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Full text of "Notes on theory and practice of veterinary medicine and surgery"

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 



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COPYRIGHTED BY 

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NOTES 



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THEORY AND PRACTICE 






VETERINARY MEDICINE 



SURGERY 




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THE THEORY AND PRACTICE 

OF 

VETERINARY MEDICINE 

AND 

SURGERY. 



The practice of medicine is looked upon as a science and as an art. 
As a science it treats of the nature, existence, condition and causes of 
disease; as an art it is directed to the recognition, prevention and treat- 
ment of diseases; cause of diseases is the most principal. Surgery is 
classified in the same way. 

Practice of medicine is practically experimental. Females require 
smaller doses than males; the smaller the animal the smaller the dose; 
the climate as between heat and cold also governs, a larger dose is used 
in summer than in winter. 

MORBID ANATOMY — STRUCTURAL CHANGES PRODUCED BY DISEASE. 

Disease is the opposite of health: health is the normal condition of 
an animal: an animal is in normal condition when the organs perform 
their functions regularly and rythmetically with each other. 

The vital organs are the heart, lungs, abdominal viscera, etc. If 
one gets out of order they are not working regularly with each other. 

Disease is either organic or functional:' organic when unnatural 
changes take place in the structures; functional when there is a derange- 
ment in the function without changing the structure — for instance, the 
irregular pulse. 

PATHOLOGY. 

Pathology is the doctrine of disease. It is divided into general or 
special: general pathology treats of disease in general without reference 
to ain' particular disease: specipl refers to individual diseases. 

General pathology includes: 

Etiolog3 r , which treats of the cause of disease. 

Semeiology, which treats of the symptoms of disease. 

Pathogeny, which treats of the generation, production and development of 
disease. 

Nosology, which treats of the classification and nomenclature. 

Diagnosis, which treats of the recognition of disease 

Prognosis, whichtreats of the probable termination. 

Hygiene, which treats of the prevention of disease. 

Therapeutics, which treats of the cure of disease by the use of drugs. 

There are two causes of disease — predisposing, which originates with- 
in the bod}% and is hereditary; and exciting or extraneous, which origi- 
nates outside of the body, such as overwork, bad food, bad water, ex- 
posure to extreme changes in temperature, etc. 

Diseases are divided into four classes, viz: contagious or infectious, 
epizootic, enzootic and sporadic. 



4! THE0KT ANTI PRACTICE". 

Diseases are contagious when they are communicable from one ani- 
mal to another. 

Epizootic affects animals without any local cause, and is not con- 
fined to any one district, but usually covers a large territory. (Grippe : . 
influenza.) 

Enzootic disease affects animals ta a comparatively small district 
with a local cause. (Mud fever). 

Sporadic diseases occur only in single or isolated cases: this covers 
all our common diseases not included in the first three. 

Influenza is a typical example of the epizootic I 

THE EL0OB-. 

The blood in its- normal condition is the vital fluid of the body., 
without it no animal can live, in health the blood as seen passing 
through a microscope is colorless, but when outside, the arterial blood 
is red, and the venous blood is blue. 

COMPOSITION OF THE BI,OOI>, 

Water • -7»4 part» 

Corpuscles 131 

Albumen '. . 70 ' ' 

Extracted matter 6. 77 " 

Saline 6 03 " 

Fibrin ....... z. 2 M 

Total, i. 000 

This proportion varies but little in health, but does in rii - 
water can be down to 700 or up to 800, without producing any material 
diseased condition. 

Fibrin decreases during pregnancy and increases after : it can he 
separated from the blood by whipping with twigs, and will show a 
grayish white matter. Fibrin is formed instead of helping to form any- 
thing ; it plays the part in the blood of thickening it so as not to allow 
it to ooze out of the blood vessels ; in emaciated animals it is sometimes 
increased and sometimes decreased, when the animal dies from the want 
of food the Fibrin is materially increased, but when the animal dies or 
is emaciated by fever, the Fibrin is decreased. In all local inflamations, 
the Fibrin is increased causing congestion of the blood ; or Hyperaetnia. 
When Fibrin is out of the blood, the power of coagulation of the blood 
is diminished ; in influenza and in death from suffocation, carbolic acid 
or ammonia, Fibrin is much decreased. 

In Plethora the solid matter is increased, and there is a want of the 
water supply in the blood. When the blood is proportionately rich, as 
in diarrhoea or diabetes, the water is withheld and the proportion will be 
less than 784 parts. 

During Anaemia or bloodless condition, Haemagoblin or coloring 
matter is diminished. So in proportion to the decrease of corpuscles in 
the blood the water increases. 

In Plethora we find everything just reversed, and is due to high 
feeding or on concentrated food. In this disease there is an increase in 
the corpuscles and a decrease in water. 

Texas fever has its home in the red corpuscles and leaves the blood 
in an impoverished condition. This is true of any fever. We can tell 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 5 

this condition of the blood by observing the color of the mucous mem- 
brane in the lining of the mouth, eyelids and nostrils. 

Albumen varies considerable in many cases. In debility the quantity 
is comparatively small ; in plethora we find an increased quantity of 
albumen in the corpuscles, consequently the amount of water is decreased. 

Albuminuria water in cattle or where there is a dropsical condition 
it denotes a want of albumen in the blood. 

THE PULSE- 

The pulse is the most important feature to the physician and sur- 
geon in the diagnosis of the animal. ' . , 

The pulse is defined as the evidence of the circulation of the blood. 
We get the pulse by pressing the finger on an artery. We find that the 
blood passes through an artery at about the speed of ninety feet per 
minute. 

Circulation of the blood is produced and regulated by the sym- 
pathetic nervous system. Every disease produces a greater or less irregu- 
larity of the nervous system. 

The nervous system is the key: by it we can tell the condition of the 
animal: it is to the physician and surgeon what the compass is to the 
mariner. In death the nervous system is the last to die in the body. 

The pulse is the means we have of measuring the circulation of the 
blood, the character of the beat indicates the condition of the nervous 
system: other means are only corroborative. 

The normal beat of the horse is from 33 to 40. Occasionally the 
beat of the draft horse is as low as 28, and rarely as low as 25. This 
variation of the pulse depends upon the temperament of the animal. 
Bxercise increases the frequency of the pulse: or, anything exciting will 
increase the pulse. 

The horse is the most excitable of all animals, therefore, we should 
take the pulse a second time before arriving at a conclusion as to the 
condition of the animal 

The pulse of the horse is usually taken from the submaxilliary 
artery, located near the lower jaw or from the brachial artery, in the 
arm near the body; also from the coccygeal artery, about three inches 
from 'the tail. 

Relationship of Circulation to Respiration. 

There are three and one-half beats of the heart to one respiration. 
The force of the pulse lies in the expansion and contraction of the heart: 
diastole is the expansion, and systole the contraction. 

The normal pulse of the ox is from 40 to 50. On account of the 
thickness of the skin, and the arteries being located deep, the pulse of 
the ox is difficult to take; the most convenient place being the carotid 
artery just above the sternum. 

The pulse of the sheep is from 70 to 80 taken from the brachial 
artery inside the arm, and the femoral, inside the thigh. 

The normal pulse of the dog is from 72 to 90, according to the con- 
dition of the animal. The pulse of the dog is much similar to that of 
the human. 

The character of the pulse is first measuring the frequency or in- 
frequency in a given time; second, measurement of the quick or slow 



6 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

pulse in a given time by each individual beat: third, the large or small 
pulse, this measures the dilatibility: fourth, the compressibility, hard or 
soft. Quick pulse is caused by the sharp sudden contraction of the 
heart; jerky pulse is an aggravation of the quick pulse. Slow pulse 
usually indicates some disease of the brain, produced by pressure. 

In plethora the pulse is strong and full; in anaemia, small. 

Slow pulse as seen in enteritis is due to the contraction of the mus- 
cular coating of the walls of the arteries. 

In laminitis we have a hard, full pulse, and strong. This disease is 
often mistaken for lung diseases from the pulse. 

Double pulse indicates a feeble condition of the heart. 

The temperature of warm blooded animals is a mystery. No mat- 
ter what the surroundings may be, as regards heat and cold, the tempera- 
ture is maintained. That of cold blooded animals is the same as their 
surroundings in which they are living. 

In case of disease we have a change in temperature. A rising in 
temperature indicates fever: loss of heat or lowering temperature below 
the normal, indicates a waning vitality. 

In cases of simple fever, the temperature is in proportion to the 
amount of fever — a rise from 101 to 104 — but in pleuropneumonia it rises 
to 106, and even to 107, when it is extremely dangerous. In sunstroke 
it rises higher than in this disease, and in hysteria still higher, when it 
is nearly always fatal. 

We may take it as the rule, that when the temperature of an animal 
reaches 104 it is sick, 105 very sick, 106 and upwards dangerously, and 
at 108 in nearly every ease fatal. 

The temperature of an animal is always higher at night than in the 
day time. 

When the temperature remains for forty-eight hours at 106 or above, 
as a rule it always proves fatal. In sunstroke it may run to 109, and 
even to no, and if it remains so about two hours the animal will die. 

THE THERMOMETER. 

The use of the thermometer is to ascertain the true temperature of 
the animal. 100 is normal in the hor.-e, and is taken by inserting the 
thermometer into the anus in males and either into the anus or vagina 
of mares. Always turn the instrument to one side so as to press against 
the sides of the bowels, and leave in about five minutes. In this way 
you will be sure to get the best results. Getting the temperature of 
animals in any other way than by the use of the thermometer is purely 
guess work, and are not reliable. 

The temperature is even more important than the pulse, if there 
were any choice to be made, because it may be that in some cases the 
pulse may not show much change, and yet the temperature be much 
higher and the animal be very sick. 

In severe sickness the temperature should be taken about twice a 
day, but in cases of less seriousness once a day will be sufficient. 

The temperature of the ox is liable to great variations, more so than 
any other animal, according to the surroundings, changing from 101 to 
103, and often when the ox has been standing in the sun for a con- 
siderable time, the temperature may often be as high as 104 and even 
106 without any sickness. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 
NORMAL TEMPERATURE OF DIFFERENT ANIMALS. 



Ger. , Eng-. 


Ger. 


Eng. 




Ger. 


Man, 98.6 to 100 


Hog, 103.4 


100 


Fowls, 


106 to III 


Horse, 99.9 100 


Fox, 102.5 




Dove, 


109.4 


Ox, 103.40 100 to 102 


Ape, 100.5 




Swallow, 


ill. 2 


Sheep, 103 101 


Guinea Pig, 102.4 




Goose 


107 


Dog, 102 101.5 


Rabbit, 103.19 









The high temperature of fowls accounts for their exemption from 
specific diseases. 

The temperature of animals may sometimes get as low as 78.8 and 
the animal live, but as low as 75 they die. 

CONGESTION OR HYPEREMIA 

is an increased flowing or determination of blood to a part. There are 
two kinds, healthy and unhealthy. Unhealthy may be active or passive. 

Healthy congestion is an increased flow of blood to an organ or to a 
part, as a natural physical effort to assist in its functions, for instance the 
flow of blood to the penis at the time of copulation, also in parturition in 
congestion of the mammary glands. 

Active congestion is confined to the arteries and arterioles. 

Passive to the veins and capillaris, the passive is sometimes spoken 
of as the mechanical congestion. There are two causes for active con- 
gestion : Increased blood pressure and diminished arterial resistance. 
The increased blood pressure is due to an obstruction in some of the 
arteries causing increased flow of blood to the part through a series of 
arteries. An instance of the danger in this may be given if a horse 
having become very warm from exercise is left standing in the cold rain it 
may cause the superficial blood vessels to contract and force the blood 
internally and may cause congestion of the lungs, and, if not attended to 
in time this will cause pneumonia, or the blood may be forced to the 
heart, stomach, spleen or some other organ and cause some serious 
disease. 

The second cause of active congestion, diminished arterial resistance. 
This is primarily a nerve disease, caused by the temporary paralysis of 
a part of" the vasomotor nerve system, or by diminished tonicity of this 
system. The effect of that is serious. The blood accumulates in the 
dilated part and sometimes causes a stoppage of the flow in that part, 
and the fact that arterial blood, if stopped for the shortest time, changes 
its nature, make it serious. When an artery becomes plugged the white 
corpuscles begin to force out of the vessel and into the surrounding cel- 
lular substance, causing soreness, etc. A sudden interruption of the 
flow of blood in the vessels often cause gangrene. 

This forcing out of the blood vessels of the white blood corpuscles 
and other substances is called transudation. 

Passive congestion is sometimes called the chemical congestion, anC 
of itself is confined to the veins and capillaris. The smallest kind of this 
is produced by tying a string or bandage tightly around a part, thru 
causing congestion by mechanical means. The commonest cause of pas 
sive congestion is the forming of the clot or thrombus in the vein: tin 
disease from this is called thrombosis. Sometimes we get a thrombosis 
in the arteries, and this passing on to a small part of the vessel causes 
a plugging of it, called embolus, producing embolism. 



» THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

There are four more complicated conditions of passive congestion, 
first is diminished cardiac power, or diminished heart force, as seen in 
late cases of debilitating diseases. The heart becomes weak and the 
circulation correspondingly weak: the pulse becomes intermitting and 
irregular, this permits the forming of the ante mortem clot. This often 
causes congestion of the lungs through diminished cardiac power. 

Second, that of gravitation. This cannot occur except as the result 
of some other cause, as seen in puerperal fever. 

Third, altered condition of the blood, as seen in certain special 
cases such as black leg in cattle or sheep, also in anthrax. Defective 
secretion is also a very common cause. 

Fourth, defective nutrition, as seen in the inactivity of the kidneys, 
liver, bowels, and sometimes the skin. These organs become toipid in 
their action through overwork or other causes. In the kidneys there 
may be a retention of the urine causing urinary troubles, and in the 
bowels causing constipation. 

The results of active congestion are redness, heat, throbbing of the 
affected parts, then as a local condition we find that the arteolas are 
enlarged, and a tendency to thickening of the walls, and if continued any 
length of time there is an altered function, especially to the near nerve 
center. After the congestion has been in existence for a few hours extra- 
vasation may take place into the cavities of serum or from a ruptnre of the 
capillaris, or an exudation of the watery portion of the blood into the 
surrounding tissue. If the capillaris are ruptured, or exudation takes 
place, then also extravasation, also there is a tendency to coagulate 

Petechia is where the extravasation takes place in minute spots. 

Kcchymosis where it takes places in large places. Petechia are 
about the size of a pin head; ecchymosis as large as the palm of the hand. 

Result of passive congestion. We find a tendency from the blood 
or transudation of serum, this flows into the cellular tissues and forms 
dropsical conditions: when it flows into cavities there are special names 
applied. This condition of passive congestion does not tend to 
coagulation, while the exudation of active congestion does, because it 
contains more albumen and usually more of the coloring matter of the 
blood. Active congestion in connection with extravasation we have two 
kinds of: hemorrhage — hemorrhage by rheres and hemorrhage by dia- 
pedesis. Hemorrhage by diapedesis is where the blood oozes through 
the blood vessels. Active congestion often terminates in gangrene: that 
is death to the part and often to the animal, this being due to the ob- 
struction of the circulation, 

Passive congestion of itself never causes death. 

IRRITATION. 

Irritation is a disturbance produced by an irritant: that is, anvthing 
that produces first, a local disturbance, and then, if severe and long 
continued produces a constitutional disturbance. Irritation causes con- 
gestion, and if continued, runs into inflammation. The effect of inflam- 
mation may not be necessarilly local, but may be carried through the 
body. This is called reflex action, and is carried through the sympa- 
thetic nerve system. 

Constitutional effects of irritation are largely produced by pain, and 
pain is the local effect of irritation on the nervous system. An example 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. Q 

of constitutional disturbance is worms in the intestines, causing the 
animal to get hide bound, staring coat, pot bellied and ill-natured. In 
dogs, worms generally cause fits. 

The topical e ffects of local irritation are pain, heat, swelling, ten- 
sion and redness. Pain is due to the wounding of the nerve. 

Heat is produced by increased determination of the blood to the part. 

INFLAMMATION. 

Inflammation is derived from the Latin word Inflemmatio, and means 
/ burn. An altered condition of nutrition of a part, usually congestion, 
and causes a dilation of the arteries and artioles, then, as a result of 
this you get a plastic condition of the blood in the affected parts. This 
is the first important condition ot the inflamrnation the red corpuscles 
creep together, adhere to the walls of the vessels and interrupt the flow 
of blood, aid after this is caused, exudation sets in: at the time this is 
taking place white blood corpuscles pass out of the blood vessels, and 
with the serum causes a local inflammation, fibrin increases very materi- 
ally and rapidly, and this has the effect of causing coagulation of the 
material that passes out of the blood. 

The process of inflammation first starts as a cause of the applica- 
tion of an irritant. This upsets to a greater or less extent the nervous 
system, and so alters the tonicit}^ of the blood vessels and allows them 
to dilate. This causes congestion, and this has a tendency to make the 
blood thick with more or less clogging of the blood vessels: the red cor- 
puscles gather, and the plastic matter and the white corpuscles exude into 
the surrounding tissue. Those exudites are serum lymph and a glutenous 
matter. 

The topical results are pain, swelling, heat, redness, tension and sore- 
ness. "^ 

The results of inflammation are variable. First resolution is when 
the inflammatory process stops short and the matter is absorbed, leaving 
behind no trace of the inflammation. 

Second, effusion which means pouring out into the tissues or cavities 
of serum. Serum is the product of inflammation; it is the more watery 
portion of the blood, having but little albumen or fibrin in it. 

Dry stage is the first stage; that is when the part is hot, dry and 
tense. After this lasts from three to thirty hours then comes the second, 
or wet stage. This always follows the first. 

Suppuration is the third stage. This is the stage in which we get 
the formation of pus. Induration and hardening of the exude in sup- 
puration often forms permanent tumors which often stay with the animal 
during life. Neoplasm is a formation of new tissue. The new tissue is 
produced by the increase in cells. This neoplastic tissue, along with the 
exudite, becomes permanent tumor. 

Neoplasm is usually white fibrous tissue. We often find new blood 
vessels formed in this new cell tissue. 

Adhesion. This is the direct result of inflammation, as the word 
indicates, two parts growing together. This follows suppuration. 

Gangrene. This is the last and fatal termination of inflammation. 
Gangrene and necrosis usually mean the same thing, though there is a 
difference: gangrene is the death of a large part, necrosis the death of a 
part of a tissue or of a bone. 



IO THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Ulceration in the soft tissues ismolecular death; in the bone, necrosis; 
in a large part is gangrene. 

In inflammatory process the local activity is either increased or de- 
creased, that is, of the part involved: usually in the earlier stage it is 
increased, in the second diminished. 

The function of an organ may be entirely destroyed by inflammation. 

Pus is the result of suppuration: liquor puris is the fluid, and pus 
cells is the solid pus. Some scientists recognize pus germ as the cause 
of the formation of pus, but in the case of deep tumors there must 
be a disturbance of the circulation of the blood to the part, and so 
alters its functions, bringing on inflammation and the disorganiza- 
tion of the organs, the breaking down cells becoming decomposed and 
liquified. 

Laudable or healthy pus is thick, creamy and usually colorless, that 
is, it has no offensive odor, mawkish to the taste, and has no tendency 
to putrify, but rather to dry up, It is putrid pus when it comes from an 
abscess, this is due to the necrosis of the part involved. 

It is saneous when it is bloody pus. 

Sanies is pus flowing from an abscess, and is particularly offensive 
and streaked with blood; this is due to the presence of decomposing 
animal matter flowing into it. 

Specific pus comes from specific diseases. 

Pus is ichoris when it scalds the part it flows over. 

Gangrene occurs in two forms; the moist and the dry: the moist is 
caused by the sudden shutting off of the circulation, and of course shut- 
ting off the nutrition. As soon as death occurs decomposition sets in, 
the part turns black and the red line of demarkation is plainly visible 
between the dead and the living tissue: dry gangrene occurs from a 
slowly interrupted circulation, in which case the part dies from lack of 
nutrition, the part becomes dried up and chalky, pale and mummifies. 

Death is the cessation of life, and after death the body decomposes. 
Nature abhores death, and resists it to the last. The nerves are the last 
part of the body to die. All the lower animals show on their counten- 
ance the fear of approaching death. 

In the subject of death we divide the body into three separate vital 
functions. 

First, the circulatory system; this includes the heart and all the 
blood vessels, as through these organs nutrition is carried to all parts of 
the body for its nourishment. We find where a clot has formed am' 
lodged in some of the arteries the effect of it is almost instantaneous, 
producing coma and death. 

Second, the pneumatic apparatus, the lungs and the air passages, 
this being used to supply the blood with oxygen, and to carry away the 
carbonic acid gas. 1 hereby purifying the blood 

Third, the controlling power over these two systems: we have the 
nervous system: its main benefit is in its irritability and sensibility. The 
nerves carry the idea of life, being the propelling, and at the same time 
the controlling power or governor. 

Syncope is sudden death beginning at the heart. When it occurs 
from syncope there are no premonitory symptoms. Sometimes, in some 
cases, syncope occurs without any known cause; the heart simply loses 
its irritability . In such cases the heart will be found to be large and full. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. II 

When an animal dies from tonic spasm of the heart, then, in autopsy, 
you will find the heart small, hard, contracted and empty. 

Asthenia is slow death, beginning in the heart. In asthenia there 
are premonitory symptoms, for instance: in organic diseases of the heart 
we get symptoms of the approach of death. In death from asthenia 
xieither of the two extremes exist that we find in Syncope. After death 
the heart is often found full and soft. 

Shock is where sudden death occurs from a fall or great fear. 

Hemorrhage. Death from this occurs more or less sudden, accord- 
ing to the size of the vessel ruptured, In case of internal hemorrhage 
the animal often dies from bleeding, when there is no trace of blood to 
be seen, because it flows into the abdominal cavity. 

We find in approaching death the most important symptoms are in- 
variably the gradually increasing pallor of the mucous membrane as the 
blood flows and the animal suffers, the extremities grow cold, and finally 
the whole surface of the body, that is when death is comparatively slow. 
But in sudden deaths these symptoms do not occur. Also in death by 
slow hemorrhage the mouth grows cold as death approaches and there 
is a cold clammy sweat exuding from the body, the eyes become dim 
and staring and insensible. If the animal is down and unable to rise 
there will be convulsive struggles. When death occurs in the breathing 
apparatus it may occur in any of the parts from the nostrils to the 
lungs. 

Dyspnoea is inability to breathe, and because of the absence of oxygen 
nutrition is suspended. 

Third, death beginning in the brain, spoken of as coma, or stupor. 
In death from the brain a comatose condition is always developed before 
death. The nerves presiding over the vital organs have their origin in 
the floor of the fourth ventricle. The best way to produce death is by 
the brain so as to reach the fourth ventricle. 

Some pathologists recognize a fourth:— 

Necromia is death beginning in the blood: that is due to blood 
poisoning or septsemia, caused by a germ getting into the blood as in 
anthrax and purpural-haemorrhagica. This germ gets into the red 
corpuscles and destroys them. In death by necromia the body decom- 
poses very fast. 

The horse will stand till the last; but cattle, sheep and dogs will lie 
down, sometimes for weeks before death occurs. 

Nosology— the classification of disease is best based upon the charac- 
ter of the organ involved. Diseases are of two kinds: constitutional and 
local. 

Constitutional are those which affect the whole system, primarily, 
and if they locate in any particular organ they do so secondarily: for 
instance, in glanders, blood poisoning is secondary in the lungs and 
nose, producing pneumonia. The constitutional diseases are often 
spoken of as blood diseases. Constitutional diseases are of two kinds: 
exogenous and endogenous. 

Exogenous are those arising from external influences, or from with- 
out. 

Endogenous are those arising within the body, due to some con- 
tagious disease: those of an epizootic or enzootic nature belong to the 
exogenous. 



12 THEORY AND PRACTICE^ 

Hereditary diseases are classed as endogenous, also such cases as 
rheumatism or those influences inducing them, and arise in the body. 

To the local belong all the sporadic diseases, and comprise all those 
we might get in everyday practice, which do not come under the head 
of constitutional. 

We classify diseases according to Robertson and Williams as follows. 

First, of the respiratory system. 

Second, of the digestive apparatus. 

Third, circulatory, that is, heart and blood vessels. 

Fourth, urinary apparatus, as kidneys. 

Fifth, brain — nervous system. 

Sixth, reproductive — generative organs. 

Seventh, locomotary apparatus. 

Eighth, cutaneous, or skin diseases. 

Diseases should be treated rationally, sensibly and scientifically, 
that is, treated according to the requirements or conditions. 

A term used in medicine is vis medicatrix natura, that is, the power 
nature has to restore or repair her own damage, so all the doctor can do 
is to give nature a chance by assisting ljer. 

Diseases are divided into acute, sub-acute and chronic: 

Acute diseases are those that develop suddenly and severely, run a 
rapid course and usually are of short duration, and are inclined to termi- 
nate fatally. Acute sometimes subdue, then come on again, and run into 
chronic. 

Sub-acute are those that come on more slowly, are less severe, and 
are inclined to terminate favorably. 

Chronic cases are of long duration. In this there may be deposits 
in some part which become permanent enlargements, and generally come 
from acute or sub-acute. They cannot be cured quickly. 

Acute requires as a class prompt, heroic and vigorous treatment. 
Sub-acute do not require so severe treatment, but milder and smaller 
doses. In chronic, the treatment requires to be strong sometimes, but 
applied more slowly than in either of the other two cases 

There is a term in the treatment of inflammatory diseases referred 
to as antiphlogistic, that is applied to the cooling of the fever. This is 
practiced in nearly all inflammatory diseases. 

Ephemeral fever is a simple febrile condition, and has its origin or 
existence due to some internal influence: no special organs are involved, 
and there is no specific disordered conditions. 

Etiology. — Overwork and excessive fatigue, exhaustion, exposure 
to wet ano cold and bad food, etc. 

Semeiology. — This fever comes on more or less suddenly. The 
symptoms usually commence bv rigor, shivering; but in very mild cases 
this rigor may not be perceptible, only showing a staring coat. In this 
rigor the nose, ears and limbs are cold, the breathing is increased in 
frequency and more or less noisy, a sort of feeble roar. We can often 
tell the presence of chill by this roaring. When the plainer effects are 
passed the nostrils are not much dilated, rather inclined to be flat. As 
a rule we never get this sort of breathing in any other case. While 
this chill is going on there is a congestion of blood to the internal 
organs: the nervous system is disturbed, particularly the sympathetic 
system, causing the temperature to rise. In a moderate chill you will 
find the temperature to run to 104 and 105, in severe cases to 106. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 3 

The pulse will run up from 50 to 70 during the chill. A character- 
istic of the pulse, in addition to its frequency, is it is quite hard in com- 
parison to its normal beat, strong though small. 

In the course of ordinary events the rigor will subside, and the 
warmth will return. In some excessively severe cases the legs of horses 
have been known to remain cold ever after during life. 

After the chill subsides, if the fever remains, nervous prostration re- 
sults, produced first, by the chill, second by the disease. If the fever be 
high there will be loss of appetite as a rule: if the fever is as high as 
say 104 after it has run forty-eight hours there is an alteration in the 
fasces, which is increased and covered with a sort of slime, the urine is 
high colored and scanty, and there is great lassitude, and the mucous 
membranes become injected and thirst increases; ordinarily the fever will 
subside of its own accord. 

Prognosis, is your opinion as to the probable termination of the 
disease, so never be ready to give a definite prognosis or you may be de- 
ceived and your reputation injured just so much. 

Treatment of ephemeral fever:— The chill is the first thing to bear 
in mind, and there is also a sudden elevation of temperature, the pulse is 
rapid, hard, the surface of the body is cold, but the temperature taken 
from the rectum shows an elevation in temperature. Stimulants are 
what is now needed, given to increase the force of the beats of the heart 
and increase the circulation. In chill we find it best to combine a stimu- 
lant and a sedative, as whisky and aconite: the whisky stimulates the 
action of the heart, and has a tendency to increase or produce an increase 
of the blood flowing to the surface and aconite in moderate doses al- 
lays the irritability of the heart, and by the use of these two drugs we 
get a return of the pulse to its normal condition. The aconite has no 
effect, that is. no bad effect, if given in small doses and if given fre- 
quently, and if given in sufficient quantities will give a diathretic result. 
Sweet spirits of nitre is also a good stimulant, also carbonate of the 
aromatic spirits of ammonia. As a rule we generally rely on whisky: 
in regard to the dose we give, horse, half-pint whisky and 2 oz. each 
subsequent dose, that is, with the aconite, say about seven to ten drops, 
repeat every ten minutes or every fifteen, but not oftener than every ten. 
In addition to the treatment hyg'ene plays an important part. Pile on 
four or five blankets and robes, put men at the neck and legs and make 
them rub well (the rubbing at the neck to be always downward) con- 
tinue the rubbing and applying the medicine for two hours, or till the 
chill subsides. The chill should be stopped as quickly as possible, as 
the shorter the chill can be cut, the quicker the horse will be cured. 

Say we take 108 for the temperature of the horse. There is a term 
we Call anti- phlogistic, and as we said before, is applied to a cooling off 
of the heat. As regards the fever, various schools have various ways of 
doing this, so have various practitioners, but the first is: nature has a 
power to repair her own damages. Remove the cause of the fever and 
nature will do the rest. The character of the pulse is the most important 
thing you want to note in examining a fever patient. 



14 THEORY AND PRACTICE, 

The mixture we use is as follows: 
R Aconite ft. ex r dr, 

Belladona fl. ex. z dr. 

Gentian Rad. fl, ex. 1 or. 

Ether Nit. sps, 2 oz. 

Ainmon. Cbl. 1 oz. 

Potasa Nit. % oz. 

Aqua, ad. QS 16 oz. 
Give a two-ounce dose every hour for the first five or six then every 
two hours till the fever subsides, or every hour until the tempera- 
ture reaches 104, then every two hours till it reaches 102, then three- 
times a day until it is normal. 

If a severe fever remains with the horse for thirty-six hours a more or 
less serious inflammation is sure to result; that is why we should try to 
stop the chill as quickly as possible. If the chill is of short duration 
and there are no serious complications in inflammation we should be able 
to stop it in a short time, but you want to remember it is an important 
point to bear in mind not to reduce a fever too quickly, otherwise you 
may cause serious nervous prostration. That is why we prescribe small 
doses. The following is the mixture recommended by prof. Robertson, 

R Potass. Chlor. or Nit. 3 drs. 

Sps. Ether Nit. 1 oz. 

Liq. Ammon. Acet. 4 oz. 

Aqua ad. Q S one pint 

Give as a drink all in ona dose, repeat two or three times a day. 
If given only twice a day, give in addition four to six drs. of the nit. or 
chlor. of potash in the drinking water twice a day. Large doses are 
liable to give a shock so we recommend small doses often repeated. We 
believe we get better results by giving smaller doses and often than to 
give large doses and less frequent, as is recommended in the old country; 
this is particularly true when considering canine practice, because dogs 
are more susceptible to drugs than most other animals, especially to 
poisons. There is very little danger of giving too small doses or under 
dosing; there is greater danger !of over dosing; for instance, the animal 
requires a purgative, you give him a dose, and nature does not respond 
soon, then you give him another dose in a short time, the first dose be- 
gins to work, and then the second dose comes on also to act; the chances 
are that as a result suppuration sets in and likely there will be a dead 
horse. 

Antipyrin may be given in fever, but always remember to give a 
stimulant with it, and give close attention that there is no danger from 
heart failure; this is why the stimulant is recommended, as it strengthens 
the heart's action Remember, that when the fever is diminished to stop 
the medicine, for if you continue you may only cause heart or kiduey 
complications to arise. Sulphate of iron is a good tonic to give, also 
the vegetable drugs, gentian and nux. 

Hygiene. — In the first place never confine a sick horse, give him a 
loose stall and plenty of nice, clean bedding; straw and a little sawdust 
make a good bed. It is a good idea to bandage the legs- with flannels, 
it helps to maintain the temperature, water the patient, say two quarts 
every ten or fifteen minutes until his thirst is quenched, then place a 
bucket before him and let him drink as much as he will, for water is a 
good thing in case of fever. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 5 

The food should be soft and easily digested. Slop bran is good, 
and after a few days you may add a little oats, mixing with hot water, 
as this softens and rather cooks the oats. Do not give any dry food. 
Often the horse will go four or five days without eating, then find out 
what he might fancy and give it to him often. He will like to nibble 
on the ear corn, give him about three ears at a time, but no more. Re- 
member that in fever if you give too much food it may cause vomiting, 
especialty if you feed too much carrots, never give more than one or two 
of them at a time, then after a few hours give a few more. Always give 
plenty of fresh air, but arrange your ventilation so there will be no draft, 
but will circulate around without coming in direct contact with the horse 
from without. All fever patients require perfect rest, so do not exercise 
at all so long as the fever lasts; during convalescence give him gentle 
exercise. In the start of fever give a liberal amount of clothing and 
' take off, little by little, as he recovers until entirely well. 

The rule now is, and especially in this climate, not to give a laxa- 
tive, but let the bowels relieve themselves, but if you do give one, let it 
be a small dose of sulphate of soda, or a small dose of linseed oil. 

Breathing apparatus. — In every case there are certain phenomena. 
The physical signs are to be observed through means of examination. 
These methods are, first, inspection; second, mensuration; third, palpa- 
tion; fourth, auscultation; fifth, percussion; sixth succussion. 

Inspection means all that we can take in with the eye, taking in the 
general condition: first, in the movement of the chest, the abdominal 
muscles, particularly those of the flank, position of elbow, position of 
the feet and of the head, expression of the countenance, extent of the 
dilation of the nostrils, and see if there is any discharge from the nose, 
and if so, its character, and appearance of the coat. 

Mensuration is little used in veterinary, but is in human practice 
The process is measuring the chest to ascertain the expansion and con- 
traction, and to make a comparison one side with the other. 

Palpation is anything that can be felt, for instance, we feel of the 
surface to see if it is hot or cold, at the same time vie can tell the condi- 
tion of the hair, whether it is coarse; rough coat also tells as to the 
soreness, or by pushing the animal we can judge of the power of resist- 
ance he has left, we also get the surface temperament of the bod3', and 
we can judge of the impulse given the bod}^ by the act of breathing. 
We also take the pulse by touch. 

Auscultation, that is b3 r the application of the ear to ascertain whether 
sounds are natural or unnatural, particularly in the chest diseases. The 
stethoscope is an instrument used to get the sounds, and it makes the 
sound much louder than the natural. They are not much used in our 
practice but are in the physician's practice. Where there is dirty sur- 
face to apply the ear to, veterinarians usually lay a handkerchief on such 
a surface, then apply the ear, as it is generally believed that a surer 
opinion can be formed than with the instrument But, in case you 
use the stethoscope be sure to always make allowance for the friction 
sounds. 

Percussion is the act of tapping or striking the surface of the body 
at the point to be examined, this is done to get the density of the af- 
flicted parts. This is very important, especially in examination of the 
chest. In hydrothorax we get a dull solid sound, indicating great 



l6 THEORY AND PRACTICE 

density where it should be drum-like. If the chest sounds drum-like it 
indicates a healthy condition in that respect. In chronic catarrh we get 
a solid sound. 

Succussiou is the means by which we find out the soreness in the 
smaller animals by grasping them with both hands and shaking them. 
This is only possible in the small animals. 

There are some phenomena of diseases of the respiratory system, 
they are, grunting, coughing, dyspnoea, roaring, whistling, mucous 
rales, crepitation, friction, sneezing snoring and wheezing 

The grunt may indicate either acute or chronic diseases of the chest. 
If associated with acute disease it indicates soreness; a painful condition 
is in acute pleurisy. In the horse the grunt sometimes indicates heaves, 
and when it is in acute the grunt always comes at the end of the expira- 
tion. If the grunt comes when struck at, it is generall}- chronic; as an 
example of the last is chronic disease of the larynx. In acute pneu- 
monia moving the horse and bringing out a grunt is a sure sign he has 
developed pneumonia, in cattle we must make allowance for they often 
grunt like man when there is nothing wrong with them, we find them 
grunt in abdominal troubles as well as those of the chest. 

Coughing is produced by a deep inspiration followed by a forced ex- 
piration usually produced by an irritation. There are two kinds, moist 
and dry: moist indicates the effusive stage and is in the acute; dry is in 
the chronic. It is dry in the first stage of bronchitis; in the more acute 
it may be either moist or dry. 

Dyspnoea is difficult breathing under all conditions. We find it is 
due to the accumulation o, mucous, blood or pus. Hydrothorax is 
caused by an accumulation of mucous, blood, p"us or such in the throat; 
mucous ravel is the passage of air through some such as this mucous, 
pus or blood. 

Roaring and whistling are both diseases of the throat, produced, as 
roaring is, by paralysis of the left current nerve, and the artenoid muscle 
falling into the passage of the artenoid cartilage. 

Crepitation is the crackling sound heard in the early stage of pneu- 
monia. This sound is similar to the sound caused by rubbing sheep 
skins together. This crepitation is caused by drying of the parts in the 
inflammation. 

Friction is in the early stage of pleurisy. 

Sneezing of the lower animals is no indication of disease. In the 
human their sneeze is generally the same in health as in disease, and 
the}' sneeze generally to expel some foreign substance from the nostrils; 
but in catarrh they sneeze a great deal; the mucous on the surface causes 
a tickling and they sneeze. This is seen in the case of glanders. You 
can tell the stall an afflicted horse has been in by the amount of filthy 
looking mucous around. 

Snoring may be connected with disease or health, and so does not 
indicate disease, though in catarrh the snore is increased. Jersey cows 
being finely inbred are more nervous in their breathing, and they snore, 
and their snore is often very loud. In horses, the snore is sometimes 
produced by hazy abscesses in the nose. 

Wheezing usually indicates chronic bronchitis in horses, though it 
is sometimes heard in broken horses. It is due to the chronic thickening 
of the membrane of the bronchial passage. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SXJRGERy. l7 

Catarrh, in the abstract, we mean catarrhal discharge from the 
mucous membrane or surface, and is applicable to any mucous surface, 
for instance, catarrh of the bowels, influenza, cholera or catarrh of the 
kidneys, and especially in scarlet fever. Generally, we refer to catarrh 
as it applies to the membrane of the sinuses of the head and posterior 
nares, this is called the Schneiderian membrane. 

There are three kinds of catarrh : acute, sub-acute and chronic. 
When it affects the Schneiderian membrane or lining in the turbinated 
bones it affects the trachea and large bronchii, and in very acute cases 
extends to the lungs. In very acute or sthenic cases we find the eyelids 
swell considerable, as seen in pink eye. With sthenic cases there is more 
•or less fever; in sub-acute, or asthenic there is seldom any fever. In 
the sthenic form there is a tendency to run down into the lungs. The 
horse is particularly susceptible to acute -catarrh running down into 
his lungs from the throat. 

Etiology. — Exposure to raw, cold winds when the horse is exhausted 
or overheated from exertion and is perspiring freely. When the ani- 
mal is a little out ot health he is more susceptible then than at any 
other time. About the first symptom of catarrh is sneezing, shaking of 
the bead, which indicates some pain, and then in a short time the mucous 
membranes become red; runs then into the dry stage first, then the wet, 
that is. during effusion. During the wet there is a great discharge from 
the nose; this discharge is at first watery and thin, and gradually be- 
comes more mucous and starchy. In the sthenic form it runs quite 
rapidly, that is, it produces a muco purulent discharge, and is often 
very profuse and filthy, it is partly starcliy and partly of a greenish 
yellow color, as a rule has no odor, while the chronic is usually very 
offensive. This discharge of the acute is very- light, and can often be 
seen floating on the water when the horse drinks. We never get a puru- 
lent discharge from the sthenic but do from the chronic, and as it runs 
along it becomes more and more purulent and less mucous. In the early 
stages of the a f ute the temperature rises, and the pulse will be from 44 
to 60, but the amount of fever depends upon the amount of surface 
involved. If the throat is involved the animal is liable to have a cough, 
when thee3 ? elids swell they will subside as the fever subsides. In the 
acute you will find often a mucous accumulation in the corner of the 
eyes and the submaxillary lymphatic glands often are swollen* 

Prognosis, it is favorable usually, seldom ever fatal that is, if you 
can confine it to the throat, and not let it run to the lungs, and even 
then it need not be considered necessarily dangerous. When the mucous 
follicles in the membrane become inflamed it is at first stimulated, then 
temporaril3' suspended, then comes on the wet stage, when it again 
becomes stimulated, shortly followed by a mucous discharge and sup- 
puration. The temperature in catarrh is usually 104, pulse 60. 

Treatment of the acute — First thing to do is to look after the hygiene 
then give a mild stimulant combined with a heart sedative, as there is a 
little of heart irritation we give a little nitrate or acetate, of potash or 
something cooling, locally, the application of chlorate of potash is good, 
especially if the throat is involved, medicated steaming is good in some 
cases, medicate the water with carbolic acid, iodine, etc., do this two or 
three times a day, this is seldom done except in severe cases, and some- 



iS 



iirli.UK\ AND FKACTIClt. 



times instead, the nasal douche is given. In giving the douche use a 
mild solution of chlorate potash, aqua solution of iodine, common salts, 
borax, etc. A good nasal douch is : i '/.■ solution of common salt, y 2 % 
solution of carbolic acid, 2% solution of boracic acid, equal parts. Use 
nasal douch if discharge does not stop in the course often days. 

For the treatment of the cough use camphor, belladonna, glyeyrr- 
hiza. I find in many cases that counter irritants are good, the following 
is sometimes used : R Aqua amnion., ol, terebinth, ol. lini. r equal 
parts We usually leave out the ammonia, this last recipe is to be 
ippl ed externally on the surface of the face, rub in well the first time, 
bul if you have to apply again, rub gently or it will take off the hair 
and blister, it is best to apply it hot. 

During convalescence you can dry up the discharge by giving iron 
tonic internally, and to prevent it running into chronic, you can give it 
either in Tinct. or in Sulph. , this iron is usually given two or three 
times a day lor a week or ten days. 

In sub acute, which is mild, you can give the same treatment as in. 
the acute, but in a milder form. 

Chronic this disease is sometimes spoken of as ozena, old authorities- 
called it nasal gleet. Chronic is developed as a sequel to the acute and 
especially where the acute is neglected. 

Phenominas of chronic catarrh are quite characteristic, in the first, 
place there is no fever and the temperature is normal, in the second 
there is an intermittant discharge, this is a well marked sign of chronic, 
tt times the pus dries, then again it is running freely, this may be due 
:o its getting lodged in the smuses for a time, then a fresh discharge 
:auses it to run again, and if long lodged in those sinuses it will be very 
jffensive, and this character of chronic catarrh has often made persons- 
mistake it for a case of glanders. This discharge in addition to 
)ffen-.ive often comes in chunks. In chronic sometimes necrosis oi Hie 
turbinated hones occur. Acute is usually seen in both nostrils, some- 
times only one, in sub acute generally in one, in chronic always in one. 
[n chronic the bones of the face bulge on account of the bone becoming 
thin and the sinuses being filled, and sometimes the nerves on the side 
iffected are paralyzed and the muscles become twisted off to one side- 
3ive soft feed, gentle work. 

LARYNGITIS. 

An iuflamm tion of the mucous lining in the larynx. When it 
extends to the pharynx it is called laryngo pharyngitis. 

Pathology. — We get sometimes in the excessive wet stage extensive 
edema, in which the tumefaction is so great as to materially interfere 
.vith the respiration; occasionalh' oedema seems to confine itself to 
particular parts, this is the rima glottidis. When the artenoid carti! 
ire affected and there is a sudden closing of the throat, it is called oedema 
jlottidis, this is the pathological condition when death takes place 
suddenly as in asphyxiation, the mucus forms very quickly and often 
:hokes the animal. As a result of the inflammation around the larynx 
ve often find a diphteric condition, but this is not diphtheria. 

In sphacelation the tissue sloughs off, and this part that sloughs off 
is called sphacelusthis, is in the latter stage of acute laryngitis. This 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 2'9 

diphtheric condition often extends forward more or less through the 
trachea, and as a result of this condition the animal usually dies after 
four, five, or six weeks in spite of all you do, they usually die from 
exhaustion or blood poisoning. 

Etiology. — The causes are about the same as that producing acute 
catarrh, We find the most common cause is the placing of horses in cold 
brick or stone stables after they have worked hard all day, and are 
heated and exhausted, it sometimes comes with a chill during the night 
in such cases. 

Semeiology. — There is always more or less constitutional disturb- 
ances and high fever, rapid, full, strong pulse, jerking up of the head, 
poking his nose out, inability to swallow and if he can swallow it is pain- 
ful, sometimes swelling is very rapid in the throat, sometimes when the 
horse swallows or tries to, the whole of it runs out of the nose, this di- - 
charge or flow is principally saliva, which accumulates very rapidly in 
the mouth due to the inflammation in the throat, which is so close to the 
carotid glands. There is an increased quantity of blood to the part and 
more heat, so the glands become stimulated, and so the flow of saliva 
increases. This flow of saliva is sometimes so great that it can be seen 
on the floor of the stall. The breathing in all such cases is more or less 
labored, and in severe cases there is a wheezing, and before death there 
is a sort of roaring sound. As d3 T spncea increases the eyes begin to bulge, 
the breathing more rapid, tears flow down the cheeks and finally the 
pulse becomes weaker and weaker and more rapid and at last the animal 
drops and dies asplhy-xiated. 

Prognosis. — If the severer signs are present and have run a long 
time, and swelling is very great, and inability to swallow has been for 
five or six days, or where there is much sloughing off or gangrene set in, 
you should be guarded, as this is unfavorable. 

Treatment in this case should be prompt and vigorous and not long 
delaj-ed on account of the rapid swelling that often occurs in this case 
through oedema. Steaming is good for about ^ an hour at a time, and 
medicate your water with carbolic acid or iodine, and it is well to put on 
a poultice, we use mustard, and renew every six hours. For internal 
treatment, if the3" can swallow, give belladonna glycyrrhiza, hemp and 
hydrastis canadensis, the best way to apply this last, is in the powder in 
the form of an electuary. Camphor is a special anodyne for the throat, 
allaying irritation and soreness. In making your poultice see that they 
are well on the sides as well as on the front of the throat. Small doses 
of aconite are good, not to affect the heart, but locally as a relief to the 
throat, two or three drops at a time makes a good anodyne. It is well 
to give with it such as nitric ether, sulph. ether, etc. These stimulants 
should not be omitted. Chlorate potash may be given every hour or 
two. In very mild cases tinct. iron i oz., chlor. potash ^ oz., makes a 
very nice gargle if given in the start of the trouble, also may be applied 
during convalescence from severe cases. Never force a horse to hold up 
his head to take medicine when suffering from these troubles, as it is 
painful and harder for him to swallow, keep drinking water before him 
all the time, as he will be thirsty and cannot drink much. You can also 
apply the following ammoniacal liniment: Aqua ammonia i oz., ol. 
terebinth i oz., ol. lini 2 oz., mix and apply to throat around base of ear 



20> iHiiOKv AND PKACTTCK. 

on a space about four inches wide. In case you find the dysptitieS 
bad and dangerous don't put off using the tracheotomv tul>es. Cut about 
six inches below the larynx and in the center of the throat a cut about 
two inches long, then cut a section from the cartilage, a round piece- 
about the size that your tube will fit in nicely, cut it from two sections- 
of the cartilage, the tube should be cleaned twice each day. 

Subacute laryngitis is usually very easily handled, and the same 
treatment as for the acute, though in a milder form will do. 

Chronic m this we have to diagnose all the chronic cases of the throat, 
including wheezing, roaring, etc. 

Etiology.—™ The most common cause is the acute, which the chronic 
follows on account of the organization of the exudates and on account of 
neglect or improper treatment during the acute stage, and often this is- 
followed by some incurable trouble that remains with the animal as long 
as he lives. Chronic often follows long continued anaemia, indigestion, 
worms, these produce a chronic cough. Decayed and irregular teeth 
operating as they do cause indigestion by inability to masticate properly,, 
in most -.>f these cases, especially in those troubles that follow acute there- 
is a chronic thickening of the lining of the larynx, and is liable to remain 
so during life. Under the head of chronic we may class all the conditions' 
under which we get noisy breathing, particularly roaring. Roaring is a 
loud hollow sound heard when the muscles are paralyzed on the left side 
of the larynx, some cases may be so acute as to cause the disease causing, 
roaring and to choke down the horse. It is claimed by some that roaring 
may be hereditarv. 

Special pathology.— The larynx is composed of five cartilageous- 
muscles, two arytenoids, one thyroid and two cricoid, one being the 
cricoideus posticus. In roaring the muscles controlling the arytenoid 
cartilages are paralyzed and the vocal cord drops down, we trace this 
paralysis to the nerve becoming paralyzed that is generally the left 
recurrent laryngeal nerve as given off from the pneumogastric nerve. 
The five muscles mentioned are red in health, in disease in this case of 
paralysis there is a fatty degeneration aud gets quite yellow. Roaring 
is only heard during inspiration, in severe cases there is often a chronic 
cough, and this cough can be called out by pretending to strike on the 
ribs or throat. This roaring is sometimes intermittent in the early 
stages, and the best way to find out a roarer is to run him yourself. 
Abscess in the false nostril often causes roaring, other causes are : Con- 
strictions of the trachea, distortion of the same and of the larynx, 
produced by accidents, such as a kick from an other horse. 

Treatment is as a rule very unsatisfactorv, the first thing to do is to 
ascertain the cause, if caused by paralysis of the nerve no internal or 
external treatment will do any good. 

Arytenectomy is practiced with some success as follows : First thing 
lay your horse down, then administer chloroform, then turn him on his 
back, wash the throat thoroughly, then make your incision immediately 
underneath the larynx, making a slit three or four inches long, then 
insert the tracheotomy tube, and also fix a dam so as to prevent the 
blood from running down into the throat, then hold open the sides of the 
incision and you can see the working of the arytenoid cartilage, and you 
can tell the affected cord by it being relaxed and not working, so there is 
no need of ever making a mistake as to the one affected, now cut out the 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 21 

affected arytenoid cartilage, if possible down to the articulation with the 
hyoid bone. There is only one artery that you will sever so there is not 
much danger of hemorrhage. Always use cold water to stop the hemorrhage, 
be sure it is pure. After removing the cartilage give antiseptic dressing, 
iodoform and tannic acid combined are good. It is best to leave the cut 
open so as to allow any food that may go down the trachea to escape, 
especially water, which is sure to run out while drinking. After first 
treatment use a hollow powder blower to get your antiseptic dressing on. 
Give nothing to eat for the first twenty-four hours, then soft food for 
three or four days, then your ha}'. 

Fees. — We charge $100, $50 down and the balance when cured. 

Whistling is recognized as being of two kinds, dry and moist. They 
are both produced by the air passing through the tubes contracted, that 
is the air passages. When these passages are wet we have the moist 
stage, and when they are dry, the dry whistling. In acute cases, as 
diphteria, the whistle is moist; in chronic cases they are usually dry. 
Wheezing and whistling are due to a distortion in form or size in the 
larynx or air passages. Wheezing is a modified whistle. In a majority 
of cases the cause of it is fracture of the nasal bones, or on account of the 
formation of a polypus in the nose or throat, and in case there is a dent 
left wh(-re the fracture unites the best thing to do is to trephine as soon 
as possible, and in the case of the polypus use an ecrasure, using a piece 
of steel wire instead of the chain, being much more convenient and' as 
safe. Wheezing is present in asthma. Thick wind may be classed with 
the wheeze. The causes are generally in the air passages, but it may be 
in the lungs. In all those troubles thick wind comes first, next wheezing, 
then roaring, due to the passages growing smaller, and in all those cases 
In addition to the noisy breathing th-re is a heaving of the flanks. 

Chronic Cough is usually due to some diseases of the larynx. Chronic 
thickening and inflammation causes the mucous membrane to become 
very much irritated. In this case there is an increased vascularity, par- 
ticularly of the vocal cords, and the cough is recognized as being dry, 
husky and hacking. This cough when due to laryngeal trouble is very 
irregular, it may be only a few coughs at a time when first taken out, or 
it may be a spell of coughing lasting several minutes and coming oftener. 
This cough can be brought out by pinching the larynx, other times it is 
necessary to speed the animal. A chronic coueh is looked upon as very 
ohjectionable, and is incurable because it is difficult to reach the seat of 
the trouble. I think counter irritation is the best thing that can be done 
in this case and to relieve the cough give internally: camphor, belladonna, 
glycyrrhiza, digitalis and hydrastis, also tinct. of iron ^ oz., chlor. 
potash y?, oz., and continue for months. For the cough Prof. Dick gave 
a bolus composed of powdered digitalis 1 dr., powdered opium 1 dr., 
powdered calomel r dr., camphor 1 dr., given night and morning. 
Iodide of potash is good for the thickening of the membrane 

Croup in Cattle is different from in any of the other lower animals, 
called synanche tracheolis. There is a tendency in cattle for the inflamed 
membrane to exude more of the plastic nature than in the horse, which 
is more mucous, this in cattle coagulates and organizes, and forms what 
is known as false membrane, and is almost always confined to young 
animals, while in cattle something else is more likely to occur than 



22 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

croup. Croup is usually seen in young cattle that are left out to sleep 
in creek bottoms when the nights are cold and frosty, this trouble usually 
occurs in October and November. The false membrane that is sometimes 
formed will become loose and is coughed up whole, but it generally 
comes in chunks. It is of a grayish white, sometimes yellowish brown 
color. 

Semeiology. — There is a hoarse cough, with a free ropy saliva from 
the mouth, similar to that in laryngitis, this is due in the horse to the 
stimulation of the carroiid glands. There will be more or less swelling. 
with some pain, difficult swallowing, enlargement of the parolid gl 
and mucous glands around the throat. Pus wont differ from other acute 
diseases. In the course of from two to five days the false mem' 
either comes away or softens from fatty degeneration and so bee 
loosened. Suppuration of the mucous membrane often occurs underneath 
this false membrane. This is a serious condition. 

Treatment. — Put the animal where it is warm and comfortable, if 
dyspnoea is serious practice tracheotomy same as in the horse. Give 
internal application that will act antiseptically to this inflamed throat, 
such as chlor. potash, borax, inhalations of medicated steaming, medicate 
with iodine, permanganate of potash. Sometimes swabbing is good with 
the nitrate of silver 30 gr. to 1 oz. water. In the horse we have some- 
thing like this, it is called quinsy in the human and means a suppuration 
of the tonsils. The horse cannot get this because he has no ton-ils, but 
gets what is called deep abscesses in the throat. Quinsy in the pigs i> 
like in the human. This is called in human practice cynanche tonsilitis. 
and often strangles the patient. 

Symptoms of these abscesses in the horse are similar to those in 
laryngitis, and usually there is some little fever. Temperature may be 
as high as 104 while the pus is forming somewhere. For these cas-. 
usually poultice for a week or ten days, then operate on the throat by first 
locating the bloodvessels, and then making an incision parallel with them. 
so that if one of them is cut it will be lengthwise instead of across and so 
be less troublesome, then cut into the abscess, and if necessary enlarge 
the opening with a director, syringe out with antiseptics, after 
poultice, give internally camphor or glycyrrhiza, feed on soft food, dress 
night and morning, keep up poultices for three or four weeks, if the skin 
gets sore use camphorated oil instead of poultice for three or four days. 

Quinsy in the pig comes on the same as croup in the calf. 

Treatment. — Scarify deeply and outside, give a little chlor. potash 
in their water or feed, rub outside with turpentine oil. 

Diphtheria. — This is not very well known in veterinary practice, the 
question is whether it exists or not? Prof. Williams says it does exist 
in the dog or horse, but in this country we have never seen any in the 
horse, but in dogs we have seen much fever, malignant sore throat, some 
sort of specific blood poisoning, rapid nervous prostration and death from 
two to five days, and there is no disease we have met with that runs so 
regular a course as this does and terminates in death, and all die. The 
first symptoms in the dog are, attempt to swallow without success, red- 
ness of e}'-es, loss of appetite, then the mouth begins to open, the lower 
jaw drops down the inside of the mouth grows a darker red till it becomes 
a dark brown, the throat becomes more or less tumified, the saliva is ropy 
and the glands around the throat swollen and a nervous prostration takes 



VETER1NAY MEDECINE AND SURGERY. 23 

place some hours before death. Many of these symptoms are similar to those 
of rabies. In rabies there is however always delirium and inclination of the 
animal to bite. Prof. Williams in autopsy, found the stomach full, which 
is a strong symptom of rabies. Where we have examined we always 
found the stomach empty. In rabies there is nervous paroxysms, and 
always in rabies there is delirium while in this disease there is none of 
these. In rabies the dog dies in a comatose condition, in this they do 
not, and we have put curs in the cage with dogs affected with this disease 
and they were not bitten, and as a rule they will bite when in delirium. 
Dr. Lagorf > pronounced a piece of the stomach of one of those cases to be 
similar to those of rabies, but taken all into consideration we are inclined 
to think it is not rabies, but are not sure. I believe a rabid dog is 
always delirious. 

Treatment, Rational.— Give quinine and stimulants and antiseptics. 
We failed to cure a single case We concluded there is some specific 
disease in it since it runs such a regular course. 

BRONCHITIS. 
(Itis .always stands for inflammation.) 

There are three kinds, acute, subacute and chronic. It is very 
prevalent in this climate Bronchitis is an inflammaiion of the mucous 
membrane lining the bronchi. In the horse we seldom ever find uncom- 
plicated cases of bronchitis. It usually starts as bronchitis and runs 
down into the lungs involving the throat and lungs, then called bronchial 
pneumonia that is the form we mostly meet. It often also involves the 
pleura, then called pleuro-pneumia In cattle we often have uncompli- 
cated forms of bronchitis and is then confined to the bronchi, and is the 
easiest form to treat, and easiest of recovery. When it is severe in the 
animai it usually starts in the large bronchi and extends to the smaller 
air passages and involves the air vesicles and runs a definite course ; first, 
irritation ; second, congestion ; third, inflammation, and may be wet or 
dry. In the inflammation we get effusion and exultation. In mild cases 
there is an absorption of the exudate and recovery, in severe cases it may 
go from suppuration to septsemia and death, or terminates in the second 
stage in occlusion and collapse of the air vesicles, and death. This col- 
lapse of the >ir vesicle^ is called, atelectasis. 

The time for recover} 7 in the mild form is from one to four week:-, 
but in the other case may run on to five or six weeks, but may die any 
time if septsemia has set in. 

Etiology.— Exposure to sudden cold or dampness, same as diseases 
of the air passages. We often find a common cause is an extension of 
some throat trouble kown into the liitljjs, also visciated air, found in 
shipping across the ocean during storms when everything is closed down 
and the air becomes foul. . This foul air will precipitate glanders when 
there is any lurking in the system, and any other specific disease that 
may be laving latent. Bronchitis is often caused bj r the introduction 
into the bronchial tubes of foreign bodies such as medicine, and here 
remember to be careful not to hold a horse's head too high when giving 
medicine, and if he coughs at once let the head down, as they are liable 
to get medicine down the air passages. Children and dogs often get 
things down their throat that they are playing with. Bronchitis due to 
inhalation of hot air or smoke in burning stables usually proves fatal. 



24 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Semeiology. — Bronchitis is usually ushered in with rigor, following 
the rigor we have high fever, usually from 105 to J07, in draft stallions 
may run up to 108. Pulse, round, full and soft, running from 45 to 6o T 
during rigor it runs from 80 to 100, according to the severity of the case. 
It is difficult to take the pulse in bronchitis because h is so soft in the 
acute form. The respiration is always accelerated in the acute form, and 
as the disease progresses we will find the respired air very hot. This is 
a valuable symptom, as it tells us the disease has run some time, even 
though the owner tells us different. We also find that the air becomes 
cold when the pulse runs up to 7o and 80, due to the fact that the air does 
not reach the air vesicles on account of the occlusion of the bronchi and 
there is only a tubular breathing, as occlusion of the bronchi advances, 
the air becomes cooler and cooler, respiration more frequent, and there 
is heard a hoarse, husky, painful bronchial cough. This cough is made 
with the mouth closed, the other kinds with the mouth open. The last 
kind of cough is due to the effusion, and is a moist one, the bronchial 
cough is a dry one Auscultation* is the means we have in the early 
stage You will hear a loud rasping sound called ronchies, this will be 
heard also in the first stage of congestion in the mild cases at the base of 
the neck, when severe it will be heard in the lungs and not in the neck. 
When the disease has reached the stage of effusion you can hear the 
mucous ral, which proves that the large bronchi are affected. This 
mucous ral will be heard in the lower third of the passages and not in 
the upper. The third stage of the disease is recognized by the foetid 
smell, very disagreeable even before there is any discharge from the 
nostrils, after the second stage when the rasping sound was heard. When 
the horse is convalescent the sensibility of the mucous membrane seems 
to subside, the cough more prolonged and less painful, aud there is a 
mucous discharge from the nose. In the early stage of the disease there 
would be more or less stimulation of the salivary glands, but no increase 
of thirst, but it is in the later part. The urine is scant and highly colored, 
and appetite more or less lost. Cattle, sheep and dogs will lie down, but 
if the horse does he soon gets up again with groans. The faeces is at 
first dry, but in a few days becomes slimy colored. This is a symptom 
that the fever has lasted three to six days. Precussion does not show 
any material change from health. In the latter stage weakness becomes 
very great so the horse staggers. Emaciation takes place very rapidly, 
and the visible mucous membrane becomes very dark colored. In the 
first stage the nostrils become dilated, and in the second the expired air 
is loaded with moisture as the symptoms advance, finally the horse drops 
and soon dies. 

Special pathology. — The first effect produced by the acute inflamma- 
tion is desquamation of the columnar epithelium, and also of the ciliated, 
this leaves the whole bronchial surface denuded of its membrane, leaving 
it unprotected. The inflammation often involves the mucous tissue 
extending through the basement membrane, and all tissue around that 
part swells and is consumed. On account of the ciliated epithelium being 
removed and the mucous not being got rid of there is a possibility of it 
settling, the watery part being expired and the inspissated matter remains, 
becomes putrid and forms tumors. This used to be considered a kind of 
tuberculosis, but it is now known better. Next is the second stage that 
of effusion, then the serum and the mucous mixes and accumulates on 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 25 

the surface of the bronchi (large ones) causing local inflammation. The 
horse will usually cough this up, or will lower his head and it will run 
out, or may be passed out in the moist respired air, or as the inspirations 
are stronger than the expirations this mucous maybe drawn back, causing 
occlusion of the smaller bronchi, this causes what is called atelectasis, 
that is a collapse of the air vessicles, or a part of them, and is followed by 
a species of consolidation, and resembles a foetal lung. When the lung 
is in this condition, it is impervious to air, is so that it will not crepitate 
when handled, and sinks in water. Those are good proofs in case you 
are called to testify in court on the severity of a case. In case the horse 
dies in the second stage the small bronchi are full of mucous. The lungs 
of such a case will float, but it may have been a severe case anyhow, as 
the horse may have died from asphyxiation. In the third stage there 
will be this condition of mucous and more or less gangrene, that is the 
large bronchi, the small ones filled with a frothy mucous, or may be 
covered with small gangrenous spots. In cattle in atelectasis there may 
be the same condition. When this lung is first taken from the chest it 
will be a little larger than the collapsed lung, and when cut across will 
be found to have been congested and filled with the dark venous blood, 
but after being exposed to the air and light takes up oxygen, the 
blood assumes a scarlet color, say in about 20 minutes. 

Treatment. — The first thing is to put the animal in a warm, comfort- 
able stable, large, loose, roomy stall, pay particular attention to the hygiene, 
such as pure air; it is best to put a stove in the stable, if there is no other 
way of heating, and have the air pass in over the stove, but not have the 
stove close to the animal. Keep a temperature of from 60 to 66, depending 
how the horse was kept before it was necessary to put the stove in ; give 
plenty of good bedding, and during the chill plenty of clothing, and as 
the fever decreases take off blanket at a time, but never bleed, as they 
did in the old way, as the horse needs all the vitality he has, and do all 
you can to keep up a strong heart in the horse. In bad cases it is best 
to take the pulse regularly and to give stimulants of different kinds : 
spirits of nitre, ether. In the first stage lac. ammonia; whisky is invalu- 
able, and if your horse gets worse, increase your stimulants. In case the 
breathing and lung troubles are severe we often give chloral hydrate, or 
a little morphine; be careful in giving morphine, we usually give about 
2 grs. three times a daj^, and the chloral t^drate from 1 to 2 drs. a day. 
It is a good plan to give the horse a medicated steaming, medicate w T ith 
iodine, permanganete potash, or carbolic acid. Muriate ammonia is 
indicated as being a special bronchial stimulant. In the early stages a 
heart sedative should be given, as tincture of aconite or veratrum. give 
only in small doses and watch the heart. Keep up a good strong pulse, 
keep it strong from the start, and if whisky does not do it, give digitalis, 
and as a last resort in very severe cases give nitro-glycerine hypoder- 
mically. In the first three days stimulate the kidneys freely. In fever 
there is combustion and belladonna's action is to contract, and it contracts 
the. capilliaries and so lessens the flow of blood and so lessens the flow to 
the inflamed part. Treat a chill vigorously and also give sedatives; you 
can give phenacetin or acetanilide,but be sure to always give some stimu- 
lant with them, about 1 dr. of ether and 2, 3 or 4 oz. of whisky. Do not 
exercise at all, We think counter irritation is good. Prof. Robertson 



26 THEORY AND PRACTICE- 

believes in this, but Williams thinks it should not be given, but rather 
poultices, which we know to be impracticable and inconvenient, except 
in dog practice, where you can take the dog into a house. We often 
prefer anodynes as this one : ammonia aqua i oz., ol. terebinth i oz., 
ol. lini enough to make all 8 ozs., rub well once or twice a day; do not 
rub so freely after the first application. Mustard is very good, handy 
and convenient; mix it a little thinner than for human, so as to run 
through the hair to the skin, then put a newspaper over and then cover 
with blankets, so as to keep warm, and also to help the mustard to do 
its work. As to the frequency of dosing — about the same as in simple 
fever, but a little more vigorously, and reduce the temperature as soon 
as possible. 

Chronic Bronchitis. — This is not as common in the lower animals 
as in men, but it occurs sometimes, and with it a bronchial cough is 
recognized as coming from the bronchial tubes and is made with the 
mouth open; usually there is a noisy breathing or wheezing, caused by 
the chronic thickening of the lining of the tubes; this wheeze is about 
the same in expiration and in inspiration; in all cases there are more or 
less emaciation and indigestion. Sometimes chronic bronchitis comes 
about as a result of indigestion, because the stomach and the lungs are 
so intimately connected. In this sort of bronchitis we get a chronic 
dilation of the small bronchial tubes and an impairment of the lung 
substance as a result of the severe indigestion. When the temperature 
goes down to 104 it is favorable, that is, if the heart grows strong with 
it. During convalescence it is good to apply hot lard once or twice a 
da}'. In dogs we often use mother tincture of sponges, or mother tincture 
of toasted sponges. This we usually give in iroin 2 to 10 drop doses 
every 2 or 3 hours. In acute bronchitis, which we can tell by the cough, 
which is well marked and can be drawn out by pinching the trachea, 
this mother tincture of toasted sponges is also good lor little children 
when they have colds. In cattle we often get cavious tumors, and this 
keeps up irritation and runs into chronic bronchitis. 

Semeiology. — The most important symptom we get by the labored 
breathing being a sort of a double expiratory movement. There is a 
chronic cough, dry, hard and hollow. 

Treatment. — We cannot bank very heavily on these cases. Give 
iodide potash internally, and if possible run to grass, usually give 1 dr. 
doses night and morning for about ten days, then stop for a while. In 
case there is severe dyspnoea give anodynes, such as chloral hydrate, 
lobelia. Give nux vomica internally; this helps the stomach, and so 
helps the lungs. 

Emphysema. Broken Wind, Heaves. — There are two kinds, vesicular 
(horses), and interlobular (cattle). There can be emphysema of any 
part of the body, and is sometimes called emphysematic condition. In 
cases where the air gets into the cellular tissue, that is, where the tissue 
becomes infiltrated with air, this condition is recognized by passing the 
hand over the skin where it is swollen; you will find it flexible and 
elastic. In broken wind we have infiltration of the lungs, and it occurs 
in two ways. 

Vesicular. — In this the air vesicles become dilated, and this dila- 
tion causes them to press hard on the blood, vessels, has a tendency to 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 2^ 

make the blood vessels contract or diminish in size, and a gradual deface- 
ment of them, or a destruction of them, followed as a consequence by 
anaemia, and the nervous system leading to the localized emphysema 
may be injured by acute bronchitis, as in case of occlusion of some of the 
small bronchi. The air cells at the ends of this bronchi take a rest, and 
while they are taking a rest the healthy ones are doing double work, and 
soon become dull and pale, constituting a case of ephj^sema. Another 
way that this is developed is when the horse is being driven fast facing a 
wind, the stomach being full, — this does not allow the diaphram to do its 
work properly, — and the ventricle on the right side becomes weak, and in 
this case we find ventricular dilatation, which necessarily pioduces 
weakened cardiac power. The air cells gradually become larger and 
larger till finally they are ruptured. In the horse they may rupture into 
each other as the lungs are so interlobular. This rupture of the cells is 
seldom seen in cattle, while the interlobular is seldom ever seen in horses. 
Interlobular is an accumulation of air in the interlobular tissues, which 
sometimes occurs from rupture of the walls of the vesicles; other times 
it oozes through the pores of the vessicles due to an aenemic condition; 
this form is nearly always confined to cattle. 

Etiology is tabulated under four heads : ist, heredity ; 2d, breed ; 
3d, dietetic ; 4th, structural changes dependent on a previous diseased 
condition. Heredity, all kinds of malformations and constitutional 
weaknesses are hereditary, for instance, a man would be foolish to breed 
a good mare to a stallion that was affected with heaves, and the stallion 
is the principal in breeding, as he furnishes the seed, but of course the 
soil must be good, and therefore the mare should also be good. 

Breed. — This naturally goes back to the hereditary, as for instance 
we often find breeds that are predisposed to disease, as heaves. Dietetics 
You will notice that animals after a severe attack of some thoracie 
disease are usually short winded, showing that the lungs were per- 
manently injured. We are inclined to think every case of heaves is in a 
gluttonous horse, and you will notice him get pot bellied generally. The 
first thing to bear in mind is that the pneumogastric nervous system 
supplies both the lungs and the stomach, and the gluttenous horse over- 
loads his stomach. They eat as a rule all they can hold, the effect of 
this is a dilation of the stomach, you then get the same condition in the 
stomach that you get in dilation of the vesicles, causing an anaemic 
condition and produces chronic indigestion shown in the staring coat. 
Sometimes feeding on timothy causes heaves, and it has been found that 
taken off of timothy and fed on prairie hay they have often recovered 
completely. Ground grain, mixed with bran, is good food for heaves. 

Semeiology. — One of the most important symptoms we get is the 
double expiratory movement, the first part being performed naturally, 
but the last half is the abnormal part and is jerky, the inspirator}^ move- 
ment is made easity. I may say here that too ripe clover also causes 
heaves, and like timothy should be cut before the pollen has fallen. 
Often a horse is taken out and driven without showing any signs of 
heaves, but on being forced on a full stomach develops the heaves, which, 
had been coming on, but is now suddenly taken very severe. Symptoms 
continued. — There is no fever no matter how acute the case; the pulse as 
a rule is nearly normal, may be from 10 to 25; it may be slightly irregular. 
This is no indication of the heaves, but is of indigestion. Respiration 



28 THEORY AND PRACTICE- 

usually very materially increased, often double; there is a jerky motion 
of the flanks in the expiration ;it may be jerk}'- and then there is a sudden fall 
back of the abdominal muscles after the respiration, which gives the mo tion 
peculiar in heaves. Cough is short and husky, and a bronchial cough; 
there is a mucous ral, but only occasionally ; but this is of no importance. 
In the early part young horses retain their spirits; old horses suffer from 
nervous condition, become pot bellied, emaciated, staring coat, and sweat 
easily; this is brought about bj^ the chronic indigestion. 

Treatment. — One of the most important things to remember in treat- 
ing heaves is to muzzle the gluttonous horse after you have given him 
the proper amount of feed; change the diet, give easily digested food, 
and if they are confirmed gluttons put shavings for bedding, as they will 
even eat their straw bedding; give grass when it is possible; dilute all 
contracted food; if you give oats scald them and mix with Dran. 

Therapeutics. — Give some drugs that promote a healthy condition 
of the bowels and therefore of the nerves, as arsenic about 2 gr. night 
and morning, with nux vomica jHz dram night and morning for about 
two or three months. If the paroxysms are revere as dyspnoea, give 
chloral hydrate, belladonna, lobelia. Smart weed is used in Canada. 
Be careful in recommending a horse as being sound that he has not been 
drugged or patched up by tricky horse dealers, but if you have the 
slightest doubt make them leave the horse with you two or three days, 
when the drug will have worn off. 

Asthma. — Some authors make a difference between this and broken 
wind, others do not. Prof. Robertson being one of the former. He says 
it is a peculiar diseased condition marked by paroxisms in the attacks 
marked with much difficulty in breathing. So we say that asthma is a 
spasmodic paroxysm, probably due to the spasmodic contraction of the 
muscular fibrous muscles encircling the bronchial tubes; and so we are 
inclined to believe that asthma does exist in the horse. In the early 
stages of broken wind there is a condition closely resembling asthma, 
though there are intermittant pauses which are not in broken wind. 

Cause. — The most common cause is hereditary, and we get from di- 
rect or reflex nervous irritation, or from overwork, etc. Prof. Robertson 
says that asthma should be classed with the constitutional diseases; in 
that case it should go back to hereditary, and he believes this case to be 
from dietetic causes, and gives the same cause as for broken wind. There 
is in the early stage of broken wind a large amount of irritation in the 
surrounding muscular tissue of the bronchi attended with paroxysms. 

Semeiology. — The attack is sudden and distressing, but is often of 
short duration, and there is considerable dyspnoea in inspiration in asth- 
ma as well as in expiration, due to the diminished calibre of the bronchi; 
the double respiratory is less marked than in heaves. Asthma is a func- 
tional disease while broken wind is organic. During the attacks of this 
disease there is an anxious countenance and more or less exhaustion; 
sometimes a cough — it is short, deep and suppressed, but not regular — 
and wheezing is more distinctly heard than in heaves. Auscultation or 
percussion does not reveal any diseased condition; a strong proof that 
it is asthma is, that there may be a disappearance of the symptoms; there 
is no fever, as a rule; sometimes the constitutional disturbances are con- 
siderable; after existing a few hours there may be a mucous rale. Breath- 
ing is sometimes thick, done almost wholly by the abdominal muscles. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 20 

Treatment. — Remedies useful in heaves are good in asthma, as ano- 
dynes and stimulants; also the depressor motor agents, as ether and 
chloroform; the bromides: belladonna, aconite and chloral; also morphine 
and arsenic are recommended by Williams, and remember, what may do 
in one case will not benefit all, so try different drugs until you get the one 
that suits the case. 

Congestion of the Lungs. — Known by the names of Pulmonary 
Apoplexy, Hemorrhagic Infaction or Impaction. This is a disease that 
exists occasionally, but not very often. In its nature it is simply a form of 
Hyperaemia of the lungs. In this there is to a great extent an engorge- 
ment of the pulmonary blood vessels, and, as in. all bad cases of conges- 
tion there is a tendency of exudation through the walls, generally due to 
some obstruction in them and a consequent dilation. In some cases rup- 
ture of the capillaries takes place, then we get patches of haemorrhages 
known as Ecchymosis. 

Etiology — The most common cause is overexertion suddenly applied 
when not in a condition to take. It does not usually run to such a seri- 
ous condition in this country as in the old country. For example, a horse 
is kept in the stable for some time and is fed highly, gets no exercise and 
has developed adipose tissue; then he is taken out and apparently is feel- 
ing good; the driver speeds him for three miles or so, the horse is sweating, 
is short of wind, the eyes become bloodshot, the ears droop and the horse 
stops, there is a distress for breath, the pulse is tumultuous, the heart's 
action is weak, the expired air is cold, often times frothy mucous often 
streaked with blood comes from the nose, and where the tissues are weak 
get bleeding from them, on account of rupture of the capillaries. This is 
a case where the horse was not probably predisposed to the disease, and 
he would not get it if he had been properly exercised until the adipose 
tissue had been reduced and the muscles that had become weak had time 
to get strong. In cases of severe dyspnoea the horse may die in an hour 
or two, or may run on for a few days and then die from dyspnoea or gan- 
grene, or if only a part of the lung is affected, from gangrene of that part; 
this in from a week to ten days. The symptoms are nearly the same in 
all cases, but the causes are many. It may occur from embolism, as that 
part of the lung supplied by the vessel gets plugged. Sometimes a mod- 
erate exposure brings it on, and may run to a serious case and die. 

Splenification of the lungs means becoming of the nature of spleen, 
that is, so severely congested. 

Post Mortem — Pulmonary blood vessels are entirely engorged in a 
state of apoplexy. You will find patches of black consolidation, but on 
In feeling they are spongy. These are the patches spoken of as ecchymosis. 
extravasation there is a rupture of the capillaries and a flow of blood into 
the surrounding tissue. If cut across the lung it is black, or the blood 
vessels are filled with tarry blood; the lung will float under the water; 
the exposure to the light and air will turn this lung to a scarlet color. 
Hypostatic congestion is congestion taking place after death, that is, usu- 
ally a settling of the blood to the most available part, or to the side on 
which the patient was laying for some hours. It flows there by gravi- 
tation either during life or at death. 

Treatment. — First thing to do is to remove the cause, and then giv 
fresh air. If it occurs on the road take off the harness, rub well, give a 
small drink of cold water; give stimulants, as whisky; give sulphuric ether 



30 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

it is good; bleeding, though not favored much now, might do good in this 
case; give no counter irritants, they are harmful; keep quiet; give laxa- 
tive food and keep a strong heart. 

Pneumonia. — This means an inflammation of the parenchymatous 
tissue of the lungs, which is the functional part of the organ. Pneumonia 
exists in three forms — acute, sub-acute and chronic. In the acute we find 
the inflammation locates itself in the walls of the vesicles. There is an 
exudate thrown out into the interlobular tissue and is very extensive; 
this coagulates and partly organizes and gets quite solid. 

Old authors recognize 3 or 4 kinds of pneumonia; the more recent 
but 3. The old called the 1st, croupous or lobular; they meant by croupous 
that the exude was fibrous. The more recent ones look upon it as meaning 
the formation of false membrane, and as there is no false membrane they 
dropped it and use fibrous instead. 2d, Catharrhal; the old authors used 
to classify it with lobular where it was in patches in the lungs, — not in the 
whole lung, — this has been found to be an error; you can have the lining 
of the bronchial tubes inflamed in all kinds of pneumonia; so it can't be 
confined to catarrhal alone. 3rd, Caseous or interstitial; by this was 
meant pneumonia that involves the interstitial tissue, more particularly 
the interlobular on the outside, and was usually localized. In tuberculo- 
sis we get interstitial pneumonia; it is caseous, and in glanders you get 
interstitial pneumonia, but it is fibrous, but it is called fibrous inside the 
caseous. Caseous sometimes occur in cattle and in man; catarrhal in the 
dog and children, while in the horse it is the interstitial. The character- 
istics of these different kinds are — the fibrous is more solid, more dense, 
and is glistening when cut, aud passing the fingers over it, it feels rough; 
the caseous is opaque, smooth and lusterless; catarrhal is smooth and 
moist; it may glisten a little but is comparatively soft; we seldom see 
interstitial pneumonia in the lower animals unless from poisoning. In 
the chronic form the most typical example is seen in glanders in the 
horse, tuberculosis in any animal, including human ; this form of 
pneumonia starts at a certain spot and spreads slowly, and involves a 
part from as big as a walnut to the whole of the lung. Coal miners are 
predisposed to interstitial pneumonia from inhaling the coal dust. 

We recognize pneumonia as running through certain definite stages. 
1st. Arterial injection; this goes to the time of the chill and is the start- 
ing point of the inflammation; this is the stage of congestion, and accord- 
ing to the severity and extent there is painful breathing, and by auscul- 
tation we get crepitation as heard in the air vesicles, caused by congestion 
producing dryness and the pressure on the vesicles. The 2nd stage is 
that of odematous or of effusion, and is more or less prolonged, it may 
last but a day or two if both lungs are involved, but if only one lung is 
involved it may run into the third stage in about a week or ten days. In 
post mortem if this lung was cut across we would find the interlobular 
tissue infiltrated with serum and frothy mucous and an engorged condi- 
tion of the whole; the lung is of a dark brown red color, soft and easily 
torn apart; we could see that the elasticity of the lung had been 
destroyed; the lung will float out, not on top of the water like the healthy 
one; in the latter part of the 2nd stage the lung would go almost to the 
bottom, and when it reached the third stage it would sink. This stage is 
called the Red Hepatization; in this the air is all squeezed out of the air 
vesicles. In the third stage the effusion and exudate have become quite 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 3 1 

solid on account of the fibrin in it, and the lung no longer crepitates, as 
there is no air left in the vesicles. In the horse in this stage there is a 
further softening, in cattle it is sometimes hardening, and in this stage 
the lung substance is of a dark red color, but becomes scarlet on exposure 
to the air and light. In the ox this stage does not develop evenly as in 
the horse, but in patches; it will always be found mottled, as some lobu- 
las are effected and others not so yet. The time it takes to run from the 
3rd to the 4th is indefinite, but as the color in the 3rd fades it runs into 
the 4th stage, that is the only difference you get, from red to gray 
hepatization; this has a tendency to degenerate into a soft mass and liqui- 
fies more or less. The horse never runs to this stage. In the ox in this 
there is a further hardening. If only about one-half or one-third of a 
lung is effected there is some chance of recovery, but if all of one lung is 
affected the chances are small. The fourth stage is sometimes spoken of 
as suppuration stage; usually the horse dies in the second stage from a 
filling up of the interlobular tissue and pressure on the air vesicles. If 
both lungs are effected in the 2nd he will surely die, and if only one lung 
and runs on to the other stage he may die from gangrene; this gangrene 
may exist from two to five days and becomes soft and ver3 r foetid and is of 
a dirty green color in autopsy. 

Location. — In one lung called right or left lateral pneumonia; in 
both lungs called double pneumonia. We find the greatest tendency to 
be to choose the right lateral. A German physician made an average 
from 6666 cases in humans that he saw affected and gave 53.7% right 
lateral, 38.23% left lateral and 8.08% double, and this average will 
about suit the horse also. In case of recovery from pneumonia in a good 
case the inflammation terminates b} r resolution; tins occurs by softening 
of the exudate and of course along with it the consolidation and absorp- 
tion. In some cases this does not take place nicely and leaves the lung 
with some chronic inflammation which injures the wind of the horse. 

Etiology. — Most common cause is exposure, especially in a damp, 
cold stable, when exhausted and sweaty; inhalation of hot air or smoke, 
foreign bodies getting into the bronchi; wounding of the lung from any 
cause, as broken rib, shaft splinter, bad ventilation, etc. It may be 
caused in one lung by a Sfhrombus where there is no free arterial anasto- 
mosis. 

Semeiology. — There is a chill which lasts generally several hours 
and is well marked. Soon after the chill, when pneumonia is developing, 
we find there is labored breathing, elbows more or less turned out, and 
increased working of the ribs, heaving of the flanks, and the expired air 
is hot, pulse is increased in frequency, is full, loud and a little shade 
softer than normal; but in a bad case the pulse is rapidly increased, 
smaller and weaker. In uncomplicated cases of pneumonia usually there 
is no cough, but if the bronchial tubes are involved there will be a cough; 
when there is a cough it is not painful. In the first case by auscultation 
we hear crepitation; in the second stage we hear the same with a greater 
rasping in the bronchial tubes, and as this develops inflammation the 
breathing is more and more rapid; corresponding to the distress in breath- 
ing the pulse becomes weaker and weaker. The expired air in the 
second stage is cold as it approaches the third. When the third is 
developing the breathing becomes shallow; is tubular. In a hepatized 
lung we can often hear tubular breathing; this proves the occulation of 



32 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

the bronchi, as the difficulty in breathing increases we find that the 
nostrils are dilated as he labors for air to breathe and the false nostrils 
flap, the pulse by this time may be 80 or 90 and weak, the visible 
mucous membrane gets darker and darker, and is livid when it gets to 
the third stage, in this the dyspnoea is very marked, in his efforts to get 
air he will move about with an anxious countenance, he will sigh, and 
there is an accumulation of mucous in the corner of the eyes, the 
extremities get cold, the horse will stand to the last, but the ox 
similarly affected will lie down. Temperature in the early part might 
not be above 103, where it only involves one-third or one-half of a lung, 
immediately following a chill it will be up to 106, and hang around that, 
and in case of consolidation it will be increased as long as it lasts, till 
the exudate softens and is absorbed. In this case it is not well to try 
to reduce the temperature too soon, as it may have a bad effect on the 
heart, so reduce it gradually. Where the temperature starts in at 106 
it is likely to hang on from four to six days. The horse is liable to die 
in the second stage oftener than to run into the third or fourth, that is 
where both lungs are affected in the second he dies from oedema, third 
stage from pressure on the air vesicles, or he may run on to fourth and 
die of poisoning that is gangrene, this is death from pyaemia. In favor- 
able cases the absorption takes place by softening process, and as it 
softens the breathing becomes easier, pulse and temperature improves at 
the same time. Anaemia is one of the effects of any debilitating disease 
particularly pneumonia. 

Treatment. — The rigor is treated the same as in any other case, we 
do not usually find out that pneumonia is developing till the case is from 
two to six hours advanced after the rigor, but in some cases the breathing 
is labored from the start. Immediately following the rigor give 
medicines such as aconite or veratrum to quiet the heart, and bella- 
donna to limit the congestion, give diffusive stimulants to keep up 
Strong circulation. Counter irritants are invaluable in the early part to 
draw the blood to the surface from the affected parts. We believe that 
those given early will often save the patient. If mild irritants do not 
suffice in a short time, say eight or ten hours rapeat, and continue their 
use night and morning until the temperature is reduced. Ammoniacal 
liniment is the best in this case. Mustard may do just as well where it 
is difficult to get the other, and mustard has the advantage that it will 
not cause a blemish on the skin, we can tell when it has blistered by 
drawing it up with our fingers. Hot fomentations are good, if every- 
thing is convenient to apply properly, poultices are even good, after you 
take off the poultices grease the parts with oleaginous substances and 
pad with cotton. Treatment medicinally does not differ from bronchitis, 
only more stimulants, and oftener applied. Give acetanilide 1 dram, and 
whisky with it, if this fails to have the desired effect, I use quinine and 
whisky from ^ to 1 dram, every 4 hours, till temperature goes down. 
It is best to alternate the quinine and whisky with the fever mixture 
every 2 hours, till the fever is down to 102, and even then keep up the 
whisky, giving about 2 ounces of whisky at a dose diluted x / 2 with water. 
If the pulse grows very weak at any time give digitalis, but be careful 
and you should see your patient 3 times a day. If during convalescence 
there is an anaemic condition give tonic RX. TR. Ferri Ammon, Mur., 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 33 

Spts. Ether Nit. a a i oz. Aqua ad. Q. S. i pint. Dose 2 oz. every 4 
hours. 

Hygiene. — Treatment the same as in other lung troubles. In the 
fourth stage, when the horse is coughing up parts of lung, the proper thing 
to give is 1 dram carbolic acid in a linseed bolus 3 times a day, and give 
whisky to stimulate. Stimulants and diuretics should be given to ward 
off accumulations in the kidneys, as potash; but stop the use of the pot- 
ash in about 3 days, when there is much diuresis. 

