one m Him : 8C4> 

wiv ts ex^liiincd by Alexander aJ/w. as i( npoirov wi/r — God.) (yi 

PlOtinUf, Awfl. 3. 7, 4 (vol. ii. p- 386, ed- Kifchhoff) — n-I* 3* B-^toron 
nl ^Mvaoi^jriii t,l?H i^iris iari rov f^iXXuwrvt' fA'/ y**P <<^' ^'* t^**^ "1*^ 

fa/X*irt ivfti 01/01/ f^rrii', oviT Vf/a r<tAPD aj* ^ tu ^■t^Aai', 

1 have tried, tb^n, to show thnt the section before us (punctuated 
as in Subtinihl's itixl), if nn inkrp^hh'on, \> in pf^rfect keeping \titti 
the philosophical aiisociaiions of tlic cotiIckIh The only reason, 
I vemurf m ibtnk, uliich ran be fairly alleged for re^rdmg it as 
an inter[>olation, and not as written by Ari&totle 10 stand wlicre it 
doea, \^ thai iE inCerrupis aoniL-what (perhaps na a * duplicate ' of 
{ 3) ih*? even Bow of the pai«sugc in which it occurs. But T do 
not thifik l^i^U it j(itcrniL/l« tlic M:nMr senously; und 1 should be 
unwilling to regard it us ati inlerpolati on » even if 1 eoold BLiggee»C 
no ocher eKCUw for lis apjworance liere than iha: il coniaimi a 
characteristically Ariiftotclian rctnark, which is not unnatunx!^ 
though prrhaps not strictly necessary — in the present contend. 
I ^ fmilier however ihiin this : T itiitit thjiE it is not an inlrrrpo* 
htion, because I understand tL to say about the good man's wi»h 

1160 4.19. for hu ovn good uhat hu alrcfid/ bccti vaud ebcvrberc abcui hji 
wifrh Cor hia friend's good, nnd ili<; purpon of iha prcMtii cbi^Mr 
ifi prfciseEy to Kliow how ckweL/ tbe good tnu'« ff^Hogv lowdi 
himself resemble bis fccJinii) Unvards his fncnd, Tbc puitp 
vtth v'hJch I con]]»f« lli« fi^ciion b«lore u» is J^ A- nn. ;. £ tk 

■or airD^irnt, fiTf rtnr oi- ^i^^^Fmi uJ ^jXnr telt 0(Xaic rA wi^m a tit 
ayv6aw, nhr Ctoi/t timi' oi jn^t 7ti ^Am ffnj^oi aCruIc, #^* d^ «}■& 

T/iytdd itiivnv rttta, |uWiv Al* £*« nriL; fii>r' /4fT;» ^Mrivnr di^/dvii 1^ 

Jmirroc jSei^tTiti rdyvM. In Uw IJ^bC oT thft Abovt pJlpJH J Wnld 

vxplarn iht' Reaction before us :ks EVjUuk-^^* Evrrj^ nian wviheftptfi 
things for himself, thai is, for hiraaclf n* icmstmiuf ihc siu 
prson; no man ilesires to become another bctng, &nd kt tttd 
olbct bciitg piKac^ all good ihingv — ihua, no taSUt iMm ID 
become God, in order Eo possess the absolute good vhich G<id 
po*sc*ses now and for ever in virtue of being fttai H« it' Gofl 
pvsifssiQti of the jfood depends on His self-idcutJly ; ifae p»d 
man's ej^(>^ for bia Dwn good cannot ovcrpisa the IJnilsofbM 
»etr-]£leDi)cy — b« cfinnot wish goo^ for himself as having Ueov 
God; nor (as we luive ^en viiL 7. 6) can he ititb good fiiT tui 
friend — his eecottd-eelf— as having become God. My expUiatkA 
may be shortly described aa consisting in the ioMition titer y^ 
ptoi V ^Xdi an ?o of Xr i9iifr as a menially suppled ^un; Uecd, 
atthou|:h on ihe v^hote I prc^tfr Suavmihl'ti puncnuidoo toGnnfl 
and Byvater's I cannot help thinking thai it is Just poMlbk IbtE 
ihc ^'oida «V» y»fi ■■^^ '^^ ^ ^'^^ iffr^^ were originally a mvgtnd 
note explanatory of ajw^f^v. and that t^'ir A^r once Mood in tbf 
lext after yftff/ir^t V ni^Xnc, and afiencards fpll oni. On that h^fi^ 
thesis, of course. iM' ^ J n nur flWiV would refer Co tomvt. 
Viewed ;xs an original part of ihe [ej;i, however, the worda uht^ 
ul vOf 6 Stht T^ynBitt. I eonfess. ap^iear to me pointle«a, nnleu AX 
hv Z Ti BDT* fWiV be referred lo 4 difli, and takca cloivly Mlb 

1~hr r;]n4pbnist's explanation iv peculiar. He ihlnlu that ibe 
irantformaLon marlLcd by ywvi^wirt ilXXpf taXes place vbcQ oec 
identiSes one's good with *h aktynw t^pat. Iht word* zn—'O^ 
inntiAirirK jSnuXmri f'avr^ (^v ^a&uv y&p r^ cm/vAafif wi thm' r^ yA^ 

BOOfC fXi aiAP. 4; K 4. 5- 


ytWtf^i ta ^ya$d, el6tt<Mi fiinir b*Tfp /crra'' A i1 ffVfiBvi /mToi- £hXw 
y$tif44rvt^ ovt it tXaiTo nd*ni tu oyntfo fx'"' "»*»^ '^ ■ytnifnyr' ifi-H'v 

t^ «)oAi, AX' firru a^rav 0, n r«n firrt. Mkhn Kpb. CiptailU in tht 
ttinf way. 

In line A. 3 J, K^ and CCC marsin h*vc alV n&i*' A<^' t*rfiif for 
&X' t» f T< i»r' imift which may perhaps be thought 10 point 10 

ilXX' fill aufr itvt' tWi'r : r/. thr^ ftUttt Atr titu oCrff nor' ^tfrii* /ciuvi of 
vilL 7, 6. 

Ai ffgardi the brockeiins f>f the wordft /-*i*n *A y*>^f*f»*i — ilw 
cIauac fi%»i:h moK' eafellj without them: ihc sabjtci of Jji*!^ ii 
naturally that of cjI/k>iii. 

Ut*^ ^ ftr . , . i^Xiffta] Tliis has b^cn Hoid before in 4 :i — "^ ^ '^ 

or f^Aw of mun^ Tlii* Form thp good maji pretrrvvs pun? amid 
]h« ZKij of ciKumatajiccai ae pUrcs and animals preserve Iheii 
vAriout ffi^ fr:>m generation \0 g^npraiion, rifilifiifij^ r^ jffiw ml 
r^6ti ki the jH^rmanrrrr of ihc ri-ire-iyjie. I( Is as corrpsjxHiding 
«Ub liib «holc environment. And not merely as excrdsinf;; bis 
' iaieKectiiil f^cuUicfi,' that mun is identi bed with Ri^Eon in thii 

and siiiiiW jiLiArKi^ei^ e.g. in k. 7, 9 . , >^ 6 nrth tAv voiv &ltt^ ttwtfi 
riwTb^Xurfu Sv^tfann. The qualiBoitlon /KiAiErrq h added because 
man IS not, hk« God, /«/r/ ftV<ir. h\n a itOmoX^fi-, oi an fwXov «uW. 

See Mich. Kpb. on IX, 4, 4— vfiruv i)< fxainav r4 KJoDf inn'f, ^r[r;yu>iB-, 
to nSpot^pa tim Av iv' SX\tu vm yiifoatt" mrwr&t M rrothy Xiyamn rAr 

} 5. Ti| Siai^if] Bclckcr bas a comma after IUopth^. There a. 37. 
vliuuld be J. ful] »!<}{), tbi^ clau&t^ bc^longiiig to vhil has ^dc before, 
not to what rL.->Jlo\v»i («ce Ram»uei). 'His mind 13 stored with 
objects ol toni-tmplulion'; bis rich experience suppliei him »')lh 
^tf^Q^dTs^ ' virw6 of life/ pure fium admixlurc widi diat merely 



SOOK IX: CHAP. *; ii 5, 6. 

ll#0^sr. penonol dement which miVt^ th« «<|)«TiCTi«t of ih? ba4 
a source, not of ptifc 'vicvrs' bui of unliajipy mollociiocii 
mi^rabk foreboding)!. Tbc f^ood rQ&n'a life ia tbc AH^pfncif 0^*1 

BO. ^ C4«ctv] ' In one uord * — urr Friiische, E. N. irffi. 8. 5* on iv 

use oftlkc cuptcuion. 

RaniJtaiK-r as llir inii-fixtliHion of a dtTtbc "ho had in hut 
J?, £", H, 6. (340 *. 8 Hiq. and *!/. Jt/. ii. ii. isii », ,^j, wVn 
^ r^u< mr^v '^1X14 U Raid 10 cKisl M) SO far fts, ihcre beti^ dil1er«ic 
*>/pij r^j ^a^)E, llicw Agree — ht\ dh/ ior\ r^t ^*inv wXtm pvi^ 

VoA}, Q^u yi^^ ^14 tffroi. itirrt ^;^< yir^/iti^E, >(rTAi vpor tMvriw ^^ 

(.v. J/.), If ihc words 3>5frrt . - - ^tLau^'Tui arc an inteipoUiiion 
^viggest^ii by ihcK pas^iigc^ in the j£' i^'- and -V. M^, as RasasaMt 
llkink^, ibL-Ei it uill bf rigli fj accept [he explanation ^vm T^ 
Mich, ^lih., Uic Paraph., And crihcf* ('h^t- Siahr aDd Tcccnl. 
according Lo whicti -; tW* ii^t ^ nXfi* means 'in »o far «£ mu^ 
or the sou', tomtsu of twQ or more pin«,' tV t«i» t^^i^fw bring 
■in accordance wiih wliat Jiua been twid'' — e.g. m S.A\ i- ij- 1- 
The cUuK bcm^ an itilcrpolaLion, the ocicurrcncc of ri fM^M^ 
in a different sense immedfiiJi^ly ^fcerunrif* (j 7. 1166 li, t^ netd 
cause no surpri^. If, however, the chusc i» noi on mccrpobtiooi 
TK> oiher intcrpr^tittion 8e«ms pottable than ibu of VictOTiu^ 
Michelet, Grant, and Willranis — * Bui vht^Eher fiiendlbip wwinli 
Oncscif \i or is not po^iblc, wc may Ic-A^'e uodccided hr ibc 
present- It would stetti 10 be |?ottiible in io fai a> Iwo or more 
of the above- men [ioncil condliioniK (r>, to ^C\tir&iu tA aynd* — t« 
j8uuXi<rdut tA f^v — Tfl iTvviuSyiir — t6 dbtoXyrL* uii irrYX**^*^^ exitC. 
and because the extreme of friendihip ittcmUct oac't fevK&ft 
lo^aids une?idf' (Gram)- Agalost Rarrr^^ut^r's view (ibajt iIm 
passage 13 an infcrpoUijon) i» iIk fact (noticed bjr Michclet« tod 
apparently observed by Ramutter himeelQ that ijie writer of 
ihr ,T/, vV- ijii'cft ^/A inierpieuiicna, bLxnning wh that adopted 
by Grant : sec '1/- M- ii. 11. 12 10 b, -^3 nort^tvr f /mU nrf vJ 

ffpAf oLrffv i^4Aiii i( DL' wiiv fiin tkptitfi^Mi, virT4pn\* ft 4fioi-tatt^ i^ia fti 

BOOK IX: CHAP. 4: jj 5-8, 



iklmoHt immediulcly re>umc» it (uit a. iG) willi VjiiJ^^rtP V Af 

fE^ ri'i' TOW*" wmt'iv^ rriirtpdi- ior% ^j&e tivrot fpiX\a 9 oC, Qnd WflWunt 

&, Ai EuJt^TiJus lidd (.lone, hy mfertMnc Lu lIiu jmilb \j( the h>u1. 
We »ccm 10 have ihc comfiilalion of one who had before him 
the tcit of the Av/, £>*, a*t wt have il, >. /. wiM a^^f*!* a' , , . i^eC- 
tm, 4nU the icxi of ihe £u^/. /V/, I thrreforr *ee no rcjson for 
bracketing the cUuBe in qu^oiion wLih KAmaaiticr and SuscmihL 

f 7' 11 T dp/irp(»uffir lauroif] KC nOtC OTi f^ift. IT, flbovC. Mtcti. b^S. 

Eph. has ihc frtllow^ng comrncm here — t W >^< tcju^w ^i- *r(j- 

^«riH<' Ponifni Si oi tuXXn!. opi*i*nvfti yAp <\ibTAJc Bid T'l Tuif nCfuv 
■W«tfv^!t» (ral T^ a^d /t&^Anrdot' nai yap toCto jcctl /f 1 twv JXAwy ^pAfiff 
7W9^rm»^ f?ai ^» >i~i^ '«» o^r^v iff>rymTni «ul rA ofr^ ^vXo>trl irai 

p/A* fil nvni" *V*i oJ>' ol aaoi^uii liiUTUit fl^'i/^wififiK, vn(i\u,u3u«4fv(rit> 
ir^TOi- tirf yij/ uvjf fauTi^Jt upt'iTirrji'Tu*" ui y^ft itriv 6 Av&i»imts tj ^Xu^oi- 

of the wicked as being of ihe particular, »iml KUbjecl to the 
itomiiiHlion of the senses {K/f/, vii- 3- 9), it at vnrlajiee wkh ihelr 
"wish/' which is of Ihc unlvcrad And implies ^ conception of 
Ihe good' (Grant). 

oCoir DL ^patCLs] Tlie dtscription of the 0ai^Xui (ai di^tin^'uislied <»< ^- 
frotij the *nf«aij ^iiCXni { 7) given in j§ 3 and 9, correspondji with 
suf!icifm atciiracy to rhat of the rtffpnTiic, as <lrsiLngtiishcit from ihe 
dnlAaifrai. in Book vii, Cf. vii. 8, 5 ^im di t« <lt^ midot iVffTuru^i 
wapk r^v ^^v AJiw, &v vrrt ftiv fiij npamw nttA r^w i^r \6yav apatu 

^bAof ilirX«c^ (^wfrrm yop ra {iiXTiirTov, ?; '■>^X^- ^imilir]y the ^t^XnA 


JtCOK fX: CHAP. 4: §^ ft-io. 

iiti«i b, & ttfTii^ am) in { lo strc stld lo be ■ picj to lurqiAno : m tn vii. B< 
llic uKpor^t i5 <lcKcribcJ JXS >rtrni>»#XT*<**i- Thfl ^fffVcTor on ihe 
cthef hand is ov ^»To>i*Aj7Ti*'x. in thii rcip^-c! resembling (ft* 

L. IB. J 0, anitfidtn} 'Tbis jrictuic/ siy« GniTil, 'of ihr rn^iruit 
tlnigglcs of lljc bail docs not rccflU cithtr ihc phrAso^lojj- ^ 
the doclHnet of Book vtj, wh«re tta^Biipla is cotiirau^d u-iih ind 
opposed to dr^ffia (^ vii. S. 1). Grant here. I think, orrrloab 
tlic fact ibaT Arlslotlc is fipcaking of qJ ^DXi>» = «J uponZr (!> A 
«Zov tj df^Tfif, where? oioi' ^ Fi'j/rVr/) ss UislingaivhetS frcm m' h^ 
^duXoi = ol tbtSXatTToi or fir't^j^poi of Dook vIl The wofd la^fM 
occurring in this J is evidently u^d loofielj and noC in Oie mere 
Technics sense in which it is u^d in Book vii; for *A «■■■ Iti 
|Loxt^p^a» t.rX \Sf opposed lo Td hi ^Tui which i« iJk Xij» 
^A°^ fjf'pat, ^5 the I'liraph. explains — ttct n ^i* oXvyo* e^^i Tw 
/io;f^rf^A>» ^*';tV'>^'i ^^''^vrit Af or^ ■rfthAv'i T« Xfryi.<m4*i. oUi 

jfoV-i. Thu*, nomthslanding the use of ihe terai v»i(^^;^ 
■J-rpanfF (iti whott] a stTUggl? bciwccn ><irw jtnd vuffli goea ooL 
noi the fttt^Bfiflo, of Book vii, is here described- 

For tlie e3Lprt»ion araa-uiff< \i\ ihU c^^nnexiort compaFC PhtdL 
J^r^. 3<f 3 A, quottd by Fnlz-^chc and Grant— oWa tp Jvt « ■■ > ! 

oMf uvt^,ivtifa Jx^i*^* *'" /uvry nuI T"ii AueqCdw. (^ /7, 3'", i. IJ- IJ 

b. fie. { 10- cE Si^ ii.T.>-] Arisiotle seldom addresses his render, I 

tti Elie laiig^tiage of direct e.\horlBtion. 



iVt wiiA ivfil It pt6pit wkem fiv d» not 4vitfH> tmd nAo art mM 
^r^ tAtVi trffli : htt tt ffitnJik»p tin fvtiii ihajT kttem Mci vikc. mmd it 
m/an f/4J<k ^^r'j frif^Hgi. TAit An^tKr Aa itrjf ffitHtd mti tifffr. A^ 
ii ntU'tvukitn: afeitifit, /» iJ Aat m^ /ir initmiiy ami Jkain oAM t^ 

BOOK iX: CHAP. 5: JJ l-j- 


nv// t9 a i/rangtr.v.^, an alhi/tt^of! ai cKft, iaiin^ Au jHe. tvfcr at 
fitkt^ is i^mtrt^if. tettheat fanitg 10 dn QMylktm^ attiiftly to htff him. H'tii^ 
fflwiutf u Mill 1 tHf^*/iiol liking f^f t "rii. // if pit thtftfir^ ia ht lAt t^ 
fituttM^ pf /n'enJiin'/, tu /Aj flentite /•/ fhe fjv i: !hi ^ginning af Ute. Aa 

iAoHf^ tAurmni, i'j not fiatitari/y in iwr—ii in kve only if he iim^i m a^-^rk-j 
fir rAr ^ttutti/iiS ffni r to nan toho MtiPf nor jirif bfpH wif/l tfuktri iannst h 
fittttdj ; fstf.&t ^vtU-rMjhfri mrr/iy^ thry uswIJ Hvt f^ out r^ thtar way tp Afff 
MiA ft^rr, imt tet^nt ihemifhn/ U {ved yviA*/- S^ vn mjy tram/tr the narat 
9f ' friifUihip' i» tf4i/t.'rthiitj^t iiHti ioit it ' inatTtiv fritttJihif^ Ai aW, 
kvv tm r^ ffH* attttutiniifiary /,iviiii. it htttnta /riroidliip in d ^fmsiao tenitt 
mutm^Act^^^aatJ rrv* /rieriiiiAtf. imtf ihat fir pro/t or /leAiurt ; firr wtti- 
fodUtt^i^r no pTofV in ikf /VTfHiUhi/' /nr pr»pi ar ptffitttn.trhfrr U tt onm^ 
at tkd rt^fifrtt rffrofit ar/Jrcrmm, attii rut ph/i /rirmi, /# whtm out wiiha 
frdGf. TAt ff^Jfit f/^t»ttfHr tviU-OMAing it a/mi^j artfiA^ rtgarJAJ m haPiM^ 
tnamli/nt er gwni ijua/i/y. 


J, 1 1 66 b- 30- n 68 Hh 37 ought to be inserltd alter cbAptcr G, at 
I i<i9 ti. a. 

Kttt np^pvv S< Tovf* 4Tpt|TaL] viiL 9. j§ 3, 4. ti.88. 

yift (ffric if ^lAiTfris r^ fftfifitinrti ftai Xt^HOVtrit' »F yip <x^t rj fftf/f^at^Ftf 
nii ^ Ari'ficdmt itphc fifpf*6rTjTB mi ^ruiriJrrjTn urcj^ if i-yiaviTit jrphe l-yituiv, 
uvtV *i 'iiA'jOit njitii ipiXiat, tiii 'vtii' ais n ynvJtaftriv itrtn^u tub ^Auriif 
ul Tbv >#vjt»t, ttVTtat 17 tpikiitrit itiffvv ivmlat mil t^iXlat^ 

( 8. Jvcp Y^ tTnoiMp) i. t, at the end of the f m and hcguining UOT ^ t. 
of th<^ veccmd vcction ; Jiikii<oW«j« referring to o^ yAp 1^*% Aianww 

^40Tg vDv rpvT0« JrTOff (ill >u%i^4Vov, Siahri Frit£flchc and GriiAt 
refer to Plato. Crai. 4»o A Jfi»r fir* rl^fiu ffwftr -aJ nw «-•**« <Wir 

tlfif^'ty fcr^i tu >t nu^muf t*uXfirop ^. Com. inc<:iL apud M<:mckc 
/Vrff . .V. &45 

ind FIocInuN (vol, ii. p. 379, cd, IGiclihofT) fpwt , , . Jri /f d^Jtrioi 

Ti)r M^MffLP fjt'*' AUo Plot. ^L 341) ™i *J 4p«rrr ^ iflii^ai* 


£O0K IX: CHAP. 5:53- 


'!i is engcDdcrcd in tlie cya, 

^ 10> Bc& fitT&i^puv 4uiij Tit &r a^r <if 7*1' ^^ 4^^ai'] Mu:h. K{ 
CCC mate- >yj., and Arpyropyln* ^ip;?'?*' »'«i ^lA/at. B\)t 
what fitrtvpoii^ (dtfinft! /**■/, *t. Ih(57 b. & »**to^^j /^tti» jfopurM 

^ diT^ tut *I0otY <ffi f^oi, 1^ KOT^ ru avaX^rytv) 10 implied in HUTO^^H 

BLating \ht^ inich rb^i ^t^m is the Apxh iptkittti ^Vht^rraiA time ia^H 
^Tq0vjii( of the term W^ vhcn xc b Ukcn o^ct Irora Uk proper 
pUce, Vk'here it dcnotrn n iv^Aiton charactericod bf ibe ^lAdi 
ertumctAti:-d in cb. 4. $ i. ami upplirfrl loau miote sltic Kke wtwom. 
There is a ^icm^u^ of ihc term ^lAJa, when H is qualified a* 
^fi;, jusi a« there it of ^oola when it is qiuJificd by ftyv fj^ 
X A*. viL 5. 9. 

Viciorius baa fl frOE>d norc hcft, in support of ^/rpf 
^fixh*' — '*I"i '^i'^^i btfncvoltmiam ftise princituunj, non mi^ftfi 
vcrbuim t -iija in aliriiHim tt^ilt^m. quoil manifirMo faci! qv 
cc&ccdit ip^am amkilLAm csac, ;cd inchoAiam et i^n^viini; iixli- 
Cfttque quoii non i^iniL efim abHolut-im pcrfcclaJnquc esse: earn 
erim eo (|uo[l rfqulricui fti plena atnlciUu: id auleiu eM vpui 
noii aiucitl prodeaae ti opiiulari benevolo/ 

B. la. ou i^v $i& t4 xpV^I'*^^ ^■'^< ^' ^L^ ii 4^^j ^ ^' ^- K- 7- "ifli 

a. 10 A^fw 0T( ir<f>1 rijv TjBmriir tfiiKunf (lo bc didmgui^hcd frrim iSt 
i^ticfl ipi^U of ^. ^, viii. I i- 5) ^ <0>wu ^OT^ a^Ai roS fUf i^^owttm 

Vj'jf^iJuVu yap fimtip u rurrrvt ^rir^v, liv!' it^3;A i^iAuJi: 4^' w 4"^"^ 

Rflnisuuer points out Ihe iteming vuria^JCtf betwe^a (be doctrine 
laid down bcre (ix. 5. 3) and that of viii. 7. 4 mUai 71111 iJn» 

either, he argucf, if vtie vniy £pcuk of f lAj'a for dbe xf^vw"^ "* 
maj Bipeak of *Dwnia for the same; or boih lemif 
«£iQiii — sliould be rcierved for relations ft/ t^cV- 

«. 14- A fijv ^A|) t&epyeTr\9tiit k.tA,] TbJs gi^-ef; the re^kfion« for refiuififf 
to iceogiiisc ifmia in dje ' frleudtiliip ' oCTtofiL (t) Tbc ibad kUi 
hig been t>cncfiiGd ^t^^f iCkuj. Bui *ttntv Ihu dtcwii^ wdBM 

BOOK JX: CHAP. 5; }§ 3, 4. 


ari*ting sponLanrously ift not pioprrl/ tdi^ia, (a) Tfi? man vhc lie? n L4 
opcctn to be bcndilcd, ibotish he may wjm to wiah ^eJl \0 
his |.^ro«pociiv« bcnefncior, mally doc* nni wi^b well tc him, but 
m hxmsflf-, and rliia is not ^Pkosa, MiJi. Ejih, desctibcs ArLatoik, 

in the words ^ /ifi* yap f^pym^Aii . . , Spur, ^ j^aiplvat ri/v tCvimtr 

AiERifd> yo/1 T<^ T^ UFa orai'fVfih 

} 4. ' DiT gai):tt' Sdiluss,' ftfljs Slihi {note ad /oir.\ 'ilicscs &.!& 
Klioncn KnpLEds &:igl, da^ Arialotclcs unlcr dom Wotiiwolleni 
Welches der Urepfung {I'pxfi} dcr wahren Freundschaft ist, jenes 
rein itii-'iiHchUche, unffgrnnUtzig*. nur duicli daa SchOuc und Gubc 
In dcr mctisch lichen I^rust cnvcckic Empfindcn versicht- Dos 
Wohlwodcji, das einee Andercn Clock unti E.rfo3g ^tinFchl, TieJl 
c* divo^L ^,u piofiljrcii !io(Tl, Ikl gctiicuurr EgOLStnui, Ge^imung 
I gcincincr Mcn»chcn.' 

I (idiutir^ ff/ o/^itun". /<•"' f^tf I'iay *tifiU't tift's<*<n fM^i" vha^in titf tnmt' tun 
A»ttiuf. **/ hftVfitN xri"ffii/^ if vtrtfosMy anjf g/Atr rvi/.\-fr iff tiiiVA 4^f*f- 
mtMt pf i-iiV.'] AiU nflAi'nf ttf Jv with tfit piraom who OjC'" ^'^^"f 'frietiJjJ 
t'lNtnimity luhuti /utitftn lilittm ^nfttf an of mt mind oA'wf imyertarn 
f>trliii--ai ^tiMftt&n^ ri'hi/k t^tft iv '<ffifit ih a way pl/nxing to thoxr, whc ^ft mid 
te /* ' ef (W miiif' al-oat iktm. 7'Aut, lAtte lOitJ Htairitri'iy fv/if/fm fk* a'^ff ^'hhfJ Pt't^' Ht rt mif rtw /ham nnd Pitiarut, nrk/H ht si*/ 
TcHfinffa i/j tf: iht'* it umAimify hfhferH tkt leuitr cmi "ppfr dctict in d 
tity fvken IfvtH ux'" 'Af' Mr Atsf ttttn iAiiu/tt hui'i vfli^i - ta iifiiiHiiHiff "t^f ^ 
dtunM at /he JrirHfitAtp o/ .-niuHi, A'etir. thfm ii unaHjini/y litt thit in tin 

I fait ; ihey d^ mef fititttufff Utt thi iLwi/Hi. J>'^f l^\/ mr* tijrrrt-it bt pf pnt 
iiiinii. any rtan tAin tiny ,uu /V /riin.if, Stii/f /ify a htf/e Jviiy, irHctUfi iif 
fAty art n/ivayj aiAtttg to gft fvr tAcunehei Ike hr^tr than i^ai^ntag^StUrtf 
to ^ tkt ^rdtn of lAeir dutiei QH etksr peopii. 

