(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Notes on the Somali language : with examples of phrases and conversational sentences"

(>'.r]^s OK 



SIACk 
AN?^HX 



B: 

o\ 

0! 
0! 



2 


5 
3 




3 






i 












^^j^i^. 



^M^ 



^ 






:Vl') 



"is 



M:' 










'^^^'Mi 



'%S 


















v-.f -v :.-A.T-; 




M^^^^iM^^^ii^ 



NOTES ON THE 
SOMALI LANGUAGE 

WITH 

EXAMPLES OF PHRASES AND 
CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES 



J. W. C. KIRK, B.A. Camb. 

LIEUT, king's AFRICAN RIFLES 



HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE 
AMEN CORNER, E.C. 

NEW YORK : 91 & 93 Fifth Avenue 

1903 



OXFORD : HORACE HART 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



PREFACE 

This work does uot profess to be anything 
more learned than its title inaplies. During the 
present campaign in Somaliland, while raising 
and training some of the Somali levy companies, 
I have noted down all the commoner and most 
useful words and phrases that I found to occur 
during my interviews with the N. C. O.'s and 
men both on duty and off. These I have here 
presented in a continuous form, aiming at the 
most natural order in which a stranger would 
be able to pick them up, and at the same time 
observing what is more or less the ordinary 
grammatical sequence. 

It is hoped that such a collection of conversa- 
tional phrases and notes may be of use to 
subsequent travellers, and to civil and military 
officers in the country. 

The excellent Grammar of Frs. Evaugeliste 

- 108S025 



vi PREFACE 

and Cyprien has been of the utmost assistance ; 
in fact, without the benefit of their enormous 
labours, it would have been impossible for me 
in so short a time to transcribe the words and 
phrases as uttered by a Somali. 

The greatest difficulty to contend with is the 
pronunciation ; and the Somali juiigli is as yet 
so unaccustomed to Europeans and their modes 
of speech, and above all finds it so hard to 
believe that a European would try to talk his 
language, that, unless the pronunciation is very 
exact, he will practically refuse to try to under- 
stand one. In time, however, the Somali s will 
become accustomed to our attempts to master 
their difficult sounds, and in fact in trying to 
interview strangers I have been able to use 
my askaris as interpreters. 

I had not intended to introduce any gram- 
matical or syntactical paragraphs, but it seemed 
that the sentences alone were of such little use 
for Iniilding up others with different words, 
that some grammatical explanation was abso- 



PREFACE vii 

lutely necessarj^ I have confined myself, how- 
ever, to the most concise and general rules, 
leaving the exceptions for further study. 

I have not attempted to introduce any but the 
Roman characters, though some sounds cannot 
really be represented by them. The cerebral d, 
referred to by Frs. Evangeliste and Cyprien, 
is sometimes pronounced as d and sometimes 
like r, though never exactly like either. I have, 
however, used these letters so as to show in 
each word which of these two sounds tends to 
jDrevail. 

Similarly the Arabic letter ' ghain ' is very 
much exaggerated, and these exaggerated gut- 
tural asj^irates I have tried to distinguish as ch 
(hardly a guttural), kh (sharp guttural sound), 
and gh (hard low guttural sound). The long- 
drawn aspirate seems to be best expressed pho- 
netically by the double letter hh. 

The tribes from whom I have picked up these 
phrases are chiefly the Habr Yunis, and Habr 
Toljaala from the Burao district. This may 



viii PKEFACE 

account for the different pronunciation of several 
words, as compared with what is given in the 
Grammar mentioned above, especially in the 
case of the diphthong ai. Where this occurs in 
the above Grammar I have found the syllable 
in more than half the cases to be pronounced 
as a short y, or as d, or ei. 

I have not yet had time to compare the 
dialects of the Esa and Gadabursi tribes, or of 
the Dolbohanta or Ogaden, all of which will 
probably have considerable variations. 

There will probably be many errors, as my 
interpreter speaks but indifferent English. It 
must be remembered, too, that many apparent 
irregularities will be due to colloquial con- 
tractions. But I can only say that every word 
and sentence here has been tested successfully 
by me in actual conversation. 

Garrero, 

June 20, 1903. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 
Pkeface . . . . . . . . V 

PART I. 
Accidence. 

1. The Alphabet i 

2. Pronunciation and Accentuation . . 2 

3. Interjections 3 

Verbs. 

4. Verbal Particles 4 

5. List of Verbs of Motion .... 4 

6. „ „ Action .... 6 

7. „ „ Feeling, Thinking, 
Willing 8 

The Article, ^x. 

8. Use of Article 9 

9. The Indefinite Article .... 9 

10. The Definite Article . . . ,10 

11. Linking Consonants . . . .10 

12. Examples . . . . . .11 

13. Independent use of Definite Article . 11 

14. Demonstrative Pronoun . . . .11 

15. Independent use of Demonstrative 

Pronoun 12 

16. Possessive Pronoun . . . -13 



X CONTENTS 






Suhstanthes. 


] 


PAGE 


17. List of Personal Articles of Kit, &c. 


14 


18. „ Native Articles . 


. 


15 


19. ,, Physical Features 


. 


17 


20. „ Animals 




19 


21. „ Trees and Plants . 


. 


20 


22. „ Parts of the Body, 


&c. 


21 


23. ,, Relationships, &c. 


. 


22 


24. Formation of Plural 


• 


• 23 


Adjectives. 

25. Use of Adjectives . 




25 


26. List of Adjectives . 


. . 


26 


27. Numerals, Cardinal 


. 


26 


28. „ Ordinal . 


, 


28 


29. Other expressions of 


Number anc 


[ 


Quantity . 


• 


28 


Time and Place, S^-c. 






30. Nouns .... 




30 


31. Adverbs .... 


. 


30 


32. Conjunctions . 


. 


31 


23. Interrogatives 


. 


32 


34. Adverbial Prepositions . 




32 


35. Other expressions of Time 


Place, &c. . 


33 


36. Prepositions, ' from,' ' to,' 


'with.' . 


35 



CONTENTS 



XI 



PART II. 

Syntax. 



yj. General Rules 

Pronouns. 

38. Simple Form . 

39. Prefixes . 

40. Demonstrative 

41. Imperative 

42. Indicative 

43. Interrogative . 

44. Examples 

Verbs, 

45. 
46. 

47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 

51. 

52. 

53. 

54. 
55- 



Elisions and Contractions 

The Root 

Classes . 

The Infinitive 

The Participle 

Moods and Tenses . 

The Perfect Mood . 

The Imperfect Mood 

Table of Moods 

Persons . 

The Future Tense . 

56. Table of Conjugations 

57. Negative— Perfect Mood 

58. ,, Imperfect Mood 

59. Interrogative . 



PAGE 

. 36 

37 
37 
38 
38 
38 
39 
39 

40 

40 
40 
41 
41 
42 
42 
43 
43 
44 
44 
45 
46 

47 
48 



xii CONTENTS 




PAGE 


60. Passive 


49 


61. Auxiliary Verbs .... 


50 


62. Irregular Verbs .... 


50 


63. Examples of Irregular Verbs . 


51 


64. The verb weh .... 


53 


PART III. 




Examples of Sentences. 




65. Simple Sentences .... 


54 


66. Common Particles, &c. . . 


58 


67. Relative Sentences .... 


61 


68. Comparative Sentences . 


64 


69. Orafio ohliqna .... 


66 


70. Conditional Sentences . 


68 


71. Military Terms and Phrases . 


69 


72. Orders for guards .... 


72 


Notes 


75 


Addenda 


79 



PAUT I. 

ACCIDENCE. 

I. The Alphabet. 

a, pronounced like a in Scotcli, ' man.' 

a, pronounced like a in ' cat.' 

a, pronounced like a in ' father/ 

b 

d (in some words combines t, h, r). 

e, pronounced like e in ' pen/ 

d, pronounced nearly as ai in ' pain.' 

f 

g, always hard. 

gli 
h 

hh, emphasized aspirate, almost a separate syl- 
lable. 
i, pronounced as i in ' in/ 
i, pronounced as e in ' eel/ 
J 
k 

kh, hard aspirate. 
ch, pronounced as ch in ' loch.' 
1 

B 



2 THE ALPHABET 

11, similar to Welsh II. 

m 

n 

o, pronounced as o in ' on.' 

6, pronounced as o in ' own/ 

oo, pronounced as o in ' ohli.' 

r, always rolled (iji some words combines (7, h, r). 

s 

t 

u, pronounced as ic in ' full.' 

"ii, pronounced as u in ' bun.' 

u, pronounced as oo in * moon.' 

w 

y 

ai, pronounced as i in ' mine.' 

ei, ey, pronounced as e, almost el. 

oi 

ow, pronounced as ou in ' mouth.' 

2. Tlie As]}irates and Gutturals hh, gh, kh, 
ch must be learnt by ear, and are very exagge- 
rated deep sounds, difficult to reproduce. 

The letters d, r are in some words hardly 
distinguishable. In the same word the letter 
sometimes may sound like d, sometimes like r. 
It appears to be formed by trying to utter a d 
with the tongue on the roof of the mouth. 



INTERJECTIONS 3 

The acute accent ' is used to denote the 
accentuation only ; the grave accent ' denotes a 
long full sound. 

3. Interjections. 
warya ! waria ! war', attracts attention, and 

commences all conversation. 
hoi ! hoihoi ! a shout to call a man. 
-ow ! same as last, added to a name. 
nabat ! Peace^ a greeting, 
'ss ka warren ? How are you ? 
dega ! colloquial exclamation. 
kdd, kodi, waiye, yes, well ? I see, &c. 
howrarsan, all right, 
wa run, quite right, certainly. 
ha, yes. 
maya, no. 
dochso ! be quick ! 
ghunyar ! ayar ! steady ! slowly ! 
haiya ! expression of encouragement. 
w^ mahai ? what is it ? 
wa sid6 ? what's this 1 Hullo ! 
'ss ka eg ! look out ! 
'ss ka da, never mind. 
ya? what? 
wayo? why? 



B 2 



4 VERBS 

Veebs. 

4. Verbal Particles. 

The following particles qualify the meanings 
of verbs : — 
si, before the verb, expresses motion away from 

the speaker. 
so, before the verb, expresses motion towards the 

sj)eaker. 
'ss ka, iss ka, before the verb, is best translated 
by the exclamation ' there ! ' 
Verbs endi.ng in -si, -i are causative. Verbs 
ending in -so denote doing something for one- 
self. 

i, me. 

u, you, him, it. 
In the following lists the 2nd pers. sing, 
imperative is given. To form the 2nd j)ers. plur. 
add a. In verbs ending in -o, -so the plural 
form ends in -da or -ta (§ 51). 

5. Verbs of Motion. 

imo ; pi. yimada (irreg.), come. 

kali, come here. 

soorod, come on (hurry). 

so raa, come with mc (follow). 

s6 ndcho (ndchda), come back. 



VERBS 5 

so diirug (durka), s6 do wo (dowada), 

come near. 
so wereg, come roimd. 
so gal, come in. 