Pleurisy. — Technical name Pleuritis; this is an inflammation of the 
pleura or lining of the chest; its cause in some cases may be traced to the 
extension of the inflammation in Pneumonia, and may affect either parts 
of the pulmonary or costal. 

Etiology. — First, extension of inflammation from parts contiguous 
to, or in connection with the pleura; second, direct irritation from 
injuries, as from broken ribs, any kind of punctured wound, or the 
adventitious growth of certain kinds in connection with the pleura; third, 
the action of a rapidly lowered temperature or other meteorological influ- 
ences; fourth, blood contamination as appears in constitutional and spe- 
cific diseases. It may develop from Diathetic, Dietetic, Infective, En- 
zootic or Epizootic. 

We recognize Pleurisy as running through 4 stages. First, that of 
congestion; second, dry stage of inflammation; third, effusion; fourth, 
absorption. Pleurisy in the first stage is the period of engorgement or 
congestion; we find that the pleural surface is spotted red in patches, 
which grow larger rapidly till they become confluent, till in the second stage 
there is a generally diffused red surface. The first stage is very short, 
only a few hours, and runs rapidly into the second, in which we have a dry 
pleural surface and the two dry surfaces rubbing together produce a fric- 
tion sound; this stage is also very short, about from 19 to 24 hours; in 
this stage there may be two inflamed surfaces, — the costal and pulmon- 
ary, and then adhesion is possible and very liable to take place. The 
third stage is long; the first part is that in which the plastic exudate is 
thrown out on the surface of the pleura; this coagulates and forms the 
false membrane. Resolution may take place at any time, and in most 
favorable cases takes place after the development of the false membrane. 
If it does not, it runs on to complete the third stage by the serum run- 
ning into and filling the pleural cavity, forming what is called Hydro- 
thorax or water in the chest; as soon as effusion begins, friction sound 
stops, for the serum then lubricates the surfaces. This effusion in horses 
is usually very severe, filling the cavity with water, pressing the lungs 
so closely against the upper part of the thorax that the animal cannot 
breathe, and dies from Apncea and nervous prostration. Death always 
takes place from this stage, though some say it may from the second stage, 
from excessive fever, but I do not think it possible. If the chest does 
not fill more than j/3, the fourth stage may take place, and this may be 
absorbed by resolution; but when more than }i full, absorption will not 
take place and the animal dies. The way resolution takes place after the 
formation of the false membrane, is by the process of fatty degeneration. 
In adhesion in the second stage it is the two false membranes that unite; 
this condition we often find in autopsy, but instead of the false mem- 
branes growing together they will become absorbed. About 95 per cent 



34 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

recovers in this way, the other 5 per cent is in Hydrothorax. The extent 
of the Hydothorax depends on the amount of surface involved, and also the 
severity of the inflammation; in many cases there is an cedemic condition 
in the walls of the chest, and in many cases it oozes out through the pores of 
the tissues and accumulates on the outside of the chest, resulting in a drop- 
sical condition of the parts. This is seen more in cattle, and not so often 
in horses. In Pleuro Pneumonia (contagious) the cedemic condition is of- 
ten enormous; there is invariably more or less oedema. Pleurisy, the same 
as Pneumonia, may be single or double, or may come under the fourth stage 
— blood contamination; it may affect every square inch of the pleural sur- 
face. 

Semeiology. — It is usually ushered in with a shivering fit; there 
would be a little staring of the coat; often comes on with a heavy rigor 
attended with labored breathing. During rigor the pulse and the tem- 
perature rise and remain, as it runs into the Pleurisy so quickly; tem- 
perature will then be about 104, not so high as it runs in Pneumonia. 
The pulse is quite characteristic, is small and hard from the start of the 
disease and gets smaller as it progresses, and more rapid, from 55 to 60, 
but before the rigor is over may be 80, next day 90. This hard pulse is 
often called vibrating pulse; the ribs are usually thick, and the breathing 
with the abdominal muscles; the pain in the early stage of the disease, is 
sharp, the animal will look around at the side, will lie down and roll, get 
up, kick, and other symptoms that much resemble those of Colic, and in 
the early stage is sometimes mistaken for Colic. In the early stage we 
often have depression on the side, along the ribs, and well marked, due 
to the contraction of the muscles of the chest, that is, the pleuritic lining; 
the elbows are usually turned out; by auscultation we hear distinct friction 
sound. Percussion reveals great soreness, particularly if you press your 
fingers into the intercostal space it may cause him to grunt. In Pleurisy 
there is a disinclination to move, sometimes due to rheumatic inflamma- 
tion of the chest muscles, and is called Pleurodynia. Diagnostic symp- 
toms lie in the pulse. In Pleurisy there is an increase in the pulse, while 
in Pleurodynia there is not much change; in either case you will often 
see a quivering of the muscles of the shoulder and chest, and in 9 out of 10 
cases indicate a fatal case. In Pneumonia this is often seen; in Pleurisy 
it occurs in the early stage, but in Pulmonary Apoplexy or Bronchitis it 
would not occur until the last stage of the disease. If Hydrothorax 
develops, this quivering will stop; during this there is a loss of appetite 
and scanty faeces, and there are symptoms of high fever. Pleurisy may 
terminate in resolution in from 4 to 5 days; if it does not it will run into 
the third stage following the end of the second stage; following Hydro- 
thorax the false membrane is in existence; this is a coagulation of plastic 
lymph. As soon as the effusion begins the severe colicky pains stop, and 
then the animal may lie down after standing 9 or 10 clays, eat a little and 
breathe easier; these are favorable appearing signs but do not always 
indicate that the animal is better, as unfavorable symptoms may develop 
in 2 or 3 days, with more Dyspnoea. In Hydrothorax there may be dila- 
tion of the nostrils, flapping of the false nostrils, flanks will heave, and 
the ribs being no longer thick, the expired air is colder, percussion 
reveals a dull sound below the collar line, so you can easily tell the water 
line; auscultation reveals increased respiratory murmur above the line and 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 35 

none below. In Pneumonia you can't tell this line as well as you can in 
Hydrothorax. When Hydrothorax is well developed we find the visi- 
ble mucous membrane gets livid and extremities get cold. In favorable, 
cases, when the case recovers in the third stage, the water is absorbed 
and the inflammation is subsided. Pleural adhesion after recovery 
always depreciates the value of the horse, as he is liable to have stitches 
in his side and run his nose into any place, and may run you into a ditch, 
trying to get his nose around to the sore spot. 

Diagnosis. — Symptoms maybe rapid breathing, rapid, hard pulse and 
fever. In Colic there is no hardness of pulse, no fever. In Pleurisy the 
pain is continuous; in Colic it is intermitting. 

Prognosis. — In favorable cases if the effusion is slight and fever slight, 
appetite good, no blood contamination, prognosis would be favorable, 
under reversed conditions the prognosis would be reversed. Pleurisy in 
any animal is serious; Hydrothorax is almost always fatal; you can form 
some idea by the effusion; if it is very purulent, foetid and offensive 
the prognosis is unfavorable; if it is amber- colored, odorless, and not too 
great an amount, the prognosis would be favorable. 

Treatment. — Hygiene does not differ from other diseases of the tho- 
rax; fresh air and good quarters; temperature from 60 to 66. 

If the case is only in the rigor, treat same as any other rigor; 
toward the latter part of the rigor, you will be able to tell by the increased 
breathing, elevation of temperature, how progressing. In this stage, 
just as soon as the Pleurisy can be recognized, apply counter-irritants, 
such as will produce great irritation; give diffuse stimulants combined, as 
aconite and belladona. Then after a few doses of this, give fever mix- 
tures, including the belladona, potash, and liq. ammonia acet.; repeat 
counter-irritants after an hour or two; internal treatment need not differ 
from that prescribed for Pneumonia; feed on sloppy food, and here will 
say, bandage the legs and clothe warmly during the rigor. Most cases, 
if you get them early, will yield readily to treatment; and if Pleurisy is 
mistaken for Colic, there is no harm done by this treatment, but great 
harm may be done by delaying counter-irritants; hence a correct diagno- 
sis during the early stage of the disease is very important, but if treat- 
ment is delayed 10, 15, or 24 hours, we are sure to have a serious case of 
Pleurisy or Hydrothorax. When we have a serious case of Hydrothorax 
it would be well to give digitalis. Remember the secret of -success in 
treating Pleurisy is to stop it early by good strong treatment. 

During Hydrothorax give digitalis, ammonia, fl. ext. gentian and 
nux vomica; during third stage give diuretics quite liberally; also give 
quinine. It is necessary to keep up a strong heart, then the effusion is 
more likely to be absorbed, while if the heart is weak the effusion is 
likely to go on increasing, and absorption not take place. The use of 
potash right along is good, and if the action of the heart is not strong 
enough to suit, give whisky or digitalis. The temperature in Hydro- 
rax runs about 103 to 104, and will stay up till after the effusion is ab- 
sorbed, even after the inflammation has stopped; so pay close attention 
to the pulse and see that the kidneys are in good condition. Frequently 
if we can reduce the inflammation when the cavity is only x /z full, we 
may get absorption and terminate favorably. We usually let Hydro- 
thorax run 4 or 5 days or a week, and if not improved we tap; this is 



36 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

called Paracentesis Thoracis. This tapping is usually done between the 
7th and 8th or between the 8th and 9th ribs; I prefer between the 8th 
and 9th, for the reason that the elbows are apt to come back and inter- 
fere with you while j'ou are operating. First locate where you are go- 
ing to operate; cut off the hair and press your two fingers slowly but 
forcibly between the ribs, then draw back the skin a little so that when 
cut it will be about the center of the rib when you let go; cut through 
the hide with your scalpel, close to the anterior border of the 9th rib; 
don' t go near the posterior border, as you will rupture the intercostal 
artery; then introduce your trocar about half its length, then pull out the 
trocar, leaving the cannula in so as to drain. When the chest is near 
full and there is great weakness, it is often necessary to tap both sides; 
when you do this remember the heart is inclined a little and you might 
lacerate the cardiac sack, so go a little lower, tap only one side at a time, 
and the other the next day, as it would be too great a shock to do both 
at one time; always give whisky to keep up the strength of the animal, 
and about one hour before tapping give him about >4 pint. The chest 
may fill again and it will be necessary to tap a second time in about a 
week; don't tap in the same place though, or you may have to tap 3 or 
4 times; it is apt to be always fatal when you have to tap more than once. 
When there is only about 6 gallons drawn and it does not refill there is a 
good chance of recovery, otherwise there is very little chance. On ac- 
count of the cedemic condition of the intercostal muscles there is little 
pain attending the operation; but always warn the owner that there is 
danger of the horse dying from nervous prostration before you ever 
operate. Best to put a twitch on the horse's ear so as to draw his atten- 
tion away from what you are doing. After drawing off the water always 
give stimulants; give tincture of iron quite liberally; see that he gets lots 
of nourishment, and drench with linseed meal tea. If the serum coming 
through the cannula is amber-colored, odorless and not in too large quan- 
tities the chances are favorable, but if red, foetid and offensive, — unfavor- 
able. Dr. Baker in 1892 before the class tapped a horse that held iS 
gallons. In human practice they often tap in different places, then 
drench out with antiseptic, wash and drain out, and have quite a number 
of recoveries; but this is impracticable in the horse. You must be careful 
not to tap a hepatized lung in Pneumonia, as you will likely produce a 
fatal hemorrhage. In tapping, I go about four inches from the floor cf 
the thorax. In the wash used in the human they put in one five-thou- 
sandth part of bichloride of mercury. 

Digestive System, or Alimentary Canal. — Begins at the mouth or 
muzzle. The prehensile power in the horse lies in the lips, in the ox in 
the tongue. The lining of the mouth is called the buccal membrane; the 
velum in the horse is the soft palate which prevents any food that is 
swallowed (or attempted to be swallowed) from returning back in the 
mouth, compelling it to pass out through the nostrils. The food is 
mixed with the salivary fluid, — this is insalivation: in the stomach it is 
mixed with the gastric juice and passes out of the stomach as chyme; 
after chymification it passes into the duodenum, where it is mixed with 
the bile and pancreatic juice, and thereby, by the process of chylification, 
becomes chyle and is then read}- for absorption by the absorbents, the 
refuse part of the food passing out of the body per rectum. The intes- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 37 

tines in the horse are about 90 feet long. The food is carried through 
the intestines by a peculiar worm-like motion called vermicular or per- 
istaltic motion and contraction of the muscular coat of the bowels. 

We conclude that most of the diseases of the digestive system are 
due to errors in feeding, or defective nutrition and digestion, and the 
whole can be classed under Dietetic. Generally, feeding is too bulky, 
too concentrated, too rich, too poor, too wet or too dry, too much digesti- 
ble food, or too much indigestible; or the time of feeding is too irregular; 
this last often causes disease because it upsets the nervous system, caus- 
ing many troubles. There is a great difference between animals that 
have a single stomach, as the horse, dog, mule, etc. , and those having a 
double stomach, as the ox, sheep, deer, and all animals that remasticate 
their food. On account of the long time that the food remains in the 
stomach of these animals, thej* often have disease of the stomach from 
Indigestion, and seldom ever have diseases of the intestines, while in the 
horse the food remains but a short time in the stomach, and so the horse 
does not often suffer from Indigestion as the ox, but has more diseases of 
the intestines. Manj^ physicians recognize the fact that too rich or too 
concentrated food causes disease of the stomach and small intestines, 
while food having too digestible matter in it will produce disease of the 
large intestines, as of the horse fed on too ripe straw or too ripe timothy. 
On this account Prof. Williams claims that food artificially prepared by 
being cooked is productive of disease; but from experience we know that 
he is entirely wrong, and though he may be right theoretically, he is not 
practically. It should not be applied to cooked food, as we know that 
cooking renders a large amount of food digestible, that would not be di- 
gestible unless cooked. You will find that too concentrated food will not 
work its way out of the stomach because it has not enough indigestible 
matter in it to cause the stomach to become stimulated to action; this is 
also true of purely digestible food. Wholly indigestible food will pass 
through the small intestines all right, but will lodge in the large ones, 
causing Paratysis, Enteritis, and death caused by the gases that arise from 
the fermentation of the food lodged in the alimentary canal. So in case 
of Flatulence we know that digestion is impaired or wholly destroyed. 

Congestion of the buccal membrane is ordinarily known as Lampas, 
and is simply a hyperamic condition of the lining of the mouth; this is 
accompanied by more or less tumefaction, noticed more particularly in 
the bars of the mouth. 

Etiology. — The inflammation attending the cutting of the teeth often 
causes it. In children and colts it is often caused by the milk teeth cut- 
ting through the buccal membrane, which may be very tough; while in 
puppies it is the permanent teeth that cause the trouble. Cauterization 
by irritating substances or medicines also causes it. 

Semeiology. — Salvering in the mouth, where the salivary glands are 
stimulated and cause a constant flow of saliva from the mouth; on ex- 
amining the mouth we find the buccal very painful to the touch, though 
a fresh case may not be; the bars of the mouth will be swollen and the buc- 
cal membrane all through greatly cedemic, and often in these cases the 
breath is very foetid. Turning up of upper lip is sign of Indigestion. 

Treatment. — Ascertain the cause and remove it; foreign bodies, such 
as corncobs and pieces of wood are lodged in the molars, or their edges 



38 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

may be so sharp as to scarify the cheek or tongue; this is all classed 
under irritative substances. If from Indigestion, give a laxative; in bad 
cases give acetate of potash in the drinking water; give soft food. Own- 
ers often think their horses have pampas because they are off their food ; 
they notice that the first few bars are swollen and often have them bnrned 
or cut when it may be due to natural causes. This is barbarous, and 
when the bars are destroyed in the mouth the tongue cannot force the 
food back in the mouth in a natural way, as the bars are designed for 
that purpose; hence there is a constant dribble out of the mouth of the 
food, while trying to eat. If you find an owner who must have those 
bars treated, just lightly scarify the first two or three and give some 
medicine that has no effect any way. Charge him a dollar for the cutting 
and 50 cents for the medicine, and you will satisfy him and not hurt the 
animal. If an artery should happen to be cut, take a little wad of oakum, 
dip in Munsell' s solution and tie over nose. 

Stomatitis. — Soreness of the mouth, and is hard to separate from 
Lampas with Stomatitis, and with pampas we have some of the causes 
of Stomatitis. We find in some a predisposition to this, as in the case of 
foals, and is often called thrush in little children and in lambs and foals. 
It is really Catarrhal Stomatitis. 

Semeiology. — It starts in a little red sack, about the size of a pea, 
and there are many of them. They break into raw sores in the mouth, 
and are covered with a gray, mealy substance; this is due to the exfolia- 
tion of the epithelium and to exudation. There is a foetid smell from 
them, and in most cases there is more or less derangement of the bowels 
and stomach. In the older animals we have the vesicular form filled 
with water; in a day or two they rupture, and the water escapes and 
may cause ulceration, but usually they heal rapidly and readily after 
suppuration. Then there is the pustular form, which is more severe 
and deeper-seated; they are formed in the same way, and the water often 
turns to pus. This pustular form often follows the vesicular form, and 
instead of rupturing turns to pus and then ruptures. The skin is thick 
and rots off over the pus, and this pus often ulcerates and leaves little 
pits. It is little seen except in contagious forms, or when caused by 
cauterization, as with blue vitriol, etc. 

Treatment. — Remove the cau.se, give mild laxatives, followed by 
vegetable bitters, and then anti-acids, as bicarbonate of soda, one ounce 
to pint of water, creta preparation and water or calcis sulphate. Give a 
local application of a saturated solution of borax, 2 per cent solution of 
carbolic acid, glycerine, tannic acid, solution of permanganate potash 
10 grs. to the ounce water. Use this once or twice a day. Borax may 
be used in saturated solution as strong as the water will take up, hot or 
cold. Tannic acid 1 dr., glycerine 2 oz., water to make a pint; apply 
3 or 4 times a day, and don't forget to attend to the proper hygiene at 
the same time. If .sores are obstinate in healing, touch with lunar caustic 
once or twice a day. 

Geossitis — Is inflammation of the tongue, and usually the interlin- 
gual tissue. It is usually caused by some accidental injury, or the attack 
of some specific disease, as Anthrax, etc. In any case there is much 
swelling, oftentimes filling the mouth and protruding when the mouth 
is held open, and the tongue is apt to be dry, and in this case gets a 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 39 

dark brown color; deglutition is interfered with, the tongue feels hard, 
and is often very painful. Wounds in the tongue from chain halters 
often cause it. 

Treatment. — Give laxatives if you get the case in time, or an aqua 
solution of aloes if the tongue is very bad; give this per rectum. When 
the tongue is very bad, scarify deeply and bathe with tepid water and 
encourage hemorrhage; after fomenting it for some little time, bathe 
with some antiseptic, as permanganate potash, chlo. potash, borax, 
New Orleans molasses, etc. Treat the same as sore mouth. 

Prognosis. — Is usually favorable. 

In case the tongue is lacerated, almost cutting it off, and if less 
than an inch holds it, it is better to amputate it. The operation is very 
simple, the hemorrhage usually very slight. In such case I would just 
take off with scissors; in case the hemorrhage would bother you, use a 
little of the mustard solution of iron, etc. In examining the horse for 
soundness always see that the tongue is all right; a horse with ampu- 
tated tongue always has some trouble in eating, and eats in a peculiar 
way; he must have a deep, narrow feed box, and throw up his head to 
get the food back into the mouth. Bleeding between the third and 
fourth bars by inexperienced persons sometimes cuts the palatine artery. 
To stop the bleeding, in a small fissure, press the thumb against the 
opening for a little while, but if this does not stop the hemorrhage, use a 
wad of absorbent cotton about the size of a hen' s egg, dip in mustard 
solution of iron, then place on the cut, and tie tightly with a bandage 
around the part, and leave until the hemorrhage has stopped. 

Parotitis. — Is inflammation of the membrane of the parotid glands. 
There are two forms — Acute and Subacute. In the acute it is usually 
associated with some other fever, as Catarrhal sore throat. There is 
suppuration as in Strangles, Tumefaction, usually liberal and considerable 
soreness, and is prone to run into abscesses — may be one large or a 
number of small ones; these, when ruptured, discharge considerable pus 
on the outside. 

Semeiology. — Swelling, pain on pressure, nose pointed out, neck 
stiff and disinclination to bend it, more or less fever. If the inflamma- 
tion is confined to the parotid there will not be much fever, but where 
there is Catarrh you will get all the fever that comes with Catarrh. The 
inflammation often terminates by resolution. When an abscess is form- 
ing in the parotid, the point is very hard and painful, and will often be 
seen to sweat. When the abscess breaks internally it breaks into the 
guttural pouch, and the fluids then come out of the nose. 

Treatment. — Hot fomentations and poultices are indicated; continue 
this right along till the abscesses break or terminate by resolution, and if 
suppuration is inevitable, huny the poultices. After poulticing 4 or 5 
daj^s use stimulants — tr. cantharides, or in a mild case, the unguentum 
of cantharides. When there is a tendency to develop into a fibrous 
tumor by induration, etc., use as a local stimulant — a blister, mustard 
sometimes with it as a mild stimulant, then poultice over that. When 
the abscesses point so } t ou can locate them, cut them, making onfy a 
small incision for fear of cutting through more of the salivary glands. 
We often have Salivary Fistulas. To treat them, syringe the pus sack 
out with an antiseptic — as a mild solution of carbolic acid, then the full 



40 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

strength of tinct. iodine, and, if necessary, use the iodine several times; 
if that does not suffice, apply a cantharides plaster, and if they become 
indurated we can soften by applying it once a day for several weeks, 
then use an unguentum of potassium iodide i dr. to i oz. lard — apply 
once a day; give soft food, and during convalescence give a tonic of iron, 
if you think there is sufficient anaemia to warrant it. 

Ptyalism or Salivation. — This is an unnaturally increased flow of 
saliva. 

Etiology. — Very variable, very extensive; anything that unnaturally 
stimulates the tissues surrounding the glands. We find common causes 
are: Tetanus, Rabies, Strangles, Laryngitis, Catarrh, etc., and all 
diseases of the mouth. We can bring them all under the head of irri- 
tants or stimulants; that is, of the salivary glands. We recognize the 
disease by the mouth always being full of saliva; but is usually due to 
other troubles, so in determining the cause of this disease you must use 
your wits well to locate it. 

Salivary Fistula. — Is an opening in one of the ducts leading into 
the mouth, through which the saliva flows into the mouth. It may be any 
of the ducts, but the Stenos duct is the one usually affected; it enters the 
mouth about the third molar tooth. An accident on the side of the face 
may sever it, and in disease of it there is a continual flow of saliva from 
it. A predisposition to the disease may be a calculus in the duct, in 
which case the duct becomes distended, the walls thinner and more easily 
ruptured. These calculi usually have their origin in a foreign body, 
such as a wheat or barley grain getting into the duct and mineral matter 
forming around it. 

Treatment. — Usually a case of this kind is chronic before the doctor 
gets hold of it; the wounds not being very large, generally they get little 
attention till they become chronic fistula openings, and are then very 
difficult to treat. We often find that the natural channel is closed from 
disuse, and has become obliterated. The first thing to do is to open up 
this part of the duct, and the best way to do it is with a metal sounder, 
taking the smaller size first, and as you increase the opening use a larger 
size, until you have an opening as large as a pencil. In starting the 
opening, push the sounder very gently and work carefully, so as not to 
break through the side. If you have ruptured the duct, it is usual to 
insert a seton for from 2 to 5 days, put a leather button on the end in 
the mouth, and also one on the opening on the side of the cheek and 
draw tight; clean once a day after you remove it; make a fresh wound of 
the fistula, then draw together with sutures; follow with antiseptic 
treatment, then coat over with collodion, which, as it dries, will contract 
and help to draw the lips of the wound closer. This usually cures it, but 
if you find in about 10 days that saliva is oozing out and the collodion 
breaking away, apply actual cautery all around the opening, about one- 
half inch from the opening, and, if necessary, make 2 rows of points, the 
inner one lightly, the other some deeper; then apply cantharides blister. 
Repeat this treatment if necessary. The text book says where this fails, 
destroy the gland by injecting forcibly into the gland the following: 

R Argentum Nit. 1 dr. 

Nit. Acid 1 dr. 

Aqua 1 oz. 

Mix. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 41 

For my part, I would rather dissect the gland; so take my advice, 
and never do as the book says in this case. Best to feed the horse liquid 
food, so he will not have to masticate it, and keep the head tied up for 
awhile. You will get a cure if you have patience and continue this 
treatment. 

Salivary Calculus. — Is a stone forming in one of the Salivary ducts; 
the}- are composed usually of phosphate of lime, but Prof. Williams also 
says thej* are formed of vegetable and animal matter as well. It is usually 
found in the Steno, and occasionally in Wharton's duct. 

Treatment. — Remove them, but in a peculiar way; remove always 
in the mouth, no matter how much you must cut to do this, unless it be 
under the jaw, when you will have to open on the outside. 

Pharyngitis. — This is acute inflammation of the pharynx. Fauces, 
or back part of the mouth, are usually involved, as well as the pharynx. 
This inflammation is a Catarrhal inflammation, and closely resembles 
that of Laryngitis, and is usually associated with it. 

Etiology. — Same causes that produce Laryngitis — exposure in damp, 
cold stables, generally after the horse has been sweating or exhausted, 
etc. It is often caused by caustic substances, or foreign bodies. 

Semeiology. — Great difficult}- in swallowing feed and water, and after 
passing the velum often comes back through the nose; there may or may not 
be swelling on the outside. It follows the same stages as Laryngitis; when 
severe and the surrounding tissues are involved, abscesses form in the 
throat, usually on both sides, sometimes on one, sometimes above, some- 
times posterior to the pharynx. When the fauces are involved there will 
be a cough, appetite usually unimpaired, but on account of the great 
soreness will often refuse food, will slobber in his drinking water; usually 
more or less fever; in an uncomplicated case there will be no Dyspnoea. 

Treatment. — Apply counter-irritants early, and well up to the base 
of the ears, medicated steaming, medicate with iodine, carbolic acid, etc. 
Use for a gargle, tr. iron and chlorate potash. If the abscesses form and 
the soreness continues, an electuary containing camphor is indicated; use 
instead of the iron. These abscesses sometimes form in the guttural 
pouch, and if the pus cannot escape it amounts to the same thing as an 
abscess, and if not opened becomes inspissated. Where both sides of the 
throat are affected, there will be hard breathing. After Pharyngitis has 
been treated, if the pus is forming, as before stated, use poultices early, 
as it tends to soften, swell and relax the parts, and cause to work to the 
surface, and after a week or ten days you can open without hesitancy. 
For the abscesses that form above the pharynx in the center, the best 
way is probably to open in the mouth, on account of the blood vessels on 
the outside, and it is best to use a concealed bistoury; those on the side 
open on the outside. After opening an abscess in the mouth, lower 
the animal's head so as to prevent the pus from running down the 
trachea, which, according to Dr. Billings, may produce local Pneumonia. 
When pus forms in the guttural pouch, it will often run out of the nos- 
trils when the horse lowers his head. When opening an abscess, always 
cut longitudinally with the blood vessels, so that if you cut one. it will 
not be as serious as if you severed it transversally. If you do cut a 
blood vessel, and it continues to bleed, it is best to stitch a little plug in, 



42 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

and leave it in about 24 hours; and if it still bleeds when this is taken 
out, repeat the operation till it does stop. 

Oesophagitis. — Inflammation of the structures composing the oesoph- 
agus tube, which is very strong, muscular, and quite vascular, and is 
subject to inflammation from surrounding tissues. 

Etiology. — Oftentimes from extension of inflammation from the 
approximate tissues, from scalding drenches or caustic substances in the 
feed or water; this cause is often seen in little children, from the fact 
that they put everything into the mouth that they pick up; in horses 
often caused from kicks and from other sources. 

Semeioldgy. — Great difficulty in swallowing. If it is in the cervical 
region there will be great soreness on pressure; in a bad case there may 
be some febrile conditions. If the tube becomes ruptured, the food pass- 
ing out will break down the intercellular tissues, causing much pain and 
swelling. 

Treatment. — Soft, sloppy food, linseed meal, tea of slippery elm 
bark, a local injection of morphia. When the food passes out, showing 
a rupture of the tube, it generally proves fatal; but you might try to 
catch the ends and sew them, and bathe with healing applications, as 
solution of borax, bicarbonate soda, weak solution of carbolic acid, etc. 
These may be passed down the tube. We have CEsophagismus, which is 
a functional derangement, due to an irritable condition of the nerves. In 
this, the food passing down irritates and causes the muscles to contract, 
causing spasms; sometimes it contracts on a bolus of food, in which case, 
if the object is above the constriction, it will be thrown up; but if in the 
center of the constriction, it will hold on and the food will fill up to the 
mouth! 

Semeiology continued. — Horse manifests considerable distress, if 
choking; will be nauseated, and will draw up the upper lip, often sweats, 
is restless, and if the object is thrown up, it is often streaked with blood. 

Treatment of CEsophagismus. — Give local antiseptics in the form 
of morphine, cocaine, etc. Give drench, like slipper}'- elm tea, also nux 
vomica or arsenic. 

Choking. — Is obstructed deglutition. 

Etiology. — In all cases of choking there is an interrupted passage to 
the stomach, and anything that is interrupted between the mouth and the 
stomach is called a choke. It often occurs by animals bolting their food; 
this is a common cause in the horse. Cattle usually choke from swallow- 
ing large substances, such as apples, turnips, roots, bones, etc. ; and in 
milk cows chewing clothes will often let a piece go down the tube. 
Dogs choke from such articles as coal, spools, fish and chicken bones, etc. 
Chickens, b}^ swallowing their food too fast. 

Semeiology. — Horse will stop eating, appear uneasy, back up, make 
efforts to swallow; after a little, Oesophagitis will develop and lead to 
chronic spasms, contractions of the muscles of the neck and shoulders, 
often so strong as to pull the head to the knees: will often scream with 
pain; sometimes you get Gastric Flatulency. Food and water swallowed 
may be returned through the nose; usually there is a cough. If the 
choke is in the cervical part there will be much swelling, and but little if 
it is in the thoracic part. In cattle Tympanitis sometimes occurs; in most 
cases breathing is labored, and slavering from the mouth. In dogs there 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 43 

will be a continual coughing and retching and slavering. Poultry crane 
their necks and give a sort of shriek. 

There are certain conditions, functional or organic, that cause chok- 
ing. — 1st, anything that favors spasmodic contraction of the oesophagus 
on the object; 2d, inflammation and ulceration of the throat and gullet; 
3d, organic diseases of the gullet, as seen in contraction of that organ; 
4th, any disease of the salivary glands interrupting the flow of the saliva; 
5th, voracious appetite in any animal, diseased tooth, or anything that 
causes the horse to bolt his food. In the horse there will be anxiety of 
countenance, eyes bulging; but the spasmodic contraction of the muscles 
of the neck does not always prove that it is a choke, for it is also present 
in some troubles of the stomach. 

Treatment. — If the choke is in the upper third, remove the object 
if possible through the mouth; this is done by using a mouth speculum to 
hold the mouth open while your assistant with his hands on both sides 
of the gullet presses the object upward. This is particularly the way 
when cattle choke on roots; you can often move them one or several 
inches upward, and then the operator can run his arm downward and 
get the obstruction out. This can almost always be done in cattle when 
the choke is above the center. In horses when due to CEsophagismus, if 
you can move an inch even, you can stop the spasm and the stuff will 
pass down. I find that this manipulation is the best way to give relief, 
that is, getting the object to move an inch or so either way, and then 
pouring down the oesophagus cottonseed oil, sweet oil, or some such ole- 
aginous substance, say a few ounces at a time; it is best to pour it down 
the nostrils, because as a liquid passes over the posterior nares it causes 
a spasmodic and involuntary attempt at swallowing, and besides the 
animal sometimes will make no attempt to swallow anything you pour 
into the mouth. Stand on the left side while working the choke, which 
may be 4 or 5 inches of accumulated food, and every 5 minutes or so, 
pour some oil down the throat; always work gently for fear of bruising 
the oesophagus and causing inflammation, so be gentle and don't hurry; 
be careful. 

Suppose these means do not answer; then get the history of the case, 
or get it first. What did he eat? If a solid body, use a probang; if it 
was soft food, then the probang will only make the choke worse if you 
force it too much. Use a smaller probang in the horse than for cattle. 
The probang should be about 8 feet long, else in case the obstruction 
being close to the stomach, you will not be able to reach it. Remember 
the epiglottis fits down closer in the horse than in cattle, so do not keep 
the probang in very long at a time, but in cattle may keep it in an hour 
and do no harm. When you reach the object press gently with the pro- 
bang and a continuous pressure until the object moves, — have patience. 
You will often find that chokes in the horse when in the region of the 
thorax will prove fatal in spite of all you may do. For use in man and 
dog, there is a good probang made of horse hairs (tail). There is a 
practice among farmers in case of choke, of making the animal leap over 
something, — as a hurdle. I never saw where it was successful of any 
good results. In case you trj r all these remedies without success, don't 
give up without one more attempt for the horse's life, but let it be the 
last always; that is cesophagotomy. Clip the hair around the part 



44 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

closely, then wash thoroughly with antiseptic; bear in mind the anatomy 
of the parts; don't touch the jugular vein or carotid artery; also watch 
for the nerves. Have an assistant go on the right side of the horse and 
push the oesophagus over towards the left side ; locate the spot and make 
an incision on the side up high on the tube, go very carefully and slowly; 
don't cut clear down at one cut, but by a number of them till you reach 
the tube; now pull the skin upward so as to get as near the upper part, 
that is upper side of it, as much as possible, then make just as small an 
opening as will do to remove the object. Remove the object, then wash 
well with antiseptic; then with a fine needle and silk sew up the cut in 
the tube, making the stitches about % inch apart, and about % inch 
back in the tube itself; get the knots all on the inside so that when they 
slough off the food will carry them into the stomach. Always wash your 
hands well in antiseptic before operating to avoid the greatest of dangers 
in such operations. After sewing up the tube, then sew up the skin with 
good strong stitches about ^+ inches apart, then dress with antiseptic, 
as iodoform, etc. After treatment keep the animal standing for some- 
time and feed on a liquid diet, as milk, so as to give the oesophagus a rest 
for a week or so until it heals. Where a voracious appetite is the cause 
of the choke, fix a feed box for him so that he can't eat voraciously or 
too much at a time; 3 or 4 cobble stones about the size of the hand does 
very well in the feed box, where } t ou have nothing better. 

Organic Diseases of the (Esophagus. — This includes all the 
changes that might be due to some other disease; usually we find a dilata- 
tion just anterior to it, and sometimes there is a polypus or other tumor on 
the outside; these may be either on the inside or on the outside; when 
outside they press severely on the tube. 

Semeiology. — Where the disease is an organic one the symptoms 
are very slow in their development; first would be slowness in eating, 
slow swallowing, swallowing painful, occasionally stops eating. These 
go on until choking takes place, but is limited to the trachae at first, and 
the chances are he will vomit up the matter which may show streaks of 
blood on it; or this runs on from bad to worse, until it ends in the or- 
ganic disease. 

Treatment. — Is usually quite unsatisfactory, because it is thoroughly 
chronic before it is known to exist. If the constriction could be antici- 
pated, the use of the probang, well oiled, would give relief. Healing 
and soothing administrations of linseed tea, or solution of alum may be 
given in small doses; or borax in solution sometimes — in small doses; 
but this latter is not the proper treatment in this kind of a case, as it has 
a tendency to arrest secretions of the gastric juice, and will also spoil 
gastric juice: mucilage is good; give nourishing and very sloppy food. 

Diseases of the Stomach. — The first condition we think of in con- 
nection with it is Ivmesis — the act of vomiting. It has been said that the 
horse cannot vomit, but from experience we know that, although the 
horse does not vomit very easily or as much as some animals, under 
peculiar circumstances he can vomit. Vomiting is the forcible expulsion 
of the contents of the stomach through the oesophagus, in response to 
the direct or reflex action of the streak running through the medulla 
oblongata. Some think that vomiting is due to some cause in the stom- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 45 

ach, but it has been proven that the stomach has nothing to do with it; that 
it is due to the reflex action of the medulla oblongata. 

Physical action. — First, you must have a reflex action; next thing, 
a contraction that is a spasmodic one of the abdominal muscles, produc- 
ing nausea, and added to this there is a full, deep inspiration; this forces 
the diaphragm down on the stomach, and as the stomach is pressed by 
the muscles the contents of the stomach are forced out. Before this 
occurs, as stated above, there is a spasmodic contraction of the stomach 
and also of the intestines, so that in the expelled contents of the stomach 
there is often seen the bile product of the bowels; as this is all being 
forced up, the circular muscles of the oesophagus dilate and the longi- 
tudinal ones contract, so that it is really then shorter and wider. At the 
same time the food is expelled there is a rush of air outward, which 
prevents any of the matter going down the larynx. Cattle seldom -ever 
vomit, but in man, dog and pig it is not all uncommon; they are easier 
to vomit, especially the dog. The reason it is easy for human, dog or 
pig to vomit, is that the oesophagus dilates as it enters the stomach, 
which is not the case in the horse; also the stomach of the horse is so 
small that the food does not remain long in it, but passes rapidly out 
into the intestines. Canines and felines vomit on the slightest occasion; 
omnivorous animals are the next easiest, and herbivorous the hardest to 
cause to vomit. 

Circumstances that cause vomiting in the horse. — First, when the 
stomach is distended with food, mostly solid, or distended with gas as 
the result of fermentation; 2d, where dilatation of the oesophagus existed 
at the cardiac end of it, thus rendering the region of the stomach and 
oesophagus irritable and weak, or Hyperesthesis of the nerves which con- 
vey it to the medulla oblongata and then back to the abdominal muscles, 
and nausea is produced; 3d, rupture of anj^ of the coats of the stomach, 
either serous, muscular or the mucous, will produce vomiting, and it 
takes place after the rupture, although it may take place prior to the 
rupture; 4th, closing of the pyloric opening; this occurs from impaction, 
from eating wholly indigestible food, or not enough indigestible matter; 
this impaction prevents the food passing into the duodenum. 

Dyspepsia. — This is Indigestion, Acute or Chronic, and is simply 
the functional derangement of the stomach. In connection with the 
acute we have two conditions. Gastric Flatulence and Stomach Staggers, 
or as better known, Blind Staggers. This Acute Indigestion is the sudden 
cessation of digession whether partial or complete, and just as soon as you 
get suspended digestion, fermentation and decomposition take place at 
once; evolution of gas is inevitable and unless relieved, serious results will 
follow. It is often fatal in from 20 minutes to 60 hours, but if the animal 
lives 24 hours, he will likely recover. Most of the deaths occur in the first 
6 or 7 hours. 

Etiology. — Overloading the stomach or eating too fast; eating 
when physically exhausted; then the animal will often bolt his food. 
Gastric Flatulence is often due to improper feeding. 

Semeiology. — Restlessness, more or less colicky pains, though 
the pain is not acute; horse will paw much, move around, lie down and 
get up soon; as fermentation takes place, the bodj T will be found to grow 
larger. In Gastric Flatulency the ribs will bulge more, while the flanks 



46 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

will be less than in the Intestinal Flatulency; he sweats more or less, erup- 
tions of gas come from the stomach, and ineffectual attempts to vomit, 
spasmodic contractions of the neck and shoulders, same as in choke; 
breathing becomes labored, pulse not at first affected, but rapid and small 
as the disease progresses. The contraction of the neck and shoulders is 
an unfavorable sign, and is often followed in }4 hour by death; death 
from Asphyxia may take place at any time. As Flatulency holds on, the 
brain often gets stupid by the pressure on the diaphragm interfering with 
respiration, and then venous blood is sent to the brain and the horse will 
often show blindness and stagger; this is when the stomach is full of solid 
food. 

Treatment. — Of Acute Indigestion. — These cases are always ur- 
gent, and as soon as the doctor is called he should get to work at once 
and administer such drugs as arrest fermentation; this will stop the for- 
mation of gas. If it is a bad case we prefer hyposulphate soda, and if a 
mild case, bicarbonate soda. Old-fashioned treatment used to prescribe 
bicarbonate soda for even- case and every time; we believe this to be a 
great error, for the contents of the stomach in these cases are always sour; 
there is an acid formed by fermentation, and as the bicarbonate soda is 
an alkali, there is great clanger of producing an effervescence and forming 
new gas. By the old treatment, about 75 per cent of these cases died, now 
about 10 per cent die; that is, using hyposulphate soda instead in some 
cases. Turpentine is also a good remedy, being an antiseptic; sulphate 
soda or lime is good, so is boracic or carbolic acid, also sulphuric or sulphu- 
rous ether. Then afterwards give a mild laxative or purgative, as aloes, etc. 
During the trouble keep the animal quiet. Hot fomentations to the belly 
will do no harm, or rubbing in mustard paste. Warm water and soap 
injections are good; they increase the peristaltic motion. Hyposulphate 
soda may be given in solution or may be given in bolus, which acts as well 
but slower than the solution; ma}- give of this 4 to 8 oz. to a large horse, 
but we find that if about 2 oz. does not do good in about 15 minutes, 
giving another dose of the same amout gives better results than the large 
dose all at once. Bicarbonate soda will cause vomiting, and may be the 
cause of rupturing the stomach, in a few minutes after giving, and may lead 
to Gastritis; yet most of the text books recommend it. Suppose the stom- 
ach is full of solid food, as when he gets into an oat bin; drench with hy- 
posulphate soda and linseed tea; it is good to add to this or give after, mix 
vomica, whisky or strychnine; always dilute the whisky., Also give ano- 
dynes in liberal doses, as sulphuric ether; we have 1 oz. of it in our Colic 
drench; it is antispasmodic also. The next best to sulphuric ether is 
chloral hydrate; give of it ]A dr. to 2 oz. water. We generally object to 
the use of laudanum: morphine (4 gr.) may be given hypodermically. 
In this trouble there is likely to be a closure of the pylorus, and after 
giving an anodyne you will notice a gas coming from the anus; but if 
the impaction is from solid food no need to give anodynes, — chem- 
icals are the things you want. If Flatulency begins you will need chem- 
icals; hyposulphate soda, 6 to 8 oz. to the quart, or 1 and y 2 quarts of 
water, is good. Always dilute hyposulphate soda largely. As a purga- 
tive give sulphate of magnesia. In case the horse has become too stupid 
to swallow, then use a hose; if he is in coma, then inject atropine or 
strychnine. The old authors believed in bleeding; we know in this dis- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 47 

ease there is an anaemic condition of the brain instead of a congestion, so 
think that bleeding is the wrong treatment. Anaemia produces or rather 
induces sleep, and Congestion of the brain produces delirium. 

Prophylactic Treatment. — Prevention. — We find that where there is a 
repetition of these troubles, each time it is worse, so when called, attend 
to the hygiene; feed every 6 hours regularly; arrange it so the horse can- 
not eat too fast or too much; give him from ^ to i hour to eat. Most 
of the cases we have occur in the night after a hard day' s work and ex- 
haustion, and the horse eats voraciously or does not masticate his food 
property, etc. 

Chronic Indigestion.— Known as Dyspepsia in man; is a funct- 
ional derangement of the stomach; this comes on slowly and requires a long 
time to cure. During its existence it is not serious or dangerous; that is, 
in the ordinary case. 

Etiology. — There are three influences that operate to produce it. 
First, errors in feeding; second, changes in the gastric and other secre- 
tions; these are more fault}- physiological developments as to anaemia, etc. ; 
third, abnormalities affecting the movements of the stomach, such as 
cancerous and other growths. 

Semeiology. — Usuall}* a capricious appetite, sometimes hungry, 
sometimes no appetite; an unnatural thirst, unnatural hunger for alkalies, 
will eat the mortar from between the bricks, lick the walls, eat the bed- 
ding he has urinated upon, eat clay in large quantities, even at times eat 
their own dung; all shows a tendency to Indigestion, hence the animals 
desire to obtain alkali. The limit to their thirst is their capacity; will 
often turn up their upper lip, in bad cases. The excessive drinking 
induces Diabetes Insipidus. As the disease runs on, the coat becomes 
staring and rough, the animal thin and pot-bellied; sweats; there is pal- 
pitation of the heart. 

Treatment. — Give complete change of food, — grass is the best of all; 
limit the quantity of water to x /l pail four or five times a day. You can 
assist nature by adding or dissolving i dr. bicarbonate soda in a bucket of 
drinking water ; good to give Fowler' s solution of arsenic or arsenicum, 
2 gr. first, then 3, then 4 twice a day; add to it 1 dr. nux vomica to each 
dose; also 1 dr. gentian root pulv. and 1 dr. powdered hydrastis, and 1 
dr. powdered wood charcoal; continue 2 or 3 months if necessary; pre- 
scribe more bran and less oats; more exercise and a generous amount of 
salt. In old horses with chronic Indigestion, give mineral acids, as nitric 
or hydrochloric; I prefer sulphuric acid; in the following prescription: 
acid sulph. 1 dr. , tr. gentian 4 oz. , aqua ad. to make pint, Dose: 2 oz. night 
and morning, or twice a day. This active tonic stimulates the liver and acts 
very nicely on the stomach; where gastric secretions are fault}-, we some- 
times add 10 gr. quinine to this dose, especially following a debilitating dis- 
ease; glycerine may be added also. If you make a fluid preparation, add 
glycerine in ^ to 1 oz. doses. Good idea to examine the teeth to see if they 
may be a cause. In dogs we find chronic Indigestion with constant vom- 
iting and increased thirst, it is benefited by giving 5 to 10 grs. sub nitrate 
of bismuth. We take the English setter as the type; this is the size dose 
we give, according to the age and size of the dog. A little bicarbonate 
soda in drinking water is good and will not produce diabetes as in the 
horse. If the dog is run down, give as tonic preparation of U. S. P. — 



48 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

elixir cal. iron and bismuth 2 oz., glycerine 1 oz., aqua ad to make 4 
oz. Dose: dessert spoonfull 3 or 4 times a day. This is good for Indiges- 
tion and the bismuth quiets the stomach. 

Gastritis. — Inflammation of the stomach, is usually seen in the acute 
form, and has a tendency to cause death in a few hours; but when it is 
in the mild form it may run on to chronic, then tends to a softening and 
other changes, particularly in the pyloric tract, also other portions of the 
stomach. The acute is comparatively uncommon, and when in the horse, 
tends to Enteritis. The dog is more liable to Enteritis because so suscep- 
tible to poisoning. 

Etiology. — Generally follows an acute attack of Indigestion; next 
cause is poisoning, as from caustics, also from wounding of the lining of 
the stomach as by foreign bodies. 

Semeiology. — Following an acute attack of Indigestion there are 
colicky pains, and in case of Gastritis there is a tendency to grow 
worse, in spite of all you may do; the animal sweats, grows weak, pre- 
sents a very depressed countenance; Flatulency from acute Indigestion 
continues; sour eruptions, breathing increases, pulse hard and rapid, 
temperature high; next day may find the pulse wiry, a loathing for food; 
after running for several hours there is an acute thirst. If it follows 
poisoning, the mucous membranes are injeccted, the mouth often filled 
with a ropy^ saliva, due to irritation of the salivary glands by the gas: 
stomach and bowels usually inactive, great weakness develops rapidly, 
and in this case dies in from 2 to 6 hours; he drops and dies suddenly. 
The course this disease runs is according to the cause that induces it. 
In poisoning, as from caustic potash or blue vitriol, will run a compara- 
tively short time and shows much thirst. In the dog, in this case there 
is severe retching, elevation of temperature, and will vomit up everything. 

Treatment. — In the horse we find it almost invariably fatal; all you 
can do is to give rational treatment according to the symptoms presented; 
gum opium in liberal doses is recommended. Remember that in such 
troubles of the stomach and bowels, you can give large doses of opium 
without much effect; give antiseptics. If the trouble is from poisoning, 
try to find out the kind of poison and apply the antidote; give raw eggs 
beaten up in milk, give olive or cottonseed oil and apply counter irritation 
over the stomach in every case. If he does not die in a few hours give 
lime water, and if you can' t get lime water, then sub nitrate of bis- 
muth 1 dr. 3 or 4 times a day will do the horse good; give in drench or 
bolus. For dog, give from 5 to 10 grs; also very small doses of bella- 
donna; also anodynes, as hyosciamus, laudanum, etc. Restrict to milk 
diet; then after a few clays, mutton broth; give lime water or a solution of 
bicarbonate of soda in water, just enough to make it slightly anti-acid. 
In autopsy on the horse in gastric poisoning, you will find patches of 
erosions and inflammation; from arsenic poisoning, all the surface will be 
inflamed; in case it follows acute Indigestion, we usually find a diffused 
inflammation, more particularly of the pyloric tract. Chronic Gastritis 
often succeeds an acute attack, and seems to come on very slowly; in 
such a case it is the result of long continued errors in feeding. Usually 
we learn that there has been frequent occurring attacks of Indigestion; 
second, Flatulency; third, textural changes in the glands themselves, due 
to the errors in feeding; fourth, malignant disease of the stomach, in the 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 49 

form of cancer or degeneration of the mucous of the stomach; fifth, 
mechanical injury, through the equine larvae or bots. 

Semeiology. — Symptoms are mild, as compared to the acute form; 
capricious appetite, great thirst, more or less fever, may run into the 
acute form in from 6 to 10 days. 

Treatment. — Pay particular attention to the diet; give small doses 
and long continued, what we think the case requires; run on grass if pos- 
sible; give belladona, hydrastis, gentian, arsenic. Where there are gas- 
tric pains, sometimes as a result in the stomach there is a rupture of the 
walls — may be partial or complete; may be either the serous, muscu- 
lar or mucous coat, or all of them. The muscular usually ruptures first, 
then the serous, and last the mucous; it frequently occurs in horses when 
tossing about in suffering from Gastritis. Sometimes the rupture occurs 
when the animal falls to die, so bear this in mind when making an autopsy. 
If it occurs during Flatulency, it is usuall}^ small; if from the fall, may be 
from a foot to 1 and y% feet long. We find that draft horses are more liable 
than others; they eat more, and are more prone to Gastric Flatulency. 

Etiology of Gastric Flatulency. — The cause that produces it 
may be put down as the only cause; after the rupture inflammation begins 
at once, so you can often tell about the time the rupture took place by the 
appearance of the edges. 

Semeiology. — Vomiting almost invariable, but not infallible, yet it 
is not a diagnostic symptom. There is sudden and severe prostration, 
cold, wet surface, nausea, inclination to sit on the haunches and attempts 
of vomiting; weak, hard, small pulse; often after the rupture, if there 
had been severe pain previous, there may be a sudden cessation, then it 
is nearly safe to say that rupture has taken place. As death approaches 
the mouth and extremities grow cold, black mucous membrane, accord- 
ing to the size of the rupture, death may come in from a few minutes up 
to 60 hours; that depends on the violence of the Gastric Flatulency before 
the rupture. Animal may even live quite a while, say from 3 to 4 days 
after the food has passed into the abdominal cavity, then usually dies of 
Peritonitis. 

Treatment. — There is no treatment for rupture of the stomach, only 
treat rationally on account of our inability to tell that the stomach has 
ruptured. Treat right along as the case may call for; the onhy proof 
positive is autopsy, so be in no hurry to make a positive diagnosis. 
When the horse dies suddenly from any cause— say in the country 
horse, autopsy made after 5 or 6 hours shows that digestion has been 
going on the same as in life, for when ante-mortem digestion ceases, post- 
mortem goes on until the gastric juice is all used up, for it acts as well after 
death as before. Little points of inflammation start, and people say the 
bots caused it by eating those holes, but bots are fastened by their tails to 
the stomach and cannot eat the walls, hence are not the cause at all. 

Constipation. — This is a condition of the bowels in which the 
faeces are unnaturally retained, or if discharged, are hard, dry and scanty. 
It is a simple matter, but occasionally gives rise to other troubles that 
may prove fatal. The large bowels are the ones usually affected, chiefly 
the colon, spoken of in this case as impaction of the colon, which is very 
serious, especially in heavy horses. In cattle it is usually spoken of as 
impaction of the omasum. 



50 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Etiology. — As a primary lesion it is the result of feeding on bulky, 
innutritious food, especially that of Wdody fibres, as straw fed in farm- 
yards in Winter; and this cause may be aggravated by a short supply of 
water; second, by deficient peristaltic motion, due to impaired nerve force; 
third, deficient secretion of the mucous in the bowels, or excessive absorp- 
tion of the fluids into the food. 

Semeiology. — Comes on gradually, usually associated with an un- 
thrifty condition, and in such condition are usually pot-bellied, have a 
long rough coat, thin in flesh, not strong, but lazy and stupid; faeces 
passed with difficult}', and in small quantities. As the Constipation 
develops, the lining of the rectum is injected a deep red color, the animal 
gets uneasy and stretches out the legs, this is more so in- sheep, mouth 
often soapy to the feel, and with a fetid smell; the horse will strain occa- 
sionally as though trying to have a passage. As the fasces becomes con- 
stipated the bowels become congested, and this leads to colicky pains, 
and if not relieved will ultimately end in inflammation of the bowels ; this 
may develop in from 4 to 5 days; the colon in this case becomes over- 
loaded, then paralyzed, and if it be not relieved in from 24 hours to 5 or 
6 days, may run into Enteritis and death. By placing your ear to the 
side you will find an absence of the peristaltic sounds; this is a positive 
proof of the impaction of the colon. Another proof is the way the 
animal backs up against the wall or a post, and rubs and pushes back- 
wards. We often see young animals when born, suffering from the 
meconium, that is, unable to have the first operation, and runs into Con- 
stipation; this is usually attributed to the dry condition of the mother, 
noticed particularly when the mare has been worked too hard and up to 
within a few days of the birth; and on high feed, and also doing more or 
less sweating. 

Treatment. — In impaction of the colon, naturally a purgative is indi- 
cated; what to give is largely a matter of taste. In very mild form an 
aloes ball does very well, and soft food; but if it is a bad case, we con- 
sider that oleaginous substances are the best and ma}- be given in com- 
paratively large doses, say a quart at a time, or rather to start with, and 
we usually repeat it twice a day; so in the course of a few days he has a 
large quantity of oil down, but that will not hurt him. We give oil be- 
cause there is an indication of inflammation of the bowels and the oil will . 
not tend to increase it as aloes might. Sulphate magnesia is a popular 
remedy for cattle; for swine give castor oil, same to dogs; buck-horn for 
cats; cascara may be given to any animal; in addition to this, injections of 
water and soap (castile) are invaluable, poured into the rectum gently; 
where you have no syringe use a piece of hose. Another injection is 
glycerine diluted ^ with water. If you need to repeat the water and 
soap, each time lessen the amount of soap as it may have a tendency to 
inflame the bowels. If the case does not improve after you give the aloes, 
then you may pour down on the top of it ^ ft. of magnesia in solution, 
or one pint of oil and repeat in 12 hours. Never repeat a dose of aloes in 
less than 4 days, but the oil is harmless; and bear in mind that if the im- 
paction is not relieved the animal will die. Some practitioners give some 
stimulant to the bowels, as solution of strychnine, fl. ext. of calabar bean, 
sulph. ether, aromatic spts. ammonia, or whisky. 

The alkaloids of calabar bean, Eserine ■ and Calabarine, are 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 5 1 

becoming very popular. Calabar bean in all its preparations acts as a 
stimulant to the nerve fibers of the spinal cord, especial^ those over the 
bowels, and particularly the colon. Eserine is usually disolved in alco- 
hol and administered either hypodermically or into the trachea; dose 
varies from % to 2 grs. , I think that from }i to % gr. is best. Eserine 
may be dissolved in alcohol and carried around in the pocket; it does not 
lose its force then, as it does when dissolved in water, — the proportion is 
about 1 gr. to 1 dr. of alcohol. If administered b} T injecting into the 
trachea, one half the dose used hypodermicahV will do, and if into the 
jugular, then one half that for the trachea. You will find that in any 
case where alkaloids are used, the pain is increased; but if the drug is 
administered early, that need not be noticed. Suppose we have a case 
running four or five days, repeat the oil ever}' twelve or fifteen hours; in 
addition to this, bear in mind that the pulse is increased to sixtj^ or sixty 
five; temperature elevated — may be 103: begins to sweat; we recognize 
that the horse is in a dangerous condition; pulse ma}^ run up to 80 or 85, 
temperature from 104 upward; usually death then soon occurs. In addi- 
tion to purgative, give small doses of aconite, and rather liberal doses of 
belladonna combined with some stimulant and anodyne. 
R Aconite rd. fl. ext. 40 drops, 

Belladonna fl. ext. 1 oz., 

Hyosciamus fl. ext. 2 oz., 

Spts. nit. ether 2 oz. 

Aqua ad. to make one pint. Give 2 ozs. every four hours. Keep horse 
quiet, and give in addition to this, from ^ to 1 oz. of cannabis indica. 
Water precipitates this, so if you want to combine it in the prescription 
you will have to use simple syrup instead of water. Counter-irritants 
are almost invaluable; we use mustard and repeat in from every two to 
ten hours, according to the severhry of the case. If mustard, etc. don't 
give relief in three or four da} r s, apply croton liniment, such as croton 
oil one part, linseed seven parts, but don't repeat this. Eserine is also 
dangerous to repeat if given in large doses, but if in less than 1 gr. repeat 
half the dose in one hour if not relieved. In little animals, injections do 
very well, as glycerine diluted one half with water; for adult, 2 oz. gly- 
cerine, aqua 2 oz. ; for little animals 1 or 2 oz., or inject olive oil, linseed 
or water, and if this does not suffice, give olive oil 4 ozs. to foal, or 2 oz. 
New Orleans molasses. Don't use the hand to remove the faeces. Dogs 
you can dose with castor oil and repeat in large quantities same as in the 
horse; if the stomach won't retain it, give a little bismuth. Sometimes 
on account of the faeces getting so hard and in such a large mass, it must 
be taken out with the use of the forceps — first locate the mass, and be 
careful not to injure the lining of the intestines. If pain is not severe, 
exercise animal. 

Diarrhoea. — This is an unnatural fluid condition of the faeces; it is 
either a peculiar functional disturbance, or a s} r mptom of some other 
trouble; the latter is Superpurgation. We find that Diarrhoea is quite a 
symptom of other diseases, as Rinderpest, and contagious Pleuro-Pneu- 
monia in cattle. 

Etiology. — As a disease in itself, it is a peculiar increased peristaltic 
motion, and in addition to this, as a result of the irritation, we get a 
vastly increased amount of water into the bowels, and there is a rapid 



52 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

evacuation of water from the system. It is generally some local irrita- 
tion in the bowels that causes the trouble, as indigestible food and para- 
sites, mechanical and chemical irritations, laxative food in too large quan- 
tities; ice water in hot weather is a cause in man. Cold water of itself 
in large quantities often causes a Diarrhoea that may run a rapid course 
and terminate fatally in a short time. Local tissue changes in the stom- 
ach or bowels is a functional derangement of the liver, due to some ex- 
cessive stimulant, causing the bile to flow. Foul stagnant water is 
among the causes, and all these causes work more severely when the ani- 
mal is exhausted or overheated, or when in a plethoric condition. If the 
horse is overheated, will cause a mild form of Diarrhoea. Chronic Diar- 
rhoea is known as Scours. 

Semeiology. — In this watery condition of the fasces they are usually 
gray or yellow; the gray may run into a dirty brown, and usually indicates 
that there is an insufficient quantity of bile, which is caused by allowing 
too great activity in the bowels. This gray may be fetid; the bright yel- 
low is due to excessive bile; this latter kind of faeces usually scalds the 
anus as it passes out, causing considerable pain. In the early stage there 
is no constitutional disturbance, but as the disease increases the pulse 
increases and the temperature falls below normal; as it runs on, the lin- 
ing of the rectum becomes a darker red and the appetite is usually lost. 
As it runs on to a fatal termination, the pulse becomes wiry, hard and 
weak, finally imperceptible, and as the water runs through the bowels 
the thirst increases; the animal becomes emaciated very rapidly; as death 
approaches the mouth becomes cold and clammy, ears, nose and extrem- 
ities get cold, and a clammy sweat breaks over the bod)-; the mouth may 
be offensive, there is an anxious expression of countenance, the horse be- 
comes weaker, and finally dies of collapse — syncope. 

Chronic Form.— Usually seen in the horse when out a little time; he 
was all right in the stable, but when driven an hour or so may begin to 
scour. Sometimes this chronic form stops of itself, at other times may be 
incurable. Parasites that cause Diarrhoea are Ascarides, Teres Lumbrici, 
and Strongylus Tetracanthus — which are the worst of them all, and often 
exist by the millions; the others are larger but exist in less numbers. 
This one killed more colts last year than all the other diseases, that is in 
the state of Illinois. It seems to come like the locust pest — periodically. 
It is usually found in the colon and rectum. 

Superpurgatiox. — Does not differ very materially from Diarrhoea, 
but is more severe and is caused by the injudicious repetition of a purg- 
ing close; it is more rapid and more sure of a fatal termination. About 
the only cause of Diarrhoea in small animals, we might say, is Indigestion, 
from eating too much or going too long without food, then overloading 
their stomachs when they get their meals, then there is an insufficiency 
of the gastric juice. Another fact is, that the mare ma)' be overworked 
while the colt is left in the stable, then the milk becomes heated and 
causes Diarrhoea in the colt. A nursing animal should not go longer 
than two hours at a time without feeding. The character of the food 
also affects the colt; this is also the same in the human family, — the 
mother's milk may become changed and the baby is affected. In Diar- 
rhoea in the young, there is considerable straining, cramp and colicky 
pains. Where it is a mild case and does not run on to a fatal termina- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 53 

tion, the colt is not lively, coat long and rough, pot-bellied, thin, and is 
unthrifty in general. In long continued Diarrhoea, in autopsy we find 
there is a dark-colored fluid in the peritoneum cavity. In Diarrhoea, 
where it has run three or four days, you will find in. autopsy, patches of 
ecchymosis over the peritoneum, showing an excessively prostrated con- 
dition. The glands are often brown, softened and enlarged; these are the 
lymphatics. The bowels are contracted, and their lining has a catarrhal 
coating over them. Caustic substances often cause Diarrhoea, and then 
erosion of the bowels is seen, as in arsenic poisoning; the arsenic being 
administered slowly, that is, for 2 or 3 days. Diarrhoea in young ani- 
mals often run a rapid course, and if not relieved they may die in a few 
hours. 

Treatment. — Put in good, comfortable stall, clothe warmly, and if 
necessary give artificial heat; keep perfectly quiet; ascertain the cause if 
possible and remove it. On account of excessive thirst restrict the water 
supply; put anti- acids in his drinking water, as lime water or bicarbonate 
soda, 1 dram to the gallon of water. Then give linseed tea, or gruel, or 
starch gruel; they are soothing to the mucous membranes. Give the ani- 
mal boiled oats if he eats, and in moderately bad cases, give dry bran; 
but over all, drench with starch gruel or flour, or give wheat flour, 1 
pound in a gallon of water. In addition to this, it is well to give pre- 
pared chalk or lime water, for remember the stomach is acid in all these 
cases. If there is cramp and straining, give anodynes; opium is the 
best remedy, either in the gum, powder, or tincture. The pain in the 
rectum is often excessive; laudanum, opium, or starch gruel may be given 
— 1 quart of the gruel and 1 oz. laudanum; this is particularly good for 
the young, and is to be injected. In the adult animal use 2 ozs. of the 
laudanum; often a single injection gives relief. To young pigs you can 
give from ^ to 1 teaspoonful and it would be harmless. If the prostra- 
tion is very great, give stimulants, as sulphuric ether, whisky or brand}' - , 
in doses according to the size of the animal, and repeat according to the 
amount of prostration. Dogs we treat much the same, but we find sub. 
nit. bismuth is the best; the dose for a 40 ft>. setter, one year old, would 
be 10 gr. repeated three times a day; the same dose is for the human. 

In case of excessive pain, counter-irritants are the thing; soap lini- 
ment is good; hypodermic injections of morphia, if the cramp is severe. 
Where indigestible food is the cause, it is often necessary to give a laxa- 
tive before we can effect a cure; in such a case give oil, — linseed oil is 
very good for cattle and sheep; castor oil for human, dogs and pigs. 
Sometimes we add stimulants, as mix vomica, gentian, cascara, etc. ; 
stomachic in the form of ginger, camphor, whisk}-. If it runs on three 
or four days, astringents may do good; spirits of camphor given alone 
often gives good results, or 

R Tr. Opii 1 oz. 

Tr. Catechu 1 oz. 

Spirits Camphor 1 oz. 

Ether Sulph. 1 oz. 

Add starch gruel to make 1 pint, — this is one dose for the horse; repeat 
in five or six hours. Or give 

R Creta Prep. 1 oz. 

Zingiber Pulv. 1 oz. 

Gum Camphor 1 dr. 



54 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Gruel to make one pint; this is one dose. These may be repeated three 
times a day or more. Tinct. rhubarb is usually given to regulate the 
liver, — this is only necessary with young animals living on milk; dose i 
to 2 drams; can combine catechu tr. with it, as for foals about one month 
old. 

R Tr. Rhubarb rt. i dr. 

Tr. Catechu i dr. 

Tr. Opii i dr. 

Camphor i dr. 

Missura creta 2 to 4 drams; this is one dose and can be repeated 2 or 3 
times a day. This missura creta is good in human practice; often alone 
it is fine. We find that strong coffee may be given to adults where the 
prostration is great; give in liberal quantities; for the young, give port 
wine and whisky. Don't stop the Diarrhoea too quick, or it may cause 
reflex action of the stomach, so give small doses and repeat it as neces- 
sary. 

Chronic Diarrhoea Treatment. — The first thing is regulation of 
the diet; give concentrated food, good hay and oats to draw up the belly, 
and by giving small amount of hay and liberal quantities of oats will be 
benefited. Limit the amount of water to half bucket at a time, four 
or five times a da)-. Tonics are indicated; sulph. iron, add a little nux 
vomica or gentian, — continue this two or three months. Charcoal, 
arsenic, but the iron is the most important. We find astringents to be 
very good, powdered white oak bark, from half to one tea-cupful twice 
a day; also give anti-acids. Bicarbonate of soda is very good; iron is very 
good, given night and morning. 

Spasmodic Colic. — Colic is a powerful effort of the bowels, a spas- 
modic effort, by which nature tries to remove some irritant, and is unac- 
companied with fever or inflammation. There are two kinds — Spasmodic 
and Flatulent. Spasmodic Colic is a violent chronic spasm of the mus- 
cular coat of the bowels; the irritant that produces the spasm is applied 
to the muscular coat, and so irritates it that it produces Hyperesthesia, 
due to over stimulation. The spasm is sharp and excessively painful, 
and subsides after a minute or two, but only to return again with greater 
force; this characterizes the disease as Spasmodic Colic. It usually ter- 
minates favorably by resolution, and by removal of the cause; the whole 
trouble often disappears as suddenly as it came. If the cause is not re- 
moved it may run on to chronic, then resulting in inflammation and death. 

Etiology. — Errors in dieting are the most prolific causes, as improper 
food, improper quantities, improper time, irregular feeding, inferior food, 
bolting the food without proper salivation, drinking large draughts of water 
after eating, thus washing the food out of the stomach into the bowels 
before the gastric juice has acted upon it; this cause is irritating to the 
bowels; eating when much exhausted, as in Gastric Flatulency: drinking 
large draughts of very cold water. Then other causes are calculi; a cal- 
culus is sometimes lodged in pockets in the bowels, and becoming loos- 
ened, causes very severe pains and is very irritating. Calculi seem to 
do no harm while they are fixed, and not till they are loosened do they 
cause the trouble. Sometimes these balls are composed of dust; these do 
less harm than other kinds, yet they are irritating. Parasitic elements 
are also quite productive of this trouble, such as the Teres Eumbriccales,, 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 55 

Strongylus Tetracanthus, Ascarides, and most particular, the Strongylus 
Armatus, which have sword-like arms with which they can bore their 
way through the tissues; they'originate in the bowels, and find their way 
into the colic and mesenteric arteries. Often they are in great numbers, 
and sometimes when tapping the intestinal cavity in Ascites, they come 
out in the serum in great numbers. They may be from rV of an inch to 
2 and % inches long; that is A inch in diameter. When this worm gets into 
the blood vessels it causes severe pains, and the animal usually dies from 
Thrombosis. Organic disorder of the glands of the intestines may cause 
Colic; exposure and cold drenching, or showering horses' bellies may 
cause colicky pains. 

Semeiology. — It may come on suddenly, especially if due to heavy 
draughts of cold water, as that chills the bowels suddenly; but if due to 
the food, it may be several days coming on, and as soon as it begins there 
will be uneasiness on the part of the horse; he will look back at the side, 
move forward and back, paw a little, lie down and roll, get up quickly, 
will make efforts to lie on his back while down; in bad cases will sweat, 
throw himself violently on the floor, or drop recklessly, drop in a heap, 
roll and kick furiously; the boweis will become accelerated, due to these 
active exertions. The spasm will naturally subside; then the pulse and 
respiration, which were increased only by the exertions, will return to 
the normal, and the animal will be quite comfortable until the next cramp 
comes on. Another sign when caused by the food, the horse will turn 
up the upper lip as though in nausea. Under favorable circumstances Or 
cases, the spasms subside and the horse gets well, but if the cause Of the 
irritation is not removed then it will run into Enteritis. There is no 
marked elevation in temperature. When pain increases pulse get hard. 
Another cause is retention of the urine for a long time, due to the spas- 
modic contraction of the neck of the bladder; this is a very rare cause. 
It often comes on from some peculiarity of the horse, such as will not 
urinate on the bare floor, some will not while in harness, so they carry 
their urine until it becomes irritating. The fasces are sometimes hard, 
small and scant in these cases, and the pulse is usually irritable. There 
is a difference between the trouble in the large and the small intestines; 
if in the large they will be more like those seen in impaction of the colon, 
but if in the small intestines,, the symptoms will be as those just given. 
Pain in small bowels is more severe than in large ones, therefore symp- 
toms in large ones are very much less violent. He will stretch and back 
up against objects. 

Treatment. — Bear in mind that bowel troubles are alwaj^s serious; 
Colic is peculiarly urgent because it is so painful, and also because the 
disease may get well of itself if you don't hurry, as it sometimes does, so 
lose no time when you are called to treat a Colic case. About 75 per 
cent of Spasmodic Colic cases will get well if left to themselves; the first 
thing to do is to give the horse plenty of room; if no other way, take out 
of doors; then administer such drugs as will relieve pain and act as a 
diffusive liniment; give diffusive stimulants, as ether, alcohol, spts. am- 
monia,, whisky. Anodynes that are useful are chloral, most important, 
sulph. ether, cannabis indica, and in extreme cases morphia. Aconite is 
looked upon as a fairly good remedy; it is antispasmodic. The old-fashion- 
ed way was to give opium, but we think it is contra indicated because it 



56 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

has a tendency to allay the cramp and spasmodic contraction of the bowels, 
and this should not be done because it is by this action of the bowels that 
nature is endeavoring to throw off the irritating substance, so we want the 
vermicular motion to go on instead of being stopped. We think that 75 
per cent of the cases that die treated with opium, would recover if it was 
not given in this trouble. The drench that we use is 
R Belladonna PI. Ext. y 2 dr. 

Physostigma Fl. Ext. 1 dr. 

Sod. Hyposulphate 1 oz. 

Ether 1 oz. 

Aqua ad. q s. to make one half pint. Give this as one dose, and if necessary 
repeat in from fifteen minutes to half hour. Give large dose of oil; tobac- 
co per rectum is good. Belladonna regulates the circulation, contracts the 
arteries, strengthens the beats of the heart and prevents congestion. Cala- 
babean acts on the spinal cord, especially that portion which presides over 
the bowels; it has much the same effect as its alkaloid — eserine; it helps 
peristaltic motion, especially of the large intestines. Soda hyposulph. 
prevents fermentation and sweetens the bowels, and is slightly laxative; 
sulph. ether is a stimulant and an anodyne; Dr. McEachran's is tinct. 
opium and spts. nit. ether, 2 ozs. of each, add water to make ^ pint; this 
is one dose. This is irrational. Hypodermic injections of eserine or mor- 
phine may be used; socotrine aloes may be given. Our drench will not 
decompose; chloral hydrate will decompose if left long made; the spts. 
nit. ether and hyposulph. sodium form a caustic substance. There is al- 
wa}rs danger when using the hypodermic needle, from some germ being 
on it if not thoroughly cleaned. It is a good idea to give freely of ano- 
dynes to keep the animal from rolling and throwing himself, so give 
freely; when the case is not too severe, exercise will often assist in remov- 
ing the cause, but it is cruel when the horse is suffering severely. Dur- 
ing recovery, give rest and change of food. If you are caught in a place 
where you cannot get any thing in drugs that you need, then you will find 
that a piece of tobacco tied to the bit so the horse will swallow the juice, 
.will prove a good remedy. 

Flatulent Colic — Intestinal Flatulence. — This is much the 
same as Spasmodic Colic, and in addition to the pain, the bowels are 
distended with gas. This is due to the fermentation of the undigested 
food, also the Flatulency that accompanies Enteritis; also that accom- 
panying impaction of the colon, but in these last two it is not so distress- 
ing usually. We are also inclined to think that Intestinal Flatulency is 
not so painful as Spasmodic Colic, and is caused more by the distension 
of the bowels than by cramp; but the danger is greater — nearly as great 
as from Gastric Flatulency, or, perhaps more so, because in this case 
there is no chance for the gas to escape, consequently there is great 
pressure upon the diaphragm, causing Asphyxia and death; in excessive- 
distension, rupture of diaphragm. In some cases we find the rectum 
protruding from two to eight inches out of the anus. 

Diagnosis. — We find the flanks distended and drum-like between the 
flanks and the last rib, and this will show in different animals according 
to the length between the hip and the last rib; the longer they are the 
plainer will show the drum-like appearance. The long ones are the 
fortunate ones, because the length allows space for the swelling; while in 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 57 

the shorter coupled horses the swelling may press against the diaphragm, 
suffocating them much easier than it would those of the other conforma- 
tion. So in looking over a case, we are often led astray in the short 
horse by the swelling not being apparent, and at the same time the 
Dyspnoea is always greater in the short than in the long horse. We find 
there is danger of rupture of the intestines or intestinal walls; also of the 
diaphragm. Then, if neither of these occurs, the horse may still die 
from great prostration. 

Treatment — Is more or less difficult, because we cannot reach the 
seat of the trouble with medicine. Chemical agents are held in variable 
estimation by different practitioners, but we use hyposulph. soda, also 
bicarbonate soda — this one when it reaches the place of the trouble, has 
been robbed of its alkaloid. Carbonate ammonia, wood charcoal, carbolic 
acid, or any other antiseptic may be used. The best thing for the trouble 
is oil of tuipentine, as it is quickly taken up by the blood vessels; it is 
said that in 15 minutes after giving you can detect it in the urine; it is 
an anti- ferment and anti-acid. Usually we give in ounce doses in half 
pint of oil, then it is alwa3^s advisable to give anodynes and liberally; 
this is to relieve pain and to relax the parts, but the passage to the place 
is so obstructed by the bowels pressing upon themselves that it is often 
impossible to reach the point needed; this pressure also prevents the 
escape of the gas. Turpentine stimulates the heart — don't forget the 
anodynes. Lobelia is highly esteemed; also chloroform, chloral hydrate, 
sulphuric acid and tobacco, especially tobacco smoke. Stimulating injec- 
tions are often ve^ beneficial; we often give 2 ozs. of glycerine in 2 ozs. 
of water, per rectum; soap and water injections are also good when the 
rectum is not protruding too far. Alwa} r s be careful in injecting that 
you do not puncture the rectum — be ve^ gentle in passing in your tube. 
Eserine is very good in this case; many try it with nothing else, but I 
think it had better be given in small doses, as it produces the greatest 
pain. It increases the pain about ten times after about 15 minutes, and 
for about 15 minutes; this is due to the sudden firm contraction of the 
bowels, and if there is no congestion or inflammation it will do no harm, 
but if there is any it may prove fatal. So I think it should be given 
early, and I would rather give in y 2 gr. doses than in 1 or 1^ grs. 
Don't think that pylocarpine is any good; the trocar is the most reliable 
of all, and we always carry one in our pocket, as at the time }^ou need it 
there will be no time to go for one. A horse may often be saved when 
he is about dying, by tapping, and we know from experience that there 
is no danger from it. You may tap when there is great Dyspnoea, but if 
there is none I would not tap; but when the horse is suffering greatly 
from Dyspnoea, do not hesitate too long — that is, until great prostration 
has set in, when it may not do much good. You may tap on either side, 
but the best results are from the right side, about two inches back from 
the last rib, and about its middle, or even at the lower third. Clip off 
the hair from a spot about the size of your finger nail; then, with a 
scalpel, cut through the skin about yi of an inch deep and yk of an inch 
long; then point your trocar inzvard, dozvnward and forward. Stand at 
arm's length for fear of kicks, push the trocar in as far as the ferule, 
pull out, and leave the cannula in. 

There are two kinds of gas formed in these cases; one is carburetted 



58 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

hydrogen, which will burn, and the carbon dioxide, which will not burn. 
If you do not enter the bowel, then draw out the trocar, all but an inch 
of it, and then push it in in another direction, but never straight in. I have 
had to tap as often as seven times before the horse was cured. Immedi- 
ately after tapping use your medicine. Nine out of ten times tapping 
will give relief, but your work is not done after it, so continue your 
treatment. Never leave the cannula in longer than a few minutes, for if 
left in, maybe for only five minutes, nature begins to throw out an 
exudate around the punctured edges, and this Avill fasten around the 
cannula and may cause a fistula in the intestines; or some of the contents 
of the bowel may drop into the abdominal cavity and cause Enteritis. 
Also always place your finger over the opening of the cannula when with- 
drawing it; this prevents the contents dropping out into the abdominal 
cavity. Always use the small trocar for the horse and the large one for 
cattle, because you tap into the bowel of th ehorse, and into the rumen 
in cattle; also the horse is more vascular, and the nerve supply is greater. 
If you have to repeat the tapping, never tap in the same opening; you 
avoid striking the kidneys by not going in straight, and the bladder by 
not going in backwards. You are apt to strike the colic or mesenteric 
arteries, but there is no way to be sure how to avoid them; if you strike 
one the blood will flow out of the cannula; don't get scared, but draw 
out the cannula part way and insert the trocar in another direction; I 
have struck them and never had any bad result follow, as blood does not 
cause inflammation in the cavity. The untoward results that ma}' follow 
are, Peritonitis, Tetanus, abscess in the mesenter}^, or in the walls outside 
of the peritoneum, and Intestinal Fistula. Peritonitis, by the contents 
of the bowel passing out into the abdominal cavity; this can be told by 
the juice coming out of the cannula; Tetanus, on account of the Tetanus 
germ getting into the wound; put lard on outside of hole, if you think 
horse is liable to get tetanic; abscesses in the mesenteric by the trocar 
going into it. 

Semeioeogy of Abscess. — Back arched, belly drawn up, pulse in- 
creased. Four to six days after tapping, make a rectal examination with 
the hand; if the abscess is near the surface it can be felt by the hand 
easily; it should be tapped. The abscess outside may be caused by a 
dirty trocar, or by hair passing in with the cannula, or the intestinal 
juice may drop off into the cavity; these are unfortunately too common;, 
with this there is pain on pressure. Cut down through the original 
opening, locate the abscess and bear it downward, then tap in the bottom 
— one, two or three times, no harm; then insert a piece of oakum into the 
opening, the large one, first dusting it with iodoform. These abscesses 
may work down as far as the stifle, if let run long; in this case you can 
cut quite boldly. 

The Intestinal Fistula is recognized by the offensive and unsightly 
discharge through the opening. The best treatment we have for this is 
cauterizing; if less than three weeks old, I would try peroxide of 
hydrogen, and close the external opening; if running long enough to 
form a pipe, we cauterize by shooting down sulphate copper, i oz. to the 
pint of water — say i dr. at a time, and close the opening with a plug; 
after four or five days take out the plug and see if stopped; if not, 
repeat with a little weaker solution, and close as before. On account of 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 59 

the possibility of these bad results, mam- or some do not like to have 
their horses tapped, so only fall back on it as a last resort; some pour 
hyposulphate soda down the cannula to prevent a return of the Flatulency. 
Tapping is the best treatment in the case of the ox. In their case always 
tap on the left side, and always a little lower down than in the horse, and 
in the same direction as in the horse. 

Intestinal Obstructions. — ist, Calculi; 2d, Hernia and Stran- 
gulation; 3d, Stricture; 4th, Alteration of the Position; 5th, Intussuscep- 
tion. Disturbances which these obstructions produce; sometimes the 
obstructions themselves are the result of some previous deranged condi- 
tion. Calculi are recognized of two kinds — the hard and the soft; the 
soft are formed with dust, hair, etc. Calculi are usually harmless as 
long as they remain in their pockets, but as soon as one loosens it will 
cause a bagging of the part; as it grows heavy it will bag the more, and 
as the walls increase in thickness they decrease in sensibility. When a 
calculus rolls from its pocket it proves a very serious thing, and does 
great harm, often causing death. The solid ones are composed of lime 
and magnesia, mostly lime, the calcareous matter in the food forming 
around the nuclei. 

Hernia and Strangulation. — This is defined as a protrusion of 
the bowels through an improperly closed umbilical, causing Umbilical 
Hernia. It always occurs in young animals; it is sometimes the omen- 
tum, other times the bowel itself. Sometimes it passes through the 
abdominal ring, then we have Inguinal Hernia; this is usuallj' seen only 
in entire males. When the bowel passes through a rupture of the 
abdominal wall, we call it Ventral Hernia, in which case the skin alone 
holds it from falling to the ground. It is usually caused by kicks from 
other horses, getting horned, or from falls on the ice. In case of rupture 
of the diaphragm, the bowels may pass into the chest, called Diaphrag- 
matic Hernia, and is generally a rupture of the muscular portion of the 
diaphragm. When the bowel in Inguinal Hernia passes clear down into 
the scrotum, then it is Scrotal Hernia; this can only occur in the male. 

Etiology. — If the bowel in protruding is placed so there is no chance 
for free passage of the faeces and free circulation of the blood, Strangula- 
tion takes place with the results, first, the bowel swells, due to the con- 
gestion induced by the interference of the circulation; if very severe, the 
bowel will turn black and die in a few hours — then it is only a question 
of time till the animal dies. This rupture ma}- have occurred a year be- 
fore, but not so that there was any interference to the faecal matter or the 
circulation. If it comes from hardening of the faeces or from pressure 011 
the outside, it may take it from ten to fifteen days to do any harm. Um- 
bilical Hernia is very common in colts, lambs, sheep and in babies, not 
so often in calves. Ventral Hernia is generally seen in cattle, seldom 
ever in horses. Diaphragmatic from its nature, is necessarily fatal, but 
horses may die showing the peculiar signs or symptoms of Enteritis. In- 
guinal Hernia occurs in wholly males, and if in geldings then the inguinal 
canal is not obliterated. In the stallion this canal is kept large by the 
working of the spermatozoon cord. All Hernia can be seen by the outside 
enlargement, except the Diaphragmatic. The symptoms attending Stran- 
gulation of the Bowel are much the same as seen in Spasmodic Colic, but is 
very rapid in Hernia of the Inguinal Hernia; the pain is terribly severe 



60 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

and may come on in an hour; the others come on more slowly. If it 
leads to Strangulation quickly, then gangrene may take place. When 
called upon to treat stallions for Colic, suspect Hernia — always. In 
autopsy, find protruded portion black. 

Treatment. — For Hernia, depends upon the location of it. Umbilical, 
you are usually called upon to treat this in little animals, from a day up 
to several months old. It is very common among puppies, especially the 
Pug. In some cases the omentum alone protrudes, in fact, in a majority 
of cases. Depending upon the size of the animal, we adopt — first thing, 
to close the opening, of course first reducing the Hernia; if it is easy to 
put back, then it is the bowel, but if difficult, then it is the omentum. 
Always lay the animal on its back to close the opening; one way being to 
close with clamps on the skin, another is to ligate; another is to open the 
skin and sew up the rupture. Always be sure there is none of the bowel 
left out, gather as much of the skin as was in the swelling, then ligate 
all this skin, or put several skewers through, and ligate below them. 
This is followed by the inflammation that will be set up and which causes 
an exudate, tumefaction, adhesion, and consequent organization of the 
exudate and healing of the parts. Remember all these surgical opera- 
tions are to be performed antiseptically, If in twenty-four hours, with 
the clamps, the parts begin to swell; in forty-eight very large, and in 
sixty hours it may be enormous. Don't be frightened, that is what you 
want; in a week or ten days this skin will die and drop off; if not, in 
twelve days you can cut it off. Always tie moderately tight — never so 
much as to cause death by Strangulation. 

Ventral Hernia. — Treatment of this depends upon the size of it; 
if three inches in diameter, there is no use to treat it, but if two inches, 
it is easy to handle; this is usually found high up on horses, due to kicks, 
but low down on cattle, due to horning. If less than two inches, or even 
two inches, treat as in the Umbilical, only it causes a pucker in the healing; 
but you can draw the edges together and keep on restricted food diet for 
about ten days, when it will heal. If it is necessary, clip off the hair, but 
you can clean the hair nicely and use it as gauze to sprinkle in the iodoform. 
Another way to close this is by the use of the hypodermic needle, injecting 
with .some irritating substance, as solution of common salt, filtered; inject 
about one dram about an inch apart, in several or more circles around the 
opening, say over a space of four inches. Or instead of this, in a fresh case, 
put on a strong blister; a truss would be good, but impossible to keep it on. 
I would prefer the injections of salt for a valuable horse, as it will not 
pucker; or you can open the skin perpendicularly over the opening and use 
fine silk or catgut to sew up the rupture; when the sutures rot out, there 
may be an exudate of lymph from the external opening, and the sutures 
are often absorbed or come out in little pimples. Sew up the external 
opening with number twelve silk, and take good strong hold on the skin; 
treat antisepticalty and bandage. 

Inguinal Scrotal Hernia In Stallions. — This is difficult to 
handle. Lay him down, something like for castration; if it has not been 
in existence very long it is easy to put back; if down into the scrotum, I 
find we get the best results by inserting the hand in the rectum, first 
giving him 2 ozs. of chloroform or 1 and ^ ozs. of chloral, then in about 
fifteen minutes he will be quiet and you can go to work; it ma}- be well 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 6 1 

then to produce entire anaesthesia, as it will help you by causing a com- 
plete relaxation of the parts. With the hand in the rectum you can 
easily find the abdominal ring, then with the help of the hand on the out- 
side you can force back the bowel; be very gentle with the hand that is 
in the rectum. It may be necessary to open up the skin; use a probe- 
pointed bistoury to enlarge the ring, this only when all other ways are 
useless, but the Hernia must be reduced. After operating for this, put 
the horse in a narrow, single stall, and have the hind parts elevated until 
it heals. Give dry brand and very little hay. It is sometimes necessary 
for him to lose a testicle in this case; warn owner that it may not be suc- 
cessful. 

Stricture in the Intestines. — Occurs much the same as any 
stricture in an}" other part; some local irritation exists and is continued 
for an indefinite length of time, setting up chronic inflammation; the result 
of this being proliferation and cicatrization. Stricture occurs by a thick- 
ening of the intestinal walls, and by constriction reducing the calibre of 
the intestines. We find that the walls instead of being large and dilata- 
ble are very thick and inelastic; sometimes this occurs on the outside of 
the bowel, but usually in the body of the wall. Sometimes following 
stricture we have a degeneration of the Neoplastic tissues, and as a rule 
it organizes and becomes white fibrous tissue and remains with the ani- 
mal, interferes with free passage of the faeces, and leads to Enteritis and 
death; this could not probably be diagnosed during life, but it would do 
no good if we could. In the human they have cut out this constriction; 
the operation is called Enterectomy, or as now they call all operations on 
the belly — Laparotomy. 