[On A)L«rtio see £, E. H. 7 md Af.Mn. 1 a,] 



SOOfC rXr CHAP, 6: {^ I, 3, 

3fl. Td« irfhiCif] Fr![»chc and R^imiHniirr prAttt nut ihil w arc ml 
think here of tlic concord of weril citlc), but of ihc tmaoiffii 
between ihe frflAirai of one cii>". 

«.3S- § ^J ThfTtc are [lircc diaractcnitlcs of ^nu cncotloocd hcr& 

On Td iv lityi&ti llic PaiApIi. hu — niv dftf(X(f)ai , . . np] ^ i^ 
/v Tf^ ^E(p ^v/ttf^ «f Kiy«vrtfk iftetfOfiv aW'jKiria o^rt *Atf (ipAfii }}■£■* 
^iXm, i^ab mam fiivtiy^ ij ffiiAifi** tic oyo^ii', ^ f AA» >iV>Br ^ ^astfn^ li' fa 

The mcanmg of f^^^/HH a^^cuy L-ffd/;^'**' 7 irii'i# u cx^tuwd 
below tiy die wonl* avru yi^i rrfifri yiVrrai nB J^itpTvii b. T. tJlh 
Animiiy ia contcrncd wiih imporEanI praciicil qLc9t»otu vbtdi 
admit of « ^luiion ngree^ble Ko the wishc^R of both pajlks tf ttitn 
sue oii]> two. or of all tbc citi/cns wiienf |)bbllc: inicrertjt lit 

involved. C/.E.£, H. 7, 1241 A. 27 ourw ti 341 tuv n^tMf iittft9^ 

In thia and tlic Nkomnclican pAK^a^c the uord Cir<l^xaw b Koe^ 
what mitleading is fugg«siing that both or all ponkfi s.cIubI])' g«( 
thi; mmc ih[t\^. nnJ ihdL tlicr^jforc llic objccjia q{ J^idMua uc llunp 
which both or aU can .^harc in ahkL\ But the cxunplc* iciTcn sbo« 
that o/^rji'md TTiiiy eiist With r^gnrd 10 the pou«sslon by OM oF Ibc 
Ijnrttcs of AD olTitc which ihc other or oihcm caunot boM- Wfcai 
is meant is ihat i^>»<!rbfa ia concerned with thin^ iiAcW tHWd botk 
or oil pariie«, having 1)10 \vishes, tnay biv? ihcM wi|b«* 
saEis5e<3. The People and Piuacua agree in wishing Ptitocui to 
rok ', PiltLicua rules, and everybody, Pittacus induddt gtls ^bu he 
wishes, Peters therefofe is hardly right with ' people »rt atid 10 
be of one mind, especially widi rcg&id lo matlcra of impocUace 
and ihm^s that may be given lo both persons or to all the persmi 

8Sh ^ ^^X*^'' n^TTOfl^ &T« ii«l nMt iJ9iX<r] Tittecus was dectc^ 
Dictator by the Mlrylenaeans. He ruled for ten ye&rv, tod, bsnng 
rcfttorcJ orjcf into die aifjirs of the city, volunLa/ily bid down H* 
office, aJthough die iVlityknae.uiB wished hiiu to reCAin U: »» 

BOOK IX: CHAP, 6; ^} 1,3. j6g 

Valerius Max, vi. j; — 'Postquam nutttn pox vtctoriA parta ceE, UST^Bi- 
coatuiuo, nthmtxnti^us Mityfmtjn's, (imperium) deposuU/ Hence 
ihc words ^r* lu) avr^r ^i?t\Fr. 1'hc MitylcnacAos wjuhed him 10 
rule, and oo long ;t5 he conscnied ihene was iS^vSrokD : buL when, at 
djt end of ihe Itu year*, (he people sliK wished him to rule whilr 
tkc w^ed to rc»igr^, Lhc t^tiTJivuj w^a at an cud, Ou riLlaii;u3 »cc 
Suaemihl's note to J'i'/. iii. 9. 1^85 a, 35, and Grotc's Htst. Part h. 
cb^ 14 end. 

Ok Ir Tat* ^oiriffifats] of EurJpidcs, 588 aqq. — Etcoclcs and •h 33, 

tA ir rif ftAi^] /. /. tA obT^ /v n^ nurtp, r^ dfjT^ U pmbably maao, • 3S. 
'Unaniraiiy docs not mean nicrtly ilmtking of Utc aiinic thing 
whalftvcr it may be, i)Ul titmkin^ of ihc same ihmg in 
COiincxioTi wkJi [he iiirne person/ ^ M.M. Ji, 1^. ma a. flt 

mrtOK ^5 ^pomtni>tfv .... ti#^l ilp:^fli^*t fi,m aafdtjTTuraf 4v ttxt fj/iairTUini» 

Oi ^4i««t«] ' The upper cl^se^ rf- PoL^. %. 1318 5.35^ where fa. 1. 
4? /iTirintf «n) ^r^i^i^t ATe o|i|>o^d to [he O^^ot, and Pol. S. 3> 1319 
a. 3. ^'hcre ol ii^ttatU ^tt opposed lo '^ frXq^f, 

wBXfcrwi^ %i\\ The codil. have li\ so Bekkcr. 1 prefer ^ with U X 
Ramiaucf, ftnspmih!, and Rywar^n This wntencc draws oui what 
13 in^ptJcd in tlic rcmaik mad^ abovc^-nffft t^ npoxrch bfiiiMvonvvw. w<A 

■o0dir4p ml V^Tfii] 'we ft«e ihen [ifnittrai iff) ihat rijij^Houi b. 9. 
I* »oAirw^ i>iXJ(jf And indeed It h aciually spoken of under this 
name—' or, 'and indeed the word if^mta in coinmonJy need 
In thil 5rn5e* — as r.^. hy Ami, himitFlf Pol. e. 5. 1306 a. 9 
^l^iai'coCcn] Ai oKLynp^rbi at* *^3iiii^^f'Df /f atr^i : TnUc- viu. 7S ^'^'*?' 

X^iyapx^**^ fi^iirrn^ Ij iiijv AtjiiincparTiirta&ai rt tal ^^npo^Tviv .... ffVB^i* 

jIawtb] Cam!>i. agrees with M*" in giving Jkoito- b. 4. 

{ 8. i*- ™*s £iRtiJL^(i'J the • good * generally u opposed to vl t^ c. 
YOL. n. D b 


SOOK IX i CHAP, fl: K 3t 4» 

fairness causing its posseBsor lo put him^Lf on an cqualiLf wA 
ochtfs, jwems also lo be prrsrnr to Arfntoilr'A mind; fcr tr 
describes Ujc nM^cir as Vnl t»* uLii>flwjf%^ ut. aa * aUndinjf oo tk 
£iiine fooling/ ind in j 4 contntsTs Ihciti villi rovr «L«nE# 
Aftif^i/Mi'f. ^ viii. II, 5 (iToi y^^ ol iToXmii Svvkarfnt aU iviii'ii: 
if 1^1. 

b^ 6^ ^irt Tbv ci^ui' orrvs] ThtE phi^ue £ectns strrctl^ poroJIcI lo rrl ^^ 

irTffiV jui/eiB of /*'>/, E. 3, [30^ fl. 3S . . . trromv Atounr' t ^ > 

L;tmbmus bow^ver gives a dincrFtii meanin;^ k> Ari f 
frrvi, vhich lie uuzislatc5 — ' Cum in lisdcm (pAcnc 
contrilim et fictia reraenlur ac per«vercni'; and ^tabr uLeiii* 
rtmp \'irw, with ' cJa we. so rM %^p,cn, iniTnrr hci und mil dnucibrs 
Din^cn bc^cliifUgt aind': and Friljtachc EdDows, quoting L^ 

yjij/. ii, p. 66, Ig art ivAuimir ^ ^^it^u** ir^iiTT*jr rotTn i^ Im i^^ 
vflp, /"-A *oti which he is ndw iHlentJ 

Gram (followed by WiUiain«) adopts an emticl/ different ^yit 
Hes iim« i& '*'Bdi^g on the ^in? nn^orin^, aa it «ere/ tf 
oppojjefl lo the cbljin^ and flowing^ of n KiiripoK. C/. Dcit 
t/f Cor. p. ;^E9, 4 ?&i vtjr «V1 f^( otT^r ««»»<«« rojf rgiXXMt ^.a|cif« 

Surely^ if Aristotle had miendcd to use this nautical mcti^iter,!' 
vould liivr employed llic pm^-rbial rxpteuion, which fictnu D 
have been a very definite ooc. 

b, LO. $ ^ KA^TTip ntkX ^^CU3 ctt'aL^ = ndJ^iiiTi/i uvx «»' r* ftX«M 


BOOK /X.- CHAP. 7; $ J. J?i 


H^jth tntffaitari lew rAait loktn tAty tntr/it mart tian r^e iitf/trlmft 
rMgm t ri* iflj»JV/r ftn/ra/^ J*'" '' ^^fl^ Ufitfaitort art fUt itrutfrt^ tmJ 
tkt %fnt^t»4 Utt ftitrrtfi<'/'i ; iH,f Shut ^fii^frrr ar^ fl^ni^Hnifl^Hr ffit ^<v!/jw^ t^ 

Mi^hU fcrhetpi ray thut Utt it to A»* j/ tht MMfer front d bttJ point ef tit^ \ 
mMdj€tti{ ruiji/if U ttptieJ^lAs rifi/m'arion iupii ti} hi j/tii trwugh 19 ^fnHiUi 
v^urf, frir ihf majnriiy of nitn urf unj(T^tt/itl^ enJ mart ttaxisttt tt 
rtiii^ ^rm^ii than to t^nftr thtt«' Tkt ravf/. >inrw^r. litt ^Np*r- Tkt 
AiMtl!^ tf irndiri arid b^rrtuftn it miiJf^i'n^. /jnJirs do ttel fret *my 
m^Htft /or ^onvwcri—emly Vfhfi t^att It lixtf, an.i /loitruk, arrJ rr/tj ; 
trAtrtm Ctni/a^JifH Itvt tAen ifh^m thty h^vt Umflcd. tvtn wh<\t Iht t^Ur 
tarn ^tftiovse to Ihtvt TUt i\nalaiy In hiip n r fim ti tftrtf cf the artfit #jf/ 
tkt '•"HI ^^kifh kf tHot/r. mat Ikitt ^ M# htr.ifr ttwt tuyrnntr. JhntHitt 
ifttff /!/ /i'Ajf ^ifhtih ht Atmut/ *ifl*rt mo't fk^it Iht tktrtg. rf if vtrtrt enJtwtd 
mC4 H^i, tcettiJ i^'f Jiim ' fvtU art /t'Aii/j /i/ ^st tnnanctt — eh*f are 
tf ai W Ff^ ptDtued ji'is/i thrir tmm worli, lamag thtm ai /artTUi ht« tkcSr 
thU^tM, SitnihrSy.tAt of^ett e/ Aii beiwjife%\it. qoft ttenefiU'S. ij tMt Minrktf 
ilu tirr^/ft'^r, tn/f it ftrjttir /hit ^/fit mnrt rhnn tka sihjtei ifitt/' Atm. Tkt 
fp»Ma */ tkii It tkttt a atf*ri if Hf mitttr atiHtktiirtf. A ita^f iffvvr ku u^rjf 
StiUMJf At /aifti Ais fffh nkcttiiU txisftlter, A/^uHv a'Aaf tkt hinffactar Jifii ii 
tniUifuitH Ail rtun lyf, arui thtrrfert he rrjoifft in ii , ftut in tkt tyesefthe 
fmm kim^ttdU it. at best. 9ti(y Nttft$(. noi Mmethir^g tf£ituti/ul far tuAtil At 
ntti fiM^^rt 9n lAt t^mffailcr smt io-riti htm. ///r ^ittrk thertfart abid*i /or 
tkl Atr—tht i<fttnfi/iil ir hiring; Nil i At profit tf tki rtiirvitw ii i&on m ^ftff 
ifiktfott^ J^nHAer.a Itnt/l is rtftivtd tvilktttt laAtHr.^M li tonftJ- it t/irre 
h MR^Bd'. OHi/ vitna/nHiyj ^oPt th^t tkinxi f»i?rt u'AjlA Aait lOti than iutvnr 
"-r.. (. Kffity m*flf, unrtt thun niariny iukjriraJ^ fsi Mf x^mt nnuni motkert 
art/9m4irtj lAeit (kildrtn rAar/aiAfrs. 

( I. U ireinipBu Scbifi/t^us I 'Looking at (he matter from a bad lierb.jto. 
poiDt of vi^w ' — as from a biJ w^i in the iheilre. This expression 
tIoubilT.-9i> used L> Efiicliinniis occurs ouXy hcrc^ Add it lb Iiq- 
potable to Jekrmine wilJi certamt)' iU cxaci Torce; but Cornea' 
»ugg«stion ihat it refers lo a bail phce at ihc phy is very plaLialble. 

]Iil note vi—tiit ^div* imiMt^un yvuinu ri Xfyrtfr rji9nv\fTti 'i^at)(aj>fiott 




BOOK /X; C/MA T; {} 1-4- 

Vfffi^V ^^ftvtyKtiv r)** ^^irtr ti^v 'Eirtj^up^n^ \t\ yf /irl f^ ^uv ';(p^ 
tffvm) AX'iiiTLfWT Tou rr&voUr iVnr'fi yd/i <* mac ^6rp/nt, <f nf torn- 

b.S9. J 2, ^girtfti£r«p»] 'ji Jeepcr reason/ 

cal odt* 3pOL»r T& iripl to^ ^rtLfrnpro^] Byn^. for B«klcer*> ■■- 

JlfiMi^TtLTWH fnpi rote 0f^riXmT4f, Mich, Epil. hus fjf ^p t'lm ^■Xffu 
rit SdHioT^ irpoi rotif i^jiXiraf, This ^prm* In'ttcr than, w Sulir 
apparcLilly docs, to Ukt; VfCft^vr of f^^M dn^fi^oirdf and J^iX^rrai— 
• meEner Ansichi noch darilc . , . die frfflchc . , . kcinenrtfri den 

dcnn Ewibchrn dicacn Ictetcm findet Ubcrhoupt gair kcm VcrbUtnw 

drr Licb? Kt^Lt, si>nd<-rn nur luf di-r SciL? d«« Gl4ubig«n 


J 3, Toti^TiU] Cf. [v. ;. 30- 

J 4, io^v tr cr«pY«fa] ^ i 7. 13, I4 Airriit At aal ravr^ll '^ 

ovrrf toutt Xi^ra6(ji , , , m^^wTDV S» ridtf^m fjnyor f"»7>' '■■^ 
1^X7' *vipyfutt mx trpn^it jura Xif^nu, 

•.7» iHp^tici Zl h ircii^ot ti cpyov eim mnj Mich- EpL glVCl 
true tm<*rpr«taUon ofUi^E/^ uord:^ — firri At' ^'^ fJiriir, ri rvv! 
■pyav vvfltV ffXXo ^ 'Mpyffa cj^e ^ ZaMflirjft, [he b'UbjCCC bcing! fyi^* 

and lIic prcdi<:;Ltc <i votrifat. ' Th^ vork is m a Mnse tbc reftlbKion 
of ibe workmin.* Bekker's «vri (rctflm«d by 3ywM«t) bbooti 
accoidiiigly be concclcd (as hy Suscmiljl) lo 4orL For «*>«■ 
renderings (which agree In maklnff rA 'pycr icc. af\cr fru^*^) MC 
Ihe tio[*rs of Viclorius, ZcU, Grant, iind Friiwchft- RAimawr, 
Suscmihl, ard BywaleE re^d 3/ for Bikkcr's Sf, rfghdjr I ihtok: 
there is no inlorcElcan 

BOOK IX: OiAP. 7 : §{ 4. 5- 373 

SydE^ ^on fturJfHi, TBtrn ir«pY<Mf t& (pYOf ^ijt^ii] ThcSC WOrds IIOQlG. 

arc to be tak«» cloaely wiih royro 0d ^uffim^*- h'liich Ihc)" wcphin. 
TTtr *ilfrprr rra*f>n' {^o^mwnpnv \ 3 above) 114 frnnd in iJisi law 
of nalQTc hy whicli A^tof^n riiic!! up into t'^V^na. A man is reafiy 
vhat he rfw/ : t^f. M/t. B. 8. lo^^^Oii. 7 Jirai' tir' 'i;*;d*' /'"^^'f" ^ 
yiyvrt^pni* anl t/Vjc, rip:^^ yhff, rh nt ivivt, Toi^ r*Aoiic ft' wira ^ yiHoir 

fUai t'tttir , , , tA yA^i ftiyrw tAbf, ^ i' tMffyiui tA tpyow, **A Jt^iJ mtfififxa 

The Form of Rcascn i« realised pcrfecily im! purely — a? 
Vtvy^id J*€ii flijwi^«i — in Orn^ Eternal Being ; i*t imnjeried — as an 
AvXoi Xtfyflu — in many mofial bcinpi^ in ihe bc»l of whom il ntrivea 
RGOluicly to free tuelf from its condirion of passivity by creatine 
acts'— b)' embodying Itself in extern&l uoilutt which m^y \^\ for 
ihe use and joy of future gf noration^. and c^pcdaUy by r<:produdns 
lUelf in Persons ^hom U reverences as En4lii because they reiliBe 
ilsdf: ^e ^.A*. K. 13. 1345 k 14 ^ ^^c od toidCtop auic Ar'urt^nt 
^ftoo • . , c£ y^ otTHJE 4 6«6r *o T]ft%, uk\^ &tkMa}/ j) (uatM JXXv ti v<hiv 
W4^ oCr^e bCrafp uinaf ^' ^1 i\^%v fUy r^ ■£ ntdf irtpofj tralt^ 4i a^rat 

{ B. ■aX^i'^ The tqAdf is the orderly work of kjCt. or the activ« ». 10- 
RcaEon. licitj^ iwrfrrdi' it caii he apprehencled for what it is on!y by 
Hur, or the active KC't^on, An att wliicli, Tor the rational agent 
who hat perlormtd it, takfrj. its due place as •aKiv m an orderly 
^irm of life, appearv as nil isolated and transitory occurrence to 
ihe person who is merely affected by it {»y i™AJiTi)^the pcraon 
vhow mere mffos ct ai^ffifme ba»i beed called forth by it, TJiia 
nuic uf mere paasivily is ihc mental auiiude of the grent mass of 
the vncducaied, and of the sclf-^okin^ among lljc educated, 
Cowardls iljc social good which the leaders of htunin progrecs have 
pUcril ai their disposal, and towards tiic cGTivenieiiccs of ilatly life 
dcviKd for them by Bcieiice. Nothinj^ to ihcm is jioAuV or fluu- 
ltarT6r. They have an eye only for the narrow field of the 
irrnoiiaJly cvinc^ipar. Their life is one of passive retepiion anri 
ftfMtii^t as distinguished from the life of active Reason^ Vkhich diinlife 
and orgiinisea, C/ Alit, on ^f/f. \, ft. 1071 bi (p. 660, st ed. 



BOOK rXi CJIAP. 7: J} 5^7- 

ft 1:1- §0 ^t«la r-tA.] Evi?ry<V/fi7fialasLU o^vii jili^fitfuic — sot ^fr^ 
cof' ^vdirrfrv /npytwiv qIium {iWiJ «0tu', or plcflXUlc and trt/rpi* bK 

idcniical — «c vii. is. 3. Meiice Aw^'f and ><i'^^ ue plcjmm, pi 

tiij^gesiing fW/i^rid, Src .l/r^ a, 7. 1071 b. ij ^« rwiunftf {l<. 

irifpam'>e tm ij ^inrtt. AtiiyB^y^ V ''i?T<)' oto ^ lipitrij jtinfAif xP^**** V"' 
oLttt yJp J4I /crZn^ /i^Uf, ^^v fUr ^op dAuwrrop' Ani >d) 4^ 1 
Mpytta rvtroi'' 'rul 0(d raCrq fy^/^yo^ii ntirAjiT«t ritj^tt fl*f**fj 

COmmcnUr/ ; X^ii v^v fri wr ^trrUi i^ i^Jifrq ^^If dm^w^^ ■■■ »ii^ 
j^poireif ^aC ^p^ dr^y uK\' Simp r'mp^i'f y<n;Tfl( ^ fffitrtput V9^t n vv^l 
Tairfijk r^V Ca*V>' i^'* 'V" ^ ff/Wfat rTirtQtf . . . ^ fn«l yAft ^ i'tJf/yn» onv 
ovAi'r ifAA" /tnU 4 ^ >Wtf^ ^dvtiT*-, g At trtfiytvt u£rvv qAov^ uvnn ■"!■. 
Vrrl r9()TY Apa rtifrfv itl ^ r^v fwifv, At^w jf^ ti^ vofTv i^wrw . • . «■! 3i4 
ruttTJ, <^<n~, ml t^¥ luif A)itiv mi n^ir ryp^ynprTtr vie rifii firfijint fliT* 
^^^, Sr* ^Mt/ytuU fWit oJffai IpWA^umJ ru^ citl »■!«■ *Lff«* V '"fT"' 

riHik t^pytiai 4 '^"'■C^'^'t Vi^^/y^trai ^iXtiLrgo r^r JKni^ mu rqt ^aryi^i 

ft, 18, ^ irpotf^Hia V Ai'diraXii'] rturrriffri, rvv ;<iv i^piTfr/pflv ^ftuvt fw i^ 
ruXwf ')£ min' (Corac»). If niXii M Well an jt/jiTtfifUi uc rdcircd II 
hcrCL ih? ]i:rcriority of llic ploaaurv aucn Jjnj; xix Anticipation of ifcc 
former will be tine 10 ihe fact ihat ihcy arc x*^*"*^ " buijicfhtpa 
only *i x^iff^w ajc referred W- 

lU- InvTBi] "arc attribute cf,' «cc nolo on vu. 9. 6, b, $4, ud 
Bonits on AfrL a, i, 9^1 a» 97. 

a,SA, {7- ii\oT»vJr«pab[ a. r^v natifya,r: ef. E^E. 11.8.1241 bu | 

^ 20, '^ ^oXXoK ltra9\i' in aOruv] Kim<aii«r bmcketi tbese iix>rdA v 
QUI of phtv hcTC, vht-re Arisioile Is concerned I0 ahov vbj 
bcnefacEon love more. Surely, he arjpics, lliow who receive kacnr 
ftg nclJ what they receive as ihoec who gfvc Itnow wbar the^ give, 

BOOK IX: CHAP. 7 : § 7. 


while ihc conncjilon in which the similar words ut-cur in \\\\. i >. 1 uaSi 
to quiic difTercm, The parallel passage, however, J?. ^. II- 8. 1341 
b, 7, which Rflmsiupr <Ioea not regard as making againei hja view, 
»ctiii7i Lo ine 10 iadiciiic iluii ilie writer ImO the [fit of llip JT, AT 
wi/A uai /HtXXaF firflffiF 5ri aVrwf before him. His words arc *al al 

^7ri,»F Tfcti' WiifiptJi/ Sri /loAAoM Dliirni cvn^c ^Tvai Ipyor fi TflNt^j. ri yA/i 




^JUilfr ffagMfiwl Ap fpft'Mjri' rj /nnDi ev^htta My hirmetf^ ioint other 
NU^mrt^, tomt tvjut, ftt * ^ef/4ifi^f' »f ^^f ■ /w^ mfw art ftofid for Hair 
'j^^Aiv " ; good mfri far thnr iart tyf inhnf 11 hrauh/td end riihl, ii'hirH 
iWiiiriJ At^f ffrgetJutf/*iBlf* artit i/ft-attii fi> fkttr fritmh. Bwf faitt, it mety 
dfttrgt^. an ajT-Ufut tfiii virw. Si^ki/t inti'i M- *i man it hti ou/n tfHcti 
fiitmi^i/a tnu /n4*ui 1* tm whowhhti tiir gov^i a/ iht odfvt af his /rUt^tAip 
dtlilltmM^,$rJ^MiiFafi/A.f'iatt'Uiaif ; aniii/iris Afr tru^rC/rie'iifit'Aj/tt 
^ mum 9ii£hi la la/e mttf - ii'kiiv tuj(Al Jif ti> /irw mor* tMnn hi^cf/J, hii e^tm 
ifmtti, "W/ JiiiHt/rii/rit /titrtJ f Our ifajem^tit iA^ # v/an'j /»u /ifr Mt 

ikii taM09/ttrft . •^r*J •i// tht fimtrffi at^ut /ritrttiiki/ tUiOtii toi'tA il—'tmt 
tmi^—* fiift;fff it iofttmon' — '/^jfri/i//' — 'itnet ntorer thtvt lAih' — tAtu fin 

eff*rHa atfai lA^n muit ut/oNtwi ^tll /tre//(iHit»/4. 

/■f Jr^iiiif nt'/A ttnA tftev/s wi mitst ^fvi^i' ttttria^-tifim, *w/ try tfi sn ktie 
f»y vkJ jW v^'it unjf, m4 U tna. Itt lu tit tAtn m vAat itnjE tacA trinv 
u/idirttaf^ 'ui/lffsn.* Tht vU\u vihkh unJerititttdi it in ti Aati time tjAgj it 

IUffJMiM ri* k/tint 0/ aiJh^ttJt^ to oHfitiflht iars'r ikatttWA/rf merify, Amuh^, 
mmd h^ify flt^mrt art c^H.ermed. Ihru art tke lAifi^T tvAiek the mtijtri^tf 
titm thinJk btit^ *i»tf ^rrtpeSf kitr*tyfer — in tkeir sft^iA fufsutit tf iht"* /rf»wf 
f9rtiu asxii/Mtian ofthiirdfiitti imaJ tke itratwtvx! part ff/tktir na/Mn. Tke 
*Mi/^i9tft ' fffmtA nrn lAen i> Jnitiy kiJ\/ up t» tVHrrmft i anti it m it vAni 
HtatM wAo tiy ihitt a *nitrt ouf^hi unf ta love himstif mott, have in vietir. 