£0 bah (so baha), come out of there. 
tag, go. 

soo (sooda), go on. 
'ss ka tag, go away. 
u raa, si raa, go with him (follow), 
nocho, dib u nocho, go back, 
si wereg, go round. 
gal, go in, enter, 
'ss ka bah, get out of there. 
durug, go further off. 
fogo (fogada), go to a distance. 
soo, walk. 
orod, run. 
ful, ride. 
bod, jump. 
arar, run away. 
bahso, escape. 
jog, wait, stop, 
'ss ka jog, wait there. 
jogso (jogsoda), stand still. 
dib u jogso, stand back, 
sara jog, stand up. 
ka, ka ka, sara ka, get up. 



VERBS 

fariso (farista), sit down. 

i kadi, wait (for me). 

u kadi, wait (for him). 

jir, be (exist). 

jog, be (be present). 

oil (irregular verb), be in, be on, lie. 

jeso (jesta), turn. 

'ss ka rug, turn round. 

ghobo (ghobta), get to, reach (a place). 
IVaoisitive Verbs. 

joji, stop. 

kahai, move ofP, move away (persons). 

so kahai, bring here. 

fogei, move to a distance. 

u y^d, call, send for. 

ka d6n, look for. 

dir, send (a man with a message). 

u gei, lead, show the way to. 

kei, arouse. 

radi, track. 

dochaji, hurry. 

daf, pass. 
6. Verbs of Action. 
la kali, bring here, 
i (ka) ken, put (bring) me (there). 
i (u) si, give me (him). 
ka ghad, 'ss ka ghad, take away. 



VERBS 7 

so ghad, fetch away (go and get). 

so (ku) eli, bring (take) back. 

dib, give (hand over). 

u gei, take to him. 

gur, pick up. 

dig, 'ss ka dig, put down. 

sar, put on. 

shid, put in. 

s6 ('ss ka) behe, take off. 

hel, get, find. 

hai, have. 

haiso (haista), have got. 

heji, hokl. 

ghobo (ghobta), take hold. 

ghobso (ghobsoda), catch hold. 

da, ka da, si da, 'ss ka si da, leave, let go. 

sid, cany. 

kufi, drop (transitive). 

kuf, da, f\ill. 

illal, look after. 

tiri, count. 

fal, yel, ghobo, do. 

somei, make. 

damdi, finish. 

dil, strike. 

rug, turn round. 

akhalib, turn over. 



8 VEKBS 

mardji, twist. 

jid, difo (difta), pull. 

tiiji, press. 

goi, gogoi, cut (up). 

buri, burburi, break (up). 

lab, lablab, fold (up). 

hid, tie. 

fur, unfold, open. 

wanaji, make tidy. 

hagaji ('ss ku hagaji), make straight, correct. 

safei, adei, clean. 

btihi, fill. 

daloli, make a hole. 

dirir, 'ss dirira, fight, fight together. 

rer, load up. 

dubka so shid, make the fire. 

dubka bachti, put out the fire. 

od, hero 6d, make a zareha. 

ibi, ibso (ibsdta), sell, buy. 

gob, pour away. 

7. Verbs of Feeling, Thinking, Willing. 

arag, see. ghobo, remember, 

eg, look. ilo (iloda), forget. 

or, orso (orsoda), un, eat. 

smell. ab, abso, drink, 

machal, hear. duduni, taste. 



DEFINITE ARTICLE 



chosol, lauofh. 



maldi, tluuk. 



deh (irregular verb), issdeh, imagine, mean. 



say. 

sheg, tell. 

hadal, talk. 

weidi, ask. 

ku 61i, answer. 

did, refuse. 

bar, teach. 

baro (barta), learn. 

amin, believe. 

haucho, try. 

machal, yel, obey. 

ashtako, complain. 

ai', curse. 

fasahh, allow. 

garo (garta), under- 
stand. 



jaal, like. 

don, want. 

tasho, think about. 

ogho (irregular verb), 
know. 

hub, be sure. 

sug, expect, await. 

hanon, hurt (intransi- 
tive). 

seho, sleep. 

ka, awake. 

abi, bacho, be afraid. 

aran, be angry. 

alaal, be sorry. 

dulun, ill-treat. 

owin, help. 



Article, Pkonouns, Substantives. 

8. The Article must first be understood, since 
it is added to the noun, and in many cases 
alters the whole appearance and sound of the 
word. 

9. The Indefinite Article does not exist, the 
noun alone being used instead, e. g. 

jonia, a bag. nin, a man. 



10 DEFINITE ARTICLE 

Where tlie indefiiute article occurs with an 
adjective, or alone, it is translated either by 
repeating the noun, or by mid, e. g. 
mid kaleh i si, give me another. 
mid wein ka ken, put a big one there, 
kursi kaleh la kali, bring another chair. 
I o. The Definite Article is a suffix to the noun, 
and ends in either, -a, -i, or -u. 

-a is used if what is spoken of is actually at 

hand, or in front of the speaker. 
-i, -u are used when vagueness or absence is 

implied. 
The commonest form is -i. 
II. These suffixes are not used alone, but are 
linked to the noun by certain consonants, which 
vary according to gender and to the final letter 
of the word. 

Such linking consonants are : — 
Masculine. 

-k-, after any consonants except g, k. 
-g-, after g, k, i. 

-h-, after aspirates and vowels except i. 
Feminine. 

-t-, after consonants except d. 
-d-, after d, aspirates and vowels. 
(Note— Id, It become sh.) 



DEMONSTEATIVE PRONOUN 11 

12. Examples: — 

nin, nin-ka, -ki, ku, the man. 
busta, busta-ha, -hi, -hu, the blanket. 
biya, biya-ha, -hi, -hu, the water. 
nag, nag-taj -ti, -tu, the woman. 
miyi, miyi-ga, -gi, -gu, the jungle, 
mel, mesha, meshi, meshii, the place, 
tol, tol-ka, -ki, -ku, the tribe. 
sandiich, sanduch-ha, -hi, -hu, the box. 
warach, warach-da, -di, -du, the chit. 

biyahu (biyu) la kali, bring the water, 
biyaha ka ghad, take away the water. 
bustahi ? what about the blanket 1 
ninki me ? (§ 33), where is the man ? 

13. When the Definite Article is used inde- 
pendently, it requires one of the two following 
consonants : — 

if masculine, k-. 

if feminine, t-, e. g. 
ki kaleh ni6 ? where is the other ? 
ti wein so glad, fetch the big one. 

Plural : 

kudr kaleh m.6? where are the others ? 

1 4. The Demonstrative is similar to the definite 
article. 



12 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN 

The suffixes are : 

-an, this. 
-as, -a, that. 
These are the same for singular and plural. 

The linking consonants are the same as those 
for the definite article, e. g. 

dagah-has, that stone. 
mis-kan, this table. 
nag-ta, that woman. 
To make it more emphatic, the demonstrative 
is often added to the noun with the definite 
article, e. g. 

achalkakan, this house here. 
Or, the definite article may follow the demonstra- 
tive, but without the linking consonant, e. g. 
nimankana, these men here, 
nimankasi, those men there. 

15. The demonstrative may also be used 
independently with the consonants k, t. 
In this use it has plural forms, e. g. 
kuan, tuan, these. 
kuas, tuas, those. 
When this form carries with it any meaning 
of (quantity, the noun in-ta is used (§ 30), e. g. 
inta kaleh, the rest. 
intas waiye, that's all. 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUN 



13 



inta damdya, finish that. 
inta ka badan la kali, bring more than 
that (§ 68). 

1 6. The Possessive Pronoun has forms so 
simihar, and follows so closely the above rules, 
that it is given here. 

The definite article must be added to the 
possessive, either with or without the linking 
consonant. 

Possessive. 



English. 
my 



-ey-, -ai- 



Ariicle. 
.ga,-gi,-gu. 
-di, -du. 



-da, 



your 
their 



thy -a- 

his -is- 

her -ed 

our -en- 

-in- 
-od- 
oui" -aya- 

Examples : — 

banducheyga, my gun. 
abbahaga, thy father, 
shuchulkisi, his work. 
achalkdni, our house. 
bariskini, your rice. 
sortdda, their food. 



Definite article 
added without 
linking conson- 
ant. 

-ga, -gi, -gu. 



14 



LISTS OF SUBSTANTIVES 



kas wa kdygi (§ 66), that is mine. 
wa tadi, it is tliiue. 
magahis ? (what is) his name 1 
magaha ? (what is) your name ? 

17. Personal articles of kit, food, ^x. 
alabad-di, baggage, mindi-di, knife. 

property. muda-lii, fork. 

golup-ki, things. 
tambuch-lii, tent. 
niis-ki,table-ki, table 
kiirsi-gi, cliair. 



gogol-shi, bed. 
baldi-di, bucket, 
sirad-ki, lamp. 
sanducli-hi, box. 
khuful-ki, padlock. 
mufta-hi, key. 
joniad-di, bag. 
busta-hi, blanket. 
towel-ki, towel. 
dar-ki, clotlies. 
kofiad-di, hat. 
surwal-ki, breeches, 
kumis-ki, shirt. 
kiiba-hi, shoes, boots. 
massar-ki, handker- 
chief. 



fandal-ki, spoon. 
eiip-ki, cup. 
galas-ki, glass. 
seen-i, plate. 
charorad-di, bottle. 
dichsi-gi, cooking-pot. 
sal-ki, bottom. 
dab-ki, handle. 
kettli-gi, kettle. 
kitab-ki, book. 
ghalim-ki, pen, pencil, 
warach-di, paper, 
chad-ki, ink. 
fass-ki, axe. 
mejorifad-di, shovel. 
musmar-ki, nail, 
irbad-ki, pin, needle. 
diibba-hi, hammer. 
sofa- hi, file, 
fur-ki, cork. 



PERSONAL ARTICLES OF KIT 15 



suf-ki, rag, duster. 

sun-ki, strap. 

tar-ki, wire. 

kora-hi, saddle. 

hakuma-hi, bridle. 

ainan-ki, reins. 

durmad-di, bit. 

rikab-ki, stirruj). 

bir-ti, iron (and any 
iron tool, instrument, 
or part of anything). 

sor-ti, food. 

hilib-ki, meat. 

kibis-ti, bread. 

biya-hi, water. 

fud-ki, soup. 

usboh-di, salt. 



rei-gi, mustard, 
filfil-shi, pepper, 
bur-ki, flour. 
baris-ki, rice. 
siinkur-ki, sugar. 
haid-di, fat. 
godrad-di, vegetable, 

fruit. 
ano-hi, milk. 
burrad-ki, malup-ki, 

butter. 
usbah, usub, fresh. 
dugahh, old. 
hun, bad. 
chahowa-hi, tea. 
buri-gi, tobacco. 



1 8. Native Articles. 

Camel equipment. 

hdrio-di, loading mat (general name). 
kibid-di, loading mat (bark). 
harar-ki, ous-ki, loading mat (grass), 
hadig-gi, rope (general name), 
yel-shi, herio rope. 
hogan-ti, neck rope, 
suradherad-di, loading rope. 