Alteration of Position of the Bowels. — Under this head comes Twist, 
Gut Tie or Enlargement. This usually occurs consequent to and depend- 
ent upon rupture of the mesentery, spoken of by some authors as Mesen- 
teric Hernia. In this we find a rupture of the mesentery, and the bowel 
passing through this rupture gets the twist, etc., and interferes with the 
passage of the fseces. This must have occurred while rolling, etc. , but 
it is a conundrum how. I think there must have been some degenera- 
tion of tissues before this could occur — these twists, etc. They generally 
occur in the small intestines, but can in the large ones by the bowel fall- 
ing across the other. It is almost impossible to diagnose during life. 

Intussusception — Volvulies — Invagination. — Or the passage of 
a portion of an intestine into another portion of the same one. This is a 
comparatively common accident and can occur only as the result of some 
textural change in the bowel — one portion of the bowel being unhealthy, 
and the healthy part anterior to it, slips into it. 

Etiology. — Some violently increased peristaltic, generally after some 
severe purgative has been given. The most common is the ileum into 
the ileo caecal valve, or into itself. 

Semeiology. — Symptoms are the same as Colic and Enteritis; the}- are 
much the same in all the cases — there is nausea, profuse perspiration, 
violent and increasing pains similar to Colic. By inserting the hand into 
the rectum you can often tell the trouble, where the colon falls over it- 
self; but where the ileum passes into itself, I don't think you could feel 
it. In the latter stages of this trouble there will be considerable Flatu- 



62 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

lency and persistent pain present. The animal usually dies stupid, and 
the horse also becomes apparently blind. 

Treatment. — Of this, must depend upon the circumstances. We 
can't practice Enterectomy, because the animal must lie on its back 
after the operation, in order to insure success; this is why it can be prac- 
ticed in the human. Eserine used subcutaneously may overcome altera- 
tions in position. Anodynes, diffusive stimulants, fomentations, oleag- 
inous laxatives, are indicated. There is a peculiar phenomenon in 
cattle — where a portion of the ileum passes into the colon and then be- 
comes stopped, and Strangulation and sloughing take place of the part 
that is passed the ileo caecal valve, the remaining healthy portion ad- 
hered to the valve and the sloughed part has passed out, making a good 
recover}-. Cattle have been known to pass six feet of intestines this way 
and recover; in human, from one or three inches to a foot, and make a 
nice recovery. After the sloughing off, there is an exudate that causes 
the joining or adhesion. In all these cases, where it is a valuable horse, 
it is well to make an autopsy when they die, to prove to the owner that 
you were right. 

Prolapsus of the Rectum. — Spoken of as Eburses. This is a 
protrusion of the rectum out through the anus; it ma)- be only an inch or 
two, as in the horse, or ma}- be a foot or fifteen inches in pigs or dogs; 
in cattle, accompanying calving, from two to four feet is not uncommon. 
It may occur in any of the animals, and as a rule is due to either 
Constipation, Diarrhoea, or straining accompanying parturition. In horses, 
cattle and pigs, mostly due to Constipation; in dogs, to Diarrhoea; cattle 
also in Parturition. If it is not excessive there is no danger, but if ex- 
cessive and left out an hour or so, then comes Strangulation at the anus; 
the cause of this is the contraction of the sphincter ani upon the protrud- 
ing bowel — this is followed by gangrene and sloughing off of the part. 
One of the most common causes of this trouble in the horse, . is soap in- 
jected by stablemen and some left in, during Colic; also in young 
animals when the pasture is dry and they cannot get water: 

Treatment. — Wash the protruded part with some antiseptic and 
soothing lotion, as olive oil with a little carbolic acid, and add to this a 
little opium; with this always give a good anodyne, then carefully and 
gently replace the protruding bowel. After the bowel has been replaced, 
nature feels the swelling and acts as if it was faecal matter, and there is 
spasmodic straining; so to prevent this give anaesthetics, as chloral hy- 
drate, and repeat ; this to be given in the mouth. The straining makes 
it difficult to keep the bowel back, so along with the above give rectal in- 
jections of opium; after the gut is replaced, oil your hand and insert and 
remove all the faeces that you can; good to use a little soap and water, 
but not enough so stimulate the bowels; then after a while it would be 
well to give a laxative. Remember that it is an easy matter to run your 
finger through the gut while in this state, so in placing the gut back, use 
an ointment of tannic acid and opium a a, rubbed up with vaseline or 
lard, and use your palms. Next day give a stimulant, as sulphur and 
lard; sulphur 2 dr., lard 1 oz. ; apply this. Give the animal plenty of 
water and soft feed; never give aloes, instead, give oleaginous laxatives; 
melted lard is good for laxative of bovine. When it conies from Diar- 
rhoea, as in the puppy, give anti- acids and anodynes; in the dog, after 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 63 

replacing, injection of starch is good; then afterward sew up the opening 
of the anus and leave in two or three days. In case the protruded bOwel 
becomes gangrened and sloughs off, you can interfere with a little sur- 
gery. Insert your finger into the gut and cut the outside skin about an 
inch from the anus and above the gangrene, then draw out the inner part 
and cut off the remaining part. Sew these two parts together, then care- 
fully push back into the anus; that is sewing the healthy part of the 
bowel to the sphincter ani. Make the sutures about half inch apart, or 
leave the part on after sewing and it will slough off at that place; this 
will work good in dogs. 

Piles — Hemorrhoids. — These are bleeding piles; they are little 
congested parts of the mucous membrane lining the rectum; they may be 
in a foot or fifteen inches. They are very troublesome in the human, 
and the same cause produces them that produces prolapsus — as Consti- 
pation, etc. The hard fsecal matter irritates the mucous membrane and 
causes a little local inflammation that finally becomes chronic. 

Symptoms. — When the horse goes to dung, will switch his tail from 
side to side, or up and down between his legs; as the faeces comes out he 
shows the itching by rubbing his tail against something, and there is a 
general uneasiness; the dog will sit down on his anus and slide around 
that way. 

Treatment. — Laxative food, a great deal of water, few handfuls of 
bran along with his oats — this to stimulate the secretions. We find an 
ointment of sulphur and lard, 1 to 8 or 1 to 4, introduced liberally is 
beneficial, also very good in human, — beats nut galls. For the human, 
the best thing to do is to relax the bowels with apples, night and morn- 
ing, or some such fruit and plenty of water and exercise. In case these 
piles are old and won't give way to treatment, then excise them; dilate 
the anus with a speculum and remove with an ecraseur, cauterizing them 
afterwards with electric needle heated white hot; this is the way it is 
performed in the human. 

Imperforated Anus. — This is found in little animals after birth; 
there is no opening; it is seen more in little pigs than in other animals, 
but it occurs in babies, foals, and calves. This must be attended to in 
not more than two days, or you can do no good. Cut in with scalpel, 
if necessary insert a plug of oakum to keep the place open. Where the 
rectum terminates in a blind pouch, but the opening of the anus is all 
right, insert your finger and draw back the rectum to the ring of the 
anus, then cut an opening and stitch the edges to the anus. You can 
easily find the rectum, as it will be filled with the fseces. These are 
common occurrences. 

Rupture of Intestinal Wades. — This occurs the same as rupture 
of the stomach, and is always the result of some other intestinal disturb- 
ance — a most common cause is the reckless violence used in evacuation; 
this occurs in the rectum, when from other causes it will be in the colon. 
It is always fatal, and the animal will die from collapse or syncope. 
Sometimes the food passes out of the rupture into the abdominal cavhy, 
then the animal dies from Peritonitis, which is set up; this is rare. 

Semeiology. — There is no absolute diagnosis, the symptoms being 
much the same as the others. You will notice after a violent pain 
and other symptoms, that the animal gets quiet; to an ordinary observer 



64 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

it might be thought that this was an evidence of relief, but you can see 
the dejected, haggard countenance, begins to sweat, gets weak, lies down, 
gets up and sits on his haunches, makes effort to vomit; respiration 
becomes weaker, frequently the expired air is cold; there is violent 
straining without any apparent cause, the pulse grows rapid rapidly, and 
smaller and harder;' as death approaches, will lie down, get up, brace the 
legs and finally drop. In case the rupture is small and the faecal matter 
passed out into the abdominal cavity, the animal will die in from two to 
three days from Peritonitis, but usually in from one to six hours from 
syncope. The only positive proof as to the cause of death in these cases 
that we have, is in autopsy. If the owner wants it done, with a law 
suit in view, charge him $25.00, but if for his own satisfaction, then 
$5.00. In human practice there are various operations performed for 
these troubles, that are impracticable in veterinary. In cattle, more 
liberty can be taken in operating on the belly than in the horse, the 
horse being so vascular and having such a great nerve supply. 

Enteritis. — Is inflammation of the bowels, and is the most serious 
inflammatory trouble the horse is subject to. It most often affects the 
large intestines in the horse; when the small bowels are affected you 
may come to the conclusion that it is due every time to poisoning; when 
due to an}- other cause, you will find it in the large bowels. It starts 
usually in a circumscribed tract, but this would depend upon the cause. 
When Enteritis follows impaction of the colon it is large; if from Intus- 
susceptions or Calculi, it would be circumscribed, but would spread 
rapidly. In the pathogenesis there is considerable difference of opinion; 
some say it starts in the muscular coat, and some say in the mucous; the 
probability is, that it starts in the mucous and involves the rest. It 
conies on very suddenly, runs a rapid course, and invariably terminates 
fatally. It runs its course in from six to eight hours; in some cases it 
ma}- run on twenty or more, but we frequently see the horse dead after 
the first six hours. 

Prof. Williams is inclined to look upon Enteritis as Apoplexy of 
the Bowel, and there are some symptoms the same. Apoplexy applies 
to congestion and hemorrhage, that is why we get such strong symptoms 
alike. Symptoms in common, — we find the bowels more or less filled 
with blood, indicating hemorrhage; it is possible that there are ruptures 
of small blood vessels, but there is always inflammation present, so if it 
starts in Apoplexy it terminates in Enteritis in such a case. Suppose 
the cause is congestion — we have violent active congestion, and possibly 
rupture of some of the capillaries; this occurs in the mucous coat and ex- 
tends to and involves the muscular and parts of the serous; the Hernia is 
so severe we get considerable congestion, but not enough to cause gan- 
grene; but inflammation runs its course and results in gangrene, and as 
said, the horse is a great deal more liable to it than any other animal — 
many times more so than the ox, dog, or human, and with the other 
causes, the stomach of the horse is so small and the intestines large. Cat- 
tle and pigs frequently recover; horses — very seldom, may say never. 

Etiology. — Causes are very obscure, the disease coming on when the 
animal appears in the best of health, so can only say it must be due to or 
from indigestible matter in the food. It might be that the horse coming 
in during dirty, muddy weather has had the hose turned on his belly, the 






VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 65 

water ice cold — followed by Enteritis in a few hours. We also find that 
if horses are kept too long on the same kind of food; or putting the horse 
to hard work too soon after eating may cause Colic, followed by Enteri- 
tis; or there may be mechanical injuries or parasites — as the Strongylus 
Tetracanthus; so all causes that produce Colic, we may say, produce also 
Enteritis. Why ?— Can' t tell. 

Semeiology. — First, while congestion is taking place, there is con- 
siderable dullness; the horse hangs his head, refuses his food, and there 
is nervous depression that operates on the mind, we believe, as in the hu- 
man; pain comes on gradually, in the course of a few hours comes on rapidly; 
begins to kick and paw, walks around, turns nose to flank, switches the tail; 
pain is continuous and grows worse; quick pulse, increases in frequency, 
is quick and irritable, becomes hard; temperature may be from 103 to 105 
in the course of an hour; as the pain increases, the breathing increases 
and keeps it up; the ears and extremities get cold; friction on the stomach 
causes pain; lies down gently; the continuous character of the pain is in- 
variable when he passes faeces; the visible mucous lining is very red; the 
pulse as it runs on may get up to 60 or 80; there is a terribly haggard 
expression of the countenance. Towards the end of the disease the mind 
is affected and the animal becomes stupid, blind, deaf, and walks around 
with his nose to the floor, becomes delirious, crazy as a loon; sometimes 
stops, takes long sighs; the surface of the body becomes bathed with 
sweat, mouth gets cold, visible mucous membranes are livid, and towards 
the last half hour, have a bluish pallor. Just before death the pain may 
cease and the horse remain quiet till death, which soon comes. When 
this has occurred we conclude gangrene has taken place; if you take his 
pulse it is slow. 

Post-Mortem. — On opening, the outer coat will be red in patches; 
you can usually determine the bowel by the color, may be the colon, and 
from four to six feet of it. Sometimes it may also involve the cecum; 
the mesentery is also injected; the omentum often is quite black. You 
will find the red bowel much thickened, and mucous coat black as tar; 
bowel is partly filled with bloody fluid; on the surface of the mucous 
membrane there is usually a coagulation, a jelly-like accumulation — this 
is proof that inflammation existed. Cows often get Enteritis from licking 
the paint off newly-painted pipes, etc. , or they get the poison from the 
yew tree or poison ivy. 

Treatment. — This is very difficult to treat in the horse, for we think 
it incurable. But give rational treatment as the case calls for; purgatives 
or laxatives are contra indicated; opium is indicated in large doses to stop 
the peristaltic, and if you can keep it so for three or four days, may effect 
a cure. This gives inflammation time to subside. Belladonna is also indi- 
cated; give >2 oz. powdered opium the first dose, and 1 dr. in each dose 
after; give mucilaginous drinks for several days. When he is picking up, 
in case of recovery, give 1 pint of linseed oil; establish the peristaltic very 
gradually; the first passage may be in ten or fifteen days. Make appli- 
cations of hot water and blanket and mustard. If the opium does not 
suffice, give hypodermic injections 5 to 10 grs. ; morphine and aconite 
may be given from the start — fl. ext. 5 to 7 drops. Give a little acetate 
potash to keep the kidneys in good condition. In case of recovery, give 
stimulants, alcohol, ale, etc. Wherever there is much tendency to con- 



66 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

gestion, bleeding might be good; also gentian and camphor are very good 
in all bowel troubles. 

Peritonitis. — Inflammation of the peritoneum; the serous mem- 
brane of the mesentery occasionally becomes involved in the inflamma- 
tion, much the same as in Pleurisy. Associated with Peritonitis in the 
third stage is drops}' of the abdominal cavity; this is called Ascites; 
this disease exists in both the acute and chronic forms. In Peritonitis 
there are pains as in Enteritis, but not so severe. Ascites resembles 
Hydrothorax. 

Etiology. — Wounds of sorne kind, particularly those that puncture 
the bowels, or by septic poisoning, as this part of the body is more liable 
to development of germs than an 3^ other part. If there is a wound in the 
abdominal cavity, the introduction of a single germ may result fatally; 
so we find that wounds in the abdominal cavity are almost always fatal, 
especially in the horse. Simple castration is often a cause, and often it 
follows tapping for Flatulency, though in my case, all that died from tap- 
ping, died from Enteritis or some other cause than Peritonitis. The Stron- 
gylus Armatus is the worst germ we have in this case; there is an infect - 
uous form associated with Parturition and with Metritis, which frequently 
follows Parturition. This form is called Metra-Peritonitis, and is 
very common in the human and lower animals. My opinion is, that 
there is often too much interference with the vagina when uncalled for, 
in woman, which causes this disease by the introduction of some germ. 
Gastric and intestinal ruptures, with passage of food into the abdominal 
cavity, cause it. Then we find the chronic form caused from starvation, 
especially in old animals turned out to grass, or from chronic liver troubles; 
in dogs, from kicks in the belly, or from lying out at night — lies on his 
belly on the ice or snow; also in the horse, from heart and liver troub- 
les: these often cause the Ascites, but before you can have the acute, you 
must have some disorganized condition of the peritoneum. 

Semeiology. — The horse manifests abdominal pains, not so severe as 
in Enteritis — it resembles the Colic more. The pain is more subacute, 
the horse will lie down quietly, gently, not roll or sweat, but will try to 
get on his back if he can, and against the partition; will often lie thus 
for half an hour at a time. There is pain on pressure of the belly, 
appetite not affected at first, but as the disease runs on the appetite is 
lost; pulse is increased in frequency, is rapid, small and hard, is irritable, 
quick. In the course of from two to ten days, according to the rapidity. 
Ascites develops. As the Ascites develops the pain diminishes; he is 
easier, but we can see he is getting weaker; the pulse becomes wiry, very 
wiry, and he dies from collapse, syncope, heart failure; this is why he 
may live longer than in Pleurisy. Ascites is recognized by the disten- 
sion of the abdomen, due to the amount of water secreted — this is some- 
times enormous. In slowly developing Ascites, as in the case of Stron- 
gylus Armatus, it may run on for a month with very little suffering. 
You can diagnose by having an assistant percuss on the opposite side of 
the abdomen; you can hear the sound much plainer, and if he punches the 
abdomen on his side you can see the other side fluctuate, or you can 
test with the trocar. The horse usually falls off in flesh while Ascites is 
developing when caused by the Strongylus Armatus, but when from any 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 67 

other cause, there is a general running down of the condition, starry 
coat, visible mucous membrane anaemic, eyes sunken, etc. 

Prognosis. — If the inflammation is circumscribed and of the mild 
form, ma}" be favorable, and vice versa if cliff used and severe. 

Post- -Mortem. — You will find the bowels full of amber-colored fluid 
(serous), resembles the water found in the chest; of course the amount 
of color depends upon the amount of hemorrhage; if the Ascites devel- 
oped very fast, will be red; but if as usual, slowly, then it will be serous 
colored. You will find a certain amount of coagulation of this wa- 
ter; the omentum is apt to be filled with coagulated serum. In all cases 
the peritoneum will be thickened and softened. 

Treatment. — On general principles, treat the same as Enteritis; per- 
fect quiet, soft food, no purgatives or laxatives; give opium and diffusive' 
stimulants, as nit. ether, linseed tea, oatmeal gruel, etc. If the heart is 
weak and will not respond to these, give digitalis; also give vegetable 
bitters, as gentian, cinchona, also mineral tonics, iron, camphor; camphor 
is good alone or with any of the others. Acetate potash or nit. ether 
keeps the kidneys in shape; nux vomica and iodide potash with iron 
during convalescence. When the amount of fluid in the belly is large, 
draw off; this operation is called Paracentesis Abdomenis, and often 
only palliates the trouble, and it may refill. Tap through the median 
line posterior to the umbilical; always use a good-sized trocar. Some- 
times the omentum or the Strongylus Armatus will bother you by clos- 
ing the opening of the instrument, so you must use your ingenuity to 
work it around. These worms are often found here three sixteenths of an 
inch in diameter and three inches long. In case of Ascites we often get good 
results from pumping in an aqua solution of iodine; this is good in small 
animals also; 1 to 2 drams to the pint of tepid water — have the water the 
same temperature as the body. 

Dysentery. — Sometimes called Bloody Flux; this is an inflammatory 
disease and affects the large intestines, particularly the rectum. The 
fever with it is of a low order or form, spoken of as Typhoid, is accom- 
panied with a fluid discharge from the bowels, characterized by large 
quantities of mucous streaked with blood, and Tenesmus (spasmodic 
contraction) of the Rectum, and straining — violent fits of straining. 
This is closely allied to Diarrhoea; it may run into Diarrhoea, but differs 
from it in that there is fever and local inflammatory action, attended by 
serious tissue changes; or rather specific changes. 

Etiology. — In some there is a predisposition to it; Prof. McEchran 
says that cattle of a light red, blue or black color, knees close, narrow 
chest, tucked-in flanks, etc., are predisposed. Dr. Baker thinks the col- 
or depends upon the health, not the health upon color; may be caused by 
unfit grass from low-lands or from hard work and poor food. The horse 
seldom has it. Cattle are generally weakened by some other disease be- 
fore, such as contagious Pleuro- Pneumonia, Malarial Fever, Typhoid, 
Tuberculosis, etc. Dysentery often ends the case of any of these diseases. 
Another way they ma}- get it is from the germs on the grass in low 
ground that was overflowed. Hemorrhage is a prominent feature of 
Dysentery. 

Semeiology. — -It starts out in most cases as a case of Diarrhoea, but 
that is in the early stage before the bleeding or bloody appearance of the 



68 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

faeces; soon after the starting of the Diarrhoea there is a fever with rigors 
and great prostration; the pulse is quick and irritable, more or less rapid; 
the coat is dry, hard and starry; loss of appetite, great thirst, frequent pain- 
ful evacuation, increasing in violence; Tenesmus of the rectum, proven by 
the actions of the animal — the cow will stand with all her feet in a bunch, 
back arched and straining, spasmodic cramps of the rectum, discharges 
a fluid faecal matter. In the early stage this matter is mostly mucous, 
slightly red, and may have some jelly-like matter and thread-like tissue 
through it; this is very offensive, it comes from the gangrene of little cir- 
cumscribed parts, supposedly of the folicles. There is some hemorrhage, 
and the Tenesmus has a tendency to rupture the capillaries, hence the 
streaks of blood in the discharge — sometimes it is very bloody. The dis- 
ease has as great a tendency to be fatal as any disease we might have, and 
is common both to man and the lower animals. It is usually the evi- 
dence of the breaking down of the whole system from some other disease. 
After it has been running <5n for some time, there is much evacuation of 
water; there is a tremendous thirst; we find that some of the discharge 
is gluey. After it has run on three or four clays, there is Marasmus and 
the animal dies from collapse. 

Post- Mortem. — There is a swollen hypersemic membrane of the 
bowels; the glands of the mucous membrane may be ulcerated as well as 
some of the surrounding tissues. In cattle we usually find Tuberculosis 
in different parts of the body, often quite general; we find it in the liver, 
mesentery, udder, etc. In little animals where it follows Diarrhoea, we 
see extreme pallor. 

Treatment. — Good nursing is the best of all; warm clothing and warm 
bandages to the legs; give bland fluid drinks, small doses of oil; give 
diuretics in small doses, quinine and vegetable bitters; opium to arrest 
the cramps, especially opium and starch gruel injected; give mineral as- 
tringents, sulph. iron and copper, acetate lead, nitrate silver — these act 
as tonics to the blood, and are all antiseptic. Ipecac and opium mixed 
are good. 

Prognosis. — This is almost always unfavorable; there may be re- 
covery, but as we see it in the lower animals as being the ending or break- 
ing down of some other disease, there is little room to be favorable. 

DISEASES THAT CATTLE ALONE ARE SUBJECT TO. 

Impaction of the Rumen. — This is almost always followed by 
Rumenotomy. This impaction occurs when an animal gets at oats 
and fills up, or sometimes this trouble happens on the first grass as it is 
just shooting up, and the animal eats so much dry, indigestible chaff get- 
ting at the grass; but usually it is the grain, and the only way to get rid 
of Impaction of the Rumen is to cut into and dip it out. You can recog- 
nize this impaction by the peculiar swelling, and you can feel it solid and 
dents on pressure; the animal gets stupid, and in a bad case, as said, you 
must operate to relieve it. In a mild case, drench the animal with hypo- 
sulphate soda and give stimulants — as aromatic spts. of ammonia, etc. If 
you have to operate, secure the animal with ropes, then cut in on the 
left side, make a perpendicular opening about six inches long, about the 
center of the last rib and downward. Clip off the hair first, cut through 
the skin and tissues till you reach the rumen, then cut into this, but make 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 69 

the opening a few inches less than the other one ; draw out the lips of the 
wound in the rumen, and after placing a napkin to prevent the matter 
dropping into the abdominal cavity, empty the rumen of all but about a 
gallon, pour in large quantities of water, a bucketful with a pound of Ep- 
som salts, then sew up the rumen with the knots on the inside, spraying 
occasionalh' while operating, with antiseptic; then sew up the other open- 
ing with strong silk or wire. These operations are almost always favora- 
ble. If they get into a clover field they will eat so much that the}* will soon 
begin to bloat; Tympanites will take place, then you will have to tap 
with the trocar and cannula, and you must hurry more than in Impaction 
of the Rumen, because of the pressure on the diaphragm, and the danger 
of Asphyxia. Another peculiarity of cattle is to eat everything in 
sight — as bones, wood, linen clothing; sometimes swallow large objects 
like rake teeth, iron bolts, etc. ; these may pass out through the rumen 
and be removed from the side of the animal. The second stomach seems 
to never have any such troubles, but the third stomach, called the omas- 
um, has. Impaction in this has been given some provincial names, as 
Fardle bound, Impaction of the Manifolds, etc. Impaction of the omas- 
um is very common, and other names given it are, Dry Murrain and 
Bake of Manyplies. Then we have also inflammation of the fourth 
stomach, called Abdomasitis, and it is invariably present in impaction 
of the omasum and often involves from four to six feet of the ileum; there 
is always a certain amount of Enteritis in those parts. 

Etiology. — Sudden and radical changes in feeding, severe errors in 
dieting. In Canada, where they used to grind the corn, cob and all, we 
often saw this trouble of the omasum. It is hard to tell just what is 
the cause, but we think that the leaves of the omasum become partly 
paralyzed as a result of overwork; the duodenum is usually involved. 

Seineiology. — Bowels are often noticeably loose preceding the trouble 
for several days, then followed by Constipation that lasts as long as the 
disease, and the animal may die in five or six days. There is a loss of 
appetite and rumination is suspended; more or less fever, may be from 
103 to 107 — in bovines it doesn't usually run high; respiration is in- 
creased, and with the respiration there is a grunt; in this case you can 
usually feel the omasum at the right flank low down. Pressure to the 
belly will cause pain; sometimes the brain is affected and the animal 
becomes stupid. 

Treatment. — The contents of the stomach must be softened, so large 
quantities of bland fluid is rational treatment, as linseed tea, and with it 
oleaginous laxatives — as a quart of melted lard; it acts better than any 
other oil; or give from one to two qts. of linseed tea with a little calomel; 
nux vomica and gentian are good; quinine may also be added to this; bicar- 
bonate soda is highly recommended. Prof. Strangeway says salts are no 
good; dose with oil and with a sedative, 8 to 12 ozs. sulph. magnesia, and 
combined with the remedies 15 gr. doses of quinine, with a few drops of 
sulph. acid; then give soft food. 

Prognosis. — Unfavorable. 

SURGERY. 

The first account we have of surgery as practiced on the lower ani- 
mals, was 3500 years before Christ. 



JO THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Chirurgia. — From the Greek — means Surgery. 

Chirurgical. — Is much used, means treatment of disease, manually; 
it is also taken from the Greek. 

Surgery as a science inquires into the nature, existence and seat of 
disease; as an art, relates to the removal and suppressing, constituting a 
cure. 

Anatomical Surgery relates to that part where the operation is to be 
performed. 

In order to be a successful surgeon, it is necessary to have a thorough 
knowledge of the animals we are going to handle, and to know their weak 
points, so we confine them that they may neither injure us nor them- 
selves. 

Operations are spoken of as being Simple or Complex, Bloodless or 
Sanguinary. There is always more or less danger attending operations, 
from shock or unexpected hemorrhage, etc. , and it is always well to in- 
form the owner against all possible dangers before operating. 

For the best methods of restraining the animal while operating, I 
refer you to Fleming's Operative Surgery. 

The time of day as regards light, and the time of year as regards 
the temperature, etc. , cut some figure in all operations. 

A horse should be perfectly quiet before operation ; if he has been 
laid up, give exercise a day before the operation. 

Always have instruments to suit the animal and the operation you 
are to perform. Have your instruments, sponges, antiseptics, anaesthet- 
ics, etc. , always ready before beginning. 

Minor Surgery is a term sometimes used instead of Simple Surgery. 

Plastic Surgery applies to surgery on the soft tissues. 

A Wound is a solution of continuity. 

Incised Wound is one made with a sharp instrument — a cut. 

A Punctured Wound is one made with a pointed instrument. ( Stab. ) 

A Lacerated Wound is one that is torn. 

A Contused Wound is one that is bruised. 

A Gunshot Wound is one made with a bullet or shot. 

A Poisonous Wound is one produced b} 7 poison. 

The principal feature is what becomes of a wound; of course there is 
likely to be a hemorrhage; next is danger from septic poisoning by septic 
germs getting into the wound; these often run on to produce violent in- 
flammation, gangrene and death. If septic poisoning does not occur, 
nature begins at once to heal the wound. 

Healing a wound is an inflammatory process — inflammation and pro- 
liferation. We say wounds heal by first or second intention; first is by 
an intention; second by any other cause — it heals by granulation. The 
only difference between the first and the second is in the amount, as in 
the first it is imperceptible to the naked eye, in the second it is very well 
marked and very perceptible. In the first the surfaces come together, in 
contact with each other, and seem to stick together without granulation 
and suppuration, while in the second there is a gaping wound that fills 
up by granulation and proliferation and the forming of new tissues; this 
is called Hyperplasia; or rather there is a condition of Hyperplasia when 
inflammation and proliferation take place; this newly formed tissue is 
nowadays called Neoplastic tissue; old times it was called scar tissue, etc. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 7 1 

Hypertrophy. — Means simple enlargement without forming any 
new tissue. In healing of wounds there is always Hyperplasia; in the 
second kind of healing there is often suppuration; in the first intention 
there is none. The suppuration from a wound is the union of leucocyte 
of the blood on the surface with the exudate of lymph from granular 
surface, and the pieces of broken down cells; this forms the pus that is 
seen upon the surface of wounds. This excess is an effort of nature to 
prevent the introduction of the septic germ, the}' being caught like a fly 
in molasses and carried away with the flow. 

In this process by second intention of healing, after 24 hours the 
bottom of the wound will be seen to be intensely red and somewhat 
swollen, with some thread-like loose tissue among the normal ones; these 
are the cells that have died, and all cells that are cut or injured, when 
the wound occurred, die and break loose. The second day after, there 
is a gelatinous appearance over the wound, a grayish red fluid; this is the 
lymph; after this little red nodules, or granulations, will be seen on the 
surface until finally the whole surface is covered with them, a mass of 
little red piles; after two or three days these begin to proliferate. This 
surface is called the granulating surface. While this is going on the sur- 
face is covered with a gelatinous creamy discharge. As the wound fills 
up by granulation, nature fills the cavity; all this new tissue is called 
granulating tissue, and is always white fibrous tissue and not of the 
same nature of the part that the wound occurred in; the bone is partly 
an exception, for after a time the tissue in the bone becomes ossified, 
although not having all the nature of true bone; this explains the white 
scar left after a wound has healed; this white scar is called a cicatrix. 

Antiseptic Surgery. — Often a wound has become poisoned by the septic 
germ before a surgeon sees it, so he is called on to treat it antiseptically, 
that is against the septic poison. Proud Flesh, spoken of as exuberant 
granulation, is usually poisoning of wound, composed of large weak 
cells, soft to feel, frequently break down from suppuration; also bleeds 
easily. 

Sternberg's table of antiseptics in use is as follows: 

DESTROYS PREVENTS 

Corrosive Sublimate or Corrosive Chloride Mercury - ' 0.005 0.003 

Iodine - - - - - - - -0.02 0.025 

Carbolic Acid - -.. - - - - -003 0.02 

Salicjdic Acid - - - - - - - 4. 0.05 

Boracic Acid ------- 4. 0.05 

Alcohol ---..... 20. 20. 

Dr. Billings says tannic acid is the best of all, usually used in equal 
parts with sugar of milk, rubbed together. Iodoform is an elegant 
antiseptic, as iodoform, starch powder, boracic acid powdered, of each 
equal parts. This is now used in human practice. Dip gauze into it, 
also sprinkle well with it, and place the gauze over the wound; this is 
now called dry dressing. The iodoform alone is too irritating, and 
boracic acid is very non-irritating. Now suppose we have a simple 
wound — clip off the hair, wash w r ell with warm water and soap, then 
sponge over with clear alcohol or a weak solution of bichloride mercury, 
strength of .002 to .003, or 3 per cent carbolic acid, or 4 per cent sol. 
boracic acid. If the wound is large it must be sewed up. We have 
different kind of sutures: First, we have interrupted sutures, in which 



72 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

each stitch passes through the wound, and is tied separately. The unin- 
terrupted suture is where the sutures pass in and out the whole length 
of the wound. The pin suture is for small wounds; you insert a pin 
through the wound, and cross the silk over and back in a figure 8 style. 
In the twisted suture there are a number of pins, and the silk is twisted 
in and out all along the wound to all the pins. The looped suture is 
where there is no care about a pucker; in this the suture is passed in 
and out a number of times, then all tied in a bunch. Dossell is where 
the ends are all separate and fastened on each side by some object, as 
oakum. Quilled suture is where a quill or stick is placed on each side, 
and the suture passed in and out of the wound, passing around the stick 
or quill each time. Then there is the Crucial, the T, the Zigzag, and 
the X suture. 

The material used in sutures is usually silk, though silver wire and 
catgut also, according to the requirement. New one, kangaroo tendon. 

Needles are Straight, Curved, Medium Curved, Full Curved, Double 
Curved or S-shaped. 

Incisions are various in practice; the} T are either simple or composite. 
Simple is a simple straight cut. Composite ones are the T-shaped, 
V-shaped, Crucial, Crescentic, Elliptical, Circular, Rectangular and 
X-shaped. 

All incisions or punctures are made with a scalpel or with a curved 
or probe-pointed bistoury. 

In opening deep abscesses, we usually use a scalpel; where it is not 
deep, we use a curved bistoury; the trocar and cannula is sometimes used; 
also sometimes an exploring needle, but this is seldom used now, humane 
physicians are discouraging its use.. In all delicate operations, hold your 
knife as you would a pen. 

The next thing after incisions is hemorrhage — bleeding. 

Hemostatic is the powder or anything used to stop the bleeding, and 
Hemostasia is the stopping of the bleeding. 

Hemostasia is of two kinds — Preventing and Arresting. Prevention 
first by external pressure; this ma}' be applied b)- ligature placed around 
the limb above the point of operation. 

Tournique. — A binder put around the limb and twisted. If opera- 
tion, while bandage is on, should last more than ten minutes, take it off 
and then re-apply; or by Esmarch's bandage, by winding a bandage 
from the toe or finger up the limb to a distance above the point of opera- 
tion, when the part below is taken off, then the blood is nearly all driven 
out of the limb, making a nearly bloodless operation. Then, instead of 
pressure, we sometimes freeze the parts — that contracts the tissues and 
lessens the calibre of the blood vessels; this may be done by etheral 
spraying, or with carbolic acid; then the seton and actual cautery are used 
in stopping hemorrhage. 

Next is to arrest. This is done by three means — physical, chemical 
and surgical. The physical are first, refrigerants; they produce cold — 
ice is one, the principal one. By stimulants, the principal one is hot 
water; this is a very admirable remedy when the hemorrhage is profuse 
from the capillaries; use with a sponge, say with water at 160 to 170 
Fahr. Next is creosote, oil turpentine and alcohol. The next are the 
absorbents. These are anything that will take up the blood and hold it; 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 73 

the>- induce coagulation, as oakum, tow, lint, white flour, sponges, punk, 
cobwebs, fuzzy side of sole leather, etc. In deep wounds these absorb- 
ents can be pushed down into the wound — this is called plugging; in this 
you have both physical and surgical. Charpie is a finely prepared lint 
or tow. Chemical means are those we get to produce coagulation, chem- 
ically. It includes first, all the astringents, all the caustics, and actual 
cautery; these astringents and caustics are often spoken of as styptics — 
they coagulate the albuminoid in the blood and the tissues as well as the 
blood, by forming a clot by the coagulation of the albuminoid; for this 
reason the chemical means are ver3 r objectionable, and are only resorted 
to when other means fail. It is impossible to get healing b}^ first inten- 
tion after the use of caustics, as they destroy the tissues in the immediate 
vicinity; so we prefer astringents instead, as alum, etc. Caustics are the 
different preparations of iron, nit. silver, caustic potash, etc. The3^ are 
often applied b)^ soaking tow or oakum in them, and placing them on the 
wound. Vinegar is often used with a sponge to stop hemorrhage. Next 
comes actual cautery with a heated iron; it cooks the flesh and contracts 
the openings; necessarily the tissue is destroyed. 

Surgical means are five in number — ist, compression; 2d, ligature; 
3d, torsion; 4th, acupression; 5th, uncipressure. Compressure means 
pressure in two ways — provisional and permanent. Provisional means 
impromptu, or on the spur of the moment, as with the thumb or finger 
when first cut; permanent, that which is left on for some time; compres- 
sion is applied directh r to the wound, as tow or lint, and held in place by 
a bandage. Lateral pressure is applied to the side of an artery, and may 
be three, four or more inches from the point of injury; if an artery, it is 
applied above the cut ; if a vein, then applied below the cut or wound. 
You can tell when it is an artery- and when a vein, by the color — arterial 
blood being bright scarlet, and venous dark red; also by the way they 
bleed — the artery spurts in jets, while the vein flows in a stead}^ stream. 

Ligature. — This is tying of the vessel; this is done immediately, 
when applied directly to the end of the vessel, and mediately 
when tied some distance from the wound in the continuity of the vessel. 
This is the best means. Where 3 t ou have large vessels to attend to, do it 
with silk. 

Torsion. — This means twisting the vessel; it is necessary to have 
two forceps to perform it right. 

Acupressure. — Means pressure with a needle or sharp piece of steel; 
the pressure is applied by passing the needle through the tissues on each 
side of the vessel, either above or under the blood vessel. 

Uncipressure. — Is to draw out and hold or twist the arten- in a bent or 
crooked position. We also plug with oakum, in joint, dipped in antiseptic. 

Actual Cautery. — This is firing, spoken of as potential cautery, used 
to produce an excessive amount of inflammation, local, with a view of 
increasing the local physiological action, and sometimes with the idea of 
counter-irritation; we get the benefit by the increased blood circulation to 
the part, and hence increased nutrition. There are two ways — by feather 
or by pointed firing; one is done with the feathering iron, the other with 
the budding iron or point. In firing we see three colors — lemon color, 
which is the one we want to see in light firing; orange we want in heavy 
firing, and brown when we want very heav} 7 firing — as in a bad case of 



74 



THEORY AND PRACTICE. 



Spavin. If you are going to fire heavy, draw the lines farther apart than 
when you intend to fire light. Never make your lines in light firing 
closer than one half inch apart, and with a light iron. For the orange 
color, make about three fourths of an inch apart; for the brown, make 
about seven eighths or one inch apart, and after firing you may put on a 
mild blister. 

Opex Joixt. — That is when the skin, binding ligament, capsular lig- 
ament and synovial membrane are ruptured, and there is communication 
with the outer surface, with the escape of synovia. Any joint may be 
opened, but the most common ones are the knees from falls, fetlock from 
shoe calks of other horses, pitchfork wounds, etc. ; hock, elbow or shoul- 
der from kicks from other horses or from any cause; navicular joint fre- 
quently from nail prick. 

Certain series of changes take place, differing in degree according 
to the temperament of the animal, but mainly to the amount of septic 
poisoning that has taken place. We find that very soon after the acci- 
dent irritative fever sets in, temperature ma}' run up to 103 or 106, 
pulse from 50 to 120; at first the pulse is full and strong, but later, as 
the pain increases, gets smaller and harder and quicker, finally gets wiry 
and imperceptible, and the horse dies from exhaustion. Pulse usually 
runs higher in well-bred animals than in others. 

The stages it runs through on to a fatal end are — first, immediately 
after the joint is punctured, there is a flow of synovia limited in quan- 
tity — it is clear. As it runs on, septic germs get in and cause Septicaemia, 
and by the irritating effects of the septic germ and the introduction of 
air start an acute inflammation called Synovitis; this is not confined to 
the synovial membrane, but involves surrounding tissue also. The artic- 
ular cartilage may be involved, then we have tumefaction, an increased 
flow of synovia accompanied with pus; high fever develops in the 
course of four or five days; great pain is evinced by the animal being very 
restless, and is not inclined to stand on the sore leg. In many cases, 
especially where the hock is affected, the horse is inclined to keep moving 
with quick spasmodic jerks, and with all this, there is greatly increased 
respiration, may be from 20 to 25. This synovia that is exudated, often co- 
agulates on the outside much the same as blood, so there is no need to ever 
mistake it for anything else, as pus will not coagulate like it; it will be a 
rather firm, gelatinous, amber-colored clot, and of itself is odorless, so if 
there is an}' odor present it will be due to the presence of pus in it. We 
will suppose this runs on for a long time; it usually lasts from two to four 
days, but may run on that many weeks instead. 

In the third stage the articular cartilage is involved in the inflamma- 
tion, leading to abrasion of it; ulceration develops, the articular cartilage 
gradually breaks down and flows out with the synovia and pus. It does 
not stop here, goes on and involves the cancellated tissue of the bone; the 
discharge in this stage is very offensive, and when this occurs you can 
make up your mind that it is a very serious case. Occasionally the discharge 
in this stage is bloody — this indicates the malignant condition of the case, 
and will require an unfavorable prognosis, because it will terminate either 
fatally or end in the joint becoming anchylosed. Xext. it runs on to the 
fourth stage, in which Anchylosis is produced; the articular cartilage 
being destroyed, the exudate on the bony surfaces coagulates, organizes, 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 75 

and forms living tissue; later, the whole exudate ossifies; it ma}- be not 
only between the opposing ends of bone, but also around them, like a 
band. Xow in ease it terminates fatally, as the inflammation is kept up 
we find there is proliferation taking place rapidly in the surrounding tis- 
sues; if in the hock, it becomes very large, and new tissue forming, it 
becomes hard and fibrous and circulation becomes stopped here and there; 
we find as a result, little abscesses forming; these rot and break out and 
new ones form, and all this time the joint is growing larger and harder, 
horse grows thin rapidly, and in the course of four weeks he is a skeleton. 
Hunger seems to be a feature in this case, from the fever; the flanks be- 
come roughened, eyes sunken and the back arched, and the animal shows 
great suffering; with the sloughing of these little abscesses there is an 
offensive odor, and the horse dies from exhaustion. Some horses will 
stand, others lie down before the}- die, but in the majority of cases they 
prefer to stand. The two extremes in which these cases may terminate is 
from three day's up to three weeks. Occasionally, we get rupture of the 
synovial sheath, which is very serious, but not so much so as the open 
joint; but when it gets well it is apt to leave a permanent thickness. 

Treatment. — It is good practice to clip off the hair and wash it, but 
never to probe the wound of open joint; if large enough, you may ex- 
plore with the finger, but be careful even in this of septic germs — best 
to leave it alone. . Put horse in slings in bad cases. Wash with some 
antiseptic strong enough to destroy the germ but not strong enough to 
cauterize 3 the tissues — alcohol clear is a favorite for this; anything from a 
sixty to a ninety per cent, or a weak solution of iodine, or carbolic acid, or 
bichloride mercury strength of one to three thousand, then apply dry 
dressing as iodoform, boracic acid, starch, equal parts, used freely. If 
there is much suppuration, pack it, if not, there is no need to do so, but 
in all cases place your packing so there will be free drainage. Never plug 
any wound so there is no drainage for the discharge. Sometimes where 
the opening is very small, it is advisable to make the opening larger to 
give free chance for the discharge, put in your antiseptic, well powdered 
on the gauze, then your absorbent cotton or oakum, then bandage. Re- 
member, if you can keep. out the septic germ you will get along all right; 
this germ seems to thrive in this synovia and in lymph particularly. If 
you apply dry dressing, it is well to have an attendant dust the anti- 
septic on often during the day. If it is necessary to clean, use hot water 
and clean cotton; irrigate it off, never trust a sponge — it may contain dirt. 
In putting on dry pack, use unbleached muslin dipped in very hot water, 
then wrung out and dipped in antiseptic. The wet pack is much more 
in favor than the dry one. 

Broken Knees. — From falls; this is a common soft of a case; the 
washing in this must be done very carefully, and be certain you remove 
all foreign bodies that may be in the wound; sometimes they are very 
deep; do no probing; use antiseptic dressing, as belladonna fl. ext. }i oz., 
tannic acid 1 dr. , carbolic acid 1 dr. , wheat flour 2 ozs. , water enough to 
make a soft paste, but stiff enough not to run. Push a little down into 
the opening so that some of it will fill up and spread over the surface a 
little on top of this; any mixture — say linseed poultice made with hot 
water and let cool, put it on and pack it with ice; no septic germ can 



•76 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

grow where it is ice cold, they must have heat. Repeat the ice as often 
as necessary, the poultice several times a day. 

Where there is a wound of any joint, there should be some appliance 
used to keep the joint from moving, as better results will be obtained 
and the pain lessened. The best way is to put on a shoe that extends 
from the foot, and have a bar turned up across this extension with a hole 
in the center; then have an upright bar of iron to which is riveted a band 
of sheet steel or iron about two inches wide, and in the shape of the limb 
— these are left with plenty of room to pack to prevent rubbing or fric- 
tion, then you can strap the limb to this upright bar. If it is an injury 
to a tendon that you are treating, you can have the bar placed on the 
front part of the .shoe in the same wa)'. 

In case of Open Navicular Joint there is more difficulty than in 
treating any other joint. The proper treatment is to have the hoof 
pared out thin; make your opening large enough to treat antiseptic- 
ally. There is so great danger of the septic germ getting out of the filth 
in the stable into the foot so much quicker than into any other part, that 
we must wash out thoroughly with the antiseptic and use great care in 
keeping it clean. 

Disease of the Bone.— All the lower animals are subject to these, 
but the horse more so than any of the others, because of high feeding and 
the rapid gait they travel — some are looked upon as being hereditary. 
The bone in health is insensible, but in disease is very sensitive. 

Ostitis. — Is inflammation of the bone substance. 

Periostitis. — Is inflammation of the bone covering. 

Osteomyelitis. — Is inflammation of the marrow. 

These three are very difficult to separate, because they involve each 
other more or less, and we don't try to separate them here. 

Etiology. — Usually the result of some external injury; concision in 
many cases, and also a predisposition, as hereditary would be. Inflam- 
mation of the bone has the phenomena as in connective tissue, and 
is attended by very many of the same changes, but on account of the 
peculiar dense basement substance we find peculiar results. We have as 
a result of inflammation in the bone, serum, fibrin and pus the same as 
in other inflammations, but in a less amount. We find first, change in 
the basement substance, absorption of the hard basement substance to a 
greater or less extent, and the animal matter in excess, due to a replace- 
ment of the hard substance by soft tissue; hence we have then a defi- 
ciency of the earthy or mineral substance. Second, this newly- formed 
tissue after a time becomes ossified, but is a different sort from the nor- 
mal bone; there is an increased vascularity of the bone, sometimes a 
decrease in the vascularity. This newly-formed marrow or substance is 
called granulating tissue; it finally becomes hard and dense and the bone 
is much enlarged, but much lighter than originally. This is called Osteo- 
porosis, and is the most common form — this is the rarifying process. 

Osteo Sclerosis. — Is the condensing process; in this there is newly- 
formed tissue also, but the original bone is not absorbed as in Osteoporo- 
sis, but the marrow canals grow smaller and are more filled up by this 
new tissue, so we have a more dense bone substance, but at the expense 
of the marrow spaces, and the bone becomes much heavier than the nor- 
mal. 

Absorption of Bone. — That is the earthy matter; occurs generally 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 77 

through certain large cells, called osteoclasts. We find these cells grouped 
around the nutrient blood vessels; the lacunas and the canalicula often 
coalesce, and the matter is replaced by the soft new tissue. When a 
bone is cut across, it appears to be of a red gelatinous appearance, espe- 
cially the marrow, and is often a soft mass of granulating tissue; this is 
often seen in Synovitis. In Bone Spavin we get Anchylosis without any 
break in the skin. Ostitis is set up and runs through these different 
stages, and the rarifying does not confine itself to the bone, but involves 
the articular cartilage; bony spicula are shot out into the joint and per- 
haps into the surface of the cartilage, absorption takes place, new tissue 
is formed, and Anchylosis follows. 

Sometimes this inflammation extends from the cancellated bone tis- 
sue to the compact and softens it, and several layers may be laid on be- 
tween the periosteum and the bone surface in concentric layers, and the 
bone becomes larger. Osteo Sclerosis also develops from another kind of 
cells that group around the blood vessels, called osteoblasts; these both 
are always present, and the one that predominates the result is in accord- 
ance; either of these may exist in the same bone, or both may exist at 
the same time in different parts of the same bone, or even in the same 
place. 

Sore Shins. — In young race horses is a common form of Ostitis, 
predisposed bj r high living to develop fast and too much galloping. 
Prof. Mc Eachran says that too much hand rubbing also causes this trou- 
ble in race horses — they get too much care. 

Periostitis. — The effusion occurs both above and below the peri- 
osteum, and may harden on the inside or on the outside. 

Osteophyte. — Is bony enlargement on the surface of the true bone, 
caused by the hardening of the exudate. 

Symptoms. — I^ame, sometimes very much so, moves with difficulty, 
arches the back, etc. 

Treatment. — Cold applications applied early is the best; this is true 
in all diseases of the bone, even to the extent of refrigerants. This 
arrests the vitality of the part, and should be kept up until the acute 
symptoms disappear, which often takes place in about ten days, then let 
the animal go for a while to see if the symptoms return. If they do, 
repeat the treatment; you maj^ apply a mild blister, as iodide mercury 
and lard i to 7 or 8 parts; fly blister, and lard 1 to 3 parts, mix the two 
together and apply them in equal parts. Knuckling and Knee Sprung 
are usually the result of Sore Shins, but there are also many other causes 
for them. 

Caries. — Is ulceration of the bone; in other words, it is molecular 
death; Osteoporosis is often associated with it, and may involve Perios- 
titis; it usually occurs in the cancellated bone tissue, generally caused by 
external injuries, such as broken ribs, etc. , also often seen in fistulous 
withers, caused by the pus burroughing down to the bone. When there 
is Caries, the depressed surface has a peculiar feel; they have bony spic- 
ule sticking up, and between these there is a velvety feel; this is often 
seen in Poll-evil, and may involve the axis or even the dentata — decayed 
teeth are an example. With it there is usually an offensive discharge. 

Semeiology. — Always more or less swelling of the part, with fistu- 
lous opening, and particles of bone are found floating in the pus; this 



78 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

pus is called sanies pus, and is acrid, will blacken a silver probe; the 
bone is soft. Foot Rot in sheep and cattle is often followed by Caries. 

Treatment. — On general principles, open up the sinuses and scrape 
out all the diseased portion of the bone and a little of the healthy part as 
well; treat antiseptically and the bone will granulate the same as other 
tissues; fill up the cavities with antiseptic and pack over — this prevents 
suppuration and allows granulation to take place. To stimulate the 
growth of bone, touch once or twice a day with hydrochloric acid diluted 
with water, one to sixteen, direct to the bone with a swab; don't touch 
the soft tissues. After a few days use the hvdrochloric acid diluted one 
half. 

NECROSIS of the Boxe. — Is death of the part, caused by the 
nutrition being shut off external to the bone; this is usually caused as the 
result of injury to the periosteum and diseases of the marrow, shutting off 
the supply of nutrition; in that way it resembles dry gangrene. We see 
Necrosis sometimes suddenly develop from external injuries to the bone, 
as seen in the bars in the mouth by the bit; the bone necroses, and large 
chunks drop out by sloughing — it takes about ten days for this to slough 
off, and the part of the bone that sloughs off is called the sequestrum. 
When the shaft of long bones dies this wav, it usually softens and liqui- 
fies and flows out through a fistulous opening; sometimes it is a large 
opening in the bone and several in the soft tissues, or it may be one open- 
ing in the soft tissues and several in the bone. The discharge is ichor- 
ous while the shaft of bone is running out — this way there is new bone 
forming under the periosteum. This disease occurs more in the human 
than in the lower animals; the new bone is lacking in the characteristics 
of the normal bone, but does very well. 

Treatment. — If on the limb, it is good to use slings, except where 
the horse shows an inclination to lie down; soon as pus can be located, 
open up and let it escape, and if practical, also remove all the dead bone. 
In Necrosis of the bars of the jaw ( lower one ) it is not always necessary 
to operate except where very sore and swollen, then with your scalpel 
cut several openings down to the bone; this will allow the escape of pus 
and quicken the suppuration of the part if necrosed, and if it has not 
yet started to necrose, it may prevent it. Always cut down through the 
periosteum, then let alone until the pieces come out; don't force them out 
or use forceps. After they are removed, wash out with antiseptic, sponge 
with a mild solution of carbolic acid, say one per cent, or boracic acid 
three or four per cent, three or four times a clay. They usually make a 
nice recovery. In case it is the lower bars of the mouth, when getting 
well, use the common link bit or rubber covered one. If the shafts of long 
bones are affected, make a large dependent opening by trephining, re- 
move the sequestrum and wash out the cavity twice a day with antiseptic. 

Interstitial Absorption. — Is in reality atrophy of the bone, 
which wastes away and is absorbed; this usually takes place only in the 
cancellated portion, sometimes it extends to the compact tissue: this lie- 
comes transformed in cancellated tissue or is much softened. It is not an 
inflammatory process, though it might start as an inflammatory disease 
from some injury; in this case the bone becomes diminished in size and 
weight, and when this happens in the bicipital groove it allows the 
patella to become dislocated very easily. This trouble is incurable, 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 79 

though internal treatment would be rational — such as iron, arsenic, etc. 
It usually occurs in old animals. 

Exostosis. — Is enlargement on a bone, or bony tumor; develops as 
result of inflammation and phenomena attending it. Ossification of exu- 
dates. 

Constitutional Osteoporosis or Big Head. — This is one of the 
most peculiar diseases we meet with, and know the least about; there are 
a great variety of opinions on the etiology of it, but we know that patho- 
logical changes take place identical with localized Osteoporosis. Some 
think it is rheumatic, others that it is due to a parasite, and consequently 
infectuous. Dr. Baker thinks it to be a specific disease due to infection, 
also distinctly a blood disease, as it affects all parts of the body. It is 
often found on breeding farms, and often affects a large number of horses, 
but it never affects an}- other animal but them, under all circumstances. 
Xo idea what the cause is, but we frequently find it following some other 
disease; it is more common in driving horses than in running. In this 
trouble we usually find the urine thick and mucilaginous, horse chuffed up 
in the flanks, arched back, and inclined to lie down a great deal — the af- 
fected bone is probably painful; the appetite keeps good, but the horse 
grows thin rapidly. Often the first sign is a peculiar lameness — this is 
intermitting and usually across the loins, but cannot be located, and is 
often taken for rheumatism. This disease is not confined to the head 
alone, an}- bone of the body may be affected, and when the bones of the 
head are affected those of the limbs are usually affected, somewhat soft- 
ened, and often the horse will go to pieces all at once. This disease is 
much more common in the South than in the North. Some of our grad- 
uates in the South claim to get good results from using iodide potash, 
and trephining into the enlargement, and injecting antiseptics, or by ap- 
plying biniodide mercury and iodide potash internally. We find this treat- 
ment to be a total failure here. In autopsy we find the face bones so soft 
that you can run your finger into them; they are red and vascular, more 
like granulating tissue. When in the maxillary bones the teeth become 
loosened. 

In acute cases death takes place in two to three months, others run 
for two to three years. Hyposulphite of soda and calcii precip. phosph. 
in equal parts three times a day, is good, also a complete change of diet 
is recommended, and a change of location. 

Osteomalacia or Mollities Ossium. — Is a softening of the 
bones by degeneration, and then absorption of the earthy salts. It exists 
to a certain extent in females in pregnancy, especially in the last two 
months. It is rather common in the human, but rare in the lower ani- 
mals. Cause is unknown, and treatment seems to be useless, but what- 
ever it is it seems to be malignant. Origin — in the nutrient cells at the 
periphery of the Haversian canals. 

Fragilitis Ossium. — This is a hardening to the extent of brittle- 
ness, and only occurs in old animals; due to absorption of the animal 
matter, and inflammatory troubles; this matter is deficient and repair is 
difficult. In this condition fractures are very easy to occur. There is 
an excess of earthy salts over the animal. 

Eburnation or Porcelaneous Character. — This usually affects 
the articular surface of bones, and the articular cartilasre becomes involved 



8o THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

in the inflammation and is destroyed; the cancellated tissue of the bone 
may be affected with it. We believe that in incurable cases of bone 
Spavin, this porcellaneous condition takes place. There is no vascularity 
in the part; this condition of the bone causes a permanent lameness. 

Rachitis or Rickets. — This is a degenerate softening of the bone, 
or softened condition of it, and is found only in the young; it is due to 
some disturbance that prevents ossification of the bone. It really is a 
constitutional disease; there is a condition of mal-nutrition that affects 
only bone. It is the same in human as in the lower animals, and in 
autopsy we find the bones very porous, or will become soon boiling, prov- 
ing too much animal matter. It may develop at any time; animal may 
be well up to two, three or six years, then be affected. Usually seen in 
little animals three or four months- old. It is very common in puppies 
fed on starchy food; the first intimation of it is a peculiar lassitude, and 
in play is not lively; the long bones of the legs begin to bow, especially 
in the front legs. Foals and puppies are very apt to have it. 

Treatment.— A complete change of food; in the foal, wean him and 
feed on cow's milk liberally, say a gallon three times a day, and more as 
he grows older. Skim milk, even if it is sour, is better than fresh milk, 
because it contains less fatty 7 matter; in addition, give bone dust, oatmeal, 
but no corn or anything that tends to fat. In puppies, change the food; 
give boiled meat with oatmeal, make strong stew of it. If you notice 
that the legs in foals don't get strong, apply splints and bandages applied 
loosely; make them light and strong, and see that they don't chafe the 
legs. Lime water is good to give to foals, also to puppies. Cod liver 
oil is good for puppies. 

Fractures of Bones. — This is a solution of continuity of a bone. 
It is affected in three ways — first, by direct violence to the point of frac- 
ture; second, violence applied at some distance from the point of fracture; 
third, by inordinate action or contraction of the muscles — we see this last 
in cases where the spine is anchylosed, as it sometimes is in the lumbar 
region, the animal being cast, the inordinate action of the muscles on that 
part causes a fracture of the part. There are certain bones that are more 
liable to fracture than others; these are, first, the pelvis, usually caused 
by falling, and not being a very strong bone is easy of fracture; cannon 
bone, usually from falling, then the radius and tibia, from kicks of other 
horses; ribs quite often from kicks and collisions; os suffiragines and os 
corona from violence of some kind; humerus or femur do not often get 
fractured. In dog we usually find it is the tibia, radius or ulna that get 
fractured. The facial bones of the horse are liable from kicks and col- 
lisions. We may say any bone in the body is liable to become fractured; 
those of old animals ten times more so than those of the young. 

The directions of fractures are — transverse, or broken square off; 
obliquely, or in an oblique manner; longitudinal, or split in different di- 
rections — this happens more in hunters, and to the os suffragines, due 
to jumping. 

Simple Fracture. — Is when there is no other injury to the sur- 
rounding tissues; complicated, when there is a severe injury to the sur- 
rounding tissues in the form of contusion, lacerated blood vessels, or 
joint opened; compound, when there is an open wound communicating 
with the fracture — it matters not whether the wound was produced at the 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 8 1 

time, of the fracture or from the points of the broken bone, it matters not 
what the cause may be; comminuted, when the bone is broken into several 
or more pieces — shattered; impacted fracture is where the broken ends 
are driven into each other; partial fracture or Greenstick fracture is where 
the bone is partially fractured but there is no displacement, or it is where 
a bone is only cracked. 

Semeiology. — Usually great lameness suddenly develops, even if the 
fracture be only partial; this lameness ma} T not show at first, but after 
the inflammation sets in, which maj^ be in twenty- four or forty-eight hours, 
it is often hard to locate the lameness. It usually takes from four to six 
weeks for a bone to unite. In case the fracture is in the femur or hu- 
merus, it ma}' not be visible, but can be told by the preternatural mobil- 
ity. Wherever there is a break there will be crepitation on manipulation; 
total inability to bear weight on the limb. In transverse fracture with- 
out displacement, the horse may be able to bear his weight until it gets 
sore. 

Bones unite if given a chance; all we can do is to set them, and 
nature must do the balance. This placing in position is also called in situ. 
There is intense inflammation set up and the bone becomes extremely 
painful and sensitive; there is a constant ache and great soreness often 
on pressure. This inflammation is a rarifying ostitis and extends up into 
the bone one or two inches; there is an extensive exudation of plastic 
coagulative lymph thrown out into the fracture and into the bone; this 
coagulates and organizes and forms callus, and this exudate ossifies. A 
bone is stronger at the point it was fractured after healing than it was 
before, due to the bon}^ bandage around the part. It is a popular idea that 
horses' bones will not unite, but they will if they can be kept in position 
long enough. Dogs, sheep and j^oung steers take care of themselves and 
assist us, but- the horse never does — that is why we have such poor suc- 
cess with them. When the bones fail to keep in position thej^ become 
intensely inflamed, and this is kept up until gangrene terminates the life 
of the animal. 

Treatment. — In case of Greenstick fracture, or partial fracture, cold 
applications with bandages are sufficient. This sort of fracture generally 
occurs in } T oung animals. If the fracture is complete, get the horse into 
a stall and put in slings, then set the bone; this must not be dela} T ed. If 
it is ten or fifteen hours before you see the case, and there is inflam- 
mation, don't stop to reduce the inflammation, but set the bone first. If 
the pain is great, then give anodynes or anesthetics, but i or 2 ozs. of 
chloral hydrate as a drench is the best of all. Now that the horse is in 
slings and the bone set, } t ou want to keep it in place with splints and 
bandages; these are best made of wood, or, for the horse, also of sole 
leather soaked first in water; paste-board will do for dogs. Have 3-our 
splints strong and light; a good wa}^ is to spread plaster paris on your 
bandages as you are wrapping them on, or have it spread on the bandages 
first; pad the leg well to keep the splints from chafing, also the ends of 
the splints. Keep weight of the animal off the lame leg; a good wa}- is 
to build a platform about four inches high and level, cut a hole for the 
lame leg and tie so the leg will be held about the middle of the opening. 
Horse requires about six weeks, in the young, for the bone to unite, but 
in the old it mav take twelve weeks. When well, let the animal dcwn 



82 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

gradually, say in the day, and put in the slings at night until strung. A 
compound fracture in the horse is very unfavorable and as a rule is al- 
ways fatal. 

False Joints. — Often follow fracture, through no fault of the sur- 
geon, but a peculiarity of the animal. The exudate fails to ossify and 
becomes fibrous tissue instead of bone, and the animal has a false joint 
through life; this occurs in dogs and in the human. 

Hipped. — A horse is said to be Hipped when the shaft of the ilium 
breaks and drops, or allows the part to drop down, or the anterior or ex- 
ternal point of the ilium breaks off; this causes great lameness, but it 
gradually wears away and the horse gets used to it in two or three months, 
and may be useful for all ordinary purposes. Sometimes a small piece is 
fractured from the point of the ilium and drops down and causes an ab- 
scess; this must be cut -down to and removed. When the fracture occurs 
in the acetabulum, it often causes permanent lameness. In bandaging 
the leg of dogs you can use rosin or pitch as well as plaster paris; where 
there was much swelling before you bandaged, you will probably have to 
remove the bandage in order to tighten it when the swelling goes down, 
or where the limb swells afterwards it will have to be loosened, or where 
the part below the bandage gets cold, then the circulation has been inter- 
fered with and you must loosen to allow circulation. 

Dislocations. — A joint is said to be dislocated when the articular 
end of one bone is displaced from another. When wholly displaced it is 
said to be complete; when not completely displaced it is said to be partial, 
and is often spoken of as Luxation. Dislocations are simple when no exter- 
nal wound communicates with them, and compound when there is such 
a wound. With all cases of Dislocations except the patella, there is severe 
laceration of ligaments, the capsular in particular. In Dislocations of the 
patella there is usually severe stretching or a previous relaxing of the 
internal ligaments — alowing the displacement; this always goes to the 
outside of the limb. Other causes of Dislocation of the patella are, when 
the internal lateral ligament becomes relaxed and the muscles on the ex- 
ternal contract, also sometimes the external eminence of the femur becomes 
absorbed, allowing the patella to slip off. There is often a partial Dislo- 
cation in young animals, due to the lack of balance of the muscles; the 
outside ones being stronger than the inside ones — this occurs when the 
leg is severely straightened out. Straight-legged animals are more liable 
to it than those more angling; floors sloping downward and backward 
are bad for this same reason. The Dislocation of the patella is about the 
only kind we meet with, but an}- joint is liable to it. Prof. Williams 
records a Dislocation of the shoulder joint, and Prof. McEachran a Dis- 
location of the hip. Knuckling of the fetlock from flexion of the tendon 
is a kind of partial Luxation, and is thrown back by tenotomy. Dogs 
are liable to -Dislocations much like the human. With the exception of 
the patella, these Dislocations are always the result of violence. Rupture 
of the ligaments at the time of the Dislocation causes great inflammation, 
swelling and lameness. Dislocations are not necessarily fatal, but if 
they are not reduced, False Joints will be formed and the animal be use- 
ful, at least for breeding. 

Treatment. — Ascertain what joint it is, then extension and traction 
are necessary; usually in this case it is necessary to give anaesthetics, then 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 83 

extend the limb and use traction in the direction it should go, and hold 
on for a time till it is replaced. After reducing the Dislocation, keep in 
place by the use of splints and bandages, same as in fracture. Always 
have the joint straight in the splints; never allow a joint to be flexed, as 
the muscles may contract while in that position and remain so when 
taken off; this is true in using the splints in any case. 

Symptoms. — The patella being dislocated allows the muscles to 
relax, and the leg straightens and stretches backward, the foot is usually 
drawn backwards and bent upward by the flexion of the tendon. Tie a 
rope or strap around the pastern of the affected limb, have an assistant 
draw the leg forward and close to the floor; have assistant sit down, now 
with 3^our paims push the patella in and backwards, try to get the angle 
straight and the patella will go on easy; after you get the patella on, it 
may be difficult to keep it there, especially if the ligaments are ruptured. 
Place the horse on a level floor, or higher behind; put on high-heeled 
shoes, say two inches high, and projecting backwards about two inches; 
have heels wide apart, and broad, low toe. Sometimes we find it neces- 
sary to tie the leg forward, then also have the horse fastened behind; or a 
good way is to fasten the rope to the collar to keep drawn forward, then 
all you can do is give time to get well. You may use anodyne liniments; 
after five weeks it is good to put on fly blister. Let the shoe down by 
degrees. 

Prognosis. — Should always be modified by saying, a joint once dis- 
located is predisposed to repetition. It is well to keep in slings four or 
five days. Where Luxation occurs in young animals by the difference in 
the muscles, it is done without any violence whatever, and seems to be 
spontaneous. One cause in horses is the relaxing of the tendons by hav- 
ing the animal standing lower behind. Sometimes it is very hard to 
replace Dislocation of the patella, and you may require extra assistance, 
but other times it is very easy, especially in young animals. There is no 
inflammation and little lameness in this partial Luxation in the young. 
After you get the patella back, it is well to bathe with hot water for a 
time to relax the muscles on the outside, then apply soap liniment on 
the outside; repeat three times a day to prevent irritation. It is best to 
dilute the soap liniment one half, and apply with a great deal of friction. 
If the Dislocation has run long you will find considerable trouble in re- 
ducing it, as there will be swelling, and the ligaments stretched. In the 
symptoms there will also be a bulging of the part. 

Wry Neck. — We think is generally caused by Luxation; the liga- 
ments on one side being relaxed or ruptured; this may occur from falls. 
In fresh cases we try to help them; put two wide boards on the sides of 
the neck and pad the bulging side, use some pressure, and the ligaments 
coming together will grow together. 

Tumors. — These are defined to be any prominence or growth, un- 
natural, on the body, or on any organ, or in a gland. A Tumor may be 
composed of the same tissue as where it grows; it is then said to be 
homologous; but it may be entirety dissimilar, then it is called hetero- 
geneous; heterologous. As a rule, Tumors are of the latter class; they are 
very seldom composed of the same tissue as where they grow. Tumors 
grow by self-proliferation the same as other parts of the body; new blood 
♦ vessels and lymphatics extend into the growth, and as it grows the}' fur- 



84 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

nish nutriment for the new growth. The nutrient blood vessels are 
usually, in these Tumors, very much enlarged. If it starts in a pre-ex- 
isting blood vessel, as the Tumor grows the blood vessel enlarges to sup- 
ply it; occasionally, but rarely, nerve fibres extend into it. As a rule, 
Tumors are insensible and are subject to all the changes that take place 
in any other tissue, such as fatty degeneration, suppuration, ulceration, 
gangrene, pigmented, or may become fatty or calcified. Occasionally 
Necrosis takes place, often to such extent as to almost entirely destroy 
them, but never completely. Oftentimes when Necrosis stops, it will 
heal over and remain so for a long time, then will start to grow again 
without any cause. Tumors from some cause or other, probably from 
disturbed circulation, suppurate as a rule, but in all, pus and little ab- 
cesses form in the Tumor; then these abcesses discharge, granulate, and 
heal over, and others crop out. Tumors take various shapes and forms, 
usually described as resembling some object. Tumors are nodular when 
they resemble nodules; tuberous, when thay resemble a tuber. Fungoid 
is cauliflower-shaped, but takes the name from the way it springs up. 
Polypoid, resembling a polyple; those forming especially on the mucous 
membrane. Papillary, when they are shaped like the crater of a volcano. 
Dentritic when they have roots or branches, and the origin of these is 
in their primary cells at the bottom of the roots. Tumors are single or 
multiple; this is particularly so in Black Cancer, as seen around the tails 
of white horses. These are Melanotic Tumors. 

A Tumor may be circumscribed, having no connection with the loose 
cellular tissues of the body; other times it seems to be intimately mixed 
with the growth. Tumors are sometimes capsulated — these don't do any 
harm except by their unsightly appearance; other times they produce 
great harm by pressure on the surrounding parts, often causing displace- 
ment of other organs, or atrophy of the parts pressed upon; as also Ne- 
crosis from shutting off of the circulation, or pressure on blood vessels, 
causing oedema, varicose, or thrombus; sometimes on joints, causing 
more or less Luxation, or on the bones, causing absorption or Caries. 
They sometimes grow on the inside by increase of cell element and ex- 
pansion, then they are said to have central growth or concentric; other 
times they grow on the outside, then they are said to be peripheral or 
eccentric growth. Tumors are either malignant or innocent. Malig- 
nancy of Tumors is shown by the following phenomena: First, invasion 
of adjacent tissues by eccentric or peripheral growth; second, when they 
have a tendency to local recurrence after removal; third, formation of 
metastasis — that is, when removed from one place, they grow in some 
other part; fourth, a tendency to interfere with the nutrition and well- 
being of the body, causing a condition known as cachexia. This is the 
condition in which there is anaemia, loss of flesh, lassitude, emaciation, 
running on to miasma, faulty nutrition, blood poisoning, and death from 
collapse — this usually occurs from absorption of putrefactive matter, caus- 
ing Septicaemia. 

Etiology. — Causes of Tumors are ver) r obscure, as a rule; oftentimes 
entirely unknown, but other times quite perceptible; for instance, per- 
ceptible cause may lie in mechanical injuries — as kicks from horses, and 
blows, unnatural pressure, as shoe boils, collar boils, etc. ; also Scirrhus 
of the Cord, caused by invasion of the botryo mycosis following castra- 



' VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 85 

tion. Heredity plays an important part, but how, we don't know. Con- 
heim's theory is that most Tumors, or all true Tumors, that have no 
mechanical origin, have their origin in a faulty embryonal development, 
due either to misplaced cells or to superfluous cells, and may occur in any 
tissue; but the Tumors do not develop immediately, but only when favor- 
able circumstances permit them to; what this might be is not known. 
The}'- are not often developed till late in life, usually about adult age. 
In horses, as Black Cancer, they develop about the age of ten or fifteen 
years — hardly ever in the young. Some authors claim that the charac- 
ter of the Tumor can be recognized by the shape of the cells, others say 
it cannot be, consequently we come to the conclusion that to diagnose the 
Tumor, we must see the character of the surrounding tissue, as well as 
the condition of the animal. A Tumor should be viewed as a whole by 
cutting into it, also from the effect it has on the well-being of the animal. 

Classification of Tumors is regulated according to the tissues in which 
they grow. They are divided into six large classes, and each class is subdi- 
vided: 

First Class. — Histoid or connective tissue Tumors; these are composed 
of the same tissue as that in which they grow. Then there are eight in 
this. First, fibroma — -fibrillar connective tissue; second, myxoma, com- 
posed of mucous tissue; third, sarcoma, composed of embryonal tissue; 
fourth, endothelioma, composed of endothelial cells; fifth, lipoma, com- 
posed of fat; sixth, chondroma, composed of cartilage; seventh, osteoma, 
composed of bone; eighth, glioma, has its origin in the neuroglia, that is, 
the fibrous interstitial net-work that supports the central nerve centers, 
as the brain and spinal cord; also the nerve expansion of the retina. 

Second Class. — Myomata are those which grow out and are composed 
of mucular tissue. There are two classes in this — one from the smooth 
or unstriated, called leiomyoma; the other from the striated, called rhab- 
domyoma. 

Third Class. — Neuromata, which are composed of nerve tissues. 

Fourth Class. — Angiomata, this is a vascular tissue Tumor — first, 
angioma (cavernous) ; grows in the blood vessels or from the blood vessels; 
second, lymph, angioma — growing in the lymphatics. 

Fifth Class. — Epithelioma, composed of epithelial cells — first, adeno- 
ma — growing in the gland tissues; second, carcinoma — epithelial cells pure 
and simple. 

Sixth Class. — Teratomata; are the mixed Tumors, those that are com- 
posed of tissues of more or less of all the others. The mixed Tumors are 
complex; they are of course congenital, and may be composed of two or 
more kinds of tissue. The theory is, that in early embryonal development 
the stronger envelops the weaker or smaller; foetus, as we often find in 
different parts of the body, or in different organs, are this sort of Tu- 
mors. Cysts are also counted as Tumors. Teeth are often found in dif- 
ferent parts of the body, and also hair, but oftener around the genital 
organs. 

Cancers- (Carcinoma). — In the lower animals, are divided into four 
kinds — hard, soft, epithelial and black. The hard is sometimes called 
Scirrhus, especially by the old writers; it is ver3>- malignant. These are 
very hard and dense, and of white tissue; when cut through, sometimes 
it is of an even hardness, other times it has hard projections extending 



86 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

from the Tumor into the organ to which it is attached. These Tumors 
cut something like cartilage, and when cut through the center, the sur- 
faces contract and become concave. When cut into, hemorrhage is very 
free and even, as it is not from any large vessel, but from the capillaries; 
this feature alone sometimes makes it difficult and dangerous to operate 
on them, it being hard to arrest the hemorrhage. These hard Tumors 
have a tendency to break through the organ in which they are growing, 
and invade surrounding tissues. They seem to have a special liking for 
the fymphatic glands. If such Tumors do not interfere with mastication 
or some other functional action (vital), they produce little or no harm 
until they ulcerate, then as the ulceration increases, fungus growth 
springs up, hemorrhage occurs easily, sometimes spontaneously ; Septi- 
caemia occurs and produces irritating fever, which produces exhaustion 
and finally collapse and death. 

Treatment. — Early removal with the knife is the only treatment, 
otherwise removal is a failure. Prof. Williams quotes Prof. Bennet, 
that these Tumors may be destroyed by injecting a weak acetic acid, in 
that way destroying the cancerous cells. 

Soft Cancers. — These are seen in two different kinds — medullary 
and colloid. The medullary develops in circumscribed forms; this one is 
very common in the human, and is divided into a number of classes, 
according to the idea of the writers. 

Fungus HaeMAToros. — Are those seen growing in the e)*es of cattle 
— cephaloma in the brain. Then there are the encephaloma, encepha- 
loid, medullary fungus, etc. , all meaning the same Tumor. This may 
be found in any of the tissues, but mostfy in the glands; often seen in 
the horse on the penis, and may, if let alone, extend to the testicles; also 
on the vulva of a mare. It sometimes affects bones, as also seen in the 
submaxillary space and in the submaxillary glands; sometimes arises 
primarily in the periosteum. It may present itself as one Tumor, or as a 
bundle, that is single or multiple, usually enclosed in a capsule, but when 
broken down they are separate bodies. This kind of Cancer to the touch 
has a slow feel of fluctuation, as if the pus was in the cavity, but there is 
no pus there; but you will get a profuse hemorrhage by cutting into them. 
Around these Cancers you will see a net-work of veins, sometimes 
ten times their usual size; this feature alone makes it difficult to operate; 
often seen in the mammary glands of bitches, and it is not uncommon to 
lose a pint of blood in the operation, no matter how careful you may be. 
In the course of time, these Tumors suppurate and then go on to ulceration ; 
then we have tuber granulation in every case, as seen in the eye. The 
medullary matter of this kind of Cancer (the contents) is soft and can be 
spread and mashed; it resembles brain matter, but is a reddish color. 
When this cut surface is scraped there is a free flow of juice; this juice is 
very malignant and will affect any wound it may get into. This Cancer 
often has for its origin a simple amount of violence, but we believe there 
will be no Cancer unless there is a predisposition, or it has a pre-exist - 
ence; in other words, it is in the infant at time of birth. 

Colloid Cancer. — Is composed of fibrous tissue. It arranges and 
makes a net-work of little cavities, varying in size; they contain a soft 
matter nearly liquid, resembling melted butter; sometimes it is amber- 
colored, sometimes grayish or greenish yellow; it resembles half-melted 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 87 

glue in consistency. The density of the Tumor as a whole depends as 
follows: If the fibrous net- work predominates it will be hard; if the 
matter predominates it will be correspondingly soft. 

Epithelial Cancer. — This is quite common, and is composed of 
epithelial cells, very mild, spoken of as cancroid or mildly cancerous. 
This consists of the fibrous stroma, in which the papilla and epithelium 
are greatly enlarged and multiplied. The cells of this growth differ very 
little from the natural condition; the minute forms deviate least from the 
tissues. Its history shows but little malignancy; its favorite site is in the 
mucous membrane — around the vulva of the mare, and in bitches around 
the anus, lips, etc. They are not so common in the lower animals as in 
the human. They are easily transplanted, as from the lips, and may 
transfer the cause also. 

Black or Melanotic Cancer. — This is very commonly spoken of as 
Melanosis. These like most other Tumors, are sarcomatic in their origin. 
The cells in all these retain their embryotic shape; they are round, fusi- 
form and melanoid, and we find that those having the most round cells 
are the most malignant; they resemble leucocytes in the blood. Each cell 
contains an abundance of pigment, giving a black color to the Tumor. 
We find these Black Tumors have every feature of malignancy, contrary 
to the opinion of some authors (English). Sometimes they develop very 
suddenly, acutely, growing very rapidly, and when they affect the loco- 
motive organs they produce great lameness. They usually develop in 
gray horses when they are whitening from age, which is about seven or 
eight years, when these Black Cancers are quite common. No tissue of 
the body is exempt from them, and they are liable to recurrence. We find 
their favorite site is the vulva of the mare, the anus, and the bare part 
under the tail, and often when removed they develop in some other place — 
that is metastatic. They suppurate, granulate, and also ulcerate first, the 
same as other Tumors, but the absorption takes place slower, and Sep- 
ticaemia slower. Removal is the only treatment, if on the outside and 
small. 

Non Malignant or Benign Tumors. — The ordinary fibrous Tu- 
mors, as a rule, belong to the sarcomata, and are situated where fibrous 
tissue is plentiful, but not necessarily. Typical fibrous Tumors arise from 
a local irritation attending an injury, and are composed of white fibrous 
tissue blended with a little yellow elastic tissue. 

Polypus. — Is a typical illustration, developing in the nose, although 
it may develop in any of the cavities. This Polypus is attached by a 
pedicle; when in the nose it usually projects downward through the nose, . 
sometimes backward. In the horse it is sometimes so long as to intefere 
with the epiglottis, followed by great difficulty in breathing; produces 
usually, when in this condition, a sort of snoring or snuffling, same as 
heard in the pug dog; usually produces a discharge streaked with blood. 
When dissected, a cavity is usually found containing a limpid fluid. 

Treatment. — The nicest wa}>- to remove these is with the wire ecra- 
seur, even if it is tuberous in form. Sometimes where the neck of the 
Polypus is small you can twist it off with forceps. After removing, wash 
out with per chloride iron — one dr. to a pint of water — twice a day. 

Fibrous Tumors. — Sometimes arise in the dura mater, causing a 
bulging out of the cranium, instead of pressing on the brain. 



88 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Treatment. — Best removed by trephining, removing the bone, then 
removing the Tumor. An interesting polypus is often seen in the uterus 
of the mare, but cannot be seen in the vagina except when the mare is 
lying down, as it usually goes back when the mare is standing. These 
sometimes grow to a large size. They are often caused by hard pulling. 
It requires particular attention to diagnose one of these from a case of 
everted bladder, which it resembles almost identically, but there is a dif- 
ference in the mucous membranes; that in the bladder being more velvety, 
and in the everted bladder, on the neck you will find two openings, and 
by noticing closely you can see the urine trickling down. If it is a Poly- 
pus, insert a catheter until you remove the Tumor. In case of Imper- 
vious Hymen in Alleys, might not be noticed till the animal was two or 
two and one half years old; it looks like a Tumor. 

Treatment. — Cast the animal with the rump a little down hill, insert 
your hand and catch a fold of the hymen, insert your ecraseur and re- 
move quite a good piece of it; it is quite vascular, but that will not hurt. 
There will be a discharge of the accumulated matter that was pent up in- 
side. 

NOTES ON OBSTETRICS. 

Retention of Placenta. — Placenta is sometimes retained within 
uterus, and the fatty degeneration of it does not take place completely, for 
uterus contracts very rapidly on it after delivery, holding it mechanically. 
Some take away placenta by tearing it away, and produce severe hemor- 
rhage in cows as well as in mares. 

Cause of Retention. — Depends on health of female; a thin half- 
starved cow will retain her placenta, while a very fat cow will also retain 
it. 

Prevention. — If cow is a little thin, feed her a little meal for at least 
three weeks before parturition. If fat, give a purgative two weeks be- 
fore parturition, and short rations for a week, and during last week feed 
her up a little: Placenta if retained should not be allowed to remain more 
than from four to eight hours in cow, and from two to three hours in mare. 

Treatment. — In mare, introduce hand and use a little friction on the 
inside of uterus. In mare it usually comes away in from two to three 
minutes after foaling; in women, from five to thirty minutes. In cow, on 
account of its attachment to the cotyledons, which are very vascular and 
placenta is attached over them, put one hand in and the other outside, 
and by manipulation get up to it and pinch cotyledon on the outside and 
pull away placenta. You may find from three to four cotyledons; when 
they are all unbuttoned, flush uterus out with carbolic acid solution one 
half of one per cent, four or five degrees warmer than temperature of body. 
In human, two per cent solution of boracic acid. Some use bichloride of 
mercury, but Dr. Baker does not recommend it, as it is liable to produce 
Dermatitis. 

Post-Partum Hemorrhage.— Is bleeding after parturition, as a 
result of too rapid detachment of placenta from uterus before blood-vessels 
have had time to be contracted upon, or may be due to rupture of some 
of the cotyledons; not usually severe in the lower animals. 

Treatment. — Teaspoonful of fl. ext. ergot following delivery, and re- 
peat in ten or fifteen minutes if necessary. If this is not sufficient, inject 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 89 

warm water into uterus at a temperature of 125 to 150 , and dash cold 
water over loins. 

Inversion of Uterus. — Is turning uterus inside out. 

Causes. — Failure of uterus to contract properly, or after-pains keep- 
ing up abnormally strong and long. 

Treatment. — Wash uterus and have assistant hold tail up or out of 
way. Wash in tepid water and put laudanum in, or put powdered opium 
in uterus after washing, and put on warm milk or mucilage or linseed tea 
after lotion; then have cow standing. If inclined to strain, give chl. 
hydrate, sulphuric ether, or chloroform enough to stop straining. 

TUMORS CONTINUED. 

Tumor in the Levator Humeri. — Just above the point of the 
shoulder generally. This is really an Abscess oftentimes less in size 
than a walnut, often much smaller, but the inflammation in the muscles 
around the Tumor is great and intense, with swelling and great lameness. 

Cause. — Some think it due to the pus germ, but Dr. Baker believes it 
is due to local injury. We usually see it in draft horses and in the season 
when the roads are rough, and hauling heavy loads; from jerking of the 
collar, the part often gets pinched or bruised. These Tumors are deep 
seated. 

Treatment. — There is a great variety of opinion as to how they 
should be treated. Best treated by treating as simple Abscesses and re- 
moving them with a knife. Usualh T when called they are a couple of 
days old; there is swelling and considerable soreness; recommend poultices 
or hot fomentations, continued for a week or nine days, to allow the pus 
to form, then remove the poultices, clip off the hair, cut the skin about 
two inches long over the Tumor, then insert a long-bladed scalpel in the 
center, insert slowly; } t oU will find it hard and resisting until you reach 
the cavity, when the resistance will lessen; that is the way to know that 
you have reached the cavity. You ma}?- have to insert the knife from 
two to four inches in order to reach it. If you don't strike, as it is often 
very small, withdraw the knife a little way and change the direction a 
little; then it is well to enlarge the opening. Always insert the knife 
parallel with the direction of the .muscular fibre, than evacuate the pus 
and wash out with some lotion, as tinct. iodine or strong solution of chlor. 
zinc, or bichlo. mercury — anything that will cauterize mildly to destroy 
the pus germ but not destroy the tissues; this will set up a healthy in- 
flammation, and granulation and healing. I usualty use a poultice, ster- 
ilizing it with hot water and a little carbolic acid; keep the poultice on ten 
or fifteen da3 r s. It will require about six weeks' rest for the draft horse, 
but a horse driving in collar might do in four weeks. If you are called 
early to a case, the chances are favorable for recovery. The average 
doctor takes these for fibrous Tumors and wants to cut them out; in doing 
so they remove considerable of the muscle, which is never replaced, and 
heals, leaving a hollow in the muscle. This might be necessary in a very 
old case, yet I find I can cut into 'them and remove the inspissated pus, 
if present, and by poulticing and afterwards using cantharides blister 
two or three times, get good results. Prof. Liautard punctures with a hot 
iron instead of a knife; I prefer to use the knife where it does as well, 
and I think better, than with the '.hot iron, which looks too much like a 



90 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

blacksmith's way. In chronic cases open up the Tumor, cauterize a little 
first, then treat as a simple wound. 

Sit Fasts and Collar Boils. — Are fibrous Tumors, produced by 
long-continued pressure, not strong enough to cause Necrosis, but a 
moderate amount — -sufficient to form a Tumor. 

Treatment. — Removal of these with the knife is the only treatment. 
Sit Fasts are often found as a hard leathery skin; gangrene takes place 
so slowly as to allow it to mummify. It must be cut off with the knife or 
scissors, deep enough to reach the healthy tissue. Always make your 
incision perpendicular, wash out with antiseptic and treat as a simple 
wound; usually makes a nice recovery; requires about three months' rest. 

Warts. — Are little Tumors; they are the most peculiar of all the 
Tumors on account of their sudden coming and often as sudden going 
away. They are simple Epithelial Tumors. In special pathology there 
is a thickening of the epidermis by an accumulation of desquamated 
epithelial, and enlarged by hypertrophy of the true skin. 

Treatment. — Cut them out, though when they are very numerous 
it is impracticable to do this. They may be removed by the application 
of dilute acetic acid, lemon juice, or other mild acids; it is useless to 
cauterize or cut them off with silk. We find warts most common in the 
mouths of dogs; sometimes the} r are so numerous as to cover the buccal 
membrane, and when in such numbers it is impossible to cut them out. 
Oftentimes the removal of a few of the large ones will cause them all to 
disappear. 