Bmi if 9 man friri ittn tn A/ d^n-a/) ^ft^tt en-Twg virtvsvs/y ttfid idtnii^* 
iHg Aimul/ witA a/ttAati/ ^aufi/it/ amJ jfttxt. m« (t«i* nm/Ui hiamt ktm fart kit 
Mm/ jf* itJ/M^*—' III/ !tt** ttt,iit Iha tnvit NtKt.itmtmmeA at it it tAtintt 


BOOK tX: CHAP. 8; {§ t, ^ 

alia ky tkifiut tknf tht nritr rfl/tflna/ 0jfi if/ rM*t(£if tf ^ /Ar «Mtff frtii — 1^ ; 
an*f fy thtf*iS thttt thi fffcd men fnt* Ait Jftoum mtjf, 

Tk4r^ tiffMiti iffsm^ iktn^ia h f^f^ kimdt rf tt^-I*9v,-mUrA diferm widifym 

tktrtfsrt irui'At re Im kinaif. /v f# doinf kt wtU ^tMtfif M'jk Atmu^m^ 
edttft: buttkt ' iftf-fet^t" i^ t\t tifi/hAt Mtm a Mmf^ UU /a Mm^/f amin 
Ait itrtgkhavi', fur tt ftmiiti >'» j W <^ ft >iy jpi7 fotd^m. Tk* ^mifkfd m*w 
^s lakitf Ai en/i^ hoI ta f^ ; tkt ^etid nar d*rj u/imi 4« 'VV^ " ^ 
fvT KeAiOH a/tttyt lAtKMti tAaf wAkA ii foiT jW iOhf, ami tkd /■>/ itM 
ebf/t tkt mit t^ AempH. for kii frUmdi tm fkt gomt man tni^ iA> mwc*. 
atuf/wAtJ tenrstry^/vfrt /ityiit^ dcnom Mil t^t, i/m^ ^, f/j »v6' gtP* ^ 
^•Mlth, /mJ ir.t/hn. tmJ tit Ih* gv^ '^"'g' ^^* ""o t*^/t*t /^. ^ '^ 
Ji4 may ma^ tht gfjry // wtU daiitg kit noHw I/t irhT fi"^^ IAj gmt jif 
c/a ihart tim< t9 /ee^t mtii/inti^HJ im/iiH/nt fkrongk*M 1$ if^iimr: if *rf 
frt/tf ait jiUriTUi yrar te « TtfAjf tifttimi of tirdvvify thim/p- — ffne i>iBf ^ 
^trtrvmi tirtd fff many tmttH f^rfermsimti^^ytng. it m*7 hr. for M: .tw^ry 

k4 v^Uitt At'j fkaM<f pf maiiifi lUfinty fiifi, /Mat le kit frittaJ may e^mt imfit 
a itrgtr /Aan ,- /tr thtii ht Jttvftt /^r kimttlf ^h^ it Mt*r tJ^it tw/j 
—ike givry iif frr/ffrmin^ u X'irtuetii a^lii/tt, Siwtiiortf^ kt n^H la 4miv* 
and fijjifts HP pfui Atm nv /spffvr vf ku friend ; My. u mtyM tktt ki wU 
ttmiftimft Ifuzf evtn gccd otiioHi io ^ ffijormrd by kit /nffi^ iDtkffv Mm 
itrrtffn virfuB in leing tha tOMse itf Ji is /rial's f<ffffrmw^ tktmlXaKht f^ 
fi>fwn*\t: rhsm kiMJ^/i in thort, wAtri virCmoit* attiemt art tt^K^nvdA* {W 
miAn wiU til^tiuyi takt to hMitSftht largtr >har4- TKia ii iJtt jomt ii$ mlhi 
JU Ifvei himu^ m9si'~rightly. uf Aavr uftt, ttet as ikt wt9tty 'itmt eb» 

[(^ M. M. iu 13, 14, where i 4^'X<ivfor ia diacuMcd in miKh flic 
same viy as here; bi« iher* it no corr^spomling dtfcrtMBOQ • 
tlic £. E., H. 6 Ri^L Tou oCt^k oir^ ^i^oi* thni ( f^ foln; o*cr lilt 
&ame ground as E. N* l%* 4, IiiJmU the tcrtn ^'X^vf** doea noi 
occur in (he £. E. Il Is prsny i^vidPTi! ihai KLidrfnuA hiul lui 
£.N* ix m exactly its pKstiil sJiipc before hiiu.j 

iieB4-SA. $ 1- ctof] iniroducfd inEd the [«xt by Sutemihl ftAd Brwatcr, Il 
given by Cambr. and CCC> 1* well aA by K^ and r. 

A4* louTaLi] ^ippn JjTiToii ^Micti. Eph,); * lAifthoaE llunlcing 



§ 3, 4 PovX^fKvot ^ pouXtTQi] For (^ K^ and Camhr, liavr ( L 
Bywdter'* conjccLorc 4» ^ ^^ ^^^ry likely. Th« (» voudd rcfa Io 
1 »55 b. 3r : t« Cort/nl. p. 64, 

BOOK IX: CHAP, 8: 55 fl, 3. 


npo&oli To6f )a)^ m^ii/ljvi ^^nur flr^£vrff. ^ua ^;^^ ijiatn' fri Ac Ei'f rA 
■MV4 ru r«r ^'Xorf «Lf rubro ^^111^ lui imiVgE t^Avrijc, mil 'y^n' iit^fi^v 

/odiTT^ i^tXuvTfpoL' /dUTDb j (Fur.Lpli^), Tt^tRi^ [ifovFrbs all go to !thott 
tbftl Friendship )» >i vcr> cIok: rcUiian ; and IC whom can a man 
(EAnd in a cloetr relation than lo htmtdfi 

yrfvu "Ei^fiif *¥>****] ^1^*^' '^f*'^ Friwsche fefer Eo Thecc stv!. ifl, tt8. 
Illicit; dirh>T«po^ i) yJyu »^^ is |jut in[a Lhc mouib of onc wlio 
excuses hicnaclf ior keeping bis money to himacif, 

%9\\ So Bywsi^i for hi — *to intlic&Ee ibai tbe bUit^mciit \% a b. ii. 
conclusion drawn from what precedes tC in the text — ' Centrib. 

{ d. ttatpttr] What i% the precise force of Wptcr here^ Boe* b> IS, 
it mean ihai ve ar<^ lo 'analyse ' each view by itself^ or that we 
arc m ' (liKiingiii>h betwt^en' the two vit^ws? Peiers, *dopLing llie 
fint Altcindtivc, iraii^ltttcs— ' Perhaps the best method of di;a]iiig 
withconHicicrigstaicmenifiot this kind is to analyse ihcm^and thco 
clearly distinguish bow far witl in what wnj^e each is riy:bt/ Slabr 
adoplK d)c oEher alternative and translates — 'Allcin ith dcnkc, man 
mu«fi d«rg1C]chen Raisonnementa scbarf von emander hah«n und 
p?nau be^tjtnn3en, wic wdt und in welcher Art sic wahi wnd.' I 
, un inclined to Suhr^s opinion, on account of what follows. 1e 
ttmi out tliat each cf Ch^ CU'O A^i i« concerned with a differrni 
^jXatrnv. Instead df being conirafy theories on the fame i^tibjrcli 
they arc theories rclaling loctirircly diftereni atjbjccta. Tins being 
cltarJy seeHj the two theories are properly •distinguished,' f/, 
Rainsiuci'^ notr— ' Dbimeutur autism ccrlantes (Omipiu') alque 
titriquc rem non male ^sicGc i/idebuntur, u apparucrit, dtvcrsa 
«n censuUse de Tiomtne quidem vel tiiulo uno< Bed de re vel 
hi^nhmm g^nerc dtvcrfio.* 

^0 CI &^ Xd^«i|irftti ^i\cuiToi' nCs tK(tT<poi Xf^vff4>-K.r,X.] Both Mich, bp 19. 

I Eph_ and ih? Paraph, tn iheir cominerrflripfl on ihcse word* aeem 
10 lake ^to^nW in the sense of 'analysing' Rrsi the one and thirii 
(he other of Ihe iwo theories- While, I ihink, on this particular 
poini ihcy are hardly rigbi, ihclr remuik^ are useful for ihc gen<*ral 
:rBtajidJDg of the piescnl p^&aage. Mich.Eph. hi»— ^u li^ 


BOOK rX: CHAP. 8- }{ 3-5. 

tirai Au'jlWwi', fi«^de diro/iflrm nnrt/iy A/or orgXpt^'iv, 4vp(ccwfr tt 

Hcinsiug iransliics, Joubtlcss correctly, No* igitur sj dilijcnr^f 
fliviJamus rem ipea^m ct dialing u^njud &c.) iLrX^lo tbc uffic 
«6^ct xis Micb. Eph. above 

b. i«, ^ 4. gO The two kiikUs of^^iXivTM cODtraalcd b iImm sectiott 
may he com parcii with ihoisevhoBCt from itf^ai i>raiuyvdtoorilt 
piusionihus ofraoxif. and llioat wlio live *j (kiffv rii:tm£s, m 
diatinguiEbctl by SpinoEA. The former are domiojiicil by iIk 
abRirflct and onesided vicwb pr^ecnied by pa^stori and inug^aiica* 
whkli UM u|j tliT^ ^Mtv^ E-liltL^ in diffcieiU lights to dllTcreiu pcrwo*. 
bciwccn whom *ccoftliiiji3y disscnaions and conftiCU Amc B* 
thoee vho live /x Jur:v rolicms see nothing pariifliZy ; thc^ iiadcf* 
sbml everytlLirkg iiuly a»^ its iisiurc i^ delrrmincd by ibi^ pbcc il 
MCUpica in ihe univcraJiI sysLcm. B<!twci:n men vtIjo look Allhin^ 
in this u'ay there can be no disapreemenf, Ari»lollc'* h\ ^ mUi 
^uLrr^ Rfpiffviriir^ (§ 5) bt Spinoza'ik ' Acting tn a manner Miiubk 
to that rationally constituted and apprehended Human Nature ia 
onp&-'lf winch ts common to oneacif vtlh rII men/ In tocktiig \m 
o»ii lizgbc:»t goud a man JtctLs ipto /mio :he lughe^t good of dl 
other men ; ihe ttistinction between 'his own' hiphcM jcood isd 
that ' or oiher rnen * b^ing merely a Tormul onft. See ^pirtoa £A 
iv. 18, Scbo), — * Quum ratio i{\\\\\ contra nAluram po«iQltu po«nlii 
tFffi ipea, Ut unugqtjjsque ec ipttum amet, Kuum utile, quod rever* 
trtile est, qu^Lcfai, el id omtie, quod hommcm ad majorrtn p«riec* 
llonem revere Jucii. appeiat. ei ibsoluLe ut unuaquUqiK smuneaBa 
quantum in se e5t, con^er^'^ire conetur . . , Ddnde quandoqu^os 

SOOiC IX: CHAP. 8 : \\ t^ ^' 


HrHw nihil aliud en quara ex le^bu* propHao naiunfl ap;rrp. et hob b la, 
nf mo HJum e^h>j^ crmKcrviArc coTiriur, itlsi ex i>r{i[)ri;ie ^uac naturae 
Ie^l>u9: hinc Kcqijittir . . - viriulb fun(lamcnliim «uc ipMjm 
ccniicm, jiropnum eniie cotiF^crvmdi, cE feliciut«ni Ln eo cor- 
ablcir, quctJ liuruu »uuiu e-ac couiicrv&ic polcSL' - < . iv> 35 
'Quiicnuii hnminc* afTcciibuA. qui poit^iones sunt* conflkt&ntiLr, 
pAUunt MW hatum liiVLTsi et limctrm cotitrarii . - . nod qua 
vna3(qm«(iuc ejc i^uac nature Ir^huiid ippelil. quoti bonum. ct id 
AnOvcTC conaiur quod malum csm [Uijicftt ; ct quiitn proclcrca id, 
i|tlod ex <3iGiainine raiionit bonum aut mnlum Wi<^ judic^triu*, n^CCT- 
uiio boniim auc niuluin til: ergo hoiDlnc* qiulcnuK rx ductu 
rotJonift vLvunc, caUnus lEUitum c& ncc«EAino ngunt, quae Kum.innc 
naiurac, ct connrqiimE^r unlnifc|u« homini neccuaHn bona «iml. 
hot: o!- quae tuai iialtim uniuncujui^uc bominis tonvcnfuul ; 
aiquG adco homincii ctiani mccr w, quaieDti:^ ex duccu rationiM 
vivunt, nfce6*ario semper coin/er^iunr.' 

dmf tf Hal t6\i4 k^t.V.] ' As tlie niling part m (L ^enta 10 f^c th 31^ 
11iCBUlc,or vyalcm, in the iniesE sense, irc \\v& rutLiigpart is the man 
In the triipftt «''T>iic.' Mich., fiaj'3 — aic miXi* hi^^'mc trrriw nu to 
ni;i[7 v(jA« uI ulaicu. ul^i diAbr vJ tV it^'^f ntoiiTfv < h * liXAd n^ti /vrl 

a^XWtiirmt al rC^opoi , . . ovf v Kui u I't^paenirt tvpivt firri ri fr4<J)tr«uf rr 
^It'ttf ifpes Xfij^ttf rift ^i'](^r irftp /^rrl r4 X'Fyiffi^<»>' i^ut Kal ^pirr^Ctf 

£s ToJmu JuiffToU o>T^] cfiui* fut >jir vov KtHnaurrot ub-nJt nr X«-j*rin b. 3<J. 


Thcai^tbof tlic jaiiouJ n^^cni fcpKsijnl a tort^I^;(;LlI and single 
penonihLy to whidj wv alwa|E refer tliem ^ wber^a^ Itie acta o( iht 
itpmfir rrprpstrnE nirrrcly ihc jjre\-a!ency for the lime rf ccrtdn 
Aritfb>*>iii. and i^ic icv^rctlcd and aa il were diaowncd* b> ihc man 
* vhc& he como to hLmsclf ' Hf^in. On this ground ibe acLv of 
ilie raiionai agf^nt are spobcnof iicpc u tiVurt/jicriA a bi^ra^iw 


Hook ix : chap. 8 : {§ Wi. 

Li6Bb.S6. than iho« of (hr acfwr^r^ I^ut iL must bc rcinenbcTcii tlaL ihe 
doctrine (jf lb« Third Book (ind we hive no reifiOn to suppote 
thai Aristoile wishc* to modify il hcrr) msikrii nn pra^tira/ diCcrmn 
bclvcrn acU done lari X^y^. and iho^ done 3i' Jm\0VfUim i Aa 

^pdr, f£/^ voluntarf- !f our Rood icu are volunliry to *rc iho 

our Imd acts: «fif iii, l, jo tA fRin'ririair Aiifnrr Av «&« «fi } i^a^ ^ 
aiT^ tlAuTi TO va^ rffoora tr alt f/ itiM^it. This dctcriptioa appUc* M 
^i-\l <o acts caused by mert iraS*n fts totho»«di]« lo ffapXnn^ 

7* a^rmv flvrr>r : XVe mnv perhaps S»y TKjlI whtir ihis Is th« ff^tikd 
view as il lecommends iibflf to thr fociologlfpt, ihc ■aicmeit 

the apini of * the melaphysi^ of Eihloi.' 

followlo^thc Paraph., 13 doubilcst right yf\ih otoi- ijd^^ n <M 

^pfiimf. T!iL- wrjlrf** carclt*w uai- of ^ before t*£ d«ecib>T«f hn 
betrayed aome MSS, (K'-, U\ Cambr,, CCC, AJd followed bf 
Bywirer) inio the insertion of f before nC taXn. 

R. e. $ 7.] Widi this § if. ag^ain Spinoia £th. \y. Prop. ^5 — Siuni 

bonum <ionjm qui virtutein eectATitur^ omnibus comnu&e tU, M(|K 
oniEir^ aptjuc giiuctf re possuni. Dtmonstr. tx virtutc Agere cu d 
duciu ruLicnift agcre. cl quicqutd kx raiiotic uinaiQUt ftgtrc Cft io* 
telligere, A[qu« adeo summum bontjm coram qui vifluBM 
Bectantuf eat Deum cognosceri', hoc f*t, bonnrn, quod onmilat 
hominibua cocnmunc est, c^l ab omnibuti hominibuf, qoaiccift 
ejiisdcm sunt naturit;, possideri deque poteat. 

*. U. limp i\ ipiTii Totou-rir hrryw] i\ ^, each man individuaUj 

the grcakat of good thingB* * for i^ach ia virtue/ 

IL 17- f 8. irac v^p vou^ alpciTfiL tA ^Atlotdb' launu j NaCc in iri< |vrfr(l 

purity, as God« contcmpiUtcs and ctcnally rc^iftcft ibal vliicti ii 
bcEl ind higheflL — :l9elf ; fiee Mtf. A. ij. 1074 b. a; d^Xor . . . «n 

principle which inimTainB ibe Jt^^Qw tt^at of his tttinrc, tO fintfW^ 
wliich 15 hb (.hicf gomi; Vthik in the ors^nlms of inffm% ind 

BOOK IX; C//AP, 8: §{ 8-9. 


plims the Mmc rormatlvc principle appear* u ftn cFTort, cha-U60ft>ir, 

rBCieriscd :»& tf*in»f, 10 pTcscri'e anil perpemaie the lype of the race, 
A dmne Kf;w[«] thus prnrtmttfis Naiurf, producing *Htt nul of SK^ — 

KT^., tii) tf jvira Utitnovityt/iaa ilfiX'i ^^XP^ twxqi/thv splittiii t^ivoioo t^v 
vhfp^ p^X^* "^ ^ *f9oF ravta naX rijf ^p^^r rrXWcdf trtipficaua rp 1^17 

(ThcTni« m Pfyt. voL L |>- 171, t-ii- SpengcJ) ; ^ ^A^^ i. 6, 

Eph- icmarks on fat y^ft *o£t: nl/H^rciL Ti ^'Xrurro^ (oury us foHnws — 
wot >A^ voCf ofiTQ^WMt ^4 TTfipiitfiU ^<^' i^Aitrqi i^ vAOOLf a^^troi cnl Au^ri 
r^ ffi^ttirtint 'til trvfx^tfiuv ia^r^' Gijkuv At roiT^ vhi oiti^ ruv uXriyuv 
{fftoir^ Tirri yiip tit ifiMiTi mumif f^Jin^yit tou* iaaaiWiai o '^pitrToriXrje 

flXAujta^ i^n (ArialoUc tlocH noi item to use ihis ciprcusion any- 
where) T&Lr i^ir fiaXX^r nit Af (rroi', fli' t^r TWofi'^t^ avTA^vur (■JT'i 'dl 
f^Vffi ri 6^Xwi''*Td , . . (Mich. Kph. tlirn givts sever;il namplea 
of the * irjsuna ' oF ftminais ; ard procr<:ds — ) ri 3f 1 mrXXo >;*irt^«p' 

iQ^^ipr J^ifcif^ TU flikrirrti mtl iavt^ fai rrjij ittKtti aipJjiTirai Atl 

f O. nLpobi^aL **| |i^Q iiaXa*' iavroi*] We we how far removed 
llic ^iXovrJn of iIjc >[Ood iji.\n is ffotii DiJinAry sclf-sccking. For 
ihe sake of the vi\6f \hv ^iX^ivro, will lay down hie life. He will 
ftor CflHE ti cari?lpKs(y away 55 inferior men, falsely failed ccurageous, 
do under tlic inlluruci: <jf ang^r 01 other excitement bul will Uy it 
dovn racionnlty for the slice or his ideal of Humin Perfection, He 
know!^ [hai Human Ptrfe*.'[ion.unlJke ihe Divine Perfecilon wliicli 
19 rcxliKd in One elemal Dcing. i» realised in a succc^non cf 
mon^^ bein^a, 'I he mt^ie pi olorkg^tion, a^ such, of a mortal life ha 
Keen Id lie II matter of little rnomeni, iH'C^UHe Humiin Ptvfcalon is 
accured by ihc j^ucl^os^Ioo of Uvea, He cates onJ^ for Human 
Peffcction, and if he findfc ihat he can further ii by doing something 
thai c&n be done only at the cost of his own bodily life, he gUdly 



BOOK IX: CHAP. S; $} ^It, 

U€e»iftO> lays donn his life Here all ihc ordmuf iaoLivc« operolins 

tUe ^r^glo[1 c1 the scriBibiitty Arc lef^ behind, and lh» af«i»t riiiF 
into ihc spbcrc where aclion u dcEcrrciincd by *rcvere«v fo« b« 
tjniversaL' Thu« the doclrirc c^^^beto, which ld its hijcfacft kn 
amDunu lo ' sclf-nacrifice/ belorgs la what may well be caUcd ' ih» 
MeUphyKLc of Kihic^/ Tim tl^-ic Is Mich a 'McUphjifu:* a 
eurcl)- SI great i^TJCdcaJ inilh, aUcvIcti by ilic fact Uai men vc foiuif 
thus ready to hy down ihcir IIvol 

i^ujfov — iht form under which die highest ir^tcirltnice is prrtmitdtn 
the Fourth Kook -be cora;>arcd with the form under wbdr i 
U pree^^nted here, cerruin, f>c-rhu|ib nut uimaLuraLitibuiKknUndtip 
wiU l:<c avnidciS in connexion with the c-ailicr nccnont 

Aokov iiU«r n>LWfJ uoi at the cxpcnK of t^thcn^ bui lor ihc tiUii 
OV common Humanity, Oy Vfrafwni wc fire to niKUfSUtid i^ 
i^rlut'i: not- J?. A', i. la, 6 J iiJ*- >dp*ffii*«i r^ dptr^r tpoMw^Muiyif 

r^vmXwv diri^ ru^Tf (. Thc ' [&fR«r shslfc/ tllCn, wblUl thC gOOdfftt 

' iak«& Eo himwlf' i« ^ r^rgcr tliart of n\m^ "/»^i*, sonw oTibHi 
involviag Hit sucrflice of il] ihiiL is <lear lo flc«h Ofid lilood. TW 
^od mm takes lo liimBclt a ^ larger bh&rc ' of ' ftdf-MCrificc*' Gnai 
well coTHpaies wilb this account of the $fX/jvroi "the elevated 
deacripiicn of the Klf-iiauriJkc of the Iravc nun tu Elk uL> 



JriDtA/r ptftiim tt v'ktflktr the Hn^y M<m tft/f mrd fUtmis » mi. }h^ 

ifnnJ fi' mjtfUitmtary u// to ^1/ Aim if Atfaim * gvtJtrJkkk Af ^hrmfy^t 
' H'Atm ffiotfm u Aim/. trAai wm' V y^''i'«Mb / ' ntkii ii U t^Htd lUt « 

t/--/nei$di. tki £mUf±t A/t*Uiwa^I gooU iAittp. AU9, atmt tAt gtml mtm fir 
tUtnttJi/y ifmjntlv^ ami tj $i Ittt/r la htm^i fritrndg Hi^m ttf^^^t.t^ 
^9mi M4.iH uUI mfJ friitJ* U U ihi tt'jeili ^ kit htn^tefmu. Ihmtt amttAtr 
pialicit ATtiti—tVA/tAir ii ii trt ^rciftfitj rr aA^rMty tA^fi4atdi «t 
itaMf In aJvtm'iy « matt vh/ mv/ hM^^utm ^ m ^i^^tri^t • 



■// J^r AimuJ/t*f a.-^fie AW aZ/poJihin^, Tki ifaf^ Mati*. tMn, mint if» 
Mrto'>, amJ. fMintf. tit j^itfy 0/ gtHfJ /ruHdi /o' thai i'j t^fttr Uati iAt 

H^-^^itnK trnd 4ef$ itct itstii/ritnUi f T^i torts' h irur ta far >ti /rirmlihip 
/ffrfirvAt. AnJ/riindiAip/o" pltSiUre art lomrftiai. Tht tfappj MandGiimBt 
maJto m-*U tAt/erm4r binfi fl/ frvHiiiMip. fv^^tiif Air mttf'-itjf m^tt"fin art 
ttktrtfiu tv^iitnity pr^t-i4ai faw ; titrJitfj ht hmJ t*m*kt/riemU/fr tki»^A4 
tf pttttian. fur Mj Hf< *j i*9 ihtif p*fanit*ty And Aaj ttf mi\i ^ i^foritd 
pitMtvtt. I'vlH ii neffrw if !*/» wiiAntt yMnlij^totitmt fAa/ kr d^fM mt mvd 
Jntmdt, fafhe muti Aavv ff;^ /riitkU, riiui Pi^pfintv ii a IJft—^ /uHtfM 
ygf fa 'iaJ, w}f a pmmiii'ni'titiyttify a**J fhtt /afvfwm i/ftoJaM/fpitfitoMitm 
ittit^ ftr l^t ^Qf-J tf»*u tfAffpfrfi"m U, iihJ plt^taiJ foc^ hiatut it u ku «■« 
/wmthn, but h$ can iMttempt^t tht HAt /p,n(tiati in hii frhnd Mttr ihm At (an 
tanetmpi^t his tfttm fimriaii- TAe i/^ppy Mart tAm $t<i^i thi mifrortf/ rrifn^' 

tkip M ^Airk to K4 (ff^r.y tA-U 71'tirk ilAil Joy—thf U/t i/ jftkni CrTifiH—Ail 

0tmlifi, t-nTtA^.ii btini ndmttf/d tkaitkr tt/t ef tkt i/itpfy Min tmjFktteAt 
fitatanit H auJJ int<rjjy he ihii t/vrr Aea SotiSary^/fr ly Afmjtt/ kt ituiJ ttM 
mr^ prrjb'vt Ai4fiif»itiuHtant*tf4ftmi-y, H'itA f/Aeft^iMtiJiv ri*Ati*M tttfAutt 
Jja g w r , it wff Jtf u^ tf do It meitnji4fy. A /ttindnt pJIrctant it iti4f/vilt 
liu$ Jv mtn t^nlinvinufy ftrfitrvitft ; otui tAit d^^wiCr ttfVi Mtr m^urn tf 
a^ppitmt^ Aj^tiin.a m/m gtti pr^itwt iv %-iVrm4 fy Aft^tiaiN^ imtimitNfywkk 
ft$J H/jt, A4 TAn^H trill mri. 