16 NATIVE ARTICLES 

baid-di, breast rope. 

ain-ti, rope for the ' guri.' 
Watering. 

d51is-ki, long rope for drawing water. 

wadan-ti, skin bucket. 

gundil-ki, skin trough. 

baldi-di, European bucket. 

han-ti, large conical vessel for carrying 
water on the march. 

ajan-ti, small vessel. 

dil-shi, small vessel for milk. 

sopra-hi, gurbid-di, skin water-bag. 
Living. 

guri-gi, hut (made of herios). 

rdr-ki, village. 

lamado-di, big skin for * guri.' 
Clothing and equipment. 

maro-di, long white tobe. 

g6a-lii, half length tobe. 

mowis-ti, coloured waist-cloth. 

kuba-hi, sandals. 

waran-ki (ddr, gaban), spear (long, short). 

gashan-ti, shield. 

ghanso-di, bow. 

falad-di, arrow. 

gaboyo'di, quiver. 

bilowa-hi, knife. 



PHYSICAL FEATURES 17 

jedel-ki, wliip. 

masaula-hi, prayer-mat. 

wdso-di, small water-bottle. 

tusbah-hi, rosary. 

halal-ki, two large pieces of amber (charm). 

gordas-ki, leather strap for charm. 

katum-ki, ring. 

fas-ki, precious stone. 

farus-ki, blue stone {1 turquoise). 

lif-ki, marble (children's game). 

turub-ki, warach-di, cards. 

dabin-ti, trap. 

19. Physical features. 
miyi-gi, jungle. 
bun-ka, plain. 
ged-ki, dir-ti, tree, bush. 
dur-ki, grass (long and stiff). 
geda-hi, grass (pasture). 
bur-ti, mountain. 
ghumbur-ti, hill, 
tul-ki, heap. 

hatach-di, boran-ti, trench. 
god-ki, hole, 
tug-gi, river-bed. 
wadi-gi, river, 
bahal-ki, animal. 
nin-ki, man. 



18 PHYSICAL FEATURES 

nag-ti, woman. 

rag-gi, dad-ki, people. 

rer-ki, village. 

6d-di, zareba. 

dindimiid-di, ant-heap. 

amiid-di, earth. 

sisa-hi, sigo-di, dust. 

derigh-hi, hilin-ki, road. 

dagahh-hi, rock, stone. 

rad-ki, track, pug. 

er-ki, sk}-. 

chorahh-hi, sun. 

dayah-hi, moon. 

hedig-gi, star. 

darur-ti, cloud. 

dabdil-shi, wind. 

rob-ki, rain. 

unk6d-di, thunder. 

hilah-hi, lightning. 

hared-di, rain-water. 

darab-ki, dew. 

diib-ki, fire. 

khikh-hi, smoke. 

achal-ki, house. 

dar-ti, stone building, wall. 

biilli, low place where water collects. 

billli har^dleh, rain-water pool. 



ANIMALS 19 

20. Naims of Animals. 
hola-hi, nef-ki, cattle, stock, 
geli, camel (general term). 
aur-ki, camel (male, loading). 
hal-shi, camel (female), 
aurti, rati, the camels, 
ari-gi, sheep. 
wan-ki, ram. 
ri-gi, goat. 

faras-ki (genya-di), horse (mare). 
daber-ki, donkey. 
bochol-ki, mule. 
ogad-di, wild animals, 
libahh-hi, lion, 
shabel-ki, leopard. 
gududon-ti, lynx. 
harimad-di, cheetah. 
dinad-di, cat. 
waraba-H, hyena. 
eig-gi, dog. 

godir-ki (yir), koodoo (lesser). 
beid-di, oryx, 
sig-gi, hartebeest. 
g^renuk-gi, "Waller's gazelle. 
d6batag-ti, Clarke's gazelle. 
ddro-di, aoul-ki, beira-hi, Plateau gazelle. 
sagaro-di, dikdik. 

c 2 



20 TREES 

balungo-di, dol-ki, waterbuck. 

mar5di-gi, elephant. 

wiyil-ki, rhinoceros. 

j6r-ki, hippopotamus. 

gerri-gi, giraffe. 

dofar-ki, warthog. 

dayir-ki, monkey. 

fidmer-ti, bat. 

jir-ki, wallo-di, rat. 

mas-ki, jilbis-ki, abeso-di, abur-ki, sub- 

hanyo-di, snake. 
gungumad-di, lizard, 
shimbir-ti, bird. 
beid-di, egg. 
gori-gi, ostrich. 
gorgor-ki, vulture. 
tuka-hi, crow, 
badag-gi, duck. 
digirin-ki, guinea-fowl. 
abor-ki, ant (white), 
ghudanyo-di, ant (black). 

2 1 . Names of Trees and Plants. 

galol-shi, megag-gi, large thorn trees, 
sarman-ti, table-top thorn trees. 
gob-ki, dool-ki, dafarur-ki,tall thornless trees 
with small red fruit (edible). 



PARTS OF THE BODY 21 

derkdn-ti, euphorbia tree. 

adad-di, gum tree. 

didin-ti, myrrh tree. 

ain-ti, ergin-ti, two kinds of snake-like plants 

with milky poisonous juice, 
gasangas-ki, low plant with thick root-stock 

useful for washing and softening water. 
sabka-di, a low asclepiad with green edible 

fruit, covered with long soft tentacles. 
dir-ti, any tree or bush, 
lan-ti, branch. 
al^n-ti, leaf. 
ghodah-hi, thorn. 
jirid-di, root. 

ghorigh-hi, stem, pole, log, wood. 
ubah-hi, flower, 
jilif-ki, bark. 
maidah-hi, underneath layer of bark used for 

chewing, and making ropes and herios. 

2 2. Parts of the Body, dj-c. 



miyid-di, corpse. 


il-shi, eyo. 


san-ti, skin. 


san-ki, nose. 


hilib-ki, flesh. 


af-ki, mouth. 


rig-gi, blood. 


dig-ti, ear. 


madah-hi, head. 


dan-ki, chin. 


timir-ti, hair. 


bushin-ti, lip. 


weiji-gi, fiice. 


ilig-ki, tooth. 



22 



RELATIONSHIPS 



arrab-ki, tongue. 
hunguri-gi, throat. 
garab-ki, shoulder. 
gaan-ti, arm. 
muruch-hi, biceps. 
husul-ki, elbow. 
urur-ki, forearm, 
jolochli-gi, wrist, 
gaan-ti, hand, 
sul-ki, thumb. 
farah-hi, finger. 
babao-di, palm, 
sakar-ki, chest. 
lab-ti, breast. 
dabar-ki, back. 
alol-shi, stomach. 
sin-ti, hip. 
lug-ti, leg. 
boodo-di, thigh. 
rug-gi, knee. 



shausho-di, calf. 
ancho-di, ankle. 
ag-ti, foot. 
farah-hi, toe. 
idib-ki, heel. 
agta ad, sole. 
iddi-di, nail. 
gad-ki,whiskers,beard. 
sharub-ti, moustache, 
dabo-di, tail, 
dib-ki, tail (goat). 
dilif-ki, tail (sheep). 
bari-gi, tail fat. 
gar-ti, horn. 
raf-ki, hoof. 
gomod-di, camel's foot, 
fol-ki, tusk. 
laf-ti, bone. 
ind61i-hi, skull. 



23. Relationships, d:c. 

abba-hi, father, 
hoyo-di, mother, 
nin-ki, husband, man. 
nag-ti, wife, woman, 
waldl-ki, brother. 



walal-shi, sister, 
inan-ki, wil-ki, son. 
inan-ti, daughter. 
inan-ki, boy. 
gabad-di, girl. 



PLURAL OF SUBSTANTIVES 23 

arur-ti, child. akhil-ki, chief. 

wadad-ki, od^-gi, old nin wein, nin ma- 
man, daha, headman. 

habr-ti, old woman. barbar-ki, young man. 

moskhdn, poor people, hhas-ki, family. 

24. Plural Numher. 
(i) Masculine monosyllables : — 

dab-ki, dabab-ki, handles. 

fas-ki, fasas-ki, axes. 

diib-ki, dubiib-ki, fires. 

nin-ki, niman-ki, men. 
(ii) Feminine monosyllables : — 

hal-shi, halod-di, she-camels. 

mel-shi, melod-di, pLices. 

bil-shi, bilod-di, months. . 

lug-ti, lugod-di, legs. 

nag-ti, nagod-di, women. 

exc. lan-ti, lema-hi, branches. 
(iii) Nouns ending in a : — 

kora-hi, koryal-shi, saddles. 

busta-hi, bustyal-shi, blankets. 

mufta-hi, muftyal-shi, keys, 
(iv) Nouns ending in o : — 

asho-di, ashoin-ki, days. 

gudimo-di, gudimoin-ki, gudimos. 

shachado-di, shachadoin-ki, bandoliers. 



24 PLUEAL OF SUBSTANTIVES 

(v) Other masculine polysyllables : — 

tambuch-hi, tambuchyad-di, tents. 

libahh-hi, libahhyad-di, lions. 

ghodah-hi, ghodahyad-di, thorns. 

kursi-gi, kursyad-di, chairs. 

t5bel-ki, tebelad-di, tables. 

sirad-ki, siradad-di, lamps. 

fandal-ki, fandalad-di, spoons. 

shabdl-ki, shabelad-di, leopards, 
(vi) Other feminine iDolysyllables : — 

(a) saad-di, saadod-di, hours. 
herio-di, heriodod-di, herios. 
darar-ti, dararod-di, days. 
malin-ti, malmod-di, days. 
sanad-di, sanad6d-di, years. 

(b) j6niad-di, joniada-hi, bags. 
al6n-ti, al^ma-hi, leaves. 
mejorifad-di, mejorifada-hi, shovels. 

(vii) Foreign words : — 
sanduch-hi, sanaduch-hi, boxes, 
sirkal-ki, sirakil-shi, officers. 
askari-gi, askarr-ti, soldiers. 
nin mahabis, mahabis-ti, j^risoners. 
kursi-gi, kurasi-di, chairs. 
Note that excej^t in (i), (ii) and (vi, a) nouns 
change their gender in the plural. 

The plural is not very commonly used, it only 



ADJECTIVES 25 

occurs when any emphasis is to be laid on the 
liUmher. After numerals and other words of 
quantity the singular is used. 

Sometimes in (iii) the masculine article is 
used ; e.g. busty alka. 

Adjectives, Advekbs, Peepositioxs, 
Conjunctions. 
25. Adjectives follow the noun they qualify. 
There are only a few jDure adjectives, the remain- 
ing adjectival parts of sjDcech being verbal past 
participles, formed by adding -an, -san to the 
verb root (cf. § 49). 

The particle wa represents the verb ' is,' 
* are/ e. g. 

wanaji, make good. 
wanaksan, good. 
wa wanaksan, is good. 
wa nin hun, he is a bad man. 
Besides the particle wa, verbs expressing state 
are formed by conjugating adjectives as verbs, 
e.g. 
wanaksana, wa wanaksana, is good (§ 54). 
(wa) asya, is red (§ 52). 
(wa) houlyira, is easy. 
wa may be used or not, but usually occurs. 
For Comjmrison vide § 68. 