Lipoma, or Fatty Tumors. — These are simply accumulations of 
fatty cells; sometimes they grow to an enormous size; they are liable to 
develop in any animal, and in any part. Vaginal Tumors are some- 
times fatty Tumors. Fatty Tumors are easily removed — they are non- 
vascular; apply a little cocaine while operating. 

Neuroma. — This is a nerve Tumor, and about the only place this 
is seen is in following neurotomy, by not cutting off enough of the nerve, 
or rather not pulling it down and cutting off, then allowing the end to 
draw up into the limb as it should do. This is not common in the lower 
animals, but is more so in the human. As seen after neurotomy in the 
horse, it is very painful, intense and constant, and pressure on it makes 
the horse lame. 

Treatment. — Give the horse chloroform, or inject cocaine and then 
remove the Tumor. You will often find that when the horse is not bene- 
fited by neurotom}-, it is generally due to the forming of one of these 
Tumors. 

Condromatic or Encondromatic. — Are cartilaginous Tumors 
developed commonly in two cases, one on the sternum of the horse or ox 
from external injury — as collisions, injuring the sternum, setting up in- 
flammation, which is followed by this Tumor. Sometimes they develop 
in cattle from lying down on the sternum. In the horse we find them 
developing in and around the trachea, from tracheotomy, or from kicks 
from other horses, etc. 

Treatment. — If they are limited in size they can be removed with 
the knife, but when very large that would be impracticable. External 
cartilaginous Tumors can be removed. In the early stage of these 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 9 1 

Tumors you will find on cutting into them that they are largely fibrous; 
later, these fibres become changed into the cartilaginous. 

Osteoma or Bone Tumor. — These are bone Tumors, no matter 
what the cause may be — as Splint, Spavin, etc. ; the3^ come from inflam- 
mation every time. # 

Cystic Tumors. — These are very important, because we run on to 
them so often, as Capped Hock, Capped Knee, Wind Galls, etc. They 
may grow on any part of the body, inside or outside; they often contain 
hair, and are often lined with skin on the inside as well as on the outside. 
These Tumors, and especially Capped Hock, always come from injuries, 
usually from kicks, or injuries in a box stall; Capped Knee, from falling, 
or when on the side, from speedy cuts from the other foot; Capped Elbow, 
from lying on the foot or on a hard bare floor; this may occur in some 
cases in a single night, as big as your fist. These Cysts when produced 
so rapidly are always filled with serum. There is acute inflammation 
from twelve to forty hours, and it is during this inflammation that the 
serum is developed, and it is hot and sore. 

Treatment. — For Cystic Tumors on the horse's legs, the first general 
principle you can maintain in the treatment, if they are a good size, I 
think, is to puncture them, no matter where they exist. In Capped Hock 
or Knee, it has been proven by experience they can be opened with safety, 
if you go about it carefully, and it is the only satisfactory treatment. 
Treat carefully after puncturing; often where other doctors have failed 
to effect a cure by other treatment, some of our graduates effected a cure 
by puncturing. If the Tumor is not tapped, in the course of time the 
serum will coagulate, organize and form fibrous Tumors, which must be 
removed with the knife; and in some places these would be unsafe to re- 
move, so it is important to get them early. 

Method of Operation. — Be careful of your diagnosis; find where the 
point of injury is — take the knee, which is caused by speedy cuts; these 
are made when the horse is. tired after long driving, as the speed is con- 
tinued and the horse struggles, the point of striking is changed, and he 
may pound over a large surface. Iyocate by the amount of fluctuation, 
then open with a probe-pointed bistour}^ never a scalpel, as near the 
bottom as you can get; put on twitch, have assistant lift opposite foot, 
catch your knife, leaving about an inch to cut with, cutting point up; 
insert slowly at the bottom, inward, upward, and outward, till the point 
of the knife is about an inch from the insertion, then cut through; some- 
times you will not cut deep enough, then the serum will not flow, then 
cut deeper. If you cut off any veins don't be alarmed, but stop the 
bleeding. After cutting the Tumor, syringe out with a caustic solution 
that will cauterize the sack enough to prevent reforming — as tinct. iodine 
full strength, a couple of drachms or more. After this treatment there 
will be a little discharge for some time, so we usually dip a wad of 
oakum in antiseptic and insert in the opening. Bathe an hour at a time 
with hot water; take out oakum while bathing and afterward insert a 
new piece. Never syringe after the first time; put on a big poultice 
sterilized with hot water and strongly carbolized; keep up for ten to 
twenty da3^s, by that time the cavity will be filled up and the opening 
healed, and you will have usually a hard Tumor left, of inflammation; 
now bathe and use anodynes, as witch hazel and soap, equal parts, and 



Q2 THEORY AXD PRACTICE. 

the other half water; use this freely and wrap with flannel, give a little 
walking exercise. The inflammation will gradually subside, and the 
animal will be all right soon — in about six to eight weeks. 

If an old case is brought to you, open and make a new wound of it, 
poullice, and after about a month put on mild blister — as cantharides, 
once a month. In treating these cases, if after three months a thickness 
is left, hand rubbing will benefit very much. Hock can be treated in 
the same way, but in tapping the Capped Hock the incision is made be- 
hind. Remember the anatomy of the part, and you can cut without any 
danger. For old chronic cases you can't do much good; may try iodide 
mere, one to eight of lard, fly blister, one to three of lard, mix these 
two in equal parts and apply. In the elbow, you can make a good lib- 
eral opening and keep the horse standing afterwards from one to three 
weeks; don't allow to lie down, as that may have been the cause in the 
first place. Give a little walking exercise to relieve the standing; if a 
bad case, bathe three or four times a day freely , and wash out. If the 
Tumor on the elbow becomes fibrous and the owner wants it removed, 
you can do so; make an incision through the center and dissect it out in 
two parts. After y-ou get this kind of a case well, find out the cause, if 
possible, and remove or remedy. 

Serous Cysts ox Kxees of Cattle. — If just begun, open and treat 
as any other Tumor. If chronic, Veterinarian cannot afford to touch it. 
Only thing to do in chronic case, is to cut elliptical piece out of Tumor. 
Build manger that suits purpose. 

Cysts. — Where they form in other parts of the body from kicks and 
other injuries, can be opened freely at the bottom; you may inject, but 
not enough to cauterize. Use hot applications an hour at a time three 
times a day, and regulate diet; may give a laxative. In Capped Elbow, 
where the Tumor is small and bagging, some remove them by ligating; tie 
a cord around it tightly, and in three or four days tie another one and much 
tighter; after three or four days cut off and sear with hot iron, and then treat 
as a simple wound. The trouble with this way of removing them is, that 
there is a considerable amount of inflammation. Only in the case I men- 
tion would I use this means; I prefer the knife in all cases. Prof. Wil- 
liams punctures with hot iron, and then eats them out with corrosive 
sublimate or arsenic inserted; this is a timid way of treating. After ope- 
rating give a little walking exercise, but don't work for some time. 

Ovarian Cyst. — This is very common in all females — women, cows 
and cats, particularly; not so common in mares or bitches. It is a drop- 
sical condition of the ovary, or part of it, as the Cyst may not involve the 
whole of the ovary, part being left healthy. This is usually produced 
by, or produces, a subacute inflammation of the ovary, and moie or less 
desire for the male, called Nymphomania. In large animals — as the cow 
and mare, you can recognize this by inserting the hand in the vagina, and 
if large you can find them easily; when the ovary is normal in size you 
cannot feel it in either the vagina or the anus; and in diseases it is lumpy 
and very elastic. 

Treatment. — Sometimes these Cysts can be treated heroically by in- 
serting one hand in the vagina and the other in the anus, and rupturing 
them by crushing them with your hand; the serum escapes into the 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 93 

abdominal cavity and does no harm. Give soft feed and rest, and the 
animal will recover in a day or two. 

Mucous Cysts. — Are those that develop in the mucous membrane 
and fill with mucous instead of serum; they develop in the mouth; some- 
times called Ranula; they develop in oblong tuberous forms. It is usu- 
ally not necessary to dissect them carefully, but just slit them up full 
length, and wash out with alum or boracic acid. 

Cysts in the Thyroid Glands. — These are Bronchocele when they 
are filled with water, and Goitre when they are solid. The}' are common 
in horses and cattle in limestone regions; certain sections of every coun- 
try seem to be affected. The most noted place is Derbyshire, England, 
and the St. Lawrence valley in Canada. 

Treatment. — Different kinds, with more or less success, usually less. 
If you think it is due to the part of the pasture, remove to some other 
part; and in fresh cases, paint them with iodine once a day, and give 
iodide potash internally. If the skin gets sore from the painting, cease for 
a time and oil them, then continue again. If you think there is serum, 
tap with trocar, if you are doubtful, use the hypodermic needle first. 
In such a case make the opening larger, but remember this is a dangerous 
place to cut, but the trocar is good; then inject one dram of iodine, and 
paint on the outside with the iodine — it may swell a little, but that will do 
no harm; sometimes when we tap them we find blood instead of serum, 
due to rupture of blood vessels. You can't dissect them out on account 
of the organs there; if it is an aneurism, you can't cure it, so close open- 
ing and let alone. If you find it growing and pressing on the oesophagus, 
trachea, or large arteries, you ma}* dissect it out, but this has met with 
poor success in human, and the lower animals may die on the table; it is 
the last resort. I think the external applications are the only safe ones, 
or treatment, for this kind. Goitre is more common in the stallion than 
in any other animal, and is often an eyesore. 

Treatment. — Give mild purgative, diminish his feed, increase his ex- 
ercise; give one dram iodide potash, night and morning, in his feed for a 
week or ten days; then repeat, but don't continue too long at a time, as 
it ma}* affect his testicles and destroy sexual desires. Clip off the hair, 
and rub well in with friction, iodide potash in lard, 1 to S, night and 
morning for six weeks. 

Cutaneous Cyst. — Is a Cyst in the skin; all that these require is 
to open as a Ranula. 

Compound Cysts. — Are multiple Cysts, when two or more exist. 
These Cysts sometimes develop in the sinuses of the head, causing a 
bulging of the bones; in the submaxillary, often the whole length of the 
sinus. In that case you can trephine at both ends, and cut out the sec- 
tion of bone between. In addition to the bulging there may be a dis- 
charge from the nose, often streaked with blood and often mistaken for 
catarrh; but if it is, there will be no harm in the treatment. These Cysts 
sometimes, instead of bulging, bear downward, causing great trouble by 
Dyspnoea. 

Teeth-Bearing Cysts or Tumors. — Called Dentigerous. Tumor 
teeth may be found most anywhere; most common place is at the base of 
the ear, sometimes seen in the maxillary sinuses, or frontal sinus, or in 
the testicles or ovaries. When they develop at the base of the ear, there 



94 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

will be a little swelling there, then it may start to grow suddenly, and 
cause pain and trouble; sometimes will rupture. When you cut you will 
find a molar tooth there, which seems to grow without a matrix. When 
in the testicles, they don't seem to cause any bother. When dissecting 
at the ear, be careful of the organs there; but as they are generally be- 
tween these organs and the skin, there is little danger. 

Osteosarcoma. — As recognized by the old authors. In these Cysts 
the solid portions of the bone were invaded, destroying it, mostly in the 
cancellated bone tissue, causing it to swell and form open framework, 
and the spaces are filled with a grayish white matter, often vascular or 
bloody, and often hot and painful; loosens the molar teeth, the surface of 
it softens in spots, skin ruptures, and the discharge is of a purulent and 
gelatinous consistency. 

Post Mortem. — Cutting through the Tumor, the bone seems to be 
disorganized; seems to be a Colloid Tumor of soft tissue. Gangee says it is 
a fibro-plastic degeneration of bone; Williams, that it is Tuberculosis; 
McEchran, that it is cancerous. Actinomycosis, Dr. Baker says, is what 
the above (Osteosarcoma) has been proven to be, beyond a doubt, herein 
Illinois, and that it is infectuous and can be transmitted from one animal 
to another, no matter where its origin may have been. This is Lumpy 
Jaw. 

Treatment. — It is well to recognize it early and remove all the dis- 
eased bone, even taking a little of the healthy bone with it; make a simple 
wound of it, and treat as such. 

Treatment of Large Tumors. — These should be taken out in sections 
and in quarters, and for this purpose the male and female needles should 
be used; then after removing, sear or cauterize with hot iron, lunar 
caustic, nitric acid, etc. 

Castration. — Technically known as orchidotomy or orchotomy. 
This is the operation of removing the testicles of the male; it is done as a 
rule to render him more docile, tractable, and useful, that is, as it applies 
to the horse. As it applies to flesh-producing animals, it improves the 
quality of the meat, fattens more rapidly, grows larger, that is, in cattle, 
also sheep and hogs. Horses may grow taller, but as a rule do not grow 
heavier; it makes the males of all animals lighter in the forward part. 
By being castrated young, the male grows heavier in the front and 
lighter behind, as the buffalo for instance. Mares grow more even front 
and back, and males when cut grow more like the mare. There are dif- 
ferent names applied to the different males when they are castrated — 
stallion is called a gelding; to geld a colt, means to castrate him; bulls, as 
steers or oxen; a ram is called a wether; a boar is called a barrow; cocks 
are called capons, and a human, a eunuch. Emasculation is a term some- 
times used to denote castration; this word means, to deprive of aggres- 
siveness. In speaking of castrating a rooster, it is called caponizing him. 

Age At Which It Should Be Done. — In the lower animals, as a rule, 
the younger it is done the better; it is invariably so in all cases except 
with the horse, for various reasons — the growth will be larger and more 
uninterrupted, and the feeling less. In the horse, the longer the colt is 
left an entire male, the heavier will be the crest and shoulders, and the 
lighter the behind. If castrated young he will be heavier behind and 
lighter in front, so the time should be regulated as to how we want the 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 95 

animal to grow; colts as a rule are castrated at about one year old; many 
prefer at six or nine months old. Thoroughbreds have a tendenc}^ to 
grow lighter in front, even to grow U shaped in the neck, so it is best to 
leave until two } T ears old before castrating. In blooded animals it is best 
to cut them early, as the age applies to the horse; it depends also on the 
tendency of the animal as to how it grows; the older a stallion is before 
being cut, the bolder he grows; I think many of these would be better if 
left till four 3-ears old, to prevent the U shaped appearance. If an ani- 
mal is left to be an adult before being cut, he has acquired all the charac- 
teristics of the entire male, and then he is known as a stag; this applies 
in horses and cattle,, and ma}^ be to other animals, but is well marked in 
horses and cattle. Bv the well-developed head, neck and shoulders, and 
short head, and light behind, you can make up your mind when you see 
an animal that is castrated, and with these characteristics, that he was an 
adult when cut. 

Best Season to Castrate. — It can be done at an} T time, provided you 
have a proper place to keep them, but we prefer to choose mild weather; 
avoid extremes as to heat and cold, and also to Ry time. 

Preparations. — It is well always, especialy if the colt has been fed 
on grain, to diet him, or best to fast him for twenty-four hours, on gen- 
eral principles. 

Restraint. — Every castrator has his own pet wa}^ of confining the 
animal for this; it doesn't matter how it is done, so it works well. It is 
considered a simple operation nowadays, and it really is a simple one, 
but must be properly done, or serious troubles and death may result. 
The old side line is used much, as it is simple and works well. The ques- 
tion as to do it standing or to cast, I don't know if there is any choice, 
but if there is, it must be in favor of casting, because the colt may be- 
have unexpectedly bad, may cut up, then you are unable to finish the 
operation, unless you cast, which makes the operation dangerous. An- 
other reason is, there is less danger, or no danger, to the operator; another 
reason is, when you get the scrotxim cut and the testicle out, the animal 
may kick, etc. ; you may pull down the cord too hard, and from this a 
malignant inflammation ma}?- set in, which may cause death. If you 
operate standing, put on a neck strap and tie up tightly. When they are 
first cut or feel the knife they sometimes kick, but generally are surprised 
and squat down, then remain quiet; but be sure to have plenty of room, 
so in case he cuts up 3'ou will have room to save yourself injury. If you 
lay colts down it is perfectly safe; in old horses, over five years, there is 
very likely to be an Anchylosis of the lumbar vertebrae, and this be- 
comes fractured when cast, and if so, presses on the cord and causes 
paralysis of the hind parts, and the animal never gets up; so when you 
go to cast an old stallion, always warn the owner as to what ma} 1 - happen. 

Methods. — There are various methods in all countries, of castrating; 
the ones most common nowadays are, clamp, torsion, ligature, actual 
cautery, scraping, and the ecraseur. Before you cast the animal you 
want to examine to see if there is any rupture of the inguinal, and 
whether he has any testicles down in the scrotum; if he has one, he is 
called monorchid; if he has none, a cryptorchid. Then lay down, sup- 
pose two testicles down, no Hernia; best to lay on his back, though some 
lay on the side. Wash the scrotum with hot water and soap, and have 



96 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

hands and instruments thoroughly clean; locate yourself behind the colt, 
catch the testicles up, then cut through the skin dartos and tunica 
vaginalis; always make an opening at least three inches in length. After 
the testicle is out, insert your knife between the spermatic cord and tunica 
vaginalis and cut the epididymis. The hooked knife is much used in 
this operation, to let the testicle out; now put on the clamp from before, 
back, about two inches below the testicle; fasten the clamp, and then cut 
off the testicle about a quarter of an inch from the clamp. These clamps 
are left on a variable length of time — from twenty-four hours to three 
days; others think the} 7 should slough off; it is simply to prevent hem- 
orrhage; twenty-four to thirty hours might do all right, but for fear of 
secondary hemorrhage, best to leave on for two days, or to the second 
day, then push up the cord. 

Torsion. — You want two pairs of forceps, the ones used in human 
practice do very well; catch the cord with the forceps and fasten them, 
then take another pair, catch hold about an inch from the first clamp and 
twist off the testicles. 

Ligature. — This is applied either to the cord entire or not entire. 
Put on temporary clamp, cut off the testicle, pick up the artery and li- 
gate; it is the spermatic artery which is very long and in convolutions, 
and you may cut off a number of branches, so you will have to pull these 
out till you get the main artery and ligate it, as the others are only cut-off 
sections. 

Cautery. — Take the cord in the temporary clamp, cut off the testicle 
and cauterize the end of the cord with the red-hot iron; — this is a pop- 
ular English way. That is sufficient in young animals, or rather colts, 
but in old, in addition to this cautery of the cord, Prof. McEehran used 
to locate the artery and ligate. 

Scraping. — Take out the testicle and scrape with the knife instead 
of cutting; this is the method used in most small animals — sheep, dogs, 
cats, pigs, etc. 

Ecraseur. — The word means a crusher; the French originated this 
method and instrument. Place the chain around the cord and cut off 
slowly by crushing it; there is less danger of hemorrhage when cut off 
slowly, than when done quickly. 

There is another method that is used in Russia, that seems to us 
barbarous; they la}- the testicle on a board and pound it with a 
wooden mallet, believing this leaves the animal with more of its aggress- 
iveness. As to choice of methods, the question of hemorrhage is the main 
point; the clamp is good, but it has the fault of crushing the nerve, 
which is very sensitive in this region; this causes intense pain, often ac- 
companied with rolling, and kicking, and colicy pains. In many cases 
the ligature would do the same, unless the temporary clamp was used, 
and only the artery ligated. Another fault with the clamp is, that it 
holds the cord down, and when the clamp is removed the cord will often 
hang down an inch out of the scrotum, and this may take up germs — 
especially the Botryo Mycosis; this produces Scirrhus of the Cord: it may 
grow to the lips of the wound, and an abscess form in the scrotum, poison- 
ing the blood often, and inducing inflammation of the chord also. 

Torsion is applied to small animals; the objection to this is that it 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 97 

leaves a ragged end on the cord, and more sloughing. ligature, when 
applied to the artery alone, is the most surgical way. 

Cautery is very effectual, but there is always trouble in getting irons 
heated, etc., and then sloughing afterwards; but that doesn't hurt any. 

Ecraseur is the most popular way in this country, and as a rule is 
quite effectual; by crushing the artery it allows the blood to clot. 

After Treatment. — We look upon this as being important in one 
particular — it keeps the opening open, as it is liable to heal by first inten- 
tion. The proper way to do, is to dip the finger into fresh lard, then in- 
sert into the opening; germs wont grow in lard, and as it is an antisep- 
tic, with lard on the edges union will not take place. After removal of the 
clamp, push up the cord and hold there for a little while to allow it to 
contract. Confinement of the pus in the scrotum is often a cause of Per- 
itonitis, that is, when there is a union with the lips of the wound; Septi- 
caemia often follows. Give colt plenty of exercise; of course, there will 
be some swelling and local inflammation, but you can remove these by 
exercise; give soft food. A work horse can be castrated and go to work 
at once, but it doesn't seem humane to do so — they ought to have a few 
days' rest and plenty of exercise. If the scrotum swells much, it is due 
to the lack of exercise; if it is due to Septicaemia, it will be hard and hot 
— then bathe with hot water, introducing your sponge into the wound; 
afterwards use antiseptics; that is, into the inguinal canal — as carbolic 
acid. 

Mortality. — Some deaths will occur, and there will be more some 
seasons than others; can't say why this is. In France and Germany, 
castration is all done by the government Veterinarians, because the studs 
are all under the control of the government; there the mortality some 
seasons is as high as thirty-three and one third per cent, other seasons 
five per cent, and the average about ten per cent. I don't think the 
mortality in this country is anywhere near so high. 

Cause of Death. — First, secondary hemorrhage; second, blood poison- 
ing — Septicaemia; third, Hernia; fourth, Tetanus, and in addition to these 
we have Fistula of the Scrotum, Gangrene of the Cord, and Scirrhus of 
the Cord. 

Second Hemorrhage. — Is that which occurs some little time after 
the operation, say in the course of fifteen to thirty minutes; it begins then 
and increases; this usually occurs in colts in a poor unthrifty condition, 
and where there is a lack of fibrin in the blood, and will not coagulate 
well or quickly. You may be called to treat a case that some other per- 
son had castrated; the first thing you should do is to try the administra- 
tion of ergot; the fluid extract of ergot one ounce. Then in fifteen min- 
utes if the hemorrhage does not stop, give another dose; if this fails, don't 
give any more ergot, but try to catch the cord of the one that is bleeding, 
or both, if they are both bleeding; if you can find it, then ligate. That 
is the one advantage with the clamp — this never occurs; with the ecraseur 
it might. If death does not occur, it may run on till it causes a separa- 
tion of the retina from the choroid membrane of the eye, and cause 
partial blindness, which may remain through life; this is from the blood 
getting so thin, and new blood forming, it is so thin sometimes as to ooze 
out of the vessels into the surrounding tissues. This trouble which is 
produced is known as Glass Eye, and the eye appears healthy and full, 



9« THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

but is insensible to light, which is a case you should always look out for 
in examining for soundness; the pupil is always dilated in this condition. 
Sometimes from castrating by other means than the clamp, the cord is 
drawn up into the belly and internal hemorrhage takes place, no blood 
being seen on the outside, and the colt may bleed to death; in this case 
use ergot, and you may dash cold water on the stern. 

Septicemia. — We avoid this first, by adopting cleanliness; second, 
by refraining from operating when the animal is sick with Strangles or 
Influenza; it is almost certain to kill him if we do. If you do operate on 
one of these animals, be sure to wash your hands antiseptically before 
operating on another colt, or you may infect him. Suppose Septiccemia 
does occur; the symptoms will be quite extensive, swelling of the scrotum, 
it will be hot and painful, and will pit on pressure; temperature increased, 
may be 104 and 5 or 6; loss of appetite, rapid emaciation, and may die 
in five or six days, or may run on for five or six weeks; if it runs on that 
long, there will be Marasmus. 

Treatment. — Hot fomentations; 3^011 may rely almost entirely on these, 
and keep up almost continually, getting it up into the inguinal canal; also 
use antiseptics with it, as external — tinct. of iron, quinine; alcoholic stim- 
ulants in generous quantity. The tinct. of iron acts on the red-blood cor- 
puscles, and it is these that Septicaemia destroys. Quinine is indicated 
in all cases of Septicaemia; a little gentian may be added to it. 

Peritonitis.— This usually comes from the inflammation extending 
up the cord into the abdominal cavity, and affects the peritoneum. Symp- 
toms are the same as in any other Peritonitis, only they roll less and 
kick less, and when they die with it, are usually quiet, often wont move 
a bit, except may pick up foot and let down again. 

Post-Mortem. — Same as the ordinary; it is due to a germ. After the 
inflammation extends up into the belly it is nearly always fatal. If you 
are notified before it extends up far, you may be able to give relief; give 
hyposulphite soda along with opium and whisky. 

Hernia. — This may occur during operation, by the colt taking on 
an involuntary straining, and will force the bowels out into the inguinal 
canal, or it may take place after he gets up, especially with the clamp. 
Sometimes only the omentum passes down, when it is called Epiplocele, 
when all down, Enterocele. The Hernia must be reduced; give anaesthetic, 
1 oz. or Yz oz. chloral hydrate, or 2 ozs. sulph. ether, or 1 oz. chloroform. 
After 3 r ou get the Hernia reduced, pick up the tunica vaginalis and cord, 
if you can, catch with clamp and give a turn upon itself, then insert a 
wad of absorbent cotton or clean towel into the inguinal canal, and sew 
up. Stand colt high behind, feed on bran slop, no hay; next day, cut 
open the suture and remove the cotton, then the swelling will be sufficient 
to prevent further Hernia. In case the bowels come out in large quanti- 
ties, the proper thing to do is to tie up, with a sheet held over the loins 
till you can lay the animal. 

Tetanus. — This doesn't differ from any other; caused alike fror 
the germ, and is infectuous, but not from animal to animal. Thes 
germs are numerous in the horse dung. Treat the same as any other 
case of Septicaemia; give a little morphia hypodermically. 

Fistula of the Scrotum. — This occurs from the introduction into 
the scrotum of some foreign body, but usually from the lips growing tc 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 99 

the lips of the wound; abscesses are formed, and there may be a chronic 
discharge. 

Treatment. — First, enlarge your opening with a probe-pointed bis- 
toury, explore if there is am- foreign bod}' there; if you find a rose-like 
enlargement, pinch it off. Inject into this Fistula a strong solution of 
sulph. copper 1 oz. to a pint of water, about twice a week. In some 
cases you will have to lay down and remove part of the cord same as in 
Scirrhus of the Cord. 

Gangrene of the Cord. — Is incurable, as it is never discovered 
until it is too late. 

Scirrhus Cord (Champignon). — Is a Tumor growing on end of 
cord, following Castration. Billings say:s it is invariably due to Botryo 
Mycosis. This is a fungus growth following Castration, unquestionably 
due to a germ in most cases; but I am not prepared to say it is always 
this particular germ. It is a dumb-bell shaped worm that gets into the 
wound after the operation, either from dirty hands, or from the soil, or 
in different ways. It would be strange if this did not occur in many cases, 
on account of the great number of germs, and this is one of the worst 
places, because the wound leads direct to the peritoneal membrane in the 
abdominal cavity. Some authors describe it as a fibro- vascular fungus 
enlargement. It follows the clamp generally, because it holds the cord 
down, and when the clamp is removed the cord is not pushed up as it 
should be, and from the dirty hand that may touch it. This Scirrhus 
Cord sometimes grows to a great size; Dr. Baker exhibited one taken from 
a 1 1 -year old horse, that weighed twenty-eight pounds, supposed to have 
been in existence since the animal, as a colt, was castrated. Usually it 
grows to the size of a man's fist, or double that. In the early stage the 
horse will be stiff, sometimes very stiff and lame; sometimes only one side 
is affected. When very acute, it produces constitutional disturbances; 
there will be fever, puffed-up flanks, arched back. This is sometimes so 
extensive as to extend up the cord to the loins. This cord has been found 
to be as large as a man's arm up to the loins, and with abscesses; this 
leads to blood poisoning, emaciation takes place rapidly, fever keeps up, 
animal gets weak, Marasmus sets in, then collapse and death. Usually a 
Veterinary will be asked to find out what is the matter with the colt; this 
may be many weeks after the operation of Castration has been performed. 
The wound in the scrotum will be healed up nicely, and when you feel 
up the inguinal ring you will find an enlargement, which presses on the 
parts and gives great pain. 

Treatment. — Removal with the knife is the only treatment; to do 
this successfully^ and properly, lay down and confine the same as for Cas- 
tration; turn him on his back, lay open the scrotum over the Tumor, 
about the same place you would cut to castrate. It is not necessary to 
take off more than the large part of it; the neck may be absorbed, or it 
may grow again. You will find it is very vascular and will bleed very 
much with every cut of the knife, so go about it carefully; the veins are 
much enlarged, and if cut will bleed a stream, so be prepared to tie 
up if necessary. Skin back and lacerate the attachment, not with the 
knife, but with your finger; this will expose the cord. If it is small you 
can cut it off with the ecraseur; if very large, y^ou will have to take off 
in sections; insert your knife perpendicularly, then put the chain around 



IOO THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

and cut off the section, and repeat till you cut it all off. Hurry the oper- 
ation on account of the hemorrhage; hot water is good, with a big sponge, 
temperature of the water about 175. Just as soon as you get the Tumor 
removed, put in the sponge and sew up and leave for twenty-four hours, 
or hold for a time and then take out the sponge and pack with oakum 
or absorbent cotton for twenty- four hours, then take out and cauterize 
with chlor. mercury 1 in 100, or tinct. of iodine; then treat the same as a 
simple wound; give clean bedding and tie up the tail. Some use a clamp 
for this purpose, then they have them curved, but I don't think the clamp 
is good in this case — the ecraseur is the best. Sometimes a Veterinarian 
will make more by not castrating at all, but let others do it and he will 
be called upon to treat bad results. He will have patients that others 
castrated for fifty cents or a dollar, that may pay him ten or fifteen dol- 
lars, for Tumors will often develop, no matter how well the operation is 
performed. The best preventive is to follow the after treatment given, 
and the use of lard, or you ma}' use an antiseptic lotion. 

Irregularities Found in Colts. — First, Inguinal Scrotal Hernia 
at the time of operating, first see if this exists. Make up your mind as to 
the mode you are going to follow, lay the colt down, turn him on his 
back and reduce the Hernia by manipulation on the outside; for larger 
ones insert your hand into the anus to assist you. 

Covered Operation. — Make an incision through the skin and dartos, 
then you come to the tunica vaginalis that you don't cut, so dissect away 
the cellular tissue, letting the testicle out and the tunica vaginalis will come 
out also; put on your clamp, enclosing also the tunica vaginalis, put the 
clamp on extra tight and closer to the body than usual, then cut off the 
testicle as if the tunica vaginalis was not enclosed. If only one side is 
affected, operate on the side that is affected first, then on the other in the 
usual way. The great danger is when you let him up; if he strains, give 
anaesthetic; then feed on soft light diet. If the animal is affected 
with Hernia before you operate, have him fasted; after the operation 
have him stand high behind in stall for about three days, then the swell- 
ing will prevent any further Hernia. If the Hernia is unusually large, as 
in hogs, this method alone will not be sufficient, so when you let the 
tunica vaginalis out with the testicle, give it a turn upon itself, then put 
on the clamp. In the case of hogs, have your assistant hold them up by 
the hind legs — that will move the bowels forward. Sometimes we just 
cut out in the regular way, then pack with absorbent cotton and leave in 
about three days till it swells enough to prevent further trouble. 

Spaying the Female. — Spaying, technically, is Ovariotomy — 
removal of the ovaries. All kinds of females, especially in the lower 
animals, that are not wanted for breeding purposes are better off spayed, 
especially meat-producing animals— as cattle; the}' grow fatter, and faster, 
and better, and the younger it is done the better. In the case of bitches, 
it makes them more docile, and as for house dogs, they stay at home 
better and do not have company running through the kitchen after them, 
or linked together. As a rule, women are only spayed as the result of 
some disease of the ovaries, and are often spayed when the}' are virgins. 
It is no more uncommon to find spayed women than castrated men, but 
there is one peculiar difference between the human and lower animals; in 
the lower animals, when spayed, they lose all sexual desire, while a 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. IOI 

woman spayed still enjoys the embraces of the male. Old bitches that 
have been bred before spa3'ing may from habit take the male when her 
time of heat should come. The lower animals will only take the male 
during heat, while in woman it is different. It is thought that spayed 
bitches get fatter and lazy, but I think it is due to their old age, and 
that a young bitch will not get any fatter, but may when she gets older. 
But they get brighter and more docile, and some hunters say they are 
better, and their scent just as good. 

Preparation. — It depends on what kind of an animal 3~ou are going 
to operate on, but it is best to fast them all; if a bitch, fast forty-eight 
hours if she is fat; heifer, twenty- four hours will do. In the bitch the 
OYary lies away forward near the diaphragm; in the cow it is near the 
broad ligament. Bitches are hung up b}^ the hind legs on an inclined 
plane; be careful as to cleanliness, as 3'ou will have to come in contact 
with the peritoneum, otherwise it is a simple operation. You will have 
to educate the touch as well as the sight in finding the ovary in the bitch; 
best place to learn it is in the dissecting room. In bitches the horns of 
the uterus run aw a}- down to the diaphragm. In bitches we don't con- 
sider it well to make the incision at the umbilicus, but run up near to it 
and not very large; insert the finger and dilate down towards the spine; the 
ovary will be recognized b} T its firmness, and when you see, by its dense 
fibrous appearance. If fasted, the omentum will not bother you, but may 
if full. Usually 3 t ou can pinch off the ovary, or else cut off with scissors. 
Heifers are usually spayed through the median line, either on the right 
or left side; make an incision large enough to insert the hand. If on the 
left side, 3 r ou go posterior to the rumen; on the right side, 3'ou don't go 
near the rumen. Cows ma3 T be spa3 T ed through the vagina. 

After Treatment in Spaying. — 'Neither the vagina nor the flank re- 
quires anj- particular attention; when in the flank, it is usuaby sewed up 
and the animal turned out, and no further notice taken of her. The 
wound in the vagina requires no further treatment, not even sewing up. 
The sow is operated on through the flank or median line; the3 r are usu- 
ally laid on an inclined plane with the head downward, and operated up- 
on the same as you do on bitches. If 3 r ou operate through the flank, 
either side will do — whichever is the handiest to you. The peculiar^ 
in the bitch is the ova^ lying so far forward. The after treatment does 
not amount to am'thing, except to give soft feed. In bitches we usualty 
take pains to keep clean, and give soft feed. With other animals, it is 
painful for a little time. If the fever should run high, give a little qui- 
nine and iodide potash. As to the right age, the same rule as in colts 
will appl3' — -the 3^ounger the better; there will be less danger of Hernia 
and less feeling. It is difficult to spav a bitch before she is six months 
old. 

Females should not be spa3^ed during. pregnanc3 T or heat: during 
pregnanc3' the shock might cause an abortion, and in heat the blood 
vessels are so enlaged there is danger of great hemorrhage. If possible, 
the spaying should be done before the first heat, then the blood vessels 
never have been enlarged, no congestion. If there should be am- great 
hemorrhage, give them the fl. ext. ergot internally; for a bitch weighing 
about 25 pounds, give 1 dr. and repeat in fifteen minutes if necessar3\ 
Occasionally abscesses will form in the cavitv; this seems more likeh- to 



102 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

occur in cows than in other females. Cows can be operated on through 
the vagina; in doing this you will require a distender (repeller), and then 
insert the knife and cut upwards through the wall, being careful not to 
cut the rectum. 

Caponizing Fowls. — For the same purpose as in other meat-pro- 
ducing animals, they make better meat, grow faster and larger, and their 
meat is far better than that of the ordinary fowl, and the}' bring a better 
price and are much sought for. They are handled to the best advantage 
by laying them on a barrel and tying a brick to the legs and let hang 
down, then another one to the wings — that holds them in position. Lo- 
cate the last rib in the flank; if there are an 3^ feathers there remove them; 
cut down through the costal muscles between the last two ribs, then with 
spreaders part the ribs and hold them apart. When the ribs are parted, 
you will find the ovary close up to the back near the kidney ; you will see 
a small white body usually from yi to ^2 inch in size, this is the testicle; 
catch hold of it with your instrument and twist off, then through the 
same opening go in and get the other one, and take this out the same way. 

The mortality is very small. 

Ridgelings. — Such horses, although the testicles are not in sight, 
are entire males and they can get foals. They are just as aggressive, 
vicious, and in all respects like the ordinary stallion, except the testicles 
being out of sight. Their testicles are usually not so large as in the 
ordinary. We had a bull with but one testicle down, and he was just as 
reliable, and did not have one like himself. Ridgeling stallions are ob- 
jectionable as foal getters, because they are liable to produce ridgeling 
colts, for it is a law in nature that like begets like. It seems that stal- 
lions get more ridgelings than any other animal, or rather some stallions. 
There seems to be a faulty development, and it is a sort of deformity. 
The cause of being a ridgeling seems to be that the testicle is too light to 
descend into the scrotum; they are usually found in the belly near the 
abdominal ring, ma} T be half way through the ring or entirely through, 
or they may not descend at all, and be found near the kidneys. When 
it stops just inside the belly, he is called a true ridgeling; when half way 
through the ring, the animal is called a high flanker, when it is low- 
down in the inguinal canal, he is called a low flanker. Always examine 
to see that the colt has not been castrated before, when you are asked to 
operate on these, as sometimes some castrator may have tried it and did 
not get both out, so if you cannot learn from the owner for certain which 
one was left in, then you will only have to try both sides. Sometimes 
you can locate the side by feeling in the rectum. If it is a stallion with 
only one testicle down, then it is always advisable to operate on the hid- 
den one first. 

Preparation. — I was always led to believe that it was proper to diet 
for twenty-four hours before in the horse; for some reasons it would be 
best on general principles. Some castrators say it is an advantage to 
have the viscera full, as you have to go inside the belly, and when they are 
full they are in their positions and you can find the testicle more readily 
and get it out better, than if he was fasted. In opening up the ridgeling, 
proceed the same as in the ordinary stallions, but you must spread his 
feet and hind legs well apart, flex the hocks, and get well down on the 
hips to have the flank exposed. When you get him tied, then turn on 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 103 

Ms back. Farmer Miles does not care how he has him, but usually lays 
him on his side and makes no fuss over the job, but still he sometimes 
loses some colts. You should study the anatomy of the parts well in the 
dissecting room, for you will never make a good operator till you know 
the parts thoroughly. When you are ready, catch hold of the scrotum 
and pull forward, make your incision downwards and backwards; make 
this incision where you would to castrate the ordinary the colt; good plan 
to have carbolized oil handy, dip your hand in the oil and then worm the 
fingers through the inguinal canal into and through the ring; usually you 
will find a little testicle there, then break down the tissues and draw down 
and use either the ecraseur or the emasculator having the corrugated side 
of the emasculator next the body. This is sometimes better than the 
ecraseur, as you can't always get the testicle clear out, and you can reach 
in with the emasculator. Suppose the testicle is in the belly, you go in the 
ring, and if you don't find it, go through the ring, some will pass 
their finger through the peritoneum; others go through Poupart' s lig- 
ament. Ninety-nine times out of a hundred it will be found on the floor of 
the belly posterior to the ring. You can recognize it by the feel — nothing 
else there feels like it except it might be dung, and you can tell even 
between that. Catch it between the fingers, bring out and remove. If 
you have made an opening push back the cord, which will adhere to the 
lips of the wound, and it will heal all right. 

After Treatment. — Much the same as in the other cases, but be more 
careful, give exercise, and use hot fomentations if there is much swelling; 
of course there is more danger of Peritonitis, as you come in direct con- 
tact with the peritoneum. The preference, I think, in these cases is to 
make fresh opening rather than enlarging the ring, and if you do go 
through the ring, make as small an opening as possible. Following this 
operation, Hernia will sometimes occur in the best of operations, when the 
colt gets up the bowels come out; use same treatment as in the other 
cases. Other than horses are liable to be ridgelings — as the bull, boar, 
etc. Bull and boar are usually castrated through the flank, same as we 
spay the bitch instead of through the inguinal canal; the horse could be 
done the same way, but the peritoneum in the horse seems more liable to 
bad effects than in other animals. We spay all animals but the mare; 
I never saw a case of the mare getting over the operation, while all other 
animals take it very mildly; that is whj^ it is dangerous to castrate the 
ridgeling through the peritoneum. 

Diseases of the LjvER. — These are rare compared to the human, 
and are rare also as compared to diseases of other organs of the lower ani- 
mals, but the liver does become diseased sometimes in a well-marked 
way. When it does occur it is always serious. The phenomena of dis- 
eases of the liver are few, the principal one being the yellowness of the 
visible mucous membrane and white skin; sometimes there is lameness of 
the right fore quarter, all on account of disease of the liver. There are 
sometimes colicky pains, and the liver is sometimes excessively active 
and increases a great deal of bile, which often causes Bile Diarrhoea; this 
is seen b}' the unnatural yellowness of the faeces, and deficienc}^ of bile 
causes a gray f aecal matter and an excess of gray mucous matter. 

Congestion op the Liver. — This is simply an engorgement of the 
glands with blood; it is seen in two forms — Active and Passive. 



104 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Active Congestion. — Is due to overfeeding on stimulating food, 
or on highly concentrated food, and the exciting cause is the want of ex- 
ercise. It is more likely to occur in hot weather than in the cold. In 
this Congestion the hepatic circulation is involved, the hepatic arteries 
and capillaries, but more particularly the arteries. There is simply an 
increased flow of blood. Active Congestion, to a certain extent ', is always 
present during digestion, but this Congestion is harmless. Active Con- 
gestion as a rule is always serious, more so than the Passive. 

Passive Congestion. — Occurs in the portal vein, and is due to 
obstruction of some sort, or a fault}- propelling power. We find that 
with Passive Congestion we frequently have valvular insufficiency of the 
heart; there are other causes also. We get it from Hepatization of the 
Lungs, due to faulty circulation of the blood through the heart. Em- 
physema also tends to produce it; in such a case, there is not the usual 
quantity of blood sent to the lungs, circulation is obstructed, and this 
causes, in a reflex way, Passive Congestion and of the portal system. 
As a result of this we get two kinds of Congestion, and sometimes a 
third, which arises from a form of biliary duct which becomes surcharged 
with biliary matter. These congestions, and we speak of them usually 
together, either or both will cause the third or Biliary, and if they last 
very long we get biliary poisoning of the blood as a result;' also ma}' be 
done by serious Inflammation of the Liver; or Abdominal Ascites may 
result. 

Post- Mortem. — The liver shows an enlarged organ with patches of 
dark streaks showing also brown, and with lighter ones here and there, 
giving to the organ a mottled appearance. This kind of liver corresponds 
to the Nutmeg Liver of the human. The dark patches in this case are 
the enlarged hepatic veins, the lighter ones correspond to the ramifica- 
tions of the portal; the lighter patches where the portal is concerned, the 
liver is anaemic. The passage of the portal vein is obstructed and the 
hepatic enlarged, and being congested produces the dark streaks. The 
brown is probably due to pressure, or may be due to fat cells in the cell 
structure — fat in the hepatic lobula. The pressure, other than the fat, 
is on account of the increase in the interlobular connective tissue. 

Etiology. — The most common cause is previous pulmonary or car- 
diac diseases; sudden chills from exposure to storms while in a heated 
condition will often cause severe chill, which will result in Congestion of 
the Liver. An animal suffering from Influenza often has Congestion of 
the Liver, that is probably due to weak circulation during Influenza. In 
Influenz'a we see the yellow color spoken of. Errors in diet, particularly 
over- feeding, and particularly in hot weather; faulty digestion is often 
the cause or accompanies it; sudden overexertion especially in hot 
weather when not in a condition to accept such, and also strong exercise 
after eating. 

Semeiology. — The symptoms are not very diagnostic, as main- of 
them are common to other diseases. The most prominent feature is dull- 
ness, listlessness, languor — this is liable to be the case in over-fat animals, 
as the result of Congestion of the Liver. In sudden severe attacks there 
will be colicky pains, not severe but quite well-marked; will look around to 
his right side instead of to his left ; pressure over the region of the liver 
will cause pain. After this has been running on about twenty-four hours, 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 105 

the yellow color of the mucous membrane will be noticed, urine will be 
brown, feces gray in the course of three or four days, and very offen- 
sive in smell. If this condition is continued three or four days the animal 
will grind his teeth, his mouth is soap}- to the feel, and offensive smell; 
he licks the wall as though hungry for lime salts, has an unnatural 
appetite, seems to want alkalies and will eat clay; this is especially so where 
the}- are kept long on hay or grain. In severe cases there will be lameness 
of the shoulder; sometimes it is associated with Influenza, possibly with 
some other infectuous disease, as Purpura Hemorrhagica and Valvular Dis- 
ease of the Heart. Sometimes the appetite is completely lost, but usually 
is not interfered with very much. Usually it runs a benign course, and 
may only exist for a number of hours; but sometimes you get rupture of 
the capsules, which will result in a fatal hemorrhage. 

Treatment. — Considering that the whole trouble is hypersemic in 
Active Congestion, blood letting would be the most sensible treatment, 
and would be indicated; but if it is Passive Congestion and due to ob- 
struction of the portal vein, it would do no good to bleed. But we don't 
bleed now even when good, but instead give a purgative, as magnesia y± 
pound. In case of Passive Congestion there can't be very much done for 
it, because you cannot remove the cause; but if it is caused by lung 
trouble, try to remove that; if valvular of the heart, treat with stimulants 
— as digitalis. But the trouble is, that Passive Congestion is not known 
to us, or we are not called until Ascites has taken place, and then there 
is an anaemic condition of the system. Iron is indicated; digitalis for the 
heart, and good diet. The great trouble is that Passive Congestion has 
become chronic before it is brought to our attention. In case of Active 
Congestion, reduce his feed and increase his work, thereby reducing the 
cause. In addition to the purgative, if you think it necessary, give a diu- 
retic, and after either one of the Congestions produces the third give 
mineral acids internally after the purgative — either hydrochloric and 
nitric mixed, or sulphuric acid; I prefer the sulphuric. In this kind of 
case their appetite is weak; we usually give acid tonic as — tinct. gentian 
4 ozs. sulphuric acid 1 dr., aqua ad. to make one pint. Dose, 1 oz. three 
times a da}-, that is a dose for a driver about 1000 lbs. ; to a horse that 
weighs more, you can give 2 ozs. This trouble is seen more in the draft 
and heavy horse than in the driver. 

Hepatitis. — Inflammation of the Diver. This occurs in two forms 
— Acute and Chronic. In some cases it locates itself in the capsule, 
having extended to it from some adjacent tissue. We find it in severe 
cases of Pleurisy, especially the Pleurisy that occurs as a complication in 
Influenza; it may also extend to it from Peritonitis. In most we find 
the capsule is immensely thickened, indurated, and enlarged, and 
evidences of extensive proliferation. In other cases the intimate gland 
structure suffers; in others, only the framework of the fibrous tissue is 
involved. Inflammation of the Liver can't be very well diagnosed during 
life, because it usually exists with some other complication, and some- 
times abscesses form from this trouble. This inflammation of the liver 
is common in cattle, and the abscesses that often form vary in size from 
a walnut to turkey egg, particularly in old cows, and there may be from 
one to a dozen. The liver in old cows is invariably affected in some way. 

Treatment — Can only be applied on general principles; if young and 



106 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

strong, bleed; if old and weak, give stimulants and rational treatment. 

Chronic Hepatitis. — There are two kinds — Cirrhosis or Harden- 
ing and Fatty Degeneration, or softening; accompanying fatty is rupture, 
and usually fatal termination. Cirrhosis you can have in any gland; it 
means simply a hardening of the bod}' as a result of the chronic inflam- 
mation. This is more common in the horse than acute, and there are 
man}- complications; as a result, there is a distinct granular condition of 
the tumef active structures, and great increase of fibrous tissue in the 
covering and sheaths of the organ. 

Post-Mortem. — Feels hard and solid. There is a condensing inflam- 
mation of the fibrous structures; the edges are very much thickened, the 
fibres in the organ are increased and indurated, the hepatic lobula suffer 
from pressure; the portal vein is anaemic; surface of the liver is apt to be 
covered with little nodula; the obstructed portal vein prevents free exit 
of the blood from the abdominal viscera. The bowels and mesenteric 
suffer most, and, as a result, get Abdominal Dropsy and Ascites; in a 
bad case the organ will be covered with brown spots. 

Etiology. — Usually find in horses that have been starved to death, 
hard worked on scanty feed, great exposure suffered, mostly seen in old 
animals. It is looked upon as due to faulty nutrition of the system. 

Semeiology. — There may be Ascites; horse may be pot-bellied, 
yellow mucous membrane, and anaemia or pallor, sometimes stupor; often 
mouth has a sour smell and soapy, long starring coat, oftentimes tender 
on pressure over the liver. 

Treatment. — If it can be diagnosed early, remove the cause; often 
irregularity of the teeth will be a cause. If from lack of nutrition, give 
iron, mix vomica or gentian; if constipated, give sulphate soda in small 
doses, and improve the hygiene. Potassium bitartrate (cream tartar) 2 
or 3 drachms to the dose, is good to remove the biliary congestion. The 
horse or animal may die, in Inflammation of the Liver, from Septicaemia 
also. Bring the feeding down to that of the ordinary animal, increase 
his exercise, reduce any artificial heat, give coarser and less of the nitrog- 
enous food. In the sheep we find the cause generally just the opposite 
of that in the horse — they do not get enough nitrogenous food, and the 
liver develops a Fatty Degeneration, and so the treatment should be just 
the opposite of that prescribed for the horse. Give nitrogenous food, as 
bean-meal, y 2 pint once a day, with plenty of other food. 

Occasionally we run onto two other kinds of inflammation — Amyloid 
and L,ARDACEot T s. The causes are obscure, and they are seldom seen in 
the horse or any of the lower animals, though the Amyloid is sometimes 
seen in the horse; it is harder than the Fatty, and softer than the 
Cirrhosis; it resembles wax, but is a result of any of those degenerations, 
but more probably of the Cirrhosis. We get a general wasting of the 
body, Marasmus, collapse and death; while in the Fatty Degeneration 
they get fat, as in sheep; they may appear in the best of health a week 
before they show the effect of this. The horse gets yellowness of the 
mucous membrane, and if they die it is generally from hemorrhage. 
Dogs eating too much meat without exercise become affected; they must 
have exercise; it tends to the elimination of the nitrogenous through the 
production of urea. 

Jaundice. — Sometimes called Yellows. This is a name given to a 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 107 

yellowness of the whole system, due to one of two conditions: First, is 
non-secretion or suppression of bile, non- elimination. Second, re-absorb- 
tion of the bile, taken back into the organ, and is poisonous. In the 
urine in these cases there are two acids — taurocholic and glycocholic 
acids, tested for in the urine in the following way: Take 1 dr. of the 
urine in test tube, and add a little cane sugar, very little, then pour 1 dr. 
sulphuric acid into the tube, slanting the tube and. pouring in very 
slowly to allow the acid to run to the bottom. If biliary acids are 
present in the urine, a deep, purple band will develop between the acid 
and the urine; if none are present, a brown band will form instead of the 
purple tint. The presence of the bile acids in the urine is a positive 
proof of re-absorption of the bile. Incase of suppression there will be 
no acids. If there is obstruction there will be bile in the acids. In both 
cases you get blood poisoning and death. The suppression or non- 
elimination is due to the following causes: Enervation, this is probably 
the cause of most of it in the human; often seen in connection with other 
diseases. Disordered hepatic circulation; if this is interfered with, the 
secretion of bile will, of course, be interfered with. Then the absence of 
secreting substances, as seen in Atrophy, seen in interruption of the 
hepatic artery; also destruction of the liver as a secreting gland, or 
Tuberculosis, . and several other degenerations. Then Jaundice from 
re-absorption is due to the following causes: Biliary Calculi, most com- 
mon, and quite so in the human, not so much so in the lower animals, 
and is most prevalent among high livers. Second, inflammatory tume- 
faction of the duodenum, or lining of the duct that empties into it. The 
flow of bile is easily obstructed, and when it begins to stop, like the 
blood, it becomes thicker, so these calculi are generally accumulations of 
inspissated bile. Third, stricture or obliteration of the duct. Fourth, 
by tumors cutting in the duct, or at its mouth. Fifth, by pressure on 
the duct from without. Sixth, parasites — as Strongylus Armatus are 
often found. 

Semeiology. — General yellowness of all the parts, urine of a red- 
dish yellow, natural temperature, faecal matter in the course of three or 
four days becomes gray, and continuing such passage we get either 
Diarrhoea or Constipation — more likely to get Constipation in these cases. 
In this urine you will see in the glass all the colors of the rainbow, if 
held to the light; mouth has a pasty, soapy feel, sour smell, sometimes 
loss of appetite; other times will not be. Where there is no fever the 
appetite usually remains good. Some people think this is so sure a sign 
that they need not take their temperature, but we know this is not so 
sure a thing. Oftentimes for three or four days there will be no derange- 
ment, but the animal is languid. When it has reached its height, in 
three or four days, they get a dry itching of the skin, which becomes 
scaly and glistening, and the more it is scratched the more it itches. In 
some cases there is lameness in the right shoulder; if not relieved, death 
follows from blood poisoning in a rather indefinite time — depends on the 
severit)' of the cause. If the liver does not secrete bile at all, it would 
not be very long until the animal would die. 

Treatment. — Ascertain first if Jaundice is due to non-secretion or 
obstruction and re-absorption. If due to re- absorption, give oleaginous 
laxatives; they work mechanically, without stimulating the liver, and by 



I08 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

moving the bowels freely, have a tendency to carry off the obstruction. 
If it is due to non-secretion, stimulate the liver by giving saline laxatives; 
give a cholagogue — give aloes, calomel, podophyllin, sodium sulph., 
rhubarb, magnesium. We consider in moderate case best to give T J pint 
oil and }{> dr. calomel; follow up with 4 ozs. sulphate soda in water, night 
and morning, for three or four daj^s. If there is an over-secretion of 
bile it can often be regulated by tincture of iron internally, and quinine, 
in all cases rather liberally. Keep the animal quiet, give proper diet — 
if fat, give laxatives and coarser food; if thin and weak, give nutritious 
food. If Diarrhoea is present, give anti-acids to sweeten the bowels — as 
lime water, bicarbonate soda, prepared chalk, etc. Following the use of 
cholagogues, if they don't act properly, } t ou can stimulate by hydrochloric 
and sulph. acid diluted properly — they are powerful, and care must be 
used. Ox-gall is an old-fashioned remedy, and a good one. Arom. 
spts. of ammonia is best stimulant to prevent nervous prostration. 

Gall Stones — Are very peculiar; they usually begin to form by 
partial obstruction of the bile. They are accumulations of inspissated 
bile, and are most often found in cattle; also in sheep, but not found in 
the horse. 

Cachexia Aquosa, or Water Cachexia of the sheep. — Due to 
the interference of the liver by the Diver Flukes, known as Fasciola 
Hepatica — Rot. We find that sheep having this were fattened on low, damp 
ground, almost wholly due to the lack of drainage; they usually get pot- 
bellied from Ascites, the liver swells and interferes with the portal circu- 
lation, Diarrhoea in the last stages, and dropsical swelling on the outside 
of the belly, or in the submaxillary space; difficulty in getting up when 
they lie down, wool gets dry and crisp and falls out. 

Treatment — Should be prophylactic. Nothing can be given to 
destroy the Flukes that would not kill the sheep as well, so the only 
thing to do is to remove the sheep to higher ground. If that can't be 
done, then drain the low-land well. Chemicals and lime, salt and carbolic 
acid have been tried, but drainage did the only good. 

Pancreas and Spleen. — Only have to say to deny the assertion of 
some authors calling Dymphadenoma of the spleen; this means a Tumor 
growing in a lymphatic gland, and the spleen is not a lymphatic gland; 
as described, it is a series of, or a lot of fibrous Tumors due to Chronic 
Inflammation. In addition to this we find the spleen is liable to main- 
diseases — as Atrophy, Hypertrophy-, Thrombosis, Cancer, Hydatides, 
Dymphadenoma, etc., also Ossification, Congestion, and Inflammation. 
Any or all these may form in almost any animal. Causes are obscure; 
the draft stallion seems most liable to it; I think it is due to long over- 
feeding. The use of the spleen is not known. It is a reservoir for blood, 
but if it is destroyed or badly affected the animal wont live long; and a 
stallion will get so he will not notice a mare. The spleen is also liable to 
Tuberculosis, Melanosis, and Chronic Inflammation, but they can't be 
diagnosed during life, or any of the other diseases, so treat on general 
principles — as stimulants, and out-door exercise. 

Pancreas. — Is still more obscure. Its function is to secrete pan- 
creatic juice; seems to digest fats, but the dog suffers from affections of it, 
and where there is an absence of the pancreatic juice he will pass 1111- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 109 

digested bits of fat that were eaten, and there will be found sugar in the 
urine; this trouble in the dog often follows long feeding on liver. 

DISEASES OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (HEART AND BEOOD VESSELS).. 

Disease of the Heart. — Is not common in the horse, but when it 
occurs it is very serious; this is so in the human as well as in the lower an- 
imals, and usually terminates fatally. When it comes it is always sud- 
den; chronic may linger a long time, but when death comes it is sud- 
den. 

We examine for heart disease in three ways, much as in lung troubles — 
Inspection, Palpation, and Oscultation. By inspection we detect any 
change in the position, and the force of the beat can be often detected — 
you can see it in the jugular; and as to the character and rhythm, you 
get that by palpation to see if regular. The observation we get by 
oscultation is for sound; there -is a characteristic sound when normal, 
that there may not be in disease. The phenomena of heart diseases are 
as follows: Languor, though not specific; Lassitude, impeded respiration 
during action or existence of disease; this often amounts to actual dis- 
tressing Dyspnoea, as seen in most cases of heart disease during exercise. 
Unless you are posted on pathology you might easily mistake this for 
troubles of the lungs, when they are impaired with disease; there is Con- 
gestion in them. But the cause looked on as existing only in the heart, 
is defective cardiac power; this causes Passive Congestion of the lungs. 
These cases of chronic heart troubles caused by exercise are often per- 
fectly well only when taking exercise. 

Diseases of the heart are divided into two classes — Functional and 
Organic. The organic is sometimes known as structural. Functional 
diseases of the heart are three in number — Palpitation, Cyanosis, and Syn- 
cope. Palpitation of the Heart is tumultuous action, due to the follow- 
ing causes: disturbance of the rhythmical action of the heart by any disease 
or trouble that upsets the equilibrium of the sympathetic nerve system; 
diseases of the lungs; changes in the quality and quantity of blood — seen 
when animals suffer from anaemia, which is a typical illustration. Influ- 
ences causing Palpitation through the nerves are divided into three classes 
— Intrinsic, Centric, and Reflex. Hard work often brings it on, and 
especially on a hot day. Thumps is a tumultuous action, seen when caused 
by exertion and the animal is exhausted — that taxes the heart more than 
any other thing; this is often produced by too much exercise, especially 
when the animal is not fit to take it. 

Semeiology. — Increased force and frequency of the action of the 
heart; sometimes this is regular in this disturbance, but usually it is ir- 
regular, sometimes intermittent, and the beats sometimes come piling in 
on each other so fast that you cannot count them, then the}- drop below 
the normal number. Heart troubles are often caused by Indigestion. 
Ma}- get all the different irregularities of the beat in the course of two 
minutes; it may be continuous or paroxysmal; there is no actual pain, but 
there is distress, so you can see, anxiety depicted on the countenance, 
and the horse will stand, he can't lie down. Respiration will be mate- 
rially increased; at this time you can see regurgitation of the blood in the 
jugular, and the beat may be so strong as to shake the whole body. 

Treatment. — Therapeutical treatment would depend largely on the 



IIO THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

cause, but there are a few general principles that must be observed in all 
cases — perfect quiet; if it comes from organic Disease of the Heart, 
strong stimulants are indicated — as alcoholic spirits, whisky, digitalis 
(which is the most important of all), and nitro-glycerine is often resorted 
to when the others fail. Tincture of cactus — cactus grande flores, is 
good in human where it is due to Indigestion. If the Palpitation is due 
to disturbance in any other organ, the Palpitation in that case would be 
reflex, so you treat the organ. In case of debility, anaemia, treat the 
blood. In case of Plethora and too fat, give purgative, reduce feed, and 
give more exercise. In the case of trotters or livery horses, usually it 
is only temporary, and usual^ a sign of nervous weakness. For Thumps, 
in addition to the quiet and stimulants, something should be given to 
quiet the excited condition of the heart — it must be alla3 r ed; aconite is 
the best thing in moderate doses, it allays without depressing the heart, 
and a little whisky with it is good, usually five to seven drops of the ex- 
tract, and about ten of the tincture. Whisky should be given one-half 
pint first dose, then if necessary to repeat, 2 ozs. every fifteen minutes 
till relieved. After the attack is over then. treat the cause. If suffering 
from nervous exhaustion, give tonics — as digitalis, etc. Powdered dig- 
italis and solid ext. belladonna are prescribed, 20 grs. each, night and morn- 
ing. If the blood is faulty give iron; ahorse is liable to organic disease 
if worked too hard under any heart disturbance, or the heart being weak. 

Cyanosis or Beue Disease.— This occurs only in little animals and 
is seen after birth, due to faulty neglect of nature in not closing the 
openings — Foramen ovale or the ductus arteriosa, which allow the venous 
blood to mix with the arterial blood; this is often seen in babies, and 
they sometimes recover, due to the nursing they get; but young animals 
seldom do, and if they did they would grow up weak and delicate. It is 
recognized by the mucous surface being blue, and a lack of normal heat 
in the body; temperature is low. If babies can be kept alive for. eight or 
ten days they will get well. 

Syncope. — Is fainting; when applied to the heart, means a fainting 
fit. Syncope may be fatal simply by fainting when in a severe form by 
the heart losing its irritability. Dependent entirely upon the failure of 
the heart action, followed by lack of blood to the nerve centers — as lack 
of blood supply to the brain. 

Etiology. — As seen in the human, is from uterine hemorrhage, that 
is a common cause. Rapid bleeding from the jugular produces it; rapid 
accidental hemorrhage, also introducing air into the circulation; in that 
case it is very variable. That which can cause death might not cause Syn- 
cope. In Syncope in the human, they generally drop in a heap, may be 
from crowding, lack of air, etc. You should be able to tell the differ- 
ence between it and apoplexy; Apoplexy is caused by Congestion of the 
Brain, usually a rupture of a blood vessel there; can be told by the pur- 
ple appearance; in this case elevate the head and loosen the neck clothing; 
usually fatal, if from a rupture: good to put ice on the head also. Syn- 
cope is recognized by the extreme pallor; in this there is anaemia, give 
plenty of fresh air, loosen the clothing, particularly if it is a woman, 
lay on the floor with the head down. The shock of dashing cold water 
on the face is often good; let the person inhale aqua ammonia, but be care- 
ful in using; if they can swallow give whisky or brandy, hypodermic in- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AXD SURGERY. Ill 

jections of alcoholic stimulants, friction to bocty, and mustard plasters 
on soles of feet are indicated. 

Acute Inflammatory Diseases. — These are three in number — 
first, is Pericarditis, inflammation of the pericardium, the serous sack 
containing the heart. This runs through about the same course as Acute 
Pleurisy, and terminates the same way — with serous effusion — into the 
pericardium, constituting the Hj'dropericardia, the same as Hydrothorax. 

Etiology. — The most common cause is blood contamination — maj^ be 
stated as the one cause. Diseases that usually exist as complications, are 
Influenza, Strangles, Purpura Hemorrhagica, Pysemia, Septicaemia, etc., 
also Rheumatism, and probably the most common of all is Rheumatic 
Fever. But we notice the inflammation extends to the pericardium from 
inflamed surrounding tissues, as the lungs in Pneumonia, and Pleura in 
Pleurisy. But I think the}- would not cause it if the blood was not in a 
poisonous condition; but the ordinary sporadic diseases would not extend 
to the pericardium. Cancerous growths sometimes locate there, by 
broken ribs or foreign bodies accidentally piercing it. 

Semeiology. — When arising, as it ordinarily does, from some pre- 
viously existing fever, the original disease will be the most prominent, 
with considerable constitutional trouble, with the complication of Per- 
icarditis coming with it. As the Pericarditis develops 3 T ou notice the 
heart gets weaker, irregular in rh}'thm and in strength, and occasionally 
so weak as to interfere with it and cause distressing Dj^spncea, as seen 
in Influenza and Rheumatic Fever; without any disease of the lungs but 
the Passive Congestion that comes with it, is not recognized. If the Per- 
icarditis is not severe, and if inflammation doesn't involve the whole of 
the pericardium, the effusion and effect will be small. It will run 
through the same course as Pleurisy: first, engorgement; second, inflam- 
matory; third, effusion. It never arises from simple exposure. In case 
of extensive effusion, the effusion often coagulates so that it is often 
found coating the heart inside the pericardium, from one-fourth to one- 
half inch thick, and this- causes the muscles of the heart to soften and 
weaken: the pulse gets weak, small and fluttering, and there is always 
considerable fever, say about one-hundred and four; with this weak 
pulse there is a Dyspnoea that increases as the watery effusion increases 
into the sack. This Dyspnoea is due entirely to faulty thoracic circula- 
tion. In consequence of the altered circulation and the Passive Conges- 
tion there is more or less exudation, and the lungs become sufficiently 
involved as to get a considerable cough connected with it. There is weak 
cardiac power, and consequently Passive Congestion of the lungs, effu- 
sion and disturbances of the nervous system, and with the increasing 
weakness of the heart there is coldness of the extremities, oedemic en- 
largements, loss of strength, and final collapse and death. Even where 
the trouble is moderately severe and the effusion is absorbed, it leaves a 
chronic lesion and affects the horse afterwards. We find it often forms 
an ante-mortem clot, especially if it goes to the posterior aorta, and es- 
pecially in the iliac bifurcation, and may shut off the blood from the iliac 
artery. This clot sometimes causes sudden death. 

Treatment. — If the condition of the animal is induced by prirnar}- 
lesion, (but it usually comes as a secondary lesion), and if with Influenza, 
you must deplete him; but if with Strangles, to deplete him would hasten 



112 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

his death, so you must treat according to indications. But if it can be 
diagnosed in the first stage, depletion is indicated; you may give diuret- 
ics and quinine. Then after the first stage is passed, stimulants are in- 
dicated, milder at first but increasing as the development of the weakness 
goes on. If you let the heart get weak, the effusion will be greater, so 
always keep up the heart strength with anything. Good nursing, and 
by one who can take the pulse, is essential and horse may recover. The 
heart in this condition is very susceptible, so you cannot use digitalis in 
mixture, but must be given once every three hours alone, as the case re- 
quires. As the heart increases in strength it diminishes in frequency, 
and with digitalis it will increase in frequency, especially if the digitalis 
is carried to extremes. If Pericarditis can be diagnosed, counter-irritants 
to the left chest, or hot fomentations are good; heat is particularly indi- 
cated, for it seems to partake of the nature of Rheumatism, and heat 
allays that pain, while cold aggravates it. In the third stage, canthari- 
des as vesicant can be applied to the side. Give iron and stimulants to 
maintain a strong heart; salol and quinine or salol and tenacitine. The 
salol is usually given in dram doses evey three to six hours; acetanilide 
may be given with it — it may be passed back into the mouth and the 
horse will chew and swallow it. May give iron internally along with the 
potassium salts; digitalis, whisky and quinine may be used to good effect, 
but salol is the best drug of them all; it is antiseptic and does not depress 
the heart. But unfortunately, in spite of all you may do, the animal 
dies. Autopsy shows serum in the pericardium sack, and accumulations 
around the heart. 

Endocarditis. — This is inflammation of the endocardiac lining of 
the heart and the lining of the cavities of the heart, and associated with 
it usually is Valvulitis, or inflammation of the valves, that would 
naturally follow. They are very seldom seen except as the result of 
Septicaemia, or septic of any kind is liable to produce Endocarditis; and 
as the lining membrane is probably the most delicate ands ensitive mem- 
brane in the body, it would be easily affected with poisonous blood. 

Symptoms. — Are the same as in Pericarditis; heart loses its strength, 
nutters more and more, apt to be spasmodic and irregular; Dyspnoea very 
great, regurgitation seen in the jugular. 

Treatment. — Depends on the septic condition found more than to the 
heart trouble, and if you can purify the blood the heart may recover. 
Blood letting is contra-indicated. Give antiseptics— as salol, hyposul- 
hate soda, bicarbonate potash or soda, etc. If in case of recovery their 
condition will admit of it, give iodide of potash; see to the hygiene — good 
nourishing food, warm quarters. This disease is also usually fatal. In 
the autopsy there are black patches on the lining of the heart, and may 1>e 
from the size of a pin-head up to £he size of your hand ; these patches 
may extend over the valve and around it. 

Myocarditis. — Spoken of as Carditis; this is inflammation of the 
muscular structure of the heart. This disease is also due to Pyajmia and 
Septicaemia, sometimes can be traced to foreign bodies, especially in cattle 
— often things are swallowed and pass through the walls of the stomach 
and the walls ®f the heart; often from Strangles, in the horse. It usually 
terminates fatally, and sometimes in autopsy there is found three or four 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 113 

abscesses in different parts of the body. In cattle we find it in Tuber- 
culosis and Actinomycosis. 

CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE HEART. 

Hypertrophy. — Means enlargement; may indicate new growth. 
As applied to the heart, always means enlargement of the organ; this 
occurs by the thickening of the walls with or without dilatation of the 
caYities. This unnatural deYelopment may be general or local over one 
ventricle or OYer both, or only a part of one. It often alters the shape of 
the heart; may haYe a round appearance. The left Yentricle is the most 
liable to this deYelopment, probably due to the greater amount of work it 
has to do. We notice that sometimes this enlargement is by new cell 
growth; the caYities becoming enlarged, the heart is enlarged very much, 
but without increasing the thickness of the walls, or may be possibly thin- 
ner; they usually remain the same, when this is the case it is known as 
Simple Dilatation. On the other hand, we have immense thickening of the 
walls without dilatation, then it is known as Simple Hypertrophy; but in 
draft horses we find thickening of the walls and dilatation of the cavities 
come together; that is, the}' seem to keep pace with each other, then it is 
known as Eccentric Hypertrophy, and is seen chiefly in trotters. The 
horse may maintain his health on account of the two changes keeping 
pace with each other. When the walls thicken, as in the Simple Dilata- 
tion, there is less blood in the bod}- than in either of the other two cases. 
Occasionally we find that the increase in the thickness of the walls 
of the heart is so great and so quick as to encroach on the cavities; it is 
then known as Concentric Hypertrophy, and in it there is a diminution 
in the quantity of blood in the bod}-. This kind is rare in the lower ani- 
mals, and ma}- say Heart Disease is rare in them. 

Etiology. — Is usually long-continued, severe exertion; dilatation of 
the cavities without thickening of the walls is liable to occur in or with 
valvular weakness of the heart. The way that occurs, in systole action 
the blood is not all pumped out, then diastole follows, the blcod rushes 
into the ventricle; there being an increased quantity of blood there, the 
ventricle gets dilated; as also where there is valvular weakness there may 
be regurgitation of the blood back into the ventricle, and the dilatation oc- 
curs same as in the last case. Mild inflammation is liable to produce Simple 
Dilatation, or Simple Hypertrophy, or Eccentric Hypertrophy, but the 
Concentric is early, long-continued exertion; in this trouble the horse 
usually dies from some other disease than this. In Post-Mortem you will 
find the heart changed — usually the left ventricle is the most enlarged. 

Semeiology. — Pulse full and strong; in these cases, except in the 
Simple Dilatation, when it is more or less weak, you will find by osculta- 
tion that the sounds are muffled, pulse runs on from slow, steady to irreg- 
ular, intermittent, weak, and as that increases Dyspnoea gets worse, 
also the coldness increases. Character of the pulse will indicate the con- 
dition of the heart. 

Treatment. — Search for causes of trouble and lessen their effects. 
Keep animal from excitement. Digitalis, iodide of potassium, and in cer- 
tain cases caffein, and in circulatory troubles stimulants are indicated. 

Atrophy of the Heart. — Means a contracting or wasting of the 
muscular substances of the heart; it grows smaller and harder, the hard- 



114 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

erring being so extensive sometimes as to amount almost to calcification. 
The chief feature of it is weakness of the pulse; in the horse you could 
not take the pulse at the jaw; as a result of this extra weakness, changes 
are apt to take place in any part of the body. 

Fatty Degeneration. — Is transformation in the heart; there are 
two kinds, or rather two ways. First, Fatty Infiltration, that is de- 
posits of fat between the fibres of the heart. Second, Fatty Transforma- 
tion; the muscular cells become transformed into fat cells; as a result of 
this kind of change the heart becomes very weak, the muscular fibres 
become nabb}^. 

Post-Mortem. — Shows the heart is usualty larger, the muscular fibres 
softened and pale and easily punctured; the muscular cells often retain 
their nuclei even after the change to fat cells. 

Obesity of the Heart. — Is a fatty condition of the heart, or an 
immense deposition of fat around it, more than the normal amount. The 
result of this is a weak heart, shortness of breath, which runs onto Dysp- 
noea; the animal ma}' be all right when standing still, but on exercise 
the trouble shows. 

Polypus or Tumor of the Heart. — Develops on the inside of the 
heart or on the outside; they are more likely to take the form of Polypus 
on the inside. They are usually found to be composed of organized 
lymph, perhaps floated there from some other part of the body, and be- 
come attached to the base of the heart, rather the base of the valve; some- 
times it is a regular fibrous growth — is seen following the inflammation. 
They are more often found on the lining of the auricle than on the ven- 
tricle, due to the difference in the action of them. They are usually 
polypoid in form, vascular, and when attached to the base of the valve 
often extend through the opening of the valve, interfering with the circu- 
lation, and often cause Thrombus. These often float through the large 
vessels and lodge in the brain, where they produce coma and finally 
death. When this lymph forms a Tumor around the valve, it can be dis- 
tinctly heard, by auscultation, as a rasping sound. Vascular Tumors 
are often found on the outside — these are usually on the apex. 

Ruptures. — May occur from sudden and violent exertion, or falls, 
collisions, etc., and generally the heart is predisposed by some of the 
other troubles mentioned; the heart substance becomes weak and the 
rupture generally occurs in the left ventricle, still it may occur in the 
auricles; jumping often causes it. 

Valvular Diseases of the Heart, or Valvulitis. — There are 
two kinds — Valvular Obstruction and Valvular Insufficiency. These are 
very common in heart diseases of the human, and not uncommon in the 
horse. It is chronic inflammation of the valves. The Valvular Obstruc- 
tion produces a thickening and corrugation of the basis of the valve, so 
great as to obstruct the flow of blood through the opening, very ma- 
terially. Valvular Insufficiency is where the effect of the inflammation 
seems to be to contract the base of the valve, thereby drawing the fibrous 
tendons of the valve downward, tensing them, this leaves the opening 
insufficiently guarded, and as a result of that after ventricle systole (lur- 
ing the following diastole, the blood regurgitates from the aorta back 
into the heart. As a result of either of these, but especially the latter, 
we get a weak circulation, and the pulse is very apt to be irregular and 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 115 

uneven and small. The vital parts of the body suffer from innutrition, 
and soon or later there is a wasting of the body. The two conditions 
may exist in different valves at the same time, or you may find one valve 
affected in one way, or on one side with one, and the other side the other 
way. In Valvular Insufficiency the D}-spnoea is well marked on exercise; 
the Palpitation is more frequent, and the jugular pulse is often seen. 
There are often enlargements on different parts of the bod}- and legs; 
oedemic condition under the belly, Ascites, Hydrothorax, etc. ; these may 
occur in any weakness of the heart. Passive Congestion of the lungs 
often takes place, and to such an extent as to run on to exudation, Dysp- 
noea and coughing; or hemorrhage from slight wounds. Vertigo or 
Apoplexy is liable to take place from ante-mortem clot; these are more 
likely to form in the horizontal arteries in the horse, in the posterior aorta 
rnidwa}- between the diaphragm and the iliac bifurcation, but are liable 
to be in an}- of the arteries. These ante-mortem clots are of a grayish 
white color, and when old are quite firm and hard, when first taken out 
the}- feel hard as a liver. As a result of this weak circulation there is a 
paleness of the mucous membranes. 

Treatment. — As a rule can only palliate the trouble — can't be diag- 
nosed during life; must treat according to the conditions. It will prove 
fatal; will die of Asthenia; but there are symptoms of approaching death 
or predisposition to fatal termination, but the time is indefinite. The 
real causes are incurable except it be in the case of obesity; you must treat 
the symptoms, and may ward off the time by stimulants that apply di- 
rectly to the heart — as digitalis, nux vomica, iron, mineral acids. The 
true nature of this disease can only be known by autopsy. 

Ectopia Cardis. — Is a congenital displacement of the heart; may 
be found on the right side, or other place, or even outside of the thorax 
and in the abdominal cavity, and yet not interfere with the health of the 
animal; but it usually interferes with the circulation, and they don't live 
long. This may be seen in still-born animals sometimes. 

Arteritis. — Is inflammation of the walls of the arteries, and is 
often followed by Aneurism. It often occurs by wounds or by pressure, as 
in cows; the iliac is injured in parturition by the use of instruments, and 
often caused by parasites, as the Strong3 T lus Armatus, which are often 
found right under the coat of the artery, and set up more or less inflam- 
mation and obstruction. Death usuall}- follows an attack of Arteritis. 
Death is inevitable when the cause is parasites. Often seen in the mes- 
enteric and colic arteries. 

Treatment. — Apply cold to the parts, if possible; if not practicable, 
as in the arteries named, treat on general principles — give quinine, ace- 
tanilide, belladonna. 

Aneurism. — As a result of the first, is apt to cause stricture and get 
an increase of the substance of the walls of the artery by proliferation, 
thereby diminishing the caliber of the artery. When it occurs on the 
inside it obstructs the blood and there is pressure and dilatation. If there 
is complete stoppage, it is not Aneurism, but only where there is a partial 
stoppage, and this occurs most often in the abdominal cavity or region in 
the posterior and iliac arteries. The indication which leads us to suspect 
Aneurism is a peculiar lameness that subsides 011 rest, and only shows 
during exercise; he may get suddenly lame and sweat, and ma)- get so 



Il6 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

bad will refuse to move at all — Passive Congestion has taken place, due 
to Thrombus, and causes the pain. If you then examine, per rectum, 
you may find the pultating Tumor. Sometimes may not cause any 
trouble till there is a rupture, then it will be- fatal. 

Treatment. — If you can get at it, try to reduce the pressure by 
truss; if not, then ligate above or anterior to the point of stoppage; but 
on an important artery you can't do that. 

Phlebitis. — Inflammation of a vein; there are two forms, Traumatic, 
which comes from a wound, and Idiopathic, which is the most common 
form in man, but not in horses; may be seen in parturition fever; in that 
case it is due to lymph getting into the vein and plugging it. 

Semeiology. — If it be in the jugular, say from bleeding, suppose from 
unclean instruments; in the course of a few hours after the operation, the 
wound swells, also the vein, gets painful and hot, the neck gets stiff, 
edges of the wound turn out like a cauliflower or mushroom, due to the 
granulation. The Thrombus forms around the opening, enlarges quite 
rapidly till the vein is plugged; then all the blood in the vein coagulates 
to the heart, sloughing around the wound occurs, ulceration, the clot some- 
times breaks down and leaves an opening in the upper part of the vein, 
and there will be a liberal hemorrhage which if not noticed soon will prove 
fatal. The animal is inclined to hang his head. 

Treatment. — Elevate the head and keep it up — suspend it in some 
way. Treat antiseptically, generally strong at first, then milder. Some- 
times the vein becomes this way on account of a pin being run through 
in operating; remove if so, and if the blood lies between the vein and 
the skin, cut down and expose the vein and remove the blood. Some- 
times it runs on to suppuration, and if resolution does not take 
place in four or five days the vein becomes obliterated and remains 
as a rope-like enlargement; should watch out for this in examining 
for soundness. Horses with obliterated veins do not suffer much ex- 
cept when turned out to pasture; hangs his head for a long time, and the 
veins on the other side swell, and the head swells. 

Varicose Veins. — L This is a disturbance of a vein; the only instances 
we ever see it in is in the saphena major, from pressure by Bone Spavin; 
horsemen call it Blood Spavin. Varicosity would of course occur below 
the pressure. It is idiopathic in its nature; the causes are not well 
known. 

Treatment. — Pressure is about the only treatment; in the human 
they use the elastic stocking and elastic bands. In case of Bone Spavin 
you will find the saphena major will be enlarged, so in firing you must 
be careful not to press your iron too heavy when over it. 

DISEASES OF THE URINARY SYSTEM. 

The Kidneys. — The chief office of these organs is the secretion of 
urea — removal of the surplus water in the body and the surplus nitrogen, in 
the form of urea. The kidneys are about the first organs affected by these 
diseases, and the study of the urine in case of disease gives us valuable in- 
formation. Bear in mind that the urine of the herbivorous animals has 
an alkaline reaction, that of the carnivorous has acid, and the omnivorous 
is neutral, or may be either. There are two acids in the urine — Uric and 
Hippuric. Hippuric is more common in the lower animals, and the Uric 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 117 

in the human. The composition of the urea is C N2 H4O — which 
makes it highly nitrogenous, and by the retention of this too long in the 
body it becomes poisonous by decomposition, and results fatally. In the 
human the urea is about 3^ grams per day, per pound of the weight 
of the body; in ahorse weighing 1000 pounds, about j}i ozs. per day, 
so you can see how serious it would be in poisoning the bloood if 
not removed; this is seen in Azoturia. The ingredients in the 
urine in these diseases are: sugar, albumen, biliary coloring mat- 
ter, biliary acid, pus, blood, spermatozoa, lactic acid, and oxalic acid. 
Then there may be deficiency or an excess in the secretion of urine; in 
man, in normal, secretes about 52^ ozs. ; for 1000 ib. horse ; about twenty 
pints per day; and if there are only ten or less secreted, it indicates dis- 
ease also — as in Purpura Hemorrhagica, where they often run forty-eight 
hours without urinating. In such a case there is retention of the pois- 
onous matter in the body. Specific gravity of urine in the human is 
about 1005 to 1025 — 1018 average; horse, 1030 to 1050. Urinometer is the 
instrument we measure the specific gravitjr with. The more solid con- 
stituents the urine contains, the higher the specific gravity will be. In 
Diabetes the specific gravit}^ is away down — 1002 to 1003; while in the 
human it runs up from 1030 to 1050; at 1002 it is about clear water. 

Diseases recognized as being due to abnormal ingredients in the urine 
are, first, Albuminuria; second, Hsematuria, or Bloody Urine; third, Dia- 
betes Insipidus; fourth, Diabetes Mellitus; fifth, Albuminuria in Cattle, 
or Red Water; sixth, Oxaluria, when it contains oxalic acid. 

Albuminuria. — In the horse this can be safely called the Equine 
Brights. It occurs in two forms — Acute and Chronic. In the horse it 
is mostly due to Indigestion — to Chronic Indigestion. When there is 
emaciation going on we are almost certain to see albumen in the urine, 
and also seen in Strangury, which may be from the applying of canthar- 
ides over the surface of the body, and especially over the kidneys. In 
Bright' s Disease, the chief thing is the presence of the albumen in the 
urine; but sometimes there may be none present, so in examining the 
urine for it you should make two or three tests a day, and for several 
days — you can't rely on a single test. Albumen Nephritis in the horse 
resembles Bright' s Disease in the human. In Azoturia the presence of 
albumen is variable in the urine, sometimes in it, other times absent. In 
most all diseases of the kidneys, as in Albuminuria, there are thread-like 
cylinders, composed of fibrous coagulum called cast tubes or tube casts; 
this coagulation takes place in the tubuli uriniferi. These tubes termi- 
nate in the malpighian tufts. The tube casts do not always indicate a 
serious condition; unless present with disease it is simply a corroboration 
that some disease exists. In the process of Fatty Degeneration you 
will find with those casts, globules of fat and oil in the kidneys, which 
show there is Fatty Degeneration. There are two kinds of degeneration 
— the large white kidney, which when cut across shows the white in- 
creased in size, and particularly the cortical portion is increased in quan- 
tity. But the medullary doesn't seem to be altered; the whole of it is soft 
and smooth, and Glisson's capsule is easily stripped off; it looks and feels 
like wax, and when completely degenerated is useless as an organ. The 
small red is the other extreme; while degenerating it becomes small, red, 



I IS . THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

hard, and rough on the surface, by little nodules, and the investing 
membrane. Glisson's capsule cannot be removed. 

Tests for Albumen in the Urine. — Put some of the affected 
urine in a test tube and boil it; if there is any albumen in it a white coag- 
ulum will form; phosphate will do the same, but if you add a little nitric 
acid the phosphate will be dissolved, and if there is any albumen in it, it 
will remain clouded, unless you add too much nitric acid, in which case 
the albumen would also dissolve. If it is strongly alkaline it will also co- 
agulate, or an excess of urea will without the albumen, so to test for these, 
take some urine in a test tube and dip into it litmus paper; if it is alka- 
line the paper will turn blue, if acid, it will turn red; if it does not change, 
then it is neutral. If too alkaline you can weaken by adding a little 
acetic acid; if too acid add a little ammonia. This paper comes in three 
kinds — alkaline, acid, and neutral; best to test more than once always. 
When you test by boiling, if the coagulum is alkaline and no albumen, 
adding a little nitric acid will clear it up; if there is albumen it will remain 
clouded. Another test is simply pouring the nitric acid into the urine — 
if there is albumen in it, it will coagulate. Billing's test: take an equal 
quantity of urine and saturated solution of sulphate soda — the water you 
dissolve the soda in must be pure, mix and boil, and the slight trace of 
albumen will show. 

Semeiology. — The first indication in the horse is stiffness in the gait 
on the hind part. In old confirmed cases they step about eight or ten 
inches to a step; they are stiff in turning, and are inclined to stretch — as 
in staling; after a while he begins to suffer constitutionally, will get hide- 
bound, long coat, stiffer and stiffer in the hind parts, finally gets down 
and is unable to get up, the hind parts are paralyzed, followed by delirium, 
uric poisoning and death. 

Treatment. — If it can be discovered in time, may be able to give re- 
lief, but it is generally too late when made known to us. Give a com- 
plete change of food; ninety-nine times out of a hundred it comes from 
the mal condition of the food. Treat the digestive organs; give arsenic, 
charcoal, etc. ; also sulphate of soda, night and morning. Carbonate or 
citrate of lithium, with the view of neutralizing nitrogen, in one dram 
doses, night and morning, is indicated. Give lots of bran, little nitrogen- 
ous food; give him a vacation, protect from colds and stormy weather — 
in this he will be predisposed to Rheumatism. Hydrochloric acid is good, 
say alternating a week about with bicarbonate soda. 

Hematuria (Bloody Urine). — Due to Acute Congestion of the 
Kidneys, or different degenerations that occur; invasion of the kidneys 
by Cancers, Melanosis particularly; calculi in the kidneys or in the bladder; 
blows across the loins, parasites, especially the Eustrongylus Gigas, these 
seem partial to the kidneys, and develop enormously. (A male ten 
inches long, and a female fourteen inches long were taken from the kid- 
ney of a dog that died in the college. ) 

Treatment. — That depends upon the cause; if from blows across the 
loins, apply cold, also anodynes, per rectum, — as opium, belladonna, etc.; 
give fluid extract ergot internal^ if necessary, but bear in mind it is 
often the indication of some other disease, so look for that. 