/tut f Am iia itOt jUrprr re^tm intAr mtmref/ lAifa^^./r^m v^ktfh terii^ 
iJai € fiMii /riinii ii iht/tirtilj' rhi c^jfct oj Ihi ^od Hiaw'j ihouf. Wt Atftw 
jftfH t\^ tk^l \.'\kk it wi/HfWr/^>fnf uj>WEWih///^i>idM/ r* Uteif frr tAt fp*d 
M*v. AVVt Lift^ iflivA ii /id f^K^r e/ px'mvif;^ airj tAimimf^of #wc 
Uritllf. tka txtititt ef/JAe pe^tr, tJifuat pmrpritm and lAnH/Jit—it fiW mtd 
finaamt in Uui/./crU it Sfjinitf ; H it tkettf&r/ good *ititi pi^aiant far tAtgntd 
mM* atl mm uuWitf j/nW cfi/r if. but lAf /on/ matt tiptti^Iy t/rivvi t^fr 
U, imtmmA in it it htjt a«y itt&ii ttuj^d ai rta.'n^d by Aim. pMrtAer, Af wAt 
ttt4 rr Atari ff TKialbj p^nreit^i tAst A* stti fr Aittn ^ ivafJm rAer^ tia/aat^ 
DH Ain vAiiA fentivti tAitf At atrritet tkt vttritMi /vtu/iem ttf ittit^pttftp- 
iitm* Aft/ C^ lAotti^J : Ant tv ptneive that he periet^t Of thfntt is to pfn^'m 
iAtd At tni/t \jimntlimrf ttr ft/f,wt icw, 11 fvri-ftTirHf or /kimtiHj^) '. Mfitw. JV 
/fnM4 /*j/ Ar atiti or ttttt ii ptioiant tH tti<f/. Jtfui tipweiafiy to tki jr^ 
msH uAjif iift it i^pmniiy lAti^fVvrrAj , tiv/. then. fAe nhtiatf in v^iA 
tAt j;tad men 9tamdi ft kit fi-itnJ it tAt xjne ci tAtH in wAifA At tfandJ to 
Aimttif, tM £W^ miTfl cAtf. prneit^t^ Atmuif «j ^»v/, maka Ait #nu> tx* 
iittmr tAt oAptfi ^Ait tioitt. witi tuttssarity moAi tAg triiltme tff kit fwitmd 
tflw tA4 obyatttjAitiA^ut.ftftHTingAiif^tertiCn^iittnn o.n4 go^dmur it^ft^ 

fji^H^ Ait ftviit /jPTd fr^ttyi il A tft*/»J itl/. 7%it iOffltHiri perarpfiifit tf kit 

0tfmaijttȣtamit/Aii/rttir/MeAt food man viit r^aUir 4H jAat^^finmen-^tnUjk 
t/tprtiA ami iApH^At rAif A taniiitnttj tAi hhihJ fi/r ofmtat. dj diitiHpiiiJttd 
fr^m lAt grq^Mti U/e tij ttittie j^aiynji ffgethtrin sAr tame pas turrj. 
OurtoKiutim, Ihrn^ it tAat tAt Happy Matt mutt hvw gtttd /fifUt. 


SOOK rx.' CHAP. 9: ^ i^ 


[The *ubject of this chapter (ticellenUj' sumnurioed 
nd tiU.) k iliatiiMiL*d in E. E.H.i^ (a diaplcr ihc Jn[4-rpmiilion (f 
which labours under great icniual diffiojlriesy, ud in M, Jtf, ii\ irf 

11S9 b. 8. ^ 1. rar Sj ^t\o'. fnpop □^tqi' Srra, vrDp^eii* A %t ftdrou dlunnf j 
/, f. ihe notion oJ' the ^po? ai-i^v or supplement*!?' »fZ/, w&o 
su^iptics what {he aCrit by Inm^Ajr cannoE obUln, is incoutitcnl {i 
priufi) with ihi.- notion of tb? adTdpHCLa of the oiMt, 

b. 7* Stai' & S&t|ivi' ic.T^X.] Eurip. Ora/ei C67. 

pwMgc in vhicli ArisloiU cxplidtty plcdg<* hiruc!/ to 'Jk iic» 
th^t fncnds are ;he grezites: cf ^xicnial %ooA Eh^ng*. ThonhK rf 
llie m/inf adT^ ^ hr U ch^racrvriAcrd in ihe prts^nl bcxi ^ 
scarcely ihnt of an txUrntil Rood; i^hilc in f*^ N. I. 6. 1$ tid 
^j4fA 1. 5, fdtuids are jimpi}' enuin«nit«d unorig oiher cueml 
gnod liiingK, mLijout liring placcil m a pn^tinn td nmbnl 
superiority^ Thus tn E^N* u %. 1^, t6, yr^ h&vc — ^uimA ^^ 
jkal rvv ttfT^E oyflf'wkr wpo-rdtofiMi^, ta^^tfi ttnfinr aAvvcra* vAf i «i 
^^ni. tA jrnXfl n/*drr*if ii\oti^yrjrnv JEtm. m^XA ^>< ^^ ffporrmH 
KLii9iini/i 2/ ci^yarwr, Am ipikvr mui nXci^rw Kftl nuXirvt^c AbVOfHvt' «rflil 
01 ti^ri^i/E'i'ai piimiiinDTL rb ^rn^inr, "W fv^fHifr^ <vr«n>ia« «AX«vr • 

Ttfyaeif. and V^AfA t- 5, I 360 b. I & iqtj »r Arj itmv f; vvAflViona rMv> 

tvnu^ar noXvfvo'U'i'tvyf^arftTitAa nv Tr/nr"r TiprniT TT-rr i'-|ttirtr nfft^n 

yap *irT»i' ^Ua iru^a rnbra^ ftfri f 4V aut^ itir tJ n<>i3 ^A^ "^ t^ ^ 

ai6ftr&ii Hvrvfitii: imupx'if iiat wx*?"* BbTAi yd^ d» iaipaXtfftirnr 4 jfat 

b, 10, j 8. poi^nir] C^ £^ ^. i. 7. 6 rA A* afr^^tr X/jflfrtf *v« o^ 

b> S&. f 4i 41 TrpwTVi] vU AdJKi /i^ flf^f ^(Xvr rati 5iaB4i^viii (PjJ3tptL)- 

b.a4, Tttf tfliodtu^ pJ*- ei!t oOW &«4nrai 4 ^imcE^lv^] C/, M 
(apud riul. i/e AuJ. Pod. 1 j)— 

BOOK rX: CHAP. : 5} 4. 5< 


itflffrrdi iMich. Eph-). 

$ 5. ir dpx3) /T, A*! I. 7, 15^ where fifSiH^ni'b is defined as ^rvx^c h aa. 

^l IT ^»^pY<i« ^\o>- in YkVcrot k.t,X.} The Parapli. h&b — ^ *Wp- b. S»< 

Bsl frir<i/>;(*i ^^fl MfMfT'f) r( rr^fta' avt'lirrtsTrii ftir *3f 7 tif^aifinptit 'v r^ 
^i- ufi B>iiTT*ii', Micll' Eph. ha* — A 8J ifipyuu. ^ii\iir wi ti'h frrrk* 
vXttV n Hat vtptirT7jn6if Air tfi^ia if Ifjariav 7 r^q* ^ ffi'y n'AAd yiKra* £0irf|l 

HiiitfinL-si is a functitm jii^ (formed^ nul a thing posscifrd. This 
fun<:iion, ns performed by Ihc jrooJ man, h pkasazit on iwo 
grounds— U5 goad, and ae *^if owfi^ — and inviles contemphlJon. 
But tie good man siauds, as it were, tcro near himbflF lo 4e« 
properly 'hia own' aa realised in bimflclF. He sees ' hi.i own' 
bellcr at the distance of hjs ' second ^\i.' l^wv^aU nal r^ltla maff 
tMiv \x 3a I undf^rsbind lo menn ' goad an*1 cons/^utnily pleanant 
in iUelf,' the good being one source of true pl<;asurc (r/T viii, 3, 7 
rd T* An\^t i>yi}Uv «i ^Sy ^^ws itrrlf), wh(lc In the next line b. 33 
rA nricrlni' t» NiAtfd to he ilie ochef aource. Actions which are 
mrw^iluj and vJjuifM^ to be experienced as pleasani, must be con- 
tcmpbled (^'«^it), j1^. musi be clearly rcFilised m i^onsdouGness 
(f/I for llie use of StupAv. in iht' 5ciisi? of 'being fully conscious,' 
£.l^.\i\, 3. 5 tif^tn ri r^qyra ^V ^ Sttupovvra 3< k-rA.). 7 hid 
consciOusne3» of one's own action* — ^ rwi* a/irfiatw fftirtf»o*t Snopia^- 
becomes exjiliclt in the conlemplnlioii of the actions of ,1 good 
friend. The actions of such a fnend are^oi^, and, iihhough noi 
olirciat in the narrow prr^nn] sense in wbkh aaion^i o^eii Hcand 
too near dit observer to be objects of clear vi&Jou, ibey ire in the 
«cn»e of being Sftotm, and realising ihe one law of rectitude cozD' 

mon ?0 all good rren : ^ vlfi. 3 6 not yhp av\i>t n! fiyidfil 5^ne fnl 

In God ' nubjctct and object ' are ons. He realisea and MXS 



BOOX IX: CliAF. 5; § S 

uceb.2ft. Him^ir in Himself. BuL mui rnlufi and s««ft liiiiadf in uJ 

ihrOU^ Olhcra— 1£^ i'. II. I*. 1^45 b, 18 fi^w ^iV ro rJ m^ rft** 

fint'i^ a [if. $*tf) 4MPIJP tA dl ^ff^if. For mm) as ttnnifre^i 11 1^ 
* Kuhj^^rt nnd o!>jea * arc iwn. Hence, 10 fulfil the injuiicCHTii )^ 
fff'ik^di', he niusL p[jcc himactfiiL a crrtiiii disLaiicc fronn hicmcif, v 
it were. He must by an efion malce himseif au ff*/>r/ 10 himwJ^ 
This he ilocs by univefsalising his own conduci, by rri^inrinj A 
not as the conduct oT hitnaclf only, but obo of ol!aen< Thuick 
\Ae% or idr^^l of ' coifluri ' i» ab&iract«il from thr CA7 of (he irvti- 
vidual's scnsiUlhy, axmX made an objecl nf i.-omci|]}il4liviL. It u fo 
longer A/~j conduct, but ihc conduct of ail gi>aJ m^. npafnv |«?- 
formed hy ihi^ individual with thtr constiousneM (hat xhfj arr mfc 
a^ all good men perform arc pli^aMUil f*fir ex<Mmr ; uuc pkodiTC 
either being (l>ook vii], or aitcudin}^ (book a:^, ibe contcMftiMA 
[diupia) t}{ good actions, and ihia coniciousneia bdaji »«lj 
bci^htcned tii lauli iiidifidual, wLcit he bcr» oibei rALJoiutl a|CfU 
obeying tlif- t^BHie Law of Kcctitude t^iih hiiii«eU'; ofl Sfanen 
Kays A"M- iv. 37 "BonQm, quod hnmrt sibi apprtk ft amat, n*- 
aUiniJun amabit, si vidcrit, alios idem onurc. Atqvc iidco tccA- 
Uiw, ut rclit^ idem nment £t quia hoc bomuD {$\r, hwm 
qucd untiMjuisqi* qui s^naiur virtutcm rfbi apjwtjt) ocnnAnii , 
commune csu coquc omnc* i;*adrre possum; coiMbllur ctpt ix J 
omnea «odem gaad^ani, vi co magia quo hoc bono masift fnucat^H 

t, 35. al Tvr inntvZ'xlmr 8^ T X'^^^cr A^> beginning the apodoAJs tm! 
Zell and Michd^t, houev.-r (and apparently al^o Suscfaihl tf4 
Pywater wlio f#ad fl* wirh CCC, Cambr.. Aid,) make it begin wtk 
& ,ta^P<oi ^ ifjo A. 2. h £ccms lo xiit ncccflUO' BO aiatc as a 

e&miMioH from (i) rot JyAv ^ «W^^u ffirnSofi m« i^drio:, (9)Ti*la>t 
roiv ^f1«W, and (j)(9'vjirii' At ^.toXXoLf ruuf irtXnv Ai^dfitdb^ f atiW* md r^ 

■Vf iVwr nv'^f"< *} "^ur o!*'t'''ti ihiiL ' a ^0^ friond's aclioiu arc pleasuu 
to the ^p3od man ' : then, from tlir prcmiEict t'mtp r.rJL. a- 3, foftovf 
the diflcamt conclusion thai ' ilkc itendptttt vtUI oetd good fn'^ndt.' 

UTO L 1' <tp4u] f\ f. n^ irrif riEf'r (or fA ir^avAfiirtf) and tl tixti^P. C/^ bdo* 

arc evidently wron^ in making ^^ DCDail»liv«» ut. 6 «ni>A»t 



y^ Td dtS/nJniiQ aAtrtiattt Wf'j^iit iy/rytlr. CJ^. 2^ti, X- 7- 1070 la 

BOOK IX; CHAP. 9:^5. 


1 4 ftiayoryi^ hi itJiiV oTo 1^ d^iWif ^iK^Kki' X^^*^^ ht*"'' f^"*^ y^V ^** H'li^ 1170 •- 6- 
it^w. iffMiif /ttv ytift aSui-artiW . . - ^a/fir ^i tiiv $iA» tUm ^'^r ai^ini' 

fitO^ Ir/pwf tJ «al Tp^ AXnis j^^>] Tlie fotm of Hoil l» rrfillvd 
III one Elcrnd litinR: the form of man in a mullUudc of con- 
tdni^orary and succcaaixc eiamples. Rich individual man jcalUc* 
bimxrlf tm\y hy looking awnj- from !jis own njctc pariiuularity, ftud 
OMiBiLbtLin^ into ViU consciousness ibc form oT man* reason M 
Olh*r examples — his friends and ri?l|ow-ciiiiccn» — ^)' their cumu- 
lacitc influence tinprt»& \l tuorc purdy upon him The j^iral 
cnibodiir:«iit ot human reason, tlie aoci^l order into vrhich he ha» 
been horn, exists indi^pcndcnily of himself- Ii \t there xXrcudy as 
an object for btm lo cotiCcmplatc un^I idtiuify Iimi»c1f wltli* ft hsui 
not lo be held up. an k wcrt:, fn octu^vi f'.xintcn<:c hy hin own im- 
%it\ft\ r<^*inn, as iUp- flbsiraciinns of Philosophy h^vc to Iv main- 
Uined (and cmnot Ions be maintained &.i a utrctch] by ihc ^liinkcr 

hifntclf: we Ji'. A- 11. U- la^f; b. J6 ot yAp ouraif £ tf«A( fJ f^n, 
JXXA jSArioi' ( £urTf ir^^^i ti uottv ovr^t naf airrdn. airiflf A' irf i ^^it ^jv 
ri tfaud* ■V»jii», aKiiny H ii^iit attav Tu «t (Vri, To HintemplalC. ilticl 

ifi conicrnpluiing lo idirnLtfy hinis^rlf ^ith, ihf social life U l ihinjr 
whierh » mAn can do nlmast coniinuouj^ly^ hcC3tis,e bis nufffn nr tftiirrtf 
is 10 be a pcraon who sees himself in others and live* in olhcrn. 
Bui to idcmify himiieir vith »>jrd ^^hich involve fo social rcfo rcnce 
l» t goillike act, which he cun only at rare intervnia, and for a *hon 
inao, perform, Cf. Alex. I'v ;Vf/ \'-^1i {c\.].hon\ts) — i <>*tVipnf mCf . 

flftf/yti^ ytyrjTiti rA Vtirjrii, tAt* (aifiif rrtv apiirrrpr "iij ^nimpirtiTnrpp m't 

ftl »•( rd ^djM^oit rouri ira^vtri ird^c. ... p. 01(7 ovk iffrai rtrirr«nr 
o&r^ ((!/. r^ iT/iir^ t^) rj^ ffui'*;(*f r^s pnfiiTttot tl utitt iffr\ ttnX mlijirtf. 
aXU irif rji *}itf4fiif v^ fxViu^'r^ ■*■ t^ hjw vh^i trnwumr <Vr* ri 

yvJg £if ^AfiKtr. dXAA iSvKt^i : A« Alr^x- qua'inily v^iyfi. it i» not diffi- 
cult Tor ft niian 10 be always a man, »ri fV ry vChii .Ti^/?Bwof out^wtm l 
but It U diflfictilr for him always to walk. 4<d r^ >i4 ^v r^ jMaSfftv 
a^vtrtfiTi (p, 667)- St' il ih dinicult for m^in lo think <:on[lnuoii^ly, 
as Cod dooA, because man's i^jjirir stands 10 his vot/v an his waikinf;^ 
decs to his physical jiower— it i<* something which lends to ^ink 


noOK IX: ClfAP. 9: JJ J, fi. 

U70 %. ft. back inif) ih* poietitialiry (fluHi^i*) from which it tpHng* ; whertit 
p. an (cd, Spengcl) — ^ VXafTufir oiVip (/. ^ r^ ff^/Hritify -y) '^ 

rAf ftiiw i^bf DV;^ Srrt ^t;^thrnrt Atwirtti Htiti r4 HaXo 'jB?. iDlX' £n ^ 

tfbttx^ "u> Jfi. BuE in bis own lower sphere — ibdit of condua 
man in able wpjt'tif mnvx^ more eoftilf and wiscttiMly. IV 
vrrak-'^esK or ihe iniMviAimi \s nideil by ihe air^nglh of ibf ruf : 
the Uw of rccilLndc Js embodied in the Kood men of ibc ncc. u' 
in the inMtLuiions ^vhich hav« h«]d UKrir ground, and doc« fC( 
dqirnd much for iis aciunlJiy on ilir «flbri!< of ;in/ single imi- 
vidufkl The cflbrtA of xUc individual ue rendered <i«ier and aon 
contiTiiiouti by the stimulation which ihey receive from m ob^ 
vfhkh {hry liavi^ not Oieiuselves, with pain and wcariiiiT^f, LO hcU 
up in itctUiUiiy. 

•,7- I fi. ffurtx^'^P^i ^^itt oBcra ■oO' bM'] Thesc words arc lobf 

taken in conn^xmn wilh I'lnvTu. f ilfi' J|l^*ii ^r r^r «£illdv«« a. f 

The /jjwdri?? rAnnot well he tviaifuuai on accoiini of the riiHiraltf 
(as cxj)1a!ned in the foio^'oing note) of an appruch in ha cutU 
T^ 7iv4X^< '^f'pyrlr. But, sustained hy SOCiHy, tho udifldnlda 
TTiELke an npproach to ii. The worth imntrp . . . fi^or x g, 6 hVB 
thus nothing directly lo do with the slalcmcnt o«c*™ t» Atir 9/Um 
f^v vAif nAaif^pa, being ralher an aa«trtLon of th<} g^nenl trutk Qit 
*tAni|inprn an a ffti'f;^^t itifvytia reijHir" (in man's cs*r) friend* ivd 
stJt-iely- But KAvln;^ ihus altnu!»t pdrcnihciicjilly hit upon tA oMpr 
as dialinctive of n^Aat^vna, Aristotle then proceeds ta rcguhr coune 
lo point out fh^l [he nrquttdiimi o'm^tl ri J)«<r ^S/wc fjpTlvaUK- 
iiom [s juivtified by the Law that * his function. If^Mut pleuOAl ii 

it6?tr» will be more ConlirLUOUS ' — -aifynv^i ^i t^ vW^^vr ^ ttana 

itAoh? (k- 5- a): and we urn lo undctstant! liiol ll»e ptroHire of 
Tricndi^ip contributes— ft good friend maldn; the good nun tikf 
mcr^a&ed pleasure in his own irpmiur. 1 iindentand ibo rmt or* 
aptTifv npd^nri A- 9 lo hf noi nnly those of ibe good man hnnvK 
but Hio those of his friend ; and, atLhou^h the pusife (like Olbcr 
passaRes in th^s chapter) is tomcwhat confowd (whethwr by tb* 
fault of Ariisioilc Dr hh editon it \t irnpnfKtMe to uy), t d(» bOi 
think it ncecBsary, with Ram^ucr, to Lmckct Ch? words a. 8 4 yJ^ 
ffwoiAii*? ,^ mrm-BuIor . . - a. 1 1 Xnrfifau They scctn tO be Cltflj 
cnougb suggevied by n&t'*a o&ru *i^ (iCn^M — ' The ftrmriion of tbe 
fviaiiivf ifl tm/y pleas&nt — he rejoices or t^kct pleaaufc in pr/iWMti 


BOOK /X: CffAP. 9: §5 rt, 7, 389 

§7. JLnn)o-i« rif t^9 A^<T^t] ThE« cOTiiiidtmtion «e«m« lo oiA'« ^ it. 
It \c&&\ \hz fcim in which \\ is prtscnLcd to ihc wLjriJs rci!v cor' 
Vet^f ir^ffiTi in ihc pu^sa^ a. 8 I yt^ . . < a. 1 1 Xwrim, bracket^ 
\iy RntnKH^iicr. 

S^Ofwc] i\ t. 03 <|tioted tti the *nd of this book — ^a^a* ^■■i' jup il ib- 

4tfn«(wrcp«t] It is dinicult Lo set m what respect the enqiiir^ a- 13, 
COnLatnrd in this ^ciion and ib« m]bbc^<jutni seciiocis of Ih? chapter 
I« more ' concTcte ' (sec noLc on vii. 3- 9, a- 14) than thai in {$ 5 
and 6. Both are conc«n»ed wilh (he manipulation cf abalraci 
■farmdac; unlrK* ii 1* siiid tku (he se;;tind enquiry, bj iis imr nf 
ihc pHychologic-AJ tcriiiH axufiriait And tift^tf. lb rcndcixd more concrete* 
ll tnwit be actmiiicdr however, ibil theie terms are used in a \t:ty 
ftbicLnict way- 

ffer Atfl r^t cti{'^irri>' ir^«r«v : <f. £.N, L 7, IS and 13. 

oM^fffuc <^ voi^«(ys] Zell reads Koi wliich gi\'*B ihe tense which ■■ IT. 
f mii»t ^lear if reraiiied; and iht-re seemi To l>e no grouTii! for 
rejecting ^; </! tie At, Xu 3, -iM b. 14 virv S' ^kJ rtufvlrw W^iioAi* 

em tl vi TDuvTov irriv mpoWf $ feai n^iortpoi*. 

^^ 5< fiuVft/iLt 4lf T*!" it^pY'^-o*" AMtfyerai] * a faeiilry resuhs in 3 
ftmttioiv' FnlMtbc aiiid Grant compaic Mt/. O, g. 1^51 a. 19 to 

H lit Kijpkoi' Jv T{{ M/»Y*m * ^^^ re^liL^' is in the function ; life, a. i6. 
iber, in the real acniic (n-^W), K perceiving or thtnltin^' Cy. Mrt. 
e. 5. f04B a< 10. where it is aaid ihai the Avnifar must be revised 
bj a determining cause external to tisdf — aHiynf ^a Jrr/M»^ ami tA 
n^ur, and J/f/. e. 4, in which it ift laJd down tliat iifipytm h prior U> 


JtOOK IX: CHAt, 9; $$ 7, 8. 

1170 •. L8h Hvvaiitt boih Xciy^ nnd r^ u^iri'f. Thc priority o£r^ U ««t fonti thiii 

logo i^. 7 ifiratr iV *ip\*l> f^ali^'t ro yw^tvor tul n'Kotp ■■/^W y^^ ^ *^ 
Jma' rov WXtitv Ai' i^/ina ^ ymcrtG. i^dc AJ 4 f>*pyf^o, €a\ nFfmr ;|ivh 
1^ Ai^in^iL An^rfvriMi, o^ y^ uu o^u* Sf[W*¥ i^v9% fa i^tt, AK* *nf 

a. 19. t6 Ac tV - ■ ' § ^< ^^ >5 ^tcpi^por] TIlia b a vtry oonJwd 
pa&Bigc, %wljkh RaR>8fLticr propOfic« to iii«nd by omilting Ae bV 
of it— vii. from ^t^mp a. ja tj> ^flH*p»T»i»i» a. jg : tiuVrJ lif 
l^idLiKvilly fccommcnH^ ihc omU^ion of ihc whole ol it, fork 

SUSpecl!^ th« cInutLC w/>iT»*fvdv yap 9. 90 . . , ^^nn ft. 4t, lcdVC| 
ortly rA Aa f*!^* Tu»f leaB' avrA iyafiett (irai ^Aiaovy tA tiA f^ (^Mfn J)i^ 

*at 191 /fnruiT. Of t^uDC tlic ar^omcitt vrlilcH proceeds ffon the 
bvgii][^ing <>M 9 v^ould rtol ftutftr it the *holc possige^ i4 fcfr 
s. 19 , . . a. 3^ tptrntpa^tp/if, wri'? oinittriln for rlie parcMhnii^ 
M la^ a. j6 . . - a. ag Cm conuins all ol mtilcriol impoiUAce thU 
would be thv£ lost -, and indeed, by making ri rirra< S^Jy^^Bm vm^ 
Mua fi^^itra rntc iVjfirflf uni ^c(r/)<avf 3 <n{fi<iOr ofrA <ihu oM i4£^ 

fJ-yfjtfi^k jicri iflfr, puLs Lbc inatier niutti mc»rc clciwly iban i: i» pui a 

j 7, wher& Lho OOfrcepondinjf tA 3^ r^ ^v<rfi ciyo^^ m r^ fntml 
^t^irtp Sfttr< w^rm i^^Ci ttvai appC»rt AH A tfrr^tim from rA AJ Cv* fii 
mi7 oM nyuBStt iriii fjAitfP. KotwithsiEaildiliS all thi>, I CAQOCktfarif^ 
myteir lo thmk ilut the paissage, wich itn retcrenoea to ri ^ifitrp^ 
and lo XujTj, ought tn br omiltctl. These wfcrrnccs Air not U 
wtttertd iixLporijiKC to the ar|;\inicnL, btti aix juM uicb 4S Dtf> 
natumUy be made in passing lA'iihouc inteTrvjiiing lU 



£pc0ri<>'gi'] <^ f » jV, ii. 6. 14. Life 'a unthinkable 
ihc reali^tion of definih fomiK and functtoas. 