26 



ADJECTIVES 



Adverbs are formed by the particle si or by 
ghun, e.g. 

si wanaksan, well, 
ghunyar, slowly. 



26. List of Adjectives 
wein, large. 
yar, yir, small. 
ddr, long, tall, deep. 
gaban, short. 
adag, hard, strong. 
balaran, thick. 
jilisan, thin, soft, weak. 
duban, long and thin. 
ulus, heavy. 
fddud, light. 
wandksan, good. 
riin, right. 
hun, bad. 
^jis, lazy. 



safaisan, adaisan, 

clean. 
uskagleh, dirty. 
biiha, full. 
maran, empty. 
affdyan, sharp. 
afbelan, blunt, 
s ahalan , houly ir , easy, 
kulul, kululan, warm, 
ghaboban, cold. 
ad, bright, white. 
mado, dark, black, blue, 
as, red, brown. 
oul, yellow, green. 



27. Numercds precede the noun they qualify, 
and do not require the plural. The definite 
article is usually attached to the numeral, and 
not the noun. 

Cardinal numbers. 

k6d, mid, i. 
laba-di, 2. 



NUMERALS 27 

saddehh-di, 3. 
afar-ti, 4. 
shan-ti, 5. 
116hh-di, 6. 
todoba-di, 7. 
sided-di, 8. 
sagal-ki, 9. 
toban-ki, 10. 
kobyo toban-ki, 11. 
labyo toban-ki, 12. 
saddehhyo toban-ki, 13. 
afaryo toban-ki, 14. 
shanyo toban-ki, 15. 
Udhhyo toban-ki, 16. 
todobyo toban-ki, 17. 
sidedyo toban-ki, 18. 
sagalyo toban-ki, 19. 
labaton-ki, 20. 
kobyo labaton-ki, 21. 
soddon-ki, 30. 
afarton-ki, 40. 
kouton-ki, 50. 
lldhhdon-ki, 60. 
todobaton-ki, 70. 
siddton-ki, 80. 
sagashon-ki, 90. 
bochol-ki, 100. 



28 NUMERALS 

b5chol yo mid, loi. 
bochdl yo toban, no. 
laba bochol, 200. 
kun, 1000. 

Other forms. 

labaton midla, 19. 
lldhhdon midla, 59. 
bochol midla, 99. 
soddon buha, 30. 

28. Ordinal numbers. 

kowad-di, hdre, ist. 

labad-ki, 2nd. 

saddehhad-ki, 3rd. 

afrad-ki, 4tli. 

shanad-ki, 5th. 

llehhad-ki, 6tli. 

todobad-ki, 7tb. 

sidedad-ki, 8th. 

sagalad-ki, 9tli. 

tobnad-ki, lotli. 

kobyo tobnad-ki, nth, &c., &c. 

29. Other exjyression s of Number and Quan t ity . 

mid mid, one by one. 
toban toban, in tens. 
nimba toban, two each, 
bochol yo nin, loi men. 



NUMBER AND QUANTITY 29 

bad-ki, half. 

labyo seddehh, two or three. 
badan, many, much. 
idin, any. 
idna, any one. 
waka, anything. 
midna, no one. 
k^liah, only, 
kdli-gi, alone. 
walba, every, 
kasta, each, 
diman-ti, every one. 
gedi-gi, kuUi-gi, all. 
kaleh, other. 

'ss ku mid, 6 kaleh, same. 
imisa ? how many ? 
int^ ? how much 1 

sh5 saddehh maha ? surely three (§ 59). 
wa Uehh, there are six. 
ad u tiri, count carefully. 
afarton keliah, only forty. 
s6ddon waiye, just thirty, 
wachaba, nothing. 
wah<3ga, wahyar, a little. 
nin keliah, one man only, 
idinku keligi sooda, you go on by yourselves 
(§ 40). 



30 TIME AND PLACE 

idla, by oneself (without any one). 

inta kaleh, the rest. 

sanaduchi mel gonia diga, put the boxes in 

one place. 
labadatan wa 'ss ku mid, these two are the 

same. 
imisa ma harin ? how many are left 1 
ninkan wa ku jira, this man is included. 

30. Time and place, ^x. 

gor-ti, mar-ki, kol-ki, berri-gi, had-di, time, 
mel-shi, hal-ki, hag-gi, place. 

From these nouns, adverbs, conjunctions, and 
interrogatives of time and place are derived. 

Similar derivative parts of speech are formed 
from the following nouns : — 

in-ti, meaning ' quantity,' ' distance.' 
si-di, ,, ' manner.' 
ain-ki „ ' sort.' 

31. Adverbs. 

gortan, markan, kolkan, now. 
gortas, markas, kolkas, then, 
marki hori, kolki hori, before, 
marki dambi, kolki dambi, after, 
(meshan) halkan, haggan, here, 
(meshas) halka(s), liagga(s), there, 
sida, sidas, so. 



CONJUNCTIONS 31 

inta, intas, intan, intatan, so much. 

ainkas, like that. 

gortatan, haddatan, now at once. 

haddaba, now therefore. 

wagi hori, b^rrigi hore, formerly. 

gor badan, often. 

mar kaleh, again. 

gor, kol, mar, once. 

saddehh gor, three times. 

gor doo, soon. 

marmar, sometimes. 

Other adverbs. 

iminka, aminka, now. 

dabad6d, afterwards. 

, , r at once. 

docnso, \ . - - 
( quickly. 

well, yet. 

dowad, mel doo, near. 

32. Conjunctions. 

gorta, kolka, marka, when. 

mel, where. 

. ^ (until, 
mta, { , 

( as much as. 

sida, as. 
These conjunctions are combined with the 
personal pronoun (vide § 38), and are followed 
by the conditional (cf. § 50). 



32 



ADVERBIAL PREPOSITIONS 



33. Inter rogathes, 

gorma ? when ? 
hagge? (meshe?) where? 
hadma? at what time'? 
int^ ? how far 1 
int^ ? how much ? 
side? how? 
imisa gor ? how often ? 
ainma? what sort? 
m§ ? where ? (in simple questions, such 
as : ninki md ? where is the man ?). 

34. The following nouns are used as adverbs, 
and form prepositions when combined with the 
possessive. (Cf. § 16.) 



Adverh. 



f in front. ) 
'^°"' i before. / 
. r behind. ) 
'' t after, j 



dambi. 



behind. 

after. 

dabaded, afterwards. 
giidaha, inside. 
dibaddi, outside, 
hosta, underneath, 
dusha, above. 
ddhda, in the middle. 



Preposition, 
hortisi, or ka hore. 

dambisi, orka dambi. 

dabadisi, after, 
gudahisi, in. 
dibadisi. 
hostisi. 
dushisi, upon, 
dehdisi, between. 



TIME AND PLACE 33 

agti, near. agtisi. 

fog, far. 

sida, so. sidi, as. 

35. Other expressions of Time, Place, ^-c. 

saad-di, hour, clock. 

asho-di, darar-ti, malin-ti, day. 

bil-shi, month. 

sanad-di, gii-gi, year. 

kddi, one o'clock. 

saddehhda saad, three o'clock. 

ajarta saad yo badki, half-past four. 

shan saadod, five hours. 

shanta saad, wahad ka ) , . , , ^ 
, , ^ , , . . , / ten minutes to five, 
hore toban * minute ' j 

manta, to-day. 

shaldto, shald, yesterday. 

dorrad, day before yesterday. 

berri, berrito, to-morrow. 

sa danibi, day after to-morrow. 

sa kub, day after the day after to-morrow. 

aror-ti, morning, in the morning. 

sa ka, this morning. 

duhur-ka, midday. 

gelin ka dambi, afternoon. 

gelup-ti, evening. 

haben-ki, night. 

hald, haleto, last night. 

D 



34 TIME AND PLACE 

berri arorti, to-morrow morning. 

shaleto geliip, yesterday evening. 

haben hore, night before last. 

asho walba, every day. 

ashodi hori, the other day. 

berrigi hore, some time ago. 

laba bilod, two months. 

laba sanadod, two years. 

iminka 'ss ka tag, you may go now. 

weli wa j6ga, he is here still. 

haggii jira ? where is he 1 

ninki md ? where is the man. 

sidi hore, as before. 

mid ainkas, one like that. 

wa sida, it is so, or, there you are. 

wa ragti, you are late. 

bari-gi, east. 

galbed-ki, west. 

intu jira ? how far is he (it) 1 

intd jirta (§ 54) ? how far is she (place) ? 

mel fog ) . 

^^ ^. > far away. 
wa fogti J -^ 

wa agag, wa dooyi, it is quite close. 

weli ma yimi (§ 62) ^ has he come yet ? 

gormii yimi ? when did he come 1 

gormad timi ? when did you come '? 

haggead ka timi ? where have you come from? 



PEEPOSITIONS 35 

haggead t^gisa ? where are you going 1 
haggead takt^ ? where did you go ? 

36. The Pre])Ositions, 

ka, from, 

ku, to, 

la, with, 
are used to qualify, not the noun, which has no 
declension, but the verb. They always imme- 
diately precede the verb, e. g. 

he 
Bohotle bu ka yimi, he came from Bohotle. 

he 
Bohotle yu-gu t^gya, he is going to Bohotle. 

I 
anigu sirkalki la raa, I go along with the 
officer. 



B 3 



PART II. 

SYNTAX. 

37. General Rules. 

The order of a Somali sentence is (i) Subject, 
(2) Object, (3) Verb. 

Adverbial clauses, especially expressions of 
Time, come first. 

If the subject of an adverbial or conditional 
clause is the subject of the principal sentence, 
it is placed first, i. e. in front of the conjunction. 

The verb always requires the simplest form of 
the personal pronoun to immediately precede it, 
whether the true subject is exj^ressed or not. 

Complicated sentences are entirely avoided, 
a string of short remarks describing events in 
their proper order being employed instead. 

Any further rules than these must be left 
here to be gathered from the examples. 





SYNTAX 


37 




Pronouns. 




38. Simple Form. 






Subjective. 


Objective. 


I 


-an 


i 


thou 


-ad 


u, ku 


he 


-u 


u, ku 


she 


-ei, -ai 


u, ku 


we 


-einu, -ainu 


na 


you 


-eidin, -aidin 


idin 


they 


-ei, -ai 


u, ku. 


In the above 


the subjective 


cases cannot be 


used by themselves, but must be attached to the 


preceding noun, 


, conjunction, 


interrogative or 


negative particle. 





39. Prefixes. 

Unless the subjective cases are attached as 
described in § 38, they are used with certain 
prefixes : 

w- (e. g. wan, wad, wu), only used when 
first in the sentence. 

b- (e. g. ban, bad, bu). The commonest 
form. 

Y" (^'o- Y^^i ya-d, yu), used for euphony 
instead of b. 

The objective cases require no prefixes. 