Diabetes Insipidus (Polyuria). — Is excessive urination; this is 
produced wholly by Indigestion; the chief characteristic of this disease is 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 119 

excessive urinating, and amount of water and its clearness — stable men 
call it flooding. The specific gravity is the same as clear water, about 
1002 or 1003. Clear urine is always abnormal; there is a deficiency of 
the salines in the urine. We find in horses it is often premonitory sign 
of blood poisoning — as Glanders. 

Etiology. — There are Intrinsic and Extrinsic causes; Intrinsic is some 
faulty condition or mal assimilation on the inside, and Extrinsic, that 
arising from outside the body — as improper food, musty oats or hay, or 
kiln-dried oats, or from the free use of diuretics, or badly harvested hay; 
this is proven by it becoming Enzootic in some parts of the country that 
harvested during wet weather. 

Semeiology. — Profuse staling, floods the barn, in bad cases, especial- 
ly in the mare, will pass a gallon every half hour, and as clear as water. 
Thirst increases; this excessive thirst may have existed before the Pol- 
yuria, that was induced by Indigestion; appetite capricious, will eat dirt, 
his own dung or bedding; this is an indication of Indigestion. In cases of 
this kind the horse becomes rapidly debilitated, long staring coat, mucous 
membrane pale and anaemic, mouth sour and pasty to the feel; if allowed 
to run on will die. The kidneys of dogs seem more liable to disease than 
other animals, and are easily diseased. 

Post-Mortem. — Pallor of the kidneys, soft and easily torn; kidney 
substance as well as Glisson' s capsule is easily removed. 

Treatment. — Iodine is an elegant remedy, often a single dose will do; 
it will arrest the thirst and relieve the disease — this is usually given in 
doses of 1 dr. in the crystal or in linseed ball, repeated once or twice a 
day. Be careful not to give enough to produce iodism, and in the dog too 
much may produce Atrophy of the testicles; may follow with tincture of 
iron. Often in the horse a table-spoonful of starch, night and morning, 
in the early stage may arrest the disease. If due to overfeeding, give 
purgative, and bran for food for three or four days. 

Diabetes Meleitis. — This is a disease of the kidneys in which we 
find sugar in the urine, often known by two other names — Melituria and 
Glycosuria. Prof. Williams says he never saw these in the horse or her- 
bivorous animals, but Prof. Robertson claims he did; Williams saw it in 
a dog that was fed on liver. There are two other abnormal ingredients 
in the urine besides the sugar — pus and mucous. Mucous is a constant 
ingredient of the urine, but occasionally there is an increase from some 
diseased cause, especially when the bladder is irritated. This mucous 
may be seen in a floccular cloud, and is easily shaken up when the urine is 
in a bottle; it never settles. Pus is often found, but unless very plentiful 
need give no alarm; it settles on the bottom of the bottle in a yellow 
opaque deposit, and is easily shaken up; it makes the urine cloudy. 

Treatment. — For these three, avoid all irritating substances, both in 
food and water; this will also apply to all irritating diseases of the kid- 
neys; a change of food or water, or both; bland drinks — as of linseed tea; 
starch will often relieve; bicarbonate of soda is very good. If the in- 
crease of mucous is due to the irritability of the urinary organs, then bi- 
carbonate soda is indicated; after giving for a few days, give tr. iron. 

H.EMO Albuminuria in Cattle, or Red Water. — Is an albumi- 
nous disease of the kidneys, with bloody urine; there is no blood in it 
but it looks like blood. In this case the urine varies in color from alight 



120 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

red to a black, due to the coloring matter of the blood, but there are no 
corpuscles in it. This disease is confined to cattle, and there is nothing 
like it seen in other animals. It is really a constitutional disease, and is 
very rare in this country, common in England and Scotland, and may 
occur at any time of the year, in either sex or at any age, but is seen 
most in milk cows after calving, due to the drain on the cows secreting 
milk. 

Special Pathology. — The most prominent symptom is change in the 
color of the urine; first begins to get red, and grows darker and darker till 
it becomes almost black — in some cases it is black, but there are no clots in 
it at any time. This urine contains albumen in large quantities, and some- 
times considerable iron; that indicates a disease metamorphosis in the 
body. You will find large quantities of tube casts, epithelial cells also; 
this may come from the ducts in the kidneys or from the blood. The 
blood we find becomes changed, the corpuscles become changed in size, 
the red ones break down and the protoplasm becomes scattered and dis- 
solved, and often the white corpuscles become ruptured, letting the con- 
tents escape; we find the walls of them, but they are empty. The spe- 
cific gravity of the urine becomes lighter on account of the escape of albu- 
men, or rather the blood instead of the urine. The albumen escapes into 
the urine. 

Post-Mortem. — There is an anaemic condition; there appears to be 
an absence of blood in the heart — it is empty; the animal looks as if he 
had been bled to death. Ecchymosis is seen in the serous membrane. 
There are indications of the watery condition of the blood as seen in Pur- 
pura Hemorrhagica, or of rupture of the capillaries. In this case it 
settles in spots without rupture; on the under side of the kidney, between 
the capsules, is ecchymosis; the uterus is also congested some. The kid- 
neys are pale; the uriniferous tubes are filled with coagulated mucous or 
lymph, but that doesn't interfere with urinating. The liver is darker, 
softer, and larger, and is engorged with venous blood .comparative!}-, to 
other parts of the body; bladder is full, even to considerable distention. 

Etiology. — It originates in the impoverished condition of the blood. 
Anaemia develops as a result of this inpoverished condition; this is due in 
most cases to want of proper food. The albumen of the system becomes 
degraded and broken down on account of improper support; this usually 
occurs in cattle pastured on low grounds, particularly if they are swampy. 
We find it also in animals fed over abundantly on roots without grain; 
the roots are watery and contain considerable sugar and little albumen 
— forming material in them. When due to swampy pastures, the disease 
leaves when the pasture is well drained. This disease is never seen in 
stall-fed animals. 

Semeiolog}^. — When it occurs in milk-cows after calving, may devel- 
op in from fourteen to fifteen days, that is when the strongest drain on 
the system is going on. There is debility; diarrhoea, loss of milk. As 
they suffer the pulse rises, it is weak and fluttering, defective cardiac 
power, Diarrhoea is attended with arching of the back, pain; Constipation 
usually follows, this is due to Paralysis of the bowels; faeces becomes dark, 
probably due to the poor quality of food; Palpitation of the heart is seen 
when the animal exercises; the animal grows weaker and weaker, emaci- 
ation comes rapidly until the climax is reached, about the third day, 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 121 

when the urine is then thick. Polyuria greatly increases, dark in color; 
it runs on to general debility, collapse and death. 

Treatment. — The main part is in prophylactic treatment; this lies 
in changing the food; change the cattle to higher ground, or feed on 
more nitrogenous food, and as for the thickening of the urine, put on 
oats and beans — they are richer than corn in the properties you need. 
Prophylactic treatment is to let cows come to calving-time strong and 
well-fed, not thin and weak, when the}' will be predisposed to this troub- 
le; so give nitrogenous food a couple of days before the}' calve. Thera- 
peutical treatment doesn't amount to much; chief hygienic treatment is 
in removing the cause. When it is caused by the food, it is good to give 
oleaginous laxative; tincture of iron may be given internally. 

Prognosis. — Is liable to be unfavorable, depending on the stage in 
which you get to see it. If you don't get it early you need not treat it. 

Oxaluria. — This is a condition of the system in which there is 
oxylate of lime, of urea, and sometimes free oxalic acid in the urine; 
they are abnormal ingredients. Oxalic acid is supposed to result from im- 
perfect digestion; we find it in plethoric animals and in overfed ones, 
and where there is insufficient exercise. In most cases of Indigestion 
there is acidity of the bowels; this is particularly so in Oxaluria. It may 
be said Oxaluria only exists where there is an acid condition of the 
bowels; roots, etc., rich in saccharine matter, sometimes cause it; some- 
times where there is an albuminous condition of the whole body or system. 

Semeiology. — Dullness, loss of flesh, even with good appetite; 
capricious appetite, stiffness of the loins, hide-bound, and there is a pro- 
fuse exfoliation of a bran-like scurf from the skin. These symptoms 
will arouse your suspicions and you will test the urine; you will find all 
the symptoms of Indigestion — as licking the walls, eating his dung, bed- 
ding, etc. There seems to be pain in passing the urine, both before and 
after, switching their tails, picking up their feet, moving around, etc. ; 
mouth has a sour smell, pasty feel. The whole trouble is faulty diges- 
tion and mal assimilation. The urine may be acid if it contains oxalic 
acid, or neutral if it contains lime. If the urine is not retained long in 
the bladder, the oxalic acid soon develops on exposure to the air; this is 
in octohedron shape in the human, and is soluble in nitric acid without 
effervescing; insoluble in water and unaffected by boiling; that is in acetic 
acid or liquor potassse. 

Treatment. — Regulate the diet; withhold all roots and all sugar; give 
good exercise; it is often good to change the water unless you are water- 
ing on river or rain water. I have seen cases where it was impossible to 
do anything without changing the water, particularly for fine bred stallions, 
as in them it is a result of idleness and high feeding. This may develop 
in the mare season, and he will not notice the mare when brought out. 
I find it is due in many cases to well water, so give attention to the 
water; and on account of the exfoliation from the skin, groom well with 
a sharp currycomb. A mild laxative or purgative is indicated — a moder- 
ate dose of aloes,. followed with mineral acids and vegetable bitters. 
Occasionally the irritation of the bladder is so severe that it is necessary 
o give local injection — in the male in the anus, in the female in the va- 
gina, as a mild solution of boracic acid. The acid phosphate of soda and 



122 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

bicarbonate potash are good; also injection of warm water with belladonna 
or tincture of opium in it. 

Renal Congestion. — This is simply a hypersemic condition of the 
kidneys; from some reason or other this is not very common in the horse 
compared to other animals, but is seen occasionally; sometimes seen in 
connection with some specific fever, sometimes as a result of irritating 
substances in the food or drinking water, or from too large doses of can- 
tharides or turpentine used as vesicants over too large a surface, or too 
liberally applied. Exposure to cold and dampness causes a sudden rush 
of blood from the surface to the internal organs, so the kidneys suffer 
this way sometimes; also from accidental injuries, or from anything that 
produces bloody urine. We sometimes get an acute form starting in 
the malpighian tufts as a result of blood contamination. 

Post-Mortem. If the kidney is cut across you can see it is height- 
ened in color, especially the malpighian tufts; dark red-like patches of 
ecchymosis — these can be seen showing through the capsule before it is 
cut. 

Semeiology. — The symptoms occurring are complications of other 
diseases; the urine is lessened in quantity, and that which is passed is 
darker in color and the specific gravity is increased; often blood and the 
coloring matter of the blood are found in the urine. Oftentimes the 
Congestion in the kidneys will recover if the original trouble subsides. 
This Nephritis in the acute form exists in two forms or ways, and in two 
distinct circumstances; the etiology and symptoms are quite different, 
as seen in the urine secreted; the first is 

Albuminous Nephritis. — It occurs as a sequel to some other debil- 
itating disease, or some acute fever in which the combustion was in- 
creased, the malpighian tufts became congested and blocked up with 
debris, also the uriniferous tubules became blackened, and this runs on to 
Nephritis. This kind of Nephritis is very common in the dog and cat, 
also in the human, but rare in the horse and cattle. In pigs it is gen- 
erally associated with Hog Cholera, to a greater or less extent. 

Special Pathology. — As a result of the fever the broken down tissues 
are gotten rid of through the kidneys; this debris blocks up the kidneys. 
In the capillaries the nutrition of the part as well as the functional part 
of the kidneys is interfered with; this Congestion produces exudation 
into the cellular tissues, as well as into the uriniferous tubules; the 
tissue around the malpighian tufts become infiltrated and hardened; 
this produces pressure on the tufts, and interferes with their action. A 
mild acute inflammation follows, which is liable to be largely interstitial 
and partly parenchymatous. This interstitial or albuminous Nephritis is 
known in the human as Bright' s Disease, and is seen in the lower 
animals. There are two forms of this — Acute and Chronic ( Bright' s). 
The Acute comes on the same as in the dog and cat, but the Chronic 
comes on without any apparent cause, and comes on gradually; probably 
it is due to mal assimilation of the food and the increase of tissue waste. 
This produces a blocking up of the glomerules and the pressure on the 
spots of the malpighian tufts; may attack one or more, or one kidney or 
both. You might test the urine every day for a week and not find any 
albumen, and another da)' find it in large quantity; but in the Acute it is 



J 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 23 

present all the time. The Acute runs its course quite rapidly and is 
usually fatal; Chronic may run for years and then prove fatal. 

Semeiology. — The urine becomes scanty and seems to be cut off; the 
urine is passed in pain, and what is passed is thick and heavy, and highly 
colored; in it are tube casts in great numbers, and more or less albumen, 
also sometimes blood in it. If very Acute it runs on to a fatal end in a 
few days, but it is usually Subacute, and while running on emaciation 
takes place, great languor, coat staring, and may get Ascites. The heart 
gets weak, due to diminished cardiac power or poverty of the blood; this 
last leads to weak mind. There is usually dropsical swellings, and as the 
disease progresses the kidneys degenerate — to the large white, or small 
red. In the Subacute, leading on to degeneration, there is little or no 
pain, no constitutional disturbances. There is great stiffness of the 
loins. 

Treatment. — It wont do to stimulate the kidneys in this case, so if 
well developed try to get rid of the debris through the skin and bowels; 
give liquor ammonia acetatis; keep up your laxatives — sulphate magnesia 
and sulphate soda are good. Nitric ether in small doses acts as a fusible 
stimulant, and a mild diuretic; feed laxative food, see that it is easily di- 
gestible; give gentle exercise. If treated earl 3^ the kidneys will recover, 
but if not, degeneration follows invariably and leads on to Chronic 
Bright' s and death. 

Nephritis Parenchymatous. — (Acute) — This is inflammation of 
the kidneys, corresponding to Pneumonia in the lungs and not depending 
on any previous existing disease; it arises as an original lesion. There 
is no albumen in the urine at any time, no dropsy; almost invariably fatal. 

Semeiology.— Accidents to the lumbar region; over-exertion often 
causes it by rupture in the capillaries, falls on the floor, lacerating the 
psoas muscles, which are so close to the kidneys that the inflammation 
extends to them; exposure to cold rains, or where horse is left in the rain 
with the loins unprotected, often follows this in a few hours. Often see 
it' from calculi in the pelvis of the kidney, and in the uriniferous tubules. 
It comes on suddenly always; severe colicky pains with high fever; may 
be distinguished from Colic by being continuous and with high fever — 
may be 105 or 6, and in this case there are frequent attempts to urinate; 
every few minutes will try, and pass only a few tablespoonfuls at a time, 
and this is very red. Constant sweating, and uneasiness usually, but 
not always. In the first six or eight hours is disinclined to move, and if 
forced to, will straddle and take short stops, will look back at the flanks. 
Put your hand into the rectum and turn upward, ma)' feel soreness; or 
on pushing the fingers under the transverse processes of the lumbar ver- 
tebrae, will show pain. There is complete loss of appetite; abscesses are 
liable to form in the kidneys; these develop as a result of faulty nutri- 
tion. There may be one large one, or a number of small ones. They 
sometimes break through the uriniferous tubules and pass out in the 
urine; sometimes they destroy the tubules. This disease usually termi- 
nates fatally in from three to five days; animal dies partly from exhaus- 
tion, partly from uric poisoning, and partly from general distress and pain. 

Treatment. — Old authors recommend blood letting in the early stage; 
may be beneficial, but if you don't do that, give generous laxatives — oil 
in liberal doses, 1 quart. If there is no response in twenty-four hours,. 



124 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

give a pint more oil; follow up with saline. Give linseed tea to drink 
and no water — make the tea with cistern or river water. Give aconite, 
belladonna, acetanilide, etc. Diuretics are contra-indicated. Work the 
bowels, but let the kidnej^s alone. Hot cloths across the loins are good; I 
prefer them wrung out in hot water and covered with a blanket; hypo- 
dermic injections of morphine to allay the pain; must be kept quiet. If 
the heart gets weak, give liquor ammonia acetatis, or digitalis; also ver- 
atrum or calomel, and a little opium in dram doses of each, two or three 
times a day, but don't overdo the laxatives; if you give the calomel, then 
don't give as much oil, or give less calomel. If he is going to recover, 
will pass the crisis in about three days, if not he will die in four, or four 
and one half, or five days. . 

Renal Calculi. — Sometimes form in the pelvis of the kidneys; 
these are little uriniferous stones, sometimes one or ma}- be one hundred 
little ones while forming, about the size of a pea, will float out in the 
urine, through the ureter, causing spasm of the ureter, which will con- 
tract on the calculi, and so becomes plugged; if it remains so, inflamma- 
tion sets up, the urine sets back and produces uraemic poisoning. 

Semeiology, — Colicky pains at irregular intervals, especially on ex- 
ercise. In the urine in this case there is a predisposition; there is a 
superabundance of alkali in the urine, and this often leads on to the form- 
ing of these stones; so if you suspect their presence test the urine; you 
will find great quantities of this earthy matter, and the urine may be 
bloody. When blood is seen you can determine that the stones are al- 
ready formed; if you examine the bladder you can find them there, per 
rectum, you will find the ureter distended as large as a man's wrist. If 
they are in the pelvis of the kidneys you can produce pain by pressing 
against the kidneys. Abscesses sometimes form as a result of the calculi; 
there is rapid degeneration of the kidneys where the ureter is blocked, 
or through pain of these abscesses, and the animal dies. 

Treatment. — Change the food, especially the drinking water — give 
rain or river water. Avoid food rich in salines; give laxative food; change 
from corn and oats to roots, etc. Give remedies that have a tendency to 
dissolve these, as hydrochloric acid, i dr. to horse, freely diluted, once a 
day. These calculi are very common in dogs in this country, and as a 
rule 3'ield readily to treatment; hydrochloric acid, dose i to 5 drops twice 
a day in sweetened water, is good. 

Cystitis. — This is inflammation of the lining of the bladder; it is 
not so common in the lower animals as in the human, because in the hu- 
man there is a contagious disease (Gonorrhoea) that affects the urethra; 
it runs up and affects the bladder. It is very doubtful if this exists in the 
lower animals, hence diseases of the bladder are rare in the lower animals; 
but diseases of the bladder do occur from the following causes; irritat- 
ing substances, either in the food or water; croton oil for instance, can- 
tharides, and turpentine applied to the surface. Calculi and foreign 
bodies, these are liable to occur in any animal — as gravel for instance; 
the catheter is inserted, and apiece becomes broken off and remains in 
the bladder — this finally causes a fatal Cystitis. 

Semeiology. — First, if Acute, there is considerable excitement of the 
system, and later, nervous prostration. During the existence of the 
prostration there is great pain, but not constant; at times it is very 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 25 

seYere, and the distress is great; the urine is Yoided in small quantites at 
a time, and is hot and red. In case of calculi the urine is occasionally 
blood}*, and is passed with pain — that is the time of contraction of the 
bladder on the urine to expel it. In this case the muscular contraction 
is Yen' seYere, it amounts to a regular spasm and is known as Tenes- 
mus of the bladder — it is awfully painful. A person doesn't usually suf- 
fer when in a recumbant position, but when he stands up the desire to 
Yoid comes on, and there is pain in the passage. In the lower animals 
this is not experienced; I think this is due to the animal being in a hor- 
izontal position. But we have every reason to belieYe that Tenesmus is 
very seYere in the animal. The bowels are usually constipated, and what 
is passed is coated with slime and coagulated mucous, showing evidences 
of fever. If the irritant producing it be taken into the mouth, there is 
more or less inflammation of the whole mucous tract, but of the- urogen- 
ital organs more particularly; but if absorbed it does not hurt the mucous 
tract, except the urogenital. Sometimes the inflammation is severe 
enough to produce death in three or four days; other times will run on 
three or four weeks, and finally die from collapse. This may occur 
especially in the case of foreign bodies. 

Treatment. — Remove the cause. General anodyne treatment is in- 
dicated. If produced by absorption from the surface of the skin, wash 
with antiseptic wash at the point of application of the cause; examine the 
bladder for foreign bodies and stones, give laxatives to the bowels; opium 
and hyosc3 T amus may be combined to alia}* sensibility; emulsion of olive 
oil and eggs beaten up together; diluents of linseed tea, or slippery elm 
bark effusions, or milk; avoid all diuretics; washing out of the bladder is 
good treatment, with a three or four per cent solution of boracic acid 
twice a day; in the male a catheter can be used; in the female it is easy 
to use, let it gravitate in, using a fountain syringe; while applying, if 
the bladder contracts, allow the wash to come out — don' t try to force to 
hold it at the time. Keep the animal perfectly quiet. These Cystitis 
troubles may be produced with dirt}* catheters. During convalescence 
anti- acids are useful, as bicarbonate soda in very small doses. 

Dysuria. — Means painful passage of the urine, and on account of 
the pain there is little passed at a time; the cause usually is some ob- 
struction — it may be a calculus (a small one) that lies at the bottom of 
the bladder, and when urinating floats up with the urine and often ob- 
structs the passage; this is particularly so in old men. Stallions as. they 
grow old suffer from enlargement of the prostate gland, which horsemen 
call the bean, this sometimes is so great as to press on the urethra, form- 
ing a cla3*-like collection which closes it. Other causes are thickening of 
the neck of the bladder from C}*stitis or other inflammations, or of the bul- 
bus portion of the urethra, Cancer of the penis, Tumor of the glands penis; 
foulness of the sheath often produces swelling and pressure on the penis, 
and so interrupts the flow of the urine; males may suffer from all these, 
but females not so often. In females, prolapsus of the uterus causes 
pressure and stops the flow; hardened faeces may press down on the 
vagina. The urethra in the female is short and large; in the male it is 
long and small. Many of these disorders can be recognized by examina- 
tion per rectum, but the3 T are easily recognized by their symptoms. 

Treatment. — L,ocate the cause; oftentimes that is the most difficult 



126 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

part, the treatment will then depend upon the cause. Rational treat-, 
ment is to remove the cause. In case of enlargement of the prostate 
gland in the stallion or dog, the old treatment was tincture of iodine to 
the peritoneum, and iodide potash long continued internally, given in 
small doses; but this is more or less injurious to the reproductive power 
of the stallion. Pass the catheter occasionally, and see that it is smooth, 
and clean, and well lubricated; it acts also as a sound; in bad cases it 
might be passed three times a day. In the human they often have to 
remove part of the prostate gland, which is a very serious operation. In 
case of the thickening of the neck of the bladder, give external treatment 
that will allay the irritability of the lining of the bladder — which is often 
due to the acid condition of the urine, from eating too much meat; in this 
case alkalies overcome the acid condition and relieve. Retire from stud 
work, according to the severity of the case. In foulness of sheath, wash 
with soap and water, and introduce wad of absorbent cotton dipped 
in carbolized oil — one-sixteenth oil; swab out once a day, and at each 
dressing bring penis down, pulling gently and slowly. 

Ischuria.— Is suppression of the urine, or when there is none se- 
creted, or inability to pass it when it is present. When the latter is the 
case, it is usually from Parabysis of the muscular coat of the bladder; they 
usually exist together. This condition usually exists when the horse is 
kept too long without giving a chance to urinate; some horses are pe- 
culiar as to how and when they do this, so never fail to humor them in 
their peculiarities in this respect; therefore when you notice colicky pains, 
switching the tail and restlessness, you can suspect the cause. Many 
horses dislike to urinate while down, so in case of Azoturia and horses in 
sling, the water should be drawn from them. When a horse is going to 
be swung, never forget to draw the water from him, or you may cause 
rupture of the bladder. When there is none secreted, as in Purpura 
Hemorrhagica, then it is the kidneys that are in fault. 

Treatment. — If there is no urine secreted, diuretics and diffusible 
stimulants are indicated. If there is spasmodic contraction of the blad- 
der, then anodynes are indicated — as hot water and belladonna. Try 
passing the catheter, smeared with the solid extract of belladonna, this 
will often reduce the constriction. If you are sure of it being Paralysis, 
give i dr. powdered nux vomica in the feed, night and morning, for a 
few days. 

Enuresis. — Incontinence of the urine, when the animal cannot re- 
tain the urine in the bladder; it dribbles away as it forms; usually due to 
Paralysis of the neck of the bladder; the sphincter muscle fails to contract, 
and the result of this is sometimes very painful, particularly in the mare 
— it scalds the legs as it dribbles down. In the male, the penis becomes 
paralyzed and hangs down. Enuresis means wetting the bed at night. 

Treatment. — There is defective nervous power in the neck of the 
bladder, may say of all the bladder; hence nervous tonics are indicated, 
with local shocking, as dashing cold water on the peritoneum ; this often 
resuscitates the waning power; often a gallon of cold water by the rec- 
tum produces a nervous shock; also electricity is good — this to the perito- 
neum. Nux vomica used continuously for a month, or two or three months, 
promotes the general health. 

Strangury. — Indicates the passage of urine in drops, on account of 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 27 

the terrible irritability of the lining of the bladder, of the muscular coat, 
and less of the mucous. The urine comes away every few minutes in 
drops, or in very small quantities. Apparently there is a hyperaesthesis 
of the lining of the bladder. The retention of the urine causes inflam- 
mation of the bladder, and this is generally irritated b3 r some substance 
in the feed or in the medicine. 

Treatment. — Must be towards allaying the irritability; so give ano- 
dynes — opium, belladonna, etc., and laxatives, oil with linseed tea to 
drink. Remove the cause. 

Urethritis. — Inflammation of the lining of the urethra; may be 
from any of the causes that produced the inflammation in the bladder. 
There is an infectious disease of the urethra, which resembles Gonorrhoea 
in the human, but this is denied by some authors. If stallion copulates 
with mare suffering from Iyeucorrhcea, it is apt to produce Urethritis. 

Treatment. — Is mild, soothing diuretics and stimulants in the form 
of copaiba, 1 drachm doses three times a day, or oil of sandalwood, same 
size doses, and suspend the horse's stud work. Of local injections would 
be very chary of using them, still j^ou might, but they must be very 
mild; that is in case the trouble is very purulent. Rinse out first with a 
solution of bichloride mercury 1 to 2000; twenty-four hours after, with 
another solution 1 to 6000; this you can use once or twice a day for two 
or three days. That along with the internal treatment usually cures in 
from three to ten days. In all these cases relax the bowels with the 
medicines. It does not as a rule affect them further up than from 3 to 6 
inches. If it does, it is due to irritating effect of gravel in bladder. If 
in stallion ascertain cause; retire for a week or two. Clean parts with 
soap and water three times a day, and at the same time syringe mild anti- 
septic into urethra gentty, about ^ oz. at a time. Solution of sulphate 
of zinc 2 grs. to aqua (blood heat) 1 oz., is best. Do not manipulate 
penis after injection. 

Rupture of the Beadder. — This occurs occasionally, but is vety 
rare; more likely to occur in the human than in the lower animals, on 
account of holding their water too long. It is seen in cases of Azoturia, 
or in strain of the psoas muscles. Remember when you go to sling an 
animal to draw his water first, to avoid rupture of the bladder. In the 
human female this is more likely to occur than with a man, as they are 
more modest about this, and often when in company will hold their 
water all the time they are out — say boat riding, buggy riding, etc. , so 
use commonsense, and if with a lady see that she is not kept over four 
hours without giving her some opportunity to urinate — you can find some 
excuse to leave her alone for a few minutes. It is always fatal. 

Eversion of the Beadder. — This often protrudes through the 
vulva, appearing like a case of prolapsus or a polypus, and is often mis- 
taken for these ; can be told by the difference in the tissue. The lining 
of the bladder is covered with villi, and is velvety like; two openings can 
be seen, one of which is the ureter, from which the urine trickles. 

Treatment. — With a round-headed probang about % of an inch 
large, return the bladder to its proper position, using care not to punct- 
ure it. After you get it back, use anodynes — as chloral, or hyoscyamus, 
or opium to prevent straining; give a quart of linseed oil and anodyne 
injection (tr. opii diluted with carbolized oil). If necessary relax the 



128 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

parts with chloroform, or anaesthetise the animal to complete insensibility. 

Cystic Calculi. — Stones in the bladder are formed mostly of car- 
bonate of lime, some phosphate, and carbonate of other minerals. Due 
to bad drinking water, or as a result of hereditary tendency. They 
are often of enormous size; you recognize this by sudden interruption in 
the flow while urinating, and the horse is inclined to urinate more fre- 
quently than normal; will stand long time after urinating; he seems to 
dread the operation. In the mare it shows by hide-bound, staring coat; 
occasionally blood is passed. On testing the urine will find superabund- 
ance of carbonate; rectal and vaginal examinations will detect stones in 
the bladder. 

Cystic Calculus. — Is when there is one well- formed stone; when 
there are a number of small stones it is called gravel; they indicate an 
alkaline condition of the urine. These stones irritate the bladder very 
much, and are likely to produce quite characteristic symptoms. Make a 
rectal or vaginal examination and you can find them readily. The symp- 
toms that arouse your suspicion of their presence are — the horse making 
water too often; makes it every half hour or so; after he gets through 
he will strain, and remain in that position for some time. The mare 
squirts the urine out and dirties her tail; sometimes at the end of urinat- 
ing will pass a little blood. At times the horse will be urinating very 
freely, when suddenly the flow will stop, due to the stone floating into 
the neck of the bladder — this is a good indication of the presence of these 
stones. Then in some very bad cases there is Sub Acute Cystitis, and 
the inflammation keeps on increasing till it amounts to a severe Acute 
Cystitis. The animal gets weak, there is languor, long staring coat, is 
unthrifty, great depression, finally fever, collapse and death. In dogs 
we have the most trouble from gravel; it floats down till it reaches the 
bone in the penis, where it becomes lodged, and the urethra expands on 
either end of the bone. If it remains there long it will cause suppura- 
tion and ulceration, and finally the stone will contact the bone, setting 
up Periostitis, and will become firmly adherent to the bone. In dogs, the 
black and tan fox terriers, and the Yorkshires seem the most liable to 
this trouble; sometimes the gravel shuts off the passage entirely. I have 
seen cases where the animal did not urinate for two weeks. The only 
treatment is to pass the catheter; this is often very difficult to do on ac- 
count of the stone filling up the passage and becoming adherent to the 
bone. In cattle, males have a sigmoid flexure, and gravel often stops at 
that point and plugs up the urethra, and it becomes dilated above the 
stoppage. 

Treatment. — Treat gravel therapeutically; use hydrochloric acid — 
it has a tendency to dissolve them; give the horse i dr. two or three times 
a day, freely diluted; the more freely the better the effect. It renders 
urine that was alkaline either neutral or acid. Acids dissolve alkalies, so 
carry far enough to make the urine acid; you can tell that by the use of 
litmus paper to test. 

Lithotomy. — Is the removing of these stones by incision into the 
bladder. 

Lithotrity. — Is breaking up the stones in the bladder, as they 
must be broken when they are very large, in order to remove them. In 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 12 9 

the mare the operation is very easy — locate the stone per vagina, in- 
troduce the forceps into the vagina, then with the left hand in the 
vagina lift the bladder so ) T ou can catch the stone in the forceps, being- 
careful not to include any of the mucous lining; turn your forceps around 
so as to tell if you have an}- included or not; draw out slowly, carefully, 
but strongly. 

In the horse you must insert the catheter, and then clip off the hair 
and cut down onto the catheter; then withdraw, and with a probe-pointed 
bistoury make the opening about one and one-half inches long; introduce 
your forceps, and with the left hand in the rectum manipulate till you catch 
the stone and withdraw; when through with operation syringe out part 
with bichloride of mercury 1 to 1000. In the bull or ox cut down onto the 
place where the stone plugs up at the sigmoid flexure, that is about an 
inch or two from the scrotum. Treat these wounds in the urethra the 
same as simple, wounds, and only stitch up the skin. The urine will 
drip out for two or three days, but do no harm; put on wet or dry anti- 
septic pack or iodoform gauze; good idea to change this when it becomes 
soaked; occasionally pass the catheter, smearing the end with belladonna 
— this allays the sensibility. After removing the stone it is good to rinse 
with a four per cent solution of boracic acid at blood heat, with a little 
tincture of opium added; this is to rinse out the bladder. Best to always 
cast in these operations, though it might do as well standing, in the mare. 

DISEASES OF THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM. 

Diseases of the brain and nervous system are not so common in the 
lower animals as in the human. The lower animals are less liable to fatal 
results from shocks, as from fright or operations; though these dis- 
eases are not entirely absent. They are divided into three classes — Cer- 
ebral, when applied to the brain; Spinal, to the cord; Peripheral, to the 
nerves; and there are certain phenomena peculiar to each. We recog- 
nize that the brain is affected when perception, volition, and the special 
sensations are altered; also when there is Paralysis of one whole side of 
the body; this is called Hemiplegia. When it exists in a transverse man- 
ner it is called Paraplegia. Retention or Incontinency of the urine de- 
notes spinal diseases. The phenomenon due to the peripheral is when a 
circumscribed portion is affected — as a muscle or a group of muscles. 
We find on careful dissection of the medulla oblongata, that most of the 
nerve fibres cross over at this point; they originate at one side and cross 
over to the other, called decussation, but some run straight. On this 
account there is a peculiar phenomenon — injuries on one side of the brain 
produce Paralysis on the other side of the body. Injur)' to the gray sub- 
stance affects the voluntary movement, that is of the motor nerves; in- 
jury to the medullary portion interferes with the automatic portion, that 
is sudden injuries particularly. The effects of sudden injuries are very 
noticeable, but slowty encroaching injuries are very puzzling in the 
effects they produce. The injury to the white substance of the brain in- 
terferes with the automatic functions, especially of the heart and blood 
vessels; injury to the base of the brain means death. Another phenom- 
enon of diseases of this system is, that every affection produces either an 
increased functional activity or depression; in other words, any derange- 
ment of the brain and nervous system has a tendency to produce either 



130 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

an increased functional activity or a depression. In fact, any derange- 
ment of the brain and nervous system has a tendency to produce either 
Hyperaesthesis or Paralysis. Injury to the cord we find interferes with 
the motor power, because the motor nerves run along through the outer 
part of the cord, while the sensor}- run through the center — this is the 
gray matter in the cord. Another phenomenon is that which is well 
marked — you may have extraordinary changes in the function and little 
or no morbid anatomy. 

Cerebral Congestion — Vertigo — Megrims — Staggers — Blind 
Staggers. — This is alteration or disturbance of the circulation. Ver- 
tigo means a hypersemic condition of the brain, more or less sudden in 
its attacks, and is usually due to pressure on the large veins of the neck 
by ill-fitting harness; this interferes with the circulation of the blood , to 
the brain. In some cases it ma)' occur when the horse is not in harness, 
then it is usually due to plethoric condition of the animal, and is associ- 
ated with torpidity of the liver and hepatic circulation, also derangement 
of the liver, and with the stomach in suspension of digestion, and with 
partial Paralysis of the pneumogastric nerve. 

Semeiology. — These attacks of the brain are due to the peculiarity of 
the blood or to pressure on the neck; the horse will often stop, shake his 
head, ears will drop, becomes temporarily blind, twitching of the mus- 
cles of the head and neck, eyes protrude, breathing stertorous; often a 
few minutes' stop relieves, and the horse will goon; but in other cases lie 
becomes excited, blind, will rear and plunge, the blood vessels of the head 
and neck will show dilated, eyes staring insensibly, nostrils dilated, and 
stertorous breathing. Sometimes the rearing and plunging remove the 
cause; other times he loses co-ordination and goes down in a heap, is in- 
sensible and may keep up' a running or trotting motion involuntarily. 
The shock to the nervous system causes some sweating, and while down 
he will often froth at the mouth, but the fall usually removes the cause 
and he gradually recovers. Under these circumstances the old idea t the 
one nearly every one will suggest) is to bleed, but blood will not flow 
until after they begin to recover, and at the time of the fit the bleeding 
would be useless and there might be serious results from it; while lying 
down dash cold water in the face, that will produce a shock; but if there 
is none handy let him take his time; take off the harness and give plenty 
of air. After the fit is over, try to learn the cause of it. If plethora — 
lessen the feed and give purgatives. These attacks often come from 
stomach and liver troubles. 

Cerebral Anemia. — Is a bloodless condition of the brain, but 
doesn't apply particularly to the brain, which is never anaemic of itself. 
Anaemia is seen in ordinary fainting fits in the human; there is loss of 
motor and sensor}' power, and the face shows it by the pallor; in animals 
the mucous membrane is pallid. When there is Cerebral anaemia there 
will be a weak mind, as seen in nervous prostration from debility; that is 
from fevers, etc. 

Treatment. — Should be rational; treat the general symptoms, to 
build up; nutrition for the body, and iron for the blood. 

Cerebral Embolus.— Is a clot in the brain or blood vessels of 
the brain; they become plugged by a clot which usually floats there and 
produces a Thrombosic condition of the vessel and Paralysis of all that 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 131 

part of the brain supplied by that vessel. This is called Thrombosic 
Paralysis; this clot is usually formed from weak cardiac power or valvu- 
lar insufficiency. Valvular diseases of the heart are particularly liable to 
produce ante-mortem clots. 

Semeiology. — Stupor, weak-minded; pallor of mucous membrane; 
the stupor often runs into coma and death. This Thrombosis partty re- 
sembles softening of the brain. 

iVpoPLEXY. — As applied to the brain means Cerebral hemorrhage. 
This is a disease known by the sudden loss of power, both sensory and 
motor. Hemorrhage occurs in one of three ways— first, in rupture of 
the blood vessel in the brain; second, we get the same result from a 
serous collection in the ventricle of the brain; the causes are either sto- 
matic or idiopathic; as we see it in the horse the hemorrhage may occur 
in three ways or in three different parts of the brain, first, in the cerebral 
substance; second, in the ventricles of the brain, third, in the arach- 
noid space. The cause is usually Stomatitis in the horse; so the first and 
third are usually the forms. 

Semeiology. — It acts suddenly always; he falls to the ground, froths 
at the mouth, the special senses are suspended, can't hear, taste, smell, 
or see. In severe cases death will result in from an hour up to eight or 
ten daj^s; sometimes when the case is not severe the clot is absorbed and 
the horse recovers; but it is very slowly, and not desirable in the 
horse, as he is liable to go mad in any future disturbance. 

Treatment. — It is not considered safe to bleed, as bleeding increases 
the local hemorrhage. Where the rupture has taken place, elevate the 
head, pack the head in ice, keep the rest of the body warm by cloth- 
ing and friction, give stimulating enema, and inhalations of ammonia, 
hypodermic injections of atropine, alcohol, etc. Never give medicine 
by the mouth in this condition; it is liable to cause death by suffocation, 
by getting into the lungs. 

Phrenitis (Cerebral Meningitis) . — Inflammation of the covering 
of the brain, also called Mad Staggers, Cephalitis, or Encephalitis. Cere- 
britis is inflammation of the brain substance. This exists in two forms- 
Acute and Chronic. Both forms are seen in the horse. It is not pos- 
sible to draw the line between Meningitis and Cerebritis as in the human. 
Meningitis is usually due to idiopathic or traumatic influences. The 
idiopathic are, exposure, exhaustion, unhealthy influences, as the rays 
of the sun when very hot and long exposed, therefore it is more common 
in hot weather than in cold. There are various other causes that arise 
within the body, and no definite reason for them can be given. Both 
forms are sometimes due to Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis. The traumatic 
are those produced by blows on the head, either fracture or not; though of 
course the fracture would be liable by pressure on the brain substance, 
which is usually the case. 

Semeiology. — -There is marked Congestion of the mucous membrane 
where it is visible, especially the eye; this is due probably to its immediate 
connection with the brain, and also due to its size, being the second largest 
nerve in the body. There is muscular twitching and excitement of the ani- 
mal; the twitching sometimes amounts to a spasm of the limb or of two 
limbs. These spasms sometimes involve the whole body, producing Cere- 
bral Convulsions. This period of excitement is usually followed up by 



132 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

depression, and it is greater than the normal condition, that is, there is 
an abnormal inactivity. In some cases it amounts to stupor or coma; 
but in Meningitis this stupor period is comparatively short, and the ex- 
citement returns. As it progresses the attacks come on ofteuer. There 
is a well-marked constitutional disturbance, the fever may be as high as 
104 or 104J/2, pulse accelerated and inclined to be hard; animal is mark- 
edly delirious, even in the periods of stupor, therefore it is dangerous to 
get near him, and it is impossible to handle him in the ordinary way. 
After the fever has been running for a day or two the pupils of the eye 
are contracted, the eyes are bloodshot and staring; respiration is acceler- 
ated, he is restless and uneasy, and as the disease progresses the periods 
of excitement become more frequent, and he becomes wildly delirious, 
climbing over the manger. This desire to climb sometimes comes on 
during the first twenty-four hours. If from traumatic, usually it doesn't 
occur till the second or third day. Sometimes during the periods of 
climbing he may be attacked with convulsions. Spasms take place in the 
hind legs and throw him down, but he gets up and goes to climbing 
again. During stupor will often hang his head; almost inclined to fall, 
will stand with his face pressed against the wall, but this is less marked 
than in Cerebritis. 

The symptoms of Meningitis are more violent than those of Cerebritis. 
When the period of excitement is subsiding and just as stupor comes on, 
he will be inclined to eat and will take a few mouthfuls and hold in 
his mouth till the stupor is on, when he will drop it all from his mouth. 
This period between the excitement and the stupor ma}- last ten or twelve 
minutes. The form of death in these cases is Convulsions, finally col- 
lapse, and will lose the power of co-ordination, gets down and pounds 
himself terribly. Among the idiopathic causes there may be some dis- 
turbance of the cerebral circulation. The characteristics of Cerebritis are, 
that there is less fever, less excitement, the periods of stupor are more 
complete and longer continued, still there are Convulsions and delirium, 
but nothing like as severe as in Meningitis. This is because Meningitis 
is located in the gray matter, and Cerebritis in the white. In Cerebritis 
the animal will stand a good part of the time with the head braced against 
the wall or manger; appetite is usually lost, partly due to the fever and 
partly to the loss of sense. After a while, particularly in Meningitis, 
will lose power of co-ordination, goes down and is unable to get up, and 
the animal will lie prone and keep the legs going. During the comatose 
condition, especially of Cerebritis, the stupor can be broken by moving 
the legs in an unnatural position — as crossing them. Put your finger in 
the ear or eye and no resistance is offered. Death usually takes place in 
from forty-eight to one hundred hours, usually about the third daw It 
runs a very rapid course compared to the human; sometimes as quickly 
as forty-eight hours, but might be prolonged to five, six or ten days. The 
differential diagnosis between Stomach Staggers and Mad Staggers is 
quite simple — in Stomach Staggers there is no fever, no Congestion of the 
visible mucous membrane; eyes are not bloodshot, the stupor is contin- 
uous till the fermentation arouses him; this disease usually yields to treat- 
ment; while in Mad Staggers there is fever, Congestion of the visible rau- 
cous membrane, eyes bloodshot, (which is an important feature of the dis- 
ease, ) and there are alternating periods of stupor and of excitement; this 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 33 

disease seldom yields to treatment. In regard to the differential s}-mp- 
toms between Cerebritis and Meningitis, in Meningitis there would be 
greater excitement and less stupor than in Cerebritis. In Meningitis 
there is an increase in functional activity-, irritability and excitement as 
the inflammation extends more or less to the cortical portion, and then 
comes the stupor — before that there was onl} r delirium. On the other 
hand, we see that in any trouble to the cortical portion there would be 
stupor, as in Cerebritis. 

Treatment. — The fever is high, pulse strong; when not complicated 
with specific fevers, blood-letting is indicated — from agood size horse, 
four to six quarts is better than any other treatment; but if you have a 
specific fever, Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis, it would not be safe to bleed. 
It is good to purge whether you bleed or not; and in addition to aloes 
give diuretics— as potassium salts; allay the nervous sensibility-, or rather 
the irritability, and of the heart also, by gelsemium, which is the best of 
all ; or aconite, or belladonna, etc. Give the gelsemium freely-, or you 
can give gelsemium and belladonna, or aconite and belladonna; and in 
bad cases with any other treatment, bromide of potash in liberal quantities 
with any of the other drugs, but if you give much of it give a smaller dose 
of the gelsemium. Belladonna is particularly indicated on account of its 
contracting the arterioles. Ice poultice is the proper thing for local treat- 
ment; keep packed in ice. It is very difficult to do much for the horse in 
this disease because he is irresponsibly dangerous, so don't get caught in 
a corner or in a narrow stall; but if you can get up to him apply the ice. 
Recover}- is very rare, though the disease is not so rare; the causes are 
very obscure. In case of recovery, say after three weeks, you can apply 
cantharides blister to the head. Give three or four months' rest; don't 
work at all. Really, recoveries from this disease are not very desirable, 
because the animal is always liable to fits of delirium under any disturb- 
ance, and is dangerous. 

You can't diagnose this disease with any degree of certainty. In 
autopsy the meninges are thickened, with adhesion here and there. You 
will find coagulated and organized exudate in the ventricles, particularly 
in the lateral, also in the sulci and other parts of the brain. In Cere- 
bral Softening it is just the reverse; there is Softening of the" brain; 
and the brain substance is altered in color, is softer, sometimes quite 
liquid, and is softened always, especially in spots; it looks like abscesses; 
the color varies from a pink to a dirty white. There have been cases 
where in autopsy nine- tenths of the brain was softened; that was from a 
long-continued disease. Many cases have been seen where the Cerebrum 
was partly destroyed, looked like pus. Causes of chronic Cerebritis are 
usually Acute or Subacute forms or attacks of Cerebritis, and the soften- 
ing develops gradually without any previous attacks. Cerebral Soften- 
ing is known among horsemen as dummy; they are all cases of Cerebral 
softening and are quite common. It is hard to assign any cause, but we 
think it comes from the acute or subacute attacks of Cerebritis, or from 
interrupted circulation in the brain; there may be some local Thrombus, 
and when softening begins from this cause it extends and finally ter- 
minates fatally. In the human it is frequently caused by long-continued 
use of alcoholic drinks. 

Semeiology. — The symptoms are very marked, but require close 



134 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

observation to detect them. The horse is more or less stupid, he seems 
to lack ambition and often staggers, is unstead}^ in his gate. You must 
look out for this in examining for soundness; mild excitement will rouse 
him for a time, and horse dealers take advantage of this and exercise 
him, using the whip, before he is to be examined. He looks stupid, is 
unsteady when backed out of the stall, will stub his toe and make false 
steps, especially in turning; his ears may be moving forward and back, 
and there is often an absence of expression in the countenance. Whisky 
or the whip will exercise him for the time being. To test dummy, see him 
backing out of stall or turn in stall. Lacks complete power of co-ordina- 
tion. Staggers and wabbles a little. Put finger in ear and he wont 
mind it, others horses will. Put one foot across the other, and if he 
leaves it, it is another symptom. 

Treatment. — Is useless. 

Inflammation of the Spinal Cord. — This is divided into three 
classes or three heads, that is for description: 

Myelitis or Spinitis, when the substance of the cord is affected. 
Spinal Meningitis, when the cord and coverings are complicated with 
cerebral troubles. — Myelitis and Spinal Meningitis are nearly inseparable, 
in the lower animals at least, and also less common than in the human, 
as they are less liable to syphilitic disease. 

Etiology (of Myelitis). — Violence in the form of external injuries, 
disease of the bones of the vertebrae, and the inflammation extending to 
the cord; exposure to dampness and the extremes of temperature, espe- 
cially when exhausted from overwork. In the majority of cases it arises 
from no assignable cause, it is very obscure; it comes on without any as- 
signable or appreciable cause. , 

Semeiology. — When the meninges of the cord are first affected the 
first symptoms will be Tonic spasms of the limbs, usually the hind ones; 
this is probably because it affects the loins first, then extends forward. 
These spasms are often so severe as to jerk the horse off his feet and 
throw him down; he stamps spasmodically and involuntarily; when the 
spinal cord itself is first affected there is an absence of these Tonic 
spasms, and instead there is a loss of motor power. The first thing you 
will notice the hocks dip into each other, the toes turn out after about 
ten or fifteen hours; finally grows worse, will wabble in his gait, there is 
no spasm, no delirium. The inflammation in this case starts in the cord, 
while in Spinal Meningitis it comes on with spasms. During the prog- 
ress of the Myelitis, motor Paralysis increases and finally becomes so 
bad that if you move him he will fall clown, but if not moved will stand 
braced from twenty-four to forty-eight hours. In the case of Spinal 
Meningitis it only requires from twenty-four to forty-eight hours for the 
inflammation to extend to the cord, followed by a loss of motor power; so 
also in Myelitis, it takes about the same time for the inflammation to reach 
the covering, when there are muscular spasms. As the disease gees on 
the spasms become almost continuous, and the animal finally dies in from 
three to ten days; general average, five daj T s. The pulse is hard and 
rapid, temperature usually from 102 to 104, respiration accelerated, more 
on account of the exercise due to the spasms; bowels irregular, mostly 
constipated, and sometimes paralyzed; urine scant}' and what is passed 
contains abnormal ingredients, as albumen, etc. While lying and un- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 35 

able to rise, the expression is haggard and he is probably in great distress. 
There are chronic forms of both of these diseases, but especially in Spi- 
nitis (loss of motor power). In Chronic Meningitis they are excita- 
ble, the least bit of excitement affects them; there will be nervous twitch- 
ing; some ascribe Stringhalt to it. 

Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis. — It resembles the other two very 
much, with the exception that there are cerebral symptoms from the 
start. It is looked upon as being due to a germ, as a specific disease; it 
is some form of specific blood poisoning, but what the character is we 
don't know; we know that it occurs in badly ventilated, badly drained, 
badly crowded stables, most often found in street car stables where the 
air becomes vitiated, and causes various forms of diseases. In 1877, in 
the winter, it existed on the Atlantic sea coast as an Epizootic, especially 
in the large cities and as far north as Montreal. The mortalnw was very 
heavy; it ran a very definite course, with a period of incubation of from 
ten days to two weeks. The specific character of it was proven by intro- 
ducing fresh horses among them and they at once became affected. 

Etiology. — The poison has not yet been defined, but it floats in the 
air; it may be confined to a single stable, probably then due to some local 
cause, as from the water or drainage; it exists in low marshy districts. 
The blood poisoning produces serious pathological changes, which seem 
to be confined to the medulla oblongata. 

Semeiology. — It takes two forms or degrees of severity — the mild form 
comes on something like Spinitis; languor, dullness, stupor, and paralysis 
of the hind parts. In course of from one to three days it creeps forward 
and involves the base of the brain; then there is often coma; of course 
before it reaches there the horse has gone down from Paralysis. Often 
the sensations remain after the motor power is lost; after a horse gets 
down with this trouble he may die in a few hours, or he may last a few 
days, according to the severity of the case.. Many of these cases would 
yield to treatment, but the more severe ones, where the covering is af- 
fected, come on with delirium, Mad Staggers, Paralysis of the hind parts, 
and in severe cases there are spasms of the neck, and back, and loins, 
often followed by excessive relaxation, and then they go down and die 
in a comatose condition. There are Tonic spasms after volition has 
been lost. In the delirious stage they are frantic; they pound and bruise 
themselves, and keep up a trotting or running motion; the pulse is not 
much affected at first, but later gets strong and hard; temperature is 
sometimes raised, sometimes lowered, sometimes below 95 and |, and 
as high as 105, but more often 102 to 2}^. As the disease progresses the 
temperature falls below the normal, due to the nervous S3'stem being par- 
tially paralyzed. In this case the bowels are partly paralyzed and con- 
stipated, though in the early stage ma3^ be very loose, and the faeces 
passed involuntarily, due to the relaxing of the sphincter muscle of the 
anus. Urine is dark-colored and ropy from excessive mucous. The 
sphincter of the bladder often relaxes and urine is passed involuntarily, 
particularly in the mare; breathing is stertorous. 

Prognosis. — Mild forms often terminate favorably; severe forms are 
usually fatal. 

Post-Mortem. — Very little morbid anatomv, but the main of what 



136 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

there is, is in the medulla oblongata; it is redder and congested and 
softened, but it takes an expert to see it. 

Treatment. — Remove the animal to healthy quarters, give good ven- 
tilation and drainage, and good drinking water. Give full dose purgative; 
McEchran gave one 1 oz. of aloes; sometimes it wont work where the 
bowels are paralyzed; followed up with salines in the feed. Good plan 
to put in slings. In local treatment cold water along the spine is rational; 
some use hot water, others dry heat. This local treatment is doubtful, 
as it is a specific disease and the treatment should be for the blood. Solid 
or fluid extractof bell adonna is good, also arsenic, quinine, or salol; and to 
reduce the supply of blood to the cord, give small repeated doses of ergot, 
belladonna solid ext., dose 1 dr. three to four times a day; atropine )/% to 
% gr. three or four times a day, hypodermieally. Quinine can be given 
quite freely in dram doses every four hours; vegetable bitters can be 
given with it. If there is coma, give stimulating enema; Prof. McEach- 
ran gives potassium bromide, which alla3-s nervous irritability; all de- 
pressants are contra-indicated. During the Epizootic in the East, T. S. 
Berry of Boston gave atropine 3 grs. , arsenic 2 grs. , mixed together, on 
the tongue three times a day, and no external applications. He claimed 
unexceptional success, while a doctor in Brooklyn tried all known reme- 
dies and the mortality with him was heavy. During the comatose condi- 
tion give small doses of stimulating tonic, as iron; if they will eat, give 
soft food. Prof. Robertson recommends, after the acute symptoms have 
subsided, actual cautery and blisters along the superior spinal processes. 
After convalescence is well begun give potassium iodide with a stimulant. 
Where you have one horse affected in a stable, give prophylactic treat- 
ment separate from the other horses, and follow the hygienic rules 
spoken of. 

Epilepsy or Fits. — The term fits is applied to a number of different 
troubles — as fits of Indigestion, Hysteria, etc.; but fits without modifica- 
tion mean Epileptic ; these are convulsions of the system with delirium, 
and in bad cases, complete coma. It is liable to occur in any animal, 
none are exempt, but it is seen less often in the horse than in other animals. 
Probably the one most subject among the lower animals is the dog, be- 
cause its nervous system is much more highly developed than any of the 
others; therefore next to the human comes the dog in these cases. 

Etiology. — We find that anything that will seriously irritate the 
nervous system is liable to produce these fits — as inflammation of the 
cerebral structure, Tumors in the cranial cavity or in the brain, abscesses 
in the brain or on the surface of it, or lesion of the cranial bones, and 
reflected irritation from other parts of the body; for instance, worms in 
the intestines, dentition in all animals, particularly in children and pup- 
pies, sudden fright or sudden noises that cause fright, severe exposure to 
the sun, and often a brain complication, as Specific Fever, especially in 
the dog in canine Distemper. Fits exist in many cases without any local 
reason or morbid anatomy; in many cases there is a total absence of mor- 
bid anatomy, and the majority of epileptic fits occur without any visible 
disease of the brain or spinal cord. 

Semeiology. — When the disease is not complicated with a Specific 
Fever, the first thing is the wild staring expression of the eyes. The 
dog. if standing or lying, will run; if running he will stop, throw up the 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 37 

head, champ the jaws, froth at the mouth, will often yelp, and as insensi- 
bility comes over him he will throw himself or fall over backwards or to 
the side; jaws ma}- champ for one half minute after; a chronic muscular 
spasm comes over the body. In the early part of this insensibility there 
is motion of the legs, which subsides as the Tonic spasm develops; then 
complete coma takes place. During the coma the sphincter muscles re- 
lax and there is an involuntary passage of faeces and of urine; this lasts a 
variable length of time, from one half to two or three minutes; then the 
fit and spasms subside; and consciousness slowly returns. In the course 
of three or four minutes more the animal is the same as before, but very 
depressed. Hunting dogs are often affected, but it lasts only a short 
time and seldom affects them; theirs is probably due to excitement. 
Where these fits are rapid and death occurs, it is usually while in the fit. 
In horses it is more often due to specific cause, as Tumor or Abscess 
on the brain; some special cause rather than that in the dog; the symp- 
toms in the horse are the same as in the dog, with the addition of profuse 
sweating, and with the same results as in the dog. In man the face be- 
comes purple, and there is hypersemic condition of the head. 

Treatment. — During the fit, treatment is useless, but if it lasts more 
than a minute or two — dash cold water in the face or use electricity to 
the back — anything that will produce a nervous shock, then cover up 
and let them be quiet. If in children, cold water does no good, give 
a hot bath quickly; after the fit is over study the cause and treat it; if 
from worms give vermifuge; if from teeth, as in puppies and children, 
instant relief is given by lancing the gums over the teeth. Your success 
will depend on the removal of the cause. Bromide potash given liberally 
ma} T control the fit; if a setter pup six months old, give ten grs. in a little 
sweetened water three times a day. Deave a bottle with directions to give 
a teaspoonful three times a day, but if the fits come on, give one after 
each fit. Occasionally the potash loses its power to act, then change to 
bromide soda; belladonna is a very good remedy except in the dog, who 
is very easy to kill with this drug. After the fever subsides give tonics 
— iron, arsenic, etc., internally. 

Prognosis. — Depends entirely on the cause; if simple and can be 
built up, will be favorable; but in bad cases it is unfavorable. The sus- 
picious symptom in the horse is the inclination to shake his head as if 
bees were around him, and he may go down; this may be caused by in- 
creased circulation from exercise. If possible in such a case bathe his 
head in cold water; a short stop will be good also. Where predisposed 
from Tumors or Abscesses on the brain, looks half excited, stupid, and 
may work his ears like a jackass. 

Paralysis or Paresis. — Is loss of power, both of motion and sen- 
sation, but one may occur without the other. It is spoken of as Sensory 
Paralysis when the sensations are paralyzed, and as Motor Paralysis when 
the power of motion is lost. It is divided into Hemiplegia and Para- 
legia, according to the part involved. Paraplegia is the most common. 
it means paralysis of the body transversely of points, back of a certain 
point. 

Etiology. — There are two varieties of causes — Centric and Reflex. 
Centric is what might be called direct, due to external injuries, perhaps 
.severing of the cord, or anything that will produce pressure on the 



138 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

cord — as fracture of the vertebrae, effusion on the cord as a result of any 
external injury. Reflex arises primarily from some other part of the 
body periphery to some of the nerves, and often follows as a sequel to 
some other disease, especially of blood contamination. As a result of the 
reflex class, Paraplegia develops in the late stages of Distemper in dogs, 
and after they have been making an apparently nice recovery, and in 
Nephritis in all kinds of females, especially in the bitch. This form of 
Paraplegia resists treatment very much: may occur from Indigestion, es- 
pecially when due to over-feeding. Impaction of the rumen in cattle, and 
some forms of Colic in the horse, produced by Gastritis and different 
kinds of poison, are frequently accompanied by Paraplegia. 

Semeiology. — There is partial or complete loss of power, usually of 
the motor power; whether it is complete loss of motor and sensory is ac- 
cording to the cause. If of Centric, there is loss of motor; if from the 
Reflex, there is loss also of the sensory, especially where there is blood 
contamination. This loss of power will be diagnostic in itself. There 
are few other symptoms; Constipation is usually present, as bowels may 
be paralyzed; urine may flow involuntarily; the animal may be perfectly 
rational, showing that many of the actions are not dependent upon the 
cord; and we see in these paralyzed cases that the circulation goes on 
just the same. 

Hemiplegia. — Is paralysis of one side of the body longitudinally; 
this division is often so complete as to include one side of the face; the 
other side remains healthy; this is common in the human, very rare in 
the lower animals. It develops from severe injuries and severe pressure 
on one side of the brain. 

Treatment of all kinds of Paralysis. — Stud}- the cause and remove 
it; treat the cause; there is no special treatment for Paralysis; give nerve 
stimulants. If from external injury, either hot or cold fomentations. 
Paraplegia following Distemper yields to treatment. If cause is direct 
use electricity, strychnine or atropine. Following Distemper in the dog 
give iron, and in addition to the strychnine give bromide potash two or 
three times a da3^; give nux vomica and bromide potash two or three 
times a day. Local counter-irritants are good in certain cases, but wait 
till the acute symptoms leave; may be done with cantharides, or for the 
dog, lunar caustic; for cattle, mustard; for the horse, actual cautery and 
cantharides. Hemiplegia — same treatment except applied to the head. 

Hydrocephalus. — As it applies to the adult, is a rather rare occur- 
ence, but it does occur occasionally; it is frequently seen in the fetus, ren- 
dering parturition difficult or impossible till the head is crushed. As it oc- 
curs in the adult it is from an accumulation of serum in the lateral ventri- 
cles, usually the result of some local irritation or mild inflammation — this 
inflammation taking a subacute rather than an acute form, yet acute 
enough to have effusion. 

Semeiology. — The symptoms are very similar to those of Cerebritis, 
but rather milder in character, the animal is more stupid, little or no ex- 
citement, and in that respect it shows its proof of pressure on the brain; 
but in the early stage there are fever and little irritability; these last a few 
days and are then followed by diminished sensibility; the stupor and in- 
sensibility keep on increasing with occasional epileptic fits, until it ter- 
minates in coma, then convulsions and death. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 39 

Special Pathology. — In autopsy, on opening the cranial cavity we 
notice the brain is altered in form; instead of there being a deep fissure 
between the hemispheres, this fissure is almost obliterated. In cutting 
down through the corpus callosum you find water in the ventricles, vary- 
ing in quantity from 1 to 8 ozs., and on emptying the water out we find 
the septum lucidum broken down, making one cavity; the arachnoid is 
thickened and opaque, particularly over the cerebellum, and often studded 
with spots of inflammation or inflammatory deposit. The fluid in the ven- 
ticles is usually pale, thin, and watery, but sometimes quite turbid; the 
result is blood poisoning and death. You are apt to find effusion in the 
lateral ventricles, also between the cord and its covering. 

Treatment. — Is usualty unsatisfactory. In mild cases it may give 
way to iodide potash, iron, vegetable bitters, or mild counter-irrita- 
tion externally; keep quiet, soft diet and long rest. 

Locomotor Ataxia. — This is technically described in the text 
books as Tables Spinalis, or Tabes Dorsalis; in some as Sclerosis of the 
Cord; Dr. Hughes says it is also known as Crick Back; the English call 
it German horses, and Partial Paralysis. It is one of the most singular 
diseases ever met with. In its nature we find that it is an induration or 
Atrophy, or the two combined; at any rate it is a contraction and hard- 
ening of the columns of the cord. Usually in the horse it is the supero- 
lateral column; in the man postero-la'teral ; and occasionally in the antero- 
lateral, but that is rare. In the horse the infero-lateral is combined with 
the supero-lateral, but not often. Atrophy is usually applied to the cord, 
but I think it incorrect; there is a contraction of it, so Sclerosis is a bet- 
ter term. Sometimes it originates in the cerebellum and extends down 
the cord, but it usually starts in the loins in all animals — man and beast;, 
but as far as we know it is confined to the horse and man. The columns 
of the cord that seem to be affected are those portions of the cord that 
convey the motor power, so it is the motor power that is affected, with 
little of the sensory. The cord when you examine it, is indurated. 

Etiology. — The old theory was, that it occurred in old hard-worked 
horses that were neglected and abused — that being the predisposing cause; 
the exciting cause would be exposure, and was also looked upon as being 
hereditary. A stallion wabbling in his. gait should' never be used with 
the mare, as something out of the healthy will be transferred to the off- 
spring. The more we study and the more experience we have, we come 
to the conclusion that these causes have no connection with it, but new 
ones don't seem to present themselves. In the human ninety per cent of 
it is thought to be due to Syphilis; some say it is all due to that, but the 
more liberal say different ; we know it develops in some people who have not 
a trace of Syphilis. Undoubtedly it is a cause in many cases, but some of 
the cases are assignable to other causes. Horses and geldings have it as 
well as stallions; some have it that never covered a mare, and some mares 
have it that have never been bred — quite frequently this is so. In the hu- 
man, women seldom have it; it seems to be confined to men entirely. In an 
autopsy on a mare, sections of the cord were sent to Dr. Billings and he 
found that the lesions were identical with those in the human — Tabes 
Dorsalis. He found Thrombosis of the nutrient blood vessels of the 
cord, and assigns as a cause in the horse, this Thrombosic Paralysis. If 
an embolism takes place in any blood vessel that supplies nutriment to the 



140 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

cord, Atrophy and hardening of the cord would naturally follow. We 
find the capillaries in the center of the cord are minute, and they become 
dilated and ruptured, and the gray matter in the cord becomes lacerated 
and torn, and at the same time contraction of the cord takes place. Dr. 
Billings' theory is very plausible and in all probability it arises from de- 
fective cardiac power, and an ante-mortem clot forming in the aorta, 
some particles might float into some nutrient vessel. When it starts in 
the cord at all it invariably progresses; Dr. Hughes says it is a progress- 
ive disease, and continues until it produces death. If it can be due to 
Thrombosis in the horse, then it can be in the human, instead of Syphilis; 
though admitting some cases clue to Syphilis. Where the stallion and 
mare have Syphilis they are invariably affected with this disease. 

Semeiology. — It comes on slowly, especially in the horse; we notice 
the first thing the unsteady gait behind, and especially in turning' quickly 
acts as if not having full control of the hind parts. If it originates in 
the cord in the loins, as it usually does, only the hind parts are affected at 
first, but it often starts in the cerebellum, then they wabble before and 
behind, that is when it starts in the cerebellum and medulla oblongata; 
there is also a squinting of the eyes, particularly as an evidence -of Scle- 
rosis of the cerebellum. In the horse we can't ascribe it to overwork, as 
the worst case I had occurred in an animal that had never worked at all; 
nor do I think exposure to storms a cause; I think Thrombosis the most 
possible. When the cerebellum is affected one side is more affected than 
the other, and the animal will walk in a circle, the size of the circle show- 
ing the severity of the case — the smaller the circle the more severe the 
case. The Paralysis increases continually, and usually there is an in- 
crease in the symptoms; as the disease progresses there is a wasting 
of the muscles of the hind parts, especially in an acute case. As the 
Paralysis goes forward there is an inclination to throw the weight on 
the fore legs, then the hind parts waste more rapidly. In bad cases 
there is more destruction of motor than of sensor}- power. In the horse 
we have no evidence of acute pain; in the human, they say at times 
there are shooting pains in the legs, also in the back; in the human, 
in the antero-lateral they can't advance their legs. 

Morbid Anatomy. — When the cerebellum is affected it is hard fibrous 
instead of brain matter, also of the cord. 

Treatment. — No encouragement; incurable; treatment useless so far 
as curing goes, and the prognosis must be unfavorable; but we give 
strychnine, electricity, bromine, iodine, iron or arsenic, and liberal diet 
with gentle exercise; this retards the disease, prolongs life, and adds to 
the comfort of the animal. Dr. Hughes agrees with Dr. Baker that firing 
in acutual cautery along the back is recommended, but in his experience 
it did no good. 

Tetanus (Lockjaw). — This disease is described as a continuous 
rigid spasm of the muscles of the body, both voluntary and involuntary, 
a Tonic spasm that is continuous. 

Etiology. — Dr. Baker refers you to page 144 of Dr. Semi's book on 
"Surgical Bacteriology," to prove that the disease is due to the Tetanus 
germ. This germ is drumstick shaped, with the spore in one end; it is 
found in some kinds of soil in gardens; in Europe it can be found in any 
garden soil; is found in street dust almost everywhere. This same germ 






VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 141 

is found in discharges from the wound in a tetanic patient; also found 
in the nerve leading from the wound; the}* get in between the filaments, 
and in bad cases in the substance of the cord. This germ is anaerobic; 
the fact of this disease being due to a germ and its being anaerobic, ex- 
plains why it was so difficult heretofore to understand it. It is found 
that Tetanus may follow even an abrasion, or a microscopical wound, 
while in very large, wide-open wounds exposed to the air, we seldom 
ever have it. The germ wont grow where there is free access for 
oxygen; it is more liable in the small wound that closes and excludes 
the air. More than one-half the cases of Tetanus come from slight nail 
pricks that hardly lame the animal. Nicolaier, 1S84, was the first to 
discover the exogenous character of the disease; he found the germ in 
the earth, introduced it into the animal and produced Tetanus. Rosen- 
baugh found it in the discharge of wounds of tetanic patients. The 
identity of the two germs was demonstrated in Koch's laboratory, April 
tenth, 1887; they found the period of incubation to be from twenty- four 
hours to several weeks, very indefinite. If the wound doesn't appear on 
the outside it ma}- be on the inside, so there are only traumatic causes 
recognized now — no idiopathic causes. All animals are subject to it, 
but it is more common in the horse than in all the other genii put together 
Different parts of the body are affected. When the whole body is affected, 
it is called a case of Orthotonos; when only the masseter muscles are 
affected, Trismus; when one side of the body is affected most, it is called 
Tetanus Lateralis or Pleurothotonos; when the upper side is most af- 
fected, Opisthotonos; when other parts of the body are affected it is called 
Emprosthotonos. Trismus is probably the most common when any ex- 
ists alone, but Orthotonos is the most common. There are some forms 
Tetanus that used to come under the head of idiopathic — as stiffness 
from colds, sore throat, etc., that cause stiffness, are known to have been 
from rheumatics. Parasites in the irritation they set up, assist in pro- 
ducing the disease, the germ getting into the tissue; the germs in the 
wound increase in numbers — then during a chemical process which they 
cause they are killed and also poison the animal as well; so when they 
don't exist in large numbers and the animal is strong and can stand it 
for several weeks, there is a chance for him to recover. 

Semeiology. — The symptoms are clearly diagnostic from start to 
finish; the first thing that will be noticed is the contraction of the masseter 
muscles, they will be drawn around the mouth; he seems to have a little 
difficulty in eating, and while eating there is an enormous amount of 
saliva secreted, which flows out of the mouth. After a few hours the horse 
becomes excitable, nose is extended, facial muscles twitch, any little dis- 
turbance excites him; this will subside in a few minutes; the eyeballs 
seem to be retracted in the orbit, and look small. The membrana con- 
junctiva is liable to be raised constantly over the eyeball and makes 
jumps over it, and when the head is raised will cover the eyeball. An 
intelligent horseman will notice him getting stiff in his gait; he spraddles 
more behind. Trismus is usually well marked; after twenty-four or 
forty-eight hours the development seems to be quite gradual, other 
times violent, in which the case develops rapidly and dies. The spasms 
that were only in the masseter finally affect the whole body, that is the 
muscular tissues; muscles become hard to the touch, the dorsal, cervical 



I42 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

and gluteal muscles are most affected, tail elevated, it maintains that po- 
sition and trembles, respiration hard drawn, nostrils dilated, ears stand 
like sticks, limbs stiff and straddled, locomotion very difficult, no elastic- 
ity of the joints, flanks tucked up, ribs are tightly drawn, due to the con- 
traction of the intercostals, head is more elevated, neck often so contracted 
that it appears U shaped. As the pain becomes excruciating he sweats 
profusely j is very excitable, the spasms come on from time to time, and 
between times they relax, but not enough to cause much hope; the action 
is spasmodic; during this exasperation of the spasms the gluteal muscles, 
which are so strong at the hind legs, often shoot out behind like a goose 
flying, throws him off the floor and often he is unable to rise unless the 
muscles relax; but they generally never rise after going down, yet some 
may get up three or four times before finally staying down. A rat, loud 
talking, or strangers may excite the spasms; there is ropy saliva from 
the mouth, pulse at first is very little affected, but grows harder and 
smaller; the desire for food and water remains good, bowels inactive, 
peristaltic motion is interfered with, goes on in a very imperfect manner. 
The horse as a rule persistently stands, and where he can get up after 
being down it is a favorable sign; the spasms increase in frequency and 
severity; as he goes down, as he will long before he dies, he lies and 
struggles and finally dies. Death comes through one of two channels — 
first is contraction of the heart, causing syncope; second is contraction of 
the muscles of the throat, and he dies from Asphyxia. Death usually 
occurs in from two to ten days; severe cases in from four to five days; 
less severe in from five to six days, and mild cases in from eight to ten 
days. Mild cases are those in which the severe symptoms are absent, or 
in a milder form. Pulse at first is not affected, but grows hard and 
small as the spasms increase. When a spasm throws the horse down, or 
when he sweats profusely, there is little hope. 

Prognosis. — Where there is a little Trismus and the}- can eat a 
little, get up when they go down, and respiration is not affected, then it 
may be favorable, but if all the severe symptoms are present, then it is 
unfavorable. We find by experience that if he lives fifteen days he is 
liable to recover; if twenty days he is sure to get well. The French and 
Germans say if he lives thirteen days he will recover; if ten days he is 
liable to recover. The cases that used to be said were due to idiopathic, 
usually recovered; those due to traumatic died, but we know now they 
were not Tetanus when they were ascribed to idiopathic, and may re- 
cover now from nail pricks causing it. Among the causes are — tail- 
docking, castration, and amputation of the penis. Those cases that had 
tetanic spasms were not Tetanus, as from sunstroke, shorn sheep exposed 
to storm, over driving on a hot day, etc., but were rheumatic except in 
the overheated case — this was nervous trouble, probably due to Hyperes- 
thesia. 

Treatment. — From the nature of the case it is easy to see there is 
no specific; the immediate cause of death is irritability of the nerves, 
producing these Tonic spasms and death, therefore rational treatment 
would be towards allaying this condition; that is keep comfortable as 
p'ossible, bearing in mind that if he lives two weeks he is likely to recov- 
er, and if three weeks, he is sure to recover. Give hygienic treatment — 
pure air, quiet, moderately dark place, (the sunlight irritates, ) alone, 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 43 

free from the torment of other horses; if cold, clothe warmly; if hot 
weather, keep cool; no one but the doctor and attendant should see him — 
no loud talking, no clubbing, no spectators, can't lay too much stress on 
this. Give nourishment to keep up the strength; make linseed meal 
gruel (the round full seed) with boiling water — 4 lbs. meal to a bucket 
of water, or about 2 gallons; keep this before him all the time, give noth- 
ing else to drink, and elevate it to the right height — he can't stoop down. 
L,et him drink all he will of this — -two or three buckets full if he wants 
it; salt a little to make it agreeable. This nourishes, relieves thirst, and 
also tends to loosen the bowels; purgatives are useless; if he needs any- 
thing else, give oats and bran mixed with boiling water. It is good 
practice to put the horse in slings, as it gives him one more chance of 
recovery; do it early so he will get used to it before the spasms get se- 
vere, when it will cause them at the start. Bear in mind that a horse 
can't recover on his side. 

Medicinal Treatment. — Use such drugs as have a tendency to quiet 
the nervous system, as belladonna, prussic acid, morphine, ether, chloral 
hydrate, lobelia, gelsemium. The mixture we use is as follows: 
R Gelsemium fl. ex. 1 oz. 

Lobelia fl. ex. 1 oz. 

Belladonna fl. ex. 1 oz. 

Aqua ad. Q. S. 8 ozs. 

Dose 1 oz. every three or four hours. If there is no Trismus, or only a 
little, give by the mouth, but if considerable Trismus, give per rectum 
— will do as well; if administered that way, have it about blood heat; 
cannabis indica is sometimes given, also carbolic acid. Recovery is very 
slow if at all; it takes from six to eight or ten weeks to get back to the 
normal condition. Give soft food, gentle exercise, good shelter, Hypo- 
dermic injections of morphine may be given two or three times a day, 
about 3 grs. to the dose. But don't pin your faith to any one drug; if 
one fails try another. One old time Vet. claimed good success from 
hypodermic injections of fl. ext. lobelia in 1 dr. doses under the skin as 
often as every three or four hours, but usually three or four times a day. 
The per cent of mortality is less in the horse than in man — about ninety 
per cent in the horse and about ninety- five per cent in the human die. 
Give local treatment and thorough antiseptic treatment. Another old 
Yet. cured many horses with prussic acid, 1 oz. to start with, diluted, 
and to drench with; after three or four hours another ounce, then anoth- 
er, if that doesn't fetch him, double the dose, and if that doesn't, double 
that; that is, if not in twenty- four hours, or till you bring him to his knees, 
then diminish the doses, probably to relax the spasm; often give 3 lbs. of 
the acid, this was ordinary commercial prussic acid, the strength of which 
is variable. 

Post- Mortem. — To the close observer there is Congestion of the 
neurilemma of the nerve leading from the wound; the vessels of the spi- 
nal cord and brain are congested; usually there is an effusion in the 
arachnoid space. Bacteriologists say they find the germ in the nerve fila- 
ments and sometimes in the spinal cord. 

Theory of Transfusion or Inoculation. — It has been proven that blood 
serum of a recovered case of Lockjaw will cure the most acute case of 
Tockjaw in its acute stage; this must be administered in doses of from four 



144 THEORY AND I«ACTICE. 

to sixteen ozs. Some inject in small doses into the jugular; Dr. Billings 
says, into the peritoneal cavity. In regard to the length of time this 
must be obtained after recovery to be effected, some say it retains the 
quality indefinitely — I hardly think that long. The blood is drawn and 
let coagulate, the serum is drawn off, then warm that and inject into 
the peritoneal cavity. 

Chorea. — As usually seen it is an automatic convulsive motion of 
the muscles, usually confined to the voluntary muscles. It may occur in 
any animal, but we see it most common in the dog, next in the human, 
then the horse; in the dog it occurs oftener in the legs, while in the horse 
it occurs oftener in the neck and hind quarters, also in the shoulders. 
In the horse it arises as an original lesion, doesn't seem to follow 
any other disease, but this is probably more apparent than real. 
In the" human and clog it almost invariably follows some other 
trouble; in the horse it occurs in an acute form that comes on suddenly, 
may be from Indigestion, particularly that which arises from over- feed- 
ing. In the dog it more often occurs as a complication of canine Dis- 
temper. Both in children and dogs it often occurs as the result of worms 
in the intestines. In children it sometimes develops on account of the 
mal nutrition of the body and inherited Syphilis; also in children and 
dogs from Indigestion. Prof. Robertson says there is an hereditary pre- 
disposition in many cases. In all these cases there is an excited condi- 
tion of the peripheral nerve; we believe in some cases it is reflex, as 
when due to worms, or Indigestion. Where it occurs from some specific 
blood poisoning it is probably due to irritability of the whole nervous 
system. 

Semeiology. — Usually it comes on rather suddenly, especially in 
Distemper, that is in the dog; sometimes it attacks them in a very acute 
form, more often in one fore leg; we notice he is lame for a day or two 
before any jerking takes place; he will carry it in front of himself in a 
curled-up manner. If you make him step on it by taking the other leg 
up, he will go down, but when there is jerking in it he can't bear any 
weight on it at all ; then if it spreads it will do so rapidly to the other 
legs, then finally involves the whole-body, and goes on till he dies from 
exhaustion. During these severe attacks the dog will whine, particularly 
if alone, as if in fear. Judging from the human there is no sharp acute 
pain, but there is general distress; jerking of the legs or other parts of 
the body is rhythmic, the animals lose control of the muscles involved. 
In bad cases this jerking is continuous night and day, asleep or awake; 
in mild cases it subsides during sleep. The mild cases don' t seem to pro- 
duce much constitutional disturbance. In the severe cases the animal 
becomes emaciated, especially the dog, and gets weak very rapidly. 
Some think the disease is transmissible, others think differently, but our 
experience in the dog is that it doesn't affect them for either field or stud 
work, they are as good as ever; Setters seem to be most liable to it. In 
the horse most of the best authors seem to be of the opinion that it is 
transmissible, so much so that the}' are condemned for breeding purposes. 

The offspring of Choreic stallions are liable to develop the disease. 
Horsemen call it Shivers, as the shoulders, neck and other muscles twitch. 
In the stall he will sometimes show the affection by moving to one side, 
when he will lift the leg and put it out to the side in a peculiar manner, 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 45 

or ma}- be in backing out he may take a few steps all right, then can't 
get back any farther; there may be a shivering of the tail as well. In 
man or beast, Chorea is liable to become chronic, and all chronic cases 
are without exception incurable; some will only shoAV symptoms while 
eating their oats, and on hanging the head the neck will twitch. The 
acute case, especially in the dog from Distemper, is usually unfavorable. 
If more than one leg is affected it generally proves fatal, as all the muscles 
become affected. In the horse, in the acute form with Indigestion from 
over-feeding and but little exercise, it is unfaYorable. It is often no- 
ticed that there is a spasmodic jerking of one of the hind legs. A 
favorite place is the inferior and pectoral muscles in the neck. 

Morbid Anatomy. — In most cases, post-mortem discloses no morbid 
anatomy that we can detect, but in long-standing and severe fatal cases 
we find there are many nerYe lesions, as thickening of the arachnoid, 
effusion into the arachnoid space, etc. , also hardening of the outer layer 
of the cord, and almost invariably Yascular injection of the cord, also 
the central ganglia of the brain. In acute cases in the dog, due to 
specific blood poisoning, there is softening of the medulla oblongata. 

Treatment. — Very unsatisfactory to treat, very difficult to do 
much for it, and in very severe cases it is absolute^ incurable so far as 
we know. Mild cases in the dog and human do yield to treatment; in 
the horse in acute case accompanying surfeit, aloes are indicated, and it 
jdelds nicely to simple purgatives. After recovery increase the work and 
diminish the food, and give nerve tonics. Where due to worms in any 
young animal, it will yield to treatment; give vermifuges; get rid of the 
worms and then give tonics. When it occurs in Distemper in the violent 
form accompanying fever in dogs, it is almost invariably fatal; but if the 
Distemper yields to treatment, and the fever subsides and Chorea comes 
on afterwards, it takes a mild form and will yield to treatment, or it may 
become chronic and remain with the animal all the time; in such a case 
constitutional tonic treatment is about all that can be given to do any 
good, also liberal diet, correct hygiene, and avoid fatigue. For drugs, 
give iron, arsenic, zinc, copper, and in some cases verj^ small doses of 
strychnine sometimes, other times it does harm, so you must experiment 
with small doses first. You can combine with these, vegetable bitters — 
as cinchona, gentian, etc., but of all drugs give arsenic in small doses to 
start with, and increase as continued; give it a long time — three or four 
months. Dr. Ellingwood claims he has had much success with exalgine 
in the human. Give three times a da3 T — 1 grain dose first day, two grain 
dose next day, three grain dose third day. In all cases in the dog where 
they whine, you can relieve that a good deal by combining a mineral 
tonic with a vegetable. Setters, say puppies six months' old, give 2 grs. 
valerianate zinc every three or four hours; for one year old give 4 grs. 
every four hours, and in addition to this, if valuable puppy suffering from 
Distemper and getting the Chorea, there is great depression and prostra- 
tion — they need a stimulant; give valerianate of ammonia in about the 
same size doses, but you can give a little larger dose than of the zinc. 
Nitrate of silver in bread pills is very good, give for a week, then alter- 
nate with sulph. copper or arsenic tonic; also doses of electricity gently, 
not in shocks. 

Tumors of the Brain in Horses. — On account of the prevalence, 



146 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

and troubles in court, you are liable to be called into court as an expert. 
We find in post-mortem on the horse that died suddenly, that he has a 
Tumor in the brain; it is usually caseous, but is sometimes osseous, some- 
times cartilageuous. The caseous formation we suppose arises from co- 
agulation of the effusion into the lateral ventricles, where they are usually 
found, probably due to some mild attack of Cerebritis. In the choroid 
plexus where they seem more liable to originate, they sometimes grow 
as large as a hen's egg, may be one in each ventricle, or may be confined 
to one ; sometimes they produce pressure on the brain, and the animal 
may be taken with Epileptic fit any time. Sometimes they are osseous; 
they grow down from the cranial bones — and also produce pressure on 
the brain with the same results; caseous Tumors may sometimes become 
osseous. Horse may be unsteady in gait, become afraid, stop, appear 
wild and insensible for a minute or two; in the stable he may stand with 
the head hanging, or to one side as if with headache. Osseous Tu- 
mors occur on the outside of the dura mater; when the Tumors are 
forming they press down into the convolutions. The pia mater is liable 
to be affected as well as the dura mater. Sometimes these Tumors 
are hard and ivory-like. The point is, the3^ can't be diagnosed during 
life, and are usually slow in growing, so when you make an autopsy you 
are to judge the time they took in forming, so as to be able to give tes- 
timony; the caseous might take from six months to two years to form, 
the osseous from four to six or eight weeks to develop; the harder they 
are the longer time in forming. There may be a softening around these 
Tumors. 

IvOUPING-Ill or Trembling. — Is a form of inflammation of the 
spinal cord, and doesn't differ very much from Spinitis in the horse; it 
usually follows shearing of sheep and being exposed to storms. In sheep 
it is a Trembling — probably one form of Chorea. 

Symptoms. — Trembling of the hind parts, rapid pulse, grinding of 
teeth, twitching of the muscles at intervals; often become emaciated rap- 
idly; is generally fatal. 

Treatment. — Bromide of potash and mix vomica; give good shelter. 

DISEASES OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. 

In the male the organs of the system are penis, prostate glands and 
testicles; in the female, vulva, vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. 
The diseases of this class are not so common in the lower animals as in 
the human, because there is not as much prostitution. As a rule the 
lower animals never copulate except for the purpose of reproduction, but 
that is not the case with the human; over indulgence is a cause of diseases. 
Prof. Williams says the diseases of this system in the lower animals are 
due to inflammation of the mucous membrane, Catarrh, general debility, 
and Tumors. 

Pox. — Is divided into two classes — Simple and Malignant. Simple 
Pox is characterized by little phlyctenular eruptions. Malignant (Viru- 
lent) Pox seldom or never occurs; this is known as Equine Syphilis, and 
because of its originating in Arabia it is often called Dourine. Simple 
Pox is frequently seen with Urethritis, which resembles Gonorrhoea in 
the human and is contagious. 

Etiology. — From too frequent copulation in the male, and shows it- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 47 

self in little blisters on the glans penis and on the body of the penis; 
sometimes there is swelling of the glans penis and of the sheath. It 
would never occur in the female from too frequent copulation, because 
one heat would not last long enough, but it may in the stallion, though 
not until he had been serving five or six times a day for some weeks, then 
he may get it from a mare having Ueucorrhcea. The catarrhal discharge 
in the vagina of the mare may produce Simple Pox in the male. In the 
female it usually arises from having been served by a stallion that had it, 
proving that it is an infectious disease. It usually manifests itself in the 
mare by considerable tumefaction in the vulva; little vessels crop out and 
discharge fluid and heal, and fresh ones appear and go through 
the same course, each crop lasting two or three days. This blis- 
ter is most common on the inside of the lip, extending in a few 
inches, sometimes deeply in the vagina. It seems to poison the 
mare more than the male; vulva swells four or five times natural 
size, but it runs a benign course; that is true in both sexes. It will 
terminate in resolution spontaneous!}', that is without treatment; it takes 
about two or three weeks if copulation is suspended, but if copulation is 
continued it ma}' be continued indefinitely and grow worse, with an un- 
favorable termination; but usually from two to three weeks are all that is 
necessary to cure it. In this there is no Chancre, but in the Malignant 
Pox there are Chancres, which are of two kinds — the soft and the hard, 
and resemble those of the human. The same germ in the hard is the 
Micrococci, in the soft is Bacilli. There is no choice in the diseases pro- 
duced by either of these; the disease is infectious, but is probably only 
gotten by copulation; -it may be given by the stallion to the mare, or by 
the mare to the stallion. In the human these Chancres are not confined 
to the genital organs, but may be found in the mouth, under the eyelids, 
or in almost any mucous membrane, usually brought there by the hands in 
dirty habits. It may be transferred to others when on the lip by kissing. 

Treatment. — Retire for about two weeks; give dose of purgative 
medicines followed with salines and diuretics. Hyposulphite of soda, 
acetate or nitrate of potash, give soft feed. 