I nam^P 

{ 8^ qA &ti f < , . . Xifiroif] When we say that life is 
gOLid, tx^caiise 'defimie/ and naLurftRy plea^n^ hc muM mncmbcr 
ihul vie? and pain make it 'iTidcliniLc ' ftnd bod, &iul tbu ib^ 
connect it with bad ple^u^t — for all men, not only good men, 
find life ;^nijaf;— with Uie plcJ8LJrc?> oT cXCCSUve iiiddgcnoe W 
of relief from pun. 

say* — 'This must lie aficr :tll (wc vnl. i, pu 49), ulidout}Ce<l7 vn 
inticrpobiicn. The eJiLor probably had tn his Eniod a cootocd 

BOOK fXr CHAP. 9: }} 8, 9. 



rcrtrmce to %. 3. «/ Ramsaucr urgeti that there h noibing mUTOa.M. 
X about pain bcm^ d-^fji^Toi. \\ may bo replied tlml there arr 
ftiequeoi refrrernri to |jain in x ; and Ihat imfecd the firomiw 
made here doci not pledge Atisioile to speak nioic fully of 
pain being ^iptmnsi moreover the cptlhei aip^vrrtt uncd here 

ipfillei 10 the t^ox^f\iii% vru difJpf'Di^i/iinf («^ SU Wf^ll Slfl [o lh;it fV 

Xvffoit- Vkc "aIl]! its pleasures the iii>j;A or Xi^ttx of 
naan'ii nicure, and mntes it chaotic — uc^frruf: sjmilarlv, pain 
diilors it ; although here we <3o noc aiTach Waiiie ; f/^ £liV, hi 

It, 1 mt q ^'f Xnnj i^injijut tol ifi&titHi rqv rut] r;|vnQC ^urit. 

f$ 9. 10,] The apodfiais of the senicnce «I 8' uAtJ k^tA. begint t. ftS^ 
wtUk n^ b. e. S>.'e the notes of Frtlsachc, MLchelut, and Grant : 
f/i o-iso j I o b. i4 (i Aii Ty m'KOf^ , . . b. 1 7 '19— a sentence i^hich 
epUoiQitea the scnt/t. and reproduces in skeleton ihe gnmniuUcil 
constniciion of the naore dilTose reasoning whkh precedes. The 
tpodOSii of this sentenre begins i^iih k/w a ifiiknr h. i^. 

{9. Aft' IpCrr Zti &pf atir&d^Tail C/. 4s An. iii, 1, 435 b. fs «. fld. 

j^fiiftitroiM ^iTH ^ Hw rev vCrov tforrai ^ at'ir^ ivr^r, <ri A" i< iciil 

' ivr' firl T^E npi^Tis rovra iroir/TfoK, See also f/f S^rrinc 2. 455 a. ig 
fffTC la nt mi untvij ^ufii^iii Jv^XabfT'riirJd fn^iririt, ^ toi un A^f vat d««Mi 
aiif6tiviTM aif yAp li^ rp yt S-^ifti fi^^ 5rL (fjif : 6ce Hilwiik WilJace's 
^riifo/Ws P{y<hohgy. note on dt An, iii. », 4*5 b, 12, and 
Inlrotltittim % '\t. 'common or eentnl sense' — espceiixlly hU 
eiepllem remarks on pp, luxi-ii, ^vheie he feconeilf^s the passage 
in 4t Serano i. 445 a, t<; with i/f ^^. iii. 3. 425 b. 12 : * uiiless/ 
be say*, 'we are prep^ied to creflic AriHTot?*; with a wonderful 
anLOunt of Inconsistency we must regard vlie une p^^ss^ge ^ 
ilkstraEive of ihi; oLhcr- Sa takinj; them we cannot bm allow that 
If Arimotlc aacrts in ihe onr? p:iR*;apfe " ii U not by siglii trind 
■teen that it aers/' aiid in the: other p-i^a wiitcs " iight ^rccivca 
that IE perceives," be 1^ u^in^ sight m Lbe former passage a^ the 
mere pariTcuJar nr^an, wherras in the other it la ideniified wiih 
llixt original faculty of sense wliicb serves as basis to the whole 
syiicm of the aenscB, The conaciousness of wnse- perception if 
[ben, we ma/ conclude, art aLuibuic of iliai same ceatrat Mnse 


BOOK IX: CHAP, 0: ? 9. 

ulO^Sfr. ^tiicb cnobJcd ut to ccmpftn and distinguiah ibedilEerc-m rtpom 
transaniiicd bj our isQlai«! scroti. Tlie tvo fimcdODS Ar« Ii 
hiLK but diffrrrm &£p«ciA of one hoA the same process; lor Utf 
GoinpLLriEon of ih? reports of eense involves ba it* premppoducs 
che coTisrinus recognition of them as our own, thr fftculif, in ctbtr 
void^ of holding ihciD bcfoic tlic roicd/ 

In seeing, heuing. walking, eic, a man iBCOli«dot»of hinwK- 
of Ms own tiistenctf: 'be prrceivM IhaE V we<i bpirs ^^' 
This perception of self, however, vould hardly be po«ab]c to 
man if his onJj- obj«cU of eKpcricnco w*ie his own setnatuoi 
In (h:ii ow (be Bensarion and the [K-rccp(i<m of ihe MCWin 
IS j4i> Knsaiion vtodd coalesce, 4> they practically do, we fflmr 
suppose, m ihe experience of the lower aijiiEmb. or ofmoMof At 
tower aniniAls. Even bis expttience of hEs Dvn txfi^ttt ndd 
be QccoTQponied by only a dim conKioiuness of ■ sdf dbiinfcnbhtt 
troru ibem. But man i» not confined 10 his own acbona. Hcb» 
a 'Bympiibctic cnnwiou»nr^« ' of ihc aaiom of hii frimJ— J 
actions which arc siiU in a »eMC *hJ9 o^'n' (foi his fnendit a 
rrrpAf «Ms}, and )-e( ore not m nich a ^^«y ^ faia owd ' o> to m^ 
it difficult for hitn 10 dist^nguibh 'bimwlf' from tljem. Tk 
distiiKlion between * him^df ' nnd ' ht» friend ' (Ibr bisfritndBa 
^pot oiVifc) helps him lo the disiincLon bei^eeo 'facrattli* tai 
■hiE own «etLsaiTona and adionn.' In oihrr wnrdi — k b ip the 
consciou&nces of the existence of another that % tvan beeomea mlf 

conscious of himself. H aitr&a^tceat avruv ^M IrtM b. 9 CtDWll 
be reiilised apart from r6 cumi^f^tfriKtrflii ml mu ^t'Lw fin fimr K l^ 
Man IB dibtingui&hed from ibc bruies l> the cncntal d^unce, Al il 
were, at vrhJch he places his sensations and aeUons. He stafidf 
behind thrm and observe them : but this he dor* hecanve he is 
a focial being; because he can iccognisc. and Ukcd pleasure ia 
the recognition of, aets, thought, and feelinga, not < b« own' bat 
' lih hie own.' 

Tticre can be no doubL that tlic term ffurnvf AirrtfAu, lu employed 
in \^ 9 anit to, x^ micndcd to be accuraitly diilingullbcd froiB 
Q\tfStivwa6<7i^. The term ala^aittit&nt marki a nnaiiH consdoiMnaB 
oT tus own life; wmto^at^aOiM his consdousDCM cf bia trlciMrf 

' TletvoUnvAiiearTfuIlydbliaFtuihedluJ^^f- U iv. 1144 b, a^ a^aavli 

flOO/C !X: CHAP, fl: {J 5, 10. 393 

Ufe — hut ' ^j'mpatlictic cnnsclGU.^ncin ' of bis fmnd'9 cxisUncr. UTO«^tO- 

na Gmrit svcU put» tt. Where Ihc ic(m fruHHrr^i^vftf^i occurs in 

\ 10, b. to^ itiis i* cirtirly ki treiutiog: but ffT'i«*'r*W*/''Kn ui iJie 

end off ^, b, 4, ill iu prcaonE conical accmrf 10 Jcacfilx- mcidy iIjc 

con»ciousQ»t which the individunl ha^ oi h^s own Urt, and 10 be 

cqutvalcni (o the- simple uVAD^/^fni ■ hrnce RamKflurr ik of opinion 

ituu it Ja dJiplovcd iflcr the uimbgj' of /utry irbwi^'m, and stands 

for fA^Qtf (MJHHtf^f (i^jnvt r#v uil' ovri trycBov — t- ^. ' being conKf^ioUA 

oT. . . .' Consistcnity uiih iliii viiMw lie r^^marks thni wvnw^vmrj^^ 

m (Itc o»t t la used id a difTcrcnt khsCp But Js k likely (bai 

avvdufA>v4f^fcn<oi K 4 liLts a different Kn8« Irom tfi/^uff^iHirftu b- 10? 
Pefhapt scimelhtng has ilrof>p*^d ca\X brfotc mPMiirfftni^^MH b, 4 
mhicb served lo coake llic U~iLn»iCLun from the mdividuar!) niniple 
oJtf^uHfff'rri of himself lo \x\% rutuffdoM^oi of bis aitcr «go^ The 
woiiJa fiijifrdi' Af [>. 3 . . . U 4 veil qAv (which Rameaurr l^rackeu) 
ccrtamly do not Krve (o make (he ncc<:»uiy tntnaiEJon, but may 
pvrti^ips be a IragmenL of Ihe lo«i paE«age> T«f tiyutfiitf being ihe 
gDCKl /rimds rrqiiirrd ox thf* nutijecift of irififrimAivii^ivai. I am 
inort bt lined, however to ^h^^vxx oMVi\yj^v^^n¥t^ >dp f«u nn^ ii£t4 
oyv^qv i» An inlerpolation ; for the ^'ords »« A' npjf b, Q > , > b» 7 
^A« <«Ti» serin to bi? vrniE«fn ^s if noiliing hail Ix^en siiid iMrfore 
10 justify ihc ifAnaiiioii from ^U^vtijtt^ 10 trvHMrAiriirfhjj, a cifcum- 
Bionce which makiis ii diHiculi to «uppoae that th« dyo^^ regacded 
nnr ^ teparaie indivlilUAU, htn ju (ruCvvfc, nrr tbr fiiib]r-aH i>f 

fi)*wflicr (C<?iiA't£, p. 6^) explains his reading a. ji utti £>* e»<Tf3a>^- 

flpAnuitT^ttf^if^i^ Ec[S »iK>(>«f k* uTi viw^^v) b/a^yin^ ' il would be ^dfaiiE^ 
indeed W^ i^ith tyU(^Ci^tff^i>i, £n rooiv/.tr^ in tht- imnii^iile conteJti, 
he Inpseil Jnin (HHrrrni lan^u;tge in \. 33 nnd uitd, what the 
vulgatc niakcs bim ^\^, 'mIv frt ^ov^f^ »/ 

% 10. Jr Ty vulf|r Kal iwvuH'Uf X^y^" '^<^^ BiaKQiaf] €/» Pei. \\X. 5> b. 11. 
Ij8o b, 29 ifmvt^if jaiwr^ Iti ij roAic ova ttrrt Konvfia iwnv iml rvv 

irrropxiw^ *ttctp Jtrrai ndXu^ v£ /ijjf crtA^ ^ufiiiE^nov Tcrtmi' dfiivTBDi' fd? 



BOOK iX: C/IAP. S : § la 

rrJ^fiaf if*^"' *"■ ovrafltimxw uuv Jtf-*ui fiaifQi mvTO ^4 ''^^ eH'^h 
iniTit Tilh iruXcit <£ii i^i^f^LCJi hijL $iiaiifi 'ai ftMfyvjul raw 'v£vr' t& At 
7T<lA*»f ri '^ CS''» rniirr fl* rnO ri'Xnt X'^P'"' '^*f 5' h y^ "■ o^iw 



Shm^ a man irj At ^dlv jv inivfmtfly ^rtof ittim$tr ^fritmJi, *r awf 
^Pi^/OTp /^ ^w S9mm'hcft in tht nmnt^r »/ kii ffafids, as in iki mmmhr^ 
Au^txti f At rrgnftit uif/ul /rtrmit. kt mnti tMtmmij Jrwm fAj fituttlki 
nt*mht^ ti'MifA h/ fimft usfjHt: t^ ttit mart it tc AtrrnAM kiv/itS/^tA tAii^ 

JrisnJi /ar fktittrt- a Jrvr wU fit f^n^fA, JtJit a 'ifdt mvtf*KJjy^ im/md. 
SttivAiMf ihaltufi jn/ oAtfHi fJi4 ntmArr t//n€nii4 fhtumhtmtH tA^j vtimi 
mfnf Hit* aiain tktrt an timiis, 7lit ziffU 4f fnrt /rit^iAtfi, Air tAt 
tity. mtiit net U roe fatgt fir too tmall- ftr txttnt rmmtt tt vtmnit^ JkMw£, 
any merv titaH f^r riu ^ a ^y • it i.'a'its att^rJitg it tintumMaatar, wMm 
Jijinttt //nfiVr, THr a Ike ttme in teki.^ iti txttni it ^/inkt. /Vrld/f «r 
may iuy tAut if mti^ht ta tvi/iija uj tmtttr ui it u /r/aii^ t* iiv #fi MAwir 
umts tvitk : kut, /iauriy. a niut (annoi fir* ff/i iittimait Mnu v«U, «af 
dittr^AvU kiKt!*f/ itftoa^, twmy: fitrtAfr, uri/i /ntmfi mtutl U JrvmA 
mh* * *tu oetetAn; rj aU art t& mttt f/^g^k^r ^tttaf.i*t/y im tfw'r ffi^ftityi 
#■«/ it ij 9 M^ifnii mutttf U £Tt tntany ^//> u h« tkm Ali fri^tnL ^ftm 
wmoikcr. Agait^ il i> ^itrj ta T*mki ikr /tyt jW jvrtnn *f m>SMy /tJf^ tfrn** 
9WH.far out wovftf trf/tH Atizv re tytupalAiit vith thg ^'<*imrt tftktf /riaidA)ti 
th* tfixfrfji nj that fri/rtii ill Ike litmf fimt, Sff jvr^t^r it it btrt m*t fs if^H 
havi d ^taf moHj fruntfj, /«/ M ii«tit afrttrt/ If ikt hwAt'^ nifitvmf U — tg'r 
U/i c iifi^U f/ MHirivaU /fitttJr, far it it imf^Uhit tt ^ 9m ltrm» wf gmtim^ 
fritn^ihip with Ptitrtr, as i.' t'l im/atiiSIi to ht in f<%4 tci£4 mmt y , H'ktrtPfr 
frUnJihif* IS ittang il a f^r Jtvi: t^ks fitf exam/ii tkt /rimdiit^ ^etmr^da 
^1 iioft ttol txUtui to many .- rtW thi fart^tan ta$*s ^ & <w AetmHm fan 
Tkau tfki kat* wnany frittuii^ ettJ trtat rtf^y*^ li^ nuuf lu ' Jify dn^ 
frititd,' art r^sgniitit tit U Hfi^ly'i/ntttJi. TA*£r/wimd/A^ ^ Hit /rkm^ 

BOOK IX: CHAP. 10; }§ l-j. 


ismpIaiAante—H'iy, t Inily jwrf ttji? m^y kAVi many •fnti^Ji ' of this strit 
mat, ihai t/./tr ihttntplve*. ^/ 'vu^' A/ t^itjS44 r/iiv havt htn cbti tfiJmJ 

% I- |i^« vftXu^cLvoc H.T.X.] Hciiod. fpy. jr. ^^. 66C. 


S a,] 'Thi» scL-iion may Ijc sstiJ to rciroct upun fuTlhcr con- b, aa. 
fidtrration whai Wft> arfmincd Eih, viiL 6. 3 — t*k rA x>*T"^'*»' "^ ""^ 

fu ^Ai'i ffo^Xmc ajjcVhii' J^'ifrat' irf>XXoL vd^ ol rowi^j, urn iv nAi'yu 

4 Pfc?] m,ij' be ' iheir nieatis/ wliich scrms to be iJic view of b, 30, 
Mich. Kphij who his jStoi 71^^ ■ai iT*^t<hJo^ii h/it% ti^x '"'■'^ "^'^ mf^Xsir 
imi^9T9\»\ bm the more ordiniry senae of ihc word In, ! :hlrk, 

\ 3, utinnp iniXfBMl f^ /'fi/. H, 4, \^^^ %. ^ ^^1^ doiroi fifv o^ b, 80, 
aZ ir\'U"4k ti^itf^KKw ^%-fuh^^¥ lAfdt rr^r ■k'^ui^ra fruAtr' « Ot itrvr uXfj^ti, 
^tofti'iri KDidi ^cyirAf; Bfi^ flTflia /ii'fia m4\i»" niir* a^ftf^jm> y)i/» ir^i^of rm* 
/wUDLVruV Kpl'vLPU?! T^F ^V^^Y^¥, A'F A/ ^oXXor f<^ t\l t^ 1t\tl&0t, fif 

£a ACt^fiii' avf>Sk*nftv. iati ydp n mil nbXrvT ipyoy' ^t< r^f JWaj^it^v 
TALTii ^oAiffr' i)irr>r«A«iv, tciiV^f oifjrioi' tJv/ii fnyifmjv , . i^ ^b ^* 

JXX^ fi^v irirl Tfii-rJ y* <W til* J/f^Mt ff<rwpA*» ot* ;^nX«ndif, lauf A' 
<i0bMzror fffov'ifr^t'^i T')^ Xini- ncALpd^d/xurroy . . . Afiniur d< mil ndXii ^ 
/Uv 1^ S)*iyv' \ittr avK tjitiipK'lt' ^ ft< m irnXXpr ayar ty jiiv rtiit i!™^- 
Moimt nvTfipri^r, ii\tri:*p idtMt, af^\' oil frAXif' ir^XiTfiov yd/> oC pqbtov 
^t^fiX*^^ ' ' • ^ irpvTT}!' |iir tZrai vilXir Qi/ayvMiit T^f El TwotrctJ 
vX^Arvf I npZ^tnf flX^Aii oCfupMf w/jAr ri r2 (^i* <Wrl Kara r^v 
VoXin<i^i/ foivuftnif , . _ AijXoE' r'>iiw uiA ^Arvi itrrt ff^f»t up^t 'tpirroe, ^ 
lUyiW? foil vXr}dctti! CiT4pi|3i>Xiy n"/iA( niT^mtt^v ftuyj fLinji"fVrai, Thc 

Scale JE an organism, anrj like ail other or^'uniiimB niual observe 
d*flnilc limilS- A<i rpaTising rA ua\€>v, hnwrvpr^ ir miist br on as 
grcai a scale <u is consiMcni wilh order— ace /■«-/, 7h 145^ ^^ j6 

f£ ^p luX^p /r firyt6rt lai rw^t flirrt: /'o/- K. 4. 1^36 a^ 2^ 6 yAp 

p^yiAT rrifif Wf •'(?«, lol n^p tlwiiitw Aftiytahif tlrnilap thai' 6 Hi 
Xuv ^a^j^dXXkf dpif^ q& Htnirai ^arrj^iu- rafiui:' ^iuh >u>j 3^ ruvro 


SOOfC IX: CHAP. 10 : §5 3- -«■ 

AiTfp^JXXiit rfri rov uiTor flwi^^Lv ir.rJk. Sinukrl/, the frirtullj^ cirde 
10 oi tbe naiurt cf an or^nioin, and cannoi includes id itu JcBniti 
number of f erfiotifi. 

b, 81. odn Y^p ^ S^Ka Mpvytvf h-t-Xh] Tlalo, in a patiBagc in «ihjd 
be is coiiccrv)<^<J vjib ihi' Irgiral ^nnlysLq of ihr pnrficTit condjnaw 
of wcicly, raihcr Lhin with ihc natural huLorj of the on^iii Mod 
growllj of society. W^yi^i *»7 i' Si' ^ yt aMynaioriifi^ vr^r rfn miupifi ( 

limited idea of tiia 5[zt oY z Etai«/ i&ys Grant, ' in biL6«d on :!< 
Gr««k notion ihai each citizen muEt per^nall/ take |atc in 
Lhc ailnriiualrallon of a?4ir&. On ihla lijpollicsih, a slate coiuifllilig 
ofa hundred thousand dEieens might cosily appear vn^icLd/.* 

According jo the allpgaiion of lhc 400 in Thuc. viii- 7a, ifce 
aciual aiLtrndantc ai ll^c Aihciii^ii Afecixtbij alwAys fcU alicot of 
gooo. Grotc (Nisf. s/ Grtece^ i'art s, ch. ji. wl. v, p, 391 note: 
C!d. T8r>2) remarks on this — * That n& AcHrmb]}' hod rver beco 
aticiidcd by BO many as 5000 (uCitirinoTi) ] ccrUiiilj' am far from 
believing. It is not improbable, however, that 5000 vaa U 
ui^uMiJLlly l^r^ rumhtT of (jiiz«fi?i lo atUfiid/ Xcnophoii (iV/iv^ 
iii. 6, 14) tells us that the ciLy of Allen* conaistcd cf more due 
10,000 housefr — ^7 ^V infXiE cV itXa^mw 4 pv^uu* o^aht u ■•4^ J ^li- 
Boeck (SfaafsAatiiA^ d^ Ath. I, p. 43, quntt^d by Kalincr on Xni. 
M^m, iii- 6. 14) ^[[maics the population of Aihcna (inekidmg tbe 
Piraeus) at t8o,ooo — citiz{-nSt vomcu, children, and atavei. 

b, aa^ tl B< «wr^r] r f. lhc ainc of the clly. 

j 4, Ati] FriUachc reads ht6n wilh K''^ but &- b to be eX' 
plained as a diuograph of ibe preceding -oi. 


BOOK IX: CHAP. 10: \% 4-^- 





^iTti iroXtr^^p ^ J^pvnot. rnvrav lit Xiprc'a< cpui rif* tittrttwrTt 

{ 6. oAEJ Y^p ^>4Kxfv9<it ... a* i,^ Ai'yovi] ' For it ^-oiild Ah 10, 
appear ihm it in not even pouihU 10 be a groat frlrnd flf mnny 
pcnans; and ihU for ihc aitiie rca?K>Q llat (fliJirtp — 'ciiiJcm 
ob cauiiam ob quam/ RAmMucr) ii is impossible to be in love 
with sewra3 pj?r<ioM; for, as love, vhicb may be fli^vrihfrt aa 
ui cice^MVO fiicnd^hip, it for im^ person. m> (A^t a. 13) great 
ffiendsl^p (ro f/(^c!<!pa c^ilof t&di) ia cnicnalned tawarJa a fivt' 
A* the iTTJpSoXg 0*Aifl( limit* irscif 10 ono, rJ p-fiofl/Mi limiU itself lo 
a few. 

J 0, til S' iSp«u|A«^aL] Mich. Eph, hab ^ mC 'A^iAAVArc ai- Xlatp^- a. lA. 

Plutarch i/f nmk^^rum muUiimisnc i t^ npotfnyflpaVi* fratpor, «r mpfl*, 
B^AiV fVrfi' JXX» irXjff fUTpif ^iXub r^ dvdjt j^pvfiitvt^ 

vX*\t ■mXvnic.ats] ' exct'pl in ihf seiiMt' i[» wliich fellow-citixcns arc a. 17. 
"fdcnd^."' Mich. Kph, cauliotitf us againbt rcfcrnng «Gr fol 

■aXdvffif apittwrt 10 troXfntur, the words rX^i' n^iriK^r beirg X 

pjfpmhesis, (he *olijecl «r wbiiii b Ukcn mi iu ihe ntsl wnitnec — 

and 3, On the 'tp*''^* ^^ ^^- ^' 9' 

t(' dpcWgr SJ KoL Si' iiAroJ^] a^otc ifi DywalCE^H rc^xdlilg for the a. 19- 
a£rovr of the codd. [ think ihut flt' frur^vr U right here, vrbile 
&' fft^m'ff is right in vtir. 4. a, a. iS: aee note on that pa^^a^e, 

TDwdroviJ uoilliy of being loved At* oOroff, 





]^ ftm* 9t^B f^ M/ ftttttht, t^'kttktrJriiMjit art mvt mtfdid in 
or in aJwn^ ; /tr fk^ n-t tcn^l m h4th lit adftrtity, t9 rrtJtr 
nmt if* prvi^filyyttt muniu/tt <unt taifimU ^MmJ^€Bit. ffcjV, 
fs ihai iM iuAvnirje it h fHtrx tironauj » km /ririUi—Jiretir^itfy h 
a^rtiiy mft Avt jm/ /pr wt/ul/rr/mit ; *»f brttn W A«v fritmit \m frv- 
frri^ — i«wf ttun art jn^rfiMt ifi Jta^ ^K4J /rtfm/j in frHf^'^iJ't /p' i^tttfr 
mett vor/Ay auecfir/v, anJ n<i/i*nU if ttit^ttmft i tti hmf ik^ tkt my 
frnenft tfvn/iJrirndM ti iwttt in adt^iitj. ct iH^*rM/na/(n^. j^/i^ 
vA^ irr im lertf^w are fi^!tne<l ty tkeir frUn^s fri/rtnj; viih thtm - nlrfl^r 
Ikjy <"'' ttjCk/fvM fUx-itftu fkrir JwirmAt tAkf a thtrt r/ lA* tanitwi, «( if am, 
pf wktt/w ti it ht^utt ihr jurrnQ ii m^t Utt if iJi^ nwimvr tf/rimif 
prtumt artJl/iAt thim^Af ff/ rymfatAttre grit/, itftJmt k diMwttMt ktn: tkl 
/oi/, iitany rar€. ii lAa/ the fr/ifiut ff friiJtdi Hj^hUM tgrrwrn. Jitdjti df 
trtKttttfti t/ tAtir ftnifn/f ii a mitni ri^fffittit, 7^ vffj tigkr ^^ta^ifiv^ 
rifA-iaIfy fnA/n tmr £1 rw JiiTnti, ii iitJud titttt. 9Md k^ft mnr A? rfttrnt 
ttfrffp ; /tr/k/ fij;Af flt-i warj t/ a /rtfuJ fi^ frnfttar^gf. 4/ /i^ /nitmJ Ju^r 
M./.- hf Jtrmmm/j •fii^ji'/i^ S7 nvff, tfn/M/ tkit^ mriiiA j^9t H^ fimMn 
vr fain^ Oa lAe niAe* hami^t*} itt amtiker tv f^im /tr cnet wHj/rrtBma it 
piinful. Evtfybsdy avti^i betas ihe <anK ^ faim U Ad /riimdi. UfmM 
tti9it-kf/irfid H'ilui/i ihrtni f'-ptn m^it^ thiir JritmiU ^kmf fmm viM ikim^ 
tiniiJi iff'nt ^rt^ reiif/St tAfrefy gftiMtat : il^^tttt miA ■ilWW t49rKti tttdmff 
(O'^fhiit^/fj til Urtifitiati^fH, ^iOHst ikey art *«i tAsmnh*! /^ttn U / atmttt 
iitm, LttrntntiUian Ihty ItiOt to amsA suemm, *mti fni*t ■» wtrnk^ w^ dd^it 
in it and (iive iki /rimds those jfAo ^in ^ilh thtm tit tMr dii^TfU. fiittkoi 
ttmf'kfatifA rtaiiiy*t thai t^ tt^^kt ttntf^i fortet rtijkiUt*fty,iM at/ /Ati^, 
tkf htllfr t:tomptt- 

Jh f^ifvrity. IffWAvr. lA* frtstn^ »//riaf4i icr^t jtHtt/H$r fr Mr t*'^^ 
mtfit f/ifwittre, and it ii rw^i fa tAivt that they vt mtr U fait f^mmrr m 
mr'a wtti-Mtij^ - wk/tt/orr it uvuIJ atim rigAt /a k finatri im f oA'^f « 
OHt's fritH'/} te ikett mf'i firat/ienty. Inn bax^^awd \m raHiag /4rvi iit ta takt 
/ttrl irr firm' I adrvttity- -' Ontfaritrrrw ta tnan^k': tut i/fk/y Vt iaAtrmHtd 
in in mitferriSy, kt it U aiAef$.mtA a hitU trv^kte^AefartiiMy fl* d* grt^ 
jfiW. Oh tAe atktr Aami, a /'trMi/ on^kt ta t^m mtnUltdt ar^/v (tAv jfiTj mt^ 
fo ait^d : hit. utdra ts ht!p in toftyini^ mtt nr/ne jwUr work, ai^At to W tSrr 
in fomtug where thrre n pr^iptHfy.amf ^vad fkin^ are ts te ^njftytd : lud Mfre 
4gilrt* k4 mn/l bt r<ire/ul nfl/ /* /tem fkurii^ $m tifftritttg aJlvm^t- 

Oar enttiutifin tAett ii, tJtAt tkt fratntt ff/ritwtdt ii jfamy i da i roMt' 

BOOK rX: CHAP. II; {J I-5, 359 

^ra-yKai^po' |iplr ... KaXXior %i] In ndvcrsiiy A m^nilTl^Mi 
Krugglct v'itti muLier wbich opposes iuell to th« form of hit «^t- 
/Hii*a : IT* (irohpf riiy t»f rt'alist-s rlu- Itfamiful form without hindrance. 
]o (he fcrnicr case frkii<1» arc inc;in:) — instrumcnis by mcann of 
which he grapple:^ with hiu dililicuUics ; in ihc latter caiw Itiey are 
Olds — jKfisons ill whom ilw* oljet:! cif his cDiitcriiplatiocj, liLima.Ti 
nanirc ns a ratlofial <yslcm» js atJcquaccly rcprcflcntcii 

{ S> i^Scta vo-k A' Tats *£Tvx£ai1» «al i" tbTc SiKrTvXiObt] Bckkcr ^ 99, 
omiLK Uie vords nil *f tau *iTii;(j*j(t. The auihoriiic* for their 
omissinn arfr K"* and CCC (CCC omlu ihrm In ihe ten, snd a later 
hmd supplies them od the margin)- Thcr ou^ht 10 be restored 
10 ihc text : Me Ra^sow, Ffru^^ pp. 67j 0«. Foi Avarv^btp L"\ 
O*', and AM- give rirv;^E'ri0- 

Pifpouv] Viooiius, foTIoived hy other odifors, qnnte* Xmi. /t/rw- ^ ti. 

fiapitrg ^ifiitf n' ^^^ d« titfr ffdpwt fMraitSorai fit tfh\ots' trut yip Sf 
ti <rr w"'> lemirjti/raiiiaf. FritzscJfcp qboies NT. Gti/. vL * oAX^Xiw 

fl TfluTD ^r ou, d-xXj Tcrhnpii one's fficttd docs not relieve one 
fif any pun of the burdt-n of one's sorrow, but encourages one 
{ttaptnAirdtriuAv yi/> 6 tpiXnf { 3) tD bear ihi^ whole ndghi manfully- 

MicheI«E, and Fi'itx5i:hL' qiio;? Eiirip* /^ff 7,)a — 

Q^ Menandcr {apiid Slob. >?*v. iv. 6;,, cd. M<:inckc) — 

^rtfr yi tfiikox' Arlyir <tf*l roJir Airfrotifj4vi>if. 