38 SYNTAX 

40. Demonstrative. 

With the subjective case of this form, the 
simple form is required in addition, preceding 
the verb. 

anigu, aniga, I. 

adigu, adigd, thou. 

isagu, isaga, he. 

iyadu, iyada, she. 

annagu, innagu, annaga, innaga, we. 

edinku, idinku, edinka, idinka, you. 

iyagu, iyaga, they; 

41. Im2)erative. 

an, ist person. 

ha, 3rd person. 
Used with the conditional tense. (For the 2nd 
person vide § 46.) 

42. Indicative. 

This form is used with certain verbs, such as 
want, hope, think, say, &c., when it may be 
translated by * this is what I,' &c. 

wahan, this is what I . . . 

wahad, this is what thou . . . 

wuhii, this is what he . . . 

weh6, this is what she . . . 

wehdnu, this is what we . . . 

wehedin, this is what you . . . 

wehd, this is what they . . . 



SYNTAX 39 

43. Interrogative. 

ya? ke? te? who] what? 
kuma? tuma? which? (sing.). 
kiiama? tuama? which ? (plur.). 
ya ? is the subjective case only. 
When ' what ' is the object of the verb, it is 
declined similarly to the indicative form. 
mahan ? what I . . . ? 
mahad ? what thou . . A 
muhu ? what he ... ? 
meh^ ? what she . . . ? 
mehenu ? what we ... ? 
mehddin ? what you . . . ? 
mehe ? what they . . A (cf. § 59). 
ya ? also is the interjection, what ? eh ? 

44. Examples. 

wahan iri, berrito ban tegya, I said, I am 

going to-morrow. 
muhu i sheg^ ? what did he tell me ? 
wuhu donya, this is what he wants. 
anigu maha, it is not I. 
mahad donisa ? what do you want ? 
ninki wa joga. ke? The man is here. 

Who 1 
nin Dolbohanta. kuma ? a Dolbohanta. 

Which one ? 



40 SYNTAX 

Conjugation or Verbs. 

45. Elisions and Contractions. 

(i) In monosyllabic verbs, in the infinitive 
a becomes e. 

(ii) In polysyllabic verbs, where the last 
syllable is short, the vowel of the last syllable is 
drop]3ed in conjugating. 

(iii) It, Id become sh. 

(iv) rd, rg become rt, rk. 

(v) rn, In become rr, 11. 

46. The Root. The simplest form of a verb 
is the 2ncl pers. sing, imperative. This is the 
root from which all tenses are formed. 

47. Classes. There are three classes. 

I. The root ends in a consonant, or -a, or 
-ah, e.g. 

diib, roast. 
sheg, tell. 
tag, go. 
arag, see. 
raa, follow. 
ka, rise. 

II. The root ends in -o, e.g. 

jogso, stop. 
so5, go on. 
nocho, go back. 



SYNTAX 41 

garo, understand. 
baro, learn. 

III. The root ends in -e, -i, -ei, -ai, e.g. . 
shachdi, work. 
somei, make, 
hai, have. 
ibi, sell. 



48. The Infinitive is formed — 

in I by adding -i to the root, e.g. 
diibi, shegi, tegi, arki, kei. 

in II, III, by adding -n to the root, e.g. 
jogson, soon, nochon, garan, baran, sha- 
chein, sin. 

49. The Participle, or verbal adjective, is 
formed by adding to the root, 

I. -an. 

III. -san, e.g. 

duban, roasted. 
adeisan, cleaned. 
kululan, warmed, 
gogoisan, cut up. 
dalolisan, perforated. 



42 SYNTAX 

50. Moods and I'enses. 

There are two Moods, Perfect and Imperfect, 

I say, I said, I have said, are Perfect. 
I am saying, I was saying, are hnperfect. 
These are distinguished by the form of the 
tense inflexions. 

There are only three pure Tenses — 
Present ends in -a. 
Past ends in -6. 
Conditional ends in -o. 

5 1 . Perfect Mood. Tenses are formed by add- 
ing the tense terminations directly to the root, 
except in II, in which class the terminations are 
-da, -d6, -do. 

In the second class where the final o is short 
it is usually dropped, and the letters altered if 
necessary according to the rules in § 45, e.g. 
wan shega, I tell, wan sh<§ge, I told. 

gortan shego, when I tell. 
soo, go on. wan sooda, I go on. 

jogso, wait. wan jogsoda, I wait. 

garo, understand. wan garta, I understand. 
baro, learn. wan barta, I learn. 

yelo, undertake. wan yesha, I undertake. 
nocho, go back. wan nochda, I go back. 



SYNTAX 



43 



52. Imjperfect Mood. 

The tense terminations are preceded by i or y, 
and added to the infinitive. 

(In I the i of the infinitive is dropped.) 

(These seem to be the tenses of an imperfect 
auxiliary verb i, be, conjugated regularly and 
with the dependent verb in the infinitive pre- 
ceding it, cf. §58), e.g. 

wan sobnya, I am going on. 
wan shacheinya, I am working. 
wan sh^gya, I am telling. 
wan maleny^, I was thinking. 

The i is short in all except those verbs of II 
where the syllable preceding it is short; e.g. 

garanya, 
bar any a, 
ghobdnya. 



53. l^'ahle of Moods. 



a. 


Imperative. 


Infinitive, 


Pres. Per/. 


Pres. Imperf. 


I. 


sheg, tell. 


sh^gi. 


sh6ga. 


sh^gya. 


II a. 

b. 


sod, go on. 
baro, learn. 


soon, 
bdran. 


sooda. 
barta. 


soonya. 
baran^a. 


III. 


shach^i, work. 


shachein. 


shacheya. 


shacheinya. 



44 SYNTAX 

54. The above terminations are for ist pers. 
and 3rd pers. sing. masc. The following are the 
varieties for person : — 



sing. 



plur, 





Present. 


Past. 


Conditioned. 


I 


-a 


-6 


-0 


2 


f-ta 
t-sa 


l-s6 


r-to 
1 -so 


3ni. 


-a 


-6 


-0 


3f- 


r-ta 

i-sa 


r-t6 
i-s^ 


|-to 
1 -so 


I 


-na 


-n6 


-no 


2 


f -tan 
1 -san 


f-t6n 
' -s^n 


f-tan 
1 -san 


3 m. 


-an 


-6n 


-an 


3f. 


/-tan 
\ -san 


f-t6n 
1 -s6n 


f -tan 
i -san 



In the 2nd and 3rd fern. pers. sing, and plur., 
t is used after a consonant, i.e. in the perfect 
tenses of I and II. 

s is used always after i, i.e. in all imperfect 
tenses, and in perfect tenses of III. 

55. The Future is formed by the present per- 
fect of the auxiliary verb don, will. 

The auxiliary is often omitted in this tense 
and the infinitive used alone, e.g. 

waa shegi dona 1 j ^^,;,, ^^,, 
wan shegi ) 



SYNTAX 



45 



56. Tahle of Conjugations. 


Imjyerative. 


(I) an shego, let me tell. 


sheg, tell. 


(I) ha machlo, let him hear. 


ha machasho, let her hear. 


(Ill) an shacheino, let us work. 


shacheya, work ye. 


(II) ha bartan, let them learn. 


Future. 


wan tegi dona ^ 


I will go, &c. 


„ donta 




„ dona 




„ donta 




„ donna 




„ dontan 




,, donan 




Perfect. Imperfect. 


Present. 


sooda, go on. (II. a.) soonya, am going on. 


soota soonisa 


sooda soonya 


soota soonisa 


garna, understand. (II. b.) baranfna, are learning. 


gartan baranfsan 


gartau 


baranyan 



46 


SYNTAX 


Perfect. 


Impe:rfect. 


Past. 




tag^, went. 


(I.) t€gy6, was going. 


takt^ 


t^gis6 


tag6 


t^gye 


takt^ 


t^gis^ 


arkne, saw. 


(I.) machlin^, were hearing. 


arkt^n 


machlis^n 


ark^n 


machly^n 


Conditional. 




falo, do. 


(I.) felyo, may do. 


fasho 


f61iso 


falo 


f61yo 


fasho 


f^liso 


shacheino, work. 


(III.) shacheinino, may work. 


shacheisau 


shachdinisan 


shacheyan 


shacheinyan 



57. Negative. The negative particle is ma, 
an, or ha. 

Their use is as follows : — 
Imperative. 
ha, with the infinitive with -in added, e.g. 
hadal, talk. 
ha hadlin, don't talk, 
(plur.) ha hadlinina, don't talk. 
Perfect Mood. 
Present tense. 
ma, with the present perfect tense, e. g. 
ma joga, he is not here. 



SYNTAX 47 

Past tense. 
ma, with the infinitive with -n added, e.g. 
midna maarkin, I saw no one. 



Conditional 
an, with the infinitive with -in added, e.g. 
hadanad gh6bonin, if you do not do. 
hadanu jogin, if he is not here. 
58. Imperfect Mood. 

Present and Past tenses. 
The infinitive is used followed by the tense 
terminations, which are negatived as explained 
above (§ 57). (Cf. note in § 52.) 

Thus the i again appears as an auxiliary verl), 
and in this case, in negative form, as a separate 
word and not combined with the verb itself; e.g. 
doni may a, I am not w^anting. 
garan maya, I do not understand. 
tegi main, I was not going. 
The present tense form is conjugated without 
personal pronouns. 



Present tense — 




doni maya 


,, maisa 




„ maya 


I do not want, or, 


,, maisa 


- I shall not want, 


,, mayna 


&c. 


„ maisan 




„ mayan ^ 





48 SYNTAX 

In the past tense the negative form for perfect 
tenses, being the infinitive, with ma and n, is 
not conjugated either in this or in the perfect 
tenses. 

The negative of the future tense is the same 
as the negative present imperfect. 

Conditional tense. In this also the i may be 
said to be conjugated regularly, but is not treated 
as a separate word. 

Thus the root i makes infinitive in and 
negative conditional an inin (§ 57), e.g. 

hadanad ghoboninin, if you shall not do. 

Note. — The negative of wa is maha. (Cf. 
§ 25-) 

59. The Interrogative. 

The interrogative particle is ma, e.g. 

ma d6nisa ? do you want it '? 

ma j6ga ? is he here ? 

ma arkten 1 did you see 1 
ma is combined with the personal pronouns, 

maan, mian, maad, miad, miu, miad arkt^ ? 

did you see 1 
After interrogative adverbs or pronouns the 
particle ma is not required. 



SYNTAX 49 

(For such interrogative parts of speech vide 

§§ 29, 33. 43), e.g. 

ya kal^h jira ? what else is there ] 
inte jirta ? how far is it 1 
The interrogative ' why ? ' is translated by 
mahan u, mahad u, &c. (Cf. §§ 43, 64.) 

In negative interrogative sentences the ma 
retains the interrogative sense, and an is used 
as the negative particle, e. g. 

mianad donisa ? do you not want 1 
The particle s5, sho, expresses doubt or 
potentiality, e.g. 

so ano miad donisa ? perhaps you want 

milk ? or, don't you want milk 1 
sho maha ? is it not ? 