Local Treatment. — Soap and water and antiseptic lotion, such as 
acetate of lead y^ oz. to i pint of water, and sulphate of zinc i dram to 
pint of water. Use one of these a couple of days, then switch off and use 
the other. Apply three times daily. 

History of Dourine Malignant Pox. — First history of its being 
recognized was in the stud of an Eastern magnate in 1796; next record 
was in Hanover in 18 17, and in Poland also about that time Or soon 
after; records of great losses by it in Poland between 1830 and 1840. 
In 1 82 1 it entered Austria, particularly Hungary and Bohemia; from 
1859 to 1862 they prescribed sanitary measures against it there, and in 
1840 the Prussian government did the same. It entered Switzerland in 
1830, Italy in 1836, Russia in 1843, and a year or so later it entered Al- 
giers and Syria. England and Belgium are the only European countries 
that have been exempt from it. It entered France between 1820 and 
1840. In May 1886 it was discovered by Dr. W. U. Williams in DeWitt 
county, Illinois. He was a Vet. of Bloomington, this State, and he re- 
ported to the State Live Stock Commissioners that it was infectious. In 
1887 they took hold of it, and a party (of whom Dr. Baker was one) dis- 



148 . THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

covered that it had probably come from an imported French percheron, 
which was branded under the mane with the French government stamp 
for this disease — the letter D showing it had been condemned for breed- 
ing by that government. Means were taken to stamp it out; the State 
gave horse owners the choice to have any horse so affected destroyed and 
receive the value of it, or to keep it in perpetual quarantine as far as breed- 
ing was concerned. It finally got out of the State, and is now in the 
West and Northwest, known to be in Nebraska and Montana. 

This disease, tradition tells us, originated from copulation of syphilitic 
Arabs with the female ass. Tanhoffer, after making thorough examina- 
tion, says the virus lies in the Micrococci; these germs ma5' be found in 
the vaginal secretions and semen, in the spinal liquid and in the roots of 
the peripheral nerves, especially the ischiatic, and in bad cases in the 
blood. Some authorities say the disease is hereditary. Some scientists 
disbelieve the facts as related from tradition, that it came from the hu- 
man originally, but everything seems to point to that as the most sure 
cause. 

Semeiology. — According to the virulence of the attack, it may or 
may not present external lesions, and in a well-marked case — one that 
will cause death — it would first produce swelling of the vulva and mam- 
mary glands, and constitutional disturbances with considerable swelling 
and fever and rapid emaciation; in three or four days you will notice a 
wabble in the hind parts; this wabble, which is found to be a progressive 
Paralysis, increases and the legs of the horse swell ven r large and be- 
come weak; there is a purulent discharge from the nose and eyes, and 
finally a general Marasmus sets in and he dies. A severe acute case 
runs this course in from two to six months, or may hang on two or three 
years. In acute cases animal loses appetite; in subacute he does not. 
We find in both male and female in an acute case, and to a limited ex- 
tent in a subacute case, patches of depigmentation of the skin, which 
leave a white spot after — in the male on the penis, in the female on the 
flanks, escutcheon, under the tail, over the elbow, and in the male on 
the testicles; this occurs more in the mare, in the cases we see. The 
coat during this time becomes long and staring; patches of Ecchymosis 
appear on the visible mucous membrane. In mild cases where the}* ap- 
pear to recover when off stud work, they must be looked upon with sus- 
picion, but in France and Germany it reappeared again when copulation 
took place, after two or three years' rest from stud work. It is a 
well-known fact that mares affected with it will usuallj- fail to conceive, 
or if they do conceive they are likely to abort in perhaps from three to 
six weeks or three months. If she does by good luck carry to the full 
time the young will probably be delivered dead ; if not will soon die after- 
wards. Foals of affected mares seldom ever grow up; this is different in 
the human, as children grow up with all the troubles of syphilitic par- 
ents. A syphilitic stallion is usually no good, will get no colts, though 
he can serve a mare. Diseases of the genital organs don't usually interfere 
with copulation — in fact, it seems to increase the desire for it, especially 
in the human. 

Treatment. — In bad cases it is well to destroy the animal; in mild 
cases suspend stud work and give strong tonics. Stallions should be 
castrated as they are not fit for stud work an} r more; the mare may be kept 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 49 

in quarantine. Give iron and arsenic. Acute cases are helped b}^ meat 
fibrin, which you can get by whipping fresh blood, or by making soup 
of it and drenching, but it is not worth the trouble for these animals. 
This is a general case of Locomotor Ataxia, and the lesion is exactly the 
same as in the human when due to Syphilis. There is seldom or never 
any discharge from the male, also true in the human. Simple Pox pro- 
duces great local irritation. In the mare, sponge out the parts with a 
four per cent solution of boracic acid and 1 dr. fi. ext. hydrastis to one 
pint of water; the same may be applied in the male to the glans penis. 
If severe, syringe with bichloride mercury 1 to 2000, next day 1 to 4000, 
next day 1 to 8000; continue this three or four days, then it is well to use 
an astringent — as sulphate zinc 1 gr. to 1 oz. water — twice a day if the dis- 
charge is profuse; after three or four days make it 2 grs. to the ounce, 
and in addition give oil of sandalwood, dose 1 dr. three times a day, for 
from three to ten daj^s; the same will do for Gonorrhoea in the human. 
For Pox in the human give iodide of potash in doses of from five to six grs. 
as done at Hot Springs; the usual dose ordinarity is from two to ten grs. 

Urethritis. — As a disease of the reproductive organs instead of 
the urinar}^ as known, resembles Gonorrhoea in the human. We are in- 
clined to believe that it is a rare disease in the lower animals, but if there 
is enough poison in the vagina of the female to produce Simple Pox, 
then there must be enough to produce Urethritis. But if there is a germ 
it has never been isolated; the germ of infectious Urethritis in the human 
has been; it was discovered by Neisser, he found that the germ was a 
Micrococci, and on account of it having formed in the disease he called it 
Gonococcus because it produced Gonorrhoea. Associated with Simple 
Pox we quite frequently have a catarrhal discharge from the stallion the 
same as we have from the vagina in the mare, but it seems to stop if stud 
work is stopped, while Gonorrhoea will not. It doesn't seem to become 
cured spontaneously, but runs on from week to week. Urethritis as a 
disease of the urinary organs may occur in any animal, may be from the 
too free use of cantharides, etc., which produces inflammation in the lin- 
ing of the urethra. In Urethritis there is an acid condition of the urine 
that scalds the urethra, or there is some catarrhal discharge in the mare 
that contains some irritating germ, or else it is a specific disease. The 
fact that it terminates spontaneously if stud word is suspended, is no 
proof that it is not infectious, for the same thing will occur in Simple 
Pox. In the human, Urethritis or Gonorrhoea is usually malignant, that 
is, it is inclined to keep on indefinitely and produce serious constitutional 
disturbances, and if let run on it may extend up the urethra to the bladder 
and cause Acute Cystitis. 

Semeiology. — We find in Acute Urethritis, particularl}/- in the stal- 
lion, there is painful micturition; we notice the horse passes his urine 
frequently and with pain; there may be a catarrhal discharge from the 
urethra, and there is tumefaction and Congestion of the visible mucous 
membrane at the end of the penis. In females we frequently see tume- 
faction of the vulva and lining of the vagina, also Congestion in the male 
on the glans penis as well as in the end of the urethra; frequently in 
both cases it extends to the bladder and causes Acute Cystitis. In the 
human this corresponding disease is very infectious, and is not confined 
to the urethra, but may be transferred to any part of thebod} T , producing 



150 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

serious lesion; may be in the mouth, eyes, etc., and have catarrhal dis- 
charge from them. It is so infectious that copulation is not the only way 
it can be taken; the mucous membrane coming in contact with any of the 
germs may be inoculated with the disease; children often get it from 
sleeping with parents having it; may be seen in their eyes or mouths, 
where they carry it with their fingers. In the human it always starts in 
the end of the penis, on the mucous membrane; if it runs on to Cystitis 
and is then let run on, the poison may become absorbed and produce 
serious results. 

Bull Burnt. — Is similar to Urethritis, but affects the covering of 
the penis rather than the urethra. It is usually gotten by too frequent 
copulation; of course if the cow has catarrhal discharges it is more likely 
for the bull to get it. 

Burnt Dog. — Dogs frequently get foulness of the sheath from an 
accumulation of natural secretion under the sheath same as under the 
foreskin in man ; the lining of the sheath and a portion of the penis be- 
come inflamed, which produces a catarrhal discharge that can be seen on 
the end of the penis; there is no Urethritis, but inflammation of the 
mucous membrane lining the sheath and the penis. 

Treatment For Urethritis. — In the horse very mild treatment and 
stopping stud word are often all that is necessary; give soft food and a 
little bicarbonate of soda in the drinking water; or prepared chalk or lime 
water; it is an acid condition, and alkalies cure it; acids increase it. 
Give linseed tea to drink, and if you wish to do more, give 1 dr. sandal- 
wood three times a day, usually for three or four days. If it is persist- 
ent give local injection; if you suspect any specific character, use bichlo- 
ride mercury, or carbolate or sulphate of zinc; if you use these don't 
drive up far — about four inches, as this is too strong to go to the bladder 
(it would cause Cystitis of itself) ; in the human two inches is far enough 
back. In man an ulceration often occurs in the urethra, about the size 
of a pea, it is Tumor like; in such a case use a stronger wash, as bichlo- 
ride mercury 1 to 2000, four, five, or six times, then change to sulphate 
zinc 1 gr. to the ounce, then 2 grs. to the oz. If very painful add a little 
cocaine, and at the same time give oil of sandalwood in from five to 
twenty drops three times a day — usual dose is ten drops. In mares the 
vagina ma3^ be sponged out, using absorbent cotton or gauze. Never 
tie a cloth over the head of the penis, but instead put some absorbent 
cotton under the foreskin and change this two or three times a day; 
never tie anything around the penis, as it is liable to cause gangrene. 
A good internal remedy is hydrastis canadensis, and if combined with 
sulphate zinc makes a good local application. 

Treatment. — For Bull Burnt, also Burnt Dog, use acetate of lead 
two, three, or four drs. to the pint, and shoot up into the sheath, hold 
there for a while and work it all around, first washing out the parts 
with castile soap. Usually one injection is sufficient to cure a dog, but 
for a bull a few injections are necessary, and retire him from stud work. 

Stricture. — :Some think this is due to too strong lotions or medi- 
cine, but it is produced in the urethra the same as the others — by inflam- 
mation of the urethra. Inflammation has a tendency to produce prolif- 
eration and thickening of the parts, so as a result we get stricture; of 
course if you use a caustic it assists in causing severe inflammation. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 151 

This disease (Urethritis) can't be cured in four or five days, it is more 
likely to run ten or fifteen days; but as too severe treatment may cause 
stricture, mild treatment is the best. 

Phimosis. — Is inability of the male to extend the penis. 

Etiology. — It may be from a contraction of the prepuce, swelling of 
the sheath obstructing the passage; this may be produced in various 
ways — kicks from other horses, kicks from a groom; by a germ; accidental 
wounds of any kind; stings of insects, oedema of the sheath, or follow- 
ing Castration; then there are other obstructions — warts and other Tu- 
mors, or Cancers; sometimes the}' occur on the glans penis, sometimes 
in the form of Polypus. 

Treatment. — Find the cause and remove it; about the only special 
treatment is in the contraction of the prepuce; if it is congenital, introduce 
a probe-pointed bistoury and slit down about y? or ^ inch; in case of 
swelling of the sheath bathe freely with hot water. If from anaemia 
give iron. Some horses urinate in the sheath without extending the 
penis, producing a scalding of the skin; they probably don't know that 
thej' can extend it. Wash out the sheath, oil it and work the penis 
down for a few days, then he will usually do it all right. 

Paraphimosis. — Is the reverse of Phimosis; the penis is out and 
can't be retracted. 

Etiology. — It may come from a weakened condition of .the animal 
in general, or from a weakened condition of the penis; may be caused by 
accidental injuries while serving the mare, often by the mare kicking the 
stallion on the penis — as some mares get very vicious; or it may be he 
injures the penis with his own f*t; may be from swelling of the glans 
penis from some cause, and as the sheath swells the penis is forced out— 
this sometimes follows Castration; anything that prevents him with- 
drawing the penis, and the longer it is out the more it swells, sometimes 
it becomes an enormous size, may be six, seven, or nine inches in diam- 
eter. Swells mostly on the dorsal side, the covering becomes tense and 
glistening, sometimes gangrenous; such a severe case is usually due to 
some local irritation. Paralysis of the penis may be a cause; the penis 
hangs pendulous and limp, and will not swell if there is no other disease 
of it; micturition is not interfered with in any case, no matter how bad. 

Treatment. — It is usually considered good practice, when there is 
great tumefaction, to scarify it and then use hot water, which causes 
hemorrhage to be free; if very acute, scarify freely and bathe liberally; 
after bleeding freely increase the heat of the water, then suspend the 
penis quite firmly against the belly with quite hard pressure; best to put 
a piece of shingle or pasteboard underneath so as to be smooth under the 
penis. Considerable hand rubbing and manipulation will do it good. 
Diuretics are indicated, internally. According to the cause there may be 
special treatment required. If there seems to be Paralysis, give to a 
horse of about 11 00 lbs. 1 dr. of nux vomica, night and morning — the 
powdered drug. In case of Paralysis of the penis, that cannot be 
overcome — amputation must be resorted to. Bear in mind that the 
tissues of the penis are spongy, no well-defined blood vessels, but bleeds 
from the capillaries; that is the only difficult part — to prevent hemor- 
rhage, and the more so if the penis is oedemic. The usual plan is to 
bandage so tight as to prevent hemorrhage, then cut off the penis 



152 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

below the bandage; cut in a sloping manner, leaving the urethra be- 
yond the end of the penis about ){ inch. After removing, sear the 
parts thoroughly with actual cautery, more than an}' other part of the 
body would have to be seared. The bandage usually conies off in fifteen 
or eighteen hours, but if it doesn't, I take it off then; by that time the 
parts have swollen enough to prevent hemorrhage. In case of hemor- 
rhage you can't draw down the penis, so insert into the sheath a sponge 
with a solution of iron or other styptic. 

After Treatment. — The same as for a simple wound. If it is a stal- 
lion castrate him at the same time, and if the irritation should cause an 
erection have a man to dash cold water on it, that is usually sufficient; 
give a mild laxative and soft feed; when the scab comes off and the 
penis is healing, use white lotion. 

Dropsy of the Ovaries. — Associated with it there is Congestion 
of the ovaries, at least in most cases, so you can assume that associated 
with the Dropsy there is chronic Congestion probably due to some dis- 
turbance in the circulation of the ovaries. It is comparatively rare in 
the females of the lower animals as compared to the human, still it is 
very common in old cows. When the dropsy is extensive they cannot 
breed from the ovary affected; but it may be that only a portion of the 
ovary is affected, or it may be one or both of them, but they breed from 
the unaffected portions; in case they are both affected then the}* will not 
breed. 

Symptoms. — Where we suppose there is chronic Congestion, the 
female is nearly always in heat to a limited extent, that is a cow will 
ride others, racing and bellowing, sometimes will take the bull, but in 
most cases will not; but if she' does tal£e the bull she wont breed, as 
it is not a natural heat. These animals seem to change their form in 
time and become more masculine in looks; the}' don't make good breed- 
ers or good feeders, that is if you wish to fatten them; in that case they 
must be spayed. If you wish to breed. them shut them up and give a 
purgative, and when she comes in heat let her be served with a young 
bull. These conditions are seen mostly in fancy well-bred, pampered 
animals; they are known as Bullers. 

HYDroMETRA (Dropsy of the Womb), — The mixture that fills the 
womb is a mixture of serum, lymph, and broken-down pus. It is the 
result of subacute, long-continued inflammation. Acute inflammation 
may produce it; but is more likely to cause death before that occurs. It 
may follow parturition, or may occur without any assignable cause. 

Semeiology. — There is more or less staggering gait; it seems to pro- 
duce pressure on the spinal cord. In the bitch, the hind parts seem to 
be paralyzed; in the cow, she staggers and can't turn or back, and they 
get very large as if pregnant ; the os uteri is found to be closed as in preg- 
nancy, but by rectal examination you fail to find any foetus, and outside 
you fail to hear the foetal heart. 

Treatment. — If you are sure of your diagnosis, open the os uteri 
with one finger, then two, and so on till you get your hand in, then 
empty the womb; wash out with a solution of boracic acid — a three or 
four per cent solution, may add a little hydrastin. If you can pump in 
and out again, as with an Allen pump, it is well to use carbolic acid or 
zinc; they must be pumped out, but the boracic acid need not, it will 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. I53; 

stay till it flows out. In addition «give tonics and liberal diet; arsenic, 
iron, oats, bran, etc. 

Hydrocele, Orchitis, Water Seed, Dropsy of the Testicles. — 
This is seen more in stallions than in bulls, dogs, rams, or goats. The 
cause is often very obscure; no assignable cause can be given for it. 
Other times it is due to exposure, to storms, or to external violence. 

Symptoms. — The testicle swells, it may be one or both; it may be 
in the body of it or in the outside between the two; sometimes it seems 
to run down the scrotum from the belly, dilating the sack. When it 
occurs in the body of the testicle, it is usually fatal to that testicle; in 
that case it is more likely due to external violence, and the testicle must 
be lost if severe. When it is outside of the testicle and the testicle not. 
injured, the serum can be drawn off with trocar and cannula. If the 
effusion is slight you can often cause it to be absorbed; never use sur- 
gery where there is no need of it. To cause to absorb, give small doses 
of iodide of potash about }4 to 1 dr. night and morning, for a week or 10 
days, but don't give too much, as it is liable to injure the testicles. 
Give soft food and gentle exercise, and put scrotum in a suspensory to 
do away with the pressure of its own weight. When it is in the testicle 
itself, bathe with warm water for an hour, then use a solution of acetate 
lead Vo, oz. to the pint. Give iodide potash and quinine, and put in sus- 
pensory. If the hot water doesn't do good, then tr}^ cold instead; some 
use the hot water first, then change to the cold, or use a freezing lotion — 
as muriate ammonia 1 oz. , nitrate potash 1 oz. , to quart of water. You 
can apply this two or three times a day, and use a suspensory. In case 
this fails and the testicle is very large, and you are certain it is the testi- 
cle itself that is affected, insert yo>\xr trocar and cannula right into the body 
of the testicle and drain off. The best thing to do is to remove the testi- 
cle, but for the sake of looks in stud work it is well to try to save it, 
though it will only be for looks. But if this fails, then castrate him; he 
will still be good with the one left. 

Treatment. — In treating, it will be necessary to lay the stallion up 
for a time, so give him a purgative and lessen his food. Wherever there 
is a tendency to this trouble, the best thing to prevent it is the use of a 
suspensory; and especially if they are very large naturally. Dr. Withers 
says all men should wear them, and that many who have weak backs 
would be relieved by their use. When anything is wrong with the testi- 
cles, always use a suspensory. 

Nymphomania (Chronic Congestion of Clitoris). — Means an 
excess of animal passion in the female. 

Satyriasis. — Excess of animal passion in the male; ancient myth- 
ology has it that Satyrs used to frequent streams or the banks rather, 
and wait until the nymphs, which were half women and half fish, 
came out of the water, and then rape them; the Satyr was half man 
and half beast; they were also called the Woodland-bucks. This dis- 
ease is more common in the human male than in the lower animals, 
though males of all animals are always ready on opportunity. I heard 
on good authority, at least professed truth, that a man had been there 
fifteen times in one night. 

Females suffering from Nymphomania are the same; the}- are in heat 
all the time, and a cow will take the bull at anv time when this way, so 



154 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

will the mare, but as a rule they don't breed. They differ from the bul- 
lers, which don't want the bull though riding other cows. This disease 
is more common in the cow than in the mare or in bitches, but in the 
human female it is about the same as the cow. 

Etiology. — Due to luxurious living, and is worse if they have gentle 
exercise; it is more common in the human among the higher class because 
of less work and high living, but as a rule the}' don't breed. It is an 
old saying, that a poor man's cow and a poor man's wife will conceive 
and won't abort, while a rich man' s cow and a rich man' s wife won' t 
conceive, and if they do will abort. Fact is, that a poor man's wife may 
hang over a tub all day, and then conceive if he gets within gunshot dis- 
tance of her. 

Treatment.— Change the hygiene; sometimes it is due to disease of 
the clitoris, it may be cancerous; this may be cured by amputation of the 
clitoris, which will often control the passions; do not keep in too warm 
stables. Males should be put to harder work — there is nothing so good 
for this as fatiguing work; many a stallion has been ruined by leaving 
him in the stable idle when the owner thought he was taking good 
care of him; he had better have been working, as he may have erections 
constantly and finally practice masturbation. There is no medicine re- 
quired except purgatives. 

Hysteria. — This is an excessively nervous condition, seen in females 
only; the whole body is in an hyperaesthetic condition. It usually sets 
in with the period of oestrum, sometimes continues with it, other times 
it subsides, unless they die, as some young heifers do; old cows seldom die 
from it. In the mare it is seen when about five or six years old; they 
develop spasms similar to those of Tetanus, but not continous; they re- 
lax, then Clonic spasm comes on again. They often become wildly de- 
lirious, striking and biting; the spasms are often so bad as to throw them 
off their feet. Still the spasm can be called tetanic, and along with it is 
delirium. This is well marked, particularly in women advanced in years, 
and especially about the period of the stoppage of menstruation. This 
Hysteria sometimes proves fatal; in young girls, if the}- catch cold 
during the menstrual period, at about the age of fifteen or sixteen, they 
may become temporarily insane and continue so for two or three months. 
This disease is common among women; mares are likely to die during 
this disease, from syncope; the heart contracts and they die before it re- 
laxes. During these attacks the temperature runs very high; we had a 
case here in the school a few years ago in which the temperature could 
not be taken — it ran up as high as the thermometer registered. It was a 
heifer, and she died in one of the spasms. Women under these condi- 
tions often lose their senses for a time and make unreasonable demands, 
so men should be kind and not find fault with them, as they are irrespon- 
sible for their acts. 

Treatment. — It is considered good practice to bleed a little — that re- 
duces the congestion of the genital organs. If this won't work, then 
give gelsemium or bromide potash; if very nervous, give in very small 
doses; best to give them together. Give a purgative — nitrate of potash; 
give soft feed; keep cool and quiet. Morphine, chloroform, etc. increase 
the excitement. 

IvEucorrhcea. — Is a catarrhal discharge from the female genitals — 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 55 

a mucopurulent discharge usually of a whitish or yellowish-white color, 
-sometimes from the vagina, sometimes from the uterus. 

Etiology. — Is probably due to injuries inflicted during parturition, 
especially in cases of difficult labor where force must be used to assist the 
mother, and more particular^ when there is mal presentation; great care 
should then be taken not to wound the parts with the instruments, also 
not to poison the parts with dirty hands. Then again there may be a 
retention of the whole or a portion of the placenta for a time — this wil 1 
poison the parts. 

Semeiology. — The mare is usually unthrifty in any case, also the 
females of other animals, but is probably more common in the cow. The}^ 
become thin in flesh, staring coat, the discharge is more or less offensive, 
continuous, and usually profuse, though at times may be slight. 

Treatment. — Wash out the parts with a pump. Allen's is the best, 
because you can pump in then out again, but an injection or stomach 
pump will do. After cleaning it out, make a careful examination. As- 
certain the cause of the trouble; often it is ulceration of a portion of 
the mucous membrane — either of the vagina or the uterus; in such a 
case use prophylactic treatment. Local application — pulv. boracic acid 
applied directly to the ulcerating surface; give iron, arsenic, vegetable 
bitters, liberal diet. 

Barrenness in Females (Sterility, Failure to Conceive). — 
This is quite common in well-bred cows, and is often curable. A local 
examination may be made, first with instruments, using the dilators. If 
anything is wrong that cannot be seen when using these, then take the 
vaginal speculum, and if necessary to examine the uterus, use the uterine 
speculum, first lubricating the hand; then go in and see if the os uteri is 
open, using olive oil on the hand; if closed, try to open with one finger, 
if you can't open it, then use the dilator. If it is yet difficult, then 
smear the end of the dilator with belladonna or cocaine. If the L,eucor- 
rhoea comes from ulceration, the membrane will be darker in the ulcera- 
tions than on the normal membrane; in that case use the curette, scrape 
all the diseased mucous membrane well, and then dust on with a powder 
blower, some impalpable powder of boracic acid. In case j^ou find a Tu- 
mor, catch hold of it with the uterine forceps, and if attached by a pedi- 
cle use the scissors instead of the ecraseur. While you are operating 
catch hold of the os with an instrument for that purpose, and you can 
draw it back from two to six inches without any danger, as the os is not 
sensitive. The instruments shown bjr Dr. Baker were designed by Dr. 
Knowles, formerly of Terre Haute, Ind. , who said the secret of his success 
in treating for Barrenness was to treat the diseases the animal had in 
the genitals. This ulceration of the vagina and uterus is the most com- 
mon one; another trouble is, the placenta often hangs on several days or 
weeks, and if not removed by artificial means might hang on for several 
months, and this rotting poisons the parts and causes an ichorous dis- 
charge that inflames the vagina and uterus. Iyeucorrhoea has a tendency 
to render the secretions of the genitals acid instead of being slight^ alka- 
line or neutral, as they should be. If even feebly acid it will destroy the 
spermatozoa and prevent fecundation, so }*ou will often find nothing ap- 
parently wrong, particularly in the mare. In this case better examine 
the secretions with litmus paper. Obesity is also a cause of Barrenness. 



156 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Reduce animal; give plenty of exercise. Tuberculosis is frequently a 
cause of this trouble, and is very common; or it may be from Cancers, or 
any kind of Tumors, or ulcerations in the parts. Sometimes a cause is the 
firm contraction of the os uteri, and it fails to relax; in that case it often 
causes a serious disease of the uterus, due to the shutting up of the se- 
cretions that are still going on and which should be discharged. In such a 
case it is best to put the mare under treatment for ten or fifteen days to get 
the uterus membrane in healthy condition, then wash out with mild anti- 
septic; boracic acid is the best when you can get it chemically pure, but 
if not, use alcohol or a weak solution of iodine, which is very good. 
Sometimes it is necessary to cauterize with iodine, so use the long forceps 
with the cotton — it won't hurt if you do touch the healthy part; and 
where you find the whole surface of the os affected and indurated, it is 
well to use the iodine over the whole surface, in its full strength, first 
mopping out the parts clean; do this for some days. Sometimes mares 
are injured during copulation, may be by the male's penis being too long; 
this is true in heifers — they are often severely injured; not very common 
in mares. Remember, there is no specific to cure Barrenness. 

In case of hyperaesthesia of the genital organs during copulation, 
the female organs undergo a state of erection as well as in the male, and 
this often amounts to a disease of the uterus; during copulation the 
spasm of the uterus is often excessive and lasting afterwards, so that the 
os and cervix don't relax and the semen can't be introduced. Sometimes 
the passage to the uterus is plugged with a firm lymph; this plug must 
be removed; this is what is termed opening a mare; the organs ma)* be 
in health every other way. You can usually open with the finger, and 
especially by using belladonna, vaseline, etc.; if not, then use the dila- 
tor. In case the secretion of the genital organs is acid, it is a good plan 
to rinse out with boracic acid, and put on alkaline course of medicine — 
as bicarbonate soda, lime water, or prepared chalk; this changes the char- 
acter of the secretions to alkaline. Nowadays they are introducing the 
spermatozoa into the uterus artificially and with good results, both in the 
human and lower animals. L,et the stallion cover the mare, then when 
he comes off insert the hand and catch the semen and put into a syringe 
that is heated blood-heat, then introduce it into the uterus. It may be 
carried some distance, and it is said it can be shipped and will work if 
kept at the right temperature. 

Impotence. — This is Barrenness in males, so the fault is not always 
in the female; this in the male is often due to masturbation, and is a very 
common practice in the lower animals as well as in the human. It is also 
spoken of as onanism; some suppose the dog doesn't masturbate, but 
they are wrong. They take different ways to accomplish it; the dog 
lies down and takes it in his mouth, or by arching the back rubs it 
against his belly till he goes off. The bull and the stallion also follow 
this last way. It is common in the stallion, clue to high-feeding and 
idleness. The best thing to do is to give fatiguing labor; it is better than 
medicine, and avoid over-feeding, unless he is run down by the practice, 
then feed and give work accordingly, and use a shield. A colt or other 
young animals will not masturbate without erection, but older animals 
will, even without the erection, but they will discharge in the sheath. 
Sometimes it is spontaneous, as in the case of the boy that does so in his 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 57 

sleep; this is often caused by idleness and high living, also by masturba- 
tion; boys are worse between the ages of fifteen and twenty-; fathers 
should warn their boys against it. It shows in young stallions in their 
speed and flesh; they sweat easily and are unthrifty, and the spermatozoa 
is often found in the urine. He is often barren. Disease of the testicle 
is also a cause of Barrenness, also Tuberculosis, and other forms of blood 
poisoning; sometimes the only trouble is Atrophy of the testicles from a 
faulty blood supply or mal formation, which ma}- be congenital. Stal- 
lions that have done much work are liable to get enlargement of the pros- 
tate glands. Some stallions come off the mare proud, had no ejection; then 
it is recognized by all practitioners that copulation was a failure, but I 
knew of one case that was not a failure, but the animal got colts — it was 
a French percheron. It is a case of Satyria. Give rational treatment — 
as purgatives, light diet, and more exercise; always look to the hygiene 
in these cases. Keep on tonics three or four months. Last resort, Cas- 
tration. 

NOTES ON OBSTETRICS CONTINUED. 

Miscarriage (Abortion), and Premature Labor. — Abortion, 
when there is expulsion of fecundated ovum or foetus before it can live 
outside the bod}- of mother. A premature labor is a foetus born ahead of 
its time, but coming alive and living a greater or less length of time after 
birth. Abortion implies that the foetus becomes dead or dies as soon as it 
strikes the air, while premature birth does live. Cows have more ten- 
dency to abort than other animals; women are next in frequency. 

Etiology. — Causes of Abortion, not counting those produced by 
operations, are, Accidental, Habitual, and Infectious. 

Accidental are caused by violence, falling, kicks from other horses 
or ill-tempered men; Acute Indigestion in form of Intestinal or Gastric 
Flatulence, spasmodic Colic (severe), febrile diseases when fever runs 
high; large draughts of cold water when not severe enough to produce 
Colic, interfere with foetal circulation, eating of frozen or musty food, 
powerful drugs in large doses producing shock to system, ergotized grain 
or grass, drastic purgatives — as aloes, sudden and severe exertion, espe- 
cially if not accustomed to it, obesity, plethora, poverty and anaemia, 
nervous disesases, as Neurosis (when severe), Tetanus, diseases of the 
uterus, Glanders in mare, contagious Pleuro-Pneumonia in cattle, Influ- 
enza, Strangles, shocks to nervous system, fear, undue excitement, ex- 
cessive bleeding, sometimes copulation during pregnancy, operations with 
or without castings, heavy thunder, especially when it lasts long, sight of 
blood on other animals, smell of decomposing animal or vegetable matter; 
dogs worrying sheep, often cause ewes to abort; ecbolics given for any 
other purpose, or it may be produced intentionally by the use of ergot, 
rue, and savin; diseases of foetus, feebleness of spermatozoan from over- 
work in the stud, etc. 

Habitual Abortion is apt to occur in those that have aborted once 
from accidental cause, probably due to weakened condition of uterus. 

Infectious Abortions are due to presence of a germ that gets into the 
vagina and sets up irritation, with the effect apparently of opening the os 
uteri and extension over wall of uterus of this irritation produced in the 
vagina. Some claim it is a Micrococcus, but the generally accepted 



158 THEORY AXD PRACTICE. 

opinion is, that it is the Penicillium Glaucum, or ordinary blue mole, that 
is supposed to be the most common cause of it. Cows seem to be the 
only ones suffering from this cause of Abortion. We find that it rages as 
anEntozootic or Epizootic in the wet season, when moles flourish. 

Semeiology of Abortion — Usually occurs without any premonitory 
symptoms; comes awaj- easily, depending on stage of gestation; generally 
occurs in from six weeks to three months. Foetus is usually found on the 
floor in the morning. When it occurs after four or five months, it has 
many signs of normal parturition — as dullness, uneasiness, abdomen 
drops, mammae become congested, vulva swells, labor pains are those of 
normal parturition; the membranes may be all expelled with the foetus, 
especially if the Abortion occurs in the early stage of gestation. In some 
cases they become ruptured and foetus is expelled naked, and the placenta 
comes along later. Sometimes we find that foetus, after entering uterus, 
stays there and decomposes, producing constitutional disturbance — as 
Septicaemia, Ulceration of womb, Leucorrhcea, occasionally death. Abor- 
tion if occurring extensively in dairy , causes great losses in supply of 
milk. Conception may take place as soon after Abortion as after a nor- 
mal deliver}^, but occasionally it is delayed for weeks and even months, 
according to the amount of disturbance the Abortion produces. Any 
uneasiness of a pregnant female should be considered suspicious of pos- 
sible occurring Abortion, and she should be watched with a view of dif- 
ferentiating between Colic and Abortion. Where the premonitory symp- 
toms are recognized early enough, Abortion may be prevented. 

Treatment. — Prevention is the main thing; do this by removing cause 
if possible. Case should receive very careful examination. For Habit- 
ual Abortion we recommend hemp seed; give one half pint once a day to 
those that are not over-fed. Habitual Abortion occurs about the fifth 
month. Begin feeding hemp seed three or four months up to within a 
few weeks of parturition. Fl. ext. viburnum prunufolium is looked upon 
as the best remedy; give rather freely. To human female, 1 dram of the 
fl. ext. can be given once a day as a preventitive. Give every hour or 
two if there are any premonitory symptoms. In cases of accidental in- 
jury, Abortion can be averted by giving this and other remedies — such 
as chloroform, opium, camphor, asafetida, chloral, etc. Chloroform,, 
two to three dram doses every hour until danger is passed; Camphor 20 
to 30 grs. ; opium, 1 dram night and morning until danger is passed. If 
female is in anaemic condition, iron and other tonics are indicated. If 
rupture of water-bag takes place, Abortion is inevitable, but rupture can 
be averted. In case of such rupture foetus perishes and becomes a 
foreign body; fatty degeneration of placenta takes place, and Abortion is 
the result. Occasionally in late stage of gestation, delivery is hard and 
help is needed. When from ergot, stimulants and tonics are indicated;, 
when due to infection, remove aborting cow as soon as discovered and re- 
move everthing connected with abortion — placenta, foetus, and juices, and 
burn them. In case Abortion is repeated without any apparent cause, 
always suspect infection; clean out stable, wash out manger, clean out 
cobwebs, sprinkle floors with disinfectant — such as crude carbolic acid or 
emulsion of kerosene (eight per cent) and water, with enough carbonate 
of lime to make emulsion, and shoot in the cracks with force pump. 
When this is done, whitewash the cow that has aborted. If it is due to- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 59 

infection, she will carry seed of this germ for a long time. Remove her 
as soon as discovered, and don't put her back for at least five weeks. 

Rupture of Uterus. — May occur before or after parturition, as a 
result of external violence. 

Treatment. — Is useless; destroy the animal. 

Rupture of Vagina. — In mare is fatal; in cow it can be sewed up, 
or if there was not too much laceration, will heal itself. 

Rupture of Perineum. — Is liable to occur in any animal, called 
Jill Flirts by horsemen. May be partial or complete, may be lacerated,, 
making continuous opening between anus and vulva, and faecal matter 
passes down into the vulva before it passes out, and gas does not escape. 
Whenever this occurs it should be attended to at once, in case it occurs 
when you are present. It may occur on account of overstretching of 
parts. As soon as delivery is effected, sterilize wound with antiseptic . 
and sew it up. May rupture from without inwards, and in sewing up 
begin on inside letting the knots come in vagina and work down. If 
rupture has extended into the rectum, stitch this first, then the vagina; 
use fine silk and needle, and put stitches close together; then hold part 
in place and put in the vagina a lump of oakum or cotton; dress two or 
three times a day. For internal dressing in rectum, sulphur ointment is 
very good; blow on iodoform, starch, and boracic acid; before powder 
is applied the wound should be dried thoroughly. In case the stitches 
rupture, scarify wound afresh and sew up again. Give soft feed. 

Metritis Metroperitonitis and Parturient Fever. — Almost 
invariably septic, might be Traumatic, and is usually fatal, especially in 
mares and women; cows are not so susceptible to it. Sepsis may occur 
through several channels — first, acute infection, infect themselves from 
germs and filth in their own tail, so that a case of this kind may develop 
after you have assisted in delivery. Organ becomes swollen is of reddish 
color, is always infectious, and almost invariably fatal. Tail of mare should 
be washed out after parturition, and put the animal in a clean stall with 
plenty of bedding. May come from dirty ropes and instruments. Cot- 
ton ropes are the best. Second specific method of infection by practition- 
er going to a case of parturition from a case of Erysipelas or Strangles. 

Treatment. — As soon as we are convinced that she is suffering from 
sepsis, sterilize all the genital organs with antiseptic. The best is a two 
or three per cent solution of boracic acid at a temperature of no° 
Fahrenheit, used in large quantity, leaving it in at least five minutes. 
Give quinine and alcoholic stimulants internally, also hyposulphite of 
soda and mild laxatives. 

Parturient Eclampsia. — Is convulsion of body due to nervous 
results following parturition, and may result in slight or complete con- 
vulsions; not common in lower animals. 

Etiology. — Rather obscure. When due to an hysterical condition, 
simple hyperesthesia is a cause, is closely allied to hysteria. May be 
seen in mares, cows, and bitches. Mares show it more often the first 
three or four days, cows not so susceptible to it; bitches usually show it 
during second and sometimes third week, when nursing puppy after 
parturition. They are panting very hard, and are in great distress. It 
very much resembles strychnine poisoning, and is frequently mistaken 
for it. 



l6o THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Treatment. — For bitches give chloral hydrate; take puppies off for 
twenty-four hours; give gelsemium and bromide of potash, or fl. ext. 
cannabis indica and hyoscyamus in a mixture. As soon as cramps are 
relieved repeat the doses until you get relaxation; give a dose of oil as 
soon as cramps are over, and feed liberally after recover}-. In mares 
give same medicines in larger doses; if not sufficient, give chloral hydrate 
in addition, and give laxatives as soon as cramps are subdued. 

Parturient Laminitts. — In mares it is common, due to sympa- 
thetic condition existing between genital organs and teeth. 

Treatment. — Liberal doses of nitrate of potash internally. Local 
treatment, same as ordinary Laminitis. 

NOTES ON THEORY AND PRACTICE CONTINUED. 

Urticaria, Surfeit (In Human, Nettlerash). — Is prickly heat. 
Skin diseases in the lower animals are rare as compared to the human, 
nor are they so complicated or severe. There are a great many varieties 
in the human clue to inherited taints; that is in the blood. The lower 
animals are liable to nearly all the acute forms. Man}- of the diseases of 
the skin are sympathetic, that is with other organs of the body, and do 
not arise as a primary but as a secondary affection. This exists in two 
forms in the horse— Acute and Chronic. It is an eruptive disease; in the 
acute form it comes up suddenly in blotches, varying from the size of a 
little finger nail to the size of a hand, and they are sharply circumscribed; 
they are irregular in form — some are round, others oval, others irregu- 
larly round; usually raise up about one eighth to one fourth of an inch 
in thickness, sometimes more than that; sometimes they go away as 
quickly as they come; other times they remain for hours, days, months, 
or may become chronic and remain for years. 

Etiology. — Predisposing cause is over-feeding and idleness; horses 
fed on corn are more liable than those fed on oats; there are more heat 
and starch in the corn, and it makes more adipose tissue. But it may 
occur with any kind of strong feeding, particularly if kept up, and more 
especially if one kind of food is kept up, without change of the kind. It 
is mostly due to the stomach by Indigestion, so that the horse is pleth- 
oric in every case, though he may look thin in flesh. The exciting cause 
is the sudden heating up; it usually develops in warm weather, especially 
after a little exercise. Giving little or much grass may produce it, 
especially if having been fed on grain; runners are more liable in this re- 
spect than thoroughbreds. Sometimes this disease covers every part of 
the body, other times is confined to the neck and shoulders. This erup- 
tion itches furiously, other times not at all; sometimes they are mad with 
the itching. The blotches are not sore in the acute stage, and there is no 
discharge. 

Treatment. — Depletion is indicated, so give purgatives — either aloes 
or salines, then fast except to give bran (bran slop) for twenty-four 
hours, then following the purgative action purify the blood, deplete, and 
give diuretics for three or four days after. When it comes on from eat- 
ing grass, as in the case of the runners, it often does so spontaneously 
and is always in the acute form. In such a case don't deplete, don't 
give purgatives, don't need anything; will get well himself, but you must 
make some show before the owner, so give mild diuretics, as X A oz. nitrate 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. l6l 

potash, either in the drinking water or in bolus, and give a little bitter 
tonic — nux vomica or gentian. When the itching is severe, a local ano- 
dyne wash may be used — as dilute acetic acid; sponge all over with warm 
water with a little common salt in it; add a little hydrocyanic acid to the 
wash, or sulphuric acid i dr. to quart of water, is found good; he will 
steam from this,, and then cool off. If that doesn't do, then try lotion of 
bicarbonate soda; remember the skin is sensitive and will absorb readily 
any strong lotion, therefore you can't use sugar of lead. 

Chronic Form. — In this the blotches remain permanently; it is very 
difficult to cure as these blotches are often very sore, and with a little 
fever in them; the hair occasionally drops off. These patches are apt to 
spread slowly, and don't usually occur close together, compared to the 
acute; but in portions of the body — as hip, shoulders, etc., they are in- 
clined to spread. Give alterative tonics — arsenic, sulphur, iodide potash 
are indicated; keep the bowels loose; give grass diet if possible; sulphate 
soda occasionally, and keep on with the iodide potash and arsenic for 
several weeks, or longer if necessaiw. Give charcoal, gentian, or nux 
vomica, or ginger. Let up on the soda for a week, then go on again; in 
this way you treat the digestive organs as well as the blood, for the blood 
has become poisoned. Acute cases may run into the chronic and require 
long treatment; may take a year or two to cure. In many cases can be 
cured. in from five to six months. The first three or four weeks after 
beginning treatment may make it worse, but the blotches will gradually 
disappear. Frequent bathing in cold water is good, just cold enough to 
get cooled off, and make it a little alkaline with bicarbonate soda. 

Psoriasis (Maeanders and SaeeEnders). — Malanders may oc- 
cur back of the knees, and Sallenders in front of the hocks. It comes in 
flexors of joints, described as squamos skin disease. It is subacute and 
and runs into chronic inflammation of the derma; as a result of this the 
skin becomes thickened, dry, and cracks transversally, sometimes from 
one half to three fourths of an inch deep, and they discharge a bloody 
serum, and unless treated in the early stages are very hard to cure. The 
first thing noticed is a sweaty discharge, probably from the same cause 
as Grease Heel. If it, is vigorously treated in the early stage it will yield 
to treatment, but in the chronic the treatment must be almost contin- 
uous. Generally seen in plethoric draft horses, seldom seen in the run- 
ners. The large surface sores that develop on the body of the draft stal- 
lion are about the same as those of Urticaria, but deeper-seated, and have 
not the abrupt edge; often come up as large as two hands, the skin gets 
thick and cracks, the discharge is purulent, and part often sloughs off. 
The part itches intensely, the horse will bite and rub it, and that causes 
more itching. It is very difficult to cure, especially when on the limbs, 
but they occur more often around the trunk, though may at an3^ place. 

Treatment. — For all these diseases treat about the same; deplete, 
but give moderate doses of purgative and repeat; too large are liable to 
produce superpurgation. To draft stallions of 1,800 lbs. give i oz. aloes 
or i lb. sulphate of soda; you can't cure without depleting. Give altera- 
tives, then diuretics,— arsenic, sulphur, green corn (stalk and all), but 
little oats or corn. 

Local Treatment. — Anodyne washes — some mild form of mercury, 
use it as an antiseptic. Mix a little blue ointment, or wash with alkaline 



1 62 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

wash — bicarbonate of soda or potash. Sulphur and lard are good, one 
to three parts; add a few drops of carbolic acid to allay the itching. If 
they granulate too much under this treatment, Tumors may form. Try 
to reduce with ointment of iodide potash and lard, one to eight parts, 
and give iodide potash internally, then change occasionally to white lo- 
tion; some use sulph. copper in lard, one to eight, or acetate copper in 
lard, one to eight. For the cracks in the joints use castile soap and 
water; keep animal quiet. If the,y are inclined to granulate too much, 
touch with lunar caustic, and dry up with white lotion. A wet pack 
for a few days is good, a two per cent solution of carbolic acid, then 
follow with bicarbonate potash or soda. 

Pityriasis. — Is a more or less chronic skin disease, with a general 
thickening of it; is associated with poverty every time; whether it is the 
lice that cause it, or it causes the lice, is not known. 

Symptoms. — The skin is thickened and scafy, may be one eighth to 
three quarters of an inch large, under these scales the lice burrow and 
reproduce. 

Treatment. — Bathe with soap and water, soften the scales, destroy the 
lice, and remove the cause. Feed them better; kill the lice with kerosene 
used in two ways — an ointment of one part kerosene to three of lard, or an 
emulsion of eight per cent kerosene and water; add a little carbonate 
potash so that the oil will mix. This should be also used with a force 
pump and shot into all the cracks and every place where the lice could 
be. This disease more often exists in cattle. This emulsion is also used 
to sponge over the cattle, but never apply kerosene clear. This is a good 
remedy if the horse is affected with any kind of lice; where the coat is 
heavy, best to clip off if surroundings will permit. Tobacco juice is also 
good; make an effusion of i Ifo. tobacco to 3 gals, of water and only ap- 
ply to about one third of the body at a time, as animals are easily made 
sick if applied all over; repeat the wash. In cattle you may sponge them 
all over with it freely, and repeat in a week or ten days, as nits will hatch. 

Acne. — Little isolated eruptions — pustules. In cattle there may be 
grubs; there are none in the horse. These pustules itch very much, and 
usually occur on the neck and shoulders, or under the saddle. They of- 
ten become chronic and must be cut out, but in the acute stage may be 
cured. Give alteratives and wash with soap and water and common salt; 
arsenic and sulphur internally are good. If under the saddle, use white 
lotion. 

Prurigo. — An intensely itching disease of the skin, due to a dis- 
ordered or deranged peripheral. sensibility; the cause usually is Indiges- 
tion, most 'likely from over-feeding. There is no morbid anatomy, nq 
eruptions, no thickening of the skin, no inflammation — simply itching. 

Treatment. —It invariably occurs with plethora; give purgative, fol- 
low with diuretics; bathe with alkaline wash or common salt. One form 
of this is an itching around the hock; sometimes the attack comes on sud- 
denly and the animal rubs off the hair and the flesh in his suffering, but 
it only aggravates the trouble. 

Special Treatment. — In addition to alteratives use sugar of lead. It 
may be due sometimes to Ascarides in the rectum. If you think so, give 
injection of turpentine 1 oz. to y 2 pint oil, or salt and water. A solution 
of acetate of lead }4 to 1 oz. to pint of water is best, and sulphur intern- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 63 

all}- rather freely. If that doesn't cure, then put on arsenic treatment. 
Arsenic is the best skin remedy, sulphur next, and iodide potash next. 

Erythema. — Simple inflammation of the skin, superficial, not deep- 
seated; there is a redness, and it often goes on to desquamation, leaving 
a raw surface. This covers the most ground of all skin diseases, as it 
includes stings or bites of insects, frost bites, chilblains, scalding by fire 
or water, chafe from harness, scalding of the skin b5 7 urine, or ichorous 
pus; sore teats in the cows, ewes, bitches; Scratches, Cracked Heels, Mud 
Fever in horses and cattle. 

Etiology. — Anything that produces simple superficial and focal in- 
flammation would be sufficient to cause this trouble; Scratches and Mud 
Fever in the horse especially, are due to exposure to mud and slush, and 
improper care of the legs, too much washing or hand rubbing or soaking. 
Using the hose to wash off mud; white legs that are often washed are 
very susceptible to it. In trotters the cause is generally too much soak- 
ing or tubbing; this causes too much softening of the skin, then when 
taken out of the water it dries, and fever takes place form the drying, 
this causes inflammation of the parts, the function of the sebaceous 
glands is arrested, and the sebum is not present to protect from macera- 
tion the skin of the legs. 

Semeiology. — Mud Fever, swelling of the legs; in severe acute case 
legs get hot, the whole animal is more or less feverish, legs from knees 
and hocks down are sore to touch; thej^ are stiff and lame. In a few 
days the skin gets scabby, feels as if it had been blistered, these scabs 
become exfoliated, and often the hair comes off with them and. legs may 
be bare up to the knees; if it is a white skin it will become purplish red. 
If neglected and not treated it may run on to chronic Big Leg, or to con- 
tinual stocking of the legs if left standing long. In milder cases it simply 
breaks out in the hollow of the pastern and is then called Scratches. Some- 
times this is very sore, with considerable swelling of the skin and transverse 
cracks at the flexor of the joint, sometimes quite deep. In chronic cases, 
as seen in trotters and typical forms, there is a gradual destruction of the 
normal skin, considerable granulation and raw surface; and when this 
heals after long treatment it leaves a cicatrical skin, and thickened. In 
cows, ewes, and bitches the teats get sore and chafed from being wet too 
much; in cows from a habit some have of wetting the teat with the milk 
when milking; the proper way is to squeeze the teat; or the offspring 
sucking so much may be a cause; scalding by the urine is a frequent 
cause. In males it may be ejaculating the urine forcibly so as to spra}^ 
the fore feet or legs; this is often recognized by passing your hand over 
them, then smelling your hand; or from urinating on bare floor it splashes 
on them; another form is urinating in the sheath, ma3^ cause the sheath to 
become raw and swollen, and a milk}' discharge to flow from it; another 
form is where they throw the urine up against the belly. 

Treatment. — In Mud Fever you have constitutional disturbances with 
local inflammation, so treat both; give laxatives — aloes, and potash; put 
on soft diet, don' t let go out in the mud. Remove the cause the first 
thing, if showering, washing, or tubbing. For local treatment, the best 
way to reduce the inflammation is to use hot linseed poultice with a little 
carbolic acid added; it acts as an antiphlogistic; use about three per cent 
solution; change the poultice twice a day. Give diuretics with the laxa- 



164 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

tives. After four or five days stop poulticing; then the fever is reduced, 
the inflammation gone, soreness gone, still the swelling remains; wash 
the leg clean, then dry, then apply sugar of lead lotion }■< oz. to pint of 
water, or powdered borax 1 oz. to pint, or boracic acid; the lead is the 
best of all. Sometimes the fever returns after about twenty-four hours; 
then repeat the poultices, alternate with the lead lotion, say for a week. 
Glycerine, and a little carbolic acid in water is good to apply — one third 
glycerine two thirds water; or any anodyne or astringent after the inflam- 
mation is reduced, is indicated. Maintain the diuretics for ten or fifteen 
days; usually they require a tonic — give gentian, iron, quinine or arsenic, 
together or alone; iron is indispensable. In bad case give arsenic, mix, 
and gentian. Give quinine in tonic doses — 10 to 20grs. three times a day. 
If thin give a little iron. In chronic case use fly blister. 

Scratches. — The same treatment; usually don't need the constitu- 
tional, still will do no harm; give purgative and soft feed. After poul- 
ticing three or four days, and after the inflammation is reduced, oxide of 
zinc and lard, one to eight, or better — sulphur and lard one to two, or a 
good plan is to change them. White lotion is very good. We prescribe 
sugar of lead, one part petrolatum, eight parts. In the chronic form, as seen 
in trotters, the first thing to do is to remove the cause. If the feet are sore 
and must have tubbing or soaking, let him stand in an inch of water in- 
stead or more than that. You must not be too wise with trotting horse 
owners, but handle them with soft gloves — they think they know all 
about a horse. If the horse is to race next day, poultice all night, and 
in the morning wipe off nice and clean and put 011 petroleum and sugar 
of lead, then go out. Stallions often get this way tied up in stall; idle- 
ness and high living, and other causes, and taken out a little; exercise causes 
transverse cracks. Give purgative and diuretics, and change the food; 
put on the poultice with carbolic acid. In case you find a thickening 
that wont yield to this treatment, use a cantharides blister — that will 
stimulate the absorbents and circulation, then return to former treatment. 

Frost Bites. — Cold applications are the best, gradually applied. 
• In very bad case treat on general principles; reduce the inflammation, 
give laxative and diuretics. 

Burns. — Use some oily substance to keep out the air — oil, rendered 
alkaline by adding lime water, is the best; oil one part, water four parts; 
apply to the part and cover with absorbent cotton. If the pain is great, 
give hypodermic injection of morphine; dress the burn twice a day. After 
the inflammation is reduced and the skin destroyed, the white lotion is 
good, or oxide zinc and lard. 

Sore Teats and Scalds From the Urine. — If the horse urinates 
in the sheath, teach him to extend it. If the sheath is inflamed use ace- 
tate lead and carbolized oil on his yard. If he urinates on the belly, tie 
shield or leather apron in front of the sheath. In bad cases it is often 
necessary to clip the hair, but unless absolutely necessary would not do 
it. 

Preventative Treatment. — The less the legs are washed the better. 
If he comes in with dirty legs in Fall, Winter, or Spring, let him dry, or 
rub off gently with wisp of straw, in the direction of the hair, never 
against it. Then dry, and brush off. If the barn is cold wrap a light 
fold of flannel around till the leg dries. I never allow washing from the 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 65 

first of Nov. to May in any stable where I treat, and never have aiw of 
these cases. 

Eczema, (or I boil out, I effervesce) Herpes, and Impetigo. — This 
includes all the skin diseases that are accompanied with eruption, with 
pimples filled with water, pus or other contents. The different kinds 
under this head are Simple, Papulae, Pustular, and Rubrin. This is the 
most common skin disease in any animal; best characterized bjr the erup- 
tion with a discharge, or else it is not Eczema. This discharge may vary 
in quality, quantity, etc. , in the different stages of the diseases, but it is 
always present. 

SimpeE. — This comes on suddenl}- and is usually confined in the 
horse to the neck and shoulders; sometimes where the skin is thin inside 
the thigh. There is intense itching, and the horse will sometimes rub 
the skin off; little pimples and vesicles will be found there, crop after 
crop will come up, discharge a thin watery fluid, then dry up and be fol- 
lowed bj^ a new crop. There is not a bit of contagion connected with it. 
The cause is usually a deranged condition of digestion, usually due to 
over- feeding, very heating food, highly nitrogenous, or on one kind of 
food long continued. 

Papui^E. — This is characterized by little elevations on the skin, re- 
sembling the papules or teats, and with more or less fever around the 
basis of the papules; sometimes there is a pimple in the center, but not 
always. As a result of the fever at the basis of these, the hair falls out 
and usually remains hanging to the end of the papules, making it look 
like a*rat-tail, as it is sometimes called. This form is inclined to become 
chronic and remain with the animal. It is seen more often on the legs 
of heavy draft horses and oxen, especially when working in the mud. 
This form is usually confined to the legs, and is probably due to the cold 
mud and water, or on account of some caustic in the mud, as we see in 
limestone roads; the lime becomes slacked and that scalds the legs of the 
animals. 

Pustular.-— Is somewhat similar to the Papulae form, but differs in 
the discharge — it is continuous and profuse, and the contents of the pim- 
ple is purulent. It is watery at first, but after twenty-four to thirty-six 
hours becomes pus. The most common manifestation of this in the horse 
is Grease Heee; occasionally in the discharge you will find parasites, ac- 
cording to Prof. Herring, Sarcoptes Hippodus, but it has been proven 
that their presence is simply accidental. In Grease Heel it is seen on 
the back of the leg. In addition to the Pustular, we find there is a sup- 
purative inflammation of the sebaceous follicles. 

Etiology. — It is a constitutional disease in most cases, almost invari- 
ably due to some humor in the blood, probably due to fault}' excretion 
of the effete matter; this acts at least as a predisposing cause, and the 
exciting cause is usually exposure to mud, slush, and cold water, but 
not always. Sometimes occurs in warm dry weather, but the rule is in 
Fall, Winter, and Spring, ofteuest in Spring because the blood then is 
thicker, and there is an accumulation of effete material in it; then cold 
water, as from snows, sets up a mild inflammation and causes the disease. 
,It is usually associated with plethora, though sometimes we see it in thin 
animals. 

Semeiology. — There is acute inflammation with swelling of the back 



166 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

of the legs, usually of the fetlock, or extending down to the heel, and 
may be up half way to the hocks; there is great soreness on pressure, 
and itching; may stand on one foot and scratch the place with the other. 
In course of from twenty- four to thirty-six hours a discharge develops, 
so that the leg usually looks wet, feels greasy, and smells horridly fetid; 
this odor is characteristic to Grease Heel. The discharge is colorless or 
slightly amber-colored; sometimes it is so profuse as to run down the 
legs and drip off. If two legs are affected at one time then he is a cripple. 
On account of the drying up of the sebum, in a short time the leg will 
begin to crack, usually in the back of the fetlock, may be in two, three 
or four places. In some cases the pustules run together, becoming con- 
fluent, and on account of the continued inflammation, is probably due to 
the animal parasite. The vesicles often crop up like grapes, and are 
called Grapes among horsemen; they are nothing more or less than 
fungus growth, and being so they come up quickly and are of a purplish 
red color; they bleed easily and discharge pus continually, and the leg 
during this time swells to four or five times its normal size, and is in- 
clined to remain so; being chronic then, is usually called Big Leg, known 
technically as Elephantiasis. Sometimes the grapes on Big Legs are so 
large, sensitive and vascular that they bleed on the least friction; are 
sore and make the horse lame, and finally become a chronic condition. 
The transverse fissures on the back of the leg become deeper, there are 
more of them, and they of themselves set up inflammation and more enlarge- 
ment. These great Big Legs are often due to Lymphangitis. One at- 
tack of Grease Heel leaves the animal predisposed to recurrence on "slight 
cause, and each time leaves it larger than before. 

Impetigo Labialis or Crusta Labialis. — Is another form occur- 
ring on the face and around the mouth; this is in little animals, fre- 
quently seen in little babies; of the lower animals, perhaps the pig is most 
liable to it; it is probably due to the wetting of the mouth in sucking, 
and saliva. There is a similar form in the adult, due to grazing when 
the dew is heavy on the grass on a cold morning after a frosty night — 
especially the horse; the mouth, lips and side of the face get very sore; 
often they must be taken up, they get so bad. The form existing in pigs 
is almost malignant; it starts at the mouth, and spreads sometimes over 
the whole body, and produces so much wasting as to cause death, the 
body being a mass of sores; is usually associated also with high feeding 
on corn. 

Treatment (In general, particularly as it relates to the horse I. — It 
arises from causes within the bod} 7 , usually something connected with 
digestion; as a rule there is torpidity of the liver, so first remove the 
cause, clean out the sewers of the body, clean out the debris through the 
natural channels, not through the skin. Give purgatives that pass 
through the blood before acting on the bowels — aloes and salines are in- 
dicated; follow with alteratives and diuretics, iodide potash, or sulphate 
soda. For local treatment, in the acute stage clip off the hair and poul- 
tice; add a little carbolic acid; charcoal is good; change the poultice twice 
a day and use soap and water freely. In bad cases change three times a 
day, and keep up until the discharge is stopped and inflammation sub- 
sides — that will be about four to ten days. Then give tonics internally — 
as arsenic in tonic doses; alternate with sulphur, give sulph. soda occa- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 67 

sionally, afterwards treat the heel as a simple inflammation, with lead or 
solution of bicarbonate soda or borax. If the fever returns repeat the 
poulticing and other treatment; as the swelling leaves give little exercise, 
but if it hurts, stop it. If the grapes crop up, clip them off with scissors 
close to the skin, and burn with sulphate copper, Prof. Williams' recipe: 

R Sulphur 8 ozs. 

Acid carbolic 1 oz. 

Potass, carb. 40ZS. 

Adeps 32 ozs. 

Oil olivee 32 ozs. 

Mix and plaster on two or three days, then wash off. For simple case 
muriate ammonia 1 oz. to pint of water, and acetate of lead where there 
is not too much eruption. For bad cases, sour solution of arsenic, as the 
potash in that is valuable, from V2, to 1 oz. two or three times a day. 
Powdered arsenious acid 2 to 5 grs. , two or three times a day is good. 
For the pig, wash off scabs with soap and water and apply saturated 
solution of borax, or boracic acid dry. 

Treatment for Big Leg from Grease Heel. — Get the condition in 
good shape; give mild purgative, follow with diuretics — iodide or acetate 
potash; then give arsenic, iron, and little nux vomica. Give horse regu- 
lar exercise; if a valuable horse, morning and night, and from four to 
eight miles at a time, but slow and gentle. When he comes in, shower 
the leg with cold water (if in hot weather) below the hock, then do up 
with dry derb} T bandage over the wet skin and hair, leave on several 
hours, then rub generously with the hand. In cold weather put on the 
bandage without showering; change the food — keep the stomach in good 
condition. 

In the dog there are two forms of Eczema; Rubrum only in the 
dog and human; then a pustular form which is a form of Canker in the ears 
of dogs; it breaks out as a result of surfeit — humor in the blood. The 
etiology is precisely the same as in Grease Heel, but confines itself to the 
external auditory canal. There is swelling and eruption of pimples, and 
a discharge of black gummy foetid pus, followed by granulation of the 
pustules, and in bad cases the complete filling up of the canal; complete 
deafness follows; sometimes the granulations heal, filling the canal solid, 
and remain so ever after. One early and continuous symptom is the 
soreness of the ear. 

Treatment. — Much the same as in Grease Heel; epsom salts or mag- 
nesia; follow with iodide potash and arsenic. 

Local Treatment. — Wash out the ear with soap and water, use a 
syringe; tap the cyst, rinse out with saturated solution of bicarbonate soda, 
then pour in caustic solution lunar caustic (nitrate silver) , strength 40 grs. 
to oz. water; cauterize with this once every two da} T s, for about three or 
four times, that is for an old case; wash once or twice a day, then reduce 
the strength of the silver to 10 grs., apply once a day for three da} T s, then 
change to white lotion. But for dog' s ears, usually make it T /n strength ; use 
this for from four to six days two or three times a da}\ and wash out once 
a day with soap and water; then after using this lotion for about six 
da3*s, change to saturated solution of borax and keep up till well. Reg- 
ulate the diet. In a very mild case wash out with soap and water and 
use white lotion and solution of borax. Rubrum usually occurs on the 



1 68 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

belly and down the sides, and the hair gets rusty. It is a constitutional 
disease — used to be called Red Mange. Treat with purgative and follow 
up with tonics — especially arsenic. This is not contagious. 

Erysipelas. — Is a very peculiar kind of inflammation of the skin, 
and is recognized by all as being contagious or infectious at times, but 
not always. It is recognized as being malignant, that is it is inclined to 
spread, and through any kind of tissue. It can be carried from one to 
the other by actual contact, and pregnant females will abort if exposed 
to the poison of Erysipelas; and following parturition, fatal Metritis 
may be taken by any female by coming in contact with the poison; this 
is particularly so in women, also in dogs. This seems to be due to a 
peculiar condition of the blood primarily, that is in the animal in which 
the disease starts — an unhealthy condition. It usually attacks animals 
either very thin or very fat, but more so in the lean; probably that is 
from debility; it is also more prevalent in some seasons than in others, 
especially when the air is filled with electricity. It starts often in 
wounds under causes which don't seem to be understood, but is probably 
due to the unhealthy condition of the blood, and with that an atonic con- 
dition of the nervous system. The wound prior to Erysipelas setting in 
is sluggish, showing a tendency to ulcerate and be unhealthy; doesn't 
heal benignly. 

Semeiology. — It is characterized by a peculiar glistening of the 
swelling; it is an indurated and tense condition, doesn't pit on pressure, 
not cedematous. If it occurs with a wound it is generally on the outside; 
the granulation becomes a purplish red fungus and bleeds easily; is com- 
paratively insensible, and is called Proud Flesh. On the outer part of 
the wound the inflammation in the surrounding tissue is dense, glisten- 
ing with swelling, but it doesn't always occur with a wound; it may show 
no place on the bod}-. In the human it is generally in the head and face, 
but may be in any part of the body. Horses are most often affected in 
the legs; the swelling usually has an abrupt line of demarkation; that is 
well marked also in the human, and the whole case has a peculiar smell 
— it resembles the smell of mice, or some say of burnt hair or of Small 
Pox. It has a tendency to spread, and often quite rapidly; it may be 
two inches one day, the next, four inches in diameter, but it usually in- 
creases from about one half to three fourths of an inch in twenty-four 
hours. The hard tense glistening condition is probably due to the infil- 
tration of exudate into the surrounding tissues. 

Treatment. — Apply hot fomentations diligently, and between times 
apply sugar of lead lotion, freely and strong, three times a day; the satu- 
rated solution is the best; in most cases this will control it. In all mild 
cases this is the usual treatment; in the human, especially where the 
skin is not broken, but if malignant, or if with a wound, or malignant where 
the skin is not broken, the best treatment is tinct. iron full strength, six, 
eight, or ten times a day. In the human it is a very dangerous disease, 
often where it starts about the nose and involves the whole head and often 
causes death. In such case shave the head and paint with tinct. iron or 
tinct. iodine full strength. It is good practice to cauterize the healthy 
skin just outside the inflammation, usually with tinct. iodine full strength 
or nitrate silver. Animals usually require constitutional treatment as well. 
Iron internally is invariably indicated, even if the animal is fat, the blood 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 69 

ma}* be in au impoYerislied condition. In fat animals a laxative is indicated 
on general principles. After recovery is advanced, give iodide potash in 
small doses to purify the blood; give this in connection with the iron. 
Isolate the animal and use separate stable implements around him; be 
careful not to cany it on your hands or person to other animals, espec- 
ially if going to treat a wound. In the Spring of '75, Dr. Howard in 
Montreal in the course of two months caused the death of twenty-five 
women in childbirth from Puerperal Metritis, by carrying the disease 
to them. If 3*011 go to a case, then fumigate yourself after. It is not 
looked upon as dangerous unless it attacks the head, then it may attack 
the brain; in old people it is looked upon as dangerous in any part of the 
body, because it is an indication of waning vitality, especially if in 
connection with some previous disease. In old persons, as in the case of 
an ulceration, Erysipelas starts in and finally terminates in death from 
gangrene. 

Cellulitis. — Is where the inflammation extends to the cellular tis- 
sue underneath the skin, so severe as to interfere with the circulation, 
and forms an Abscess; this occurring in such a way is called 

Phlegmon. — That is, a suppuration of acute Cellulitis, usually the 
result of some blood poisoning. It often succeeds or is the result of Ery- 
sipelas. The skin over the Abscess in this Cellulitis, from the circulation 
being shut off, often sloughs off, that is the skin over the Phlegmon. 
The most common illustration of this is in the last stage of canine Dis- 
temper. It usually occurs around the animal's neck, breast and throat; 
it comes up with a tense, hard swelling, is painful, suppurates, and forms 
Abscess in the cellular tissue underneath the skin. It contains a black 
offensive pus. In Influenza in horses, known as Pink Eye, the e}*e 
closes up b\* inflammation around the lid; it is acute Cellulitis, but doesn't 
suppurate. 

Treatment. — Iron, quinine and Fowler' s solution of arsenic internally. 
Open the Abscess as early as you can locate it; use an antiseptic strong 
enough at first to cauterize, then antiseptic after. Poultices are good 
after opening the Abscess; sterilize them, or use hot fomentations. 

Ferunculus (Feruncle ). — Disease around the feet of horses; it is 
practically what might be called a boil, due to an acute localized inflam- 
mation in the skin and cellular tissue underneath, involving of course 
the sebaceous glands. It usually occurs around the pastern of the horse, 
either before or behind, and any place on the fetlock, even above the 
fetlock, and sometimes it spreads two thirds around the part, or may be 
confined to a single spot, from the size of the thumb-nail to the size of 
the hand. It is inclined usually to run a benign course and terminate 
favorably, but other times it is malignant and is inclined to extend deeply, 
and in the course of the sloughing expose ligaments and tendons, often 
below the ligament, as the capsular, causing Open Joint and death from 
irritative fever when it extends under the corona and affects so many blood 
vessels, the blood becoming poisoned. A characteristic of this Feruncle 
is a central core — this is invariable, probably a part of necrosed tissue 
that has separated from the living tissue, thus forming the core. In the 
human it is the Boil. It is different from the Abscess, in that the Ab- 
scess never has a core; the same distinguishes it from the Carbuncle — 
the Carbuncle also is anthracoid. 



170 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Etiology. — It depends upon the impoverished condition of the blood. 
We fancy the cause is a bruise of some sort, or frost bite, etc., as the ex- 
citing cause. In the Spring of '81 or '82, there was on epidemic of this 
in Chicago; it was thought by some to be due to the salt thrown on the street 
car tracks to melt the snow, but Dr. Baker did not think so, as the street 
car horses were not affected, but that it was due rather to standing in the 
cold mud and slash. Sometimes it affects one leg or may affect all; it is 
also predisposed by the torpidity of the liver. It sometimes occurs in dry 
hot weather. 

Semeiology. — In the first stage there is acute swelling of the leg, in- 
tense pain, lameness, heat and soreness; that is where there is swelling; 
often the swelling is so even it is hard to locate the spot where it is going 
to break. There is always severe constitutional disturbance, elevation 
of the pulse, pulse increased in frequency and diminished in size, hard 
and small; the breathing is accelerated, often double; complete loss of 
appetite, Constipation, and high colored urine; hangs the head and 
droops the ears. In the second stage, little places of the skin will become 
rough and corrugated, about the size of a twenty-five cent piece, and 
after a day or two break in the center and a little hole is left, which 
discharges pus; in a few hours more the roughened skin breaks and will 
slough off; this occurs in from six to twenty-four hours after the rupture, 
though it may hold on for forty-eight hours. When this skin sloughs off 
the core usually comes with it; this leaves a circumscribed hole; the fever 
subsides, pain ceases, appetite and other normal functions return, and 
makes a rapid recovery. The wound begins to granulate, that is the 
third stage; this occurs quite rapidly, and not only fills up the cavity, but 
may form a large Tumor above b}^ self-proliferation; the Tumor is cov- 
ered by a thick cicatricial horny skin. 

Treatment. — We are usually called in the first stage, because the 
horse is then very sick; a purgative is indicated, full dose, say of aloes, 
then give diuretic and while that is working give fever mixture — aconite, 
belladonna, spts. nit. ether, nitrate potash and muriate ammonia, in 
liberal doses and repeat every hour for about ten hours. 

Ivocal Treatment. — Hot linseed poultices; soon as you can locate the 
Abscess open it; McEchran used to open them with a hot iron in the sec- 
ond stage, quite deep; but the knife is just as good, except that it limits 
the amount of sloughing; then use antiseptic; change poultices night and 
morning. When the cavity is about three quarters filled, discontinue 
the poultice and use white lotion; this hardens the cells and it fills over 
about level with the skin and prevents Abscesses. 

■ Mange. — Scabies in the lower animals, also called Scab in the 
human, sometimes the Itch. This disease while strictly a skin disease 
is entirely due to the Parasitic Dermatozoa, spoken of as Entozoa and 
Ectozoa; the Ectozoa being on the outside of the skin. A parasite is a liv- 
ing thing that lives off other animals, and nearly all are animals, though 
there are few vegetable parasites, of which the mistletoe is the most noted. 
It is a notorious fact that no animal is free from parasites, no matter how 
large or small. The Dermatozoa thus living on or under the skin, pro- 
duce skin diseases; and every genii has its own parasites — horses, dogs, 
cattle, etc., that is they wont thrive off one specie, when put on a different 
specie. It is very contagious from one animal to another of the same 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. X^l 

specie — the only exception is the Mange of cats and rats; they will run 
over a cat and kill in a comparatively short time. The chief feature of 
this Mange is the intense itching that the ravages of the parasite produce. 
Wedel discovered the Ascari of the cat in 1672, Renting those of the horse 
in 1789,' Walz those of the sheep in 1809, Gohier of the ox and dog 
in 18 1 2, Spinola those of the hog in 1846. These Dermatozoa also are 
called Ascarus or (plural) Ascari. There are three principal classes of 
Dermatozoa or Mange as follows: 

Sarcoptes. — Most important, those that burrow under the skin or 
epidermis. 

Psoroptes. — Those that are on the surface. 

Symbiotes Equi. — Those on the limbs and in the horses' tails. 

There are many sub classes to these. The Symbiotes often cause 
the horse to lose his tail, making him rat tailed. These parasites usually 
go in groups or colonies; they sometimes exist on the legs, and there 
cause the hair to fall off also, and cause considerable swelling; they are 
not common in this country, but are most common in Europe. Sarcoptes 
are the worst, as they work under the skin, or in the body of the true- 
skin; they also get into the roots of the hair. They produce a swelling 
of the skin; they are seldom seen in horses, but are common in the dog. 
Psoroptes are comparatively harmless, except that they cause loss of 
hair, and cause great distress, but to offset this they work much faster 
than the Sarcoptes, and probably kill faster. The varieties of Mange are 
as follows: 

Horse. — Sarcoptes. — Sarcoptes Scabiei. Psoroptes. — Com. Sym- 
biotes. — Equi. Of these the Sarcoptic Mange is the worst. 

Ox. — Psoroptes Communis. 

Symbiotes Bovis. — The Psoroptes Com. is the worst. 

Sheep. — Scarcoptes Squamiferous, that raise "the skin up in the 
scales. Psoroptes Com., known among sheepmen as Scabies Symbiotes 
Ovis. 

Dog. — Sarcoptes Squamiferous is. the principal Mange of the. dog.. 
Symbiotes Canis. 

Cat. — Sarcoptes Minor, because they are so small they require a 
magnifying glass to see them— must be a strong glass. It is the princi- 
pal Mange. Symbiotes Eelis. 

Hog. — Sarcoptes Squamiferous, only one. 

Man. — Sarcoptes Scabiei or Itch. 

The Scab in sheep produces dropping off of the wool by causing such 
an itching that the}?- rub off the wool, and it is a source of enormous loss 
when it gets into sheep herds. Other animals much the same wa}^; first, 
there is an itching, then eruptions on the skin; for instance, Psoroptes 
produce a scaly, scurfy condition of the skin like dandruff. The Sarcop- 
tes working under the skin produce severe swelling and intense itching, 
especially in the dog. In the human the most common place seems to 
be between the fingers, biit it will soon spread all over if not cured. The 
cat develops a thick squamos skin under which the nits burrow, finalty 
the cat wastes away and dies. In cattle it seems to be most common 
around the eyes, and it spreads. German authors say it is more common 
in horses and dogs, but not so in Canada. Here as in Europe, it is seen 



172 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

oftener in horses and dogs. In Canada it used to be common among the 
school children. 

Treatment. — Some remedy must be used to destory the parasite, 
and as that is pretty hard to do, look out you don't kill the animal in so 
doing. Isolate the animal; if the hair is long, clip it, especially in dogs, 
then give a bath with strong soap and water till you get the scabs and 
scurf cleaned off; that will take a long-time washing; use a scrubbing 
brush or curry comb. After you get through the. animal will be red and 
may be raw, but that will be all right; in an hour it will be about dry, then 
rub well and apply all over the* surf ace (every part, for you must come 
in contact with the parasite) some Mange mixture. We find the only 
specific for the Mange and Itch is sulphur. All you need if Psoroptes 
or Symbiotes, is ointment of sulphur and lard, but for professional 
reasons we don't give anything so simple; we use something that works 
as well, and for the Sarcoptes it works better. 
R Acid Carbol. ]/ 2 oz. 

Oil Terebinth. 1 oz. 

Oil Pieis Liq. 1 and l 2 oz. 

Sulphur 2 ozs. 

Oil I/ini. ad to make 01(1 pint). 

Can't use this on cats as the}' can't stand the carbolic acid; but for 
horses, dogs, (from mastiff to toy terrier,) cattle, etc., it may be used 
freely, and rub it well in. If your first washing is thorough one dose 
ought to be sufficient, but it is best to repeat the application once a day, 
after the first wash, for four days, then friction without the mixture for 
four more, then wash off; if not cured then, repeat the mixture. A more 
common and cheaper one is kerosene and lard one to three parts, or sul- 
phur, lard, tar and turpentine, and may or may not add carbolic acid. 
After curing the animal treat the places where they had been sore, then 
clean stables, doghouses, etc., good; wash out with boiling water and 
corrosive sublimate, or carbolic acid with the water, then whitewash the 
place, clean the harness and oil it. In Baker's Mange cure, you may 
use instead of the sulphur, if you are going to ship, sulphurus acid so- 
lution-, say an ounce of it. Tobacco juice is very good also as a wash 
for Mange, especially for sheep. Arsenic dips would be the best for 
sheep if you turn them out on a bare place where the arsenic can't drip 
011 what the}' will eat. Refer to Finley Dunn for the arsenic dip for 
sheep. A good sheep dip is as follows: common salt and tobacco 1 ft. 
each, boil for one hour in gallon of water; then add 2 drams of corrosive 
sublimate, and add aqua to make three gallons in all. Apply to seal >1 >y part 
once, and repeat in a few days if necessary. For eats or pet dogs use sol. 
iod. cal. brom. comp. 1 oz.; add aqua to make four ounces. 

Demodex FoLLiCULORUM.— Known as Follicular Mange, found in 
the dog mostly, but sometimes in the cat, sheep, horse, pig, goat, ox, 
deer, fox, rats, and mice. Is almost impossible to cure, because you can- 
not get at it. 

Semeiology. — Great itching; animals will scratch and bite; in some 
cases in horses and cattle, a scurvy accumulation comes on skin, hair 
falls out more or less; in long-standing cases skin becomes thickened and 
wrinkles. There is a peculiar offensive odor. Use creoline pretty strong. 

Ringworm. — This is due to the presence of a vegetable parasite 
known as Dermatophite, it flourishes luxuriantly. The disease is ordi- 



. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 73 

narily known as Favus. This vegetable is Cryptogenic, discovered 
by Nolmsten in 1845; it is usually in the skin and attacks the hair fol- 
licles. Its ceds are oval, transparent, and 7 tjVo inch in diameter; it bur- 
rows under the skin as well as the hair follicles — gets into the roots of 
the hair. It causes intense itching, and forms a crust on the skin; it is 
very contagious. It starts in a little spot and spreads in a circle, and as 
it grows larger it lessens on the inside and leaves a healthy part in 
place. In the horse this starts about two inches in diameter; in the hu- 
man this zone is about an inch. 

Symptoms.— The circular form shows the growth of the disease; it 
itches, burns and pains. 

Treatment. — Wash the part with soap and water, then apply some- 
thing that will cauterize the part — as tinct. iodine clear; 1 to 8 iodine 
ointment. Sometimes a strong solution of corrosive sublimate is effectual, 
but it cauterizes; kerosene, turpentine or any kind of oil works well and 
doesn't burn. Oil of Indian Corn is good; place the corn on some cold flat 
iron surface in a single layer, heat a shovel and lay on the corn for a little 
while, then take away the shovel; the corn adheres to the shovel and the 
black oil is left on the cold surface; apply this oil to the Ringworm, it 
will sting but cure. 

CONSTITUTION AE DISEASES. 

Are those that have their seat primaril}^ in the blood; if they locate 
in any particular organ, then they become so secondarily. Every constitu- 
tional disease locates itself in some particular part of the body which is 
best suited for its development. The constitutional diseases are divided 
into two. classes — Contagious and Non-contagious. In both of these 
grave changes take place in the blood, as the particular feature of the 
case. In contagious diseases the cause is introduced from without the 
body. This is spoken of as Contagium, as a generic term; this includes all 
the germs, no matter how introduced. In Non-contagious diseases the 
morbid condition arises within the body. 

Diseases are contagious, infectious or specific when the disease- 
producing agent inoculated into a healthy animal will produce the same 
disease. Those agents are known as Contagion, sometimes spoken of 
as specific virus, or materies morbi. Contagious is the popular term, 
and is used in the generic sense to convey the idea that the disease is 
catching, it doesn't make any difference whether from germs floating in 
the air or from actual contact. Infectious has more of a specific meaning 
and is used more among scientific men, seldom by the public; they 
really mean the same thing, and are used indiscriminately; some of the 
best authors say they are S3monymous. It has become quite popular to 
speak of all diseases as Exogenous (as Tuberculosis) when introduced 
from without; and as Endogenous when from within (as Hog Cholera). 
The contagious are usually classified as Exogenous, and non-contagious 
as Endogenous. Bacteriological research has gone far in proving there 
is a specific germ present in one infectious disease; though there may be 
other germs present the disease is due to one alone; that is, every 
infectious, or contagious, or specific disease has a specific germ, which 
when introduced into the healthy animal will produce that disease and 
no other. 



174 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Bacterium (Bacteria). — Is the generic term now applied to all 
kinds of germs, and Bacteriology relates to germs in general, with- 
out speaking of any particular germ. These Bacteria are divided into 
three large classes, and they have many subdivisions — Micrococcus, i., 
Bacillus, i., Spirillum, a. The Micrococci are often spoken of now 
by medical men as Cocci; they are either round and small, or oval and 
larger. Bacilli are rod shaped. Spirilla are spiral or corkskrew like. 
These germs may occur singly or in chains, glued together with proto- 
plasm. They are all equal in the severity of the disease they produce, 
as in the Bacilli which is found in Tuberculosis, Anthrax, etc. ; Micro- 
cocci in Yellow Fever, Texas Fever, etc. ; Spirilla in Asiatic Cholera, etc. 
The Spirilla are much larger than the other two; they are often found in 
stagnant water. When these germs are introduced into the body they 
go on reproducing; these Bacilli all have spores, and when the Bacilli 
become matured they break up into sections of spores and go on in that 
way, increasing in numbers. After they have been in the blood twenty- 
four, forty-eight, or more hours, they begin to produce a chemical prod- 
uct called Ptomaines, and as a rule, or invariably, this destroys the 
germ itself — they can't live in their own ptomaines. In many cases if the 
ptomaines could be eliminated from the blood the animal would recover. 
In Texas Fever they locate in the red corpuscles, and their presence kills. 
In Tetanus it is the ptomaines that produce the trouble and death, and 
not the germ itself. In Anthrax it is by their great numbers; they are 
so numerous the blood is thickened and the ptomaines cut no figure. 

As regards the placing of these Bacteria in the vegetable world, and 
the way we classify them as vegetables, should be understood. The 
earlier naturalists looked upon this germ as being animal, but now all 
naturalists recognize it as vegetable, — micro-organism, and differing 
from Infusoria, which are the single cell life; the vegetable is single cell 
vegetable life. They appear the same under the microscope; they are 
the lowest order of living things. Animal cells receive their food parti- 
cles into the interior of the body, assimilate the nutritious portion, and 
subsequently exude the non-nutritious residue. They have an opening 
at each end, from mouth to anus. Vegetable organism is nourished 
through its cell walls, which inclose protoplasm, by organic or inorganic 
substances held in solution; it takes in nothing but what it needs, so 
there is nothing to exude. When these germs are introduced into the 
bod)-, if the}- find suitable soil the3^ reproduce themselves and will con- 
tinue to do so and finally kill the animal; but if they don't find suitable 
soil they reproduce but little and soon die. Immunity from these dis- 
eases is when the germ does not find suitable soil to grow in. In the 
Infusoria there are no ptomaines. In all specific diseases it takes a little 
time after the introduction of the worm to have the disease manifest 
itself; this period is called the period of incubation; the time varies very 
much, depending on the conditions surrounding the animal and the con- 
dition of the blood as we see in Tetanus. If the germ gets into the 
wound and the wound closes and excludes the air, the disease will soon 
show; but if the wound remains open and the air gets into it, it takes 
about six weeks, where in the other case it may show in from one' to 
three days. They will thrive in a temperature of from 98 to 107 Fah- 
renheit. 






VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 75 

Tuberculosis. — Ordinarily known as Consumption, especially in 
the human. It is very common in cattle and in sheep; it may exist in 
any animal, but the horse very rarely has it. It is most common in the 
human and in cattle. It is thought by some to have originally arisen 
among cattle, and from them spread to other animals. As proof of this 
theory — where there are no cows used in some parts of the world there is 
no Consumption, and where cattle are most plentiful Consumption is 
greater. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease; it is communicable from 
one animal to another in man}^ ways, but the specific virus is the Bacilli 
Tuberculosis, discovered by Koch in 1882. He found it in the sputa of 
a Tuberculosis patient, and inoculation with it produced the disease 
wherever inoculated. The period of inoculation is very variable; accord- 
ing to the researches of Koch, in case of inoculation, from twelve days 
to several weeks; but when gotten in the natural way, may exist a very 
long time. It is inclined to run a mild course and terminate favorably. 
Koch discovered that these Bacilli would grow in any part of the body 
where thej^ were planted. In the natural wa}^ they most always affect 
the lungs, as they are taken in by respiration, but they do not always 
affect the lungs even when gotten that way. Hamilton mentioned many 
parts of the body where he had found them, even in the iris of the eye 
and in the aqueous humor, and in the bones; but the choice of places is 
in the lungs; next place the pleura, then peritoneum, pia mater, arach- 
noid. Muscular tissue has almost complete immunity from them, that 
is in the natural way. Where they occur in the muscles it is the result 
of direct inoculation. The organs most affected are the lungs; second, 
the spleen, then kidneys, liver, then the brain. When they exist in one 
part of the body they are apt to spread to other parts; we often find 
them exist in a dozen different places in the body. In the lower ani- 
mals they don' t affect the bones very often, but do in the human. 
Scrofula is often nothing but Tuberculosis. 

Etiology. — The Bacilli are most often found in the sputa of patients; 
the most prolific way of getting it is from the sputa that is thrown on 
the floors or ground; in drying it is ground up and the germ floats in 
the air and is inhaled. The disease can't be had without the germ; 
sometimes it is found in the faeces and in the milk from females, partic- 
ularly from the cow, as the mammary glands are then affected with the 
disease. Antoher way is through the food — eating infected meats and 
milk. 

Special Pathology. — This would come more under the head of Path- 
ogeny. The first step is the discovery of the germ that is introduced 
into the stomach in the food; the tissues of the stomach are rarely affected 
so they pass into the intestines, which are also rarely affected, thence 
pass into the blood and are then lodged in some part of the body. Ham- 
ilton says they go in colonies of three, five, nine, usually five; they 
locate in some place and begin reproducing themselves. This sets up 
a little localized inflammation that is slight in extent, the result of this 
is degeneration of the little spot; usually this degeneration is caseous, 
may say it is a phenomenon of the disease. Sometimes this degenera- 
tion is fibrous, sometimes hyaline; this spot is the tubercle, and usually 
starts in little isolated spots or circumscribed tubercles, from the size of 
a millet seed up to .318 of an inch in diameter; probahly all are of the 



176 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

size of the millet seed in the start, but as they involve other tissues they 
grow. There is a little exudation and slight formation of neoplastic 
tissue as a result. This tissue is nearly always fibrous at first, then in 
the course of a few T weeks or months, if the germ is not too active in the 
tubercle, a deposition of calcareous salts takes place in this fibrous cap- 
sule that has been forming. This you might say incloses the tubercule 
in a stone wall perfectly impervious, which renders the tubercle inocu- 
lated forever. This is the course of a mild case that terminates favora- 
bly. 