{4. a&r i^tf finpTcfrQ Yy) dXi;ir^] 'unleu there be a ^ealb, 7. 
balance of relief- cthcrwisc expressed at the end of ihc next 
tOCliOFi, b. 19 ^mv ^AXurtt AXiya lij^Xrfffti^it fnyti\' tvtbf a1^'^^«7«|p. 
1 cAHUDt ^rec ^uh the inter pielatkni ofTerrd by Grenl and mcr^i 
of tbcediLorfe— *uiilt&s he {i.^. Jili^u^^s) be cxcesHivdy impafisivep' 
The chBLfige from the plural ivkadavfrat l^, 7 10 the singulur w»o- 
/itm !>< $ la awkwurd, buE netd not ^uiprise ub. B^waler AD^'^rsU 
that the clause b. 6 ftidirr^ . . . U 3 PVTvii should be pkced cifter 

SpfjvrjT"'^ b. 10. 

I A. titpycTtKiy] ttt^jTijfKft^i' given ctdy by O^ \s accepted by b- le. 


^^jr /X: CJiAP. 11 : ^ % S. 

UTlb.U. Ilcltkcr The word la a ffrmf tlpfji^inif. All Mher MSS- rtconM 
give .ir*pyrt(«ji(^ whicti it righil/ r*«0Ted to the Iwrt by RaBo» 

{FoncA. p. 68), 

b. 10i dXit ^(b ImcttuxOi'] Ttitf ?jLr4|)1i- wyh— d r;Hi>y4di t^nv. 
words, however, do not ovcut in any cxlnnt play; nrtd R 
IK p«rhapt rij^ht in iliinkiiig Oi:ii too much has betn mule 
ParapiintAL's rtmnik, and ibal vc have hers ji commoii phfase* 
which U h not nccc^uary lo nscribe lo a purllcubr pOM* Hith^ 
Eph. refers ihc ^<nd% to Euripides, who&e Ait Jj^* fo# ^■"'^^r^^^ 
(OrtrRL 740) ^li quoted bj the CiJiDora. ^H 

D- sa. § 6, Bftl [tA] >Lf] dtuAmiTcn] Rnuuw (/Vr^A. pp. 6S, C9) 

advocates o^i^wanyrot ihc rtndin^ of K^ (:Lnd CCC). '{"his retdu^ 
mak^ti the f^ (i^hich ia (tirricuti with d£iv<rjt^ac, and ii <»ni|l«l bf 
M^, anil l^n^kctcd by Bywatcr, and girr* pl^ioc in AliI, lo 
quite nalumL Jtywivtcr'a su^^stion, nl bclorc «^ vh^ b. s 
ouj^hij 1 thinV, 10 be ajcwpled. 


/f J */jrA/ /j f^ ifffii deartii (0 Uttrs. ^ittg. a^cu *// H^tr utuu^ tki tm 
and trtj^'n cf tArir Jtrrv ; la, ftt ffrn^ ihnr ttt^A taj^thtr i< tkof wttfA fif 
/rtrHitt ti mtut ehp!te^i>»rlMy. Jcr frwnJiktf it etnmvmta, Ktv^ «v « ■■■ 
ttattJi rtUUr-t te himifif, it hi ttandi tfaJfJ I* Adt /rtfivf^ 7%4 frrttftit^'f 
Ah 9wn aiiieiut ii ^sUtwat^Ay 7 thftftri tAt ftfff/tint ff kh frin^t 
tjiitlenit. TMh fa/ttr ptntpittm Kt ttttfati in tftndjttg kii li/t wiU ^i 
fitfntf. ft it HAMml, ikfn. tAttr kt lAovfit ufit it tffftd k$i ii/r tntk tdt 
/Htnd. If/oUfftvi that, in mhiittvtf a man vad^rr Ait Abltffw* /# t^attiit, m 

timt in JriviMx rtf^rfAer, 9th<rs in t^mUinii ttgetiUr. vlJkrt frmtm mtUrtia, 
vr AhhJ. trr ifaJy phihipffky t^i^tthtr—tUi. aiiorthng ^tf /Mr t*trt, if^mMwt 
Ikiirdoyi iox'tlitf' in the puftuiti vifA tuAtfk tAry idrnjifj r^Ar/wK 

Jfttis Ih* ffirmtiht^ ff t><tii mm ii d4 eviJ ihittj,/tr tkfy ^rr m/t^a^, taj 

BOOK IX: CHAP. 12 : §} I-3, 


oiWirantr ff*pS ri* ^.TLflr ^ ttrt\p. For ^l^P7C, rcfltorcd lo the mi by 
SuvmLlil anil HywAtcr, Bckkcr rt^nds a^rvie: ak^s Is giv^^ b/ NC, 
irwa by corT. CCC 

f a. «T« olorrab vutilr] ' hiicc factunt haccquc inter »e commuDi' U7a k a. 
Cttnt, quibiis ^ arbitrtTiltir conrkmuni \itac socictate mier se copu- 
lari' (LimLiirus), 1 ihiuk \\\wi iht word^ are ci>fnj[iu ! Kuggcst 
A- oTi obDtTm *-r*TU tJ fl^K, NC and Pafis, 1653 have o'l ftTnwii* fijr. 
The Paraph-, with oi™ ^dp atC^p Suvtrrdii, E^ems lo have had before 
Uinj tlic bluiidr^ itt olifv r* wbich uppcai^ in K^, 

{ a. d3f^aw4 a*T^T Sec vjii. 8. 5, * ft- 

y^ Jit' aXAqXwf iTiii frrwnflivmi uif^i tuvr^^k Tilk aXXpjXwi- 7^70. T)lC8C 

ocaroplc* of ihe use of ivoitarF*aSmj or tjr^tfTT*ffflai, Bccm to roe 10 

anpporl Ramaauer's reTnark — ' ^oji^mrrAH wap^ tiwir t* minus tfil 
" fomim taprimerc ci aSiquo ut cpisioU obaignatur anulo," quam 
'*ea quae placent imilando {quasi diRius) iipud se ^ffingcrf."*^ 
• For [h*y cfjpy from each other rhose iralta which pU'OSc iliem/ 
GnntS renderings' For they lake the eiamp of one anollicr in 
thcuo Ihitigs which ihcy l:ke ' — Bcaicely given ihe exact force of 
^ntfiartoyrni, or lirings uui (he con.ttriiclioti, wluch iti dwofuiTToiTBi 

(middle) ndf' dXXj^Xttf rdiTd cfi opiirKQrrai. 

ia€kuv i^y Y^ ^"' JuflXij Thcognifl ; s«c above ix. $. 7, a. 1 1 : •> Xi. 
quoted by Pinto, Mrw 95 D< 

VOL. If. 





>c tHArf.fiit cftr H4tun ; pttttitri vrd pain an tki rn^Ar ^mA j^— faMtfn ; 

4f tht Il^pf Lift, ai ftit*m'ijc if iiiit ttfui JiiliAe ttri/cAf^ 

'/"he sHtij^rr tAm tnmt fy ho mcam bt amittid^apHiaify a$ itUomm^dkk 

lAtrf it gTfiit tti^er*n.-ie/ tpim/JK • /^r mM MttHttfitin Ikti PUAnirr ii tU CMi^ 

CriW, mMtf ofkfi—'ti'keihf Jrfm rpifvtrtifftt. or ^j* m>^ ^ ^Hvvf /aah^ ifi»m 

/rav^, itrntryf^ tfmcrMj trt j^mraliy found ttti, aiU jj i^rm im tU iu d - 

i^rt £1 nclhing it uHfmi ai th€ fJaii^ rrktM)—mtinemm (A^t £t £1 mOv^ 

U» {L ir«pMto»^] Sec /Vr«dWj^p> AWtf to vii. ii. 

a, so. trvttdnctui^ut] ^ lo have an intimate connexion nilh our Mtuc ' 

(Petcn)H M)c1i- Eph. has — *}Utia rf tpCoti i^/^m rWt jc«i W thiim 

m.»y trpht T^v Mu 4|0out dfHT^i*] K^ Ml', Ni', nnd Qmibr, r«9d ^jn*. 
Midi. £ph.. Ijuwcvci, m-cii^a 10 have lad 4f<T^ heroic UinL His 
note i*— ^irjiirfw ii; 'i'1*'* "^ ')*^' ^ "** f^* optr^* ri ;|w^*» a& 
£ri' i^iff iij>f*i^ <>fTUP nf'ttjt t'fu ilfuriiit' il Tiiyt, ftottt W «Ai 
Bjjc^c T^i* TT}K ^6uitt aprr^e Kr^utr fiiynnu aumXih' T& x'^ipttr att hti 
m,rX (^ Piaio, Z^i'. 653,andi.A: ii, 3. Jj 1-4, ^IftO y>^/- O. 5, 
1349 ft- 14 fU^q., where the principle v Si aprtif wifk H X'^pn* i^Sit 


BOOK X: aiAP. 1: §} i, l. 


■al ^XiTv «oI |k>v*i» i» applied to dctcrraunc iht place of Mu9J<: in UTfl a. 
^clucuion^ and ihe kinds oTmu^c that ak to b» taught- 

j 2, Arifi Bj Twi» TOt^Jrur] For iwtp^w*f>i with gen. in ihe £thux. * «» 
s« noica on i. 5- 1» i- ^- *3» iii- 3- <t iv- ^* 4- 

at jUf , . . ot fe'l Emtoxus . . . SpeusippTJ*- 'In all piobal>illiy/ *. 27, 
Bays Uratit tf-/ /a*-., "Ansioilc Kcrc alltidcs itninc<liatel_v to t*o 
tccTitjns of Ihe Plaioniau, (1) ihe party represemed by Eudoitus, 
vrhoAf argurr/"tit6 arc qiKited; (3) ihat htvicled by Speusippus, 
whoM amihedoniatic ar^menL^ were contained in two books 
meniioned by Diogctics Lucrtius, t:ndcr ibe titles ir*pl i^yT^t a'- 
•AproTwnrof o'. and t^hich are row passed under review. Under 
llie dm of those n ho '^call pleasure the chief good." Aristotle 
lesa dirccdy rtfen to Aristippus, who, though lio belonged to ft 
bygone en^ «ill lived In Ihe jiages of Plaro's Phiitbui^ atkI tn 
the book of Speuatppus bcaKrif; his HJimtrJ 

Rainsauer has a pcninent observalion — that in Ihe parallel 
pAiBigc y\\. II. 3 fil royadfiir iitnivijv Xryiitm are T\oi meniioneii 
Mich- Eph. haK a vciy mleresluig note here — Z^ho^v ^iv r^r 

S^ri^w taiit^ mrra rriyi^tf' ''Aur^f "yap Afvi^ii ml itlr^nv friiffwi' ruf 
Aya6iif 4ri.frT0, Ait oi rAt i/tmc 4T^ff70ii4iirfitf fit airf4i(^itp rtft f^V 
ml r^ aimitr rvy Svrw mil lAr u^TQiiir^pvn^ tw^ dv^^wmuf itul t& 

at^raX^flf T»r jn^XHf'- Accorditif? to LhU account the doctrine of 

KndoxTis concemfrg plefl^^uie wss a devckipmrni of, nr prrha[« 
on]> another wny cf jutingn Plivto's dottiine uf the Jflia riyaffoi^ 
U i\ WQ3 ttiifi, Anstoiie is unfair to il when he insiruatct (aiG 
he doet below ch. t. § 1) thai ii wi'i ^ doctrine of mere hedonibm 
(ia ibc Cyrc^i^e ben&e) — a doctrine which was nol &uppo«ed 
to be no immoral in tendency ns il really whe, only on account 
of the temperate charatier of ii5 timhor. Aristotle h locj miirh 
inclined 10 criticise Plato and the PklonistH <ia pieJ de /i Mre. 
Jft hifl criticiam of EudOKus a case ir point ^ 

ol |ijv touf iTfvctff^ctQt , . . «t &f] Two claescti of of '£ /kut^v ft, so, 

tD^jA^ ^nifAuj' XrytiiTii. So UlC Pariph. 

KlA t«Lp . . . ^i^ffOf] Cf. ii. 9. 5, ' Aristode do«4 not approve of a. 99. 
ihiK being done by means of a sacriAcc of liuth ' (GTanl)H 

*■ Cf ihe »argittalf In Oon t. T^. g iwTicrr veaoie) J^nrf ^ (J BlSlofat) 

D d a 


404 BOOK X; CHAP. 1 : ^ 3* 4- 

UTSi^se, !f a -niif KarAriir^Miltfv] 'palpable facts ' (Pettr^V 

JiH&<^*r*r ai-Tiii'. The Ponph. has^*^ y^ii ^iymv Tn^r i > af fr Z4Ait 
VnTf I'^HfttrCt nCv^t, 91SaK\ir*tr ^0i»l ITpOC dbT^*' cai o^oWt* ^ftva0m' 

Dal alVtf ?lo'^v ^bTL^it roU ip^trtv «0 rtM iJAn^ oyadUr f&«it iU' 

(ipa r* df^r rAv tmvif fi^wra ^^w^ rc»il i^d^povfn, ni Cam t^B*4* 4*^^ 

fitation, l^y uray uf pioui fnmd, that all |>]f^'JM|^^ i% ho*! ; but mhen 
ibcy fljc seen co ir^\ tome pleamics^ thc^y ^fc thouxhi to i&ttoMie 
ihst ull pleasure is good, I'hey thus not on^y fail to get peo^ 
10 enter inio iheir pious fr^iud — in believe (he gnw'Tal pm|iosli(oti 
' Jill pleasure is bad' — bul Lbey aUo diKretlit the poniculu 
proposition ^some pleasures are bad/ vhioh^ an Ihoir ovoKtloni 
thow, is what ihey realJj' believe lo be rrue, And wisfa p«op1f 
to act upon. It would liivc been wiser to ay at fiat thai 'mmt 
pleasures arc bad '—to ditiinguish for the bvocfit of tbobc itbK 
tinable lo di^tinguisli for ihrattclves, genenliM hastily frooi vpT^ 
Yqt £fE rtAovnjf -Md., NC. PariK 1 853, and B' rt:td &r al nmit^ 

b. s. J 4.] BuE £ dialinctiun wlncli i» CGOisDiuiit with JJ^ja b cf 
great pr^icCical use to those vho undemojid il (r*^ tfwwfnr); 
of course, only t}i09e Can undentaod rnoni diUiitciioi» pbocd 
before ihan, vho have had the prellnnriAry moral traliiiAg iaaiMcd 
on in £./^- i: //, \, 4. b itA hi ^w J&toir fjx^ uXmt rl» m^ 
fji>vir fi'i fimtiiav cai SKutt r»y nuXiru^v ium>fri^>uwr hnamr. ftllhoM 
such iDOTTil Uaininf no one can diapUy ihc trw^vis wbidi ^^''TOTTT 

^f r^ j(pi^atai r^ S6^fj nil rA tpivwip lt*p\ rovnem irtpi fir f ^y^^pjj 
rrrTiV, />Xl^v Ai'-^oicnt, ma\ Kftivtof iraXur (^. A", vl. lO. 3\ Tt If in 

connexion wfth the docdine of vu^iru thui laid down thai w 
fnvsi undertund Lbe expression mlt npHuWot la cbe prorat 
p;iua2F. For the [^rjrlical volui: of \iyoi, or fvMm. 10 ihoM 
wl:o bave received good moraS mining, see ttOtc on \. 3. t** 

MOO^ X: CffAP. S; { u 





tm itt P^'fi tafri/jf cj itittuff U fmu fnii tMt ti-J^, hing vrry UmJ^m^, wa/ 

disini^i : amJ :hat tidiUJ to tmy ^vtd tKing. e- ^- tAt /vr/trrmtinit ff//mti*t, it tktJ gfod thrnj fvrtff. Tt4t iatt arftiiHeW. n't maj> lay tn pasiitig. 
^rtfti tA<it f'iMtwr It 1 gppti '^'"/t '"' "'' ^^^ '' " *-^' fpaad ^ tnfitsd 
itutAt r^fi 9/ itfX**mmt Ifutt Phlv <it/ityi la rA^v tAiU Pttaimrt h rtti fht 

dv f'^r ioo^i df/ tltoivn wifA WiiJam it Utttr tA^ut /^asurt ^UAottt 

TA9tt^Aamuf£iUMmjwitA4At^HJitm—/AattfAaiaiifKr-iwij nH^ta^, 

maKifutiy wh^ tU retional ietng/ ^nriut , atui tvtn lAt irratigmU triMttrwi 
m ifiviHfly itfij^iltii So itrA t^iir lA^ff tntm fiwf. 

Stnte^nu dratvt Jrpm tkt tr^i^^ruti aV^rJitni* t^ Pttiit, tAn ipHfr^ry n/ Pi$Atuwf. 
Vks efi/tctiffn u • tA^it it thti Mt/^iaw/fom Patti Uttg^f^ti, tA^ Pfttmrt jj 
gw/ , /ef ivii may &s ^f^fVisti l^€ifii. and ^Ih tvUt to tAai ivAni a rMuiralw^ 
I7t4i/ffrPiuiii p/opponiiin* 'v ali vrry tl/tif al a fortHala, bat it ii not apflkaiiU 
ts fitai^trt iin/1 Pitm : /fff 1/ fictA tirtrt *»//, Tt/ ; Sunlit /imf toth awiJiii ; ^ 
A^A irfy HfitJra! »p# tkptitti fimi mirArr st'ndmt, pr hetk nvi'tnf ttHAi ; 
taAttMi tf4 itt /ilam/j' iAai iNcti nivi^ tht ene oj rtfil, oHti itvA tAt^ktf bi 

{L Eftflfot] of Cnidu^, one of Plftco'n diAci;>lcR, a c<-]cbrticd U73t), ^ 
flilfODoincr, nitiDlkinrd tn MfL a, 8 as ihe author of a th«or^ 
of the moEions of ih/^ heavenly Loilicx, which \% cIcKcrlbcd; and 
iQ Mtt A. 9. 991 a. [5. u holdmg (ho view that the idcui arc 
milted in i«niible things, lik« the r>fia>(«fx«p^ of Anaxagoras — </. 
Alri- aJ he. (p, yj. 4) eoj fX^Q^n T6r V^d^iamt yvtonlt^vtir /ti^a rup 

view he proceeds to giv« ihe refutation coniain^ In ihe fiecond 
Book (jf ArihEoUe^s inpl ihtanf, but umiUcd in ihc Mdiiphytui : vc^ 
AUj.* Mti. Tit II (gcI. BoniuJ. EudoJlu*' theory of |rlca»urc, 


SOOtCX: CHAP,2i ^ 1-4- 

UTS b. 9. dlscu«c<5 hcrv, hflB ilreujy bWD m«miotted S.I^.Li t. £, on vl 
5er note. 

Spen^l [Artx!. Slud^ \. MX Elh. pp. >i8, art)) and 
com^laLn, untieceasonly I chink, of :b< confued t&anner id 

b. lA- ^A-H^vTou i^dDui dpcHiv] Gnuii ih^a m ihift 'a plcsulagnl 

lo ihc pcnonal duiroctci of IiudoxuEi'; but sec note oo s* i- 
s, a. S7. 

b. SO- \ fl. &|4A^J N«i <d^ dM v^v (Rftinsfttacr), 

S fftff %i* lT«pov |fti)V iW^u X^P^^) '^^ latUf of thece cxprefiiotii 
Beems to br add^d (iicrtty a^ an uTrrniailvt' for the fomicT. Tbcy 
necEn lo have exactly the same mcanin;^, 

b. 25. ftift<a4ai Sc] Dckkcr rcA<1fi «ai a£Tf«v^ 2^. K^ lod L^ omi: <vL 
RnimBAu^r, Suaemihl, and Byw:iier read aCfrtrAu A*, the A> txiiig 
Romxiucf"* ccrjectiifc fcr the 3^ of :hc coJd Spcugd (/frjiL 
-SW. *i$) asks with some force — How could EndozBi, »ho 
viithfd to prove that ^JfoviJ ia roya^i', have lued tlu argsmcdl 
»& Arl^loLlc here (j 3) vindEntuntU £t^ What EtHJoias mflf 
meant, Spcngcl thinks, wa» «mcthinc very differctil— vit VTben 
ifSok^ Le add«d to any good thing ho\^-vv«i snull, LliM good thii^ 
surpLtssei' all other good thing* hoMrrvrt gTtaL to nhicb i|S*fi b cot 
added. Tliat which can thus cnbjtncc the Bisilleal good Abone 
the greatest, miist itself sLand higher than \\\t greauct— mem be, 
In Ahon, raya^i'. This v[eiiv of the relal)ij4i of vSwq 10 ayoM, 
attrtbtitcd tc Eudoiua by Spcnfjcl, «jcreea subsluitiiiJIy with ibe 
ftccounE of hia th<'ory g^ven hy Mich. Kph. (Me nottt on JT.jV. s. i- 
v). ;lilJ with thr maTginul conitnrntAry on i. 11- fi in L^ (?»«e note 

b.a6. 5 a. ftXitw/] See Phkhiti €0 D. E, wheir ll ia sho^n tbu 

bvHt hie for mctn is 6 /ibirru ^mt ifAglijE n cal ^at^tar. 


bu 31. «i^<^ Y^P irporriO^'vnt a^ R.T.X.] ' For tbt highcM good i> 

not made beicer t>y the addition of anything/ For mny K^ (sloov 
it would Kccm) gives ti^ru preferred by Bckker and SusctniliL 

b- 34. f 4 It ouy ^(rri -rtiauTiH^ k-tA.] ' What good is tbr», ibea» vhfch 
i> ibuK inc^imhle of aildltion, and at llic same lime such is men cu 
puucip&tc tiL iir (Peters.) 

BOOM X: CHAP. 2^ §4. 


o! V Jro-k&juvol h.tA.] Those who bn'itg ag&inst ihc flminsb.SB^ 
ugumcm of EudoJtus the objection, or frorwif (^tf. Prior, ii. 36, 
69 A. 37 fforavit f^ isri ftp^Toa^t rfiOTMiu /hurm), ihat ' tvhal itll 
Mek j& i>oi good/ cofnmil ihtm^Hve^ 10 an luiienabk posiiion 
ID Arislotlc's 0[)inion ; 1 y^^ Tuai ^», ra\n' **vtil ijnifitt — nctifUS 
piduat €rbts ttrrarttm. Tlicir Fi-irmcu i3 irff/^a^'ifor, ind, ^ £Lch, 

is duIocticaUy inadmissible, dialectic admiiirng only tvhi^n, save 
when the par^doAcs aic those of ^cilL philosopheis (d/urii); as for 
&« paradoxes of ordmory men, il would be sjlly to pa^ atleaiion to 

thcin— 7^. i. IT, 104 b, 93 ri ^^ TDip n^fdiTOf iHH'^ rait &{^v 

ifiiytrt^i} Bekkcr's w^iVra i& ihc reading of L^, Paris. 1853, U7fl».Si 
and apporemly of Mich, £ph. and the Paniph, All other authori- 
ries (including CCC. Canibr., B', B*, B") have Aprf>*nii. adointxl by 
BywaUfi For <l in this line and in the next, nc pcrhapji ought 
10 follow Michelei in reading S- 

ftlMf] Cambr^ has o^i. «. V. 