60. The Passive. 

(i) This may be expressed as in English by 
wa, is, are, and the participle (§§ 25, 49), e. g. 
wa adesan, it is cleaned, 
(ii) The commoner way of expressing the 
passive is by the use of the particle la. 

This then has the same meaning as the French 
oil in on clit, ' it is said/ 

The passive subject is in the objective case 
and the verb is in the 3rd pers. masc. singular, 
as if la were the subject, e. g. 

E 



50 SYNTAX 

la kenya, it is being "brought ; it is coming. 
isaga ma la sin, he has not been given, or, 

no one gave him. 
imisa la donya ? how many are wanted ? 
Note : la u becomes lo. 

la ku „ lagu. 
e.g. sirakisM kaleh biyu lo geiya, the other 
officers are being brought their water. 
wa lagu dulmya, he is being ill-treated. 

6 1. Auxiliary Verbs. 
don, will. 

kar, be able, can. 

jir, be (used in jDast tense to form a past 
habitual tense). 
These are conjugated regularly, and take the 
infinitive, which precedes them ; e. g. 
wan t^gi dona, I will go. 
wad t^gi kari d6nta, yoa will be able to go. 
wu soon kari maya, he cannot walk. 
wan oUi jir6, I used to live. 

62. Irregular Verbs. 

The principal ones are : — 

Imper. Inf. Pres.Perf. Pres.Imjperf. 

imo, come. iman. imada. imanya. 
deh, say. oran. irada. oranya. 

oil, live. olli. al. (oUya). 

ogho, know, oghon. oghda. oghaha. 



SYNTAX 51 

In these four verbs the imperfect tenses are 
conjugated regularly, but in the perfect tenses 
the specific consonants for the different persons 
are added to the beginning, instead of to the 
termination. 

The past perfects are also irregular : 
imi, came. iri, said 

il, lived. oghad^, knew. 

The conditional of imo is imado. 
wan imi, came. irada, say. 

wad timi. tirada. 

wu yimi. yirada. 

w6nu nimi. nirana. 

The only other irregular verbs to be mentioned 
here are the doubtful verbs : 

f'-'^™ lahan lehda 1^«^^ 
leh - ought I lenya 

( should 

I have not i wehya wei 

1 cannot ( wahya 

(-i he -in -ia, -yaha). 

(§§ 25, 52, 58.) 

63. Examines of Irregular Verbs. 

gormad timi ? when did you come ? 
ma iman (§ 57), not come (all persons). 
wa imanya, he is coming. 
E 2 



weh 



52 SYNTAX 

yimada, come ye. 

hadenu nimano, if we come. 

gortu yimado, when he comes. 

wahad tirada^ say this. 

muhu yirada ? what does he say 1 

mahad oran ? what are you going to say 1 

wahan oranya, I am saying. 

muhu yiri ? what did he say 1 

markan irado, when I say. 

miska dushisi yal, it is on the table. 

achalkeiga yalin, they are in my house. 

haggead. talin ? where do you live ? 

Burao enii nal, I live in Burao. 

hagga dnu nil, I lived over there. 

wan oghon, I shall know. 

wan oghaha, I know. 

wan oghadd, I knew. 

moofi, mooyi, I don't know. 

ma toghan ? do j^ou know it 1 

wachaba ka ma oghon, he knew nothing 

of it. 
mahad i orou lehdin ? what have you to 

tell mo ? 
mahad lehda ? what have you (to say) 1 
wahan lehya, I have, &c. 
inad. takto yad lehda, you have got to go. 
inad egto yad. lehda, you must have seen. 



SYNTAX 53 

* twenty ' deh, say ' twenty.' 
dochso deh, tell him to hurry. 
aniga leh, it is mine, 
ya leh ? who&e ? 

laagti ban ku sin laha, I should give you 
the pay. (Cf. § 70.) 

64. Weh. This is a defective irregular nega- 
tive verb. It is employed as an auxiliary and 
consequently takes the infinitive. Its meaning 
is rather a surprised or unexpected negative, or 
refusal, or impossibility. 

It is especially used after ' why not 1 ' ' why 
didn't?' (cf. § 59), e.g. 

mahad u yeli wehdi? Avhy didn't you do it 1 
mahad u doni wehda ? why don't you look 

for it 1 
mahad i gu shegwei ? why didn't you tell me ? 
wei, wahyi, I couldn't find him. 
leh wah, la wah, he is lost. 
biyu mesha benu ku wehna, we cannot find 

water at that place. 



PART III. 

EXAMPLES OF SENTENCES. 

(The numbers in brackets refer to notes at 
the end.) 

65. Simple /Sentences. 
muhu donya ? what does he want 1 
ninka bu donya, wuhu donya ninka, the 

man w^ants. 
tolmati ? golimati ? (i) what is your tribe 1 
hagge t^gisa ? -where are you going '] 
ma machalisa ? do you hear ? 
ma garanisa ? do you understand ? 
ha, wa machlya, yes, I hear, 
ha, wa garanya, yes, I understand, 
mahad warrenta ? what news do you bring 1 
waha kaleh ma jira ? is there anything else 1 
waehaba ma jira ? {2) there is nothing. 
u sheg^, I liave told him. 
u yede, lo y^d6, I have called him ; he is sent 

for. 
ma hilbta ? are you sure ? 
wa huba, I am sure, 
ka weidi, ask him. 



SENTENCES 55 

ha ilowin, don't forget. 

ma ilowdi ? did you forget ? 

wa u maldnya, (3) I think so. 

wa oghanya, (4) I will find out. 

wa ku so tashanya, (4) I will think about it. 

idna maarkten ? did you see any one ? 

u didi, he refused. 

ma tegisa ? are you going ? 

ha, berri wa t^gya, yes, I am going to-morrow. 

mahad u malenisa ? why do you think so ? 

mahan somenya anigu ? what am I to do ? 

nas bati, (5) you are a fool. 

mahad oron donta ? what are you going to say ? 

anigu u raaya, I will accomj)any him. 

faraska ban fiili dona, I will ride the horse. 

alabada halkan diga, put the luggage down 

here. 
sanduchas tambucheiga ku keu, put that box 

in my tent. 
laba saadod bad ghobonise inta, you have 

been two hours doing that. 
gelupta dameya, finish it this evening. 
iminkan tagno, (6) let us go now. 
iminkad t^gi Burao, you are now coming to 

Burao. 
biya ma ku jira ? is there water there ? 
intii jira ? how for is it ? 



56 SENTENCES 

ma jira, ma kii jira, there is none. 

imisa ka dambei, liow long after 1 

ma haista ? (7) have you got it 1 

wa haista, I have got it. 

mahad siden ? what did you bring ? 

wa biika, biiksata ; I am sick ; well. 

wa buksanya, 1 am getting well. 

wa bachtya, (he) I am dying. 

ninki wa bahsote, the man has escaped. 

wa bahsonya, (8) he will escape. 

wa dinti, he is dead. 

wa dinyi, it is ready. 

wahas igu ma wanaksana, that is no good 

to me. 
rikabyada i gabi, (9) shorten the stirrup?. 
faraska kori, saddle the pony. 
B. inte jirta ? (10) how far is B. ? 
D. inte B. jirta ? how far is B. from D. ? 
imisa gedi u jiran? (11) how many marches? 
laba lugodleh gormad ku tegisa? (12) how 

long would you take on foot 1 
faraska gormu t^gya ? how long on a pony ? 
laba ashoin (dararod) B. innagu geina, we 

must get to h. in two days. 
d^righa kaleh ma jira ? is there another road? 
eilke ma enu marina? (13) what well do we 

pass ? 



SENTENCES 57 

wa dagahah, wa bur, it is stony, hilly, 
tolma halkan tal ? -what tribe lives here 1 
biyaha raa orya ? does the water smell ? 
maya, lekin wa dudun hiinyihi, no, but It 

tastes bad. 
biya dduiku filan ma haisatan ? have you 

enough water ? 
wahyar bdn haisona, we have a little. 
wa idiuku filanyihi, it is quite enough for you. 
aurka achalka dochso ka daya, that cameVs 

load will fall off directly. 
mahad markihore igu shegwei ? why didn't 

you tell me before '? 
mahad igu shegisa ? why do you tell me ? 
ma gor hor u tage ? has he gone long ? 
ghunyar hadal, wahan weidyo wehe ga eli, 

talk slowly, and answer what I ask. 
anigu tachsir maan lehya, dameian shuehul- 

keiga, (14) it is not my fault, I have done 

my work. 
wa kan tebelka saran ka ken, bring that one 

there on the table. 
achli ma lahain, he has no sense. 
hagga bochol talaba ka dambeya, follow on 

a hundred yards behind. 
hagga ka durka, move away in that direction, 
so kala bad, half fill it for me. 



58 PARTICLES 

wa kala badanyi, it is lialf full. 

adigu radki don, wah kaleh ha ghobonin, 
yan lagu arkin, do nothing but look for 
the track, and don't let yourself be seen. 

intad beina wastai, o yad tugtai, you are not 
only a liar, but a thief. 

66. List of Common Particles, ^-c. 
wa, (i) is, are ; 

(ii) affirmative particle; e.g. 

wa nin hun, he is a bad man. 
wa sida, it is so. 
wa kuan, here they are. 
wa saddehh, there are three. 
wa imisa ? how many are there ? 
wa mahai ? what is it % 
wa wanaksana, it is good. 
wa haista, I have got. 
wa joga, he is there. 
ma, (i) negative particle ; 

(ii) interrogative particle ; e.g. 
ma joga ? is he there 1 
ma joga, he is not there, 
ha, (i) yes; 

(ii) negative imperative particle, 2ndpers.; 
(iii) 3rd pers. pron. imperative ; e.g. 
ha hadlin, don't talk. 
ha tago, let him go. 



PARTICLES 59 

an, (i) I ; 

(ii) negative particle with conditional tenses 
and with interrogative particle; e.g. 
hadanan jogin, If I was not here. 
mianad donisa ? do you not want ? 
ba, (i) distributive ; 
(ii) generic ; e.g. 
nimba toban u si, give each man ten. 
aurba, the camel. 
VI, ku, gu, (i) you, him ; 

(ii) to, for; e.g. 
u si, give him. 

B. gormad ku takte ? when did you go to B. ? 
mahad u falisa ? what are you doing it for ? 
ka, (i) from ; 
(ii) that way ; 
(iii) more . . . than (§ 68) ; 
(iv) that (pronoun) ; e. g. 
haggead ka timi ? where have you come from ? 
ka ghad, take it away. 
iss, 'ss, reflexive, e.g. 

mahad iss tiri ? what did you mean ? 
'ss ku doada, close together, 
'ss ka, there ! e. g. 

'ss ka baha, get out of that ! 
'ss ka ghad, take it away there ! 
'ss ka tag, go away there ! 