The reason that the germs we often inhale don't cause Consumption, 
is due to this calcification. This feature of calcification is very impor- 
tant — it is another phenomenon of the disease, and is diagnostic; some- 
times we say taking another form of the disease. The Bacilli remain very 
active, increase in numbers very fast, and other colonies start; the tuber- 
cles spread rapidl}-, and before death may be in ten or a dozen places. 
In case the Bacilli take on such great activity, we get inflammation of 
the spot, followed by ulceration rapidly; this differs from calcareous 
formation around the capsule; there is no end to this ulceration except 
death. It spreads very rapidly — sometimes Quick Consumption may 
be in six weeks, other times will hang on for years. The tissues of the 
lungs are destroyed and blood vessels are eaten in two, and this causes 
the hemorrhage of Consumption; the sputa is degenerated caseous mat- 
ter, it has no nuclei. In very extensive cases, if the caseous matter is 
not inclosed in the calcareous matter, may become softened and liquify; 
cases have been where the whole contents of the sacks or capsules were 
liquid. This disease is usually divided into several stages — first, is the 
caseous, no inflammatory process, only caseous; second, exudative stage, 
and forming of the fibrous capsule; third, stage of ulceration; fourth, is 
the cretaceous when the lime salts are deposited around the caseous mat- 
ter. When this exists to a great extent, inclosing the miliar}-, it gives 
the lung a peculiar look — as little lumps of chalk. The cachexia that 
accompanies the putrefactive matter is absorbed and distributed through 
the blood poisoning it. When it attacks the skin in the form of Lupus, 
it produces a circumscribed swelling on the surface. 

Diagnosis in Autopsy. — Suppose you never saw the animal in life. 
There are six or .seven diagnostic features; first, the presence of the 
miliary tubercles or nodules, usually multiple, either running in lines, 
arranged in groups, or evenl)- distributed through the organ affected; 
second, the little nodules are a general eruption of very even size, usually 
about that of the millet seed; third, these nodules or eruptions are 
round in shape, with border sharply defined. Fourth, they have an 
almost cartilagenous lustre and hardness; fifth, they can be easily dis- 
sected out from the tissue; sixth, the color is usually gray, but whei 
caseated is more of a creamy yellow, — this may refer to the cut surfac 
or the outside. Then in bad cases it takes three forms — first, caseous; 
second, fibrous; third, hyaline; this is the order in which they most fre 
quently occur. 

Semeiology (say a cow). — The first thing is a husky cough; osculta- 
tion and percussion in bad cases will reveal a semi-solid sound; a dullm 
can be located if not too fat. In a mild case, or in the early stages, 
there is little or no constitutional disturbance, but when the system be- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 177 

gins to suffer from the cachexia the appetite becomes capricious, some- 
times completely lost; emaciation takes place, sometimes very extensive. 
In this stage L,upus sometimes develops, often suddenly; large tubercle 
patches often occur broadside, on the ribs and skin; Hydrothorax is a 
common complication, towards the last general debility and death; this 
takes place as the immediate result of an exhausting Diarrhoea. Hogs, 
also people, develop about the same. 

Treatment. — Generous feeding of very nutritious food, oleaginous 
as possible and fat-producing, and fat itself, so give linseed meal in the 
shape of ground oil cake. In the human, cod liver oil and fat meats, 
good nursing and correct hygiene. 

Proph3dactic Treatment. — We believe it is infectious, and if the meat 
is eaten will produce the disease; this in the human produces Phthisis 
Tuberculosis, particularly from drinking the milk of an affected cow. 
Try to stamp out the disease by destro3'ing the affected animal. In 
doubtful cases they are using Tuberculine to prove if an animal has Tuber- 
culosis, by injecting this under the skin; if there is any Tuberculosis 
present it will set up a severe Systemic Fever that will last several days 
and cause a fresh attack by the Bacilli. You can get this only from the 
Veterinarian in charge of some experimental station; they get it from Wash- 
ington, from the Bureau of Animal Industry. If there is no Tubercu- 
losis present there may be some fever set up with this, but it wont be 
severe, and will soon pass away. If you inspect meats and see any ulcer- 
ation from this disease — condemn it; if there is calcification and no ulcer- 
ation to be found, then it may pass. But beware of the milk or meat of 
a coughing cow. 

Rinderpest. — This is an infectious disease, and is exclusively a bovine 
disease; it originated in Russia and spread to the other European coun- 
tries except England; it has never been in this country. The mortal^ 
of the disease is forty per cent and upwards. The period of incubation is 
about two days; that probabty accounts for its not having spread more, as 
it develops so quickly. At the end of two days a high fever sets in, the 
mouth is studded with pustules, mucous membranes of the body are con- 
gested, skin becomes affected b}- the formation of epithelial concretions, 
and desquamation of these occurs in about twenty-four hours, leaving a 
pink erosion, almost raw surface, the skin in other places becomes greasy; 
the appetite is lost, rumination is suspended, milk dries up, the urine is 
scanty and high colored; there is a foeted Diarrhoea, and accompan}dng it 
there is painful straining; saliva dribbles from the mouth, the back is 
arched, the head droops, eyes are watery, mucous membrane (particu- 
larly the rectum) gets purple, respiration is performed with a grunt, 
whistling is heard in the chest, by oscultation, and on percussion the 
chest is abnormally drum-like; there is sudden lowering of the tempera- 
ture, and death takes place usually in from seven to eight days. 

Treatment. — Is useless and should not be attempted. Stamp it out 
by destroying all infected animals and quarantining all the exposed ones,- 
burn the carcasses and everything used around them, and fumigate the 
stables. 

PlEuro- Pneumonia Contagiosa, (Contagious Pleuro- Pneumonia). 
— This is the most insiduous, stealthy disease we have anything to do 
with, and the period of incubation is so long it makes it dangerous, as it 



1 78 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

can be carried so far before breaking out. The history of it was that 
wherever it started or got in, it never was gotten rid of except in this 
country. It is a disease of the chest, lungs and pleura. It has existed 
in Europe from time immemorial, in England in 1840, and it is there yet. 
It came to this country in 1S43, by importation of cattle from England 
and other parts of Europe. In the early summer of 1884 it was brought 
to Ohio from Baltimore by a Jersey cow, and from there it came to Illi- 
nois and to other states, among them Kentucky and Missouri. In the 
fall of 1884 Dr. Baker, with the State Veterinarian, ran down the last 
one, as they thought, and had them destroyed; but two years after they 
discovered some again, thousands were found affected and destroyed. 
The period of incubation, according to their experiments, is a minimum of 
seventeen days, and on the last maybe full}' developed; then from that up 
to several months, known repeatedly to be two months. Up to '83 it had 
never been known west of the Allegheny mountains, but before that it 
had been in the new England States. It is not always fatal; in some 
herds there may be a mortality of 90 per cent, in others as low as 20 per 
cent, but 60 per cent is about the average. Some authors think it is a 
non-recurring disease, but Dr. Baker and others in this state found suf- 
ficient proofs that it would recur; he found cases that showed proofs in 
autopsy that the animal had had the disease before, and recovered; in 
fact he found all the different stages of the disease in some cases in the 
one animal. Dr. Gaskins, a retired Vet. of Philadelphia, believes as does 
Dr. Baker; he has come to the conclusion that many of the spontaneous 
outbreaks in Europe were chronic cases; that is cases that were called re- 
covered ones, but the disease had only broken out afresh in them and was 
communicated to the rest of the herd. In chronic cases the contents of 
the capsules liquify and get thinner and thinner, and finally rupture the 
capsule and allow the contents to get out and the animal is attacked 
afresh with the same disease it had recovered from. In England 
they don't destroy exposed cases, only quarantine them; hence they keep 
the disease among them. There is none of it in this country now, that 
is known, but it is liable to be imported. Breeding stock lias to be quar- 
antined for ninety days, and in Canada before entering. 

Semeiology. — Is divided into two stages; the first lasts from two to 
six weeks; it comes on with an assiduous fever, varying from 102 upwards; 
usually starts out at a slight elevation of one degree, but may run up to 
107. Among the animals Dr. Baker experimented with, they took the 
temperature every day; at 102 the animal was considered sound, 
but at 103 affected. As the fever increases the appetite will be 
lost, but in very mild cases they never lose their appetite. There is a 
short husk}- cough. If they are running at large, the affected animals 
will isolate themselves from the rest of the herd, with back arched, droop- 
ing head, unthrifty appearance, and staring coat. Rumination and se- 
cretion of milk are suspended, but that will happen from any fever; the 
breathing presents all the symptoms of sporadic Pleuro- Pneumonia — 
nothing diagnostic in it; in a typical case the expiration is performed with 
a grunt; the}' are constipated, from impaction of the omasum; nose is 
dry, nostrils dilated, pulse rapid and weak; horns hot at the head and 
cold at the tips; oscultation and percussion disclose all the symptoms of 
the sporadic disease. Prof. McEachran said the left lung was oftenest 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 79 

affected where only one was affected, but Dr. Baker and other authors 
say oftener in the right lung, and their theory has been proven to be bet- 
ter than McEachran' s. During the acute stage the disease is most in- 
fectious. The second stage is characterized by an aggravation of all the 
symptoms, marked particularly by the hepatization of the affected lung, 
and Hydrothorax in the cavit}'. The pulse during this time may work 
up to 80 or higher, and follows the same rule as in the sporadic disease; 
breathing is harder and cough aggravated, and mucous rales are heard in 
the bronchial tubes. When Hydrothorax takes place rapidty, as from 
twenty-four hours or a little more, there would be no cedemic swellings 
or enlargements; but in most all cases you will see cedemic enlargement 
outside of the chest. In many of these cases there was only Pleuris3 r , in 
others only Pneumonia. In some of these cases of Hydrothorax the 
swelling would reach to the head and neck and down the sides; there is 
grinding of the teeth, and towards the last Tympanites (acute) seems to 
set in and may be the immediate cause of death. We conclude this 
Tympanites is degeneration of undigested food. Often there is a foetid 
discharge from the nose, and sometimes Diarrhoea; but in most cases 
Constipation existed. The absence of diagnostic features during life 
throws us back on history of the case; no expert could diagnose a single 
isolated case; we don't think there is one single diagnostic symptom, but 
the history will usually arouse our suspicions, and autopsy will show the 
lesions, so when }>-ou see this disease breaking out, as it sometimes does 
in warm weather (without an}^ cause), you will suspect the disease, and 
autopsy on one that dies will show you. 

Post-Mortem. — On opening the chest we find more or less serum, 
though that is not diagnostic of the contagious Pleuro-Pneumonia, as it 
is in the sporadic disease. You will usually find adhering to the costal 
and pulmonary pleura a coating of coagulated serum, the quantity and 
hardness of which depend upon the time the animal was sick; say the 
animal was sick four, five or six weeks, you will find the coating is all 
the way from a quarter to an inch thick. When it is an inch thick it is 
clearly serum coagulated; but when it is quarter of an inch thick, you 
will notice it has taken on a considerable amount of organization, which 
is mostly coagulated lymph instead of serum; it forms a sort of a false 
membrane. This is looked upon as quite an important fact, because the 
false membrane in the sporadic disease differs from it — it is not so firm, 
and the animal does not live so long. In man}'' acute and some chronic 
cases, adhesion between the lungs and the ribs will be found to a greater 
or less extent; it may also be found in the sporadic case, but is not so ex- 
tensive, and is not always found. In the contagious form, where in its 
acute stage it was mostly Pleuris}^ and not enough to kill the animal, we 
found very extensive adhesion, in some cases the whole of one side, and 
without much Pneumonia being present. In the contagious form there 
is often adhesion between the lungs and the diaphragm, while almost 
never in the sporadic form. As a rule when you find an adhesion be- 
tween the lungs and parts, you will find hepatized Pneumonia in the 
third stage in the lungs at that point. You will also notice that the in- 
tercostal spaces are darker red than in the sporadic cases. Dungs may be 
larger or smaller, heavier or lighter, according to the amount of Pneu- 
monia, but where there is onlv one lung affected, and in an exceedinarlv 



ISO THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

severe case, the weight of a single lung, say of a noo or 1200 pound 
cow, would be 50 pounds; that shows the amount of consolidation that 
can take place in these cases. Then again the lungs may appear healthy 
when you take them out, but on manipulation you will find little hard 
spots. We'll say the animal dies in the acute stage of Pneumonia. In 
the third stage there is a complete hepatization; cut this lung across 
and it is solid, more so than liver; the cut surface is extremely 
well mottled. In the sporadic kind it is somewhat mottled in the cow. 
This mottled condition is due to extensive exudation of lymph into the 
interlobular connective tissues, and forming the yellowish white bands 
which are about $/% of an inch wide; this exudate infiltrates into the inter- 
lobular tissues and organizes, say in a case of three weeks. These interlobu- 
lar bands in a recent acute case are whitish-yellow, while in an old case, say 
of six weeks, the bands show a creamy white — they seem to grow whiter 
with age, while the lobules are very dark, some are absolutely black, and 
the color will vary from that to red — the red is from hepatization. This 
makes the lung very beautifully mottled. In the other part of the 
same lung in the second stage you diagnose that by dropsical or 
cedemic condition; the swelling pits on pressure, while the hepa- 
tization is solid as a brick. Cut this swollen part and you will find 
it loaded with serum, more so than is ever found in the sporadic 
case. It is somewhat cedemic in the second stage of the sporadic 
case; perhaps a little farther in the same lung you may find it in 
the first stage, so that these are some of the conditions you may find in 
this contagious disease. 

This is diagnostic — finding the different stages in the same lung at 
the same time. When the Pneumonia is limited in extent the termina- 
tion of it is very abrupt, except that a little hypersemia may extend into 
the sound tissues, say about }% of an inch, while in the sporadic case the 
inflammation fades imperceptibly into the healthy tissue of the lung and 
is more diffused. In the contagious form the white lines become enor- 
mously thickened both ways, so that the lobules in this case are smaller 
than in the sporadic case — they are encroached upon by the fibrous 
bands. There is proliferation going on of the interlobular connective 
tissue and organization of the exudate. You may find the black spots 
among the red, but you don't find the red among the black. If there is 
not enough Pneumonia to kill the animal, this localizes or is localized 
Pneumonia; it will become inclosed in a fibrous capsule; the capsule is 
formed by a localized inflammation, exudation and organization; the 
capsule is on an average J{ inch thick. This capsule is peculiarly diag- 
nostic; it is never seen in the sporadic case, because the abrupt line so 
well marked in the contagious is not that way in the sporadic. If more 
than J 3 of the lung is involved in this capsule it is liable to kill the ani- 
mal, in the acute stage. There is a capsule that forms in Tuberculosis, but 
no need to mistake it for one of this kind. In Tuberculosis you never 
get Pneumonia in any form, consequent"!}' never get hepatization; but in- 
stead get the caseous matter. In Tuberculosis the capsule has more or 
less calcification (calcareous deposit) in it, and never in contagious Pneu- 
monia. In contagious Pneumonia the lymph glands throughout the 
body are more or less swollen — not so in the sporadic. The contents of 
this capsule liquify after a while, sometimes '5, '_• or 2 /z of its contents 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. IS I 

is liquified in the course of a year. Still you may find complete con- 
solidation in the fourth stage, without a particle of liquification after 
three years; but in the average case over a year old, the contents of the 
capsule begins to liquify. There is no limit to the size of these localiza- 
tions of Pneumonia, we often find only one lobule affected. These 
spots or places are inclosed in the capsule, and may be from the size of a 
hen's egg to that of a man's fist. 

There is an immunity from the disease rendered by the fever, but 
God only knows how long that immunity may last; but we know inocu- 
lation does render it so for an indefinite time. In some cases that Dr. 
Baker and the state authorities had destroyed, they found capsules that 
were apparently- a year old, and at the time they were killed they had a 
fresh attack, which proved that the disease could be taken a second time. 
But it must be admitted that inoculation of cattle with the serum of dis- 
eased cattle will cause Systemic Fever, and will render the animal free 
from danger for a year probably; but immunity has been strongly believed 
in in Great Britain, and as a result they still have the disease among 
them. They inoculate and don't destroy recovered cases, as they call 
them. The way to inoculate is to kill an acute case at such a time as 
you expect they are in the second stage, that is some portion of the lung; 
then puncture this lung, get some of the serum from it (a single drop 
will do), get hold of the tail you wish to inoculate, part the hair, cut the 
skin, and with a stick put a drop in the cut — this will produce Systemic 
Fever and insure immunity for three or six months anyhow. This will 
not produce any lung lesion, this serum is so poisonous that a drop in 
any other place in the bod}' will kill, or even if put in at the base of the 
tail; and the tail inoculated will become gangrened and drop off; so if 
you see a lot of stub-tailed cattle you will know the cause. The danger 
of inoculation is in allowing cattle to go out with a little hepatization as 
sound meat; this risks causing an outbreak in some place. That would 
be by the contents of the capsule becoming so liquid, and finally the cap- 
sule rupture allowing the contents to escape may get into the bronchial 
tubes or lungs and cause a fresh attack. This explains spontaneous 
outbreaks. A severe case dies; a moderate case that got well, McEachran 
said, was useless, though Dr. Baker saw cases that seemed to recover 
and were bred after and dropped a calf, and were good milkers and fat- 
tened well, and their calves were health}- and strong. This disease is 
not communicable to man or other animals than the bovine; Dr. Baker 
said, they handled the serum without the least danger. 

Treatment. — Is useless; quarantine the herd. Illinois law places 
the distance, when outside, at 300 feet between herds, but inside, 1500 
would not be enough; good plan to destroy everything that had been 
exposed. If the state has no law governing these cases, the U. S. gov- 
ernment steps in and takes charge; but where the state has its own law 
the U. S. takes a second place in the matter. The meat of a chronic 
case where the capsule is small and the animal healthy otherwise, is 
allowed to go upon the market; the meat is tagged and when sold, the 
money is turned over to the owner; but where an animal is destroyed 
and the meat condemned, the owner was paid one third the value of the 
animal. The hides were saved, salted, allowed to dry, put in a semi- air 
tight box wagon and taken to the tannery. If a herd is quarantined, 



1 82 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

say for a month, it is well then to inoculate them — that may save many 
of them. This disease is very infectious, but it will require a living, 
diseased animal to convey the disease to healthy stock; it can't be given 
by parts of a diseased carcass, as proven by experiments. Dr. Salmon 
believes it can be got by placing a healthy animal in the place where a 
case had died from it. So far no germ has been discovered for it. 

Epizootic Aphth.e (Foot and Mouth Disease). — This is an infec- 
tious, eruptive fever called Aphthae, because it affects the mouth partic- 
ularly. It is a form of contagious pustular Eczema. As Ave see it, it 
affects cattle; but not confined to cattle alond; sheep, pigs, dogs, cats, 
chickens, and rats can have it, and occasionally the human; but it is 
of no consequence to us except in cattle. It has been in Europe for 
over 2000 years; was introduced into England in 1839, into Canada 
in 1 84 1, and from thereto the United States; but as the number of 
cattle was small, it was soon stamped out. The seat of the disease 
is in the mouth, in the dental pad, tongue, or any of the mu- ecus 
membranes of the mouth; but it seems to require direct inoculation to 
be in any particular part or place. The foot becomes affected in the 
interdigital spaces; also the udder becomes affected, presumably from the 
hind feet when the cow is lying down. This disease has never been in 
the West, but has been in Maine and Mass., and in Canada one half 
dozen times, but it was always quickly recognized and never allowed to 
spread. 

Etiology. — Lies in some Contagium, which seems to exist in the 
saliva mainly, and also in the faeces and urine; but there has been no 
germ yet found for it. The period of incubation is from 24 hours 
to three, four, or six days; the virus is very active. The disease usually 
runs a benign course and terminates favorably, but is sometimes malig- 
nant; in that case there is eruption, ulceration, gangrene — causing ex- 
tensive sloughing; this around the joints sometimes causes opening of 
the joint, sometimes sloughing off of the digits, sometimes sloughing at 
the fetlock, or in the joint below. 

Semeiology. — This disease is divided into four stages; first, is Fever; 
with it will be found staring coat, rigor, elevated temperature, often seen 
as high as 107; dullness, nose dry, horns hot, milk diminished, urine 
scanty and high colored; all these are ordinary signs of fever, but there 
is a special symptom — the mouth is full of saliva. This stage lasts from 
twenty-four hours to two days. Second stage is eruption; the feet 
swell, and are hot and painful to the touch; animal is very lame, and 
where the four feet are affected he goes like a foundered horse. Vesicles 
appear on the dental pad and other mucous membranes in the mouth, 
sometimes extending over the face; may be on the vulva, escutcheon, 
over the udder, etc. As soon as eruption takes place the temperature 
falls, comes down as low as 102 or 3; the saliva in this case dribbles from 
the mouth, so the animal keeps up a peculiar mopping or sucking sound. 
The appetite, if lost in the first stage, now returns, but the animal 
grows thin — he is unable to eat because of his sore mouth. 
Third stage is Ulceration; the vesicles fill up, rupture aud discharge, 
and in a severe case, if the vesicles are close together, they will become 
confluent, then do great harm as these confluent ulcers form large open 
sores, often very deep, causing gangrene and sloughing, sometimes 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 83 

sloughing off of the hoofs. Fourth stage is that of Desiccation, when the 
ulcers dry up and heal, usually leaving the animal as well as ever; but 
this takes a long time, if you get flesh on him. As to the length of time 
necessary to keep a herd in quarantine, all agree on at least three months, 
and at the outside, to be safe, six months. Prof. McEachran said he had 
known it' to break out after a Winter's exposure in Scotland, so it is very 
difficult to say how long to hold them. The means of transportation of 
the disease from one herd to another may be on the attendant' s clothing 
or utensils, or by blankets; or rats, dogs, or poultry may carry it from 
one herd to another. One redeeming feature of the disease is, that it 
requires actual inoculation to produce it; so a healthy animal five or six 
feet from a diseased animal may not be affected. The disease is first in 
the saliva, then by dripping on the ground the feet become affected; that 
is secondarily. 

Treatment. — Inoculation is practiced in some countries, particularly 
in England; it is simply to have them all affected at the same time and 
be treated at the same time, and not have them lingering one at a 
time; but it does not lessen the severity of the disease. Treatment 
doesn't affect it much, but keep clean, and use antiseptics on the ulcers; 
that may lessen the ulceration and sloughing; use soap and water 
also. Salicylic acid or powdered boracic acid, applied dr)^ to the ulcers, 
is good. Borax, glycerine, and honey make a good wash for the 
mouth. If the ulcers are indolent, touch up with lunar caustic, or 
tinct. of iron; feed sloppy food, and disinfect everything connected with 
the place. After the disease has disappeared keep the animal in quaran- 
tine several months. Some say it renders them safe from another at- 
tack; it may for a good while, a few months, or a year, and after that 
they are liable to a new attack. 

The mortality is small, but the loss is heavy — in dairy, from loss of 
milk; in feeding-cattle, from loss of flesh, and inpregnant animals, from 
Abortion. To prove a doubtful case, as to its being this disease, draw 
a wisp of straw through the mouth of a diseased animal, then through 
the mouth of a healthy one, and in the course of 24 hours it will show 
proof. In an outbreak in Kansas supposed to be this disease, the strong 
features of it were that a lot of cattle were affected with a disease of the 
mouth and feet; there were vesicles and ulcerations, feet got sore, 
and in many cases there was extensive sloughing and consequent loss 
of hoofs; but statistics proved that often one third of a herd was affected, 
the others not affected; poultry did not get it, adjoining herds were not 
affected, and the strong ones only had it, or at least in a severe way, 
compared to the weak or puny. It was proved to be Ergotism, from 
feeding on hay that contained ergot, and the strong ones fought the 
weaker ones to the edges of the place where they fed, and so these got less 
to eat. This hay was made on bottom lands. At the same time there were 
cases of Ergotism in Illinois, aggravated also by the wet, freezing mud 
the animals had to stand in. A new cattle disease sprang up in the State 
of Illinois a few years ago, suspected to be a Foot and Mouth disease. 
Dr. Casewell, State Veterinarian, Dr. Williams, of Bloomington, and 
Dr. Baker were appointed by the Live Stock Board to investigate, and 
they concluded it was a disease due to some poisoning they got while on 
pasture, from the hay or grass they had eaten. They had many of the 



184 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

symptoms common to the Foot and Mouth disease, and on autopsy they 
found the internal organs — as colon, duodenum, etc., very much cauter- 
ized in patches, and also the stomach. The outer part of the udder 
would be affected in such a way, showing that it was from contact with 
the ground while lying down. McEachrans lotion for Foot and Mouth 
disease is sulphate zinc, alum, glycerine and a little carbolic acid; but 
don' t use carbolic acid on the udder. 

Texas Fever, or Splenic Fever. — This is indigenous to the states, 
and particularly counties bordering on the gulf of Mexico; all that low- 
country is affected with it all the time. There are certain lines that may 
be drawn abruptly; as it recedes back from the Gulf, might say at the 
foot hills. We find on examination that it is an infectious fever, peculiar 
to cattle. It can be communicated to Northern cattle by Texas cattle 
being brought North during the summer months, and by cattle passing over 
the same ground that Texas cattle had passed over. It is sometimes 
started among cattle in this state by buyers getting a Texas animal among 
the stock they buy, and not being aware of the Texas steer among 
them. The period of incubation is from eight to sixty- four days. We 
find the source of communication to be in the lines of commerce; the 
Northern cattle get it if they go wherever the Texan has been — in cars, 
boats, stock pens, pastures, etc. Sucking calves have been noticed to 
have immunity from the disease, so the milk must not be affected; Dr. 
Baker thinks they do have it, but probably in a very mild form. Dr. 
Billings claimed to be the first discoverer of its origin being in the tick, and 
though Dr. Salmon says to the contrary, proof is in favor of Dr. Billings. 
You can get the full report of the disease in the Government Report 
Bulletin number one. Dr. Salmon claims that the tick is the only means 
of communication; heretofore it was supposed that the saliva dripping 
from the mouth of the Texas cattle fell on the grass, and that the north- 
ern cattle became affected by eating it. Old stockmen said it came from 
eating green fodder, but Dr. Baker, with Dr. Casewell, proved that 
cattle that came in contact with Texas cattle, or the place where they had 
been, took the fever; and in their experiments they found the period 
of incubation to be from eight to twelve days. Dr. Salmon sa> s that 
by inoculation it will develop in six days, and from that time up. We 
found in the outbreak in this state that some would run sixty-four days, 
and made thirty-one days as about the correct average, as fully nine- 
tenths of them took it between twenty-eight and thirty-five days. The 
name of the tick is Boophilus Bovis; it is a blood-sucker, and lives by 
piercing the skin and sucking the blood, and it becomes thoroughly in- 
fected with the disease — even its faeces and ova become infected; then 
the female drops to the ground, lays her eggs and hatches out young 
ticks, and as the cattle lie down they get on them, or the faeces on the 
ground from them may affect the cattle. As an argument about the tick 
being the only means of communicating it — the tick is affected, hence 
the blood is affected, the faeces is affected if the tick gets into it so the 
animal must have its blood affected, and why not the faeces of the bovine, 
the urine also, for that is always blood} 7 , that is in the acute cases; so from 
this I hardly think Dr. Salmon is right in saying the tick is the only, 
way it can be communicated. It has been found on investigation that 
this germ invades and inhabits the red corpuscles of the blood and de- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 85 

stroys them. The corpuscles when invaded by the germ show little 
black spots seen nnder the microscope; it may be in the center, or any 
other part of the corpuscle, and there may be two or three of these spots 
in the same corpuscle. 

Semeiology. — There is nothing very peculiar about it; there is high 
fever, any where from 104 to no, but where we found it no the animal 
was exposed to the hot sun without any shelter; the)' are dull, the ears 
droop, the. back is arched, and the feet drawn close together, cough more 
or less, but not invariably; there is trembling of the muscles of the 
flanks, sometimes of the neck and shoulders; horns hot at the base, cold 
at the ends, appetite and rumination completely suspended, emaciation 
and weakness come on rapidly — if in pasture will lie down in the water; 
faeces lessened in quantity and often streaked with blood or covered with 
slime, urine often nearly suspended, and what is passed is a very dark 
red; it contains albumen and the coloring matter of the blood, but not 
blood. The mucous membranes become congested and dark, and towards 
the last become a yellowish brown, finally animal gets weaker and weak- 
er, goes down and can't get up, and when down he dies, being in con- 
vulsions five or ten hours; they die in from four to fourteen days, mostly 
on the fifth. The mortality is very heavy; in the ordinary cases the 
mortality would be sixty per cent. 

Treatment. — Like other specific diseases, treatment is merely to- 
wards amelioration; the only way a specific fever can be cured is by its 
being limited and the poison dying out. If the Ptomaines that kill the germ 
are limited, the case will be mild and chances for recovery good. If large 
and severe the animal will die. In this fever antiseptic drenches are use- 
ful, such as a solution of hyposulphite soda or sulphite calcium, and as 
demulcent, for the kidneys give linseed tea; give green food, especially 
green corn; it has been found that more cases recover when turned, into a 
field of green corn than otherwise. Watch the symptoms, and if needed 
give stimulants. . 

Preventive Measures. — Separate the health}' from the diseased ones, 
don't take a Texas steer with them, leave him with the others; you can 
often tell them by their coats when not by the horns. Texas cattle 
should not be allowed North between frosts, that is during the Summer 
months. Frost destroys the germs or Contagium, so there is then no 
danger, that is of infection; in the Summer time it is liable to break out 
any place along the trunk lines carrying the Texas cattle, by the dung 
being kicked out of the cars while passing and the germs getting on 
the grass. Texas cattle now have their own place in the stock-yards, 
where no other cattle are placed; they are never mixed, and they must be 
carried there direct by the railroads before getting out of the cars. 

Post-Mortem. — Is quite characteristic, no danger of making a mis- 
take. On opening the abdomen the mucous membrane is studded with 
cachexia, little red spots about the size of a pin head; in this it ma)' dif- 
fer from Ecchymosis; these little spots sometimes become confluent and 
form Ecchymosis. You will find the spleen immensely enlarged — from 
four to ten times its usual size. Its normal weight is about 1 y 2 lbs. , but 
in this disease it sometimes weighs from 6 to 10 lbs. — this is invariable; 
it may be seen in Anthrax also; it is easily punctured and broken down, 
liver is enlarged and softened, kidneys enlarged, congested, and in a state 



1 86 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

of interstitial Nephritis; omasum is always impacted, abomasum and duo- 
denum is always more or less inflamed; gall bladder is distended with a 
thick gall, urine in the bladder looks black, as if bloody, but this is due 
to the pigment of the blood. There is more or less Enteritis all through 
the small intestines; the adipose tissue, especially around the kidneys, is 
a reddish 3'ellow; blood is dark and thin. Any one of these symptoms 
would not be enough, but they are nearly all present always, and the 
strong features are the enlarged spleen, Nephritis, and bloody urine; the 
others go to corroborate it as Texas Fever. 

Variola. — According to the genii to which it belongs, it is named 
Eouinia, Vaccinia, and Ovinia, and in the human, Smallpox; there is 
the Chicken-Pox also, which is communicable to the human. All kinds 
of Variola are related — all are of the same nature. They are all infec- 
tious, eruptive fevers. The Contagium is both fixed and volatile, either 
floating in the air or by actual contact. The germ is a Micrococcus, except 
in the Variola of the sheep, which is a Bacilla. The Variola of one genii 
is communicable to animals of another kind by inoculation, also more or 
less through the air — the Smallpox of the human particularly. The Va- 
riola of the lower animals seems to require actual contact is order to com- 
municate it; yet Cowpox is recognized as being communicable through 
the air also. One attack of any of the Variola, except the Chicken-Pox, 
will render the animal exempt from another attack; and even Chicken- 
Pox may to a certain degree. It is through this phenomenon that vac- 
cination is practiced; its value was first discovered by Dr. Jennerin Eng- 
land in 1775, by noticing that milkmaids during an epidemic of Smallpox 
were free from the disease, and on inquiry he learned they had had attacks 
of Cowpox while milking. Civilized countries have practiced it more or less 
since then, and the more civilized ones have laws that make it compulsory 
to be vaccinated. It was said by some authors that this disease orig- 
inated in the Grease Heel of the. horse, but this has been proven as ab- 
surd. In mild climates Variola runs a mild course, except that of the 
sheep, which is nearly as severe as that of the human Smallpox, but we 
have never seen it in this country. Variola runs a definite course; first, 
is Simple; second, is Vesicular; third, is Pustular; fourth, Scab. In cattle 
it usually appears on the teats, udder, sides of the belly, escutcheon, vulva, 
and on the flanks. In the horse, usually on the head, face, lips, neck 
and legs. The Stomatitis Pustulosa that Williams describes, we 
have no doubt is Variola of the Equine. Sheep usually have it on the 
inside of the thigh, vagina, and anus, and it is the same in the cow. 

Human Smallpox seems to attack the face particularly, though, it 
attacks the body also — there is no part exempt. In hot climates the Va- 
riola of the sheep is very malignant, but the Variola of other animals is 
very benign. The three degrees of severity in the human are: Small- 
pox, the light Varioloid; then the every-day Smallpox, and the Hemor- 
rhagica or Black Pox, in which the blood settles in patches under the 
skin; this is fatal ninety-nine times out of a hundred. The Varioloid is 
very mild. The Sheep- Pox often takes this Hemorrhagic form, and is usu- 
ally seen in hot climates. The horse Variola is more severe the farther 
north it goes. It seems that Smallpox oftenest attacks those filthy in 
habits or places, and seldom affects those who bathe regularly and keep 
their clothes and themselves clean. It is supposed Variola originated with 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 87 

one animal and was communicated to others, and took the form common 
to each specie. If there is»any thing in it, I would think it arose with 
the cow. It seems to arise spontaneously, especially in cattle, but as its 
origin is a germ, it could not be spontaneous; it is absurd to say that any 
specific disease due to a germ can arise spontaneously. In many cases 
Variola from the Chicken-Pox to the Smallpox of the human takes an 
epidemic or epizootic form, and in some particular seasons; why, is not 
known, but some, Dr. Baker particularly, think it due to some meteoro- 
logical disturbance. 

Semeiology. — Variola of the cow, as a typical. illustration, is a sim- 
ple one that arises on the base of the teat; first arises as a little red pimple, 
and around this pimple for a day there is more or less swelling, may be 
anywhere from one half to one inch in diameter, about an average of 
three fourths of an inch. It is usually round on the udder, belly and 
other parts, except on the teat, where it is oblong parallel with the teat; 
it is purple and of the size of a pea. In the course of three or four days 
the swelling at the base gets large, and in the center of the pimple a ves- 
icle forms and fills with a clear limpid fluid; this vesicular stage lasts a 
couple of days, possibly three, but after about twenty- four hours the fluid 
in the vesicle gets turbid, becomes thick, and turns to pus; this constitutes 
the pustular stage. Where the vesicle is not ruptured by any violence it 
turns to a pustule in from forty-eight to sixty hours, then it ruptures 
of itself and the pus escapes; other times it dries down and forms a scab 
without any pus escaping. The last five or six days of the pustular 
stage, with the three or four first days, make about nine or eleven days, 
then you have a more or less heavy scab according to the severity of the 
case — the milder the more thin it is and smaller. This scab drops off 
any time between fourteen and twenty-one days, and each scab leaves a 
shallow, smooth, oval pit, sometimes it is round. It is quite red in 
color at first, then this color gradually bleaches out, so that a person 
after recovery from Smallpox often remains a bright red color for months. 
The base of the pimple in the disease is first red, then gets yellowish as 
the disease progresses. Cows very frequently have this disease, and it 
is carried from one to another by milking during the vesicular form; the 
vesicle is ruptured and the fluid flows over the hand, and the milker is 
inoculated. 

The period of incubation of all kinds of Variola is from seven to 
nine days, usually nine, but by inoculation may be as short as three 
days. It is during the vesicular stage of Varioloid vaccine that the ivory 
points are charged; the fluid in the vesicle being limpid for twenty- four 
hours, after that time has passed it is not safe to use for the contents be- 
come turbid, then turn to pus, and is liable to cause blood poisoning; so 
the points should never be dipped after twenty- four hours have passed from 
the time of the formation of the vesicle. The way it is done is to take a six 
or nine months' -old calf, inoculate it in four or five different places, then 
as soon as the vesicles form, tap them and dip in the points. As the 
fluid becomes turbid it seems to be absorbed, the vesicle caves in, the 
skin rots and pustules form, and then the scab forms. 

The symptoms in the horse are nearly the same as in the cow, except 
that the pimples, vesicles, and pits are smaller, but it runs the same 
course and terminates the same way. It may be carried to them by 



1 88 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

attendants, or on the bits, or in the drinking water and many other ways; 
and it spreads rapidly; usually yon can see, under the lip and in the 
mouth, a large crop of vesicles. In the human it doesn't differ at all from 
Cowpox. There is more or less fever in all Variola, considerable in 
many cases. In the first stage in the horse the fever may be 103 or 
104; in cattle not so much. In the human the fever subsides as the 
eruption takes place. This eruption itches very much usually. In 
Smallpox they aim to keep the patient cool, as that relieves the itching; 
there is less tearing off of the scabs then, and less pitting. 

Treatment. — Being specific, it has a specific course to run, and that 
course is invariable through the four stages or degrees; but treatment to 
lessen the irritation is proper, so cooling antiseptic lotions are the thing. 
Black Smallpox is not susceptible to treatment; ninety-nine out of a 
hundred die. In cows the only treatment needed where the teats are 
sore and can't be milked, draw off the milk with a milk syphon, then use 
petrolatum or acetate lead; or the best thing is a preparation called 
Campho Pheuique; it is a regular preparation in the U. S. P., and is an 
elegant remedy, both anodyne and antiseptic. It may be applied clear 
once a day. In very bad case on the cow' s bag and teats, bathe with 
warm water; in horses, to lessen the local inflammation, wash out the 
mouth with borax, or camphor and honey, or chlorate potash, or boracic 
or salicylic acid. To prevent its spread, isolate the animal, keep every- 
thing separate for him; make attendant wash before going to another ani- 
mal, and clean stalls with boiling water and a little carbolic acid. In Sheep- 
Pox, follow the same rule as in the others. In severe cases the eyes 
sometimes burst, and blindness follows; the wool drops out, skin gets 
thick, and fissures break in it. If they recover, the wool never grows 
again in the pits. The benign case is the same as in other animals, but 
the wool will not grow in these pits either. Ovination is practiced in 
some parts of Europe instead of vaccination, but that being a Bacillus, it 
is not desirable. 

Rabies (fromRabio, I rave, ) in the Lower Animals; in the Human 
It Is Hydrophobia (which means a dread of water). — This term seems 
appropriate to the disease in the human, because the sight, and more 
particularly the sound, of running water seems to excite or aggravate the 
symptoms very much. This is not so in the lower animals, but it is a 
well-known fact that Rabies in the lower animals and Hydrophobia in 
the human are identical. Rabies is a peculiar specific disease, producing 
an excessively nervous condition; it is contagious by inoculation only. 
This inoculation usually takes place through a wound or an abrasion, but 
it may occur by absorption from the cuticle, or from the mucous mem- 
branes. It was formerly supposed to arise spontaneously, especially 
in the dog or cat; it was supposed also to have originated in these species; 
but although so far no germ has been discovered, it is known to be a 
specific disease, and the idea of its arising spontaneously has been aban 
doned. It is very common among the canine and feline races; we kno 
it is common in foxes and wolves, also among lions and tigers. It h 
been known from the earliest writings, and in some of the older countri 
it has existed at times as an Epizootic. 

Etiology. — Though no germ has been discovered as yet, it is knov 
to be specific, especially as inoculation produces it, and with it a specifi 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 89 

fever. It is usually the result of the bite of a rabid animal, usually of a 
dog or cat, and is communicable to other animals, both man and beast. 
The bite produces the wound, and the saliva is introduced into it at the 
same time, and whatever germ it is, the saliva is heavily charged with it, 
or with the poison. This has been proven by the fact that a person 
bitten through the clothing never suffers from Hydrophobia, as the saliva 
is wiped off the teeth, while it is common where bitten on the bare flesh. 
Scientists all say it is in the saliva. We ma}^ say that the bite of all 
animals is poisonous, because the mouth at all times is filled with hun- 
dreds of different germs; this is especially true of carnivorous animals, 
for they eat dead bodies that are filled with germs. We have noticed 
that dogs that are kept chained often get symptoms of Rabies and have 
to be destroyed, but I do not remember a case where Hydrophobia 
occurred from the bite of a chained dog. It is wrong to keep dogs tied 
up; I think it makes them cross. I never fear a loose dog, no matter 
how big or cross he may appear, but I fairly dread going near a dog that 
has been chained up till he is savage, for fear he will get loose some way. 
It has been a common opinion that during the months of June, July, and 
August is the time when Rabies is most common, because of the scarchy 
of water; that is why they are muzzled during dog days. That is another 
shame; it has been found that kicks and blows, hunger, thirst, or heat 
etc., do not cause Rabies. 

To upset the old theory of dog days, Rabies is most prevalent in the 
Spring, next in Winter, next in the Summer, and least in the Fall. The 
bite of any rabid person or animal will produce it; and when once the 
disease has developed it is always fatal, either in man or beast. It is 
estimated that only 1 in 5 bitten by a rabid animal gets Rabies; probably 
because they are bitten through the clothing. The period of incubation 
is very indefinite; it may be as short as 3 days in the human, and from 
that any time thereafter; some medical men say from 9 months, or even 
as long as 10 years — there is no limit known. I found in most cases 
where a horse was bitten that it ran about 33 days, and the shortest time 
ever known in a dog was 7 days. About a general average of the time 
in the dog - the shortest, 7 daj^s, longest, 155 days; man — shortest, 3 days, 
longest, 9 months; horse— shortest, 15 days, longest, 3 months; sheep — 
shortest, 14 days, longest, 3 months; pig— shortest, 8 days, longest, 9 
months; — with a general average for all of from 30 to 35 days. 

Semeiology. - In the dog, about the first thing you will notice is a 
peculiar, timid, frightened condition; will growl, run and hide in the 
dark, and it is difficult to get him out; he comes out and crouches down 
near you as if in fear of something, sometimes will jump up and run 
away yelping. It is thought they never sleep, are restless, and look as 
if going into a fit; anxious expression of the countenance; at night 
when alone they will howl, not the kind of a howl that is common to 
dogs that howl at the moon, etc., but a hoarse, lonesome, unnatural tone. 
About the second day he will be inclined to howl this way in the daytime, 
even when with his master, starts off howling, gets more nervous, and excess- 
ively thirsty; he will lay two thirds of his time in the water, tries to 
drink, but now his tongue will not curl so he can throw the water back 
into the mouth. In the latter part of the second stage he can't pick up 
anything but solids — can' t swallow. On the third day there is complete 



190 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Paralysis of the organs of deglutition; mouth always partly open, tongue 
lolling out; sometimes during this time a large amount of saliva drips 
from the mouth in ropy strings; occasionally a little froth at the corners 
of the mouth but not much; there is much more in an Epileptic fit, which 
is often mistaken for Rabies, but is harmless. Up to this time the animal 
has had a depraved appetite, is nervous and delirious, will eat anything — 
licks stones, etc. After the third day he can't eat, so will keep up a 
constant gnawing at anything; and the more delirious he becomes the 
more he will gnaw — often makes the mouth sore, and bites pieces out of 
it; if he can't get anything else he will even gnaw his own feet. He gets 
weaker and weaker, and now in the fourth stage is nearly insensible, but 
wants to be in motion all the time, lays clown, gets up, and walks till 
tired out — that is why they say a mad dog rambles over the country ; 
some say he goes in a straight line and won't turn aside, but will bite 
whatever comes in the way, and will sometimes chase animals. On the 
fourth day nervous Paroxysms occur, but not Epileptic fits; they come 
on oftener, and usually the animal dies on the fifth day. During the 
latter part of the fourth day the throat becomes much congested and dark 
in color. A rabid dog never vomits. Then there is a sort of Rabies 
called the Dumb Rabies, in which the throat is paralyzed; this takes 
place during the early part of the disease; they can't howl. Death in 
some of these cases may not take place till the eighth day, though I 
never saw one run over five days. The idea that a rabid dog foams at 
the mouth is erroneous. In the horse there are some peculiarities, the 
first thing you notice (say he was bitten) is that the wound seems to get 
itchy; he will bite at it, or try to rub against something, and acts as if 
there was something there he was trying to bite off; it gets so bad that on 
the third day he will even bite the flesh off the leg. I have seen a case 
where the horse was insensible, but at times would start up and bite at 
the wound. Otherwise the symptoms are the same as in the dog. The 
horse is never still, but on the move all the time; if a person or another 
animal goes near he will look surprised, then make a dive at them, mouth 
open. He will also slobber in the water, finally goes down, becomes 
comatose, and dies in Convulsions, usually the night of the fourth, or on 
the fifth day. In other animals the symptoms are about the same as in 
the dog. 

Treatment. — It is well to give the owner and the public the benefit 
of any doubt you have, and then have the animal confined; best to put 
the dog in a box stall or large box, and see that the horse has a neck- 
strap strong enough to hang him by. Curative treatment is entirely use- 
less after the development of the disease, but in case of a bite, if you get 
hold of the case early, (say within an hour, for if there is free bleeding the 
germ can't be absorbed as the flow of blood outward prevents that), 
make a free application of some liquid antiseptic deeply into the wound; 
but if longer than an hour, remember the absorbents are at work and the 
poison is in the uninjured vessels, so the best thing is to cut a piece of the 
flesh right out around the part, making a new wound, and then soaking 
freely with liquid antiseptic, and soaking absorbent cotton and applying 
deepl}' so it will go to every part of the wound. Don't use caustics 
cauterization used to be practiced; that is now condemned as it doesn' 
affect deeply enough, and forms an eschar under which the poison can 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 191 

work without an}- outside interference. An}- good antiseptic will do. 

Dr. Lagorio, who has the Pasteur Treatment in Chicago, uses creo- 
line; he keeps the wound soaking in it, using antiseptic cotton. The 
next thing is the Pasteur preventative treatment. This is on the theory 
of inoculation, but in so mild a form as to produce a specific fever in a 
very mild form; this insures the animal or person immunity from the 
disease. He takes the brain of a rabid dog, makes an emulsion and then 
inoculates a rabbit; then from that rabbit he inoculates a second one, from 
that one another rabbit, and so on down to the fiftieth rabbit, when it is 
said the effect does not differ after that. When a person is bitten he is 
inoculated over the abdominal cavity twice a day for three or four days, 
with the weakest virus, and after that for three or four days with a 
stronger virus, then once a day with a still stronger virus for four or five 
days, and so on for about two weeks. But if the disease has developed 
nothing will save the person. We are believers in the Pasteur Treatment. 
As a rule, dogs with Rabies do not vomit. In some cases of Indigestion 
dogs get cross and snappish, but there is no fever, as is always present in 
Rabies; there is no Paralysis of the throat, as in Rabies. If a person is 
bitten by a dog, do not kill the animal, that is wrong; confine him, and 
if he has Rabies he will die in a few days; if not, then you can judge if 
the animal was affected with the disease or something else, and you will 
know what to tell the physician in order that he may know how to treat 
the wound — as a simple wound, or as a preventative against the disease. 
In 1892 Fizzoni and Schwartz discovered that antitoxin, that is from the 
blood serum of an immuned animal (rabbit), gotten so by the Pasteur 
inoculation, was a preventative to the disease, either in a test tube or in 
the body of inoculated animals. The emulsion must be. made from nerve 
substances— the brain or the base of it. 

Glanders axd Farcy. — These undoubtedly had their origin in the 
equine race, and from that it is communicable to man, sheep, goat, dog 
and cat; but cattle, pigs and poultry, have an immunity from it. It is 
always fatal in all animals, and in man as well. In the human it almost 
invariably runs the acute course and terminates fatally in from ten to 
twenty-two days, with a usual average of thirteen days. In the horse it 
runs both the acute and the chronic. It seems in man}- cases to arise 
spontaneously, that is we can't place the origin of it. There are two 
forms of these diseases, or two manifestations of the same blood poison- 
ing — the virus is the same, only there is a difference in the local mani- 
festations. Glanders affects the Schneiderian and mucous membranes of 
the throat, larynx, and trachea; while Farcy attacks the lymphatic glands 
and ducts, and in different parts of the body. They both run either an 
acute or chronic form; acute usually terminates fatally in from four to 
six weeks. Acute Farcy runs into Glanders in the course of a few 
weeks, usually the acute form. Chronic Glanders may exist for years 
and the animal apparently be healthy and feeding good, and in good flesh, 
vigorous, and able for work. It depends upon the climate how long it 
may run without manifesting itself; in this climate it is about three or 
four years, then the horse begins to yield; it takes on a more active form, 
becomes acute, and the animal soon dies; but in high altitudes it runs 
longer, as in some of the more northern parts; it may run five or six 
years, but even up there they will usually show it in five years or less. 



192 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

This disease is of antiquated origin; the earliest writers have referred to- 
it inadvertently — it was spoken of in Aristotle's works. In 161 8 a 
Frenchman wrote a long article on it, but in 1840 another Frenchman 
described it more fully as lesions of the mucous membrane, and prescribed 
injections for treatment. Since then it has received a great deal of 
attention. It seems to be a disease of the Temperate zone, as it is almost 
unknown in either the Torrid or Frigid zones. 

Etiology. — Old authors believed it often arose spontaneously, and 
old army men will tell you the same thing — that it occurred during the 
Civil War, especially in Tennessee and Louisiana. It seems to break 
out spontaneously on shipboard sometimes, especially during storms, and 
in the acute form; but as it is due to a specific germ, it can't be spontaneous, 
and the case that arose under these circumstances must have been lying 
latent, and the circumstances were favorable for the disease to make 
itself manifest — as crowding, which will cause disease to break out among 
animals; if any disease is lying dormant this will cause it to show itself. 
The poison of Glanders seems to be in the discharge from the nose or 
other purulent discharges from the body; but as the virus is of heavy 
specific gravity it doesn't float in the air; we believe it requires actual in- 
oculation, and this is very fortunate in view of the fact that it is invaria- 
bly fatal. The active principle of the Contagium was discovered by 
Ivoffler and Schultz of the German Board of Health in 1882. The germ 
is a Bacillus, and they say it resembles the Bacilli of Tuberculosis, except 
that methyl blue will color it. Some say it exists in the system in very 
limited numbers, that making it very hard to find; and also that there is 
a Micrococcus in it very plentiful, but that it is inoculate, that is the poison 
is all in the Bacillus. Before the discovery of the germ the disease was 
classed as a granuloma disease. 

Semeiology. — Very often the acute form of Glanders and Farcy is 
preceded by Diabetes Insipidus. In all probability if the temperature 
were taken every day from the start, it would be found that its rise was 
first from 103 to 104 or 4*4, then comes on the Diabetes Insipidus, which 
is quite prominent for three or four days. The next symptom is the 
limpid reddish discharge from the nose, and this is so thin that it drops 
from the nose like water, sometimes from one, sometimes from both nos- 
trils. If you feel of this discharge it feels sticky, not so much in the 
first stage, but it seem to grow more so in two or three days — more glu- 
tinous. It sticks around the nostrils, and dirt and sticks adhere to it, 
making a dirty looking sight. In from two or four days the discharge 
becomes lighter in color — amber-colored, or much like melted butter. 
While this is going 011 the submaxillary glands (lymphatics') swell: this 
is almost invariable, and while swelling, are sore to the touch, and as a 
rule do not suppurate. Some Vets, say if there is suppuration it is not 
Glanders, but there is no reason why. You can't go very much either 
way on this. In Farcy the rest of the lymphatics of the body do sup- 
purate, so there is no reason why the submaxillary should not also. 
During this time in some cases there is more or less Osteoporosis going 
on, sometimes to such an extent that you may suppose the horse is 
developing Big Head; so 3*ou must be careful in your diagnosis. 

You may find a peculiar rheumatic lameness in the earlier stage of 
acute Glanders — in the hind quarters, or loins and other places; many of 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 93 

these things exist in the first stage of Glanders, The pulse becomes 
accelerated, may be fifty-five, the temperature also increased — 103 or 104. 
If the case is brought to you in this condition you can't tell just how it 
is; you may suspect Glanders, so it is best to watch it closely till it mani- 
fests itself. The discharge from the nose grows thicker and has more 
mucous with it, and becomes a muco-purulent discharge, so you can't 
mistake very well in the color, because it comes from inflammation and 
ulceration, and if it could now be separated, the early discharge would 
be buttter-colored; as a rule the discharge is a whitish-yellow; it 
differs from a catarrhal discharge in that respect. It is often quite 
profuse; often it is quite or nearly colorless, but glutinous. The animal 
frequently sneezes or blows his nose, so that the stall will be smeared 
with this discharge, and filth}- all around him; he does this because the 
pus is irritating. He is inclined to rub his nose against anything, and 
shakes his head often; it is often due to this rubbing against posts and 
watering troughs that other horses get the disease. I never tie my horse 
to a wagon wheel or to a post for this reason, but always carry a weight, 
also keep head checked up. As the disease progresses the pustules in the 
Schneiderian membrane rupture and the discharge is purulent and some- 
times streaked with blood. The pustules have raised, indurated edges and 
are depressed in the centers — resembling the soft Chancre in the human. 
As these ulcers rupture, blood vessels are also ruptured, so the blood that is 
seen in the discharge is almost constantly present in the last stage of the 
disease. While this is going on emaciation is taking place rapidly; 
often a cough accompanies the disease; the appetite usually remains good; 
as it runs on to a fatal termination the animal pines to skin and bones; 
legs swell, he staggers, nose is a mass of eruptions, and the discharge 
becomes very offensive — stinks; then till death he is a stinking, loathsome 
object; finally goes down, lies two or three days and dies of collapse. 
From beginning of Glanders up to necrosis of bones, discharge is odorless; 
but after necrosis of turbinated bones has taken place, it is very offensive. 

In acute Farcy little Abscesses occur on different parts of the body; 
as a rule they come up about the size of the end of your thumb, and 
horsemen call them Farcy Buttons. They are swollen, suppurating 
lymphatic glands, often break out on the sides of the hip about the size 
of the hand; these often break and a cavity as large as a hen's egg is left, 
but as a rule Buttons that break and discharge dry up and heal, then 
others break out. These Farcy Buttons are more often seen on the 
inside of the thigh or arm, but not always; I have seen them attack the 
head and neck, so they may confine themselves to one quarter of the 
body. Pulse and other acute symptoms are about the same as in Glanders, 
but there is no discharge from the nose. In acute case of Farcy, Gland- 
ers ma} 7 develop in from two to six weeks, so the horse never dies from 
acute Farcy without running into Glanders, when he dies the usual way. 
A particular symptom in Glanders is, that as the disease develops the 
inflammation causes swelling of the mucous membrane, and the calibre 
of the passages is so diminished that it produces a sort of a snoring sound, 
and more or less labored breathing. This helps much in diagnosis. 

Chronic form of Glanders often has a continuous but slight discharge 
from the nose, — nose is always dirty; animal keeps in good health, but 
there will invariably be a peculiar enlargement of the submaxillary lym- 



194 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

phatics; it is lumpy, while that in the acute is smooth; the nodules are 
hard, but not sore; in the acute they are sore to the touch. In most 
cases after chronic Glanders, sub-acute Farcy will usually develop; it 
may be that one hind leg will swell, etc. , often producing chronic Big 
Iyeg, and this can be diagnosed from Big Legs from other causes by 
having scars, for when the ulcers heal they leave cicatrices. Hair never 
grows in these cicatrices. Mild cases of chronic Farcy from exposure to 
storms, starvation, etc., may break out in acute Glanders in time, and 
may run on for years, carrying the disease wherever they go. I think 
either form of this disease ma) r occur for a long time, but before death 
they both must be present. Farcy never terminates without Glanders. 
The period of incubation is indefinite. It is supposed it may be as short 
as twenty-four hours, or may be indefinitely delayed, even for years; but 
the usual average is about a month. The vitality of the germ is very 
great, probably no other specific germ has such vitality; it will remain 
alive if dry, for years, but freezing will kill it if it be in the wet. The 
meat of a glandered animal is very poisonous; will produce the disease 
in dogs, lions, etc., that may eat it. 

Treatment. — Therapeutical treatment is no good, but there are 
always doubtful cases; may give general tonics to such, till you are cer- 
tain of the disease. Glandered animals are always destroyed; there is no 
use in trying to save blankets, harness, etc.; burn all and thoroughly 
clean the stable, tearing out the stall he used; burn sulphur in the stable, 
then whitewash. Quarantine exposed animals for ninety days. Illinois 
law pays one-third of the value of a sound horse for every glandered 
animal destroyed; where an exposed one is killed, two-thirds of the value 
is paid. Through Dr. Baker's efforts the law permits a quarantined 
animal to be worked in a safe way, with the understanding that the 
horse must be examined once a week at the expense of the owner. 
Punishment for breaking the law is fine or jail, or both. When examin- 
ing a horse for Glanders never approach him from the front, but either 
from the rear or from the side; be careful not to allow him to sneeze in 
your face. There are a number of cases on record of persons dying from 
this disease, even nurses that had their patients sneeze in their faces. 
Hold the horse firmly by the halter while examining, and after examin- 
ing wash your hands well with soap and water with a little antiseptic in 
it. To decide a doubtful case, get Mallein from the experiment station 
in 3 r our state; it is a culture made from the Bacilli Mallei, and an album- 
inose made. Inject one cubic centimetre, about fifteen drops, under 
the skin of broadside of neck; take temperature two or three times for 
two or three days before injecting, then three or four times after for 
forty-eight hours — say every four hours. Make injection at night; take 
temperature next morning. If they have Glanders the temperature will 
run up to 104, 105, 106, and often never returns to normal again, but 
causes the disease to develop. In other cases it may lessen in a few 
days; there will be suppurating and swelling at the point of inoculation, if 
the horse has the disease. If no Glanders, this will not be the case, but 
the temperature may run up one or two. The Tumor will be from three 
to five inches in diameter, with suppuration in the center. 

Post Mortem. — We find ulcers in the throat, larynx, trachea, 
bronchial tubes, sometimes pharynx, and in the chest; interstitial Pneu- 






VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 95 

monia in man}- cases; lymphatics in other parts of the body will be 
enlarged. Mules and asses seem to have the disease more acute than 
horses. 

Strangles, Familiarly known as Horse Distemper. — This is a 
pyogenic, infectious fever peculiar to the horse; there is nothing like it in 
other animals. It is attended by the formation of Abscesses in every 
case. It is usually seen in the form of a colt disease, especially in the 
country, but in the city we see it in all ages. Colts mostly get it when 
two or three years old, and one attack of this disease renders immunity 
from another attack, as a rule, but there are exceptions to this. It is 
considered actively infectious. If introduced into a herd of horses it will 
run through it. If in a stable in the city, it will soon attack a dozen or 
more of them; say two or a dozen out of fifty. It runs a definite course 
every time; first, fever; second, formation of the Abscess and pus; third, 
rupture and discharge, and if they don't die in the fourth, they recover. 
Some say that it is not a specific or infectious disease; because it does 
not always produce the disease by inoculation, but in every other respect 
it is specific, and a few failures do not prove that it is not specific. The 
period of incubation is from one to two weeks. 

Etiology. — We believe it is a specific disease, but that the germ has 
not yet been found. We find that during the cold storms of Fall and 
•Spring, colts are most apt to have it. 

Semeiology. — It may occur at any time of the year; it begins with 
a high fever, pulse rapid and soft, gets weaker in the course of two or 
three days; mouth is hot and dry in the first stage; in the second it is full 
of ropy saliva; a very sore throat develops, filling up on the inside as well 
as swelling on the outside, which makes it very difficult to swallow. 
There is a troublesome, painful cough* and considerable Dyspnoea, some- 
times so bad as to require the insertion of a tracheotonry tube; this is 
particularly so when having fits of coughing, after the fit is over. The 
Abscesses usually form in the submaxillar}- space, may be in the throat, 
or the guttural pouch, or may affect the lymphatic glands. Usually one 
or two Abscesses form, or there may be a dozen small ones; these are 
usually from an inch to an inch and a half apart; usually the pus is all in 
one, or in two large ones — may be one half pint in one. It takes a week 
for this to form, and it will discharge in a week or ten days. Colts 
recover in about two weeks, but in bad cases may be five or six weeks; 
during this time there is fever, and it is difficult for them to eat, so they 
become emaciated, and often die from exhaustion and collapse. Where 
it takes so long, the pus begins to be absorbed, causing pysemia, and they 
die from exhaustion and collapse. Irregular form of strangles, or as 
horsemen call it, Bastard Strangles, has the same fever but longer; 
Abscesses form, but not in the same places; they are often seen in the 
pleural cavity, seemingly in some of the lymphatic glands, other times 
in the walls of the pericardial, and may rupture into it. They may 
develop anywhere — in the liver or in the brain, etc., but are more often 
seen in the peritoneal, pericardial, and pleural cavities. They may not 
form on the inside, but may on the outside — on the vagina, or any place 
on the outside of the body. When they develop on the inside it is almost 
invariably fatal; when on the outside, sometimes fatal, sometimes they 
recover; it depends on how large they are and how long in breaking. 



196 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Treatment. — Must run its course, can't stop the fever till after the 
formation of pus; the fever then may be 104-5, or 6 — may reduce it to 
103. It will frequently jump from 103)2 to 105, and will then fall the 
same way, but you can't stop it entirely till pus has stopped forming, so 
all we can do is to hurry up the process and assist nature to get rid of 
the pus or poison. Try to reduce the fever, and give good hy- 
gienic treatment — soft food and a little febrifuge; to assist formation of 
Abscess, apply hot poultice, which also lessens pain. Usually apply 
first, mild counter-irritant, as ammoniacal liniment — one application will 
usually do, then poultice; we prefer linseed meal. As soon as you can 
locate the developed Abscess so as to be positive of its location, tap it, 
don't wait for it to soften. We find it safe to go in and hunt for pus — 
say, after four or five days, never let it go more than a week; make a lib- 
eral opening, syringe it out with antiseptic and add antiseptic to the 
poultice; poultice till the inflammation subsides. If it is impraticable to 
poultice, bathe with warm water. If the cough is troublesome, camphor 
electuary will relieve; give in addition to the febrifuge. Often the fever 
will remain high five or six days; watch closely and carry your tra- 
cheotomy tube in your pocket ready for use, don't let him go down be- 
fore using it. Steaming w iH relieve; medicate the water with carbolic 
acid; it is a local anodyne as well as antiseptic. Sometimes the Ab- 
scesses break into the guttural pouch; may last for weeks, then get 
unthrifty, though no swelling is seen on the outside. Day your horse 
down, use the mouth speculum, and insert your arm and try to locate 
the Abscess. In death you will find the Abscesses somewhere in the 
body. Good plan is to take affected animal from among the others, and 
fumigate and whitewash the stable inside. During convalescence give 
tonics, as tinct. iron, as soon as you tap the Abscess, or may even give it 
before; don't matter if you use it all through, but it would" do harm in 
a sporadic case. Never deplete, but purify the blood. Give iron where 
there is Dyspnoea and Strangles not bad; but if Strangles and tumefac- 
tion are bad, iron would make matters worse, as it contracts the parts. 
' so give camphor electuary in that case. 

Anthrax. — Is a peculiar virulent, infectious disease. It is known 
by different names, according to its manifestations and the country it is 
in. The French call it Charbon Anthrax; this is the generic term, and 
covers the list of malignant diseases under this form. Charbon applies 
more directly to where it is located. In the tongue is called Glosso- 
Anthrax; in Scotland, Blaine. When in the fore or hind legs, it is called 
Black L,eg. In the spleen it is called Splenic Apoplexy; also called 
Braxy in sheep; in human often called Charbon. It starts in pimples 
sometimes, then pustules — sometimes called Malignant Pustule, some- 
times Contagious Carbuncle. There are various conditions and de- 
grees of severity in this disease, and they are all of the same nature. 

Anthracoid! — Is a very mild form of Anthrax; all warm-blooded 
animals are subject to it. Prof. Williams says it is peculiar to herbiv- 
orous animals and birds; Dr. Baker agrees with Pasteur that fowls are 
not often attacked because of their high normal temperature, but we find 
that if fowls eat Anthrax meat they get Anthrax, but not so surely as 
animals. It requires inoculation for it to develop, but it matters not how 
that is done, or how taken into the bod v— either in a wound, or with the 



VETERINARY MEDICIXE AND SURGERY. 1 97 

food into the alimentary canal. It may appear any time at any season 
of the year, under an}- circumstances, but we find it is most prevalent in 
August and September; no animal is exempt. It caused an epidemic 
during the Siege of Troy among horses, cattle and people, from eating 
Anthrax meat, and in 1617 in Naples it caused an epidemic from which 
60,000 people died in one year. 

Etiology. — The specific cause is the Bacillus Anchrocis, discovered 
in 1850 by two Frenchmen (Raver and Devaine). They say it is a very 
easy germ to find; the rod is long, about three micromillimetres, and from 1 
to 1 and \\ in width; the end of the rod is square or slightly concave. 
Volhnger said decomposition of the tissues kills the germ; Prof. Koch 
denies that, and I think he is right. The number of germs in the blood 
increases wonderfully as death approaches, and they continue to develop 
after death while the carcass is warm. In the first stage there are only a 
few germs in the blood, but in a few hours after death the blood is loaded 
with them. Koch says the alimentary canal is the natural channel for 
its introduction; Pasteur says inoculation with mild virus will give im- 
munity from severe inoculation; Koch says it will not give immunity 
from its introduction into the alimentary canal. We think Pasteur 
is right and Koch wrong. It may be introduced through micro- 
scopic wounds, but the alimentary canal is the most common. It ma}- 
be introduced through an}- abrasion that will bring the juice to the 
surface, or from the bite of a house fly poisoned by feeding on an An- 
thrax carcass; and the same way by stings of bees and other insects. The 
germ will freeze and thaw and still live; it is the strongest germ known. 
Period of incubation is variable, depends first on number of Bacilli taken 
in; second, on the vitality of the Bacilli; third, on the condition of the blood 
of the host. We find that intravenus inoculation produces well-marked 
symptoms in from four to six hours after eating Anthrax meat, but from 
bites, may be from twelve to eighteen hours. Sheep fed on grass with this 
germ may not develop symptoms for three or four days. In horse, from 
inoculation, from four to eighteen hours; alimentary canal from two to 
four days; Pasteur says a mild attack will render immunity from a severe 
attack ever after. Sometimes animals recover from Anthrax, but if they 
do the recovery is slow, and the animal is often wabbly in gait after- 
wards. One most prolific cause is throwing an Anthrax carcass on 
bottom lands, and the high water floats the germ down and leaves it on 
meadow lands or lowlands, where it gets on the grass. You must be 
careful in autopsy not to get the germs into a wound; a good idea is to 
use rubber gloves, and rub carbolized oil over all exposed parts to keep 
flies from biting you after being on the carcass. 

Immunity from Black Leg and Brachia is obtained by inoculation. 
Pasteur performed it very extensively in France among the sheep. He 
cultivated the germ in chicken broth. The strength of the culture 
lessens with age; he kept this broth at a temperature of forty-two to 
forty-three degrees centigrade, equal to 107 and 3-5 to 109 and 2-5 Fahr. 
This high temperature lessens the vitality of the germ. At this temper- 
ature, he says it will die in a month, so the culture is then inoculated, 
hence the germ must be gradually dying during this time. He inoculates 
sheep first, with this culture that is twenty-four days old, then in twelve 
clays repeats with a virus twelve days old; this in most cases will produce 



198 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

a very mild fever that lasts a day or two; sometimes it is severe and may 
produce death; but is usualhy very mild, and the fever renders immunity 
ever afterwards. Koch said Pasteur's inoculation hypodermically, was 
not proof against the germ taken into the stomach; that is absurd and 
has been proven .so. The disease is often produced by eating hay from 
bottom lands, because the germ was on the grass, — thus it is often a 
mystery where the disease originated. Death often occurs during the 
night with no sign of a struggle. Autopsy will show Splenic Apoplexy. 
It seems that Anthrax taken the usual way, more often attacks the 
strong, healthy animals and the fattest, probably because the}' are the 
best feeders and eat more of the germs than the delicate ones. 

Beack Leg. — Used to be considered as a result of changing from 
poor to very nutritious pasture — turned into meadows. Why the)- get 
it, is a question. Sudden change used to be thought a cause; changing 
from cold to very warm, crowded stables is apt to bring it on in the form 
of Splenic Apoplexy. In Black Leg the conditions seem to be exactly 
the same, that is of the same nature as in Splenic Apoplexy. In Splenic 
Apoplexy the animal dies from gangrene of the spleen; in Black Leg 
from gangrene of the quarter. 

Semeiology. — In horses and cattle there are two forms that are 
recognized; first, Anthrax with no visible outward enlargement, and 
animal dies from internal morbid auatonw. The second is that with 
swelling, spoken of as Tumor when the animal dies from external morbid 
anatomy. When he dies from the first, there is no symptom of the 
disease except fever. In the second, this swelling begins first, or the 
lameness may begin first. Cases of this trouble in the quarter seem to 
lie in the blood being so thick it can't circulate through the part, through 
the capillaries; hence there is capillary congestion; this produces a 
sloughing of the quarter, and then lameness; as it swells there will be 
exudation into the surrounding tissues. If from any cause the circulation 
is renewed in the part, the animal ma3^ recover; otherwise he will die. It 
is said that cowboys recognize this fact, and if they notice an animal 
down and suspect the cause, they force it to rise and run, with the idea 
that exertion may start anew the circulation. In Black Leg the tongue 
will be swollen a little; the swelling may not start in the leg, but in a 
single set of muscles and then spread; but it usually affects the whole 
quarter. There .is high fever, he becomes listless, the parts will get 
tender, the pulse will be feeble and rapid. The fever starts in soon after 
inoculation, and as the quarter swells it gets cold and insensible, and in 
from two to twelve hours after the swelling, the skin will crepitate on 
pressure. This is due to the sulphuretted hydrogen gas formed, which 
is positive evidence of gangrene; death soon follows. Horses are seldom 
ever attacked with Black Leg; it takes the form of Splenic Apoplexy, 
and the animal does not die so fast — in from four to seven days, or 
several weeks. One of the first symptoms is, they isolate themselves 
from the rest of the herd; temperature may be 105, 6, or 7; there is loss of 
appetite in most cases. It is said that 9 out of 10 will recover if they re- 
tain their appetite, while it is the reverse with those that lose it; this may be 
from the fact that with good appetites they keep up their strength, hence 
their chances are better. In the horse the temperature may drop down to 
104 in a few days. About the second day the visible mucous membrane 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 1 99 

show cachexia, that runs into patches of Ecchymosis, say about the third 
or fourth cby. Animal staggers about, finally goes down, lies from 4 to 
24 hours and then dies. There is no symptom in some cases except the 
fever; in others there is swelling also. 

Post-Mortem. — -The cachexia and Ecchymosis on the visible mucous 
membranes, while not diagnostic are invariably present; some say more 
extensive in this disease than in others. In the human there may be 
such a thing as Typhus Fever, but 99 times out of 100 it is Anthrax. 
On opening these cases the first thing you will notice as you cut the 
bloodvessel, is that the blood is not coagulated, but is black and thick, will 
scarcel} r run, and resembles tar; this is nearly diagnostic, and is invaria- 
bly the condition of the blood. As you open the abdominal cavity you 
will find cachexia spots covering the serous membrane, sometimes very 
large. The spleen will be tremendously enlarged, and full of black blood; 
the congestion seems to have broken down the trabecular, and the blood 
will gravitate from end to end by turning up or down. The adipose tis- 
sue around the kidneys and other places is congested, and blood infil- 
trates into it, so that it looks reddish. That is about all you will find — 
the condition of the blood is the main feature. In Black L,eg, when 
the crepitating sound is heard, you will know that gangrene has taken 
place and the quarter is dead long before the animal dies. If the animal 
is down and you force him to get up he will be very lame and will soon 
lie down again, and in five or six hours will be dead. Usually with these 
cases there is congestion, and the urine is scant and high colored. An- 
imal usuahy dies in a comatose condition. 

Braxy in Sheep. — Has two forms — Splenic Apoplexy, and the one 
with the swelling on the outside, same as in cattle. You will find ex- 
travasated blood in the intestinal canal. In young lambs there is what 
shepherds call Navel, III in the form of a Tumor around the umbilicus. 
Williams calls this Charbon. 

Dogs seem to have some immunity from this disease; they may eat 
the meat of Anthrax carcass and not get the disease, but the germs 
will be in their mouth, and a bite from them will inoculate. 

In the Pig it is the same as in other animals, they can get it from 
eating Anthrax carcass. 

Anthrax in Poultry. — As the disease develops in them they get 
listless, have foetid Diarrhoea, wings drop, combs and bills get black, 
Tumors form between the digits, especially in geese and ducks; they 
wont perch to roost, but will stay on the ground. 

Anthrax in the Human. — From bite of a fly from off carcass, 
there is first, a red pimple which in a few hours will enlarge and turn 
black and spread; pustules form in the center, and soon you have a gen- 
uine case of Anthrax; death sometimes occurs in 6 hours, or may be pro- 
longed 24 to 48 hours, or some days. 

Treatment. — For the human, soon as you see the pimple the only 
treatment is to excise; take out a good big chunk and be quick about it, 
then stop the hemorrhage and treat with antiseptic— creoline and campho 
phenique are probably the best. As a rule, treatment is useless when 
Anthrax sets in, though it is possible something could be done to coun- 
teract the poison; might try l^posulphate soda or carbolic acid. Tinct. 
iron and alcoholic stimulants are stronsrlv indicated. In convalescence 



200 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

give iron and vegetable bitters. If you can anticipate Black Leg, give 
exercise, as it may cause the circulation to improve. Ammoniacal stimu- 
lants are not indicated. 

Preventative Treatment.— Is important; try to find the cause and re- 
move. Always burn a carcass from this disease, there is no other way to 
dispose of it, but if you must bury, then cover it with lime. For Black 
Leg and Braxy, if epidemic, you should try inoculation. 

Hog Cholera. — Given the name of Swine Plague by Prof. Detmers 
of Columbus, Ohio, who was one of the first to do anything in the way 
of investigating as to the pathology of the disease. He found the disease 
to be due to a Micrococcus. Hog Cholera is supposed, to be a disease of 
the bowels, but it is not always so, and for that reason Detmers objected 
to the name and called it Swine Plague. But Cholera applies in main- 
cases very well, because in autopsy there is ulceration of the bowels; this 
we always have in choleric conditions, that is we must have choleric con- 
ditions to have ulceration of the bowels. Often we find lung, spinal cord 
and other complications present; lungs being affected with Bronchial or 
Pneumonic Catarrh. In other cases we get Spinitis with Paralysis, and 
in most cases more or less skin complications. There is a Specific Fever 
that runs a tolerable definite course. In some seasons the mortality may 
run as high as 90 per cent, other seasons be down as low as 40 per cent; 
so there is a difference in the seasons, without any apparent reason. This 
disease is no respecter of age, sex, conditions, etc. Hogs that wallow in 
mud, filth, and their own dirt are no more liable to it than those under 
different circumstances. The germ will grow in any soil. The lym- 
phatic glands in many cases are much affected. 

Etiology. — The specific germ is a belted Micrococcus. It seems to 
have its habitat in the ground, or in the foecal matter of hogs. A par- 
ticularly good soil for them is where bedding is mixed with the ex- 
crement of the hogs. Detmers says the most virulent form is among hogs 
around hay stacks. 

Semeiology. — It begins with a rigor, followed by coughing and 
sneezing, and other evidences of a catarrhal condition; elevation of tem- 
perature, languor, loss of appetite, staring coat, drooping ears, and alter- 
ation of the secretions. Hogs will try to hide in the bedding. In the 
course of two or three days eruptions will come on the skin, generally on 
the ears first, a kind of red pimple; this is inclined to spread; there is 
often considerable breaking out in the way of cedemic conditions; some- 
times the skin doesn't break, but takes on a purplish color. Sometimes 
the brain seems affected, and they stagger. As the lungs are affected 
there will be evidences of labored breathing; usually, rapid emaciation, 
sometimes Constipation, but mostly Diarrhoea; sometimes they have a ca- 
pricious appetite; usually an accumulation of muco-purulent matter in 
the corners of the eyes, and a copious discharge from the nose; pecul- 
iarly offensive faeces. When there is costiveness the excrement is usu- 
ally gray, or may be black and hard; they may also have Diarrhoea, as 
there is inflammation of the mucous lining of the bowels; sometimes 
there is blood with the freces; wounds ideerate, ulcers are seen on the 
lips and tongue sometimes; jaw-bones often necrose; sometimes they die 
in convulsions, other times they will pine and die. In mild cases none 
of the symptoms are aggravated and they often recover; in some cases. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AXD SURGERY. 201 

after recovery, it leaves them with a chronic cough for a long time; again, 
it may leave them worthless; they wont fatten. 

Post- Mortem. — You will find more or less hepatization of the lungs, 
and often great numbers of Bacilli that are supposed to cause Pneumonia; 
but it is in the blood serum that the specific germ is found. In the ab- 
dominal cavity will be found cachexia spots on the serous membrane and 
the mesenteric glands, and the lymphatics are very much swollen, some- 
times strawberry-colored. Billings thinks this color diagnostic, but it 
is not invariably present; there is ulceration of the ileo-cecal valve, and 
more or less ulceration in the cecum and colon; this ulceration is diag- 
nostic of the disease. Period of incubation is from 5 to 15 days— aver- ' 
age, 7 days. 

Treatment. — Therapeutical treatment is useless; give prophylactic, 
treatment to save the remainder. Quarantine the farm, prevent them 
from being shipped, then take the well ones from among the sick and put 
them in a different place; don't take out the sick ones and leave the well 
ones in the place. Give good hygienic treatment; burn the carcasses, bed-- 
ding, etc. It is said the Contagium lasts an indefinite time. If there are 
wounds on the body, dress antiseptically. Prof. Detmers recommended 
10 drops carbolic acid to every 100 pounds weight of the hog, given in the 
drinking water; repeat two or three times a day, until animal is convales- 
cent. The Government Inspectors condemn hogs with this disease at the 
stock-yards. Though not communicable to man it is, on general princi- 
ples, diseased meat. 

Corn-stalk Disease. — -This is a peculiar disease of the West; there 
has been a little of it in Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska. It 
seems to be a disease of the corn due to some fungus, and horses and cat- 
tle eating the stalk get the disease. The origin of this disease was dis- 
covered by Dr. Billings in Nebraska, with the assistance of. Dr. Burrows 
of Champaign, 111. It is so well known now that you can pick out the 
diseased patches in the corn-field; it doesn't spread all over the field. It 
interferes with the growth of the corn, and breaks out usually at the 
junction of the leaf and the stalk; there may be little cachexial spots up 
the whole stalk. Thej T turn brown, spread out on the leaf and down 
the stalk. It is due to a vegetable parasite. When animals are 
affected, in the course of a few days the brain becomes affected, the}' get 
delirious, become pugnacious, and want to fight everything — even im- 
aginary objects, like a man in the Delirium Tremens. If anything comes 
in sight they go at it with open mouth, so they are very dangerous to 
handle. The temperature increases very much; the trouble keeps on in- 
creasing till they lose the power of co-ordination, stagger and go down, 
and die in convulsions. The symptoms, with the history, will help you 
to diagnose. It usually occurs in the Fail and Winter; never in the 
Spring or Summer. 

Treatment. — If the disease has developed, treatment is useless. 
Prophylactic treatment is to turn the animals out into the field. Many 
persons pick out the diseased corn and destroy it; some farmers now cut 
corn when the corn is full in the milk; in this way there is a saving of 
40 per cent in the quality" of the fodder. Always burn diseased corn, for 
the parasites go into the ground and when the young corn comes up they 
attack it. It is the worst about the middle of June. 



202 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Actinomycosis. — This is a peculiar disease which seems to develop- 
mostly in cattle, some in the horse, and is comparatively common in the 
human. It produces local lesions wherever it happens to develop. 
The peculiarity is in Tumors that resemble Culloid Tumors very much; 
they have honeycombed cells distributed through them, filled with a 
gelatinous pus, in some cases so thick it will not run, in others it will 
run, but is very thick. There is nothing cancerous in them, as in the 
Culloid; they are due to a ravenous germ, which is a star-shaped fungus 
known as Actinomyces. This germ is large, and when full grown looks 
like a sponge with club-shaped prolongations; it resembles a cactus plant, 
and when mature is too large to float through the capillaries. The 
clubs are full of spores, and these all break apart and each one forms a 
new germ; these are small enough to pass through the capillaries and 
find their way to all parts of the body, even in the bones of the vertebra?; 
the large ones seem to stay in the place they locate in, and don't get in 
out of the way places. The most common place for them is in the jaw- 
bones, tongue, lymphatic glands, and in the submaxillary space. They 
are also found in the small intestines, liver, pancreas, spleen and lungs, 
and have been found attached to the walls of the heart. In the lungs 
they produce a soft caseation easily broken down, which usually becomes 
liquid, with hard particles in it; these hard particles are gray hepatiza- 
tion, in which the germ is found. 

When the large vegetable, star-shaped fungus breaks up, or the 
spores detach, they are then not more than j{ the size of a red blood 
corpuscle. In the liver, bowels, etc., the disease appears as little Tu- 
mors. The pus that escapes from these Tumors is a grayish-lavender 
color, with the yellow lumps floating in it; these can easily be dis- 
tinguished, and may be from the size of a pin head to }i inch in diameter. 
To examine the single germ, use acidulated glycerine to clear it, thin it. 
It doesn't require to be colored, but you may if } T ou choose use bismark 
brown or methyl blue. If there is a Tumor on the jaw, it works into 
the jaw-bone, don't know how it does, but it is supposed to be through 
decayed teeth or from mucous membrane, and causes a rarifying Ostitis, 
making it honeycombed like, and it continues to grow. This disease is 
spreading rapidly throughout this country. We believe that the dis- 
charge from a suppurating Tumor drops on the grass, and that other 
animals eat this grass and get the disease. It has been proven that the 
disease can be produced in any part of the body by inoculation, so no 
matter how it is taken in, the germ will produce the disease. 

But how people get this disease is still a mystery; it is getting to 
be more common in the human. The pus of Tumors in the human and 
that from one in a bovine have been found to be exactly the same. 
In Germany every slaughter-house has a veterinary inspector, and they 
mark the meat according to its quality as fit for market — i, 2, 3, or 4, 
and they class this kind of meat as number 4. It has been found in the 
human to be the most common in pauper hospitals, but not so much so 
in this country. Dr. Billings thinks it is harmless to eat this meat, but 
some of our best doctors think differently; Dr. Billings bases his belief 011 
it not being contagious, because he saw a cow suffering from a severe 
attack of this disease, among a herd for a long time, and the disease 
never developed in any of them. Dr. Baker tells of a bull that was 






VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 203, 

brought from Kentucky into a county in Illinois where the disease had 
never been; this bull had a small Tumor that broke and discharged 6 
weeks after, and in 6 months after 13 of his herd had the disease. 
There has been a number of such cases, and they go to show against Dr. 
Billings' s idea. These Tumors may be in the jaw or throat in the hu- 
man, and may cause death in from three months to several y^ears. 

Semeiology. — The first thing 3^ou will notice will be an enlarge- 
ment wherever the diseaset is developing. This keeps on increasing, 
and sometimes interferes with their feeding, other times does not. It 
may affect the tongue, causing what is called Wooden Tongue; this is 
not so common in this county, but in Germany it covered about twenty- 
five per cent of the cases of this disease. Here we frequently find the soft 
Tumor in the throat, then in the upper jaw, then in the lower jaw, 
and about sixty per cent, the greater part, in the mouth, which 
proves it is taken in with the food, passes through the stomach and is 
not digested, and so it passes to the bowels, where you will find sixty, 
seventy, or more Tumors. About five or ten per cent of the disease 
locates in the liver, and about five per cent in the lungs. In the human 
it attacks the bones of the spinal column, or any part of the body or 
bony structure. In cattle, unless it interferes with some vital function, 
it does not affect the general health of the animal. In the human it is 
more violent, and usually fatal in from three months to three }<ears. 
It was found at one time that 300 out of 2000 cattle in the feeding sheds 
at the Peoria distilleries had the disease; it was not known that they had 
it before they came there, but it looked much as if it was due to the 
germs dropping into the meal, and others eating it affected them also. 

Treatment. — The old-fashioned treatment was opening and syringing 
out with antiseptic; that ma>^ do for outside Tumors, but even then it is 
hardly satisfactory, as the antiseptic doesn't always get to the place 
where the germ is, or there may be Tumors farther in that will not be 
affected, no matter how strong the antiseptic. Some pack the opening 
with sulphate of copper, or such like strong caustics, but even that is 
not satisfactory. The next best thing to do is to dissect the whole body, 
if no vital organ or part is affected. In Germany for the treatment of 
Woody Tongue they started the use of iodide of potash, which proved 
to be pretty good, so now it is used in this country. For a 2^ to 3 
year old animal weighing about 1200 to 1300 lbs., 'give internally 
1 to 2 drs., well diluted, three times a day, and remember that the 
more y^ou dilute it the more good it will do; put the dose in a pint or 
even a bucketful of water, and continue this till iodism is produced. 
It usually takes from a week to ten da} r s in cattle to produce iodism; 
they are far more susceptible to iodide potash than the human. The 
first symptom of iodism is acute Coryza (a watery flow from the eyes and 
a watery discharge from the nose), loss of appetite, and in the course of 
a few days the skin takes on a bran-like scurf. If iodism has set in, 
stop for eight or ten days, then repeat till the symptoms of iodism show 
again. We recommend this treatment, and with this it is well to open the 
Tumors to allow them to discharge pus. In human it is well to dissect. 

Botryomycosis. — This invades a wound; in some respects it re- 

' sembles Actinomycosis. It is a Tumor that develops on account of the 

invasion of a wound by a drumstick-shaped germ called Botryomyces; 



204 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

the Tumor may or ma}- not suppurate, but usually there is enough sup- 
puration to cause proliferation. An example of this disease is Scirrhus 
cord, after Castration generally. 

Treatment. — Excision. 

Bursautee. — Sores on horses due to exposure to rains; this is an 
East Indian disease, but there is a somewhat similar one in the South of 
this country; as seen in East India it is a peculiar disease. There is no 
clear proof of it being contagious, or of its inoculability. It is character- 
ized by certain structural changes in the skin, and sometimes in the ex- 
ternal organs in wounds. The changes that take place in the structure 
are slow, and the Tumors that form in the skin are inclined to return at 
some other more favorable time. In these sores there is a peculiar kind of 
thickening, it seems soft and spongy. East Indians call it Kunkur. 
A characteristic of the disease is a peculiar Tumor with an ulcerating 
top. The disease is not fatal, but produces extreme weakness and 
causes the animal to scratch and rub so much and so long that the owner 
gets tired and kills him. The disease seems to flourish more during the 
rainy seasons. There is an idea that it is contagious, but this is not posi- 
tively known. Some think it hereditary, and that it is not considered 
advisable to breed them. 

Etiology. — -It is supposed to be associated with filth, bad care, etc. 

Semeiology. — Tumors form in the skin or under it; there is con- 
siderable itching and general distress accompanying the sore. The ani- 
mal will bite and rub the sore till it is raw, which then ulcerates, this 
is liable to spread and ulcerate, till it may be either the size of a hen's 
egg or about 15 inches in diameter. These Tumors feel and look like 
sponge; this is characteristic of the disease, but there is no liquid in the 
Tumor; sometimes they become firmly attached to the healthy structures 
lying beneath them. It seems that these Tumors are inclined to form 
where the harness rubs; this often appears to be the cause. The ulcer 
has the appearance of any ulcer — edges raised, with a depressed center, 
or it may have a papillated appearance; it discharges a thin puriform 
matter. The Tumors sometimes become confluent, and occasional!}- 
heal spontaneously, but not as a rule; they grow worse, but the horse 
doesn't seem to suffer much. Different parts of the body may be affected 
at the same time. 