^K ^p Tt XcY'^^'^''] Bekker'i rJ before Xfy*t/.*w»- ii omitted by K^, 
L\ W; 0^ Cambt.. NC, Paris, 1853, B' 

foJKoLv] the ' inferior,' or irrationa] animals — tA nv^rtra. t. 4, 

t^n Ti ^i^^i*^' dyci66i'] Susemihl, followirg Thurot, brackriA 
6yo6iir. and Byiv-aler's note is — ' ^vouii' Jyotfi^c fort. Mcludcnda.' 
J thinlc that it is Ickcly that both woida come from the margin, 

roH obMiM dYoOovJ 'their proper good' (Peters): 1./, vhen4,5< 
tlify eccm to be indulging merclytheir own caprices, a3 indhiduala, 
Ihcy arc really timiiitaining the *ftot of then rai^e — striving afier 
rA ^i lul rA Alor, Ai the end or the PAMut (67 B] Socrntca says 
that lo go to the lower animals for arguments in favour of pleasure 
Is to irusi ' the augury of birils,' insieail of * the Muse of Pbito- 

lOphy- -Zfl, Oinvvy ntfjTFiw taf^ r^y gpurw^^ fjv rik A \6yitt JBV^Tjro 
yiyvaiT Av fj T^r rj^a^rjt Auud/iif, flPOr "fjunty £0. Upoijov fir y» 

Db£* Aif o\ tri^fi fjfWc rr tal iirirai val rAXAa ftf^iravm f^pZn 0um t<^ tA 
;(ai)>ru' AjWMkft 0^ iitotnomt, &<nTtp fuiT«» Zpttnr^ ol irflXXfll tfiunn/tr* 
rat i^florai ifr t£ fqi' ^frii' «£ irpTTf^Traf t^ifU, fiti raiit SijpWii Tpnrot otfUfr/u 

ju»uv lAJcjruTf Xi^yidf. AriTStotJc may have had this passage in 
hie mind here- 


BOOK X: CHAP. 2; § 5- 

what the opf>oiienL£ of Eudoius say aboui "the coainiy" («-< 
ahfiut \\\< argiimenL fioto the conlrwj — vit ptuii— «fa (rtw I 
^fr* «W 4wf^>' A rw ivamjv } £ abctt) sotu^iaor? «itber/ 

•, 9, ofl ydp ^vir, E»T^.] Sec nclea on vij. 13- i. Ikficb. Eplk b* 

the fillowing commcntafy here — & iV whi itMrriov ffxt^n^t ff 
^Aov^v d^oMv ^^r>f roonirac fv tl ^ Xn^ h-arria oSffa r^ ^A^ n^ 
tffTif, Jyu^K ripa 1} iJAof^. ir^rr £« ; — m ^ Xinij nu^, ia wm cin 
^i/yrfl> avrijv. np^s ravT«' T^i- Xriysi- rtiy J< rov itarvim wt^ fmfn 

frrt, i( AitXia, ltd utjr fofu- i}><i^ ^ ^ilia; liXX^ ■avdv , . . 
arrUt*rni oft ^rjirl Inv^trLinror nal roBOt AaiVH ml if^ T^ f^^f W fft 

9Srt flrk^jci tifrf SfHurirfr;* «<m' , . . mo\ X/y«» ra^* CdiX«f, ttkif&r yi^ 

foir%t/ uiV uff Xi'yuvui cuXwC t^ ^ Jlri ^ ^Avk^ ^v vKor rufiji *1m J iii « 
17 XtfTf; XcyoutfU' ot KoXbT. uv yap ai^^icfiToi i^ ifint^ tjj \vtrji « mv* 
eir^ oXA' iis 6yo9^r tri#^' rJ ^/i ^ KnrA* ^ i^Aofi^ ft* jcaii ^h%mt^ h1 
^Dirr^i' u>v 4 X»it| »'vr AJ ri^i* ^ir Xvntjir ^Cytt mt^a , , , ^ Mmir^ 

b, 8, o^^id T^ ^f]6cr(py] ty /^q^r'pf ftcems to be liie raiding oukf 
of r. Mich. Kpti-, and Ax, AU i^Jicr a&Jljoriiia ipp^i^DlJv md 
r^ ^ija/r,^ (so K^ Lb, Qh. B\ 1J», CCC, NC, Cambr>. AldJ v 
n^ fttjhJrtpcv (M^r B*]. The r^uding r^ fj^Ampa if itronc^ 
tUpportcd by l^iCLtO, H^p. 583 K f out tvmr^ t\ ii^XrrvjH St dw^tfn^ 

y 17 Mrr^i— words which occiir m a context vhidi, 1 ihink, AiiMock 
hsu in hJH mind h?rc. 


*. u 

dfi^tv ^Ap (tirnti* ('^"J imirfir] nywuter fldrt« r{ 
improv^iDcni lo llic clause. The Smor uui^t oT K^ (mnd 
accepted by Bekkcr and Susemihl, ohovs us bow ibc originaj n* 

dropped out, 

twi- fiiificTtpuy W |n|E*wpek' () ijiofufi] The CODSlractfoil 

pucudy h r^i- int^tTiiivr &n ^mx* (if Uith filcAsure and piin 

to the chfG of n<.uUftL etiitca), ^3«Vt(w (Dejthcr of tbcmf tii 

pti^ttlv ihffu^ i d^oioih fA^^j> ^v$rr6if : — or a* Coff3«S pUU tt— <J 

Oft ^H 

BOOK X: CNAP. 2: 5 5. 


4 A/iAiw( inuff/ioi'. Mith^ Kph. ^iv«s what saemfl tf> mc a less 

M«/Hv: while } 4^JAi«f be oiplnins^flffoi ^riv^r 4 i'*^***"'' 5 

-\s ilircct^J ftgiunsi S^jcutiippua iLc *vo:d$ before us arc poinilcM. 
SpctJiiippus did not regard pleasure and piLD as /Ji}d«f4pa, but 
3}L Mni — ' Speusippus velusque oninifl Acadeinia volupiaU'm <"l 
dolorcni tJjo mala c±sc diKcrunt oppoaita inter »c, bonum autcm 
twe <]tiod mnuiquc mi^dium forel" — AuL CelL ii. 5. In fuel, 
onTy Eht wards u^c^cIj' yri^ ^^mf {*£>») cmr&i' aivr rr^fenbtff In 
Spcusippas, As rctjanla ihc words Tic ^Sitipuw tU ^Lr^ir^iitxv 7 
J^«r, one would be Icmplcd to :icccpt th? kU«r of th? aEt^mtiLiveB 
offered by Rams^iuer^ — ' am corrigtndaf auc sccludrnila* — were 
it not possible to poi&t to the dL:ia;A3ion in Rtp, ^%i aq. (mcntionod 
sbov^), ^kherc ^trv^^la^ cr r^ ^ra£w 18 epoken of as sometifDcs 
*pdnful,* »onic?Lime^ ^pIcixanL' Tt will \>t »een Lhal FUto's 
ftlLliidc to the suppo^Uioii rwv iifiUu^mnt 9* ib praciically^ \hc same 

ftS AristOll^'fi — knl «V JXA<Hi yt, Qlttaa, itdXAdk rniabrois aJ^rdai"! yiyva- 

1^1 Tin ^Aj IffAiv (ul dyumjr^v yiyivrci, ^^vx'*^* ^^ ^^^*' ■^dv^T^U 
Sprtj tJpmr^ ^lupmif rtr, <} r^r fjfnv^t rjinxiit ^vrnjitftr ttma. 'irrut, '^ij* 

d/i(^0rfpd 4(TTat, Xijinj t« nii ^flot-^. *KpiitfK 'It *fji AuporAr r^ ^^Airtpa 
Sv 6fi*t>6r*fa yiyvr^&at ; Of >ioj ArufE. Ka^ f^v r6 yt ^Ai/ A ^^^ 
yiyv^lUKJir tat to Tivmjfiify xlvipjU Ttc ^ii^/^iifa titiif ^ v0 , Nai. T6 

t£ ^ ;tiitpt(F iiwu^i'; OvdofiSit^ Ov* ttrrit iifM ravro, JAX^ ^Jrrfcjtp 
■^AoHf, at ein Jt Xvirwr t^au', tvn ^^ nXXrJuci etT^jfi » np Tropdm 
fnjflfVT* i^aitpvrjt d/i^j^imii ri ^tyr^ yjwo#Tni, wovtrafAival U ^Cmjr 


BOOK X: CHAP. 2:5 5- 

'AXAa ^4)inti, 'Tnov, «< y* (^i rov ir^prnr *=J t^» "f^^ll^** 

It rcmaina only lo rote tiiar. Tor itifiirtfiov, K\ r, CCC. CainU* 

«, IS. O^TV V) «ol dm'K<tT«iJ ^( tA fiir alprr^ r^ ^ ^nvrb U (Rw- 
Mucr)- 1 ihink thai Xwn; i» the »ubj«Ct of imwifm; aee tW 

Ml" give* tl;c tnUiic-t fcailJng dirfuipTfu. 



71/ OF^Wf Hf Mdi ' //fdjnrr i> ft*/ X9a/, ^ann it it mtfa Qmahly' 

7> /Itfitf tt^l>l dr^u '44f ' /Vfotwrt i> ib' ^wA AhJUf it it ^wE^Mft^ i 

rthri Pn tht cir^matami thAt paopk art picotcd rt ««rfAiu dfgmt • ttit jrm 

Vi/riotti i^^iHi,inty men than y&nt^M ittfe* itifrttt tn &wautf*tq JMcnor 
finiDr adrftiti s/ ttmparxitair cad tufvn'afw a^|TTH fcatti^TM*. IbMnrfrRfm 
(b> I'erAit/i^H will ftply fJiai^H lank, not at fvflf pimud, '■r mr ft^ammti 
lhtmiik'*it anJ find fkai fhty aJmit e/ ift^4it rf/m, 9H tmrmtr. H ittt tMa 
irtiftJ /^iWivrvj yvit JaaJc : thty indtiJ admii ^ di£rta ; ^W H i$ itm 9» t^ 
miJiii^Hi ttj iAe pttit fiitaiMfCJ Ihut yifu mi:ht iv ^ fit' rviJitit. (ij limt^, 
tf yaa fnisin/iiin that ftfn lAi p»n pk&iurti tdw^it ^ i4Ett*t. p* imtrf Fp itf 
thtst thry i/o. ittihimt aTJcufing yaur iKf^rtnt^ rAaj tikir/frrf lAtT *"* Jmitf^Mj 
anJ fwt' a fAiiig may a4mti pj 4tfff44s within ilctiniM .itnitt— A«aAil, » {- 
vdWJ, wtJJkattr aasiwtff ta i* tJu titfimt* tAk(g fiat »t u: «h^ ftimmrt 

7^ ixrgttmiiii fAat tht gwi/ ii firr/oif^ or AdJ vea'iud tkt tmd. BultfrMr 
Pi^ittitrw it anty 4 Afffftfitt fir ft /'ntffst nwtrfi it unfier/gxt, w mjft iy pttrntimg 
BMf that t/ ii Hnmmninstt t/t^ ff /'/r*iartrt. wAi\t ti rthl^er fmvi tttr ttm, 
CI a MftiffH ; tr aa tt J'rttiit r^ grvrn/ia/9—/tr wAsi, ii mmy J« M^i^i ^ 
grftra/eJ nt ttftifJiaiiy tht /tf-idnW fr9<€ii,v»J wAoi is flovliW Aovi itm 
Vfhat dy the rcvene pnutit, /^in F TotajthaX * D$£n it iJ^dinatmttm ^ihM 

tr may tv atkrJ^ arr tk4 titmmtf ^ftmit^d hy A$ n^tmlhJ * grmfratitm^' ^td 
uferarid by Ihi t^^lUd ' dUteinlim ' / 

BOOK Xi CMAF, S: \ I. 


^/v^ U d9tiHi4 ttMn/rt at ^4fItHm £i U t*Mf9UHi J^t^nin Ihilfamd m 

|rik«4 Of t /til \t/Atn warn is l^irt/^ talUjlff ^ /er tht Ai^hir pltoymret — <hirt t/f 
tkitUiH/: and totfu of tht daifi/^ p/jtuyr/i—ari not asstKiastd wi:A iki r/pietifft* 
o/ttftiwlami rkr rttuf af p^tn 

To fkfit wha brtn^ farviitfd ikt ^itffn>ct/vJ fitasurts flJ /ffcAWfrf agtmti 
/Vfjjhfv m jyrrrnr^ nv idtv ft fMnt Bttt iXai ii u tttfy i9 iiI-€fmJ$ti9ittJ 
'taiwts iA^ tht e&j/t£ti ^ thtK fkitmre* crt ' fUnumi* : in th*rt. ikal fAtrt 
atr c*wt' //njJH'fd om^ tiftd ^t^urts—tAoi/ t>emf ^xtd wkitk afftfud jv«/ 
fimitiifHi. or AH tai^hyf^objtihi. bed. tokuA aUtmd hiLi/nHflwnt. or art 

Tiit/ ^murft Jijfer sptdfiiixllj v fkeif tf^^rfx 4i^tr h, it 4^^^ 4vr final 
^Hrlur /a fAfjf whtAt arj^unuttei tv$ k-ipi ^in gximinini;. Jtit witmtitninji t9 
ny ' PifAiiire i* trW." ar ' Pleamtt ii imJ.' /*itafiif< ih whaC obirLlj? nvdjrf. 
7'%ere nft fhjti^tt in ^thtfk ?rv o^i^kt *wf I& laif pifinnrt. artt tfurt art ^tjtctf 
Vtkli^k tt'f ihiotid ^unttf n^it 1/ ifi pifamrt ^'fr/ rtmr^trffJ ^ifA tliem. 

Wt*r<,tkim,en tht 9H4 kitrfJ /kar J'/murf h ntilAf tkt Cki^ Cood mOP Ail 
dtsimAlr^ anJ fiN lit* oiAtr ktSitJ t^l atfmt fifantrts 4rt *itiiraHt. 

S 1.] Sft Car. a 8 b. 17, where JffiF are given as iLc: first and U70 4. IW. 
moet im^Kprtant kind of noiari^ep. 1*hc tiprrot', cr vtituoua <£*«, arc, 

Ii Ii tTWi moiSfffttt — and. a^ possessing such iroi^rfv^ w« an? mnat 
fww <al dyoBof (/^, A^ 1, 5, ^) ; bul ihcrc arc things which arc not 
ftAtoTrjrtF, ami yet art ffood. The J»'t^jy#.oi whidi spring from Jf»rq 

are IIOl *Pflii*n^c: t/. Pofft. t. 1450 a. 18 mi yh^t ^ ■v'^i^avia fi* 
■filftt /W. jtnl rA tAoc vpQ^h tje /rrlv oC ffi^Htn^r' fieri Ar mr^ ^^v ri 
ifAf Vrotai TKbif, <dTO ii TOI n^i(f*n fufl-ir^cH* ^ TO C J^ru-rioir. 'J O be 

good, a Lhing need noL be a ^-rniAncni «ute («£»)» lite virtue or 
hcaltb. Tlie act oT vfHiaD» f.^., is good and perrect wiihtn ihc 
limits oft moment- So also is ihc cipcficncc of pleasure (ecc ;i. 
4. 1). The argumeni which Aristotle here opposes is founded on 
a ytq( Natural fcding — \ti.. that to be good, and M<i>rili having* 
a Uiing luufit endure permanently ; especially Ihe con^ious life of 
ihc mdttidiial 10 be u'cnh having ai nil. muBE endure prrm^incntly. 
But Afblotlc does not shme ihis reeling, Coii5cioU9n':ss, be 'wi>ulJ 
UU ^s ia fkilJy f^ood ^vithjii ihe hmits cr on indivisible moment; 
ill «?iMfntia] goodness b independent of iSmv ^ let those wrhr> n^nlrk- 
laio thai, Ef ihe individual coiiMjiousnesa is ever 10 be exiinguialtcd, 
Ihcp it ia not worth bavinp =it all, look at Nature, Why doc» 
Nftiurc produce <he individual orgamsm* of planit and adhnils. 
and allow them to pensh withoui poiaiLiliiy ^i revival? la it not 
' jfood' for these individuaJn to hvc v/hile they live, and ^e Lhelr 
lives lesft perfect o^nd good, because they are noi permanent f 


BOOK X: CHAP. 8r §5 1, a. 

[1173 k Id. 'AXX^ piir 9hti r^ dS^tor tTroi fio^Aw JtoiJAf /otoi, tCrf^ fiflj ]k»«4n^ 

II will be cib»rr\etl thai the putiUon conibawJ in th« prevKf 
(x, 3h i) U iKA)\y ilidi wUkL djc wiiia of tiL 13. a aiuck»'die 
timpl« idcmtficatioQ of ifn and ^ynS4r : eee no4e lhvr« OD *» 

^Ej^ai /jiiXA'^i' T4 ffli ^rrot yaywif»«ku fol riV tr^^pn rat ^pifut &i[^fH>« 
nl tA Xfav Jcsl J^ra tvuh'tb v^im, tit r& rov ^mipov ^W vs tUirZn m^rrm 
r*vn iiOiKul Btc also J'hilt&HS 31 A *v^( ^.^c oJr^ it» {tyyw^ db 

tfXvQ p,iff% tAw tV /oviY Jtf' JovTov f(oiT0t jAF^i tfwTi^ wot9 jtm^m* 

, 17. et fL^v oSt" Jk rou ^SttrOat touto ipErauffi] ' If It b (nmt ohactiaB^ 
p<^ftit plc^std that the)' come to tlic Gonclu.-i:cn ttai/Jiw>iiv ftdiafa 
or dtgT^B ard ia Lh«r«rorc noi good^ they mill have, by pariij of 
rcuoEiiiijc* (o coiicludc that /su/irf atlmiu of dcgroce and h ilrrv- 
for« not good, bccauiK; /A^^f <//"« ^iix/ tn varioua desree*.' ^. 

C^^A 8- lO b. ^J AjKiicMTi^Lii;*' piV y^p AinoidTuk^ Aii fpani fflvt htm 
XfyittBai fAoXXar jlhI f^u, oirti Oyinav hyuloi' ^op ^A^-« fi[riv fnfitf 

iriptvi Xiyitni Tliu* t* ^fff^Xic^ " ihe being pleased' — for vbkh 
toe [110^ MiluIiLuic 6 ti^f*tnit, ' ihf. man who is [ilcBird/ aiktwen 
EO ihc adjective tlKautt in tJif pubsugc quoted from the C^SfgtheM\ 

;ind AK iUaioi Ta^y become Aim^Sri^Kir, so A 9jh6^49ae ma/ bc ' 
plcujrcd^ but a^ wc du uul infer Tram fiiui^iiiac llat 
itself is indoHnite and bid, »o we mu^l not inf^r froni {(riWrn 
fiuXXoi' that q^Dtf^ is indcfinJie and bad. Thrr Panpb- hu f nJrwnc 

ME J^or d¥&pittti . . . liXX' oif ^it tovrit af^fH/md ittiv d dprral' rA» 
Si) Tfwhur isul ij ^^rq di't^ ^f taS* Vm/r^r uvk 'mu' jupacTftt* it hi nv 
^iSd^'itMb v^r 4nimffif «.il ri/p ^irv /rri£i;(fr(U, ±-dindar|y MLcb- K(^- 
apraka of ibr tlfiot or ti V lEnu uf Myjffa, irw^ipoff^, or fAar*, a* 
being nvff intp iviw. und AS ovriTi'rarJv tt ital atB»tra», Tbc <lia- 

tinctioQ draAti here imd in CeiA ^- 10 b, 33, between I^him and 
thtatotrvvft ia now fdmilE^r as ihai brtwrcn an adjedlve uhldi adUl 
cf ' dcf reca of compatiDon,' and on abstract nous wBdi does aoL 


ffOO^ X: CHAP, S: ^ 1. 


flnt [hl» and other diilincLions rf the kind iliil not prc%cnl tticni' L1T9 
seLvvti Co Ari^otle and hie contcmpomricfl 08 ' jrraTnmAlicur diB- 
linctioni^ Grammar, u a srponEc irjw^^nj'fl, did not bk jel cxitt. 
Mucli thai scGm« out of (ilaot, ajkd even frivolous, In Arittollc's 
diwudstion* fjf physical and other quL-siions, a.nd capetially in his 
rcfiicationa of ;Jic view* of op]Kjnpnis. Ik io be etplalnrd by thl* 
drcumaliUicC' DiatliiUJons iioi ^IfArly recognised a\ gnjumatko] 
were ihouf^ht to be gcrmcvnc to Kubjcctt with which wc Rhculd sA/ 
al once thai ibey have rrotbing (o <lo- But attliouj^h the ■tck^niific 
nubjcct^i immcdialcly in h^tnd often dctivcd litttc brncnt from tuch 
«trrbal (lircastion^ hnguagr, the instrutnent of ilk science, waa l3«Laj^ 
prtfivtrd by ihr-m for fuiiin* use. One of jhe mow inicrrsting 
achicvtziicikta of the Greek* was the sbatracLion of the Fomi from 
the Mailer of Spr^ch^ lu wc IJnd it made by Apolloniai and hu 
broihcr-grimm^naiiA ; and not ihc fe^frt imporiarkE af'prcl \\\ vhk-h 
Greek |:rhilc>30pliica) activity (and notably Ari^iotlc's philosophy) 
may be rcgirdctJ n m the proccKS by which the abslraciioJi iraa 
IjjadiiaUj' efTtttcil, iiud lanyviagt made un iuriiruinciil of fine 
liiiiiki]}^. Tlic &C[yicc& of iljc AcHooIiuer, loOj in this rc>pci;t 
must not be ignored. 


d VJ valt 4|&0Hif H > . r^kuraf] I o^^c with Ruiow {Foruh. «. Sft, 
p 69) that the correct rradtng U Thai of K*', d lii rrU ri^mis ic- 
fotTu Kpirwoh With ■j^i'm*' ciihcr *V or the dnL may be iiscd io 
Cticft Itkc thifl, but riot «Vf which B^kkcr roads heror« rnir i^Snalr, 
* Bui if they comr^ to the conchision that p1fra»ure la had from 
looking not At rc<'P^c plca«?d> hut at the nature of the various 
pleafcure» iheniielveii, I fear that ihty \nvt not pot hold of the 
righl prcmiHfK for liieir |iiiifoM\ if ilvtr. he any tniih m their own 
distinction between pure »rd mixed pictures ' — (p *< although the 
mixed jkleaEurcK may be tndetinire, ihe pure pirasures certainly 
air! not: and U is to them, ratlicr than to \he miKetl picasnres. 
thai wc have a Hj^ht to ask al ruii ^Sopali pc^irurrvi \o ffo for ihcir 
prennstt'ft, (y. PhtUhat jj? C, where- ^^t^pia tB awigned a? ihe 
rharnr f eristic of Ihe mixed, and /nfittpla at ihr pure plnwures, 
* Spcoaipptis/ say* Grant, ii. p. jt^. * for^^-eiful of thia diatinclion 
appear* to have mads HfMrrfila a universal predicate of pleasure.' 
The ^*rr"l «)&*■/ of Plato arc ihc bodily pleasures which involve 
p^n ari^l want, the u^i>«rr or nathsmi ih: tntellctival pleaaur^d and 
lliofie boddy pleaiurct which involve ncilher pain nor want — the 



BOOK X: criAP. 3: {$ t-4- 

U7f «-9a, pleasures of imvU, ^?ht, ftnd bearing. Mkb- £ph. is, tbcrdorr, 
entifrjj' wrong wh*ii he sayt; **y*i Ai iVo**' *^''' ^*™' ■■ri «*" *if4 


§ a. Kol rC hvXiJa. KhtX] Bt-'lLkcr** W yAfi jc«>Xwi ui thp readiliK of 
M^ alone- O^ hjU Tt yvf i(»XvrTi»t but fxp it nnL f^^^^ ^f ^^J Othcf 

MS- Ki* hat irai r; ■■Aurtq., I" *i ^4 *«Xuti, and 1>, CCC, Cunbr^ 
B\ BV KC, P^ all have ri «aAwi W, Tlic auihorily thcrcTgre (b< 
Bckbcr'a yap i« of (tic bli^bicsi. V^p accmA to have been subaLiuUd 
for nai or 0f to Tnake the cbuEc explain Uxe erroneouft innAiog 
atlaclicj lo lutrait wLilIi were Ukeii (as hy Midi- Ejih. quoted i; 
tbc end cf but tLOte) lo be <J tV V^ Htu v«i, vhdc uf ofHytu vtre 
thoDghi 10 st^d (or f^ tulet r^t 4^i^(. Bui If ve re^ n' M uJiiih 
(sec R^asow, F^mh. pp. 6g» 7c), iIlc dame i» seen lo conlua HfX 
an explanation of a. aa <J Ar - . . x 23 ^uirrdi, bui a new sLrj^mcm 
against ihe view i-^if ^inn^ n^p^a^^iv t7wTi. The first flirt of f J 
arguc^J that tbc fact Lbal /n^fiir art phtxtrd more and less <k>ci aiX 
imply )ks^K pUasur^ Uieif^^m\\A of mere und le$&, or U indcfuuEe: 
the wcond part of j 2 sirgiieri ibat rvcn ihoiigh ih« mixed Or b«Ti 
bodily pleasures loaj lltt^mseivi;^ adtuit of more and len and be 
in<l<:fimtc, yel ih& pure pleasures arc nol bdefinite: while the 
clause begitinliig r.' hi wuAw goe« furtliiffp and quetrions ibe vilInU^ 

of ihe inference liiipuJTOi' tfiiib Srt flf';(»TOi t6 ^inXXar *ol (t4] ^ttc*, asd 

suggests ihal ihe *fi!off of even a pure pleasure maj* divpUf degnct 
without ceasing; id br the rufoc tliai il is, or becoming a4||H«w, 



tokm, ] 

oA -y^ ^ adti) ffufificTpfa] Thcsc word» seem to mc to 
that AriBiotle is not ihinking oT the mixed plcdstir«a In tblc Mcdm, 
AS most of Ihe comiLit-ntaLors »up]ToNe, but of tbc p4ire jileoujiro 
which iuvoU^ *fy«T,>ia Of proportion {^PhtL s* C). AnaioUc, usin^ 
for the occaiiion Pbtonlc hngnage, points out Uiat tbe de^nic 
prt^nioTk which conntitules a pure pleasure nray be reaU^«d txA 
mairtoifted in different ways, just as ibe bftlance of health or Ttitse 
may be effected by many diflTrren! arranpemems of the eleocnifl 
which are orgaiuai^d- Grant secrus to me in be wron^ vhcn he 
say» in his noU; here — ' evrn the mixed pleaAuiei, aajs ArisioClc, 
admit the idea or proportion (frv/»;<frp^).' 