60 PARTICLES 

la, (i) passive particle ; 
(ii) with ; 

(iii) deprived of; e.g. 
ma la sin, I have not been given one. 
wa sirkalki la joga, he is with the officer (i. e. 

servant). 
labaton midla, 20 minus 1,19. 
idla, without any one. 
si, (i) that way; 
(ii) give ; 
(iii) adverbial (§ 25) ; e. g. 

si jeso, turn that way. 
so, this way, e. g. 

so jeso, turn this way. 
so ghad, fetch. 
kala, apart, e.g. 

kala durka, move apart, extend. 
ad, properly, well, very, e.g. 

ad u tiri, count carefully. 
malaha, perhaps, 
laan, without, e.g. 

sent6ri laan, without a sentry. 
o . . . mahai, without, unless, e. g. 
o hiikum mahai, without an order, 
adigu o h.6li mahai, unless you find it. 
adigu mahai imisa kal6h jiran ? how many 
others are there besides you ? 



SENTENCES 61 

o, and, because. 

yo, -na, and (joins substantives). 

ama, mise, or. 

Idkin, but. 

hadi kaleh, or else. 

Examples of Compound Sentences. 
67. Relative Sentences. (15) 
nimanka halka faristan, u yed, send for the 

men who are sitting over there. 
kitabki miskeigi saran, la kali, bring me the 

book lying on my table, 
niriki ka don, ki saka Burao ka yimi, find 

the man who came from Burao this morning. 
ninki iminkan u yedi, the man I sent for just 

now. 
ninkani miad arkt^? kan ma ninka ad 

arkte ? is this the man you saw 1 
askarti o magaoda yan iri, ha yimada, those 

soldiers whose names I called, come. 
wahan shale ku iri, miadan ghobsan ? do you 

not remember what I said yesterday ? 
mahad u machli wehda, wehe lagu yiri ? 

(16) why don't you listen to what you are 

toldl 
wahan ku irada yel, do what I tell you. 
sidan ku iri fal, {17) do as I said. 



62 SENTENCES 

wahan ku weidie wahad ku eli, answer my 
question. 

nin walba arenka ainkasa someya, tachsir 
ulus ya ghobsonisa, every man who 
makes a complaint like that will get heavily 
punished. 

nimankas hujuddi yai someyen, tachsir 
delin bai nochoden, those men who com- 
mitted that crime deserve the punishment 
of death. 

affar aren bai ku so ashtakoden, laba ash- 
tako run bai nochod^, (i8) they brouglit 
four complaints, only two were found to be 
true. 

orod o ka so tasho, run and think about it. 

gor walba ayarsiska hortisi so baha, hadi 
kaleh wa lehdin tachsirya, always turn 
out before parade, or else you will be 
punished. 

aloshi hononisa, o soon kari maya, my belly 
hurts, I can't walk. 

gudimoinki wa afbelan, o milla affdyan 
mahai, oda goin mayan, the gudiinos 
are (so) blunt (that) without being sharp- 
ened they cannot cut the wood. 

wa adagyihi, o lagu goin kari maya, it is so 
Ijard, (and) it cannot be cut. 



SENTENCES 63 

ha s5 nochon, adigu o banduchi heli mahai, 
(19) do not come back without finding tiie 
rifle. 

nimanka la ma tachsire, iyagu o so ashta- 
koden, (20) the men were not punished 
because they brought a comphiint. 

halka d^rta wa wein, there, where the big 
trees are. 

ashtakodi sirkaiki gorti u machald, when 
the ofhcer had listened to the complaint. 

nimankase waha lagu tachsire, marki ash- 
takodi la machale, o sirkaiki iyagi la 
mel nochodd, markasi hiikumki diden, 
(21) but those men were puni&hed, (because) 
when their complaint was heard, and the 
officer had taken their part, still they re- 
fused to obey the order. 

mahad iss tiri, marka wahad somenise? 
what did you mean by doing that ? 

B. markad ghobto, wahad ku tirada sir- 
kaiki, (22) when you reach B. tell the 
officer this. 

intan so nochdo, meshas jogsdda, wait over 
there until I come back. 

biya an abo i ken, (23) bring me drinking- 
water. 

wan oghaha mel i jiro, I know where it is. 



64 SENTENCES 

garan maya mel dagahas o kaleh ka dono, 

I don't know where to find stones like that. 
wahan faristo i ken, bring me something to 

sit on. 
halki manti doweda gaden, gada, go as far 

as you went the other day. 
intad soon karto soo, o yan idina ku arkin, 

go as far as you can without being seen. 
labaton nin o owinan, ban ku so dirya, 

I will send 20 men to help you. 

68. Comparalwe Sentences. 
kas wa ka wanaksana, that is better. 
achalkakan achalkihore ka w6in, (24) this 

house is bigger than the former. 
achalkas aehal ka wein someya, make a 

bigger house than that one. 
marka dambe shuchulka shuchul dama 

someya, in the future do more work than 

that. 
nimayo, shuchulkihore shuchul ka badan 

ghobten, you men have done more work 

than l)efore. 
Isa warankayaga waran ka wein yu lehyahi 

(sita), the Isa carries a bigger sj^ear than 

ours. 
inta waha ka yira i ken, bring me less than 

that. 



SENTENCES 65 

warankas wa fiidud, that is a light spear. 
kas wa fududyihi, (25) that is very light. 
faraska wa wanaksan, wanaksan, wanaksan, 

that horse is really fine. 
kan wa ugug wanaksan, this is best of all. 
saddehhda kas sa wein, (26) that is the biggest 

of the three. 
sa sa wanaksan, it is best. 

kas sa \ , '; , '., . f^i'^t is easiest. 
[ sahalanyihi, 

gorigha gorigh ka adag wa waiyi, (27) there 
is no harder wood to be found than that. 

holaha mesha jogan, hola ka wein weligi 
ma arkin, the animals at that place are the 
biggest I have ever seen. 

waha badan doni maya, I don't want so much. 

derigha ya hagaksan, this is the \ 

road, * P^P*-^ 

kan ma kas gabanyihi ? is that shorter than 
this? 

innaga ma idin badna, they are not so many 
as we. 

ninkan waha ma tari wei, hog ma leh 
wachaba tari mayo, this man is useless, 
he is not strong enough for anything. 

doliskas eilka ma gadia? is that rope long 
enough for the well 1 



66 SENTENCES 

inad A. J ^ ^ doni maya, I do not want 
idafto ^ ' 

, f go further than A. 
you to ^ *=* 

( pass 

69. Oratlo oUiqua. (28) 
wahan donya berri inan tago, I waut to go 

to-morrow. 
wahan donya inu dochso u so ndchdo, I 

want him to come l)ack quickly. 
wahan jaalahai halkan inan jogo, I should 

like to stay here. 
wahan donya inad Burao takto, I want you 

to go to Burao. 
inn fogado doni maya, I don't want him to go 

far. 
ma inad takto miad donisa? do you want to go? 
inu jogo mianu donya ? does he not want to 

stay? 
wahan u maldnya, berri inan tago, I think 

I am going to-morrow. 
wahan siigya inu yimado, I am waiting for 

him to come. 
inteinu buhin karo, iminka ineinu buhinno 

sa sa wanaksan ; ineinu mesha biyu 

ku wehna, ka yabia (bachanya), it is 

best for us to fill as much as possible now, 

(as) I fear we shall find no water at that 

place. 



SENTENCES ij7 

malaha wa arare, I expect (perhaps) be has 

run away. 
mahad u malenisa ? haggu tage ? where do 

you think he has gone I 
wahan u malenya, Burao bu ku tegi, I think 

he is going to Burao. 
wan u mal^n maya in ilach dambi daiso, 

I don't think there will be more trouble. 
inla sidayo ragi wanaksan, la doni maya, 

(29) one does not want to let good men go. 
ad u garta, wahas wa la hunyihi, o ghainun 

maha, understand thoroughly that that is 

very bad and not discipline. 
wahad ku tirada, 'ss ka taga, tell them to go 

away, 
wahad ku tirada, Olesan ghobo, o dochso u 

tago, tell him to go to Olesan and hurry up. 
nin u dir, o All wahad ku tirada, so nocho, 

send a man to tell Ali to come back. 
mise ilod^, ama ku tiri ? did you forget to 

tell him 1 
mahad u dide u rai ? mahad u rai wehdi ? 

why wouldn't you go with him 1 
san (sidan) waha irado, garan maya, I don't 

know how to say that. 
markas wahan iri, ' shuchulkina ghobta,* 

markas weh6 yiraden, 'ghobon mayna,' 

r 2 



6.8 SENTENCES 

then when I told them to do their work, 
they said they wouldn't. 

70. Conditional Sentences. (30) 

haddu jogo haddatan uyed, if he is here now, 

call him. 

, -.^ ^ > fumban , .. 

hadenu fogano, wa ^ , , , . donna, if we go 

far, we shall be lost. 
hadiad ninki disho, mehe yeli donan ? if 

you kill the man, what will they do 1 

■u ^■^■^- i bachanin, . 

hadiaidman < ^ ■. • so maydin noch- 
( la absinm, "^ 

den, (31) if you had not been frightened, 

you would not have returned. 
Burao hadian jogo, Garrero ma imad^n, if 

I had been at Burao, I should not have come 

to Garrero. 
iminka Burao hadian jogo, laagti ban ku 

sin laha, (32) if I were at Burao now, 

I should give you the money. 
haddu markihore i shego . . ., if you had told 

nie before .... 
machli maya, hadian u maleyo inu bein 

shego, I should not listen, if I thought lie 

was telling a lie. 
laag ku sin maya, adigu jogi mahai, I shall 

not give you j^ay, if you do not stay. 



MILITARY TERMS 69 

haddad jogto, inad egto wad lehda, if you 
were there, you must have seen. 

hadiad shuchulka, an donya, anad ghobo- 
nin, shuchulkeyga ku ma wanaksanid, 
(33) if you do not do your work as I want, 
you are no good to me. 

hukumka machala, amaha humado, amaha 

sumado, i . -^ _ the order, whether bad 

T ( listen to 
or good. 

hadi hukum lagii shego, waehaba weidi- 
nina, (34) if an order is given you, ask no 
questions. 

saddehh asho hadiad ka badsato, laag heli 
maysa, (35) if you are more than three 
days on the road, you will get no pay. 

nin walba wa ku hukumyahai, haddu iss 
yirado, wa lagu diilmya, inu ku so 
ashtakodo, (36) every man is allowed, if 
he imagines he is being ill-treated, to bring 
a complaint. 

71. Military Terms. 

banduch-hi, rifle. 
rasas-ti, ammunition. 
shachado-di, bandolier, 
sun-ki, belt, strap, 
askari-gi, soldier. 



70 ]\rTLITARY TERMS 

mahabis, prisoner. 
illalo-di, spy, scout. 
oll-ki, eiieraj . 
talaba-di, pace, 
ayarsis-ki, parade, 
shuchul-ki, fatigue, work. 
selid-di, oil. 
suf-ki, rag. 
ration-ki, rations, 
timir-ti, dates. 
baris-ki, rice. 
siibukh-hi, ghee, 
hilib-ki, meat. 
fasahh-hi, leave. 
tachsir-ki, punishment, fault. 
ashtako-di, complaint. 
hukum-ki, order. 
aren-ki, case, suit. 
ghainun-ki, discipline, 
tachsir, punish. 
haul-shi, business. 
Wadad-ki, the Mullah. 