Treatment. — Excision or extirpation of these sores with the knife, 
and removing all the diseased tissue; treat the wound as a simple 
wound — antiseptically, etc. Give tonics internally and liberally; iron and 
arsenic particularly. Keep off the harness until well. 

Influenza. — In the horse is almost identical with Influenza in the 
human; that is the Grip, which is a form of Influenza. In the horse 
this is a distinctly catarrhal affection of the air passages, particularly of 
the head and throat. It is usually Epizootic — may be Enzootic, but the 
difference between the two names is in the amount of country covered; 
both being due to the same cause. Influenza usually covers a large 
tract of country; it used to be thought due to some alteration in the 
character of the atmosphere; that now is obsolete. It is recognized as 
being a distinctly specific germ disease, and by the course it runs, par* 
ticularly in the horse, we are thoroughly satisfied that it is infectious. 
Country horses brought into sale stables seem to suffer generally from this 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 205 

disease, because once the disease gets into these stables it remains there, 
and fresh horses coming in get the germ, which is the specific virus, 
and does not require inoculation. It often runs a very malignant course, 
and in many cases proves fatal. The period of incubation, on an aver- 
age, is about one week, and a horse having it will leave the disease be- 
hind him wherever he may go. It does not confine itself to the head 
and throat, but often runs down to the lungs, producing a fatal Pneu- 
monia or Pleurisy and Hydro thorax. In case of Pleurisy, you will find 
every part of the pleural surface involved, and the water in Plydrotliorax 
has a foetid odor; sometimes Carditis is associated with it, and we often 
find hepatization in Pneumonia with it. If it confines itself to the head 
and throat there ma}- be Abscesses formed, resembling Strangles. 
Scientists believe the germ floats in the air. *In 1872 there was an Epi- 
zootic of this disease all over the world; it started on the Pacific coast 
of this country, reached the Atlantic and crossed over, attacking all the 
civilized world; this was among horses. It seems that when horses are 
affected the human is not very much, and vice versa. It has no respect to 
sex, age, or condition. Death usually occurs from thoracic complica- 
tions, either Pneumonia, Pleurisy, etc., sometimes in the form of Enteritis, 
or in the kidneys, as acute Bright' s, but with proper early treatment they 
will recover. 

Semeiology. — Great nervous prostration is the first symptom; often 
the disease is not noticed till the horse is so weak that he staggers; this 
prostration we believe develops in the early part of the disease. During 
the period of incubation a high fever develops, temperature ma}- be 106, 
107, or even 108, usually 106; we conclude it is not developed suddenly, 
but is not noticed at first. Breathing is accelerated; will often find this 
breathing characterized by a snoring sound, like that in. a chill, though 
there is no shaking or shivering in this. Pulse is hard, quick and irrita- 
ble; the rigors are liable to take place from time to time. There is hang- 
ing of the head, drooping of the ears, hot mouth, red eyes, and in the 
corners a muco-purulent matter; sometimes there is a swelling of the lids. 
These features of the eye lead some to call it Pink Eye; it is only a 
form of Influenza. It is usually applied to that form or part of acute 
Cellulitis around the eye. There is a profuse discharge from the nose, 
often of a muco-purulent nature. The per cent of deaths depends on the 
amount of complications with the disease. One feature particularly, is 
that ever}- part of mucous membrane is affected with a mild catarrhal 
affection; the effect of this is to increase its secretions; in the bowels 
this causes more or less Diarrhoea, sometimes well marked; where the 
bowels are not so affected you will find the faeces covered with a slimy 
mucous. Any mistake in treatment may cause death — may run into 
Purpura Haemorrhagica, which is frequently a termination of the disease. 
If the animal recovers he is often left with a chronic Catarrh that may 
render him useless for months, or for a year or more, or may make him 
absolutely useless. 

Treatment. — Good hygienic treatment is considered of the highest 
importance; put the horse in good quarters — can't move him far; give 
good ventilation, no drafts, pure air, and soft, digestible (very little in- 
digestible) food. For this purpose we use oatmeal and linseed meal, 
and boiled barley or hay tea. Bear in mind that the lining of the bowels 



206 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

is in an irritable condition and may run into Enteritis. In Grip they 
find the micro-organism attacks the red blood corpuscle and destroys it, 
leaving the blood in an impoverished condition, and as a result great 
nervous prostration follows. Stimulants are indicated, depletion is con- 
tra-indicated; whisky is indispensable; never do anything to deplete the 
system. Aconite, tartar emetic, calomel, etc., are contra-indicated, also 
blood-letting. To the whisky you may add strychnine, atropine, etc., 
but in this case never use the ammouiacal salts, as the}* thin the blood. 
Whisky is the sheet anchor; quinine can be giveu in liberal doses, as it 
reduces the temperature without depressing the heart. Antipyrin or 
acetanilid may be given in small doses; they are coal-tar preparations 
and depress the heart some. Try to reduce the temperature from 106 to 
about 103; in that way ycfu will lessen the danger of complications. 
When confined to the head and throat, blanket warmly; laxatives are 
dangerous, and ma}- cause fatal Enteritis; leave the bowels alone; treat 
the heart mainly, and give good hygiene, and let nature do the rest. 

In Grip the latest treatment is hypodermic injections of strychnine, 
that is in the human. Strychnine and atropine are excellent remedies as 
stimulants, so if you can't get whisky use them. Give long rest; re- 
covery, as we said, is very slow. 

Malignant Catarrh of the Ox. — This is looked upon by many 
as an infectious disease, but does not seem to be communicated by either 
contact or inoculation; it is probably like Malaria in the human; it 
dosen't seem to be contagious, but is rather due to some miasmatic in- 
fluence that the cattle are laboring under, so that though many in a herd 
may have it, they all get it from a common source, which is probably 
miasmatic or Malarial. We find the disease is of a malignant catarrhal 
nature, affecting the mucous lining of the upper air passages, including 
the sinuses of the head; as the frontal sinus opens into the horn, it may be 
affected also. The disease occurs mostly in cattle pasturing on lowlands, 
and more particularly in cold, damp weather. It resembles Rinderpest 
or Russian Cattle Plague. The germ has not yet been discovered. The 
disease is so severe in some cases that the ox pines away and dies; and 
is so malignant as to be called by some, Cattle Glanders — but that is 
rather a misnomer. It is distinctly Typhoid in its nature. 

Semeiology. — Rigors, high fever, dejection, nervous prostration, in- 
jection of the mucous membranes in the early sta.^e; in the latter they lie- 
come darker. Eater on there is a thin mucous discharge from the mu- 
cous surfaces, the nose particularly; eyes are watery, horns usually very 
hot; a rap on the horn causes pain, also percussion over the sinuses. In 
the early stage there is Constipation, in the latter approaching death, 
there will be a fceted Diarrhoea; the discharge that was mucous now lie- 
comes- muco-purulent, that is from the nose. Eruptions occur in the 
nostrils, often there is ulceration of the nose and lips; they differ from 
Chancre in Glanders, but resemble malignant pustular Eczema. Swell- 
ing often suppurates, develops between the rami of the lower jaw, and in 
other parts of the body; — a good deal like Strangles in the horse. The 
inflammation in the sinuses is sometimes so severe as to cause the horns to 
slough off; that is in an excessively severe case. Sometimes in malignant 
cases there is sloughing off of the skin in patches, on different parts of 
the body, particularly on the legs. This disease in that respect resembles 






VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 207 

the foot and mouth disease. Death occurs in from three to ten days if it 
proves fatal; but where they don't die, they are sick for a long time; re- 
covery is slow. 

Treatment. — Remove the cause; put the cattle on high ground; 
night and early morning is the worst time, so put in at night and don' t 
let out till about middle of the morning. Treat fever same as any other 
fever; don't deplete. Aconite and belladonna may be all right in the 
early stage. During convalescence and throughout, give quinine; tonics 
^are now indicated. If the discharge from the nose is profuse and very 
ichorous, steam with medicated water, using carbolic acid or iodine 
several times a day. 

Purpura Hemorrhagica. — This has heretofore been considered as 
a non-contagious disease, but in 1889 two Italians, Fizzoni and Giovan- 
nini, discovered the specific Bacillus which now classifies the disease as 
infectious. This discovery was corroborated in 1890 by a Frenchman 
named Babes, and in 1891 by a German named Kolb ; so it is no w ac- 
cepted by all as an infectious disease. The Bacillus has round ends. As 
regards its nature, it is classified as a blood disease with extensive swell- 
ing of the legs, under the abdomen, muzzle and other parts of the body; 
there are eruptions and Ecchymosis. We often see it following some 
debilitating disease previous^ existing as Influenza or acute Catarrh, or 
it may arise as an original lesion, in which case we usually see it more 
severe and oftener fatal than in other cases. Of late years it has been 
seen more as an original lesion, without any predisposition whatever and 
is often fatal. 

Etiology. — The Bacillus is the prime cause. In the majority of cases 
it arises in basement stables where there is bad drainage and ventilation, 
and a crowded condition; under such circumstances the disease is 
common. We find as. regards the pathogenesis, that the main feature is 
the extraordinary change taking place in the blood; it becomes deficient 
in red blood corpuscles and albumen, and nearly as thin as water, and 
light in color. This thin condition of the blood is naturally accompanied 
with an atonic condition of the walls of the blood vessels; this comes 
from a lack of proper nutrition. The atonic condition of the walls of the 
blood vessels and the thinness of the blood allow a transudation into the 
surrounding tissues, and this gravitates to the most dependent part, 
producing a swelling. 

Semeiology. — The symptoms are quite characteristic; it is quite easj T 
to diagnose a case. In the earlier stage of the disease there is high 
fever, usually from 104 to 106, but in general about 104. If the animal 
dies towards the last, the fever will be from 105 to 106; this fever is apt 
to be intermittent, coining and going up and down. The next thing we 
notice is swelling in some -parts of the body, more often in the legs, from 
the hocks up to the knees, or around the mouth; perhaps one lip may be 
swollen and hard, but when it arises as an original lesion we will find the 
whole muzzle swollen. The legs swell from the hock up, and the 
swelling gets higher up as the disease progresses, and also gets 
wider as it gets to the top, and always has an abrupt termination. It 
may be about ^ of an inch at the hock, and from two to three 
inches at the knee. When the swelling reaches the body it usually runs 
along the under side of the body, along the belly; the sheath swells, and 



208 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

in the mare the skin around the mammary glands becomes filled. During 
all this time the muzzle is swelling, and also has the abrupt line of 
termination. But soon after the fever sets in, and before the swelling, 
you will find cachexia spots on the mucous membranes, especially on the 
Schneideriau, and buccal, also on the vagina, rectum, etc. These at first are 
cachexia spots, but in a day or two get larger and finally become patches 
of Ecchymosis. They are local extravasations, actual hemorrhages into 
the cellular tissue. In the course of two or three days there is an 
offensive discharge from the nose, which is very foetid; the saliva from 
the mouth is also foetid. About two or three days after the disease sets in, 
an offensive, foetid discharge seems to ooze from the skin of the legs 
and belly and trickles down in a gummy amber-colored fluid. The 
appetite may remain good, but animal can't eat on account of the swollen 
muzzle. Sometimes the tongue swells so much it will protrude from 
the mouth. 

A very prominent feature of this disease is the cessation of secre- 
tions from the bowles and kidneys; they become very inactive — will often 
go four or five days without passing water from the bladder; this is a 
remarkable symptom in this case, and is probably due to lack of nutrition. 
As death approaches we find the breathing becomes very labored, partly 
due to the swollen condition of the nose, the cavity or calibre being 
diminished. This causes great Dyspnoea, and when the swelling gets to 
the eyes the breathing is very labored; the horse can't hold up his head, 
and the swelling often reaches the pole; he becomes blind, presistently 
stands, and finally goes down exhausted, and soon dies. They often die 
suddenly from the infiltration reaching the brain; this may happen in a 
mild attack, but the cause of death then is Embolism, as the circulation 
during this disease is very weak; the pulse is weak, irregular and flutter- 
ing; ante-mortem clots are liable to form, and then Embolism. As the 
hind legs swell the horse can't move, and instead of Constipation in the 
last stages, there may be a bloody Diarrhoea, due to the extravasation of 
blood into the bowels. 

Treatment. — Give good hygienic treatment, that is of the highest 
importance; pure air — don't leave in basement; soft food, warm clothing, 
and keep quiet. 

Therapeutical Treatment. — Williams recommends chlorate potash, 
but we find they all die when so treated — potash has a tendency to 
destroy plasma in the blood. Others prescribe turpentine; this is useful 
in three ways — first, as a diuretic, and they need that; second, as a stimu- 
lant, and they need that; third, as a germicide; so you see turpentine is 
very good. Some use fl. ext. of ergot and claim much benefit from it; it 
contracts the walls of the blood vessels, hence it is rational. But we 
rely on three drugs — iron, spirits of nitre, and quinine. Tinct. of iron is 
the sheet anchor; give in drachm doses in bad cases, every hour for two, 
three, or four days; give in two ounces of water. Spts. of nitre may be 
given in the same dose and at the same time, and may be combined with 
the iron. Give quinine — about midway between a tonic and a febrifuge 
dose— say in one half dr. doses every three or four hours. In less severe 
cases give the iron and spts. of nitre every two, three, or four hours, 
according to the severity of the case. We usually mix them all together. 
In addition to this, bathe the muzzle with hot water continuously to 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 20Q 

drive the swelling to other parts of the body; bathe night and day; if the 
internal treatment doesn't reduce the swelling, don't pay any attention to 
the swelling in other parts of the body except the head. • It may be that 
sometimes the swelling may affect the pleural cavity; that is the exudation 
into it may cause suffocation, but we must take the chances. Let him 
eat if he will, and give him good strong feed. Under this treatment only 
about twenty-five per cent die; under the old, ninety-five per cent died. 
Don't use cold water, astringents, nor by any means scarify, as it does no 
good, and will cause inflammation and sloughing of the skin. Always 
elevate the head so he will not hang it. In case the swelling of the 
muzzle doesn't go down, then as a last resort perform tracheotomy, it 
gives the horse one more chance; but their chances are poor when they 
reach that condition, as they seldom recover. In autopsy you will find 
a bloodless condition — the blood in the blood vessels will not be coagu- 
lated; it is too thin, and there is a general infiltration. 

Scarlatina. — This ver}?- closely resembles Scarlet Fever in the 
human, and also Purpura Hemorrhagica; but there are many distinct 
features. It usually arises from deficient hygiene, but must be infectious, 
as an affected animal put into a stable full -. of horses will communicate 
it to all. The characteristic features differentiating it from Purpura 
Hsemorrhagica are in the first place, the cachexia spots are smaller and 
remain so, while in Purpura Hsemorrhagica they become Ecchymosis; 
sometimes in Scarlatina they form patches by coalescing, but not by 
extravasation. In Scarlatina these spots are scarlet, in Purpura 
Hsemorrhagica they are purple. In Scarlatina there is sore throat — 
never in the other. In Purpura Hsemorrhagica the swelling is smooth, 
with abrupt termination; in Scarlatina it is in patches and lumps, over 
the head and neck. In Scarlatina the lymphatic glands frequently sup- 
purate, they never do in Purpura Hsemorrhagica. 

Treatment. — The fever seems to run the same as in Purpura 
Hsemorrhagica, but not so high. If it was a sporadic case iron would 
aggravate it, but in a specific case it is indicated; so the same treatment 
will apply to this as to Purpura Hsemorrhagica. Apply mild counter- 
irritants to the throat, or poultices; keep up strength; give boiled eggs, 
and milk and barley. Some recommend swabbing the throat with a 
solution of nitrate silver — ten grs. to the oz. If an Abscess forms, open 
and syringe out with antiseptic. In fatal cases, as it approaches death it 
seems to run into Purpura Hsemorrhagica, so the termination is the same 
in both cases; may be the same from about twelve hours before death. 
In Post- Mortem it is about the same as in Purpura Hsemorrhagica except 
that there is not so general, but a more local infiltration than in Purpura 
Hsemorrhagica. 

The Dog is subject to nearly all the diseases common to man; 
pathology is much the same. The dog is the most sensible, and sensitive 
as well, of all the lower animals, and medicine has a greater effect on 
him; so you must be careful in treating not to give anything that will 
cause him to vomit, as you will then find it very difficult to treat him. 
A dog' s stomach is very sensitive to the action of drugs. They have 
strong expression in their countenances, and show many of the same feel- 
ings as the human, in their expression. We may sa3^ the same rule that 
governs the application of medicine in the horse applies to the dog, only 



2IO THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

you must remember the size, and the effect of drugs upon the dog. I 
find that the doses laid down for the dog in Finley Dunn, are as a rule 
much too large; in many cases the minimum dose would suit better than 
the maximum one. 

Canine Distemper. — Is pureby a canine disease, and resembles 
measles in the human very closely. It is an infectious catarrhal fever, 
and seems to arise spontaneously in some cases, but as we believe it a 
specific disease we scout the idea, though can't explain. It has a varia- 
ble period of incubation — from a week to a month, with a general 
average of eight or ten days. It is a specific blood poison. In the un- 
complicated form it is very mild, but it is prone to develop complications 
very frequently — such as will prove fatal. The parts invariably attacked 
are the upper air passages and eyes; that is in the simple uncomplicated 
form. It is considered a puppyhood disease; as a rule it occurs between 
three and nine months though I have seen it in dogs four years old. 
•The disease resembles measles in children so closely, that many physi- 
cians say that it will give measles to children by having a dog with canine 
Distemper in the house. Others sa}^ it will also cause Typhoid Fever, 
but there are some differences between the symptoms of it and Typhoid 
Fever. Canine Distemper in the complicated form may attack the brain 
and cause Epileptic fits; or it may attack the peripheral nerves and cause 
Chorea; then the spinal cord and covering may be attacked aud cause 
either partial or complete Paraplegia; or the bowels may be attacked and 
cause fatal Diarrhoea or Dysentery; or the lungs may be attacked and 
cause Catarrhal or Bronchial Pneumonia — which is the most common 
conplication. This disease is no respecter of age, sex or condition, 
though well-bred dogs seem to suffer more than curs, especially those 
inbred; they take it oftenest in the malignant form. The mortality among 
well-bred dogs is terrible, and the disease seems to be increasing. About 
nine tenths of the deaths of Welland setters is due to this disease. One 
attack renders immunity from a second one, as a rule; that proves the 
specific character of it. The germ has not yet been discovered. Some 
think it resembles Scarlet Fever in the human, but we know it resembles 
Measles more than anything else. The mild form runs a mild course and 
terminates favorably; in this there are eruptions similar to those in 
measles. 

Etiology. — The cause lies in some specific poison not yet isolated. 

Semeiology. — Rigors, the first thing; first severe, then minor; for 
the first four or five days they have shivering fits, then are burning up; 
temperature from normal runs up to about 104, pulse rapid, may run from 
120 up to 175, or may run so high you can't count it; mucous mem- 
brane of the eyes is very red, nose hot and dry in the early stage; rest- 
less at first, then this passes off and they are languid, which increases; 
usually there is complete loss of appetite, and thirst is increased, that is 
after twenty-four hours; emaciation is rapid in all cases; urine is seam and 
high colored, bowels at first constipated, later there is Diarrhoea; faeces 
is horribly foetid, black and tarry — that is almost characteristic; it may 
stav black, or may run into a watery Diarrhoea. Usually from the start 
there is sneezing and coughing; after twenty-four hours the mucous dis- 
charge coagulates in the corner of the eyes. In three or four days this 
discharge becomes muco-purulent, both from the eyes and nose; this 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 211 

glues the lids of the eyes together and confines the pus, and if not 
allowed to escape may cause Corneitis; often causes the cornea to rupture, 
allowing the escape of the aqueous humor. Where the inflammation is 
inclined to run down the cough will become hoarse and deeper; in the 
second stage respiration increases; animal will hug up around the stove. 
We will hear all the ordinary sounds of Pneumonia by percussion, when 
it takes that complication. In the difficult breathing they act the same as 
the human in inspiration — they draw the air through their teeth and the 
lips are drawn back; in expiration they puff out the cheeks; they don't 
usually pant or show the abdominal symptoms seen in the horse; the 
breathing doesn' t increase much in frequency, but is labored, and the 
countenance is anxious. It takes from about five days to three weeks for 
a case to run its course. The fits, when Epilepsy is present with it, may be 
continuous — that is recurring, or they may come on three or four times a 
day, as a rule about one half dozen in twenty- four hours. If the skin 
complications in bad cases are caused by bad circulation, we have slough- 
ing off of the skin in patches, forming ulcerating sores; these usually 
indicate death, though they sometimes recover. If there are any com- 
plications, never give favorable prognosis; if there are none you may. 

Treatment. — If taken earl} 7 , a mild laxative is indicated - oil of 
cascara, or buckhorn, is good, but give no drastic purgative; some give 
mercurial laxatives: Aconite in the early stage is good in small doses, 
though it would seem to be contra- indicated; as a rule heart depressants 
are not indicated in specific cases or diseases, but rather stimulants. 
Belladonna is good, but remember that the dog is very susceptible to 
poisons, and this is rather dangerous. Quinine from the start is an 
excellent remedy; to a Llewellyn puppy six months old, give two grains 
quinine every two or three hours, in an ordinary case; then as he re- 
covers' drop off, first on the frequency, then on the dose. Nitric ether is 
good in the early stage; some say hyposulphate soda is good, but I have 
not been able to do much with it. I find that tonics and stimulants work 
the best, with a little iron, even in fever it does no harm. 

Iron is contra- indicated in sporadic cases, but is good in Specific 
Fevers. In dosing a dog with any drug, be very careful of upsetting his 
stomach, and if you find a dog vomiting and can't keep anything down, 
for instance a setter, give ten grains of subnitrate bismuth, and repeat 
ever} 7 two, three or four hours for a few doses; this is one of the best 
remedies I know of for this. The receipt for canine Distemper that we 
use is: 

R Elix. Cal.Fer. Bis. i oz. 

Pot. Acet. xyi drs. 

Spts. Nit. Ether 2 drs. 
Aqua 1 oz. 

Syr. Tolu, ad to make 4 ozs. 

Dose, dessertspoonful every two or three hours, or three or four times a 
day, and prescribe quinine in separate mixture; mix it with glycyrrhiza 
to hide the taste; in case of great weakness give sherry wine — one half 
to one teasponful doses, w T ell diluted; to a setter puppy carry this out till 
convalescent, then you may give elix. cal. and strych. 

In case of lung complications use linseed poultice with a little mus- 
tard in it, that is if the animal is kept in the house; if in the barn, rub 



212 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

mustard plaster into the hair and wrap with flannel. If it goes to the 
brain and causes Epileptic fits, give bromide potash 10 grs. to the 
three, four or ten times a day — three times for a mild ease, and give a 
dose after each fit; continue the other treatment just the same. In case 
of Chorea, valerianate of zinc alternated wtih valerianate of ammonia in 
small closes, or nitrate silver in pills, is good. If the bowels are affected 
thej" require little or no special treatment, except good hygiene as to diet; 
it is well to break a raw egg in the mouth three times a day for a six 
months old puppy, to keep up his strength; that will also loosen the 
bowels; if it purges give beef tea or broth with rice, bread aud milk. etc. 
Paralysis in the dog usually yields to treatment, but for some reason, I 
can't explain why, I can't do anything for bitches. Strychnine and 
iodide potash is rational treatment; give six months old puppy 
strychnine three times a day; may increase to -sV, -hi or •& of a gr., but 
watch closely till you get the effect; in case of poisonous dose, give large 
dose of bromide potash. Of the iodide potash, start with i gr. , then run 
up to 5 grs. then back to 3 grs.; it takes from one to three months to get 
them all right. In convalescence after Chorea, give arsenic (Fowler's 
solution), about a drop three times a day for three days, then increase a 
drop a day till you get to ten drops, then drop down for a month to five 
drops, and alternate. 

The vitality of the specific poison is great, so scrub out the kennel 
with hot water and corrosive sublimate, then fumigate and whitewash. 

Rheumatism. — This is a constitutional blood disease of a very pe- 
culiar kind, being neither contagious nor infectious, but one that is not 
well understood as to the cause. After experimenting, we have come to 
the conclusion it is due to an accumulation in the system of some unnat- 
ural acid. This in the human is thought to be lactic acid; in the lower 
animals it may be the same acid, or hippuric acid, or both; that is in the 
herbivora, the omnivora and carnivora, it may be lactic acid. As a rule 
it is an inflammatory disease, and may be very acute, or it may be mild 
and cause no inflammation, but considerable pain. When it attacks a 
certain part and produces swelling, it is then known as Inflammatory 
Rheumatism. But when there is no enlargement with the pain, the 
name inflammatory is not used; it is simply spoken of as Rheumatism. 
This inflammation is sometimes very acute, but the peculiarity of it is, it is 
not suppurative, so is not inclined to form Abscesses. In cattle, especially 
in the young, they will lie down in pain, sometimes on hard floors, and 
so bruise the part as to cause suppuration, often around the fetlocks; the 
joints become bruised and form Abscesses and then there is suppuration. 
Horses will not lie down, so we don't see this in them. One peculiarity 
of the disease is that it seems to locate along the sheaths of tendons, in 
the tendons, synovial membranes, or their fringes, and in ligaments, or 
in a muscle, or set of them. It may attack the periosteum, aud from that 
extend into the bone, sometimes in the pericardium, causing Pericarditis; 
or in the endocardium, causing sudden death. Sometimes it affects the 
intercostal muscles, causing Pleurodynia, and then you may have many 
of the symptoms of Pleurisy; sometimes it attacks the trunk nerves, more 
particularly the Sciatic; it is then called Sciatica; sometimes it attacks a 
set of nerves and extends all over their distribution, then it is called 
Neuralgia. 






VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 213 

Etiolog}'. — Sir Richard Critcherson found by injecting an infusion 
of lactic acid into a dog, that he could 4 produce Rheumatic Fever with 
characteristic lesions of Endocarditis, etc., also of the aorta valves: When 
the disease is general throughout the system, with pains everywhere and 
fever; it is spoken of as Rheumatic Fever; and if the heart is not affected 
it is liable to be so at any time and prove fatal. A predisposing cause 
of this disease might be due to a faulty assimilation or faulty character 
of the food, as we see in dogs fed exclusively on meat diet. They are 
very prone to the disease; it is so in people, while vegetarians seldom 
have this disease. It is almost invariable with people who use much 
meats and sour wines; particularly in those of sedentary habits. The 
next predisposing cause is a Rheumatic diathesis, or commonly speaking, 
hereditary. Another cause is the presence of effete material in the sys- 
tem, causing an unnatural acid. This effete material may be the result 
of some previous debilitating disease, as Influenza, that should have been 
eliminated from the system. This debris predisposes to acute Rheuma- 
tism ; we find this in the disease following Influenza in from two to six 
weeks; it usually locates in the sheaths of tendons of the fore legs par- 
ticularly,, and from the knee to the fetlock; it may be swollen, then in 
three or four da}^s it may leave this place and locate in another leg in the 
same place, or in another place, or it may stay in the first place as well; 
or the swelling may remain and the soreness leave. Another predispos- 
ing cause is the condition of the system that leads to over-production of 
fibrin in the blood; the normal amount is about 2 in 1000; in this you will 
find sometimes. 10 in 1000. Then it is due to the changes produced by 
the Rheumatism; the urine is altered; in the herbivora the urine should 
be slightly alkaline, in the carnivora and omnivora it should be either 
neutral or slightly alkaline. In the herbivora in this disease it becomes 
acid; in the carnivora and omnivora it becomes exceedingly acid. This 
is looked upon as a proof of mal assimilation. There may be predisposi- 
tion for a long time in the body, but requires an exciting cause to develop 
it. This is usually exposure to severe cold and damp. 

Semeiology. — We find it among cattle poorly kept, — as without shel- 
ter, etc.; in such case the first thing is acute lameness; there may or may 
not be swelling; with swelling there is more or less fever. In case of 
Rheumatic Fever there are flying pains in different parts of the body. 
Taking the hock joint as a case, the poison attacks the s3movial mem- 
brane and its fringe, or the ligament or tendon; there is great pain and 
soreness on pressure, lameness and constitutional disturbance; pulse 
rapid, hard and small, or instead of rapid, may be quick; mouth hot and 
dry; there is fever — may be 104 or 5; pulse may be small and hard; blood 
drawn will coagulate quickly and hard — this is due to increase in fibrin. 
Affected parts are hot and sore to the touch; swelling is hard, due to the 
infiltration of the exudate into the cellular tissues, and being near a joint 
there are osteoblasts surrounding, so the result may be that the enlarge- 
ment becomes partly ossified, even causing Anchylosis. Where it at- 
tacks the periosteum it attacks the bone, and bony spicula shoot out 
through the articular cartilage; the cartilage is often destroyed, and the 
exudate becomes ossified, or rather becomes like porcelain, as it really is 
a porcelaneous deposit. In case of acute inflammation and sloughing in 
cattle, it often opens the joint. In case of Rheumatism in the joint, 



214 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

where it attacks the synovial membrane, it causes a deposition of bony 
deposit in the fringe of the membrane; this is often the cause of a peculiar 
lameness in old horses, where they suddenly go lame and as suddenly get 
well; it is due to the bony deposit of the membrane working in between 
the articular joints, and as quickly working out again, leaving no lame- 
ness. Sometimes where Rheumatism affects the heart and is not severe 
enough to kill, it produces ossification of the walls. In mild cases in the 
horse, he may be lame for a time and get well, and then get lame again; 
in such a case he is not alwaj^s lame in the same foot, it moves around 
and may be in different parts of the body; this is called Metastasis or Fly- 
ing Rheumatism. Acute Rheumatism is liable to run into chronic any 
time; the chronic often develops from subacute attacks. 

Treatment. — Put animal in comfortable quarters and clothe warmly. 
If he has had Influenza and got well and this has developed, give mild lax- 
atives — never purgatives; give moderate dose of aloes, little over '.- dose. 
Put dry flannel loosely around the affected part; use anodyne liniment if 
he is very bad — as aconite, laudanum, and water; you may add carbolic 
acid to this. Put the liniment on hot, then give something to change 
the character of the blood — salol is the best now, it is the popular remedy. 
Salicylic acid (salicylate soda), iodide potash, and colchicum are good, 
both in human and veterinary practice. If you wish to give any other 
internal treatment, give stimulants — salol in i dr. doses 3 times a day, 
and if very bad give 1 dr. every hour, and if no good results in 48 hours, 
change to one of the others; then if no good results in 48 hours, apply 
cantharides blister to the parts; this will often relieve when the animal is 
suffering intense pain. In case of excessive pain, you may allay with 
hypodermic injection of morphine. You may increase the action of the 
blister with a linseed poultice. In cattle, if there is sloughing, treat the 
part affected as a simple wound. During convalescence from acute 
Rheumatism give tonics — nux vomica, gentian, etc., and digestible food. 
If it attacks the pericardium, apply counter-irritants to the side. In the 
case of Neuralgia, quinine is good, and also the compounds of coal-tar — 
as acetanilid, antipyrin, etc. In acute Neuralgia, give combination of 
bromide potash and gelsemium, that is almost a specific. Then after 
giving that a few hours, follow with quinine, and follow that with tonic 
doses of nux vomica or gentian. There is a kind of Rheumatism that 
horsemen call Cord, in which the muscles of the neck get stiff and con- 
tract, causing Wry Neck. 

Lymphangitis. — Is inflammation of the lymphatics. It is known 
by various common names, but mostly in this country as Monday Morn- 
ing Disease. It usually occurs in draft horses on Monday morning, 
due to the Sunday rest, and with full heavy feed kept up. We find in 
most cases that it follows high feeding during periods of idleness. It 
often occurs in the hind limbs, but not always; it may attack the fore leg. 
In the hind leg it usually makes its appearance in the chain of lymphat- 
ics running down the inguinal canal, along clown the tibial region. 
When the fore leg is affected, the brachials are usually affected, attended 
with great soreness, fever, swelling, and lameness. It is more often seen 
in draft horses, probably because they are phlegmatic and have not such 
high temperament as the thoroughbreds, so we find about 99 out of 100 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 21$ 

cases affected are draft horses. They are much heavier feeders, and in 
the stable are more quiet, not restless like the thoroughbreds. 

Etiology. — It is supposed that the cause lies in the excessively rich 
condition of the blood. It is hard to realize the pathogenesis as the im- 
mediate cause of the inflammation, but there is too much chyle poured into 
the blood; this loads it with nutrition, and as a result the blood becomes 
plethoric; then as a result of this the lymphatics become congested with 
lymph and chyle, the same as other parts become congested with blood; 
there is a stoppage in the circulation, and as a result there is inflamma- 
tion. This is the common cause. Occasionally (but rarely) we have 
another form that occurs in debilitated horses; the conbustion in that 
case is caused by the lymphatics becoming plugged with debris, the re- 
sult of rapid tissue metamorphosis, particularly when the system is liv- 
ing upon itself, without any food being taken into the body, and with 
combustion going on just the same. In such a case the fibrin is greatly 
increased, so that it interferes with the circulation of the blood. In the 
first case it is mechanical plugging, in the other it is plugging with the 
debris from tissue waste. 

Semeiology. — Almost invariably a chill, either visible or not; this 
may be very severe or very slight, but as a rule in plethora it comes on 
with a chill lasting from 4 to 10 hours, and long before the chill stops we 
have a high fever developed; the height, of the fever is usually in direct 
proportion to the length and severity of the chill. Then following the 
rigor (in the early part of the fever) there is restlessness; lameness de- 
velops in the affected limb very soon after the fever subsides. The ani- 
mal now becomes quiet because it pains him to move. As a result of the 
fever we have an accelerated pulse — rapid, full, strong and bounding, 
with a tinge of hardness; the respirations are much accelerated, so much so 
that you may think it a case of thoracic trouble; this is probably due to 
the pain; respirations are often from 20 to 25 per minute. The mucous 
membranes are injected; sometimes from the pain, they sweat at the 
flanks. Colicky pains are sometimes quite prominent, probably due to 
the mesenteric lymphatics being affected; the bowels will naturally be con- 
stipated, urine scant and high colored, and if tested, an excess of urea will 
be found; hippuria in cattle particularly. The local manifestation is a 
line of swelling along down through the inguinal canal, down the inside 
of the thigh, a ropy-like enlargement from the size of the finger to that 
of the wrist; this swelling is extremely sensitive to the touch. It usually 
starts in the inguinal ring and extends down gradually; it takes about 
24 hours to reach the hock. This swelling is attended with rapid exuda- 
tion that infiltrates into the surrounding tissues, so that in the course of 
from 24 to 36 hours there is a Big Leg from the body to the ground. If 
you cause him to move, which he is disinclined to do, he will be very 
lame; appetite is completely lost. If left to himself the inflammation 
subsides, but it leaves more or less enlargement of the leg, due to the 
partial organization of the exudate. This enlargement is known as Ele- 
phantiasis, and in this case we get a typical form of it. We don't get 
much swelling in the first attack, but if left to himself, particularly if he 
is compelled to work, this will cause it; but if left in the stable he has no 
appetite, and as the fever causes thirst he will drink much, the blood will 
thin out, the kidneys will be cleaned out, and he will make a nice recov- 



2l6 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

ery. One attack predisposes to a second, and every succeeding attack 
leaves the leg a little larger than it was before; so in about three attacks 
the horse has chronic Big L,eg; this is due to the exudate organizing and 
becoming largely fibrous. 

Treatment. — The first thing we usually do is to give full purgative 
dose of aloes; then put up mixture of aconite, nitrate potash, and ( with 
a view of preventing any unfavorable results from the aconite ) we include 
a little spirits of nit. ether; we usually give maximum dose the first 12 
hours. Receipt is: 

R Aconite fl. ext. 1 !-< drs. 

Potash Nit. 2 ozs. 

Spts. Nit. Ether 2 ozs. 

Aqua ad to make one pint. 

Dose, 2 ozs. every hour; that will last eight hours, then your ball will 
have begun to act. Give the ball first, then this right after it; with this 
you can control the fever and get the kidneys working. Next thing is 
to bathe the fore and hind parts with hot water vigorously, an hour at a 
time, three times a day; after bathing wrap up warmly; tie the end of a 
blanket at the pastern and wrap upward and around the body; blanket 
should be dry. Give nothing to eat, but all he wants to drink; keep 
quiet, no exercise for from three to six days; by that time the inflamma- 
tion has subsided, much of the swelling will be gone, the kidneys and 
bowels working good, and as the swelling goes out without exercise, keep 
quiet. After swelling is gone, appetite good, and animal feels good, 
give 10 minutes' gentle exercise three times a day for a few days, then 
increase to fifteen minutes and so on. The trouble is that horses are put 
to work as soon as the swelling is gone, and the next night it is back 
again in the leg, and this will be repeated till the horse gets chronic Big 
Leg. If good treatment is followed there will be no predisposition to a 
second attack; that is if good prophylactic treatment is carried out by the 
owner — for instance, feed horse lightly through the holidays; on Satur- 
day night no grain, but large sloppy mash instead; Sunday morning 
and noon, half rations of grain and dry bran; Sunday night, full feed of 
grain. In acute case, if it occurs in cold weather and you have no 
w r arm stable for your patient, it is then impracticable to bathe with hot 
water, so don't use water at all; give internal treatment just the same, 
but for local treatment use mercurial ointment diluted with equal parts 
of lard; you will have to write a prescription for this: 
R Unguentuml 

Hvdrargen j 

Adeps 2 ozs. 

Rub this well in with friction over the affected parts, three limes a day;- 
use it quite freely, not thick, but with considerable of friction. In that 
way you can reduce the local inflammation and increase the absorption 
of the exudate. We prefer the hot water where practicable, but this 
makes a good substitute, especially in cold countries. 

Azoturia. — This is a non-contagious blood disease of the plethoric 
type, almost if not entirely peculiar to horses, though some say it exists 
sometimes in the human. It is characterized by sudden prostration; usu- 
ally there is inability to rise when the horse is down. It invariably fol- 
lows exercise after a period of enforced idleness and continued high feed- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 217 

ing, especially on highly nitrogenous food, as oats. In such a case there 
is an excess of nitrogen developed in the system as a result of the exer- 
cise, and there is more nitrogen and other waste material than the excret- 
ing organs can take care of. It occurs in all ages and breeds, in both 
sexes, but we find it among the half-breed draft horses more than in the 
full-blooded horses, probably because the half-breed is more violent than 
the other in his exercise after a period of idleness. 

Etiology. — As said, it is due to idleness, high feeding, and exercise 
after; in this condition (plethoric) the animal often gets itchy, and some- 
times in his struggles he gets down and becomes caught in some way, and 
in violent attempts to get up he brings on the disease. Another cause is 
when Indigestion causes colicky pains, and in his suffering his struggles 
cause the disease, that is in Indigestion from idleness, etc. Another 
cause is, if a horse is brought to you that must be cast for an operation, 
and has not been prepared by dieting, in his struggles when he is cast he 
ma}- bring it on. In idleness with high feeding, the animal gets very 
plethoric; the blood gets rich in solids at the expense of the water}' con- 
stituents, then in addition to this rich condition of the blood, idleness 
tends to a faulty activity of all the organs; they do their work in a lazy 
manner, and this interferes with the circulation. When idleness is at 
an end, the horse goes out and the exercise increases the circulation; the 
pulse in some cases may run up to 38, to 50, or 60, and he is feeling 
good, takes very active exercise, and as a result of this muscular exertion 
there is tissue metamorphosis; the debris produced in the system by ac- 
tivity is nitrogen, and every contraction of the muscles produces nitro- 
gen, or separates it from the tissues. As we get nitrogen in the food, it 
feeds the muscles and makes them strong. Oats contain hydro-carbon, 
and the horse will get Azoturia from them; corn contains carbo-hydrate, 
and will not cause Azoturia. This surplus nitrogen must be eliminated 
from the system by the kidneys, or it will poison the blood. The kid- 
neys excrete it in the form of urea, so they must be kept in good con- 
dition; the salts and water can be gotten rid of by other ways than the 
kidneys, but not so the nitrogen. As the blood is rich in solids and de- 
ficient in water, so when the heart begins to increase in activity as a re- 
sult of the exercise, this thick blood cannot circulate freely through the 
organs, and we get a capillary stasis; the kidneys become congested, and 
there is an impaction of the capillaries with blood; this interferes with 
the action of the kidneys, and the pressure on the capillaries of the kid- 
neys is so strong that the coloring matter of the blood is forced out and 
passes into the urine, giving it the dark color we see when we draw 
off the urine. 

If the action of the kidneys is so interfered with as to cause total 
suppression of the urine, horse may die in two hours; but if the action of 
the kidneys is partially carried on, the life of the animal may be pro- 
longed. If he recovers it will be due to the restoration of the kidneys to 
their functions; if he dies, it is due to the inability of the kidneys to 
eliminate urea, and uraemia, or uraemic blood poisoning takes place; this is 
the immediate cause of death. The urine is retarded, but the only danger 
in that is that the urea contained the nitrogen in it. As the kidneys are 
congested the other organs are similarly congested, the lungs more par- 
ticularly; as the animal goes clown he is unable to rise, and a peculiar 



2l8 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

motor Paralysis takes place, due to the local, muscular Congestion, just 
the same as in the kidneys; this produces local pressure on the trunk 
nerves, which produces the Paralysis, and the muscles most generally affect- 
ed are the gluteal, posterior portion of the dorsal, and the anterior crural 
region. The congestion of these muscles is sometimes so severe as to 
nearly interrupt the circulation; this often leads to serious results; it 
often causes cessation of the functions of the muscles, and as a conse- 
quence, a condition of wasting or atrophy follows. Sometimes it causes 
local gangrene and sloughing, and in some cases the formation of Ab- 
scesses, and consequently degeneration. Some of the Abscesses found in 
the gluteal region may contain 2 quarts of pus. Sometimes the swelling 
of these muscles relieves them of the capillary congestion, and sometimes 
will puff out or up 3 or 4 inches, particularly in the gluteal and dorsal. 
Where the congestion is very intense with little swelling, the muscles get 
hard, and the pressure on the nerve is then, very severe, often fatal. 
Usually, but not invariably, the hind parts are affected, sometimes 
the fore, or perhaps only a set or section of muscles; but more often it is 
the left hind quarter. 

Post- Mortem. — Where death sets in soon after congestion, we will 
find the muscles, particularly the affected ones, darker colored than nor- 
mal; the heart is usually filled with black clots of blood — in this it differs 
from Anthrax; the kidneys and liver are soft; the kidneys, according to 
the length of time affected, may become gangrened. Where the conges- 
tion is not severe enough to produce gangrene, there may be Abscesses 
found in the kidneys. You will find congestion of the cerebral meninges 
(Cerebral Meningitis), with more or less effusion into the arachnoid space, 
also into the spinal canal, and as a rule you will find the animal fat in- 
side, though he may be lean outside. If the blood is plethoric, the animal 
doesn' t need to be f at to be liable to the disease. Animals that are hard 
worked usually get an abundance of oats, and they are the ones most lia- 
ble to the disease, though the work may keep down the fat. 

Semeiology. — When the horse is taken out after a period of idleness 
he feels good, and dances and prances around full of life; the distance he 
will then go depends on the amount of nitrogen created from the exer- 
cise of the muscles; he may go l ir mile, or may go from 3 to 20 miles. 
We will say he goes % mile; as he prances along he soon begins to sweat 
and blow; the last is due to the congestion of the lungs, the other to the 
congestion of the skin; he soon slows up, looks around, countenance is anx- 
ious, gets lame in hind quarter, and the fetlock soon knuckles; that is the 
first symptom of Paralysis. He is soon dragging the leg, can't bear any 
weight on it; then the other fetlock knuckles, and that leg soon becomes 
helpless, and he goes down. During this time the muscles of the back 
and loins often swell, hard as a board; he may lie quiet a little time, but 
soon gets restless, has colicky pains, the nerves become intensely excited, 
pulse tumultuous, weak, uneven, then dicrotic, and there is a convulsive 
motion of the limb. If you draw his urine in the early stage you might 
not find any abnormal condition, but in an hour you will find it a dark, 
coffee color, and thick — the color is due to the coloring matter from .the 
blood; the thickness to the amount of mucous in it. Sometimes it is so 
thick that it wont flow through the catheter; you can assist it by putting 
your hand in the rectum. Some fever develops, maybe 103 or 4; the 



I 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 219 

pain and nervousness cause him to make attempts to rise; lie can get on 
his front feet, but his hind parts are helpless, so he walks on his front 
legs and drags the hind parts some distance. 

As the disease progresses and uraemic poisoning takes place, delirium 
sets in; that is the first effect of uraemia; delirium runs on to comatose 
condition and finally death, which usually occurs in convulsions. The 
mortality in the cit}^ under favorable circumstances would be 60 percent, 
though it may run to 95 per cent; a general average would be 70 per cent. 
Death usuall} r occurs in from 48 to 72 hours, though the disease often 
runs on to 4 or 6 days, or to 5 or 6 weeks. Sometimes the urine contains 
tube casts, haematin and haemoglobin; the tube casts indicate Nephritis. 
In case of Abscess there will be pus in it; in case of gangrene, gas will 
bubble out through the catheter. In mild cases the symptoms are. par- 
tially developed; he may go down and get up again, but there will be 
pain and lameness in one quarter; this is different from Colic in that re- 
spect. The animal often gets well after lying down an hour or two. It 
seems that a 3 da}~s' stay in the stable is worse than a 3 weeks' period of 
idleness, because apparent^ the animal loses the good appetite he has the 
first da} T ; eats less oats, and the sj-stem graduahy becomes used to the 
change; then the capillaries have time to become enlarged so as to accom- 
modate the increased quantity of blood. 

Treatment. — If on the street or anywhere, draw off the urine; 
if 3*ou attempt to move without doing so you are in danger of rupturing 
the bladder; then get him home. If he is very nervous, give to about a 
1400 lb. horse, 1 oz. fl. ext. gelsemium for the first dose, then if needed, 
give about y 2 oz. or less, the second dose. It is doubtful if a pur- 
gative is indicated, as there is alreadj- a lack of water in the system and 
a purgative would still further reduce it; but the favorable point is that 
the animal is plethoric and needs depletion. I never got any good from 
deeding, and little from purgatives; usually give average dose of aloes. 
Diuretics are dangerous; if the congestion is severe, diuretics will surely 
kill, but if Congestion of the Diver is mild, it will make sure of recovery; 
still it is dangerous to give them, especially the potassium diuretics — 
acetate and nitrate potash. Give a mild stimulant: 

R Gelsemium fl. ext. 2 ozs. 

Potas. Bromide. 2 ozs. 

Aqua to make one pint. 

Dose 2 ozs. on an average of about every 3 hours. In addition to 
this Dr. Kllingwood suggests lith. citrate 1 dr. in water every two or 
three hours for the first 48 or 60 hours, then drop to 3 times a day; the 
other receipt is about the same. Williams advises chlorate potash— this 
will kill ever}' time. 

Docal Treatment. — Use hot fomentations; wring out rug in hot wa- 
ter and appty over the loins, cover with water proof, then cover with dry 
blankets; this keeps the steam in. During convalescence give mix vomica; 
in human, the}- use ethereal tinct. of juniper. Make it yourself ; take 4 
ozs. juniper berries, let them macerate in 4 ozs. nitrous ether for 24 
hours, then drain off the ether, add 4 ozs. of more the ether and leave 
24 hours longer; then squeeze them, add 4 ozs. more of ether and a 
little alcohol — that makes your preparation. Remember that a horse's 
chances are much better standing, but if he can't bear about 2 s of his 



220 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

own weight he can be put in a sling. Following Azoturia it seems that 
Laminitis sometimes develops; if so, treat as ordinary case of Laminitis. 
If the muscles waste on the hind quarter, treat by stimulating with 
setons; put in three setous, about 2 inches apart, and leave them in about 
6 weeks; then send to pasture or give good long rest. It often takes 
from 3 to 6 months for the muscles to become strengthened again. If 
necessary you can medicate the setons with cantharides, turpentine, etc. ; 
be sure to give gentle exercise. 

Simple Ophthalmia. — Inflammation of the conjunctiva. 

Etiology. — Is usually the introduction of some foreign body into the 
eye, or the extension of some inflammation to the eye, as from the 
lachrymal ducts in Catarrh or Glanders. It is often caused by facing a 
cold wind in long drives, this causing Conjunctivitis; or from caustic 
substances getting into the eye. A very common cause is driving behind 
a lime wagon and the wind blowing the dust into the horse' s eyes, pro- 
ducing Conjunctivitis, or in fact from any foreign body. 

Semeiology. — Eyelids swollen more or less; the extreme sensitive- 
ness of the eye causes him to keep the lids partly closed; there is more or 
less pain, conjunctiva swollen, copious discharge of tears from the eyes: 
as they can't run down the lachrymal duct, they flow over the cheek. If 
this is continued more than a day, the inflammation extends more or less 
to the cornea, with more or less infiltration into the tissues, with a corre- 
sponding degree of opacity of the cornea. Some say this opacity is due 
to interrupted nutrition, but it seems there must be an increase rather; 
at any rate we say the eye is cloudy; the cornea, which is normally trans- 
parent, becomes clouded; this varies in degree. 

Treatment. — Examine the eye for the foreign body and remove; 
this is best done with curved forceps, holding the curved side towards 
the eye so as not to risk injuring it. Foreign bodies often become imbedded 
in the mucous membrane, and swelling of the conjunctiva closes around 
them, so look carefully; 3'ou will recognize their presence, as there will 
likely be a little local swelling where the body is; you can often, as it 
were, break down the mucous membrane to get at it. A silk handker- 
chief is good to remove such things as grain, chaff, dust, etc. After you 
have removed the foreign body treat with anodyne and mucilaginous 
substances. Common salt and" distilled water are good to allay Con- 
junctivitis strength, }- 2 oz. to pint of water. The white of an egg intro- 
duced into the eye is also good, — it lubricates»the surface and so relieves 
the irritation; linseed tea or a grain of linseed introduced into the eye is 
also good. In a very bad case, keep animal in the dark, and apply a little 
cocaine occasionally; give laxatives, saline diuretics, and sloppy food. 

KLematodes Fungus. — A bleeding fungus: this is a medullary soft 
Cancer, almost exclusively confined to cattle. It usually starts in small 
purplish spots on the conjunctiva; it is malignant and spreads, working 
into the eye and destroying it; and it even works back and attacks the 
bone. The putrefactive matter from the ulceration causes cachexia, and 
the animal dies from blood poisoning. This fungus bulges out of the 
orbit in a suppurating Tumor that bleeds easily. 

Treatment. — The only hope is in the early stage, by removing with 
the knife; if the eye is involved, extirpate it and cauterize; when granula- 
tion takes place and fills up the orbit about one half, use white lotion to 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 221 

prevent further granulation; then get rid of the animal, as the disease is 
malignant and may break out again. 

Entropium. — This is turning in of one eyelid, or both; they turn in 
so the eyelashes come in contact with the eyeball and cause great distress 
and swelling of the lids; cornea is more or less cloudy, and there is a dis- 
charge of muco-purulent matter from the eyes; it gives the animal a ver3 T 
objectionable appearance; the eyes are almost always closed. 

Treatment. — Is surgical; an elliptical section of the skin of the eye- 
lid must be removed, and the edges drawn together; this shortens the 
lids; you remove a section the size that the case requires, according to 
the amount turning in. Prepare the animal with laxatives twenty-four 
hours ahead; wash off the spot and remove the hair, then with short 
scissors remove a section of the skin; first run a needle and silk within 
about fi of an inch from the eyelashes, then remove the piece; usually 
take three fine stitches about an equal distance apart. Where it is the 
upper lid you operate on, it is well to put a few stitches up through the 
eyebrow to hold the lid for three or four days, to allow the palpebral 
muscles to contract; then treat the wound as a simple wound. The re- 
sult of this operation is as a rule pleasing. You will find this trouble 
very common in dogs. 

Ectropium. — Is where the eyelids are too short, turning the lashes 
out and exposing the conjunctiva; this is not so painful as the last dis- 
ease, but it is very unsightly. The same operation may be performed, 
except that it is performed on the conjunctiva instead of the skin. . In 
very mild cases we try first, very mild astringents — solution of sulphate 
zinc 2 grs. to the oz., or a saturated solution of borax or cold tea, es- 
pecially green tea; do this three or four times a day ; then if that fails, 
we sometimes sew the lids together, the same as in dislocations of the 
eye; this usually works very satisfactory; so it is not very often in these 
cases that we are required to take out the elliptical section; the zinc may 
sometimes be used as strong as 5 grs. to the oz. of water. 

Wounds in the Eye. — These are usually from accidents; the most 
serious is the one that cuts the cornea, allowing the aqueous humor to 
escape; it is sometimes so severe as to cause dislocation of the lens, so 
that it tips over out of position. In many cases you can take hold of it 
and replace it, then apply some antiseptic solution to the wound; it is 
good to bind on an ice poultice; put the ice in a rubber bag with sawdust 
or bran. Apply antiseptic once or twice a day, and ice poultices con- 
tinually. The wound will often heal by first intention. 

Eeucoma. — An opaque cornea; it means a whitish condition of the 
cornea. It ma}- sometimes be produced by blows, though not severe 
enough to break the cornea, and if the3^ are not treated properly and in 
time they will remain permanently cloudy. The more dense and organ- 
ized the exudate, the more whitish will be the opacity; and the whiter 
the more likely to be incurable. While it is blue, especially pale blue, 
there is hope of removing it, but as it gets whiter the chance diminishes. 
Sometimes there is a white patch on the cornea at the point of injur3 T that 
may remain permanently, but if the contusion is mild the exudation will 
be mild, and absorption will take place, followed by recover}-. 

Treatment. — For local treatment, warm fomentations and anodynes, 
and later, stimulants; put salt or borax in the water. After using three 



22 2 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

or four days, use distilled or fluid extract of witch hazel — the distilled 
can be used clear; the fl. ext. dilute 75 per cent; after using these three 
or four days, use an astringent — sulphate zinc 5 grs. to the oz., or nit. 
silver 3 to 5 grs. to the oz. In old cases, we usually use it stronger, say 
10 grs. to the oz. Always use distilled water. 

Ulceration of the Cornea. — Is liable to occur in case of any 
wound, but usually in canine Distemper when the eyelids become glued 
together, and pus accumulates inside and spreads, and poisons the cornea; 
or it may set up ulceration in three or four places and become confluent. 
Unless the lids are softened and the pus let out, the ulceration may eat 
through the cornea, allowing the aqueous humor to escape. 

Treatment. — Remove the cause; reduce the Conjunctivitis, and 
touch the ulcer as lightly as possible with lunar caustic. In case the cor- 
nea is not ruptured, granulations may occur in patches on the cornea, 
and be red as beefsteak; in this case, cauterize once every three days with 
lunar caustic. My cases made good recovery. 

Keratitis. — This is inflammation of the cornea. In the wounds of 
the cornea we get more or less Keratitis; it is a constitutional disease, 
peculiar to cattle; it is very common, and often runs through a whole 
herd. Though we believe it is infectious, we have no proof of it, so 
wont say that it is; but it is constitutional, and runs a regular course, 
usually benign. 

Semeiology. — Tears run down the cheeks; bright light causes pain, 
eyelids swell more or less; there is ulceration of the cornea, with con- 
siderable opacity of the cornea. The main feature of the disease seems 
to be in the cornea, with acute Cellulitis. It usually runs four to twelve 
days, with recovery, but in some cases the cornea becomes punctured, 
the aqueous humor escapes and the eye is destroyed; usually one, some- 
times both. 

Treatment.— Constitutional; laxatives and soft food; keep in the 
dark; use warm fomentations, with salt and water, and don't let the iris 
remain in one position too long; give or rather introduce a little atropine 
to dilate the pupil, then if it doesn't contract in a few days, use calabar 
bean to cause it to contract. After the inflammation runs its course an 
astringent can be applied to the eye — use zinc sulph. etc. 

Filaria Oculi. — A little thread-like worm which lives in the 
aqueous humor of the eye, in the anterior chamber; but how it gets there, 
God only knows. This is common in Canada, I never saw a case here. 
This worm is about the size of number 60 spool cotton, from '- to 1 inch 
long, and looks like cotton. Sometimes it lies quietly, other times 
flashes around in the humor; this stimulates the secreting glands and 
causes an increase of aqueous humor, producing great distress and bulg- 
ing out of the part. 

Treatment. — Uay the horse on his back, turn the head on the poll, 
treat the eye with cocaine, and fasten the upper eyelid back; don't trust 
to speculum, sew them back with a few stitches. Some give chloroform, 
I think it unnecessary; take an ordinary scalpel, introduce it at the 
junction of the sclerotic and cornea, that is on the upper side of the eye; 
usually make the incision }i inch long, then with a little pressure on the 
cornea force out the aqueous humor and the worm will usually come 
out with it, but if it doesn't, then use forceps to get it. This operation 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 223 

Is called Sclero-Cornea operation. The wound will heal by first inten- 
tion; the aqueous humor will be renewed, and the eye will be all right. 
Never make the incision on the lower side, or the humor will run out as 
it is secreted. Before operation, pass the blade of your knife through a 
flame to make it thoroughly clean. Treat the wound as a simple one; 
use cold applications, but they are not really necessary. 

Amaurosis. — This is sometimes called Gutta Serena, or Glass 
Eye. It is one of the most peculiar of the eye diseases; the eye is in- 
sensible, and there is total blindness. The cause of this is Paralysis of 
the optic nerve; it is quite common in people and horses, but rare in 
cattle and dogs. 

Semeiology. — The eye looks full, large and natural, that is to a casual 
observer; but close examination shows that the pupil is large and round, 
instead of being oval as it naturally is. It is dilated; you will find 
him blind, and the eye insensible, that is to light. You might look at it 
in the dark and not suspect anything wrong, as the eye naturally dilates 
in the dark, but you will see the difference when taken into the light. 
Excessive hemorrhage is sometimes put down as the cause of this. 

Detachment of the Retina. — In case of excessive hemorrhage, it 
sometimes occurs between the choroid and the retina; this produces a 
loss of fuctional activity of the retina, and may run to Amaurosis, though 
in Amaurosis it is the optic nerve that is affected. The cause of this de- 
tachment may be due to blows on the head, severe fits of coughing, there- 
by causing hemorrhage between the choroid and the retina. This is 
quite common in people, horses, and dogs, but is never seen in cattle. 
It often occurs in horses from severe hemorrhage, as from Castration, 
cuts from barbed wire fences, etc. It differs from Amaurosis in that it 
sometimes gets well; Amaurosis seldom does. 

Treatment for Amaurosis. — Only rational treatment, as nux vomi- 
ca and a little iodide potash; but treatment is unsatisfactory. 

Treatment for Detachment of the Retina. — A prominent 
oculist in human practice gives purgative of calomel first, then after the 
action of that passes off gives iodide potash. I know one case he treated 
this way (a dog), and he only got worse. Another good oculist treated 
the dog afterward with very good results; the sight was pretty well re- 
stored. He said that purgatives and iodide potash increased the hemor- 
rhage; his treatment was tinct. iron and nux vomica internally, and a 
few drops of distilled extract witch hazel into the eye three times a daj T . 
If the horse doesn't recover from this trouble it will run into a case of 
Gutta Serena. 

Glaucoma. — This is a disease in which the vitreous humor, which 
in health is transparent, becomes cloudy. In this case, with the aid of 
the ophthalmoscope, the retina in the horse can be seen to be of a green- 
ish, almost yellowish cast, while in health it is a peacock blue. This 
disease occasionally follows or accompanies Amaurosis, but that would 
probably be because of. some other disease extending to the eye and affect- 
ing the optic nerve. Cataracts often succeed this Glaucoma. 

Treatment. — -Would depend entirety upon the cause of the disease, 
which you should treat, but usually it is an incurable disease. 

Staphyloma. — Is so called from its resemblance to a grape; it is a 
Tumor on the cornea. The cornea in this case becomes solidly , opaque 



224 THEORY AND PRACTICE. ' 

and bulges out beyond its position — often sticks out beyond the lids. 
The cornea covering the Tumor is usually white. This disease is common 
in the human and dogs, but is rare in horses and cattle. It occurs in two 
forms — in one case the Tumor is solid, in the other it is simply a disten- 
sion of the anterior chamber by the bulging of the cornea; and this is 
due to an irritation of the lining of the chamber, thereby causing in- 
creased secretion and quantity of the aqueous humor. But in other 
cases it may be from blows on the eye, which set up Keratitis; the 
Tumor then becomes fibrous tissue and solid. The bulging kind is the 
most common; it also grows larger than the solid kind. 

Treatment. — In the bulging kind, if it be detected soon enough^ 
puncture and liberate some of the aqueous humor; this may save the eye 
and prevent the disease. But if it goes too long and you are asked to 
treat it, it must be removed, but the sight will be destroyed — you can't 
replace the cornea. The operation is as simple as it is interesting. Anaes- 
thetize the animal, and insert a thread from side to side, putting it about 
% inch apart; then with a sharp scalpel remove the Tumor outside of the 
threads, bring the edges together with the threads and ligate; apply cold 
applications after. The union of the edges usually takes place by first 
intention, then you may put in a glass or rubber eye for appearance. In 
these operations always run your knife blade through an alcohol flame. 
for safety. as to germs. 

Lachrymal Fistula. — Is where the lachrymal duct becomes punc- 
tured by violence, fracture of the bone, rupturing the duct, or closing 
the duct below, thus causing the tears to flow out of the opening instead 
of into the nose. 

Treatment.— Must be according to the morbid anatomy. Xo rule 
can be laid down as to treatment, because of the different causes; usually 
in the case of bone fracture, trephining is indicated. Treat antisep- 
tically; open up the duct in some way. 

Stricture of the Lachrymal Duct. — Occurs from extension of 
inflammation into it, usually from Catarrh, Glanders, Big Head, decayed 
teeth, etc. It may occur in two ways -by formation of neoplastic tissue 
by self-proliferation, or by outside pressure from some cause. In either 
case we get stricture or obstruction; this may cause either complete or 
partial obliteration of the duct, and the tears will flow out over the 
cheeks, causing what horsemen call Watery Eye. 

Treatment. — If the cause is acute or chronic Catarrh, operate on the 
primary lesion; if that does not cure the trouble, then try to pass a bougie 
through, or syringe it out both from the opening at the eye and in the 
nose. It often resists treatment. 

Retinitis. — Inflammation of the retina; this is usually a purely 
nervous disease, and needs to be treated as such. If treated early de- 
pletor motos are indicated, or depressor motos; as gelsemium and bro- 
mide potash, with laxatives; keep in a dark place, and following the 
acute stage, mix vomica, arsenic, and iron may be given. Animal may 
make a good recovery, but unfortunately the trouble is not noticed in 
time. By examining the retina you will find it a greenish yellow cast, 
especially plain with the use of the ophthalmoscope. Retinitis lead> on 
to cloudiness of the vitreous humor, to Glaucoma, and from that to catar- 
acts on the posterior surface of the lens. 



. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 



Iritis. — Is inflammation of the iris, and with it is intimately con- 
nected the following" disease: 

Specific Ophthalmia, Periodic Ophthalmia or Moon Blind- 
ness. — This is the most serious disease of the eye in the lower animals, 
and is peculiar to the horse alone; it is recognized by all as a constitu- 
tional disease. The word Specific refers to it in this respect as being 
hereditary, but not infectious. We find it runs in certain families; Moon 
Blind mares are not so apt to have offspring as Moon Blind stallions; 
the}" will go blind any time from six months to six years; on an average, 
between four and six years. 

Pathology. — The primary lesion is Iritis; the iris becomes inflamed, 
and the inflammation extends to the- surrounding parts, as the lining of 
the anterior chamber, extending back and involving the ligaments of the 
lens, and in some cases back to the retina and choroid. We believe the 
whole trouble starts in the form of Iritis; this inflammation produces in- 
creased secretion of the aqueous humor, and probabl3 T a small amount of 
vitreous humor. The inflammation on the inside of the anterior chamber 
produces in this case, an increase of aqueous humor, which produces great 
pressure from the inside and causes a great deal of pain. The next re- 
sult of the inflammation is exudate. In order to test this, put a little 
cocaine on the eye and manipulate gently with the fingers, then you can 
judge the amount of intra-ocular pressure. Next follows organization of 
the exudate, and the formation of a white deposit at the lower point of 
the sclero-cornea junction; it will be in- the form of a little unnatural 
white line; often the deposit of the first attack is slight, but the second 
will be enough to notice it. Xext is a ragged condition of the edge of 
the iris — instead of being round, there will be an irregular line; that is 
positive evidence of a previously existing Iritis; this is caused by the 
exudate taking place into itself, and then adhesion with itself takes place; 
that is in places, giving it the uneven appearance, and each succeeding 
attack makes it more ragged looking. The next peculiar feature is, that 
following the first attack it often clears up, then after a variable period of 
from four weeks to four or five months, the inflammation will reoccur and 
continue to do so from time to time till cataracts form, causing total 
blindness, then the attacks cease. These attacks as a rule come about 
once a month. The name Moon Blindness was given it because many- 
thought the moon had some influence in the recurrence of the attacks. 
The cataracts that form are coagulated deposits of lymph from the exu- 
date; also from the inflammation, organizing and forming a dense fibrous 
capsule; it is then called Capsular Cataract, or when in the body of 
the lens is called Lenticular Cataract. 

Semeiolog'y. — Swelling of the eyelids is usually the first symptom; 
then closing of the eye; there rofuse flow of tears; eye retracts into 

the orbit, making it appear very small — this often lasts for life. After 
the inflammation m in the eye for from twenty-four to forty-eight 

hours a deposit of whitish-yellow matter will be in the bottom of the 
terior chamber; this looks like pus, but is the coagulated lymph; it occurs 
in every case. The inflammation lasts from two to ten days, then gradu- 
ally subsides and has a tendency to clear up, and the deposit to be 
absorbed, and the eye apparently gets all right, then it reoccurs, and 



226 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

each attack leaves the eye worse, and may cause total blindness in two 
or three months, or in as many years. 

Treatment. — We look upon it as incurable; but treat the inflamma- 
tion; — give purgatives, then follow with diuretics and cold applications 
to the eye. To cause dilatation of the pupil, inject a solution of atropine 
2^2 grs. to the oz., three or four times a day, then if it does not con- 
tract after a few days, use calabar bean. Give soft feed, keep the animal in 
a dark place, and let him rest; this will ward off the cataract for a time. 
During convalescence iodide potash may help to absorb the deposit, but 
he will inevitably go blind in time. Dr. Harrison, of Atchison, Kas., 
says the only treatment is surgical, which is as follows: 

Apply cocaine to the eye, dilate the lids with a speculum and put a 
twitch on the nose — there is no sensation; take a fine-bladed knife (made 
for the purpose) about yi inch wide, introduce the blade at the lower 
sclero-cornea junction; leave the knife in for an instant, then turn the 
blade a little and squeeze some of the aqueous humor out alongside of 
the knife blade, about }'s of the humor, or till it becomes soft. Nothing 
more is needed except in case inflammation occurs, then use cold appli- 
cations. There is no danger of Fistula in this case, it heals by first in- 
tention. The trouble doesn't often re-occur, but in case it should, tap 
again. The above operation, by removing some of the aqueous humor, 
relieves the intra-orbital pressure. 

Docking. — There are two ways of doing this — one with the dock- 
ing shears, the other by laying open the tail in a V-shaped cut, with the 
point of the V up, then cut off the bone at the upper part, slightly sear the 
ends with hot iron to arrest hemorrhage, fold the cut ends, pack with 
oakum, fasten it with some of the hair of the tail, then tie the tail up 
with the rest of the hair, so that the tail will be held up; remember that 
the lighter you sear it the sooner it will heal. The rule for a horse of 
from 900 to a 1100 pounds weight, is to leave 8 inches of dock; in a horse 
of from 1 100 to 1200 pounds weight, or more, leave 10 inches; but you 
will have to be governed by the length and size of the horse, the shorter 
the horse the shorter the tail. Where you use the shears, tie a string 
around the tail, evenly and fairly tight, and with a quick, strong cut re- 
move the tail, then remove the string and sear the ends and treat as in 
the other case. If you wish to set the position of the tail before dock- 
ing, suspend it in the shape you want it for ten or twenty days. There 
is a state law in Illinois against docking, but with the clause that unless 
it be a benefit to the animal it is forbidden; that will let you out. 

Sunstroke. — Also called Heat Stroke by medical men, because it 
often occurs when the patient has not been exposed to the sun, but is 
overcome by the heat. It is also called Insolation, but this only ap- 
plies to the trouble due to the influence of the sun. Anhydraemia, as 
based upon the pathology existing in this case, means an absence of 
water in the blood, which becomes thick and dark. Sunstroke is simply 
prostration from heat, usually in very hot weather, especially when there 
are thunder showers and a low barometer. It occurs more often in July 
and August. 

Semeiology. — The animal may be going along all right but will sud- 
denly get dizzy and weak; after sweating profusely this suddenly stops 
and dries up; lie begins to pant, nostrils dilate, hangs the head, then 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 227 

finally goes down. In some cases he will become completely prostrated, 
will lie flat on the broadside ; occasionally there are convulsive move- 
ments of the limbs, which are insensible as in the human, then they go 
down, and may die in half an hour. The temperature may run up to 
109, 10, or 12; 109 is common in these cases, but as a rule when it reach- 
es or goes over 108, the prognosis is unfavorable. Humid conditions 
make it more likely to occur, as we see New York has more cases than 
Chicago, Boston more than New York, and all of them more than inland 
cities ; so it must be that the amount of water around has some influence. 

Treatment. — If the temperature stays at 105 or above for any length 
of time, it is sure to be followed by serious results; so the first thing to 
be done is to reduce the temperature as quickly as possible; the best way 
to do this is by showering, which is better than the old system of pack- 
ing in ice. which reduces temperature but is often followed by softening 
of the brain in the human, and the}" are never able to stand the effects of 
the sun afterwards; so shower the animal with alight spray, and cool off 
slowly; then he will make a nice recovery, far better than to cool off in a 
hurry with ice. For internal treatment give stimulants — alcohol is the 
remedy; you can give V 2 pint whisky the first dose, then 2 or 40Z. doses 
every few hours. The principle is to cool off and give stimulants. Whisk}^ 
is better than injections of strychnine or atropine. In autopsy 3'ou will 
find the blood thick, black, and tarry. 

Poll Evil and Fistulous Withers. — The cause usually is violence 
of some sort. Fistula is often caused in the country hy one horse catch- 
ing another with his teeth and holding on till he bruises the withers. 
Poll Evil is often caused by jamming the head against the ceiling, or 
tumbling over backwards, etc. In both cases there are pockets formed. 

Treatment. — Make a dependent opening where it is possible; don't 
be afraid to use the knife — free use of the knife and a dependent opening 
is the secret of success in these cases. Then wash out and treat antisep- 
tically as a simple wound, packing the opening with oakum for drainage; 
in this wa} T it permits the wound to heal up from the bottom, and keeps 
the outer opening open till it heals up to it. Often in Fistulous Withers 
there is necrosed tissue found; sometimes the dorsal spines are affected 
and must be removed — that is the affected parts. For antiseptic in this 
treatment, use carbolized oil, 1 to 16 of cotton seed, linseed, or olive oil; 
and instead of sponging, irrigate the wound, sop out with cotton, then fill 
up with the carbolized oil and cover over; dress once or twice a day, and 
don't irrigate too much. 

Clipping. — Where a horse has light and fast work, a warm stable 
and blankets, in short, good care, the best thing is to clip him; he comes 
in wet with perspiration, and as he is hard to clean, he may go out wet 
again. But the horse that has slow work or is standing much while out, 
or in cold stables, should not be clipped. The horse that is driven much 
and sweats, risks going out wet, is predisposed to Pneumonia, 
Pleurisy, etc., but after he is clipped always give him good bedding, so 
as to not interfere, with the circulation. November is the time horses are 
usually clipped, except where it is done to avoid the flying of hair when 
he is shedding, which is the case when clipping is done the last week in 
March. We have often seen cases where horses have been unthrifty, 
and medicine failed to help them, that clipping did them good, and 



228 THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

the horses became better in every way and more thrifty. 

Fistula at the Base of the Ear. — Cause is not known, but I 
think it is clue to the pressure of the baud on the bridle; it for:: 
pocket from two to three inches deep. 

Treatment. — Dissect out, slitting down with a probe-pointi 
toury; then with the forceps draw inside out as you would a glove, 
out with your scalpel, and treat as a simple wound. 

Loco Poisoning. — Is due to the loco weed, which grows on si 
our Western plains. 

Symptoms. — Horse or cattle gets fits of delirium, mild at first, but 
they increase until the animal becomes wild and unmanageable; he rears, 
plunges, and becomes crazy, finally goes down and dies in convulsions. 

Treatment. — Only thing to do is to treat rationalh ; might give whisky 
and gelsemium mixed, and bromide potash. 

Burns and Frost Bites. — Are identical; there is the same morbid 
anatomy in both. 

Treatment. — Use oleaginous applications and antiseptics; carron oil, 
that is lime water and linseed oil mixed, is good, or use carbolized oil, 
i in ib; after covering the surface with the oil then cover with cotton. 
If it sloughs, dress once a day. In case the skin is destroyed, or when 
it granulates, don't let the granulation go too far — apply white lotion; 
begin it a week after the injury. If you get hold of Frost Bite early, 
draw the frost slowly so as to re-establish the circulation gradually; it 
gives a better result. In case there is inflammation following, use poul- 
tice. 

Foot Rot or Foul, in Cattle.— This usually occurs in low lying 
grounds; many claim it is infectious, but we think the reason it runs 
through a herd, is because they are all exposed to the same * 
Black mud (muck) and serated grass are causes, as they make wounds and 
cause sloughing; or in some cases where the hoofs are not worn, du 
.soft ground, they grow and curl in like ram's horns and the mud gets in 
there. This is never seen in hilly countries. 

Treatment. — Pare off the hoof, clean, and use iodoform, burnt alum, 
or boracic acid, then treat antiseptically. Williams sa- 
sort to amputate the foot. 

Snake Bites. — Symptoms, part swell-, and according to the 
venom of the snake, the person or animal will in time become 
insensible, and die from blood poisoning in a comatose condition. 

Treatment. — Give whisk y, freely; for horse, '_• pint every two 
and pack the bitten part with aqua solution of ammonia, not qui 
enough to cauterize. 

Drooping Ears. — Is where the top of the ear droops <■• 
from frostbite while a colt or foal, the part not yet being dry. It 
eye sore, and is easily 

Treatment. — Raise the flap, make an incision on the > 
straight across through the skin and about 2 j through the cart:', 
straighten the ear, put on dry iodoform or boracic acid, then put on 
splints, one on each side, straight up and down, and sew tin 
whole thing with silver wire. Watch it, and if it suppiu 
with cold water and dust with dr\ dressing tion fills up tl 

and straightens the < 



VETERINARY MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 



229 



Split Ear. — Make fresh edges on both sides, cutting off about }{ 
inch; put on the same-kind of splints as above, then sew the edges of the 
cut together, and treat with dry dressing. 

Bitten Ears. — Trim both to suit appearances. 

Finis. 




INDEX. 



A 

Absorption, Intestinal 78 

Abortion 157 

Acupressure 73 

Abscesses Intestinal 58 

Acne .162 

Actinomycosis 202 

Albuminuria 117 

Alimentary Canal 36 

Amaurosis 223 

Anaemia, Cerebral 130 

Anatomy, Morbid 4 

Aneurism 115 

Anthracoid 196 

Anthrax 196 

Anus, Imperforated 63 

Apoplexy 131 

Pulmonary 29 

Arteritis 115 

Asthenia 11 

Astbma 28 

Auscultation 15 

Azoturia 216 

B 

Bacteria 174 

Barrenness 155 

Bites 

Frost 164-228 

Snake 228 

Big Head 79 

Big Leg 166 

Black Leg 198 

Bladder, Eversion of 127 

Blindness, Moon 225 

Blood, The 4 

Bone 

Absorption of 76 

Atrophy of 78 

Fractures of 80 

Necrosis of 78 

Ulceration of 77 

Botryomycosis 203 



Bowels 

Enlargement of 61 

Inflammation of 64 

Twist of 61 

Braxy in Sheep 199 

Breed 27 

Bronchitis 23 

Chronic 26 

Bull Burnt 150 

Burns 164-228 

Burnt Dog 150 

Bursautee 204 

c 

Cachexia, Water (of Sheep) 108 

Calculi 59 

Cystic '. 128 

Calculus, Salivary 41 

Cancer 85 

Black 87 

Colloid 86 

Epithelial 87 

Melanotic 87 

Caponizing Fowls 102 

Carbuncle, Contagious 196 

Carcinoma 85 

Carditis 112 

Caries 77 

Castration 94 

Cataract 

Capsular 225 

Lenticular 225 

Catarrh 17 

Cattle, Foul in 228 

Malignant, of Ox . .206 

Cautery, Actual 73 

Cellulitis 169 

Cephalitis 131 

Cerebral, Softening 133 

Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis 135 

Character, Porcelaneous 79 

Charbon 196 

Choking 42 



232 



Cholera, Hog 200 

Chorea 144 

Clipping 227 

Colic 

Flatulent 56 

Spasmodic 54 

Colon, Impaction of 50 

Congestion 130 

of Buccal Membrane 37 

Cerebral 130 

< Chronic) of Clitoris 153 

of Liver 103 

of Lungs 29 

Renal 12-2 

Constipation 49 

Cough 16 

Chronic .21 

Consumption 175 

Cord 

Gangrene of 99 

Scirrhus 99 

Sclerosis of the 139 

Cornea, Ulceration of the 222 

Crepitation 16 

Crick Back 139 

Croup 21 

Cyanosis 110 

Cystitis 124 

Cysts 92 

Compound 93 

Cutaneous 93 

Mucous 93 

< ) varian 92 

Serous 92 

Teeth-Bearing 93 

Thyroid Glands 93 

D 

Degeneration, Fatty 114 

Demodex, Follieulorum 172 

Dermatozoa, Parasitic 170 

Diabetes, 

Insipidus 118 

Mellitis 119 

Diarrhoea 51 

Chronic , 54 

Digestive System 36 

Diphtheria 22 

Disease 

Blight's 117-122 

Blue 110 



of the Brain 129 

( '( institutional 173 

Corn-Stalk 201 

of the Foot ami Mouth 182 

of the Liver 103 

of the Nervous System 129 

of the (Esophagus, Organic. .... 44 

of the Reproductive System 140 

Dislocation 82 

Patella 82 

Distemper 

Canine 210 

Horse 195 

Docking .226 

Dourine 146 

Dropsy 

Brain, of the, (Hydrocephalus) 138 

Ovaries, of the 152 

Testicles, of the ( Hydrocele) .... 153 
Womb, of the (Hydrometra) . . . .152 

Dysentery 67 

I tyspepsia 45 

Dyspinea 11-10 

Dysuria 125 

E 

Ears 

Bitten 229 

Canker in the 107 

Drooping .228 

Split 229 

Eburnation 79 

Eburses 62 

Ectopia Cardis 115 

Ectropium 22 1 

Ecraseur 90 

Eczema 105 

Elephantiasis 100 

Embolus, Cerebral 130 

Emphysema 20 

Emprosthotonos 141 

Encephalitis 131 

Endocarditis 112 

Enteritis 04 

Entropium 221 

Enuresis 120 

Epilepsy bit; 

Epizootic Aphth.-e 182 

Equinia 186 

Erysipelas 168 

Erythema 163 



i 



Eye 

Pink 169 

Watery 224 

Wounds of the 221 

Exostosis 79 

F 

Farcy 191 

Favus 173 

Feruncle 169 

Fever 

Ephemeral 12 

Mud---- 163 

Parturient 159 

Splenic 184 

Texas 184 

Fistula 

at Ease of Ear 228 

Intestinal 58 

Lachrymal 224 

Salivary 40 

of Scrotum 98 

Fits .136 

Flatulency, Gastric 49 

Flux, Bloody 67 

Foot Eot 228 

Fracture 

Greenstick 81 

Simple 80 

Fragilitis Ossium 79 

Fungus H?ematodes 86-220 

G 

Gall Stones 108 

Gangrene 10 

Gastritis 48 

Glanders 191 

Glaucoma 223 

Glossitis 38 

Glycosuria 119 

Grapes 166 

Grease Heel 165 

Grip 204 

Gut Tie 61 

H 

Hematuria (Bloody Urine) 118 

Hfemo- Albuminuria (Bed Water) ..119 

Hemorrhagica, Purpura 207 

Heart, Diseases of the 

Atrophy of the 113 

Aneurism of the 115 

Fatty Degeneration of the 114 



Obesity of the 114 

Palpitation of the 109 

Tumor of the 114 

Valvular Diseases of the 114 

Heaves 26 

Hemiplegia 138 

Hemorrhage 11-72 

Cerebral 121 

Post-Partum 88 

Second 97 

Hemorrhoids 63 

Hepatitis 105 

Chronic 106 

Herpes 165 

Hernia 59-98 

Inguinal (Scrotal) 60 

Umbilical 60 

Ventral 60 

Horse, Hipped 82 

German 139 

Hydrocele 153 

Hydrocephalus 138 

Hydrometra 152 

Hydrophobia (Babies) 188 

Hydrothorax 35 

Hyperjemia 7 

Hypertrophy 71-113 

Hysteria 154 

I 

Impetigo 165 

Labialis 166 

Impotence 156 

Indigestion 45 

Acute 46 

Chronic 47 

Inflammation 9 

of Bowels 64 

of Cord, Spinal 134 

of Liver, Amyloid 106 

of Liver, Lardaceous 106 

of Membrane of Parotid Glands. .39 

of Stomach 48 

of Tongue 38 

Influenza 204 

Intussusception 61 

Invagination <. 61 

Irregularities found in Colts 100 

Irritation 8 

Iritis 225 

Ischuria 126 



234 



Itcli 170 

J 

Jaundice 106 

Joints 

False 82 

Open 74 

Open Navicular 76 

Keratitis 222 

Kidneys, Diseases of the 116 

Bright's Disease of the 117-122 

K 

Knees 

Broken 75 

of Cattle 92 

L 

Labialis Crusta 166 

Labor, Premature 157 

Lampas 37 

Laparotomy 61 

Laryngitis 18 

Leucorrhoea 154 

Leucoma 221 

Ligature 96 

Lipoma (Fatty Tumor; 90 

Lithotomy 128 

Lithotrity 128 

Locomotor Ataxia 139 

Loco Poisoning 228 

Lockjaw 140 

Louping 111 146 

Lumpy Jaw 202 

Lymphadenoma 108 

Lymphangitis 214 

M 

Malanders 161 

Mange 170 

Follicular 172 

Red 168 

Megrims 130 

Meningitis, Cerebral 131 

Melituria 119 

Mensuration 15 

Metritis 159 

Metroperitonitis 159 

Miscarriage 157 

Mollities Ossium 79 

Myelitis 134 

Myocarditis 112 



N 

Nephritis Albuminous 122 

Parenchymatous 123 

Nettle Ptash 160 

Neuroma (Nerve Tumor) 90 

Nymphomania 153 

o 

Obstetrics, Notes on 88 

Oesophagitis *2 

(Esophagismus -12 

Oculi Filaria 222 

Operation Covered 100 

Ophthalmia, Simple 220 

Specific 225 

Periodic 225 

Opisthotonos HI 

Orchitis I 53 

Orthotonos HI 

Osteophyte "'" 

Osteo Sclerosis ~ ,; 

Osteomalacia 79 

Osteomyelitis ' " 

Osteoporosis, Constitutional. 79 

Osteosarcoma 94 

Ostitis 7,; 

Ovinia ls,; 

Oxaluria 121 

P 

Papulae •■ - 165 

Palpation "> 

Pancreas ,l,s 

Paralysis 1: ^ 7 

Partial 139 

Paraphimosis 151 

Paresis 1!( 

Parotitis 39 

Parturient Eclampsia 159 

Parturient Laminitis 160 

Pathology :! 

Percussion ' •• 

Pericarditis m 

Periostitis ~ ,; ~ 7 

Peritonitis 66-98 

Pharyngitis O 

Phimosis 151 

Phlebitis 116 

Phlegmon 169 

Phrenitis 131 

Piles ,;: * 

Pityriasis 162 



235 



Placenta, Retention of 88 

Pleurisy 33 

Pleuro-Pneumonia, Contagiosa 177 

Pleurothotonos 141 

Pneumonia 30 

Poll Evil 227 

Polypus 87-114 

Polyuria 118 

Pox, Simple 146 

Malignant 146 

Prickly Heat 160 

Proud Flesh 168 

Prurigo 162 

Psoriasis 161 

Psoroptes 171 

Ptyalism 40 

Pulse, the 5 

Pus 10 

Pustules 162 

Malignant 196 

Q 

Quinsy in Pig 22 

R 

Babies 23-188 

Rachitis 80 

Eectum, Prolapsus of. 62 

Eenal Calculi 124 

Congestion 122 

Rheumatism 212 

Retina, Detachment of 223 

Retinitis 224 

Rickets 80 

Ridgelings, Castration of 102 

Rinderpest 177 

Ringworm 172 

Roaring 16 

Rubruru 167 

Rumen, Impaction of 68 

Rupture 114 

of Bladder 127 

of Intestinal walls '. 63 

of Perineum 159 

of Uterus 159 

of Vagina 159 

s 

Sarcoptes 171 

Salivation, 40 

Sallenders 161 

Satyriasis 153 



Scab 171 

Scarlatina 209 

Scraping 96 

Scratches 164 

Septicaemia 98 

Sit Fasts (Collar Boils) 90 

Smallpox 189 

Sneezing , 16 

Snoring 16 

Sore Shins 77 

Sore Teats 164 

Spaying the Female 100 

Spinitis 134 

Spleen 108 

Staggers Blind 130 

Staggers Mad 131 

Staphyloma 223 

Sterility 155 

Stomach, Disease of 44 

Stomatitis 38 

Stomatitis Pustulosa 186 

Strangles 195 

Strangury 126 

Strangulation , .... 59 

Strictures 150 

of the Lachrymal Duct 224 

of the Intestines 61 

Succussion 16 

Srmstroke 226 

Superpurgation 52 

Surfeit 160 

Surgery 69 

Antiseptic • 71 

Suture 72 

Symbiotes 171 

Syncope 10 

Synovitis 74 

Syphilis, Equine 146 

T 

Tabes Dorsalis 13 9 

Tables Spinalis 139 

Test for Albumen in Urine 118 

Temperature of Various Animals 7 

Tetanus 98-140 

Lateralis 141 

Thermometer, the 6 

Torsion 73-96 

Thumps 109 

Tournique 72 

Trembling 146 



2 3 6 



Trismus 141 

Tumors 83 

Bone 91 

Benign 87 

Brain 145 

Condromatic 90 

Cystic 91 

Encondromatic 90 

Fibrous st 

Heart Ill 

in the Levator Humeri 89 

Tuberculosis 17."") 

u 

Uncipressure 7:; 

Urethritis 127-149 

Urine 

Bloody 118 

Incontinence of 12G 

Painful Passage of 125 

Passage in Drops of 126 

Suppression of 126 

Scalds from 1G4 



Urticaria K 

Uterus, Inversion of j 



Vaccinia L86 

Volvulitis 112-114 

Veins, Varicose 110 

Vertigo 130 

Volvulies (Jl 

w 

Warts 90 

Wheezing 1(J 

Whistling 16-21 

Withers, Fistulous 227 

Wounds 70 

Wind, Broken 26 

Wry Neck 83 

Y 

Yellows 106 



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