{ 4. riXik^i' T« t^Y^^^ rM^TvC^ Plato, Pk^i^nt 53 C-54 C 
see noEcft on vii, 1 j. 3. AiiHtoilL-'& argumem agalmt the view that 


HOOK X: CHAP^ Zl ^ 4. S< 


pkasiiTT fs Sk «iV<j>nE le — If pleasure la a ' moLion,' it must be ^w'ek Ll7>ft'>9> 
or jA'tt', Call wc apcat of plciwurc as qukk or slow ? Wc may 
pus into fl pleasurable slate qukkl^ or slowly; but the pleasure 
flCIUAlI/ fell is not quick or slow i sw Phyt. k. i. tjj b, 8 for ih« 

three kLnds q{ rj^i^air — {l) 4 '"^ ROinZ=^iSy'hi'imaix '^ (3} q fqD nDCQi'^ 

utl <4 ^^ 14^ i>J^Tf\t, oto' T^ Tou it^riioif, irpftf £XX»] The «Jff>wi b. 38^ 
is hfre the umv^r&e, aa one whole, moving with the npbmt aifpnint, 
or iniAm'F)r a*^i^t, \.\\tt ncXuiJKi^iu of vljich is uiiiforni) iiiiiJ lljerefore 

OLnnot be cancel ciiher quick or eIow, when regarded per it — nff 
iti^v, although fTpiff ^TXXfl — compart wilh the proper morions of 
ihe innrf pliiiciiry s^iLtrcs — i: ja t^ulck. With orui* t^ tbu *Ai*iev we 
inuat under^Und owe iim rix'>* '^ SfioHur^i nff avtrtf. On the 
irotion of the 7rji«TOf otV""^^ ^*^ ^' Coth ii. 6. 588 a, 13 r*/Tl U r^» 

fcn' rotf^s on iii, 3, 3. The <onirient of Mtch. Eph. on the present 

pa^UgC is-— ft Zi iV7fli iiriiv t\ /*fl iTPVif KUfTtnt otr'} miff uvr^r ti 
0irt9r /f^4fl»j^*TOi, oU*' ^ row dir^ioi', Xiyw t,vv t^fffvni ni/Tfiv r^v JirXat^ 

airwijVj HOI ir^F uXXc. 

i'koiiure has ti^j^vf ^ f^vn^c ntliher u^ l83. 

ijodflcai] "to become plt'ased' = fxwn^i\\\tai «Jc t^v »j^n^» • M. 
1173 h, a, 

flfitrftuj *EO have ihe feclitig of pleasure '=AfpT<u' nw' ofini»fb,l_ 


{ S^] In lIiiB KctioT) Ansiotle dealft vlih the vicvr th%1 ^<WJ is b, 4. 
a yiwait, in the same wiy at he has dealt wilh the view that il 
ts a tivfja^9, If It is a yivta^^f hir argues, ihcie must he reriAin 
defimte elcmcnt^t which ihi» particular -^ivt^is callci ^Ai^^^g or^^nibCb ; 
and Ihe diaorganiwng procesR, or ^flopo, conlrar)f to this y^tfic*— 
which il 'kimrj jcconling to ihe PlatonisLs, foi thi.7" Ha/ i>^ y/nfliF ^ 
^ct^, n>^m 1^ AviTif ^^pd — will Icavc these sontc elcmenu in ticpor- 
otioD for our in»pei:Ltufi. Where aie the demenu in question f 

4i6 MOOK X: CHAP. 8: W 5* **• 

UT9b.4. Thr^arrTiot In be found. Tlkc term ynmc la Dscd iHch mMc 
TV^rd for ici real rncamn^ :ks the Icnn ir^f-i is when applied to 
diai which iA nciihrr quiclc nor slow. It U to be CA/cfulif xwic4, 
tllUt KitX tt 7^H(rir ^ i^ovh, ravrou ^ >niif ^^opd in llie nUUcai^nl of ibe 

PiatonUtf^. Sec Grsni'a now dtf J<v. to which I ftm sioclk iDdebCcd. 
Micli^ Efilv bas th<* following commenc on ihte leciioa— ^J v^ ul 

4 4dw4 T'M'T't 4f> V ^ '^ArSr rir iral pfrojSoX^ lir ruor fu n, vf ^ ^'Xmt- 

tA f(f Q, oiiic Sort yaft aCrt ro nWinoituMvitt imI firraftaXXav ml ytyrvfinir 
Tt Aid ^Aor^c, offri rrXor n f7r 6 nXrvTQ f ^Aoi^, &nrrp 4 iyjliwoif tU iV 

itrri ytiitiTit (iXX' ivipytia, »t £■^{'1, fll il hifr^uu rikif turlv jiJJl' «^ 
^l fTf^f^i TfXij . . . g^Ji firri yAp ^dptJv r< rov ;)[pi^vou caff Ap ^Urat h f 
Av fi^at ^v «V r^ i^So^'vft if ^^i^, to ^ Jr Sw^ft r^If fU^n rvi ifirw 
rAii^r n val &\6tXrtfua' &p irii y/wtrU ^frrtM AXK' ftipyttt. Sc^ <■ 4- 4- 

b.7. ie,] The foUowin^ pn!<CTgc in the PMi^m (^t E-3J B) pre- 
seMft r|i« (loclrirKT criticised in this tcflion* u well at that diipoced 
of in i 5 — ^^' "fiV^ ^eV irnu \vtiit ta\ Xmf ; nPfi- Hat. HL *1EW4 

tj>0f>pn vai ^ifTTfj [iiiTi XvT'(j^ ^ Ai Tmr vypn^i w/ika' <^ {■j^t^U* >1I||^Vp 
Ctfu^K fAor^. Sr^Apicns 0/ V af uil AtiAt'Lt ^ iropd ^^tr. raO vff^|aK 
TTD^i;, Xi^ ; KPTd ipviTit fl' ^ miXtjr ondSovrTi rr ■«' 4'^'^ 'V^^'T' HKL 

fTTj^ii Adftri' rtu\u' A 4L( TdtrAr uniif^uy lul AknRj7tK»(«'nar ( K4rri ^vn* 
Wp6Q6wif, ptiiV fwV rovTD i^Jt«('7fBit T^i* fiir ^Aip^v Xv«7)i- *Hi, r^r fl **i 

b. U. a^ SoitC tij * but Dobod)- thinks flO<' Amiotlc apcakt bere u i 
Plato djtfcrci]^ Ploto i% entirely' al on« i^iLh Aristotle m holdiog <ff 

pk-asure 10 Tx? pnydiicaL 

whai Phio meant afli^i ^l i\]iy o[ie tnU & very OiplKHn crilk 
can sec tltatt wbcn Pluto sa>'» <'A(uA'; dr rrXi/^v<ru y^yn^'t^ fAwj. be 
merely uEes an abbrevialwl ^jipr^Bsion, ais when we stf ' woiJi U 1 
[ilpa^Liiip to him/ nieanmg ihni work gives him plf^sure. Agali, 
when AriHlOtlc says b' > 3 ^ >^fa <^ q^ Affjttl '>*>*]'4«ra« /v rw* n^ 
viv rj>«^i' Xwfftff jiol qflorw', he merely tUiei what Pbito tuaudf 

BOOK X: CHAP. 3: 55 6-9, 


ConnIiHlrn(I)r malcrairis — iliat llur pU-aaurc? which arr AmaXmmmt^ or 117s b.U. 
dmiXX<iy»l XiTTTjs arc those of ailiag and drinking; but th^ii they 
arc noi ihe only pleaBtirea — ther« are pufe pleasure* xvhich are nc5t 
aiMucijilt^d ^^iJ] pa^iri 4DcI wani t— >£i slateiiicnl wliicii Atr^lullt' uiakr'i 
in jl 7 as if iL were an originii] correction of hia ov-n noccnjitnicd 
bj' the oiiifsidcdnesB of the Platonic ih^ciy, ^hich he allows hU 
fCaJcis lo infer took its idea of fill plcrasiirc Trom the riwiTr^ipwcrii of 
cutiiifc Eind drinktnj;. All this etrikea one a« bcm^ ver}' dliiin- 
gMjuoiu; ur>les>i indeed ii be ihir, not Pliilo, but S|>t'tis[pi>u^ Is 
criticised, flniJ that Stjeusippu* cnnrclj iffnorcd ihc ' pure pleaauro' 
of hi& Tnaitpr — whieh is unlikelj". 

Ttffct^pefof] Spen^d coiij<elure3 ■w**>v><'»*». 2*!Uer **<if**ro<, By- 
water (/i^V) yjud^tMc- I hanlly think that anj alreradon la 
ncccSMr)'' The paiiillel — ' pleasure goes «ltli fillmg. Just as pam 
ffocs ''^' with cutlmjt: ' — seems to me to be satitjfaciory enougb. 

j 7, ol T< (laffrj^umnaf] ' the plcafinrefi of knowledge.' That b- ia> 
FlaLd recoK'niFicd an fidlir la ArJsioilc the exblcncc of pleasures 
which do noi arise out of pain is £hoxvn by the pasttoge in the ^tp, 
(583 tq) qufik'ii alow Jn note on x. a. 5, a. 1 1 ^tW, The 
puKige in the Philtt'us {^-^y B) in which the xftJopfll f^y^i are 
described js a^ exphcit as th;it i[i tlie Jifp^ in ite doctrine Ihat they 
ate rTXbiriit<'-^t m^f r« rd itii>d Xfyrf^irm ;fpv^am *ril v*f\ rh eximart^ 
jiul rif ivitZtv rAf rrXfttrrni, mil tii tiiv ^$6Yyii*v, cal 5(/n tAt /i^&tUs 

tOkvn. It will be niHiced ihai Tlaio siilt ?<j*ak» heic of cr-ruin 
' pure pleasures ' as n^tipvaui : ao also in Jfup. 585 U oiflflCj- irX^jj^lr' 
l»> $ rf fjrt^i^r fatrakuft^avitiy urn i yove ht^w — although die lerni^ in 
v^ich the pleasures of smell are dcsciibi^l in 584 B, I'ioui/PQs ^i^^- 
X^fo* r& tuytSos yty^aimn, 9eem to he inconsistent wJch the vicw that 
they :iTe ^'J'/rjfi/ ir},r}t>^<nit. The truth is thai we must not pnrgs 
ihr Hind n%riitviiti( as applied to 'pure ple^i^ures': die esH^nuil 
part of Plaio'i dieory cf the ' pure pleaBurcfi ' is not afiecled by iho 
retcmion of the wcrd. 

}al ^. vii. 11,5, b,ao. 

{ 9- ^ eirnj \iyai rL« If] Thill jfl Byvicer's correction for b. 98^ 

Bel:ker's ^ ourw Xiyntr* *Xtr. 

aI \L^r ifi<i¥ai iklptraC ■Etfii', oQ pj^r ^ird yt ToJroir] ' The plea^uf es b. ae. 
vol.. [i. K c 


SOCK X: CflAP. 8; {§ 9^13. question sxc in ihcmMlvc* choioewonlif, altliou^h oot vb^n 

vi>*ed wuh reference lo the aourcc from which they ar« A^rx'^d/ 

Williams ; /.*. as//ftwurrj they arr ilcHiubi^-. bul nut as Jk^f/flf/- 

yW— or, as he put^ it more dcdrly in ihc ncit section, tfa crc aft 

good and ferf pleasuTes, 

r to fii^ 

cally^' Tlu>i L5 :lie best expre>.iimi of Aniitotit'i aniwfr 

n^Kr0*/iaiTar t^c cinti^iAirrrtruv TVt ^&oi/&¥'. iind ill SUpjlOlI oT lh( 

doctrine dm s ck pressed he poliitA oui ({ io)thAt difTcrcfil cluMS 
of persons have ihcir own plcivtircE which othcn cannot «fln 
into: tJi&i (E ir) the pl<rasurc u]iLi,h the PUttirrcr AiEmit gniojftD 
hia Patron is a very different sort from that vhkh »we>eicn9 the 
intercourfic of virtuous FricnHs; anil (| ii) thai shcn wc bccOTW 
mca wc put awa> childish plc^iatirca 4.s unwojtJiy of us. To itrt 
considerations i* added ihe remark ({ i*) tbai indeed there iW 
many pl«aviire^ v/hich we contid^r li lo be our dury to avoid, and 
do Avoid ; fofn after all, wc Are more independent of (jJca^uic clitn 
might, on a superficial vtcw, be fitip posed— there ire many ictmis 
find funcibns perrormed by un inMejviuienifj of the pleMUff 
attending tljcnin This la«i rcmailc t dv uoi regard a» naack «iih 
the special object (a3 some comirrncaton; suppotc) of shovLoj; 
that plwifture i? noi rh*- Sttrnmam Jitttum^ Inn >t flowing DataraDj 
from whal (lie wrilci' has jii*t s^tid ibom the poncf we haw of 
detaching ouraeKes from certain pleaeareA. Our power ol 
detaching ourselves from these particular |Jeaiurei ii, of cotir(e,a 
special case of the law of our naturc» thai faociJon b pHcury tfJ 
pleasure only attendant. 

t>, 33. S 11. 4 4^<^1 ^ dcKribed iu vtii. 3. {| 6, 7. 

UTl a. 3- S 13- '■Jf «T^ n ^iXtcrra^ CCC, NC, and Cambr read «« ■&■«■ 
^idhffrro^ an oi'vious bLunder (although Zell U'\t*t to make letue <ni 
of it I ' significat opinan quidem pocros maxitnu x fcsudila pcrirea. 
«d deelpi in hoe ") which occurs elsewhere— /.^. in ^.jV. I ^. S^* 
readt» alvirai, in ni. 3-13 M** iradii oXoma, in ill. 5. 17 Kl* and 
readflotrdi, and in iv. 2. ii K^ CCC, aind Cambr. re^^U^ti.. 

«,8. j 19. Sri pjr oJSir , , , ft. ir £r] bracketed by RuaOBlKr, 

thin\« thai hJilierro Arltrotle has argued rather In la%ioar of, llttat 
againvt, tbc view of Eudoxus which isaLca picuwc 

BOOfC v.- Cfijp. 3: ^ 13. 


mum Bmt/m^ am! that If, in \\ 11 stnd 13, ht tr^mv I0 tirj^c U7A«. s. 

3i^in»1 ihc view, lie mcitlj' goes ilie length of poinlmg out ihal 
not only ore ^mc pleasures not good, but some ^ood things circ 
not p!*a*iir<'*- Suii'oiihl folfows Ramtinicr in bucketing the wortlfi 
before U!t. ] ^ci: no ^ulTicicnl rciison foi suspecting them. The 
difltinctioii drawn at ih^ cud of \ it between vital lunctionR nncl 
their aiienrfani pleasures »s exactly tliat ofwhirh so much is made 
later uii (sec x. ^^. 7). and which enables ArisEotle to disiinjcui^h 
between t^Aai^orio, or the Chief Gofxl^ and even the* higbcBl 
c^prrirncc of i^Aom^. Ac cording! 7 the abrupt ur* ^iv a^v *>Ct* ru^y^hv 
Q fiJiufi, seems tc» me lt> be U\ favour of the gcnuini:iicss ai ihc 
claitf*- The Tcm:irk f 1 2, 3. 4 Tttfi iroXXo rt (nrouB^i* . . . . a. 8 dir' 
oirAi' ij^iwi, thoiigli, as 1 btlifvr, diri?»:lly sugytwei! hy ihe terms in 
which the reasons for supposing Jri *lAtt ha^itn^atf a\ iiltufni have 
been suied, is, as soon as made, lecogulfted by iho wrilrr aa having 
a bparinR on ihe other (jiicsticui (ouly itiridciuuUy, v\ik\ as ji-'t in- 
aufficictjily anawercd in Xh *• 2^* whether ^^7 in die Summitm 
Bomim. Hence «(!" r^ij^Af ^ fSo^ «4Cdpes him, ahhoiigh c^minJy 
no ttuflldtni [jrocfof ii. ha^ as >ei been broujfU fonvaid. In a- 9 
ntftt^ifr which the sensc demooda i» given by L^ and r; other 
auihondes (including the Paraph,) tead nya$&¥. 


A ft 01 HINT. 

JUw bt mi it^r/ OfiatM /rtm rJtt Ivpitmug^ and i>y thtit 94 m^ thi ttvt 
m^tmt ^/VtiutireplttiHtr. 

^Inmrr ii liit SaOt^-rffmcrMftx imtiWMe.atd fier/ctify rtaliud ai any 

itmJKf^t in tiii/,aHd Ittvanir an tn*!, and ffjttt , net >» it J fart t [t g. nt>r irt 

lii^trtnt xTvmntl.uHi/ tkni tiif" if*t*£jS.-aJi/ /rem mi ormeAir artii froia ikr 
pfJiifif Mortca M tekith fAiy Iv/ettff^.ar of anf memtnit hai—i/ la ^1 miitJ 
^f4wf*{i^ at aii^-ent/ in rtiptil */ itt \vk<slf /furatton, Ur. en/y fMirtivtd 
Qtnfr¥ttJi H'Mtifi ftAHit h't 'iomt to ill tnd' m attmiiug tk* of-jfct ^r.g. fA* 
dn^MtuW tgm/ii) fir tfkt'tA it ttttrftd. Of Pifmnin, m t&4 t^atrary, t^ 

I e > 


BOOK X: MAP. 4; § u 

tfa^ /tfift^ »^ wtfivv, U fi^i «/ amy mmuttt jw ftki it~^ Jfmrhd 

iiy ' rV jWRH irtiurrA. fr^roprr nptf^ihi ferfiOiat j/i'/j jioAvrv^ 

iff itH ehjtet : /tr/f^rfy. «J«, i/i f^MdtMv ^fhig pt*ftii. it m€tti tritk af<^ 
t^/til; an/t^ ij fe^ft<tiy. then fnitA M« fiiiMsf fUamrt. Sttrj fim^im 
of rfjfis aixd ttnittntamiiKr -Id/ iU «n pttatmn. Tto pitaam fffidi 
iht fmntdon—not, huvrnttr. at crjpinwiui t^i,^ tktir ainUfm<4^' frrfia' * 

"f^rfftir'' fuuffitm^ai tki /rim^fTf t/ Ar^A ^t^itf' tkt fvH^fi k/miik. ,^ 
*(*/«/ ^r*J /Mt^tly i^ fvr/vi if ikfir ki/tJ, ^nj ftrffUy ftiiitd le Hi4 •fc*', 
t^trs wi'U 4''ii-ii/j hf f^tkmty in tAt fH/nlitt t fU /WlMflV* ^/nft^ti^' ik 
funttkn. tiil u iki faniUy Am ^ iii ftr^iammt tttAjiUtvtt hai 4$ ma/id 

As funff Iff f^f'rf forarjfy $t /trfittJy n/MfJ M pt^m tiyttt tAtrt wOk 
ftMiVf4 in /kf furufitH. fiut matii ttu^jvr u vwci. /Tf AHJUd/^^n^UM 
f<rfr*t rv^at^t cifntinunufy : ftmcthn /of^s. anJ vilA ii fk^jmrt it JtJLi 

/< fKny h cAtfH^h^that tht rmum why aH ilrin ttfirr fiS^wun is tkM ^ 1*^ 
tift—ihe fiitrfttnnnufi ttffuaffi«m,vtkitk tu rviehtvutn.ijpaftriMtjfikaan, 
We taitf HCt Of fftvt^t gp inti* lAtfKrslion tnh^^r ti ti/fft^H9tr ^ f%mm 
(Aat Bv tMJk Lift, tffM' lAr nir sf Lift Ikat <» tttk PUnmrf : ^mw^ Xm htm 

witActii f^HtiSan (AtT€ ii nrpteuitrtj aitd OKty ftmttkm ii fts^ndifib 

1174 & 19, § 1, ti V itrtlf f| WtUv ti] noi the fame U rf i^n boI in*Jr n: 
%cc note on \ 7, rg, a, jt, 

ilisrin^-uished from a irii-fifftf; tec AtrKB. 6- 1048 Ix i^ >qq, okJ 
Bonii/i. im|Jomxiit note, [l 356. 'tn^jytifl, fctiicrly *o called, b 
action or funciion which conlaios in i:-<idf the cod for ibe take of 
which it i¥ pcrformcct, and docH not, like *ln\ott, c^iM lo be vtvn 
[is ciij lias Lfccii aUaiiied- In Uit- ^^%k of a m'^qj^it M;ch iL^i oi'aiU- 
^7«4r» Nvhich hn^ ah cKlcmnl cnd^ n'^ alnU, and c<aic« irli^n Ikil 
cnii is AEtntnod, v^ cannot Giy d^ n^nAn^ai ml ^mA^^fmr, u ve 
cjin bay £fiO <«rl /(UfHiup Jtfft in the cue of jjpcKrcr, whi^ is sn Mpyna 
SlrJclty so caU-iii, A niti^inf \h Jripyria /tre tit, drtJltt fwrrH (^Er dia. 
fi- 5- 41 7 =< <^)- ^vherv'js iiL an /i^p^ui virictlj to caUc4 fnw^|« 
TV tAvi (v1/<A e. 6- J04A U 3^]. Sudiaii^W^u) is pcr^l (vfXvk), 
or rcalt«cfi iie ^inl («'**.() at ^jvcrj inom«m o! it* duration — of 4tn- 

Pt>hV v^Mv rtXtia Jtn! (/". ,V, X. 4. 1}' ^ 60^, £f. >>, 178 g. f ^' 

SOOK X: CHAP. 4; ^4 !, 1, 


O- 6. 1048 b) rff«rrcd lo al the beginning; of tim noL«runs in pari 1174 «.u. 
lu follows, according to (he CTncnilci] vereion ^vcti by Bonlu, 

Pi ^^1 4 ■ ■ vp0 uftd nut «vi|nL4«. 1111 ^^v>( wrl ifa^^rr^'if, 4ul K'tt 'ol 

1$ ft ' perfect iclisc ') Auj rvJaL/w^nt kvI i^BnuiJi^inv' «J 0f ;i,j^, t3fi Jr 

i^ 9fJ rit >iJi' in»^fl*»c ^^1* fti» fl* Vj«^v»iW, iiuir<i yii)! (fv^iru ^nX^f, 
tf jl^nLTm} ^Pf^ifif, j^aAi<rjF| fv'DAJ/^Tinf. vbriri <)') iii>'^4rrtr> Km ariXtlt yt* 
4>C yip Afia {ia^i(*i uai iiifi'iAiwtr. oi'fA' oti/oSvptl ml ^imJiiftifinir, iti-^i 
^lynrot rnii yiyvr Jj (eihi t« icul KitiVrfiiEtp, JAX' trtitui' Ail lani ra) 
iDTiTiH^iirr' iiiptun ^4 nit\ Zp^ Jifta t^ olrd^ %nl innl aral infdrjittt. rifi^fuv 
eiu rmtiCrrjr iv*jiyriinf ^ayN, Vmi'hjv BJ thnfffif^ (^, ollbO Jl/if^. O. 8> 

1059 *, jj-iO50b. I. 

■ntouTw V f«iK« ftai Vk ^Bqi^] r '. ^aoi^ Is liJtt Jviflytia ^% dcicnbed a< li^ 
ill A^f/. a. 0, That he does not idmttfy it, huwcvci, with ivipy^ia is 
pUIn from the cxpltcit statcinent in ch- 5, $ 7- Mich. Kph. htii the 

foliOWing COmmetU here* — iV *<faffTM yap yruvrA ip^* riXnAv iWi <mI nor" 
ivipytitf (A^tiTTiuf '^ ydfr o- x/"'^ '^'^ ^^^ ^' rV^jB!;iiy, iiAA* I'v 'fn^ErT^ rS/r 

fXij yAp J^fj R<Jpfi7Ti, i»j1 f^ tlva\ oirri}^ oiiK ArtXis' Ls elv if bpaiUt wna 
■at ^ i7da>^. o£Bt yA|a ^ ^^on^ o'ui' ffBOfi-id tis (uti "tui »frl ffti-flfffii* 
■rn>>Aiy ^J^nfuf flrjUJ /I'fin'iirfjc t^( ffpnri/wr ^ brvripa ■Viyi'fmTi, till >ipr' 

j a, rat tAovc nv^] * for ihc sak? of totnc end/ f^, cKLcrnAl lo l ho 

Aler ^ oZxoSD^ic^f ical TcXiiA Stbc mt^cn] oS ^iirail ThlG 18 
BywuiPf'!! ctirrectidji tit Bekker's of™ 4 <*V<j3ofi'«i5 w^'ia, oruv flroipiffTi 
9I <^itrait and, J ihinU, a preat impiovcmcnt The «* before 
TiXflo 'le^nifi 10 (JiiaL oti\y in KK For 'ifirnflo^Lfiiii] EinisuLer conJcc* 
(urct pfimAfi^i^Dir. This \s pUuslblc; fyC J^A e. 6, rjutiij^Ll in uotc 
on X- 4. 1 a. 1 4, Khcrc wc Cmd [o-^i^fffu i^ihtvta ^^Amiv <tUMf^9%f. 


BOOK X: CflAP. 4: J «- 

UT4>.flO. M^ K:^ oJiHTS^tij)— ft bte Conn meaning the nnc tbing i4> 

or D!<flfir^/a, Thr ?araph., In cip^ainin; the pr«4eal pcuia^, iiB?t 

(= ihc 'ir/ cr buildidjt^ ii not quUc in place berc, where we ue tt 
ihink fif :hc pr/tcfitai building, P^-rhaps ihe a'ȣap^ rdiM of 
llje ^ISS, is A i:orrupLio]i of cfTitoduMfa, jval r«X*ir). 

Bywalct, ihc mcAEiing being-*'it (ilf. itiDiion) ii pcfTect, do^ 
vicivcd citbcr in itic v/holc time of iu duration, or ai ibe TftOTDCOi 
wtvn il rvicFie^ ill L'nd/ Tluit meining is qtiilc ^aUftfaclorjr ; fcoi 
1 am Tiot fit aLI »urc that the text on which it rellm i» vouikL LV 

M*^, and B' haVL- ^ ^V Jram ^ r^ Jk^xH* n^. lasACAd of tbt 
Ktconcl ^ nf Prtker's irnt, O^ and Pnrii- 1417 have J^ vbkh 
ihcv (iinil aflcr ^Innvn. ThiH mi^pliccii ^'j vr4& perhaps tha cr^ 
of the second f, 1 his ftuppoT;iLion fcems tc be supported \iy K^ 
Cambf^ and R*. whifh, cmdttng tilj mdih 0** and Paris, 1417 
after lfn)"i, read 1 not B^ before twvt^i* Of rcoortled MSS. onjlf 
CCC. NC, and B' have hoth B* (after a*i»T.) *j«^ Bekkers second f 

Thrr MS. aiiFlioriry for 7 ir ffrnm hi} r^ XP^^ 1 r^vr^ U ihot 

i^tcidcdly weak. The reading oT L'*, M^ and B* — t tV t«qtn ^ tf 
;(/»u(^ Ttp^^i — flccepEttl by Mid^kt, retjuiros us to explain f as 
= Hrrtt : ' moiion it pctfea whrn fi bns rfTf rif-d its cm! — /Act/ «; Il 
ia perfect in respect of the whole tinic ucetJcd for cffccling Jt& c«l* 
— rf xp^'9^''*^ ^J^Sr ^3 Michclet explains, equit^cnt ii>w^jffArf