Military Phrases. 

sara jogso, stand up. 

'ss ku hagaji, stand properly. 

ha dakhdachaghin, don't fidget. 

mad aha sar ' u tosi, hold your head up. 



MILITARY PHRASES 71 

sakarka so behd, throw the chest out. 

hadalka 'ss ka daya, stop that talking. 

banducha wanaji, hold your rifle properly. 

hor u so baha, come forward. 

dib u jogso, staud back. 

sooda ! forward ! 

mahad u siigisa ? what are you waiting for ? 

talabada hagajia, keep the proper step. 

talaba, take a j)ace. 

bidehda, midigta, left, right. 

bidehda egta, look to the left. 

ganta sida, drop the hand. 

so jeso, 'ss ka rug, turn this way. 

adigu waiye ; inti kaleh. sooda, only you ; 

the rest go on. 
dimantin, the whole. 
mar keliah, all at the same time, 
'ss leh egta, all together. 
' halt ' markan irado, when I say ' halt.' 
sidi iminka, do that again. 
ka war' ! wake up ! 
so baha, turn out. 

nin walba (kasta), every (each) man. 
shuchalkaga ghobo, do 3-our work. 
guardka wa ghobonya, he is doing guard. 
kuma leh ? whose turn is it ? 
wa Farah leh, it is Farah's turn. 



72 



MILITARY PHRASES 



hukumki adu machli, listen to the order, 
hukumki wa mahai ? what is the order 1 
dufo, sound (bugle). 
ma dufta ? shall I sound ? 
kala durka, extend (separate), 
'ss ku doada, close (close up). 
fardaha radi, follow up the horses' tracks. 
fardi so kahai, bri]ig the horses here. 
ka da, get off. 

nin ba maghan, there is one man absent. 
72. Tlie following orders the men in my com- 
23anies were made to learn by heart. 



lliihumki ragi ^ guard' ~ 
ki vxdije. 

1. ad u barta hii- 
kumka. 

2. ninka ' com- 
manding 'ka o idin 
fasahi mahai, ha ka 
t^gina ' guard 'ka. 

3. ' dress 'ka yo 
shachado midna ha 
'ss ka furrina. 

4. marka sent^rigi 
idin doago, doehso 11 
so baha, hagga fron- 
tina u jesta, o 'slope 
arms.' 



Orders for men on 
guard. 

1. learn the orders. 

2. don't leave the 
guard without leave 
from the commander of 
the guard. 

3. don't take off any 
part of uniform or 
equipment. 

4. when the sentry 
calls, turn out at once, 
turn to the front and 
slope arms. 



MILITARY PHRASES 



73 



Hiikumki senterigi 
wahje. 

1. hukumkaga he- 

ji. 

2. frontada u eg. 

3. golupka sirka- 
liga ad u illali. 

4. idna ha la had- 
lin. 

5. maliabisti tiri, 
o senteri laan ninna 
ha si d6in. 

6. dubka, yo de- 
luda, ama ' bugle '- 
ka ' alarm ' hadi la 
yirado, ' guard 'ka so 
sare. 

7. wahad garan 
wehda hadi-ad ark- 
to, ' guard com- 
manding 'ka u sheg. 

8. si wanaksan sa- 
adi, o fronti 'ss ka 
rug, o sirakishi u 
ida ' salute 'si, ma- 
jorka 'present 'si. 

9. ' guard 'ka so sa- 



Ordersfor the sentry. 

1. understand your 

orders. 

2. look to your front. 

3. look after all go- 
vernment projDerty. 

4. don't talk to any- 
one. 

5. count the prison- 
ers, and don't allow one 
out without a sentry. 

6. In case of fire and 
alarm, or, if the 'alarm' 
is sounded, turn out the 
guard. 

7. anything unusual 
report to the comman- 
der of the guard. 

8. walk about pro- 
perly, turn to the front, 
salute all officers, 'pre- 
sent ' to a major. 

9. turn out the 



74 



MILITARY PHRASES 



ra, saddehda bugle, 
' Revelld, Retreat, 
Tattoo ' ; sirkalki 
' commanding 'ka 
markeliah; 'Orderly 
Oflacer,' ama 'Visit- 
ing Rounds' marku 
idin irado; partigi 
askarti banaduchi 
sidan. 



guard, at Reveille, Re- 
treat, and Tattoo, to 
the C. O. once, to the 
O. O., or Visiting 
Rounds, whenever he 
tells you, to all armed 
parties. 



NOTES. 

(i) -ti the 2nd sing., t prefixed, of the verb 
-i, be. 

(2) The negative words waohaba and midna 
require the negative particle as well. 

(3) This verb almost always is used with u. 

(4) The present imperfect tense has a sense 
of futurity, intention, or willingness. 

(5) bati for bad ti, see (i). 

(6) iminkan for iminka an. 

(7) haiso, have got. 

Present Perfect Tense. 

wan haista. wenu haisona. 

wad haista. we din haisatan. 

wu haista. wo haistan. 
we haista. 

(8) Verbs of this class seem to be very 
irregular in dropping the o, and in the length 
of it. 

(9) i, for me. 



76 NOTES 

(lo) jirta, fem. referring to mesha, the place, 
(ii) gddi, one camel's march. 

(12) laba lugodleh, on both feet; compare 
also buUi har^dleh, rain-water bulli ; (mel) 
derkenleh, place of euphorbia trees ; and 
aniga leh, it is mine. 

(13) ke, an interrogative form of the definite 
article ; cf. interrogative pronoun ke ? who 1 

(14) dameian for an dameie. 

(15) There is no true relative pronoun, it is 
usually omitted, or represented by the definite 
article. 

(16) Literally, ' what one told you.' wehd is 
the plural, and is object of yiri. 

(17) sidan, sidi an. 

(18) so gives the meaning of 'bringing' the 
complaint ; ka would imply ' taking ' it. 

( 1 9) mahai behaves as an auxiliary verb. 

(20) o is thus used meaning ' because.' 

(21) la mel nochod^, 'take part with.* 

(22) ghobto is conditional tense, as always 
after such conjunctions, unless the time is a de- 
finite past. 

(23) = ' bring me water that I may drink.' 

(24) The subject of comparison is the subject 
of the sentence and therefore placed first. Where 



NOTES 77 

the subject of comparison is the object of the 
sentence, it follows the noun it is compared 
with. 

(25) fududyihi. This form of adjectival 
verb gives the superlative sense of ' very.' 

(26) sa, another form of expressing the super- 
lative, but means ' most.' 

(27) waiyi, 'cannot be found.' 

(28) AVhen there is any intention or uncer- 
tainty implied, in with conditional tense is used. 
In direct narrative, the original oratio recta is 
repeated. 

(29) Here la is evidently used exactly as any 
personal pronoun, and attached to the conjunc- 
tion (cf. § 60). 

(30) There is at present some vagueness about 
the correct forms for the various types of condi- 
tional sentence. These examples are therefore 
veiy deficient. 

(31) may din for ma aidin. 

(32) laha makes a conditional tense, and is 
used as an auxiliary verb. 

(33) an donya, 'which I want.' 

hadiad . . . anad, more correctly would be 
in one w^ord, hadanad. 

(34) wachaba weidinina [cf. note (2)]. 



78 NOTES 

Here the negative particle ha is omitted, but the 
verb is put in negative form. 

(35) A verb badso, increase. 

(36) dulmya for dulunya, n before a vowel 
usually becomes m. 

iss yirado, literally, ' say to oneself.' 



ADDENDA 

{These additional notes arrived from So^naliland 
too late to he incorjwrated in the text.) 

§5- 
daf, descend, go down. 
kor, climb, go up. 

§6. 
alamadi, mark, make a mark on. 
bedel, change. 
bel, lose. 

warabi, give to drink, water, 
daji, graze, take to graze. 
dakh, graze (intrans.). 
ingeji, dry (trans.). 
mair, wash (with water). 
mairo, be washed. 
liss, milk {tracts.). 
nasi, rest, give rest to. 



80 ADDENDA 

tab, touch; meddle with. 

tol, sew. 

dufo (dufta), blow (a whistle, bugle). 

§7- 
ku nocho, repeat, say again. 

§ 10. 
The following fine distinction seems to be made 
between i and u : — 

u is employed for persons and things well 
known, and about which there can be no doubt. 
It would not be used when any epithet qualifies 
the noun. 

i is employed in a perfectly vague and in- 
definite sense. Thus — 

sirkalka would refer to an officer actually pre- 
sent. 
sirkaiki would refer to any officer whatever, not 

present. 
sirkalku would refer to the man's own imme- 
diate officer, or company commander. 
11 is thus used frequently for common and 
well-known objects, as, 

biyahu, chorahhdu, naguhu, 
and in the personal pronouns, 
anigu, adigu. 



ADDENDA 81 

§17- 
barmil-shi, barrel, 
kibrid-di, match. 
llohh-hi, wood (box wood), 
masaf-ki, funnel. 
saman-ki, goods (general term), 
shama-hi, candle. 

§ i8. 

dasad-di, any tin pot, can. 

gudimo-di, native axe, small blade on a forked 
stick. 

hongol-ki, hooked stick, for dragging in 
branches for the zareba ; entrance to an en- 
closure. 

§19- 
bilad-di, country, land. 
dali-gi, road. 
bdr-ti, dried-up dung, grass. Sec. 

§ 21. 

ghodah-hi, general name for thorn trees. 
damel-ki, a thorn tree with small hard pods, 
like French beans, eaten by Somalis. 

G 



82 ADDENDA 

§ 25- 

All simple adjectives observe the following very 
general rules of inflexion : — 

When qualifying a noun with the def. art., 
add a. 

When qualifying a plural noun, reduplicate the 
first syllable. 

Both inflexions take place concurrently, e. g. 
ninki wanaksana dagahhanta yaryara. 
dagahha -wanaksana dagahhan balbalaran. 
dagahhan yaryar. 

§26. 

baan, bad-tempered. 

dab, true. 

fian, good, smart, clever. 

§54. 
In § 24 it is noticed that most polysyllabic 
nouns change their gender in the plural. If the 
plural form is masc, the masc. form of the verb 
is used, and vice versa, irrespectively of the 
natural gender of the noun ; e. g. 
ninki wa imanya, the man is coming, 
nimanki wa imanyan, the men are coming, 
askarigi wa wanaksenyihi, the soldier is good. 



ADDENDA 83 

askarti wa wanaksentahain, the soldiers are 

good. 
nagti wa imanisa, the woman is coming, 
naguhu wa imanyan, the women are coming, 
dagahha wa hunyihi, the stone is bad. 
dagahhanta wa huntahain, the stones are bad. 
the camels weut. 

§/■• 

alan-ki, flag. 

bedel, relieve, change. 

markhad-di, witness. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 

Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



tl OCT 07 W 



JAN 2 8 tS86 





^5^e 










\ 



V 





mm 


M|iM|Vl.< 


m 


1 


^^^HK\ 


' 


^^^B^^l 


B 




''9P 


WK' 



J